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Prof. k. A. Stanley 










(Penetal anb Spectal Stubents of Ausfcal Structure 

A * 


{Royal Wurtemberg Professor) 

author of 

"Thb Material used in Musical Composition" 
"The Theory and Practice of Tone-Relations" 
"Models of the Principal Musical Forms," etc. 


j New York : 




Copyright, 1898, by G. SCHIRMER 

• » • • . 







ffbvB. I). f>* a* aseacb 







■fl^QylU^ ^ 




This book undertakes no more than the systematic enumeration 
and exhaustive explanation of all the formal designs and methods 
of structural treatment in the homophonic domain of musical 
composition, as revealed in classical or standard writings. The 
student who aims to acquire the Science of composition, is expected 
to Imitate these designs and methods, and to look for additional 
illustrations and confirmations in general musical literature. This 
will develop skill and facility, will induce correct habits of musical 
thought, will enrich the mind with a fund of resources, and 
stimulate the imagination to increased responsiveness and activity. 

But, further than this, the book lays no claim to furnishing 
clues to the subtle Art of composition. In converting his theoreti- 
cal knowledge into successful practice, — into a means to an end, — 
the student can appeal to no other authority than that of his own 
fancy, good taste, and natural or acquired judgment. 


The examples given for reference must be inspected, — if not 
totally, at least in great part. No student should hope to be 
entirely successful and efficient as a composer without possessing 
quite extensive acquaintance with the products and processes of 
successful writers. Therefore, the pupil must regard the conscien- 
tious examination of these carefully selected quotations, as a very 
significant and distinctly essential part of his study. This applies 
more especially to the works cited in Divisions I, II and III. 

Some of the works, — those to which constant or frequent 
reference is made, — he must endeavor to own ; for example : 

The Pianoforte Sonatas of Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart and 
; Schubert ; 

^ The Symphonies (arr. for 2 hands) of Beethoven and Haydn ; 

The Bagatelles of Beethoven ; 


The ** Songs without Words " of Mendelssohn ; 
The Mazurkas, Nocturnes and Preludes of Chopin ; 
The Pfte. works of Schumann (op. 12, 15, 68, 82, 99, 124), 
and of Brahms (op. 10, 76, 79, 116, 117, 118, 119) ; 

And some of the Songs of Schubert and Schumann. 


The author hopes and expects that the book will prove quite 
as necessary and useful to the general music-student^ as to the 
prospective composer ; a knowledge of homophonic musical struc- 
ture being, undeniably, of equal importance to all musical artists, 
reproductive as well as productive. 

The general student, while studying and analyzing with the 
same thoroughness as the special student of composition, will 
simply omit all the prescribed Exercises. 

Percy Goetschius, Mus. Doc. 

Boston, Mass., December, 1897. 


(Figures in parentheses refer to paragraphs.) 

Introductory : 

The requisites of musical composition 

The harmonic fundament 

Basis of chord-succession 

Ornamentation of chords 

Figuration of chords 

The Divisions of musical form 






Chap. I. The Phrase : 

Definition (i) 

Beginning and ending (2) . 

Perfect cadence (3) . 

Modification of perfect cadence (4) 

Harmonic aspect of phrase (5) 

Approach to the perf. cadence (6, 7) 

Melodic aspect of phrase (8) 

Division of phrase-melody into members (9) 

Means of indicating melodic joints (10) 

Syntax of phrase (11) 

Relations between melodic members (12) 

Exercise 1. 







Chap. II. The harmonic kc^ipmbnt of 


Styles of accompaniment (13) . . 19 
Distinction of one-, two-, three-, and four- 
voiced styles (14) . . . • ^9 
Irregular harmonic bulk (15) . -23 
JSxercise 2. 


Chap. III. The development or exten- 


Processes of composition (i6) 
Means employed in developing phrase (17) 
Repetition of entire phrase (18) 
Concealing perfect cadence (18) 
Modifications of repetition (19) : 

Embellishment of melody (i^a) . 

Change of harmony and modulation (193) 

Change of register (19c) . 

Change of style (igd) 

Complete changes in course (19^) . 
Interlude before repetition (20) 
Conditions upon which ** repetition" de 

pends (21) 
Series of repetitions (22) 
Object of repetitions (23) 
Exercise 3. 
Extensions at the end of phrase (24) : 

Repetition of second half (25a) . 

Repetition or sequence of last member 
(253) .... 

Repetition of cadence-group (26a) 

Repetition of two cadence-chords (263) 

Reiteration of final tonic chord (26c) 

Plagal extension {26d) 
Object of extensions at end (27) 
JSxerctses 4, and 5. 

Extensions at the beginning of phrase (28) 
Extensions in course of phrase (29) : 

Repetition of early member (29a) 

Sequence of early member (29^) . 

Expansion of prominent tone or chord 
(29c) .... 

Importance of " expansion " 

New cadence-member (29^) 
Extensions in course, when and where 

appropriate (30) . . . . 

Exercises 6 and 7, 



















Chap. IV. 

Chain-phrase (31) . 
Melody-expansion (32) 
Irregular phrase-formation (33) 
Miscellaneous examples of phrase-extension 
Exercise 8. 





Chap. V. The Period-form : 

Definition (34) 

Antecedent phrase (35) 

Semicadences (36) . 

Character of antecedent phrase (37) 

Consequent phrase (38) 

Construction of consequent phrase (39) 
Parallel construction (39<aj) 
Opposite construction (39^) 
Contrasting construction (39c) 

Variety and Unity (40) 

Exercise 9. 








Chap. VI. Extensions of Period-form : 

Repetition of entire period (41) . . 72 

Repetition of consequent-phrase (42) . 73 

Repetition of antecedent-phrase, or both 

phrases (43) . . . -75 

Exercises 10 and 11. 

Extensions at beginning of period (44) . 77 

Introductory phrase . . . -77 

*' Prelude" (45) . . . .78 

Introduction to consequent-phrase (46) . 78 
Extensions at end of period (47) . . 79 

Extension at end of antecedent-phrase (48) 81 
Extensions in course of period (49) . . 82 

Chain-phrase formation of either phrase (50) 83 
Codetta (51) . . . . .84 

**Postlude" (52) . . . .86 

Natural location of extensions (53) . . 87 

Miscellaneous examples of period-extension 87 
Exercises 12 and 13, 




Chap. VII. Group-formations : 

Period with consequent-group (54) 
Distinction between *' repetition " and 

production" (55): 

Essentially different cadences 

Sequential reproduction . 

Essential modifications 
Period with antecedent-group (56) 
Group of phrases, similar (57) 
Group of dissimilar phrases (58) 
Period-group (59) 
Elision (60) . 
Exercises H and 15, 

Chap. VIII. The Double period 

Definition (61) 

Inter-relations (62) . 

Cadence-conditions (63) 

Parallel construction (64) . 

Indefinite transitional grades, between single 

and double period (65) 
Contrasting construction (66) 
Extensions of double period (67) 
Addition of extraneous members (68a) 
Miscellaneous examples of double-period 

extensions . 
Quadruple period (68^) 
Exercises 16 and 17 » 












The Song-forms or Part-forms. 

Comparative definition of "Phrase," 

** Part," and *' Song-form " (69) . 
Absolute definition of ** Part " (70) 

Chap. IX. The Two-part Song-form : 

Definition (71) 

Details of First Part : form (72a) . 

Cadence (72^) . 

Modulation (72^) . . . . 





Details of Second Part : form (73«). . ii6 

Character (73^) . . . .116 

Cadence (73c) . . . • ^^7 

Two-part song-form, primary design (74) . 117 

Coincidence of endings of two parts (75) . 120 

Exercise 18. 

Diminutive two-part song-form (76) . 121 

Perplexing external resemblance between 

different formal designs (77) . .123 

Exercise 19. 

Chap. X. The fully developed Two- 
part Song-form : 

Definition (78) . . . '125 

Extensions: repetitions (79a) . .125 

Extraneous adjuncts (79^) • • ^^5 

Proportion to length of form (79^) • 126 

Large two-part form, as type of Sonatina- 
form (80) ..... 128 

Exercise 20. 

Chap. XI. The Three-part Song-form : 

Ruling principle of all tripartite forms (81 a) 129 
Distinction between ''recurrence" and 

" repetition " (8i3) . . . 130 

Influence upon Part II of tripartite form 

(8ie:) ..... 130 

The three-part period (82) . . -131 

Genuine species (830?) . . • ^3^ 

Irregular species (83^) . . • ^33 

Exercise 21. 

Incipient grade of three-part song- form (84a) 135 
Details of structure (84^) . . • ^35 

Demonstration of this classification (foot- 
note) ..... 138 
Resemblance between three-part period and 

incipient three-part song-form (84c) . 139 





Chap. XII. The ordinary complete Three- 
part Song-form : 


Definition (85) ^ . . -139 
Details of Parti : design (86«), length (866) 140 
Details of Part II — ^Thematic conditions : 

Total agreement with Part I (87a) . 140 

Derived from fragments of Part I (87^) . 141 

Opposite construction (Sjc) . . 144 

General formative agreement (87^) . 144 

New melodic contents (87^) . . 146 

Tonality of Part II (88) . . .147 

Structural design of Part II (89a) . • ^49 

Sectional form of Part II (89^) . • 150 

Cadence of Part II : 

On dominant {90a) . . '152 
On other chords (90^) . .154 
The re-transition (90c) . . • ^57 
Details of Part III (91) . .162 
Extraneous members: codetta or coda, in- 
troduction, interlude (92). . .164 
Exercises 2S, 24, 25. 

Chap. XIII. Additional details of the 
Song-forms : 

Irregular cadence-conditions : 

Imperfect cadence at end of section (93^) 166 
Perfect cadence in course of section (93^) 168 

Influence of thematic idea upon formal de- 
sign (93^:) . . . . .170 

Modulation: transient (94^) .' .170 

Complete (94^) . . .. • ^7' 

Two general rules (94c) . . • ^7^ 

General modulatory design (94^/). . 172 

Dynamic design (95^) . . .172 

Other expression-marks (95^) . • ^73 

Contrast (96) . . . -173 

Style : time (970^) . . . • ^ 74 

Tempo (97^), mode (97c), rhythm (^jd) . 175 
Emotional elements (97^) . . ••^77 



Coda and codetta : distinction between (98) 178 
Object and design of coda and codetta 

(9805) . . . . .178 

Derivation of coda and codetta (98^) . 179 
Location of codetta (98c) . . .180 

Exercise 26. 

Chap. XIV. The incomplete Three-part 
Song-form : 

Definition (99) . .181 

Distinction between incipient grade and in- 
complete form (99a) . . .181 

Part III a slightly contracted version of 
Part I (99^) . . 183 

Part I briefly represented at beginning of 
Part III (99c) . , . . -183 

Exercise 27. 

Augmented two-part Song-form (100) . 186 

Exercise 28. 

Chap. XV. Fully developed Three-part 


Definition (loi) . . . .188 

Four stages of progressive development : 
Stage I, literal, or unessentially modified 

recurrence {102a) . . .188 

Stage 2, recurrence of portion, extended 

(io23) ..... 188 
Stage 3, recurrence containing new ma- 
terial (io2c) .... 190 
Stage 4, recurrence containing member 
from Part II (102^) . . . 191 

Corroboration (103) . . . '193 

Exercises 29, 30, 31, 
Large phrase-group {104) . . * ^9S 

Chap. XVI. The evolution of the Five- 
PART Song-form r 
Repetition of the divisions (105a) . .196 

Second Part not to be repeated alone (105^) 197 
Exercise 32, 



Modified repetition of second division : 
Stage I, repetition of Parts II and III 

with unessential changes (106^5) . 198 

Stage 2, transposed recurrence of Part II 

(1066) ..... 198 
Stage 3, Part IV a transposed and altered 

recurrence of Part II [io6c) . . 200 

.Stage 4, Part IV a reconstructed version 

of Part II (loSd) . . . 201 

Stage 5, Part IV new (106^) . .201 

Treatment of Part V (107) . . . 202 

Old-fashioned rondeau (io8a) . . 203 

Seven-part form (108^) . . . 203 

' Exercise SS, 

Chap. XVII. Irregular Part-forms : 

Definition (109) .... 204 

Transposed 3rd Part (no) . . . 205 

Group of Parts, incipient stage (m) . 206 

Distinct 2nd Part (11 2fl5) . . . 207 

Repetition of 2nd Part alone {112b) . 207 

Sequential or transposed reproduction of 

Parts (113) . . . . 207 

Group of Parts, developed (114) . . 208 

Extended (115) .... 208 

Exercise 34.. 


Compound Song-forms. 

Definition (ii6) . . . . 210 

Chap. XVIII. Song-form with one 

Definition (117) ... . . 210 

Details of principal song (iiSa, b) . . 211 
Transition (ii8c) .... 211 
Details of subordinate song or *' Trio" : 

Character (119) . . . .212 

Time (119a), key (1193) . • •213 

Tempo (119c), design (119^) . . 214 


Re-transition (119^) . . . . 

Da capo (120) . . . . 

Coda (121) . 
Miscellaneous examples 

Relation of five-part form to ' ' song with 
Trio" (122) . . . . 

Exercise 35. 

Chap. XIX. Extension of ** song with 
Trio " : 

Repetition of *' Trio" and da capo (123) . 
Song-form with two "Trios" (124) 
Group of song-forms (125) . 
Exercise 36. 








Conventional styles of composition. 

Classification (126) . . . .222 

Definition of Lyric class (126a) . ,222 

Definition of fetude-class (126^) , . 222 

Definition of Dance-class (126c) . .223 

Distinctions approximate (126^?) . . 223 

Sources of information (127) • .223 

Chap. XX. The lyric class : 

Song, with words. Details: text (i28<3j) . 224 
Setting (128^) .... 224 
Vocal compass (128c) ; mood of music 

{i28d) ..... 225 

Notation (128^) .... 225 

Form (128/*) .... 226 

Accompaniment (128^) . . .227 

Instrumental duo (129) . . . 228 

Song without words, etc. (130a) . .228 

Ballade (130^) . . . .229 

**Part-Songs" (131^) . . . 229 

Sacred Text (131^) ; ensemble (131c) ; 

secular text (1310?) . . . 230 

Design (131^) .... 230 


Chap. XXI. The i^tude-class : „ „ 


Etude or stud^ (^S^) • • • 231 

Toccata, capriccio, etc. (1330:) . . 232 

Scherzo (133^) ; formative elements (133^) ; 
design (133^) . . . .232 

Chap. XXII. The dance-class : 

Old dance-species (134) . . . 233 

Modern dances (135) . . . 234 

March (136) .... 234 

Conclusion : criticism (137) . . . 235 


The four most important requisites of successful musical com- 
position are : istly, ample comprehension and command of the 
relations and associations of tone; 2ndly, an active and fertile 
imagination ; 3rdly, a strong and well-balanced intellect ; and 
4thly, the life-breathing attribute of emotional passion. 

Of these four, the last-mentioned cannot be acquired ; it musjt 
be innately present in the disposition of the individual ; and, con- 
sequently, it will not, and cannot, be a subject of consideration in 
this treatise upon Composition. On the contrary, the second con- 
dition, Imagination (with the no less important faculty of Dis- 
crimination), can evidently be cultivated and developed to a large 
extent; and one of the chief aims of the following pages will 
therefore be, to point out every possible means of arousing and 
stimulating this imaginative faculty. 

The first-named condition, finally, skilful technical manipula- 
tion of the tone-material and its resources, is very largely indeed a 
matter of study, and may be acquired by any ordinarily intelligent 
student, to an extent proportionate to his application and patience^ 
Though not the most significant, it is the most indispensable — the 
first and fundamental, requirement. Therefore, the mastery of the 
principal details of Tone-relation (Harmony) is expected of the 
student before he undertakes the study of composition proper. 
Adopting the view that much facility (probably the greatest and 
best) is to be acquired through the application of this fundamental 
knowledge to the construction of musical designs, rather than 
through its exercise as an independent object of study, the present 
author demands no more preparatory harmonic and contrapuntal 
knowledge than will have been acquired by the faithful and 
exhaustive study of *' The Material used in Musical Composition " *, 

* Latest (4th) ed. G. Schirmer, New York. 1895. 


or **The Theory and Practice of Tone-relations" * (with the 
supplementary exercise indicated in its preface), or any other 
standard treatise upon Harmony. 

The Harmonic Fundament. 

The broadest principles of Harmony are herewith recapitulated ; 
not for the information of the beginner, who would learn nothing 
of value from such a summary review, but in order to afford the 
advanced student of Harmony a bird's-eye view of the entire domain 
of Tone-association, such as will facilitate his choice and use of the 
material in the execution of the given musical designs : 

1. The source and material basis of all music, of whatsoever 
character and style it maybe, is the Chord— i.e., a structure of 
from three to five tones, arranged in contiguous intervals of the 
(major or minor) third. Of these chord-structures, there are three 
of fundamental rank, erected upon the Tonic, Dominant and Second- 
dominant (or Subdominant) of the chosen key. The nature of every 
Chord is determined by the key, which latter resolves itself into 
a Scale of conjunct tones, constituting the Platform of musical 

2. The movement from one chord into another, whereby all 
harmonic vitality is generated, seems to be dictated largely (if not 
mainly) by the simple choice between a whole-step progression 
and a half-step progression, either of which is invariably 
feasible in one or another, or all, of the respective tone-lines (parts 
or voices), which describe or delineate the figures of the musical 

These chord-changes are Regular when the distinction of 
whole-step or of half-step progression is not determined by option, 
but by the strict harmonic conditions of the key ; they are Irreg- 
ular (not necessarily '* wrong") when the choice is arbitrarily 
made, giving rise to more or less frequent changes of key. 

This sweeping option (of leading the respective parts upward 
or downward a whole step or a half-step) discloses one of the most 
comprehensive and inexhaustible sources of harmonic and melodic 
motion, including, as it does, every conceivable chord- progression, 
regular or irregular. But at the same time it is so vague and 
seductive, that the student should not adopt it as a rule for the 

♦ New Engl. Conservatory, Boston, Mass. 1894. 


determination of his harmonic conduct. He must regard it rather 
as a result (e. g., of some thematic or formal design) than as a 
cause ; and must accept it chiefly as a proof that there can never 
be an excuse for harmonic monotony or apathy. It is obvious, 
furthermore, that the free exercise of this option can be conceded 
only to those who have first become firmly grounded in all the 
principles of regular harmonic progression. The following ran- 
dom successions illustrate the point in question : 

1. ^/s step. 



k ' ' Vi 



I '/, 









I'll '/, n »2) 




V, ' ' V« ' ♦!) V i/i IV III i/i II ♦2) I 1/, I "S) 

*i) Up to this point all the chord-successions are regular, because, in each 
separate case, both chords belong to the same key, and are connected 
according to the natural law of chord-progression. 

*2) These two successions are irregular, because not in conformity with 
the rules of diatonic chord-movement. 

*3) And this succession (in common with all chromatics) is irregular* 

because a mixture of keys takes place. 












♦4) From the ** Gotterdammerung*'. Some of these chord-successions 
can be accounted for in no other way than as a purely optional choice of whole- 
or half-step part-progression. 



/I /a '2 /2 

— ^ I etc. 

^^FT^f r t ^ 

^/2 V. Vf '/2 

*5) This unique cluster of half-step moTements may be demonstrated as 
passing-notes upon a regular chord-basis. 

3. The tones which form a chord constitute the harmonic 
nucleus of the phrase; but, while they may, and frequently do, 
appear in their primary condition (see Ex. 10; Ex. 27), they are 
often ornamented with those other scale-tones which lie immediately 
above or below the individual chord-tones (as Neighboring-notes) ; 
sometimes so richly, that a very simple and otherwise perhaps 
monotonous measure assumes a more unique and elaborate shape, 
and is transformed from the character of rugged or stolid simplicity 
into one of greater grace or deeper passion. For illustration (chord- 
-tones in large type) : 

J. Andante. 











2. Waltz, 

^ ^ ^ 









3. Allegro. 


.c-e-g d-f-a-c. 

4. Furthermore, the chord-tones (possibly in connection with 
their auxiliary neighbors) are not always presented in one simul- 
taneous bulk, but frequently so separated (dispersed or ** broken") 
as to produce an animated rhythmic and melodic effect, and to 
extend into other, higher or lower, registers than the common and 
convenient tone-locality corresponding to the compass of the human 
voices. Thus : 

1. Allegro. Mendelssohn. 

* ^ 










These fundamental varieties of tone-combination, supplemented 
by a large number of inferior distinctions which will be pointed out 
in their proper place and order, constitute the Material out of 
which the composer develops his artistic creation. 

The processes to be pursued in this act : the draughting of the 
design, the execution of the details, and the modes of manipulating 
the natural material — these it is the province of a treatise upon 
*' Musical Form " to expound. ^ 


The entire range of musical forms is divided into three grand 
classes : 

Istly, THE HoMOPHONic FORMS ; embracing the majority of 
smaller designs, and a number of the larger ones, and characterized 
by the predomination of the simpler styles of harmony, and the 
element of single Melody. 

2ndly, the Polyphonic forms ; embracing the Invention, 
Fugue and Canon, and characterized by the constant association 
OF two or more individual Melodies. 

Srdlyy THE Higher or Complex forms; embracing the 
majority of larger designs, and characterized by the union of 
the homophonic and polyphonic principles of treatment, and also 
by greater logical continuity and closer affinity between the com- 
ponent members of the design. The matter under treatment in the 
present volume is that of the first of these classes : 







1 . The Phrase is the structural basis of all musical forms. It 
is a series of chords in uninterrupted succession, extending (when 
regular) through. ^our ordinary measures in ordinary moderate tempo. 

When the tempo is slow (Adagio — Larghetto), or the measures large 
(6/8 — 9/8 — 12/8), the Phrase may extend through only two measures; and, in- 
versely, in rapid tempi, or when the measures are of a smaller denomination, 
the Phrase may contain eight measures. Any other, larger or smaller, number 
of measures (3, 5, 6, 7, 9, etc.) must constitute an irregular design, the causes 
and purposes of which will be seen in due time (par. 33). 

2a. The simple Phrase begins with the tonic chord; or, in 

exceptional cases, with the dominant (see Ex. 14, No. i), or 

with some other harmony of preliminary effect. The first tone of 

the Phrase-melody may appear upon any beat or fraction of the 


In case it begins upon any unaccented beat, or fraction of a beat, it is evident 
that the first (apparent) measure will be an incomplete one, and it must be dis- 
tinctly understood that such an incomplete measure is merely preliminary and 
is never to be counted as first measure^ no matter how little it may lack of being 
an entire measure. (This must be borne constantly in mind in counting the 
measures in all given references. The first measure in a Phrase, or com- 
position of any design, is the first full measure {\ The preliminary beats or 
fractions are in reality a borrowed portion of the final measure, and will be 
deducted from the latter, as a rule. See Ex. 5 ; Ex. 10 (beginning upon first 
accent). Ex. 6; Ex. 7b; Ex. 12 (beginning on last beat of preliminary 


Par. 4. 

measure). Ex. 13, No. 2; Ex. 14, No. 2 (beginning one beat and a half before 
first accent) ; Ex. 14, No. i ; Ex. 23, No. 6 (beginning on secondary accent of 
preliminary measure); Ex. 7; Ex. 13, No. i; Ex. 22, No. 5 (beginning four 
beats before first accent) ; Ex. 41, No. i ; Ex. 45, No. i ; Ex. 66, measure 4. 

(b) The Phrase closes with a Cadence; if a simple Phrase, 
independent of associates, or the final one of a series of Phrases, it 
closes with the so-called perfect cadence ; otherwise with a 
semi-cadence (explained in par. 36). 

A cadence is an interruption of the harmonic and (particularly) the melodic 
current, — a check, or pause, — a point of repose, which marks the conclusion 
of some melodic line, — but without affecting the fundamental rhythmic pulse. 
Cadences are distinguished, and their employment determined, by the force 
and extent of this interruption. 

3. Of the perfect cadence there is only one harmonic form, 
namely : the Tonic triad, with its root in both outer parts, on an 
accented beat, and preceded by a fundamental form of the Dominant 
harmony (whose rhythmic location and extent is, however, optional). 
Thus, in the skeleton of a 4-measure Phrase : 

X. Accented beginning, Perf. Cad. 2. Unacc* beginning. Per/. Cad. 


4. But this unalterable harmonic form is, nevertheless, subject 
to a rhythmic modification, which consists in projecting the final 
tonic chord a beat or more beyond its proper cadence-accent, by 
holding over the preceding dominant harmony (or parts of it) in 
any of the manifold Suspension-forms. Thus : 











Par. 5. 









J-± I 

f ^ 



V (V) ♦!) 

*i) Thie V at the accent of this cadence-measure is merely a Suspension of 
the Dominant which appears in the comparatively unaccented third measure. 
This unaccented impression of the Dominant must always be preserved, in order 
to sustain the comparative rhythmic superiority (accent) of the cadence- tonic. 

The object of the rhythmic modification is, to avoid abruptness, or to 
diminish the power of the cadence. As a rule, the cadence-tonic may be 
thus deferred to any extent (even beyond the cadence-measure); but it is 
generally objectionable for it to appear upon any pulse beyond the final accent 
(in case it is compound time, with more than one accent to a measure), or 
beyond the last full beat in 2/4, 3/4, and other simple measures. In the 
Polonaise, and certain other styles of composition, this belated cadence-tonic 
is characteristic. For example : 

Allegro moderato 


V I V I 

See also Ex. 63, — Cadence on the second 8th-note, in 2/4 time. 

5. Viewed in its Harmonic aspect, the Phrase will contain 
a certain number of different chords between the initial Tonic and 
the perfect Cadence, but their number and choice cannot be re- 
duced to any rule. In general, it appears wise to use as few 
CHORDS AS POSSIBLE (better only one chord for an entire measure, 



Par. 6» 

than a different one for each beat), because the purest and strongest 
melodies arise from the simplest and quietest harmonic source. 
Still, it is just as necessary to observe the principle of variety with 
regard to chord-durations in a Phrase, as with regard to the tone- 
durations in the rhythmic structure of a melody. The following 
example illustrates the two extremes of harmonic repose and har- 
monic activity in the chord-design of a Phrase : 

(a) One chord only, from beginning up to Cadence. 





-H — f 


^ J. S ■!: 

-T m -H ! — # 







(I) g-b-d. 





> r- J 



(b) Different chord to each beat (rapid tempo). 



^f ^>^ 

Imperf. Cad. 

m-a. \ [^ '^w^mrr: r rJ i ' t ^t 

The pupil should scan a large number of the Phrases given in this book 
(and such others as he may encounter in examining classical music literature), 
and closely observe the harmonic structure, i. e., the number and choice of 
chords upon which the Phrase is based. See Exs. 6i, 62, 64, 73, 74, 76, 83, 89, 
91, 94, 96, and others. 

6. The part of the Phrase where the harmonic arrangement 
appears to assume a certain degree of regularity (neither by accident 

Far. 6. 



nor tradition, but for perfectly natural reasons), is the approach to 
the cadence. 

The final cadence-basstone is the Tonic note, and this is pre- 
ceded (in Bass) by the Dominant note of the scale, as has been 
«een. The former is accented ; but the rhythmic location and 
•extent of the penultimate basstone (Dominant) is optional. It 
usually appears twice, at least ; the first time often as J chord of 
the tonic (I,). 

The basstone most naturally chosen to precede this penulti- 
mate Dominant, is its lower neighbor^ not only because of its tonal 
importance as Subdominant of the scale, but because of its con- 
venient proximity,— conjunct melodic progression being generally 
preferable to disjunct. The location, extent, and harmonic char- 
acter of this antepenultimate basstone is also optional ; and it may, 
furthermore, be either thejegitimate 4th scale-step, or may be raised 
'-*«>. Altered tone). For illustration : 

Any rhythm. 




Bass part ; 



ppj-^j^tJSUJ ^^ 

most com- 
mon form. 



9 : ^ ' "'> 





Sabd. Dom — Ton. IIi I» V I IV II 




Snbd. Dom. Ton. 



Par. 8. 

Sometimes the upper neighbor of the Dominant is chosen to 
precede the latter, as antepenultimate basstone ; either as legitimate 
6th scale-step, or lowered. 

Or, both neighbors precede the Dominant basstone, in either 
order. Thus (Bass part alone) : 

(C major. ^ 














7, This is the harmonic ** highway" to the perfect cadence^ 
as marked by the lowermost part ; and it will be traversed in such 
modes, such varieties of style, and in such degrees of speed and 
forms of rhythm, as the fancy of the composer (who is not limited 
to copying or imitating what others have done, if he will simply 
exercise the faculty of original combination) may discover. In the 
following instance (an 8-measure Phrase, with an unusual ' ,^ 
outset — li instead of Tonic), the three basstones shown i 
8 underlie the entire Phrase, from beginning to end : 







J I 


^ w * 4 \ f. 


(rained) . 




8. Viewed in its Melodic aspect, the Phrase (or, more exactly, 
the melody of the Phrase) will be found to consist of a certain 
number of sections, called Phrase-members or melodic Members, or 
Motives, or (if very brief) Figures. They are more or less dis- 
tinctly separated from each other by slight interruptions— corre- 
sponding to the ** Cadences" which separate entire Phrases from. 

Par. 9. 



each other, but differing from these *^ Cadences" in being so tran- 
sient as to subdivide the melodic line only, without severing the 
harmonic continuity of the Phrase. (Some writers call these spaces 
between the members ** Quarter-cadences".) 

This element of ** Phrase-syntax " is obviously the most important one in 
homophonic phrase-construction, for the entire purpose and signification of 
the Phrase is concentrated in its principal melodic line, i. e., its Melody (the 
"Air or "Tune", as it is more popularly called). The Melody is the 
Phrase, and all the other structural and technical factors subserve the melody. 

But the author would reiterate his belief that melody, to a very large 
extent (if not altogether), is primarily a Product. The musical Source is 
THE Harmony, i. e., the Chords; and the melody is the Product out 
OF THIS Source, just as leaf, flower and fruit are the product out of soil, 
root and branch. Hence, the student will do wisely, at least as beginner, to 
bear in mind the rules of rational chord-succession, and evolve his melodic 
motives outof this consciousness. The pages of our strongest classical literature 
abound in proofs of direct eduction of melody out of the chord. Examine the 
harmonic origin of the melodic motives in Ex. 2, No. 2 ; Ex. 7, a ; Ex. 34, No. 2 ; 
Ex. 35, Nv I ; Ex. 46, No. 3; Ex. 74; and others. 

At the same time, inasmuch as the melodic extract from one and the same 
chord or chord-series may assume a multitude of different shapes (precisely as 
one and the same melody may generally be constrained into agreement with 
different accompanying harmonies), it is plain that the choice of shape will be 
lictated by other conditions altogether, namely : those of thematic relation, 
agreement, or contrast, and other structural considerations. Therefore, it is 
not only possible, but even necessary, to design, a Phrase largely from the 
standpoint of its Melody alone, without running the risk of any serious 
violations of the harmonic laws which must, by this. time, be almost a second 
nature to the student. Review paragraphs 5, 5, and 7, the principles of -which 
must never he neglected or ignored, 

9, In rare cases, there is no perceptible break in the Phrase- 
melody ; in other words, the Phrase consists of one single member^ 
in which, at most, a vague subdivision into Figures may be traced. 
I. Allegretto. Mendelssohn. 




4 measures. 

a. Allegro 


Ji • I • • • • • 



Usually, however, there is at least one melodic interruption, as 
a rule exactly in the middle of the Phrase, dividing the latter into 



Par. 9. 

two equal members (the pupil may first glance over par. lo). For 
illustration : 




2 measnres. | 2 measures. 

Also Ex. 6i, meas. 1-4; Ex. 70, meas. 1-4. 

Additional interruptions are most likely to occur exactly in the 
center of either the first half, or (rarely) second half of the Phrase ; 
or in the center of both halves. Thus : 

X. Allegro. Mendelssohn. 

1 measure. | 1 meas. | 2 meas. 

First half of Phrase subdivided ; also Ex. 47, meas. 1-4 ; Ex. 72, meas. 1-4. — 

a. Moderato. Mendelssohn. 

3 meas. | 1 meas. | 1 meas. 

Second half of Phrase subdivided; also Ex. 15; Ex. 29. — 



1 meas. 

I Imeas. 

I Imeas. 

Both halves of Phrase subdivided; also Ex. 60, meas. 1-4; Ex. 66, meas. 
1-4 ; Ex. 74.— 

In this process of division (or, more properly, the synthetic 
process of compounding figures and members into a complete Phrase) 
the principle of regularity naturally prevails ; but there are occa- 
sional cases of irregular metrical association, as follows : 

I. Andante. Mendelssohn. 


2 beats. | 6 beats 
2. Allegretto. 

I 2 bents. I 6 beats. 






Vr^ l JJr l l 

4 beats. 

I 3 beats. | 4 beats. 

I 5 beats. 


10. The means of marking (or of locating) the ** spaces'* 
between the members of a Phrase-melody, are numerous, but often 
so vague that the student will frequently have to depend more upon 
instinct than upon rule ; different analyses of the same melody are 
often possible, and, in fact, the performer may (to a certain degree) 
place an arbitrary construction upon the syntax of the Phrase. 

This is simply because the distinctions between the inferior grades of 
"Cadence" (in the sense that every interruption, however slight, is a 
** Cadence '*), like those of punctuation, are necessarily subtile; and, there- 
fore, it is not always possible to define with accuracy the various degrees of 
cadential interruption corresponding respectively to the space between Figures, 
between Members, or even between Phrases themselves. See par.ii. 

The most reliable methods of marking the limits of a melodic 
m>em-her^ are : 

Istly^ to introduce a Rest (sufficiently emphatic not to be con- 
founded with mere staccato\\ this is seen in Example 12, Example 
13, No. 3, and Example 14, No. i. 

2ndly^ to dwell upon the final tone, thus giving it compara- 
tively longer duration than its associates, as in Example 13, No. i, . 
and Example 14, No. 2. That this rule cannot hold good for every 
heavy note, is demonstrated by the J at the beginning of measure 4 
in Ex. 12, and by the first note in Ex. 3 — neither of which marks 
the end of a melodic member. The heavy tone must stand in the 
proper place, and must impart a cadential (closing, concluding) 
impression. Ex. 13, No. i ; Ex. 14, No. 2. 

Srdly^ the trait which is more convincingly indicative of melodic 
division than any other, is that of Repetition or Sequence^ or, 
in a word, the recurrence of any sufficiently striking melodic or 
rhythmic figure. See Ex. 13, No. i, members i and 2 ; Ex. 13, No. 
2, members 2 and 3; Ex. 13, No. 3, members i and 3, 2 and 4; 
Ex. 14, No. 2, members i and 3; Ex. 17; Ex. 18; and the follow- 
ing, in which the characteristic repetition of the first tone unmis- 
takably marks the beginning of each following member : 



The only danger of error, in this method of analysis, is that of 
accepting too many •* spaces", and thus confounding the smaller 
particles of the Phrase (the Figures, or subdivisions of the Mem- 
bers) with the Members themselves. Further : 



11. The smallest musical particle is the single Tons,- 
responding to the single letter in orthography. The uninterrupted 
association of tmro or more tones (in melodic succession) constitutes 
the Figure. 

The association of Vko or more figures (separated by very 
slight interruptions) generally constitutes the Phrase-member or 
Motive, — corresponding to the words, small and large, in a sen- 

The association of two or more members (separated, as above 
shown, by " quarter-cadences ", corresponding approximately to 
the spaces between the w^ords of a printed sentence) generally con- 
stitutes the complete Phrase or sentence. 

The usual (but not invariable) subdivision of the melodic mem- 
ber into its figures, and the consequent distinction betiveen these 
factors, is shown by the double system of slurs in the following 
illustrations (upper slurs for Members, lower ones for Figures) : 

1. Presto. 


16. r 

a. {Ex. 12,) 

♦i) These possible variations in the analyses of Phrase-syntax need give 
the student no concern. Review the first few lines of paragraphs 8 and lo; 
and examine the given examples with regard onlj to such of their divisions 
and subdivisions as are plainly definable. 

1 2. In the composition of a Phrase-melody, some attention 
must be paid to the melodic and metric relations between the 
members ; and while there will appear to be no system, nor any 
limit to the possibilities, still, each individual possibility is a 
suggestion to the alert student, and consequently becomes a definite 
stimulus to his imagination. 

As concerns the metric relation, it has already been seen, in 
Examples 12, 13, and 14, that the Phrase-members may be either 
similar or dissimilar in length. 


Par. 12. 



And with regard to their melodic (or thematic) comparison, 
both similarity (Ex. 13, No. 3) and difference (Ex. 14, No. 2) have 
been observed. 

In Examples 12 and 13, similarity of rhythmic character pre- 
vails, while in Example 14 there is striking rhythmic diversity. 

There is probably a slight preference in favor of regularity and 
similarity, in all of these respects. 

Total thematic agreement (Repetition) is illustrated in the 
following : 










fr^j J f =^ 

2. Vivace, 



jfe fe f i ' i rr^ 


See also Ex. 30, No. i, meas. 1-2; Ex. 35, No. i, meas. 1-3; Ex. 46, No. 3; 
Ex. 71, meas. 1-4. 

Comparative thematic agreement (by Sequence) prevails in the 
following; (N. B. A Sequence is the reproduction of a melodic 
figure or member upon other ^ higher or lower ^ steps) : 

I. Vivace. 

^ \^ ^1 

i— H k»-T= i-r= h 



: y.vr i rr_jJ'c/K^r»:tnLi'rrf;i^^ ^ 

a. Presto. 


See also Ex. 37, meas. 1-3; Ex. 34, No. i, meas. 1-3; Ex. 37, meas. 1-3; 
Ex. 52, meas. 3-5. 

Frequently, actual thematic agreement is cleverly disguised, or 

modified, as follows : 

X. Presto. Haydn. 

- I « .^ « primary form. " '^^ 


\J ¥ 

a. Seq. mod. 





9. Andante* 



Par. 12. 

« prim. form. 

3. AlUgro, 



^ I I a. embelliflhed. 


4. Allegro. 







contracted and shifted. 
See also Ex. 30, No. i, meas. 2-3; Ex. 79, meas. 1-2, and 5-6. 

After carefully and repeatedly reviewing all the conditions of 
Phrase-construction given in the preceding paragraphs, the pupil 
may venture to apply them in the invention of original examp^les of 
Phrase-melody, according to the following directions : 


Invent a number of instrumental Phrase-melodies of diversified character 
and design, principally four measures in length, — a very few of two and 
eight measures. 

Alternate regularly between the major and minor modes in successive 
examples ; employ the different varieties of duple and triple time impartially ; 
and employ the various grades of tempo (from Adagio to Allegro). Exem- 
plify the principal forms of phrase-syntax (Exs. 11, 12, 13), and thematic 
relation (Exs. 17, 18, 19). 

The harmonic basis must be borne in mind constantly (par. 5, 6, 7), but 
is not to be written down ; the Melody alone constitutes the object of this 
first exercise. 

Par. 14a. 





1 3. The general principles governing the harmonization of a 
given melody having been acquired in the course of *' harmonic '* 
study, it only remains to add a few directions here in reference 
to the various styles of harmonic accompaniment. These will 
be dictated, most naturally, by the character and tempo of the 
melody ; but they may be chosen according to the particular effect 

1 4a.. In those cases where the melody in itself exhibits its 
harmonic source with sufficient distinctness, or where it is to appear 
in impressive isolation, the harmonic accompaniment is apt to be 
omitted altogether, during one or more members, or perhaps during 
the entire Phrase ; the melody appears as solitary part, or tone- 
line (unison), or is simply doubled in one or more octaves. For 
example : 


I. Allegro moderator 



J-. ' J-.^U. 

20. { 



^■ 4 <g ^ 

■^ ^IJ.!!* ^ 'rt^^'H ^^ 

rri y 


a. Allegretto, 

iJ*V J 






Par. 14b. 


3. Lento. 

(one part 


See also Ex. 38, No. 6 (also 4 and 5) ; Ex. 52; Ex. 81, meas. 1-2; Ex. 84, 
meas. i ; Ex. 94. 

(b) Or, the Phrase-melody is supported by one additional 
PART or tone-line, which either assumes a coordinate melodic 
character (Nos. i and 2), or becomes, as figural part, the arpeggi- 
ated representative of the entire chord-basis (Nos. 3 and 4). Thus : 

I. Allegro, 


W- Jl^:^7f 

21. \ 






± S *: 


(2 parts, doubled in 8ve8 ) 

3. Vivace, 







T jjj i J ''''{jM ^^ n 

(2 equal parts.) 

3. Allegretto. 


Par. 14c. 



4. Allegretto. 




(flgnral part. ) 
See also Ex. 32, No. 3; Ex. 64; 68; 69; 77; 78; 97. 

(c) The addition of two accompanying tone-lines (3- voiced 
style) secures a complete harmonic effect without bulkiness, and, 
for this reason, the 3- voiced style must be regarded as generally pref^ 
erahle and most commendable. 

Here, again, the parts may be similarly melodious, as in the 
vocal style (though dictated by the rules of c^or^-structure) ; 

Or one of the tone-lines may be a figural part, — a choice 
which is more common and appropriate in instrumental (or key- 
board) music, and especially suitable for the Homophonic forms. 

In this harmonic style the device of duplication in thirds 
or sixths is both convenient and effective (see particularly Ex.. 
22, Nos. 4 and 5 ; and observe how the parts are related in 
Ex. 62). 

For illustration : 

1. Adagio. 


H\ r ■• Li' J-j 

# t r ^ " I 


S |i I I I f 





T| / 8 pg-^ 

•^^ m . '^^rn 






Par. 14d. 

3. Andante con moto. 


I ^ii ^ jg ^ jg ^ J^ ^ /J 'i 








4. Andante, 





irirJ ;i»^-fe 


f ^ M 

(Duplication of principal mel. in thirds. 
5. Allegro. 

nr r ,_ r- 11 


See also Ex. 26; 28; 49; 56; 58; 59; 66; 75; 89. 

(d) The 4- VOICED STYLE is often necessary for greater harmonic 
breadth and fullness. It usually resembles the vocal (or choral) 
style very closely (Ex. 27), although one or more of the four 
tone-lines may be a figural part. It will be most appropriate for 
melodies of a comparatively serious and stately character, but less 
desirable for graceful or rapid melodies. Illustrations of this style 
will be found in Examples *ja and 3, and in the second half of 
Example 5 ; to which may be added the following varied specimens 
of its treatment : ft* I I 

1. Andante. \ \ \ 1*^ ± I2J. JL ^^^'^"- 




I I I 


I I I I I f f — f - 



(Imitation of vocal style.) 

PM. U. harmonic EqiJIFMSNT OF THS 

. AiUgra. Bbeth. j. Andaittt, 

^ •»? 

Se«a1soEz. 35; Ex. 2f\ 36; 51, No. 1; 54; 72; 74; 96- 

1 5. By simply duplicating one or more of these fundamental 
tone-lines (or single chord-intervals) in upper or lower octave- 
registers, the harmonic volume may be increased to any desired 
extent, and copious, rich, powerful or pompous effects achieved. 
Such voluminous harmonies are seldom sustained very long ; and it 
is very important to observe that, in general, (only excepting in 
strict vocal writing,) it is neither necessary nor -wise to adhere 
rigidly to any number of tone-lines. That is to say, the volume of 
harmony may be increased or decreased during certain members or 
figures, or even at single points, for the sake of dynamic and har- 
monic variety. But the principle of "coherent tone-lines" {the 
most vital in music) must never be violated; at least two lines (the 
uppermost, or Melody proper, and lowermost, or Bass) must always 



Par. 15. 

be conducted with strict regard to melodic law ; and usually one 
inner part also. These quantitative fluctuations in harmonic volume 
should, therefore, plainly appear to be transient duplications, or 
omissions, of a portion of the original bulk, which do not disturb 
the effect of the fundamental lines (** Material of Mus. Comp.'\ 
par. 413, 414). 

For illustrations of this species of harmonic accompaniment, 
and also those explained in par. 14, the pupil is referred to the 
pages of standard literature, (Mozart, Beethoven, Mendelssohn, 
Chopin, Schumann, Brahms), which he is urged to examine with 
special reference to this point. See Ex. 2, Nos. 2 and 3; Ex. 5; 
Ex. 6 ; Ex. 10 ; Ex. 20, No. 3 ; and the following : 

I. Maestoso. Mendelss. a. Agitato. Brahms. 




mf % 

mi v ^ ; ii i j' p i 





3. Allegretto. 



*• ■» <■ ■»• -te . 





V ■> ■/ > 

See also Ex. 38, No. 3; Ex. 40, No. 4; Ex. 47; 61 ; 67; 83; 91 ; 95. 


Schubert, Songs: ** Die schOne Mlillerin ", first four measures of Nos. r, 
4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 20; ** Winterreise", first four measures of Nos. 9, 11, 14, 22, 23. 

Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words", No. 4, meas. 5-9; No. 28, meas. 
1-4; No. 41, meas. 1-4; No. 44, meas. 1-4. 

Also Ex.62, meas. 1-4; Ex. 66, meas. 5-8; Ex. 73, meas. 5-8; Ex. 74, meas. 
1-4; Ex. 76, meas. 1-4; Ex. 78, last four measures; Ex. 92, meas. 1*4; Ex. 96* 
meas. 1-4. 



Add the harmonic accompaniment to some, or all, of the Phrase-melodies 
invented as Exercise i. As a very general rule, the pupil is expected to adopt 
the f ianof or testy le^ at least for a time ; though he is at liberty to write 
occasionally for any other instrument or ensemble with which he may be 
familiar (Organ, String-quartet, Trio, Duo, etc.). He is warned not to over- 
step the purpose of the Exercise, which in this case is limited to the simple 
regular Phrase. 

Though it is by far the most common habit to place the Phrase-melody in 
the uppermost part, the pupil is urged to assign it now and then to an inner 
part, or to the lowermost one. See Ex. 22, No. 3; Ex. 28; Ex. 91, last seven 

Review paragraphs 5, 6 and 7, and avoid overloading the phrase. The 
FEWER CHORDS, THE BETTER. Avoid the faulty habit of harmonizing eack 
individual melody-tone with a separate chord ; that is, harmonize as many 
successive melody-tones as convenient with the same chord ; taking care, how- 
ever, to change the harmony at the stronger accents, i. e., the first accent in a 
compound measure, and, analogously, the first accent of all measures which, in 
the regular alternations of heavy and light pulses throughout the Phrase, rep- 
resent the heavier units. 

Very positive preference must be given to the 3-voiced style. 



1 6. Musical composition involves two distinct mental pro- 
cesses : that of Conception and that of Manipulation. 

The process of conception comes first, and dominates during 
the creation of the thematic germ, the Motive or Phrase. The 
process of manipulation is maintained more or less steadily the rest 
of the way, even though it be in such close interaction with the 
imaginative and conceptive faculties that the limits cannot always 
be defined in the writer's consciousness ; upon this latter process 
depends most largely the success of the product. Composition is 
not an aggregation (merely the collecting and associating of a 
quantity of kindred, or, worse still, heterogeneous musical frag- 
ments, without regard to structural design, logical arrangement, or 
unity) ; it is the result of evolution and logical deduction, — ^an 


unfolding of one phase after another out of the thematic germ, 
urtil the growth is consummated. 

Of this fact, the pupil should encourage the most absolute conviction, 
for any other conception will prove an effectual obstacle to his aspirations in 
the classical avenues of serious and enduring musical composition. 

1 T. The ** Phrase " having been conceived, the next step, then, 
is its enlargement or development. This is not yet to be effectu- 
ated by the addition of other Phrases, for that would overstep the 
limits of the present purpose, which is : the development of the 
resources embraced within a single germinal Phrase, upon a cor- 
respondingly narrow scale of structural design. 

The principal means employed in the Development or Exten- 
sion of a Phrase (or thematic germ of any kind) are those of 
Repetition, Sequence (i. e., the reproduction of a figure or 
member bodily, a certain interval-distance higher or lower), and 
Expansion. Their application may be classified in a fourfold 
manner, namely : 

(i) The Repetition of the entire Phrase; 

(2) The Extension at the End, 

(3) The Extension at the Beginning, and 

(4) The Extension in the Course of the Phrase. 

I. Phrase-repetition. 

1 8- When the whole Phrase is to be repeated, it is customary 
(though not absolutely necessary) to fill out the measure allotted to 
the perfect Cadence, by continuing the rhythmic pulse in some form 
or other, so as to ** bridge over" the space between the end of the 
Phrase and the beginning of its repetition, and thus partly conceal 
the Cadence. This is more or less desirable, according to the width 
of the intervening space. 

It is not to be an '''' Evasion* ^ of the perfect Cadence, and there- 
fore the harmonic form and the cadential effect of the latter must 
be preserved. 

The final Tonic chord must be retained; but it may be 
embellished ; 

And the chord-third, or even the chord-fifth, may be substituted 
for the Root in Soprano, or (rarely) in Bass. 

The rhythmic pulse should be maintained within th^ tones of 
the Tonic harmony ; still, smooth harmonic progressions (through 

Par. 19. 



other chords) may be ventured, if made in so cautious a manner 
as not to cancel the cadential impression (i. e., not until the toiitc 
effect is established). See par. 21 and 25a. For example : 

z. Andante. 

*i) Correct perfect Cadence, omitted because of the coming repetition. 

*2) Concealed form of perfect Cadence : compare with final measure. The 
rhythmic pulse is actually more rapid during this measure (i6th-notes) than 
anywhere else in the Phrase ; and the uppermost part has the chord-fifth (e) 
for a time, instead of the root (a), as at the end. The cadential impression is, 
however, preserved by the cessation (rests) in the lower parts. For other 
illustrations of cadence-bridging, see Exs. 26, 27, 28; Ex. 46, No. i, meas. 4; 
Ex. 50, meas. 8; Ex. 66, meas. 4; Ex. 73, meas. 8; Ex. 78, meas. 12; Ex. 
89, meas. 8; Ex. 92, No. 2, meas. 8. 

] 9. The Phrase may be repeated literally^ without any 
changes whatever, excepting those involved by concealing the per- 
fect Cadence. See Ex. 25. 

