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The homilies of S. John 
Chrysostom, ... , on the 



























H O M 1 L 1 E S 














The present Volume completes the commentaries of 
St. Chrysostom on the shorter Epistles of St. Paul. It con- 
sists entirely of Homilies delivered at Constantinople, and 
one may perhaps remark some indications of a more matured 
and severer character than in earlier works. He refers 
several times to his responsibility as presiding in the Church, 
and sometimes threatens discipline as in that capacity, and 
from this it is that the date of the Homilies is chiefly to be 
gathered. The end of Hom. ix. on the Philippians, espe- 
cially p. 113. is sufficient for those Homilies. The close of 
Hom, iii. on Colossians, pp. 221 — 3. is still more express for 
them. Hom. viii. on 1 Thessalonians, p. 425. and Hom. iv. 
on 2 Thessalonians, p. 501 — 2. are to the like purpose. 

Hom. viii. on 1 Thessalonians, seems also to be that which 
is referred to in Hom. iii. on Ep. to Philemon, Tr. p. 361. as it 
contains a promise to discuss at some future time the subject 
there taken up. 

Phil. ii. 6. and Col. i. 15. &c. give rise to doctrinal dis- 
cussions. The readiness in argument, which they suppose in 
hearers, is greater than one would expect. Hom. v. on 
Colossians goes farther into the system of typical interpreta- 
tion than is usual with St. Chrysostom; though the system is 
in fact acknowledged by him frequently, as in the passage 
on marriage, which closes the Homilies on the Colossians, 
and which, though scarcely admissible in modern taste, is 
one of great value, and of a saintly purity. The close of 
Hom. iv. on Colossians is most instructive with regard to the 
use of the Historical Books of the Old Testament, and 

a 2 


Ifoin. ix. poinis out one great use of the Psalms, for moral 
impression, and at the same time draws the necessary dis- 
tinction between that and the higlier aim of Hymns. In 
these Homilies he is particularly severe on luxury and dis- 
play, by his attacks on which he is known to have incurred 
the displeasure of the Empress Eudoxia, and much persecu- 
tion from her. 

A passage on the Holy Sacraments at the end of Hom. vi. 
on Colossians, one on Prayers for the departed in Hom. iii. 
on Philippians, and one in which he urges persons at enmity 
to immediate reconciliation, Hom. vi. on 1 Thessalonians, as 
well as that in Hom. iii. in Colossians, on imworthiness of 
Ministers, and several hints that occur about the order of 
Divine service, are well worthy of remark. 

Savile's text, with some comparison of others, was used for 
the Homilies on the Philippians, and that of the new Paris 
Edition, with Savile always at hand, for the rest. Collations 
of one Ms. in British Museum, (Burney 48. here marked B.) 
were also in hand, but those of Mss. at Venice and Florence 
came too late for part of the work. Tlie want of them is not 
however very material. The Bodleian Ms. referred to, as 
well as the Catena published by Dr. Cramer, contain only 
extracts. It is hoped that the Homilies on 2 Cor. will have 
the benefit of a well-adjusted text before the Translation is 
published, as they are preparing for publication by Mr. Field, 
whom the Editor has to thank for information on some par- 
ticulars, as well as for the benefit of having his accurate 
edition of the Homilies on St. Matthew to refer to. 

For the Translation of the Homilies on the Philippians, 
the Editors are indebted to the Rev. W. C. Cotton, M.A. of 
Ch. Ch. Chaplain to the Bishop of New Zealand; for that of 
the Homilies on the Colossians, to the Rev. J. Ash worth, M.A. 
Fellow of Brasenose College ; and for the rest of the volume, 
to the Rev. James Tweed, M.A. of Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge, the Translator of the Homilies on the Pastoral 
Epistles of St. Paul. The Index to the two former is by the 


Rev. F. Bowles, M.A. of Exeter College, and to the latter by 
the Editor, which is noticed in order that the reader may 
find the less difficulty from any difference in the heads 
under which similar matter may be placed, as the two 
were made simultaneously to save time. 

A few points on which the Editor was not informed 
until the sheets were printed are noticed in the Addenda 
and Corrigenda. 

C. M. 



Page 1 . 


Page 7. 

Phil. i. 1, 2. 
Paul and Timoiheus, the scrvmits of Jesus Christ, to all the 
saints in Christ Jesus which are at PJiilippi, fellow- 
Bishops and Deacons: Grace he unto you, and peace, 
from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ. 


I Page 18. 

Phil. i. 8—11. 
For God is my record, lioiv greatly I long after you all in the 
bowels of Jesus Christ. And this I pray, that your love 
may abound yet more and more in knowledge and in all 
judgment; thai ye may approve things that are excellent; 
that ye may he sincere and without offence till the day of 
Christ; being filled with the fruits of righteousness, ivhich 
are by Jesus Christ, unto the glory and praise of God. 


Page 30. 

Phil. i. 18—20. 
And I therein do rejoice, yea, and will rejoice. For I know 
that this shall turn to my salvation through your prayer, 
and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ, according to 
my earnest expectation and my hope, that hi nothing I 
shall be ashamed, hut that with all boldness, as always, so 
now also Christ shall be magnified in my body, whether it 
be by lifc^ or by death. 



Page 40. 

Phil. i. 22—26. 

Yet what I shall choose I wot not. For I am in a strait 
betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to he icith 
Christ; which is far better: nevertheless, to abide in the 
fiesh is more needful for you. And having this confidence 
I know that I shall abide and continue with you all for 
your furtherance and joy of faith ; that your rejoicing may 
be more abundant in Jesus Christ for me, by my coming to 
you again. 


Page 52. 

Phil. ii. 1—4. 

If there be therefore any consolation in Christ, if any com- 
fort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any bowels 
and mercies, fulfil ye my joy, that ye be likeminded, 
having the same love, being of one accord, of o)ie mind. 
Let nothing he done through strife or vainglory: but in 
lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than them- 
selves. Look not every man on his own things, but every 
man also on the things of others. 


Page GO. 

Phil. ii. 5—8. 
Let this mind be in you, tvhich teas also in Christ Jesus: 
Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to 
he equal with God: but made Himself of no reputation, 
and took upon Him the form of a servant, and teas made 
in the likeness of men: and being found in fashion, as a 
man, Lie humbled Himself, and became obedient unto 
death, even the death of the cross. 



Page 75. 

Phil. ii. 5—11. 

Let this mind be in you ichicli was also in Christ Jesus: 
Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to 
be equal loith God; but made Himself of no reputation, 
and took upon Him the form of a servant, and teas made 
in the likeness of men: and being found in fashion as a 
man, He humbled Himself, and became obedient unto 
death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore God also 
hath highly e.ralted Him, and given Him a Name which 
is above every name: that at the of Jesus every knee 
should bow, of tilings in heaven, and tilings in earth, and 
things wider the earth : and that every tongue should 
confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the 

Page 90. 
Phil. ii. 12--l(j. 
Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always obeyed, ?iot as in 
my presence only, but nou- much more in my absence, work 
out your own salvation with fear and trembling. For it 
is God which icorketh in you both to ivill and to do of His 
good pleasure. Do all things without murmurings and 
disputings: that ye may be blameless and harmless, the 
sons of God, uithout rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and 
perverse nation, among ivhom ye shine as lights in the 
world; holding forth the word of life; that I may rejoice 
in the day of Christ. 


Page 101. 

Phil. ii. 19—21. 

But I trust in the Lord Jesus to send. Tnnotheus shortly unto 
you, that I also may be of good comfort, when I know 
your slate. For L have no man tikeminded, who will 
naturcdly care for your state. For all seek their own, not 
the things uliich are Jesus Christ's. 



Page 1 16. 

Phil. iii. 1—3. 

Fituilly, my brethren, rejoice in ilie Lord. To write the same 
tJiinys to you, to me indeed is not grievous, hut for you it 
is safe. Beuare of doys, beivare of evil icorkers, beware 
of the concision. For ue are the circumcision, ivhich 
•worship God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, 
and have no confidence in thefesh. 


Page 128. 

Phil. iii. 7—10. 
But what things were gain to me, those I counted loss for 
Christ. Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for 
the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord: 
for whom L have suffered the loss of all things, and do 
count them but dung, that I may win Christ, And be found 
in Him, not having mine oivn righteousness, which is of the 
law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the 
righteousness which is of God, by faith : That I may know 
Him, and the power of His resurrection. 


Page 138. 

Phil. iii. 13, 14. 

Brethren, I count not myself to have apprehended: but this 
one thing J do, forgetting those things which are behind, 
and reaching forth unto those things which are before, I 
press toivard the mark for the prize of the high calling qf 
God in Christ Jesus. ' 


Page 145. 

Phil. iii. 18—21. 

[For many walk, of ivliom I have told you often, and noic 
tell you even weeping, that they are the enemies of the 
cross of Christ: Whose end is destruction, whose god is 
their belly, and whose glory is in their shame, 2cho mind 
earthly things.) For our conversation is in heavvn; from 
whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus 
Christ : Who shall change our vile body, that it may be 
fashioned like unto His glorious body, according to the 
tvorking whereby He is able even to subdue all things unto 


Page 157. 
Phil. iv. 4—7. 

Rejoice in the Lord alway: and again L say, Rejoice. Let 
your moderation be known unto all men. The Lord is at 
hand. Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by 
prayer and supplication icith thanksgiving let your re- 
quests be made known unto God. And the peace of God, 
which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts 
and minds through Christ Jesus. 


Page 165. 

Phil. iv. 10—14. 

But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at the last your 
care of me hath flourished again: wherein ye were also 
careful, but ye lacked opportunity. Not that L speak in 
respect ofivant : for I have learned, in whatsoever state I 
am, therewith to be content. I know both how to be 
abased, and L know how to abound : every where and in 
all tilings I am instructed both to be full and to be hungry, 
both to abound and to sujfer need. I can do all things 
through Christ which strengtheneth me. Notwithstanding 
ye have well done, that ye did communicate ivith my 




Page 181. 
Col. i. 1, 2. 

P(Ui1, an Apostle of Jesus Christ hi/ the icill of God, and 
Timotlieus our brother, to the saints and faithful brethren. 
in Christ whicli are at Colosse: Grace be unto yoii, and 
peace, from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 


Page 197. 

Col. i. 0, 10. 
For this cause tee also, since the day ice heard it, do not 
cease to pray for yon, and to desire that ye might he 
filled, ivith the knowledge of His will in all wisdom and 
spiritual understanding ; That ye viight walk tcorthy of 
the Lord nnto all pleasing, being fruitful in every good 
icork, and increasing in the knowledge of God. 


Page 212. 

Col. i. 15—18. 

Who is the Image of the iniisible God, the Firstborn of every 
creature: For by Him were all things created, that are in, 
heaven,and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether 
they he thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: 
all things icere created by Him and for Him: And He 
is before all things, and by Him all things consist. And 
He is the head of tit c body, the Church. 


Page 224. 
Col. i. 21, 22. 
And you, that were sometimes enemies and alienated in 
your mind by ivicked works, yet now hath He reconciled 
in the body of His jiesh through death, to present you holy, 
and unblameable, and unreproveable in His sigltt. 


Page 235. 

Col. i. 26—28. 

Even the mystery which hath been hid from ayes and from 
generations, but noio is inade manifest to His saints: to 
whom God would make known what is the riches of the 
glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; ichich is Christ 
in you, the hope of glory: Whom we preach, warning 
every man, and teaching every man in all wisdom; that 
tie may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus. 


Page 246. 

Col. ii. Q, 7. 
As ye have therefore received Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk 
ye in Him : Rooted and built up in Him, and stablished 
in the faith, as ye have been taught, aboujiding therein 
with thanksgiving. 


Page 256. 

Col. ii. 16—19. 
Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in 
respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the 
sabbath days: which are a shadow of things to come; but 
the body is of Christ. Let no man beguile you of your 
reward in a voluntary humility and icorshipping of angels, 
intruding into those things which he hath not seen, vainly 
pujfed up by his fleshly mind, and not holding the Head, 
from which all the body by joints and bands having 
nourishment ministered, and knit together, increaseth 
uith the increase of God. 


Page 269. 

Col. iii. 5—7. 

Mortify your Members which are upon the earth ; fornica- 
tion, uncleanncss, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, 
and coi-etonsness, which is idolatry; for which things' 
sake, the wrath of God cometh upon the ehUdren of dis- 
obedience ; in the which ye also walked sometime, when 
ye lived in them. 


Page 285. 

Col. iii. 16, 17. 

Let the word of Christ diccll in you richly in all wisdom ; 
teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and 
hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your 
hearts to the Lord. And whatsoever ye do in word or 
deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks 
to God and the Father by Him. 

Page 293. 

Col. iii. 18—25. 

Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as it is 
Jit in the Lord. Husbands, love your wives, and be not 
bitter against them. Children, obey your parents in all 
things: for this is well pleasing in the Lord. Fathers, 
provoke not your children, lest they be discouraged. 
Servants, obey in all things your masters according to the 
flesh ; not with cyeservice, as menpleasers ; but in single- 
ness of heart, fearing God: And whatsoever ye do, do it 
heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men ; Knouing that 
of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance : 
for ye serve the Lord Christ. But he that doeth wrong 
shall receive for the wrong whicli he hath done : and there 
is no respect of persons with. God. Chap. iv. 1. Masters, 
give unto your servants that ichich is just and equal; 
knouiitg thai ye also have a Master in heaven. 



Poge 306. 
Col. iv. 5, 6. 

Walk in wisdom tonard them that are icithout, redeeming 
the time. Let your speech he alway ivith grace, seasoned 
nith salt, that ye may know how ye ovyht to ansner every 
man . 

Page 318. 

Col. iv. 12, 13. 
Epaphras, nho is one of yon, a servant of Christ, saint eth. 
you, always striving for you in prayers, that ye may stand 
perfect and complete in all the will of God. For I hear 
him record, that he hath a great zeal for you, and them 
that arc in Laodicca, and them in Hierapolis. 



Page 335. 

1 Thcss. i. 1, 2, 3. 
Paul, and Silvanus, and Timoiheus, unto the Church of the 
Thessalonians ivhich is in God the Father and in the 
Lord Jesus Christ : Grace be unto you, and peace, from 
God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. We give 
thanks to God always for you all, making mention of you 
in our prayers ; Remembering without ceasing your work 
of faith, and labour of love, and patience of hope in our 
Lord Jesus. Christ, in the sight of God and our Father. 



Page 346. 

1 Thess. i. 8, i), 10. 

For from you sounded out the word of the Lord not only in 
3Iacedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith 
to God-ward is spread abroad; so that ive need not to 
speak any thimj. For they themselves shew of us what 
manner of entering in we had unto you, and how ye turned 
to God from idols to serve the living and true God ; And 
to wait for His Son from Heaven, Whom He raised from 
the dead, even Jesus, Who delivered us from the wrath to 


Page 358. 

1 Thess. ii. 9, 10, 11, 12. 

For ye remember, brethren, our labour and travail : for 
labouring night and day, because we would not be charge- 
able unto any of you, ive preached unto you the Gospel of 
God. Ye are witnesses, and God also, how holily and 
justly and unblameably we behaved ourselves among you 
that believe: As ye know how we exhorted and con for ted 
and charged every one of you, as a father doth his children. 
That ye would walk ivorthy of God, Who hath called you 
unto His kingdom and glory, 

Page 374. 

1 Thess. iii. 5—8. 

For this cause, ichen I coidd no longer forbear, 1 sent to 
know your faith, lest by some means the tempter have 
tempted you, and our labour be in vain. But now when 
Timotheus came from you unto us, and brought 7ts good 
tidings of your faith and charity, and that ye have good 
remembrance of us ahcays, desiring greatly to see us, as 
we also to see you: Therefore, brethren, we were comforted 
over you, in all our affliction and distress by your faith: 
For noiv ice live, if ye standfast in the Lord. 



Page 386. 

1 Thess. iv. 1, 2, 3. 

Furthermore then we beseech you, brethren, and exhort you 
by the Lord Jesus^ that as ye have received of us how ye 
ought to walk and to please God^ so ye would abound 
more and more. For ye know what commandments we 
gave you by the Lord Jesus Christ. For this is the will 
of God, even your sanctification. 


Page 396. 

1 Thess. iv. 9, 10. 

But as touching brotherly love, ye need not that 1 write unto 
you: for ye yourselves are taught of Godto love one another. 
And indeed ye do it toward all the brethren which are in all 


Page 406. 

1 Thess. iv. 13. 

But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concern- 
ing them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not even as 
others which have no hope. 

Page 414. 

1 Thess. iv. 15—17. 

For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we 
which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord 
shall not prevent them ivhich are asleep. For the Lord 
Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the 
voice of the Archangel, and with the trump of God: and 
the dead in Christ shall rise first. Then we which are 
alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in 
the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air : and so shall we 
ever be with the Lord. 


xviii CONTENTS. 


Page 426. 

1 Thess. V. 1, 2. 
But of the times and seasons, brethren, ye have no need that 
I write unto you. For yourselves know jjerfectly that 
the day qf the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night. 


Page 440. 

1 Thess. V. 12, 13. 

And we beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour 
among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish 
you; And to esteem them very highly in love for their 
ivork's sake. And be at peace among yourselves. 


Page 451. 

1 Thess. V. 19—22. 

Quench not the Spirit. Despise not prophesyings. Prove 
all things; holdfast that which is good. Abstain from 
all appearance of evil. 



Page 463. 

Page 469. 

2 Thess. i. 1, 2. 

Paid, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the Church qf the 
Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus 
Christ; Grace unto you, and peace, frotn God our Father 
and the Lord Jesus Christ. 



Page 481. 

2 Thess. i. 9, 10. 

Who shall be jnmished with everlasting destruction from the 
presence of the Lord, and from the glory of His power; 
When He shall come to be glorified in His Saints, and to 
be admired in all them that believe. 

Page 491. 

2 Thess. ii. 6—9. 

And now ye know what withholdeth, that he might be revealed 
in his time. For the mystery of iniquity doth already 
tvork : only he who now letteth will let, until he be taken 
out of the way. And then shall that Wicked be revealed, 
whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of His mouth, 
and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming: Even 
him, whose coming is after the working of Satan, 

Page 502. 
2 Thess. iii. 3 — 5. 

But the Lord is faithfxd. Who shall stablish you, and keep 
you from evil. And we have confidence in the Lord 
touching you, that ye both do and tvill do the things 
which we command you. And the Lord direct your hearts 
into the love of God, and into the patient icaiting for 









Thb: Philippjans are of a city in Macedonia, called Philippi 
fi-oni its founder, a city that is a colony, as Luke saith^. 'B-omits 
Here that seller of purple was converted ^ a woman of uncom- clause. 
nion piety and heedfulness. Here the chief keeper of the^]'''"'^^'' 
prison* believed. Here vras Paul scourged with Silas. Here 
the magistrates requested them to depart, and were afraid of 
them, and the preaching had an illustrious commencement. 
And he bears them many and high testimonies himself, call- 
ing them his own crown, and saying they had suffered much. 
For, to you, he saith, it was granted of God'^, not only to be- phj], ^ 
lieve in Him. hut also to suffer for His sake. But when he 29- 
wrote to them, it happened that he was in bonds. Therefore he in the ' 
says, so that my bonds in Christ are manifest in all the prte-^^'^V J't 
torium, calling the palace of Nero the praetorium. But he 
was bound and let go again % and this he shews by saying to 
Timothy, At my first answer no man stood by me, but alH Tim. 

4, 16. 

» C. reads thus, as had been con- Timothy was with him, for that the 

1'ectured. B. simply S«ir/*aipyXa|, the second to Timothy was written in a se- 

:eeper of the prison The ruler of the cond imprisonment, from which he was 

synagogue, as in the printed text, is not only released by martyrdom. The^rrf 

known to have been converted. answer belongs to the second imprison- 

^ His statement amounts to this, ment. Betwt-en the two, it is probable 

that the present Epistle was written in that he visited the Philippians, accord- 

St. Paul's first imprisonment, when ing to his intention. 


'2 Proof that St. Paul wrote in hisjirsl imprisonment. 

i vTwo n.forsook nie : may it not be laid to their cfiarge, notwithstanding 
the Lord stood by me, and strengthened me. The bonds 
then, in which he was, he proves to have been before that 
defence. For that Timothy was not present then, is evident: 
for at my fifst answer, he says, no man stood by me: and 
this, by writing so, he was making known to him. He would 

iB.'beennot then, had he already known it', have written thus to him. 

presen . j^^^ when he wrote this Epistle, Timothy was with him. And 

Phil, 2, he shews it by what he says; but I trust in the Lord Jesus to 
send Timothy shortly unto you. And again, him L hope to 
send presently , so soon as L shall see how it will go xoith ine. 
For he was loosed from his bonds, and again bound after he 
had been to them. But where he saith, Yea, and if" I he offered 
for the sacrifice and service of your faith, it is not as though 
this were now come to pass, but as much as to say, ' and 
whenever this takes place, I am glad,' raising them from their 
dejection at his bonds. For that he was not about to die at 

Phli. that time, is plain from what he saith, But L hope in the 

2 24. 

' * Lord that L myself shall come shortly unto you. And again, 
And having this confidence, L know that I shall abide and 
continue with you all. 

2. But the Philippians had sent to him Epaphroditus, 
to carry him money, and to know the things concerning 
him; for they were most lovingly disposed toward 
him. For that they sent, hear himself saying, / have all, 
and abound; Lamfidl, having received of Epap)hrodiius the 
things sent from you. At the same time then they sent both 
to comfort him, and to know. For that they sent also to know 
of what concerned him, he shews at once in the beginning of the 
2Savile Epistle, writing of his own matters 2, and saying. But L ivould 
has ra^ ye shoidd understand that the thinqs which happened unto me 

xar av- ^ ■^ ■» ^ 

T«», have fallen out rather unto the furtherance of the Gospel. And 
omits again, Lhope to send Timothy shortly unto you, that Lalso may 
the ar- i,q of good comfort, wheu I know your state. This, that I also, 
Phil, is as if he meant, ' as you for full assurance sent to know the 
^' ^^' things concerning me, so I also, that I may be of good com- 
fort, when I know the things concerning you.' Since then they 
had also been a long time without sending, but had then done 

Phil, it, (for this he proves by saying. Now at the last your care for 

4, 10. . 

" The if is omitted, perhaps in order to put the objection in a strong light. 

Mailer of the Epistle. Character of the Philippians. 3 

me hath flourished again,) and then they heard that he was in lNTnon . 
bonds, (for if they heard about Epaphroditus, that he wasphil.2, 
sick, he being no such very remai'kable person as Paul was,^®" 
much more was it even reasonable that they should be 
alarmed about Paul,) therefore in the opening of the Epistle 
he offers them much consolation about his bonds, shewing 
that they should not merely not be alarmed, but even rejoice. 
Then he also gives them counsel about unanimity and hu- 
mility, teaching them that this was their greatest safety, and 
that so they could easily overcome their enemies. For it is 
not being in bonds that is painful to your teachers, buf" their 
disciples not being of one mind. For the former brings even 
furtherance to the Gospel, but the latter distracts. 

3. So then after admonishing them to be of one mind, and (•>) 
shewing that unanimity comes of humility, and then aiming a 
shaft at those Jews who were every where corrupting the 
doctrine under a shew of Christianity, and calling them 
dogs, and evil ivorkers, and giving admonition to keep^ a^^'^y phii. 3 
from them, and teaching to whom it is right to attend, and ?• ^ 
discoursing at length on moral points, and bringing them to 
order, and recalling them to themselves, by saing. The Zorr/phil. j, 
is at hand, he makes mention also, with his usual wisd(nn, of^' 
what had been sent, and then offers them abimdant consola- 
tion. But he appears in writing ever to do them special 
honour, and never in any place inserts* any thing of reproof, 
which is a proof of their virtue, in that they gave no occasion to 
their teacher, and that he wrote to them not in the way of re- 
buke, but throughout in the way of encouragement. And what 
I said at first I will again repeat, that this city had shewed great 
readiness for the faith ; inasmuch as the very jailor, (and you 
know it is a business full of all wickedness,) did at once, upon 
one miracle, both run to them, and receive Baptism with all 
his house. For the miracle that took place he saw alone, 
but the gain he reaped not alone, but jointly with his wife and 
his whole household. Nay, even the magistrates who scourged 
him seem to have done this rather from sudden impulse 
than from wickedness, both from their sending at once to 

d B. and Sav. mar. ' for the grievous « B. f^ofrl^nnv , which is certainly 
thing is not for teachers to be in bonds, right. 
but for' &o. 

B 2 

4 Perseverance in works of Mercy. 

l.vTiioD. let him go, and from their being afterwards afraid. And he 
bears testimony to them not only in faith, or in trials, but 
Phil 4, also in well-doing, \vhei*e he says, That in the begimmig of 
the Gospel, ye sent once and again unto my necessity^ when 
no one else did so; for he says, no Church communicated with 
me as concerning giving and receiving, but ye only ; and he 
shews that their intermission had been rather from want of 
v- ^0- opportunity than from choice, saying. Not that ye cared not 
for me, but ye lacked opportunity. And this shews that he 
had a great afiection for them ; for that he loved them greatly 
Phil. 2, appears in his saying, For I have no man like minded, who 
will naturally care for your state; and again, Because I have 
you in my heart, and in my bonds, ^c. 
('^) 4. Let us too then, knowing these things, and having so 
■" ""'^'"■many patterns of charity, shew ourselves worthy of such 
' B. examples, by being ready to suffer for Christ. But now the ' 
'The* persecution is no more. So then, if there is nothing else, 
let us imitate their earnestness in well doing, and not think, 
if we have given once or twice, that we have fulfilled all. 
For we must do this through our whole life. For it is not 
once that we have to please God, but constantly. For the 
racer, if, after running even ten heats % he leave the remain- 
ing one undone, has lost all ; and we, if we begin with good 
works, and afterward faint, have lost all, and spoiled all. 
Prov. 3, Listen to that profitable admonition that saith, Let not 
tnerct/^ and truth forsake thee. He saith not do so once, 
nor the second time, nor the third, nor the tenth, nor the 
hundredth, but always; never, saith he, let them forsake 
thee. And he did not say. Do not thou forsake them, but, 
Let them not forsake thee, shewing that we are in need of 
them, and not they of us ; and teaching us that we ought to 
make every effort to keep them with us. For, Bind them, 
saith he, about thy neck. For as the children of the wealthy 
have an ornament of gold about their neck, and never put it 
off, because it exhibits a token of their high birth, so should 
we too wear mercy ever about us, shewing that we are 
Matt, children of the Merciful One, Who makes the sun to rise 

6, 45. 

'^ liavkouiJien. and B.Sav. leXix't/i. Xet, and some say twelve. 
Theformermustberight, as theSsX/;t^<f, ' The same word is here used for 
or long race, consisted of several iiav ' mercy' and ' alms.' 

Alms adorn the soul; exfirpate coveteusness. 5 

upon the evil and the good. ' But the unbelievers,' you say, Introd. 
' believe not.' I say then, hereby shall they believe, if" we do 
these works. For if they see that we t;ike pity on all, and 
are enrolled under Him for our Teacher, they will know that 
it is in imitation of Him that we do so. And this we are 
not to do any how, but with observance and caution. For, 
Let mercy ^ It says, and true faith ^ he uith thee. He 
well said true. For He willeth it not to be of rapine or 
fraud. For this Avere not faith ; this were no true mercy. 
For he that plundereth must lie and forswear himself. So 
do not thou, saith he, but have faith with thy mercy. 

Let us put on this ornament. Let us make a golden chain 
for our neck, of mercy I mean, while we are here. For if 
this age*" pass, we can use it no longer. And why? There 
there are no poor, There there are no riches, no more want 
There. VVhile we are children, let us not rob ourselves of 
this ornament. For as with children, when they become 
men, these are taken away, and they are advanced to another 
dress ; so too is it with us. There will be no more alms by 
money There, but others far nobler '. Let us not then de- 
prive ourselves of this! Let us make our soul appear beauti- 
ful! Great are alms^ beautiful, and honourable, great is that 
gift, but great, above all, is goodness. If we learn to despise 
riches, we shall learn other things besides. For behold how 
many good things spring from hence ! He that giveth alms, 
as he ought to give, learns to despise wealth. He that 
learns to despise wealth has cut up the root of evil. So that 
he does not do a greater good than he receives, not merely 
in that there is a recompense due, and a requital for alms, 
but also in that his soul becomes philosophic, and elevated, 
and rich. He that gives alms is instructed not to admire 
riches or gold. And this lesson once fixed in his mind, he 
has gotten a great step toward mounting to Heaven, and has 
cut away ten thousand occasions of strife, and contention, 
and envy, and dejection. For ye know, yes, ye know, that all 
evil is done for riches, and unnumbered wars are made for 
riches. But he that has learned to despise them, has placed 

e The LXX. have /ai7A, probably '' «Xi«/«, which carries on the simile, 

in the sense of ^r//M, which Aquila has, ■ He probably refers to the benefits 

and the Hebrew requires ;/(•?«' is added conferred by the Saints on those on 

by St. Chrys. to mark this. earth. 

6 Mercy can open the gates of Heaven. 

Inthod. himself in quietness. He no longer fears loss; for this hath 
alms taught him. He no longer desii'es what is his neigh- 
bour's; for how should he, that parts with his own, and 
gives ? He no longer envies the rich man ; for how should 
he, that is willing to become poor } He clears the eye of his 
soul. And these are but here. But hereafter it is not to be 
told what blessings he shall win. He shall not abide with- 
out with the foolish virgins, but shall enter in with those 
that were wise, together with the Bridegi'oom, having his 
lamps bright. And though they have endured hardship in 
virginity, he that hath not so much as tasted these hardships 
shall by this be better than they. Such is the power of 
Mercy. She brings in her nurslings with much boldness. 
For she is known to the porters in Heaven, that keep the 
gates of the Bride-Chamber, and not known only, but reve- 
renced ; and those whom she knows to have honoured her, 
she will bring in with great boldness, and none will gainsay, 
but all make room. For if she brought God down to earth, 
and prevailed with him to become man, much more shall she 
be able to raise a man to Heaven ; for great is her might. If 
then'' from mercy and lovingkindness God became man, 
and she persuaded Him to become a servant', much rather 
will she bring her servants into His own house. Her then 
let us love, on her let us set our affection, not one day, nor 
two, but all our life long, that she may acknowledge us. If 
she acknowledge us, the Lord will acknowledge us too. If 
she own us not, the Lord too will disown us, and will say, 
/ know you not. But may it be ours to hear no such voice. 

Matt, but that happy one instead. Come, ye blessed of tny Father, 
' ■ inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation 
of the world. Which may we all obtain, by His grace and 
lovingkindness, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with Whom to the 
Father and the Holy Ghost, be glory now and for ever, and 
world without end. Amen. 

^ Such a repetition is common with ' So B. The printed text is,« ' and 

St. Chrysostom, sometimes perhaps from He persuaded Himself to l)econie a 

his own excitement. Here it seems servant, much rather will He bring 

rather meant to temper the warmth of His servants into His own house.' 
his eloquence, and fix a sober thought. 


Phil. i. 1, 2. 

Paul and Timotheus, the servants of Jesus Christ, to all the 
saints in Christ Jesus which are at Philijjpi, fellow- 
Bishops " and Deacons : Grace be unto you, and peace, from 
God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ. 

Here, as writing to those of equal honour, he does not set (I) 
down his rank of Teacher, but another, and that a great one. 
And what is that ? He calls himself a servant, and not an 
Apostle. For great truly is this rank too, and the sura of all 
good things, to be a servant of Christ, and not merely to 
be called so. The servant of Christ, he truly is free from 
sin, and being a genuine servant, he will not be capable of 
becoming a servant to any other, since so he would not be 
Christ's servant, but by halves. And in writing to the Ro- 
mans again, he says, Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ. But Rom. i , 
writing to the Corinthians and to Timothy he calls himself^' 
an Apostle- On what account then does he do this .? Not 
because they were superior to Timothy. Far from it. 
But rather because he honours them, and shews them atten- 
tion, beyond all others to whom he wrote. For he also 
bears witness to great virtue in them. And besides, there 
indeed he was"" about to order many things, and therefore 
assumed his rank as an Apostle. But here he gives them no 
injunctions but such as they could apprehend of themselves. 

* E. V. witli the Bishops, reading the '' Ms. Colb. ' while there he was," i. e. 
preposition separately. in his intended visit. 2 Cor. 1 , 15. &c. 

5. 6 

8 Bishops sometimes called Presbyters and Deacons. 
Phil. To the saints in Christ Jesus which are at Philippi. 

1 2 3 • • • 

' Since it was likely lliat the Jews too would call themselves 
Ex, 19, saints from the first oracle, when they were called a holy 
Vtevt. 7, 0'nd pectiliar people ; for this reason he added, to the saints 
6.&C. {ji Christ Jes2(S. For these alone are holy, and those hence- 
forward profane. To the fellow- Bishops and Deacons. 
What is this ? were there several Bishops of one city ? Cer- 
tainly not ; but he called the Presbyters so. For then they 
still interchanged the titles, and the Bishop was called a 
Deacon''. For this cause in writing to Timothy, he said, 
1 S/axfl- Fulfil thy ministry \ when he was a Bishop, For that he was 
1 Tim. 3- Bishop appears by his saying to him, Lay hands suddenly on 
5 22. ^Q jjian. And again, Which was given thee with the laying 
on of the hands of the Presbytery. Yet Presbyters would 
not have laid hands on a Bishop, And again, in writing to 
Titus, he says, For this cause I left thee in Crete, that thou 
shouldest ordain elders^ in every city, as I had appointed thee. 
Tit. 1 , If any be blameless, the husband of one wife ; which 
he says of the*. iVnd after saying this, he adds 
immediately. For a Bishop must be blameless, as the 
steward of God, not self willed. So then, as I said, both the 
Presbyters were of old called Bishops and Deacons of Christ? 
and the Bishops Presbyters ; and hence even now many Bi- 
shops write, ' To my fellow-Presbyter, and, ' To ray fellow-Dea- 
con,' But otherwise the specific name is distinctly appro- 
priated to each, the Bishop and the Priest. To the fellow- 
Bishops, he says, and Deacons. 

Ver, 2. Grace be with you, and peace, from God our 
Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

Here one might reasonably enquire how it is that though 
he no where else writes to the Clergy, neither in Rome, nor in 
Corinth, nor in Ephesus, but in general, to all the saints, or 
believers, or beloved, yet here he writes to the Clergy? It 
was because they sent, and bare fi'uit, and were those who 
dispatched Epaj^hroditus to him, 

Ver. 3. / thank my God, he says, ujwn every remembrance 
(f you. 

" A<a*(»af, usually in E. ^ .Minister, ' See 1 Tim. 3, 2. but his reason for 
when thus used. taking it thus is rather that xa-ra. 

rf Gr, Presbyters. WX/» ^cems to imply one for each city. 

The Teacher'' a joy. Constancy of the Philippians. 9 

He said in another of his writings. Obey them that have the Hom. 
rule over you^ and submit yourselves: for they watch for — ii 

your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do i-^^ ' ' 
it with Joy, and not with grief If then i\\Q grief he for the 
wickedness of the disciples, the doing it with joy would be 
for their advancement. This then is what he means. As 
often as I remember you, I glorify God. But this he does 
from his being conscious of many good things in them. 1 
both give glory, he says, and pray. I do not cease because 
ye have attained unto ^drtue, but I continue praying for you. 
/ thank my God, he says, upon every remembrance of you. 

Ver. 4. Always in every prayer ofm,inefor you all makinq 
request icithjoy. 

Alivays\ not only while I am praying. And he hath well 
added, with joy. For it is possible to do this with grief too, 
as when he says elsewhere. For out of much affliction and'^^^^- 

2 4 

anguish of heart I wrote unto you with many tears. ' ' 

Ver. 5. For your fellowship in the Gospelfrom the first day 
even until note. 

Great is that he here witnesseth of them, and not only so, (- ) 
but very great, and what one might witness of Apostles and 
Evangelists. For ye did not, because ye were entrusted with 
one city, he saith, care for that only, but ye do your best to 
be sharers of my labours, being every where at hand, and 
working with me, and taking part in my preaching. It is not 
once, or the second, or third time, but always, from the time 
ye believed until now, ye have asssumed the readiness of 
Apostles. Behold now, those indeed that were in Rome 
turned away from him"; for hear him saying. This tho7t2'llm. 
knowest, that all they which are in Asia be turned away from ' 
me. And again, Demas hath forsaken me: and, at my fiist'^^-^^Q- 
answer no man stood with me. But these, although absent, 
took part in his tribulations, both sending men to him, and 
ministering to him according to their ability, and leaving out 
nothing by any means. And this ye do not now only, 
saith he, but always, in every way assisting me. So then the 
giving assistance is ^fellowship in the Gospel. For when 
one preacheth,and thou waitest on the preacher, thou sharest 

' The stop might he after ' always,' « This was at a later period. But 
hut that is harsh. the comparison is in general terms. 

10 Rewards of Saints shared through aiding them. 
Phil, his crowns. Since even in the contests that are without, the 

14. ... . 

— ^— ^ crown is not only for him that stnveth, but for the trainer, 

and the attendant, and all that help to prepare the combatant. 
For they that strengthen him, and recover him, may fairly 
share in his victory. And in wars too, not only he that wins 
the prize of valour, but all they too that aid him, may fairly 
claim a share in the trophies, and partake of the glory, as 
having shared in his conflict by their attendance on him. 
For it availeth not a little to wait on saints, but very much. 
For it makes us partakers of the rewards that are laid up for 
them. Thus ; suppose some one hath given up gi'eat pos- 
sessions for God, is entirely dedicated to God, practises great 
virtue, and even to words, and even to thoughts, and even in 
every thing observes extreme strictness. It is open to thee 
too, even without shewing such strictness, to have a share in 
the rewards that are laid up for him for these things. How ? 
If thou aid him both in word and deed. If thou encourage 
him both by supplying his needs, and by doing him every 
possible service. For then the smoother of his rugged path 
will be thyself So then if ye admire those in the deserts that 
have adopted an angelic life, those in the Churches that prac- 
tise the same virtues with them ; if ye admire, and are grieved 
that ye are far behind them; ye may, in another way, partake 
with them, by waiting on them, and aiding them. For indeed 
this too is of God's lovingkindness, to bring those that 
arc less zealous'', and are not able to undertake the hard and 
rugged and strict life, to bring, I say, even those, by another 
way, into the same order with the others. And this Paul 
means h^ fellowship). They give a share to us, he means, in 
carnal things, and we give a share to them in spiritual things. 
For if God for little and worthless things granteth the king- 
dom. His servants too, for little and material things, give a share 
in spiritual things: or rather it is He that giveth both the one and 
the other by means of them. Canst thou not fast, nor be alone, 
nor lie on the ground, nor watch allnight ? Yet mayest thou gain 
the reward of all these things, if thou go about the matter another 
way, by attending on him that laboureth in them, and refreshing 
and encouraging him constantly, and lightening the pains of 

•' pafufiorl^tut . The words ' are not used of natural character, 
able' seem to shew that this is hero 

God's inwor king forbids pride, but implies our good will. 1 1 

these works. He stands fighting, and taking blows. Do thou Hom. 
wait on him when he returns from the combat, receive him in ^' 
thy arms, wipe off the sweat, and refresh him; comfort, 
soothe, restore his wearied soul. If we will but minister to 
the saints with such readiness, we shall be shai'ers in their 
rewards. This Christ also tells us. Make yourselves friends Lukeic, 
of the mammon of unrighteousness, that they may receive ^q\\^^' 
you into their eternal habitations. Seest thou how these are Al. Quis 
become partakers? From the first day, he says, even until ^.is^'^nd 
now. For this cause, he says, / rejoice for your fellowship, '"^^ '*=ii- 
and I rejoice not only for what is past, but also for the future; 
for from the past I guess that too. 

Ver. 6. Being confident of this very thitig, that He which 
hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the 
day of Jesus Christ. 

See how he also teaches them to be unassuming. For (.3) 
since he had witnessed a great thing of them, that they may 
not feel as men are apt to do, he presently teaches them to 
refer both the past and the future to Christ. How ? By say- 
ing, not, ' Being confident that as ye have begun so ye will 
finish,' but what ? He which hath begun a good itork in you 
itill perform it. He did not rob them of the achievement, 
(for he said, I rejoice for your fellowship, clearly as if making 
it their act,) nor did he call their good deeds solely their own, 
but primarily of God. For I am confident, saith he, that 
He which hath begun a good work in you will perform it 
until the day of Jesus Christ. That is, God will. And 
it is not only about yourselves, he implies, but about those 
descending fi-om you that I feel thus. And indeed it is no 
small praise, that God should work in one. For if He is no 
respecter of persons, as indeed He is none, but is looking 
to our purpose ** when He aids us in good deeds, it is evident 
that we are agents in drawing Him to us ; so that even in 
this view he did not rob them of their praise. Since if His 
inworking were indiscriminate, there were nothing to hinder 
but that even Heathens and all menmighthave Him working in 
them, that is, if He moved us like logs and stones, and re- 

h So he explains Eom. 8, 28. where tine and others. See on Rom. Hom. 
His is not in the Greek, though rightly xv. Tr. p. 265. note b, and p. 293. 
(as it seems) understood by St. Angus- note n. 

12 Love a powerful support under trials. 

Phil, quired not our part. So that in saying' God will perform it,' 
' ' ■ this again is made their praise, who have drawn to them the 

grace of God, that He aids them in going beyond human 
nature. And in another way again a praise, as that ' such 
are your good deeds that they cannot be of man, but require 
the help of God ' But if God will perform, then neither 
shall there be nmch labour, but it is right to be of good 
courage, for that they shall easily accomplish all; as being 
assisted by Him. 

Ver. 7. Even as it is meet for me to think this of yon, all, 
because I have you in my heart, inasmuch as both in my 
bonds, and in the defettce and confirmation of the Gospel, ye 
all are partakers of my grace. 

Greatly still does he shew here his affection, in that he 
had them in his heart ; and in the very prison, and bound, 
he remembered the Philippians. And it is not a little to the 
praise of these men to have been remembered by this Saint ; 
since it is not of prejudice that this Saint conceived his love, 
but of judgment, and right reasons. So that to be loved of 
Paul so earnestly is a jiroof of one's being something great 

' f'"»^"- and admirable. And in the defence^, he savs, and coniirm- 
ation of the Gospel. And what wonder if he retained them 
when in prison, since not even at the moment of going before 
the tribunal to make my defence, he says, did ye slip liom 
my memory. For so mighty a thing is spiritual love, that it 
gives way to no season, but ever keeps hold of the soul of 
him who loves, and allows no trouble or pain to overcome 
that soul. For as in the case of the Babylonian furnace, 
when so vast a flame was raised, it was a dew to those 
blessed Children. So too does friendship occupying the 

2 Or the heart^ of one who loves, and who pleases God, shake off 

fnend- ^ 

ship of every flame, and produce a marvellous dew. 
iTves^ " ^''^ *^ ^^'^ (confirmation of the Gospel, he says. So then 
&c. his bonds were a confirmation of the Gospel, and a defence. 
And most truly so. For if he had shunned bonds, he might 
have been thought a deceiver ; but now by enduring every 
thing, both bonds and affliction, he shews that he suffers 
this for no human reason, but for God, Who rewards. For 
no one would have been willing to die, or to incur such great 
risks, no one woidd have cliosen to come into collision with 

Blessedness of sharing in troubles for the Gospel. 13 

such an emperor, I mean as Nero, unless he had looked to Hom. 
another far greater King. Truly a confirmation of the — 1_ 

Gospel were his bonds. See how he more than succeeded 
in turning all things to their opposite. For what they 
supposed to be a weakness and a detraction, that he calls a 
confirmation; and had this not taken place, there had been a 
weakness. Then he shews that his love was not of prejudice, 
but of judgment. Why.? I have you (in my heart), he says, 
in my bonds, and in my defence, because of your being 
partakers of my grace . What is this? Was this the ^rraee of 
the Apostle, to be bound, to be driven about, to suffer ten 
thousand evils.? Yes. For He sdiys,, 3Iy grace is sufficient 2 Cov. 
for thee, for my strength is made perfect in weakness. ' ' 
Wherefore, saith he, / take pleasure in infirmities, in 
reproaches. Since then I see you in your actions giving 
proof of your virtue, and being partakers of this grace, and 
that with readiness, I reasonably suppose thus much. For I 
that have had trial of you, and more than any have known 
you, and your good deeds ; how that even when so distant 
from us, ye strive not to be wanting to us in our troubles, 
but to partake in our trials for the Gospel's sake, and to take 
no less share than myself, who am engaged in the combat, 
far off as ye ai'e; am doing but justice in witnessing to these 

And why did he not say partakers, but partakers with 
me'? I myself too, he means, share with another, that I may 
be a fellow-partaker^ of the Gospel; that is, that I may 
share in the good things laid up for the Gospel'. And 
the wonder indeed is, that they were all so minded as to be 
called fellow-partakers with Paul, for he says that ye all 
are fellow-partakers of my grace. From these beginnings, 
then, I am confident, that such ye will be even to the end. 
For it cannot be that so bright a commencement should be 
quenched, and fail, but it points to" great results. 

Since then it is possible also in other ways" to partake of (4) 

' Or fellow-partakers, trvyKeittuvoi/s, often, for the jsreac/»n^ of the Gospel, 
see marginal version. ™ al. and end without producing. 

'' a\. a. partaker. He seems to mean, ° iri^u;, in other ways than by 

' I allow a share,' which agrees well actually undergoing the trials ; but 

with Phil. iv. 17. Savile conjectures «Tigwf, * with others.' 

' The word may be here used, as 

14 Claims of Christ for His Ministers at (ill times. 

Phm.. grace, and of trials, and of tribulations, let us, I beseech you, 
— ^—^- be partakers. How many of those who stand here, yea, 
rather all, would fain share with Paul in the good things to 
come! It is in your power if ye are willing, on behalf of 
those who have succeeded to his ministry, when they suffer 
any hardship for Christ's sake, to take their part and succour 
them. Hast thou seen thy brother in trial? Hold out a hand! 
Hast thou seen thy teacher in conflict ? Stand by him ! Rut, 
says one, there is no one like Paul ! now for disdain ! now 
for criticism ! So there is no one like Paul ? Well, I grant it. 
Matt. But, He that receiveth, saith He, a iirophet in the name of 
10,4]. a j^rojjhet, shall receive a prophet's reward. For was it for 
this that these were honoured, that they cooperated with 
Paul? Not for this, but because they took part with one 
who had undertaken the preaching. Paul was honourable 
for this, that he suffered these things for Christ. 

There is indeed no one like Paul. But why do I say 
like Paul ? No, not even but a little approaching to that 
blessed one. But the preaching is the same as it was then. 

And not only in his bonds did they communicate with 
him, but also from the beginning. For hear him saying, 
Phil. 4, Now ye Pkilippians know also that in the beginning of the 
^^' Gospel, no Church communicated ivith me as concerning 
giving and receiving, hut ye only. And without trials, 
besides, the teacher has much labour, watching, toiling in 
the word, teaching, complaints, accusations, imputations, 
envyings. Is this a little matter, to bear ten thousand 
tongues, when one might have but one's own cares ? Alas ! 
what shall I do } for I am in a strait between two hard things. 
For I long to urge you on and encourage you to the alliance 
and succour of the saints of God ; but I fear lest some one 
should suspect another thing, that I say this not for your 
sakes, but for theirs. But know that it is not for their sakes I 
say these things, but for your own. And if ye are willing to 
attend, I convince you by ray very words ; the gain is not so 
much for you as for them. For ye, if ye give, will give 
those things from which, willing or unwilling, ye must soon 
after part, and give place to others ; but what thou receivest 
is great and far more abundant. Or, are ye not so dis- 
posed, that in giving ye will receive.'' For if ye are not so dis- 

Right spirit of Almsgiving. Proper objects. 15 

posed, T do not even wish you to give. So far am I from Hom. 

making a speech for them ! Except one have first so disposed ^ 

himself, as receiving rather than giving, as gaining ten thou- 
sand fold, as benefitted rather than a benefactor, let him not 
give. If as one granting a favour to the receiver, let him not 
give. For this is not so much mj care, that the saints may 
be supported. For if thou give not, another will give. So 
that what I want is this, that you may have a relief* from your ' ^ra^a 
own sins. But he that gives not so, will have no rehef. '"''^'"' 
For it is not giving that is doing alms, but the doing it with 
readiness, the rejoicing, the feeling grateful to him that 
receives. For not grudgiiigly, saith he, or of 7iecessity ; for 2 Cor. 
God loveth a cheerful giver. Except then one so give, let ^' ^" 
him not give : for that is loss, not alms. If then ye know 
that ye will gain, not they, know that your gain becomes 
greater ". For as for them, the body is fed, but your soul is 
approved; for them, not one of their sins is forgiven when they 
receive, but for you, the more part of your offences is re- 
moved. Let us then share with them in their great prizes p. 
When men adopt princes'', they do not think they give more 
than they receive. Adopt thou Christ, and thou shalt have 
great security. Wilt thou also share with Paul? Why do I 
say Paul, when it is Christ that receiveth ? 

But that ye may know that all is for your sakes that I say (5) 
and do, and not of care for the comfort of others, if there is 
any of the rulers of the Church that lives in abundance, and 
wants nothing, though he be a saint, give not, but prefer to him 
one that is in want, though he be not so admirable. And 
wherefore .' Because Christ too so willeth, as when He saith. 
If thou make a supper or a dinner^ call not thy friends., Luke 
neither thy kinsmen., hut the maimed, the lame, the blind, *' * 
that cannot recompense thee. For it is not indiscriminately 
that one should pay such attentions, but to the hungry, but 
to the thirsty, but to those who need clothing, but to strangers'. 
For He said not simply, ' I was fed,' but, / was an hungred, Matt. 
for, Ye saw me an hungred. He says, and fed me. Twofold ' 
is the claim, both that he is a saint, and that he is hungry % 

° i. e. than if ye did not acknowledge l /ictriXias. 

this. ' ^Hv. mar. adds, ' but to those who 

p al. ' in their toils in order that we of rich are become poor.' 

may share also in their prizes.' ^ Sav. in text omits ' both &c.' 

16 Want the chief claim, merit may he feigned. 

Phil. For if he that is simply hungry should be fed, much more when 
—ill he is a saint too that is hungry. If then he is a saint, but not in 
need, give not; for this were no gain. For neither did Christ en- 
join it; or rather neither is he a saint*, that is in abundance 
and receiveth. Seest thou that it is not for filthy lucre that 
these things have been said to you, but for your profit.'' Feed 
the hungiy, that thou mayest not feed the fire of hell. He, 
Luke eating of what is thine, sanctifies also what remains. Think 
^^' ^^- how the widow maintained Elias; she did not more feed than 
she was fed: she did not more give than receive. This also 
now takes place, and a much greater thing". For it is not a 
] Kings barrel of meal, nor a cruse of oil, but what.? An hundred 
Matt f^l^i ^^^^ eternal life is the recompense for such ; the mercy 
19,21, of God; the sjjiritual food; thou becomest a pure leaven. 
She was a widow, famine pressed, and none of these things 

I Kings hindered her. Children too she had, and not even so was 
l"] 12. . 

' ' she withheld. This woman became equal to her that cast in 

the two mites. She said not to herself, ' What shall I receive 
firom this man? He stands in need of me. If he had any 
power he had not hungered, he had broken the drought, he 
had not been subject to like sufferings. Perchance he too 
offends God.' None of these things did she think of. Seest 
thou how great a good it is to do well with simplicity, and not 
to be over curious about the person benefited ? If she had 
chosen to be curious, she would have doubted; she would 
not have believed. So too Abraham, if he had chosen to be 
curious, would not have received angels. For it cannot, in- 
deed it cannot be, that one, who is exceeding nice in these 
matters, should ever meet with a saint. No : such an one 
usually lights on impostors ; and how that is, I will tell you. 
The pious man is not desirous to appear pious, and does not 
clothe himself in show, though he be likely to be rejected. 
But the impostor, as he makes a business of it, puts on a deal 
of piety, that is hai'd to see through, so that while he who 
does good even to those who seem not pious will fall in with 
those who are so, he who seeks out those who are thought 
to be pious, will often fall in with those who are not so. 
Wherefore, I beseech you, let us do all things in simplicity. 

' There is a MS. discourse of St. Ma- town, from the multitude of presents, 
carius on the danger of monastic life in a " al. in a much greater. 


No great harm if some impostors relieved. 17 

For let us even suppose that he is an impostor that comes ; Hom 
you are not bidden to be curious about this. For, Qive, saith j— v— " 
He, to every one that asketh thee; and, Forbear not to redeem 6, 30. 
him that is to be slain. Yet most of those that are slain ^4°\\ 
suffer this for some evil they are convicted of; still he saith, 
Spare not. For thus shall we be like God, thus shall we be 
admired, and shall obtain those immortal blessings, which 
may we all arrive at, through the grace and lovingkind- 
ness, &c. 


Phil. i. 8—11. 

For God is my record, Jioiv greatly I long after you all in the 
bowels of Jesus Christ. And this I pray, that your love may 
abound yet more and more in knowledge and in all judg- 
ment; that ye may approve things that are excellent; 
that ye may be sincere and without offence till the day of 
Christ ; being filled with the fruits of righteousness, which 
are by Jesus Christ, unto the glory and praise of God. 

He calls not God to witness as though he should be doubted, 
but does this from his great affection, and his exceeding persua- 
sion and confidence; for after saying that they communicated 
with him, he adds this also, in the bowels of Christ, lest they 
should think that his longing for them was for this cause, and 
not simply for their own sake. And what mean these words? 
They stand for " according to Christ." Because ye are 
believers, because ye love Him, because of his love to- 
'orac- ward' Christ. He does not say " love," but uses a still 
cording warmer expression, the bowels of Christ, as though he had 
2So Ben, said ■^, " of him who has become as a father to you through 
and B. ^-jr^^ relationship which is in Christ." For this imparts 
to us bowels of affection warm and glowing. For He 
gives such bowels to His true servants. " In these bowels," 
saith He, " I love you," as though one should say, " with no 
natural bowels, but with more ardent ones, namely, those of 
Christ," How greatly Hong after you all. I long after all, since 
ye are all of this nature; it is impossible then to say, how I 
long after you, for I am unable in words to represent to you 
my longing, wherefore I leave it to God, Whose range is in 
the heart, to know this. Now had he been flattering them, he 
would not have called God to witness, lor this cannot be done 
without peril. 

Ver. 9. And this, saith he, / pray, that your love may 

Love unbounded. Discretion in choosing friends. 19 

abound more and more. He says so well, for this is a good Hon 
of which there is no satiety* ; see how when loved he would 

be loved still more of them, for he who thus loves the object <rrov 
of his love, will stay at no point of love, for it is impossible 
there should be a measure of so noble a thing ; whence Paul 
desires that the debt of love should always be owing, in that 
he says, Otve no man any thing, but to love one another, ^om- 
The measure of love is, to stop no where ; that your love, says ""' 
he, may abound yet more and more. Consider the earnestness 
of his language, that it may abound yet more and more, he says, 
in knowledge and in all judgment. He does not extol 
friendship merely, nor love merely, but such as comes of 
knowledge ; that is, Ye should not apply the same love to all : 
for this comes not of love, but from want of feeling. What 
means he by in knowledge ? He means, with judgment, with 
reason, with discrimination. There are who love without 
reason, simply and any how, whence it comes that such 
friendships are weak. He says, in knowledge and all judg- 
ment, that ye may approve things that are excellent'^ that is,2 5,„^j. 
those things which are profitable I This I say not for myfJI^.j. 
own sake, but for yours, for there is danger lest any one be gavra. 
spoiled by the love of heretics ; all this he hints at in these . 
words, and see how he brings it in. Not for my own sake 
do I speak thus, but that ye may be sincere, that is, that ye 
receive no spurious doctrine vmder the pretence of love. How 
then says he in another place, As much as lieth in yoti,^^^^^ 
live peaceably with all men ? Live peaceably, he says, not" 12, I8. 
Love so as to be harmed by that friendship. He says, if thy Matt. 
right eye off end thee, pluck it out, a)id cast it from tJiee; but ' 
that ye may be sincere, that is, before God, and without 
offence,iha.i is, before men, for many men's friendships are often 
a hurt to them. For even though it hurts thee not, still another 
may stumble thereat. Unto the day of Christ; i. e. that 
ye may then be found pure, having given cause of offence to 

Ver. 11. Being filled with t lie fruits of righteousness which 
are by Jesus Christ unto the praise and glory of God; 
i. e. holding, together with true doctrine, an upright life. 

=* B. ' not meaning,' and so probably comes. The double negative is scarcely 
the Ms. from which the Ben. reading admissible. 


20 Righteousness through Christy and to God's glot'y, 

\'vi\' ^^^ '^ must not be merely upright, but filled unih the 
- — '■ — 'fruits of righteousness. For there is indeed a righteous- 
'Ua'jiro, ness not according to Christ, as, for example, a simply moral* 
life. But he adds, Which are by Jesus Christ to the glory 
and praise of God. Seest thou*" that I speak not of mine own 
glory, but the righteousness of God ; (and ofttimes he calls 
mercy itself too righteousness ;) let not your love, he says, 
indirectly injure you, by hindering your perception of things 
profitable, and take heed lest you fall through your love to 
any one. For T would indeed that your love should be in- 
creased, but not so that ye should be injured by it. And I 
would not that it should be simply of prejudice, but upon 
proof whether I speak well or no. He says not, that ye may 
take up my opinion, but that ye may prove it. He does not 
say outright, join not yourself to this or that man, but, I 
would that your love should have respect to what is profit- 
able, not that ye should be void of understanding. For it is 
a foolish thing if ye work not rigliteousness for Christ's sake 
and through Him. Mark the words, through Him. Does he 
then use God as a mere assistant } Away with the thought. 
Not that I may receive praise, says he, but that God may be 
glorified have I thus spoken. 

Ver. 12, 13. I would ye should understand, brethren, that 
the things which have happened unto me, have fallen out 
rather unto thefurtherance of the Gospel, so that my bonds in 
Christ are made manifest in all the preetorium, and in all 
other places. 
(2) It was likely they would grieve when they heard he was 
2 al. was in bonds, and imagine that the preaching was at a stand*. 
What does he then ? He straightway destroys the suspicion, 
and says, the tilings which have Jiappened unto me have 
turned out rather unto the furtherance of the Gospel. And 
it shews his affection, that he declares the things which had 
happened to him, because they were anxious. What say you ? 
you are in bonds ! you are hindered ! how then does the 
Gospel advance ? He answers, so that my bonds in Christ 
are made manifest in all the prcRtorium. This thing not 
only did not silence the rest, nor affright them, but contrari- 

•> This is still in the person of Righteousness, see on Rom. 3, 22. Tr. 
St. Paul. Of this use of the word p. 94. 

St. PauVs bonds useful. Ill-meant preaching. 21 

wise rather encouraged them. If then they, who were near Hom. 

the dangers, were not only nothing hurt, but received greater — — 

confidence, much more should you be of good cheer. Had 
he when in bonds taken it hardly, and held his peace, it 
were probable that they would be affected in like sort. But 
as he spoke more boldly when in bonds, he gave them more 
confidence than if he had not been bound. And how did 
his bonds turn to the furtherance of the Gospel? So God in 
His dispensation ordered, he means, that my bonds were not 
hid, my bonds ^ which were in Christ, which were for Christ. 'SoSav. 

In the ivhole prcetorium. For up to that time they so 
called the palace'^, nor in the praetorium only, but in the whole 

Ver. 14. And many of the brethren in the Lord, waxing 
confident by my bonds, are much more bold to sj^eak the word 
without fear. 

This shews that they were of good courage even before, 
and spoke with boldness, but much more now. If others then, 
says he, are of good courage through my bonds, much more 
am I. If I am the cause of confidence to others, much more 
to myself And many " brethren in the Lord. As it was a 
great thing to say, My bonds give confidence to them, he 
therefore adds beforehand, in the Lord. Do you see how, 
when he was constrained to speak great things , he departs 
not from moderation.? are much more bold, he says, to speak 
the uord uithout fear ; the words " much more" shew that 
they had already begun. 

Ver. 15. Some indeed preach Christ even of envy and 
strife, and some also of good will. 

And what this means is worth enquiry. Since Paul was 
under restraint, many of the unbelievers, willing to stir up 
more vehemently the persecution from the Emperor, them- 
selves also preached Christ, in order that the Emperor's wrath 
might be increased at the spread of the Gospel, and all his 
anger might fall on the head of Paul. From my bonds then 
two lines of action have sprung. One party took great 
courage thereat; the other, from hope to work my destruction, 
set themselves to preach Christ; so)?ie of them through envy, 

•1 fia^iktia This is the eastern and nant of the Republic, 
despotic name, the other was a rem- ^ Gv. the more part of the. 

22 Salati's dupes do good from bad motives. 

Phil, that is, envying iny reputation and constancy, and from de- 
— — '— ' sire of my destruction, and the spirit of strife, work with me ; 
or that they themselves may be esteemed, and from the ex- 
pectation that they will draw to themselves somewhat of my 
glory. And some also of goodwill, that is, without hypocrisy, 
with all earnestness. 

Ver. 16. The one preach Christ of contention, not purely. 

That is, not sincerely, nor from regard to the matter itself; 
but why.? supposing to add affliction to my bonds. For as 
they think that I shall thus fall into greater peril, they add 
affliction to affliction. O cruelty ! O devilish instigation ! 
They saw him in bonds, and cast into prison, and still they 
envied him. They would increase his calamities, and render 
him subject to greater anger: well said he, supposing, for it 
did not so turn out. They thought indeed to grieve me by 
this; but I rejoice that the Gospel was furthered. So it is 
possible to do a good work, from a motive which is not good! 
But not only is there no reward in store for such an action, but 
punishment. For as they preached Christ from a desire to 
involve the preacher of Christ in greater perils, not only 
shall they receive no reward, but shall be subject to venge- 
ance and punishment. 

Ver. 17. But the oilier of love, knowing tltat I am set for 
the defence of the Gospel. 

What means, thai I am set for the defence of the GospeV? 
It is, They are diminishing the weight of the account which 
I must give to God, and assisting me in my defence. 

What he means is this : I have been appointed to preach, 
I must give account, and answer for the work to which I 
have been appointed; they help with me, that my answer 
may be easy; for if there be found many who have been in- 
structed and have believed, my answer will be easy. 

Ver. 18. What then ? noiimihstanding every icay, whether 
in pretence, or in truth, Christ is preached. 

See the wisdom of the Man. He did not vehemently 
accuse them, but mentioned the result; what difference does 
it make to us, whether it be done in this or that way.^* not- 
withstanding, every way, tvhether in pretence or in truth, 

' He takes the Gnspel here in the Gospel. Theodoret takes it of his being 
sense of St. Paul's preaching of the a champion of the Gospel among men. 

St. Paul rejoiced tvithout approving. 23 

Christ is preached. He did not lay down the law and say, Hom. 
" Let Him be preached," but first he was reporting the event ; ^^' 
secondly, had he even spoken as laying down the law, not 
even thus did he give entrance to heresy. 

Let us examine, if you please, the matter, and we shall (3) 
discover that, even if he gave permission to preach as they 
preached, no entrance was given to heresy. How so ? In that 
they preached healthfully, though the aim and purpose on 
wdiich they acted was corrupted, still the preaching was not 
changed, and they were forced so to preach. And why ? Be- 
cause, had they preached otherwise than as Paul preached, 
had they taught otherwise than as he taught, they would not 
have increased the anger of the Emperor. But now by fur- 
thering his preaching, by teaching in the same way, and 
making disciples as he did, they had power to exasperate the 
Emperor, when he saw the multitude of the disciples nume- 
rous. But then some wicked and senseless man, taking hold 
of this text, says. Verily the}' would have done the contrary, 
they who have driven off those who had already believed, in- 
stead of making believers to abound, had they wished to annoy 
him. What shall we answer } That they looked to this 
thing only, how they might involve him in present danger, 
and leave him no escape; and thus they thought to grieve 
him, and to quench the Gospel, rather than in the other way. 

By that other course they would have extinguished the 
wrath of the Emperor, they would have let him go at large 
and preach again, but by this course they thought that be- 
cause of him all were ruined, could they but destroy him. 
The many however could not understand this, but certain 
bitter and deeply wicked men alone. 

Then, in this, says he, / do rejoice, yea, and icill rejoice. 
What means, yea, I ivill rejoice ? Even if this be done still 
more, he means. For they work with me even against their 
will; and will receive punishment for their toil, whilst I, 
who have nought contributed thereto, shall receive reward. 
Is there any thing beyond this villainy of the Devil, to devise 
the undertaking of a preaching that entails punishment on 
those who adopt it .'' Seest thou with how many evils he 
pierces through his own ! He contrives punishment and 
vengeance for them from the preaching, and from these labours. 

1 Tim. 

24 Heretics lose the reward o/uorks. Creatures good. 

For who else is there such an hater and an enemy of their 
salvation as to arrange all this ? Seest thou how he who wages 
war against the truth has no power, but rather wounds him- 
self, as one who kicks against the pricks ? 

Ver. 19. For I know, says he, that this shall turn to my 
salvation through your pray er, and the supply of the Spirit 
of Jesus Christ. 

Nothing is more villainous than the Devil. So does he 
eveiy where involve his own in useless toils, and rends them. 
Not only does he not suffer them to obtain the prizes, but he 
knows well how to subject them to punishment. 

For not only does he command them the preaching of the 
Gospel, but likewise fasting and virginity, in such sort asw^ill not 
only deprive them of their re ward, but will bring down hea\y evil 
on those who pursue that course. Concerning whom he says 
elsewhere. Having their consciences seared with a hot iron. 
4, 2. Wherefore, I beseech you, let us give thanks to God for 

all things, since He hath both lightened our toil, and in- 
creased our reward. For such as among them live in virginity 
enjoy not the rewards, which they do who among us live 
chastely in wedlock; but they who live as virgins among the 
heretics are subject to the condemnation of the fornicators. 
All this springs from^ their not acting with a right aim, but 
as accusing God's creatures "^, and His unspeakable Wisdom. 

Let us not then be sluggish. God hath placed before us 

Moral. . , . m -t- i i 

contests withm measure, having no toil, i et let us not de- 
spise them for this. For if the heretics put themselves to the 
sti'etcti in useless labours, what excuse have we, if we will 
not endure those which are less, and which have a greater 
reward.? For which of Christ's ordinances is burdensome? 
which is grievous ? Art thou unable to live a virgin life ? 
Thou art permitted to marry. Art thou unable to strip thyself 
of all thou hast } Thou art permitted to supply the needs of 
others from what thou hast. Let your abimdance, he says, be a 
8 14. supply /or their want. These things indeed appear burden- 
some; I mean, to despise money, and to overcome the desires 
of the body. But His other commands require no cost, no 
violence.'' For tell me, what violence is there in speaking no 

g So Sav. Ben. ' and why P From '' See on 1 Tim. 4. Horn. xii. and 
&c.' article Manichees in indices. 

Envy and discontent come of valuing earthly things. 25 

ill, in simply abstaining from slander'? What violence is Hom. 
there in envying not another man's goods ? What violence • 

in not being led away by vain-glory ? To be tortured, and 
endure it, is the part of strength. The exercise of philo- 
sophy is the part of strength. To bear poverty through hfe 
is the part of strength. It is the part of strength to wrestle 
with hunger and thirst. Where none of these things are, but 
where you may enjoy your own, as becomes a Christian, without 
envying others, what violence ' is there ? ' There 

From this source springs envy, nay, rather all evils spring from "jf^n^. 

no other source than this, that we cleave to things present, sion to 

Mat. 1 1 
For did you hold money and the glory of this world to be 12. ' ' 

nought, you would not cast an evil eye on its possessors. 
But since you gape at these things, and idolize them, and are (4) 
fluttered by them, for this reason envy troubles you, and vain- 
glory ; it all springs from idolizing the things of the present life. 
Art thou envious because another man is rich ? Nay, such an 
one is an object for pity and for tears. But you laugh, and 
answer straight, I am the object for tears, not he ! Thou 
art an object for tears, not because thou art poor, but because 
thou thinkest thyself wretched. For we weep for those, who 
have nothing the matter, and are discontented, not because 
they have any thing the matter, but because, without having, 
they think they have. For tell me, if any one, cured of a fever, 
still is restless and rolls about, lying in health on his bed, 
is he not more to be wept for than those in fever, not that he 
has a fever, for he has none, but because having no sickness 
he still thinks he has } And thou art an object for tears just 
because thou thinkest thyself so, not for thy poverty. For 
thy poverty thou art to be thought happy. 

Why enviestthouthe richman } Isit because hehassubjected 
himselfto many cares.? to a harder slavery? because he is bound 
by his own money, like a dog with ten thousand chains ? Even- 
ing overtakes him, night overtakes him, but the season of 
rest is to liim a time of trouble, of anguish, of pain, of care. 
There is a noise : he straightway jumps up. Has his neigh- 
bour been plundered ? He who has lost nothing cares 
more for it than the loser. For that man has lost once, but 
having endured the pain he lays aside his care ; but the 

' Or ' in keeping from needless evil-speaking.' 

26 Avarice throws away the natural rest God gives vs. 

Phil. Other has it always with him. Night comes on, the haven of 
— 2 — L our ills, the solace of our woes, the medicine of our wounds. 
For they who are weighed down by excess of grief, often 
give no ear to their friends, to their relations, to their inti- 
mates, ofttimcs not even to a father when he would give 
comfort, but take their very words amiss, (for worse than 
burning does the bitter of grief afflict our souls,) but when 
sleep bids them rest, none has the power to look him in the 
face. And as the body, when parched and worn down by 
struggling against the violence of the sunbeams, when it 
comes to a caravanserai with many fountains, and the soothing 
of a gentle breeze, so does night hand over our soul to sleep. 
Yea rather I should say, not night, nor sleep does this, but 
God, who knoweth our toil-worn race, has wrought this, 
while we have no compassion on ourselves, but, as though 
at enmity with ourselves, have devised a tyranny more 
powerful than natural want of rest — the sleeplessness vidiich 
Ecclus. comes of wealth. For it is said, The care of riches driveth 
^^'-^' away sleep. See how great is the care of God. But He 
hath not committed rest to our will, nor our need of sleep 
to choice, but hath bound it up in the necessities of nature, 
that good may be done to us even against our wills. For to 
sleep is of nature. But we, as mighty haters of ourselves, 
like enemies and persecutors of others, have devised a tyranny 
greater than this necessity of nature, that, namely, which 
comes of money. Has day dawned.? Then such an one is 
in dread of the informers. Hath night overtaken him } He 
trembles at robbers. Is death at hand ? The thought, that 
he must leave his goods to others, preys upon him worse 
than death. Hath he a son? His desires are increased; 
and then he fancies himself poor. Has he none ? His pains 
are greater. Deemest thou him blessed, who is unable to 
receive pleasure from any quarter } Can you envy him thus 
tempest-tossed, while you yourself are placed in the quiet haven 
of poverty? Of a truth this is the imperfection of human 
nature ; that it bears not its good nobly, but casts insults 
on its very prosperity. 

And all this on earth ; but when we depart Thither, 
listen what the rich man, who was lord, as you say, of 
innumerable goods, (since for my part I call not these 

Dives and Lazarus. Discontent is Poverty. 27 

things good, but indifferent,) listen to what this hjrd of innu- Hom. 
merable goods then said, and of what ' he then stood in 

need: Father Abrohafu, he exclaims, send Lazarus, that whom' 
with the tip of Iris finger he may drop water on my 
tongue, for I am scorched in thisfla?ne. For although that 
rich man had endured none of the things I have men- 
tioned, though he had passed his whole life without dread 
and care — why say I his whole life ? rather that one moment, 
(for it is a moment, our whole life^ is but one moment com- i gj^j 
pared with that eternity which has no end,) — though all things «'*"») ^^ 
had turned out according to his desire; must he not be pitied 
for these words, yea rather for these realities ? Was not your 
table once deluged with wine ? Now you are not master even 
of a drop of water, and that too, in your greatest need. Did 
not you neglect that poor man full of sores ? But now you 
ask a sight of him, and no one gives leave. He lay at your 
gate. But now in Abraham's bosom. You then lay under 
your lofty ceiling. But now in the fire of hell. 

These things let the rich men hear. Yea rather not the rich, (5) 
but the pitiless. For not in that he was rich was he punished, 
but because he shewed no pity; for it is possible that a man 
who is at the same time rich and pitiful, should meet with every 
good. And for this cause the rich man's eyes were fixed on 
no one else, but on him alone, who then begged his alms ; 
that he might learn from memory of his former actions, tliat 
his punishment was just. Were there not ten thousand poor 
men who were righteous.? But he, who then lay at his gate, 
alone is seen by him, to instruct him and us, how great a 
good it is to put no trust in riches. His poverty hindered 
not the one in obtaining the kingdom. His riches helped 
not the other to avoid hell. Where is the point at which a 
man is poor } where is the point at Mdiich he is reduced to 
beggary ' } He is not, he is not poor, who has nought, but 
he who desires many things! He is not rich who has large 
possessions, but he who stands in need of nothing. For what 
profit is there to possess the whole world, and yet live in 
more despair than he who has nothing. Their dispositions 
make men rich and poor, not the abundance or the want of 
money. Would you, who are a poor man, become rich? 

' Or, ' Till when lasts poverty i' Till when beggary ?' 

28 Little real disadvaiitiKje in poverty. 

Phil. You may have your will, and no one can hinder you. De- 
' spise the world's vv^ealth, think it nought, as it is nought. 

Cast out the desire of wealth, and you are straightway rich. 
He is rich who desires not to become rich ; he who is unwilling 
to be poor, is the poor man. As he too is the diseased man'', 
who in health bemoans his case, and not the man who bears 
his disease more lightly than perfect health. So also he is 

• or < in poor, even here ' , who cannot endure poverty, but in the midst of 

too^ wealth thinks himself poorer than the poor; not he who bears 
his poverty more lightly than they their riches. He is truly 
the richer man. 

For tell me, wherefore fearest thou poverty .? wherefore 
trerablest thou? is it not by reason of hunger? is it not for 
thirst? is it not for cold? Is it not indeed for these things ? 
There is not, there is not any one who is ever destitute in 

Ecclus. these things ! For look at the generations of old, and see, 
' ' did ever any trust in the Lord, and was forsaken? or did 
any man trust in Him, and was confounded? 

M.itt. 6, And again, Behold the fowls of the air, for they sow not, 
neither do they reap, nor gather into barns, yet your heavenly 
Father feedeth them. No one can readily point us out any one 
who has perished by hunger and cold. Wherefore then dost 
thou tremble at poverty ? Thou canst not say. For if thou 
hast necessaries enough, wherefore dost thou tremble at it ? 
Because thou hast not a multitude of servants ? This truly is 
to be quit of masters ; this is continual happiness, this is free- 
dom from care. Is it because your vessels, your couches, 
your furniture are not formed of silver ? And what greater 
enjoyment than thine has he who possesses these things ? 
None at all. The use is the same, whether they are of this or 
that material. Is it because thou art not an object of fear to 
the many ? May you never become so ! For what pleasure is it 
that any should stand in dread and fear of thee ? Is it because 
thou art afraid of others? But thou canst not be alarmed. For 

Rom. woiddest thou not be afraid of the power ? do that which is 

' ■ good, and thou shall have praise of the same. Does any 

say, It is because we are subject to contempt, and apt to 

suffer ill ? It is not poverty but wickedness which causes this; 

for many poor men have quietly passed through life, whilst rulers, 

■< »»»•»;». Perhaps alludinsf to the sense ' insane.' 

Wealth moves envy ; the despised escape. 29 

and the rich, and powerful, have ended their days more wretch- Hom. 
edly than evil doers, than bandits, than grave-robbers. For ^^' 
what poverty brings in thy case, that doth wealth in theirs. For 
that which they who would ill-treat thee do through thy con- 
temptible estate, they do to him from envy and the evil eye 
they cast upon him, and the latter still more than the former. 
This is the stronger craving to ill-treat another. He who 
envies does every thing with all his might and main, while the 
despiser ofttimes has even pity on the despised; and his very 
poverty, and utter want of power, has often been the cause of 
his deliverance. 

And sometimes by saying to him', " A great deed it will 
be if you make away with such an one ! If you slay one poor 
man, what vast advantage will you reap !" we may thus soften 
down his anger. But envy sets itself against the rich, and ceases 
notuntil it has wrought its will, and has poured forth its venom. 
See you, neither poverty nor wealth is good in itself, but our 
own disposition. This then let us bring to a good tone, this let 
us discipline in true wisdom. If this be well affected, riches 
cannot cast us out of the kingdom, poverty cannot make us 
come short. But we shall meekly bear our poverty, and re- 
ceive no loss in the enjoyment of future goods, nor even here 
on earth. But we shall both enjoy what is good on earth, 
and obtain the good things in heaven, which God grant 
that we may all obtain, through the grace and lovingkind- 
ness, &c. 

1 The reading is doubtful, but the sense clear. 


Pkil. i. 18—20. 

And I therein do rejoice, yea, and icill rejoice. For I know 
that this shall turn to my salvation through your prayer, 
and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ, according to 
my earnest expectation and my hope, that in nothiug I 
shall be ashamed, but that with all boldness, as always, so 
now also Christ shall be magnijied in my body, whether it 
be by life, or by death. 

(1) None of the grievous things which are in this present life 
can fix their fangs upon that lofty soul, which is truly philo- 
sophic, neither enmity, nor accusations, nor slanders, nor 
dangers, nor plots. It flies for refuge as it were to a mighty 
fortress, securely defended there against aU that attack it 
from this lower earth. Such was the soul of Paul; it had 
taken possession of a place higher than any fortress, the seat 
of spiritual wisdom, that is, true philoso])hy. For that of 
J J g those without' is mere words, and childish toys. But it is 
the hea- not of these we now speak, but at present concerning the 
things of Paul. That blessed one had both the emperor for 
his enemy, and in addition, many other foes many ways 
afflicting him, even with bitter slander. And what says he ? 
Not only do I not grieve nor sink beneath these things, but 
/ even rejoice, yea, and will rejoice, not for a season, but 
always, will I rejoice for these things. For I knoic that this 
shall turn out to the salvation that awaits me. For how can 
it but so turn out, when even their enmity and jealousy to- 
Avards me further the Gospel .? Through your prayer, he 

St. Paul sought others' prayers. His trust in God. 31 

adds, and tlte supply of ihe Spirit of Jesus Christ, according Hom. 

to my earnest eajpectation and my hope. Behold the humble- '— 

mmdedness of this blessed One ; he was stirring in the contest, 
he had done ten thousand exploits, he was now close to his 
crown, he was Paul, and what can one add to this ? still he 
writes to the Philippians, I may be saved through your 
prayer, I who have gained salvation through covmtless 
achievements. And the supply, saith he, of the Spirit of 
Jesus Christ. What means he by this supply ? it is as though 
he said, if I am thought worthy of grace through your prayers. 
For the meaning of supply is this, may the Spirit be supplied 
to me, be given to me more abundantly, unto salvation, 
that is, to deliverance, that I may escape the present as I did 
the former danger. Of this same matter he says, At tnyfrst^ Tim. 
ansiver no man stood with me, but all men forsook me ; / ' 
pray God it may not be laid to their charge : notwithstanding 
the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me. Now there- 
fore he predicts the same results, saying, through your prayers 
and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ, according 
to my earnest expectation, and my hope, for thus have I hope, 
says he. For that he may persuade us not to leave the whole 
matter to the prayers made for us % and contribute nothing 
ourselves, behold how he lays down his own part, which is 
Hope, the source of all good, as the Prophet says. Let thy Ps. 33, 
mercy, Lord, be upon us, as we have hoped in Thee. 
And as it is written in another place, Look to the generations Ecclus. 
of old and see, did any one hope in the Lord, and was con- ' ' 
founded. And again, this same blessed one says, Hope maketh Rom. 6 
not ashamed. ^' 

According to my earnest expectation and my hope, 
that in nothing I shall be ashamed. Do you see how great 
a thing it is to hope in God? Whatever happens, he says, I 
shall not be ashamed, i. e. they will not obtain the mastery 
over me, but in all boldness, as ahcays, so now also, Christ 
shall be magnified in my body. They forsooth expected to 
catch Paid in this snai*e, and to quench the preaching of the 
Gospel, as though their craftiness were of any power. This 
then, he says, shall not be so, I shall not now die, but as 

* So B. Sav.' to their prayers.' This parted Saints. See Hom. vi. on Stat, 
may possibly refer especially to de- tin. 

32 Clirlst, how glorified, in St. VduVs life or death. 

Phil, always, so now, Christ shall be magnijied in my body. How 
__L__L so ? Ofttimus have I fallen into dangers, when all men gave us 
2 Cor. ^Pj ^^^ what is more, when I myself did. For we had the 
1 > 9- sentence of death in ourselves, but from all the Lord delivered 
me, so now too He shall be magnified in my body. And 
lest any one should suppose and say. If you die will He not 
then be magnified? Yes, he answers, I know He will, for this 
cause 1 said, not my life alone shall magnify Him, but 
my death too. At present he means by life, They will 
not destroy me, but even did they so, Christ will even thus 
be magnified. Howso? Through life, because He delivered me, 
but through my death, because even death itself could not 
persuade me to deny Him, since He gave me such readiness, 
and made me stronger than death. On the one hand because 
He freed me from peril; on the other, because He suffered me 
not to fear the tyranny of death: thus shall He be magnified 
through life and death. And this he says, not as though he 
were about to die, but lest on his death they should be affected 
as men are apt to be. 

But that you may know these his words did not point to 

immediate death, the thought that pained them most, see how 

(2) he relieves it by almost saying. These things I say, not as one 

about to die; wherefore he soon after adds, And having this 

confidence I know that I shall continue with you all. The 

words, in nothing I shall he ashamed, mean, that death brings 

no shame to me, but rather great gain. How so ? Because I 

am not immortal, but I shall shine more brightly than if I 

were so, for it is not the same thing for one immortal, and for 

him who must die, to despise death ; so that not even instant 

death is shame to me, yet shall I not die; in nothing shall I 

be ashamed, neither in life nor death. I will bear either 

nobly, whether life or death. Well says he! This is the part 

of a Christian soul ! but he adds, in all boldness. Seest thou 

how entirely I am freed from shame } For if the fear of death 

I <r{g/t- had cut short' his boldness, death would have been worthy of 

To'^'ed shame, but if death at its approach casts no terror on me, no 

shame is here; but whether I live, through life I will not be 

J , , ashamed, for I still preach the Gospel ', or whether I die, through 

^uyfitt. death I will not be ashamed, for fear hath not disgraced me, since 

I still exhibit the same boldness. Do not, when 1 mention 

Si. Paul could glory in deliverance, yet die without shame. 33 / 

my bonds, think shame of the matter, so manifold good hath Hom. 

it caused to me, that'' it hath given confidence to others. For '— 

that we should be bound for Christ, is no shame, but for fear 
of bonds to betray aught that is Christ's, this is shame. 
When there is no such thing, bonds are even a cause of bold- 
ness. But since I have ofttimes escaped dangers, and have 
this to boast of to the unbelievers, do not straightway think 
I am put to shame, if now it should turn out otherwise. The 
one event no less than the other gives you boldness. Note 
how he brings this forward in his own person, which he does 
in many other places, as in the Epistle to the Romans; For^'^^- ^' 
/ a?n not ashamed of the Gospel. And again in that to the 
Corinthians; And these tilings I have in a figure transferred^ Co*"- 
to myself and Apollos. — Whether by life or by death : this he ' 
says not in ignorance, (for he knew that he was not then to 
die, but some time after.) Yet even now does he prepare 
their soul. 

Ver. 21. For to me, he says, to live is Christ, and to die is 

In dying, he means, I shall not have perished, for I have 
my life in myself: then would they truly slay me, had they 
power through this fear to cast faith out of my soul. But as 
long as Christ is with me, even though death overtake me, 
still I live, and in this present life, not this, but Christ is my life. 
Since, then, not even in the present life is it so', but the life^ i.e. 'is 
which I noio live in the JlesJv I live by faith ; so I say iWggjj^f^yfg 
that state also, I Hoe, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me. my true 
Such ought a Christian to be ! I live not, he says, the common Gai. 2 
life. How livest thou then, O blessed Paul .? Dost thou not ^^* 
see the sun, dost thou not breathe the common air ? art thou 
not nourished with the same food as others? dost thou 
not tread the earth as we ? needest thou not sleep, nor 
clothing, nor shoes? what meanest thou by, / live not? 
how dost thou not live ? Why boastest thou thyself? No 
boasting is here. For if indeed the fact did not witness to 
him, a man might with some show call it boasting; but if 
facts do witness, how is boasting here ? Let us then learn 
how he lives not, for he himself says in another place, / am (jai. 6 
crucified to the uorld, and the world to me. Hear then how ^^^ 

'' Of this use of 'in see Horn, xviii. on Stat. Tr. p. 304. note n. 

•34 Hoiv Sdinis live not t/tia present liji*. 

Phil, he says, I no longer lire. And here again, to me to live is 
Christ. The word lift; is much significant, beloved, i. e. it 

sheweth many things, as also the word deatJi. There is this 
life of the body, and there is the life of sin, as he himself 
elsewhere says. But if we are dead to sin, how shall ire any 
longer live therein. It is then possible to live the life of sin. 
Attend diligently, I entreat you, lest my labour be vain. There 
Phil. 3, is a life eternal, immortal, heavenly, after this. For our con- 


versation is in heaven. There is the life of the body whereof 
Acts 17, he speaks, through him ive live and move and have our being. 
He does not then deny that he lives the natural life, but that 
of sin, which all men live ; and rightly so, for how does he 
live this life, who desires not the present life .? He who is hast- 
ening to another, how does he live this life ? He who 
despises death, how does he live this life ? He who desires 
nought of the things here, how does he live it } For as one 
made of adamant, though he were struck a thousand blows, 
would never attend to it, no more would Paul. And / live, 
says he, but no longer I, that is, the old man; as again else- 
Rom.7, where, JVrefched man that I am, who shall delivei' me 
^^' from the hodg of this death ! How too does he live who does 
nought for the sake of food, nought for the sake of clothing, 
nought for any of these present things .'' Such an one does 
not even live the natural life : he who takes thought for none 
of the things which sustain life, lives not. We live this life, 
whose every action regards it. But he lived not ; for he 
busied himself about nought of the things here. How then 
lived he ? Just as we are accustomed to say, in common 
matters, such an one is not with me, when he does nothing 
with reference to me. Again, in like sort such a man lives 
not for me. Elsewhere he shews that he rejects not the 
Gal. 2, natural life ; The life ivhich I now live in thejiesh, I live 
by the faith of the Son of God, Who loved me, and gave Him- 
self for me; i. e. A certain new life I live, an altered one. 
And truly all these things he said to comfort the Philippians. 
Think not, says he, that I shall be deprived of this life, for 
neither whilst alive did I live this life, but that which Christ 
willed. For tell me } He who despises money, luxury, 
hunger, thirst, dangers, health, safety, does he live this life ? 
He who has nothing here, and is ofttimcs willing to cast it 

This: life icorlli liviiuj, if we live hij faith. 35 

away, if need be, and clings not to it, does he live this life ? Hom. 

By no means. This I must make clear to you by a kind of - 

example. Let us imagine some one in great wealth, with 
many servants, and much gold, and who makes no use of all 
these things, is such an one rich for all his wealth ? By no 
means. Lethim see his children dissipating his property by dis- 
orderly living, and yet take no care for it; still further if you 
will, when beaten let him not be pained; shall we call him a 
man of wealth } By no means ; although his wealth is his 
own. Thus too Paul says. To me to live is Christ: if you 
will enquire of my life, it is He, and my death, it is gain. 
Wherefore ? Because I shall more clearly be present with 
Him ; so that my death is rather a coming to life ; they 
who kill me will work on me no dreadful thing, they will 
only send me onwards to my proper life, and free me from 
that which is not mine. What then, while thou wert here, 
wert thou not Christ's.^ Yes, and in a high degree. 

Ver. 22. But if I live in the flesh, this is the fruit of my 
labour, but ichat I shall choose I wot not. 

Lest any should say, If what you say is life, wherefore 
hath Christ left you here ? It is, he says, the fruit of my 
labour' ; so that it is open to us to use to good purpose the 
present life, if we live it not as the many do. This he says, 
lest you should think that reproach is cast upon life, lest you 
should say, If we gain no advantage here, wherefore do we 
not make away with ourselves, nor slay ourselves .'' By no 
means, he answers. It is open to us to profit even here, if we 
live not this, but another life. But perchance one will say, 
does this bear thee fruit? Yes! he answers. Where are 
now the heretics.'' Behold now; the life in the flesh, this 
he calls the fruit of his ivork. Of his work too : how is it the 
fruit of his work .? That wluch I now live in the flesh, I live 
in faith, therefore it is the fruit of my icork. 

And what I shall choose I know not. Marvellous! How 
great was his philosophy! How hath he both cast out the 
desire of the present life, and yet thrown no reproach upon it! 
For in that he saith, to die is gain, by this he hath cast out the 

■= The verse may be translated, But and so perhaps he takes it, for the sup- 
wtietlier to live in thejiesh is fruit of my position is enough for his point. 
labour, (is worth my while,) and &c. 

D 2 

36 Death and Life in themselves indifferent. 

Phil, desire, but in that he saitli, to live in thejlesh is the fruit of 
- — -^ my labour, here he shews that the present life is needful. And 
how ? If we use it as need is, if we bear fruit, since if it bear no 
fruit, it is no longer life. For we despise those trees which bear 
no fruit, as thougii they were dry, and give them up to the fire. 
Life itself belongs to that middle class of indifferent things, 
Sav.'we whilst to live well or ill is in ourselves. Let us then not' 
then.' ^Si-tG life, for we may Uve well too. So even if we use it ill, 
we may not even then cast the blame on it. And wherefore t Be- 
cause not itself, but the free choice of those who use it ill is to 
blame. For God hath made thee live, that thou mayest live to 
Him. But thou, by living through corruption unto sin, raakest 
thyself accountable for all blame. Tell me, O Paul, what 
sayest thou .? Thou knowest not what to choose? Here hath 
he revealed a great mystery, in that his departure was in his 
own power; for where choice is, there have we power. What 
I shall choose, says he, I icot not. Is it then in thine own 
power.? Yes, he answers, if I would ask this grace of God. 
Ver. 2-3. For I am in a strait betwixt tivo, having a desire. 
See the affection of this blessed one ; in this way too he 
comforts them, when they see that he is master of his own 
choice, and that this was done not by man's sin, but by the 
dispensation of God. Why mourn ye then, says he, at my 
death.? It had been far better to have departed long since. 
For to depart, he says, and to be u-ith Christ, is far better. 

Ver. 24. Nevertheless, to abide in thejiesh is more needful 
for you. 

These words were to prepare them for his death when it 
came, that they might bear it nobly: this was to teach true 
wisdom. It is good for me to depart and be with Christ, for 
even death is a thing indifferent; since death itself is no ill, 
but to be punished after death is an ill. Nor is death a good, 
but it is good after our departure to be with Christ. AVhat 
follows death is either good or ill. 
Moral. Let US then not simply grieve for the dead, nor joy for the 
living simply. But how.? Let us grieve for sinners, not 
only for the dead, but also for the living. Let us joy for llie 
just, not only the living, but also the dead. For those 
though living are dead, while these although dead, yet live: 
those even while here are to be pitied of all, because they are 

Secret sorrow right, for those who die in sifis. .*^7 

at enmity uith God ; the other even where they have departed Hom. 

Thither, are blessed, because they are gor.y to Christ. Sinners, - 

wherever they are, are far from the King. They therefore are 
subjects for tears; while the just, be they here, or be they 
there, are with the King ; they indeed in a higher and nearer 
degree, not through an entrance*', or by faith, but, as the 
Apostle says, face to /ace. i cor. 

Let us then not make wailings for the dead simply, but^^' ^^' 
for those who have died in sins. They deserve wailing ; they 
deserve beating of the breast and tears. For tell me what 
hope is there, when our sins accompany us Thither, where 
there is no putting off sins? As long as they were here, per- 
chance there was great expectation that they would change 
that they would become better; but when they are gone to 
Hades, where nought can be gained from repentance, (for it is 
written. In the grave n ho shall confess to Thee?) are they Ps. 6, 5. 
not worthy of our lamentation ? Let us wail for those who 
have departed hence in such sort; let us wail, I hinder you 
not ; yet in no unseemly way, not in tearing our hair, or 
baring our arms, or lacerating our face, or wearing ^black 
apparel, but only in soul, shedding in quiet the bitter tear. 
For we may weep bitterly without all that display. And not 
as in sport only. For the laments which many make differ not 
from sport. Those public mourners do it not from feeling, 
but from display, from emulation and vainglory. Many women 
do this as of their craft. Weep bitterly, moan at home, when 
no one sees you, this is the part of true feeling, by this you 
profit yourself too. For he who laments another in such bort, 
will be much the more earnest never to fall into the same 
sins. Sin henceforth will be an object of dread to thee. 
Weep for the unbelievers, weep for those, who differ in no 
wise from them, those who have departed hence unbgptized, 
without the Seal ! they indeed deserve our wailing, they deserve 
our groans; they are outside the Palace, with the culprits \. " ««raJ/- 
with the condemned: for Verily I say iDito you^, Except a op\' i 
inan be born of ivater and of the Spirit, he cannot oiler ifito!i>^a.doTpt- 
the kingdom of Heaven. Mourn for those who died in wealth, ^m-ds. 
and did not from their wealth think of any solace for 

'i lia. ueoieu 13en. ?/a ji'S«£/f, ' through Iffitrr^tv, fhroitgh a g'/ass, as in the 
n figure,' but it should probably be 3<* text. 

38 Prayers and alms to he offered for the departed. 

Phil, their soul, who had power to wash away their sins, and would 
^' ^^' not. Let us weep for these in private, and topjether in public, 
but with propriety, with gravity, not so as to make exhibi- 
tions of ourselves; let us weep for these, not one day, or two, 
but all our life. Such tears spring not from senseless passion, 
but from true affection. The other sort are of senseless pas- 
sion. For this cause they are quicMy quenched, whereas if they 
spring from the fear of God, they always abide with us. Let us 
lament for them, let us assist them according to our power, let 
us think of some assistance for them, sn)all though it be, yet still 
able to help them. How and in what way? ]5y praying our- 
selves for them, by entreating others to make prayers for them, 
1 1^\„ by continually giving to the ])oor on their behalf^. This deed 
avTiit hath some consolation ; for hear the words of God Himself, when 
2 Kings He says, / ivill defend this city for Mine own sake, and for 
20, 6. ]\jy servant David's sake. If the remembrance only of a 
just man has so great power, how, when deeds are done for 
one, will it not have power? Not in vain did the Apostles 
order that remembrance should be made of the dead in the 
dreadful Mysteries. They know, that great gain resulteth to 
them, and great assistance; for when the whole people stands 
with uplifted hands, a priestly assembly, and that awful 
o J. Sacrifice lies displayed^, how shall we not prevail with' God by 
nrai. jjm- entreaties for them? And this we do for those who have 
vrirofiu. departed in the faith % whilst the catechumens are not thought 
worthy even of this consolation, but are deprived of all means 
of help save one. And what is this? We may give to the 
poor on their behalf. This deed in a certain way refreshes 
them. For God wills that we should be mutually assisted ; 
else why hath He ordered us to pray for peace and the good 
estate of the world? why on behalf of all men? since in this 

' See Horn. vi. on the Statues, Tr. a clergyman his executor. Euseh. Vit. 

p. 130, note c. also on 1 Cor. 15, 46. Const, iv. 71. speaks of Constantino 

Horn. xli. [8.] Tr. p. 59-2. On Stat, sharing in the prayers of the Faithful 

xxi. 15. Tr. p. 35'.). St. Chrys. makes in connection with his burial near the 

Flavian speak to Theodosius of the relics of the Apostles. He does not 

prayers for him after death, that might directly mention this as depending on 

be won by an act of mercy, comp. S. his Baptism, but the terms of the Eu- 

Ambr. de oh. Theod. ^. 37. Ten. de charistic prayer seem to have marked 

Corona, c. iii. speaks of oblations for this, and it is implied in the rule givea 

the deceased as a general tradition in by St. Cyprian, and the whole principle 

his time. St. Cyprian, Ep. G6. forbids of that commemoration stated in the 

Eucharistic prayer for one who makes passagecitedof St. Chrys. on 1 Cor. xv. 

JoVs intercessioji. Blessing of fearing God. 39 

number are included robbers, violaters of tombs, thieves, men Hom. 
laden with untold crimes; and yet we pray on behalf of all; — — — 
perchance they may have repentance. As then we pray for 
those living, who differ nought from the dead, so too we may 
pray for them. Job offered sacrifice for his children, and 
freed them from their sins. It inay 6e, said he, that t/ieg Johi, 5. 
have cursed God in their hearts. Thus does one provide for thou<fht 
one's children! He said not, as many do novv-a-days, \some 
will leave them property ; he said not, I will procui'e them 
honour; he said not, I will purchase an office; he said not, I 
will buy them land; but, it may he that they have cursed 
God in their hearts. For what profit is there in those things 
that remain here } None at all ! I will make the King of all 
things favourable to them, and then they will no more want 
any thing. Tlie Lord, saith one, is my Sliepherd, I shall not ^^* ^^' 
want. This is great wealth, this is treasure. If we have the 
fear of God, we want nothing; if we have not this, though we 
have royalty itself, we are the poorest of all men. Nothing 
is like the man that feareth the Lord. For the fear of the 
Lord, it is said, surpasseth all things. This let us procure; 
let us do all things for its sake. If need be that we lay down 
our lives, if our body must be mangled, let us not spare them ; 
let us do all, to obtain this fear. For thus shall we abound 
above all men; and shall obtain those good things to come 
in Christ Jesus our Lord, to Whom, &c. 


Phil. i. 22—26. 

Vef what I shall choose I trot not. For I am in a strait 
betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to he ivith 
Christ; ivhich is far better: nevertheless, to abide in the 
Jlesh is more needful for yon. And having this confidence, 
I know that I shall abide and continue with you all for 
your furtherance and joy of faith ; that your rejoicing may 
he more abundant in Jesus Christ for me, by my coining to 
you again. 

(1) Nothing can be more blessed than the spirit' of Paul, 
' Crr- since nothing is more noble; but now the contrary is what we 
must say of all. Nothing can be weaker than we, nothing 
more wretched. For this cause we all have a shudder at 
death, some by reason of our many sins, of whom I too am 
'^ raxa,. ^^^^j otlicrs from love of life, and cowardice', of whom may I 
»«g/a» never be one ; for they who are subject to this fear are mere 
animals. This then, which we all dread, he prayed for, and 
hasted toward Him ; saying, To depart is far better, and 
what I shall choose I wot not. Wliat sayest thou.? when 
thou art about to change from earth to heaven, and to be with 
Christ, dost thou not know what to choose.? Nay, far is this 
from the spirit of Paul ; for if such an offer were made to any 
one on sure grounds, would he not straightway seize it.? Yes, 
surely; it is answered. But as we cannot say, to depart and 
he with Christ, neither, if we were able to attain to this, were 
it like us to remain here. Both are of Paul, and of his spirit. 
What sayest thou.? art thou confidently persuaded, that thou 
art about to be with Christ.? and dost thou hesitate, and say. 

Wonderful that St. Paul should doubt what to choose. 41 

u-hat I shall choose I wot not? and not this only, but dost Hom. 

thou choose that which is here, I mean, to abide in the flesh? '— 

What can this be? didst thou not live an exceeding bitter 
lile, in tratchings^ in shipwrecks, in hunger and thirsty and 
nakedness, in cares and anxiety? with the weak thou wert 
weak, and for those who took offence thou didst burn. In 2 Cnr. 
much patience, in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses, in 29' 
stripes, in imprisonments, in tumidts, in fastings, t)y pure- ^^ ^^^^ 
ness. Five times didst thou receive forty stripes save one, ^,^- 6- 
thrice wast thou beaten with rods, once wast thou stoned.^ a 2 Cor. 
night and a day thou hast been in the deep, in perils of waters, 2q\ 
in perils of robbers, in perils in the city, in perils in the wil- 
deryiess, in perils among false brethren. Didst thou not, when 
the whole nation of the Galatians returned to the observance 
of the law, didst thou not cry aloud, and say, Whosoever o/Gal. 5, 
you are justified by the law, ye are fallen from grace? How ' 
great was then thy grief, and still dost thou rather desire this 
perishing life ? Had none of these things befallen thee, but 
had thy success, wherever success attended thee, been without 
fear, and full of delight, yet shouldest not thou hasten to some 
harbour, from fear of the uncertain future ? For tell me, what 
trader, whose vessel is full of untold wealth, when he may 
run into port, and be at rest, would prefer to be still at sea ? 
what wrestler, when he might be crowned, would prefer to 
contend? what boxer, when he might put on his crown, would 
choose to enter afresh into the contest, and offer his head to 
wounds? what general is there, who when he might be quit 
of war with good report, and trophies, and might with the 
king refresh himself in the palace, would choose still to toil, 
and to stand in battle array? How then dost thou, who 
livest a life so exceeding bitter, wish to remain still here ? 
Didst thou not say, I am in dread, lest when I have preached 1 Cor. 9, 
toothers, I myself should be a cast-away? If for no other ^^* 
cause, yet surely for this, thou oughtest to desire thy release. 
Were the present full of innumerable goods, yet for Christ 
thy Desire, thou oughtest to desire thy release from these 

Oh that spirit of Paul ! nothing was ever like it, nor ever 
will be ! Thou fearest the future, thou art compassed by innu- 
merable dreadful things, and wilt tliou not be with Christ ? 

42 »S7. PauVs choice was for Christ. He was like the Sun. 
Phil. No, he answers, and this for Christ's sake, that I may render 

1 24 • • 

— — '- more loving unto Him those whom I have made His servants, 
^yiu^- that I may make the plot' which 1 have planted bear much 
'""'■ fruit. Didst thou not hear me, when I declared that I sought 
1 Cor. 3, not that which profited myself but my neighbour } Heardest 
I'cor. thou not these words, / could icish that viyself were accursed 
Ti' ^^'o,f'Oin Christ, that many might come unto Him.'' I, who chose 
3. where that part, shall I not much rather choose this, shall I not with 
Chrys. plcasurc harm myself by this delay and postponement, that 
they may bo saved? 

Who shall speak Thy power, O Lord, because Thou suf- 
feredst not Paul to be hidden, because Thou madest mani- 
fest to the world such a man ? All the Angels of God praised 
Job 38, Xhee with one accord, when Thou madest the stars» and 
so too surely when Thou madest the sun, but not so much as 
when Thou didst manifest Paul to us, and to the whole world. 
By this, the earth was made more brilliant than the heaven, 
for he is brighter than the solar light, he hath shot forth 
more brilliant rays, he hath shed abroad more joyous beams. 
What fruit hath this man borne for us ! not by making fat 
our corn, not by nurturing our pomegranates, but by producing 
and perfecting the fruit of holiness, and when falling to 
pieces, continually recovering it } And all this with reason : 
for the sun itself can nothing profit fruits that are once de- 
cayed, but Paul has called out of their sins those who had 
manifold decays. And it gives place to the night, but he had 
mastery over the Devil. Nothing ever subdued him, nothing 
mastered him. It indeed, when it mounts the heavens, daits 
down its rays, but he, as he rose from beneath, filled not 
the mid space of heaven and earth with light, but at once 
opened his mouth, and filled the Angels with exceeding joy. 
jg' 7' And how is this? If there is joy in heaven over one sinner 
-Wjjt/irt. iJtat repenteth, whi\e he at his first address caught' multitudes, 
(2.) does he not fill with joy the Powers above.? What say I? 
sor'onlylt sufficelh that Paul should only be named', and at this the 
P*^n4 heavens leap for joy. For if when the Israelites tce7it out of 
4- Egypt, the hills leaped as rams, how great, thinkest thou, was 

the joy, when men ascended from earth to heaven !" 

Ver. 24. For this cause to abide in the flesh is more need- 
ful for you. 

Why he was willing to stay on earth. 43 

And what excuse is left to us ? ofttimes it happens that a Hom. 
man who possesses a little and poor city, chooses not to de- 

part to another place, preferring his own rest. Paul might 
depart to Christ, and would not depart to Christ, (Christ 
whom he so desired, as for his sake, to choose even hell,) but 
still remained in the contest on behalf of man. What excuse 
shall we have .'' May we then even make mention of Paul ? 
Look to his deeds. He shewed that to depart was better, to 
persuade them not to grieve : he shewed them, that if he 
remained, he remained for their sake, that it came not to pass 
according to the wicked desires" of those who plotted against 
him. He subjoined the reason, that he might secure iheir 
belief. For if this is necessary, that is, I shall by all means 
remain, and I will not remain simply, but wi/k you. I'or 
this is the meaning of the word, ^continue icith, i. e. I will' "vi^^j*- 
see you. For what cause r l^or your juriherafice and joy oj 
faith. Here too he rouses them, to take heed unto them- 
selves. If, says he, for your sakes I abide, see that ye shame 
not my abiding. For your furtJierance, I have chosen to 
remain, when I was about to see Christ. I have chosen to 
remain, because my presence advances both your faith and 
your joy. What then? Did he remain for the sake of the 
Philippians only .' He stayed not for their sake only ; but 
this he says, that he may shew regard to^ them. And ho'w'^h^a.vtv- 
were they to advance in faith ? That you may be more ^^' 
strengthened, like young fowl, who need their mother until 
their feathers are set. This is a proof of his great love. In 
like sort, we rouse some of you, when we say, for your sake 
have I remained, that I may make you good. 

Ver. 26. TJiat your rejoicing may he more abundant in 
Christ Jesus /or me, by my com in g to you again. 

You see that this explains the word contivue nitk you. 
Behold his humility. Having said, for your furtJierance, 
he shews that it was for his own profit too. This also he 
does, when he writes to the Romans, and says, TJiat is, that Rom.\, 
I may be comforted together tvitli you. Having previously *^* ^^* 
said. That I may impart unto you some spiritual gift. And 
what means, TJiat your rejoicing^ maybe more abundant P *'^"X*'- 


" iTavoji'aj. The meaning is not clear, usual sense of the word. It seems 
It might be ' that it comes not of the rather to applj' to either case. 
ti'cnlcucss of those.' But this is a less 

44 Standim/ in one mind, the work of the Spirit. 

Thil. This rejoicing was, their eslablishnieiit in the faith. For an 

- ? — '- upright life is rejoicing in Clirist. And sayest thou, Your 

2,19. rejoicing for me, by mt/ coming to you again? Yes, he 

2 Cor. answers; For nhal is our hope, or joy, or croun of rejoicing? 

' ' Are not even ye? as tee loo are yours, i.e. that I may be 

able to rejoice in you greatly. How sayest thou, That your 

rejoicing^ may be more abundant? Because I may rejoice 

the more when you make progress ^ 

But by coming to yon again. What tlien ! Did he come 

to them.? Search ye whether he came. 

Ver. 27. Only let your concersation be as becometk the 

Gospel of Christ. 

Do you see, how all that he has said, tends to turn them 

to this one thing, advancement in virtue. 0/ily let your 

conversation be as becometh the Gospel of Christ. What 

means this word only, but that this, and nought else, is the 

only thing we should seek? If we have this, nothing grievous 

can befal us. TJiat tchefher I come and see you, or else be 

absent, I may hear of your affairs. This he says not as if 

he had changed his purpose, and no longer meant to visit 

them. But if so be, he says, even though absent, I may be 

able to rejoice. If, that is, I hear, that ye stand fast in one 

(^\ spirit, toith one mind. This above all things unites believers, 

and maintains love unbroken. For this cause Christ said, 

Johni7 That they may be one. For a kingdom divided against 

^1- itself shall not stand. For this cause Paul also every where 

Mark 3 

24. 'counsels his disciples much to be of one mind. For this 

Johnis cause Christ too says, By this shall all men know that ye 

^^- are My disciples, if ye love one another. He means, that 

is, Look not with expectation toward me, and therefore 

slumber, as waiting for my coming, and then, when ye see 

me come not, faint, for I can receive a like pleasure from 


What means, In one spirit ? By the same grace, viz. that 

of concord, and zeal; for the Spirit" is one. And this is 

manifest from its being so often thus expressed. For then 

are we able to stand, in one mind, wdien we all have one 

•> or the rejoicing of you. are connected. Compare 2 Cor. .">, 12. 

= St. Chrys- seems to take your re- ^ The punctuation is alter, d. He 

joicing as ' the rejoicing which I Paul seems to be proving not the unity of the 

have in you.' The passage quoted from Spirit, hut the relation of that doctrine 

2 Cor. 1, 14. shews that the two senses to practice. 

Christian endurance able to convince adversaries. 45 

Spirit. See how the word one is used for concord. See Hom. 
how their minds being many are called one. Thus was it ' 
of old. For they were all, it is written, of one heart and of^^^'^ *> 
one soul. Striving together for the faith of the Gospel. Does 
he say, striving together with each other, as though the faith 
did strive ? How can this be ? for they did not wrestle 
among each other? But what he says is this, help each 
other, in your striving for the Gospel. 

Ver. 28. Aiul in nothing terrified hy your adversaries; 
which is to ihein an evident token of perdition, hut to you of 

Well said he, terrified, this is what befals us from our 
enemies, they only terrify. In nothing therefore, he says, 
whatever happens, whether dangers — whether plots. For 
this is the part of those who stand upright; the enemy 
can do nought but terrify only. Since it was likely 
that they should be affrighted, when Paul suffered such 
numberless ills, he says, I exhort you not only not to be 
shaken, but not to be terrified, yea rather to despise them 
heartily, for if ye are thus affected, ye will straightway, by 
this means, make evident at once their destruction, and your 
salvation. For when they see, that with their innumerable 
plots they are unable to terrify you, they will take it as a 
proof of their own destruction. For when the persecutors 
prevail not over the persecuted, the plotters over the objects 
of their plots, the powerful over those subject to their power, 
will it not be self evident, that their perdition is at hand, 
that their power is nought, that their part is false, that their ^ 
part is weak } And this he says comes of God. 

Ver. 29. For unto you it is given on behalf of Christ^ not 
only to believe on Him, but also to suffer for His sake. 

Again does he teach them moderation of spirit by refemng 
all to God, and saying that sufferings for Christ are of grace, 
the gift of grace, a free gift. Be not then ashamed of the 
gracious gift, for it is far more wonderful than the power of 
raising the dead, or working miracles, as there I am a debtor 

<= Chrysost. seems to make a false a change of person. Dounseus suggests 

opposition between txtUut and auruv, oV/ ra Jxt/viwv dx»j(')j; (for aj'^iv^;) ' That 

but if the reading is correct, this is the others' (principles) are true.' Com- 

really one of his rapid changes of the pare the letter of Antoninus quoted by 

point of view, though not amounting to Justin Martyr. Apol. 1. 70. 

4(> Cliristians o/ old shnred llie Apostles snjferiny. 

