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Full text of "Horace; Odes and epodes;"

Stutients' Series of Hattn Classics 

HORACE 
ODES AND EPODES 

EDITED, WITH 

INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 

BY 

PAUL SHOKEY, PH.D. 

PBOFESBOB IK THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 



0V TTOXX' d 



BENJ. H. SANBORN & CO. 

BOSTON, U.S. A. 
1901 



COPTEIGHT, 1898, 

BY PAUL SHOKET. 



yorinooti ISrrss 

J. S. Gushing & Co. - Berwick ft Smith 
Norwood Mass. U.S.A. 



STACK 
ANNEX 

fA 



2T0 tfjc Alumnae of 

BRYN MAWR COLLEGE 
18891895 

TaOra 



PREFACE. 



FROM some friendly admonitions that have come to me it 
appears that what is expected of a would-be ' literary ' edition 
of Horace is commentary of the kind so admirably described by 
Mr. Sarcey : 1 

' Ecce autem a Tenedo gemini tranquilla per alta. Ecce autem! 
Les voila, ce sont eux! A Tenedo; c'est de Tenedos qu'ils arrivent; 
on les apercoit de loin ; gemini ; ils sont deux ; ils forment un couple ! 
Ambo serait faible : mais gemini! Tranquilla per alta ; c'est la haute 
mer; die est tranquille, et les deux monstres s'avancent. Quel 
tableau ! ' , 

The present edition is less ambitious in its scope. It aims to 
stimulate the student's appreciation of the Odes as literature 
by a somewhat fuller illustration than is generally given of 
Horace's thought, sentiment, and poetic imagery. In order to 
find space for the parallel passages quoted it has been neces- 
sary to abbreviate somewhat the expression of the tradi- 
tional exegesis and to state by implication some of the more 
obvious things which the student has already met in Vergil. 
But it is believed that the introductory paraphrases in con- 
nection with the more explicit notes provide as much aid for 
the young student as is desirable ; and it is hoped that the 

1 Souvenirs de Jeunesse, p. 180. 
v 



vi PREFACE. 

surplusage, as some may deem it, of references, citations, and 
illustrations will prove of value not only to teachers and 
students of literature, but to the beginner when he returns to 
the most interesting and important part of his task the 
review. For the Odes are to be assimilated, not merely read 
through. 

The young student in haste to construe will of course not 
look up references to other authors. But they will not harm 
him any more than the critical and grammatical discussions 
found in all school editions which he always skips. Cross- 
references to Horace have been designedly multiplied. No 
intelligent study of an author is possible without them. It 
would not have been difficult to add indefinitely to the quota- 
tions from English poetry, and the task of selection was not easy. 
Some commonplace quotations have been admitted merely for 
the information they contain ; others as illustrations of the 
taste of the. age that produced them. I should be sorry to 
be thought to recommend ' parallel passages ' as a short cut to 
' culture.' But Horace especially invites this treatment, and in 
no other way can the right atmosphere for the enjoyment of 
the Odes be so easily created. No judicious teacher will impose 
such work as a task, and when it is voluntarily undertaken 
the student should be taught to distinguish carefully conscious 
imitation, interesting coincidences, and the mere common- 
places of poetical rhetoric and imagery. 

The text of the Odes is for practical purposes settled. This 
edition was set up from the Teubner text of Miiller with 
marginal corrections. I fear that I have not attained perfect 
consistency in some minor matters. All various readings or 
disputed interpretations that concern the undergraduate or the 



PREFACE. Vli 

literary student are briefly discussed in the notes. I have been 
more careful to indicate the reasons for each of two differing 
views than to insist strenuously on my own preference. Those 
who wish to consult critical editions or use the Odes for exer- 
cises in text criticism will be put on the track of a sufficient 
preliminary bibliography by the article Horatius, in Harper's 
Classical Dictionary. 

In the preparation of the notes I have freely used Hirsch- 
felder-Orelli, Kiessling, and Nauck, and have consulted Wick- 
ham, Smith, Page, and others. 

Spenser's Fairy Queen is cited as F. Q. ; Herrick, by the 
numbers of Saintsbury's (Aldine Poets) edition. Lex. = 
Harper's Latin Lexicon. Otto = Otto's Sprichworter der 
Rbmer. 

In conclusion I wish to thank Professor Pease, and Professor 
Arthur T. Walker of the University of Kansas, who have read 
a large part of the proof and made helpful suggestions. 

Mr. George Norlin, Mr. T. C. Burgess, and Mr. H. M. 
Burchard, fellows in Greek in the University of Chicago, 
kindly offered to verify in the proof the references to Greek 
and Latin authors. To them is mainly due such accuracy as 
I may have attained in this matter. 

PAUL SHOREY. 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, 
August, 1898. 



NOTE. A. G. = Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar ; B. = 
Bennett ; G. L. = Gildersleeve-Lodge ; H. = Harkness. 



INTRODUCTION. 



THERE are many excellent lives of Horace in print, and much 
good criticism is easily accessible. 1 In order to keep the pres- 
ent volume within bounds this introduction will be limited to 
a brief resume of the chief facts known about the poet's life, 
and a few practical suggestions on (1) syntax, (2) style, 
(3) meters. 

The student should by all means review the history of Rome 
for the period of Horace's life and familiarize himself with the 
topography of Rome and the Campagna, the biographies of 
Augustus and Maecenas, and the events of the years B.C. 44-20. 2 

The sources for the life of Horace are the allusions in his 
own writings, and the brief biography attributed to Suetonius. 

Quintus 3 Horatius 4 Flaccus 5 was born on the 8th of Decem- 
ber, 6 B.C. 65, 7 at Venusia, 8 a Roman colony on the confines of 

1 Milman : Martin, in Blackwood's Ancient Classics for English 
Readers ; Sellar, Horace and the Elegiac Poets ; Lang, Letters to Dead 
Authors ; the Histories of Latin literature, Crutwell, Simcox, and es- 
pecially Mackail ; articles in Encycl. Brit. ; the Classical Dictionaries, 
and the Library of the World's Best Literature ; Quarterly Review, 
180. Ill sqq. : 104. 325 sqq. 

2 Merivale's Roman Triumvirates, and Cape's Early Empire, in 
Epochs of History Series ; Hare's Days near Rome ; Burns' Rome 
and the Campagna. 

8 Sat. 2. 6. 37. 

4 Odes 4. 6. 44; Epp. 1.14.5. 
s Sat. 2. 1. 18; Epode 15. 12. 
6 Suet., sexto idus Decembris. 
' Odes 3. 21. 1 ; Epode 13. 6; Epp. 1. 20. 26-28. 
8 Sat. 2. 1. 35 ; Odes 3. 30. 10, 4. 6. 27, 4. 9. 2. 
ix 



X INTRODUCTION. 

Apulia and Lucania. His father was a iibertinus, or freedman, 1 
by whom emancipated is not known. Horace was technically 
ingenuus, having been born after his father's emancipation. 2 
His mother he never mentions. In the exercise of his profes- 
sion of coactor, 8 collector of taxes, or perhaps rather of the pro- 
ceeds of public sales, the father acquired a small estate near 
Venusia, and a competence that enabled him to give his son 
the best education that Rome afforded.* To this and to his 
father's personal supervision and shrewd, homely vein of moral 
admonition the poet refers with affectionate gratitude. 5 At 
Rome Horace pursued the usual courses in grammar and rhet- 
oric, reading the older Latin poets under the famous teacher 
L. Orbilius Pupillus, whom he has immortalized by the epithet 
plagosus. 6 He also read Homer at this time, a^id apparently 
pushed his Greek studies so far as to compose Greek verses, 
which he wisely destroyed, 7 though he retained throughout life 
his devotion to Greek models as the one source of literary sal- 
vation. 8 About the age of twenty he went to study at Athens, 
at this time virtually a university town and a finishing school 
for young Romans of the better class. 9 He probably attended 
the lectures of Cratippus the Peripatetic, and Theomnestus the 
Academician, the chief figures in the schools at that time, and 
acquired a superficial knowledge of their doctrines. In later 
years, after the publication of the first three books of the Odes, 
the Greek moral philosophers became his favorite reading. 

He was naturally an Epicurean, but the lofty morality and 
ingenious dialectic of the Stoics attracted him as they did other 

1 Sat. 1. 6. 6 and 45 ; Odes 2. 20. 6. 

2 Sat. 1. 6. 8. 

8 Sat. 1. 6. 86; Suet., coactor exactionum. 
4 Sat. 1. 6. 71 sqq. ; Epp. 2. 2. 42. 
e Sat. 1. 4. 105, 1. 6. 71. 

6 Epp. 2. 1. 70. 

7 Epp. 2. 2. 42 ; Sat. 1. 10. 31 sqq. 

8 A. P. 268. 

9 Epp. 2. 2. 43; cf. Harper's Class. Diet. s.v. Education (3), and 
Cape's University Life in Ancient Athens. 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

great Romans, and all his writings abound in allusions to Stoic 
commonplaces and paradoxes. 

At Athens, too, he probably studied for the first time Archi- 
lochus, Alcaeus, and the Greek lyric poets who were to be his 
models in the Odes and Epodes. 

Among his fellow-students were Marcus Cicero, son of the 
orator, M. Valerius Messalla, and many other sons of distin- 
guished houses. His studies were interrupted after the assas- 
sination of Caesar, B.C. 44, by the civil war, in which with 
others of the young Roman nobility he joined the party of 
Brutus and Cassius against the triumvirs. Plutarch relates that 
Brutus, in the intervals of preparation for the campaign, at- 
tended the lectures of Theomnestus at Athens. He may there 
have met Horace, to whom, in spite of his youth and humble 
birth, he gave the position of military tribune. 1 In this capac- 
ity Horace probably accompanied Brutus in his progress through 
Thessaly and Macedonia, and in the next year crossed to Asia 
with him, there to await the gathering of the forces of Cassius. 
Returning to Macedonia in the autumn of B.C. 42, he took part 
in the battle of Philippi, from which he escaped to Italy to find 
his father dead and his little estate confiscated for the use of 
the veterans of the triumvirs. Many passages of his works 
may be referred to these experiences of war and travel. 2 

In the epistle to Floras, 8 Horace resumes the early history of 
his life thus : 

' I was brought up at Rome, and there was taught 
What ills to Greece Achilles' anger wrought; 
Then Athens bettered that dear lore of song ; 
She taught me to distinguish right from wrong, 

1 Suet., Bella Philippensi excitus a Marco Bruto imperatore tribu- 
nus militum meruit. 

2 Studies at Athens, Epp. 2. 2. 43-46 ; military tribune, Sat. 1. 6. 48, 
Epp. 1. 20. 23; campaign of Philippi, Epp. 2. 2. 46, Odes 2. 7, 3. 4. 26; 
anecdote of Brutus' proconsular court, Sat. 1. 7; scenes of travel: 
Thessaly and Macedonia in winter, Odes 1. 37. 20, Epp. 1. 3. 3; the 
Hellespont, Epp. 1. 3. 4; description of Lebedos, Epp. 1. 11. 7. 

3 2. 2. 46 sqq. 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

And in the groves of Academe to sound 
The way to truth, if so she might be found. 
But from that spot so pleasant and so gay, 
Hard times and troublous swept my youth away 
On civil war's tempestuous tide, to fight 
In ranks unmeet to cope with Caesar's might. 
Whence when Philippi, with my pinions clipped, 
Struck to the dust, of land and fortune stripped, 
Turned me adrift, through poverty grown rash, 

At the versemonger's craft I made a dash.' 

Martin. 

The next few years were the hardest of Horace's life. He 
supported himself, according to Suetonius, by means of a clerk- 
ship in the quaestor's office, 1 which he may have bought with 
borrowed money or obtained through the influence of his 
father's friends. The period of probation, however, did not 
last long. His 'dash at the versemonger's craft,' won him 
the friendship of Vergil and Varius, the rising poets of the 
age, who, in B.C. 39, introduced him to Maecenas, the great 
minister of Augustus : 

' Lucky I will not call myself, as though 
Thy friendship I to mere good fortune owe. 
No chance it was secured me thy regards, 
But Vergil first, that best of men and bards, 
And then kind Varius mentioned what I was. 
Before you brought, with many a faltering pause 
Dropping some few brief words (for bashfulness 
Robbed me of utterance), I did not profess 
That I was sprung of lineage old and great, 
Or used to canter round my own estate 
On Satureian barb, but what and who 
I was as plainly told. As usual, you 
Brief answer make me. I retire, and then, 
Some nine months after, summoning me again, 
You bid me 'mongst your friends assume a place ; 
And proud I feel that thus I won your grace, 
Not by an ancestry long known to fame, 
But by my life, and heart devoid of blame.' 

Sat. 1.6, Martin. 

1 Suet., Victisque partibus venia impetrata scriptum quaestorium 
comparavit. 



INTRODUCTION. xill 

The date of this event is plausibly fixed by Sat. 2. 6. 40, 
written about B.C. 31, in which Horace says that he has 
enjoyed Maecenas' friendship for nearly eight years. From 
this time forth Horace's path was made smooth. In B.C. 37 (?) 
he accompanied Maecenas on the journey to Brundisium, of 
which he has preserved a record in Sat. 1. 5. 1 About B.C. 35, 
he published the first book of Satires, 2 and about B.C. 30, the 
second book of Satires and the Epodes. 8 Some time after the 
publication of the first book of Satires, and before the publica- 
tion of the Epodes, Maecenas presented Horace with a small 
estate beautifully situated about thirty miles from Rome and 
twelve miles from Tibur, among the Sabine hills the famous 
Sabine Farm. 4 This gift may, perhaps, be compared to the 
pension that saved Tennyson for poetry. About ten years 
later, in B.C. 23, Horace collected and published with a dedica- 
tion to Maecenas and an epilogue, the first three books of the 
Odes. The earliest Ode that can be positively dated is 1. 37, 
written in B.C. 30, but several of the light compliments or 
sketches from the Greek may be contemporary with the 
Epodes and Satires. 8 

'Before a volume of which every other line is as familiar as 
a proverb criticism is almost silenced.' 6 

Three or four years later the first book of the Epistles was 
published. It consists of twenty little letters of friendship or 
moral essays varying in length from about twenty to about 
one hundred lines of hexameter verse. In urbanity, refine- 
ment, gentle good sense, and genial world wisdom, they are 
justly deemed the finest flower of Latin literature. 

Horace's fame was now established, and his chief work done. 
His frank but dignified acceptance of the empire 7 won him the 

1 See Kirkland's notes. 3 See Introduction to Epodes. 

2 See Kirkland's Introduction. 4 Cf. Epode 1. 30-32. n. 

5 For dates of Odes, cf. on 1. 2, 1. 3, 1. 14, 1. 26, 1. 29, 1. 35, 1. 37, 2. 13, 
3. 1-6, 3. 8, 3. 14. 

6 Maekail, Lat. Lit. p. 112. See the whole chapter. 

7 Cf. on odes, 1. 2, 1. 12, 1. 37, 3. 1-6, 3. 3. 16, 3. 4. 41 sqq., 3. 14, 3. 
25. 4, 4. 4, 4. 5, 4. 14, 4. 15. 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

favor of Augustus, who, in B.C. 17, commissioned him to write 
the Carmen Saeculare. 1 The fourth book of odes, too, was 
composed mainly at the request of the emperor, and largely in 
celebration of the empire and the imperial family. 2 The list 
of Horace's works closes with the second book of Epistles, three 
long essays in hexameter verse on questions of literary criticism 
and taste. The first, addressed to Augustus, was called forth 
by the explicit request of the emperor. 3 The third is gener- 
ally known as the Ars Poetica. 

Horace died at the age of fifty-seven, B.C. 8, a few months after 
Maecenas, near whom he was buried on the Esquiline. 4 He 
was never married. In the epilogue to the first book of Epis- 
tles, he describes himself thus : 

' Say, that though born a freedman's son, possessed 
Of slender means, beyond the parent nest 
I soared on ampler wing ; thus what iu birth 
I lack, let that be added to my worth. 
Say, that in war, and also here at home, 
I stood well with the foremost men of Rome ; 
That small in stature, prematurely gray, 
Sunshine was life to me and gladness ; say 
Besides, though hasty in my temper, I 
Was just as quick to put my anger by.' 

Elsewhere he hints that when the dark locks clustered over 
his low forehead he needed no adventitious recommendations 
to the graces of the fair. 5 But he is already something of a 
valetudinarian at the time of the journey to Brundisium, and, 
though he saw enough of the gay life of the capital in his 
youth to portray it with smiling irony, his own part in it was 
probably less than his more boisterous admirers would have us 
believe, and with advancing years his role must have become 
more and more that of Thackeray's benevolent ' Fogy.' The 

1 Cf. infra, p. 447. 2 cf. infra, pp. 395, 407. 

3 Suet., ' Irasci me tibi scito quod non in plerisque eiusmodi scriptis 
mecum potissimum loquaris. An vereris ne apudposteros infame tibi 
sit quod videaris familiaris nobis essef ' 

* Cf. on Odes, 2. 17. Epp. 1. 14. 33. 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

attempt to find biographical material in his Lydes and Lydias 
has long since been abandoned by all intelligent critics. 

The Odes have been a school book, a classic, and a ' Golden 
Treasury ' for nineteen centuries, and there is no sign of a fail- 
ure in their perennial charm for the majority of lovers of 
poetry. 

II. 
SYNTAX. 

The Syntax of the Odes presents few difficulties. The stu- 
dent should observe the differences between poetry and normal 
prose, the most of which he has already met in Vergil. By 
way of supplement to the notes especial attention is called here 
to the following constructions : 

1. The free use of the 'complementary' infinitive. 

a) With verbs: A. G. 273. c; B. 328; G. L. 423. n. 2; H. 
533. 1. II. Cf. 1. 1. 8, 1. 15. 7, 1. 15. 27, 1. 37. 30, 2. 3. 11, 2. 4. 
23, 2. 12. 28, 2. 16. 39, 2. 18. 21, 2. 18. 40, 1. 34. 12, n., 4. 4. 62, 
4. 9. 49. These and the countless other cases admit of classifi- 
cation on a graduated scale beginning with volo cupio possum 
and the like. 

b) With adjectives and participles : A. G. 273. d ; B. 333 ; G. 
L. 421. 1. c ; H. 533. II. 3. Cf . 1. 1. 18, 1. 3. 25, 1. 6. 6, 1. 10. 
7, 1. 12. 26, 1. 12. 11, 1. 19. 8, 1. 24. 17, 1. 35. 2, 1. 37. 10, 2. 2. 
7, 2. 4. 11, 2. 6. 2, 3. 3. 50, 3. 6. 38, 3. 7. 25, 3. 8. 11, 3. 11. 4, 3. 
12. 10, 3. 21. 6, 3. 21. 22, 3. 29. 50, 4. 6. 39, 4. 8. 8, 4. 9. 52, 4. 
12. 19, 20, 4. 13. 7, 4. 14. 23. C. S. 25, etc., etc. 

2. The occasional use of the infinitive of purpose : A. G. 
273. e; B. 326. n.; G. L. 421. 1. a; H. 533. II. 2. Cf. 1. 2. 8. n.; 
1. 12. 2. n.; 1. 23. 10; 3. 8. 11 (?), 1. 26. 3 (?). 

3. The various forms of prohibition with present and perfect 
subjunctive or periphrasis of imperative and infinitive: A. G. 
266. b, 269. a ; B. 276; G. L. 263, 271. 2 ; H. 489. Cf. 1. 11. 1. 
n.; 2. 11. 3, 4; in 1. 33. 1, 2. 4. 1, 4. 9. 1 and the like ne with 
pres. subj. may be taken as purpose of following statements. 
Cf. also mitte sectari 1. 38. 3 with 1. 9. 13, 3. 29. 11. 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

4. The concrete (and poetic) Latin idiom of db urbe condita: 

A. G. 292. a; B. 337. 5; G. L. 664. 2; H. 549. 5. n. 2. Cf. 2. 4. 
10. n. ; 3. 24. 24, 42. 

5. The stylistic effect of the future participle : A. G. 293 b ; 

B. 337. 4 ; G. L. 438. n. ; H. 549. 3. Cf. on. 2. 3. 4, and for 
gerundive, 'fut. pass, part.' 4. 2. 9. n. 

6. The free use of the partitive genitive, and of the genitive 
of 'reference' or extent of application, etc., with adjectives of 
plenty, want, knowledge, desire, etc. : A. G. 218. c ; B. 204. 1 ; 
G. L. 374. 4. 5. 6; H. 399. I. II. III. Cf. (partitive) 1. 9. 14, 

1. 10. 19, 1. 29. 5, 4. 6. 31, 2. 1. 23. n. with 4. 4. 76, 4. 12. 20. 

7. The Greek gen. of separation with verbs: A. G. 243. f, R; 
B. 212. 3; G. L. 383. 2; H. 410. V. 4. Cf. 3. 27. 69-70. n. with 

2. 9. 18, 3. 17. 16 and 2. 13. 38. n. (?). 

8. The dative of place whither: A. G. 258. n. 1; B. 193; G. 
L. 358 ; H. 380. II. 4, 385. II. 4. Cf . 1. 2. 1, 1. 28. 10, 3. 23. 1, 4. 
4. 69. 

9. The dative of the person concerned in its extension, as 
dative of agent: A. G. 232. a, b; B. 189, Appendix, 308; G. L. 
354; H. 388. Cf. 1. 1. 24, 1. 21. 4, 1. 32. 5, 2. 1. 31, 3. 25. 3. 

10. The dative with all words of difference and contention : 
A. G. 229. c; B. 358. 3; G. L. 390. 2. n. 5; H. 385. II. 4. 2. Cf. 
1. 1. 15, 4. 9. 29. 

11. The dative with misceo, iungo and the like : A. G. 248 a, 
R; B. 358. 3 ; G. L. 346. n. 6; H. 385. II. 4. 3. Cf. 1. 1. 30. 

12. The various 'Greek,' cognate, adverbial, or specifying 
accusatives : A. G. 238, 240. a, c ; B. 175. 2. d, 176. 2. b. n. ; G. 
L. 333. 2, 338; H. 371. II., 378. Cf. 1. 2. 31, 2. 7. 8, 2. 11. 15, 
4. 8. 33, 1. 32. 1, 4. 9. 9, 2. 11. 24, 2. 13. 38. n., 1. 28. 25, 2. 17. 
26, 1. 22. 23, 3. 27. 67, 2. 12. 14, 2. 19. 6, 3. 29. 50. 

13. The ablative of place where or whence without a prepo- 
sition: A. G. 258. a, n. 3. b, n. 5; B. 228. d, 229. 1. c; G. L. 385. 
n. 1; H. 412. II. 2, 425. II. 2. n. 3. 

14. The ablative after comparatives instead of quam A. G. 
247. e; G. L. 398; H. 417. n. 1. Cf. 1. 8. 9, 4. 9. 50, 3. 1. 9, 1. 
13. 20. 



INTRODUCTION. XVli 

III. 
STYLE. 

A study of Horace's style must be mainly an analysis of the 
art by which he compensates for the slenderness of his own 
inspiration and the relative poverty of the Latin lyric vocabu- 
lary. He has no very profound thought or intense emotion to 
convey. His imagery lacks the imaginative splendor and 
audacity of the great Greek and English lyrists ; and yet, while 
literary fashions come and go, his indefectible charm abides. 

Literary critics have repeatedly told us that it is due to his 
unfailing tact and exquisite felicity in the expression of poetical 
and moral commonplace, and the special student of the Odes 
can do little more than verify and illustrate this judgment in 
detail. 

The chief themes or motifs of the Odes are easily enumerated. 
There is the Epicurean commonplace, the Stoic commonplace, 
the verse exercise modeled on the Greek, the praise of poetry, 
the graceful tribute to friendship, the vers de socie'te, the ' con- 
solation,' the dignified recognition of Augustus as the restorer, 
of peace and tranquillity, and the imperial theme of the new 
empire, heir to the double tradition of the 'glory that was 
Greece and the grandeur that was Rome.' 

There is no intensity of feeling. The love poetry is in 
the vein of persiflage, playful admiration, banter or worse; 
the patriotism with a few noble exceptions fails to thrill the 
pulses, the conviviality is gracefully moderate, the criticism 
of life is a blending of Stoic didacticism with gentle Epicurean 
melancholy in the urbane tone of a man of the world, member 
of a metropolitan and imperial society. That life is short, that 
the bloom of the rose is brief, that the bird of time is on the 
wing, that death comes to pauper and prince alike, that it is 
pleasant to be young and in love but that you ' know the worth 
of a lass once you have come to forty year,' that good wine 
promotes good fellowship but must be used in moderation, that 
the bow always bent makes Apollo a dull god, that we cannot 



Xviii INTRODUCTION. 

escape ourselves, that black care sits behind the horseman, that 
the golden mean is best, that contentment passes wealth, that 
he who ruleth his spirit is greater than he who sits on the 
throne of Cyrus, that patience maketh easy what we cannot 
alter, that brave men lived before Agamemnon, that 'tis sweet 
and seemly to die for the fatherland, such are the eternal 
commonplaces that Horace is ever murmuring in our ears. 
But then, as he himself says, the difficult thing is so to express 
commonplaces as to make them your own. If one half of the 
poet's mission is to sing hymns unbidden till the world is 
wrought to sympathy with hopes and fears it heeded not, his 
no less helpful task is to intensify by beautiful expression our 
realization of those simple and obvious truths the repetition of 
which somehow calms and soothes our average mood. In this 
kind Horace is the supreme master. For the expression of an 
every-day philosophy of life, just sufficiently illuminated with 
humor, touched with pathos, and heightened by poetic feeling, 
his phrases replace all others in the minds of those who have 
once learned them. They are inevitable. We cannot say the 
thing otherwise. 

in considering the means with which he worked, the first 
thing that strikes us is the simplicity, not to say poverty, of his 
poetic vocabulary. In translating Greek lyric, the student must 
ransack his dictionary for terms rich enough to represent the 
luxuriance of the Greek compound epithets. In rendering 
Horace, the problem is to select from the superior wealth of 
the English poetic vocabulary synonyms which may be intro- 
duced without dissonance to relieve the monotony or vagueness 
of his epithets, and so reproduce by compensation the total 
effect of rhythm, emphasis, and ' artful juncture ' in the original. 

This parsimony may be partly explained by the simpler 
taste of the ancients, partly by Horace's recognition of the 
artistic value of restraint, his fondness for moderation and 
understatement. But it is mainly due, first to the relative 
poverty of the Latin vocabulary, and, second, to the peculiar 
difficulty of forcing Latin words into the alien mold of Greek 



INTRODUCTION. xix 

lyric measures. Horace at times seems to base his own claims 
as a poet solely on his achievements in vanquishing this diffi- 
culty ; and certain it is that while modern scholars have written 
excellent Latin hexameters and elegiacs, in the course of two 
thousand years no one after Horace has succeeded in composing 
Sapphics and Alcaics that give pleasure to any one but the 
author. Those of Statius, who could improvise fluent and 
sonorous hexameters, are beneath contempt. A good Sapphic 
or Alcaic strophe must contain at least one flash of fancy, one 
felicitous phrase, or one brilliant image that is the part of 
genius or inspiration. But the associates which this happy 
find will admit into its company are narrowly limited by the 
resources of the language and the law of the verse. It was no 
slight task to round out the measure with harmonious words 
that should introduce no jarring note or trivial suggestion and 
yet should not appear too obviously chosen to fill up space. 
That was the part of the laborious bee to which Horace com- 
pared himself. 1 These conditions perhaps made inevitable the 
frequent use of simple, vague, metrically convenient epithets 
and phrases. Whatever the explanation, the fact remains. 

The wind-blown sand (1. 28. 23), the meandering streams 
(1. 34. 9), the far-traveled Hercules (3. 3. 9), the overflowing 
river (1. 2. 18), the wandering birds of the air (3. 27. 16, 4. 4. 2), 
the straying herd (3. 13. 12), the wind that bloweth where it 
listeth (3. 29. 24), and the nomad Scythians (3. 24. 10) are all 
alike vagus. 

Acer must describe the warrior's grim visage (1. 2. 39), the 
bitter satirist (Epode 6. 14), the keen-scented hound (Epode 
12. 6), the 'nipping eager' air of winter (1. 4. 1), the ear-pier- 
cing fife (1. 12. 1), the sharp-tempered girl (1. 33. 15), the cruel 
force of fate (Epode 7. 13), the petulant coquette (1. 6. 18). 
Hannibal, the dropsy, hail, necessity, and the curse in the eye 
of a dying child are alike ' dire.' 

Care, death, the dusking wave, the lowering storm cloud, the 

i 4. 2. 27-31. n. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

venomous viper and his venom, the lurid flames of the funeral 
pyre, and the ears of Cerberus are equally ater. Igneus includes 
the parching midsummer heat (1. 17. 2), the fire-breathing Chi- 
maera (2. 17. 13), and the flaming citadels of aether (3. 3. 10). 
The furtive tear and the wind-blown spray are alike humor; 
liquor characterizes the new wine of sacrifice and the frith that 
parts Europe and Africa. The tall pine (/xa/<pa, tn/^Ads), the 
mighty-limbed warrior (TreAwptos), the high-heaped piles of mi- 
ser's gold, and the boundless ocean (aTreipon/) merge their dis- 
tinctions in ingens. Longus measures eternal punishment, the 
unawakening, everlasting sleep of death, slow-consuming age, 
the long wash of the billows, and the wide expanse of the 
ocean. Pholoe who coquettishly trips away, the years that are 
gliding swiftly by, the soldier who is forced to retreat, and the 
coward who runs away are all fugaces. Dives is rich, treasure- 
laden, and 7roAvxpu(ros. Aquosus must serve for dropsical, 
many-fountained, and rain-bringing; opacus and niger for eivoo-t- 
<vAAos and /AeAa/A</>uAAo9, serus for wrepoTroivos, ridens for 
^s, brevis for oAtyo^povios or //ivw^aSios, certus for 
and a<wros, fecunda for 7roAvora<eAos or /Jorpudeis, 
pinguis for Sacru/xaAAos, edax, for Ov/j<,o(36pos, etc. 

Equally hard-worked are such simple words as bonus, plenus, 
perftdus, dulcis, gravis, felix, fortis, levis and levis, magnus, novus, 
ferox, decorus, funera, munera, beatus, chorus, clarus, candidus, 
iniquus, melior, asper, viridis, gratus, minax, etc. 

Corresponding to this poverty of epithet is a certain vague- 
ness, impropriety, or indefiniteness of verb or phrase, indubi- 
table in some cases, though in others hardly to be distinguished 
from curious felicities of expression. This results partly from 
the lack of the article in Latin, 1 or the omission of possessive 
pronouns and defining adjectives or genitives. 2 

1 3. 20. 16, 4. 1. 6. 

2 Cf. cives 1. 2. 21 ; scelus 1. 2. 29; ludo 1. 2. 37; melior fortuna pa- 
rente 1. 7. 25; virenti (tibi) 1. 9. 17; belli 2. 1. 34; acervos 2. 2. 24; 
cumbae 2. 3. 28; virtus 2. 7. 11 ; ictus 2. 15. 10; urbes 2. 20. 5; partem 
animae 2. 17. 5, etc. 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

Other vague or imprecise expressions which illustrate the 
point even if some of them be thought felicities are: mores 
funera 1. 15. 10; laborantes in uno 1. 17. 19; remotus in auras 1. 
28. 8; 2. 3. 15-16; omnis copia nanum 2. 15. 6; fregisse cervicem 

2. 13. 6 ; ter amplum 2. 14. 7 ; maturior vis 2. 17. 6, cf . Epode 7. 
13 ; stellis honorem, etc. 2. 19. 14; clades . . .fluxit 3. 6. 19-20 ; hoc 
arte 3. 3. 14; classe releget 3. 11. 48; vectigalia porrigam 3. 16. 
40; curtae abest rei 3. 24. 64; virtutem incolumem 3, 24. 31 ; medi- 
asque fraudes 3. 27. 27 ; virginwn culpae 3. 27. 38 ; laedere collum 

3. 27. 60 ; quis deceat status 3. 29. 25 ; redeant in aurum, etc. 4. 2. 
39 ; placido lumine 4. 3. 2 ; fronde decorus 4. 2. 35 ; mutat terra 
vices 4. 7. 3 ; quod male barbaras, etc. 4. 12. 7 ; plus vice simplice 

4. 14. 13 ; quantis fatigaret ruinis 4. 14. 19 ; virtule functos 4. 15. 29. 
Some of these are periphrases of Greek expressions, e.g., spissa 
ramis 2. 15. 9; ter aevo functus 2. 9. 13; bello furiosa 2. 16. 5; 
superare pugnis nobilem 1. 12. 26 ; multi nominis 3. 9. 7. 

Under this general head might be brought 

1. Periphrasis with careo, meluo, parum, minus, satis. 

2. A number of ambiguous or extremely complicated pas- 
sages in which Horace appears to be struggling with the diffi- 
culties of expression: 1. 16. 13 sqq., 1. 17. 14-16, 1. 20. 9 sqq., 

1. 28, 1. 31. 17 sqq., 1. 35. 21 sqq., 1. 37. 29 sqq., 2. 1. 25, 2. 17 
17 sqq., 2. 19. 25 sqq., 3. 2. 29 sqq. r 3. 3. 49 sqq., 3. 1. 19, 3. 3. 61 
sqq., 3. 8. 14-15, 3. 10. 10, 3. 14. 10 sqq., 3. 16. 29 sqq., 3. 19. 11, 
3. 20. 7-8, 3. 23. 17 sqq., 3. 25. 20, 4. 2. 49 sqq., 4. 8. 17 sqq., 4. 9. 
35-44, 4. 11. 18-20, 4. 13. 21, 4. 14. 34 sqq., 4. 15. 1-2. 

3. The frequent use of the neuter plural for an abstract 
noun : 1. 16. 25-26, 1. 18. 3, 1. 29. 16, 1. 34. 12, 1. 34. 14, 2. 1. 23, 

2. 10. 13, 2. 16. 26, 2. 18. 13, 3. 1. 8, 3. 3. 2, 3. 3. 72, 3. 8. 28, 4. 4. 
76, 4. 7. 7, and passim; cf. also the use of quidquid, 1. 1. 10, 1. 11. 

3. 1. 24. 20, etc. 

4. The repetition of convenient turns of phrase ' tags,' e.g. 
egregii Caesaris 1. 6. 11, 3. 25. 4 ; munera Liberi 1. 18. 7, 4. 15. 
26 ; volucris dies 3. 28. 6, 4. 13. 16 ; numine Juppiter 3. 10. 8, 4. 