Also Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 27, No. i, first movement, first, second, 
and third Phrases (repetition-marks); Pfte. Sonata, op. 28, Finale, meas. 1-8; 
9-16 (slightly embellished). — Schumann, "Album-Blatter '*, op. 124, No. 2; 
No. 7; No. 9; No. 15; No, \*j— first eight measures of eacA.— Chopin, Prel. 
op. 28, No. 15, meas. 1-8. 

But it is far more usual and desirable, as conducive to thematic 
development, to introduce unessential alterations^ or variations, 
during the repetition. (See par. 40.) By *' unessential" is meant 
unimportant — not affecting any characteristic or essential element 



Par. 19b. 

of the Phrase. These unessential modifications of the repetition 
may be classified as follows : 

(a) Unessential embellishment of the Melody : 


26. < 


9? ^ 

•*— ^ 

,^ n^.-j^j^. ^^ 


* r~?^ • 









I -, 

(modified repetition.) 

. ! . . . i I 


9 ^.U-l^ 



*i) In this concealed form of the perfect Cadence, the cadential impres- 
sion is preserved by every prescribed condition (par. 3) excepting the pause or 
check in the melodic current; the rhythmic movement is here again (as in Ex. 
25) accelerated, and thus maintained during the melodically ornamented repe- 
tition. See also : Chopin, Mazurka No. 2 (op. 6, No. 2), first 8 measures. 

(b) Changes in the harmony and modulation : 

27- < 

Par. IDc. 














^ ^ n 

r U ' r ' f "t 


4 4 iiu i J i. J _ ,n J 



:j i r f 



See also Ex. 51, No. i, meas. 1-8. — Ex. 62, meas. 9-18. 

To this class of modifications would belong, also, a repetition 

in the opposite mode of the same keynote (i. e., transformed from 

major to minor, or vice versa) ; returning, perhaps, to the original 

mode at the final Cadence. 

See Chopin, Nocturne 17, meas. 14-6 from the end; Chopin, Mazurka 
20, meas. 17-24; also last nine measures; Beethoven, String-quartet, op. 18, 
No. 6, first movement, meas. 45-52. Ex. 89, Part II, meas. 1-8. 

(c) Shifting the Phrase-melody upward or downward to a differ- 
ent register, or different part; either bodily (i. e., the entire 
Phrase) , or in sections : 



» I V 1 * - ^ f P 



# P I — ^ 






1^^ I 








Par. 19d. 


*i) The melody is shifted bodily upward one and two octaves, from 
"Tenor" into "Alto and Soprano" registers. See also Exs. 29; 30, No. i; 
31. Beethoven, Bagatelle, op. 33, No. 6, meas. 1-8. 

(d) Changes in character and style of accompaniment : 




1( Violin) J 

J u J J 

^£&a ^6b ^^ S^ ^ &^ 





? — r r 



J a ^ 







?^^b:ts ~S 










*i) Here the Cadence is not concealed, because the " space " is so narrow 
as to render it unnecessary. See also Ex. 30, No. i. Bbbthovbk, Pfte. Sonata, 
op. 54, first movement, meas. ,70-77, and 106-113. 

Par. lOe. 



(e) More complete and radical changes in the course of the 
Phrase-melody (not, however, affecting the beginning, or the end, 
or destroying general resemblance) : 

z. Andante. 

£ • fgff : 







■^ ^ 


9 • W ir 


a. Allegretto. 










-> ^ * * J J 














r ?' /i^' r r ^^y 


Ft f 

*i) This Cadence is not concealed, before the repetition, because there is 
no space left at all. See par. 4. 

*2) The second member of the Phrase is entirely changed ; but the Cadence 
is preserved. See also Ex. 51, No. i, last eight measures. 




Par. 30 

20. In rare cases, the bridging-over of the perfect Cadence, 
before repetition, is extended into a brief Interlude, or transitional 
passage, of one or more (superfluous) measures; but it must be 
kept so inferior in character and contents as to appear unessential 
and extraneous. For illustration, the 8-measure Phrase given in 
Example 10, is continued and repeated as follows : 


(measure 7 ) 
(Ex. 10.) 

(Cad. measure.) 

(nnperfliioiis nieasare.) 
*1) (luterliule.) 





(Repetition.) *2) 


*i) This measure is kept subordinate hy reduction to one part, and by the 
suppression of the accompaniment. 

*2) Compare this repetition with Example lo; it illustrates the change 
of register (19c), not entire, but in sections. 

See also Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words", No. 46, meas. 3-12. 

Nothing more than such a distinctly unessential interlude could 
intervene between a Phrase and its * ' repetition ' ' , without trans- 
forming the structural trait of "repetition" into that of *' recur- 
rence ". A repetition is a (practically) immediate reproduction. 
See par. 81 a and b. 


2 1 . Reverting to par. i8 (which review), it must be dis- 
tinctly understood that no essential change of the harmonic form of 
the Cadence is permissible in the case of entire repetitions. This 
preservation of the cadence-harmony is the inviolable condition 
upon which the assumption of * ' repetition ' ' depends. 

The Cadence is the ** aim'* of the Phrase ; and it is only when the original 
harmonic aim is retained, that the Phrase niay be said to have been "repeated". 
Any essential alteration of the harmonic aim (the Cadence-chords) would 
resolve an otherwise apparent "repetition" into two separate Phrases, with 
independent direction and aim. See notes and context to Ex. 46. The dis- 
tinction between apparent repetition and actual repetition (depending upon 
whether the Cadences are essentially different ox not) is of the utmost impor- 
tance, because genuine repetition, whether variated or not, never constitutes 
any change or actual advance in the formal design of the composition; 
whereas, an apparent repetition, which proves ultimately to have been 
thwarted by a real change of cadence, contributes, as new member, to the 
progressive enlargement or evolution of the design. 

22. Two, or even more, repetitions may occur in succession, 
somewhat like a series of simple Variations (e. g. , the Ciaccona for 
solo violin, by Bach ; the Chaconnes of HAndel, for Harpsichord ; 
the thirty-two C-minor Variations of Beethoven, etc.) ; each repe- 
tition being differently modified, possibly in a certain systematic pro- 
gression, See Beethoven, Bagatelles, op. 33, No. 6, meas. 31-46. 
Brahms, op. 118, No. 5, second tempo (Phrase with 5 repetitions). 

23. The OBJECT of Phrase-repetition, and of repetition in 
general, is : 

To establish unity of thematic design by direct corroboration ; 

To give additional emphasis to the Phrase or member, and to 
defjne its contents more clearly ; 

And, finally, to obtain greater simplicity and repose of elemen- 
tary character than would result from a succession of constantly 
changing Phrases or members. The repetition will, therefore, 
be most desirable when the Phrase is of a somewhat abstruse 
or complex nature ; or of unusual length ; or when interesting 
and important enough to tempt the desire for (and justify) a second 



Select a number of the Phrases invented in Exercise 2, or invent new 
ones, and add a repetition to each, illustrating the five principal varieties of 
modification given in paragraph 19. All five modes may be applied successively 
to one and the same Phrase (22) ; or single repetition may be applied to e^ch of 



Par. 25a. 

five different Phrases, with that variety of modification which appears to be 
respectively most appropriate. 

2. The Extensions at the End of a Phrase. 

24*« The extensions at the end are of a two-fold nature, con- 
sisting, istly, of such as lie within the Cadence, and 2ndly, of such 
as lie beyond the Cadence. 

. To the first class (inside) belong : 

(a) The repetition of the second half of the Phrase ; possibly 
exact, but usually modified. 

This involves, as a rule, a more or less complete ** Evasion " 
oy the perfect Cadence^ — an act which differs from the simple con- 
cealment of the Cadence (shown in par. i8), in being a more pro- 
nounced deviation from the latter, and often consisting in a different 
form of harmony altogether. The approach to the Cadence is usually 
not affected by the prospective evasion, as the latter does not begin 
until the Tonic element of the Cadence is due, or has been felt, 
upon its proper beat. The evasion is then effected : 

By substituting an Inversion for the fundamental form of the 
Tonic chord (i. e., 3rd or 5th in Bass) ; 

By substituting the VI for /the I (Ex. 33, No. i) ; 

Or by substituting any o^er chord, even of another key, which 
contains the original Tonic note in sufficient prominence to preserve 
the cadential impression. 

In any case, the rhythmic pulse is sustained in one or more 
of the parts ; and the melody and harmony are so conducted as to 
lead smoothly into the desired repetition. 

The difference between "concealing" and "evading** the Cadence 
will become amply apparent upon carefully comparing the details enumerated 
in these last few lines, with those given in paragraph 18. 

For illustration : 

z. Andante. 










3. Andante. 










^ ^ s^ ^ 








Cad. »4) 



# I ^ 




Par. 85b. 

*i) The expected Cadence is evaded in this case by placing the chord- 
third in the Bass, and the chord-fifth (leading downward to the Root) in 
Soprano. Compare with correct form, two measures later; and observe the 
modification in the treatment of second Phrase-half, when repeated. 

*2) This peculiar evasion of the expected Cadence will be best understood 
by comparing it with the correct form, four measures later. It even affects 
the approach to the Cadence, but the cadential relation is preserved by cling- 
ing to the key-note (e) in the Soprano. 

*3) In this example, there are two repetitions of the second half of Phrase; 
the first time with the same form of evaded Cadence, and the second time 
with the correct perfect Cadence. 

*4) Also a peculiar mode of Cadence-evasion, sometimes called ** Inter- 
cepted Cadence". It answers sufficiently well for the expected Cadence, as 
the accented chord (the IVi — b, d, f) actually contains the Tonic-note. The 
repetition covers a little more than half the Phrase, reaching back abruptly to 
the beginning of the 2nd measure. 

See also Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words ", No. ii, meas. 9-3 from 
the end. Beethoven, Bagatelle, op. 33, No. i, last nine and one-half measures. 
Schubert, Song, ** Haiden-Roslein '% meas. 5-10. 

(b) The repetition, or (more rarely) the sequence, of the last 
member of the Phrase ; possibly a single repetition, but usually 
twice in succession. 

This generally refers to the last quarter of the Phrase, or a 
trifle more ; and the evasion of the Cadence is necessary, because, 
in this case, the original (expected) Cadence is not to be included 
in the extension. For example : 

z. Andante. 

•^ (el) 







Mendelssohn. No. 43.*2) 

evad. ♦!) 

fv Ivi 

2. Moderate. 

9k, evad.' ♦!) a. evad. a. 

^ ^ J i J J I fr] \ K?^ ^' rpi j-^ 













evad. *3) 

Mendelssohn. No. 85. *2) 


•i) The expected perfect Cadence is evaded by substituting the VI for the I. 
The three notes in Soprano, which immediately follow, are 'included in the 
evaded Cadence ^ and serve: istly, to sustain the rhythmic pulse; 2ndly, to 
lead smoothly into the first tone (b) of the member to be reproduced. The 
reproduction of the last member, which then follows, occurs twiccy each time 
in a modified melodic and rhythmic form (the harmony remaining the same), 

♦2) The numbers after Mendelssohn's name invariably refer to his ** Songs 
without Words". 

•3) The perfect Cadence is completely evaded by turning back abruptly one 
measure, where, on the first beat, a Tonic chord occurs in the very form suit- 
able for evasion (chord-fifth in Soprano, and chord-third in Bass ; see Ex. 32, 
No. I, meas. 4). The extension consists in repeating this third measure twice, 
the first time exactly, and the second time with altered harmonization. 

26. To the second class (outside of, or beyond, the Cadence) 
belong : 

(a) The Repetition of the entire Cadence-group (of chords), 
usually at least twice, and possibly modified. 

This will usually embrace the last three or four chords, in- 
clusive of the original Cadence ; and no evasion of the latter will 
be necessary or even practicable, because the Cadence, as it stands, 
is to be included in the extension. The rhythmic pulse may, or 
may not, be sustained. For example :: 

X. Andante. 






- \ \j hJ'j UJ \ \ r.uu-\''\\\ \ b'm 

^^ ^^^ SSSS5 SSC^ 





*i) This is a Semicadence (par. 36) instead of a perfect Cadence ; but that 
makes no difference, as this principle applies to every variety of Cadence. 
The rhythmic pulse is not marked, contrary to common usage. The repetition 
of the Cadence-member occurs in this instance no less than eight times, includ- 
ing one change of register, an acceleration (diminution) of the rhythm, and a 
series of rhythmic shifts which alter the location of the figure in the measure. 

*2) The five i6th-notes which follow the Cadence merely serve to sustain 
the rhythmic movement (compare Ex. 33, note *i)). — ^*3) Original melodic 
form of Cadence, transferred to next higher octave. — *4) Embellished form 
of the same. — ^*5) Half-measure sequences of foregoing figure. 

See also Ex. 41, No. 4, note ♦7). And Mendelssohn, "Songs without 
Words", No. 20, meas. 12-5 from the end. 

( b) The repetition of the two Cadence-chords (V and I) ; 
usually at least twice, and either in the same form, or with any 
rhythmic or melodic modification of the form. 

This species of extension will often be found to differ but 
slightly from (a), cited above; though it is generally more frag- 
mentary than the latter. For example : 






-) J-. i 





Cad. ExteDsion. 

^i ' '^f^ 

Tx ? 



a. Allegretto. 








f^-i i 4.qy I s^ ^ ifei?? TTT ^^^^^ 



Gad. Extension. 

Mendelssohn. No. 42. 






f i_ JL. 




^¥->^-^i^^=^^ ^ ^ ^1=^'" ? ^^=^-!^ ^ ^=3=B 



I (V I) V 

3. AUegro. 

(V I) 













^ ^ 

-# — 





*i) Two exact repetitioiu of the last three (Cadence-) chords. 

*2) Four repetitions of the two Cadence-chords, as continuation of the 
accompaniment. The first and third repetitions are slighti j altered in form, and 
sound parenthetical, because the melodj pauses meanwhile upon its Cadence- 
tone. The second and fourth repetitions are an exact reproduction of the 
Cadence, including the Soprano. 

*3) The Cadence is concealed bj the quicker rhjthm in the Soprano (bor- 
rowed from the Bass of the first measure). 

See also; Mkkdklssohn, ''Songs without Words", No. i6, first three 
measures, and last four measures. 

(c) The reiteration of the final Tonic chord, to an optional 
extent, and in optional rhythmic and melodic form. 

The extent (number) of these reiterations can hardly be de- 
' termined by rule, as this extension usually represents the last oscilla- 
tions of the swinging harmony, the " dying out" of which will 
depend upon the peculiar circumstances embodied in the Phrase. 
Instinct will be the best guide. As a rule, the Cadence-tonic, in 
this case, must fall upon the Jirs^ accent of the measure. For 
example : 




♦ V 


See also: Mendelssohn, "Songs without Words", No. 4, first five 
measures (compare with last five measures); No. 6, last six measures; No. 8, 
last eight measures; No. 12, last twelve measures (4-measure Phrase, repeated 
and extended); No. 27, last twelve measures (illustration given in Ex. 32, 
No. 2, with reiterations of last chord); No. 31, last five measures; No, 42, last 
eleven measures (illustration given in Ex. 35, No. 2, with reiterations of final 

Par. 27. 



Tonic-chord, and one additional final announcement of the perfect-Cadence 
chords, V-I). 

(d) A plagal cadence, of more or less elaborate character, dur- 
ing the prolongation of the final Tonic note in Soprano, or in both 
outer parts. For illustration : 



See 29 6. 







Mendelssohn. No. 44. 





Plagal extension. 






1 J 










See Chopin, Nocturne ii (op. 37, No. i), last five measures; during the 
plagal extension, the major Cadence is substituted for the original minor. 
Nocturne 7 (op. 27, No. i), last eight measures ; a two-measure Phrase, repeated, 
and extended by a somewhat elaborate plagal ending. 

These various extensions are often applied successively to one 
and the same Phrase : see Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 53, Finale 
(Rondo), measures 191 to 220: — (an 8-measure phrase), beginning: 

27. The OBJECT of extensions at the end of a Phrase is, to 
prevent the movement of harmony and rhythm from breaking off 
too abruptly; and the degree of momentum which the sentence 
may have acquired, must determine the propriety and extent of their 
use. Furthermore, they also serve, of course, to develop their por- 
tion of the resources of the Phrase, and are for this reason generally 



A number of former Phrases, or new ones, with extensions at the end, 
according to the modes of treatment described in par. 25a and 25^. 


The same, according to the modes of treatment described in par. 26, a, 3, 
Cj and d, 

3. The Extensions at the Beginning of a Phrase. 

28. An extension of the Phrase at its beginning will neces- 
sarily assume the nature of an introduction; i. e., some form of 
harmony and melody which suggests (or prepares for) the initial 
member of the Phrase, and leads smoothly into it. 

The chief difficulty is, to keep such an introductory extension so 
inferior and unessential in character, that it will not be mistaken 
for the real beginning of the Phrase. 

The necessary inferiority will be ensured if either the element 
of definite melodic or definite harmonic progression be absent, or 
obscure, during the introductory passage. 

Hence, the best form of introduction is that which is limited to 
the figure of the accompaniment, which may anticipate the announce- 
ment of the melody proper, either w^ith or without changes of 

It may, however, also consist in an anticipation of the first 
figure of the melody, without accompaniment ; 

Or, in a brief one-part *' Cadenza", leading into the latter, 
(see Ex. 31, meas. 2 and 3) ; 

Or, in one or more simple annunciations of the key-note (or 
Tonic harmony), or possibly both Tonic and Dominant tones, or 
chords, without definite melodic form. 

The length of the introduction is largely optional, but it will 

rarely exceed half the length of its Phrase. For example : 

I. Andante, Mendelssohn. 

Introd II Phrase. 



fe— ^_ , 1 i j. , ^'j ,1 I I 


21^ , p 'Ti , p JT] I , p .7] , pJTlft 

r X r j« r 



3. Adagio. 

Introd II Fbnua. 




•^ X y 





"T^* ' I ' -;-f 

» > > > 




4. Allegro. 





^ — »- 





_i,; jn 



• '' ^ h ^ ^- 

Gfe f. 

Chopin. Op. 51. 







* ^ f \ T 




■ i\JlU\^ 

5. Allegro. 




Introd II Phrase 




•X— ^ 




6. AlUgro, 





II Pbrase. 





I uJ I r"!" 






J ! ! ! J ! ^ 
^■M 1 J J 

^ — 4> — 4» •^ -^i ^ 

a — # — ^ — a — ^ -• ' • — « — ^ 1 — ^" < ' 1 1 1 — ' — >- 

7. Allegro, 




gSj: I y~x~l-t— *-H^ 














^)y^jb— [- 



*i) In the first and second examples, the accompaniment precedes the 
Phrase-melody by a few beats, without harmonic change. 

*2) Here there is an actual chord-succession in the introduction ; but it is 
derived from the accompaniment, and the entrance of the melody is conspicuous 
enough to mark the beginning of the Phrase proper. 

See also Mendelssohn, No. 35, first measure; No. i, first two measures; 
No. 24, first two measures; No. 26, first three measures; No. 34, first two 
measures ; No. 36, first three measures. The passage at the beginning of Nos. 
19, 29, and 46 is too long to be called an introduction to the first Phrase. (See 
par. 44.) 

*3) The upper rests in this measure and the next one are only imaginary ; 
while the introductory passage surely does not belong to the ** Melody", as 
such, it is, nevertheless, the same tone-line, and leads uninterruptedly into the 

*4) A tentative anticipation of the first figure of the Phrase-melody. 

See also Beethoven, Symphony No. i. Finale, first ten measures ; 
Brahms, Serenade in A, op. 16, Finale, first six measures ; Schubert, Pfte. 
Sonata No. 6 (op. 147), Finale, first six measures. 

Par. 29. 



4. The Extensions in the Course of a Phrase. 

29 > These represent probably the most important class of 
Phrase-extensions, as they conduce more directly than those at the 
•end or at the beginning, to the coherent development and growth 
of the thematic substance of the Phrase as a whole. They consist : 

(a) In one or more repetitions (exact or variated) of any welU 
defined member of the Phrase, anterior to the Cadence-member. 

It is manifest that all extensions of a Phrase will simply create confusion 
and lead to a misapprehension of the writer's intention, unless they are recog- 
nizable as '•''extensions " which merely add to the sum of heats and measures 
without entirely destroying the outlines of the original {regular) Phrase^ or 
cancelling the impression of a '* regular design" as fixed basis of the irregu- 
larly inflated result. And, for this reason, this more misleading class of 
extensions, in the course of a Phrase, can be safely undertaken only in those 
phrases which contain strongly marked members or figures, with well-defined 

At any such well-defined " joint ", the Phrase may be — ^figuratively speak- 
ing — pried apart to admit of the insertion of a repetition, sequence, or exten- 
sion of any kind (and of almost any extent); and, if sufficiently marked in 
character, the foregoing member will be readily recognized as the origin of 
the interpolated reproduction. 

For illustration : 

X. Allegro. 




2. Andante. 








*i) Repetition of first member (first half) of Phrase, in slightly modified 
form. This class of repeated Phrase-members must not be confounded with 
the illustrations of symmetrical phrase-formation given in Ex. 13, No. 2, and 
Ex. 17. There they are essential^ and contribute to the 4-measure design; 
while here they are unessentialy inasmuch as they constitute extra measures^ 
beyond the 4-measure design. 

*2) This extension consists in a three-fold repetition of the first figure, in 
alternating upper and lower registers. 

*3) A sequence of the second figure, as in Ex. 40. If these two extensions 
be cut out, a perfectly coherent 2-measure Phrase (the original design) will 
remain. This is sometimes the case, but not necessarily so. 

*4) A curiously modified version of the first Phrase-member. This exten- 
sion, also, might be eliminated, leaving a regular 4-measure design. 

(b) In one or more sequences (exact or modified) of any well- 
defined member of the Phrase. For example : 

X. Presto. 

40. < 





-4 ^ 






. 4^iJi^ i : i^ \ r '-r' I ff] 







%i vr^ 







:T} fr 

JXLfr> i 


Ul^i -1-i.M^ ^^ 




4. A Ueg^o. 

I — Bxtension. 






* "y 





«6) I 





r I 

^^^ ^ d y ^ 


t — Extension 

H 1 r 

— 1 1 I I j^ I — 

^zn — ft — I^ 

« J d ^ ^v^ 



8 8 




*i) A sequence of the second measure (figure) of the Phrase. 

*2) A sequence of the second Phrase-member (or figure) in slightly modi- 
fied form. 

*3) A sequence of the first member. 

*4) Sequence of the second member. As already intimated (Ex. 39, notes 
*3) and *4)), these extensions are often so adjusted to the line of development, 
that the members of the original 4-measure Phrase may be discovered in 
coherent form without them. This, however, is by no means necessary ; it is 
somewhat more likely that the interlined extensions will involve alterations of 
the original melodic design ; or, better still, they will be so naturally inter- 
woven with the texture of the Phrase as to affect, and even direct (appar- 
ently) its current. But see the remark following 29a. 

*5) Two sequences of the first member (five beats in length, and, therefore, 
recurring in shifted measure). 

*6) Two sequences pf the second member(three beats) in modified rhythmic 

The number of sequences or repetitions thus introduced in the 
course of a Phrase depends upon circumstances, and can scarcely be 
determined by rule. Smaller members or figures are usually repro- 
duced a greater number of times than larger ones ; and sequences 
may, without risk of monotony, be multiplied oftener than repeti- 

More than one single exact repetition is hardly permissible ; in 
the event of two repetitions, the last one (the third version of the 
member) must be modified. 

As a general rule, more than three successive sequences are 
considered weak ; still, series of four (and even many more) se- 
quences may be found in works of eminent rank ; especially when 
consisting of smaller figures or members. 

The student must appeal to his instinct and sense of proportion 
and balance, and carefully avoid Monotony on the one hand and 
Irregularity or Unevenness on the other. 

(c) In the expansion of any prominent chord ; or of any im- 
portant (prominent) melody-tone ; or melodic figure (of two or 
three tones). 

This is probably most frequently and most extensively applied 
to the Tonic J chord (I J which almost always appears directly 
before the two Perfect-cadence chords, usually on a strong accent 
(see par. 6) . This special example of chord-expansion as extension 
in the course of a simple Phrase, becomes the prototype of the more 
or less elaborate *' Cadenza " in Concerto-movements. The conduct 

Par. 89c. 



of the upper parts (especially that of the melody proper) during 
the prolongation of the chord, is largely optional ; but it is obvious 
that it should te in strict thematic (or, at least, organic) agreement 
with the rest of the Phrase, and not create the impression of a 
foreign link. The rhythm may be treated with great freedom. 

Frequently the bus stone alone of the I^ is prolonged as organ- 
point, while the upper tone-lines sway about in optional har- 
monic succession, either returning to the I^ or passing into the V 
of the Cadence. In this case the I^ should appear on a strong accent. 

But the expansion may also be applied to the Dominant chord 
which precedes the final Tonic as first of the two Perfect-cadence 

And it is furthermore applicable to any other chord, or chords, 
in the Phrase, if they be of sufficient value and prominence to 
warrant the expansion. For illustration : 

I. Moderate, 

iiV. ..J J I J ■ / .' ^F^^ 

J J 


Mendelssohn. No. 4. 

•it -iii^-j ' j. 




I2 expanded.- 


14 i t \ rrr\ i i j ji 





I3 (expanded baBstone.). 





Mbndblssohn. No. 4a. 

-#— ^ 









-y — N 


y expanded. 


3. A ndanie. 

}'Mi ! 



^^ ^ 


— m ^ j^ 



Mendelssohn. No. 19. 










# ft- 


^* ^« f^ ^ 


# ^ ft ^ 


I2 expanded. 




5- Larghet.'o, 

^^^^ m$ 

Chopim. Op. 27 — T. 


6. Lento. 


Introd. — 



T* Seguo. 





^jJ' f 

Chopin. Op. 37—2. 

7. ^ llcgro. 

'y^^\^\> J ^;i J #^ 

(Original form.) 


N. B. Brahms. Sym. No. 3. 



rfr l OTir l l 

(Expanded form.) 

*i) The expansion of the Tonic J chord enlarges the Phrase from its 
original four measures to five. 

*2) It is left to the student to discover how ingeniously this long expansion 
of the Dominant-note in bass (as la) is interwoven, in the upper parts, with the 
thematic structure of the 4-measure Phrase. 


*3) An expansion of the Cadence Dominant chord, which serves to coun- 
terbalance the foregoing expansion. 

*4) A long expansion of the Cadence Dominant chord. See also Men- 
delssohn, "Songs without Words'*, No. 2, last ten measures; No. 33, last 
five-and-one-half measures; No. 31, last eleven measures (particularly meas. 9-6 
from the end); and also Ex. 59, meas. 11-12. 

♦5) This exquisite example of Brahms (op. 79, No.i) contains several of 
the above-mentioned extensions: at first, a sequence of the first Phrase-mem- 
ber. At *6) an expansion of the Tonic J, with richly modified melodic 
repetitions (three measures). At ♦y) the Cadence is due ; it is concealed by 
continuing the rhythmic pulse in the inner part (imitating the Cadence- 
member in soprano); and is followed by two repetitions of the Cadence- 
member. At *8) the final Cadence-chord is reiterated. 

*9) The expansion of this melody-tone extends the 4-measure Phrase to 
five measures. 

*io) The melody-tone a is expanded from a half-measure to a whole one. 
See Ex. 62, note*3). A remarkable illustration of chord-expansion will be 
found in Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 57, meas. 17-24 (beginning, as usual, to 
count at the first complete measure). 

See also: Chopin, Pfte. Sonata B|7-minor, Trio of Scherzo, first, second, 
and third Phrases (expansion of final melody- tone) ; Chopin, Prel., op. 28, No. 
2, first and second Phrases (ditto). Chopin, Prel., op. 28, No. 12, meas. 49-65 
(expanded II', meas. 57-63). Also Ex. 42, meas. 3 and 4. 

N. B. It is scarcely possible to overestimate the signiRcance 
of ** Expansion" as a factor of composition. The principle of 
expansion lies, in a certain broad sense, at the very root of the 
entire art-growth, which carries along the germinal thought and 
enlarges the raw harmonic material from one stage on into another 
and higher stage, until the broadest development of the original 
idea has been consummated. The larger (i.e., longer) forms which 
are to follow the Phrase, will be found to be not altogether the 
results of addition ^ but also of deduction and evolution ; not a 
multiplication of the chords contained in the smaller design, but 
these same chord-progressions expanded or magnified into broader 
dimensions. Thus, the primary succession I, IV, V, I, which might 
be the simple beats in a 4/4 measure, could become the four succes- 
sive measures of a Phrase ; or they might be expanded into four 
successive sections (at least in a general sense) of a still larger 
design ; and so on. An illustration of this is found in Example 5, 
in which the harmonic basis of the four measures is, approximately, 
the very chords I, IV, V, !• suggested above. See also Example 10, 
where the harmonic basis of eight measures is limited to no more than 
three chord-elements; and Example ^a^ embracing only I, V, I ; 

Par. 29d. 



and Example 74, the eight measures of which contain no other 
chord-progressions than I | V | I | V, I || V | V | V, I | IV, V, I|| 
(the last four approximated). This emphasizes the importance of 
the advice given in par. 5, and in Exercise 2, '* to use as few chords 
as possible". 

(d) In the substitution of a new Cadence-member for the 
original one, or the addition of a new Cadence-member, when 
involved by foregoing extensions. 

After such extensions, in the course of the Phrase, as may- 
diverge widely from the original thematic line, or lead quite away 
from the original (or expected) approach to the Cadence, it is often 
necessary to invent an entirely new Cadence-member, Its extent 
will depend upon where the ultimate cadential impression is required, 
irrespective of the aggregate number of measures. 

It is evident that, while new, it must, nevertheless, be strictly 
coherent, and thematically homogeneous. For illustration : 

X. Andante, i ^ i..^^^ 

u^^.-^^-::==^ — .-I i^i — 1 

Frt r ||j J r 

Mbnublssohn. No. x. 



Par. 30. 

3. Aiuiant$, 



Original form !| Repeated 



*i) These two measures are an expansion of the chord c - e - g - b ; the 
Soprano is thematically related to the c at the beginning of the 5th measure, 
of which it is an anticipatory expansion. *2) The two half-notes are expanded 
quarter-notes (half-measure expanded to whole measure). *3) The perfect 
Cadence is due on this beat (see two measures later) ; it is evaded by a 
Sequence of the foregoing measure. *4) The ** new Cadence-member". It 
cannot be called a new ** Phrase *', not only because of its brevity, but because 
no actual Cadence has preceded it, to terminate the current Phrase. It is "new", 
however, inasmuch as it differs almost entirely from the original Cadence- 
member (in meas. 5-6). *5) The digression begins with this cj{, which enhar- 
monically represents the original d\}. The three following measures are 
a repetition and expansion of the first melodic figure in measure 3. 

*6) The " new Cadence-member " ; see note *4). 

*7) A curious suppression of the Cadence-tonic in the highest part. Its 
place is filled by the keynote in Bass. 

30- The extension of a Phrase during its course, as above 
shown, is rarely, if ever, undertaken at the very beginning of a 
composition (i. e., with the Jirst Phrase or upon the Jirsi appear- 

Par. 31. THE CHAIN-PHRASE. 55 

ance of a Phrase). It is often very appropriately applied to the 
repetition of a Phrase, as a means of modifying the second version 
(see 19) ; and it may be introduced in any of the later phrases of a 
section of the form. It is of peculiar value in the construction of 
transitional passages and Phrases, as will be seen in due time. 


Former Phrases, or new ones, with extensions at the beginning (par. 28); 

And in the course, according to 29 a and b. In the latter case the Phrase 
is first to be written out (at least the Melody) in its original regular form, and 
then extended (about as in Ex. 42, No. 2). 


Extensions in the course, according to par. 29c and d. The Phrases are 
first to be written out in regular form, and then extended. 



31 . The extensions in the course of the Phrase, particularly 
the repetitions and sequences (par. 29 a and b) of small motives 
and figures, are sometimes multiplied in such a manner and to such 
a degree as to give rise to an irregular design, for which the term 
*' Chain-phrase" may most appropriately be adopted, inasmuch as 
the successive members assume the character of continuous small 
links, in a chain of arbitrary form and extent. It can scarcely be 
regarded as a legitimate design, for it is the type of formlessness, 
and is, therefore, beset with dangers for the beginner. But, if 
coherently developed, it is justifiable, and is often extremely effec- 
tive in the service of necessary climaxes ; and also in transitional 
sections, which tend persistently during many measures toward a 
desired point, in uninterrupted career. 

The impression of a Cadence must he scrupulously avoided^ as 
it would separate the ** chain " of thematic links into a *' group" 
of distinct Phrases. 



Par. 31. 

Aivd a certain reasonable limit must, of course, be observed. 
For illustration : 

I. Alitgro vivace. 




J 1 tf--/i-i — P f~ 








4< J I 




^»-tf#-y- i V f " ^ I iTT f I i f -^ 


gii" rm I r 



Beethoven. Op. 78. 



.i?^ dim. 


2. Agitato, 

p pp etc. 



Phrase, repeated, and extended . 


Par. as. 





1 I 


=n i 

I I 

J I 

I I I 








S -H 

1^ : .^ ij ' * I 



H fitt^F?^-M?^&4^ 



Mrndblssohn. No. xo. 

*i) The original 4-measure Phrase extends to this beat. The thirteen 
or fourteen measures which follow are all forged, like so many ** links ", out 
of the second half of the Phrase, chiefly out of the figure contained in its third 

*2) The " links** of theChain-phrase are here derived from the second and 
third notes of the second measure of the original Phrase, and are reproduced 
sequentially, at first in groups of three, and finally in progressive ascending 

*3) This measure corresponds exactly to the original second measure. 

*4) This example embraces no less than twenty measures (including the 
original Phrase and its repetition), all developed out of a brief 4-measure 
Phrase, and so interlocked as to avoid a cadential impression at any point in the 
course of the Chain-phrase. 

See also Ex. 56, first thirteen measures. Ex. 85, meas. 9-19. 

See also: Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words**, No. 2, meas. 35-20 
from the end; No. 14, last ten measures; No. 17, end of meas. 28 to meas. 35; 
JVo, ^Sf meas, 21-10 from the end; No. 45, meas. 24-12 from the end. 
Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 31, No. 3, first movement, meas. 34-19 from 
the end. Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 28, first movement, meas. 57-94 
from the double-bar (thirty-eight measures long, and preceded by a similar 
Chain-phrase of sixteen measures). Schubert, Pfte. Sonata No. 7, (op. 164) 
first movement, meas. 16-27; Finale, meas. 71-94. Brahms, op. 119, No. 3, 
last 22 measures. 


32. A simple brief Phrase, or Phrase-member, may be utilized 
as a thematic germ, and be developed, by means of repetition and 
tone-expansion^ into a melodic thread of considerable length. This 




process differs from that employed for the Chain-phrase, in that, 
as a rule, it does not involve the " sequence ", nor the necessity of 
avoiding slight cadence-impressions in the course of the entire 
expansion. It is most commonly, though by no means exclusively, 
encountered in the closing sections (Codettas, see par. 51) of larger 
forms, where the gradual enlargement of a foregoing thematic 
member accords well with the gradual relaxation of the rhythmic 
and harmonic momentum. It is cited here more by way of illus- 
trating a resource of great future value, than for special exercise by 
the student, at this point. For example : 

X. Andante, 



Original form. 






Exjumded form ( at end of 









til Ik *• Allegro. 

R R R fq IT" 

Original form. 

Repetition and Expansion 



-^ fT I nn fr~i w\ irn 


Mbndblssohn. No. 32. 








3. A ndante. 






Original form. 


Expanded form. 

Par. 83. 



OrigJDAl form. 







Expanded form. 



# 4 # 

Mbndelssohn. No, 24. 









5. A ttdaMte. 












Expanded form. 

Original form. 


I I Beqaence of a. | | sequence of b. 







'^'- -^ 







Brahms. *3} 




*i) The pupil is expected to refer to each ** Song without Words" indicated 
by number, and to examine, carefully, the entire harmonic equipment (which 
is of very great importance), and the general surroundings. The extracts 
given will all be easily found, near the end of the number. 

*2) These three tones are apparently a gratuitous insertion, but they 
relate, as a kind of sequential anticipation, to the figure marked ** a ". 

*3) Third Symphony, andante movement, near the end. The relation of 
figure ** c " to figure " a ** must not be overlooked. 

Irregular Phrase-formation. 

1. It is sufficiently obvious that the modes of extension and 
development explained in par. 24-32 are liable to impart an irregular 
metric design to the original regular 4-measure Phrase (as regards 
the aggregate number of measures). 



Par. 83. 

But it is also possible that the original conception of a Phrase 
may assume an irregular dimension, namely : a length of 3, 5, 6, 7, 
9 measures ; and examples of this kind are by no means rare. 

The irregularity results either from reaching the Cadence a 
measure too soon, and then simply omitting the following (legiti- 
mate Cadence-) measure, in order to relieve the Cadence of unneces- 
sary weight; this accounts for the majority of 3-mea8ure and 7- 
measure Phrases ; 

Or the irregularity results from an unequal association of 
melodic members. For illustration : 

X. A ndante. 

4S. - 

S-measnre Phrase. *1) 

'wfr^^r^'^^su^nPrir'^ ^ 

Mendelssohn. No. 40. 


cvad. Kepetitioo. 

2. A llegro» 






3-measure Phrase. *2} 
3. Adagio, 





-4- — # 


5-measare Phrase. *3) 
4. Largo, 






S-measare Phrase. *4) 

5. Allegro, 




^ — — I 1 1 I r P # 


^ I '^ri^uur 

6-measnre Phrase. *5) 
6. AlUgreito. 




^j-"-* — *— * — *- 

e^measare Phtase. *6) 

i^-ijlj j'j^Tj ^^ 

Par. 83. 




7, AlUgrttto, 

%^:-^\i\i^* \ \ ^^ 








T-measnie Phrase. *7) 

Mbndblssohn. No. xa 



*i) This is a somewhat unusual specimen of a Phrase of three large 
measures in sloiv tempo. The 3-measure Phrase is quite frequently merely a 
magnified example of the triple- ;«^aj« re, each beat corresponding to an entire 
measure ; and when this is the case it is most common and most intelligible in 
rapid tempOy and generally appears in groups of at least two or more Phrases. 
See Beethoven, Symphony No. 9, second movement, twenty-seven meas- 
ures from the first repeat {ritmo di ire battute). Mendelssohn, "Songs without 
Words ", No. 9, first three measures ; No. 16, first three measures. Schubert, 
** Winterreise '% No. 18, first three measures. 

*2) 3-measure Phrase in more animated rhythm, and followed by a se- 
quence. Compare Note *i). 

*3) This 5-measure Phrase results from the union of one 2-measure with 
one 3-measure member. 

*4) The 5-measure dimension might be accounted for, in this case, as the 
result of a modified repetition of the first measure, — i. e., regarding the second 
measure as superfluous; compare with Ex. 39, note *i), in which there is no 
doubt about the unessential nature of the extra measures. It appears probable, 
however, that this second measure is essential. See also Beethoven, Pfte. 
Sonata, op. 27, No. 2, first five measures. Schubert, "Winterreise '% first 
five measures of Nos. 15, 19, 20. 

*5) A6-measure Phrase, consisting of three members of two measures each. 
See " God Save the King ", first six measures. 

*6) Two members of three measures each. See also Beethoven, Pfte. 
Sonata, op. 26, last movement, first six measures. 

*7) This Phrase aggregates only seven measures, simply because the 
Cadence-tonic falls prematurely (in the seventh measure) and is not held 
throughout the eighth measure. Compare with meas. 15-22 of the same 
" Song without Words " ; and see ** Song without Words *', No. 6, first seven 


Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 31, No. i. Adagio^ last twelve measures 
(2-measure Phrase). 

Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 28, Finale, last eighteen measures (4-meas- 
ure Phrase). 

Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 28, Finale^ meas. 29-43 /Phrase repeated 
and extended). 

Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 2, No. 2, Largo^ meas. 13-19. 

62 THE PERIOD-FORM. Par. 80. 

Haydn, Pfte. Sonata, No. 14 (Cotta ed.), Adagio^ last fifteen measures. 
** " ** No. 17 ( ** " ), first eight-and-one-quarter meas- 


Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 10, No. 3, Largo^ meas. 17-26 (Phrase re- 
peated and extended). 

Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 14, No. 2, Finale^ last eighteen measures. 
** " " op. 26, /7«fl/«, meas. 321^-48 (4-measure Phrase, 

each ^a//" several times repeated). 

Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. loi, Finale^ last fifteen measures. 


Former Phrases of 4-measures, with a rej>etition expanded into Chain- 
phrase form. A few experiments in the process of Melodj-expansion and in 
Irregular Phrase-formation may also be made. 



34. The Period consists in the union of two phrases, 
extending consequently, when regular, through eight ordinary 
measures in ordinary moderate tempo. But see par. i. 

35. The first of the two Phrases, called the Antecedent 
Phrase, begins with the Tonic chord, as a rule ; 

But it does not end with the perfect Cadence like the simple 
Phrase, because such a Cadence would completely finish the Phrase, 
and render the addition of a companion-phrase, in coherent (un- 
broken) succession, not only impracticable but unnecessary. (See 
par. 23.) 

The Cadence of the Antecedent Phrase must, therefore, be 
made in such a manner as only partially to check the harmonic and 
melodic current. Such comparatively lighter interruptions are 
called Sbmicadbncbs. 

36. The harmonic form of the Semicadence may be best 
defined negatively, as *'any chord-association (with cadential 
effect) which is not the perfect Cadence " (see par. 3). 

Par. 87. THE PERIOD-FORM. 63 

The most common and natural Semicadence for an Antecedent 
Phrase is obtained by resting, at the prescribed accent, upon some 
Dominant chord, usually as concord, but occasionally in one of its 
discord-forms ; this Cadence-dominant may be approached through 
tf«y convenient chord (see Ex. 46, Nos. i and 3; Ex. 47, Nos. 2 
and 3). 

But the Semicadence may also fall upon a Tonic chord, on 
condition that its root does not appear in either outer part in such 
prominence as to suggest the perfect Cadence (especially when the 
Tonic is preceded by a Dominant chord) ; 

Or, more rarely, upon the triad VI, the Relative of the I (see 
Ex. 48, Nos. 2 and 3; Ex. 60). 

Or it may fall upon a Subdominant chord (IV or II), though 
this is rarely the case (Ex. 46, No. 2). 

Or the Antecedent Phrase may modulate^ so as to end upon 
some chord (usually the I) of a next-related key, in the following 
order of preference : 

Upon the I of the Dominant key ; 

Upon the I or V of the Relative key ; 

Upon the I of the Dominant-relative key ; 

Upon the I (rarely the V) of the Subdominant-relative key ; 

More rarely upon the I of the Subdominant key. (Ex. 47, 
No. I ; Ex. 48, No. i ; Ex. 59; Ex. 68, — ^first Cadence of each.) 

As regards the location and rhythmic treatment of the Semi- 
cadence, see par. 3 and 4; and Ex. 46, note *i). 

3T. The harmonic and melodic character of an Antecedent 
Phrase, while necessarily conforming to the directions given in 
paragraphs 5, 8-12, will naturally be influenced to a certain extent 
by the altered condition of the Cadence ; and, as a rule, the choice 
of Semicadence-chord should be more or less definitely determined 
beforehand, as the aim toward which the current of the Phrase 
will tend. 

It is at least certain that the less decisive nature of a semi- 
cadence imparts a corresponding unfinished (conditional or inter- 
rogative) character to the Antecedent Phrase, and renders it 
dependent upon its following companion for completion and 
counterbalance. It is a thesis^ dependent upon its antithesis ; a 
Question ^ awaiting its Answer, 


38 • The second of the two Phrases in the Period-form is 
called the Consbqubnt Phrase. It begins with any chord, or 
key, which is reasonably adjustable to the preceding semicadence- 
chord ; and it ends with the perfect Cadence, in the manner de- 
scribed in paragraphs 3, 4, 6. 

Viewed in its metric aspect, the Consequent Phrase is, w^hen 
regular, exactly similar in length to its Antecedent ; and both its 
beginning and its cadence usually correspond (as to their location 
in the measure) to beginning and cadence of the Antecedent Phrase. 

39. Viewed in its Mklodic aspect, the Consequent Phrase 
must, obviously, preserve close relationship w^ith its Antecedent, 
though absolute corroboration is not obligatory. 

The Period-form maj (and doubtless should) be regarded as a magnified 
Phrase ^ whereby the "figures" have grown into "members", and the 
"members" into complete "Phrases"; and the "quarter-cadence" (par. 8) 
between the phrase-members has developed into a " semicadence". From 
this point of view, the metric conditions illustrated in Examples 12 and 13, 
and emphasized in paragraph 12, also apply, though in a broader sense, to the 
simple Period-form. 

The following distinction^ influence, and possibly govern, the 
melodic structure of the Consequent Phrase : 

(a) The Parallel Construction. 

In this form, the melody of the Consequent-phrase more or less 
exactly corresponds to that of the Antecedent ; sometimes so closely 
that it is prevented from being actual Phrase-repetition (the form 
out of which the ** parallel Period " is evolved) only by the neces- 
sary distinction in the formation of the two Cadences, namely, the 
Semicadence of the Antecedent, and the perfect Cadence of the 
Consequent, which, of course, must essentially differ from each 
other, in order to constitute the Period-relation. Compare para- 
graph 21. This is the primary and most natural variety of the 

Usually, however, the similarity between Antecedent and Con- 
sequent is less pronounced, and often only a general resemblance 

In some cases the parallelism is established by constructing the 
Consequent Phrase as sequence (partial or entire) of the Ante- 
cedent. For illustration : 

Par. 39a. 



z. Alligretto^ 

^4n '■>' f 



t r T • 

t ^- 1 ^ 

rj \ r 


Antecedent Pbnwe. 




'■^ ^'i ,K ^ Li ^ 


Perfect Cad. 




5 5 

1 I I I i-T-r 

^ !- 


a. Allegretto. 

Antecedent Phntae. 





Par. 30a. 



^A^j^ i::fj^ f7^ 




Chopin. Op. 47. 

Perf. Cad. 







Antecedent Phrase. 


P i J J J 1 1 1. /J H i ^^Jlri i -J- 


Conseqnent Phrase. 





|V 1 

*i) The Semicadence rests upon the Dominant concord, which falls upon 
the first beat of the Cadence-measure, and is projected into the second beat. 
The rhythmic pulse is continued, exactly in conformity with the principles 
which govern the ** concealed cadence" (par. 18, which see). The necessity 
of thus ** bridging over" the cadence-space between the two Phrases, is owing 
chiefly to the momentum of th<* accompanying figuration — a factor which 
never ceases its motion during any transient cadence, and usually impels itself 
even beyond the final perfect Cadence. But it is generally desirable, even in 
the absence of a figural part, to connect the Phrases as closely as is compatible 
with a perfectly unmistakable cadence-impression. After this latter condition 
has been fulfilled, it is not even necessary to remain any longer within the 
semicadence-chord. This is illustrated by the notes in small type which 
occupy the last fractions of the 2nd beat. 


*2) The Consequent Phrase is a literal reproduction of the Antecedent, 
only excepting the very last chord, which, being the Tonic, constitutes a per- 
fect cadence, and establishes the indispensable condition of opposition to the 
Antecedent Phrase. See again par. 21. 

*3) This Period begins upon the Subdominant harmony, in consequence 
of occurring in the course of a larger composition. 

*4) The Semicadence also rests upon the Subdominant, and, therefore, 
l«ads over very smoothly into the Consequent Phrase, which is identical with 
the Antecedent (excepting changes in register and rhythm) up to the penulti- 
mate chord. 

*5) The Semicadence rests upon the Dominant harmony, and the rhythm 
is completely checked, as is most customary and appropriate in music of such 
a simple character. For further exaniples of the Period of preponderantly 
parallel construction, see Mendelssohn, " Songs Without Words,'* No. 28, 
meas. 5-12, and meas. 13-20 (imperfect Cadence) ; No. 29, meas. 5-12; No. 35, 
meas. 6-13; No. 22, meas. 10-17 (imperfect Cadence). Ex. 49 (of this book), 
first four measures; Ex. 55; Ex. 72, first eight measures; Ex. 73, meas. 1-8; 
Ex. 75, meas. 1-8; Ex. 84, meas. 1-8; Ex. 85, meas. 1-8. 

Furthermore, Beethoven, Rondo, op. 51, No. i, meas. 1-8; 

Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 27, No. i. Finale, meas. 1-8; 
Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 10, No. 3, Menuetto, meas. 1-16 ; 
Brahms, Symphony I, last movement {Allegro), meas. 1-8. 
Jchumann, Jugend-Album, op. 68, No. 23 ("ReiterstUck*'), 
first 8 measures; prevented from being a "repeated 
Phrase '* by very last tone only. 

(b) The Opposite Construction. 

In this variety of the Period- form, the melody of the Conse- 
quent Phrase pursues largely or entirely the direction opposite to 
the melodic progressions of the Antecedent. 

It can scarcely be claimed that this is a natural or spontaneous mode of 
construction, for it is based upon a process which is largely mechanical, and 
may result, when applied too strictly, in constrained and unmelodious tone- 
lines. But it represents the same resource of thematic development as the 
*^^ Imitation in Contrary motion " in the Polyphonic forms, and is of value to 
the student because of its suggestiveness. In Homophonic composition its 
occurrence is rare. 

Occasionally the delineation of the Antecedent Phrase is almost, 
or quite, literally thus inverted in the Consequent ; but usually only 
the general melodic drift, or a few of the more striking members, 
reappear in the opposite direction. For example : 



Par. 80b. 

I. AlUgrot 



a« Moderato. 

Semi-cad. W *3) 





3. A ndanU. 

. 5 



:r— llj — V Con- 

Mbndblssohn, No. 37. 


*i) The Semicadence rests upon the I of the Dominant key (with major 
3rd, 1. e., the " modulatory Stride "). The Consequent Phrase-melody is (in- 
tentionally) the literal contrary direction of the Antecedent melody, from 
beginning to end. 

Par. 89c. 



*2) This is by far the best and most common of all the forms of the Semi- 
cadence, viz. : the V, preceded by the accented I m J inversion. The latter 
(the I9) precedes the actual Cadence-chord (V) as embellishment (** appog- 
giatura"), and fulfils chiefly the important purpose of "bridging over** the 
cadence-space (Ex. 46, note *i) ). 

*3) The opposite direction of the Antecedent melody is maintained 
through about one-half of the Consequent Phrase, only excepting the prelim- 
inary tones. 