Phil, but here I have Christ for my debtor. Wherefore ought we 

-1 1 not only not to be ashamed, but even to rejoice, in that we 

have this gift. Virtues he calls gifts, yet not in like sort as 

other things, for those are eutirely of God, but in these we 

have a shai*e. But since even here the greatest part is of 

God, he ascribes it entirely to Him, not to overturn our free 

' «'V»*^- will, but to make us humble and rightly disposed '. 

grate- Ver. 30. Having the same conflict tthich ye saw in me. i.e. 

tul. Ye have an example. Here again he raises them up, by 

shewing them that every where their gifts were the same with 

his, their struggles were the same with his, both severally, 

and in that they did their part to bear his trials with him^ 

He said not, ye have heard, but ye have seen, for he strove 

too at Philippi. Truly this is an exceeding virtue. Where- 

Gal.3,4.fore writing to the Galatians, he said. Have ye suffered so 

many thiitys in vain, if it he yet in vain. And again, writing to the Hebrews, he said. But call to remembrance 

32. 33. ijifj former days, in which, after ye were illuminated, ye 

endured a great fight of afflictions. Partly ivhilst ye icere 

made a gazing-stock hoth by reproaches and affictions; 

and partly, whilst ye became companions of them that were 

so used. And again, writing to Macedonians*^, that is, to the 

1 Thess. Thessalonians, he said. For they themselves shew of us, what 

1'^- manner of entering in we had unto you. And again, For 

2, 1. yourselves, brethren, know our entrance in unto you, that it 

7vas not in vain. And in like sort does he witness the same 

things of them all, labours and strivings. Such things ye 

will not now find among us; now it is much if one suffer a 

little in goods alone. And in respect of their goods also he, witnesses great things of them. For to some he says. For 

^■^- ye took joyfully the spoiling of your goods; and to others, 

Rom. For it hath pleased them of Macedonia and Achaia to make 

2^' ^^" a certain contribution for the poor ; and your zeal hath 

9, 2. provoked very many. 

/A \ Seest thou the praises of the men of that time } But we endure 

not so much as buffetings or blows, we sustain neither insult nor 

loss of our possessions : they were straightway zealous, and all 

' The construction is ditTicult, per- be put in because the Philippians were 
haps from a false reading. Macedonians too. 

K Some omit this clause, but it may 

Love yroHH cold. Men must he shavied into Virtue. 47 
of them strove as martyrs, whilst we have grown cold in love to- Hom, 


ward Christ. Again I am constrained to accuse things present; 
and what shall I do ? It is against my will, yet am I constrained. 
Were I able by my silence of things which are done, by holding 
my peace, and not mentioning aught, to remove them, it would 
behove me to be silent. But if the contrary comes to pass; 
for not only on our silence are these things not removed, but 
rather become worse ; we are forced to speak. For he who 
rebukes sinners, if he does nought else, suffers them not to 
go farther. For there is no spirit so shameless and rash, as 
not to turn, and remit the extravagance of its evil deeds, on 
hearing any one continually rebuking it. There is, there is in- 
deed, even in the shameless, a small portion of shame. For God 
hath sown in our nature the seeds of shame ; since fear was 
insufficient to bring us to a right tone, He hath prepared 
many other ways for avoiding sin. For example, the accu- 
sations of men, fear of the enacted laws'", love of reputation, 
the desire of forming friendships, all these are paths to avoid 
sin. Ofttimes that which has not been done for God's sake, has 
been done through shame, and that which has not been done 
for God's sake, hath been done for fear of men. That which 
we seek for is this, in the first place to learn not to sin, then 
we shall afterwards succeed in doing this for God's sake. 
Else why did Paul exhort those, who were about to over- 
come' their enemies, not by the fear of God, but on the score 
of waiting for the vengeance " } For hy so doing, he says, Rom. 
thou shalt heap coals of Jire on his head. For this is ' ^ * 
his first wish, that our virtue should be established. As 
1 said then, there is in us a sense of shame. For we 
have many good natural afi'ections, which lead to virtue ; as, 
for example, all of us men are naturally moved to pity, and 
there is in our nature no other such good as this. Whence 
any one might reasonably enquire, wherefore these seeds have 
above all others been sown in our nature, by which we melt", 
I mean, at tears, by which we are turned to compassion, and 
are ready to pity. No one is naturally without anger'", no one 

^ See on Stat. Horn. vi. ' x.a.ra.x.Xa.aiai . See on Stat. Hom. 

' K^ariiv. He seems to mean ' to xiii. §. 9. Tr. p. 226. In thatand Hom. 

have them in their power.' xii. the law of nature is discussed at 

'' See on the passage, Hom. xxii. some length. 

Tr. p. 387. "" The Editor ventures to adopt the 

48 Mercy rooted in our nature. Oil its type. 

Van., is naturally regardless of his reputation, no one is naturally 
—!—-'- above emulation, but pity lies deep in every one's nature, 
however fierce and ungentle he be. And what wonder is 
there, if we shew this toward men ? for we pity even beasts, 
such a superabundance of pity lies deep in us. If we see a 
lion's whelp, we are somewhat affected; much more when we 
see one of our own race. How many maimed are there ! often 
do we say, knowing that this is sufficient to lead us to pity. 
' '^l"-"' Nothing so much pleases God as mercy'. Wherefore with 

rvvri. o J. .1 

this the priests were anointed, and the kings, and the prophets, 
for they had, in oil, a ty])e of God's love to man; and they 

' ixitu. further learnt, that rulers should have a greater share of mercy". 
It shewed that the S])irit is to come to men through mercy, 
since God pities and is kind to man. For, Thou hast mercy 

Wisd. upon all, it is written, ybr Thou canst do all things. For 
' ■ this cause they were anointed with oil": and indeed it was 
from mercy He appointed the priesthood. And the kings 
were anointed with oil ; and would one praise a ruler, he can 
make mention of nothing so becoming him as mercy. For 
pity is peculiar to power. Consider that the world was 
established by pity", and then imitate thy Lord. The mercy 
of man is toward his neighbour, but the mercy of the Lord is 

Ecclus. upon all flesh. How over all flesh ? Whether you mean 

' ■ sinners, or just men, we all need the mercy of God; we all 

enjoy il,be it Paul, be it Peter, or be it John. Listen to their 

own words, for there is no need of mine. For what says this 

1 Tiin. blessed one? Bui I obtained mercy, because I did it igno- 
rantly. What then, was there afterwards no need of mercy ? 

1 Coi. Hear what he says again ; But I laboured more abundantly 
°' ' than they all: yet not I, but the grace of God which icas with 

Phil. i,me. And of Epaphroditus he says. For indeed he was sick, 
nigh unto death ; but God had mercy on him ; and not on him 
only, but on me also, lest I should have sorrow upon sorrow. 

2 Cor. 1, And again he says. We were pressed out of measure above 

' ^' strength, insomuch that we despaired even of life. But we 
had the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should not 
trust in ourselves, but in God, ivho delivered us from such 

conjecture of Doiinai'us, aa^ytii fbrafyof, in the Latin version. 

' idle' which makes no sense, and has " B. ' received the oil for a symhol.' 

accordingly been translated strmuus, • Comp. Wisd. 1, 14; 11, 24. 

Mercy of God to Saints, and to all Creation. 49 

death'^, yea, and ivill deliver. And again, And I uas delivered Hom. 
out of the mouth of the lion ; and the Lord shall deliver me. 

And every where we shall find him boasting of this, that by 4,17.18. 
mercy he was saved. Peter too became so great, because (5) 
mercy was shewn him. Peter, Peter, Satan hath desired to Luke22, 
sift thee as icheat ; and I have jJrayedfor thee, that thyfaith^^' ^^* 
fail not. John too became so great through mercy, and in 
short all the Apostles. For listen to Christ when He hints 
at this, and says. Ye have not chosen Me, but I have chosen 3 ohnio, 
you. For we all have need of the mercy of God, as it is ^^' 
written, The mercy of God is over all flesh \ But if these men 
needed the mercy of God, what should one say of the rest? 
For why, tell me, doth He inake the sun to rise on the evil 
and the good? Did He withhold the rain for one year, would 
He not destroy all? And what if He caused overwhelming 
rain? what if He rained down fire? what if He sent flies? 
But why mention I these things? if He were to make darkness 
at once, would He not destroy all ? if He were to shake the 
earth, would not all perish? It is now seasonable to say, 
Wltat is man, that Thou art mindful of him? WerePs. 8, 4. 
He only to threaten the earth, all men would become 
one tomb. As a drop of tvater from the bucket, it is written, Is. 40, 
so are the nations in His sight, they shall be counted as 
very small dust, as the turning of the balance. It were as 
easy for Him to destroy all things, and to make them again, 
as for us to turn the balance. He then who has such power 
over us, and sees us sinning, and yet punishes us not, how 
is it but by mercy He is restrained? Learn' how beasts too 
exist and are preserved by mercy : Tlioii, Lord, shall save both Ps. 36, 
man and beast. He looked upon the earth, and filled it^^* 
with living things. And wherefore ? For thy sake ! And 
wherefore did he make thee? Was it not through His good- 
ness ? 

There nothing better than oil ' ! It is the cause of light 
both here and there. Then shall thy light break forth Is. 58, 
as the morning, saith the Prophet, if thou shewest pity upon ^' 
thy neighbour. And rightly so. For as natural oil affords 

1 Sav. deaths, B. death. ' B. ' than mercy, O Beloved !' 

' Ecclus. 18, 13. as above. Com- which may be right, but it seems 

pare Ps. 145, 9. and Job 4, 18. better to keep the allusion to w^hat has 

' So B. and Sav. mar. gone before. 

60 The merciful man shall obtain Mercy. 

Phil, light to seafaring men, thus here doth mercy grant us a great, 

— — '- a marvellous light on earth. Much mention doth Paul too 

Gal. 2, make of this mercy". In one place hear him say. Only that 

1 Cor. ^'^ should remember the poor. And in another, If it be 

16,4. rneet that I go also. And in every place, turn where you 

will, ye see him anxious ahout this very thing. And again, 

Tit. 3, And let ours also learn to maintain good works. And again, 

Tit. 3 These things are good and profitable unto men. Listen to 

^- the words of a certain one which saith, Alms do deliver from 

9. death ; and another, If Thou takest away pity. Lord, Lord, 

Ps. ISO, ^j^^ shall stand; and it is written % If Thou enterest intojudg- 

Ps. \\Z,ment with thy servant; another saith, A great thing is man, 

Prov. ^'^^^ ^'^ honourable thing is a merciful man. For this is 

20, 6- the true character of man, to be merciful, yea rather the cha- 

racter of God, to shew mercy. Dost thou see, how strong is 

the mercy of God? This made all things, this formed the 
world, this made'' the angels, it was through mere goodness \ 
For this cause too He threatened hell, that we may attain 
unto the kingdom, and through mercy we do attain unto the 
kingdom. For wherefore, tell me, did God, being alone, 
create all things? was it not through goodness? was it not 
through love to men ? If you ask why such and such things 
are, you will always find your answer in Goodness. Where- 
fore let us shew mercy to our neighbours, that mercy may be 
shewn to us. These acts of mercy' we shew not so much 
to them, as lay up for ourselves against That Day. When the 
flame of fire shall be great, this mercy is that which will 
quench the fire, and bring light to us. Thus by this means 
shall we be freed from the fire of hell. For whence will God*" 
be compassionate and shew mercy ? Does not mercy come of 
love ? Nothing incenses God so much as to be pitiless. " A 
man was brought to him who owed him ten thousand talents, 
and he was moved with compassion, and forgave him. And 
there were owing to that man from his fellow servant a 

" al. ' oil.' The («<) and (i) are con- 14, 13. Horn. xxv. Tr. p. 425. note g ; 

stantly interchanged in Mss. and per- and on Matt. 25. Horn. Ixxviii. init. also 

haps differed little in sound. Horn, on Stat. vi. Tr. p. 130. note c. 

* B. ' enter not' as in text. He may mean here to distinguish the 
y B. appointed (to their several fire of Hell, from which we may be 

charges.) freed, from that which is to rage, but 

• B. has not this clause. to be quenched. 

» al. This oil; see note ; and on Rom. *> So B. Sav. om. ' God.' 

God neither avenges nor forgives the revengeful. 51 

hundred pence, and he caught him by the throat. Therefore Hom 

the Lord delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay 1- 

what was due." Let us on hearing this be merciful to those 
who are our debtors in money or in sins. Let no one remem- 
ber evils, except he wishes to punish himself. For if you 
foi'give him not, you act unjustly not so much toward him as 
yourself ^ If thou takest vengeance on him, God will not 
avenge; if thou lettest him go, He will either avenge thee, or 
remit thy sins. And how, if thou forgivest not thy neighbour, 
dost thou seek that kingdom ? Lest this should happen to 
us, let us forgive all, (for it is ourselves that we pardon,) that 
God may forgive us our trespasses, and so we may obtain 
the good things which are in store, through the grace and 
lovingkindness, &c. 

'^ So B. Sav. you annoy him not so much as you injure yourself. 

£ 2 



Phil. ii. 1 — 4. 

I/ there he therefore any consolation in Christ, if any com- 
fort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any bowels 
and mercies, fulfil ye my Joy, that ye be likeminded, 
having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind. 
Let nothing be done through strife or vainglory : but in 
lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than them- 
selves. Look not every man on his own things, but every 
man also on the things of others. 

(1) J'here is nothing better, there is nothing more affectionate, 
^nk- tlian a spiritual teacher; such an one surpasses' the kindness 
of any natural father. For consider, how this holy one 
entreats the Philippians concerning the things which were to 
their own advantage. What says he, in exhorting them con- 
cerning concord, that cause of all good things? See how 
earnestly, how vehemently, with how much sympathy he 
speaks, If there be therefore any consolation in Christ, that 
B. one is, if ye have any comfort in Clmst, as if he^ had said. If 
thou makest any account of me, if thou hast any care of me, 
if thou hast ever received good at my hands, do this. This 
mode of earnestness we use when we claim a matter which 
we prefer to every thing else. For if we did not prefer it to 
every thing, we should not wish to receive in it our recompense, 
and acknowledge that by it all affection is shewn. We indeed 
remind men of our carnal claims ; for example, if a father 
were to sa}' to his son, If thou hast any reverence for thy 

St. Paul it'oulcl be repaid by their mutual love. 53 

father, if any remembrance of my care in nourishing ihec, Hom. 

if any affection towards me, if any memory of the honour thou '■ — 

hast received of me, if any of my kimhiess, be not at enmity 
with thy brother ; that is, for all those things, this is what I ask 
in return. . 

But Paul does not so, for he calls to our remembrance no 
carnal, but all of them spiritual benefits. And what he says 
is this. If ye will give me any consolation in my tempt- 
ations, and encouragement in Christ, if any comfort of love, if 
ye will shew any communion in the Spirit, if ye have any 
bowels and mercies, fulfil ye my joy. If any bowels and 
mercies. Paul speaks of the concord of his disciples as 
mercy towards himself, thus shewing that the danger was ex- 
treme, if they were not of one mind. If I can obtain con- 
solation from you, if I can obtain any comfort from your love, 
if I can communicate with you in the Spirit, if I can commu- 
nicate with you in the Lord, if I can find mercy and pity at 
your hands, shew by your love the return of all this. All this 
have 1 gained, if ye love one another. 

Ver. 2. Fulfil ye my joy. 

That the exhortation might not seem to be made to people 
who were still deficient, see how he says not, " Cause me to 
rejoice," h\xi fulfil my joy ; that is, Ye have begun to plant 
it in me, ye have already given me some portion of peaceful- 
ness ', but I desire to arrive at its fulness ? Say, what wouldest 'ri (P.. 
thou ? that we deliver thee from dangers .' that we supply J°"j/J, 
somewhat to thy need } Not so, but that ye be like-minded., 
having the same love, in which ye have begun, beiny of one 
accord, of one mind. Oh how often does he repeat the same 
thing by reason of his great affection ! That ye he like- 
minded, he says, yea xaXhex, that ye be of one mind. For 
this he means by saying, as he proceeds, of one mind, which 
is more than of a like mind. 

Having the same love. That is, let it not be simply in 
faith alone, but in all other things ; for there is such a thing 
as to be like-minded, and yet not to have love. Having the 
same love, that is, love and be loved alike ; do not thou enjoy 
much love, and shew less love to others, so as to be covetous 
even in this matter ; and though there be that do this, yet 
do not thou sufi'er it in thyself. Of one accord^, he adds, ihai^ <rvy.->^v- 

54 Davger of vain-glory . True lowliness what. 

Phil, is, with one soul, deeming the bodies of all to be your own, 

— 2—^ not in substance, for that is impossible, but in purpose and 

intention. Let all things proceed as from one soul. What 

means of one accord i He shews when he says of one mind. 

i^javfljMa, Lg^- your mind ' be one, as if from one soul. 

which IS •' 7 /. 

the act Ver. 3. Let nothing be done through strife. 
soul -^^ finally demands this of them, and tells them the way 

how this may be. Let nothing be done through strife or 
vain-glory. This, as I always say, is the cause of all evil. 
Hence come fightings and contentions. Hence come en- 
vyings and strifes. Hence it is that love waxes cold, when 
we love the praise of men, when we are slaves to the honour 
which is paid by the many, for it is not possible for a man 
to be the slave of praise, and to be a true servant of God. 
How then shall we flee vain-glory ? for thou hast not yet 
told us the way. Listen then to what follows. 

But in lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than 

ffvyx^i- himself Oh how full of true wisdom, how universal a gathering- 

word of our salvation is the lesson he has put forth 1 If thou 

feelest, he means, that another is greater than thyself, and 

persuadest thyself so, yea more, if thou not only sayest it, 

but art fully persuaded of it, then thou assignest him the 

*Ben. honour, and if thou assignest him the honour^, thou wilt not 

and if' ^^ displeased at seeing him honoured by another. Do not 

&f- then think him simply greater than thyself, but better', which 

ix^uy. is ^ ^sry great superiority, and thou wilt not think it strange 

^'^- nor be pained thereby, if thou seest him honoured. Yea 

though he treat thee with scorn, thou wilt bear it nobly, for 

thou hast esteemed him greater than thyself Though he 

^B.'thou revile thee, thou wilt submit. Though he treat thee ill*, 

en fn° thou wilt bear it in silence. For when once the soul is fully 

of.' persuaded that he is greater, it falls not into anger when it is 

ill-treated by him, nor yet into envy, for no one would envy 

those who are very far above himself, for all things are put to 

the account of his excellence. 

(2) Here then he instructs the one party to be thus minded. 

But when he too, who enjoys such honour from thee, is thus 

affected toward thee, consider what a double wall there is 

erected of inofl'ensiveness; for when thou esteemest him thus 

worthy of honour, aud he thee likewise, no painful thing can 

A broken spirit. Joseph^s humilHy. 55 

possibly arise, for if this conduct when shewn by one is suffi- Hom. 

cieut to destroy all strife, who shall break down the safe- : 

guard, when it is shewn by both ? Not even the devil himself. 
The defence is threefold, and fourfold, yea manifold, for 
humility is the cause of all good; and that you may learn this, 
listen to the prophet, saying. For Thou desirest not sacrifice, Ps. 5i, 
else would I give it: Thou delightest not in burnt offering. ' 
The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit, a broken and a 
contrite heart, God, Thou ii-ilt not despise. He does not 
require simply humility, but an excess of humility. As in 
the case of bodily substances, that which is broken will not 
rise against that which is solid, but, how many ills soever it 
may suffer, will perish itself rather than attack the other, so 
too the soul, even if constantly suffering ill, will choose 
rather to die, than to avenge itself by attack. 

How long shall we be puffed up thus ridiculously? For Moral. 
as we laugh, when we see children drawing themselves up, 
and looking haughty, or when we see them picking up 
stones and throwing them, thus too is the haughtiness ^ i ia-«y«« 
of men, the offspring of a puerile intellect, and an unformed 
mind. Why are earth and ashes proud } Art thou high- 
minded, O man.? and why.? tell me what is the gain.? 
Whence art thou highminded against those of thine own 
kind ? Dost not thou share the same nature ? the same 
life ? Hast not thou received like honour from God .? But 
thou art wise .? Thou oughtest therefore to be thankful, not to 
be puffed up. Haughtiness is the first act of ingratitude, for 
it denies '' the gift of grace. He that is puffed up, is puffed 
up as if he had excelled by his own strength, and he who 
thinks he has thus excelled is ungrateful toward Him who 
bestowed that honour. Hast thou any good .? Be thankful 
to Him who gave it. Listen to what Joseph said, and what 
Daniel. For when the king of Egypt sent for him from the 
prison, and in the presence of all his host asked him con- 
cerning that matter in which the Egyptians who were most 
learned in these things had forsaken the field, when he was on 
the point of being exalted over all, and of appearing wiser than 
the astrologers, the enchanters, the magicians, and all the 

^ Lit. ' takes away,' i. e. takes the credit from the Giver. 

56 Joseph and Daniel gave God the glory of all. 

Phil, wise men of those times, and that from captivity and servitude, 
_^'-^ and he but a youth, (and his glory was thus greater, for it is 
not the same thing to shine when known, and contrary to 
expectation, so that its being unlooked for rendered him the 
more admirable ;) what then did he say, when he came 
before Pharaoh ? Was it, ' Yea, I know the dream?' Not 
so, but what? When no one urged it on him, he said from 
his own excellent spirit. Do not interpretations belong to 
God'f Behold he straightway glorified his Master, where- 
fore he himself was also glorified. And this is no slight step 
to glory. For that God had revealed it to him was a far 
greater thing than if he had excelled himself. Moreover, he 
hence shewed that his words were worthy of credit, and this 
was a very great proof that God was with him. There is no 
Rom. 4, one thing so good, as to be the friend of God. For if, says 
^'jbra- t^6 Scripture, he ^ were justijied by trorks, he hath tchereof 
ham to glory, but not before God. For if he who has been 
vouchsafed grace maketh his boast in God, that he is 
loved of Him, because his sins are forgiven, he too that 
worketh hath whereof to boast, but not before God, as the 
other; (for this very thing' is a proof of our excessive weak- 
ness ;) he who has received wisdom of God, how much more 
admirable is he ? He glorifies God, and is glorified of Him, 
1 Sam. for He says, them that honour 3Ie, I trill honour. 
2) 30. Again, listen to him who descended from Joseph, than whom 
Ezek. no one was wiser Art thou wiser ^, says he, than Daniel ? 
28, 3. -pj^jg Daniel then, when all the wise men that were in Babylon, 
and the astrologers moreover, the prophets, the magicians, the 
enchanters, yea when the whole of their wisdom was not only 
coming to be convicted, but to be wholly destroj^ed, (for their 
being destroyed was a clear proof that they had deceived be- 
fore,) this Daniel coming forward, and preparing to solve the 
king's question, does not take the honour to himself, but first 
Dan. 2, ascribcs the whole to God, and says. But as for me, king, 
'^^- it is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have beyond all 
ib. 46. men. And the King worshipped him, and commanded that 

« Gen. 40, 8. This he said to the ^ He may mean our boasting of sucA 

baker and cupbearer in prison, but he things as we do, or the fact that our 

also said to Pharaoh, It is not in me : goodness extends not to God. 

God shall give Pharaoh an ansii'er of « E. V. Thmi art, but the sentence 

pence, c. 41, 18. is of an ironical turn. 

TJie Apostles unassuming. Meanness exemplijied. 57 

they should offer an oblation. Seest thou his humility? Hom. 
seest thou his excellent spirit? seest thou his habit of lovvli- — 1. 
ness ? Listen also to the Apostles, saying at one time, Why Acts 3, 
look ye so earnestly on us, as though hy our own power or 
holiness we had made this man to walk ? And again. We ^5'^^ ^'*' 
also are men of like passions tvith you. Now if they thus 
refused the honours paid them, men who by reason of the 
humility and power of Christ wrought greater deeds than 
Christ, (for He says, He that believeth in Me shall do John 14, 
greater works than those that I do,) shall not we wretched 
and miserable men do so, who cannot even beat away gnats*", 
much less devils ? who have not power to benefit a single 
man, much less the whole world, and yet think so much of 
ourselves that the devil himself is not like us ? 

There is nothing so foreign to a Christian soul as haugh- (3) 
tiness. Hauohtiness, I say, not boldness nor courage, for 
these are congenial. But these are one thing, and that 
another; so too humility is one thing, and meanness, flattery, 
and adulation, another. 

I will now, if you wish, give you examples of all these 
qualities, for these things which are contraries, seem in some 
way to be placed near together, as the tares to the wheat, 
and the thorns to the rose, so that babes will easily be 
deceived, while they who are men in truth, and are skilled in 
spiritual husbandry, know how to separate what is really 
good from the bad. Let me then lay before you examples 
of these qualities from the Scriptures. What is flattery, and 
meanness, and adulation? Ziba flattered' David out of 2 Sam. 
season, and falsely slandered his master. Much more did g^^: j^j^"^* 
Ahitophel flatter Absalom. But David was not so, but he 17, 1-4. 
was humble, for the deceitful are flatterers, as the magicians 
are, when they say, O king, live for ever. v. Dan. 

We shall find much to exemplify this in the Acts of St. ^' *• 
Paul. Wlien he disputed with the Jews he did not flatter 
them, but was humble-minded, (for he knew how to speak 
boldly,) as when he says. Men and brethren, though I have \. Acts 

28, 17. 

h This hyperbolical expression may ' Compare 2 Sam. 19, 26. He means 

have a moral meaning with respect to that Ziba had recourse to unworthy 

petty annoyances ; and in allusion to means of winning David's favour. And 

the fan used in the Holy Eucharist, that Ahitophel was ready to serve 

Goar. p. 76. Bingham xv. c. 3. §. 6. Absalom from selfish motives. 

58 Examples of Humility, Courage, Meanness, Audacity. 

Phil, committed nothing against the people, or customs of our 

— 'fathers, yet was I delivered prisoner from Jerusalem. 

That these were the words of humility, listen how he 
V. Acts rebukes them in what follows, Well spake the Holy Ghost, 
ib.'26. Hearing ye shall hear., and shall not understand, and seeing 
ye shall see, and not ])erceive. 

Seest thou his courage? Behold also the courage of John 
Mark the Baptist, which he used before Herod; when he said, // is 

6 18 

1 'bro- ^^^^i lawful for thee to have thy brother^ Philip's wife. This 
ther's „.as boldness, this was courage. But not so the words of 

wife. oi • • • 

2 "Sam. Shimei, when he said. Come out, thou bloody man, and yet he 

' '• too spake with boldness; but this is not courage, but audacity, 
and insolence, and an unbridled tongue. Jezebel too re- 
proached Jehu, when she spoke of the slayer of his master'', 
but this was audacity, not boldness. Elias too reproached, 
1 Kings bQt this was boldness and courage; / have not troubled 
Israel, but thou and thy fathefs house. Again, Elias spake 
ib. 21. with boldness to the whole people, saying, How long tcill ye 
■ go lame on both your thighs ? Thus to rebuke was boldness 
and courage. This too the prophets did, but that other was 

Would you see words both of humility and of freedom', 
^Cor.4, lij^tgj-j to St. Paul, saying. But icilh me it is a very small 
thing tha.t I should be judged of you, or of man'' s Judgment ; 
yea, I judge not mine own self. For I know nothing by 
^CoT.6,)jiygg/j'^ ygf djji J not hereby justified. This is of a spirit that 
becomes a Christian; and again. Dare any of you, having a 
matter against another, go to law before the unjust, and not 
be/ore the saints ? 

Would you see the flattery of the foolish Jews? listen to 
Jolini9, them, saying, We have no king but Ccesar. Would you see 
2Cor.4,hiiutiility ? listen to Paul again, when he says, For we 
^- preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord, and ourselves 
your servants for Jesus'' sake. Would you see flattery and 
1 Sam. audacity? Audacity in the case of Nabal, and fattery in 
ii' * that of the Ziphites? How the one reviled, and how the other 
23^2o' ^" piii'pose betrayed David ? Would you see the icisdom of 
1 Sam'. David, which was not flattery, how he gat Saul into his power, 

26, 5- 

12. k 2 Kings 9, 31. Had Zimri peace ' Sav. in text. ' of servility,' which 

w/io slew his master ? does not suit the next quotation so well. 

How to distinguish between such qualities. 59 

and yet spared him ? Would you see the flattery of those Hom. 

who murdered Mephibosheth ", whom David slew ? In fine, ^- 

and to sum up all, audacity is shewn when one is enraged, 
and insults another for no just cause, either to avenge himself, 
or from unjust excitement; but boldness and courage are 
when we dare to face perils and deaths, and despise friend- 
ships and enmities for the sake of what is pleasing to God. 
Again, flattery and meanness are when one courts another not 
for any right end, but hunting after some of the things of this 
life; but humility, when one does this for the sake of things 
pleasing to God, and descends from his own proper station 
that he may perform something great and admirable. If 
we know these things, happy are we if we do them. For 
to know them is not enough. For Scripture says. Not the Uom. 2, 
hearers of the laiv, but the doers of the law shall be justified. ^^' 
Yea, knowledge itself condemneth, when it is without action 
and deeds of virtue. Wlierefore that we may escape the 
condemnation, let us follow after the practice, that we may 
obtain those good things that are promised to us by the 
grace and love of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

" 2 Sam. 4, 8. So some copies of LXX, for Ishbosheth. 


Phil. ii. 5—8. 

Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesits: 
Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to 
be equal with God: but made Himself of no reputation, 
and took upon Him the form of a servant, and was made 
in the likeness qf men: and being found in fashion as a 
man. He humbled Himself, and become obedient unto 
death, even the death of the cross. 

(1) Our Lord Jesus Christ, when exhorting His disciples to 

great actions, places before them Himself, and the Father, and 

Matt. 5, the Prophets, as examples; as when He says, For thus they 

Luke 6 did unto the Prophets which ivere before you; and again, If they 

23. have persecuted Me, they will also persecute you ; and. Learn 

20. ^ of Me, for I atn meek; and again. Be ye merciful, as your 

Matt. Pather which is in heaven is merciful. This too the blessed 

11,29. . . -^ ^ 

Luke 6, Paul does; in exhorting them to humility, he brings forward 

Christ. And he does so not here only, but also when he 

discourses of love towards the poor, he speaks in this wise. 

2 Cor. 8, For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though 

He was rich, yet for our sakes He became poor. Nothing 

rouses a great and philosophic soul to the performance of 

good works, so much as learning that in this it is likened to 

God. What encouragement is equal to this ? None. This 

Paul well knowing, when he would exhort tliem to humility, 

first beseeches and supplicates them, then to awe " them he 

' ifTQi^Tixut, usually to shame, here sentiug to them the presence of the 
rather to make serious, i. e. by repre- Holy Spirit. See Phil. ii. 12, 13. 

One Text of St. Paul overthrows numerous Heresies. 61 

says, That ye standfast in one Spirit ; he says also, that it is Hom. 
to them an evident token of perdition, but to you of salva- 1_ 

Hon. And last of all he says this. Let this mind be in you, P^n. i, 
which was also in Christ Jesus, Who, being in the form Q/"phii. 2, 
God, thought it not robbery to be equal with Qod, but made ^—'^• 
Himself of no reputation, and took upon Him the form of a 
servant. Attend, I entreat you, and rouse yourselves, for as 
a sharp two-edged sword, wheresoever it falls, though it be Heb. 4, 
among ten thousand phalanxes, easily cuts through and de- j^^^ ^ 
stroys, because it is sharp on every side, and nought can 16. 
bear its edge; so are the words of the Spirit. For by these 
words he has laid low the followers of Arius of Alexandria, 
of Paul of Samosata, of Marcellus of G alatia, of Sabellius the 
Libyan, of Marcion that was of Pontus, of Valentinus, of 
Manes, of Apollinarius of Laodicea, of Photinus, of Sophro- 
nius, and, in one word, all the heresies. Rouse yourselves 
then to behold so great a spectacle, so many armies falling 
by one stroke, lest the pleasure of such a sight should escape 
you. For if when chariots contend in the horse race there is 
nothing so pleasing as when one of them dashes together *» 
and overthrows whole chariots with their drivers, and after 
throwing down many with the charioteers that stood thereon, 
drives by alone towards the goal, and the end of the course, 
and amid the applause and clamour which rises on all sides 
to heaven, with coursers winged as it were by that joy and 
that applause, sweeps over the whole ground ; will not 
the pleasure be much greater here, when by the grace of God 
we overthrow at once and in a body the combinations and 
devilish machinations of all these heresies together with their 
charioteers ? 

And if it seem good to you, we will first arrange the 
heresies themselves in order. Would you have them in the 
order of their impiety, or of their dates? Let us take the 
order of time, for it is difficult to judge of the order of their 
impiety. First then let Sabellius" the Libyan come forward. 
What does he assert ? that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, 

b B. and Sav. mar. irwyx^ouirai , <= See Euseb. vii. 6. his heresy had 

which seems better than *gaw<7-a;, 'dashes been held before by Praxeas, he was 

against,' but the latter suits the illus- himself later than Marcion. 

G2 The ' Form of God' implies Divine Personality. 

Phil, are mere names given to one Person. Marcion"" of Pontus 
' says, that God the Creator of all things is not good, nor the 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, but that there is another 
righteous One% and that the Son did not take flesh for us. 
Marccllus', and Photinus^, and Sophronius assert, that the 
Word is an energy, instead of a substance, and that this energy 
dwelt in Him who was of the seed of David, and not a personal 

Arius confesses indeed the Son, but only in word ; for he 
says that He is a creature, and much inferior to the Father, 
and others say that He has not a soul. Seest thou the cha- 
riots standing ? See then their fall, how he overthrows them 
all together, and with a single stroke. How then does he 
throw them down ? Let the same mind he in you, he says, 
which was in Christ Jesus, who being in the form of God, 
thought it not rohhery to he equal with God. By this Paul*" 
of Samosata has fallen, and Marcellus, and Sabellius. For 
he says, Being in the form of God. If in the form, how 
sayest thou, O wicked one, that He took His origin from 
Mary, and was not before ? and how again, that He was an 
energy? For it is written, being in the form of God, He took 
the form of a. servant. Tell me, the form of a servant, is it 
the energy of a servant, or the nature of a servant ? Thou 
wilt say, " Truly the nature of a servant." Thus too the form 
of God, is the nature of God, and therefore not an energy. 
Behold Marcellus of Galatia, Sophronius and Photinus have 
(2) Behold Sabellius too. It is written. He thought it not 
robbery to he equal with God. Now equality is not predi- 
cated, where there is but one person, for that which is equal 
hath somewhat to which it is equal. Seest thou not the 
substance of two Persons, and not empty names without 
things ? Hearest thou not the eternal pre-existence of the 
Only -begotten } And thus much against these. 

Lastly, What shall we say against Arius', who asserts the 
Son is of a different substance ? Tell me now, what means, 
He took the form of a servant ? it means, He became Man. 

<* Euseb. iv. 11. Tertullian wrote a e Theodoret. v. 11. 
treatise against him. •■ Euseb. vii. 27 — 30. 

• Tert. adv. Marc. i. 6. * See St. Ath. Disc. i. c. \\. §. 4. 

f Theod. ii. 6. 8. Socr. ii. 19, 20. Tr. p. 237. 

No unequal Divinity found in Scripture. 63 

Wherefore being in the form of God, He was God. For Hom. 
one form and amoiher form is named, if the one be true, the '— 

other is also. The form of a servant means, Man by nature, 
wherefore the form of God means, God by nature. And he 
not only bears record of this, but of His equality too, as 
St. John also doth, and that He is in no way inferior to the 
Father, for he saith. He thought it not a thing to seize^, tok*"?- 
be equal with God. Now what is their wise reasoning ? Nay,'**' 
say they, he proves the very contrary ; for he says, that, 
bei?ig in the form of God, He seized not equality with God. 
Now if He were God, how was He able to seize upon it f 
and is not this without meaning? Who would say that one, 
being a man, seized not on being a man ? for how would any 
one seize on that which he is ? No, say they, but he means 
that being a lesser God, He seized not upon being equal 
to the great God, Who was greater than He. Is there then 
a great and a lesser God ? And do ye bring in the doctrines of 
the heathens to those of the Church ? With them there is a 
greater and a lesser God. If it be so with us, I know nought 
of the matter, for you will find it no where in the Scriptures : 
there you will find a great God throughout, a lesser one no 
where. If He were little, how would he be God ? If man is 
not greater or lesser, but the nature is one, and if that which 
is not of this one nature is not man, how can there be a lesser 
or a greater God, who is not of that same nature ? 

He who is little is not God, for He is every where called 
great in the Scriptures; Great is the Lord, and greatly to bePs.A8,i, 
praised, says David. This is said of the Son also, for he 
always calls Him Lord; and again, Thou art great, and Ps. 86 
doest wondrous things. Thou art God alone. And again, ^^* 
Great is our Lord, and great is His power ^ and of His great- Ps. 164, 
ness there is no end. 

But this, says Arius, is spoken of the Father, but the Son 
is less^ Thou sayest so, but the Scripture the contrary :' ^/«^er. 
as of the Father, so it speaks of the Son ; for listen to Paul, 
saying, Lj)oking for that blessed hope, and the glorious xit. 2 
appearing of the great God. But can he^ have said ap-j^; 
pearing of the Father ? Nay, that he may the more con- ^^ ,1,« 
vince you, he has added to the appearing of the great God. 
^ E. V. robbery, but St. Chrys. takes it otherwise, and it seems rightly. 

64 Our Lord's riyht implied in ' not seizing.^ 

Phil. Is it then not said of the Father? By no means. For the 
^^' ^"^' sequel suffers it not which says, The appearing of the great 
Middle- God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ. See, the Son is great 
ton on also, llow then speakest thou of small and great? 

Listen to the Prophet too, calling him The Messenger ' of 
Is&.Qfi.O^eat counsel. The Messenger of great counsel, is He not 
great Himself? Tlie mighty God, is He small and not 
great ? What mean then these shameless and bold men when 
they say, that being small He is a God ? I repeat ofttimes 
what they say, that ye may the more avoid them. He being 
a lesser God seized not for Himself to be like the greater 
God ! Tell me now, (but think not that these words are mine,) 
if He were, as they say, lesser, and far inferior to the Father 
in power, how could He possibly seize to Himself equality 
with God ? For an inferior nature could not seize for him- 
self admission into a greater ; for example, a man could not 
seize on being equal to an angel in nature; a horse could not, 
though he wished it, seize on being equal to a man in nature. 
But besides all that, I will say this too. What does Paul 
wish to establish by this example ? You will surely say, to 
lead the Philippians to humility. To what purpose then 
would he have brought forward this example ? For no one 
who would exhort to humility speaks thus ; " Be thou 
humble, and think less of thyself than of thine equals in 
honour, for such an one who is a slave has not risen against 
his master. Do thou imitate him." This, any one would 
say, is not humility, but arrogance". Learn ye what humility 
is, ye who have a devilish pride! What then is humility? 
To be lowly minded. And he is lowly minded who humbles 
himself, not he who is lowly by necessity To explain what I 
say; and do ye attend; he who is lowly minded, when he 
has it in his power to be high minded, is humble, but he who 
is so because he is not able to be high minded, is no longer 
humble. For instance, If a King subjects himself to his own 
iiru^xv officer, he is humble, for he descends from his high estate; 
but if an officer does so, he is not lowly minded ; for how ? 
he has not humbled himself from any high estate. It is not 

' See also Jer. 32, 18. some copies ■" a^oto'ias. He means either that 

of LXX omit the latter part of Is. 9, calling it humility were arrogance, or 

C. probably because it was not under- ' this is not a question of humility bnt 

stood. of presumption.' 

Xo praise /or not claiming uhat in not d>ie. 05 

possible to show " luiinble-inindediiess except it be in our power Hom. 
to do otherwise, for if it is incimibent upon us to be humble ^^' 
even against our will, this is no excellency which comes 
from the spirit or the will, but is from necessity. This virtue 
is called hnnible-ndndedness ", because it is the humbling ''^a»'£"'»- 
of the ramd ^ , ^^^^^^, 

If he who has it not in his power to snatch at another's i"'*'^"' 
goods, continues in the possession of his own ; should we 
praise him, tliink you, for his justice ? I trov/ not, and why? 
The praise of free choice is taken away by the necessity. If 
he, who has it not in his power to usurp and be a king, 
remains a private citizen, should we praise him for his 
quietness ? I trow not. The same rule applies here. For 
praise, O ye senseless ones, is not given for abstaining from 
these things, but for the performance of good deeds; the 
former is free indeed from blame, but partakes not yet of 
praise, the latter is worthy of commendation. Observe ac- 
cordingly that Christ gives praise for this, when He says, 
Come, ye blessed of My FatJier, inherit f/ie kingdom prepared ^^^^^ 
for you from, the foundation of the world. For I was an 35.' 
hiwgred, and ye gave Ale meat; I was thirsty, and ye gave 
Me drink. He did not say, Because ye have not been 
covetous, because ye have not robbed ; these are slight 
things; but because ye saw Me an hungred, and fed Me. 
Who ever praised either his friends or his enemies in this 
sort } No one ever praised even Paul : Why say Paul ? 
no one ever praised even a common man, as thou wouldest 
praise Christ, because he did not take that rule which was 
not his due. To admire for such things as this, is to give 
evidence of much evil. And why ? because with evil men 
this is a matter of praise, as of one that stealeth, if he steal Eph. 
no more. It is otherwise among good men; for a man is^'^^- 
not to be praised because he has not seized on that rule and 
that honour which was not his due. What folly is this? 

Again, (attend, I entreat you, for the reasoning is long,) Who 
would ever exhort to humility from such grounds as this ? 
Examples ought to be much greater than the subject, to 
which we are exhorting, no one will be moved by what is 
foreign to the subject. For instance, when Christ would lead 

" The aorist implies an net of humility. 

GG Example must he from a stronger rase. 

Phil, us to do t'oocl to our enemies, He sets before us a great 

2 5-8 <j / <j 

' example, even that of His Father, For He vuiketh His sun 

45, to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendelh rain on the 
just and on the unjust. When He would lead to endurance 

Matt, of wrong; he sets Himself as an example, Learn of Me, for I 
' ' am meek and lowly in heart. And again, If I your Lord 
and Master do these things, how much more should ye? 
Seest thou how these examples are not distant °, for there is 
no need they should be so distant, for indeed we also do 
these things, especially as in this case the example is not even 
near. And how } If He be a servant, He is inferior, and 
subject to Him that is greater; but this is not lowliness of 
mind. It was requisite to shew the contrary, namely, that 
the greater person subjected himself to the lesser. But since 
he found not this distinction, between greater and lesser I 
mean, in God, he made at least an equality. Now if the 
Son were inferior, this were not a sufficient example to lead 
us to humility. And why .? because it is not humility, for 
the lesser not to rise against the greater, not to snatch at 
rule, and to be obedient unto death. 

Phil. 2, Again, consider what he says after the example. In lowli- 
ness of mind let each esteem other better than themselves. 
He says, esteem, for as ye are one in substance, and in the 
honour which cometh of God, it follows that the matter is 
one of estimation. Now in the case of those who are greater 
and lesser, he would not have said esteem, but honour them 
that are better than yourselves, as he says in another place, 

Heb.i3, Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit your- 
selves. In that instance subjection is the result of the nature 
of the case, in this of our own estimation. In lowliness of 
mind, he says, let each esteem other better than themselves, 
as Clnist also did. 

Thus are their explanations overthrown. It remains 
that I speak of our own after I have first spoken of them 
summarily. When exhorting to lowliness of mind, Paul 
would never have brought forward a lesser one, as obedient 
to a greater. If he were exhorting servants to obey their 

° This sentence is difficult, but it above the lesson ; whereas this passage 

seems to mean that the example of our explained as by Arians would be far 

Lord as Man is less evidently distmit short of its purpose, 
than that given just before, but is still 

One Form, in shnple Beitig, implies one Snbstance. 67 

masters, he might have done so with propriety, but when Hom. 
exhorting the ft'ee to obey the free, to what purpose could he 

bring forward the subjection of a servant to a master? of a 
lesser to a greater ? He says not, " Let the lesser be subject 
to the greater," but ye who are of equal honour with each 
other be ye subject, each esteeming other better than them- 
selves. Why then did he not bring forward the obedience 
of the wife, and say. As the wife obeys her husband, so do 
ye also obey. Now if he did not bring forward that state in 
which thei'e is equality and liberty, since in that the sub- 
jection is but slight, how much less would he have brought 
forward the subjection of a slave ? I said above, that no one 
praises a man for abstaining from evil, nor even mentions 
him at all; no one who desires to praise a man for continence 
would say, he has not committed adultery, but, he has 
abstained from his own wife, for we do not consider absti- 
nence from evil as a matter of praise at all, it would be 

I said that the form of a servant was a true form, and 
nothing less. The form of God therefore is perfect, and no 
less. Why says he not " being made ' in the form of God," ' y"<>- 
hut, being ^ in the form of God? This is the same as the ^i'^^^.. 
saying, I am that I am. Form implies that there is no dif-Ai'^" 
ference so far as it is form. It is not possible that things of 14.' ' 
one substance should have the form of another, as no man has 
the form of an Angel, neither has a beast the form of a man. 
How then should the Son ? 

Now in our own case, since we men are of a compound 
nature, form pertains to the body, but in the case of a simple 
and uncompounded nature it is altogether of the substance. 
But if thou contendest that he speaks not of the Father, 
because the word is used without the article, I say that in 
many places this is meant, though the word be used without 
the article. Why say I, in many places .? for in this very 
place he says, He thought it not robbery to be equal with 
God, using the word without the article, though speaking of 
God the Father. 

1 would add our own explanation, but I fear that I shall 
overwhelm your minds. Meanwhile remember what has 
been said for their refutation; meanwhile let us root out the 


0'8 Our safety in God, Who cants away scorners. 

Phil, thorns, and then will we scatter the good seed after that the 

2 5 8 . 

' thorns have been rooted out, and a little rest has been given 
to the land ; that when rid of all the evil thence contracted, 
it may receive the divine seed with full virtue. 
MoitAL. Let us give thanlis to God for what has been spoken ; let 
us intreat Him to grant us the guarding and safe keeping 
thereof, that both we and ye may rejoice, and the heretics 
may be put to shame. Let us beseech Him to open our 
mouth for what follows, that we may with the same earnest- 
ness lay down what appertains to ourselves. Let us suppli- 
cate Him to vouchsafe us a life worthy of the faith, that we 
may live to His glory, and that His name may not be blas- 
I.«..")2,5. phemed through us. For, woe unto you, it is written, through 
n htI^ whom the name of God is blasphemed. If we, when we 
have a son, (and what is there more our own than a son,) if 
we when we have a son, and ai"e blasphemed through him, 
if we turn away from him, and will not receive him ; how 
much more will God, when He has ungrateful servants who 
blaspheme and insult Him, turn away from them and hate 
them ? And who will take up him whom God hates and 
' e'llai- turns away from, but the devil and his angels^ ? And whom- 
(lons. soever his angels take, what hope of salvation is left for him.? 
John 10 As long as we are in the hand of God, no one is able to 
^*^- pluck us out, for that hand is strong; but when we fall away 
from that hand and that help, then are we lost, then are we 
exposed, ready to be snatched away, to be trodden down of 
Ps.62,3. all, like as a bonding wall, and a tottering fence, for when the 
wall is weak, it is easy to be attacked of all. Think not this 
which I am about to say refers to Jerusalem alone, but to all 
Tsa. 5, men. And what was spoken of Jerusalem ? Now will I 
LXX. ^^'^9 ^^ ^^'y u:ell-belored a song touching His vineyard. My 
' E. V. well -beloved hath a vineyard in a very fruitful hill, and /^ 
''^' made a fence about it, and surrounded it with a dike, and 
planted it with the vine of Sorech, and built a tower in the 
midst of it, and also dug a winepress in it, and I looked 
that it should bri)ig forth grapes, and it brought forth wild 
- Gr. grapes^. And now, O men ofJudah and inhabitants of Jeru- 
thorns. saleni, judge betueen Me and My vineyard. JMiat should have 
been done to My vineyard, that I have not done to it ? Where- 
fore, when I looked that if shonld bring forth grapes, brought 

Satan suffered to waste the unfruitful vineyard. 69 

it forth wild grapes? Now therefore T will tell you what I Hom. 

ivill do to My vineyard: I will take a nay the hedge thereof '— 

and it shall he for a prey, and I will break down the wall thereof, 
and it shall be troddc?i down. And I will leave My vineyard, 
it shall not he pruned or digged, hut thorns shall come up ujjou 
it, as upon a desert land. Iicill also command tl^e clouds, that 
they rai}i no rain upon it. For the vineyard, of the Lord, of 
Hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of.Judah His pleasant 
plant. I looked that it should do judgment, but it did iniquity, 
and a cry instead ofrighteousness. This is spoken also of every 
soul. For when God who loveth man hath done all that is 
needful, and man then bringeth forth thorns instead of grapes, 
He will take away the fence, and break down the v/all, and 
we shall be for a prey. For hear what another prophet 
speaks in his lamentations: IVhy hast thou then broken Vs. 80, 
down her hedges., so that all they which pass by the way do 
pluck her ? The hoar out of the wood doth waste it, and the 
iiild beast of the field^ doiJt devour it. In the former ' a««"«>- 
place He speaks of the Mede and Babylonian, here nought "''^"^* 
is said of them, but the boar, and the solitary beast is the 
devil and all his host. He calls him solitary beast, willing 
to set before us his ferocity and impurity. When the Scrip- 
ture would shew us his rapacity, it saith. As a roaring lion v. i Vet. 
Jie walketh about, seeking whom he may devour: when his^'^' 
poisonous, his deadly, his destructive nature, it calleth him a 
snake, and a scorpion ; Tread, saith He, on serpents andv. Luke 
scorpions, and over all the jjoiver of the enemy : when it would ' ' 
represent his strength as well as his venom, it calleth him a 
dragon ; as when it says, That leviathan ichom thou hast made Ps. 104, 
to play therein. Scripture every uhere calleth him a dragon, p^' ^^ 
and a crooked serpent, and an adder; he is a beast of many 13. 14. 
folds, and varied in his devices, and his strength is great, he 51" 9.' ' 
moves all things, he disturbs all things, he turns all things up^^^'^- 
and down. But fear not, neither be afraid; watch only, and he 2. ' ' 
will be as a sparrow; /'re'fi'r/, saith He,o;i serjjents andscorpnons. 
If we will, He causes him to be trodden down under our feet. 

See now what scorn is it, yea, what misery, to see (5) 
him standing over our heads, who has been given to us to 
tread down. And whence is this? it is of ourselves. If we 
choose, he becomes great ; and if we choose, he becomes 

70 Salnn could not enter into Judas tili permitted. 

Phil, of small power. If wo take liecd to ourselves, and take up 
-^ — ^our stand with Him who is our King, he draws himself in, 
and will be no better than a little child in his warfare against 
us. Whensoever ws stand apart from Him, he puffeth him- 
self up greatly, he uttereth terrible sounds, he grindeth his 
teeth, because he finds us without our greatest help. For he 
will not approach to us, except God permit him ; for if he 
dared not to enter into the herd of swine, except by God's 
permission, how much less into men's souls. But God does 
permit him, either to chasten, or to punish us, or to make us 
more approved, as in the case of Job. Seest thou that he 
came not to him, neither dared to be near him, but trembled 
and quaked .? Why speak I of Job ? When he leaped upon 
Judas, he dared nof to seize on him wholly, and to enter 
into him, until that Christ had severed him from the sacred 
band. He attacked him indeed from without, but he dared not 
enter in, but when he saw him cut off from that holy flock, 
he leaped upon him with more than wolfish vehemence, and 
left him not till he had slain him with a double death. 

These things were written for our admonition. What gain 
have we from knowing that one of the twelve was a traitor } what 
profit? what advantage.? Much. For, when we know whence 
it was that he arrived at this deadly counsel, we shall be on 
our guard from it, that we too suffer not the like. Whence 
came he to this } From the love of money. He was a thief. 
So drunken was he with this love, that he betrayed the Lord 
of the world for thirty pieces of silver. What can be worse 
than this madness.? Him to whom nothing is equivalent, 
isa. 40, nothing is equal, be/ore whom the nations are as nothing. 
Him did he betray for thirty pieces of silver, A grievous 
tyrant indeed is the love of gold, and terrible in putting the 
soul beside itself. A man is not so beside himself through 
drunkenness'' as through love of gold, not so much from mad- 
ness and insanity as from love of gold. 

For tell me, why didst thou betray Him } He called thee, 
when a man unmarked and unknown. He made thee one of 
the twelve. He gave thee a share in His teaching. He pro- 
mised thee ten thousand good things. He caused thee to work 

r B. had not power. Mor. Tr. p. 231. 

1 See on Rom. 7, 11. Horn. xiii. 

Judas' treason bred from the one sin of avarice. 71 

wonders, thou wert sharer of the same table, the same Hom. 

jom'neys, the same company, the same intercom'se, as the — - 

rest. And were not these things sufficient to restrain thee ? 
For what reason didst thou betray Him ? Wliat hadst thou 
to charge Him with, O wicked one? Rather, what good didst 
thou not receive at His hands? He knew thy mind, and 
ceased not to do His part. He often said. One of you shall Matt. 
betray 3Ie. He often marked thee, and yet spared thee, and ' ^ * 
though He knew thee to be such an one, yet cast thee not out 
of the band. He still bore with thee, He still honoured thee, 
and loved thee, as a true disciple, and as one of the twelve, 
and last of all, (oh, for thy vileness!) He took a towel, and 
with His own unsullied hands He washed thy polluted feet, 
and even this did not keep thee back. Thou didst steal the 
things of the poor, and that thou mightest not go on to 
greater sin. He bore this too. But He persuaded thee not. 
Hadst thou been a beast, or a stone, shouldest thou not have 
been changed by these kindnesses towards thee, by these won- 
ders, by this teaching ? Though thou wast thus brutalized, 
yet still He called thee, and by wondrous works. He drew 
thee, that wast more senseless than a stone, to Himself. Yet 
for none of these things didst thou become better. 

Ye wonder perhaps at such folly of the traitor; dread there- 
fore that which wounded him. He became such from 
avarice, from the love of money. Cut out this passion, for 
to these diseases does it give birth ; it makes us impious, and 
causes '' us to be ignorant of God, though we have received 
ten thousand benefits at His hands. Cut it out, I entreat 
you, it is no common disease, it knoweth how to give birth 
to a thousand destructive deaths. We have seen his tragedy'.' ^aV«. 
Let us fear lest we too fall into the same snares. For this 
was it written, that we too should not suffer the same things. 
Hence did all the Evangelists relate it, that they might 
restrain us. Flee then far from it. Covetousness consisteth 
not alone in the love of much money, but in loving money at 
all. It is grievous avarice to desire more than we need. 
Was it talents of gold that persuaded the traitor ? Nay, but 
thirty pieces of silver. He betrayed his Lord for thirty 

' Krx^ufKiuti^ti, which when used diate than ' prepares.' 
without a preposition is more imme- 

72 C/oisl's covimands tonlnidicied hij Maiinuon. 

Phil, ijieces of silver! Do ye not remember what I said before, 

2 5-8. . 

— ^ that covetousness is not shewn in receiving nuicli, but rather 

in receiving little things ? See how great a crime he conj- 
niitted for a little gold, rather not for gold, but for pieces of 

It cannot, it cannot be that an avaricious man should ever 

see the face of Christ! This is one of the things which are 

impossible. It is the root of evils, and if he that possesses 

one evil thing, falls from that glory, where shall he stand 

wlu) bears with him the root, lie who is the slave of money, 

cannot be a true servant of Christ. Christ Himself hath 

Matt. 6, declared that the thing is impossible. Ye cfuuiot, He says, 

serve God and Mammon , and, No man can serve ttro masters, 

for they lay upon us contrary orders. Christ says, " Spare 

the poor;" Mammon says, " Take from them even that they 

have." Christ says, " Empty thyself of what thou hast ;" 

Mammon says, " Take also what they have '." Seest thou 

(C) the opposition, seest thou the strife ? Would ye that I shew 

how a man cannot easily obey both, but must despise one ? 

Nay, does it need proof? How so .'' Do we not see in very 

deed, that Christ is despised, and Mammon honoured ? 

Perceive ye not how that the very words are painful } How ' 

much more then the thing itself? But it does not appear so 

painful in reality, because we are possessed with the disease. 

Now if the soul be but a little cleansed of the disease, as 

long as it remains here, it can judge right; but when it 

departs elsewhere, and is seized by the fever, and is engaged 

in the pleasure of the thing itself, it hath not its perception 

Luke clear, it hath not its tribunal uncorrupt. Christ says, Wlio- 

^'^y'^'^- .soever he he of you iJuil /orsaketli not all that he halh^he 

cannot he Mij discijde; Mannnon says, " Take the bread from 

Is. 58 7. the hungry." Christ says, IVJien thou seest the naked, cover 

Ih.58, 7. him; the other says, " Stri]) the naked." Christ says, Thou 

shaft not hide tJnjself from thine own Jlesh, and those of 

'Seel thine own house'; Mannnon says'-^, " Thou slialt not pity 

8 'an/' t^O'^o ^'^ thine own seed ; though thou seest thy mother or 

Gal. 6, thy father in want, despise them." Why say I fother or 

2 See mother ? " Thine own soul," he says, " destroy it also." 

Mark p^^^ j^g \^ obeyed ! Alas ! that he, who commands us cruel, 

' So Ben. Sav. ' what thou hast not.' ' B. ' And if the word, how.' 

Hard say unja needful for Correction. 73 

and mad, and brutal tliinf^s, is listened to rather than He who Hom. 


bids us gentle and healthful things ! For this is hell ap- 

pointed; for this, fire; for this, that river of fire; for this, the 
worm that dieth not. 

I know that many hear me say these things with pain, and 
indeed it is not without pain I say them. Ikit why need 1 
say these things 1 I could wish the things concerning 
the kingdom to be ever my discourse, of the rest ^ of the ' ^- en- 

I- , n -i 1 <-, • joyment 

waters oi rest, ot the green pastures, as the Scn])ture says. 
He maketli me to lie donni in green pastures, He leadelh me P*- ^3, 
beside the still ttaters, there He maketh me to dwell. 1 
could wish to speak of the place, whence sorrow and wo?<;v?- Is-5ij 
ing slialljlee away. 

I could wish to discourse of the pleasures of being with 
Christ, though they pass all expression and all understand- 
ing. Yet would I speak of these things according to my 
power. But what shall I do? it is not possible to speak 
concerning a kingdom" to one that is diseased and in fever; 
then we must needs speak of health. It is not possible to 
speak of honour to one that is brought to trial, for at that 
time his desire is that he be freed from judgment, and penalty, 
and punishment. If this be not effected, how shall the other 
be } It is for this cause that I am continually speaking of 
these things, that we may the sooner pass over to those 
other. For this cause does God threaten hell, that none may 
fall into hell, that we all may obtain the kingdom ; for this 
cause we too make mention continually of hell, that we may 
thrust you onward towards the kingdom, that when we ha\'e 
softened your minds by fear, we may bring you to act 
worthily of the kingdom. Be not then displeased at the 
heaviness of our words, for the heaviness of these words 
lightens our souls from sin \ Iron is heavy, and the hammer 
is heavy, but it forms vessels fit for use, both of gold and 
silver, and straightens things which arc crooked ; and if it 
were not heavy, it would have no_power to straighten the 
distorted substance. Thus too our heavy speech has power 
to bring the soul into its proper tone. Let us not then flee 
from heaviness of speech, nor the strokes it gives; the stroke 

" He means an earthly kingdom in " Al. ' is the very thing that gives 
the firat instaiico. occasion to onr souls to fly from sins.' 

74 Sin no a vnisl be pained lo save Uitnn from Hell. 

Phil, is iiot given tliat it may break in jjicces or tear the soul, but 

' ' ' to straighten il. We know how we strike, how by the 

grace of God we inflict the stroke, so as not to crush the 

vessel, but to polish it, to render it straight, and meet for the 

Master's use, lo offer it glittering in soundness, and skilfully 

wrought against that Day of the river of fire, to offer it 

having no need of that burning pile. For if we expose not 

ourselves to fire here, we must needs be burned there, it 

1 Cor. cannot be otherwise; For the daii of the Lord is revealed hu 

3 13. . . 

because fit'c- Better is it that ye be burned for a little space by our 

it shall words, than for ever in that flame. That this will indeed be 
he. , 

so, is plain, and I have ofttimes given you reasons'" which 

cannot be gainsaid. We ought truly to be persuaded from the 
Scriptures alone, but forasmuch as some are contentious, we 
have brought forward many arguments from reason. Nothing 
hinders that I now mention them, and what were they ? God 
is just. We all acknowledge this, both Greeks and Jews, 
and Heretics, and Christians. But many sinners have had 
their departure without punishment, many righteous men 
have had their departure after suffering ten thousand grievous 
things. If then God be just, where will He reward their 
good to the one, and their punishment to the other, if there 
be no hell, if there be no resurrection } This reason then do 
ye constantly repeat' to them and to yourselves, and it will 
not suffer you to disbelieve the resurrection, and whoso dis- 
believes not the resurrection will take care to live with all 
heed so as to obtain eternal happiness, which God grant that 
we all do, by the grace and lo^•ingkindness of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, with Whom, &c. 

y See on Roin. 16, 16. Horn. xxxi. ' Ku-niro^m, sing as a charm. 
Moral. Tr. p. 494. 


Phil. ii. 5—11. 

Let this mind be in you which ivas also in Christ Jesus: 
Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to 
be equal with God; but made Himself of no reputation, 
and took upon Him the form of a servant, and was made 
in the likeness of inen: and being found in fashion as a 
man. He humbled Himself, and became obedient unto 
death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore God also 
hath highly exalted Him, and given Him a Name which is 
above every name : that at the Name of Jesus every knee 
should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and 
things under the earth ; and that every tongue shoidd 
confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the 

1 HAVE said all that pertains to the heretics. It is befitting (1) 
that I now speak of what is our own. They say, that the 
words, He thought it not robbery, are of wrongfully seizing \ 
We have proved, that this is altogether vapid and imperti- 
nent, for no man would exhort another to humility on such 
grounds, nor in this sort does he praise God, or even man. 
What is it then, beloved ? Give heed to what I now say. Since 
many men think, that, when they are lowly, they are deprived 
of their proper right, and debased. Paul, to take away this 
fear, and to shew that we must not be affected thus, says 
concerning God, that God, tlie only-begotten Son of the 
Father, Who was in the form of God, Who was no whit 

a Meaning, ' He thought it not a of ' a gain.' Our language does not 
robbery for Himself to commit.* The seem capable of expressing it exactly, 
phrase being always used in the sense 

76 Usurpers dare not lay tlteir r<mk aside. 

Phil, inferior to the Fatlicr, Who was equul to Ilim, ihoiKjlit it 
-■^Lil — 1 7iot robbery to be equal with God. 

Now learn what this ineancth. Whatsoever a man robs, 
and takes contrary to his right, he dares not lay aside, from 
fear lest it perish, and fall from his possession, but he keeps 
hold of it continually. He who possesses a dignity which is 
natural to him, fears not to descend from that dignity, being 
assured that nothing of this sort will happen to him. As 
for example, Absalom usurped the government, and dared 
not afterwards to lay it aside. We will go to another exam- 
ple, but if example cannot present the whole matter to you, 
take it not amiss, for this is the natm*e of examples, they 
leave the greater part for the imagination to reason out. A 
man rebels against his sovereign, and usurps the kingdom : 
he dares not lay aside or conceal the matter, for if he once 
put it away, straightway it is gone. Let us take another 
example; if a man takes any thing violently, he keeps firm 
hold of it continually, for if he lay it down, he straightway 
loses it; and generally speaking they who have ought by 
rapine, are afraid to lay it by, or put it away, or not to keep 
constantly in that state which they have assumed. Not so 
they, who have possessions not procured by rapine, as Man, 
who possesses the dignity of being a reasonable being. But 
here examples fail me, for there is no natural preeminence 
amongst us, for no good thing is naturally our own, since 
^ euym- ^^y .^\ ry^^^ inherent in' the nature of God. What do we 
rai. say then } That the Son of God feared not to descend from 
His right, for he thought not Deity a matter of robbery. He 
was not afraid that aiiy would strip Him of that nature or 
that right, wherefore He laid it'' aside, being confident that 
He should take it up again. He hid it, knowing that He 
was not made inferior by so doing. For this cause, Paul says 
not, " He seized not," but He thought it not robbery, for He 
possessed not that estate by robbery, but it was natural, not 
conferred % it was enduring and safe. AVlierefore He refused 
not to take the form of an inferior ^*. The tyrant fears to lay 

'' The word is neuter, and refers only of giving, 

to ' right,' (aliufix,) some copies omit ^ bva-a-rivrut, a soldier of the ranks, 

' nature.' who attended on an ofticer. Herod, v. 

' SiSoitt!i'«», whieh would imply an at/ ] 11. Xen. Anab. iv. 2. 21. 

Our Lord's ' emplyisig Hiinsc-lf His oicn act. 77 

aside the purjjle robe in war, wliile the king docs it with Hom. 
much safety. Why so ? because he holds his power not as 

a matter of robber}'. He did not refuse to lay it aside, as 
one who had usurped it, but since He had it as His own by 
nature, since it could never be parted from Him, He con- 
cealed it. 

This equality with God He had not by robbery, but as 
His own by nature. Wherefore He emptied Hitnself. Where 
be they who affirm, that He underwent constraint, that He 
was subjected ? Scripture says, He emptied Himself, He 
humbled Himself, and became obedient unto death. How did 
He empty Himself? By taking the form of a servant, being 
made in the likeness of men, and being foimd in fashion as a 
man. It is written, He emptied Himself \n reference to the 
text, each esteeming other better than himself. Since had 
He been subjected, had He not chosen it of His own accord, 
and of His own free will, it would not have been an act of 
humility. For if He knew not that so it must be, He would 
have been imperfect. If, not knowing it. He had waited for 
the time of command, then would He not have known the 
season. But if He both knew that so it must be, and when it 
must be, wherefore should He submit to be subjected.? To 
shew, they say, the superiority of the Father. But this 
shews not the superiority of the Father, but His own infe- 
riority. For is not the name of the Father sufficient to shew 
the priority of the Father ? For beside this, all the Father 
hath is the Son's ; especially as this honour is not capable 
of passing from the Father to the Son, but beside this, all the 
Father hath is common to the Son. 

Here the Marcionites catch hold of the word, and say. See, 
He did not become man, but was made in the likeness of 
man. But how can one be made in the likeness of men ? 
by putting on a shadow? But this is a phantom, not the 
likeness of a man, for the likeness of a man is another man. 
And what wilt thou answer to John, when he says. The Word John i, 
was made flesh? But this same blessed one himself also 
says in another place, in the likeness of sinf id flesh. Rom. 8, 

And being found in. fashion as a wan. See, they say, 
both in fashion, and as a man. To be as a man, and to be 
a man in fashion, is not to be a man indeed. To be a man 

78 Form oj <i scriyinf real Human ihj. 

Phil, in fashion is not to be a man by nature. See with what 
-^— ^^ — ^ingenuousness I lay down what our enemies say, for that is a 
glorious victory, and fully gained, when we do not conceal 
what seem to be their strong points. Such concealment is 
deceit rather than victory. What then do they say ? let me 
repeat their argument. To be a man in fashion is not to be 
a man by nature ; and to be as a man, and in the fashion 
of a man, this is not to be a man. Is then to take the form 
of a servant, not to take the form" of a servant .'' So here is 
' H-<^x*> an inconsistency ^; and M'herefore do you not first of all solve 
this difficulty, for as you think that this conti'adicts us, so do 
we say that the other contradicts you. lie says not, " as the 
form of a servant," nor " in the likeness of the form of a 
servant," nor " in the fashion of the form of a servant," but 
He took ihe form of a servant. AVhat then is this.»^ for there 
is a contradiction. There is no contradiction. God forbid ! 
it is a cold and ridiculous argument of theirs. He took, say 
they, the form of a servant, when He girded Himself with 
a towel, and washed the feet of His disciples. Is this the 
form of a servant } Nay, this is not the form, but the work 
of a servant. It is one thing to take ^ the work of a sen^ant, 
and another to take the form of servant. Why did he not 
say, He did the work of a servant, which were clearer ? For 
no where in Scripture is form put for " work," for the differ- 
ence is great ; the one is the result of nature, the other of 
action. In common speaking too we never use " form" for 
" work." Besides, according to them. He did not even 
perform the work of a servant, neither girded Himself For 
if all was a mere shadow, there was no reality. If He had 
not real hands, how did He wash their feet .'' If He had not 
real loins, how did He gird Himself with a towel? and what 
Johni3,kind of garments did He take.? for Scripture says, He took 
^^" his garments. As then not even the work is found to have 
really taken place, but it was all a deception, so neither did 
He wash the feet of His disciples. For if that incorporeal 
nature was not made manifest, it ^ was not in a body. Who 
then washed the disciples' feet .'' 

» Old Lat. ' nature.' ' opus servi esse.' 

f This seems to be understood, and S or He. The sense is difficult, 
the iiiia.1 to mean ' n thinj?,' Imt Lat. Old Lat. ' For if He was an incor- 

Our Lord ivherein like, wherein luilike to men. 79 

Again, what shall we say to contradict Paul of Samosata ? Hom. 

what did he affirm ? The very same. But it is no emptying of 1- 

Himself, that one of human nature, and a mere man, should 
wash his fellow-servants. For what we said against the 
Arians, we must repeat against these too, for they differ not 
from one another, save by a little space of time ; both the 
one and the other affirm the Son of God to be a creature. 
What then shall we say to them ? If He being a man washed 
man, He emptied not. He humbled not Himself. If He 
being a man seized not on being equal with God, He is not 
deserving of praise. That God should become man, is great, 
unspeakable, inexpressible humility; but what humility is 
there in that one, who was a man, should do the works of men .' 
And where is the work of God ever called ilie form of God ? 
for if He were a mere man, and was called the form of God 
by reason of His works, why do we not say the same of 
Peter, for he wrought greater deeds than Christ Himself? 
Why say you not of Paul, that he had the form of God? 
Why did not Paul give an example of himself, for he 
wrought very many servile works, and refused none. He 
says, For we j^reach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord, 2 Cor. 
and ourselves ijour servants for Jesus'" sake. 

These are absurdities and trifles ! Scripture says, He emptied 
LLimself. How did He empty Himself? tell me. What was 
His emptying ? what His humiliation ? was it because He 
wrought wonders ? But this Paul and Peter did, so that this 
was not peculiar to the Son. What means this which he 
says. Being made in the likeness of men ? He had many 
things belonging to us, and many He had not ; for instance, 
He was not born of wedlock. He did no sin. These things 
had He which no man has. He was not what He seemed 
only, but He was God also; He seemed to be a man, but He 
was not like the mass of men, though He were like them in 
flesh. He means then, that He was not a mere man. Where- 
fore he says, in the likeness of men. For we indeed are soul 
and body, but Fie was God, and soul and body, wherefore 
he says, in the likeness. For lest when you hear that He 
emptied Himself, you should think that some change, and 

poreal being, He was not seen, He was first ' not,' and has ' and was not,' but 
not in a body.' Ben. Lat. omits the without Greek authority. 


80 Union of Xdlnres iritJiont ('hiitujo or Coi)ftisio)i. 

Phil, degeneracy, and loss is lieve ; lie says, whilst lie remained 
~^-^'- wliat lie was, lie took that which He was not, and being 
John i,niade flesh He remained God, in that He was the Word. 

In this then He was like man, and for this cause Paul 
says, and in fashion, not to say that His nature degenerated, 
or that any confusion was here, but He became man in 
fashion''. For when he had said that He took the form of 
a servant, he made bold' to say this also, seeing that the 
first would silence all objectors ; since when he says, In the 
likeness of sinful flesh, he says not that He had not flesh, 
but that that flesh sinned not, but was like to sinful flesh. 
Like in what } in nature, not in sin, therefore was His like a 
sinful soul. As then in the former case he speaks of simi- 
larity, because He was not equal in every thing, as His not 
being born of wedlock. His being without sin. His being not 
a mere man, he well said as a man, for He was not one of 
the many, but as one of the many. The Word who was 
God did not degenerate into man, nor was His substance 
changed, but he appeared as a man ; not to delude us with a 
phantom, but to instruct us in humility. When therefore ho 
says, as a man, this is what he means, since He calls Him a 
1 Tim. Man elsewhere also, when he says, there is one God, and 
' ' one 3Iediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus. 
Thus much against these heretics. I must now speak 
against such as deny that He took a souP; if the form of God 
is " perfect God," then {\\e form of a servant is " a perfect 
servant." Again our argument turns against the Arians. Bei7ig 
in the form of God, it is written, lie thought it not robbery 
to be equal u-ith God. We do not find " He became," " He 
took," concerning His divinity, but He emptied Himself, 
taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of 
men; concerning his humanity we find He took, He became. 
He became the latter. He took the latter. He was the 
former. Let us not then confound nor divide the natures. 
There is one God, there is one Christ, the Son of God ; when 
I say " One," I mean a union, not a confusion, the one Nature 
did not degenerate into the other, but was united with it. 

*i Ben. reads fp(^riiiart as one word. as he bad used so strong an expression 
' i. e. without fear of giving coun- of reality; or as p. 81. 
tenaiu'c to the Docet.'P, or Marcionites, ^ The Apollinarian heresy. 

Our Lord's obedience a token of His Sons/rip. 81 

He humbled Himself, being made obedient unto death, Hom. 

even the death of the cross. See, says one, He became '— 

obedient, not being^equal to Him Whom He obeyed. O 
ye obstinate ones and unwise ! This doth not at all lower 
Him. For we too ofttimes become obedient to our friends, 
yet this makes us not inferior. He became obedient willingly 
as a Son to His Father; He fell not thus into a servile state, 
but by this very act above all others guarded His wondrous 
Sonship, by thus greatly honouring the Father. He honoured 
the Father, not that thou shouldest dishonour Him, but that 
thou shouldest the rather admire Him, and learn from this 
act, that He is a true Son, in honouring His Father more 
than all besides. No one hath thus honoured God. As 
was His height, such was the correspondent humiliation 
which He underwent. As He is greater than all, and no one 
is equal to Him, so in honouring His Father, He surpassed 
all, not by necessity, nor unwillingly. This too is part of 
His excellence, yea, words fail me. Truly it is a great and 
unspeakable thing, that He became a servant; that He under- 
went death, is far greater; but there is something still greater, 
and more strange; what is this? All deaths are not alike; 
His death seemed to be the most ignominious of all, to be 
full of shame, to be accur.sed; for it is written. Cursed /,sDeut. 
every one that hangetJi on a tree. For this cause the JcwSq^^j g* 
eagerly desired to slay Him in this manner, to make Him a 13. 
reproach, that if no one fell away from Him by reason of His 
death, yet they might from the manner of His death. For 
this cause two robbers were crucified with Him, and He in 
the midst, that He might share their ill repute, and that the 
Scripture might be fulfilled, And he tvas numbered with the is. 53, 
transgressors. Yet so much the more doth truth shine forth, * 
so much the more doth it become bright; for when His 
enemies plotted such things against His glory, and it yet 
shines forth, the wonder appeareth still greater. It was not 
by slaying Him simply, but by slaying Him in such sort did 
they think to make Him abominable, to prove Him more 
abominable than all men, but they availed nothing. And 
both the robbers also were such impious ones, (for it 
was afterward that the one repented,) that, even when on 
the cross, they reviled Him ; neither the consciousness of 


82 Christ humbled and exalted as Man. 

Phil, their own sins, nor iheir present punishment, nor their suffer- 

' " ' ■ ing the same things, restrained their madness. Wherefore 

the one spake to the other, and silenced him by saying, 

Luke Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same con- 
' ' demnation ? So great was their wickedness. Yet hence He 
received no hurt to His own glory, wherefore it is written, 
God hath highly exalted Him, and given Him a Name which 
is above every name. When the blessed Paul hath made 
mention of the flesh, he fearlessly speaks of all His humiliation. 
For until he had mentioned that He took the form of a ser- 
vant, and while he was speaking of His Divinity, behold how 
loftily he doth it, (loftily, I say, according to his power; for he 
speaks not according to His worthiness, seeing that he is not 
able.) Being in the form of God, He thought it not robbery 
to be equal with God. But when he had said, that He 
became Man, henceforth he discourseth of His low estate, 
being confident that the mention of His low estate would not 
harm His Divinity, since His flesh admitted this. 

Ver. 9 — 11. Wherefore God also hath highly exalted Him, 
and given Hiiii a Name which is above every name : that at 
the Name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, 
and things in earth, and things under the earth ; and that 
every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the 
glory of God the Father. We well say against the heretics. 
If this is spoken of one who was not incarnate, if of God the 
Word, how did He highly exalt Him ? Was it' as if He gave 
Him something more than He had before? He would then 
have been made imperfect in this point, and would have 
been made perfect for our sakes. For if He had not done 
good deeds to us. He would not have obtained that 
honour ! And hath given Him a Name. See, He had not 
even a name, as they say ! But how, if He received it as His 
due, is He found here" to have received it by grace, and as a 
gift.'* And that a Name which is above every name: and of 
what kind let us see is that Name.'* that at the Name of 
Jesus, saith He, every knee should bow. They (the heretics) 
explain name by glory. This glory then is above all glory, 
and this glory is in short that all worship Him ! But ye hold 
yourselves far off" from the greatness of God, who think that 

1 B. andfor this reason exalt Him, as if. ■" B, adds, here. 

Glory of Christ is the glory of the Father. 83 

ye know God, as He knoweth Himself, and from this it is Hom. 
"^ VII. 

plain, how far off ye are from right thoughts of God. And 
this is plain from hence. Is this ', tell me, glory ? Therefore ' i. e.his 
before men were created, before angels or before arch- ^°^^ '^' 
angels, He was not in glory. If this be the glory which 
is above every glory, (for this is the meaning of above every 
name,) though He were in glory before, yet was He in 
glory inferior to this. It was for this then that He made the 
things that are, that He might be raised to glory, not fi'om 
His own goodness, but because He required glory from us ! 
See ye not their folly ? see ye not their impiety .'' 

Now if they had said this of Him that was incarnate, there 
had been reason, for God the Word" allows that this be said 
of His flesh. It touches not His divine nature, but has to 
do altogether with the dispensation. But if this be explained 
of His divinity, no pardon remains for such impiety. So 
that" when we say God made Man immortal ; though I speak 
of man as a whole ^, I understand what I say. What means 2 «..j) ^,; 
of things in heaven, and things in the earthy and things'*'"'- 
under the earth ? It means the whole world, and angels, 
and archangels, and men, and devils; or that both the just 
and sinners. 

And every tongue, should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, 
to the glory of God the Father. That is, that all should say 
so ; and this is glory to tlie Father. Seest thou how wherever 
the Son is glorified, the Father is also glorified? Thus too 
when the Son is dishonoured, the Father is dishonoured also. 
If this be so with us, where the difference is great between 
fathers and sons, much more in respect of God, where there 
is no difference, doth honour and dishonour p pass on to Him. 
If the world be subjected to the Son, this is glory to the 
Father. And so when we say that He is perfect, want- 
ing nothing, and not inferior to the Father, this is glory to the 
Father. This is a great proof of His power, and goodness, 
and wisdom, that He begat such a Son, no whit inferior, 
neither in goodness nor wisdom. When I say that He is 
wise as the Father, and no whit inferior, this is a proof of 
the great wisdom of the Father ; when I say that He is 

n So B. Edd. The Word of God. P B. insult. 

° SitTt, read perhaps iirvi^, ' as.' 

G 2 

84 Living to God' a (flonj. Satan /ell by pride. 

Phil, powerful as the Father, this is a proof of the Father's 
"^^ — '- power. When I say that lie is good as the Father, 
this is the gi'eatest evidence of His goodness, that He 
begat such (a Son), in no whit less or inferior to Himself. 
When I say that He begat Him not inferior in substance 
but equal, and not of another substance, in this I again 
wonder at God, His power, and goodness, and wisdom, that 
He hath manifested to us Another, of Himself, such as Him- 
self, except in His not being the Father. Thus whatsoever 
great things I say of the Son, ])ass on to the Father. Now if 
this small and light matter (for it is but a light thing to God's 
glory that the world should worship Him) is to the glory of 
God, how much more so are all those other things.? 
Moral. Let US then believe to His glory, let us live to His glory, 
for one is no use without the other ; when we glorify Him 
rightly, but live not rightly, then do we especially insult 
Him, because we are enrolled under Him as a Master and 
Teacher, and yet despise Him, and stand in no dread of His 
fearful judgment seat. It is no wonder that the heathen live 
impurely. This merits not such condemnation. But that 
Christians, who partake in such great mysteries, who enjoy 
so great glory, that they should live thus impurely, this is 
worst of all, and unbearable. For consider ^, He was 
obedient to the uttermost, wherefore He received the honour 
which is on high. He became a servant, wherefore He is 
Lord of all, both of Angels, and of all other. Let us too not 
suppose then that we descend from what is our due, when 
we humble ourselves. For thus in all likelihood may we be 
more highly exalted; then do we especially become admirable. 
For that the lofty man is really low, and that the lowly man 
is exalted, the sentence of Christ sufficiently declares. Let 
us however examine the matter itself. What is it to be 
humbled } Is it not to be blamed, to be accused, and calum- 
niated .? What is it to be exalted ? Is it not to be honoured, 
to be pi-aised, to be glorified } Well. Let us see how the 
matter is. Satan was an angel, he exalted himself. What 
then? was he not humbled beyond all other.? has he not the 
earth as his place .' is he not condenmed and accused by all .? 
Paul was a man, and humbled himself. What then } is he 

p So B. Edd, For tell me. 

St. Paul, David, and oihers, humble, hut exalted. 85 

not admired ? is he not praised ? is he not lauded ? is he not Hom. 

. VII. 
the friend of Christ? Wrought he not greater things than ■ 

Christ? did he not ofttimes command the devil as a captive 

slave ? did he not carry him about as an executioner '^ ? did 

he not hold him up to scorn ? held he not his head bruised 

under his feet ? did he not with much boldness beg of God 

that others too might do the same? Why speak I of this? 

Absalom exalted himself, David humbled himself; which of 

the twain was raised up, which became glorious? For what 

could be a more evident proof of humility than these words 

which that blessed Prophet spoke ot Shimei, Let him curse, 2 Kings 

for the Lord hath hidden him'. The Publican humbled ^^' ^^" 

himself, although his act can hardly be called humility, yet 

it was in a right minded manner he spake those things which 

he said. The Pharisee exalted himself, — ^but if it seems good 

let us dismiss persons, and search into the matter. Let there 

be two men, both rich, and highly honoured, and elevated 

by wisdom and power, and other worldly advantages ; then 

let one of them seek honour from all, let him be angry if he 

receive it not, let him require more than is due and exalt 

himself; let the other despise the whole matter, and bear 

himself unkindly towards no one on this account, and evade 

honour when offered to him. AVhich then is the greater, he 

who receives it not and yet seeks it, or he who despises it 

when given? It is plain that the latter is, and with reason; 

for it is not possible to obtain glory any other way than by 

fleeing from glory, for as long as we pursue it, it flies from 

us, but when we flee from it, it pursues us. If thou wouldest 

be glorious, do not desire glory. If thou wouldest be lofty, 

do not make thyself lofty. And further, all honour him who 

does not grasp at glory, but spurn him who seeks it. For 

the nature of man somehow or other is fond of contention, 

and leans to contrary feeling. Let us therefore despise glory, 

for thus we shall be enabled to become lowly, and still more 

to become exalted. Exalt not thyself, that thou mayest be 

exalted by another; he that is exalted by himself is not 

exalted by others, he who is humbled by himself is not 

1 See on 1 Tim. 1, 20. Hom. v. (2) "■ Edd. here insert, 'And if you 

Tr. p. 44. where he says, that Satan please we will examine the very case 

seems to have been forced to execute itself.' B. omits this, and Sav. has It 

judgment. in brackets. 

86 Conceit and pride icorse than weakness of mind. 

Phil, humbled by others. Haughtiness is a great evil, it is better 
2,9-11 o o 7 

26, 12. 

12, 16. 

to be a fool than haughty; for in the one case, the folly is 
only a perversion of intellect, but in the other case it is still 
worse ; for it is folly joined with madness : the fool is an 
evil to himself; but the haughty man is a plague to others 
too. This misery comes of senselessness. One cannot be 
haughty-minded without being a fool ; and he that is brim- 

' «T- full of folly is haughty \ 

Prov. Listen to the Wise Man, who says, Seest tliou a man wise 
in his own conceit? there is more hope of a fool than of him. 
Seest thou how it was not without reason I said, that the evil 
of which I am speaking is worse than that of folly, for it is 
written. There is more hope of a fool than of him? Where- 

Kom.^ fore, St. Paul too said. Be not wise in your own conceits. 
Tell me what description of bodies do we say are in good 
health, those which are much inflated, and are inwardly full 
of much air and water, or those which are kept low, and 
have their surface such as marks restraint .'' It is manifest 
that we should choose the latter. So too with the soul, that 
which is puffed up has a worse disease than dropsy, whilst 
that which is under restraint is freed from all evil. How 
great then are the good things which lowliness of mind 
bringeth to us! What wouldest thou have'.'' Forbearance.? 
freedom from anger ? love to our fellow men .'' soberness ? 
attentiveness } All these good things spring from lowly- 
mindedness, and their contraries from haughtiness : the haughty 
man must needs be insolent, a brawler, wrathful, bitter, 
sullen, a beast rather than a man. Art thou strong, and 
proud thereat.'* Thou shouldest rather he humble on this 
account. Why art thou proud for a thing of nought ? For 
a lion is bolder than thou, a wild boar is stronger, and thou 
art not even as a fly in comparison with ihem. Robbers too, 
and violaters of tombs, and gladiators, and even thine own 
slaves, and those perchance who are the worst subjects, are 
stronger than thou. Is this then a fit subject for praise ? 
Art thou proud of such a matter ? Bury thyself for shame ! 

But art thou handsome and beautiful .'' This is the boast 
of crows ! Thou art not fairer than the peacock, as regards 
either its colour or its plumage ; the bird beats thee in plumage, 

• B. Have vou not from this? 

Men proud of things in. which brutes excel them. 87 

it far surpasseth thee in its feathers ^ and in its colour. The Hom. 

... . . VII 

swan too is passing fair, and many other birds, with whom if, — ; — '- 

thou art compared thou wilt see that thou art nought. Often 

too worthless boys, and unmarried girls, and harlots, and 

effeminate men have had this boast ; is this then a cause for (6) 

arrogance? But art thou rich? Whence so.? what hast 

thou ? Gold, silver, precious stones ! This is the boast of 

robbers, of man-slayers, of those who work in the mines. 

That which is the labour of criminals becomes to thee a 

boast! But dost thou adorn and deck thyself out .'' Well, we 

may see horses also decked out, and among the Persians 

camels too, and for men, all such as are about the stage. 

Art thou then not ashamed to boast thyself of these things, if 

unreasoning animals, and slaves, and man-slayers, and 

effeminate, and robbers, violaters of tombs, share with thee ? 

Dost thou build splendid palaces } and what of this } Many 

jackdaws dwell in more splendid houses, and have more 

noble retreats. Dost thou not see how many, who were mad 

after money, have built houses in fields and desert places, 

that are retreats for jackdaws ? But art thou proud on 

account of thy voice ? Thou canst by no means sing more 

shrilly than the swan or the nightingale. Is it for thy varied 

knowledge of arts ? But what is wiser than the bee in this; 

what embroiderer, what painter, what geometrician, can 

imitate her works } Is it for the fineness of thy apparel ? 

But here the sjDiders beat thee. Is it for the swiftness of thy 

feet? Again the first prize is with unreasoning animals, the 

hare, and the gazelle, and all the beasts' which are not 

wanting in swiftness of foot. Hast thou travelled much ? 

Not more than the birds ; their transit is more easily made, 

they have no need of provisions for the way, nor beasts of 

burden, for their wings are all-sufficient for them ; this is 

their vessel, this their beast of burden, this their car, this is 

even their wind, in short, all that a man can name. But 

art thou clear sighted ? Not as the gazelle ; not as the 

eagle. Art thou quick of hearing ? the ass is more so. Of 

scent? the hound suffers thee not to surpass him. Art thou 

a good provider ? yet thou art inferior to the ant. Dost thou 

* irtXtirirai is better with a word beasts that are not left behind by the 
after it, read perhaps ttrtitif, ' and the birds for swiftness of foot.' 

88 Good men only really above brule animals. 

Phil, trathcr gold ? Yet not as the Indian ants. Art thou proud 

'- because of thy healtli ? Unreasoning creatures are far better 

than we both in habit of body, and in independence, for they 
Matt. 6 fear no poverty. Behold the fowls of the air, for they sow 
26- not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns. ' And 
surely,' lie means, ' God has not created the irrational 
animals superior to ourselves.' Dost thou mark what want 
of consideration is here ^ Dost thou observe the lack of all 
investigation .'' Dost thou observe the great advantage which 
we derive from an investigation of the points t He, whose 
mind is lifted up above all men, is found to be even lower 
than the irrational creatures. 

But let us have pity upon him, and not follow his example ; 
nor because the limits of our mortal nature are too narrow for 
his conceit of himself, let us proceed to lower him" to the 
level of the beasts that are without reason, but let us lift him 
up from thence, not for his own sake, for he derives no better 
fate, but that we may set forth the loving-kindness of God, 
and the honour which He has vouchsafed us. For there are 
things, 3'es, there are things wherein the irrational animals 
have no participation with us. And of what sort are these } 
Piety, and a life based on virtue. Here thou canst never speak 
of fornicators, nor of effeminate persons, nor of murderers, for 
from them we have been severed. And what then is this which 
is found here .? We know God, His Providence we acknow- 
ledge, and are embued with true philosophy concerning im- 
mortality. Here let" the irrational animals give place. They 
cannot contend with us in these points. We live in self- 
command ''. Here the irrational animals have nothing in 
common with us. For, while coming behind all of them, we 
exercise dominion over them; for herein lies the superiority 
of our dominion, that, while coming behind them, we yet 
bear rule over them : that thou mightest be instructed that the 
cause of these things is, not thyself, but God who made thee, 
and gave thee reason. We set nets and toils for them, we 
drive them in, and they are at our mercy. 

Sobriety of mind, a compliant temper, mildness, contempt 
of money, are prerogatives of our race ; but since thou who art 

" So B. Edd, it. y cutp^cviuf/.tv. The word may be used 

" B. om. ' let." of sobriety, cliastity, or moderation. 

Man\s real excellencies and hopes. 89 

one of those blinded by presumption^ hast none of these, Hom. 
thou doest well in entertaining notions either above the level , 

of mankind, or beneath the very irrational creatures. Forv««^{v«v. 
this is the nature of blind presumption and of audacity; it is 
either unduly elevated, or on the other hand it is equally 
depressed, never observing a proper proportion. We are equal 
to Angels in this respect, that we have a Kingdom pledged 
to us, the choir % unto which Christ is joined. He that is a 
man may be scourged, yet does he not succumb. A man 
laughs at death, is a stranger to fear and trembling, he does 
not covet the larger portion. So that they all who are not 
like this are beneath the irrational animals. For when in the 
things of the body thou wouldest have the advantage, but 
hast no advantage in the things that concern the soul, how 
art thou aught else than inferior to the irrational animals .? 
For bring forward one of the vicious and unthinking, of those 
that are living in excess and to self^. The horse surpasses'^ «»/>■"• 
him in warlike spirit, the boar in strength, the hare in swift- " "^' 
ness, the peacock in grace, the swan in fineness of voice, the 
elephant in size, the eagle in keenness of sight, all birds in 
wealth. Whence then dost thou derive thy title to rule the 
irrational creatures ? from reason .? But thou hast it not ? for 
when thou ceasest to make a due use of it, thou dost on the 
other hand degenerate into something inferior to them; for 
when thou possessing reason art more irrational than they^ 
it had been better hadst thou never from the first become 
capable of exercising reason. For it is not the same thing 
after having received dominion to betray the trust, but to let 
pass the season to receive it. That sovereign, who is below 
the level of his guards, had better never have had on the 
puri:)le. And it is the very self-same thing in this case. 
Knowing then that without virtue we are inferior to the very 
irrational animals, let us exercise ourselves therein, that we 
may become men, 3'ea rather Angels, and that we may enjoy 
the promised blessings, through the grace and lovingkindness 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom, &c. 

* n fiiri X ;^;«g8/a, see Rev. xiv. 4. 


Phil. ii. 12—16. 

Wherefore, my helmed, as ye have always obeyed, not as in 
my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work 
out your own salvation with fear and trembling. For it 
is God which worketh in you both to ivill and to do of His 
good pleasure. Do all things without murmurings and 
disputings: that ye may be blameless and harmless, the 
sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and 
perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the 
world; holding forth the word of life ; that I may rejoice 
in the day of Christ. 

(1) The admonitions, which we give, ought to be accompanied 
with commendations, for thus they become even welcome, 
when we refer those, whom we admonish, to that measure of 
zeal which they have themselves exhibited; as Paul, for 
instance, did here ; and observe with what singular discretion; 
Wherefore, my beloved, he says; he did not say simply ' be 
obedient,' not until he had first commended them in these 
words, as ye have always obeyed; \. e. ' it is not other men, 
but your own selves, whom I bid you take example bj,' and 
why, much more in my absence? ' Ye seemed perhaps at 
that time to be doing every thing out of respect to me, and 
from a principle of shame, but that is no longer so ; if then ye 
make it evident that ye now strive more earnestly, it is also 
made evident that neither then was it done out of considera- 
tion to me, but for God's sake.' Tell me, what wouldest thou? 

Fear of God needful. How to learn it. 91 

' not that ye give heed to me, but that ye work out your own Hom. 
salvation with fear and trembling f for it is impossible for_I£Il 
one, who lives devoid of fear, to set forth any high or com- 
manding example ; and he said not merely with fear., but he 
added, and with trembling, which is an excessive degree of 
fear, as he was desirous to make them take the better heed. 
Such fear had Paul: and therefore he said, I fear lest having ICot.9, 
preached to others, I myself should be a castaway. For if 
without the aid of fear temporal things can never be achieved, 
how much less spiritual matters ; for I desire to know, who 
ever learnt his letters without fear? who ever became a pro- 
ficient in any art, without fear? But if, when the devil does 
not lie in the way, where indolence is the only obstacle, so 
much of fear is necessary merely in order that we may master 
that indolence which is natural to us ; where there is so fierce 
a war, so great hindrances, how can we by any possibility be 
saved without fear? 

And how may this fear be produced? If we but consider 
that God is every where present, that He heareth all things, 
that He seeth all things, not only whatsoever is done and 
said, but also all that is in the heart, and in the depth of the 
soul, for He is a Discerner of lite thoughts and intents ofthefieh. 4, 

' ' 12 

heart, if we so dispose ourselves, we shall not do or say or 
imagine aught that is evil. For, tell me, if thou hadst to 
stand constantly near the person of a ruler, wouldest not 
thou stand there with fear? and how standing in God's 
presence, dost thou laugh and throw thyself back, and not 
conceive fear and dread? Let it never be that thou de- 
spisest His longsuffering; for it is to bring thee to repentance 
that He is longsuffering ; and when thou doest aufjht, 
never allow thyself to do it, without being sensible that God 
is present in all things, for He is present. So then whether 
eating, or preparing to sleep, or giving way to passion, or 
robbing another, or whatever thou art about, consider that 
God is standing by, and thou wilt never be led into laughter, 
never be inflamed with rage. If this be thy thought con- 
tinually, thou wilt continually be in fear and trembling, for- 
asmuch as thou art standing beside the King. The builder, 
though he be experienced, though he be perfectly master of 
his art, yet stands withy<?orr atid trembling, lest he fall down 

92 Fear and encouragemeni from God\s uorkitif/. 

Phil, from the building. Thou too hast believed, thou hast per- 
Zi — I — "formed many good deeds, thou hast mounted high: secure 
thyself, be in fear as thou standest, and keej) a wary eye, lest 
Ej)h. 6, ^]jQy ifv^i] ti,^.nce. For manifold are the spiritual sorts of wicked- 
Ps.2,ii.ness which aim to cast thee down. Serve the Lord with fear ^ 
he says, and rejoice imto Him with tremhlimj. And how is re- 
joicing compatible with tremhlimj? Yet this, be assured, is the 
only rejoicing ; for when we perform some good work, and such 
as beseemeth those who do any thing with tremhling^ then only 
do we rejoice. Work out your own salvation u-ithfear and 
trembling: he says not, ' work,' but icork out, i. e. with much 
earnestness, with much diligence; but as he had said, ivithfear 
and trembling, and had thrown them into anxiety, see how he 
rvelieves their alarm: for what does he say? It is God that 
worketh in you. Fear not because T said, u-ithfear and trem- 
bling. I said it not with this view, that thou shouldest give 
up in despair, that thou shouldest suppose virtue to be 
somewhat difficult to be attained, but that thou mightest be 
led to follow after it, and not spend thyself in vain pursuits; 
if this be the case, God will work all things. Do thou 
be bold; /b;- it is God thai tcorketh in you. If then He 
worketh, it is our part to bring a mind ever resolute, clenched 
and unrelaxed. For it is God that ivorketh in you both to 
tvill and to do. ' If He does Himself work in us to will, how 
dost thou'^ exhort us? for if He works Himself even the will, 
the words, which you speak to us, have no meaning, that ye 
have obeyed; for we have not obeyed; it is without meaning 
that thou sayest, tcHh fear and. trembling ; for the whole is 
of God.' It was not for this that I said to you,yb/- He worketh 
in you both to will and to do, but my object was to relieve 
your anxiety. If thou wilt, in that case He will ' work in thee 
to will.' Be not affrighted, or wearied; both the hearty desire 
and the accomplishmeut are a gilt from Him : lor where we have 
the will, thenceforward He will increase our will. For instance, 
I desire to do some good work: He has wrought the good 
work itself, and by means of it He has wrought also the will. 
Or he says this in the excess of his i)iety, as when he declares 
that our welldoings are gifts of grace, 

» So B. Edd. ' he.' 

Good will given in good tvorks. Salon's arls. 93 

As then, when he calls these gifts, he does not put us out Hom. 
of the pale of free will, but accords this to us, so when he ^^^^' 
says, ' to work in us to will,' he does not deprive us of free ^ ' 
will, but he shews that by actually doing right we greatly 
increase our heartiness in willing. For as doing comes 
of doing, so of not doing conies not doing. Hast thou given 
an alms? Thou art the more incited to give; but hast thou 
refused to give? thou art become so much the more disin- 
clined. Hast thou practised temperance for one day ? Thou 
hast an incitement for the next likewise. Hast thou indulged 
to excess? Thou hast increased the inclination to self-indul- 
gence. '' When the tnan cometh {into the depth of vice), thenvvov. 
cometh also contempt. As, then, when a man decends into ^^' ^* 
the depth of iniquity, he turns a despiser; so whosoever enters 
the depth of godliness, quickens his exertions. For as the 
one runs riot in despair, so the second, under a sense of the 
multitude of good things, exerts himself the more, fearing lest 
he should lose the whole. According to His good pleasure, 
he says, that is, ' for love's sake,' for the sake of pleasing 
Him; to the end that we may do that which is acceptable to 
Him; that the things may be done according to His will. 
Here he shews, and makes it a ground of confidence, that He 
is sure to vt^ork in us, for it is His will that we live as He 
desires we should, and if He desires it, He Himself both 
worketh in us to this end", and will certainly accomplish it; 
for it is His will that we live aright. Seest thou, how he 
does not deprive us of free will ? 

Do all things without murmurings and disputings. The 
devil, when he finds that he has no ])ower to withdraw us 
from doing right, goes about "^ to spoil our reward by other 
means. For he has taken occasion to insinuate pride or 
vain-glory, or if not this, then murmuring, or, if none of these, 
misgivings. Now then see how Paul sweeps away all these. 
He said on the subject of humility all that he did say, to 
overthrow pride ; he spoke of vain-glory to pull down 
vanity ; and elsewhere too he says, not as in my presence 

b These words are added by LXX, hi^yu^ is difficult. Old Lat. seems to 

understanding ' cometh,' as ' cometh have used Iwas'yu, making the sense, 

far.' ' and thus far Himself instructs us.' 

"■ This clause, wjof §i raur* a.hrl( d So Ben. and B. Sav. t. ' wishes.' 

94 St. Paul only threatens in strong cases. 

Phil, only, but here he speaks of murmuring and disputing. But 
-'- — '- — .' why, I want to know, when in the case of the Corinthians he 
was engaged in uprooting this evil tendency, did he remind 
them of the Israelites, but here has said nothing of the sort, 
but simply charged them ? Because in that case the mischief 
was already done, i'or which reason there was need of a more 
severe stroke and a sharper rebuke ; but here he is giving ad- 
monitions to prevent its being done. Severe measures then 
were not called for in order to secure those that had not yet 
been guilty; as in leading them to humility he did not subjoin 
Lukeie, the instance in the Gospel, wherein the proud were punished, 
j^P^ ' but laid the charge as from God's lips; and he addresses 
them as free, as children of pure birth, not as servants ; 
for in the practice of virtue a rightminded and generous 
person is influenced by those who have done well, but one 
of bad principles is not led by these, but by the example of 
such as receive punishment ; the one by the consideration of 
honour, the other of chastisement. Wherefore also writing 
to the Hebrews, he said, bringing forward the example of 
Heb.l2, Esau, Who for one morsel of meat sold his birthright ; and, again, if any man draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure 
^^- in him. And among the Corinthians were many who had 
2 Cor. been guilty of fornication. Therefore he said, And lest when 
I come again my God will humble me among you, and that 
I shall bewail many that have sinned already, and have not 
repented of the uticleanness, and fornication, and lascivious- 
ness which they have committed. That ye may be blameless 
and harmless ; i. e. irreproachable, unsullied ; for murmuring 
occasions no slight stain. And what means without dis- 
puting? 'Is it good, or not good .f" Do not question, he 
says, though it be trouble, or labour, or any thing else what- 
ever. He did not say, ' that ye be not punished,' notwith- 
standing that punishment is reserved for the thing; and this 
he made evident in the Epistle to the Corinthians ; but here 
he said nothing of the sort ; but he says, That ye may be 
blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke^ in 
the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye 
shine like lights in the world, holding forth the word of life, 
that I may rejoice in the day of Christ. Observest thou 
that he is instructing these not to murmur .? So that murmur- 

Sin of murmuring. Trials of Job. J^5 

ing is left for unprincipled and graceless slaves ; for tell me, Hom. 
what manner of son is that, who murmurs at the very time 
that he is employed in the affairs of his father, and is working 
for his own benefit ? Consider, he says, that you are labour- 
ing for yourself, that it is for yourself that you are laying up ; 
it is for those to murmur, when others profit by their labours, 
others reap the fruit, while they bear the burthen ; but he that 
is gathering for himself, why should he murmur ? Because 
his wealth does not increase ? But this is not the case. Why 
does he murmur who acts of free-will, and not by constraint ? 
It is better to do nothing than to do it with murmuring, for 
even the very thing itself is spoilt ; and do you not remark 
that in our own families we are continually saying this ; ' it 
were better for these things never to be done, than to have 
them done with murmuring ?' and we had often rather be 
deprived of the services some one owes us, than submit to 
the inconvenience of his murmuring. For murmuring is 
intolerable, most intolerable; it borders upon blasphemy. 
Otherwise why had those men to pay a penalty so severe ? 
It is aproof of ingratitude; the mui'murer is ungrateful to God, 
but whoso is ungrateful to God does thereby become a 
blasphemer. Now there were at that time, if ever, uninter- 
rupted troubles, and dangers without cessation : there was no 
pause, no remission : innumerable were the horrors, which 
pressed upon them from all quarter's, but now we have pro- 
found peace, a perfect calm. 

Wherefore then murmur? Because thou art poor? Yet (3) 
think of Job. Or because sickness is thy lot ? What then if, 
with the consciousness of as many excellencies and as high 
attainments as that holy man, thou hadst been so afflicted ? 
Again reflect on him, how that for a long time he never 
ceased to breed worms, sitting upon a dunghill an*d scraping 
his sores; for the account says, that {after a long time had joh 2,9. 
passed,) then said his icife unto him, Hoiv long wilt thou ^^^^ 
persist, saying. Yet a little ivhile I hide in expectation? But 
your child is dead ? What then if thou hadst lost all thy 
children, and that by an evil fate, as he did ? For ye know, 
ye know well, that it is no slight alleviation to take our place 
beside the sick man, to press mouth to mouth, to close the 
eyes, to stroke the beard, to hear the last accents ; but that 

96 Job's patience under trouble and reproach. 

Phii-. just man was vouchsafed none of these consolations, they all 
"^^-^ — ^ being overwlu'hned at once. And why do I say this? Iladst 
thou, thine own self", been bidden to slay and offer up thine 
own son, and to sec the body consumed, like that l;)lessed 
Patriarch, what wouldest thou have done ? What then 
must lie have felt whilst he was erecting the altar, laying 
on the wood, binding his child ? But there are some who 
revile thee ? What then would have been thy feelings, had 
thy friends, come to administer consolation to thee, spoken 
like Job's ? For, as it is, innumerable are our sins, and we 
deserve to be reproached ; but in that case he who was 
most true, most just, most godly, who ke])t himself from 
every evil deed, heard the contrary of those laid to his 
charge by his friends. What then, tell me, if thou hadst 
Job2,9. heard thy wife exclaiming in accents of reproach; / am a 
■ vagabond and a servant, wandering from place to place, and 
from house to house, waiting until the sun goes down, that 
I may rest from the ivoes that encompass me. Why dost 
thou speak so, O foolish woman ? for is thine husband to 
blame for these things } Nay, not he, but the devil. Speak 
a word against God, she says, and die; — and if thereupon the 
stricken man had cursed and died, how wouldest thou be the 
better? — No disease you can name is worse than that of his, 
though you name ten thousand. It was so grievous, that he 
could no longer be in the house and under cover; such, that 
all men gave him up ; for if he had not been irrecoverably 
gone, he would never have taken his seat without the city, a 
more pitiable object than those afflicted with leprosy; for 
these are both admitted into houses, and they do herd 
together ; but he passing the night in the open air, naked 
upon a dunghill, could not bear a garment upon his body. 
How so } Perhaps it would only have added pain to the 
Job 7,5. pangs which he endured. For / melt the clods of the 
LXX. QQyif^^ jip says, xvhile I scrape off my sore". His flesh bred 
boils and worms in him, and that continually. Seest thou how 
each one of us sickens at the hearing of these things ? but if 
they are intolerable to hear, is the sight of them more tole- 
rable? and if the sight of them is intolerable, how much more 
intolerable to undergo them ? And yet that saint did undergo 

" Eng. Vers. " My flesh is clothed with worms and clods of the earth." 

Job had less to support his patience titan ice have. 97 

them, and not for two or three days, but for a long while, Hom. 
and he sinned not even with his lips. What disease can you — — '~ 
describe to me like tliis, so exquisitely painful ? for was not 
this worse than blindness? The things which my soul refusecP^^^^T- 
to touch, he says, are as my sorroivful meat, and not only 
this, but that which affords cessation to others, night and 
sleep, brought no alleviation to him, nay, were worse than 
any torture. Hear his words; Though thou scarest me tvith "^"^ '^' 
dreams, and terrijiest me through visions. If it be morning, 
I say. When will it be evening? and though suffering this, he 
murmured not. Nor was this all his woe ; but bad repute in 
the eyes of the world was added; for they forthwith con- 
cluded him to be guilty of endless crimes, judging from all 
that he suffered. And accordingly this is the consideration, 
which his friends urged upon him; Know therefore that God John, 
exactetli less of thee than thine iniquities deserve. Wlierefore 
he himself said, But now they that are younger than I have Job so, 
me in derision^ whose fathers I would have disdained to set 
with the dogs of my flock. And much worse was this than 
death ! Yet though assaulted on all sides by a flood like this, 
when there raged around him a fearful storm, clouds, rain, 
lightnings, whirling winds and waterspouts, he remained him- 
self unmoved, seated as it were in the midst of this surge, 
thus awful and overwhelming, as in a perfect calm, and no 
murmur escaped him; and this before the gift of grace, 
before that aught was declared concerning a resurrection, 
before aught concerning hell and punishment and vengeance. 
Yet we, who hear both Prophets and Apostles and Evange- 
lists speaking to us, and have innumerable examples set 
before us, and have been taught the tidings of a Resurrection, 
yet harbour discontent, thougli no man can say that such a 
fate as this has been his own. For even if he has lost money, 
yet not all that great number of sons and daughters, or if he 
has, perchance it was that he had sinned ; but for him, he 
lost them suddenly, in the midst of his sacrifices, in the 
midst of the service which he was rendering to God. And 
if any man has at one blow lost property to the same amount, 
which can never be, yet he has not had the further affliction 
of a sore all over his body, he has not scraped the humours 
that covered him ; or if this likewise has been his fate, yet he 


})8 Virtue amidst coniradiction like stars in the viffht. 

Phil, has not had men to upbraid and reproach him, which is 

"- — '—'- above all things calculated to wound the feelings, more than 

the calamities we suffer. For if when we have persons to 

cheer and console us in our misfortunes, and to hold out to 

us fair })rospects, we yet despond, consider what it was to 

Ps. 69, have men upbraiding him. If the words, / looked for some 

20 . • ' 

to have pity, hut there teas no man, and for comforters, hut 
T found none; describe intolerable misery, how great an 

Job 16, aggravation to find revilcrs instead of comforters! Miserable 

^' comforters are ye all, he says. 

(4 ) If we did but revolve these subjects continually in our minds, 
if we well weighed them, no ills of this present time could 
ever have force to disturb our peace, when we turned our 
eyes to that wrestler, that soul of adamant, that spirit impene- 
trable as brass. For as though he had borne about him a 
body of brass or stone, he met all events with a noble aud 
constant spirit. Taking these things to' heart, let us do 
every thing tvithout murmuring and disputing. Is it some 
good work that thou hast before thee, and dost thou murmur? 
wherefore ? art thou then forced ? for that there are many 
about you who force you to murmur, I know well, says he. 
This he intimated by saying, in lite midst of a crooked and 
perverse generation ; but it is this that deserves admiration, 
that we admit no such feeling when under galling provocation. 
For the stars too give light in the night, they shine in the 
dark, and receive no blemish to their own beauty : yea they 
even shine the brighter, but when light returns, they no 
longer shine so. Thus thou too dost appear with the greater 
lustre, whilst thou boldest straight in the midst of the crooked. 
This it is which deserves our admiration, the being blameless, 
for that they might not urge this plea^, he himself set it down 
by anticipation. What means holding fast the icord of life? 
i. e. ' being destined to live, being of those that ai'e gain- 

I ^^5 ' ing salvation'. Observe how immediately he subjoins the 

Mcd,. rewards, which are in reserve. Lights, he says, retain the 
princi])le ^ of light ; so do ye the principle of life. What 
means the word of life? Having the seed of life*', i. e. having 
pledges of life, holding life itself, i. e. ' having in yourselves 
the seed of life,' this is what he calls the word of life. Con- 

^ viz. that they were forced. 8 B. om. ' havinij' &c. 

»SV. Paul speaks of his death as a drink-offering. 99 

sequently the rest are all dead, for by these words he signi- Hom. 
fied as much ; for otherwise those others likewise would have 

held the word of life. That I may rejoice^, he says ; what is ' or boast 
this ? I too participate in your good deeds, he says. So great 
is your virtue, as not only to save yourselves, but to render 
me illustrious. Strange kind of ' boasting,' thou blessed 
Paul ! Thou art scourged, driven about, reviled for our sakes : 
therefore he adds, in the day of Christ, that I have not run, 
he says, in vain, no Iraboiired in vain, but I always rejoice, 
he means, that I have not run in vain. 