4. 74 ; centimanus Gyas 2. 17. 14, 3. 4. 69 ; in reducta valle 1. 17. 
17, Epode 2. 11 ; celerem fugam 2. 7. 9, cf. 4. 8. 15 ; non ego te 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 

meis 4. 9. 30, 4. 12. 22; te profugi Scythae 1. 35. 9, cf. 4. 14. 42; 
et decorae 1. 10. 3, 3. 14. 7; in umttrosis 1. 4. 11, 1. 12. 5; non 
ego te 1. 18. 11, 1. 23. 9, etc.; mater saeua Cupidinum 1. 19. 1, 4. 
1. 5 ; quod satis est 3. 1. 25, 3. 16. 44 ; nee certare 2. 12. 18, 4. 1. 
31; ^3/us nimio 1. 18. 15, 1. 33. 1; non sine 1. 23. 3. n. ; non lenis 
1. 24. 17, cf . 2. 19. 15 ; sub antro 1. 5. 3, 2. 1. 39 ; grata compede 
1. 33. 14, 4. 11. 24; torret amor 1. 33. 6, 3. 19. 28; nemorum coma 
1. 21. 5, cf. 4. 3. 11; in ultimas 1. 35. 29, cf. 3. 3. 45; non secus 
in 2. 3. 2, 3. 25. 8; nice candidum 1. 9. 1, cf. 3. 25. 10; et ultra 1. 
22. 10, 2. 18. 24, 4. 11. 29; deorum et 3. 3. 71, 3. 6. 3. So quin et, 
non ante, non si, non ille, neque tu, etc. 

Another aspect of Horace's plainness is his restraint in the 
use of metaphor and simile. Not that he abstains from im- 
agery. On the contrary, his diction is colored throughout by a 
pleasing vein of metaphor and personification. But the figures 
employed are so simple and they are introduced so naturally 
that they hardly detach themselves from the tissue of the style, 
and they serve rather to entertain the fancy than to exalt the 
imagination. Horace knows his own limits and does not at- 
tempt to imitate the cumulative and concentrated metaphor of 
Aeschylus and Pindar apart from the deeper feeling of which it 
is the natural expression and the organ music that is its fit- 
ting accompaniment. The Odes contain little of what Shelley 
calls the 'peculiar, intense, and comprehensive imagery' of 
modern English lyric. 

Among the commonplaces of Horatian imagery may be enu- 
merated the fires, darts, fickle breezes, troublous waters, chains, 
yoke, and warfare of love; the pathway, step, snares, exile, 
ferryman, river, wings, urn, lottery, knock, Damocles' sword, 
fold, and everlasting sleep of death; the antithesis between the 
green leaf of youth and the sere and yellow leaf of age; the 
wings of death, care, fortune, love, and fame; the flight of 
time, the steep path of virtue, eating cares, the horn of plenty, 
the lash of the tongue, the waves or the hail, the vessel of wit, 
the bridle of license, the war of win'ds and waves, the wedding 
of the vine and the elm, the hair of the groves, the tooth of 



INTRODUCTION. 

envy, and the ever-recurring antithesis of conviviality, symbol- 
ized by Falernian wine, Syrian nard, parsley wreaths, Bere- 
cynthian horns and Neaera, and cares of state or war, the 
Persian, the Dacian, the quivered Mede, the remotest Briton, 
the Thracian mad with war. 

A few other images attract attention by reason of their inge- 
nuity or beauty: 1. 2:3. 5, 3. 15. 6, 2. 1. 7, 2. 13. 32, 3. 4. 14, 3. 
10. 10, 3. 21. 13, 3. 27. 6, 3. 28. 4, 4. 13. 8, 4. 13. 12, 4. 13. 28. 

Much of Horace's imagery may be classified as allegory, con- 
tinued metaphor, or paratactic simile : e.g. the ship of state 
(1. 14), the voyage of life (2. 10. 1-4, 3. 29. 57, 1. 34. 4), the 
Lesson of Nature (2. 9. 1-9, 3. 29. 21-25, 2. 11. 9), avarice and 
the dropsy (2. 2. 13), the oak and the reed (2. 10. 8-12), the 
unripe maid and the unripe grape (2. 5), love a stormy sea (1. 
5. 6), the mob of passions (2. 16. 8-12), silver in the mine and 
untried virtue (2. 2. 1-4), poet and swan (2. 20), love a war- 
fare (3. 26, 4. 1. 2), the lesson of the farm-yard (4. 4. 29-32), 
degenerate valor and dyed wool (3. 5. 27), the war of the 
giants (3. 4. 42 sqq.), the vessel of wit (4. 15. 3), the coquette 
a Chimaera (i. 27. 24), the Icarian flight (4. 2. 1-4), Phaethon 
and Bellerophon (4. 11. 25), the golden age (Epode 16. 40. 
sqq.). 

31 any of these differ from simile only in the omission of the 
formal comparison, and from strict metaphor only by their con- 
tinuation into allegory. Cf . 4. 4. 50, 2. 1. 7, 1. 27. 19, 1. 35. 14, 
2. 7. 16, 3. 6. 19-20, Epode 6. 12, etc. 

Formal similes are introduced by ut or uti 1. 8. 13, 3. 15, 10, 
1. 23. 9, 4. 4. 57, 1. 15. 29 ; Epode 1. 19, 33, 5. 9 ; velut 1. 12. 45, 
47, 1. 37. 17, 3. 11. 9, 41, 4. 2. 5, 4. 6. 9 ; similis 1. 23. 1, 3. 15. 
12, 3. 19. 26 ; sic ... ut(i) 2. 5. 18, 4. 14. 25; Epode 5. 81 ; cf. 
ut . . . sic 1. 7. 15, 4. 5. 9 ; qualis 4. 4. 1 ; cf. Epode 2. 41, 6. 5 ; ceu 
4. 4. 43; prope qualis 4. 14. 20 ; non secus . . . ac (ut) 3. 25. 8; 
non aliter . . . quam si 3. 5. 50 ; instar 4. 5. 6 ; more modoque 4. 2. 
28 ; ritu 3. 14. 1, 3. 29. 34 ; parem 4. 13. 24. 

By mere juxtaposition of the two chief terms, 4. 4. 30 ; and 
very frequently by the comparative of an adjective or adverb : 



xxiv INTRODUCTION. 

1. 19. 6, 1. 24. 13, 1. 36. 20, 2. 7. 26, 2. 15. 2, 2. 16. 23, 3. 7. 21> 
3. 9. 4, 3. 9. 21, 3. 10. 17, 3. 12. 8, 3. 13. 1, 3. 16. 10, 3. 24. 1, 3. 
30. 1, 4. 4. 61 with non, 4. 10. 4 ; Epode 3. 18, 17. 54. 

Personification is of the essence of imaginative writing, and 
a large proportion of metaphors could be brought under that 
head. We may distinguish, not very rigidly : 

1. Explicit personification, passing into allegory, 1. 18. 1416. 

I. 2. 13 sqq.; 3. 2. 32, 1. 35. 17, 3. 1. 40, 2. 16. 21, 3. 1. 30, 4. 7. 

II, and Epode 2. 17-18. 

2. The capitalized abstraction 1. 24. 6-7 n., 3. 1. 37, 4. 5. 17, 
20, C. S. 57, etc. 

3. The suggestion of life and personality by the use of 
epithet or verb, 3. 18. 6-7, 3. 8. 14, 3. 21. 23, 2. 6. 21-22, 3. 10. 
3-4, 1. 37. 30, 3. 28. 8, 4. 7. 1, 4. 7. 9-11, 4. 11. 7 avet, 4. 15. 18- 
19, and passim. 

We pass now to the compensations that relieve this plainness 
or parsimony of vocabulary and imagery. Chief of these is the 
use of proper names charged with associations of mythology, 
history, literature, and travel. More than seven hundred dis- 
tinct proper names or adjectives are employed in the Odes, a 
sixth of the total vocabulary. The fourth book of the Golden 
Treasury contains less than two hundred, and an equal amount 
of Greek lyric presents at the most three or four hundred, 
mostly persons known to the poet or gods directly invoked. In 
the learned rhetoric of Lucan and Statius mythological and 
geographical allusion passes into the conundrum. The tact of 
Horace selects just those names which will arouse pleasant 
associations in the mind of the average educated man, and 
which will adorn without overloading his style. The sea is 
the Hadrian, Cretic, Icarian, Carpathian, Aegaean, Tyrrhenian, 
Apulian, or Caspian. Merchandise is Tyrian, Cyprian, or 
Bithynian. Purple is Laconian, African, or Coan. Marble is 
Parian, Phrygian, Numidian, or Hymettian. Riches are the 
wealth of Attalus or Achaemenes, of India or the unspoiled 
treasures of Araby. The ship is the Pontic pine or the 
Bithynian keel. A mountain is stark Niphates or black-wooded 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

Erymauthus. Snow is Sithonian, the harrow Sabine, the 
pruning hook Calenian, the harvest Sardinian or African, the 
feast Sicilian, the bee Calabrian, the lyric song Aeolian, 
the dirge Simonidean or Cean, the lute Teian, the buskin 
Cecropian, the laurel Apolline, Delphic, or Delian, the poison 
Colchian or Thessalian, the pipe Berecynthian, the curse 
Thyestean, the sword Norican, the coat of mail Iberian, the 
lioness Gaetulian, the threshing floor Libyan. A dangerous 
strait is Bosphorus or the waters that pour between the glitter- 
ing Cyclades; astrology is Babylonian numbers; ointment is 
Achaemenian nard or Syrian malabathron ; a storm is the 
tumult of the Aegaean ; athletics is the Olympic dust, the 
Isthmian labor or the Elean palm. In this way Horace 
achieves effects of sensuous concreteness and picturesqueness 
hardly possible otherwise to the thin, hard, abstract, Latin vo- 
cabulary. In many cases the Greek proper name is used mainly 
for its polysyllabic sonority or liquid smoothness. Cf. 1. 3. 20 
Acroceraunia ; 1. 17. 22 Semeleius Thyoneus ; 1. 34. 11 Atlanteus 
finis; 2. 1. 39 Dionaeo sub antro ; 2. 12. 21 Phrygiae Mygdonias 
opes; 2. 14.20 Sisyphus Aeolides ; 2. 20. 13 Daedaleo . . . Icaro, 
cf. 4. 2. 2 ; 3. '3. 28 Hectoreis; 3. 5. 56 Lacedaemonium Tarentum; 
3. 16. 34 Laestrygonia amphora; 3. 16. 41 Mygdoniis . . . Aly- 
attei ; 4. 4. 20 Amazonia securi; 4. 4. 64 Echioniaeve Thebae, etc. 
Another obvious note of Horace's style is the frequency of the 
negative. Non neque and nee occur approximately four hun- 
dred times, at least twice as often as their equivalents in a cor- 
responding quantity of Greek or English lyric. The negative 
is sometimes employed by way of litotes to produce an effect of 
moderation or understatement. More often it takes the place 
of the privative and negative compounds of Greek and Eng- 
lish, or serves to diversify the expression and adapt it to the 
exigencies of the meter. Examples occur on every page. Cf. 
Non auriga piger 1. 15. 26; non indecoro 2. 1. 22; non usitata 2. 
20. 1, Epode 5. 73; non sordidus 1. 28. 14; non auspicatos 3. 6. 
10 ; non sat idoneus 2. 19. 26 ; non mendax 2. 16. 39 ; non clausas 
3. 5. 23; non paventis funera 4. 14. 49; non timidus mori 3. 19. 2; 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

non infideles Epode 5. 50; nee rigida, mollior aescula 3. 10. 17; 
non tangenda 1. 3. 24; non erubescendis 1. 27. 15; non lenis 1. 24. 
17, 2. 19. 15; non levis 1. 14. 18; non humilis 1. 37. 32; non taci- 
ttts 4. 1. 14; non semel 4. 2. 50; now unm*- 4. 9. 39; non ante 1. 29. 
3, 3. 29. 2, 4. 9. 3, 4. 14. 41; non alia 1. 27. 13, 1. 36. 8, 3. 7. 25, 
3. 9. 5; non sine 1. 23. 3. n. ; non bene 2. 7. 10. Cf. also the neg- 
ative turn of 1. 3. 15, 1. 6. 5, 1. 16. 5-8, 1. 31. 3-7, 1. 36. 10, 2. 1. 
29, 2. 18. 1-9, 2. 20. 1-8, 3. 1. 17-24, 3. 3. 1-2, 3. 10. 11, 3. 12. 
8-9, 3. 15. 14-16, 4. 1. 29-32, 4. 3. 3-6, 4. 7. 23, 4. 8. 13, 4. 15. 
17 sqq., etc. 

There is little more to be said of the vocabulary of the Odes. 
Horace rarely resorts to word coinage, he employs almost no 
poetic compounds, 1 and only now and then wrests a word from 
its normal meaning or presses its etymological force. 2 Chief 
among his rarer usages or possible word coinages are : 

dissociabili 1. 3. 22, iterabimus 1. 7. 32, emirabitur 1. 5. 8, debi- 
litat 1. 11. 5, auritas 1. 12. ll,sublimi (anhelitu) 1. 15. 31,furiare 
1. 25. 14, cumque I. 32. 15, diffingo 1. 35. 39, 3. 29. 47, reparavit 
1. 37. 24, adlabores 1. 38. 5. 

decoloravere 2. 1. 35, inretorto 2. 2. 23, redonavit 2. 7. 3, depro- 
perare 2. 7. 24, iuris peierati 2. 8. 1, inaequales 2. 9. 3, illacrima- 
bilem 2. 14. 6, cf. 4. 9. 26, enaviganda 2. 14. 11, insons 2. 19. 29, 
supervacuos 2. 20. 24. 

intaminatis 3. 2. 18, impavidum 3. 3. 8, inrepertum 3. 3. 49, 
immiserabilis 3. 5. 17, impermissa 3. 6. 27, denatat 3. 7. 28, funera- 
tus 3. 8. 7, exsultim 3. 11. 10, illaqueant 3. 16. 16, inaudax 3. 20. 3, 
immeiata 3. 24. 12, postgenitis 3. 24. 30. 

iuvenescit 4. 2. 55, 4. 4. 21 obarmet, 4. 4. 32 progenerant, Faus- 
titas 4. 5. 18, aeternet 4. 14. 5, tauriformis 4. 14. 25, domabilis 4. 
14. 41, beluosus 4. 14. 47, inimicat 4. 15. 20, adprecati 4. 15. 28, 
remixto 4. 15. 30, Genetalis C. S. 16, inemori Epode 5. 34, inomi- 
nata Epode 16. 38, circumvagus Epode 16. 41. 

In accordance with his own precept 8 it is on phrase coinage 
rather than on word coinage, that Horace relies for the height- 

1 4. 14. 25. n. 2 4. 4. 65. n. 8 A. P. 46. 



INTRODUCTION. XXvii 

ening of Ids style, deriving effects of novelty from the 'cunning 
juncture ' of ordinary words. His phrasing, as we have seen, 
may in some cases be regarded as an evasion of difficulties. 
More often the ' gentle torture ' which he applies to language re- 
sults in those felicities of expression which have been a part of 
the lingua franca of educated men for nineteen hundred years: 
nil mortalibus ardid est ; nil desperandum ; integer vitae scelerisque 
pur us : dulce et decorum est pro patria mori ; deliberata mortefero- 
cior ; animaeque magnae prodigutn ; non indecoro puh-ere sordidos ; 
illi robur et aes triplex ; quis desiderio sit pudor out modus tarn cari 
capitis? dedecorum pretiosus emptor ; iustum ac tenacem propositi 
virum ; vultus instantis tyranni ; splendide mendax ; donee virenti 
canities abest ; matre pulchra jilia pulchrior ; dulce est desipere in 
loco; carpe diem ; vultus nimium lubricus adspici ; simplex mundi- 
tiis ; arb'itrio popularis aurae ; plenum opus aleae ; aequam memento 
rebus in arduis tenere mentem ; poscentis aevi pauca ; spirat adhuc 
amor; vixere fortes ante Agamemnona; rosa quo locorum sera mo- 
retur; Persicos odi apparatus; ille mihi angulus ridet ; quis exsul 
se quoquefugit? post equitem sedet atra cura; but the list is 
endless. It is hardly worth while to attempt to classify Hora- 
tian phrases by any abstract or artificial scheme. Many of 
them are slight variations on technical, legal, colloquial, or pro- 
verbial expressions : capitis minor 3. 5. 42 ; claudere lustrum 2. 4. 
24 ; motum ex Metello consule civicum 2. 1. 1 ; adscribi ordinibus, 
etc., 3. 3. 35 ; opimus triumphus 4. 4. 51 ; prava iubentium 3. 3. 2 ; 
numeris lege solutis 4. 2. 12 ; Latinum nomen et Italae vires 4. 15. 
13 ; publicum ludum 4. 2. 42 ; felices ter et amplius 1. 13. 17 ; con- 
fundet proelia 1. 17. 23 ; consultus sapientiae 1. 34. 3 ; iuris peierati 

2. 8. 1 ; amori dare ludum 3. 12. 1 ; fige modum 3. 15. 2. 
Others are attempts to reproduce Greek expressions, supra, 

p. xxi, de tenero ungui 3. 6. 24, 3. 10. 10. 

Others resume in brief compass great historic associations, 
literary reminiscences, memories of travel : quid debeas, Roma, 
Neronibus 4. 4. 37 ; Tydides melior patre 1. 15. 28 ; vir Macedo 

3. 16. 14; Helene Lacaena 4. 9. 16; saevam Pelopis domum 1. 6. 
8; Troiae prope victor altae Phtftius Achilles 4. 6. 3; fama Mar- 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. 

celli 1. 12. 46 ; Hannibalis minae 4. 8. 16 ; superbos Tarquim 
fasces 1. 12. 34; Catonis nobile letum 1. 12. 35; longa ferae bella 
Numantiae 2. 12. 1; cadum Marsi memorem duelli 3. 14. 18; in- 
fecit aequor sanguine Punico 3. 6. 34 ; mens provida Reguli 3. 5. 
13; Tibur Aryeo positum colono 2. 6. 5; bimaris Corinthi 1. 7. 2; 
patiens Lacedaemon 1.' 7. 10 ; dites filycenas 1. 7. 9 ; infames sco 
pulos Acroceraunia 1. 3. 20; Aeolio carmine nobilem 4. 3. 12; 
Atlanteus finis 1. 34. 11 ; Calabrae Pierides 4. 8. 20; pede barbaro 
lustratam Rhodopen 3. 25. 12, etc., etc. 

The effectiveness of Horace's phrases, so far as it can be ana- 
lyzed, is perhaps due to the combination of Roman directness 
what Matthew Arnold calls 'the Latins' gift for coming plump 
upon the fact' with an artfully concealed use of every resource 
of the rhetoric of the Greeks. For it is to be observed lastly 
that in spite of his apparent simplicity, the charm, the curious 
felicity, of Horace result from his skillful use of rhetoric. He 
is not declamatory like Lucan or Macaulay or Swinburne. 
But, like Tennyson, he constantly uses what the ancients called 
figures of thought and figures of diction to diversify, enliven, 
and elaborate his expression. The monotony of direct cate- 
gorical statement is everywhere broken up by rhetorical ques- 
tions, 1 imperatives, 2 apostrophe, 3 personification, and implied 
dramatic colloquy. 4 When enumeration, exposition, or reflec- 
tion threatens to grow tedious, it is relieved by an exquisite 
picture or dainty cameo in verse like those the modern reader 
finds in Tennyson's Palace of Art, or in Austin Dobson. 5 A 



1 1. 29, 1. 35. 34-7, 2. 1. 29, 2. 3. 9, 2. 7. 3, 2. 7. 23, 2. 11. 18, 3. 4. 53, 

3. 19. 18, 4. 13. 16, etc. 

2 1. 19. 13, 1. 38. 3, 2. 1. 37, etc. 

1. 3. 1-5, 1. 5, 1. 14. 1, 1. 32. 1-4, 2. 13. 1-4, 3. 4. 2, 3. 6. 2, 3. 21. 1-4, etc. 

* 1. 8, 1. 13, 1. 15, 1. 27, 1. 28, 1. 36, 2. 4, 2. 17, 3. 5, 3. 7, 3. 9, 3. 11, 3. 
14, 3. 19, etc. 

6 1. 12. 27, 1. 31. 7-8, 3. 4. 55-7, 60-64. Cf . 1. 2. 34, 1. 4. 5, 1. 9. 1, 
1. 9. 21-4, 1. 14. 19-20, 2. 1. 19-20, 2. 8. 15, 2. 11. 23-4, 2. 12. 25, 2. 13. 
21 sqq., and 3. 11. 16 sqq., 2. 19. 8-4, 3. 4. 60, 3. 6. 41, 3. 12. 6, 3. 13. 
14-16, 3. 18. 14-16, 3. 20. 11 sqq., 3. 25. 9 sqq., 3. 27. 66-7, 3. 29. 21-4, 

4. 2. 57-60, 4. 12. 9, etc. 



INTRODUCTION. 

quiet idyllic close comes to relieve the strain of a too ambitious 
flight. 1 Emphasis and antithesis are cunningly brought out by 
juxtaposition or metrical responsion. 2 Litotes or intentional 
understatement 8 and oxymoron, 4 intentional paradox or con- 
tradiction in terms, arrest the attention and emphasize the 
thought. 

Effects of economy and restraint are suggested by zeugma, 5 
by the limitation to one of two nouns of an epithet felt with 
both, 6 and by the employment of epithets in such a way as to 
suggest their complementary opposites. 7 The transferred epi- 
thet is frequent as in all poetry. 8 Repetition is freely employed 
as a means of transition, 9 for metrical convenience and for emo- 
tional effect. 10 Transitions are ingeniously managed without 
the formal employment of the conjunction. 11 An effective use 
is made of both polysyndeton 12 and asyndeton, or rather a 
certain calculated abruptness in transition, especially to the 
envoi or moral. 13 

The freedom of arrangement possible in an inflected language 
and required by the exigencies of the meter yields effects of 
symmetry, parallelism, antithesis, and interlocked order which 
will be felt by any one who reads the odes familiarly, but can- 
not be reproduced in English. As many as five words may 

13. 5. 53 sqq., 4. 2. 57-60. n. 

2 Cf. 1. 6. 9. n. 

s 1. 23. 3. n., 2. 1. 22, 2. 12. 17, 2. 19. 15, 4. 1. 35. 

4 3. 11. 35. n. and passim. 

1. 15. 7, 2. 13. 10, 3. 4. 8, 11, 2. 19. 17. 

6 3. 12. 9, C. S. 6. 

f 3. 13. 6-7, 4. 8. 7. 

s 1. 15. 19. n., 1. 37. 7. n., 3. 1. 17, 42, 3. 5. 22. 3. 21. 19, 1. 3. 40, 2. 3. 8, 1. 
29. 1, 2. 14. 27, 4. 7. 21, 3. 29, 1. n. Epode 10. 12. n. Cf. also 2. 7. 
21 n., 3. 7. 1. 

1. 2. 4-5 n., 4. 12. 16, 17, 4. 8. 11, 4. 2. 14-15, 2. 8. 18, 3. 4. 65, 1. 19. 
5-7 and passim. 

10 1. 13. 1, 2. 3. 17, 2. 17. 10, 3. 3. 18, 3. 5. 21, 3. 11. 30, 3. 27. 49, 4. 1. 
33, 4. 13. 1, 4. 13. 18, Epode 4. 20. n. etc. 

11 3. 2. 6. n. supra n. 9. 
122. 1. 1. sqq., 4. 1. 13 n. 

" Cf. 1. 14. 17, 1. 15. 33, 4. 4. 73. 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

intervene between a noun and its modifier, and the order within 
such a group may reproduce or reverse that of the extremes. 
In this way a thought is suspended, a picture is gradually 
unfolded, a name is effectively reserved for a climax, etc. 1 

These and other features of Horace's style are illustrated in 
the notes mainly by citation of similar traits from other poets. 
The abstract grammatical and rhetorical analysis of poetry is a 
curious intellectual exercise, but introduced as a means to 
literary appreciation it is liable to be substituted for the true 
educational end. 

IV. 

METER. 

Intelligent enjoyment of the Odes is possible only to those 
who habitually read them aloud. The difference between long 
and short vowels (heavy and light syllables) should be clearly 
marked in the reading, and the student should be able to deter- 
mine instinctively by the movement of the verse the quantities 
which he does not know. To accomplish this, practice is re- 
quired rather than much technical knowledge of the theory and 
terminology of metrical science. There is some difference of 
opinion among scholars as to the amount of stress that should 
be given to the verse accent in reading or ' scanning ' Latin 
poetry. In practice good readers will not be found to differ 
much. Many teachers find it helpful to exaggerate the sing- 
song of the rhythm a little at first in order to assist the student's 
memory of the schemes. 

The elements of Latin prosody and the lyric meters of 
Horace ars adequately treated in the grammars of Allen and 
Greenough, Gildersleeve, Harkness, and others. The following 
notes and tables are intended merely as practical aids. 

The most frequent of Horace's meters is the Alcaic Strophe 
found in thirty-seven odes. The scheme in longs and shorts is: 

l Cf. 1. 2. 52, 3. 7. 5, 3. 15. 16 n., 4. 5. 9. n., 1. 9. 21-24, 2. 19. 1-2, 3. 6 
46-8, 4. 4. 1-16, 1. 10. 9-12, 1. 22. 9-12, 3. 4. 9-13, etc. 



INTRODUCTION. . XXXI 



Modern theory assumes that the feet of a metrical series, like 
the bars of a musical strain, are all equal, and to indicate this 
equality employs conventional signs to denote an extra-rhyth- 
mical upward beat (anacrusis) at the beginning of a series, for 
irrational long syllables occurring in the place of short, for 
lengthened syllables, for rests that fill out a foot, for dactyls 
read trippingly in about the time of a trochee (cyclic dactyls), 
etc. Cf. A. G. 355, 356 f., 357, 368. n. ; G. L. 738-744; 
H. 596-598. 
Expressed in these symbols the scheme of the Alcaic Strophe 



Odes, L, 9, 16, 17, 26, 27, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37; II., 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 
11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20; III., 1-6, 17, 21, 23, 26, 29; IV., 4, 9, 
14, 15. 

The last syllable of a verse is indifferent. The combination 
_ v_, _ d is called a trochaic dipody. Horace restricts himself 
to the form _ w _ > within the verse which makes his Alcaics 
and Sapphics weightier than those of the Greek poets, who freely 
use the form _ \^> _ \j. For convenience of memory the 
Alcaic Strophe may be said to consist of : (1, 2) an anacrusis 
(regularly long, always in fourth book) and a trochaic dipody, 
followed by three trochees the first of which is replaced by a 
cyclic dactyl, and the third of which is a trochee filled out by 
a rest; (3) anacrusis and two trochaic dipodies; (4) dipody of 
two cyclic dactyls, and trochaic dipody. Elision occurs at end 
of third verse 2. 3. 27, 3. 29. 35. The normal caesura in 1, 2 is 



XXxii INTRODUCTION. 

a word-ending after the first trochaic dipody. Tennyson thus 
reproduces the meter in English : 

' O mighty-mouth'd inventor of harmonies, 
O skill'd to sing of Time or Eternity, 
God-gifted organ- voice of England, 
Milton, a name to resound for ages.' 

Odes, 2. 14. 13-16 may be thus rendered in the meter of the 

original : 

' In vain we shun the weltering field of war, 
In vain the storm-tossed hillows of Hadria, 
In vain the noxious breath of Autumn, 
Wafter of death on the wings of south winds.' 



%> ^*-' The Sapphic Strophe occurs in twenty-six odes. , \ 

p-f>P^ -* t c 



Odes, I., 2, 10, 12, 20, 22, 25, 30, 32, 38; II., 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16; 
III., 8, 11, 14, 18. 20, 22, 27; IV., 2, 6, 11.; C. S. 

The meter could be described as (1, 2, 3) two trochaic dipo- 
dies separated by a cyclic (short) dactyl, and (4) a clausula 
consisting of a dipody of cyclic dactyl and trochee. Unlike the 
Greek poets, Horace usually breaks the dactyl by a word end- 
ing after the long syllable. Hence the short dactyl is written 
_ v^, not \^ \s. But he also employs the so-called feminine 
caesura ^ II w seven times in the first two books, twenty-two 
times in the fourth book, and nineteen times in the fifty-seven 
verses of the Carmen Saeculare. It gives a peculiar soft lilt to 
the measure. Horace follows the Greeks in running the third 
and fourth verses together, 1. 2. 19, 1. 25. 11, 2. 16. 7. But he 
allows hiatus between them, 1. 2. 47, 1. 12. 7, 1. 12. 31, 1. 22. 15. 
The last syllable of the third line is normally long. Hyper- 
metron occurs, 2. 2. 18, 2. 16. 34, 4. 2. 22, 23, C. S. 47. Swin- 
burne reproduces the Sapphic in English thus : 



INTRODUCTION. XXXlii 

' Clothed about with flame and with tears and singing 
Songs that move the heart of the shaken heaven, 
Songs, that break the heart of the earth with pity, 
Hearing, to hear them.' 

Lines 1-4 of 2. 16 may be rendered : 

1 Peace the sailor prays on the wide Aegaean 
Tempest-tossed, when gathering wracks of storm cloud 
Hide the bright moon's face, and the stars no longer 
Shine on his pathway.' 

The beginner, misled by the word-ending after the long of 
the dactyl, too often reads with the effect of Canning's ' Needy 
Knife-grinder ' : 

' Needy knife-grinder whither are you going? 
Rough is the road, your wheel is out of order, 
Bleak blows the blast ; your hat has got a hole in it, 
So have your breeches.' 

After mastering the Sapphic and Alcaic Strophes, the student 
will be able to read the other meters by ear with an occasional 
glance at the scheme. He will be very foolish to burden his 
memory with the names attached to them by the later gram- 
marians. A table is given for reference. 

1. First Asclepiadean : 



I., 1 ; III., 30 ; IV., 8. Cf. IV., 8. 17. n. 

2. Second Asclepiadean : 

_> |-uw l_w I _< 

t_>| -vr v/ | U. II -^ w | _ v^ | V A 

(repeated in tetrastichs) 

I., 3, 13, 19, 36; III., 9, 15, 19, 24, 25, 28; IV., 1, 3. 

3. Third Asclepiadean : 

.>!-x/w|i_ II -^^ | _ w | ^ A (thrice) 
_> |-^w |_w|_A 
I, 6, 15, 24, 33; II., 12; III., 10, 16 ; IV., 5, 12. 



XXxiv INTRODUCTION. 

4. Fourth Asclepiadean : 



_ v, | _ A 



I., 5, 14, 21, 23 ; III., 7, 13 ; IV., 13. 

5. Fifth (Greater) Asclepiadean : 

_ > I-X,W|LII^W|L_II-^^!_W|_A 

(four times) 
I., 11, 18 ; IV., 10. Cf. 1. 11, intr. 

6. Sapphic Strophe. Cf. supra. 

1. (Greater) Sapphic Strophe : 
-ww |_^ |L_ | _A 

,- w|_>|-ww|l_||-^w|^-w|l_|_A 

(repeated in tetrastichs) 
I., 8. 

8. Alcaic Strophe. Cf. supra. 

9. First Archilochian : 
Dactylic Hexameter, 

_ Ow | _ Ow | || OO | C3O | W W | -- 

_ ^^ | _ ^^y I _ 7\ (repeated by pairs in tetrastichs) 
IV., 7. 

10. Second Archilochian : 
Dactylic Hexameter followed by 

d:_w-|_|_^/|_All_w^l v>vy| 
Epode 13. 

11. Third Archilochian : 
An Iambic Trimeter, 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

followed by 

_w^.|_^w|_Alld:_w|_d|_w|_A 
Epode 11. 

12. Fourth Archilochian : 

/- CXy ^- CX/ j. C7w -^.W V || ^- \J \J _ O 

W W ^J \J WJ^.W 

which is perhaps better read as follows : 



1.4. 

13. Alcmanian Strophe : 
Dactylic Hexameter followed by 

L. 7, 28 ; Epode 12. 

14. Iambic Trimeter: 

Epode 17. 

1 5. Iambic Strophe : 

Iambic Trimeter (see 14) followed by Iambic Dimeter 

Epodes 1-10. 

16. First Pythiambic : 

A Dactylic Hexameter and an Iambic Dimeter (cf. 15). 
Epodes 14, 15. 

17. Second Pythiambic: 

A Dactylic Hexameter and an Iambic Trimeter (cf. 14). 
Epode 16. 



XXXVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



18. Trochaic Strophe : 

A Catalectic Trochaic Dimeter and a Catalectic Iambic Tri- 
meter. , . , 



II., 18. 

19. An Ionic system : ten pure lonici a minore \j \j /_ , 

variously arranged by editors and metrists. III., 12. 



INDEX OF ODES AND METERS. 



BOOK. 
I. 



ODE. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
1Q 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



METER. 

1 

6 

2 
10 

4 

3 
13 

7 

8 

6 

5 

6 

2 

4 

3 

8 

8 

5 

2 

6 

4 

6 

4 

3 

6 

8 

8 
13 

8 

6 

8 



BOOK. 
I. 



II. 



III. 



ODE. 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

1 

2 
3 



METEB. 
6 
3 
8 
8 
2 
8 
6 

8 
6 
8 
6 
8 
6 
8 
6 
8 
6 
8 
3 
8 
8 
8 
6 
8 
18 
8 
8 

8 
8 
8 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXVll 



BOOK. 
Til. 



ODK. 


METER. 


4 


8 


5 


8 


6 


8 


7 


4 


8 


6 


9 


2 


10 


3 


11 


6 


12 


19 


13 


4 


14 


6 


15 


2 


16 


3 


17 


8 


18 


6 


19 


2 


20 


6 


21 


8 


22 


6 


23 


8 


24 


2 


25 


2 


26 


8 


27 


6 


28 


2 


29 


8 



BOOK. 


Ot>. METEK. 


III. 


30 


1 


IV. 


1 


2 




2 


6 




3 


2 




4 


8 




5 


3 




6 


6 




7 


9 




8 


1 




9 


8 




10 


5 




11 


6 




12 


3 




13 


4 




14 


8 




15 


8 


CARMEN 


SAECULARE 


6 


EPODE 


1-10 


15 




11 


11 




12 


13 




13 


10 




14 


16 




15 


16 




16 


17 




17 


14 



For minor points of prosody, treated in the notes, see the 
grammars and the treatises of Christ, and Schmidt (translated 
by John Williams White). 

Aesthetic criticism of Horace's exquisite metrical art can be 
addressed only to those who read him aloud precisely as they 
read English poetry. Such students will observe for them- 
selves in their favorite passages the reinforcement of the lead- 
ing thought by the emphasis of the rhythm, the symmetrical 
responsions and nice interlockings of words and phrases, the 
dainty but not obtrusive alliteration, the real or fancied adap- 
tation of sound to sense in softly musical, splendidly sonorous, 
or picturesquely descriptive lines. This kind of criticism may 
easily pass into the fantastic. It is better suited to the living 
voice than to cold print. 



Q. HORATII FLACCI 

CARMINUM 

LIBER PRIMUS. 

I. 

