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Full text of "Hopwood's Living pictures; their history, photo-production, and practical working"

GIFT OF 
MICHAEL REESE 




LIVING PICTURES 



HOPWOOD'S 

LIVING PICTURES 

THEIR HISTORY, PHOTO - PRODUCTION, AND 
PRACTICAL WORKING, WITH CLASSIFIED LISTS 
OF BRITISH PATENTS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 



BY 



R. B. FOSTER, B.Sc, 

BARRISTER-AT-LAW OF LINCOLN'S INN 



NEW EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED 



LONDON 

THE HATTON PRESS, LIMITED 

123-25, FLEET STREET, E.G. 
1915 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 

A SECOND EDITION of my work has been contemplated 
for some time, but circumstances have prevented me from 
devoting the large number of hours necessary for the 
accurate verification of facts and the revision of the book. 
I can only express my gratification that the labour has 
been undertaken by a friend in whom I have the greatest 
confidence. 

For the moment it is interesting to look back to the 
days in which the First Edition appeared. That year 
marked the transition from history to actuality; it was 
the period of search for new types of machines, for new 
methods, and attempted forecasts of the future. Yet I 
think it very doubtful whether many of those most 
interested at that date foresaw the actual commercial 
development which has taken place. Putting technical 
matters aside for the moment, we may safely say that in 
1899 the Living Picture was a popular music-hall "turn." 
To-day it has established its own theatre, its own 
personnel, its own audience. Technical advance has 
been great. The more effective types of machines have 
been perfected ; the actors of the day act for the screen, 
just as they do for the auditorium; a whole network of 
recording energy is spread over the entire world. In this 
year of grace the Living Picture is possessed of an organiza- 
tion so complete, so far-spread, that its future existence 
and expansion is assured. It has entered into the life of 



360735 



vi PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 

the peoples ; it has become a permanent part of their 
recreation and education. 

And yet, wonderful as has been the progress of the past 
twelve years, more wonderful still will be the coming 
decade. To-day we again stand looking to the future, as 
we did in ninety-nine. Then we hoped for the perfecting 
of the monochrome picture, and that has come. But 
to-day shows us the promise of reality itself. Colour pro- 
jection has made great strides, soon we may see its perfec- 
tion. Sound and sight have in the past been linked by 
artifice, but now we are in touch with the actuality of 
simultaneous recording of sound and picture a veritable 
record of events as entirely perfect as human sensation 
can demand. In a few years time will no longer exist ; 
any event, the gorgeous pageant, the historic speech, the 
actor with his every intimate gesture and familiar intona- 
tion, will live for ever. The history of the past few years 
shows us how this may be, and it is such a history that 
this edition records. A perusal of the proofs assures me 
that the facts are well presented, and the cordial relations 
which have existed between the reviser and myself entirely 
remove my natural regret that the whole work is not 

my own. 

HENRY V. HOPWOOD. 

LONDON, 1912. 



REVISER'S PREFACE 

ONE or two remarks will suffice to explain what has been 
attempted in revising this work. The original text of 
the old edition has, where possible, been left unaltered. 
Chapters I., II., and III., dealing with the historic evolu- 
tion of the Cinematograph, have been but slightly altered. 
Chapters IV. and V., dealing with present-day apparatus 
and films, have of necessity been largely rewritten. In 
Chapter VI. only the chief points in manipulation and 
practice have been dealt with. To have done full justice 
to this part of the subject would have necessitated much 
more space than is available. Chapter VII., dealing with 
Pictures in Colours, Chapter VIII., dealing with Speaking 
Pictures, and Chapters IX. and X., dealing with Legal 
Matters, are entirely new. In dealing with present-day 
applications and with film-subjects in Chapter XL, a 
large portion of the original text has been rewritten. In 
Appendix I. classified lists of British Patents are given in 
lieu of a digest. These specifications are abridged in 
volumes published by the Patent Office. In Appendix I -I, 
the annotated bibliography in the original work has been 
supplemented by lists of books and periodicals dealing 
exclusively with the subject. 

The task of revision has been somewhat formidable, and 
it was not intended in the first place to undertake it alone. 
This fact, in conjunction with existing circumstances, 
largely explains the somewhat later appearance of the 
book than would otherwise have been the case. 

The reviser has to acknowledge the ready response ot 



viii REVISER'S PREFACE 

several leading manufacturers and firms in supplying in- 
formation and particulars of apparatus ; the valuable 
assistance by Mr. William Briggs, of the Inner Temple, 
Barrister-at-Law, in connection with Chapters IX. and X. ; 
the help given by Mr. H. W. Heath, B.Sc., of the Patent 
Office, at the proof-stage, and in connection with many 
of the illustrations ; and by Mr. Williams, of the Patent 
Office Library, in connection with the Bibliography ; 
and the permission of the Controller of H.M. Stationery 
to utilize the illustrations published in British Patent 
Specifications for several of the illustrations. 

It is hoped that the present work may not be too 
technical for the reader unacquainted with the technics of 
the subject, but who is in any way interested therein, and 
may be also useful to manufacturers and others actually 
engaged in the industry. 

The reviser will be glad to have any criticisms and 
suggestions for future editions. 

2, PUMP COURT, 

TEMPLE, E.G. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER PACK 

I. PERSISTENCE OF VISION AND CONTINUED PERCEPTION 

OF THE SAME OBJECT - - I 

II. ILLUSION OF MOTION PRODUCED BY SUCCESSIVE VIEWS 

OF SLIGHTLY VARYING DIAGRAMS - - II 

III. CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE PRACTICAL DEVELOP- 

MENT OF THE LIVING PICTURE - 47 

IV. FILM MACHINES AND INTERMITTANCE MECHANISMS - 105 

V. FILMS, THEIR PRODUCTION AND TREATMENT - "155 

Celluloid arid non-flam films Perforation Cameras and 
accessories Developing the negative Printing the 
positive Developingthe positive Retouching, colour- 
ing, and protecting the film Joining and repairing 
films Cleaning and renovating films. 

VI. EXHIBITING, ETC. - - 198 

The projector The optical system Illuminants Screens 
Stands Film - gate and steadying devices Film 
centering Shutters and flicker Fire-preventing and 
safety devices Film manipulation and housing 
S tereoscopic projection Kinoplasticon Cinelife 
Peep-shows Living pictures at home. 

VII. COLOUR CINEMATOGRAPHY- - 253 

Principles of colour photography Additive methods 
Subtractive or superposition methods Kinemacolour 
Chronochrome. 

VIII. LIVING AND SPEAKING PICTURES - - 274 

IX. CINEMATOGRAPH ACT, IQOQ, AND REGULATIONS - - 289 

X. COPYRIGHT - - 311 

The Copyright Act, 1911. 

ix 



x CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I'Ai'-K 

XI. PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 325 

Re view- Cinematography for science, education, and com- 
merce Finis. 

APPENDIX I. - - 339 

British Patents Foreign Patents Classified lists of 
British Patents. 

APPENDIX II. 3?7 

A. Annotated bibliography to 1898 B. Works of refer- 
ence subsequent to 1898 C. British and foreign 
periodicals. 

INDEX - - - - - 373 



LIVING PICTURES 



CHAPTER I 

PERSISTENCE OF VISION AND CONTINUED PERCEPTION 
OF THE SAME OBJECT 

IN all branches of applied science the reflective 'mind 
derives pleasures from tracing a perfected instrument 
back to its simplest form, thus separating its primary and 
essential factor from those mechanical improvements and 
additions which serve to render the apparatus perfect in 
action and commercially practicable. For instance, the 
telescope and microscope, the use of which has carried 
man's sight farther and farther into the boundless realms 
of the infinitely great and immeasurably small, derive 
their utility, when all is told, from the fact that a ray 
of light is bent out of its path when passing through any 
point where a change of (optical) density occurs in the 
material through which the ray is passing. The reason 
of this it is not necessary to inquire into ; the experi- 
mental fact is accepted on its own merits while the possi- 
bility is admitted of some underlying verity which may 
prove the connecting link between this and other related 
phenomena, and still further simplify the expression of 
the natural laws governing them. And thus pursuing our 
present subject and- considering the marvellous mechanism 
which brings the past in all semblance of vivacity under 
present view, it is only necessary to ascertain the funda- 
mental fact which renders possible so wonderful a result. 
But, instead of analyzing the finished apparatus for our- 



>^ .PICTURES 

selves, it is best to take our starting-point from others, and 
at once prepare to follow from its primitive germ the 
growth of the Living Picture a history which could 
never have been written were it not for the physiological 
phenomenon of Persistence of Vision, that basis upon 
which rests every one of the mechanical appliances 
for producing the illusion of motion which will be 
described. 

The stock experiment which proves Persistence of 
Vision is of so elementary a character that man must 
be supposed to have noticed the effect long before he was 
capable of theorizing upon its cause. If a stick with 
lighted or glowing point is taken and whirled in a circle 
(an action doubtless performed in prehistoric times), it 
will be at once noticed, if the speed is great enough, that 




FIG. i. 

the glowing end of the stick is no longer seen as a point ; 
but a luminous circle filling its whole path is visible 
instead. Again, take a flat steel spring and fix it at one 
end, strike the other so as to cause it to vibrate, and the 
spring will appear to fill the whole of the space over 
which it moves, as seen in Fig. I. Now, it certainly does 
not require much proof that neither stick nor spring can 
be in two places at once ; and the only possible solution 
of the mystery is that the luminous point or spring appears 
to be in any given spot after it has moved away, and con- 
tinues to appear there until its return to the same position, 
when its image again falls on the same spot in the eye. 
The observer thus gets an impression of continuous pres- 
ence. This taking place all along the path of the moving 
object naturally causes it in appearance to fill the whole 



PERSISTENCE OF VISION 3 

space. Fortunately this, as most other experimental 
facts, admits of simple verbal expression one sentence 
suffices we continue to experience the visual effect of 
light after it has ceased to act. This phenomenon is 
called, as already mentioned, Persistence of Vision, and 
from this point we make our departure ; the investigations 
and theories respecting the cause of this effect, whether 
residing in the slow return of the brain-cells (after their 
excitation) to normal state, or connected with the nature 
of the stimulus experienced by the terminal of the optic 
nerve in the retina, are all interesting ; but they do not 
alter the experimental fact of persistence, which is cer- 
tainly true, even though all the theories hitherto promul- 
gated with respect to it should prove to be erroneous. 

A sentence, which is probably the first written reference 
to persistence of vision, is contained in the fourth book of 
" De Rerum Natura," by Lucretius, dated about 65 B.C. 
He says there : " This [perception of movement] is to be 
explained in the following way ; that when the first image 
passes off, and a second is afterward produced in another 
position, the former then seems to have changed its 
gesture. This we must conceive to be done by a very 
rapid process," etc. Though seemingly so very a propos, 
this passage is in reality only a reference to a theory of 
dreams, and its interest arises from the fact that Dr. 
Plateau found it quoted against him (by Dr. Sinsteden) 
on the invention of the pheriakistoscope (see post, p. 15) ; 
and it seems of some interest as being the first-quoted 
anticipation of the first living-picture apparatus. Indeed, 
Lucretius only expresses the fact of persistent vision, and 
mentions no apparatus for its demonstration. 

This matter appears to have been first treated of two 
centuries later in the second book of Ptolemy's " Optics." 
This work, written about ' the year A.D. 130, narrowly 
escaped annihilation ; only two copies are known to exist, 
and these are both Latin translations through the Arabic. 



4 LIVING PICTURES 

One copy is in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris; the 
other and more perfect example is in the Bodleian Library 
at Oxford. Ptolemy in this treatise mentions that, if a 
sector of a disc be coloured, the whole will appear of 
that colour when rapidly revolved, and if the sector be 
variously coloured at different distances from the centre, 
the disc will appear ringed. Alhazen, the great Arabian 
philosopher, refers to the subject about A.u. noo, as do 
others, including Leonardo da Vinci, who was born 
in 1452. Coming to later years, Newton, Boyle, and 
others, mention the matter; but little practical investi- 
gation was done except the attempts by Segner, d'Arcy, 
and Cavallo, to measure the duration of vision after the 
extinction of light. To conclude the references on this 
subject, it is only necessary to mention that the period 
of persistence is now accepted as (on the average) from 
TO to ^i of a second, subject to the degree of intensity, 
duration, and colour, of the light received by the eye. 

Up to the end of the eighteenth century no progress 
was made in the application of the principle of persis- 
tence, and the character of last-century knowledge is well 
summed up in Abbe Nollet's " Le9ons de Physique," 
1765, tome 5, where he says : " When an object moves 
very rapidly before our eyes, we often attribute to it size 
and shape which it does not possess. A polyhedron 
revolved on its axis seems to us a sphere ; as does also 
a circle revolved on one of its diameters, etc., etc." This 
statement merely implies the knowledge that one object 
may have the appearance of being in more than one place 
at once if it move fast enough ; and here may be men- 
tioned an old popular toy brought out by the Stereoscopic 
Company under the name of " The Optic Wonder." In 
this a piece of wire bent to the outline of one side of 
a vase or the like symmetrical figure was made to revolve 
rapidly round its vertical axis, and thereby gave the im- 
pression of a complete vessel. As an addition a glass rod, 



PERSISTENCE OF VISION 



bent to a half outline of a glass shade and mounted out- 
side the wire, caused the appearance of a complete trans- 
parent covering. Later, a heavy metal top was used to 
obtain rotation, the wires being inserted in a hollow 
vertical spindle. This toy was manufactured in France 
and known under the name of " la Toupie eblouissante," 
or Dazzling Top (Fig. 2). 

So, up to the year 1825, demonstration was confined to 
exhibiting the same object in more than one place at once ; 
but in 1826 or thereabouts it was rendered possible to 
arrange two different objects in such a manner that they 
appeared to be in the same place at the same time. This 
was accomplished by the Thaumatrope, the invention of 






FIG. 3. 

which is attributed by Brewster to Dr. Paris, who himself 
claimed it in his book, " Philosophy in Sport made Science 
in Earnest." It consists of a card having images on each 
surface, inverted with respect to each other, as in Fig. 3, 
and these images (when presented in rapid alternation by 
the revolution of the card) both persist, and so appear 
simultaneously and continuously present in the field of 
view. With reference to the general acceptance of Dr. 
Paris as inventor of this instrument (which Carpenter 
attributes to Dr. Wollaston), it is well to notice the 
following little-known story from Charles Babbage's 
" Passages from the Life of a Philosopher " [Auto- 
biography] : " One day Herschel [Sir John], sitting with 



6 LIVING PICTURES 

me after dinner, amusing himself by spinning a pear upon 
the table, suddenly asked whether I could show him the 
two sides of a shilling at the same moment. I took out 
of my pocket a shilling, and, holding it up before the 
looking-glass, pointed out my method. ' No,' said my 
friend, ' that won't do ' ; then, spinning my shilling upon 
the table, he pointed out his method of seeing both sides 
at once. The next day I mentioned the anecdote to the 
late Dr. Fitton, who a few days after brought me a 
beautiful illustration of the principle. It consisted of 
a round disc of card suspended between two pieces of 
sewing-silk. These threads, being held between the finger 
and thumb of each hand, were then made to turn quickly, 
when the disc of card, of course, revolved also. Upon one 
side of this disc of card was painted a bird ; upon the other 
side, an empty bird-cage. On turning the thread rapidly 
the bird appeared to have got inside the cage. We soon 
made numerous applications, as a rat on one side and 
a trap upon the other, etc. It was shown to Captain Kater, 
Dr. Wollaston, and many of our friends, and was, after 
the lapse of a short time, forgotten. Some months after, 
during dinner at the Royal Society Club, Sir Joseph Banks 
being in the chair, I heard Mr. Barrow, then Secretary to 
the Admiralty, talking very loudly about a wonderful in- 
vention of Dr. Paris, the object of which I could not quite 
understand. It was called the thaumatrope, and was said 
to be sold at the Royal Institution, in Albemarle Street. 
Suspecting that it had some connection with our unnamed 
toy, I went next morning and purchased for seven shillings 
and sixpence a thaumatrope, which I afterwards sent 
down to Slough to the late Lady Herschel. It was pre- 
cisely the thing which her son and Dr. Fitton had con- 
tributed to invent, which amused all their friends for a 
time and had then been forgotten. There was, however, 
one additional thaumatrope made afterwards. It con- 
sisted of the usual disc of paper. On one side was repre- 



, PERSISTENCE OF VISION 7 

sented a thaumatrope (the design upon it being a penny 
piece), with the motto, ' How to turn a Penny/ On the 
other side was a gentleman in black, with his hands held 
out in the act of spinning a thaumatrope, the motto being 
' A New Trick from Paris.' " 

To conclude the history of the Thaumatrope a reference 
to a suggestion made by Claudet in 1867 is alone neces- 
sary. In the ordinary form both sides of the card revolve 
around the same axis at the same distance, and therefore 
appear on the same plane. But Claudet suggested that 
if the card were of considerable thickness, or a substitute 
were provided (similar to a shallow matchbox cover), and 
the axis of rotation passed through one side, as shown in 
Figs. 4 and 5, the picture drawn on the other side (re- 



Fins. 4 and 5. 

volving at a distance from the axis) would come nearer to 
the eye (situated either at A or B) than that through which 
the axis passed. One object would thus appear to stand 
in front of the other, giving an appearance of relief which 
would convert the usual form into a Sterco-Thaumatrope. 
This apparatus was designed by Claudet to demonstrate 
rapid alternate convergent and divergent action of the 
optical axes, but discussion of the questionable accuracy 
of his conclusions is quite foreign to the subject of this 
book, and finds its proper place in a stereoscopic treatise. 
It is indeed strange that a toy which in the earlier 
years of the present generation could be bought six on a 
halfpenny card should have cost seven-and-sixpence at the 
date of its inception, and should have tempted the Royal 



8 LIVING PICTURES 

Institution to enter commercial life ; but stranger still is 
the thought of that shilling, carelessly spun seventy years 
ago, being the first step in the long series of persistent 
vision apparatus whose latest developments achieve results 
wonderful indeed when not understood, more wonderful 
still when a just comprehension is formed of the number- 
less details which are necessary to the effective working of 
a living picture. However, to return to the year 1826, 
the date of the publication of the Thaumatrope's descrip- 
tion. One stage in this history is here complete ; Fitton's 
instrument set men thinking, and only six years elapsed 
before the first appliance was introduced for obtaining the 
illusion of motion. 



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CHAPTER II 

ILLUSION OF MOTION PRODUCED BY SUCCESSIVE VIEWS 
OF SLIGHTLY VARYING DIAGRAMS 

THE researches which led to further advance in the 
illusive production of motion were distributed among 
many scientific men, each to a great degree unaware of 
the others' work. The starting-point on the theoretical 
side was probably Dr. Roget's paper published in 1825, 
on the apparent distortion of the spokes of a rotating 
wheel when seen through a fence (i.e., a series of vertical 
slots), a subject later investigated by Plateau. The latter, 
in 1836, invented the Anorthoscope, an instrument which 
reversed the illusion observed by Roget, and gave a correct 
image from a distorted original. In this contrivance a 
back disc bearing a distorted image revolves at a speed 
four times greater than a front one which is pierced with 
four radial slots at angular distances of go degrees. When 
in motion this instrument shows four non-distorted images 
formed from the one distorted original. Rose's Kalotrope 
(shown in 1856 at the Polytechnic) further modified this 
action, and caused beautiful symmetrical designs in curved 
lines to be produced from originals of very commonplace 
appearance. These instruments, though in their first 
forms not strictly connected with the illusion of motion, 
are so beautiful in their action that, depending as they do 
on persistence of vision, they deserve mention in case any 
reader cares to " look up " a subject of so interesting a 
nature. But in the year 1849 Plateau himself suggested a 
modification of this instrument which produced the illusion 

ii 



12 



LIVING PICTURES 



of motion in a most effective manner, and this matter 
will be referred to somewhat later in its proper sequence. 

Probably it was due as much to the invention of the 
Thaumatrope as to Roget's researches on the apparent 
deformation of the spokes of revolving wheels that atten- 
tion was directed to the fruitful combined subjects of 
persistence of vision and rotation of a series of diagrams ; 
for in 1831 we find several writers, including Aime and 
Faraday, referring to the fact that when two cogged 
wheels, with equal number of teeth, revolve at equal speed 
in opposite directions, one in front of the other, the eye, if 
placed at a distance, perceives a stationary image of one 
wheel only. (Plateau had made the same observation in 




FIG. 6. 

1828.) This illusive stationary wheel merely results from 
the strong image perceived each time the aspects of the 
two wheels coincide, the phase when the cogs of one 
wheel are passing over the spaces in the other forming, 
so to speak, a blurred background on which the strong 
stationary image stands out. To illustrate this Faraday 
constructed a demonstration apparatus called Faraday's 
Wheel (Fig. 6), in which two discs with notched edges 
were revolved at equal speeds in opposite directions by 
friction gearing. Faraday and Plateau both investigated 
the results of revolving two cogged wheels in the same 
direction and looking through the cogs of the front one at 
the other; in which case also an apparently stationary 
wheel was seen, though from a far different cause to that 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 



in the first case, as will be seen in the following explana- 
tion of the action of a slotted disc. 

Faraday also pointed out that one wheel gave the same 
result if revolved in front of a mirror, the image taking 
the place of the second wheel, the advantage secured being 
that speed of object and image were bound to be abso- 
lutely identical. 

It was but a step from this discovery to the employ- 
ment of a disc pierced with slots to look through and 
bearing radial lines on its face i.e., the side to be turned 





FIG. 7. 



FIG. 



towards the mirror. From this experiment strange 
results followed. When the slots were equal in number 
to the radii (Fig. 7), the image (as seen through the slots 
and in the mirror) appeared stationary; when the slots 
were slightly fewer than the radii, the wheel appeared to 
travel slowly forward (i.e., in the same direction as the 
real motion of the disc), and to move in the backward 
direction if the slots outnumbered the radial marks. Now, 
it must be understood that the disc is revolved so rapidly 
that if the image be viewed directly (i.e., not through the 
slots] the black spokes would be confused into a grey 



LIVING PICTURES 



circle. Yet when seen through these small openings 
every individual spoke appears distinctly, a fact which 
points out the slots as the key to the mystery. The reason 
is simple. Every time a slot passes the eye an impression 
is received of the image of the whole face of the disc (as 
seen in the mirror), and though the whole image is turning 
rapidly, the slot (if narrow) goes so quickly past the eye 
that the image has not time to move far enough to give 
any impression of motion, and therefore it appears to be 
standing still. If, now, when the second slot passes 
before the eye the image presents a precisely similar view 





FIG. 9. 



FIG. 10. 



to the previous one (and this is the case when radii and 
slots are equal in number), it is obvious that it will not 
appear to have moved at all ; for we shall have combined 
two successive similar images, by the action of persistence, 
into one permanent impression. If, however, the slots are 
fewer in number than the spokes (Fig. 8), when the second 
slot comes before our eye, the second spoke, instead of 
falling in the same place as the first, will be seen slightly 
in advance of that spot, and will thus give the impression 
that the first spoke has moved forward a little. If, how- 
ever, the slots are more numerous than the spokes (Fig. 9), 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 15 

we receive our second view a little before the second spoke 
has arrived at the spot where the first was seen, and we 
therefore imagine the first spoke to have moved back 
to that extent. It will now be clear that the whole 
phenomenon depends on the fact of the moving image 
being seen for so short a period that it appears to be still ; 
during the time it is not seen another image takes its 
place, and this substitution is effected so rapidly that the 
first image persists in the eye until the second one is 
presented to view, this order of things being repeated 
with succeeding images so long as the disc is turned. 

Suppose, now, instead of a series of similar images we 
have a succession of slightly varying drawings (say of 
a man) in which while the body agrees in all, yet the arm 
is in different positions, such as lifted gradually higher 
and then dropped so that the last of the series nearly 
agrees with the first. In this case repeated views of the 
body will all agree, but the arm will be seen, first low 
down, then gradually rising, then falling and rising 
again ; persistence of vision blending the images, so that 
the action appears continuous although we really see it in 
jerks. And here we have the true living picture, capable 
of improvement no doubt, needing instantaneous photog- 
raphy to confer accuracy, requiring extreme mechanical, 
perfection to secure a sufficient number of pictures in a 
second and to again combine the same into one con- 
tinuous scene ; but yet, from this point onward, there 
is little discovery to record, though many ingenious 
inventions remain to be described. These inventions 
naturally aimed at one result, but by different methods, 
and therefore the history of each class of device must be 
separately traced. 

The instrument which has just been referred to as the 
progenitor of all these species was invented simultane- 
ously by Plateau of Ghent and Stampfer of Vienna ; and 
though their instruments were identical they naturally 



16 LIVING PICTURES 

received different names from their respective originators. 
Plateau forwarded an example of his Phenakistoscope 
through Quetelet to Faraday in November, 1832, his 
letter being printed in February, 1833. Stampfer first 
made his Stroboscope in December, 1832, at which date 
no description had been published of Plateau's previously 
constructed Phenakistoscope. As an early instance of 
confusion of terms it may be mentioned that Snell, 
writing in 1835, calls the Stroboscope by the name of 
Phantascope or Kaleidorama. Miiller in 1846 applied 
this instrument for the demonstration of wave-motion, 
and Poppe, Savart, and others, employed it for the 
synthesis of other natural motions. One application is 
shown in Fig. 10, where a pendulum appears to swing as 
the successive stages of that action are momentarily 
perceived through the slots by means of a mirror. It 
will be understood that, while the slotted disc is of metal, 
the diagrams are drawn on a circular removable card, 
in order to allow the inspection of varying subjects. 
One later and very interesting form of this instrument 
may be mentioned here. Lommel in 1881 suggested that 
a strong beam of light might be thrown, from behind, 
through the disc by means of a lens bringing the beam to 
ja focus in the slot. In this way a powerful illuminating 
beam was passed through a very narrow opening, and as 
it again spread out a mirror reflected it on to the surface 
of the disc, as seen in Fig. n. When the disc was in 
rotation the light only fell on the designs in intermittent 
flashes as each slot allowed the beam of light to pass. 
The result of interrupting the light in this way, instead 
of by a slotted disc between the eye and the design, was 
to render it possible for a whole roomful of people to see 
the entire disc at once, whereas with the older arrangement 
only a single person could view the effect at one time. 

The slotted disc was, however, felt to be a great dis- 
advantage by reason of the small amount of light which 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 



could reach the eye ; an idea of the proportion allowed 
to pass may be formed from the relative extent of slot 
and opaque disc, for of course while the latter is before 
the eye no light is received. Wheatstone endeavoured to 
overcome this failing by allowing the disc to be viewed 
on its face instead of in a mirror. By means of a cog 
and snail motion the disc was kept at rest for a 
comparatively long period and then rapidly jerked into 
its next position. The eye was thus impressed with 
a vigorous image which persisted over the short period of 
blur caused by the rapid movement, and then received the 
succeeding stationary image in its full strength. 





FIG. ii. 



FIG. 12. 



This crude apparatus is interesting because of the 
employment on some of the more modern machines of 
an intermittent motion with such a long rest and such 
rapid travel that a shutter is dispensed with ; while one 
form of apparatus manufactured in France actually 
took its name of Heliocinegraphe from the very same 
cog and snail motion employed by Wheatstone fifty 
or sixty years ago. It was subsequently suggested, in 
order to obviate the use of a mirror, that a slotted disc 
might be mounted in advance of the diagram but on 
the same axis, so that they both revolved in the same 
direction at the same speed (Fig. 12) ; and though this 



i8 LIVING PICTURES 

form of apparatus did not make its commercial appear- 
ance till somewhat late in the day, it will be seen from 
the drawing that the arrangement is exactly equivalent 
to viewing the back of a slotted disc in a mirror. It, 
however, opened the way for further improvement by 
exhibiting clearly the shutter-like nature of the slotted 
disc. 

The first attempts at projection were founded on this 
type of machine, the design wheel being transparent and 
light thrown first through it, then through the slots, and 
finally on to the screen by means of an objective. This 
was done by Uchatius between 1851 and 1853, but 
Plateau himself had practically attacked the same prob- 
lem in 1849 in a modification of his Anorthoscope 
(see p. n). It will be remembered that the Anorthoscope 
produced four non-distorted images from a distorted 
original. Plateau placed sixteen images in progressive 
series round the margin of a glass disc, and in front of 
this, in a reverse direction, revolved, at a four times 
greater speed, an opaque disc with four slots. The front 
of the apparatus could be observed by many people at 
once, and to prevent confusion the parts of the disc 
showing the non-erect images were screened off. It will 
be seen that as a slot passed ne aperture in the screen 
one image would be viewed and the light then cut off 
while the transparent disc turned one-sixteenth of its 
diameter and the opaque one one-quarter. The next 
image would then be revealed, by its coincidence with 
thq slot, in the same position as that in which the 
previous image was obs.rved. 

Plateau seemed very proud of the sensation caused by 
his first design (drawn to his request, for by this date he 
was unfortunately stone-blind). It represented a devil 
blowing up a fire, and the effect was so striking that 
Plateau was led to further suggestions of a photographic 
character, which will be referred to in their proper place. 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 19 

It is plain that to render this apparatus available for pro- 
jection it but required a condenser behind the transparent 
disc and an objective in front of the opaque one ; but 
Plateau does not appear to have suggested this, and the 
first application of differentially speeded discs to the 
purpose of projection-work appears to be the Lantern 
Wheel of Life, an instrument of considerably later date. 
The Austrian Lieutenant (subsequently General) Franz 
Uchatius wrote, on February 16, 1851, a letter to Prokesch, 
the head of the Viennese optical house subsequently known 
by the name of Fritsch. In this letter he refers vaguely 
to the glories of the Phenakistoscope having been sur- 
rendered, and his subsequent papers show that the 
manufacture of his instruments was entrusted to the 
above-mentioned firm. The first form attempted was 
an arrangement exactly similar in principle to Fig. 12, 
the light being thrown through a transparent design disc 
on to a screen by means of an objective, the slotted 
disc acting as a shutter. The loss of light proved to 
be enormous ; figures of greater size than 6 inches could 
not be shown ; and Uchatius was led to invent, and 
Prokesch to manufacture, an apparatus of an exceedingly 
ingenious and interesting nature, which was shown at the 
Vienna Academy of Sciences in 1853. 

In this later form the diagrams were painted on the 
circumference of a transparent disc, which remained 
stationary. In front of each design a lens was placed, 
the whole circle of lenses being capable of adjustment in 
order that all the optic axes should cross at the place 
where the image was formed on the screen. The separate 
lenses thus all threw their respective diagrams in the 
same place, the succession of the series being attained 
by revolving a limelight behind the diagrams, only one 
of which was thus lit at a time. The interest of this 
apparatus is great, not only from the fact that the source 
of light was the only moving part, but also because this 



2O 



LIVING PICTURES 



appears to be the first suggestion of projecting successive 
pictures through more than one optical system. Instead 
of moving the illuminant, it would have been simple to 
have deflected the light by means of a rotating mirror, 
but this multiple form does not appear to have been fol- 
lowed up, and though in any type of slotted machine with 
continuously moving diagrams the loss of light must have 
been enormous, yet it was towards the improvement of 
this type that attention was directed. To secure increase 
of illumination it was necessary to show the object for as 
long as possible, making the change to the next diagram 
in a very short time. This desire mainly arose because 
the need for a projecting instrument was strongly felt 





FIG. 13. 



FIG. 14. 



and it is certain that no toy attains a great popularity 
whose use is confined to one individual at a time. 

The most effective early device for this purpose was the 
Ross Wheel of Life (Figs. 13 and 14), designed for use in 
the Optical Lantern, and patented in 1871. The disc bear- 
ing the figures is caused to revolve slowly ; the opaque disc 
has one sector removed and travels at such a speed as to 
make one revolution while the transparent disc moves one 
stage. Thus in Fig. 13 two figures are seen through the 
opening in the opaque disc. Its revolution promptly cuts 
them out of sight, and by the time the opening comes 
back to the same place the next pair of figures (in slightly 
different attitudes) are found to occupy the same vertical 
line. This arrangement is practically a substitution of 
a one-slot disc for a four-slot one as used by Plateau in 
the instrument last described, The result of this arrange- 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 21 

ment is that the lantern screen is full of figures all in 
motion and in various phases of the same action ; but 
this multiplicity of images is confusing, and attempts 
were made to show only one figure on the screen at 
a time. Mr. Beale, of Greenwich, devised a method 
whereby a face could be shown in motion by means of 
a series of sixteen pictures illuminated by intermittent 
flashes. A painting of a human bust was made on a 
screen, the face being replaced by a hole, behind which 
could be brought sixteen views of a face in the various 
stages of a grimace or smile by means of the revolution of 
a disc on the circumference of which they were painted. 
A sixteen-holed shutter worked by gearing admitted a 
flash of light to illuminate the painting for a moment as 
each face arrived in its proper position, the light being 
cut off during a quick change to the next expression. By 
means of an ingenious contrivance which allowed only 
every alternate opening in the shutter to act, and was 
adjustable to show first one series of eight and then 
another, the resultant grimace was varied in a most 
amusing way. This arrangement, however, needed a full- 
sized painting for every effect, and was not of the ordinary 
magic-lantern nature; the separate pictures not being pro- 
jected, but only illuminated intermittently. 

A single and therefore larger figure than that given by 
the Wheel of Life was subsequently projected on the 
screen by the same inventor, whose " Dancing Skeleton " 
was a great success. A disc was used, rotating in front 
of a lantern condenser; but this disc, instead of being 
formed of glass, was of thin sheet metal, the figures of 
a skeleton in various attitudes being cut out, stencil 
fashion, round the margin. These necessarily brilliant 
white figures were projected on the screen in the usual 
way by an objective, the light being cut off by an 
interrupter (geared from the axle of the disc) during the 
period of change. Mr. Beale also constructed this instru- 



22 



LIVING PICTURES 



ment with the stencil figures on a long slip, performing 
the necessary eclipses by a rising and falling shutter, the 
whole arrangement being called by him the Choreutoscope. 
An improved form of this device was patented by Hughes 
(1884), and is applicable to any ordinary optical lantern. 
Fig. 15 shows the working parts. Turning the handle 
revolves a disc, a pin on which raises the shutter and so 
interrupts the light. Teeth on the disc then come into 
play, shifting the long slide one stage, and so soon as it 
comes to rest the shutter drops and exposes the picture. 
A continuous motion of the handle repeats these actions 
with sufficient rapidity to throw an apparently permanent 
and moving figure on the screen. A somewhat similar 




FIG. 15. 



arrangement to Beale's Rotary Choreutoscope was 
patented in the United States by A. B. Brown in the 
year 1869 (No. 93,594) ; see pp. 51, 132. This specification 
is mainly of interest by reason of the construction employed 
in the intermittent mechanism. It forms a very close 
approach indeed to the modern cinematograph with 
Maltese Cross motion ; a star-wheel and pin being used 
to drive the design- wheel periodically, while a two-sector 
shutter is shown geared to eclipse the light during the 
change of picture. From this point it would be com- 
paratively easy, by describing no more than two machines, 
to bridge the gap of twenty years which still remains to 
be traversed ere the first machine of distinctly modern 
type appears. Mr. Heyl, in the year after Brown's United 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 23 

States patent, exhibited a somewhat similar apparatus, 
employing photographic images ; but consideration of his 
machine must be deferred until the next chapter, for many 
elementary forms of apparatus remain to be described 
before the subject of chrono-photography is discussed. 

Of the simpler diagram apparatus, however, the phena- 
kistoscopic, or disc-and-slot machines, are practically 
exhausted, except so far as their principles may recur in 
some form of photographic device, and it is necessary now 
to consider the cylindrical apparatus (directly derived 
from ^tl^__PhenakisjLQ5arje), popularly introduced about 
j.86o, and subsequently called the Zoetrope, Zootrope, or 
Wheel of Life, the latter term being a name also applied 
to a previously described lantern slide (p. 20). Desvignes 
patented the Zoetrope, though not naming it, in 1860. 
The year 1867, however, saw a patent (No. 64,117) issued 
in the United States to William E. Lincoln, of Providence, 
JJ.S.A,, for the selfsame contrivance under the name of 
Zoetrope, apparently the first use of the word. But this 
type of slotted machine takes its origin at a date far 
anterior to those quoted above ; in fact, only a little more 
than a twelvemonth elapsed between the invention of the 
phenakistoscope (1833) and publication of the following 
suggestion by W. G. Horner in the Philosophical Maga- 
zine : " The apparatus is merely a hollow cylinder, or a 
moderately high margin, with apertures at ecmal distances, 
and placed cylindrically round the edge of a revolving 
disk. Any drawings which are made on the interior sur- 
face in the intervals of the apertures will be visible through 
the opposite apertures, and, if executed on the same prin- 
ciple of graduated action, will produce the same surprising 
play of relative motions as the common magic disk does 
when spun before a mirror. But as no necessity exists in 
this case for bringing the eye near the apparatus, but 
rather the contrary, and the machine when revolving has 
all the effect of transparency, the phenomenon may be 



LIVING PICTURES 





displayed with full effect to a numerous audience. 
I have given this instrument the name of 
D&daleum, as imitating the practice which the 
celebrated artist of antiquity was fabled to have 
invented, of creating figures of men and animals 
endued with motion. ... I have not thought 
it requisite to give a more particular description 
of the instrument, having communicated every 
needful part of the detail, some weeks ago, to a 
respectable optician of Bristol, Mr. King, jun." 
This is an absolutely correct description of 




FIG. 17. 



FIG. 1 6. 

the instrument patented by Desvignes twenty- 
four years later, and known under the name of 
the Zoetrope. The apparatus, in its modern 
form, is shown in Fig. 16. A band of figures 
having been placed inside the cylinder, the whole 
is rotated, and the figures are then seen in 
motion. The series of figures is such as shown 
in Fig. 17, which forms a very good example. 
The bodies, being equal in number to the slots, 
appear to remain in the same place although 
legs and arms are in motion. But the number 
of heads being one less than the slots, the 
whole series appears to have a slow motion 
in the reverse direction to that in which the 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 25 

Zoetrope is turning (cf. Fig. 9). The effect is therefore 
that of a row of dancing figures, perpetually trying on 
heads and then passing them to their neighbours, who 
repeat the same antics. The variations between succes- 
sive figures are better seen in Fig. 18, taken from Brad- 




FIG. 18. 

ley's English Specification, dated 1867. As shown in his 
engravings the modern Zoetrope is a moderately high 
cylinder, the slots being placed in the upper part. The 
first commercial form, however, though the same in prin- 
ciple, differed from this plan in construction. No drawing 




FIG. 19. 

of Homer's Daedaleum appears to have survived, but the 
Desvignes' designs are of great interest, as foreshadowing 
many later inventions, and reference will frequently be 
made to his various suggestions. Fig. 19 shows his 
arrangement of the slots below the design, a kind of casing, 



26 



LIVING PICTURES 



T, in the interior of the cylinder, being fixed in such a 
manner that it does not revolve, and serves the purpose 
of limiting the field of vision. By the simple expedient of 
turning the cylinder on its side the apparatus was adapted 
for the exhibition of stereoscopic views, as seen in Fig. 20, 
a suggestion being made that transparent images might 
be employed. 

^Anschutz used this form of apparatus to produce the 
appearance of motion from series of animal movements 
photographically obtained. It will be seen that when 
diagrams are drawn the cycle of movement can be com- 
pleted in a given number of pictures, and the older form 




FIG. 20. 

of instrument was therefore provided with a fixed set of 
slots, the diagrams being prepared with a sufficiency of 
figures to obtain the desired result. It is very different in 
the photography of moving animals. In taking these, six, 
eight, ten, or more pictures may be necessary before the 
same attitude re-occurs ; and this, of course, is absolutely 
necessary to enable the last picture to run on to the first 
and give an endless repetition of the same movement. 
Anschiitz was thus obliged to form his Zoetrope (called by 
him the Tachyscope) as a very shallow cylinder, into which 
could be inserted a long strip bent round to form the 
walls. This strip bore the required number of images to 
complete a cycle of movements, and was pierced with the 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 27 

number of slots necessary to give a correct effect with the 
number of pictures in the series. Marey not only used 
photographs but also actual models, on a small scale, of 
such animals as he desired to show in motion. One of 
these Stereo-Zootropes is still preserved at the Paris. Physio- 
logical Station, and by the continued observation of suc- 
cessive models in different attitudes the effect is produced 
of an actual animal running, or bird flying round the 
interior of the cylinder. In this connection it is interest- 
ing to refer again to Desvignes, whose 1860 Specification 
shows a Zoetrope employing solid models. By the con- 
struction of his apparatus (Fig. 21) the figures were placed 
on the margin of the cylinder rather than in its interior, 
but the idea is essentially similar to Marey's. 



FIG. 21. 

Now, one great defect of this, as indeed of every other 
instrument where the object is in motion while seen through 
a slit, is distortion. When the object and slit are trav- 
elling in the same direction (as in the Phenakistoscope) 
the object appears elongated ; when the reverse is the case 
(as in the Zoetrope) it appears compressed in the direction 
of its length. Plateau in 1849 had recognized this diffi- 
culty, and therefore prepared his diagrams in a form pur- 
posely distorted in an opposed sense to the distortion 
caused by the revolving disc, one distortion thus neutral- 
izing the other. This defect led Clerk-Maxwell, in 1869, to 
propose the substitution of concave lenses for the slots, 
their focal length being equal to the diameter of the 
cylinder. The virtual image of the design opposite the 
lens was thus formed exactly midway between lens and 



28 LIVING PICTURES 

picture, and this spot necessarily coincided with the axis 
of rotation. That being the case, the successive images 
were perceived in one an.d the same spot, and remained 
stationary during the whole time they were individually 
exposed to view, the movement of the lens being neutral- 
ized by the movement of the real object on the other side 
of the cylinder. It will be seen that the distortion com- 
mon to all ordinary types of slotted machines was thus 
done away with, and at the same time the images ap- 
peared more brilliant a wide lens being substituted for a 
narrow slot. Maxwell used this device for combining 
series of diagrams of many physical phenomena (such as 
smoke-rings, etc.), in order to show the resultant move- 




ment, but the apparatus does not seem to have come into 
general use. 

In the year 1877, however, Reynaud patented a con- 
trivance which attained almost instant popularity under 
the name of the Praxinoscope (Fig. 22). In this instru- 
ment the pictures are not directly viewed, but are seen in 
a mirror, the picture under observation thus being the one 
nearest the observer instead of that on the opposite side 
of the cylinder. It will be seen that the pictures are 
arranged on a slip placed round the interior of a drum 
much more shallow than that of the Zoetrope, and the 
centre of the cylinder is occupied by a set of mirrors, equal 
in number to the diagrams, and arranged in polygonal 
form, the said polygon having a diameter half that of the 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 



29 



cylinder. Now, as the picture is a quarter-diameter in 
front of the mirror, its image will appear the same distance 
behind, exactly on the axis of rotation, the one immovable 
spot in the whole apparatus. A reference to Fig 23 will 
make the action clear. O is the centre of rotation ; A, B, E 
are two mirrors, and C, D, F the two pictures opposite 
them. When a picture is in the position S', S, the mirror 
T', T directly faces the eye, and the image is perceived as 
if it were at D'", C'", its vertical central line coinciding 
with the axis of rotation. It will also be seen that a 
picture at C, D forms its image at D', C', and a picture at 




FIG. 23. 

D, F forms its image at D", C". In all these cases the 
central lines of the various images agree, and manifestly 
they will not appear to shift their position as a whole on 
the change from one attitude to another. Further, when 
the apparatus is in the stage shown by heavy lines (that 
is to say, with the eye looking between the pictures on to 
the junction line of two mirrors), half of one image will be 
seen in one glass and half in the other, thus making up a 
complete image from the combined halves ; the appear- 
ance given when in action being that of a series of plain 
glasses passing between an immovable image and the eye. 
Here, then, there is no interruption of the light, and the 



LIVING PICTURES 



brilliancy of the image is so much the greater, while its 
stationary position obviates that distortion which forms so 
great a disadvantage in slotted machines. Reynaud sug- 
gested an adaptation for stereoscopic purposes (Fig. 24), 
but this does not seem to have been carried out. 

Several ingenious additions to this instrument were, 
however, subsequently made by the same inventor. One, 
shown in Fig. 25, and called the Praxinoscope Theatre, was 
designed to show a moving figure on a stage. The prax- 
inoscope was screwed into position in the bottom portion 
of a box, through the lid of which (standing at right 
angles) an inspection opening was provided. Between 





FIG. 25. 



this opening and the praxinoscope a sheet of glass, bearing 
a painted proscenium, was held at a slight angle, the 
opening of the stage being left clear. On the interior of 
the lid changeable pictures of scenery could be placed* 
and were seen reflected in the glass as if they were really 
in position behind the stage-front. At the same time the 
moving figures in the praxinoscope (strongly illuminated 
and drawn on a black background) were seen through the 
transparent mirror, and thus appeared to be in motion on 
a stage provided with scenery. This result was also 
obtained in another manner, which permitted a large 
number of observers to see the effect at once. A kind of 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 31 

double magic-lantern (Fig. 26) was used, one member of 
which threw some scene on the screen in the ordinary 
way, while the other projected a beam of light through 
pictures on a transparent praxinoscope drum. On leaving 
the pictures, this light was reflected from the specially 
angled central mirrors through a lens on to the screen, 
where it formed an image of the moving figure superposed 
on the scenery thrown by the other objective. This 
apparatus was called the Projection Praxinoscope, or Prax- 
inoscope Theatre. 

In 1889 M. Reynaud patented another form of instru- 
ment, which permitted the employment of much longer 




series of pictures. In the previous form the length of the 
series was limited by the size of the drum. It will be 
seen by Fig. 27 that the subsequent method permitted a 
long band to be wound from one reel to another, passing 
over a skeleton drum on its way. The principle of 
projection was the same as in the earlier instrument, the 
permanent scene being thrown by a lantern, L ; while 
another source of light, L', projected a beam through the 
picture on to the central drum (of the usual praxinoscope 
type) from which it was reflected, the mirror M again 
diverting the light through the objective O. Another 
mirror changed the direction of the rays and threw the 
moving picture on the screen. An endless band per- 



32 LIVING PICTURES 

mitted the use of a comparatively long repeating series, 
while the length of a non-repeating scene was only limited 
by the size of the spools and the cost of preparing so large 
a series of pictures. Under the name firstly of the Prax- 
inoscope Projection Theatre or Optical Theatre, and subse- 
quently under that of the Theatriaxinoscope, this apparatus 
appeared on the Paris boulevards. A serious disadvantage 




FIG 27. 

of this form of Praxinoscope must be referred to. The 
band is necessarily vertical, the objective sloping. This 
militates against the sharpness of the projected pictures, 
while the light being reflected from the drum, and again 
diverted by two more mirrors, all tends to degrade the 
clearness of the final image on the screen. But even 
with these imperfections this arrangement marks the 
culminating point in the development of the Praxinoscope 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 33 

type, another form of which instrument, devised by the 
same inventor, deserves mention from its extreme sim- 
plicity. It was called La Toupee-fantoche or Marionette-top, 
and, as seen in Fig. 28, consisted of four mirrors arranged 
as a pyramid and surmounted by an interchangeable card 
bearing four designs. The whole was placed on a spindle, 
and, when rotated, gave a moving image on exactly the 
same principles as those governing the more elaborate 
devices previously described. This cylindrical type of 
apparatus has subsequently been the theme of many 
inventions, but has not come into extensive use, owing 
largely, no doubt, to the development of the more con- 
venient film machines. 




FIG. 28. 

Another class of device, employing diagrams with a 
view to producing illusive motion, necessitates a consider- 
able chronological backward movement for its origin. 
Returning to the Thaumatrope, it will be remembered 
that both sides of the card are perceived at one and the 
same time ; the card revolves so rapidly that each picture 
comes back before its image has faded from the eye, and 
therefore both appear present at once. It will be con- 
ceded that the same effect would be produced if the axis 
of revolution were vertical instead of horizontal, and, in 
fact, this form of Thaumatrope has been used for demon- 
stration purposes (Fig. 29), while a penny street novelty 
of June, 1898, shown in Fig. 30, is but a similar instru- 
ment rotated by vanes and a blowpipe. Now, it is 

3 



34 



LIVING PICTURES 



apparent that if the second picture did not come into view 
until just as the first was dying out, and remained in sight 
after the first had entirely faded away, then, under such 
circumstances, the two views would not be concurrently 





FIG. 29. 



FIG. 30. 



perceived, and the first picture would have appeared to 
have changed into the second. A toy based on this 
principle was invented by Dr. Richard Pilkington. As 




FIG. 31. 

shown in Fig. 31, the Pedemascope is fitted with a design 
giving the effect of jumping, an action from which its 
name is derived. A card bearing the two extremes of a 
movement printed on its two sides was mounted in a 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 35 

wooden holder by means of a longitudinal groove, and the 
holder was rapidly twirled between finger and thumb, 
backward and forward, through a half- revolution, by 
means of an axial pin projecting through a handle. Stops 
were arranged on this latter to prevent the card exceeding 
the necessary half-turn, and the apparatus may be con- 
sidered as one of the most simple for exhibiting the 
illusion of motion. 

In 1868 Langlois and Angiers invented and patented 
a means of rapidly alternating two microscopic views by 
means of a pushing-piece, the views returning by the 
spring of a block of rubber against which they were 
mounted. This device they named the Kinescope ; and a 





FIG. 32. 

multiple form, designed for a watch-chain charm, is shown 
in Fig. 32. Their specification also refers to this device 
as the Photoscope. Another example of this two-diagram 
class is the ordinary magic-lantern Slipping-Slide. One 
glass bears a figure with, for example, his legs in dupli- 
cate, one set being raised and the other lowered, as seen 
in Fig. 33, wherein a clown is painted on a black back- 
ground, and over him slides a second glass bearing two 
black patches so arranged that one of the legs is covered 
while the other is in full view. By a to-and-fro motion 
of the slipping glass the two differently-posed legs are 
alternately shown, with the apparent result of a gymnastic 
performance, which may be varied by the action of a 
second slipping glass arranged to alternately cover and 



36 LIVING PICTURES 

uncover the duplicate lower portions of the raised legs, 
which then appear to work from the knee. 

Another toy, shown in Fig. 34, is of a very simple 
nature. A vertical spindle carries a set of four cards, 
projecting radially at angles of go degrees, the whole set 
being united and capable of rotation. In the four angles 
between the cards four successive positions of the same 
figure are shown. The set of pictures is rapidly rotated 
by the cards acting as vanes when blown upon, and it 
will be seen that one figure is observed when an angle is 




FIG. 34. 

opposite the eye, while a picture compounded of the left- 
hand of one design and the right-hand of the next is seen 
when a card stands "edge-on." A further development 
of this was patented in 1895. The cards are independent, 
and, instead of travelling at a fixed rate, are stopped back, 
but when released fly over quickly by reason of their 
spring connection with the central rotating shaft. Though 
the inventor designed this apparatus as capable of rapid 
action, it is not in fact so employed. It may be seen 
frequently, working slowly, as a kind of revolving album 
in photographers' windows. 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 



37 



When a large number of leaves are used, apparatus of 
this character naturally takes the form of a book, in 
which the bent-back leaves bearing the series of designs 
are presented to the eye in rapid succession by their 
escape from under a slowly-drawn-back thumb. The 
first suggestion of this kind appears to be due to Linnett, 
who in 1868 patented his Kineograph (Fig. 35). He also 
suggested the use of mechanical appliances for turning 
over the leaves, but showed no such arrangement. The 
book idea (patented again in 1886) had a considerable 





FIG. 35. 



FIG. 36. 



revival of popularity in 1897 (in which year another 
patent was granted for an apparently similar device) 
under the title of the Pocket Kinetoscope, half-tone photo- 
graphs being employed instead of drawings. Book- 
form apparatus were also brought out in France by a 
M. Watilliaux under the name of Folioscope. A kind 
of clip was patented in 1896 (No. 20,136) as a substitute 
for the thumb, and as a means of providing more regular 
action. A suggestion by Casler provides for the cards 
being mounted radially on a wooden holder instead of 
being bound in close contact (Fig. 36), and a bent-wire 



LIVING PICTURES 



lever bears on the upper portion of the cards in order 
to gradually release them as it passes over. One of the 
most perfect, and at the same time most compact, ap- 
paratus in book form is Short's Filoscope. The book was 
bound in a metal clip pivoted in a metal casing, and could 
be revolved by pressure on an attached lever, as seen in 
Fig. 37. The leaves are released in regular succession, 





FIG. 37. 



FIG. 38. 



and fly over rapidly on their escape from the edge of the 
case, the latter being so formed that the cards when not 
in use possess a concave curve on their face. By this 
means their resiliency is preserved and their rapid motion 
when released is increased. The form assumed by the 
leaves when the apparatus is closed is shown in Fig. 38. 

A variation of this book-form type is Casler's Mutoscope, 
which consists of a receptacle having an opening in its 



i 



FIG. 39. 

face, under which a set of cards are passed, these being 
arranged in a series on a flat plate. This plate can be 
slid along the interior of the receptacle by means of a 
handle passing through a slot, as seen in Fig. 39, and 
each card is held back by a stop in order to allow it to be 
inspected. When the edge of the card is drawn over the 
stop, the whole rapidly flies past the opening into its 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 



39 



normal position, leaving the next picture in full view. 
Another form of this apparatus is shown in Fig. 40, where 
the cards are seen mounted on a band in such a manner 
that one only projects from the top of the casing at a 
time. The whole series may be pulled over at any desired 





FIG. 40. 



FIG. 42. 



speed by means of a ring shown at bottom, the band of 
views being returned by the action of an opposed spring. 

A more compact arrangement, and one permitting con- 
tinuous repetition of a series, is that in which the pictures 
aje mounted on a revolving axle. Fig. 41 is a vjew of ap. 



4 



LIVING PICTURES 



instrument invented by the same man, and called by the 
same name as the preceding apparatus. A series of cards 
sufficiently numerous to permit the representation of a 
continuous scene is mounted radially from an axle. These 
cards bear photographic enlargements 6 by 4 inches, and 
the whole may be rotated at any desired speed by means 
of a handle. Each picture is arrested momentarily by 
a stop, thus allowing the picture to be distinctly seen, and 
then permitting it to fly into its normal radial position 
as the rotation of the axle sets its edge free. The patent 
(No. 14,439 of 1895) provides that a longer series may 




FIG. 43. FIG. 44. 

be mounted in helix on the axle, which then must be so 
arranged that it moves slowly sideways. A subsequent 
patent suggests the interposition of resilient leaves be- 
tween the picture cards in order to increase and preserve 
their spring, and the same end may be attained by the 
method of mounting shown in Fig. 42. It will be seen 
that the form of card adopted carries the picture at a 
tangent, and it therefore flies over rapidly without re- 
quiring resiliency, a property not always possessed by 
those materials best fitted for printing on, and which is 
at the best somewhat difficult to maintain in apparatus 
in constant use, A large number of these Mutoscopes, 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 41 

worked on a coin-freed principle, formed one of the 
features of the Photographic Exhibition at the Crystal 
Palace in May, 1898. Messrs. Lumiere's Kinora (Figs. 43 
and 44) is very similar in principle, but varies in a few 
details, mainly directed towards the important matter of 
resiliency. The pictures are mounted on flexible sup- 
ports, blackened on the back to obviate reflection of stray 
light, and these supports possess a curved form. The 
cylinder is rotated by a clockwork motor, H, so as to 




FIG. 45. 

bring the concave sides of the pictures towards the in- 
spection lens inserted through the top of the casing. 
A stop, C, arrests the pictures before they reach the lens, 
to the axis of which they are held at right angles, the 
curve in the flexible support straightening out to com- 
pensate for the rotary movement of the axle. Each 
picture therefore lies perfectly flat for inspection, and then 
flies rapidly past the lens, returning to its proper radial 
position and curved form by virtue of its elasticity. The 



42 LIVING PICTURES 

apparatus may also be set in motion by hand, and if more 
than one scene is depicted in the series an automatic 
stop, J, is provided. A simple form of this type is shown 
in Fig. 45. The cards, tangentially mounted, are held back 
by a guard, and when released fly into an upright position 
for inspection, their vertical situation being maintained by 
a wall against which they rest until covered by the next 
picture. 

One early application of the Phenakistoscope and 
Zoetrope must be referred to, but the idea never brought 
forth any very practical results, though many minds 
attempted a solution of the problem. A glance at the 
lists of British patents, and the Bibliography given at the 
end of this work, will show that in early years great 
attention was devoted to methods of attaining the 
simultaneous perception of solidity and motion. Six 
patents were applied for between 1853 and 1860, all 
having this object in view, and other methods than those 
therein described were suggested in various periodical?. 
With but one exception no new principle was involved, 
the only suggestions being either that the edges of two 
discs should be viewed through ordinary stereoscopic eye- 
pieces (the vision being interrupted by passing slots on an 
independent disc), or else that the two views should be 
mounted side by side inside a horizontally revolving 
cylinder slotted in the usual way, an arrangement merely 
equivalent to a Zoetrope working on its side, as was 
shown in Fig. 20. The exception referred to is the 
principle, suggested by Claudet in 1853, of allowing only 
one eye to perceive one view at one time, a slightly 
different design being presented to the other eye just 
previously to the first being cut off. A continuous yet 
progressive image is thus presented to the brain by means 
of images impressed alternately on the two eyes and over- 
lapping in point of time. Other methods involved the 
principle of projecting one picture on the screen from one, 



DIAGRAM ILLUSIONS 



43 



lantern before the previous view is shut off in the other, 
thus presenting a continuous picture equally to both eyes. 
With this method there is an inevitable unsteadiness in 
the near foreground objects on the screen, owing to 
the photographs being taken alternately from adjacent 
positions. 

Two other methods of changing the picture stand by 




FIG. 46. 

themselves. The first is the Viviscope (Fig. 46), in which 
a band bearing a series of diagrams is in tight contact 
with a large cylinder except where a small interposed 
roller bears it off. This small roller travels round under 
the band, which remains stationary while in contact with 
the large cylinder. Each time, however, that the small 
roller passes any point the band returns to contact with 



44 LIVING PICTURES 

the large cylinder in advance of its previous position. 
The diameter of the roller is so proportioned that the 
length of this advance is equal to the distance necessary 
for the substitution of the next picture. A reference to 
Patent 2,623 of 1890 will conclude the description of these 
more or less primitive diagram forms of apparatus. It is 
a method of substituting one picture for another by means 
of sectional change over all its surface instead of dis- 
placing it as a whole, and the methods suggested are 
ingenious, although the device apparently has not had 
a commercial career. The first stage of the History of 
Living Pictures is now at an end ; the early short-cycle 
devices have been described, and though some of them 
have in their development attained a considerable degree 
of progress, yet without photographic aid it is most prob- 
able that they would not have reached so high a degree of 
efficiency. Thus, the final evolution-stage of the Living 
Picture commences with the rise of Chrono- Photography, 
and this subject must next be pursued. 




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CHAPTER III 

CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE PRACTICAL 
DEVELOPMENT OF THE LIVING PICTURE 

IT has been repeatedly mentioned in the previous chapter 
that diagrams were unsatisfactory elements from which 
to build up the illusion of action, and the reason is not 
far to seek. The numerous attitudes through which a 
man or animal passes when in active motion are not 
perceived by the eye ; they succeed one another so rapidly 
that only a general impression of the whole motion is 
conveyed to the mind ; and this general impression, 
though perhaps satisfactory (from an artistic point of 
view) when shown in a single picture, cannot be expected 
to afford sufficient grounds for the preparation of an 
analytical series of diagrams representing the successive 
phases of a motion which is only perceived as a whole. 
It was early known that a moving object momentarily 
illuminated appeared to be motionless, and, in fact, this 
was easily deduced from the action of the Phenakisto- 
scope. For instance, in 1850, Tyndall demonstrated the 
successive phases of a water-jet's motion by the expedient 
of illuminating it with an electric spark, and Fox-Talbot, 
in 1851, suggested the production of instantaneous photo- 
graphs by lighting the object in the same manner. This 
portion of his patent he afterwards disclaimed, but it 
forms an appropriate starting-point from which to pursue 
the History of Chrono-photography, inasmuch as, in prin- 
ciple, it is a matter of indifference whether a momentary 
impression is made on a sensitive surface through the 

47 



48 LIVING PICTURES 

illumination of the object for a very short period, or 
whether the permanently illuminated object is only per- 
mitted to throw its image on the plate for an equally 
limited space of time. 