Yea, and if I be offered; he said not, ' and if T die even,' 
nor did he when writing to Timothy, for there too he has 
made use of the same expression. For I am now ready to 2 Tim. 
be offered. He is both consoling them about his own death, ' 
and instructing them to bear death gladly for Christ's sake. 
I am become, he says, as it were a libation and a sacrifice. 

blessed soul ! His bringing them to God he calls a sacrifice, 
which teaches us that it is much better to present a soul than 
to present oxen; ' if now, then, over and above this offering,' 
he says, 'I add myselflikewise, as a drink-offering, I have joy in 
my death.' For this he implies, when he says, Yea, and if 

1 be offered upon the sacrifice and service of your faith, I 
joy and rejoice with you all ; for the same cause do ye also 
Joy and rejoice with me. Why dost thou rejoice with them ? 

Seest thou how he shews that it is their duty to rejoice? On 
the one hand then, he says, I rejoice in being made an offer- 
ing; on the other, I rejoice with you, in having presented a 
sacrifice ; for the same cause also do ye joy and rejoice with 
me, that I am offered up; Rejoice uith me, he says,' who do 
myself rejoice at my death.' So that the death of the just is 
no subject for tears, but for joy. If they rejoice, we should 
rejoice with them. For it is misplaced for us to weep, while 
they rejoice. ' But,' it is urged, ' we long for our wonted inter- 
course.' This is a mere pretext and excuse ; and that it is 
so, mark what he bids the Philippians; Rejoice uith me, and 
joy. And dost thou miss thy wonted intercourse ? If thou wert 
thyself destined to remain here, there would be reason in 
what thou sayest; but if after a brief space thou wilt overtake 
him, who has departed, what is that intercourse which thou 
dost seek } for it is only when he is for ever severed from him 

H 2 

100 Death in general a cause for rejoicing. 

Phil, that a man misses the society of another, but if he will go 

2 12-16 J ' o 

- — ^ — '- the sanje way that thou wilt go, what is the intercourse which 
thou longest for ? Why do we not bewail all that arc upon 
foreign travel ? Do we not cease, after shedding a few tears, 
the first or the second day once over ? If thou longest for 
thy wonted intercourse with him, weep so far as may suffice 
to evidence natural feeling: but after that, rejoice, like Paul, 
when he declares, 'it is no evil that I suffer, but I even 
rejoice in going to Christ, and do ye rejoice.' Rejoice with 
me, he says. Therefore let us too rejoice when we see a 
good man dying, and yet more even when any of the despe- 
rately wicked ; for the first is going to receive the reward of 
his labours, but the other has abated somewhat from the score 
of his sins'*. But it is said, perhaps he might have altered, 
had he lived. Yet God would never have taken him away, 
if there had been really a prospect of an alteration. For 
why should not He who orders all events for our salva- 
tion, allow him the opportunity, who gave promise of altering.'' 
If He leaves those, who never alter, much more those that 
do. Let then the sharpness of our sorrow be every where cut 
xMu> away', let the voice of lamentation^ cease. Let us thank God 
'^KCTtrti under all events : let us do all things without murmuring ; let 
us be cheerful, and let us become pleasing to Him in all 
things, that we attain the good things to come, by the grace 
and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom, &c. 

'' Wixa-^i. See on Stat. Horn. v. (4.) while there is life there is hope. Still 

Tr. p. 103. note s. Here however he a more thorough feeling of God's mercy, 

rather means sins that might have been and of our own ignorance, would make 

committed. He certainly rather strains us better understand the general use of 

the principle of trying to view things thanksgiving in our funeral service, 
as they are, seeing that, to us at least. 


Phil. ii. 19, 20, 21. 

But I trust in the Lord Jesus to send Timotheus shortly unto 
you, that I also may be of good comfort, ivhen I know 
your state. For I have no man likeminded, who will 
naturally care for your state. For all seek their own, not 
the things which are Jesus Christ's. 

He had said, that the things which have happened untovhw.i, 
me have fallen out rather unto the furtherance of the Gosjjel; ^^' ' 
so that my bonds in Christ are manifest in all the jialace. 
Again, Yea., and if I be offered upon the sacrifice and service Phil. 2, 
of your faith, I joy, and rejoice with you all. By these ' " 
words he strengthened them. Perchance they might suspect 
that his former words wt^re spoken just to comfort them. 
What then does he? how does he fi-ee them from this sus- 
picion ? By saying, / will send Timothy shortly unto you, 
for they desired to hear all things that concerned him. And 
wherefore said he not, " that ye may know my state," but, 
" that I may know yours .'"' Because Epaphroditus would 
have reported his state before the arrival of Timothy. Where- 
fore further on he says, Yet I supposed it necessary to send^^^-'^y 
to you Epa2)hroditus, my brother. But he means, I wish to 
learn of your affairs, for it was likely that he had remained long 
time with Paul through his bodily weakness. So that it is 
suitably he says, I wish to knoio your state. See how he 
refers every thing to Christ, even the mission of Timothy, 

102 St. PauVs care io know about the Pftilippians. 

Phil, saying, / tncst in the Lord Jesus, that is, I have good hope 

!i .'God will grant me this, that I too may be of good courage, 

when I know your state. As I refreshed you when ye heard 
the very things of nie which ye had prayed for, that the 
Gospel had advanced, that its enemies were put to shame, 
that the means by which they thought to injure, rather made 
me rejoice ; thus too do I wish to learn of your affairs, that 
I may be of good courage when I know your state. Here he 
shews that they ought to rejoice for his bonds, and to be con- 
formed to them, for they begat in him great pleasure, for the 
words, that I too may he of good coinfort, imply that ye be 
so too. 

Oh, what longing had he toward Macedonia! he testifies 
1 Thess. the same to the Thessalonians, when he says. But we, brethren, 
^lfr<>p'(tct-^^^^^9 taken^ from you for a short time, SfC. Here he says, 
uffSUris I trust to send Timothy that I may know your state, which 
is a proof of excessive care: for when he could not himself 
be with them, he sent his discij^les, as he could not endure to 
remain, even for a little time, in ignorance of their state. For 
he did not learn all things by revelation of the Spirit, and for 
this we can see some reason; for if the disciples had believed 
that it were so, they would have lost all sense of shame % but 
now from expectation of concealment, they were more easily 
corrected. In a high degree did he call their attention by 
saying, that I too may he of good comfort, and rendered them 
more zealous, so that, when Timothy came he might not find 
any other state of things, and report it to him. He seems to 
have acted in like sort in his own person, when he delayed 
his coming to the Corinthians, that they might repent; where- 
2Cor. i,fore he wrote, to spare you I came not as yet to Corinth; for 
his love was manifested not simply in reporting his own state, 
but in his desire to learn of theirs, for this is the part of a 
soul which has a care of others, which takes thought for 
them, which is always wrestling in spirit for them. 

At the same time too, he lionours them by sending 
Timothy. ' What sayest thou.? dost thou send Timothy? and 
wherefore?' Because I have no one likeminded; that is, 

» He means, that if they thought he provement, in the hope of standing well 
knew their exact condition hy revela> in his eyes. Such motives are of course 
tion, they would lose a motive for im- still apart of our moral education. 

Timothy likeminded with hii/i. His diisinterestedness. 103 

none of those whose care is like mine, none who will natu- Hom. 
rally ^ care for you. Had he then none likeminded of those • 
who were with them? Not one; and what means this? None '""'''"* 
who has yearnings and takes thought for you as I do. No 
one will lightly choose, he means, to make so long a journey 
for this purpose. Timothy is the one with me who loves 
you *". For I might have sent others, but there was none like 
him. This then is that likemindedness, to love the disciples 
as the master loves them. Wlto, says he, will naturally'^ care^yvv<r!wi 
yor you, ihoit is, as a father, /or all seek their own, not ^AePhil. 2, 
things ichich are Jesus ChrisCs, their own comfort, their own^^' 
safety. This too he writes to Timothy. But why doth he 
lament such things as these .^ To teach us his hearers not 
to fall in like sort, to teach his hearers not to seek for remis- 
sion from toil, for he who seeks remission from toil, seeks not 
the things that are Christ's, but his own. We ought to be 
prepared against every toil^ against every distress. 

Ver. 22. Ye know the proof of him, that as a son with the 
father, he hath served with me in the Gospel. 

And that I speak not at random, ye yourselves, he says, 
know, that as a son with the father, he hath served with me 
in the Gospel. He presents then Timothy to them, and with 
reason, that he might enjoy much honour from them. This 
too he does when he writes to the Corinthians, and he says, 1 Cor. 
Let no man therefore despnse him, for he ivorketh the work ^^' ^*^' 
of the Lord as L also do. This he said not as caring for 
him, but for those who receive him, that they might receive 
a great reward. 

Ver. 23. Him then, he says, / hop)e to send presently, so 
soon as I shall see how it will go with me, that is, when I 
see whore I stand, and what end my affairs will have. 

Ver. 24. But I trust in the Lord that I also myself shall 
come shortly. 

I am not therefore sending him, as though I myself would 
not come, but that I may be of good courage when I know 
your state, that even in the mean time I may not be ignorant 
of it. Bat I trust in the T^ord, says he, that is, God willing. , , 
See how he depends in all on God, and speaks nothing of his 
own mind. 

•' Or, ' the one who loves you with me,' i. e. ' as I.' 

104 Epaphroditus h is fellow-soldier . His sickness. 

Phil. Ver. 25. Yet I supposed it necessary to send to you 
— ■ — - Epaphrodilus, my brother, and companion in labour, and 

And him too he sends with the same praises as Timothy, 
for he commends him on these two points; first, in that he 
loved them, when he says, who will naturally care for you; 
and secondly, in that he had approved himself in the Gospel. 
And for the same reason, and in the same terms, he praises 
this man also: and how? By calling him a brother, and a 
fellow worker, and not stopping at this ]ioint, but adding 
a\sQ, felloic-soldier, he shewed how he shared in his dangers, 
and testifies of him the same things which he testifies of 
himself, for felloiv-soldier, is more than fellow-worker, for 
J ^'iXtTi perchance some might give aid in quiet ' matters, yet not so 
in wars and dangers, but in saying fellow -soldier, he shewed 
this too. 

Ver. Si5. To send to you your messenger, and him that 
ministered to my wants; that is, I give you your own ", since 
I send to you him that is your own, or, perhaps, that is your 
Teacher"^. Again he adds many things concerning his love, 
in saying, 

Ver. 26, 27. For he longed after you all, and was full of 
heaviness, because that ye had heard that he was sick. For 
indeed he teas sick nigh unto death : but God had mercy on 
Jiim, and not on liim only, but on me also, lest I should have 
sorrow upon sorrow. 

Here he aims at a farther point, making it"^ manifest, that 
Epaphroditus too was well aware, how he was beloved of 
them. And this is no light thing toward drawing us on to 
love. How is it shewn } He was sick, he says, and ye 
grieved. He hath recovered from sickness, and freed you 
from that grief, which ye had by reason of his sickness. Yet 
not even so was he himself freed from his sorrow, but was 
pained, in that on his recovery from health he saw you not '. 
Here too he gives another reason to excuse himself for 

" So Ben. B. and Sav. mar. but or ' deputies.' 
Sav. ' our own.' ^ B. has only ' Here he makes it.' 

d Referring to the word translated ^ Sav. mar. ' He was sick, he says, 

' Messenger,' which is ' Apostle,' and and grieved that on his recovery he did 

may mean ' Bishop,' as Theodoret not see you, and free you from the 

clearly takes it here. In 2 Cor. 8, 23. grief ye had at his sickness.' 
St. Chrys. understands it ' messengers' 

Recover If from sicknenH how a Mercy. 105 

sending so late to them, not from any remissness, he says, Hom. 
but I kept Timothy with me, because I had no one else, (as 

he had written, / have no one likeminded,) and Epaphroditus 
through his sickness. He then shews that this was a long 
sickness, and had consumed much time, by adding, for 
he was sick nigh unto death. You see how anxious Paul 
is to cut off from his disciples all occasion of slighting or 
contempt, and eveiy suspicion that he came not because 
he despised them. For nothing has such power to draw a 
disciple toward one, as the persuasion that his superior 
cares for him, and that he is full of heaviness on his 
account, for this is the part of exceeding love. Ye have 
heard, he says, tJtat lie was sick, for he was sick nigh unto 
death. And that these words are no excuse, hear what 
follows. But God had mercy on him. What sayest thou, O 
heretic ? Here it is written, that God's mercy retained and 
brought back again him who was on the point of departure. 
And yet if the world is evil, it is no mercy to leave a man in 
the evil. Our answer to the heretic is easy, but what shall 
we say to the Christian ? for he ^ perchance will question, 
and say, if to depart and to he icith Christ is far better, how 
saith he that he hath obtained mercy? I would rather ask 
why the same Apostle says, that to abide in the Jiesh is 
more needful for you? For as this was needful for him, so 
too for this man, who would hereafter depart to God with 
more exceeding riches, and greater boldness. Hereafter 
that would take place, even if it did not now, but the win- 
ning souls is at an end for those who have once departed 
thither. In many places too, Paul speaks according to 
the common habits of his hearers, and not every where in 
accordance with his own heavenly wisdom : for he had to 
speak to men of the world who stiil feared death. Then he 
shews how he esteemed Epaphroditus, and thence he gets 
for him respect, by saying, that his preservation was so 
useful to himself, that the mercy which had been shewn to 
Epaphroditus reached him also. Moreover, without this the 
present life is a good ; were it not so, why does Paul rank 
with punishment untimely deaths? as when he says, ForiQov. 
this cause many are iveak and sickly among you, and ^' * 
s See B. Sav. ' the same.' 

106 St. Paurs sorrow. Dependence on God. Honour due to Saints. 

Phil, niaiiy sleep: I'ov the future life is not (merely) better than an 
— - — '- evil state, since (then) it were not good, but better than a 
good state. 

Lest I should have, he says, sorroiv upon sorrow; soitow 
from his death in addition to that which sprung from his sick- 
ness. By this he shews how much he prized Kpaphroditus. 

Ver. 28. / sent him therefore the more carefully. What 
means more carefully? It is, without procrastination, without 
delay, with much speed, having bidden him lay all aside, 
and to go to you, that he might free you from your heavi- 
ness; for we rejoice not on hearing of the health of those we 
love, so much as when we see them, and chiefly so when 
this happens contrary to hope, as it then was in the case of 

/ sent him therefore the more carefully, thai uhen ye see 
him, ye may rejoice, and that I may be the less sorrowful. 
How less sorronful ? Because if ye rejoice, I too rejoice, 
and he too joys at a pleasure of such sort, and 1 shall be less 
sorroiqful. He said not sorrowless, but less sorrowful, to 
shew that his soul never was free from sorrow : for he who 
2 Cor. said, Who is weak, and I am not tveak ? loho is offended, 
11, 29. ^^^^ J })iiYYi jiQi '^ when could such an one be free from sorrow .'' 
As if he had said, this despondency I now cast off'. 

Ver. 29. Receive him therefore in the Lord ivith all glad- 

In the Lord; he either means spiritually and with much 
zeal, or rather as from the Lord, that is, as come with God's 
will''. Receive him in a manner worthy of saints, and as 
saints should be received, as he says, with all joy. 
(3) All this he does for their sakes, not for that of his 

messenger, for greater gain has the doer than the receiver of 
a good deed. And such hold in reputation, that is, receive 
him in a manner worthy of saints. 

Ver. 30. Because for the work of Christ he was niyh unto 
death, not reyarding his life, to supply your lack of service 
towards me. 

This man had been publicly sent by the city of the 
Philippians, to minister to Paul, or percliance he had come' 

h So Vt. Sav. ' Or rather, in the came with the contribution, or was 
7.m/, meanH, God willinp.' there to minister, and only transmitted 

' The doubt seems to be whether he it. 

Danger of aiding St. Paul. Death for Saints is Martyrdom. 107 

to bring him some contribution, for toward the end of the Hom, 
Epistle he shews that he brought him money, when he says, — ^-^— 
Having received of Epaphrodltus the things which were sent Phil. 4, 
fro7Ji you. ^^' 

It is probable then, that on his arrival at the city of Rome, 
he found Paul in such great and urgent peril, that those who 
were accustomed to resort to him were unable safely to do 
so, but were themselves in peril by their very attendance, 
which is wont to happen chiefly in very great dangers, and 
the exceeding wrath of kings, (for when any one has offended 
the king, and is cast into prison, and is strictly guarded, 
then even his servants are debarred from access, which 
probably then befell Paul,) and that Epaphroditus, being of 
a noble nature, despised all danger, that he might go in unto 
him, and minister unto him, and do every thing which need 
required. He therefore sets forth two facts, by which he 
gains for him their respect; the one, that he was in jeopardy 
well nigh unto death, he says, for my sake ; the other, that 
in so suffering he was representing their city, so that the 
recompence for that his peril would be accounted to those 
who sent him, as if the city had sent him as their ambassador, 
so that a kind reception of him and thanks for what he had 
done may rather be called a participation in the things that 
he had dared. And he said not, " for my sake," but obtains 
the more credit for his words, by saying, because for the work 
of God, he acts not for my sake, but for God, he was nigh 
unto death. What then? though by the providence of God 
he died not, yet he himself regarded not his life, and gave 
himself up to any suffering that might befall him, so as not 
to remit his attendance on me. And if he gave himself up 
to death to serve Paul, much more would he have endured 
this for the Gospel's sake. Or rather, this had been for the 
Gospel's sake, even to have died for Paul. For we may bind 
about our brows the crown of martyrdom, not only by 
refusing to sacrifice, but such causes as these also make 
death martyrdom, and if I may say something startling, these 
latter do so far more than the former. For he who dares to 
face death for the lesser cause, will much rather for the 
greater. Let us therefore, when we see the Saints in danger, 
regard not our life, for it is impossible without daring ever 

108 We cannot serve God in His servants too zealously. 

Phil, to perform any noble act, but need is that he who takes 
— ^ — '- thought beforehand for his safety here, should fall from that 

which is to come. 

To supply^ he says, your lack of service toward me. 
What is this ? the city was not present, but by sending him, 
it fulfilled through him all its service toward me. He there- 
fore supplied your lack of service, so that for this reason too 
he deserves to enjoy much honour, since, what ye all should 
have done, this hath he performed on your behalf. Here he 
shews that there is also a highest'' service to be rendered 
by those in safety to those in danger, for so he calls it a 
lack ' of service, with reference to the former. Seest thou 
the spirit of the Apostle ? These words spring not from arro- 
gance, but from his great care towards them, for he calls the 
matter a service and a lack, that they may not be puffed up, 
but be moderate, nor think that they have rendered some 
great thing, but rather be humble-minded. 
Moral. Let not US then think great things of ourselves when we 
minister to the Saints, nor imagine that herein we confer a 
favour on them, for this deed is owed by us to them as a 
debt, and we do them no favour. For as supplies are due 
by those who ai'e in peace and not engaged in war to such 
as stand in the army and fight, (for these stand on their 
behoof,) thus too is it here. For if Paul had not taught, 
who would have cast him into prison ? Wherefore we ought 
to minister to the Saints. For is it not absurd to contribute 
to an earthl)' king, when engaged in war, all that he wants, as 
clothing and food, not according to his need alone, but 
abundantly, whilst to the King of Heaven, when engaged in 
fight, and contending against far more bitter foes, (for it is 
Eph 6 vviitten, tee nrestle not against jiesh and blood,) we will not 
12. supply common need ? What folly is this ! What ingrati- 
(4) lude ! What little-mindedness ! But, as it seems, the fear 
of man has greater force with us than hell, and the future 
torments. For this cause, in truth, all things are turned 
upside down ; for political affairs are daily accomplished 
with much earnestness, and we will not be left behind, whilst 
of spiritual things there is no account taken at all ; but the 
things which are demanded of us of necessity, and with 
■^ 9-js/Vt(», ' first.' 1 uiTTt^iifitt, ' a coming behind.' 

Free service. Grudging to support the Clergy. 109 

compulsion, as though we were slaves, and against our wills, Hom 

are laid down by us with much readiness, while such as are - 

asked from willing minds, and as if from free men, are all 
deficient. I speak not against all, but against those who are 
behind-hand with these supplies. For might not God have 
made these contributions compulsory ? Yet He would not, 
for He has more care of you than of those whom you support. 
Wherefore He would not that you should contribute of 
necessity, since there is no recompence there. And yet 
many of those who stand here are lower minded" than the 
Jews. Consider how great things the Jews gave, tithes", 
first-fruits, tithes again, and again other tithes, and besides 
this thirteenths, and the shekel, and no one said, how much 
they devour, for the more they receive, the greater is your 
reward. They said not. Much do they receive. They are 
gluttons, which words I hear now from some. Such of us, 
while they are building houses, and buying estates, still think 
they have nothing ; but if any priest is clothed in dress more 
bright than usual, and enjoys more than what is necessary 
for his sustenance, or has an attendant, that he may not be 
forced himself to act unbecomingly, they set the matter down 
for riches. And in truth we are rich even at this rate, and 
they admit it against their will; for we, though we have but 
little, are rich, whilst they, though they get every thing about 
them, are poor. 

How far shall our folly extend .? does it not suflSce to our 
punishment that we do no good deed, but must we add to it 
the punishment of evil speaking? For if what he has were 
your gifts, you lose your reward by upbraiding him for what 
you gave. In a word, if thou didst give it, why dost thou 
upbraid him .? You have already borne witness to his poverty, 
by saying that what he has are your gifts. Why then dost 
thou upbraid ? Thou shouldest not have given, didst thou 
intend so to do. But dost thou speak thus, when another 
gives ? It is then more grievous, in that when thou thyself 
hast not given, thou upbraidest for another man's good deeds. 
How great reward thinkcst thou those who are thus spoken 

™ tuviiv'oTt^oi, in a bad sense. says it was paid by all the first-born. 

" Lev. 27, 30 — 32. Deut. 14, 22. He is probably mistaken, as St. Peter 

82. 26, 12. Of the shekel, see on paid it, though he was a younger 

S. Matt. Hom. Iviii. init. where he brother. 

no Men n-Jio hare much, grudge others a piltance. 

Phil, of will receive? It is for God's sake they thus suffer. How 

-^-— and wherefore .'' Had they so willed, they might have taken 
up a trader's life, even though they received it not from their 
ancestors. For I hear many speaking thus at random, v>hen 
we say that a certain man is poor. Had he willed, they say, 
he might have been rich, and then tauntingly add, His father, 
his grandfather, and 1 know not who was so ; but now see 
what a robe he wears ! But what ? tell me, ought he to go 
about naked ? You then start nice questionings on these 
points, but see lest thou thus speakest against thyself. 

Matt. 7, Listen to that exhortation of Christ, which says, Judge not, 
that ye he not judged. He might it is true, if he had 
willed, have led a trader's or a merchant's life, and would 
surely not have lacked. But he would not. Tell me 
then, what is he here profited } Does he wear silken robes ? 
Does he j^roudly clear his way through the forum \vith 
a troop of followers } Is he borne along on horseback ? 
Does he build houses, having where to dwell .^ If he act so, 
I too accuse him, and spare him not, but declare that he is 
unworthy of the priesthood. For how can he exhort others 
not to spend all their lime on these superfluities, who cannot 
advise himself? But if he does wrong, in that he has suffi- 
cient for support, would you have him lead a vagabond life, 
and beg ? Wouldest not thou too, his disciple, be put to 
shame ? For if thy father in the flesh did this, thou wouldest 
think shame of the thing. Wilt thou not then veil thy head, 
if thy spiritual father be compelled so to do ? Yea, wouldest 

Ecclus. thou not rather wish to sink into the earth ? It is written, A 

' ' father in dishonour is a reproach to the children. But what? 

Should he perish with famine .'' This were not like a pious man ; 

for God willeth it not. But when we speak to them of these 

things, straightway they philosophize. It is written, say, they. Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your 
purses, neither tuo coats, nor yet staves, whilst these men 
have three or four garments, and beds well spread. I am 
forced now to heave a bitter sigh, and, but that it had been 
indecorous, 1 had wept too ! How so ? Because we are such 
curious searchers into the motes of others, while we feel not 
the beams in our own eyes. Tell me, why sayest thou not 
this to thyself? The answer is. Because the command is laid 

All bound to moderation. Danger of evil speaking. Ill 

only on our Teachers. When then Paul says, having food Hom. 
and raiment, let ns be tlterewitli content, says he this only ^"^* 

to Teachers ? By no means, but to all men ; and this is clear, q g!™* 
if we will begin higher, and go through the passage. For 
when he had said, Godliness uitli contentmoit is great gain, i Tim. 
and we brought nothing into this norkl, and it is certain we^'^^ 
can carry nothing out, he then straightway adds. And haui/ig6, 7. 
food and raiment, let ns be therewith content; bnt theg that q g'™' 
will he rich, fall into temptation and a snare, and into many 
foolish, and hurtful lusts. You see that this is spoken to all; (5) 
and how is it when he says again. Make not provision, for^om. 
the flesh to fdfil the lusts thereof, is not this said absolutely ' " 
to all? and what when he says. Meats for the belly, and /Ae J.,^"'"'^' 
belly for meats, but God shall destroy both it and them; or 
what when he says, But she that liveth in pleasure, is dead]. '^*"^" 
while she liveth, speaking of" widows. Is then this widow a 
Teacher? Has not he said himself, Suffer not a uoman io\^^^' 
teach, nor to usurp authority over the man'^ But if a widow, 
in old age, (and age has need of great attendance,) and a 
woman's nature too, (for the race of woman's sex, being weak, 
has need of more refreshment,) if then, when both the age 
and the nature are a hindrance, he suffers her not to live in 
luxury, but says that she is dead, (for he did not simply forbid 
a life of luxury, but said, she who liveth in luxury is dead 
while she liveth,) and thus hath cut her off, (for she that is 
dead is cut off,) what indulgence then will any man have, 
who does those things, for which a woman and an aged one 
too is punished ? 

Yet no one gives a thought to these things, no one searches 
them out, and this I have been compelled to say, not from 
any wish to free the priests from these charges, but to spare 
you. They indeed suffer no harm at your hands, even if it is 
with cause and justice that they are thus charged of being 
greedy of gain; for, whether ye speak, or whether ye forbear, 
they must there give an account to the Judge, so that your 
words hurt them not at all ; but if your words are false 
besides, they for their part gain by these false accusations, 
whilst ye hurt yourselves by these means. But it is not so 
with you; for be the things true, which ye bring against them, 
or be they false, ye speak ill of them to your hurt. And how 

112 TJie Aponiles used ordinary conveniences of life. 

Phil. SO ? If they bo true, in tliat ye judge your Teachers, and sub- 
-1 — '- vert order, ye do it to your liurt. For if we must not judge 

a brother, much less a Teacher. But if they be false, the 
Mat. 12, punishment and retribution is intolerable; for oi every idle 

word that men shall speak they shall give account. For 

your sake then I thus act and labour. 

But as I said, no one searches out these things, no one 

busies himself about these things, no one communes with 

himself on any of these things. Would ye that I should add 
Lukei4, still more } Whosoever forsaketh not all that he hath, is not 
Matt 'worthy of Me. What when He says. It is hard for a rich man 
10, 37. to enter into the kingdom of heaven ? What when He says 
M°itt^.' again, Woe unto you that are rich, for ye have received your 
19,23. consolation? No one searches this out, no one bears it in 

Mark . . . . . . 

10, 24. mind, no one reasons with himself, but all sit as severe inqui- 

2^" ® ' sitors on other men's cases. Yet this is to make themselves 

sharers in the charges. But listen, that for your own sake I 

may free the priests from the charges, which ye sa}' lie against 

them, for the persuasion that they transgress the law of God, 

inclines you not a little towards evil. Come then, let us, examine this matter. Christ said. Provide neither nold nor 
9. 10. . . . . 

silver, neither two coats, neither shoes, nor girdle, nor yet 

staves. What then ? tell me, did Peter transgress this com- 
mand } Surely he did so, in having a girdle and a garment, 
and shoes, for that he had them, listen to the words of the 
Acts 12, Angel, Gird thyself, and hind on thy sandals. And yet he 
^* had no such great need of sandals, for at that season a man 

may go even unshod; their great use is in the winter, and yet 
he had them. What shall we say of Paul, when he writes thus 
2 Tim. to Timothy. Do thy diligence to come before winter? He 
2'Tin) Siv6S him orders too and says, The cloke that I left at Troas 
4, 13. with Carpus bring with thee, and the hooks, hut especially 
the parchments. See he speaks of a cloke, and no one can 
say that he had not another which he wore, for if he did not 
wear one at all, it were superfluous to order this one to be 
brought, and if he could not be without one to wear, it is 
clear he had a second. 
Acts 28, What shall we say of his remaining tivo whole years in his 
'^^- own hired house? Did then this chosen vessel disobey 

Gal. 2, Christ? this ma.n who said. Nevertheless I live: yrt not J, 
20. :/ ' 

St. Paul provided foi- his proper clotlting. 113 

but Christ liveth in me, concerniiie; whom Christ testified, Hom. 

saying, He is a chosen vessel unto Me ? I ought to leave this 

difficulty with you, without supplying any solution to the 15. ' 
question. I ought to exact of you this penalty for your 
negligence in the Scriptures, for this is the origin of all such 
difficulties. For we know not the Scriptures, we are not 
trained in the law of God, and so we become sharp inquirers 
into the faults of others, whilst we take no account of our 
own. I ought then to have exacted from you this penalty. 
But what shall I do ? I am a father. Fathers freely give to 
their sons many things beyond what is fitting : when their 
fatherly compassion is kindled, on seeing their child with 
downcast look, and wasted with grief, they feel sharper pangs 
than he, and rest not until they have removed the ground of 
his dejection. 

So be it at least here, be ye at least dejected at not re- 
ceiving, that ye may receive well. What then shall I say ? 
They opposed not, God forbid ! but diligently followed the 
commands of Christ, for those commands were but for a 
season, and not endunng ; and this I say not from conjecture, 
but from the divine Scriptures. And how.'* St. Luke relates 
that Christ said to His disciples, ' When I sent you uithout^vk^- 
purse, and scrip, and girdle, and shoes, lacked ye any thing'^ ' 
And they said, Nothing. But for the future provide them.' 
But tell me, what could he do ? could he have but one coat ? 
How then? If need was that this be washed, should he 
because without it, stay at home 1 should he without it go 
abroad in an unbecoming manner, when need called ? Con- 
sider what a thing it would have been that Paul, who made 
the circuit of the world with such great success, should 
remain at home for want of raiment, and thus hinder his 
noble work. And what if violent cold had set in, or rain had 
drenched it, or perhaps frozen in, how could he dry his 
raiment? must he again remain without it? And what if cold 
had deprived his body of strength? must he waste away with 
disease, and be unable to speak ? For hear what he says to 
Timothy, to prove that they were not furnished with adaman- 
tine bodies, Use a little wine for thy stomacKs sake, andi Tim. 

. . . 5 23 

thine often infirmities. And again, when he speaks of ' 

another, / supposed it necessary to send to you your PiiiJ- 2, 


114 Chris fs Ministers why not clothed by miracle. 

Phil, messenger, and him that ministered to my wants. For indeed 
~j-^Ae was sick, nigh unto death; but God had mercy on him, 
27. ' and not on him only, but on me also. So that they were 
subject to every sort of sickness. What then } ir.ust they 
die ? By no means. For what cause then did Christ at that 
time give them that command ? To shew His own power, 
and to prove that in after times He was able to do it, though 
He did it not. But wherefore did He not do it ? They were 
Deut° ^"ch more admirable than the Israelites, whose shoes did 
29, 6. not wax old, neither their gannents, and that too whilst they 
were journeying through that desert where the globing rays 
of the sun strike so hoi, that they consume even stones. 
Why then did he order it thus ? For thy sake. For since 
thou wouldest not remain in health, but be full of wounds, 
He gave you that which might serve for medicine. And 
this is hence manifest ; for tell rac, could He not Himself 
have fed them.'' If he gave to thee, who wast at enmity with 
Him, would He not much more have given to Paul .'' He 
who gave to the Israelites, those murmurers, those fornicators, 
those idolaters, would He not much more have given to 
Peter, who left all for His sake } He who suffered wicked 
men to possess ought, would He not much more have freely 
given to John, who for Him forsook his father ? Yet He 
would not : through your hands he feeds them, that you may 
be sanctified. And see the excess of His lovingkindness. 
He chose that His disciples should be in want, that thou 
mightest be a little refreshed. 

But you say, if He had freed them from all want, they 
would have been much more admirable, far more glorious. 
But then that which is to thee salvation would have been 
cut off. God willed not then that they should be admirable, 
but that they should rather be lowered, that thou mightest be 
saved. He hath suffered them to be less accounted of, that 
thou mightest be able to be saved. The Teacher who re- 
ceiveth is not equally reverenced, but he who receives not 
is chiefly honoured. But then in the latter case the disciple 
is not benefitted, he is hindered of his fruit. Seest thou the 
wisdom of God who thus loveth man ? For as He Himself 
sought not His own glory, nor had respect to Himself, but 
when He was in glory, chose to be dishonoured for thy sake, 

IVe should look to others^ good deeds, and our own faults. 115 

thus too is it in the case of your Teachers. When He Hom. 

might have made them highly reverenced, He preferred that — 

they should be subject to contempt for thy sake, that thou 
mightest be able to profit, that thou mightest be able to be 
rich. He is in want of the things of this life, that you may 
abound in things spiritual. He hath shewn in many ways 
that He might have made them above all want. But that 
for thy sake He suffers them to be in want, this too He 
shews in like sort. Knowing then these things, let us turn 
om'selves to well doing, not to accusations. Let us not be 
over curious about the failings of others, but take account of 
our own ; let us bear in mind the excellencies of other men, 
while we reckon up our own faults, for thus shall we be well- 
pleasing to God. For he who looks at the faults of others, 
and at his own excellencies, is injured in two ways ; by the 
latter he is carried up to arrogance, through the former he 
falls into listlessness. For when he perceives that such an 
one hath sinned, very easily will he sin himself; when he 
perceives that he hath in ought excelled, very easily be- 
cometh he arrogant. He who consigns to oblivion his own 
excellencies, and looks at his failings only, whilst he is a 
curious enquirer of the excellencies, not the sins, of others, is 
profited in many ways. And how ? I will tell you. When 
he sees that such an one hath done excellently, he is raised 
to emulate the same ; when he sees that he himself hath 
sinned, he is rendered humble and modest. If we act thus, 
if we thus regulate ourselves, we shall be able to obtain the 
good things which are promised, through the grace and 
lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom, &c. 

1 2 


Phil. iii. 1—3. 

Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same 
things to you, to me indeed is not grievous, but /or you it 
is safe. Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware 
of the concision. For we are the circumcision, which 
worship God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, 
and have no confidence in the flesh. 

Dejection and care, whenever they strain the soul beyond 
due measure, bereave it of its native force. And therefore 
Paul raises up the Philippians, who were in great despondency, 
and they were in despondency because they did not know 
how matters were with Paul; they were in despondency, 
because they thought that it was already over with him, 
because of the preaching, because of Epaphroditus. It is 
in giving them assurance on all these points that he introduces 
the words, Finally, my brethren^ rejoice. 'You no longer 
have,' he says, ' cause for despondency. You have Epaphro- 
ditus, for whose sake you were grieved. You have Timothy; 
I am myself coming to you; the Gospel is gaining ground. 
What is henceforth wanting to you ? Rejoice !' 
Gal. 4, Now he calls the Galatians indeed children, but these 


brethren. For when he aims either to correct any thing or 
to shew his fondness, he calls them ' children ;' but when he 
addresses them with greater honour, ' brethren' is the title. 
Finally, my brethren, he says, rejoice in the Lord. He said 
rightly in the Lord, not * after the world,' for this is no 
rejoicing. These tribulations, he says, which are according 

Judaizing teachers wliij called dogs. 117 

to Christ bring joy. To write the same things to you, to me Hom. 

indeed is not grievous, hut for you it is safe. Beitare of — -- 

dogs. Dost thou mark how he forbears to bring in the 
exhortation at the beginning ? But after he had given them 
much commendation, after he had shewn his admiration of 
them, then he does this, and again repeats his commendation. 
For this mode of speech seems* to bear somewhat hard upon 
them. Wherefore he overshadows it on every side. But 
whom does he style ' dogs ?' There were at this place some 
of those, whom he hints at in all his Epistles, base and con- 
temptible Jews, greedy of vile lucre and fond of power, who, 
desiring to draw aside many of ihe faithfiil, preached both 
Christianity and Judaism at the same time, corrupting the 
Gospel. As then they were not easily discernible, there- 
fore he says, beware of dogs: the Jews are no longer children ; 
once the Gentiles were so called, but now those. Where- 
fore ? because as the Gentiles were strangers both to God 
and to Christ, even so are these become this now. And he 
thereby shews forth their shamelessness and violence, and 
their infinite distance from the relation of children, for that 
the Gentiles were once called ' dogs,' hear what the Canaan- 
itish woman says, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the 
crumbs ichich fall from their masters' table. But that they ' 
might not have this advantage, since even dogs are at the 
table, he adds that, whereby he makes them aliens also, say- 
ing, Beiiare of evil workers; and he admirably expressed 
himself, beware of evil workers, for they work, he means, 
but for a bad end, and a work that is much worse than idle- 
ness, plucking up what is laid in goodly order. 

Ben are, he says, oftJie concision. The rite of circumcision 
was venerable in the Jews' account, forasmuch as the Law 
itself gave way thereto, and tlie Sabbath was less esteemed 
than it. For that circumcision might be performed the 
Sabbath was broken ; but that the Sabbath might be kept, 
circumcision was never broken ; and mark, I pray, the dis- 
pensation of God. This is found to be even more solemn 
than the Sabbath, as not being omitted at certain times ''. 

» Sav. mar. might otherwise seem. possibly he construed. Hence Downes 

•> B. and Ven. omit h, giving this proposes to omit ^« or read ira^aXfi- 

sense. The common reading cannot (phTira., and place the comma before 


1 18 Carnal circumcision why called concision. 

Phil. When then it is (hmv awav, much more is the Sabbath. 

3 1-3 *' 

' ' ■ Wherefore Paul makes a concision of the name, and says, 
Beware of tlie concision, and he did not say ' that circum- 
cision is evil, that it is superfluous,' lest he should strike the 
men with dismay, but he manages it more wisely, withdrawing 
them from the thing, but gratifying them with the word, nay, 
rather with the thing too, in a more serious way. But not so 
in tlie case of the Galatians, for since in that case the disease 
was great, he forthwith adopts the remedy of amputation 
with open front and with all boldness, but in this case, as 
they had done nothing of the sort, he vouchsafes them the 
gratification of the title, he banishes both those and these % 
and says, Ben-are of the concision ; for zee are llie circum- 
cision — how .? — which worship God in the spirit, and have no 
confidence in the Jlesh. He said not that * we try the one 
circumcision and the other, which is the better of the two ;' 
but he would not even allow it a share in the name ; but what 
does he say? That circumcision is eowcmow. Why? Because 
they do nothing but cut the flesh about. For when what is 
done is not of the law, it is nothing else than a concision 
and cutting about of the flesh ; it was then either for this 
reason that he called it so, or because they were trying to 
cut the Church about ; and we too call the thing ' cutting 
about' in those who do this at random, without aim and 
without skill. Now if you must seek circumcision, he says, 
you will find it among us, who worship God in spirit, i. e. 
who worship Him spiritually. 
(2) For answer me, which is superior, the soul or the body ? 
Evidently the former. Therefore neither is that circumcision 
superior, but this is the only circumcision; for while the 
type stood, He rightly brought it forward in conjunction, 
Jerem. writing, CircumcisB yourselves to the Lord, and take away 
^' *■ the foreskins of your hearts. In the same way in the Epistle 
Rom. 2, to the Romans he does away with it, saying, for he is not a 
Jew which is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision 
which is outward i7i the Jiesh ; but he is a Jew which is one 

tv^iffxtrai, making it, ' This which is "^ B. ' and cast out the others/ 

more solemn than the Sabbath is found which seems to make better sense, as 

not to be adopted in certain times.' there do not appear to be two parties 

But ' certain times' suits the other excluded, 
sense better. 

Name of the reality given for a while to types. 119 

inwardly, and circumcision is that of the hearty in the spirit, Hom. 
and not in the letter. And lastly, he takes from it the very '- — 

name, ' neither is it circumcision,' he maintains, for the type, 
while the reality is yet to come, is called this, but when the 
truth has come, it no longer retains the title. As in delineation, 
a man has drawn a king in outline; so long as the coloiu's 
are not put on we say, Lo, there is the king*^, but when 
they are added, the outline ' is lost in the reality, and ceases to ' «■«'*«;. 
shew; and then too^ we say, ' Look at the king/ And he said 
not, ' for the circumcision is in us,' but we are the circum- 
cision, and justly; for this is the Man, the circumcision in 
virtue, this is really the Man ^. But in the case of those he^ Com- 
did not speak so : but he said, beware of the concision, for q^j^_ g 
they were henceforth in a condition of ruin and of wicked- 1^- 
ness. Then shewing that circumcision is no longer performed 
in the body but in the heart, he says, And hate no confidence v. 4. 
in the flesh; though I might also have confidence in the flesh. 
What does he call confidence here, and in the flesh ? Boasting, 
boldness, a high tone. And he did well to add this ; for if, 
being of the Gentiles, he had condemned the circumcision, 
and not only the circumcision, but all those that adopted it 
out of place, it would have seemed that he was denying it 
because he wanted the high ancestry of Judaism, as being 
a stranger to its solemn rites, and having no part therein. 
But as it is, he, who, though a sharer, yet blames them, does 
not therefore blame them as having no share in them, but as 
disowning them ; not from ignorance, but most especially 
from acquaintance with them. Accordingly observe what he 
says in his Epistle to the Galatians also; having been brought 
into a necessity of saying great things about himself, how even 
in these circumstances does he manifest nought but humility. 
For ye have heard of my conversation in time past, he says, Gal. i 
in the Jews'" religion; and again here; if any other man^^- 
thinketh that he hath ought ichereof he might trust in the 
flesh, I more. And he immediately added, an Hebrew of 

•* So Ven. Edd. ' it is not called a ^ rorWi ko). This rather favours the 

king,' which almost contradicts the reading of the printed copies ahove. 

sense. Old Lat. makes the contrast With that it would be, ' and then we 

between the picture and the real king, even say.' Otherwise it means ' al- 

but that is clearly from an imperfect though that is hidden which we called 

reading. Comp. Heb. x. 1. a king before.' 

120 St. PaiiVs high slate as a Jew, by birth and life. 

P"^L. /7,^ Hebreivs. He did not say this primarily, but after having 

— '■ said, if any other man, shewing the necessity, shewinj^ that 

it was on their account that he spoke. If ye have confidence^ 
he says, / much more. This I now say, as I have been 
hitherto silent. And observe the absence of all ungracious- 
ness in the repi-oofs, for by forbearing to do it by name, he 
gave them the op])ortunity of retracing their steps. If any 
other 7nan thinketh; and it was well to say, thinketh, either 
inasmuch as they really had no such confidence, or as that 
confidence was no real confidence, for all was by necessity, 
and not of choice. Circumcised on the eighth day ; and he 
sets down the first that wherein they chiefly boasted, viz. the 
ordinance of circumcision, next, cf the stock of Israel. He 
pointed out both these circumstances, that he was neither a 
proselyte, nor born of proselytes ; for from his being circum- 
cised on the eighth day, it follows that he was not a proselyte, 
and from his being of the stock of Israel, that he was not of 
proselyte parents. But that you may not imagine that he 
was of the stock of Israel as coming of the ten tribes, he says, 
of the tribe of Benjamin. So that he was of the more 
approved portion, for the place of the priests was in the lot 
of this tribe. An Hebrew of Hebrews. By this he shews 
that he was not a proselyte, but, from of old, of distinguished 
Jews ; for he might have been of Israel, and yet not an Hebrew 
of^ Hebrews, for many had already ruined the thing®, and 
were strangers to the language, by intermixing with other 
races; it is either this then, or the great superiority of his 
birth, that he shews by this. According to the law a 
Pharisee. He is coming now to the cu'cumstances dependent 
on his own will ; for all those things were apart from the will, 
for his being circumcised was not of himself, nor that he was 
of the stock of Israel, nor that he was of the tribe of 
Benjamin. So that, even among these he has a larger 
share, even though there were really mauy who pai'- 
took with him. Where then are we to place the rather ? 
Particularly herein that he was not a proselyte, and that he 
was of the distinguished tribe, and this from his ancestors of 
old, v.liich things belonged not to many. But since none of 
them are matters of choice, he proceeds to those which are, 

f (yhere means ' descended from.' « i. e. the purity of their descent. 

WJuit Sf. Paul gave up. Riclies burdetisome. 121 

wherein we have the rather. As touching the law., a Pharisee ; Hom. 
co7icerning zeal., persecuting the Church. This last he says, " ' 

because the first alone is not sufficient to shew the force of 
the rather. For it is possible to be a Pharisee even, and yet 
not very zealous. According to righteousness. Since it 
is possible to be adventurous, or to act thus'' from ambition, 
and not out of zeal for the law, as the High Priests did. Yet 
he was no such person, but, according to the righteousness 
which is in the law, blameless. If then both for purity of 
descent, and earnestness, and habits, and mode of life, I 
surpassed all, why have I renounced all those dignities, he 
asks, but because I found that the things of Christ are better, 
and better far ? Wlierefore he added ; but what things were^- 7. 
gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ. 

A course of life thus strictly regulated, and entered upon Moral. 
from earliest childhood, such unblemished extraction, such \^) 
dangers, plots, labours, forwardness, did Paul renounce, 
counting them but loss, which before were gain, that he might 
win Christ. But we do not even contemn money, that we 
may win Christ, but prefer to fail of the life to come rather 
than of the good things of the present life. And yet this is 
nothing else than loss; for tell me now, let us examine in de- 
tail the conditions of riches, and see whether it be not loss 
accompanied with inexpressible trouble, and without any 
gain. For tell me, what is the advantage of those stores of 
costly garments, what good do we gain when we are arrayed 
in them ? None, nay, we are only losers. How so ? Because 
even the poor man, in his cheap and threadbare clothing, 
docs not bear the scorching in time of heat any wise worse 
than yourself, nay, rather he bears it better, for clothes that 
are threadbare and worn single allow more ease to the body, 
but not so with those which are new made, though they be 
finer than the spider's web. Besides, you, from your excessive 
self-importance, wear even two and three inner garments, and 
often a cloak and girdle, and breeches too, but no one blames 
him if he wears but a single shirt ; so that he is the man that 
bears the heat most easily. It is owing to this that we see 
such men sweating, but the poor subject to nothing of the 

h i. e. to shew zeal, as he had done in persecuting. 

122 Use of rich ornaments a loss. 

Phil, sort. Since then his cheap clothing, which is sold for a 
— '—^ trifle, answers the same or even a better purpose to him, and 
those clothes, which oblige a man to pay down much gold, 
do only the same thing, is not this great superabundance so 
much loss? For it has added nothing in respect of its use 
and service, whereas your purse is emptied of so much the 
more gold, while the thing has only the same use and em- 
ployment. You, then, who have riches, have purchased one 
which cost an hundred pieces of gold, or even more, whereas 
the poor man has bought one for a trilling sum of silver. Do 
you perceive the loss ? No, for your pride will not let you 
see it. Would you have us make out this account in the 
case of the gold ornaments too, which men put alike 
about their horses and their wives .? For besides the 
other evils, the possession of money makes fools of men ; thus 
they account their wives and horses to be worthy of the same 
honour and ornaments, for both are the same ; and they 
would make themselves finer by the same means as the very 
beasts that carry them, or as the very skins of the awnings, 
wherein they are borne. What now is the use of decking 
out a mule or a horse with gold ? or the lady, that has such 
a weight of gold and jewels about her person, what does she 
gain? ' But the ornaments are never worn out,' he answers. 
Now those that are knowing in such things declare that, to a 
great degree, they are liable to this very mischief: that in 
the baths very often both the jewels and gold ornaments lose 
much of their value. But be it so, and grant that they are not 
injured, tell me, what is the gain ? And how is it when they 
drop out, and are lost ? is there no loss sustained .'' And how 
when they draw down upon you envy and intrigues ? is there 
no loss then .? For when they do the wearer no good, but 
rather inflame the eyes of the envious, and act as an incite- 
ment to the robber, do they not become loss .'' And again, 
say, when a man may use them for a serviceable purpose, 
but is unable on account of the extravagance of his wife, and 
is obliged to starve and to stint himself, that he may see her 
aiTayed in gold, is it not a matter of loss ? For it was on this 
account that goods have their name from use', not that we 

' i. e. ;^^iifi»Ta, from xz^'^'^' * *" ^se.' 

Ornaments soon lire. IVealth soon to he left. 193 

should use them thus like goldsmiths' samples, but that we Hom. 
should do some good therewith; so then when love of gold ^' 
does not allow this, is not the whole thing loss ? for he that 
dares not use them forbears the use as if they were another's 
property, and there is no use of them in any way. 

Again, how is it when we erect splendid and spacious 
mansions, decorated with columns, marbles, porticos, arcades, 
and in every possible way, setting images and statues every 
where? Many indeed even call demons out of these^, butl'-^-the 
let us omit the examination of those points. What too is the 
meaning of the gilded ceiling? Does it not supply the same 
need as to him, whose house is on a moderate scale? ' But 
there is great delight in it,' he says. Yes, for the first or 
second day, but afterwards, none at alP. For if the sun does 
not strike us with wonder, from its being customary, much more 
do works of art fail, and we only look at them like things of 
clay. For tell me, what does a range of pillars contribute 
to make your dwelling superior to others, or the finest statues, 
or the gilding spread over the wall? Nothing; rather, these 
come of luxury and insolence, and overweening pride and 
folly; but in every case, it is things requisite and needed, 
and not superfluities, that ought to engage us. Do you see 
that the thing is loss ? Do you see that it is superfluous and 
unprofitable ? for if it supplies no further use or delight, (and 
it does, in the course of time, bring satiety,) it is nothing else 
than loss, and vain-glory is the hindrance, which will not 
let us see this. 

Did Paul then forsake those things which he ' counted 
gain,' and do not we even quit our loss, for Christ's sake ? 
How long shall we be rivetted to the earth ? How long till 
we shall look up to heaven ? Do ye not mark the aged, what 
little perception they have of the past ? Do ye not mark 
those that are finishing their course, both men in age, and men 
in youth ? Do ye not see persons in the midst of life bereft 
of them ? Why are we so wedded to unstable objects? Why 
are we linked to things that are shifting ? How long before 
we lay hold of the things that last ? What would not the old 

^ Sav. Mar. adds, iXX' airXui "frareu, aXXk tr^ealfrarttt, ' B 
' But stands there for nothing.' Ven. B. &XX' i^lrrarai, ' But 

' But is tiresome, 

124 III effects of riches. Benefit of giving them up. 

Phil, give, were it granted them to divest themselves of their old 
—1—^ age ? How irrational then to wish to return to our former 
youth, and gladly to give every thing for the sake of this, 
that we might become younger, and yet when it is ours to 
receive a youth that knows no old age, a youth too, which, 
joined with great riches, hath far more of spirit, to be unwil- 
ling to give up a little trifle, but to hold fast things that con- 
tribute not a whit to the present life. They can never rescue 
you from death, they have no power to drive away disease, 
to stay old age, or any one of those events, which happen by 
necessity and according to the law of nature. And do you 
still hold to them ? Tell me, what do you gain ? Therefrom 
come drunkenness, gluttony, pleasures contrary to nature and 
various in kind, which are far worse torturers than the hardest 

These are the advantages which we gain from riches, nor 
is there one besides, since we are not so minded, for if we 
had had the mind, we might have won heaven itself for our in- 
heritance by our riches. ' So then riches are good,' he says. 
It is not riches, but the will of the possessor that effects this, 
for that it is the will that does it, see from hence ; it is in the 
power even of a poor man to win heaven. For, as I have 
often said, God does not regard the amount of the gifts, but 
the will of the givers ; it is possible even for one in poverty, 
who has given but little, to bear off all, for God requires a 
measure proportioned to our ability, neither will riches secure 
heaven to us, nor poverty, hell ; but a good or a bad will, 
either one or the other. This then let us correct, this let us 
resto e, this 1 i us regulate, and all will then be easy to us. 

For as the artificer works the wood the same, whether his 

axe be of iron or of gold, rather he does it the better with an 

implement of iron, so here too, tlie straight })ath of virtue is 

Matt, more easily kept in a state of poverty. For touching riches 

■'9j2i. Christ says. It is easier fur a camel to go throu.h the eye 

of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of 

Heaven. But He has made no such declarations about 

V 19 poverty; nay, the very reverse. Sell thy goods, a) id give to 

the poor, and come follow Me ; as if the act of following were 

to spring from the will'. 

1 B. and Sav. mar. ' from the selling,' w^xiriui, which is probably right. 

How to use all things for God. 125 

Never then let us flee from poverty as an evil, for it is the Hom, 
procurer of heaven. Again, let us never follow riches as a ^' 

good ; for they are the ruin of such as walk unwarily, but, 
in every thing directing our eyes to God, let us, as occasion 
requires, use those gifts which He has vouchsafed us, both 
strength of limbs, and abundance of money, and every other 
gift; for it is unnatural that we, who have our being from Him, 
should make these things serviceable to others, yet not to 
Him, Who has made us. He formed thine eyes : make them 
serviceable to Him, not to the devil. But how serviceable 
to Him ? By contemplating His creatures and glorifying 
Him, and by withdrawing them from all gaze at women. 
But thine hands did He make ? Preserve them for His use, 
not for the devil, not putting them out for robbery and rapine, 
but for His commandments and for good deeds, for earnest 
prayers, for holding out help to the fallen. Hath He made 
thine ears ? Give these to Him, and not to effeminate™ strains 
nor to disgraceful tales. Let all tlty communication, he says, Ecclus. 
be in the law of the Most High. And again he says, Stand^->^J'- 
in the multitude of the elders, and cleave unto him that is 
u'ise. Has He made thy mouth ? Let it do nought that is 
displeasing to Him, but sing psalms, hymns, and spiritual 
songs. Let no corrupt communication proceed out ofyour^^h.i, 
mouth, says the Apostle, hut that which is good for the use of ' 
edifying, that it may minister grace to the hearers ; for 
edification and not for subversion, for fair words and not for 
evil speaking and plotting against other, but the very oj^posite. 
He hath made thy feet, not that thou shouldest run to do 
evil, but to do good. He made thy belly, not that thou 
shouldest cram it to bursting, but to practise lessons of wisdom. 
For the production of children, He implanted desire in thy 
mind, not for fornication, nor for adultery. He gave thee 
understanding, not to make of thee a blasphemer or a reviler, 
but that thou mightest speak fair words. He gave us both 
money to be used on fitting occasion, and strength likewise 
to be used on fitting occasion. He instituted arts, that our 
present state of existence might be held together by them, 
not that we should withdraw ourselves from spiritual things, 

'" S/axjxXas-jtisva/f , ' broken,' so called from using the chromatic scale to excess. 

126 Value of Jewels imaginary. 

Thil not that wc should devote ourselves to the base arts but to 
- ' ' the necessary ones, that we might minister to one another's 
good, and not that we should plot one against another. He 
gave us a roof, that it might afford shelter from the rain, and 
no more, not that it should be decked out with gold, while 
the poor man perishes with hunger. He gave clothing to 
cover us, not to make a display withal, not that things like 
these should have much gold lavished upon them, and that 
Christ should perish naked. He gave you a place of shelter, 
not that you should keep it to yourself, but to offer it to 
others also. He gave thee land, not that, cutting off" the 
chief portion of it, you should spend the good gifts of God 
upon harlots, and dancers, and actors, and flute players, and 
harp players, but upon those that hunger and are in want. 
He gave you the sea to sail on, that you might not be wearied 
with journeying, not that you should pry into its depths, and 
bring up thence precious stones and all the other things 
of the same kind, nor that thou shouldest make this thy 

' Why then are there precious stones ?' he says. Nay, do you 
rather tell me, why there are precious stones, and how these 
become so valuable ? Is it by their strength ? Js it by their 
use ? Nay, for that matter, those that are not of this kind are 
rather more for use, for those may be conducive to building, 
but these to no puqjose, and those are stronger than the 
other. ' But these,' he says, ' produce a fine effect. How 
so? it is a matter of fancy. Are they whiter? No, they are 
not whiter than pure white marble, nor nearly equal to it. 
But are they stronger? Not even this can be said for them". 
Well then, are they more useful ? are they larger ? Not even 
this. Whence then are they so admired .'' From no other 
cause than fancy. For if they are neither more beautiful, (for 
we shall find others more shining and more white,) nor more" 
useful, nor stronger, whence came they to be so admired ? 
Was it not from mere fancy ? Why then did God give them ? 
They were not His gift, but it is your own imagination that 
they are any thing great. ' How is it, then,' he answers, 
' that even the Scripture shews admiration of them ?' So far 

" He refers to pearls. " So B. 

Jewels and purple not the true ortuimeuts. 127 

it addresses itself to your fancy. As a master too in talking Hom. 
to a child often admires the same object as it does, when he — '— 

desires to attract and engage it. 

Wliy do you aim at finery in your clothing? Clothe 
yourself with a garment and with sandals. But where is there 
any reason for these things ? David declares, that the jiidy- Ps. 19, 
merits of the Lord are more to he desired than gold, yea than 
muchjine gold. With these adorn thee! With these con- 
tent thee''! But where is any reason for these things? These, 
beloved, are of no use. Had they been of use, he would not 
have bidden us despise them. And for Holy Scripture, it 
speaks with reference to our notion, and this too is an instance 
of God's lovingkindness. ' Why then,' he asks, ' did He give 
purple and the like?' These are things that come of God's 
majesty. For He has willed by other things also to shew 
forth His own riches. As He gave you corn too by itself; 
but from this you make many things, cakes and sweetmeats, 
of every sort and variety, having much enjoyment; but besides 
this, vain-glory also gave rise to all these inventions. For 
it pleased you to set them before every thing. For if a 
foreigner or a rustic, who was ignorant of them, should put 
the question, and, seeing your admiration, were to say, ' Why 
do you admire these?' What have you to say? that they are 
fair to look at ? But it is not the case- Let us then give up 
such notions, and lay hold of the things that are truly real. 
These are not, but simply pass away, only flowing past like a 
river. Wherefore I charge you, let us take our stand upon 
the rock, that we may both escape being easily turned about, 
and that we may obtain the good things to come, by the 
grace and lo\dngkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with 
Whom, &c. 

P Thus Sav. Ben. and B. place this clause after ' sandals,' omitting there 
But where is any reason,' &e. 


Phil. iii. 7—10. 

But what things were gain to me^ those I counted loss for 
Christ. Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for 
the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord: 
for whom I have sujfered the loss of all things, and do 
count them but dung, that I may win Christ, And be found 
in Him, not having inine own righteousness, which is of the 
law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the 
righteousness which is of God, by faith: That I mayknoio 
Him, and the j)ower of His resurrection. 

In our contests with heretics, we must make the attack 
with minds in vigour, and that incessantly, for thus giving them 
no leisure for taking breath, we can throw into confusion their 
array, and easily obtain the mastery. Wherefore, Milling to pre- 
pare you, from the Scriptures, for such contests as these, that 
hence too ye may be able to put to silence the gainsayers, I 
will begin my present discourse whei'e the last ended. And 
what was its end? one will say. Having enumerated every 
Jewish boast, both those from his birth, and those that were 
from choice, he added. But ichat things were gain to me, all 
these I count to be but lo sfor the excellency of the knowledge 
of Christ Jesus my Lord; for Whoin L have suffered the loss 
of all things, and do count them but du?ig, that L may win 
Christ. Here the heretics make their attack: for even this 
comes of the wisdom of the Spirit, to suggest to them hopes 
of victory, that they may undertake the fight. 

For if it had been spoken plainly, they would have acted 
here as they have done in other places, they would have 

Heretics entrapped by St. PmtVs words on the Laiv. 129 

blotted out the words, they would have denied the Scripture, Hom. 

when they were unable at all to look it in the face. But as - 

in the case of fishes, that which can take them is so con- 
cealed that they may swim up, and does not lie open to 
view ; this in truth hath come to pass here too, in that the 
Law hath been called loss by Paul. The Law, they say, is 
called dung by Paul, it is called loss. It was not possible to 
gain Christ except I counted this as loss. All these things 
induced the heretics to accept this passage, thinking it to be 
favourable to them : but when they had taken it, then did he 
enclose them on all sides with his nets. Lo what? say they, 
when they make their attack. Lo ! the Law is called loss, 
is called dung ; how then do ye say, that it is of God ? 

But these very words are favourable to the Law, and how 
they are so, shall be hence manifest. Let us attend accu- 
rately to his very words. He said not. The Law is loss : 
but I counted it loss. But when he spake of gain, he said 
not, I counted them, but tltey were gain. But when he 
spake of loss he said, I counted: and this rightly; for the 
former was naturally so, but the latter became so, from my 
opinion. ' Wliat then ? Is not the Law loss ?' It is : but for 

' But now it hath become gain.' It was not counted gain, 
says he, but was so : as if he had said, Consider how great a 
thing it was: to bring men, brutalized in their nature, to the 
shape of men. If the law had not been, grace would not 
have been given. ' Wherefore ?' Because it became a sort of 
bridge ; for when it was impossible to mount on high from 
a state of great abasement, a ladder was formed. And if he 
who has ascended has no longer need of the ladder, he does 
not for this reason despise it, but is grateful to it. For it has 
placed him in such a position, as no longer to require it. 
And yet for this very reason, that he doth not require it, it is 
just, he means, that he should acknowledge his obligation, 
for without it he could not have ascended. And thus is it 
with the Law, it hath led us up on high; wherefore it was gain, 
but for the future we esteem it loss. * How ?' Not because 
it is loss, but because grace is far greater. For as a poor man, 
that was in hunger, as long as he has silver, escapes hunger, 
but when he finds gold, and is unable to keep both, considers 


130 The T.av uas yaui an leading to Christ. 

Phil, it loss to retain the former, and having thrown it away, takes 
—2 — ^ the gold coin ; he throws it away, not because the silver is 
loss, for it is not ; but because it was impossible to take both 
at once, he was conipellod to leave one. Thus too is it here: 
the Law is not loss, but for a man to cleave to the Law, and 
desert Christ. Wherefore it is then loss when it leads us 
away from Christ. But if it sends us on to Him, it is no 
longer so. For this cause he saith it is loss, i. c, for Christ 
it is loss ; if for Christ, it is not so naturally. But why doth 
not the Law suffer us to come to Christ.' For this very cause, 
he tells us, was it given. And Christ is the fulfilling of the 
Law, and Chiist is the end of the Law. It doth suffer us, if 
we will obey it ; he then M'ho obeyeth the Law, leaves that 
same Law. It sutlers him, if we take heed to it, but if we 
do not take heed, it suffers him not. Yea. doubtless, and I 
count all tilings but loss. Why, he means, do I say this of 
the Law } Is not the world good } Is not the present life good? 
but if they draw me away from Christ, I count these things 
loss. Why? /or the excellency of Hie knowledge of Jesus 
Christ my Lord, For when the suu hath appeared, it is loss 
to sit by a candle; so that the loss comes by comparison, 
by the superiority of the other. You see that Paul makes 
a comparison from superiority, not from diversity of kind ; 
for that which is superior, is superior to somewhat of like 
nature to itself So that he shews the connection of that 
knowledge by the same means, by which he draws the 
superiority from the comparison. For Whom I hare suffered 
the loss of all tilings, and do count them dung, that I may 
win Christ. It is not yet manifest, whether he uses the 
word dung of the Law, for it is likely that he applies it to the 
things of this world. For when he says, the things ichich 
icerc gain to me, those J counted loss for Christ ; yea doubt- 
less, he adds, / count all things loss'; all things, he means, 
things past, and things present, and, if you wish, the Law too, 
it is not even so insulted. For dung comes from corn, and 
the strength of the corn is the dung, I mean, the chaff. 
Wherefore the dung was useful in its former state. For we 
pluck it together with the corn, and had there been no dung, 
there would have been no corn. Thus too is it with th(^ 

The highest Righteousness comes by grace. 131 

Seest thou, how every where he calls it loss, not absolutely, Hom. 
but for Christ. Yea doubtless, and I count all things but- ^ ' 

loss: wherefore? Again he adds,/br the excellency of the ^~' 
knowledge (of Him), for Whom I have suffered the loss of all 
things. Then he adds, ^rherefore too I count all things to 
be loss, that I may gain Christ. 

See how, from every point, he lays hold of Christ as his 
foundation^, and suffers not the Law to be any where exposed, '»e"Va- 
or receive a blow, but guards it on every side. And that I may 
be found in Him, not having my own righteousness tihicli is of 
the Law. If he who had righteoasness, ran to this other 
righteousness because his own was nothing, how much rather 
ought they, who have it not, to turn to Him ? Well said he, 
Not having mine own righteousness, not that which I gained 
by labour and toil, but that which I found from grace. If 
then he who was so excellent is saved by grace, much 
more are you. For since it was likely they would say that 
the righteousness which comes from toil is the greater, he 
shews that it is dung in comparison with the other. For 
otherwise I, who was so excellent in it, would not have cast 
it away, and taken refuge with the other. But what is that 
other } That which is from the faith of God, i. e. it too is 
given by God. This is the righteousness of God, it is alto- 
gether a gift, and the gifts of God far exceed those worthless 
good deeds, which come from our own diligence. 

But what is this faith ? By faith, he says, that I may 
know Him ; so then the knowledge is by faith, and without 
faith it is impossible to know Him. But how ? Through it 
we must know the power of His resurrection. For \\hat rea- 
soning can demonstrate to us the Resurrection ? None, but 
faith only. For if the resurrection of Christ, Who was ac- 
cording to the flesh, is known by faith, how can the genera- 
tion of the Word of God be comprehended by reasoning ? 
For the resurrection is less than the generation. And how } 
Of that there have been many examples, but of this not one; 
for many dead have arisen before Christ, though after their 
resurrection they die, but no one was ever born of a virgin. 
If then we must comprehend by faith that which is inferior 
to the generation according to the flesh, how can that which 
is far greater, immeasurably and incomparably greater, be 


132 Faith perfected by conformity to Christ. 

PaiL. comprehended by reason. These things make the righteous- 

-1— I — ' ness, for this must we believe that He was able, but how He 

^^■as able we cannot prove. For from faith is the iellowship 

of His sufferings. But how.? Had we not believed, neither 

2 Tim. should we have suffered: had we not believed, that if we 

2 12. 7 ./ 

suffer with Him, we shall also reiyn with Him, we should 
not liave endured the sufferings. Wherefore both the gene- 
ration and resurrection is comprehended by faith. Seest 
thou, that faith must not be absolutely, but through good 
works, for he especially believes that Christ hath risen, who 
in like sort gives himself up to dangers, who hath fellowship 
with Plim in His sufferings. For he hath fellowship with Him 
Who rose again, with Him Who liveth ; wherefore he saith. 
And may be found in Him, not having mine own righteousness, 
which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of 
Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith : that I 
may know Him, and the power of His resurrect io?i, and the 
fellowship of His sufferings, being made conformable unto His 
death ; if by any ?neans I might attain unto the resurrection 
of the dead. He saith, being made conformable unto 
His death, i. e. having fellowship ; whereas He suffered 
from men, thus I too; wherefore he said, being made 

Col. I, conformable, and again in another place, atid I fill up that 
which is behind of the ajfflictions of Christ in my flesh, i. e. 
in persecutions. For these persecutions and sufferings work 
that image of His deatli, for He sought not His own, but the 
good of many. 

Therefore persecutions, and afflictions, and straits, ought 
not to disturb you, but even to make you glad, because 
through them we are conformed to His death. As if he had 
said. We are moulded to His likeness; as he says in another 

2 Cor. 2, place, where he writeth, bearing about in the body the dying 
of the Lord Jesus. And this too comes from great faith. 
For we not only believe that He arose, but that after His 
resurrection also He hath great power: wherefore we travel 
the same road which He travelled, i. e. we become brethren 
to Him in this respect also. As if he had said, We become 
Christs in this respect. O how great is the dignity of suffer- 
ings ! We believe that we are made conforviable to His death 
through sufferings ! For as in Baptism, we were buried in the 

St. Paul actually conformed to His death. 133 

likeness of His death, thus here, we are made conformable to Hom. 

His death. There did he rightly say, In the lileness of His ^^^ ' ^ 

death, for there we died not entirely, we died not in the flesh, 4. 6. 
to the body, but to sin. Since then a death is spoken of, and a 
death ; but He indeed died in the body, whilst we died to sin, 
and there the Man died which lie assumed, Who was in our 
flesh, but here the man of sin ; for this cause he saith there, 
in the likeness of His death, but here, no longer in the likeness 
of His death, but to His very death. For Paul, in his perse- (3) 
cutions, no longer died to sin, but in' his very body. Where- » or to- 
fore, he endured the same death. If hy any means, saith he, 
Inflight attain unto the resurrection of the dead. What 
sayest thou .f* All men will have a share in that. For M;eiCor. 
shall not all sleeps hut we shall all be changed, and shall all 
share not only in the Resurrection, but in incorruption. 
Some indeed to honour, but others as a means ^ of punish- "»?>»^'"- 
ment. If therefore all have a shave in the Resurrection, and 
not in the Resurrection only, but also in incorruption, how 
saidest thou, //" ly any means I may attain, as if about to 
share in some especial thing ? For this cause, saith he, I 
endure these tilings, if by any means I might attain unto the 
resurrectio)t of the dead. For if thou hadst not died, thou 
wouldest not arise. What is it then ? Some great thing 
seems here to be hinted at. So great was it, that he dared 
not openly assert it, but simply saith. If by any means. I 
have believed in Him and His resurrection, nay, moreover, I 
suflfer for Him, yet I am unable to be confident concerning 
the Resurrection. What resurrection doth he here mention ? 
That which leads to Christ Himself. I said, that I believed 
in Him, and in the power of His resurrection, and that I 
have fellowship with His sufferings^ and that I am made con- 
formable to His death. Yet after all these things I am by no 
means confident; as he saith elsewhere, let him that think- j Cor. 
eth he standeth, take heed lest he fall. And again, I fear ' 
lest by any means, when I have preached to others, I myself '^ Cor. 9, 
should he a castaway. 

Ver. 12. Not as though I had already attained, either were 
already perfect : but I follow after, if that I may apprehend 
that for which also I am apprehended of Christ Jesus. 

Not that I have already apprehended. What means already 

134 Sb'iviny after the ylorious Resurrection. 

Phil, apprehended? He speaks of the ])rize, but if he who had 

— — ^endured such sufferings, he who had persecuted, he itho had 
in him lite dijing of the Lord Jesus, was not yet confident 
about that resurrection, what can we say? What meaneth, 

2 Cor. 4, i/" / mill/ apprehend? What I before said. If I may attain 
to the resurrection of the dead. If I may a])])rehend, he 
saith, His resurrection ; i. e. If 1 may be able to endure so 
great things, if I may be able to imitate Him, if I may be 
able to become conformed to Him. For example, Christ suf- 
fered many things, He was spit upon, He was stricken, was 
scourged, at last He died. This is the entire course. 
Through all these things it is needful that men should 
endure the whole contest, and so come to His resurrection. 
He meaneth either this, or that if I am thought worthy to 
share the accepted resurrection, which is in confidence, I 
hasten to His resurrection. For if I am able to endure all the 
contests, I shall be able also to attain to His resurrection, 
and to rise with glory. For not as yet, saith he, am I wor- 
thy, but / follow after, if that I may apprehend. My life is 
still one of contest, I am still far from the end, 1 am still dis- 
tant from the prize, still I run, still I pursue. And He said 
not, 1 run, but I pursue, and rightly so. For we know with 
what eagerness a man pursues. He sees no one, he thrusts 
aside with great violence all who would interrupt his pursuit. 
He collects together his mind, and sight, and strength, and 
soul, and body, looking to nothing else than the prize. But 
if Paul, who so pursued, who had suffered so many things, 
yet saith, if I may attain, what must we say, who have re- 
laxed our efforts } Then to shew that the thing is of debt, he 
saith, For which also J am apprehended of Christ Jesus. I 
was, he saith, of the number of the lost, I gasped for breath, 
I was nigh dead, God apprehended me. For He pursued 
us, when we fled from Him, with all speed. By this he 
points out all those things; for the words, I am apprehended^ 
shew the earnestness of Him who wishes to apprehend us, 
our great aversion to Him, our wandering, our flight from 
(4) Wherefore, too, we must weep, that when all have returned 

"^°"*^'to their former state, and we are liable for a vast debt, yet 
no one grieves, no one weeps, no one groans. And 

77«? gift of grace binds us to abide with God. 135 

not that I use irony here, for as before the appearance of Hom. 
Christ we fled from God, thus we flee from Him now too. 

For we can flee from God, not in place, for He is every where, 
but by our deeds; and that we cannot fly from Him, hear the 
Prophet, when he says, Wliither shall I go from Thy Spirit, Ps. 139, 
or whither shall I flee from Tliy presence? How then can 
we fly from God? Even as we can become distant from God, 
even as we can be removed afar off". They that are far from Ps- 73, 
Thee, it says, shall perish. And again, Have not your ini-ia',59^^. 
quities separated betireen Me and you ? How then comes 
this removal, how comes this separation .'' In purpose and 
soul: for it cannot be in place. For how could one fly 
from Him who is every where present .? The sinner then flies. 
This is what the Scripture saith, The wicked ileelh wJienVxor. 

28 1. 

no man piirsueth him. We eagerly fly from God, although He ' 
alway pursueth us. The Apostle hasted, that he might be 
near Him. We haste, that we may be far off. 

Are not these things then worthy of lamentation.^ Are not 
these things worthy of tears ? Whither fliest thou ? Wretched 
and miserable man, whither fliest thou from thy Life and thy 
Salvation ? If thou fly from God, with whom wilt thou take 
refuge } If thou fly from the Light, whither wilt thou cast 
thine eyes ? If thou fly from thy Life, whence wilt thou 
henceforth live ? Let us fly from the enemy of our Salvation ! 
Whensoever we sin, we fly fi'om God, we are as runaways, 
we depart to a foreign land. As he who consumed his pa- 
ternal goods and departed into a foreign land, who wasted 
all his father's substance, and lived in want. We too have 
substance from our Father; and what is this.'' He hath freed 
us from our sins ; He hath freely given to us readiness, 
patience ; He hath freely given to us the Holy Ghost 
in our Baptism ; if we waste these things, we shall henceforth 
be in want. For as the sick, as long as they are troubled 
with fevers, and badness of their juices, are unable to arise or 
work, or do any thing, but if any one sets them free, and 
brings them to health, if they then work not, this comes from 
their own sloth. Thus too is it with us; a heavy disease 
and grievous fever lay upon us. We lay not upon a bed, 
but upon wickedness itself, cast away in crime, as on a dung- 
hill, full of sores, and evil odours, squalid, wasting away. 


136 Diseases of sin. Christ has once given their cure. 

Phil, more like ghosts^ than men. Evil spirits encompassed us 
' * about, the Prince of this world laughing, deriding, and as- 
saulting us, the Only-Begotten Son of God came, sent forth 
the rays of His Presence, and straightway dispelled the dark- 
ness. The King, who is on His Father's throne, came to us, 
having left His Father's throne. And when I say having left, 
think not of any removal, for He filleth the heavens and the 
earth, but this I say by reason of the economy ; He came 
to His enemy, who hated Flini, who turned himself away, who 
could not endure to behold Him, who blasphemed Him every 
day. He saw him lying on a dunghill, eaten with worms, 
afflicted with fever and hunger, having every sort of disease ; 
for both fever vexed him, which is evil desire; and inflamma- 
tion lay heavy on him, this is pride ; and gnawing hunger 
had hold of him, which is covetousness ; and putrifying sores 
on every side, for this is foraication ; and blindness of eyes, 
which is idolatry; and dumbness, and madness, which is to 
worship stocks and stones, and address them ; and gi*eat 
deformity, for wickedness is this, foul to behold, and a most 
heavy disease. He saw us speaking more foolishly than 
the mad, and calling stocks our God, and stones likewise ; 
He saw us in such great guilt, and did not reject us; was not 
wroth, turned not away, hated us not, for He was a Master, 
and could not hate His own creation. What does he do? As 
a most excellent physician, He prepaieth medicines of great 
price, and Himself tastes them first. For He Himself first 
followed after virtue, and thus gave it to us. And He first 
gave us the Washing, like some antidote, and thus we 
vomited up all our guilt, and all things took their flight at 
once, and our inflammation ceased, and our fever was 
quenched, and our sores were dried up. For all the evils 
which are from covetousness, and anger, and all the rest, 
were dissipated by the Spirit. Our eyes were opened, our 
ears were opened, our tongue spake holy words : our soul re- 
ceived strength, our body received such beauty and bloom, 
as it is like that he who is bom a son of God should have 
from the grace of the Spirit. Such glory as it is like that 
the new-born son of a king should have, nurtured in purple. 
Alas ! How great nobility did He confer on us ! Yet we 
remain thankless to Him who so loved us. 

Return of the Prodigal son otcr example. 137 

We were born, we were nurtured, we were benefited, why Hom. 
do we fly from our Benefactor ? He then, Who hath done all — 

these thhigs, giveth us strength too, for it was not possible, 
that they who are bowed down by the disease should endure 
it, did not He Himself give us the strength. He gave us 
remission of our sins, we set the gift at nought. He gave us 
wealth, we scattered it, we devoured it all. He gave us 
strength, we wasted it. He gave us grace, we quenched it; 
and how? we consumed it upon nought that was fitting, 
we used it for no useful end. These things have destroyed 
us, and what is more dreadful than all, when we are in a 
foreign country, and feeding on husks, we say not. Let us 
return to our Father, and say, IVe have sinned against luvike 
Heaven, and against Thee. And that too, when we have so ' ^^' 
loving a Father, who so eagerly desires our return, that if we 
will only leave our sins, if we will only return to Him, He 
will no longer bear to call in question our foi'mer deeds, only 
let us quit them. It is sufficient apology with Him, that we 
have retm'ned. What say I, He will not call in question? 
Not only He Himself calls not in question, but if another 
does so, He stops his mouth, though the accuser be one of 
good repute. Wherefore, let us return ! How long do we 
stand afar off? Let us perceive our dishonour, let us be 
sensible of our vileness. Sin makes us swine, sin brings 
famine to the soul ; let us regain ourselves, and be sober 
again, and return to our former high birth, that we may 
obtain the good things which are to come, by the grace and 
love of oiu: Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom, &c. 


Phil. iii. 13, 14. 

Brethren, I count not myself to have apprehended: hut this 
one thing I do, forgetting those things ivhich are behind, 
and reaching forth unto those things which are before, I 
press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of 
God in Christ Jesus. 

Nothing renders our excellencies vain and puffs ihem 
Uira^t/iraaway *, so much as the memory of the good deeds we have 
done ; for this produces two evils, it both renders us remiss, 
and raises us to haughtiness. Wherefore see how Paul, since 
he knew our nature to be easily inclined to remissness, 
though he had given great praise to the Philippians, now 
subdues their mind by many other things above, but chiefly 
by his present words. And what are they ? Brethren, I 
count not myself to have apprehended. But if Paul had not 
as yet apprehended, and is not confident about the Resurrec- 
tion and things to come, hardly should they bi; so, who have 
not even succeeded in the smallest proportion with him. 
And what he says is this, I consider that I have not as yet 
apprehended all virtue, speaking as if one should say of a 
runner, he hath not yet apprehended. Not as yet, saith he, 
^ ^""- have I completed all. And if in another place he saith, / 
have fought the good, fight, but here, I count myself not as 
yet to have apprehended ; any one who reads both these 
places, will well know the reason of those, and of the present 
words. For it is not necessary to dwell continually on the 
same point, and to be ourselves teaching you every thing, 

Low opinion of ourselves leads to earnest striving. 139 

and that he spoke these words at an earlier date, but tlie Hom. 
others near his death. / count not myself to have appre- — — - 
hended, saith he, but I am solely engaged on tJiis one tiling, 
in reaching forth unto the things which are before. For 
that is the meaning of this one thing — -forgetting those things 
which are behind, and reaching forth unto those tilings 
which are before, I press toward the mark for the prize of 
the high calling of God in Christ Jesus; behold how in 
speaking thus, he shews what it was which made him 
reach forward unto the things which are before. He then, 
who thinks that all is accomplished, and that nothing is 
wanting to him for the perfecting of virtue, may cease 
from nmning, as having apprehended all. But he who 
thinks that he is still distant from the goal, will never 
cease to run. This then we should always considei*, even 
though we have wrought ten thousand good deeds; for if 
Paul, after ten thousand deaths, after so many dangers, 
considered this, how much more should we } For I fainted 
not, saith he, although I availed not, after running so much; 
nor did I despair, but I still run, I still strive. This thing 
only I consider, that I may in truth advance ; thus too we 
should act, we should forget our successes, and throw them 
behind us, for the runner reckons not up how many circuits 
he hath finished, but how many are left. We too should 
reckon up, not how far we are advanced in virtue, but how 
much remains for us. For what doth that which is finished 
profit us, when that which is deficient is not added ? More- 
over he did not say, do not reckon, nor remember, hwi for- 
getting, to make us more zealous, for we then become eager, 
when we apply all diligence to what is left, when we give to 
oblivion everything else. Reaching forth, saith he; before 
we arrive, we strive to obtain. For he reacheth forth, who 
endeavours to outstrip his feet, though running with the rest 
of his body, stretching himself forward, and reaching out his 
hands, that he may accomplish somewhat more of the course. 
But this comes from great eagerness, from much warmth; 
thus the runner should run with gi-eat earnestness, with so 
great eagerness, without relaxation. As far as one who so 
runs differs from him who lies supine, so far doth Paul 
differ from us. He died daily, he was reproved daily, there 

140 Looking to the prize the way to rmi well. 

Phil, was no season, there was no time in which his course ad- 
- — ^^ — ' vanced not. He wished not to take, but to snatch the prize; 
for in this way we may take it. He who giveth the prize 
standeth on high, the prize is Jaid up on high. 
(2) See how great a distance this to run over ! See how great 
is the ascent ! Thither we must fly up with the wings of 
the Spirit, otherwise it is impossible to surmount this height. 
Thither must we go with the body, for it is allowed. For 
our conversation is in heaven, there is the prize; secst thou 
the runners, how they live by rule, how they touch nothing 
that relaxes their strength, how they exercise themselves 
every day in the palaestra, under a master, and by rule? Do 
thou too imitate them, or rather exhibit greater eagerness, 
for the prizes are not equal : many are those who would 
hinder you; live by rule: many are the things which relax 
'iir»ix«. your strength; make it* agile' for thy feet: for it is possible 
so to do, it comes not naturally, but by our will. Let us 
bring it to lightness, lest our swiftness'' of foot be hindered 
by the weight of other things. Teach thy feet to be sure, 
for there are many slippery places, and if thou fallest, straight- 
way thou losest much. But yet if thou fall, rise up again. 
Even thus mayest thou obtain the victory. Never attempt 
slippery things, and thou wilt not fall ; walk upon firm ground, 
up with thy head, up with thine eyes; these commands the 
trainers give to those who run. Thus thy strength is sup- 
ported ; but if thou stoopest downward, thou fallest, thou art 
relaxed. Look upward, where the prize is ; the sight of the 
prize increaseth the determination of our will; this hope suf- 
fereth not to perceive toil or distress", it maketh the distance 
appear short; and what is this prize? No palm branch; but 
what? The kingdom of heaven, everlasting rest, glory toge- 
ther with Christ, the inheritance, brotherhood, ten thousand 
good things, which it is impossible to name. It is impossible 
to describe the beauty of that prize; he who hath it alone 
knoweth it, and he who is about to receive it. It is not of 
gold, it is not of jewels, it is far more precious. Gold is mire, 

» i. e. thy strength, or rather ' uius- ■= This is the sense of Edd. (readin;? 

cle,' as he uses Ivx"* '" Horn, on Stat, x lor i ) butB. is better, reading Xn^tut 

Horn. 1. (4.) for ^xl^tus, ' The hope of winning 

^ Tien, and R. <ra.x,"'''»'^h which the sufiereth not to perceive toil.' 
contest requires. 

Christ crowns above. Perfection in humility. 141 

in comparison with that prize, precious stones are mere Hom. 

bricks in comparison with its beauty. If thou hast this, and^ - 

takest thy departure to heaven, thou wiU be able to walk 
there with great honour; the angels will reverence thee, when 
thou bearest this prize, with much confidence wilt thou ap- 
proach tliem all. In Christ Jesus, see the humility of his 
mind; this I do, saith he, in Christ Jesus, for it is impossible 
without His assistance to pass over so vast an interval : we 
have need of much aid, of a mighty alliance; He hath willed 
that thou shouldest struggle below, on high He crowns thee. 
Not as in this world ; the crown is not there, where the con- 
test is ; but this crown is in that bright place. See ye not, 
even here, that the most honoured of the wrestlers and cha- 
rioteers are not crowned in the course below, but the king calls 
them up, and crowns them there ? Thus too is it here, in 
heaven thou*^ receivest the prize. 

Ver. 15. Let us therefore, as many as he 'perfect, he thus 
minded, saith he. And if in any thing ye he otherwise minded, 
God trill reveal even this unto you. What meaneth the word 
this? That we should forget those things which are behind. 
Wherefore it belongs to him who is perfect not to consider 
himself perfect. How therefore sayest thou, as many as are 
perfect? For tell me, are we minded as thou art .? For if thou 
hast not attained nor art perfected, how dost thou command 
those that are perfect to be so minded as thou art, who art 
not yet perfect ? Yea, for this, saith he, is perfection. 
And if ye are in any thing otherwise minded, God shall 
reveal even this unto you. That is, if any one considers that 
he has attained all excellence. He puts them on their guard, 
not by speaking directly, but what saith he? ff in any thing 
ye be otherwise minded, God shall reveal even this unto you. 
See how humbly he saith this ! God shall teach you, i. e. 
God shall persuade you% not simply teach you, for Paul in- 
deed taught, but God led them on. And he said not, shall 
lead you on, but shall reveal, that this may rather seem to 
spring from ignorance. These words were spoken not con- 
cerning doctrines, but concerning perfection of life, and our 
not considering ourselves to be perfect, for he who considers 
that he hath apprehended all, hath nothing. 

'' Al, ' look to heaven, where thou.' ' i. e. succeed in persuading. 

142 Practice necessary to good teaching. 

Phil. Ver. 16. Nevertheless, whereto ive have already attained, 
- — '■ — -let us walk by the same rule, let us mind the same thing. 

Nevertheless, whereto we have attained. Wliat means 
this.? Let us hold fast, he saith, that in which we have 
succeeded ; love, concord, and peace : for in this we have 
succeeded'. Whereto ne have already attained: to walk 
by the same rule, to mind, the same thing. Whereunto 
we have attained, i. e. in this we liave already succeeded. 
Seest thou, that he wills that precepts should be a rule to 
us } And a rule admits neither addition, nor subtraction, 
since that destroys its being a rule. By the same rule, i. e. 
by the same faith, within the same limits. 

Ver. 17. Brethren, be followers of me, and mark them 
that walk so as ye have us for an ensample. 

He had said above, beware of dogs, from such he had led 
them away; to these he brings them near, whom they ought 
hereafter to imitate. If any one, saith he, will imitate us, if 
any one will walk the same road, take heed to them, for 
though I am not present, ye know the manner of my walk, 
that is, my conduct in life. For not by words only did he 
teach, but by deeds too ; as in the chorus, and the army, 
the rest must imitate the leader of the chorus or the army, 
and thus advance in good order. For it is possible that the 
order may be dissolved by sedition. 
Moral. The Apostles therefore were a type, and kept throughout 
v^J a certain archetypal model. Consider how entirely ac- 
curate their life was, so that they are proposed as an arche- 
type and example, and as living laws. For what was said in 
writing, they manifested to all in their actions. This is the 
best teaching; thus the teacher will be able to cany on his 
disciple. But if he indeed speaks as a philosopher, but in 
his actions doth the contrary, he is no longer a teacher. For 
mere verbal wisdom is easy even for the disciple : but there 
is need of that teaching and leading which comes of deeds. 
For this maketh the teacher to be reverenced, and prepares 
the disciple to yield obedience. How so } When one sees 
him delivering wisdom in words, he will say he commands 
impossibilities ; that they are impossibilities, the teacher is 

' He applies this to walking by the same rule with each other, ^-e. 

Christian life independent of teachers and circumstances. 143 

the first to shew, by not doing them. But if he sees his Hom. 
virtue ftilly carried out in action, he will no longer be able -^^^' 
to speak thus. Yet although the life of our teacher be care- 
less, let us take heed to ourselves, and let us listen to the 
words of the prophet ; And theij shall be all taught of God. Is. 54, 
And they shall teach no more every man his brother, saying, ^^^ 3j 
Know the Lord, for they shall all know me from the least of^'^- 
them to the greatest of tJiem. Hast thou a teacher who is 
not virtuous.? Still thou hast Him Who is truly a Teacher, 
Whom alone thou shouldest call a Teacher. Learn from 
Him: He hath said, Learn of Me, for I am meek. Take, 
heed, then, to thy teacher, but to Him and to His lessons. " 
Take thence thy examples, thou hast a most excellent model, 
to it conform thyself. There are innumerable models laid 
before thee in the Scriptures of virtuous lives, so that if you 
will, go to the disciples after the Master. One hath shone 
forth through poverty, another through riches. As Elijah 
through poverty, Abraham through riches. Go to that ex- 
ample, which thou esteemest most easy, most befitting thyself 
to practise. Again, one by marriage, the other by virginity. 
Abraham by marriage, the other by virginity. Follow which- 
ever thou wilt: ibr both lead to heaven. One shone forth 
by fasting, as John, another without fasting, as Job. Again, 
this latter had a care for his wife, his children, his daughters, 
his family, and possessed great wealth ; the other possessed 
nothing but the garment of hair. And why do 1 make 
mention of family, or wealth, or money, when it is possible 
that even one in a kingdom should lay hold on virtue, for 
the house of a king would be found more full of trouble 
than any private family. David then shone forth in his 
kingdom. The purple and the diadem rendered him not at 
all remiss. To another it was entrusted to preside over a 
whole people, I mean Moses, which was a more difficult task, 
for there the power' was greater, whence the difficulty too i ||«j/a-/fl( 
became greater. Thou hast seen men approved in wealth, 
thou hast seen them in poverty also, thou hast seen them in 
marriage, thou hast seen them in virginity too; on the con- 
trary, behold some lost in marriage and in virginity, in wealth 
and in poverty. For example, many men have perished in 

144 Examples of good and evil in various conditions. 

Phil, marriage, as Samson*-', yet not from maniage, but from their 
- — '■ — ^"own deliberate choice. Likewise in virginity, as the five 
virgins. In wealth, as the rich man, who disregarded Lazarus: 
in poverty, innumerable poor men even now are lost. In a 
kingdom, I can point to many who have perished, and in 
ruling the people. Wouldest thou see men saved in the 
rank of a soldier? look to Cornelius; and in the government 
of a family? look to the eunuch of the Ethiopian Queen. 
Thus is it universally. If we use our wealth as is fit, nothing 
will destroy us; but if not, all things will destroy us, whether 
a kingdom, or poverty, or wealth. But nothing will have 
power to hurt the man, who keeps well awake. 

For tell me, was captivity any harm? None at all. For 
consider, I pray thee, Joseph, who became a slave, and pre- 
sei-ved his virtue. Consider Daniel, and the Three Children, 
who became captives, and how much the more they shone 
forth, for Adrtue shineth every where, is invincible, and 
nothing can put hindrances in its way. But why make I 
mention of poverty, and captivity, and slavery ? Neither 
hunger, nor sores, nor disease, can harm it. For disease is 
more hard to endure than slavery : such was Lazarus, such 
was Job, such was Timothy, straitened by often infirmities. 
Thou seest that nothing can obtain the mastery over virtue. 
Neither wealth, nor poverty, nor the having power, nor the 
being subject to it, nor the pre-eminence in affairs, nor 
disease, nor contempt, nor abandonment. But having left 
all these things below, and upon the earth, it hastens 
towards Heaven, only let the soul be noble, and nought 
can hinder it fiom being virtuous. For when he who works 
is in vigour, nothing external can hinder him; for as in 
the arts, when the artificer is experienced and persevering, 
and thoroughly acquainted with his art, if disease overtakes 
him, he still hath it; if he become poor, he still hath it; 
whether he hath his tools in his hand or hath them not, 
whether he works or worketh not, he loseth not at all his art : 
for the science of it is contained within him. Thus too the 

r So on Ps. 4. (13.) Some other Fa- Ser. 3G4. where however he says that 
thers speak more gently of Samson, as if Samson was righteous, his righteous- 
St. Augustine, eontr. Gaud. 1. 40. and ness is deeply hidden. 

Virtue can be exercised in (ill circumstances. 145 
virtuous man, who is devoted to God, manifests liis virtue, if H^^m. 


you cast him into wealth, or if into poverty, if into disease, if '- 

into health, if into honour, if into dishonour. Did not the 
Apostles pass through every state. By honour, it is written, 2 Cor. 
and dishonour, by good report and exril report ? For this ' 
makes the athlete, that he should be prepared for every 
thing, for such is the nature of virtue. 

If thou sayest, I am not able to preside over many, 1 
ought to lead a solitary life ; thou offerest an insult to virtue, 
for it can make use of every state, and shine through all : 
only let it be in the soul. Is there a famine ? or is there 
abundance ? It shews forth its own strength, as Paul saith, 
/ know how to abound, and lioiv to suffer need. Was he Phil. 4, 
required to labour? He was not ashamed, but wrought two Acts28, 
years. Was hunger to be undergone ; He sank not vmder it, 3^- 
nor wavered. Was death to be borne ? He became not 
dejected, through all he exhibited his noble mind and skill. 
Him therefore let us imitate, and we shall have no cause of 
grief: for tell me, what will have power to grieve such an 
one ? Nothing. As long as no one deprives us of this 
virtue, we shall be the most blessed of all men, in this life 
as well as in that to come. For suppose the good man hath 
a wife and children, and riches, and great honour, with all 
these things he remaineth alike virtuous. Take them away, 
and again in like sort he will be virtuous, neither over- 
whelmed by his misfortunes, nor puffed up by prosperity, 
but as a rock standeth equally unmoved in the raging sea 
and in calm, neither broken by the waves nor influenced at 
all by the calm, thus too the strong mind stands firm both in 
calm and in storm. And as little children, when sailing in a 
ship, are tossed about, whilst the pilot sits by, laughing and 
undisturbed, and delighted to see their confusion ; thus too 
the soul which is truly wise, when all others are in con- 
fusion, or else are inopportunely smiling at any change 01 
circumstance, itself sits unmoved, as it were, at the helm of 
piety. For tell me, what can disturb the pious soul .? Can 
death ? This she knows to be the beginning of a better life. 
Can poverty? This helps her on toward virtue. Can disease? 
She regards not its presence. Why speak I of disease ? She 
regards neither ease, nor tribulation ; for being beforehand 


146 The soul whose treasure is in heaven changes not. 

Phil, witli it, she hatli straitened herself. Can dislionour? The 
-^-^ — 'whole world hath been crucified to her. Can the loss 
of children ? She icars it not. Fur wlien she is fully persuaded 
of the Resurrection, what can surprise her? None of all 
these things. Doth wealth elevate her.? By no means, she 
knoweth that money is nothing. Doth glory? She hath been 
taught that all the glory of man is as the flower of grass. 
2 Tim. Dotij luxury } She hath heard Paul say. She that liveth in 

6, 6. ' •' ^ . . , 

j)leasiire is dead vhile she liveth. Since then she is neither 
inflamed nor cramped, what can equal such health as this ? 

Other souls, meanwhile, are not such, but change more 
frequently than the sea, or the cameleon, so that thou hast 
great cause to smile, when thou seest the same man at one 
time laughing, at another weeping, at one time full of care, 
at another elated beyond measure. For this cause Paul 
Eom. saith, Be not conformed to this xcorld. For we are citizens 
of heaven, where there is no turning. Prizes which change 
not are held out to us. Wherefore, let us make manifest 
this our citizenship, let us thence already receive our good 
things. Why do we cast ourselves into the Euripus, into 
tempest, into storm, into foam. Let us be in calm. It 
depends not on wealth, nor on poverty, nor honour, nor dis- 
honour, nor on sickness, nor on health, nor on weakness, but 
on our own soul. If it is firm, and well-instructed in the 
science of virtue, all things will be easy to it. Even hence it 
will already behold its rest, and that quiet harbour, and, on 
its departure, will there meet innumerable good things, the 
which may we all obtain, by the grace and love of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, with Whom, to the Father, together with the 
Holy Spirit, be glory, dominion, honour, now and ever, and 
world without end. Amen. 


Phil. iii. 18—21. 

{For many walk, of ivJiom I have told you often, and now tell 
you even weeping, thai they are the enemies of the cross of 
Christ: Whose end is destruction, whose god is their 
belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who mind earthly 
things.) For our conversation is in heaven ; from whence 
also ice look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: 
Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned 
like unto His glorious body, according to the working 
whereby He is able even to subdue all things unto Himself. 

Nothing is so unbecoming in a Christian, and foreign 
to his character, as to seek ease and rest. Nothing is so 
foreign to our profession and enUstment, as to be engrossed 
with the present hfe. Thy Master was crucified, and dost 
thou seek ease ? Thy Master was pierced with nails, and 
dost thou live delicately .'' Do these things become a noble 
soldier.? Wherefore Paul saith, Many walk, of ichom I have 
told you often, and now tell you even weeping, that they are 
enemies to the cross of Christ. Since there were some who 
made a pretence of Christianity, yet lived in ease and luxury. 
This is contrary to the Cross : wherefore he thus spoke. Por 
the cross belongs to a soul at its post for the fight, longing to 
die, seeking nothing like ease, whilst their conversation is of 
the contrary sort. So that if they say, they are of Christ, 
still they are enemies of the Cross. For did they love the 
Cross, they would strive to live a life befitting the Cross. 
Was not thy Master hung upon the tree ? Imitate Him in 
some other way, if thou canst not in His own. Crucify thyself, 


148 Poiver of the Cross. Sin of Self-indulgence. 

Phil, though no one crucify thee. Crucify thyself, 1 say, not that 
- — '- — ^thou mayest slay thyself, God forbid, for that is a wicked 
Gal. 6, thing, but as Paul said. The ivorld is criicijied to me and I 
unto the norld? If thou lovest thy Master, die His death. 
Learn how great is the power of the Cross. How many 
goods it hath attained, and doth still : how it is the safety of 
our life. Through it all things are done. Baptism is through 
the Cross, for we must receive that seal. The laying on of 
hands is through the Cross. If we are in the way, if we are 
at home, wherever we are % the Cross is a great good, the 
armour of salvation, a shield which cannot be beaten down, 
a weapon to oppose the devil ; thou bearest the Cross when 
thou art at enmity with him, not simply when thou sealest 
thyself by it, but when thou sufferest the things belonging to 
the Cross. Christ thought fit to call our sufferings by the 
Matt, name of the Cross. As when he saith, Except a man take 
up his cross and follow Me, i. e. except he be prepared to 

But these being vile, and lovers of life, and lovers of their 
bodies, are enemies of the Cross. And every one, who is a 
friend of luxury, and of present safety, is an enemy of that 
Cross in which Paul makes his boast : which he embraces, 
with which he desires to be incorporated. As when he saith, 
/ am crucified unto the world, and the world unto me. But 
here he saith, / noiv tell you weeping. Wherefore? Be- 
cause the evil was urgent, because such deserve tears. Of a 
truth the luxurious are worthy of tears, who make fat that 
which is thrown about them, I mean the body, and take no 
thought of that soul which must give account. Behold thou 
livest delicately, behold thou art drunken, to-day and to- 
morrow, ten years, twenty, thirty, fifty, a hundred, which is 
impossible ; but if thou wilt, let us suppose it. What is the 
end? What is the gain .? Nought at all. Doth it not then 
deserve tears, and lamentations, to lead such a life ; God 
hath brought us into this course, that He may crown us, and 
we take our departure without doing any noble action. 
Wherefore Paul weepeth, where others laugh, and live in 
pleasure. So feeling is he : such thought taketh he for all 
men. Whose god, saith he, is their belly. For this have 
* Sav. mar. adds, ' We are guarded by the Cross.' 

Glorying in evil the worst state. 149 

they a God p ! That is, let us eat and drink ! Dost thou see, Hom. 

how great an evil luxury is ? to some their wealth, and to - 

others their belly is their god. Are not these too idolaters, 
and worse than the common ? Whose glory, saith he, is in 
their shame. Some say, that he points at the circumcision 
in these words. I think not so, but this is its meaning, they 
make a boast of those things, of which they ought to be 
ashamed. As he saith in another place. What fruit hadye'Rom. 6, 
then in those things, whereof ye are now ashamed. It is a ^^' 
fearful thing to do shameful actions, but to do them, and be 
ashamed, is only half so dreadful. But where a man even 
boasts himself of them, it is excessive senselessness. 

Do these words apply to them alone ? And do those who 
are here present escape the charge ? And will no one have 
account to render of these things? Does no one make 
a god of his belly, or glory in his shame ? I would wish, 
earnestly would I wish, that none of these charges lay against 
us, and that 1 did not know any one involved in what I have 
said. But 1 fear lest the words have more reference to us, 
than to the men of those times. For when one consumes his 
whole life in drinking and revelling, and expends some small 
trifle on the poor, whilst he consumes the larger portion on 
his belly, will not these words with justice apply to him } No (2) 
words are more apt to call attention, or more cutting in re- 
proof, than these. Whose god is their belly, whose glory is 
in their shame. And who are these ? They who mind 
earthly things, who say, " Let us build houses." Where, 
I ask? On the earth, they answer. Let us purchase farms; 
on the earth again: let us obtain power; again on the earth: 
let us gain glory ; again on the earth : let us enrich oui-- 
selves; all these things are on the earth. These are they, 
whose god is their belly, for if they have no spiritual 
thoughts, but have all their possessions here, and mind these 
things, with reason have they their belly for their god, in 
saying. Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die. And 
then thou grievest about thy body, that it is of earth, though 
this doth thee no injury in respect of virtue. But whilst thou 

P There is some false reading here. Old Lat. has ' What is their God ? 
This, Let us eat and drink !' 

150 The body is for trial, aud meauf to he glorified. 

Phil, draggest thy soul to tlie earth with luxury, and takest no heed 
^' ^'' of this, tell me dost thou laugh, and art oveijoyed? And 
what pardon wilt "thou obtain for thy utter want of feeling ? 
When thou oughtest to render even thy body spiritual; for 
thou mayest, if thou wilt. Thou hast received a belly, that 
thou mayest feed, not distend it, that thou mayest have the 
mastery over it, not have it as mistress over thee: that it may 
minister to thee for the nourishment of the other parts, not 
that thou mayest minister to it, not that thou mayest exceed 
hmits. The sea, when it passes its bounds, doth not work 
so many evils, as the belly doth to our body, together with 
our soul. The former overfloweth all the earth, the latter all 
the body. Put moderation for a boundary to it, as God hath 
put the sand for the sea. Then if its waves arise, and rage 
furiously, rebuke it, with the power which is in thee. See 
how God hath honoured thee with reason, that thou mightest 
imitate Him, and thou wilt not \ but where thou seest it over- 
flowing, destroying and overwhelming thy whole nature, 
darest not to restrain or moderate it. 

Whose god, he saith, is their belly. Let us see how Paul 
serv^ed God: let us see how gluttons serve their belly. Do 
not they undergo innumerable deaths.'' do not they fear to 
disobey whatever it orders? do not they minister impossibi- 
lities to it.? Are not they worse than slaves.? But Paul was 
not such. Wherefore he said, Our conversation is in Heaven. 
Let us not then seek for ease here, let us wish to shine there, 
where our conversation is. From whence also, saith he, we 
look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: Who shall 
change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto His 
glorious body. By little and little he hath carried us up. He 
saith. From Heaven, and Our Saviour, shewing, from the 
place, and from the Person, the dignity of the subject. 
Who shall change our vile body, saith he. Our body now 
sufTereth many things: it is bound with chains, it is scourged, 
it sufFereth innumerable evils; but the Body of Christ suffered 
the same. This he hinted at, when he said. That it may be 
fashioned like unto His glorious body. Wherefore the body 
is the same, but putteth on incorru})tion. Shall change, 
saith he. Wherefore the fashion is diifercnt, or perchance 
he speaks figuratively of the change. 

The Resurrection . Misery of falling from glory. 151 
He saith, our vile body, because it is now humbled, subject Hom. 

to destruction, to pain, because it seemeth to be worthless, 
and to have nothing beyond that of other animals. That it 
may he fasJdoned like unto His glorious Body. What? shall 
this our body be fashioned like unto Him, Who sitteth at 
the right hand of the Father, to Him Who is worshipped by 
the Angels, before Whom do stand the incorporeal Powers, 
to Him Who is above all rule, and power, and might? If then 
the whole world were to take up weeping and lament for 
those who have fallen from this hope, could it worthily 
lament? because, when a promise is given us of our body 
being made like to Him, it still departs with the Devils. 1 
speak not of Hell now; whatever can be said, I consider 
nothing " to this falling off. What sayest thou, O Paul ? To 
be made like unto Him ? Yes, he answ'ereth; then, lest you 
should disbelieve, he addeth a reason ; According to tlie 
working whereby He is able even to subdue all things unto 
Himself. He hath power, saith he, to subdue all things 
unto Himself, wherefore also destruction and death. Or 
rather, He doth this with the same power. For tell me, which 
requireth the greater power, to subject demons, and Angels, 
and Archangels, and Cherubim, and Seraphim, or to make 
the body incorruptible and immortal ? The latter certainly 
(would He do) rather than the former ; he shewed forth 
the greater works of His power, that you might believe these 
too. Wherefore, though ye see these men rejoicing, and 
honoured, yet stand firm, be not offended at them, be not 
moved. These our hopes are sufficient to raise up even 
the most sluggish and indolent. 

Chap. iv. ver. 1. Therefore, saith he, my brethren, dearly 
beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, so standfast in 
the Lord, my dearly beloved. 

So. How ? As you have stood, unmoved. See how he 
addeth praise after exhortation, my joy and my crown, not 
simply joy but glory too, not simply glory but my crown too. 
Which glory nought can equal, since it is the crown of Paul. 
So stand fast in the Lord, my dearly beloved, i. e. in the 
hope of God. 

" Mar. ' After fallinpr from so great glory, I consider hell nothing.' 

15'2 Women recomniended lu care. Benejit of this. 

Phil. Ver. 2, 3. / beseech Euoclias, and beseech Syntyche, that 
' they be of the same mind in the Lord. And I entreat thee 

also, true yoke fello IV, help those uomen. 
^ > Some say Paul here entreats his own wife ; but it is not 
so, but some other woman, or the husband of some one of 
them. Help those uomen, uhich laboured with us in the 
Gospel, nilh Clement also, and with other my /ellowlabourers, 
■whose names are in the book of life. Seest thou how great a 
testimony he beareth to their virtue ? For as Christ saith to His 

lo" 20. Apostles, Rejoice not that the spirits are subject to yon, but 
rather rejoice, because your names are written in the book oj 
life : so Paul testifieth to them, saying, whose names are 
in the book of life. These women seem to me to be the 
chief of the Church which was there, and he commendeth 
them to some notable man whom he calls his yokefelloiv, to 
whom perchance he was wont to commend them, as to an 
assistant, and fellow-soldier, and brother, and companion, as 

Rom. he doth in the Epistle to the Romans, when he saith, / com- 
' * mend unto you Fhebe our sister, tohich is a servant of the 
Church which is at Cenchrea. Yokefellow. It is either 
some brother of theirs, or the husband of some one of them, 
he calls so : as if he had said, Now thou art a tine brother, 
now a true husband, because thou hast become a Member. 
Which laboured with me in the Gospel. This protection ^" 
was not from hiendship, but for good deeds. Labouring 

' <""■»' with me. What say est thou } Did women labour^ with thee ? 
Yes, he answereth, they too contributed no small portion. 
Although many were they who wrought together with him, 
yet these women wrought amongst the many. The Churches 
then were no little edified, ibr many good ends are there 
gained where they who are approved, be they men, or be they 
women, enjoy from the rest such honour. For in the first 
place the rest are led on to a like zeal ; in the second place, 
they also gained'' by the respect shewn; and thirdly, they made 
those very persons more zealous and eai'nest. Wherefore 
thou seest that Paul hath every where a care for this, and 
conmiendelh such men for consideration. As he saith in the 

1 Cor. Epistle to the Corinthians : Who are I lie first-fruits of 

16, 15. 

<i cr^o(rTatria, he means the recom- " i. e. a reward, see on 1 Tim. 5, 6. 
mendiition to protection. Horn. xv. p. 131. 

Christ's glory in judgment. Confusion of the lost. 153 

Achaia. Some say, that the word yokefellow, (Syzygus,) is a Hom. 

proper name, but whether it be so, or no, we need not - 

accurately enquire, but remark, how he gives his orders, that 
these women should enjoy much protection. 

All we have, saith he, is in the heavens, our Saviour, our Moral. 
city, whatever a man can name: uhence, saith he, roe look \'*i 
for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ. And this is an act 
of His kindness and love toward man. He Himself again 
Cometh to us, he doth not drag us thither, but takes us, and 
so departs with us. And this is a mark of great honour; 
for if He came to us when we were enemies, much rather 
doth He now when we are become friends. He doth not 
commit this to Angels, nor to servants, but Himself cometh 
in the clouds, to call us to His royal mansion. And per- 
chance His own, as honoured by Him, shall be carried 

through the clouds, for we^ saith he, who honour Him, shall i Thess. 

4 17. 
he caught up in the clouds, and so shall we ever he with the 


Who then is found a faithful and wise servant ? Who 

are they that are deemed worthy of such good things ? How 

miserable are those who fail ! For if, after losing the kingdom, 

we were for ever to weep, should we do all we ought ? For 

were you to make mention of hells innumerable, you would 

name nothing equal to that pain which the soul there sus- 

taineth, when all the world is in confusion, when the trumpets 

are sounding, when the Angels are rushing forward, the first, 

then the second, then the third, then ten thousand ranks, are 

pouring forth upon the earth; then the Chenibim, (and 

many are these and infinite ;) and then the Seraphim ; when 

He Himself is coming, with His ineffable gloiy; when those 

meet Him, who had gone to gather the elect into the midst; 

when Paul, and all who in his time had been approved, are 

crowned, are proclaimed aloud, are honoured by the King, 

before all His heavenly host. For if hell did not exist, how 

fearful a thing it is, that the one part should be honoured, 

and the other dishonoured ! Hell, I confess, is intolerable, 

yea, very intolerable, but more intolerable than it is the loss 

of the Kingdom. For tell me, if any king, or the son of a 

king, having taken his departure, and been successful in 

154 Exclusion from ChrisCs Triumph a hitter punishment. 
Phil, innumerable wars, and become the obiect of" admiration, 

4 2. 3. 