Maecenas atavis edite regibus, 

et praesidium et dulce decus meum, 

Sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympic um 

Collegisse iuvat metaque fervidis 

Evitata rotis palmaque nobilis 5 

Terrarum dominos evehit ad deos ; 

Hunc, si mobilium turba Quiritium 

Certat tergeminis tollere honoribus ; 

Ilium, si proprio condidit horreo, 

Quidquid de Libycis verritur areis. 10 

Gaudentem patrios findere sarculo 

Agros Attalicis condicionibus 

Numquam dimoveas, ut trabe Cypria 

Myrtoum pavidus nauta secet mare. 

Luctantem Icariis fluctibus Africum 15 

Mercator metuens otium et oppidi 

Laudat rura sui ; mox reficit rates 

Quassas, indocilis pauperiem pati. 

Est qui nee veteris pocula Massici 

Nee pattern solido demere de die 20 

Spernit, nunc viridi membra sub arbuto 

B 1 



CAEMINUM. 

Stratus nunc ad aquae lene caput sacrae. 

Multos castra iuvant et lituo tubae 

Permixtus sonitus bellaque matribus 

Detestata. Manet sub love frigido 25 

Venator tenerae coniugis immemor, 

Seu visast catulis cerva fidelibus, 

Seu rupit teretes Marsus aper plagas. 

Me doctarum hederae praemia f routium 

Dis miscent superis me, gelidum nemus 30 

Nympharumque leves cum Satyris chori 

Secernunt populo, si neque tibias 

Euterpe cohibet nee Polyhymnia 

Lesboum refugit tendere barbiton. 

Quodsi me lyricis vatibus inseris, 35 

Sublimi feriam sidera vertice. 



II. 

lam satis terris nivis atque dirae 
Grandinis misit pater et rubente 
Dextera sacras iaculatus arces 
Terruit urbem, 

Terruit gentes, grave ne rediret 5 

Saeculum Pyrrhae nova monstra questae, 
Omne cum Proteus pecus egit altos 
Visere rnontes, 

Piscium et summa genus haesit ulmo, 
Nota quae sedes fuerat columbis, 10 

Et superiecto pavidae natarunt 
Aequore dammae. 



LIBER I. 3 

Vidimus flavum Tiberim retortis 
Litore Etrusco violenter undis 
Ire deiectum monumenta regis 16 

Templaque Vestae, 

Iliae dum se nimium querenti 
lactat ultorem, vagus et sinistra 
Labitur ripa love non probante u- 

xorius anmis. 20 

Audiet cives acuisse ferrum, 
Quo graves Persae melius perirent, 
Audiet puguas vitio parentum 
Kara iuventus. 

Quein.vocet divum populus mentis 25 

Imperi rebus ? Piece qua f atigent 
Virgines sanctae minus audientem 
Carmina Vestam ? 

Cui dabit partes scelus expiandi 
luppiter ? Tandem venias precamur, 30 

Nube candentes umeros amictus, 
Augur Apollo ; 

Sive tu mavis, Erycina ridens, 
Quam locus circum volat et Cupido; 
Sive neglectum genus et nepotes 36 

Eespicis, auctor, 

Heu nimis longo satiate ludo, 
Quern iuvat clamor galeaeque leves 
Acer et Mauri peditis cruentum 

Voltus in hostem j 40 



CARMINUM. 

Sive mutata iuvenem figura 
Ales in terris imitaris almae 
Filius Maiae, patiens vocari 
Caesaris ultor, 

Serus in caelum redeas, diuque 45 

Laetus intersis populo Quirini, 
Neve te nostris vitiis iniquum 
Ocior aura 

Tollat ; hie magnos potius triumphos, 
Hie ames dici pater atque princeps, 50 

Neu sinas Medos equitare inultos 
Te duce, Caesar. 

III. 

Sic te diva potens Cypri, 

Sic fratres Helenae, lucida sidera, 
Ventorumque regat pater 

Obstrictis aliis praeter lapyga, 
Navis, quae tibi creditum 5 

Debes Vergilium, finibus Atticis 
Reddas incolumem precor 

Et serves animae dimidium meae. 
Illi robur et aes triplex 

Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci 10 

Commisit pelago ratem 

Primus, nee timuit praecipitem Africum 
Decertantem Aquilonibus 

Nee tristes Hyadas nee rabiem Noti, 
Quo non arbiter Hadriae 15 

Maior, tollere seu ponere volt freta. 



LIBER I. 5 

Quern mortis timuit gradum, 

Qui siccis oculis monstra natantia, 
Qui vidit mare turgidum et 

Infames scopulos, Acroceraunia ? 20 

Nequiquam deus abscidit 

Prudens Oceano dissociabili 
Terras, si tamen impiae 

Non tangenda rates transiliunt vada. 
Audax omnia perpeti 25 

Gens humana ruit per vetitum nefas. 
Audax lapeti genus 

Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit. 
Post ignem aetheria domo 

Subductum macies et nova febrium 30 

Terris incubuit cohors, 

Semotique prius tarda necessitas 
Leti corripuit gradum. 

Expertus vacuum Daedalus aera 
Pennis non homini datis ; 35 

Perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor. 
Nil mortalibus arduist ; 

Caelum ipsum petimus stultitia, neque 
Per nostrum patimur scelus 

Iracunda lovem ponere fulmina. 40 

IV. 

Solvitur acris hiems grata vice veris et Favoni, 

Trahuntque siccas machinae carinas, 
Ac neque iam stabulis gaudet pecus aut arator igni, 

Nee prata canis albicant pruinis. 
Iam Cytherea choros ducit Venus imminente luna, 5 



6 CARMINUM. 

lunctaeque Nymphis Gratiae decentes 
Alterno terram quatiunt pede, dum graves Cyclopum 

Volcanus ardens urit officinas. 
Nunc decet aut viridi nitidum caput impedire ruyrto 

Aut flore terrae quern f erunt solutae ; 10 

Nunc et in umbrosis Fauno decet immolare lucis, 

Seu poscat agna sive malit haedo. 
Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas 

Regumque turres. beate Sesti, 
Vitae summa brevis spein nos vetat incohare longam. 15 

lam te premet nox, fabulaeque Manes, 
Et domus exilis Plutonia ; quo simul mearis, 

N"ec regna vini sortiere tails 
Nee tenerum Lycidan mirabere, quo calet iuventus 

Nunc omnis et mox virgines tepebunt. 20 



V. 

Quis multa gracilis te puer in rosa 
Perfusus liquidis urget odoribus 
Grato, Pyrrha, sub antro ? 
Cui flavam religas coinam, 

Simplex munditiis ? Heu quotiens fidem 6 

Mutatosque deos flebit et aspera 
Nigris aequora ventis 
Emirabitur insolens, 

Qui nunc te fruitur credulus aurea, 
Qui semper vacuam, semper amabilem 10 

Sperat, nescius aurae 
Fallacis. Miseri, quibus 



LIBER I. 



Intemptata nites. Me tabula sacer 
Votiva paries indicat uvida 

Suspendisse potent! 15 

Vestimenta maris deo. 



VI. 

Scriberis Vario fortis et hostium 
Victor Maeonii carminis alite, 
Quam rem cumque ferox navibus aut equis 
Miles te duce gesserit. 

Kos, Agrippa, neque haec dicere nee gravem 5 
Pelidae stomachum cedere nescii 
Nee cursus duplicis per mare Ulixei 
Nee saevam Pelopis douium 

Conamur, tenues grandia, dum pudor 
Imbellisque lyrae Musa potens vetat 10 

Laudes egregii Caesaris et tuas 
Culpa deterere ingeni. 

Quis Martem tunica tectum adamantina 
Digne scripserit, aut pulvere Troico 
Nigrum Merionen, aut ope Palladis 16 

Tydiden superis parem ? 

Nos convivia, nos proelia virginum 
Sectis in iuvenes unguibus acrium 
Cantamus vacui, sive quid urimur, 

Non praeter solitum leves. 20 



CARMINUM. 

VII. 

Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon aut Mytilenen 

Aut Epheson bimarisve Corinthi 
Moenia vel Baccho Thebas vel Apolline Delphos 

Insignes aut Thessala Tempe. 
Sunt quibus unum opus est intactae Palladis urbem 5 

Carmine perpetuo celebrare et 
Undique decerptam fronti praeponere olivam. 

Plurimus in lunonis honorem 
Aptum dicet equis Argos ditesque Mycenas. 

Me nee tarn patiens Lacedaemon 10 

Nee tarn Larisae percussit campus opimae, 

Quam domus Albuneae resonantis 
Et praeceps Anio ac Tibtirni lucus et uda 

Mobilibus pomaria rivis. 
Albus ut obscuro deterget nubila caelo 15 

Saepe Notus neque parturit imbres 
Perpetuo, sic tu sapiens finire memento 

Tristitiam vitaeque labores 
Molli, Plance, mero, seu te fulgentia signis 

Castra tenent seu densa tenebit 20 

Tiburis umbra tui. Teucer Salamina patremque 

Cum fugeret, tamen uda Lyaeo 
Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona, 

Sic tristes adf atus amicos : 
' Quo nos cumque feret melior fortuna parente, 25 

Ibimus, o socii comitesque ! 
Nil desperandum Teucro duce et auspice Teucro : 

Certus enim promisit Apollo, 
Ambiguam tellure nova Salamina futuram. 

fortes peioraque passi 30 



LIBER I. 9 

Mecum saepe viri, mine vino pellite curas ; 
Cras ingens iterabimus aequor.' 

VIII. 
Lydia, die, per omnes 

Te deos oro, Sybarin cur properes amando 
Perdere ; cur apricum 

Oderit campum, patiens pulveris atque solis ? 
Cur neque militates 5 

Inter aequales equitat, Gallica nee lupatis 
Temperat ora frenis ? 

Cur timet flavum Tiberim tangere ? Cur olivum 
Sanguine viperino 

Cautius vitat, neque iam livida gestat arrnis 10 

Bracchia, saepe disco, 

Saepe trans finem iaculo nobilis expedite ? 
Quid latet, ut marinae 

Filium dicunt Thetidis sub lacrimosa Troiae 
Funera, ne virilis 15 

Cultus in caedem et Lycias proriperet catervas ? 

IX. 

Vides ut alta stet nive candidum 
Soracte, nee iam sustineant onus 
Silvae laborantes, geluque 
Flumina constiterint acuto. 

Dissolve frigus ligna super foco 5 

Large reponens atque benignius 
Deprome quadrimum Sabina, 
Thaliarche, merum diota. 



10 CARMINUM. 

Permitte divis cetera; qui simul 
Stravere ventos aequore fervido 10 

Deproeliantes, nee cupressi 
Nee veteres agitantur orni. 

Quid sit futurum eras, fuge quaerere et 
Quern fors dierum cumque dabit lucro 

Adpone, nee dulces amores 15 

Sperne puer neque tu choreas, 

Donee virenti canities abest 
Morosa. Nunc et campus et areae 
Lenesque sub noctem susurri 

Composita repetantur horaj 20 

Nunc et latentis proditor intimo 
Gratus puellae risus ab angulo 
Pignusque dereptum lacertis 
Aut digito male pertinaci. 



X. 

Mercuri, facunde nepos Atlantis, 
Qui feros cultus hominum recentum 
Voce formasti catus et decorae 
More palaestrae, 

Te canam, magni lovis et deorum 5 

Nuntium curvaeque lyrae parentem, 
Callidum quidquid placuit iocoso 
Condere furto. 

Te, boves olim nisi reddidisses 

Per dolum amotas, puerum minaci 10 



LIBER I. 11 

Voce dum terret, viduus pharetra 
Risit Apollo. 

Quin et Atridas duce te superbos 
Ilio dives Friamus relicto 
Thessalosque ignes et iniqua Troiae 15 

Castra fefellit. 

Tu pias laetis animas reponis 
Sedibus virgaque levem coerces 
Aurea turbam, superis deorum 

Gratus et imis. 20 



XI. 

Tu ne quaesieris, scire nefas, quern mini, quern tibi 
Finem di dederint, Leuconoe, nee Babylonios 
Temptaris numeros. Ut melius quidquid erit pati, 
Seu plures hiemes seu tribuit luppiter ultimam, 
Quae nunc oppositis debilitat pumicibus mare I 

Tyrrhenum : sapias, vina liques, et spatio brevi 
Spem longam reseces. Dum loquimur, fugerit invida 
Aetas : carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero. 



XII. 

Quern virum aut heroa lyra vel acri 
Tibia sumis celebrare, Clio ? 
Quem deum ? Cuius recinet iocosa 
Nomen imago 



12 CARMINUM. 

Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris, 5 

Aut super Pindo gelidove in Haemo ? 
Unde vocalem temere insecutae 
Orphea silvae, 

Arte materna rapidos m or an tern 
Fluminum lapsus celeresque ventos, 10 

Blandum et auritas fidibus canoris 
Ducere quercus. 

Quid prius dicam solitis parentis 
Laudibus, qui res hominum ac deorum, 
Qui mare ac terras variisque mundum 15 

Temperat horis ? 

Unde nil maius generatur ipso, 

Nee viget quicquam simile aut secundum : 

Proximos illi tamen occupavit 

Pallas honores. 20 

Proeliis audax neque te silebo, 
Liber, et saevis inimica virgo 
Beluis, nee te, metuende certa 
Phoebe sagitta. 

Dicam et Alciden puerosque Ledae, 25 

Hunc equis, ilium super are pugnis 
Nobilem ; quorum simul alba nautis 
Stella refulsit, 

Defluit saxis agitatus humor, 
Concidunt venti fugiuntque nubes, 30 

Et minax, quod sic voluere, ponto 
Unda recumbit. 



LIBER I. 13 

Romulum post hos prius an quietum 
Pompili regnum memorem an superbos 
Tarquini fasces dubito, an Catonis 35 

Nobile letum. 

Regulum et Scauros animaeque magnae 
Prodigum Paullum superante Poeno 
Gratus insigni referam camena 
Fabriciumque. 40 

Hunc, et incomptis Curium capillis 
Utilem bello tulit, et Camillum 
Saeva paupertas et avitus apto 
Cum lare fundus. 

Crescit occulto velut arbor aevo 45 

Fama Marcelli ; micat inter omnes 
lulium sidus velut inter ignes 
Luna minores. 

Gentis humanae pater atque custos, 
Orte Saturno, tibi cura magni 50 

Caesaris fatis data : tu secundo 
Caesare regnes. 

Ille seu Parthos Latio imminentes 
Egerit iusto domitos triumpho, 
Sive subiectos Orientis orae 55 

Seras et Indos, 

Te minor latum reget aequus orbem ; 
Tu gravi curru quaties Olympum, 
Tu parum castis inimica mittes 
Fulmina lucis. 60 



14 CAEMINUM. 

XIII. 

Cum tu, Lydia, Telephi 

Cervicem roseam, cerea Telephi 
Laudas bracchia, vae meum 

Fervens difficili bile tumet iecur. 
Turn nee mens mihi nee color 5 

Certa sede manet, umor et in genas 
Furtim labitur, arguens 

Quam lentis penitus inacerer ignibus. 
Uror, seu tibi candidos 

Turparunt umeros iminodicae mero 10 

Eixae, sive puer furens 

Impressit memorem dente labris notam. 
Non, si me satis audias, 

Speres perpetuum dulcia barbare 
Laedentem oscula, quae Venus 16 

Quinta parte sui nectaris imbuit. 
Felices ter et amplius, 

Quos inrupta tenet copula nee malis 
Divolsus querimoniis 

Suprema citius solvet amor die. 20 



XIV. 

O navis, referent in mare te novi 
Fluctus ! quid agis ? Fortiter occupa 
Portum ! Nonne vides ut 
Nudum remigio latus 

Et malus celeri saucius Africo 
Antemnaeque gemant, ac sine funibus 



LIBER I. 15 

Vix durare carinae 
Possint iuiperiosius 

Aequor ? Non tibi sunt Integra lintea, 
Non di, quos iterum pressa voces malo. 10 

Quaravis Pontica pinus, 
Silvae filia nobilis, 

lactes et genus et nomen inutile ; 
Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus 

Fidit. Tu, nisi ventis 16 

Debes ludibrium, cave. 

Nuper sollicitum quae mihi taedium, 
Nunc desiderium curaque non levis, 
Interfusa nitentes 
Vites aequora Cycladas. 20 



XV. 

Pastor cum traheret per freta navibus 
Idaeis Helenen perfidus. hospitam, 
Ingrato celeres obruit otio 
Ventos ut caneret fera 

Nereus fata : ' Mala ducis avi domum, 6 

Quam multo repetet Graecia milite, 
Coniurata tuas rumpere nuptias 
Et regnum Priami vetus. 

Heu heu, quantus equis, quantus adest viris 
Sudor ! quanta moves funera Dardanae 10 

Genti ! lam galeam Pallas et aegida 
Currusque et rabiem parat. 



16 CARMINUM. 

Nequiquam Veneris praesidio ferox 
Pectes caesariem, grataque feminis 
Imbelli cithara carmina divides ; 15 

Nequiquam thalamo graves 

Hastas et calami spicula Cnosii 
Vitabis strepitumque et celerem sequi 
Aiacem : tamen, heu, serus adulteros 

Crines pulvere collines. 20 

Non Laertiaden, exitium tuae 
Genti, non Pylium Nestora respicis ? 
Urgent impavidi te Salaminius 
Teucer, te Sthenelus, sciens 

Pugnae, sive opus est imperitare equis, 25 

Non auriga piger. Merionen quoque 
Nosces. Ecce furit te reperire atrox 
Tydides, melior patre, 

Quem tu, cervus uti vallis in altera 
Visum parte lupum graminis imniemor 30 

Sublimi fugies mollis anhelitu, 
Non hoc pollicitus tuae. 

Iracunda diem proferet Ilio 
Matronisque Phrygum classis Achillei : 
Post certas hiemes uret Achaicus 35 

Ignis Iliacas domos.' 

XVI. 

matre pulchra fi'lia pulchrior, 
Quem criminosis cumque voles modum 
Pones iambis, sive flamma 
Sive mari libet Hadriano. 



LIBER I. 17 

Non Dinclymene, non adytis quatit 5 

Mentem sacerdotum incola Pythius, 
Non Liber aeque, non acuta 
Sic geminant Corybantes aera, 

Tristes ut irae, quas neque Noricus 
Deterret ensis nee mare naufragum 10 

Nee saevus ignis nee tremendo 
luppiter ipse ruens tumultu. 

Fertur Prometheus addere principi 
Limo coactus particulam undique 

Desectam et insani leonis 16 

Vim stomacho adposuisse nostro. 

Irae Thyesten exitio gravi 
Stravere et altis urbibus ultimae 
Stetere causae cur perirent 

Funditus imprimeretque muris 20 

Hostile aratrum exercitus insolens. 
Compesce mentem! Me quoque pectoris 
Temptavit in dulci iuventa 
Fervor et in celeres iambos 

Misit furentem ; nunc ego mitibus 25 

Mutare quaero tristia, dum mihi 
Fias recantatis amiea 

Opprobriis animumque reddas. 

XVII. 

Velox amoenum saepe Lucretilem 
Mutat Lycaeo Faunus et igneam 
Defendit aestatem capellis 

Usque meis pluviosque ventos. 
c 



18 CARMINUM. 

Impune tutum per nemus arbutos 6 

Quaerunt latentes et thyma deviae 
Olentis uxores mariti, 

Nee virides inetuunt colubras 

Nee Martiales haediliae lupos, 
Utcumque dulci, Tyndari, fistula 10 

Valles et Usticae cubantis 
Levia personuere saxa. 

Di me tuentur, dis pietas mea 
Et Musa cordist. Hie tibi copia 

Manabit ad plenum benigno 15 

Ruris honorum opulenta cornu. 

Hie in reducta valle Caniculae 
Vitabis aestus et fide Teia 
Dices laborantes in uno 

Penelopen vitreamque Circen ; 20 

Hie innocentis pocula Lesbii 
Duces sub umbra, nee Semeleius 
Cuin Marte confundet Thyoneus 
Proelia, nee metues protervum 

Suspecta Cyrum, ne male dispari 26 

Incontinentes iniciat manus 
Et scindat haerentem coronam 
Crinibus immeritamque vestem. 

XVIII. 

Nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem 
Circa mite solum Tiburis et moenia Catili. 
Siccis omnia nam dura deus proposuit neque 



LIBER I. 19 

Mordaces aliter diffugiunt sollicitudines. 

Quis post vina gravem militiam aut pauperiem crepat ? 5 

Quis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque, decens Venus ? 

At nequis modici transiliat munera Liberi, 

Centaurea monet cum Lapithis rixa super mero 

Debellata, monet Sithoniis non levis Euhius, 

Cum fas atque nefas exiguo fine libidinum 10 

Discernunt avidi. Noil ego te, candide Bassareu, 

Invitum quatiam nee variis obsita frondibus 

Sub divum rapiam. Saeva tene cum Berecyntio 

Cornu tympana, quae subsequitur caecus amor sui, 

Et tollens vacuum plus nimio gloria verticem 15 

Arcanique fides prodiga, perlucidior vitro. 

XIX. 

Mater saeva Cupidinum 

Thebanaeque iubet me Semelae puer 
Et lasciva Licentia 

Einitis animum reddere amoribus. 
Urit me Grlycerae nitor, 6 

Splendentis Pario marmore purius ; 
Urit grata protervitas 

Et voltus nimium lubricus adspici. 
In me tota ruens Venus 

Cyprum deseruit, nee patitur Scythas 10 

Et versis animosum equis 

Parthum dicere nee quae nihil attinent. 
Hie vivum mihi caespitem, hie 

Verbenas, pueri, ponite turaque 
Bimi cum patera meri : 16 

Mactata veniet lenior hostia. 



20 CARMINUM. 

XX. 

Vile potabis modicis Sabinum 
Cantharis, Graeca quod ego ipse tesfca 
Conditum levi, datus in theatre 
Cum tibi plausus, 

Care Maecenas eques, ut paterni 6 

Fluminis ripae simul et iocosa 
Redderet laudes tibi Vaticani 
Montis imago. 

Caecubum et prelo domitam Caleno 
Tu bibes uvam : mea nee Falernae 10 

Temperant vites neque Formiani 
Pocula colles. 



XXI. 

Dianam tenerae dicite virgines, 
Intonsum, pueri, dicite Cynthium 
Latonamque supremo 
Dilectam penitus lovi. 

Vos laetam fluviis et nemorum coma, 6 

Quaecumque aut gelido prominet Algido, 
Nigris aut Erymanthi 
Silvis aut viridis Cragi ; 

Vos Tempe totidem tollite laudibus 
Natalemque, mares, Delon Apollinis 10 

Insignemque pharetra 

Fraternaque umerum lyra. 



LIBER I. 21 

Hie bellum lacrimosum, hie miseram famem 
Pestemque a populo et principe Caesare in 

Persas atque Britaimos 15 

Vestra motus aget prece. 



XXII. 

Integer vitae scelerisque pnrus 
Non eget Mauris iaculis neque arcu 
Nee venenatis gravida sagittis, 
Fusee, pharetra, 

Sive per Syrtes iter aestuosas, 6 

Sive facturus per inhospitalem 
Caucasum vel quae loca fabulosus 
Lambit Hydaspes. 

Namque me silva lupus in Sabina, 
Dum meam canto Lalagen et ultra 10 

Terminum curis vagor expeditis, 
Fugit inermem, 

Quale portentum neque militaris 
Daunias latis alit aesculetis 

Nee lubae tellus generat, leonum 15 

Arida nutrix. 

Pone me pigris ubi nulla campis 

Arbor aestiva recreatur aura, 

Quod latus mundi nebulae malusque 

luppiter urget ; 20 

Pone sub curru nimium propinqui 
Solis in terra domibus negata : 



22 CARMINUM. 

Dulce ridentem Lalagen amabo, 
Dulce loquentem. 

XXIII. 

Vitas hinuleo me similis, Chloe, 
Quaerenti pavidam montibus aviis 
Matrem non sine vano 
Aurarum et siluae metu. 

Nam seu mobilibus veris inhorruit 6 

Adventus foliis, seu virides rubum 
Dimovere lacertae, 

Et corde et genibus tremit. 

Atqui non ego te tigris ut aspera 
Gaetulusve leo frangere persequor : 10 

Tandem desine matrem 
Tempestiva sequi viro. 

XXIV. 

Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus 
Tarn cari capitis ? Praecipe lugubres 
Cantus, Melpomene, cui liquidam pater 
Vocem cum cithara dedit. 

Ergo Quintilium perpetuus sopor 5 

Urget ! Cui Pudor et lustitiae soror, 
Incorrupta Fides, nudaque Veritas 
Quando ullum inveniet parem ? 

Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit, 

Nulli flebilior quam tibi, Vergili. 10 



LIBER I. 23 

Tu frustra plus heu non ita creditum 
Poscis Quintilium deos. 

Quod si Threicio blandius Orpheo 
Auditam moderere arboribus fidem, 
Non vanae redeat sanguis imagini, 15 

Quam virga semel horrida, 

Non lenis precibus fata recludere, 
Nigro compulerit Mercurius gregi. 
Durum : sed levius fit patientia, 

Quidquid corrigerest nefas. 20 



XXV. 

Parcius iunctas quatiunt fenestras 
lactibus crebris iuvenes protervi, 
Nee tibi soinnos adimunt, amatque 
lanua limen, 

Quae prius multum facilis movebat 5 

Cardines. Audis minus et minus iam : 
' Me tuo longas pereunte noctes, 
Lydia, dormis ? ' 

Invicem moechos anus arrogantes 
Flebis in solo levis angiportu, 10 

Thracio bacchante magis sub inter- 
lunia vento, 

Cum tibi flagrans amor et libido, 
Quae solet matres furiare equorum, 
Saeviet circa iecur ulcerosum, 16 

Non sine questu, 



24 CARMINUM. 

Laeta quod pubes hedera virenti 
Gaudeat pulla magis atque myrto, 
Aridas frondes hiemis sodali 

Dedicet Euro. 20 

XXVI. 

Musis amicus tristitiam et metus 
Tradam protervis in mare Creticum 
Portare ventis, quis sub Arcto 
Rex gelidae metuatur orae, 

Quid Tiridaten terreat," unice 5 

Securus. quae fontibus integris 
Gaudes, apricos necte flores, 
Necte meo Lamiae coronam, 

Pimplei dulcis. Nil sine te mei 
Prosunt honores : hunc fidibus novis, 10 

Hunc Lesbio sacrare plectro 
Teque tuasque decet sorores. 

XXVII. 

Natis in usum laetitiae scyphis 
Pugnare Thracumst : tollite barbarum 
Morem, verecundumque Bacchum 
Sanguiiieis prohibete rixis. 

Vino et lucernis Medus acinaces 5 

Immane quantum discrepat : impium 
Lenite clamorem, sodales, 
Et cubito remauete presso. 



LIBER I. 25 

Voltis sever! me quoque sumere 
Partem Falerui ? Dicat Opuntiae 10 

Frater Megillae quo beatus 
Volnere, qua pereat sagitta. 

Cessat voluntas ? Non alia bibam 
Mercede. Quae te cumque domat Venus, 

Non erubescendis adurit 15 

Ignibus ingenuoque semper 

Amore peccas. Quidquid habes, age, 
Depone tutis auribus. A miser, 
Quanta laborabas Chary bdi, 

Digne puer meliore flamma ! 20 

Quae saga, quis te solvere Thessalis 
Magus venenis, quis poterit deus ? 
Vix inligatum te triformi 
Pegasus expediet Chimaera. 



XXVIII. 

Te maris et terrae numeroque carentis arenae 

Mensorem cohibent, Archyta, 
Pulveris exigui prope litus parva Matinum 

Munera, nee quicquam tibi prodest 
Aerias temptasse domos animoque rotundum 5 

Percurrisse polum morituro. 
Occidit et Pelopis genitor, conviva deorum, 

Tithonusque remotus in auras 
Et lovis arcanis Minos admissus, habentque 

Tartara Panthoiden iterum Oreo 10 



26 CARMINUM. 

Demissum, quamvis clipeo Troiana refixo 

Tempora testatus nihil ultra 
Nervos atque cutem morti concesserat atrae, 

ludice te non sordidus auctor 
Naturae verique. Sed omnes una manet nox 15 

Et calcanda semel via leti. 
Dant alios Furiae torvo spectacula Marti, 

Exitiost avidum mare nautis ; 
Mixta senum ac iuvenum densentur f unera ; nullum 

Saeva caput Proserpina fugit : 20 

Me quoque devexi rapidus comes Orionis 

Illyricis Notus obruit undis. 
At tu, nauta, vagae ne parce malignus areaae 

Ossibus et capiti inhumato 
Particulam dare : sic, quodcumque minabitur Eurus 25 

Fluctibus Hesperiis, Venusinae 
Plectantur silvae te sospite, multaque merces, 

Unde potest, tibi defluat aequo 
Ab love Neptunoque sacri custode Tarenti. 

Neglegis immeritis nocituram 30 

Postmodo te natis f raudem committere ? Fors et 

Debita iura vicesque superbae 
Te maneant ipsum : precibus non linquar inultis, 

Teque piacula nulla resolvent. 
Quamquam festinas, non est rnora longa ; licebit 35 

Iniecto ter pulvere curras. 



LIBER L 27 

XXIX. 

Icci, beatis nunc Arabum invides 
Gazis et acreni militiam paras 
Non ante devictis Sabaeae 
Regibus, horribilique Medo 

Nectis catenas ? Quae tibi virginum 6 

Sponso necato barbara serviet ? 
Puer quis ex aula capillis 
Ad cyathum statuetur unctis, 

Doctus sagittas tendere Sericas 
Arcu paterno ? Quis neget arduis 10 

Pronos relabi posse rivos 
Montibus et Tiberim reverti, 

Cum tu coeniptos undique nobilis 
Libros Panaeti Socraticam et domum 

Mutare loricis Hiberis, 16 

Pollicitus meliora, tendis ? 



XXX. 

O Venus, regina Cnidi Paphique, 
Sperne dilectam Cypron et vocantis 
Ture te multo Glycerae decoram 
Transfer in aedem. 

Fervidus tecum puer et solutis 
Gratiae zonis properentque Nymphae 
Et parum comis sine te luventas 
Mercuriusque. 



28 CARMINUM. 

XXXI. 

Quid dedicatum poscit' Apollinem 
Vates ? Quid orat, de patera novum 
Fundens liquorem ? Non opimae 
Sardiniae segetes feraces, 

Non aestuosae grata Calabriae 5 

Aruienta, non aurum aut ebur Indicum, 
Non rura, quae Liris quieta 
Mordet aqua taciturnus amnis. 

Premant Galena falce quibus dedit 
Fortuna vitem, dives et aureis 10 

Mercator exsiccet culullis 
Viua Syr a reparata merce, 

Dis carus ipsis, quippe ter et quater 
Anno revisens aequor Atlanticum 

Impune. Me pascunt olivae, 15 

Me cichorea levesque malvae. 

Frui paratis et valido mihi, 
Latoe, dones et precor integra 
Cum mente nee turpem senectam 

Degere nee cithara carentem. 20 



XXXII. 

Poscimur. Siquid vacui sub umbra 
Lusimus tecum, quod et huno in annum 
Vivat et plures, age die Latinum, 
Barbite, carmen, 



LIBER I. 29 

Lesbio primum modulate civi, 5 

Qui ferox bello taraen inter anna, 
Sive iactatam religarat udo 
Litore navim, 

Libernm et Musas Veneremque et illi 
Semper haerentem pueruni canebat, 10 

Et Lycum nigris oculis nigroque 
Crine decorum. 

O decus Phoebi et dapibus supremi 
Grata testudo lovis, o laborum 
Dulce lenimen, rnihi cumque salve 16 

Kite vocanti! 



XXXIII. 

Albi, ne doleas plus nimio memor 
Immitis Glycerae, neu miserabiles 
Decantes elegos, cur tibi iunior 
Laesa praeniteat fide. 

Insignem tenui fronte Lycorida 5 

Cyri torret amor, Cyrus in asperam 
Declinat Pholoen ; sed prius Apulis 
lungentur capreae lupis 

Quam turpi Pholoe peccet adultero. 
Sic visum Veneri, cui placet impares 10 

Formas atque animos sub iuga aenea 
Saevo mittere cum ioco. 

Ipsum me melior cum peteret Venus, 
Grata detinuit compede Myrtale 



30 CARMINUM. 

Libertina, fretis acrior Hadriae 16 

Curvantis Calabros sinus. 



XXXIV. 

Parcus deorum cultor et infrequens, 
Insanientis dum sapientiae 

Consultus erro, nunc retrorsum 
Vela dare atque iterare cursus 

Cogor relictos. Namque Diespiter, 6 

Igni corusco nubila dividens 
Plerumque, per purum tonantes 
Egit equos volucremque currum, 

Quo bruta tellus et vaga flumina, 
Quo Styx et invisi horrida Taenari 10 

Sedes Atlanteusque finis 

Concutitur. Valet ima summis 

Mutare et insignem attenuat deus, 
Obscura promens ; hinc apicem rapax 

Fortuna cum stridore acuto 15 

Sustulit, hie posuisse gaudet. 



XXXV. 

diva, gratum quae regis Antium, 
Praesens vel inio tollere de gradu 
Mortale corpus vel superbos 
Vertere funeribus triumphos, 



LIBER I. 31 

Te pauper ambit sollicita prece 6 

Hurls coloiius, te dominain aequoris 
Quicumque Bithyna lacessit 
Carpathium pelagus carina. 

Te Dacus asper, te profugi Scythae 
Urbesque gentesque et Latium ferox 10 

Regumque matres barbarorum et 
Purpurei metuunt tyranni, 

Iniurioso ne pede proruas 
Stantem columnam, neu populus frequens 
Ad arma cessantes, ad arma 16 

Concitet imperiumque frangat. 

Te semper anteit saeva Kecessitas, 
Clavos trabales et cuneos manu 
Gestans aena, nee severus 

Uncus abest liquidumque plumbum. 20 

Te Spes et albo rara Fides colit 
Velata panno, nee coinitem abnegat, 
Utcumque niutata potentes 
Veste domos iniinica linquis. 

At volgus infidum et meretrix retro 25 

Periura cedit, diffugiunt cadis 
Cum faece siccatis amici 
Ferre iugum pariter dolosi. 

Serves iturum Caesarem in ultimos 
Orbis Britannos et iuvenum recens 30 

Examen Eois timendum 
Partibus Oceanoque rubro. 



32 CARMINUM. 

Eheu cicatricum et sceleris pudet 
Fratrumque. Quid nos dura refugimus 

Aetas ? quid intactum nef asti 3tf 

Liquimus ? unde manum iuventus 

Metu deorum continuit ? quibus 

Pepercit aris ? utinam nova 

Incude diffingas retusum in 

Massagetas Arabasque f errum ! 40 



XXXVI. 

Et ture et fidibus iuvat 

Placare et vituli sanguine debito 
Custodes Numidae deos, 

Qui nunc Hesperia sospes ab ultima 
Caris multa sodalibus, 5 

Nulli plura tamen dividit oscula 
Quam dulci Lamiae, memor 

Actae non alio rege puertiae 
Mutataeque simul togae. 