*4) Here ihe general drift of the Antecedent (more especially of the ac- 
companying harmonies) is reversed in the Consequent. This is also the case 
in Mendelssohn, No. 45, first eight measures. See also Ex. 54. 

See also : Hummel, Pfte. Sonata, op. 13, Adagio^ first eight measures ; and 
Finale^ first eight measures. 

(c) The Contrasting Construction. 

This variety of the Period-form is characterized by the absence 
of such parallel traits (in the same, or in the opposite, direction) as 
those explained above. The principle of *' contrast" prevails, 
though not necessarily to the utter exclusion of parallel figures. 

As has already been intimated, these three distinctions are to be accepted 
and applied more in a general sense, than in strict detail. The Consequent 
Phrase of a Period may reveal traces of all three varieties of construction, 
without belonging distinctly to either class; and probably the majority of 
Periods will be defined as "contrasting** construction, merely because suffi- 
cient evidence of parallel or opposite construction is wanting. 

The *' contrast" is generally limited to the melody (i. e.,the 
THEMATIC element), and is rarely extended to the style, rhythm 
and general character (i. e,, the formative elements). 

Hence the rule, for comparatively small forms, that while 
thematic contrast is permissible and necessary to a certain degree, 
formative relation must be preserved. For illustration : 

I. MotUraio* 








-i^— r- 



Conseqaent. ' 



Par. 40. 

3. Vivaee, 


F4 .r ■^ ^•\r^ l ^^M 

"J J-MV J JJtiJ 





± t: ± t: 

r V T V 




Chopiw. Op. 38. 





*i The Semicadence rests upon the Dominant of the relative key, and 
obtains its cadential effect through the purely artificial pause (/^), which 
marks the otherwise vague point of rest. There is not a single point of 
melodic resemblance between the two Phrases. And the Consequent begins 
(unlike the Antecedent )upon a preliminary beat. 

*2) Semicadence rests upon the Tonic triad, but with its Fifth in Soprano. 
The contrast between the two Phrases is here unusually marked. 

*3) Tonic Semicadence, with Third in Soprano. The contrast is distinct, 
though traces of parallelism exist. 

See also Ex. 44, No. 2 (probably a 4-measure Period) ; Ex. 52 ; Ex. 53, 
meas. 1-8; Ex. 60, meas. 1-8; Ex. 61, meas. 1-8; Ex. 71, each Part; Ex. 89, 
meas. 1-8. Msndelssohn, "Songs without Words", No. 9, meas. 3 (2d 
half )-7 ; No. 48, meas. 1-4. Beethovbn, Symphony IV, Adagio^ meas. 2-9. 

Variety and Unity. 

40. Among the most vital and ever urgent conditions and 
demands of perfect artistic creation are those oiF Variety and 
Unity, — variety in unity, and unity in variety. Though the con- 
dition of unity appeals first in order to our consciousness, that of 
variety is of at least equal (ultimately of even greater) importance ; 


and each asserts its claims with equal emphasis. These two 
opposing forces are therefore incessantly at work in every creative 
process, and the skill of the master is displayed in so directing 
them that the most just balance is preserved between them. 

The condition of Unity dictates all the methods by which 
fundamental regularity, concentration, agreement and corrobora- 
tion are obtained ; these methods are : 

The metrical arrangement of equal beats in equal measures 
and sums of measures ; 

The adherence to a central tonality ; 

The usual agreement of component members (£xs. 17 and 18; 
par. 38, 39« and d) ; 

All repetitions, sequences and imitations (par. 19). 

The condition of Variety dictates all the methods by which 
this fundamental regularity is divested of its monotony and 
fatiguing effect, and by which a judicious degree of grace and 
contrast may be gained ; these methods are : 

The modification of the rhythmic measure by use of longer 
and shorter tones ; 

The modulatory movements around the tonal center; 

The alterations of register (par. 19^)1 — of style (i9</), — of 
dynamic effect, within the same regular harmonic limits ; 

The sequence itself (as distinguished from exact repetition) ; 

All unessential modifications (Ex. 19; Exs. 26-30), which 
sustain interest without jeopardizing the condition of unity, by too 
effectually disguising the necessary thematic and formative agree- 

The impossibility of formulating accurate rules for obtaining this *' Variety 
in Unity** is clearly manifest. It is simply to be dome in mind by the 
student, and will thus exert a moulding influence upon his musical views and 


Invent a number of Periods, of diversified character and design, chiefly 
8 measures in length. Alternate regularly between the major and the minor 
modes ; employ the different varieties of duple and triple time, and the differ- 
ent grades of tempo (from Adagio to Presto), Exemplify the various forms 
of construction (parallel, opposite, contrasting). 

Work toward the Cadence during each Phrase, and from Cadence to 
Cadence. Make both Semicadence and perfect Cadence suflficiently distinct •, 
avoid, as beginner, vague forms of all cadences; all concealing or bridging- 



Par. 4L 

over of the Semicadence must be effected with strict consideration of a per- 
fecily definite cadential impression. 

Endeavor to preserve distinct melodic character; let there be a strongs 
prominent and continuous melodic line in some part or other (chiefly in 
Soprano) always. 

In other words, the "tune'* ("air'*, "cantilena*') should always be 
conspicuously the dominating purpose, no matter what the style or tempo is. 

Next in importance to this is the leading of the Bass part <i which should 
be as smooth and melodious as possible, and should be sketched against the 
Melody alone before the inner parts are added. See also the n. b. on page 52. 




4 1 . The modes of extension explained in Chapter III are 
applied to the Period in the same general manner as to the Phrase, 
though on a correspondingly broader scale. 

As usual, the principal factor is that of repetition^ which may 
be applied to the entire Period bodily, or to either or both of its 
Phrases separately. 

I. The repetition of the entire Period-form. 


The Period may be repeated literally^ without any other 
changes than those involved by concealing or bridging-over the 
perfect Cadence, before repetition. See pars. 18 and 21. 

But here again it is far more usual and desirable to introduce 
unessential modifications^ during the repetition, corresponding to 
the modes of manipulation described in paragraph ipdf, b^ c, d^ e — 
which review. For illustration : 


V t:t^£ 

Par. 42. 



^ -^ • -^ II Repetition. 

n. ^ '^ i J J ^ ',i ^ ^ i^j-H^ ^i 

*i) Neither Semicadence nor perfect Cadence requires any bridging- 
over, in this instance, because the " space '* is reduced by the beginning of 
each Phrase three beats in advance of the primary accent. 

*2) The modifications during the repetition consist in shifting the melody 
down an octave, and altering the style of the accompaniment ; (also in the 
dynamic change 'from // to/; and a change in orchestration — see later). 

See also: Mendelssohn, "Songs without Words", No. 9, meas. 3 (2nd 
half)-ii; No. 27, meas. 5-20; No. 29, meas. 4 (2nd half)-2i, — one measure of 
interlude between Period and its repetition, as in Ex. 31. 

Beethoven, Symphony IV, Adagio^ meas. 2-17 ; Pfte. Sonata, op. 13, 
Adagio^ meas. 1-16. Pfte. Sonata, op. 28, Scherzo^ first thirty-two measures 
(large i6-measure Period, repeated). 

Chopin, Prel. op. 28, No. 19, meas. 23-7 from the end. Prel. op. 28, No. 
21, meas. 17-32. 

Schubert, Impromptu, op. 90, No. 2, first twenty-four measures (two 


repetitions) . 


42. In case eitlier of the two Phrases of the Period-form is 
to be repeated alone^ it is much more likely to be the Consequent 
than the Antecedent. This corresponds to the repetition of the 
second half of a Phrase, defined in paragraph 2^a, 

The repetition may be, as usual, exact or modified, — generally 
the latter (par. 19). 

The treatment of the perfect Cadence, before the repetition 
of the Consequent, must conform precisely to the conditions 



Par. 42. 

explained in i8 and 21, which review; i. e., the Cadence may be 
bridged over, but must not be completely evaded^ by aay essential 
change of harmony. For illustration : 


Adagio molto. 






■i i 1 i 






*i) The perfect Cadence, due at this accent, is concealed by passing on 
chromatically in Soprano into the chord-Third ; and the space is bridged over 
by continuing the chromatic succession directly into the first tone of the 
(repeated) Consequent. 

*2) Compare this measure with measure 7, and observe how the very same 
melodic figure is here manipulated, in order to obtain an earlier and stronger 

See also: Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words ", No. 14, meas. 17-28 
from first double-bar; No. 19, meas. 24 (2nd half)-30. 

Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 2, No. 3, first twelve (13) measures (slightly 
expanded cadence). 

Chopin, Prel. op. 28, No. 20, entire. 

Par. 43. 




BOTH Antecedent and Conseqjjent. 

43. As already stated, the repeated Antecedent is of far more 
rare occurrence than the repeated Consequent. It is most likely to 
appear in connection with the latter, i. e., each Phrase separately 

The treatment of the Cadences must conform, here again, to 
the rules given in paragraph 21. For example : 

X. Moderato. 





Repetition of 



81. < 

J. :^ ±t 4 J i i 






F V 










r^f ' r ^ 






J J Ji 










I, V 


Repetition of Consequent. 


r ' r 





i J J 









J . J J . ^i 

=f=!l f f -^^=¥ 





Par. 48. 

3. Presto. 


X • Li ^ ^ X 

y Bepetitioii of Antecedent 

» * # 


Aocompaniment simile .... I 



•4) I 

-1 1 iij. j. J. J. 


Repetition of Consequent. 

Mbndelssohn. No. ai. 

*i) The Semicadence, here, corresponds exactly to the first one, four 
measures back. 

*2) The perfect Cadence is slightly modified (concealed) by placing the 
chord-third in Soprano. Otherwise it agrees with its repetition, four measures 

*3) The Melody is considerably changed, during this repetition, though 
not essentially so. It belongs partly, for that reason, to the ** Group "-forms, 
explained in paragraphs 54-55. 

*4) The Antecedent and its repetition close with precisely the same Semi- 
cadence (on the Tonic chord). It will be observed that this example begins 
with a Dominant chord ; that is because it occurs in the course of a larger 
form. The same is true of the preceding illustration. 


*5) The Consequent Phrase contains eight measures (twice the length of 
its Antecedent), owing to chain-phrase extension (par. 31). 

*6)6) The harmonic alterations during the repetition (a persistent inclina- 
tion into the Subdominant keys) are noteworthy. See the original (** Songs 
Tvithout Words'*, No. 21, thirty-eight measures from the end). 

Mozart, Pfte. Sonata, No. 11 (Cotta ed.), first movement, meas. 29-8 from 
the end. Bkkthovkn, String-quartet, op. i8, No. 3, " Minore " of third move- 
ment, first twelve measures. 


Former Periods, or new ones, with complete repetition (according to par. 
41). The repetitions must be variated by means of unessential modifications, 
care being taken, however, to preserve the original harmonic form of the 


The same, with repetition of the Consequent Phrase (par. 42). 
The same, with repetition of the Antecedent Phrase, or both Antecedent 
and Consequent Phrases (par. 43). 

The repetitions must, here again, be unessentially modified. 


OR OF BOTH Phrases. 

4*4*. An extension at the beginning is, naturally, more likely 
to be applied to the Antecedent Phrase than to the Consequent. 

As usual, it will assume the character of an Introduction, as 
explained in paragraph 28, which review. But in serving, as it 
may, as an introduction to the entire Period, it can be somewhat 
longer, and, at the same time, a trifle more individual in character 
than the introduction to a single Phrase. 

This is the case, to a moderate degree, with the passage at the beginning 
of Mendelssohn's '* Songs without Words", No. 29, and No. 46; and, more 
strikingly, in No. 12, No. 15, and No. 32. In each of the last three of these 
examples, the preliminary passage might be called an " Introductory Phrase" ; 
for, on account of its length and importance, it appears to fulfil a more inde- 
pendent mission than that of an extension at the beginning of the first Period 
only, and refers, properly, to the whole piece. But the style is, nevertheless, kept 
so subordinate that no doubts can arise as to the actual beginning of the Period- 
melody ; and, moreover, it is inseparably connected with its Period by ending 
upon the Dominant harmony. 

See also: Chopin, Mazurkas Nos. 9, 34, 13, 15, 17, 20, 21; more pro- 
nounced, Nos. 7, 31, 2. 



45. When such an introductory passage is conducted into a 
complete Tonic Cadence, and thus separated from the following 
Period, it ceases to be an ** Introduction ", in the strict sense of the 
term, and becomes a 


The moment this distinction arises, — in consequence of the separat- 
ing effect of the perfect Cadence, — the necessity of preserving close 
thematic and organic relation with the following Period is can- 
celled, and complete independence of character (in everything 
excepting tonality, meter and tempo) may be imparted to the 

Comparatively close organic relation with the following Period exists in 
the Preludes to ** Songs without Words " No. 19 (comp. Song No. i); No. 6 
(first seven measures); No. 21 (first eight measures); and even in Nos. 3, 28 
and 41, though these are severed from the first Period bj a double-bar. See 
also: Chopin, Mazurkas Nos. 3, 42, 46. 

Entire independence is illustrated in the Preludes to ** Songs without 
Words" No. 4, No. 35, No. 16 and No. 9. The opening (4) measures of No. 
27 d^fy exact classification ; in the independence of their character they sug- 
gest the Prelude-class, but they lead, like an Introduction, directly and 
smoothly into the first Period, from which only a Dominant Semicadence 
separates them. 

46- It is of course possible to interline a brief '* introduc- 
tion ' ' to the Consequent Phrase also, but examples of this kind 
are very rare^ because of the attendant danger of destroying the 
necessary continuity between th6 two Phrases. Such an introduc- 
tion to the Consequent will sound most plausible when correspond- 
ing in thematic character and style to an introduction to its Ante- 
cedent Phrase ; and it must be so skilfully handled as not to interfere 
with the impression intended to be conveyed by the original (un- 
extended) Period. For example : 

52. < 

Vivace^ non trop^o. 

Voice. *1) 


Antecedent Phrase. 




V — t 

r r. ^ \ jTn^ ^ 

g:^^ f: #^ f 






r ^ r/^-H' 

X < l 






^ J cre«c. J 







Consequent Phrase. 


*i) The vocal melody of this example (" Winterreise ", No. 2) fixes the 
design of the ** Period ", beyond the possibility of misconception. 


OF BOTH Phrases. 

4T. The extensions at the end are much more likely to be 
applied to the Cadence of the Consequent Phrase than to that of 
the Antecedent. They conform exactly to those explained in para- 
graphs 25, 26, which review. One peculiarly instructive illustra- 
tion will suffice : 


83. =fcf 














^1 ^^- %? ^ 

Y J 3 


^ f: 







j- X X 

*1) «2) 

'• • 


P *3) 


r ^ hriri^ 


2 expanded (Ex. 41.) 



S?^ I ^ 




-^F— X- 


*i) Correct perfect Cadence, omitted (or, more properly, suppressed) on 
account of the extension to follow. 

*2) ** Intercepted " form of the perfect Cadence (comp. Ex. 32, note *4)). 
It is expanded to two measures. 

*3) This, and the seven measures which follow, constitute a "new Cadence- 
member" (see par. 2gd; Ex. 42). 

See also: Mendklssohk, "Songs without Words *% No. 23, meas. 1-9 
from the first double-bar; compare carefully with meas. 25-10 from the end. 
Also No. 27, meas. 16-4 from the end (cited in Ex. 32-2); No. 31, meas. i-ii 
(4-measure Period, repeated, and extended at its end) ; No. 38, meas. i-io. 

Chopin, Pfte. Concerto, e minor (op. 11), Romance j meas. 13-22 (quaint 
repetition of 2nd half of Consequent Phrase). 



48. An extension at the end of the Antecedent Phrase will 
be, as intimated, a comparatively rare occurrence, owing to the 
danger it involves of severing the continuity of the two Phrases. 

It can scarcely be any more than a brief repetition, or expan- 
sion, of the chords which constitute the Semicadence (which it 
must confirm, and not destroy), or of the entire semicadence-mem- 
ber ; and it will generally be balanced by a similar manipulation of 
the final cadence (of the Consequent) also. For example : 

AUegretto. Cad 




:i. if 

iM rrpj JTD 








mp dolee. 






Ab V 




*i) Or, more accurately (in both cases), an "expansion" of the Cadence- 
tone in the melody. 

*2) This Cadence is incomplete, because the new section which follows is 
to be entered without interruption. (See the Note following par. 93a.) This 
example, from the third movement of the first Symphony of Brahms, is a 
unique illustration of ** opposite construction'* (39^). 



Par. 49. 

See also: Brahms, op. 117, No. 3, meas. i-io, 11-20; same work, second 
tempo (/li rnoto ed espress.\ meas. i-io, 11-20, 21-30. These Periods are all 
of parallel construction, and all extended in the same way, — at the Cadences. 
Also op. 118, No. I, meas. i-io. 

See also : Mendelssohn, " Songs without Words " No. 37, meas. 30-39 
(extension at end of Antecedent only). 

Schubert, ** Winterreise '*, No. 14, last fifteen measures (extension at 
end of each Phrase); "Winterreise", No. 19, meas. 6-13 (two 3-measure 
Phrases; followed by modified repetition, meas. 14-21); ** Winterreise", No. 
22, meas. 5-18 (s-measure Phrases), and meas. 16-5 from the end. 

Chopin, Mazurka No. 20, meas. 9-24 (repeated Consequent). 

6. Extensions in the Course. 

49. This mode of enlargement is applied most frequently, 
and, at all events, most extensively, to the Consequent Phrase (see 
par. 30). The details are enumerated in paragraph 29, which re- 
view. For illustration : 







-f^ f ,-g: 







Par. 50. 



*i) The Semicadence is not bridged over, in this case, for the obvious pur- 
pose of rendering the following extension perfectly distinct. 

*2) Modified repetition of second half of the Antecedent Phrase. 

*3) A somewhat disguised sequence of the first half of the Consequent 

See also: Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words *', No. 11, meas. 22%-^ 
from the end ; a 4-measure Antecedent, and a Consequent containing course- 
extensions (in its first and third measures) ; the perfect Cadence is twice evaded 
(in measures six and eight of Consequent Phrase), and, finally, a "new cadence- 
member" of two measures closes the Period. 

50. Such extensions in the course of either Phrase are not 
unlikely, here again, to result in '* chain-phrase " formation, as 
explained in paragraph 31. As usual, this is far most likely to be 
the case with the Consequent Phrase. 

See Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words '% No. 10, meas. n-24 (a 
4-measure Antecedent) ; and No. 38, meas. 22)^-41 (ending with an imperfect 
Cadence, before final Phrase of the Song). 

Chopin, Prelude, op. 28, No. i, meas. 1-25. 

But this may even occur in the Antecedent, as the following 
(rare) example shows : 





1 ^ 

-0 H \ 





56. { 


^ -^ 1 dhf^ f^^ 







J \i 








Par. 51. 

j ^.i^'ffL'irVtjifjgTa' i 

V ^ ^^ 




Bebthovbn. *2) 

fr"j. J. 











f I'' I, i -r ii 


*i) The Antecedent, ending with this emphatic semicadence, is thirteen 
measures long. Its thematic evolution is indicated by the lettered brackets. 
The Consequent which follows is an example of the 5-measure Phrase. 

♦2) Pfte. Sonata, op. 49, No. i, Finale^ meas. 293^-12 from the end. 

7. The Codetta. 

5 1 . To the class of extensions at the end belongs, further- 
more, the Codetta (i. e., little Coda) ; but it differs from the 
extensions explained in paragraphs 24, 25, 26, and 47, in being 
more independent of the Phrase or Period to which it is added. 
For in the majority of cases it follows after the complete perfect 
Cadence has been made^ and becoines by that means detached from 
its Phrase or Period. (It is most nearly, though not strictly, 
analogous to paragraphs 26^, c, d). 

Par. 61. 



For this reason it need not be thematically related to the 
Melody of the Cadence-member, but may derive its Melody from 
any member of its Phrase or Period ; or it may even consist of an 
entirely new, though strictly kindred (organically related), melodic 
motive. Review also paragraph 32. 

Its harmonic basis may be a reiteration, in almost any metric 
form, of the Dominant and Tonic chords of the Cadence ; 

Or it may be an optional line of chords, upon the Tonic organ- 
point ; 

Or it may incline towards the Subdominant chords and keys, 
as broader exposition of the Plagal ending (26d). The latter is 
probably the most common. 

The length of the Codetta, as applied to any of the foregoing 
forms, while optional, should not as a rule exceed two measures ; 
but it may be, and usually is, repeated, and even extended. 

It is very rarely added to anything smaller than the Period- 

For illustration, to the Period given in Example 50, the fol- 
lowing Codetta is added : 


87. < 




*i) This is the Cadence-measure, bridged over as shown in paragraph 18. 

*2) The following two measures cannot be called an ** extension of the 
foregoing Phrase, or Cadence-member", for they are melodically independent 
of the latter. Hence the independent term Codetta (appendix), to indicate 
the independent addition. 

♦3) In the original, (Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 10, No. i, end of 
Adagio^ six more measures follow, as additional repetition and extension of 
this Codetta ; but they are necessitated simply by the proportions of the entire 
Movement^ and are therefore omitted here. 

Furthermore, to Ex. 41, No. 3, is added the following: 











<Ez.41. No.3.)| 

















r - r • 





^'^ Mendelssohn. 













*i) The form " tapers " to the end, from the large 2-measure Phrase 
which precedes, — through the i-measure Codetta, its repetition, and the 
half-measure extension, down to the single Tonic chord, which fades away as 
its resonance diminishes, without regard to measure. And the ** ritard.^^ 
adds emphasis to the purpose of gradual relaxation. 

See alto: Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words '^ No. i, last six meas- 
ures (Codetta to preceding seven measures, with which it is to be compared); 
No. 13, last four measures (with preceding eight measures); flo. 20, last five 
measures (with preceding twelve measures: Phrase repeated and extended); 
No. 27, last four measures; No. 40, last six measures. 

Chopin, Prelude, op. 28, No. 21, last fourteen measures (two Codettas). 
And Ex. 70, note *4). 

52« The Codetta is the counterpart of the Introduction or 

Introductory Phrase ; and, just as the latter may deteriorate, by 

separation from its Period, into a " Prelude ", so the Codetta may 

become a 


by still more complete separation from the sentence which pre- 
cedes it, and by greater difference of style. Compare paragraph 45. 
The Postlude is more common in larger forms, than in the 
Period. It is most likely to occur when the form began with a 
Prelude, and will, in that case, usually correspond exactly to the 

See Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words", Nos. 4, 9, 16, 23, 28, 35, 
41, beginning and ending of each. 


53- From all the foregoing it is evident that the processes of 
Phrase- or Period-extension are employed preponderantly in the 
second half, i. e., in the later course^ towards, or at, the end of the 

The first obligation of the composer is to state the leading 
musical thought clearly^ simply^ without confusing modifications. 
The variation, elaboration, and, most especially, the development 
and enlargement of this leading thought will follow, earlier or 
later, in fulfilment of the conditions of variety in unity. Review, 
briefly, paragraphs 30, 42, 47. 

A peculiarly significant reason for extensions at the very end is 
touched upon in paragraph 27, and Example 58, note *i). 


Chopin. Pr61ude, op. 28, No. i (Antecedent Phrase, eight measures; 
Consequent Phrase, chain-form, sixteen measures; Codetta I, two measures 
and repeated; Codetta II, one measure, repeated three times; expanded Tonic 
at end). 

Schubert. "Die schone MUllerin'% No. 8, entire (4-measure Prelude ; 
two 6-measure Phrases, Consequent extended ; 2-measure Codetta). 

Beethoven. Pfte. Sonata, op. 10, No. i, Finale^ meas. 17-28. 

Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 81, Finale^ meas. 37-52 (repetition of whole 
Period); also the following measures, 53-81, up to the double-bar (repetition, 
extension, and Codetta). 

Beethoven. Pfte. Sonata, op. 31, No. 3, first movement, meas. 46-68 
(repetition with intermediate Interlude ; Codetta). 

Brahms. Op. 116, No. i (Capriccio), meas. 1-19 (repeated and extended), 

Brahms. Op. 116, No. 2 (Intermezzo), meas. 1-18 (extended and re- 
peated, with instructive modifications ; see also the last twenty-one measures). 

Brahms. Op. 116, No. 5, First Part (extension at end). 

Chopin. Mazurka No. 3, meas. 49-64 (quaint repetition). 

Chopin. Mazurka No. 17, meas. 1-20 (Introduction and repetition). 

Chopin. Mazurka No. 20, meas. 1-24 (Introduction and extensions); also 
meas. 41-56 (repetition). 


Former Periods, or new ones, with Introduction or Introductory Phrase 
(par. 44, 45, 46). 

The same, with extensions at end of either Phrase, or of both Phrases (par. 
47, 48). 

Here, again, it will be wise to write out the Period first in its primary 
(unextended) form, and to elaborate it during its repetition. 



Par. 56. 


The same, with extensions in the course of either Phrase or both Phrases 
(par. 49, 50). 

The same, with Codetta (par. 51, 52). 

These extensions may, finally, all be introduced into one and the same 
elaborate Period (illustrating the entire material of paragraphs 44, 47, 49, 51^ 
in one example). 

Write out each Period first in its unextended form. 


The Period with Conseqjljent-Group. 

54. The term *' Consequent-group " has been adopted by 
the author as a substitute for "Consequent-repetition", in appli- 
cation to those forms in which the reproduction of the Consequent 
phrase is modified to such an extent, or in such a manner, that the 
epithet "Repetition" is not strictly permissible. It is to all 
intents and purposes a reproduction of the second Phrase of the 
Period, but it is not a simple (or even unessentially modified) 
repetition. The term indicates that the two phrases thus obtained 
constitute a double version of such unquestionably uniform con- 
tents as to be virtually one and the same Consequent (a " Double- 
Consequent "). 

55. The details of the apparently subtle distinction between 
such a "reproduction" and a genuine "repetition", are as 
follows : 

ist, any essential difference in the harmonic formation of the 
two Cadences (of the two versions of the Consequent Phrase) would 
antagonize the principle of " repetition ", as defined in par. 21 
(which carefully review) . For illustration : 

Andante espressivo. 



Antecedent Phrase. 

For Accompaniment, see Original.) 

Par. 56. 




Ist version of 







Conseqiieiit Phrase. 





-9 — ^ 

, 5 



J J 



i — r 






# »- 





.^ 1 • 


2nd version of Conse- 




T — rr 

-0 — #- 







qnent Phrase. 



I I ! ! ~ I IN I .. I I 

t ^ J j hi J - kJ— J^ -aJ a*^ 










■r T" 



Mendelssohn. No. 25. 

I3 expanded 




Par. 56. 

♦i) This first Cadence of the Consequent Phrase is made upon the Relative 
Tonic, (e minor, instead of G major,) and thus the idea of ** repetition " is 
already frustrated, because the final Cadence is to be made upon the original 
Tonic, G major. 

♦2) The similarity between the two versions of the Consequent Phrase is 
so great that it appears at first glance to be simply Phrase-repetition. But 
closer scrutiny of the two essentially different Cadences reveals the necessity 
for the above distinction. It is not a repeated Consequent, but a ** Group of 
Consequents." The importance of this distinction, as defined by the forma- 
tion of two successive cadences, is also shown in paragraph 39a, where it is 
the obligatory condition which distinguishes the ** parallel Period " from the 
"repeated Phrase", or, in a word, the ** repetition " from the "reproduc- 
tion ". See also Ex. 70, note *2). 

See also: Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words", No. 14, meas. 11-23 
from the end (final Cadence modified by chord-Fifth in Bass, on account of 
thematic connection with following Phrase) . 

Mozart, Pfte. Sonata, No. 8 (Cotta ed.). Andante^ meas. 28-43 (second 
version of Consequent extended at end). 

Compare these examples carefully with the illustrations given in Ex. 50 ; 
Ex. 51; Ex. 62, note *2) ; with especial reference to the condition of the 
Cadences. The latter are examples of Consequent and Antecedent repetition^ 
because the cadences are essentially, if not exactly, the same ; and are not to 
be confounded with the above (Ex. 59), which is a Consequent-^f^«/, because 
of the essential difference of cadences. 

2ndly, a reproduction of the Consequent Phrase upon other 
scale-steps^ as sequence, should not be called a repetition, even if 
the melodic design remain exactly, or nearly, the same. A 
''sequence" is a "reproduction", but never a "repetition" in 
the strict sense here necessarily maintained. For example : 


%> Y 


Antecedent Phrase. 

(For Accompaniment, see Orif^nal) *1) 





1st version of Consequent Phrase. 




^— #- 




Semi -cad. 

P'h'i> n.'a.i 

Par. 65. 



2nd version of Consequent Phrase* 


*i) Pfte. Sonata, op. 2, No. i, Finale^ first twelve measures. 

*2) The third of these three Phrases is mainly a sequence of the second 
one, and with a "reversed" Cadence-member; consequently, the form is 
** Period with Consequent-group *'. 

See Chopin, Pr61ude, op. 28, No. 24, first nineteen measures (Introduc- 
tion two measures ; Antecedent-Phrase four measures, wLth modified repeti- 
tion ; Consequent-Phrase first version, five measures ; second version, partial 
sequence, four measures). 

3rdly, the term Consequent-group should be substituted for 
Consequent- re petition in those cases where the reproduction em- 
braces more elaborate modifications (of what is, nevertheless, unmis- 
takably the same Phrase-contents) than would be supposable or 
permissible in an ordinary *' repetition " ; compare, carefully, all 
of paragraph 19. For illustration : 





Antecedent Phra«e. 







>j»fc i ^trrr' fr wj? injTf;7 1 : 

Ist version of Consequent. 


= wi~^^ 


^-^ * 




Par. 56. 



2nd version of Consequent. 


^ ft"^ 


W f 



*i) There can be no doubt of the identity of this Phrase as second version 
of the preceding- Consequent Phrase^ although it diverges from the latter more 
and more, in its course, and ends with a totally different Cadence. 

*2) See also the twelve measures which follow, in the Original (Chopin, 
Mazurka No. ii, op. 17, No. 2). 

And Mendelsohn, "Songs without Words", No. i, last twenty-one 
measures (Antecedent Phrase four measures ; first Consequent four measures ; 
second Consequent, eight measures; Codetta, five measures) . — No. 31, meas. 
143^-5 from the end (Antecedent, two measures; first Consequent, two 
measures ; second Consequent, partly sequential, largely expanded, six meas- 
ures). — No. 33, last twenty-three-and-one-half measures (Antecedent, four 
measures ; first Consequent, four measures ; second Consequent, ten measures, 
analyzed in Ex. 42, No. 2; Codetta, five measures). 

Schubert, ** Winterreise'*, No. 15, meas. 19-6 from the end. 

56. By exactly the same processes, the Antecedent Phrase of 
a Period may also be reproduced in this group-form. But the 
'* Antecedent-group " is far less common than the Consequent- 
group. See, again, paragraphs 53, 43. One illustration will 
suffice : 

A lUgretto. 

Ist version of Antecedent. 





y 2nd 









version of Antecedent. 

II ^ n 


i i\i i i 








Par. 67. ^i 





Bepetition of Consequent. 



J i j i"] J i .nj 

SuABiAN Folk-song. 





-T) j J . J -I -^ .^ -* .J 






♦i) The second version is a ** sequence'* of the first, and, consequently, 
ftot a "repetition". It is an Antecedent-^^«/. Compare 55, 2ndly. 

*2) Here, on the contrary, a genuine repetition of the Consequent takes 
place, because (besides entire coincidence of melody) the Cadence in measure 
thirteen is only a concealed form of that in the final measure, without essen- 
tial change. 

*3) This measure is a quaint and characteristic expansion of the (strictly 
speaking, unaccented) first beat, — a poising of the voice upon the ** up-beat" 
before the rhythmic movement starts into life. This accounts for the irregu- 
lar (5-measure) formation. 

See also: Beethoven, Pfte. Sonata, op. 2, No. i, MenuettOy first fourteen 
measures (first Antecedent- Phrase, four measures; second Antecedent, 
sequence, four measures extended to six; Consequent, only two measures, but 

Haydn, Pfte. Sonata, No. 14 (Cotta ed.), first twelve measures. 

Haydn, Symphony in B|> (Peters ed.. No. 12) Finale, first twelve 

Chopin, Mazurka, No. 36, first twelve measures. 

Chopin, Pr6lude, op. 28, No. 5, first sixteen measures (Introduction, four 
measures ; first Antecedent, four measures ; second Antecedent, sequence, four 
measures; Consequent, four measures) — ; the remaining twenty-three meas- 
ures of the same Pr61ude are similarly constructed (the last seven measures 
are Codetta). 

Brahms, op. 119, No. 3, l^st thirty measures (first Antecedent, four meas- 
ures ; second Antecedent, four measures ; Consequent, a long Chain-Phrase to 

The Phrase-Group. 

5T. The Phrase-group is a series of Phrases (at least three 
in number), in coherent succession, and of similar or kindred 



Par. 57. 

character and style ; but either too similar to, or else too indc' 
pendent of, each other, to exhibit the distinctive condition of the 
Period-form, viz., the opposition of a mutually dependent thesis 
and antithesis (see par. 37, last clause). 

The Group will never contain less than three Phrases, because 
two such, if coherent (not separated, as in Ex. 74), will invariably 
represent the ./^^r^W- relation, in one or another of its many possi- 
ble phases. On the other hand, the Group may embrace as many 
more than three Phrases as can be added without sacrificing 
coherency, or extending to an absurd extreme of ** formlessness ". 

Each of the Phrases should close with a light semicadence (com- 
pare pars. 36, and ^yi)* A perfect Tonic cadence (in any key) of 
sufficient cadential force to complete its Phrase, can occur only at 
the end of the Group. There are some rare exceptions to this 
strict rule, but they do not concern the beginner. (This is in 
accurate keeping with the rules given in paragraph 31 for the 
Chain-Phrase, which review. The '* Group of Phrdses " is simply 
a larger growth of that * ' Group of Members ' ' which constitutes 
the Chain-Phrase). 

The following example illustrates the Group of similar 
Phrases : 


A ndanie tranq. 

Phrase No. 1. 

riji i rsg 

« — I — m — m • — « — # 

etc. (See Original.) 




Phrase No. 2. 

y^^J ^ \ ^, ^ \ ^iU^^ . 


No. 8. 

Par. 58. 



Mendelssohn. No. 33. 

' juii ' tii ^ 

«3) *4) 


*i) The similarity between these three Phrases is strikingly exhibited in 
the first half of each, — the melodic members being almost identical. 

*2) The Bass makes this irregular leap upward from the Leading-tone (a)> 
simply in order to evade the complete Tonic cadence. 

*3) This final Cadence is unusually brief, it is true; but it, nevertheless^ 
conforms to the conditions of the perfect Cadence fully enough to check the 
harmonic and melodic current, and bring the ** Group " to an end. (Par. 93a.) 

*4) Comparison of this example with the foregoing, reveals the charac- 
teristic difference between the ''''Period with Consequent- or Antecedent- 
Group ", and the single ** Phrase-Group *'. Ex. 59, for instance, also consists of 
three Phrases (like the above) ; but the number is reducible to the original two 
of the Period-relation^ because the second and third are no more, in sub- 
stance, than one (Consequent) Phrase, together. In Exs. 60 and 61 the same 
reasoning applies; and in Ex.62 all four Phrases are similarly reducible to 
the original two. But in the above example (63), on the contrary, such a 
reduction to two Phrases is not tenable, because the entire sentence is simply 
three different versions of one primary phrase. 

58. The Group of independent (or dissimilar) Phrases, on 
the other hand, is probably more common. The reduction of the 
series to two primary Phrases will not be possible, on account of 
the thematic individuality of the several members of the Group ; 
but at least general resemblance^ and close organic relation, must 
be preserved ; and, as before, no complete perfect cadence should 
occur until the end is reached. For example : 





^- f ^-^ 

Phrase No. 1. 



3n. t 



* I II f ^ > II i 


^ -...., >o-i #^r^ # 

I . t g > 


*l} It i< erident that this series, again, cannot be reduced to tsro Phrases 
and be thus demonstrated as an extended " Period " of some kind, for each of 
the three Phrases is an independent melodic factor of the collectiTe sentence, 
ttumt^ perfect organic cohesion is maintained (chieflj through the uniform 
flccfympani ment) , 

H^.e also the following general illnstrations of the Phrase-group (both sim- 
ilar and dissimilar) : Meki>elssohx, "Songs without Word*? '. No. 13, last 
twenty-three measures (four Phrases, Nos. i and 2 similar — almost repetition ; 
No, 4 extended four measures at end; Codetta). — No. 16, nieas. 4-9 (three 
2'meik%ure Phrases). — No. 2o,meas. 28-17 from the end, — ^o. 26, meas. 28>^'iz 


Par. 00. THE ELISION. 97 

from the end (Phrase i, two measures; Phrase 3, two measures; Phrase 3, four 
measures; Phrase 4» two measures; Phrase 5, two measures; Phrases 4 and 5 
repeated and extended). — No. 41, meas. 15-5 from the end (three Phrases; No. 
3, three measures). — No. 3, meas. 5-29 (six Phrases). 

Chopin, Mazurka, No. 33, first twenty-two measures (five Phrases, /ar//y 
similar, the last one extended). 
x^ Chopin, Prelude, op. 28, No. 9 (three similar and regular 4-measure 
Phrases). Prelude, op. 28, No. 2 (three Phrases, similar, each expanded). 

Schubert, Pfte. Sonata, No. 4 (op. 122, Menuetto^ first twelve measures. 
Pfte. Sonata, No. 8 (C minor). First movement, meas. 40-53 (three similar 
Phrases, of unequal length ; entire Group repeated, in the following fourteen 
measures) . 

Grieo, Lyric Pieces, op. 12, No. i (three Phrases; complete repetition). 

Brahms, op. 118, No. 6, first twenty measures (five similar Phrases, No. 2 
a repetition of No. i) ; the following twenty measures are a modified repeti- 
tion of this Group; the following eighteen measures are a Group of four 
Phrases (i and 2 regular, 3 extended, 4 a sequence of 3) ; the following 
measures, up to the end, are a modified reproduction of the first Group. 

To what length the Group of Phrases may possibly extend, may be seen 
by reference to paragraph 104. But the pupil must carefully shun such 
difficult experiments for a time. And he must look upon the idea of the 
Group-form with distrust, in any case, as being the type, — not of good con- 
sistent ** Form", — but rather of " Formlessness ". 

59. This same idea is also applied (though far more rarely) to the 
Period^ of which similar Groups may be formed, especially when the Periods 
are small (four measures) . Such Period-groups will present the appearance, 
usually, of large Phrases with a slight semicadence in their center; and it is 
possible that this break may be present in some and absent in other of the 

See Schubert, Pfte. Sonata, No. 7 (op. 164), Finale^ first thirty measures 
(each Period expanded ; the second one extended at end). 

Mendelssohn, *' Songs without Words ", No. 32, meas. 16-28. 

Haydn, Symphony 5 (Peters ed.)» Third movement, Trio^ first twenty-six 

The Elision. 

60« When the Cadence of a Phrase or Period corresponds 
harmonically so accurately to the beginning of the following Phrase 
or Period that end and beginning are practically identical, it is 
possible to suppress the entire Cadence-measure^ and hasten on into 
the next Phrase without the pause or check for which Cadences are 
expressly made (par. 2^). 

This suppression or ' ' Elision ' ' of the Cadence is almost 
exclusively applied to the perfect Cadence, though possible at semi- 



Par. 60. 

cadences also. It may be effected, firstly, when the approach to the 
Cadence has been so indicative or suggestive of the latter that its 
absence will be sufficiently compensated for ; 

Or, secondly, when the beginning of the succeeding Phrase is 
striking enough to remove any misconception of the form (see par. 
93a, first and last clause). 

The object of the elision is either to avoid an unnecessary and stagnating 
pause, or to obtain an exhilarating, urging effect, which is sometimes very 
effective. But it must be distinctly understood that it is a comparatively rare 
and dangerous artifice, the expediency of which should be carefully tested in 
each case. For illustration t 


I. Andante, 




a. Allegretto. 

4 4 ^r~4 \ 

(See Original.) *3) 


-# #■ 








Par. 60. 





*i) These small notes represent the perfect Cadence which is due and ex^ 
pected at this point, but which is suppressed (omitted), causing the elision of 
the entire Cadence-measure. In other words, this is the fourth measure of the 
first phrase, and, simultaneously, the first measure of the following one. The 
latter immediately asserts itself so completely (through abrupt change of style 
and abrupt transition from/ to y) that the actual cadence is "cut out" 
entirely, and the sum of measures in the two Phrases is only seven, instead of 

*2) The first chord in the fourth measure represents the " evaded '* form 
of the (expected) cadence; but, at the same time, it corresponds exactly to 
the beginning of the first melodic member of the Phrase, which it is the 
author's intention to repeat, and which he proceeds to repeat immediately^ 
without the — in this instance undesirable — delay which a full exposition of the 
cadence would cause. 

*3) "Songs without Words,*' No. 42, near the end; the "extension*' is 
cited in Ex. 41, No. 2. See also Ex. 70, Note *4). 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. 3, Adagio, between meas. 10 and 11. 

Mendelssohn, " Songs without Words " No. 4, bar 5 from the end. — No. 
9, bar 3 from the end. — No. 11, between meas. 4 and 5 (compare with measure 19 
from the end, where the Elision does not appear). — No. 31, bar 5 from the end. 

Mozart, Pfte. Son. No. 11 (Cotta edition), between measures 7 and 8; 
also last movement {Rondo), measures 13-19 (repeated Phrase with Elision). 

On the other hand, care must be taken not to confound the 
Elision with those forms of concealed or evaded cadence, where the 
same abrupt leap into the new style of the foUowng Phrase takes 
place within the Cadence-measure^ but, contrary to appearances, 
does not suppress the latter. For example : 



66. { 















Par. 60. 

f tr r . a 


*i) Notwithstanding the abrupt and misleading change of character at the 
beginning of this cadence-measure, there is no Elision, for the coming Phrase 
contains its four measures without this one. The " change" must be regarded 
as occurring upon the second i6th-note, not upon the first one ; consequently, 
according to par. 2a (third clause, which review), this is only the preliminary 
measure of the 2nd Phrase; and, though thematically consistent with what 
follows, it is no more than one of the innumerable modes of ** bridging over" 
the Cadence-space (par. i8). 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. 3, meas. 12-21, is a still more delusive 
illustration of the absence of an Elision where one is apt to be suspected 
(between measures 12 and 13). But, here again, the new Phrase (and its subse- 
quent reproduction, also) begins upon the second i6th-note of the cadence- 
measure, and has its quota of 4 measures without the ** bridging", though the 
latter is directly characteristic of the coming Phrase. Of all the possible ways 
of bridging over the space between one Phrase and the next, this must be con- 
ceded to be the most consistent and admirable ; i. e., with material which antici- 
pates the coming Phrase. 

See also Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words", No. 28, meas. 5 from the 
end; here, also, "end" and ** beginning" are interlocked, but there is no 
Elision. — No. 26, meas. 11 from the end; no Elision,— -comp. 2 meas. later. 


Former Periods, or new ones, with Consequent-group, in each of the three 
varieties of structure explained in par. 55. 

The same, with Antecedent-group (par. 56). 

Work from Cadence to Cadence ; make all Cadences sufficiently emphaticy 
— rather too distinct than too vague. Still avoid, for a time, any elaborate 
modes of evading or concealing the Cadences, such as may too completely dis- 
guise their purpose, and impair firm outlines of form. — Review the directions 
ffiven in Exercise 9, 




Write a number of Phrase-groups, of both similar and dissimilar thematic 
contents, according to par. 57 and 58. Each group must be limited to tAree 
fundamental Phrases, at present, though this number may be optionally in- 
creased by the repetition (exact or modified) of any of the Phrases. 

And make a few experiments with the Elision ; best in connection with 
repetition of Phrase or Period. 



6 1 . The Double period consists in the union of two periods, 
and embraces, consequently (when regular), four Phrases^ so con- 
ceived and distributed that the Period-relation is apparent between 
Phrases i and 2, between Phrases 3 and 4, and also, on a broader 
scale, between these two pairs. 

62. The two Periods of a legitimate Double'iperiod, form are 
just as coherent, and just as closely dependent one upon the other, 
as the Antecedent and Consequent Phrases of the simple Period 
forms are. And, for this reason, the Cadence in the center (i. e., at 
the end of the 2nd Phrase) must be in the nature of a Semicadence^ 
though almost unavoidably somewhat heavier than an ordinary light 


The Double period must be conceived simply as an expanded growth of 
the single Period, the Phrases of which assume such a breadth (length) that 
they almost necessarily separate slightly in their respective centers. These in- 
termediate points of repose will, naturally, be lighter than the one in the 
center of the whole. The latter, though still only a Semicadence (inasmuch as 
it corresponds to the semicadence of the simple Period), will be rhythmically, 
and perhaps even harmonically, stronger or heavier than those at the termina- 
tion of the I St and 3rd Phrases. 

The various degrees of rhythmic and harmonic weight which it is possible 
to impart to a semicadence-chord, are distinctions which increase in import- 
ance as the forms enlarge. Therefore, the following general rules must be 
observed : A semicadence is harmonically ** heaviest" when made upon some 
Dominant Triads or upon the Tonic Triad of a related key, as these are strong 
chords, but chords which, while they invite repose, still suggest inevitable 
onward movement. A semicadence upon any form of any other chord, or upon 
the dissonant forms of Dominant (or other) harmony, is *Mighter'% either 
because it presses forward too vigorously of itself, or because, if itself a heavy, 


Stagnating chord, it gives immediate birth to an active counteracting agency. 
Further : a semicadence is rhythmically heavy or light in exact proportion to 
the duration of the chord, — the length of time spent in pausing, — and the con- 
sequent length or brevity of the "bridging" which follows. Finally: the 
rhythmic distinction is far the more important of the two. 

63. The Cadence-conditions of the regular Double period are, 

then, as follows : 

(a) At the end of the first Phrase a light semicadence, con- 
sisting perhaps most frequently of the Tonic chord, with Third or 
Fifth (instead of Root) in one of the outer parts ; or the Domi- 
nant chord, consonant or dissonant, — ^the latter being lighter than 
the former ; or possibly some other chord in one of its lighter 
forms. And, in any case, rhythmically more or less brief, exactly 
according to the degree of interruption desired (see par. 2^, final 
clause) . 

(b) At the end of the 2nd Phrase a heavier semicadence, 
corresponding generally, in choice of chord, to the table given in 
par. 36 (to which strict attention must be given), but probably with 
more rhythmic stress, i. e., longer duration, than in the single 
Period. It is most apt to be a Tonic chord of the Dominant Key; 
or, more rarely, a Tonic chord of the Relative, or some other next- 
related key, approached with a more elaborate and emphatic modu- 
lation. But it must never be so heavy as to lose its semicadence 
effect^ and thus destroy the continuity of the whole. 

(c) At the end of the 3rd Phrase a light semicadence again, 
perhaps corresponding to the first one, though a little more likely to 
incline toward the Suhdominant harmonies ; and again, with a more 
emphatic modulatory manifestation. 

(d) At the end of the 4th Phrase (in the regular, complete 
Double period) the Tonic perfect Cadence. 

64. The necessary cohesion between the two Periods is most 
effectively preserved by constructing the 2nd Period melodically 
PARALLEL with the I St. See par. 39a. 

The parallelism need not, however, be maintained any farther 
than during the first melodic member of the 2nd Period ; although, 
generally, the entire 3rd Phrase corresponds exactly or nearly to the 

Par. 64. 



I St Phrase ; and, in cases of extreme parallelism, even the 4th 
Phrase follows the thematic design of the 2nd Phrase, nearly to the 

The following example illustrates the Double period as an " ex- 
pansion of the single Period " , in parallel construction : 

Phrase 2. 


Period 1. PhraM 1. 

67. < 

V Period 2. 
Phrase 3 (like 1). 

! I 1 r^ 

I s s »s s - 

^. J J.3 J."^ I 









F | 7 *r f 


♦i) This cadence, like that which precedes it in the 4th measure, is. made 
upon the Dominant harmony with the chord-fifth in the Soprano. But it is 
rhythmically stronger here than in the 4th measure. 

*2) The parallelism of construction extends up to this point, with no other 
than the purely unessential modification in the 9th measure. 

*3) There is no reasonable doubt of this being the Z>ouble'penod form ; 
but, the measures being small and the tempo somewhat active, it creates the 
impression of a Large single Period (of 8-measure Phrases and parallel con- 
struction) with a semicadence in the middle of each half, coinciding, on a 
larger scale, with the syntax of Ex. 13, No. 3 — ^which see. This latter analysis 
(i. e.. Large single Period) would certainly be correct if the tempo were 
allegro or presto. 



Par. (IB. 

65. The transitional grades and progressive shades of distinction from 
the perfectly unmistakable Single-period form with no intermediate interrup- 
tions, into the perfectly unmistakable Double period with its four legitimate 
cadences, are so innumerable, that it will often be impossible to define accu- 
rately the denomination of certain examples of this kind found in musical 
literature ; and even so slight a thing as a deviation in the tempo or ** phrasing'* 
of the performer may influence, perhaps positively alter, the structural im-^ 
pression and analysis. Of one thing the student may rest assured, namely: in 
proportion as the distinction becomes thus more minute and questionable, it 
becomes of less and less moment to define it, and less 'wise to insist upon an 
absolute definition. See par. lo; and par. 77. 

For examples of doubtful form, between Single and Double period, see : 

Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words '* No. 12, meas. 7-22 (a noticeable 
semicadence in the center of the first half, but none 'whatever in the second half; 
like Ex. 13, No. i). No. 22, first 9 measures (exactly the same). No. 8, first 17 
measures (probably Double, despite the rapid tempo). No. 19, measures 3- 11 
(probably Double). No. 25, first 10 measures (probably Single; extended at 
end). No. 32, measures 4-14 (probably Single; extended at end). No. 48, first 
8 measures (probably Single) . 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 10, No. i. Adagio, first 16 measures (probably 
Double) ; op. 10, No. 3, Menuetto, first 16 measures (probably Single) ; op. 14, 
No. I, Allegretto, first 16 measures (probably Single); Rondo, op. 51, No. i, 
first 8 measures (probably Single). 

Chopin, Pr61udes, op. 28, No. 8, first 8 measures (probably Single). 