-' should return with his whole army to any city, in his chariot, 

with his trn]ihies, with his innumerable bands of soldiers, all 
adorned with gol'^? ^^ith his spear-men, his body-}j;uard, 
bearing golden shields, whilst the whole city was adorned 
with crowns, whilst all the rulers of the world accompanied 
Him, and all the maidiood of foreign nations followed Him, 
prisoners, prajfects, satraps, consuls, tyrants, rulers. Then 
should he in all this pomp receive the citizens who meet 
him, and embrace them, and stretch forth his hand, and give 
them freedom of access, and even converse with them, all 
standing around, as with friends, and tell them that all that 
journey was undertaken for their sake, and should then lead 
one party into his palace, and should leave the other behind, 
to how great punishment would not this be equal, even were 
no punishment inflicted. But if in the case of men it were 
a bitter thing to fall away from this glorj', much more is it 
so with God, when all the heavenly Powers are present with 
the King, when the demons, bound, and bowing down their 
heads, and the devil himself is led along in chains, and 
all might that opposeth itself, when the Powers of the heavens, 
when He Himself, coraeth upon the clouds. 

Believe me, I have been unable to finish my words, from the 
grief which had hold of my soul at this relation. Consider 
of how great glory we shall be deprived, when it is in our 
power not to be deprived of it. For this is the misery, that 
we suffer these things, when it is in our power not to suffer 
them. For when He receiveth the one part to His Father in 
heaven, and rejecteth the other, whom Angels take and drag 
against their will, weeping, and hanging down their heads, to 
the fire of hell, when they have first been made a spectacle 
to the whole world, what grief, think you, is there } Let us 
then make haste, while there is time, and take great thought 
of our own salvation. How many things have we to say like 
the rich man } If any one would now suffer us, we would 
take counsel of the things that are profitable ! But no one 
doth suffer us. And that we shall so say, is clear, not from 
him alone, but from many others. And that you may learn 
this, how many men have been in fevers, and said, if we 

Self-denial a preveniive of future jyunisfniietit. 155 

recover, we would not aeain fall into the same state. Many Hom. 
' ^ -^ XIII. 

such words we shall then say, but we shall be answered as 

the rich man was, that there is a srulf, that we have received Lukeie, 

25. 26. 

our good things here. Let us groan then, I entreat you, 
bitterly, rather let us not only groan, but pursue virtue too; 
let us lament now, for salvation, that we may not then 
lament in vain. Let us weep now, and we shall not weep 
then, at our evil lot. This weeping is of virtue, that of 
unprofitable reflection : let us afflict ourselves now, that we 
may not then ; for it is not the same thing to be afflicted 
here and there. For here, thou art afflicted for a little time, 
rather thou dost not perceive thy affliction, knowing that 
thou art afflicted for thy good. But there, the affliction is 
more bitter, because it is not in hope \ nor for any escape, 
but without limit, and throughout. 

But may we all be freed from this, and obtain forgiveness. 
But since there is need of intense diligence, and ceaseless 
prayer, that we may not fail of this, let us, I beg, be diligent; 
if we are diligent, we prevail through oui* prayer : if we 
pray earnestly, God grants our request ; but if we ask Him 
not, nor do earnestly ought of this sort, nor work, how is it 
possible, that we, who sleep, should ever succeed ? By no 
means. For it is much if even by running, and exerting 
ourselves, and being conformed to His death, as Paul said, 
we shall be able to succeed, not to say sleeping. I/' hy 
any means I may attain, saith he. But if Paul said. If 
by any means I may attain, what shall we say ? For it is 
not possible that they who slumber should accomplish even 
worldly business, not to say spiritual. They who slumber 
cannot receive ought from their friends, far less from God. 
Fathers honour not them who slumber, far less doth God. 
Let us labour for a little time, that we may have rest for 
ever. We must at all events be afflicted. If we are not 
afflicted here, it awaits us there. Why choose we not to be 
afflicted here, that there we may have rest. May we all, 
having had our conversation worthy of Christ, and having 

f It is worth observing, that, although and of present self-denial as a means of 
he has referred to the rich man in escaping eternal punishment after the 
Hades, he is here speaking of Gehenna, Judgment. 

156 Confcyrmily to Christ's Death. 

Phil, been conformed to His death, obtain the unspeakable joys, 
^^^^ in Christ Jesus, with Whom, to the Father together with the 

Holy Spirit, be glory, power, and honour, now and ever, 

world without end. Amen. 


Phil. iv. 4 — 7. 

Bejoice in the Lord alway : and again I say, Rejoice. Let 
your moderation be known unto all men. The Lord is at 
hand. Be carefid for nothing ; but m every thing by 
prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests 
be made known unto God. And the peace of God, which 
passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and 
minds through Christ Jesus. 

Blessed are they that motirn, and woe unto them thatm.&it.b, 
laugh, saith Christ. How then saith Paul, Rejoice in ^^^ Luke 6 
Lord alway? Is he not here opposed to Christ.' God forbid. 26. 
Woe to them that laugh, said Christ, hinting at the laughter 
of this world, which ariseth from the things which are pre- 
sent. He blessed also those that mourn, not simply for the 
loss of relatives, but those who ai"e pricked at heart, who 
mourn their own sins, who take count of their own faults, or 
even those of others. This joy is not contrary to that gi'ief, 
but from that grief it too is born. For he who grieveth for 
his own faults, and confesseth them, rejoiceth. Moreover, it 
is possible to grieve for our own sins, and yet to rejoice in 
Christ. Since then they were afflicted by their sufferings, 
for to you it is given in this behalf not only to believe but -phil. i, 
also to suffer, therefore he saith. Rejoice in the Lord. For^^' 
this can but mean. Exhibit such a life that you may rejoice. 
When, therefore, your communion with God is not hindered, 
rejoice — this is what he means — or else the word in, may 

158 Rejoicin;/ i/t fhr [mviI. Reasons lor ixitience. 

Phil, stand for with : as if he liad said, Rejoice with the Lord 
— ^— — ^ altcoy, and a<jain I say, Rejoice. These are the words of one 
who brings comfort, of one who shews that he who is in 
God rejoiceth alway. Yea though he be afflicted, yea what- 
ever he may suffer, such a man alway rejoiceth. Hear what 
Acts 5, Luke saith of the Apostles; that they returned from the 
fresence of the Council, rejoicing that they wei'e counted 
worthy to be beaten /or His name. If scourging and bonds, 
which seem to be the most grievous of all things, produce 
joy, what else will be able to produce grief in us ? 

Again I say. Rejoice. Well hath he repeated the word. 
For since the nature of the things produceth grief, he shews 
by repeating, that they should by all means rejoice. 

Let your moderation be known unto all men. He said 
Phil. 3, above, Whose god is their belly, and tvhose glory is in 
^^' their shame, and that they mind earthly things. Since then 
it was probable, that they would be at enmity with the 
wicked, he for this cause exhorteth them to have nothing 
in common with them, but to use them with all gentleness, 
and that not only their brethren, but also their eneinies and 
opposers. For tell me? Wherefore are ye distressed? Be- 
cause they rise in opposition ? Because ye see them living in 
luxury? Be careful for nothing. Already the judgment is 
at hand. Shortly shall they give account of their actions. 
Are ye in affliction, whilst they are in luxury ? These things 
shall shortly receive their end. Do they plot against you, 
and threaten you ? But these things shall not at last turn out 
to their profit. The judgment is already at hand, when these 
things shall be reversed. Be carefidfor nothing. Already 
the recompense is at hand. If ye are kindly affected toward 
those, who prepare evil against you, if poverty, if death, if 
aught else that is terrible be upon you, all these things shall 
disappear. Be careful for nothing, hut in every thing, by 
lirayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests 
be made known unto God. There is this for one consolation. 
Matt, the L^ord is at hand. And again, / tcill be nith you alway, 

28 20 

' * even unto the end of the world. Behold another consolation, 
a medicine, which healeth grief, and distress, and all that is 
painful. And what is this? Prayer, thanksgiving in all 
things. And so He wills that our prayers should not simply 

Duty of Thanksgiv'ttu) . The Peace of God. 159 

be requests, but thanksgivings too for what vvc have. For Hom. 
how should he ask for future things, who is not thankful for 

the past? But in all, he saith, that is, in every thing', icitlt ' "^i^-y 
prayer and supplication. vVherefore we ought to give thanks 
for all things, even for those which seem to be grievous, for 
this is the part of the truly thankful man. In the other case 
the nature of the thing demands it ; but this springs from a 
grateful soul, and one earnestly affected toward God. God 
acknowledgeth these prayers, but others He knoweth not. 
Wherefore offer up such prayers as may be acknowledged ; 
for He disposeth oil things for our profit, though we know it 
not. And this is a proof that it greatly profiteth, namely, 
that we know it not. And the peace of God uhich jjas.selh 
all understanding shall keep your hearts and minds in Christ 
Jesus. What meaneth this } The peace of God, saith he, 
which He hath wrought toward men, surpasseth all under- 
standing. For who could have expected, who could have 
hoped, that such good things would have come ? They ex- 
ceed all man's understanding, not his speech alone. For 
His enemies, for those who hated Him, for those who deter- 
mined to tuin themselves away, for these, he refused not to 
deliver up His Only Begotten, that He might make peace 
with us. This peace then, i. e. the reconciliation, the love of 
God, shall guard your hearts and minds. 

This is the part of a teacher, not only to exhort, but also to ("2) 
pray, and to assist by supplication, that they may neither be 
overwhelmed by temptation, nor carried about by deceit. As 
if he had said, May He Who hath delivered you in such sort 
as mind cannot comprehend, may He Himself guard you, pre- 
serve you, .so that you suffer no ill. Either, then, he means 
this, or that the peace of which Christ speaketh, Aly peace /John]4, 
leave with you, 3ly peace 1 yice nnto you : this shall guard 
you, for this peace exceedeth all man's understanding. But 
if thou sayest, how ? Attend when he tells us to be at peace 
with our enemies, uith those who treat us unjustly, who are 
at war and enmity toward us; is not this beyond man's 
understanding } But rather let us look to the former. That 
peace surpasseth all understanding; and if peace, much 
more doth God Himself, Who giveth peace, pass all under- 
standing, not ours only, but that of Angels, and the Powers 

160 General exhortation to good living. 

Phil, above. What mcant'th in Christ Jesus? Shall keep us in 

4 8. 9. . . . 

' - Him, saith he, so that yo may remain firm, and not fall from 
His faith. 

Ver. 8. Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are honest, 
whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are just. What 
is Finally ? It stands for, * I have said all.' It is the word of 
one that is in haste, and has nothing to do with present things. 

Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are honest, what- 
soever things are true, whatsoever things are just, what- 
soever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, what- 
soever things are of good report, if there be any virtue, and 
if there be any praise, think on these things. 

Ver. 9. Those things which ye have both learned and 
received, and heard and seen in me. 

What meaneth, whatsoever things are lovely ? Lovely 
to the faithful, lovely to God. Whatsoever things are 
true. Virtue is indeed true, vice is falsehood. For the 
pleasure of it is a falsehood, and its glory is falsehood, 
and all things of the world are falsehood. Whatsoever 
things are pure. This is opposed to the vrords who mind 
earthly things. Whatsoever things are hottest. This is opposed 
to the words tchose god is their belly. Whatsoever things are 
just, whatsoever things are of good report, i. e. saith he, 
if there be any virtue, if there be any praise. Here he 
willeth them to take thought of those things too which re- 
gard men. TJiink on these things, saith he. Seest thou, 
that he desires to banish every evil imagination from our 
souls; for evil actions spring from thoughts. Those things 
which ye have both learned and received. This is excellent 
teaching, in all his exhoi-tations to propose himself for a model : 
Phil. 3, as he saith in another place, so as ye have us for an ensample. 
^^' And again here. What things ye have learned and received, 
i. e. have been taught by word of mouth and heard and seen 
in me: concerning my words and actions and conversation. 
Seest thou, how even to every thing he lays the same com- 
mands on us ^. For since it was not possible to make an 
accurate enumeration of all things, of our coming in, and 
going out, and speech, and carriage, and intercourse, (for of 
all these things it is needful that a Christian should have 
thought,) he said shortly, and in a summary, as ye have 

Vice an enetny to our nature. 161 

heard and seen in me, i. e. with me. As if he had said, I Hom. 

have led you forward both by deeds and by words. These - 

things do, not only say them, but do them also. And the God 
of peace shall be with you, i, e. if ye so guard these things, 
and are at peace one toward another, ye shall be in a calm, 
in great safety, ye shall suffer nothing painful, nor contrary to 
your will. For when we are at peace with Him, and we are 
so through virtue, much more will He be at peace with us. 
For He who so loved us, as to shew favour to us even against 
our will, will He not, if He sees us hastening towai'd Him, 
Himself yet much more exhibit His love toward us? 

Nothing is such an enemy of our nature as vice. And from Moral. 
many things it is evident, how vice is at enmity with us, and 
virtue friendly toward us. And if ye will, let us consider this 
first, from one of the opposites, i. e. fornication. Fornication 
makes men subject to reproach, poor, objects of ridicule, 
despicable to all, treating them as an enemy doth. Ofttimes 
it hath involved men in disease and danger; many men have 
perished or been wounded, by reason of their mistresses; but 
if fornication produces these things,much rather doth adultery. 
But doth almsgiving so ? By no means. But as a loving 
mother setteth her son in great propriety, in good order, in 
good report, and gives him leisure to engage in necessary 
work, thus almsgiving doth not let us go, nor lead us away 
from our necessary work, but even renders the soul more 
wise. For nothing is more foolish than a mistress. 

But what wiliest thou ? To look upon covetousness ? It 
too treats us like an enemy. And how? It makes us hated 
by all. It prepareth all men to vaunt themselves against us. 
Both those who have been treated unjustly by us, and those 
who have not, who share the grief of the former, and are in 
fear for themselves. All men look upon us as their common 
foes, as wild beasts, as demons. Every where are there 
innumerable accusations, plots against us, envyings, all which 
are the acts of enemies. But justice, on the contrary, makes 
all men friends, all men sociable, all men well disposed to- 
wards us : our affairs are straightway in perfect safety, there is 
no danger, there is no suspicion. But sleep also fearlessly 
comes over us with perfect safety, no care is there, no la- 


162 Terrors of Conscience. Peace with God and Man. 

Phil. How much belter this sort of life is! And tell me, which 

— L.:_ is best, to envy, or to rejoice with another? Let us search 

^ ' out all those things, and we shall find that virtue, like a truly 

kind mother, places us in safety, while vice throws us into 

danger, being itself a treacherous thing, and full of danger. 

Ps. 25, Por hear the prophet, who saith. The secret of the Lord is 
with them that fear Him, and He ivill shew them His covenant. 
He feareth no one, who is not conscious to himself of any wick- 
edness; on the contrary, he who liveth in crime is never con- 
fident, but trembles at his slaves, and looks at them with 
suspicion. Why say, his slaves? He cannot bear the tribunal 
of his own conscience. Not only those who are without, but 
his inward thoughts affect him likewise, and suffer him not to 
be in quiet. What then saith Paul ? Ought we to live de- 
pendent on praise ? He said not, look to praise, but do praise- 
worthy actions, yet not for the sake of praise. 

Whatsoever things are trite, for the things we have been 

^ irtftvk speaking of are false. Whatsoever things are honest'^. 
That which is honest belongs to external virtue, that which 
is pure to the soul. Give no cause of stumbling, saith he, 
nor handle of accusation. Lest you should think, that he 
means only those which men consider so. Because he had 
said. Whatsoever things are of good report, he proceeds, if 
there he any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these 
things — do these things. He wills us ever to be in these things, 
to care for these things, to think on these things. For if we 
will be at peace with each other, God too will be with us, but 
if we raise up war, the God of peace will not be mth us. For 
nothing is so hostile to the soul as vice, and nothing, on the 
other hand, places it in safety so much as peace and virtue. 
Wherefore we must make a beginning from ourselves, and 
then we shall draw God toward us. 

God is not a God of war and fighting, wherefore, make 
war and contention to cease, both that which is against Him, 
and that which is against thy neighbour. Be at peace with 

Matt. .">, all men, consider whom God saveth. Blessed, saith he, are 
the peacemakers, for Ihey shall he called the children of 
God. Such alway imitate the Son of God: do thou imitate 
Him too. Be at peace. The more thy brother waiTeth 
against thee, by so much the greater will be thy reward. For 

Injustice most hurts the doer of it. 163 

hear the prophet who saith, / am for peace, hut when I speak Hom. 
they are for war. This is virtue, this is above man's under- 

standing, this maketh us near God ; nothing so much 
dehghteth God, as to remember no evil. This sets thee free 
from thy sins, this looseth the charges against tliee : but if 
we are fighting and buffeting, we become far off from God : 
for enmities are produced by contention, and from enmity 
spring rancours. 

Cut out the root, and there will be no fruit. Thus shall we 
learn to despise the things of this life, for there is no conten- 
tion in spiritual things, but whatever thou seest, either conten- 
tion, or envy, or whatever a man can mention, all these spring 
from the things of this life. Every contention hath its 
beginning either in covetousness, or envy, or vainglory. If 
therefore we are at peace, we shall learn to despise the things 
of the earth. Hath a man stolen our money ? He hath not 
injured us, only let him not steal oiu' treasure which is above, 
saith such an one. Hath he hindered thy glory .? Yet not 
that which is from God, but that which is of no account. 
For this is no glory, but a mere name of glory, or rather a 
shame. Hath he stolen thy honour ? Rather not thine but 
his own. For as he who committeth injustice doth not so 
much inflict as receive injustice, thus too he who plots 
against his neighbour, first destroyeth himself. 

For he who diggeth a pit for his ■neighbour , falleth intovxoy. 
it. Let us then not plot against others, lest we injure our- ^^' ^^' 
selves. When we supplant the reputation of others, let us 
consider that we injure ourselves, it is against ourselves we 
plot. For perchance with men we do him hami, if we have 
power, but ourselves in the sight of God, by provoking Him 
against us. Let us not then injure ourselves. For as we 
injure ourselves when we injure our neighbours, so by bene- 
fitting them we benefit ourselves. If then thy enemy injure 
thee, consider that he hath benefitted thee, if thou art wise, 
and so requite him not with the same things, but even do 
him good. But the blow you say remains severe. Consider 
then that thou dost not benefit, but punishest him, and bene- 
fittest thyself, and quickly you will come to do him good. 
What then .'' Shall we act from this motive } We ought not 
to act on this motive, but if thy heart will not hear other 

M 2 

KM Enemies to be uell treated in renl kinduess. 

Phil, reason, induce it, saith he", even by this, and tliou wilt 

■ ' quickly persuade it to dismiss its enmity, and wUt for the 

future do good to thine enemy as to a friend, and wilt thus 

obtain the good things which are to come, to which God 

grqnt that we may all attain in Christ Jesus. Amen. 

" i. e. St. Paul, Rom. 12, 20. on fully states this vitw, perhaps the only 
which passage see St. Chrys. who there one that fully explains the difficulty. 


Phil. iv. 10—14. 

But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at the last your 
care of me hath flourished again; wherein ye were also 
careful, but ye lacked opportunity. Not that I speak in 
respect of want: for I have learned, in whatsoever state I 
am, thereivith to he content. I know both how to be abased, 
and I know hoic to abound: every ivhere and in all things 
I am instructed both to be full and to be hungry, both to 
abound and to suffer need. I can do all things through 
Christ which sirengtheneth me. Notwithstanding ye 
have well done, that ye did communicate with my afflic- 

I HAVE ofttimes said, that almsgiving hath been introduced 
not for the sake of the receivers, but of the givers, for the 
latter are they which make the greatest gain. And this Paul 
shews here also. In what way ? The Philippians had sent 
him somewhat, after a long time, and had committed the same 
to Epaphroditus. See then, how when he is about to send 
Epaphroditus as the bearer of this Epistle, he praises them, 
and shews that this action was for the need, not of the re- 
ceiver, but of the givers. This he doth, both that they who 
benefited him may not be Hfted up with arrogance, and that 
they may become more zealous in well-doing, since they 
rather benefit themselves ; and that they who receive may 
not fearlessly rush forward to receive, lest they meet with 
condemnation. For it is more blessed, He saith, to give than Acts 
to receive. What then means he, when he says, / rejoiced in ^^' ^^' 

lOG St. PauFs implied complaint of past neglect. 

Phil, the Lord greatly, not with worldly rejoicing, saith he, nor 

' ^' ^'with the joy of this life, but in the Lord. Not because I 
had refreshment, but because ye advanced; for this is my 
refreshment. Wherefore he saith greatly; since this joy was 
not corporeal, nor on account of his own refreshment, but 
because of their advancement. 

And see how, when he had greatly rebuked them on ac- 
count of the times that were passed, he quickly throweth a 
shadow over this, and teacheth them constantly and always 
to remain in well doing. Because at the last, saith he. The 
words, at the last, shew long time to have elapsed. Hath 
flourished again. As trees which have shot forth, then dried 
up, and again shot forth. Here he sheweth, that they who 
had formerly borne flowers, had withered, and after withering 
again budded forth. So that the word Jlourished again, has 
both rebuke and praise. For it is no small thing, that he 
who hath withered should flourish again. He sheweth also, 
that it was from indolence all this had happened to them. 
Your care for me ; ivherein ye were also careful. Here 
he sheweth, that even in former time they were wont to be 
zealous in these things. Wherefore he addeth, your care of 
me, wherein ye were also careful. And lest you should 
think, that in other things too they had been more zealous*, 
and had then withered, and not in this thing alone, behold 
how he guards this point"", by saying, Now at the last your 
care of me hath Jlourished again. As if he had said, I apply 
the words, now at the last, only to this ; for in other things 
it is not so. 

Acts 20, Here some one may enquire, how when he had said, it is 
more blessed to give than to receive ; and. These hands have 
ministered to my necessities, and to them that were with me; 

iCor.9, and again when writing to the Corinthians, For it were bet- 
ter for me to die, titan that any man should make my glory- 
ing void; he here sufl'ereth his glorying to be made void? 
And how ? By receiving. For if his glorying was, that he 
received not, how doth he now endure so to do. What 
shall we say then ? Probably, he then did not receive on 
account of the false Apostles, that wherein they glory ^ saith 

* Mar. and V>. ' had become less •> So Ben. and B. Sav. ' see how he 
zealous.' added.' 

Excuses for tiot giving — or /or not u-orking. 167 

he, theu may be found even as we. And he said not are, but Hom. 
glory; shewing hereby that they did receive, but secretly. — — - 
Wherefore, he said, wherein they glory ; he too himself re- 
ceived, though not there. Whei'efore he also saith, No man 
shall stop me of this boasting. And he said not simply, shall 
not stop me, but what .f* in the regions of Achaia. And again, 
/ robbed other Churches, taking wages of them to do you ser- 2 Cor. 
vice. Here he sheweth that he did receive. But Paul indeed ' 
received rightly, having so great a work; if in truth he did . 
receive. But they who work not, how can they receive .? 
' Yet I pray,' saith one. But there is no work. For this 
may be done together with work. ' But I fast.' Neither is 
this work. For see this blessed one, preaching in many 
places, and working too. But ye lacked opportunity. What 
meaneth lacked opportunity ? It came not, saith he, of 
indolence, but of necessity ". Ye had it not in your hands, 
nor were in abundance. This is the meaning of, Ye lacked 
opportunity. Thus most men speak, when the things of this 
life do not flow in to them abundantly, and are in short 

Not that I speak in respect of want. I said, saith he, noiv 
at the last, and I rebuked you, not seeking mine own, nor 
rebuking you on this account, as if I wei'e in want : for I 
sought it not on this account. Whence is it evident, O 
Paul, that thoumakest no vain boasting.? To the Corinthians 
he saith. For we ivrite none other tilings unto you, than^^^o^- 
what ye read or acknowledge, and he would not have spoken ' 
to them so as to be convicted, he would not, had he been 
making boasts, have spoken thus. He was speaking to those 
who knew the facts, with whom detection would have been a 
greater disgrace. For I have learrit, saith he, in whatsoever 
state I am, therewith to be content. Wherefore, this is an 
object of discipline, and exercise, and cai*e, for it is not easy 
of attainment, but very difficult, and full of toil. In what- 
soever state I am, saith he, therewith to be content. I know 
both how to be abased, and I know how to abound. Every 
where and in all tilings I am instructed. That is, I know 
how to use little, to bear hunger and want, to abound, and to 
suffer need. ' Yes,' saith one, ' but there is no need of 
* St. Chrys. understands him to he partially excusing them. 

168 Virtue needed in plenty. St. PtiuVs (jimng and rcceiiing. 
Phil, wisdom or of virtue to abound.' There is tn-eat need of 

4 14 . . . . 

—- — '- virtue, not less than in any other case. For as want inehnes 
^ ' us to do many evil things, so too doth plenty. For many 
ofttimes, coming into plenty, have become indolent, and have 
not known how to bear their good fortune. Many men have 
taken it as an occasion of no longer working. But Paul did 
not so, for what he received he consumed on others, and 
emptied himself for them. This is to know how to make 
good use of what we have. He was in no wise relaxed, nor 
did he exult at his abundance, Paul was the same in want 
and in plenty, he was neither oppressed on the one hand, 
nor rendered a boaster on the other. / know how holh to 
be full, and to be hungry, both to abound, and to suffer need. 

Deut. Many know not how to be full, as the Israelites, for they ate, 

32 15 

' ' and kicked, but I am equally well ordered in all. He 
sheweth that he neither is now elated, nor was before grieved: 
or if he grieved, it was on their account, not on his own, for 
he himself was similarly affected. 

Every where, saith he, and in all things I am instructed, 
i. e. I have had experience of all things in this long time, 
and all these things have succeeded with me. But since 
boasting might seem to have a place here, he quickly cor- 
recteth himself, and saith, / can do all things through Christ 
which strengtheneth me. The success is not mine own, but 
His who gave me strength. But since again they who confer 
benefits, when they see the receiver not well affected toward 
them, but despising the gifts, are themselves rendered more 
remiss, (for they considered themselves as conferring a 
benefit and refreshment,) lest this should happen here, and 
any one should say that, since Paul despises the refreshment, 
they must necessarily become remiss, see how he healetli 
this too. By what he hath said above, he hath brought down 
their proud thoughts, by what followeth he maketh their 
readiness revive, by saying. Notwithstanding ye have well 
done, that ye did communicate with my affliction. Seest 
thou, how he removed himself, and again united himself to 
them. This is the part of true and spiritual friendship. 
Think not, saith he, because I was not in want, that I had 
no need of this act of yours. I have need of it for your sake. 
How then, did they share his afflictions } By this means. 

SL PauVs care to reprove wilhout offending. 1(5!) 

As he said when m bonds, Ye all are partakers of my grace. Hom. 
For it is grace to suffer for Christ, as he himself saith in 

another place, For to you it is given, on the behalf of Christ, 7. 
not only to believe, but also to suffer for His Name. For^*'' ^^* 
since those former words by themselves had power to 
grieve them, he consoleth them, and receiveth them, and 
praiseth them again. And this in measured words. For he 
said not, ' gave,' but communicated, to shew that they too 
were profited by becoming partakers of his labours. He 
said not, ye did lighten, but ye did communicate with my 
affliction, which was a more worthy thing. Seest thou the 
humility of Paul ? seest thou his noble nature ? When he 
has shewn that he had no need of their gifts on his own 
account, he afterward uses freely such lowly words as they 
do who make a request. " Since you are wont to give." 
For he refuseth neither to do, nor say any thing in order to 
accomplish the one object of his wishes. And what is that? 
" Think not," saith he, " that my words shew want of shame, 
wherein I accuse you, and say. Now at the last your care of 
me hath flourished again, or are those of one in necessity; 1 
speak not thus because I am in need, but why ? From my 
exceeding confidence in you, and of this ye yourselves are 
the authors." 

Seest thou how he sootheth them, and saith, Ye are the 
authors, in that ye hasted to the work before others ; and 
have given me confidence to remind you of these things. 
And observe his propriety ; he accuseth them not while they 
did not send, lest he should seem to regard his own benefit, 
but when they had sent, then he rebuked them for the time 
past, and they received it, for he could not seem after that 
to regard his own benefit. 

Ver. 15. Now ye Philip) pjians know also, that in the be- 
ginning of the Gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, 
no Church communicated with me, as concerning giving and 
receiving, but ye only. 

Lo, how great is his commendation ! For the Corinthians 
and Romans are stiiTcd up by hearing these things from him, 
whilst they did it without any other Church making a begin- 
ning. For ///. the beginning of the Gospel, saith he, they 
manifested such zeal towards this holy Aj)ostle, as them- 

170 Spiritual Trajjic. Alms measured by the will. 

I'Hii,. selves first to begin, without having any example, to bear 
^' ^^' this fruit. And we cannot say that they did these things as 
he abode with them, or for their own benefit; for he saith, 
When I departed from 3Iacedoiiia, no Church communi- 
cated uiih me., as concerning yivincj and receiving, hut ye 
only. What meaneth receiving, and what communicated? 
Wherefore said he not, ' no Church gave to me,' but com- 
municated rvitli me, as concerniny giving and receiving? 

1 Cor. Because the matter is a communication. He saith, //' tve 
^' ^^' have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great matter 

2 Cor. that ire should reap your carnal things. And again. Your 
^' ' abundance may be a supply to their want. Behold how 

they communicated, by giving carnal things, and receiving 
spiritual. For as they who sell and buy communicate with 
each other, by mutually giving what they have, (and this is 
communication,) so too is it here. For there is not any thing 
more profitable than this trade and traffic. It is performed 
on the earth, but is completed in heaven. They who buy 
are on the earth, but they buy and agree about heavenly 
things, whilst they lay down an earthly price. 
(3) But despond not; heavenly things are not to be bought 
with money, riches cannot purchase these things, but the 
purpose of him who giveth the money, his true wisdom, his 
superiority to earthly things, his love toward man, his merci- 
fiilness. For if money could purchase it, she who threw in 
the two mites would have gained nothing great. But since 
it was not the money, but tlie jmrpose that availed, she re- 
ceived every thing, who exhibited a full purpose of mind. 
Let us not then say, that the Kingdom can be bought 
with money; it is not by money, but by purpose of mind 
which is exhibited by the money. Therefore, one will answer, 
there is need of money. There is no need of it, but of the 
disposition ; if thou hast this, thou wilt be able even by two 
mites to purchase Heaven; where this is not, not even ten 
thousand talents of gold will be able to do that, which the 
two mites could. Wherefore? Because if thou who hast 
nuicli throwest in but a small jiortion, thou givest an alms 
indeed, but nf)t so great as the widow did; for thou didst not 
throw it in with tlie same readiness as she. For she deprived 
herself of all she had, or rather she deprived not, l)ut gave it 

Liberality encouraged, though independence retained. 171 

all as a free gift to herself. For God hath promised the King- Hom. 

dom not to talents of gold, but to a cup of cold water, to '- 

readiness of heart; not to death, but to purpose of mind. 
For indeed it is no great thing. For what is it to give one 
life ? one has given one man ; but one man is not of worth 

Ver. 16. For even in Thessalonica, ye sent once and again 
to my necessity. 

Here again is great praise, that he, when dwelling in the 
metropolis", should be nourished by a little city. And lest, 
by always withdrawing himself from the supposition of want, 
he should, as I said at first, render them remiss, having pre- 
viously shewn by so many proofs that he is not in want, he 
here maketh it manifest by one word only, by saying necessity. 
And he said not my\ but absolutely, — having a care of dig- 
nity. And not this only, but what followeth too, for since he 
was conscious that it was a very lowly thing, he again guard- 
eth it, by adding as a correction, 

Ver. 17. Not because I desire a gift. 

As he said above. Not that I speak in respect of ivant; 
both which mean the same, though the former is stronger 
than the latter. For it is one thing, that he who is in want, 
should not seek, and another that he who is in want should 
not even consider himself to be in want. Not because I de- 
sire a gift, he says, but I desire fruit, that may abound to 
your account. Not mine own. Seest thou, that the fruit is 
produced for them ? This say I for your sake, not for my 
own, for your salvation. For I gain nothing when 1 receive, 
but grace belongeth to the givers, for the recompense is 
There in store for givers, but the gifts are here consumed by 
them who receive. Again even his request is combined with 
praise and sympathy. 

For when he had said, I do not desire, lest he should 
again render them remiss, he adds, 

Ver. 18. But I have all and abound, i. e. through this gift 
ye have filled up what was wanting, which would make them 
more eager. For benefactors, the wiser they are, the more do 

* The difterence was probably less ' The Greek is, ' Ye sent to me unto 
marked in St. Paul's time than in St. the needs.' 

172 Alms a sweet sarniir lo God. 

Phil, they scek gratitude from the benefitted. I have ail things and 
_J — •_ abound, i. c. Ye have not only filled up what was deficient in 
former time, but ye liave <j;one beyond. Then see how he seals 
up all, lest by these words he should seem to accuse them. 
For after he had said, Not because I desire a gift, and Noiv 
at the last; and had shewn that their deed was a debt, for this 
is meant by, / have all, he again sheweth, that they had acted 
'«ifjtf^- above what was due, and saith, / have all and abound*, lam 
full. I say not this at hazard, or only from the feeling of 
my mind, but why ? Having received of Epaphroditus the 
things which were sent from you, an odour of a sweet smell ; 
a sacrifice acceptable, well pjleasing to Qod. Lo, whither he 
hath raised their gift; not I, he saith, received, but God 
through me. Wherefore though I be not in need, regard it 
not, for God had no need, and yet. He received at their 
hands in such sort, that the Holy Scriptures shnmk not from 
Gen. 8, saying, The Lord smelted a sweet savour, whieli are the 
words of one who was pleased. For ye know, indeed ye 
know, how our soul is afi'ected by sweet savours, how it is 
pleased, how it is delighted. The Scriptures therefore shrunk 
not from applying to God a word so human, and so lowly, 
that it might shew to men that their gifts are become accept- 
able. For not the fat, not the smoke made them acceptable, 
but the purpose of mind which offered them. Had it been 
otherwise, Cain's offering too had been received. It saith 
then, that He is even pleased, and how He is pleased. For 
men could not without this have learned. He then. Who hath 
no need, saith that He is thus pleased, that they may not 
become remiss by the absence of need. And afterward, 
when they had no care for other virtues, and trusted to their 
offerings alone, behold, how again he sctteth them right by 
Py 5Q saying, Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of 
13. goats. This Paul also saith. Not because I desire a gift. 
Ver. 19. But my God shall supply all your need, accord- 
ing to His riches in glory, by Christ Jesus. 
i^\ Behold how he blesseth them, as poor men do. But if even 
Paul blesseth those who give, much more let us not be 
ashamed to do this when we receive. Let us not receive as 
though we ourselves had need, let us not rejoice on our own 
account, but on that of the givers. Thus we too who receive 

»SV. PauVs prayer for temporal thinga a condescension, 17 ii 

shall have a reward, if we reioice for their sake. Thus Hom, 

we shall not take it hardly, when men do not give, but '— 

rather shall grieve for their sake. So shall we render them 
more zealous, if we teach them, that not for our own 
sake do we so act ; but my God shall supply all your 
need, or all gi-ace, or all joy^. If the second be true, ' ;k;«e'>'. 
all grace, he meaneth not only the alms, which are of earth, '^'*^'**' 
but every excellency. If the first, all your need, which I 
think too should rather be read, this is what he means to 
shew. As he had said before, ye lacked opportunity, he here 
maketh an addition, as he doth in the Epistle to the Corin- 
thians, saying. Now He that ininistereth seed to the sower, ^ Cot. 9, 
both minister bread yor your /ood, and ynidtiply your seed 
sown, and increase the /nuts of your righteousness. For he 
blesseth them, that they may abound, and have wherewith to 
sow. He blesseth them too, not simply that they might 
abound, but according to His riches, so that this too is done 
measuredly. For had they been as he was, so truly wise, so 
crucified, he would not have done this ; but since they were 
men that were handicraftsmen, poor, having wives, bringing 
up children, ruling their families, and who had given these 
very gifts out of small possessions, and had certain desires of 
the things of this world, he blesseth them with a condescen- 
sion. For it is not unseemly to pray for sufficiency and 
plenty for those who thus use them. He said not. May He 
make you rich, and to abound greatly ; but what said he ? 
Supply all your need, so that ye may not be in want, but 
have things for your necessities. Since Christ too, when 
He gave us a form of prayer, inserted also this in the prayer, 
when He taught us to say. Give us this day our daily Matt. 6, 

According to His riches. What meaneth this .'' Accord- 
ing to His free gift, i. e. It is easy to Him, and He 
hath power to do it quickly too. And since I have spoken 
of need, he addeth, according to His riches in glory by 
Christ Jesus, that they may not think that he will drive 
them into straits. So shall all things abound to you, saith 
he, that you may have them to His glory; or he meaneth 
this, Ye are wanting in nothing ; (for it is written, great grace Acts 4, 
was upon them all, neither teas there any that lacked.) Or, 

174 TjOve slrc'tuiiheued by troubles without. 

Phil, he is persuading them to do all things lor His glory, as if he 
■ '" " ■ ' had said, that ye may use your abundance to His glory. 

Ver. 20. N'ow unto Cod and our Father be fjJoryfor ever 
and ever. Ameu. For the glory of which he speaks belongs 
not only to the Son, but to the Father too, for when the Son is 
gloiified, then is the Father also. For when he said, This is 
done to the glory of Christ, lest any one should suppose that it 
is to His glory alone, he continued, Unto God and our 
Father be (jlory, that glory evidently which is paid to the Son. 

Ver. 21. Sahfte every saint in Christ Jesus. 

This is no small thing. For it is a proof of great good 
will, to salute them through letters; The brethren who are 
ivith me salute you. And yet thou saidst, / have no one 
like-minded, who will naturally care for your state. How 
then sayest thou now, The brethren which are with me? He 
either saith, The brethren which are with me, to shew that he 
hath no one like-minded of those who are with him, (where 
he doth not speak of those in the city, for how were they 
constrained to undertake the affairs of the Apostles.^) or that 
he did not refuse to call even those brethren. 

Ver. 22, 23. All the saints salute you, chiefly they that 
are of Cesar^s household. The grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ be with you all. 

He elevated them and strengthened them, by shewing that 
his preaching had reached even to the king's household. 
For if those who were in the palace despised all things for 
the sake of the King of Heaven, far more ought they to do 
this. And this too was a proof of the love of Paul, that he 
had told many things of them, and said great things of them, 
whence he had led those who were in the palace, and who 
had never seen them, to desire to salute them. Especially 
great was his love, because the Saints were then in affliction ; 
and how.^ They who were absent from each other were 
closely conjoined together, and they who were afar off 
saluted each other as if they were near, and they were af- 
fected each toward other as toward their own limbs. For 
the poor man also was disposed toward the rich even as the 
rich toward the poor, and there was no preeminence, in that 
'Jxai/'n- they were all equally hated and cast out^ and that ibr the 
oiici. same cause. For as captives taken from divers cities, and 

Benefit of troubles. Tfteir nniversalitt/. 175 

brought to the same towns, eagerly embrace each other, Hom. 
their common calamity binding them together; thus too at ^^' 
that time they had great love one toward another, the com- 
munion of their afflictions and persecutions uniting them. 

For affliction is an unbroken bond, the increase of love, Moral. 
the occasion of compunction and piety. Hear the words of ^^) 
David, It is good /or me that I have been afflicted, that I^^. 119, 
might learn Thy statutes. And again another prophet, who '^' 
saith, // is good for a man that he bear the yoke in his'L'am.s, 
youth. And again. Blessed is the man ichom Tliou cliastenest, Ps'. 94 
O Lord. And another who saith, Despise not the chastening^'^- 
of the Lord. If thou come to serve the Lord, prepare thyn. ' ' 
soul for temptation. And Christ also said to His disciples, fj"''^"^" 
In the world ye shall have tribulation, but be of good cheer. ^^hn 
And again, Ye shall u-eep and lament, but the norld shall \q%, 
rejoice. And again, Strait is the gate, and. narroia is the Matt. 7, 
way. Dost thou see how trilnilation is every where lauded, ^'*' 
every where assumed as needful for us .? For if in the con- 
tests of the world, no one without this receiveth the crown, 
unless he fortify himself by toil, by abstinence from delica- 
cies, by living according to rule, by watchings, and inmune- 
rable other things, much more so here. For whom wilt thou 
name as an instance ? The king .? Not even he liveth a life 
free from care, but one burdened with much tribulation and 
anxiety. For look not to his diadem, but to his sea of 
cares, by which trouble is produced for him. Nor look to 
his purple robe, but to his soul, which is darker than that 
purple. His crown doth not so closely bind his brow, as 
care doth his soul. Nor look to the multitude of his spear- 
men, but to the multitude of his disquietudes. For it is not 
possible to find a private house laden with so many cares as 
a king's palace. Violent death each day expected in the 
very place, a vision of blood is seen as they sit down to eat 
and drink. Nor can we say how oft they are disturbed in 
the night season, and leap up, haunted with visions. And 
all this in peace ; but if war overtakes them, their cares are 
still more increased. 

What then can be more piteous than such a life as this ! 
What evils have they from those that are their own, I mean, 
those who are under their power. Nay, and of a truth the 


Calamities thttt hefel Emperors. 

Phi I,, pavement of a king's house is always full of blood, the blood 
liillHlof his own relations. But if ye will, I will relate some 
instances, and ye will presently know that so it is. I will 
chiefly relate those of older date, but which are still kept in 
memory, as having happened in our own time. OneS it is 
said, having suspected his wife of adultery, bound her naked 
upon mules, and exposed her to wild beasts, though she had 
already been the mother to him of many princes. What sort 
of life, think ye, could that man have li\ed } For he would 
not have broken out into such vengeance, had he not been 
deeply affected wdth that distress. Moreover, the same man 
slew his own son ^, or rather his brother slew himself, together 
with his children, but he is also reported to have slain his 
own brother. And the one indeed slew himself, when seized 
by a rebel, and another put to death his cousin, his colleague 
in the kingdom, to which he had appointed him. Another' 

F After these words the Greek text 
is disarranged, and irreconcileable with 
itself and with the real history. Chry- 
sostom seems however to intend to say 
what follows; that the brother of Cris- 
pus, i. e. Constantius Augustus, caused 
his father's brother, Julius Constantius, 
and his'sons, Dalmatius and Anniba- 
lianus, to be put to death. They were 
in fact slain by the soldiery, and as some 
thought at the instigation of Constan- 
tius Augustus, son of Constantine. He 
adds afterwards, that his brother was 
taken by an usurper, and killed himself. 
Now Constans Augustus, the brother 
of Constantius, was taken by the 
usurper Magnentius, or rather by his 
generals, and slain, but no writer ex- 
cept Chrysostom says that he killed 
himself. He adds that Constantius 
slew his cousin. This was Gallus, 
who was made his colleague in the Em- 
pire by Constantius, and put to death 
by his order, A.D. 345. Montf. 

(Tillemont understands this other- 
wise, and more according to the Greek, 
which is not difficult to construe as it 
stands ; viz. that Constans killed him- 
self and his chihlren, [if he had any, 
which does not otherwise appear,] when 
taken by Magnentius, and that he 
[Constans'] caused the death of his 
brother Constantine the younger.) 

h Here Chrysostom relates the 
violent deaths that had occurred within 
memory in the imperial palace ; he 

goes, however, by common report, which 
usually varies from the real fact. He 
mentions the events without the names. 
There is no doubt, however, that the 
first example brought forward is Con- 
stantine the Great, who caused his son 
Crispus to be put to death, and after- 
wards his wife Fausta. Chrysostom 
says he exposed her to wild beasts, 
others however relate that she was 
suftocated by his order in a hot bath. 
Tillemont gives the most accurate of all 
the accounts of this affair. Montf. 

' As for what Chrysostom adds, (as 
usual without names,) of the wife of 
one of the Augusti who used drugs to 
cure barrenness, and perished together 
with the woman who supplied the drugs, 
also of another Augustus who was 
poisoned, and whose son had an eye 
put out, and another who perished in 
some horrible manner, I have not yet 
been able to find out to whom it applies. 
But what follows, of one burnt among 
beams and horses and all sorts of 
things, relates to Valens, who after 
his defeat at Hadrianople retired to a 
house, and was burnt to ashes with it. 
The reigning Emperor was Arcadius, 
with respect to whom the history of 
that age attests the truth of his words. 

Tillemont understands the one poi- 
soned to be Jovian, and says that his 
son Varroniaiius was treated as here 
mentioned, and afterwards put to death ; 

Miseries of Royalty. 177 

saw his wife destroyed by medicines ^, for when she bore not, Hom. 

a wretched and miserable woman (for snch indeed she was \- 

who Ihonght to give the gift of God by her own wisdom) 
gave her medicines, and destroyed the qneen, and herself 
perished with her. Another again, after this ^, was destroyed 
b}^ noxious drugs, and his cup was to him no longer drink, 
but death. And his son too had an eye put out, from fear 
of what was to follow, thougli he had done no wrong. It is 
not befitting to mention how another ended his life miserably. 
And after them, one was burnt, like some miserable wretch, 
amongst horses, and beams, and all sorts of things, and 
left his wife in widovvhood. For it is not possible to 
relate the woes which he was compelled to undergo in his 
lifetime, when he rose up in revolt. And hath not he who 
now rules, from the time he received the crown, been in toil, 
in danger, in grief, in dejection, in misfortune, exposed to 
conspiracies ? Such is not the kingdom of heaven, but after 
it is received, there is peace, life, joy, delight. But as I 
said, life cannot be without pain. For if in the affairs of 
this world, he who is accounted most happy, if the king is 
burdened with so many misfortunes, what thinkest thou 
must be true of private life ? I cannot say how many other 
evils there are ! How many stories have ofttimes been formed 
on these subjects ! For neai'ly all the tragedies of the stage, 
as well as stories, have kings for their subjects. For most of 
these stories are fonned from true incidents, for it is thus they 
please. As for example, Thyestes' banquet, and the destruc- 
tion of all tliat family by their misfortunes. 

These things we know from the writers ' that are without : (6) 
but if ye will, 1 will adduce instances from the Scripture too. 
Saul was the first king, and ye know how he perished, after 
experiencing numberless ills. After him, David, Solomon, 
Abia, Hezekiah, Josiah, in like sort. For it is not possible, 
without affliction and toil, and without dejection of mind, to 
pass through the present life. But let us be cast down in 
mind, not for such things as these, for which kings grieve, 
but for those things, whence we (thus) have great gain. For^ Cor. 

7, 10. 

and so Montf. in his Introduction to ^ al. his successor. 
St. Chrj's. 'ad Viduam Juniorem,' ' The civil historians. 
t. i. p. 337. 


178 QrieJ fur shi tends to joy. 

Pnii,. godly sorrow worketh repentance vnto salvation, not to he 
- — - — -repented of. On account of these things we should be 
grieved, for these things we should be pained, for these 
things we should be pricked at heart; thus was Paul grieved 
2 Cor. (q^ sinners, thus did he weep. For out of much affliction 
and anrjuish of heart I wrote unto you in many tears. For 
when he had no cause of grief on his own account, he did so 
on account of others, or rather he accounted those things too 
to be his own, at least as far as grief went. Others were 
offended, and he burned ; others were weak, and he was 
weak ; such grief as this is good, is superior to all worldly 
joy. Him who so grieves I prefer to all men, or rather 
the Lord Himself pronounces them blessed, who so grieve, 
who are kindly afFectioned one toward another. I do 
not so much admire him in dangers, or rather I do not 
admire him less for the dangers by which he died daily, yet 
this still more captivates me. For it came of a soul devoted 
to God, and full of affection : from the love which Christ 
Himself seeketh : from a brotherly and a fatherly sympathy, 
or rather, of one greater than both these. Thus we should 
be affected, thus weep ; such tears as these are full of great 
delight; such grief as this is the ground of joy. 

And say not to me: What do they for whom I grieve 
gain by my so doing? Though we no way profit them for 
whom we grieve, at all events we shall profit ourselves. For 
he who grieveth thus on account of others, much more will 
so do for himself; he who thus wet'pcth for the sins of others, 
will not pass by his own sins unwept, or rather, he will not 
quickly sin. But this is dreadful, that when we are ordered 
so to grieve for them that sin, we do not even exhibit any 
repentance for our own sins, but when sinning remain with- 
out feeling, and have care for and take account of any 
thing, rather than our own sins. For this cause we rejoice 
with a worthless joy, which is the joy of the world, and 
straightway quenched, and which bearelh griefs innumerable. 
Let us then grieve with grief which is the mollier of joy, and 
let us not rejoice with joy which beareth grief. Let us shed 
tears which are the seeds of great joy, and not laugh with 
that laughter, which beareth the gnashing of teeth for us. 
Let us be afflicted with affliction, from which springs up 

Present ease not the way to Heaven. 179 

ease, and let us not seek luxury, whence great affliction and Hom. 

pain is born. Let us labour a little time upon the earth, that '- 

we may have continual enjoyment in heaven. Let us afflict 
oui'selves in this transitory life, that we may attain rest in 
that which is endless. Let ns not be remiss in this short life, 
lest we groan in that which is endless. 

See ye not how many are here in affliction for the sake of 
worldly things? Suppose thyself one of them, and bear thy 
affliction and thy pain, feeding on the hope of things to 
come. Thou art not better than Paul or Peter, who never 
obtained rest, who passed all their life in hunger and thirst 
and nakedness. If thou wouldest attain the same things with 
them, why journeyest thou along a contrary road ? If thou 
wouldest arrive at that City, of which they have been deemed 
worthy, walk along the path which leadeth thither. The 
way of ease leadeth not thither, but that of affliction. The 
former is broad, the latter is narrow; along this let us walk, 
that we may attain eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord, 
with Whom, to the Father, together with the Holy Ghost, be 
honour, might, power, now and ever, and world without end. 

N a 










Col. i. 1, 2. 

Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of Ood, and 
Timotheus our brother, to the saints and faithful brethren 
in Christ which are at Colosse : Orace be unto you, and 
peace, from Ood our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

Holy indeed are all the Epistles of Paul : but somewhat 
more those which he sent after he was in bonds : those, 
for instance, to the Ephesians and Philemon : that to Timothy, 
that to the Philippians, and the one before us : for this also 
was sent after he was a prisoner, since he writes in it thus : 
for which I am also in bonds : that I may make it manifest Col. 4 
as I ought to speak. But this Epistle appears to have been ^* ^" 
written after that to the Romans. For the one to the 
Romans he wrote before he had seen them, but this Epistle, 
after ; and near upon the close of his preaching \ And it is 

» Ed. Par. suspects that a sentence lemon as written in imprisonment, and 
is lost here, but without reason, as he consequently later than that to the 
had just mentioned the Epistle to Phi- Romans. 

182 Thin Epislle u riiien in bnprisonment. 

CoLos. evident from hence; lliat in the Epistle to Philemon he says, 

yjr. 9. ' -^^"^i? ^uch an one as Paul the aged, and makes request for 

Onesimus ; but in this he sends Oncsimus himself, as he says, 

Co\.A,9. With Onesimus the faithful and beloved brother: calling 

him faithful, and beloved, and brother. Wherefore also he 

1,23. boldly says in this Epistle, yVow the hope of the Gospel 

which ye have heard, and ivhich was preached to every 

creature which is under heaven. For it had now been 

*«Sex preached for a long time. I think then' that the Epistle 

Ed"p *^° Timothy was written after this; and when he was now 

cut Edd. come to the very end of his life, for there he says, for 

I am now ready to be offered; this is later'' however than 

that to the Philippians, for in that Epistle he appears to be 

entering upon his imprisonment at Rome. 

3 «-Xia, But why do I say that these Epistles have some advantage' 

x*'*- over the rest.^ In this respect, because he writes them 

while in bonds; as if a champion were to write in the midst of 

carnage and victory ' ; so also in truth did he. For himself 

too was aware that this was a great thing, for writing to 

ver. 10. Philemon he saith, Whom I have beyoiien in my bonds. 

•■'a(r;^^ax- And tliis lic Said, that we should not be dispirited^ when 

fretfuf^"^ adversity, but even rejoice. At this place was Philemon 

repin- with these (Colossians). For in the Epistle to him he 

C(fl. 4 saith. And to Archippus our felloiv-soldier ; and in this, Say to 

17. Archippus. This man seems to me to have been charged with 

some office in the Church. 

But he had neither seen these people, nor the Romans, 

nor the Hebrews, when he wrote to them. That this is 

true of the latter, he shews in many places ; with regard 

Col. 2, to the Colossians, hear him saying, And as many as have 

^' ■'^- not seen my face in the Jlesh : and again, Though I be 

absent in the flesh, yet am I with you in the spirit. So 

great a thing did he know his presence every where to be. 

And always, oven though he be absent, he makes himself 

^iauriv prcscut^. So, wlicu lie punishes the fornicator, look how 

|^<Vt«« jjg places himself on the tribunal ; for, he saith, / verily 
I Cor. r ? ./ J -f .^ 


'' x^ifffivTi^a. Lit. ' older.' The .ar- after longer imprisonment.)' 
gument allows no other sense. It may "= lit. ' while raising trophies.' 

mean ' written at a greater age,' or Downes most coldly conjectures 

' of higher honour, (hecausc written ' having raised.' 

All blessings from Christ. Man nothing but by the Spirit. 183 

as absent in body, but present in spirit, have judged already Hom. 
as though I were present: and again, I will come to you, 

and will know not the speech of them which are puffed 4^ 19.' 

up, but the power : and again, Not only when I ampresenf^ 

with you, but much more when I am absent. Philipp. 

2 12. 
Paul an Apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God. ' 

It were well also to say, what from considering this 
Epistle we have found its argument " to be. What then is 
it ? They used to approach ' God through angels ; they held 
many Jewish and Grecian observances. These things then 
he is coiTecting. Wherefore in the very outset he says, 
By the will of God. So here again he hath used the ex- 
pression by s. And Timothy the brother, he saith ; of course 
then he too was an Apostle, and probably also known to 
them. To the saints which are at Colosse. This was a city 
of Phrygia, as is plain from Laodicea's being near to it. 
And faithful brethren in Christ. Whence, saith he, art Col. 4, 
thou made a saint? Tell me. Whence art thou called faith- * 
ful ? Is it not because thou wert sanctified by the death of 
Christ ? Is it not because thou hast faith in Christ ? Whence 
art thou made a brother ? for neither in deed, nor in word, 
nor in attainment didst thou shew thyself faithful. Tell me, 
whence is it that thou hast been entrusted with so great 
mysteries ? Is it not because ' of Christ ? 1 s,^xg/- 

Grace be unto you and peace from God our Father. "'"'"• 
Whence cometh grace to you .-^ Whence peace ? From God, 
saith he, our Father. Although he useth not in this place 
the name of Christ. 

I will ask those who speak disparagingly of the Spirit, 
Whence is God the Father of servants ? Who wrought these 
mighty achievements ? Who made thee a saint } Who faith- 
ful? Who a son of God ? He who made thee worthy to be 
trusted^, the Same is also the cause of thy being entrusted ^«l"'^'»'- 
with all. 

^ These words are from Gal. 4, 19. " thought to approach." 

but the real citation is that given in the % to S;a, here used with the genitive, 

margin. He mentions it as applied to the will 

"^ urohffit. here perhaps " ground- of the Father, and consequently not, as 

work," or " occasion." some supposed, proving an inferiority in 

f ngixrijytfvra, v. Hom. ii. §. i. Sav. the Son. 

in marg. and one Ms. Tr^oaiytaSmi uatro, 

184 Christians why called Faithful. Encouragement. 

CoLos. For we are called faithful, not only because we have 
— ^-^ — ^' faith, but also because we are entrusted of God with mys- 
teries which not even the angt-ls knew before us. However, 
to Paul it was indifferent whether or not to put it thus. 

Ver. 3. We give thaiiks to God*", the Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 

He seems to me to refer every thing to the Father, that he 
may not at once lay before them what he has to say '. 

Praying always for you. 

He shews his love, not by giving thanks only, but also by 
continual prayer, in seeing that those whom he did not see, 
he had continually within himself. 

Ver. 4. \_Since we heard of your faith in Christ Jesus. 

A little above he said, our Lord, here he adds, Christ 

Jesus. ' He,' saith he, ' is Lord, not they that are the servants 

of Jesus Christ.' These names are the symbols of His benefit 

Matt. 1, to us, for LLe,\i means, shall save LLis people from their sins.] ^ 

Ver. 4. Since we heard of your faith in Christ Jesus, and 
of the love which ye have to all the saints. 

Already he conciliates them. It was Epaphroditus ' who 
brought him this account. But he sends the Epistle by 
Tychicus, retaining Epaphroditus with himself. And of the 
love, he saith, which ye have to all the saints, not to this one 
and that : of course then to us also. 

Ver. 5. For the hope irhich is laid up for you in heaven. 

He speaks of the good things to come. This is ^\4th a view 
to their temptations, that they should not seek their rest 
here. For lest any should say, ' And where is the good of 
their love to the Saints, if they themselves are in affliction ?' 
he says, ' We rejoice that ye are securing for yourselves a 
'"'2'"^* noble reception' in heaven.' For the hope, he ssdth, which 
nTri. is laid up. He shews its secureness. Whereof ye heard before 
in the word of truth. Here the expression is as if he would 
chide them, as having changed from it when they had long 
held it. 

h rec. text inserts' and/ (*a< for Ti}),) ■* Savile includes this paragraph in 

but with the same sense. brackets, and so Ed. Par. as it is 

* Savil. tr^offTifiyat. Mar. rgaiTTJJva*. not in some Mss. and Versions, and 

Ben. Ed. 2. a-jar/^Eva/. Either of the is thought not to fit in well ; but they 

latter makes good sense, and, as have missed the sense. 

' at once' is emphatic by position, such ' Called Epaphras in the text, c. 1, 

must be the meaning. 7. and c. 4, 12. 

Cerlaiuiy and progress of llie Truth. 185 

IVhereof, saith he, ye heard before in the nord of the truth Hom. 

of the Gospel. Also, he bears witness to the trutli of the — 

word. With good reason, for in it there is nothing false. 

Of the Gospel. He doth not say, ' of the preaching',' but' Kn^iy- 
he calleth it the Gospel, continually reminding them of God's'""''*** 
benefits", and having first praised them, he next reminds 
them of these. 

Ver. 6. Which is come unto you, as it is also in all the 

He now gives them credit^. Is come, he said meta--;c«?''C«- 
phorically. He means, it did not come and go away, but'^"' 
that it remained, and was there. Then because to the many 
the strongest confirmation of doctrines is that they hold them 
in common with many, he therefore added, As also it is in all 
the world. 

It is present, he says, every where, every where victorious^, 3 K^arti 
every where established *. * »W»)*« 

And is fruitful, and increasing", as it is also among you. 

Fruitful. In works. Increasing. By the accession of many, 
by becoming firmer ; for plants then begin to thicken when 
they have become firm. 

As also among you. 

He first gains the hearer by his praises, so that even though 
disinclined, he may not refuse to hear him. 

Since the day ye heard it. 

Marvellous ! that ye quickly came unto it^ and believed, ^«■^««■«'a.- 
And straightway, from the very first, shewed forth its fruits. ^'''** 

Since the day ye heard it, and knew the grace of God 
in truth. 

Not in word, saith he, nor in deceit, but in very deeds. 
Either then this is what he means by fruitful, or else, the 
signs and wonders. So that as soon as ye received it, so 
soon ye knew the grace of God. What then forthwith gave 
proofs of its inherent virtue^, is it not a hard thing that that'' «''«"*» 
should now be disbelieved ? "'«(«"v. 

Ver. 7. As ye also learned of Epaphras our beloved felloic- 

™ The passage just above in brack- {xa.) av^avofitvov ,) but it is in some of 
ets may have been for the sake of this, the oldest Mss. 
" Hee. text omits ' and incrcasins,' 

186 Spiritual love compared with earthly friendship. 

CoLos. He, it is probable, had preached there. Ye learned the 
^'^•^- Gospel. Then to shew the trustworthiness of the man, he 
says, our fellow servant. 

Who is for you a faithful minister of Christ; Who 
also declared unto us your love in the Spirit. 

Doubt not, he saith, of llie hope which is to come : ye 
see that the world is being converted. And what need 
to allege the cases of others ? what happened in your own 
• !r«»-T«, is even independently a sufficient ground for belief; for, 
2 or per- ye knew the grace of God in truth: that is, in works^. So 
'^facts.' that these two things, viz. the belief of all, and your own 
too, confirm the things that are to come. Nor was the 
fact one thing, and what Epaphras said, another. Who is, 
saith he, faithful, that is, true. But how, for you a min- 
ister ? In that he had gone to him, and declared to us, 
saith he, your love in the Spirit, that is, the spiritual love 
ye bear us. But if this man be the minister of Christ; 
3 ,j4,. how say ye, that ye are brought unto God'' by angels ? 
dyi<r^<ti. i^fio also declared unto us, saith he, your love in the Spirit. 


183, For this love is wonderful and stedfast; all other has but 
note f. ^^ name. And there are such as are not of this kind, 
but such is not friendship, wherefore also it is easily dis- 
(g\ There are many causes" which produce friendship; atpre- 
Mo HAL. sent we will pass over those which are infamous, (for none 
ollu ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ objection against us in their favour, seeing they 
are evil.) But let us, if you will, review tho^e which are 
5 ^t/a-ixiy natural, and those who arise out of the relations of life ^. Now 
*"' ^t' of the social sort art these, for instance ; one receives a kind- 
ness, or inherits a friend from forefathers, or has been a 
companion at table or in travel : or is neighbour to another, 
(and these are virtuous;) or is of the same trade, which last 
however is not sincere ; for it is attended by a certain emula- 
tion and envy. But the natural are such as that of father to 
son, son to father, brother to brother, grandfather to descend- 
ant, mother to children, and if you like let us add also that of 
wife to husband ; for all matrimonial attachments are also of 
this life, and earthly. Now these latter appear stronger than the 
former: appear, I said, because often they are surpassed by 
them. For friends have at times appeared more kindly disposed 

Christian love independenl of circumstances. 187 

than brothers, or than sons toward fathers; and when he Hom. 

whom a man hath begotten would not succour him ; one who '■ — 

knew him not has stood by him, and done so. But the spi- 
ritual love is higher than all, as it were some queen ruling 
her subjects'; and in her form is bright: for not as the other, ' xjar««- 
hath she ought of earth for her parent; neither habitual inter- ^*^'^'*"' 
course, nor benefits, nor nature, nor time ; but she descendeth 
from abov^e, out of heaven. And why wonderest thou that 
she needeth no benefits in order that she should subsist, 
seeing that neither by injuries is she overthrown ? 

Now that this love is greater than the other, hear Paul Rom, 9, 
saying ; / could wish that myself were anathema from, 
Christ for my brethren. What father would have thus wished 
himself in misery? And again, To depart, and to be with Fhil. i, 
Christ is far better; nevertheless to abide in thejiesh is more ^' ^ ' 
needful for you. What mother would have chosen so to 
speak, regardless of herself.? And again hear him saying, For l Thess. 
beiny bereaved of you for a short time, in presence, not in ' 
heart. And here indeed [in the world], when a father hath 
been insulted, he withdraws his love ; not so however there, 
but he went to those who stoned him, seeking to do them 
good. For nothing, nothing is so strong as the bond of the 
Spirit. For he, who became a friend from receiving benefits, 
will, should these be discontinued, become an enemy; he 
whom habitual intercourse made inseparable, will, when the 
habit is broken through, let his friendship become extinct 
again ; a Avife again, should a broil have taken place, will 
leave her husband, and withdraw affection. The son, when 
he sees his father living to a great age, is dissatisfied. But in 
case of spiritual love there is nothing of this. For by none 
of these things can it be dissolved; seeing it is not composed 
out of them. Neither time, nor length of journey, nor ill 
usage, nor being evil spoken of, nor anger, nor insult, nor any 
other thing, make inroads upon it, nor have the power of 
dissolving it. And that thou mayest know this; Moses was Ex. 17, 
stoned, and yet he made entreaty for them. What father^* 
would have done this for one that stoned him, and would 
not rather have stoned him too to death ? 

Let us then follow after these friendships which are of the 
Spirit, for they are strong, and hard to be dissolved, and not those 

188 Belter to feast the poor than the rich. 

CoLos. vvhicli aiise Aoni the tabic, lor tliesc wc arc forbidden 
— '—^ to carry in 'J'hithcr. For hear Clirist saying i" the 
Luke Gospel, Call not thy friends nor thy neighbours, if thou 
'^' '^* makest a feast, but the lame, the maimed. With reason: 
for great is the recompense for these. But thou canst 
not, nor endurest to feast with lame and blind, but 
thinkcst it grievous and offensive, and refusest. Now it 
were indeed best that thou shouldest not refuse, however it 
is not necessary to do it. If thou seatest them not with thee, 
send to them of the dishes on thy own table. For he that 
inviteth his friends, hath done no great thing: for he hath 
received his recompense here. But he that called the 
maimed, and poor, hath God for his Debtor. Let us then not 
repine when we receive not a reward here, but when we do 
receive here; for we shall have nothing more to receive There. 
In like manner, if man recompense, God recompenseth not; 
if man recompense not, then God will recompense. Let us 
then not seek those out for our benefits, who have it in their 
power to requite us again, nor bestow our favours on them 
with such an expectation: this were a cold thought. If 
thou invite a friend, the obligation is but till evening ; and 
therefore the friendship is sooner spent than is the cost, or 
the minutes of the feast. But if thou call the poor and the 
maimed, never shall the obligation be lost, for God, Who 
remeinbereth ever, and never forgetteth, thou hast even Him 
^^« for thy Debtor. What squeamishness ' is this, pray, that thou 
canst not sit down in company with the poor ? What sayest 
thou.'' He is unclean and filthy ? Then wash him, and lead 
him to thy table. But he hath filthy garments.'' Then change 
(4) them, and give him clean apparel. Seest thou not how 
great the gain is ? Christ cometh imto thee through him, 
and dost thou make petty calculations of such things .? When 
thou art inviting the King to thy table, dost thou fear because 
of such things as these ? 

Let us su])pose two tables, and let one be filled with those, 
and have the blind, the halt, the maimed in hand or leg, the 
barefoot, tln)so clad with but one scanty coat, and that worn 
out: but let the other have grandees, generals, governors, 
great officers, arrayed in costly robes, and fine lawn, belled 
with golden girdles. Again, here at the table of the poor let 


Ttvo tables. Christ sits uith the Poor. 189 

there be neither silver, nor store of wine, but just enough to Hom. 
refresh and gladden, and let the drinking cups and the rest- — '— 
of the vessels be made from glass only ; but there, at the table 
of the rich, let all the vessels be of silver and gold, [and the 
semicircular table % not such as one can lift, but as two young 
men can with difficulty move,] and let there be a gilded bowl 
of half a talent weight, so that two young men can scarcely 
move it', and the wine-jars lie in order, glittering far beyond ' '• ^* 
the silver with gold, and let the semicircle" be smoothly laid full. 
all over with soft drapery. Here, again, let there be many 
servants, in garments not less ornamented than those of the 
guests, and bravely apparelled, and wearing loose trowsers, 
beauteous to look upon, in the very flower of life, plump, 
and well conditioned ; but there let there be only two servants 
disdaining all that proud vanity. And let those have costly 
meats, but these only enough to appease hunger, and inspire 
cheerfulness. Have I said enough ? and are both tables 
laid out with sufficient minuteness.? Is any thing wanting? 
I think not. For I have gone over the guests, and the 
costliness both of the vessels, and of the linen", and the 
meats. However, if we should have omitted aught, we shall 
discover it as we proceed with our argument. 

Come then, now that we have correctly drawn each table 
in its proper outline, let us see at which ye will seat your- 
selves, for I for my part am going to that of the blind, and 
the lame, but probably the more part of you will choose the 
other, that of the generals, that is so gay and splendid. 
Let us then see which of them doth more abound in pleasure ; 
for as yet let us not examine into the things of hereafter, 
seeing that in those at least this of mine hath the supe- 
riority. Wherefore ? Because this one hath Christ sitting 
down at it, the other men, this hath the Master, that 
the servants. But say we nothing of these things as 
yet ; but let us see which hath the more of present pleasure. 

■' tifiixvKkiov, The part in brackets is Expliguee. T. iii. p. 111. 
notin all copies. Montf.has anote on the •' Here, the couch which belongs to 
word, which Hervetus rendered ' chair.' the table. Such is the stibadium de- 
He mentions "William the Conqueror scribed in the accounts of Pompeii, 
being represented sitting at such a *" ar^uf^diav, carpets, cushions, co- 
table, sometimes called a sigma from verings for the tables, &c. &c. 
the form C. He refers to his Antiquite 

190 Present pleasure least in splendid feasts. 

Coi.os. A.nd even in this respect, then, there is more ol" this plea- 
— ^— ^ sure, namely, that it is more pleasure to sit clown with 
a King than with his servants. But let us withdraw this con- 
sideration also; let us examine the matter simply hy itself ; 
I, then, and those who choose the table I do, shall with 
much freedom and ease of mind say and hear every thing : 
but you trembling and fearing, and ashamed before those you 
sit down with, will not even have the heart to reach out your 
hands, just as though you had got to a school, and not a 
dinner, just as though you were trembling before masters 
whom you dreaded. But not so they. But, saith one, the 
honour is great. Nay, T further am m more honour, for your 
' IUT8- mean estate' shews the more strikingly: when even whilst 
*■*'" sharing the same table, the words ye utter ai*e those of slaves. 
For the servant then most of all shews as such, when he 
sits down with his master ; for he is in a place where he 
ought not to be ; nor hath he from such familiarity so much 
dignity as he hath abasement, for he is then abased exceed- 
ingly. And one may see a servant by himself make a brave 
appearance, the poor man seem splendid by himself; not 
however when he is walking with a rich one; for the low when 
near the lofty, then appears low, and the juxtaposition makes 
the low seem lower, not loftier. So too your sitting down 
with them makes you seem as of yet meaner condition. But 
not so, us. In these two things, then, we have the advantage, 
in freedom, and in honour; which have nothing equal to 
them in regard of pleasure. For I at least would prefer a 
crust with freedom, to thousands of dainties with slavery. 
Prov. For, saith one. Better is an entertainment of lierhs with love 
16, 17. fijid kindness, than an ox from the stall with hatred. For 
2 ixiTyai, whatsoever those ^ may say, they who are present must needs 
i.e.thosepj-g^^gg it, or giveoffence; assuming thus the rank of parasites, 
people, or rather, being worse than they. For parasites indeed, even 
though it be with shame and insult, have yet liberty of speech : 
but ye have not even this. But your meanness is indeed as 
great, (for ye fear and crouch,) but not so your honour. 
Surely then that table is deprived of every pleasure, but this 
is replete with all delight of soul. 
(5) But let us examine the nature even of the meats them- 
selves. For there indeed it is necessaiy to burst one's self 

Surfeit worse than hunger, splendour troublesome. 191 

with the large quantity of wine, even against one's will, Hom. 
but here none who is disinclined need eat or drink. So '— 

that there indeed the pleasure arising from the quality of 
the food is cancelled by the dishonour which precedes, and 
the discomfort which follows the surfeit. For not less than 
hunger doth surfeiting destroy and rack our bodies ; but 
even far more grievously ; and whomsoever you like to give 
me, 1 shall more easily destroy by bursting him with surfeit 
than by hunger. For, in truth, the latter is easier to be 
borne than the other, for one might indeed endure hunger 
for twenty days, but surfeiting not for as many as two only. 
And the country people who are perpetually struggling with 
the one, are healthy, and need no physicians ; but the other, 
surfeiting I mean, none can endure without perpetually 
calling in physicians; yea, rather, its absoluteness' hath 'ruga»- 
ofteu baffled even their attempt to rescue. *"' 

So far then as pleasure is concerned, this [table of mine] 
hath the advantage. For if honour hath more pleasure than 
dishonoui", if authority than subjection, and if manly con- 
fidence than trembling and fear, and if enjoyment of what 
is enough, than to be plunged out of depth in the tide 
of luxury ; surely on the score of pleasure this table is better 
than the other. It is besides better in regard of expense ; 
for the other is expensive, but this, not so. 

But what ? is it then to the guests alone that this table 
is the more pleasurable, or bringeth it more pleasure than 
the other to him who inviteth them, as well ? for this is 
what we are enquiring after rather. Now he who invites 
those makes preparation many days before, and is forced 
to have trouble and anxious thoughts and cares, neither 
sleeping by night, nor resting by day ; but forming with 
himself many plans, conversing with cooks, confectioners, 
deckers of tables. Then when the very day is come, one 
may see him in greater fear than those who are going to 
fight a boxing match, lest aught should turn out other than 
was expected, lest he be shot with the glance- of envy, lest- ySa*-*»- 
he thereby procure himself a multitude of accusers. But"*' 
the other escapeth all this anxious thought and trouble by 
furnishing his table upon the moment, and not being care- 
ful about it for many days before. And then, truly, after 


192 Heathetiiah and itn pure practices at feasts. 

CoLos. this, the former indeed hath straightway lost the grateful 
-'' ^' return ; but the otht-r hath God for his Debtor ; and is 
fdled witli good hopes, being every day feasted from off 
that table. For the meats indeed are spent, but the grateful 
thought is never spent, but every day he rejoices and 
exults more than they that are gorged with their excess of 
\Aine. For nothing doth so nourish the soul as a virtuous 
hope, and the expectation of good things. 

But now let us consider what follows. There indeed are 

flutes, and harps, and pipes ; but here is no music of sounds 

' a»«;^;;£r unsuitable ' ; but what ? hymns, singing of psalms. There 

iiV^ indeed the Demons are hymned ; but here, the Lord of all, 

means, Qq± Sccst thou with what gratitude this one aboundeth, 

tian with what ingratitude and insensibility that ? For, tell me, 

®^''*** when God hath fed thee with His good things, and when thou 

oughtest to give Him thanks after being fed, dost thou even 

- r««Ti'- introduce the Demons t For these songs to the lyre^, are 

^'- none other than songs to Demons. When thou oughtest 

to say, ' Blessed art Thou, O Lord, that Thou hast fed me 

with Thy good things,' dost thou like a worthless dog not 

even so much as remember Him, but, over and above, intro- 

ducest the Demons .' Nay rather, dogs, whether they receive 

any thing or not, fawn upon those they know, but thou dost 

not even this. The dog, although he receives nothing, fawns 

upon his master ; but thou, even when thou hast received, 

barkest at Him. Again, the dog, even though he be well 

ti'eated by a stranger, not even so will be reconciled of his 

hatred of him, nor be enticed on to be friends with him : 

but thou, even though suffering mischief incalculable from 

the Demons, introducest them at thy feasts. So that, in t\^•o 

ways, thou art worse than the dog. And the mention I have 

now made of dogs is happy, in regard of those who give 

thanks then only when they receive a benefit. Take shame, 

I pray you, at the dogs, which when famisliing still fawn 

upon their masters. But thou, if thou hast ha]:>ly heard that 

the Demon has cured any one, straightway forsakest tliy 

Master ; O more unreasoning than the dogs ! 

But, saith one, the liarlots are a ])leasure to look ui)on. What 

sort of pleasure are they .? yea rather what infamy are they 

' oltrTgof.noil Thy house has become a brothel, madness, and fury^; 

The rich poor within, the poor rich within. 193 

and art thou not ashamed to call this pleasure ? If now it be Hom. 
allowed to have the full pleasure of them, the greater is the '— 

shame, and the discomfort which arises from the shame. 
And how ? Is it not a grievous thing to make one's house a 
brothel, and to take delight like hogs in wallowing in the mire ? 
But if so far only be allowed as to see them, lo ! again the 
pain is greater. For to see is no pleasure, where to use is 
not allowed, but the lust becomes only the greater, and the 
flame the fiercer. 

But wouldest thou learn the end ? Those, indeed, when 
they rise up fi'om the table, are like the madmen and those 
that have lost their wits ; foolhardy, quarrelsome, laughing- 
stocks for the very slaves ; and the servants indeed return 
home sober, but these, drunk. O the shame ! But with the 
other is nothing of this sort; but closing the table with 
thanksgiving, they so return to their homes, with pleasure 
sleeping, with pleasure waking, free from all shame and 

If thou wilt consider also the guests themselves, thou wilt (6.) 
see that the one are within, what the other are without ; 
blind, maimed, lame ; and as are the bodies of these, such 
are the souls of those, labouring under dropsy and inflam- 
mation. For of such sort is pride ; for after the luxurious 
gratification a maiming takes place ; of such sort is surfeiting 
and drunkenness, making men lame and maimed. And thou 
wilt see too that these have souls like the bodies of the others, 
bright, ornamented. For they who live in giving of thanks, 
who seek nothing beyond a sufficiency, they whose philo- 
sophy is of this sort are in all brightness. 

But let us see the end both here and there. There, indeed, 
is unchaste pleasure, loose laughter, drunkenness, buffoonery >, i jj^^. 
filthy language ; (for since they in their own persons are '^«x/a, 
ashamed to talk filthily, this is brought about by means of the 5, 4. 
harlots ;) but here is love of mankind, gentleness. Near to him 
who invites those stands vainglory commanding''^ him, but near 2 „vx/'- 
the other, love of man, and gentleness. For the one table, love ?«"''«' 
of man prepareth, but the other, vainglory, and cruelly, out of 
injustice and grasping. And that one ends in what I have 
said, in pride, in delirium, in madness ; (for such are the 


194 Future reward of honpitalitij to the Poor. 

CoLos. offshoots of vainglory ;) but this one in thanksgiving and 
— ^— ^ the glory of God, And the praise too, which cometh of 
men, attcndcth more abundantly ujjon this, for that man 
is even regarded with an envious eye ; but this all men 
regard as their common father, even they who have received 
no benefit at his hands. And as with the injured even they 
who have not been injured sympathize, and all become in 
common enemies (to the injurer) : so too, when any have 
received kindness, they also who have not received any ; not 
less than they who have, praise and admire him that conferred 
it. And there indeed is much envy, but here much tender 
solicitude, many jjrayers from all. 

And so much indeed here; but There, when Christ is come, 

this one indeed shall stand with much boldness, and shall 

Matt, hear before the wdiole world. Thou sawest Me an hungered, 

^^*' ^^' and didst feed Me ; naked, and didst clothe Me ; a stranger, 

and didst take Me in ; and other like words : but the other 

lb, 26. shall hear the contrary; Wicked and slothful servant; 

Amos 6, and again. Woe unto them that luxuriate upon their 

j'xx, couches, and sleep upon beds of ivory, and drink the 

"iiuXtr- reined raine, and. anoint themselves with the chief oint- 

strainedi '^nents ; they couuled upon these things as staying, and not 

as fleeting. 

I have not said this without purpose, but with the view of 
changing your minds ; and that you should do nothing that 
is fruitless. What then, saith one, if I do both the one and 
the other ? This argument is much resorted to by all. And 
what need, tell me, when every thing might be done pro- 
fitably, to make a division, and to expend part not only 
on what is not wanted, but even without any purpose at all, 
and part profitably ? Tell me, hadst thou, when sowing, 
cast some upon a rock, and some upon very good ground ; 
is it likely that thou wouldest have been contented so, and 
have said. Where is the harm, if we have cast some to no 
]3urpose, and some upon very good ground } For why not 
all into the very good ground ? Why lessen the gain } And 
if thou have occasion to be getting money together, thou 
wilt not talk iu that way, but wilt get it together from every 
quarter ; but in the other case thou dost not so. And if to 

No true friendsltip comes of feasting. 195 

lend on usuiy ; thou wilt not say, " Wherefore ? we will Hom. 

give some to the poor, and some to the rich," but all is '- 

given to the former": but in the case before us; where the 
gain is so great ; how is it that thou dost not thus calculate ; 
and at length desist from expending without purpose, and 
laying out without return ? 

* But,' saith one, ' this also hath a gain.' Of what kind ? 
tell me. ' It increaseth friendships.' Nothing is colder 
than men who are made friends by these things, by the 
table, and surfeiting. The parasites ! Nothing is more un- 
satisfactory than a friendship thus originated. 

Insult not a thing so marvellous as love *, nor say that this ' Com- 
is its root. As if one were to say, that a tree which bore clem" 
gold and precious stones had not its root of the same, but ^l- ^^- 
that it was gendered of rottenness; even so doest thou: forii. c. i. 
even though friendship should be produced in this way, 
nothing can possibly be colder. But those other tables 
produce friendship, not with man, but with God ; and that 
an intense"^ one, so thou be intent on preparing them. For-s^'^j- 
he that expendeth part in this way and part in that, even '"'''"'""' 
should he have bestowed much, hath done no great thing : 
but he that expendeth all in this way, even though he 
should have given little, hath done the whole. For what is 
required is that we give, not much or little, but not less 
than is in our power. Think we on him with the five talents, Matt. 
and on him with the two. Think we on her who cast in Mark ' 
those two mites ^ Think we on the widow in Elijah's days, ^^i 41. 
She who threw in those two mites, said not. What harm if i Vings 
I keep the one mite for myself, and give the other.'' but gave ^^* 
her whole living. But thou, in the midst of so great plenty, 
art more penurious than she. Let us then not be careless of 
our own salvation, but apply ourselves to almsgiving. For 
nothing is better than this, as the time to come shall shew : 
meanwhile the present shews it also. Live we then to the 
glory of God, and do those things that please Him, that we 

"" Because their distress would make requires, " shall we not give?" or else, 

tliem willing to give a higher interest. " luilt thou not say?" interrogatively, 

This place may bear the sense here or the expulsion of ha. ri. 
given, but it seems corrupt. The sense 


19G Almsgiving rewarded hereafter. 

CoLos. may be counted worthy of the good things of promise ; 

^i^- which may all we obtain, through the grace and love toward 

man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be the glory and 

the power and honour, now and ever, and world without end. 



Col. i. 9, 10. 

For this cause we also, since the day we heard it, do not 
cease to pray for you, and to desire that ye might be 
filled with the knowledge of His will in all wisdom and 
spiritual wider standing ; That ye might walk worthy of 
the Lord unto all pleasing, being fruitful in every good 
work, and increasing in the knowledge of God. 

For this cause. What cause ? Because we heard of your 
faith and love, because we have good hopes, we are hopeful 
to ask for future blessings also. For as in the games we 
cheer on those most who are near upon gaining the victory, so 
truly doth Paul also most exhort those who have achieved 
the greater part. 

Since the day we heard it, saith he, we do not cease to 
pray for you. Not for one day do we pray for you, nor 
yet for two, nor three. Herein he both shews his love, and 
gives them a gentle hint that they had not yet arrived at the 
end. For the words, that ye might be filled, are of this 
significancy. And observe, I pray, the prudence of this 
blessed one. He no where says that they had been cut off 
from completeness", but, every where that they fell short; 
for the words, that ye might be filled, shew this. And again, 
unto all pleasing, in every good work, and again, strength- ver. ii. 
ened with all might, and again, iinto all patience and long- 
suffering ; for the word all is that of one bearing witness 
to their well doing in part, though, it might be, not in all. 
And, that ye might be filled, he saith; not, ' that ye might 
receive,' for they had received ; but that ye might be filled 

* Tti ■^atTos oi.iti9ri(^t6on. It seems to mean this, rather than ' had lost all.' 

198 Divine knowledge, Christ the Way to the Father. 

Coi.ns. ^^ith what as yet was lacking. Thus both the rebuke was 

] 9. 10. . . 

— given without offence, and the praise did not suffer them 

to sink down, and become supine, as if it had been com])lete. 

But wliat is, that ye might be filled toith the knowledge 

y. Horn. Qf fjif. ^i-iii ? That is, ve must be brought unto Him by the 
1. §. 1. ' " , 

Son, and no more by Angels. Now that ye must be brought 

unto Him, ye have learnt, but it remains for you yet to 
learn further why He sent the Son. For had it been that 
we were to have been saved by Angels'', He would not have 
sent the Son, He would not have given Him up. In all 
wisdom, he saith, and spiritual understanding. For since 
the philosophers deceived them ; I wish you, he saith, to be 
in spiritual wisdom, not after the wisdom of men. But if 
in order to know the will of God, there needs spiritual 
' Tfl» wisdom; to know His Essence' what It is, there needs 
Ij.^^,, contniual prayers. 

And Paul shews here, that since that time he has been 
praying, and has not yet prevailed, and yet has not de- 
sisted; for the words, /rowi the day we heard it, shew this. 
But it implies much condemnation to them, if, from that 
time, even assisted by prayers, they had not amended them- 
selves. And desiring, he says, that is, with much earnestness, 
for this the expression ye knew" shews. But it is necessary 
- i^iyu. stiW to know^ somewhat besides. That ye might toalk worthy 
plied in of the Lord. Here he speaks of life and its works, for so he 
i-rlyvu- ^qW^ also every where: with faith he always couples conver- 
sation. Unto all pleasing. And how, all pleasing ? Being 
fruitful in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge 
of God. Seeing, saith he. He hath fully revealed Himself 
unto you, and seeing ye have received knowledge so great ; 
do ye then shew forth a conversation worthy of the faith ; for 
'^•=j/« this needeth great things in life'', greater far than the 
xvis JO- qJj dispensation. For, he that hath known God, and been 

lit. a counted worthy to be God's servant, yea rather, even His 

sation. '' It may be asked how St. Chrj'- to have made the Angels independent 
sostom could use this argument, and of Him, and the means of an approach 
yet speak as he does of the intercession to God without reference to His Atone- 
of Saints, (see the end of Horn. vi. on nient. St. Augustine refers to such 
the Statues, and note.) The reason systems, De Civ. Dei, lib. ix. 15. 21. 
is, that he viewed the Saints as in the x. 1. &c. 

Kingdom of Christ, and subordinate; <= iyvc/ri. This is implied in his wish- 
but the error here referred to seems ing them more knowledge. 

St. Paul makes way /or blame with praise. 199 

son, see how great virtue he needeth. Strengthened with all Hom. 
mights He is here speaking of trials and persecutions. We 

pray that ye might be filled with strength, that ye faint ' ' «««S'2. 
not for sorrow, nor despair. According to the power oj 
His glory. That, saith he, ye may take up again such for- 
wardness as it becomuth the power of His glory to give. 
Unto all patience and longsuffering. What he saith is of 
this sort. Summarily, he saith, we pray that ye may lead a 
life of virtue, and worthy of your citizenship, and may stand 
firmly, as in reason they should, who have been strengthened 
by God. For this cause he doth not as yet touch upon doc- 
trines, but dwells upon life, wherein he had nothing to charge 
them with, and having praised them where praise was due, he 
then addresses- himself to accusation. And this he does every -««AV/». 
where : for when he is about writing to any with somewhat to 
blame them for, and somewhat to praise, he first praises them, 
and then addresses himself to his charges. For he first con- 
ciliates the hearei', and frees his accusation from all suspicion, 
and shews that for his own part he could have been glad to 
praise them throughout ; but by the necessity of the case is 
forced into saying what he does. And so he doth in the first'' ^perhaps 
Epistle to the Corinthians. For after having exceedingly ^^g « gg. 
praised them as loving him, and from the case of the forni- cond.' 
cator, he addresses himself to accuse them. But in that to 
the Galatians not so, but the reverse. Yea, rather, if one 
should look close into it, even the accusation there follows 
upon praise. For seeing he had no good deeds of thens 
then to speak of, and the charge was an exceeding grave 
one, and they were every one of them corrupted ; and were 
able to bear it because they were strong, he begins with ac- 
cusation, saying, / marvel*. So that this also is praise. But f'^.y '^' 
afterwards he praises them, not for what they were, but what Chrys. 
they had been, saying, //" it had been possible, ye would |? ?'^j,^ 
have plucked out your own eyes, and have given them to me. Gal. 4, 

Being fruitful, he saith : this hath reference to works, ^^"/^j, 
Strengtliened: i\\\H,\.oXnd\s. Unto all patience and longsuffer- 
ing : longsuffering towards one another, patience towards 
those without. For longsuffering is toward those whom we 
can requite, but patience toward those whom we cannot. 
For this reason the term patient is never applied to God, 

200 God's gifts worthy of Himself. 

CoLos. but longsiifiering frequently ; as this same blessed one saith 
^g^^^p^othovvvherc in his \Yntings, Or despisest thou the riches of His 
4. (joodiiess, and /orbeantnce, and lonfjsufferiny? Unto all 

pleasing. Not, one while, and afterwards not so. In all 
icisdnm, he saith, anfl spiritual understanding. For other- 
wise it is not possible to know His will. Although indeed 
they thought they had His will ; but that wisdom was not 
spiritual. That ye might ivalk^ saith he, icorthy of the Lord. 
For this is the way of the best life. For he that hath under- 
stood God's love to man, (and he doth understand it if he 
have seen the Son delivered u]),) will have greater forward- 
ness. And besides, we pray not for this alone that ye may 
know, but that ye may shew forth by our knowledge in 
works; for he that knows without doing, is even in the way 
to punishment. That ye might walk, he saith, that is, always, 
not once, but continually. As to walk is necessary for us, 
so also is to live rightly. And when on this subject he con- 
stantly uses the term icalk, and with reason, shewing that 
such is the life set before us. But not of this sort is that of the 
world. And great too is the praise. That ye might walk, 
he saith, worthy of the Lord, and in every good icork, so as 
to be always advancing, and no where standing still, and, with 
a metaphor, being fruitful and increasing in the knowledge 
of God, that ye might be in such measure strengthened, ac- 
cording to the power of God, as is possible for man to be. 
text Through His power^ , great is the consolation. — He said not 
*""■* mighty but po/rer, which is greater: through the pozcer,he 
S.Lhi vs. saith, of His glory, because that every where His glory hath 
tX"^ the power. He thus comforts those under reproach : and 
2 5i;»a^<v. again. That ye might icalk worthy of the Lord. He saith 
this of the Son, that He hath the power every where both in 
heaven and in earth, because His glory reigneth every where. 
He saith not strengthened simply, but so, as they might be 
expected to be who are in the service of so strong a Master. 
Jn the knotrledge of God. And at the same time he touches 
in passing^ upon the methods of knowledge; for this is to 
be in error, not to know God as one ought ; or he means, 
so as -to increase in the knowledge of God. For if he 
that hath not known the Son, knoweth not the Father 
either; justly was there need of increased knowledge: for 

•' -xaoa- 

IVe cannot tise God's gifts tvithout His help. 201 

there is no use in life without this. Unto all patience and Hom 
longsiiffering, he saith, uith joyfiilness, giving t /tanks unto 

V. 12. 

God. Then being about to exhort them, he makes no 
mention of what by and by shall be laid up for them ; he 
did hint at this however in the beginning of the Epistle, 
saying, For the hope which is laid up for you in heaven : ^- ^^ 
but in this place he mentions the things which were 
already theirs, for these are the causes of the other. And he 
doth the same in many places. For that which hath already 
come to pass gains more belief, and more carries the hearer 
along with it. With jogfulness, he saith, giving thanks to 
God. The connexion ' is this. We cease not praying for ' axoXcu- 
you, and giving thanks for the benefits already received^. -2 ^^li 

Seest thou how he forces himself into speaking of the Son ? ^e""^'^?"' 
For if we give thanks tcith much joyfulness, it is a great 
thing that is spoken of For it is possible to give thanks 
only from fear, it is possible to give thanks even when in 
sorrow. For instance ; Job gave thanks indeed, but in 
anguish. Wherefore he said, The Lord gave, the Lord hath Job 1, 
taken away. For, let not any say that what had come to 
pass pained him not, nor clothed him with dejection of soul j 
nor let his great praise be taken away from that righteous 
one. But when it is thus, it is not for fear, nor because of 
His being Loi'd ^ alone, but for the very nature of the things ^ Ssa-^ro'- 
themselves, that we give thanks to Him which hath made 4 j/^ ^^, 
us meet for the portion^ of the inheritance of the saints in/^^S'^'' 
light ^. He hath said a great thing. What has been given, ^ xx^^ov 
he saith, is of this nature; He hath not only given, but also 
made us strong to receive. Now by saying, Who hath made 
us meet, he shewed that the thing was one of great weight. 
For example, were some low person to have become a king, 
he hath it in his power to give a presidency to whom he will; 
and this is the extent of his power ; to give the dignity : he 
cannot also make the person fit for the office, and oftentimes 
the honour makes one so preferred even ridiculous. If 
however he have both conferred on one the dignity, and 
also made him fit for the honour, and equal to the adminis- 
tration, then indeed the thing is an honour. This then is 
what he also saith here ; that He hath not only given us the 
honour, but hath also made us strong enough to receive it. 

202 No man tvortlnj o/ the yrace u/ God. 

CoLos. For the honour hero is twofold, the giving, and tlie making 
— ^— .-^ fit for the gift. He said not, hath given, simjjly; but, Juilh 
made us meet for Uie portion of the inheritance of the saints 
'"■^*' in Ught, that is, who hath apjjointed us a i)Uice' with the 
uiar- ' saints. But he did not say simply placed us, but given us 
^gl^ *^ to enjoy even the very same'', for portion is that which each 

2 2Mss. one receives. For it is possible to be in the same city, and 
fiuZi yet not enjoy the same; but to have the same portion, and 

yet not enjoy the same, is impossible. It is possible to be in 
the same inheritance, and yet not to have the same portion ; 

3 xx-Ji^a/ for instance, all we (clergy) are in the inheritance^, but we have 
'^•f/Ja. not all the same portion*. But here he doth not say this, 

but with the inheritance adds the portion also. But why 

doth he call it inheritance (or lot ?) To shew that by his own 

good works no one obtains the kingdom, but as a lot is rather 

the result of good luck% so in truth is it here also. For a 

life so good as to be counted worthy of the kingdom doth 

no one shew forth, but the whole is of His free gift. There - 

Luke fore He saith, When ye have done all, say, We are unprofit- 

^^' ^^' able servants, for we have done that which was our duty to 

do. For the portion of the lot of the saints in light, that is, 

in knowledge. He seems to me to be speaking at once of 

both the present and the futm*e. Then he shews of what 

things we have been counted worthy. For this is not the 

only marvel, that we are counted worthy of the kingdom ; 

but it should also be added who we are that are so counted ; 

5 iVov in- for it is not unimportant^. And he doth this in the Epistle 

^'^'^'"" to the Romans, saying. For scarcely for a righteous ^ man 

Rom. 5, will one die, yet peradventure for a good man some would 

even dare to die. 
« Eec ^^^- 13. Who hath delivered us, he &dXi\\,from^ the poicer'' 
text ix, of darkness. 

'iiovJils The whole is of Him, the giving both of these things and 
those ; for no where is any achievement of ours. From the 
power of darkness, he saith, that is, of error, the dominion of 

* The whole passage shews that he well as a|W?vai, 'to be thought worthy,' 

uses this word merely to imply man's to shew at once the necessity of good 

insutlicicncy, and not at all to introduce works, and our unwortliinoss after all. 

the notion of chance as opposed to '' aliKov, 2 Rlss. and Sav. niarg. St. 

Divine agency. He constantly uses Chrys. does not however read so ou the 

the word at the end of his Homilies, as passage. Horn. ix. on Ep. to Romans. 

Greatness of 7naiis deliverance set forth. 203 

the devil. He said not simply /y"ow« darkness, but from its Hom. 
power; for it had great power over us, and held us fast^^-; — '- — 
For it is grievous indeed even to be under the devil at all, 
but to be so ' with power,' this is far more grievous. And 
hnlh translated us, he saith, into the kingdom of the Son of 
His love^. Not then so as to deliver man from darkness' ^•^* 
only, did He shew His love toward him. A great thing 
indeed is it to have delivered from darkness even ; but to 
have brought into a kingdom too, is a far greater. See then 
how manifold the gift, that He hath delivered us who lay in 
the pit ; that He hath not only delivered us, but also hath 
translated us into a kingdom. Who hath delivered us. He 
said not, hath sent us forth, but delivered: shewing that our 
great misery, and their *-' capture of us. Then to shew also 
the ease with which the power of God works, he saith. And 
hath tra?islated us, just as if one were to lead over a soldier 
from one position to another. And he said not, " hath led 
over ';" nor yet " hath transposed," for so the whole would be ^ ^^j-^'- 
ofhim who transposed, ^nothing of him who went; but he j2^"^^/,_;t,, 
said, hath translated'^; so that it is both of us and of Him.^^^'- "") 
Into the kingdom of His beloved Son. He said not simply, not." 
" the kingdom of heaven," but gave a grandeur to his dis- 
course by saying. The kingdom of the Son, for no praise can 
be greater than this, as he saith elsewhere also. If ive suffer,'^ Tim. 
tve shall also reign icith Him. He hath counted us worthy, ' 
he saith, of the same things with the Son ; and not only so, 
but what gives it greater force ^, with His Beloved Son. Those '^ -h ss-/- 
that were enemies, those that were in darkness, as it were on "'^"^ 
a sudden he hath translated to where the Son is, to the same 
honour with Him. Nor was he content with only this, but 
in order to shew the greatness of the gift, he was not content 
with saying, kingdom, but he also added, of the Son; nor yet 
with this, but he added also beloved; nor yet with this, but 
he added yet, the dignity of His nature. For what saith he? 
Who is the Image of the invisible God. But he proceeded 
not to say this immediately, but meanwhile inserted the 
benefit which He bestowed upon us. For lest, when thou 
hearest that the whole is of the Father, thou shouldest sup- 

<= i. e. the devils', a'i;f^uccXui7ia.>. is f^iTiAin, which agrees with this 

'' ftiTivrnrt. The word in Heb. 11,3. criticism. 

204 Work of the Son in Redemption, how great. 

CoLos. pose the Son excluded, he ascribes the whole both to the Son, 

— — '- and to the Father. For lie indeed translated us, but the 

Son furnished the cause. For what saith he? IVho delivered 

us from the power of darkness. But this is the same with, 

TPurn -^''' ff'^hom we have the full redemption^, even the forgive' 

vid. inf. yjg^.,. qJ" sins. For had we not been forgiven our sins, we 

should not have been translated. So here again the words, In 

^xvT^ai- iVJiom. And he said not 'redemption-,' hni full redemp- 

^ ufoxi- tion \ so that we shall not fall any more, nor become liable 

"i"/:'- to death. 

V. Horn. 

14. in Ver. 15. Who is the image of the invisible God, the First- 

^°™' born nf every creature. 

We light here upon a question of heresy. So it were well 
we should put it off to-day aiid proceej^^jdth Jjtto^^rrow, 
addressing it to your ears when they are freslji 

But if one ought to say any thing more : the work of the 
Son is the gi'eater. How ? Because it wei'e a thing impos- 
sible to give the kingdom to men whilst continuing in their 
sins ; but thus it is an easier thing, so that He prepared the 
way for the gift. What sayest thou 1 He Himself loosed 
thee from thy sins : surely then He Himself also hath 

'^f^oan- brought thee nigh*; already he has laid by anticipation the 

Teep? foundation of his doctrine. 

^^'^1 , But we must put a close to this discourse, when first we 
note f. ' 

(4) have made one remark. And what is this r Seeing we 

have come to enjoy so great a benefit, we ought to be ever 
mindful of it, and continually to turn in our minds tlie free 
gift of God, and to reflect upon what we have been delivered 
from, and what we have obtained ; and so we shall be thank- 
ful ; so we shall heighten our love toward Him. What 
sayest thou, O man } Thou art called to a kingdom, to the 
kingdom of the Son of God — a nd art thou fu jl of .yavming, 
and scratching, and dozing? If need were that thou should- 
est leap into ten thousand deaths every day, oughtest thou not 
to endiu'e all 1 For the sake of office thou doest all manner of 
things ; when then thou art going to share the kingdom of 
the Only-Begotten, wilt thou not spring down upon ten thou- 
sand swords ? wouldest thou not leap into fire ? And this is 
not all that is strange, but that when about to depart even, 
thou bewailest, and wouldest gladly dwell amongst the things 

The soul should he ready to quit the nest. 205 

which are here, being a lover of the body. What fancy is Hom. 

this? Dost thou regard even death as a thing of terror? '- — 

The cause of this is kixury, ease: for he at least that should 
live an embittered' life would wish even for wings, and to be '*'*''«'^'- 
loosed from hence. But now it is the same with us as with see on 
the s poiled ne stlings, which would v^illingly remain for ever in ^"^^- . 
the nest. But the longer we remain, the feebler shall we be. Tr. p. 
For the present life is a nest cemented together with sticks ^^^' 
and mire. Yea, shouldest thou shew me even the great 
mansions, yea the royalpalace itself glittering with all its 
gold and precious stones ; I shall think them no better than the 
nests of swallows, for when the winter is come they will all 
fall of themselves. By winter I mean That Day, not that 
it will be a winter to all. For God also calleth that time 
both night and day ; the first in regard of sinners, the latter 
of the just. So do I also now call it winter. If in the sum- 
mer we have not been well brought up, so as to be able to 
fly when winter is come, our mothers will not take us, but 
will leave us to die of hunger, or to perish when the nest 
falls ; for easily as it were a nest, or rather more easily, will 
God in that day remove all things, undoing and new mould- 
ing all. But they which are unfledged, and not able to meet 
Him in the air, but have been so grossly " brought up thaf-Z^a»»»'- 
they have no lightness of wing, will suffer all those things 
which reason is such characters should suffer. Now the 
brood of swallows, when they are fallen, perish quickly ; but 
we shall not perish, but be punished for ever. That season 
will be winter; rather more severe than winter. For, not 
winter torrents of water are those that roll down, but rivers of 
fire; not darkness that riseth from clouds is there, but dark- 
ness that cannot be dispelled, and without a ray of light, so 
that they cannot see either the heaven, or the air, but are 
more straitened than those who have been buried in the earth. 
Oftentimes do we say these things, but there are whom 
we cannot bring to believe. And it is nothing wonderful if 
we, men of small account, are thus treated, when we discourse 
of such things, since the same happened to the Prophets 
also; when they spoke not of such mattei's only, but also of war Jer.21, 
and captivity. And Zedckiah was rebuked by Jeremiah, and jg.'&c.' 
was not ashamed. Therefore the Prophets said. Woe imto^^-^A^' 

206 Judgment disbelieved by me7i called Christians. 

Co LOS. them that say, Let Ood hasten loith sjieed His work, that we 

' ' 7nay see it, and let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel 

omits come, that xoe may know it. Let us not wonder at this. For 

* ®"' neither did those believe who were in the days of the ark ; 

they believed, however, when their belief was of no gain to 
them; neither did they of Sodom expect [their fate], howbeit 
they too believed, when they gained nothing by believing. 
And why do I speak of the future ? Who would have ex- 
pected these things which are now happening in divers 
places; these earthquakes, these overthrows of cities? And 
yet were these things easier to believe than those ; those, I 
mean, which happened in the days ol" the ark. 

Whence is this evident ? Because that the men of those 
times had no other example to look at, neither had they heard 
the Scriptures, but with us, on the other hand, are countless 
instances that have hapjicned both in our own, and in former 
years. But whence arose the unbelief of these persons? From 
a softened soul ; they drank and ate, and therefore they be- 
lieved not. For, what a man wishes, he thinks, and expects ; 

• xTi^os. and they that gainsay him are a jest'. 

(5) But let it not be so witli us ; for hereafter it will not be a 
flood ; nor the punishment till death only ; but death will be 
the beginning of their punishment, who believe not that there 
is a Judgment. And doth any ask, who has come from 
thence, and said so? If now thou speakest thus in jest, 
not even so is it well ; for one ought not to jest in such 
matters ; and we jest, not where jesting is in place, but 
with peril ; but if what thou really feelest, and thou art of 
opinion that there is nothing hereafter, how is it that thou 
callest thyself a Christian ? For I take not into account those 
who are without. Why receivest thou the Laver? Why 
dost thou set foot wiihin the Church ? Is it that we promise 
thee magistracies ? All our hope is in the things to come. 
Why then comest thou, if thou believest not the Scriptures, 
if thou believest not Christ ? I cannot call such an one a 
Christian ; God forbid ! but worse than even a Gentile. In 
what res])ect? In this; that when thou thinkcst Christ is 
God, thou believest Him not as God. For in that im])iety 
there is at least consistency; for he who thinks not that 
Christ is God, necessarily will also not believe Him, but this 

This caused by an evil conscience. 207 

impiety has not even consistency ; to confess Him to be Hom, 
God, and yet not to think Him worthy of belief in what He '— 

has said; these are the words of drunkenness, of luxury, of riot. 
Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die. Not to-mor- ^ ^°''' 

•^ 15, 32. 

row; but now ye are dead, when ye thus speak. Shall we then 
be in nothing different from swine and asses ? tell me. For 
if there be neither a judgment, nor a retribution, nor a tri- 
bunal, wherefore have we been honoured with such a gift as 
reason, and have all things put under us ? Why do we rule, 
and are they ruled ? See how the devil is on every side urgent 
to persuade us to be ignorant of the Gift of God. He mixes 
together the slaves with their masters, like some man-stealer ^ 
and ungrateful servant, he strives to degrade the free to the 
level of the criminal. And he seems indeed to be overthrow- 
ing the Judgment, but he is overthrowing the being of God\ 
For such is ever the devil's way ; he puts forwai'd every 
thing artfully, and not in a straightforward manner, to put 
us on our guard. I f there is no Judgment, God is n otjust: 
(I speak as a man,) if God is not just, then there is no God 
at all : if there is no God, all things go on at haphazard, 
virtue is nought, vice nought. But he says nothing of this 
openly. Seest thou the drift of this satanical argument? 
how, instead of men, he wishes to make us brutes, or rather, 
wild beasts, or rather, demons. Let us then not he persuaded 
by him. For t here is a Judgmen t, O wretched and miserable 
man ! I know whence thou comest to use such words. Thou 
hast committed many sins, thou hast offended, thou hast no 
confidence % thou thinkest that the nature of things will even "/«?/"- 
follow thy arguments. Meanwhile, saith he, I will not tor- 
ment my soul with the expectation of hell, and, if there be a 
hell, I will persuade it that there is none; meanwhile I will 
live here in luxury ! Why dost thou add sin to sin ? If 
when thou hast sinned thou believest that there is a hell, thou 
wilt depart with the penalty of thy sins only to pay ; but if 
thou add this further impiety, thou wilt also for thine impiety, 
and for this thy thought, suffer the uttermost punishment ; and 
what was a cold and shortlived comfort to thee, will be a 
ground for thy being punished for ever. Thou hast sinned : 
be it so : why dost thou encourage others also to sin, by say- 

* «vS^KToJia-r^;, one who steals freemen for slaves. 

•208 Punishment increased hy unbelief. 

CoLos. ing that there is no hell ? Why dost thou mislead the sim- 
— '- — — pier sort ? Why unnerve the hands of the people ? So far as 
thou art concerned, every thing is turned upside down ; nei- 
ther will the good become better, but listless ; nor the wicked 
desist from their wickedness. For, if we corrupt others, do 
we get allowance for our sins? Seest thou not the devil, 
how he attempted to bring down Adam? And has there 
then been allowance for him ? Nay, surely it will be the 
occasion of a greater punishment. For he is ever contriving 
that we may be punished not for our own sins only, but also 
for those of others. Let us not then suppose that to bring 
down others into the same destruction with ourselves will 
make the Judgment-seat more lenient to us. Surely this 
will make it more severe. Why thrust we ourselves on de- 
struction ? The whole of this cometh of Satan. 

O man, hast thou sinned ? Thou hast for thy Master One 
that loveth man. Entreat, implore, weep, groan; and tei'rify 
others, and pray them that they fall not into the same. If in 
a house some servant, of those that had offended their master, 
should say to his son, " My child, I have offended the 
master, do thou be careful to please him, that thou be not as 
I :" tell me, will he not have some forgiveness ? will he not 
bend and soften his master? But if, leaving so to speak, 
isc. thehe shall say such words as these, that he' will not requite 
every one according to his deserts; that, all things are 
jumbled together indiscriminately, both good and bad ; that 
there is no thanks in this house ; what thinkest thou vvill be 
the master's mind concerning him ? will he not suffer a 
severer punishment for his own misdoings ? Justly so ; for 
in the former case his feeling will plead for him, though it 
2Sav. be but weakly; but in this, nothing-. If no other then, yet 
'°°°"^' imitate at least that rich man in hell, who said, 'Father 
Abraham, send Lazarus to my kinsmen, lest they come into 
this place,' since he could not go himself, so that they might 
not fall into the same condemnation. Let us have done 
with such satanical words. 
(0) What then, saith he, when the Greeks put questions to us; 
wouldest thou not that we should try to cure ' them ? But 

^ fii^atrtitiv. As we say, familiarly, ' The Kemedy of Greekish affections.' 
' doctor thurn.' The term was commonly Here it is ' humour them' by palatable 
used. Theodoret has a treatise called, doctrine. 

Hotv to argue uith Heathens. They may hold a Judyment. 209 

by casting the Christian into perplexity, under pretence of Hom. 
curing the Greek, thou aimest at establishing thy Satanical ^^' 
doctrine. For since, when communing with thy soul alone 
of these things, thou persuadest her not; thou desirest to 
bring forward others as witnesses. But if one must reason 
with Greeks, the discussion should not begin with this ; but 
whether Christ be * God, and the Son of God; whether those i Sav. 
gods of theirs be demons. If these points be established, all q*,'^'^* 
the others follow ; but, before making good the beginning, it is.' 
is vain to dispute about the end, before learaing the first 
elements, it is superfluous and unprofitable to come to the 
conclusion. The Greek disbelieves the Judgment, and he 
is in the same case with thyself, seeing that he too hath 
many who have treated these things in their philosophy; and 
albeit when they so spoke they held the soul as separated 
from the body, still they set up ^ a seat of judgment. And"'*«^'- 
the thing is so very clear, that no one scarcely is ignorant of 
it, but both poets and all are agreed among themselves that 
there is both a Tribunal and a Judgment. So that the Greek 
also doth not disbelieve his own authorities; neither doth 
the Jew doubt about these things, nor in a word doth any 

Why then deceive we ourselves } See, thou sayest these 
things to me. What wilt thou say to God, tJiat fashioned ^s. '63 
our hearts one hy one ^ ; that knoweth every thing that is ^^* 
in the mind; that is quick, and powerfuP\ and sharper Heh. 4 
than any two-edged sword? For tell me with truth; Dost^^* 
thou not condemn thyself when sinning .? [and is there any 
of mankind that blames not himself when he is wilful^?] ^ not in 
And how should wisdom so great, as that one who sinSpjes*!"" 
should condemn himself, come by chance, for this is a work 
of mighty wisdom. Thou condemnest thyself. And will He 
who giveth thee such thoughts leave every thing to go on at 
hazard ? This rule then will hold universally and strictly. 
Not one of those who live in virtue wholly disbelieves the 
doctrine of the Judgment, even though he be Greek or 
heretic. None, save a few, of those who live in great wicked- 
ness, receives the doctrine of the Resurrection. And this is 

f xecrtifiimf, LXX. E. V. alifce. ^ hi^youvrx, working. Rec. text m^yii{. 


210 Disbelief til. Judgvient comes ojsiuful pleasures, 

CoLos. what the Psahuist says, Thy judgments are taken away frum 
' " he/ore his face. Whcrclore ? Because liis nays are always 


profane; for he saith, Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow 
we die. 

Secst thou that thus to speak is the mark of the grovelling? 
Of eating and drinking come these sayings which are sub- 
versive of the Resurrection. For the soul endures not, I say, 
it endures not the tribunal which the conscience supplieth, 
and so it is with it, as with a nnirderer, who first suggests to 
himself that he shall not be detected, and so goes on to slay, 
for had his conscience been his judge, he would not hastily 
have come to that daring wickedness. And still he knows, 
and pretends not to know, lest he should be tortured by con- 
science and fear, for, certainly, in that case, he would have 
been less resolute for the murder. So too, assuredly, do they 
who sin, both know that to sin is an evil thing, and whilst 
day by day they wallow in that wickedness, they are unwil- 

'icr/Aajct- ling to know it, although their consciences pluck at them '. 