Cressa ne careat pulchra dies nota, 10 

Neu promptae modus amphorae 

Neu morem in Salium sit requies pedum, 
Neu multi Damalis meri 

Bassum Threicia vincat amystide, 
Neu desint epulis rosae 16 

Neu vivax apium neu breve lilium. 
Omnes in Damalin putres , 

Deponent oculos, nee Damalis novo 
Divelletur adultero, 

Lascivis hederis ambitiosior. 20 



LIBER I. 33 

XXXVII. 

Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero 
Pulsanda tellus, nunc Saliaribus 
Ornare pulvinar deorum 

Te'mpus erat dapibus, sodales. 

Antehac nefas depromere Caecubum 6 

Cellis avitis, dum Capitolio 
Eegina dementes ruinas 
Funus et imperio parabat 

Contaminato cum grege turpium 
Morbo virorum, quidlibet impotens 10 

Sperare fortunaque dulci 
Ebria. Sed minuit f urorem 

Vix una sospes navis ab ignibus, 
Mentemque lymphatam Mareotico 

Redegit in veros timores 16 

Caesar, ab Italia volantem 

Remis adurgens, accipiter velut 
Molles columbas aut leporem citus 
Venator in campis nivalis 

Haemoniae, daret ut catenis 20 

Fatale monstrum. Quae generosius 
Perire quaerens nee muliebriter 
Expavit ensem nee latentes 
Classe cita reparavit oras. 

Ausa et iacentem visere regiam 25 

Voltu sereno, fortis et asperas 



34 CARMINUM. 

Tractare serpentes, ut atrum 
Corpore combiberet venenum, 

Deliberata morte ferocior, 

Saevis Liburnis scilicet invidens 30 

Privata deduci superbo 

humilis mulier triumplio. 



XXXVIII. 

Persicos odi, puer, apparatus ; 
Displicent nexae philyra coronae ; 
Mitte sectari, rosa quo locorum 
Sera moretur. 

Simplici myrto nihil adlabores 
Sedulus euro : neque te rainistrum 
Dedecet myrtus neque me sub arta 
Vite bibentem. 



OARMINUM 

LIBER SECUNDUS. 

I. 

Motum ex Metello consule civicum 
Bellique causas et vitia et modos 
Ludumque Fortunae gravesque 
Principum amicitias et arma 

Nonduni expiatis uncta cruoribus, 6 

Periculosae plenum opus aleae, 
Tractas et incedis per ignes 
Suppositos cineri doloso. 

Paullum severae Musa tragoediae 
Desit theatris ; mox ubi publicas 10 

Res ordinaris, grande munus 
Cecropio repetes cothurno, 

Insigne maestis praesidium reis 
Et consulenti, Pollio, Curiae, 

Cui laurus aeternos honores 15 

Delmatico peperit triumpho. 

lam mine minaci murmure cornuum 
Perstringis aures, iam litui strepunt, 
lam fulgor armorum fugaces 

Terret equos equitumque voltus. 20 

35 



36 CARMINUM. 

Audire magnos iam videor duces, 
Non indecoro pulvere sordidos, 
Et cuncta terrarum subacta 

Praeter atrocem animum Catonis. 

luno et deorum quisquis amicior 25 

Afris inulta cesserat impotens 
Tellure victomm nepotes 
Kettulit inferias lugurthae. 

Quis non Latino sanguine pinguior 
Campus sepulcris impia proelia 30 

Testatur auditumque Medis 
Hesperiae sonitum ruinae ? 

Qui gurges aut quae flumina lugubris 
Ignara belli ? quod mare Dauniae 

Non decoloravere caedes ? 35 

Quae caret ora cruore nostro ? 

Sed ne relictis, Musa procax, iocis 
Ceae retractes munera neniae, 
Mecum Dionaeo sub antro 

Quaere modos leviore plectro. 40 



II. 

Nullus argento color est avaris 
Abdito terris, inimice lamiiae 
Crispe Sallusti, nisi temperato 
Splendeat usu. 

Vivet extento Proculeius aevo, 
Notus in fratres animi paterni : 



LIBER II. 37 

Ilium aget penna metuente solvi 
Fama superstes. 

Latins regnes avidum domando 
Spiritum, quam si Libyam remotis 10 

Gadibus iungas et uterque Poenus 
Serviat uni. 

Crescit indulgens sibi dirus hydrops 
Nee sitim pellit, nisi causa morbi 
Fugerit venis et aquosus albo 16 

Corpore languor. 

Eedditum Cyri solio Phraaten 
Dissidens plebi numero beatorum 
Eximit Virtus populumque falsis 

Dedocet uti 20 

Vocibus, regnum et diadema tutum 
Deferens uni propriamque laurum, 
Quisquis ingentes oculo inretorto 
Spectat acervos. 



III. 

Aequam memento rebus in arduis 
Servare mentem, non secus in bonis 
Ab insolenti temperatam 
Laetitia, moriture Delli, 

Seu maestus omni tempore vixeris, 
Seu te in remoto gramine per dies 
Festos reclinatum bearis 
Interiore nota Falerni. 



38 CARMINUM. 

Quo pinus ingens albaque populus 
Umbram hospitalem consociare amant 10 

Ramis ? Quid obliquo laborat 
Lympha fugax trepidare rivo ? 

Hue vina et unguenta et nimium breves 
Flores amoenae ferre iube rosae, 

Dura res et aetas et sororum 15 

Fila trium patiuntur atra. 

Cedes coemptis saltibus et domo 
Villaque, flavus quam Tiberis lavit, 
Cedes, et exstructis in altum 

Divitiis potietur heres. 20 

Divesne prisco natus ab'Inacho 
Nil interest an pauper et infima 
De gente sub divo moreris, 
Victima nil miserantis Orci. 

Omnes eodem cogimur, omnium 25 

Versatur urna serius ocius 

Sors exitura et nos in aeternum 
Exsilium impositura cumbae. 

IV. 

Ne sit ancillae tibi amor pudori, 
Xanthia Phoceu ! Prius insolentem 
Serva Briseis niveo colore 
Movit Achillem ; 

Movit Aiacem Telamone natum 6 

Forma captivae dominum Tecmessae ; 



LIBER IF. 39 

Arsit Atrides medio in triumpho 
Virgine rapta, 

Barbarae postquam cecidere turmae 
Thessalo victore et ademptus Hector 10 

Tradidit fessis leviora tolli 
Pergama Grais. 

Nescias an te generum beati 
Phyllidis flavae decorent parentes : 
Regium certe genus et penates 15 

Maeret iniquos. 

Crede non illam tibi de scelesta 
Plebe dilectam, neque sic fidelem, 
Sic lucre- aversam potuisse nasci 

Matre pudenda. 20 

Bracchia et voltum teretesque suras 
Integer laudo ; fuge suspicari, 
Cuius octavum trepidavit aetas 
Claudere lustrum. 



V. 

Nondum subacta ferre iugum valet 
Cervice, nondum munia comparis 
Aequare nee tauri mentis 
In venerem tolerare pondus. 

Circa virentes est animus tuae 
Campos iuvencae, nunc fluviis gravem 
Solantis aestum, nunc in udo 
Ludere cum vitulis salicto 



40 CARMINUM. 

Praegestientis. Tolle cupidinem 
Immitis uvae : iam tibi lividos 10 

Distinguet autumnus racemos 
Purpureo varius colore. 

Iam te sequetur : currit enim f erox 
Aetas, et illi, quos tibi dempserit, 

Adpouet annos ; iam proterva 15 

Fronte petet Lalage maiitum, 

Dilecta quantum non Pholoe fugax, 
Non Chloris, albo sic umero nitens 
Ut pura nocturno renidet 

Luna mari, Cnidiusve Gyges, 20 

Quern si puellarum insereres choro, 
Mire sagaces falleret hospites 
Discrimen obscurum solutis 
Crinibus ambiguoque voltu. 



VI. 

Septimi, Gades aditure mecum et 
Cantabrum indoctum iuga ferre nostra et 
Barbaras Syrtes, ubi Maura semper 
Aestuat unda : 

Tibur Argeo positum colono 5 

Sit meae sedes utinam senectae, 
Sit modus lasso maris et viarum 
Militiaeque. 

Unde si Parcae prohibent iniquae, 

Dulce pellitis ovibus Galaesi 10 



LIBER II. 41 

Flumen et regnata petam Laconi 
Kura Phalantho. 

Ille terrarum mihi praeter oinnes 
Angulus ridet, ubi non Hymetto 
Mella decedunt viridique certat 15 

Baca Venafro ; 

Ver ubi longum tepidasque praebet 
luppiter brumas, et amicus Aulon 
Fertili Baccho minimum Falernis 

Invidet uvis. 20 

Ille te mecum locus et beatae 
Postulant arces ; ibi tu calentem 
Debita sparges lacrima favillam 
Vatis amici. 

VII. 

saepe mecum tempus in ultimum 
Deducte Bruto militiae duce, 
Quis te redonavit Quiritem 
Dis patriis Italoque caelo, 

Pompei, meorum prime sodalium, 5 

Cum quo morantem saepe diem mero 
Fregi, coronatus nitentes 
Malobathro Syrio capillos ? 

Tecum Philippos et celerem fugam 
Sensi relicta non bene parmula, 10 

Cum fracta virtus et minaces 
Turpe solum tetigere mento. 



42 CARMINUM. 

Sed me per hostes Mercurius celer 
Denso paventem sustulit aere ; 

Te rursus in bellum resorbens 15 

Unda fretis tulit aestuosis. 

Ergo obligatam redde lovi dapem, 
Longaque fessum militia latus 
Depone sub lauru mea nee 
Parce cadis tibi destinatis. 20 

Oblivioso levia Massico 
Ciboria exple, funde capacibus 
Unguenta de conchis. Quis udo 
Deproperare apio coronas 

Curatve myrto ? Quern Venus arbitrum 25 
Dicet bibendi ? Non ego sanius 
Bacchabor Edonis : recepto 
Dulce mihi furerest amico. 



VIII. 

Ulla si iuris tibi peierati 
Poena, Barine, nocuisset umquam, 
Dente si nigro fieres vel uno 
Turpior ungui, 

Crederem. Sed tu simul obligasti 6 

Perfidum votis caput, enitescis 
Pulchrior multo, iuvenumque prodis 
Publica cura. 

Expedit matris cineres opertos 

Fallere et toto taciturna noctis 10 



LIBER II. 43 

Signa cum caelo gelidaque divos 
Morte carentes. 

Kidet hoc, inquam, Venus ipsa, rident 
Simplices Nymphae ferus et Cupido, 
Semper ardentes acuens sagittas 15 

Cote cruenta. 

Adde quod pubes tibi crescit omnis, 
Servitus crescit nova, nee priores 
. Impiae tectum dominae relinquunt, 

Saepe minati. 20 

Te suis matres metuunt iuvencis, 
Te senes parci miseraeque nuper 
Virgines nuptae, tua ne retardet 
Aura maritos. 



IX. 

Non semper imbres nubibus hispidos 
Manant in agros aut mare Caspium 
Vexant inaequales procellae 
Usque, nee Armeniis in oris, 

Amice Valgi, stat glacies iners 6 

Menses per omnes, aut Aquilonibus 
Querceta Gargani laborant 
Et f oliis viduantur orni : 

Tu semper urges flebilibus modis 
Mysten ademptum, nee tibi Vespero 10 

Surgente decedunt amores 
Nee rapidum fugiente solem. 



44 CARMINUM. 

At non ter aevo functus amabilem 
Ploravit omnes Antilochum senex 

Annos, nee impubem parentes 15 

Troilon aut Phrygiae sorores 

Flevere semper. Desine mollium 
Tandem querellarum, et potius nova 
Contemns August! tropaea 

Caesaris et rigidum Niphaten, 20 

Meduraque flumen gentibus additum . * 
Victis minores volvere vertices, 
Intraque praescriptum Gelonos 
Exiguis equitare campis. 



X. 

Rectius vives, Licini, neque altum 
Semper urgendo neque, dum procellas 
Cautus horrescis, nimium preniendo 
Litus iniquum. 

Auream quisquis mediocritatem 6 

Diligit, tutus caret obsoleti 
Sordibus tecti, caret invidenda 
Sobrius aula. 

Saepius ventis agitatur ingens 
Pinus et celsae graviore casu 10 

Decidunt turres feriuntque summos 
Fulgura montes. 

Sperat infestis, metuit secundis 
Alteram sortem bene praeparatum 



LIBER II. 45 

Pectus. Informes hiemes reducit 15 

luppiter, idem 

Submovet. Non, si male nunc, et olim 
Sic erit : quondam cithara tacentem 
Suscitat Musam neque semper arcum 

Tendit Apollo. 20 

Rebus angustis animosus atque 
Fortis appare ; sapienter idem 
Contrahes vento nimium secundo 
Turgida vela. 

XI. 

Quid bellicosus Cantaber et Scythes, 
Hirpine Quinti, cogitet Hadria 
Divisus obiecto, remittas 

Quaerere, nee trepides in usum 

Poscentis aevi pauca. Fugit retro 5 

Levis iuventas et decor, arida 
Pellente lascivos amores 
Canitie facilemque sonmum. 

Non semper idem floribus est honor 
Vernis, neque uno luna rubens nitet 10 

Voltu : quid aeternis minorem 
Consiliis animum fatigas ? 

Cur non sub alta vel platano vel hac 
Pinu iacentes sic teme*e et rosa 

Canos odorati capillos, 15 

Dum licet, Assyriaque nardo 



46 CARMINUM. 

Potamus uncti ? Dissipat Euhius 
Curas edaces. Quis puer ocius 
Restinguet ardentis Falerni 

Pocula praetereunte lympha ? 20 

Quis devium scortum eliciet domo 
Lyden ? Eburna, die age, cum lyra 
Maturet, in. comptum Lacaenae 
More comam religata nodum. 



XII. 

Nolis longa ferae bella Numantiae 
Nee durum Hannibalem nee Siculum mare 
Poeuo purpureum sanguine mollibus 
Aptari citharae modis, 

Nee saevos Lapithas et nimium mero 6 

Hylaeum domitosque Herculea manu 
Telluris iuvenes, unde periculum 
Fulgens contremuit domus 

Saturni veteris : tuque pedestribus 
Dices historiis proelia Caesaris, 10 

Maecenas, melius ductaque per vias 
Regum colla minacium. 

Me dulces dominae Musa Licymniae 
Cantus, me voluit dicere lucidum 
Fulgentes oculos et bene mutuis 15 

Fidum pectus amoribus ; 

Quam nee ferre pedem dedecuit choris 
Nee certare ioco nee dare bracchia 



LIBER II. 47 

Ludentem nitidis virginibus sacro 

Dianae Celebris die. 20 

Num tu quae tenuit dives Achaemenes 
Aut pinguis Phrygiae Mygdonias opes 
Permutare velis crine Licymniae, 
Plenas aut Arabum domos, 

Dum flagrantia detorquet ad oscula 25 

Cervicem, aut facili saevitia negat 
Quae poscente magis gaudeat eripi, 
Interdum rapere occupet ? 



XIII. 

Ille et nefasto te posuit die, 
Quicumque primum, et sacrilega manti 
Produxit, arbos, in nepotum 
Perniciem opprobriunique pagi ; 

Ilium et parentis crediderim sui 6 

Fregisse cervicem et penetralia 
Sparsisse nocturne cruore 
Hospitis ; ille venena Colcha 

Et quidquid usquam concipitur nefas 
Tractavit, agro qui statuit meo 10 

Te triste lignum, te caducum 
In domini caput immerentis. 

Quid quisque vitet, numquam homini satis 
Cautumst in horas : navita Bosporum 

Poenus perhorrescit neque ultra 16 

Caeca timet aliunde fata; 



48 CARMINUM. 

Miles sagittas et celerem fugam 
Parthi, catenas Parthus et Italum 
Robur ; sed improvisa leti 

Vis rapuit rapietque gentes. 20 

Quam paene furvae regna Proserpinae 
Et iudicantem vidimus Aeacum 
Sedesque discretas pioriim et 
Aeoliis fidibus querentem 

Sappho puellis de popularibus, 25 

Et te sonantem plenius aureo, 
Alcaee, plectro dura navis, 
Dura fugae mala, dura belli. 

Utrumque sacro digna silentio 
Mirantur umbrae dicere ; sed magis 30 

Pugnas et exactos tyrannos 

Densum umeris bibit aure volgus. 

Quid mirum, ubi illis carminibus stupens 
Demittit atras belua centiceps 

Aures, et intorti capillis 35 

Eumenidum recreantur angues ? 

Quin et Prometheus et Pelopis parens 
Dulci laborem decipitur sono, 
Nee curat Orion leones 

Aut timidos agitare lyncas. 40 

XIV. 

Eheu fugaces, Postume, Postume, 
Labuntur anni, nee pietas moram 
Rugis et instanti senectae 
Adferet indomitaeque morti ; 



LIBER II. 49 

si trecenis quotquot eunt dies, 6 

Amice, places inlacrimabilem 
Plutona tauris, qui ter amplum 
Geryonen. Tityonque tristi 

Compescit unda, scilicet omnibus, 
Quicumque terrae rnunere vescimur, 10 

Enaviganda, sive reges 
Sive inopes erimus coloni. 

Frustra cruento Marte carebirnus 
Fractisque rauci fluctibus Hadriae, 

Frustra per autnmnos nocentem 15 

Corporibus metuemus austrum : 

Visendus ater flumine languido 

Cocytos errans et Danai genus 

Infame damnatusque longi 

Sisyphus Aeolides laboris. 20 

Linquenda tellus et domus et placens 
Uxor, neque harum, quas colis, arborum 
Te praeter invisas cupressos 

Ulla brevem dominum sequetur. 

Absumet heres Caecuba dignior 25 

Servata centum clavibus et mero 
Tinguet pavimentum superbo, 
Pontificum potiore cenis. 

XV. 

lam pauca aratro iugera regiae 
Moles relinquent ; undique latius 
Extenta visentur Lucrino 

Stagna lacu, platanusque caelebs 



50 CARM1NUM. 

Evincet ulmos ; turn violaria et 5 

Myrtus et omnis copia narium 
Spargent olivetis odorem 
Fertilibus domino priori ; 

Turn spissa ramis laurea fervidos 
Excludet ictus. Non ita Romuli 10 

Praescriptum et intonsi Catonis 
Auspiciis veterumque norma. 

Privatus illis census erat brevis, 
Commune magnum : nulla decempedis 

Metata privatis opacam 15 

Porticus excipiebat Arcton, 

Nee fortuitum spernere caespitem 
Leges sinebant, oppida publico 
Sumptu iubentes et deorum 

Templa novo decorare saxo. 20 



XVI. 

Otium divos rogat in patenti 
Prensus Aegaeo, simul atra nubes 
Condidit lunain neque certa fulgent 
Sidera nautis ; 

Otium bello furiosa Thrace, 5 

Otium Medi pharetra decori, 
Grosphe, non gemmis neque purpura ve- 
nale nee auro. 

Non enim gazae neque consularis 

Submovet lictor miseros tumultus 10 



LIBER II. 51 

Mentis et curas laqueata circum 
Tecta volantes. 

Vivitur parvo bene cui paternura 
Splendet in mensa tenui salinum 
Nee leves somnos timor aut cupido 16 

Sordidus aufert. 

Quid brevi fortes iaculamur aevo 
Multa ? Quid terras alio calentes 
Sole mutamus ? Patriae quis exsul 

Se quoque fugit ? 20 

Scandit aeratas vitiosa naves 
Cura nee turmas equitum relinquit, 
Ocior cervis et agente nimbos 
Ocior Euro. 

Laetus in praesens animus quod ultrast 25 

Oderit curare et amara lento 
Temperet risu ; nihil est ab omni 
Parte beatum. 

Abstulit clarum cita mors Achillem, 
Longa Tithonum minuit senectus, 30 

Et mihi forsan tibi quod negarit 
Porriget hora. 

Te greges centum Siculaeque circum 
Mugiunt vaccae, tibi tollit hinnitum 
Apta quadrigis equa, te bis Afro 35 

Murice tinctae 

Vestiunt lanae ; mihi parva rura et 
Spiritum Graiae tenuem Camenae 
Parca non mendax dedit et malignum 

Spernere volgus. 40 



CARMINUM. 

XVII. 

Cur me querellis exanimas tuis ? 
Nee dis amicumst nee mihi te prius 
Obire, Maecenas, mearum 

Grande decus columenque rerum. 

A, te meae si partem animae rapit 5 

Maturior vis, quid moror altera, 
Nee carus aeque nee superstes 
Integer ? Ille dies utramque 

Ducet ruinam. Non ego perfidum 
Dixi sacramentum : ibimus, ibimus, 10 

Utcumque praecedes, supremum 
Carpere iter comites parati. 

Me nee Chimaerae spiritus igneae 
Nee, si resurgat, centimanus Gyas 

Divellet umquam : sic potenti 15 

lustitiae placitumque Parcis. 

Seu Libra seu me Scorpios adspicit 
Formidolosus pars violentior 
Natalis horae, seu tyrannus 

Hesperiae Capricornus undae, 20 

Utrumque nostrum incredibili modo 
Consentit astrum. Te Ipvis impio 
Tutela Saturno refulgens 
Eripuit volucrisque Fati 

Tardavit alas, cum populus fre'quens 2& 

Laetum theatris ter crepuit sonum ; 



LIBER II. 53 

Me truncus inlapsus cerebro 
Sustulerat, nisi Faunus ictum 

Dextra levasset, Mercurialium 
Gustos virorum. Reddere victimas 30 

Aedemque votivam memento ; 
Nos humilem feriemus agnam. 



XVIII. 

Non ebur neque aureum 

Mea renidet in domo lacunar, 
Non trabes Hymettiae 

Premunt columnas ultima recisas 
Africa, neque Attali 5 

Ignotus heres regiarn occupavi, 
Nee Laconicas mihi 

Trahunt honestae purpuras clientae. 
At fides et ingeni 

Benigna venast, pauperemque dives 10 

Me petit : nihil supra 

Deos lacesso nee potentem amicum 
Largiora flagito, 

Satis beatus unicis Sabinis. 
Truditur dies die, 15 

Novaeque pergunt interire lunae: 
Tu secanda marmora 

Locas sub ipsum funus, et sepulcri 
Immemor struis domos, 

Marisque Bais obstrepentis urges 20 

Submovere litora, 

Parum locuples continente ripa. 



54 CARMINUM. 

Quid quod usque proximos 

Revellis agri terininos et ultra 
Limites clientium 25 

Sails avarus ? Pellitur paternos 
In sinu ferens deos 

Et uxor et vir sordidosque natos. 
Nulla certior tamen 

Rapacis Orel fine destiuata 30 

Aula divitem manet 

Erum. Quid ultra tendis ? Aequa tellus 
Pauperi recluditur 

Regumque pueris, nee satelles Orci 
Callidum Promethea 35 

Bevexit auro captus. Hie superbum 
Tantalum atque Tantali 

Genus coercet, hie levare functum 
Pauperem laboribus 

Vocatus atque non vocatus audit. 40 

XIX. 

Bacchum in remotis carmina rupibus 
Vidi docentem, credite poster!, 
Nymphasque discentes et aures 
Capripedum Satyrorum acutas. 

Euhoe, recenti mens trepidat metu, 6 

Plenoque Bacchi pectore turbidum 
Laetatur. Euhoe, parce Liber, 
Parce gravi metuende thyrso. 

Fas pervicaces est mihi Thyiadas 

Vinique fonteni lactis et uberes 10 



LIBER II. 55 

Cantare rivos atque truncis 
Lapsa cavis iterare mella ; 

Fas et beatae coniugis additum 
Stellis honorem tectaque Penthei 

Disiecta non leni ruina 15 

Thracis et exitium Lycurgi. 

Tu flectis amnes, tu mare barbarum, 
Tu separatis uvidus in iugis 
Nodo coerces viperino 

Bistonidum sine fraude crines. 20 

Tu, cum parentis regna per arduum 
Conors Gigantum scanderet impia, 
Rhoetum retorsisti leonis 
Unguibus horribilique mala; 

Quamquam choreis aptior et iocis 26 

Ludoque dictus non sat idoneus 
Pugnae ferebaris ; sed idem 
Pacis eras mediusque belli. 

Te vidit insons Cerberus aureo 
Cornu decorum, leniter atterens 30 

Caudam, et recedentis trilingui 
Ore pedes tetigitque crura. 



XX. 

Non usitata nee tenui ferar 
Penna biformis per liquidum aethera 
Vates, neque in terris morabor 
Longius invidiaque maior 



56 CARMINUM. 

Urbes relinquam. Non ego pauperum 5 

Sanguis parentum, non ego, quem vocas, 
Dilecte Maecenas, obibo 
Nee Stygia cohibebor unda. 

lam iam residunt cruribus asperae 
Pelles et album mutor in alitem 10 

Superne, nascunturque leves 
Per digitos umerosque plumae. 

Iam Daedaleo notior Icaro 
Visam gementis litora Bospori 

Syrtesque Gaetulas canorus 15 

Ales Hyperboreosque campos. 

Me Colchus et qui dissimulat metum 
Marsae cohortis Dacus et ultimi 
Noscent Geloni, me peritus 

Discet Hiber Ehodanique potor. 20 

Absint inani funere neniae 
Luctusque turpes et querimoniae ; 
Compesce clamorem ac sepulcri 
Mitte supervacuos honores. 



CARMINTJM 

LIBER TERTIUS. 

I. 

Odi profanum volgus et arceo. 
Favete linguis : carmina non prius 
Audita Musarum sacerdos 
Virginibus puerisque canto. 

Regum timendorum in proprios greges, 6 

Reges in ipsos imperiumst lovis, 
Clari Giganteo triumpho, 
Cuncta supercilio moventis. 

Est ut viro vir latius ordinet 
Arbusta sulcis, hie generosior 10 

Descendat in Campum petitor, 
Moribus hie meliorque fama 

Contendat, illi turba clientimn 
Sit maior : aequa lege Necessitas 

Sortitur insignes et imos ; 15 

Omne capax movet urna nomen. 

Destrictus ensis cui super impia 
Cervice pendet, non Siculae dapes 
Dulcem elaborabunt saporem, 

Non avium citharaeque cantus 20 

57 



58 CARMINUM. 

Somnum reducent. Somnus agrestium 
Lenis virorum non humiles domos 
Fastidit umbrosamque ripam,. 
Non zephyris agitata tempe. 

Desiderantem quod satis est neque 25 

Tumultuosum sollicitat mare 
Nee saevus Arcturi cadentis 
Impetus aut orientis Haedi, 

Non verberatae grandine vineae 
Fundusque mendax, arbore nunc aquas 30 

Culpante, nunc torrentia agros 
Sidera, nunc hiemes iniquas. 

Contracta pisces aequora sentiunt 
lactis in altum molibus : hue frequens 

Caementa demittit redernptor 35 

Cum famulis dominusque terrae 

Fastidiosus. Sed Timor et Minae 
Scandunt eodem quo dominus, neque 
Decedit aerata triremi et 

Post equitem sedet atra Cura. 40 

Quodsi dolentem nee Phrygius lapis 
Nee purpurarum sidere clarior 
Delenit usus nee Falerna 

Vitis Achaemeniumque costum : 

Cur invidendis postibus et novo 45 

Sublime ritu moliar atrium ? 
Cur valle permutem Sabina 
Divitias operosiores ? 



LIBER HI. 59 

II. 

Angustam amice pauperiem pati 
Robustus acri militia puer 
Condiscat et Parthos feroces 
Vexet eques metuendus hasta, 

Vitamque sub divo et trepidis agat 6 

In rebus. Ilium ex moenibus hosticis 
Matrona bellantis tyranni 
Prospiciens et adulta virgo 

Suspiret, eheu, ne rudis agminum 
Sponsus lacessat regius asperum 10 

Tactu leonem, quern cruenta 
Per medias rapit ira caedes. 

Dulce et decorumst pro patria mori : 
Mors et fugacem persequitur virum, 

Nee parcit imbellis iuventae 16 

Poplitibus timidoque tergo. 

Virtus repulsae nescia sordidae, 
Intamiiiatis fulget honoribus, 
Nee sumit aut ponit secures 

Arbitrio popularis aurae. 20 

Virtus recludens immeritis mori 
Caelum negata temptat iter via, 
Coetusque volgares et udarn 
Spernit humum fugiente penna. 

Est et fideli tuta silentio 26 

Merces : vetabo qui Cereris sacrum 



60 CARMINUM. 

Volgarit arcanae sub isdem 
Sit trabibus fragilemve mecum 

Solvat phaselon ; saepe Diespiter 
Neglectus incesto addidit integrum : 30 

Raro antecedentem scelestum 
Deseruit pede Poena claudo. 

III. 

lustum et tenacem propositi virum 
Non civium ardor prava iubentium, 
Non voltus instantis tyranni 

Merite quatit solida, neque Auster, 

Dux inquieti turbidus Hadriae, 6 

Nee fulminantis magna maims lovis ; 
Si fractus inlabatur orbis, 
Impavidum ferient ruinae. 

Hac arte Pollux et vagus Hercules 
Enisus arces attigit igneas, 10 

Quos inter Augustus recumbens 
Purpureo bibet ore nectar. 

Hac te merenteni, Bacche pater, tuae 
Vexere tigres, indocili iugum 

Collo trahentes ; hac Quirinus 16 

Martis equis Acheronta fugit, 

Gratum elocuta consiliantibus 
lunone divis : ' Ilion, Ilion 
Fatalis incestusque iudex 

Et mulier peregrina vertit 20 



LIBER III. 61 

In pulverem, ex quo destituit deos 
Mercede pacta Laomedon, mihi 
Castaeque damnatum Minervae 
Cum populo et duce fraudulento. 

lam nee Lacaenae splendet adulterae 25 

Famosus hospes nee Priami domus 
Periura pugnaces Achivos 
Hectoreis opibus refringit, 

Nostrisque ductum seditionibus 
Bellum resedit. Protinus et graves 30 

Iras et invisum nepotem, 

Troica quem peperit sacerdos, 

Marti redoiiabo ; ilium ego lucidas 
Inire sedes, ducere nectaris 

Sucos et adscribi quietis 85 

Ordinibus patiar deorum. 

Dum longus inter saeviat Ilion 
Eomamque pontus, qualibet exsules 
In parte regnanto beati; 

Dum Priami Paridisque busto 40 

Insultet armentum et catulos ferae 
Celent inultae, stet Capitolium 
Fulgens triumphatisque possit 
Roma ferox dare iura Medis. 

Horrenda late nomen in ultimas 45 

Extendat oras, qua medius liquor 
Secernit Europen ab Afro, 
Qua tumidus rigat arva Nilus, 



62 CARMINUM. 

Aurum inrepertum et sic melius situm, 
Cum terra celat, spernere fortior 50 

Quam cogere humanos in usus 
Omne sacrum rapiente dextra. 

Quicumque mundo terminus obstitit, 
Hunc tangat armis, visere gestiens, 

Qua parte debacchentur ignes, 56 

Qua nebulae pluviique rores. 

Sed bellicosis fata Quiritibus 

Hac lege dico, ne nimium pii 

Rebusque fidentes avitae 

Tecta velint reparare Troiae. 60 

Troiae renascens alite lugubri 
Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur, 
Ducente victrices catervas 
Coniuge me lovis et sorore. 

Ter si resurgat murus aeneus 66 

Auctore Phoebo, ter pereat meis 
Excisus Argivis, ter uxor 

Capta virum puerosque ploret.' 

Non hoc iocosae conveniet lyrae : 
Quo, Musa, tendis ? Desine pervicax 70 

Referre sermones deoruin et 
Magna modis tenuare parvis. ' 



LIBER III. 63 

IV. 

Descende caelo et die age tibia 
Regina longum Calliope inelos, 
Seu voce nunc mavis acuta, 
Seu fidibus citharaque Phoebi. 

Auditis, an ine ludit amabilis 6 

Insania? Audire et videor pios 
Errare per lucos, amoenae 

Quos et aquae subeunt et aurae. 

Me fabulosae Volture in Apulo 
Altricis extra limen Apuliae 10 

Ludo fatigatumque sonmo 

Fronde nova puerum palumbes 

Texere, mi rum quod foret omnibus, 
Quicumque celsae nidum Acherontiae 

Saltusque Bantinos et arvum 15 

Pingue tenent humilis Forenti, 

Ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis 
Dormirem et ursis, ut premerer sacra 
Lauroque conlataque myrto, 

Non sine dis animosus infans. 20 

Vester, Camenae, vester in arduos 
Tollor Sabinos, seu mihi frigidum 
Praeneste seu Tibur supinum 
Seu liquidae placuere Baiae. 

Vestris amicum fontibus et choris 26 

Non me Philippis versa acies retro, 
Devota non extinxit arbos, 
Nee Sicula Paliiiurus unda. 



64 CAEMINUM. 

Utcumque mecum vos eritis, libens 
Insanientem navita Bosporuin 30 

Ternptabo et urentes arenas 
Litoris Assyrii viator ; 

Visam Britannos hospitibus feros 

Et laetum equino sanguine Concanum ; 

Visam pharetratos Gelonos 35 

Et Scytliicum inviolatus amnem. 

Vos Caesarem altum, militia simul 
Tessas cohortes abdidit oppidis, 
Finire quaerentem labores, 

Pierio recreatis antro. 40 

Vos lene consilium et datis et dato 
Gaudetis, almae. Scimus, ut impios 
Titanas immanemque turmain 
Fulmine sustulerit caduco 

Qui terrain inertein, qui mare temperat 45 

Ventosum et urbes regnaque tristia 
Divosque mortalesque turbas 
Imperio regit unus aequo. 

Magnum ilia terrorem intulerat lovi 
Fidens iuventus horrida braccljiis, 50 

Fratresque tendentes opaco 
Pelion imposuisse Olympo. 

Sed quid Typhoeus et validus Mimas, 
Aut quid minaci Porphyrion statu, 

Quid Rhoetus evolsisque truncis 55 

Enceladus iaculator audax 



LIBER in. 65 

Contra sonantem Palladia aegida 
Possent ruentes ? Hinc avidus stetit 
Volcanus, hinc matrona luno et 

Numquam umeris positurus arcum, 60 

Qui rore puro Castaliae lavit 
Crines solutos, qui Lyciae tenet 
Dumeta natalemque silvam, 
Delius et Patareus Apollo. 

Vis consili expers mole ruit sua : 65 

Vim temperatam di quoque provehunt 
In mains ; idem odere vires 
Omne nefas animo moventes. 

Testis mearum centimanns Gyas 
Sententiarnm, notus et integrae 70 

Temptator Orion Dianae, 
Virginea domitus sagitta. 

Iniecta monstris Terra dolet suis 
Maeretque partus fuhnine luridum 

Missos ad Orcnm ; nee peredit 75 

Impositam celer ignis Aetnam. 

Incontinentis nee Tityi iecur 
Keliqnit ales, nequitiae additus 
Gustos ; amatorem trecentae 

Pirithoum cohibent catenae. 80 



66 CARMINUM 

V. 