But, in its early days, the science of Photography did 
not provide its devotees with the means of securing an 
image in a sufficiently short time a rapid exposure might 
be made, but no surface of adequate sensibility was avail- 
able ; so, though Photography was employed very early 
in the production of images for the Phenakistoscope, yet 
the only advantage secured was an accuracy of outline 
not to be obtained by hand. Plateau, in 1849, suggested 
the employment of photography for obtaining a series of 
pictures (preferably stereoscopic) which should be abso- 
lutely correct in outline, but he only foresaw a series of 
prepared models as the originals of his views ; the length 
of exposure necessary excluded other ideas. This accuracy 
of outline, in some instances, was all that was required. 
When Desvignes, in 1860, obtained a series of views 
destined to show a steam-engine in action, the process 
was simple and the result certain. Each element of the 
engine necessarily followed a predetermined and invariable 
path, and consequently it was only requisite to place the 
engine in successive positions of one fly-wheel revolution 
in order to obtain a series of photographs which, when 
combined in the Zoetrope, undoubtedly gave an accurate 
representation of the engine's usual motion. Still, it was 
in no sense a reconstruction of a previously existing action 
of the machine. The separate views were not obtained 
during the engine's motion, and their accuracy was due 
entirely to the certainty with which the object could be 
placed in a series of positions known on mechanical 
grounds to be those assumed by it when in action. 

This certainty could not be secured when living creatures 
were the subjects, and they could only be posed in a 
series of attitudes such as, by supposition (generally 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 49 

erroneous), they would assume in the course of the de- 
sired movement. Confirmation of this view is afforded 
by Mr. Wenham's letter of 1895, in which he relates an 
amusing story of a series of posed photographs obtained 
in 1852. The photographs themselves gave no cause for 
complaint, but when combined by means of the phena- 
kistoscope the subject, who had been using a pestle and 
mortar, declared that " he never worked like that /" The 
first suggestion of Chrono-photography appears to be con- 
tained in Du Mont's patent of the year 1861. Therein 
he says : " Nowadays, photographers are enabled to re- 
produce on surfaces of great sensibility to the light what 
they have termed instantaneous images ; they photograph 
a moving object, such as a running horse, etc., but have 
never thought of obtaining but a single image of the 
same object, and did not even wish to reproduce several 
successive ones, or the successive phases produced by 
motion." Several arrangements were suggested by him, 
in all of which a shutter was geared to expose the plates 
when they were perpendicular to the axis of the lens. 
The sensitive surfaces succeeded each other at regular 
intervals, being placed either on a prismatic drum, sliding 
frame, or dropped in series from an upper chamber into 
a lower one ; the latter arrangement, according to the 
drawings, being almost identical with a very common 
method of plate-changing employed in later-day hand 
cameras. Ducos du Hauron filed a patent application in 
France in 1864 (No. 61,976) for " apparatus designed to 
reproduce by photography any scenes, with all the 
transformations undergone during a predetermined time." 
The specification was not published until 1900. The 
methods adopted are very interesting in the light of 
subsequent developments. In one of these a large 
number of very small lenses are used in conjunction 
with a long shutter band. Fig. 47 illustrates the prin- 
ciple of this method, showing the series of apertures, A, 

4 



LIVING PICTURES 



and the band, B, which passes behind the lenses in 
passing from the roller C to the roller D. The band 
has a series of apertures so arranged that as the band 
passes behind the lenses each of the latter is exposed in 
turn, thereby obtaining a series of images. To project 
these images, a series of pictures so obtained, a series of 
similar projecting lenses are used, which are, however, 
adjustable, in order that each individual picture may be 
centred on the screen, and the pictures are successively 




ooooooooo o 
ooooooo o o 

ooooooooo o 
ooooooooo 

O OOOOOOO O O 
00 00000 O O 

ooooooooo o 
ooooooo oo 

O o O o O O O O O O 





FIG. 47A. 




FIG. 47. 



FIG. 47B. 



projected by means of a similar shutter band. Other 
methods also are described for viewing the pictures. In 
one of these the successive images obtained on the plate 
are printed on a long band passing from one spool, A, 
Fig. 47A, to the take-up spool, B, and are viewed 
through a small view opening, C, by reflection from a 
concave mirror, M. In another method, illustrated in 
Fig. 47B, concave lenses are used in a similar way to 
that suggested by Maxwell in 1869 for the Zoetrope (see 
p. 27). The positives are printed on a long band, AB, 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 51 

which is drawn from one spool on to another, as in the 
method just described. A second endless band, E, carries 
a series of concave lenses, L, on the front edge, which 
pass with the film across a stationary viewing aper- 
ture. For this purpose the picture band carries pins, 
P, which engage projections, D, from the band, E, 
to draw the successive pictures, a, b, c, d, across the field 
of view in register with the lenses L. This method has 
a distinct similarity to some of the later continuously- 
moving film apparatus described in Chapter IV. Edwards 
also, in 1867, took out a patent in England (No. 849) for 




FIG. 48. 

obtaining successive small pictures instantaneously on 
the same plate. 

Two forms of apparatus, which appeared in 1869 and 
1870 respectively, and casually quoted on p. 22, are in- 
teresting, inasmuch as the instrument intended for use 
with drawn designs shows a greater approximation to 
modern machines than does the one which employed 
photographs. Brown's apparatus, shown in Fig. 48, de- 
pended on non-photographic images, of which a series 
was painted on a polygonal glass plate, P, and dropped 
into a holder somewhat similar to a magic-lantern slide. 



52 LIVING PICTURES 

The gear-wheel shown served to rotate the designs, and 
was itself revolved intermittently by pins contained in 
the lantern, with which it engaged when the slide was 
pushed home. These two pins projected from a disc and 
engaged periodically with a star-wheel, formed in one 
piece with the gear-wheel which served to rotate the 
picture-disc a motion which is, practically speaking, a 
Maltese - cross movement. A two -sector shutter was 
geared to eclipse the light when either of the two pins 
caused the design-wheel to move. 

The second instrument, Mr. Heyl's Phasmatrope, was 
exhibited in February, 1870, at the Academy of Music in 




| FIG. 49. 

Philadelphia, and, though very successful, was based 
on the synthesis of poses, and not of analytical photo- 
graphs secured from a moving figure. As shown in 
Fig. 49, the apparatus consisted of a large wheel con- 
taining nine divisions, each of which was furnished with 
two openings for the purpose of carrying transparencies. 
The whole disc could be revolved, step by step, by means 
of a ratchet and pawl worked by hand through a re- 
ciprocating bar. A shutter, operated by the same means, 
was so arranged as to cover the pictures during the whole 
period of substitution. The transparencies were prepared 
from posed subjects, such as the six different positions in 
a waltz, etc,, the figures being | inch in height and 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 53 

projected to life size. The negatives were wet collodion, 
and that is sufficient reason why posing was necessary ; 
putting the question of time required for exposure on one 
side, there still remained the difficulty of rapidly substi- 
tuting a fresh sensitive surface for the one just exposed, 
and this difficulty could not be fully overcome until the 
introduction of dry plates, or, better still, films. But 
advances were nevertheless made, for the rise of chrono- 
photography afforded opportunity to work out mechanical 
details for obtaining rapid successive exposures, though 
the resulting views were not intended for subsequent re- 
combination into motion. 

It was in the same year (1870) that Marey commenced 
his researches on the analysis of motion, and the advance 
in sensibility of photo-surfaces has lent continual aid from 
that time onward. Marey in France and Muybridge in 
America soon entered into communication ; the latter 
started work in 1872, their common object being the 
discovery of the successive attitudes which collectively 
make up a given motion, though they worked by some- 
what different methods. Marey confined himself from 
the first to the method of casting his series of momentary 
exposures on one plate by means of one lens, while 
Muybridge adopted an opposed course. Some considera- 
tion is necessary as to the results involved by these modes 
of proceeding. Both methods had their respective advan- 
tages as regards Chrono-photography pure and simple, 
but one was limited in its development, the other contained 
the vital elements of the modern living-picture machine. 
Briefly stated, Muybridge's plan was to take successive 
views of an object as it passed in front of a series of 
cameras ; Marey obtained a series of pictures by repeated 
exposures with one lens. Although Muybridge started 
work at a somewhat later date than Marey, he devoted 
greater attention to his subject, and it will be more 
convenient to first discuss his plan and all the battery 



54 LIVING PICTURES 

forms of apparatus because they have not successfully 
emerged from the " struggle for existence " as regards 
the modern living picture they have died out. 

In the year 1877 Muybridge, for the purpose of investi- 
gating animal motion, laid out a course, similar to a 
running-path, one side being bounded by a white back- 
ground so as to obtain silhouette figures. Along the 
other side was ranged a series of cameras, the shutters 
of which were released by electro-magnets, set in action 
by the moving object itself by means of strings placed 
across the path, as seen in Fig. 50. This device allowed 
large pictures to be taken, every one representing the object 
as it appeared in front of the lens by which the photograph 
was secured ; but it was absolutely necessary not only that 




FIG. 50. 

the members of the object should be in motion, but also 
that the object itself should move along the path. 

Still, this method was adopted by Anschiitz of Lissa, 
in Prussia, with magnificent results, and series of photo- 
graphs so obtained by him met with a ready sale when 
printed on bands appropriately slotted for use as a 
Tachyscope (see p. 26). Much of his success was due 
to the employment of an improved form of shutter, very 
similar to the present focal-plane pattern with adjustable 
opening. Not only were his photographs prepared in this 
manner for inspection, but in the year 1889 he brought 
out his so-called Electrical Tachyscope, though there was 
no point of similarity between this instrument and the 
Tachyscope proper. As will be seen by the illustration 
(Fig. 51), transparent photographs were arranged in series 
round the margin of a disc contained in an inner room 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



55 



and revolved before an opening equal in area to one 
design. Both the inner chamber and that containing the 
audience were darkened, and as each picture came behind 
the aperture a pin on the disc operated an electric current, 
thus causing a spirally wound Geissler tube (placed at the 
back of the picture) to light-up momentarily, the successive 
pictures being seen by the light of the repeated flashes. 
The disc-form of this apparatus was exhibited in 1889, 
but in 1892 it was patented with the additional suggestion 




FIG. 51. 

that a strip of photographs might be used, a suggestion 
put in practice shortly afterwards by the introduction of 
coin-freed or " penny-in-the-slot " apparatus (called the 
Electric Wonder) for viewing living pictures in this and 
other countries. This appears to have been the first 
practical and public development of Desvignes' sugges- 
tion, in 1860, to use an electric spark to render each 
picture " visible at its proper time and place," Neverthe- 
less, it must not be forgotten that Donisthorpe, in 1876 



56 LIVING PICTURES 

and 1878, suggested his so-called Kinesigraph, the feature 
of which was intermittent illumination of a series of views 
in strip form by similar means to those just described, 
while the same expedient was one of the first adopted by 
Edison when conducting the experiments which resulted 
in the well-known Kinetoscope. About the same time 
Muybridge had perfected a projection apparatus, called 
the Zoopraxiscope, which he exhibited at the Royal Insti- 
tution in 1889. His silhouette pictures were placed round 
the margin of a 1 5-inch glass disc revolved between a 
condenser and projecting lens. Immediately in front of 
the glass disc a zinc one, pierced with one slot, revolved 
in an opposite direction at such a speed that the slot 
passed each time a picture came into position. The 
demonstration was very successful, some photographs not 
of silhouette nature also being projected. 

But as regards the securing of the pictures themselves, 
the necessity of the object having a progressive movement 
as it passed the long line of separate cameras, as before 
explained, limited the choice of subjects greatly, and 
about the year 1887 attention appeared to be generally 
directed to concentrating all these lenses within a space 
which might be approximately considered as a single 
point of view, and so render possible the recording of 
successive attitudes of a figure which remained in one 
place ; the background therefore no longer needing to 
be an absolutely plain surface as was the case when 
successive attitudes were photographed with a change 
of local position. Le Prince, working on this principle, 
in 1888 approached the modern type very closely in 
appearance, but in appearance only. As will be seen 
from Fig. 52, he employed a battery of sixteen lenses 
acting on two sensitive bands, wound from one pair of 
rollers to another, the two films being side by side. The 
eight lenses facing one film were released in rapid succes- 
sion, somewhat overlapping in point of time ; the other 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



57 



series of eight lenses were then discharged, during which 
time the first film was moved on ready to receive another 
eight pictures ; each film being clamped by a cam-actuated 
frame during exposure. These exposures were made over- 
lapping in point of time ; that is to say, one lens was 
always opened before the preceding one was shut off, and 
when used for projection, as in Fig. 53, this same principle 
was followed, and therefore no period of darkness occurred 
between the respective separate pictures. The compli- 
cated nature of the shutter mechanism is shown in Fig. 54, 
the individual shutters being set in action by partially 




FIG. 52. 



FIG. 53. 



toothed wheels, rotated in common, but acting at different 
times by reason of the varying position of their teeth. 
At the first glance this combination of serial exposure, 
intermittently moving film, and clamping-frame appears 
to be the first machine of the modern type. But con- 
sideration will show that Le Prince's apparatus was 
founded on absolutely different principles to those in 
vogue at the present time, although some resemblance 
may be seen to types suggested later, and it may be that 
future machines may follow some of this inventor's 
devices. The modern apparatus takes a series of pictures, 
by means of one lens (or at least from one point of view), 



LIVING PICTURES 



on one film moved between the exposures. Le Prince 
used many lenses and moved his film during the time 
that neither it nor the lenses facing it were in use, 
although exposure was going on by means of other lenses 
on another film. Practically, his apparatus was a duplicate 
arrangement of the battery type, and, further, the great 
difference in position between the lenses at opposed 
corners must have given rise to varying aspects of fore- 
ground objects, thus inducing a false motion of the same 
on the screen. 

Londe meanwhile had entered the field. He had, in 
conjunction with Colonel (later General) Sebert, con- 





FIG. 54. 



FIG. 55. 



structed a compound apparatus composed of six indepen- 
dent cameras arranged in circle as shown in Fig. 55. The 
six lenses of these cameras were furnished with a series of 
shutters, naturally arranged in circle, and each composed 
of two members. The motive power was supplied by 
springs (S, Fig. 56), and each shutter had two projecting 
catches, C, one of which is shown in the drawing, the other 
being situated underneath. A centre disc, T, rotated when 
released, and was furnished with two projecting stops, one 
of which opened the shutter by pressure on the catch C, 
while the other closed it. The latter stop P was adjustable 
for the purpose of varying the exposure by increasing the 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



59 



distance between the two stops. This apparatus was used 
by Colonel Sebert for the study of projectile motion. 

One development of the battery type for securing a 
limited series of views is that employed at the Salpetriere 
for the analysis of abnormal motions, such as epileptic fits, 
St. Vitus' dance, etc. Twelve lenses are employed, and 
the shutters released by electro-magnets (Fig. 57). The 
great point of the apparatus is an electrical controller, by 
which the period allowed to elapse between two exposures 
is capable of regulation within wide limits. The series of 
twelve views can thus be completed in i| seconds or ex- 





-.v 



FIG. 56. 



FIG. 57. 



tended over minutes. This apparatus was three years 
later in date than the pioneer film machine by Greene and 
Evans, similar in character to those of the present day, 
which have in nearly all instances followed its arrange- 
ment, in general principles, at least, though the form has 
been simplified and improved. 

The multiple -type having shown itself as adapted solely 
to the purposes of Chrono-photography, and being without 
capability of adaptation in the direction of obtaining long 
series, there remains simply the description of the single- 
lens system of Chrono-photography. This method, insti- 
tuted by Marey, was represented in its first stages solely 



6o LIVING PICTURES 

by instruments devoted to the analysis of motion ; by slow 
stages and gradual improvement it developed the modern 
living picture apparatus as we now know it. The earliest 
attempt in Chrono-photography was hardly worthy of the 
name, yet it pointed the road to the true method of single- 
lens working. In the year 1865 Messrs. Onimus and 
Martin exposed the bared heart of a living animal before 
an opened lens for the purpose of photographing it while 
iq motion. With the low degree of sensibility then 
obtaining among photo-surfaces the exposure naturally 
extended over one or more pulsations of the heart, but as 
a pause takes place at each extreme of the heart's beat, 
the outlines of these positions were better defined than the 
space between, and a record was therefore obtained of the 
maximum and minimum limits of a pulsation. Clearly it 
was only necessary to secure outlines of several inter- 
mediate positions in order that the experiment should 
attain the character of Chrono-photography, properly 
so called. It will be seen that a photograph of a man 
lifting his arm would (if the exposure lasted during the 
whole movement) result in a blur, but if a number of 
separate exposures were made in the same time, a series 
of overlapping images, equal in number to the exposures, 
would occupy the place of the one-exposure blur, and the 
outlines of these images would in addition form a perfect 
record of the successive positions of the arm. 

The apparatus necessary for this species of Chrono- 
photography (i.e., on a fixed plate) is simple in the extreme. 
It is only required that a slotted shutter should be revolved 
before the plate (Fig. 58) in order that successive images 
may be formed ; and these images will be separated in 
proportion to the movement of the object. This method 
is all-sufficient for the analysis of motion, but the results 
had anything but a popular aspect; the different images 
frequently consist in nothing but lines and dots repre- 
senting rods and beads attached to a black-robed subject, 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



61 



who when fully equipped appears to be under the hands of 
a surgeon rather than those of a photographer. Much 
work has been done on these lines, but such pictures, 
valuable as they are for the physiological information they 
impart, are in no sense suited for the reconstitution of the 
movement of which they form the elements, and much 
time elapsed before attempts were made to secure separate 
and distinct photographs of the phases of a given motion. 
Had a flexible surface been available, no doubt progress 
would soon have been made ; indeed, the necessity of 
separating the images was felt, and a longer plate, shifting 
between each exposure, employed. Another method of 
separating the images was to interpose a revolving mirror 




FIG. 58. 

between lens and object. This arrangement is interesting 
from the fact that it was subsequently suggested to use the 
same device in a reverse manner, causing it to project 
separated pictures on to one place on the screen, while the 
original arrangement gave separated pictures on the plate 
from an original which remained in one place. 

It cannot be postulated too emphatically that, even at 
this early date, nothing was required but a flexible and 
transparent film, capable of receiving an emulsion of 
increased sensitiveness, in order that the modern living 
picture might spring into existence ; but twenty years 
were fated to elapse before these necessities were placed at 
the disposal of the photographic world. Therefore nothing 



62 



LIVING PICTURES 



was available except glass plates, and these were naturally 
used in circular form in order that as long a series as 
possible might be secured. 

In the year 1874, however, an opportunity occurred 
of photographing a very brilliantly lit object of great 
interest ; and a desire on the part of M. Janssen to obtain 
a chronographic photo-record of the Transit of Venus 
across the sun's disc caused him to invent his Photographic 
Revolver, and successfully employed it in the far-off regions 
of Japan. This instrument was placed under cover, as 
shown in Fig. 59, and when in use was directed on a 
heliostat, which served to keep the image stationary by 




FIG. 59. 

neutralizing the sun's apparent motion. With it forty- 
eight images were taken around the edge of a circular 
plate in the space of seventy-two seconds, and this opera- 
tion was repeated four times, so as to secure a record 
of the interior and exterior contact at each margin of the 
sun's disc. The mechanism by which this was effected 
(shown in Figs. 60 and 61) merits description as being the 
first practical automatic apparatus for obtaining a chrono- 
photographic record consisting of separate pictures. A 
large wheel, R, carried the sensitive plate (making one 
revolution in seventy-two seconds), and in front of it a 
disc, B, pierced with twelve openings, made one revolution 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



in eighteen seconds. Between these two wheels was 
placed a partition, S, pierced with a single opening. 
When the mechanism was released, the motor-wheels, O, 
set both the sensitive plate and shutter-disc in motion. 
The sensitive plate made the forty-eighth part of a revo- 
lution and then stopped, this being effected by a Maltese- 
cross movement. At the moment of its arrest one 
of the twelve openings in B passed the fixed aperture P, 
thus making an exposure. The plate moved on, while 
protected by the opaque part of B between two openings, 





and then stopped for the next exposure. Some instru- 
ments of this kind were taken by an English commission 
to the Andaman Islands in the following year (1875) for 
the purpose of observing an eclipse of the sun, but the 
expedition was unsuccessful owing to adverse weather. 

Still at best the Photographic Revolver was but an 
observing instrument, and little could be done in the 
way of combining the distinct views into one motion ; 
forty-eight separate pictures at the rate of twelve per 
second would only last the fifteenth part of a minute, 
and even then would compress the events of seventy- 



64 LIVING PICTURES 

two seconds into that time. To obtain a longer series, 
Donisthorpe in 1876 further developed Du Mont's idea of 
rapidly dropping an exposed plate into a lower chamber, 
so leaving the next free for exposure, and provided a 
special gearing by which the shutter covered the lens 
during the change. Nevertheless, Janssen's instrument 
was the model on which Marey founded his Photographic 
Gun, which was of real value for analyzing motion 
in such a way that it could be subsequently re-com- 
pounded by means of the Zoetrope. Its name was well 
chosen, and is perfectly descriptive of the apparatus 
shown in Fig. 62. The length of barrel was necessitated 




FIG. 62. 

by the use of a long-focus lens, which was, of course, 
absolutely indispensable when photographing a small 
object at a considerable distance. This barrel was 
arranged so as to telescope for focussing purposes. The 
breech contained clockwork mechanism for effecting the 
series of exposures, and a glance at Fig. 63 will explain 
the methods employed. It will be understood that the 
back cover is removed in order to show the parts. On 
pressing the trigger a circular shutter with one opening 
commenced revolving at a predetermined rate. Behind 
this a disc (half of which is shown in the drawing) with 
twelve openings also revolved, the sensitized plate lying 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 65 

behind it and rotating with it by friction. This disc 
together with the sensitized surface, was rotated by 
means of a pawl (shown at the bottom left-hand) on an 
arm worked by an eccentric, and every time one of 
the twelve openings, backed by a portion of the sensitized 
plate, came to rest opposite the lens-aperture the hole in 
the shutter passed in front of it, admitting light and 
making an exposure. It will be understood that during 
its movement the sensitized plate was protected by the 
opaque part of the revolving shutter. Marey used this 
instrument in order to obtain some extremely effective 




FIG. 63. 

photographs of birds in flight ; nevertheless, the ap- 
paratus was far from perfect. The defect of this 
instrument was that twelve images in very few cases 
gave a complete cycle of movement ; when the last 
picture of the set (say of a bird in flight) was reached, the 
bird had not arrived at that stage when the wings 
occupied nearly the same position as in the first picture. 
But still Marey adhered to the plan of using one lens for 
making successive exposures, and his later improvements 
followed out that principle. 

In 1892 Demeny showed a similar but much improved 
apparatus at the International Exhibition of Photog- 

5 



66 



LIVING PICTURES 



raphy. This was of the usual disc form, a rotating 
shutter being used the travel of which was far more 
rapid than that of the sensitized plate ; the latter only 
moving a short distance to its next position while the 
opaque part of the shutter made nearly a revolution before 
the single aperture passed the lens. This apparatus was 
called the Photophone, and its construction will be under- 
stood from the very similar projecting apparatus, Fig. 64, 
named the Phonoscope, in which the major portion of the 
shutter is cut away in order to show the picture-disc. 




FIG. 64. 

The origin of this name is found in the fact that M. 
Demeny used this instrument for securing a series of 
twenty-four photographs of a man during the act of 
pronouncing some phrase, in order to analyze the lip- 
motions. The reconstitution of the lip-action was so 
successful that a deaf-mute was enabled to read the words 
" Vive la France " from the lips of a photograph. The 
set of pictures being sufficiently long to cover the whole 
period of utterance, an enthusiastic deaf-mute could pass 
the day experiencing (it is impossible to say " hearing ") 
the above-mentioned patriotic sentiment. It is worthy 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



67 



of notice that even the intelligent specimen of humanity 
above referred to was absolutely nonplussed when the 
handle was turned backward, and the lip-motion con- 
sequently reversed. Demeny's specification in which 
the Photophone is described also includes some modifi- 
cations directed towards obtaining longer series. The 
views were mounted in spiral on a non-transparent drum, 
the axis of the latter being furnished with a helix which 
traversed the drum at such a rate as to maintain the 
spiral set of pictures under the inspection lens, as seen in 
Fig. 65. The shutter was not interposed between eye 





FIG. 65. 



FIG. 66. 



and picture as is usually the case, but was mounted 
between light and drum. Fig. 66 shows. the beam of 
light passing through the slot in the shutter B, and, after 
undergoing a deviation by the mirror m, falling on the 
drum and thus illuminating the successive pictures by 
intermittent flashes as the slot in the shutter periodically 
permits light to pass. A reference to Fig. n will 
demonstrate the relation between Lommel's invention 
of 1881 and that of Demeny in 1892 ; the principle being 
the same although the latter apparatus gave a longer 
series and displayed but one image at a time. The speci- 
fication suggests that a phonograph might be combined 



68 



LIVING PICTURES 



with the inspection apparatus an idea previously set 
forth by Donisthorpe in 1876 and 1878. 

During these later years the extreme rapidity attained 
by photographic emulsions, together with the possibility 
of obtaining long lengths of flexible transparent film, 
rendered the production of a long series of photographs 
in rapid succession possible. Many steps leading up to 
this desirable consummation have been quoted in the 
past pages, and methods of securing rapid exposures were 
invented to keep pace with increasing speed of plates ; 
indeed, it may be said that as a general rule it has always 
been possible to procure a shutter so rapid in its action 




FIG. 67. 

that it refused to yield a picture, and shutter devices have 
always been ahead rather than abreast of plate speeds. 

The idea of using a band for the purpose of lengthening 
the series of views is almost as ancient as the Phenakisto- 
scope itself. In fact, the first published description of the 
Stroboscope contains a suggestion of this character, 
Stampfer therein intimating that a long endless band 
might be passed over two rollers, provided that suitable 
means were employed in order to interrupt the light at 
correct intervals of time. And, indeed, this fact was never 
lost sight of. Desvignes, in 1860, proposed to place his 
Zoetropic designs on endless bands (Fig. 67), but in the 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



69 



days of wet-plate photography such an expedient was 
entirely out of the question so far as securing pictures was 
concerned, and even the early dry-plate, with all the 
assistance it rendered, lent no substantial aid in this direc- 
tion. Thus, in 1876, Donisthorpe proposed to place his 
Kinesigraph pictures on a band arranged to run off one 
roller on to another, but only for purposes of inspection ; 
the negatives from which they were printed were obliged 
to be obtained at a comparatively low speed on plates and 
the positives actually mounted at accurate intervals. Not 
until the introduction of celluloid as substitute for glass 
was it possible to secure a long series of exposures on 





FIG. 68. 

a suitable strip, and the commercial 
existence of this eminently suitable sup- 
port began to bear fruit in the year 
1888. Here, as in every other branch 
of our subject, the first steps were not 
directed towards the production of a 
living picture. Potter suggested a very simple arrange- 
ment for reeling a series of transparencies on a transparent 
band through a magic-lantern, and a few months later 
Adams patented an arrangement for the same purpose, 
which is interesting from the fact that it contains, in a 
crude form, very similar features to the first workable 
living-picture machine. As seen in Fig. 68, the band was 
drawn onward by a spring roller (S), but was normally 
prevented from moving because it was gripped between a 



70 LIVING PICTURES 

roller and brake-block, both shown black in the illustra- 
tion. When a pusher came into action the brake-block 
was raised, as shown in the drawing, until the stud 
dropped into a slot in the roller, when the teeth also 
locked the wheel attached to the spool. This arrange- 
ment would certainly have been unsuitable for rapid 
working, if only on account of strain on the film, but it is 
interesting as an example of how an idea may be " in the 
air," for this spring roller, allowed to act intermittently by 
means of an escapement tooth, was the feature of the 
apparatus patented in the next year by Messrs. W. Friese- 
Greene and M. Evans, to whom must be adjudged the 
honour of having first introduced a practical instrument 
capable of securing a record of any event, and suitable for 
subsequent reproduction of a moving picture of the past 
occurrence. Their joint specification was filed on June 21, 
1889; on February 25, 1890, an actual instrument was 
shown before the Bath Photographic Society, and at that 
date their projection apparatus was in the maker's hands. 
Their camera was capable of securing three hundred 
exposures at the rate of ten in each second, though this 
speed could be increased considerably if required. The 
construction of this piece of apparatus was most ingenious, 
and so simple that a short description will suffice. The 
film passed from one spool over a plate, which held it flat 
for exposure, and then on to a second spool by which it was 
wound and stored. Both spools were driven at an equal 
speed from the main-shaft, and thus the film would have 
passed the exposure opening with a steady and uniform 
motion had it not been that a roller was interposed 
between the light-aperture and the receiving spool. This 
roller contained a spring, continually wound from the 
main-shaft. The spring would have forced the roller 
round as fast as it was wound up but that on the roller's 
edge was placed an escapement tooth which rested against 
a cam. This cam (itself in continual rotation) stopped the 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 71 

roller from turning, but a gap in its edge allowed the 
escapement tooth to pass once in a revolution. When 
this occurred the roller made one turn and drew down 
sufficient film to remove the exposed picture and substi- 
tute the next portion of the film. While this was 
stationary and the cam making its next revolution, the 
winding-up bobbin was storing away the piece of film just 
pulled down, while the feeding-spool was reeling-off just 
sufficient to supply the next sudden revolution of the 
spring roller, the spring of which was at the same time 
being wound up. A special shutter was also shown, but 
it was of comparatively little importance when compared 
with the arrangement for intermittent film-feeding de- 
scribed above. 

Greene was also working about this time, apparently 
in conjunction with Rudge, on a machine designed to 
project successive pictures without interrupting the light. 
The images were placed alternately on the edges of two 
discs which revolved side by side in front of a single large 
condenser. The light and condenser could be moved 
slightly out of the central line so as to illuminate, say, the 
left-hand picture, and were then shifted so as to light up 
the next design situated on the right-hand disc. While 
this was being shown the left-hand disc turned one stage 
in order to bring the third picture in position. Separate 
projection lenses were used, one facing each disc. The 
extent of movement required by the condenser in order to 
illuminate the images alternately was very small, and 
furthermore the light was not suddenly cut off, but died 
away gradually, thus reducing the flicker. An experi- 
mental machine on these principles was shown before the 
Bath Photographic Society, but there appears to be no 
record as to any exhibition of the perfected instrument. 

As before stated, the honour of prior publicity un- 
doubtedly rests with Messrs. Greene and Evans, but others 
were working at the same problem, and in August, 1889, 



72 LIVING PICTURES 

Messrs. Donisthorpe and Crofts filed a specification in 
which they showed another means for securing a stationary 
film during the period of exposure or projection. This 
device was ingenious, the film being in continual process 
of unrolling from one spool and rolling on the other, and 
yet the portion in use was kept stationary opposite the 
lens without any sudden pull to change th$ portion 
exposed. The film passed from one spool to another 
at a continuous speed past the exposure opening, but this 
movement was periodically neutralized by lifting film, 
rollers and all, at a speed equal to the downward motion 
of the film by means of a crank-motion, the whole frame 
being steadied by rollers (shown black on drawing) running 
between guides (Fig. 69). Thus a portion of film opposite 
the lens was continually travelling nearer to the bottom 
roller, but was also being raised at an equal speed ; the 
same piece of film therefore remained in the same place 
during exposure. This terminated, the whole frame sank 
to a sufficient extent to expose the next section of film, 
which, though still moving on, was kept in the same 
position for so long as necessary by a repetition of the 
raising of the whole mechanism. Though this apparatus 
is somewhat complicated, the description afforded by the 
specification is specially interesting as showing the diffi- 
culties to be contended with at that date. The inventors 
proposed obtaining their negatives on strips of sensitized 
paper. Now paper, even at the present day, imparts 
some grain to the negative, and this was the case to a 
greater degree nine years ago. The pictures, therefore, 
were designed to be prepared on a larger scale than at 
present two and a half inches diameter was suggested ; 
while for the band of transparencies the only available 
material was again paper, rendered partially transparent 
by vaseline or castor oil. This difficulty was so great that 
the inventors also suggested that an opaque band might 
be used and the pictures projected by reflected instead of 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



73 



transmitted light, somewhat on the principle of the 
Aphengescope, and a method quite recently revived. The 
large size of the pictures, and consequent large extent 
of film required to pass in a given time, together with the 
considerable mass of moving parts, must greatly have 
hampered the inventors in preparing an effective machine ; 




FIG. 69. 

but, after all, difficulties and even failures, to the philo- 
sophic mind, are of almost equal interest with conspicuous 
successes ; they afford equal ground for consideration, and 
furnish data from which to accurately estimate the relative 
values of various systems. 

This apparatus again points out the one essential 
needed to complete the modern living picture a trans- 



74 LIVING PICTURES 

parent, structureless support. This necessity was fur- 
nished in the year 1888 by the introduction of celluloid. 
On its first appearance this material was not so satis- 
factory for photographic purposes as it is now, neither 
could it, at first, be obtained in the requisite ribbon form, 
and Marey's first instruments for using films were rendered 
ineffective (except as regards pure chrono-photography) 
by the limited length of the bands commercially available. 
Nevertheless, invention and suggestion now began to move 
at a rapid pace. Early in 1890 Evans suggested several 
arrangements for moving the film intermittently. The 
principal form was one in which a friction-roller in con- 
tinuous rotation was brought into contact with the film 
periodically for a sufficient time to move it one picture 
length. This end might, of course, be attained by the use 
of many mechanical equivalents. Other arrangements 
shown by him are worthy of illustration as embodying the 
germs of some more modern motions. For instance, two 
small rollers, shown black in Fig. 70, are kept in continual 
rotation, and gripping the film between them, draw it 
onward at a constant speed. But the arm on which these 
rollers are mounted is drawn backwards and forwards by 
the black eccentric seen on the right. Consequently, 
during the time the lens is open the rollers are drawn 
to the right along the film without moving it though they 
are rotating all the time ; but so soon as the lens is closed 
the arm moves in the opposite direction, thus drawing the 
film onward to the extent of the travel of the arm, plus 
the amount due to the rotating grip of the rollers. Another 
arrangement has two rollers situated on the ends of a 
rocking arm mounted on a pivot (A, Figs. 71 and 72). 
This arm is periodically tilted by a lever worked by the 
black cam seen at the bottom of the drawings. In 
Fig. 71 an exposure has just commenced. The film is 
held steady by a light gripping frame, and the store reel 
is occupied in rolling-up the slack portion of filrq. When 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



75 



this is accomplished the cam causes the rocking-arm to 
tilt, as seen in Fig. 72, thus drawing a fresh portion of 
film in front of the lens, and then, suddenly returning to 
its first position, leaves a double loop of slack to be stored 
away exactly as seen in the preceding figure. A few days 
afterward Varley filed a specification, showing another 
means for attaining the same end as that secured by 
Evans's rocking-arm namely, causing a loop to be formed 




FIG. 70. 





FIG. 71. 



FIG. 72. 



in the film by means of intermittent pressure. The film 
was steadied by the action of two spring-pawls, which 
gripped it against two rollers (A, Fig. 73). By the revo- 
lution of a cam, not shown, an arm, B, was periodically 
thrown forward against the film, of which a sufficiency 
was driven back between the two rollers, A, to draw an 
exact picture-length down. The arm then returned to its 
first position, while the store-reel look up the slack so 



7 6 



LIVING PICTURES 



formed. The cam seen in front works a double shutter 
by means of levers. It was also suggested that light 
should be allowed to act* through four holes in a screen, 
forming marks at the sides of each picture for the purpose 
of punching holes in exact register. 

M. Marey, towards the end of 1890, constructed a 
chrono-photographic camera in which a band passing 
from one spool to another was employed. This apparatus 
had been gradually evolved from one constructed in the 
year 1888, having a paper negative band periodically 




FIG. 73- 

arrested by an electro-magnetic grip. In 1889 the paper 
gave place to film, and a zoetropic instrument combining 
views so obtained was exhibited at the Paris Exhibition 
of that year, when M. Marey showed the apparatus to 
Mr. Edison. In 1890 the mechanical details were finally 
arranged as shown in Fig. 74. The Chronophotographe, or, 
as it was first called, the Photochronographe, was driven by 
clockwork, and all its parts could (previously to making an 
exposure) be set in motion without actuating the film. 
On touching a stud a friction-roller pressed the film 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



77 



against the top right-hand roller (already in motion as 
stated), which then began to drag the film off the left- 
hand bobbin, past the exposure opening, and past a 
spring, as shown by the dotted line. The receiving- 
bobbin was mounted on a revolving spindle, but could 
not itself revolve, by reason of the pressure exerted on 
it by a brake. So soon, however, as the stud pressed 
the friction - roller against first - mentioned roller, this 
brake was taken off, and the receiving-bobbin, being free 
to revolve, took up the film passed on to it. To render 
the film periodically stationary, a rounded bar was pressed 
against it at proper intervals of time by means of a star- 
cam, thus gripping it tightly and preventing its motion. 
Inasmuch, however, as the motive-roller was continually 
dragging at the film, the latter would have been torn 




FIG. 74. 

were it not that the film passed over a weak spring. This 
straightened out under the pressure exerted by the film, 
thus shortening its path and feeding the roller with suffi- 
cient film to last until the grip was taken off, when the 
spring returned to its former position, and assisted to 
draw the next section in front of the exposing aperture. 
M. Marey did not succeed in obtaining very long series of 
exposures with this apparatus. About forty pictures were 
taken in whatever period of time seemed desirable, and he 
complained, in an account given by him of his work, that 
bands of film longer than 4 metres were not obtainable. 
Still, had he confined his pictures to moderate dimen- 
sions, he would doubtless have been more successful from 
the living-picture point of view; the fact of procuring 
negatives 9 centimetres (about 3^ inches) square was quite 



78 LIVING PICTURES 

sufficient to fill up his band long before an extensive 
series was obtained. But as Director of the Physiological 
Station his work lay mainly in the analysis of motion, 
and the only use made of his early serial pictures was 
to recombine a phase of motion by means of a modified 
Zoetrope in order that the real action of one second might 
be spread out in point of time to facilitate leisurely in- 
spection, and for this purpose it was necessary to remount 
the positives at proper intervals, the spacing on the nega- 
tive band being 1 slightly irregular. Xbout the same time 
M. Marey constructed a somewhat similar instrument for 
use with the microscope, in order to record the various 
motions of the lower forms of animal life. 

At this point it is difficult to say whether a retrospective 
view is necessary or not. If first ideas are to be taken 
into consideration, then Mr. Edison should have been 
mentioned earlier ; but the first intimation of his work 
in the domain of the Living Picture did not reach England 
until May 28, 1891, when a somewhat meagre account 
of his Kinetoscope was printed in The Times, having been 
received through Dalziel's Agency, while the full descrip- 
tion of his invention, filed in the United States, August 24, 
1891, was not issued until March 14, 1893 (No. 493,426), 
and was never patented in England. The first public 
exhibition of this instrument seems to have taken place 
at the Brooklyn Institute on May gth, 1893, the first 
machines in England being shown in Oxford Street in 
October, 1894. It certainly appears as though Edison 
might have established a claim to be considered the father 
of the modern Living Picture (so many forefathers have 
been mentioned; it is difficult to trace the exact pedigree) 
had he not been deluded and delayed by affection for his 
pet child, the Phonograph. It was apparently in 1887 that 
he first conceived the idea of coupling the reproduction of 
a past event with the repetition of sounds recorded at the 
same time. He appears to have spent much time in 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 79 

a fruitless attempt to secure his negatives in a manner 
analogous to the reproduction of speech on the phono- 
graph that is to say, in a spiral line round a cylinder 
similar in every respect to that of the sound-recording 
instrument, which was put into action at the same time. 
And here it may be well to explain the nomenclature 
of Mr. Edison's various productions. A Kinetograph takes 
the separate pictures, the Kinetoscope recombines them 
into motion. The prefix of Phono- denotes that a Phono- 
graph is coupled with the instrument, consequently a 
Phono-kinetograph records both events and sounds, and the 
Phono-kinctoscope reproduces them by direct vision. This 
instrument has also been called the Kinetophone. Edison's 
first pictures were absolutely microscopic, a matter 
which at once gave rise to a dilemma. If small, they 
needed considerable enlargement in order to be viewed, 
and this necessitated a sensitive surface, which should be 
practically structureless. Nothing but collodion would 
meet this requirement, and its low degree of sensitiveness 
to light rendered it very difficult to obtain an image at all. 
Increase of aperture in the lenses certainly would meet 
the difficulty, but only at the expense of that definition 
which was so essential when subsequent enlargement was 
required. Therefore this method was abandoned, and 
larger negatives obtained in spiral on sheets of cellu- 
loid wrapped round a cylinder or on the edge of a disc, 
and at this stage Edison adopted the method of lighting 
his views momentarily for inspection by means of a 
Geissler tube, through which a current was passed every 
time pins (placed on the revolving disc) made the neces- ^^yU- 
sary contact. This was the plan adopted in Anschiitz's 
Electrical Tachyscope, exhibited in 1889 ; but it is appar- 
ently impossible to discover at what date Mr. Edison hit 
upon the same device. He finally settled down to a form 
of instrument having a one-slot shutter and continuously 
moving band ; the exposure was consequently extremely 



8o 



LIVING PICTURES 



brief, and the waste of light involved by this arrangement 
rendered his apparatus as crude in its principles as the 
first Phenakistoscope, though from the point of view of 
mechanical accuracy it was a marvel. 

In many of its mechanical details, however, Mr. Edison's 
perfected Kinetoscope was unique, and a short description 
of the apparatus, considered as a whole, will serve as a 
basis for their elucidation. The mechanism was contained 
in a cabinet furnished with an inspection opening at the 
top, as seen in Fig. 75. This cabinet was divided into 




W 



FIG. 75- 

three compartments, the one above extending over the 
whole width of the case, and containing the essential 
mechanism, the other two divisions each occupying one- 
half of the lower portion. One side, shown in the drawing, 
contained a spool-bank accommodating an endless film ; 
while the other side enclosed the motive mechanism, 
which was naturally electric, that method of driving being 
well known as Mr. Edison's favourite. The celluloid 
band was of the now familiar form ; that is to say, each 
margin was perforated with four holes to every picture, 
though in 1890, when his pictures were smaller, Mr. 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



81 



Edison used a single line of perforations only. This 
endless perforated band passed from one side of the spool- 
bank to the other through the upper chamber, being 
stretched over two sprocket-wheels (fitting the perfora- 
tions), which drove the band past the inspection lens at a 
constant speed equal to forty-six pictures per second. 
Below the band, and opposite the inspection opening, an 
incandescent lamp was situated ; the American patent 
shows a peculiar form of alum-trough placed between 
lens and film in order to absorb heat, and also a prism 




FIG. 76. 

arrangement for altering line of sight. As the band was 
not arrested for the inspection of each picture, some 
means of providing momentary illumination was necessary, 
and this was accomplished by a one-slot shutter making 
forty-six revolutions per second, so as to allow light to 
pass each time a picture was accurately centred. The 
mechanical ingenuity displayed in the accomplishment of 
this method of intermittently illuminating a film con- 
tinuously moving at so high a speed is worthy of all 
praise; but it must not be overlooked that the system 

6 



82 LIVING PICTURES 

itself was faulty, and totally precluded use of the apparatus 
for projection purposes. A glance at Fig. 76, which shows 
the shutter and film in plan, will demonstrate the enormous 
waste of light involved by Mr. Edison's arrangement. 
The slot was only one degree in width, and therefore only 
one-three-hundred-and-sixtieth part of the available light 
was allowed to pass to the eye. Under these circum- 
stances no known source of light would have been powerful 
enough to stand the w r aste in projection work, while a 
camera arranged on the same principle would have been 
an impossibility ; an attempt to secure forty-six pictures 
per second would necessitate exposures of less than the 
sixteen-thousandth part of a second a period too brief 
for the most sensitive emulsion to cope with. 

An entirely different arrangement was therefore adopted 
in order to secure negatives in the camera, but little 
information was allowed to transpire; and although the 
patent specification was filed in the United States on 
August 24, 1891, the patent itself was not issued until 
more than six years had passed away. Up to August 31, 
1897, it was only known, in vague terms, that Mr. Edison 
used some form of intermittent mechanism giving one- 
tenth movement and nine-tenths rest. The arrangement 
is shown in Fig. 77. The film passes from spool A to 
spool B, being drawn along by a sprocket-wheel driven 
from the pulley C. The film would move continuously 
were it not that the rotation of the sprocket-wheel is 
periodically checked by the interaction of two-toothed 
wheels, one (D) situated on the main shaft, and the other 
(shown black in the illustration) beneath the sprocket- 
wheel and on the same axle. To save strain, the pulley 
runs loose when the two wheels D, E are locked together, 
as shown in Fig 78. The right-hand wheel is just about 
to allow the other to move one stage, the tooth passing 
through a slot (Fig. 79). So soon as this tooth makes its 
escape the wheel E turns and carries with it the sprocket- 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



wheel, and therefore the band. When a picture-length 
has passed, the next tooth on E strikes the surface of D, 
and remains locked until the next slot comes round and 
permits another tooth to escape. 

This machine would not, perhaps, be of great importance 
were it a recent invention, but it must be remembered 
that it was filed in 1891, on the same date as the Kineto- 
scope specification, and these two documents make mutual 
cross references to one another. The invention not 
having been patented on this side of the Atlantic, the 
question hardly affects the English public; but if rumour 





FIG. 78. 




FIG. 77- 



FIG. 79. 



speak truly, there were many users of perforated film in 
the States who naturally did not foresee that, years after 
acquiring their machines, they would have a covering 
patent flourished in their faces a patent concealed from 
public view for six years ! 

Two projecting machines were at one time on the 
market under Mr. Edison's name; but they will be referred 
to later, neither of them seeming to employ the inter- 
mittent motion of an escapement nature which Mr. Edison 
undoubtedly patented in 1891 and presumably applied to 
his camera. It, however, seems feasible that this patented 



84 LIVING PICTURES 

method was abandoned in favour of another; the wear 
must have been great, for both wheels were subjected to 
sudden impact forty-six times per second, and the interval 
between these impacts was mainly occupied by frictional 
contact between tooth and checking surface. 

From what has been said respecting the Kinetoscope, it 
will be seen that this instrument was practically identical 
in principle with Anschiitz's Electrical Wonder exhibited 
at Frankfort in 1891, with the difference that in order to 
secure momentary illumination of a continuously moving 
film Edison used a revolving shutter and Anschutz a 
flashing Geissler tube ; Edison's line of sight was vertical, 
and that of Anschutz horizontal. Furthermore, in 1888, 
Le Prince suggested the use of perforations and sprockets 
for feeding his band through the machine ; but in the 
absence of celluloid this band was metallic, and acted 
rather as a carrier. Still, Mr. Edison must be credited 
with the practical introduction of the perforated film, and 
this system of perforation formed the foundation of a 
large number of methods for securing accurate registration 
and intermittent movement. The gauge of perforation 
which he instituted has, with a few exceptions, been 
practically adopted as the standard, and the maker of 
every machine in present use which utilizes perforations 
for feeding is so far indebted to the " Wizard of the West." 
Furthermore, though the Kinetoscope was only available 
(publicly, at least), for inspection, and not for projection, 
Mr. Edison did the world a great service in bringing the 
matter of living pictures into a prominent position ; he 
demonstrated the fact that a suitable transparent flexible 
band was commercially available, and the encouragement 
thus given to manufacturers and inventors, who saw a 
possible remunerative field for the exercise of their talents, 
was doubtless largely responsible for the rapid progress 
towards effective projection which was made during the 
next three years. 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 85 

On September 24, 1892, Mayer filed an American 
specification (No. 525,991), which shows a new form of 
step-by-step motion (Fig. 80). A tappet, P, with inclined 
faces, is drawn to and fro between parallel guides by 
means of a crank, C, and each time the frame carrying it 
reaches the top or bottom of its stroke the inclined face 
of the tappet strikes the inclined face of a tooth, T, thus 
driving the drum onwards. This forward motion ended, 
the tappet enters the straight portion between two teeth, 
and so steadies the wheel. On its return journey it leaves 
this space centred against the slide, and the circle of teeth 
consisting in an odd number, there is naturally a tooth 
ready placed for acting on when the tappet reaches the 




FIG. So. 

end of its stroke. After the wheel has been steadied by 
the tappet, a slight pressure is maintained by detent- 
springs to prevent accidental displacement. 

In the same year (1892) a suggestion was made in The 
Optician and Photographic Trades Review which, considered 
from the purely theoretical side, is of considerable interest, 
though the practical difficulties involved are obvious. It 
was based on a modification of the ordinary panoramic 
camera, in which, as is well known, the whole camera 
revolves horizontally about the optical centre of the lens. 
The image is thrown on a film carried round a curved 
bearing-surface, a screen confining the action of the lens 
to a comparatively small angle. When the curved film 



86 LIVING PICTURES 

extends over 180 degrees a half-revolution of the camera 
forms a picture of one-half the horizon ; but if the film is 
fed from one side and taken up at the other a complete 
revolution may be accomplished and the whole horizon 
embraced. Let us suppose this operation completed in 
one-tenth of a second, and it will be plain that, given a 
further supply of film, the camera might make another turn, 
and yet another until the film was exhausted. Now, every 
time the lens faces any particular object it will photograph 
it again and again subject to the changes which it has 
undergone during the revolution of the camera, and if a 
positive be made and the operation reversed, light being 
thrown through the film and lens on to a screen (the pro- 
jector revolving all the time), then the whole horizon may 
be reproduced in continual process of change on a circular 
screen. The chief objections to this course are that public 
audiences are not accustomed to a circular screen, and 
also that the consumption of film would be enormous ; 
with a two-inch lens about 6| inches of film would be used 
every tenth part of a second, as against J inch at present. 
Of course, as suggested, a part of the horizon could be 
screened off and other subjects taken on the protected 
portion of the film, but probably the collection made on 
one ribbon would not be universally acceptable, and the 
idea, ingenious as it certainly is, cannot be considered as 
within the range of practical politics 

In June, 1893, M. Marey took a French patent 
(No. 231,209) for his Photochronographe, a slightly 
improved form of the apparatus shown in Fig. 74 The 
arrangement of its several mechanical details rendered 
the spacing of the individual photographs somewhat 
irregular, and the views were therefore of comparativelv 
little use for subsequent projection. 

Another French patent (No. 233,337) of October in the 
same year contains the description of M. Demeny's 
apparatus subsequently introduced as the Chronophoto- 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



87 



graphe d' amateur or Biographe. Fig. 81 shows the principle 
involved in the invention. The film was reeled from one 
bobbin to another, being steadied in front of the aperture 
by a pressure-frame. The lower or taking-up bobbin was, 
however, mounted eccentrically, and thus on its down- 
stroke gave a sudden pull to the film, which then remained 
stationary while the bobbin rose and rolled up the film 
previously pulled down. In this crude form the apparatus 
was only adapted for taking short series; the amount of 
film rolled up on the lower bobbin naturally increased 
during working, and therefore varied the amount of film 





FIG. 8r. 

pulled down at each revolution. The error was obviously 
that of imparting eccentric action to the store-bobbin ; 
had the latter remained independent and the eccentric 
motion been applied to an intermediate roller the action 
would have been constant. This fact was soon recognized, 
and M. Demeny incorporated a new and important modi- 
fication into his German and English patents applied for 
only two months later that is to say, in December, 1893. 
This development was not added to his French patent 
until July, 1894, and it is from this patent that Fig. 82 is 
reproduced. The eccentric motion previously applied to 



88 LIVING PICTURES 

the bobbin was now transferred to an intermediate portion 
of the mechanism, thus giving an intermittent pull to the 
film, constant in extent and regular in action. The film, 
after passing in front of the aperture, where it is steadied 
by friction rollers, is periodically struck by an eccentric 
rod or dog-motion, which draws down sufficient film to 
change the picture. The film is meanwhile constantly, 
passed on at a regular rate to the store-reel by a sprocket- 
wheel. The specification further suggests that the 
eccentric need not be shaped as .a rod or roller, but may 
take the form of a " blade," and several devices of this 
kind are shown in Fig. 83. This dog-motion or pitman 
is still extensively employed, and it is only right to 
recognize the name of Demeny as that of the originator 
of this type of machine ; there does not appear to have 

CD ! 

FIG. 83. 

been any mention before 1893 of the motion used in the 
Chronophotographe, though, considering the number of 
instances in which vague suggestion has been found to 
have long preceded practical application, it would probably 
be somewhat rash to definitely affirm the statement. 

In November, 1893, Friese-Greene filed an English 
specification chiefly remarkable for its resemblance to 
Varley's invention of 1890 (Fig. 73). However, as the 
drawing shows the cam-driven arm more clearly, it is 
reproduced in Fig. 84. Further extraordinary suggestions 
were made for utilizing the apparatus in the production 
of moving stage scenery; a double dissolving shutter was 
shown, and it was said that cobalt salts might be used to 
colour films in order to produce change of tint under the 
influence of warmth ; though how this principle affects a 
kinetographic film (which moves at short intervals of time 
and is specially protected from heat) was not explained. 



CH RONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 89 

As a curiosity may be mentioned an idea published in 
1893 in The Optician and Photographic Trades Review. The 
suggested method of working depends largely upon the 
optical properties of the cyclostat, an instrument for 
rendering a revolving body optically stationary by means 
of a prism rotated in the same direction as the body under 
observation, but at half the angular speed. If, now, we 
have a revolving circular sensitive surface, we can render 
it optically stationary by means of a cyclostat, and can 
take a photograph upon it by an exposure of any duration 




FIG. 84. 

despite its continual rotation. But if the sensitive surface 
is formed of a portion of a flat spiral, lying on a plate 
through a slot in which it is fed up and withdrawn, this 
very action causes a rotation. This rotation will be 
neutralized as a whole by the cyclostat, but the portion 
of the spiral acted on will nevertheless be continually 
added to on one side and drawn away on the other. The 
image of any object will be therefore rendered optically 
stationary, but will be subjected to blurring due to its 
proper movement during the time that any specified 



go LIVING PICTURES 

portion of the spiral is exposed, as of course is the case in 
every photographic exposure. But as the film dips down 
through the slot a fresh piece is fed up and receives the 
image in the same stage as the withdrawn portion, and 
itself starts on its circular trip. By this means the extent 
of blurring is kept within the usual limits. If a similar 
spiral positive film is fed through the slot in the same 
manner and viewed by means of a cyclostat a moving 
picture may be seen, and as persistence is not called into 
question, the rate of revolution of the spiral may be far 
slower than the speed at which the photograph was 
obtained and which was governed by the necessity of 
making one revolution in a sufficiently short time to 
obviate conspicuous blurring. Such an arrangement does 
not lend itself to projection (except aphengescopically), 
but would be suited for direct inspection. No trial 
instrument on this principle appears to have been made ; 
the complications caused by photographic manipulation 
of a spiral film are probably quite a sufficient bar to the 
experiment. 

A new principle was introduced by Jenkins in 1894, his 
United States specification having been filed on January 12 
of that year, though not issued until May, 1896. The 
Phantoscope Camera (Fig. 85) employed a continuously 
moving film in front of which revolved a disc bearing a 
number of lenses. The speed of this disc was so 
determined that each picture on the film was ac- 
companied in its travel past the aperture by an accurately 
centred lens ; and though the film was moving in a right 
line and the lens in a circle, projection took place over so 
small an arc that the deviation from a right line was 
insensible. Though the lenses pass an opening in the 
casing, a little reflection will show that if the aperture be 
rightly proportioned it does not act as a shutter ; on the 
contrary, the pictures are independent, the formation of 
one beginning before the exposure for the preceding one 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 91 

has ceased. This apparatus should be reversible, but as a 
matter of fact Mr. Jenkins adopted a different system for 
his projecting Phantoscope which was not exhibited until 
1895, nor described until 1896. The interest of the 
Phantoscope Camera resides in the fact of its similarity to 
Uchatius' arrangement of 1853 (p. 19) ; both had the image 
and lens in fixed relation, but while Jenkins moves image 
and lens together, Uchatius kept them stationary and 




FIG. 85. 

moved his source of light. This resemblance is, however, 
of purely historical import ; no comparison is possible 
respecting efficiency. There is no doubt but that Mr. 
Jenkins not only successfully operated this form of 
apparatus as a camera but also employed it for projection 
purposes ; still it may be questioned whether such a 
machine could be popularly introduced. In the November 
of 1894 the same inventor filed another United States 
specification (No. 536,569) for an inspection apparatus 



LIVING PICTURES 



somewhat on kinetoscope lines, but without a shutter, the 
film being intermittently illuminated by the action of two 
incandescent lamps mounted on a revolving arm. 

With the commencement of the year 1895 considerable 
activity was manifested in the United States no less than 
in France and England, and it is to that year we must 
look for the appearance of the Living Picture in a popular 
and successful projection exhibition. On March 9 a most 
ingenious specification was filed in the United States by 
Gray, and subsequently issued on June 4 as No. 540,545. 
It is perhaps questionable whether perfect registration 





FIG. 86. 



FIG. 87. 



could be obtained with so many movements applied to the 
same film, but there is no doubt as to the novelty of the 
methods proposed. The apparatus being designed both 
for projection and securing negatives, the drawings 
illustrating the former purpose will serve to explain the 
whole method, which was one of double projection 
through one lens. Leaving the film out of the question 
for the moment, Fig. 86 shows two arc lamps each 
furnished with a condenser. From one of these con- 
densers a beam of light proceeds directly to the projection 
lens; if this beam be disregarded, it will be seen that the 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



93 



light from the other condenser is caused to follow the 
same path by a mirror, M, set at an angle of forty-five 
degees. This mirror is shown in elevation in Fig. 87, and 
consists of a half- circle of silvered glass, the other half- 
circle being transparent. The mirror is rotated by bevel 
gear, B ; and provided that the two beams of light bear 
on it below or above its centre, the direct beam will pass 
to the projection lens when the transparent portion is in 
position, while the light from the lamp at right angles 
will be thrown on the screen when the silvered part 
comes round. Also, in a certain position, portions of both 
beams of light will reach the projection lens ; that is to 
say, one beam of light will be vignetted into the other and 




FIG 



there will be no interruption of illumination. This being 
well understood, we will in imagination interpose the 
necessary film, do away with the arc lamps and con- 
densers, and consider the apparatus to be working as a 
camera. Looking at Fig. 88, the film is seen coming 
from the right-hand, dropping to the extent of half its 
width, and being drawn along by forked fingers in order, 
to be wound up on a receiving-spool. The oval seen in 
the middle is the mirror, in rapid rotation, but at present 
engaged in deflecting the beam of light in order to throw 
an image on the lower portion of the film on the right- 
hand. As it continues turning, the silvered portion passes 
and the beam of light traverses the transparent glass and 
begins to form an image on the upper part of the film 



94 LIVING PICTURES 

directly in front of us on the other side of the fork, and at 
this stage both parts of the ribbon are being acted upon ; 
exposure at right angles is not quite finished, exposure in 
a right line has begun. So soon as the mirror has turned 
sufficiently to allow the whole beam of light to come 
straight on in the ordinary way, the exposure at right 
angles terminates and that part of the ribbon is moved on 
by a similar fork to that seen^in Fig. 88, thereby throwing 
up a loop. In the same way, when the mirror begins to 
cut off the direct light it also commences a new exposure 
on the fresh surface at right angles, but there is always a 
time when both portions of the ribbon are stationary and 
receiving concurrent impressions. The result is a ribbon 
bearing a double set of pictures, the upper series being 




FIG. 89. 

obtained direct, the lower at right angles, and every one 
vignetting, so to speak, into both its predecessor and 
successor. The claws are driven to and fro by a crank, 
as shown in Fig. 89, the tooth dragging over the film in 
one direction, but being pressed into the perforation by a 
spring when travelling the other way. The complication 
of a triple movement of the film would doubtless render 
accurate registration somewhat difficult with this ap- 
paratus, and it maybe thought that more emphasis has 
been laid on it than it deserves ; but when it is remembered 
that this machine contains the first of a long series of 
claws and spring teeth for moving the film, and also 
shows a semi-circular rotating mirror for deflecting the 
light (a device patented in another connection at a far 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 95 

later date), it will be conceded that the ingenuity displayed 
by the inventor calls for recognition. 