,a„. But let us give no heed to such persons, for there will be, 

there will assuredly be, a Judgment and a Resurrection, and 
God will not leave so great works without direction. Where- 
fore, I beseech you, let us leave off wickedness, and lay fast 
hold on virtue, that we may receive the true doctrine in 
Christ Jesus our Lord. And yet, which is easier to receive ? 
the doctrine of the Resurrection, or that of Fate? The latter 
is full of injustice, of absurdity, of cruelty, of inhumanity; 
the other of righteousness, awarding according to desert; 
and still men do not receive it. But the fault is, indolence, 
for no one that hath understanding receives the other. For 
amongst the Greeks even, they who did receive that doctrine, 
were those who in their definition of pleasure affirmed it to 
be the ' end,' but they who loved virtue, would not receive 
it, but they cast it out as absurd. But if among the Greeks 
this were so, much more will it hold good with the doctrine 
of the Resurrection. And observe, I pray you, how the 
devil hath established two contrary things: for in order that 

■! h^a- we may neglect virtue ; and pay honour - to demons, he 

*"""'""' brought in this Necessity, and by means of each he procured 
the belief of both. What reason then will he be able to 
give, who obstinately disbelieves a thing so admirable, and 

and is not founded on Reason. 211 

is persuaded by those who talk so idly? Do not then sup- Hom. 
port thyself with the consolation, that thou wilt meet with ^^ - 
forgiveness ; but let us, collecting all our strength, stir our- 
selves up to virtue, and let us live truly to God, in Christ 
Jesus our Lord, &c. 

p 2 


Col. i. 15—18. 
Who is the Image of the invisible Qod, the Firstborn of every 
^"^ ^'' creature ' : For by Him were all things created, that are in 
heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether 
they be thrones, or dominions, or princiimlities, or powers: 
all things were created by Him,, and for Him : And He 
is before all things, and by Him all things consist. And 
He is the head of the body, the Church. 

To-day it is necessary for me to pay the debt, which 
2 See yesterday^ I deferred, in order that I might address it to your 
6 a^fl^* minds when in full forced Paul, discoursing as we shewed 
p. 203. of the dignity of the Son, says these words ; Who is the 
^Xa,"' Image of the invisible God. Whose image then, thinkest 
thou that he says He is.? If God's, it is well, (for He is 
God, and the Son of God ; and the words, the Image of God, 
implies His exact likeness ", so then He is by this parti- 
cular exactly like,) but if man's, say so, and I will have 
done with thee as a madman. But wherefore hath no Angel 
any where been called either ' image' or * son,' but man both? 
Wherefore } Because in the former case indeed the exalted- 
ness of their nature might presently have thrust the many 
viz. into this impiety^; but in the other case the mean and low 
nature is a pledge of security against this, and will not allow 
any, even should they desire it, to suspect any thing of the 
kind, nor to bring down the Word so low. For this cause, 
whei'c the meanness is great, the Scripture boldly asserts 
the honour, but where the nature is higher, it forbears. But 
he saith, Image of the Invisible. Surely then if He be in- 
visible, the image is invisible too, (and invisible in like 

» TO a^jra^aXXaxTov, unvaryingness. Image as Man,') say so, and I will 

Sav. mar. has, " Of whom (or of what) have done with you as a madman. But 

then wilt thou have the Image to be? if as God and the Son of God, the 

Of God P Then is He that is above all Image of God implies being without 

greatness without difference. For if difference." And Catena and Bodl. 

as the Image of a man, (read ' if an Ms. Extracts nearly the same. 


The Son, as the linage of the Father, must be exactly like. 213 

manner,) for otherwise it would not be an image. For an Hom. 
image, so far as it is an image, even amongst us, ought to 

be no whit different', as of characters or of a resemblance '^. ' '»'^«e- 
But here indeed amongst us, this is by no means possible ; , 


for human art fails in many respects, or rather fails in all, if 
you are looking for accxu'acy. But where God is, there is 
no error, no failure. 

Bui if a creature : how is He the Image of the Creator? 
For neither is a horse the image of a man. If the Image 
mean not that He is no whit different from the Invisible, 
what hinders the Angels also from being His image? for 
they too are invisible; but not to one another: and the soul 
is invisible : but because it is invisible, it is simply on that 
account an image, and" not in such sort as He is**. V'^' ^^ 

^ ' . thougn 

The Firstborn of every creature. ' What then,' saith one, ^2) 
* Lo, He is a creature.' Wlience ? tell me. ' Because he 
ssLid firstborn.'' However, he said n^ ^first cirgaJed,' hut first- 
born. Then if because He is called frstborn, thou sayest He 
is created, what wilt thou say when thou hearest Him called 

a brother 9 For the Scripture calleth Him a brother in all Heb.2, 

things made like unto us. Shall we then for this take from 

Him His being Creator; and insist that neither in dignity 
nor in any other thing is He superior to us ? And who that 
hath understanding would say this ? For the word firstborn 
is not expressive of dignity and honour, but of time only. 
If then He hath no precedence over us; perchance according 
to this reasoning. He is Firstborn of all things, and so God 
the Word will be consubstantial with stones, and trees, and 
the like, for he saith. Firstborn of every creature! ' But,' 
saith one, ' He is said to he firstborn ; surely then He is 
created.' Rightly, if this be so, and it have no other expres- 
sions akin to it, such a.?, firstborn from the dead, firstborn Co\.i, 
among many brethren. Of what, tell me, are the words ^rs?- ^^^^ g 
born from the dead declaratory? For thou wilt not say ' of 29. 

2 p(^a^»Krri^ut Koi cfteiiftu;. The ar- ^ Cat. and Bodl, read, ' but if, simply 

gument is, that invisibleness being because invisible, it is therefore an 

mentioned, the image must have it, as image, though not so as He is, then 

if one should say, ' the picture of a ve- are the angels images. A Paris Ms. 

nerable man,' one would undt-rstand a nearly agrees. The Catena varies 

venerable expression in the features, much in the next paragraph. The 

Compare St. Athanasius against Ari- words ' and in like manner invisible,' 

anism. Disc. 1. c. vi. §. 20. Tr. p. 209. above, are from it and Bodl. 2. 
and note d. 

211 Meaning of- Firsthorn of every creature.'' 

CoLos.this, that He first rose ;' for he said not simply, ' of the dead; 

— — '-hwi firstborn from the dead, nor yet * that lie died fast,' but 
that lie rose the firstborn from the dead. So that they de- 
clare nothing else than this, that He is the Firstfruits of the 
Resurrection. Surely then neither in the place before us"". 
Next he proceeds to the doctrine itself. For that they may 
not think Him to be of more recent existence, because that 
in former times the aj^proach was through Angels, but now 
through llim; he shews first, that they had no power, (for 

V. 13. else it had not been out of darkness that He brought,) next, 
that He is also before them. And he uses as a proof of His 
being before them, this; that they were created by Him. 

'Gr. m For by^ Him, he saith, were all things created. What do 
they say here, that hold with Paul of Samosata*^? That all 
things were made in Him, for lo! it is said, that in Him all 
things toere created. Moreover he said, the things in heaven, 
and the things in earth. He has laid down first that'' which 
was questioned. Then he subjoins the visible, and the invi- 
sible. Meaning by invisible, the soul, by visible, all mankind. 
And what is granted, he lets alone, but what is doubted of, 
he asserts. Then he says. Whether they be thrones, or domi- 
nions, or principalities, or powers. The word whether com- 

^Tow prehends the whole of things -; not so, however, as to include 
The Spirit amongst the powers ; but by means of the greater 
things shews it of the less also. All things, he saith, were 

' th; to created by Him,, and for ' Him. Lo, in Him, is ^ by Him, for 

or into. 

' i. e. is any thinfi; else meant by the mar. and a Paris Ms. have another 

vvord •r^aiToroxot , than that He is the reading. " Here what say they that 

Firstliuits of the Creation. This may be hold with Paul of Samosata? The 

his meaning, or ' that He, the Only-be- things in the heavi)is, that which was 

gotten,is the Beginning of the Creation.' in question, he hath placed first, aw^/ 

See note on St. Athanasius against the things on the earth. Afterward he 

Arianism, Disc. 1. Oxf. Tr. p. 278. says, cmd things visible and invisil)le. 

and below, p. 216. at note k. (Downes would read, 'invisible things,' 

•1 P. of Samosata held the Divine as for instance the soul, ' were made P') 

Word, nr Reason, to be a mere Attri- Thus the soul was made in heaven, 

hute, and not a Person. The Person visible things, such as men, Elias and 

of our Lord would thus be simply Paul. Whether thrones, he says," &c. 

Human, only with a Divine influence. Another Paris IMs. and one in Brit. 

See St. Ath. Def. of Nic. Def. c. v. M. read, ' that all things were made in 

§. 1 1. Tr. p. 41. This text of St. Paul heaven,' which, taken with the above 

is (juoted against P. of Samosata, Cone, reading a little altered, would make 

Ant. i. Labbe, t. 1. p. 84(J. by the some sense. 

orthodox Bishops. See also Ejjiph. Hter. « One Ms. has, ' first the things in 

45. Tile heretics might allow what is heaven, ice.' which agrees with the 

said here of the Word as an Attribute ; sense, 

the refutation follows presently. Sav. f i. c. In Him, (which.our Version 


The Son ' before all things: 215 

having said in Him, he added, by Him. But what is for Hom. 

Him ? It is this ; the subsistence of all things depends on ^- 

Him, Not only did He Himself bring them out of nothing 

into being, but Himself sustains' them now, so that wereW*e«- 

°' rti. 

they dissevered from His Providence, they were at once un- 
done and destroyed. But He said not, ' He continues them,' 
which had been a grosser way of speaking, but what is more 
subtle, that on Him they hang. For to have only a bearing 
on Him is enough to continue any thing and bind it fast. 
So also the vrord Jirstborn is said as /oundat ion is-. But^orper- 
this doth not shew the creatures to be consubstantial with thes^ense 
Him ; but that all things are by Him, and in Him. So also of a 
when he says elsewhere,/ have laid a foundation, he istion.' 
speaking not concerning substance, but operation. For, J^"""-^' 
that thou mayest not think Him to be a minister, he says 
that He continues them, which is not less than making 
them. Certainly, with us it is greater even : for to the foniier, 
art conducts us ; but to the latter, not so ; for it stayeth not 
a thing in decay. 

And He is before all things, he saith. This is befitting 
God. Where is Paul of Samosata ? And in Him all things 
consist, that is, they are created into Him. He repeats these 
expressions in close sequence ; with their close succession, 
as it were with rapid strokes, tearing up the deadly doctrine 
by the roots. For, if even when such great things had been 
declared, still after so long a time Paul of Samosata sprung 
up, how much more [would such have been the case], had not 
these things been said before ? And in Him, he saith, all 
things consist. How ' consist' in one who was not } So that 
the things also done by Angels are of Him. 

A7id He is the head of the body, the Church. 

Having spoken of His dignity, he afterwards speaks of 
His love to man also. He is, saith he, the Head of the body, 
the Church. He said not of the fidness^, (although this 
too is asserted in what he says,) out of a wish to shew His 
great friendliness to us, in that He who is thus above, and 
above all, connected Himself with those below. For every 

renders by Him,) in the beginning of S red TXn^iaftxros. Here used of the 
the verse, is said in such a sense as to universe, aoniewhat as 1 Cor. 10, 26. 
agree with by Him. only in a more extended sense. 

21(> Christ First also in the Church. 

CoLos. where He is first; above first; in the Church first, for He is 
~ — '- the Head ; in the Resurrection first. For such is the mean- 
ing of, 
(3) Ver. 18. That He might have the preeminence. So that in 
generation also He is first. And this is what Paul is chiefly 
endeavouring to shew. For if this be made good, that He 
was before all the Angels ; then there is brought in along 
with it this also as a consequence, that He did their works 
by connnanding llieni. And what is indeed wonderful, he 
^^'^°' makes a point ' to shew that He is first in the later generation. 

1 Cor. Although elsewhere he calls Adam first, as in truth he is; 
' ■ but here he takes the Church for the whole race of mankind. 

For He is first of the Church ; and first of men after the 
flesh, like as of the Creation ''. And therefore he here uses 
the word Jirsiboru. 

What is in this place the meaning of the Firstborn ? Who 
was created first, or rose before all ; as in the former place it 
means. Who was before all things. And here indeed he 
uses the word Jirslfruits, saying, Who is the ' Firstfruits, 

2 or a- ij,Q Firstborn from the dead, that in all tilings^ He miqht 
all. have the 'preeminence, shewing that the rest also are such as 

He ; but in the former place it is not the ' Firstfruits' of crea- 
tion''. And it is there, The Image of the invisible God, and 
then. Firstborn. 

Ver. 19, 20. For it pleased the Father, that in Him should 
all fulness dwell. And having made jjeace by the Blood of 
His Cross, by Him to reconcile all things unto Himself, 
whether things in earth, or things in heaven. 

Whatsoever things are of the Father, these he saith are of 

^ /itTo. the Son also, and that with more of action ^, because that He 

■rxilovo, \yQ^\y i^ecame dead ' for, and united Himself to us. He said, 

Firstfruits, as of fruits. He said not ' Resurrection, but 

Firstfruits, shewing that He hath sanctified us all, and offered 

' ■^^*'' us, as it were, a sacrifice. The tenn fulness"^ he used of the 


b Cat. ' and first of men even as he befweall^ so here also he has T^\it,First- 

that was first of Creation after the tiesh,' fruits.' 

then one Par. and Br. M. read, ' For this ' Rec. text a^x,^, St. C. has ava^x.^ 

cause both here and there the word ^ The same Mss. add, ' but only the 

' Firstborn' is used. But what is Firstborn, and not even this in the first 

Firslhorii of all crention? It is for place, but after saying. Who is the 

' First Created,' as Firstborn from the Image,' &c. 

(lead is for, ' Who rose again before ' »»*g« yiyon, alluding to the ex- 
all.' And a.s there he puts. Who is pressioii, ^^otToroitei J» uk^uh. 

Reconciliation ihrough Christ, and how. 217 

Godhead, like as John said, Of His fulness have all we Hom. 

. HI 
received. That is, whether it were the Son or the Word, — 

There dwelt '", not a sort of energy, but a Substance. 

He hath no causf* to assign but the will of God : for this 
is the import of, it pleased . . . in Him. And . . . by Him 
to reconcile all tilings unto Himself. Lest thou shouldest 
think that He undertook the office of a minister only, he 
saith, unto^ Himself. And yet he elsewhere says, that He 2 Cor. 5, 

. . * 18 

reconciled us to God, as in the Epistle he wrote to ^'^Q\Gr.into 

Corinthians. And he well said, Bii Him to make an end of'^- e.Jnto 

■r. 1 IT ••, 1 , . ^ the Son 

reconciling . box they were already reconciled; but it was Himself. 

necessary that they should be so completely, and in such 
sort, as no more to be at enmity with Him. And how this 
is effected, he next " makes very clear, deducing not only the 
reconciliation, but also the manner of the reconciliation. 
Having made peace through the Blood of His Cross. The 
word reconcile, shews the enmity ; the words having made 
peace, the war. Tlirough the Blood of His Cross, by Himself, 
whether things in earth, or things in heaven. A great thing 
indeed it is to reconcile ; but that this should be by Himself 
too, is a greater thing. A greater still, that it should be through 
His Blood ; and he said not simply His Blood, but what is 
yet greater, through the Cross. So that the marvels are five : 
He reconciled us; to God; by Himself; by Death ; by the 
Cross. Admirable again ! How he has mixed them up ! 
For lest thou shoiddest think that it is one thing merely, or 
that the Cross is any thing of itself, he saith by Himself. 
How knew he '' that this was a great thing ? Because not by 
speaking words, but by giving Himself up for the recon- 
ciliation, He so wrought every thing. 

But what is things in heaven? For with reason indeed is 
it said, the things in earth, for those were filled with enmity, 
and manifoldly divided, and each one of us was utterly at 
variance with himself, and with the many ; but how made 
He peace amongst the things in heaven? Was war and 

•n Bodl. Extr. ' whatever was the P Or ' by itself,' (iaur'h) i. e. separate 

son, There dwelt the Whole Son, from the Divine Person, as it would be 

not' &c. if there had been a several Human 

" iTeKaraXXa^eei as ardXJr^wirif , Personality. (Cat. and Bodl. iecurav.) 

above ? 1 al. ' How ? He knew, &c.' or 

" In the Eng. Version, the clauses ' How well aware he is.' 
are transposed. 

218 God reconciled Angels to men, not they Him. 

CoLos. battle there also? How then do \vc pray, saying, Thy will 

Matt. 6 ^^ done in earth as it is in, heaven? What then can one 

10. say? The earth was divided from heaven, the Angels were 

become enemies to men, through seeing their Lord insulted. 

Ephes. To unite under one head ', he saith, all things in Christ, 

^'wliif^'h fifs in heaven, and which are in earth. How ? The 

So^tli^^ things in heaven indeed in this way: He translated Man 

in one. thither, He brought up to them the enemy, the hated one. 

Not only made He the things on earth ' to be at peace, but 

He brought up to them him that was their enemy and foe. 

Here was peace profound. Angels again appeared on the 

earth thereafter, because that Man too had appeared in 

2 Cor. heaven. And it seems to me that Paul was caught up as 

' ' well on this account, as to shew that the Son also had been 

received up tliither. For in the earth indeed, the peace was 

twofold ; with the things of heaven, and with themselves ; 

but in heaven it was simple. For if the Angels rejoice over 

one sinner that repenteth, much more will they over so many. 

All this God's power hath wrought. Why then place }e 

confidence in Angels ? saith he. For so far are they from 

bringing you near, that they were once your enemies even ; 

and except God Himself had reconciled you with them, ye 

MoRAi.. would not have been at peace with them. Why then run ye 

to them ? Wouldest thou know the hatred which the Angels 

had against us, how great it was ; and how averse to us they 

2 !<V Ti- always were ? They were sent to take vengeance in the 

Exod' cases of the Israelites, of David, of the Sodomites, of the 

23,21. Valley of weeping'. Not so however now, but, on the con- 

24, \Q. trary, they sang upon the earth' with exceeding joy. And 

Gen. 19, jjg j^^ these down to men ", and led men up to them. 

(,3) And observe, I pray you, the marvel in this : He brought 

these first down hither, and then he took up man to them; 

earth became heaven, because that heaven was about to 

' tlx,az'- receive the things of earth. Therefore when we give thanks^, 

"'^'"""'we say, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, 

good uill to men. Behold, he saith, even men appeared 

"■ Bodl. Extr. ' He made not him ' Downes conjectures. Peace on 

stayinpf on earth,' &c. cnrlh. Luke 2, 13. 

» Jud. 2, 5. see Ps. 84, 6. (2 Sam. " Gr. aureiif, one suspects aTiut («»- 

5, seems hardly applicable.) fi^aixnut) whicli has been conjectured. 

Peace in Heaven and Earth. Guardian Angels. 219 
w ell-pleasing to Him thereafter. What is ffood will ? Recon- Hom. 

ciliation. No longer is the heaven a wall of partition. Atg-j^ 
first the Angels were according to the number of the nations; 2, 14. 
but now, not according to the number of the nations, but 32^3* 
that of the believers. Whence is this evident? Hear Christ LXX. 
saying, Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ^^n- 
ones, for their Angels do always behold the face of My 
Father which is in heaven. For each believer hath an 
Angel ; since even from the beginning, every one of those 
that were approved had his Angel, as Jacob says, TJie Angel ^^"^^^i 
that feedeth me, and delivereth me from my youlh^. If nearly. 
then we have Angels, let us be sober*, as though we were in 'mV^fes» 
the presence of tutors ; for there is a demon present also y. 
Therefore we pray, asking for the Angel of peace, and every 
where we ask for peace', (for there is nothing equal to this ;) 
peace, in the Churches, in the prayers, in the supplications, 
in the salutations^; and once, and twice, and thrice, and - ^faifj^' 
many times, does he that is ovcr^ the Church give it, saying f^^'^ 
over them, ' Peace be unto you.' Wherefore ? Because this ^"'^'^i- 
is the Mother of all good things ; this is the foundation of 
joy. Therefore Christ also commanded the Apostles on 
entering into the houses straightway to say this, as being a 
sort of symbol of the good things; for He saith. When ye 
come into the houses, say, Peace be unto you'' ; for where this 
is wanting, every thing is useless. And again, to His dis- 
ciples He said. Peace I leave with you. My peace I give unto JohnU, 
you. This prepareth the way for love. And he that is over^"" 
the Church, says not, ' Peace be unto you,' simply, but 
' Peace be unto all.' For where is the profit, if with this 
man we have peace, but with another, war and fighting? 
what is the gain ? For neither in the body, should some of 

" Fecdcth, is said of God in the text, who cites Origen. Hom. xii. in Luc. S. 

On the passage, St. Chrys. does not Greg. Nyss. de Vita Mosis, p. _194. 

notice the mention of the Angel. He Petavius, Theol. Dog. de Ang. 1. ii. c. 

quotes it, however, in his first Homily 8. cites St. Basil, contr. Eunom. p. 

de laudihus B. Pauli. He also infers 79, and on Ps. 33. p. 220. &c. 

the doctrine from Acts 12, 15. Hom. ^ In Hom. xxxii. on St. Matt, he 

xxvi. St. Jerome, on Is. 66, 20. mentions a prayer for Peace. See also 

quotes all these passages. Bp. Bull, Const. Ap. 1. viii. c. 37. fin. 

Scr. xii. adds, Eccl. 5, 6. » S. Matt. 10, 12. S. Lukn 10, 5. 

V See St. Hermas, Past. 1. ii. pr. 6. but neither accurately. 
«5. 1. and Cotelerius, note 14. t. 1. p. 93. 

220 Breakers of Unity tear the Body of Christ. 

CoLos. its elements be at rest and others in a state of variance % is it 
^ ' ^ ' ])ossible that lieallh should ever be upheld; but only when 

^,^Z,r) the whole of them are in good order, and harmony, and 
peace, and except the whole are at rest, and continue M'ithin 
their proper limits, all will be overturned. And, further, in 
our minds, except all our thoughts are at rest, peace will not 

Matt. 5, exist. So great a good is peace, as that the makers and 

1 s„^/. producers ' of it are called the sons of God, with reason ; 
eu^yc) because the Son of God for this cause came upon the earth, 

to set at peace the things in the earth, and those in the 
heavens. But if the peacemakers are the sous of God, the 

2 nuTt makers of disturbance '^ are the sons of the devil. 

What sayest thou ? Dost thou excite contentions and fight- 
ings ? And doth any ask who is so unhajijiy ^ Many there are 
who rejoice at evil, and who do rather rend in pieces the Body 
of Christ, than did the soldiers pierce It with the spear, or 
the Jews who struck It through with the nails. A less evil 
was that than this; those Members, so cut through, again 
united, but these when torn off, if they be not united here, 
will never be united, but remain without the Fulness. When 
thou art minded to war against thy brother, bethink thee that 
thou warrest against the members of Christ, and cease from 
^ a-prt^- thy madness. For what if he be an outcast^, or vile ? what if 
jvTaTr^ he be open to contempt } So saith He, // is not the ivill of 
1?, li. My Father that one of these little ones should perish. And 
ib. ver. again, Their Angels do always behold t lie face of My Father 
^^' which is in heaven. God for his sake even became a 
servant, and was slain ; and dost thou consider him to be 
nothing.? Surely in this respect also thou fightest against 
*'^'''P''«'(jod, in that thou deliverest a judgment* contrary to His. 
When he that is over the Church cometh in, he straightway 
5 fl^Aj. says, ' Peace unto all,' when he preacheth ^, ' Peace unto 
all,' when he blesseth, ' Peace unto all,' when he biddeth 
to salute, ' Peace unto all,' when the Sacrifice is finished, 
' Peace unto all.' And again, in the middle, Grace to 
yon and peace. How then is it not monstrous, if, while 
hearing so many times that we are to have ])eace, we aie 
in a state of feud with each other; and recei\dng peace, 
"i.e.the^nJ giving it back, are at war with him*^ that «iveth it to 

Jlishop. " " 

US.'' Thou sayest, " And to tliy spirit." And doest thou 

Peace (jiven in the (Jhurch effectual ihromjli the Spirit. 2-21 

traduce him abroad? Woo is me ! that the majestic usages' Hom. 
of the Church are become forms of thiugs mei'ely, and ^ 


not a truth. Woe is me! that the watchwords of thisjrs^,^ 
army proceed no farther than to be only words. Whence 
also ye are ignorant wherefore is said, ' Peace unto all.' 
But hear what follows, what Christ saith ; And into what-MatAO, 
soever city or village ye shall enter . . . irhen ye come into 
an house, salute it; and if the house he worthy, let your 
peace come upon it, but if it he not worthy, let your peace 
return to you. We are therefore ignorant ; because we look 
upon this merely as a figure of words ; and we assent not to 
them in our minds. For do I '' give the Peace ? It is Christ 
who deigneth to speak by us. Even if at all other times we 
are void of grace, yet are we not now, for your sakes. For 
if the Grace of God wi'ought in an ass and a diviner, for the Numb. 

... 22. 

sake of an economy, and the advantage of the Israelites, it is 
quite clear that It will not refuse to operate even in us, but 
for your " sakes will endure even this. 

Let none say then that I am mean, and low, and worthy of 
no consideration, and in such a frame of mind attend to me ''. 
For such I am ; but God's way always is, to be present even 
with such for the sake of the many. And, that ye may know 
this, with Cain He vouchsafed to talk for Abel's sake, with Gen. 4. 
the devil for Job's, with Pharaoh for Joseph's, with Nebu-^°^^^j 
chadnezzar for Daniel's, with Belshazzar, for the same. Dan. 2. 
And Magi moreover obtained a revelation ; and Caiaphas -j^^^ g 
prophesied, though a slayer of Christ, and an unworthy Matt. 2. 
man, because of the worthiness of the priesthood. And it is 49, 
said to have been for this reason that Aaron was not smitten 
with leprosy. For why, tell me, when both had spoken 
against Moses did she^ alone suffer the punishment.'' Marvel sMiriam 
not: for if in worldly dignities, even though ten thousand ?^"""^" 
charges be laid against a man, yet is he not brought to trial 
before he has laid down his office, in order that it also may 
not be dishonoured along with him ; nmch more in the case 
of spiritual office, be he whosoever he may, the grace of 
God works in him, for otherwise every thing would be lost: 

^ This implies that he was Bishop, *= So Sav. Beu. ' our.' 
and consequently that these Homilies '' Or, ' Even so, let him attend to 
were delivered at Constantinople. me.' 

222 Authority divine, even in the unworthy. 

Coi.os. but when he hath laid it down, either after he is dejiarted or 
— — l-even here, then indeed, then he will suffer a sorer punish- 

Do not, I pray you, think that these things are spoken 
from us ; it is the Grace of God which worketh in the un- 
worthy, not for our sakes, but for yours. Hear ye then what 
Mat. 10, Christ saith. If the house he worthy, let your peace come 
Lukeio, ^(/^ow it. And how becometh it worthy? If tJiey receive 
^- you, He saith. But if they receive you not, nor hear your 

words, . . . verily I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable 
for the land of Sodotn and Gomorrah in the day of judg- 
ment, than for that city. What boots it then, that ye receive 
us, and hear not the things we say .'' What gain is it that ye 
! h^a- wait upon ' us, and give no heed to the things which are 
'"""• spoken to you ? This will be honour to us, this an admirable 
service, profitable both to you and to us, if ye hear us. 
Acts 23, Hear also Paul saying, I wist not, brethren, that he was the 
^- High Priest. Hear also Christ saying. All whatsoever they 
bid you observe, that observe and do. Thou despisest not 
rae, but the Priesthood ; when thou seest me stripped of this, 
then despise me ; then no more will I endure to impose 
commands. But so long as we sit upon this throne, so long 
as we have the first place, we have both the dignity and the 
power, even though we are unworthy. If the throne of 
=! ai^'sri- Moses was of such reverence, that for its sake they were to 
^°'' be heard, much more the throne of Christ. It, we have 
1 j^jj^. received by succession^; from it we speak; since the time 
f^i^a. ii^ox Christ hath vested* in us the ministry of reconciliation. 
Ambassadors, whatever be their sort, because of tlie 
dignity of an embassy, enjoy much honour. For observe; 
they go into the heart of the land of barbarians alone, 
through the midst of so many enemies ; and because the law 
of embassy is of mighty power, all honour them; all look 
towards them with respect, all send them forth with safety. 
And we now have received a word of embassy, and we are 
come from God, for this is the dignity of the Episcopate. 
We are come to you on an embassy, requesting * you to put 
an end to the war, and we say on what terms ; not promising 
to give cities, nor so and so many measures of corn, nor 
slaves, nor gold ; but the kingdom of heaven, eternal life. 


The Bishop God's Ambassador. 223 

society • with Christ, the other good things, which neither we Hom. 
are able to tell to vou, nor you to hear, so long as we are in , '— 

" •/•41 11 ffurau- 

this flesh, and the present hie. Ambassadors then we are, «r/a, 
and we wish to enjoy honour, not for our own sakes, God 
forbid, for we know its worthlessness, but for yours; that 
ye may hear with earnestness the things we say ; that ye may 
be profited, that not with listlessness or indifference ye may 
attend to what is spoken. See ye not ambassadors, how all 
pay court to ^ them.'' We are God's ambassadors to men ;• vt^n- 
but, if this offend you ", not we, but the Episcopate itself, '^""'^" 
not this man or that, but the Bishop. Let no one hear me, 
but the dignity. Let us then do every thing according to 
the will of God, that we may live to the glory of God, and 
be counted worthy of the good things promised to those that 
love Plim, through the grace and lovingkindness, &c. &c. 

" «rg«Va»T8j. '' Up hill,' ' against the grain,' 


Col. i. 21, 22. 

And you, that n-ere sometimea enemies and alienated'' in 
your mind hy ivivked tror/cs, yet note hath He reconciled 
in the body of Hia flesh through death, to present you holy, 
and unblameable, and nnreproveable in His siyht. 

Here he goes on to shew that He reconciled those even 
who were unworthy of" reconcihation. For the saying that 
they were under the power of darkness, shews the calamity 
V. 13. in which they were. But lest, on hearing of the power of 
darkness, thou shouldest consider it Necessity, he adds. And 
you that were alienated, so that though it appear to be the 
same thing that he says, yet it is not so; for it is not the 
same thing to deliver out of the evils him that through ne- 
cessity came to suffer, and him that of his own will endures. 
For the former indeed is worthy to be pitied, but the latter 
hated. But nevertheless, he saith, you that not against your 
wills, nor from compulsion, but with your wills, and wishes, 
sprang away from Him, and arc unworthy of it, He hath 
reconciled''. And seeing he had made mention of the things 
in heaven, he shews, that all the enmity had its origin from 
hence, not thence. For they indeed were long ago desii'ous, 
and God also, but ye were not willing. 

■"^ The order of the words, ' enemies' the common oidor. 
and 'alienated,' is here inverted as *> Edd. have a!r»jA.Xa^«, but the Trans- 
compared with the Rec. text, and the later conjectures ««-««aTjJXXal», which 
Commentary that follows here, requires is confirmed by a Ms. in Brit. ftl. 

Man's great alienation, and wonderful reconciliation. 225 

And throughout he is shewing that the Angels had no power Hom. 

in the successive times"; forasmuch as men continued ene 

mies, and they could neither persuade them, nor, if persuaded, 
could they deliver them from the devil. For neither would 
persuading them be any gain, except he that held them were 
bound; nor would binding him have been of any service, 
except they whom he detained were willing to return. But 
both of these were needed, and they could do neither of them, 
but Christ did both. So that even more marvellous than loosing 
death, is the persuading them. For the former was wholly 
of Himself, and the power lay wholly in Himself, but of the 
latter, not in Himself alone, but in us also ; but we accom- 
plish those things more easily of which the power lies in 
ourselves. Therefore, as being the greater, he puts it last. 
And he said not simply were at emnity^, but were alienated, 
which denotes great enmity, nor yet ' alienated "^' [only], but 
without any expectation even of returning. And enemies in 
your mind^, he says, hereby shewing that their alienation ' y? 2'«- 
had not proceeded so far as purpose only — but what? by '' 
wicked works also. Ye were both enemies, he saith, and ye 
did the works of enemies. 

Yet now hath He reconciled in the body of His flesh 
through death to present you holy, and imblameable, and un- 
reproveable in His sight. Here he lays down also the man- 
ner of the reconciliation, that it was in the Body, and not by 
being merely beaten, nor scourged, nor sold, but even by 
dying a death the most shameful. Again he makes mention 
of the Cross, and again lays down another benefit. For He 
did not only deliver, but, as he says above. Who liath niade^- 12. 
us meet, to the same he alludes here also. Through His 
death, he says, to present you holy, and unhlameahle, and 
unreproveable in His sight. For truly. He hath not only 
delivered from sins, but hath also placed amongst the ap- 
proved. For, not that He might deliver us from evils only, 
did He suffer so great things, but that also we might obtain 
the first rewards ; as if one should not only free a condemned 

"= ra'if KKTu Xi^^"ii usually ' latter '' Ix^^oilvovTa;, which is less than 

times;' here it seems to be ' down the ip(^6^ou;. 

stream of time.' One suspects awu, ^ Here «XXaTg/^^nsvaw?, not aVfiXX»- 

but it may be reckoned from the Fall. T^iai//.ivcvs , a* above. 


22G Need of sled fastness in the faith already received. 

CoLos. criminal from his i)nnislnnent, but also advance him to ho- 

1 23 

— ^ — ^nour. And he hatli ranked you with those who have not 
sinned, yea rather not with those who have done no sin only, 
but even with those who have wrought the greatest righte- 
ousness ; and, what truly is greater, hath given the holiness 
'avsyxXii which is iu His sight. Unrcproveable' now is an advance 
charge-' "pon unblamcable-, for unreproveable is then used, when 
able. we have done nothing either to be condemned for. or charged 

-WtTCifflS ., T^ . , .111 1-1 -r-r.'. 

With. But, since he ascribed the whole to Him, in saying 
that by His death He achieved these things ; lest any 
should say, ' We then need nothing,' he therefore added, 

Ver. 23. If at least ye continue in the faith grounded and 
settled, and not moved away from the hope of the Gospel. - 

Here he strikes a blow at their listlessness. And he said 
not simply continue, for it is possible to continue wavering, 
and vacillating; it is possible to stand, and continue, though 
turned this way and that. If at least ye continue, he saith, 
grounded and settled, and not moved away. Wonderful! 

3 TfoJTjf. What a forcible metaphor'' he uses; he says not only not 
tossed to and fro, but not even moved. And observe, he 

"^«fr/xeir lays down so far nothing burdensome*, nor toilsome, but faith 
and hope ; that is, if ye continue believing, that the hope of 
the things to come is true. For this indeed is possible ; but, 
as regards virtuous living, it is not possible to avoid being 
shaken about, though it be but a little; so (what he enjoins) 
is not grievous'. 

From the hope, he saith, of the Gospel, which ye have 

5 He heard, tvhich was preached to every^ creature under heaven. 

Siich ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ '^°P® ^^ ^^^^ Gospel, except Christ ? For 
ree. text He Himself is our peace, that hath wrought all these things : 
so that he who ascribes them to others is moved away : for 
he has lost all, unless he believe in Christ. Ye have heard, 
he saith. Again he brings themselves as witnesses, then the 
whole world. He saith not, ' which is being preached,' but 
hath already been believed and preached. As he did also 
e ver. 6. at the outset^, being desirous by the witness of the many to 
establish these also. Whereof I Paul am made a minister. 

f Sav. mar. < For it is possible to be so is he not over-burdensome in his in- 
shaken away from virtue by little and junction.' 
little, but there one cannot sutler this, 

Christ still suffering in His Ministers for the Church. 227 

This also contributes to make it credible; /, saith he, Paul Hon. 
a minister. For great was his authority, as being now every 1- 

where celebrated, and the teacher of the world. 

Ver. 24. / now rejoice in my sufferings for you, and fill 
up that which is behind of the sufferings of Christ in my 
flesh for His Bodfs sake, which is the Church. 

And what is the connexion of this ? It seems indeed not (o\ 
to be connected, but it is even closely so. And minister, he 
says, that is, bringing in nothing from myself, but announc- 
ing what is from another. And I so believe, that I suffer 
even for His sake, and not suffer only, but even rejoice in 
suffering, looking stedfastly unto the hope which is to come, 
and I suffer not for myself, but for you. And fill up, he 
saith, that which is behind of the sufferings of Christ in my 
flesh. It seems indeed to be a great thing he has said ; but 
it is not of arrogancy, God forbid, but even of much tender 
love' towards Christ; for he will not have the sufferings to ' ^'^»; 
be his own, but His. And he spoke thus, through desire of ''*^'""^* 
conciliating^ these persons to Him. And what things I ^ «'»"»- 
suffer, I suffer, he saith, on His account : not to me, there- 
fore, express your gratitude, but to Him, for it is He Himself 
who suffers. Just as if one, when sent to a person, should 
make request to another, saying, I beseech thee, go for me 
to this person, then the other should say, ' it is on his account 
I am doing it.' So that He is not ashamed to call these 
sufferings also His own^ For He did not only die for us, ^ as Acts 
but even after His death He is ready to be afflicted for our ' 
sakes. He is eagerly and vehemently set upon shewing 
that He is even now exposed to peril in His own Body 
for the Church's sake, and he aims at this point, namely, 
ye are not brought unto God by us, but by Him, even 
though we do these things, for we have not undertaken a 
work of our own, but His. And it is the same as if there 
were a band^ which had its allotted leader to protect it^, and^ rilis. 
it should stand in battle, and then when he was srone, his "Z.^^'^"' 
lieutenant should succeed to his wounds until the battle were 
brought to a close. 

Next, that for His sake also he doeth these things, 
hearken: For His Body's sake, he saith, meaning to say this: 
" I pleasure® not you, but Christ : for what things He should 6A;«e'?«- 

Q 2 t""' 

228 ChrisVs Work how still continued. 

CoLos. have suffered, I suffer instead of Him." See how many things 
— — '- he establishes. Great, he sliews, is the claim upon their 
love. As in his second Epistle to the Corinthians, he wrote, 
2Cor.5, saying, Aas vested in its the ministry of reconciliation; and 
**■ ' again, We are ambassadors for Christ ; as though God did 
beseech you by us. So also here he saith, ' For his sake I 
suffer,' that he may the more draw them to Him. That is, 
though He who was your debtor is gone away, yet I repay. 
For, on this account he also said, that which is behind, to 
shew that not even yet does he consider Him to have suffered 
all. For your sakes, be saith, even after His death He suffers ; 
seeing that still there remains a deficiency. The same thing 
he doeth in another way in the Epistle to the Romans, say- 
Rom. 8, ing, Who also maketh intercession for us, shewing that He 
was not satisfied with His death alone, but even afterwards 
He doeth countless things. 

He does not then say this to exalt himself, but through a 
desire to shew that Christ is even yet caring for them. And 
he shews what he says to be credible, by adding, for His 
Body's sake. For that so it is, and that there is no unlikeli- 
hood in it, is plain from these things being done for His 
body's sake. Look how He hath knitted us unto Himself. 
Why then introduce the Angels between ? Whereof I am 
made, he saith, a minister. Why introduce Angels be- 
' sTigsuf. sides' ? I am a minister. Then he shews that he had him- 
self done nothing, albeit he is a minister. Of which I am 
made, saith he, a minister, according to the dispensation of 
Ood which is given to me for you, to fulfil the icord of God. 
^ oiKo,i- T^]ie dispensation'^. Either he means. He so willed that 
after His own departure we should succeed to the dispensa- 
tion, in order that ye might not feel as deserted, (for it is 
Himself that suffers, Himself that is ambassador;) or he 
means this, namely, me who was more than all a persecutor, 
for this end He permitted to persecute, that in my preaching 
•'Taking I might gain belief; or by dispensation^ ho means, that He 
of required not deeds, nor actions, nor good works, but Faith 



conde- and Baptism. For ye would not otherwise have received the 
word. For you, he saith, to fulfil the word of God. He 
speaks of the Gentiles, shewing that they were yet wavering, 
by the expression, yii<//tV. P'or that the cast-away Gentiles 

Success of the Gospel proves it given in due time. 229 

should have been able to receive such lofty doctrines was not Hom. 
of Paul, but of the dispensation of God, ' for I never could '- 

have had the power,' he saith. Having shewn that which is 

greater, that his sufferings are Christ's, he next subjoins what 

is more evident, that this also is of God, tofuJjil His word in 

you. And he shews here covertly ', that this too is of dispens- '«y (?«.«- 

ation, that it is spoken to you now, because ye are able to^gg"'"^ 

hear it, and cometh not of neglect, but to the end ye may others 

receive it. For God doeth not all things on a sudden^, butnega- 

useth condescension because of His plenteous love toward tJ7^! 

man. And this is the reason why Christ came at this time, reads, 

and not of old. So also He shews in the Gospel, that for'^^®'^ 

r ' ye are 

this reason He sent the servants first, that they might not able to 
proceed to kill the Son. For if they did not reverence thesor^at 
Son, even when He came after the servants, much less would °°ce 
they had He come sooner; if they gave no heed to the lesser 
commandments, how would they to the greater? What 
then ? Doth one object, Are there not Jews even now, and 
Greeks who are in a very imperfect condition^.? This, how- ^irasa-- 
ever, is an excess of listlessness. For after so long a time, '^'?'"' '" 
after such great instructions, still to continue imperfect, is a 
proof of great stupidity. 

When then the Greeks say, why did Christ come at tliis (3) 
time ? let us not allow them so to speak, but let us ask 
them, whether He did not succeed } For as, if He had come 
at the very first, and had not succeeded, the time would not 
have been a sufficient excusation, so, seeing He hath suc- 
ceeded, we cannot with justice be brought to account on the 
score of ' the time.' For neither does any one demand of a 
physician, who has removed the disease, and restored one to 
health, to give an account of his treatment, nor yet does any 
examine closely a general who has gained a victory, why at 
this time, and why in this place. For these things it were 
in place to ask, had he not been successful ; but when he 
has been successful, they must even be taken for granted. 
For, tell me, whether is more worthy of credit, thy reasoning 
and calumny, or the perfection of the thing } Conquered 
He, or conquered He not } shew this. Prevailed He, or pre- 
vailed He not .'' Accomplished He what He said, or no } 
These are the articles of enquiry^. Tell me, I pray. Thow Wv^uvat. 

230 Different lessons for different ages of the world. 

C0LO8. fully grantest that God is, even though not Christ? I ask 
— ! — '- thee then ; Is God without beginning ? Thou wilt say, Cer- 
tainly. Tell nic then, why made He not men myriads of years 
before ? For they would have lived through a longer time. 
For if to be were well, much better were it to be for a 
' i^nAt/aJ longer time. They were now losers^ by that time during 
which they were not. Nay, they were not losers ; but how, 
He who made them alone knows. Again, I ask thee, why 
did He not make all men at once ? But his soul, whoever 
was first made, hath so many years of existence, of which 
that one is deprived which is not yet created. Wherefore 
made He the one to be brought first into this world, and the 
other afterwards ? 

Such things as these are really fit subjects for inquiry : 
3cr»xt/- yet not for a meddling curiosity^: for this is not for inquiry 
-r^jtyfio- ^^ ^11 j3^t J ^ijl ^qW yQ^^ ^\-^Q reason I spoke of. For sup- 

3«A.<»/a».pose human nature as being some one continued life', and 
that in the first times our race was in the position of boyhood; 
in those that succeeded, of manhood; and in these that are 
near exti'eme age, of an old man. Now when the soul is at 
its perfection, when the limbs of the body are unstrung, and 
Plat, our war is over, we are then brought to philosophy. On the 
Rep.vii. contrary, one may say, we teach boys whilst young. Yes, but 
not the great doctrines, but rhetoric, and expertness with 
language ; and the other when they are come to ripe- 
ness of age. See God also doing the same with the Jews. 
For just as though the Jews had been little children, he 
* yga^- placed Moses over them as a schoolmaster '', and like little 
^tl'i'Z'" children he led them on, through shadowy representations ^*, 
yjaip^», ag y^Q teach letters. For the law had a shadow of the good 
rough things to come, and not the very image of the things. As 
sketches i\^qi^ ^g both buy cakes for children and give them pieces of 

Heh.lO, .."' "^ n ^ 

1. money ^, requirmg of them one thing only, that for the jiresent 

"*'"'*'*• they would go to school; so also God at that time gave 
them both wealth and luxmy, purchasing from them by this 
His great indulgence one only thing, that they would listen 
" or obey to ^ Moscs. Therefore He delivered them over to a school- 
master, that they might not despise Himself, but be firmly 
attached to II im as to a tender loving Father. For see, how 
they feared him only; for they said not, Where is God .'' 

3Ioses a schoolmaster to Israel. 231 

but, Where is Moses ? and his very presence ' was fearful. Hom. 
So when they did amiss, observe how he punished them. , \- 

For God indeed was desirous of casting them off-; but he^ovov 

- c 

would not permit Him. Or rather the whole was of God-'.^f''""'' 

He being as it were a Father threatening, whilst Moses, like 
a schoolmaster, was entreating Him, and saying, ' Forgive 
them, I pray, on my account, and henceforward I undertake 
for them.' In this way was the wilderness a school. And 
as children who have been a long while at school are desir- 
ous of quitting it, so also were they at that time continually 
desiring Egypt, and weeping, saying, ' We are lost, we areExod. 
wholly consumed, we are utterly undone.' And Moses broke ' 
their tablet, upon which he had written for them, as it were, Exod. 

. . 32 19 

certain words ; doing just as a schoolmaster would do ; who ^^^^'^Jg^. 
having taken up the writing tablet, and found it badly 
written, throws away the tablet itself, desiring to shew the 
greatness of his anger ; and if he have broken it, the father is 
not angry. For he indeed was busy writing, but they not 
attending to him, but turning themselves other ways, were 
committing disorder. And as in school, the boys strike ^ each ^ '■'''*- 
other, so also, on that occasion, he bade them strike and here ' 
slay each other. And again, giving them as it were lessons ' ^°S*' 
to learn, then asking for them, and finding they had not 
learnt them, he would punish them. To instance what I 
say. The events in Egypt were letters denoting the power 
of God. Yes, saith one, but these letters represented the 
plagues. True, and that He punishes His enemies. And 
to them it was strictly a school. For what else was the 
punishment of your enemies but your benefit .? And in other 
respects too, He benefitted you. And it was the same as if 
one should say he knew his letters, but when asked up and 
down* , should be at fault, and be beaten. So they also said * i^^o^i- 
indeed that they knew the power of God, but when asked 
their knowledge up and down, they could not give it, and 
therefore were beaten. Hast thou seen water ^ ? Thou ^ i.e. of 
oughtest to be reminded of the water in Egyjat. For He gg^, *^ 
that of water made blood, will be also of power to do this ^. 
As we also say often to the children, ' when in a book thou 
seest the letter A, remember that thou hadst it in thy tablet.' 

S Or, ' to produce this,' if he refers to the want of water. 

232 Israelites like children preferrimj io be as slaves. 
CoLos. Hast thou seen famine? Remember that it was He that 

] 24. 

,— — 7- destroyed the crops ' ! Hast thou seen wars ? Remember the 
fixra. drowning ! Hast thou seen that they arc mighty who inhabit 
the land ? But not mightier than the Egyptians. Then He 
^ wlio took thee out of the midst of them, will He not much 

more save thee when out .'' But they knew not how to 
2 <r*og«r<- answer tlieir letters out of order ^, and therefore they were 
Deut. beaten. T/iei/ ale, and drank, and kicked. When fed with 
^^' ^^- their manna they ought not to have asked for luxury, seeing 
they had known the evils which proceed from it. And they 
acted precisely as if a child of honom-able condition, when 
sent to school, should ask to pass his time with the servants, 
and to wait on them, and when receiving all needful 
sustenance, and such as becomes a iree person, and sitting 
at his father's table, should have a longing for the ill-savoui*ed 
and noisy one of the servants. So did these also seek after 
Ex. 24, Egypt, and said to Moses, Yea, Lord, all that thou hast 
"axi)u<ro'--^(ii'^ z^i7/ we do, and be obedient^. And as it happens 
*^s^«) in the case of very incorrigible children, that when the 
hear, father would put them to death'', the schoolmaster persever- 
ingly entreats for them, the same was the case at that time 
(4) Why have we said these things ? Because we differ in 
nothing from children. Wilt thou hear their doctrines also. 
Lev. 24, how they are those of children ? Et/e for eye, it is said, and 
tooth for tooth. With reason ; for nothing is so eager to 
revenge as a childish mind. For seeing it is a passion of 
irrationality, and there is much irrationality, and great lack 
of consideration in that age, no wonder the child is tyran- 
nized over by auger; and so great is the tyranny of anger, that 
ofttimes after stumbling and getting up again, he will smite 
his knee for passion, or overturn the footstool, and so will 
allay his pain, and quench his rage. In some such way as 
this did God also deal with them, when He allowed them to 
strike out Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth, and destroyed 
the Egyptians and the Amalekites that grieved them. And 
He promises such things ; as if to one who said, ' Father, such 
and such an one has beaten me,' the father should reply, 

h oivtXiiy. Perhaps he means no more than to renounce or dit^inherit, as he 
said aboA'e. i^ee p. 231. 

Violent passions of Children, simple lessons suit them. 233 

' Such and such an one is a bad man, and let us hate hmi.' Hom. 
So also doth God say, / ^cill he their enemy that are thine 

enemies, and I unll hate them that hate thee. And again, 23, 32. 
when Balaam prayed, the condescension which was used 
towards them was childish. For as with children, when 
they see any thing not fearful, such as either a lock of wool, 
or any other thing of like sort, they are presently afraid ; 
but that their fear continue not in them, we bring the thing 
up to their hands, and make their niu'ses shew it them : so 
also did God ; for seeing that the Proj^het was a terror to 
them, he turned their terror' into confidence. And asial. 'the 
children who are under weaning have all manner of things y[^T ° 
in little baskets, so also did He give them every thing, and 
sujDply them with many dainties. Still the child longs for 
the breast, so did these also for Egypt and the flesh that 
was there. 

So that one would not be wi'ong in calling Moses both a Exod. 
teacher ^, and a nursing-father ^, and a conductor ■» ; for great J^^^J, 
was the man's wisdom. Howbeit it is not the same thing to 11, 4. 5. 
guide men who are come now to be able to philosophize, j^^';^^^" 
and to rule unreasoning children. And, if you are inclined ^ '■fi"'?'"'' 

•Ill ^ •TTo.wa,- 

ye shall hear yet another particular. As the nurse saystOy<yyij 
the child, When thou easest thyself, take up thy garments, 
and for as long as thou sittest, so also did Moses. And as Dent, 
all the passions are tyrannous in children, (for as yet they ' * 
have not that which is to bridle them,) vainglory, desire, 
irrationality, anger, envy; so also in the Jews all these 
prevailed ; they spat upon, they beat, Moses. And as a 
child takes up a stone, and we all exclaim, O do not throw 
it; so did they also take up stones against their father; and 
he fled from them. And as, if a father have any ornament, 
the child, being fond of ornament, asks him for it, in like 
manner, truly, did the party of Dathan and Abiram act, Numb, 
when they rebelled for the priesthood. And besides, they ^^* 
were of all people the most envious, and little-minded, and 
in all respects imperfect. 

Ought then Christ, tell me, to have appeared at that time, 
at that time to have given them these precepts of true 
wisdom, when they were raging with lust, when they were as 
horses mad for the mare, when they were the slaves of 

■• «trii/- 

234 Christ came not till men were prepared. 

CoLos, money, of the belly ? Nay, He \Aould but have wasted ' His 
j-7u^ — - lessons of wisdom in discoursing with those of no under- 
spilled. ' standing ; and they would have neither leanit one thing nor 
Mark 2 ^^ Other. And as he who teaches to read before he has 
22. taught the alphabet, will never teach even so much as the 
alphabet ; so indeed would it then have been also. But not 
so now, for by the grace of God much moderation ", much 
virtue, hath been planted every where. Let us give thanks 
then for all things, and not be over curious. For, we know 
not the due time, but He, The Maker of the time, and The 
3 S»i^/at/f- Creator' of the ages. 

'"'** In every thing then yield we to Hira: for this is to glorify 

God, not to demand of Him an account of what He doeth. 
In this way too did Abraham give glory to God, being flilly 
Rom. 4, persuaded, that what He had promised, He is able to per- 
form. He did not ask about the future even ; but we 
scrutinize the account even of the past. See how great folly, 
how great ingratitude, is here. But let us for the future 
have done, for no gain comes of it, but much harm even ; 
and let our minds be gratefully disposed towards our Master, 
and let us send up glory to God, that making for all things 
an offering of thanksgiving, we may be counted worthy of 
His loviugkindness, through the grace and love toward 
man, &c. 


Col. i. 26—28. 

Even the mystery which hath been hid from ages and from 
generations, hut now is made manifest to His saints : to 
whom God would make known what is the riches of the 
glory of this mystery among the Gentiles ; which is Christ 
in you, the hope of glory : Whom we preach, warning 
every man, and teaching every man in all wisdom ; that 
we may present every mati perfect in Christ Jesus. 

Having said what we have come to^, and shewed \he^ ^vU6- 
lovingkindness of God and the honour, by the gi'eatness of the '*'"'""■ 
things given, he introduces yet another consideration that 
heightens them, namely, that neither before us did any one 
know Him. As he doth in the Epistle to the Ephesians, 
saying % neither Angels, nor principalities, nor any other cre-Ephes. 
ated power, but only the Son of God knew. Wherefore also jq. " 
he said, not simply hid, but ' quite hid -,' and that even if it - ««•»*»• 
hath but now come to pass, yet it is of old, and from the be- ,„, 
ginning God willed these things, and they were so planned 
out, but why, he saith not yet. From ages, he means 
from the beginning. And with reason he calleth that a 
mystery, which none knew, save God. And where hid .'' In 
Christ; as he saith in the Epistle to the Ephesians % or as Ephes. 
when the Prophet saith. From everlasting even to everlast- p' g* „ 
ing Tliou art. But now is made manifest, he saith, to His 
saints. So that it is altogether of the dispensation of God. 

» One Ms. has Eph. 3, 10. To the Chnrch the manifold wisdom of God. 
intent that nmv toito the principalities >> The same Ms. here inserts ver. 
and powers might be known hij the 9. 

236 The Gospel how a Mystery. Man how changed in it. 
CoLos, But now is made manifest, he saith. He saith not, ' is come 

1 26-28 ' 

- — '- — ^to pass,' but, /.9 made manifest to His saints. So that it is 
even now still hid, since it is made manifest to His saints 

Let them not therefore deceive you, for they know not why 
it is so to them alone. To whom He nilled, he saith. See 
how every where He stops the mouth of their questions. To 
whoni God willed to make known, he saith. Yet His will is 
1 Hxnyo, not without reason '. But he said this to make them ac- 
countable for grace, rather than allowing them to have high 
thoughts, as though it were of their own achieving. IVhat 
is the riches of the ylory of this wystery among the Gentiles. 
He hath spoken loftily ; and accumulated emphasis, seeking, 
^, out of his great earnestness ^ for amplification upon amplifi- 

x?j ha,- cation. For this also is an amplification, the saying indefi- 
ettrtas. i^iteiy^ 77,g riches of the glory of this mystery among the 
Gentiles. For it is most of all appai'cnt among the Gentiles, 
as he also says elsewhere, And that the Gentiles might glorify 
15 9. God for His mercy. The great glory of this mystery is ap- 
parent among others also, but much more among those. 
For, on a sudden, to have brought men more senseless than 
stones to the dignity of Angels, simply through bare words, 
-, and faith alone, without any laboriousness ', is indeed glory 
and riches of mystery: just as if one were to take a dog, 
quite consumed with hunger and the mange, foul, and loath- 
some to see, and not so much as able to move, but lying 
cast out, and make him all at once into a man, and to dis- 
play him upon the royal throne. For observe, they were 
wont to worship stones and the earth ; but they learned that 
themselves are better botli than the heaven and the sun, and 
that the whole world serveth them ; they were captives and 
prisoners of the devil: on a sudden they are placed above 
his head, and lay commands on him and scourge him : from 
being servants and slaves to demons, they are become the 
body of The Master of the Angels and the Archangels ; from 
not knowing even what God is, they are become all at once 
sharers even in God's throne. Wonkiest thou see the count- 
less steps they overleaped.? First, they had to Icarii that 
stones are not gods ; secondly, that they not only are not 
gods, but inferior even to men ; thirdly, to brutes even ; 

Man raised above all in Christ. 237 

fourthly, to plants e^en ; fifthly, they brought together the Hom. 
extremes'': that not only stones but not earth even, nor 

animals, nor plants, nor man, nor heaven ; or, to begin again, 
that not stones, not animals, not plants, not elements, not 
things above, not things below, not man, not demons, not 
Angels, not Archangels, not any other of those Powers above, 
ought to be worshipped' by the nature of man. Being drawn VifaTsJ- 
up**, as it were, from some deep, they had to learn that the'" *'" 
Lord of all. He is God, that Him alone is it right to worship; 
that the virtuous life'' is a good thing; that this present death 
is not death, nor this life, life ; that the body is raised, that 
it becomes incorruptible, that it will ascend into heaven, that 
it obtains even immortality, that it standeth with Angels, that it 
is removed- thither. But Him who was there below, having Vs^-Vt». 
cleared at a bound all these steps, He has placed on high ^"'' 
upon the throne, having made Him that was lower than the 
stones, higher in dominion than the Angels, and the Arch- 
angels, and the thrones, and the dominions. Truly he well 
said. What is the riches of the glory of this mystery? Just 
as if one should shew a fool to be all at once made a 
philosopher; yea rather, whatsoever one should say, it would 
be as nothing: for even the words of Paul are unlimited. 
What is the riches, he saitli, of the glory of this mysiery 
among the Gentiles., which is Christ in you. Again, they 
had to learn that He Who is above all, and Who ruleth 
Angels, and hath dominion over all the other Powers, came 
down below, and was made Man, and suffered countless 
things, and arose again, and was received up. 

All these things were of the mystery ; and he sets them (2) 
down together with promise^, saying, Which is Christ in '•^•'^'^* 
you. But if He be in you, why seek ye Angels for your ed in the 
teachers? Of this mystery. For there are other mysteries ^^°'^^ 
besides. But this is really a mystery, which no one knew, 
which is marvellous, which is beside the common expecta- 

"^ «t; Ta ax^a avtnyayot Hi Tavrov " itccXov m (nvfitt-fftii voXiTtlex. lit. 

There is no authority tor thus omitting ■ The aduiirable conveisation.' He 

e'r/. It may mean, ' That I (i. e. God) seems to mean a life of Virginity, 

have brought together the extremes which he says is peculiar to the Gos- 

into one, and not &e.' pel. lib. cont. Judseos, ^. 7. Ben. t. i. 

<i ivif^cafiivoi . Compare Plato, Rep. p. 568. a. and elsewhere, as on Kom. 

lib. vii. init. 8, 7. Hom. xiii. Tr. p. 223. 

238 Perfection is in CJirist. St. PauVs striving. 

CoLos. tion, which was hid. Which is Christ in you^ he saith, the 

— J— 1- hope of glory. Whom we preach., bringing Him from above. 
Whom we, not Angels : teaching and warning : not im- 
periously nor using constraint, for this too is of God's loving- 
kindness to men, that they ai'e not brought to Him after the 
manner of a tyrant. Seeing it was a great thing he had 
said, teaching, he added, warning, which is rather like a 
father than an instructor. W/iom, saith he, we preach, ivarn- 
ing every man, and teaching every man in all wisdom ; that 
is, with all wisdom and understanding, or saying all things 
in wisdom. So that there is need of all wisdom, for the 
ability to learn such things exists not in every one. That we 
may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus. What sayest 
thou, every man ? Yea ; this is what we are earnestly de- 
sirous of doing, he saith. For what, even if this do not come 
to pass? the blessed Paul endeavoured to make perfect. This 
then is perfection, the other is imperfect : so that if one have 
not even the whole of wisdom, he is imperfect. Perfect in 
Christ Jesus, not in the Law, nor in Angels, for that is not 
perfection. In Christ, that is, in the knowledge of Christ. 
For he that knows what Christ has done, will have higher 

^ (iu%n thoughts than to be satisfied with Angels*. 

fgj>v»«/ J- QfiY-ist Jesus ; Ver. 29. Whereunto I also labour, striving. 
He said not, ' I am desirous' merely, nor in any indifferent 
way, but, / labour, striving, with great earnestness, that is, with 
much watching. If I, for your good, thus watch, much 
more ought ye. Then again, shewing that it is of God, he 
saith, according to His ivorking ivhich worketh in me 
mightily. He shews that it is the work of God. He, 
now, that makes me strong for this, evidently wills it. Where- 

V. 1. fore also when beginning he saith, By the will of God. So 
that it is not only out of modesty he so expresses himself, 
but insisting on the truth of the Word as well. And striving. 
In saying this, he shews that many are fighting against him. 
Then great is his tender affection. 

Chap. ii. ver. 1. For 1 would that ye knew tvhat great 
conflict I have for yon, and for them at Laodicea. 

Then lest this should seem owing to their peculiar weak- 
ness, he joined others also with them ; and as yet condemned 
them not; and as many as have not seen my face in the flesh. 


Gentle and indirect reproof of weak faith. 289 

He shews here after a divine manner', that they saw him Hom. 
constantly in the Spirit. And he bears witness to their great 


love, wherefore also he has added, 

Ver. 2, 3. That their hearts might be comforted, being knit 
together in love, and unto all riches of the full assurance of 
understanding to the acknowledgment of the mystery of God 
the Father \ and of Christ: In Whom are hid all the 
treasures of wisdom and knowledge. 

Now henceforward he is hasteninsr and in pangs to^ enter ^ "^" P^r- 

, , . . , . , , . , .^aps ' to 

upon the doctrme, neither accusmg them, nor clearing them of fail upon 
accusation. / have a conflict, he saith. That what may be*^"''^*' 
brought to pass, that they ' may be knit together. What he ^So Say. 
means is this; that they may stand firm in the faith. He vre'' 
doth not however so express himself; but extenuates the 
matter of accusation. That is, that they may be united with 
love, not with necessity nor with force. For as I have said, 
he always avoids offending, by leaving it to themselves « ; and 
therefore he saith, 1 have a conflict, because I wish it to be 
with love, and willingly. For I do not wish them to be 
brought together merely, not with their lips merely, but that 
their hearts might be comforted. 

Being knit together in love unto all riches of the full 
assurance of understanding. That is, that they may doubt 
about nothing, that they may be fully assured in all things. 
But he meant the full assurance which is by faith, for there 
is a full assurance which cometh by arguments, but that is 
worthy of no consideration. I know, he saith, that ye believe, 
but I would have you fully assured: not unto riches only, 
but unto all riches ; that your full assurance may be intense, 
as well as in all things. And observe the wisdom of this 
blessed one. He said not, ' Ye do ill that ye are not fully 
assured,' nor accused them; but, ye know not how desirous I 
am that ye may be fully assured, and not merely so, but with 
understanding. For seeing he spoke of faith ; suppose not, he 
saith, that I meant barely and unprofitably, but with under- 
standing and love. To the acknowledgment of the mystery 
of God the Father and of Christ. So that this is the mystery 

^ Rec. t. xcti Har^oi, E. V. of God, e Ivir^ivut, i, e to draw such infer- 

mid of the Father; but the sense in ences as would be harsh if stated by 

either case is, of Him Who is God and himself. 


CoLos. of God, the being brought unto Ilim by the Son. And of 

^' ^' ^' Christ, in Whom are hid all the treasures of nisdom and 

knoicledye. But if they are in Him, then wisely also no 

doubt He came at this time. Wherefore then do some foolish 

persons object to Him, ' See how He discoui'scth with the sim- 

> Mrl( pier sort.' In Whom are all the treasures. He alone ' knows 

all things. Hid, for think not in truth that ye already have all ; 

they are hidden also even from Angels, not from you only ; 

2AuA so that you ought to ask all things from Him. He alone - 

giveth wisdom and knowledge. Now by saying, treasures, 

he shews their largeness, by All, that He is ignorant of 

nothing, by hid, that He alone knoweth. 

Ver. 4. And this I say, lest any man should beguile you 
3 or per- with enticing^ ivords. 

io\ ' Seest thou that he saith, I ha\e therefore said this, that 
ye may not seek it from men. Beguile you, he saith, with 
persuasive ivords. For w^hat if any doth speak, and speak 
persuasively ? 

Ver. 5. For though I be absent in the flesh, yet am I with 

you in the spirit. 

^ r'h ccKo- The direct* thing to have said here was, ' even though I be 

^°" "'■ absent in the flesh, yet, nevertheless, I know the deceivers ;' but 

instead he has ended with praise. Joying and beholding your 

order, and the stedfastness of your faith in Christ. Your 

5 ffrteiu- order, he means, your good order. And the stedfastness of your 

'"°J^. faith ^ in Christ. This is still more in the way of encomium. 

solidity , •' . 

And he said not ' faith,' but stedfastness, as to soldiers standing 
«i aTtyfh in good order and firmly. Now that which is stedfast**, neither 
solid, deceit nor trial can shake asunder". Not onlv, he saith, 

' dimra- 

Xivu have ye not fallen, but no one hath so much as thrown you 
into disorder. He hath set himself over them, that they may 
fear him as though present ; for thus is order preserved. 
From solidity follows compactedness, for you will then pro- 
duce solidity, when having brought many things together, 
you shall cement them compactedly and inseparably ; then a 
solidity is produced, as in the case of a wall. But this is the 
peculiar work of love ; for those who were by themselves, 
when it hath closely cemented and knit them together, it 
renders solid. And faith, again, doeth the same thing; when 
it allows not reasonings to intrude themselves. For as rea- 

Faith needed for iJiings above human conception. 241 

soilings divide, and shake loose, so faith causes solidity and Hom. 
compactness. '- — 

For seeing God hath bestowed upon us benefits surpassing 
man's reasoning, suitably enough He hath brought in 
faith. For it is not possible he can be stedfast, who demands 
reasons. For behold all our lofty doctrines, how destitute 
they are of reasonings, and dependent upon faith alone. God 
is not any where, and is every where. What hath less reason 
in it than this.'' Each by itself is full of difficulty. For, 
indeed. He is not in place ; nor is there any place in which 
He is. He was not made, He made not Himself, He never 
■ began to be. What reasoning will receive this, if there be 
not faith ? Does it not seem to be utterly ridiculous, and more iX'^'^ 

endless than a riddle ? I \ 

Now that He hath no beginning, and is uncreate, and 
uncircumscribed, and infinite, is, as we have said, a manifest 
difficulty; but let us consider His Incorjjorealncss, whether 
we can search out this by reasoning. God is incorporeal. 
What is incorporeal ? A bare word, and no more, for the 
apprehension has received nothing, has impressed nothing 
upon itself; for if it does so impress, it comes to nature, and 
what constitutes body. So that the mouth speaks indeed, 
but the understanding knows not what it speaks, save one 
thing only, that it is not body, this is all it knows. And why 
do I speak of God } In the case of the soul, which is created, 
inclosed, circumscribed, what is incorporealness } say ! 
shew! Thou canst not. Js it air.? But air is body, even 
though it be not compact, and it is plain from many proofs 
that it is a yielding body. Is it then fire .? But fire is body, 
whilst the energy of the soul is bodiless. Wherefore ? Be- 
cause it penetiateth every where. But if it is not'' body, 
then that which is incorporeal exists in place, therefore it is 
also circumscribed ; and that which is circumscribed has 
figure ; and figures are linear, and lines belong to bodies. 
Again, that which is without figure, what conception * does ' I' w^iav. 
it admit? It has no figure, no form, no outline. Seest thou 
how the understanding becomes dizzy ? 

Again, That Nature is not susceptible of evil. But He is 

^ Savile conjectures that ' not' should be inserted, and the sense ^eems nhso- 
lutely to require it. 


242 Heeminy contnulictions in Divine things. 

CoT.os. also good of His own will '■; it is therefore susceptible. But 
-r~T-- t^iie may not so say, God forbid ! Again, was Ho brought 
into being, willing it, or not willing it ? But neither may one 
say this. Again, cireumscribes He the world, or no.^ For 
if He circumscribes it not, He is Himself circumscribed, 
5ari(,j«f.but if He circumscribes it, He is infinite^ in His nature. 
Again, circuniscribes He Himself.'^ But if He circumscribes 
Himself, then He is not without beginning to Himself, but 
to us ; therefore He is not in His nature without beginning. 
Every where one nmst grant contradictories. 

Seest thou how great the darkness is ; and how every 
where there is need of faith. This it is, that is solid. But, 
if you Avill, let us come to things which are less than these. 
That Substance hath an operation. And what in His case 
is operation ? Is it a certain motion.? Then He is not im- 
^clr^tr- mutable'': for that which is moved, is not immutable: for, 
'^°' from being motionless it becomes in motion. But neverthe- 
less He is in motion, and never stands still. But what kind 
of motion, tell me; for amongst us there are seven kinds; 
down, up, in, out, right, left, circular, or, if not this, increase, 
decrease, generation, destruction, alt-jration. But His motion 
is none of these. Is it then such as the mind is moved with ? 
No, nor this either. God forbid ! for in many things the 
mind is even absurdly' moved. Is to will, to operate .? But 
1 Tim. He wills all men to be good, and to be saved. How comes 
^' "*■ it not to pass ? But to vvill is one thing, to operate, 
another. To will then is not sufficievit for operation. How 
Ps. 115 then saith the Scripture, He hath clone whaisoerer He 

^- willed ? And again, the leper saith unto Christ, //" Thou 

Matt. 8 o J I T ^ 

2. ' ?/;?'//, 77/0« cannl make me clean. Will ye that I mention 
yet another thing ? How were the things that are, made out 
of things that are not .'' How will they be resolved into 
nothing 1 What is above the heaven \ And again, what 
above that? and what above that ? and beyond that, what? 
and so on to infinity. What is below the earth ? Sea, and 
beyond this, what? and beyond that again, what? Nay; to 
the right, and to the left, is there not the same difficulty? 
(4) But these indeed are things unseen. Will ye that I lead 
the discourse to those which are seen ; those which have 
already happened ? Tell me, how did tlu^ beast contain Jonah 

Lesser iVouders prepare the way for greater. -24'3 

in its belly, without his perishing ? Is it not void of reason, Hom. 
and its motions without control ? How spared it the righte- 

ous man ? How was it that the heat did not suffocate him ? 
How was it that it putrefied him not? For if to be in the 
deep only, is past contriving, to be both in the creature's 
bowels, and in that heat, is very far more unaccountable. 
For how breathed he the air in that place ? How did the 
resjjiration suffice for two animals ? And how did it also 
vomit him forth unharmed ? And how too did he speak ? 
And how too was he self-possessed, and prayed ? Are not 
these things incredible ? If we test them by reasonings, they 
are incredible, if by faith, they are exceeding credible. 

Shall I say something more than this ? The wheat in the 
earth's bosom decays, and rises again. Behold marvels, 
opposite, and each surpassing the other; marvellous is the 
not becoming corrupted, marvellous, after becoming so, is the 
rising again. Where are they that disbelieve the Resurrection 
and say. This bone how shall it be cemented to that ? and 
introduce such like silly tales. Tell me, how did Elias ascend 
in a chariot of fire ? Fire is wont to burn, not to carry aloft. 
How lives he so long a time ? In what place is lie ? Why 
was this done .? Whither was Enoch translated ? Lives he on 
like food with us ? and what is it hinders him from being 
here ? Nay, but does he not eat ? And wherefore was he 
translated ? Behold how God schooleth us by little and little. 
He translated Enoch ; no very great thing that. This in- 
structed us for the taking up of Elias. Again, He shut in Noe Gen. 7, 
into the ark ; nor is this either any very great thing. This in- ^^" 
structed us for the shutting up of the prophet within the whale. 
Thus even the things of old stood in need of forerunners and 
types. For as in a ladder the first step sends on to the 
second, and from the first it is not possible to step to the 
fourth, and this sends one on to that, that that may be the 
way to the next ; and as it is not possible either to get to the 
second before the first; so also is it here. 

And observe the signs of signs^ and thou wilt discern this 
in the ladder which Jacob saw. Above, it is said, the Lord^^^-^s, 

' ' JO 

stood fas t^^ and underneath Angels were ascending awe/ <;/<?- 1 i,s,t„', 
scending. It was prophesied that the Father hath a Son ; it «'*''''• 
was necessary this should be believed. Whence wouldest 


'244 Tt//ies of the Ktcrnttl General ion of the Son. 

c'oLos. thou that I shew tlice tlie signs of this? from above, 
— " ■ downward, or from beneath, upward ? It was necessary 
to be known tliat ITc begetteth without passion'; for this 
reason did she tl)at was ban-en first bear. Let us rather, 
however, carry our discourse higher. It was necessary to 
be believed, that He begat of Himself. What then.^ The 
thing hapjiens'' obscurely indeed, as in type and shadow, but 
still it doth liapi)en, and as it goes on it becomes somehow 
clearer. A woman is formed out of man alone, and he remains 
whole and entire. Again, it was necessary there should be 
some sure sign of the Conception of a Virgin. So the barren 
beareth, not once only, but a second time and a third, and 
many times. Of His birth then of a Virgin, the barren is a 
tyjie, and she sends the mind forward to faith. Again, this 
vi'as a type of God being able to beget alone. For if 
man is the chief agent', and birth takes place without him, 
in a more excellent way, much rather, is One begotten 
'T«yxa. of the Chiefest Agent'. There is still another generation, 
^lari^oo. ^yj^jj,]^ jg jj^ type of tlie Truth. I mean, ours by the Spirit. 
John 1, Q^ ^i^jg again the barren is a type, in that it is not of blood; 
this itself of the generation above. The one shews that 
Christ is with impassibility, the other that He could be 
generated from God alone. 

Christ is above ruling over all things : it was necessary 
this should be believed. The same takes place in the earth 
Gen. 1, with respect to man. For, saith He, Let Us make man after 
Our image and likeness, and he is ap[)ointed to the dominion 
of all the brutes. Thus He instructed us, not by words, but 
by actions. Paradise shewed the separateness of his nature, 
and that man was the best thing of all. Christ was to rise 
again; sec now how many sure signs there were of this; 
Enoch, Elias, Jonas, the fiery furnace , the baptism that 
happened in Noah's day, the seeds, the plants, our own 
generation, that of all animals. For since on this every 
thing was at stake, it, more than any other, had abundance of 

' iirai'iwf, i.e. without boinu; changed. ^ Sav. Doth the thing happen? It 

This lelers to the Eternal Generation, doth: 

as the sequel shews. Compare St. ' Kv^tun^it att^^aiTts. One would 

Athanasius against Arianism. Disc. 1. have expected ivh^. hut atficar»! has 

c. 8. Tr. p. 218 sqq. just been opposed to yi/>«. 

Signs of Providenc:'. Tij pea of holy Baptism. 215 

That the Universe ' is not without a Providence we may Hom. 
conjecture from things amongst ourselves, for nothing will p^. -^ 
continue to exist, if not provided for; but even herds, andra. 
all other things stand in need of governance. And that the 
Universe was not made by chance, Hell is a proof, and so 
was the deluge in Noah's day, the fire*^, the overwhelming ofM, e. of 
the Egyptians in the sea, the things which happened in the ' ° °"' 

It was necessary too that many things should prepare the 
way for Baptism; therefore was done all that was done in 
water, and thousands of things besides ; those, for instance, in 
the Old Testament, those in the Pool", the cleansing of him 
that was not sound in health, the deluge itself, the bajjtism 
of John. 

It was necessary to be believed that God giveth up His 
Son ; a man did this by anticipation. Who was he.? Abra- 
ham the Patriarch. Types then of all these things, if we are 
so inclined, we shall find by searching in the Scriptures. 
But let us not be weary, but attune ourselves by these things. 
Let us hold the faith stedfastly, and shew forth strictness of 
life : that having in all things returned thanks to God, we 
may be counted worthy of the good things promised to them 
that love Him, through the grace and lovingkindness of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom, &c. 

•" Hales suggests that this may be clearness on John 5, 2. Hom. xxxvi. 

the Laver in the Temple, but it is not init. where this is classed witJi those of 

called x»A£/^/3}j^ga in LXX. The pool the Old Testament. The following in- 

ofBethesda is meant, as is evident from stance refers to the cleansing in Lev. 

the like mention of types increasing in 15, 13. 


Col. ii. 6, 7. 

As ye hare therefore received Chrht Jesus the Lord, so walk 
ye in Him : Rooted and built up in Him, and stahlished 
in the faith, as ye have been taught, abounding therein 
with thanksgiving. 

Again, he takes hold on them beforehand with their own 
testimony, saying, As ye have therefore received. We intro- 
duce no strange addition, he saith, therefore neither do ye. 
Walk ye in Him, for He is the Way that leadeth to the 
Father : not in the Angels ; this way leadeth not thither. 
Rooted, that is, fixed; not one while going this, another, that, 
but rooted: but that which is rooted, never can remove. 

' «"J'»?- Obsen'e how appropriate ' are the expressions he employs. 

2 (pe^.ev- And built up, he saith, that is, in thought attaining^ unto 
Him, And stablished in Him, that is, holding Him, and 
built as on a foundation. He shews that they had fallen 

^present down, for the word built-^ has this force. For the faith is in 

pi'J."'^'" truth a building ; and needs both a strong foundation, and 
secure construction. For both if any one build not upon a 
secure foundation it will shake, and even though he do, if it 
be not firm, it will not stand. As ye have been taught. 
Again the word As declares tiiat he said not any thing novel. 
Abounding^ he saith, therein nith thanksgiving, for this is 
the part of well-disposed persons. I say not simply to give 
thanks, but with great abundance, more than ye learned, if 
possible, with much ambition. 

Warning against deceivers. Elements of the icorld, what. 247 

Ver. 8. Beware lest amj man spoil you. I^m. 

Seest thou how he shews him to be a thief, and an alien, — -^ 

and one that enters in softly ? For he has already repre- 
sented him to be entering in. And he well said spoil. As 
one digging away a mound from underneath, may give no 
perceptible sign, yet it gradually settles, so also doeth he. 
Beware therefore ; for this is his main point, not even to let 
himself be perceived \ 

Through philosoplty. Then because the term ' philosophy' 
has an appearance of dignity, he added, and rain deceit. 
For there is also a good ^deceit; such as many have been ' '='"'''' 
deceived by, which one ought not even to call a deceit at 
all. Whereof Jeremiah speaks; O Lord, Thou hast deceived^^^-^^^ 
?)ie, and I was deceived ; for such as this one ought not to 
call a deceit at all ; for Jacob also deceived his father, but 
that was not a deceit, but an economy. Through philosophy, 
he saith, and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after 
the rudiments- of the ivorld, and not after Christ. Now he^'^"- 
sets about to reprove their observance of particular'' days, de- 
meaning by elements of the world the sun and moon; as he™^"'^^' 
also said in the Epistle to the Galatians, How turn ye againGal. 4, 
to the weak and beggarly elemefitsf And he said not observ- 
ances of days, but in generaP of the present world, to shew^ S/ i'xit/ 

, . 1 which 

]ts worthlessness : tor if the world be nothing, much moresav. 
then its elements. Having then first shewn how gi-eat bene- °^^^^- 
fits and kindnesses they had received, he afterwards brings 
on his accusation, thereby to shew its greater seriousness, 
and to convict his hearers. Thus too the Prophets do. 
They always first point out the benefits, and then they mag- 
nify their accusations; as Esaias saith, / have begotten cJiil-l^. 1,2. 

' ' LXX 

dren, and exalted theni^ but they have rejected me; and 

again, O my people, what hare 1 done unto thee, or uJierein Mic. 6, 
have I grieved thee, or wherein have I wearied thee '^ and 
David ; as when he says, / heard thee in the secret place o/"^*/?^'^' 


" Some copies add, as if one were his Suppl. de I'Ant. Expl. 1. iii. vol. 1. 

robbed daily, and were told, ' see that p. 112. where he shews that the ob- 

there is not some one.' And he shews servance of heathen customs about 

the way ; it is by this way, as if one lucky and unlucky days, and the like, 

should say through this outhouse, was common in France in the thirteenth 

through philosophy. century. Such were the Dies ^gyp- 

^ tut -hfti^u). Montfaucou refers to tiaci, &c. 

2-18 ChrUl alone /o be serced. Fulness of Godhead in Him. 

CoLos. the tempest; and again, Open thy fuouth, and I will Jill it. 
' And every where you will find it the same. 

10. That indeed were most one's duty, not to be persuaded by 

them, even did they say aught to the piu'pose ; as it is, however, 
obligations apart even, it behoves to shun those things. And 
not after Christ, he saith. For were it in such sort a matter 
done by halves, that ye were able to serve both the one and 
the other, not even so ought ye to do it ; as it is, however, he 
suffers you not to be after Christ. Those things withdraw 
you from Him. Having first shaken to pieces the Grecian 
observances, he next overthrows the Jewish ones also. 
For both Greeks and Jews practised many observances» 
but the former from philosophy, the latter from the Law. 
First then, he makes at those against whom lay the heavier 
accusation. How, not after Christ ? 

Ver. 9, 10. For in Him dwelleth all the fulness of the 
Godhead bodily : and ye are complete in Hiin^ Which is the 
head of all principality and. poiver. 
(2) Observe how in his accusing of the one he thrusts through ' 

' 2'«>r- (\^^, other, by first giving the solution, and then the objection. 
For such a solution is not suspected, and the hearer accepts 
it the rather, that the speaker is not making it his aim. For 
in that case indeed he would make a point of not coming off' 
worsted, but in this, not so. For in Him duelleth, that is, 
for God dwelleth in Him. But that thou mayest not think 
Him enclosed, as in a body, he saith, All the fulness of the 
Godhead bodily: and ye are complete- in Him. Some say 
that he intends the Church filled by His Godhead, as he 

Ephes. elsewhere saith, of Hint that /illeth all in all, and that the 

^' ^'^' term bodily is here, as the body in the head. How is it then 

that he did not add, ' which is the Church ?' Others again 

say it is with reference to The Father, that he says that the 

fulness of the Godhead dwells in Him, but wrongly. First, 

because to dtrell, cannot strictly be said of God: next, 

Ps. 24, because the ' fulness' is not that which receives, for the earth 

1. . 

Rom. «*■ the Lord's, and the fulness thereof; ^^^^ again the Apostle, 

10, 26. ^ijiiii ijic fulness of the Gentiles be come in. Bv fulness is 

Rom. • ' ■ . 

11, 25. meant ' the whole.' Then the word bodily, what does it intend 

to signify .? ' As in a head.' But why does he say the same 

thing over again .'' And ye arc complete in Him. What 



Nenniess tu Christ. Circumcision of Spirit. 249 

then does it mean? That ye have nothing less than He, Hom. 
As It dwelt in Him, so also in you. For Paul is ever straining . ^^' 

to bring us near to Christ ; as when he says, Hath raised us Ephes. 
vp together, and hath made us sit together : and, ff'we suffer, ^'^: 
we shall also reign with Him: and, How shall He not uith2, 12. 
Hi7?i also freely give us all things: and he calls \\s fellow -heirs. ^^^' ^' 
Then as for His dignity. And He is the head of all princi- ^p^es. 
pal it g and power. He that is above all. The Cause, is He not 1 '^^j,„'. 
Consubstantial '? Then he has added the benefit in a mar- ''** 
vellous kind of way ; and far more marvellous than in the 
Epistle to the Romans. For there indeed he saith, circumcision Rom. 2, 


of the heart in the spirit, not in the letter, but here, in Christ. 

Ver. 11. In Whom also ye were circumcised with the 
circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of 
the sins of thejiesh hg the circumcision of Christ. 

See how near he is come to the thing. He saith. In the 
putting quite away % not putting off merely -. The body of sins. '^ i«SwVu 
He means, " the old life." He is continually adverting to this 
in different ways, as he said also above. Who hath delivered Coloss. 
us from the power of darkness, and hath reconciled us who^'^^'^^' 
were alienated, that we should be holy and unblameable. No 
longer, he saith, is the circumcision with^ the knife, but in^«», in. 
Christ Himself, for no hand imparts this circumcision, as is 
the case there, but the Spirit. It circumciseth not a part, 
but the whole man. It is the body both in the one and the 
other case, but in the one it is carnally, in the other it is 
spiritually circumcised, but not as the Jews, for ye have not 
put off flesh, but sins. When and where? In Baptism. 
And what he calls circumcision, he again calls burial. 
Observe how he again passes on to the subject of righteous 
doings*; of the sins, he saith, of the Jtesh, that is, the things * ^'««"^- 
they had done in the flesh. He speaks of a greater thing '""'^'*' 
than circumcision, for they did not merely cast away that of 
which they were circumcised, but they destroyed it, they 
annihilated it. 

Ver. \'2. Buried with him, he saith, in Baptism, wherein 
also ye are risen^ with Him, through the faith of tJie opera- '""^lyk- 
tion of God, Who raised Him from the dead. J^^e 

But it is not burial only: for behold what he says, Wherein raised 

"^ '' ' together. 

t arniiusti. putting off for good, once for all. 

250 Death unto sin. The ho/nl (itjaiiist ma/i abolished. 

Colo», also i/e are risen uifh Him, fhrouf/h i lie fail h of Ihe operation 

— L_2:_ of God, Who raised Him from the dead. He hath spoken 

well, ibv it is all of faith. Ye believed that God is able to 

raise, and so ye were raised. Then His worthiness of belief j 

Who raised Him, he saith,/;o/// tJic dead. 

He now shews the Resurrection. And yon who some 

> Rec. tiine^ were dead in sins and lite uncirotmcision of i/onr 


omits Jies/i, hath He quickened together aiili Him. For ye lay 

'■"•• under judgment of death. But even though ye died, still 
it was no common death, but a profitable one. Observe 
how again he shews what they deserved in the words he 

Ver. 13, 14, 15. Having forgiven us all trespasses ; having 

2 E. V. Hotted out hi/ the doctrines'^ the handwriting that was 

thehand- . ' . 

xn-iting against as, which was co?itrarg to us, and took it out of 
nances ^^'^ '^^'^' ''^^'"''i/ 'iftH^d it to His Cross ; and Itaving spoiled 
principalities and powers, He made a shew of iJiem openly^, 
having triumphed over them in if. 

Having forgiven, us, he saith, all trespasses. Which ? 
Those which produced that deadness. What then? Did 
He allow them to remain? No, He even wiped them out, 
He did not scratch them out merely, but wiped them out, 
so that they could not even be seen. By the doctrines^, he saith. 
What doctrines ? The Faith. It is enough then to believe. 
He hath not set works against works, but works agauist faith. 
And what next? Blotting out is an advance upon remission ; 
again he saith. And took it out of the way. Nor yet even 
» \(pi\a- so did He preserve^ it, but rent it even in sunder, by nailing it 
to His Cross. Having spoiled principalities and powers, he 
made a .^hew of them openly, having triumpJied. over them in 
it. No where has he spoken in so lofty a strain. 
(3) Seest thou how great His earnestness that the handwriting 
should be done away ? To wit, we all were under sin and 
punishment. He Himself, through suffering punisliment, 
did away with both the sin and the punishment, and He 
was jninishtHl on the Cross. To the Cross then He affixed 

'' thiiyud,Tiai<i £v wa^^r.yia, SO com- " roTf 'htyft.aeiv. Theodoiet also takes 

iiieuti il on liulow as seemingly to re- it so, hut the use of 'iiyf/.a.ri^taft in 

ciuiro to be thus translated, " He in- ver. 20. aeries hotter uitli E. V. 

flic ed disgrace on thein through His Tin: luuidirri/iiig in onlhianccs, and 

contiiience in dying." the Vulgate, C'/iirograjjIium liccrdi. 

Christ, on the Cross, conquered Satan. 251 

it, and afterwards, as having power, He tore it asunder. Hom. 
What liandwritint>- ? He means either that which they said L_ 

to Moses, namely, All that God hath said icitl we do, and beExod. 
obedient \ or if not that, this, that we owe to God obedience ;^^'J- 
or if not this, lie means that the devil held possession of the ixouri- 
hand writing which God made for Adam, sayin>2. In the dai/'^^^^ 
thou eatest of the tree, thou shall die. This handwriting Gen. 2, 
then the devil held in his possession ^ And Christ did not 
give it to us, but Himself tore it in two, the action of one 
who remits joytully. 

Having stripped off'^ principalities and powers. He means 
the diabolical powers, either because human nature had 
arrayed itself in these, or because they had *", as it were, a 
hold, when He became Man He put away from Himself 
that hold. This is the meaning of He made a shew of 
them. And well said he so, for never yet was the devil in 
so shameful a plight. For whilst expecting to have Him, he 
lost even those he had ; and when That Body was nailed to 
the Cross, the dead arose. There the devil received his 
wound, having met his death-stroke from a dead body. And 
as an athlete, when he thinks he has hit - his adversary, 2 or, 
himself receives from him a fatal blow'; so truly doth Christ 'j^™^" -^ 
also shew, that to die with confidence'' is the devil's shame. «Ua/. 

For he would have done every thing to persuade men that 
He did not die, had he had the power. For seeing that of 
His Resurrection indeed all succeeding time was proof 
demonstrative ; whilst of His death, no other time save that 
whereat it happened could ever furnish proof; therefore it 
was, that He died publicly in the sight of all men, but He 
arose not publicly, knowing that the aftertime would bear 
witness to the truth. For, that whilst the world was looking 
on, the serpent should be slain on high upon the Cross, 
herein is the marvel. For what did not the devil do, that 

^ al. ' This handwriting then Christ ' death,' for ' the devil,' and xai^iar 

tovi\i.' xari^^iTiti kufihv, ' is caught in a fatal 

g aviKSus-aficno; . IL.Y . spoiled, trans- (or decisive) grasp,' for, ' receives a 

lated above, ' pnttmg off.' fatal blow.' This suits better with 

•> All copies of St. Chr_ys. read, * had ' an athlete.' 
them,' which makes no sense. The '■ (/.irU Tn^^nirlai, referring to X'iuy- 
Catena omits ' them,' which has been laar/a-sv ev Tajj >)<ria. ' Confidence' some- 
adopted, though the authority is slight, times has the meaning of ■ standing 
Compare John 14, 30. without fear before God.' Here he 

' Catena and Eodl. Extr. have refers also to publicity. 

252 Death of Christ public to pmrc the Resnrrcction. 

CoLos. He might die in secret? Hear Pilate saying, Take ye Him 

h}h-away^y and crucify Him, for 1 fond no faidt in Him. And 

\iiin. ' again the Jews said unto Ilim, If Thou he the Son of God, 

St. c. come down from the Cross. Then further, when He had re- 

Johtiig, ceived a mortal wound, and He came not down', for this reason 

^ He was also committed to burial ; for it was in His power to 

2", 40. have risen immediately : but He did not, that the fact 

might be believed. And yet in cases of private death indeed, 

it is possible to impute them to a swoon, but here, it is not 

possible to do this either. For even the soldiers brake not 

His legs, like those of the others, that it might be made 

manifest that He was dead. And those who buried The 

Body are known ; and therefore too the Jews themselves 

seal the stone along with the soldiers. For, what was most 

of all attended to, was this very thing, that it should not be 

ill obscurity. And the witnesses to it are from enemies, from 

Mat.26, the Jews. Hear them saying to Pilate, That deceiver said, 

^' ^** while he was yet alive. After three days I icill rise again. 

Command therefore that the seindchre be guarded by the 

soldiers. This was accordingly done, themselves also sealing 

it. Hear them further saying even afterwards to the 

Acts 5, Apostles, Ye intend to bring this Man^s blood upon us. 

He suffered not the very fashion of His Cross to be put to 

shame. For since the Angels have suffered nothing like it, 

He therefore doth every thing for this, shewing that His 

death achieved a mighty work. For there was, as it were, a 

single combat. Death wounded Christ : but Christ, being 

wounded, did afterwards kill death. He that seemed to be 

immortal, was destroyed by a mortal body; and this the 

whole world saw. And what is truly \vonderful is, that He 

committed not this thing to another. But there was made 

again a second handwriting, of another kind than the former. 

(4) Beware then lest we be condemned by this, after saying, 

2al.Wei2 renounce Satan, and array myself with Thee, O Christ. 

3abond Hather however this should not be called a. handwriting^, 

?f, ?" but a covenant. For that is a handivritinq, whereby one is 

Philem. ^ c -K 

ver. 18. held accountable for debts : but this is a covenant. It hath 
^l^' no penalty, nor saith it, If this be done, or if this be not 

' Catena, ' When He had gotten a Xm-thy «yv iari/S» xxi^lay sXa/Ji» KariPm- 
decisive (hold) then He came down.' see p. ii51. noto i. 

The New Covenant and free gift. Neiv Creation. 253 

done' : so spake Moses when he sprinkled the blood of the Hom. 
covenant, and God promised everlasting life. All this is a ^^ ' . 
covenant. There, it was slave with master, here, it is friend ^,-5, « 
with friend : there, it is said. In the day that thou eaiesi ^ "^'^* 
thereof thou sJialt die; a present threatening; but here is26, 7. 8. 
nothing of the kind. There was nakedness, and here too is 
nakedness; there, however, he that had sinned was made 
naked, because he sinned, but here, one- is made naked, 2 one 
that he may be set free. Then, man put off the glory which l^^'^^^^ 
he had ; now, he puts off the old man ; and before going up'' > t^;» J 
(to the contest), puts him off as easily, as it were his gar- ''^''^'"'*' 
merits'". He is anointed", as wrestlers about to enter the 
lists. For he is born at once; and not as that first man 
was, by little and little, but at once ". (He is anointed,) 
not as the priests of old time, on the head alone, but 
rather in more abundant measure. For he indeed was Lev. 8, 

23. 24. 

anointed on the head, the right ear, the hand ; to excite 
him to obedience, and to good works ; but this one, all 
over. For he comeih not to be instructed merely ; but to 
wrestle, and to be exercised ; he is advanced^ to another ^o^'A'a»-- 
crealion. For when he confessed (his belief) in the life 5 ^^V" 
everlasting p, he confessed a second creation. He tooko"''*' 
dust from the earth, and formed man: but now, dust no Gen. 2, 
longer, but the Holy Spirit; with This he is formed, with 
this harmonized*', even as Himself was in the womb ofe/i/^^/- 
the Virgin. He said not in Paradise, but ' in Heaven.' For^'''"' 
deem not that, because the subject is earth ^, it is done on'y7,iTc- 
earth; he is^ removed thither, to Heaven, there these things *"*■*' 
are transacted, in the midst of Angels: God taketh up thy 
soul above, above He harraonizeth it anew. He placeth thee 
near to the Kingly Throne. He is formed in the water, he 
receivcth spirit instead of a souP. And after he is formed, 

™ See St. Cyril, Catech. XX. p In the Apostles' Creed, recited at 

n See St. Cyril, Catech. XXI. Baptism. 

« The comparison is with the ' old S Old Lat. ' thou art.' The former 

man.' A grown man is of course implied clause may be, ' think not, because the 

in ' wrestling.' The Translator suggests earth is under thee, that thou art in 

that this sentence may have been trans- earth.' 

posed, and ought to stand before the •■ uvri^pu^^ev wviufta, i. e. as Adam 

clause about anointing. Certainly the received a soul. The Spirit hecoming 

present text, if genuine, is elliptical to as it were the life of the new man. 

a fault. See on Kom. viii. 11 . Tr. p. 227. 


Cfnts/ia/i stale heller IIkiii PtirtdUne. 

CoLos. He bringelli to hiin, not beasts, but devils, and their prince, 
, ' ' and sailli. Tread nitun serpenla and .scorpio/ts. lie sailh 

LukelO, ^ ' ' ' 

19. not, Let Us make man in onr iniai/Cy and ajler onr likeness, 

2Q°' ' but wliat? He give I h litem to heeonte lite sons of God, n}to 

John 1, icere horn, he sailh, not of hlood, hut of God. Then that 
12. 13. . ■ . ' 

thou give no ear to the serpent, straightway thou art taught 

to say, " I renounce thee," that is, " whatsoever thou sayest, 

I will not hear thee." Then, that he destroy thee not by means 

of others, it is said", " and thy pomp, and thy service, and 

thy angels." He hath set him no more to keep Paradise, 

but to have his conversation' in heaven. For straightway 

when he cometh up he pronounceth these words, Onr 

Father Which art in Heaven, . . . Tliy nill he done in 

earth, as it is in Heaven. The })lain falleth not on thy 

sight', thou seest not tree, nor fountain, but straightway thou 

takest into thee- the Lord Himself, thou art mingled^ with 

His Body, thou art intermixed* with that Body that lieth 

above, whither the devil cannot approach. No woman is 

;pu'^^ there, for him to approach, and deceive as the weaker; for 

Gal. 3, it is said. There is neither female, nor male^. If thou go 

5»i« =v) ^^^^ down to him, he will not have power to come up where 

ajiTiv x«Jthou art; for thou art in Heaven, and Heaven is unapproach- 

Kec. t. ^^^^ by the devil. It hath no tree with knowledge of good 

and evil, but the Tree of Life only. No more shall woman be 

formed from tliy side, but we all are one from the side of 

Christ. For if tliey who have been anointed of men take no 

harm by serpents, neither wilt thou take any harm at all, 

so long as thou art anointed ; that thou mayest be able to 

LukelO, grasp the Sei-pent and choke him, to tread upon serpents and 

^^' scorpions. But as the gifts are great, so is our punishment 

great also. It is not possible for him that hath fallen from 

Gen. 3, Paradise, to dwell in front of Paradise", nor to reascend 

24 . ' ■ 

thither from whence we have fallen. But what after this? 
Hell, and the worm undying. But God forbid that anv of 

1 Or 


^ UMO. 

= (p»tr;, the person who directs the This h:is been done in the text, not 

catechumen. to spoil so beautiful a passap:e. 

' No meaning appears in this, oIk " 1>XX. has »-iTuixi<ri» ai/ro» axi- 

i<r' o-^-iv ■rin'Tci to ■raileuv, though old tavri <rtZ ■za^aitlrov. He placed liim 

Lat. also has, ' The child falleth not opftusite rum, Use. And it is generally 

on his face ;' but we have only to read thought that Adam approached the gate 

trtJ/ai', as in a doubtful passage of of Paradise to worship. 
Hoin. xvi. on Kom. Tr. p. 295. note q. 

MiHery of JaUing from the New Covenant. 255 

us should become amenable to this punishment! but living Hom. 
virtuously, let us earnestly strive to do throughout* His will. ^^\ 
Let us become well-pleasing to God, that we may be dhXe^J^^' 
both to escape the punishment, and to obtain^ the goodMr,ri;- 
things eternal, through tlie grace and love toward man, &c. ^'"' 


Col. ii. 16—19. 

Let no man therefore judge you in meal ^ or in drink, or in 
respect of an holyday, or of the neiv moon, or of the sab- 
' Gr.the hath days: which are a shadow of things^ to come; but the 
body is of Christ. Let no man beguile you of your reward 
in a voluntary humility and uorshijijnng of angels, intrud- 
ing into those things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed 
up by his fleshly mind, and not holding the Head, from 
which all the body by Joints and bands having nourishment 
ministered, and knit together, increaseth with the increase 
of God. 

ver. 8. Having first said darkly, Beware lest any man spoil you 

ver. 4. after the tradition of men; and again, further back. And this 
[ say, lest any man should beguile you ivith enticing tcords ; 
thus preoccupying their soul, and working in it anxious 
thoughts; next, having inserted those benefits, and increased 
this effect, he then brings in his reproof last, and says, Let 

^,ftigu. no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink^, or in the 
part of an holyday, or of the new moon, or (f the sabbath 
days. Seest thou how he depreciates them? If ye have ob- 
tained such things, he saith, why make yourselves accountable 
for these petty matters ? And he makes light of them, saying, 
or in the ^ par f of an holyday, for in truth tliey did not retain 
the whole of the former rule, or of the new moon, or of sabbath 
days. He said not, " Do not then observe them," but, let no 
man judge you. He shewed that they were Iransgress- 

=xi/«», and undoing^, but he brought his charge against others. 
Endure not those that judge you, he saith, nay, not so much 

* ""^^'^ as this either, but he argues with those persons, almost* 

ftovatou- ^ 


Jewish observances hinder a Chrisdan^s reward. 257 

stopping their mouths, and saying, Ye ought not to judge. Hom. 

But he would not have reflected on these. He said not '— 

* in clean and unclean,' nor yet ' in feasts of Tabernacles, 
and unleavened bread, and Pentecost,' but in part of a /east : 
for they ventured not to keep the whole ; and if they did 
observe it, yet not so as to celebrate the feast. In part, he 
saith, shewing that the greater part is done away. For even 
if they did keep sabbath, they did not do so with precision. 
TVJiich are a shadow of the things to come; he means, of 
the New Covenant ; hut the body is of Christ. Some per- 
sons here punctuate thus, hut the body is of Christ, i. e. the 
truth is come in with Christ : others thus; The Bodi/qfChtist 
let no man adjudge away from you, that is, thwart you of it'. ' ivn^itt- 
For the term xuTa^goc^sv^riVixi, is employed when the victory ^''^'"' 
is with one party, and the prize with another, when though 
a victor thou art thwarted ^ Thou standest above the devil ^e-t»»!- 
and sin; why dost thou again subject thyself to sin'. There- r*;^- ,^ 
fore be said that he is a debtor to fulfil the whole law ; and ^-^^- ^» 
again. Is Christ found to be the minister of sin? which ib. 2 17. 
he said when writing to the Galatians. When then he had 
filled them with anger through saying, adjudge away from 
you, he begins; being a roluntary'^, he saith, in humility ^Y-.V. 
and worshipping of Angels, intruding into things he hath"^^^^' 
not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind. How in 
humility, or how puffed up ? He shews that the whole 
arose out of vainglory. But what is on the whole the drift 
of what is said ? There were some who maintained that we 
must be brought near by Angels, not by Christ, for that were 
too great a thing for us. Therefore it is that he turns over 
and over again what he has said concerning Christ, as, that 
through the Blood of His Cross we are reconciled ; that Heu. ' 
suffered for us^ ; that He loved us. And besides in this very^.^°p^ 
same thing, moi cover, they were pierced** afresh. And he 2,21. 
said not ' introduction by,' but ' worshipping of Angels '. In-^^Y^' 
truding into things he hath not seen. For he hath not seen^'-^'-'e*'- 
Angels, and yet is affected as though he had. Therefore he noJ'a, 
saith, Puffed up by his fleshly mind^ vainly. For it is notP-^^^- 
about any true fact, but about this doctrine, that he is puffed y3y.,T 
up. And he puts forward a shew of humility. As if he had ^ ^^- *^ 
said; by his carnal mmd, nothing spiritual; his reasoning is of 0/ his 

g /iesh. 

258 H(jlditi(j by Christ opposed lo human Inventions. 
CoLos. man. And not holdino the Head, he sajth, from which all 

2 22. . • • . . 

~ — ^ the body, that is, thenco it hath its being, and its well-being. 
Why then, letting go the Head, dost thou cling to the mem- 
bers? If" thou art fallen off from It, thou art lost. From 
irhich all the body. Every one, be he who he may, thence 
' JO <rt/v- has not life only, but also even connexion'. All the 
Church, so long as she holds The Head, increaseth ; because 
here is no more passion of pride and vain-glory, nor" inven- 
tion of human fancy. 

Mark that />om'' nhich, meaning the Son. By joints and 
bands, he says, Jiaviny nourishment ministered, and knit 
together, increases ivith the increase of God; he means, that 
according to God, that arising out of the best life. 
Ver. 20. If then ye be dead with Christ. 
He puts that in the middle, and on either side, expres- 
sions of greater vehemence. Jf ye be dead with Christ 
-E. V.yrom the elements^ of the zeorld, he saith, why as though 
^^l^^l^'. living in the world are ye subject to ordinances^? This 
Ti^iffh. is not the consequence, for what ought to have been said 
is, ' how as though living are ye subject to those elements.^' 
But letting this pass, what saith he ? 

Ver. 21, 22. Touch not, taste not, handle not Which all 

are to perish with the using ; after the commandments and 

doctrines of men. 

(2) Ye are not in the world, he saith, and how is it ye are 

subject to its elements? how to its observances? And mark 

' icuuu h5vv he makes sport of* them, handle not, touch not, taste 

" not, as though they were keeping- themselves clear of some 

great matters, which all are to perish with the using. He 

has taken down the swollenness of the many, and added, 

after the commandments and doctrines of men. What 

sayest thou ? Shouldest thou speak even of the Law, that is 

now but a doctrine of men, after the time is come'. Or, 

Srejsro; he spokc tlius becausc they adulterated^ it, or else, he 

""" alludes to the Gentile institutions. The doctrine, he says, is 

altogether of man. 

« Downes would insert a negative, for iirii^oyro, which makes good sense. 

The sense seems the same by carrying Buf this Ms. often has n for »), and n for li. 

on that before. Just above, Bodl. Extr. l> i|, which makes Him a source of 

has truS^ffiffStti for ffjvrihrfai, making it action in Himself. 

' the prospect of salvation.' Also a little ^ n^i^iv, i. e. f/ie time of Christ's 

before i^koovt», ' they were elevated,' Advent, or ' after its time.' 

Free service Jiunour oj the Flesh. Neiv Life in Christ. 259 

Ver. 23. Which thiiKjs have indeed a shew of wisdom in Hom. 
ivill worship, and humility, and neglecting ' of the body ; not 

in any honour to the satisfying of the flesh. E. v. ' 

Shew-,\\Q saith ; not power, therefore not truth, ^o that"J^')[^^^^_ 
even though they have a shew of wisdom, let us turn away ^"-g or 
irom them, tor lie may seem to be a rehgious person, and ;,>;„. 
modest, and to have a contempt for the body, but he is not^^'J'"- 
so.. Not in any honour to the satisfying of the flesh. For 
God hath given it honour, but they use it not with honour. 
Thus, when it is a doctrine, it is his way^ to call it honour. ^ «"Sjh. 
They dishonour the flesh, he says, depriving it, and stripping 
it of its liberty, not giving leave to rule it with its will. 
God hath honoured the flesh. 

Chap. iii. ver. 1. If ye then he risen with Christ. 

He now draws them together, having above established 
that He died. Therefore he saith. If ye then be risen iviih 
Christ, seek those things which are above. No observances 
are there. Where Christ is sitting on the right hand of 
God. Wonderful ! Whither hath he led our minds aloft ! 
How hath he filled them with mighty aspiration ! It was 
not enough to say, the things whiclt are above, nor yet, ivhere 
Christ is, but he adds, sitting on the right hand of God. He 
would thence prevail with them, to look no more on earth''. 

Ver. 2, 3, i. Set your affection on tilings above, not on tilings 
on the earth. For ye are dead, and your life is hid with 
Christ in God. When Christ Who is your^ life shall ap-* Rec.t 
pear^, then shall ye also appear with Him in glory. s'or^e 

This is not your life, he saith, your life is another one. ma>ii- 
He is now urgent to remove them, and insists upon shewing 
that they are seated above, and are dead ; from both consi- 
derations establishing the position, that they are not to seek 
the things which are here. For whether ye be dead, ye 
ought not to seek them ; or whether ye be above, ye ought 
not to seek them. Doth Christ appear } Neither then doth 
your life. It is in God, above. What then ? When shall 
we live .'' When Christ shall appear. Who is your life ; then 
seek ye glory, then life, then enjoyment. 

This is to prepare the way for drawing them off from pleasure 
and ease. Such is his wont : when establishing one position, 
•* Catena, ' From thence he would have them henceforward look on the earth.' 

s 2 

260 Care for this life be/its no! iJivsc ivho have a belter. 

CoLos. he darts off to another ; as, lor instance, when discoursing of 
— '—^— those who at supper were beforehand with one another, he 
all at once falls upon the observance of the Mysteries ^ For 
rebuke hath a great thing when it is administered unsuspected. 
It is hid, he saith, from you. Then shall ye also appear with 
Hirn. So that, now, ye do not appear. See how he hath 
removed them into very heaven. For, as T said, he is always 
bent upon shewing that they have the very same things 

1 ovrot which Christ hath ; and through all his Epistles, the tenour ' 
the''ar-' i^ this, to shcw that in all things they are partakers with 
gument Him. Therefore he uses the terms. Head, and Body, and 

is this. 1 • 1 

2 wa^a- does every thmg to convey^ this to them. 

<rr«<r>, j^ therefore we shall then be manifested, let us not grieve, 

when we enjoy not honour: if this life be not life, but it be 
hidden, we ought to live this life as though dead. Tlien 
shall ye also, he saith, he manifested with Him in glory. In 
glory, he said, not merely manifested. For the pearl too is 
hidden so long as it is within the oyster. If then we be 
treated with insult, let us not grieve ; or whatever it be we 
suffer ; for this life is not our life, for we are strangers and 
sojourners. For ye are dead, he saith. Who is so witless, as 
for a corpse, dead and buried, either to buy servants, or 

3 this is build houses, or prepare costly raiment'? None. Neither 
burial, then do ye*; but as we seek one thing only, namely, that 
^al. 'let^gS jjg j^Q|. jj^ g^ naked state, so here too let us seek one 

us. . . . , . 

« or ' it.' thing and no more. Our first man is buried: buried not ni 

earth, but in water; not death-destroyed, but buried by 

death's destroyer, not by the law of nature, but by the 

governing command that is stronger than nature. For what 

has been done by nature, may perchance be undone ; but 

what has been done by His command, never. Nothing is 

more blessed than this burial, whereat all are rejoicing, both 

Angels, and men, and the Lord of Angels. At this burial, no 

need is there of vestments, nor of coffin, nor of any thing 

^ aufjL^'o- else of that kind. Wouldest thou see the semblance^ of 

eymbol tliis .'' I will shew thee a jiool wherein the one was buried, 

type, the other raised ; in the Red Sea the Egyptians were sunk 

* See his Comment on 1 Cor. 11, ' when the solemn service was cowp/rfe(/, 
17 — 21. Hom. xxvii. on 1 Cor. where after the Communion of the Myste- 
he says that the supper referred to was ries.' 

Baptism likejire in destroying and new-making. 261 

beneath it, but the Israelites went up from out of it ; and the Hom. 
same act buries the one, generates the other. 

Marvel not that generation and destruction take place in (3) 
Baptism; for, tell me, dissolving and cementing, are they not 
opposite ? It is evident, I suppose, to all. Such is the effect 
of fire ; for fire dissolves and destroys wax, but it cements 
together metallic earth, and works it into gold. So in truth 
here also, the force of the fire, having obliterated the statue 
of wax, Jias displayed a golden one in its stead ; for in truth 
before the Bath we were of clay, but after it of gold. 
Whence is this evident.^ Hear him saying, Thejirst man is^ Cor. 
of the earthy earthy, the second man is the Lord ' from i £d.' 
heaven. I spoke of a difference as great as that between F^""- 
clay and gold; but greater still do I find the difference /y. 
between heavenly and earthy; not so widely do clay and 
gold differ, as do things earthy and heavenly. Waxen we 
were, and clay-formed. For the flame of lust did much 
more melt us, than fire doth wax, and any chance temptation 
did far rather shatter us than a stone doth things of clay. 
And, if ye will, let us give an outline of the former life, and 
see whether all was not earth and water, and full of fluctu- 
ation, and dust, and instability, and flowing away. 