The following examples, on the contrary, are beyond a doubt 
genuine Double periods, of parallel construction : 

68. < 


mt'us w %r=mw^- 

Period 1. 
Phrase 1. 

Par. 86. 



.. PRBIOD 2. 


K f 'rTf ir"^[r' iLM^g 

Phrases (likel). 



*i) This cadence, it is true, cannot be called heavier than the one in the 
4th measure; nevertheless, it serves its purpose sufficiently well. The con- 
struction of the 2nd Period is here again extremely parallel, almost to the 
cadence; but compare with Ex. 49; and observe that the parallel Double 
period differs from the repeated Period in the differentiation of its 2nd and 
4th cadences. 

See also : Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 22, Finale^ first 16 measures. 

Chopin, Preludes, op. 28, No. 7 ; No. 10 (Phrase 3 sequence of Phrase I ; 
Phrase 4 like 2, excepting Cadence; slight cadence-extension) ; No. 14 (Phrase 
2 extended to 6 measures ; Phrase 4 only 3 measures ; Codetta 3 measures) ; 
No. 23 (Phrase 4 extended to 5 measures ; Codetta, 6 measures, beginning after 
— or with — an Elision) ; No. 17, first 18 measures ; No. 19, first 16 measures. 

Chopin, Nocturne No. i (op. 9, No. i), first 18 measures (cadence-exten- 
sion) ; Nocturne 5 (op. 15, No. 2), first i6 measures (regular, and extremely 
parallel, — almost Single period repeated). 

Mozart, Pfte. Son. No. 7 (Cotta ed.). Adagio^ first eight measures; Pfte. 
Son. No. 13 (Cotta ed.). Finale^ first 16 measures ; Pfte. Son. 14 (Cotta), Finale^ 
first 16 measures; Pfte. Son. No. 15 (Cotta), 2nd movement, first 16 measures. 

Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. io(B|7 major), first 18 measures (the 2nd cadence 
expanded); Pfte. Son. No. 2 (op. 53), Scherzo^ first 40 measures (very large; 
8-meas. Phrases, Nos. 2 and 4 extended at end to 12 measures). 

Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words '*, No. 15, first 22 measures (Introd. 
6 meas.) ; No. 18, first 17 measures ; No. 24, first 18 measures ; No. 30, first 
15 measures (4th Phrase short) ; No. 37, first 17 measures. 

Brahms, op. 116, No. 6, "Trio'* (5-sharp signature). — Op. 116, No. 7, 
first 20 measures (each Consequent extended) ; compare last 31 measures of 
same work. — Op. 117, No. i, **/fi Adagio^\ — Op. 117, No. 2, measures 22 
(second half) to 38. — Op. 118, No. 5, first 16 measures. — Op. 119, No. r, measures 



Par. 66. 

1-16. — Op. 119, No. 2, second tempo (4- sharp signature) first 16 measures. — 
Op. 119, No. 4, measures 1-20; measures. 2 1-40; measures 41-60 (each a regular 
parallel Double period, of 5-measure Phrases). 

66. The CONTRASTING construction (39c) of the 2nd Period, 
in the Double-period form, is far more unusual and confusing than 
the parallel construction ; because, when the 3rd Phrase does not 
melodically confirm the ist one, it is much more difficult to preserve 
the cohesion of the two Periods (demanded in par. 62), and to pre- 
vent the impression of two separate^ independent Periods (as in the 
Two-Part Song-form: see par. 74). 

Still, **four Phrases" in coherent succession, if such be care- 
fully sustained, are likely to be a Double period from sheer symmetry 
of design, whether Phrase 3 is like Phrase i or not ; only excepting, 
of course, possible cases where the 4 Phrases are reducible^ by clear 
evidence of repetition, to a *' repeated Period", or to a ** Group 
of 3 Phrases." But the continuity of the Double-period form 
must be assured, by avoiding too complete a Cadence at the end of 

the 2nd Phrase. 

See again Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words '% No. 13, last 23 meas- 
ures, already cited as example of the Group of 4 Phrases. 

And Chopin, Prelude op. 28, No. 18 (Phrase i, 4 measures; Phrase 2, 
similar, 5 measures ; Phrase 3, four measures ; Phrase 4, extended to 8 meas- 
ures). This might be called a Contrasting Double period, but the title ** Phrase- 
group" is more consistent with its character. 

Furthermore, the Contrasting Double period may represent a 
Large contrasting Single period, with interruption in the center of 
each half (see par. 62, second clause). For illustration : 


69. < 


Period 1. 
Phrase 1. 





Par. 67. 




Phrase 4. 



I n r i r 

^ etc. 






*i) Thematically (i.e., melodically) , Phrase 3 is totally unlike Phrase i; 
and there is likewise no resemblance between Phrases 4 and 2. It is '* contrast- 
ing'' construction. But oXo^^ formative relation is preserved, throughout, by 
uniformity of style and character; and the continuity of structure is absolute. 

*2) The "perfect-cadence Tonic" is wanting in Bass, here, because an 
extension follows, to which reference will be duly made. 

*3) ** Song without Words " No. 2, near the end. Compare these meas- 
ures with the first 16 measures of the same Song, where the construction is 

See also : Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words ", No. 6, measures 18-34 > 
No. 3, first 16 measures after the 2nd double-bar. 

Mendelssohn, op. 16, No. i, first 21 measures (4th Phrase short ; Codetta, 
2 measures, repeated and extended). 

Haydn, Symphony No. 6 (Peters ed.), Menuetto^ first 18 measures (Phrase 
4 extended, as shown in Ex. 39, No. i). 

Chopin, Mazurka No. 32 (op. 50, No. 3), first 16 measures. 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 22, Adagio^ first 9 measures (a little doubtful 
whether Single or Double period, — probably the latter). 

The Extensions of the Double period. 

67. Nothing further need be said, here, concerning the details 
of ordinary Phrase-extension (par. 24 to 30), than that they may, 
as a matter of course, be applied to any of the Phrases which collec- 
tively constitute the Double period. But see par. 53. The only 
devices of enlargement to be specially considered in this place, are 
those of modified repetition^ and Group-formation^ which may be 
utilized as follows : 


(a) The modified repetition of the entire Double period, of 
which an example will be found in Mozart, Pfte. Son. No. ii 
(Cotta ed.), 'Andante^ first 32 measures (rep. variated). 

See also : Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. 6 (op. 147), Finale^ measures 51 to 80 
(quaintly modified repetition, contracted two measures at end ; but otherwise 
preserving all salient traits). 

Chopin, Mazurka No. 13, first 36 measures (Introd. 4 measures) ; Mazurka 
No. 37, first 44 measures (Phrase 4 each time extended to 10 measures ; repeti- 
tion modified) ; Chopin, Nocturne No. 3 (op. 9, No. 3) first 40 measures (Phrase 
4 extended to 8 measures ; repetition elaborate) . 

(b) The modified repetition of either, or each, of the two 

This is a somewhat misleading device, especially when applied 
to ^<& first Period (comp, par. 42). A Double period, if interrupt- 
ed in the center for the sake of repeating its first Period, will 
almost certainly present the appearance of two separate Periods, 
and become a Two-Part Song-form. But see Chopin, Mazurka 
No. 29, first 32 measures (contrasting construction ; each Period 
exactly repeated, and evidently without completely disturbing the 
continuity of the whole). 

See also : Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 31, No. 2, Finale^ measures 1-31 (2nd 
Period repeated and extended); Pfte. Son. op. 106, Adagio^ measures 1-26 
(ditto; Introd. one measure). 

(c) The enlargement of the Double period to 5 or more 
Phrases by repetition of the last Phrase, or Group-formation of 
the final Consequent. 

This process of extension can scarcely be applied to any other 
than the Double period of parallel construction, in 'which identity 
of design is so fully assured by the correspondence of Phrase 3 to 
Phrase 1, that it cannot be destroyed by anything that follows (in 
the same section). 

The repetition of the last Phrase is, of course, imaginable even in a Double 
period of contrasting construction. But Gr<?»/-formation would be so diffi- 
cult to prove at the end of a contrasting Double period, that the entire sentence 
would almost certainly be called a "Phrase-group**, from sheer expediency. 

For illustration : 



A ndante cantabiU. 





Pbriod 1. 
Phrase 1 









I -L I 

I I r I 


^ r- / f r 



P|. ^i^ r r ^ L L ^ 

J^ J 



(etc. See Original.) 


-2— #- 






i T-'^r^ 

Phrase 2. 

^ in.iij i 

^^ ^^ii-1 


-« ^ 



Pbriod 2 

Phrased (likel.) «1) 


•f=- r 




Phrase 4. 
(first version). 


I I 

Phrase 4. 
(second version). 










-A — 0- 



Par. 68a. 


Chopin. Nocturne, op. 15, No. i. 

*i) At this point, already, the identity of the ** Double-period " form is so 
fully established, that no reasonable amount of enlargement by the addition of 
Phrases (whether similar or not) could change the denomination. 

*2) The perfect cadence, due and expected at this place, is completely 
evaded. The following Phrase is therefore nol a repetition, but a reproduction, 
of the preceding. It is a ** Consequent-group", as shown in par. 54. 

*3) Although this is the genuine form of the perfect cadence (Root in both 
outer parts), it is made so brief, and followed so abruptly by the new harmony, 
that it assumes the nature of the ** concealed cadence " ; the following 2 meas- 
ures are a modified repetition of the second half of the Phrase. 

*4) At this place there is an unusually distinct ** Elision" of the cadence- 
measure. This chord certainly stands for the end of the foregoing Phrase ; 
but it is just as certainly, at the same time, the beginning of the Codetta, as 
comparison with the first thematic member of the Double period proves. 

68a.. The enlargement of the Double period, finally, by the 
addition of an Introduction (par. 28), an Introductory Phrase (par. 
44), a Prelude (45) — or by the addition of a Codetta or Postlude 
(par. 51-52), — is not only possible, but more appropriate and neces- 
sary than in smaller forms. Illustrations are contained in some of 
the above references, and will also be found in the following 


Mendelssohn, "Song without Words'' No. 20, first 21 measures (five 
4-measure Phrases, No. 5 new, obtained by Group-formation of second Period) ; 
No. 21, first 32 measures (Prelude 8 measures; Double period extended by 
Group-formation; Phrase 4 three measures. Phrase 5 nine measures); No, 26, 
first 15 measures (two-measure Phrases, Group-formation of 2nd Period) ; No. 


32, first 14 measures (Introd. 4 measures ; 2-measure Phrases, Group-formation); 
No. 36, first 27 measures; No. 39, first 15 measures (2-measure Phrases, a little 
doubtful whether Single or Double-period form; Group-formation; Codetta 
of I measure, repeated) ; No. 2, first 29 measures {seven Phrases, but unmistak- 
ably Double-period form, parallel construction, enlarged by Group-formation 
of 2nd Period). 

Chopin, Preludes, op. 28, No. 3 (Introd. 2 measures; Phrase 2, five meas- 
ures; Phrase 5, eight measures; Codetta); No. 4 (Phrase 2, eight measures; 
Phrase 4,.five measures extended to nine); No. 5 (Introd. four measures; con- 
struction parallel; Antecedent- group in each Period); No. 6 (Phrase 3, six 
measures ; Phrase 4 reproduced), — Group-formation, as in Ex. 70 ; Codetta) ; 
No. 13, first 20 measures. — Chopin, Mazurka 31 (op. 50, No. 2), first 28 meas- 
ures (Introd. 8 measures). 

Bach, Ouverture d, la mani^re fran9aise, ** Echo ", measures 1-22 (Phrase 2 
eight measures; Phrase 4 also extended). 

Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. 8 (C minor). Adagio^ measures 1-18 (4th Phrase 
short); Pfte. Son. No. 10 (B|? major), ist movement, measures 1-18 (2nd 
cadence expanded). 

Brahms, op. 116, No. 3 (Phrase i of each Period repeated). — Op. 117, No. 2, 
first 22 measures (Consequent-group at end). — Op. 119, No. i, measures 17-42 
(parallel; cadence imperfect; each Consequent extended). — Op. 119, No. 3, 
measures 1-24 (parallel; each Consequent extended). 

(b) The device of transforming the (Large) Single period into 
a Double period, by occasioning a semicadence in the center of each 
half (par. 62, last clause), may also be applied to the Double period, 
— which, if large enough, may thus assume the design of a 

" C^ADRUPLE period". 

See Mendelssohn, "Song without Words" No. 13, first 20 measures 
(extended; it is not only possible, but perhaps necessary, to regard this as a 
form of 4 — or 5 — four-measure Periods^ consisting of 2-measure Phrases). 

Chopin, Mazurka 28 (op. 41, No. 3), first 38 measures; Chopin, Polonaise 
No. 6 (op. 53), measures 17-48 (quasi repeated Double period) ; Chopin, Pre- 
lude, op. 28, No. 16 (extended 13 measures at end). 

Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. 5 (op. 143), first 46 measures. 


Write a number of regular (i.e., unextended) Double periods, of Parallel 
construction (par. 61-64). 

Use both the major and the minor modes, best in alternate examples. 
Employ different varieties of duple and triple time, and the different grades of 
tempo from Adagio to Presto, And adopt different styles, imitating (even 


closely or literally, if necessary) the style of certain given illustrations, or of 
any other familiar or favorite composition. 

See the n. b. on page 52. 

Work towards the Cadence during each Phrase, and from Cadence i^ 
Cadence, Avoid vague forms of Cadence, as a rule, but employ freely the 
varieties of concealed and evaded Cadence already learned and mastered. 

A few illustrations of the Contrasting Double period may be attempted ; 
best, as Large Single period with intermediate interruptions (par. 66). 


The examples of Exercise 16, or new ones, extended in the manner indi - 
cated in par. 67a, by c; and par. 68a. 





69. The comparative definition of the various members and 
distinctive elements of form which enter into the composition of 
this second, larger, Division of structural evolution, is as follows : 

(a) The Phrase: is an uninterrupted series of ** Chords", 
and coherent melodic ' * Members " , of such a length as can be 
reasonably sustained without palpable interruption, — generally from 
2 to 8 measures ; closing with a Cadence (perfect Cadence or Semi- 

(b) The Part : is a coherent series of such ** Phrases *', to the 
number of two, three, four or more ; (possibly only one ; and, on the 
other hand, never more than can be held without effort in close re- 
lation and connection with each other) ; terminating, as a rule, with 
a strong Tonic Cadence. 

(c) The Song-form : is a coherent series of such *' Parts", to 
the number of 2, 3 or more; ending, as a rule, with the complete 
Tonic perfect Cadence. 

The cohesion of the members is observed to relax, in proportion to the 
growth, or increase in length, of the form; simply because, the greater the 
dimension, i. e., length, of the several sections of the design, the greater the 
necessity of more emphatic points of repose, and of more variety and contrast 
between the individual members. Hence : 

Between the "Members" of the Phrase (i.e., the Chords and melodic 
Motives) there is little or no separation (at most, a Quarter-cadence) ; 
But between the ** Phrases " of a Part there stands a Semicadence; 

* So called in analogy to the vocal forms from which they are derived ; but just 
as common in instrumental as in vocal composition. 

114 "^^^ TWO-PART SONG-FORM. Par. 7L 

And between the ** Parts" of a Song-form there stands, as a rule, a com- 
plete Tonic Cadence. 

Furthermore : 

The melodic and rhythmic elements of a Phrase must be verj closely re- 
lated ; 

The Phrases of a Part are organically related, but somewhat independent; 

The Parts of a Song-form are still kindred, but sundered, and often quite 
independent of each other, in certain outward respects. 

70. According to par. 69^, the name '* Part "is given to any 
series of Phrases, in comparatively unbroken succession, extending 
up to a cadence of sufficient force to check both the harmonic and 
melodic currents, and so to complete the musical purpose of th^t 
section as to set it temporarily apart ; but not of sufficient culminat- 
ing force to dispel the natural expectation of a following, kindre"d, 
section, which may more fully consummate and confirm this musical 

(a) It is possible, as already hinted, that one single Phrase, 
when of sufficiently opulent character, and especially when repeated^ 
might constitute an entire Part. But it is not probable ; and ex- 
amples of so small a Part, excepting when occupying an interme- 
diate position, between larger Parts, are rare. See Ex. 74 ; and 
Ex. 78. 

(b) As a rule, therefore, the '^ Part" will contain at least two 
Phrases ; and may contain as many more as the limitation dictated 
in par. 69^ will admit. In a word, each of the designs explained in 
the jirst Division of this book^ — from the repeated Phrase up to the 
enlarged Double period, — represents the elements, and is an example, 
of the Single Part. And it is perfectly proper to speak of them 
as the "One-Part" forms. 



71. In the Two-part Song- form, or, as it is also called, the 
bipartite form, there are two such Parts ; usually, though not 
necessarily, of corresponding general character and design, but effect- 
ually disconnected from each other by a cadential interruption. 


- 72a. Of these, the First Part, as already stated, may con- 
sist of a Repeated Phrase (rare) ; a Period, regular or extended ; a 
Double period, regular or extended ; or a Group of Phrases. It is, 
perhaps, most commonly a Period, and regular in structure, « 
keeping with the principle enunciated in par. 53 (which review). 

The First Part of a Song-form is the ** statement'* of the leading musical 
thought, — the motive, text, or subject; which, while it must be sufficiently 
impressive, interesting, and pregnant to excite attention and give gratification 
by itself, should depend chiefly upon the following Part (or Parts, if there be 
more than two) for its development, elaboration and corroboration. 

The First Part may be, and very commonly is, repeated. 

(b) The Cadence of the First Part, as stated in par. 69^, will 
be made, as a very general rule, upon some Tonic harmony, in its 
strongest form, and in strongest rhythmic location. It may be (in 
the order of preference) : 

(i) The Tonic of the Dominant key, in a Song-form beginning 
in major ; 

(2) The Tonic of the Relative key, in a Song-form beginning 
in minor ; 

(3) The Tonic of the Original key itself. 

(4) Or it may be the Tonic of some other Next-related key; i. e., the Dom- 
inant from minor ^ or the Relative from major, — instead of the opposite, as 
given above ; further, the Relative of the Dominant ; more rarely, the Relative 
of the Subdominant key; and, most rarely, the Subdominant key itself; pos- 
sibly some Remotely-related key, as the "Modulatory Stride",* or one of the 
** Mediant '** keys. 

(5) Other Cadence-conditions, to be avoided here, are explained in par. 93, 
to which brief reference may be made. 

(c)^The general modulatory current of the First Part will be 
determinfed by the choice of Cadence. Review, in this connection ^ 
par. 37, recollecting that in a 2-Part form the First Part is an 
"Antecedent ", simply magnified in dimension. 

But, within this general modulatory design, there exists the 
opportunity for transient modulations, more necessary here than in 
smaller forms, because the increase in dimension magnifies the 
simpler CAorfl?- relations into A^-associations. But see par. 72a, 

*See the Author's ** Material used in Mus. Composition *', p. 149, and p. 155. 


second clause ; and avoid overloading the Pirst Part with harmonic 
and modulatory color. See also par. 94. 

73a- The Second Part, in the 2-Part Song-form, is probably 
most prone to assume the same form, or length, as its First Part, 
though many digressions from this condition of symmetry are pos- 
sible and common. In case of differentiation, the Second Part will 
almost certainly be the longer of the two. 

Like Part I, the Second Part may be repeated. 

(b) In character, the Second Part must maintain fairly close 
agreement with its First Part; not, by any means, servile thematic 
relations (i. e., in respect of melodic design), but clo^e formative 
connection (in respect of general harmonic character, rhythmic 
character and technical style). As Part I is an ** Antecedent ", 
Part II is its "Consequent"; therefore, a certain impression of 
consistent opposition between the two Parts should be created, such 
as distinguishes, on a smaller scale, the Period-relation. This is 
very frequently effected by basing the first member of Part II upon 
the Dominant harmony, in opposition to the Tonic basis upon which 
Part I starts out. 

In other words, while cadential separation is necessary, no radical 
change of character should be perceptible in passing out of the First Part 
into the Second. See par. 69, the very last clause. It is precisely such a dis- 
tinct alteration of style ^ that ushers in a new ** Subject " or new ** Song-form " 
(like the ** Trio " in the Minuet, — pars. 117, 119, — or the ** Subordinate Theme '' 
in the Rondo and Sondita- Allegro forms). The end of the First ** Part " is suffici- 
ently marked by the complete cadential break, demanded in par. 72^; but 
the condition of coherency and consistency, uniformity of style and general 
character, should prevail throughout all the component Parts of a Song-form. 
On the other hand, as already stated, the thematic (melodic) conduct may 
be as independent as is desired, and a certain amount of individuality is quite 

(c) The Second Part ends with the complete Tonic perfect 
Cadence, in the original key ; probably emphasized by a Codetta, 
or, at least, by an extension at the end of the final Phrase. (See 
par. 79^ and c. ) 

In its modulatory design, the Second Part will be found, in the 
most perfect models of the 2-Part form, to incline toward the lower 
(i. e., Subdominant) keys, — ^just as the First Part favors the higher 
(i.e.. Dominant) direction. 

Par. 74. 



Two-Part Song-form, Primary Dbsign. 

74. The type of the primary 2 -Part Song- form (the design 
out of which it is evolved) is the Double period, especially that of 
contrasting construction, in which the continuity insisted upon in 
par. 62 is disturbed by a cadential break in the center, so complete 
that it resolves the * * One-Fa.rt ' ' Double-period form into a * ' 7w(?- 
Part " Song-form. (See pars. 66, and 62.) 

Hence, the Primary design of the 2 -Part Song-form is that in 
which each Part is in the ordinary Period-form, with or without 

Examine the following illustrations of this Primary design scrupulously, 
testing the minutest traits as they may be borne upon by the conditions 
enumerated in paragraphs 71, 72 and 73 : 



J '' i J./'j h^ ^ i J-;'j J 


Ma JO It. Parti. 

>artl. ♦!) 

4 — i- 







i ^ 



I I I I I II P»rtn. ^ 

j , J J J ,zt-d-T — i \-T-r I ! l J ■ jM I ! P \ \\ 


V *3) 




SiciLiAM Hymn. (harm, by Stark ) 

f ^-^ 

' ; J J I I — I 












Par. 74. 

*i) An unusually brief (light) Semicadence. 

*2) This is a complete Tonic Cadence in the Dominant key, of such 
weight and emphasis as totally to sever all purely external connection between 
the two Periods, which, consequently, represent here two Parts, (Compare 
par. 63^, last clause.) 

*3) The Second Part starts out from the Dominant, while Part I began 
upon a Tonic basis. 

*4) The ** consistent opposition" of the Parts, mentioned in par. 73^, is 
clearly illustrated here by the rhythmic form of this first measure, which cor- 
responds to that of the second measure in Part I. Thus, while the rhythmic 
figure of the very first measure of the Song-form becomes the rhythmic type of 
Part I, that of the second measure characterizes the greater portion of Part 
II; and the first two *^ measures^* constitute the rhythmic germ of the two 
*' Parts ". This is consistent Musical Form. 

*5) Here the Subdominant inclination of the Second Part (par. 73c) mani- 
fests itself. 

Andante sosUnuto, 



3 ^^ 
I ^^^ 





JrJf l^^m 



Part n. *2) 

Par. 75. 



Mendelssohn. •S) 


*i) A complete Tonic Cadence in the Relative key; see par. 72^ (2). 

*2) In its thematic (melodic) aspect and style, this Second Part closely re- 
sembles its First Part. But "consistent opposition" is nevertheless obtained 
by enlarging the one-mesisure Sequence of Part I, to a /w^-m6asure Sequence 
In Part II. 

*3) Theme of the " Variations s6rieuses '\ op. 54. See also the individual 
Variations^ which, while they nearly all preserve the 2-Part design, present 
many instructive modifications in the treatment of the Cadences; viz., the 
Cadence at the end of Part I is always bridged over, sometimes reduced to a 
Semicadence, and is therefore more vague than in the Theme, — especially so 
in Var. i, 2, 6 and 13; — Var. 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12 and 14 all approach the Double- 
period form, because the middle Cadence is not strong enough to divide the 
design into two Parts; — Var. 10, 15, 16 and 17 approach the form of a Group 
of Phrases; — In Var. 5, 8 and 16, the middle Cadence is altered to a different 
key; — In Var. 14, being Major, the Dominant (Semi-) Cadence is used. 

See also: Chopin, Mazurka No. 50 (Peters ed.) first 32 measures (each 
Part repeated). 

Beethoven, 9 Variations in A major. Theme (by Paisiello), — Second 
Part repeated. Beethoven, Symphony No. 2, Larghetto^ first 32 measures 
(each Part repeated) . 

Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 4 (Cotta ed.). Largo (final Cadence on Dominant, 
for an obvious reason) ; Pfte. Son. No. 5 (Cotta ed.), Presto^ first 16 measures 
(two complete repetitions, the second one very much altered) ; Pfte. Son. No. 7 
(Cotta ed.). Finale^ first 18 measures; Pfte. Son. No. 11 (Cotta ed.), first 16 
measures; Symphony No. 9 (Peters ed.)^ Andante, first 10 measures; Sym-' 
phony No. 6 (Peters ed.), Andante j first 32 measures (each Part repeated). 

Schumann, ** Bunte Blatter*', op. 99, No. i (Cadence of Part I some- 
what vague, — see par. 93) ; ** Waldscenen ", op. 82, No. 7 (" Vogel als Prophet ") 
first 18 measures (Codetta of 2 measures). 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 28, ** Trio ** of 3rd Movement (Part I repeated 
literally; Part II repeated with modification; melodic relation between the 
Parts unusually close); Pfte. Son. op. 57 (Appassionata), Andante, the Theme, 
and its Variations also. 

75. A very common, — almost characteristic, — trait of the 
2-Part Song- form, exhibited in many examples in musical literature, 



Par. 75» 

consists in the sitnilariiy between the respective endings of the two 

Sometimes the resemblance is literal (as in Ex. 73) ; sometimes 
the endings differ only in key (in case Part I does not close in the^ 
original key, — ^as Part II must) ; in some cases there is only a gen- 
eral resemblance ; occasionally the coincidence embraces the entire 
last Phrase of each Part ; and again, on the contrary, it is very 

This point of resemblance between the endings of the Parts must not be 
confounded with that essential condition of parallelism which prevails at the 
beginning of each Period in the Double-period form (par. 64), for their respec- 
tive influences upon the formal conception are precisely opposite. The agree- 
ment at the beginning confirms and supports the coherency of the members ; 
while the agreement of the endings, on the contrary, serves to emphasize their 
separation^ inasmuch as the central cadence thus assumes a form and weight 
similar to that of the final cadence, and closes its Part as completely as the 
latter does the entire sentence. 

N. B. Very particular care must be taken to limit any such re- 
semblance as this strictly to the ending of the Parts, and to repress, 
the tempting inclination to introduce, in the course of the Second 
Part, any member which exactly corroborates the beginning of the 
First Part I Such a feature would transform the imagined 2-Part 
form into some variety of the Three-YzxX. design. See par. 8ia» 

For example : 










^ — «- 


'J y^ ^- 

Part II. 

TTlTy py -g^^ 

U t' 1 «i) ' * 

Par. 76. 



♦i) This is the comparatively rare termination of Part I with a perfect 
Cadence in the original key ; see par. 72^ (3). 

*2) T^e Thfeme of 8 Variations in Bj? by Beethoven (a pop ular Getman 
song). The parallel endings are indicated by the brackets. See also the indi- 
vidual Variations y and observe to what extent this structural feature is preserved 
in some of them. 

See also: Beethoven, 9 Variations in C minor (March by Dressler), 
Theme, and all the Variations (resemblance covers the entire last Phrase, but 
involves transposition). 

Mozart, G minor Symphony, Finale, first 16 measures. 


A. Write two examples of the 2-Part Song-form, Primary design ^ in 
Major; with scrupulous regard to the details of structure and cadence given 
in par. 72 and 73. 

Use some variety of duple time for one, and triple time for the other; and 
choose radically different style and tempo for each. 

Review the directions given in Exercise 9. 

B. Write two examples of the same form and design in Minor ^ observing 
all the above directions ; in one instance introducing the similarity of ending, 
explained in par. 75, and carefully guarding against the error pointed out in 
the final clause. 

The Diminutive Two-Part Song-form. 

T6« As already declared in par. 70a, it is possible that a Part 
may consist of no more than one single Phrase, and, though 
naturally rare, such examples may be found. 

This may be true of either Part, or even, though still more 
rarely, of both. As usual, it is least likely to occur in the Second 
Part (par. 73^5, last clause). 



Par. 78. 

How difficult it is to impart sufficient contents to a single Phrase^ and to 
separate it so positively from its companion as to establish its dignity and in- 
dependence as an adequate "Part**, the student will soon discover. Review 
par. 57, second clause, and par. 70^; and reflect to what extent, on the other 
hand, the continuity oi Phrase-succession . is maintained as One-Part form in 
some of the given illustrations of the extended Double period, the Phrase- 
Group, and the Quadruple period. 

The conditions are most favorable when the Phrase, thus made 
to represent an entire Part, is either of the large (8-measure) species, 
or broad in tempo and character ; when it has a very firm Cadence ; 
and when it is repeated. For illustration : 










Part IT. 







Crete. ^ 


■^ Bbethovbn. 

I I B » f f ^ i — i^- 



*i) This is an unusual example of the 2-Part form, each Part of which is 
only a 4-measure Phrase. But the breadth of character and contents, the com- 
paratively moderate tempo, and the repetition of each Part, establish the form 
beyond question. (There is even a remote possibility of assuming the Period- 
form, instead of Phrase, in each Part ; compare par. 10.) It is to be found in 
Beethoven's Pfte. Son. op. 27, No. i, first movement, and must he referred to. 
The illustration here given covers the first 8 measures (or 9, with the second 
ending); the following 12 (13) measures illustrate exactly the same variety of 
the Diminutive 2-Part Song-form, the repetition of Part II being written out, 
on account of unessential modifications ; the 16 measures which follow are a 
recurrence of the above illustration, but with the repetitions written out and 
modified; these are succeeded by an Allegro-Theme (also 2-Part form, but 
" irregular," because the repetition of its Second Part is ** dissolved " — i. e. 
conducted, as Re-transition, away from its own key into that of the next 
Theitie) ; then follows another recurrence of the first Theme, with still other 
varieties of modified repetition ; a Codetta of 8 measures concludes the move- 

See also: Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 26, second movement, ** Trio " 
(Part I an 8-measure Phrase; Part II a Period). — Pfte. Son. op. 79, Andante^ 
first 8 measures (Part I a Period, Part II a repeated Phrase) ; same Sonata, 
Finale^ first 16 measures (Part II a repeated Phrase). 

Beethoven, 10 Variations inB[7 (Salieri), Theme (Part I a repeated 
Period, with peculiar transformation of the Dominant Semicadence into a 
complete Cadence effect, by one measure of extension in the 2d ending; 
Part II only a Phrase, but extended) ; see also each Variation ( — of Variation 
10, only the first 45 measures). — Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 31, No. i. Rondo ^ 
first 32 measures (Part II a repeated Phrase ; the entire Song-form repeated 
and variated). 

Schumann, Jugend- Album, op. 68, No. 23 (Reitersttick) ; each Part 
repeated literally, and then the entire Song-form repeated, with modifications ; 
a long Coda follows. 

Schubert Songs, ** Winterreise'% No. 5 (** Der Lindenbaum "), measures 
9-24 (Part I is a repeated Phrase). 

Carey, ** God save the King "—(Part I a 6-measure Phrase). 

77. Reverting to par. 65, which review, attention must here again be 
drawn to the perplexing, but altogether natural and essential, points of exter- 
nal resemblance between different denominations of formal design. The 


transitional stages from each one into the next higher, or larger, species are 
so imperceptibly graded, that positive definition becomes, at a certain stage, 
difficult and even impossible, — but also unnecessary. 

Thus, it has already been seen (and in the student's subsequent personal 
analysis of compositions, many further proofs will be encountered), that both 
the Period-form and the 2-Part Song-form may consist of two Phrases ; that, 
by inference, the extended Period, the Double period, the Phrase-Group (not 
to mention the unusual designs of the Period-Group and Quadruple period) 
might be greater^ in temporal dimension, than some specimens of the structur- 
ally higher graded 2-Part Song-form ; that the external resemblance between 
a Period in which each Phrase is repeated (Ex. 51), and a 2-Part Song-form in 
which each Part is a repeated Phrase <Ex. 74), is complete, save in respect of 
those few essential conditions upon which the distinction depends; that a 
contrasting Double period can often scarcely be distinguished from a 2-Part 
Song-form (see Beethoven, 24 Variations in A, Theme) ; and so forth. 

The essential distinction between the ** One-Part" forms and the **Two- 
(or Three-) Part " forms is clearly stated in par. 73^, second clause, and hinges 
mainly upon the idea of Separation (which is as possible among kindred, as 
among foreign members). Hence it is, that the repetition of either Part 
serves to individualize it and separate it from its fellow ; that a sufficiently 
pronounced difference in character, assumed perhaps abruptly, will have the 
same effect ; and that, finally, simple emphasis of Cadence may suffice, even 
in case of very close similarity of melody and style, to sever the Parts 
unmistakably. See also par. 93. 


A. Analyze the following (doubtful) examples, and endeavor to deter- 
mine whether the form is Two-Part or One-Part, and, if the latter, exactly what 
species ; pars. 93 and 104 may be referred to for additional clues : 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 10, No. i, first 30 measures. — Pfte. Son. op. 
10, No. 3, ** Trio'* of Menuetto. — Pfte. Son. op. 13, Finale^ first 17 measures. — 
Pfte. Son. op. 31, No. i, first 30 measures. — Pfte. Son. op. 79, first 24 

Mendelssohn, Caprice, op. 16, No. i, Andante section. 

Schumann, Songs, op. 24 (** Liederkreis*'), No. 8. 

Grieg, Lyric Pieces, op. 12, No. 2, measures 1-18. 

B. Write two examples of the Diminutive 2-Part Song-form (par. 76), 
one in major and one in minor; one in Adagio, the other in Allegretto tempo ; 
one in duple, the other in triple time. 




78. Here, all likelihood of a misconception of the form 
(touched upon in par. 77) is precluded, because of the dimensions 
generally reached, and the consequent opportunity, and even 
necessity, of more distinctly individualizing and separating the two 

The conception of Part I will not differ in any other respect 
from par. 72^, 3, c (which review) than in that it will surely never 
be less than Period-design, and may be larger. 

But the structure of Part II, while naturally adhering to the 
conditions defined in par. 73a, ^, c (which review), will, in the 
fully developed form, usually be more elaborate (longer, and with 
more extensions) than in the smaller varieties explained in the 
preceding chapter. 

The designation ** Fully developed '* may be construed as applying to all 
examples of the 2-Part Song-form in which each Part is at least a Period^ and 
to some degree extended. Commonly, it is true, wider differentiation of the 
Parts, in favor of greater length and independence of the Second Part, will be 

79a. The EXTENSION of the Two-Part Song-form by repe- 
tition of either Part, or of each Part, or of the entire Song, has 
already been indicated in the text, and encountered in some of the 

The ** Variations *' upon a 2-Part Theme, cited above, may be regarded as 
** modified repetitions '' of the entire Song-form ; in a broader sense, however, 
than the pupil should undertake to exemplify for the present. 

(b) Besides this means of enlargement and development (to 
which may be added all the other ordinary varieties of extension in 
the course of a Phrase, or of a section of any kind), there are also 
those adjuncts of a more external nature, represented by 

the Introductory Phrase, 

the Prelude, 
the Codetta or Coda, and 

the Postlude. 



(c) It is only necessary to remember that these auxiliary mem- 
bers become more and more desirable, and are apt to assume 
greater length, the larger the form to which they are attached. 
Thus, the Introductory member of a 2- or 3-Part Song-form, will 
probably, though by no means certainly, be longer, and perhaps 
more independent, than that of a One-Part form. 

Review pars. 44, 45; and see Mendelssohn, "Songs without Words", 
No. 6, first 7 measures ; No. 23, first 6 measures. In both of these cases the 
Introduction or Prelude takes a more active part in the plan of the whole, than 
in some of the other ** Songs without Words " to which reference has been 
made; and it will be observed that they recur at the end, as Codetta or 

And, furthermore, the comparatively brief ** Codetta" or 
Postlude added to a Period, or Double period (pars. 51, 52, 68a), 
becomes sometimes a complete *' Coda" even in the 7w<?-Part Song- 
form ; while in any still larger form this enlargement is all the 
more probable. 

The details of the distinction between Codetta and Coda are given at 
length in par. 98, to which reference may be made, although the formation 
and employment of the Codetta or Postlude must yet be restricted to the 
directions hitherto given. 

Illustration of the fully developed 2 -Part Song-form : 




^#1*: f at I ^^ 

jMr If 












p^ r^ i f iH-^^b^ ^ 




rrTT i iTrf i f 

JoH. Seb. Bach. *1) 

. I^^^_ J""' ^**' *5ACH. »'i; 

r ar ' r tsl^ ff f 


*i) Gavotte from the 6th French Suite. (The present author is respon- 
sible for the phrasing and marks of expression.) Part I is. a regular parallel 
Period, with perfect Cadence in the Dominant kej, according to the rule. 
Part II is a Group of 3 Phrases, exhibiting the usual traits of established 
form : the outset upon the Dominant harmony ; the inclination toward the 
Subdominant key in the center, and again near the end ; and the general simi- 
larity between the respective endings of the two Parts (more common, by the 
way, in older than in modern music). 


See also: Beethoven, Bagatelle, op. 119, No. 8. — Beethoven, 8 Vari- 
ations in F major (SCssmayr), Theme; 33 Variations in C major, op. 120 
(DiABELLi) , Theme, and also the Variations (each Part a Double period ; very 
similar endings). 

Mozart, Pfte. Son. No. 3 (Cotta ed.), Andante^ first 20 measures 
(design exactly like that of Ex. 75 ; the 16 measures which follow are a 2-Part 
Song- form of Primary design). 

Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 8 (Cotta ed.), last Movement, ** Trio" (here Part 
I is the larger design of the two, being a Group of 3 Phrases, while Part II is 
Period-form ; but the number of measures is equal). 

Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. 9, Andantino^ first 32 measures (an extraordi- 
nary example ; Part I a Double period ; Part II almost identical tvith Part 
I in its melody^ but harmonized chiefly in the relative key, and contracted, — 
by which means it sufficiently establishes its identity as a separate Part; a com- 
plete repetition^ with 4 measures of Plagal extension, follows). 

Chopin, Mazurka No. 45 (op. 67, No. 4), first 32 measures (each Part 
repeated. Part II literally; Second Part a Double period). 

Chopin, Nocturne No. 10 (op. 32, No. 2), " Pii agitato^^ (V time; 
Cadence of Part I very vague, but sufficient, under the circumstances; the 
entire Song-form is sequentially reproduced^ a half-step higher, and led with- 
out cadence into the following section) . 

More elaborate and extended illustrations will be found in Mendelssohn, 
Scherzo a capriccio in FJJ minor, first 36 measures (Part I a little longer than 
II) ; the ensuing 10 measures are a Codetta, repeated and extended ; and the 
next 32 measures are again in the 2-Part Song-form. — Mendelssohn^ ** Songs 
without Words", No. 6, entire. — Mendelssohn, op. 72, No. 2, entire 
(4-measure Prelude and Postlude). — Mendelssohn, fitude in a minor, op. 
104, No. 3, entire (Part I an extended Double period — possibly Single period; 
Part II Double period, or, more probably, a Group of 4 Phrases, No. 4 
reproduced. Cadence somewhat vague; Coda 13)^ measures, to end). 

Chopin, Mazurka No. 25 (op. 33, No. 4), entire section up to signature of 
5 sharps (Part I, extended Double period, repeated; Part II, Period with 
repeated Antecedent and extended Consequent; entire Song-form repeated 

Brahms, op. 117, No. 3, first tempo (each Part a slightly expanded Period ; 
entire Song-form repeated, with modifications). 

Schubert, Impromptu, op. 90, No. 3, first 48 measures (Part II repeated); 
also the following 53 measures (Part I has a 4-measure Codetta, repeated) . 

Bach, Well-tempered Clavichord, Vol. I, Preludio No. 8 (£[7 minor), — 
Part I, a group of 4 regular Phrases, resembling Double period ; Part II, a 
Group of 3 Phrases, to which 2 others are added, after a- striking evasion of 
the expected perfect Cadence (in measure 29) ; Codetta, 33^ measures. 

The Large Two-Part form, as type of the Sonatina-form. 

80. From the fully-developed 2-Part Song- form, of the 
extent exhibited in the illustrations last cited, it is only one further 


step into that Large 2-Part Form out of which the Sonatina- 
form emerges, and to which the latter probably owes its origin. 
The demonstration of this Higher form must be reserved for a later 
volume, as the student is not yet sufficiently equipped for its suc- 
cessful manipulation. He is to make no other use of the Large 
2-Part Song-form at present than to analyze the following ex- 
amples. It will be observed that each Part is allied to the Phrase- 
group form, usually with a Codetta ; and that the parallel structure 
of the endings (cited in par. 75, — Ex. 73) generally extends over 
the entire second half of each part,— often more. 

See Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 3 (Cotta ed.), Larghetto; Pfte. Son. No. 2 
(Cotta ed.), Adagio; Pfte. Son. No. 11 (Cotta ed.), Adagio (a Coda of 15 or 
16 measures is added). — Domenico Scarlatti (BOlow's revision, Peters ed.), 
Suite I, "Sarabande" (Part I, extended Double period; Part II, group of 
Phrases) ; same Suite, ** Burlesca '% " Menuetto '*, ** Gigue " (with brief Coda), 
and " Toccata''. — Hummel, Pfte. Son. No. i (op. 2), Adagio (brief Coda). — 
J. S. Bach, Well-tempered Clavichord, Vol. II, Preludio No. 15 (G major). — 
Brahms, Intermezzo, op. 76, No. 3 ; this example is very diminutive, it is 
true, but can scarcely be assigned to any other class of forms than that of the 
"embryo Sonatina*'; (Part I, 10 measures. Codetta and Retransition 5 
measures. Part II similar) ; it approaches the "Large Double period" with 
Codetta to each Period. 


A. Write two examples of the fully-developed 2-Part Song-form; one 
of them in major and the other one in minor; one in Andante^ the other in 
A ilegro tempo; one in duple, and the other in triple time; the second one 
considerably larger than the first one. Add a Codetta to each. Observe the 
directions given in par. 78. 

For this work, one of the Periods invented in Exercise 9 might be utilized. 

B. Write a third example, with free choice of all conditions ; but with 
either an Introductory Phrase or a Prelude, and either a Codetta or a Post- 
lude. — Again, some former Period-form may be used. 



8 1 a. The ruling principle of all 3-Part (or, as they are often 
called, tripartite) Forms is, the Return to the Beginnings or to the 
first (or principal) thematic section. 


In order to be an unmistakable and perfectly genuine Return, 
it can only succeed an equally genuine and positive Departure ; 
and this Departure is embodied in the correspondingly distinct 
Second Part, which intervenes between Part I (the definite 
Statement) and Part III (the Recurrence of the Statement). 

(b) This specific return to the beginning, or, more properly, this recur- 
rence of the first thematic member as a distinctive trait of the 3-Part forms, 
must not be confounded with those examples of apparently similar recurrence 
that have been seen in repetitions, and in the Period and Double period of 
parallel construction. For instance, in Ex. 25 the initial melodic member is 
observed to recur in the 5th measure ; but this initial member is connected 
with all that follows during 4 measures, exactly as in the preceding 4 measures, 
so that the contents of measures 5, etc., are an immediate repetition without 
any intervening digression or definite Departure. And even in Ex. 31, where 
there is an intermediate passage between the first Phrase and its recurrence as 
repetition, it is merely an "Interlude,'' with none of the elements of a 
** Departure." See the last clause of par. 20. 

In Ex. 46 the recurrence, in measures 5, etc., of the first members (con- 
tained in measures i to 4) is again an immediate reproduction, not separated 
by an intermediate Departure. The same is the case in Ex. 67, though there 
is much more reason for misconception here than in the smaller examples, 
because something really appears to intervene between the first melodic 
member and its recurrence in measures 8, etc. ; but this intervening section, 
while it is an entire Phrase (Phrase 2 of the parallel Double period), is un- 
interruptedly connected with the first Phrase, and does not constitute that 
degree of ** genuine and positive Departure" upon which the "Return" 
depends, as distinctive condition of the 3-Part forms. Here, again, it is 
simply a question whether the form is only " One-Part," or more; and the 
decision, as shown in par. 77, depends upon the degree of separation, which 
either is, or is not, sufficient to define a genuine Departure. Comparison of 
the above example (67) with Ex. 76, where the interruption is complete, will 
make this plain. 

(c) The influence which this leading principle exerts upon the 
^conception of the Second Part, is obvious. In the 2-Part forms, 
Part II was found to be a coordinate companion to Part I, carrying 
on the development of the melodic purpose with preponderant 
parallelism of design, as ** continuation " of the musical sentence; 
and keeping the perfect cadence of the original key in view, as 
final aim. 

But in the 3-Part forms, on the contrary, Part II is not so much 
a continuation as it is a ** digression" ; it is not coordinate with 
Part I, and the idea of opposition will be more likely to predom- 
inate than that of parallelism ; it is not a final, but an inter- 



mediate section of the form, and does not tend to a point of rest, 
but strives (from the moment when its identity as *' Departure" 
has been assured) to regain, or lead back into, the original melodic 
current, i. e., to prepare for the recurrence of Part I. See pars. 87 
and 88. 

The Three-Part Period. 

82. The embryo of the 3-Part Song-form is a diminutive 
design, which embodies all the essential conditions of the fully 
developed form, and for which the term Three-Part Period 
seems most appropriate.* 

It bears the same proportion to the full 3-Part Song- form, that 
Ex. 74 does to the full 2-Part Song-form, inasmuch as each of its 
three sections is only a Phrase. The feasibility of this diminutive 
design is indirectly demonstrated in par. 76, w^hich review. 

The designation ** Period" instead of ** Song-form", though somewhat 
inconsistent, is justified by the resemblance of this form to the different varie- 
ties of Periods extended to the sum of three Phrases (i. e., Period with Conse- 
quent repeated, or Consequent-group; Period with Antecedent repeated, or 
Antecedent-group), in each of which a reduction of the three Phrases to two is 
possible. The impossibility of such a reduction in the "Phrase-group" is 
the very reason why the liatter could not be spoken of as a ** Period " (Ex. 63, 
note *4)) . 

83a.. In the genuine 3-Part Period (as type of the corre- 
sponding Song-form) the First Phrase ends with a perfect cadence^ 
either in the original key, or in some next-related key ; and it is 
generally repeated. 

The Second Phrase ends, as a rule, upon the Dominant har- 
mony, because that is the most favorable point from which to regain 
the Tonic harmony with which the first Phrase (presumably) began. 
Phrase II is not repeated alone, as a rule. 

The Third Phrase is a more or less exact reproduction or re- 
currence of Phrase I. At least \\\q first member should thematically 
corroborate that of the first Phrase. Phrase III is not repeated 
alone, hut Phrases II and III are frequently repeated together. 

For example :. 

*The designation *' Diminutive 3-Part Song-form " might seem more appropriate thftn 
" 3-Part Period ", from analogy with par. 76. But the latter is, for valid reasons, neyer* 
theless the preferable term. See Ex. 76, Note *x). 



Par. 88a. 


Phrase II. 



]}\> : V 














|5t 5 

*i) The weight of this perfect cadence is sufficient to detach the Phrase 
positively from those which follow, and to make it as completely a Part as is 
the case with the first Phrase in Ex. 74. This betrays the sole comparative 
inconsistency of the term 3-Part Period^ to which reference has been made. 

*2) The cadence of Phrase II is made at this point, upon the Dominant 
harmony, and is so bridged over as to lead without the slightest check (almost 
like an Introduction) into the initial motive of Phrase I, — now Phrase III. 

Par. 83b. 



*3) The first ending of Phrase III (which is a literal recurrence of Phrase I) 
is as conclusive as at first ; 

*4) but in the second ending the perfect cadence is evaded, and spun out, 
in Chain-phrase formation, into what, for convenience, may be called a Codetta. 

See also: Schumann, "Album-Blatter", op. 124, No. 2 and No. 9 (con- 
taining all the repetitions). 

Schumann, "Jugend- Album" op. 68, No. i (all the repetitions) ; No. 10, 
F major (Phrase II only 2 measures; all repetitions); No. 17, A major 
(Phrase III modified and extended ; Codetta, 9 measures). 

Beethoven, Bagatelle, op. 33, No. 4, first 16 measures (all legitimate 
repetitions) ; Bagatelle, op. 33, No. 6, first 20 measures (Phrase III is repeated 
alone, like Phrase I, before the repetition of Phrases II and III together begins). 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. 2, the "Trio" of the 3rd movement 
(8-measure Phrases) . 

Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 12 (Cotta ed.), Presto^ measures 25 — ^44 (Phrase I 
repeated ; Phrase III modified, and extended to 8 measures). 

Chopin, Nocturne No. 16 (op. 55, No. 2) first 12 measures (a superb illustra- 
tion; Phrase II closes with decided cadence upon the Dominant of the relative 
key, and the remainder of the measure, — the 8th, — is retransitional ** bridging " 
of the cadence-measure ; the first measure of Phrase III is a somewhat disguised 
recurrence of the beginning, but unmistakably the same member ; and the rest 
of the Phrase is a correspondingly ingenious ornamentation of Phrase I). 

Chopin, Mazurka No. 4 (op. 6, No. 4), each Phrase repeated — even the 
Second one ; Chopin, Mazurka No. 9 (op. 7, No. 5), each Phrase repeated; 
Phrase II a simple transposition of Phrase I into the Dominant key ; Phrase 
III a literal "da capo," and, as expressly stated, running on "without end." 

(b) Other, more irregular, varieties of the 3-Part Period afTord 
perhaps greater justification of the denomination "Period,'' but 
resemble the genuine 3-Part forms all the less. In all of these cases, 
it is true, the Third Phrase is substantially the same as the First 
one, but the condition of the cadences does not conform to the 
rules given in par. 83a. For illustration : 


Phrase III. 

w Phrase J 

*2) \j V 




*i) The First Phrase closes, irregularly, with an imperfect cadence (the 
chord-third in Soprano) ; but it is of ample weight to define the termination of 
its Phrase, and it will be observed that the same imperfect cadence recurs 
at the very end, — a peculiarity of certain Folk-melodies. 