A few days later, on March 25, 1895, Eames filed a 
specification in the United States, subsequently issued as 
No. 546,093, showing an arrangement which could only be 
called an improvement on Jenkins' Phantoscope Camera 
if the question be considered in an economic sense. The 
number of lenses was reduced to two, a substantial saving 
in expense of construction, but the disadvantages intro- 
duced appear to outweigh the saving secured. It is of 
almost vital importance that the individual views be 
obtained from the same point of view ; if succeeding 
pictures be secured by lenses placed side by side, a 
variation in position of foreground objects results as a 
matter of course; and this variation, which is essential in 
stereoscopic work, is prejudicial under other circumstances 
and bound to cause a false vibration of objects on the 
screen. It cannot be denied that enough trepidation is 
liable to exist in the average Living Picture without 
risking a further importation of so little desirable a 
characteristic ! Still, the Animatoscope is a distant type of 
machine, and as such it must be described. A single film 
is employed ; but this film is of double width, and travels 
continuously downwards behind a pair of lenses mounted 
on sliding panels (Fig. 90). A circular shutter, furnished 
with two slots, each extending halfway round, revolves 
between lens and film. Presuming that exposure has just 
commenced with the right-hand lens, the cycle of operation 
is as follows. The film descends at a fixed rate, so also 
does the lens, it being drawn down by the crank-rod 
attached to the front panel. The lens does not, however, 
travel at exactly the same speed as the film ; the moving 
parts are so geared that when used for projection purposes 
a line connecting the centre of the picture with the centre 
of the screen shall always pass through the optical centre 
of the lens. While this right-hand lens is descending, the 



9 6 



LIVING PICTURES 



left-hand one is rising, but has no action on the film 
because the light is cut off by the shutter. So soon as the 
lens begins its descent light is admitted to act, and at this 
time the position of affairs is such as to display the 
characteristics of the machine. One lens has reached the 
bottom and is just terminating its exposure; the other 
lens is situated at half a picture height above and is just 
commencing to act. The result is shown in Fig. 91, 
where the two series of pictures are seen side by side upon 
the film, the upper margin of one picture being level with 
the centre line of that which follows. The speed of the 




:; 







' ** 






\ CJT 
.1 




o 


::-* 


. 



._..* 



FIG. 90. 



FIG. 91. 



film is therefore reduced to one-half, the alternating 
exposures or projections overlap, and all parts of the 
apparatus are in continual movement. By these means it 
is claimed that unsteadiness is avoided, while it is certain 
there is no interruption of light either in camera work or 
exhibiting. 

And now the turning-point in the History of the Living 
Picture is reached. Up to this date the Kinetoscope was 
the only instrument of a distinctly popular nature, and it 
may be safely affirmed that, whatever may have been done 
in the way of private experiment, no public exhibition of a 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 97 

projected Living Picture had been a popular success. 
With the advent of Messrs. Lumiere's Cinematographe, 
however, this desirable consummation was attained, and 
to them must be attributed the credit of stimulating 
public interest to such a pitch as to lay a firm foundation 
for the commercial future of cinematographic projecting 
apparatus. It was on February 13, 1895, that Messrs. 
Lumiere filed their French specification No. 245,032, 
their English patent being dated April 8. To the French 
documents four or five additions were made, and a further 
English patent was taken a year later. As, however, these 
additions are but slight expansions of the original ideas, it 
is perhaps as well to describe them together. It may be 
mentioned that the Cinematographe was exhibited at 
Marseilles in April, 1895 ; and a display given at Paris in 
the following July was the commencement of a career of 
unequivocal success. The beauty of the Cinematographe 
resides as much in its simplicity as in the results obtained, 
and no apology is required for a somewhat lengthy descrip- 
tion being given of a machine which has attained a position 
of historical importance. Fig. 92 shows the casing opened, 
while Fig. 93 clearly exhibits the hidden mysteries. First 
and foremost let it be supposed that the machine is 
arranged with a view to projection ; the film-spool is 
placed in a holder at the top and the film is led through 
the machine. It will be seen that the film is provided 
with two holes only to each picture, one on each side. 
Briefly stated, the action of the machine is as follows. 
A picture is at rest opposite the lens, but so soon as a 
rotating shutter cuts off the light two little pegs enter 
a pair of perforations and then sink down, carrying the 
picture band with them to the exact extent of one view. 
The pegs then come to rest, steadying the film, and are 
withdrawn in order that they may rise preparatory to 
drawing down a fresh portion. While they are rising the 
shutter passes away and allows the stationary picture to 

7 



g8 LIVING PICTURES 

be projected. How this is accomplished will be understood 
by reference to Fig. 93. The pegs are carried by an arm, 
B, fixed on a frame, A, which is driven up and down by a 
central cam. A rotating arm, working from the same 
centre as the cam, has wedge-shaped ends, and the pins 
are not rigidly fastened to the arm B, but are formed like 
the prongs of a little fork which can slide backwards and 
forwards. Every time the pegs arrive at the top, the 
wedge on the end of the rotating arm acts against another 
wedge, D, on the fork and drives the pegs into the perfora- 




FIG. 92. 

tions. This done, the frame, pegs, and film sink together. 
Arrived at the bottom, the other end of the arm, furnished 
with a wedge slanting the other way, comes round and 
acts on the other side of D in order to draw the pegs out 
so that they may rise without moving the film. This is 
the whole principle of the machine in its simplest form, 
but its efficiency depends on an important modification. 
If the central cam were a disc, as shown in Fig. 93, the 
frame would take as long to make its downward journey 
as it would to travel in the reverse direction ; and, further, 






CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



99 



the motion would be continuous. Therefore the cam is 
formed as shown in Fig. 94, with the result that while the 
cam turns through 60 degrees the frame remains stationary 
for the insertion of the pegs ; a further movement of 




FIG. 93- 

120 degrees drops the frame, the pegs drawing the film 
down. During the next 60 degrees of rotation the frame 
remains still to allow the pegs to be withdrawn, while the 
120 degrees required to complete one rotation are occupied 




FIG. 94. 

by the rise of the frame. Therefore the film is only in 
movement for one-third of the total time of one revolution. 
Some further modifications are shown in Fig. 95. Instead 
of driving the cam at a regular speed, the toothed wheel S 
may so act on the shaded wheel as to cause it to rotate 



IOO 



LIVING PICTURES 



more quickly at one period than another, and in conse- 
quence the film may be drawn down quickly, while the 
raising of the pegs occupies a longer time. As the film is 
stationary during the rise of the pegs, the picture may be 
projected for considerably more than one-third of a com- 
plete revolution, and the period of darkness is consequently 
reduced. The two arms that act on the pegs are therefore 
placed closer together and project from the edge of a disc, 




FIG. 95. 

better seen in Fig. 96. Subsequently these arms dis- 
appeared, their functions being discharged by variations 
in the surface of the disc itself; but the latest develop- 
ments of this type of machine will be illustrated in the 
next chapter. 

While Messrs. Lumiere were triumphing over their 
difficulties in France, the problem was also being attacked 
on this side of the Channel, It is certain that Mr. Birt 



CHRONO-PHOTOGRAPHY 



rot 



Acres was working concurrently with Messrs. Lumiere, 
for he photographed the University Boat-race with his 
Kinetic Camera on March 30, 1895, only a few days after 
Messrs. Lumiere filed their French patent, and before the 
deposit of their English one. In fact, Mr. Acres appears 
to have been beaten all through the race by a few days; 
his English patent is dated about five weeks after 
Lurniere's, and he does not appear to have given a 
public exhibition until the early days of 1896. But this 
point is of little importance, for his apparatus was con- 
structed on distinctly different lines to those adopted in 
the Cinematographic. Fig. 97 shows the Kinetic Camera 




FIG. 96. 

at the commencement of an exposure. The film is firmly 
held by the shaded clamping-frame F, pressed home by 
the black cam C. While exposure is proceeding the upper 
sprocket-roller is feeding out an exact picture-length that 
is to say, it moves four teeth forward. So soon as the 
shutter cuts the light off the clamping-frame is loosened, 
and the roller R, which has been bearing against the film, 
is thrown into its shaded position by the action of a spring, 
thus drawing down the slack which has accumulated above 
the clamp and substituting a fresh sensitive surface, which 
is at once firmly held in position. A fresh exposure now 
commences, during which the bottom sprocket-roller takes 
up the looped film and so gradually forces the roller R 



102 



LIVING PICTURES 



back into its original position, ready to act again when the 
clamp is taken off. This apparatus has undergone several 
christenings. Brought out in January, 1896, as the Kinetic 
Lantern, this term was abandoned the following March in 
favour of the name of " Kineopticon." Being called to give 
an entertainment before the Prince of Wales in July, the 
inventor found, to his surprise, that the programmes issued 
under Royal auspices referred to his invention as the 




FIG. 97. 

" Cinematoscope." What could a loyal photographer do 
except follow the same course as Mr. Acres actually did ? 
Cinematoscope it was by Royal dictum, and Cinemato- 
scope it remains to this day. But as " a rose by any other 
name would smell as sweet," so did the Cinematoscope 
retain its good qualities under all its varied nomenclature. 

Paul also was pioneering the Living Picture as a source 
of entertainment. The Prince's Derby was filmed in 1896, 
and re-run at the Alhambra within twenty-four hours of 
the event, after which the Animatograph became per- 
manently installed there. 

These exhibitions in France and England demonstrated 
very clearly to the then few enthusiasts the possibilities of 



CHRONOPHOTOGRAPHY 103 

Living Pictures for entertainments. It is, however, at least 
doubtful if anyone at the time realized the full extent of 
their possibilities. The sudden jump in the number of 
inventions after the year 1896 is itself an indication not 
only of the increasing amount of ingenuity exercised in 
perfecting methods and apparatus, but also to the increas- 
ing popularity of Living Pictures. We have now also 
come to a point at which it is necessary to abandon strict 
chronological order and to give a separate account of the 
different branches of the subject. 




Established 1816 



WRENCH'S 

Manufacture in their own Factory 
all kinds of 

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CHAPTER IV 

FILM MACHINES AND INTERMITTENCE MECHANISMS 

UNDOUBTEDLY the most important developments in 
Living Picture projectors are those in connection with 
film machines, the popularity of these machines being 
largely owing to the great conveniences of a long film, 
which is light, portable, and comparatively cheap, and 
can be rolled into a small compass. 

A much greater variety of design has been introduced 
than is commonly supposed, and an introductory view of 
principles will greatly assist subsequent comprehension of 
the working of different machines. 

Apart from design and structure, the common and 
central feature of all machines is a long film, bearing a 
series of pictures and means for intermittently rendering 
the successive views actually or apparently stationary. 
These methods of intermittence form the subject for the 
present chapter, and it is desirable to include in our 
survey not only devices which have come into actual use, 
but also others which, although not so fortunate, never- 
theless, have some distinctive characteristic. That a 
particular type of machine has not found its way into 
general use is not a final test of merit. Indeed, the 
efficiency of any given type of apparatus depends even 
more on the excellence of workmanship than on the 
mechanical devices employed ; and improved design is of 
little ultimate advantage unless accompanied by a more 
than equal advance in accuracy of construction. The 
action of a Living Picture machine is in every respect 



io6 LIVING PICTURES 

comparable to that of a watch or a clock, and as regards 
these latter it is certain that workmanship is the main 
factor in the results attained; no doubt an English 
chronometer greatly excels a machine-made watch, but 
only on condition that far greater care is exercised in its 
construction ; if this be not so, the probability is that the 
commoner article will prove the more satisfactory. ' So it 
is with Living Picture machines. The advantages and 
disadvantages of different machines may be discussed till 
no doubt remains as to which is best theoretically, but 
even then the final test can only be the performance of the 
individual machines, even though both are of exactly the 
same design. Therefore, in considering the various types 
of machines it. must be taken for granted that the work- 
manship is perfect, and this assumption can only be 
verified by inspection of the machine in actual operation. 

The number of suggested mechanisms for obtaining 
intermittence is so very large that a selection for more 
detailed consideration is necessary, but various lists of 
British patents dealing with different types of machines 
and mechanisms are given in Appendix I. It has been 
stated that the " description of an appreciable number of 
these mechanisms would be a somewhat heavy and 
monotonous task," but it is hoped that, heavy and 
monotonous as the task of selection may be, the reader 
may yet -be spared the mental indigestion, which is the 
author's due and his alone. 

To proceed then to principles. The different classes of 
intermittence mechanisms may be considered according to 
the movement of the film. Thus the film may be moved 

i. Continuously (as, for example, in Donisthorpe's 
machine, or the Phantoscope see Figs. 69, 85); and 

(a) Seen for a very short period ; 

(b) Rendered relatively stationary ; 

(c) Rendered optically stationary. 



FILM MACHINES 107 

2. Intermittently (as in Lumiere's machines see 
Figs. 92-95) 

(a) By a sprocket-roller. 

(1) Through interaction of a wheel with 
teeth or pegs (including Maltese cross feed 
mechanisms) ; 

(2) Through interaction of a wheel or pin- 
teeth with a worm or cam ; 

(3) By the changing position of the sprocket- 
feed-rollers ; 

(4) By ratchet gearing. 

(b) By the periodic grip of two rollers. 

(c) By teeth. 

(1) Always in contact with the film (spring- 
teeth) ; 

(2) Inserted and withdrawn (claw feed). 

(d) By pressure of 

(1) A revolving eccentric ; 

(2) A reciprocated arm. 

(e) By other means than the above. 

i (a). Continuously Moving Film seen for a very Short 
Period. 

This type is primeval. The Phenakistoscope worked on 
this principle, and Plateau's " Diable soufflant," was 
essentially similar, although the speed of image was 
reduced. From these two instruments were derived all 
such machines as the Lantern Wheel of Life, the Zoopraxi- 
scope, and, in a degree, the Phonoscope ; while Edison^s 
Kinetoscope and Anschutz's coin-freed Electric Wonder 
fall into the same category. In the latter a Geissler tube 
is momentarily illuminated when the picture comes under 
the viewing-slot. In Petit's multiple view Kinetoscope, 
Fig. 98, an endless band, B, moves in a direction opposite 
to that of the film L, and is pierced with slots to act as a 



io8 



LIVING PICTURES 



shutter. The apparatus is driven electrically, the motor 
being reversed to return the film to its original spool. In 




FIG. 



another form of apparatus, Fig. 99, the shutter is a slotted 
drum revolving between the light and the film. In a still 




FIG. 99. 



more recent apparatus the shutter consists of two con- 
centric cylinders, each with a slot, and the picture is seen 



FILM MACHINES 



109 



through the viewing eyepiece when the openings coincide. 
But although even in so elementary a type of apparatus 
there is some scope for suggestion and improvement, there 
are comparatively few machines of this type. The reason 
is not far to seek. Seeing that the vision is momentary, 
it is clearly necessary that a sufficient amount of light 
should pass through the slot. Lommel, in 1881, attacked 
the problem by throwing a condensed beam of light 
through a narrow aperture working in the focal plane 
of the condenser, and this same system reappears in 
Latham's invention (No. 4,841 of 1896), though in a con- 
siderably elaborated form. 

i (b). Continuously Moving Film rendered Relatively 
Stationary. 

Of this class there appears to be only one example 
viz., Donisthorpe and Croft's machine, shown in Fig. 69. 
In this case, object, lens, and image are all maintained in 
fixed relation ; devices which move lens and film together 
are better regarded as belonging to the next class. 

i (c). Continuously Moving Film rendered Optically 
Stationary. 

The first attempt to render an image optically stationary 
was probably made by Clerk- Maxwell in 1869, as explained 
in Chapter II. His arrangement of concave lenses instead 
of zoetropic slots is of interest in conjunction with Jenkin's 
Phantoscope, already described, and Maskelyne's 1896 
rotating lens drum. The stationary images are in both 
cases obtained by virtue of the changing position of the 
refracting surfaces of the lenses used. In Jenkin's machine 
the film is moving in a right line across the aperture while 
the lens is moving in a circle. In Maskelyne's Mutagraph 
(Fig. 100) the film is rendered optically stationary by 
means of a drum, L, composed of a number of concave 



no LIVING PICTURES 

lenses, which are fixed edge to edge in a suitable frame. 
The film passes across the exposure aperture in contact 
with the drum. Inside the drum L are two stationary 
lenses on the line of the optical axis, the curvature of one 
or both of these lenses corresponding to that of the lenses 
on the drum. On the outside of the drum is the projecting 
lens, while the source of light and the condenser are behind 
the film. The effect produced is as follows : Each suc- 
cessive picture on the film, in passing across the field of 
view, coincides with one of the lenses on the drum. The 
light passes through the picture on the film, thence through 
the corresponding lens nearest to it on the drum, the two 
fixed lenses, and the corresponding lens on the other side 
of the drum, and then through the objective, reproducing 
the picture on the screen. When any picture is central 
with the optical axis, the faces of the various lenses will 
be parallel, and act as a piece of plane glass or as a simple 
lens, and the light suffers no deviation from its course. 
As the parts move, the refracting surfaces change position, 
and the deviation thus introduced precisely compensates 
for the movement of the picture, and causes its image to 
remain stationary upon the screen. Means are provided 
for giving an independent motion to the sprocket-roller 
in order to accurately centre the film either at starting or 
during working. It was an instrument of this kind which 
was taken to India in order to secure a view of the total 
eclipse of the sun. Sad to say, the film disappeared on its 
journey home, and neither the Wizard of Piccadilly nor a 
reward of 50 succeeded in bringing the errant eclipse 
to light. 

The suggestion is made in Stroud's specification 
(No. 4,661 of 1898) that lenses such as are used upon the 
drum L should be mounted over pulleys, so that both the, 
lenses and the film would then have a rectilinear motion 
across the exposure aperture. In another apparatus a 
cylindrical lens, 25, Fig. 101, is mounted in the aperture of 



FILM MACHINES 



in 




FIG. ice. 




FIG. 101. 





FIG. 103. 




FIG. 102, 



FIG, 104. 



ii2 LIVING PICTURES 

a revolving shutter, 19, and the axis of curvature of the 
lens is kept perpendicular to the direction of motion of the 
film by the use of a chain passing round equal sized sprocket- 
wheels, which are fixed on the axial bearing-frame of the 
shutter 19 and on the lens respectively. The objective 23 is 
a compensating cylindrical lens of opposite curvature. For 
projecting work a series of lenses, 25, are mounted on the 
shutter 19 over successive exposure apertures. The film 
gate 29 in this apparatus is fitted with a frame which 
reciprocates synchronously with the film to prevent 
successive pictures from overlapping. In a still more 
recent invention a lens is mounted on a slide which 
reciprocates across the exposure aperture. This method 
was used in a duplicate and mechanically modified form 
in the Animatoscope (see Fig. 90). 

Other devices for producing the variable deviation of 
the luminous rays include prisms having angles which are 
automatically variable. In one form the outer faces of a 
liquid prism, P, Fig. 102, are oscillated on pivots, B, by the 
arms E and cam H ; in another construction, Fig. 103, a 
combination of two prisms, A B, is used, the carrying arms 
C D of which are oscillated by the rotated cam E to 
produce the same result. In such methods there is a 
sudden return movement just before each picture 
enters the gate. In other methods which avoid this 
sudden return, a refracting prism having an even number 
of faces is interposed between the film and lens, and is 
revolved at such a speed that the face of the prism is 
parallel to the film as each picture passes through its 
central position, in which position the prism acts as a 
piece of plain glass. 

Another important optical method which has been used 
is the employment of a mirror or mirrors, turning or 
moving at such a speed as to maintain the beam passing 
through the lens in a right line. This method was used 
in Reynaud's Praxinoscope (Fig. 22), and has been 



FILM MACHINES 



modified and developed by many inventors. One modified 
form of such apparatus described by Stroud (No. 4,661 of 
1898) is interesting. The pictures (P, Fig. 104) are on one 
drum, D, and two stationary mirrors, A B, are used in con- 
junction with a series of lenses on the periphery of a con- 
centric parallel drum, D. In Casler's apparatus (Fig. 105) 
the film passes from the feed-roll 2 to the store-spool 3 in 
contact with the segmental frame 16. This frame swings 
from right to left at the same speed as the film, and is so 
arranged that when starting on an oscillation a picture is 
outlined by the opening 27. Light passes through this 
opening and the picture to a mirror, 22, which is moved 




FIG. 105. 

by gearing at half the angular speed of the frame ; con- 
sequently the rays are maintained optically stationary with 
regard to the projection-lens. When the frame reaches 
the extremity of its movement to the left, both it and the 
mirror are rapidly returned to their original positions by 
means of cams. In Campbell's apparatus (Fig. 106) the 
band runs over a drum, being drawn from a box, 8, and 
is illuminated by a mirror, 22. As it is only designed 
for inspection purposes, the pictures are seen through 
magnifying eyepieces, 6, the rays being rendered optically 
stationary by the mirror 5, tilted by a lever, 19, the 
latter being actuated by pegs, 20, on the drum. In 
addition it is suggested that the instrument may be 



LIVING PICTURES 



employed (of course without the film) for the inspection 
of machinery, etc. Britain's apparatus (Fig. 107), described 




FIG. 106. 



in specification No. 2,575 of 1899, is of interest in connec- 
tion with Gray's apparatus of 1895 (see Fig. 86). A semi- 




FIG. 107. 

circular mirror, 58, alternately reflects the light on to 
the mirror 59 and on to the mirrors 60, 61. Light thus 



FILM MACHINES 



alternately reaches the oscillating mirrors 36, 37, which 
are rotated at half the angular speed of the cylinders, 27, 28, 
over which the film of double width passes. The mirrors 
36, 37 thereby alternately project a stationary image on 
the film, and are alternately inactive on the return move- 
ment. In other apparatus of this kind two mirrors 
oscillating on a common axis, and actuated by cams, 
are used alternately, and a cylindrical or other shutter 
cuts off each mirror on its return movement. In Barr's 
invention (No. 8,245 f ^QQ), a rotating helical mirror (6, 
Fig. 108) reflects the light from the condenser or camera 
objective h k on to the moving film /, thereby causing the 
beam to travel with the film. For projection work a 





FIG. 108. 



FIG. 109. 



similar mirror, C, reflects the light passed through the film, 
through the projector i. The feed-rollers for the ribbon 
and the shaft carrying the mirrors are geared so as to 
maintain the required velocity ratio between the film and 
mirrors. In Lumiere's invention (No. 7,482 of 1905), 
Fig. 109, two perpendicular mirrors, m n, np, are movable 
in a direction n n at right angles to the plane bisecting the 
mirrors. If a point a on the film moves to a in a line 
parallel to n ri , while the mirrors move half this distance 
(i.e., a a' equals 2 nn'), into the position m n' t n p' ', it will be 
seen that the direction of the twice reflected image will 
be the same, and will appear to come from the original 
position a. In the projector, Fig. 109, two stationary 



n6 LIVING PICTURES 

mirrors, k c, c h, are used so that the film and objective may 
occupy convenient positions. The moving mirrors m n, 
n p are mounted on a carnage, g, which is oscillated by a 
cam,y, and an opposing coiled spring. During each return 
movement the objective is closed by a shutter. The 
suggestion is made that an endless chain of such double 
mirrors may be formed and used in lieu of the oscillation 
carriage. More recently it has been proposed to utilize a 
series of small mirrors mounted on the periphery of a 
rotating drum, the projecting light passed through the 
moving film being reflected from these mirrors through 
the projecting lenses. 

There can be no question as to the ingenuity of the 
many optical devices such as the foregoing for maintain- 
ing a stationary image with a continuously moving film. 
If merit was an infallible corollary to ingenuity, such 
machines should be far more popular and more extensively 
Used than they are. That it would be advantageous to 
have a continuously moving film can hardly be doubted. 
One obvious drawback to these methods is the necessarily 
very expensive optical part of the apparatus, and as 
between a rapidly moving optical system and an inter- 
mittently moving film, experience has decided in favour of 
the latter. As regards the comparative utility of the 
various optical methods, it would be very different to 
attempt anything like a detailed comparison. The sug- 
gestion may, however, be made that such devices in which 
the optical system moves continuously would probably be 
more efficient and mechanically more convenient than 
those in which the optical system has a reciprocating 
motion. 

Intermittent Feed Devices. 

There are three essentials for a good machine 
(I) During the time that any picture section is in the 
gate, it must be absolutely steady. There must not, 



FILM MACHINES 117 

therefore, during this " stationary period " be any pull 
on the film by the driving mechanism. As a rule the 
gate is fitted with auxiliary means for steadying the film. 
(2) In order to secure sufficient illumination, the stationary 
period during which each picture is in the gate should be 
as long as possible in comparison with the time interval 
before the next picture occupies its place. (3) In order to 
avoid undue wear and tear on the film, and particularly on 
the sprocket-holes along the edges, there should be no 
sudden pull or jerk on the film during a shift. 

2 (a [i]). Film moved intermittently by a Sprocket-Roller 
through Interaction of a Wheel with Teeth or Pegs. 

To introduce this class an illustration may be given 
which has nothing whatever to do with the Living Picture. 
In fact, a prize might be offered for the first correct answer 




FIG. no. 

as to the use of the apparatus shown in Fig. no; but as 
there are no prizes, it may be stated at once that the figure 
is a drawing of a lawn-mowing machine with projecting 
knives. Nevertheless, it will serve better than any other 
as a foundation for the discussion of principles. Let us 
imagine the wheel e to be joined to the axis of the ordinary 
sprocket-roller; it will be seen that if the upper axle were 
rotated the wheel e would be partially revolved every time 
the segment d acted upon it. Further, if the segment 



n8 



LIVING PICTURES 



contained the right number of teeth, the wheel e might be 
rotated to the exact extent necessary to draw the film one 
picture-length onward. The reason why a movement of 
this simple description would be ineffective is found in the 
fact that the film requires to be started and stopped many 
times a second. The momentum of the wheel e and the 
film would carry the film on further than one picture- 
length at each stroke. But as we have seen, an exactitude 
in starting and stopping the film is one of the first 
essentials for a Living Picture machine. 

The simplest form of this class of mechanism is obtained 
by rearranging the teeth on the large wheel and reducing 





FIG. in. 



FIG. 112. 



the segments on the upper one to a single tooth each, as 
seen in Fig. in. Here it is the large wheel which is 
driven by the smaller, the large wheel standing still until 
a fresh tooth comes round, the plain part of the upper 
wheel resting against two teeth on the lower one, which 
is thus steadied. A further development of this plan is 
seen in Fig. 112, where a small fly-wheel only bears one 
tooth, the rest of the circumference being specially 
adapted to rest against the specially shaped intervals 
between the slots in the large wheel in order to effectively 
steady it. The single tooth may be replaced by a pin, P, 
and the large wheel by a Maltese cross, M, Fig. 113. The 
pin P, standing out from the disc D, enters a slot in the 



FILM MACHINES 



1 19 



Maltese cross, which is attached to the sprocket-wheel, 
gives it a quarter turn, and then passes on, leaving the 
shaped portion N of the cross steadied by the raised 
portion S of the pin-disc D. This arrangement moves 
the cross once for every revolution of the pin-disc. If the 
latter bears two pins, it will, of course, act twice instead of 
once during each revolution. It is usual to use rollers in 
order to reduce friction. Both the sprocket-roller feeding 
the film and the roller drawing the film through the gate 
may be simultaneously actuated by the use of two slotted 





FIG. 113. 



FIG. 114. 



FIG. 



wheels, M, M', Fig. 114, and a pin-disc, D, with two pins, P. 
This arrangement was adopted by Paul in one of his early 
machines. If desired, the whole arrangement may be 
reversed, and instead of the pin driving the slot, the slot 
may drive the pin. In one suggested form, illustrated in 
Fig. 115, the lower slotted disc pushes one pin on at each 
revolution, driving the previous one past the spring grip G, 
which then locks the wheel in exact position. 

This Maltese cross motion is one employed for many 
years past in horology under the name of the Geneva 



I2O 



LIVING PICTURES 



stop, wherein the arms of the cross were hollowed at their 
ends so as to bear very accurately against the curved 
edge of the pin-disc exactly as shown in the drawings. 
One of these arms, however, was not hollowed, and there- 
fore locked against the disc in order to prevent further 
rotation, which would have resulted in over- winding ; 
hence the name of stop. Though this stopping motion 
was its first use, the arms were soon made alike, thus 
permitting continual rotation, and the device has long 
been employed in various branches of mechanical engineer- 
ing to convert continuous into intermittent motion on 





FIG. 116. 

exactly the same principles as those applied to the 
machines under present discussion. The motion was 
one of the earliest in the field, and is still the most 
popular, and the one most extensively used. 

As already pointed out, the stationary period during 
which any picture is stationary in the gate should be as 
large a portion as reasonably possible of the interval 
before the next picture takes its place, which interval we 
will call the succession interval. These related periods 
will depend on the relative sizes of the film-wheel and the 
Maltese cross or slotted wheel, and upon the number of 
pins and slots. The effect of varying these quantities 



FILM MACHINES 121 

can be seen very clearly by the aid of very elementary 
mathematics. 

In Fig. 116, O and O' represent respectively the driven 
slotted wheel and the driving pin-wheel respectively. The 
pin P is shown just about to enter one of the slots, and 
the pin emerges from the slot at P', leaving the next slot 
in position for the same or another pin P. 

Let n = the number of pins on the pin-wheel O'. 
R = the radius of the circle described by the pins. 
S = the radius of the slotted wheel or cross O. 
s = the number of slots. 
20 l - the angle between consecutive slots. 
2 fa = the angle swept out by the pin P during one 

shift. 

v = the number of revolutions per second of the 
driving pin-wheel. 

Then from these data we have 

The number of shifts per second = nv, 

the succession interval = , 

nv 

the angular velocity of the pin-wheel = 27rv, 
the number of slots s = ~ = - 



The relative stationary period = 



^ 
succession interval 

JL _ ^ 
nv ZTTV 



I 
nv 



7T 



It will thus be seen that the ratio is larger or smaller 
according as n and fa are smaller or larger. The effect of 



122 LIVING PICTURES 

increasing the number of pins is to lessen the relative 
stationary period, while on the other hand the effect of 
increasing the size of the pin-wheel is to increase the 
relative stationary period. In practically all modern 
Maltese cross machines one pin only is used, and the 
size of the pin-wheel adjusted to give whatever ratio is 
desired. 

Another important point in the Maltese cross motion is 
the manner in which the pin enters the slot. It will be 
seen from Fig. 116 that just when the pin P enters the 
slot O P its motion is perpendicular to the radius O' P. If 
this direction is radially along the slot O P, then there will 
be no impact on the surface L of the slot; if, however, 
this direction is not radially along the slot (which case is 
illustrated in Fig. 116) the pin P will impinge on the 
surface L of the slot and start the slot-wheel with a 
sudden jerk. The radial entry into the slot was advocated 
by Paul in 1899, and in this case 



7T - 7T 7T 

2 * 2 S* 



The relative stationary period = i - -\ 

1 i 

- -- H -. 

2 S 

This ratio is a maximum when s is as small as possible, 
and the smallest possible number of slots is three. With 
three slots, therefore, the stationary period is five-sixths 
of the succession interval. 

The motion of the star-wheel and feed sprocket geared 
therewith during the shift interval is also of interest, and 
also that of the consequential motion of the film. If we 
further consider the motion of the wheel O (Fig. 116) 
during any shift interval, the angular velocity starts from 
zero, increases to a maximum as the pin P crosses the 
line O O' at the point P 2 , and decreases to zero when the 



FILM MACHINES 



123 



pin leaves the slot. This motion of the star-wheel and of 
the film may be further investigated as follows : 



, in Fig. 117, be any point in the travel of the pin 
when in the slot coinciding with the radius Op. 

Draw p M perpendicular to O O'. 

Let 6 and < represent the angles p O O' and p O' O 
respectively. 

Let O O' = C (a constant quantity). 
Then p M = R sin (/> - O M tan 

= (C-R cos <) tan ...... (i) 

Also, 



C - v/R 2 + S 2 - 2 R S cos O p O' 



(2) 




FIG. 117. 

Differentiating equation (i) above, we have 

R cos <#></> = (C - R cos (f>) sec 2 + R sin c/> tan </>... (3) 
Now <f) = the angular velocity of the pin-wheel, 

and 



sec 2 = 






R 2 + C 2 - 2 R C cose/) , 

77T- , , -TTa from A O p O . 
(C R cos </>) 2 



i2 4 LIVING PICTURES 

Hence from equations (i) and (3) 

, R (C cos $ - R) 

= C"+Ti-2RCcos0*- 

This equation (4) thus gives the angular velocity 6 of 
the star-wheel in terms of </>, which is the known velocity 
of the pin-wheel at any instant of the shift movement 
determined by the value of <. By taking different values 
for (f>, the relative velocity of the star-wheel can be 
represented by curves. 

We may take, for example, four typical cases as indi- 
cated in Fig. 118. 

Let fa represent the angle P O' O, 

and 0! POO'; 

these are the starting values of the angles $ and respec- 
tively, when the pin is just entering the slot. 

Case A represents Paul's three-slot feed. 

Case B represents the ordinary Maltese cross feed. 

Case C represents a six-slot feed with radial pin entry. 

Case D represents a six-slot feed with an oblique pin 
entry, and where the pin and slot-wheels are of equal size. 

In cases A, B, and C the initial angular velocity of the 

slot- wheel 

#! = zero, since R = C cos fa. 

In case D, R = S and 1 = fa =_3o. 
C = 2R cos 30 = ^3 R- 

.*. from equation (4) 

*; = ^ C0s 3--i o 4, 

4 2 v 7 3 cos 30 

= H; 

that is, the slot-wheel is jerked forward with one-half the 
angular velocity of the pin-wheel. 

The motion of the slot-wheel can be represented by a 
series of curves A, B, C, D, such as shown in Fig. 118, 
corresponding to the cases A, B, C, D, and in which the 



FILM MACHINES 



125 



height of the curve at any point of the (j> axis represents 
the velocity of the slot- wheel when in the stage of its feed 
movement corresponding to that point. 

The motion of the film itself is determined partly by 




^ 

C4S C 
3'0? A P ,R 




l-O 



0-5 



60 50* 40* 30* 20' IQ* 

FIG. 118. 




SVCCfSS/OH INTERVAL 




Z0 30 



50* 60* 



this motion of the slot-wheel and partly by the radius of 
the feed sprocket-wheel, which itself is determined by the 
size and motion of the slot-wheel. 

Let 2r = the diameter of the feed sprocket-wheel, which 
is on the axis of the slot-wheel or geared therewith ; then, 



126 LIVING PICTURES 

since the linear feed of the film through the gate, what- 
ever the feed-motion, is just a picture length, we have 

r x 20 1 = linear feed of film 
= f inches. 

i.e., r = ^--inches. 
ou l 

Hence, for example, in case B, the ordinary Maltese 
cross feed 

?, = !, or 45. 

.*. r = "477 inch approximately. 

77" 

In case C, 1 = -, or 30, 

and r = 715 inch approximately; 

and generally the smaller the angle turned through by the 
slot-wheel during a feed, the larger the feed sprocket- 
wheel must be. A small feed sprocket-wheel appears to 
be the more popular. 

The linear velocity of the film at any instant of the shift 
motion is rd. 

From equation (4) 

r R (C cos </> - R) . 



Also from equation (i) 

R sin 6 



By taking values of 6 equal to successive fractions of 
19 the corresponding values of (f) are determined 
geometrically, or from equation (6), and the linear velocity 
of the film at any instant of its movement, corresponding 
to the fractions of 6 V may be represented by another 
series of curves, A' B' C' D' (Fig. n8A), for the cases 



FILM MACHINES 127 

A, B, C, D respectively, where the height of any curve at 
any point represents the velocity of the film at the instant 
of its shift movement corresponding to the position of the 
point on the axis X X', representing its travel through the 
J-inch shift. 

The gradient of the curve at any point is proportional 
to the acceleration which is enforced upon the film, and 
thus is proportional to the tension or pulling force on the 
film. Such curves as these thus serve to indicate the 
variations in the tension or pull in the film during its 
motion. It will be seen, for example, in case A, that of 







FIG. n8A. 

Paul's three-slot feed, that while there is no initial sudden 
pull, there is a very severe tension or pull on the film 
corresponding to the steep part of the curve A', whereas 
in case D, in which the pin does not enter the slot radially, 
there is a sudden pull on the film at the start; but the 
strain on the film, represented by the much flatter curve 
D' during the actual shift motion of the film, is com- 
paratively small. 

Notwithstanding the simplicity and utility of such 
mechanism, the Maltese cross as a driving mechanism 
has had a fluctuating popularity. There is inevitably 
tremendous wear on the parts, and as the length of the 



128 LIVING PICTURES 

picture films increased, the problem of lubrication and of 
preventing the wearing parts becoming unduly heated 
became a serious consideration. The use of roller-pins 
considerably reduces the friction, and the use of an oil 
bath, suggested by Wrench in 1907, secures a minimum 
of friction. Certainly post hoc, if not propter hoc, the 
popularity of the Maltese cross mechanism revived after 
the introduction of the oil bath. Fig. 119 illustrates the 
oil bath as used in Butcher's " Silent Empire." 

If the number'of inventions is any guide, there is still 
room for improvement in this type of mechanism. A 
very brief glance must, however, suffice. 




FIG. 119. 

Feed- Steady ing Devices. In constructions so far noticed 
the shaped ends N (Fig. 113) of the cross engage the 
surfaces of the pin-wheel to steady the feed sprocket 
during the stationary period of the film in the gate. The 
Maltese cross itself thus does the double duty of feeding 
and steadying, and the steadying surface is limited by the 
size of the cross. It has recently been proposed to fit 
an additional cross, without any slots, adjacent to the 
Maltese cross. This enables a locking surface of much 
greater length to be used for steadying the film while 
stationary, and also relieves the Maltese cross of half its 
work. Fig. 120 illustrates the two crosses, M M', as used 
on one of Kamm's projectors. In another arrangement 



FILM MACHINES 



129 



(Fig. I2OA) by Guilbert of Paris, the Maltese cross wheel 
is made as a solid casting, with the slots S recessed in the 
face. A second casting includes the pin and the steadying 




FIG. 120. 



surface engaging the shaped periphery N of the rear part 
of the Maltese cross casting. In another method by 
Blair (Fig. 121), the pin-wheel 20 carries a cam groove, 
21, by means -of which a spring-controlled locking lever, 




FlG. I20A, 



FIG. 121. 



22, is moved into and out of engagement with shallow 
notches, 23, in the Maltese cross wheel, which are inter- 
spaced between the feed slots, 24, engaged by the pin- 
wheel. Another feed motion by Mr. Kamm is designed 

9 



130 LIVING PICTURES 

with a view to taking up any shock where the pin does 
not enter the slot radially. The pin I (Fig. 122) is 
carried on a disc, 2, resiliently mounted between two 
discs, 3, 3*, on the driving-shaft. The Maltese cross 
bearing 4 is pivoted on the bracket 7, carrying the 
bearing-pin of the disc 3. A strong spring holds the 
cross 5 and disc 3 in yielding contact, and the separa- 
tion is adjusted by a screw, 12. This yielding contact 
enables the cross and locking-disc 3" to separate in the 
event of any grit or dirt getting in between them. 

Devices for Rapid Shifts and Long Stationary Intervals. 
We have already seen that it is possible to get almost any 




FIG. 122. 

ratio between the shift period and the stationary interval 
by varying the sizes of the pin and slot-wheels, and the 
number of pins and slots. Other devices for the same 
purpose are as follow : (i) The pin-wheel is slidable 
along the rotating axis, and by means of a cam mechanism 
adjacent the pin-wheel the latter is moved into position 
to advance the Maltese cross wheel every alternate or 
third revolution. (2) The pin-wheel is eccentrically 
mounted on a second wheel, and by the additional 
rotary motion thereby obtained, the shift movement is 
correspondingly accelerated. (3) The pin-wheel actuating 
the Maltese cross attached to the feed sprocket-wheel is 
itself actuated from a second Maltese cross. The actual 
shift is therefore accomplished during a fraction only of 



FILM MACHINES 



the shift period of this second Maltese cross, which is 
driven from the main driving-gear. 

2 (a [2]). Film moved intermittently by a Sprocket-Roller 
through Interaction of a Wheel or Pin-Teeth with 

a Worm or Cam. 

The earliest example of this class of mechanism, 
illustrated in Fig. 123, was designed by Petit in 1895 for 
a camera, and at first sight closely resembles Edison's 
device shown in Figs. 78 and 79. The latter was, how- 





FIG. 123. 



FIG. 124. 



ever, purely an escapement mechanism ; the toothed 
wheel always had power applied to it, but could not turn 
because it was locked, and therefore its driving-pulley 
slipped. When a slot arrived in place, the tooth escaped 
straight through it. The interaction of the wheels, how- 
ever, supplied no power. In Petit's arrangement, on the 
contrary, the slots are not straight. A star-wheel, b, co-acts 
with a rotated wheel, a, having a series of slanting 
slots, 3. As a slot, 3, approaches the wheel b, a slight 
protuberance, 4, draws a tooth into the slot, which then 
forces the tooth through to the other side of the wheel, a, 
thus rotating the star-wheel and the film-sprocket attached 



132 



LIVING PICTURES 



to it. The wheel a also steadies the wheel b between the 
shifts. The protuberances 4 may be replaced by a kind 
of hook, as shown in Fig. 124, which draws the pin into 
the slot. A modification of this same movement is shown 
in Fig. 125, where a solid " snail " is employed. In this 
case the star-wheel, instead of being forced round through 
an inclined groove, is caused to follow an inclined surface, 
which acts somewhat as an escapement. The star-wheel 
is not directly attached to the driving axle A, but a spring 
is interposed, and one of the rollers on the end of the arm 
is therefore always pressing against the edge of the 
continually revolving " snail " S. For three-quarters of 
a revolution this arm naturally remains still, but when the 
inclined surface of the long tooth comes round, the arm 





FIG. 12$. 



follows it, making a quarter revolution, and turning the 
sprocket-wheel to the same extent. So soon as the arm 
escapes from the tooth the next arm finds itself steadied 
against the regular surface of the " snail." A form of 
snail motion was used very early by Wheatstone as a 
motive device, whilst the earliest intermittent motions, 
such as the Choreutoscope and Brown's apparatus of 
1869 (see Fig. 48), employed pegs acting on slots placed 
either around the edge of a disc or along a rack. 

Another early suggestion was to use a worm (w, 
Fig. 126) to drive a toothed wheel, a, connected to the 
sprocket-wheel engaging the film. If the worm were 
fixed, the film would be continuously driven, but the worm 
is mounted on a sliding axis, x y and is moved backwards 



FILM MACHINES 



133 



and forwards on this axis by a stationary pin, p, and 
cam, c. Thus at one time the wheel a remains stationary, 
the worm, so to speak, screwing itself on the wheel ; but 
when the axle travels back, not only does the worm act in 
its proper manner, but in addition drags the wheel round, 
thus giving a quick rotation of the sprocket. A modified 
form of worm action consists in dispensing with the cam c 
and cutting away part of the thread, so that the wheel a 
and sprocket is only rotated when the worm is in engage- 
ment therewith. This, however, provides no steadying 
means for the sprocket-wheel during the stationary 
interval of the film. This steadying action will be 
supplied if, instead of cutting away part of the worm, the 
threads on this part are modified so as to have no turning 




O 



FIG. 127. 




FIG. 128. 



action on the wheel. We then get what is, to all intents 
and purposes, the " drunken screw." The straight grooves 
of the screw L (Fig. 127) keep the wheel K stationary, and 
the inclined grooves feed it forward. If the screw is 
reduced to one thread, we obtain a helical cam, a form 
of drive which was used in a machine known as the 
" Rosenberg " cinematograph (patent 16,080, 1896). 

Another early method utilized a cam slot, AB (Fig. 128), 
on the face of a driven disc, G, which is placed adjacent to 
a pin-wheel, the pins of which stand out from the wheel. 
Part of the cam is circular. The cam engages a pin at 
the end A, and the pin-wheel is held stationary while the 
pin is in the circular portion, but is advanced to the 
position B by the other part of the slot, thereby rotating 



134 LIVING PICTURES 

the pin-wheel and the film-sprocket attached thereto. As 
one pin emerges from the end B, the next pin is in position 
to enter the end A. 

It is somewhat surprising that this type of feed 
mechanism in which a cam surface or worm is utilized 
to drive the film sprocket-wheel intermittently has not 
been more extensively used.. The shapes of the cams, 




FIG. 129. 

slots, or worms, can be modified to give almost any ratio 
between the stationary and shift periods of the film, and 
to start the film for the shifts without any jerk. That 
this type of feed mechanism has very great possibilities 
for giving a quick, steady feed is well exemplified by the 
mechanism now used in the " Power " machine. To 
the sprocket-wheel S (Figs. 129, 130), feeding the film, 
is attached a star pin-wheel with four pins, i, 2, 3, 4. 



FILM MACHINES 135 

The driving member 22 has a diamond shape cam, 18, 
separated from the locking ring 26 by two slots, 27, 27'. 
As the driving member is rotated from the position shown 
in Fig. 130, the outer part of the cam 18 moves the pin 
4, and starts the rotation of the pin-wheel, rotating it just 
sufficiently to shift the pins i and 3 into the slots 27, 27' 
respectively. The cam 18 is shaped so as to start the 
pin-wheel with a gradual motion, and the slots 27, 27' 
carry the pin-wheel through a quarter of a revolution. 
The ends of the slots at which the pins emerge are 
rounded, so that the pins are moved out of the slots 
without any jerk, and the pins 2 and 3 are left against the 




inner circular surface of the locking-ring 26, and the pins 
i and 4 against the outer surface. The pin-wheel is thus 
held very steady until the cam again comes into action to 
move the next pin, 4. 

2 (a [3]). Film moved intermittently by raising and 
lowering the Sprocket -Rollers. 

If the sprocket-roller below the gate maintains a fixed 
position, and is rotating continuously, it will, of course, 
continue to draw down the film. If, however, it is 
mounted, as shown in Fig. 131, the action on the film 
may be rendered intermittent, although the sprocket-wheel 
does not cease revolving. The sprocket-wheel S is 
mounted eccentrically on a disc, D, the revolution of 
which alternately raises and lowers the sprocket-wheel, 



136 



LIVING PICTURES 



This latter receives a rotary motion of its own through 
epicyclic gearing. The two movements are so propor- 
tioned that the roller rises along the film at the same rate 
as the sprocket-teeth rotate, and the wheel itself merely 
travels up the film. On the downward motion it not only 
rolls the film down in the ordinary way, but also super- 
adds a drawing action due to its fall. This device, so 
similar to Dameny's unworkable eccentric bobbin, was 





FIG. 131. 



FIG. 132. 

employed in the Prestwich camera, and serves as a good 
example of the manner in which an ineffective motion 
may be transformed into a thoroughly effective and 
reliable instrument by careful mechanical treatment. 
The sprocket-roller, while receiving a motion of its own, 
may be raised by a crank instead of by a direct eccentric 
motion applied to its axle. If, however, the sprocket- 
wheel does not receive a motion of its own, this movement 



FILM MACHINES 137 

forms the transition stage between a rising sprocket and 
claw motion. The wheel e, in Fig. 132, rolls upwards 
along the film, but is prevented from rotating in the 
reverse direction by a ratchet, r. On the down-stroke of 
the crank-arm H the wheel becomes fixed, and acts exactly 
as a claw by drawing the film down. 

2 (a [4]). Film moved intermittently by a Sprocket-Roller 
and Ratchet Gearing. 

The first use of a ratchet-gear appears to have been in 
Heyl's 1870 machine (see Fig. 49), but this apparatus was 
of very primitive type, a separate hand-pressure being 
required for every movement of the disc. In Fig. 133 the 




FIG. 133. 

ratchet-wheel R is on the axis of the sprocket-feed-roller, 
and is intermittently rotated by a spring pawl, P, and 
crank rod, reciprocated by an eccentric, Q. A second 
spring pawl, T, at the top prevents any backward rotation 
of the ratchet-wheel. In another form (Fig. 134), the 
driving pawl P is on a second disc, loosely mounted on 
the same axis as the rachet R, and is reciprocated by 
a crank and eccentric, C. The retaining pawl T not only 
prevents backward rotation of the ratchet R, but engages 
notches therein and locks it, being raised just before the 
pawl feeds the rachet by the pin N. In another type of 
construction (Fig. 135), the ratchet does not serve as a 
motive device, but only as an escapement. The sprocket- 
wheel attached to the ratchet has a hollow axle, through 
which passes a spindle carrying a cam plate, N, in 



138 



LIVING PICTURES 



frictional contact with the ratchet-wheel. Each time 
the cam raises the retaining pawl T, the ratchet and 




FIG. 134. 



sprocket-wheel are therefore fed forward. This frictional 
drive, however, is not necessary, as the sprocket-wheel 




FIG. 135. 

and ratchet may each be driven by separate power, such 
as a contained spring. The cam disc may take the form 
of a duplicate ratchet-wheel, having teeth set the other 



FILM MACHINES 



139 



way to act as cams. The retaining pawl will then be 
lifted as many times in a revolution as there are teeth on 
the ratchet-wheels. 



2 (b). Film moved intermittently by the Periodic Grip of 
Two Rollers. 

Two very early methods of obtaining an intermittent 
motion from continuously rotating rollers were suggested 
by Evans in 1890. One suggestion was that rollers might 
be allowed to roll along the film for a time, thus leaving 
it stationary, and then be drawn back as shown in Fig. 70. 
Or the rollers might periodically be held apart and only 






FIG. 136. 



FIG. 137. 



permitted to grip the film for a sufficient time to draw a 
picture-length down. A simplification of this method 
consists in making a part (Fig. 136) of one or both rollers, 
C D, with a segmental piece, A, of larger diameter, these 
segmental pieces forming the gripping surfaces inter- 
mittently gripping the film B, and drawing it down a 
picture-length on each rotation of the rollers. The length 
of film fed forward at each step can be regulated by 
varying the relative position of the gripping surfaces. 
This can be done by gearing the rollers C D together 
by skew-wheels 14, 15 (Fig. 137), and longitudinally 
adjusting one or other of these wheels. In lieu of 
shaping the gripping - rollers themselves or attaching 
sections of felt or the like, the gripping portion may 



140 



LIVING PICTURES 



comprise an adjustable pad, P, as shown in Fig. 138, 
which illustrates the feed used in one of the latest 
Maltheser machines. There is no apparent reason why 
this type of feed should not have been used more exten- 
sively. It would not be necessary to perforate the films, 
which in itself would effect a considerable saving. The 
grip could be confined to the edges of the film, thereby 




FIG. 138. 

saving the picture surface of the film, and the adjustment 
of the feed is easily obtained by some such method as above 
described. 



2 (c [i]). Film moved intermittently by Spring Teeth. 

The spring fork used by Gray in 1895 (Figs. 88 and 89) 
was the forerunner of this type of movement. In some 
degrees, also, the action of the sprocket-wheel in Fig. 132 
resembles the spring-tooth action. Fig. 139 illustrates 
another example. H and d are two similar spring-frames, 
with teeth engaging the perforations in the film. The 
frame H is fixed, while the frame d is reciprocated on a 
bearing, G. The slope of the pins is such that on the 



FILM MACHINES 



141 



downward motion of the frame d the pins d? carry the 
film down a picture-length, and at the end of the stroke a 
yielding part, d*, of the frame engages behind a ledge, g, 
and presses the pins d 2 into the perforations to steady the 
film just on the completion of its movement. On the 
upward motion of the frame d the pins d' 2 spring out of 





FIG. 140. 



FIG. 139. 

the perforations and ride over the edges of the film, while 
the spring-teeth on the frame H engage perforations to 
prevent the film being dragged backwards. In another 
similar arrangement of this description (Fig. 140), a 
reciprocating frame, A, carries two pivoted pawls, P, 
with wedge-shaped teeth, T, which are lightly pressed 
against the film by springs, F. On the upward motion of 



142 LIVING PICTURES 

the frame the upper slanting edges of the teeth drag over 
the film ; on the downward motion, the spring presses the 
teeth into perforations, and the film being in contact with 
the straight under edge of the teeth, the latter have no 
tendency to leave the perforations. 

The obvious drawback to this type of feed is the action 
of the spring teeth on the edges of the film on its upward 
stroke. One method of avoiding the drawback is to shift 
the film out of the path of the feed-pins during the return 
motion. This is done by means of a swinging-plate inter- 
mittently operated by a cam or equivalent. The draw- 
back is, however, better avoided by the next type of feed 
mechanism. 

2 (c [2]). Film moved intermittently by Teeth mechanically 
inserted and withdrawn. 

The teeth are withdrawn and held from the film 
during the return motion of the teeth, which corresponds 
to the stationary interval. An example of this type of 
mechanism has already been described in connection with 
Lumiere's early Cinematographic (p. 95). It will be seen, 
on referring to Fig. 93, that the pin-frame B is reciprocated 
upwards and downwards by a revolving cam or eccentric, 
and that the pins are alternately withdrawn and moved to 
engage the perforations in the film by wedges on the 
rotating arms C. In another camera by Blair, near in 
point of date to Lumiere's, the film is intermittently 
moved by a roller, I, shaped as shown in Fig. 141. As 
an alternative, instead of shaping the roller I, a cylindrical 
roller, R (Fig. 142), is fitted with projecting pins, Q, which 
have an axial motion in the cylinder. The pins are 
periodically protruded to feed the film, and retracted on 
the return motion by means of the T-shaped head I of 
each pin taking into a cam groove in a plate, O, mounted 
at the side of the cylinder. It will thus be seen that for 
this type of feed the motion required for the pins is 



FILM MACHINES 



143 



substantially the path of the letter D, where the straight 
part of the letter represents the feed motion, and the 
curved part the return motion of the pins. Another way 
of giving the pins such motion is by pivoting an arm 
carrying the pins to a slide moved up and down by a cam 
or eccentric, such, for example, as in Lumiere's camera, 
and by providing a D-shaped cam groove for the T-shaped 





FIG. 142. 



FIG. 141. 

ends, such as I, Fig. 142, on the pin frame, which may 
have roller pins to minimize friction. 

Another early mechanism for obtaining this D-path 
motion of the claws is illustrated diagrammatically in 
Fig. I43A. The claw A is at the end of the rod ABC. 
The points M and O are fixed centres for the rods MB, 
OC. The claws move through the vertical feed path 
during the motion of the arm OC from R to S, and through 



144 



LIVING PICTURES 



the return path during the motion of the arm OC from 
S to R. The feed and return motions are with such 
mechanism performed during the same interval of time- 
namely, the time of a half-revolution of the arm OC. If it 
is required to obtain a quicker vertical feed motion, 
relatively to the return motion, a variable motion must be 
given either to the point B or to the point C. In one 
ingenious device (Fig. 1436) the pin-frame 17 receives 





FIG. 



FIG. 14313 



its up and down motion from the eccentric disc 10, and its 
to-and-fro motion from a second eccentric, 26. If the 
eccentric 26 makes a half-revolution to each revolution 
of the eccentric 10, the pins will first describe the path 
shown in full lines, and then retreat along the dotted 
continuation, thus greatly increasing the period during 
which the film rests relatively to the shift period. 

In another recent mechanism devised by Mr. Proszynski 
(Fig. 1430) for the same object, the link OC is mounted 



FILM MACHINES 



145 



on the same shaft as a slotted arm, S. The variable 
rotation is given by the pin P, of an eccentric ring, E, 
which rotates on the fixed disc F, and describes the dotted 
path D as the driving-wheel V is rotated about the 
centre Q. The pin P is steadied in the arm S, and in 




FIG. 1430. 

a slot, T, in the disc V, by the arm U, pivoted on the 
disc V. In this mechanism the claws are adapted to act 
along the gate slide so as to steady the film for projection 
when the tractive force ceases. 

If the link MB, in Fig I43A, is replaced by a stationary 
slot, F, as in Fig. 144, to guide the pin E on the feed- 



,.-<& 




FIG. 144. 

arms, the combined action of the rotating crank C and 
the slot F will force the feed-pins B to describe the 
D-curve G. This mechanism is used in Messrs. William- 
son's cameras and perforators. 

In another early method, and the forerunner of the 
modern Kineto machine, a cam single groove is used to 

10 



1 4 6 



LIVING PICTURES 



obtain both the motions of the feed-pins. The feed-pins 
are pressed back by a spring, / (Fig. 145), and the stud e 
is consequently driven right home into the cam groove of 
the revolving cylinder a. As the cylinder turns, the pin 
frame will be drawn up and down, and the groove being 
made to vary in depth, the pins are thrown more forward 
at one time than at another. The forward pressure is 
arranged to coincide with the downward course of the 
pins, and vice versa. In a modification of this feed the 
cam groove is of regular depth, to obtain the up-and-down 
motion, and the to-and-fro motion of the pins is obtained 





FIG. 145. 



FIG. 146. 



by an eccentric, such as 26, in Fig. 1430. Alternatively, 
again, the to-and-fro motion is obtained by a rack and 
pinion movement, operated from a second cam groove 
in the cylinder a. In the more recent device (Fig. 146), 
used in the Kineto projector, one of the latest 
machines with the pin - feed, two cam grooves are 
used in the cylinder a. One groove, o, in the outer 
periphery engages a roller pin, /, and imparts the vertical 
movement to the feed-slide b; the other groove, c, in the 
top face of the first groove, o, engages the pin d to control 
the position of the pin-frame relatively to the film. Two 
balancing discs in the centre of the cylinder a are 



FILM MACHINES 147 

arranged to exactly counterbalance the difference in the 
mass of the cam drum, and counteract any deflecting 
strain on the bearings. The cylinder is driven by means 
of a fixed ring, h, cut with internal teeth, and three planet 
wheels on the spider g, gearing both with the ring h and 
driving the central pinion e on the axis of the cylinder a. 

The examples given will sufficiently indicate the in- 
genuity which has been spent on this type of feed. It is 
not much used for projectors, but is very extensively used 
for feeding the film in perforating and printing machines. 
The action of the pins serve in the latter to feed the 
positive film along with the negative film, both films being 
thereby fed at exactly the same rate. 

The motion of the film during a feed by the claws 
can be represented by curves similar to those shown in 
Fig. n8A. In the case of the claw-feed the claws always 
enter and leave the perforations when stationary, and the 
curve will always start from X and finish at X'. The 
quicker shift movements are represented by steep curves, 
and the consequent strain on the film is correspondingly 
great. The slower shift movements are represented by 
flatter curves, and the consequent strain on the film is 
correspondingly less. 

2 (d [i]). Film moved intermittently by the Pressure of a 
Revolving Eccentric. 

The original so-called dog-motion, invented by Demeny, 
is shown in Fig. 82. The amount of film fed forward can 
be adjusted by adjustably mounting the eccentric roller R 
along a slot in the revolving disc D (Fig. 147). If the film 
passes between two gripping rollers, such as A, B, which 
continually rotate, and thereby continually put tension on 
the film, it is necessary to have pressure pads, P, at the 
gate to hold the film stationary when the dog is not acting 
on the film. It is more usual, however, to use a sprocket- 
roller in lieu of the rollers A, B, for the purpose of taking 



148 



LIVING PICTURES 



up the loop intermittently fed by the dog. The film is 
not then under continuous tension. A very recent dog 
feed-motion used on one of Kamm's machines is illustrated 
in Fig. 148. The principle is similar to the cam action of 
a sewing machine. A pin, P, on a rotating disc, O, travels 
in the slot S of a pivoted arm, R, carrying the roller M, 





FIG. 147. 



FIG. 148. 



actuating the film LL'. In the position shown, the roller 
M is just about to feed the film, and a very quick feed is 
obtained as the pin P rides over the hump X in the slot S. 



2 (d [2]). Film moved intermittently by a Reciprocated Arm. 