And if ye will, let us scrutinize not the former things, but 
the present, and see whether we shall not find every thing 
that is, mere dust and water. For what wilt thou tell me of? 
authority and power } for nothing in this present life is 
thought to be more enviable than these. But sooner may 
one find the dust when on the air stationary, than these 
things ; especially now. For to whom are they not under 
subjection } To those who are lovers of them ; to eunuchs ; 
to those who will do any thing for the sake of money; to 
the passions of the populace ; to the whims of the more 
powei'ful. He who was yesterday up high on his tribunal^, 
who had his heralds shouting with thrilling voice, and many 
to run before, and haughtily clear the way for him through 
the forum, is to-day mean and low, and of all those things 
bereft and bare, like dust blast-driven, like a stream that 

f Montfaucon thinks this refers to This is questioned in the recent Paris 
Eutropius, whose disgrace occasioned Edition, 
two Homilies of St. Chrys. Ben. t. iii. 

2G2 ]'aiiUy of ucdUh and oj' honour from it. 

CoLos. hath passed by. And like as the dust is raised by our feet, 
— — 1— so truly are these magistracies also produced by those who 
are engaged about money, and in the whole of life have the 
rank and condition of feet; and like as the dust when it is 
raised occupies a large portion of the air, though itself be 
but a small body, so too doth power ; and like as the dust 
blindeth the eyes, so too doth the pride of power bedim the 
eyes of the understanding. 

But what? Wilt thou that we examine that object of many 
prayers, wealth ? Come, let us examine it in its several 
parts. It hath luxury, it hath honours, it hath power. First 
then, if thou wilt, let us examine luxury. Is not this dust .'' 
yea, rather, it hurrieth by swifter than dust, for the pleasure 
of luxurious living reacheth only to the tongue, and when 
the belly is filled, not to the tongue even. But, saith one, 
honours are of themselves pleasant things. Yet what can be 
less pleasant than that same honour, when it is rendered 
with a view to money.? When it is not from free choice and 
with a readiness of mind, it is not thou that reapest the 
honour, but thy wealth. So that this very thing makes the 
man of wealth, most of all men, dishonoured. For, tell me ; 
suppose all men honoured thee, who hadst a friend ; the 
while confessing that thou, to be sure, wert good for nothing, 
but that they were compelled to honour thee on his account; 
could they possibly in any other way have so dishonoured 
thee 1 So that our wealth is the cause of dishonour to us, 
seeing it is more honoured than are its very possessors, and a 
J Suva- proof rather of weakness than of power'. How then is it not 
vTuat absurd that we are not counted of as much value as earth and 
ashes, (for such is gold,) but that we are honoured for its 
sake ? With reason. But not so he, that despiseth wealth ; 
for it were better not to be honoured at all, than so honoured. 
For tell me, were one to say to thee, I think thee worthy of no 
honour at all, but for thy servants' sakes I honour thee, could 
now any thing be worse than this dishonour .? But if to be 
honoured for the sake of servants, who are partakers of the 
same soul and nature with ourselves, be a disgrace, much 
more then is it such, to be honoured for the sake of meaner 
things, such as the walls and courts of houses, and vessels of 
gold, and garments. A scorn indeed were this, and shame ; 

Its effeclH iUiistraled hij a .supposed case. '263 

better die than be so honoured. For, tell me, if when thou Hom. 

vvert in peril in this thy pride, and some low and disgusting 1, 

person were to be willing to extricate thee from thy peril, 
what could be worse than this ? What ye say one to another 
about the city, I wish to say to you. Once on a time our ' ' i. e. 
city gave offence to the Emperor^, and he gave orders that^iyg^^. 
the whole of it should utterly be destroyed, men, children, tioch- 
houses, and all. (For such is the wrath of kings, they indulge 
their power as much as ever they choose, so great an evil is 
power.) It was then in the extremest of perils. The neigh- 
bouring city, however, this one on the sea-coast, went and 
besought the king in our behalf: upon which the inhabitants 
of our city said that this was worse than if the city had been 
razed to the ground. So, to be thus honoured is worse than 
being dishonoured. For see whence honour hath its root. 
The hands of cooks procure us to be honoured, so that to 
them we ought to feel gratitude ; and swineherds supplying 
us with a rich table, and weavers, and spinners'-^, and workers -"e'^-^o», 
in metal, and confectioners, and table -furnishers. hi^wool. 

Were it not then better not to be honoured at all, than to (4) 
be beholden to these for the honour? And besides this, 
moreover, 1 will endeavour to prove clearly that opulence is 
a condition full of dishonour; it embases the soul; and 
what is more dishonourable than this ? For tell me, suppose 
one had a comely person, and passing all in beauty, and 
wealth were to go to him and promise to make it ugly, and 
instead of healthy, diseased, instead of cool, inflamed ; and 
having filled every limb with dropsy, w^ere to make the 
countenance bloated, and distend it all over; and were to 
swell out the feet, and make them heavier than logs, and to puff 
up the belly, and make it larger than any tun; and after this, it 
should promise not even to grant permission to cure him, to 
those who should be desirous of doing so, (for such is the 
way with power,) but w^ould give him so much liberty as to 
punish any one that should approach' him to withdraw him ^ t^os-/»!, 
from what was harming him; could any thing, tell me, beg"^*^^* 

e ru K^arauvTt, the Emperor Theo- bouring city', however, is not named •"'i^'^^'V- 
dosius. This was preached under his there, though the sj'mpathy of neigh- 
successor Arcadius. For an account bouring cities is mentioned in Horn. 2. 
of the events referred to, see Pref. to It is supposed to be Selcucia. 
Homilies on the Statues. The ' neieih- 

204 IVealtli fills the soul tiilh disease, (ind resists cure. 
Coios. more cruel than this? Wealth then, seeing it works these 

3 2.. JO 

— ^-^— effects in the soul, how can it be honourable ? 

But this power is a more grievous thing than the disease 
itself; as for one in disease not to be obedient to the phy- 
sician's injunctions is a more serious evil than the being 
diseased ; and this is the case with wealth, seeing it creates 
inflannnation in every part of the soul, and forbids the 
physicians to come near it. So let us not felicitate these on 
the score of their power, but pity them ; for neither were I 
to see a dropsical patient lying, and nobody forbidding 
him to take his fill of drinks and meats that are harmful, 
would I felicitate him because of his power. For not in all 
cases is power a good thing, nor are honours either, for these 
too fill one witli much arrogance. But if thou wouldest not 
choose that the body should along with wealth contract 
such a disease, how comest thou to overlook the soul when 
contracting not this scourge alone, but another also ? For it 
is on fire all over with burning fevers and inflammations, and 
that burning fever none can quench, for wealth will not 
allow of this, having persuaded it that those things are gains, 
which are really losses, such as not enduring any one, and 

' '^'"'''V doing every thing at will'. For no other soul will one find 
so replete with lusts so great and so extravagant, as theirs 

2 xrja,- ^^,]jQ ^j.^, desirous of being rich. For what silly trifles* do 
they not picture to themselves ! One may see these devising 
more extravagant things than limners of hippocentaurs, and 
chimaeras, and dragon-footed things, and Scyllas, and 
monsters. And if you were to give a picture of one lust of 
theirs, neither Scylla, nor chimcera, nor hippocentaur will 
a})pear any thing at all by the side of such a prodigy ; but 
you will find it to contain every wild beast at once. 

And ])ercliance some one will suppose that I have been 
myself possessed of much wealth, seeing I am so true to what 
really comes of it. It is reported of one, (for I will first con- 

■' A'Sfl^i- fjrm what I ha\e said from the legends' of the Greeks) — it is 
reported amongst them of a certain king, that bebecame so inso- 
lent in luxury, as to make a plane tree of gold*", and a sky above 
it, and there sate, and this too when invading a people skilled 

I' Ed. Par. refers to Herod, vii. 27- to Dariu.'s ; also to Diod.Sic.xix.49. and 
wiiere such a tree is mentioned as given Brisson de Regn. Pers. 1. i. c. 77. 

TJie golden plane-tree, and other worse follies. 265 

in warfare. Now was not this Inst hippocentaurean, was it Hom. 
not Scyllajan? Another, again, nsed' to cast men into a ^-^ 
wooden bull. Was not this a very Scylla.'' And even him'', 
the king I just mentioned, the warrior, wealth made, trom a 
man, a woman, from a woman, what shall I say } a brute 
beast, and yet more degraded than this ; for the beasts, if 
they lodge under trees, take up with nature, and seek for 
nothing further; but the man in question overshot the nature 
even of beasts. 

What then can be more senseless than are the wealthy? 
And this arises from the greediness* of their desires. But, ' srx«- 
are there not many that admire him ? Therefore truly ""''"'■ 
do they share in the laughter he incurs. That displayed 
not his wealth but his folly. How much better than 
that golden plane tree is that which the earth produceth ! 
For the natural is more grateful than the unnatural. But 
what meant that thy golden heaven, O senseless one } Seest 
thou how wealth that is abundant maketh men mad ? How 
it inflames them ? I suppose he knows not the sea even, 
and perchance will presently have a mind to walk upon it '. 
Now is not this a chimsera } is it not a hippocentaur } But 
there are, at this time also, some who fall not short even of 
him, but are actually much more senseless. For in point of 
senselessness, wherein do they differ, tell me, from that golden 
plane tree, who make golden jars, pitchers, and scent bottles? 
And wherein do lose women differ, (ashamed indeed I am, 
but it is neces. .ly to speak it,) who make chamber utensils of 
silver"'? It is ye should be ashamed, that are the makers of 
these things. When Christ is famishing, dost thou so revel 
in luxury ? yea rather, so play the fool ! What jjunishment 
shall these not suffer ? And inquirest thou still, why there are 
robbers? why murderers? why such evils? when the devil 
has thus perverted " you. For the mere having of silver 

' Sav. Ivi/SaXXi. He must mean the sequel shews that the same king is 

brasen bull of Phalaris. meant. 

k riait Vi rut ir^o'rt^iv. And besides ' Alluding to Xerxes, see Herod, vii. 

among theui of earlier times, wealth 35. 

made that king, the warrior, from a "> a/iiias. St. Clem. Al. mentions the 

man, a woman; from a woman, what like absurdity, P.-rdag. ii. 3. 

shall I say ? Savile tov, which is bet- ^- !rajaru«avT»j, drawn aside or 

ter, and neglected by Ed. Par. The away. 

266 Absurd abuse of precious tnelals censured. 

CoLos. dishes indeed, this even is not in keeping with a soul devoted 
' ' ' to wisdom, but is altogether a ])iece of luxury; but the 
making unclean vessels also of silver, is this then luxury ? 
nay, I will not call it luxury, but senselessness ; nay, nor yet 
this, but madness; nay rather, worse than even madness. 
(5) I know that many persons make jokes at me for this ; 
but I heed them not, only let some good result from it. In 
truth, to be wealthy does make people senseless and mad. 
Did their power reach to such an excess, they would have 
the earth too of gold, and walls of gold, perchance the 
heaven too, and the air of gold. What a madness is this, 
what an iniquity °, what a burning fever! Another, made after 
the image of God, is perishing of cold; and dost thou furnish 
thyself with such things as these ? O the senseless pride ! 
What more would a madman have done ? Dost thou pay 
such honour to thine excrements, as to receive them in silver ? 

1 ►agaSrf \ kuow that yc are shocked' at hearing this; but those women 
that make such things ought to be shocked, and the hus- 
bands that minister to such distempers. For this is wan- 
tonness, and savageness, and inhumanity, and brutishness, 
and lasciviousness. What Scylla,what chimaei'a,what dragon, 
yea rather what demon, what devil would have acted on 
this wise? What is the benefit of Christ.'' what of the 
Faith ? when one has to put up with men being heathens, 
yea rather, not heathens, but demons .'' If to adorn the 
head with gold and pearls be not riglit; one that useth silver 
for a service so unclean, how shall he obtain pardon ? Is not 
the rest enough, although even it is not bearable, chairs and 
footstools all of silver ? although even these come of .sense- 
lessness. But every where is excessive pride; every where 
is vainglory. No where is it use, but every where excess. 

1 am afraid lest, under the impulse of this madness, the 
race of woman should go on to receive some portentous 
form : for it is likely that they will wish to have even their 
hair of gold. Eksc declare that ye were not at all affected 
by what was said, nor were excited greatly, and fell a long- 
ing, and had not shame withheld you, would not have refused. 
For if ye dare to do what is even more absurd than this, 

" fa.^ivo/ji.ta. Old. ]^at. insanity, a? if from tkohvoU. 

Discipline threatened, if no amendment. 267 

much more, I think, will ye long to have this'' hair of gold, Hom. 
and lips, and eyebrows, and to melt down gold, and so '— 

overlay every part therewith. 

But if ye are incredulous, and think 1 am speaking in jest, 
I will relate what I have heard, or rather what is now exist- 
ing. The king of the Persians wears his beard golden; 
those who are adepts at such work winding leaf of gold 
about his hairs as about the woof, and it is laid up' as a'axtxir- 

Glory to Thee, O Christ; with how many good things hast 
Thou filled us ! How hast Thou provided for our health ! 
From how great monstrousness, from how great unreasonable- 
ness, hast Thou set us free ! Mark ! 1 forewarn you, I advise 
no longer; but I command and charge; let him that wills, 
obey, and him that wills not, be disobedient; that if the 
women do continue thus to act, I will not suffer it, nor 
receive you, nor permit you to pass across this threshold. 
For what need have I of a crowd of distempered people ? 
And what if, in my training of you, I do not forbid what is 
not excessive ? And yet Paul forbade both gold and pearls, i Tim. 
We are laughed at by the Greeks, our religion appears a ' 

And to the men I give this advice: Art thou come to 
school to be instructed in spiritual philosophy ? Divest 
thyself of that pride ! This is my advice both to men and 
women ; and if any act otherwise, henceforward I will not 
suffer it. The disciples were but twelve, and hear what 
Christ saith unto them, Will ye also go away ? For if we John 6, 
go on for ever flattering you, when shall we reclaim you ? 
when shall we do you service } ' But,' saith one, ' there are 
other sects-, and people go over".' This is a cold argument, " «'e«'<^£'; 
' Better is one that doeth the will of the Lord, than ten ^jCrl?'^'" 
thousand transgressors.' For, what wouldest thou choose Ecclus. 
thyself, tell me ; to have ten thousand senants that were 
runaways and thieves, or a single one that loved thee'*? Lo! ' «'''»<'«"' 
I admonish and command you to break up both those gay 
deckings for the face, and such vessels as 1 have described, 
and give to the poor, and not to be so mad. 

Let him that likes quit me at once^; let him that likes '«a-aT»- 

P Or, ' will these women long to have.' 

268 Limits o/ alio win (//or weak offenders. 

CoLos. accuse' me, T will not suflcr it in any one. When I am 
^- ,' about to be jiulged at the Tribunal of Christ, ye stand afar 
xiiTu off, and for me to have your favour will tell for nothing, when 
1 am giving in my account. " Those words have mine 1 
all! he saysi, ' let him go and transfer himself to another 
sect!' Nay! he is weak! condescend to him!" To what 
point ? Till when ? Once, and twice, and thrice, but not 

Lo ! I charge you again, and protest after the pattern of 
2 Cor. the blessed Paul, tha! if I come again I u'ill not spare. 

13 2 

^Kn-o.- -^ut when ye have done as ye ought-, then ye will know 

furnv. \io\x great the gain is, how great the advantage. Yes ! 

I entreat and beseech you, and would not refuse to clasp your 

'/jxaxi/a knees and supplicate you' in this behalf. What softness^ is 

it! What luxury, what wantonness! This is not luxury, but 

wantonness. What senselessness is it ! What madness ! 

So many poor stand around the Church ; and though the 

Church has so many children, and so wealthy, she is unable 

1 Cor. to give I'elief to one poor person; hut one is hungry, and 

11,21. Qj^other is drunken; one voideth his excrement even into 

silver, another has not so much as bread! What madness! 

what brutishness so great as this ? God grant that I never 

"iwila-come to the proof, whether I will prosecute* the disobedient, 

nor to the indignation which allowing' these practices would 

cause me ; but that willingly and with patience ye may duly 

perform all this, that we may live to God's glory, and be 

delivered from the punishment of that place, and may obtain 

the good things promised to those who love Him, through 

the grace and love toward man, &c. 

9 i. e. the Preacher says. Downes for defence or relief, as by sitting on 

would put in a negative, as Old Lat. the hearth. Suphocl. (FA. Tyr. l,&c. 

and give the words to the objector, but ' \xtr^i-^ai. Perhaps s^/Tjr^v^ai, ' ag- 

with less spirit. gravaiiug,' as Ben. t. i. p. 24. 13. and 

' iKiTfi^ia* iuyai. He alludes to the p. 225. A. 
ancitut custom ol formally supplicating 


Col. iii. 5 — 7. 

Mortify your members tchich are vpoti the earth ; fornica- 
tion, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, 
and covetousness, which is idolatry; for which things' 
sake, the wrath of God cometh upon the children of dis- 
obedience ; in the which ye also italked sometime, when 
ye lived in them. 

I KNOW that many are offended by the foregoing discourse, '«'«■za:;^*- 
but what can I do? ye heard what the Master enjoined/"'""'"''' 
Am I to blame ? what shall I do ? See ye not how, when 
debtors- are obstinate, they put collars on them? Heard '-"»■«" 
ye what Paul proclaimed to-day ? Mortify, he saith, your """ 
members which are upon the earth ; fornication, unclean- 
ness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covet- 
ousness, which is idolatry. What is worse than such" a 
covetousness ? This is still more grievous tlian what I was 
speaking of*, this madness, namely, and silly weakness 
about silver. And covetous)iess, he saith, uhich is idolatry. 
See in what the evil ends. Do not, 1 pray, take what I said 
amiss, for not by my own good-will, nor without reason, 
would I have enemies ; but I was wishful ye should attain to 
such virtue, as that I might hear of you the things I ought". 
So that I said it not for authority's^ sake, nor of imperious- ^ «y^iv- 
ness^ but out of pain and of sorrow. Forgive me, forgive ! ^'*' 

» So2Mss. one adds, ' This is worse that / might hear from you what is 

than any desire.' right.' Gr. irag* hiiui. 

** Old Lat. ' This is worse that I '' a^iaftara} , wish to maintain dig- 
was speaking of,' {oxt^ for aJ«r«j.) nity. 

• Or perhaps, ' 1 could wish 


270 Sin uhif lo he tnorlljied after once alaying. 

Coi.os. 1 have no wish to violate decency by discoursing upon such 

' subjects, but I am compelled to it. 

Not for the sake of the sorrows of the poor do I say these 
things, but for your salvation ; for they will perish that have 
not fed Christ. For what, if thou dost feed some poor man? 
«■TaTB- still so long as thou livest so voluptuously' and luxuriously, 
all is to no purpose. For what is required is, not the giving 
much, but not too little for the property thou hast ; for this 
is but playing at it. 

Mortify therefore your members, he saith, which are upon 
the earth. What sayest thou ? Was it not thou that saidst, 
c. 2, ii.JT," are buried; ye are buried toge liter ^vilh Him; ye are 
Rom. 6 circumcised: ye have put off the body of the sins of the flesh ; 
^•. how then again sayest thou, Mortify'^? Art thou sporting^? 

Put to Dost thou thus discourse, as though those things were in us.^ 
3 soV There is no contradiction ; but like as if one, who has clean 
Mss. scoured a statue that was filthy, or rather who has recast it, 
and displayed it bright afresh, should say that the rust was 
^ xun- eaten* off and destroyed, and yet should again recommend 
^' ^ diligence in clearing away the rust, he doth not contradict 
himself, for it is not that rust which he scoured off that he 
recommends should be cleared away, but that which grows 
5 vijtjiuiriv afterwards; so it is not that former putting to death* he 
speaks of, nor those fornications, but those which do after- 
wards grow. 

But lo ! say the heretics', Paul accuseth the creation ; for 
V. 2. he said before, Set your affection on things above, not 
on things on earth ; again he saith. Mortify your mem- 
bers which are upo?i the earth. But the words upon earth, 
are here expressive of sin, not an accusing of creation. 
For it is thus he calls sins themselves, things upon earth, 
either from their being wrought by earthly thoughts and 
upon earth, or from their shewing sinners to be earthly. 

Fornication, tmcleanness, he saith. He has passed over 
the actions which it is not becoming even to mention, and 
by uncleanness has expressed all together. 

Inordinate affection, he saith, evil concupiscence. 

« The Manichees. See on Gal. 1, 4. and note c. Tr. p. 9. and note at the end 
of St. Augustine's Confessions. 

Mean i lie/ of the 'old and new Man.'' 271 

Lo ! he has expressed the whole in the class. For envy, Hom. 
anger, sorrow, all are evil concupiscence. - 

And covetousness, he saith, which is idolatry. For for 
these things' sake comeih the wrath of God upon the 
children of disobedience. 

By many things he had been withdrawing them ; by 
the benefits which are already given, by the evils to come 
from which we had been delivered, being who, and where- 
fore; and all those considerations, as, for instance, who we 
were, and in what circumstances, and that we were delivered 
therefrom, how, and in what manner, and on what terms. 
These were enough to turn one away, but this one is of 
greater force than all ; unpleasant indeed to speak of, not 
however to disservice, but even serviceable. For tvhich 
tilings'' sake cometh, he saith, the wrath of God upon the 
children of disobedience. He said not, ' upon you,' but, 
■upon the children of disobedience. 

In the tvhich ye also walked some time, when ye lived in 
them. In order to shame them, he saith, when ye lived in 
them, and implying praise, as now no more so living : at 
that time they might. 

Ver. 8. But now ye also put off all these. 

He speaks always both universally and particularly ; but 
this is from earnestness. 

Ver. 8, 9. Anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy com- 
munications out of your mouth. Lie not one to another. 

Filthy communication, he saith, out of your mouth, clearly 
intimating that it pollutes it. 

Ver. 9, 10. Seeing that ye have put off the old man with 
his deeds; and have put on the new man, tvhich is renewed 
in knowledge after the image of Him that created him. 

It is worth inquiring here, what can be the reason why he 
calls the corrupt life, members, and m«n, and body, and again 
the virtuous life, the same. And if the man means ' sins,' 
how is it that he saith, with his deeds? For he said once, 
the old man, shewing that this is not man, but the other. 
For the moral choice doth rather determine one than the 
substance, and is rather maji than the other. For his sub- 
stance casteth him not into hell, nor leadeth him into the 
kingdom, but this same choice : and we neither love nor hate 


'21'2 TJte nen- nuni, like Christ, yroicK vol old 

CoLos. any one so fiiv as he is man, but so far as he is such or such 
' ' a man. If then the substance be the body, and in either 
sort cannot be accountable, how doth he say that it is evil'? 
(2) But what is that he saith, t/;«7A his deeds? lie means the 
choice, with the acts. And he calleth him old, on purpose 
to shew his deformity, and hidcousness, and imbecility ; 
and neic, as if to say, Do not expect that it will be with 
this one even as with the other, but the reverse : for 
ever as he farther advances, he hasteneth not on to old 
age, but to a youthfulncss greater than the preceding. 
For when he hath received a fuller knowledge, he is both 
counted worthy of greater things, and is in more perfect 
maturity, and in higher vigour; and this, not from youth- 
s' Sjw fulness alone, but from that likeness^ also, after which he is. 
'^ '* Lo ! the best life is styled a creation, after the image of 
Christ: for this is the meaning oi, after the image of Him 
that created him, for Christ too came not finally to^ old age, 
but was so beautiful as it is not even possible lo tell. 

Ver. 11. Where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circum- 
cision nor iincircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond, nor 
free: hut Christ is all, and in all. 

Lo ! here is a third encomium of this ' man.' With him, 
there is no difference admitted either of nation, or of rank, 
or of ancestry, seeing he hath nothing of externals, nor 
needeth them ; for all external things are such as these, 
circumcision, and iincircumcision, bond, free, Greek, that 
is, pi'oselyte, and Jew, that is, such from his ancestors. If 
thou have only this man, thou wilt obtain the same things 
with the others that have him. 

But Christ, he saith, is all, and in all, that is, Christ will 
be all things to you, both rank, and descent, and Himself in 
you all. Or he says another thing, to wit, that ye all are 
become one Christ, being His body. 

Ver. 12. Put on, therefore, as the elect of God, holy and 

He shews the easiness of virtue, so that they might both 
possess it continually, and use it as the greatest ornament. 

f As the Manichees interpreted his the other sense seems more suitable. In 

words. either sense it is opposed to the view 

th f^o: 'yn^as iri^ivT)i(ri¥, Lat. ' Nee ascribed to Byzantine artists. See Rio's 

senex mortuus est,' (died not old.) But Poesie Chretienne. 

Forbearance for Chrisfs sake implies love. 273 

The exhortation is accompanied also with praise, for then Hom» 
its force is greatest. For they had been before '' holy, but '- 


not elect, but now both elect, and holy, and beloved. 

Bowels of'inercij^. He said not ' mercy,' but with greater' o\km^- 
emphasis used the two words. And he said not, that one j^gc. t. 
ought to be so disposed as towards brethren, but, as fathers — /"^»- 
towards children. For tell me not that he sinned, therefore 
he said bowels. And he said not ' mercy,' lest he should 
place them' in light estimation, but bowels of mercy, kind- 
ness, humbleness of mind, meekness, long suffering ; forbear- 
ing one another, and forgiving one another, if any man 
have a complainf^ against any : even as Christ forgave you, -f^'f^ipn», 

, - and so 

SO also do ye. E. v. in 

Again, he speaks after the class ""; for from kindness comes ""^''^' 
humbleness of mind, and from this, longsufFering. Forbear- 
ing, he saith, one another, that is, passing things over'. And 
see, how he has shewn it to be nothing, by calling it a com- 
plaint. Then he subjoins, even as Christ forgave you; 
Great is the example ! and thus he always does ; he exhorts 
them after Christ'. Complaint, he calls it. In these words ^ «5^ 
indeed he shewed it to be a petty matter ; but when he has xl 
set before us the example, he has persuaded us that even if 
we had serious charges to bring, we ought to forgive. For 
the expression. Even as Christ, signifies this, and not this 
only, but also with all the heart; and not this alone, but 
that they ought even to love. For Christ being brought into 
the midst, bringeth in all these things, both that even if the 
matters be great, and even if we have not been the first to in- 
jure, even if we be of great they of small account, even if they 
are sure^ to insult us afterwards, that we ought both to lay V^^^-y 
down our lives for them, (for the words, even as, demand 
this ;) and that not even at death only ought one to stop, 
but if possible, to go on even after death. 

Ver. 14. And above all these things put on charity, which 
is the bond of perfectness. 

Dost thou see that he saith this ? For since it is possible 
for one who forgives, not to love ; yea, he saith, thou must 

•i lyitovT», i.e. he had before called as remarked above, p. 271. 
them Holy. c. 1. v. 2. ' Ta^a-rtfiv^/tivn, al. trecfayt^afuvti, 

' ixiivaus, ' the objects.' ' receiving one another.' 
^ xttT iIJ«f, from genus to species, 


Q74 Perfection cannot stand icithoui Charily. 

CoLos. love him too, and lie points out a way whereby it becomes 
■ '^ possible to forgive. For it is possible for one to be kind, 
and meek, and humbleminded, and long-suffering, and yet 
' ■rchTv. not affectionate '. And therefore, he said at the first, Bowels 
• or be. o/'w<?;y7/, both love and pity. And above^ all these things, 
sides, chariti/, ichich is the bond of perfectness. Now what he 
wishes to say is this; that there is no profit in those things, 
for all those things fall asunder, except they be done with 
love ; this it is which clenches them all together; whatsoever 
good thin^ it be thou mentionest, if charity be away, it is 
3 Wjfsr. nothing, it melts away ^. And it is as in a ship, even though 
^*'*"'^', her rigging* be large, yet if there be no girding beams ^, it is 
ftnTit. of no service ; and in an house, if there be no tie beams *, it is 
tX"'/. ^^^ same; and in a body, though the bones be large, yet if 
there be no ligaments, the}' are of no service. For whatso- 
ever good deeds any may have, all do vanish away, if love be 
not there. He said not that it is the summit, but what is 
greater, the bond; this is more necessary than the other. 
For " summit" indeed is an intensity of perfectness, but 
bond is the holding fast together of those things, which pro- 
duce the perfectness ; it is, as it wei'e, the root. 
"/3ja/3£w- Ver. 15. And let the peace of God rule'' in your hearts, to 
umpire '^''^ lohicli also ye are called in one body ; and be ye thank- 
' ful. 
(3) Tlie peace of God. This is that which is fixed and sted- 
fast. If on man's account indeed thou hast peace, it quickly 
comes to dissolution, but if on God's account, never. 
Although he had spoken of love universally, yet again he 
comes to the particular. For there is a love too which is 
immoderate ; for instance, when out of much love one makes 
accusations without reason, and is engaged in contentions, 
and contracts aversions. Not this, saith he, not this do I 
desire, but as God made peace with you, so do ye also make 
it. And how made He peace ? Of His own Will, not having 
received any thing of you. What is this } Let the peace of 
God rule in your hearts. If two thoughts are fighting to- 
gether, set not anger, set not spitefulness to hold the prize, 
but peace ; for instance, suppose one to have been insulted 
unjustly; of the insult are born two thoughts; the one 
bidding him to revenge, the other to endure ; and these 

The ^PeaceofGocVan Umphe between anger and charity. 275 

wrestle with one another: if the Peace of God stand as Hom. 
umpire, it bestows the prize on that which bids endure, and '- 

puts the other to shame. How ? by persuading him that 
God is Peace, that He hath made peace with us. Not with- 
out reason he shews the great struggle there is in the 
matter. Let not anger, he saith, act as umpire, let not con- 
tentiousness, let not human peace, for human peace cometh 
of avenging, of suffering no ill. But not this do I intend, 
he saith, but that which Christ Himself left. 

He hath represented an arena ^ within, in the thoughts, '«r7-aS;ov. 
and a contest, and a wrestling, and an umpire. Then again, 
exhortation, to the which ye are called^, he saith, that is, for 2 Gr. 

the which' ye were called. He has reminded them of how'^^'"'^, 


many good things peace is the cause; on account of this Hes^v 5 
called thee, for this He called thee, so as to receive a worthy" 
prize. For wherefore made He us one body ? Was it not 
that she might rule ? Was it not that we might have occasion 
of being at peace.'' Wherefore are we all one body? and how 
are we one body ? Because of peace we are one body, and 
because we are one body, we are at peace. But why said 
he not, ' Let the peace of God be victorious,' but be umpire ? 
He made her the more honourable *. He would not have the ' «lioo-r- 
evil thought to come to wrestle with her, but to staiid below. '^ '^"'^ '?''''■ 
And the very name ' prize' ^ cheered the hearer. For if she^/Sja- 
have given the prize to the good thought, however im-^]_'^"'" 
pudently the other behave, it is thereafter of no use. And tTu 
besides, the other was aware that, perform what feats he 
might, he should not receive the prize ; however he might 
puff, and attempt still more vehement onsets, he should 
have to desist as labouring without profit. And he well 
added, And be ye thankful, and very movingly ". For this is 
to be thankful, to deal with his fellowservants as God doth 
with himself, to submit himself to the Master, to obey ; to 
express his gratitude for all things, even though one insult 
him, or beat him. 

" a^iointrtov. Usually ' worthy of If construed there it must mean ' in a 

credit,' but sometimes rather in a way that has power of prevailing with 

secondary sense, ' worthy of honour.' God,' [so to speak,] putting Him to 

see on Philem.l, 3. Tr. p. 340. note d. shame, if He do not grant the favour.' 

" xa.) ir((i'o\a Ur^i^TTixuis. This clause, Comp. Heb. 6, 10. 
in the Greek, comes after the next. 

T 2 

27() Comnutnion with Heaun requires Pmily. 

CoLos. For in trutli he that confesses thanks diu- to God for what he 
— i-^ suffers, will not revenge hin)self on him that has done him 
wrong, since he at least that takes revenge, acknowledges no 
gratitude. But let not us follow him with" the hundred 
pence, lest we hear, Tlion wicked servant, for nothing is 
worse than this ingratitude. So that they who revenge are 

But why did he begin his list with fornication ? For 
c. 3, 5. having said, Mortify your members which are upon the 
ert/-M, he immediately says,ybr;^^■eaf^o?^; and so he does al- 
most every where. Because this passion hath the greatest 
1 Thess. sway, for even when writing his Epistle to the Thessalonians 
iTira. he did the same. And what wonder? since to Timothy even 
^',^2; he ndXxh, Keep thyself pure^ ; and again elsewhere, Fo//ot6- 
chaste', peace ivith all men, and holiness^, without which no inafi 
shall see the Lord. Put to death, he says, your members. 
Ye know of what sort that is which is dead, hated, loathed, 
dropping to decay. If thou put any thing to death, it doth 
not when dead continue dead, but presently is corrupted, 
like the body. Extinguish then the heat; and nothing that 
sal.'andjg dead will continue-. He shews that one had the same 
tinues thing in hand, which Christ wrought in the Laver, therefore 
^^^^' also he calleth them rnembers, as though introducing some 
"S"^^*- champion'', thus advancing his discom'se to greater emphasis. 
And he well said, Which are upon the earth, for here they 
continue, and here they are coiTupted, far rather than these 
our meinbers. So that not so truly is the body of the earth, 
as sin is earthly, for the former indeed appears even beau- 
tiful at times, but those members never. And those mem- 
bers lust after all things that are upon the earth. If the eye 
be such, it seeth not the things in the heavens; if the ear, if 
the hand, if thou mention any other members whatsoever. 
The eye seeth bodies, and beauties, and riches ; these are 
the things of earth, with these it is delighted : the ear with 
soft strains, and harp, and pipe, and filthy talking ; these are 
things which are concerned with earth. 

When therefore he has ])laced his hearers above, near the 

" Sav. has efii\c>TU, ' that owed,' riuvra ra. 

which makes no sense : Mss. Par. only P aj./a(r«oy, Sanctification,as 1 Thess. 
<r»v ra ikxtov : Downes conj. arai- 4,3. Couip. Exod. 19, 10. 15. 22. 

Earthly members made /or heavenly uses. 277 

throne, he then says, Mortify your members which are upon Hom. 
the earth. For it is not possible to stand above with these '- 

members ; for there is nothing there for them to work upon. 
And this clay is worse than that, for that clay indeed becometh 
gold, for this corruptible, he saith, must put on incorruption,i Cor. 
but this clay can never be retempered' more. So that these i ^^^^^. 
members are rather upon the earth than those. Therefore"'"^?""» 


he said not, ' of the earth,' but ivhich are upon the earth, for 
it is possible that these should not be upon'' the earth. For 
it is necessary that the,se^ should be upon the earth, but that ''.The 

T-i 1 1 1 -Sinful 

those ^ should, is not necessary, l^or when the ear hears passions 
nothing of what is here uttered, but only in the heavens, when J^^h'' 
the eye sees nothing of what is here, but only what is above, organs. 
it is not upon the earth ; when the mouth speaketh nothing 
of the things here, it is not %ipon the earth ; when the hand 
doeth no evil thing, it is not of things upon the earth, but of 
those in the heavens. 

So Christ also saith, If thy right eye offend thee, that is, if (4) 
thou lookest unchastely, ' cut it out,' that is, thme evil 29. ' ' 
thought. And he seems to me to &Q.y, fornication, imclean- 
ness, inordinate affection, concupiscence, of the same, namely 
of fornication : the Apostle by means of all these expressions 
drawing us away from that thing. For in truth this is an 
inordinate affection; and like as the body is subject to any 
affection, or to fever, or to wounds, so also is it with this. 
And he said not Restrain, but Mortify, so that they never 
rise up more, and put them away. That which is dead, 
we put away ; for instance, if there be callosities* in the body, ' ruxn. 
their body is dead, and we put it away. Now, if thou cut into 
that which is quick, it produces pain, but if into that which 
is dead, we are not even sensible^ of it. So, in truth, is it ^ So 2 
with the passions ; they make the soul unclean ; they make gj^ -^^^^ 
the soul, which is immortal, passible. 'pained.' 

How covetousness is said to be idolatry, we have often- 
times explained. For the things which do most of all lord it 
over the human race, are these, covetousness, unchasteness, 
and evil concupiscence. For which things' sake cometh, he 
saith, the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience. 

1 3 Mss. W) : Edd. «t^, * of earth,' which is contrary to the sense, as there 
is no difference of material. 

278 Putting away Evil. All one Neiv 3Ian in Christ. 

CoLos. The children of disobedience, he calls them, to deprive them 
^' ^^' of excuse, and to shew that it was because they would not be 
obedient, that they were in that condition. In the winch ye 
also, he saith, walked some time, and (afterward) became 
obedient". He points again at those who' were still in 
them, and praises them, spealdng thus. But now do ye also 
^E.V. put away all these, anger, larath, malice, evil-speaking^, 
ptc'vuj. Jiltliy communication. He advanceth his discourse not 
against them, but against others, so as not to wound them. 
And by evil-speaking, he means railings, like as ho calleth 
wickedness, wraths And in another place, to shame them, 
Eph. 4, he says, for ive are members one of another. He makes them 
out to be as it were manufacturers of men ; casting away this 
V. 5. one, and receiving that. In that place, he said, members; 
in this, he saith, all ; the heart, or wrath ; tlic mouth, or blas- 
phemy ; the eyes, or fornication; covetousness, the hands and 
feet ; lyiiig, the thought itself, and the old mind. One royal 
2thenew form it" hath, that, namely, of Christ. They whom he has in 
^g^Yv ^'iew, appear to me rather to be of the Gentiles, where he 
10. 12. shews, that the members have one royal form, even though 
one be greater, and another less. For like as earth, being 
but sand, first losing its own form, doth afterwards become 
gold ; and like as wool, of whatever kind it be, receiveth 
another form, and hides its former one: so truly is it also 
s Tntrrl; witli the faithfuP. Forbearing, he saith, one another, he 
shewelh what is just. Do thou forbear him, and ho thee; 
Gal.6 2. and so he says in the Epistle to the Galatians, Bear ye one 
another''s burdens. And he ye thankful, he saith. This is 
what he every where especially seeks; for this is the chiefest 
of good things. 
(5) Give we thanks then in all things ; whatever may have 
MouAL-h^q^pened ; for this is thankfulness. For to do so in pros- 
peritv indeed, is no great thing, for the nature of the circum- 
stances of itself impels one thereto; but when being in 
extremities we give thanks, then it is admirable. For when, 

'■ lTt!<rf>)Ti, ;il. on iZ,nri h ocvrdis. ' He shews them to be still in them.' 
^WArn i/p lived /n them,' (insteai). The * -rhf ■rovt.^ia» SufAov He means that 

ineaninp; is the same, that they had left the word used expresses a natural 

them, which is implied in the aorist. emotion or act, but the abuse of this is 

s reading 'hiUvucriv ah Tovt for S. intended; and so it may be necessary 

avTous, which would give the sense, to speak evil of one. 

Thankfulness under losses a kind of Martyrdom. 279 

in circumstances, under which others blaspheme, and exclaim Hom. 
discontentedly ", we give thanks, see how great philosophy is 

here. First, thou hast rejoiced God; next, thou hast sliamed' «uipg«- 

the devil; thirdly, thou hast even made that which hath""* 

happened to be nothing ; for all at once, thou both givest 

thanks, and God cuts short ^ the pain, and the devil departs. 2 icrars/*- 

For if thou have exclaimed discontentedly, he, as having "'''''• 

succeeded to his wish, standeth close by thee, and God, as 

being blasphemed, leaveth thee, and heigh teneth thy calamity ; 

but if thou have given thanks, he, as gaining nought, departs; 

and God, as being honoured, requites thee with greater honour. 

And it is not possible, that a man, who giveth thanks for his 

evils, should be sensible of them. For his soul rejoiceth, as 

doing what is right ; it forthwith hath a bright conscience, it 

exults in its own commendation ; and that soul which is bright, 

cannot possibly be sad of countenance. But in the other 

case, along with the misfortune, conscience also assails him 

with her lash ; whilst in this, she crowns, and proclaims him. 

Nothing is holier than that tongue, which in evils giveth 

thanks to God; truly in no respect doth it fall short of that 

of martyrs ; both are alike crowned, both this, and they. 

For over this one also stands the executioner^ to force it to3g^^^^.^ 

deny God, by blasphemy ; there stands over it the devil, 

torturing* it with executioner^ thoughts, darkening it with^^ara- 

despondencies. If then one bear his griefs, and give thanks, H'*"^'' 

he hath gained a crown of martyrdom. For instance, is her v. on 

little child sick, and doth she give God thanks? this is a^^^* 

crown to her. What torture so bad that despondency is not^'"- P- 

worse 1 still it doth not force her to vent forth a bitter word. Tert. 

It dies : again she hath given thanks. She hath become the;^P' '\ 

. . 2. p. 6. 

daughter of Abraham. For if she sacrificed not with her 
own hand, yet was she pleased with the sacrifice, which is 
the same; for she felt no indignation when the gift was taken 

Again, is her child sick? She hath made no amulets \ It 
is counted to her as martyrdom, for she sacrificed her son in 
her resolve''. For what, even though those things are unavail- "^ >'»^^»!. 

" a.'Ttohog'TtiTusit, see on Stat. Horn. p. 321, and note v. Perhaps it should 
XV. (2.) Tr. p. 251, note f. be Wttwi, ' she hath tied on.' 

" -Ttx^taxra., see on Stat. Horn, xix. 

280 Use of charms idolatrous, iiiyn of the Cross., and a mere cheat and mockery, still there were neverthe- 
— - — '- less those who persuaded her that they do avail : and she 
chose rather to see her child dead, than to put up with 
idolatry. As then she is a martyr, whether it be in her own 
case, or in her son's, that she hath thus acted ; or in her 
husband's, or in any other's of her dearest ; so is that other one 
an idolatress. For it is evident that she would have done 
sacriiice, had it been allowed her to do sacrifice; yea, rather, 
she hath even now performed the act of sacrifice. For these 
amulets, though they who make money by them are for ever 
' (p*xa<ra- rationalizing' about them, and saying, ' we call upon God, 
^*"^"* and do nothing extraordinary,' and the like ; and ' the old 
woman is a Christian, and one of the faithful ;' the thing is 
idolatry. Art thou one of the faithful } sign the Cross ; say, 
this 1 have for my only weapon ; this for my remedy ; and 
other I know none. Tell me, if a physician should come to 
one, and, neglecting the remedies belonging to his art, should 
use incantation, should we call that man a physician ? By 
no means : for we see not the remedies of medicine ; so 
neither, in this case, do we see those of Christianity. 

Other women again tie about them^' the names of rivers, and 
venture numberless things of like nature. Lo, I say, and 
forewarn you all, that if any be detected, I will not spai*e 
them again, whether Ihey have made amulet, or incantation, 
or any other thing of such an art as this. What then, saith 
one, is the child to die ? If he have lived through this means, 
he did then die, but if he have died without this, he then 
lived. But now, if thou seest him attaching himself to harlots, 
thou wishest him buried, and sayest, ' why, what good is it for 
him to live ?' but when thou seest him in peril of his salvation, 
dost thou wish to see him live } Heardest thou not Christ 
M at. IG, saying, He that loseth his life, shall find it; and he that 
findeth it, shall lose it ? Believest thou these sayings, or 
do they seem to thee fables ? Tell me in truth, should one 
say, ' Take him away to an idol temple, and he will live ;' 
wouldcst thou endure it.' No! she replies. Why.? 'Because,' 
she saith,' he urges me to commit idolatry, but here, there is 
no idolatry, but simply incantation :' this is the device of 

>■ i. e. their children, ■jri^iaxrovffi must be referring to the temporal ill 
In what he says presently after, he effects of immoraiity. 

Charms despised by te-iser heathens. 281 

Satan, this is that wiliness' of the devil to cloke over the Hom. 
deceit, and to give the deleterious drug in honey. After he — —I 
found that he could not prevail with thee in the other w^ay % 
he hath gone this way about, to charms, and old wives' fables ; 
and the Cross indeed is dishonoured, and these spells pre- 
ferred before it. Christ is cast out, and a drunken and silly 
old woman is brought in. That mystery of ours is trodden 
under foot, and the imposture of the devil is it that dances'^ -x's'""- 

Wherefore then, saith one, doth not God reprove it? 
The aid from such sources He hath many times reproved ; 
and yet hath not persuaded thee ; He now leaveth thee 
to thine error, for It saith, God gave them over to a reprobate T^om- 1> 
mind. These things, moreover, not even a Greek who hath 
understanding could endure. A certain demagogue in Athens 
is reported once to have hung these things about him : when 
a philosopher who was his instnictor, on beholding them, re- 
buked him, expostulated, satirized, made sport of him : but 
we are in so wretched a plight, as even to believe in these 
things ! 

And why, saith one, are there not now those who raise the 
dead, and perform cures.? Why, I do not at present say: but 
why are there not now those who have a contempt for this 
present life ? Why serve we God for hire ? When man's 
nature was weaker, when the Faith had to be planted, there 
were even many such ; but now He would not have us to 
hang upon these signs, but to be ready for death. Why then 
clingest thou to the present life ? why lookest thou not on 
the future ? and for the sake of this indeed canst bear even to 
commit idolatry, but for the other not so much as to restrain 
sadness? For this cause it is that there are none such now ; 
because that life hath seemed to us honourless, seeing that 
for its sake we do nothing, whilst for this, there is nothing 
we refuse to undergo. And why too that other farce, ashes, 
and soot, and salt ? and the old woman again brought in ? 
A farce truly, and a shame ! And then, ' an eye,' say they, 
' hath caught the child.' 

Where will these satanical doings end 1 How will not the 
Greeks laugh ? how will they not gibe when we say unto 
them, ' Great is the virtue of the Cross;' how will they be won, 
' i. e. of direct idolatry. 

282 Loss ([fa child no iieiv or .slnuKje suffering. 

Coi.os. when they see us having recourse to those things, which 
— ^ — '- themselves laugh to scorn ? Was it for this that God gave 
physicians and medicines ? What then ? Suppose they do 
not cure him, but the child depart? Whither will he depart? 
tell me, miserable and wretched one! Will he depart to the 
demons ? Will he depart to some tyrant ? Will he not 
depart to Heaven ? Will he not depart to his own Lord ? 
Why then giievest thou? why weepest thou? why mournest 
thou? why lovest thou thine infant more than thy Lord ? Is 
it not through Him that thou even hast it ? Why art thou 
ungrateful, loving the gift more than the Giver ? * But I am 
weak,' she replies, ' and cannot bear the fear of God.' Well, 
if in bodily evils the greater covers the less, much rather had 
fear been present in the soul, fear would have destroyed fear, 
and sorrow, sorrow. Was the child beautiful ? But be it 
what it may, not more beauteous is he than Isaac : and he 
too was an only one. Was it born in thine old age? So too 
was he. But is it fair? Well: be it what it may, it is not 
Acts 7, lovelier than Moses, who drew even barbarian eyes unto a 

20. . . . . 

tender love of him, and this too at a time of life when beauty 
is not yet disclosed; and yet this beloved thing did the 
parents cast into the river. Thou indeed both seest it laid 
out, and deliverest it to the burying, and goest to its monu- 
ment; but they did not so much as know whether it would be 
food for fishes, or for dogs, or for other beasts that prey in 
the sea ; and this they did, knowing as yet nothing of the 
Kingdom, nor of the Resurrection. 

But suppose it is not an only child ; but that after thou 
hast lost many, this also hath departed. But not so sudden 
is thy calamity as was Job's, for where have calamities 
fallen so suddenly as on him? How with sadder aspect"? 
It is not the roof falling in, it is not as they are feasting 
the while, it is not following on the tidings of other cala- 

But was it beloved by thee ? But not more so than Joseph, 
' i- e- the devoured of wild beasts ; but still he ^ bore the calamity, 
and that which followed it, and the next to that. The father 
wept; but acted not with impiety; he mourned, but he 

> So one Paris Mg. and that in Br. M. nearly, the rest omit a few words, 
and cannot be construed. 


Examples of patience in the Patriarchs. 283 

uttered not discontent, but stayed at those words, saying, Hom, 
Joseph is iiol^ Simeon is not^ and will ye take Benjamin auay? ^^^^' 
all these things are against me^. Seest thou how the con- Gen. 42, 
straint of famine prevailed with him to be regardless of his 
children ? and doth not the fear of God prevail with thee as 
much as famine ? 

Weep : I do not forbid thee : but aught blasphemous 
neither say nor do. Be thy child what he may, he is not 
like Abel ; and yet nought of this kind did Adam say ; 
although that calamity was a sore one, for what more grievous 
than that his brother should have killed him } But I am 
reminded seasonably of others also that have killed theu* 
brothers; when, for instance, Absalom killed Amnon the 2 Sam. 
eldest born. King David loved his child*^, and sat indeed in 
sackcloth and ashes, but he neither brought soothsayers, 
nor enchanters, (although there were such then, as Saul shews,) 
but he made supplication to God. So do thou likewise: as 
that just man did, so do thou also; the same words say thou, 
when thy child is dead, / sliall go to him, but he will not 2 Sam. 
come to me. This is true wisdom, this is affection. How- ' 
ever much thou lovest thy child, thou lovest not so much 
as he did them. For even though his child were born of 
adultery, yet that blessed man's love of the mother was at 
its height"^, and ye know that the offspring shares the love 
towards the parent. And so great was his love toward it, 
that he even wished it to live, though it would be his own 
accuser, but still he gave thanks to God. What, thinkest 
thou, did Rebecca suffer, when his brother threatened Jacob? 
she grieved not her husband, but bade him send her son 
away. When thou hast suffered any calamity, think on what Gen.27 
is worse than it; and thou wilt have a sufficient consolation;^®' ^^' 
and consider with thyself, what if he had died in battle? 
what if in fire .'' And whatsoever our sufferings may be, let us 
think upon things yet more fearful, and we shall have comfort 
sufficient, and let us ever look around us on those who have 
undergone more ten-ible things, and if we ourselves have ever 
suffered heavier calamities. So doth Paul also exhort us ; as 

^ or (Gr.) ai-e come i/pon me. impression that David laid the crime to 

'^ He passes on to the child of Bath- his own charge, and regarded lier as 

sheba. wronged. 
'' iixfixZiv- 2 Sam. 12, 24. gives the 

284 Sufferers should think of harder cases. 

CoLos. when he saith, Ye hare not yet resisted unto bloody striving 

' ' against sin : and again, There hath no temptation taken you 

4. ' but such as is common to man. Be then our sufferings what 

10 13 ^^^^y ™^y> ^6t us look round on what is worse; (for we shall 

find such,) and thus shall we be thankful. And above all, 

let us give thanks for all things continually ; for so, both 

these things will be eased, and we shall live to the glory of 

God, and obtain the promised good things, whereunto may 

all we attain, through the grace and love toward man, &c. 


Col. iii. 16, 17. 

Let the uord of Clirist chcell in yon richly in all tvisdorn ; 
teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and 
hymns and spiritual songs, singing icith grace in your 
hearts to the Lord. And whatsoever ye do in uord or 
deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks 
to God and the Fat Iter by Him. 

Having exhorted them to be thankful, he shews also the 
waj'. And what is this ? That, of which I have lately dis- 
coursed to you. And what saith he.? Let the word of Christ 
dwell in you richly ; or rather not this way alone, but another 
also. For I indeed said that we ought to reckon up those 
who have suffered things more terrible, and those who have 
undergone sufferings more grievous than ours, and to give 
thanks that such have not fallen to our lot ; but what saith 
he ? Let the word of Clirist dwell in you richly ; that is, the 
teaching, the doctrines, the exhortation, wherein He says, that 
the present life is nothing, nor yet its good things. For if we Mat. 6, 
consider this, we shall yield to no hardships whatever. Let it '^' °' 
duell in you, he saith, richly, wot simply dwell, but with great 
abundance. Hearken ye, as many as are worldly', and have the ' "ot i" 
charge of wife and children ; how to you too he commits espe- sense. 
cially the reading of the Scriptures ; and that not to be done 
lightly, nor in any sort of way, but with much earnestness. 
For as the rich in money can bear fine and damages, so he 
that is rich in the doctrines of philosophy will bear not 
poverty only, but all [other] calamities also eavsily, yea, more 
easily than the other. For as for him, by discharging the 
fine, the man who is rich must needs be impoverished, and 
found wanting", and if he should often suffer in that way, 

" i^-'-yx*"^"-') n<^t in money to pay, may be, ' must be in process of being 
bat in power to prevent loss. Or it found wanting.' 

286 Wisdom of humlUhj and (tltn^f/iriju/. 

Coi.os. will no longer be able to bear it, but in this case it is not so ; 

- — — for we spend not to waste our wholesome thoughts when it is 
necessary for us to bear aught wc would not choose, but 
they abide with us continually. And mark the wisdom of 
this blessed man. He said not, JLet the word of Christ be 
in you, simply, but what .'' dwell in you, and richly. 

Ill all wisdom, teaching and admonishing one another. 
Virtue he calls wisdom, reasonably, for lowliness of mind, 
and almsgiving, and other such like things, are wisdom, just 
as the contraries are folly, for cruelty too cometh of folly. 
Whence in many places It calleth the whole of sin folly. 

Ps.14,1. The fool, saith one, hath said in his heart, There is ito God ; 

Ps.37,5. and again. My wounds stink and are corrupt from the face 
of my foolishness. For what is more foolish, tell me, than 
one who wrappeth himself indeed about in garments, but 
regardeth not his own brethren that are naked ; who feedeth 
dogs, and careth not that the image of God is famishing; 

• krxZt who is persuaded generally^ that human things are nought, 
and yet is wedded to them as if immortal. As then nothing 
is more foolish than such an one, so is nothing wiser than 
one that achieveth virtue. For mark ; doth any say, how 
is he wise .? He imparteth of his substance, he is pitiful, he 

- (pi\a.v. is loving to men^, he hath well considered that he beareth a 

^"^ "^ common nature with them; he hath well considered the use 
of wealth, that it is worthy of no estimation; that one ought 
to be sparing of bodies that are of kin to one, rather than of 
wealth. Wherefore he is a despiser of glory, and a philo- 
sopher, for he knoweth human affairs ; and the knowledge of 
things divine and human, is philosophy. So then he knoweth 
what things are divine, and what are human, and from the 
one he keeps himself, on the other he bcstoweth his pains. 
He knows, and gives thanks'' to God in all things, he con- 
siders the present life as nothing ; therefore he is neither 
delighted with prosperity, nor grieved with the opposite 

And tarry not for another to teach thee, for thou hast the 
oracles of God. No man tcacheth thee as they; for he 
indeed oft concealeth much for vainglory's sake and envy. 

'/SwT.xaJ Hearken, I entreat you, all ye that are careful for this life^, 
and pi-ocm-e books that will be medicines for the soul. If ye 

•' al. ' He knows how to give thanks, &c.' 

Duty of reading Holy Scripture. The Flock rational. 287 

will not any other, yet get you at least the New Testament, Hom. 
the Acts of the Apostles, the Gospels, for your constant 

teachers. If grief befall thee, dive into them as into a chest 'iyxu- 
of medicines; take thence comfort of thy trouble, be it'^" 
loss, or death, or bereavement of relations ; or rather dive not 
into them merely, but take them wholly to thee ; keep them 
in thy mind. 

This is the cause of all evils, the not knowing the Scrip- 
tures. We go into battle without arms, and how should we 
come off safe .? Well contented should we be if we can be 
safe with them, let alone without them. Throw not the 
whole upon us ! Sheep ye are, still not without reason, but 
rational ; Paul committeth much to you also. They that 
are under instruction, are not for ever learning ; for then 
they are not taught. If thou art for ever learning, thou wilt 
never learn. Do not so come as meaning to be always 
learning ; (for so thou wilt never know ;) but so as to finish 
learning, and to teach others. Tell me, do not all persons 
continue for set times at sciences, and in a word, at all arts ? 
Thus we all fix definitely a certain known time ; but if thou 
art ever learning, it is a certain proof thou hast learned no- 

This reproach God spake against the Jews. Borne from (2) 
the belly, and instructed even to old age. If ye had not^ " ' 
always been expecting this, all things would not have gone LXX. 
backward in this way. Had it been so, that some had 
finished learning, and others were about to have finished, 
our work would have been forward; ye w^ould both have 
given place to others, and would have helped us as well. 
Tell me, were some to go to a grammarian and continue 
always learning their letters, would they not give their 
master much trouble ? How long shall I have to discourse 
to you concerning life'? In the Apostles' times it was not \ p,',ou 
thus, but they continually passed rapidly on^, appointing P'"^*^"''^- 
those who first learned to be the teachers of any others that tr^'Ss-v. 
were under instruction. Thus they were enabled to circle the 
world, through not being bound to one place. How much 
instruction, think ye, do your brethren in the country stand 
in need of, [they] and their teachers .f' But ye hold me rivetted 
fast here^. For, before the head is set right, it is superfluous' ■^s"'- 

288 Psalms prrpare the. way for Hymns. 

CoLos. to proceed to tla' rest of the body. Ye tl)row every thing 
— ^ — ^upoii us. \ e alone ought to learn from us, and your wives 
and your children from you ; but ye leave all to us. There- 
fore our toil is excessive. 

Teaching, he saith, and admonishing one another in 
psalms and hymns and spiritual songs. Mark also the 
' Tc «vi- considerateness' of Paul. Seeing that reading is toilsome, 
'^"''^ '* and its irksomeness great, he led them not to narratives, but 
to psalms, that thou mightest at once delight thy soul with 
singing, and gently beguile thy labours. Hymns, he saith, 
and spiritual songs. But now your children choose them- 
selves songs and dances of Satan, like cooks, and caterers, 
and musicians ; but no one knoweth any psalm, but it seems 
a thing to be ashamed of even, and a mockery, and a joke. 
There is the treasury house of all these evils. For whatso- 
ever soil the plant stands in, such is the fruit it bears; if in a 
sandy and salty soil, of like nature is its fruit ; if in a sweet 
and rich one, it is again similar. So the matter of instruc- 
tion is a sort of fountain. Teach him to sing those psalms 
2 jp/Xa^a- which are so full of the love of wisdom * ; as at once concem- 
^'ffu(peo- ^^^S chastity^, or rather, before all, ofnot companying with the 
iruvns. wicked, immediately with the very beginning of the book ; 
(for therefore also it was that the prophet began on this wise, 
Ps. 1, 1. Blessed is the man that hath not walked in the counsel of 
Ps.26,4. ^A<? ungodly; and again, / have not sat in the council of 
Psj5 4_raw«7y; and again, in his sight a icicked doer is contemned, 
LXX. })ni JiQ honoureth those that fear the Lord,) of companying 
with the good, (and these subjects thou wilt find there, and 
many others,) of keeping the belly in subjection, of restraining 
the hands, of not overreaching ; that money is nothing, nor 
glory, and other things such like. 

When in these thou hast led him on from childhood by 
little and little, thou wilt lead him foiTs-ard even to the higher 
things. The Psalms contain all things, but the Hymns 
again have nothing human. When he has been instiiicted 

■• tj fives, " . 

Kec. t. out of the Psalms, he will then know hvmns also, as a diviner 
praise thing. For the Powers above chant hymns, not psalms. For 
Ecclus. ^ hymn*, saith one, is not comely in the mouth of a sinner ; 
Ps'. 101, and again, 3Iine eyes shall he upon the faithful of the land, 
^•^* thai they sit together with me; and again, he that worketh 

Lessons of Wisdom for the Young in the Psalms. 289 

haughtiness hath not dwelt in the midst of my house ; and Hom, 
again, He that ualketh in a blameless way, he ministered ^^ ' '--- 
unto me. c.lxx. 

So that ye should safely guard them from intermixing 
themselves, not only with friends, but even with servants. 
For the harm done to the free is incalculable, when we place 
over them corrupt slaves. For if when enjoying all the 
benefit of a father's affection and wisdom, they can with 
difficulty be preserved safe throughout; what will become 
of them when we hand them over to the unscrupulousness of 
servants ? They use them like enemies, thinking that they 
will prove milder masters to them, when they have made 
them perfect fools, and weak, and worthy of no respect. 

More then than all other things together, let us attend 
seriously to this. / have loved, saith he, those that love thy^^.uo, 
law. This man then let us too emulate, and such let us exact. 
love. And that the young may further be taught chastity, 
let them hear the Prophet, saying, My loins are jelled with Ps.38,7. 
illusions"; and again, Thou wilt utterly destroy^ every o?ie Ps. 73, 
that goeth a whoring from Thee. And, that one ought tof^ ^ 
curb^ the belly, let them hear again, And slew, he saith, the hast de- 
more part ofthem^ while the meat was yet in their mouths. VJ'f^ ' 
And that they ought to be above bribes, they will learn from 'X''"- 
hence, If riches, he saith, become abundant^, set [not"] 30.' ' 
your heart upon them ; and that they ought to keep glory in ^,?^" 
subjection, this also they will find, Nor shall his glory 62^10. 
descend together after him. And not to envy the wicked, ^i'* ' 
£e not envious of the workers of iniquity. And to count Ps.37,i. 
power* as nothing, / saw the ungodly in exceeding high 35' ' 
place, and lifting himself up as the cedars of Libanus, and * ^""f^' 
I passed by, and, lo! he was not. And to count these present 
things as nothing, They counted the people happy, that are pg. 144 
in such a case; blessed are the people, xvhose helper is the\^- 
Lord their God. That we do not sin without notice^, h\\f> «.tixZ-,. 
that there is a retribution, /by, he saith. Thou shall render to f^* ^^' 
every man according to his works. But why doth he not so LXX. 

'^ ififraiyficcTeay. Evil spirits being vrl^tionv. 

supposed to ' make sport of the soul e The Mss. omit the negative, which 

by means of the body. would easily be lost in the preceding 

'I TUrn, Savile, marg. and 1 Ma. and word. One might take it, Beware 

so LXX. and E. V. fattest, Edd. of them. 

'290 Hymn of Angels. Singing in the Spirit. 

Coi.os. requite them day by clay? God is a judge, righteous, and 
p 'y .' strong, and longsuffering. That lowliness of mind is good, 
Ps. 131, Lord, he saith, my heart is not lifted up ; that pride is evil, 
Ps.73 6. Therefore, he saith, jjride took hold on them wholly ; and 
Lxx. again. The Lord resisteth the proud; and again, Their injus- 
omits, iif^G shall come out as of fatness. That almsgiving is good, 
^Urius jjq hath dispersed, he hath given to the poor, his righte- 
34. ' ous7iess remninethfor ever. And that to pity is praiseworthy, 
I XX ^^ ** ^ good man that intieth, and lendeth. And thou wilt 
eriarti, find there many more doctrines than these, full of true philo- 
times" sophy*; such as, that one ought not to speak evil. Him that 
' ^^^?^' privily slandereth his neighbour, him did I chase from me. 
9. ' What is the hymn of those above, what the Cherubim 
Ps. 112, g^y^ the Faithful know. What said those Angels below.? 
' 6^(p/X9- Glory to God. in the highest. Therefore after the psalmody 
pf.^ioi come the hymns, as a thing of more perfection. In psalms, 
S- he saith, in hymns, in spiritual songs, with grace singing in 

your hearts to God. He means either this, that God because 
of grace hath given us these things; or, songs in grace; or, 
admonishing and teaching one another in grace; or, that 
they had these gifts in grace; or, it is an epexegesis ', and 
he means, from the grace of the Spirit, singing in your 
hearts to God. Not simply with the mouth, he means, but 
2 ■r^o(r,- with heedfulness^. For this is to sing to God, but that, to 
^"^ the air, for the voice is scattered without result. Not for 
display, he means. And even if thou be in the market- 
^ ffvirr^i- -place, thou canst collect thyself^, and sing unto God, no 
' one hearing thee. For Moses also in this way prayed, and 
Ex. H, was heard, for He saith, JVhy criest thou unto 3Ie ? albeit 
^^' he said nothing, but cried in thought with a contrite heart; 
wherefore also God alone heard him. For it is not for- 
bidden one even when walking to pray in his heart, and to 
dwell above. 

Ver. 17. And uhatsoever ye do, he saith, in word or in 
deed, do all in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, giving 
thanks to God and the Father by Him. 

For if we thus do, there will be nothing polluted, nothing 

Uax^jra/ unclean, wherever Christ is called on*. If thou eat, if thou 

diink, if thou marry, if thou travel, do all in the Name of 

' i. e. an additional explanation, viz. of ' sins;ing in your hearts.' 

Every thing to be done in the Name of God. 291 

God, that is, calling Him to aid tliee : in every thing first Hom. 

praying to Him, so enter upon thy business. Wouldest -^ 

thou speak somewhat? Set This' in front. For this cause 'Sav. 
we also place in front of our epistles the Name of the Lord. 
Wheresoever the Name of the Lord is, all is auspicious^. ^"JW 
For if the names of Consuls make writings^ sure, much more^'rea^- 
doth the Name of Christ. Or he means this; after God say '""""' 
ye and do every thing, do not introduce the Angels besides. 
Dost thou eat ? Give thanks to God both before and after- 
wards. Dost thou sleep? Give thanks to God both before 
and afterwards. Ijaunchest thou into the forum ? Do the 
same — nothing worldly, nothing of this life. Do all in the 
Name of the Lord, and all shall be prospered to thee. 
Whereonsoever the Name of God is placed, there all things 
are auspicious. If It casts out devils, if It drives away 
diseases, much more will It render business easy. 

And what is to do in trord or in deed ? Either requesting « 
or performing any thing whatever. Hear how in the Name 
of God Abraham sent his servant ; David in the Name of 
God slew Goliath. Marvellous is His Name and great. 
Again, Jacob sending his sons saith. My God give you favour GeaA3, 
in the sight of the man. For he that doeth this hath for ' 
his ally, God, without Whom he durst do nothing. As 
honoured then by being called upon, He will in turn honour 
by making their business easy. Invoke the Son, give thanks 
to the Father. For when the Son is invoked, the Father is 
invoked, and when He is thanked, the Son is thanked. 

These things let us learn, not as far as words only, but to 
fulfil them also by deeds. Nothing is equal to this Name, 
marvellous is it every where. Thy Name, he saith, is oint- Ca.nt. i, 
ment poured forth. He that hath uttered it is straightway ^' 
filled with fragrance. No man, it is said, can call Jesus thei Cor. 
Lord^, but by the Holy Ghost. So great things doth this ' * 
Name work. If thou have said. In the Name of Father, and 
Son, and Holy Ghost, with faith, thou hast accomplished 
every thing. See, how great things thou hast done ! Thou 
hast created a man, and wrought all the rest (that cometh) 
of Baptism ! So, when used in commanding diseases, terrible 

8 a^iauvra, old Tr. ' going Out,' as ^ Or, " can say ihe Lord Jcsus.^' 
if from \%io vT» . 

u 2 

292 The Name of Christ alone all-powerful. 

Coi.os. is The Name. Therefore the Devil introduced those' of the 

— '—^ Angels, envying us the honour. Such incantations are for 

the demons. Even if it be Angel, even if it be Archangel, 

even if it be Cherubim, allow it not ; for neither will these 

' i«-»(ri(- Powers accept such addresses, but will even toss ' them away 

from them, when they have beheld their Master dishonoured. 

' I have honoured thee,' He saith, ' and have said, Call upon 

Me;' and dost thou dishonour Him? If thou chant this 

incantation with faith, thou wilt drive away both diseases 

and demons", and even if thou have failed to drive away the 

disease, this is not from lack of power, but because it is 

Ps. 48, expedient it should be so. According to Thy greatness^, he 

o j^ame saith, SO also is Thy praise. By this Name hath the world 

E.V. been converted, the tyranny dissolved, the devil trampled on, 

the heavens opened. And what do I say ? the heavens ? we 

have been regenerated by this Name. This if we have, we 

beam forth; This makelh both martyrs and confessors; This 

let us hold fast as a great gift, that we may live in glory, and 

be well-pleasing to God, and be counted worthy of the good 

things promised to them that love Him, through the grace 

and lovingkindness, &c. 

' Or, ' the matters of the Angels,' forms, as ' In the Name of our Lord 

(ra TiSv ayysXwv.) Jesus Christ.' ' Deus in adjutorium 

>■ Gret^er de S. Cruce, I. iv. c. 3. meum intende,' &c. Gretser also re- 
quotes the Emperor Leo as speaking fers to St. Chrys. Catech. ii. fin. where 
of curing a demoniac by the Sign of the he bids every one on leaving his house 
Cross, and the invocation of the Holy cross himself, saying, ' I renounce thee, 
and life-giving Trinity. This agrees Satan, and thy pomp, and thy angels, 
with what he has said before, Hom.viii. and 1 place myself with Thee, O 
p. 280. on the use of the Holy Sign. Christ.' St. Cyr. Cat. iv. (10.) also 
G. also quotes Tertullian de Bapt. G. connects the Invocation of His Name 
who alludes to this form of using it. with the Sign. St. C^-prian, Test. ii. 
' The Faith sealed (obsignata) in the 21. quotes Rev. 14, 1. so as to imply 
Father and the Son and the Holy this connection. 
Ghost.' There were however other 


Col. iii. 18—25. 

Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as it is jit 
in the Lord. Husbands, love your wives, and be not 
bitter against them. Children, obey your parents in all 
things : for this is well pleasing in ' the Lord. Fathers., ^ ^- *• 
provoke not your children, lest they be discouraged, e. v. 
Servants, obey in all things your masters according to the'^^*° 
flesh ; not with eyeservice, as menpleasers ; but in single- 
ness of heart, fearing God : And whatsoever ye do, do it 
heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men; Knowing that 
of the Lord ye shall receive the reward of the inheritance : 
for ye serve the Lord Christ. But he that doeth wrong 
shall receive for the wrong which he hath done : and there 
is no respect of persons with Ood-. Chap. iv. 1. Master s, ""'^v^ ^ 
give unto your servants that which is Just and equal ; addedf 
knowing that ye also have a Master in heaven. 

Why does he not give these commands every where, and 
in all the Epistles, but only here, and in that to the Ephe- 
sians, and that to Timothy, and that to Titus ? Because 
probably there were dissensions^ in these cities; or probably ^ 2,;^;,- 
they were correct in other respects, but in these so deficient, ^ ™J 
that it was expedient they should hear about them. Rather, 
however, what he saith to these, he saith to all. Now this 
Epistle bears great resemblance to that to the Ephesians. 
But in other places he doth not so, either because it was not 
fitting to write about these things to men now" at peace, who 

* He seems to class the Komans, consider the Thessalonians and Philip- 
Hebrews, Corinthians, and Galatians, plans as needing them less from their 
together, as needing doctrinal instruc- state of suffering, 
tion before these particulars, and to 


'2})4 Obedience, due from Wives, love from Husbands. 
CoLos. needed to be instructed in hiprb doctrines as vet lackincr to 

3 18 19 * . 

- — '■ — '■ them, or because that for persons who had been comforted 
under trials, it were superfluous to hear on these subjects. 
So that I conjecture, that in this place the Church was 
now well-grounded, and that these things are said as in 

'«•jit finishing*. 

'■'>"■ '■ Ygy jg Wii-es, be subject to your husbands, as it is Jit 
in the Lord. 

That is, be subject for God's sake, because this adometh 
you, he saith, not them. For I mean not that subjection 
which is due to a master, nor yet that alone which is of 
nature, but that for God's sake. 

Ver. 19. Husbands, love your wives, and be not bitter 
against them. 

^•rtKctr- See how again he has enjoined reciprocity ^ As he there 
"enjoineth both fear and love, so also doth he here. For it is 
possible for one who loves even, to be bitter. What he 
saith then is this. Fight not; for indeed '' nothing is more 
bitter than this fighting, when it takes place on the part 
of the husband tovvard the wife. For the fightings which 
happen between beloved persons, these are bitter ; and 
he shews that it ariseth from great bitterness, when, saith he, 
any one is at variance with his own member. To love there- 
fore is the husband's part, to yield is theirs. If then each one 
contributes his own part, all stands firm. For from being 

^ (fixixri loved, the wife too becomes affectionate^; and from her 
being submissive, the husband becomes gentle. And see 
how in nature also it hath been so ordered, that the one 
should love, the other obey. For when the party governing 
loves the governed, then every thing stands fast. Love from 
the governed is not so requisite, as from the governing 
towards the governed ; for from the other obedience is due. 
For that the woman hath beauty, and the man desire, shews 
nothing else than that for the sake of love it hath been made 
so. Do not thei'efore, because thy wife is subject to thee, 
act the despot ; nor because thy husband loveth thee, be 
thou puffed up. Let neither the husband's love elate the 
wife, nor the wife's subjection puff up the husband. For this 
cause hath He subjected her to thee, that she may be loved 

'' ivT&if. Sav. conj. for curut, ' so.' 

Mutual duties of Parents and Children. 295 

tlie more. For this cause He hath made thee to be loved, O Hom. 
wife, that thou majest easily bear thy subjection. Fear not ^ — 

in being a subject; for subjection to one that loveth thee 
bath no hardshi}D. Fear not in loving, for thou hast her 
submissive. In no other way then could a bond have been. 
Thou hast then thine authority of necessity, proceeding fi-om 
nature ; maintain also the bond that proceedeth from love, 
for this alloweth the weaker to be endurable ". 

Ver. 20. Children, obey your parents in all tilings : for 
this is well-pleasing in the Lord. 

Again he has put that, i)i the Lord, at once laying down the 
laws of obedience, and shaming them, and repaying"^. For 
this, saith he, is well-pleasing to the Lord. See how he 
would have us do all not from nature only, but, prior to this, 
from what is pleasing to God, that we may also have reward. 

Ver. 21. Fathers, provoke not your children, lest they he 

Lo ! again here also is subjection and love. And he said 
not, " Love your children," for it had been superfluous, see- 
ing nature itself constraineth to this ; but what needed correc- 
tion he corrected; that the love should in this case also be 
the more vehement, because that the obedience is greater. 
For Tt no where lays down as an exemplification the relation 
of husband and wife''; but what? hear the prophet saying. 
Like as a father pitieth his children, so the Lord pitied them Ps. 103, 
that fear Llim. And again Christ saith, What man is there ^yjl^j.^ j, 
of yon, whom if his son ask bread, will he give him a stone ? 9- 
or if he ask a fish, icill he give him a serpent? 

Fathers, provoke not your children, lest they be dis- 

He hath set down what he knew had the greatest power 
to sting' them; and whilst commanding them he has spoken' 5axsr» 
more like a friend ; and no where does he mention God, for • 

he would overcome parents, and bow their tender affections. 
But the words, provoke not, mean, ' Make them not more 

^ anxTWt : he seems to mean, ' to be =2 Mss. But he shews that the affec- 

in an endurable position.' tion is stronger in that case, since the 

•' x,a,rtt.p>a.XKu)i. This seems to be the obedience too is greater. And the 

sense from the sequel. Downes would Scripture every where makes it an 

put in (/.iMi, but it is not needed. exemplification. 

296 Service of the soitl in Servants is free. 

CoLos. contentious, there are occasions when you even ought to 
3, 22. . , . o 
give way. 

Next he comes to the third kind of authority, saying, 
Ver. 2*2. Servcmts, obey your masters according to the flesh. 
There is here also a certain love, but that no more pro- 
ceeding from nature, as above, but from habit, and from the 
authority itself, and the works done. Seeing then that in 
this case the spliere of love is narrowed, whilst that of obe- 
dience is amplified, he dwelleth upon this, wishing to give to 
these from their obedience, what the first have from nature. 
So that he discourseth not with the servants only' for 
their masters' sakes, but for their own also, that they may 
make themselves the objects of tender affection to their 
masters. But he sets not this forth openly ; for so he would 

'uTTim. doubtless have made them supine ^ Servants, he saith, 
ohei/ in all things your masters according to thejlesh. 
(2) And see how always he sets down the names, wives, chil- 

-"Sixaiu- dren, servants, as being a just claim^ upon their obedience. 

•""• But that none might be pained, he added, to your mas- 
ters according to thejlesh. Thy better part, the soul, is free, 
he saith ; thy service is for a season. It therefore do thou 
subject, that thy service be no more of constraint. Xot with 
eye-service, as men-j) leasers. Make, he saith, thy service 
which is by the law, to be from the fear of Christ. For if 
when thy master seeth thee not, thou doest thy duty and 
what is for his honour, it is manifest that thou doest it be- 
cause of the sleepless Eye. Not with eye-service, he saith, as 
men-pleasers ; thus implying, 'it is you who will have to sustain 

Ps.63,5. the damage.' For hear the prophet saying, The Lord hath 
scattered the bones of the men-pleasers. See then how he 
spares them, and brings them to order. But in singleness of 
heart, he %-d\\k\, fearing God. For that is not singleness, but 
hypocrisy, to hold one thing, and act another ; to appear one 
when the master is present, another when he is absent. 
Therefore he said not simply, in singleness of heart, but, 
fearing God. For this is to fear God, when, though none be 
seeing, we do not aught that is evil ; but if we do, we fear 

f fAovei}. On;' would expect ftinof, as chiefly address.-d, or that this i» the 
he .speiiks to the masters al'tei wards, object even of wliat is addressed to 
Rut he may either mean that they were them separately. 

God an impartial Judge of Master and Servant. 297 

not God, but, men. Seest thou how he bringeth them to Hom. 
order ? — '■ — 

Ver. 23. And whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the 
Lord, and not to men. 

He desh-es to have them freed not only from hypocrisy, 
but also from slothfrilness. He hath made them instead of 
slaves free, when they need not the superintendence of their 
master; for the expression heartily, means this, ' with good 
will,' not with a slavish necessity, but with freedom, and of 
choice. And what is the reward t 

Ver. 24. Knowing, he saith, that of the Lord ye shall 
receive the reward of our^ inheritance: for ye serve the^^^^"^^' 

■^ ^ .7 your, 

Lord. Rec. t. 

Surely then it is evident that ye shall from Him receive °™' °^^' 
the reward. And that ye serve the Lord is plain from this. 

Ver. 25. But he that doeth wrong, he saith, shall receive 
the wrong which he hath done. 

Here he confirmeth his former statements. For that his 
words may not appear to be those of flattery, he shall receive, 
he saith, the wrong he hath done, that is, he shall suffer 
punishment also, yb/" there is no respect of persons with God. 
For, what if thou art a servant ? it is no shame to thee. And 
truly he might have said this to the masters, as he did in the 
Epistle to the Ephesians. But here he seems to me to be Ephes. 
alluding to the Grecian masters. For, what if he is a^'^' 
Greek and thou a Christian ? Not the persons but the 
actions are examined, so that even in this case thou oughtest 
to serve with good will, and heartily. 

Chap. iv. 1. Masters, give unto your servants that which 
is just and equal. 

What in just? What is equal? To place them in plenty 
of every thing, and not allow them to stand in need of others, 
but to recompense them for their labours. For, because I 
have said that they have their reward from God, do not thou 
therefore deprive them of it. And in another place he saith, Ephes. 
j^orbearing threatening, wishing to make them more gentle ; ' " ' 
for those were perfect men^; iXveii \s,, with what rneasure ye - -rixuoi. 
mete, it shall be measured to you again. And the words, ^ ^"' 
there is no respect of persons, are spoken with a view to these ^, 3 the 
but they are assigned to the others, in order that these may ""^^ters. 

298 Laborious prayer. Example of a holy Mail. 
Cores, receive them. For when we have said to one person what is 

4 2. 

— ^-^ applicable to another, we have not corrected him so much, 

as the one who is in fault. Ye also, along with them, he 
saith. He has here made the service common, for he saith, 
knowing that ye also have a blaster in heaven. 

Ver. 2. Continue in prayer, watching in the same with 

For, since continuing in prayers frequently makes persons 
listless, therefore he saith, tvatching, that is, sober, not wan- 
' hf*^'»- dering'. For the devil knoweth, he knoweth, how great a 
good prayer is ; therefore he presseth heavily. And Paul 
also knoweth how careless^ many are when they pray, where- 
fore he saith, continue ^ in prayer, as of somewhat laborious, 
watching in the same with thanksgiving. For let this, he 
saith, be your work, to give thanks in your prayers both for 
the seen, and the unseen, and for His benefits to the willing 
and unwilling, and for the kingdom, and for hell, and for 
tribulation, and for refreshment. For thus is the custom of 
the Saints to pray, and to give thanks for the common benefits 
of all. 
(3) I know a certain holy man who prayeth thus. He used 
to say nothing before these words, but thus, " We give 
Thee thanks for all Thy benefits shewn forth upon us the 
unworthy, from the first day until the present, for what we 
know, and what we know not, for the seen, for the unseen, 
for those in deed, those in word, those with our wills, those 
against our wills, for all that have been bestowed upon the 
unworthy, even us ; for tribulations, for refreshments, for 
hell, for punishment, for the kingdom of heaven. We 
beseech Thee to keep our soul holy, having a pure con- 
science; an end worthy of Thy lovingkindness. Thou 
that lovedst us so as to give Thy Only-Begotten for us, 
grant us to become worthy of Thy love; give us wisdom in 
Thy word, and in Thy fear, Only-Begotten Christ, inspire the 
strength that is from Thee. Thou that gavest Thy Only- 
Begotten for us, and hast sent Thy Holy Spirit for the remis- 
sion of our sins, if in aught we have wilfully or unwillingly 
transgressed, pardon, and impute it not ; remember all that 

E ixnhufi, generally used of giving deadly sins is of this origin, 
up caring for any thing in despair. But '' ^^-xrxajTjjerrs persevere. 
the name ' acedia' amongst the seven 

Unknown mercies. St. PauVs zeal and humility. 299 

call upon Thy Name in truth; remember all that wish us Hom. 
well, or the contrary, for we are all men." Then having 

added the Prayer' of the Faithful, he there ended; having' The 
made that prayer, as a certain crowning part, and aprayer. 
binding together for all. For mariy benefits doth God bestow «"j*"'^»- 
upon us even against our wills; many also, and these greater, 
without our knowledge even. For when we pray for one 
thing, and He doeth to us the reverse, it is plain that He doeth 
us good even when we know it not. 

Ver. 3. IV ithal praying also for us. See hislowlyminded- 
ness ; he sets himself after them. 

77/«^ God would open to us a door of utterance to speak the 
mystery of Christ. He means an entrance, and boldness in 
speaking. Wonderful ! A wrestler so great said not ' that I 
may be freed from my bonds,' but being in bonds he exhorted 
others ; and exhorted them for a great obj ec t, that himself might 
get boldness in speaking. Both the two are great, both the 
quality of the person, and of the thing. Wonderful ! how great 
is the dignity ! The mystery, he saith, of Christ. He shews that 
nothing was more dearly desired by him than this, to speak. 
For which I am also in bonds: that I may make it manifest^- ■*• 
as I ought to speak. He means with much boldness of speech, 
and withholding nothing. Seest thou? his bonds display, not 
obscure him. With much boldness, he means. Tell me, art 
thou in bonds, and dost thou exhort others } Yea, he saith, 
my bonds give me the greater boldness ; but I pray for God's 
furtherance, for I have heard Christ saying. When they Ma.t.l0, 
deliver you up, take no thought how or ivhat ye shall speak. ^^* 
And see, how he has expressed himself in metaphor, that 
God would open to us a door of utterance; (see, how unas- 
suming^ he is, and how even in his bonds, he expresses - a»-"?**- 
himself lowly ;) that is, that He would soften their hearts ; 
still he said not so; but, ' that He would give us boldness;' 
out of lowlymindedness he thus spoke, and that which he had, 
he asks to receive. 

He shews in this Epistle, why Christ came not in those 
times, in that he calleth the former things shadou-, but the 
body, saith he, is of Christ. So that it was necessary they 
should be formed to habits under the shadow. At the same 
time also he exhibits the greatest proof of the love he bears 

'iOO .S7. Paul's bonds I'urlhcred his uork. 

CoLos. to thein; ' in order that ye,' he saitli, ' may hear, / 
— '—^dojids.' Ajiaiii ho sets before us lliose bonds of his ; 

am m 
of his ; which 

1 so greatly love, which rouse up iny heart, and always draw 
rae into longing to see Paul bound, and in his bonds writing, 
and preaching, and baptizing, and catechizing. In his bonds 
he was referred to on behalf of the Churches every where; 
in his bonds he builded up incalculably. Then was he 
' luXi/TOf rather at large'. For hear him saying. So that tnany of 
14. ' ' the brethren waxiwj confident by my bonds are much more 
bold to sj)eak the word without /ear. And again he makes 
2 Cor. ti^g same avowal of himself, saying, For when I am weak, 
2 Tiin. then am I strong. Whereibre he said also. But the word of 
^' ^- Qod is not bound. He was bound with malefactors, with 
prisoners, with murderers; he, the teacher of the world, 
he that had ascended into the third heaven, that had heard 
2 Cor. the unspeakable words, was bound. But then was his course 
' ■ the swifter. He that was bound, was now loosed ; he that 
was unbound, was bound. For he indeed was doing what 
he would; whilst the other prevented him not, nor accom- 
plished his own purpose. 

What art thou about, O senseless one ? Thinkest thou he 
is a fleshly runner .? Doth he strive in our race-course? His 
conversation is in heaven ; him that runneth in heaven, things 
on earth cannot bind nor hold. Seest thou not this sun.? 
Enclose his beams with fetters! stay him from his course! 
Thou canst not. Then neither canst thou Paul! Yea, much 
less this one than that, for this enjoyeth more of Providence 
than that, seeing he beareth to us light, not such as that is, 
but the true. 

Where now are they who are unwilling to suffer aught for 
Christ .'' But why do I say ' suffer,' seeing they are unwilling 
even to give up their wealth. In time past Paul both bound, 
and cast into prison; but since he is become Clnist's servant, 
he glorieth no more of doing, but of suffering, And this, 
Kn^uyi^a. ii^oreover, is marvellous in the Proclamation, when it is thus 
raised up and increased by the sufferers themselves, and not 
by the persecutors. Where hath any seen such contests as 
this? FIc that suffereth ill, conquers; he that docth ill, is 
worsted. lirighter is this man than the other. Through 
j(j ■ 'bonds the Proclamation entered. I am not ashamed, yea, 

God turns hiudrances into helps. 301 

I glory even, he saitli, in preaching The Crucified. For Hom. 
consider, I pray : the whole world left those who were at —^— 
large, and went over to the bound ; turning away from the 
imprisoners, it honoureth those laden with chains ; hating 
the crucifiers, it worships the Crucified. 

Not the only marvel is it that the preachers were fishermen, m > 
that they were ignorant; but that there wei'e other hindrances, 
hindrances too by nature ; still the increase was all the more 
abundant. Not only was their ignorance no hindrance ; but 
even it itself caused the Proclamation to be manifested. For 
hear Luke saying. And ferceiving that they were unlearned kcta i, 
and ignorant men, they marvelled. Not only were bonds ^^' 
no hindrance, but even of itself this made them more con- 
fident. Not so bold were the disciples when Paul was at 
large, as when he was bound. For he saith, they are 7nuchv\\\\. i, 
more bold to speak the word of God ivithout fear. Where '** 
are they that gainsay the divinity of the Proclamation } Was 
not their ignorance enough to procure them to be condemned .'' 
Would it not then in this case too, affright them } For ye ' 'Downes 
know that by these two passions the many are possessed, ^""•'j, 
vain-glory and cowardice. Suppose their ignorance suffered not both 
them not to feel ashamed, still the dangers must have put 
them in fear. 

But, saith one, they wrought miracles. Ye do believe Or, «Be- 
then that they wrought miracles. But did they not work'l^^^, 
miracles? This is a greater miracle than to work them, if cause 
men were drawn to them without miracles. Socrates too ^^ "* 
amongst the Greeks was put in bonds. What then? Did 
not his disciples straightway flee to Megara ? Assuredly, for 
they admitted not his arguments about immortality. But see 
here. Paul was put in bonds, and his disciples waxed the 
more confident, with reason, for they saw that the Proclama- 
tion was not hindered. For, canst thou put the tongue in 
bonds } for hereby chiefly it runneth. For as, except thou 
have bound the feet of a runner, thou hast not prevented 
him from running; so, except thou have bound the tongue 
of an evangelist, thou hast not hindered him from running. 
And as the foniier, if thou have bound his loins, runneth 
on the rather, and is supported, so too the latter (if thou 
■ hiTfttvfiivcf , Ed. Par. inserted from one Ms. 

302 Bonds fw ChrisCs sake a rich ornament. 

CoLos. liave bound liiin,) prcacheth the rather, and with greater 

— ^— ^boldness. 

A prisoner is in fear, when there is nothing beyond bonds: 
but one that despiseth death, how should he be bound? 
They did the same as if they liad put in bonds the shadow 
of Paul, and had gagged its mouth. For it was a fighting 
with shadows; for he was both more tenderly regretted by 
his friends, and more reverenced by his enemies, as bearing 
the prize for courage in his bonds. A crown binds ** the 
head; but it disgraces it not, yea rather, it makes it bril- 
liant. Against their wills they crowned him with his chain. 
For, tell me, was it possible he could fear iron, who braved 
the adamantine gates of death } Come we, beloved, to 
emulate these bonds. As many of you women as deck your- 
selves with trinkets of gold, long ye for the bonds of Paul. 
Not so glitters the collar round your necks, as the grace of 

' «f'»-'>-/3« these iron bonds played about' his soul! If any longs for 
those, let him hate these. For what communion hath soft- 
ness with courage; tricking out of the body with philosophy? 
Those bonds Angels reverence, these they even make a mock 
of; those bonds are wont to di'aw up from earth to heaven; 
these bonds draw down to earth from heaven. For in truth 
these are bonds, not those; those are ornament, these are 
bonds; these, along with the body, afflict the soul also; 
those along with the body adorn as well the soul. 

Wouldest thou be convinced that those are ornament? 
Tell me which would more have won the notice of the 
spectators? thou or Paul? And why do I say, ' thou?' the 
queen herself who is all bedecked with gold would not have 
attracted the spectators so much ; but if it had chanced that 
both Paul in his bonds and the queen had entered the 
Church at the same time, all would have removed their eyes 
from her to him; and with good reason. For to see a man 
of a nature greater than human, and having nought of man, 
but an angel upon earth, is more admirable than to see 
a woman decked wdth finery. For such indeed one may 
see both in theatres, and in pageants, and at baths, and 
many places; but whoso seeth a man with bonds upon him, 
and deeming himself to have the greatest of ornaments, and 

^ hiTfiu, Edd. Vet. and old Lat. xtrfitT, Ben and Sav. 

Earthly ornaments are chains of sin. 303 

not giving way under his bonds, doth not behold a spectacle Hom. 

of earth, but one worthy of the heavens. The soul that is in - 

that way attired looks about, — who hath seen ? who not seen ? — 
is filled with pride, is possessed with anxious thoughts, is 
bound with countless other passions: but he that hath these 
bonds on him, is without pride : his soul exulteth, is freed from 
every anxious care, is joyous, hath its gaze on heaven, is 
clad with wings. If any one were to give me the choice of 
seeing Paul either stooping* out of heaven, and uttering his '^'a*"- 
voice, or out of the prison, I would choose the prison. For'^'^""^* 
they- of heaven visit him when he is in the prison, The'^al. 'do 
bonds of Paul were the cementing of the GospeP, that chain 3* (jr. ^^ 
of his was its foundation. Long we for those bonds ! Procla- 

And how, doth any say, may this be? If we break up and ip^\ 
dash in pieces these. No good results to us from these bonds, 
but even harm. These will shew us as prisoners There; but 
the bonds of Paul will loose those bonds: she that is bound 
with these here, with those deathless bonds shall she also be 
bound There, both hands and feet; she that is bound with 
Paul's, shall have them in that day as it were an ornament 
about her. Free both thyself from thy bonds, and the poor 
man from his hunger. Wliy rivetest thou fast the chains of 
thy sins ? Some one saith, How ? When thou wearest gold 
whilst another is perishing, when thou, to get thee vainglory, 
takest so much gold, whilst another has not even what to 
eat, hast thou not wedged fast thy sins ? Put Christ about 
thee, and not gold; where Mammon is, there Christ is not, 
where Christ is, there Mammon is not. Wouldest not thou 
put on the King of all Himself.'' If one had oiTered thee the 
purple, and the diadem, wouldest thou not have taken them 
before all the gold in the world ? I give thee not the regal 
ornaments, but I offer thee to put on the King Himself. And 
how can one put Christ on, doth any say.'' Hear Paul 
saying, As many of you as have been baptized into Christ, Gal. 3, 
have put on Christ. Hear the Apostolical precept, 3Iake not 
provision for the flesh to fulfil the lusts thereof. Thus doth ^^* 
one put on Christ, if one provide not for the flesh unto its 
lust. If thou have put on Christ, even the devils will fear xj/a-Toir 
thee, but if gold, even men will laugh thee to scorn: if thou ''^^''"'' 
have put on Christ, men also will reverence thee. 

304 Christ the Clothhifj of those who are His. 

CoLos. Wouldcst thou appear fair and comely ? Be content with 
~ ' the Creator's lasliioning. Why dost thou overhiy these bits 
of gold, as if about to put to rights God's creation ? Wouldest 
thou appear comely ? Clothe thee in alms ; clothe thee in 
benevolence ; clothe thee in modesty, humbleness. These 
are all more precious than gold ; these make the beautiful 
even yet more comely; these make even the ill formed to be 
well formed. For when any one looks upon a countenance 
with good will, he gives his judgment from love; but an 
evil woman, even though she be beautiful, none can call 
beautiful ; for the mind being wounded pronounceth not its 
sentence aright. 

That Egyptian woman of old was adorned ; Joseph too 
was adorned ; which of them was the more beautiful ? I say 
not when she was in the palace, and he in the prison «. He 
was naked, but clothed in the garments of chastity; she was 
clothed, but more unseemly than if she had been naked ; for 
she had not modesty. When thou hast excessively adorned 
thee, O woman, then thou art become more unseemly than a 
naked one ; for thou hast stiipped thee of thy fair adorning. 
Eve also was naked ; but when she had clothed herself, then 
was she more unseemly, for when she was naked indeed, she 
was adorned with the glory of God ; but when she had 
clothed herself with the garment of sin, then was she un- 
seemly. And thou, when arrayed in the garment of studied 
^<rri;<pi- finery^, dost then appear more unseemly: for that costliness 
jxtiTfi j^yj^-jg^jj jjq|- ^q ijiake any appear beautiful. But that it is pos- 
sible even for one dressed out to be even more unseemly 
than if naked, I will tell you. If thou hadst ever put on the 
dresses of a piper or a flute-player, would it not have been 
unseemliness.? And yet those dresses are of gold; but for 
this very reason it were unseemliness, because they are of 
gold. For the costliness of the stage suits well with trage- 
dians, players, mimes, dancers, fighters with \Wld beasts ; but 
to a woman that is a believer, there have been given other 
robes from God, the Only-Begotten Son of God Himself. 
Gal. 3, For, he saith, as tnanij as have been baptized into Christ, 
^'' have put on Christ. Tell me, if one had given thee kingly 

8 Downes would remove the negative, &e. but even when he was exposed by 
but the meaning is ' not only when the loss of his garment.' 

Exce.ssive ornament dangerous and unseemly. 305 

apparel, and thou hadst taken a helot's dress, and put this on Hom. 
above it, wouldest thou not, besides the unseemliness, have — ''-^— 
also been punished for it ? Thou hast put on the Lord of 
Heaven, and of the Angels, and art thou still busied about 
earth ? 

I have spoken thus, because love of ornament is of itself 
a great evil, even were no other gendered by it, and it were 
possible to hold it without peril, (for it inciteth' to vainglory i^X!,'^«. 
and to pride,) but now many other evils are gendered bya^Mss. 
finery, manifest^ suspicions, unseasonable expenses, evil''^^'^^.°'' 
speakings, occasions of rapacity. For why dost thou adorn fest' 
thyself? Tell me. Is it that thou may est please thy husband? 
Then do it at home. But here the reverse is the case. For 
if thou wouldest please thine own husband, please not others ; 
but if thou please others, thou wilt not be able to please 
thine own. So that thou shouldest put away all thine orna- 
ments, when thou goest to the forum or proceedest to the 
church. Besides, please not thy husband by those means 
which harlots use, but by those rather which wives of good 
condition employ. For wherein, tell me, doth a wife differ 
from a harlot? In that the one regardeth one thing only, 
namely, that by the beauty of her person she may attract to 
herself him w^hom she loves ; whilst the other both ruleth the 
house, and shareth^ in the children, and in all other things. ^xoivunT 

Hast thou a little daughter? see that she inheiit not the 
mischief, for they are wont to form their manners accord- 
ing to their nurture, and to imitate their mothers' characters. 
Be a pattern to thy daughter of modesty, deck thyself with 
that adorning, and see that thou despise the other; for that 
is in tnith an ornament, the other a disfigurement. Enough 
has been said. Now God that made the world*, and hath^^^^sV- 
given to us the ornament^ of the soul, adorn us, and clothe 'J*"". 
US with His own glory, that all shining brightly in good 
works, and living unto His glory, we may send up glory to 
the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit. 


CoLOSS. iv. 5, 6. 

Walk in wisdom toward them that are without, redeeming 
the time. Let your speech be alway with grace, seasoned 
with salt, that ye may know how ye ought to answer every 

What Christ said to His disciples, that doth Paul also now 
Mat. 10, advise. And what did Christ say ? Behold, I send you forth 
^^' as sheep in the midst of wolves ; be ye therefore wise as ser- 
pents, and harmless as doves. That is, be upon your guard, 
giving them no handle against you. For therefore it is added, 
towards them that are without, in order that we may know 
that against our own members we have no need of so much 
caution as against those without. For where brethren are, 
» «>.«r«< there are both many allowances and kindnesses ^ There is 
indeed need of caution even here; but much more without, 
for it is not the same to be amongst enemies and foes, and 
amongst friends. 

Then because he had alarmed them, see how again he 

encourages them; Redeeming, he saith, the time: that is, the 

present time is short. Now this he said, not wishing them 

»«•#«/- to be crafty^, nor hypocrites, (for this is not a part of wisdom, 

*""■ but of senselessness,) but what } Tn matters wherein they 

harm you not, he means, give them no handle; as he says 

Rom. also, when writing to the Romans, Bender to all their dues; 

' * tribute to whom tribute is due, custom to whom custom, honour 

to whom honour. On account of the Gospel alone have 

thou war, he saith, let this war have none other origin. For 

Christian forbearance. Sf. PauPs Messengers. 307 

though they were to become our foes for other causes besides, Hom. 
yet neither shall we have a reward, and they will become 

worse, and will seem to have just complaints against us. For 
instance, if we pay not the tribute, if we render not the 
honours that are due, if we be not lowly. Seest thou not 
Paul, how submissive he is, where he was not likely to harm 
the Gospel'? For hear him saying to Agrippa, / count iqt. 
myself happy, because I shall answer for myself this day ^^^^^^' 
before thee, especially because I know thee to be expert in Acts 26, 
all customs and questions which are among the Jews. But 
had he thought it his duty to insult the ruler, he would have 
spoiled every thing. And hear too those of blessed Peter's 
company, how gently they answer the Jews, saying, i^^ Acts 6, 
ought to obey Ood rather than men. And yet men who^^" 
had as they renounced their own lives, might both have in- 
sulted, and have done any thing whatever; but for this object 
they had renounced their lives, not that they might win vain- 
glory, (for that way had been vain-gloi'ious,) but that they 
might preach and speak all things with boldness. That other 
course marks want of moderation. 

Let your speech be alway with grace, seasoned with salt ; 
that is, let not this graciousness lapse into indifFerentism. 
For it is possible to be simply agreeable^, it is possible also 2 ^a^n*- 
to be so with due seemliness*. That ye may know how ye f'^'"^*'; 
ought to answer every man. So that one ought not to dis- mrn 
course alike to all, Greeks, I mean, and Brethren. By no 
means, for this were the very extreme of senselessness. 

Ver. 7. All my state shall Tychicus declare unto you, the 
beloved brother, and faithful minister, and felloiv servant in 
the Lord. 

Admirable ! how great is the wisdom of Paul ! Observe, he 
doth not put every thing into his Epistles, but only things 
necessary and urgent. In the first place, being desirous of 
not drawing them out to a length ; and secondly, to make 
his messenger more respected, by his having also some- 
what to relate ; thirdly, shewing his own affection towards 
him ; for he would not else have entrusted these communi- 
cations to him. Then, there were things which ought not 
to be declared in writing. The beloved brother, he saith. If 
beloved, he knew all, and he concealed nothing from him. And 


308 St, PaiiTs consideraleness. How he was treated. 

Co\jO%. fail hf ill minifiter, and fellow-servant in the Lord. \i faith- 

-^—^ — 'fnl, lie will s])cak no falsehood; if a fellow-servant, he hath 
shared his trials, so that he has brought together frora all 
sides the grounds of trustworthiness. 

Ver. 8. Whom I have sent unto you for this same purpose. 

Here he shews his great love, seeing that for this purpose 

he sent him, and this was the cause of his journey; and so 

1 Thesd when writing to the Thessalonians, he said. Wherefore 
when ice could no longer forbear, we thouyJit it good to he 
left at Athens alone, and sent Timotheus our brother. And 
to the Ephesians he sends this very same person, and for the 

Eph. 6; very same cause, That he might know your estate, and 
comfort your hearts. See what he saith, not ' that ye might 
know my estate,' but ' that I might know youi's.' So in no 
place doth he mention what is his own. He shews that they 
were in trials too, by the expression, cotnfort your hearts. 

Ver. 9. With Onesimus, the beloved and faithful brother, 
who is one of you. They shall make known unto you all 
things which are done here. 

Onesimus is he about whom, wiiting to Philemon, he said, 

Philem. lyjiom I would have retained with me, that in thxi stead he 

13. 14. _ ' -^ 

might have ministered unto me in the bonds of the Gospel; 

but without thy mind would I do nothing. And he adds 

too the praise of their city, that they might not only not " be 

' 'y««^- ashamed, but even pride themselves on' him. Who is one of 

Zuyrat you, he saith. They shall make known unto you all things 

that are done here. 

(2) Ver. 10. Aristarchus my fellow-prisoner saluteth you. 

Nothing can surpass this praise. This is he that was 
' ovret brought up from Jerusalem with him. This man ^ hath said 
a greater thing than the prophets ; for they call themselves 
strangers and foreigners, but this one calleth himself even a 
captive ''. For just like a captive he was dragged up and 
down % and lay at every one's will to suffer evil of them, yea 
rather worse even than captives. For those indeed their 
enemies, after taking them, treat with much attention, having 
a care for them as their own property: but Paul, as though 

* Sav. adds, «w», but without neces- ° ^iytro ko,) lifi^irt, which is most 

sity. properly said of property plundered in 

'' a/i^^aXoiref, prisoner of war. war. 

The present time to he redeemed from the ivorld. 309 

an enemy and a foe, all men dragged up and down, beating Hom. 

him, scourging, insulting, and maligning. This too was a — 

consolation to those (to whom he wrote), for when their 
master even is in such circumstances, the disciples are the 
rather comforted. 

And Marcus, sister''s son to Barnabas; even this man 
he hath praised still from his relationship, for Barnabas was 
a great man; touching whom ye received commandments, if 
he come unto you, receive him. Why? would they not have 
received him even without this } Yes, but he means, ' I 
desire you to do so with much attention ;' and this shews the 
man to be great. Whence they received these command- 
ments, he does not say. 

Ver. 11. And Jesus which is called Justus ; 

This man was probably a Corinthian. Next, he bestows a 
common praise on all, having already spoken that of each 
one in particular ; who are of the circumcision : these only 
are my fellow-workers unto the kingdom of God which have 
been a comfort unto me. After having said, fellow-prisoner ; 
in order that he may not therewith depress the soul of his 
hearers, see how by this expression he rouseth them up. 
Fellow-workers, he saith, unto the kingdom of God. So that 
being partakers of the trials, they become partakers of the king- 
dom. fVho have been a comfort to me. He shews them to be 
great persons, seeing that to Paul they have been a comfort. 

But "^ let us see the wisdom of Paul. Jfalk in wisdom, v. 5. 
he saith, towards them that are tmthout, redeeming the 
time. That is, the time is not yours, but theirs. Do not 
then wish to have your own way", but redeem the time. 
And he said not simply, ' Buy ',' but redeem ^, shewing that i iy«g<i. 
if such be your disposition, ye make it yours after another f'T^ 
manner. For it were the part of excessive madness, to ga^trs. 
invent occasions of war and enmity. For over and above 
the undergoing of superfluous and profitless dangers, there is 
this additional harm, that the Greeks will not come over to 
us. For when thou art amongst the brethren, reason is thou 

■^ The transition here is so sudden, few verses, 
that one suspects the text, but it may ^ avhtnTr i.e. in the world, as men 

be only that he is catching himself up, of the world, 
to make a longer comment on the last 

310 Wisdom toward those without , and toward divers estates. 
CoLos. shouldest be bold ; but when without, thou oughtest not to 

4,11. K 

— be so, 

Secst thou how every where he speaks of those without, 
the Greeks ? Wherefore also when writing to Timothy, he 

1 Tim. said, Moreover, he must hare a good report of them which 
I'cor. ^^'^ tvithout. And again, For zvhat have I to do to judge 
*) 12- tliem also that are without. Walk in wisdom, he saith, 

toward them that are tvilhout. For without, they are, even 

though they live in the same world with us, seeing they are 

' «;*/,r- without the kingdom, and the paternal mansion'. And he 

*"" *"*■ comforts them withal, by calling the others without, as he 

Col. 3,3. said above. Your life is hid with Christ in God. 

Then, he saith, seek ye gloiy, then honours, then all those 
other things, but not so now, but give them up to those with- 
out. Then, lest thou think that he is speaking of money, he 
adds, Let your speech he always with grace, seasoned with 
salt, that ye may know how ye ouglit to answer every man. 
He means, that it be not full of hypocrisy, for this is not 
grace, nor a seasoning with salt. For instance, if it be 
needful to pay court to any one without incurring dangei', 
refuse not [to do so] ; if the occasion require that thou dis- 
course civilly, think not the doing so flattery, do every thing 
that pertaineth to honour, so that piety be not injured. 
Seest thou not how Daniel payeth court to an impious man } 
Seest thou not the three children, how wisely they bore 
' *e»»- themselves towards^ the king, shewing both courage, and 
boldness in speaking, and yet nothing rash nor galling, for 
so it had not been boldness, but vainglory. That ye may 
know, he saith, how ye ought to answer every man. For the 
S. Greg, ruler ought to be answered in one way, the ruled in another, 

2 4.' ' the rich in one way, the poor in another. Wherefore ? Be- 

cause the souls of those who ai^e rich, and in authority, are 
weaker, more inflammable, more fluctuating, so that towards 
them, one should use condescension ; those of the poor, and 
the ruled, firmer and more intelligent, so that to these one 
ought to use greater boldness of speech ; looking to one thing, 
their edification. Not that because one is rich, another 
poor, the former is to be honoured more, the latter less, but 
■^ J/«3a- because of his weakness, let the former be supported^, the 
'J*^*' latter not so : for instance, when there is no cause for it, do 

Discretion to be used in teaching hard things. 311 

not call the Greek * polluted,' nor be insulting ; but if thou Hom. 
be asked concerning his doctrine, answer that it is polluted, 

and impious; but when none asketh thee, nor forceth thee to 
speak, it becomes thee not causelessly to challenge to thee 
his enmity. For what need is there to prepare for thyself 
gratuitous hostilities ? Again, if thou art instructing any one ; 
speak on the subject at present before thee, otherwise be 
^lent'. If the speech be seasoned with salt, should it fall into 
a soul that is of loose texture, it will brace up its slackness ; 
into one that is harsh, it will smooth its ruggedness. Let 
it be gracious, and so neither hard^ nor yet weak^, buti^»jT/»« 
let it have both sternness and pleasantness therewith. For ^"""^ 
if one be immoderately stern, he doth more harm than good ; 
and if he be immoderately complaisant, he giveth more pain 
than pleasure, so that every where there ought to be mode- 
ration. Be not downcast, and sour visaged, for this is offen- 
sive; nor yet be wholly relaxed, for this is open to contempt 
and treading under foot ; but, like the bee, culling the virtue 
of each, of the one its cheerfulness, of the other its gravity, 
keep clear of the fault. For if a physician dealeth not with 
all bodies alike, much more ought not a teacher. And 
yet better will the body bear unsuitable^ medicines, thaxi^ Ikxt- 
the soul language ; for instance, a Greek cometh to thee, ''^^"^" 
and becomes thy friend ; discourse not at all with him on this 
subject, until he have become a close friend, and after he hath 
become so, do it gradually. 

For see, when Paul had come to Athens, how he discoursed (3) 
with them. He said not, ' O polluted, and all-polluted;' 
but what ? Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all things Acts 22, 
ye are too superstitious ^ Again, when to insult was needful, ^''' 
he refused not ; but with great vehemency he said to Elymas, 
O full of all subtilty and all mischief, child of the devil. Acts 13 
enemy of all righteousness. For as to have insulted those ^*'- 
had been senselessness, so not to have insulted this one had 
been softness. Again, art thou brought unto a ruler on a 
matter of business, see that thou render him the honours 
that are his due. 

Ver. 9. They shall make known to you, he saith, all things 

f «Tw fiyx. i. e. since (if it be not the E. V. does. It may be rendered, 

so; be silent. ^ ^ I see that ye are rather given to tho 

« "htiriimifAtiirri^mt. The word does fear of divinities.' 
not convey quite th« reproach which 

312 St. Paid a servant, thoiKjh high in the Kincjdom. 
CoLos. lohich are done here. Does he mean, Why T came not to 

4 9-11. . 

^you? But what is, They sliall make known to yon all things 

nhich are done here? My bonds, that is, and all the other 
things that detain me. I then, who pray to see them, who 
also send others, should not myself have remained behind, 
had not some great necessity detained me. And yet this is 
not the language of accusation '' — yes, of vehement accusa- 
tion. For the assuring them that he had both fallen int« 
trials, and was bearing them nobly, is the part of one who 
was confirming the fact, and lifting up again their souls. 

Ver. 9. Willi, Onesimus,he saith, the beloved, and /ait h- 
fill brother. 

Paul calleth a slave, brother: with reason; seeing that he 

2Cor.4, styleth himself the servant of the faithful. Bring we down 

'*• all of us our pride, tread we under foot our boastfulness. 

'i»Ta;/9jPaul nameth himself a servant, he that is worth' the world, 

and ten thousands of heavens; and dost thou entertain high 

-«V'^a-thoughts? lie that seizeth all things for spoil- as he will, he 

^"'' that hath the first place in the kingdom of heaven, he that 

was crowned, he that ascended into the third heaven, calleth 

servants, ' brethren,' and ' fellow-servants.' Where is your 

madness ? where is your arrogance ? 

So trustworthy was Onesiiuus become, as to be entrusted 
even with such things as these. 

Ver. 10. And Marcus, he saith, sister's son to Barnabas, 
touching whom ye received commandments, receive him. 
Perhaps they had received commandments from Barnabas. 