Caelo tonantem credidimus lovem 
Regnare ; praesens divus habebitur 
Augustus adiectis Britannis 
Imperio gravibusque Persis. 

Milesne Crassi coniuge barbara 6 

Turpis maritus vixit et hostiuin, 
Pro curia inversique mores ! 
Consenuit socerorum in armis 

Sub rege Medo Marsus et Apulus, 
Anciliorum et nominis et togae 10 

Oblitus aeternaeque Vestae, 
Incolumi love et urbe Roma? 

Hoc caverat mens provida Reguli 
Dissentientis condicionibus 

Foedis et exemplo trahentis 15 

Perniciem veniens in aevum, 

Si non periret immiserabilis 
Captiva pubes. ' Signa ego Punicis 
Adfixa delubris et arma 

Militibus sine caede ' dixit 20 

' Derepta vidi ; vidi ego civium 
Retorta tergo bracchia libero 
Portasque non clausas et arva 
Marte coli populata nostro. 

Auro repensus scilicet acrior 26 

Miles redibit. Flagitio additis 
Damnum : neque amissos colores 
Lana refert niedicata fuco, 



LIBER III. 67 

Nec vera virtus, cum semel excidit, 
Curat reponi deterioribus. 30 

Si pugnat extricata densis 
Cerva plagis, erit ille fortis, 

Qui perfidis se credidit hostibus, 
Et marte Poenos proteret altero 

Qui lora restrictis lacertis 36 

Sensit iners tiinuitque mortem. 

Hie, unde vitam sumeret inscius 

Pacem duello miscuit. O pudor ! 

magna Carthago, probrosis 

Altior Italiae ruinis ! ' 40 

Fertur pudicae coniugis osculum 
Parvosque natos ut capitis minor 
Ab se removisse et virilem 
Torvus hunri posuisse voltum, 

Donee labantes consilio patres 46 

Firrnaret auctor numquam alias dato, 
Interque maerentes amicos 
Egregius properaret exsul. 

Atqui sciebat quae sibi barbarus 
Tortor pararet ; non aliter tamen 60" 

Dimovit obstantes propinquos 
Et populum reditus morantem, 

Quam si clientum longa negotia 
Diiudicata lite relinqueret, 

Tendens Venafranos in agros 66 

Aut Lacedaemoniuin Tarentum. 



68 CARMINUM. 

VI. 

Delicta maiorum immeritus lues, 
Komane, donee templa refeceris 
Aedesque labentes deorum et 
Foeda nigro simulacra fumo. 

Dis te minorem quod geris, imperas : 5 

Hinc omne principium, hue. refer exitum. 
Di multa neglecti dederunt 
Hesperiae mala luctuosae. 

lam bis Monaeses et Pacori manus 
Non auspicates contudit impetus 10 

Nostros et adiecisse praedam 
Torquibus exiguis renidet. 

Paene occupatam seditionibus 
Delevit Urbem Dacus et Aethiops, 

Hie classe formidatus, ille 15 

Missilibus melior sagittis. 

Fecunda culpae saecula nuptias 
Primum inquinavere et genus et domos : 
Hoc fonte derivata clades 

In patriam populumque fluxit. 20 

Motus doceri gaudet lonicos 
Matura virgo et fingitur artibus 
lam nunc et incestos amores 
De tenero meditatur ungui. 

Mox iuniores quaerit adulteros 25 

Inter mariti vina, neque eligit 
Cui donet impermissa raptim 
Gaudia luminibus remotis, 



LIBER III. 69 

Sed iussa corara non sine conscio 
Surgit marito, seu vocat institor 30 

Seu navis Hispanae magister, 
Dedecorum pretiosus emptor. 

Non his iuventiis orta parentibus 
In fecit aequor sanguine Punico 

Pyrrhumque et ingentem cecidit 35 

Antiochum Hannibalemque dirum ; 

Sed rusticorurn. mascula militum 
Proles, Sabellis docta ligonibus 
Versare glaebas et severae 

Matris ad arbitrium recisos 40 

Portare fustes, sol ubi montium 
Mutaret umbras et iuga demeret 
Bobus fatigatis amicum 

Tempus agens abeunte curru. 

Damnosa quid non iimninuit die's ? . 45 

Aetas parentum, peior avis, tulit 
Nos nequiores, mox daturos 
Progeniem vitiosiorem. 

VII. 

Quid fles, Asterie, quern tibi candidi 
Primo restituent vere Favonii 
Thyna merce beatum, 
Constantis iuvenem fide, 

Gygen ? Ille Notis actus ad Oricum 5 

Post insana Caprae sidera frigidas 
Noctes non sine multis 
Insomnis lacrimis agit. 



70 CARMINUM. 

Atqui sollicitae nuntius hospitae, 
Suspirare Chloen et miseram tuis 10 

Dicens ignibus uri, 

Temptat mille vafer modis. 

Ut Proetum mulier perfida credulum 
Falsis impulerit criininibus nimis 

Casto Bellerophontae 15 

Maturare necem ref ert ; 

Narrat paene datum Pelea Tartaro, 
Magnessam Hippolyten dum f ugit abstinens ; 
Et peccare docentes 

Fallax historias movet. 20 

Frustra : nam scopulis surdior Icari 
Voces audit adhuc integer. At tibi 
Ne vicinus Enipeus 

Plus iusto placeat cave ; 

Quamvis non alius flectere equum sciens 25 

Aeque conspicitur gramine Martio, 
Nee quisquam citus aeque 
Tusco denatat alveo. 

Prima nocte domum claude neque in vias 
Sub cantu querulae despice tibiae, 30 

Et te saepe vocanti 
Duram difficilis mane. 

VIII. 

Martiis caelebs quid agam Kalendis, 
Quid velint flores et acerra turis 
Plena miraris positusque carbo in 
Caespite vivo, 



LIBER III. 71 

Docte sermones utriusque linguae? 5 

Voverain dulces epulas et album 
Libero caprum prope funeratus 
Arboris ictu. 

Hie dies, anno redeunte festus, 
Corticem adstrictum pice demovebit 10 

Amphorae fumum bibere institutae 
Consule Tullo. 

Sume, Maecenas, cyathos amici 
Sospitis centum et vigiles lucernas 
Perfer in lucem ; procul omnis esto 15 

Clamor et ira. 

Mitte civiles super urbe curas : 
Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen, 
Medus infestus sibi luctuosis 

Dissidet armis, 20 

Servit Hispanae vetus hostis orae 
Cantaber sera domitus catena, 
lam Scythae laxo meditantur arcu 
Cedere campis. 

Neglegens ne qua populus laboret, 26 

Parce privatus nimium cavere ; 
Dona praesentis cape laetus horae, 
Linque severa. 

IX. 

' Donee gratus eram tibi 

Nee quisquam potior bracchia candidae 
Cervici iuvenis dabat, 

Persarum vigui rege beatior.' 



72 CARMINUM. 

' Donee non alia magis 5 

Arsisti neque erat Lydia post CMoen, 

Multi Lydia nominis 

Romana vigui clarior Ilia.' 

' Me nunc Thressa Chloe regit, 

Dulces docta modos et citharae sciens, 10 

Pro qua non metuam mori, 

Si parcent animae fata superstiti.' 

' Me torret face mutua 

Thurini Calais filius Ornyti, 
Pro quo bis patiar mori, 15 

Si parcent puero fata superstiti.' 

' Quid si prisca redit Venus 

Diductosque iugo cogit aeneo ? 
Si flava excutitur Chloe 

Keiectaeque patet ianua Lydiae ? ' 20 

' Quamquam sidere pulchrior 

Illest, tu levior cortice et improbo 

Iracundior Hadria, 

Tecum vivere atnem, tecum obeam libens ! ' 

X. 

Extremum Tanain si biberes, Lyce, 
Saevo nupta viro, me tamen asperas 
Porrectum ante fores obicere incolis 
Plorares Aquilonibus. 

Audis, quo strepitu ianua, quo nemus 
Inter pulchra satum tecta remugiat 
Ventis, et positas ut glaciet nives 
Puro nurnine luppiter ? 



LIBER III. 73 

Ingratam Veneri pone superbiam, 
Ne currente retro f unis eat rota : 10 

Non te Penelopen difficilem procis 
Tyrrhenus genuit parens. 

quamvis neque te munera nee preces 
Nee tinctus viola pallor amantium 

Nee vir Pieria paelice saucius 16 

Curvat, supplicibus tuis 
Parcas, nee rigida mollior aescnlo 
Nee Mauris animnm initior anguibus. 
Non hoc semper erit liminis aut aquae 

Caelestis patiens latus. 20 

XI. 

Mercuri, nam te docilis magistro 
Movit Amphion lapides canendo, 
Tuque testudo resonare septem 
Callida nervis, 

Nee loquax olim neque grata, nunc et 5 

Divitum mensis et arnica templis, 
Die modos Lyde quibus obstinatas 
Adplicet aiires, 

Quae velut latis equa trima campis 
Ludit exsultim metuitque tangi, 10 

Nuptiarum expers et adhuc protervo 
Cruda marito. 

Tu potes tigres comitesque silvas 
Ducere et rivos celeres morari ; 
Cessit immanis tibi blandienti 15 

Janitor aulae 



CARMINUM. 

Cerberus, quamvis furiale centum 
Muniant angues caput, eius atque 
Spiritus taeter saniesque manet 

Ore trilingui. 20 

Quin et Ixion Tityosque voltu 
Bisit invito ; stetit urna paullum 
Sicca, dum grato Danai puellas 
Carmine mulces. 

Audiat Lyde scelus atque notas 25 

Virginum poenas et inane lymphae 
Dolium fundo pereuntis imo, 
Seraque fata 

Quae manent culpas etiam sub Oreo. 
Impiae, (nam quid potuere maius ?) 30 

Impiae sponsos potuere duro 
Perdere ferro. 

Una de multis face nuptiali 
Digna periurum fuit in parentem 
Splendide mendax et in omne virgo 35 

Nobilis aevum ; 

' Surge ' quae dixit iuveni marito, 
' Surge, ne longus tibi somnus, unde 
Non times, detur ; socerum et scelestas 

Falle sorores, 40 

Quae, velut nactae vitulos leaenae, 
Singulos eheu lacerant. Ego illis 
Mollior nee te feriam neque intra 
Claustra tenebo. 



LIBER III. 75 

Me pater saevis oneret catenis, 45 

Quod viro clemens misero peperci ; 
Me vel extremes Nunridaruin in agros 
Classe releget. 

I pedes quo te rapiunt et aurae, 
Dum favet nox et Venus, i secundo 60 

Omine et nostri memorem sepulcro 
Scalpe querellam.' 

XII. 

Miserarumst neque amori dare ludum neque dulci 
Mala vino lavere, aut exauimari rnetuentes 
Patruae verbera linguae. 

Tibi qualum Cythereae puer ales, tibi telas 
Operosaeque Minervae studium aufert, Neobule, 5 
Liparaei nitor Hebri 

Simul unctos Tiberinis umeros lavit in undis, 
Eques ipso nielior Bellerophonte, neque pugno 
Neque segni pede victus ; 

Catus idem per apertum fugientes agitato 10 

Grege cervos iaculari et celer arto latitantem 
Fruticeto excipere aprum. 

XIII. 

fons Bandusiae, splendidior vitro, 
Dulci digne mero non sine floribus, 
Cras donaberis haedo, 

Cui frons turgida cornibus 



76 CARMINUM. 

Primis et venerem et proelia destinat ; 5 

Frustra : nam gelidos inficiet tibi 
Bubro sanguine rivos, 
Lascivi suboles gregis. 

Te flagrantis atrox hora Caniculae 
Nescit tangere, tu frigus aniabile 10 

Fessis vomere tauris 
Praebes et pecori vago. 

Fies nobilium tu quoque fontium, 
Me dicente cavis impositam ilicem. 

Saxis unde loquaces 15 

Lymphae desiliunt tuae. 

XIV. 

Herculis ritu modo dictus, o plebs, 
Morte venalem petiisse laurum, 
Caesar Hispana repetit penates 
Victor ab ora. 

Unico gaudens mulier marito 5 

Prodeat iustis operata sacris 
Et soror clari ducis et decorae 
Supplice vitta 

Virginum matres iuvenumque nuper 
Sospitum. Vos, o pueri et puellae 10 

lam virum expertae, male ominatis 
Parcite verbis. 

Hie dies vere mihi festus atras 
Eximet curas ; ego nee tumultum 
Nee mori per vim metuam tenente 15 

Caesare terras. 



LIBER III. 77 

I, pete unguentum, puer, et coronas 
Et cadum Marsi meraorem duelli, 
Spartacum si qua potuit vagantem 

Fallere testa. 20 

Die et argutae properet Neaerae 
Murreum nodo cohibere crinem ; 
Si per invisum mora ianitorem 
Fiet, abito. 

Lenit albescens animos capillus 25 

Litium et rixae cupidos protervae ; 
Non ego hoc ferrem calidus iuventa 
Consule Planco. 

XV. 

Uxor pauperis Ibyci, 

Tandein nequitiae fige modtnn tuae 
Famosisque laboribus : 

Mature propior desine funeri 
Inter ludere virgines, 5 

Et stellis nebulam spargere candidis. 
Non, siquid Pholoen satis 

Et te, Chlori, decet : filia rectius 
Expugnat iuvenum domos, 

Pulso Thyias uti concita tympano. 10 

Illam cogit amor Nothi 

Lascivae similem ludere capreae ; 
Te lanae prope nobilem 

Tonsae Luceriam, non citharae decent 
Nee flos purpureus rosae 15 

Nee poti vetulam faece tenus cadi. 



78 CAEMINUM. 

XVI. 

I 

Inclusam Danaen turris aenea 
Robustaeque fores et vigilum canum 
Tristes excubiae munierant satis 
Nocturnis ab adulteris, 

Si non Acrisium virginis abditae 5 

Custodem pavidum luppiter et Venus 

Risissent : fore enim tutum iter et patens 
Converse in pretium deo. 

Aurum per medios ire satellites 
Et perrumpere amat saxa potentius 10 

Ictu f ulmineo : concidit auguris 
Argivi domus, ob lucrum 

Demersa exitio ; diffidit urbium 
Portas vir Macedo et submit aemulos 

Reges muneribus ; munera navium 15 

Saevos inlaqueant duces. 

Crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam 
Maiorumque fames. lure perhorrui 
Late conspicuum tollere verticem, 

Maecenas, equitum decus. 20 

Quanto quisque sibi plura negaverit, 
Ab dis plura feret. Nil cupientium 
Nudus castra peto et transfuga divitum 
Partes linquere gestio, 

Contemptae dominus splendidior rei, 25 

Quam si quidquid arat impiger Apulus 
Occultare meis dicerer horreis, 
Magnas inter opes inops. 



LIBER m. 79 

Purae rivus aquae silvaque iugerum 
Paucorum et segetis certa fides nieae 30 

Fulgeiitem imperio fertilis Africae 
Fallit sorte beatior. 

Quamquam nee Calabrae mella ferunt apes, 
Nee Laestrygonia Bacchus in amphora 

Languescit inihi, nee pinguia Gallicis 36 

Crescunt vellera pascuis ; 

Importuna tamen pauperies abest, 
Nee si plura velim tu dare deneges. 
Contracto melius parva cupidine 

Vectigalia porrigam, 40 

Quam si Mygdoniis regnum Alyattei 
Campis continuem. Multa petentibus 
Desunt multa : benest, cui deus obtulit 
Parca quod satis est inanu. 

XVII. 

Aeli vetusto nobilis ab Lamo, 
Quando et priores hinc Lamias ferunt 
Denominates et nepotum 

Per memores genus omne fastos ; 

Auctore ab illo ducis originem 6 

Qui Formiaruin moenia dicitur 
Princeps et innantem'Maricae 
Litoribus tenuisse Lirim, 

Late tyrannus : eras foliis nemus 
Multis et alga litus inutili 10 

Demissa tempestas ab Euro 
Sternet, aquae nisi fallit augur 



80 



CARMINUM. 



Annosa comix. Dum potes, aridura 
Compone lignum : eras Genium mero 
Curabis et porco bimestri 
Cuni famulis operum solutis. 



15 



XVIII. 

Faune, Nympharum fugientum amator, 
Per meos fines et aprica rura 
Lenis incedas, abeasque parvis 
Aequus alumnis, 

Si teiier pleno cadit haedus anno, 5 

Larga nee desunt Veneris sodali 
Vina craterae, vetus ara multo 
Fumat odore. 



Ludit herboso pecus onine campo, 
Cum tibi Nonae redeunt Decembres ; 
Festus in pratis vacat otioso 
Cum bove pagus ; 

Inter audaces lupus errat agnos ; 
Spargit agrestes tibi silva frondes ; 
Gaudet invisam pepulisse fossor 
Ter pede terrain. 



10 



'4 ** 

15 



XIX. 

Quantum distet ab Inacho 

Codrus pro patria non timidus mori 
Narras et genus Aeaci 

Et pugnata sacro bella sub Ilio ; 
Quo Chium pretio cadum 



LIBER in. 81 

Mercemur, quis aquara temperet ignibus, 
Quo praebente domum et quota 

Paelignis caream frigoribus, taces. 
Da lunae propere novae, 

Da noctis mediae, da, puer, auguris 10 

Murenae : tribus aut novem 

Miscentur cyathis pocula commodis. 
Qui Musas amat impares, 

Ternos ter cyathos attonitus petet 
Vates ; tres prohibet supra 15 

Rixarum metuens tangere Gratia 
Nudis iuncta sororibus. 

Insanire iuvat : cur Berecyntiae 
Cessant flamina tibiae ? 

Cur pendet tacita fistula cuin lyra ? 20 

Parcentes ego dexteras 

Odi : sparge rosas ; audiat invidus 
Dementem strepitum Lycus 

Et vicina seni non habilis Lyco. 
Spissa te nitidum coma, *. 25 

Puro te similem, Telephe, Vesperq 
Tempestiva petit Rhode ; 

Me lentus Glycerae torret amor meae. 

XX. 

Non vides quanto moveas periclo, 
Pyrrhe, Gaetulae catulos leaenae ? 
Dura post paullo fugies inaudax 
Proelia raptor, 

Cum per obstantes iuvenum catervas 5 

Ibit insignem repetens Nearchum: 



82 CARMINUM. 

Grande certain en, tibi praeda cedat 
Maior an illi. 

Interim, dum tu celeres sagittas 
Promis, haec dentes acuit tiniendos, 10 

Arbiter pugnae posuisse nudo 
Sub pede palrnam 

Fertur et leni recreare vento 
Sparsum odoratis umerum capillis, 
Qualis aut Nireus fuit aut aquosa 15 

Kaptus ab Ida. 



XXI. 

O nata mecum consule Manlio, 
Seu tu querellas sive geris iocos 
Seu rixam et insanos amores 
Seu facilem, pia testa, somnum, 

Quocumque lectum nomine Massicum 5 

Servas, moveri digna bono die, 
Descende, Corvino iubente 
Promere languidiora vina. 

Non ille, quamquam Socraticis madet 
Sermonibus, te negleget horridus : 10 

Narratur et prisci Catonis 
Saepe mero caluisse virtus. 

Tu lene tormentum ingenio admoves 
Plerumque duro ; tu sapientium 

Curas et arcanum iocoso 15 

Consilium retegis Lyaeo; 



LIBER III. 83 

Tu spem reducis mentibus anxiis 

Viresque et addis cornua pauperi, 

Post te neque iratos trementi 

Regum apices neque militum arma. 20 

Te Liber et, si laeta aderit, Venus 

Segnesque nodum solvere Gratiae 

Vivaeque producent lucernae, 

Dum rediens f ugat astra Phoebus. 



XXII. 

Montium custos nemoruraque Virgo, 
Quae laborantes utero puellas 
Ter vocata audis adimisque leto, 
Diva triformis, 

Imminens villae tua pinus esto, 
Quaui per exactos ego laetus annos 
Verris obliquum meditantis ictum 
Sanguine donem. 

XXIII. 

Caelo supinas si tuleris manus 
Nascente luna, rustica Phidyle, 
Si ture placaris et horna 
Fruge Lares avidaque porca, 

Nee pestilentem sentiet Africum 
Fecunda vitis nee sterilem seges 
Robiginem aut dulces alumni 
Pomifero grave terapus anno. 



84 CARMINUM. 

Nam quae nivali pascitur Algido 
Devota quercus inter et ilices 10 

Aut crescit Albanis in herbis 
Victima pontificum secures 

Cervice tinguet : te nihil attinet 
Temptare multa caede bidentium 

Parvos coronantem marino 15 

Kore deos fragilique myrto. 

Immunis aram si tetigit manus, 
Non sumptuosa blandior hostia 
Mollivit aversos Penates 

Farre pio et saliente mica. 20 

XXIV. 

Intactis opulentior 

Thesauris Arabum et divitis Indiae 
Caementis licet occupes 

Tyrrhenum omne tuis et mare Apulicum, 
Si figit adamantines 5 

Summis verticibus dira Necessitas 
Clavos, non animnm metu, 

Non mortis laqueis expedies caput. 
Campestres melius Scythae, 

Quorum plaustra vagas rite trahunt domos, 10 
Vivunt et rigidi Getae, 

Immetata quibus iugera liberas 
Fruges et Cererem ferunt, 

Nee cultura placet longior annua, 
Defunctumque laboribus 15 

Aequali recreat sorte vicarius. 



LIBER III. 85 

Illic matre carentibus 

Privignis mulier temperat innocens, 
Nee dotata regit virum 

Coniunx nee nitido fidit adultero ; 20 

Dos est magna parentium 

Virtus et metueiis alterius viri 
Certo foedere castitas, 

Et peccare nefas aut pretiumst mori. 
quisquis volet impias 25 

Caedes et rabiem tollere civicam, 
Si quaeret pater urbium 

Subscribi statuis, indomitam audeat 
Refrenare licentiam, 

Clarus post genitis : quatenus, heu nefas ! 30 
Virtutem incolumem odiums, 

Sublatam ex oculis quaerimus invidi. 
Quid tristes querimoniae, 

Si non supplicio culpa reciditur ; 
Quid leges sine moribus 35 

Vanae profieiunt, si neque fervidis 
Pars inclusa caloribus 

Mundi nee boreae finitimum latus 
Durataeque solo nives 

Mercatorem abigunt, horrida callidi 40 

Vincunt aequora navitae, 

Magnum pauperies opprobrium iubet 
Quidvis et facere et pati, 

Virtutisque viam deserit arduae ? 
Vel nos in Capitolium, 45 

Quo clamor vocat et turba faventium, 
Vel nos in mare proximum 

Gemmas et lapides aurum et inutile, 



86 CARMINUM. 

Sum mi materiem mail, 

Mittamus, scelerum si bene paenitet. 50 

Eradenda cupidinis 

Pravi sunt elementa et tenerae nimis 
Mentes asperioribus 

Formandae studiis. Nescit equo rudis 
Haerere ingenuus puer 65 

Venarique timet, ludere doctior, 
Sen Graeco iubeas trocho, 

Seu malis vetita legibus alea, 
Cum periura patris fides 

Consortem socium fallat et hospites, 60 

Indignoque pecuniam 

Heredi properet. Scilicet improbae 
Crescunt divitiae ; tainen 

Curtae nescio quid semper abest rei. 

XXV. 

Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui 

Plenum ? Quae riemora aut quos agor in specus, 
Velox mente nova ? Quibus 

Antris egregii Caesaris audiar 
Aeternum meditans decus 6 

Stellis inserere et consilio lovis ? 
Dicam insigne, recens, adhuc 

Indictum ore alio. Non secus in iugis 
Exsomnis stupet Euhias, 

Hebrum prospiciens et nive candidam 10 

Thracen ac pede barbaro 

Lustratam Rhodopen, ut mini devio 
Eipas et vacuum nemus 



LIBER ra. 87 

Mirari libet. O Naiadum potens 
Baccharumque valentium 15 

Proceras manibus vertere fraxinos, 
Nil parvum aut huinili modo, 

Nil mortals loquar. Dulce periculumst, 
Lenaee, sequi deum 

Cingentein viridi tempora pampino. 20 

XXVI. 

Vixi puellis nuper idoneus 
Et militavi non sine gloria ; 

Nunc arma defunctumque bello 
Barbiton hie paries habebit, 

Laevum marinae qui Veneris latus 6 

Custodit. Hie, hie ponite lucida 
Funalia et vectes et arcus 
Oppositis foribus minaces. 

quae beatam diva tenes Cyprum et 
Memphin carentem Sithonia nive, 10 

Eegina, sublimi flagello 

Tange Chloen semel arrogaiitem. 

XXVII. 

Impios parrae recinentis omen 
Ducat et praegnans canis aut ab agro 
Kava decurrens lupa Lanuvino 
Fetaque volpes ; 

Rumpat et serpens iter institutum, 6 

Si per obliquum similis sagittae 



88 CARMINUM. 

Terruit mannos : ego cui timebo, 
Providus auspex, 

Antequam stantes repetat paludes 
Imbrium divina avis imminentum, 10 

Oscinem corvum prece suscitabo 
Soils ab ortu. 

Sis licet felix, ubicumque mavis, 
Et memor nostri, Galatea, vivas ; 
Teque nee laevus vetet ire picus 15 

Nee vaga cornix. 

/ 

Sed vides quanto trepidet tumultu 
Pronus Orion. Ego quid sit ater 
Hadriae novi sinus et quid albus 

Peccet lapyx. 20 

Hostium uxores puerique caecos 
Sentiant motus orientis Austri et 
Aequoris nigri fremitum et trementes 
Verbere ripas. 

Sic et Europe niveum doloso 25 

Credidit tauro latus et scatentem 
Beluis pontum mediasque fraudes 
Palluit audax : 

Nuper in pratis studiosa florum et 
Debitae Nymphis opifex coronae 30 

Nocte sublustri nihil astra praeter 
Vidit et undas. 

Quae simul centum tetigit potentem 
Oppidis Creten, 'Pater, o relictum 



LIBER III. 89 

Filiae nomen pietasque ' dixit, 35 

' Victa furore ! 

Unde quo veni ? Levis una mors est 
Virginum culpae. Vigilansne ploro 
Turpe commissum an vitiis carentem 

Ludit imago 40 

Vana quae porta fugiens eburna 
Somnium ducit ? Meliusne fluctus 
Ire per longos fuit, an recentes 
Carpere flores ? 

Siquis infamem mihi nunc iuvencum 45 

Dedat iratae, lacerare ferro et 
Frangere enitar modo mnltum amati 
Cornua monstri. 

Impudens liqui patrios Penates, 
Impudens Orcum moror. deorum 50 

Siquis haec audis, utinam inter errem 
Nuda leones ! 

Antequam turpis macies decentes 
Occupet malas teneraeque sucus 
Defluat praedae, speciosa quaero 55 

Pascere tigres. 

Vilis Europe, pater urget absens : 
Quid mori cessas ? Potes hac ab orno 
Pendulum zona bene te secuta 

Laedere collum. 60 

Sive te rupes et acuta leto 
Saxa delectant, age te procellae 



90 CARMINUM. 

Crede veloci, nisi erile mavis 
Carpere pensu.ni 

Regius sanguis, dominaeque tradi 65 

Barbarae paelex.' Aderat querenti 
Perfidum ridens Venus et remisso 
Filius arcu. 

Mox ubi lusit satis, ' abstineto ' 
Dixit 'irarum calidaeque rixae, 70 

Cum tibi invisus laceranda reddet 
Cornua taurus. 

Uxor invicti lovis esse nescis. 
Mitte singultus, bene ferre magnam 
Disce fortunam ; tua sectus orbis 75 

Nomina ducet.' 



XXVIII. 

Festo quid potius die 

Neptuni faciam ? Prome reconditum, 
Lyde strenua Caecubum, 

Munitaeque adhibe vim sapientiae. 
Inclinare meridiem 5 

Sentis et, veluti stet volucris dies, 
Parcis deripere horreo 

Cessantem Bibuli consulis amphoram. 
Nos cantabimus invicem 

Neptunum et virides Nereidum comas ; 10 
Tu curva recines lyra 

Latonam et celeris spicula Cynthiae : 
Sum mo carmine quae Cnidon 



LIBER in. 91 

Fulgentesque tenet Cycladas, et Paphum 
lunctis visit oloribus ; 15 

Dieetur merita Nox quoque nenia. 

XXIX. 

Tyrrhena regum progenies, tibi 
Non ante verso lene merum cado 
Cum flore, Maecenas, rosarum et 
Pressa tuis balanus capillis 

lamdudum apud mest : eripe te morae, 6 

Ne semper udum Tibur et Aefulae 
Declive contempleris arvum et 
Telegoni iuga parricidae. 

Fastidiosam desere copiam et 
Molem propinquam nubibus arduis, 10 

Oniitte mirari beatae 

Fumum et opes strepitumque Romae. 

Plerumque gratae divitibus vices 
Mundaeque parvo sub lare pauperum 

Cenae sine aulaeis et ostro 15 

Sollicitam explicuere frontem. 

lam clarus occultum Andromedae pater 
Ostendit ignem, iam Procyon furit 
Et stella vesani Leonis, 

Sole dies referente siccos ; 20 

Iam pastor umbras cum grege languido 
Rivumque fessus quaerit et horridi 
Dumeta Silvani, caretque 
Ripa vagis taciturna ventis. 



92 CARMINUM. 

Tu civitateui quis deceat status 25 

Curas et Urbi sollicitus times 
Quid Seres et regnata Cyro 

Bactra parent Tanaisque discors. 

Prudens futuri temporis exitum 
Caliginosa nocte premit deus, 30 

Kidetque si mortalis ultra 

Fas trepidat. Quod adest memento 

Componere aequus ; cetera fluminis 
Kitu feruntur, nunc medio alveo 

Cum pace delabentis Etruscum 35 

In mare, nunc lapides adesos 

Stirpesque raptas et pecus et domos 
Volventis una non sine montiuin 
Clamore vicinaeque silvae, 

Cum fera diluvies quietos 40 

Inritat amnes. Ille potens sui 
Laetusque deget, cui licet in diem 
Dixisse ' Vixi : eras vel atra 
Nube polum pater occupato 

Vel sole puro ; non tamen inritum 45 

Quodcumque retrost efficiet, neque 
Diffinget infectumque reddet 
Quod fugiens semel hora vexit,' 

Fortuna saevo laeta negotio et 
Ludum insolentem ludere pertinax 50 

Transmutat incertos lion ores, 
Nune milii nunc alii benigna. 



LIBER III. 93 

Laudo manentem ; si celeres quatit 
Pennas, resigno quae dedit et mea 

Virtute me involvo probamque 55 

Pauperiem sine dote quaero. 

Non est meum, si mugiat Africis 
Mains procellis, ad miseras preces 
Decurrere et votis pacisci, 

Ne Cypriae Tyriaeque merces 60 

Addant avaro divitias mari : 
Tune me biremis praesidio scaphae 
Tutum per Aegaeos tumultus 
Aura feret geminusque Pollux. 

XXX. 

Exegi monuuientum aere perennius 
Kegalique situ pyramidum altius, 
Quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens 
Possit diruere aut innumerabilis 
Annorum series et fuga temporum. 5 

Non orrmis moriar, multaque pars mei 
Vitabit Libitinam : usque ego postera 
Crescam laude recens, dum Capitolium 
Scandet cum tacita virgine pontifex. 
Dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus 10 

Et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium 
Regnavit populorum, ex humili potens 
Princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos 
Deduxisse modos. Sume superbiam 
Quaesitam meritis et mihi Delphica 15 

Lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam. 



CABMINUM 

LIBER QUARTUS. 



Intermissa, Venus, diu 

Rursus bella moves ? Parce, precor, precor. 
Non sum qualis eram bonae 

Sub regno Cinarae. Desine, dulcium 
Mater saeva Cupidinum, 5 

Circa lustra decem flectere mollibus 
lam durum imperils : abi, 

Quo blandae iuvenum te revocant preces. 
Tempestivius iu domum 

Paulli, purpureis ales oloribus, 10 

Comissabere Maximi, 

Si torrere iecur quaeris idoneum. 
Namque et nobilis et decens 

Et pro sollicitis non tacitus reis 
Et centum puer artium 16 

Late signa feret militiae tuae, 
Et quandoque potentior 

Largi muneribus riserit aemuli, 
Albanos prope te lacus 

Ponet marmoream sub trabe citrea. 20 

Illic plurima naribus 

Duces tura, lyraque et Berecyntia 
94 



LIBER IV. 95 

Delectabere tibia 

Mixtis carniinibus non sine fistula ; 
Illic bis pueri die 25 

Numen cum teneris virginibus tuum 
Laudantes pede candido 

In morem Salium ter quatient humum. 
Me nee femina nee puer 

lam nee spes animi credula mutui, 30 

Nee certare iuvat mero 

Nee vincire novis tempora floribus. 
Sed cur heu, Ligurine, cur 

Manat rara meas lacrima per genas ? 
Cur facunda parum decoro 35 

Inter verba cadit lingua silentio ? 
Nocturnis ego somniis 

lam captuin teneo, iam volucrem sequor 
Te per gramina Martii 

Campi, te per aquas, dure, volubiles. 40 

II. 

Pindarum quisquis studet aemulari, 
lule, ceratis ope Daedalea 
Nititur pennis vitreo daturus 
Noniina ponto. 

Monte decurrens velut amnis, imbres 6 

Quern super notas aluere ripas, 
Fervet immensusque ruit profundo . 
Pindarus ore, 

Laurea donandus Apollinari, 

Seu per audaces nova dithyrambos 10 



96 CARMINUM. 

Verba devolvit numerisque fertur 
Lege solutis, 

Seu deos regesve canit, deorum 
Sanguinem, per quos cecidere iusta 
Morte Centauri, cecidit tremendae 15 

Flamma Chimaerae, 

Sive quos Elea domum reducit 
Palma caelestes pugilemve equumve 
Dicit et centum potiore signis 

Munere donat, 20 

Flebili sponsae iuvenemve raptum 
Plorat et vires animumque moresque 
Aureos educit in astra nigroque 
Invidet Oreo. 

Multa Dircaeum levat aura cycnmn, 25 

Tendit, Antoni, quotiens in altos 
Nubium tractus. Ego apis Matinae 
More modoque 

Grata carpentis thy ma per laborem 
Plurimum circa nemus uvidique 30 

Tiburis ripas operosa parvus 
Carinina fingo. 

Concines maiore poeta plectro 
Caesarem, quandoque trahet feroces 
Per sacrum clivum merita decorus 35 

Fronde Sygambros ; 

Quo nihil inaius meliusve terris 
Fata donavere bonique divi 



LIBER IV. 97 

Nec dabunt, quamvis redeant in aurum 

Tempora priscum. 40 

Concines laetosque dies et urbis 
Publicum luduin super impetrato 
Fortis Augusti reditu forumque 
Litibus orbum. 

Turn meae, si quid loquar audiendum, 45 

Vocis accedet bona pars, et ' Sol 
Pulcher, o laudande ! ' canam recepto 
Caesare felix. 