*2) This cadence is exactly the same as that of Phrase I ; therefore it 
furnishes no sufficient proof of the qualities which identify the ** Second 
Phrase *' of a tripartite form, and even seriously disturbs the coherent connec- 
tion with, and impulse inio^ the Third Phrase (par. 83a). But, notwithstanding 
this default in its preparation, Phrase III is clearly recognizable as a Recurrence 
of Phrase I, chiefly because of its distinct rhythmic character. 

See also : Schumann, ** Jugend-Album '* op. 68, No. 19, a minor (Phrase I 
closes with a Dominant semicadence; Phrase II is only 2 measures long; the 
beginning of Phr. Ill is disguised; all the legitimate repetitions occur); No. 
38 — '* Winterzeit, I." — (Phrase I ends yi\\i}[i 2i semicadence ; Phr. Ill considerably 
altered in its second half; all repetitions). — Schumann, "Album-Blatter" op. 
124, No. 13 (instead of. repetition. Phrase I is reproduced as sequence; Phr. II 
closes with the same imperfect Tt>nic cadence seen in Example 77 ; Phr. Ill is 
an extended Recurrence of Phrase I). In this case the designation Phrase- 
Group would be admissible, and doubtless even more accurate. 

Chopin, Nocturne No. 7 (op. 27, No. i), first 26 (28) measures. Each 
Phrase is repeated, even the Second one, alone. The repetition of Phr. I 
closes with an expansion of the penultimate cad. -chord, and is interlocked 
with the beginning of Phr. II by an Elision ; Phr. II, and its repetition, end 
with a full cad. upon the Tonic of the original key ! This almost totally severs 
its connection with Phrase III, which consequently, though an almost exact 
reproduction of Phr. I, assumes rather the character of a Coda. To this 
example, also, the conditions of the Group of Phrases^ given in par. 58, appear 
to apply more exactly than do those of the 3-Part Period. 

Brahms, op. 118, No. 4, first 16 measures (closes with semicadence; Phr. 2 

These more irregular examples all point to the fact that the similarity 
between Phrase III and Phrase I, while corroborating the ruling principle of 
the 3-Part designs, is not enough, in itself^ to establish the legitimate "3-Part 
form." For instance, this very likeness appears plainly in the parallel 
** Double period," as emphasized in par. 81^. It is only when associated with 
other characteristic conditions^ that this structural trait becomes a perfectly 
valid factor of the tripartite design. And it must be remembered, that it is 
only because the absence of these other conditions is more easily accounted for 
and excused in smaller designs, where quick comparison is possible, that such 
irregular and almost indefinable forms as those last cited can exist. In the 
fully developed 3-Part forms there is far less likelihood of such confusing 
irregularities, and therefore the ** Return to the beginning" may be accepted 
as an unfailing proof of the identity of the forms under present consideration. 


A. Write two examples of the regular 3-Part Period, one in major and 
one in minor; choosing a different time, tempo and character for each ; and 
adhering strictly to the directions given in par. 83<i. 


For this exercise, choice may be made among the Phrases invented in 
Exercises i and 2. 

B. Write a third example, with modified repetitions as prescribed in the 
legitimate designs ; and with a partial change in the formation of Phrase III 
(as compared with Phrase I); also add a Codetta. 

The Incipient Grade of the 3-Part Song-Form. 

84a- In this design the First Part is at least a full Period^ 
while Parts II and III each still adhere to the diminutive form 
of the Phrase. The term *' Song-form" must be adopted, because, 
as soon as any one of the three sections assumes the Period-form, it 
becomes a full ** Part," and it is no longer consistent to speak of the 
whole as a 3-Part ** Period." 

(b) In its details, the Incipient 3-Part Song- form corresponds 
to the schedule given in par. 83^5, only excepting the enlargement of 
Part I, cited above ; namely : 

Part I is a Period, of any variety, (possibly, though rarely, 
anything larger,) and with a complete Tonic cadence in the original 
key, or in the Dominant key (if major), or Relative key (if minor), 
or perhaps in some other related key. 

Part II is only a Phrase (possibly extended), with a very definite 
Dominant cadence that strongly suggests, and leads into, the first 
thematic member of the First Part. 

Part III also is only a Phrase ; therefore it is not a complete 
Recurrence of Part /, and discrimination must be exercised, that, 
in thus abbreviating the contents of the First Part, the ruling con- 
dition of tripartite form be not sacrificed : Under all circumstances 
Part III must^ at its beginnings distinctly confirm the beginning 
OF Part I. If Part I be a Period of parallel construction. Part III 
may appear to be a recurrence of the second Phrase of Part I, 
inasmuch as the beginning of that Phrase will then correspond 
to the beginning of the whole. But if Part I be a period of con- 
trasting construction, then Part III must corroborate the frst Phrase 
(partly or entirely), and may not resemble the second Phrase at all. 
It is not necessary to specify just how much of Part III may or must 
be derived from the First Part ; but, as a rule, at least one full 
measure, or one complete melodic member, should agree with the 
initial measure or member of Part I. The remainder of Part III 
will be" dictated by the course of the "highway to the perfect 
cadence " (defined in paragraphs 6 and 7). For example : 


GraMtbsc. • • 

Part I. (Period). 


• • 

A il I I ■ , ^3j j,-..^^ 

♦£ t 





TTTT i Qn 




Part II. (Phrase). 













Pan III. 

*?:£ t 



Bbethovbn. *1) 

*i) Pianof. Sonata op. 2, No. 2, Finale, Part I is a parallel Period, with 
a very striking initial member, the recurrence of which is therefore quickly- 
recognizable. It closes with a perf. cad. in the Dominant key. The Second 
Part is in reality only a 2-measure Phrase, made four by repetition. Part III 
appears, at first glance, to be a recurrence of the second Phrase of Part I, 
but on closer examination it proves to be much more nearly identical with the 
first Phrase, — excepting, of course, that it terminates with the regular perfect 
cadence. But even if it did resemble the 2nd Phrase more than the ist, the 
** Return to the initial member'' would be unmistakably defined; and the two 
Phrases of Part I, constituting a parallel Period, represent in total substance 
but little more than one Phrase, anyway. 

See Beethoven, the same Sonata (op. 2, No. 2), Largo, the first 19 
measures. Here the derivation of Part III from the first Phrase of Part I 
is indisputable, for the construction of the latter is chiefly contrasting. Part II 
ends with the usual Dominant cadence, and the cadence-measure is so bridged 
over as to lead very smoothly into the initial member. Part III is extended to 
7 measures, but remains a ** Phrase " in form. 

In Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 7, Finale, first 16 measures, the resemblance 
of Part III to the second Phrase of Part I is stronger. But there is no doubt 
that the impression conveyed is that of a ** Return to the initial member." 
With this idea established, there is no danger of confounding the Incipient 
S-Part form 'with that variety of the 2- Part form in which the Parts have 
only a similar ending. See Ex. 73, and the N", B. immediately preceding it. 

See further: Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 14, No. 2, Andante, first 16 meas- 
ures (Part III corroborates the first Phrase of Part I, excepting the Cadence; 
a Codetta of 4 measures follows). — Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 49, No. i, 
Finale, first 16 measures (Part III is an almost exact copy of the second Phrase 
of Part I, but the construction of the latter is parallel). — Beethoven, Pfte. 
Son. op. 2, No. I, Adagio, first 16 measures (a misleading example, open to 
difference of opinion; Part III is the corroboration of the initial member, 
in a disguised — though by no means unrecognizable — form). — A still more 
questionable example is Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 22, minor e of the Menuetto ; 
this is very probably 2-Part Song-form. — Further, Beethoven, Bagatelle, 
op. 33, No. 3, first 16 measures (a very clear illustration); Bagatelle, op. 119, 
No. 4. . 

Schubert, Impromptu, op. 142, No. 3, Theme. 


Mozart, Pfte. Son. 15 (Cotta ed.), Theme of last Movement; see also the 
several variations. — Mozart, Pfte. Son. 9 (Cotta), Theme of first Movement ; 
here Part III almost exactly resembles the second Phrase of Part I — with an 
extension of 2 measures, — ^and represents, therefore, what might be regarded 
as the more questionable class of Incipient 3-Part Song-forms. What Mozart's 
own conception of the "Idea" was, is however manifested in the succeeding 
variations, in all but one of which the resemblance of Part III to the first 
Phrase is very close, to the exclusion of all but an allusion to the style of the 
second Phrase, in the added Extension. — Mozart, Fantasie and Sonata in 
C minor (Cotta ed. No. 18), Andantino, entire; all the legitimate repetitions 
are made, but written out and variated. 

Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 4 (Cotta ed.). Finale, measures 21-40 (Parts II and 
III each extended to 6 measures) ; Pfte. Son. No. 8 (Cotta), Scherzando, first 
16 measures. 

Grieg, Lyric Pieces op. 12, No. 3, first 16 measures (followed by repetition 
of Parts II and III). — Grieo, Ballade op. 24, Theme. 

Chopin, Nocturne No. i (op. 9, No. i) measures 19-50; this example, 
(which contains all the repetitions), is again, on account of far more striking 
likeness of Part III to the second Phrase of Part I, one of the doubtful class; 
the evidence of a ** Return to the beginning*' is, however, sufficiently striking 
to define the tripartite design. The same is true of Nocturne 10 (op. 32, No. 2), 
first 18 measures (2-measure Prelude). In par. 100 may be found another 
possible classification of these two, and all similar, examples.* 

*The classification of Ex. 78 (and the illustrations in the additional refer- 
ences) among the 3-Part forms, differs from the analysis hitherto adopted by 
other writers, who rank them among the Two-V?iTt forms. Though this is not 
the only question upon which the present author holds a different opinion 
from that of other theorists, it is the only one to which a few words of defence 
are devoted. It appears obvious, from the great diversity of dimensions that 
the pupil has already observed to exist within one and the same structural 
design, and from the confusing similarity of size often attending entirely dif- 
ferent forms, that dimension and proportion alone cannot be reliable criteria, 
and that, therefore, the classification of the various designs must depend rather 
upon the idea embodied in them. For this reason a distinction appears to be 
necessary between the Sections of a form (which are the more mechanical 
divisions), and the Parts (which are the ideal divisions). In every 3-Part 
Song-forni a division into two sections will be observed, the first of which agrees 
with the first Part, while the 2nd section embraces both Parts II and III, which 
are so inter-dependent in the ** idea" of the tripartite form, that their separa- 
tion would violate its chief condition. The mere accident that, in the above 
Example (78), this 2nd section, — Parts II and III, — is precisely the same size 
as the first section, is not sufficient proof of the 2-Part form; for ** Section " 
and " Part" are not the same unless they are identical in the idea they embody. 
If it be contended that the single Phrase is not enough to represent a Second 
Part, proof to the contrary may be found in Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 49, 
No. 2, Finale^ first 20 measures; Haydn, Pfte. Son. No 12 (Cotta ed.). Finale, 
first 24 measures ; each of these is a full 3-Part Song-torm, in which Part II is 


(c) How easily the Incipient 3-Part Song-form may be evolved 
out of the 3-Part Period, is seen in such examples as Beethoven, 
Bagatelle op. 33, Nos. 4 and 6 (both cited after Ex. 76 as illustra- 
tions of the 3-Part Period), in which the modified repetition of 
the Phrase that constitutes Part I, is so seductively suggestive of the 
parallel Period; especially in No. 6, where Part III reproduces 
this repetition; and still more so in Bagatelle op. 33, No. i, in 
which, besides this same misleading trait of Parts I and III, the 
Second Part, while only a Phrase, is extended by repetition and 
other means to the length of no less than 16 measures. Thus these 
examples, while actually only 3-Part Periods, assume the external 
appearance and dimensions of the broader Song-form. 


Write two examples of the Incipient 3-Part Song-form ; one in major and 
the other in minor; observing the directions given in par. 84^. 

In the first one, construct Part I as parallel Period; in the other, as 
contrasting Period. 



85. In this species, Part I is at least Period-form; Part II 
generally also at least a Period ; and Part III is a nearly or quite 
literal Recurrence of Part I. The details of the design are as 
follows : 

only a Phrase, but nevertheless a perfectly distinct ** Departure.'* The idea 
of all bipartite forms is solely that of thesis and antithesis ; the simple opposi- 
tion of Question and Reply, or Statement and Counter-statement, be it upon 
parallel or upon contrasting lines. This has been found thus far in the Period, 
Double period, and in the 2-Part Song-forms exhibited in Exs. 71, 72, 73, 74 
and 75. In Ex. 78, though it corresponds in external appearance to Ex. 71, 72 
and 73, there is something more than this; there is the three-loXd idea of 
Statement, Departure and Recurrence; on a smaller scale, it is true, than 
in the examples which are to follow, but just as genuine and unmistakable as 
in any full-fledged 3-Part Song-form, or Rondo, or even Sonata-a//«'^ro, for 
that matter. The presence of this idea has led the present author to classify 
these examples among the 3-Part forms, with no more than the just reserva- 
tion indicated by the term "Incipient Grade''; and his experience, during 
many years' teaching, of the readiness of the pupil to grasp and apply this 
distinction in the work of analysis, testifies to its convenience and to more 
absolute reliability than can be secured in many other, far more perplexing, 
phases of Form-evolution. 



Par, 87a. 

The First Part. 

86a.. The First Part of the tripartite form will not differ 
in any essential respect from the First Part of a bipartite design. 
Therefore the details given in par. 72a, ^, and c apply here, and 
must be carefully reviewed. 

(b) The length of Part I should be taken into consideration, and deter- 
mined if possible beforehand, in proportion to the probable, or intended, 
extent of the entire Song- form. As alreadj stated, Part I should be, as a 
rule, a briefs simple^ clear Statement, A long First Part involves either the 
necessity of extreme length of the whole Song-form, or the defect of top- 
heaviness. A glance at Mendelssohn, "Song without Words'' No. 9, and 
then No. 10, makes this sufficiently plain. 

The Second Part ; thematic conditions. 

87. On the contrary, the Second Part of a tripartite design 
differs essentially from Part II of a bipartite form. See par. 8ic. 
The distinction tends to lower the rank, melodic importance and 
structural independence of the Second Part, but by no means 
to the exclusion of striking individual qualities. 

Close FORMATIVE RELATION to its First Part (in regard to 
style and general character) should be strictly maintained. Review 
par. 73^. But considerable freedom may be exercised in its melodic 
delineation, which may be suggested entirely, or in part, by the 
melodic design of Part I, or may be entirely independent of the latter, 
especially when similarity of style and character is preserved. 

Illustrations of various phases of thematic relation follow : — 

(a) First, almost total agreement between Parts II and I : 

Con moto. 

7a rjAyJ.|J;'j ;jjjj.r^^^ 

Parti. Phrase 1. 








N.B. , 

l- y> jjti4 ^ ;j /jjj i .fr |^i|- ii J'*-iJi»^ 

Phrase 3. 

EjAb.y tj. i ^f^;.i4^i^ 




Par. 87b. 








Part II. Phrase 1. 






Phrase 2. 








-^-H '" "^f 

Phrase 3. 
Mendelssohn. *l) 


*i) ** Song without Words" No. 13; see Original. The ist Phrase of 
Part II is an exact transposition of Phr. i of the First Part; the 2nd Phrase 
(Part II) is borrowed similarly from Phr. 5 of Part I ; Phrase 3 (Part II) is 
also derived from the latter, but contains, besides, a new and rhythmically 
characteristic member. — The Second Part is simply a Sequence, or transposed 
reproduction, of Part I, in Schumann, Jugend-Album, op. 68, Nos. 3 and 8; 
and mainly the same in Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 26, Marcia funebre. — In 
Schubert, Impromptu op. 142, No. 2, **Trio," the Second Part corresponds 
almost exactly to Part I, for a few measures, but transposed to the minor mode. 
— Chopin, Mazurka No. 51, meas. 1-32. — In Mendelssohn, ** Song without 
Words'' No. 42, the melody of Part I is reproduced in Part II, Phrase for 
Phrase, in variously transposed and somewhat modified form, and is extended 
by the reproduction of the last Phrase.* — See also No. 12, in which, again, 
every figure of Part II can be traced back to the First Part. — Also Nos. 39, 36, 
20, and 10, where the thematic derivation of Part II from Part I can easily be 
traced. See also Ex. 72, note *2). 

(b) Secondly, Part II derived from secondary members of the 
First Part : 

1. Parti. 

*In using these references, and those which follow in this paragraph, the 
pupil must examine no more at present than Parts I and II, and only those 
points of the latter which reveal its thematic relation to the First Part. 



Par. 87b. 

Pait II. 


a. Parti. 

^y^s- u^ 

Part II. 

*i) Mendelssohn, "Song without Words '' No. 14. See the Original. 
The thematic derivation of the Second Part from the First is indicated by the 
brackets. It will be observed that the second member of Part I becomes 
the Jirst (and therefore typical) member of Part II; as in Ex. 71, note *4), 
which review. 

*2) *• Song without Words '* No. 29, — same as note *i). Here the deriva- 
tion is cleverly disguised, but not sufficiently to arouse doubt of the composer^s 
intention (or perhaps partly unconscious conception), in the mind of the closely 
observant student. This is one of the ** secrets " of the true spirit of classical 

See also : ** Song without Words '' No. 21 (Part I is repeated ; Part II starts 
out, in meas. 61, with measure 11 of the repetition of Part I) ; No. 28 (Part II 
based largely upon the last figure in the first Phrase of Part I) ; No. 25 (Part 
II utilizes at first melodic fragments of the first and 3rd measures of Part I, — 
to the exclusion of the first figure, in the preliminary half-measure ; after 
a while this figure gradually reasserts itself, and finally the entire first Phrase 
of Part I is taken up twice in Part II, of course in a different key). See also 
Mendelssohn, op. 72, No. i (Part II starts out with measure 5 of the First 
Part) ; op. 72, No. 3 (the second half of measure i becomes the first half, in 
Part. II); op. 72, No. 5, — like note *i) above. 

Par. 87b. 



Sometimes Part II begins where (so to speak) Part I leaves off : 








b> X 


TTTTTT . ^ g^ 

SE i ji ^ ^ 

4 — ♦— — h- 



p *1) 

*i) This agrees with the last member of Part I (as found in the lower 
parts), but with nothing else that the Part contained. 

*2) This figure corresponds to measure 6 of the First Part, in opposite 
direction (** contrary motion " ; see Ex. 82). — See also Ex. 89; also 

Haydn, Symphony No. 6 (Peters ed.), Menuetto (Part II is built entirely 
upon the last mel. member of the First Part); Symphony No. 9 (Peters ed.), 
Menuetto (Part II derived from last figure, in the Codetta to Part I). 



Par. 87d. 

Schubert, Pfte. Son. 4 (op. 122), Menuetto; Son. 6 (op. 147), Scherzo. 
Schumann, Papillons, op. 2, No. i. 

(c) Thirdly, Part II constructed more or less in the direction 
opposite to that of the First Part, — similar to par. 39^ ; especially 
at the start : 

I nt J etc. 



b ^= h^^^^ 

a. Part I. 





Part II. 



Mbndblssohk. No. 46. 

Part I. 

Part II. 

See also Ex. 87. — Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words" No. 9 (the first 
figure is in '* contrary motion**; the remainder chiefly parallel); No. 8 (the 
same); No. 30. 

Brahms, op. 76, No. 4. — Schumann, Jugend-Album op. 68, No. 12, first 24 

This thematic relation (or opposition) of Part II to Part I is one of the 
characteristic features of the old ** Gigue-form,*' whether constructed in 2-Part 
or in 3-Part Song-form. See Bach, English Suites : No. 3, Gigue ; No. 5, 
Gigue ; No. 6, Gigue ; ** Well-tempered Clavichord " Vol. II, Prelude No. 5. 

(d) Fourthly, Part II melodically different from the First Part, 
though similar or related in general style ; the same vein of melodic 
conception simply runs on over into the Second Part, which, in this 
variety of the form, becomes thus more nearly coordinate with (less 
dependent upon) Part I : 

Par. 87d. 





* — #- 










r r^^ 












♦1) Part XL 


^>> •' J J '^;.3 i j . ^^m 



^ ^ -^ 



■«— ;^4 «• 

f =-^' f^ ^* If ' 






Par. 87e. 

♦i) In the Original (Nocturne 15, op. 55, No. i) the repetition of Part I is 
written out and very slightly modified. 

*2) The organic continuity of the Parts is upheld by similarity of general 
style, and uniformity of accompaniment. 

*3) This is the only place in Part II where real thematic agreement with 
the First Part can be detected, though the resemblance between this and the 
very first member is probably only accidental. 

See also : Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words," Nos. 37 ; i ; 40.; 16; 4, 

Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. i (op. 42), "Trio" of 3rd Movement. 

(e) Finally, Part II may diverge still more widely from Part 
I, and be not only thematically *'new," but even somewhat inde- 
pendent in character and style. But see par. 73^. For illustration : 


^ J r ' i l « '-^^ 

_> '^. 








jO^y f l\ 


-N— , 





r F f ,_!bba^^=^-' : 


PartlL ♦!) 

\ ^ 

\P ^ P^ 








u V V ]/ ^ ^ 

P : i7 f -L L- 1 jJJ-^-tT^—'frh^ 

f p 




■^F— »- 


Par. 88. 



^'^ 'i V rt 















^— I 


^F — » 








*i) Certain slight thematic coincidences exist between this Second Part 
and its First Part, but the impression conveyed is that of a more pronounced 
change of character than is exhibited in the examples preceding; though 
the difference between this stage and that of Ex. 83 may appear scarcely 

See Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words,** Nos. 2; 4; 35; 41. 

Greater independence of Part II is found in Mendelssohn, ** Song with- 
out Words** No. 7; 

And still more in Schumann, ** Album-Blatter ** op. 124, No. 8 (in which, 
on the other hand, the outward connection between the Parts, i. e., at the 
cadence, is closer than usual). 

Grieg, Lyric Pieces, op. 12, No. 5 (Parts II and III repeated). 

Chopin, Mazurkas 11 ; 24. 

Examples of the 3-Part Song-form in which the diversity of character in 
Part II is carried to an extreme, are rare ; and in no case, however rich they 
may be in imaginative contents, or superior in attractiveness, can they be 
regarded as models of logical structure, or as thoroughly genuine exponents 
of the tripartite Idea^ as demonstrated in the foregoing paragraphs. See, 
for instance, Beethoven, Bagatelle op. 33, No. 2, up to the "Trio**; and 
Schumann, " Album-Blatter,** op. 124, No. 3. For the more reasonable 
classification of such irregular forms, glance at par. 112a. 

The introduction of new material into Part II is most easily accounted 
for and justified when the latter is *' sectional'* in form; see Ex. 86, and its 

Tonality of Part II. 

88. As regards the modulatory design of the Second Part, 
it should, in general, avoid the Tonic line of the original key; for 



Par. 88. 

the impression of. a Departure will depend as much upofn a change of 
key as upon anything else ; and the idea of a Return is realized when 
the original key is regained, after a more or less marked absence. 

But the Dominant (or Subdominant) harmony of the original 
key may be introduced into Part II ; and in some cases the Dominant 
furnishes the basis of the entire Part from beginning to end ; 
see Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 31, No. 3, "Trio" of the third 
Movement; Symphony No. i, **Trio" of the third Movement. 

Or the Tonic harmonies may be touched in passing into other 
chords or keys. 

Or the entire Second Part may disport itself in other related 
(or even unrelated) keys. See Ex. 89 ; also 

Mendelssohn, " Songs without Words " No. i (Part I, E major; Part II 
begins in E minor, passes into G major, and remains there nearly to the end) ; 
No. 7 (Part I, E[> major; Part II, E|7 minor, Q^ major, EI7 minor); No. 25 
(Part I, G major; Part II, E minor, F major, G major transiently, A minor, 
C major, A minor) ; Nos. 29; 31 ; 40; 42. 

Beethoven, Symphony No. 2, **Trio" of 3rd Movement (Part II all on 
the Dominant of the Relative key, up to the last chord). 

For more specific directions in reference to Modulation, see par. 94. 

As a rule, the Second Part should at least begin with some 
other than the original Tonic harmony, in order to distinguish 
itself immediately from the beginning of Part I. This need not 
interfere with the plan of derivation and relation illustrated in 
Ex. 81. When, as is the case in some rare examples, the Second 
Part starts out exactly as the First Part began, the member should 
diverge very soon into other chords or keys. For example : 





*— » 


*— »- 



— I- 


^ — ^a 



Par. 89a. 



Part II. 

r fJ7l || j r J 







* p f i TfTp ^fff*! f'if'f' ^ f'tff ' 



X X lJ 


6 major C m^jor D m%jor E minor. . . 




D lm%jor . . (Dominant of original key.) [ 

II Part m. 

X X 


*i) Part II is exactly identical with Part I, up to this ftj, which turns the 
melodic current from G into C. The keys through which the Second Part 
passes are indicated. 

See also Schumann, op. 15, No. 7 (** Traumerei "); and Mendelssohn, 
** Songs without Words,'' No. 36; No. 20. 

Structural design of Part II. 

89a.. In regard to the form and length of the Second Part, 
it is both unnecessary and impracticable to recommend any other 
law than that of sensible proportion, and balance ; and this, as it 
will depend upon a variety of circumstances and conditions, must 
be left to the judgment or intention of the composer. The principle 
of approximate symmetry is apt to prevail, and therefore, as 
already stated, if Part I is a Period, Part II is somewhat likely 
to be a Period also, perhaps slightly extended. 

Sometimes, however, the Second Part is so brief (only Phrase- 
form) and comparatively insignificant, that it assumes the character 



Par. 89b. 

of a mere interlude, — a, hasty (though genuine) Departure, intro- 
duced for no other purpose than to create the impression of a Return. 

See Mendelssohn, Fantasie op. 28, 2nd Movement, first 18 measures 
(Part I, 7 measures; Part II, only 3 measures); op. 16, No. i. Allegro move- 
ment (Part I, 34 measures and repeated ; Part II, only 10 measures). 

Chopin, Mazurka 47 (pp. 68, No. 2) first 28 measures. 

Beethoven, Violin-Concerto, op. 61, Finale (Rondo), first 18 measures 
(Part II, only 2 measures). 

Other examples of the small Second Part are cited in the footnote upon 
page 138. (Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 49, No. 2, Finale^ first 20 measures ; etc.). 

It is, perhaps, more common to make the Second Part a little 
longer than Part I. And, unquestionably, the peculiar nature of 
the Chain-phrase and the Group of Phrases^ especially in sequen- 
tial succession^ adapts them in every sense more fully to the 
purpose and conditions of a Second Part than any other more 
regular and perfect structural design. Hence, the formation of 
Part II in Ex. 85 may be regarded as exemplary. See par. 31, first 
clauses, and the very last clause of par. 58. 

See Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words" No. 35 (Part I, Period; 
Part II, Period extended) ; No. 28 (Part I, Period; Part II, Period, sequential 
construction); No. 19 (Part I, small Double period; Part II, group of 6 
Phrases); No. 31 (Part II, a Group of Phrases); No. 10; No. 15; No. 40 
(sequential construction). 

Sectional form of Part II. 
(b) In some, especially the larger, varieties of the 3-Part 
Song- form, the Second Part is sectional in form ; i. e., it consists 
of two (or even more) "Sections," separated from each other by 
a complete cadence in the momentary key, and often so distinctly 
individualized that they would have to be regarded as complete 
*' Parts " under ordinary circumstances ; but their location^ between 
Part I and its Recurrence, renders it possible, notwithstanding 
their independence, to preserve the impression that they are only 
the subdivisions of one broad Part, — ^just as the three-fold condition 
of Departure, Absence and Return may all be comprehended within 
the single idea of Digression. For illustration : 



Par. 89b. 




Part n. Section 1. 





)f.^i * 






^si=^ — ^• 

X J; X - 




^ X- 




■* ^■ 

4—1* U I 

1— <- 

tt # 










li Section 2. 


a a* L j. 





j" -* vJjlJ ^ 



• -«^^*»» • 

ki J I -J. 


• • 





• • 





Par. 90a. 


fe^ j^j r-*-iJ 




X X 




Part in. 






*i) Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. 2, Scherzo, — The subdivision of the Second Part 
into two independent sections is strongly marked ; but they nevertheless- 
constitute, together, only the one Part which represents the Digression, the 
interim between Parts I and III, whose identity is unquestionable. Still, i£ 
carried to an undue extreme, this subdividing process (like that mentioned 
in the very last clause of par. 87) destroys the legitimacy of the tripartite 
design, and gives rise to a ** Group of Parts," such as appears in Chopin^ 
Mazurka No. 14, the classification of which will be found in pars. 114, 115. 

See also Ex. 89; also Mendelssohn, op. 72, No. i. 

Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. 10 (B(> major), Scherzo, 

Haydn, Symphony No. 11 (Peters ed.), Menuetto, 

The most plausible variety of this sectional form is obtained 
by adding a Codetta to the body of the Second Part. This, while 
comparatively unusual, and somewhat out of place, can nevertheless 
be done without injuring the form, if the Codetta-section be chiefly 
a confirmation, or independent extension, of the Cadence-member 
of Part II, so manipulated as not to interfere with the purpose of 
the latter to prepare for the Recurrence of the First Part (as Third 

See Mendelssohn, "Song without Words'' No. 30 (Part I, Double 
period, 15 measures ; Part II, Section i , Group of 4 — or 5 — Phrases, 20 measures ; 
Section 2, Codetta of 4 measures; a 3rd Section follows, as Retransition, to 
which explanatory reference will be made in the next paragraph). 

See also Mozart, Pfte. Son. 17 (Cotta ed.) Finale^ first Subject (Part I^ 
Period, 12 measures ; Part II, Section I, Group of 3 — or 4 — Phrases, 18 measures ; 
Section 2, Codetta of 2 measures, repeated; a 3rd section, — Retransition, — 
follows, as in the preceding quotation). 

Schubert, Moment musical^ op. 94, No. 6 (Part I, large Per., 16 measures ; 
Part II, Per. ext. at end, 17 measures; Codetta of 3 meas., repeated; a Re- 
transition of 14 meas. follows). 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 13, Adagio^ meas. 23-27. 

The Cadence of the Second Part. 

90a.. As regards the cadence of Part II, it is evident that 
it must be made in such a manner as to foreshadow, prepare for, 
and lead with a certain degree of emphasis into, the first member 

Par. 90a. 



of Part I as it recurs at the beginning of Part III. Hence, as 
shown in par. 83a, 2nd clause, it is most likely to be made upon 
the Dominant Harmony of the original key (or the Tonic Harmony 
of the Dominant key) , because no other chord than this tends so 
urgently toward the tonic Harmony, with which Part I (and 
therefore Part III also) is supposed to begin. Sometimes the 
Dominant idea (as Dom. chord, or Dom. key, or Dominant Organ- 
point) runs through the entire Second Part, as in Ex. 78. 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 31, No. 3, **Trio*' of the 3rd Movement; 
Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. 2, Largo^ first Subject; Mendelssohn, **Song without 
Words" No. 2. 

Or the Second Part is conducted into the Dominant a certain dis- 
tance (one or more measures, or Phrases,) before its end, as in Ex.83. 

Often quite a persistent extension of the Dominant Harmony 
is made, in some form or other, to stimulate expectation of Part 
III, as in Ex. 84 and Ex. 85. 

Chopin, Mazurka 18. Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words," Nos. 9, 
19. Beethoven, Bagatelle op. 33, No. i. 


Part 11. 

87. < 





i mnrrrn 

etc. ; regular 





f »- 

■F — — 1— 



t t. 

t .* } 1 ^ 

^ (ExpanAion of Dominant). 



Par. 90b. 






rm f T f r !=f=r 











#— X— at- 



Sometimes this expansion of the Dominant harmony is elabo- 
rated by transient alternation with other (most effectively with 
Subdominant) chords ; the Dominant is reached in due time, but 
instead of passing immediately over into the Tonic, it sways a few 
times, generally at least twice, back and forth, like a pendulum 
before coming to rest. 

See Mendelssohn, *' Songs without Words '* No. i, measures 9-14 from 
the beginning of Part II ; No. 10, meas. 26-38 from beg. of Part II; No. 27 (the 
expansion and elaboration of the Dom. differs so completely in character as to 
appear to be an Interlude or Retransition). 

The hearer's anticipation of Part III is furthermore confirmed 
and emphasized, as a very general rule, by a relaxation of motion 
{riiard.) in ending Part II. This is seen in Ex. 83 ; also in Ex. 
86, where the effect is further heightened by a rest of nearly two 
measures' duration, — the appropriateness of which, after so wide 
a digression in character and in key, the student will realize. 

Mendelssohn, " Songs without Words," Nos. 28; 32; 8. 

On the other hand, the Dominant ending is sometimes so 
brief, and the cadence so completely bridged over, that, but for 
its being in the proper measure, and followed by a particularly 
well-defined announcement of the original initial member, it could 
not fulfil its important purpose. 

See Ex. 76; Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words," Nos. 23 ; 32 ; 38; 20 
(very brief diminished 7th) ; Schumann, op. 15, No. i ; Chopin, Mazurkas, 
Nos. 4; II. 

(b) But, while the Dominant termination of Part II is unques- 
tionably the simplest, the most common, and (ordinarily) the most 
appropriate, other harmonic forms are quite frequently employed ; 
chiefly because of their superior effectiveness, but also in consequence 
of a possible irregularity in the beginning of Part I (and Part III) 
which may call for special treatment of the cadence of the Second 


In Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words " No. 25, Part I begins upon 
the Dominant, and consequently, the Second Part ends upon one of the 
Second-Dominant* Harmonies (the altered IP); No. 46, though in G minor, 
begins upon the Dom. of F; Part II closes with a very prolonged exposition 
of this same chord, and leads into Part III very smoothly, though noticeably 
enough ; No. 24 is similar, though more abrupt. 

The most common substitute for the usual Dominant ending is 
the chord (or key) upon the Mediant, — the 3rd scale-step of the 
original key. This will appear less peculiar when the student 
recalls that the chord III is a member of the Dominant harmonic 
fatnily^ and that, in any event, it contains the leading-tone of its 
key^ through which the safe transition back into the Tonic begin- 
ning is sufficiently assured.** 

See Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words '' No. 22 (F major ; the Second 
Part ends upon the Tonic of A minor, which corresponds to the III of F ; the 
e, in Bass, is effectively treated, as Leading-tone) ; No. 11 ; No. 42. 

Chopin, Mazurka No. 16 (AI7 major; the Second Part closes with an 
emphatic extension of the chord upon the 3rd scale-step, but in the major 
form, as actual Dom. chord of F minor; this merely adds to the effectiveness 
of the device, without impairing its legitimacy); Mazurka No. 29 (the same) ; 
Mazurka No. 22 (Gjf minor; Part II ends upon the Tonic chord of its 3d step, 
i. e., B, — but, naturally, as major Triad; this cancels the Leading-tone of the 
coming Part, it is true, but the transition is still far less abrupt than in many 
other cases) . 


More abrupt forms of transition from the end of Part II into 
Part III are found in Mendelssohn, **Song without Words" 
No. 45 (hingjng upon the Leading-tone) ; No. 39 (Parts I and III 
beginning upon the Subdominant Harmony). 

Another effective mode of closing Part II, in convenient prepa- 
ration for the initial member of the Third Part, consists in employing 
some form of the Subdominant (or Second-Dominant) Harmony, 
i. e., the IV, II, 11^ or IV^, either in their legitimate form, or 
(preferably) in any of their altered or mixed forms (with lowered 
6th scale-step, raised 4th scale-step, etc.). These chords almost 
necessarily involve resolution into some inverted form of the Tonic 
Harmony, wherefore Part III will, in this case, usually be found to 
begin upon the Tonic six four chord. For example : 

*See the Author's ** Material used in Mus. Comp.*' paragraphs 6c, 
** /(Um, paragraphs 90-93. 



Par. 90b. 

A ndante. 


Mbndblssohn. No. 48. 

Part III. , t^r*— ^ ^ 

'iff r'r ' ^^ 

i H I y 

fla *1) I, 

*i) The Second Part closes upon the chord of the IP (with the raised 2nd 
and 4th, and then the lowered 6th, scale-steps); and Part III begins upon the 
•accented \ chord of the Tonic. This latter differs slightly from the harmonic 
form of the beginning, but not enough to obscure the effect of Recurrence. 

See also Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words " No. 7 (Part II ends with 
an altered Subdom. chord; Part III begins with the Tonic J chord); No. 12; 
No. 29; No. 43 (all similar). 

Any such tampering with the beginning of Part I (as Part 
III) involves, of course, the danger of impairing or destroying the 
principal landmark of the tripartite form, i. e., the distinctly 
recognizable Return to the beginnings in exactly its original condi- 
tion. Therefore, if any modification at this point be ventured, it 
must be very cautiously effected, with a view to preserving at least 
all the essential and characteristic elements of the initial member of 
Part I. To what such modification of the latter may lead, will 
be seen in par. no. 

Par. 90c. THE RE-TRANSITION. 157 

See also Mendelssohn, *' Songs without Words," Nos. 41 ; 40; 37 ; 21 ; in 
each case the initial melodic member is retained in Part III, but differently 
harmonized. No. 36 (the first measure of Part III is so disguised that full 
consciousness of the form is not aroused until the 2nd measure appears). 
Chopin, Mazurka 46, Principal Song; Nocturne No. 16, first 12 measures 
(already referred to as 3-Part Period) . 

The most irregular and confusing of all modes of terminating 
the Second Part, is to lead it into the Tonic Harmony ; this, just 
before the announcement of Part III upon the same chord (Tonic), 
seriously endangers the identity of the Third Part as * * Return ' ' 
(comp. par. 88, first clause). 

See Ex.91 ; and Mendelssohn, '* Songs without Words," No. 4; No. 31 ; 
Beethoven, Rondo in C, op. 51, No. i, first Theme; (Rondo in G, op. 51, 
No. 2, first Theme, is scarcely better). 

The Rk-transition. 

(c) It must be borne in mind that a full-fledged Second Part 
comprehends three successive phases, which, while their lines of 
demarcation may be almost imperceptible, are still distinct enough 
in their several purposes to give rise to three different courses of 
conceptive action. These are : (i) a Departure from the line of the 
principal Part; (2) an optional period of Absence, during which 
considerable individuality may be developed, — as, for instance, in 
the sectional form ; and (3) the Return to the original starting-point. 
This third phase may justly be regarded as the most significant of 
all, for it is the ultimate aim of the entire Part, and an endless 
amount of ingenuity may be displayed in the effective formulation 
of the means employed in realizing this ' * return to the starting- 
point." The larger the form, the greater the likelihood and 
necessity of devoting a separate section wholly to this purpose. 
For such a * ' returning section ' ' the term Rk-transition appears 
most fitting. 

In case the Re-transition thus forms a separate section, by 
itself, the body of Part II will usually have a complete Tonic 
cadence in whatever key it chances to have reached. The Re- 
transition then leads back, from that point, into the key, chord, 
style and melody of the beginning, in such a manner, and at such 
length, as seems most adequate and effective. It appears useless to 
undertake to give any more definite rules than this for the process ; 
for it is governed by ever- varying circumstances. There is no 



Par. QOc 

better source of information than standard musical literature, and 
the student is therefore urged to make careful examination and 
analysis of the given examples, references, and whatever other 
illustrations he can find. In all essential respects the Re-transition 
partakes of the nature and purpose of the ** Introduction," though 
infinitely richer in possibilities. For example : 



88. < 


-i— IK- 

^yrH-3— y 
^= ^^1^ 


\ — V 

J, ' J.^ ^ ^ 



-9 r 


*— -5 












^^- - 



^^b it t ir^ 




-#— Im- 

part n. Section 1. 



pf f f ^ I* te 







— ^-^ 

1— r 


Par. 90c. 



Section 2. 

Cad. II Betranaition. 

.Part m. 


*i) The division of this Second Part into Sections is very recognizable. 
Section i is the ** Departure," with just sufficient lingering recollection of 
Part I to emphasize the idea ; Section 2 is a more decisive digression from 
Part I, and stands for the *' Absence." 

*2) Here the body of Part II terminates, with the perf. cadence in the 
key into which the 2nd section has strayed (G\} major). The Re-transition 
which follows, consists: firstly, in an abrupt chromatic dash back into the 
original Dominant, accentuated by the isolated forte; and, secondly, in 
a 4-measure expansion of this Dominant, during which the Soprano and Bass 
converge smoothly but persistently toward the tones with which Part I began. 

See also Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. 4, Menuctto. 

Mendelssohn, **Song without Words" No. 13, E|;> major; the body of 
Part II terminates in the 32nd measure, on the Tonic of G minor ; the following 
8 measures are Re- transition, based entirely upon the first melodic figure of 
Part I, which suggests, and is skilfully led into, the Third Part; the original 
Dominant is reached in the 5th measure of the Re-transition, and then sways, 
as seen in former references,-^text following Ex. 87 ; — it will he observed that 
wheUy in thus swaying^ the original Tonic is touched, the composer is careful 

l6o THE RE-TKANSITION. Par. 90c. 

to use the minor form of Tonic Harmony^ in order to preserve, and even 
increase, the force of the original major form, when the latter heralds the 
beginning of the Third Part; this same significant trait will be found in many 
other major examples, — *' Songs without Words," Nos. i, 7, 19, 20, 31, 37. 

See also *' Songs without Words," No. 16; Part II virtually ends in the 
19th measure, with a Dominant semicadence ; a Re-transition of 2 measures 
follows, built upon the first melodic member. — No. 26; effective Re-trans, of 
4 measures before Part III. — No. 34, measures 25-29. — No. 37, Re-transition 
of 4 measures. — No. 3; Part II is 16 measures long, ending with a firm 
cadence in the kej of the original 3rd step; a Re-transition of 5 measures 

Such a separate Re-transition is very likely indeed to accom- 
pany (i. e., follow) a Codetta to the Second Part, when that 
somewhat rare factor is employed (see last clause of par. 89). The 
Re-transition, in this case, starts with the apparent intent of 
repeating the Codetta^ but sooner or later "dissolves" the original 
form of the latter, and digresses into such a course as defines its 
re-transitional purpose. 

See Mendelssohn, "Song without Words" No. 30, A major; Part II 
terminates with a Tonic perf. cad. in E major in the 35th measure; the 
4-measure Section which follows is an independent and regular Phrase, with 
its own unmistakable cadence ; it does not belong to the body of the Second 
Part^ for that terminates with the utmost decision before this Phrase begins ; 
nor is it in the Third Party for obvious reasons ; nor is it a Re-transition into 
the latter, because of its complete cadence ; thus it proves to be an adjunct of 
Part II, in the capacity of a " Codetta." The measures which follow indicate 
for a time the intention of repetition, but then abandon this purpose and 
become a genuine, and exceedingly attractive and clever Re-transition. 

The same treatment is found in ** Song without Words " No. 17, measures 
14-17 (Part I closes in the 4th measure with a vague form of cadence, ex- 
plained in par. 93rt). 

See also Chopin, Nocturne No. 17, measures 21-28. 

In the ordinary 3-Part Song- form, however, the Re-transition 
is somewhat more likely not to constitute such a distinct section, 
but to grow out of some later member of the Second Part, perhaps 
so imperceptibly that it is not easy to point out the exact beat 
where the purpose of re-transition is evident. Here, the persistent 
bent of the harmony toward the original Dominant^ and the equally 
characteristic tendency of the melodic current to lead into and 
regain Xh^ first tone and figure of the First Part, is possibly more 
noticeable than in the separate Re-transition ; and^ in any case^ this 
two-fold tendency (first toward the key and then toward the melody^ 

Par. 90c. 



must be regarded as inherent in all re-transitional passages. This 
is plainly shown in Ex. 89. In the following illustration, the 
bent of the Re-transition is concentrated upon the initial melodic 
member of Part III : 

A ndante. 

n n r =^ 


Bb 1 

Part II 

etc. See Ex. 63, or the Original. *1) 




*i) ** Song without Words '* No. 33. 

*2) The re-transitional purpose appears to assert itself here, but in such 
close keeping with the melodic line of the foregoing measure, that its actual 
bearing upon the coming Third Part is only gradually apprehended. It is left 
to the pupil to trace, in this particularly beautiful example, the slow but sure 
approach of the melodic delineation to that of the first figure of Part III, and 
to observe how the harmonic color of these re-transitional measures tinges 
the first tones of the Recurrence of the initial figure, until the Cft puts a stop 
to the playful illusion, and restores the serious mood of the Third Part. 
** Song without Words '' No. 41 is similar. 

SeealsoMENDELSSOHN,**Songs without Words," No. 11 (there-transitional 
purpose is manifested in the 20th measure ; the melodic figure of three tones 
corresponds to the beginning of Part III); No. 14, last 3 measures of the 
Second Part; No. 21, last 8 measures of the Second Part (built upon the first 
melodic member, — 2 measures, — of Part III) ; No. 39, last 4 measures of the 
Second Part; No. 45, C major, last 4 (or perhaps 8) measures of Part II; 
No. 37 ; No. 36, last 3 measures of Part II (this re-transitional expansion of the 
Dominant flows over into, and slightly influences, the first figure of the Third 
Part). No. 47 (A major) is peculiar; Part II virtually ends at the beginning of 
the 37th measure ; the measures which follow are partly a sequence of the two 
which precede, and partly an anticipation of the beginning of Part III. 

1 62 


Par. 01. 

The Third Part. 

Q I , In the ordinary complete 3-Part Song-form, here under 
consideration, the Third Part is a simple recurrence or 


If the First Part closes with a perfect cadence in the original 
key, then it may reappear literally in Part Third, as conventional 
'* da capo," 

But if the First Part cadences in some other key, or has any 
other imperfect form of cadence, then at least enough of the ending 
of Part III must differ from the original Statement to admit of its 
cadencing properly, in the principal key. 

And, furthermore, any purely unessential modifications of 
Part I (affecting the harmonization, or the register, or ornamenting 
the Melody) may be introduced in the Third Part, to heighten its 
effect. But no more important changes than these are exhibited 
in the " Simple Complete Form." For example : 

Poco sosttnuto. 

81. < 


I I I— I— I. 


U Lfi?|Ld"{?^^=ff^ ^^^ 

Part n. 

Par. 91. 



^* t u 







DvoftXK. "AVtt» IVorW Symph. 

*i) Part II closes on the original Tonic ; but the beginning of Part III 
is distinct enough. See par. 93^. 

*2) Part III is essentially the same as Part I ; the register of the melody is 
changed, and one measure is omitted. — In Chopin, Mazurka No. 49, Part III 
is not written out at all, but simply indicated by the words *' da capo." 

In Ex. 76 and Ex. 77, though a smaller species of the tripartite design, the 
literal agreement of Part (Phrase) III with Part (Phrase) I, is illustrated. 
In Mendelssohn op. 72, No. i, and ** Song without Words" No. 45 (C 
major) the Recurrence is literal. — ^Ex. 89 is concluded (in the Original) by 


reproducing the first 4 measures of the melody an octave higher than at first, 
while all the rest is left precisely as it was. — Ex. 84 is concluded in the Original 
(Schumann, op. 68, No. 24) by reproducing Part I with very slight changes. — 
In the conclusion of Ex. 83 (Chopin, Nocturne 15, Principal Theme) a brief 
variation of Part I is made. 

In Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. 2, Scherzo (Ex. 86) the reproduction 
is literal. In Pfte. Son. op. 22, Menuetto, slight changes are made. In the 
F major Variations, op. 34, Theme, the Recurrence is literal. 

In Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words" No. 22, Part III is a little 
differently harmonized from its First Part; in No. 32, the single melody of 
Part I is transformed into a duet in Part III. 

In Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 6(Cotta ed.), ist Movement, Principal Theme, 
there is, in addition to interesting variation in Part III, a change in the last 
member, necessitated by the circumstance of Part I having closed with a 
cadence in the Dominant key; the same in Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. i, 2nd 
Movement, Theme (Part I repeated) ; the same in Beethoven, Pfte. Son. 
op. 2, No. I, ** Trio " of 3rd Movement. 

Chopin, Etude in A[> (No. 3 in the ** Moscheles-F6tis " method). Part III 
slightly expanded at end. Chopin, Mazurkas 16; 22 (long Second Part); 24 
(Part II quite distinct, and repeated); 40; 43 (Part II repeated, distinct 
re- transitional interlude; Part III, literal Recurrence of Part I); 44. 

Grieg, Lyric Pieces op. 12, No. 2; op. 38, No. 2; op. 43, Nos. i, 4,6 
(extended at end) . 

Brahms, op. 116, No. 7, "Trio" (6-8 Time). — Op. 117, No. i, first tempo 
(Parts I and II small Periods; Part III is extended to Double period, by 
reproduction; Codetta); compare with 3rd (last) tempo. — Op. 118, No. 2, 
meas. 1-25 after first double-bar. — Op. 118, No. 3, first 37 measures. — Op. 118, 
No. 6. — Op. 119, No. I. — Intermezzo, op. 76, No. 4. ' 

Extraneous Members. 

92. The 3-Part Song-form may be, and, as a rule, should be, 
enlarged by the addition of a Codetta or Coda. More explicit 
explanation of the character, purpose and formation of these factors 
is given in par. 98, to which brief reference may be made. 

The prefixing of an Introduction, while less significant than 
a Coda, is, however, barely less desirable ; for it serves to empha- 
size, by mild contrast, the body of the Song-form, to which it stands 
in the same relation as the *' margin " to a picture. 

Turn, again, to Mendelssohn, **Song without Words" No. 12, and 
examine into the relation of the Introduction to the entire composition ; also 
Nos. 15; 26; 29; and 32. 

When a Prelude is substituted for the Introduction, or a 
PosTLUDE for the Codetta, its architectural and logical connection 
with the body of the form is less close, and its relation to the latter 
is more like that of the independent " frame " to the picture. 




Examine, again, Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words** No. 4 (both 
Prelude and Postlude ; almost identical ; here the simile of the picture with 
its frame is very fitting) ; also No. 9 (a Codetta of 4 measures is added to 
Part III, or, more accurately, to the body of the form, before the Postlude 
appears); Nos. 16; 28; 35; and 41 (in each, similar Prelude and Postlude). 
In No. 21 the Prelude does not recur at the end, and, in other respects also, it 
approaches the character of an Introduction. — In No. 3 the Prelude becomes 
the thematic basis of the entire elaborate Coda. 