The roller which strikes the film need not have a rotary 
action, though that is, perhaps, the best form, there being 
no dead point. Evans, in 1890, showed a double tilting- 
arm applied to this purpose (see Figs. 71 and 72), while 
Varley almost simultaneously invented a cam-reciprocated 
arm. In another early arrangement, shown in Figs. 74, 
97, the feed-roller acted under the influence of a spring- 
arm, when the film was released from clamps. Blair, in 
1896, suggested a rocking arm with a roller, Q 2 (Fig. 149), 
at one end, which is oscillated by an eccentric, E 5 , on the 
driving-shaft E. By another eccentric, E 2 , set at right- 



FILM MACHINES 



149 



angles to E 5 , pins, N, are intermittently engaged with the 
film to hold it steady during the stationary interval. In a 
further development of this type of motion, a pair of 




FIG. 149. 

vibrating levers, P, P' (Fig. 150), with rollers at their ends, 
are linked together and worked up and down by a cam, T, 
on the driving-shaft g. A spring gripper, t 2 , actuated by 





FIG. 150. 



a cam, t r , holds the film against the gate U during the 
upward motion of the levers. In all such cases the feed 
action takes place over an arc. Another device suggested 
by Blair, in 1896, consisted of a rise-and-fall shutter, with 



150 LIVING PICTURES 

rollers at the top and bottom, and vertically reciprocated 
by a crank. The film is clamped during the upward 
motion of the shutter, and is fed forward on the down- 
ward motion. In another machine, a similar vertical slide, 
not forming the shutter, was intermittently raised by a 
rotating cam, and the return-feed movement effected by a 
spring. In a later machine (Fig. 151), of the same kind by 
Hughes, the feed-rollers M, M' are mounted on a frame, 
L, which is reciprocated along the vertical guide bar J by 
a crank disc, O, and adjustable connecting rod, N. The 
feed sprockets H, H' are continuously driven, and the 
film passes over guide - rollers, p, so that the rollers 
M, M' act at right angles to the moving film. In the 





FIG. 152. 

most recent machine of the same maker, the Bio- 
Pictorescope, a horizontally moving " piston plunger," G 
(Fig. 152), is reciprocated by a crank, C (see also Fig. 199). 

2 (e). Film moved intermittently by Other Means 
than the Above. 

In addition to the above methods, there are one or two 
miscellaneous methods of moving the film, which are at 
any rate interesting, even if not in practical use. In one 
such, Fig. 153, suggested in 1896, two blocks, M', are 
driven forward intermittently to grip the edges of the film 
against a plate on the other side. The gripping-blocks 
and plate then sink together, carrying the film with them. 
Flexible guards, M 8 , prevent the film buckling, and when 
the pressure of the grippers ceases, a brake pad, Q, comes 



FILM MACHINES 151 

into action, and clamps the film while the film rises. In 
another device, Fig. 154, two plates, A, are formed with 
internal ribs, C, which are concentric with the plates for 
the greater portion of their length, and then curl inwards 
so that their ends are separated by the length of a picture. 
The film D is notched along the edges, and the notches 
engage the ribs. When the circular portion of the ribs 
engage the film, it remains stationary. When the 





FIG. 153. 



FIG. 154. 



inwardly curved part comes round, the film is drawn 
down. The action is similar to the action of the cam 
slots, illustrated in Fig. 128, on the pin-wheel in engage- 
ment therewith. 



If the reader has had the patience to follow out the 
preceding rough outline of the mechanical methods for 



152 LIVING PICTURES 

obtaining intermittence, he will probably agree that there 
appears to be little room for the introduction of many new 
principles. Yet these descriptions have, in many cases, 
been only outline; the illustrations but diagrams. The 
extreme accuracy demanded in all these motions, together 
with the necessity of moving the film at a high speed, and 
yet stopping and starting it many times a second, renders 
a large number of mechanical refinements necessary. If 
it be permissible to express a personal opinion, it may be 
suggested that the best form of machine is that in which 
all parts (naturally excepting the film) are kept in continual 
rotation, thus minimizing any variable pressure on the 
elements of the apparatus. If intermittently acting 
parts are employed, the workmanship must be of the 
best, and the material such as will stand continued friction 
and shock without perceptible wear. Further, whatever 
the nature of the mechanism employed, it should, for the 
safety of the film, apply tractive force gradually, and dis- 
tribute that force over as large an area of the film as 
possible. Thus, in dog-motion machines the size of the 
dog is of great importance ; the larger it is, the larger 
the area of film over which the blow is distributed. If 
the strain takes place on a sprocket-roller, the film should 
be kept in contact with it as much as possible, so as 
to share the pull over a maximum number of perforations. 
To attempt the systematic description of these arrange- 
ments would be a hopeless task, as they are so bound up 
with the build of the machine in which they appear. 
Some have already been incidentally noticed, such as the 
interposition of a spring as used in Greene and Evans' 
early machine, which may be used to obtain variations in 
the driving power ; and the use of fingers or pins for 
intermittently engaging the film to hold it steady in the 
gate. Other refinements will also incidentally appear in 
considering various designs of machines in subsequent 
chapters. 



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CHAPTER V 

FILMS, THEIR PRODUCTION AND TREATMENT 

Celluloid and non-flam films Perforation Cameras and accessories 
Developing the negative Printing the positive Developing 
the positive Retouching, colouring, and protecting the film 
Joining and repairing films Cleaning and renovating films. 

A FILM for projecting a Living Picture is nothing more, 
after all, than a multiple lantern slide ; and its production 
is therefore in all respects similar, with the exception 
of those manipulative details necessitated by its peculiar 
form, and the special care required to secure absolute 
registration of each picture with its predecessor. In order 
to describe all such devices connected with the treatment of 
films, it may be assumed that whatever is good enough for 
a lantern slide is the correct thing in the treatment for a 
Living Picture film, only probably not good enough. After 
considering the nature of the film itself, we shall have to 
consider the various processes and manipulations to which 
a film is subjected in the course of its career. 

CELLULOID AND NON-FLAM FILMS. 

A film should have certain properties to meet the exact- 
ing demands made upon it. It should be strong, supple, 
transparent, homogeneous, unaffected by atmospheric 
conditions and changes, and, last but not least, it should 
be non-inflammable. By one of Nature's contradictions, 
celluloid, the substance most extensively used for films, 
has all the qualities required except the last, being 
extremely inflammable. 



156 LIVING PICTURES 

Celluloid as an article of manufacture was invented at 
Newark by two brothers of the name of Hyatt, in 1869, 
but at the time was designed merely for the production of 
solid objects. It was not till the beginning of 1888 that 
sheets were available for photographic purposes, and even 
then much remained to be accomplished in order that 
a sensitive emulsion might be supported evenly and with- 
out deterioration. The Blair Company seem to have first 
supplied films, and it was from them that both Edison and 
Acres in the first instance obtained their supplies. A 
patent was applied for in America in 1887 by a Rev. H. 
Goodwin for celluloid films in rolls, with a non-curling 
backing, but this patent was not granted till 1898. It 
is strange that the then comparatively small subject 
of Living Pictures should have afforded two instances of 
patents so long delayed. In the meantime the Eastman 
Company of America applied and obtained a patent for 
a similar film, and put the films on the market. Messrs. 
Lumiere also started to manufacture, and made their own 
films, a fact which was probably the origin of the lack 
of uniformity in gauge which prevailed until comparatively 
recently. 

The manufacture of celluloid at the present time forms 
a very important branch of what is known as the nitro- 
cellulose industry. The raw material from which celluloid 
is made is cellulose, which is the principal constituent of 
such materials as paper, cotton, cotton-waste, hemp, and 
flax. The cellulose has first to be converted into nitro- 
cellulose, which is a chemical name for what is more 
commonly known as pyroxylin, or gun-cotton. This 
conversion is effected by treating the cellulose with a 
strong mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, and the 
pulpy mass thereby obtained is bleached. The bleached 
nitro-cellulose is then thoroughly washed to remove all 
free acid. The prence of any acids give rise to by- 
products which very rapidly decompose, and thereby 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 157 

produce very inferior films, as well as being the cause of 
accidents arising from such decomposition. Celluloid is 
a solution of this nitro-cellulose in a solvent, containing 
camphor, alcohol, ether, and sometimes amyl-acetate and 
amyl-alcohol. It must be stated here that nearly all manu- 
facturing companies have their secret compositions, which 
are deemed more valuable as such than if disclosed to the 
world through the medium of the Patent Office, even for a 
possible monopoly in them for a period of fourteen years. 

To obtain the celluloid in the form of thin films, the 
solution is run out in a continuous manner from a thin 
wedge-shaped opening on to an endless band having a 
smooth surface, and forming a temporary support. The 
thin coating thus obtained becomes hardened in travelling 
through a drying chamber, which evaporates the solvent. 
The film is then detached from the surface of the belt, 
which travels round again under the discharge opening, 
and the detached film is wound on a reel. In lieu of an 
endless band, the solution may be poured on the surface 
of a large cylinder. 

The film has next to be cut into the required widths. 
Practically speaking, there is at the present time only 
one width used, which is about if inches. This gauge 
was used by Edison for the Kinetoscope ; it was also 
adopted by Paul in England, and, in spite of many 
attempts to put films of other gauges on the market, the 
original Edison gauge has prevailed. The pictures on 
the film are normally I by f inch. 

Before coating the film with emulsion, it is necessary 
to coat it with a substratum which will enable the sensi- 
tized emulsion to adhere to the film. There are many 
ways of coating the film. It may be coated, for example, 
in much the same way as the celluloid solution is coated 
on the endless band in making the celluloid film. In 
another method, a roller dipping into the emulsion coats 
the film directly, or through the " .edium of an inter- 



158 LIVING PICTURES 

mediate roller, and the coated film passes through a 
drying chamber to the reeling spool. The action is 
essentially the same as the action of the chalking roller 
of a lawn-tennis marker. It is very necessary that the 
coatings deposited on the film should be perfectly even 
and of the requisite thickness. The coatings are, of 
course, applied in a dark-room. 

The one and only drawback to the celluloid film is its 
inflammability. For some time and especially after the 
passing of the Cinematograph Act,* which enforces very 
stringent regulations for the safety of the public where 
inflammable films are used investigators have sought to 
find an equally serviceable film which will not catch fire 
so readily, or burn with such inextinguishable fury when 
alight. 

The inflammability of celluloid arises from the two 
very inflammable ingredients, nitro-cellulose and camphor. 
Of the several methods which have been tried for obtain- 
ing a non-flam film base, the following are the chief: 
(i) Solutions have been added to the nitro- cellulose- 
camphor solution which will check combustion, such as 
solutions of mineral substances, or alternatively substances 
which will evolve incombustible gases. (2) Camphor has 
been replaced by less costly substitutes. (3) Nitro- 
cellulose has been replaced by some other cellulose 
compound, such as cellulose acetate. (4) Films of 
gelatin, casein, albumin or other colloid, or a thin layer 
of celluloid sandwiched between two protective layers of 
gelatin or other colloid, have been tried. 

The first two methods do not seem at present to 
have yielded satisfactory results for Living Picture films, 
although products are obtained which are quite service- 
able for other commercial purposes. The products are, 
however, too brittle for Living Picture films. Films made 
from gelatin and similar substances, or with protective 
* See Chapter IX. 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 159 

coatings of these materials, are unsatisfactory, largely 
on account of their susceptibility to atmospheric con- 
ditions and changes. The promise of the future seems to 
lie in the use of the third method. Most of the well- 
known makers of films supply, or have supplied, films 
made from cellulose-acetate, which are, in the ordinary 
meaning of the word, non-inflammable. If an Act of 
Parliament were passed, making the use of non-flam films 
compulsory, and prescribing a standard flammability test, 
it is not unlikely that the virtues of such films would be 
immediately discovered. It is to be feared, however, that 
the inertia to be overcome before the use of such films 
becomes anything like extensive is very great. 

PERFORATING THE FILM. 

Perforations and Gauges. As the prevailing method of 
driving the film in taking and projecting machines is by 
means of sprocket-rollers, the next step in the production 
of a Living Picture film is usually to perforate it. Here, 
again, as in the case of widths, the standard perforation 
is that used originally by Edison. There are four per- 
forations (Fig. 155) on either side of each picture, the 
holes being exactly {^ inch apart, the crossways separa- 
tion being i^ inches, just leaving a clear inch for the 
picture. Lumiere endeavoured to substitute one pair of 
holes to each picture length, but the attempt was not 
successful. A similar attempt to depart from the standard 
perforation has recently been made for the Pathescope. 

Almost every conceivable shape of perforation has been 
tried or suggested. The Lumiere perforation was circular, 
but as the feed-sprockets are often square or rectangular, 
there would, if the film is used in a machine having such 
sprockets, be a tendency to split the film, as illustrated in 
Fig. I55A. Lord Kelvin suggested a triangular shape. 
The rectangular shape used by Edison is modified to 



i6o 



LIVING PICTURES 



the extent of rounding the sides, leaving, however, at the 
top and bottom a straight edge for traction purposes, and 
thereby reducing the risk of rupture to a minimum. The 





FIG. 155. 



FIG. 



importance of these considerations is heightened when 
the question of strain on the film is considered. Tension 
on the film is shared between the perforations actually 




FIG. 156. 

engaged with the sprocket-teeth, and it would appear easy 
to carry the film round the major portion of the sprocket- 
roller (Fig. 156), in order to subdivide the strain as far as 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 161 

possible. But this can only be done to a limited extent ; 
for not only do various films differ slightly in gauge, but 
shrinkage in development, and even atmospheric influences, 
tend to vary the distance between the perforations. Inter- 
changeable sprocket rollers have been used to suit any 
special make of film under exhibition, or any film in a 
shrunk condition. It would seem that shrinkage had 
much to do with slight differences in perforation gauges, 
for at first perforating machines were in some instances 
made to agree with finished films rather than with the 
original standard perforation, as should have been the 
case. 

It must not be forgotten that in some types of cameras 
and projectors (for example, certain continuous-motion 
apparatus, and others in which the film is gripped, not 
held by teeth) perforations are not necessary, although 
they are not detrimental if present. Some very extra- 
ordinary suggestions have also been made for perforating, 
such as central eyelets, which would hardly facilitate 
rolling, and the carrying of perforations across the film 
between each picture, presumably in order that they 
might be torn off like postage stamps. Reference may 
also be made to Fig. 95, wherein a film is shown notched 
on the edges. The advantages of this system are cer- 
tainly not obvious. 

Perforating Machines. The first and undoubtedly the 
most important machine necessary for film-making is the 
perforator. An accurate perforation is the fundamental 
basis of a perfect projection at any rate, where a sprocket 
feed is used. This demand for accurate perforation has 
resulted in the production of several machines of mar- 
vellous precision. There are broadly two classes of 
machines : (i) Those in which the film is continuously 
moving between two cylinders, formed respectively with 
dies and punches, as illustrated in Fig. 157. This type 
does not admit of many variations in structure and 

ii 



162 



LIVING PICTURES 



working. It was more used in the early days than it is 
to-day, having given place to the second type. (2) Those 
in which reciprocating punches are used, the film being 




FIG. 157. 

fed intermittently, generally by a claw feed. Fig. 158 
illustrates Williamson's perforator, which is representa- 
tive of this type, as well as embodying the fruits of the 




FIG. 158. 

long experience of its designer. With this machine two 
films, face to face, can be perforated together, in order 
to protect the sensitive surface from getting scratched, 
which is liable to occur to a greater or less extent when 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 163 

the films are perforated singly, and also incidentally to 
double the output. The films are fed by rollers, A, so as 
to form loops, H, H, before entering the guide channel M. 
The machine punches four pairs of holes at a time, and, 
as security for absolutely uniform perforation, the recipro- 
cating slide P, carrying the punches C, carries also a 
similar set of dowel pins, D, which engage the perfora- 
tions just previously made before the punches C perforate 
the next section of film. The film is fed by the claw 
feed E, which is described in Fig. 144. The sprocket N 




FIG. 159. 

A, Film-holder (feed); B, film-guide rollers; C, small channel for feed 
rolls ; D, feed rolls ; E, rear guide ; F, cams ; G, pressure rods ; 
H, regulating nut ; I, milled-head screw ; J, screw, fixing the claws 
in the carriage ; K, detachable die ; L, front guide ; M, claws ; 
N, slide, carrying punches ; P, motor ; R, sprocket wheel ; S, re- 
winder. 

is driven from the driving wheel B, and maintains a free 
loop of perforated film, thereby avoiding any pull on the 
film during the perforating. In order to keep the per- 
forations very accurately central, the guiding channel M 
is fitted with two parallel resilient bars, which are linked 
together in such a manner that, if the width of the film 
should vary in the slightest degree, the bars will not only 
remain parallel, but will yield to exactly the same extent 
from the centre of the channel, at all points along the 
channel. 



164 



LIVING PICTURES 



In most perforating machines, however, only one pair 
of holes is punched at a time, as in Debrie's perforator 
(Fig. 159). There are quite a number of points which 
arise on the question as to the advisability or otherwise 
of punching more than one pair of holes at a time, into 
which it is impossible to enter fully here. There is no 
apparent fundamental objection in principle, as four pairs 
of holes can be as accurately punched as a single pair, 
provided, of course, the punches and dies are accurately 




FIG. 1 60. 

spaced. There is certainly a saving as regards output, 
and the probable cumulative error of spacing will be one 
quarter of the corresponding error where only a single 
pair of holes are punched at a time. If anything should 
happen to one of the four punches or the dies, or one of 
the punches were to become inaccurately spaced, it is 
preferable to replace the complete set than to attempt to 
doctor any single punch, as, if this is not done with 
extreme accuracy, it might introduce an error in spacing 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 165 

which would be cumulative along the whole length of the 
film. 

In some machines, again, dowel pins are not used for 
positioning the film, but an intermittent clamp is used, 
which comes into operation immediately the film is fed 
forward, and is released just before the next feed. 

The provision of means for adjusting the spacing of 
the perforations is a very valuable one, and in some cases 
is a necessity, as will be more fully explained in dealing 
with the production of the positive film. Debrie's per- 
forator has such adjustment, as also has the Newman 
and Sinclair perforator. In one form of adjustment the 
position of the dowel pins b, relative to the punch pin B 
(Fig. 160), is adjusted from an index finger, d. In an 
alternative adjustment designed by Mr. Newman, only 




one dowel pin, P (Fig. i6oAj, is used, which is mounted 
on a strong arm, S, secured at N to the bar NN', carry- 
ing the punches Q. The position of the dowel pin P 
is controlled by a micrometer thumb-screw, K, at the 
opposite end of the spring bar S, and it will be seen that 
the displacement of the dowel pin P is only a fraction of 
the displacement of the end of the spring bar S, produced 
by turning the screw K, and thus an exceedingly fine 
adjustment can be obtained. An alternative method of 
adjusting the gauge is to adjust the feed of the film. 
This may be done, for example, by making the position 
of the fulcrum C' (Fig. 160) adjustable along the feed 
arm C. A further development of this apparatus recently 
suggested by Mr. Thornton comprises the addition of 
means for visually inspecting the film, in order that the 
operator may adjust the gauge as perforation progresses. 



166 LIVING PICTURES 

This is accomplished by providing an opening, E, in the 
table, and projecting the picture in the opening on a 
vertical screen, for which purpose a lamp, F, mirror, #, 
and projecting lens, G, are provided. In this way the 
film is projected just as in the projector, excepting that 
it will take four shifts to bring the next picture into full 
view on the screen. Any tendency in the picture to 
creep on the screen will thus be noticed, and the per- 
forating adjusted from the handle d. 

TAKING THE NEGATIVE, AND APPARATUS THEREFOR. 

The Camera. After perforating the film, the next step 
is to obtain the negative. Of cameras, the cinema- 
tographer, like the ordinary photographer, has a wide 
choice, and can now have a motor-driven hand camera. 
Broadly speaking, a camera for Living Pictures is similar 
to an ordinary roll-film hand camera, but fitted with 
mechanism for drawing successive portions of the film 
into the focal plane for exposure at a rapid rate. The 
previous chapter has recorded the various mechanisms 
which could be used for this latter purpose, but in prac- 
tice the only one used is the claw-feed mechanism. The 
reason for this is that such mechanism gives a very 
accurate feed, while at the same time it is the least com- 
plicated, and can be made lighter than other feed 
mechanisms. Fig. 161 may be taken as illustrating a 
typical modern camera. The upper film box A holds 
the unexposed film, and the lower box B the exposed 
film. The film is threaded over the upper sprocket C, 
and through the gate D, which contains a mask limiting 
the area of the film exposed to the required size namely 
i inch by f inch. The film then passes over a second 
sprocket, E, into the box B. The arms C', E', carry 
rollers to press the film into engagement with the 
sprockets C, E, and loops, P, P', are left on either side 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 167 

of the gate to prevent any tension of the film while it is 
in the gate. In front of the gate is the shutter, the 
simplest form of which consists of an opaque disc from 
which a sector is cut away. This open part crosses in 
front of the film during its stationary interval in the gate, 
and the opaque part masks the film during the shifts. 
Two shutters relatively adjustable are used when an 
adjustable exposure is required. The shutter, the upper 
and lower sprockets C, E, the intermittent feed mechanism, 
and the take-up spool in the box B, are all driven in 




unison from the handle turned by the operator. The 
provision of the focussing tube F, which contains a 
magnifying glass, enables the film to be accurately 
focussed by inspection. The lens is fitted in a focussing 
mount, and can be automatically set for focussing near 
objects, when focussing by inspection is undesirable. 
The camera is also fitted with a film punch for register- 
ing on the film the termination of any particular exposure, 
and with dials indicating the amount of film exposed and 
the amount left. 



i68 



LIVING PICTURES 



The spool box is an important accessory for all cameras. 
To keep them light-tight, the light-trapped slot S, Fig. 161, 
through which the film enters or leaves the box, is often 
rendered light-tight by padding the slot with a soft plush 
material. Now, when a film is rubbed vigorously by soft 
material of this character, electrical markings are liable to 
If any dirt or grit should get on to the material, 



occur. 




FIG. i6iA. 

scratches also will be produced on the film. A scratched 
or marked negative cannot give a good positive, as no 
method of printing is known which will select the good 
parts of a negative and reject the bad. It is therefore, at 
any rate, necessary to periodically brush and clean any 
soft material used for padding. Fig. i6iA illustrates a 
spool box fitted with a padded mouthpiece, M, which is 




FIG. 16113. 

hinged, in order to be accessible for cleaning. It is auto- 
matically positioned, and held in the film slot S when the 
door is closed. 

For the same reason also the film, and especially the 
sensitive surface of the film, should, as far as possible, be 
prevented from rubbing against any surface during its 
path through the camera. Where guiding slots or sur- 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 171 

should prefer a simpler camera is not surprising, and 
Fig. 165 illustrates a camera noted for an absolute 
maximum of simplicity consistent with the requirements 
for efficiency. It will be seen that only one sprocket 
wheel is used, which does the double duty of drawing the 
film from supply and feeding it to the take-up spool. 
A further feature of this camera is that the whole feed 
mechanism, including the sprocket and claw feed (which 




FIG. 164. 

; of the type illustrated in Fig. 144), is mounted on a 
ta enable bracket screwed on to the camera case. 
With these cameras the film is driven by hand or by 
eparate motor, and the camera must be mounted on a 
od or other support. The latter method of driving is 
autom suitable for studio work where a current is available, 
the can> impracticable for outdoor and topical work. Many 
against pts have been made to devise a camera with a self- 
spool bo ne d motor, which can be held in the hand while the 
The cam is being taken, just like an ordinary hand camera, 



i68 



LIVING PICTURES 



The spool box is an important accessory for all cameras. 
To keep them light-tight, the light-trapped slot S, Fig. 161, 
through which the film enters or leaves the box, is often 
rendered light-tight by padding the slot with a soft plush 
material. Now, when a film is rubbed vigorously by soft 
material of this character, electrical markings are liable to 
If any dirt or grit should get on to the material, 



occur. 




FIG. i6iA. 

scratches also will be produced on the film. A scratched 
or marked negative cannot give a good positive, as no 
method of printing is known which will select the good 
parts of a negative and reject the bad. It is therefore, at 
any rate, necessary to periodically brush and clean any 
soft material used for padding. Fig. i6iA illustrates a 
spool box fitted with a padded mouthpiece, M, which ie 



FIG. i6iB. 



id 
de- 



.riost 

hinged, in order to be accessible for cleaning. It is av * 
matically positioned, and held in the film slot S when :neral 
door is closed. 

For the same reason also the film, and especiall vour to 
sensitive surface of the film, should, as far as possil ldlcatecl 
prevented from rubbing against any surface d ur 'internal 
path through the camera. Where guiding slots 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 171 

should prefer a simpler camera is not surprising, and 
Fig. 165 illustrates a camera noted for an absolute 
maximum of simplicity consistent with the requirements 
for efficiency. It will be seen that only one sprocket 
wheel is used, which does the double duty of drawing the 
film from supply and feeding it to the take-up spool. 
A further feature of this camera is that the whole feed 
mechanism, including the sprocket and claw feed (which 




FIG. 164. 

is of the type illustrated in Fig. 144), is mounted on a 
detachable bracket screwed on to the camera case. 

With these cameras the film is driven by hand or by 
a separate motor, and the camera must be mounted on a 
tripod or other support. The latter method of driving is 
very suitable for studio work where a current is available, 
but is impracticable for outdoor and topical work. Many 
attempts have been made to devise a camera with a self- 
contained motor, which can be held in the hand while the 
picture is being taken, just like an ordinary hand camera. 



172 



LIVING PICTURES 



Different motor mechanisms have been tried, but the only 
successful type of motor is an air motor, as originally 
suggested by Mr. Proszynski, whose " Aeroscope " camera 




FIG. 165. 

(Fig. 166) is the outcome of numerous experiments. The 
four cylinders A contain air at 300 to 400 pounds pressure, 
and are in communication with a chamber, B, supplying a 




FIG. 166. 

constant pressure of air at 40 to 50 pounds to the motor C 
which drives the claw-feed mechanism. Side by side, 
behind the cylinders A, are the film spools. The spool 
boxes have shaped shallow channels, such as A, Fig. i66A, 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 173 

extending some distance round the periphery of the spool 
box, forming a light-tight channel slot for the film. 

With the motor working in the camera, a certain amount 
of vibration is to be expected. There are three possible 
vibrations of the camera, namely : (i) Movements of the 
camera parallel to the optical axis ; (2) oscillations round 
the optical axis ; and (3) angular oscillations of the optical 
axis. 

The first two vibrations are liable to affect the sharp- 
ness of the picture, but only to an inappreciable extent, as 
the actual extent of the vibrations is so very small. The 
angular vibration or movement of the optic axis would 
affect the position of the picture on the film much more 
seriously, and, in order to eliminate any such vibration as 




FIG. i66A. 

far as possible, a large heavy flywheel, W, is driven from 
the shutter to rotate very rapidly, which acts gyroscopi- 
cally to keep the optical axis constant.* 

The Camera Stand. A most important auxiliary for the 
camera is the stand. In taking Living Picture films 
absolute rigidity of the camera is a sine qua non. The 
enormous magnification to which a film is subjected on 
projection (anything between 100 and 200 times) renders 
it absolutely essential that vibration should be entirelv 
eliminated, and with this object the stand should receive 
rigorous criticism. In some cases, of course, portability 
must be Considered ; and with an apparatus of light build 
any ordinary tripod of proved reliability maybe employed. 

* See Photo Journal, March, 1913, p. 106. 



i;4 LIVING PICTURES 

In addition to rigidity and portability, means must be pro- 
vided for adjusting the camera, and for following an object 
to keep it within the field of view. For this purpose 
tripod stands are fitted with a revolving head (H, Fig.. 167), 
and this revolving head carries a tilting base, B, on which 
the camera is secured. These two revolving and tilting 
adjustments enable the photographer to readily point the 
camera in the required direction, and the adjustments are 
readily effected by suitable handles. 

Such mechanism will usually provide a slow movement 
of the camera, and auxiliary means are provided on most 
tripods now in use for rapidly moving the camera round. 




FIG. 167. 

For this purpose the handle-turning gear is adapted so 
that it can be disconnected or thrown out of use, and 
enabling the camera to be swung round by hand. 

The Lens. For a good Living Picture negative, a good 
lens is an absolute necessity. In view of the high mag- 
nification of the picture on projection, sharpness in the 
picture is the first consideration, and in the case of 
rapidly-moving objects, especially, the shorter the exposure 
the sharper the picture is likely to be. The actual 
exposure i.e., the light action on the negative depends 
partly on the length of the exposure, and partly on the 
aperture of the lens through which the light passes. A 






FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 175 



wide aperture will allow more light to pass than a narrow 
aperture. Consequently, if the light is at all poor, it will 
be necessary to use as wide an aperture as possible. The 
aperture of a lens is generally given in terms of the focal 
length ; thus, a lens working at F/6 means that, when the 
picture is focussed on the film, the aperture A, Fig. 168, 
through which the light enters is one-sixth of the focal 
length B of the lens ; and in the case of distant objects the 
distance of the lens from the film will be very approxi- 
mately the focal length. A lens which will work with 
a wide aperture is, thus, much more rapid than one which 
will work at a small aperture. There are many lenses 
available which work at F/3'5. A lens has also recently 




FIG. 165. 

been put on the market, by Dallmeyer, with a focal length 
of 2 inches, and which works at an aperture of F/i'g, and 
at the present moment is the most rapid lens procurable. 
Where the light is sufficiently good, it is often advisable to 
stop down the lens by means of an iris diaphragm, the 
gradation of tones in the picture, and the distance and 
perspective effects, being thereby greatly improved. 

A telephoto lens is a useful adjunct for filming distant 
objects. With a cinematograph camera, considerations of 
rigidity make it impossible to use a long focus lens with a 
long camera extension. A telephoto lens (Fig. 169) is 
a combination of a positive element, A, which by itself 
would give a photographic image like an ordinary camera 



i;6 LIVING PICTURES 

lens, with a negative element, B, which by itself will only 
give a virtual image. The focus of the positive element is 
at F', while the focus of the combination is at F. The 
combination is thus equivalent to a positive lens of long 
focal length, but works at a much less camera extension, 
and the function of the negative element is to enable the 




FIG. 169. 

positive element A to give a more detailed image of a 
narrower field of view without the necessity of using a lens 
of long focal length with a long camera extension. 

DEVELOPING THE FILM. 

Let us assume that the perfect operator has exposed 
a perfect film ; much has yet to be done before the 
picture is ready for projection. The negative has first 
to be developed, and the ordinary amateur, who finds a 
difficulty in keeping his finger-nails from damaging the 
film of four plates in a single dish, may well stand aghast 
at the idea of a curvilinear celluloid reptile anything from 
100 to 500 feet long, so minute in detail as to render 
judgment of density difficult, and demanding to be 
uniformly developed throughout. Of the many methods 
proposed for development, certain may be taken as types, 
but as regards the developer only one rule applies. It 
must be non-staining. Otherwise, in this, as in all other 
branches of photography, one man's meat is another man's 
poison, and the golden rule here as elsewhere is to find 
a developer that suits personal methods, and stick to it. 
As regards methods and apparatus, there are, broadly 
speaking, two ways of dealing with the film (i) winding 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 177 

it on a framework, and manipulating the framework in 
the various baths ; and (2) feeding the film continuously 
through the developer and other liquids, and possibly 
passing it straight through a drying chamber, and reeling 
it as a finished negative. 

Developing Frames, Drums, etc. Figs. I7OA and 1706 
illustrate the most common forms of frames on which the 
film is wound for treatment. The wooden frame A is 
perhaps the most commonly used in conjunction with a 
vertical tank, which may be grooved to accommodate 
five or six such frames. The pin frame (Fig. 1706), on 
which the film is wound in a spiral, can be used with a 
flat dish. When a drum such as B is used, it is mounted 





FIG. I70A. FIG. I70B. 

for development over a trough, the lower part of the 
drum dipping into the liquid. The use of such drums 
necessitates two persons to lift the drum from one trough 
to another, whereas frames such as A can be manipulated 
by one person. Such frames and drums are generally 
formed of a series of laths, but glass drums may be used. 
Blair in the early days advocated the use of such glass 
drums, and that each drum be kept for its own trough 
and solution, the film being wound from the one to the 
other at each stage of treatment. A ruby incandescent 
lamp could be used inside the cylinder to enable the 
progress of development to be watched. The glass drums 
were also recommended, on account of the greater security 



i 7 8 



LIVING PICTURES 



they offer with respect to cleanliness. The expense of 
such drums would, however, be somewhat heavy, and it 
is doubtful if the advantages would be sufficiently great. 
Two other forms of apparatus are of interest. In Marey's 
apparatus (Fig. 171), two drums, P, P, are used, the film F, 
wound in spiral, passing from one to the other. The 
drums do not themselves enter the liquid, but the film 
is carried down and under a roller, G, immersed in the 
trough D. The film might also be passed as an endless 
band through a long trough, A (Fig. 172), by means of a 
rotated roller, B. 

For drying the film, the most common method is to 



1% 

/ ^r\ 







ri^jj 



\ 



\ 



s ^h 



FIG. 171. 



' " ; " " / 

FIG. 172. 



wind the film on a large rotated drum, such as B in 
Fig. I7OA, the drum being rotated by a motor in a room 
which is kept at a uniform temperature of 80 C. An 
alternative method is to hang the film by hand in a zig- 
zag path from a series of hooks in the ceiling. 

Continuous Processes. With such frames the necessary 
winding from one frame to another, though very con- 
venient for comparatively short lengths of film, such as a 
topical film, is not the most scientific method for large 
quantities of film. The use of glass drums, as previously 
described, suggests a method that might be adopted 
namely, joining several lengths of film, and running the 
film on to the drum at one end, and off at the other end, 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 179 

straight on to the next drum, keeping the drums con- 
tinuously rotating. The idea of running the film in at 
one end of a machine, and bringing it out as a finished 
negative at the other end, is by no means a modern idea, 
and, in essence, is no more awe-inspiring than the idea of 
putting raw tobacco in at one end of a cigarette-making 
machine which is designed to deliver finished cigarettes 
at the other end. Such a method for developing and 




FiG. 173. 

finishing the film in a continuous process has, strange to 
say, yet found very little favour, but is almost bound to 
be the method of the future. One of the few to realize 
the scientific value of such methods is Mr. Hepworth, 
who adopted it from the very beginning. Fig. 173 illus- 
trates diagrammatically the essential features of Mr. 
Hepworth's apparatus, as described in the British patent 
specification. Four long narrow troughs, M, M 1 , M 2 , M 3 , 
side by side, contain respectively developer, fixer, harden- 



i8o 



LIVING PICTURES 



ing solution, and glycerine solution for preventing the 
film becoming brittle on drying. At the ends of the 
troughs are feed sprockets, M 4 , on two shafts, M 5 , M 7 , 
which are both driven from the worm-shaft, M 11 . The 
film A is fed through each trough in succession, passing 
in the intermediate stages through a water-trough, O, 
supplied with a continuous flow of water. Weighted 
rollers, E 4 , press the film into engagement with the 
sprockets M 4 . In passing through the water-trough O, 
the film passes through guide slots, P 4 , in an oscillating 
bar, P. In case of any entanglement, the bar P is 




N\NX^^^ * 

FIG. 174. 

tilted, and an alarm sounded. On leaving the trough M 3 , 
the film is fed over rollers, N 8 , in a drying chamber, and 
is finally reeled on a spool, M 2 . In Mr. Hepworth's 
more recent apparatus, the developing and fixing troughs 
are duplicated one above the other, and the film passes 
horizontally in a zigzag path through the water-trough, 
round a series of sprocket rollers at the ends of the water- 
tank, and the balanced bar P is found to be unnecessary. 
The films are reeled direct from the washing tank, and 
the reeled film passed to a separate drying room. In 
other varieties of suggested apparatus, the film is fed 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 181 

through vertical tanks over suitably-positioned rollers, 
and a large variety of apparatus of this type is possible. 
In a recent apparatus (Fig. 174), devised by Mr. Thornton, 
the film is fed in a long helical path over two parallel 
rollers, 61, 62, the lower rollers dipping into the developing 
and other troughs to an adjustable extent. The rollers are 
provided with a series of guide flanges, to guide the travel 
of the film. 

PRODUCING THE POSITIVE. 

The negative, exposed, developed, fixed, and dried, is 
of course only a means to an end ; a positive must now 
be made from it. In this series of operations, even more 
care is required than in producing the negative. When 
bands of any substance are subjected to the action of 
solutions and incidental strains, there is always a risk of 
irregular shrinking or stretching, and any error due to 
this cause is liable to be doubled in intensity by the 
time the positive is completed. In addition, the pictures 
should stand at mathematically equal distances apart, 
and any looseness or irregularity in the printing may 
cause a variation first in one direction and then in 
another. The result is a slight want of registration 
between successive views, giving a most annoying, 
tremulous motion to the picture when projected on the 
screen. There are some steps in the production of a 
picture film in which makeshift apparatus may with 
more or less impunity be used the developing arrange- 
ments, for instance. So long as the trays hold water, 
and the room is dark and the solutions right, any make- 
shift of apparatus will do so long as the film is handled 
carefully. There must, however, be no makeshift about 
the camera nor about the printing apparatus. 

There have been a large number of machines con- 
structed for use as cameras and projectors which may 
also be used for printing, more especially those in which 



182 



LIVING PICTURES 



intermittent claw-feed mechanism is used. As, however, 
the vast majority of cameras are not so adapted, a 
machine specially adapted for printing postives becomes 
necessary. Such machines are, broadly speaking, of two 
classes: (i) Continuously-moving-film machines, in which 
the negative and positive films move continuously across 
an illuminated printing zone ; and (2) intermittently- 
moving-film machines, in which each section of the film 
is in turn passed through a frame, and during the 
stationary interval is exposed either by means of a 
shutter, or by switching the light on and off synchro- 
nously with the movement of the film. 




FIG. 175. 

Continuously - Moving - Film Machines. This type of 
machine was used in the early days by Jenkins and 
Marey. Fig. 175 shows the machine used by Jenkins, 
which is still quite representative of modern machines of 
this kind. It will be seen that a sprocket wheel is used 
to hold the films in registration, each film passing in- 
dependently from one spool to another, but held in close 
contact, negative uppermost, between two plates under a 
shielded incandescent lamp. 

A very important point in contact printing apparatus 
is the maintenance of a good contact between the films at 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 183 

all points. A slight arching of the section of film ex- 
posed is one means of obtaining good contact, and is 
perhaps even more effective than flat pressure* Also, 
when the film is arched in one direction, it cannot buckle 
in the transverse direction, but, on the other hand, will 
be extended through an even surface. 

In another early machine by Mr. Joly (Fig. I75A), the 
films are brought together in passing through an inclined 
guide, F, and are exposed in passing over a sprocketed 




FIG. i75A. 

roller. In such apparatus exposure is determined by three 
factors : (i) The length of the printing zone, (2) the rate 
of movement of the film, and (3) the intensity of the 
printing light any one of which can be varied. In the 
intermittent-movement type, on the other hand, the ex- 
posure is determined by two factors only : (i) The rapidity 
of the intermittent movement, and (2) the intensity of the 
printing light. The continuously-moving type has thus 
an extra variable in the length of the printing zone, 
whereby the exposure can be increased without slowing 



184 LIVING PICTURES 

down the speed, and thereby reducing the output. As 
against this advantage may perhaps be put the possible 
risk that, in passing over a curved sprocket wheel, there is 
more tendency to a variable strain on the film, with con- 
sequent irregularity ; whereas in the intermittent-move- 
ment machines, in which a claw feed is generally used, 
the claw feed serves to maintain a very exact register. 

For positives sensitized with silver emulsions, a com- 
paratively short exposure is sufficient. It has, however, 
recently been proposed to print on to films sensitized 
with a bichromate emulsion, such as are used for the 
gum-bichromate, carbon, and like processes in ordinary 
photography. The materials necessary for such films are 
considerably cheaper than those necessary for silver print- 
ing; also, if they prove satisfactory, their value for making 
tinted or composite two- or three-colour films may be very 
great. A bichromate emulsion is, however, very much less 
sensitive to light than a silver emulsion, and the exposure 
necessary in printing is therefore much longer. The pro- 
longed exposure cannot be obtained by increasing the 
intensity of the printing light, because increased in- 
tensity involves increased heating power, and the heating 
limit which the film will stand is reached long before 
the required printing intensity. With the intermittent- 
movement apparatus, therefore, the result of prolonged 
exposure would necessitate such a small rate of printing 
that the output would be too small to be of any value. 
Mr. Thornton overcomes the above difficulties by (i) 
taking advantage of the additional variable in the con- 
tinuous-moving-film type of machine, and enlarging the 
printing zone along which the film travels to many yards ; 
and (2) using mercury vapour lamps for printing, in the 
form of long tubes which can extend all the way along 
the printing zone. An additional advantage of these lamps 
is that they have a high printing but low heating power. 

In one type of apparatus (Fig. 176) the negative and 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 185 

positive films are carried over the surface of a large 
drum, A. The surface of the drum is padded so as to 
slightly arch the films, F, G, which are pressed into con- 
tact with the drum by an endless transparent band, B, or 
by endless rubber bands pressing on the edges of the films. 
The printing light in the form of long mercury vapour 
tubes, C, extends nearly the whole length of the track of the 
film. If necessary, the apparatus may be kept cool by a 
supply of cold air through the pipe d and casing D. In 
another form of apparatus the films are carried in a long 
straight course of man) 7 yards between two endless bands 




FJG. 176. 

travelling in side-guides along the printing course, and 
these guides are arranged so that the films are slightly 
arched, to obtain good printing contact. A series of 
mercury vapour tubes extends along the printing course. 
In yet another form the films are temporarily secured 
together by an easily removable adhesive, and travel in a 
helical course over two parallel rollers similar to the 
rollers in Fig. 174. The series of mercury vapour tubes 
is arranged between the folds of the films. 

Intermittent-Moving Machines. In these machines the 
motion of the film is the same as in the projector, except- 



186 



LIVING PICTURES 



ing that the movement of the film is slower and the 
stationary period longer. Williamson's printer (Fig. 177) 
illustrates this type of machine. The printing box is 
divided into two compartments. The upper compart- 
ment contains the printing lamp J, and is lined with 
asbestos ; the lower compartment O contains a motor 




FIG. 177. 

and a system of cone pulleys to give four speeds there- 
from. Each of these four speeds is further controlled by 
a regulating switch, L, giving six speeds to the motor. 
This combination thus gives twenty -four alternative 
speeds. The printing lamp J is adjusted towards and 
away from the films by the handle P, and is further con- 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 187 



trolled by a switch, M, to vary the intensity of the 
printing light. A very wide range of exposures is thus 
obtainable. The lamp J is a focus lamp having a grid 
filament. The feed and other mechanism is mounted 
on a brass plate, U, Fig. 178, fitting a mahogany frame 
hinged to the front of the cabinet, and the working parts 
are thus protected. The negative and positive films A, B, 
travel over the sprocket F, through the printing gate E, 
being clawed down intermittently by claw mechanism, T, 
of the kind shown in Fig. 144. From the printing gate 




FIG. 178. 

the films travel over the sprocket G, and are wound on 
the spools C, D, or, alternatively, the printed positive 
may be passed directly into the developing apparatus. 
The bevel wheel W actuates a shutter which intermit- 
tently shuts off the light from the films synchronously 
with the feed mechanism. In printing films of different 
density, the speed of the motor, the intensity of the light, 
and the position of the lamp, may be varied by the re- 
sistances L, M, and the handle P. 

The Debrie printer (Fig. 179) has similar character- 



i88 



LIVING PICTURES 



istics, but varies in design and details. The lamp is 
focussed on to the films by a lens which is also adjustable. 
The lower switchboard controls the motor, and the upper 
switchboard with the voltmeter controls the printing 
lamp. After leaving the upper sprocket wheel, the 
negative film enters a brass guide fitted with friction 
rods, by which it is held back to a certain extent, to 
allow for the difference in gauge due to shrinkage during 
development. The lower part of the gate consists of a 




FIG. 179. 

long parallel channel in which the films fit perfectly, thus 
insuring accuracy, and the centering of the films is conse- 
quently automatic. The films are held during the printing 
period by an intermittently-actuated clamp, and adjust- 
able spring plates hold the film lightly when moving 
forward. The shutter consists of a two-part red and 
green revolving disc, the red part cutting of! the light 
during the shifts, but allowing inspection ; and the green 
light for printing is intended to increase the contrasts in 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 189 

the printed film, and gives a better gradation of tone. It 
is estimated that such machines will print about 1,000 feet 
of film per hour from an ordinary negative. 

For printing special positives, for example, in which the 
pictures may have to be printed in a special order, the 
printing machines have to be specially modified for the 
particular purposes. 

Perforating the Positive. Owing to the fact that in 
the camera the film is fed by means of perforations, the 
negative film must be perforated before exposure. In the 
operations of developing the negative there is a certain 
shrinkage in the film. Consequently the spacing of the 
perforations in the finished negative are slightly smaller 
than in the undeveloped negative. Where intermittent- 
moving-film printing machines are used, the positive must 
of necessity be perforated before printing, in order to 
obtain simultaneous intermittent feed. The perforation 
gauge for the positive film should, strictly speaking, be 
very slightly less than the gauge used for the negative 
film, by just the amount due to shrinkage in the finished 
negative. When the positive is developed and finished, 
there will then be an additional slight shrinkage. Where 
continuous printing machines are used, there is no method 
of positioning the pictures to the perforations, and it is 
thus necessary to perforate the film after it is printed and 
finished. In all such cases, and especially where there is 
any likelihood of any variation in the spacing between 
the pictures, as is found to be the case with bichromate 
printing methods, the provision of means for adjusting the 
spacing of the perforation is very valuable, and in a still 
further degree the provision of means for visually inspecting 
the film as perforation proceeds, so as to be able to adjust 
the spacing. 

DEVELOPING THE POSITIVE. 

The development of the positive film is conducted in the 
same manner as for the negative film, but the different 



igo 



LIVING PICTURES 



character required in the resulting film requires considera- 
tion. Density and gradation must be carefully watched. 
Light is of extreme value in living-picture projection, and 




the image must therefore not be too dense. At the same 
time all detail must be secured, and some deposit be present 
over the whole extent of the picture ; and sparkling points 
have a distressing habit of drawing attention to the failings 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 191 

of flicker and incorrect registration, even when only present 
in the slightest degree. In developing the positive, the value 
of apparatus in which the film is passed into the developer 
as soon as possible after leaving the printing apparatus 
is especially high. The complete plant devised by Mr. 
Hepworth is illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 180, 
and includes a perforating machine, C, the printing 
machine H, and the developing plant shown in Fig. 173. 
The negative film J is passed from the spool J' to the 
spool J, and joins the already perforated positive film A 
just before entering the printer H. The printed positive 
then immediately enters the developing trough, and by 
the visible image developed it can be seen whether the 



E 



D 



&RYIN& 




FIG. 181. 

printing is correct and the printing light adjusted. It is 
possible with such apparatus to join a whole series of 
negative films and print a complete spool straight off, 
instead of joining a series of positive films. Means are 
adapted whereby an audible alarm is automatically given 
whenever there is a change of density in the negative, 
thereby indicating the necessity of readjusting the print- 
ing light. 

In another complete outfit devised by Mr. Thornton, 
the different sections, A, B, C, D, E, F (Fig. 181), of the 
plant, are not tanks or boxes, but rooms of formidable 
dimensions. The hot air from the lamps in the printing 
room B may be utilized for drying, and forced by a 
pump, 72, into the drying rooms A ? E, F, 



LIVING PICTURES 



RETOUCHING AND COLOURING. 

Development and drying ended, the film is ready for 
projection, subject to such improvement and rectification 
as retouching can supply. Flaws and spots are fatal. In 
a single picture they are detrimental enough, but their 
presence in a film of successive views gives rise to a 
twinkling and flickering effect, due to their sudden per- 
ception and equally sudden disappearance, which is 
irritating and fatiguing to the eye. 

The film may be tinted with uniform colour, thereby 
giving a very pleasing, and in some cases appropriate, 
effect. Or it may be coloured, and on this subject a few 
remarks may not be out of place. In an ordinary lantern 
slide outline is of comparatively little moment, but in a 
Living Picture it is everything. A spire of a church in the 
single view does not offend the eye if the colouring over- 
steps the proper outline, provided that the shape is rendered 
symmetrical. Far other in a Living Picture. The 
slightest variation between successive views gives rise to 
a continuous bulging and contraction which no respect- 
able church would allow its steeple to indulge in. Illusion 
of motion is due to alteration in position of their outlines 
as compared with that of stationary objects, and this pro- 
gression is minute in successive views. The slightest 
inaccuracy in colouring may neutralize this, and render 
the steps by which an object is apparently advanced far 
more jerky than is the case in the photographic views. 
Therefore the colouring should be in the nature of tinting 
rather than partaking of the gaudy display of the average 
lantern slide. In the early days colouring was done by 
hand, each picture being separately coloured. To colour 
a small picture measuring i inch by J inch is very different 
from colouring an ordinary lantern slide 3! by 3^ inches, 
and a magnifying glass was necessary. As films began to 
increase in length, and when several copies were wanted, 






FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 193 

the labour and cost involved were very great, and it became 
apparent that other methods were required. The stencil 
process has been adapted and perfected, particularly by 
the firms of Gaumont and Pathe, and forms an art in 
itself. Three stencil films are necessary for each picture. 
Each stencil is in the nature of a mask which is registered 
with the film, but leaving openings where the colouring is 
to reach the film. Three stencils are required one for 
applying the yellow, a second for the red, and a third for 
the blue. The stencils have in the first instance to be made 
by hand, but serve for a large number of copies, and the 
colours are applied by special machines. 

PROTECTING FILMS. 

As regards the protection of films little has been done. 
Machines are constructed with the greatest care, and 
every possible precaution is taken against damage to films 
in the course of projection ; but where will the lantern- 
slide maker be found who will send his wares out without 
cover-glasses? It has been proposed to cement a plain 
film by its edges over the positive. This, however, would 
double the thickness of the film, and it is well understood 
that celluloid obstructs light to a greater extent than 
glass. It has also been suggested to confine the attempt 
to the strengthening of the margins, leaving the security 
of the picture surface to be attained by perfecting the 
structure of the film gate. Films are, however, sometimes 
coated with a celluloid varnish, which protects the film 
surface from scratches. 

JOINING AND REPAIRING FILMS. 

Before the film spool is passed into the exhibitor's hands, 
it is very probable that a number of sections of the film 
have to be joined together, and rejoining the broken ends 
of a film is also an operation which, unfortunately, has to 

13 



194 LIVING PICTURES 

be frequently performed. If the film is torn right across 
a picture has to be sacrificed. The perforations may 
become damaged, and must be replaced, or a sideways 
strain will be placed on the film, which will inevitably end 
in rupture of the band sooner or later. The two solvents 
for celluloid are amyl acetate and acetone, the latter being 
preferable. The ends of the broken film must be trimmed 
so as to render the two proximate pictures at an exactly 
correct separation, and the junction must be freed from 
grease and film, and scraped down so as not to leave an 




FIG. 182. 

abrupt thickening where the edges overlap. The film- 
mender (Fig. 182) usually has two clamping plates carrying 
pegs which register the ends of the film in position, and 
between these clamping plates is a presser plate for press- 
ing the joined ends. For non-flam films a special solvent 
is usually provided. 

CLEANING AND RENOVATING FILMS. 

To obtain a clear picture on the screen, it is necessary 
that the film be free from stains, grease, and other 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 195 

markings, which are bound to appear on the film some time 
during its career, however carefully the film is used; and 
unless the film is a new one it is often very advisable 
to put it through a cleaning process before use. It may 
be that smears or marks are left on the film after its 
treatment in the developing, washing, and fixing solutions, 
though this should not be so if the film is properly treated 
and handled. Debrie's cleaning machine (Fig. i83A) is 
more especially devised for removing such stains. The 




FIG. i83A. 



film passes from the spool A over a wick-pad, B, which 
receives a regulated supply of alcohol from the tank C. 
The film is cleaned by being drawn between a rubber- 
covered roller, D, and an endless band, E, which is provided 
with a series of chamois leather pads, F. The roller and 
band are driven in an opposite direction to the travel 
of the film, which then passes over the rubber-coated 
roller G by which the film is drawn through the 
machine. 

For removing scratches it has been suggested to apply 



ig6 



LIVING PICTURES 



a thin coating of celluloid, so as to fill in the scratches 
and leave a smooth, even surface. 

To remove grease and dirt from a film, benzoline is one 
of the most satisfactory fluids to employ. Methylated 
spirit has the tendency, not only to make the film curl, but 
also to take the nature out of the film and leave the surface 
dry and brittle. Benzoline, on the other hand, is a 
mineral oil, free from acid, and feeds the film in much the 
same manner as grease and oil feed leather. Fig 18313 
illustrates the Seabourne film-cleaning machine. The 




FIG. 18313. 

benzoline is contained in the tank A, and the film passes 
from the spool B under a roller in this tank, and then 
round wiping rollers, which wipe off superfluous moisture 
and fluid before the film passes against the cleaning brushes 
C, D. These brushes are formed of a ring of strips of 
chamois leather, and rotate at a speed of 2,000 revolutions 
a minute. The film is lightly pressed against them by 
rollers, c, d, and then passes against another similar pair 
of chamois leather polishing brushes, E, F, before being 
rewound. The pieces composing the brushes are always 
tending to fly apart, and any dirt or grit is thrown off by 



FILMS, AND THEIR PRODUCTION 197 

centrifugal action. The brushes E, F, dry the film, and 
leave an extremely fine coating, which not only preserves 
the suppleness of the film, but acts as a preservative. 

Here, then, the film passes into the exhibitor's hands, 
and any further remarks regarding it must be relegated to 
the next chapter, wherein are described many accessories 
and aids which render the exhibitor's life endurable, if not 
happy. 



CHAPTER VI 

. EXHIBITING, ETC. 

The projector The optical system Illuminants Screens Stands 
Film-gate and steadying devices Film centering Shutters 
and flicker Fire-preventing and safety devices Film manipu- 
lation and housing Stereoscopic projection Kinoplasticon 
Cinelife Peep-shows Living pictures at home. 

IF the modern projector is a very much more complicated 
machine than the earlier machines, the pictures it is 
possible to project are correspondingly superior. With 
the great variety of choice of excellent machines, there is 
hardly any excuse at the present day for a bad picture 
show, although, of course, the most perfect projector is of 
comparatively little value in the hands of an ignorant 
or careless operator. In dealing with the various problems 
arising in the exhibition of Living Pictures, we shall have 
occasion to describe in more or less detail many variations 
in constructions of actual machines, and it will facilitate 
both the task of describing and of following them, to first 
describe the general construction of a typical machine. 
The fact that the Gaumont Company have a continuous 
record of construction from the earliest days suggests the 
appropriateness of taking their Chrono projector as 
a typical machine for this purpose. The machine, 
Figs. i84A, 1846, is a Maltese cross machine. 

The whole apparatus is supported on a strong frame or 
stand, such as illustrated in Fig. 194. The lantern O, 
nearly always asbestos-lined, is mounted on transverse 
rails, R, which enable the lantern to be moved across the 

198 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 



199 



stand to utilize either the lens L for the film, or a second 
lens, L', for ordinary magic-lantern slides. The transverse 
rails R are themselves adjustable along rails, R', to adjust 
the lantern towards and away from the lenses L, L'. The 
condenser mounting C is outside the lantern body, so that 



O 




R 



FIG. i84A. 

the condenser is accessible from the outside of the lantern. 
The slide-carrier D carries in one half an opening for the 
slide, and on the other half an opaque cut-off, which cuts 
off the light from the lantern when the carrier is drawn to 
the position shown. An auxiliary cut-off, D', is formed 
of two adjustable slides with semicircular ends. The 



200 LIVING PICTURES 

front part of the apparatus carries the film mechanism, 
film spools, and all the projector machinery. The film is 
contained, to start with, in the upper spool box A, which 
holds about 1,500 feet of film, and after passing through 
the projector is spooled in the lower spool box A'. Both 
spool boxes are fireproof, and are fitted with fire-trapped 
slots, T, designed for the purpose of preventing fire spread- 
ing into the spool boxes if the film happens to catch fire. 
The film is drawn from the upper spool box by a sprocket, 
K, which is continuously rotated from the driving shaft F, 
and the edges of the film are kept in engagement with the 
sprocket teeth by a resiliently mounted spring roller k. 
A loop, /, is left between the sprocket K and the gate G, 
which is being continuously fed and intermittently drawn 
in as the film passes through the gate. This loop prevents 
any tension on the film while it is stationary in the gate. 
The feed sprocket is seen at S, and the film is pressed 
against the sprocket by extensions, X, X, of the runners W 
on the hinged back of the gate. These runners exert a 
yielding pressure on the edges of the film, and the pressure 
is adjustable. A second loop, /', is left between the feed 
sprocket S and the continuously-rotating take-up sprocket 
K', which is on the main driving shaft F, turned by the 
handle h. The edges of the film are pressed against the 
sprocket K' by resiliently-mounted rollers similar to 
the upper roller k. All the sprockets and rollers over 
which the film passes are shaped so that the film is in 
contact therewith only at the edges, and not on the face 
of the film. The film thus travels through the machine in 
a hollow track. The shaft t, on which the take-up spool 
is mounted, is positively driven by bevel and shaft gearing 
from the main driving shaft F, and the spool is driven by 
a spring friction clutch, so that the speed of the spool may 
accommodate itself as the diameter of the film wound 
increases, and at the same time prevent the film being 
wound loosely on the shaft. The slip gear can be adjusted 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 



201 




FIG. 1845. 



202 LIVING PICTURES 

by a screw as the diameter of the wound film increases. A 
flywheel, Y, on the pin-wheel shaft of the feed mechanism 
tends to maintain a steady feed motion. A safety shutter, 
E, hinged behind the gate, is linked w 7 ith centrifugal 
mechanism, M, which is geared with the main driving 
shaft F. So long as the handle h rotates at a sufficient 
speed, and each picture is moved on after being fed 
into the gate before it becomes heated and catches fire, the 
centrifugal mechanism maintains the shutter open. The 
shutter closes behind the gate immediately the machine 
slows down below the safety limit. Immediately in front 
of the film is the shutter, Fig. 1840, which is rotated from 
the shaft F sufficiently fast not only to cut off the light 





FIG. 1840. FIG. 1840. 

during each shift of the film, but also to cut off the light 
once during the interval of projection of each picture. 
This double cut-off is to minimize flicker. In the latest 
model of the Chrono projector, a three-sectored shutter, 
Fig. 1840, now the most common form of shutter, is 
mounted on a rotated arm projecting in front of the 
apparatus, and so that it intercepts the light just about 
where the light comes to a focus in front of the projecting 
lens L. The shutter is driven to make one complete 
revolution for each picture succession interval, so that 
it not only cuts off the light during the actual shift of the 
film, but twice in addition while the picture is projected 
on the screen. In front of the gate is a sliding panel, P, 
which carries a gate mask and the lens L. The gate 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 203 

mask is for the purpose of outlining the boundary of each 
picture projected, an<i the panel can at any time be 
adjusted vertically by the lever handle H so that the mask 
may include just one picture, and the accompanying 
motion of the lens keeps the projected picture centred on 
the screen. 

The gearing of the machine is arranged so that eight 
pictures are fed for each turn of the handle h, which 
is normally turned at a rate of two revolutions per second. 
The projector is, of course, often run by motor, in which 
case a motor-driven pulley is secured to the driving 
shaft F. 

Instead of taking a series of projectors of various types 
and describing the individualities of each separately, it 
will be better to take in turn the different sections of the 
projector and projecting system, and to note variations 
and modifications of these, some of which are in use and 
to be found on modern machines. 



THE OPTICAL SYSTEM. 

The essentials of the optical system are illustrated 
in Fig. 185. The function of the condenser A is to 
collect as much light as possible from the source O and 
condense it on to the gate G, where the picture projected 
is situated. The circle of light x, x, should completely 
cover the gate mask, and leave a margin of light for 
adjusting the mask. This margin must be sufficient to 
allow for adjusting the mask and gate when this method 
of centering the picture on the screen is used, as in the 
Chrono machine, 

The function of the projecting lens B is to project 
a magnified image of the illuminated picture on the screen. 
In view of the magnification of the picture as much light 
as possible is required, and it will be seen that the amount 
of light collected by the condenser depends upon the angle 



204 



LIVING PICTURES 



of the cone of light LOM. The larger the condenser, 
therefore, and the nearer the light to it, the larger the 
amount of light collected. The larger the condenser is, 
however, the more expensive it is ; the light O must also 
be situated beyond the focus F of the condenser, the 
position being determined by the distance of the project- 
ing lens B from the light ; also, again, the nearer the light 
is to the condenser, the hotter the latter will become. 