Teque dum procedis, ( lo Triumphs ! ' 
Non semel dicemus, ' lo Triumphe ! ' 50 

Civitas omnis dabimusque divis 
Tura benignis. 

Te decem tauri totidemque vaccae, 
Me tener solvet vitulus, relicta 
Matre qui largis iuvenescit herbis 55 

In mea vota, 

Fronte curvatos imitatus ignes 
Tertium lunae referentis ortum, 
Qua notam duxit, niveus videri, 

Cetera fulvus. 60 

III. 

Quern tu, Melpomene, semel 

Nascentem placido lumine videris, 

Ilium non labor Isthmius 

Clarabit pugilem, non equus impiger 



98 CARMINUM. 

Curru ducet Achaico 5 

Victorem, neque res bellica Deliis 
Ornatum foliis ducem, 

Quod regum tumidas contuderit minas, 
Ostendet Capitolio ; 

Sed quae Tibur aquae fertile praefluunt, 10 

Et spissae nemorum comae 

Fingent Aeolio carmine nobilem. 
Romae principis urbium 

Dignatur suboles inter amabiles 
Vatum ponere me choros, 15 

Et iam dente minus mordeor invido. 
testudinis aureae 

Dulcem quae strepitum, Fieri, temperas, 
mutis quoque piscibus 

Donatura cycni, si libeat, sonum, 20 

Totum muneris hoc tuist, 

Quod monstror digito praetereuntium 
Romanae fidicen lyrae : 

Quod spiro et placeo, si placeo, tuumst. 



Qualem ministrum fulminis alitem, 
Cui rex deorum regnum in aves vagas 
Permisit expertus fidelem 
luppiter in Ganymede flavo, 

Olim iuventas et patrius vigor 
Nido laborum propulit inscium, 
Vernique iam nimbis remotis 
Insolitos docuere nisus 



LIBER IV. 99 

Venti paventem, mox in ovilia 
Demisit hostem vividus impetus, 10 

Nunc in reluctantes dracones 
Egit anior dapis atque pugnae ; 

Qualemve laetis caprea pascuis 
Intenta fulvae matris ab ubere 

lam lacte depulsum leonem 15 

Dente novo peritura vidit : 

Videre Raetis bella sub Alpibus 
Drusum gerentem Vindelici ; (quibus 
Mos unde deductus per omne 

Tempus Amazonia securi 20 

Dextras obarmet, quaerere distuli, 
Nee scire fas est omnia) ; sed diu 
Lateque victrices catervae 
Consiliis iuvenis revictae 

Sensere quid mens rite, quid indoles 25 

Nutrita faustis sub penetralibus 
Posset, quid Augusti paternus 
In pueros animus Nerones. 

Fortes creantur f ortibus et bonis ; 
Est in iuvencis, est in equis patrum 30 

Virtus, neque imbellem feroces 
Progenerant aquilae columbam ; 

Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam, 
Eectique cultus pectora roborant ; 

Utcumque defecere mores, 36 

Dedecorant bene nata culpae. 



100 CARMINUM. 

Quid debeas, o Roma, Neronibus, 
Testis Metaurum flumen et Hasdrubal 
Devictus et pulcher fugatis 

Ille dies Latio tenebris, 40 

Qui primus alma risit adorea, 
Dirus per urbes Afer nt Italas 
Ceu flamma per taedas vel Eurus 
Per Siculas equitavit undas. 

Post hoc secundis usque laboribus 45 

Romana pubes crevit, et impio 
Vastata Poenorum tumultu 
Fana deos habuere rectos, 

Dixitque tandem perfidus Hannibal : 
' Cervi luporum praeda rapacium, 60 

Sectamur ultro, quos opimus 
Fallere et effngerest triumphus. 

Gens quae cremato fortis ab Ilio 
lactata Tuscis aequoribus sacra 

Natosque maturosque patres 55 

Pertulit Ausonias ad urbes, 

Duris ut ilex torisa bipennibus 
Nigrae feraci frondis in Algido, 
Per damna, per caedes, ab ipso 

Ducit opes animumque ferro. 60 

Non hydra secto corpore firmior 
Vinci dolentem crevit in Herculem, 
Monstrumve submisere Colchi 
Maius Echioniaeve Thebae. 



LIBER IV. 101 

Merses profundo, pulchrior evenit ; 65 

Luctere, multa proruet integruni 
Cum laude victorem geretque 
Proelia coniugibus loquenda. 

Carthagini iam non ego nuntios 
Mittam superbos : occidit, occidit 70 

Spes omnis et fortuna nostri 
Nominis Hasdrubale interempto.' 

Nil Claudiae non perficient manus, 
Quas et benigno numine luppiter 

Defendit et curae sagaces 75 

Expediunt per acuta belli. 

V. 

Divis orte bonis, optime Romulae 
Gustos gentis, abes iam nimium diu ; 
Maturum reditum pollicitus patrum 
Sancto concilio redi. 

Lucem redde tuae, dux bone, patriae : 5 

Instar veris enim voltus ubi tuus 
Adf ulsit populo, gratior it dies 
Et soles melius nitent. 

Ut mater iuvenem, quern Notus invido 
Flatu Carpathii trans maris aequora 10 

Cunctantem spatio longius annuo 
Dulci distinct a domo, 

Votis ominibusque et precibus vocat, 
Curvo nee faeiem litore demovet, 



102 CARMINUM. 

Sic desideriis icta fidelibus 15 

Quaerit patria Caesarem. 

Tutus bos etenim rura perambulat, 
Nutrit rura Ceres almaque Faustitas, 
Pacatum volitant per rnare navitae, 

Culpari metuit fides, 20 

Nullis polluitur casta domus stupris, 
Mos et lex maculosum edomuit nefas, 
Laudantur simili prole puerperae, 
Culpam poena premit comes. 

Quis Parthum paveat, quis gelidum Scythen, 25 
Quis Germania quos horrida parturit 
Fetus incolumi Caesare ? quis ferae 
Bellum curet Hiberiae ? 

Condit quisque diem collibus in suis, 
Et vltem viduas ducit ad arbores ; 30 

Hinc ad vina redit laetus et alteris 
Te mensis adhibet deum ; 

Te multa prece, te prosequitur mero 
Defuso pateris, et Laribus tuum 
Miscet numen, uti Graecia Castoris 35 

Et magni memor Herculis. 

' Longas o utinam, dux bone, ferias 
Praestes Hesperiae ! ' dicimus integro 
Sicci mane die, dicimus uvidi, 

Cum Sol Oceaiio subest. 40 



LIBER IV. 103 

VI. 

Dive, quern proles Niobea magnae 
Vindicera linguae Tityosque raptor 
Sensit et Troiae prope victor altae 
Phthius Achilles, 

Ceteris niaior, tibi miles impar, 5 

Filius quamvis Thetidis marinae 
Dardanas turres quateret tremenda 
Cuspide pugnax. 

Ille mordaci velut icta ferro 
Pinus aut impulsa cupressus Euro, 10 

Procidit late posuitque collum in 
Pulvere Teucro. 

Ille non inclusus equo Minervae 
Sacra mentito male feriatos 
Troas et laetam Priami choreis 16 

Falleret aulam ; 

Sed palam captis gravis, heu nefas, heu, 
Nescios fari pueros Achivis 
Ureret flammis, etiam latenteni 

Matris in alvo, 20 

Ni tuis victus Venerisque gratae 
Vocibus divum pater adnuisset 
Rebus Aeneae potiore ductos 
Alite nruros. 

Doctor Argivae fidicen Thaliae, 25 

Phoebe, qui Xantho lavis amne crines, 
Dauniae defende decus Camenae, 
Levis Agyieu. 



104 CARMINUM. 

Spiritum Phoebus mihi, Phoebus artem 
Carminis nomenque dedit poetae. 30 

Virginum primae puerique Claris 
Patribus orti, 

Deliae tutela deae, fugaces 
Lyncas et cervos cohibentis arcu, 
Lesbium servate pedem meique 35 

Pollicis ictum, 

Kite Latoriae puerum canentes, 
Kite crescentem face Noctilucam, 
Prosperam frugum celeremque pronos 

Volvere menses. 40 

Nupta iam dices 'Ego dis amicum, 
Saeculo festas referente luces, 
Reddidi carmen docilis modorum 
Vatis Horati.' 

VII. 

Diffugere nives, redeunt iam gramina campis 

Arboribusque comae ; 
Mutat terra vices et decrescentia ripas 

Flumina praetereunt ; 
Gratia cum Nymphis geminisque sororibus audet 5 

Ducere nuda choros. 
Immortalia ne speres, monet annus et a.lmum 

Quae rapit hora diem. 
Frigora mitescunt Zephyris, ver proterit aestas 

Interitura simul 10 

Pomifer autumnus fruges effuderit, et mox 

Bruma recurrit iners. 



LIBER IV. 105 

Damna tamen celeres reparant caelestia lunae : 

Nos ubi decidimus 
Quo pater Aeneas, quo dives Tullus et Ancus, 15 

Pulvis et umbra sumus. 
Quis scit an adiciant hodiernae crastina summae 

Tempora di super! ? 
Cuncta manus avidas fugient heredis, amico 

Quae dederis animo. 20 

Cum semel occideris et de te splendida Minos 

Fecerit arbitria, 
Non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te 

Restituet pietas. 
Infernis neque enira tenebris Diana pudicum 25 

Liberat Hippolytum, 
Nee Lethaea valet Theseus abrumpere caro 

Viucula Pirithoo. 

VIII. 

Donarem pateras grataque commodus, 

Censorine, meis aera sodalibus, 

Donarem tripodas, praemia fortium 

Graiorum, neque tu pessima munerum 

Ferres, divite me scilicet artium, 5 

Quas aut Parrhasius protulit aut Scopas, 

Hie saxo, liquidis ille coloribus 

Sellers nunc hominem ponere, nunc deum. 

Sed non haec mini vis, nee tibi talium 

Res est aut animus deliciarum egens. 10 

Gaudes carminibus ; carmina possumus 

Donare et pretium dicere muneris. 

Non incisa notis mariuora publicis, 



106 CARMINUM 

Per quae spiritus et vita redit bonis 

Post mortem ducibus, non celeres fugae 15 

Reiectaeque retrorsum Hannibalis minae, 

Non incendia Carthaginis impiae 

Eius, qui domita nomeii ab Africa 

Lucratus rediit, clarius indicant 

Laudes quam Calabrae Pierides ; neque 20 

Si chartae sileant quod bene feceris 

Mercedem tuleris. Quid foret Iliae 

Mavortisque puer, si taciturnitas 

Obstaret meritis invida Romuli ? 

Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus Aeacum 25 

Virtus et favor et lingua potentium 

Vatum divitibus consecrat insulis. 

Dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori : 

Caelo Musa beat. Sic lovis interest 

Optatis epulis impiger Hercules, -30 

Clarum Tyndaridae sidus ab infimis 

Quassas eripiunt aequoribus rates, 

Ornatus viridi tempora pampino 

Liber vota bonos ducit ad exitus. 

IX. 

Ne forte credas interitura quae 
Longe sonantem natus ad Aufidum 
Non ante volgatas per artes 
Verba loquor socianda chordis : 

Non, si priores Maeonius tenet 5 

Sedes Homerus, Pindaricae latent 
Ceaeque et Alcaei minaces 

Stesichorique graves Camenae ; 



LIBER IV. 107 

Nec si quid olim lusit Anacreon 
Delevit aetas ; spirat adhuc amor 10 

Vivuntque commissi calores 
Aeoliae fidibus puellae. 



sola comptos arsit adulteri 
Crines et aurum vestibus illitum 

Mirata regalesque cultus 16 

Et comites Helene Lacaena, 

Primusve Teucer tela Cydonio 
Direxit arcu ; non semel Ilios 
Vexata ; non pugnavit ingens 

Idomeneus Sthenelusve solus 20 

Dicenda Musis proelia ; non f erox 
Hector vel acer Deiphobus graves 
Excepit ictus pro pudicis 

Coniugibus puerisque primus. 

Vixere fortes ante Agarnemnona 26 

Multi ; sed omnes inlacrimabiles 
Urgentur ignotique longa 
Nocte, carent quia vate sacro. 

Paullum sepultae distat inertiae 
Celata virtus. Non ego te meis 30 

Chartis inornatum silebo, 
Totve tuos patiar labores 

Impune, Lolli, carpere lividas 
Obliviones. Est animus tibi 

Rerumque prudens et secundis 36 

Temporibus dubiisque rectus, 



CARMINUM 

Vindex avarae fraudis et abstinens 
Ducentis ad se cuncta pecuniae, 
Consulque non unius anni, 

Sed quotiens bonus atque fidus 40 

ludex honestum praetulit utili, 
Beiecit alto dona nocentium 
Voltu, per obstantes catervas 
Explicuit sua victor arma. 

Non possidentem nmlta vocaveris 45 

Recte beatum ; rectius occupat 
Nomen beati, qui deorum 
Muneribus sapienter uti 

Duramque callet pauperiem pati 
Peiusque leto flagitium timet, 60 

Non ille pro caris amicis 
Aut patria timidus perire. 



X. . 

O crudelis adhuc et Veneris mnneribus potens, 
Insperata tuae cum veniet pluma superbiae 
Et, quae mine umeris involitant, deciderint comae, 
Nunc et qui color est puniceae flore prior rosae 
Mutatus Ligurinum in faciem verterit hispidam, 
Dices ' Heu,' quotiens te speculo videris alterum, 
' Quae mens est hodie, cur eadem non puero fuit, 
Vel cur his animis incolumes non redeunt genae ? ' 



LIBER IV. 109 

XI. 

Est mihi nonum superantis annum 
Plenus Albani cadus ; est in horto, 
Phylli, nectendis apium coronis ; 
Est hederae vis 

Multa, qua crines religata fulges ; 6 

Bidet argento domus ; ara castis 
Vincta verbenis avet immolato 
Spargier agno ; 

Cuncta festinat manus, hue et illuc 
Cursitant mixtae pueris puellae ; 10 

Sordidum flammae trepidant rotantes 
Vertice fumuin. 

Ut tamen noris quibus advoceris 
Gaudiis, Idus tibi sunt agendae, 
Qui dies mensem Veneris marinae 15 

Findit Aprilem, 

lure sollemnis mihi sanctiorque 
Paene natali proprio, quod ex hac 
Luce Maecenas meus adfluentes 

Ordinat annos. 20 

Telephum, quern tu petis, occupavit 
Non tuae sortis iuvenem puella 
Dives et lasciva, tenetque grata 
Compede vinctum. 

Terret ambustus Phaethon avaras 25 

Spes, et exemplum grave praebet ales 
Pegasus tefrenum equitem gravatus 
Bellerophonten, 



110 CAKMINUM 

Semper ut te digna sequare et ultra 
Quam licet sperare nefas putando 30 

Disparem vites. Age iam, meorum 
Finis amoruin, 

(Non enim posthac alia calebo 
Femina) condisce modos, amanda 
Voce quos reddas : minuentur atrae 35 

Carmine curae. 



XII. 

Iam veris comites, quae mare temperant, 
Impellunt animae lintea Thraciae ; 
Iam nee prata rigent nee fluvii strepunt 
Hiberna nive turgidi. 

Nidum ponit, Ityn flebiliter gemens, 5 

Infelix avis et Cecropiae domus 
Aeternum opprobrium, quod male barbaras 
Regumst ulta libidines. 

Dicunt in tenero gramine pinguium 
Custodes ovium carmina fistula 10 

Delectantque deum cui pecus et nigri 
Colles Arcadiae placent. 

Adduxere sitim tempora,Vergili ; 
Sed pressum Calibus ducere Liberum 
Si gestis, iuvenum nobilium cliens, 16 

Nardo vina mereberis. 

Nardi parvus onyx eliciet cadum, 
Qui nunc Sulpiciis accubat horreis, 



LIBER IV. Ill 

Spes donare novas largus amaraque 
Curarum eluere efficax. 20 

Ad quae si properas gaudia, cum tua 
Velox merce veni : non ego te meis 
Iinmunem meditor tinguere poculis, 
Plena dives ut in domo. 

Verum pone raoras et studium lucri, 26 

Nigrorumque memor, dum licet, igniuin 
Misce stultitiam consiliis brevem : 
Dulcest desipere in loco. 



XIII. 

Audivere, Lyce, di mea vota, di 
Audivere, Lyce : fis anus, et tamen 
Vis formosa videri, 

Ludisque et bibis impudens 

Et cantu tremulo pota Cupidinem 6 

Lentum sollicitas. Ille virentis et 
Doctae psallere Chiae 

Pulchris excubat in genis. 

Importunus enim transvolat aridas 
Quercus et refugit te, quia luridi 10 

Dentes te, quia rugae 
Turpant et capitis nives. 

Nee Coae referunt iam tibi purpurae 
Nee cari lapides tempera, quae semel 

Notis condita fastis 15 

Inclusit volucris dies. 



CARMINUM 

Quo fugit venus, heu, quove color ? decens 
Quo motus ? Quid habes illius, illius, 
Quae spirabat amores, 

Quae me surpuerat mihi, 20 

Felix post Cinaram notaque et artium 
Gratarum facies ? Sed Cinarae breves 
Annos fata dederunt, 
Servatura diu parem 

Cornicis vetulae temporibus Lycen, 25 

Possent ut iuvenes visere fervidi 
Multo non sine risu 

Dilapsam in cineres facem. 



XIV. 

Quae cura patrum quaeve Quiritium 
Plenis honorum muneribus tuas, 
Auguste, virtutes in aevum. 
Per titulos memoresque fastos 

Aeternet, o qua sol habitabiles 6 

Inlustrat oras, maxime principum ? 
Quern legis expertes Latinae 
Vindelici didicere nuper 

Quid marte posses. Milite nam tuo 
Drusus Genaunos, implacidum genus, 10 

Breunosque veloces et arces 
Alpibus impositas tremendis 

Deiecit acer plus vice simplici ; 
Maior Neronum mox grave proelium 



LIBER IV. 113 

Commisit immanesque Raetos 15 

Auspiciis pepulit secundis, 

Spectandus in certamine Martio, 
Devota morti pectora liberae 
Quantis fatigaret minis, 

Indomitas prope qualis undag 20 

Exercet Auster, Pleiadum choro 
Scindente nubes, impiger hostium 
Vexare turmas et frementem 

Mittere equum medios per ignes. 

Sic tauriformis volvitur Aufidus, 25 

Qui regna Dauni praefluit Apuli, 
Cum saevit horrendamque cultis 
Diluviem meditatur agris, 

Ut barbarorum Claudius agmina 
Ferrata vasto diruit impetu 30 

Primosque et extremes metendo 
Stravit humum sine clade victor, 

Te copias, te consilium et tuos 
Praebente divos. Nam tibi, quo die 

Portus Alexandrea supplex 35 

Et vacuam patefecit aulam, 

Fortuna lustro prospera tertio 
Belli secundos reddidit exitus, 
Laudemque et optatum peractis 

Imperiis decus adrogavit. 40 

Te Cantaber non ante domabilis 
Medusque et Indus, te profugus Scythes 



114 CARMINUM 

Miratur, o tutela praesens 
Italiae dominaeque Romae. 

Te fontium qui celat origines 45 

Nilusque et Hister, te rapidus Tigris, 
Te beluosus qui reinotis 

Obstrepit Oceanus Britannis, 

Te non paventis funera Galliae 
Duraeque tellus audit Hiberiae, 60 

Te caede gaudentes Sygambri 
Compositis venerantur armis. 



XV. 

Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui 
Victas et urbes increpuit lyra, 
Ne parva Tyrrhenum per aequor 
Vela darem. Tua, Caesar, aetas 

Fruges et agris rettulit uberes 6 

Et signa nostro restituit lovi 
Derepta Parthorum superbis 
Postibus et vacuum duellis 

lanum Quirini clausit et ordinem 
Rectum evaganti frena licentiae 10 

Iniecit emovitque culpas 
Et veteres revocavit artes, 

Per quas Latinum nomen et Italae 
Crevere vires famaque ef imperi 
Porrecta maiestas ad ortus 15 

Solis ab Hesperio cubili. 



LIBER IV. 115 

Custode rerum Caesare non furor 
Civilis aut vis exiget otium, 
Non ira, quae procudit enses 

Et miseras inimicat urbes. 20 

Non qui profundum Danuvium bibunt 
Edicta rum pent lulia, non Getae, 
Non Seres infidive Persae, 

Non Tanain prope fluinen orti. 

Nosque et prorestis lucibus et sacris 26 

Inter iocosi munera Liberi 

Cum proie matronisque nostris, 
Eite deos prius adprecati, 

Virtute functos more patrum duces 
Lydis remixto carmine tibiis 30 

Troiamque et Anchisen et almae 
Progeniein Veneris canemus. 



CABMEN 

SAECULAKE. 

Phoebe silvarumque potens Diana, 
Lucidum caeli decus ; o colendi 
Semper et culti, date quae precamur 
Tempore sacro, 

Quo Sibyllini monuere versus 5 

Virgines lectas puerosque castos 
Dis quibus septem placuere colles 
Dicere carmen. 

Alme Sol, curru nitido diem qui 
Promis et celas aliusque et idem 10 

Nasceris, possis nihil urbe Roma 
Visere maius ! 

Rite matures aperire partus 
Lenis, Ilithyia, tuere matres, 
Sive tu Lucina probas vocari 15 

Seu Genitalis : 

Diva, producas subolem patrumque 
Prosperes decreta super iugandis 
Feminis prolisque novae feraci 

Lege marita, 20 

Certus undenos deciens per annos 
Orbis ut cantus referatque ludos 
116 



CARMEN SAECULARE. 117 

Ter die claro totiensque grata 
Nocte frequentes. 

Vosque veraces cecinisse, Parcae, 25 

Quod semel dicturast stabilisque rerum 
Terminus servet, boua iam peractis 
lungite fata. 

Fertilis frugum pecorisque tellus 
Spicea donet Cererem corona ; 30 

Nutriant fetus et aquae salubres 
Et lovis aurae. 

Condito mitis placidusque telo 
Supplices audi pueros, Apollo ; 
Siderura regina bicornis, audi, 35 

Luna, puellas : 

Roma si vestrumst opus, Iliaeque 
Litus Etruscum tenuere turmae, 
lussa pars mutare Lares et urbem 

Sospite cursu, 40 

Cui per ardentem sine fraude Troiam 
Castus Aeneas patriae superstes 
Liberum munivit iter, daturus 
Plura relictis : 

Di, probos mores docili iuventae, 45 

Di, senectuti placidae quietem, 
Romulae genti date remque prolemque 
Et decus omne. 

Quaeque vos bobus veneratur albis 
Clarus Anchisae Venerisque sanguis, 50 

Impetret, bellante prior, iacentem 
Lenis in hostem. 



118 CARMEN SAECULARE. 

lam mari terraque manus potentes 
Medus Albanasque timet secures, 
lam Scythae responsa petunt superbi 55 

Nuper, et Indi. 

lam Fides et Pax et Honor Pudorque 
Priscus et neglecta redire Virtus 
Audet, adparetque beata pleno 

Copia cornu. 60 

Augur et fulgente decorus arcu 
Phoebus acceptusque novem Camenis, 
Qui salutari levat arte fessos 
Corporis artus, 

Si Palatinas videt aequus arces, 65 

Remque Romanam Latiumque felix 
Alterum in. lustrum meliusque semper 
Prorogat aevum. 

Quaeque Aventinum tenet Algidumque, 
Quindecim Diana preces virorum 70 

Curat et votis puerorum arnicas 
Adplicat aures. 

Haec lovem sentire deosque cunctos 
Spem bonam certamque domum reporto, 
Doctus et Phoebi chorus et Dianae 75 

Dicere laudes. 



EPODON 

LIBER. 

I. 

Ibis Liburnis inter alta navium, 

Amice, propugnacula, 
Paratus omne Caesaris periculum 

Subire, Maecenas, tuo. 
Quid nos, quibus te vita si superstite 6 

lucunda, si contra, gravis ? 
Utrumne iussi persequemur otium 

Non dulce, ni tecum simul, 
An hunc laborem mente laturi, decet 

Qua ferre non molles viros ? 10 

Feremus, et te vel per Alpium iuga 

Inhospitalem et Caucasum 
Vel Occidentis usque ad ultimum sinura 

Forti sequemur pectore. 
Roges tuum labore quid iuvem meo, 16 

Imbellis ac firmus parum ? 
Comes minore sum futurus in metu, 

Qui maior absentes habet : 
Ut adsidens implumibus pullis avis 

Serpentium adlapsus timet 20 

Magis relictis, non, ut adsit, auxili 

Latura plus praesentibus. 
119 



120 EPODON 

Libenter hoc et omne militabitur 

Bellum in tuae spem gratiae, 
Non ut iuvencis inligata pluribus 25 

Aratra -nitantur meis 
Pecusve Calabris ante sidus fervidum 

Lucana' mutet pascuis, 
Nee ut superni villa candens Tusculi 

Circaea tan gat moenia. 30 

Satis superque me benignitas tua 

Ditavit : haud paravero, 
Quod aut avarus ut Chremes terra premam, 

Discinctus aut perdam nepos. 

II. 

' Beatus ille qui procul negotiis, 

Ut prisca gens mortalium, 
Paterna rura bobus exercet suis, 
VI Solutus omni faenore, 

Neque excitatur classico miles truci, 5 

Neque horret iratum mare, 
Forumqiie vitat et superba civium 

Potentiorum limina. 
<-, i Ergo aut adulta vitium propagine 

Altas maritat populos, 10 

Aut in reducta valle mugientium 

Prospectat errantes greges, 
Inutilesve falce ramos amputans 
t ;; Feliciores inserit, 

Aut pressa puris mella condit amphoris, 15 

Aut tondet infirmas oves ; 
Vel, cum decorum mitibus pomis caput 



LIBER. 121 

Autumnus agris extulit, 
Ut gaudet insitiva decerpens pira 

Certantem et uvam purpurae, 20 

Qua muneretur te, Priape, et te, pater 

Silvane, tutor finium. 
Libet iacere modo sub antiqua ilice, 

Modo in tenaci graniine. 
Labuntur altis interim ripis aquae. 25 

Queruntur in silvis aves, 
Fontesque lymphis obstrepunt manantibus, 

Somnos quod invitet leves. 
At cum tonantis annus hibernus lovis 

Imbres nivesque comparat, 30 

Aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multa cane 

Apros in obstantes plagas, 
Aut amite levi rara tendit retia, 

Turdis edacibus dolos, 
Pavidumque leporem et advenam laqueo gruem 35 

lucunda captat praemia. 
Quis non malarum, quas amor curas habet, 

Haec inter obliviscitur ? 
Quodsi pudica mulier in partem iuvet 

Domum atque dulces liberos, 40 

Sabina qualis aut perusta solibus 

Pernicis uxor Apuli, 
Sacrum vetustis exstruat lignis focum 

Lassi sub adventum viri, 
Claudensque textis cratibus laetum pecus 45 

Distenta siccet ubera, 
Et horna dulci vina promens dolio 

Dapes iuemptas adparet: 
Non me Lucrina iuverint conchylia 



122 EPODON 

Magisve rhombus aut scari, 50 

Si quos Eois intonata fluctibus 

Hiems ad hoc vertat mare ; 
Non Afra avis descendat in ventrem meum, 

Non attagen lonicus 
lucundior, quam lecta de pinguissimis 55 

Oliva ramis arborum 
Aut herba lapathi prata amantis et gravi 

Malvae salubres corpori, 
Vel agna festis caesa Terminalibus 

Vel haedus ereptus lupo. 60 

Has inter epulas ut iuvat pastas oves 

Videre properantes domum, 
Videre fessos vomerem inversum boves 

Collo trahentes languido, 
Positosque vernas, ditis examen domus, 65 

Circum renidentes Lares.' 
Haec ubi locutus faenerator Alfius, 

lam iam futurus rusticus, 
Omnem redegit Idibus pecuniam, 

Quaerit Kalendis ponere. 70 

III. 

Parentis olim si quis impia manu 

Senile guttur fregerit, 
Edit cicutis allium nocentius. 

dura messorum ilia ! 
Quid hoc veneni saevit in praecordiis ? 6 

Num viperinus his cruor 
Incoctus herbis me fefellit ? an malas 

Canidia tractavit dapes ? 



LIBER. 123 

Ut Argonautas praeter omnes candidum 

Medea miratast ducem, 10 

Ignota tauris inligaturuin iuga 

Perunxit hoc lasonem ; 
Hoc delibutis ulta donis paeliceia, 

Serpente fugit alite. 
Nee tantus uinquam siderum insedit vapor 15 

Siticulosae Apuliae, 
Nee munus umeris efficacis Herculis 

Inarsit aestuosius. 
At si quid umquaru tale concupiveris, 

locose Maecenas, precor 20 

Manum puella savio opponat tuo, 

Extrema et in sponda cubet. 

IV. 

Lupis et agnis quanta sortito obtigit 

Tecuin mihi discordiast, 
Hibericis peruste funibus latus 

Et crura dura compede. 
Licet superbus ambules pecunia, 6 

Fortuna non inutat genus. 
Videsne, Sacram metiente te viam 

Cum bis trium ulnarum toga, 
Ut ora vertat hue et-huc euntium 

Liberrima indignatio ? 10 

' Sectus flagellis hie trium viralibus 

Praeconis ad fastidium 
Arat Falerni mille fundi iugera, 

Et Appiam mannis terit, 
Sedilibusque magnus in primis eques 16 



124 EPODON 

Othone contempto sedet. 
Quid attinet tot ora navium gravi 

Rostrata duel pondere 
Contra latrones atque servilem manum, 

Hoc, hoc tribune militum ? ' 20 

V. 

'At, o deorum quidquid in caelo regit 

Terras et humanum genus, 
Quid iste fert tumultus et quid omnium 

Voltus in unuin me truces ? 
Per liberos te, si vocata partubus 5 

Lucina veris adfuit, 
Per hoc inane purpurae decus precor, 

Per improbaturum haec lovem, 
Quid ut noverca me intueris aut uti 

Petita ferro belua ? ' 10 

Ut haec trementi questus ore constitit 

Insignibus raptis puer, 
Impube corpus, quale posset impia 

Mollire Thracum pectora ; 
Canidia, brevibus implicata viperis 15 

Crines et incomptum caput, 
lubet sepulcris caprificos erutas, 

lubet cupressus funebres 
Et uncta turpis ova ranae sanguine 

Plumamque nocturnae strigis 20 

Herbasque quas lolcos atque Hiberia 

Mittit venenorum ferax. 
Et ossa ab ore rapta ieiunae canis 

Flammis aduri Colchicis. 



LIBER. 125 

At expedita Sagana, per totam domum 25 

Spargens Avernales aquas, 
Horret capillis ut marinus asperis 

Echinus aut currens aper. 
Abacta nulla Veia conscientia 

Ligonibus duris humum 30 

Exhauriebat, ingemens laboribus, 

Quo posset infossus puer 
Longo die bis terque mutatae dapis 

Inemori spectaculo, 
Cum promineret ore, quantum exstant aqua 35 

Suspensa mento corpora : 
Exsecta uti medulla et aridum iecur 

Amoris esset poculum, 
Interminato cum semel fixae cibo 

Intabuissent pupulae. 40 

Non defuisse masculae libidinis 

Ariminensem Foliam 
Et otiosa credidit Neapolis 

Et omne vicinum oppidum, 
Quae sidera excantata voce Thessala 45 

Lunamque caelo deripit. 
Hie inresectum saeva dente livido 

Canidia rodens pollicem, 
Quid dixit aut quid tacuit ? ' rebus meis 

Non infideles arbitrae, 50 

Nox et Diana, quae silentium regis, 

Arcana cum fiunt sacra, 
Nunc nunc adeste, nunc in hostiles domos 

Iram atque numen vertite. 
Formidolosis dum latent silvis ferae 55 

Dulci sopore languidae, 



126 EPODON 

Senem, quod omnes rideant, adulterum 

Latrent Suburanae canes, 
Nardo perunctum, quale non perfectius 

Meae laborarint manus. 60 

Quid accidit ? Cur dira barbarae minus 

Venena Medeae valent, 
Quibus superbam fugit ulta paelicem, 

Magni Creontis filiam, 
Cum palla, tabo munus imbutum, novam 65 

Incendio nuptam abstulit ? 
Atqui nee herba nee latens in asperis 

Radix fefellit me locis. 
Indormit unctis omnium cubilibus 

Oblivione paelicum. 70 

A, a, solutus ambulat veneficae 

Scientioris carmine ! 
Non usitatis, Vare, potionibus, 

O multa fleturum caput, 
Ad me recurres, nee vocata mens tua 76 

Marsis redibit vocibus. 
Mains parabo, maius infundam tibi 

Fastidienti poculum, 
Priusque caelum sidet iiiferius mari 

Tellure porrecta super, 80 

Quam non amore sic meo flagres uti 

Bitumen atris ignibus.' 
Sub haec puer iam non, ut ante, mollibus, 

Lenire verbis impias, 
Sed dubius unde rumperet silentium, 85 

Misit Thyesteas preces : 
' Venena maga non fas nef asque, non valent 

Convertere humanam vicem. 



LIBER. 127 

Diris agam vos ; dira detestatio 

Nulla expiatur victima. 90 

Quin, ubi perire iussus exspiravero, 

Nocturnus occurram Furor, 
Petamque voltus umbra curvis unguibus, 

Quae vis deorumst Manium, 
Et inquietis adsidens praecordiis 95 

Pavore somnos auferam. 
Vos turba vicatira hinc et hinc saxis petens 

Contundet obscenas anus ; 
Post insepulta membra different lupi 

Et Esquilinae alites, 100 

Neque hoc parentes, heu mihi superstites, 

Effugerit spectaculuin.' 

VI. 

Quid immerentes hospites vexas, canis 

Ignavus adversum lupos ? 
Quin hue inanes, si potes, vertis minas, 

Et me remorsurum petis ? 
Nam qualis aut Molossus aut fulvus Lacon, 5 

Arnica vis pastoribus, 
Agam per altas aure sublata nives, 

Quaecumque praecedet fera ; 
Tu, cum tiinenda voce complesti nemus, 

Proiectum odoraris cibum. 10 

Cave, cave : namque in malos asperrimus 

Parata tollo cornua, 
Qualis Lycambae spretus infido gener, 

Aut acer hostis Bupalo. 
An, si quis atro dente me petiverit, 15 

Inultus ut flebo puer ? 



128 EPODON 

VII. 

Quo, quo scelesti ruitis ? aut cur dexteris 

Aptantur enses conditi ? 
Parumne campis atque Neptuno super 

Fusumst Latini sanguinis, 
Non ut superbas invidae Cartliaginis 5 

Romanus arces ureret, 
Intactus aut Britannus ut descenderet 

Sacra catenatus via, 
Sed ut secundum vota Parthorum sua 

Urbs haec periret dextera ? 10 

Neque hie lupis rnos nee fuit leonibus 

Umquam nisi in dispar feris. 
Furorne caecus an rapit vis acrior 

An culpa ? Responsum date ! 
Tacent, et albus ora pallor inficit, 15 

Mentesque perculsae stupent. 
Sic est : acerba fata Romanes agunt 

Scelusque fraternae necis, 
Ut immerentis fluxit in terrain Reini 

Sacer nepotibus cruor. 20 

IX. 