The insertion of Interludes between the Parts is a more 

hazardous proceeding, as they tend to disrupt the structural con- 

inuity. But if carefully handled, with a view to avoiding this 

error, they may be very effective. They must either conform 

strictly to the limitations imposed upon the Introduction (in par. 

28, second and third clauses) ; or they must prove their extraneous 

nature by agreement with a Prelude. 

In Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words** No. 23, the substance of the 
Prelude reappears after 9 measures, as Interlude between Parts I and II ; then 
again 23 measures later, as Interlude between the second Division of the form 
(i. e.. Parts II and III) and its repetition; and again as Postlude, at the end. — 
In No. 27 a similar recurrence of the substance of the Prelude appears between 
Parts II and III (quasi as Codetta or Re-transition), and again at the end. — 
In No. 29 there is one measure of Interlude between Part I and its repetition ; 
in No. 46 the same (in each case borrowed from the Introduction). In No. 34 
the brief introductory figure is utilized as Re- transition, both in the second 
Division (Parts II and III) and its reproduction ; and again, as final section of 
the Coda. 


A, Take one of the major Periods with perf. cad. in the original key, 
invented in Exercise 9; to this, as Part I, add a Second Part according to the 
directions given in par. 87^, in Period-form, with cadence as prescribed in 
par. 90a; and add a Third Part as literal Recurrence of Part I (the words 
** da capo ** will suffice). 

B, Some former minor Period with regular perf. cadence, as Part I; 
to this add a Second Part according to the directions in par. 87*, in Period- 
form ; cadence as in par. 9o« ; Part III a literal da capo. 

C. Some other former major Period as Part I ; to this add a Second Part 
according to par. 87c, in Period-form with extended Dominant cadence. Part 
III a literal da capo, 

D, Some other former (or new) minor Period as Part I ; to this add 
a Second Part according to par. 87^/, in Phrase-group design, with some form 
of cadence explained in par. 90^ ; Part III a nearly literal da capo. Review 
par. 88. 



Par. 93a. 

A, Some former (or new) Period in major, with cadence in some other 
than the orig. key, as Part I ; to this add a Second Part according to par. 87^, 
in Phrase-group design, with optional cadence-form; Part III a literal da 
capOy excepting change of last member. Review par. 91 . 

B, Part I as minor Period (regular or extended), with cad. in some 
related key; Part II optional melodic construction, but sectional form, as 
explained in par. 89^; brief Re-transition, par. 90c; Part III a slightly 
modified Recurrence of Part I. Review par. 88; and the directions given 
IN Exercise 9. 

C. Part I major, optional form, but with Introduction; Part II optional 
form and structure, but with Retransition ; Part III a slightly modified Recur- 
rence, followed by ^r«^ Codetta. Review par. 92. 

D. Part I minor. Double period. Introduction or Prelude; Part III 
a slightly modified Recurrence with brief Codetta or Postlude. 


A, Part I major, optional form, but with brief Codetta; Part II optional ; 
Part III a modified Recurrence, including former Codetta, and with an 
additional brief Codetta. Review par. 23 ; 27 ; par. 30 ; 53 ; par. 40. 

B. Minor, entirely optional in all save the essential requirements of the 
Simple Complete 3-Part Song-form. 




I. Irregular Cadences. 

93. There are a few peculiar conditions of the cadence, not 
yet explained, to which attention must now be drawn. 

(a) The purpose of a Cadence is, to indicate a point of more 
or less complete separation between two contiguous members of 
the structure, — a *' joint," where one member ends and another 
begins (par. 2b). There are two modes of fulfilling this purpose, 
namely : 

(i) to mark the end ofthejirst of these two members distinctly; 


(2) to mark the beginning of the new member with equal dis- 

The first mode is the simpler and more common, and consists 
in using a strong Cadence-chord, and making a pause in the audible 
rhythmic pulse, adequate to the degree of separation required. 
This is illustrated in nearly all of the foregoing examples; see 
Ex. 46, No. 3, and the end of any example from 25 to 37. 

The second mode, while naturally less distinct and decisive 
at the moment, is nevertheless, when properly executed, ultimately 
quite as effectual, and, at the same time, smoother than the other. 
It consists in defining the beginning, at least, of the following 
member (Phrase, Period, Part, or whatever it may be) so distinctly 
that no doubt of its being a new member can exist ; this defines 
the form, for where there is a beginning there must before have 
been an ending. This is precisely the principle which prevails in 
the mode of ** phrasing" explained in par. 10, 3rdly (Ex. 15); 
while sometimes desirable even between ''Parts," it is naturally 
most important in application to the arrangement of smaller mem- 
bers, hec2M^e frequent complete stops (to define the **end" of 
every member) would entirely disrupt the design. 

The more unmistakable the outset of the following member is, the less 
emphatic need the foregoing Cadence be. This accounts for all the vague, 
imperfect Cadences (often so brief and indefinite as to be scarcely discoverable 
at first as Cadences) hitherto seen, and those now to be examined. 

For example, the Semi-cadence at the end of Part First in the Song- 
forms: See Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words" No. 17, measure 4 (reg. 
Dom. Semicadence; but evidently the end of Part I, because what follows 
is sufficiently characteristic to be evidently the beginning of Part II) ; No. 
38, measure 10 (Cadence of Part I on a | chord ! It is rendered sufficient by 
appearing in the 8th measure and being repeated in the loth ; moreover, the 
beginning of Part II is unmistakable); No. 47, measure 18, similar to No. 38; 
No. 39, Part I ends with chord-Fifth in Soprano. In Nos. 7, 8, 10, and 11, 
Part I ends with some imperfect form of Cadence (usually extended y however); 
but the identity of the Part is fixed by its repetition (see par. 77, last clause). In 
Nos. 30, 33, 41, and 48, the Cad. of Part I is unusually brief and ** breathless," 
but still sufficient, under the thematic circumstances. .These stand in marked 
contrast to the decision and frankness of the Cadence to Part I in Nos. 23, 12, 
15, 27, 35 and others. 

For other examples of an imperfect Cadence at the end of a complete 
member, see Mendelssohn, No. 15 ; at the beginning of measure 5 from the 
end, the Tonic Cadence-chord has the Third in Soprano; but the following 
member nevertheless constitutes a Codetta (without being preceded by a 
compl. perf. Cad. according to rule), because its outset is sufficiently distinct 

1 68 


Par. 93b. 

to indicate the beginning of a new member. The same trait is observable in 
No. i6, in the 4th meas. from the end; No. 31, five meas. from the end; and 
No. 33, six meas. from the end. 

See also Chopin, Nocturne No. 9 (op. 32, No. i), ending (the Codetta 
follows an Evasion of the Cadence); Bkethovkn, Pfte. Son. op. 31, No. 3, 
Menuetto (Part I ending with Dom. Semicadence, but repeated) ; Beethoven^ 
Pfte. Son. op. 27, No. i, Adagio (Part I ending with a Semicadence); Haydn, 
Symphony No. i (Peters ed.), Menuetto^ Part I; Brahms, Symphony No. i^ 
AllegrettOy first 18 measures (probably a Two- Part Song-form, followed by 
a somewhat extended complete repetition; Part I ends in meas. 10 with 
a Semicadence); Beethoven, Theme of 24 Variations in D major, Part I; 
Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. 7, Allegretto^ Part I ; Schubert, Moment musicaly 
op. 94, No. 5, Part I; Chopin, Preludes op. 28, No. 11 and No. 22, Part I of 
each; Mendelssohn, Praeludium op. 104, No. 2, Part I. 

To this category belong also all examples of the " Elision '* (par. 60, which 
review), in which the "Cadence" disappears altogether by the overlapping 
of the contiguous members. See Mendelssohn, Prelude op. 35, No, d 
(Part II begins in the middle of measure 15, with an Elision of the expected 
Cadence); also the Praeludium of the ** Praeludium and Fugue in E minor**" 
(without opus-number), measures 22-23. 

(b) Exactly the reverse of this peculiarity (that just explained 
being : a vague Cadence sufficing to separate independent members) 
is seen in those places where a complete Tonic Cadence fails to sever 
the connection between contiguous members, because the second one 
maintains so intimate a thematic relation that it necessarily still 
belongs to the section in question. Under such conditions it is 
possible for a regular perfect Cadence to occur in the course of the 
J^irst Part (i. e. without terminating it). As contradictory of 
the strict rule given in par. 70 as this appears to be, it is not at all 
unusual, — especially near the beginnings where such an unlooked-for 
Cadence seems rather to serve the desirable purpose of establishing 
the tonality. For example : 

X. Moderato. 

Par. gsb. 









A i A A 


J i- ^ 






Part II. 

L I I 


Folk-song. a. AlU^^retU. 










r T \ 



LriiKrtir ; ^; 


<»-*? V- 



*i) This is a Tonic perf. Cad. of the most unequivocal kind ; and yet it 
does not terminate the First Part, because the latter obviously runs on, in 
unbroken thematic connection, to the 8th measure. See also Ex. 62, 4th 
measure . 

*2) In this unique example the Part begins with a genuine perf. Cadence ! 
See the Original (Symphony in C, ** Trio" of Minuet). 

See also Mendelssohn, "Songs without Words" No. 39 (perf. Cad, 
in 2nd measure) ; No. 43 (Part I, extended Period, with perf. Cad. at end of 
Antecedent Phrase); No. 44 (Part I, the same; in the last two cases the 
unbroken thematic connection is established by parallel construction); No. 42 
(Part I, contrasting Double period, with Dominant perf. Cad. in the center). 
A glance at the beginning of the other ** Songs without Words," on the other 
hand, teaches how, as a rule, the composer aims to avoid this misleading use 
of an untimely perf. Cadence. 

See further, Chopin, Mazurka No. 24, Part I ; Schubert, Moment musical 
op. 94, No. 4, *'Trio" (5-flat signature) first 12 meas. (group of 3 Phrases, 
repeated) ; Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 31, No. i, Adagio (Part I a very broad 
Double period, parallel^ with Tonic perf. Cad. in the center); Pfte. Son. op. 
27, No. 2, ist Movement, Part I (23 measures in length — including a 5-meas. 
Prelude, — and containing tivo perfect Cadences in its course). 

170 MODULATION. Par. 94a. 

This trait is very common in repetitions. See Mendelssohn, ** Song 
without Words" No. 4 (the perf. Cad. in meas. 4 does not mark the end of the 
First Part, because the 4 following measures are a repetition); No. 11 (at 
the beginning of the 5th meas. from the end there is a strong perf. Cadence, 
but the following member is not a Codetta, because it belongs to the foregoing 
Phrase, as evident repetition of the 2nd half). 

(c) It is clear that both of the above irregularities of Cadence 
are counteracted by the thematic conditions attending them. In 
each case it is the unmistakable import of the thematic arrangement 
(in reference to melody, rhythm, character, etc.) that overpowers 
the ordinary forcible agency of the Cadence, and renders it at one 
time unable to prevent, and again unable to effectuate, the *' sepa- 
ration " of members, which is its chief purpose in form. This 
evident predominance of the Idea over the technical Detail is an 
additional corroboration of the justice of the classification defended 
in the footnote on p. 138. 

2. Modulation. 

94. In addition to what was said in par. 88 about the modu- 
latory design of the Second Part, the student must be reminded 
that changes of key are very important and necessary indeed, in 
all of the Parts (least, it is true, in Part I). This refers not only 
to complete, or lengthy, modulations, but particularly to transient 
digressions, which heighten the color of the Phrases, without 
cancelling the ruling effect of the principal, or dominating, tonality. 

(a) These modulations (i. e., transient ones,) need not even 
be limited to the five Next-related keys,* but may extend to any 
of the Remotely-related ones,** at least occasionally, and, of 
course, on condition of returning immediately (or soon) to the 
original tonality, or to its close neighborhood. The Remotely- 
related keys are : (i) the Opposite mode of the same tonic (for 
instance, C major-C minor, and vice versa) ; (2) the Stride (C 
major— f minor, and vice versa) ; (3) The Mediant-keys C— E, C— Ab ; 
C-Eb, C-A, etc.) ; and to these may be added, (4) all keys 
accessible through the coincidence of important pivotal tones. 

A superb example of this quality of modulation will be found in Schubert, 
Impromptu op. 90, No. 3 (G major) measures 26 to 10 from the end (first 
Phrase of Coda, and its repetition) ; the keys touched in close succession are 
G maj.-c minor-G maj.-c min.-ab minor-G. 

* •* The Material used in Mus. Composition,'* paragr. 266. 
**The same, paragr. 267-269; par. 281, 282, 288; par. 289. 

Par. 94c. MODULATION. 1 7 1 

(b) In making more lengthy modulations, care must be taken 
not to remain in any other key (whether related to the original key 
or not) long enough to create the impression of a central or primary 
tonality at that place. The original tonality, — the principal key, in 
which the composition is written, — must be regarded as the axis, 
about which the entire structure revolves. Any protracted absence 
from this axis, or, more properly, any undue retention of some 
o^her key, would have the effect of shifting the axis, or of replacing 
it by a foreign one, and would thus tend to destroy the necessary 
centralization of the keys and chords. 

On the other hand, a temporary shifting of the modulatory 
axis (subject to the above restriction) may constitute one of the 
best modes^ of individualizing certain Divisions of the architectural 
design, — for example, the Second or Middle Part in the tripartite 
forms. Hence, some other key (probably related to the principal 
one) may be chosen upon entering a new Part, or still larger 
Division, and be allowed to prevail as temporary axis of that 
section ; and the extent of the new key, and its distance from the 
original key, will serve to determine the degree of independence 
and individuality of the section in question. See par. 88. 

This is illustrated in Schumann, Humoreske, op. 20, first Movement 
(3-Part Song-form with Coda; Part I, repeated Phrase in the key of "two 
flats'* ; Part II, a Group of three Phrases, throughout which the key of ** six 
flats" prevails; Part III, literal Recurrence of Part I). 

(c) Two very useful general rules of modulation in **Form" 
are : 

(i) Avoid a series (especially a long series) of modulations 
in the same direction (i. e. successively increasing sharps, or 
flats ; or successively decreasing the same, in more or less regular 
progression) ; modulate beyond the desired key, if possible 
quickly, by some extraneous transition, and then turn back into 
the latter. For instance : if aiming for four sharps, from C 
major, modulate into jive sharps, and then turn back to four.* 

(2) After any remote modulation, it is better to turn hack 
into some intermediate key, than to remain upon the new key, or 
to pass on beyond it. 

*It is well for the student to bear in mind that the fundamental modulatory 
movements are best defined by signature, not by key-note. 


172 THE DYNAMIC DESIGN. Par. 95a. 

Both of these must be accepted as general rules onlj, subject to many- 
exceptions. As usual, the best source of information for the student on this 
point is classic or standard musical literature, to the analysis of which he 
should devote himself most assiduously. 

(d) The general modulatory design of an entire composition, 
almost regardless of its size, is as follows : 

At the beginning, a sufficient pause in the original key to 
establish the principal tonality ; then a general tendency upward 
(toward the Dominant keys : those whose signatures contain one 
sharp more or one flat less than the original signature) , ^-extending 
approximately one-quarter or one-third of the entire distance ; 
then a more or less ample digression, or a modulatory oscillation 
between various keys in optional direction and measure ; and 
finally, somewhere during the last sections, an inclination toward 
the Suhdominant keys (those whose signatures contain one sharp 
less or one flat more than the original). See par. 73c, 2nd clause. 

This plan is quite. accurately followed in Haydn, Symphony No. 3 (Peters 
ed.), Finale y first 20 measures. 

See also Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words *' No. 48 (Part I, C major, 
passing into "one sharp*'; Part III, "natural scale"; Coda, largely "one 
flat'*); also Ex. 28(4 measures) where it is exhibited on a very small scale; 
Ex. 47, No. I ; Ex. 71; 72; 75. There is scarcely an example to be found in 
classic music, in which this general modulatory line is not more or less com- 
pletely and emphatically traced, not only in the whole, but in each independent 
;: Division. 

» For examples of peculiar modulatory design, see Mendelssohn, " Wed- 

ding-March ** (in C ; Part I begins with a distinct exposition of e minor) ; 
J Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 26, Scherzo (A(7 ; Part I begins with exposition 

of E|;>) ; op. 27, No. 2, Allegretto (the same idea) ; Pfte. Son. op. 90, 2nd 
f. Movement (unusual prevalence of principal key throughout entire Principal 

5, Theme); Violin-Concerto, op. 61, 2nd Movement (the same idea); Symphony 

' No. 3, 3rd Movement (strangely meagre representation of the principal key, up 

II to the jTin the course of Part III). Ex. 91 contains no modulation whatever. 


3. The Dynamic Design. 

95. The dynamic design refers to the use and disposition of 
[! the various grades of tone-power, i. e., pianissimo^ piano^ forte^ 

S fortissimo^ with all their attendant shades of force, and all the 

auxiliary tone-effects to which these distinctions may give rise 
{crescendo^ diminuendo^ sforzando^ etc.). 

(a) While it is quite certain that no definite rules for 
a dynamic design can be, or should he^ given, it is equally certain 

Par. 96. CONTRAST. 1 73 

that some such design nevertheless exists in every good composi- 
tion, whether defined beforehand, or in the course of conceptive 
-action; and it is necessary for the student to realize and correctly 
estimate the importance of these factors as a means of adding 
life to the musical image, and of emphasizing essential traits of 
the architectural design, — ^just as the effects of light and shade 
add vitality and distinctness of character to a picture, a landscape, 
or a theatrical scene. And, furthermore, there is an element of 
suggestion in the definite purpose of making a crescendo or dimi- 
nuendo^ di pp or^, which acts as a stimulus upon the imagination, 
much more powerfully than might be suspected before putting it 
to the test. 

The general effect of these dynamic distinctions is fully enough understood. 
Attention is simply called to the change in power as a means of increasing 
the interest in a repetition (as seen in Ex. 56) ; and as a means of accentuating 
the beginning of a new section by a sudden change from/ tofovff^ or from 
yto /; see Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. 3, first Movement, measure 13; 
also measures 25-27; Ex. 65, note *i); Ex. 95, note *i); Ex. 72; Ex. 73; Ex. 
75 ; Ex. 88, beg. of Part III ; Ex. 89, note *2). — Observe, also, the dynamic 
traits of Exs. 64, 74, 76, 83, 86, 91 and 99; and of all future quotations. 

(b) Hand in hand with these factors, often almost inseparably, 
go those shades of expression which refer to the rate of motion, 
(i. e,^ritardando^ accelerando^ sostenuto^ tneno or piii mosso^ etc.). 

See Ex. 83; Ex. 86; the rs\ in Ex. 56; Ex. 76; Mendelssohn, "Song 
without Words" No. 39, last 11 measures. Compare par. 97^. 

4. Contrast. 

96. In paragr. 40, which review, the significance of Unity 
and Variety was demonstrated, in their bearing upon the smaller 
factors of creative structure. 

As the dimensions increase, these same elements are more apt 
to be recognized as the attributes of symmetry and contrast ; 
and while variety and unity are originally of equal importance, 
they gradually and steadily diverge, so that in proportion to the 
magnitude of the design^ the necessity for Sytnmetry decreases^ 
and the need of the element of Contrast becomes more and more 

It is so obvious that Symmetry is of less importance in musical form than 
Contrast, that some composers deny its claims altogether, and labor to avoid 
all evidences of symmetrical structure in their works. But any such extreme 

1 74 STYLE. Par. 97a. 

conception must be condemned. It is more just to moderate this aim by 
merely avoiding the obtrusive evidences of Symmetry ; and, at the same time, 
to restrain all exaggerations of Contrast by constant and serious regard for the 
vital condition of Unity. 

This law is clearly recognizable in all the given details of 
the Part-forms, whence, for instance, the inference may be drawn 
that it is not nearly as necessary to preserve equality of size in 
successive Parts ^ as it is in successive Measures; and that 
contrast in style and character will be more pronounced between 
consecutive Parts than between consecutive Phrases. Hence it 
is that the student should now begin to devote a part of his 
attention to the elements of variety and contrast ; and while he 
must scrupulously observe moderation, Unity, and a rational 
degree of formative and logical agreement, he must not forget that 


Glance at the evidences of Contrast in Ex. 48, No. 2; Ex. 53; Ex. 60 
(Bkethovkn, Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. i, Finale^ ist Theme); Ex. 83; Ex. 86. — 
Observe, in Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words" No. i, how welcome the 
change in the 5th measure of Part II, ip a composition where uniformity 
of style becomes almost oppressive. Note the brilliant effect of the Coda in 
No. 3, with its change in rhythmic style. Also the interludes in No. 23. — 
But observe, too, how wisely the unity of the whole is guarded, in each case. 

5. Style. 

9T. The germs of those distinctions in Style which concern 
the harmonic (and, to a certain extent, the rhythmic) details of 
a musical sentence, are enumerated in par. 14 and 15, and have 
been unavoidably involved in all the foregoing Exercises. But 
style, in the broader sense of the term, depends upon certain 
general characteristics, to which the attention of the student must 
now be directed ; namely : 

(a) Upon the choice of Time ; i.e., the use of the Duple or 
Triple rhythmic group (as respectively embodied in the I or * Time 
of the March, etc., and in the J or | Time of the Waltz, Barcarolle, 
etc.). The characteristic effect of each of these two fundamental 
classes is so generally appreciated, that it suffices here to observe 
that duple measure is the more vigorous, and triple measure the 
more graceful species. There are no other species, unless the 
peculiarity of | (or J) Time, and of \ (or ]) Time, be regarded 
as a radical metrical difference. 

Par.97d. STYLE. T75 

(b) Upon the choice of Tempo; i. e. rate of speed, from 
Adagio^ through Largo^ Larghetto^ Andante* Allegretto^ Allegro 
and Presto^ up to Prestissimo, 

The deep significance of this distinction will appear upon comparing 
Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words '^ No. 22, with No. lo^ and these again 
with No. 36; or the 4 Movements of Beethoven's Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. 2, one 
with another. 

In indicating the tempo^ it should be borne in mind that the given rate — 
for instance, Allegro — refers to the heat in the adopted Time-signature : in 
I Time it must mean that the 8th-notes pass at an allegro-ra.te of speed ; in J 
the same rate would apply to the quarter-notes. The uncertainty which 
prevails, because of a general misunderstanding or violation of this rule, can 
be dispelled by employing the metronome-marks, — e. g. ^ or Jor J = 6o, etc. 

(c) Upon the choice of principal Mode, i.e., major or minor, 
the characteristic distinctions of which are doubtless sufficiently 
palpable to every musical sense. 

(d) Upon certain Rhythmic peculiarities, which, while 
available at any time and in any consistent connection, have 
become chiefly characteristic of certain conventional varieties of 
composition ; for example, the respective typical rhythms of the 
Polonaise, the Bolero, the March, Minuet, Mazurka, etc. 

It would, however, be a deplorable limitation of the student's resources, 
were he to confine his experiments in ** rhythmic style" to those popular 
forms of which a certain (permanent) rhythmic figure is the ruling element. 
Unity, on the one hand, will dictate close adherence to the adopted rhythmic 
figure throughout the section, and even on to the end of the Song-form, — as 
in Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words'* Nos. i, 8, 14, 21, 23, 36, 43; but 
Contrast, with its equally just and persistent claims, must not be disregarded, 
in planning and executing the rhythmic design. Of the ** Songs without 
Words '' cited above, Nos. 8, 21, and 23 bear more or less frequent and striking 
traces of the writer's intention of occasionally abandoning the predominant 
rhythmic motive. 

See Beethoven, Symphony No. 7; observe how, in each one of the 
4 Movements, the prevailing rhythmic figures fix the general character or 
style. Also Schubert, Fantasie, op. 78, 3rd Movement (J/r«Mc//<7); Momens 
musicals^ op. 94, No. 2; No. 4, **Trio" (5-flat signature); No. 5; and ponder 
upon the resources of interest and variety suggested by the following 
manipulations (in different Divisions^ however, be it understood) of a primary 
rhythmic figure: 

*^* Andantino** should be used with discrimination. For the definition 
of this frequently misinterpreted term, see Baker, " Dictionary of Musical 



Par. 97d. 

z. Adagio* 




4— g-#- 

f~r"] p9^^^ 

Origiual form. 
Mennetto tetn^o. 

later : 




Beethoven, op. 34. 



-h "-mJ- 


later : 

2. Andante con moto. 

g^ ffe^p^^ 

Orisciiial form. 

.<4 Uegro. 




later : 





#— *- 




later : 


later : 


g=»-"- ^ ? :J^ §^==^ 





later : 




^ llegro. 





later : 

later : 

The systematic demonstration of this fertile rhythmic process must be 
deferred until the pupil has undertaken the study of ** Applied Counterpoint;" 
but he is already entitled to such uses of it as his stimulated imagination may 
achieve. (It is somewhat akin to the processes described in par. 29c and 32.) 

There is one general rule, in reference to rhythmic style, which 
must be respected, namely : 

The less striking (i. e.,less irregular) a rhythmic figure is, the 
longer may it be adhered to without incurring monotony ; and, 
inversely, the more irregular a rhythmic figure is^ the sooner 
should it be exchanged for a simpler Jigure. 

Par. Oie. STYLE. 1 77 

(e) The well-nigh infinite combinations of the above distinc- 
tions, including those given in par. 95 and 96, afford that complex 
of resources out of which the scarcely definable (for convenience 
called emotional) elements of musical thought are evolved. 
These resources cannot, and should not, be theoretically classified ; 
it is the duty of the individual student to investigate them for 
himself and develop his taste and individual style according to 
what he may discover* 

But against one very popular, and unquestionably mischievous, 
fallacy he must be earnestly warned, namely : the error of supposing 
that Music can definitely indicate any object^ tell a story ^ express 
any idea clearly^ portray any incident^ or transmit emotional con- 
ditions ivith even approximate distinctness. This is not the 
MISSION OF THE TONE-ART. And insisting upon its use in the 
service of other than intrinsically musical ideas, is a degradation 
of its ethereal and lofty calling. 

At the same time, the student must quite as fully realize what Music 
can do: Music can arouse and can reflect emotional states, sometimes with 
greater power, and always with more searching keenness, than other arts. But 
it is not possible to foretell ivhich emotional state will be aroused, save in an 
extremely general way; and the subtility of musical impressions is the very 
attribute which distinguishes the emotional magnetism of Music from all 
other emotional stimuli, and robs these impressions of all definiteness. 

Further, Music can also roughly delineate and imitate (by its melodic 
** lines,'' its rhythmic ** movements," etc.) certain primary motions of the 
material world; but with only just enough clearness to suggest^ — and only 
suggest, — any one of a thousand similar material motions.* 

This imposes thje undeniably binding duty upon the composer, of so 
choosing these accidental elements of suggestion as to avoid incongruity. 
For example, in a ** Slumber ''-song constant or frequent fortissimi would 
be inappropriate, — except as an exposition of '* Humor in Music." For an 
exquisite example of appropriate musical suggestiveness, see Schumann, 
op. 15, No. 12 (** Child falling asleep "); especially the last 6 measures, in which 
the extraordinary widening-out of the chord-forms suggests the distorted 
fancies of half-slumber, while the tired little soul floats out into oblivion upon 
the unresolved J chord of the Sub-dominant. He who can play or hear this 
passage without deep emotion, has not learned the power of the gentle Art 
of Tone ! 

The pupil need make no definite effort to apply these general 
truths. He should ** bear them in mind" and ponder over them, 

*See the Revue philosophique for Febr., 1893, pages 124-144 (translated 
in the ** Music Review/' July and August, 1894). 

178 CODA AND CODETTA. Par. 98a. 

and leave the issue to the absorbing and assimilating processes 
peculiar to his own mental organism. In the meantime he is to 
follow all the given rules to the very letter. 

Coda and Codetta. 

08. The difference between these two terms is solely one 
of extent, — '* Coda " being the original designation for an indepen- 
dent ending, and ** Codetta" signifying '*a small Coda." The 
distinction may be formulated with greater accuracy by calling 
every single addition at the end (even when repeated and 
extended) a codetta, and defining the coda as a series of 


The latter (a series of Codettas) is extremely unlikely to appear anywhere 
in the course of a composition ; hence it is saf« to say that the term Coda will 
be applied only to the ending of the whole, whereas a Codetta may be added to 
any sufficiently definite member or Part^ even in the course of the design. 

(a) The object and character of the Codetta are defined in 
par. 51, which carefully review, with all the illustrations; and see 
also par. 27 and par. 32. — ^The primary purpose, which corresponds 
to the ** Extension of a Phrase-cadence," remains the same through 
all the grades of dimension in which it is achieved ; and the 
dimension, or length, of the Codetta will increase in a more or 
less regular ratio to the size of the body of the design to w^hich 
it is affixed. 

These proportions may be approximately graded, as follows, — 
it being remembered that a complete perf, cadence usually precedes 
the Coda or Codetta^ to mark the limit of the body of the design. 

(i) The shortest cadence-extension is the reiteration (perhaps 
3, 3, or 4 times) of the single final Tonic chord, 

(2) The next larger extension consists in a repetition (perhaps 
2 or 3 times) of the two cadence-chords (V— I). 

(3) The next larger formation is somewhat apt to be a brief 
Codetta (i. e., not an extension of the given cadence, but an 
** appendix," independent of the latter), about two measures in 
length; generally repeated, and possibly extended as at (i) or (2). 

(4) The next larger independent ending would be a Codetta 
oi four measures^ probably repeated and extended. 

Par. 08b. CODA AND CODETTA. 1 79 

(5) The next larger formation might be such a 4-measure 
Codetta (repeated), followed by another of 2 measures (repeated 
and extended). This series of Codettas would be termed a Coda. 

(6) A still broader Coda would consist of an 8-measure 
Codetta (possibly repeated), followed by one of 4 measures (prob- 
ably repeated) , and another of 2 measures (almost certainly repeated 
and extended). No larger form of Coda would be appropriate in 
the present grade of forms. 

Nos. 2 and i of this schedule will suffice, as a rule, for the 
*' Phrase"; Nos. 3, 2, and i for a large Phrase, or ''Period"; 
Nos. 4, 2 and i for a large Period, Double period, or ''Part" ; Nos, 
5, 2 and I, or No. 6, for an entire 2-Part or 3-Part " Song-form." 
It will be observed that the proportionate length is obtained by 
adding a higher (larger) grade, and not by singling out any 
special grade ; in other words, the smaller grades are all expected 
to follow, in order to preserve the tapering form. But it must 
be distinctly understood that this entire schedule is only an approxi- 
mate theoretical tahle^ and not necessarily practically bindings save 
as it illustrates an important and generally valid principle. 

An exact illustration of this tapering form is found in Chopin, Mazurka 
35 (op. 56, No. 3), last 32 measures (Coda of 5 sections: an 8-meas. section, 
with repetition; then a 4-meas. Phr. with repetition; then a 2-meas. Codetta, 
with repetition; then one measure, repeated, and a final reiteration of the last 

Chopin, Nocturne No. 8 (op. 27, No. 2), last isJjj measures (4-mea8. 
Codetta, repeated ; 2-meas. Codetta, repeated ; Tonic extension). 

Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words " No. 30, last 19 measures (4-meas. 
Codetta, repeated; 2 measures, repeated; one measure, 4 times; final chord 
through 3 measures) . 

Beethoven, Bagatelle op. 33, No. 2, last 28 measures (similar); Bagatelle 
op. 33, No. I, last I3J<^ measures (4 measures, repeated; 2 measures, repeated 
twice; one measure); Bagatelle op. 33, No. 6; see also op. 33, Nos. 3, 4 and 7. 
. Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words," No. 11 (last 8^^ measures); No. 
12 (last 12 measures); No. 14 (last 11 meas.); No. 19 (last 15)^ meas.); No. 34 
(last 17 meas.); No. 42 (last 15 meas.). 

In the "Songs without Words," Nos. i, 13, 25, etc., the entire **Song" 
has no more than a brief Codetta. In No. 24 the Coda is very long (44)^ 
meas.). In No. 6 there is first a Codetta, and then a Postlude corresponding 
to the Prelude. In Nos. 7, 8, 10, etc., the formation of the Coda is irregular, 
1. e., not agreeing with the above schedule. 

(b) 'It has already been stated that a Codetta, being somewhat 
independent of the body of the design, may also be independent in 

l8o CODA AND CODETTA. Par. 98c. 

its thematic structure. This is a little more likely to be the case 
with larger Codettas, and Codas, whereas the smaller appendages 
are less likely to contain new motives. The following examples 
will sufficiently illustrate the derivation and thematic character of 
the Coda : 

Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words " Nos. 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, 25, 26, 31, 37 ; 
here the Coda or Codetta is in each^case derived from the first Phrase of Part 
I ; often by ** Melody-expansion " (par. 32). In No. 15 it is developed out of 
the end of Part III. 

In Nos. 29, 32, 44, 46 it is a reflex of Part Second. This is more logical 
than it is usual, in composition; for the Coda will follow Part III most 
naturally in the same way that Part II followed its First Part ; and Part II, 
if independent of Part I, may need just such corroboration (see par. 103). 
It will be observed that in this case the melodic member used will appear in 
two different tonalities ; at first in the key or harmony of the Second Part, and 
in the Coda, — of course, — transposed to the principal key. 

In Nos. 22 and 43, and in op. 72, No. 4 (Mendelssohn), the Coda is 
a contracted recapitulation of Parts II and III. In Nos. 11, 12, 19, 36, 48, 
it contains more or less new melodic material. 

(c) The most appropriate place for a Codetta is at the end 
of the entire structure, where, according to the dimension of the 
body, it may, if necessary, expand into a Coda. 

But the possibility of thus rounding off an earlier section of 
the form has been touched upon, and examples of a Codetta to the 
Second Part have already been seen (par. 89^, last clause). 

Far more natural and customary than this, however, is the 
addition of a brief Codetta to the First Part^ usually w^ith repeti- 
tion and extfension. This presupposes that the design of the entire 
Song- form is somewhat broader than usual. 

See Mendelssohn, "Song without Words" No. 39, last 2 measures of 
Part I. 

Haydn, Symphony No. 3 (Peters ed.), Menuetto^ Part I; Symph. No. 4, 
MenuettOy Part I ; Symph. No. 8, MenuettOy Part I; No. 9, Meuuetto^ Part I. 


A, An example in major, (ordinary Complete 3-Part Song-form as in 

former chapter,) with such application of the irregular Cadence-conditions 

(par. 93) as may be appropriate ; with greater modulatory freedom (par. 94) ; 

and with some dynamic design^ — the Song to contain at least one // and one 

ff^ disposition optional (par. 95) . A Coda is to be added (par. 98) . 

Also a similar example in minor, with Coda. 

Par. 09a. 



B, A similar example in Adagio tempo (par. 97^), with some regard to 
the conditions explained in par. 96 ; and with a Coda, 

An example in Presto tempo, with a Codetta to Part I, and a Coda to the 

C Optional, (but simple 3-Part form). See par. 137, 

The Incomplete 3-Part Song-form. 

99. In the Incomplete (or abbreviated) form, the Third Part 
IS considerably shorter than Part /, in consequence of reproduc- 
ing only a portion, instead of the whole, of the latter. 

It is evident that this reproduced portion must, however, 
include the very jirst memher of Part I, at least, in order to fulfil 
the essential condition of the tripartite design, i. e., the return to 
the beginning (^zx . 8ia; par. 84^, 4th clause). A single measure, 
if of somewhat striking character, may be sufficient to establish 
this distinction ; but, as a rule, no less than an entire Phrase of 
Part I recurs, as Part III. 

(a) If the First Part is a Period of parallel construction, 
Part III may appear to be the Consequent Phrase ; or it may be 
combined out of the essential members of both Phrases. But 
if the construction of Part I is contrasting, or if it consists of 
a Group of dissimilar Phrases, then the^r^^ of these Phrases must 
constitute the body of Part III. 

The difference between the "Incomplete** and the "Incipient" 3-Part 
Song-form is discoverable in the extent (or form) of the Second Part. In 
the Incipient form, both Part III and Part II are so brief as to constitute 
together, apparently, no more than the equivalent of Part I ; in the Incomplete 
form, on the contrary, Part II is a full-fledged '* Part,'* about the identity 
of which there can be no question, not even of quantity, while Part III is 
a decidedly contracted recurrence of the First Part. Thus : 




II VlIl(I) 

Phr. Phr. 


Per. or Group 



= the 3-Patt Period. 

= the Incipient 3-Part Song-form. 

V III (I) 


"V III (I;\r" 

= the Incomplete 3-Part Song-form. 

= the ordinary Complete form. 



Par. 99a. 

For illustration : 

Assai tiUegro. 


a¥f I ^ ^rir 



N=^ ^ Jjjl^ l 



y ^> 





Part in. 




" ^ - ti-i-i 



•-'//Tn P 


■/^-rg: ^ 












*i) The First Part is a full parallel Period, of 8 measures; Part II is also 
S measures in length; Part III contains only -six measures, in Phrase-form. 
At first glance, 3 or 4 of these last measures may seem to be derived from 
the Consequent of Part I ; but, while they correspond to the latter in register 
only, their thematic agreement with the first Phrase is complete. The 5th 
measure is derived from the last measure of Part I, and a 6th measure is added 
for the sake of symmetry. 

See also : Mendelssohn, op. 82, Theme ; op. 83, Theme ; op. 72, No. 4 ; — 
in each case Part III is just one-half the contents of the First Part; apparently 
the 2nd half, but always including the beginning. 

Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words '* Nos. 12 ; 20; 15 ; 43. In No. 3, 
the First Part is a Group of six Phrases; Part III contains the ist, 2nd and 
6th of these Phrases, besides 3 other (intermediate) measures. 

Chopin, Mazurka No. 11; No. 32, first 44 measures; No. 51, first 40 
measures (Part II an exact reproduction of Part I, but in a different key). 
Chopin, Nocturne No. 3 (op. 9, No. 3), ^^ Agitato^^^ — Part III derived from 
second half of First Part, but including the beginning. 

Mozart, Pfte. Son. No. i (Cotta ed.), Andante, (Part III corresponds 
exactly to 2nd half of Part I, but the construction of the latter is parallel. 

Haydn, Symphony No. 5 (Peters ed.). Finale, Principal Theme (model 
Second Part, sectional form; Part III like 2nd half of Part I, but including 

Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. 6 (op. 147), **Trio" of 3rd Movement. 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. 3, Scherzo (Part III about one-half the 
contents of First Part, and followed by two Codettas of 8 and 9 measures). 

Schumann, op. 82 (** Waldscenen"), No. 5. 

Grieo, Lyric Pieces, op. 43, No. 2 (II and III repeated). 

Brahms, op. 116, No. 3, •* un poco meno AllegroJ^ — Op. 118, No. 2, up to 
first double-bar (Part I a reg. Period, repeated ; the first member of Part III is 
in the '* contrary motion " of Part I ; Part III a Phrase, followed by Codetta, 
rep. and extended). Op. 118, No. 4, up to double-bar (both Part I and Part III 
close with a semicadence). — Op. 119, No. 2, second tempo (4-sharp signature). 

(b) In some cases the Third Part is only a slightly contracted 
version of Part I, — ^as, for instance, in Ex. 91 (only one measure 
omitted). Such examples, where Part III does not omit any essen- 
tial portion of Part I, should be classed among the Complete forms. 

This may seem to place Ex. 94 in a somewhat doubtful position, though 
its Third Part is an indisputable contraction in /br/», from Period to Phrase. 

See also Chopin, Nocturne No. 19 (op. 72, No. i) ; Part I, 21 measures. 
Part III, 16 measures. 

Mendelssohn, Praeludium op. 35, No. i (Interlude betw. Parts I and II ; 
elaborate Coda). 

(c) On the other hand, as already intimated, a very few of the 
first beats of Part I, if fairly striking in character, will suffice to 
establish the tripartite design. But, unless this meagre indication 



Par. 99c. 

of a ** Return to the beginning " be followed by enough consistent 
material to fill the just measure of a full-fledged **Part" (in the 
manner to be seen in the 2nd and 3rd stages of the fully developed 
form, par. 102^ and c), it will not, of itself alone, entirely over- 
come the impression of a 7w<?-Part design. For illustration : 











Part n. 


fjj^UM' riti^ 


etc. See originaL 



I I I 









Part III. *I) 

. .. nTn m Jl 

rr tr 

rATm UtfCa 



Mbmdblssohn, op. 7, No. 6. 

*i) There maj be some doubt as to whether this last 4-measure sentence 
suffices to represent a definite Third Part, but the doubt is scarcely reasonable. 
It contains, to be sure, less than one-half of its First Part ; but, firstly, it is 
a complete 4-meas. Phrase; and, secondly, the peculiarly effective dynamic 
conditions with which it is ushered in {cresc, molto ^^^ //), emphatically 
mark one of the vital "angles" of the structural design. Almost precisely 
the same conditions prevail in the same opus (7), No. i. 

In Mendelssohn, op. 14, Andante (Introduction to Rondo), the recur- 
rence of the first member, 5 measures from the end, is barely more than an 
intimation^ and therefore the form is probably only 2-Part. 

In Chopin, Prelude, op. 28, No. 21, the intimation of the Recurrence 
is also vague, but the form is surely 3-Part, on account of the individuality of 
the Second Part. In the following Prelude (No. 22), a Third Part can hardly 
be proven. 

In Beethoven, Symphony No. 8, ** Trio " of 3rd Movement, there is 
a fairly convincing intimation of a Third Part, in meas. 9 of Part II. 

' In Haydn, F-minor Pfte. Variations, the intimation of a Third Part 
is very vague in the Principal Theme, but quite distinct in the F-major 
Division which follows. Consequently, the former is probably 2-Part, the 
latter Incipient 3-Part form. 

In Bach, Well-tempered Clavichord, Vol. II, Prelude 12, a Third Part is 
** intimated" ; the same in Bach, English Suite No. i, Sarabande, 

In Schumann, yugend- Album ^ op. 68, No. 7 (F major), the intimation 
is so vague that the form is obviously only 2-Part; the same is true of 
Mendelssohn, Scherzo a capriccio (FJ(), Principal Theme; Beethoven, 
7 Variations in F (P. v. Winter), Theme ; Haydn, Symphony No. 6 (Peters 
ed.) Andante (32 measures; 2-Part form, each Part repeated). 


Two examples, one in major and one in minor, of the Incomplete 3-Part 
Song-form. — Choose a different kind of Time, grade of Tempo, dynamic 
design and rhythmic style for each. Review the directions given in Exercise 
9, last clause. — Add a Codetta or Coda, and an Introduction, if appropriate. 

1 86 


Par. 100. 

The Augmented Two-Part Song-form. 

1 00. The occasional inclination of a Second Part to revert, 
in its later course, more or less emphatically to the first member of 
Part I, as seen in the preceding paragraph, is scarcely less likely 
to involve some other ^ later ^fragment of the First Part, 

If the fragment thus borrowed from Part I is any other than 
the first member, every suspicion of the genuine tripartite form 
vanishes, because it is no longer a return to the beginning : the 
form is unquestionably Two-Part. 

If, again, the borrowed fragment is merely a corroboration 
of the ending of Part I, as ending of Part II, without causing 
any palpable check in the current of the latter, there is quite as 
evidently no essential change or enlargement of the Two-Part" 
design (see Ex. 73). 

If, however, finally, the Second Part has been sufficiently 
individualized, arfd, in consequence, a disposition to '' return " 
asserts itself, but, in thus evidently returning, choice chances to 
fall upon some later (though equally characteristic) member of the 
First Part, it is certain that the form has become richer than 
the ordinary Two-Part design, though without reaching the lowest 
limits of the Three-V^iXX. form. (Review par. 65, and par. 77, 
first clause.) For this intermediate design the term "Augmented 
2-Part form " seems most appropriate. 

The form is strictly only bipartite, because the vital distinction of the 
tripartite form is wanting, excepting as its presence is to a certain degree 
** understood '' through the act of substitution which takes place, whereby 
an inferior agent is accepted as the representative of the expected one. If 
** distinct evidence of a return to the beginning''^ is to be upheld as an 
inviolable condition of the genuine Three-Part Song-form, then the follow- 
ing Example (96) is only a bipartite design ; and such other, still larger 
specimens as maybe found, consisting unmistakably of three distinct Parts ^ 
but lacking this evidence of a return to the beginning, must be classified 
among the *' Group-forms*' (par. 114). For illustration: 

A dagio. 

96. < 

Par. 100. 



k U f 


*i) Old-German love-song (harmonized by L. Stark). 

*2) Part II is a full Period, up to this point, equivalent in length and 
form to the First Part. The Phrase which follows is not derived from the 
beginning but from the ending of Part I, and therefore it is not a genuine 
Third Part. Under other circumstances, such an example as this, especially 
if broader in dimensions, might be called a Group of (3) Parts ; but, consider- 
ing the close affinity between this final Phrase and all the rest of the Song, it 
appears most accurate to speak of it as an Augmentation of what is actually 
no more, in substance, than a Two-Part form. The confusing resemblance 
between this example and Ex. 73 cannot be denied ; but there ^ the Second Part 
reverts to the ending of Part I without checking its course, or augmenting 
its formal design ; while herey the Second Part might seem complete without 
the addition ; therefore the latter is really an augmentation of the design. 

An excellent illustration is to be found in Mendelssohn, ** Song without 
Words " No. 18 ; in measures 30-32 the Second Part evinces all the symptoms 
of coming to an end, and in meas. 32 a motive sets in (with strong dynamic 
emphasis and every other indication of a "new Part") which probably any 
one, at a first hearing, would accept as a genuine Third Part ; — on examination 
it proves to be the second member of Part I, and not the initial one at all. 
The formal proportions are almost exactly the same as in Ex. 96, so the same 
reasons prevail for calling it an Augmented Two-Part form. 

See also Brahms, Rhapsody ^ op. 79, No. i, ** Trio " (signature of 5 sharps). 
In meas. 8-9 of the Second Part there are strong indications of a regular 
Dominant-ending ; but the Phrase which follows is not sufficiently convincing 
of a return to the beginning. 

Brahms, op. 116, No. 6 (Intermezzo) first 24 measures; Part II contains 
a reproduction of all the First Part, excepting its first Member (2 measures) ; 
one is tempted, therefore, to call this ** 3-Part Song-form." Brahms, Pfte. 
Ballad, op. 10, No. 2, first 23 measures (excellent illustration). 

See also Chopin, Nocturne No. 3 (op. 9, No. 3), Principal Song (Part I 
20 measures and repeated ; Part II 16 measures, followed by an Augmentation, 
consisting in the last Phrases — 8 measures — of Part I). 

In Chopin, Mazurka No. 28, the design must be called Incomplete 3-Part 
Song-form, because the first member of Part I — omitted in Part III — is much 
like an unessential Introduction ; and because every other essential condition 
points to three distinct Parts^ the third of which is an almost exact recur- 
rence of Part I, contracted, and without the ** Introduction." 



An example of the Augmented Two-Part form, all details optional. 



101. The complete development of the resources of the 3-Part 
Song-form depends, finally, upon the treatment of the Third 
Part, which, after having fulfilled the necessary condition of the 
tripartite design by reproducing the Jlrst member of Part /, may 
thereafter be elaborated into a more or less individual Part, inde- 
pendent enough (in its later conduct) of its original First Part, to 
constitute a coordinately interesting and essential section of the 
form. In this line of progressive development, four stages may be 

1 02d.. Stage i is represented by Ex. 91 and its context 
(par. 91) ; here Part III is either a literal recurrence of the First 
Part, or contains no other than such unessential modifications, and 
3r/^ extensions, as add to its attractiveness without affecting the 
form, or any other essential feature of the Part. (Mendelssohn, 
*' Songs without Words," Nos. 45, 22, 32, 35.) 

(b) In Stage 2, the Third Part is an extended version of its 
First Part, or, more commonly, of a portion of the same. As 
a rule, it reproduces only a certain fraction or section of Part I 
literally; generally no more than the first Phrase, or such a portion 
of the "beginning" as suffices to establish the tripartite design ; 
and then, after doing this, fills out the remainder of its allotted 
length (usually at least equal to, if not beyond, the length of 
Part I) by an extension or expansion of this member^ along lines 
approximately parallel with its First Part. For illustration : 





Part II. 






Part in. 


• • 



8 measares; 
see Origiual *1) 


• • 


*i) Haydn, Symphony No. i (Peters ed.), Andante, The principal 
melody of Part I is transferred, in Part III, to the lower part, and is retained 
almost literally for 4 measures. 

*2) From here on. Part III abandons the line of the First Part, and carries 
out an interesting extension of the melodic figure of its 4th measure, followed 
by a somewhat independent Cadence-member. The Third Part exceeds Part I 
in length by 2 measures. 

See also: Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 9(Cotta ed.) Presto^ Prin. Theme. 



Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 7, 3rd Movement, up to the *' Minore " (Part III 
very elaborate, — perhaps passing beyond this 2nd Stage; a Codetta is added); 
the same Sonata, Largo^ Prin. Theme (similar). 

Mozart, Pfte. Son. No. 9 (Cotta ed.) **Trio'' of Menuetto (peculiar 
example; Part III contains no more than the first ij^ measures of Part I, 
exact ; the rest of the way — 15 measures — not a single member agrees literally 
with the original Part, but the general parallelism is so perfect that the actual 
difference would not be suspected). 

Chopin, Mazurka 18; Nocturne 18 (op. 62, No. 2), 32 measures (also 
Incomplete Form, i. e., Part III decidedly shorter than I); Nocturne 13 (op. 
48, No. i) Prin. Theme (somewhat beyond the 2nd Stage). 

Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words,*' No. 42; 46; 31; (compare, in 
every instance, Part III very minutely with Part I). 

Grieg, Lyric Pieces, op. 43, No. 5. 

Brahms, op. 117, No. 2; op. 118, No. i. 

(c) Stage 3 is characterized by the presence of more or less 
radically new melodic material in Part III. It emerges naturally 
out of the 2nd Stage, and is sometimes scarcely distinguishable 
from the latter, because it is not always possible to determine just 
when the * * extension ' ' of the initial portion of Part I digresses 
far enough from its original object to become *'new" in effect. 
But usually the evidence of really new (though, of course, strictly 
kindred) members in the Third Part is unmistakable, as in the 
following : 

Allegretto. ^^ ^^ Y 


^f JTw^ J 




-8 measnres; 
Isee Oiiginair 

Part m. (from Part I.) 



Y *1) (Extensionof prin. member.). 