FIG. 185. 

The actual size and focal length of the condenser used 
must be a compromise between these conflicting require- 
ments. . Condensers varying from 4 inches to 14 inches 
diameter, and between 2^ inches to 12 inches focal length, 
can be obtained ; but in practice condensers of 4 or 4?/ 
inches diameter, and 3 to 3^ inches focal length, are the 
most common in use. 

Owing to expansion due to heating, a suitable mounting 
of the condenser is important. The glass must have 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 



205 



ample room to expand in the mount, and the mount itself 
should lit loosely. A massive mount supplying a large 
conducting surface, and with openings for ventilation, is ad- 
vantageous. An alternative method is to mount the glasses 
of the condenser between spring claws, such as C, Fig. 186. 
These claws C can slide in the frame A as the glass 
expands. Separate frames, A, B, are used for the back and 
front components of the condenser, and will only fit in 
their respective slides, so that the component glasses 
cannot be incorrectly positioned. 

It is in all cases advantageous to have the condenser 




FIG. 186. 

mounted on the outside of the lantern body, so as to 
enable easy access thereto in cases of breakage. Any 
condenser is liable to break owing to unequal expansion 
or contraction in the glass, a good condenser being less 
liable to break than a cheap one. Other common causes 
are, too sudden heating and too sudden cooling of the 
condenser. To avoid the former the condenser should be 
warmed gradually, and not exposed suddenly to the full 
force of the arc lamp or projecting light. This maybe 
done by starting with a weak light, or by keeping the 
light away from the condenser until it is warm, before 



206 LIVING PICTURES 

moving it up into position. The second cause is avoided 
by abstaining from any attempt to artificially cool the 
condenser by means of draughts, contact with cold 
surfaces, or other equally disastrous methods. 

The choice of a projecting lens is an important one, as 
it is the lens which affects the magnification of the picture, 
and for a good sharp picture a good lens is necessary. 
The focal length of the lens required is determined by the 
size of the picture and the distance of the projector from 
the screen. The usual formula for a magnified image of a 
circular disc is 

diameter of image diameter of disc 

distance of image from lens distance of disc from lens 

In cinematograph projection the gate is, as a general rule, 
so near the focus/, Fig. 185, of the lens that the distance 
of the picture from the lens is practically the focal length 
of the lens, and for rough approximation the formula 
becomes 

size of projected image size of gate 

distance of screen from projector focaF length of lens 

Having any three of these quantities given, therefore, the 
fourth required quantity is readily determined to a sufficient 
approximation. 

The light, condenser, gate, and lens, must be correctly 
positioned. A convenient way of doing this is to put 
a temporary picture of a non-inflammable nature in the 
gate, such as a thin piece of transparent paper or glass 
bearing an image, and to centre and focus the image on 
the screen, arranging the lantern so that the centre of the 
gate and the lens are in the line joining the centre of the 
condenser and the centre of the screen. This temporary 
slide can then be removed, and the light adjusted until as 
much as possible of the centre of the screen is filled with 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 207 

a clear white disc, such as h, Fig. 187. If the light is not 
properly centred, effects on the screen such as a, b, c, d, 
e,f, or g, will be produced according to the wrong posi- 
tion of the light. When the light, condenser, and lens, 
are correctly adjusted, the condenser will be brought to a 
focus at a point, F 2 , slightly in front of the lens, and not 
within the lens, as is so often explained. The shutter 
is often placed at or near this position F 2 , and it is, 
strictly speaking, the most correct position for the 
shutter. 

The aperture of the lens has an importance which is 
often overlooked. Of the light which reaches the picture, 
part is directly passed through the picture and the lens, in 
proportion to the transparency of the picture. If this 








FIG. 187. 

transmitted light were the only part to consider, there 
would be no point in having a lens with a larger aperture 
than the diameter of the entering cone of rays. Not all 
the light gets through the picture, however. A large part 
of it is diffused by the particles forming the image that 
is, wherever the film is not transparent. The opaque 
parts of the picture in the gate constitute, in fact, a highly 
luminous object, and the rays emanate from these parts in 
all directions, as indicated by the broken lines in Fig. 185. 
It is desirable, therefore, to collect as much as is possible 
of this diffused light, and, clearly, a large aperture will 
collect a larger cone of rays than a small one. A lens 
which has a large aperture i.e., a high F value is thus 
a great advantage. 



208 LIVING PICTURES 

The handling of the lens is another important point for 
the operator. The lens should always be handled with 
great care, and the glass touched or rubbed as little as 
possible ; a piece of cotton-wool or a piece of clean linen 
should be used, never a rough duster or cloth which may 
be in the slightest degree greasy, rough, or gritty. A" very 
convenient device for handling a lens is the handle h, 
Fig. 188, provided on the Cineopse lenses provided by 
Guilbert. The component elements of these lenses are 



Jr 



(,, ' 






FIG. i 88. 

mounted in rings, a, b, c, d, which cannot be put together 
in any but the correct order, and the lenses can thus be 
cleaned without touching the glass itself. 

A recent method of illumining the picture in the gate 
has been introduced by Newton and Co., consisting 
in substituting for the condenser a large concave mirror 
behind the light, and for the projecting light a mixed jet 
of oxygen and compressed acetylene plays on a small 
pastil at or near the focus of the mirror, and so as to pro- 
duce a converging cone of reflected light to illuminate the 
gate. A much larger mirror can be used, and a greater 
amount of the light from the pastil collected, than with the 
ordinary condenser. 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 



209 



THE ILLUMINANT. 

The question of lighting is, perhaps, somewhat out of 
place here, being common to all branches of projection 
work ; and it is manifest that the system of lighting 
employed need not, and indeed does not, affect the 
mechanism employed for the presentation of Living 
Pictures, although it has a considerable influence on the 
result on the screen. Still, the choice and handling of 
the various illuminants is a sufficiently important one 
to justify a few remarks on the subject. For safety and 
power the arc lamp is undoubtedly pre-eminent, and, with 




I 



FIG. 189. 

the rapid extension of public electric lighting, an electric 
supply is available in most large halls. A direct current 
supply on a low voltage is the most convenient and the 
most efficient. The upper carbon is connected, as shown 
in Fig. 189, to the positive pole of the supply through 
a cut-out resistance ; and the action of the current is to 
form a hollow or crater, Fig. 190, a, where the light 
is concentrated, while the opposite pole very conveniently 
burns to a fine point. A convenient test for the right 
connection is to throw an image of the arc on the screen 
by removing the projecting lens. The crater or hollow 
should be projected in an inverted position on the screen, 



210 



LIVING PICTURES 



and the upper carbon should appear on the screen as the 
lower one. The light is more steady with a direct current 
than with an alternating current, which sometimes has 
a tendency to revolve round the carbons and to cause an 




FIG. 190. 

unsteady light on the screen. With a direct current a 
hand-fed arc lamp is the best, as the upper carbon burns 
away twice as rapidly as the lower one. To assist the 
formation of a suitable crater directed towards the con- 
denser, the lower carbon is preferably adjusted slightly in 




FIG. 191. 

front of the upper one, and the positive carbon is cored 
and of larger diameter than the negative carbon, which is 
solid. With an alternating current, a type of arc lamp, 
known as a " Scissors Arc Lamp " (Fig. 191), is often recom- 
mended, in which the carbons are set at an angle, and are 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 211 

centred simultaneously, either from a handle or auto- 
matically. A crater is then formed in both carbons, as 
shown in Fig. 190, c. This position of the carbons is 
preferable to the alternative straight position shown in 
Fig. 190, b. 

The voltage of public supplies is generally far in excess 
of that required to obtain the current for feeding the arc 
lamp. Generally 45 to 50 volts would be sufficient, 
whereas the supply is often 200 volts or more. If a high 
voltage is used the current required can be obtained 
by means of resistances. The resistance required is deter- 
mined by Ohm's Law, namely : 

. , voltage 

Resistance = - . -T-* 

current required 

In calculating the resistance, the total resistance of the 
circuit, including that of the arc lamp itself, must be 
taken. With this method, however, a large amount of 
power is wasted ; thus, if C is the actual current used 
in amperes, and R the resistance of the lamp in ohms, 
and R' the auxiliary resistance used to keep the current 
down to requirements, the power consumed by the resist- 
ance is R X C 2 watts per hour, and this power is absolutely 
wasted in heat. Unless, therefore, this power can be 
utilized in some other way, the method of employing 
resistances is not an economic one. An alternative method 
is to employ a motor generator that is to say, to utilize 
the direct supply at high voltage to drive a motor, and 
from this motor to drive a generator which will supply 
a lower voltage for the lamps. In such cases it is useful 
to have either a duplicate motor generator to fall back 
upon, or an alternative direct circuit with a resistance. 
In the case of an alternating current supply the voltage 
can more conveniently be reduced by a transformer. 

If electric light cannot be employed, a good mixed oxy- 
hydrogen jet limelight is perhaps the best substitute, and 



212 LIVING PICTURES 

can be used with comparative safety. Other alternatives 
are : (i) a mixed oxy-acetylene light ; (2) a carburetter 
or ether-saturator along with compressed oxygen. Fig. 192 
illustrates a combined carburetter jet, the oxygen being 
supplied either from a cylinder or generator through the 
tube 10. 




FIG. 192. 

The comparative luminosities of the various illuininants 
are approximately as follows : 

Candle-Power. 

Four-wick oil lamp ... ... ... ... 80 to 100 

Acetylene generators with ordinary burners 100 ,, 250 
Oxygen with ordinary house gas used with 

blow-through jet 300 500 

Oxygen gas compressed in cylinders, and 

used for mixing jet 1,000 1,500 

Oxygen in cylinder with an ether-saturator 

or carburetter jet ... ... ... ... 1,000 ,, 2,000 

Oxy-acetylene light with gases in cylinders 1,000 ,, 2,500 

The electric arc light 1,000 ,, 100,000 

Where a limelight is used a good lime is necessary. 
Special limes are made for limelight jets composed of 
compressed oxides of rare earth, thorium, and cerium, 
baked in electric ovens at very high temperatures. Instead 
of the usual method of supporting the lime, shown in 
Fig. 192, the lime is preferably held horizontally, as shown 
in Fig. 193, by a holder which slips on to the peg provided 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 213 

for the usual hole in the lime, which with this arrange- 
ment can be made solid. 

For limelight jets it is, perhaps, on the whole, better 
to utilize cylinders of compressed hydrogen or acetylene. 
Not that the other methods are dangerous if properly 
used, and they may be invaluable in out-of-the-way places 
where cylinders cannot be easily replenished. Where, 
however, a carburetter or ether-saturator is used, it is very 
important that the operator should be fully alive to the 




FIG. 193. 

possible dangers of these sources of light. On no account 
should the reservoirs be filled with gasolene or ether 
anywhere near the neighbourhood of a light, as the 
vapours of these substances will catch fire at a distance of 
several feet. They should, accordingly, be filled in the open 
air, and on no account in a closed operating box. It has 
often been suggested that some certification of public 
operators should be required, and there is very great force 
in this suggestion. 

THE SCREEN. 

The screen is another important part of a Living Picture 
outfit. It is no use to secure a powerful illuminant, 
and then to waste any more than is necessary on the 
screen. Of the light which falls on the screen, part is 
transmitted, part absorbed, part reflected. If the pictures 
are projected from the same side of the screen as the 
audience, the screen should be opaque, and possess a 



214 LIVING PICTURES 

smooth, white, diffusing surface. It is a common practice 
to whitewash the screen, or dip it in a solution of white- 
wash. Screens made by treating a fine mesh fabric with 
aluminium are becoming more and more popular. A rough 
aluminium surface, such as will result by using a coarse 
or cheap fabric, will not be as good as an ordinary fine 
calico or linen screen. The only disadvantage of these 
metallic screens is the tendency to oxidize ; but the pictures 
are certainly improved, and the life of a screen is sufficiently 
long to compensate for any tendency to oxidization. 

Where the pictures are projected from behind the screen 
a translucent screen is, of course, necessary, and for ex- 
hibitions of short duration a wet screen is as good as any. 
For daylight projection a translucent screen is also neces- 
sary, and the screen should be shaded as much as possible 
from any strong direct light, as, for example, by a conical 
shade extending a short distance to the front and rear 
of the screen, the rear opening, being slightly larger than 
the cone of light from the projector. 

It is in all cases very necessary to have a perfectly flat 
surface, and, where a flexible screen is used, it should 
be uniformly taut across the surface. The screen should 
also be perpendicular to the direction of projection, and, 
where the projector is tilted to the horizontal, the screen 
should also be tilted at the same angle to the vertical, 
otherwise the picture will be distorted, and will not be in 
focus over the entire surface of the screen. A very effective 
addition to the picture is a black border or framing just 
circling the boundary of the picture. 

THE STAND. 

The stand for the projecting machine should be strong 
and rigid. It must be remembered that the enlargement 
on the screen is much greater in a Living Picture than 
for an ordinary lantern slide, while the apparatus itself is 
subjected to treatment which no mere optical lantern is 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 215 

called upon to undergo. The needful rigidity is usually 
obtained by the use of a strong iron stand, Fig. 194, 
having arrangements for tilting the apparatus to the 
required angle. On no account should any hollow body 
be used as a support. There is a very large degree of 
sympathy between one sense and another, and there is 




FIG. 194. 

little doubt that a continual rattle impinging on the ear 
tends to intensify irritation caused to the eye by any 
flicker on the screen, and it is very necessary to minimize 
or conceal this same flicker as much as possible. 

THE FILM GATE AND FILM STEADYING DEVICES. 

In the early projectors the film gate was lined with felt 
or other soft material, with the idea of avoiding wear 
on the film. It was soon found, however, that grit and 
dirt had a very nasty habit of collecting in the soft 
material, and with disastrous results to the film. .Also, 
if the film fired in the gate, the soft fabric was burnt, 
and the gate had to be refitted before it could be used 
again. The regulations under the Cinematograph Act 
prescribe that the film gate shall be of massive construc- 
tion and shall be provided with ample heat-radiating 
surface, and that the passage for the films shall be suffi- 



2l6 



LIVING PICTURES 



ciently narrow to prevent flame travelling upwards and 
downwards from the light opening. 

In nearly all modern machines the film is pressed along 
the edges only by one or more yielding strips of hardened 
polished steel, as shown in Fig. 1846, and the pressure 
of which can be finely adjusted. It has also been pro- 
posed to use spring-pressed rollers, which extend at the 
top and bottom of the gate across the whole width of the 




FIG. 195. 

film. For intermittently steadying the film in the gate 
while projected it has been suggested to use a clamping 
frame, or a steadying pin frame, intermittently operated 
synchronously with the feed mechanism. In moving 
through the gate the film gets up a very considerable 
velocity and momentum, and the manner in which the 
film is arrested and steadied in the gate makes all the 
difference to the steadiness in the picture on the screen. 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 217 

It will be seen from Fig. 195, that when the intermittent 
feed acts at a point A at a distance from the gate G, 
and the tractable force suddenly ceases, the momentum 
of the film tends to carry it forward and to form a 
loop, L, against the action of the springs pressing on 
the edges of the film. With a claw feed the claws could 
be adapted, as in Mr. Proszynski's mechanism, Fig. 1430, 
to act at the gate in such a manner that they do not 
leave the film at the end of the downward stroke until 
the film is stationary, and thereby act to steady the picture 
for projection. The dog feed cannot be adapted to per- 
form an equivalent steadying function, and the Maltese 
cross feed only to a very limited extent. The latter 
cannot be adapted to feed the portion of film in the gate, 
and the next best thing is to situate the feed sprocket 
as near the lower edge of the gate as possible, so as to 
leave a minimum of film between the gate and the feed 
sprocket. The two runner extensions X, X, in Fig. 1846, 
serve to guide the film on to the feed sprocket. In 
Wrench's machine the corresponding runners are slotted 
for the passage of the sprocket teeth. 

In some machines the gate opens at the back, as in 
Fig. 1843, while in others it opens at the front. In the 
latter case the emulsion side of the film has a rigid 
bedding, and the film is inserted and removed on the side 
remote from the lantern and the light ; but there is not 
much room for opening the gate when short-focus lenses 
are used, which necessarily work close to the gate. In a 
recent arrangement on the Kamm projectors this difficulty 
is avoided. The door of the gate and the lens slide 
toward and away from the film gate. 

FILM CENTERING. 

If the successive pictures do not register exactly in the 
gate, the result will be that the picture on the screen will 
not keep its position in the centre of the screen, but will 



2i8 LIVING PICTURES 

creep up or down the screen. Although such creep is 
rendered less likely by the precision of modern machines, 
there are contributory causes, such as any inaccuracy in 
making a join, or in perforating, or in the spacing of the 
pictures, which may arise in taking the negative or in 
printing the positive. All modern machines are therefore 
fitted with centering means to keep the picture in the 
centre of the screen, and which can be adjusted while the 
machine is running. Where, moreover, the projector is 
run by motor, the operator is much freer to utilize these 
means to the fullest advantage than where he has to turn 
an operating handle. 

The following are the principal types of methods used 
for the purpose, each of which methods, however, can be 
accomplished in more than one way : 

1. By adjusting the gate mask and lens. 

2. By imparting to the film an extra movement indepen- 
dent of the feed movement. 

3. By altering the feed so as to feed a longer or shorter 
length of film sufficient to compensate for the creep. 

Centering the Film by adjusting the Gate Mask 
and Lens. 

In order to keep the centres A, B, C, Fig. 196, of the 
picture, lens, and screen, in a right line, when the centre 



D 

FIG. 196. 



of the picture shifts from A to A', the lens should receive 

BC 

a proportionate adjustment: BB' = AA' x -r-?^" As, how- 



ever, BC is very nearly equal to AC, it is sufficiently 
accurate if the lens is adjusted the same amount as the 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 



219 



gate mask. This method of adjustment is, perhaps, the 
simplest, and is used on many machines. The adjustment 




FIG. 197. 

may be effected by rack and pinion, or by a pivoted 
lever, H, as in Figs. i84A, 18413. There must be a sufficiently 
large circle of illumination, x, x, Fig. 185, on the gate to 



22O 



LIVING PICTURES 



allow the adjustment, and the light does not remain on the 
line of centres ABC. To avoid the latter defect, the light 
and the condenser may be adjusted simultaneously with the 
gate and lens. In Butcher's Empire, Fig. 197, the parts 
are simultaneously adjusted from the handle H, which 
moves the arm A, connected to the base of the lantern 




FIG. 198.' 

body, and also the rod B, controlling the mount carrying 
the lens and gate mask. In another machine, Fig. 198, 
the casing 15 carries the plate 8, supporting the lens and 
mask, the mounting for the condenser, and the casing 20 
for the light. The various parts slide on uprights, 3, and 
the adjustment is effected from the lever 25 through the 
shaft 23 and links 22, 21. 



Centering the Picture by imparting an Extra Movement 
to the Film Independent of the Feed Movement. 

(a) The additional movement may be imparted by an 
adjustable roller, as in Hughes' Bio-Pictorescope, Fig. 199, 
in which the rollers p are adjustable by racks and pinions 
from handles R. This adjustment is also used in Wrench's 



EXHIBITING, ETC, 



221 




FIG. 



199. 



222 



LIVING PICTURES 



machine, Fig. 200, which is a dog-feed machine, the 
adjusting roller /being operated from the handle /. 

(b) A vertical movement of the Maltese cross sprocket, 
or of the whole driving mechanism, will give the additional 
movement of the film. The former method is illustrated 
in the Power machine, Fig. 201, in which the film 
sprocket 6 and the intermittent driving pin-wheel 22 are 
carried on a framing carriage which is vertically adjusted 
on the main frame from a handle, H, through links L. 
The intermediate gear-wheel 38, gearing with the stationary 





FIG. 200. 



FIG. 201. 



driving pinion 37 and the adjusted pin-wheel 22, is on 
a sliding support, 40, and is simultaneously adjusted. 

This method is also illustrated by the Ernemann pro- 
jector, Fig. 202, in which the driving mechanism, includ- 
ing the lower feed sprockets A and the Maltese cross 
sprocket C, are vertically adjusted on the frame M from 
the handle H. It will be seen that in this machine the 
driving spindle is also raised and lowered. 

(c) In lieu of giving the feed mechanism as a whole 
a vertical adjustment, the same result can be effected by 
rotating the Maltese cross M, Fig. 203, and film sprocket S, 
about the axis O of the pin-wheel P. It will be seen, 
however, that while the Maltese cross remains in contact 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 



223 



with the periphery of the pin-wheel the step of the feed 
will be altered by any rotary adjustment of the cross, and 
in order, therefore, that the shutter shall mask the film 
during a shift there must be a compensating stepping 
adjustment of the shutter. A centering adjustment of this 
kind is used in one of Kamm's machines. The sprocket- 




FIG. 202. 

wheel is adjusted about the axis of the pin- wheel from 
a lever or handle behind the frame carrying the driving 
mechanism, and the shutter is simultaneously adjusted by 
means of a sliding bar,/), Fig. 204. This bar has relatively 
inclined slots, /> 2 , p 3 , engaging respectively the stud n and 
a pin, /> 4 , on the disc o, carrying the shutter pinion j. 



224 



LIVING PICTURES 



When the bar p is adjusted, the slot p 3 rotates the disc o 
by means of the slot p 2 and pin p 4 , thereby causing the 
shutter pinion j to roll on the toothed wheel k by which it 
is driven. 

(d) A fourth method of imparting an additional move- 
ment to the film is by giving an extra rotation to the feed 
sprocket in addition to the feed movement, and without 
moving its axis. This may be accomplished in several 
ways: 





FIG. 203. 



FIG. 204. 



(i.) A direct rotation may be given to the sprocket- 
wheel. Fig. 205 illustrates one example of this method. 
The spindle of the sprocket / is formed with spiral slots, g, 
engaged by pins, i, on an axial rod, h, which is positioned 
between a cam, k, and a strong spring. By turning the 
cam k the axial movement of the rod h and pin, i, gives the 
additional rotation of the sprocket /. This method is very 
similar to that used in Maskelyne's Mutograph (see 
Fig. 100), 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 



225 



(ii.) In another method illustrated in Fig. 206, the 
sprocket a is driven by differential gear, i, m, j, and the 





FIG. 206. FIG. 207. 

intermediate wheel m can be rotated round the axis of 

the sprocket, the rolling action giving the additional 
rotation to the sprocket. 



226 



LIVING PICTURES 



(iii.) In a third method the pin-wheel e t Fig. 207, of a 
Maltese cross feed is adjustable about the axis of the 
Maltese cross h. The feed sprocket g and the cross are 
mounted in a frame, be, which is rotatable about a pivot, 
d, coaxial with the cross. When the frame be is rotated, 
the pinion m of the driving gear rolls on the toothed 
wheel n. It will be seen that the step of the feed is not 
altered by this adjustment as there is no relative dis- 
placement of the cross and the pin-wheel. 

Centering the Film by modifying the Feed to feed a 
Longer or Shorter Length of Film to 
compensate for the Creep. 

(a) In lieu of rotating the pin-wheel about the axis of 
the Maltese cross, or vice versa, or giving an additional 
rotation to the cross, a fourth alternative is to give an 




FIG. 208. 



additional direct rotation to the pin-wheel. This is 
adopted in Mr. Hepworth's mechanism (Fig. 208). 

The pin-wheel P is driven by the gearing 28, 29, 30, 31. 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 227 

The pin-wheel P and the wheel 31 are supported in a 
mounting, 36, which can be moved round the axis of the 
wheel 30, which is loosely mounted on the shaft 27, 
carrying the Maltese cross M and film sprocket S. The 
adjustment of the mounting 36 is effected from the 
shaft 40, which is in gear with the toothed wheel 35 on 
the mounting. It will be seen that such adjustment 
causes the wheel 31 to roll on the wheel 30, thereby 
imparting a forward or backward rotation of the pin-wheel 
independently of its normal rotation. This independent 
rotation will also alter the step of the shutter. The 
simultaneous adjustment of the shutter is effected by 
gearing the wheel 35 with the casing 38 of the differential 




FIG. 209. 

gear, included in the shutter driving train, the shutter 
being mounted on the shaft 17'. This mechanism has 
the somewhat curious feature in that it provides an 
unlimited adjustment of the film in either direction. If we 
keep the driving gear and wheel 30 stationary, it will be 
seen from Fig. 209 that, as the pin-wheel P makes one 
complete revolution about the Maltese cross in the 
direction of the arrow A, the cross would be rotated 
through one complete revolution i.e., equivalent to four 
shifts were it not for the rotation of the pin-wheel about 
its own axis due to the rolling of the wheel 31. This 
rotation of the pin-wheel rotates the cross backwards in 
the direction C through a quarter-revolution for each 



228 



LIVING PICTURES 



complete rotation of the pin-wheel on its axis. If, therefore, 
the gearing 30, 31, is so arranged that the pin-wheel 
rotates the cross backwards four times during a complete 
revolution about the axis of the cross, the position of the 
film will ultimately remain unchanged. The operator 
can thus turn the adjusting handle to the necessary 
extent in either direction without having to consider 
whether he has come to the limit of adjustment in either 
direction. 





FIG. 210. 



FIG. 211. 



(b) Two other adjustments for dog-feed machines 
require notice. 

(i) In Beard's mechanism (Fig. 210), the dog b is 
carried by two discs, b 1 , the spindle, 6 2 , of which is 
mounted on a frame, 6 3 , turning on the axis of the 
driving wheel b 4 . When adjusted by the sector c 9 the 
driven wheel b* rolls on the driving wheel b 4 , and an 
additional rotation, backwards or forwards, can thus be 
given to the beater. To correspondingly adjust the 
shutter e, an intermediate pinion, h, of a different train, 
b* t f l , h, g, e 1 , is given an additional rotation on adjusting 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 229 

the frame b 3 , thereby causing a corresponding additional 
rotation of the pinion e l of the shutter shaft. The adjust- 
ment of the pinion h is effected by the gearing 6 7 , h z , which 
rocks the arm h l on which the pinion h is mounted. 

(2) The feed may also be altered by drawing in or 
letting out the slack film between the gate and the take-up 
sprocket. In one of Kamm's machines, the roller g 
(Fig. 211), which presses the film on the sprocket, can be 
adjusted round the axis f 1 of the sprocket by rotating 
the arm h carrying the roller. To allow the film to be 
threaded easily, the arm is made in two parts, A, h 2 , 
pivoted at t. 

An alternative method is an adjustable roller, such 
as/> in Hughes' machine (Fig. 199). 

THE SHUTTER AND FLICKER. 

The objectionable phenomenon of flicker is traceable to 
the fact that the picture is periodically cut off from view 
a state of affairs which, of course, does not obtain in 
natural vision. It must be remembered that, though 
persistence of vision insures the continuance of one image 
until the next image is received, yet the impression does 
not continue in its full force, and the general result is, 
therefore, a series of successive increases and decreases in 
the brilliancy of the picture as perceived by the eye. 
Furthermore, the decreases are gradual, whereas every 
fresh view is presented suddenly in full brilliancy. 

There are, broadly speaking, four methods which have 
been tried or suggested for removing flicker: 

1. By maintaining a constant illumination on the screen. 

2. By synchronously switching the projecting light off 
and on. 

3. By a sufficiently quick shift movement of the film to 
avoid the necessity of the shutter. 

4. By special constructions and arrangement of the 
shutter. 



23 



LIVING PICTURES 



i. Maintaining a Constant Illumination on the Screen. 
One method, and a very early one, suggested by Acres in 
1897, is to produce a series of views by alternately using 
two lenses, the views being arranged on the film in the 
order i, 3, 2, 4, 5, 7, 6, etc., the film being moved behind 
one lens while the exposure is made with the second lens. 
In the camera, Fig. 212, the film is driven by two sprocket- 
rollers, A, A', a loop, B', being formed between them. 
A crank, F, drives a double-toothed rack, C, backwards 
and forwards, thus rotating the sprocket-rollers, which, 
however, can only turn in one direction, being prevented 
from moving backwards by a locking ratchet. Thus, in 
the illustration an exposure is proceeding with the left- 




FIG. 212. 



FIG. 213. 



hand lens. As the slide C moves to the right, the sprocket- 
roller A will not be moved, but A' will rotate and draw 
the loop B' behind the right-hand lens. So soon as 
exposure with this begins, the rack moves back to the 
left, and now it is the sprocket-roller A' which remains 
still, while A draws off more film from the loop B, and at 
the same time passes on sufficient film to re-form the 
loop B' between the lenses. In the duplicate projector, 
Fig. 213, a parallel beam of light from the lens Q either 
passes through the objective N' by reflection from the 
mirror P', or is cut off by a rotating mirror, P, and trans- 
mitted from N on .principles the same as those explained 
in connection with Figs. 86, 87. 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 231 

A modification of this method, used by Mr. Friese 
Greene consists in duplicating the film and apparatus, 
using two films side by side, which are fed and exposed 
alternately. In both these methods, however, the 
alternate views are taken from adjacent points of view, and 
this must induce an apparent vibration of the foreground 
objects on the screen, and, indeed, there appears to be little 
advantage in using a duplicate system for obtaining the 
films unless it be so arranged that both systems work 
through one objective, as in Fig. 86, or at least from one 
point of view. This objection is obviated by another 
suggested method, consisting in using an ordinary single 
film and intermittently projecting a clear disc between 
the intervals of shift. This method also obviates any 
special modification in the camera or projector, apart 
from the necessary but simple modification of the shutter 
to make the alternate projections. 

2. Synchronously switching the Projecting Light on and 
off. This method is quite a recent one. In one modifica- 
tion the projecting light is switched on when the picture 
is in the gate, and extinguished while they are changed, 
for which purpose the projecting arc is intermittently 
induced by a circuit which includes a make and break 
contact controlled from the feed mechanism. An 
auxiliary lamp projecting a clear white disc may be 
switched on and off alternately with the projecting arc. 

3. Using a very Rapid Shift, and dispensing with a Shutter. 
This method was used by Wheatstone (see p. 17), and has 
been tried with modern Maltese cross projectors. It might 
be successful and efficient if the pictures were of uniform 
tint all over the surface that is to say, if they were not 
pictures at all. As, however, high lights are a necessity 
in all lantern or other views, their continual presence 
gives rise to a " rain " effect, usually associated with 
damaged films. It must not be forgotten that a percep- 
tion of this sort persists as well as any other ; the eye 



232 



LIVING PICTURES 



has no power of applying a physiological function to 
artistic impressions, and throwing it out of action in other 
cases. Still, the merits of this course of proceeding are 
purely relative, and, if the period of change is very rapid, 
there is no reason to doubt that with the majority of views 
a shutter may be dispensed with. 

4. Special Forms of Shutters. A medium course to dis- 
pensing with a shutter altogether is to modify it so as 
to neither entirely cut off the light during a shift interval, 





FIG. 214. 



FIG. 215. 



nor to permit the change of picture to be clearly perceived. 
The various means for this purpose include, (a) a shutter 
pierced with slots or holes, three types of which are shown 
in Fig. 214; (b) a translucent pleated shutter, Fig. 215 ; (c) 
a shutter with graded opacity, so as to gradually cut off the 
light, Fig. 2l6A ; (d) giving short supplementary obtura- 
tions during the time the picture is illuminated, by means 
of additional intermediate blades, A, Fig. 2i6B; (e) the 
use of a polarized beam of light which is rotated by electro- 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 



233 



magnetic action to such a degree that it cannot pass 
through the second prism, a method which, however, is 
hardly possible owing to the inevitable loss of light. 

None of these devices, however, are perfectly satis- 
factory. They are essentially based on the theory of 
the persistence of vision, according to which, as explained 
in the first chapter, the action of the light on the retina 





FIG. 2i6A. 



FIG. 2i6B. 



gradually dies down when the picture is cut off, whereas 
when the light is projected on the screen the action on 
the retina is very sudden. Mr. Proszynski, who has exten- 
sively investigated the subject of flicker, has put forward 
the somewhat startling and revolutionary view that the 
suppression of flicker has nothing to do with the pheno- 
menon of persistence of vision, and, further, that the con- 




tinuity of cinematographic vision is quite illusionary, and, 
indeed, something which does not exist. The action on 
the retina can be represented graphically. In Fig. 217 
the light is intermittently projected at times represented by 
the points t, u, v, and lasting for the time intervals tt', ^^u', 
vv. The intervals t'u, u'v, represent the intervals during 
which the shutter acts. The dotted curves represent the 



234 LIVING PICTURES 

variation in the intensity which would be produced on the 
retina by the separate projections, whilst the full lines 
represent the actual variations in intensity produced by 
the rapid alternations. The area of the shaded parts 
represents the total effect on the eye. Mr. Proszynski 
attacks the problem of flicker on the basis that the eye 
cannot directly measure any period less than /^ second. 
A flash or interruption of light lasting T ^ second will 
seem to the eye the same as one lasting -^ second. In 
other words, for a normal person T V second is the limit 
of perception. If, therefore, there are two or more illu- 
minations lasting longer than -^ second, and following 
one another at regular intervals shorter than T V second, 
say -gV second, we cannot conceive the interruptions, and 




FIG. 218. 

the effect will be that of a constant light. The shutter in 
Fig. 218, when rotated fifteen times per second, gives 
alternations every ^ second, or forty-five alternations 
a second. The film should thus accomplish a shift in 
V second, corresponding to the passage of one blade 
across the lens. With the ordinary Maltese cross having 
the four slots, the shift interval is one-fourth of the total 
interval i.e., is -^ second, assuming one shift per revo- 
lution of the shutter. With this combination only two- 
thirds of the change movement of the film would be 
masked. With the above shutter, therefore, the inter- 
mittent mechanism should give a shift interval of one- 
sixth the total interval in order that the shift may be 
completely masked. The method often adopted where 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 



235 



the shift interval is not quick enough is to slightly enlarge 
one of the blades of the shutter sufficiently to mask the 
shift. This, however, destroys the regularity of the alter- 
nations of light and dark, and is at best a makeshift. 

Other alternatives for obtaining regular obturations of 
iV second or less may, of course, be used with equally 
satisfactory results. It is, for example, possible to obtain 
the regular obturations of T V second or less by other forms 
of shutter, such as a single-bladed shutter, or one with two 
blades, or with a cylindrical shutter, Fig. 2igA, or a 
cone-shaped shutter, Fig. 2igB, as used on the Motio- 
grapru 

The shutter is usually put at or near the position F 2 , 





FIG. 2198. 



Fig. 185, where the optical beams cross, so that the whole 
area of the screen may be illuminated and darkened simul- 
taneously, or as nearly so as possible. Where the shutter 
is not in this position, the blades should be shaped as in 
Fig. 220, so that the edges travel across the screen parallel 
to the margin of view. 

A shutter in front of the lens has to be somewhat large. 
In many machines the shutter is situated near the film, 
in which position it is possible to use a much smaller 
shutter. Mr. Kamm has recently suggested putting the 
shutter behind the film gate, and to use fan blades. This 
arrangement serves not only to cut off a great amount of 
heat from the film during the actual obturations, but also 



236 LIVING PICTURES 

creates a draught of air on to the film and gate, thereby 
considerably lessening the liability to fire. 

In connection with the above theories of flicker, an 
old device (Fig. 221) of M. Gaumont, known as "la 
grille," arid consisting of a black fan pierced with a 





FIG. 220. FIG. 221. 

number of holes, is interesting. When the fan is put 
into rapid motion, and the picture viewed through the 
holes, flicker is almost entirely eliminated. The sug- 
gestion here is that the effect may be due to alternations 
of light oftener than T V second. 

FIRE-PREVENTING AND SAFETY DEVICES FOR 
PROJECTORS. 

The chief source of danger in cinematographic work 
arises from the inflammability of the celluloid films. If 
proper care is exercised in handling these films there 
should be little or no danger, and far more serious con- 
sequences are likely to result from any panic amongst the 
audience than from the fact of some film having caught 
fire. The regulations under the Cinematograph Act (see 
Chapter IX.) must be observed before any exhibition can 
take place in which inflammable films are used, and the 
licensing authorities may supplement these by addi- 






EXHIBITING, ETC. 



237 



tional regulations. The regulations under the Cine- 
matograph Act deal chiefly with the buildings themselves, 
exits, fire appliances, the handling of films, lighting, and 
licences. There are, however, three namely, Regulations 
6-8 which deal with the construction of projectors. 

When the projector is running at full normal speed, the 
individual pictures are not in the gate long enough to be 
ignited by the condensed beam of light from the lantern. 
The danger arises if the machine slows down and the film 
is left exposed in the gate. The gate itself, of course, gets 
hot, but the heat is largely conducted away, and the part 
of the gate in contact with the film can be isolated from 
the heated portions by asbestos. 

The various devices designed to prevent the film firing 
in the projector, and to prevent fire spreading, fall under 
different heads, according to the purpose directly in view. 

Devices for screening the Film from the Heat of the Projecting 

Light. 

The idea and use of a heat-absorbing medium between 
the light and the film was one of the earliest methods 
suggested. Lumiere's original plan was to use a flask, 
B, of water, Fig. 222, which also acted as the condenser. 





FIG. 222. 



FIG. 223. 



A piece of carbon, D, is suspended in the water to draw 
off the gases set free by the gradual heating of the water. 
The water-flask does not, however, prove a sufficiently 
good condenser, and with a strong light used the water 



LIVING PICTURES 



should soon be at boiling-point. This difficulty arises 
even when circulating systems are used. Mr. Newman 
has proposed a long conical water-tube, 6, Fig. 223, sur- 
rounded by a water-trough, a, fitted at the front of the 
condenser, and with externally connected filling and ex- 
panding tubes, b 2 . A cold-water circulating system through 
the trough would further cool the tube b. 

Devices comprising an Automatically -Controlled Shutter which 
comes into Action if the Machine slows down, or in Some 
Cases if the Film breaks. 

Practically speaking, all modern machines are fitted 
with a shutter of this description, and there are numerous 
ways of adapting such shutters. In many cases the 
shutter is opened by the action of a centrifugal governor 
driven from the driving shaft of the machine. Fig. 224 
illustrates one of the earliest arrangements. The shutter e 
is controlled by the governor i on the driven shaft 



c. 






FIG. 224. 



FIG. 225. 



When the projector is running normally, the balls i fly 
outwards against the action of the spring/; if the pro- 
jector stops or slows down below the safety limit, the 
spring / draws the balls in, and drops the shutter. In 
other projectors the shutter closes under the action of 
gravity. A pneumatic control, devised by Mr. Prestwich 
in 1899, is interesting. The driving-wheel B (Fig. 225) 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 239 

of the machine works a pump, A. The cylinder E has an 
adjustable outlet, K, and is adjusted so that when the 
machine is working normally the pressure is sufficient to 
raise the piston F which carries the shutter. 

It will be seen that with these arrangements the safety 
shutter only acts when the speed of the machine is re- 
duced below the safety limit. It is possible, however, for the 
film to break below the gate, and leave the film stationary 
in the gate while the machine continues to run at full 
speed. To provide against this contingency, the film may 
control additional safety devices. In Butcher's Empire, 
a light roller, R (Fig. 197), rests on the film, and should 
the film break the roller drops and automatically operates 
a brake which stops the machine, thereby automatically 
causing the release of the safety shutter, which, when the 
machine is running, is held open by the centrifugal 
governor G. In other arrangements the shutter is held 
open by an electromagnet, the current through which is 
broken if the machine slows down or if the film breaks. 
Another arrangement is to hold the safety shutter open 
by a catch, and to use the film as an insulator between 
two contacts, so that if the film breaks, the current in the 
completed circuit energizes an electromagnet which re- 
leases the shutter. The current may, in addition, be 
utilized to switch off the projecting light, and, if the 
machine is motor-driven, to stop the motor also. 

Preventing the Film firing by directly cooling the Film 
in the Gate. 

This may be done by directing the current of cold air 
or gas, that will check combustion, on to the film. A 
recent alternative, proposed by Mr. Kamm, is to shape the 
blades of the shutter as a fan. The shutter may be placed 
behind the gate so as to screen the film from heat during 
the obturations, as well as fan the film. 



240 



LIVING PICTURES 



Devices for preventing the Fire spreading along the Film. 

To confine the fire to the film gate, it has been sug- 
gested to provide a pair of rollers, N, N 1 , N 2 , N 3 , Fig. 226, 
at the top and bottom of the gate ; also a pair of spring- 
controlled wedge clamps have been suggested which can 
be released by hand, or automatically by the burning of a 
strip of inflammable material used to hold them in opera- 
tive position. Another device is the provision of two 
tubes, 12, Fig. 227, of fire-proof material on both sides of 
the gate, which are designed to prevent any film which 
may accidentally unroll from falling across the projected 





FIG. 227. 

rays and becoming ignited. The film also passes through 
two shoots, 14, 15, above and below the gate. The mem- 
bers 14 are carried by spring-operated levers normally 
held apart out of action by less inflammable connec- 
tions, 19. The film is thus clamped at both sides of the 
gate if the picture in the gate becomes ignited. Such 
devices are not so common as other analogous devices for 
preventing the fire spreading into the spool box, and 
which are necessary to satisfy Regulation 7, cited above. 

The spool box is often provided at some point adjacent 
to the slot with a spring or weight actuated slide or clamp, 
or one automatically actuated on the ignition of the film, 
or of a fuse suitably positioned so as to catch fire if the 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 241 

film ignites at the gate. It has also been proposed to 
extend the film-channel right to the gate, and to include 
cutting-knives for automatically severing the film at the 
mouth of the spool box or the end of the guide channel. 




In one such arrangement (Fig. 228) the ends a, b, and 
a 1 , 6 1 , of the film channels, are connected to solenoids, e, e l , 
respectively. The film acts as an insulator, but if it be- 
comes ignited the solenoids operate knives d, d l , to sever 
the film. 

Devices for extinguishing the Fire. 

In one of these a water-spray, or extinguisher, is situated 
over the spool box, and is automatically operated by an 
ignited fuse in case of fire. In another device the apparatus 
is lowered into a box which is closed by a light, tight lid, 
with the object of stifling the fire. 

Devices comprising Means for automatically switching 
off the Projecting Light. 

Such a device was provided on a very early automatic 
living-picture apparatus displaying an endless band, and 
designed by Mr. Hepworth (see British Specification 

16 



242 LIVING PICTURES 

11,923 of 1897). A jockey roller is provided, so that if the 
film tightens by reason of any entanglement or accident, 
the roller rises and breaks the main supply circuit. In 
other devices the film normally insulates two contacts 
controlling various switches, and an alternative lighting 
circuit. Such connections may even extend to the 
emergency exits, so as to automatically unlock these. 



FILM MANIPULATING AND HOUSING. 

In all projection work, the rule for obtaining a correct 
image on the screen is film-side upside-down to the con- 
denser. Placing the film-side towards the projecting lens 
reverses the picture not a serious matter as a rule, unless 
a well-known landscape or any lettering appear on the 
scene. But this error is apt to cause strange effects in 
other ways. For instance, at one entertainment Ranjit- 
sinhji was shown batting in grand style left-handed ! 
Not a likely experiment for an Australian test match, it 
must be confessed ! 

When the spool has been used, it will require rewinding 
backwards before it can be used again. Some machines, 
such as Hughes's Bio-Pictorescope, have been made with 
a double-feed mechanism, and the operation of reversing 
in this case consists simply in reversing the projector. 
This projection in a reversed direction is sometimes used 
to give " trick " films. A reversed diving scene, for 
instance, will show an existing splash which gradually 
dies down, and from which emerges a man, feet uppermost, 
who in this attitude makes his way to the diving-board, 
from which he should have started. The same effect can, 
of course, be obtained by running the film directly through 
an ordinary machine without rewinding the film, and 
using a reversing prism to erect the images which other- 
wise would be upside-down. 

To rewind the film it is more usual to use a separate 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 243 

rewinder, which is a comparatively simple machine com- 
pared with the projector. Fig. 229 illustrates Wrench's 
rewinder. The rewinding spool A is driven by a ratchet 
and pawl, and can run on as a free wheel when the 
winding handle H is stopped. A brake, C, is caused to act 
on the spool B by a backward rotation of the handle H. 
This arrangement enables the film periodically to be 
drawn taut on the spool A, as well as serving as a brake to 
stop the rewinding. 

Various methods of spooling the film have been sug- 




gested with a view to avoiding the necessity of rewinding 
the film ; but for general convenience and utility the use 
of an ordinary spool probably offers the greatest advan- 
tages. In one method the store spool is to lie flat ; the 
film is drawn from the centre, and after passing through 
the machine, is wound in the ordinary way. There does 
not appear to be anything impracticable in this method, 
but it does not appear to have found its way into use. 

If a film breaks while running through the projector 
unfortunately not an uncommon occurrence it is, of 



244 



LIVING PICTURES 



course, impossible to mend it permanently before proceed- 
ing, and a temporary join is necessary. This is sometimes 
done by a pin or small clip, sometimes it must be admitted 
by merely wetting the film to make the broken end adhere 
temporarily to the film roll. A spool clip which avoids in 
any way tearing the film consists of a pin, B (Fig. 230), 
which can be drawn through the clamping screw A, and 




this clamping screw slides towards and away from the 
spool axis along a slot, C, on the spool D. The loose end 
of the film is pressed on the existing core E (whether 
the spool core or the film already wound) by the pin B, 
which is clamped in position by the nut A. If a subse- 
quent break occurs, the^pin B can be withdrawn and 
reinserted higher up the slot to reclamp the broken end. 

STEREOSCOPIC PROJECTION AND OTHER METHODS OF 
OBTAINING SOLIDITY AND RELIEF. 

So far reference has been made only to ordinary ex- 
hibiting, in which the pictures are projected on to a flat 
screen. The term "Moving Pictures" has been exten- 
sively used, and if " motion " effects were all that were 
desired, it could be safely asserted that a very high degree 
of perfection has been attained. For a good " Living " 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 245 

Picture, however, it is necessary to combine the percep- 
tion of solidity and relief with that of motion. Between 
ordinary still-life photographs there may be considerable 
differences in the effects of solidity and relief conveyed 
to the eye, and the same is true of Living Picture films. 
There is, however, a marked difference between the 
impression obtained from the most perfect single picture 
and from a stereoscopic pair when viewed in a stereoscope, 
and it is a matter of common experience that the im- 
pression of solidity and relief is often much more in- 
tensified with a stereoscope than is conveyed by the 
actual view. 

The term " stereoscope " is derived from two Greek 
words, signifying <: solid" and "relief," and, etymologically 
speaking, a stereoscopic picture is one which to the eye 
conveys the impression of solidity. The term has, how- 
ever, come to have a narrower meaning, and as ordinarily 
used implies the reproduction of binocular vision. For this 
reproduction two conditions have to be observed (i) that 
to each eye is presented a picture which differs from its 
companion to the same extent as two pictures taken from 
two relatively adjacent standpoints at the same distance 
apart as the eyes ; and (2) that these dissimilar pictures 
are made to appear at one place to the eye so that 
the impressions merge into one picture. The latter 
purpose may be accomplished with a stereoscope or by 
projection. The attempts made to get the simultaneous 
impressions of solidity, relief, and motion, date as far back 
as 1853, and the earlier methods have already been 
noted in Chapter II. The following suggestions, amongst 
others, have also been made for living-picture projection : 
(i) Double projection and a viewing stereoscope for each 
observer has been suggested. (2) The two films are 
coloured in complementary colours and viewed through 
differently coloured glasses, so that each eye may select 
its proper picture. This is the method used for the well- 



246 



LIVING PICTURES 



known plastograph still-life pictures. The pictures need 
not be separate, but may overlap to save space. A recent 
method for combining the two components in one picture 
is interesting. The component images are produced on 
a two-colour screen, the colours of which are complemen- 
tary, or almost complementary, and so that the elements 
of one component picture are only situated for example 
on the red elements R (Fig. 231), whereas the elements 
of the other component are only situated, for example, on 





FIG. 232. 



the green elements G. It will be seen that the components 
are not whole components, but sections of a component, 
the two sections just filling the picture. The photograph 
or projected picture is viewed by coloured spectacles, the 
glasses of which are correspondingly coloured complemen- 
tary to each other, so that each eye picks out its own 
component. (3) The use of polarized light for projecting 
the pictures has been suggested, with viewing analyzers 
relatively crossed so that each eye selects its own picture. 
(4) To avoid the use of two films, pictures may be taken 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 247 

from adjacent standpoints alternately on to one film. This 
may be done by using two objectives and an auxiliary 
optical system, or by oscillating the camera transversely. 
The latter alternative, suggested by Mr. Theodore Brown, 
involves a considerable vibration of the camera, but admits 
of a simplified modification, consisting in oscillating the 
camera C more slowly upon an arc, as illustrated in 
Fig. 232. Demonstrations showing the effect of solidity 
and relief with this method were given before the Optical 
Society in 1904. The effect is not really a stereoscopic 
one, but is what might be called a " panoramic " one. 
The same effect is produced where a film is taken from 
a moving vehicle, and is due to the fact that the succes- 
sive pictures are taken from successively adjacent stand- 
points. 

Such methods as the foregoing have not as yet come 
into extensive use, owing no doubt to the practical 
difficulties and cost involved in duplicate apparatus, or 
supplying each observer with a separate viewing apparatus. 
Also, where pictures are taken alternately from adjacent 
positions and projected alternately without special view- 
ing instruments, there is the liability to a vibration of the 
foreground objects, which it is apparently impossible to 
avoid. 

Effects of solidity and relief have been obtained by other 
methods and involving other principles. 

Pepper's Ghost will need no introduction to the reader, 
who will no doubt also be familiar with the methods by 
which the spirit is made to appear. Instead of employing 
living persons, it is possible to so utilize a living-picture 
film that the images on the film appear to walk about the 
stage like ghosts, with the difference, however, that as 
reality is aimed at, there is no attempt to produce a 
ghostlike appearance. Mr. Theodore Brown has specialized 
in these productions, and one of these methods is used to 
produce what are known to the general public as " Kiqo- 



248 LIVING PICTURES 

plasticon " pictures. Fig. 233 reveals the secret. It will 
be seen that, instead of a shadow of a living person being 
projected on the translucent screen F, which would be 
done to produce a real ghost, the living-picture film 
is projected on to this screen, and the projected images 
appear to the audience in the auditorium I, to be at or 
about the position J on the stage, the effect being due to 
reflection from the transparent mirror A. As, moreover, 
this mirror is transparent, the stage scenery is also seen, 
and the effect is that of real persons moving on the stage. 
The films used have to be specially taken. The subjects 
are posed against a black background or tunnel lined with 




black material. The subjects are dressed in light costumes, 
so that the resulting positive film pictures give white 
images surrounded with a dense background, almost 
entirely or absolutely impervious to light. Thus, only 
the transparent images will be projected, and these only 
will be seen by the audience. The size of the picture 
area on the screen is so adjusted that when the artist 
goes out of the field of view, the point at which the exit 
is made corresponds with that occupied by the edge of the 
scenic wings C, with the result that the artist appears to 
go behind the real wings, and also to make his or her 
appearance from behind the wings. The appearance of the 
artists walking towards and away from the front of the 



EXHIBITING, ETC. 



249 



stage is due to the varying size of the figures on the film, 
and these effects are carefully arranged for by photo- 
graphing the original actors on a studio floor with a rake 
corresponding to the rake of the theatre stage floor. 

The popularity of the Scala during the time of these 
exhibitions as, indeed, at all times for that matter is 
sufficient evidence both of the attractiveness of these 
effects and of the possibilities of these methods of exhibi- 
tion. There are, however, certain drawbacks in all 
methods where an indirect view of the projecting screen 
is used, such as in the method just described, where the 




FIG. 234. 

image is seen by reflection from the mirror A. The 
definition of the visible image is impaired by reason of the 
fact that there is a reflection from both surfaces of the 
mirror, thereby producing a double image. This draw- 
back is not very great so long as the observer is fairly in 
the centre of the auditorium. Another drawback is the 
large amount of light required for projection, owing to 
the large amount of light lost both at the screen and 
by the reflection from the mirror. A third drawback 
arises from the large amount of stage-room required both 
for housing the mirror and the projector and screen, which 



250 LIVING PICTURES 

have to be kept from view. There is also the serious 
item of the mirror itself, which in the Scala measures 
something like 18 feet by 16 feet. To avoid some of these 
drawbacks Mr. Brown proposes to project the film on a 
screen in the ordinary way, either from the front or back 
of the screen, and to obtain the stage scenery by reflection. 
One such method, devised more especially with a view to 
easy adaptation to existing picture palaces, is illustrated 
in Fig. 234, which shows a sectional view. The stage 
setting is positioned at C, D, E, below the level and in 
front of the screen O on which the pictures are projected. 
It thus occupies part of the space usually appropriated 
for the orchestra. The stage setting is seen by reflection 
from the mirror A, and appears to be at H, I, J, behind 
the actual back wall M of the building. The screen O 
and mirror A are mounted with collapsible bellows, N, 
and both fold down when it is desired to project ordinary 
pictures. The name of " Cinelife " has been suggested 
for these picture effects. 

There is, indeed, hardly any limit to the possibilities of 
such means for obtaining not only effects of solidity and 
relief, but also, where desired, illusion effects. Hamlet's 
ghost will be a greater reality than ever. 

MISCELLANEOUS METHODS OF EXHIBITING. 

In addition to theatre exhibitions, animatography has 
struck several by-paths. Commercial energy has, for 
example, seized upon the Living Picture for purposes of 
advertisement. Processes of manufacture, advertisements 
of health resorts, glimpses of scenery on "unique tours," 
the inducements which colonial life can offer, have, amongst 
many others, been the subjects of living-picture films. 

Penny-in-the-slot machines have also been devised. 
The Kinetoscope was modified to render the scene visible 
to several observers. In another of these machines, Joly's 






EXHIBITING, ETC. 



251 



Photozootrope, the picture-band was run past several 
eye-pieces, and illuminated by a central light and slotted 
drum. A portable peepshow, designed by Mr. Hughes, is 
seen in Fig. 235. The picture is thrown on a proscenium 
at the inner end of a box provided with several eye-pieces. 




FIG. 235. 

An ordinary projector can be used, and the structure is 
adapted to be easily taken to pieces and re-erected. 

A recent development one as yet in comparative 
infancy is the "Home" cinematograph. The Living 
Picture is almost surely destined to vie closely with the 



252 



LIVING PICTURES 



ordinary lantern for home and private entertainments, 
and many makers now specialize in apparatus simplified 
to the utmost limit for such purposes. The problem 




FIG. 236. 



of the necessary light, which is greater for a Living Picture 
than for an ordinary lantern-slide, is greatly simplified in 
the Pathescope, shown in Fig. 236, in which the light is 
generated in working the machine. 



CHAPTER VII 

COLOUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 

Principles of colour photography Additive methods Subtractive 
or superposition methods Kinemacolour Chronochrome. 

PRINCIPLES OF COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY. 

HOWEVER perfect and perfectly executed a black-and- 
white photograph may be, and even if toned in the various 
art tones now possible, it leaves something to be desired 
if the attractiveness of the object or view lies in its colours. 
Accordingly, apart from the methods of colouring films by 
hand and machine described in a previous chapter, the 
efforts of photographic scientists have from the earliest 
times been directed to the reproduction by photography 
of the colours seen by the eye, and as projected on the 
focussing screen of the camera. In the absence of a 
sensitive plate which will directly reproduce the colours 
projected on it, recourse must be had to indirect methods, 
and Clerk Maxwell, as early as 1861, showed how it could 
be done. Preceding him, Isaac Newton had demonstrated 
that ordinary white light consisted of a large number of 
different coloured lights which could be separated by a 
prism. On the theory that light is an undulation, then, as 
there are undulations of every different period from one 
end of the spectrum to the other, there are an infinite 
number of kinds of light in the spectrum, each of which is 
identified with a particular wave-length, and is therefore a 
pure colour that is, is not compounded of two or more 
colours. Newton also showed that the different colours 

253 



254 LIVING PICTURES 

of the spectrum could be recombined to reproduce the 
original white light. What was even more significant was 
that the white light could also be reproduced by a suitable 
combination of the colours from particular parts of the 
red, green, and blue-violet portions of the spectrum. Also, 
different colours could be obtained from different combina- 
tions of these three colours. Yellow, for example, could 
be obtained from red and green, and, indeed, all the 
colours of nature can be reproduced and imitated by suit- 
able combinations of these three red, green, and blue- 
violet coloured lights, which are from this fact called 
primary colours. No theory of the nature of light pro- 
vides any explanation of these facts, and accordingly an 
explanation was sought for in the constitution and function 
of the eye. Young's theory of colour vision is that the eye 
is provided with three sets of nerves, each of which is 
extremely sensitive to one of the three primary colours, 
and in a much less degree to the other two. The action 
of the light of any colour on the eye is quite independent 
of the wave-lengths contained in the colour. The impres- 
sion depends entirely upon the extent to which each 
of the three, nerves are affected. The pure yellow of the 
spectrum containing only one wave-length will affect the 
red and green nerves in just the same way as yellow com- 
pounded of red and green and containing probably several 
wave-lengths. If, then, we can reconstitute the colours of 
a picture in terms of the three primary colours, by suitable 
combinations of these colours, the effect to the eye will be 
the same as the original picture. Clerk Maxwell showed 
how this could be done, and how the results of Newton's 
researches and Young's theory of colour vision could be 
applied to photography. 

To take Maxwell's own description : " Let a plate of 
red glass be placed before the camera and an impression 
taken. The positive of this will be transparent wherever 
the red light has been abundant in the landscape, and 






COLOUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 255 



opaque where it has been wanting. Let it now be placed 
in a magic-lantern along with the red glass, and a red 
picture will be thrown on the screen. Let this operation 
be repeated with a green and a violet glass, and, by means 
of three magic-lanterns, let the three images be superposed 
on the screen. The colour of any point on the screen will 
then depend on the corresponding point of the landscape ; 
and, by properly adjusting the intensities of the lights, etc., 
a complete copy of the landscape, as far as the visible 
colour is concerned, will be thrown on the screen. The 
only apparent difference will be that the copy will be more 
subdued, or less pure in tint than the original. Here, 
however, we have the process performed twice first on 
the screen, and then on the retina." It is in this method 
assumed that the sensitive plates used for the colour 
images are equally sensitive to rays of every colour i.e., 
are panchromatic. To obtain a plate of this character is, 
however, more easy to assume than to accomplish. Max- 
well did, however, obtain the earliest colour reproductions 
by this process. Such processes, in which the projections 
of three component images of the red, green, and blue in 
the picture are added, are known as additive processes. If 
now we go a step farther, and suppose that we have three 
living-picture films in lieu of Maxwell's single images, and 
that these are run through three projectors simultaneously, 
and the projected pictures superposed on the screen, we 
should obtain a Living Picture in colours. Unfortunately, 
the direct application of Maxwell's method is attended by 
many difficulties ; but before dealing with these and the 
ways of avoiding them, it will be convenient to briefly 
describe other processes. 

Subtr active Processes. The foregoing method of adding 
colours by adding the projections of coloured lights must 
be clearly distinguished from methods which involve 
mixing pigments, or combining two or more filters and 
passing a beam of light through them. A very different 



256 LIVING PICTURES 

effect would, for example, be obtained if, instead of 
separately projecting the red, green, and blue-violet 
images produced by Maxwell's method, these were united 
together in register and used in a single lantern. The 
picture would be far from resembling the original. We 
can, it is true, imitate almost any colour by a suitable 
mixture of the three fundamental colours of artists 
carmine (pink), chrome-yellow, and blue (prussian blue) 
and these three colours are referred to by artists, and are 
popularly known as primary colours. The colour of a 
mixture of pigments is, however, very different from a 
true mixture of the colours of the separate pigments. 
Helmholz showed that when light falls on a mixture 
of pigments, part 'of it is acted on by one pigment only, 
and part of it by another ; while a third part is acted 
on by both pigments before it is sent back to the eye. 
The two parts reflected directly from the pure pigments 
enter the eye together, and form a true mixture of the 
colours ; but the third portion, which has suffered absorp- 
tion by both pigments, is often so considerable as to give 
its own character to the remaining tint. This is the 
explanation of the green tint produced by mixing most 
blue and yellow pigments. The process is one of subtrac- 
tion. The yellow pigment absorbs most of the blue and 
violet of the incident white light, reflecting the red and 
green, the combination of which is seen as yellow. The 
blue pigment, however, absorbs most of the red and yellow, 
whilst also reflecting the green. As the result, the green 
is the preponderating colour which reaches the eye. The 
amount of yellow and blue from the individual pigments 
which reaches the eye is very small compared with the 
amount of the light which suffers absorption by one or other 
of the pigments. This difference between the additive and 
the subtractive method of adding colours (to use an 
Irishism) is also illustrated in the following way : If we 
take three lanterns and project three discs of light partly 



COLOUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 



257 



overlapping, as shown in Fig. 237, and insert in each 
lantern a coloured filter, one coloured red, another coloured 
green, and a third coloured blue-violet, the result on the 
screen will be the colours indicated. This illustrates the 
addition of coloured lights. If, on the other hand, we use 
one lantern, and take three circular discs coloured yellow, 
pink, and blue, with the three fundamental colours of the 
painter, and partly superpose the discs, as illustrated in 
Fig. 238, the result will be as indicated, and the black 
centre illustrates the result of subtracting all the colours 
in the white projecting light by one or other of the filters. 
The white patch in the centre of Fig 237, on the other 



CKtfti 



BLUl 




FIG. 237. 