Ver. li. Who are of the circtinicision. He represseth the 
swelling pride of the Jews, and inspiriteth the souls of these, 
[the Colossians,] because few of them were of the circum- 
cision, the greater number of the Gentiles. 

W/iic/i have been, he saith, a comfort unto me. He shews 
himself to be set in the midst of great trials. So that neither 
is this a small thing. When we comfort the Saints by pre- 
sence, by Avords, by assiduous attendance, when we suffer 
Heb.i3, adversity together with them, (for he saith, as bound with 
those in bonds;) when we make their sulierings ours, we shall 
also be partakers in their crowns. Hast thou not been 

h iyKuXtutruy. t'erhups, ' and yet mentlv complain.' Ed. Par. conj. 
this was not a case in which they com- «-ajaxaXai/.Tw», ' This is not the Ian- 
plained, yea indeed, they did vehe- puage of consolation." 

How to share the crowns of the Saints. 313 

dragged to the stadium ? Hast thou not entered into the Hom. 
lists ? It is another that strips himself, another that wrestles 

but if thou be so minded, thou too shalt be a sharer. Anoint 
him, become his favourer and partizan ^, from without the ' pxnrrn 
lists shout loudly for him, stir up his strength, refresh hisj^^'f*"" 
spirit. Tt follows that the same things should be done in all 
other cases. For Paul stood not in need, but he spoke in 
order to stimulate them. Thou therefore with all others, stop 
the mouths of those who would abuse such an one, procure 
favoiu'ers for him, receive him as he cometh forth with great 
attention, so shalt thou be a sharer in his crowns, so, in his 
glory ; and if thou do no other thing, but only hast pleasure 
in what is done, even thus thou sharest in no common degree, 
for thou hast contributed love, the sum of all good things. 

For if they that weep seem to share in the grief of those 
in sorrow, and gratify them mightily, and abate the excess of 
their woe, much more do they also that rejoice with others, 
make their pleasure greater. For how great an evil it is not 
to have companions in sorrow, hear the Prophet saying, 
And I looked for some to lament with me, and there ivas e. v. 
none. Wherefore Paul also saith, Rejoice with them that do p^"^!» 
rejoice, and weep with them that weep. Increase their 20. 
pleasure. If thou see thy brother in good esteem, say not, 12°™". 
' the esteem is his, why should I rejoice,' These words are 
not those of a brother, but of an enemy. If thou be so 
minded, it is not his, but thine. Thou hast the power of 
making it greater, if thou be not downcast, but pleased, if 
thou be cheerful, if joyous. And that the thing is so, is evi- 
dent from this ; the envious envy not those only who are in 
good esteem, but those as well who rejoice at their good 
esteem, so conscious are they that these also are interested 
in that good esteem ; and these are they who do glory most 
in it. For the other indeed blushes when praised exceedingly ; 
but these with great pleasure pride themselves upon it. See ye 
not in the case of wrestlers, how the one is crowned, the other 
is notcrowned; but thegrief andthejoy is amongst the favourers 
and disfavourers', these are they that leap, they that caper? 

' Sfe Tac. An, xiii. 25. The specta- of the Circus in the time of Justinian 

tors at theatres and at the games were are described by Gibbon c. xi. see also 

so eager in thtir favour toward one or the massacre of A. D. 501. Tillemout 

another, as sometimes to cause serious Hist, des Emp. t. vi. Anastasius, 

breaches of the peace. The factions art. x. * 

314 Eiwy marks those who/acour iJie Saints as partakers. 

CoLos. See how great a thing is the not envying. The toil is 
"*' ^'' another's, the pleasure is thine ; another wears the crown, 
"iy««x-and thou caperest, thou art gay'. For tell me, seeing it is 
'^*^ another that hath conquered, why dost thou leap ? But they 
also know well, that what hath been done is common. There- 
ibre they do not accuse one's self' indeed, but they try to beat 
down the victory ; and you hear them saying such words as 
these, ' (There) I expunged thee,' and, ' I beat thee down.' 
Although the deed was another's, still the praise is thine. 
But if in things without, not to envy, but to make another's 
good one's own, is so great a good, much more so the 
victory over the devil. For he then breathes the more furi- 
ously against us, evidently because we are then more pleased. 
Wicked though he is, he well knows that this pleasure is great. 
Wouldest thou pain him ? Be glad and rejoice. Wouldest 
thou gladden him ? Be sad-visaged. The pain he has from 
thy brothei-'s victory, thou soothest by thy sadness ; thou 
standest with him, severed from thy brother, thou workest 
greater mischief than he. For it is not the same for one that 
is an enemy to do the deeds of an enemy, and for a friend to 
stand with an enemy ; such an one is more detestable than an 
enemy. If thy brother have gained good reputation either 
by speaking, or by brilliant' or successful achievement, 
become thou a sharer in his reputation, shew that he is a 
member of thine. 
(4) * And how ?' saith one,' for the reputation is not mine.' Never 
speak so. Compress thy lips. If thou hadst been near me, 
thou that speakest on that wise, I would have even put my 
hand over thy lips: lest perchance the enemy should hear 
thee. Oftentimes we have enmities with one another, and 
we discover them not to our enemies, but thou discoverest 
thine to the devil. Say not so, think not so; but the very 
reverse : ' he is one of my members, the glory passes on to 
the body.' ' How then is it,' saith one, ' that those without are 
not so minded V Because of thy fault: when they see thee 
counting his pleasure not tliine own, they too count it not 
thine : were they to see thee appropriating it, they durst not do 
so, but thou wouldest become equally illustrious with him. 

k TouTcf, the partizan of the victor. 

' i«-i3i(*i'i/^iv«f, al. Wunifiiitt, hj being praised.' 

The Preacher gains less than those who honour him. 815 

Thou hast not gained reputation by speaking ; but by shaiing hom. 
in his joy thou hast gained more renown than he. For if love ^^' 
be a great thing, and the sum of all, thou hast received the 
crown this gives; he, that for oratory, thou, that for exceeding 
love; he displayed force of words, but thou by deeds hast cast 
down envy, hast trodden under foot the evil eye. So that in 
reason thou oughtest rather to be crowned than he, thy contest 
is the more brilliant; thou hast not only trodden under foot 
envy, but thou hast even done somewhat else. He hath one 
crown only, but thou two, and those both brighter than his one. 
What are these .'' One, that which thou wonnest against envy, 
another, which thou art encircled with by love. For the 
sharing in his joy is a pi'oof not only of thy being free from 
envy, but also of being rooted in love. Him ofttimes some 
human passion sorely disquieteth ', vainglory for instance ; i j,,„. 
but thou art free from every passion, for it is not of vain- ^^*'- 
glory that thou rejoicest at another's good. Hath he righted 
the Church, tell me ? hath he increased the congregation ? 
Praise him ; again thou hast a twofold crown ; thou hast struck 
down envy ; thou hast enwreathed thee with love. Yea, I 
implore and beseech thee. Wilt thou hear of a third crown 
even ? Him, men below applaud, thee, the Angels above. 
For it is not the same thing, to make a display of eloquence, 
and to rule the passions. This praise is for a season, that for 
ever ; this, of men, that, of God ; this man is crowned 
openly: but thou art crowned in secret, where thy Father 
seeth. If it were possible to have peeled off the body and 
seen the soul of each, I would have shewn thee that this 
is more dignified than the other, more resplendent. 

Tread we under foot the goads of envy; hereby we advan- 
tage ourselves, beloved, ourselves shall we enwreath with 
the crown. He that envielh another fighteth with God, not 
with him; for when he seeth him to have grace, and is grieved, 
and wisheth the Church pulled down, he fighteth not with 
him, but with God. For tell me, if one should adorn a king's 
daughter, and by his adorning and gracing her, gain for 
himself renown ; and another person should wish her to be 
ill attired", and him to be unable to adorn her; against whom 'iir^,,. 
would he have been plotting mischief? Against the other ? («•''''""• 

"^ al. from being (himself) unable to adorn. 

316 Envy of God's Minister self condemned. 

Coios. or against her and her father? So too now, thou that 
-ii-Hi- enviest, fightest with the Church, thou warrest with God. 
For, since with the good repute of thy brother is interwoven 
also the Church's profit, need is, that if the one be undone, 
the other shall be undone also. So that, in this regard, thou 
doest a deed of Satan, seeing thou plottest mischief against 
the body of Christ. Thou art pained at him ° that hath in 
nothing wronged thee ; yea, much rather, at Christ. Wherein 
hath He wronged thee, that thou wilt not suffer His body to 
be decked with beauty .? that thou wilt not suffer His bride 
to be adorned ? Consider, I pray thee, the punishment, how 
sore. Thou gladdenest thine enemies; and him too himself, 
the well-reputed of, whom through thy envy thou wishest to 
grieve, thou dost the rather gladden; thou dost by thine envy 
the rather shew that he is in good esteem, for otherwise thou 
wouldest not have envied him. Thou shewest the rather that 
thou art in punishment. 

I am ashamed indeed to exhort you from such motives, 
but seeing our weakness is so great, let us be instructed even 
from these, and free ourselves from this destructive passion. 
Grievest thou that he is in good esteem? then why swellest 
thou that esteem by envying ? Wishest thou to punish him ? 
Why then shewest thou that thou art pained.'' Why punish 
thyself before him", whom thou wouldest not have well 
esteemed of? Thereafter double will be his pleasure, and thy 
punishment; not only because thou provest him to be great; 
'»»T/*Te<f but because thou begettest' in him yet another pleasure, by 
punishing thyself; and again, at what thou art pained, he is 
pleased, whilst thou enviest. Sec how we deal ourselves 
heavy blows without perceiving it! — But he is an enemy. 
And yet, why an enemy ? What wrong hath he done ? Still, 
however, by this we make our enemy the more illustrious, and 
thereby punish ourselves the more. And herein again we 
punish ourselves, if we have discovered that he knows it. 
For perhaps he is not pleased % but we thinking him to be 

" al. ' Pained at and speakest evil of passages against extravagance. This 

him/ but the readings vary. whole passage probably alludes to the 

" t/i^^oirht, used just after for ' in the enmity which prevailed at court in con- 
presence olV sequence, and these words were pro- 

P The Empress Eudoxia is thought bably meant to hint at the real love of 

to have been reflected on in some of the St. Chrysostom for his bitterest enemies. 

God will reward those who do not envy. 317 

so, are again pained on that account. Cease then your Hom. 

envying. Why inflictest thou wounds upon thyself? — 

Think we on these things, beloved; of those two crowns 
for them that envy not ; of those praises from men ; of those 
from God ; of the evils that come of envying ; and so shall 
we be able to quell the savage', and to be in good esteem' ^»1^/«» 
before God, and to obtain the same things with those who 
are of good esteem. For perhaps we shall obtain them, and 
if we obtain them not, for our good we shall not obtain them ; 
still, even so, we shall be able, if we have lived to the glory 
of God, to obtain the good things promised to them that love 
Him, through the grace and love toward man of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, with Whom, &c. 


Col. iv. 12, 13. 

Epaphras, who is one of you, a servant of Christ, saluteth 
you, always striving for you in prayers, that ye may 
stand perfect and complete in all the will of God. For 
I bear him record, that he hath a great zeal for you, and 
them that are in Laodicea, and them in Hierapolis. 

In the commencement of this Epistle also, he commended 
this man for his love; for even to praise is a sign of love; 
Col. 1, thus in the beginning he said, Who also declared unto us 
your love in the Spirit. To pray for one is also a sign 
of love, and causeth love again. He commends him more- 
over in order to open a door to his teaching, for reverendness 
in the teacher is the disciples' advantage; and so again is his 
saying", one of you, in order that they might pride them- 
selves upon him, as producing such men. And he saith, 
always striving for you in prayers. He said not simply 
1 iyftiw- * praying,' but striving^, trembling and fearing. For I bear 
i* him witness, he saith, that he hath a zeal for you. A trust- 
worthy witness. 7%«^ he hath, be saith, a great zeal for you, 
that is, that he loveth you exceedingly; and burnetii with 
passionate affection for you. And them that are in Laodicea, 
and them in Hierapolis. He commendeth him to those also. 
But whence were they to know this? It is likely indeed 
that they had heard; however, they would learn it when the 
Epistle was read. For he saitli. Cause that it be read also in 

* One Ms. ' and so he adds, who is one of you.' Ed. Par. conj. «-^ for *-o, 
' again (he commends him) by saying.' 

Particular objects of several sal illation ft. 319 

th£ church of the Laodiceans. That ye may stand perfect, Hom. 
he saith. At once he both accuseth them, and without — — ^- 
offensiveness gives them advice and counsel. For it is 
possible both to be perfect, and withal not to stand, as if 
one were to know all, and still be wavering; it is possible 
also not to be perfect, and yet to stand, as if one were to 
know a part, and stand [not""] firmly. But this man prayeth 
for both : That ye may stand perfect, he saith. See how 
again he has reminded them of what he said about the 
Angels, and about life. And complete, he saith, in all the 
will of God. It is not enough, simply to do His will. He 
that \s filled^, suffereth not any other will to be within him,' ^t-rxn- 
for if so, he is not wholly filled ^ For I bear him witness,^"^"" 
he saith, that he hath great zeal. Both zeal, and great; 
both are intensitive. As he saith himself, when writing to 
the Corinthians, For I am jealous over you with a godly ^Cov. 
jealousy. u,2. 

Ver. 14. Luke, the beloved physician, greeteth you. This 
is the Evangelist. It is not to lower this man that he placeth 
him after, but to raise the other, viz. Epaphras. It is 
probable that there were others called by this name^. And 
Demas. After saying, Luke, the physician, greeteth you, he 
added, the beloved. And no small praise is this, but even 
great exceedingly, to be beloved of Paul. 

Ver. 15. Salute the brethren which are in Laodicea, and 
Nymphas, and the Church which is in his house. 

See how he cements, and knits them together with one 
another, not by salutation only, but also by interchanging 
his Epistles. Then again he pays a compliment^ by address- ^ ;t«e'?«- 
inghim individually. And this he doth not without a reason, '^'" 
but in order to lead the others also to emulate his zeal. For 
it is not a small thing not to be numbered with the rest. 
Mark further how he shews the man to be great, seeing his 
house was a church. 

Ver. ] 4. And when this Epistle hath been read among you., 
cause that it be read also in the church of the Laodiceans. 
I suppose there are some of the things therein written, which 

^ Hales seems right in expunging r-TX*i^tf)o^r,rui, ' fully assured.' 
this word; otherwise the sense is ^ i. e. Luke. Verbals, mid Demas, 

' though not.' should come after the next clause. 

'^ Ma. in Brit. M. «-«flrXfijiUT*/, for 

320 Praise of Epaphrus. Topics of encouragement. 

CoLos. it was needful that those also should hear. And they would 
Id^di'have the greater advantage of recognising their own errors 
in the charges brought against others. 

And that ye likewise read the Epistle/rom Laodicea. Some 
say that this is not Paul's to them, but theirs to Paul, for he said 
not that to the Laodiccans, but that written /row Laodicea. 

Ver. 17. And say to Arc/upptcs, Take heed to the ministry 
which thou hast received in the Lord, that thou fulfil it. 
Wherefore doth he not write to him } Perha]is he needed it 
not, but only a bare reminding, so as to be more diligent. 

Ver. 18. The salutation by the hand of me. Paid. This 
is a proof of their sincerity and affection; that they both 
looked at his handwriting, and that with emotion. B.e- 
memher my bonds. Wonderful ! How great the consolation ! 
For this is enough to cheer them on to all things, and make 
them bear themselves more nobly in their trials ; but he 
made them not only the braver, but also the more nearly 
I bWu- interested. Grace be with you. Amen. 


^'"^ It is great praise, and gi-eater than all the rest, his saying 
of Epaphras, ivho is [one] of you, a servant of Christ. And 
he calleth him a minister for them, like as he termeth himself 
Col. 1, also a minister of the Church, as when he saith, Whereof 
^^- I Paul am made a minister. To the same dignity he ad- 
ib. 1, 7. vances this man ; and above he calleth him z. fellow -servant, 
and here, a servant. Who is of you, he saith, as if speaking to 
a mother, and saying, ' who is of thy womb.' But this praise 
might have gendered envy; therefore he commendeth him 
not from these things only, but also from what had regard to 
themselves ; and so he does away with envy, both in the 
former place, and here. Always, he saith, striving for you, 
not now only, whilst with us, to make a display ; nor yet only 
whilst with y6u, to make a display before you. By saying, 
striving, he hath shewed his great earnestness. Then, 
that he might not seem to be flattering them, he added, that 
he hath a great zeal for you, and for them that are in 
Laodicea, and them in Hierapolis. And the words, that ye 
may stand 'perfect, are not words of flattery, but of a reverend 
Master. Both complete^ he saith, and perfect. The one he 
granted them, the other he said was lacking. And he 
said not, ' that ye be not shaken,' but, that ye may stand. 

Message to Archippus binding on the conveyers. ;321 

Their being saluted, however, by many, is refreshing to them, Hom. 
seeing that not only their friends from among themselves, '- 

but others also, remember them. 

And say to Archippus, Take heed to the ministry which thou 
hast receivedin the Lord. His chief aim is to subject them to 
him ' entirely. For they could no more have complaint against ' i-e.Ar- 
him for rebuking them, when they themselves had taken it all ^^'^'" 
upon them ; for it is not reasonable to talk to the disciples about 
the master. But to stop their mouths, he writes thus to 
them ; Say to Archippus, he saith, Take heed. This word is 
every where used to alarm; as when he saith, Take heed of ^^"^^-'^i, 
dogs. Take heed lest any man spoil you. Take heed lest Co\, 2 
by any means this liberty of yours become a stumbling block ^• 
to them that are weak. And he always so expresses himself 9. 
when he would terrify. Take heed, he saith, to the ministry 
which thou hast received in the Lord, that thou fulfil it. He 
doth not even allow him the power of choosing, as he saith 
himself, For if L do this thing icillingly, L have a reward ; iCor.9, 
but if against my icill, a dispensation of the Gospjel is 
committed unto me. That thou fulfil it, continually using 
diligence. Which thou hast received in the Lord. Again, the 
word in means by, the Lord. He gave it thee, not we. He 
subjects them also to him^, by shewing that they had been^i-e.Ar- 
committed to his hands by God, ^' ^vws. 

Remember my bonds. Grace be with you. Amen. He 
hath released their terror. For although their master be in 
bonds, yet grace releaseth him. This too is of grace, the 
granting him to be put in bonds. For hear Luke saying, 
The Apostles returned from the presence of the council, Acts 5, 
rejoicing that they icere counted worthy to suffer shame for 
His Na?ne. For both to suffer shame, and to be put in 
bonds, is indeed to be counted worthy. For, if he that hath 
one whom he loveth, deemeth it gain to suffer aught for his 
sake, much rather then is it so to suffer for Christ. KepinejyjQP^^ 
we not then at our tribulations for Christ's sake, but remember 
we also Paul's bonds, and be this our exhortation. For 
instance; dost thou exhort any to give to the poor for 
Christ's sake ^ Remind them of Paul's bonds, and bemoan 
thy misery and theirs, seeing that he indeed gave up even 
his body to bonds for His sake, but thou wilt not give a portion 


3Q-2 Bo7hIs o/ Si. Paul a lesson /or all slates. 

(Jor.os. even of thy food. Art lliou lifted up because of thy ^ood deeds ? 

4 20. ' 

— ^ — ^Remember Paul's bonds; and that thou hast suffered nought 
of that kind, and thou wilt be lifted u]) no more. Covetest 
thou what is thy neighbour's ? Remember Paul's bonds, and 
thou wilt see how unreasonable it is, that whilst he was in 
> al. in perils, thou shouldest be in delights '. Again, is thine heart 
ings. set upon self-indulgence ? Picture to thy mind Paul's prison- 
house; thou art his disciple, thou art his fellow-soldier. How 
is it reasonable, that thy fellow-soldier should be in bonds, 
and thou in luxury? Art thou in affliction? Deemest thou 

l^^- thou art forsaken ? Hear Paul's words*; and thou wilt see, 
bonds. ... . 

that to be in affliction is no proof of being forsaken. 

Wouldest thou wear silken robes? Remember Paul's bonds; 

and these things will ajipear to thee more worthless than 

filth -bespattered rags. Wouldest thou array thee with golden 

trinkets ? Picture to thy mind Paul's bonds, and these things 

will seem to thee no better than a withered bulrush. 

Wouldest thou tire thine hair, and be beautiful to see ? 

Think of Paul's squalidness within that prison-house, and 

thou wilt burn for that beauty, and deem this the extreme 

of ugliness, and wilt groan bitterly through longing for those 

bonds. Wouldest thou daub thee with pastes and pigments, 

Acts 20, and such like things? Think of his tears: a three-years space, 
night and day, he ceased not to weep. With this adorning 
deck thy cheek ; these tears do make it bright. I say not, 
that thou weep for others, (I wish indeed it could be even 
so, but this is too high for thee,) but for thine own sins. 1 
advise thee this to do. Hast thou ordered thy slave to be 
put in bonds, angry, and exasperated ? Remember Paul's 
bonds, and thou wilt straightway stay thine anger; remember 
that we are of the bound, not the binders, of the bruised in 

*i,txv- heart, not the bruisers. Hast thou lost selfcontroP, and 
shouted loud in laughter? Think of his lamentations, and 
thou wilt groan; such tears will shew thee brighter far. 
Seest thou any rioting and dancing ? Remember his tears. 
What fountain has gushed forth so great streams as those 

Acts 20, eyes did tears? Remember my lears, he saith, as here bonds. 
And with reason he spoke thus to them, when he sent for 
them from Ephesus to Miletus. For he was then speaking 
to teachers. He demands of those therefore, that they should 

Spiritual beauty far (tbore natural. 323 

gather [others] together % also, but of these that they should Hom. 
only encounter dangers. 

What fountain u ill thou compare to these tears ? That in (3) 
Paradise, which watereth the whole earth ? But thou wilt 
have mentioned nothing like it. For this fount of tears watered 
souls, not earth. If one were to shew us Paul bathed in 
tears, and groaning, would not this be better far to see, than 
countless choirs gaily crowned .'' I am not now speaking of 
you ; but, if one, having pulled away from the theatre and 
the stage some wanton fellow, burning and drunken with 
carnal love, were to shew him a young virgin in the very 
flower of her age, surpassing her fellows, both in other 
respects, and in her face more than the rest of her person, 
having an eye, tender and soft, that gently ^ resteth, and 
gently rolleth, moist, mild, calmly smiling, and arrayed in 
much modesty and much grace, fringed with dark lashes 
both under and over, having an eyeball, so to speak, alive, a 
forehead radiant; underneath, again, a cheek shaded to exact 
redness, lying smooth as marble, and even ; and then any 
one should shew me Paul weeping ; leaving that maiden, I 
would have eagerly sprung away to the sight of him; for 
from his eyes there beamed spiritual beauty. For that other 
transporteth the souls of youths, it scorcheth and inflameth 
them ; but this, on the contrary, subdueth them. Whoso 
gazeth upon his eyes, tliereby maketh that of his soul more 
beauteous, he curbeth his belly ; he filleth himself with the 
love of wisdom, with much sympathy : this' is able to soften ' 2 Mss. 
even a soul of adamant. With these tears the Church is*^""*" 
watered, with these souls are planted ; yea, though there be 
fire sensible and substantial, yet can these tears quench it; 
these tears quench the fiery darts of the wicked one. 

Remember we then these tears of his, and we shall laugh 
to scorn all present things. These tears did Christ pro- 
nounce blessed, saying, Blesned are they that mourn, and Matt. 5, 
blessed are they that iveep,for they shall laugh. Such tears t' % « 
did Isaiah too, and Jeremiah w^eep ; and the former said, 21. 

Leave me alone, I will weep bitterly: and the latter, J^/<o Is.22,4, 


e guvayu». The Translator suggests read fuvaXyuv, ' to sympathise.' 
that this may mean, ' as he had done, ^ ri^ifia, which some copies omit, 
by warning with tears.' Hales would 

Y 2 


Weepivg for others' sins better than seeing Christ. 

C01.0S. will give my head water, and mine eyes fountains of tears? 

— '- — '— as thoupjh tlic natural fount were not enough. 

Nothing is sweeter tlian these tears ; sweeter are they than 
any laughter. They that mourn, know how gi'eat consola- 
tion it possosseth. Let us not think this a thing to be 
deprecated, but one to be even exceedingly prayed for; 
not that others may sin, but that, when they sin, we may be 
heart-broken for them. Remember we these tears, these 
bonds. Surely too upon those bonds tears descended ; but 
[it was that 8] the death of the perishing, of those that had 
bound him in them, suffered him not to taste the pleasure of 
the bonds. For, for their sake he grieved, being His disciple 
that bewept the priests of the Jews; not because they were 
going to crucify Him, but because they were themselves 
perishing. And He doeth not this Himself alone, but He 
Luke23,tlius exhorteth others also, saying. Daughters of Jerusalem, 
weep not for Me. These eyes saw Paradise, saw the third 
heaven : but I count not them so blessed because of this 
sight, as because of those tears, by the which they saw 
Christ. Blessed, indeed, was that sight, for he himself even 
•*-8^»i;.i- glories in it', saying, Have I not seen Jesus Christ our 
\"qq^ Lord ? but more blessed so to weep. 

9, 1. In that sight many have been partakers, and those who 

John have not so been, Christ again calls blessed, saying, Blessed 

20, 29. ^j.g, ^j^^y fj^^i have not seen, and yet ham believed; but unto 

Phil. 1, this not many have attained. For if to stay here for Christ's 

^^' ^'^* sake were more needful than to depart to Him, on account 

of the salvation of others; surely then to groan for others' 

sakes, is more needful even than to see Him. For if for 

His sake to be in hell ^, is rather to be desired, than to be 

with Him ; and to be separated from Him for His sake more 

to be desired than to be with Him, (for this is what he said, 

Jlom. 9, T^w / could wish that myself were accursed from Christ,) 

Acts 20 ™^^*^li more is weeping for His sake. / ceased not, he saith, 

3i. to nam every one with tears. Wlierefore .? Not fearing the 

dangers; no; but as if one sitting by a sick man's side, and 

not knowing what would be the end, should weep for affec- 

g These words seem to supply the where he says the wish was ' to he 
meaning. separated from His presence, not from 

'' See St. Chrysostom on Rom. ix. 3. His love.' 

Tears thought ill of because misapplied. 325 

tion, fearinop lest he should lose his life: so too did he; when How. 

. XIT. 
he saw any that were diseased, and could not prevail by — 

rebuke' he thenceforward wept. So did Christ also, that'^*""^^- 
haply they might reverence His teais : thus ; one sinned. He 
rebuked him ; the rebuked spat upon Him, and sprang aloof; 
He wept, that haply He might win him even so. 

Remember we these tears: thus let us bring up our (4) 
daughtei's, thus our sons; weeping when we see them in 
evU. As many women as wish to be loved, let them remem- 
ber Paul's tears, and groan : as many of you as are counted 
blest, as many as are in bridal chambers, as many as are in 
pleasure, remember these ; as many as are in mourning, ex- 
change tears for tears. He mourned not for the dead; but for 
those that were perishing whilst alive. Shall I tell of other 
tears ? Timothy also wept ; for he was this man's disciple ; 
wherefore also when writing to him he said. Being mindful'^ Tim. 
of thy tears, that I may he filled with joy. Many weep ' 
even from pleasure. So it is a thing that resulteth from plea- 
sure, and pleasure of the utmost intensity. So far are the 
tears which proceed from such sorrow from being painfiil: yea, 
they are even better far than those which come of worldly 
pleasure. Hear the Prophet saying, J7ie Lord hath heardFs.6,8. 
the voice of my weeping. For where are tears not useful.'' in 
prayers ? in admonitions ? But we get them an ill name, by 
using them not to what they are given us for. When we entreat 
a sinning brother, we ought to weep, beating our breasts and 
groaning; when we exhort any one, and he giveth us no heed, 
but goeth on perishing, we ought to weep. These are the 
tears of heavenly wisdom. When however one is in poverty 
or bodily disease, or dead, not so; for these are not things 
worthy of tears. 

As then w^e gain an ill name for laughter also, when we 
use it out of season ; so too do we for tears, by having re- 
course^ to them unseasonably. For the virtue ^ of each thing •-' ^jra- 
then discovers itself when it is brought to its own fitting ^"2''^"' 
work *, but when to one that is alien to it, it doth no longer &o.^i\irn. 
For instance, wine is given for cheerfulness, not drunkenness, ^ ^^^'"' 
bread for nourishment, sexual intercourse for the procreation 
of children. As then these things from being abused have 
gained an ill report, so also have tears. Be there a law laid 

S26 Unseemly exhibitions at uedding-f easts. 

Coi.ns. down, that they be used in prayers and exhortations only, 
— '- — '- and see how desirable a thing they will become. Nothing 
doth so wipe out sins, as tears. Tears shew even this bodily 
countenance beautiful ; for they win the spectator to pity, 
they make it respected in our eyes. Nothing is sweeter than 
tearfiil eyes. For this is the noblest member we have, and 
the most beautiful, and the soul's own. And therefore we 
are so bowed therewith, as though we saw the soul itself 

I have not spoken to you without a reason ; but in order 
that ye may cease your attendance at weddings, at dancings, 
^ x»i<>'f- 3it satanical performances \ For see what the devil hath 
invented. Since nature itself hath withheld women fi'ora the 
•-affiftvuv stage, and the disgraceful- things enacted there, he hath 
introduced into the women's chamber the furniture of the 
theatre, I mean, wantons and harlots. This pestilence the 
custom of marriages hath introduced, or rather, not of mar- 
riage, God forbid! but of our own silliness. What is it thou 
doest, O man ? Thou marriest a wife for chastity, and pro- 
creation of children ; what then mean these harlots ? That 
(•jp^i- ti^gj.^ j-j^g^y |jg^ ^y^Q answcrcth, greater gladness^. And yet 
^a^j.^J», is not this rather madness*? Thou insul test thy bride, thou 
thev are"^*^"^^^*^*^^ the women that are invited. For if they are^ de- 
aippos- licjhted with such proceedings, the thing is an insult. If to 

ed to be. ° , , . . n f ^ f 1 1 

see harlots actnig indecorously conierretn any honour, where- 
fore dost thou not drag thy bride thither, that she too may 
see it ? It is quite indecent and disgraceful to introduce into 
one's house lewd fellows and dancers, and all that satanic 

Remember, he saith, tny bonds. Marriage is a bond, a bond 
ordained of God, a harlot is a severing and a dissolving. It 
is permitted you to embellish marriage with other things, such 
as full tables, and apparel. I do not cut off these things, 
lest I should seem to be clownish to an extreme; and yet 
Gen. 24, Rebecca was content with her veil* only ; still 1 do not cut them 

()5. . 

^' fit^i- oil'. It is permitted you to embellish and set off marriage 
r^^I!!'.„„, with apparel, with the presence of reverend men and reverend 

summer i i ' r 

robe.' women. Why introduccst thou those mockeries'? why those 
monsters? Tell us what it is thou hearest from them? 

' «(T/;^af^aTfli, subjects of rejoicing for the enemy. 

Virgins may attend weddings, but quietly. 327 

What? dost thou blush to tell? Dost thou blush, and vet Hom. 

force them to do it? If it is honourable, wherefore dost thou - 

not do it thyself as well? but if disgraceful, wherefore dost 
thou compel another ? Every thing should be full of chaste- 
ness, of gravity, of orderliness ; but now I see the reverse, 
people frisking like camels and mules. For the virgin, her 
chamber'' is the only befitting place. ' But.' saith one, ' she is 
poor.' Because she is poor, she ought to be modest also; let 
her have her character' in the place of a fortune. Has she' r^iirtv 
no dowry to give with herself? Then why dost thou make 
her otherwise contemptible ' through her life and manners ? 
I praise the custom, that virgins attend to do honour to their 
fellow ; that matrons attend to do honour to her who is made 
one of their order. Rightly hath this been ordered. For 
these are two companies, one of virgins, the other of the 
married ; the one are giving her up, the other receiving her. 
The bride is between them, neither virgin, nor wife, for she 
is coming forth from those, and entering into the fellowship 
of these. But those harlots, what mean they? They ought to 
hide their faces when marriage is celebrated ; they ought to 
be dug into the earth, (for harlotry is the corruption of 
marriage,) but we introduce them at our mamages. And, 
when ye are engaged in any work, ye count it ill-omened to 
speak even a syllable of what is adverse to it ; for instance, 
when thou sowest, when thou drawest off the wine from thy 
vats, thou wouldest not, even if asked, utter a syllable about 
vinegar"; but here, where the object is chasteness, introduce 
ye the vinegar? for such is an harlot. When ye are preparing 
sweet ointment, ye suffer nought ill-scented to be near. Mar- 
riage is a sweet ointment. Why then introducest thou the 
foul stench of the dunghill^ into the preparation of thy oint-- ^»e/3a- 
ment? What sayest thou? Shall a virgin dance, and yet^*** 
feel no shame before her fellow ? For she ought to have more 
gravity than the other ; she hath at least come forth from the 
[nurse's] arm', and not from the palajstra. For a virgin ought ^ «f ay- 
not to appear publicly * at all at a marriage. Hl/Za- 

'' (!/.Xafio(, which is used for any al. aa! «i'v»» ^ttl» Ixu tx o^Imt cnu-ainvra 

retired chamber. a.'rox^iyus, ' and in that case thou keep- 

' Some copies add, (let her gain est the very names of vinegar away 

respect through). from thy wines.' 

3*28 Virgin modesly. Mijatcrij of the Marriage Union. 

CoLos. Seest thou not how in kings' houses, the honoured arc 
' within, about the king, the nnhonoured without ? Do thou 
' too be within about the bride. But remain in the house in 
chasteness, expose not thy virginity. Either company is 
standing by, the one to shew of what sort she is whom they 
are giving uf), tlie other in order that they may guard her. 
Why disgracest thou the virgin estate ? For if thou art such 
as this, the same will the bridegroom suspect her to be. If 
thou wishest to liave men in love with thee, this is the part 
of saleswomen, green-grocers, and handicrafts-people. Is not 
this a shame ? To act unseemly is a shame even though it 
be a king's daughter". For doth her poverty stand in the 
way ? or her course of life ? Even if a virgin be a slave, let 

Gal. 3, her abide in modesty. For in Christ Jesus there is neither 


bond nor free. 

What.'' is marriage a theatre } It is a mystery and a type 
of a mighty thing; and even if thou reverence not it, reverence 
that whose type it is. This, saith he, is a great mystery, but 
I speak concerning Christ and the Church. It is a type of 
the Church, and of Christ, and dost thou introduce harlots at 
it ? If then, saith one, neither virgins dance, nor the married, 
who is to dance ? No one, for what need is there of 
dancing? In the Grecian mysteries there are dancings, but 
in ours, silence and decency, modesty, and bashfulness. A 
great mystery is being celebrated : forth with the harlots ! 
forth with the profane ! How is it a mystery ? They come 
together, and the two make one. Wherefore is it that at his 
entrance indeed, there is no dancing, no cymbals, but great 
silence, great stillness; but when they come together, making 
not a lifeless image, nor yet the image of any thing upon 
earth, but of God Himself, thou introducest so great an 
uproar, and disturbest those that are there", and puttest the 
soul to shame, and confoundest it ? They come, about to 
be made one body. See again a mystery of love ! If the 
two become not one, so long as they continue two, they make 
not many, but when they are come into oneness, they then 
make many. What do we learn from this ? That great is 
the power of union. The wise counsel of God at the begin- 

" i. e. at whose weJcling it is done. [that image.]' Downes proposes <ru»- 
' Tout o»Ta(. Possibly ' those that are itrai with some probability. 

Husband and Wife really but one Man. 329 

ning divided the one into two; and being desirous of shewing Hom. 
that even after division it remaineth still one. He suffered not - 

that the one should be of itself enough for procreation. For 
he is not one who is not yet [united ^,] but the half of one ; 
and it is evident from this, that he begetteth no offspring, as 
was the case also beforetime'', Seest thou the mystery of 
marriage? He made of one, one"^; and again, having made 
these two, one, He so maketh one, so that now also man is 
produced of one. For man and wife are not two men, but 
one Man. And this may be confirmed from many sources; for 
instance, from James ', from Mary the Mother of Christ, from 
the words. He made them male and female. If he be the^en. i, 
head, and she the body, how are they two ? Therefore the 
one holdeth the rank of a disciple, the other of a master, the 
one of a ruler, the other of a subject. Moreover, from the 
very fashioning of her body, one may see that they are one, 
for she was made from his side, and they are, as it were, two 

For this cause He also calleth her a help, to shew that Gen. 2, 
they are one ; for this cause He setteth their cohabitation \^' ^^ 
before both father and mother, to shew that they are one. 
And in like manner a father rejoiceth both when son and 
daughter marry, as though the body were hastening to join 
a member of its own ; and though so great a charge and 
expenditure of money is incurred, still he cannot bear 
with indifference to see her' unmarried. For as though her 
own flesh itself were severed from her", each one separately 
is imperfect for the procreation of children, each one is 
imperfect as regards the constitution of this present life. 
Wherefore also the Prophet saith, the residue of thy spirit. Mai. 2, 


P oevli^u. The word (iiiiuf^ites, which • The word is declined, and so 

Ed. Far. would supply, may be under- would not mean Jacob. One Ms. has 

stood. Joseph, which is no plainer. One 

'1 KaSa-Ti^ Ku) v^in^a*. Downes and would expect a solution from the end 
others give up this passage as corrupt, of Hom. v. but none seems to occur 
The Translator suggests, ' as was the there, unhss Jacob's birth after Re- 
case with Adam before Eve was becca's long barrenness be deemed 
formed.' There is still a difficulty, sufficient. 

though this has a meaning, in that God ^ implied in auT« below. The word 

withheld the power then from the undi- is of common gender, 

vided Man, as he does now from the " «kt^, the Translator suggests awr^f, 

not yet reunited. ' as though the flesh itself was severed 

•■ i. e. ' one other.' Savile needlessly away.' This lessens the difficulty, but 

conjectures ' two.' is against all copies. 

830 Marriage- Union really a pure thing. 

Coi.os. And how become they one flesh ? As if thou shouldest take 

— ! — '-- away the purest part of gold, and mingle it with other gold; 

so in truth here also the woman receiving the richest part 

fused by pleasure, nourisheth it and cherisheth it, and withal 

contributing her own share, restorelh it back a Man. And 

tlie child is a sort of bridge, so that the three become one 

flesh, the child connecting, on either side, each to other. For 

like as two cities, which a river divides throughout, become 

one, if a bridge connect them on both sides, so is it in this 

case; and yet more, for the very bridge in this case is formed 

'ryXa of the substance of each. And by this argument' they are 

yv'^""^fQx\c, as the body and the head are one body"; for they are 

divided by the neck ; but not divided more than connected, 

for it, lying between them, brings together each with the 

other; and it is the same as if a chorus that had been severed 

should, by taking one part of itself from this quarter, and the 

other again from the right, make one; or as these when come 

into close rank, and extending hands, become one; for the 

hands extended admit not of their being two. Therefore 

to wit He said with accuracy of expression, not ' they shall 

- us oa^-\iQ one flesh,' but unto one Jiesh'^, namely, that of the child 

Gen."2 wherein they are connected together. What then? when 

^5- there is no child, will they not be still two then } Nay, it is 

plain [they will not], for their coming together hath this effect, 

diff"using and commingling the bodies of both. And as one 

who hath cast ointment into oil, hath made the whole one; 

so in truth is it also here. 

(6) I know that many are ashamed at what is said, and the cause 

of this is your own lasciviousness, and unchasteness. The fact 

of marriages being thus performed, thus depraved, hath gained 

Heb.13, the thing an ill repute : for marricuje is honourable, and the 

bed undejiled. Why art thou ashamed of the honourable, why 

blushest thou at the undefiled ? This is for heretics'', this is 

for such as introduce harlots thither. For this cause I am 

desirous of having it thoroughly purified, so as to bring it back 

again to its proper nobleness, so as to stop the mouths of the 

• al. * They are one as all the mem- are not divided, &c.' 

hers of the body, jointpd together to y On 1 Tim.iv. 3. Tr. p.93. he men- 

the head, bi'come one body, though tions the Maniehees, Marcionites, and 

divided bv (l:r neck. F^nt here Ihev Encratiten. 

The Church the Bride of Christ, and of His flesh. 331 

heretics. The Rift of God is insulted, the root of our ^ene- Hom. 

• XII 

ration; for about that root there is much dung and filth. 

This then let us cleanse away by our discourse. Endure 
then a little while, for he that holdeth filth must endure the 
stench. I wish to shew you that ye ought not to be ashamed 
at these things, but at those which ye do; but thou, passing 
by all shame at those, art ashamed at these; surely then thou 
condemnest God Who hath thus decreed. 

Shall I tell how marriage is also a mystery of the Church? 
Christ came unto the Church, and was made of her, and 
conversed with her by a spiritual intercourse ',ybr, saith one, Vt/vsuir/a 
I have es}wused you to one husband, a chaste viryin. And^j 2? 
that we are of Him, hear how he saith, we all are of His 
members, and of His flesh. Thinking then on all these Eph. 6, 
things, let us not cast shame upon so great a mystery. 
Marriage is a type of the presence of Christ, and art thou 
drunken at it? Tell me; if thou sawcst an image of the 
king, wouldest thou dishonour it ? By no means. 

Now the practices at marriages seem to be matters of 
indifference, but they are the causes of great mischiefs. All 
is full of lawlessness. Filthiness, and foolish talking, awe/ Eph. 5, 
jesting, let it not proceed, ?,aA\h he, out of your mouth. Now ' ' "* 
all these things are filthiness, foolish talking, and jesting; 
and not these simply, but with aggravation, for the thing has 
become an art, and there are great praises for those that 
pursue it. Sins have become an art ! We pursue them not 
in any chance way, but with earnestness, with science, and 
thenceforth the devil takes the command of his own array. 
For where drunkenness is, there is unchasteness : where 
filthy talking, there the devil is at hand bringing in his own 
contributions; with such an entertainment, tell me, dost 
thou celebrate the mystery of Christ ? and invitest thou the 
devil ? 

I dare say you consider me offensive. For this too is a 
property of extreme pervertedness, that even one that re- 
buketli you^ incurs your ridicule as one that is austere. 
Hear ye not Paul, saying. Whatsoever ye do, whether ye eat\ Cor. 
or drink or ivhatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God? ^^^^^' 
But ye do all to ill repoit and dishonour. Hear ye not 

^ Some add, ' instead of what he ought to receive.' 

332 Christ and His Angels present at godly Marriages. 

CoLos. the Prophet, saying, Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice 
Ai}^unto Him with trembling? But ye are wholly without re- 
IL," ' straint'. Is it not possible both to enjoy pleasure, and to do 
so with safety ? Art thou desirous of hearing beautiful songs? 
Best of all indeed, thou oughtest not ; nevertheless, I con- 
descend if thou wilt have it so : do not hear those Satanic 
ones, but spiritual. Art thou desirous of seeing choirs of 
1 ;^;#jiw- dancers'? Behold the choir of Angels. And how is it 
»»T«» possible, saith one, to see them? If thou drive away all 
these, even Christ will come to such a marriage, and Christ 
being present, the choir of Angels is present also. If thou wilt, 
John 2. He will even now work miracles, as He did then ; He will 
make even now the water, wine; and what is more wonderful, 
much, He will convert this unstable and dissolving pleasure, 
this cold desire, and change it into spiritual. This is to 
make of water, wine. Where pipers are, no where there is 
Christ ; but even if He should have entered, He first casts 
those forth ""j and then He works His wonders. What can 
be more disagreeable than this Satanic pomp ? where every 
?a.aj^g»i- thing is inarticulate*, every thing without significancy ; and 
tix^t^** if there be any thing articulate, again all is shameful, all is 
(7) Nothing is more pleasurable than virtue, nothing sweeter 
than orderliness, nothing more amiable than gravity. Let 
any celebrate such a marriage as I speak of; and he shall 
find the pleasui'e ; but what sort of marriages these are, take 
heed. First seek a husband for the virgin, who will be truly 
a husband, and a protector; as though thou wert intending 
to place a head upon a body ; as though about to give not 
a slave, but a daughter into his hands. Seek not money, nor 
splendour of family, nor greatness of country; all these 
things are superfluous ; but piety of soul, gentleness, the 
•■'» true understanding^, the fear of God, if thou wishcst thy 
* (^y<^- darling ^ to live with pleasure. For if thou seek a wealthier 
'^*""' husband, not only wilt thou not benefit her, but thou wilt 
even hann her, by making her a slave instead of free. For 
the pleasure she will reap from her golden trinkets will not 

» \ux*!*t*, are dissolute, lit. < poured »> As when He would raise Jairua' 
abroad.' daughter, Matt. 9, 25. 

Who is a good husband. Wedding -feast, and guests. 333 

be so great as will be the annoyance that comes of her Hom. 
slavery. I pray thee, seek not these things, but most of all, • 

one of equal condition ; if however this cannot be, rather one 
poorer than in better circumstances ; if at least thou be 
desirous not of selling' thy daughter to a master, but of ' «VoS.?- 
giving- her to a husband. When thou hast thoroughly in- 2.* j^j,^^ 
vestigated the virtue of the man, and art about to give her to 
him, beseech Christ to be present: for He will not be ashamed 
to be so; it is the mystery of His presence. Yea rather 
beseech Him even in the first instance, to grant her such a 
suitor. Be not worse than the servant of Abraham, who, 
when sent on a pilgrimage so important, knew whither he 
ought to have recourse; wherefore also he obtained every 
thing. When thou art taking anxious pains, and seeking a 
husband for her, pray ; say unto God, ' whomsoever Thou wilt 
do Thou provide:' into His hands commit the matter; and He, 
honoured in this way by thee, will requite thee with honour. 

Two things indeed it is necessary to do ; to commit the 
thing into His hands, and to seek such a person as He Him- 
self would approve, one that is orderly and chaste. 

When** then thou makest a marriage, go not round from 
house to house borrowing mirrors and dresses ; for the mat- 
ter is not one of display, nor dost thou lead thy daughter to 
a pageant; but decking out thine house with what is in it, 
invite thy neighbours, and friends, and kindred. As many as 
thou knowest to be of a good character, those invite, and bid 
them be content with what there is. Let no one from the 
orchestra be present, for such expense is superfluous, and 
imbecoming. Before all the rest, invite Christ, Knowest 
thou whereby to invite Him ? Whosoever, saith He, hath Mat.25, 
done it to one of these least, hath done it to Me. And think 
it not an annoying thing^ to invite the poor for Christ's sake ; ^ 'ioca,- 
to invite harlots is an annoyance. For to invite the poor is^*"^*' 
a means of wealth, the other of ruin. Adorn the bride not 
with these ornaments that are made of gold, but with gentle- 
ness and modesty, and the customary robes ; in place of all 
golden ornament and braiding, arraying her in blushes, and 
shamefacedness, and the not desiring such things. Let there 
be no uproar, no confusion ; let the bridegroom be called, let 
<• Here he addresses the mother, all the participles being feminine. 

' Knit 

334 An orderly feasi is Jbujid best iv ihe end. 

CoLos. him receive the virgin. The dinners and suppers, let ihem 
— — ^not be full of drunkenness, but of spiritual pleasure. For 
from such a marriage there will spring good things innume- 
rable, and the things of this life will be in security; but from 
the marriages that now are celebrated, (if at least one ought 
to call them marriages and not pageants,) how many are the 
evils ! Tlie banquet hall is no sooner broken up, than straight- 
way comes care and fear, lest aughtthatis bonowed should have 
been lost, and there succeeds to the pleasure melancholy in- 
tolerable. But this distress belongs to the mother-in-law ', — 
nay, rather not even is the bride herself free ; all that follows 
at least belongs to the bride herself. For to see all broken 
up, is a ground for sadness; to see the house desolate, is an 
occasion for dejection. 

There is Christ, here is Satan ; there is cheerfulness, here 
anxious care ; there pleasure, here pain ; there expense, here 
nothing of the kind ; there indecency, here modesty ; there 
envy, hei'e no envy ; there drunkenness, here soberness, 
health, temperance. Bearing in mind all these things, let us 
stay the evil at this point, that we may please God, and be 
counted worthy to obtain the good things promised to them 
that love Him, through the grace and love toward man of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom, to the Father, together with 
the Holy Ghost, be glory, power, honour, now and for ever, 
and world without end. Amen. 









1 Thess. i. 1,2, 3. 

Paul, and Silvamis, and Timotheus, unto the Church of the 
Thessalonians tvliich is in God the Father and in the 
Lord Jesus Christ: Grace he unto you, and peace, from 
God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. We give 
thanks to God always for you all, making mention of you 
in our prayers ; Remembering nithont ceasing your work 
of faith, and labour of love, and patience of hope in our 
Lord Jesus Christ, in the sight of God and our Father. 

Wherefore then, when writing to the Ephesians% and 
having Timothy with him, did he not inchide him with him- 
self (in his salutation), known as he was to them and admired. 
For he says. Ye know the 'proof of him, that as a son withpw.i 
the father, he hath served witJime in the Gospel; and again, ^^" 
/ have no man like-minded who uill naturally care for your^. 20. 
state; but here he does associate him with himself. It seems 
to me, that he was about to send him immediately, and it 

" This mistake cannot be charged on the transcribers, as Timothy is men- 
tioned in Phil. 1,1. 

336 Special intent of the uords, ' C/titrch,' and 'in God.' 
iTHEs.was superfluous for liim to write, who would almost overtake 


— '—^ the letter. For he says, Him there/ore I hope to send prc- 
Phil. 2, sently. But here it was not so; but he had just returned 
to him, so that he naturally joined in the letter'. For he 
'"' savs. Now when Timotlteus came from yoii imto us. But 
1 Thess. why does he place Silvanus before him, though he testifies 
' to his numberless good qualities, and prefers him above all ? 

Perhaps Timothy wished and requested him to do so from 
his great humility; for when he saw his master so humble- 
minded, as to associate his disciple with himself, he would 
much the more have desired this. For he says, 

Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the Church of the 
Thessalonians . Here he gives himself no title — not ' an Apo- 
stle,' not ' a Servant,' I suppose, because the men were newly 
instructed, and had not yet had any experience of him'', he 
does not mention his rank; and at any rate, it was as yet the 
beginning of his preaching to them. 

To the Church of the Thessalonians, he says. And well. 
For since it is probable there were few, and they not yet 
formed into a body, on this account he consoles them with 
the name of the Church, For where much time had passed, 
and the congregation of the Church was large, he does not 
apply this term. But because the name of the Church is a 
name of multitude, and of a system now compacted, on this 
account he calls them by that name. 

In God the Father^ he says, and the Lord Jesus Christ. 
Unto the Church of the Thessalonians, he says, which is in 
God. Behold again the expression, m% applied both to 
the Father and to the Son. But he says, in God, because 
there were many assemblies'*, both Jewish and Grecian. It 
is a great dignity, and to which there is nothing equal, that 
it is in God. God grant therefore that this Church may 
be so addressed ! But I fear that it is far from that 
appellation. For if any one is the servant of sin, he cannot 
be said to be i?i God, (if any one walks not according to 
God, he cannot be said to be in God^) 

b auraZ, perhaps ' of the thing.' '' tKx.Xn<riai. Churches, or assemblies. 

« B. (Ms. Burney 48. Brit. Mus.) New converts would be more familiar 

and Catena have i> for ©1«, Sav. mar. with the word in its secular sense. 
has I» ©«*, and the sense does not allow « Clause added in B. Hales would 

the other, ' the word God.' put ' grace &c.' after the next clause. 

.S7. Paurs f/ianks /ind praijers for the Fdifhfu/. 337 

Grace be unto you, and peace. Do you perceive his Hom. 
encomiums at the very conmieiicement of his Ejjistle ? We — '■ — 
give thanks to God alirays for you all, making mention of 
you in our prayers. For to give thanks to God for them is 
the act of one testifying to their great advancement, when 
they are not only praised themselves, but God also is thanked 
for them, as Himself having done it all. He teaches them 
also to be moderate, all but sayhig, that^ it is all of the power 
of God. That he gives thanks for them, therefore, he declares 
on account of their good conduct, but that he remembers 
them in his prayers, proceeds from his love towards them. 
Then shewing them that he not only remembers them in his 
prayers, but apart from his prayers, he says, what he often 
does, Rememher'ing ivithoul ceasing your icork of faith and 
labour of love, and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, 
in the sight of God and our Father. What is remembering 
without ceasing ? Either remembering before God and the 
Father, or remembering your labour of love that is in sight 
of God and the Father. But he has not said merely, Re- 
membering uithout ceasing; but, yon. Then again, that you 
may not think that this you is said simply, he has added, 
in the sight of God and the Father. For because no one 
amongst men was praising their actions, no one giving them 
any reward, he adds also this, all but saying, ' Be of good 
cheer ; you labour in the sight of God.' What is the work 
of faith '^ That nothing has turned aside your stedfastness ^ 'sWraa-,!, 
For this is the work of faith. If thou believest, suffer all 
things ; if thou dost not suffer, thou dost not believe. For 
are not the things promised such, that he who believes would 
choose^ to sutler even ten thousand deaths ? The kingdom of 
heaven is set before him, and immortality, and eternal life. 
He therefore who believes will suffer all things. Faith then 
is shewn through his works. Justly therefore hath he spoken 
thus, shewing that not lightly, but by your works, have you 
manifested it, by your stedfastness, by your zeal. 

And your labour of love. Why ? what labour is it to love - ? - so B. 
Merely to love is none at all. But to love sincerely is great 

^ B. ' that although ye work.' ciuSoli, which suits aviXto^ui, ' such as 

B av 'iXiaSai Hales conj. and B. for might persuade the heliever to under- 
a.viXiir(xi. But B. reads ttiIitui for vni- go.' 

338 Labour o/ love. Good /ruits of Patience. 

iThes. labour. For tell me, when many things are stirred up that 

— ^—^— would draw us fi'ora love, and we hold out against them all, is 

it not labour ? For what did not these men suffer, that they 

miglit not revolt from their love ? Did not they that warred on 

^'■- the Gospel ' go to Paul's host, and not having found him, 

mation. drag Jason before the rulers of the city ? Tell me, is this 

Acts 17, g^ slight labour, when the seed had not yet taken root, to 

endure so great a storm, so many trials ? And they demanded 

security of him. And having given security, (he says,) Jason 

^®® ^ sent away Paul. Is this a small thing, tell me.? Did not 

9. Jason even expose himself to danger for him } and this he 

calls a labour of love, because they were thus bound to him. 

And observe : first he mentions their good actions, then 

his own, that he may not seem to boast, nor to love them by 

anticipation '. And patience, he says. For that persecution 

was not confined to one time, but was continual, and they 

warred not only with Paul, the master, but with his disciples 

also. For if they were thus affected towards those who 

wrought miracles, those venerable men ; what think you 

were their feelings towards those who dwelt among them, 

their fellow-citizens, who had all of a sudden revolted from 

iThess. them? Wherefore this also he testifies of them, saving, For 

2 14. 7 ., D' 

' ' ye became followers of the Churches of God ivhich are in 

(2) And of hope, he says, in our Lord Jesus Christ, in the 
sight of God and our Father. He hath well spoken thus. 
For all these things proceed from faith and hope, so that 
what happened to them shewed not their fortitude only, but 
that they believed with full assurance in the rewards laid up 
for them. For on this account God permitted that persecutions 
should arise immediately, that no one might say, that the 
Proclamation was established hghtly or by flattery, and that 
their fervour might be shewn, and that it was not human 
persuasion, but the power of God, that persuaded the souls 
of the believers, so that they were prepared even for ten 
thousand deaths, which would not have been the case, if the 
Proclamation had not immediately been deeply fixed and 
remained unshaken. 

' ir^oXr.^f^ti. Assuming good of them before trial. 

The Elect worth suffering for. 339 

Ver. 4, 5. Knowing, brethren beloved, your election of Hom. 
God^. For mir Gospel came not to you in word only, but — '■ — 

also in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much assur- 
ance, as ye know what manner of men we were among you 
for your sake. 

What is this that he says? Ye know what manner of 
men we were among you? Here also he touches upon his 
own good actions, but covertly. For he wishes first to 
enlarge upon their praises, and what he says is something of 
this sort. We knew that you were men of great and noble 
sort, and that you were of the Elect. For this reason ' we also 
endured all things for your sake. For this, what manner of 
men we were among you, is the expression of one shewing 
that with much zeal and much vehemence we were ready to 
give up our lives for your sake ; and for this thanks are due 
not to us, but to you, because ye were elect. On this ac- 
count also he says elsewhere, Therefore I endure all things^ Tim. 
for the ElecCs sakes. For what would not one endure for 
the sake of God's beloved .' And having spoken of his own 
part, he all but says, For if you were beloved and elect, we 
suffer all things with reason. For not only did his praise of 
them confirm them, but his reminding them that they too 
themselves had displayed a fortitude corresponding^ to their' *»«•'?- 
zeal : accordingly he says, ^° 

Ver. 6. And ye became followers of us, and of the Lord, 
having received the word in much affliction with joy of the 
Holy Ghost. 

Strange ! what an encomium is here ! The disciples have 
suddenly become masters ! They not only heard the word, 
but they quickly arrived at the same height with Paul. But 
this is nothing to that which follows. For see whereunto he 
raises them, saying. Ye became followers of the Lord, How.? 
Having received the word in much affliction, ivith joy of the 
Holy Ghost. Not merely in affliction, but in much affliction. 
And this we may learn from the Acts of the Apostles, how Acts 17, 
they raised a persecution against them. And they troubled ~ " 
all the rulers of the city, and they instigated- the city against ' '^*""''" 

^ B. stops it, brethren beloved of Greek. 
God, your election, which is required ' B. adds, ' both ye became imitators 
by the comment as well as by the of us, and.' 


340 Affliction /or Christ relieved by the Spirit. 

1 Thes. them. And it is not enough to say, ye were afflicted indeed, 

— '—^ and believed, but grieving. On the contrary, ye did it even 
exceedingly rejoicing. Which also the Apostles did: Re- 
joicinff, it is said, that they tcere counted icorthy to suffer 

Acts 5, shame for the name of Christ. For it is this that is ad- 
mirable. Although neither is that a slight matter, in any way 
to bear afflictions. But this now was the part of men 
surpassing human nature, and having, as it were, a body 
incapable of suffering. 

But how were they followers of the Lord ? Because He 
also endured many sufferings, and grieved not, but rejoiced. 
For He came to this willingly. For our sakes He emptied 
Himself. He was about to be spit upon, to be beaten and 
crucified, and He so rejoiced in suffering these things, that 

Johni7,He said to the Father, Glorify Me. 

With joy of the Holy Ghost, he says. That no one may 
say, how speakest thou of affliction ? how of joy ? how can 
both meet in one .? he has added, ivith joy of the Holy Ghost. 
The affliction is in things bodily, and the joy in things 
spiritual. How ? The things which happened to them were 
grievous, but not so the things which sprang out of them, 
for the Spirit does not suffer it "\ So that it is possible both 
for him who suffers, not to rejoice, when one suffers for his 
sins; and being beaten to rejoice, when one suffers for 
(•^) Christ's sake. For such is the joy of the Spirit. In return 
for the things which appear to be grievous, it causes delight 
to spring up". They have afflicted you, he says, and perse- 

' «f» cuted you, but the Spirit did not desert you ', even in those 

Lfixt ' circumstances. But as the Three Children in the fire were 

Song, refreshed with dew, so also were you refreshed in afflictions, 
ver 27 . 

* And as there it was not of the nature of the fire to sprinkle 

dew, but of the ivhistling wind°, so also here it was not of 

the nature of affliction to produce joy, but of the suffering 

for Christ's sake, and of the Spirit bedewing them, and in the 

furnace of temptation setting them at ease. Not merely 

with joy, he says, but with much joy. For this is of the 

Holy Spirit. 

■" ovK a^itiffi. Perhaps, ' does not for- Downes had guessed afruirayti. 

sake us,' as just helow. o 'h,a(rv^',^<,tr(,(, as LXX. Uan. 3, 28. 

" \k<Puu. Sav. mar. ilayu, B. (Ms. Bur- and so 15. hut Sav. i^turtZotres , ' wind (or 

ney 48. Hrit. Mus.) titrccyu, ' brings in.' spirit) hedewing.' 

Rapid progress of some an encouragement to amend. 341 

Ver. 7. So that ye were ensamples to all that believe in Hom. 
Macedonia and Achaia. '— 

And yet it was later that be went to them. But ye so shone, 
he says, that ye became instructors of those who received 
(the word) before you. And this is like the Apostle. "■ 
For he did not say, that ye were ensamples in believing, but 
ye are an ensample to those who already believed, that is, 
how one ought to believe in God, ye taught, who from the 
very beginning entered into your conflict. 

And in Achaia, he says ; that is, in Greece. 

Do you see how great a thing is zeal ? that it does not 
require time, nor delay, nor procrastination, but it is sufficient 
only to venture' one's self, and all is fulfilled. Thus then'^^^e"'- 
these, who came in later to the Proclamation, became teachers 
of those who were before them. 

Let no one therefore despair, even though he has lost^^o^^A^ 
much time, and has done nothing. It is possible for him 
even in a little while to do so much, as he never has done in 
all his former time. For if he who before did not believe, 
shone so much at the beginning, how much more those who 
have already believed ! Let no one, again, upon this con- 
sideration be remiss, because he perceives that it is possible 
in a short time to recover every thing. For the futui'e is 
uncertain, and the Day of the Lord is^ a thief, attacking us 23. is a 
suddenly when we are sleeping. But if we do not sleep, it 
will not attack us as a thief, nor carry us off unprepared. 
For if we watch and be sober, it wall not come on us as a thief, 
but as a royal messenger, summoning us to the good things 
prepared for us. But if we sleep, it comes upon us as a 
thief Let no one therefore sleep, nor be inactive in virtue, 
for that is sleep. Do you not know how, when we sleep, our 
goods are not in safety, how easy they are to be assailed ? 
But when we are awake, there needs not so much guarding. 
When we sleep, even with much guarding we often perish. 
There are doors, and bolts, and guards, and outer guards, 
and nevertheless the thief has come upon us. 

Why then do I say this .? Because, if we wake we shall 
not need the help of others ; but if we sleep, the help of 
others will profit us nothing, but even with this we shall 
perish. It is a good thing to enjoy the prayer of the Saints, 

342 Prayers of others avail not for the careless. 

1 Thes. but it is when we ourselves also are on the alert. And what 
^' ^'- need, you say, have I of the prayer of others, if I am on the 

alert myself, and do not ])lace myself in a situation to need 
it ? I do not wish that you should ; but we are always in 
need of it, if we think rightly. Paul did not say, what need 
have I of i)rayer ? and yet those who prayed were not worthy 
of him ^ or rather not equal to him, and you say, what need 
have 1 of prayer ? Peter did not say, What need have I of 
Acts 12, prayer, for prayer, he says, was made tcithout ceasing of 
^- the Chiirch unto God for him. And thou sayest, AVhat need 

have I of prayer? On this account thou needest it, because 
thou thinkest that thou hast no need. Yea, though thou 
become as Paul, thou hast need of prayer. Do not exalt 
thyself, lest thou be humbled. 

But, as I said, if we be active also ourselves, the prayers 
Phil. 1, for us avail too. Hear Paul saying, For I know that this 
^^' shall turn to my salvation through your prayer, and the sup- 

2 Cot. 1, ply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ. And again. That for the 
^ ' • gift bestowed upon us by the means of many persons, thanks 

max/ be given by many on our behalf. And thou sayest, 

what need have I of prayer ? But if we be idle, no one by 

pra}ing for us will be able to profit us. What did Jeremiah 

profit the Jews ? Did he not thrice draw nigh to God, and 

•Ter. 7, thrice hear. Pray not thou for this people, neither lift up 

cry nor prayer, for I will not hear thee? What did Samuel 

profit Saul? Did he not mourn for him even to his last day, 

and not merely pray for him only ? What did he profit the 

1 Sam. Israelites? Did he not say, God forbid that I should sin 

12, 23. ^.^^ ceasing to pray for you. Did they not all perish ? Do 

prayers then, you say, profit nothing ? They profit even 

greatly : but it is when we also do something. For prayers 

indeed cooperate and assist, but a man ' acts with' one that 

is acting 1, and ' assists' one that is himself also working. 

But if thou reinainest idle, thou wilt receive no great benefit. 

(4) For if jirayers had power to bring us to the kingdom 

while we do nothing, why do not all the Greeks become 

Christians? Do we not pray for all the world? Did not 

Paul also do this ? Do we not intrcat that all may be con- 

P i. t'. Worthy to ])ray for him. 'J So B. Edd. om. one &c. 

Hezekiah spared for David's sake. 343 

verted ? For tell me, why do not the wicked become good ? Hom. 
Is it not then manifest, that it is because they do not choose 
to contribute any thing of themselves "^ ? Prayers, then, 
profit greatly, but it is when we also contribute our own 

Would you learn how much prayers have profited? consi- Actsio, 
der, I pray, Cornelius, Tabitha. Hear also Jacob saying tOQ*og 
Laban, Except the Fear of my father had been with me, Gen, 31, 


surely thou hadst sent me away now empty. Hear also God 
again, saying, / will defend this city for Mine own sake, and 2 Kings 
for My servant David's sake. But when? In the time of ^' ^^* 
Hezekiah, who was righteous. Since if prayers availed even 
for the extremely wicked, why did not God say this also 
when Nebuchadnezzar came, and why did He give up the 
city .? Because wickedness prevailed in a greater degree. 
Again, Samuel himself also prayed for the Israelites, and 
pi'evailed. But when ? When they also pleased God, then 
He put their enemies to flight. And what need, you say, of 
prayer from another, when I myself please God. Never, O 
man, say this. There is need, aye, and need of much prayer. 
For hear God saying concerning the friends of Job ; And he 3ohA\, 
shall pray for you, and your sin shall be forgiven you. ' 
Because they had sinned indeed, but not a great sin. But 
this just man, who then saved his friends by prayer, in the 
season of the Jews, was not able to save the Jews who were 
perishing. And that you may learn this, hear God saying 
by the prophet; If Noah, Daniel, and Job were in it, they-EzeV. 
shall deliver neither sons nor daughters. Because wicked- ^^' ^^' 
ness prevailed excessively. And again. Though Moses and j^^.^^^ 
Sainuel stood before Me. is, 1. 

And see how this is said to the two Prophets, because both 
prayed for them, and did not prevail. For when Ezekiel 
said. Ah Lord, xcilt thou destroy the residue of Israel ? God, Ezek. 9 
shewing that He does this justly, and that not despising him^* 
does He reject his supplication for them, shews him their 
sins, almost saying, These things indeed are enough even to 
persuade thee, that not despising thee, but on account of 

' al. ' are not aV)le,' for do not choose, do not contribute anything of them- 
Both are perhaps glosses for the clause selves.' 
in B. and Sav. mar. ' If these (men) 

344 No intercession can save the wicked. 

iThes. their many sins, I do not accept thy supplication. Never- 

— !_l-theless He adds this also, Though Noah, Job, and Daniel 

Ezek. stood before Me. And perhaps He the rather says this to 

'■*• him, because it is he who suffered so many things. Thou 

badest me, he says, eat upon dung, and I ate upon it'. Thou 

badest me shave my head, and 1 shaved it. Thou badest 

me lie upon one side, and I did it. Thou badest me go out 

through a hole in the wall, bearing a burden, and 1 went out. 

Thou tookest away my wife, and badest me not mourn, and 

^T\'^ I did not mourn, but bore it with fortitude. Ten thousand 

Zij lb. 

other things have I done for them : and I entreat for them, 
and dost Thou not comply } God therefore, shewing that it is 
not from despising him that He does this, says, Though 
Noah, Job, and Daniel were there, and should intreat for 
their sons and daughters, I would not comply. 

And again to Jeremiah, who had suffered less from the 
commandments of God, but more from their wickedness, 
Jer. 7, what does He say ? Seest thou not what they do ? ' Yea,' 
he says, ' they do so — but do Thou do it for my sake ' On 
this account He says to him, Though Moses and Samuel stood 
be/ore Me. Moses, their first lawgiver, who often delivered 
Exod. them from dangers, who had said, //" now thou forgivest 
Sept. their sin, forgive it; but if not, blot me out also. If there- 
fore he were now alive, and spoke thus, he would not pre- 
vail, — nor would Samuel, again, who himself also delivered 
them, and who from his earliest youth was admired. For to 
the former indeed 1 said, that I conversed with him as a 
friend with a friend, and not by dark sayings. And of the 
latter I said, that in his first youth I was revealed to him, 
and that on his account, being prevailed upon, 1 opened the 
1 Sam. prophecy that had been shut up. For the word of the Lord, 
^' ■ it is said, icas precious in those days ; there was no open 
vision. If these men, therefore, stood before Me, they would 
Gen. 6, profit nothing. And of Noah He says, Noah was a just 
®- man, and perfect in his generation. And concerning Job, 

Jobi,i.He was blameless, Just, true, fearing God. These then, had 
they stood before Him, and Daniel, whom the Chaldeans 
even thought a god, they would not be able. He said, to 
deliver their sons and daughters. Knowing these things, 

» i. c. food bakud on it. Ezck. 4, 12. 15. 

Prayers of the Saints good, but nith good practice. 345 

therefore, let us neither despise the prayers of the Saints, Hom. 
nor thi-ow every thing upon them: that we may not, on the ^' 
one hand, be indolent and live carelessly ; nor on the other 
deprive ourselves of a great advantage. But let us both 
beseech them to pray and lift up their hands for us, and let 
us adhere to virtue ; that we may be able to obtain the bless- 
ings promised to those who love Him by the grace and loving- 
kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom, &c. 


1 Thess. i. 8, 9, 10. 

For from you sounded out the word of the Lord not only in 
Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith 
to God-ward is spread abroad; so that we need not to 
speak any thing. For they themselves shew of us what 
manner of entering in ive had unto you, and how ye turned 
to God from idols to serve the living and true God; And 
to wait for His Son from Heaven, Whom He raised from 
the dead, even Jesus, Who delivered us from the wrath to 

As a sweet-smelling ointment keeps not its fragrance shut 

up in itself, but diffuses it afar, and scenting the air with its 

perfume, so conveys it also to the senses of the neighbours ; 

so too illustrious and admirable men do not shut up their 

virtue within themselves, but by their good report benefit 

others, and render them better. Which also then happened. 

Wherefore he said. Ye ivere ensamples to all that believe in 

Macedonia and Achaia. For from you, he sa.ys, sounded out 

the word of the Lord, not only in 3Lacedonia and Achaia, 

but also in every place your faith to God-uard is spread 

abroad. Ye have filled, therefore, all your neighbours with 

, Q 31,(1 instruction', and the world with wonder. For this is meant 

Cat. \)y the expression, in every place. And he has not said, your 

faith.' faith is noised abroad, but sounded out, shewing that as 

every place near is filled with the sound of a loud trumpet, so 

Faith of the Tliessalonians how known every where. 347 

the report of your manfulness is loud, and^ sounding even like Hom. 
that, is sufficient to fill the world, and to fall with equal sound 

upon all that are round about. For great actions are more b. and 
loudly celebrated there, where they have taken place; afar off *• 
indeed they ai'e celebrated, but not so much- 

But in your case^ it was not so, but the sound of good^SoB. 
report was spread abroad in every part of the earth. And leti ^^^^ 
not any one think these words hyperbolical. For this nation you-' 
of the Macedonians, before the coming of Christ, was renowned, 
and celebrated every where more than the Romans. And the 
Romans were admired on this account, that they took them 
captive. For the actions of the Macedonian king exceeded 
all report, who, setting out from a little city indeed, yet sub- 
dued the world. Wherefore also the Prophet saw him, a 
winged leopard, shewing his swiftness, his vehemence, his 
fiery nature, his suddenly in a manner over-running the world 
with the trophies of his victory. And they say, that hearing 
from a certain philosopher, that there were infinite worlds, he 
groaned bitterly, that when they were numberless, he had not 
conquered even one. So high-minded was he, of so lofty a 
soul, and celebrated in every part of the world. And with 
the fame of the king the glory of the nation also advanced^.' cwiav. 
For he was called ' Alexander, the Macedonian.' So that as ^°' ' 
he was loudly celebrated, what took place there was also «s»' 
naturally much talked of. For nothing can be concealed 
that relates to the illustrious. The Macedonians then were 
not inferior to the Romans. 

Your faith to God-ward, he says, is spread abroad*. Ob- * Gr. 
serve how, as if he were speaking of something living, ^&^f^tk. 
introduces the word gone forth. This too arose from their 
earnestness. Then shewing that thus they displa}ed their 
faith strong and active, he adds, so that we need not to speak 
any thing, for they themselves shew of us what entering in 
we had unto you. They do not wait to hear from us", but 
those who were not present, and have not seen, anticipate 
those who were present, and have seen your good deeds. So 
manifest were they every where made by report. We shall 
not therefore need, by relating your actions, to bring them to 

» B. and Cat. iraj' Wjnaiv, for trtgi vfioniy ' concerning you.' 

348 Early trial qf the Thessalonians. Christian Hope. 

1 Thes. equal zeal. For the things which they ought to have heard 
^' ^- from us, these they tliemselvcs talk of, anticipating us. And yet 

in the case of such there is frequently envy, but the gi'eatness 
«Gr.theof the thing' conquered even this, and they are the heralds 
excess. ^^ y^^. conflicts. And though left behind, not even so are 
they silenced, but they are beforehand mth us. And 
being such, it is not possible for them to disbelieve our 

What means, What manner of entering in ice had unto 
you f That it was full of dangers, and numberless deaths, 
but that none of these things troubled you. But as if nothing 

2 Bodl. had happened^, so you adhered to us, as if ye had suffered no 
were* ^vil, but had enjoyed infinite good, so you received us after 
happen- these things. For this was the second entering ''. Thus, 

they went to Bercea, they were persecuted, and when they 

came after this they so received them, as though they had 

been honoured by these also % so that they even laid down 

their lives for them. The expression, What manner of 

entering in we had unto you, is complicated, and contains an 

3B. him- encomium both of them and of themselves^. But this he 

has turned to their advantage. And how, he says, ye turned 

to God from idols to serve the living and true Qod ; that is, 

that ye did it readily, that ye did it with much eagerness, 

that it did not require much labour to make you serve the 

living and true God. 

Here also he introduced an exhortation, which is the part 

of one who would make his discourse less offensive. And to 

uait,he says,ybr His Son from heaven, Whom He raised from 

the dead, even Jesus, Who delivered us from lite urath to 

come. And to wait, he &diys, for His Son from heaven. Him 

that was crucified, that was buried ! Wherefore shewing 

this also, he has added, Whom He raised from the dead. 

You see all things at the same time. The Resurrection, the 

Ascension, the second Coming, the Judgment, the reti'ibu- 

tion of the just, the punishment of the wicked. Jesus, he 

*Gr. <fc-says, Who delivered^ as from the wrath to come. This is at 

^ This is not quite clear from Acts by St. Paul was at Philippi previ- 

17, though i/wsc that conducted Paul, ously. 

V. 15. may have been Thessalonians. "= So B. and Cat. al. ' as to be ho- 

The ill-treatment presently mentioned noured even by them.' 

Sujferinff for the Gospel an evidence of Truth. 349 

once comfort, and exhortation, and encouragement to them. Hom. 
For if He raised Him from the dead, and He is in heaven, 
and thence will come, (and that it is so, ye believed ; for if 
ye had not believed it, ye would not have suffered so much,) 
this of itself is sufficient comfort. And if they also shall 
suffer punishment, which he says in his second Epistle, you 
also will have another and no little consolation. 

And to wait, he says, /or His Son from heaven, shewing 
especially that the terrible things are now before them', but' \vx*i- 
the good things are for the future*^, when Christ shall comef"' ,'? 
from heaven. See how much hope is required, in that He 
Who was crucified has been raised, that He has been taken 
up into heaven, that He will come to judge the quick and 
the dead. 

Chap. ii. 1, 2. For yourneloes, brethren, know our entrance 
in unto you, that it was not in vain ; But even after that we 
had suffered before, and, were shamefully entreated, as ye 
know, at Philippi, rve were bold in our God to speak unto 
you the Gospel of God ivith much contention . 

Great indeed were your actions also, but yet neither did (2) 
we have recourse to human speech. But what he says 
above, that also he repeats here, that from both sides is 
shewn what was the nature of the Proclamation, from the 
miracles, and from the resolution of the preachers, and from 
the zeal and fervour of those who received it. For your- 
selves, he says, know our entrance in unto you, that it was 
not in vain, that is, that it was not according to man, nor of 
any common kind. For being fresh from great dangers, 
and deaths, and stripes, we immediately fell into dangers. 
But, he says, even after that we had suffered be/ore, and 
were shamefully entreated, as ye know, at Philippi, we were 
bold in our God. Do you see how again he refers the whole 
to God ? to speak unto you the Gospel of God with much 
contention^. It is not possible, he says, to say, that therea^^-,^ 
indeed we were in danger, but here we are not ; yourselves 
also know, how great was the danger, with how much con- 
tention^ we were among you. Which also he says in his^dycofiut, 

taken as 
' alarm.' 

d \<i [AiXXwii. Catena, h ^xi-^n, ' in to h x^i''^^ ^ut must then be taken 
sight,' which might stand as opposed with what follows. 

350 Conduct of St. Paul not like that of men-pleaserfi. 

1 Thes. Epistle to the Corinthians ; And I was with you in vcakncss, 

■r^ — ^and in labour", and in fear, and in much trenihlinij. 

3. Vor. 3, 4. For our exhortation was not of deceit, nor of 

uncleanness, nor in guile. But as we were allowed of God 

to he put in trust with the Gospel, even so tee speak; not as 

pleasing nien, but God which trieth our hearts. 

Do you see that, as I said, from their perseverance he 
makes a proof that tlie Proclamation is divine ? For, if it 
were not so, if it were a deceit, we should not have endured 
so many dangers, which allowed us not even to take breath ^ 
What then was it? Unless somewhat of things future had 
excited us, unless we had been persuaded that there is a 
good hope, we should not have been filled with the more 
alacrity by suffering. For who would have chosen for the 
sake of what we have here to endure so many sufferings, 
and to live a life of anxiety, and full of dangers? For whom 
would they J^ersuade ? For are not these things of them- 
selves enough to trouble the disciples, when they see their 
teacher in dangers ? But this was not your case. 

For our exhortation, that is, our doctrine, was not of 
deceit. The matter, he says, is not guile nor deceit, that we 
should give it up. It is not for things abominable, as the 
tricks of jugglers and sorcerers. For this is the meaning 
of uncleanness. Nor in guile, nor for any insurrection '^, 
like what Theudas did. But as ne were allowed of God to 
he put in trust with the Gospel, even so we speak, not as 
pleasing men, but God. Do you see, that it is not vain- 
glory? But God, he says, which trieth our hearts. We do 
nothing for the sake of pleasing men, he says. For on 
whose account should we do these things? Then having 
praised them by saying j*" Not as wishing to please men, 
nor seeking honours from men, he adds, But as we were 
allotced of God to be put in trust with the Gospel. As if 
he had said, Unless He had seen that we were free from 
every worldly consideration. He would not have chosen us. 

' B. omite ' and,' &c. as rec. t. sense hardly fits either word. Hales 

B. adds, ' Ye in tribulation, and conj. Ir) (rraatt, and B. and one Paris 

we in tribulation.' Mss. omit tv. 

K Edd. Iw iriffTuau, which Ed. Par. l' B. ' he says,' omitting ' he adds.' 
would render ' for government,' which 

They acted as God's approved Ministers. 351 

As therefore He approved us, such also we remain. JVe Hom. 


were allowed, he says, of God, that is, He approved us, and 

entrusted us with the Gospel. As therefore we appeared to 
God approved, so also we remain. It is a proof of this our 
virtue, that we are entrusted with the Gospel. But if there 
had been any thing bad in us, God would not have approved 
us. But the expression that He approved us, implies, here, 
that He found us trustworthy' and trusted us. It is not, to ■; 
search. For we indeed act upon trial, but He without 
having made trials Therefore so we speak, as it is likely ^ 3«*;^« 
that those should, who are allowed and entrusted of God 
to be worthy of the Gospel. And we speak not as pleasing 
men, that is, not on your account do we do all these things. 
Because previously he had praised them, that he might not 
bring his speech under suspicion, he says, 

Ver. 5, 6, For neither at any time used ice Jiattering 
words, as ye knoiv, nor a cloke of covet ousn ess, God is 
witness. Nor of men sought we glory, neither of you, nor 
yet of others, ithen we might have been burdensome as the 
Apostles of Christ. 

For neither at any time, he says, used we Jiattering words, 
that is, we did not flatter, which is the part of deceivers, who 
wish to get possession and to domineer. No one can say 
that we flattered in order to rule, nor that we had recourse 
to it for the sake of wealth. Of this, which was manifest, 
he afterwards calls them to be witnesses. ' Whether we 
flattered,' he says, ' ye know.' But as to what was uncertain, 
namely, whether it were in a spirit of covetousness", he calls 
God to witness. Nor of men sought we glory, neither of you, 
nor yet of otJiers, when we might have been burdensome as 
the Apostles of Christ, that is, not seeking after honours 
either, nor boasting ourselves, nor requiring attendance of 
guards. And yet even if we had done this, we should have 
done nothing out of character. For if persons sent forth 
by kings are nevertheless'' in honour, n)uch more might we 
be. And he has not said, that ' we were dishonoured,' nor 
that ' we did not enjoy honours,' which would have been to 

' r^oTtji, a character, a way. B. k i. e. though sent by mere earthly 
reads ■jr^ixpxru, ' a c/oke,' (lit. a pre- kings. The Catena omits the word, 

352 Forhearnnce <uid affection of Si. Ptml. 

1 Thes. reproach ihem, but ' we did not seek them.' We therefore, 
zjSlIi who, when we might have sought them, sought them not, 

even when llie Prochimation required it, how shoukl we do 

any thing lor the sake of glory? And yet even if we had 

sought them, not even in that case would there have been 

any blame. For it is fit that those men who are sent forth 

from God, as ambassadors now coming from heaven, should 

enjoy great honour. 

it«<ri- But with an excess of forbearance' we do none of these 

QicuTias. ti^jj^g^^ ([^^^ y^Q ijiay stop the mouths of the adversaries. 

(3^ And it cannot be said, that to you we act thus, but not so 

others. For thus also he said in his Epistle to the Corin- 

2 Cor. thians : Fo)- ye sujffer^ if a man bring you into bondage, if a 
^'' man devour you, if a man take of you, if a man exalt 
2 Cor. himself, if a man smite you on the face. And again. His 

' bodily presence is weak, and his speech contemptible. And 

2 Cor. again, Forgive me this urong. For he shews there also that 

2 j^ ^^' he was exceeding humble from his suffering- so many things. 

tuy, But here he also says concerning money, when ue might 

pihur'" '"''^'^ been burdensome, as the Apostles of Christ. 

on-' Ver. 7, 8. But ire were gentle among you, even as a nurse 

cherisheth her children. So being affectionately desirous of 

you, we were willing to have imparted unto you not the 

Gospel of God only, but also our own souls, because ye icere 

dear unto us. 

But we were gentle, he says, that is, we exhibited nothing 

that was offensive or troublesome, or displeasing, or boastful. 

And the expression, among you, is as if he should say, we 

3>.S|(» were as one of you, not taking the higher place". Even as a 

B. and fm^gQ cherishcth her children. So ought the teacher to be. 

Cat. rit- 

$/». Does the nurse flatter that she may obtain glory } Does she 
ask money of her little children? Is she offensive or burden- 
4 g j^j^, some to them? Are they not more indulgent to them^ than 
Cat. mothers? Here he shews his affection. So being affectionately 
desirous of you, he says, that is, being attached to you, we 
were so bound to you, he says, that we not only took 
nothing of you, but if it had been necessary even to impart to 
you our souls, we should not have refused. Tell me, then, 
is this of a human view? and who is so foolish as to saj' 
this ? We were willing to have imparted to you, he says, 


St. Paid ivilling to give Irif. sold for hisfrlciu/s, ',]~)S 

not t/ie Gospel of God only, hut also our own souls. So that Hom. 
this is greater than the other. And what is the gain ? For '— 

from the Gospel is gain, but to give our soulf=, with respect 
to the difficulty, is a gi'eater thing than that. For merely to 
preach is not the same thing as to give the soul. For that 
indeed is more precious, but the latter is a matter of more 
difficulty. We were vvilling, he says, if it were possible, 
even to spend our souls upon you'. Since then he praised, 
and does praise, on this account he says, that, not seeking 
money, nor flattering you, nor desiring glory, do we do this. 
For observe, if they had contended much, and so otight to 
be praised and admired even extraordinarily, that they might 
be more firm, the praise might be suspicious. On this 
account repelling the suspicion, he mentions the dangers. 
And again, that he may not be thought to speak of the 
dangers on this account, as if labouring for them, and claiming 
to be honoured by them, he has therefore added, after mention 
of the dangers. Because ye were dear unto us; shewing that 
on this account we would willingly have given even our souls, 
because we were vehemently attached to you. The Gospel 
indeed we preached, because God commanded it; but so 
much do we love you, that, if it were possible, we would 
have given even our souls. 

He who loves, ought so to love, that if he were asked even Moral. 
for his soul', and it were possible, he would not refuse it. I^^^,^^v 
Why do I say ' if he were asked,' he would even run to present \ ^?"'[°^ 
him with the gift? For nothing, nothing can be sweeter than 
such love; nothing will fall out there that is grievous. Truly 
a faithful friend is the medicine of life. Truly a faithful 'Ecc\us. 
friend is a strong defence. For what will not a true andjb. u*. 
sincere friend perform.? What pleasure will he not afford? 
what benefit ? what security ? Though you should name 
infinite treasures, none of them is comparable to a real 
friend. And first let us speak of the great delight of friend- 
ship itself. A friend rejoices at seeing his friend, and expands 
with joy. He is knit to him with an union pf soul that 

1 B. adds, ' and we should not have dnred our love.' (tmv dydrtty ) Reading 

been subject to any compulsion.' A rriv dvdyxtj*, from B. the sense would 

Paris Ms. also adds something like this, be, wv should not have suffered that 

which is unintelligible. 'For if we had hard treatment, 
not been willing, we should have en- 

'2 A 

354 Great Blessim/s of true Friendship. 

iThes. affords unspeakable pleasure. And if he only calls him to 
- ' remembrance, he is roused in mind, and transported. 

I speak of real friends, men of one soul, who would even 
die for each other, who love fervently. Do not, thinking of 
those who barely love, who are table-companions, mere 
nominal friends, suppose that my discourse is refuted. If 
any one has a friend such as I speak of, he will acknowledge 
the truth of my words. ITe, thougli he sees his friend every 
day, is not satiated. For him he prays for the same things 
as for himself. I know one, who calling upon holy men in 
behalf of his friend, besought them to pray first for him, and 
then for himself. So dear a thing is a good ftiend, that 
times and places are loved on his account. For as bodies 
that are luminous spread their radiance to the neighbouring 
places, so also friends leave a grace of their own in the 
places to which they have come. And oftentimes in the 
absence of friends, as we have stood on those places, we 
have wept, and remembering the days which we passed 
together, have sighed. Tt is not possible to represent by 
speech, how great a pleasure the presence of friends affords. 
But those only know, who have experience. From friends 
we may both ask a favour, and receive one without suspicion. 
When they enjoin any thing to us, then we feel indebted to 
them ; but when they are slow to do this, then we are 
sorrowful. We have nothing which is not theirs. Often 
desp.ising all things here, on their account we are not willing 
to depart hence, and they are more regretted by us than the 
(4) For, in good truth, a friend is more to be desired than the 
light ; 1 speak of a true one. And wonder not : for it were 
better for us that the sun should be extinguished, than that 
we should be deprived of friends. It is better to live in dark- 
ness, than to be without friends. And I will tell you why. 
Jiecause many who see the sun are in darkness, but they can 
never be even in tribulation, who abound in friends. I speak 
of spiritual friends, who prefer nothing to friendship. Such 
was Paul, w ho would willingly have given his own soul, even 
'seep, though not asked, nay would have plunged into hell' for 
note h"^*^*^"^" ^'^^th so ardent a disposition ought we to love. 

1 wish to give you an example of friendship. Friends, 

Primitive Christians. Friends love to seem indebted. 355 

that is, friends according to Christ, surpass fathers and sons. Hom. 

For tell me not of friends of the present day, since this good — Lj 

thing also has past away with others. But consider, that in 
the time of the Apostles, I speak not of the chief men, but of 
the believers themselves generally, all, he says, were of one Acts 4, 
heart and one soul, neither said any of them that owjht of the 

things u-hich he possessed was his own and distribution 

was made unto every man, according as he had need. There 
were then no such words as ' mine' and ' thine.' This is 
friendship, that a man should not consider his goods his own, 
but his neighbour's, that his possessions belong to another ; 
that he should be careful of his friend's soul "", even as of his 
own, and that his friends should in like manner shew the 
same disposition towards him. 

And where is it possible that such an one should be found? 
Nay, it is not possible because we have not the will, since if 
we were willing it is abundantly possible. For if it wei*e not 
possible, neither would Christ have commanded it, nor have 
discoursed so much concerning love. A great thing is friend- 
ship, and how great, no one can know, and no discourse 
represent, but experience itself It is this ^ that has caused 'i.e. the 
heresies. This makes the Greeks still to be Greeks. He who J^^e. 
loves does not wish to command, nor to rule, but is rather 
obliged when he is ruled and commanded. He wishes rather 
to bestow a favour than to receive one, for he loves, and is 
so affected, as not having satisfied his desire. He is not so 
much gratified when good is done to him, as when he is doing 
good. For he wishes to oblige, rather than to be indebted to 
him; or rather he wishes both to be beholden to him, and to 
have him his debtor. And he wishes both to bestow favours, 
and not to seem to bestow them, but himself to be the debtor. 
I think that perhaps many of you do not understand what has 
been said: it is necessary therefore to say it again. He wishes 
to be the first in bestowing benefits, and not to seem to be the 
first, but to be returning a kindness. Which God also has done 
in the case of men. He purposed to give His own Son for us; 
but that He might not seem to bestow a favour, but to be in- 
debted to us. He commanded Abraham to offer his son, that see Gen. 

22, 16. 

"* Or ' life.' The double meaning of the word should be kept in sight through- 

•2 A 2 

356 True Friendship a plant of Heaven, unknown here» 

1 Thes. whilst doing a great kindness, He might seem to do nothing 
"' '' '- great. 

For when indeed there is no love, we both upbraid men 
with our kindnesses and we exaggerate little ones, but when 
there is love, we Ixtth conceal them and \vish to make the 
great appear small, that wo may not seem to have our friend 
for a debtor, but ourselves to be debtors to him, in having 
him our debtor. I know that the greater part do not under- 
stand what is said, and the cause is, that I am speaking of a 
thing which now dwells in heaven. As therefore if I were 
speaking of any plant growing in India, of which no one had 
ever had any experience, no speech would avail to represent 
it, though I should utter ten thousand words : so also now 
whatever things I say, I say in vain, for no one will be able 
to understand me. This is a plant that grows in heaven, 
having for its branches not heavy-clustered pearls °, but a 
virtuous life, much more acceptable than they. "What plea- 
sure would you speak of, the foul, or the honourable } But 
that of friendship excelleth them all, though you should 
s])eak of the sweetness of honey. For that satiates, but a 
friend never does, so long as he is a friend ; nay, the desire 
of him rather increases, and such pleasure never admits of 
satiety. And a friend is sweeter than the present life. Many 
therefore after the death of their fiiends have not wished to 
live any longer. With a friend one would bear even banish- 
ment willingly ; but without a friend would not choose to 
inhabit even his own country. With a friend even poverty 
is tolerable, but without him both health and riches are 
I ^a-a. intolerable. Such an one has another self; I am straitened ^ 
'^■'"V''*"'" because I cannot instance by an example. For I should 
choking, make it appear that what has been said is much less than it 
ought to be. 

And these things indeed are so here. But from God the 
reward of friendship is so great, that it cannot be expressed. 
He gives a reward, that we may love one another. For He 
says, ' Love, and receive a reward,' for that, for which we 
owe a reward. ' Pray,' He says, ' and receive a reward,* 
for that for which we owe a reward, because we ask for good 
things. * For that which you ask,' He says, ' receive a 
" One Ms. ' branches not laden with fniit, but bearing.' 

God reioards Friendship, though itself a benefit. 357 

reward. Fast, and receive a reward. Be virtuous, and Hom. 

receive a reward,' though you rather owe a reward. Jiut as 
fathers, when they have made their children virtuous, then 
further give them a reward ; for they are debtors, because 
they have afforded them a pleasure ; so also God acts. ' Re- 
ceive a reward,' He says, ' if thou be virtuous, for thou 
delightest thy Father, and for this I owe thee a reward. But 
if thou be evil, not so : for thou provokest Him that begot 
thee.' Let not us then provoke God, but let us delight Him, 
that wc may obtain the kingdom of Pleaven, in Christ Jesus 
our Lord, &c. 



1 Thess. ii. 9—12. 

For ye remember, brethren, our labour and travail: for 
labouring night and day, because we would not be charge- 
able unto any of you, ive jjreached unto you the Gospel of 
God. Ye are witnesses, and God also, how holily and 
justly and unblameably we behaved ourselves among you 
that believe: As ye know how we exhorted and comforted 
and charged every one of you, as a father doth his children. 
That ye would walk worthy of God, Who hath called you 
unto His kingdom and glory. 

' al. ' to The teacher ought to think ' none of those things burden- 
™ ^' some which tend to the salvation of his disciples. For if the 
blessed Jacob was buffeted night and day in keeping his 
flocks, much more ought he, to whom the care of souls is 
entrusted, to endure all toils, though the work be laborious 
and mean, looking only to one thing, the salvation of his 
disciples, and the glory thence arising to God. Accordingly 
see how Paul, being the Preacher and Apostle of the world, 
and raised to so great honour, worked with his hands that 
he might not be burdensome to his disciples. 

For ye remember, he says, my brethren, our labour and 
Iraioil. He had said previously, we m<V///i have been burden- 
some as the Apostles of Christ, as he also says in the Epistle 
1 Cor. to the Corinthians, Do ye not know that they which minister 
J 4 ' about holy things, lire of the things of the Temple? Even so 
hath Christ ordained that they which preach the Gospel 
.should live of the Gospel. But I, he says, would not, but I 
laboured ; and he did not merelv labour, but with much 

The Churches witnesses to St. Paul's personal labour. 359 

diligence. And observe what he says ; For ye reniemher, Hom. 
he has not said, the benefits received from me, but, our '- 

labour and travail: for labouring night and day, because 
we would not be chargeable unto any of you, ive preached 
unto you the Gospel of God. And to the Corinthians he 
said a different thing, I robbed other Churches, taking wages 2 Cor, 
of them to do you service. And yet even there he worked, ' 
but of this he made no mention, but urged what was more 
striking % as if he had said, I was maintained by others when 
ministering to you. But here it is not so. But what.? 
Labouring night and day. And there indeed he says. And 2 Cor.8, 
when I was present with you, and wanted, I was chargeable ^' 
to no man, and, / took ivages to do you service. But here 
he shews that the men were in poverty, but there it was not 

On this account he frequently calls upon them as witnesses. 
For ye are witnesses, he says, and God also, making his 
speech worthy of credit *", and suggesting that which most 
fully assured them. For that indeed was uncertain to those 
who were ignorant of it ; but this was without doubt to all. 
And wonder not. For he did not look to this, that he was " 
Paul who said these things. But much beyond what was 
necessary he gives them assurance. Wherefore he says, 
Ye are witnesses, and God also, how holily and justly and 
unblameably we behaved ourselves among you that believe. 
It was proper to praise them again. On this account he sets 
these things before them, which were sufficient to persuade 
them. For he reasons, that he who was in want, and did not 
receive any thing, would much more not receive any thing 
now. How holily and justly and unblameably we behaved 
ourselves among you that believe. 

As ye know how we exhorted and comforted every one of 
you, as a father doth his children. Above having spoken of 
his behaviour, here he speaks of his love, which was even 
more than what belonged to his rule over them. And what 
is said marks his freedom from pride. As a father doth his 
children, we exhorted and comforted and charged every one 

^ or ' wounding;' TXr^KTucurt^o^. most fully assured them.' 

'' B. and Musculus, God indeed is a "^ B. and Old Lat. for question not 
credible "Witness, but this was what ' Was it Paul, &c.' 

SaO IVkal St. Paul asked of his Converts. 

1 Thes. of you, that ye would ualk worthy of God, Who hath called 
"^ — '- — ' yoti unto His kiiiydoin and glory. When he has said, 
charying you, then lie makes mention oi fathers, shewing 
that although we charged, it was not violently, but like 
fathers. Every one of you. Strange ! in so great a multitude 
to omit no one, neither small nor great, neither rich nor 
poor. Exhorting you to what, does he say? To bear all 
things. And comforting a )id charging. Exhorting^, thexe- 
fore they did not seek glory; and charging, therefore they 
did not flatter. That ye tcould nalk worthy of God, Who 
hath called you to His kingdom and glory. Observe again, 
how, in relating, he both teaches and comforts. For if He 
hath called them unto His kingdom % they ought to endure 
all things. We entreat ^ you, not that you should grant us 
any favour, but that you should gain the kingdom of heaven. 

Ver. 13. For this cause also thank ice God uithout ceasing, 
because when ye received the word of God, which ye have 
heard of us, ye received it not as the word of men, but as it 
is in truth, the word of God, which effectually ivorketh also 
in you that believe. 

It cannot be said, he says, that we indeed do all things 
unblameably, but you have done things unworthy of our 
conversation. For hearing us, you were not affected as hear- 
ing men, but ye gave such heed, as if God Himself were 
exhorting you. Whence is this manifest? Because as he 
shews from his own temptations and their testimony, and the 
way in which he acted, that he did not preach with flattery 
or vain-glory; so from their trials, he shews also that they 
rightly received the word. For whence, he says, unless ye 
had heard as if God were speaking, did ye endure such 
perils .'' And observe his dignity. 

Ver. J 4, 15, 16. For ye, brethren, became followers of the 
Churches of God, uhicli in Judtea are in Christ Jesus ; for 
ye also have suffered like tilings of your own countrymen, 
even as they have from the Jews: Who both killed the Lord 
Jesus, and their own prophets, and have persecuted us, and 
they please not God, and are contrary to all men ; Forbid- 
ding us to speak to the Gentiles that they might be saved, to 

•^ Or entreating, and so he takes it glory.' 
below. f E. V. Exhorting. 

'• B. ;idds, ' if He called them unto 

The Jews persecuted in spite of knowledge. 361 

Jill up their sins alway: for the wrath is come upon them Hom. 
to the uttermost. L 

Ye, he says, became followers of the Churches of God (2) 
which are in Judcea. This is a great consolation. It is no 
wonder, he says, that they should do these things to you, 
inasmuch as they have done it also to their own countrymen. 
And this too is no little proof that the Proclamation is true, 
that even Jews were able to endure all things. For ye, he 
says, have suffered like things of your own countrymen, even 
as they have from the Jews. There is something in his 
saying, ' as they also in Judaea,' for it shews, that every 
where they rejoiced, as having contended. He says there- 
fore, that ye also have suffered like things. And again, 
what wonder is it, if they have dared to do to you, the like 
things which they have done also to the Lord ? 

Do you see how he introduces this as containing great 
consolation ? And constantly he adverts to it ; and upon a 
close examination one may find it in nearly all his Epistles, 
how variously ', upon all occasions of temptation, he brings ' or 
forward Christ. Observe accordingly, that here also, when g^i]^,^. 
accusing the Jews, he puts them in mind of the Lord, and ^««'P''«"« 
of the sufferings of the Lord; so well does he know that this 
is a matter of the greatest consolation. • 

Who both killed the Lord, he says — but, perhaps, they did 
not know Him, — rather they did know Him. What then ? 
Did they not slay and stone their own prophets, whose books^' fiuxn 
even they carry about with them } However, they did not do 
this for the sake of truth. There is therefore not only a con- 
solation under the temptations, but they are reminded not to 
think that [the Jews] did it for the truth's sake, and be troubled 
on that account. And have persecuted us^, he says. And 
we also, he says, have suffered numberless evils. Aiid they 
please not God, and are contrary to all men, forbidding us 
to speak to the Gentiles, that they might be saved. Contrary 
to all men, he says. How t Because if we ought to speak to 
the world, and they forbid us, they are the common enemies 
of the world. They have slain Christ and the prophets, they 
insult God, they are the common enemies of the world, they 
banish us, when coming for their salvation. What wonder 

e \Kiiu\i'»rui ■) drove us out, see Acts 17 5. 14. ov persecuted us to the utmost. 

;362 Punishment of enemies a comfort to the Church. 

iTHEs.if they have done sucli things also to you, when they have 
_£liZ:_done them even in Judoea? Forbidding us to speak to the 
Gentiles, that they mvjht he saved. It is a mark of envy 
therefore to hinder die salvation of all. To fill up their sins 
ahvay. But the wrath is come upon them to the uttermost^. 
These things are not like the former. There is here no return 
back, no limit. But the wrath is nigh at hand. Whence is this 
manifest? From that which Christ foretold. For not only 
is it a consolation to have partakers in our afflictions, but to 
hear also that our persecutors are to bo punished. And if the 
delay is a grievance, let it be a consolation that they will 
never lift up their heads again ; or rather he hath cut short 
the delay, by saying, THE ivrath, shewing again' that it was 
due, and predetermined, and predicted. 

Ver. 17. But we, brethren, being taken from you^ for a 
short time in presence, not in heart, endeavoured the more 
abundantly to see your face with great desire. 

He has not said ' separated,' but what was much more. 
He had spoken above of flattery, shewing that he did not 
flatter, that he did not seek glory. He speaks here concern- 
ing love. Because he had said above, ' as a father,' ' as a 
nurse cherishcth her children,' here he uses another expres- 
sion, being made orphans, which is said of children who 
have lost their fathers. And yet were they ' made orphans ? 
* No' — he says — ' but we. For if any one should examine 
our regret, even as little children without a protector, having 
sustained an untimely bereavement, are in great regret for 
their parents, not only from the feelings of nature itself, but 
also on account of their deserted state, so truly do we too 
feel.' From this also he shews his own despondency on ac- 
count of their separation. And this we cannot say, he saj's, 
that we have waited a long period, hnifor a short time, and 
that in presence, not in heart. For we always have you in 
our mind. See what great love ! Although having them 
always in his heart, he sought also their presence face 
to face. Tell me not of your superlative"' philosophy! 

h B. adds, ' what is to the utter- orphans.' 

most.' 1 The Thessalonians. 

' Sav. would read WXai, ' that it was '" Gr. superfluous. He means such 

lon^' sinco,' for t«X;», ' :ig;iin.' as would make friendship quite inde- 

^ ira^payifiivTtf, ' hercaved,' ' made pendent of such helps. 

St Paul eager actually to see those he loved. 368 

This is truly fervent love; both to see, and to hear, and Hom. 

speak; and this may be of much advantage. We endea- 1- 

voured the more abundantly. What is more abundantly? 
He either means to say, ' we were vehemently attached to 
you,' or, ' as was likely, being bereaved for a season, we en- 
deavoured to see your face.' Observe the blessed Paul. 
When of himself he cannot satisfy his longing, he does it 
through others, as wlien he sends Timothy to the Philippians, 
and the same person again to the Corinthians, holding inter- 
course with them through others, when he cannot of himself. 
For in loving them, he was like some mad person, not to be 
restrained, nor to command himself* in his affection. i ixa^. 

Ver. 18. Wherefore we would have come unto you. fi^xros 

Which is the part of love; yet here he mentions no other 
necessity but ' that we might sec you.' Even I Paul, once 
and again. But Satan hindered us. 

What, say est thou, does Satan hinder? Yes, truly, for (3) 
this was not the work of God. For in the Epistle to the 
Romans, he says that God hindered him; and elsewhere From 
Luke says, that the Spirit hindered them from going into i5°'^2 
Asia. And to" the Corinthians he says, that it is the work of Acts 16, 
the Spiiit, but here only of Satan. But what hindrance of 
Satan is he speaking of.'' Some unexpected and violent tempt- 
ations : for a plot, It says, being formed against him by 
the Jews, he was detained three months in Greece. And it 
is one thing to remain for the sake of the dispensation, and 
willingly, and another to be hindered. For thei'e he says, 
Wherefore having no more place in these parts, and, To Rom. 
spare you I came not as yet unto Corinth. But here nothing 2 Cor^i 
of this sort. But what ^ That Satan hindered him. Even /23. 
Paul, he says, once and again. Observe, how ambitious he «, 

is, and what a display he makes, in his willingness to shew- 
that he loved them most of all. Even I Paul, he says, in- 
stead of Although no others. For they indeed were only 
willing, but I even attempted it. 

Ver. 1 9. For what is our hope, or joy, or croicn of rejoicing ? 
Are not even ye" in the presence of our Lord Jesus Christ at 'i or ye 
His comi)ig? "'*"• 

" 2 Mss. ' in the ciise of." 

364 St. PauVs ardent lox^e. He sent to give comfort. 

1 Thes. Are the Macedonians, tell me, thy hope, O blessed Paul ? 
— '- — Not these alone, he says. Therefore he has added. Are tiot ye 
also. For what, he says, is our hope, or joy, or crown of re- 
joicing? Observe then the words, which are those of women, 
inflamed with tenderness, and talking to their little children. 
And crown of rejoicing, he says. For the name of crown was 
not sufficient to express the splendour, but he has added, of 
rejoicing also. Of what fiery warmth is this ! Never could 
either mother, or father, yea if they even met together, and 
commingled their love, have shewn their own affection to be 
equivalent to that of Paul. Joy and crown, he says, that is, 
T rejoice in you more than in a crown. For consider how 
great a thing it is, that an entire Church should be present, 
planted and rooted by Paul. Who would not rejoice in such 
a multitude of children, and in the goodness of those children ? 
So that it is not flattery. For he has not said ye simply, but 
ye also together with others. 

Ver. 20. For ye are our glory and joy. 

Chap. iii. 1, 2. Wlierefore, when we could no longer forbear, 
we thought it good to he left at Athens alone. We thought 
it good, instead of ' we chose.' And sent Timotheus, our 
brother and minister qf God, and felloiv-labourer in the 
Gospel of Christ. 

And this he says, not as extolling Timothy, but honouring 
them, that he sent them his fellow-labourer, and minister of 
the Gospel. As if he had said, Having withdrawn him from 
his labours, we have sent to you the minister of God, and our 
fellow-labourer in the Gospel of Christ. Then follows also 
the cause, 

To establish you, and to comfort you concerning your 

Ver. 3. That no man should he moved by these afflictions. 

What then does he say here.'* Because the temptations of 
the teachers trouble their disciples, and he liad then fallen 
into many temptations, as also he himself says, that Satan 
hindered tts, he has spoken thus to recover them. And this 
is what he says; Once and again I would have come to you, 
and was not able. Which was a proof of great violence, and 
it is probable that this would trouble them, for disciples are 
not so much troubled at their own lemptulions, as at those of 

Trials less grievous if foretold. 365 

their teachers; as neither is the soldier so much troubled at Hom. 

his own trials, as when he sees his general wounded. To 

estahlisJi you, he says. So then he sent him that they might 
not be troubled, but not that they were at all deficient in 
faith, nor that they required to learn any thing. 

And to comfort you concerning your faith, that no man 
should be moved by these ajjHictions; for yourselves know that 
we are appointed thereunto. 

Ver. 4. For verily ivhen we were with you, we told you 
before that we should suffer tribulations, even as it came to 
pass, and ye know. 

Ye ought not, he says, to be troubled, for nothing strange, 
nothing contrary to expectation has happened; which was 
sufficient to raise them up. For do you see that on this 
account also Christ foretold to His disciples.'' For hear Him 
saying, A^ow have I told you before it come to pass, that when JohnU, 
it is come to pass ye may believe. For greatly indeed, greatly 
does it tend to the comfort of others, to have heard from their 
teachers what is to happen. For as he that is sick, if he hear 
from his physician that this or that is taking place, is not 
much troubled ; but if any thing happen unexpectedly, as if 
he too were at a loss, and the disorder was beyond his art, 
he is afflicted and troubled ; so also is it here, which Paul 
foreknowing, foretold to them, ' we are about to be afflicted,' 
as it came to pass, he says, and ye know. He not only says 
that this came to pass, but that he foretold also many other 
things, and they happened. We are appointed, thereunto, 
so that not only ye ought not to be troubled and disturbed 
about the past, (for that is to he moved,) but not even about 
the future, if any such things should happen, /br we are ap- 
pointed thereunto. 

Let us hear, who have ears to hear. The Christian is Moral. 
appointed thereunto. For concerning all the faithful is this (4) 
said. We <tre appointed thereunto. And we, as if we were 
appointed'' for ease, think it strange if we suffer any thing, 
and yet what reason have we for thinking any thing strange? 
For no season of affliction or temptation has ovei'taken us, 
but what is common to man. It is a fit season for us to say to 

•5 x«i^i»ai. He altudeis to the sense * laid,' as if it were ' laid down to repose.' 

366 Christians in peace should do exercise for ivar. 

1 Thes. you, Ye have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin, 

^' ^- Or vatluT, this is not seasfniaMe for us to say to you — but 

Heb.i2, ^^^^^^ p ^.^ j^^^,^ ^^^ ^^^^ despised riches. For to them 

indeed these words were said with reason, when they had 
seeHeb. lost, all thcir own jiossessions, but this is said to those who 
^*^' ^^' retain theirs. Who has been robbed of his riches for Christ's 
sake ? Who has been beaten ? Who has been insulted ? 
even in words, 1 mean. ^Vllat have you to boast of? What 
confidence have you to say any thing.'' So many things 
Christ suffered for us when we were enemies. What can we 
shew that we have suffered for Him .? Nothing that we have 
suffered indeed, but infinite good things that we have re- 
ceived from Him. Whence shall we have confidence in that 
Day.'' Know ye not, that the soldier too, when he can shew 
numberless wounds and scars, will then be able to shine in 
the presence of the king? But if he has no good action to 
shew, though he may have done no harm, he will be ranked 
among the last. 