Quando repostum Caecubum ad festas dapes, 

Victore laetus Caesare, 
Tecum sub alta sic lovi gratum domo, 

Beate Maecenas, bibam, 
Sonante mixtum tibiis carmen lyra, 5 

Hac Dorium, illis barbarum ? 
Ut riuper, actus cum freto Neptunius 



LIBER. 129 

Dux fugit ustis navibus, 
Minatus Urbi vincla, quae detraxerat 

Servis amicus perfidis. 10 

Romanus eheu poster! negabitis 

Emancipatus feminae 
Fert vallum et arma miles et spadonibus 

Servire rugosis potest, 
Interque signa turpe militaria 15 

Sol adspicit conopium. 
Ad hoc frementes verterunt bis mille equos 

Galli, canentes Caesarem, 
Hostiliumque navium portu latent 

Puppes sinistrorsum citae. 20 

lo Triumphe, tu moraris aureos 

Currus et intactas boves ? 
lo Triumphe, nee lugurthino parem 

Bello reportasti ducem, 
Neque Africanum, cui super Carthaginem 25 

Virtus sepulcrum condidit. 
Terra marique victus hostis punico 

Lugubre mutavit sagum. 
Aut ille centum nobilem Cretam urbibus, 

Ventis iturus non suis, 30 

Exercitatas aut petit Syrtes Noto, 

Aut fertur incerto mari. 
Capaciores adfer hue, puer, scyphos 

Et Chia vina aut Lesbia, 
Vel quod fluentem nauseam coerceat 35 

Metire nobis Caecubum. 
Curam metumque Caesaris rerum iuvat 

Dulci Lyaeo solvere. 



130 EPODON 

X. 

Mala soluta navis exit alite, 

Ferens olentem Mevium : 
Ut horridis utrumque verberes latus, 

Auster, memento fluctibus. 
Niger rudentes Eurus inverse mari 5 

Fractosque remos differat ; 
Insurgat Aquilo, quantus altis montibus 

Frangit trementes ilices ; 
Nee sidus atra nocte amicum adpareat, 

Qua tristis Orion cadit ; 10 

Quietiore nee feratur aequore, 

Quam Graia victorum manus, 
Cum Pallas usto vertit iram ab Ilio 

In impiam Aiacis ratem. 
quantus instat navitis sudor tuis 15 

Tibique pallor luteus 
Et ilia non virilis eiulatio 

Preces et aversum ad lovem, 
lonius udo cum remugiens sinus 

Noto carinam ruperit. 20 

Opima quod si praeda curvo litore 

Porrecta mergos iuverit, 
Libidinosus immolabitur caper 

Et agna Tempestatibus. 

XIII. 

Horrida tempestas caelum contraxit, et imbres 

Nivesque deducunt lovem ; nunc mare, nunc siluae 
Threicio Aquilone sonant. Bapiamus, amice, 



LIBER. 131 

Occasionem de die, dumque virent genua 
Et decet, obducta solvatur fronte senectus. 5 

Tu vina Torquato move consule pressa meo. 
Cetera mitte loqui : deus haec fortasse benigna 

Reducet in sedem vice. Nunc et Achaemenio 
Perfundi nardo iuvat et fide Cyllenea 

Levare diris pectora sollicitudinibus, 10 

Nobilis ut grandi cecinit Centaurus alumno : 

' Invicte, mortalis dea nate puer Thetide, 
Te manet Assaraci tellus, quam frigida parvi 

Findunt Scamandri flumina lubricus et Simois, 
Unde tibi reditum certo subtemine Parcae 15 

Rupere, nee mater domum caerula te revehet. 
Illic omne malum vino cantuque levato, 

Deformis aegriraoniae dulcibus adloquiis.' 

XIV. 

Mollis inertia cur tantam diffuderit imis 

Oblivionem sensibus, 
Pocula Lethaeos ut si ducentia somnos 

Arente fauce traxerim, 
Candide Maecenas, occidis saepe 'rogando : 6 

Deus, deus nam me vetat 
Inceptos, olim promissum carmen, iambos 

Ad umbilicum adducere. 
Non aliter Samio dicunt arsisse Bathyllo 

Anacreonta Teium, 10 

Qui persaepe cava testudine flevit amorem 

IS" on elaboratum ad pedem. 
Ureris ipse miser : quod si non pulchrior ignis, 

Accendit obsessam Ilion, 



132 EPODON 

Gaude sorte tua ; me libertina nee uno 15 

Coutenta Phryne macerat. 

XV. 

Nox erat et caelo fulgebat Luna sereno 

Inter minora sidera, 
Cum tu, magnorum numen laesura deorum, 

In verba iurabas mea, 
Artius atque hedera procera adstringitur ilex, 5 

Lentis adhaerens bracchiis, 
Dum pecori lupus et nautis infestus Orion 

Turbaret hibernum mare, 
Intonsosque agitaret Apollinis aura capillos, 

Fore hunc amorem mutuum. 10 

dolitura mea multum virtute Neaera ! 

Nam si quid in Flacco virist, 
Non feret adsiduas potiori te dare noctes, 

Et quaeret iratus parem : 
Nee semel offensi cedet constantia formae, 15 

Si certus intrarit dolor. 
Et tu, quicumque's felicior atque meo nunc 

Superbus incedis malo, 
Sis pecore et multa dives tellure licebit 

Tibique Pactolus fluat, 20 

Nee te Pythagorae fallant arcana renati, 

Formaque vincas Nirea, 
Eheu, translates alio maerebis amores ; 

Ast ego vicissim risero. 



LIBER. 133 

XVI. 

Altera iam teritur bellis civilibus aetas, 

Suis et ipsa Eoma viribus ruit. 
Quam neque finitimi valuerunt perdere Marsi 

Minacis aut Etrusca Porsenae manus 
Aemula nee virtus Capuae neo Spartacus acer 6 

Novisque rebus infidelis Allobrox, 
Nee fera caerulea domuit Germania pube 

Parentibusque abominatus Hannibal, 
Impia perdemus devoti sanguinis aetas, 

Ferisque rufsus occupabitur solum. 10 

Barbarus heu cineres insistet victor et urbem 

Eques sonante verberabit ungula, 
Quaeque carent ventis et solibus ossa Quirini, 

Nefas videre ! dissipabit insoleiis. 
Forte, quid expediat, comumniter aut melior pars 15 

Malis carere quaeritis laboribus. 
Nulla sit hac potior seutentia : Phocaeorum 

Velut profugit exsecrata civitas 
Agros atque Lares patrios habitandaque fana 

Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis, 20 

Ire, pedes quocumque ferent, quocumque per undas 

Notus vocabit aut protervus Africus. 
Sic placet ? an nielius quis habet suadere ? Secunda 

Ratem occupare quid moramur alite ? 
Sed iuremus in haec : ' Simul imis saxa renarint 25 

Vadis levata, ne redire sit nefas, 
Neu conversa doraum pigeat dare lintea, quando 

Padus Matina laverit cacumina, 
lu mare seu celsus procurrerit Appenninus, 

Novaque monstra iunxerit libidine 30 



134 EPODON 

Minis amor, iuvet ut tigres subsidere cervis, 

Adulteretur et columba miluo, 
Credula nee ravos timeant armenta leones, 

Ametque salsa levis hircus aequora.' 
Haec et quae poterunt reditus abscindere dulces 35 

Eamus omnis exsecrata civitas, 
Aut pars indocili melior grege ; mollis et exspes 

Inominata perprimat cubilia. 
Vos, quibus est virtus, muliebrena tollite luctum, 

Etrusca praeter et volate litora. 40 

Nos raanet Oceanus circum vagus ; arva beata 

Petamus, arva divites et insulas, 
B-eddit ubi cererem tellus inarata quotannis 

Et imputata floret usque vinea, 
Germinat et numquam fallentis terrnes olivae, 45 

Suamque pulla ficus ornat arborem, 
Mella cava manant ex ilice, raontibus altis 

Levis crepante lympha desilit pede. 
Illic iniussae veniunt ad mulctra capellae, 

Refertque tenta grex amicus ubera, 50 

Nee vespertinus circumgemit ursus ovile, 

Nee intumescit alta viperis humus. 
Pluraque felices mirabimur, ut neque largis 

Aquosus Eurus arva radat imbribus, 
Pinguia nee siccis urantur semina glaebis, 55 

Utrumque rege temperante caelitum. 
Non hue Argoo contendit remige pinus, 

Neque impudica Colchis intulit pedem ; 
Non hue Sidonii torserunt cornua nautae, 

Laboriosa nee cohors Ulixei. 60 

Nulla nocent pecori contagia, nullius astri 

Gregem aestuosa torret inipotentia. 



LIBER. 135 

luppiter ilia piae secrevit litora genti, 
Ut inquinavit acre tempus aureura ; 

Aere, dehinc ferro duravit saecula, quorum 65 
Piis secunda vate me datur fuga. 

XVII. 

' lam iam efficaci do manus scientiae, 
Supplex et oro regna per Proserpinae, 
Per et Dianae non movenda numina, 
Per atque libros carminum valentium 
Refixa caelo devocare sidera, 6 

Canidia, parce vocibus tandem sacris 
Citumque retro solve, solve turbinem ! 
Movit nepotem Telephus Nereium, 
In quern superbus ordinarat agmina 
Mysorura et in quern tela acuta torserat. 10 

Unxere matres Iliae addictum feris 
Alitibus atque canibus homicidam Hectorem, 
Postquam relictis moenibus rex procidit 
Heu pervicacis ad pedes Achillei. 
Saetosa duris exuere pellibus 15 

Laboriosi remiges Ulixei 
Volente Circa membra ; tune mens et sonus 
Kelapsus atque notus in voltus honor. 
Dedi satis superque poenarum tibi, 
Amata nautis multum et institoribus. 20 

. Fugit iuventas et verecundus color 
Reliquit ossa pelle amicta lurida, 
Tuis capillus albus est odoribus ; 
Nullum ab labore me reclinat otium ; 
Urget diem nox et dies noctem, nequest 25 



136 EPODON 

Levare tenta spiritu praecordia. 

Ergo negatum vincor ut credam miser, 

Sabella pectus increpare carmina 

Caputque Marsa dissilire nenia. 

Quid amplius vis ? mare et terra, ardeo, 30 

Quantum neque atro delibutus Hercules 

Nessi cruore, nee Sicana f ervida 

Virens in Aetna flamma ; tu, donee cinis 

Iniuriosrs aridus ventis ferar, 

Gales venenis officina Colchicis. 35 

Quae finis aut quod me manet stipendium ? 

Effare ; iussas cum fide poenas luam, 

Paratus expiare, seu poposceris 

Centum iuvencos, sive mendaci lyra 

Voles sonari : ' Tu pudica, tu proba 40 

Perambulabis astra sidus aureum.' 

Infamis Helenae Castor offensus vicem 

Fraterque magni Castoris, victi prece, 

Adempta vati reddidere lumina : 

Et tu potes nam solve me dementia, 45 

O nee paternis obsoleta sordibus, 

Nee in sepulcris pauperum prudens anus 

Novendiales dissipare pulveres. 

Tibi hospitale pectus et purae manus 

Tuusque venter Pactumeius, et tuo 50 

Cruore rubros obstetrix pannos lavit, 

Utcumque fortis exsilis puerpera.' 

' Quid obseratis auribus fundis preces ? 

Non saxa nudis surdiora navitis 

Neptunus alto tundit hibernus salo. 55 

Inultus ut tu riseris Cotyttia 

Volgata, sacrum liberi Cupidinis, 



LIBER. 137 

Et Esquilini pontifex venefici 

Impune ut urbeni nomine impleris meo ? 

Quid proderit ditasse Paelignas anus, 60 

Velociusve miscuisse toxicum ? 

Sed tardiora fata te votis manent ; 

Ingrata misero vita ducendast in hoc, 

Novis ut usque suppetas laboribus. 

Optat quietem Pelopis infidi pater, 65 

Egens benignae Tantalus semper dapis, 

Optat Prometheus obligatus aliti, 

Optat supremo collocare Sisyphus 

In rnonte saxum ; sed vetant leges lovis. 

Voles modo altis desilire turribus, 70 

Modo ense pectus Norico recludere, 

Frustraque vincla gutturi nectes tuo, 

Fastidiosa tristis aegrimonia. 

Vectabor umeris tune ego inimicis eques, 

Meaeque terra cedet insolentiae. 75 

An quae movere cereas imagines, 

Ut ipse nosti curiosus, et polo 

Deripere Lunam vocibus possim meis, 

Possim cremates excitare mortuos 

Desideriqxie temperare pocula, 80 

Plorem artis in te nil agentis exitus ? ' 



NOTES. 



BOOK I., ODE I. 

A dedication of the first three books of the Odes to Maecenas. 
The first Epode, the first Satire, and the first Epistle are addressed 
to the same patron and friend. Cf. Class. Diet. ; Gardthausen, 
Augustus und Seine Zeit, 2. 432 sqq.; Merivale, 3. 214-16. 

Various are the pursuits of men, athletics, politics, agriculture, 
commerce, epicurean ease, war, the chase. Me the poet's ivy and 
the muse's cool retreats delight. Rank me with the lyrists of 
Greece, and I shall indeed ' knock at a star with uiy exalted head.' 

For similar Apology for Poetry, cf. Sat. 2. 1. 24; Propert. 4. 8 ; 
Verg. G. 2..4T5 sqq.; Pind. fr. 221 ; Solon, fr. 13 (4) 43 sqq. 

Translated by Broome, Johnson's Poets, 12. 18 ; by Boyse, ibid. 
14. 528 ; imitated by Blacklock, ibid. 18. 183. 

1. regibus: apposition with atavis. The Augustan poets dwell 
on the contrast between Maecenas' half -royal descent from ' noble 
Lucumos ' of Arretium and his modesty in remaining a knight and 
declining promotion to the Senate. Cf. 3. 29. 1; Sat. 1. 6. 1; 
Propert. 4. 8. 1 ; El. in Maec. 13, Eegis eras Etrusce genus, tu 
Caesaris almi \ dextera, Romanae tu vigil urbis eras; Martial, 
12. 4. 2, Maecenas, atavis regibus ortus eques. For Maecenas as 
typical patron of letters, cf. Laus Pisonis, 235 sqq.; Martial, 1. 
107. 3-4; 8. 56. 5, sint Maecenates non deerunt, Flacce, Marones; 
12. 4. 1-4. 

2. O et: for non-elision of 0, cf. 1. 35. 38; 4. 5. 37. prae- 
sidium : cf. Lucret. 3. 895, tuisque praesidium. dulce: cf. Epist. 
1. 7. 12, dulcis amice. For alliteration, cf. 3. 2. 13 ; 3. 9. 10; 4. 1. 

139 



140 NOTES. 

4; 4. 5. 12; 4. 6. 27. decus: cf. 2. 17. 4; Verg. G. 2. 40. 
meum : to me. 

3. aunt quos : i.e. aliquos, e<rnv ov:. On est qui, etc., with 
indie, or subj., cf. Hale, Cum Constructions, p. 112: 'In poetry 
we may often doubt whether a given variation ... is due to a 
definite meaning or to a love of the archaic or the unusual ; but in 
est qui non curat (Epp. 2. 2. 182), and est qui nee spernit (Od. 1. 
1. 19-21), Horace would seem to have himself in mind. In est ubi 
peccat (Epp. 2. 1. 63) he must be archaizing.' curriculo : curru, 
with the chariot, rather than in the course. Olympicum: typical, 
as labor Isthmius, 4. 3. 3, for Greek games generally. 

4. collegisse : cf. 1. 34. 16 ; 3. 4. 52. The perfect may keep its 
force, but often in Latin poetry it is a mere trick of style. Cf. 
Milton, 'He trusted to have equall'd the most High'; Howard, 
in Harvard Studies, I., p. 111. fervidis: cf. Verg. G. 3. 107, 
volat vi fervidus axis; Milton, Comus, ' glowing axle.' 

5. evitata : the skillful driver turned the half-way post as closely 
as possible, to keep the inside track. Cf. II. 23. 334 ; Soph. El. 
721 ; Ov. Amor. 3. 2. 12 ; Persius, 3. 68 ; Milton, P. L. 2, ' As at the 
Olympian games, or Pythian fields : | Part curb their fiery steeds or 
shun the goal | With rapid wheels'; F. Q. 3. 7. 41, 'the marble 
pillar that is pight | Upon the top of mount Olympus' height, | (a 
curious confusion of Olympia and Olympus) For the brave youthly 
champions to assay | With burning charet wheels it nigh to smite ; | 
But who that smites it mars his joyous play, | And is the spec- 
tacle of ruinous decay.' palma : a palm branch was placed in 
the hand of the Olympic victor ; Pausan. 8. 48. The practice was 
borrowed by the Romans, B.C. 293 (Livy, 10. 47), and palm be- 
came a symbol of victory. Cf. Epist. 1. 1. 51. nobilis: i.e. 
ennobling. 

6. evehit : cf . Verg. Aen. 6. 130, evexit ad aethera virtus. The 
lords of earth are the gods. Others less probably : exalt the lords 
of earth (i.e. the victors) to very gods. Cf. 4. 2. 17. hunc : 
sc. iuvat. Others put a period after nobilis, and take hunc and 
ilium in a sort of partitive apposition to dominos. 

7. mobilium : fickle. Cf . Epist. 1. 19. 37, ventosae plebis suf- 
fragia; Cic. pro Mur. 35; Tac. Ann. 1. 15. 

9. tergeminis : simply triple ; the curule aedileship, the prae- 



BOOK I., ODE I. 141 

torship, and the consulship. honoribus : abl. instr. Cf. TaG 
Ann. 1. 3. 

9-10. For similar periphrasis for farmer's wealth, cf. 3. 16. 26 ; 
Sat: 2. 3. 87, frumenti quantum metit Africa; Sen. Thyest. 856, 
HOH quidquid Libyris terit \ fervens area messibus. For proverbial 
fertility of Africa, cf. Otto, p. 8. proprio : not as agent or lowly 
factor for another's gain. Cf. 3. 16. 27, meis. 

10. verritur: Ls swept up from the circular paved threshing 
floor, after threshing and winnowing. 

11. gaudentem : after the owner of broad estates the humble 
cultivator of an avitus fundus (1. 12. 43), who lacks enterprise to 
depart from his father's footsteps. patrios : cf. paterna rura, 
Epod. 2.3. sarculo : see Lex. s. v. ; hoeing suggests the little field 
better than ploughing. 

12. Attalicis : see Lex. s.v. Attalus. The Attalids of Pergamon 
were the Medici of antiquity. Attalus III. made the Romans his 
heir, B.C. 133. His treasures impressed them somewhat as those 
of Charles of Burgundy did the rude Swiss who defeated him at 
Granson and Morat. Cf. 2. 18. 5, Otto, p. 44. condicionibus : 
terms, conditions of a bargain, offers. Cf. Sat. 2. 8. 65 ; Epp. 1. 
1. 51. 

13. dimoveas : seduce, lure away, cause to stir. Many editors 
prefer demoveas. ut : to, so as to. trabe : the metonymy of 
beam for ship (Verg. Aen. 3. 191 ; Catull. 4. 3 ; Find. Pyth. 4. 27), 
and the specific Cypria and Myrtoum are more vivid and poetic 
than vague general terms would be. Cf. 1. 16. 4. n. Cyprian 
timber and merchandise were famous (3. 29. 60 ; Pliny, N. H. 16. 
203), and it was "boasted that Cyprus could build a ship from keel to 
mast top from its own resources (Ammian. Marc. 14. 8. 14). 

14. Myrtoum : the western Aegean, south of Euboea ; from the 
little island Myrto. The Icarian was east of it (Plin. 4. 61 ; II. 2. 
144). pavidus : ancient sailors were conventionally 'timid' 
(1. 14. 14; 1. 3. 12. n. ). The petty farmer turned sailor would 
be especially so. secet : so rt^eiv. 

15. luctantem . . . fluctibus : Horace construes verbs of differ- 
ence and strife with dat. For thought, cf. ' As each with other | 
Wrestle the wind and the unreluctant sea,' Swinb. Mater Tri- 
umphalis. 'The winds and waves (old wranglers) took a truce,' 



142 NOTES. 

Tro. and Cress. 2. 2 ; Ham. 4. 1, Hen. VI. 3. 2. 5 ; Sen. Thyest. 481, 
cum morte vita cum mart ventus fidem \ foedusque iunyent. 
Africum : Lex. s.v. Africa, II. 2. 

16. mercator : trader, f/j.iropos. Cf. 3. 24. 41. n. metuens: 
a temporary mood ; with gen. (3. 19. 16 ; 3. 24. 22), a permanent 
characteristic. otium : 2. 16. 1. 

17. laudat : sc. as happy. Sat. 1. 1. 3. 9. rura: the fields 
about, the ager attached to. mox : so with abrupt asyndeton, 
4. 14. 14. Love of gain, K^pSos ae\\o/j.dxov (Anth. Pal. 7. 586), soon 
makes him defy the winds. 

18. quassas : 4. 8. 32. indocilis, etc.: Herrick, 106, 'those 
desp'rate cares, | Th' industrious iMerchant has ; who for to find | 
Gold runneth to the Western Inde [cf. 3. 24. 41. n.], | And back 
again, (tortur'd with fears) doth fly, | Untaught to suffer Pov- 
erty. ' pauperiem pati recurs, 3. 2. 1 ; 4. 9. 49. Cf. 3. 16. 37. n. 

19. est qui : cf. Epp. 2. 2. 182, Sunt qui non habeant (indefi- 
nite) est qui (pretty plainly pointing to one that shall be name- 
less) non curat habere. Massici : Horace's wines are all in the 
lexicon. 

20. solido : what should be the unbroken business hours up to 
about 3 P.M. Sen. Ep. 83. 2, hodiernus dies solidus est ; nemo 
ex illo quicquam mihi eripuit. Cf. 2. 7. 6. n. 

21. viridi : (ever) green. membra . . . stratus: cf. G. L. 
338 ; A. G. 240. c. ; H. 378 ; Lucret. 2. 29, inter se prostrati in 
gramine molli \propter aquae rivum, etc. ; Tenn. Lucret., 'under 
plane or pine, | With neighbors laid along the grass,' etc. 

22. lene : Epode 2. 28. n. caput : cf. sacrum caput amnis; 
Verg. G. 4. 319. For sacrae, cf. also on 3. 13. 

23. lituo : i.e. litni sonitu. The lituus was the cavalry trum- 
pet curved at the large mouth. See cut in Class. Diet. The tuba 
of the infantry was straight. 

24. matribus : dat. Cf. Epode 16. 8 ; 2. 1. 31. 

25. manet : all night (cf. Lex. 1. B. 1), like the hunter in Sat. 
2. 3. 234, In nive Lucana dormis ocreatus ut aprum \ coenem ego. 
sub love frigido : Zeus, Dyaus, Jupiter go back to a root 
div or ditt, ' the bright (sky).' A consciousness of this survived 
in many Greek and Latin phrases, and was revived by pantheistic 
utterances of the poets. Cf. 1. 34. 5. u. ; 1. 18. 13 ; 1. 22. 20 ; 3. 2. 6, 



BOOK I., ODE I. 143 

siih divo ; 3. 10. 8 ; Epode 13. 2 ; Lucret. 4. 209, sub diu ; Ov. Fast. 
3. 527 ; Verg. Eel. 7. 60 ; II. 5. 91, Aibs fy&pos ; the Athenian prayer, 
V<TOV, Iffov S> <t>(\f ZeO, Marc. Aurel. 5. 7 ; Ennins, Sat. 41 (ed. 
Miiller), Istic est is lovi pater quern dico, quern Graeci vacant 
aerem, etc. ; Aesch. fr. 70. 

27. seu . . . seu: cf. A. G. 315. c; G. L. 496. 2. The result 
is the same whatever the game. visa est : f<f>dvrj. 

28. plagas : Lex. s.v. 3, Epode 2. 31. For boar-hunting, cf. 3. 
12. 11 ; Epp. 1. 6. 57. 

29. me : for antithetic emphasis, cf. Milt. P. L. 9, ' Me of 
these | Nor skill'd nor studious,' etc. ; Tenn. Alcaics, ' Me rather 
all that bowery loneliness,' etc. Cf. 1. 5. 13 ; 1. 31. 15 ; 1. 7. 10 ; 
2. 12. 13; 4. 1. 29; 2. 17. 13. doctarum : learned, or lettered, 
but more especially poetic : cum apud Graecos antiquissimum e doc- 
tis genus sit poetarum, Cic. Tusc. 1. 3. Early man thinks rather 
(so Ruskin moralizes) of the knowledge than of the art of the 
poet. Cf. the comment of Gorgo, Theoc. 15. 145-146. So (ro<f>6s 
in Pindar; doctus, Tibull. (?) 3. 6. 41, etc. hederae : the ivy 
of Bacchus as well as the laurel of Phoebus crowned the poet 
as cliens Bacchi, Epist. 2. 2. 78. Cf. Epist. 1. 3. 25 ; Juv. 7. 29 ; 
Ben Jonson, ' To come forth worth the ivy or the bays ' ; Propert. 
2. 5. 25 ; Ov. Trist. 1. 7. 2 ; Verg. Eel. 7. 25. 

30. miscent : cf . Pindar's free use of plyvvnt, Isth. 2. 29. 
gelidum nemus : the traditional ' green retreats ' of the poet. 
Cf. 3. 4. 8 ; 3. 25. 13 ; 4. 3. 10 ; Epist. 2. 2. 77 ; Verg. G. 2. 488 ; 
Tac. Dial. 12, nemora vero et luci et secretum ipsum, etc. 

31. Cf. 2. 19. 3-4. chori: 1.4.5; 2.12.17; 3. 4.25; 4.3.15; 
4. 7. 6; 4. 14. 21. 

32. secernunt : set apart (se-cernunt), make a dedicated spirit. 
Cf. Milton's, ' secret top of Horeb ' ; Tenn. Lotus Eaters, ' while 
they smile in secret.' 1 si: modest condition if only the muse 
be gracious. tibias : two played together. Cf . Harp. Class. 
Diet. s.v. ; 1. 12. 1 ; 3. 4. 1. 

33. Euterpe . . . Polyhymnia : the flute and lyre represent all 
lyric poetry. Cf. 1. 12. 2. n. ; Harp. Class. Diet. s.v. 

34. Lesboum : of Sappho and Alcaeus. Cf . 3. 30. 13. n. ; 4. 3. 
12. n. tendere : Herrick, 333, ' Aske me, why I do not sing | 
To the tension of the string.' 



144 NOTES. 

35. quod si, etc. : but if you rank me with the nine Greek lyric 
poets of the canon. Wordsworth, Personal Talk, 4, ' The Poets 
Oh might my name be numbered among theirs.' inserts : 

2. 5. 21 ; 3. 25. 6. 

36. Proverbial. Cf. Otto, p. 63'; Ov. Met. 7. 61, vertice siclera 
tangam; Ben Jonson, Sejanus, 5. 1, 'And at each step I feel my 
advanced head | Knock out a star in heaven ' ; Herrick, ' And 
once more yet (ere I am laid out dead) | Knock at a star with my 
exalted head.' 

ODE II. 

The age is weary of storms and portents dire and civil strife. 
What god may we invoke to iiphold the falling state and expiate 
our guilt ? Apollo ? Venus ? Mars ? Or is it thou, Mercury, 
already with us (in the guise of Augustus), Caesar's avenger? 
Late be thy return to thy native heaven. Long may'st thou dwell 
amid thy adoring people. The Mede will not ride on his raids 
while thou art our captain. 

A declaration of adhesion to Octavian, written apparently before 
the new constitution of the Empire and the bestowal upon him of 
the title of Augustus in Jan., B.C. 27 (cf. Merivale, 3. 335-336, 
chap. 30). 

The close resemblance to Vergil, G. 1. 465 sqq. (cf. Merivale, 

3. 239, chap. 28) has led some scholars to date it as early as 
B.C. 37 or 32. But this is excluded by the allusion (1. 49) to the 
triumphs celebrated in Aug., B.C. 29. Nor would Horace so 
early have recognized Octavian as savior of the state. Octavian 
was princeps Senatus from B.C. 28 to his death. The evidence 
then points to a date between the return from the East, B:C. 29, 
and the renewal of the imperinm in Jan., 27, and most probably 
to the latter part of B.C. 28, when Octavian, having, as he said, 
fulfilled his pious duty of punishing the assassins of Caesar (cf. 
on 1. 44), affected to talk of laying down his authority (Dio. 53. 

4. 63. 9 ; Merivale, 3. 331-32) ; which would have been a signal 
for the renewal of the disturbances of which the age was so weary 
(cf. 1. 1. iam satis, and on 2. 16. 1). 

The portents that accompanied or followed the death of Caesar 
(Shaks. Jul. Caes. 1. 3, Hamlet, 1. 1 ; Verg. G. 1. 467 sqq. ; Dio 



BOOK I., ODE II. 145 

45. 17 ; Tibull. 2. 5. 71 ; Ov. Met. 15, 782 ; Petronius, 122) and 
the inundation of the Tiber (cf. on 1. 13) do not date the ode. 
They are the experience of a generation. 

1. We may, if we please, hear the swish of the storm in the re- 
peated is. Cf. II. 21. 239 ; Shelley, Alastor, ' The thunder and 
the hiss of homeless streams'; Liberty, 'Waves Hiss round a 
drowner's head in their tempestuous play.' terns: dat. i.e. 
in terras. dirae : strictly ominous, portentous. Cf. insessum 
dins avibtis Capitolium, Tac. Ann. 12. 43. Snow and hail would 
be rare in Italy. Milton has ' dire hail. ' 

2. pater : the epic father of gods and men. Cf. on 1. 12. 13 ; 
3. 29. 44. rubente: in the lightning's glare. Find. O. 9. 6, 
<f><HviKOffTfp6wav. Milt. P. L. 2, 'Should intermitted vengeance 
arm again | His red right hand to plague us.' 

3. iaculatus: cf. 3. 12. 11 ; 3. 4. 56 ; Ov. Am. 3. 3. 35, Inppiter 
igne sitos lucos iaculatur et arces. Tenn. L. and El. ' bolt . . . 
javelining | With darted spikes and splinters of the wood | The 
dark earth round.' Milton, 'hurl'd to and fro' with jaculation 
dire.' arces: the seven temple-crowned hills of Rome; Verg. 
G. 2. 535. More specifically the two summits of the Capitoline, 
the tf. or Arx proper, and the S. with the temple of Jupiter, Juno, 
and Minerva. 

4-5. terruit . . . terruit : cf . 2. 4. 4, 5, for this linking of sen- 
tences by repetition of the verb. 

5. gentes: 1. 3. 28; 2. 13. 20; Lucret. 5. 1222, non populi 
gentesque tremunt . . . (ne) poenarum grave sit solvendi tempus 
adultum ? Psalm 2. 1, quare fremuerunt gentes. 

5-12. Rome and mankind feared a return of the flood of Deu- 
calion and Pyrrha ingeniously described by Ov. Met. 1. 260 sqq. 
Cf. Pind. 0. 9. 47 ; Milt. P. L. 11. Horace pauses in the bare 
list of portents to paint it. Cf. 1. 12. 27 ; 3. 4. 53-57, 60-64. 

6. nova monstra : strange prodigies, or signs. Cf. Epode 16. 
30, novaque monstra iunxerit libidine. 

1. pecus : for Proteus' herd of phocae seals, cf. Odyss. 4. 405 
sqq.; Verg. G. 4. 395 sqq.; F. Q. 3. 8. 30, 'Proteus is shepherd of 
the seas of yore, | And hath the charge of Neptune's mighty herd.' 
The imaginative origin of the myth is perhaps indicated by Shelley, 



146 NOTES. 

Witch of Atlas, 10, ' And every shepherdess of Ocean's flocks | 
Who drives her white waves over the green sea.' Cf. Lang, Helen 
of Troy, 3. 23, ' They heard that ancient shepherd Proteus call | 
His flock from forth the green and tumbling lea.' For Proteus 
as symbol of mutability ('protean'), of. Sat. 2. 3. 71; Epp. 1. 
1. 90. 

8. visere : inf. of purpose, archaic, colloquial, poetic. Cf. PI. 
B. 900, abiit aedem visere Minervae, ' she went away to visit the 
temple of Minerva' ; G. L. 421. 1. (a) ; 1. 23. 10 ; 3. 8. 11. 

9-12. A topsy-turvy world. Cf. Ov. Met. 1. 296, hie summa 
piscem deprendit in ulmo. Milton's flood has a touch of Ovid 
(P. L. 11), ' and in their palaces | Where luxury late reign'd, sea- 
monsters whelp'd.' Cf. Archil., fr. 74. 6. 

10. nota : cf. 4. 2. 6, ' custom'd.' 

11. superiecto: sc. terris. pavidae: 1.23. 2. 

13. vidimus: i.e. our age has seen. Cf. Verg. G. 1. 472, 
quotiens . . . vidimus. Livy, Praef . 5, malorum qnae nostra tot per 
annos vidit aetas. Cf. 1.35. 34. flavum: standing epithet of the 
Tiber (1. 8. 8 ; 2. 3. 18); muUa flavus arena, Verg. Aen. 7. 31. 
Cf. Macaulay, Capys, 'The troubled river knew them, | And 
smoothed his yellow foam'; Arnold, Consolation, 'By yellow 
Tiber, | They still look fair.' 

13-14. retortis litore (ab) Etrusco : the waters supposed to 
be heaped up and driven back by winds or tides at the moiith 
of the river, overflow on the lower left bank, flood the region of 
the Velabrum between the Palatine and the Capitoline, and spread 
to the Forum. Cf. Ov. Fast. 6. 401 sqq. ; Propert. 5. 9. 5. For 
litus Etruscum, cf. C. S. 38 ; Epode 16. 40. Others take it of the 
high right bank of the Tiber (litns = ripa, Verg. Aen. 3. 389 ; 8. 
83), from which the foaming flood in freshet is violently hurled on 
to the opposite low left bank, at the sharp bend below the island 
(see map). Cf. further Tac. Ann. 1. 76 ; Plin. N. H. 3. 55 ; Dio. 
45. 17, 53. 20, 54. 1. 

15. deiectum : supine ; to overthrow. The personification of 
the angry river begins to be felt. monumenta regis. etc. : the 
establishment of the order of Vestal Virgins was attributed to 
Numa Pompilius (Livy, 1. 20), and his palace, the official residence 
of the Pontifex Maximus, adjoining the temple of Vesta at the 



BOOK I., ODE II. 147 

N. W. corner of the Palatine, was, with the old house of the Vestals, 
called the Atrium Vestae. Cf. Ov. Fast. 6. 263, hie locus exiguus, 
qui sustinet atria Vestae, \ tune erat intonsi regia magna Numae; 
Trist. 3. 1. 29; Lanciani, Ancient -Rome, p. 159. Even these ven- 
erable monuments are not spared. Caesar was Pontifex Maximus 
at the time of his death. 