FIG. 238. 



hand, illustrates the result of adding the colours of the 
filters, if the colours are the primary colours red. green, 
and a blue-violet. 

The fact that it is possible to imitate almost any colour 
of nature by a suitable combination of these pink, yellow, 
and blue pigments suggests, however, that it should be 
possible to reconstitute the colours in a picture by three 
component images in these colours. The method of 
doing this was accomplished by a French scientist, Ducos 
du Hauron. The process is broadly as follows : Three 
negatives are taken, as in Clerk - Maxwell's additive 
process, through red, green, and blue-violet filters, which 

17 



258 LIVING PICTURES 

respectively pass the red, green, and blue-violet com- 
ponents of the light passing through them. The negative 
taken through the red filter will have an image wherever 
the red light has acted. The absence of image corre- 
sponds thus with the component light stopped by the 
red filter. The positive from the red negative will thus 
be a record of this subtracted component, and constitutes 
what is known as the minus-red positive. Now, when red 
is subtracted from white light, the result, known as the 
" complementary " colour, is blue-green, approximately 
the primary blue of the artist. The minus-red positive is 
therefore stained or coloured in this colour, the dye or 
colour being known as the " minus-red " colour. Simi- 
larly, from the negative taken through the green filter, the 
minus-green positive is obtained and coloured " minus- 
green," which is the " complementary " of green, and is 
approximately the pink of the artist. The negative taken 
through the blue filter gives the minus-blue positive, which 
is approximately the yellow of the artist, and the comple- 
mentary of the blue of the taking filter. 

These three colour components are superposed in exact 
register, and can be mounted either on paper or as a 
lantern slide. It will be seen that where there is white in 
the picture, there will be an image in each component 
negative, but no image in any of the component positives, 
so that the white paper base will be clearly visible ; or 
if the components constitute a lantern slide, the white 
projecting light will be freely passed. Similarly, where 
there is black in the picture, there will be no image in any 
of the component negatives, and there will be a super- 
position of three colour images in the combined positives, 
which produce the black. Where there is green in the 
picture, there will be images in the minus-red (the blue) 
and the minus-blue (the yellow) positives, and the green 
is reproduced by the same subtractive processes as 
described above in connection with a mixture of yellow 



COLOUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 259 

and blue pigments. Other colours are similarly recon- 
stituted. 

Supposing, then, that we have three coloured living- 
picture films made from negatives taken through the red, 
green, and blue filters instead of single images, and that 
these films are united in register, the projection of such a 
tripart film would give a Living Picture in colours. Thus 
we have a second method, theoretically possible, and on 
which much experimental work is being done, but again 
involving practical difficulties which so far have not been 
successfully removed. 

Other Additive Methods. (i) If we project colours alter- 
nately in sufficiently rapid succession, the resultant effect 
will be that the eye will merge the colours by persistence 
of vision. Thus, if, in taking a film, the successive ex- 
posures are made through red, green, and blue filters, 
each colour filter recurring at every third exposure, then 
the positive film will contain a recurring series of com- 
ponent red. green, and blue component images. If the 
film is passed through the projector, and the red, green, 
and blue filters caused to recur in front of the corre- 
sponding components, or alternatively, if the components 
are coloured or toned red, green, and blue respectively, 
then, provided the components recur sufficiently quickly 
for the eye to combine the colours, we should obtain not 
only the effect of motion, but also of colours. Kinema- 
colour is a development of this process. 

(2) If a surface is ruled with a series of lines alternately 
red, green, and blue, leaving no spaces, and so fine that 
the eye cannot detect any of the lines singly, the com- 
bined effect of the colours is produced. The same effect 
is produced if, instead of lines, we have small areas 
forming a mosaic. The use of such a screen for colour 
photography was introduced by Du Hauron in 1892. If 
a screen of this kind is coated with a sensitive emulsion, 
and the exposure made through the screen, the different 



260 



LIVING PICTURES 



sets of red, green, and blue areas serve the same function 
as Clerk-Maxwell's colour niters. If the exposed plate is 
developed as a positive, then the red, green, and blue 
component images will be split up into small areas behind 
the corresponding colour areas. As the eye cannot 
perceive the individual colour areas, it sees the combined 
effect of the three-colour images and a colour picture 
results. This is the principle used in producing what are 
known as Autochromes, Lumiere's screen which is used 
having colour areas made from very small starch grains. 
If, then, we could form a screen on celluloid and make a 
living-picture film in this way, we should presumably 






FIG. 239. 

obtain a Living Picture in colours. Unfortunately, there 
are many material difficulties in the way of obtaining for 
Living Pictures the very beautiful results obtained in still- 
life subjects. Joly, in 1896, introduced a modified method 
in which the screen need not be inseparably associated 
with the sensitive plate. He used the line screen first 
described, and in exposing the negative the screen is 
pressed into close contact with the sensitive surface. 

On printing a positive transparency we obtain images 
of the three colours, corresponding to Clerk-Maxwell's 
images, but broken up, and each image is associated with 
the corresponding colour filter by recombining the screen 



COLOUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 261 

with the positive, so that the red, green, and blue lines 
register with the images taken through them. The line 
screens have been improved upon, and various screens 
suggested, in which the colours are grouped according to 
a definite regular pattern, some of the patterns used being 
shown on a magnified scale in Fig. 239, in which the 
differently shaded or clear areas represent the different 
areas coloured in primary colours. The advantage of 
having a separate screen is that any number of positives 
can be produced from the one negative, whereas with a 
screen in which the colour areas are quite promiscuous 
and without any arrangement and order, no two screens 
will be alike, and the re-registration of the screen with the 
positive would be an impossibility. The direct application 
of this method for Living Pictures has been suggested, 
and much experimental work is being done on this process. 
Sensitiveness of Photographic Plates to Colours. In all the 
above methods it has been assumed that the sensitive 
plates used are equally sensitive to all colours. An ordin- 
ary plate, however, is not so sensitive. If exposed to the 
spectrum, the density of the image will vary considerably, 
the most active colours being at the blue end of the spec- 
trum, and the least active at the red end. It is possible, 
however, by suitably treating the plates with selected dyes 
and chemicals to make a plate sensitive to green or red. A 
plate thus treated is known as an orthochromatic plate. 
By treating the plate with a selected combination of dyes, 
it is possible to make it more equally sensitive to both 
green and red. Such a plate which is sensitive to all 
colours is known as a panchromatic plate. One of the 
greatest difficulties in obtaining Living Pictures has been 
to find a panchromatic emulsion which is sufficiently red- 
sensitive. This difficulty is not so acute for still-life pho- 
tography, since the restrictions in the time for exposure 
are not so great as with Living Pictures, where sixteen or 
more exposures every second are necessary. 



262 LIVING PICTURES 

The foregoing brief review of principles will, it is hoped, 
enable the reader to more easily follow the methods used 
for obtaining Living Pictures in colours. 

Friese Greene's Method. The first recorded method, by 
Friese Greene in 1899, is somewhat unique, and for that 
reason alone is interesting. It is primarily a method for 
still-life photography. A disc (Fig. 240), containing three 
red, green, and blue sectors, is rotated rapidly in front of 
the camera lens, so that the niters recur in rapid succes- 
sion. A positive is made from the negative, and is pro- 
jected behind the rotating disc. The patent specification 
explains that the negative will contain the vibrations, not 
only of the three colours employed, but also of all the 




FIG. 240. 

varieties of colour caused by the blending of these colours, 
and that the projected picture will show all the colours of 
the original. The idea apparently is to assist the plate 
to record and reproduce the colours projected on the plate. 
Unfortunately, the plate does not respond, and the method 
fails when put to practical test. 

Persistence of Vision Methods : Kinemacolour.The next 
proposal appeared in 1899 by Lee and Turner, and formed 
the starting-point of the modern Kinemacolour process. 
It is partly a persistence of vision method and partly a 
triple projection method. A three-sectored disc, as used 
by Friese Greene, is rotated in front of the camera lens at 
such a speed that the successive exposures on the film are 
made through the successive sectors. We thus obtain a 



COLOUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 



263 



recurring series of red, green, and blue colour records. 
The method of projecting is somewhat involved. Three 




consecutive pictures are superposed at a time by means 
of three projecting lenses, i l , i 2 , i 3 (Fig. 241), the red 
picture through a red filter, the green picture through a 




FIG. 242. 

green filter, and the blue picture through a blue filter. 
This is accomplished by a shutter (Fig. 242) formed of 
sectors, each sector having three concentric coloured 



264 LIVING PICTURES 

bands. The colours are stepped as shown, and the three 
sectors are separated by black sectors. If we follow one 
of the pictures on the film, say a red component, which is 
just entering the lens i l , when in front of this lens it is 
projected through the outer red sector R 3 on the shutter. 
When the film is stepped, the black sector masks all three 
lenses, and the red component is projected through the 
lens i 2 , through the middle red sector R 2 . After the 
next shift the same red component is projected through 
the lens 3 , through the inner red sector R 1 . Each com- 
ponent is thus projected three times. It will also be 
noted that three pictures are superposed which are not 
necessarily identical, especially if the living subjects in the 
picture are very active. The three pictures are, in fact, 
three successive phases of an ordinary picture film. We 
might reasonably expect, therefore, to find that there is a 
certain amount of fuzziness in the projected picture. In 
addition to this difficulty, the knowledge with regard to 
emulsions and filters was not at this time sufficiently far 
advanced to obtain a proper balance of colours in the 
picture. Nevertheless, the method had in it the germs of 
great possibilities, and many suggestions followed. The 
direct application of the persistence of colour vision 
method was suggested by Vaughan in 1902. The negative 
was to be taken through the same sectored screen (Fig. 240), 
as used by Friese Greene, and the positive band pro- 
jected through a similar screen, in which the sectors are 
separated by black sectors. This method obviates the 
superposition of three consecutive pictures, but introduces 
others, since in order that the eye may recombine the 
colours the speed of projection, and therefore of taking, 
has to be correspondingly increased. The fact that the 
exposures have to be made through colour filters makes 
matters much worse, and the exposure which is necessary 
is reduced beyond the limits for which the film can be 
sensitized for red. The strain on the film, moreover, both 



COLOUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 265 

in taking and projecting at nearly three times the ordinary 
speed, is prohibitive. 

In 1902 Mr. G. A. Smith was invited by Mr. Urban to 
assist in a thorough series of experimental researches with 
a view to obtaining colour reproductions. Mr. Stnith's 
story has been told by himself in a lecture before the 
Royal Society of Arts on December 9, 1908. The chief 
problems then existing were to find a film equally sensitive 
to all colours, and a method which would only necessitate 
the use of ordinary films and existing machines and 
accessories. Mr. Smith departs from Maxwell's three- 
colour system of colours, and maintains that it is possible 
to exhibit satisfactorily every colour to the eye, including 
the purest of whites, by dividing the spectrum into two 
parts. " If," says Mr. Smith, " we ask individuals to set 
down the principal colours of Nature, placing them in 
order of luminosity or brightness to the eye, the average 
of the lists will be as follows : white, yellow, orange, red, 
green, blue, violet, indigo, black. ... I find that it is 
possible with two carefully adjusted filters to pass to the 
sensitized plate or film colours in proportions parallel to 
the above order. Through one filter I pass white and 
yellow, then through orange and scarlet, to the darkest 
red I can sensitize for. Through the other filter I pass 
white and yellow again, as these two are at the head 
in luminosity and require fullest representation ; then on 
through green, blue-green, blue, and violet, in the propor- 
tions suggested by the above luminosity list. The aim 
is to secure, by a careful adaptation of filters to emulsion, 
a record of colour luminosity stated in gradations of tone 
from white to black, through a scale of greys, this scale 
being fully represented in two successive pictures. I take 
the pictures with an Urban Bioscope camera fitted with 
the required filters to come into action alternately. One 
film only is used, of the usual standard size, and I take the 
pictures at the rate of not less than sixteen per second 



266 LIVING PICTURES 

through each filter, or thirty-two pictures per second in all. 
When the negative record has been duly developed, and a 
positive transparency developed from it, this positive 
transparency represents, by its gradations of tone from 
black to white in each successive pair of pictures, not only 
a record in form and shape, but it also acts as a filter 
or sifter of light ; for when it is passed in the path of rays 
of coloured light it will screen or filter them so as to 
reconstruct for our eyes the various proportions of colour 
luminosity which were present in the scene when the 
record was made. ... The question now is, What rays 
of colour are we to use ? Apparently we must use the 
same colours that we used as filters in the camera, and, in 
fact, we may do so with pleasing results. But theoretical 
critics will point out that, owing to the unfortunate over- 
sensitiveness of the film to violet and blue, we must, 
of necessity, have cut these colours down to such an extent 
in our camera that if we use the same filters for recon- 
structing colour for the human eye, their absence will 
be sorely missed our whites will be so deficient in blue 
and violet that they won't be white at all, but orange 
or yellow. Our reply to this contention is, that white is 
very largely a comparative sensation. What we agree 
to call white in a painting, for instance, is often quite 
different from what we agree to call white in another 
painting, if we take steps to compare the two ' whites ' 
with one another. One may be yellowish or greyish com- 
pared with the other, yet both are white enough in their 
proper place in the picture, when surrounded with colours 
in proper 'key,' as it were, to them. Again, the whitest 
of paper will look yellow when compared with the purest 
white of fresh fallen snow. Therefore, our whites pro- 
duced by the mixture of coloured lights may possibly be 
somewhat yellow as a matter of spectroscopic reality ; but 
if the human eye accepts them as white by the comparison 
with other colours in the same picture, we need scarcely 



COLOUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 267 

bother our heads further. But another way of meeting 
the critical objection that the analytical niters of our 
camera are necessarily too deficient in violet and blue 
to give a proper rendering of colour when used as syn- 
thetical or reproduction filters in projection, is to intro- 
duce the missing beams of violet and blue into our 
projecting instrument, and so make ourselves practically 
secure of the whites or ' all-colour light,' required on 
theoretical grounds. This I find it an advantage to do ; 
and if you examine the light emanating from the project- 
ing machine when lighted up and at work, you will see 
that beams of red and green are alternately issuing from 
the lens, and that these beams have added to them by 
means of a supplementary shutter just those proportions 
of violet and blue required to make pure white when 
all are mixed. Thus we have light on our screen for our 
whitest objects, which contains, as it should contain to 
conform to theory, every colour of the spectrum from dark 
red to violet." 

In the camera used for taking Kinemacolour negatives 
the lens L (Fig. 243A) is exposed alternately behind the 
red and green coloured segments R and G, the opaque 
shutter S masking the lens during each shift of the film. 
The shutter used in the projector comprises the orange-red 
and blue-green sectors R', G 7 , between which are trans- 
parent sectors T, which cross the lens during the shift 
of the film. At this period a separate violet shutter 
crosses the lens to give the violet component, as referred 
to above. The centre part of the blue-green section of the 
shutter is modified in density to obtain a necessary balance 
of colour. The pictures taken through the red and green 
filters in the camera must, of course, be projected through 
the corresponding segments of the shutter in the projector. 
Fig. 244 illustrates a view of the projector. 

It is well to have the theory of the process from the 
inventor himself. The whole subject of colour and colour 



2 68 



LIVING PICTURES 



phenomena is, after all, very far from being understood, 
and it and the theories and problems arising from the 
inventor's description open a very wide field for discussion. 
According to the generally accepted theories, a two-colour 
system in which only two-colour component images are 
obtained, can at best be but a compromise for obviating 
some of the difficulties involved in a three-colour system. 
According to Dr. Mees, the process is " a striking testimony 





FIG. 243A. 



FIG. 243B. 



to the good practical results which may sometimes be 
obtained from a theoretically inaccurate system."' 

Theory or no theory, however, the facts remain that it 
was the first commercial process for obtaining Living 
Pictures in colours, that the colour illusion is in the 
majority of cases strikingly good, and that the enjoyment 
of hundreds of thousands has made the name of Kinema- 
colour deservedly famous. 



* Xiiturc, October 26, 1911, p. 556. 



COLOUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 



269 



Various suggestions have been made from time to time 
by way of modifications and improvements, chiefly with 




FIG. 244. 

regard to details. The selection of colours offers a wide 
scope for research. It has been proposed to interspace 



270 LIVING PICTURES 

the pictures with black-and-white projections at intervals, 
presumably to rest the eye and to enhance the colours. 
The eye cannot, of course, detect the interposed pictures. 
Again, it has been proposed to dispense with the rotating 
coloured niters, and to use a coloured band having alternate 
red and green colour patches which will coincide with the 
pictures. The band may be attached to the film, or alter- 
natively the band may be loose and perforated just like 
the film, in which case the sprockets are relied upon to 
keep the bands in proper register. An alternative to using 
colour filters for projection is to print the pictures as 
coloured components, for which purpose the bichromate 
methods of printing are recommended. Various modifica- 
tions have been suggested for the Kinemacolour shutter ; 
for example, to graduate the colour sectors used in colour, 
starting from red to yellow for one sector, and green 
to violet for the other sector. Other suggestions include 
means for adjusting the relative areas of the sectors. 

Simultaneous Projection Methods : Gaumont's " Chrono- 
chrome." The direct application of Clerk-Maxwell's 
method, as above suggested, has obvious difficulties. 
Three cameras and projectors would be necessary to start 
with, rendering the cost prohibitive. Very few, indeed, 
of the methods for still-life photography could for this, 
among other reasons, be possible for Living-Picture work. 
One of the earliest methods suggested for Living Pictures 
was suggested by Davidson in 1904. Colour filters, i, j, k, 
are fitted to the camera, as shown in Fig. 245, and by 
means of mirrors, e,f, g, h, three images are obtained on 
the focal plane at abc. The system may be modified 
for two-colour work by rearranging the filters and mirrors. 
It is not necessary, however, to use reflectors to obtain 
the component images. Friese Greene suggested in 1905 
the use of prisms. A small angled prism, d (Fig. 246), is 
fitted just behind the lens c of the camera, and operates 
to produce a refracted image, nq, adjacent to the direct 



COLOUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 271 

image, rj. These images are taken and projected through 
two-colour niters, e, f, and the film is moving through the 
plane rn. This method was exhibited in 1906, and the 
results inspired the hope that the method would be of 
practical value. None of such methods as the above in 
which mirrors or prisms are used to obtain the component 
images have, however, emerged from the lecture-room or 
the laboratory. 




FIG. 245. FIG. 246. 

Multiple Lem Systems. One solution of the difficulties 
of the above systems lies in the use of a separate lens in 
taking and projecting each component film. A practical 
difficulty in such method is to focus pictures of equal size 
sufficiently close together on the film, and to recombine 
them in register on the screen. Also the separate pictures 
are taken from adjacent positions, and this renders still 




FIG. 247. 

more difficult their exact superposition on the screen. 
The arrangement of objectives suggested by Christensen 
is illustrated in Fig. 247. To get the axes of the lenses as 
close as possible, and to equalize the exposures for the 
different colours, the lens for the blue colour is in the 
centre, and is recessed into the other two for the red and 



272 LIVING PICTURES 

green, which themselves are so proportioned as to equalize 
the exposures necessary for the three colours. In order 
to obtain pictures of exactly equal size, the lenses have 
the same focal length for the colours they respectively pass. 

Arrangement of the Different Colour Component Pictures 
on the Film. The simplest arrangements are those in 
which the component pictures are one above the other on 
an ordinary film, or side by side either on separate films 
of ordinary size, or on a film of twice or three times the 
ordinary width. In the first case the feed mechanism 
must feed the film through the space of two or three 
pictures at each shift, which would be a great strain on 
the film and feed mechanism of the camera or projector. 
In the latter alternatives the wide film might not keep 
perfectly flat, and special apparatus for the wide film is 
necessary. If the component pictures are squeezed into 
the space of an ordinary picture, as suggested by Ulysse, in 
Specification No. 17,872 of 1910, the pictures will be exces- 
sively small, and in addition there is the optical difficulty 
of obtaining good pictures so close together on the film. 

Gaumont's "' Chronochrome " System. To M. Gaumont, 
of Paris, belongs the credit of being the first to success- 
fully overcome the many difficulties and to successfully 
realize a practical three-colour system for Living Pictures 
in colours. The system, moreover, needs no scientific 
apology, as it is based on Clerk-Maxwell's original three- 
colour process, which is universally recognized as giving 
the best rendering of colours. The demonstrations in 
Paris in December, 1912, and in London in March, 1913, 
met with well-deserved appreciation from all quarters, and 
was universally recognized as being conclusive evidence 
of a notable achievement. The pictures are taken in sets 
of three, one above the other, on a film of standard width. 
This avoids any gauge complications. The pictures are 
not, however, of normal size, but each set of three pictures 
occupies the space of about two ordinary pictures. This 



COLOUR CINEMATOGRAPHY 



273 



necessitates a feed through two ordinary picture spaces at 
each shift. To get good pictures so close together on the 
film three lenses are used, each of which is cut off by two 
parallel planes. The lenses are thus similar in size and 
shape. Each lens is fitted with its colour filter. The 
optical superposition on the screen is accomplished by 
a very ingenious arrangement of the projecting lenses 
A, B, C (Fig. 248). The outer lenses A, C, are not only 



a 




d 



adjustable towards and away from the centre lens B, but 
are also pivotally adjustable both about their horizontal 
axes, c, d, and their vertical axes, a, b. The three lenses 
carry the colour filters, and are used in conjunction with 
three auxiliary condensers, situated behind the film gate. 
There is no room for two opinions as to the excellence of 
the pictures produced and exhibited, and that the process 
should have a future before it. 



18 



CHAPTER VIII 

LIVING AND SPEAKING PICTURES 

To make a picture on the screen realistic something more 
is necessary than the visual effect alone. To see persons 
in the act of talking without hearing what is said, or to 
see waves dashing on rocks, or lions seemingly roaring 
away, without hearing anything other than the faint buzz 
of the projector, leaves an impression of something lack- 
ing. From the very earliest times this want has been 
felt, and it is now rarely that a Cinematograph exhibition 
is given without a musical accompaniment of some sort. 
A suitable and appropriate selection of pianoforte music 
greatly improves an exhibition, and, on the other hand, an 
inappropriate selection, or a bad rendering of a good 
selection, is worse than no music at all. An ordinary 
piano is all that is used in many places, but a piano, 
organ, orchestra, or orchestra substitute, such as the 
Cinephonium, however excellent the instrument may be, 
have limitations ; and while these can be adopted to give 
music harmonizing to a large extent with most pictures, 
there are many sounds and noises, musical and otherwise, 
which require special devices for imitation, such, for 
example, as traffic, the buzz of aeroplanes, pistol shots, 
waves, and many others. Invention and ingenuity have 
not failed to supply means for imitating these in a very 
realistic manner, but it requires a very considerable 
amount of skill and practice to utilize such means to 
the best advantage. The person in charge of the music 
ajid effects has a very important part to play in any 

274 



LIVING AND SPEAKING PICTURES 275 

picture exhibition. The effects can easily be underdone, 
or overdone, or badly done ; they can too easily be brought 
in at the wrong time, and the person in charge requires 
to know the films beforehand, in order to be able to manip- 
ulate his tools in the right way and at the right time. 

The reproduction of the actual sounds, as well as the 
picture, was attempted in the earliest days of the Cine- 
matograph, and was used by Demeny for his Photophone, 
and by Edison for his Phonokinetograph and Kineto- 
phone. The production of imitation sounds or effects is 
quite a different problem to the reproduction of the actual 
sounds themselves. In the latter case the sound record 
has to be made and reproduced with the picture. It 
must, moreover, keep in time with the picture ; that is to 
say, there must be " synchronism " between the sound 
and the picture records. The ordinary gramophone 
record is obtained by the action of a vibrating membrane 
which produces a series of indentations in a soft surface 
of wax. These indentations are used to reproduce the 
vibrations of a membrane, and thereby reproduce the 
original sounds. Stripped of all refinements, this is 
the essential principle of the gramophone. If, then, a 
record of the sounds can be made simultaneously with 
the photographic record, it would not at first sight appear 
to be difficult to reproduce them in synchronism. The 
first of these problems is rendered difficult by reason of 
the limitations of the sensitiveness of the recording gramo- 
phone. The recording instrument must be within a 
certain range of the sounds, and for a speaker or actor 
the range is not a large one, and it is difficult to get the 
instrument near enough and keep it outside the picture 
view. Accordingly another method has been resorted to, 
which is applicable in a large number of cases. The 
gramophone record is taken first, and the picture film is 
produced to the accompaniment of the record. To 
succeed with this method it is obviously essential that 



276 LIVING PICTURES 

the speaking, singing, or acting, should synchronize with 
the sound record for synchronism between the same 
return and the picture film to be possible. A further 
limitation arises from the size of record obtainable. A 
small or short record means a short film. The size and 
length of an ordinary record is very limited, and for a 
speech, sketch, or piece of any material length, several 
records are necessary, and these would need to follow 
on at the proper time. Having obtained the record and 
picture film, the problem of reproducing them syn- 
chronously is still a formidable one. It is, of course, 
theoretically possible for the operator to keep his eye 
on the screen and his ear on the gramophone, and to 
control the projector or gramophone so as to maintain 
synchronism. This, however, throws an additional re- 
sponsibility on the already overburdened operator, and 
is not a practicable method. Accordingly, either an 
auxiliary device is necessary to automatically indicate 
to the operator if the synchronism is being maintained, 
or some means by which the running of the projector 
or gramophone, or both, is automatically adjusted to 
maintain synchronism. 

Alike with this problem of synchronism, as with the 
problem of colour cinematography, one almost instinc- 
tively looks to see what Messrs. Gaumont have achieved. 
In one of their earliest methods, introduced in 1902, a 
motor, AB (Fig. 249), is used to drive the projector K. 
This motor is electrically controlled from the gramophone, 
L. The gramophone drives a shaft, N, carrying collector 
rings, X, of an electric circuit ; and carrying also rotating 
brushes, D, E, which rub on a divided collector, the 
sections of which are connected to the stator of the 
motor, AB. The next step in advance is the use of 
synchronized motors for driving both the gramophone 
and the projector. Mester, in German) 7 , appears to have 
been working on the same lines, and special types of 



LIVING AND SPEAKING PICTURES 277 

motors are used. The two motors of identical design 
and the same power are driven from the same current, 
and in order to better maintain synchronism the motor 
armatures each have a number of sections which are 
connected in pairs. A switchboard near the projector 
includes a starting switch, whereby the gramophone is 
first set in motion ; and when the record commences, the 
gramophone disc operates a switch to start the projector. 
A voltmeter on the switchboard indicates any want of 
synchronism which is corrected by accelerating or retard- 
ing the projector. This is effected by coupling the pro- 
jector with its driving motor through a differential gearing, 
which is operated from a separate motor. This latter 




FIG. 249. 

motor is started by an auxiliary two-way switch, so that 
the differential can be used to retard or accelerate the pro- 
jector to restore the synchronism. The results obtained 
with the Chronophone are extremely satisfactory, and by 
the use of the Auxetophone, in which the sound is in- 
tensified by means of compressed air, the possibility of 
the Chronophone in large halls is quite a possibility, as is 
evidenced by its use at the Hippodrome in Paris, which 
has a seating capacity of over four thousand. 

The use of indicators for automatically indicating to 
the operator any want of synchronism has been adopted 
by many inventors in various ways. In one of the 
earliest (Fig. 250) two indicating elements are used, one 



378 



LIVING PICTURES 



consisting of a disc, s, rotated directly from the projector 
6, and the other a concentric pointer, r, rotated by an 
electro-magnet, which is intermittently energized by a 
circuit, completed on every revolution of the gramophone 
spindle d by means of a cam, e, on the spindle. The 
disc s carries a mark, and so long as the mark on the disc 
and the pointer are coincident, synchronism is being 
maintained. If the pointer leads or lags, the projector 
is speeded up or slowed down accordingly to restore 
synchronism. 





FIG. 250. 



FIG. 251. 



There is undoubtedly a comparative simplicity in such 
a method as this, of which there have been many varieties. 
In one by Thomassin (Fig. 251) a pointer, 7, is rotated 
intermittently by a pawl, 3, and an electro-magnet 
energized from the shaft 12 of the gramophone. The 
electrical escapement is mounted on a coaxial disc, 22, 
which is rotated in the opposite direction from the pro- 
jector shaft 13. So long as synchronism is maintained 
there will be no movement of the pointer, and any move- 
ment of the pointer indicates the adjustment necessary 



LIVING AND SPEAKING PICTURES 279 

for the projector. With this apparatus there is a single 
indicating element only. 

Another apparatus of this type, and the only one which 
appears to have survived and found its way into anything 
like extensive use, is the Vivaphone, devised by Mr. 
Hepworth. In this instrument a wheel, B (Fig. 252), 
carrying the indicating pointer M, is rotated by two pawls, 
D, I, which are actuated by two electro-magnets, G, L. 
These electro-magnets are intermittently energized from 
the projector and gramophone respectively. The spindle 
B' of the wheel B rests between parallel bars, A 3 , and if 
synchronism is upset, one pawl will rotate the wheel more 




FIG. 252. 

quickly than the other one, and thereby cause the pointer 
M to move to one side or the other. The pointer carries 
two red and green discs, M 1 , M 2 , which are thus brought 
opposite the lamp, and indicate any disturbance of 
synchronism. The attractiveness of the Vivaphone is that 
it is adaptable for any gramophone and any projector. 
The make and break contacts for intermittently energizing 
the electro-magnets are carried on two fittings, S, T 
(Figs. 253, 254). The fitting S rests on the disc of the 
gramophone, and has a knife-edge engaging in the slot of 
the centre pin, and the fitting T is carried by the driving 
shaft of the projector respectively. These fittings, S, T, 



280 



LIVING PICTURES 



and a battery, X, are connected up with the lamp K and 
electro-magnets G, L, of the indicator, as shown in 
Fig- 255- 
Another somewhat different method and apparatus, 





FIG. 253. 



FIG. 254, 



invented by Mr. Jeapes, which bears the stamp of extreme 
simplicity, was brought out as the Cinephone by the 
Warwick Trading Company. In this method a rotating 
pointer, 5 (Fig. 256), is attached to the gramophone and 





FIG. 256. 



driven by it. The gramophone is positioned so that a 
record of the rotation of the pointer is produced on the 
film at one corner thereof. The gramophone is placed 
near the corner io a of the projection screen, on which the 



LIVING AND SPEAKING PICTURES 281 

reproduction of the pointer appears. The operator then 
controls the projector so that the reproduction maintains 
the same angular speed as the pointer. 

A difficulty with several synchronizing devices where 
an indicating pointer is used arises when a film breaks or 
is damaged, and a section of it has to be cut away. In 
such cases it is necessary to slow down the projector until 
the gramophone catches up, but there is no visible indica- 
tion when synchronism is restored. With the Cinephone, 
however, the restoration of synchronism is indicated by 
the reproduction of the pointer on the screen. 




FIG. 257. 

The above by no means exhausts the devices of this 
character, which have been many and various, and a list 
of which is included in the Patents Appendix. 

In another type of device, by Count Proszynski, the 
projector is coupled with the gramophone by connecting 
the spindle A (Fig. 257) of the projector with an air-pump 
bellows, S, the air outlet T of which is regulated from 
the phonograph O in such a manner that when syn- 
chronism is faulty the bellows actuate a brake, B, or 
otherwise control the speed of the projector. 

In another and altogether different system, invented by 
Mr. Lauste in 1906, the sound as well as the picture are 



282 



LIVING PICTURES 



simultaneously recorded on the film. To obtain a photo- 
graphic record of sound may not be recognized as a 
common process, but it is nevertheless quite a possible 
one, and some method of recording the sound and the 
picture simultaneously on a picture film, either by photog- 
raphy or in some other way, may be found to be one of 
the best solutions of the problem of synchronization. It 
certainly would solve the problem of the long piece or 
play, since the continuous film is used for the sound 
record as well as the picture record. 

In Lauste's method the sound record is made photo- 




FIG. 258. 

graphically. A microphone transmitter, such as is used 
for collecting the sound-waves at concert halls for trans- 
mission, or, alternatively, one or more horns or trumpets, 
a (Fig. 258), connecting with any ordinary loud-sounding 
telephone or microphone transmitter, b, receives the 
sounds, and transmits them over an electric circuit, c d, 
to the receiver in the camera, A. At the receiver is an 
electro-magnet, B, and the varying electric currents pro- 
duced by the action of the sound-waves in the microphone 
transmitter b vibrate a slotted diaphragm, C' (Fig. 259), 
which moves between a fixed light and a fixed slotted 



LIVING AND SPEAKING PICTURES 283 

diaphragm, C. The vibrations of the diaphragm C' 
corresponding to the sound-waves produce variations in 
the light openings through the diaphragms C, C', and 
consequently variations in the intensity of light falling on 




FIG. 259. 

the sensitive film in behind the diaphragm are produced. 
The sensitive strip o (Fig. 260), on which the light falls, 
is adjacent to the picture area o of the film m, and, when 
developed, forms the sound record. The sound record 
must be made while the film is moving continuously, 



o 






r 



r 



r 



A 



r 



r 



r 



T^ 



FIG. 260. 

before or .after it is fed intermittently through the gate T 
of the camera. It will thus be seen that the sound record 
on the film is a few picture lengths behind the corre- 
sponding section of the picture record. To reproduce 
the sound record, use is made of the fact that the re- 



284 



LIVING PICTURES 



sistance or conductivity of a selenium cell, when included 
in an electric circuit, b, varies in accordance with the 
intensity of light acting on it. In the projector (Fig. 261) 
the film passes between a lamp, />', and a selenium cell, r, 
in circuit with a loud-sounding microphone or telephone, 
H. The variations in the current produced by the varia- 
tions in the light intensity transmitted through the sound 
record o, and falling on the selenium cell, cause a corre- 
sponding variation of the sound membrane in the loud- 
sounding microphone or telephone, H. 




FIG. 261. 

In another method, by Mrs. Von Madeler, the sound 
record on the film is constituted by a wavy edge produced 
on the film. The sound box B (Fig. 262) of the gramo- 
phone has to be actuated in proximity to the film A. 
The stylus consists of a rotated cutter, C, mounted on 
a pivoted bracket, D, and vibrated by an arm, E, con- 
nected with the diaphragm of the sound box B. The 
cutter C is adjacent to the edge of the film A, and the 
sound-waves are thus recorded and represented by the 
wavy edge of the film produced by the cutter, As in 



LIVING AND SPEAKING PICTURES 285 



the previous case, the sound record is taken while the film 
runs continuously, either before or after the film is fed 
intermittently through the gate. A duplicate record may be 
simultaneously reproduced on the other edge of the film. 
To reproduce the sound record the sapphire or needle F 1 
(Fig. 263) of the gramophone sound box has a flat end 
resting against the edge of the film A as it passes through 
the projector. The pressure of the needle is regulated by 
the balance weight G. 2 An alternative to the method of 
cutting the edge of the film by a rotary cutter consists in 
heating a platinum wire to a dull red heat sufficient to burn 




FIG. 262. 



FIG. 263. 



the edge of the film, and mounting this wire on an arm 
or frame connected with the diaphragm of the sound box, 
so that the vibrations of the wire may burn to a variable 
depth along the edges of the film. This method may be 
used to produce a film sound record of an ordinary disc 
record. With the above method the gramophone must 
obviously be near the camera and the projector, whereas 
by the photographic or photo-electric method the gramo- 
phone can be anywhere both in recording and reproducing. 
It is also possible to use more than one gramophone, which 
is Rosenberg's method, devised more especially to com- 



286 



LIVING PICTURES 



pensate for the disturbing effect on the sound production 
due to the movement of the source of sound say a speaker 
or actor. This dependency of the sound received, upon 




FIG. 264. 

the movement and distance of the sound, is well instanced 
by the sound of a whistle of an approaching and passing 
train. To produce a more correct sound reproduction 
two microphones, H 1 , H 2 (Fig. 264), are used to produce 



LIVING AND SPEAKING PICTURES 287 

a sound record, J, on a film running at one side of the 
picture film E. For reproduction, two sound-reproducing 
devices, H l , H 2 , are put on either side of the screen, A. 
The films, both in the camera and projector, can be run 
from the same gearing, and the synchronism can be 
adjusted by having a movable gate,/), carrying the sound- 
reproducing devices P 1 , P 2 . A further advantage of having 
a reproducer on either side of the stage is that the sound 
appears to come from the correct side of the picture. 

The methods above described do not by any means 
exhaust the many alternatives which might, if space 
permitted, be described. For example, Mr. Von Madeler 
has recently been engaged in perfecting the method of 




FIG. 265. 

directly coupling the projector and gramophone by inter- 
mediate shafting, which may be either rigid or flexible. 
In Fig. 265, which illustrates one method, the gramophone 
is driven from the picture machine through the shaft i 
and bevel gears o, p. The speed of the gramophone is 
limited by a governor, q, which has means for setting it as 
desired. The shaft i is telescopic at j, and has a ball and 
socket joint, r, to allow for lateral and vertical movement ; 
the bayonet caps n t n, at either end to link the shaft i with 
the driving shaft s of the projector and the gramophone 
shaft t. 

In concluding the subject of synchronization it is not 
superfluous to raise the not unimportant question, How far 
is the use of the gramophone really desirable or useful ? 



288 LIVING PICTURES 

Although it is now being more extensively used, it has so 
far been comparatively little used, and the reason is not far 
to seek. The peculiar tone of even the most perfected 
gramophone leaves much to be desired, and until this can 
be removed, and the gramophone is so perfected as to be 
a really '* musical instrument," its use will probably re- 
main very limited and restricted. 



CHAPTER IX 

CINEMATOGRAPH ACT AND REGULATIONS 



CINEMATOGRAPH ACT, 1909 
[9 EDW. VII. CH. 30.] 



ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS 

Section. 

1. Provision against cinematograph exhibition except 

in licensed premises. 

2. Provisions as to licences. 

3. Penalties. 

4. Power of entry. 

5. Power of county councils to delegate. 

6. Application to county boroughs. 

7. Application of Act to special premises. 

8. Application to Scotland. 

9. Application to Ireland. 

10. Short title and commencement. 



CHAPTER 30. 

AN Act to make better provision for securing safety at 
Cinematograph and other Exhibitions. 

[25th November, 1909.] 

Be it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual 
and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament 
assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : 

289 19 



2QO LIVING PICTURES 

1. &n exhibition of pictures or other optical effects by 
means of a cinematograph, or other similar apparatus, 
Provision ^ or ^ e P ur P oses f which inflammable films are 
against used, shall not be given unless the regulations 
tograph made by the Secretary of State for securing 
exhibition sa fety are complied with, or, save as otherwise 
ikerSed 11 expressly provided by this Act, elsewhere than 
premises. m premises licensed for the purpose in accord- 
ance with the provisions of this Act. 

The Act was passed on account of the extreme inflammability of 
the films used, and only applies where inflammable films are used. 
There is, however, no definition in the Act of the meaning to be 
attached to the word "inflammable." The Home Secretary has 
power to make regulations " for securing safety," but has no power 
to determine the scope of the Act by defining what is meant by the 
word "inflammable." The definitions given in Murray's Dictionary 
are capable of being inflamed or set on fire ; susceptible of com- 
bustion ; easily set on fire." All films, if subjected to a sufficiently 
high temperature, are capable of being set on fire, and are susceptible 
of combustion ; but the ease with which they are set on fire, and the 
susceptibility to combustion, vary considerably. Most of the " non- 
flam " films now procurable are not easily set on fire, and for 
practical purposes are absolutely safe. Perhaps the chief danger in 
the use of celluloid films is the danger of catching fire in the gate if 
the film breaks below the gate, and the safety shutter does not 
intercept the light sufficiently quickly. It has been held, however, 
that it is not a sufficient defence to a prosecution under the Act to 
demonstrate that the film will not catch fire in the gate if it is 
inflammable outside the gate (Victoria Pier [Folkestone] Syndicate, 
Ltd. v. Reeve, 76, J.P. 37).* The onus of proof is on the prosecution, 
who must show that a film is inflammable, and the question as to 
whether a film is inflammable within the meaning of the Act so as to 
bring an exhibition at which such films are used within the Act is a 
question to be decided by the Court in any particular case in which 
the question is raised. The uncertainty of the present position is, of 
course, very unsatisfactory, and it has been suggested that one 
solution of the difficulty would be for the Home Secretary to be given 
power to subject any make of film submitted to him to a definite 
test, and if the film satisfied the test, to certify such film as not being 
inflammable within the meaning of the Act. 

* In this chapter J.P. = Justice of the Peace ; T.L.R. = Times Law 
Reports, 



CINEMATOGRAPH ACT 291 

The Act does not apply to an exhibition given in a private dwelling- 
house to which the public are not admitted, whether on payment or 
otherwise (Sec. 7 [4]), nor does it apply to a case where film manu- 
facturers or dealers, bond fide, in the exercise of their trade of selling 
or renting out films, project films on to a screen in the presence of 
customers (Attorney General ?'. Vitagraph Company, Ltd. [Weekly Notes, 
November 28, 1914]). Special provisions are also made for premises 
occasionally used for entertainments (Sec. 7 [2]), and for structures of a 
movable character (Sec. 7 [3]). With these exceptions, an exhibition 
where inflammable films are used cannot be given " unless the regula- 
tions made by the Secretary of State for securing safety are complied 
with, or elsewhere than in premises licensed for the purpose in 
accordance with the provisions of this Act." The effect of the 
words is that " an exhibition cannot be given unless the regulations 
for securing safety, prima facie supposed to be made by the Secretary 
of State, have been complied with, and in addition the performances 
are to be given in a building licensed under the Act" (per Lord 
Alverstone, C.J., L.C.C. v. Bermondsey Bioscope Company, Ltd., 
75, J.P. 53). In Scotland and Ireland the regulations for securing 
safety are to be issued by the Secretary for Scotland and the Lord 
Lieutenant respectively (Sees. 8 [i], 9 [i]). 

Music Licences. Where music is provided at a cinematograph 
exhibition the first question to present itself is whether the place at 
which the exhibition is held becomes a " place used for music " within 
the meaning of the different enactments requiring such a place to be 
licensed. 

The general rule is that, where the music is incidental to, and not 
a principal part of, the entertainment, no licence is required. Now, 
what is incidental to, and not a principal part of, an entertainment, 
is a question to be decided from the facts in each particular case ; 
and it may very well be that the same facts which satisfy one 
tribunal that the music is incidental to the exhibition of pictures will 
lead another tribunal to the opposite conclusion. The existence of 
this uncertainty points to the desirability of cinematograph exhibitors 
obtaining a licence where music is a feature of more than trifling 
importance. (See L.C.C. v. Bermondsey Bioscope Company, Ltd., 
73 J.P., p. 458.) 

The law requiring a " place used for music " to be licensed is con- 
tained not in one Act of Parliament having general application 
throughout the kingdom, but in different Acts, each having only 
local application. It is, therefore, incumbent upon a cinematograph 
exhibitor desiring to have a musical accompaniment to his exhibition 
to ascertain the provisions of the Acts of Parliament applying to the 
locality in which he is exhibiting. 



292 LIVING PICTURES 

In this work it is not possible to do more than briefly outline the 
principal Acts relating to licences for music. In the cities of London 
and Westminster, and within twenty miles thereof, licences for 
music are granted under 25 George II., c. 36, and a place so licensed 
must have affixed upon the door or entrance in a conspicuous place 
an inscription in large capital letters, " Licensed pursuant to the 
Act of Parliament of the twenty-fifth George the Second." These 
licences, in respect of which no fees are payable, are granted by the 
London County Council in accordance with the orders made by the 
Council as the licensing authority under the Local Government 
Act, 1888. 

In the administrative county of Middlesex music licences are 
granted by the Middlesex County Council by virtue of, and subject 
to, the provisions of the Music and Dancing (Middlesex) Act, 1894. 

Elsewhere in the United Kingdom (except Scotland) music licences 
are granted by the authority duly empowered by the local Act, or, 
where there is no local Act, or Part IV. of the Public Health Acts 
Amendment Act, 1890, has been adopted, by the licensing justices 
under the provisions of Section 51 of that Act. 

Where a place is licensed under either the Music and Dancing 
(Middlesex) Act or the Public Health Acts Amendment Act, there 
must be affixed and kept up in some conspicuous place on the door 
or entrance an inscription in large capital letters in the words 
following : " Licensed in pursuance of Act of Parliament for Music." 

In Scotland a licence for music may be required either under a local 
Act or under Section 395 of the Burgh Police (Scotland) Act, 1892. 

Where it is desired to apply for a music licence, and uncertainty 
exists as to the proper licensing authority, the best course to adopt 
would be for the intending applicant to communicate with the clerk 
to the justices of the district in which the cinematograph exhibition 
sought to be licensed for music is situate. He will be in a position 
to give information as to the Act of Parliament under which applica- 
tion has to be made in the district, and as to the giving of notices of 
the application and the observance of any other preliminary for- 
malities required by local regulations. 

2. (i) A county council may grant licences to such 
persons as they think fit to use the premises specified 
p . in the licence for the purposes aforesaid on such 

sionsasto terms and conditions and under such restrictions 
as, subject to regulations of the Secretary of 
State, the council may by the respective licences 
determine, 



CINEMATOGRAPH ACT 293 

The county council may delegate its licensing powers in accord- 
ance with Section 5 of the Act, and where the licence is sought 
within a borough council area, the borough council is the licensing 
authority, and has similar powers of delegation (Sec. 6). In Scotland 
and Ireland the provisions as to delegation do not apply (Sees. 8 [4] 
and 9 [2]). 

The Act makes no provision for an appeal from the decision of the 
licensing authority where an application has been heard and deter- 
mined on its merits. There is no appeal by moans of a case stated 
(Huish v. Liverpool Justices, 30, T.L.R. 25). Where, however, it is 
alleged that there has not been a proper hearing, or that the decision 
of the authority is based on improper grounds, a rehearing may be 
obtained on an application being made to the King's Bench Division 
for a mandamus to hear and determine. 

A limited company is a " person " within the meaning of the Act, 
but if the licensing authority do not think that a company is a proper 
licensee, they may, of course, refuse to grant a licence. The general 
practice is to grant licences to an individual rather than to a body 
corporate. 

Provisional licences have been granted in respect of buildings 
prior to completion. 

The licensing authority may impose conditions in addition to the 
regulations issued by the Secretary of State, but cannot alter or vary 
the latter. Such conditions need not be solely directed to the object 
of securing safety, and the powers of the licensing authority under 
this section appear to be very wide. The condition requiring the 
premises to be closed on Sundays, Good Friday, and Christmas Day 
has been held to be a reasonable condition (L.C.C. v. Bermondsey 
Bioscope Company, Ltd., 75, J.P. 63). Conditions regarding the 
admission of children have also been made. 

(2) A licence shall be in force for one year, or for such 
shorter period as the council on the grant of the licence 
may determine, unless the licence has been previously 
revoked as hereinafter provided. 

(3) A county council may transfer any licence granted 
by them to such other person as they think fit. 

(4) An applicant for a licence or transfer of a licence 
shall give not less than seven days' notice in writing to the 
county council and to the chief officer of police of the 
police area in which the premises are situated of his inten- 
tion to apply for a licence or transfer : 



294 



LIVING PICTURES 



Provided that it shall not be necessary to give any 
notice where the application is for the renewal of an 
existing licence held by the applicant for the same 
premises. 

(5) There shall be paid in respect of the grant, renewal, 
or transfer of a licence such fees as the county council 
may fix, not exceeding in the case of a grant or renewal 
for one year one pound, or in the case of a grant or 
renewal for any less period five shillings for every 
month for which it is granted or renewed, so, however, 
that the aggregate of the fees payable in any year shall 
not exceed one pound, or, in the case of transfer, five 
shillings. 

(6) For the purposes of this Act, the expressions " police 
area " and " chief officer of police," as respects the city of 
53 & 54 London, mean the city and the Commissioner 
Vict.,c. 45. o f city Police, and elsewhere have the same 
meanings as in the Police Act, 1890. 

By the Police Act, 1890, Sec. 33, the expression "police area" 
means one of the areas set forth in the first column, and the expres- 
sion " chief officer of police " means the officer set forth in the 
second column hereunder. 



Police Area. 

The Metropolitan Police District. 

A county. 

A borough. 

A town not being a borough, and 
maintaining a separate police 
force under any local Act of 
Parliament. 

The River Tyne within the limit 
of the Acts relating to the Tyne 
Improvements Commissioners. 



Chief Officer of Police. 

The Commissioner of Police. 

The Chief Constable. 

The Chief or Head Constable. 

The Head Constable or other 
officer having the chief com- 
mand of the police. 

The Superintendent or other 
officer having the chief com- 
mand of the police. 



The term " county " in the above means an administrative county 
within the meaning of the Local Government Act, 1888, but does not 
include a county borough. Such parts of any county as are within 
the Metropolitan Police District, or as form part of any other police 
area, are not deemed to form part of the county police area. 



CINEMATOGRAPH ACT 295 

3. If the owner of a cinematograph or other apparatus 
uses the apparatus, or allows it to be used, or if the 

occupier of any premises allows those premises to 
be used, in contravention of the provisions of this 
Act or the regulations made thereunder, or of the condi- 
tions or restrictions upon or subject to which any licence 
relating to the premises has been granted under this Act, 
he shall be liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not 
exceeding twenty pounds, and in the case of a continuing 
offence to a further penalty of five pounds for each day 
during which the offence continues, and the licence (if any) 
shall be liable to be revoked by the county council. 

Proceedings under the Act are summary, and since the Act 
contains no provisions for an appeal, the general rules as to appeals 
from a conviction by a court of summary jurisdiction apply, with the 
result that so far as proceedings under this Act are concerned, there 
is no appeal except in the two following classes of cases : (i) Where 
a conviction is before a Metropolitan Police Magistrate, there is, by 
virtue of the Metropolitan Police Courts Act, 1839 (2 and 3 Viet., 
c. 71), Sect. 50, a right of appeal to Quarter Sessions in those cases 
in which the penalty ordered to be paid exceeds the sum of ^3 
(exclusive of costs). In those cases where the fine does not exceed 
that sum an appeal can only be secured if the magistrate on applica- 
tion consents to increase the amount. This secures a rehearing of 
the whole case at Quarter Sessions, and both fact and law are again 
in issue. (2) Where any person aggrieved desires to question a con- 
viction or order on the ground that it is erroneous on a point of law, 
or is in excess of jurisdiction, he may apply to such Court to state a 
special case for determination by the King's Bench Division of the 
High Court, setting forth the facts and the grounds upon which the 
proceedings are questioned ; and if the Court declines to state a case, 
the applicant may apply to the High Court for an order requiring 
the case to be stated. 

4. A constable or any officer appointed for the purpose 
by a county council may at all reasonable times enter any 
Power of premises, whether licensed or not, in which he 
entry. nas re ason to believe that such an exhibition 
as aforesaid is being or is about to be given, with a view 



296 LIVING PICTURES 

to seeing whether the provisions of this Act, or any regula- 
tions made thereunder, and the conditions of any licence 
granted under this Act, have been complied with, and, if 
any person prevents or obstructs the entry of a constable 
or any officer appointed as aforesaid, he shall be liable, on 
summary conviction, to a penalty not exceeding twenty 
pounds. 

5. Without prejudice to any other powers of delega- 
tion, whether to committees of the council or to district 
Power of counc il s > a county council may, with or with- 
county out any restrictions or conditions as they may 
to dele- 8 think fit, delegate to justices sitting in petty 
8 ate - sessions any of the powers conferred on the 
council by this Act. 

6. The provisions of this Act shall apply in the case of 
A lica a count y borough as if the borough council were 
tion to a county council, and the expenses of the borough 
boroughs council shall be defrayed out of the borough fund 

or borough rate. 

7. (i) Where the premises are premises licensed by 
Applica- the Lord Chamberlain the powers of the county 
tion of council under this Act shall, as respects these 
special premises, be exercisable by the Lord Chamber- 
premises. j a j n ms tead of by the county council. 

(2) Where the premises in which it is proposed to give 
such an exhibition as aforesaid are premises used occasion- 
ally and exceptionally only, arid not on more than six 
days in any one calendar year, for the purposes of such 
an exhibition, it shall not be ilecessary to obtain a licence 
for those premises under this Act if the occupier thereof 
has given to the county council and to the chief officer of 
police of the police area, not less than seven days before 
the exhibition, notice in writing of his intention so to use 



CINEMATOGRAPH ACT 297 

the premises, and complies with the regulations made by 
the Secretary of State under this Act, and, subject to 
such regulations, with any conditions imposed by the 
county council, and notified to the occupier in writing. 

(3) Where it is proposed to give any such exhibition as 
aforesaid in any building or structure of a moveable char- 
acter, it shall not be necessary to obtain a licence under 
this Act from the council of the county in which the 
exhibition is to be given if the owner of the building or 
structure 

(a) has been granted a licence in respect of that build- 

ing or structure by the council of the county 
in which he ordinarily resides, or by any 
authority to whom that council may have dele- 
gated the powers conferred on them by this Act ; 
and 

(b) has given to the council of the county and to the 

chief officer of police of the police area in which 
it is proposed to give the exhibition, not less than 
two days before the exhibition, notice in writing 
of his intention to give the exhibition ; and 

(c) complies with the regulations made by the Secre- 

tary of State under this Act, and, subject to such 
regulations, with any conditions imposed by the 
county council, and notified in writing to the 
owner. 

(4) This Act shall not apply to an exhibition given in 
a private dwelling-house to which the public are not 
admitted, whether on payment or otherwise. 



8 ' This Act sha11 extend to Scotland subject to 
Scotland, the following modifications : 

(i) For references to the Secretary of State there shall 
be substituted references to the Secretary for 
Scotland : 



*9$ LIVING PICTURES 

(2) For the reference to the Police Act, 1890, there 
53 & 54 shall be substituted a reference to the Police 
ct '' c - 67 ' (Scotland) Act, 1890: 

By the Police (Scotland) Act, 1890, the expression " police area 
means one of the areas set forth in the first column, and the expres- 
sion " chief officer " means the officer set forth in the second column 
hereunder. 



Police Area. 



A county. 

A burgh or police burgh. 



Chief Officer of Police. 
The Chief Constable. 
The Chief Constable or Super- 
intendent. 



(3) The expression "county borough" means a royal, 

parliamentary, or police burgh ; and the expres- 
sion " borough council " means the magistrates 
of the burgh ; and the expression " borough fund 
or borough rate " means any rate within the 
burgh leviable by the town council equally on 
owners and occupiers : 

(4) The provision relating to the delegation of powers 

shall not apply. 



" 9 * This Act sha11 extend to Ireland subject to 
Ireland, the following modifications : 

(1) For references to the Secretary of State there shall 

be substituted references to the Lord Lieutenant: 

(2) The provision of this Act relating to the delegation 

of powers shall not apply : 

(3) Any of the powers conferred on the county council 

by this Act may be exercised by any officer of the 
council authorized in writing by the council in 
that behalf for such period and subject to such 
restrictions as the council think fit : 

(4) In any urban district other than a county borough, 

and in any town, the provisions of this Act shall 
apply as if the council of the district and the 



CINEMATOGRAPH ACT 299 

commissioners of the town, as the case may be, 
were a county council : 

(5) The expenses incurred in the execution of this Act 

shall 

(a) in the case of the council of any county 
other than a county borough, be defrayed out of 
the poor rate and raised over so much of the 
county as is not included in any urban district or 
town ; 

(b) in the case of the council of any county 
borough or other urban district, be defrayed out 
of any rate or fund applicable to the purposes of 
the Public Health (Ireland) Acts, 1878 to 1907, 
as if incurred for those purposes ; 

(c) in the case of the commissioners of any 
town, be defrayed out of the rate leviable under 
section sixty of the Towns Improvement (Ireland) 

& !8 Act, J ^54 : Provided that the limits im- 

vict, posed upon that rate by that section may 

be exceeded for the purpose of raising 

the expenses incurred under this Act by not more 

than one penny in the pound : 

(6) The expression "town " means any town as denned 

61 & 62 by the Local Government (Ireland) Act, 
Viet, c. 37. jgg^ no f. being an urban district : 

(7) The expressions "police area " and " chief officer of 

police " mean, as respects the police district of 
Dublin Metropolis, that district and the chief 
commissioner of the police for that district, 
and elsewhere a police district and the county 
inspector of the Royal Irish Constabulary. 

10. This Act may be cited as the Cinemato- 

Short title , , , ,, 

and com- graph Act, 1909, and shall come into operation 
mence- on fae first day of January nineteen hundred 

ment. 

and ten. 



3oo LIVING PICTURES 

STATUTORY RULES AND ORDERS, 1910 
No. 189 



CINEMATOGRAPH, ENGLAND 



REGULATIONS, DATED FEBRUARY 18, 1910, MADE BY THE 
SECRETARY OF STATE UNDER THE CINEMATOGRAPH ACT, 
1909 (9 EDW. VII., c. 30). 

In pursuance of the power vested in me by the Cine- 
matograph Act, 1909 (9 Edw. VII., c. 30), I hereby make the 
following regulations : 

GENERAL. 

1. In these regulations the word " building " shall be 
deemed to include any booth, tent, or similar structure. 

2. No building shall be used for cinematograph or 
other similar exhibitions to which the Act applies, unless 
it be provided with an adequate number of clearly indi- 
cated exits so placed and maintained as readily to afford 
the audience ample means of safe egress. 

The seating in the building shall be so arranged as not 
to interfere with free access to the exits ; and the gang- 
ways and the staircases, and the passages leading to the 
exits shall, during the presence of the public in the build- 
ing, be kept clear of obstructions. 

3. The cinematograph operator and all persons respon- 
sible for or employed in, or in connection with, the 
exhibition shall take all due precautions for the pre- 
vention of accidents, and shall abstain from any act 
whatever which tends to cause fire and is not reasonably 
necessary for the purpose of the exhibition. 



CINEMATOGRAPH ACT 301 

FIRE APPLIANCES. 

4. Fire appliances adequate for the protection of the 
building shall be provided, and shall include at least the 
following, namely, a damp blanket, two buckets of water, 
and a bucket of dry sand. In a building used habitually 
for the purpose of cinematograph or other similar exhi- 
bitions they shall also include a sufficient number of hand 
grenades or other portable fire-extinguishers. 

The fire appliances shall be so disposed that there shall 
be sufficient means of dealing with fire readily available 
for use within the enclosure. Before the commencement 
of each performance the cinematograph operator shall 
satisfy himself that the fire appliances intended for use 
within the enclosure are in working order, and during the 
performance such appliances shall be in the charge of 
some person specially nominated for that purpose, who 
shall see that they are kept constantly available for use. 

ENCLOSURES. 

Regulations applying in all Cases and to all Classes 
of Buildings. 

5. (i) (a) The cinematograph apparatus shall be 
placed in an enclosure of substantial construction made 
of or lined internally with fire-resisting material, and of 
sufficient dimensions to allow the operator to work freely. 

(b) The entrance to the enclosure shall be suitably 
placed, and shall be fitted with * self-closing, close-fitting 
door constructed of fire-resisting material. 

(c) The openings through which the necessary pipes 
and cables pass into the enclosure shall be efficiently 
bushed. 