\ — H 


• • 



y (New member). 

y (Reproduction of new member). *2) 

Mrndblssohn, op. 73, No. 3. 

eto. Codetta. 


*i) Up to this point, Part III is a literal reproduction of the first Phrase 
of the First Part; then the line of Part I is abandoned, and in its place stands, 
first, a 4-meas. extension of the first figure, and then an entirely new, but 
sufficiently homogeneous, member, which is confirmed by reproduction. 

*2) In connection with this reproduction of the new member, see par. 103. 

This 3rd Stage represents the most perfect, richly developed, 
and beautiful variety of the genuine 3-Part Song-form ; and it is, 
therefore, quite commonly adopted, especially by modern writers. 
Examples of it are very numerous, but its resources are not, and 
cannot be, exhausted. (Stage 4, as will be seen, contains one 
further trait of structural coherency, but is, on the whole, a trifle 
less genuine than the 3rd Stage.) 

See also: Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words," Nos. 37, 40 (between 
the 2nd and 3rd Stages); Nos. 25, 26, 36, 47 (all 3rd Stage). In No. 2, the Third 
Part has a somewhat suspicious break in its i6th measure, upon an imperfect 
Tonic cadence, but the following 16 measures are so intimately related to the 
preceding members, that they can hardly be called a Coda (comp. par. 93^). 

Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. 6 (op. 147), Andante, Prin. Theme. 

Chopin, Mazurka 32 (op. 50, No. 2) last 100 measures (comp. with Principal 
Song, at the beginning), — Part I 16 measures. Part II 16 measures, Part III 
33 measures, 17 of which are '* new.'* 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 10, No. 2, Allegretto, first Song (codetta added); 
Pfte. Son. op. 10, No. 3, Menuetto, first Song; op. 14, No. i, Allegretto, first 
Song; Symphony No. i, ** Trio " of 3rd Movement; Symphony No. 3, ** Trio " 
of 3rd Movement. 

Brahms, op. 118, No. 3, Subordinate Theme (5-sharp signature). This 
example might be called a Quadruple Period, but the 4th Phrase is so distinct 
in style as to tempt the assumption of a ** Second Part," brief and Interlude- 
like though it is. Op. 119, No. 3 (Part I 24 meas.. Part II 16 meas.. Part III 
modified at beginning, and extended). Capriccio, op. 76, No. 8. 

Schubert, Motneus musicals, op. 94, No. 6, first Song. 

Schumann, op. 82 (** Waldscenen") No. i; Part III very elaborate and 
followed by a Codetta, after an imperfect Cad. on a J chord. 

(d) In Stage 4, the Third Part contains, besides its own 
rightful material, some characteristic member of the Second Part, 

The portion thus borrowed from the (foregoing) Second' Part 
may be of any extent, from a single melodic member up to a 
Phrase, or an entire Period; but it must be something peculiar 
to Part 11^ and not a passage which found its way into that Part 
from Part I, — ^as is more likely to be the case ; hence, this device 
is more liable to be adopted when Part II is partly **new" in 
construction (par. 87^). In no case will Part III include the whole 
of Part II, but only some characteristic portion. 



The borrowed member will almost invariably be subjected to 
a transposition ; for, while likely to appear at first in some key 
conforming to the modulatory design of the Second Part, it will, in 
Part III, be transferred to the principal key. 

Finally, the member borrowed from Part II, must, in order 
to affect the design, recur during t^le course oi the Third Part, i. e., 
before its final cadence. Otherwise it will only become a part 
of the Codetta or Coda (as seen in par. 983, last two clauses, which 
review). For illustration : 

A ndante. 









^v^ ^ 1 > 

:?2— ;5= 

-— * 






i kh-^:^ L ^ \ ?:;^^^n[j^ ^^ 


Conseq. Phr. 

fH d r^ 


/ *"** .,/ ' ***" dim, ' 



f sf dim. pocoraU, 

Part m. (from Part I). 

i feZJ ? J . i^ 



r J ^ L4 

d^ ^ > ^ '^ 

u i r r rr 





( from Part 11) Mendelssohn. S. w. W., No. 7. 

rep. &Goda. 

*i) Up to this point, Part III pursues the line of the first Phrase of Part I 
closely; what follows is neither a continuation of Part I with unessential 
changes (as in Stage i), nor a mere extension of the foregoing member (as in 
Stage 2), nor is it new (as in Stage 3), but is borrowed from the foregoing 
Second Party to the Consequent Phrase of which italmost exactly corresponds, 
save in key. This is an unusually striking example; so characteristic, in 
fact, that the Third Part might be called a contracted recurrence, or '* Re- 
capitulation," of both Parts I and II. Compare it carefully with the text 
(par. io2tf), all the conditions of which it fulfils. 

See also : Mendelssohn, '* Songs without Words,'* No. 41 (similar to the 
above; Part III further enriched by an additional **new'* member); No. 38 
(meas. 10-19 of Part III are derived from meas. 6-8 of Part II) ; No. 30 (meas. 
15-22 of Part III borrowed from Part II); No. 13 (meas. 13-15 of Part III 
taken from II) ; No. i (meas. 5-6 of III borrowed from II). In Nos. 10, 33, 28 
the coincidence between portions of Parts III and II is more general than 
detailed. — ^Mendelssohn, Praeludium op. 35, No. 5. In Praeludium op. 35, 
No. 4, there is a suspicion of the borrowed portion constituting the beginning 
of the Coda. See also op. 7, No. 2 (very broad; large Second Part) ; Andante 
cantabile in B major. 

Chopin, fitude No. 2 (" Moscheles-F6tis " Method). 

Brahms, op. 116, No. 4. — Schumann, Jugend-Alhuniy op. 68, No. 2. — 
Beethoven, Symphony No. 2, Scherzo^ Principal Song. 


1 03- According to the law of Corroboration, — which be- 
comes more imperative in proportion to the increasing dimension 
of the musical design,— every member which assumes a sufficiently 
striking or impressive individuality to attract more than passing 
attention, should recur more or less exactly, sooner or later, (it 
does not much matter when or where,) for the sake of thematic 
confirmation and structural balance. Or, negatively expressed, it 
is necessary to avoid the isolation of any conspicuous passage or 
tnemher; the law of Unity demands its corroboration somewhere 
or other within reasonable limits. 

This rule is involved by the law of Contrast (par. 96, which review), the 
action of which must be counterbalanced by that of Corroboration. The 
greater the Contrast, — ^be it in quantity or quality, — the greater the need of 
Corroboration; hence, these two equally important conditions of rational 
Form are mutually dependent. 


This very strongly emphasizes the principle of Repetition, and 
of Reproduction, as fundamental structural law; see par. 17, 23, 
Ex. 46, par. 41, 42, 43, 54, etc. 

It demonstrates the logical justice of the tripartite designs ; 
see par. 8ia, 91. 

It accounts for the occasional similarity between the ending 
of Parts I and II (par. 75). 

It is often the direct cause of the Third Part reverting to some 
characteristic motive of Part II (par. i02d) ; or of the derivation 
of the Coda from Part II, w^hen the latter is somewhat independent 
of its First Part. 

And, finally, it resolves itself into a more general (though not 
rigid) rule for the treatment of any single member which, being 
nev)^ or striking^ (in obedience to the demands of Contrast,) rises 
abovfe the level of its surroundings and becomes a salient feature 
of its Division ; such a member should, in well-balanced Form, 
reaffear somewhere, further on, — perhaps in the Coda. 

For illustrations of this law, see Ex. 98, Note *2). 

Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words," No. 4 (the independent Prelude, 
recurring as Postlude, at the end) ; No. 38 (the independent rhythmic figure 
in measures 6 and 7 of Part II, reappearing in Part III). 

Beethoven, Rondo in C, op. 51, No. i (Cotta ed., wherein all the Themes 
are marked) ; the triplet treatment of the principal motive, in measures 8-9 
of the Retransition after the 2nd Subord. Theme, recurs in the following Prin. 
Th., measures 4-5; the ascending chromatic run in b-sextolets at the end of 
the same Retransition, reappears near the end of the Coda; the a.4cending 
arpeggios in measures 1-2, 5-6, of the 2nd Subord. Theme, are corroborated 
in measures 6-1 1 of the Coda. 

Mozart, Rondo in A minor (Cotta ed. No. 20) ; meas. 5 of the ist Sub. 
Th. is developed at the beginning of the ist Retransition ; meas. 16-18 of the 
ist Sub. Th. reappear later on in the same Retransition ; the ^-figure in meas. 
5-6 of the 2nd Sub. Th. reappears near the end of the Coda; meas. 5-10 of the 
2nd Retransition are reflected at the end of the Coda. 

Many other proofs might be adduced, of an equally convincing character, 
in confirmation of the classic rule: *^ Shun the isolation of any significant or 
striking member, ^^ 


An example (major) of the 2nd Stage of the Fully Developed 3-Part 
Song-form (par. 102^.). Review par. 93 to 97. Add Coda or Codetta, and 
Introduction, if appropriate. Par. 130 may be referred to, and utilized if 



Two examples (minor and major) of the Srd Sta^e (psir, 102c). Review 
par. i©3. See par. 137. — Par. 133 may be referred to, and utilized if desirable. 


An example (all conditions optional) of the 4th Stage (par. io2d), — Par. 
135 may be referred to, and utilized if desirable. 

The Large Phrase-Group. 

1 04. Notwithstanding the distrust which the Group-forms 
arouse, and the caution enjoined upoh the beginner in their con- 
ception and employment (par. 58, final clause), their peculiar 
importance among the architectural purposes of musical Form is 
undeniable, and their value (if for no other aim than that of 
variety, and a relaxation of the rigid lines of the primary designs) 
is positive enough, when used in the proper place, and in judicious 

How easily possible it is to obtain a long" line of Phrases, — for 
which the term ** Chain " might be more fitting than *' Group," 
— by adding Phrase after Phrase, without pausing to sever the 
connection, and without diverging from the original character to 
such an extent as to indicate a new ** Part," may be tested in such 
examples as the Pfte. Etudes of Cramer, and other similar com- 

But, the longer the '* Chain" becomes, the stronger will the 
inclination assert itself to mold it into a general agreement with 
one of the regular designs, and thus to give to the otherwise 
almost inevitably incoherent series a more recognizable shape, at 
least approaching the design of the Song- forms, or a broadly- 
magnified Double or Quadruple period. 

See Cramer, fitude Nos. i, 2, 6, 13 (original complete edition, Peters); 
— these are simply Phrase-Chains, with little or no indication of any higher 
structural purpose or disposition; Nos. 8, 10, 14, 78 (quasi 2-Part Song-form); 
No. 5 (quasi Double period) ; Nos. 4, 7 (quasi 3-Part Song-form). 

Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 6 (Cotta ed.) Finale (an introductory Period, 
answering roughly for a First Part; then 15 Phrases in Chain-form, followed 
by two Codettas). 

Chopin, £tude No. i (**Moscheles-F6tis*' method), quasi 2-Part Song-form. 


Bach, Well-tempered Clavichord, Vol. I, Preludes i, 2, 5, 6, 13, 15, (simple 
Chain of Phrases) ; Vol. I, Prelude 10 (probably 2-Part Song, with long and 
distinct Coda) ; VoL I, Prelude 20 (quasi 3-Part) ; 21 (quasi 2-Part) ; Vol. II, 
Prelude 6 (quasi 2-Part). 

Grieg, Lyric Pieces op. 38, No. 5 (quasi Double period; Coda). 

Brahms, op. 116, No. 2 (Intermezzo) fWH troppo presto (6 Phrases, quasi 
Double period, extended). Brahms, op. 116, No. 4, Part I (7 Phrases, quasi 
Double period). — Op. 119, No. 2, first tempo (quasi 3-Part Song- form; a brief 
thematic Phrase reappears several times, in various keys and styles). 



I. Simple Repetition of the Parts, 

, 105. The growth of the ordinary tripartite Song- form into 
a correspondingly legitimate form of Five Parts is initiated by 
the simple condition of Repetition, applied to the Divisions 
of the 3-Part form. 

(a) The general rule for these repetitions is as follows : 

Part I may be repeated alone ; 

Part II should not be repeated alone, but only in company 
with Part III. 

In other words : the ist Division (consisting of Part I) may be 
repeated, and the 2nd Division (consisting of Parts II and III 
together) likewise ; thus : 


(See par. 83a.) 

Either one alone, or both, of these Division-repetitions may 
occur ; and the repetition may be exact (in which case repetition- 
marks :|| will be used, possibly with ist and 2nd ending), or it 
may be unessentially modified. 

The questions : Whether to repeat or not ? Whether to repeat exactly 
or not ? and, if the latter, How little or how much unessential variation to 
introduce ? are touched upon in par. 23, which review. See also par. 103. 
From these, the general principle will be inferred that the advisability of 
repetition depends: (i) upon the simple vequirevaent oi dimension or propor- 
tion, and (2) upon the necessity of emphasizing or confirming a somewhat 
complex^ or a sufficiently attractive^ sentence. Furthermore, a simple sentence 
will call for more elaborate alteration than a complex one. 



(b) The rule against the repetition of the Second Part alone, 
while quite strict, is not infrequently disregarded when the Part 
is small (as in Ex. 78 and Ex. 91) ; or when the repetition is 
followed by additional retransitional material (as in Ex. 84) ; or 
when the repetition, for any other evident reason, does not tend 
to sever the connection with Part III. Other, distinctly irregular, 
cases of the repetition of Part II alone, are shown in par. 11 2^. 

(i) For illustrations of exact rep, of Part /, see Exs. 81, 84, 85, 89; 
Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words," Nos. i, 3, etc. ; Grieg, Lyric Pieces, 
op. 43, No. 5. 

(2) An exact repetition oi Parts II and III taike^ place in Mendelssohn, 
** Songs without Words," Nos. 12, and 45 ; Grieg, Lyric Pieces, op. 12, No. 5, 
No. 7; op. 38, No. 3, No. 6; op. 43, No. 3 (final extension added). 

(3) Both Divisions are literally repeated in Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 2, 
No. I, both Menuetto and its ** Trio " ; Mendelssohn, ** Songs without 
Words," No. 7; Grieg, Lyric Pieces, op. 12, No. 4; op. 38, No. 4. 

(4) For illustrations of the repetition of Part I with unessential modifica' 
iions, see Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words," Nos. 4, 9, 16, 21, 27, 31, 
46; Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 26, Scherzo; Schubert, Momens musicals 
op. 94, No. 6, ** Trio " ; Chopin, Mazurka No. 37 ; Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 15 
(Cotta ed.), Adagio ; Brahms, op. 118, No. 2, first 48 measures; op. 118, 
No. 6. 

(5) Modified repetition of the second Division (Parts II and III) will be 
found in Mendelssohn, "Songs without Words" Nos. 19, 23, 48, 8; Beet- 
hoven, Pfte. Son. op. 53, Finale (Rondo) first 62 measures; Schubert, 
Momens musicals op. 94, No. 2; Chopin, Nocturne No. 11 (op. 37, No. i) 
Principal Song; Nocturne 13, second tempo (C major); Polonaise No. 5 (op. 
44) first 78 measures (introd. 8 meas.) ; Schumann, op. 99, No. 5 {b minor). 

(6) Finally, both Divisions are repeated with modifications , in Mendels- 
sohn, "Song without Words" No. 29; Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 14 (Cotta ed.) 
Adagio^ first 56 measures; Chopin, Nocturne 2 (op. 9, No. 2); Nocturne 3, 
first tempo; Nocturne 15 (op. 55, No. i), first 48 measures; Mozart, Pfte. 
Son. No. II (Cotta ed.) Andante, 


An example of the 3-Part Song-form, each Division (Part I alone, — Parts 
II and III together) repeated^ with unessential variations. See par. 130, which 
may be applied here, if deemed desirable. See par. 137. 

2. More elaborate reproductions of the second Division. 

1 06. The entire line of development, beginning with the 
simple tripartite form and leading up to the genuine 5-Part 
Song-form, does not, in any sense, concern the manipulation of 



the First Part ; but refers exclusively to the reproduction of Parts 
JI and III. It runs through five successive and clearly distin- 
guishable Stages, definable as follows, according to the method of 
treatment adopted in reproducing the Second Part : 

(a) The 1ST Stage in the evolution of the 5-Part form is 
represented by the exact, or unessentially modified, repetition 
of the second Division (irrespective of the treatment of Part I), as 
indicated in par. 105, and illustrated in the fifth set of references 
given above. As nothing beyond the idea of simple Repetition is 
herein embodied, and as ** repetition effectuates no actual advance 
in structural design," whether modified {unessentially^ or not, — 
see par. 21 ^ last clause, — the term ** 3-Part " form must be adhered 
to in this ist Stage. 

(b) In Stage 2, a more significant alteration of the original 
Second Part is made (upon the reproduction of the latter as Part 
**Four"), consisting in its recurrence in a different key. Here, 
already, the term " Five-Part " Song-form may be adopted. 

This transposition of the Second Part may be partial, or 
complete. In the latter case, the Part is transferred bodily, with 
little or no further change, a certain interval upward or downward ; 
usually, though not necessarily, into some closely related key. 

There will be no difficulty in making the modulation into the new plane, 
because of the (presumably) complete cadence at the end of the Third Part, — 
which the transposed version of Part II is to follow. And the return to the 
original key can easily be accomplished during the usual, — ^possibly special, — 
Retransition. Par. 90c. For illustratiQn : 



Part I. (Period, 8 measures.) 



T— etc. ; «ee— 
Original. •!) 

Part XL 


ur^\ i n i h 


Exteusioii y 




t ♦ 

-# — 0- 



K ' " -^ 


T T J f ; J /L i i. j 

j j ^ —r 


Part III. (GroupofaPhnwes). 


• • 


etc.; see Original. 

Part IT. (transposed recurrence of Part H, complete). *2) 



A Minor. 



^■a- i ffl-i^ i ^ 

^..''.j'' PI 




^€' * 







^ ^ ^-^^' i^ i ^ ^i^T^-j^^j^- 


%^ Mf^^^g^''^{t^x;'^;'^ ' »^ ^ 



(recnrrenoe of IH ). 







pp etc.; see Original. 


♦i) Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words" No. 34. 

*2) The entire Second Part is transferred bodily downward a 3rd ; and 
the transposition is literal, only excepting in measures 8 to 10 (chiefly during 
the ** extension'*). 

*3) At this point, the purpose — and the method — of regaining the original 
modulatory line, are displayed. The Fourth Part ends upon E^ a 3rd lower 
than before; here the same Retransition is again utilized, but it gradually 
shifts upward, in admirable keeping with the nature of the figure, until, at 
Note *4), the original location, upon G, is reached. 

See Chopin, Mazurka No. 33 ; the transposition is not literal, but constant. 

Rubinstein, Le Bal, op. 14, "Contredanse,** No. ^{Alleg-retto, % time); 
transposition not literal, but aflPecting the entire Part. 

Schumann, Bunte Blatter (op. 99) No. 12 (** Abendmusik"), Principal 
Song; Part II distinct and repeated; Part III also repeated, alone. 

If, as is somewhat more likely to be the case, the transposition 
of Part II (as Part IV) is not to extend uniformly through the 
entire Part, then the melodic line of Part IV may either be so 
conducted as to return at some point (gradually or abruptly, 
as proves most convenient) to the original line of Part II; or 
Part IV may be abbreviated, or otherwise so manipulated as to lead 
properly into the key of Part V. 

See Mendelssohn, ** Song without Words" No. 24; Part IV sets out 
a step higher than Part II ; the transposition is not literal, but constant, so 
that the Parts are of exactly similar length; in meas.*i3 of Part IV, the 
original melodic line is regained, then again abandoned for \^ measures, and 
then so guided as to close precisely as Part II did. 

In **Song without Words" No. 14, Part IV begins a fifth lower than 
Part II does, and adheres to this interval of transposition up to the 9th 
measure, whereupon a skip of four measures occurs, leading abruptly back 
into the original melodic line of Part II, the last 3 measures of which recur 

In No. 44, the transposition is only partial, affecting the second half {two 
measures) of Part IV, which is a 3rd higher than the corresponding measures 
of Part II ; the change of key spreads slightly beyond the limit of the Part, 
however, and involves the first chord of Part V. (See par. no.) 

(c) In the 3RD Stage, the idea of ** transposition " still 

prevails, for a longer or shorter period, at the beginning of Part 

IV ; but the change of key gives rise, naturally, to other ^ more 

radical, changes in the thematic structure of the Part^ which 

sometimes assume significant proportions. 

See Mendelssohn, op. 72, No. 5 ; Part IV begins a step higher than the 
Second Part does, and pursues the melodic line of the latter quite closely for 
5 measures; then digresses, and expands, but closes just as Part II did. — 
"Song without Words" No. 43; Part IV lies a 4th above the Second Part 


for 4 measures; then diverges, adds 3 **new'* measures, and leads into an 
intimation of the First Part (as Part V). This intimation is almost vague 
enough to justify calling these two ** Parts " a Coda. — ** Song without Words'" 
No. 17; Part I is a small Period, 4 meas., closing with an imperfect cadence; 
Part III has exactly the same melody, but modulates into a similar imperfect 
cadence, thus inaugurating the transposed recurrence of Part IV, as a natural 
consequence; Part IV utilizes two measures of Part II, then diverges, extend- 
ing the given material in an independent manner, and, omitting all the rest of 
Part II, closes in the 7th measure; a long Retrans. follows. 

Cramer, Etude 17 (orig. compl. edition) ; Part IV is much longer than 
Part II, and consists of two similar Sections, both ending with the same 
complete cadence. This last example might, perhaps more accurately, be 
classed among those of the 4th Stage. 

Chopin, Nocturne 8 (op. 27, No. 2); Part I 9 measures, imperfect cadence ; 
Part IV follows the melodic line of Part II quite closely for 8 measures (at first 
a 6th above, then a 2nd below), and then leads back to the beginning with 
a shorter and more emphatic Retransition. 

Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. 10 (B(> major). Finale, first 73 measures; Part I 
repeated ; Part IV begins exactly as Part II does, but soon diverges, trans- 
poses, extends and adds new material, to considerable length. 

(d) In the 4TH Stage in the evolution of the 5-Part Song- 
form, the Fourth Part no longer adheres strictly to any portion of 
the melodic line of Part II (in the same key, or a different one), but 
is a completely *' reconstructed'''^ recurrence of the latter. This 
reconstruction, however, is conducted along lines corresponding 
generally to the former contents and style of Part II, so that a more 
or less palpable resemblance between the two versions is preserved. 

This is admirably illustrated in Chopin, Prelude op. 28^ No. 17; Part II 
begins, in meas. 19, with an enharmonic change ; Part III contains only the 
first half of Part I, and ends with the semicadence at that point; Part IV also 
starts out with an enharmonic change, imitates the conduct of the Second Part 
for a while, but is longer and more elaborate than the latter. Observe, par- 
ticularly, the dynamic design, also, of this composition (par. 95«). 

See further, Mendelssohn, Praeludium op. 35, No. 2 (D major); Part IV 
is very much longer than Part II, and resembles the latter most closely in its 
later course. — Schumann, Arabesque (op. 18), **Minore I.^' 

(e) In Stage 5, finally, all palpable resemblance disappears, 
and Part IV becomes a distinct and individual member of the 
form, — independent of the Second Part, notwithstanding their 
coincidence of purpose. For this, the fully developed, 5"^^^ 
Form, a new title might be adopted, indicative of its characteristic 
and inviolable derivation from the tripartite design, namely : A 


3-Part form with two different '' second " (or ** middle ") Parts, or 
** Departures " (par. 8ia). It is the type of the Form explained 

in par. 124. 

See Schumann, Kreisleriana (op. 16) No. 6 ; Humoreske (op. 20), ** Einfach 
and zart " ; same work, ** Innig " ; Nachtstucke (op. 23), No. 4. 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 13, Adagio; Parts I and V repeated. — Mozart, 
'* Fantasie and Sonata" in c minor, Adagio of the Sonata (Cotta ed. No. 18). 
These two examples are both unusually broad in design, and approach a certain 
grade of the Higher Forms, in connection with which they will again be cited, 
m another volume. 

Chopin, Mazurkas, Nos. i, 2, 5, 8, 15, 30 (long Coda), 48. — Pfte. Son. No. 2 
(op. 35), ** Pid lento *' of Scherzo (Parts IV and V repeated). 

Rubinstein, Le Bai{pp. 14), ** Contredanse," Nos. i, 2, 4. 

Treatment of Part Five. 

1 OT- In all of the above cases of modified reproduction of 
the second Division, the Fifth Part is an additional '''' return'*'' to 
the beginning (or da capd)^ and therefore it is likely to corroborate 
Part III. But it is not necessary that it should correspond exactly 
to the latter. All the various modes of treating the Third Part, — 
the several stages of divergence from, and elaboration of, the First 
Part, enumerated in par. 102a, 3, r, and d (and par. 99^, 3, c), 
— may be exhibited in Part V, irrespective of the species of 
manipulation previously chosen for the Third Part. Hence it is 
possible that Parts I, III and V, while essentially corresponding 
in contents, may all differ in treatment, each representing a com- 
paratively independent version of the original ** Statement" (par. 
8itz) ; perhaps in progressive ratio, — ^Part V becoming the longer 
and more elaborate of the three versions (comp. par. 53) ; but, on 
the other hand, it is equally consistent, though less usual, to 
abbreviate the third '* return," especially in lengthy compositions, 
for obvious reasons. 

In Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words," Nos. 19 and 24, Part V is 
exactly like Part III ; in No. 48 it is a slightly variated recurrence; in Nos. 34 
and 23 it is extended a trifle at the end ; in No. 14 it is considerably changed 
and extended ; in No. 8 it is enriched by the addition of new material. 

In Mendelssohn, Praeludium, op. 35, No. 2, Part V reproduces a larger 
portion of the First Part than the Third Part does (which is unusually brief), 
then adopts the whole of Part II, and then adds new material, — but without 
disturbing its own continuity. 

In Schumann, Kreisleriana (op. 16) No. 6, Part III is an extended version 
of Part I, while the Fifth Part returns to the original form and reproduces 
Part I almost literally. 


In Schubert, Pfte. Son. No. 10 (B|^ major), Andante Movement, Subordi- 
nate Theme (3-sharp signature), the First Part is repeated with a characteristic 
change of style; after Part III is closed, a similar repetition of the second 
Division is started^ with the same change of style, and with every indication 
of genuine purpose ; but upon approaching the end of Part II (IV) the purpose 
is abandoned, for reasons incidental to the Higher Form of which it is a portion, 
and, consequently, Part V does not appear at all. 

In Schumann, op. 82, Nos. 6 and 9, a somewhat similar omission of 
Part V (the final da capo) occurs, though here it is less convincing, because, 
unlike the Schubert example. Part IV differs from Part II. These examples 
will be cited again, in par. 115. 

The Old-fashioned Rondeau, and the 7-Part form. 

1 bSa. The 4th and 5th Stages of the Five-Part Song-form, 
explained in par. 106^ and e^ correspond in design to the most 
common species of the ** Rondeau," — a form that was in vogue in 
the 17th and i8th centuries, and subsequently developed into the 
more elaborate modern ** Rondo." 

Illustrations may be found in "Les Maltres du Clavecin*' (Litolff ed.). 
Vol. II, pages 142, 148, 158, Rondeaus by J. Ph. Rambau. 

(b) The fundamental idea that has been seen to result in the 
enlargement or growth of the tripartite design into one of five 
Parts, is, plainly, that of multiplying the ''^Departures'^'' from 
the original Statement (Part I), in connection with each ensuing 
*' Return." This idea was quite frequently carried still farther, by 
older writers ; more, — it must be observed, — with an eye to mere 
length, than to compactness and true beauty of form. Thus, the 
old-fashioned Rondeau often embraced three and even more differ- 
ent, but kindred, ** Departures " (or *' Counter-themes "), each in 
One-Part form, followed by as many recurrences of the First Part 
('* da capos "). 

See J. S. Bach, Partita II, "Rondeau" (three departures); J. Ph. 
Rameau, "Les Mattres du Clavecin" Vol. II, p. 144 (three departures); 
Francois Couperin, same publication. Vol. II, pages 116, 126 (three depar- 

In its application by later, and by some modern, composers 
to the system of musical designs, it has given rise to a form which, 
by analogy with the above, must be denominated the '* Seven- 
Part Song-form." Fortunately for the purity, concentration 
and stability of musical architecture, these attenuated, restlessly 


revolving structural designs, whose only logical justification is that 
of alternation, are very rarely adopted. -The student of musical 
Form should shun their imitation. 

See Schumann, NachtstUche (op. 23), No. i; 7-Part Song-form (i. e. a 
principal Part, — parallel Period, — with 3 different and distinct ** departures," 
and as many da capps\ followed by a long Coda in which even Parts VIII and 
IX are intimated. — Same opus (23), No. 2, measures 25 to 51 ; 7-Part form on 
a diminutive scale (Part I, 4 measures ; II, 2 measures ; III, 4 measures ; IV= II 
transposed; V, 6 measures; VI, 5 measures; VII, 4 measures, followed by 
Retransition into the Principal Song). — Schumann, op. 15, No. 11; 7-Part 
form, the 3rd departure (Part VI) identical with the first one (Part II). 


A. An example of the 5-Part Song-form, Stage 2 (par. io65) ; all detailed 
conditions optional. Reference may be made to par. 132. See par. 107. 

The pupil should, hereafter, endeavor to sketch his work rapidly, 
especially the principal melodic line or lines, — unless his musical 
disposition be such as to render such a desirable process impracticable or 
insurmountably difficult. In any event, it is wise to fill out as much of the 
details as possible with all necessary accuracy at leisurcy after the main design 
is fixed. See par. 137. 

B. An example of Stage S (par. io6c). See par. 107. — Application of 
par. 129, or 130, may be made, if desirable. 

C. An example of Stage 4 (par. io6e/). See par. 107. — Application of par. 
133 may be made. 

D. An example of Staged (par. io6e). Review pars. 87, 88, 89, 90; pars. 
95, 96; par. 107. — Application of par. 134, or 135, may be made. 



1 09, There are a few other varieties of these musical designs 
(consisting in the association or compounding of ' ' Parts ' ' ) which 
violate one or another of the essential conditions of the regular 
structural plan, and must, therefore, while being accepted and 
sanctioned, be qualified as *' irregular." The pupil can not afford 
to remain in ignorance of them, but must estimate them as very 
rare, and abstain from their too frequent use. 


I. The transposed Third Part. 

* 1 10. K da capo^ or recurrence of the First Part, beginning 
in any other than the principal key, is naturally hazardous, because 
the resumption of the original key (after probable absence from it 
during Part II) is quite as vital an indication of the Third Part, as 
is the recurrence of thejirst melodic member. But a harmless trans- 
position is nevertheless conceivable under the following conditions : 
(i) That the beginning of Part I is of so striking a character 
in melodic, rhythmic or harmonic respect, that its recurrence is 
sufficiently convincing, despite the change of key ; 

(2) That Part III appears just where it is expected ; 

(3) That it appears at nearly, or quite, its full length ; and 

(4) That a decided return to the principal key is effectuated 
during the course of the Third Part. 


Further, the end of Part II should be plainly recognizable. 

The transposition may extend through the entire Third Part, 
or through only a portion of it ; but will always, in this phase of 
irregular form, affect its beginning. 

Illustrations of such "tampering with the beginning" of Part III as 
paves the way to the deliberate transposition of a section, or all, of the Part, 
have been cited in the notes to Ex. 88, and context, and are repeated here for 
renewed reference: Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words," Nos. 40, 41, 36, 
37 (first measure of Part III) ; Chopin, Mazurka 46 (meas. 24-25) ; Nocturne 16 
(op. 55, No. 2, meas. 9) ; Schumann, Waldscenen (op. 82) No. 4, — d minor, 
meas. 23 (comp. with meas. i); Brahms, Balladen op. 10, No. 4, meas. 27-28 
(comp. with meas. 1-2) ; Pfte. Pieces, op. 117, No. 2, meas. 51-54 (comp. with 
meas. 1-3) ; op. 118, No. 2, meas. 34-36 (comp. with meas. 1-2, of which they 
are the "contrary motion"); op. 118, No. 6, meas. 59-62 (comp. with meas. 
1-4) ; op. 119, No. 2, second tempo (4-sharp signature), measures 25-26 (comp. 
with meas. 1-2); op. 119, No. 3, measures 41-42 (comp. with first measure, of 
which they are an ** augmentation "). 

In some cases the transposition of Part III does not affect 
the original Tonic^ but simply changes the mode from major to 
minor, or vice versa. But usually some other (almost invariably 
next-related) Tonic is chosen ; most frequently the Subdominant. 
These various conditions, concerning the manner, the extent, and 
the modulatory relation of the transposed Third Part, are illustrated 
in the following : 

Schumann, Bunte Blatter (op. 99), No. 11, — March in ^/-minor, meas. 
27-30 (a third higher than first Phrase of Part I); same work, No. 3 (Part III 
in Subdom. key) ; Arabesque^ op. 18, ** Minore II ** (Part II very independent). 


Brahms, op. Ii6, No. 5; (Part II ends on Dom., as usual; Part III begins 
in Subdom. key, and follows the First Part closely for four measures, then 
becoming more independent). 

Grieg, op. 38, No. 8, first tempo. 

Beethoven, Symphony No. 3, Funeral Marchy first Theme; (Part III 
begins in Subdom. key; Parts II and III repeated; Codettas). — Pfte. Sonata^ 
op. 14, No. I, Finale^ one-sharp signature. Pfte. Sonata, op. 22, Finale y 
measures 72-103. 

Bach, Well-tempered Clavichord, Vol. I, Prelude 9; Vol. II, Prelude 
19 (in each case. Part III begins in the Subdominant key) ; Vol. II, Prelude 
22 (the same ; Part II begins in meas. 16, Part III in meas. 55). 

Schubert, Momens musicals op. 94, No. i, ** Trio" (one-sharp signature; 
Part III the Opposite mode of Part I for 4 measures) ; Impromptu op. 90* 
No. 4, " Trio" (four-sharp signature; similar); Fantasie in G^ op. 78, " Trio " 
of Menuetto; String-quartet in Ay op. 29, Menuetto. 

Chopin, Nocturne 12 (op. 37, No. 2), meas. 30-69. — Impromptu, op. 36 
(/^-major) ; a unique example, the Parts very broad, very elaborate Coda. 

Sometimes this transposed recurrence is applied to the Fifth 
Part (par. 107). 

And it is not infrequently involved by some modulatory design 
extending through an entire 5-Part Form. 

Haydn, Symphony 12 (Peters ed.). Adagio; (Part V transposed, extended, 
and reproduced in original key ; quasi 7-Part form, with Coda). 

Chopin, £tude op. 25, No. 3 (Parts III and IV transposed ; Part V again 
in original key ; quaint modulatory design). 

Schumann, Faschingsschwank op. 26, movement IV, *' Intermezzo** 
(key-scheme : Part I, ^-^~F\ Part III, ^-a\)-B^ ; Part V, d^-^^-E^). These 
last two unique examples should be carefully examined. 

2. The Group of Parts, Incipient Stage. 

111. The distinction made in chap. VII (particularly pars. 
57, 58, 59) between the regular, coherent forms, and the more 
loosely connected group-formations, may be extended to the 
Part-forms also. Thus, the ** Parts," even in the 3-Part form, 
are sometimes so loosely associated^ with so little regard to the 
principles of logical continuity and cohesion, that only the term 
** Group" may justly be applied. This disintegration of the form 
is initiated by all such liberties in the structure of the Second Part 
as tend to isolate it from its fellows, either in consequence of 
thematic independence and diversity, or of more qr less complete 
separation by a full cadence. 


112. Some of these irregularities have already been inti- 
mated — in par. 87^, and 105^; but it is necessary, here, to 
enumerate them more specifically. 

(a) Cases of undue isolation or distinctness of Part II, 
caused by striking difference in style or thematic structure, or by 
complete detachment (at the cadence) from Part III, are exhibited 
in the following : 

Schumann, Kreisleriana (op. 16) No. 4; Albumbldtter (op. 124) No. 3. 

Chopin, Nocturne 4 (op. 15, No. i). — Brahms, op. 118, No. 5. 

In Brahms, op. 117, No. 2, the Second Part is thematically almost 
identical with Part I, but radically different in style, through its entire length. 

In Brahms, op. 116, No. 2, and Grieg, op. 38, No. i, the distinct Second 
Part is followed by quite an elaborate Retransition. 


in direct consequence of such distinctness of character. Compare 
par. 103 ; and par. 105^5, last clause. For illustration, see : ^ 

Beethoven, Bagatelle op. 33, No. 2; Pfte. Son. op. 14, No. 2, Finale^ 
meas. 73-124 (Part II repeated and extended ; followed by a Retransition). — 
Ex. 91 of this book. — Chopin, Mazurka No. 24. — Schumann, op. 124, No. 4; 
op. 15, No. 6. — Grieg, op. 38, No. 7. . 

An extraordinary example is found in Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 90, 
Finale^ first 32 measures; peculiar, not only because of the (apparently 
uncalled-for) repetition of Part II, but chiefly for its modulatory design; each 
of the three Parts, — including Part II and its repetition^ — closes with a perf. 
cadence in the principal key. Such daring experiments as this are for the 
pupil's amazement, not for his imitation; he must defer them to the period 
of his most absolute maturity. — Compare par. 88. 

113. Indirectly analogous to the Transposed Third Part 
(par. no), is the skqjljkntial, or transposed, reproduction 
of one or another of the Parts, — a process which also militates 
against the stability of the structure. See : 

Bach, Well-tempered Clavichord, Vol. II, Prelude No. 11 (F major); 
modified sequence of Part I, in meas. 17-32. 

Chopin, Prel. op. 28, No. 24; sequential reproduction of First Part, in 
meas. 21-38. Nocturne 18 (op. 62, No. 2), meas. 32-57 ; Two-Part form, Part 
II sequentially reproduced (a third higher). Nocturne 10 (op. 32, No. 2) piii 
agitato ; Two-Part form, reproduced bodily a half -step higher. 

Schubert, Fantasie in G (op. 78) Andante, meas. 31-49 ; a 2-Part form with 
Codetta, followed, in the next 19 measures, by a slightly modified sequence. 

Brahms, Pfte. Son. op. i, Finale^ second Subject (one-sharp signature) ; 
Third Part extended by elaborate transposed reproduction. 


3. Group of Parts, developed, and extended. 

114. The disintegration of the regular Song-form, of which 
the above paragraphs exhibit the incipient stages, becomes complete 
when Part number TTiree (unmistakably identified as such by 
its style, and by the foregoing cadence) does not in any sense 
correspond to the First Part, Comp. par. 8ia. For such a series 
of three independent Parts, no other epithet than *' Group" can 
properly be employed. Review 69^, and 70. See : 

Haydn, Symphony No. 9 (Peters ed.), Finale^ principal Theme. (Part I, 
8-meas. Period; Part II, 8-meas. Period, with strong perf. cadence. on original 
Tonic ; Part III, i6-measure Double period, — suggestive of the foregoing Parts, 
but unquestionably independent of them) . 

Schumann, Papillons (op. 2) No. 9, — Parts II and III similar, each Part 

115. Such examples of the Group-form as are thus limited 
to three Parts, are, however, very rare. It is far more usual, when 
this irregular design is adopted, to extend it to four or more Parts. 

And, quite frequently, the specific principle of the tripartite 
forms is manifested by a ' * return to the beginning ' ' (Part I) , in 
one of the later Parts, — generally the last one. In this case, espe- 
cially, the possibility, and occasional presence, of an independent 
Coda to the Group may be demonstrated. For illustrations, see : 

Beethoven, Bagatelle op. 119, No. 3 (five Parts, each repeated, and 
Coda; Part V like I). — Schubert, Momens musicals op. 94, No. 3 (four Parts 
and Coda; Part IV like I). 

Chopin, Nocturne 5 (op. 15, No. 2; — ^four Parts, and Codetta; Part IV 
like I). Nocturne 6, — four distinct Parts. Nocturne 9 (op. 32, No. i ; peculiar ; 
Parts I to III regular, — III like I ; followed by a Fourth Part which embraces 
a transposed recurrence of Part II, and is repeated, with Codetta-extension). 
— Mazurkas, Nos. 3, 7, 20 (five Parts, V like I); Mazurkas, Nos. 14, 19, 21, 39 
and 41 (four Parts, IV like I); Mazurka No. 27 (five Parts, thus: I, II, III, II, I); 
Mazurka 34 (six Parts, VI like II ; each Part repeated) ; Mazurka 35 (seven 
Parts; I repeated; VI like III; VII like I; VII reproduced, "dissolved" and 
extended; Coda). 

Schumann, Waldscenen (op. 82), No. 6, represents an ostensible 5-Part 
form (Part III like I) with omission of the final da capo (Part V). Such 
deficiencies are usually made partly good in the Coda ; but in this case there 
is no more than a trace (in the last measure) of such a compensation. Op. 82, 
No. 9, is almost precisely the same. In the Papillons (op. 2), No. 8, the form 
is ostensibly 3-Part, with introductory Part (four in all). 


Brahms, Capriccioy op. 76, No. 5 (six Parts, III like I, V like II, VI 
like III, brief Coda; the form is quasi 5-Part, first stage, — par. io6«, — ^with 
interpolated Part after Part III) . 


A. An example of the 3-Part Song-form with transposed Third Part 
(par. no). Choice of key optional ; and the transposition may extend through 
the whole, or only a portion, of Part I. Apply par. 129, or 130. See par. 137. 

B. One example of the Group of Parts, according to par. 115. Apply 
par. 133, or 131. 




116- The last degree of enlargement and development 
possible within the domain of the homophonic forms, is achieved 
by associating' complete Song-forms, See par. 69c. 

The association is effected in general accordance with the rules 
governing the union of Parts in the 3-Part and 5-Part forms, but 
with less stringency. Thus, while the law of '* Recurrence " must 
be respected, more latitude is permitted in regard to thematic and 
formative relation between the several Song-forms; and uninter- 
rupted connection at the points of contact, is the exception, rather 
than the rule. 


1 IT. The most common of these Compound forms consists 
in the association of tivo Song-forms. The one which comes first 
is called the Principal Song (chiefly by virtue of its location, and 
its recurrence) ; the second one in the series is commonly called the 
**Trio" (for reasons derived from a now obsolete custom), but the 
designation adopted in this book, in analogy with the terminology 
of all Higher forms, is *' Subordinate Song." 

After the latter, the Prin. Song recurs, as a '*Da Capo," 
conformably with the ruling principle of all tripartite designs. 
Thus, the Song-form with one * ' Trio ' ' is perceived to be a broader 
exposition of the 3-Part Song-form, in which each *'Part" has 
expanded into a complete ** Song-form." Compare par. 77; 
8ia; 91. 

Besides the popular term "Trio," many others are employed by different 
composers to indicate the Subord. Song in their Compound Song-forms; 
e.g., ** Alternativo," "Intermezzo," "Musette" (in the Gavotte), "Fris" 
or "Friska" (after the "Lassen" in the Hungarian Czardas). In older 
compositions, the successive Song-forms were sometimes simply numbered: 

Par. 118c. THE PRINCIPAL SONG. 211 

Menuet I, Menuet II ; Passepied I, Passepied II, etc. (Bach, 2nd English 
Suite). Sometimes the terms ** Minore " and ** Maggiore *' are used, indicating 
at the same time the corresponding change of mode for the Subordinate Song ; 
and frequently, for a similar reason, the sign of altered tempo or character 
(**pivi lento," **meno mosso," etc.) serves to denote the second Song-form. 
Finally, all external indication is often omitted, save perhaps a change* of 
signature. The derivation of the term **Trio" is illustrated in Bach, 3rd 
French Suite, Menuet (Prin. Song for two melodic parts, Subord. Song for 
ilireey hence a ** Trio *0. 

The details of the Song-form with '*Trio" are as follows: 

The Principal Song. 

1 1 8a- The Principal Song may be of any character, and 
is constructed most frequently in the 3-Part Song- form, with all 
repetitions ; possibly with a brief Codetta. As a rule, it closes with 
a strong perfect cadence in its own key, sufficient to constitute 
absolute independence of form. 

See: BEETHOVEN<Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. i, MenuettOj first Song (40 meas- 
ures) ; 3-Part form, all repetitions. — Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. 2, Scherzo (ditto). — 
In Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 6(Cotta ed.), first movement, the Principal Song 
is repeated entire, as Variation, before the Subord. Song appears. 

(b) A Prin. Song in 2-Part Song-form is very unusual; and 

still more rarely is the One-Part form chosen. In the latter case, 

the Subord, Song must be at least 2- or 3-Part form, and very 

distinct in character. 

See : Chopin, Mazurka No. 50, first 32 measures (2-Part form, each Part 
separately repeated). — Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 31, No. 3, Menuetto (ditto); 
Pfte. Son. op. no, second movement, first signature (2-Part form). — Brahms, 
op. 116, No. 3, first 34 meas. (Prin. Song only One-Part form, — ext. Double 
period ; but the following Subord. Song is 3-Part form and distinct). Op. 116, 
No. 7 (similar). — Hungarian Dances, No. i (Prin. Song 2-Part form, each 
Part repeated)^ Nos. 5, 6, 9, similar. — Chopin, Nocturne No. i (Prin. Song, 

(c) In some comparatively rare cases, a very brief Transition 
intervenes between the Prin. Song and the following '*Trio." It 
serves as a mediating link between the different styles and keys 
of the two Songs, and becomes more necessary, and more extended, 
in proportion to the degree of their differentiation. It need not 
impair the independence of the Prin. Song, for the complete 
cadence of the latter* may precede the transitional passage ; though 
sometimes this cadence is so modified or concealed that the Tran- 
sition may emerge from it. 


See: Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 14, No. i, third movement (Prin. Song, 
3-Part form with Codetta ; one measure of Transition). — Haydn, Symphony 
No. 3 (Peters ed.), Menuetto (2 meas. of Transition precede the "Trio"). — 
Chopin, Prelude op. 28, No. 15 (Prin. Song 3- Part form, cadence evaded — 
measure 27 — by resting on Dominant). — Schumann, Waldscenen (op. 82), No. 
8^ Prin. Song 3-Part form, long Codetta; the cadence-measure transitionally 

The Subordinate Song, or **Trio." 

1 19. The Subordinate Song, or "Trio," should contrast 
quite positively in general character with its Principal Song, 
though radical or extreme difference of style, to the utter exclusion 
of organic interdependence, consistency, and congruity, must be 
avoided. In some examples, especially older Dances, there is 
scarcely any recognizable diversity between the two Songs ; but 
in more modern composition, contrast and separation are the laws 
of the Subord. Song. 

In Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. i, Menuetto^ the Prin. Song is 
rhythmically marked, and somewhat dramatic; the '*Trio" is smooth and 
more lyric ; but the organic harmony between them is perfect- In the next 
Sonata, op. 2, No. 2, Scherzo^ the contrast is more striking; and in the 3rd 
movement of the next (op. 2, No. 3) it is still more emphatic; but in both, 
admirable consistency is preserved. 

Thematic relation of the Subord. Song to its Prin. Song is 
"uncommon, ^nd, when it appears, it must be counteracted by more 
complete contrast in style. 

See: Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 6 (Cotta ed.), first movement; the first figure 
of the Subord. Song corresponds closely to that of the Prin. Song; the rest 
is thematically independent, but similar in style. — In the next Son. (No. 7), 
Finale^ the Prin. Song is in 2-Part form; the Subord. Song resembles it, for 
a time, so closely that it appears to be no more than a Variation of the former ; 
but it is in 3-Part form, and in the opposite mode. — In Brahms, op. 116, No. 3, 
and op. 119, No. 2, the thematic material of the two Songs is identical, but the 
change in style almost radical, especially in the latter example. 

But the entire perplexing question of analogv(consistency, 
inner and outer harmony) between the two Songs in this Compound 
form, depends more largely upon the correlation of Time, K ey an < 
Tenipo. These establish the requisite externaT^xdoxva\\.y without 
efrcfoaching upon the conditions of contrast and separation ; while 
thematic coincidence may only ensure the more vague and (in 
homophonic forms) comparatively unessential inner affinity. 


(a) The Time of the Subord. Song is almost invariably the 
same as that of its Prin. Song; i. e., both are either in duple, or 
triple, measure. Exceptions : 

In Chopin, Gl>-major Impromptu, and Nocturne No. 10, C or $ and V 
time are interchanged. In Nocturne 14 (op. 48, No. 2) the Prin. Song is in 
\ time, and the **Trio" {molto piU lento) in J. — In Brahms, op. 116, No. 7, the 
time changes from | to j. — Beethoven, Symphony No. 6, third movement; 
change from } to }. — It must be emphasized, that this is exceedingly un- 

(bX J^e Key of the Subord. Song is always related, in some 

degree, to that of the Prin. Song, though unlimited option prevails 
in the choice of relationship (near or remote). In the oldest, and 
in some modern, examples, the selfsame key is retained ; in which 
case the separation of the Songs, and their respective completeness 
of form, is more strongly marked : 

Haydn, Symphonies (Peters ed.), Nos. i, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, — third 
movement of each. Beethoven, Symphonies, Nos. i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, — third 
movement of each. "^ ■• ""^ 

The next step to this, in the early history of the **Trio,'* 
"appears to have been the choice of the Opposite Mode of the same 
Tonic : 

BE gyHOVEN, Symphony No. 5, third movement (c-minor and C-major); 
Pfte. Sonatas, op. 2, No. i ; op.^'No.'S'; op. 7, — third movement of each. 
Brahms, op. 119, No. 2. — Chopin, Polonaise No. i. 

The Relative (major or minor) key is found in : 

Beethoven, Pfte. Sonatas, op. 2, No. 3, third movement (C-major and 
a-minor) ; op. 22, op. 28, third movement of each. 

Next to these in popularity is the choice of the Suhdominant 
key (or its Relative) for the '*Trio"; this, in the modern March 
and in many Dances, has become a usage almost equivalent to 
a rule. It is notably appropriate in the homophonic domain of 
musical architecture, because the inclination to relax toward the 
lower (Subdom.) keynotes, — in distinction to the aspiring impres- 
sion conveyed by the upper (Don^nant) ones, — is characteristic of 
the inferior range of forms. This point, which is of vital moment 
in the Complex forms, will be reverted to in connection with the 
Rondo- and Sonata-forms, in a subsequent Volume. 