But, you say, it is not the season of war. But if it was, 
tell me, who would contend? Who would attack? Who 
would break througli' the phalanx? Perhaps no one. For 
when I see that you do not despise riches for the sake of 
Christ, how shall I believe that you will despise blows? 
Tell me, do you bear manfully those who insult you, and do 
you bless them ? You do not — but you disobey. What is 
attended with no danger, you do not; and will you endure 
blows, in which there is much pain and suffering? Know 
ye not that it is proper in peace to keep up the exercises of 
' r««T(n/f war''. Do you not see these' soldiers, who though no war 
earthly, ^is^urbs them, but it is profovmd peace, brightening up their 
arms, and going forth with the masters, who teach them 
tactics, into the broad and level jilains, I may say, every day, 
keep up with the greatest strictness the exercises of war? 
Of our spiritual soldiers, who has done this? Not even one. 
For this reason we become in war weak, ignoble, easily led 
captive by any. 

f 3(«|aKr», '^ Push through', thus we ' push through' may be taken of urging 

read ot u6i<r(t.h, Angl. ' shoving' in hard- on his fellows. 

fought battles. B. has Sjt*o\^i, another ^ jj, pace, ut sapitns, aptarit idonea 

tiifutt, ' struck or beat through;' bcllo. Hm: 

Various enemies are ahcays about ris. 367 

But what stu}3idity is this, not to think the present a Hom. 
season of war, when Paul is crying out, Yea, and all that will ^ ^.^" 
live godly in Christ Jesvs shall svffer jyersecution; and Christ 3, 12. 
says. In the world ye shall have tribulation. And again the Johnie, 
blessed Paul with a loud voice cries out, saying, We icrestle Ephes. 
not against flesh and blood, and again, Stand therefore,'^^^'^-^ 
having your loins girt about with truth. And none of them 
ever then said. Why dost thou arm us, when it is not war? 
Why dost thou give us trouble to no purpose ? Thou puttest 
breastplates on the soldiers, when it is allowed them to rest 
and be still. But if any one had said this, he would have 
heard on the other hand, Certainly, however, though it is 
not war, it is right to attend to the concerns of war. For 
he who in peace considers the business of battle, will be 
formidable in the season of battle; but he who is without 
experience in the things of war, will be more troubled even 
in peace. AVhy so ? Because he will weep for the things 
which he possesses, and not being able to fight for them, 
will be in anguish. For the possessions of the cowai'dly and 
inexperienced, and ignoble in war, are the property of all 
who are brave and warlike. So that on this account first 
I arm you. But then also the whole time of our life is the 
season of war. How and in what respect ? The devil is 
ever at hand. Hear what is said concerning him. He goeth ]Pet. 5, 
about as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour. ' 
Numberless bodily affections assail us, which it is necessary 
to enumerate, that we may not vainly deceive ourselves. 
For tell me, what does not war against us .'' Do not riches, 
beauty, pleasure, power, authority, envy, glory, pride ? For 
not only does our own glory war against us, forbidding us to 
descend' to humility; but the glory of others also, leading! al. ' to 
us to envy and ill-nature. And what do their oppositcs, ''*°°P* 
poverty, dishonour, the being despised, rejected, having no 
power t These things indeed are in us. But from men 
proceed wickednesses, plots, deceits, slanders, assaults in- 
numerable. In like maimer on the part of the devils, 
principalities, powers, the riders of the darkness of this world, Eph. 6, 
spiritual wickednesses. Some of us are rejoicing, others ^' 
grieving, both are deviations from the right course. But 
health and sickness (war against us). From what quarter 

3()8 Passions tempt men an Piif/ans: did the Martyrs. 

iTHEs.'"'in not man be falling into sin? Would you that I should 

•^' ^- tell you from the hoginning, commencing even immediately 

from Adam? What took captive the first created? Pleasure, 

and eating, and the love of dominion. What, the son who 

came next after him ? Grudging and envy. What those in 

the time of Noah ? Fleshly pleasures, and the evils issuing 

from them. What his son ? Insolence and irreverence. 

What the Sodomites? Insolence, wantonness, and fulness of 

bread. But often even poverty has this effect. On this 

„ account a certain wise man said, Give me neither poverty 

Frov. ^ . 

30, 8. nor riches. However it is neither poverty nor riches, but the 

J. , g will that cannot use either of them aright. Acknowledge^ he 

9, 13. says, that thou passest through the midst of snares. 

Sut?° The blessed Paul has admirably said, We are appointed 

Horn, thereunto. He has not said merely, that we are tempted, 

p. 252. but that ice are appointed thereunto, as if he had said. For 

(5) this were we born. This is our business, this our life, and dost 

thou seek rest ? The executioner does not stand over us, 

lacerating our sides, and compelling us to sacrifice, but the 

desire of riches, and of possessing more, is instant, tearing 

out our eyes. No soldier has kindled a pile, nor placed us 

on a gi'idiron", but more than this, the flames of the flesh 

set fire on our souls. No king is present promising 

numberless bounties, and putting us out of countenance. 

But there is present a rage for glory, tickling us worse 

than he. Truly great is the war, exceedingly great, if we 

would watch. 

And the present season too has its crowns. Hear Paul 

2 Tim. '^^yi^g' Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of 

4, 8. rigliteousness, which the righteous Judge shall give me. . . and 

not to me only, but unto all them that love His appearing. 

When tliou hast lost a beloved and only son, whom thou 

weit bringing up in much wealth, displaying good ho])es, 

himself being the only one to succeed to thine inheritance ; 

do not complain, but give thanks to God, and glorify Him 

who has taken him, and in this respect thou wilt not be worse 

than Abraham. For as he gave him to God, when he com- 

* M K^arUXti;. From the Latin Peri'^teph. H. ii. 399. An iron seat is 
' L'raticiila.' iSiich was the ' Catasta' mentioned as thus used at Vienna, 
in the martvrdom of St. Laurence. Prud. Euseb. v. 1. 

Sickness and worldly loss opportunities of gain. 3 (59 

manded it, so thou hast not complained, when He lias taken Hom. 
him. Hast thou fallen into a severe sickness, and do many 
come, constraining thee, some with charms, some with 
amulets, and others with other things, to remedy the evil ? 
and hast thou borne it firmly and unflinchingly from the fear 
of God, and chosen to suffer all things rather than submit to 
do any of those idolatrous practices ? This brings to thee the 
crown of martyrdom. Doubt it not How ' and by what 
means ? I will tell thee. For as such an one bears firmly 
the pains of torture, so as not to worship the image, even 
so thou bearest the sufferings of thy disease, so as to want 
nothing of those remedies which the other offers, nor to do 
the things which he prescribes. ' But those pains are more 
violent' — ^j^es, but these are of longer duration, so that it is the 
same in the end; nay often these are more severe too. For 
tell me, when fever is raging and burning within, and thou 
rejectest the charm that others recommend to thee, hast thou 
not bound on thee the crown of martyrdom } 

Again, has any one lost money ? many advise thee to have 
recourse to diviners ; but thou, from fear of God, because it 
is forbidden, choosest rather not to receive thy money than 
to disobey God — thou hast a reward equal to him who has 
given it to the poor. If having lost, thou givest thanks, and 
when able to have recourse to diviners, thou bearest not to 
receive, rather than so to receive it, thou art equal in respect 
of gain to him, who has divested himself of the same for 
God's sake. For as he from the fear of God has given all 
to the poor, so thou also from fear of God, when they have 
plundered thee, hast not recovered it. 

We are the masters of injuring or not injuring ourselves. 
And if you will, let us make the whole matter plain in the 
case of theft itself The thief has broken through the wall, 
he has rushed into the chamber, he has carried off costly 
golden vessels, and precious stones, in short, he has cleared 
thy whole treasure, and has not been taken. The fact is 
grievous, and it seems to be a loss; still as yet it is not 
so, but it depends on thee to make it either a loss or a 
gain. And how, sayest thou, can this be a gain } I will 

' 1 Ms. But if thou livest, how. 

2 r. 

.•)7() Jul/s Patience, under losses better than almsgiving. 

I Thes. endeavour to shew ihoe liow. If ihou art willing, it will 

- ' ' be a great gain, but if unwilling, the loss will be severer 

than that which has taken place. For as in the case of 

artificers, when material is before them, he who is skilled 

in his art uses it to good purpose, but he that is unskilful 

spoils it, and makes it a loss to him, so also in these matters. 

How then will it be a gain.'' If thou givest thanks to God, 

if thou dost not wail bitterly, if thou utterest the words of Job, 

Job 1, jy^^. Lord go n> and the Lord hath taken away. Naked came 

LXX. I out of 1111/ mother^s ivomh, and naked shall / depart. 

' What ?' sayest thou, ' the Lord hath taken away ? The 
thief hath taken awa}', and how canst thou say, the Lord 
hath taken away V Wonder not, for even Job, of things 
which the devil took away, said. These the Lord hath 
taken away. And if he had the boldness to speak thus, 
how shalt not thon say of what the thief has taken. The 
Lord hath taken away 't Tell me, whom dost thou admire ? 
him who has bestowed all his goods upon the poor, or Job 
for these words.? Is he, who did not then give, inferior to 
him, who has given alms } For say not, ' I am not obliged. 
The matter was not done with my consent, or knowledge, or 
will. The thief took it. What will be my reward V Neither 
did he take Job*s possessions with his knowledge or will. 
For how could he ? Nevertheless, he wrestled". 

And it is in thy power to receive as great a reward, as if 
thon hadst cast it away willingly. And perhaps we admire 
this man more, who thankfully suffers wrongs, than him who 
gives spontaneously. And why ? Because the latter indeed 
is fed with praises, and supported by conscience, and has 
good hopes ; and having before" borne manfully the privation 
of his goods, he then cast them away ; but the former, whilst 
yet bound to them, was forcibly deprived of them. And it 
is not the same thing, having first been induced to part with 
riches, in that way to bestow them, as it is while yet retaining 
the possession to be de]nived of them. If thou wilt say these 
words, thou wilt receive many times as much, and even more 
than Job. For he received twice as much here, but to thee 
Christ has promised a hundredfold. From the fear of God, 

" i. e. with the temptation. See on " i. e. in preparation. 
Stat. Horn. i. p. IS. 

Holo to disappoint Satan iclien wronged. o71 

thou hast not blasphemed, thou hast not had recourse to Hom. 

diviners, suffering wrong, thou hast been thankful. Thou L 

art like one who despises wealth, for thou couldest not do this, 
hadst thou not first despised it. And it is not the same 
thing in a long time to practise the contempt of riches, and 
all at once to bear a loss that has happened. Thus the loss 
becomes gain, and thou wilt not be injured, but even benefited 
by the devil. 

But how does the loss also become grievous ? When thou (6) 
losest thy soul ! For tell me, the thief has deprived thee of 
thy possessions: why dost thou deprive thyself of salvation? 
Wherefore, grieving at the evils which thou hast suffered from 
others, dost thou plunge thyself into more evils ? He perhaps 
has involved thee in poverty: but thou perversely'' injurest 
thyself in things that are especially fatal. He hath deprived 
thee of things that are without thee, and that hereafter would 
fail thee even against thy will. But thou deprivcst thyself of 
the eternal riches. The devil hath grieved thee by taking 
away thy wealth ; grieve him also by being thankful, and do 
not delight him. If thou hast recourse to diviners, thou 
delightest him. If thou renderest thanks to God, thou givest 
him his death-blow. 

And see what happens. Thou wilt not still find it, if thou 
goest to the diviners, for it is not in their power to know ; 
and even if by any chance they have told thee, thou both 
losest thy own soul besides, and thou wilt be derided by thy 
brethren, and again wilt lose it wretchedly. For the devil, 
knowing that thou canst not bear thy loss, but for the sake 
of thy money deniest even thy God, again gives thee wealth, 
that he may have an opportunity of deceiving thee again. 
And if the diviners should tell thee, wonder not. The devil 
is without body : he is every where going about. It is he 
who arms' the robbers themselves. For these things do not i i.e. 
take place without the devil. If therefore he arms them, he ''°'°", 
knows also where it is deposited. He is not ignorant of his 
own ministers. And this is not wonderful. If he sees thee 
grieving at the loss, he adds yet another to it. If he sees 
thee laughing at it, and despising it, he will desist from this 
course. For as we deal to our enemies those things by 

y KctKotj^yiuf, which B. omits. 

2 B 2 

372 Giviruj Alnoi after losses, liyhtens them. 

1 Thes. which we grieve them, but il" w c see that they do not grieve, 
— '— ^ we hencefortli desist, as being unable to ])Uigue them; so 
does the devil also. 

What sayest thou? Dost tliou not see those who sail on 
the sea, how, when a storm arises, they regard not their 
wealth, but even throw overboard their substance? And no 
one says, ' O man, what art thou doing ? Art thou coope- 
rating with the storm and the shipwreck ? Before the wave has 
taken away thy wealth, dost thou do it with thine own hands? 
Why, before the shipwreck, dost thou wreck thyself?' But 
indeed a rustic inexperienced in the trials of the sea might 
say this. But the naval man, and one who truly knows what 
are the causes of calm, and what of storm, will even laugh at 
him who talks thus. For I throw it overboard, he says, that 
there may be no whelming sea". So he who is experienced 
in the events and trials of life, when he sees the storm 
impending, and the spirits of evil wishing to cause shipwreck, 
throws overboard even the remainder of his wealth. Hast 
thou been plundered ? Do alms, and thou lightenest the 
ship. Have robbers ravaged thee? Give what remains to 
Christ. So thou wilt console thy i)cverty from thy former 
loss. Lighten the ship, do not hold fast what remains, lest 
the vessel fill with water. They, to preserve their bodies, 
throw their goods overboard, and wait not for the assailing 
wave to overturn the vessel. And wilt thou not stay the 
shipwnck, that thou mayest save souls ? 

Make the trial, I beseech you — if you disbelieve, make the 
trial, and you will see the glory of God. When any thing 
grievous has happened, immediately give alms. Render 
thanks that it has happened, and thou wilt see how much 
joy will come uj)on thee. For spiritual gain, though it be 
small, is so great as to throw into the shade all bodily loss. 
As long as thou hast to give to Christ, thou art rich. Tell 
me, if, when thou wast robbed, the king coming to thee held 
out his hand, begging to receive something from thee, wouldest 
thou not then think thyself richer than all, if the king not 
even alter so great poverty was ashamed of thee ? Be not 
carried away with thy wealth, only overcome thyself, and 

' B. xXj;Sa;v,'<,v for xAuS»y: calm, storm, sense. What is a ^^torm to a deep 
&c. stem to lie usid here in a relative laden vessel, being less to a light one. 

How to be above riches. What are the best stores. 373 

thou wilt overcome the assault of the devil. It is in thy power Hom. 

to acquire great gain. - 

Let us despise wealth, that we may not despise the soul. 
But how can any one despise it ? Dost thou not see in the 
case of beautiful bodies, and the lovers of them, how as long 
as they are in their sight the fire is kindled, the flame rises 
bright ; but when any one has removed them afar off, all is 
extinguished, all is lulled to sleep ; so also in the case of 
wealth, let no one provide gold, nor precious stones, nor 
necklaces ; when seen, they ensnare the eyes. But if thou 
wouldest be rich like the ancients, be rich not in gold, but in 
necessary things, that thou mayest bestow on others from 
that M'hich thou hast ready. Be not fond of ornament. Such 
wealth is both easy to be assailed by robbers, and a thing 
that brings us cares. Do not acquire vessels of gold and silver, 
but let there be stores of bread and wine and oil, not that 
being sold again they may procure money, but that they 
may be supplied to those who need. If we withdraw ourselves 
from those superfluities, we shall obtain heavenly goods; 
which God grant that we may all obtain, in Jesus Christ our 
Lord, with Whom, &c. 


1 Thess. iii. 5 — 8. 

For this cause, when I could no longer forbear^ I sent to 
know your faith ^ lest by some means the tempter have 
tempted you, and our labour be in vain. But now when 
Timotheus came from you unto us, and brought us good 
tidings of your faith and charity, and that ye have good 
remembrance of us always, desiring greatly to see us, as 
tve also to see you: Therefore, brethren, we were comforted 
over you in all our affliction and distress by your faith : 
For now we live, if ye standfast in the Lord. 

A QUESTION lies before us to-day, which is much disputed, 
and which is gathered from many sources. But what is this 
question ? For this reason, he says, when I coidd no longer 
forbear, I sent Timotheus to know your faith. What sayest 
thou ? lie, who knew so many things, who heard unutterable 
words, who ascended even to the third heaven, doth not he 
know, even when he is in Athens ? And yet the distance is 
not great, nor has he been long parted from them. For he 
says. Being taken from you for a short time. Such an one 
therefore did not know the affairs of the Thessalonians, but 
is compelled to send Timothy to know their faith, lest, he 
says, the tempter have tempted you, and our labour be in 

What then is one to say } That the Saints knew not all 
things ? Well, that they knew not, one may learn from many 
instances, both of the early ones, and of those who came after 

llhy the Saints did not know all things. 375 

them, as Elisha knew not concerning the woman, and Elijah Hom. 
said to God, / only am left, and they seek my life. Where — 
fore he heard from God, / have left me seven thousand. As 4, 27."^ 
Samuel again when he was sent to anoint David, The Lord^^^^^^ 
said to him, Look not on his countenance, nor on the height anA li. 
of his stature, because I have refused him., for the Lord seeth 257"' 
not as man seeth ; for man looketh on the outward appear- 
ance, but the Lord looketh on the heart. 

And this comes to pass out of great care on God's part. 
How, and in what way ? For the sake both of the Saints 
themselves, and of those who believe in them. For as He 
permits that there should be persecutions, so He permits that 
they also should be ignorant of many things, that they may 

be kept humble. On this account also Paul said, There xcas^ Cor. 

12, 7. 
given to me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to 

buffet me, lest I should be exalted above measure. And 
again, lest others also should have great imaginations con- 
cerning them. For if they thought they were gods from their 
miracles, much more if they had continued always knowing 
all things. And this again he also says : Lest any man ib. 6. 
should think of me above that which he seeth me to be, or that 
he heareth of me. And again hear Peter, when he healed 
the lame man, saying. Why look ye so earnestly on us, as Acts 3 
though by our own power or holiness we had made this man ^^' 
to walk. And if even when they were saying and doing these 
things, from these few and small miracles, evil imaginations 
were thus engendered, much more would they have been from 
great ones. 

But for another reason to these things were allowed. For 
that no one might be able to say it was as being other than men 
that they ])erformed those excellent actions, and so all should 
become supine, he shews that they also were subject to 
infirmity, that he might cut off' all pretext of impudence from 1 one 
those who were willing to be undutiful. For this reason he ^*- 
is ignorant (of some things) for this reason also, after having mar. 
purposed, he does not come, that they might perceive there '**''>^?' 
were many things he knew not. Great advantage then came of 
this. For if* there were some yet saying. This man is the 

» Sav. conj. li yaj for 5 yaj «V, and late. B. omits av, which comes very 
so both Musculus and Hervetus trans- near it. 

37() Temptation may he where there is no loavering. 

1 THEs.great power of God, and some, that it is this person, or that, 
' '- unless these things had been so, what would they not have 

Acts 8, 

JO. thought ? 

But here, however, there seems to be a censure on them. 
But to one who considers the matter exactly, it shews their 
admirable conduct, and proves the excess of their temptations. 
How ? Attend. For if thou first sayest ' that we are ap- 
pointed thereunto,' and ' let no man be moved,' why again 
dost thou send Timothy, as if thou fearedst that something 
might happen, which thou wouldest not wish. This indeed 
he does from his great love. For those who love suspect 
even what is safe from their exceeding warmth. But this is 
fi'om tlieir great temptations. For 1 said indeed that we are 
appointed thereunto, but the excess of the temptations 
alarmed me. Wherefore he has not said, 1 send him as 
condemning you, but when I could no longer forbear, which 
is rather an expression of love. 

What means, Lest by some means the tempter have tempted 
you ? Dost thou see that to be shaken in afflictions proceeds 
from the devil, and from his seduction. For when he cannot 
shake us ourselves, he takes another way **, and shakes the 
weaker sort through our means, which argues exceeding 
infirmity, and such as admits of no excuse, as he did in the 

Job 2,9. case of Job, having stirred up his vA'ife, Speak some uord 
against the Lord, she says, and die. See how he tempted 

But wherefore has he not said, ' shaken,' but tempted? 
Because, he says, I only suspected so much, as that you had 

' <rax«». been tempted. For he does not call his temptation awavering'. 
For he who admits his attack is shaken. Strange ! how great 
is the affection of Paul ! He did not regard afflictions, nor 
plots against him. For I think that he then remained there, 

Acts20, as Luke says, that he abode in Greece three months, when" 
the Jeics laid wail for him. 

His concern therefore was not for his own dangers, but 
for his disciples. Seest thou how he surpassed every natural 

^ Wi^uf, B iri^evf, ' he shakes resource against ttn. 

others that are weaker :' Wt^us might <^ The Greek will read thus, but will 

be taken thus, ' when he cannot shake hardly bear the construction, 
us otherwise,' the other being a last 


St PauVs fears, and hoio he expressed them. 377 

parent. For we in our afBictions and dangers lose the Hom. 
remembrance of all. But he so feared and trembled for - 

his children, that he sent to them Timothy, whom alone he 
had for his consolation, his companion and fellow-labourer, 
and liim too in the very midst of dangers. 

And our labour, he says, be in vain. Wherefore ! for even 
if they were turned aside, it was not through thy fault, not 
through thy negligence. But nevertheless, though this were 
the case, 1 think, from my great love of the brethren, that 
my labour had been rendered vain. 

Lest by some means the tempter have tempted you. But 
he tempts, not knowing whether he shall overthrow. Does 
he then, even though he knows not, yet assail us, and do we, 
who know that we shall completely overcome him, not 
watch? But that he does attack us"', though he knows not, 
he shewed in the case of Job. For that evil demon said to 
God, Hast Thou not made a hedqe about his thinqs within, ^^^ i; 

10. 11. 

and his thinys without ^ Take away his yoods, and surely se^it. 
he will curse Thee to Thy /ace. He makes trial; if he sees 
any thing weak, he makes an attack, if strong, he desists. 
And our labour, he says, be in vain. Let us all hear, how 
Paul laboured. He does not say work, but labour, he does 
not say, and you be lost, but our labour. So that<^ even if 
any thing happened, it was probable. But that it did not 
was a great wonder. These things indeed we expected, he 
says, but the contrary happened. For not only did we 
receive from you no addition to our affliction, but even con- 

But now when Timotheus came from you unto us, a?id 
brought us good tidings of your faith and charity. Brought 
us good tidings, he says. Do you see the excessive joy of 
Paul? he does not say, brought us vvord, but brought us good 
tidings. So great a good did he think their stedfastness and 
charity. For it was necessary, the one remaining firm, that 
the other also must be stedfast. And he rejoiced in their 
love, because it was a sign of their faith. And that ye have, 

'' wg»<r/3aXX£< ree. Par. and 2 Mss. so great, that although they did not 
*" The connection is difficult. He perish, but only suffered loss, his labour 
may mean that St. Paul's labour was would be in some sense in vain. 

378 St. Paul felt suffering as trying the faith of others. 

1 Thes. he says, good remembrance^ of us, always desiring greatly to 

, — ^— ^ see ns, as we also to see you. That is, witli praises. Not when 

' or men- -^ . ' . 

Hon, we were present, nor when we were working miracles, but even 
*"'"*" now, when we are far off, and are scourged, and are suffering 
numberless evils, ye hare good rememhrance of ns. Hear 
how disciples are admired, who have good remembrance of 
their teachers, how they are blessed. Let us imitate these. For 
we benefit ourselves, not those who are loved by us. Desiring 
greatly to see us, he says, as toe also to see you. And this 
too cheered them; for to him who loves, to perceive that the 
beloved person knows that he is beloved, is a great comfort 
and consolation. 

Therefore, brethren, we were comforted over you in all 
our affliction and distress by your faith. For now we live if 
ye stand fast in the Lord. What is comparable to Paul, 
who thought the salvation of his neighbour was his own, being 
so affected towards all, as the body towards the members ? 
Who now would be able to break forth into such speech ? 
Or rather, who will ever be able to have such a thought ? He 
did not require them to be grateful to him for the trials 
which he suffered for them, but he was thankful to them 
that they were not moved on account of his trials. As if he 
had said, that to you rather than to us was injury done by 
those trials; you were tempted rather than we, you who 
suffered nothing, rather than we, who suffered. Because, 
he says, Timothy brought us these good tidings, we feel 
nothing of our sorrows, but are comforted in all our affliction; 
■^a>«>-»«, and not only in that, but in our necessity- also, he says. 
And justly. For nothing besides can touch a good teacher, 
as long as the affairs of his disciples go on to his mind. 
Through you, he says, we were comforted, that is, you have 
confirmed us. And yet the reverse was the case. For that 
when suffering they did not yield, but stood manfully, was 
sufficient to confirm the disciples. But he reverses the 
whole matter, and turns the encomium over to them. You 
have anointed us, he says, you ha\'e caused us to breathe 
again: you have not suffered us to feel our trials. And he 
has not said, we breathe again, we are comforted, but what } 
Now we live, shewing that he thinks nothing is either trial or 
death, but their stumbling, whereas their advancement was 


His joy in the stei/fastiteas ufhis Converts. 379 

even life. How else could any one' have set forth either the Hom. 

. . .5 IV. 
sorrow for the weakness of one's disciples, or the joy.f He '— 

has not said we rejoice, but ice live, meaning the life to 


So that without this we do not even think it life to live. (3) 
So ought teachers to be affected, so disciples; and there 
will be nothing at any time amiss'. Then further softening' oJtot». 
the expression, see what he says, 

Ver. 9, 1 0. For what thanks can we render to God again 
for you, for all the Joy wherewith we Joy for your sakes 
before our God ? Night and day praying exceedingly that 
we might see your face, and might perfect that which is 
lacking in your faith. 

Not only, he says, are ye the causes of life to us, but also 
of much joy, and so much that we cannot worthily give 
thanks to God. Your» good behaviour, he says, we consider 
to be the gift of God. Such kindnesses have you shewn to 
us, that we think it to be of God ; or rather even the work of 
God. For such a disposition of mind comes not of a human 
soul or carefulness. 

Night and day, he says, praying exceedingly. This too is 
a sign of joy. For as any husbandman, hearing concerning 
the land that has been tilled by himself, that it is laden with 
fruits'-, desires with his own eyes to see so pleasant a sight, 2 3 Mss. 
so Paul to see Macedonia. Praidnq exceedinqly. Observe ' ^"'\ 

■^ "^ •' "^ ears. 

the excess ; that ue might see your face, and might perfect 
that whicJi is lacking in your faith. 

Here there is a great question. For if now thou livest, 
because they stand fast, and Timothy brought thee good 
tidings of their faith and love, and thou art full of so much 
joy, as not to be able worthily to give thanks to God, how 
sayest thou here that there are deficiencies in their faith? 
Were not those then the words of flattery? By no means, 
God forbid. For pi-eviously he testified that they endured 
many conflicts, and were no worse affected than the Churches 

^ So 2 Mss. Edd. ' How could any 8 So Musculus, who may have had 

other have.' Either may be adapted to Ms. authority. All Greek copies except 

the sense, but Ed. Par. thinks that Catena read ' our,' which requires 

' thus' may have been omitted by xecril^^tufiit to be rendered ' achieve- 

mistake. ment' in a less proper sense. 

380 Men that are firm may yet need perfecting . 

1 Thes. in Judit'a. What then is it? They had not enioyed the full 

3 11 12 . 

'- — : benefit of liis teaching, nor learned all that it behoved them 

to learn. And this he shews toward the end. Perhaps also 
there had been questionings among them concerning the 
Resurrection, and there were many who troubled them not 
by temptations, nor by dangers, but by acting the part of 
teachers. This is what he says is lacking in their faith, and 
for this reason, he has so explained himself, and has not 
said, that you should be confirmed, but ///a/ we might perfect. 
For where indeed he feared concerning the faith itself, ' I 
have sent,' he says, * Timothy to confirm you^ but here he 
says, to perfect thai which is lacking, which is rather a 
matter of teaching than of confirming. As also he says else- 

From where, ' that ye may be perfected unto every good work/ For 

10. or ' ^^^*- '-"^ niade perfect, in which there is some little deficiency : 

2Tim.3, for it is that which is perfected. 

Ver. 11, 12. Now God Himself and our Father, and our 
Lord Jesus Christ, direct our way unto you. And the 
Lord make you to increase and abound in love one towards 
another, and towards all men, even as we do toward you. 

This is a proof of excessive love, that he not only prays 
for them by himself, but even in his Epistle inserts his prayer. 

1 ixa^- This argues a fervent soul, and one truly not to be restrained '. 

T (nrtu -pj^^g ^g .^^ notice of the prciyers made there, and at the same 
time also an excuse for them, because it was not voluntarily, 
nor from indolence, that they'' did not go to them. As if he 
had said. May God Himself cut short the temptations that 
every where distract us, so that we may come directly to you. 
And the Lord make you to increase and abound. Do you 
see the madness of his love not to be restrained, that is 
shewn by his words } Make you to increase and abound ', 
instead of cause you to grow. As if one should say, that 
with a kind of superabundance he desires to be loved by 
them. Even as we do towards you, he says. That is, Our 
part is already done, we pray that yours also may be done. 
Do you see how he wishes love to be extended, not only 
toward one another but every where } For this truly is the 
nature of godly love, that it embraces all. But if you love 

'' St. I'aul and Silvanus. 

' The words are strong, ' twiA-c yon to exceed and overjfow. 

Every sort of sin defiles the soul. 381 

indeed such aii one, but do not love such an one, it is human Hom. 
love. But such is not ours. Even as we do towards you. 1- 

Ver. 13. To the end He may stahlish your hearts un- 
blameahle in holiness before God even our Father, at the 
coming of our T.ord Jesus Christ with all His saints. 

He shews that love produces advantage to themselves, not 
to those who are loved. I wish, he says, that this love may 
abound, that there may be no blame. He does not say to 
stablish you, but your hearts. For out of the heart proceedM^in. 
evil thoughts. For it is possible, without doing any thing, ' 
to be a bad man. As to have envy, unbelief, deceit, to 
rejoice at evils, not to be loving, to hold perverted doctrines. 
All these things are of the heart. And to be pure of these 
things is holiness. For indeed chastity is properly by pre- 
eminence called holiness, since fornication and adultery is 
also uncleanness ''. But universally all sin is uncleanness. 
For, Blessed, it is said, are the pure in heart. By the pure^^^^- 
He means those who are in every way pure. 

For other things also are apt' no less to defile the soul. (4) 
For that wickedness' defiles the soul, hear the prophet, say- '«-«vx^/a!. 
ing, O Jerusalem, wash thine heart from wickedness. And .Jerem. 
again. Wash you, make you cleau, put away wickednesses ^^^-^ \q 
from your souls. He has not said ' fornications,' so that not LXX. 
only fornication, but other things also defile the soul. 

To the end He may stahlish your hearts, he says, unhlaine- 
ahle in holiness before God even our Father, at the coming 
of our Lord Jesus Christ with all His saints. Therefore 
Christ will then be a Judge, but not before Him (only), but 
also before the Father we shall stand to be judged. Or does 
he mean to say this, that we ought to be unblameable before 
God ? This is what T always say, ' in the sight of God,' for 
this is sincere virtue — not in the sight of men. 

It is love then that makes them unblameable. For truly Mopal. 
it does make men unblameable. And once when I was 
discoursing of this to a certain one, and saying, that love 
makes men unblameable, and that love to our neighbour 
does not suffer the admission of any transgression, and in 
my discourse going over, and pursuing all the rest — some 

k This is legally opposed to holiness, know that other things also no less 
• Sav. «T?.. 'Ben. and B. »TS«. ' I defile.' 

382 Love forbids all evil, commands all good. 

1 Thes. one of my acquaintance interposing himself said, What then 
— ^ — 1- of fornication, is it not possible both to love, and to 
commit fornication? And indeed this springs from love'". 
Covctousness indeed, and adultery, and envy, and hostile 
designs, and every thing of this sort can cut one off from the 
love of his neighbour ; but how does fornication ? he said. 
I therefore told him, that even this can love prevent. For if 
a man loves a woman that commits fornication, he will 
endeavour both to draw her off from other men, and not 
himself also to add to lier sin. So that to commit fornication 
with a woman is the part of one exceedingly hating her with 
whom ho commits the fornication, but one who truly loved 
her would withdraw her from that abominable practice. 
And there is not, there is not any sin, which the power of 
love, like fire, cannot consume. For it is easier for a vile 
faggot to resist a great pile of tire, than for the nature of sin 
to resist the power of love. 

This then let us plant in our own souls, that we may stand 
with all the Saints. For they all pleased God by their love 
to their neighbour. Whence was Abel slain, and did not 
slay? Surely from his excessive love to his brother, he 
could not even admit such a thought. Whence did that Cain 
receive the destructive pest of envy? For I will no longer 
call him the brother of Abel ! Because the foundations of 
love had not been firmly fixed in him. Whence did the 
sons of Noah obtain a good report ? was it not because they 
loved their father exceedingly, and did not endure to see his 
exposure ? And whence was the other cursed ? was it not 
from not loving him ? And whence did Abraham obtain a 
good report ? was it not from love that he did what he did 
to his nephew ? what he did in his supplication for the 
Sodomites. For strongly, strongly, were the Saints affected 
with love and with sympathy. 

For consider, I pray, how Paul was affected with love, who 
was bold in the face of fire, hard as adamant, firm and un- 
shaken, on every side compact, rivetted in the fear of God, 
Rom. 8, and inflexible. For, Who (said he) shall separate us from 
the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or perse- 
cution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or suord? He who 

■" al. God forbid ! The not doing it wonld especially come of love. 

Firmness consistent with tender affections. 383 

was bold in the face of all these things, and of earth and sea, Hom. 
who langhed to scorn the adamantine gates of hell", whom 

nothing ever withstood — when he saw the tears of some whom 
he loved, so was that adamant broken and crushed, that he 
did not even conceal his feelings, but said straightway, 
IVhnt mean ye to weep and to break mine Jteart? What Acts 21, 
sayest thou, tell me ? Had a tear the power to break that 
soul of adamant ? Yea, he says, for I hold out against all 
things except love. This prevails over me, and subdues me. 
This is the mind of God ^ An abyss of water " did not crush ■ touto 
him, and a iew tears crushed him. What mean ye to weep £^J-*" 
and to break mine heart ? For great is the force of love. 
Wouldest thou see him again weeping? Hear him elsewhere, 
saying, By the space of three years I ceased not to warn Acts 20, 
every one night and day with tears. From his gi-eat love 
he feared, lest some plague should be introduced among 
them. And again, For out of much affiiction and anguish^^^^- 
of heart I wrote unto you with many tears. 

And what did Joseph ? tell me, that firm one, who stood 
up against so strong a compulsion, who appears so noble 
against so great a flame of love, who so out-battled and 
overcame that great madness of his mistress. For what was 
there not then to charm him } A beautiful person, the pride 
of rank, the costliness of garments, the fragrance of perfumes, 
(for all these things are wont to soften the soul,) words more 
soft than all the rest! For ye know that she who loves, and (5) 
so vehemently, nothing so humble but she will bring herself 
to say it, taking upon her the attitude of a supplicant. For 
so broken was this woman, though wearing gold, and being 
of royal dignity, that she threw herself at the knees of the 
captive boy, and perhaps even intreated him weeping and 
clasping his knees, and had recom-se to this not once, and a 
second time, but oftentimes. Then he might sec her eye 
shining most brilliantly. For it is probable that she not 
simply but with excessive nicety would set off her beauty ; 
as wishing by many nets to catch the lamb of Christ. Add 
here 1 pray also many magic charms. Yet nevertheless this 
inflexible, this firm man, of rocky hardness, when he saw 
his brothers who had bartered him away, who had thrown 

n al. ' of death.' " Perhaps alluding to 2 Cor. 11, 26. 

384 Joseph's tenderness. While the heart is warm, forgive. 

1 Thes him iutf) a iiit, wlio liad sold him, who had even wished to 

— ^ ' murder him, who were the both of the prison and the 

honour, when he heard from them how they had worked 

Gen.37, upon their father, (for, 'let us say,' he said, that one was de- 

20- and youred by a wild beast,) he was broken, softened, crushed — 

and he wept. And not being able to bear his feelings, he 

went in, and composed himself% that is, wiped away his 


What is this ? dost thou weep, O Joseph ? and yet the 
present circumstances are deserving not of tears, but of 
anger, and indignation, and great revenge and retribution. 
Thou hast thine enemies in thy hands, those fratricides ; thou 
canst satiate thy \vrath. And yet neither would this be 
injustice. For thou dost not thyself begin the unjust acts, 
but avengest thyself upon those who have done the wTong. 
For look not to thy dignity. This was not of their con- 
trivance, but of God, Who shed His favour upon thee. Why 
dost thou weep ? But he would have said, God forbid that 1, 
who in all things have obtained a good report, should by this 
remembrance of wrongs overturn all. It is truly a season 
for tears. I am not more savage than beasts. They make a 
league with nature, whatever harm they suffer. I weep, he 
says, that they ever treated me thus. 

This man let us also imitate. Let us mourn for those who 
have injm-ed us. Let us not be angry with them. For tnily 
they are worthy of tears, for the punishment and condemn- 
ation to which they make themselves liable. 1 know, how 
you now weep, how you rejoice, both admiring Paul, and 
amazed at Joseph, and pronouncing them blessed. But if 
any one has an enemy, let him now bear him in recollection, 
let him bring him to his mind, that whilst his heart is yet 
warm '' with the remembrance of the Saints, he may be 
enabled to dissolve the stubbornness of wrath, and to soften 
what is harsh and callous. I know, that after your departure 
hence, after that I have ceased speaking, if any thing of 
warmth and fervour should remain, it will not be so great, as 
it now is, whilst you are hearing me. If therefore any one 
has become cold, let him dissolve the frost. For the re- 

I' Gen. 43, 30. 31. Hales thinks i iu rec. Par. for ^«, ' living.' 
some words are lost here. B. ^iu. 

No quarrel can stand where Chrhl s1ii)ies. 385 

membrance of injuries is truly frost and ice. But let us Hom. 
invoke the Sun of Righteousness, let us entreat Him to send — 


His beams upon us, and there will no longer be thick ice, 
but water to drink. 

If the fire of the Sun of Righteousness has touched our 
souls, it will leave nothing frozen, nothing hard, nothing 
burning "", nothing unfruitful. It will bring out all things ripe, 
all things sweet, all things abounding with much pleasure. If 
we love one another, that beam will also come. Allow me, I 
beseech you, to say these things with alacrity. Cause me to 
hear, that by these words we have produced some effect, that 
some one has gone and thrown both his arms about his 
enemy, has embraced him, has twined himself around him, 
has kissed him, has wept. And though the other be a wild 
beast, a stone, or whatever he be, he will be made gentle by 
such ^ affectionate kindness. For on what account is he 
thine enemy? Hath he insulted thee ? yet he has not injured 
thee at all. But dost thou for the sake of money suffer thy 
brother to be at enmity with thee ? Do not so, I beseech 
you. Let us do away all. It is our season. Let us use it 
to good purpose. Let us cut asunder the cords of our sins. 
Before we go away to judgment, let us ourselves judge one 
another'. Let not the sun (it is said) go down upon your 'E^hes 
wrath. Let no one put it off. These puttings off produce ^' ^^' 
delays. If you have deferred it to-day, you blush the more ", 
and if you add to-morrow, the shame is greater, and if a 
third day, yet worse. Let us not then put ourselves to 
shame, but let us forgive, that we may be forgiven. And if 
we be forgiven, we shall obtain all the blessings of heaven, 
through Jesus Christ our Lord, with Whom, &c. 

» The Translator suggests Milton's <ra; KnvrTina. is used for ' combustibles,' 

sense, but there is a various reading, ura»- 

the parching air urriKo, in one Ms. see Ed. Field, p. 

Burns frore, and cold performs th' 229. 

efiFeets of fire. * B. recavTm, as Downes had 

The extreme harshness of some fruits guessed for t«( «ut?;. 
without the sun may be meant. In ' B. ' for one another.' 
Hom. xvi. on S. Matt. Ben. p. 21.5. A. '■' L. (a Florentine Ms.) ' to-morrow.' 

•2 c 


1 Thess. iv. 1, 2, 3. 

Furthermore then tve beseech you, brethren, and exhort you 
by the Lord Jesus, that as ye have received of us how ye 
ought to walk and to please God, so ye would abound 
more and more. For ye know what commandments we 
gave you by the Lord Jesus Christ. For this is the will 
of Ood, even your sanctification. 

When he has met what was pressing, and what was upon 
his hands, and is about henceforth to enter upon things that 
are perpetual, and which they ought continually to hear, he 
' >!(Toy uses this expression. Furthermore^, that is, Always indeed 
and for ever wo beseech and exhort you in the Lord. 
Strange ! He does not even think himself of sufficient credit 
to exhort as of himself. And yet who was so worthy of 
credit ? But he introduces Christ. We exhort you, he says, 
by God. For that is meant by in the Lord. Which also he 
2 Cor .0, said to the Corinthians, As though Ood did beseech you by 
^^' us. That as ye have received of us. This received is not of 
words only, but of actions also, viz. how ye ought to walk, 
and he means thereby the whole conversation in life. And 
to please Ood, so ye u^ould abound more and more. That is, 
that by more abounding ye do not stop at the limit of the com- 
mandments, but that you even go beyond them. For this it 
is, that ye abound more and more. In what preceded he 
accepts the miracle of their firm faith, but here he regulates 
their life. For this is proficiency, even to go beyond the 

Christian Virtue goes beyond the Commandments. 3S7 

commandments and the statutes. For no longer from the Hom. 

. V 

constraint of a teacher, but from their own vohmtary choice, — '— 

is all this performed. For as the earth ought not to bear 
only what is thrown upon it, so too ought the soul not to 
stop at those things which have been inculcated, but even to 
go beyond them. Do you see that he has properly said ' to 
go beyond ''P' For virtue is divided into these two things, to 
decline from evil, and to do good. For the retreating from 
evil is not sufficient for the arrival at virtue, but it is a kind 
of path, and a beginning leading thereto ; still we have 
need of great alacrity. The things therefore to be avoided 
he tells them in the order of commandment And justly. 
For these things indeed being done bring punishment, but 
not being done, yet bring no praise. The acts of virtue 
however, such as to give away our goods, and such like, are 
not of the order of commandment, he says. But what.? /Zi?Mat. 19, 


that is able to receive, let him receive. It is profitable, there- 
fore, that as he with much fear and trembling had given these 
commandments to them, he also by these letters reminds 
them of that his care. Wherefore he does not repeat them, 
but reminds them of them. 

For ye know, he says, what cornmandments we gave you 
by our Lord Jesus Christ. For this is the will of God, even 
your sanctijication. And observe how he no where so 
vehemently glances at any other thing, as at this. As 
elsewhere also he writes to this effect; Follow peace withVLeh.i^, 
all men, and sanctijication^, without which no man shall see \ ^^^^_ 
the Lord. And why dost thou wonder, if he every where /^*» Grr. 
writes to his disciples upon this subject, when even in his 
Epistle to Timothy he has said, Keep thyself pure ? Also in \ xim. 

his second Epistle to the Corinthians he has said, In much ^j 22. 

^ ' 2 Cor. 6, 

patience, in fastings, by pureness. And one may find this 5. 6. 

in many places, both in his Epistle to the Romans, and in all 

his Epistles. For in truth this is an evil pernicious to all. 

And as a swine full charged with mire, wherever he enters, 

fills all places with his ill savour, and chokes the senses with 

dung, so too does fornication. For it is an evil not easy to 

be washed away. But when some even who have wives 

b wa-ig/Sa/vtiv, St. Paul's word is «t^iffffiunv. See on Stat. Hom. ii. (6) Tr. p. 41. 
and note y- 

2 c 2 

388 All fornication and lust contrary to holiness. 

1 Thes. commit it, how excessive is the outrage! For this, he says, 
^±^^::^ is the will of God, even ijour sanctijication, that ye should 
abstain from all\fornication. For tliere are many forms of 
irregularity. The pleasures of wantonness are of many kinds 
and various, it were not tolerable to mention them. But 
having said y'/ow all fornication, \\c leaves it to those who 
know them. 

Ver. 4, 5. That every one of you should know how to possess 
his vessel in sanctificalion and honour, Xot in the lust of 
concupiscence, even as the Gentiles nhich know not God. 

He says, 7%«^ every one of you should know how to 
possess his vessel. It is, then, a matter to be learnt, aud 
that diligently, not to be wanton. But we possess our 
vessel, when it remains pure and in sanctification : but 
when it is impure, it is sin. For it no longer does the things 
which we wish, but what sin commands. Not in the lustofcon- 
cu^nscence, he says. There he shews also the manner, ac- 
cording to which one ought to be temperate; that we should 
cut off" the lusts of concupiscence. For luxury, and wealth 
too, and idleness, and sloth, and ease, and all such things, 
lead us on to irregular lust. Even as the Gentiles, he says, 
which knou: not God. For such are they who do not expect 
that they shall suffer punishment. 

Ver. 6. That no man go beyond and defraud his brother in 
' Gr. in cmy^ matter. 

'^'^ He has well said, that no man go beyond. For to each 

man God has assigned a wife, and has set bounds to nature, 
that intercourse with one only : therefore intercourse wdth 
another is transgression, and robbery, and the taking of more 
than belongs to one*^; or rather it is more cruel than any 
robbery ; for we grieve not so much, when our riches are 
caiTied off', as when marriage is invaded. Dost thou call 
him brother, and defraudest him, and that in things which 
are unlawful ? Here he speaks concerning adultery, but above 
also concerning all fornication. For since he was about to 
say. That no man go beyond and defraud his brother, antici- 
pating, lest you should think, he says, that I say this only in 
the case of brethren ; you must not have the wives of others 

'■ There is some little authority for d -Trkion^iu, E. V. covelousness. 
this readini::. 

God avenges, as insulted by such sins. 389 

at all, nor even women that have no husbands, and that arc Hom 

common. You must abstam from «//yor«im/<o«,- wherefore '- 

he says, Because that the Lord is the avenger of all such. He 
exhorted them first, he shamed them, saying, even as the 
Gentiles. Then from reasonings he shewed the impropriety, 
and this was, to defraud a brother. Afterwards he adds the 
principal thing; Because, he says, the Lord is the avenger of 
all such, as we also have forewarned you and testified. For we 
shall not do these things without being punished, neither shall 
we enjoy so much pleasure, as we shall undergo punishment. 

Ver. 7. For God hath not called us unto uncleanness, but 
unto holiness. 

Because he had said his brother, and had also added, that 
God is the avenger, shewing that even if an unbeliever has 
suffered this, he who has done it shall suffer punishment, he 
has spoken thus. And this is what he says; It is not as avenging 
him that He will punish thee, buf because thou hast insulted 
Himself. He Himself called thee, thou hast insulted Him 
Who called thee. On this account, he has added, 

Ver. 8. He therefore that despiseth, despiseth not man, but 
God, Who hath also given unto us His Holy Spirit. 

So that whether thou shouldest defile the Empress, he says, 
or even thine own handmaid, that hath a husband, the crime 
is the same. Why.-* Because He avenges not the persons 
that are injured, but Himself. For thou art equally defiled, 
thou hast equally insulted God; for both the one and the 
other is adultery, as both the one and the other is marriage. 
And though thou shouldest not commit adultery, but fornica- 
tion, though the harlot has no husband, yet nevertheless God 
will avenge, for He avenges Himself. For thou dost this act, 
not despising the man^, so much as God. And it is manifest 
from hence : for thou doest it concealing it from man, but 
thou pretendest that God doth not see thee. For tell me, if 
one who was tliought worthy of the purple, and of infinite 
honour from the king, and was commanded to live suitably 
to the honour, should go and defile himself with any woman; 
whom has he insulted ? her, or the king who gave him all ? 
She indeed is insulted too, but not equally. 

' B. ' But in His care for thee, and ' iKiiitv, i. c. the husband, 
to avenge thine own self.' 

3f)0 Adultery as bad in a hushand as in a wife. 

1 Thes. Wherefore, 1 beseech you, let us guard against this sin. 

4, 7. 8 


For as wc punish women, when, being married to us, they 
give themselves to others, so also are we punished, though not 
by the Romans laws, yet by God. For this also is adultery. 
For not only is adultery committed in doing so by her who 
is married to another, but by him also, who is yoked to a 
wife. Attend carefully to what I say. For although what 
is said is offensive to many, it is necessary to be said to set 
the matter right for the future. But not only is this adul- 
tery, when we defile a woman who is married to a man ; but 
if we ourselves being married to a woman defile one who is 
free and disengaged, the matter is adultery. For what, if 
she with whom the adultery is committed is not bound? 
Yet art thou bound. Thou hast transgressed the law. Thou 
hast injured thine own flesh. For tell me, wherefore dost 
thou punish thy wife, if she commit fornication with a man 
who is loosed, and has not a wife ? Because it is adultery. 
Yet he who defiled her has not a wife, but she is bound to 
a husband. Well then, thou also art bound to a wife ; so 
that in like manner thy offence also is adultery. For it is 
Matt. 6, said. Whoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause 
of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery ; and whoso- 
ever shall marry her that is divorced, committeth adultery. 
If he who marries her who is divorced commits adultery, he 
who, with a wife of his own, defiles himself also with that 
other, how doth not he much more commit it } It is mani- 
fest to every one. But perhaps to you who are men, enough 
has been said on this subject. For concerning them that 
Mark 9, are such, Christ also said, Where their worm dieth not, 
^*' and the fire is not quenched. But for the sake of the young 
it is necessary to speak to you, or rather not so much on 
their account as on yours. For these things are suitable not 
to their case only, but to yours also. And how } 1 will now 
tell you. He who has not learnt to commit fornication, will 
neither know how to commit adultery. But he who wallow- 
eth among harlots, will quickly also an-ive at the other, and 
will defile himself, if not with the married, yet with those who 
are disengaged. 

« Some copies oinif ' Roman.' 

Early Marriage expedienl for secular persona. 391 

What then do I advise? That you may extirpate the roots, Hom. 

so many of you as have young sons, and are about to bring ^—- 

them up to a worldly life, quickly draw them under the yoke ^^' 
of marriage. For since whilst they are yet young desires 
trouble them, for the time before marriage restrain them 
by admonitions, threats, fears, promises, and numberless other 
methods. But at the time of marriage, let no one defer it. 
Behold, I speak the words of a match-maker', that you should ' fu/nptu. 
let your sons marry. But I am not ashamed to speak thus, ''^""' 
since Paul was not ashamed even to say. Defraud ye not one i Cor. 7, 
the other, which seems more shameful than what I have said, 
yet he was not ashamed. For he did not pay heed to words, 
but to the acts that were set right by words. When therefore 
thy son is grown up, before he enters upon warfare, or any- 
other course of life, consider of his marriage. And if he 
sees that thou wilt soon take a bride for him, and that the 
time intervening will be short, he will be able to endure the 
flame patiently. But if he perceives that thou art remiss 
and slow, and waitest until "^ he shall acquire a large income, 
and then thou wilt contract a marriage for him, despairing 
at the length of the time, he will readily fall into fornication. 
But alas ! that root of all evils, avarice, is here also in fault'. 
For since no one cares how far his son shall be sober and 
modest, but all are mad for gold, for this reason no one 
makes this a matter of concern. Wherefore I exhort you 
first to regulate well their souls. For if he find his bride 
chaste, and know her body alone, then will both his desire 
be vehement, and his fear of God the greater, and the 
marriage truly honourable, receiving bodies pure and un- 
defiled; and the offspring will be full-charged with blessing, 
and the bride and bridegroom will comply with one another, 
for both being inexperienced in the manners of others, they 
will submit to one another. But one that begins when 
younger to wax wanton, and so has had experience of 
the ways of harlots, for the first and second evening will 
praise his own wife; but after that he will soon fall back into 
that wantonness, that dissolute and disorderly laughter, seeking 

'' B. L. and 1 Paris Ms. read Wri for sense is ' here also is avarice the root 
T»ri, which is necessary to the sense. of all evil.' 
' B. and L. add alria,. Otherwise the 

31)2 Taste corrupted by sin. False delicacy. 

1 THEs.lor words tliat are full of base import, dissolute deportment'', 
i'-Il^' and all that indecency, which it is not tolerable that we 
^ «Aij/^i'fa should mention. But a woman of free' estate would not 
endure to make such exhibitions, nor to tarnish herself 
For she was espoused to her husband to be his partner in 
life, and for the procreation of chikh-en, not for the purposes 
of indecency and lauglitcr; that she might keep the house, 
and instruct even him to be grave, not that she might supply 
to him the fuel of fornication. 

But the gestures of a harlot seem to you agreeable. I 

Prov. 5, know it. For the Scripture says, The lips of a strange 

^' icoman drop as an honeycomb. For on this account I take 

all this trouble, that he may have no experience of that 

honey, for it straightway turns into gall. And this also the 

Prov. 5, Scripture says, Who for a season is smooth to thy throat, hut 

j-^' afterwards thou shall find her more hitter than yall, and 

sharper titan a two-edged sword. What sayest thou ? Bear 

with mc speaking somewhat impure, if I may say so — and 

expressing myself as one impudent and unblushing. For 

I do not submit to this willingly, but on account of those 

who are shameless in their actions, [ am compelled myself 

to speak this sort of words. And many such we see even in the 

Scriptures. For even Ezekiel, reproaching Jerusalem, utters 

many such things, and is not ashamed. And justly. For 

he did not say them from his own inclination, but from his 

concern. For although the words seem to be indecent, yet 

his aim is not indecent, but even highly becoming one who 

wishes to banish uncleanness from the soul. For if the 

shameless soul does not hear the very words, it is not affected. 

For a jihysician wishing to remove a putrid sore, first thrusts 

his fingers into the wound, and if he does not first defile his 

healing hands, he will not be able to cure it. So it is with 

me. Unless I first defile my mouth, that heals yoin* passions, 

I shall not be able to heal you. But rather neither is my 

mouth defiled, nor iiis hands. Why then } Because the 

uncleanness is not that of nature, nor from our own body', 

as neither in that case from his hands, but from what is 

^ ax/tfJi-o.Ta. iiaxixXaa-fi'iva. See on her husband bj' modesty and simplicity. 
1 Tim. J , ] 7. Horn. iv. Tr. p. 39. ' Downes would read ffri/naros, 
where he advises the wife to please ' mouth.' 

Disgusiingness offornicaUon. 393 

another's. But if where the body is another's, he does not Hom. 
refuse to dip his own hands, tell me, shall we refuse, where — ^- 
it is our own body? For you are our body, sickly' indeed | or^^^ , 
and impure, but ours nevertheless. 

What then is this which I say, and for which I have made (4) 
so long an exhortation ? Because the garment indeed vvliich 
your slave wears, you would not choose ever to wear, being 
disgusted on account of its filth, but you would rather go 
naked than make use of it. But a body that is unclean and 
filthy, and which is used not only by your slave, but by 
numberless othei's, that will you abuse, and not be dis- 
gusted? Are you ashamed at hearing this ? But be ashamed 
of the actions, not of the words. And I pass over all other 
things, the rudeness, and the corruption of their manners, 
the servility and illiberality of the rest of their life. Tell me, 
should you and your servant go to the same woman ? and 
I wish it were only your servant, and not, it may be, the 
executioner! And yet you could not bear to take the execu- 
tioner by the hand ; but her who has been made one body 
with him you kiss and embrace, and do not shuddei", nor 
fear! Are you not ashamed? are you not abashed? are you 
not pierced with anguish ? 

I said indeed to your fathers, that they ought early to lead 
you to marriage ; but nevertheless neither are you without 
liability to punishment. For if there were not others, or 
rather many young men living in chastity, both formerly, and 
now, there would perhaps be some excuse for you. But if 
there are, how can you say, that we were not able to restrain 
the flame of lust ? For they, who have been able, are your 
accusers, in that they are partakers of the same nature. 
Hear Paul saying, Follow peace . . . and holiness, without Heh.i2, 
which no man shall see the Lord. Is not this threat sufficient ^^* 
to terrify you ? Do you see others continuing altogether in 
chastity, and in gravity passing their lives; and cannot you 
command yourself even so long as the period of youth ? Do 
you see others ten thousand times overcoming pleasure, and 
cannot you once refrain ? With your leave, I will tell you the 
cause. For youth is not the cause, since then all young men 
would be dissolute. But we thrust ourselves into the fire. 
For when you go up to the theatre, and feast your eyes with 

394 Thealrical exhibit ions evcile evil desires. 

1 Thes. the naked limbs of women, for the time indeed vou are 

4 7. 8. 

- ' ' ' delighted, but aflerwards, you have nourished thence a 

mighty fever. When you see women exhibited as it were in 
the form of their bodies, and spectacles and songs containing 
nothing else but irregular loves : such a woman, it is said, 
loved such a man, and not obtaining him, hanged herself; 
•al.step-and unlawful loves having mothers^ lor their object; when 
^ you receive these things by hearing, and through women, and 
through figures, yea, and even through old men, (for many there 
put masks upon their faces, and play the parts of women,) 
tell me, how will you be able to continue chaste afterwards, 
these narratives, these sights, these songs occupying your 
soul, and dreams of this sort henceforth succeeding. For it 
is the nature of the soul for the most part to raise visions 
of such things, as it wishes for and desires in the day time. 
Therefore when you there both see base actions, and hear 
base words, and receive indeed the wounds but do not 
apply the remedies, how will not the sore be increased .'' 
will not the disease become more intense ; and in a 
much greater degree than in our bodies.? For if we were 
willing, our will admits of correction more easily than our 
bodies. For there indeed drugs, and physicians, and time 
are required, but here it is sufficient having but the will, to 
become both good and bad. So that you have rather admitted 
the disorder. When therefore we gather to us indeed the 
things that injure, but pay no regard to the things that benefit, 
how can there ever be any health ? 

On this account Paul said, even as the Gentiles who knew 
not Qod. Let us be ashamed, let us be afraid, if the Gentiles, 
that know not God, are often chaste. Let us be ashamed, 
when we are worse than they. It is easy to achieve chastit}*, 
if we will, if we withdraw ourselves from those things that are 
injurious, since it is not even easy to avoid fornication, if we 
will not. For what is more easy than to go to the market- 
place ? but from the excess of laziness it is become difficult, not 
only in the case of women, but sometimes even in that of men. 
What is more easy than to sleep 1 but we have made even 
this difficult. Many however of the rich toss themselves 
through a whole night, from their not waiting for the need of 
sleep, and then sleeping. And in short nothing is difficult, 

We can correct our faults if we will. 395 

when men are willing ; as nothing is easy, when they are un- Hom. 
willing ; for we are masters of all these things. On this — - — 
account the Scripture also says, If ye he willing and hear me. Is. i, i9. 
And again, If ye be unwilling, and hear not. So that all ^^^ 20. 
depends upon being willing or unwilling. On this account 
we both are punished and are praised. But God grant that, 
being of those who are praised, we may obtain the promised 
blessings, by the grace and lovingkindness, &c. 


1 Thess. iv. 9, 10. 

But as touching brotherly love, ye need not that I write unto 
you : for ye yourselves are taught of God to love one another. 
> al. and And indeed ye do it toward all the brethren which are in ^ all 

Why then having discoursed with them earnestly concern- 
ing chastity, and being about to discourse about the duty 
of working, and about the not sorrowing for the departed, 
does he introduce that which was the principal of all good 
things, love, as if he were passing it over, saying, tee have no 
need to icrite to you? This also is from his great wisdom, 
and belongs to spiritual instruction. For here he shews two 
things. First, that the thing is so necessary, as not to require 
instruction. For things that are very important are manifest 
to all. And secondly, by saying this he makes them more 
ashamed than if he had admonished them. For he who 
thinks that they have behaved aright, and therefore does not 
admonish them, even if they had not behaved aright, would 
the sooner lead them to it. And observe, he does not speak 
of love towards all% but of that towards the brethren. IVe 
have no need to icrite unio you. He ought then to have been 
silent, and to say nothing, if there was no need. But now 

" ^(XaSiX^/a, i.s Strictly ' lovingncss tomard brethren/ not merely ' as of 

Indirect adnionitionn. Duty (oid benejit of industry. 397 

by saying there is no need, he has done a greater thing, than Hom. 
if he had spoken expressly. 

For ye yourselves are taught of God. And see with how 
high a praise he has made God their Teacher in this matter. 
Ye need not, he says, to learn from man, which also the 
prophet says. ' For all shall be taught of God."" For ye isa. 54, 
yourselves, he says, are taught of God to love one another. 
And indeed ye do it toward all the brethren wliich^ are in 
all 3Iacedonia. Do it toward all others also, he means. 
These words are very encouraging to make them do so. 
And I do not merely say, that ye are taught of God, but 
I know it from the things which you do. And in this 
respect he bore many testimonies to them. 

But we beseech you, brethren, that ye abound^ more and^ E. v. 

.1 . • • .> increase 

more, that is, mcrease -. 2 gome 

Ver. 11, 12. And that ye study to be quiet, and to do your^'^'^^ 
own business, and to work with your own hands as tfe\s'Scc. 
commanded you: That ye may walk honestly towards 
them, tluit are without, and that ye may have lack of 

Here he shews of how many evils idleness is the cause, 
and of how many benefits industry. And this he makes 
manifest from things which happen among us, as he often 
does, and that too wisely. For by these things the majority 
are led on more than by spiritual things. For it is a mark 
of love to our neighbours not to receive from them, but to 
impart to them. And mark his discretion. Being about to 
exhort and admonish, he places in the middle their good 
conduct, both that they may recover even from the preceding 
admonition, and from the threat, when he said. He therefore 
that despiseth despiseth not man, but God,aind that they may 
not be restive at this^ And this is the effect of working, 
that one docs not receive of others, nor live idly, but by 
working imparts to others. For it is said, // is more blessed Acts 20, 
to give than to receive. And to work, he says, wHJt your own '^' 
hands. Where then are those, wdio look out for work that 
is spiritual? Seest thou how he takes from them every 

'■ P. and L. and all that are, which ' B. ■rgoj ravTuv, for Tfr,; rairti. On 
alters the sense afterwards. 'And ye do what authority or&x Taurri \s printed, 
it towards,' &,c. and so both Translators, is not stated. L. ■ru; rauTnt. 

398 No pretext for idlfiwas fidviitted. 

1 Thes. excuse, saying, with your otiui hands? But does one practise 

— '- — ^fasting with his hands? or watchings all night? or lyings on 

the ground? This no one can say. But he is s])eaking of 

spiritual work. For it is trul}' spiritual, that one should by 

working im])art to others, and there is nothing equal to this. 

T/i<it ye may walk, he says, honestly. Seest thou whence 

he touches iheni? He has not said, that ye may not be 

shamed by begging. But he has indeed insinuated the same, 

but he ])uts it in a milder way, so as both to strike and not 

violently to offend them. For if those who are among us 

are offended at these things, much more those who are 

without, finding numberless accusations and handles, when 

they see a man, who is in good health, and able to support 

himself, begging and asking help of others. Wherefore they 

'««'••«/» call us Christ-mongers'. On this account, he means, the 

Vim. 2 name of God is blasphemed. But none of these things has 

^■i- he urged ; but that which was able to touch them most 

nearly, the disgracefulness of the thing. 

Ver, 13. But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, 
concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not even as 
others which have no hope. 
(2) These two things, poverty and despondency, distressed 
them most, as they do all men. See therefore how he 
remedies them. But their poverty arose from their goods 
being taken from them. But if he commands those, whose 
goods had been taken from them for Christ's sake, to support 
themselves by working, much more then others. For that 
they were taken away is manifest from his saying, Ye became 
followers of the Churches which areinJudoea. How? Because, in his Epistle to those, he says. Ye took joyf idly the spoiling 
of your goods. Here he proceeds now to discourse con- 
cerning the Resurrection. And why ? Had he not discoursed 
with them upon that point? Yes, but here he glances at 
some further mystery. What then is this? That we which 
are alive, he says, and remain unto the coming of the Lord, 
shall not jjrevent them lohich are asleep. The discourse 
then of the Resurrection was sufficient to comfort him that 
was grieving. But that which is now said is sufficient also 
to make the Resurrection worthy of credit. But first let us 
say that which he also said. But I would not have you to be 

Violent grief/or the departed shews uiiheli^. 399 

ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, that ye Hom. 

sorrow not even as others which have no hope. See how '— 

here also he treats them mildly. He does not say, Are ye so 
without understanding ^ ? as he said to the Corinthians, Are ' afiro), 

/• 7- 7 1 1 -1 • • **^^ Gal. 

ye SO foolish'^ ? that, knowing there is a resmTection, ye so 3^ 3. 
sorrow, as those who do not believe. But very mildly, 1' «?«»"« 
would not, he says, shewing respect to their other virtues. Cor. 15, 
And he has not said ' concerning the dead,' but them that are ' 
asleep'^, even at the beginning suggesting consolation to 
them. That ye sorrow not, he says, even as others which 
have no hope. Therefore to afflict yourselves for the 
departed is to act like those who have no hope. And they 
justly. For a soul that knows nothing of the Resurrection, 
but thinks that this death is death, naturally afflicts itself, and 
bewails and mourns intolerably as for those who are lost. 
But thou, who expectest a resurrection, on what account 
dost thou lament .'' To lament then is the part of those who 
have no hope. 

Hear this, ye women, as many of you as are fond of wailing, Morai,. 
as many as at times of mourning take the sorrow impatiently, 
that ye act the part of heathens. But if to grieve for the 
departed is the part of heathens, then tell me whose part it is 
to beat one's self, and tear the cheeks \ On what account do 
you lament, if you believe that he will rise again, that he has 
not perished, that it is but a slumber and a sleep ? You say. 
On account of his society, his protection, his care of our 
affaii*s, and all his other services. When therefore you lose 
a child at an untimely age, who is not yet able to do any 
thing, on what account do you lament ? Why do you seek 
to recall him.? He was displaying, you say, good hopes, 
and I was expecting that he would be ray supporter. On 
this account I miss my husband, on this account my son. 
For this I wail and lament, not disbelieving the Resurrection, 
but being left destitute of support, and having lost my pro- 
tector, my companion, who shared with me in all things — 
my comforter. On this account I mourn. I know that he 
will rise again, but I cannot bear the intermediate separation. 
A multitude of troubles rushes in upon me. T am exposed 

'^ B. L. and Cat add, hut the)H Hint are asleep^ and so Wolf. IVTusculus. 

400 Immoderate grief an hraiional passion. 

iThes. tQ all who are willing to injure me. Those of my servants 
— who fonuerly feared me now despise me, and trample upon 

me. If any one has been benefited, he has forgotten the 
benefit he received from him; if any one was illtreated by 
the departed, to return the grudge against him, he lets loose 
his anger upon me. These things do not suffer me to bear 
my widowhood, or to lament with moderation. It is for 
these things that 1 afflict myself, for these things I bewail. 

Mow then shall we comfort such? What shall we say? 
How shall we banish their sorrow ? In the first place let me 
endeavour to convince them, that their wailing proceeds not 
from tliese things they say, but from an unreasonable passion. 
For if you mourn for these things, you ought always to mourn 
the departed. But if when a year has passed away, you forget 
him as if he had never been, you do not bewail the departed 
nor his protection. But you cannot endure the separation % 
nor the breaking off of your society ? And what can they 
say, wlio even enter into second marriages? Sure enough M 
For it is not their former husbands that they long for. But 
let us not direct our discourse to them, but to those who 
preserve a kind affection towards the departed. Wherefore 
dost thou lament thy child ? Wherefore thine husband ? 
The former, because I had not enjoyed him, you say ; the 
latter, because I expected that I should have enjoyed him 
longer. And this very thing, what want of faith does it ai'gue, 
to suppose that thy husband or thy son constitutes thy safety, 
and not God ! How dost thou not think to provoke Him ? 
For often on this account He takes them away, that thou 
mayest not be so bound to them, so that it may withdraw 
thy hopes from them. For God is jealous, and wills to be 
loved by us most of all things : and that, because He loves 
us exceedingly. For ye know that this is the custom of those 
who love to distraction. They are excessively jealous, and 
would choose rather to throw away their life, than to be 
surpassed in esteem by any of their rival lovers. On this 
account also God hath taken him, because of these words ^. 
(3) For, tell me, on what account were there not in old times 

' B. adds ' of the body.' § i. c. ' because you say such things 

' al. ' sure enough it is the separa- about him.' 
tion !' which makes the irony plainer. 

The love of God a comfort in bereavements. 401 

widowhoods, and untimely bereavements ? Wherefore did Hom. 

He permit Abraham and Isaac to live a long time ? Certainly - 

because even when he was living he prefeiTcd God before 

him. He said indeed, slay ; and he slew him. Why did 

He bring Sarah to so long an old age ? Because, even whilst 

she was living, he listened to God rather than to her. For 

this reason God said. Hear Sarah thy wife. No one then From 

either from love to husband or wife, or on account of the, 2^.°' ' 

protection of a child, provoked God to anger. But now 

because we are declining downwards, and have exceedingly 

fallen off, we men love our wives more than God, and 

we women honour our husbands more than God. It is 

on this account that He draws us even against our will to 

the love of Himself. Love not thy husband more than God, 

and thou shalt not ever experience' widowhood. Or rather, ''«''^''«'•'> 

. ' feel, 

even if it should happen, thou shalt not have the feeling of 

it. Why ? Because thou hast an immortal Protector who 

loves thee better. If thou lovest God more, mourn not: for 

He Who is more beloved is immortal, and does not suffer 

thee to feel the loss of him who is less beloved. This I will 

make manifest to thee by an example. If thou hast a husband, 

complying with thee in all things, one that is respected, and 

that makes thee honourable every where, and not to be despised, 

one respected amongst all, intelligent and wise, and loving 

thee, thou being esteemed happy on his account, and in 

conjunction with him shouldest thou also bring forth a child, 

and then before it has anived at the age of maturity, that 

child should depart ; wilt thou then feel the affliction ? By 

no means. For he that is more beloved makes it disappear^. ^a*»»««- 

And now if thou love God more than thy husband, probably 

He will not soon take him away. But even if He should 

take him, thou wilt not be sensible of the affliction. For 

this reason the blessed Job felt no severe suffering, when he 

heard of the death of his children all at once, because he 

loved God more than them. And whilst He Whom he loved 

was living, they were not able to afflict him''. 

What sayest thou, O woman } Thy husband or thy son 

was thy protector? But does not thy God spare thee'?''^«/3«- 

Tai, ' is 

h B. adds, 'if then thou lovest as thou more, thou wilt never be grieved at ^^°"^'" 
oughtest to do God Who loves thee parting with thy husband or thy child.' °' 

2 D 

402 God recalls His gifts when preferred to Himself. 

iThes. Who gave thee thy very husband? Was it not lie? And 
' ' ' ' who made thee ? Was it not He ? He surely Who brought 
thee out of nothing into being, and breathed into thee a soul, 
and bestowed on thee a mind, and vouchsafed to favour thee 
with the knowledge of Himself, and for thy sake spared not 
His only-begotten Son, does not He spare thee? And will 
a fellow-servant spare thee ? What wrath is due to these 
words ! What of this kind hast thou had from thy husband ? 
Thou canst not say any thing. For if even he has done 
thee any kindness, it was after he had received kindness, 
you having previously begun. But in the case of God no 
one can say any such thing. For it is not as having received 
any favours from us that God benefits us, but being incapa- 
ble of want, from His goodness alone He does good to man- 
kind. He has promised thee a kingdom, He has given 
immortal life, glory, brotherhood, adoption. He has made 
thee fellow-heir with His Only-Begotten. And dost thou after 
so great benefits remember thy husband ? What has he 
bestowed of this kind ? He has made His sun to shine. He 
has given rain, He sustains thee with yearly nourishment. 
Wo to us for our great ingratitude ! 

For this reason He takes thy husband, that thou mayest 
not seek him. But dost thou still cling to him though de- 
parted, and forsakest God, when it was thy duty to give 
thanks, to cast thyself wholly upon Him ? For what is it 
that thou hast received from thy husband ? The pains of 
childbirth, and labours, and insults and reproaches, perchance, 
and eludings, and bursts of anger. Are not these the things 
that come from husbands ? But there are, you say, other 
good things too. Of what sort then are these ? Did he set 
off thy beauty with costly garments ? Did he put gold orna- 
ments about thy face ? Did he make thee respected by all ? 
But if thou wilt, God will adorn thee with a much better 

'<ri;ttvoT« ornament than the departed. For gravity^ makes its pos- 
sessor much more admirable than golden ornaments. This 
King also has garments, not of this sort, but much better. 
With those, if thou wilt, invest thyself Of what sort then 
are they ? There is a clothing which has fringes of gold, 
with this, if thou wilt, array the soul. But did he make 
thee not to be despised by men ? And what is there great 

Widowhood honourable and powerfid. 403 

in that ? Thy widowhood suffers thee not to be despised by Hom. 
devils. Then thou ruledst over thy servants, if at least — 

thou didst at all rule over them. But now, instead of thy 
servants, thou hast mastery over unbodied powers, princi- 
palities, authorities, the ruler of this world. And thou dost 
not mention the troubles, in vs^hich thou sharedst with him, 
sometimes the fear of magistrates, sometimes the preference 
given to neighbours. From all these things thou art now 
delivered, from dread and fear. But art thou solicitous who 
will support the children that are left thee } The Father of 
the fatherless. For tell me, who gave them ? Dost thou not 
hear Christ in the Gospel saying, Is not the life more than^^t.G, 
meat, and the body than raiment ? 

Seest thou, that thy lamentation is not from loss of his (4) 
society, but from want of faith. But the children of a father 
that is dead are not equally illustrious. Wherefore ? Have 
they God for their Father, and are they not illustrious ? How 
many can I shew you brought up by widows, who have 
become famous, how many who have been under their 
fathers, and have been undone ! For if thou bringest them 
up from their first youth, as they ought to be brought up, 
they will enjoy an advantage much greater than a father's 
protection — for that it is the business of widows. I speak of 
the bringing up of children ; hear Paul saying, If she have\ xim. 
brought up children; and again, She shall he saved by^ child^^ ^^* 
bearing, (he has not said by her husband,) if they continue ' 
in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety. Instil into 2, 15. 
them the fear of God from their first youth, and He will pro- 
tect them better than any father; this will be a wall not to be 
broken. For when there is a guard seated within, we have 
no need of machinations without: but where he is not, all 
our outward contrivances are vain. 

This will be to them wealth and glory too and ornament. 
This will make them illustrious, not upon earth, but even in 
heaven. For do not look to those who are begirt with the 
golden girdles, nor those who are borne on horses, nor those 
who shine in kings' palaces on accoimt of their fathers, nor 
those who have footmen and attendants. For these things 
perhaps cause widows to bewail over their orphans, thinking . 
that this my son also, if his father at least were living, would 

2 D 2 

404 Orphans God's children, and great in heaven. 

^'^"^'^•have enjoyed so much happiness; but now he is in a state 

— '■ of depression and dishonour, and worthy of no consideration. 

Tliink not of these tilings, O woman, but open to thee in 
thought the gates of heaven, consider the palace there, be- 
hold the King Who is there seated. Consider if those who 
are ujion the earth can be more illustrious than thy son 
there — and then groan. But if some are of good repute on 
earth, this is not worth any consideration. It is allowed 
him, if thou wilt, to be a soldier in heaven, to enlist him in 
the ranks of that army. For those who are enlisted there 
are not borne on horses, but in the clouds. They walk not 
upon earth, but are caught up into heaven. They have not 
slaves to go before them, but the Angels themselves. They 
stand not in the presence of a mortal king, but of Him Who 
is immortal, the King of kings and Lord of lords. They 
have not a leathern girdle about their loins, but that glory 
which is unspeakable, through which they are more splendid 
even than kings, or whoever have been most illustrious. 
For in those royal courts not wealth is required, nor noble 
birth, nor any other thing than virtue alone, and where that 
is pi-esent, nothing is wanting to their obtaining the chief 

Nothing is painful to us, if we are willing to cultivate 

' (piXofo- wisdom ^ Look up to heaven, and see how much more 
splendid it is than the roofs of palaces. And if the pavement 
of the palaces above is so much more grand than those 
below, that the one may be considered as dirt in comparison 
with the other ; if any one should be thought worthy to see 
those palaces perfectly, what blessedness will not be his ! 

1 Tim. But shCy he says, that is a widow indeed, and desolate, 
' ' trusteth in God. To whom is this said ? To those who 
have no ' children, because they are more highly approved, 
and have a greater opportunity of pleasing God, because all 
their chains are loosened to them. There is no one to hold 
them fast, no one to compel them to drag their chains after 
them. Thou art separated from thy husband, but art united 
to God. Thou hast not a fellow-servant for thy associate 

' So B. and L. Edd. ' "Who have culty. The transition to the other case 

children,' which is so contrary to St. is however very easy and well marked, 

Paul's sense, that Hervetus has trans- and even eloquent, if we take the 

lated ^oi, ' by me,' to get over the diffi- negative. 

God kinder than any husband. 405 

but thou hast thy Lord, When thou prayest, tell me, dost Hom. 
thou not converse with God ? When thou readest, hear Him — 

conversing with thee. And what does He say to thee ? 
Much kinder ^ words than thy hushand. For though indeed 
thy husband should flatter thee, the honour is not great, for 
he is thy fellow-servant. But when thy Lord flatters the 
slave, then is the courtship great. How then does He court ^e?»*»/». 
us ? Hear by what means he does it. Come, He says, unto Matt. 

• • 1 1 28 

Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, atid I will give ' 
you rest. And again by the Prophet He calls, saying, Can Is. 49, 
a woman forget her child, that she should not have com- lxx. 
passion on the offspring o/ her womb? But even if a ivomaii 
should forget, yet will I not forget thee, saith the Lord. Of 
how great a love are these words? And again. Turn tmto is. A5, 
Me; and again elsewhere, Turn unto Me, and thou shalt he j^' ^^ 
saved. And if one was willing to select too from the Can- 22. 
tides, taking them in the more mystical way', he will hear 
Him conversing and saying to every soul that is fitted for 
Him, My fair one, my dove. What is sweeter than these Cant. 2, 
words.'' Seest thou the conversation of God with men? But 
what ? tell me, seest thou not how many children of those 
blessed women are gone, and are in their tombs ; so many 
as have suffered more severely, and with their husbands 
have lost also their children ? To these things let us attend ; 
let us be anxious about these things, and nothing will be 
grievous to us, but we shall continue passing all our time in 
spiritual joy; and we shall enjoy the eternal blessings, of 
which God grant we may all be partakers, by the grace and 
lovingkindness, &c. &c. 

>' So B. L.and 1 Paris, Edd. ' more desirable.' • B. fiurTiKuTi^a» for ftvffTixart^a. 


1 Thess. iv. 13. 

But I would not have you to he ignorant^ brethren, concern- 
ing them tvhich are asleep, that ye sorrow not even as 
others which have no hope. 

There are many things which from ignorance alone cause 
us sorrow, so that if we come to understand them well, we 
banish our grief. This therefore Paul also shewing, says, 
/ would not have you to be ignorant, that ye sorrow not even 
as others which have no hope. Of what wouldest thou not 
have them ignorant ? The doctrine, he says, of the Resur- 
rection. But wherefore dost thou not speak of the punish- 
ment laid up for being ignorant of the doctrine of the Resur- 
rection ? Because this is manifest from the other, and is 
admitted. But meanwhile, together with that, there will 
also be this not inconsiderable gain. For since they did not 
disbelieve the Resurrection, but nevertheless bewailed, on 
this account he thus speaks. And he discourses indeed with 
those who disbelieve the Resurrection in one way, but with 
these in another. For it is manifest that they knew, who 
1 Thess. were inquiring about the times and seasons. 
^' ^* Ver. 14. For if we believe, he. ?.a.ys, thai Jesus died and 

rose again, [and lived %] even so them also which sleep in 
Jesus 7cill God bring with him. 

" This word setms to come from Rom. 14, !). B. and L. omit it. 

Christians really sleep in death like Christ. 407 

Where are they who deny' the Flesh" ? For if He did not Hom. 
assume Flesh, neither did He die. And if He did not die, 

' aViriut 

neither did He rise again. How then does he exhort us, 
from these things to faith ? Was he not then according to 
them a trifler and a deceiver } For if to die proceeds from 
sin, and Christ did not sin, how does he now encourage us ? 
And wherefore does he also say, Even as others which have 
no hope ? As if he had said, O men, for whom do ye moum ? 
For whom do ye sorrow } for sinners, or simply for the 
dead } Therefore for whom do they mourn } But to them 
all these things ai-e vapid". The firstborn from the dead, Co], i, 
he says, that is, the first-fruits. Therefore there must also 
be others left. And see how here he introduces nothing 
from reasonings, because they were docile. But in writing 
to the Corinthians, he first broached many things also from 
reasonings, and then he added. Thou /ool, that which thou },^"g 
sowest is not quickened. For this is more authoritative, 
but it is when he converses with the faithful. But with 
him who is without, what authority would this have ''? Even 
so, he says, thein also which sleejo in Jesus will God bring 
with Him. Again, which sleep : he no where says, the dead. 
But with respect to Christ, his words are, He died, because 
he also spake of the Resurrection, but here of them which 
sleep in Jesus, saying this, either that they slept in the faith 
of Jesus, or that through Jesus will He bring them that 
had fallen asleep, thai is, the faithful. Here the heretics say, 
that he is speaking of the baptized. What place then is 
there for even so? For Jesus did not sleep by Baptism. But 
on what account does he say, them luhich sleep? So that 
he is discoursing not of the general Resurrection, but of a 
particular one. Them which sleep in Jesus He will bring, 
he says, and thus he speaks in many places. 

Ver. 15. For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, 
that ice which are alive and remain unto the coming of the 
Lord, shall jiot prevent them which are asleep. 

Speaking concerning the faithful, and them which sleep 

•> i. e. theTnearnation, as the Docette, = 'iuXt He means to those who deny 

and in a manner the Marcionites, see the Incarnation. 

p. 62. note d. and the Maniehees. S. ^ Sav. ' Would the words, Thus 

Aug. Conf. V. Tr. p. 76. and Note at saith God, have,' omitting part of the 

the end, p. 325, quotation. 

408 St. Paul's object is to help weak faith. 

iThes. in Christ. And again, the dead shall rise. Then his 
— — '- discourse is not concerning the Resurrection only, but 
concerning both the Resurrection and the honour in 
glory. Therefore all shall partake of a Resurrection, he 
says, but all shall not be in glory, only those in Christ. 
Since therefore he wishes to comfort them, he comforts them 
not with this only, but also with the abundant honour, and 
with its speedy arrival;,x^or in proof that he wishes to comfort 
them with the honour, as he goes on, he says, And we 
shall be ever with the Lord; and we shall be caught tip in the 

But how do the faithful sleep in Jesus ? Manifestly as 
having Christ within themselves. But the expression. He 
shall bring xoith Him^ shews that they are brought from 
many places. For this, he says, we say to you by the word 
of the Lord. He was about to tell them something strange. 
On this account he also adds what makes it worthy of credit; 
By the icord of the Lord, he says, that is, we speak not of 
ourselves, but having learnt from the Lord, That we ivhich 
are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not 
prevent them which are asleep. Which also he says in his 
1 Cor. Epistle to the Corinthians; In a moment, in the twinkling of 
' ■ an eye. Here he gives a credibility to the Resurrection by 
the manner also. 
'B.'For' And' because the matter seems to be difficult, he shews of 
(2) himself that as it is easy for the living to be taken up, so also 
for the departed. But in saying we, he does not speak of 
himself, for he indeed was not about to remain until the 
Resurrection, but he speaks of the faithful. On this account 
he has added. We who remain unto the coming of the Lord 
shall not prevent them which are asleep. As if he had said, 
Think not that there is any difficulty, hearing that they who 
are alive shall not anticipate those who are dissolved, who 
are rotted, who have been dead ten thousand years. It is 
God Who does it. But as it is easy for Him to bring those 
who arc entire, so is it also those who are dissolved. 
Mohal. But there are some who disbelieve the matter, because 
they know not God. For, tell me, which is the more easy, 
to brint^ one into being out of nothing, or to raise u}) again 
him that was dissolved } But what say they ? A certain one 

Mechanical objections to the Resurrection, 409 

suffered shipwreck and was drowned in the sea, and having Hom. 

fallen many fishes caught him, and each of the fishes '- 

devoured some member. Then of these very fishes, one was 
caught in this gulph, and one in that, and this was eaten by 
one man, and that by another ^ And again, those who ate 
the fishes, that had eaten the man, died in different places, 
and were themselves perhaps devoured by wild beasts. And — 
when there has been so great a confusion and dispersion — 
how shall the man rise again ? Who shall collect the dust .? 
But wherefore dost thou say this, O man, and weavest strings 
of trifles, and makest it a matter of perplexity } For tell me, 
if the man had not fallen into the sea, if the fish had not 
eaten him, nor the fish again been devoured by numberless 
men — but he had been preserved with care in a coffin, and 
neither worms nor any thing else had disturbed him, how 
shall that which is dissolved rise again } How shall the dust 
and ashes be again conglutinated ^f* Whence shall there 
be any more its bloom for the body } But is not this a diffi- 
culty ? 

If indeed they be Greeks who raise these doubts, we shall 
have numberless things to say to them. What then ? For 
there are among them those who convey souls into plants, 
and shrubs, and dogs. Tell me, which is more easy, to 
resume one's own body, or that of another ? Others again 
say that they are consumed by fire, and that there is a resur- 
rection of garments and of shoes, and they are not ridiculed. 
Others introduce atoips. But our argument is not with 
those, but to the faithful, (if we ought to call them faithful 
who raise questions,) we will still say what the Apostle See 
has said, that all life springs from corruption, all plants, all ^g gg 
seeds. Seest thou not the fig tree, what a trunk it has, what 
stems, how many leaves, and branches, stalks, and roots, oc- 
cupying so much ground and embosomed therein. This then, 
such and so great as it is, springs from that grain which was 
thrown into the ground and itself first corrupted. And if it 
be not rotted and dissolved, there will be none of these 
things. Tell me, whence does this ha])pen ? And the vine 

« B. and Bodl. Extr. add, ' having in this very argument, which he inav 
(in hini) the devoured flesh.' have borrowed from S. Chr. see his 

f This word is used by Bp. Pearson work on the Creed, art. Resurrection. 

410 Formation of plants and animals as difficult. 

iTHEs.too, which is so fair both to see and to partake of, springs 
"*' ^^' from that which is vile in appearance. And wliat, tell me, is 
not tlie water that descends from above one thing, and how is 
it changed into so many things ? For this is more wonderful 
than the Resurrection. For there indeed the same seed and 
the same plant is the subject, and there is a great affinity. 
But here tell me how, having one quality and one nature, it 
turns into so many things } For in the vine it becomes wine, 
and not only wine, but leaves and sap. For not only is the 
cluster of grapes, but the rest of the vine nourished by it. 
Again, in the olive, (it becomes) oil, and many other things, 
too numerous to mention. And what is wonderful, here it is 
moist, there dry, here sweet, there sour, here astringent, else- 
where bitter. Tell me how it turns into so many things ? 
Shew me the reason ! But you cannot. 

And in the case of thyself, tell me, for this comes nearer, 
' KKTOL- this seed, that is lodged in the womb \ how is it formed and 
^xkxo- jQoulded into so many things.? how into eyes? how into 
ears } how into hands } how into a heart .'' Are there not in 
the body ten thousand differences of figures, of sizes, of 
qualities, of positions, of powers, of proportions ? How do 
nerves and veins and flesh and bones and membranes, and 
arteries and joints and cartilages, and as many more things 
beside these, as the sons of the physicians precisely specify, 
which compose our nature — how do these all come from 
that one seed } Does not this then seem to you much more 
difficult than those things ? How is the moist and the soft 
congealed into the hard and cold, that is, bone ? How into 
the warm and moist, which are united in the blood.? How into 
the cold and soft, the nerve ? How into the cold and moist, the 
artery ? Tell me, whence are these things ? Dost thou not 
question^ of these things? Dost thou not see every day a 
resurrection and a death taking place in the periods of our 
life ? Whither is our youth gone ? whence is our age come ? 
how is it that he who is grown old cannot indeed make him- 
self young, but begets another, a very young child, and what 
he cannot give to himself, that he bestows upon another ? 
(3) This also we may see in trees and in animals, and yet 

8 The arteries were then thought to convey air through the body. 

God baffles presumptuous enquiry. 411 

that which gives to another ought first to bestow upon itself. Hom. 
But these things indeed are what human reasoning demands. - 

But when God creates, let all things give way. If these 
things are so difficult, nay, so excessively difficult, I am re- 
minded of those mad persons, who are curious about the 
incorporeal Generation of the Son. Things that take place 
every day, that are within the grasp of our hands, and that 
have been enquired into ten thousand times, no one has yet 
been able to discover ; tell me, then, how is it they are curious 
about that secret and ineffable Generation ? Is not the mind 
of such men wearied in treading that void^? Has it not'««»«^- 
been whirled into ten thousand giddinesses ? Is it not 
dumb-founded^? And yet not even scare they instructed. - «j^a»^? 
When they are able to say nothing about grapes and figs, '"^"*' 
they are curious about God ! For tell me, how is that 
grape-stone resolved into leaves and stems .'' How before 
this were they not in it, nor seen in it ? But it is not the 
grape-stone, you say, but all is from the earth. Then how is 
it that without this the earth bears nothing of itself? But let 
us not be void of understanding. What takes place is nei- 
ther from the earth, nor from the grape-stone, but from Him 
Who is Lord both of the earth and of its seeds. For this rea- 
son He has caused the same thing to be made both without 
them, and with them. In the first place, shewing His own From 
power, when he said, Let the earth bring forth the herb q/9^°' ^» 
grass. And secondly, besides' shewing His power, instruct- ^ B. and 
ing us also to be laborious and industrious. t °f^^^, 

Why then have these things been said by us ? Not idly, 
but that we may believe also in the Resurrection, and that, 
when again wishing to apprehend something by our reason- 
ings, we are not able, we may not be angry and take offence, 
but discreetly withdrawing and checking our reasoning, we 
may take refuge in the power and skilfulness of God. Know- 
ing these things therefore, let us put a curb upon our reason- 
ings. Let us not transgress our bounds, nor the measures 
that have been assigned to our knowledge. For, I/ any iCor.S 
man, he says, think that he knoweth any thing, he knoweth ^' 
nothing yet as he ought to know. 

I speak not concerning God only, but concerning every 
thing. For what wouldest thou learn about the earth ? 

412 Man's knowledge of nature, how shallow. 

1 Thes. What dost thou know ? Tell me. How great is the measure 

— '- of it ? What is its size ? What is its manner of" position ? 

What is its essence ? What is its place ? Where does it 
stand, and upon what? But none of these things can you 
tell? Hut that it is cold, and dry, and hlack, this you can 
tell — and nothing farther. Again, concerning the sea.'' But 
there you will be reduced to the same uncertainty, not know- 
ing where it begins, and where it ends, and upon what it is 
borne, what supports the bottom of it, and what is the place 
for it, and whether after it there is a continent, or it ends in 
water and air? And what dost thou know of the things that 
are in it ? Shall I speak of the air, or of the elements ? You 
will have nothing to say. Let me pass over these things. 
Would you have us select the smallest of plants ? The un- 
fruitful grass, which we all know, tell me, how it is brought 
forth ? Is not the material of it water, and earth, and dung ? 
What is it that makes it appear so beautiful, and have such 
an admirable colour? Whence does that beauty so fade 
away ? This is not the work of water, or of earth. Seest 
thou that there is every where need of faith ? How does the 
earth bring forth, how hoes it travail ? Tell me. But you can 
tell me none of these things. 

Be instructed, O man, in things that are here below, and 
be not curious nor overmeddling about heaven. And would 
it were heaven, and not the Lord of heaven ! Dost thou not 
know the earth from which thou wast brought forth, in which 
thou wast nourished, which thou inhabitest, on which thou 
walkest, without which thou canst not even breathe ; and 

P8.39, thou curious about things so far removed ? Trulv man is 

and 144, . , . . 

6. vanity. And if any one should bid thee descend into the 

deep, and trace out things at the bottom of the sea, thou 
wouldest not tolerate the command. But, when no one com- 
pels thee, thou art willing of thyself to fathom the unsearch- 
able abyss? Do not so, I beseech you. But let us sail up- 
wards, not floating upon reasonings, for we shall soon be 
weary, and sink ; but using the divine Scriptures, as some 
vessel, let us unfurl the sails of faith. If we sail in them, 
then the Word of God will be present with us as our Pilot. 
But if we lloat upon human reasonings, it will not be so. For 
to whom of those, who so float, will the Pilot be present ? So 

How to traverse the Deep safely. 413 

Ihat the danger is twofold, in that there is no vessel, and that Hom. 

. . . VII 
the Pilot is absent. For if even the boat without a pilot is '- 

unsafe, when both are wanting, what hope is there of safety ? 

Let us not then throw ourselves into manifest danger, but let 

us go upon a safe vessel, having fastened ourselves by the 

sacred anchor. For thus we shall sail into the tranquil 

haven, with much merchandize'', and at the same time with 

great safety, and we shall obtain the blessings laid up for 

them that love Him, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with Whom, 


h iffra^'tKS, a1. tlvfo^iat, facility. 


1 Thess. iv. 15—17. 

For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we 
which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord 
shall not prevent them which are asleep. For the Lord 
Hiinself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the 
voice of the Archangel, and with the trump of God: and 
the dead in Christ shall rise first. Then we which are 
alive and remain shall be caught up together with them ifi 
the clouds, to tneet the Lord in the air : and so shall we 
ever be with the Lord. 

The Prophets indeed, wishing to shew the credibility of 

Is. 1, 1. the things said by them, before all other things say this. The 

Jer. i,\.visio)i which Isaiah saiv ; and again, The word of the Lord 

• which came to Jeremiah ; and again, Thus saith the Lord; 

with many such expressions. And many of them even saw 

God sitting, as far as it was possible for them to see Him. 

But Paul not having seen Him sitting, but having Christ 

speaking in himself, instead of Thus saith the Lord, said, 

2 Cor. Do" ye seek a p)roof of Christ speaking in me ? And again, 

' ■ Paid, an Apostle of Jesus Christ, sliewing, that nothing is of 

himself. For the Apostle speaks the things of Him who sent 

1 Cor. 7, him. And again, / think also that I have the Spirit of God. 

All those things therefore he spake by the Spirit, but this, 

which he now says, he heard even expressly from God. As 

» H. :uid L. 7/, as the Text. 

■ K%T» Tt 

Circumstances of the Resurrection. 415 

also that, which he said discoursing to the Elders of Ephesus, Hum. 


It is more blessed to give than to receive, he heard among - ^' 
things not recorded^. 35. 

Let us then see what he now also says, For this we say ^ 
unto you by the loord of the Lord, that we which are alive (*"'*■ 
and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent 
them which are asleep. For the Lord Himself shall descend 
from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the Archangel, 
and with the last trump. Which Christ also then said, T^e^^*-^'*» 
powers of the heavens shall be shaken. But wherefore with 
the trumpet ? For we see this on Mount Sinai too, and Angels 
there also. But what means the voice of the Archangel ? As 
he said in the parable of the Virgins, Arise ! The Bridegroom From 
cometh. Either he says this, or that as in the case of a king, g_ " ' 
so also shall it then be. Angels ministering at the Resun'ection. 
For He says, let the dead rise, and the work is done^, the V''»»'-«'' 
Angels not having power to do this, but His word. As if a 
king should command and say. Let those who were shut up 
go forth, and let the servants lead them out. They do not 
this however from their own power, but from that Voice. 
This also Christ says in another place: He shall 5^«^ ^w^at.24. 
Angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall 
gather together his Elect from the four winds, from one end 
of heaven to the other. And every where you see the Angels 
running to and fro. The Archangel therefore I think is he, 
who is set over those who are sent forth, and who shouts 
thus : * Make all ready, for the Judge is at hand.' And 
what is at the last trumpet? Here he implies that there 
are many trumpets, and that at the last the Judge descends. 
And the dead in Christ, he says, shall rise first. Then we 
which are alive and remain shall he caught up together with 
them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall 
we ever he with the Lord. 

Ver. 18. Wherefore comfort ye one another with these 

If He is about to descend, on what account shall we be 
caught up ? For the sake of honour. For when a king enters 
into a city, those who are in honour go out to meet him. 
But the condemned await the judge within. And upon the 
coming of an affectionate father, his children indeed, and 

416 Meeting Christ in the air. Office of the Angels. 

iThes. those who arc worthy to be his children, are taken out in 
J^^ a chariot, that they may see and kiss him. But those 
who have offended remain within the house '', ^Ve are 
carried upon tlie chariot of our Father. For He received 
Actsi, Him up in the clouds, and ne shall he caught up in the 
f' clouds^ Seest thou how great is the honour.'' and as He 

163. descends, we go forth to meet Him, and, what is more blessed 

than all, there we shall be with Him. 

Ps. 106, Who shall speak of the mightinesses of the Lord, and 

2.LXX judi^f, fill f{if. praises to be JieardJ How many blessings has 

He vouchsafed to the human race ! Those who are dead 

are raised first, and thus the meeting takes place together. 

Abel who died before all shall then meet Him together with 

those who are alive. So that they in this respect will have 

no advantage, but he who is corrupted, and has been so many 

years in the earth, shall meet Him with them, and so all 

others. For if they awaited us, that we might be crowned, 

Heb.ii,as elsewhere he says in an Epistle, God having provided 

^^' some letter thing for us, that they nithont us should not be 

made perfect , much more shall we also await them ; or rather, 

they indeed awaited, but we not at all. For the Resurrection 

takes place 171 a moment, in the tuinkling of an eye. 

But the vsaying, that they are gathered together, shews that 
they arise indeed every where, but are gathered together by 
the Angels. The rising again therefore is the work of the 
power of God commanding the earth to give up its deposit, 
and there is no one who ministers in it, as He then called 
John 11, Lazarus, Lazarus, come forth. But the gathering is the 
^^' work of ministers. But if the Angels gather them together, 
and run to and fro, how are they" caught up here? They 
are caught up after the descent '', after that they are gathered 

For this is also done without any one being aware ^ For 
when they see the earth agitated, the dust mingling, the 

^ So Catena; bihiuv. Edd. eixtru» al/ro), which gives that sense more 

' Those of his domestics who have of- decidedly. Or here may only mean ' in 

fended remain within.' this passage.' 

"= i. e. How are those, whom the <* Musculus takes it of our Lord's 

Angels have already taken and ga- descent, Hervetus otherwise, 
thered, still /lere, that they should be • He seems to allude to Matt. 24, 

caught up'' L. places Urauta, before 36. 

Dismay of the wicked awaiting Judgment. 417 

bodies rising perchance' on every side, no one ministering to Hom. 
this, but the shout' being sufficient to empty the whole earth, — —7^ 
that was filled, (for consider how great a thing it is that all from ^«t^ 
Adam unto His coming should then stand with their wives 
and children,) — when they see so great a tumult upon the 
earth, — then they shall know. As therefore in the Dispensation 
that was in the Flesh, they had foreseen nothing of it, so 
also will it then be. 

When these things then are done, then also will be the Moral. 
voice of the Archangel shouting and commanding the Angels, ^-1 
and the trumpets, or rather the sound of the trumpet. What 
trembling then, what fear will possess those that remain upon 
the earth. For one woman is caught up and another is leftMat.24, 

. 40. 41. 

behind, and one man is taken, and another is passed over. Lukei7, 
What will be the state of their souls, when they see some ^*- 2^- 
indeed taken up, but themselves left behind .? Will not these 
things be able to shake their souls more terribly than any 
hell } Let us suppose then in word that this is now present, 
For if sudden death, and earthquakes in cities, and threatenings 
thus affect^ our souls ; when we see the earth breaking up, 
and crowded with all these, when we hear the trumpets, and 
the voice of the Archangel thrilling ''louder than any trumpet, 
when we perceive the heaven shrivelled up, and God the 
King of all coming nigh — what then will be our souls } Let 
us shudder, I beseech you, and be terrified, as if these things 
were now taking place. Let us not comfort ourselves by the 
delay. For when it must certainly happen, the delay will 
profit us nothing. 

How great will then be the fear and trembling ! Have you 
ever seen men led away to death ? What do you think is the 
state of their souls, as they are going on the way to the gate ? is 
it not worse than many deaths ? What would they not choose 
both to do and to suffei*, so that they might be delivered from 
that cloud of darkness ? I have heard many say, who have been 
recalled by the mercy of the king, after having been led away, 
that they did not even see men as men, their souls being so 

' Iffui, which has heen translated which implies the same in his Ms. L. 

* equally.' has irToourt. 

8 fTajetiy/, Bodl. Extr. iTTiuat/»-/ terrify, '' Bndl. Extr. Xaf/,r^ii'Ti^«v laurtti for 

(for irrotZiri,) Musculus, ' concutiunt,' kctfiv^oTieaf tue-m, ' being louder.' 

2 E 

418 False notion that God uses mere threats. 

1 Thes. troubled, so horror-struck, and beside themselves. If then 
^' ^^' ■ the death of the body thus terrifies us, when eternal death 
approaches, wliat will be our feelings ? And why do I speak 
of those who are led away ? A crowd then stands around, the 
greater part not even knowing them. Ifany one looked into 
their souls, no one is so cruel, no one so hard-hearted, no one so 
firm, as not to have his soul dejected, and relaxed with fear 
and despair. And if when others are taken off by this 
death, which diflers nothing from sleep, those who are not 
concerned in it are thus affected; when we ourselves fall into 
greater evils, what then will be our state ? It is not, believe 
me, it is not possible to represent the suffering by words. 

Nay, you say, but God is merciful, and none of these things 
will happen ! Then it is written in vain ! No, you say, but 
only as a threat, that we may become wise ! If then we are not 
wise, but continue evil, will He not, tell me, inflict the 
punishment .? Will He not then either recompense the good 
with rewards ? Yes, you say, for that is becoming to Him, 
to do good even beyond desert. So that those things indeed 
are true and will certainly be> but the punishments will not 
really be, but only for the purpose of a threat, and of terror ! 
By what means I shall persuade you, I know not. If I say, 
Mart9, tiij^t ///e/> ifovni uill not die, and their /ire nill not be 


Mat.25, queiiched ; if I say, that ' they shall depart into everlasting 
^^' ^^' fi''(^ ' j' if I s^^ before you the rich man already punished, you 
will say that it is all a matter of threatening. Whence then 
shall I persuade you ? For this is a Satanic reasoning, 
indulging you with a favour that will not profit, and causing 
you to be slothfiil. 

How then can we banish it ? Whatever things we say 
from Scriptui'c, you will say, are for the purpose of threaten- 
ing. But with respect to futvne things this indeed may be 
said, but not so concerning things that have happened, and 
have had an end. You have all heard of the deluge. And were 
those things also said by way of threat? Did they not actually 
happen.? Those men too said many such things, and for 
a hundred years while the ark was building, and the wood 
was being wrought, and the righteous man was calling aloud, 

' R. reads puninhinent, which makes the quotation exact from v. 46. 

The Flood. The land of Sodom a monument of real xcrath. 419 

there was no one who beheved. But because they did not Hom. 


beheve the threat in words, they suffered the punishment in 
very deed. And this will be our fate too, if we shall not 
have believed. On this account it is that He compares His 
coming with the days of Noah, because as some disbelieved 
in that deluge, so will they in the deluge of hell. Was that 
a threat? was it not a fact.'' Then will not He, who then 
brought punishment upon them so suddenly, much more 
inflict it now .? For the things that are committed now are 
not less than the offences of that time. How? — because 
then, it says, the sons of Ood went in unto the daughters of^^^- 6, 
7nen. And those mixtures were the great offence. But now 
there is no form of wickedness, which is unaltempted. Do 
you then believe that the deluge took place? Or does it 
seem to you a fable ? And yet the mountains where the ark 
rested, bear witness. I speak of those in Armenia. 

But, even superabundantly, I will tura my discourse to (3) 
another thing more evident than that. Has any one of you 
ever travelled in Palestine ? For I will no longer mention 
report, but facts, and yet the other were clearer than facts. 
For those things which the Scripture says, are more to be 
trusted than things we see. Has any one of you then ever 
travelled in Palestine? I suppose so. Bear witness then 
for me, ye who have seen the places, to those who have not 
been there. For above Ascalon and Gaza up to the very 
end of the river .Jordan there is a countrywide and fruitful — 
or rather there was — for it is not now. This then was as a 
Paradise. For it is said, Lot beheld all the plain of Jordan — From 
that it was well watered every where, even as the garden of^^Q ' ' 
the Lord. This, therefore, that was so flourishing, and that 
rivalled all countries, which for thrivingness exceeded the 
Paradise of God, is now more desolate than any wilderness. 
And there stand trees, indeed, and they bear fruit. But the 
fruit is a monument of the wrath of God. For there stand 
pomegranates, I speak both of the trees and the fruit, 
having a ver}^ fine appearance, and to the ignorant holding 
out great hopes. But if they are taken into the hand, being 
broken open they display no fruit indeed, but much dust and 
ashes stored up within. Such also is the whole land. If 
you find a stone, you will find it full of ashes'. And why do ''■«'^«Pe'*'- 

•2 E 2 ^*""'" 

420 Trees andjruits of Sodom remain, hut in ashes. 

IThes. 1 speak of stone and wood and earth, where the air and 
-lii^ water partake of the calamity ? For as when a body is burnt 
and consumed, the shape remains, and the outline in the 
appearance of the fire, and the bulk and the proportion, but 
the power is no more, so truly there you may see earth, 
which yet has nothing of earth about it, but all ashes; trees 
and fruit, which have nothing of trees and fruit about them; 
air and water, which have nothing of air or of water about 
them, for even these are turned to ashes. And yet how 
could air ever have been burnt, or water, whilst it remained 
water ? For wood and stones indeed it is possible to burn, 
but air and water it is altogether impossible. Impossible to 
us, but possible to Him Who did these things. Therefore 
the air is nothing else than a furnace, the water is a furnace. 
All things are unfruitful, all unproductive; they are all images 
of wrath that has gone before, and proofs of that which is to 

Are these too but threatening words .'' Are these but the 
sound of words ? For to me indeed the former things were not 
incredible, but things not seen were equally credible with 
things that were seen. But even to the unbeliever these are 
sufficient to produce faith. If any one disbelieves hell, let 
him consider Sodom, let him reflect upon Gomorrah, the 
vengeance that has been inflicted, and which yet remains. 
Tills is a proof of the eternity of punishment. Are these 
things grievous ? And is it not grievous, when you say that 
there is no hell, but that God has merely threatened it ? 
seeHeb. uhen you slack the hands of the people? It is thou who 
Jer.38, disbelievest that compellest me to say these things. If thou 
"*• believedst the words of Christ, I should not be compelled to 

bring forward facts to induce belief. But since you have 
evaded them, you shall be persuaded henceforth, whether 
willing or unwilling. For what have you to say concerning 
Sodom ? Would you wish also to know the cause, for which 
these things were then done? It was one sin, a grievous and 
accursed one certainly, yet but one. The men of that time 
had a passion for boys, and on that account they suffered 
this punishment. But now ten thousand sins equal and even 
more grievous than these are committed. Then He Who for 
one sin poured forth so much anger, and neither regarded 

Sin most punished hereafter, when not here. 421 

the supplication of Abraham, nor yet Lot who dwelt among Hom. 
them, him who from honour to His servants offered his own - 

daughters to insult, will He spare, when there are so many 
sins? These things truly are ridiculous, trifling, delusion, 
and diabolical deceit ! 

Do you wish that I should bring forward another ? You 
have certainly heard of Pharaoh, king of the Egyptians ; 
you know therefore the punishment which he suffered, and 
how even with his whole host, chariots and horses and all, he 
was engulphed in the Erythraean sea. Would you hear also 
other examples ? for he perhaps was an impious man, or 
rather not perhaps, but certainly he was an impious man. 
Would you see those also punished, who were of the number 
of believers, and who held fast to God, but were not of 
upright life ? Hear Paul saying. Neither let t(s commit i Cor. 
fornication, as some of them committed, and fell in one day ' 
three and twenty thousand. Neither let us murmur, as 
some of them also murmured, and icere destroyed of the 
destroyer. Neither let us tempt Christ, as sortie of them 
also tempted, and ivere destroyed of serpents. And if forni- 
cation, and if murmuring had such power, what will not be 
the effect of our sins ? 

And if he does not now exact punishment, do not wonder. 
For they knew not of a hell, therefore they were visited with 
punishments following close at their heels *. But thou, ' ^a^» 
whatever sins thou commit, though thou shouldest escape *° "' 
present punishment, wilt suffer for it There. Did He punish 
so severely those who were nearly in the state of children. See p. 
and who had not sinned so greatly — and will He spare us ? ^^^' 
It would not be reasonable. For if we commit the same sins 
with them, we shall deserve a greater punishment. Where- 
fore ? Because we have enjoyed more grace. But when 
our sins are more numerous, and more heinous than theirs, 
what punishment shall we not undergo ? They — and let no 
one think I say it as admiring them, or excusing them; 
God forbid : for when God punishes, he who passes a con- 
trary sentence, does it at the suggestion of the devil ; I say 
this therefore, not praising them nor excusing them, but 
shewing our wickedness — they therefore, although they 

4 •22 Miseries oftlie Jews a terror to unpunished sinners. 

1 Thes. murmured, were, however, going through '' a wilderness : but 
— — '— we murmur though we have a country, and are in our own 

houses. And, although they committed fornication, yet it 
was just after they came out of the evils of Egypt, and had 
hardly heard of such a law. But we do it, having previously 
received from our forefathers the doctrine of salvation, so that 
we are deserving of greater punishment. 

Would you hear also of other things ? what were their 
sufferings in Palestine, famines, pestilences, captivities, under 
the Babylonians, and under the Assyrians, and their miseries 
from the Macedonians, and those under Hadrian and Vespa- 
sian ? I have something that I wish, beloved, to relate to 
thee ; nay, do not run away ' ! I will rather tell thee another 
thing before it. There was once a famine, it says, and the 
king was walking upon the wall; then a woman came to him 
From and uttered these words : ' O king, this woman said to me, 

2 Kings Lg^ yg roast thv son to-dav, and eat him — to-morrow mine, 
b, 28. J . ' 

And we roasted and ate, and now she does not give me her's.' 

What can be more dreadful than this calamity.'' Again, in 
Lament, another place the Prophet says, The hands of the pitiful 

' women have sodden their own children. The Jews then 

suffered such punishment, and shall we not much rather 
suff'er } 
(4) Would you also hear other calamities of theirs .? Read 
over Josephus, and you will learn that whole tragedy, if 
perchance we may persuade you from these things, that there 
is a hell. For consider, if they were punished, why are we 
not punished .? or how is it reasonable that we are not now 
punished, who sin more grievously than they.? Is it not 
manifest that it is, because the punishment is kept in store 
for us ? And, if you please, I will tell you in the person of 
every individual how they were punished. Cain murdered 
his brother. A horrible sin indeed, who can deny it ? But 
he suffered punishment ; and a heavy one, equivalent to ten 
thousand deaths, for he would rather have died ten thousand 

Gen. 4, times. For hear him saying, If Thou easiest me out from 


•< TJen. 'coming into.' Sav. and L. omit iii^x''''^''- 
tit, making the sense strictly, 'were ' f^h aTo^n^vtrri} . perhaps only ' turn 
travelling a desert road.' B. reads away.' 

Sins like Cain's, Achaii's, ElVs, have wrath in store. 423 

the land, and 1 shall he hidden from Thxi face, then it will Hom. 

.' ^ ^ 7 VIII 
happen that every one who jindeth me ivill slay me. Tell - 

me then, do not many even now do the same things that he 

did ? For when thou slayest not thy brother according to 

the flesh, but thy spiritual brother, dost thou not do the 

same ? For what, though not by the sword ? yet by some 

other means. Wlien being able to relieve his hunger, thou 

neglectest him. What then ? Has no one now envied his 

brother ? has no one plunged him into dangers \ But here 

they have not suffered punishment, yet they wall suffer it. 

Then did he, who never heard the written laws, nor the 

prophets, nor saw great miracles, suffer such great vengeance, 

and shall he, who has done the same things in another way '", 

and was not rendered wise by so many examples, shall he go 

unpunished? Where then is the justice of God, and where 

His goodness. 

Again, a certain one for having gathered sticks on the 
Sabbath was stoned, and yet this was