(d) The openings in the front face of the enclosure 
shall not be larger than is necessary for effective pro- 
jection, and shall not exceed two for each lantern. Each 



302 LIVING PICTURES 

such opening shall be fitted with a screen of fire-resisting 
material, which can be released both inside and outside 
the enclosure so that it automatically closes with a close- 
fitting joint. 

(e) The door of the enclosure and all openings, bushes 
and joints shall be so constructed and maintained as to 
prevent, so far as possible, the escape of any smoke into 
the auditorium. If means of ventilation are provided, 
they shall not be allowed to communicate direct with the 
auditorium. 

(/) If the enclosure is inside the auditorium, either 
a suitable barrier shall be placed round the enclosure 
at a distance of not less than 2 feet from it, or other 
effectual means shall be taken to prevent the public from 
coming into contact with the enclosure. 

(g) No unauthorized person shall go into the enclosure 
or be allowed to be within the barrier. 

(h) No smoking shall at any time be permitted within 
the barrier or enclosure. 

(1) No inflammable article shall unnecessarily be taken 
into or allowed to remain in the enclosure. 

Regulations applying only to Specified Classes of Buildings. 

(2) In the case of buildings used habitually for cine- 
matograph or other similar exhibitions, the enclosure 
shall be placed outside the auditorium ; and in the case 
of permanent buildings used habitually as aforesaid the 
enclosure shall also be permanent. 

Provided, with regard to the foregoing requirements, 
that, if the licensing authority is of opinion that com- 
pliance with either or both of them is impracticable or 
in the circumstances unnecessary for securing safety, and 
shall have stated such opinion by express words in the 
licence, the requirement or requirements so specified shall 
not apply. 



CINEMATOGRAPH ACT 303 

LANTERNS, PROJECTORS AND FILMS. 

6. Lanterns shall be placed on firm supports con- 
structed of fire-resisting material, and shall be provided 
with a metal shutter which can be readily inserted between 
the source of light and the film gate. 

The film gate shall be of massive construction, and shall 
be provided with ample heat-radiating surface. The 
passage for the film shall be sufficiently narrow to prevent 
flame travelling upwards or downwards from the light- 
opening. 

7. Cinematograph projectors shall be fitted with two 
metal film boxes of substantial construction, and not more 
than 14 inches in diameter, inside measurement, and to 
and from these the films shall be made to travel. The 
film boxes shall be made to close in such a manner, and 
shall be fitted with a film slot so constructed, as to prevent 
the passage of flame to the interior of the box. 

8. Spools shall be chain or gear driven, and films shall 
be wound upon spools so that the wound film shall not at 
any time reach or project beyond the edges of the flanges 
of the spool. 

9. During the exhibition all films when not in use shall 
be kept in closed metal boxes. 

i 

LIGHTING. 

10. Where the general lighting of the auditorium and 
exits can be controlled from within the enclosure, there 
shall also be separate and independent means of control 
outside and away from the enclosure. 

11. No illuminant other than electric light or limelight 
shall be used within the lantern. 

Electric Light. 

12. (a) Within the enclosure the insulating material of- 
all electric cables, including " leads " to lamps, shall be 
covered with fire-resisting material. 



304 LIVING PICTURES 

(b) There shall be no unnecessary slack electric cable 
within the enclosure. The " leads " to the cinematograph 
lamp shall, unless conveyed within a metal pipe or other 
suitable casing, be kept well apart both within and without 
the enclosure, and shall run so that the course of each 
may be readily traced. 

(c) Cables for cinematograph lamps shall be taken as 
separate circuits from the source of supply, and from the 
supply side of the main fuses in the general lighting cir- 
cuit, and there shall be efficient switches and fuses inserted 
at the point where the supply is taken, and in addition an 
efficient double-pole switch shall be fitted in the cinemato- 
graph lamp circuit inside the enclosure. When the 
cinematograph lamp is working, the pressure of the current 
across the terminals of the double-pole switch inside the 
enclosure shall not exceed no volts. 

(d) Resistances shall be made entirely of fire-resisting 
material, and shall be so constructed and maintained that 
no coil or other part shall at any time become unduly 
heated.* All resistances, with the exception of a resistance 
for regulating purposes, shall be placed outside the en- 
closure, and, if reasonably practicable, outside the audi- 
torium. If inside the auditorium, they shall be adequately 
protected by a wire guard or other efficient means of 
preventing accidental contact. 

The operator shall satisfy himself before the commence- 
ment of each performance that all cables, leads, connections, 
and resistances are in proper working order. The resist- 
ances, if not under constant observation, shall be inspected 
at least once during each performance. If any fault 
is detected, current shall be immediately switched off, 
and shall remain switched off until the fault has been 
remedied. 

* E.g., they should not become so heated that a piece of news- 
paper placed in contact with any part of the resistance would readily 
ignite. 



CINEMATOGRAPH ACT 30$ 

Limelight. 

13. (a) If limelight be used in the lantern the gas 
cylinders shall be tested and filled in conformity with the 
requirements set out in the Appendix hereto. The tubing 
shall be of sufficient strength to resist pressure from 
without, and shall be properly connected up. 

(b) No gas shall be stored or used save in containers 
constructed in accordance with the requirements contained 
in the Appendix. 

LICENCES. 

14. Every licence granted under the Act shall contain 
specific conditions for the carrying out of regulations 2 
and 5 (i) (a), (6), (c), (d), (e), (/), in the building for which 
the licence is granted, and may, in accordance with 
regulation 5 (2), contain an expression of opinion on the 
matters referred to in the proviso thereto. 

15. Subject to the provisions of No. 16 of these regula- 
tions, every licence granted under the Act shall contain a 
clause providing for its lapse, or, alternatively, for its 
revocation by the licensing authority, if any alteration is 
made in the building or the enclosure without the sanction 
of the said authority. 

16. Where a licence has been granted under the Act in 
respect of a moveable building, a plan and description of 
the building, certified with the approval of the licensing 
authority, shall be attached to the licence. Such a licence 
may provide that any of the conditions or restrictions con- 
tained therein may be modified either by the licensing 
authority or by the licensing authority of the district where 
an exhibition is about to be given. The licence and plan 
and description or any of them shall be produced on 
demand to any police constable or to any person authorized 
by the licensing authority or by the authority in whose 



306 LIVING PICTURES 

district the building is being or is about to be used for the 
purpose of an exhibition. 

17. The regulations dated December 2Oth, 1909, made 
under the Cinematograph Act, 1909, are hereby repealed, 
provided, nevertheless, that any licence granted prior to 
such repeal shall remain valid for the period for which it 
was granted without the imposition of any more stringent 
condition than may have been imposed at the time of the 
grant. 

Given under my hand at Whitehall this eighteenth day 

of February, 1910. 

H. J. GLADSTONE, 

One of His Majesty's Principal 
Secretaries of State. 



APPENDIX. 



LIMELIGHT. 

The gas cylinders shall be tested and filled in conformity 
with the requirements set out below, which follow the 
recommendations of the Departmental Committee of the 
Home Office on the Manufacture of Compressed Gas 
Cylinders [C. 7952 of 1896] : 

Cylinders of Compressed Gas (Oxygen, Hydrogen, or 
Coal Gas). 

(a) Lap- welded Wrought Iron. Greatest working 
pressure, 120 atmospheres, or 1,800 Ibs. per square 
inch. 

Stress due to working pressure not to exceed 
6J tons per square inch. r 

Proof pressure in hydraulic test, after annealing, 
224 atmospheres, or 3,360 Ibs. per square inch. 



CINEMATOGRAPH ACT 307 

Permanent stretch in hydraulic test not to exceed 
10 per cent, of the elastic stretch. 

One cylinder in 50 to be subjected to a statical 
bending test, and to stand crushing nearly flat between 
two rounded knife-edges without cracking. 

(b) Lap-welded or Seamless Steel. Greatest working 
pressure, 120 atmospheres, or 1,800 Ibs. per square 
inch. 

Stress due to working pressure not to exceed 
7-J tons per square inch in lap-welded, or 8 tons per 
square inch in seamless cylinders. 

Carbon in steel not to exceed 0*25 per cent., or iron 
to be less than 99 per cent. 

Tenacity of steel not to be less than 26 or more 
than 33 tons per square inch. Ultimate elongation 
not less than 1*2 inches in 8 inches. Test-bar to be 
cut from finished annealed cylinder. 

Proof pressure in hydraulic test, after annealing, 
224 atmospheres, or 3,360 Ibs. per square inch. 

Permanent stretch shown by water jacket not to 
exceed 10 per cent, of elastic stretch. 

One cylinder in 50 to be subjected to a statical 
bending test, and to stand crushing nearly flat 
between rounded knife-edges without cracking. 

Regulaticns applicable to all Cylinders. 

Cylinders to be marked with a rotation number, 
a manufacturer's or owner's mark, an annealing mark 
with date, a test mark with date. The marks to be 
permanent and easily visible. 

Testing to be repeated at least every two years, 
and annealing at least every four years. 

A record to be kept of all tests. 

Cylinders which fail in testing to be destroyed or 
rendered useless. 



308 LIVING PICTURES 

Hydrogen and coal gas cylinders to have left- 
handed threads for attaching connections and to be 
painted red. 

The compressing apparatus to have two pressure 
gauges, and an automatic arrangement for preventing 
overcharging. The compressing apparatus for oxygen 
to be wholly distinct and unconnected with the com- 
pressing apparatus for hydrogen and coal gas. 

Cylinders not to be refilled till they have been 
emptied. 

If cylinders are sent out unpacked, the valve fittings 
should be protected by a steel cap. 

A minimum weight to be fixed for each size of 
cylinder in accordance with its required thickness. 
Cylinders of less weight to be rejected. 



STATUTORY RULES AND ORDERS, 1913 
No. 566 



CINEMATOGRAPH, ENGLAND 



REGULATIONS, DATED MAY 20, 1913, MADE BY THE SECRETARY 
OF STATE UNDER THE CINEMATOGRAPH ACT, 1909 
(9 EDW. VII., c. 30). 

In pursuance of the power vested in me by the Cinema- 
tograph Act, 1909 (9 Edw. VII., c. 30), I hereby make 
the following regulations : 

LIGHTING. 

i. Number n of the Regulations dated February i8th, 
1910, made by the Secretary of State under the Cinema- 



CINEMATOGRAPH ACT 309 

tograph Act, 1909, is amended so as to read as 
follows : 

No illuminant other than electric light, limelight or 
acetylene shall be used within the lantern. 

2. No acetylene shall be used unless supplied direct 
from cylinders or other vessels containing a homogeneous 
porous substance, with or without acetone, and unless as 
regards such vessels, their contents and the degree of 
compression, the following requirements of the Secretary 
of State's Order of the 6th August, 1912, under the 
Explosives Act, 1875, "and the Order in Council of the 
26th November, 1897, are complied with, namely : 

(1) The pressure shall not exceed one hundred and 

fifty pounds to the square inch. 

(2) The porous substance shall fill, as completely as 

possible, the cylinder or other vessel into which 
the acetylene is compressed, and the porosity of 
the substance shall not exceed eighty per cent. 

(3) Every cylinder or other vessel into which acety- 

lene is to be compressed shall be thoroughly 
tested to a pressure of not less than double 
that to which the vessel is to be subjected in 
use, and shall be fitted with a fusible plug 
designed to act at or below a temperature of 
212 F. 

(4) Every cylinder or vessel in which acetylene is 

compressed shall be permanently and con- 
spicuously marked with the name of the manu- 
facturer and the words " Acetylene compressed 
into porous substance exempted by Order of 
Secretary of State dated 6th August, 1912," 
and shall bear a label giving the date when it 
was last filled together with the narrje and 
address of the filler. 



310 LIVING PICTURES 

(5) When acetone is used for absorbing the acetylene 
due precaution shall be taken that the quantity 
of acetone is such that when fully charged with 
acetylene it does not completely fill the porosity 
of the porous substance. 

Given under my hand at Whitehall, this aoth day of 
May, 1913. 

R. McKENNA, 

One of His Majesty's Principal 
Secretaries of State. 



CHAPTER X 

COPYRIGHT 
The Copyright Act, 1911 

THE provisions of the Copyright Act, 1911, materially 
affect those engaged in the Living Picture industry. Under 
the law as it stood before the Act it was not an unknown 
thing for a person who was not the author to reproduce a 
film that had had a popular run and to put it on the 
market, and now that the process of reproduction is so 
much easier, it is very essential that film producers should 
have full protection for their productions. 

Nature of Copyright. This is explained in Section i of 
the Act as follows : " For the purpose of this Act, * copy- 
right ' means the sole right to produce or reproduce the 
work, or any substantial part thereof, in any material form 
whatsoever, to perform, or in the case of a lecture to 
deliver, the work or any substantial part thereof in public ; 
if the work is unpublished, to publish the work or any 
substantial part thereof ; and shall include the sole right 
(a) to produce, reproduce, perform or publish any transla- 
tion of the work ; (b) in the case of a dramatic work, to 
convert it into a novel or other non-dramatic work ; (c) in 
the case of a literary, dramatic, or musical work, to make 
any record, perforated roll, cinematograph film, or other 
contrivance by means of which the work may be mechani- 
cally performed or delivered, and to authorize any such 
acts as aforesaid." 

Copyright protection is now entirely based upon the 
provisions of the Act, and all Common Law rights are 

311 



312 LIVING PICTURES 

explicitly abrogated (Sec. 31 ), No registration or other for- 
mality is now necessary. The only conditions precedent 
for copyright protection in a work are (i) That the work 
is original ; (2) that it is a work of a character entitling it 
to protection ; and (3) in the case of a published work, 
that it is first published in territory where the Act extends, 
and in the case of an unpublished work that the author is 
either resident in such territory, or is a British subject 
(Sec. i [i]). The above definition of copyright is about 
as wide as could possibly have been framed. Every 
original literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic work is 
protected (Sec. i [i]). Artistic works include photographs, 
so that inasmuch as cinematograph films are photographs 
they would appear to be subject to such provisions of the 
Act as apply to photographs. Protection is also definitely 
afforded to original dramatic works against cinematograph 
reproduction. The protection of dramatic works against 
reproduction by cinematography had hitherto been con- 
fined to such works in which there was some plot or story 
which could be reduced to writing. In an action (Karno 
v. Pathe Freres, 99 L.T., 114, and 100 L.T., 260) brought 
in 1908 by the author of a popular sketch called "The 
Mumming Birds," the defendants had made a film for 
which they engaged living persons whom they got up like 
the actors in the original sketch. The film was in all 
essentials a copy of the original sketch. It was held, 
however, as in a previous decision (Tate v. Fulbrook, 
98 L.T., 706), that a pantomimical sketch substantially or 
mainly in dumb show, and without a definite story which 
could be written, was not a " dramatic work of entertain- 
ment " which was entitled to the protection given by the 
Dramatic Copyright Act, 1883. The latter Act is repealed 
by the present Act, and the definition of a " dramatic 
work " in Section 33 of the Act leaves hardly any room 
for doubt that the fullest protection is now intended to be 
afforded against cinematographic piracy of any dramatic 



COPYRIGHT 313 

work whatsoever. A film showing pierrots on the shore 
or elsewhere would even appear to infringe the copyright 
which automatically subsists in any original piece being 
represented. An original piece for a dramatic film will 
also be protected against a copy or reproduction of the 
piece, whether produced as a film or as an acted piece ; 
but the production of a film representing a story in which 
no copyright exists will not presumably prevent another 
person producing another film of the same story, so long 
as the latter production is an independent one, and not a 
mere copy of the first film. The photographer of any 
public event will have copyright in his negative, but 
cannot prevent the issue of a film or photos of the same 
event taken by another photographer. 

Publication means the issue of copies to the public, 
but does not include the performance in public of a 
dramatic or musical work (Sec. i [3]). The photograph 
or film, or the musical record, as the case may be, must 
have been purchasable, or otherwise obtainable, from the 
manufacturer. It would probably be sufficient if only one 
copy or record is sold, or even if only one is offered for 
sale. The publication or issue must, however, be bona 
fide, and not colourable only (Sec. 35 [3]), and it must 
satisfy the reasonable requirements of the public. The 
publication must also be with the consent of the author 
or his executors or assigns (Sec. 35 [2]). Performance 
includes any acoustic representation of a work, and any 
visual representation of any dramatic action in a work, 
including such a representation made by means of any 
mechanical instrument (Sec. 35 [i]). Copyright will 
still subsist even though the work is not published, pro. 
vided that the author is either a British subject or resident 
i.e., domiciled in territory where the Act extends. If, 
however, the work is first published outside such territory, 
even though the author is a British subject, copyright 
will cease to exist, and cannot be revive4 in this country. 



314 LIVING PICTURES 

The condition as to first publication will also be complied 
with if the work is published in territory where the Act 
extends within fourteen days of publication elsewhere, or 
such longer period as may be fixed by Order in Council 
Sec. 35 [3]). In the case of an unpublished work the 
condition as to residence will be satisfied if the author 
is domiciled in any territory where the Act extends 
(Sec. 35 [5]), and where in the case of an unpublished 
work, the making of the work has extended over a con- 
siderable period, the conditions are satisfied if the author 
was, during any substantial part of that period, a British 
subject, or resident in any territory where the Act ex- 
tends (Sec. 35 [4]). 

Extension of the Act. The Act extends throughout the 
United Kingdom, and, with the exception of provisions 
relating to summary remedies for infringement (Sees. 
ii to 13) and the supply of books to libraries (Sec. 15), to 
all British Possessions other than the self-governing 
Dominions, (i.e., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South 
Africa, and Newfoundland). Provisions are made under 
which His Majesty may by Order in Council extend the 
Act to the self-governing Dominions, to territories under 
His Majesty's protection, to Cyprus, and to foreign 
countries (Sees. 25, 26). The Act will no doubt extend to 
all countries who were signatories to the articles of the 
Berlin Convention, and to such self-governing Dominions 
that adopt the Act. The latter have, however, a perfectly 
free hand. They may adopt the Act as it stands, or with 
such modifications or additions as relate exclusively to 
procedure and remedies, or are necessary to adapt the Act 
to the circumstances of the Dominion (Sec. 25 [i]). If a 
Dominion does not adopt the Act, either as it stands or 
modified as above, but confers rights substantially identical 
with those of the Act upon works of British subjects or 
residents in any country where the Act extends, the Secre- 
tary of State may certify to this effect, and the Act will 



COPYRIGHT 315 

extend to the Dominion, notwithstanding that the remedies 
for enforcing the rights, or that the restriction on the 
importation of copies of works manufactured in a foreign 
country differ, under the law of the Dominion, from those 
under the Act (Sec. 25 [2]). If alternatively the law of 
the Dominion provides adequate protection for the works 
of British subjects outside the Dominion, His Majesty 
may, by Order in Council, for the purpose of giving 
reciprocal protection, extend the whole or any part of the 
Act, and subject to any conditions to be stated in the 
Order, to works first published in the Dominion, and to 
authors resident at the time of making the work in the 
Dominion (Sec. 26). An Order in Council extending the 
Act or part thereof to any foreign country as the result of 
a treaty or convention will apply to British Possessions, 
but not, as hitherto, to the self-governing Dominions, 
unless the Governor of the Dominion makes a correspond- 
ing Order in Council (Sec. 30 [2]). All British Posses- 
sions to which the Act extends have the right at any time 
to pass supplementary legislation with regard to (i) pro- 
cedure and remedies ; (2) works of authors who were at 
the time of making the work resident in the Possession ; 
and (3) works first published in the Possession (Sec. 27). 

Duration of Copyright and Authorship. The term for 
which copyright subsists still depends upon the nature 
of the work. In the case of photographs the term is fifty 
years from the making of the original negative from which 
the photograph was directly or indirectly derived. The 
person who was the owner of the negative at the time 
when such negative was made is deemed to be the author 
of the work. Where such owner is a body corporate, the 
body corporate is deemed for the purposes of the Act to 
reside within the parts of His Majesty's Dominions to 
which the Act extends, if it has established a place of 
business within such parts (Sec. 21). These provisions 
materially simplify the calculation previously necessary. 



316 LIVING PICTURES 

The prescribed date from which copyright runs is the date 
on which the original negative was made, excepting where 
copyright already existed at the date on which the Act 
came into force viz., July i, 1912, in which case the date 
of the author's death is material. It cannot be said that 
the prescribed date is satisfactorily definite. The date of 
taking the negative would have been definite viz., the date 
of exposure. The date of " making " might, however, not 
unreasonably be assumed to be the date on which the 
negative was finished i.e., in a condition for actual repro- 
duction. Other special provisions are made for the duration 
of copyright in respect of works of joint authors (Sec. 16), 
posthumous works (Sec. 17), Government publications 
(Sec. 1 8), and " records," perforated rolls, and other contri- 
vances by means of which sounds may be mechanically re- 
produced (Sec. 19). In the latter case the term is fifty 
years from the making of the original plate from which the 
contrivance was directly or indirectly derived, and the person 
who was the owner of such original plate at the time when 
such plate was made is deemed to be the author of the work. 
In all other cases the term for which copyright subsists 
is the life of the author and fifty years after his death 
(Sec. 3). There is, however, a proviso that at any time after 
the expiration of twenty-five years, or thirty years in the 
case of a work in which copyright subsists on July i, 1912, 
from the death of the author of the work, copyright shall 
not be deemed to be infringed by any person who repro- 
duces the work for sale, if certain regulations are observed 
in a manner to be prescribed by the Board of Trade. 
These are (i) That the person has given notice in writing 
of the intention to reproduce the work ; and (2) has paid to 
or for the benefit of the owner of the copyright royalties in 
respect of all copies sold and calculated at the rate of 10 per 
cent, on the price at which the reproduced work is published. 
This proviso would probably be of interest to the film- 
producer only in the case of literary and dramatic works, 



COPYRIGHT 317 

In the case of a dramatic film, when an original plot or 
story is associated with the film, as it now so often is, the 
copyright in the film itself, as a photographic reproduc- 
tion, would appear to expire before the copyright in the 
plot as a dramatic work ; but a reproduction of the film 
derived directly or indirectly from the original negative 
would apparently infringe the copyright in the plot, even 
after the expiration of the period of fifty years from the 
making of the original negative, until the copyright in the 
plot has expired. The case of photographs (e.g., picture 
films) in which copyright existed on July I, 1912, also is 
peculiar. Prior to the Act copyright in photographs sub- 
sisted until seven years after the author's death. Thus, 
where an author was alive on July i, 1905, and the negative 
was made within fifty years of July I, 1912 (i.e., subsequent 
to July i, 1862), the copyright will continue to subsist 
until fifty years from the date on which the original nega- 
tive was made ; but there will apparently be no copyright 
in a film the author of which died on or before July i, 1905. 
The author of a photograph was, prior to the Act, and 
will be, for the purposes of determining whether copyright 
existed on July i, 1912, the person who is immediately 
responsible for the picture as it is when it is made (Nottage 
v. Jackson, [1883], n Q.B.D., 632). If copyright sub- 
sisted on July i, 1912, it will continue to subsist until 
the expiry of fifty years from the date on which 
the original negative was made, whether it is published 
or not. 

The Act has made a substantial alteration in the 
law as to the author of a photograph. The author 
after July i, 1912, is deemed to be the owner of the 
negative at the time it was made (Sec. 21). The 
author will not thus be the cinematographer who is an 
employee, or who parts with his ownership in the negative 
before it is " made " (i.e., ready for reproduction). It is to 
be noted that when copyright in any work once subsists, 



318 LIVING PICTURES 

it cannot be destroyed, but subsists automatically for the 
period provided. 

Ownership of Copyright. In the case of photographs, 
films, and records, perforated rolls, and other contrivances 
for mechanically reproducing sounds, the owner of the 
original negative or mechanical plate or means, as the 
case may be, when the same is made, is deemed to be 
the author of the work (Sees. 21, 19 [i]), and is the first 
owner of the copyright (Sec. 5 [i]), excepting in three 
circumstances, (i) Where, in the case of a photograph, 
the plate or film is ordered by some person and is made 
for valuable consideration, then, in the absence of any 
agreement to the contrary, the person by whom the work 
was ordered is the first owner of the copyright (Sec. 5 
[i] [a]). It will, no doubt, become quite an ordinary 
thing for a cinematographer to be in requisition for 
private and other special events, where hitherto the 
photographer has been in attendance. Again, both 
amateur and professional cinematographers will have 
occasions to seek permission to photograph. In both 
cases, unless there is a definite order for valuable con- 
sideration, and the circumstances are indisputably clear, 
it will be advisable to have a definite agreement in writing 
(although writing would not appear to be absolutely neces- 
sary) as to the copyright. Otherwise, as has previously 
happened in the case of ordinary photography, it may be 
a matter of difficulty to determine from the circumstances 
who is the owner of the copyright. Actual payment of 
consideration for the order is not, however, a condition 
precedent to vest the copyright in the person ordering, 
nor need the consideration be a money payment (Boucas 
v. Cooke [1903] , 2 K.B., 227). Ownership of the copyright 
is not the same thing as pwnership of the negative. The 
person executing an order for valuable consideration will 
still, subject to any agreement, have the right to retain 
the possession of the negative, but will not be able to 



COPYRIGHT 319 

reproduce from it unless in execution of a further order, 
or by agreement with the owner of the copyright. 
(2) Where the author is an employee under a contract of 
service, or is an apprentice under a contract of apprentice- 
ship, and the work is executed in the course of employ- 
ment, the employer is the first owner of the copyright 
(Sec. 5 [i] [6]). (3) The ownership of the copyright may 
be a matter of agreement. The owner may assign his 
copyright either wholly or partially, and subject to limi- 
tations in respect of time and place, or he may grant any 
interest in the right by way of licence (Sec. 5 [2]). Such 
assignments and licences must be in writing, and signed 
by the owner of the right, or by his duly authorized 
agent (Sec. 5 [i]). 

No rights can apparently pass except by means of a 
written document. The sale, for example, of a film or 
even of the original negative does not apparently in itself 
operate to pass any property or rights in the copyright. 
Where the author of a work is the first owner of the copy- 
right, no grant or assignment of the copyright, or of any 
interest therein made by him (otherwise than by will), 
can operate to vest in the assignee or grantee any rights 
in the copyright beyond the expiration of twenty- five year's 
from the death of the author. The reversionary interest 
after that period vests in his legal personal representatives 
as part of his personal estate, and an author cannot, more- 
over, contract out of this provision of the Act (Sec. 5 [2]). 

Infringement of Copyright and Remedies Therefor. 
"Copyright in a work is deemed to be infringed by any 
person who, without the consent of the owner of the 
copyright, does anything, the sole right to do which is 
fey the Act conferred upon the owner of the copyright'' 
(Sec. 2 [i])i The nature of these rights has already 
been considered. There will be infringement, whether 
or no the infringement takes place knowingly or inno- 
cently; but an infringer who can prove that he had no 



320 LIVING PICTURES 

reasonable grounds for suspecting that copyright existed 
in the work, and that the infringement was innocent, is 
exempted from liability in damages, and the plaintiff is 
not entitled to anything more than an injunction or inter- 
dict, and the possession of infringing copies and all plates 
(which would presumably include negatives) used, or 
intended to be used, for the production of infringing 
copies (Sees. 7, 8). A person will be deemed to infringe 
if he authorizes any infringement, and the ordinary rules 
applicable to master and servant will apply in determining 
whether there is authorization. The consent of the owner 
of the copyright operates to absolve the otherwise in- 
fringer from liability, and the consent need not apparently 
be in writing. It might even be implied if the conduct of 
the owner warranted this assumption. In addition to 
direct acts of infringement, there are other acts which, 
although they are not direct acts of infringement, are 
deemed to be acts of infringement. They are set out in 
Sec. 2 of the Act as follows : 

Copyright in a work shall also be deemed to be infringed 
by any person who : 

(a) Sells or lets for hire, or by way of trade exposes 

or offers for sale or hire ; or 
(b} Distributes either for the purposes of trade or to 

such an extent as to prejudicially affect the 

owner of the copyright ; or 

(c) By way of trade exhibits in public ; or 

(d) Imports for sale or hire into any part of His 

Majesty's Dominions to which this Act extends, 
any work which to his knowledge infringes 
copyright or would infringe copyright if it had 
been made within the part of His Majesty's 
Dominions in or into which the sale or hiring, 
exposure, offering for sale or hire, distribution, 
exhibition, or importation took place. 



COPYRIGHT 321 

Copyright in a work shall also be deemed to be infringed 
by any person who, for his private profit, permits a theatre 
or other place of entertainment to be used for the per- 
formance in public of the work without the consent of the 
owner of the copyright, unless he was not aware, and had 
no reasonable ground for suspecting, that the performance 
would be an infringement of copyright (Sec. 2 [3]). 

A performance includes any visual representation of any 
dramatic action in any work (Sec. 35 [i]), and will thus 
include a cinematograph performance. Unless the owner 
of the copyright has consented to the performance, it is 
necessary, in order to evade liability, to prove not only 
innocence, but also that there was no reasonable ground 
for suspecting an infringement. A " performance in 
public " is one to which the public are invited as dis- 
tinguished from a private performance. (Caird v. Sime 
[1887], 12 App. Cases, 326). The above provisions con- 
siderably modify the law as it existed before the Act came 
into force, and a person selling an infringing film of a 
work, knowing it to be such and intended for public per- 
formance, although he does not cause the piece to be 
represented, will now incur full liability. A person know- 
ingly dealing with infringing copies in the manner stated 
above is liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not 
exceeding -2 for every copy dealt with, but not exceed- 
ing 50 in respect of the same transaction. In the case 
of a second or subsequent offence the penalty is a similar 
fine or imprisonment for a term not exceeding two months 
(Sec. ii [O. 

A summary remedy is also provided against a person 
who knowingly makes or has in his possession any plate 
(which includes a negative) (Sec. 35 [i]) for the purpose 
of making infringing copies of the copyright work, or 
knowingly and for his private profit causes the work to be 
performed in public without the consent of the owner of 
the copyright. The penalty on conviction is a fine not 

31 



322 LIVING PICTURES 

exceeding 50, and in the case of a second or subse- 
quent offence, the same fine or imprisonment, with or 
without hard labour, for a term not exceeding two 
months (Sec. n [2]). The term '' copy " and " infringing 
copy " constantly occur in the Act. No definition is given 
of what a copy is, but infringing when applied to a copy 
means any copy, including any colourable imitation, made 
or imported in contravention to the provisions of the Act 
(Sec. 35 [i]). It is in contravention to the Act '" to 
reproduce the work or any substantial part of the work in 
any material form whatsoever," and a copy of any sub- 
stantial part of the work in which copyright subsists 
would thus appear to be an "infringing copy," equally as 
a copy of the whole work. A film of a literary and 
dramatic work would also thus appear to be an infringing 
copy. A reproduction of any one of the separate pictures 
in a cinematograph film might possibly be held to be a 
substantial part of the film. In a case under the old Act 
of 1862 the plaintiff moved for and obtained an injunction 
against the defendant who had reproduced one face from a 
whole group (London Stereoscopic Company v. Kelly 
[1888]; 5 T.L.R., 169). Whether or no a summary con- 
viction is obtained, the court may order that all copies of 
the work or all plates (including negatives or films) in the 
possession of the alleged offender, which appear to it to be 
infringing copies or plates for the purpose of making 
infringing copies, shall be destroyed or delivered up to the 
owner of the copyright, or otherwise dealt with as the 
court may think fit (Sec. n [3]). 

In addition to such summary remedies, which are in 
the nature of criminal prosecutions, the owner of the 
copyright has civil remedies against an infringer. " Where 
copyright in any work has been infringed, the owner of 
the copyright shall, except as otherwise provided by the 
Act, be entitled to all such remedies by way of injunction 
or interdict, damages, accounts, and otherwise as are or 



COPYRIGHT 323 

may be conferred by law for the infringement of a right " 
(Sec. 6 [i] ). " The costs of all parties in any proceedings 
in respect of the infringement of copyright shall be in the 
discretion of the court" (Sec. 6 [2]). " In any action for 
infringement of copyright in any work, the work shall be 
presumed to be a work in which copyright subsists, and 
the plaintiff shall be presumed to be the owner of the 
copyright, unless the defendant puts in issue the copyright, 
or, as the case may be, the title of the plaintiff; and where 
any such question is in issue then (a) if a name purport- 
ing to be that of the author of the work is printed or 
otherwise indicated thereon in the usual manner, the 
person whose name is so printed or indicated shall, unless 
the contrary is proved, be presumed to be the author of 
the work ; (b) if no name is so printed or indicated, or if 
the name so printed or indicated is not the author's true 
name or the name by which he is commonly known, and 
a name purporting to be that of the publisher or pro- 
prietor of the work is -printed or otherwise indicated 
thereon in the usual manner, the person whose name is 
so printed or indicated shall, unless the contrary is proved, 
be presumed to be the owner of the copyright in the work 
for the purposes of proceedings in respect of the infringe- 
ment of copyright therein " (Sec. 6 [2]). "All infringing 
copies of any work in which copyright subsists, or of any 
substantial part thereof, and all plates used or intended to 
be used for the production of such infringing copies, shall 
be deemed to be the property of the owner of the copy- 
right, who may accordingly take proceedings for the 
recovery of the possession thereof or in respect of the 
conversion thereof" (Sec. 7). "Where proceedings are 
taken in respect of the infringement of the copyright in 
any work, and the defendant in his defence alleges that 
he was not aware of the existence of the copyright in the 
work, 'the plaintiff shall not be entitled to any remedy 
other than an injunction or interdict in respect of the 



324 LIVING PICTURES 

infringement, if the defendant proves that at the date o 
the infringement he was not aware, and had no reasonable 
ground for suspecting, that copyright subsisted in the 
work " (Sec. 8). In taking summary proceedings against 
an infringer the onus is thus on the plaintiff to prove that 
the offence was committed knowingly. In a civil action, 
however, the onus of proof is upon the defendant to prove 
not only innocence, but also that he had no reasonable 
ground for suspecting that copyright subsisted in the work 
at the time of infringement, otherwise he is liable to be 
mulcted in damages as well as restrained by injunction. 
An action in respect of infringement of copyright cannot 
be commenced after the expiration of three years next 
after the infringement (Sec. 10). A summary conviction 
must be brought within six months after the date of 
infringement. 



CHAPTER XI 

PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 

Review Cinematography for science, education, and commerce 
Finis. 

THE inquiry has often been made, " Who was the inventor 
of the Living Picture ?" This question has usually been 
answered, if answered at all, by dogmatic assertion or the 
presentation of isolated facts ; there has been no attempt 
towards a logical determination of the problem in its 
widest sense. In the first place, some definition of terms 
is required. Let us determine what a Living Picture is. 
Where shall the line be drawn ? If we consider it merely 
as a view presenting the illusion of motion, then we 
must go back to the early years of last century and 
attribute its origin to Plateau's Phenakistoscope. If we 
restrict our definition to views of photographic origin, 
Wenham's experiments in 1852 fulfilled our requirements 
sixty-three years ago. Should it be required that the photo- 
graphic record be a true analysis of motion, then nearly 
fifty years have passed since Du Mont indicated the 
methods of chrono-photography. Finally, if it be suggested 
that the picture must last a definite and somewhat lengthy 
period, the images being secured at short intervals and in 
a very restricted space of time, we are compelled to admit 
the Living Picture as a phenomenon of comparatively 
recent growth ; but it must not be forgotten that many 
views of one action, procured by photography and repeated 
for as long a period as required, were prepared far earlier 

325 



326 LIVING PICTURES 

than any date which may be termed recent. And, further, 
it must not be ignored that the different stages quoted 
above led insensibly one to the other ; each step was 
founded on the labours of previous workers, or at least 
rested on the same basis. No ! emphatically No ! There 
is not, there never was, an inventor of the Living Picture. 
Say that it grew from an infinitely small germ, as unlike its 
present form as the butterfly is unlike the egg from which 
it evolves ; say that many minds have each contributed, 
and still are contributing, their mite towards the realization 
of that perfection yet to be attained ; say that the Living 
Picture is the work of nineteenth-century civilized man 
and the statement will be as true as any generalization 
can be. So far as a single inventor can be named, Plateau 
must be recognized as the originator of the pictorial 
method of producing an illusion of motion by means of 
persistence of vision. This in a double sense ; for while 
the Phenakistoscope was the forerunner of all machines 
in which a rapidly moving picture was momentarily viewed 
(and this definition includes machines so late in time as 
Edison's Kinetoscope), yet Plateau's " Diable soufflant " 
was the first step toward all those forms of apparatus in 
which a picture is momentarily viewed while stationary. 
True the picture was not stationary, but the principle 
of differential speed between image and shutter was 
established. 

And to whom could this invention be attributed with 
more satisfaction ? There is no name in the history of 
physiological optics more worthy of honour than that of 
this philosopher. Born in 1801, Joseph Antoine Ferdinand 
Plateau devoted himself early in life to the study of optics, 
especially in their physiological aspect. At the age of 
twenty-eight, in the course of some experiments respecting 
the effect of light on the retina, he exposed his eyes for a 
considerable time to the full blaze of the sun. The result 
was blindness, from which, however, he temporarily 



PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 327 

recovered. During this period of recovery he invented 
the Phenakistoscope, and in 1835 was appointed Professor 
of Physics at Ghent. Over a period of fourteen years his 
sight gradually deteriorated, and by the year 1843 he was 
totally blind. Yet in 1849 he invented his ** Diable 
soufflant " ; he continued his researches by the aid of 
relatives, who carried out his instructions for experiments 
to confirm his theories ; he pursued his investigations into 
the domain of molecular physics ; he retained his pro- 
fessorship, and died in harness, leaving works still 
unpublished behind him, at the ripe age of eighty-three. 
There is a magnificence in the idea of this blind man 
carrying on his work, sowing the seeds of pleasure to 
thousands in future generations by means of that sense of 
which he was himself totally deprived; there is developed 
a feeling of pride in human power when we think of a 
man from whose eyes the light was eternally shut out 
nevertheless converting the brief glimmer of passing 
events into permanent embodiment, and leaving to others 
an elaboration of that sense which was lost to him for ever. 
Yet it must not be forgotten that Plateau's Phenakisto- 
scope took its origin from investigations on Roget's 
researches, which in themselves had nothing whatever to 
do with Living Pictures. So also with the application of 
photography. Many experimented long before the neces- 
sary appliances were ready to their hand. Mr. Wenham 
tells us that in 1852 he obtained (by posing) a series of 
views of a man at work ; but he also records that when the 
views were synthesized into motion the subject declared 
"he never worked like that !" Du Mont in 1861 seems 
to have first suggested chrono-photography, and Janssen 
apparently first practised it in 1874 ; but neither could 
work rapidly enough to obtain a series fit for recombina- 
tion. The reproduction of animated scenes was thus not 
possible until photographic emulsions of greater rapidity 
were produced ; manifestly photographic chemists and 



328 LIVING PICTURES 

plate-makers must receive acknowledgment of a large 
share in the invention of the Living Picture. Again, let 
the most rapid emulsion be spread on glass, it is difficult 
almost impossible to obtain an extended series of views. 
Bands were suggested for carrying a long series of pictures 
by Stampfer in 1833 an( ^ Desvignes in 1860 ; the idea 
was in constant evidence from that time forward, but how 
could it be applied in the taking of a photographic 
record ? Negative paper, improved as it now is, pos- 
sesses sufficient grain to render it practically useless as a 
support for one-inch negatives destined to great enlarge- 
ment ; it was still less suitable years ago. Evidently, 
therefore, the inventor of celluloid should receive his meed 
of praise, yet not he alone ; celluloid was not invented for 
the service of the Living Picture indeed, at first it was 
not suitable for photographic purposes at all. When 
rendered fit for use as a photographic support, the Living 
Picture in no way came into consideration ; celluloid was 
applied at first in the ordinary manner as a substitute for 
glass plates of ordinary sizes. 

Given a celluloid film of indefinite length, the road was 
opened for the inventors of mechanical appliances which 
should utilize it. Thus while we find Greene and Evans 
were the first to publish and produce an effective machine, 
yet it must not be forgotten that others were working too ; 
in fact, Messrs. Donisthorpe and Crofts were not two 
months behind the previously mentioned inventors. Thus 
throughout the history of the Living Picture names are 
associated rather with details than with principles, which 
in fact seem generally to have been pointed out long 
before the means existed for carrying them to a practical 
issue. 

In fact, throughout the course of last century the Living 
Picture was, in popular parlance, " in the air " ; similar 
ideas and methods occurred independently, sometimes 
simultaneously to separate individuals, and this was almost 



PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 329 

necessarily so ; the facts of the case demanded it. Given 
a series of connected facts capable of leading in combina- 
tion to one or two well-defined results ; given a number 
of observers equally interested and of similar capability 
it is a practical certainty that several will arrive at the 
same conclusion, the more so as the field of possibility 
becomes more restricted. In cases of this kind one ob- 
server may reach the obvious conclusion before another ; 
that does not prove his right to a national memorial and 
entry on the roll of fame ; there is credit due to the man 
who extracts a grain of sand from the machine and so 
renders it workable ; he proves his industry and application, 
but certainly cannot claim recognition as a genius. In 
proportion'as the elementary facts become more numerous 
and complicated, so does the discovery fall inevitably to 
the man of greater capability if the solution be reached 
by reasoning ; if it be arrived at by accident, that is a 
matter personal to the discoverer he is not bound to 
mention it ! 

To substantiate these views several examples taken from 
the history of Living Pictures can easily be quoted. 
Plateau and Stampfer invented the Phenakistoscope almost 
simultaneously. When we consider that the subject of 
wheel-phenomena had been before the world for some 
years, it is not surprising that the popular introduction of 
the Thaumatrope should have caused the idea of the 
Phenakistoscope to crystallize, so to speak, in the mind 
of more than one man. To come to later years, a com- 
parison of Acres' English invention of May, 1895, with 
M tiller's German patent of August in the same year, will 
show an almost similar method of dealing with the same 
problem. This is probably due to the fact that the solu- 
tion was a fairly obvious one. Marey had done the same 
thing less perfectly in 1890 ; he clamped the film and 
allowed it to be drawn onward by a spring when the clamp 
was taken off; Acres and Miiller put a roller on the end 



330 LIVING PICTURES 

of the spring. Certainly one device was effective, the 
other was not ; but still in this, as in many other in- 
stances, no great natural secret was brought to light. 
Take another case, this time an application of the cinema- 
tograph. It was early recognized that the zoetrope 
afforded a means of varying the apparent rate of move- 
ment of an object ; photographs of birds in flight secured 
by Marey's photographic revolver were recombined at a 
slower speed in this manner, for the purpose of leisurely 
inspection. Yet the subject appears to have exercised a 
fascination of a wide-spread character. M. Gueroult 
thought it worth while in 1896 to demand the opening of 
a sealed packet, deposited with the Academic des Sciences 
in 1889, in order to prove that he first evolved the idea. 
Mach, Corday and others claimed to have photographed 
plants at long intervals, and subsequently combined the 
views rapidly; much ink was spilled, for the idea was " in 
the air " it was of the obvious. If another case were 
required, it might be found in the province of colour 
photography. 

Every step forward renders the area of known facts 
wider, and attention becomes more and more confined to 
detail. There exists an almost bewildering variety of 
mechanical devices directed to one end by several paths. 
Yet the practical stage is attained. If unquestionable 
accuracy is required, photography supplies it. Therefore 
the cinematograph becomes a recording instrument of 
historic importance, and a library or museum of sealed 
film negatives might become as important as the British 
Museum. History might verily be made to " live." As 
exemplifying the current aspect of history, it may be men- 
tioned that a kinetogram of a Pope's promenade in the 
Vatican gardens has been considered far more effective 
than even an official bulletin as an antidote to rumours of 
ill-health. Yet "seeing is not always believing"; and 
rescues by lifeboat crews and desperate interior combats 



PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 331 

in guerilla warfare must be taken with a proverbial grain 
of salt. 

In practice there is no limit to the length of scene 
capable of reproduction. Indeed, one of the most impor- 
tant developments for entertainment purposes has been 
the production of such films as " Quo Vadis," " Hamlet," 
" Parsival," and other like productions, which are each an 
ample sufficiency for one evening. If sensation is de- 
manded, one may have a strictly private exhibition of an 
execution per guillotine ; but surely nothing more "terrible 
could be desired by the most morbid mind than a view of 
a disaster at sea, the horrors of which are repeated before 
an audience at a music-hall (to the strains of " Rocked in 
the Cradle of the Deep " !) only thirty hours after the 
breath has left the victims' bodies. The question of 
"censorship" must always be a difficult one, and while, 
perhaps, it is, on the whole, well that this process should 
be applied from within, by a cinematograph association, 
than from without, by a Government or municipal official, 
yet there is still room for a more vigorous application of 
this process. 

While the most extensive use to which cinematography 
has been put has been as a medium for entertainment, it 
must not be forgotten that cinematography is a science 
just as photography is a science. It is also an art, just as 
photography is an art. That this has not been sufficiently 
realized is only too often and painfully evident in the 
films that are held out as " attractions." It is a welcome 
sign of the times that Professor Herkomer and Marie 
Corelli, and other artists, have interested themselves in 
this sphere. It is also a welcome sign that an educational 
institution such as the Polytechnic, Regent Street, has 
instituted a school of cinematography. The Polytechnic 
is the birthplace of the magic-lantern, and one of the 
earliest cinematograph exhibitions was given there by 
arrangement with Messrs. Lumiereof France. The School 



332 LIVING PICTURES 

of Photography, of which Professor Howard Farmer is 
principal, is the oldest school of its kind in existence, and 
its students are to be found all over the world occupying 
some of the most important positions. It is hoped that 
history may repeat itself in connection with cinema- 
tography. 

Science also is utilizing cinematography to the full. 
The earliest use was for scientific purposes. Marey and 
Muybridge's early work was in connection with the flight 
of birds and the movements of persons and animals, and 
Jansen's astronomical work falls in the same category. 
The solar eclipse, as seen in India, was destined to re- 
appear at command at a multitude of semi-scientific 
soirees, and it is not to be charged against the cinema- 
tograph that this pleasant anticipation was not realized 
the undeveloped film was stolen on its journey home. 
Nowadays it would 'be developed on or before its journey 
home. Is it possible that in the future it might be 
copied at home by wireless ? As another instance of the 
adaptation of the cinematograph to popular science it 
may be mentioned that, under M. Flammarion's direction, 
a large terrestrial globe was photographed during a rota- 
tion lasting two minutes. When projected, the effort, of 
course, was that of the earth, as it would be seen by an 
observer in space, but turning at an increased speed. 
The cinematograph has been used for the investigation of 
extremely rapid movements, such as occur during the flight 
of birds and insects, the flight of a projectile, and in which 
successive exposures at intervals of one ten-thousandth of 
a second, and even more rapid than this, are required. 
Such exposures have been obtained by the use of spark 
discharges across the secondary terminals of an induction 
coil. Such sparks emit a highly active photographic light. 
With such very rapid exposures a continuously moving 
film is possible, and in one apparatus (Fig. 266) by 
M. Bull, of the Marey Institute in France, the sensitive 



PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 



333 



film is on the periphery of a rotating drum, R. The axis 
of the drum carries an interrupter, I, comprising a series 
of contact bars, and by means of contact brushes the 
primary circuit P of the induction coil A is intermittently 
closed and opened. The secondary circuit of the coil 
supplies a spark light, E, with corresponding intermittence 
at intervals depending on the speed of rotation of the 
drum. The apparatus is fitted with a suitable shutter, M, 
to prevent a double set of images being taken by the con- 
tinued rotation of the drum. The bird or object is enticed 
to move across the front of the condenser C, and appar- 
ently some little inducement is often necessary. Although 
taken at such rapid intervals, the films are only projected 
at the normal rate of sixteen a second, and thus a series 




FIG. 266. 

of exposures lasting only a few seconds may take several 
minutes to exhibit. The launch of a ship, or a girder sub- 
jected to breaking strain, form other subjects for this kind 
of research, and both these operations have been success- 
fully photographed. 

Cinematography by Rontgen rays is also being largely 
developed, and enormously enlarges the possibilities of the 
scientific use of cinematography. 

En passant it may be mentioned that leisurely inspection 
of a film recording a feat by a celebrated conjuror results 
in a demonstration of " how the trick is done," " the 
quickness of the hand deceives the eye," but does not 
delude the impartial and accurate cinematograph. 

Slow speed cinematography also has been largely devel- 



334 LIVING PICTURES 

oped, and utilized for portraying the development of 
flowers, eggs, and other slow processes of development. 
In this case the taking of the 'film may extend over days, 
and exposures made at intervals of several minutes. Such 
films are, however, reproduced at a normal rate, and a 
film which may have taken hours to produce may only 
take minutes to exhibit. Perhaps the most difficult 
scientific work is that of micro-cinematography, but con- 
siderable results have also been achieved in this sphere. 
Nature study, both in the open and in the laboratory, is a 
growing province for the cinematographic scientist, and 
the large stock of scientific films now available is con- 
clusive evidence of the importance of this branch of the 
subject. 

The use of the cinematograph for scientific purposes 
leads naturally to. the much-debated question of its use 
for educational purposes. As in other spheres of activity, 
there are generally to be found those who take extreme 
views from opposite standpoints. There are some who 
have attached an importance to the educational value 
wholly out of proportion to the real value, and, on the 
other hand, there are those whose estimate is " worse than 
useless positively harmful." The same phenomenon 
occurred in the early days of the magic-lantern. The 
ordinary lantern has, however, become indispensable for 
educational work. It has, of course, its own limitations. 
The cinematograph will not supplant the lantern, but it 
is undoubtedly a very great asset and advantage to be 
able to portray complete scenic panoramas, or a com- 
plete series of movements, or steps of a process, and espe- 
cially where movement and change is of the essence of the 
study. With the lantern each slide only represents a 
fixed and definite view or phase of the process. It must 
be possible, for educational purposes, to be able to project 
any one picture of the cinematograph series, and a satis- 
factory non-flam film may therefore be regarded as an 



PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 335 

absolute necessity. For extensive use in schools a cellu- 
loid film would be a source of danger, against which the 
possible utility would be a very inadequate compensation. 
The possibilities of the cinematograph for educational 
purposes is well illustrated by the films secured by 
Mr. Ponting on the South Polar Expedition with 
Captain Scott. 

Commercially, too, the cinematograph has its uses. A 
series of films reproducing harvesting in Manitoba, for 
example, is doubtless a valuable method of encouraging 
emigration. A series of films representing the attractive- 
ness of camp life might lead to a solution of the Terri- 
torial problem. There is no doubt but that a military 
audience finds great delight in witnessing the evolutions 
of foreign troops ; but it may be doubted whether an 
accurate reproduction of the horrors of a battlefield would 
to any great extent facilitate recruiting ; discretion is 
required in cinematography as well as in every other path 
of life. For the attractive display of fashions Kinemacolor 
is eminently adaptable, and for advertising generally the 
cinematograph has great potentialities. 

From whatever standpoint cinematography is viewed, 
the future cannot safely be predicted, nor is it safe to 
prophesy. And why prophesy ? Facts in the past 
remain facts in the present, but the future may be left 
to Fate. If a long course of actuality has had a somewhat 
sedative effect, if fiction is needed to restore a somewhat 
wearied brain, let us leave prophecy, which is so easily 
falsified by the reality of the future, severely on one side, 
and glance at a living picture of the weirdest type. In 
Flammarion's " Lumen," as also in a little work intro- 
duced to English readers by the late R. A. Proctor,- the 
idea of persistence of light rather than persistence of 
vision is elaborated. Light and other vibrations, of which 
our limited perceptions afford no clue, travel from this 
earth into space at a definite velocity. So a continual 



336 LIVING PICTURES 

record of the earth's history in its slightest details is 
continually streaming off into the eternal void, and, 
granted an eye capable of perceiving an object under a 
minute angle, infinitely sensible also to vibrations, it will 
be seen that at some point or other in space everything 
that has happened is yet visible. Grant this eye, or rather 
sense of vision, a capability of infinite speed of translation, 
it might retreat at the same speed as light, and so keep 
the same event for ever in view ; it might approach the 
outward travelling events and compress a lifetime into a 
moment. The whole history, not of this world alone, but 
of every sphere that is or has been, is still in vibrating 
existence, and one universal perception extending through 
the infinity would embrace within the tremblings of the 
boundless ether a consciousness of all that was or is, an 
eternal and universal living picture of all past events. 
Having started from persistence of vision due to the 
sluggish action of our mundane eyes or nerves, having 
lost ourselves in fancied possibilities of the illimitable, 
what remains for human thought and pen but the simple 
word 

FINIS? 



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APPENDIX I 



PATENTS 

THE development of cinematography is significantly re- 
flected in the very large increase in the number of patents 
relating to the subject. A digest of patents such as was 
included in the first edition of the present work up to the 
year 1898 would necessitate a very large space, and it is 
doubtful if such a digest would be of great utility. Abridg- 
ments of all British specifications are published in the 
Illustrated Official Journal, and in separate volumes dealing 
with classified subject-matter, both publications being 
published by the Patent Office. Accordingly the subject 
has been divided up into its several branches substan- 
tially as dealt with in the text, and lists given of the 
principal specifications dealing with each branch of the 
subject. 

In view of the extensive applications for Letters Patent, 
a few remarks on the subject may not be out of place. 
The grant of British Letters Patent is a grant from the 
Crown, and gives to the patentee of a new method of 
manufacture not the right to manufacture according to 
his invention, but the sole right to prevent anyone else 
from so doing, or from using or vending the product or 
process of the invention. The grant is given in considera- 
tion of the full disclosure of the invention to the general 
public, and therefore the invention must be particularly 
described and ascertained in the specification accompany- 

339 



340 LIVING PICTURES 

ing the application. If the description is not a full and 
clear disclosure, and if important or essential information 
necessary for carrying out the invention is not disclosed, 
then the patent is ipso facto invalid. The grant is, in the 
first instance, for four years, after which a yearly renewal 
fee is payable by which the patent may be kept in force 
for fourteen years. In very rare instances, and only under 
very special circumstances, will the grant be extended 
beyond this fourteen years' limit. For such extension a 
petition heard before a Committee of the Privy Council 
is necessary. 

Application for Letters Patent has to be made in the 
manner prescribed by the Patents and Designs Act, 1907, 
and by the Patent Rules, 1908, and has to comply with 
the requirements contained therein. 

In the first instance a provisional specification may be 
filed with the application setting out the nature of the 
invention, in which case the complete specification, " par- 
ticularly describing the nature of the invention and in 
what manner the same is to be performed," must be filed 
within six months, unless an extra fee of 2 is paid, in 
which case an extra month is allowed for filing the com- 
plete specification. The above course allows an interval 
for working out the details of an invention or any legiti- 
mate modifications or extensions thereof. The complete 
specification may, however, accompany the application. 

The drafting of the specifications for a patent is in most 
cases by no means a simple or easy matter, especially for 
the uninitiated, and there are many pitfalls into which an 
unaided applicant may fall. In the large majority of cases, 
and especially where the invention is an important or 
complicated one, the professional services of an agent or 
expert are strongly to be advised. 

The complete specification when filed is examined in 
the Patent Office, not only to see that the requirements 
with regard to formalities, description, and claims are 



APPENDIX I 341 

complied with, but a search is made through British 
specifications applied for within fifty years previous to 
the application to see if the same invention is wholly or 
in part described or claimed in any specification within 
this period. If the specification is not in order, or the 
search reveals an anticipation, the specification is returned 
to the applicant, and it devolves upon the applicant to 
amend the specification and to remove the objections 
raised. The search for novelty is not complete, and does 
not extend to foreign specifications nor to books and 
periodicals. When the application has been put in order 
and accepted, it has to run the gauntlet of an opposition, 
which must be based upon certain grounds defined in the 
Patents and Designs Act, 1907, and which must be lodged 
within two months after the acceptance of the specification 
opposed. After running this gauntlet successfully, the 
patent will be sealed in due course. 

As regards initial cost, the stamp fee payable on filing an 
application is i; that on filing the complete specification, 
3; and that on sealing, i. Other fees payable in respect 
of various processes, which may or may not be necessary in 
connection with Letters Patent procedure, are scheduled in 
the Patent Rules above referred to. 

Foreign Patents. The development of the cinematograph 
industry is eminently international. It may safely be 
asserted that practically every invention referring to cine- 
matography having an admitted value in Great Britain is 
worth patenting abroad. The French, American, Italian, 
Danish, and German patents are particularly valuable in 
the case of that industry, although the extension of the 
cinematograph all over the world makes every invention 
connected with it of international value. 

There is between the principal countries an International 
Convention, or reciprocal arrangement, whereby the ap- 
plicant for a patent in Great Britain has, for the period 
of one year from the date of his application, the right to 



342 LIVNIG PICTURES 

apply for a patent in any of the countries which are parties 
to the arrangement, and to obtain priority for his invention 
over any other person who may have filed a competitive 
application during the said period. 

The applicant in this country may, therefore, defer for 
one year the prosecution of his foreign patents, although 
it is better to apply for them as soon as the experiments, 
or the commercial results achieved, enable him to ascertain 
the probable value of his invention. In some foreign 
countries, such as Germany, Denmark, and America, a 
patent is obtainable only in cases where a very thorough 
search of the home and foreign records made by the Patent 
Office fails to reveal any anticipation of the invention. In 
other countries, such as France, Italy, etc., a patent is 
always granted, but its validity may be affected by any 
lack of novelty. 

For a British applicant the prosecution of an application 
abroad presents even more difficulties and intricacies than 
in the case of a British application, and the professional 
services of an agent or expert is therefore almost a matter 
of necessity. Many agents are willing, also, to negotiate 
the foreign rights, and are in touch with foreign firms and 
agencies likely to be interested in the invention. 



LISTS. 

N.B. These lists may not be complete in respect of patents tiled 
during the last three months of 1913 and in 1914. 

(i) Plate, disc, and cylinder apparatus ; phenakisto- 
scopes ; zoetropes ; apparatus with pictures in rows or 
spiral formation on wide films ; and miscellaneous magic- 
lantern slides having devices for animated movement. 

1853:7ii. 1856:1245,1965. 1859:2258. 1860: 
537. 1865:i588. 1867:629. 1869:745- 1877: 



APPENDIX I 343 

4244. 1890: 4978. 1892: 15709, 23042. 1893: 12794, 
24031, 1895:9881,19331. 1896:359.18884. 1897: 
2204, 4811, 23231, 27505. 1898: 6515, 17287. 1899: 
3266, 17952. 1900: 311, 1643, 18364. 1901: 18324. 
1903: 24231. 1904: 17347. 1905: 1517, 9406, 20570, 
25973- 1906: 937> 99 8 7> m68 f 19343- 1907: 623, 
13407, 14493, 20863. 1908 : 3987, 4040, 7306, 14837. 
1909: 453, 4 8 3> 3443, 9262, 16441, 17021, 19833, 21801, 
21891, 27520, 27642. 1910: 1140, 1546, 12574, 21828. 
1911: 134- 1912: 7582, 11197, II 35i> 20058, 29417, 
29478. 1913 : 13733, i3734> *3735> 20365. 

(2) Book-form apparatus and other apparatus in which 
the successive pictures are on separate sheets. (See 
pp. 37-4 1 -) 

1868: 925. 1886: 7717, 14917. 1890: 10769. 
1892: 20281. 1895: 14439, 18317. 1896: 20136, 
23183. 1897: 8572, 12391, 13826, 18610, 22763. 1898: 
8338, 12415, 13143, 20219, 20802, 23158, 26722. 1899: 
2528, 9954, 11675, 12497, 13422, 16326, 16671, 16713, 
23217, 25486. 1900: 1319, 1320, 5451, 9141, 11745, 
17076. 1901 : 9879, 12635, 14414, 24591. 1902 : 
14602, 12612. 1904 : 21540, 22999. 1906 : 7403. 
1908 : 134. 1910 : 5025. 1911 : 10265. 1912 : 
3884, 5905, 7029, 14148, 15166, 19388, 17664. 

(3) Film apparatus, continuously moving film type. 
(See p. 107 et seq.} 

1889: 2295. 1896: 4841, 11639. 1897: 12175, 
12911. 1898: 4661, 11219, 16812, 20603, 22713, 24735. 
1899 : 2575, 6793, 8245, 8246. 1900 : 7035, 7684, 9739, 
12820, 23339. 1901 : 7650, 9291, 18324, 23564. 1902 : 
846, 19254. 1903 : 3633, 12366. 1905 : 7482. 1907 : 
18945, 26107. 1908 : 18783. 1911 : 8791, 18352, 28386. 