The Subdom. key appears in Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. lo, No. 3, third 
movement, (Z>-major and G'-major) ; and in Pfte. Son. op. loi, second move- 
ment (March). — The Relative of the Subdom. in Beethoven, Pfte. Son. 
op. 10, No. 2, second movement (/-minor and I>^-m&}or); also op. 14, No. i; 
and op. 27, No. i, second movement of each. 

See also : Chopin, Polonaises, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4. 

^ Other possibilities of key-relation between the Prin. and 

Subord. Songs are exhibited in the following : 

Beethoven. Symphon y No. 7, third movement (Mediant-Dominant 
relation, — F-msLJor and Z>-major,^he^ediant of the key of the Prin. Song 
is the Dominant of the "Trio"). The same relation obtains in Haydn, 
Symphony No. 3 (Peters ed.), third movement. — In Haydn, Symphony No. 2, 
third movement, the keys arie Z> and jffji-major (Tonic-Mediant relation).-^* 
The same in Chopin, Polonaise No. 6. — Brahms, op. 116, No. 6 (Dominant- 
Relative key). Schubert, Impromptu op. 90, No. 2 (i&[>-major and ^-minor). 

(c) The Tempo of th6 Subord. Song is very often, perhaps 
usually, a little more tranquil than that of the Prin. Song ; though 
it may be the reverse of this, and, sometimes, it remains unchanged. 
This is dictated by the consideration of contrast^ which prevails, 
mildly^ in this respect also. See : 

Beethoven, Symphony No. 4, Menuetto (** Trio'' — un poco meno Allegro)\ 
Sym. No. 2» third movement (** Trio" — Presto meno assat). — Brahms, op. 116, 
^TTb. 3 (Subord. Song— «« poco meno Allegro). — Chopin, Nocturne 13 {poco 
piii lento). 

Mendelssohn, Pfte. Son. op. 6, second movement (** Trio " — piu vivace), 

Grieg, op. 38, No. 8 {piit mosso, ma tranquillo) . 

In Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 26, second movement, — as in the majority of 
cases, — no tempo-mark is given for the "Trio''; but it is manifestly more 
tranquil in character than the Prin. Song, and will almost certainly suggest 
a slight relaxation of speed, — to a thoughtful and susceptible performer. 

(d) The Form of the '*Trio" is generally Three-Part; occa- 
sionaTly only Two-Part. The One-Part form is very uncommon, 
and can be chosen only when the Subord. Song is very distinct 
in character, and when its Prin. Song contains at least two Parts, 
—compare par. 11 83. See: 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. i, Menuetto {^^ Trio* ^ 3-Part Song-form) ; 
op. 10, No. 2, second movement (Subord. Song in 3-Part form, with modified 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 26, second and third movements (** Trio*' in 
each case 2-Part form); the same in op. 27, No. i, second movement, and 
op. 27, No. 2, second movement. 

Chopin, Mazurka 10 (Prin. Song 3-Part; Subord. Song only One-Part 
form, but distinct); Mazurkas 45 and 46 (** Trio'* One-Part form); Mazurka 51 

Par. 120. THE "DA CAPO. 215 

("Trio** one large Part). — Schumann, Waldscenen^ op. 82, No. 7 (Prin. 
SongTwo-Part form with Codetta; Subord. Song, one Part). — Bekthovkn» 
Bagatelle^ op. 33, No. 4 (Subord. Song, one Part); Pfte. Son. op. 10, No. 3, 
Menuetto (ditto). — Brahms, op. 116, No. 6, and op. 117, No. i, the same. 

(e) While the Subord. Song, like the Principal one, is 
expeCtecTEo terminate with a complete perfect cadence, — as implied 
in par. ii6, — it is by no means uncommon to introduce a brief 
Retransition after the Subord. Song, serving to lead smoothly 
back into the recurrence of the Prin. Song, or '* Da capo." Comp. 
par. 90c. It is more necessary than the Transition into the 
Subord. Song (par. ii8c), because, the form having once been 
expanded by the addition of a Subord. Song, the * * Da capo ' ' is 

The Retransition may be independent of the Subord. Song, — 

following after the complete cadence of the latter; or it may be 

evolved by dissolution and modification of the cadence-member. 

The details may be apprehended from the following examples : 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 7, third movement, end of ** Minore " (two 
measures of Re-transition); op. 10, No. 2, second movement (6 meas. of 
independent Re-transition); op. 26, Scherzo {\ meas. of Re-transition); op. 2, 
No. 3, Scherzo (the ** Trio" is in 3-Part form; Parts II and III are repeated, 
and the latter is so modified,— dissolved, — at its end, as to lead away from its 
own Tonic, into the Dominant of the Prin. Song, which follows as ** Da 
capo"); op. 10, No. 3, Menuetto (similarly, the **Trio" ends on the Dom. of 
the Prin. Song); op. 14, No. i, second movement (the same). — Beethoven, 
Symp hony No. 3, and No. 5, third movement jiL-eack, — Haydn, Symphony 
No. 2 (Peters edTJT'and No. 3, third Imovement of each. — Brahms, op. 116, No. 7 
(elaborate independent Re-transition, after the Subord. Song); op. 117, No. 3 
(the same). 

The '*Da capo." 

120. The recurrence of the Prin. Song, or "the so-called 
'*Da capo," after the Subordinate Song, is, as a rule, literal. 
When such is the case, it being unnecessary to write out the entire 
Prin. Song again, its reproduction is merely indicated by the 
words da capo (i. e., '*from the beginning"), or simply the letters 
D. C ; or dal segno (i.e., '* from the sign " — ^ — ) in case the first 
few tones or measures are so involved in the Re-transition as to 
be excepted from the recurrence. 

It is a rule, however, — with no other foundation than tradition, 
— that such repetitions of the Parts as may have occurred at first, 
are to be omitted in the *'Da capo"; hence the directions often 
encountered : D, C, ma senza ripetizione. 

2l6 THE *'DA capo." Par. 130: 

See: Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. i, third movement, end of 
"Trio"; op. 10, No. 3, Menueito, end of "Trio"; op. 22, Mcnuetto ; and 
op. 26, SckerzOf end of "Trio." — Chopin, Polonaise I; Mazurka 6, 12, etc. 

The ** Da capo," as a literal reproduction of the Prin. Song, 
as implied above, the species which characterizes the ge nuine^ 
Song-form with **Trio." 

But slight modifications or variations of the **Da capo," as 
long as they remain thoroughly unessential^ are permissible. In 
such cases the recurrence of the Prin. Song (Menuetto, Scherzo > 
>or whatever it be) is, of course, written out. 

N. B. It must be strictly borne in mind, that, as the modifi* 

cations of the **Da capo" become more and more elaborate, the 

design diverges in the same ratio from the specifically homophonic 

Compound Song-form^ and approaches the spirit and detail of the 

^ Rondo form. 


See Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 31, No. 3, Menuetto ; the "Da capo" is 
written out, but not k tone is altered, excepting the final chord. Writing out 
the literal reproduction of the Prin. Song appears whimsical, but it is often 
involved by the Coda, and may be done purely for the convenience of the 

Chopin, Mazurka No. 23 (literal); No. 47 (literal, excepting repetitions); 
Impromptu^ op. 29 (-^[^-major), literal; Impromptu, op. 66 (cjf-minor), literal, 
excepting introduction. — Schubert, Momens musicals, op. 94, Nos. i and 4. 

The '* Da capo " is slightly variated in Chopin, Nocturnes No. 11, No. 10, 
No. I. — Brahms, op. 116, No. 3; op. 117, No. i; op. 117, No. 3 (repetitions 
also omitted); op. 119, No. 2. 

Somewhat more elaborate variation occurs in the ** Da capo " of Chopin, 
^Nocturne No. 13; Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 27, No. i, second movement ^ 
and Beethoven, Bagatelle op. 33, No. 4. 

In Chopin, Mazurka No. 36, the first 14 measures of the ** Da capo'' are 
transposed (a half-step lower). 

Al terations of the design of the Prin. Song, in the '*Da capo,'* 
affect the genuineness of this class of forms more seriously than 
simple variation of detail, because they are of a more essential 
nature. The most natural, justifiable and common practice, is to 
abbreviate the **Da capo" ;— especially by reducing the recurrence 
of the 3-Part (or 2-Part) Song-form, to its First Part alone. Such 
a contracted *' Da capo" may, subsequently, be extended, or 
otherwise modified. See N. B. above. 

See Beethoven, Bagatelle op. 33, No. 2. — Also, Symphony^ 
_ Scherzo. 

Par. 121. THK CODA. 21*J 

Chopin, Mazurkas 17 and 31 ; Mazurka 25 (Prin. Song, broad 2-Part 
form, with complete repetition; **Da capo" abbreviated to First Part, slightly 
expanded). Polonaise No. 4; Polonaise No. 6 (Prin. Song, 3-Part form, broad 
First Part; "Trio," 2-Part form. Part I repeated. Part II dissolved into elabo- 
rate Re-transition ; ** Da capo *' contracted to one-half of Part I). Impromptu 
in Gt>-major, op. 51, (**Da capo*' abbreviated, and modified by extension); 
the same in Nocturnes 3 and 14, Prelude, op. 28, No. 15, and Mazurka 38. 

Brahms, op. 116, No. 6; op. 118, No. 4. ('*Da capo'* abbreviated and 

An extension of the ** Da capo " takes place in : 

Chopin, Mazurkas 32 and 36; and Brahms, op. 116, No. 7. 

The Coda. 

121. The addition of a Coda to the entire Compound form 
is not only possible, but desirable and necessary, apparently in 
proportion to the importance attached to the **Da capo," and the 
extent of its elaboration. Hence, while a Coda very rarely follows 
the simple forms of the Song with ' * Trio ' ' as employed in older 
Dances (with literal D. C), it is rarely, if ever, absent after a " Da 
capo" that has been modified, and often it is quite extensive and 
self-assertive. See par. 98a. 

The Coda may be derived from any anterior motive or member ; 
or it may (rarely) introduce new motives. And it may conform in 
style and melodic contents either to the Prin. Song or the Subord. 
Song (chiefly the former) ; or, possibly, to both in turn. See : 

Beethoven, Pfte. Sonatas, op. 2, No. i; op. 2, No. 2; op. 7, etc., third 
movement of each, — no Coda, 

Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. 3, Scherzo (Coda derived from Prin. 
Song); Pfte. Son. op. 14, No. i. Allegretto (Coda taken from Subord. Song, 
* * Maggiore ") ; Pfte. Son. op. 26, third movement ("Funeral march"), last 
7 measures; Pfte. Son. op. 27, No. i, second movement, last 12 measures 
(Coda simply an extension of the **Da capo"). — Chopin, Mazurka No. 32 
(elaborate Coda) ; No. 38 (Coda from Part II of Subord. Song). — Schubert, 
Impromptu^ op. 90, No. 2 (Coda from **Trio"); Mendelssohn, Symphony 
No. 4(** Italian," op. 90), third movement, — Coda utilizes ingeniously a motive 
of the "Trio." — Brahms, op. 116, No. 6, last 7 measures (from Subord. 
Song); op. 118, No. 4, last 23 measures; op. 119, No. 2, last 5 measures (from 
Subord. Song). 



Schubert, Pfte. Sonatas, Nos. i, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, — third movement of each. 
— Impromptu, op. 142, No. 2. 

2l8 THE CODA. Par. 122. 

Mozart, Symphonies (Litolff ed.), Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13, third 
movement of each. 

Brahms, Pfte. Son. op. i. Scherzo ; Pfte. Son. op. 2, Scherzo ; Pfte. Son. 
op. 5, Scherzo ; Pfte. Balladen, op. 10, No. i ; Intermezzo, op. 76, No. 7 (Prin. 
Song, One-Part form) ; Symphony No. 3, third movement 

The String-quartets of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and other classic 
writers, Menuetto or Scherzo (as a rule, the third movement of each). 

1 22. A confusing trait of resemblance between the Song 
with one '*Trio" and the simple 5 -Part Song-form, is exhibited 
in certain diminutive examples of the former, where the Subord. 
Song is only One-Part form, and the ** Da capo " abbreviated. 

This is seen in Chopin, Mazurka 13 (Prin. Song 3-Part form; Subord. 
Song only one Part, but very distinct in character and mode; **Da capo" 
contracted to one of the original three Parts) . Precisely the same conditions 
prevail in Grieg, Lyric Pieces, op. 12, No. 3. — These are both examples of the 
5-Part Song-form, stage 5, cited in par. io6e; but they are extreme specimens, 
owing to the unusual independence and diversity of the Fourth Part^ — ^which, 
for this reason, assumes the rank and characteristics of a "Trio." Were the 
**Da capo" not reduced to one Part, the identity of such a Subord. Song 
would be beyond question. 

In Chopin, Mazurka 42, again only five Parts are represented, — the Prin. 
Song being in t^vo Parts, and the Subord. Song in one ; but here the ** Da 
capo '"* is not abbreviated (save by omission of repetitions). 


A. An example of the Song-form with one •* Trio," in major ; both Songs 
in 3-Part form; **Da capo '* literal ; no Transition or Re-transition. — ^Apply 
par. 136. 

B. An example of the same form, in minor; design of Songs optional; 
" Da capo " literal. — Apply par. 134, or par. 135. 

C. Same form; design of Songs optional; Re- transition ; **Da capo" 
unessentially modified. — Apply par. 136. 

D. Same form; **Da capo" abbreviated; Coda. — Apply par. 135. See 
par. 137. 

tt r,^,>T^O " 




1 23. The simplest method of extension is, here again, that 
of Repetition. It is applied, not infrequently, to the Subord. 
Song and the **Da capo" together^ precisely as in the 3-Part 
Song-form with repeated Second and Third Parts. See par. lo^a. 

The repetition may be exact or modified, — generally the 
former, though it is natural to abbreviate the last '''•Da capo^^'' — 
more rarely the first one. A Coda may follow. 

See Beethoven, Symphony No. 4, third movement (Prin. Song — 
**Minuetto*' — 3-Part form with all repetitions, and Codetta; ** Trio '* 3-Part 
form; Re-transition; ist "Da capo" literal, excepting repetitions; **Trio" 
again, exactly as before; second **Da capo'' contracted to Third Part; Coda 

measures). — In Beethove n. Symphony No. y . thi rd move ment, the same 
repetition occurs, in the original score ; a Coda is added, reverting very briefly 
to the motive of the Subord. Song. (In some modern editions, and modern 
performances, this extensive repetition is omitted.)— Beethoven, Bagatelle 
op* 33> No. 7, (both ** Songs" in concise 2-Part form, with repetitions; both 
**Da capos" complete, but variated; Coda). — Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 54, 
first movement (the Subord. Song is at first an extended Period, with transposed 
and enlarged reproduction, and Re-transition ; when it recurs, after the first 
** Da capo,'' it is abbreviated to the length of a simple Period; the two **Da 
capos " are variated, in progressive degrees; Coda). 

In Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. 7 (Cotta ed.). Finale^ the Subord. Song and 
** Da capo" are repeated with considerable, but probably unessential, modifi- 
cation (Prin. Song, 2-Part form; Subord. Song, 3-Part; no Coda). Pfte. 
Son. No. 8, Scherzando (very similar; brief Coda). Pfte. Son. No. 12, first 
movement, the same. 

In Schumann, Symphony No. 4 (^/-minor, op. 120), Scherzo^ the **Trio" 
recurs, similarly, after the ** Da capo," but is linked with the Transition which 
leads into the Finale ; in other words, the second ** Da capo " is omitted. 

The Song-form with Two *' Trios. 


1 24. When such an enlargement of the form is contem- 
plated, it is, however, much better and more customary to avoid 
the monotony attendant upon so extensive a repetition, by invent- 
ing a new {second) ^^Trio^^' instead of the recurrence of the first 
one. This design corresponds to that of the fully developed 
5-Part Song-form (par. 106^), of which it is a broader exposition. 
Compare par. 117, second clause. 


The two ' ' Trios ' ' should stand in quite marked contrast with 
each other ; one of them generally maintaining closer agreement, 
in character and style, with the Prin. Song, while the other 
diverges more emphatically. Consequently, it is not unusual for 
the Subord. Songs to differ from each other in Time^ as well as in 
tempo and key ; though this is more commonly the case in modern 

After each Subord. Song, the Prin. Song recurs, as *' Da 
capo," sometimes literally (excepting the repetitions), but more 
frequently abbreviated, or otherwise modified. A Coda may be 

See JoHANN LuDWiG Krebs, Partita II, ^*Menuets*^ (three, numbered 
I, II, III, — No. I recurring as ** Da capo'* after each of the others). [To be 
found in '' I/es Maltres du clavecin '' (Litolff ed.). Vol. I, p. 73.] 

Mozart, Symphony No. 8 (Litolff ed.), fourth movement, — Menuetto 
with two ** Trios" (not to be confounded with the second movement of the 
Symphony) . 

Mendelssohn, Wedding- March from music to ** Midsummer-Night's 

Schumann, Symphony No. i. Scherzo (Prin. Song 3-Part form ; **Trio I " 
very divergent in character, time, and tempo; broad form, with modified 
repetitions; first "Da capo" without repetitions; **Trio II" resembles Prin. 
Song; 3-Part form, with Codetta from Second Part; second "Da capo*' 
abbreviated; Coda contains reminiscences of ** Trio I"). — Symphony No. 2, 
Scherzo. — Pfte. Quintet, op. 44, Scherzo. — Pfte. Quartet, op. 47, Scherzo.—' 
Pfte. Trio, No. 3, op. no, third movement. 

Brahms, Pfte. Scherzo, op. 4. — Symphony No. 2, third movement (Prin. 
Song J time. Allegretto, 3-Part form; First Subord. Song, same key, \ time, 
Presto f 3-Part form; first ** Da capo" abbreviated and modified; Second 
Subord. Song, | time. Presto ; second **Da capo" complete, but transposed 
during the first Part; Coda). In this unique example, the two "Trios" 
represent, essentially, two similar extreme Variations of the Prin. Song". 

The Group of Song-forms. 

1 25. The process of group-formation, beginning with the 
Phrase-group (par. 57) and passing on through the Group of 
Periods (par. 59), the Large Phrase-group (par. 104) and the Group 
of Parts (par. 114, 115), culminates, in the homophonic forms, in 
the Group of entire Song-forms. It is distinguished from the 
regular Compound forms, explained above, by the absence, or 
irregular disposition, of the *'Z>« capo,'''' whereby the condition 
of '* Return, after Departure," is not fully or correctly satisfied 
(par. 8 1 a). See par. 69c. 


See Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. io6, Scherzo (First, — or Principal, — Song, 
2 Parts, each repeated ; Second Song, ditto ; Third Song, change of time and 
tempo, 3 Parts ; Fourth Song like First, variated ; Coda. The form is quasi 
"Song with tivo Trios in succession^"*). 

Chopin, Polonaise No. V, the same; (the Third Song, — or 2nd ** Trio,'' — 
is in Two-Part form, very broad, and with complete transposed reproduction) . 

Brahms, Pfte. Ballade op. lo, No. 2, the same design. Rhapsody, op. 119, 
No. 4, (design : Prin. Song— *' Trio I"— "Trio 11"— ** Trio I "— Prin. Song, 
Coda). Pfte. Ballade op. 10, No. 4, (design: Prin. Song— *' Trio I "—Prin. 
Song — ** Trio II" — Coda, consisting in a portion of the First Subord. Song^ 
interwoven with the first motive of the Prin. Song. Thie final **Da capo" is 

Schumann, Nachtstiicke^ op. 23, No. 2, (design: Prin. Song — **Trio V' 
7-Partform— Re-transition— Prin. Song, abbreviated— "Trio II "—"Trio I"— 
Prin. Song). — Symphony No. 3 Scherzo^ (design: Prin. Song — Song II — 
Song III — Song IV, transposition of Prin. Song — Song V — Song VI, " Da 
capo" of Prin. Song — Coda). 

Chopin, Waltz No. i (Group of 5 Songs, V like I). 

These represent the last degree of enlargement, the broadest 
proportions attainable within the sphere of the Homophonic 


A. An example of the Song with two ** Trios," in major, first ** Da capo " 
abbreviated. — ^Apply par. 133 {Scherzo), 

B. The same, in minor. Apply par. 136. 




1 26. An extremely large proportion of all music written, 
belongs to the Homophonic domain of composition. The entire 
range of musical products within this domain may be approxi- 
mately divided into ^hree general classes or styles of composition, 
distinguished by the respective predominance of one of the three 
essential factors of the art : Melody, Harmony and Rhythm. 
(Carefully review par. 97, recollecting, however, that the distinc- 
tions there defined constitute a different classification from the one 
under present consideration.) 

(a) The first, or Lyric, class, in which the element of 
Melody predominates, is characterized chiefly by the Song (with 
or without words), and embraces also the Air or Aria, Lied, 
Canzone, Cavatina, Idyll, Barcarolle or Gondellied, Romanza, 
Reverie, Nocturne, Serenade, *' Melody," Chanson, Lyric Piece, 
Ballade, Elegy, Berceuse or Cradle-song, Pastorale, — and many 
other compositions of similar character but with more or less 
arbitrary and specific titles. All of these may be either vocal or 
instrumental in conception and setting. To this class belong also 
the sacred Hymn, Psalm-tune, Chorale, Chant, the simpler church 
Anthems, the secular Terzetto, Quartet, Chorus, Glee, Madrigal, 
etc., all of vocal conception. 

(b) The second, or ]&tude-, class, in which the most promi- 
nent element is that of the Harmony, is characterized chiefly by 
the Etude, and includes also the various kinds of Studies and 
Exercises ; the Toccata ; certain varieties of the Prelude ; generally 
also the Caprice or Capriccio, Scherzo, Scherzando, Impromptu, 
Intermezzo, — though the character of these latter is indefinite and 
variable. The compositions of this class are almost invariably 
instrumental in conception and setting. 


(c) The third, or Dance-, class, distinguished by the prev- 
alence of the element of Rhythm, embraces all Dances, old and 
modern, and the March. Conspicuous among these are the Min- 
uet, Gavotte, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue or Jig, Waltz, Polka, 
Galop, Mazurka, Tarantella, Saltarello, Siciliano, Landler, Bolero, 
Quadrilles, Polonaise, Marches of varied character (Wedding-M., 
Funeral-M., Festival-M., etc.), and many other species of a more 
or less kindred nature. This class of compositions is very gener- 
ally, though not always, instrumental in conception and setting. 

(d) It must be remembered that this is only an approximate classification, 
and that, while some of the conventional styles enumerated have become 
distinctly typical, others again are so indefinite and arbitrary as to defy exact 
classification. Hence, it is often impracticable and unwise to apply these 
class-distinctions rigorously. It is perfectly just to impart a conspicuously 
melodic character to a Dance-form, as long as the rhythmic element maintains 
its preeminence ; or to an fitude, — though, in the latter case, it would transfer 
the composition to the lyric class, and the reasons for calling it an " fitude'* 
would have to be sought in other, technical, peculiarities of the piece. This 
accounts for the apparently careless or erroneous choice of title in certain 
examples; many a Nocturne or Waltz, so-called, belongs properly to the 
£tude-class, — and xnce versa. 

As a rule, however, the student should exercise judgment in naming 
his compositions. It is best never to use descriptive titles (almost utterly 
senseless when applied to music — e.g. *' Among the roses,'* — "Shower of 
pearls," etc.), but only such conventional titles as the above, which indicate 
the general or typical musical characteristics of the piece. A very important 
lesson is conveyed to the young composer by Brahms, in his almost exclusive 
use of the terms Capriccio, Intermezzo, Fantasie, for his pianoforte-pieces; 
and in the choice of the simple tempo designations: "Allegretto, *' "Andante,'* 
etc., adopted as sole title by many serious composers. 

127- A description of each of these conventional species 
of composition may be found in standard dictionaries of music, 
and in such books as the "Musical Forms" by E. Pauer. All 
that need be added, here, is a purely technical definition of such 
structural traits as concern the present student, who is expected 
to write an example of each, or at least of the most important, of 
the typical varieties noted. 



Par. 128b. 



I. The Song, with Words. 

1 28d.. As concerns the first, and apparently difficult, consid- 
eration of choosing the text for a Song, the student will find the 
richest and most trustworthy fund of suitable words in the volumes 
of Songs already written and published. From these he can 
choose, studiously ignoring the musical setting before him. Or he 
may take a Psalm, or some other Bible passage ; or may adopt 
a poem from books of standard poetry, though this is the least 
advisable course for the beginner to pursue. 

The text should first be thoroughly memorized, and mentally 
repeated, until it begins to suggest consistent musical setting. This 
will facilitate the choice of general characteristics, i. e., between 
duple and triple Time, major and minor mode, brisk or deliberate 
tempo, bold or graceful style. 

(b) In the setting, the rhythmic distinctions of the musical 
meter must coincide quite accurately with the prosody of the text. 
Important ivords and accented syllables should be placed against 
the accented^ or higher^ or longer^ tones ; and lower, shorter or 
unaccented tones should accompany unemphatic words and syl- 

This important rule operates, however, mainly by comparison: an un- 
accented word or syllable may be set to an accented tone, if the accent is 
subordinate ; or to a higher tone, if it occupies a li^/tt beat. For illustration : 

♦1) «2) *3) 





'*Gol - den vis - ions' 



"Ool - den vis - ions'* 






T— #-T- 


Gol - den vis- ions" **Ool - den vis -ions of the past," 




"o/ the past" 





' damn 

- %ng. 


Par. 128e. 



*i) Good, because the accent at c is subordinate to that at g^ and at the 
following h. — *2) Doubtful, because of the emphasis attached to a compara- 
tively very high tone. — *3) Better, because the high tone is unaccented. — 
*4) Eccentric. — *5) Objectionable. — *6) Better. — *7) Such an accent as this, 
upon a light final syllable, is permissible at any cadence. 

Furthermore, this rule must always be applied with sufficient latitude to 
ensure perfectly unconstrained melodious conduct of the vocal part. The 
words are to be regarded and treated, constantly, as the subordinate element 
of a Song. 

(c) In writing for the human voice, it is necessary to regard 
the average compass of the part in question : 


* A {.±) 





-^ — » 








♦ (feA) 




The range of Baritone is between Bass and Tenor; that of 
Mezzo-Soprano, between Alto and Soprano. 

Care must be taken to avoid maintaining, persistently, either 
a comparatively high, or low, range of the chosen voice. This 
consideration will influence the choice of key. 

(d) The student should endeavor to reflect the character of the 
text in the mood of the music. He must determine the dynamic 
and declamatory design, according to the dramatic undulations of 
the text ; but must avoid exaggerated minuteness in this respect. 
The effort to ''illustrate" each single suggestive word leads to 
unevenness of structure, and hampers the essentially musical con- 
ception. This is the gravest error that can attach itself to a vocal 
composition ; for a Song must he firsts and always^ good^ melodious, 
and self- sufficient music, 

(e) In the NOTATION of the vocal part, the notes which 
accompany separate words or syllables must be, detached; two or 
more notes to the same word or syllable must be connected, either 
by beams, ties, or slurs : 



Par. 128f . 


loa a^^ 








**Shr(yud'ed in sad - mss" "aS is dark," 

- ful sun - beams,'* 

(f ) The FORM of the Song will depend largely upon that of 
the text, which may demand almost any of the forms explained 
in chapters VI to XVII of this book, from the large (or repeated) 
Period, up to the 3- or 5-Part form, or Group of Parts. But 
preference should be given to the Two- and Three- Part Song- 
forms, and an effort be made to adapt the text to such a design, 
before commencing the composition. 

When the text is divided (or divisible) into stanzas, the 
composition may be strophic, i.e., music may be set to the first 
stanza only, and simply reproduced, with more or less essential 
change, for the following ones. See : 

Schubert, **Mllller-Lieder" (op. 25), Nos. i, 7. 8, 9, 10, 13, etc. 

Beethoven, "An die feme Geliebte'* (op. 98), sections a, ^, c, </, e; 
(section f is in 3-Part form ; the final section is a Coda, compounded out of 
the first section). This cycle of Songs ranks among the most beautiful and 
impressive in all musical literature. The student is to examine it thought- 
fully. Its design is, of course, the Group of Song-forms (par. 125). 

Schumann, "Liederkreis'* (op. 24), Nos. 4, 7. 

Or the composition maybe progressive, i.e., the words may 
be set to music consecutively, throughout, — with, probably, a da 
capo at the end, as in some of the Group-forms. In this case, the 
3-Part or 5-Part Song, or the Group of Parts, — possibly Song with 
'* Trio," — may be chosen as structural design. See : 

Schubert, "MUller-Lieder,'' No. 2,— Song with** Trio"; (Prin. Song, 
3-Part Period; Subord. Song, 3-Part Song-form; **Da capo," a compound 
of both foregoing Songs; Coda). No. 3, — Group of four Parts ; (I, a Period ; 
II, a Phrase, repeated; III, an extended Phrase; IV, two repeated Phrases). 
No. 4, — quasi 3 strophes. No. 5, — Song with ** Trio." 

Schumann, **Liederkreis" (op. 24), Nos. i, 2 (almost strophic). No. 3 
(Three-Part form), No. 5 (Fiire-Part form) ; ** The two Grenadiers," op. 49, 
No. I (partly strophic). 

Par. 128g. THE SONG, WITH WORDS. 227 

(gC) The primary objects of the instrumental accompaniment 
to a Song are, first, to support^ and secondly, to complement ^ the 
vocal part. It should not disturb or overpower the latter, and 
therefore the danger of too much accompaniment must be recognized 
and avoided. 

The simple rhythmic enunciation of the chords, as in Schubert, 
** Haidenroslein'* (op. 3, No. 3) is antiquated, but often very appropriate. 
The method adopted by Schumann in the ** Lotosblume*' (op. 25, No. 7), in 
which the vocal melody is from time to time reinforced by the pianoforte, is 
more artistic. 

But the student must guard against the impression that the vocal part 
should be duplicated throughout in the accompaniment (as in Schumann, 
op. 25, Nos. I, 2, 9, etc.). This tends to obscure, more than to support, the 
vocal part; and, while it is often necessary, it is better, as a rule, for the 
accompaniment to limit itself to general harmonic figuration, — which is at 
once less obtrusive, and more individualized. See Schumann, op. 25, Nos. 3, 
II, 25. Schubert, *' MUller-Lieder^' (op. 25), Nos. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 11, etc. — 
A duplication of the vocal melody, as found in Schubert, " Winterreise " 
(op. 89), No. 15; or in Schumann, op. 25, No. 10; and op. 27, No. 4, — is very 

But it is permissible, and common, to assign to the instru- 
mental accompaniment the task of reflecting and emphasizing the 
poetic, epic, or dramatic contents of the text ; and, in so doing, it 
will become more or less characteristic, and assume a degree of 
independence, which, at times^ may even exceed that of the vocal 
part itself. 

See Schubert, ** MtiUer-Lieder " No. 3 (Bass part). No. 12; "Winter- 
reise," Nos. 2, 4, 9, 17. Schumann, op. 24, No. 6; op. 27, No. 3; op. 30, 
No. i; "Lowenbraut," op. 31, No. i; ** Frauenliebe und -leben," op. 42, 
No. 6; "Dichterliebe," op. 48, Nos. 4, 6, 9, 13, 16. 

This will give rise most naturally to the prelude, interludes 

and postlude in the accompaniment (during the pauses of the 

vocal part) ; though the necessity of occasional interludes^ — ^not too 

frequent or long, — both for the relief of the singer and the benefit 

of the structural design, is sufficiently imperative, in itself. 

See Schubert, ** Winterreise," Nos. 2, 6, 14, 19, 24 (especially). 
Schumann, op. 25, No. 3; op. 24, Nos. 5, 6 (elaborate postludes). " Dich- 
terliebe," Nos. 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16 (elaborate postludes). 

Additional examples for reference and study : 

Other Songs of Schubert, Beethoven and Schumann, not referred to 

The Songs of Mendelssohn, Brahms, Robert Franz; Rubinstein, 
Grieg, Jensen, Taubert; Song-albums (Schirmer ed.). 


2. The instrumental Duo. 

1 28. The instruments most frequently chosen for the duo 
are the Pianoforte and Violin, or Pfte. and Violoncello. 

The rules for the conception and treatment of this style of 
music conform in general to those of the Song (excepting those 
bearing upon the text), but with such additional liberty, or 
modifications, as are conditioned by 

The wider compass, 

greater technical facilities and resources, and 

specific peculiarities of the ** solo "-instrument. 

The absence of words leaves the composer without a certain 
quality of melodic stimulus and suggestion, but, at the same time, 
at liberty to develop his musical conception and purpose without 
embarrassment. Some theoretical guides to his natural musical 
impulses are recorded in par. 94, 95, 96, 97, which are to be 
reviewed. See also par. 137. 

The student, if unfamiliar with the Violin and Violoncello, 
should not undertake to write for them until he has consulted some 
expert performer, and obtained from him sufficient information 
concerning the tone, specific tone-effects, compass, and the various 
technical characteristics of the instrument. The same law applies 
to the use of the Flute, Clarinet, Cornet, Horn, etc. 

The species of composition for the instrumental duo is to be 
selected from the list given in the next paragraph (or par. 126 a). 

Examples for reference : * 

Violin and Pianoforte : Raff, Cavatine. — Svendsen, Romance, op. 26. — 
H. WiENiAWSKi, L6gende, op. 17. — F. Ries, Romance from Suite II; 
Gondoliera from Suite III. — Max Bruch, Swedish Dances, op. 63 (essentially 
lyric); Romanze. — Jadassohn, Serenade op. 108^, Nos. i, 2, 3, 4. — Spohr, 
Barcarolle. — Bazzini, ]Sl6gie. — Joachim, Romanza. — DvoiiAK, Notturno, 
op. 40. — Ernst, fil6gie. — Vieuxtemps, Reverie. 

Violoncello and Pianoforte: Mendelssohn, Song without Words for 
^ Cello (Z?-major, op. 109). — DvoKAk, ** Waldesruhe." — Popper, op. 3, Nos. 2, 
6; Nocturne, op. 22. — Goltermann, Cantilena in E. — H. Sitt, Romanza and 
Serenata. — Davidoff, Romance sans paroles, op. 23; Lied, op. 16, No. 2. 

3. The Song without Words, etc. 

1 30a.. The conception of this class of instrumental com- 
positions, most commonly set for the Pianoforte, or as duo 

*See Preface, section II. 


Par. 181a. THE HYMN, ANTHEM, GLEE, ETC. 239 

(par. 129), is invariably the same as that of the vocal Song, viz.: 
a continuous, coherent, tuneful melodic thread, — cantilena^ — as 
distinctly predominating element; with a more or less character- 
istic and elaborate equipment in the accompanying parts. Each 
specific variety of conventional style embraced under this heading, 
— Romanza, Nocturne, Barcarolle, etc. (par. 126a), — will call 
forth its own peculiar modifications, in the execution of this aim ; 
but the ruling principle is identical in them all. These modifica- 
tions, dictated by the special character and purpose of the chosen 
variety, may be inferred from the self-explaining titles,, and need 
no exposition here. See Grove's dictionary, or Baker's ** Dic- 
tionary of Musical Terms." Any form may be employed, from 
2-Part Song up to Song with one **Trio." See par. 137. 
Examples, from pianoforte literature, for reference : 

Chopin, Nocturnes (especially Nos. i, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19). 
— Field, Nocturnes (Nos. i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18). — Mendels- 
sohn, ** Songs without Words" (especially Nos. i, 6, 7, 12, i8, 19, 22, 25, 29, 
30» 31* 36, 37, 40, 43, 46). — Schubert, Impromptu op. 90, No. 3; Momens 
tnusicals, op. 94, No. 2. — Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 27, No. i, Adagio ; op. 
27, No. 2, first movement; op. 79, Andante; op. 109, third movement, Theme; 
op. no, third movement, Arioso dolente, — Schumann, ** Kinderscenen " (op. 
15), Nos. I, 4, 5, 7, 12; ** Fantasiestiicke'* (op. 12), Nos. 1,3; Pfte. Son. op. 22, 
Andantino; Romanzas (op. 28), Nos. i, 2 ; op. 82, No. 9. — W. Bargiel, fil6gie, 
op. 31, No. 2. — Dvoft-AK, Silhouettes, op. 8, Nos. 6, 10, 11. — Gade, Idyls, op. 
34, Nos. 2, 4. — Grieg, op. 12, Nos. i and 7 ; op. 38, Nos. i, 3, 6; op. 43, No. 6; 
op. 47, Nos. 3, 7; op. 54, No. 4; op. 62, No. 5. — Liszt, 3 Notturnos (**Liebes- 
traume "); Gondoliera and Canzone from ** Venezia e Napoli " ; Consolations. 
— MoszKowsKi, op. 31, No. I ; op. 36, No. 2.— ^aff, 2 £l6gies, op. 149. — 
Rubinstein, 2 melodies, op. 3 ; Barcarolle, op. 50, No. 3 (^-minor) ; also 
Barcarolles in rt-minor,y-minor, and G-major. — Paderewski, M6lodie, op. 8. 
No. 3. — St.-Sa£ns, Chanson, op. 72, No. 5. — Tschaikowsky, Chanson, op. 40, 
No. 2. ; Romance, op. 51, No. 5. 

(b) The Ballade belongs, properly, also to this class, but its 
character is indefinite and variable. It is usually more elaborate, 
longer, and more dramatic than the Romanza, and constructed 
in Group-form. It implies a more or less ideal narrative. 

See Chopin, 4 Ballades. — Brahms, op. 10, Nos. i, 2, 4. — Reinecke, 
Ballade, op. 20. 

4. The Hymn, Anthem, Glee, etc. 

131a.. It may appear that these species of composition, 
commonly known as * 'Part-Songs," belong to the second class 
(par. 1263), characterized by predominance of the Harmony; and. 

230 THE HYMN, ANTHEM, GLEE, ETC. Par. 131e. 

indeed, this fallacious view has been often confirmed by writers not 
sufficiently scrupulous in regard to artistic distinctions. But it is 
nevertheless strictly true that, in those examples of the * 'Part- 
Song " which fall within the domain of the homophonic forms, the 
lyric element must prevail. One of the parts, usually the Soprano, 
must consist in a distinctly melodious, coherent and continuous 
cantilena^ which the other parts chiefly serve to accompany and 

(b) For the Sacred Hymn, Chorale, Anthem, etc., words 
may be chosen from a church hymn-book, the Psalms and other 
parts of the Bible, or from the ritual of any denominational service. 
The use of Latin sentences from the Roman Catholic liturgy is 
strongly commended. 

(c) The ensemble most commonly adopted for the setting, 
is the mixed quartet (Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass) ; but the female 
trio (more rarely female quartet), the male trio or quartet, the 
mixed trio, and the duet (the association of any two voices), are all 
equally practicable and often very effective. In any case, except- 
ing perhaps the duet, the *' parts" may be rendered by solo singers, 
or by a chorus ; and either with instrumental accompaniment (Pfte. 
or Organ), or without — (''« cappella "). 

(d) The choice of secular^ instead of sacred, text, will 
influence the character of the musical conception, but none of 
the above details. The dignity and seriousness which should 
distinguish all music designed for religious use and association, is 
more or less thoroughly supplanted, in secular music, by such 
brightness, gaiety, grace, dramatic fervor, pathos or brilliancy, as 
befits the character of the words selected. 

(e) The structural design will depend largely upon the text. 
For the Hymn, the Double- period form, or simple 2-Part Song- 
form, is best. For the Anthem, or the secular *' Part-Song, " the 
3-Part form should be used, if possible; though the "Group of 
Parts" is often more convenient, and affords excellent opportunity 
for characteristic and interesting formal designs, in which, for 
instance, the several Parts of the Group may be differently treated 
(as solo, duet, quartet or chorus, perhaps in different varieties of 
time, tempo and character). The conditions of the instrumental 

Par. 132. THE ^TUDE, OR STUDY. 23 1 

accompaniment are similar to those explained in connection with 
the **Song" (par. 128^), though, as a rule, less elaborate and 
independent. For more specific definitions, see Grove's dic- 

See also: Mendelssohn, female Terzetto from Elijah; Duet from 
St. Paul (No. 31); also Chorales (Nos. 3, 9, 16), and Choruses (Nos. 26, 33) 
from St. Paul. 

The vocal duets of Mendelssohn, Rubinstein, Schumann, and 

Brahms, "Ave Maria"; 13th Psalm; Song from Ossian^s Fingal. 

Anthem-books for mixed voices (Schirmer ed.). — Reference may also be 
made to a few specimens of the " Part-Songs," sacred and secular, for various 
ensembles of male, female, or mixed voices, contained in great number in the 
8vo collections of the edition of G. Schirmer ; and similar collections of other 


I. The 6tudk, or Study. 

1 32. In the genuine representatives of this class of com- 
position, the melodic element (as sustained cantilena)^ though 
never totally absent, is so vague, imperfect and fragmentary, or so 
disguised and obscured, as to recede into the background, while 
the chords, i. e., the Harmonies, both individually and collectively, 
stand out in proportionately greater prominence. 

In the ^TUDE proper, the harmonies are not, as a rule, thus 
prominent in unbroken bulk, but in some figurated form (as shown 
in Ex. 4 and context). For this figuration of the harmony, a 
motive is adopted with a view to some technical purpose ; hence 
the titles : Etude, Study, or Exercise. But, for the simple reason 
that the aim of a ** study" is not always a purely technical one, 
these species may, without inconsistency, sometimes assume a dis- 
tinctly lyric character. See par. 126^. 

The design of the Etude is usually one of the Song- forms, — 
possibly, though rarely, with **Trio." 

See Chopin, fitudes, op. 10 (especially Nos. i, 2, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12); 
Etudes, op. 25 (especially Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). Op. 10, Nos. 3, 6, 
9, and op. 25 No. 7, are lyric. — Ad. Hensklt, fitudes, op. 5, No. i, (both lyric 
and 6tude-cla6s), Nos. 2, 3, 7, 9, 12 (10 and 11, lyric). — See also a /<?w Etudes 


of Clementi, Cramer and Czerny. — Liszt, three Concert-etudes; Etudes 
transcendentales. — Mendelssohn, Etudes op. 104, Nos. i, 3. — Moscheles, 
Studies, op. 70. — Raff, ** La fileuse," op. 157, No. 2. — Schumann, op. 3. — 
Rubinstein, op. 23, and op. 81. — Tschaikowsky, op. 40, No. i. — 

2. The Toccata, Capriccio, Scherzo, etc. 

1 33a. When the motive or figure, upon which the *' figura- 
tion" or dissolution of the harmony is to be based, assumes more 
of a thematic character, and thus enters more essentially into the 
structure of the composition than is the case with the chiefly 
technical figures of the Study, the style is usually designated 
Toccata (especially when the figure is small), or Caprice, and 
Prelude. Review par. 126^. 

In the latter species, and also in the Impromptu, Intermezzo, 
etc., the harmony frequently appears in unbroken, or but partially 
broken, bulk. 

(b) The Scherzo was originally nearly identical with the 
*' Caprice." Later it was substituted for the Minuet in. the 
Symphony, Sonata, and Quartet, and adopted the time (J) of that 
Dance. Finally, it superseded the latter, appearing in duple as 
well as triple time, and often as an independent piece, without 
reference to the Symphony. 

(c) In all of these species of composition the element of 
Melody, it must be remembered, is necessarily always present 
in a more or less apparent and assertive degree^ but neither as 
conspicuously, nor as continuously, as in the lyric class. Certain 
sections of an Etude, Toccata, etc., or of a Dance-form (e. g., 
the **Trio"), may be purely lyric; and, as already .stated, the 
distinctions of style, especially among the etude-species, are quite 
vague, — often scarcely perceptible. Review par. 126^. 

(d) These species are usually, though by no means always, 
written in the homophonic forms. In this case, the designs 
chosen are the Song-forms, — rarely with **Trio," excepting in the 
Scherzo, which sometimes has two •* Trios." 

Examples for reference : 

Toccata-species, and Prelude: Bach, Well-tempered Clavichord, Vol. I, 
Preludes i, 2, 5, 6, 15, 21; Vol. II, Preludes 3 (ist section), 12, 15; Partita 
No. I, **Gigue.^' — Bargiel, fitude and Toccata, op. 45. — Schubert, Momens 
musicals, op. 94, Nos. 4, 5. — Schumann, Arabesque, op. 18; op. 21, No. 2. — 


Heller, Praeludien, op. 81. — Chopin, Preludes, op. 28; op. 45. — St.-Sa£ns, 
Toccata, op. 72, No. 3. — Mendelssohn, ** Songs without Words," Nos. 8, 24, 
34, 38. — Rubinstein, Preludes, op. 24, Nos.- 1, 4. 

Caprice, Impromptu, etc. : Chopin, Impromptus, op. 29, op. 51, op. 66. — 
Gade, Aquarelles, op. 57, Nos. i, 3, 5; Fantasies, op. 41, Nos. 2, 3. — Grieg, 
op. 43, Nos. I, 4; op. 62, No. 4. — MoszKOWSKi, op. 7, No. 2,; op. 36, No. 6. 
— Schubert, Impromptu, op. 90, No. 4. — Rubinstein, Caprices, op. 21. — 
TscHAiKOWSKY, Capriccio, op. 8. — Schumann, Intermezzi, op. 4; op. 12, 
Nos. 2, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

Scherzo: Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 2, No. 2, third movement; op. 26, 
second movement; op. ^8, third movement. — Chopin, Pfte. Son. op. 35, second 
movement; Scherzos, op. 20, 31, 39, 54. — Grieg, op. 54, No. 5. — Mendelssohn, 
" Songs without Words," No. 45; op. 16, No. 2. — Schumann, Pfte. Son. op. 
14, second movement; op. 22, third movement; op. 12, No. 4; op. 21, Nos. i, 
3, 6; op. 26, No. 3; op. 32, No. i. — Schubert, Pfte. Sonatas Nos. i and 9 
(Peters ed.) third movement of each. — Hummel, Pfte. Son. op. 106, second 
movement. — Brahms, op. 4. 


I. Old Dance-spkcies. 

1 34. Very many of the older dances have fallen into disuse, 
and the corresponding musical species are therefore seldom written 
expressly for the purpose of dancing. But the old types, with their 
respective rhythmic peculiarities, are nevertheless often adopted, 
and invested with the characteristics and charms of modern musical 

For the list of old dance-forms, and their several details, refer- 
ence must be made to Grove's dictionary, or some standard book 
upon '* Dances," old and modern. See par. 126^, and par. 127 ; and 
examine, carefully, the following examples of these dance-species 
as found, in their original condition (in older writings), and in the 
idealized expositions of more modern composers : 

Allemande, Courante, Bourr^, Sarabande, Passepied : Bach, English 
Suites; French Suites; Partitas. — Les MaItres du Clavecin (Litolff ed.), 
Vol. I, pages 68, 69, 70, 82-86, 117-119, 166, 167, 189; Vol. II, pages 16, 46, 47, 
109, no, 174 (Tambourtn), 178, 221 {Galliardo), 

Qavotte: Bach, Engl. Suites, Nos. 3, 6; French Suites, Nos. 5, 6 (Ex. 75 
of this book). — Les MaItres du Clavecin, Vol. I, pages 50, 191; Vol. II, 
p. 28. 

234 THE MARCH. Par. 136. 

Qigue; Les MaItrks du, Clavecin, Vol. I, p. 58, 74, 93, 132, 178, 192; 
Vol. II, p. 48, 50, III, 142, 144, 189. 

Minuet: Bach, Engl. Suite, No. 4; French Suites, Nos. i, 2, 3, 6; 
Partitas, Nos. i, 4. — Les MaItres du Clavecin, Vol. I, p. 128, 143; Vol. II, 
p. 150, 187, 196, 200, 208. — Haydn, Pfte. Son. No. i (Cotta ed.), second move- 
ment; Symphonies and String-quartets. — Mozart, Pfte. Son. No. 9 (Cotta ed.), 
second movement; No. 12, tHird movement; Symphonies and String-quartets. 
— Beethoven, Pfte. Son. op. 10, No. 3, third movement; op. 22, ditto; op. 31, 
No. 3, ditto. — Schubert, Pfte. Sonatas, Nos. 4, 8, third movement of each. 
— Mendelssohn, Son. op. 6, second movement. — Grieg, op. 57, No. i. — 


Further: Bargiel, Suite of old Dances, op. 7. — Rubinstein, ditto, op. 
38. — MoszKOWSKi, Bourr6e, op. 38, No. i. — Raff, Tambourin, op. 204, No. 6. 
—Silas, Gavotte in e-minor. 

2. Modern Dance-spkcies. 

135. The most prominent place among modern dances with 
musical setting is assigned to the Waltz, Mazurka, Polonaise, 
Polka, Tarantella, Quadrille, and a few others of national, rather 
than universal, importance. Their musical exposition is sometimes 
brief and simple ; but more commonly they are idealized, or elabo- 
rated into ** Concert-pieces " of considerable length and freedom 
of form, without neglect, however, of the distinctive rhythmic 
peculiarities of the respective species. Information concerning the 
latter may be obtained from the authorities already cited, and from 
careful inspection of the following examples : 

Chopin, Waltzes; Mazurkas (especially Nos. i, 5, 6, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 
22, 24, 25, 26, 32, 36, 41, 47) ; Polonaises (especially Nos. i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10) ; 
Tarantella, op. 43; Bolero, op. 19. — Johann Strauss, difew Waltzes and other 
Dances (Schirmer ed.). — Brahms, Waltzes for 4 hands, op. 39; Hungarian 
Dances, for 2 or 4 hands. — DvorAk, Waltzes, op. 54; Slavonian Dances, for 
2 or 4 hands, op. 46, op. 72. — Grieg, op. 12, Nos. 2, 5, 6; op. 38, Nos. 4, 5 ; 
op. 47, Nos. I, 6; op. 62, No. i. — Liszt, Polonaise in E major; Tarantella 
(** Venezia e Napoli**). — Moszkowski, Waltzes, op. 8; op. 46, No. i. — 
Rubinstein, " Le Bal,'* op. 14. — St.-Sa£ns, Waltzes, op. 72, No. 4; op. 104. 
— Tschaikowsky, Mazurka, op. 9, No. 3. — Weber, ^'Invitation to the Dance '* 

3. The March. 

1 36. Though not a "Dance," in the specific sense of the 
term, the March belongs in the foremost rank of that class of 
musical compositions in which marked rhythm is the ruling trait 
and purpose.