344 LIVING PICTURES 

1912: 8100, 16881. 1913: 8062, 15621, 16201, 29238, 
29466. 1914 : 5268. 

(4) Film apparatus, intermittently moved film type, 
maltese-cross and other film feed-mechanism for, having 
a wheel interacting with teeth or pegs. (See p. 117 
et seq.) 

1888: 423. 1896: 359, 4686, 6503, 7817. 1897: 
1039, 6536. 1898 : 18135, 24290. 1899 : 487, 12835, 
17952. 1900: 10050, 14789. 1902: 11317. 1903: 
5462. 1904 : 9441. 1907 : 14056. 1908 : 23811, 27256. 
1909: 7463, 15693. 1910: 2493. 1911: 1841, 9150, 
12774, 14573, 21690, 23890. 1912 : 2755, 7077, 20058, 
24405. 1913: 16353, 16354, *995i> 20928. 1914: 637, 
14986. 

(5) Film apparatus, intermittently moved film type, 
film feed-mechanism for, having interaction of a pin or 
pin-teeth with a worm or cam. (See p. 131.) 

1896: 3777> 6731, 8418, 10778, 14455, 16080, 17049, 
19446. 1897 : 22558. 1898 : 54^5, 6515, 21371. 1899 : 
3274. 1900: 311 1909: 453. 1911 : 13400. 

(6) Film apparatus, intermittently moved film type, film 
feed - mechanism for, with raising and lowering film 
sprocket-rollers. (See p. 135.) 

1889: 12921. 1896: 15603, 17224, 21381. 

(7) Film apparatus, intermittently moved film type, 
film feed-mechanism for, having ratchet, clutch, friction, 
and like gearing. (See p. 137.) 

1889: 10131. 1895: 17930. 1896: 7809, 10006, 
11836, 12128, 17881, 21382, 26765. 1897: 212, 7635, 
10603, 19278, 19805. 1898 : 441. 1900 : 13883. 1902 : 
19481, 20773. 1903 : 23474. 1904 : 17347. 1905 : 
9406. 1908: 7414. 1913: 10282. 



APPENDIX I 345 

(8) Film apparatus, intermittently moved film type, 
film feed-mechanism for, comprising rollers periodically 
gripping the film. (See p. 139.) 

1896: 15603, 17848. 1897: 5995, 16388, 27038. 
1898: 18643. 1899: 21754, 21755, 21756. 1902: 
20773. 1903: 26579. 1904: 11821. 1907: 7277. 
1910 : 15550. 1911 : 14550. 1912 : 11600, 14771, 25137, 
25650. 1913: 16941. 

(9) F'ilm apparatus, intermittently moved film type, film 
feed-mechanism for, of " claw " type. (See p. 142.) 

1895 : 7187, 12458. 1896 : 7801, 12128, 13642, 
I 56o3, 17848, 19181, 22627, 22707, 27585, 28799. 1897 : 
1216, 5026, 6202, 17248, 18014, 25625, 27542. 1898 : 
8362, 13162, 14965, 17831, 23591. 1900: 2133, 2283, 
18364. 1902: 11317. 1906: 12072, 18962. 1907: 
14058. 1908 : 3798, H55I, 21787. 1909 : 4534, 8548, 
12571, 21217. 1910 : 7073, 9898. 1911 : 26947. 1912 : 
16688, 24859. 1913: 3019, 27359- 1914: 552. 

(10) Film apparatus, intermittently moved film type, 
film feed-mechanism for, having a revolving dog or 
eccentric. (See p. 147.) 

1893 : 24457. 1896 : 359, 22627, 22928. 1897 : 886, 
12785. 1898: 9738, 12939, 15195. 1905: 10602, 
1908 : 5336, 8758. 1910 : 25074. 1911 : 15542, 
1913 : 10519, 



(n) Film apparatus, intermittently moved film type, 
film feed-mechanism for, having a reciprocating arm 
acting on the film. (See p. 148.) 

1890: 4704. 1893: 22954. 1895: 10474, 18695. 
1896: 13284, 17224, 17505, 22928. 1897: 1216, 14861, 
24273. 1898 : 681, 10685. 1902 : 22423. 1908 : 20191. 
1909 : 11546, i33- 



346 LIVING PICTURES 

(12) Film apparatus, intermittently moved film type, 
film feed-mechanism for, having film gripping-blocks and 
other miscellaneous mechanisms not included in the above 
lists. (See p. 150.) 

1896: 15603, 22627. 1897: 5995, 11273. 1898: 
8362, 18643, 22976. 1901: 22042. 1905: 11622. 
1910:5025. 1918:15150. 1914:3214. 

(13) Films, the base; perforating systems for; special 
arrangements of pictures on (other than rows or spiral 
formations on plates or wide films) ; films of special photo- 
graphic character or having other peculiar characteristics, 
not including arrangements and devices for colour, pan- 
oramic, stereoscopic, or synchronizing purposes. (See 
p. 155 et seq.) 

1888 : 16785. 1893 : 22954. 1896 : 7801, 7817, 10006, 
13642, 17224. 1897 : 7635. 1898 : 12939, 22976, 
24735. 1899: 620, 12152, 17164, 17165. 1900: 18364. 
1901 : 9291. 1902 : 11317, 12818. 1903 : 5462. 1906 : 
11762. 1907 : 3119, 9391, 20836, 24225, 25165, 26107. 
1908 : 8542, 16114. 1909 : 13328, 14039, 14343, 14407, 
14743, 14824, 14950, 19028, 19319, 20770, 20965, 21467, 
21801, 21891, 24556, 27520, 27642. 1910 : 3603, 5025, 
17872, 18851, 23688, 27482. 1911 : 493, 2500, 10138, 
13400, 21608, 23386, 27173, 29163. 1912: 2004, 3047, 
3385, 4043, 444> 445, 49 l8 > 5087, 6289, 8866, 14133, 
14665, 16808, 17385, 17891, 18098, 18431, 19854, 23995, 
25084, 29112, 29113, 29616. 1913: 810, 1339, 2992, 
4096, 4603, 4957, 5551, 6727, 7522, 9916, 10282, 10401, 
13088, 17978, 22430, 25066, 20640. 1914 : 3214. 

(14) Cameras, specially fitted for intermittently moved 
films, including arrangements for focussing, etc., and lens 
copying apparatus. (See p. 166.) 

1893 : 10474, 12458, 17930, 22954. 1895 : 18659. 
1896: 10006, 16060. 1897: 5995, 12052, 12785. 1898: 



APPENDIX I 347 

12939, 18643, 22976, 23591. 1899: 21754, 21755, 
21756. 1903 : 26579. 1904 : 22954. 1905 : 6436. 
1908 : 3798, 5336. 1909 : 7463, 12571, 21217. 1910 : 
6023, 11312, 22286, 23032. 1911: 12538, 14550, 15542, 
19644, 22985, 23505, 24751, 24859, 26949, 28754. 
1912: 3048, 8858, 9829, 10273, 11600, 14771, 15542, 
17483, 24859, 29478. 1913 : 4 96, 11183, 15219, 16353, 
16354- 

(15) Developing, fixing, washing, toning, cleaning, re- 
novating, and other like treatments for films, and including 
film examiners. (See pp. 176-181 and 189 et seq.) 

1886: 16327. 1894: 6866. 1896: 19726. 1897: 
19039, 21679, 23897, 25933. 1898 : 13315- 1899 : 
22614. 1901 : 21873. 1902 : 1846, 9842, 11596. 1907 : 
5413- 1908: 2076, 16115. 1909: 2954, 14472, 14743, 
14824, 15841, 20965. 1910: 2494, 11822, 11935, 16480, 
23553- 1911 : 20015, 27173, 28366. 1912 : 4392, 12231, 
14433, 18098, 24138, 28875. 1913 : 8581, 10401, 10909, 
17290, 18852, 26263, 26787, 26788. 1914: 2326, 2622, 
9968, 9973- 

(16) Printing apparatus for printing on long bands, 
continuously moving film type (not including continuously 
moving film cameras or projectors stated to be applicable 
for printing and universal purposes). (See pp. 182-185.) 

1881:i88i. 1895:i33i7- 1896:21383. 1897: 
17633, 17634. 18699. 1898: 13315- 1899: 20024. 
1900: 10282. 1901: 21248. 1902: 4780, 22941. 
1903: 3765, 55> 8lI 3, 12677, 25048. 1904: 3382, 
20386, 21367. 1905 : 1753, 1757, 17605, 26740. 1906 : 
8239, 9764, 15574, 16390, 24851. 1907: 8817, 10358, 
19408. 1908 : 2076, 5810, 11745. "1910 : 28926. 1911 : 
10701, 10702, 19743, 21834, 26997. 1912 : 3384, 5278, 
14433, 14957, 18230, 18728, 29514, 29515. 1913: 9865, 
18341, 25703. 



348 LIVING PICTURES 

(17) Printing apparatus for printing from film negatives, 
intermittently moved film and other types (not including 
film cameras or projectors stated to be applicable for 
printing and universal purposes). (See pp, 185-189.) 

1898: 13315- 1899: 1795. 1900: 2283, 16958. 

1901: 20388. 1904: 29051. 1909: 25724, 29594. 

1910 : 23553. 1912 : 7182, 26173, 29512, 29700. 1913 : 
6886. 

(18) Film apparatus (chiefly projectors having an inter- 
mittently fed film, cf. pp. 198-203) : driving mechanisms 
and gearing arrangements in (other than film feed- 
mechanisms) ; spooling, threading, and take-up devices 
for (including endless film systems and apparatus, and 
apparatus in which no rewinding is necessary ) ; including 
also film spools and reels ; spool-boxes (other than con- 
structions for preventing and minimizing fire) ; and winders 
and rewinders. 

1889: 10131, 12921. 1890: 4704. 1896: 359, 4686, 
4841, 7801, 13284, 14455, 16080, 17224, 17505, 17881, 
19181, 19446, 22627, 22707, 22928. 1897 : 1039, I:C 923, 
14861, 16388, 17747, 18014, 19278, 24273, 27038, 
27542. 1898 : 681, 10685, 11219, 15195, 17805, 18135, 
18643, 20603, 24290. 1899: 1382, 3274, 21754, 21755, 
21756, 22954. 1900 : 2133, 10050, 12820, 13883, 15226. 
1901 : 15083. 1902 : 20773, 22423, 27240, (?) 27440. 
1903 : 26579. 1904 : 9441, 11821. 1905 : 24426. 1907 : 
7277, 23008, 24120. 1908 : 7620, 8758, 11998, 27256. 
1909: 3048, 8338, 11546, 27675, 29684. 1910: 1876, 
4384, 6812, 8058, 11312, 19148, 20516, 22286, 23032, 
25074, 25252. 1911 : 1841, 4643, 13564, I49 l6 > 20675, 
21690, 24992, 27173, '27793, 28754. 1912 : 2004, 2755, 
3048, 6104, 8858, 10273, 13492, 13920, 18684, 20058, 
23964, 24138, 25650, 28917, 29417, 29478, 29746. 
1913: 4416, 4603, 4957, 10519, 12513, 14237, 15151, 



APPENDIX I 349 

15220, 15863, 16047, 16382, 17289, 18360, 20928, 21142, 
23209, 27759. 

(19) Film apparatus (chiefly projectors having an inter- 
mittently fed film): film gates and guides in, and picture 
and optical centering devices for. (See p. 213.) 

1896 : 11639, 16080, 17224, 17881, 22928. 1897 : 
12785, 27038. 1898 : 681, 17805. 1899: 6793. 1900 : 
1467, 5292, 7668, 12820, 13883, 15226, 13339. 1902 : 
19254, 22423. 1904: 9441, 11821. 1905: 10602, 16925. 
1906 : 16771, 22429, 23904. 1907 : 15459, 19892, 
22109, 24157. 1908: 11968, 23274, 23275, 23811. 
1909: 9864, 27675. 1910: 2493, 4863, 7073, 7816, 
10779, 11312, 18555, 25252, 27784. 1911 : 1841, 3629, 
9150, 25868. 1912 : 9829, 10273, 10475, 11600, 13006, 
13492, 16881, 16888, 20058, 25137, 25161, 26820, 28917, 
29417, 29478. 1913 : 4362, 5535, 6061, 8581, 16201, 
16353, 16914, 17289, 21570, 21948, 21969, 23994, 26452 
27358, 29238. 1914: 10951. 

(20) Shutters and intermittent illumination arrange- 
ments, including devices for switching the projecting light 
off and on, and for maintaining a constant illumination 
on the screen. (See pp. 229-236.) 

1889: 12921. 1893: 22954. 1895: 12458. 1896: 
3777, 7801, 10006, 10778, 15603, 17224, 17848, 22627, 
26765, 28799. 1897 : 888, 1216, 6536, 10603, 12785, 
14851, 17248, 19805. 1898: 681, 12939, 17805, 18135, 
20603, 21371, 22976, 24290. 1900 : 12820, 13883, 18364. 
1902: 11317, 19481. 1904: 11821, 22954, 29051. 
1908 : 7414, 12059, 13027, 20191, 22117. 1909 : 11546, 
27675, 1910: 7815, 24822, 29832. 1911: 1841, 9552, 
12774, 23195, 23890. 1912: 2338, 8858, 13492, I477 1 ' 
14880, 17483, 18771, 25142, 28917. 1913 : 359> 544o> 
10519, 12411, 16010, 16047, *694i, 20928, 21142, 22430, 
29436. 1914 : 273, 2490, 9043. 



350 LIVING PICTURES 

(21) Screens. (See p. 213.) 

1886: 1980. 1896: 21269. 1897: 12774. 1898: 
1835. 1899: 9005. 1903: 9869. 1908: 17285, 27376. 
1909 : 3762, 18093, 30059. 1910 : 12037, 15661, 16104, 
27069. 1911 : 17771, 20836, 24917, 28081, 28823, 28838. 
1912 : 15008, 17276, 24547. 1913 : 4263, 6064, 16989, 
17871, 26452, 28701, 28702. 1914: 4679, 8805. 

(22) Fire preventing and minimizing devices for pro- 
jectors. (See p. 236.) 

1884: 14951. 1896: 16080. 1897: 11923. 1898: 
9374, 10047, 17805, 23099. 1900: 7668, 21545. 1902: 
22423. 1904: 1211, 11821. 1905: 15003, 24426. 
1906 : 5626, 24953, 25798. 1907 : 10078, 15459, 15902, 
22874, 44525- 1908 : 563, 9711, 11395, 13663, 16420, 
21308, 25666, 27120, 27256. 1909 : 147, 3048, 7184, 
9876, 14322, 22494, 29117. 1910 : 2168, 8058, 9911, 
14650, 15550, 18851, 18928. 1911: 1841, 2444, 4514, 
19078, 25636, 27723. 1912 : 4639, 10273, 13492, 14880, 
18771, 19042, 20059, 23085, 23206, 28917. 1913 : 629, 
5437, 5884, 7325, 10519, J 2334, 16047, 16201, 16941, 
27 6 45> 27759. 1914: 11969. 

(23) Panoramic and stereoscopic cinematography, and 
miscellaneous screen and scenic arrangements for pro- 
ducing relief or other special effects. (See pp. 244, et seq.) 

1886 : 15192. 1894 : 16326, 22990. 1897 : 886, 17565, 
24804. 1898 : 1835, 3477, 13036, 13644, 24290. 1899 : 
1382, 3274, 6 794- 1900: 7035, 13883, 21985. 1901: 
4309, 10695, 18324, 20173. 1902: 10695. 1903: 1483, 
9896, 10277, 12997, I 34 IO > 1904: 1090. 1905: 3998, 
4423. 1907: 1969, 15726, 17710, 17955, 23396, 25741. 
1908: 2584, 4829, 7897, 8963. 1909: 14834, 30059. 
1910 : 12037, 23163, 27069. 1911 : 839, 840, 3552, 8752, 
12891, 19823, 22910. 1912 : 10870, 12797, 15008, 20507, 



APPENDIX I 351 

24945, 26820, 29495, 30666. 1913 : 971, 1339, 49 2 5, 6557, 
7344, 11048, 11950, 19929, 20888, 26452, 29875. 1914: 
4679, 5212, 12249. 

(24) Colour cinematography. (See Chap. VII.) 

4 

1898 : 21649. 1899 : 6202, 17514, 23863. 1900 : 
7035, 10000, 13883. 1902: 249, 13468. 1904: 7179. 
1905: 9465, 16104, 20600. 1906: 20834, 25908, 26671. 
1907: 15726. 1908: 453, 75*4, "79 1 . *73<>9* 18750. 
1909: 1154, 5945, 99 I2 > Io6ll > l6 3i3, 18340, 27675. 
1910 : 1717, 5025, 8761, 10892, 17872, 24779, 25869, 
26927, 27207. 1911 : 1642, 6279, 9532, 12891, 15775, 
18352, 20251, 21261, 23221, 23386, 23497, 23499* 23551, 
23645, 24645, 24646, 24809, 26786, 27389, 28081. 1912 : 
1489, 1900, 2218, 3034, 3220, 4045, 4774, 7477, 7756, 
8207, 8626, 9313, 9324, 10150, 10639, ^229, 13510, 
14133, 14340, 15027, I547 8 , ^385, 18098, 18431, 20555, 
20556, 21271, 21623, 23289, 24159, 24161, 24534, 24948, 
25084, 25142, 26292, 26827, 26828, 26976, 27207, 27708, 
28365, 30108. 1913: 1607, 2538, 2786, 2787, 3509, 
5440, 6061, 6565, 6894, 6903, 7368, 8062, 8063, 8144, 
9610, 11496, 11873, 12577, I 4 I 42, 15098, 16201, 16353, 
16354, I 723, 19175* 20928, 22796, 22965, 27796. 
1914: 636. 

(25) Living and speaking pictures and synchronizing 
(See Chap. VIII.) 

1892: 15709. 1896: 21382. 1898: 13143, 21371. 
1899 : 9200, 12036. 1900 : 6138, 13421, 21495. 1901 : 
14479, 18015, 18426. 1902 : 8359, 26187. 1903 : 1093, 
12612, 14427, 22563, 22564, 22566. 1904 : 7337, 7345, 
7346, 15708. 1905 : 413, 26440, 26522. 1906 : 2157, 
18057, 22888. 1907 : 206, 4429, 9391, 12969, 19713. 
1908: 327, 4145, 6194, 8496, 8865, 9370, 9371, 9372, 
9445, 10396, 11333, 1514, 16611, 16728, 22415, 23153, 



352 LIVING PICTURES 

23276, 27717, 27766. 1909 : 453, 4^99, 7426, 8838, 
9419, 15981, 16941, 21675. 1910: 3512, 7831, 21817, 
24563, 29185. 1911 : 5840, 6390, 9622, 10158, 12732, 
14072, 22458, 23620, 24091, 27911. 1912: 2239, 3384, 
4185, 4918, 7789, 10526, i37 OI > 14880, 15166, 18072, 
' 19593, 21195, 29746. 1913: 810, 1036, 1278, 4290 
6727, 8694, 10519, 16941, 16942, 19764. 






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APPENDIX II 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

THE present bibliography is divided into three parts. 

A. The annotated bibliography which appeared in the 
first edition of the present work, and which extends up to 
1898. 

B. A further list of works of reference from 1898, wholly 
or mainly devoted to the subject. 

C. A list of British and foreign magazines and period- 
icals wholly or mainly devoted to the subject. 

The bibliography does not extend to works of reference 
or periodicals which from time to time have articles or 
supplements relating to cinematography, such, for example, 
as photographic works and periodicals. To have in- 
cluded such would necessitate a bibliography of works 
and periodicals devoted to photography, mechanics, elec- 
tricity and electrical engineering, mechanics, theatrical 
subjects, and other auxiliary arts and sciences which are 
utilized in the science and art of cinematography. 

A. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY TO 1898. 

NOTE. Roman figures indicate the number of the volume, Arabic 
figures the page. Figures in round brackets indicate a series. 
Author's notes, etc., are placed in square brackets. Only a 
limited number of articles are here noticed ; reprints, translations, 
and purely trade notices are excluded. 

1825. ROGET. Explanation of an optical deception in 
the appearance of the spokes of a wheel seen through 

357 



358 LIVING PICTURES 

vertical apertures. [Spokes appear curved, anortho 
scopic phenomena.] Phil. Trans. 131. 

1827. The Thaumatrope. [Editorial ? by Brewster, 
see p. 5. Invention attributed to Dr. Paris.] Edinb. Jl. 
iv. 87. 

1828. PLATEAU. Sur les apparences que presentent 
deux lignes qui tournent autour d'un point avec un 
mouvement angulaire uniforme. [Wheel phenomena.] 
Corresp. math, de Quetelet, iv. 373. 

1829. LE FRANCOIS. Courbes d'intersection apparente 
de deux lignes qui tournent avec rapidite autour de deux 
points fixes. Ibid. v. 120, 379. 

PLATEAU. Lettre relative a differentes experi- 
ences d'optique. [Wheel phenomena.] Ibid. vi. 121. 

1831. AIME. Phnomenes qui arrivent quand on met 
deux roues en mouvement 1'une devant 1'autre. Bull, de 
Ferussac, xv. 103-107. 

FARADAY. On a peculiar class of optical decep- 
tions. [Wheel phenomena ; very interesting paper.] 
Jl. R. Inst. [N.S.], i. 205. 

PLATEAU. Lettre sur une illusion d'optique, 
[Wheel phenomena.] Ann. de chimie et de phys. (2), 
xlviii. 281. 

1833. PLATEAU. Sur un nouveau genre d'illusion 
d'optique. [Phenakistoscope.] Corresp.Obs.de Bruxelles, 
vii. 365. 

PLATEAU. Des illusions sur lesquelles se fonde 

le petit appareil appele recemment Phenakistiscope. 
[English name quoted as Fantascope.] Ann. de chimie 
et de phys. (2), liii. 304. 

1834. HORNER. On the properties of the Daedaleum, 
a new instrument of optical illusion. [See p. 22. Paper 
also contains full discussion of theory of distortion caused 
by moving slots.] Phil. Mag. (3), iv. 36. 

STAMPFER. Ueber die optischen Tauschungs- 

Phanomene welche durch die stroboskopischen Scheiben 



APPENDIX II 359 

(optischen Zauberscheiben) hervorgebracht werden. 
[Description of Stroboscope ; suggestion of band.] K.K. 
polytech. Institut, Wien. Jahrbiicher, xviii. 237. 

1834. Stroboskopische Scheiben, Phanakistiskop, Phan- 
tasmaskop. Pogg. Annalen, xxxii. 636. 

1835. SNELL. Description of an instrument for ex- 
hibiting a certain optical deception. [Phenakistoscope 
and wheel distortions. Stroboscope called Phantascope 
or Kaleidorama.] Sill. Jl. (i), xxvii. 310. 

1836. PLATEAU. Notice sur 1'anorthoscope. Bull. 
Acad. Bruxelles (i), iii. 7. 

1846. MULLER. Anwendung der stroboskopischen 
Scheibe zur Versinnlichung der Grundgesetze der Wellen- 
Lehre. Pogg. Ann. Ixvii. 271. 

PLATEAU. Sur de nouvelles applications curi- 

euses de la persistence des impressions de la retine. 
[Illusive motion from modified anorthoscope.] Bull. Acad. 
Bruxelles (i), xvi. pt. i. 424, 588 ; pt. ii. 30, 254. 

1850. TYNDALL. Phenomena of water-jet. [Momen- 
tary illumination by electric spark.] Phil. Mag. (4), 
i. 105. 

1852. MOIGNO. Stereo-fantascope ou Bioscope de 
M. J. Duboscq. [Combination of ordinary phenakisto- 
scope with stereoscopic eyepieces.] Cosmos, i. 703. 

PLATEAU. Sur le passage de Lucrece ou 1'on a 
vu une description du fantoscope. Ibid. i. 307. 

1853. POPPE. Das verbesserte Interferenzoscop [for 
exhibiting wave-motion.] Pogg. Ann. Ixxxviii. 229. 

ROLLMANN. Ueber eine neue Anwendung der 

stroboskopischen Scheiben. [Discussion of relation 
between number of slots and images.] Ibid. Ixxxix. 246. 

UCHATIUS. Apparat zur Darstellung beweg- 

licher Bilder an der Wand. Wiener Akad. Sitz.-Ber. x. 482. 

1858. ALMEIDA. Nouvel appareil stereoscopique. 
[Alternate vision, projection or inspection, by eclipse or 
use of coloured screens.] Comptes rendus. xlv ii. 61. 



360 LIVING PICTURES 

1861. SHAW. Description of a new optical instrument 
called the " Stereotrope." [Double cylinder zoetrope 
working on its side.] Phil. Mag. (4) xxii. 537. 

1864. BABBAGE. Passages from the life of a phil- 
osopher. [Thaumatrope invented by Herschel and 
Fitton.] London. 

1865. CLAUDET. On moving photographic figures, 
illustrating some phenomena of vision connected with the 
combination of the stereoscope and phenakistoscope by 
means of photography. [Views on rotating drums, 
alternate vision.] Brit. Assn. Kept. 1865, pt. ii. 9. 

LAING. Combination of Stereoscope and Phena- 
kistoscope. [Called the Motoroscope.] Mech. Mag. 
(2), xiii. 190. 

1867. CLAUDET. New fact relating to binocular 
vision. [Stereo-thaumatrope, see p. 7.] Phil. Mag. (4), 
xxxiii. 549. 

TOPLER and RADAU. Stroboscope ou Vibro- 

scope universel [used to render the regular cyclic motion of 
a body slower in appearance by intermittent illumination.] 
Les Mondes, xv. 206. 

WEBER. Theorie des Anorthoscops und der 
anorthoscopischen Figuren. Zeit. Math. u. Physik. 
xii. 133. 

1868. CARPENTER. On the Zoetrope and its ante- 
cedents. Student, i. 427 ; ii. 24. 

CARPENTER. The Anorthoscope. Ibid. ii. no. 
JEFFRIES. Remarks upon the principles of the 
Thaumatrope. Am/Opth.' Soc. Trans. 1869, 8. 

LANGLOIS and ANGIERS. Kinescope. [Alterna- 
tion of two microscopic views.] Les Mondes, xvii. 96. 

1869. MAXWELL. Zootrope perfectionee. [Concave 
lenses used instead of slots.] Ibid. xx. 585. 

1871. ZIZMANN. Die Bilder der stroboskopischen 
Scheibe objectivirt. [Description vague. No light inter- 
rupter shown.] Dingler's Jl. cxcix. 231. 



APPENDIX II 361 

1875. FLAMMARION. Le Passage de Venus. [Janssen's 
Revolver photographique.] La Nature, 1875, part i., 
356. 

1876. JANSSEN. Presentation du revolver photo- 
graphique. Bull. Soc. fran9. Phot. xxii. 100. 

1878. DONISTHORPE. Talking photographs. [Ap- 
paratus called Kinesigraph (band illuminated by electric 
spark) combined with Phonograph.] Nature, xvii. 242. 

TISSANDIER. Le Praxinoscope [de M. Reynaudj. 

La Nature, 1879, pt. i. 133. 

TISSANDIER. Les Allures du Cheval. [Muy- 
bridge's early work.] Ibid. 23. 

1880. TISSANDIER. Le Praxinoscope Theatre [de M. 
Reynaud.] Ibid. pt. i. 147. 

1881. LOMMEL. Einfaches Verfahren, die strobo- 
skopischen Erscheinungen fur Viele gleichzeitig sichtbar 
zu machen. [See p. 15.] Carl's Rept. xvii. pt. 7, 463. 

REYNAUD. La Toupie-fantoche. La Nature, 

1882, pt. i. 73. 

1882. MAREY. Le fusil photographique. Ibid. 1882, 
pt. i. 326. 

MOLTENI. Le Phenakistiscope de projection. 

[Lantern Wheel-of-Life.] Ibid. pt. ii. 64. 

TISSANDIER. Le Praxinoscope de projection [de 

M. Reynaud]. Ibid. 357. 

1883. MUYBRIDGE. The attitudes of animals in motion. 
[Account of apparatus and methods.] Jl. Franklin Inst. 
(3), Ixxxv. 260. 

1888. CARBUTT. A perfect substitute for glass . . . 
for use in photography. [History of flexible supports for 
photographic images.] Ibid. xcvi. 478. 

MAREY. Photo - chronographie. [Slight de- 
scription of first band-form apparatus.] Comptes rendus, 
cvii. 607, 643, 677. 

1889. ANSCHUTZ. Electrical Tachyscope. Sci. Am. 
Ixi. 303. 



362 LIVING PICTURES 

1889. MUYBRIDGE. Lecture at the Royal Institu- 
tion. [Account of Zoopraxiscope.] Brit. Jl. Phot. 
xxxvi. 826. 

1890. LONDE. La Chronophotographie. [Good sum- 
mary and description of Sebert's experiments.] La 
Nature, 1890, pt. i. 97, 151. 

MAREY. La locomotion dans 1'eau. [Illustra- 
tion of first pellicular apparatus.] Ibid. pt. ii. 375. 

Le Cinetographe d'Edison. [First notice. Illus- 
tration of film with one row of perforations.] Cosmos 
[N.S.], xix. 456. 

Machine camera taking ten photographs a 

second. [First publication of Greene and Evans' ap- 
paratus.] Phot. News, xxxiv. 157. 

Remarkable novelties in photographic instru- 
ments. [Greene's double projection apparatus made by 
Rudge.] Ibid. 421. 

1891. EDISON. Kinetograph. Engineering, li. 678. 

MAREY. Le Chronophotographie. [Good review 

of subject to date.] Rev. gen. des Sciences, ii. 689. 

1892. DEMENY. Les photographies parlantes. [Phono- 
scope.] La Nature, 1892, pt. i. 311. 

TISSANDIER. Le Theatre optique [de M. Rey- 
naud. With long band.] Ibid. pt. ii. 127. 

Mechanical Toys. [Various means of sectional 

change over whole surface.] Optician, iv. 82. 

Novel application for Zoetropes. [Deeply corru- 
gated surfaces of rotating cards as a means for the 
synthesis of natural colour, by means of primaries seen at 
different angles.] Ibid iv. no. 

Universal panoramic camera. [Kinetoscopy by 

continual revolution of ordinary panoramic camera.] 
Ibid. iii. 450. 

1893. LONDE. La Photochronographieappliquee aux 
sciences medicales. [Electrically controlled apparatus.] 
Bull. Soc. fran9. Phot (2), ix 572, 



APPENDIX II 363 

1893. Panoramic photography. [Moving sensitive 
surface formed of portion of spiral rendered optically 
stationary by cyclostat] Optician, v. 786. 

Zoetrope exposures. [Vibrating flames for 
intermittent lighting.] Ibid. v. 696. 

1894. DICKSON. History of the Kinetograph, Kineto- 
scope, and Kineto - phonograph. London and New 
York. 

EDISON. Kineto-phonograph. Electrical World, 
xxiii. 799. 

EDISON. Kinetoscope. La Nature, 1894, 
pt. ii. 323. 

JENKINS. Photochronographic camera. [Ex- 
terior view only.] Phot. Times, xxv. 2. 

MARESCHAL. Lachronophotographie d'amateur 
et le portrait vivant. [Demeny's Chronophotographe 
d'amateur or Biographe.] La Nature, 1894, pt. ii. 279. 

MAI\EY. Le Mouvement. Paris. 

THOMPSON. Life and Works of T. A. Edison. 

[Review ; states that machines similar to Kinetoscope 
(? Anschtitz') were shown at Frankfort Electrical Exhibi- 
tion, 1891.] Electrician, xxxiv. 187. 

An application of Optics. [Optical means for 
intermittent kinetoscopy.] Optician, vii. 164. 

Are Lantern Stereotropes possible ? [History 
of the Stereo-phenakistoscope.] O.M. Lantern Jl. v. 23. 

1895. IREX. The Lantern Stroboscope [for moment- 
ary illumination of moving objects]. Ibid. vi. 112. 

LATHAM. The Eidoloscope. [Apparently on 
system of Reynaud's praxinoscope de projection, but no 
details given.] Phot. Times, xxvii. 173. 

LuMifcRE. Le Cinematographic. [Description 
and account of exhibition, July n, 1895.] La Nature, 

1895, Pt- " 2I 5- 

STORY. Who is the inventor of the Kineto- 
scope ? [Greene claimed.] Brit. Jl. Phot. xlii. 772. 



364 



LIVING PICTURES 



1895. WENHAM. The Kinetoscope. [Letter on ex- 
periments in 1852.] Eng. Mech. Ixi. 352. 

La Chronophotographie pratique. [Demeny's 

dog-motion.] Inventions nouvelles, viii. pt. ii. 390^ 

Photochronographic apparatus for amateurs. 

[Demeny's eccentric spool.] Phot. Times, xxvi. 39. 

Projicirte Bewegungsbilder von Anschiitz. [Ex- 
hibited November 15, 1894 ; no description of details.] 
Phot. Archiv. xxxvi. TO. 

1896. ACRES. Animated photography. [History and 
dates.] Amateur Phot. xxiv. 298. 

DEMENY. Chronophotographe. [Final form.] 

Vie Scien. 1896, pt. ii. 267. 

EAMES. The Animatoscope. Phot. Times, 

xxviii. 330. 

GUEROULT. Sur un application nouvelle de la 

Photographic et du Phenakistoscope. Deposited 1889. 
[Photographs taken at long intervals rapidly combined or 
shown backwards. Instrument called photo-cinegraphe.] 
Comptes rendus, cxxii. 404. 

JENKINS. Development of Chrono-photography. 

[Review ; own apparatus ; life-size coin-freed peep-show.] 
Phot. Times, xxviii. 449. 

JENKINS. The Phantoscope. [First description 
of details.] Ibid, xxviii. 222. 

J LY - Kinetoscope a vues multiples. La Nature, 

1896, pt. i. 337. 

LOMAX. Kinetoscope and lantern. [Summary 
of position of Kinetograph.] O.M. Lantern Jl. vii. 132. 

MARESCHAL. Chronophotographe construit par 

Demeny. [Projecting and reversing arrangement.] La 
Nature, 1896, pt. ii. 391. 

POPLAWSKI. Neuer Apparat [von Poplawski 
und Lebiedzinski]. Phot. Mitth. xxxii. 329. 

VITOUX. Photographie du mouvement. Chrono- 
photographie. Kinetoscope. Cinematographic. Paris. 



APPENDIX II 365 

1896. VOLKMER. Die Rotations-Photographic undder 
Kinematographe, oder " die lebende Photographic." 
[Lumiere's apparatus and suggestions for applications ; 
scenery, etc.] Zeit. Oest. Ing. Vereins, xlviii. 369, 377. 

Continuous revolution Kinetoscopy. Optician, 



x - 34 T 

- Le Folioscope. [Double - book form.] La 
Nature, 1896, pt. i. 256. 

- Kinetoscope stereopticon. [Jenkins' Phanto- 
scope and Kinetoscopic Camera, also Edison's Vitascope.] 
Sci. Am. Ixxv. 325. 

Viviscope. Ibid. Ixxiv. 395- 

1897. ACRES. Letter on the invention of the Cinema- 
tograph. Am. Phot. xxvi. 277. 

- ACRES. Making and exhibiting living pictures. 
[Contains dates of his invention.] Jl. Camera Club, 
xi. 65. 

BEDDING. Animated Photography [History of]. 
B. J. Phot. Almanac, 1898, 643. 

BRUNEL. La Photographic et la Projection du 
Mouvement. Paris. 

- DONISTHORPE. Letter on the Kinesigraph [and 
his subsequent patents]. Brit. Jl. Phot. xliv. 175, 207. 

- FRITSCH. Reminiscenzen iiber . . . den Kinema- 
tographen. [Correspondence between Uchatius and 
Prokesch.] C. Z. f. Optik, u.s.w. xviii. 211. 

GASTINE. La Chronophotographie sur plaque 
fixe et sur pellicule mobile. Paris. 

GAUMONT. La Grille. [Perforated fan for 
viewing screen.] Bull. Soc. franc. Phot. (2), xiii. 295. 

HANAU and MONTSERRET. Le development des 
pellicules kinetographiques. Vie scient. 1897, pt. ii. 532. 

HEPWORTH. The Cinematograph. [History.] 
Am. Phot. xxvi. 262. 

-- JENKINS. Films [Development of]. Phot, 
Times, xxix. 127, 



366 LIVING PICTURES 

1897. JENKINS. The picture-ribbons used in chrono- 
photography. [Perforating, printing, developing.] Ibid. 

259- 

JENKINS. Improved Kinetoscopic camera and 
printing apparatus. Sci. Am. Ixxvi. 281. 

LUMIERF. Development and projection of kine- 

matograph films. Brit. Jl. Phot. xlvi. suppt. 91. 

LUMIERE. Sur les dangers du cinematographe. 
[Safety condenser.] Bull. Soc. franc. Phot. (2), xiii. 361. 

MAKESCHAL. Les erreurs du Cinematographe. 

Suppression du scintillement. La Nature, 1897, pt. i. 
368. 

MAREY. Nouvelles modifications du Chrono- 
photographe. [Camera, projector, printing and develop- 
ing apparatus.] Bull. Soc. fran. Phot. (2), xiii. 217. 

RAE. Development of kinetograph films. Phot. 
News, xli. 265. 

REYNER. Les origines de la photographic 
animee. [Reville's double-disc and stereoscopic appara- 
tus, 1857.] Vie scientifique, 1897, pt. ii. 451. 

ROBINS. Animated Pictures. O.M. Lantern 
Jl. viii. 99. 

ROBINS. Hints on exhibiting Cinematographs. 
Ibid. 129. 

ROBINS. Development of Kinetograph films. 
Ibid. 102. 

ST. CLAIR. The Watkins Micromotoscope. 

Sc. Am. Ixxvii. 75. 

WARD. Kinetography. The production of 
living pictures. Knowledge, xx. 216. 

WRENCH. The Cinematograph for attaching to 

the lantern. [History; own apparatus; discussion.] 
Jl. Camera Club, xi. 36. 

Animated photographs and projecting machines. 
O.M. Lantern Jl. viii. 103. 

Biograph and Mutograph. Sci. Am. Ixxvi. 248, 



APPENDIX II 367 

1897. Chronophotographie. [Review and description 
of modern machines.] Rev. scient. et industr. 1897, 
i. 179. 

Cinematographic de 19 sous. [Revival of Kine- 
scope, see p. 33.] La Nature, 1897, pt. i. no. 

Folioscope mecanique. [Radial form.] Ibid. 

1897, pt. i. suppt. 23. 

New Kinematograph. [Continuous rotary 

action.] Optician, xiii. 212. 

1898. BELLINGHAM and HOLT. Glycerine a heat 
absorbent in lantern projection. Brit. Jl. Phot. xlv. 
suppt. 28. 

EDER and VALENTA. Ueberdie Fortschritte der 

Photographic (Serienapparate). Dingler's Jl. cccviii. QO. 

HEPWORTH. Animated Photography : the ABC 
of the Cinematograph. [Practical operator's handbook.] 
London. 

HEYL. Contribution to the history of the art 
of photographing living subjects in motion and repro- 
ducing the natural movements by the lantern. Jl. 
Franklin Inst. (3), cxv. 310. 

HUGHES. A little information about the Cine- 
matograph. [Discussion of principles.] O.M. Lantern 
Jl. ix. q, 24, 44. 

JENKINS. Animated Pictures. Phot. Times, 
xxx. 289. 

JENKINS. Patentable priority in chronophoto- 
graphic apparatus. Ibid. 152. 

JENKINS. The Perforations [of Kineto-films]. 
Ibid. 113. 

Le Cinematographic applique a 1'astronomie. 

[Flammarion's terrestrial globe.] Vie scientifique, 1898, 
pt. i. 160. 

Le Cinematographe pour tous. [Monnard's 
invention ; minute photos, in spiral on disc ; invented word 
used, the telecinematographe.] La Nature, 1898, pt. i. 90. 



368 LIVING PICTURES 

1898. Neue Formen des Kinematographen und ver- 
wandter Apparate. Eder's Jahrbuch, 1898, 188. 

Viewing film transparencies in the Cinemato- 
graph without projection. O.M. Lantern Jl. ix. 3. 

LONDE. L'Alethorama [de MM. Mortier et 

Cheri-Rousseau] . La Nature, 1898, pt. ii. 253. 



B. WORKS OF REFERENCE SUBSEQUENT 
TO 1898. 

1898. JENKINS, C. F. Animated pictures. Washing- 
ton. 134 pp. 9 pi. 

1899. MAREY, J. E. La Chronophotographie. Paris. 
Gauthier-Villars. 40 pp. 

TRUTAT, E. La Photographie animee. Paris. 

Gauthier-Villars. 198 pp. i pi. 

1907. URBAN, C. The Cinematograph in science, 
education, and matters of state. London. Urban 
Trading Company. 56 pp. 

1908. KITE, M. H. Lessons in how to become a 
successful moving operator. Harrisburg, Pa. (Author). 
140 pp. 

LIESEGANG, F. P. Handbuch der praktischen 

Kinematographie. Leipzig. Liesegang's Verlag. 302 pp. 

i pi. 

WoLF-CzAPEK, K. W. Die Kinematographie : 
W r esen, Entstehung, und Ziele des lebenden Bildes. 
Berlin. Union Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft. 120 pp. 

1909. DEMENY, G. Les origines du Cinematographe. 
Paris. Paulin. 64 pp. 

1910. LEHMANN, H. Zur Theorie der kinemato- 
graphischen Synthese. Zeit fiir Instrumentenkunde. 
1910. Pp. 265-74. 

MARBE, K. Theorie der kinematographischen 
Projektionen, Leipzig. Barth. 80 pp. 



APPENDIX II 369 

1910. Modern Bioscope operator (The). London. 
Ganes, Ltd. 176 pp. 

1911. BENNETT, C. N. Handbook of Kinematography : 
History, theory, and practice of motion photography and 
projection. London. Kinematograph Weekly. 278 pp. 

HULFISH, D. S. Cyclopedia of motion picture 

work. Chicago. American School of Correspondence. 2vols. 

LIESEGANG, F. P. Handbuch der praktischen 

Kinematographie. 2te. Aufl. Leipzig. 330 pp. 

LOBEL, L. La technique cinematographique. 
Projection, fabrication des films. Paris. Dunod et Pinat. 
340 pp. 

ROSEN, J. Le Cinematographe, son passe, son 

avenir, et ses applications. Paris. Soc. d'Editions Tech- 
niques. 142 pp. 

WOLF-CZAPEK, K. W. Die Kinematographie : 

Wesen, Enstehung, und Ziele des lebenden Bildes. 2te. 
Aufl. Berlin. Union Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft. 136 pp. 

1912. KRESS, E. Conferences sur Cinematographic. 
Paris. Cinema Revue. 220 pp. 

LIESEGANG, F. P. Handbuch der praktischen 
Kinematographie. 3te. Aufl. Dlisseldorf. 474 pp. (Biblio- 
graphy, pp. 457-64.) 

TALBOT, F. A. Moving pictures, how they are 

made and worked. London. Heinemann. 356 pp. 

1913. FORCH, C. Der Kinematograph und das sich 
bewegende Bild. Geschichte und tech. Wien. Hartleben. 
248 pp. 

HULFISH, D. S. Motion picture work. London. 
Lockwood. 

MAURIN, L. Notes pratiques du Cinema- 

tographiste. Paris. Cinema Revue. 56 pp. 

RICHARDSON, F. H. Motion picture handbook. 
London. Lockwood. 

1914. HALLBERG, J. H. Motion picture electricity. 

300 pp. N.Y. Motion Picture World. 

24 



370 LIVING PICTURES 

C. BRITISH AND FOREIGN PERIODICALS. 

Bild und Film. Monthly, M. 2.40. Volksvereins- 
Verlag. Gladbach. 

Bioscope (The). Weekly, 2d. (London). Games, Ltd., 
Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C. 

Cinema (Le). Weekly, 5 c. (Paris.) 

Cinema-Revue. Monthly, 15 c. (Paris). 

Film und Lichtbild. 10 hefte yearly. M 2. Franck- 
h'sche Verlagsh., Stuttgart. 

Helios. Fachblatt fur Kinematographen-Theater und 
Industrie. Buda-Pest. 

Kinematograph (Der) Weekly. M. 2.10 quarterly. Ed. 
Lintz, Diisseldorf. 

Kinematograph and Lantern Weekly. 2d. 9-11, Tot- 
tenham Street, W. 

Kinematograph Monthly Film Record. 2d. Kine- 
matograph and Lantern Weekly, Ltd., 9-11, Tottenham 
Street, W. 

Lichtbildkunst in Schule, Wissenschaft u. Volksleben. 
M 6. per annum. Schultechnik-Verlag, Storkow (Mark). 

Motography. Fortnightly. $2 per annum. Electricity 
Magazine Corporation, Chicago. 

Moving Picture News. Weekly. $2. Cinematograph 
Publishing Company, 30, West I3th Street, New York. 

Moving Picture World. Weekly. $2 per annum. 
American Photographic Publishing Company, Broadway, 
New York. 

Moving Picture World. Weekly. Chalmers Publish- 
ing Company, 17, Madison Avenue, New York. 10 c. 

Official Moving Picture Guide Directory* Weekly. 
Fredericksburg, Va. $2. 

Revue Scientifique et Technique de 1'Industrie Cine- 
matographique. Monthly, 2 fr. 

La Vita Cinematografica. Turin. 



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INDEX 



All the references are to pages in the book 



ACETYLENE light, 212, 213, 309 

Acres, 100, 156, 230, 329, 362, 363 

Adams, 69 

Aeroscope camera, 172 

Aime, 12, 356 

Alethorama, 366 

Alhazen, 4 

Almeida, 357 

Angiers, 35, 358 

Animate-graph, 102 

Animatoscope, 95, 362 

Anorthoscope, n, 18, 357, 358 

Anschiitz, 26, 54, 79, 107, 359, 

362 

Aphengescope, 73 
Arc lamps, 210 
Autexophone, 277 
Autochromes, 260 

Babbage, 5, 358 

Barr, 115 

Beale, 21 

Beard, 228 

Bedding, 363 

Bellingham, 365 

Bennett, 367 

Bibliography, 355 

Bichromate printing, 184 

Biographe, or Biograph, 87, 361, 

364 

Bio-Pictorescope, 150, 220, 242 
Blair, 129, 142, 148, 149 
Book-form moving pictures, 37, 

343 

Boyle, 4 
Bradley, 25 
Brewster, 5, 356 
Britain, 114 

Brown, 22, 51, 132, 247, 250 
Brunei, 363 
Bull, 332 

Butcher's Empire projector, 128, 
220, 239 



Cameras : 

Aeroscope, 172 
Debrie's, 170 
lenses for, 174 
Newman-Sinclair, 169 
Proszynski, 172 
spool boxes, 1 68, 173 
stands for, 173 
typical, 167 
Campbell, 113 
Carbutt, 359 
Carpenter, 5, 358 
Casler, 37, 38 
Cavallo, 4 

Celluloid, 69, 155, 290 
Cellulose, 156 
! Choreutoscope, 22, 132 
! Christensen, 271 
Chrono-chrome, 270, 272 
Chronophone, 277 
Chronophotographe, or Chrono- 
photographie, 76, 86, 88, 360, 
361, 362, 364, 366 
Chrono-photography, 47, 362, 364 
Chrono projector, 198 
Cinelife, 250 
Cinematograph Act, 158, 236, 237, 

289-299 
Cinematographe, 97, 142 
I Cinematoscope, 102 
I Cineopse lens, 208 
Cinephone, 281 
Cinephonium, 274 
Clair, St., 364 
Claudet, 7, 42, 358 
Claw feed, 142, 345 
Cleaning films, 194 
Clerk-Maxwell, 27, 109, 253, 254 

255, 256, 257, 270, 272 
Coin-freed apparatus, 55 
Colour cinematography : 

additive processes, 254, 
259, 270, 272 

373 



374 



LIVING PICTURES 



Colour cinematography : 

chronochrome, 270, 272 
kinemacolour, 262, 265, 267 
multi-colour screen pro- 
cesses, 259 
patents, 351 
persistence of vision 

methods, 262 
subtractive processes, 255 
Colouring films, 192 
Colour vision, 254 
Commercial uses for cinemato- 
graphy, 335 
Condensers, 204 
Copyright : 

artistic works, 312 

assignment of, 319 

authorship, 315, 317 

civil remedies, 322 

date from which copyright 

runs, 317 
duration of, 315 
extension of Act, 314 
infringement of, 319 
infringing copy, 322 
innocent infringer of, 323 
nature of, 311 
ownership of, 318 
performance, 313, 321 
publication, 313 
summary proceedings, 321, 324 
Corday, 330 
Corelli, Marie, 331 
Crofts, 72, 109, 328 
Cyclostat, 89 

Daedallum, 24, 356 

Dallmeyer, 175 

Dancing Skeleton, 21 

d'Arcy, 4 

Davidson, 270 

Debrie, 164, 165, 170, 186. 195 

Demeny, 65, 67, 86, 147, 160, 275, 
360, 361, 362, 366 

Desvignes, 23, 48, 55, 68, 328 

Developing : 

frames, drums, etc., for, 177 
continuous processes for, 179, 

180, 189, 190 
positives, 189 

Diable soufflant, 107, 326 

Dickson, 361 

Disc, Slotted, and Mirror experi- 
ment, 13 

Dog feed, 147, 345 

Donisthorpe, 55, 56, 64, 68, 69, 72, 
106, 109, 328, 359, 363 



Duboscq, 357 
Ducos du Hauron, 49 
Du Mont, 49, 64, 325, 327 

Eames, 95, 362 

Eastman, 156 

Eder, 365 

Edison, 56, 78, 107, 131, 156, 157, 
159, 160, 275, 326, 360, 361 

Education, use of cinematography 
in, 334, 366 

Edwards, 51 

Eidoloscope, 361 

Electric wonder, 55, 107 

Entry, Power of, under Cinemato- 
graph Act, 295 

Ernemann projector, 222 

Evans, 59, 70, 139, 148, 152, 328, 
360 

Fantascope, 356 

Faraday, 12, 356 

Farmer, 332 

Feed movements, classified, 106, 

343 

Film centring, 217 
Film-gates and guides, 163, 215, 

349 
Films : 

celluloid, 155, 290 

cleaning, 194 

colouring, 192 

developing, etc., 176, 347, 363, 

364 

drying, 178, 191 
history of, 359 
joining, 193, 244 
manufacture of, 156 
patents for, 346 
perforating, 159, 189, 190, 346, 

364. 365 

printing, 181, 347, 348, 364 

protecting, 193, 347 

regulations for, 303 

renovating, 194, 347 

repairing, 193 

rewinding, 243, 348 

threading up, 243, 348 

trick, 242 

Film-steadying devices, 216 
Filoscope, 38 

Fire-preventing devices and ap- 
pliances, 236, 301, 350 
Fitton, 6, 358 

Flammarion, 332, 335, 359, 365 
Flicker, 215, 229, 349 
Folioscope, 37, 363. 364 



INDEX 



375 



Forch, 367 

Foreign patents, 341 

Fox-Talbot, 47 

Francois, Le, 356 

Friese-Greene, .8, 152, 231, 262, 

270 / 1 

Fritsch, 19, 363 

Gastine, 363 

Gaumont, 193, 198, 236, 270, 272, 

276, 363 
Geroult, 362 
Goodwin, 156 
Gray, 92, 114, 140 
Greene, 59, 70, 328, 360, 361 
" Grip " feed, 139 
Guerault, 330 
Guilbert, 129, 208 

Hallberg, 368 

Hanau, 363 

Hauron, Ducos du, 257 

Heliocinegraphe, 17 

Helmholz, 256 

Hepworth, 179, 180, 226, 241, 279, 

363. 364 
Herkomer, 331 
Herschel, 5, 358 
Heyl, 22, 52, 365 
Kite, 366 
Holt, 365 

Home cinematographs, 251 
Horner, 23, 356 
Hughes, 22, 220, 229, 242, 365 
Hulfish, 367 
Hyatt, 156 

Illuminants, 209 

Illusion of motion by diagrams, n 

Interferenzoscop, 357 

Intermittence mechanisms : 
classified, 106, 343 
compared, 151 

Intermittent feed devices, 116 

Inventor of the cinematograph, 325, 
361, 363, 365 

Ireland, application of Cinemato- 
graph Act to, 298 

Irex, 361 

Janssen, 62, 327, 359 

Jeffries, 358 

Jenkins, 90, 109, 361, 362, 363, 364 

365, 3^6 

Joining films, 193 
Joly, 182, 183, 260, 362 



Kaleidorama, 16, 357 

Kalotrope, n 

Kamm, 129, 148, 217, 223, 229, 235, 

239 

Kater, 6 
Kelvin, 159 

Kinemacolour, 262, 265, 268 
Kineograph, 37, 69 
Kineopticon, 102 
Kinescope, 35, 358 
Kinesigraph, 55, 359, 363 
Kinetic Lantern, 102 
Kinetograph, 79, 360, 361, 362 
Kinetophone, 79, 275 
Kinetophonograph, 361 
Kineto projector, 145 
Kinetoscope, 56, 78, 107, 157, 250, 

326, 361, 362 
Kinoplasticon, 247 
Kinora, 41 
Kress, 367 

Laing, 358 
Langlois, 35, 358 
Lanterns, regulations for, 303 
Lantern Wheel of Life, 107, 359 
Latham, 109, 361 
Lauste, 282 
Lee, 262 

Lenses, 49, 50, 174 
Leonardo da Vinci, 4 
Le Prince, 56, 57, 84 
Licenses, 290-294, 305 
Licensing authority, 294, 296, 298 
Liesegang, 366, 367 
Light, adjustment of, 207 
Lighting in buildings, 303 
Limelight, 212, 305, 306 
Lincoln, 23 
Linnett, 37 

Lists, Classified, of patents, 342 
Lobel , 367 
Lomax, 362 

Lommel, 16, 67, 109, 359 
Londe, 58, 360, 366 
Lucretius, 3 

Lumiere, 41, 97, 115, 142, 156, 159, 
160, 237, 260, 331, 361, 364 

Mach, 330 

Madeler, von, 284, 287 

Maltese-cross feed mechanism, 120, 

344 

Maltheser projector, 140 
Marbe, 366 
Mareschal, 361. 362, 364 



376 



LIVING PICTURES 



Marey, 53, 59, 65, 76, 86, 182, 330, 
332, 359, 3 6 o. 361, 364- 366 

Marionette-top, 33 

Martin, 60 

Maskelyne, 109, 224 

Maurin, 367 

Maxwell, 50, 358 

Mayer, 85 

Mees, 268 

Mester, 276 

Micro -photographs, 78 

Moigno, 357 

Molteni, 359 

Monnard, 365 

Montserrat, 363 

Motion, study of, 53, 58, 59, 65, 76, 
86, 182, 359, 365 

Motoroscope, 358 

Moving pictures, 244 

Miiller, 1 6, 329, 357 

Music licenses, 291 

Mutograph, 109, 224, 364 

Mutoscope, 38 / 

Muybridge, 53, 54, 56, 332, 359, 31 

Newman, 165, 238 
Newman-Sinclair camera, 169 
Newton, 4. 208, 253 
Nollet, Abbe, 4 

Onimus, 60 

Optical system, projecting, 203 
Optician and Photographic Trades 
Review, 89, 360, 361 

Panoramic effects, 247, 350, 360, 

361 

Paris, Dr. , 5, 356 
Patents, 339 
Pathe, 193 
Pathescope, 160, 252 
Paul, 102, 157 
Pedemascope, 34 
Penalties under Cinematograph 

Act, 295 

Pepper's Ghost, 247 
Perforating films, 161, 189 
Periodicals, 368 
Persistence of vision, i, 233 
Petit, 131 

Phantascope, 16, 357 
Phantasmaskop, 357 
Phantoscope, 90, 106, 109, 362, 363 
Phasmatrope, 52 
Phenakistoscope, 3, 107, 325, 326, 

327 329, 342, 35 6 , 357, 358,359, 362 
Phonokinetograph, 275 



Phonoscope, 66, 107, 360 
Photochronographe, or photo- 

chronographie, 76, 86, 359, 360 
Photochronographic camera, 361 
.Photo-cinegraphe, 362 
Photophone, 66, 275 
Photoscope, 35 
Photozootrope, 251 
Picture, size of, 206 
Pilkington, 34 
Plateau, 3, 48, 107, 325, 326, 327, 

329, 356, 357 
Polytechnic, 331 
Poplawski, 362 
Poppe, 16, 357 
Potter, 69 

Power projector, 134, 222 
Praxinoscope, 28, 30, 113, 359 
Prestwich, 136, 160, 238 
Printing films : 

continuous - moving - film 

apparatus, 182 
intermittently -moving- film 

apparatus, 185 
Proctor, 335 

Projectors, regulations for, 303 
Prokesch, 19, 363 
Proszynski, 144, 172, 217, 233, 34, 

281 

Protecting films, 193, 347 
Ptolemy, 3 

' Quetelet, 16 

I Radau, 358 

! Rae, 364 

i Regulations under Cinematograph 

Act, 1909, 242, 300, 308 
i Relief effects, producing, 244, 350 

Renovating films, 194, 347 

Repairing films, 193 

Retouching films, 192 

Revolver, Photographic, 62, 330 

Reynaud, 28, 31, 112, 359, 360 
I Reyner, 364 
| Richardson, 367 
; Robins, 364 

Roget, ii, 327, 355 
! Rollmann, 357 

Rontgen-ray cinematography, 333 

Rose, ii 

Rosen, 367 

Rosenberg, 133, 285 

Rudge, 71 

Savart, 16 

Scala theatre, 249 



INDEX 



377 



Scientific uses of cinematography, 

332, 3^6 

Scotland, Application of Cinemato- 
graph Act to, 297 
Scott, Captain, 169 
Screens, 213, 214, 350 
Seabourne film-cleaning machine, 

196 

Sebert, 58, 360 
Segner, 4 

Selenium cells, use of, 284 
Shaw. 358 
Short, 38 

Shutters, 202, 229, 232, 349 
Sinsteden, 3 
Smith, 265 
Snell, 1 6, 357 
Sounds recorded photographically, 

282 

Speaking pictures, 274, 351 
Spools and spool-holders, 240, 303, 

348 

Stampfer, 15, 68, 328, 329, 357 
Stands : 

camera, 173 
projector, 214 

Stereo-phenakistoscope, 361 
Stereoscopic effects, 244. 350, 358, 

36i 

Stereo-thaumatrope, 7, 358 
Stereotrope, 358 
Stereo-Zootrope, 27 
Story, 361 
Stroboscope, 16, 68, 357, 358, 

361 

Stroboskopische Scheiben, 357 
Stroud, no 
Synchronization, 275, 351 

Tachyscope, 26, 54, 79, 359 
Telecinematographe, 365 
Telephoto lens, 175 
Thaumatrope, 5, 33, 329, 356, 358 



Theatriaxinoscope, 32 

Thomassin, 278 

Thompson, 361 

Thornton, 165, 180, 181, 184, 191 

Tissandier, 359, 360 

Topler, 358 

Toupee-fantoche, La, 33, 359 

Trutat, 366 

Turner, 262 

Tyndall, 47, 357 

Uchatius, 18, 91, 357, 363 
Ulysse, 272 
Urban, 265, 366 

Valetta, 365 
Varley, 75, 88, 148 
Vaughan, 264 
Venus, Transit of, 62 
Vibrating flames, 361 
Vibroscope, 358 
Vitoux, 362 
Vivaphone, 279 
Viviscope, 43 
Volkmer, 363 

Ward, 364 

Watilliaux, 37 

Weber, 358 

Wenham, 49, 325, 327, 362 

Wheatstone, 17, 132, 231 

Wheel of Life, 19, 20, 23 

Williamson, 145, 162, 186 

Wolf-Cyapek, 366, 367 

Wollaston, 5 

Wrench, 128, 220, 364 

Young, 254 

Zigmann, 358 

Zoetropes, 23, 342, 358, 360, 361 
Zoopraxiscope, 56, 107, 360 
Zootrope, 23, 358 



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