16-20. Ilia, or Rhea Silvia, the mother of Romulus and Remus 
by Mars (Livy, 1. 3-4), and, according to the legend followed by 
Horace, daughter of Aeneas, might be called the bride of the Tiber, 
into which she was thrown (on one tradition) by order of King 
Amulius. The wife-doting stream is, by a far-fetched conceit, said 
to avenge her complaints at the assassination of her great descend- 
ant Julius Caesar, with an excess of zeal not approved by Jupiter 

/fat vTTfp Aita alffav. 

17-18. dum . . . iactat : for this use of dum equivalent to a 
pres. part, of cause or circumstance, cf. 1. 6. 9 ; 2. 10. 2 ; 3. 7. 18 ; 
G. L. 570. n. 2. 

19. ripa : over, by way of. 

19-20. u-xorius: cf. 1. 25. 11 (a compound); 2. 16. 7. The 
license is avoided in 3d and 4th books. It is frequent in Sappho, 
who treated the third and fourth verses as one. In English mostly 
for comic effect : ' Here doomed to starve on water gru | el never 
shall I see the U | niversity of Gottingen.' Anti-Jacobin. When 
the cola were printed as separate lines, its apparent frequency in 
Pindar was a stumbling-block to French critics. 

21-24. audiet . . . iuventus : note position. Our sons will 
marvel at the crime and folly of this generation. Cf. 1. 35. 35 ; 
Epode 7.1; 16. 1-9. 

21. cives : emphatic, but the ellipsis of in cives is harsh. 

22. graves : 3. 5. 4. So /3apus. Persae : the empire of the East 
was Parthian from B.C. 250 to A.D. 226. But Horace uses Oriental 
names freely, and to a student of Greek literature Eastern was 
Persian, or Mede. perirent: cf. 3. 14. 27; 4. 6. 16. These im- 
perfects where We might look for pluperfects have been variously 
explained as ' potential,' 4 softened assertion in past time,' or as 
' future to a past ' arising from an imaginative shifting of the point 
of view. Metrical convenience probably determined the resort to 
them. For the general thought here, cf . Lucan, cited on Epode 7. 5. 



148 NOTES. 

23. vitio : gives cause of rara. 

24. rara : the thought is rhetorically amplified by Lucan, 7. 398, 
crimen civile videmus, \ tot vacuas urbes. Cf. ibid. 535 sqq., 1. 
25 sqq. ; Verg. G. 1. 507. 

25. divum : gen. plur. ; only a god can save. Ten years earlier 
Vergil prayed Di patrii . . . hunc saltern everso.iuvenem succurrere 
saedo | ne prohibete. mentis : cf. on 2. 1. 32 ; 3. 3. 8. Thomson, 
Seasons, ' Tully, whose powerful eloquence a while | Kestrain'd 
the rapid fate of rushing Rome.' 

26. imperi: almost =' empire.' Cf. 4. 15. 14, and lexicon. 
fatigent : importune. Cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 280. 

27. Virgines : cf. 3. 5. 11; 3. 30. 9. minus audientern : 
minus is idiomatic who averts her ear from their chant. Vesta 
is offended by the assassination of Julius Caesar, the Pontifex 
Maximus. In Ov. Fast. 3. 699, she says: ne dubita meminisse! 
meusfuit ille sacerdos. 

28. Carmina : any set form, chant, or litany. Possibly con- 
trasted with the less formal prece. 

29. partes: office, role. So A. P. 193, 315. It was the favorite 
r61e of Augustus. Cf. infra, 1. 44. scelus : rb iiyos, 1. 35. 33. 
expiaiidi : 2. 1. 5. 

31. nube . . . amictus: II. 5. 186, vf<t>t\r) flKv^tvos &fj.ovs. Cf. 
Milton's 'kerchef'd in a comely cloud.' candentes: Homer's 
(pa.iSifj.oi &/J.OL Cf. on 2. 5. 18. 

32. augur Apollo : so Verg. Aen. 4. 376. Apollo who helped 
at Actium (Verg. Aen. 8. 704 ; Propert. 5. 6. 67) is first invoked 
as Ka6<ip(nos and juofris, Purifier and Prophet. He was Augustus' 
patron deity. For his new temple, cf. on 1. 31. 

33. Venus is invoked as Aeneadum genetrix. Cf. Preller-Jordan, 
1. 444 ; Lucret. 1. 1 ; Pervigil. Ven. 70. She had a famous temple 
on Mt. Eryx in Sicily (Verg. Aen. 5. 759). Cf. John Bartlett, 
' The queen of Paphos Erycine | In heart did rose-cheeked Adon 
love ' ; Thos. Watson, Hekatompathia, ' He praise no starre but 
Hesperus alone, | Nor any hill but Erycinus mount.' ridens : 
<j>i\on/j.fi5ris, laughter-loving. Cf. her 'subtle smile' and laugh in 
Tenn. CEnone. 

34. locus: so Plaut. Bacch. 113. Cf. Milton's 'Jest and 
youthful Jollity.' circum volat: they hover about her like the 



BOOK I., ODE II. 149 

loves in a picture of Albani, making a pretty contrast with the 
following vision of grim-visaged war. Cf. F. Q. 4. 10. 42. Cu- 
pido : Verg. Aen. 1. 663, aligerum . . . amorem. Aristoph. Birds, 
697; Shaks. Rom. and Jul. 2. 5, 'And therefore hath the wind- 
swift Cupid wings,' etc. 

35. genus et nepotes : cf. 3. 17. 3, nepotum . . . genus. 

36. respicis : regardest, dost care for. auctor : sc. Mars. 
Cf. 3. 17. 5; Verg. G. 3. 36, Troiae Cynthius auctor; Macau- 
lay, Capys, 20, 'And such as is the War-God | The author of 
thy line.' 

37. satiate : the Homeric Ares is insatiate of war ATOS 
iro\f/j.oto. ludo : cf. 1. 28. 17, spectacula Marti. Cf. Ruskin on 
' game of war.' Other gods have other ' games,' 1. 33. 12 ; 3. 29. 50. 

38. iuvat : Maeaulay, Capys, 19, ' But thy father loves the 
clashing | Of broadsword and of shield : | He loves to drink the 
steam that reeks | From the fresh battlefield,' etc. Cf. Silius, 9. 664. 
clamor: cf. strepitutn, 1. 16, 18; cf. 'loud-throated war,' 'the 
noise of battle hurtled in the air ' ; /cu5oiyu<$s, fytaSos. IS ves : not 
lews. 

39. acer : the fierce light of battle upon it. Mauri peditis : 
so the Mss. Marsi is generally read (cf. 2. 20. 18 ; Epode 16. 3 ; 
Verg. G. 2. 167, genus acre virum ; Appian. B.C. 1. 46). But the 
Maun were fierce enough, and may well have used foot-soldiers. 
Or peditis may mean 'unhorsed.' cruentum : whether blood- 
stained or bleeding, it is close work. 

41. give : or if thou, Mercury, art already with us in mortal 
disguise. The apodosis is no longer veiiias, but serus redeas, etc. 
(45). iuvenem : so Sat. 2. 5. 62, iuvenis Parthis horrendus ; 
Verg. G. 1. 500. Octavian was about thirty -five years old. Men 
were iuvenes in the age of military service, seventeen to forty-five. 

42. ales : Verg. Aen. 4. 240 ; 1. 10. notes. 

43. filius : the nom. is preferred for euphony. Maiae : cf. on 
1. 10. 1. patiens : cf. Epp. 1. 16. 30, patens sapiens . . . vocari. 

44. ultor : Augustus dedicated a temple to Mars Ultor, B.C. 2 
(cf. Merivale, 4. 24. 116; Suet. Oct. 29), and both he (Mon. 
Ancyr. 1. 8-10) and the contemporary writers dwell complacently 
on his mission as Caesar's avenger. Cf. Sellar, p. 161 ; Ov. Fasti, 
3. 709, Hoc opus, haecpietas, hacc prima elementa fuere \ Caesaris, 



150 NOTES. 

ulcisci iusta per arina patrem ; ibid. 5. 577 ; Suet. Oct. 10 ; Vel- 
leius, 2. 87. 

45. serus . . . redeas : cf. Ov. Trist. 5. 2. 52, sic ad pacta tibi 
sidera tardus eas; Met. 15. 868. Martial, as usual, outbids the 
Augustan poets in flattery. He prays for the birth of a son to 
Domitian, cui pater aeternas post saecula tradat habenas (6. 3. 3). 
Cf. on 3. 3. 11 ; 4. 14. 43. 

46. populo Quirini: so Ov. Met. 15. 572, Fast. 1. 69. 

47. vitiis: cause of iniquum, offended by our faults. ini- 
quum: cf. 2. 4. 16; 2. 6. 9; 1.28.28, aequo ab love; C. S. 65; 
Verg. Aen. 6. 129, Fauci, qnos aequus amavit \ Iiqipiter. 

48. ocior : \.Q. untimely, premature. aura: suggested by ales. 

49. triumphos : tres egit, Dalmaticum, Aciiacum Alexandrinum, 
continuo triduo omnes (Suet. Aug. 22). Cf. Merivale, 3. 314, 
chap. 30 ; Gardthausen, 2. 257 sqq. Cf. the description in Verg. 
Aen. 8. 714 ; also Verg. G. 1. 503, lam pridem nobis caeli te regia, 
Caesar \ Invidet atque hominum queritur curare triumphos. 

50. pater : Augustus was formally saluted as pater patriae by 
the Senate in B.C. 2. But the poets had long since anticipated the 
title. Cf. 3. 24. 27. n. ; Juv. 8. 244 (of Cicero); Ov. Trist. 2. 181 ; 
4. 4. 13 ; Fast. 2. 127 ; as epithet of a god, 1. 18. 6 ; Epode 2. 21. 
princeps : 4. 14. 6. Technically princeps Senatus was the most 
dignified Senator first called upon by consul to give his opinion 
in the absence of the consuls designate. Octavian affected the title 
princeps, first citizen, because of its freedom from invidious asso- 
ciations. Cf. Tac. Ann. 1.1. 3, quoted on 2. 16. 1. and 1. 9. 6. 
Furneaux (Tac. Ann. Vol. I. p. 66) rejects its identification with 
princeps Senatus. 

51. Medos: cf. on 22. 3. 3. 44. equitare : cf. 2. 9. 24 ; 4. 4. 
44, ride on their raids ; ride and ride (Gildersleeve). Cf. 1. 19. 11 ; 
2. 13. 17. inultos: 1. 28. 33; 3. 3. 42; Epode 6. 16; here, un- 
punished, with impunity. Cf. F. Q. 6. 7. 32, ' But lo ! the gods, 
that mortal follies view, | Did worthily revenge (punish) this 
maiden's pride.' The defeat of Carrhae and the shade of Crassus 
are still unavenged. Lucan, 1. 11, umbraque erraret Crassus 
inulta. Cf. on 3. 5. 5. 

52. te duce : cf. Epp. 2. 1. 256, et formidatam Parthis te prin- 
cipe Romam. Propert. 3. 1. 12-18. Caesar: the true name of 



BOOK I., ODE m. 151 

our god and savior at last. Caesar = Julius Caesar, supra, 44, and 
Sat. 1. 9. 18 only. The full title of Augustus (originally Octavian) 
by adoption and honorary decrees of the Senate was, at the close 
of his life. ' Imp. Caesar, Divi F. Augustus Pontif. Max. Cos. XIIL 
Imp. XX. Tribunic. Potestat. XXXVII. P. P.' 



ODE III. 

Propempticon. A prayer for the safety of the vessel that bears 
Vergil to Greece, followed by reflections on the audacity of man 
who braves the terrors of the deep, steals fire from heaven, essays 
to fly though nature has withheld wings, finds out the way to hell, 
and scales the heavens in defiance of the angry bolts of Jove. 

Vergil visited Greece in B.C. 19, and died at Brundisium on his 
return. The first three books of the Odes were published in B.C. 23. 
We must assume another voyage, or another Vergil. Cf. on 4. 12. 
See Sellar, p. 141. 

For the friendship of Horace and Vergil, see Sellar, Vergil, p. 
120 sqq., Ode 1. 24, Sat. 1. 5. 41, 1. 6. 54. 

With the Propempticon proper, 1-8, cf. Callim. fr. 114 ; Theoc. 
7. 52, The diffuse imitation of Statius, Silvae, 3. 2. Epode 10, to 
an enemy ; Odes, 3. 27. Tenn. In Mem. 9, ' Fair ship, that from 
the Italian shore | Sailest the placid ocean plains,' etc. ; ibid. 17. 
Wordsworth's lines to Scott embarking for Naples : ' Be true | Ye 
winds of ocean and the midland sea, | Wafting your Charge to soft 
Parthenope ! ' 

For the second part of the ode, cf. Mill (On Nature, p. 22), ' There 
was always a tendency, though a diminishing one, to regard any 
attempt to exercise power over nature, beyond a certain degree 
and a certain admitted range, as an impious effort to usurp divine 
power, and dare more than was permitted to man. The lines of 
Horace, in which the familiar arts of shipbuilding and navigation 
are reprobated as vetitum nefas, indicate even in that sceptical age 
a still unexhausted vein of the old sentiment.' For further illus- 
tration of the feeling, cf. 3. 24. 36-41 ; Epode 16. 57-62 ; Tibull. 
1. 3. 36-37 ; Verg. Eel. 4. 32 ; Ov. Met. 1. 94 ; Hesiod, Works and 
Days, 236 ; Arat. Phaen. 110 ; Soph. Antig. 332 sqq. 



152 NOTES. 

The reflections of Valerius Flaccus, Argonaut. 1. 245, 530-560, 
are an interesting exception. 

It should be further noted that in the Latin writers the expres- 
sion of this primitive feeling is combined with a reprobation of the 
luxurious living to which the audacious enterprise of man panders. 
See Pliny, N. H. 23 Praef., and the passages cited on Odes, 2. 15. 
In similar vein Spenser, F. Q. 2. 7. 14-16. Translated by Pryden, 
Johnson's Poets, 9. 158. 

1-8. sic . . . regat . . . reddas : a petition in Latin (or 
Greek) is often followed by a promise or blessing conditional on 
its fulfilment ; the condition being resumed in sic. Cf. Tibull. 2. 
5. 121, Annue : sic tibi sint intonsi, Phoebe, capilli. Or the sic 
clause may precede, followed by an explicit condition, Epp. 1. 7. 
69, sic ignoVisse putato \ me tibi si cenas hodie mecum ; or by an 
imperative, as Verg. Eel. 9. 30 ; Catull. 17. 5-8. Here the sic 
clause precedes, followed not by an explicit condition or impera- 
tive, but by an apparently detached optative or final subjunctive 
with precor. Cf. G. L. 546. n. 1 ; Odes, 1. 2. 30 ; Epode 3. 20. 
Some editors express this by calling sic . . . lapyga a parenthe- 
sis. Cf. Milt. Lye. 19; Song in Comus, 'Tell me but where, . . . 
so mayst thou be translated to the skies,' etc. Matter-of-fact 
critics have observed that the expression of the blessing is super- 
fluous, because it fulfils itself, the safety of the ship and pas- 
senger being inseparable. 

1. potens: with gen. cf. 1. 5. 15; 1. 6. 10 ; C. S. 1 ; Verg. Aen. 
1. 80; Homer's ^rvia 6np,v, II. 21. 470; Pind. Pyth. 4. 213; Ov. 
Am. 3. 10. 35, diva potens frugum. Cypri : cf. on 1. 30. 2. For 
Venus marina, cf. on 3. 26. 5, 4. 11. 16 ; Solon, fr. 18. 4 ; Pausan. 

1. 1. 3, tvirKoia. 

2. Castor and Pollux ; cf. 1. 12. 27, 3. 29. 64, 4. 8. 31 ; Sen. Here. 
Fur. 556, non illic geminum Tyndaridae genus \ succurrunt timi- 
dis sidera navibus ; Propert. 1. 17. 17. Possibly the electrical 
phenomenon known to sailors as St. Elmo's light is meant. Cf. 
Lucian, Navig. 9 ; Stat. Silv. 3. 2. 8 ; Pliny, N. H. 2. 101 ; Macau- 
lay, Kegillus, 40, ' Safe comes the ship to haven, | Through billows 
and through gales, | If once the Great Twin Brethren | Sit shining 
on the sails ' ; Camoens, Lusiad. 6. 18, o lume vivo que a maritime* 



BOOK I., ODE III. 153 

gente \ Tern por santo em tempo di tormento ; Swinburne, * As those 
great twins of air | Hailed once with old world prayer | Of all folk 
alway faring forth by sea.' Cf. Frazer, Pausanias, III., p. 13. 

3. Cf. Odyss. 10. 21 ; Verg. Aen. 1. 52 ; F. Q. 3. 7. 21, 'And all 
his winds Dun Aeolus did keep | From stirring up their stormy 
enmity. ' regat : guide. 

4. lapyga : the N.W. wind off the S.E. coast of Italy (lapygia) 
blowing towards Greece. Cf. Aul. Gell. 2. 22. In 3. 27. 20, albus 
lapyx is stormy. 

6. debes : sc. to our love. But it is possible to construe finibus 
as dat. with both debes and reddas. 

1. reddaa : he is a deposit to be duly delivered (cf. reddere epis- 
tulam) at (or to) the appointed place. Cf. Stat. Silv. 3. 2. 5, 
grande tuo rarttmque damns, Neptune, profundo \ depositum. 
incolumem : safe and sound. Cf. 3. 24. 31. 

8. dimidium : cf. on 2. 17. 5. ' Friendship to be two in one ' 
(Tenn.), the old definition (cf. Ar. Eth. 9. 4. 5, 6 <f>i\os &\\os avrts ; 
Diog. Laert. 5. 1. 20 ; Cic. Lael. 92), implies that the friend is half 
yourself (Anth. Pal. 12. 52 ; Callim. Ep. 43). Cf. Otto, Sprich- 
worter der Romer, p. 26. 

9. Cf. Herrick, 106, ' A heart thrice wall'd with Oke, and brasse, 
that man | Had, first, durst plow the Ocean ' ; Milton, P. L. 2, or 
arm th' obdured breast | With stubborn patience as with triple 
steel'; II. 24. 205, fftifoeiov jrop ; Otto, p. 4. 

10. fragilem : 3. 2. 28. For juxtaposition with truci, cf. on 1. 
6. 9. truci: Catull. 4. 9, trucemve Ponticum sinum ; 63. 16, tru- 
culentaque pelagi. 

12. praecipitem : headlong, squally, XajSpoy f*cnylfav. Ov. 
Met. 2. 184, ut acta \ praecipUi pinus Borea ; Verg. G. 4. 29, prae- 
ceps . . . Eurus. Africum : 1. 1. 15 ; Epode 16. 22 ; Verg. 
Aen. 1. 85. 

13. decertantem : ' Auster and Aquilon tilt about the heavens ' 
(Marlowe). Cf. on 1. 9. 11 ; 1. 1. 15; de intensive, cf. 1. 18. 9; 
3.3.55. Aquilonibus: dat. Cf. on 1. 1, 16. The plural mftri 
gratia. But translate blasts of. Cf. Aesch. Prom. 1086-1086 ; 
Verg. Aen. 1. 102, stridens Aquilone procella. 

14. tristes Hyadas : Epode 10. 10, tristis Orion; Verg. G. 
3. 279, contristat . . . caelum; Verg. Aen. 3. 516, pluviasque 



154 NOTES. 

Hyadas ; Term. Ulysses, ' when | Thro' scudding drifts the rainy 
Hyades | Vext the dim sea ' ; Ov. Fast. 5. 166, navita quas Hya- 
das Graecus ab imbre (veiv} vocat. Cf. Lexicon. Cf. 'the moist 
daughters of huge Atlas = Pleiads' (F. Q. 3. 1. 57). 

15. arbiter : than whom no stronger tyrant rules. Cf. 2. 17. 19, 
3. 3. 5 ; Arnold, Summer Night, ' Nor doth he know how there pre- 
vail | Despotic on that sea | Trade winds which cross it from eter- 
nity ' ; Coleridge, Anc. Mar., 'And now the storm-blast came and 
he | Was tyrannous and strong.' 

16. (seu) tollere, etc. : for omitted sen, cf. 1. 6. 19 ; Sat. 2. 8. 
16 ; Aesch. Ag. 1403. For similar omission of first neg., cf. Gil- 
dersleeve on Find. Pyth. 6. 47. ponere: cf. componere fluctus, 
Verg. Aen. 1. 135 ; Jebb on Soph. Ajax, 674. 

17. gradum: step, approach, form. Cf. 1. 33; 3.2.14; 'Death's 
foot,' 1. 4. 13; Shaks. M. for M. 5. 1, 'the swift celerity of his 
death | Which I did think with slower foot came on' ; Tibull. 1. 
10. 4, turn brevior dirae mortis aperta via est. 

18. siccis : tearless, fopols (Aesch. Sept. 696). Ancient heroes 
weep more freely than the ideal of mediaeval chivalry permits to 
the modern. Cf. Caesar, B. G. 1. 39; Odyss. 20. 349, etc. They 
were especially afraid of drowning. Cf. Arist. Eth. Nic. 3. 6. 7 ; 
Verg. Aen. 1. 93; Ov. Met. 11. 539, Fast. 3. 596, etc. ; Horace 
argues that the titanic audacity which did not fear the perils of the 
deep would not shrink from defiance of heaven. monstra : cf. 
on 3. 27. 27 ; 4. 14. 47. 

19. vidit : endured the sight. turgidum : oVS/nan 0tW is per 
haps more vivid than turbidum (cf. 3. 3. 5), which has about 
equal authority. 

20. infames : 5v<T<avv/j.ovs, because of shipwrecks. Cf. Livy, 21. 
31. 8, infames frigoribus Alpes ; Milt. Comus, ' Infamous hills and 
sandy perilous wilds.' Acroceraunia : a promontory of Epirus 
at entrance to sheltering gulf of Oricum (cf . 3. 7. 5) ; now il Monte 
della Chimera. Cf. Byron, 'And in Chimari heard the thunder- 
hills of fear, | The Acroceraunian mountains of old name.' Alto, 
Ceraunia, which some read here, occurs, Verg. G. 1. 332. Cf. 
Propert. 1. 8. 19. See the fine description in Lucan, 2. 267 sqq., 
imitated by Macaulay, Virginia, ' When raves the Adriatic be- 
neath an eastern gale, | When the Calabrian sea-marks are lost in 



BOOK I., ODE III. 155 

clouds of spume, | And the great Thunder-Cape has donned his 
veil of inky gloom' ; Tenn., 'The vast Acroceraunian walls.' 

21-22. deus . . . prudens: the providence (foresight) of God. 
Cf. 3. 29. 29 ; Herod. 3. 108. 

21-23. abscidit . . . terras : a majority of the editors take 
this of the separation of the elements to make a habitable world, 
as in Ov. Met. 1. 22, nam caelo terras, et terris abscidit undas; 
dissociabili will then mean &/J.IKTOS, unmixing, incompatible. So 
Swinburne, Erechtheus, ' For the sea-marks set to divide of old | 
The kingdoms to Ocean and Earth assigned, | The hoar sea-fields 
from the cornfield's gold, | His wine-bright waves from her vine- 
yard's fold.' But it may well mean divided the lands from each 
other by ' The unplumb'd, salt, estranging sea,' the ' bond-breaking 
sea' of Tennyson. Man transgressed this wise decree when 'the 
echoing oars | Of Argo first | Startled the unknown sea' (Ar- 
nold, Strayed Reveller). Cf. Sen. Medea, 334, bene dissaepti foe- 
dera mundi \ traxit in unum Thessala pinus. Contrast the modern 
feeling of Pope, Windsor Forest, ' Whole nations enter with each 
swelling tide, | And seas but join the regions they divide.' See 
also the last stanza of Longfellow's Lighthouse. For -abilis, active, 
cf. Verg. G. 1. 93, and Munro on Lucret. 1. 11. 

23. impiae: contrast Tenn., 'Fly happy, happy sails, and bear 
the Press, | Fly happy with the mission of the cross.' 

24. Cf. Dryden's ' invade the inviolable main.' impiae non tan- 
genda and transiliunt (1. 18. 7) reinforce each other in expressing 
the idea that man will 'easily transgress.' 

25. omnia: everything and anything. So irav and TrdvTo\fj.os. 

26. ruit : of the headlong recklessness of sin, ' licentious wick- 
edness | When down the hill he holds his steep career ' (Shaks.). 
vetitum : i.e. even in defiance of express prohibition. 

27. audax : insistent repetition leading up to the examples. 
genus: sc. Prometheus. Cf. Danai genus, 2. 14. 18; Uraniae 
genus, Catull. 61. 2. For his theft of fire, cf. Hes. Op. 60 ; Aeschy- 
lus, Prometheus; Frazer, Pausanias, III., p. 191. 

28. fraudemala: cf . dolus malus, mali fures, etc. ; or simply of 
the evil consequences. 

29. domo : cf. Eurip. fr. 491, parodied Aristoph. Frogs. 100. 
29-30. post ignem . . . subductum : the idiom of ab urbe 



156 NOTES. 

condita ; cf. on 2. 4. 10 ; cf. Milton's 'since created man,' and his 
'Bacchus . . . After the Tuscan mariners transforrn'd ' (Comus). 
For the legend, cf. Serv. ad Verg. Eel. 6. 42, (ob Promethei furtum} 
irati di duo mala immiserunt terris, febres et morbos : sicut et 
Sappho et Hesiodus memorant ; Shelley, Prom. 2. 4, ' for on the 
race of man | First famine, and then toil, and then disease, | Strife, 
wounds and ghastly death unseen before | Fell.' 

31. incubuit: cf. Lucret. 6. 1143, (mortifer aestus) incubuit . . . 
populo ; Aesch. Suppl. 684, vovatav e<r(i.6s. 

32. ' Mild was the slow necessity of death ' (Shelley, Queen 
Mab). Cf. Hes. Op. 90 sqq. semoti . . . tarda : cumulative, 
death was distant and drew nigh slowly ; prius with both words. 

32-33. necessitas leti : Homer's Holpa . . . Oavaroto. Kpa.rep^ 



33. corripuit : quickened. Cf. Lucan, 2. 100, quantoque gradu 
mors saeva cucurrit. 

34. vacuum: cf. Swinburne's 'Waste of the dead void air'; 
Horn. II. 17. 425; Find. O. 1. 6, ty-finas Si' aWtpos. For Daedalus, 
cf. 4. 2. 2 ; Verg. Aen. 6. 14 ; Ov. Met. 8. 183. 

36. perrupit : cf. manet (1. 13. 6 ; 2. 6. 14 ; 2. 13. 16 ; 3. 16. 26 ; 
3. 24. 5), always under verse ictus. There is no instance in the 
fourth book. Acheronta : into Acheron. Herculeus labor: 
cf. 2. 12. 6. A little more than the idiom of BIT; 'Hpa'fArjfir; (cf. 
on 3. 21. 11), or Milton's 'Basks at the fire his hairy strength.' 
It was a ' Herculean task,' and his twelfth labor. He went down 
to fetch Cerberus, and released Theseus. Cf. 4. 7. 28. labor: 
note how ' The line too labours, and the words move slow.' 

37. nil . . . arduist : ardui with nil, too steep, literally of caelum, 
metaphorically hard. Cf. Camoens, Lusiad, 4. 104. 

38. stultitia : because a proverbial impossibility. Cf. Find. 
Fyth. 10. 27. 

40. Pull the unwilling thunder down ' (Dryden) . iracunda : 
Find. Nem. 0. 50, 7x* (dKorov. For the transferred epithet, cf. 
on 1. 18. 7; 3. 1. 42; 1. 37. 7; Epode 16. 60; 10. 14; Arnold, 
Sohrab and Itustum, ' Come plant we here in earth our angry 
spears.' ponere: deponere, lay aside. Cf. 3. 2. 19; 3. 4. 60. 



BOOK I., ODE IV. 157 



ODE IV. 

Spring has come, and the zephyrs. Cold winter's chains are 
loosed. Enjoy the spring flowers while you may. The night of 
death is nigh. Cf. 4. 7, and Carew's lovely lines on Spring. 

L. Sestius was consul sn/ectus in the second half of the year 
6.c. 23, the probable date of the publication of the three books of 
the odes. He is possibly addressed as the consul of the year. 

1 . aolvitur : strictly perhaps of the frozen soil. Cf . solutae, 
1. 10 ; Verg. G. 2. 331, laxant area sinus. But cf. 1. 9. 5 ; Tibull. (?) 
3. 5. 4, cum se purpureo vere remittit hiems (hitmus). grata vice : 
the ' season's difference ' is felt as a welcome change. Cf. 4. 7. 3 ; 
E. 13. 8 ; 3. 29. 13 ; Milt. P. L. 7, 'To illuminate the earth and rule 
the day | In their vicissitude.' Favoni : cf. 4. 12. 2; 3. 7. 2; Cat. 
46. 2, iam caeli furor aequinoctialis \ iucundis zephyri silescit 
auris ; Milton, Sonnet 20: 'Time will run | On smoother, till 
Favonius re-inspire | The frozen earth' ; Lucret. 5. 737 sqq. 

2. machinae : rollers (KV\IV$POI) and tackle by which the ships 
were drawn down and launched at the opening of navigation. 
Caes. B. C. 2. 10; Anth. Pal. 10. 16. 

3. stabulis : byre. ignl: * ingle-lowe" 1 (Burns). 

. 5. Cythe'rea . . . Venus : the rare tautology, found only in 
later Greek poets, is perhaps justified by the separation: the god- 
dess of Cythera . . . Venus. Or perhaps 'in Cythera.' chores: 
cf. Horn. Hymn Apoll. Pyth. 16 ; Lucret. 5. 737 ; Rossetti, Sonnet 
on Botticelli's Spring. imminente luna : Milton, P. L. 1. 780, 
' while overhead the moon | Sits arbitress.' The Greek divinities, 
like the modern elves and fairies, dance in the woods, sub nocte 
silenti \ cum superis terrena placent (Stat. Silv. 1. 1. 95). 

6. Cf. 4. 7. 5 ; Rossetti ut supra, ' The Graces circling near, | 
'Neath bower-linked arch of white arms glorified' ; F. Q. 6. 10. 15, 
' These were the Graces, daughters of delight, | Handmaids of 
Venus, which are wont to haunt | Upon this hill and dance there 
day and night.' decentes: comely, 1. 18. 6; 3. 27. 53; Milton, 
Penseroso, ' And sable stole of Cyprus lawn | Over thy decent 
shoulders drawn' ; Herrick, 16, ' When I thy parts runne o're, I 
can't espie j In any one, the least indecensie.' 



158 NOTES. 

7. graves : sc. laboriosas, or perhaps ponderous. 

8. Volcanus ardens : sc. in the glow of the forge, or with 
eagerness ((nrfvSwv, 11. 18. 373 ; Verg. Aen. 2. 529, ardens insequi- 
tur). Cf. 3. 4. 58-59. n. urit : fires up, kindles. A few Mss. and 
some editors who object to seeming tautology of ardens urit, read 
visit, visits. Cf. 3. 28. 15. For the forges of the Cyclopes at 
Lipara (cf. 3. 12. 6. n.), cf. Verg. Aen. 8. 416 ; Ap. Rhod. 3. 41-; 
Callim. Hymn 3. 46. In spring they are naturally busy with the 
summer thunder-bolts. These Hesiodic (Theog. 139) Cyclopes are 
to be distinguished from the pastoral monsters of Homer, Ody. 
Bk. 9 ; F. Q. 4. 5. 37, ' He like a monstrous giant seem'd in sight, | 
Far passing Bronteus or Pyracmon great, | The which in Lipari do 
day and night | Frame thunder-bolts for Jove's avengeful threat.' 

9. nitidum : with ointment, 2. 7. 7 ; but cf . 3. 19. 25 ; 3. 24. 20 ; 

2. 12. 19. impedire : sc. vincire, 4. 1. 32 ; 1. 7. 23 ; Tibull. 1. 6. 
67, quamvis non vitta legatos \ impediat crines. Cf. expedies caput, 

3. 24. 8. 

10. aolutae : cf. Verg. G. 1. 44, zephyro putris se glaeba resolvit. 
Thomson, Spring, 'The well-us'd plough | Lies in the furrow, 
loosen'd from the frost.' 

11. Fauno : cf. 1. 17 ; 3. 18 ; umbrosis evidently cannot be pressed 
if the time is the Ides of February (Ov. Fast. 2. 193). But cf. 1. 
23. 5-6. n. 

12. poscat: sc. immolari sibi. agna: abl. instr., as often 
with verbs of sacrificing. 

13. Pallida: by association. Cf. Shaks., 'death's pale flag'; 
Milton, P. L. 10, 'Death . . . not mounted yet | On his pale horse.' 
' Where kingly death | Keeps his pale court,' Adonais, 7. Cf. also, 
white death, yellow death, etc. aequo . . . pede : Cowper, 
Yearly Bill of Mortality, 1787, ' Pale death with equal foot strikes 
wide the door | Of royal halls and hovels of the poor.' Dickens, 
David Copperfield, ch. 28, ' If we failed to hold our own, because 
that equal foot at all men's doors was heard knocking somewhere, 
every object in this world would slip from us.' Malherbe, Cons, a 
M. Du Pe"rier : ' Le pauvre en sa cabane, oil le chaume le couvre, | 
est sujet & ses lois ; | et le garde qui veille aux barrieres du Louvre | 
N'en defend point nos rois.' Cf. also 2. 18. 32. n. ; 3. 1. 14. 
pulsat : cf . Ov. Her. 21. 46, Persephone nostras pulsat acerba fores. 



BOOK I., ODE IV. 159 

For knocking with foot, cf. Plaut. Most. 444 ; Callim. Hym. Apoll. 3. 
Observe alliteration. 

14. regum : 2. 14. 11. n. beate : in the convention<al, if not in 
the stoic sense. Cf. 3. 7. 3. n. ; 2. 2. 17. n. ; II. 11. 68. 

15. summa: cf. 4. 7. 17. brevis : a commonplace. Cf. Otto 
s.v. Vita, 2. spem . . . longam: 1. 11. 6. incohare: -life's 
"brief sum forbids us open (a) long (account icith) hope (Gilder- 
sleeve). Cf. Seneca, Ep. 101, O quanta dementia est spes longas 
incohantium. 

16. iam : cf. Tibull. 1. 1. 7, iam veniet tenebris mors adoperta 
caput. Cf. Lucret. 3. 894, iam iam, etc. premet nox: cf. 4. 9. 
27. n. ; Verg. Aen. 6. 827. fabulae : cf. Emerson, Montaigne, 
' Life is eating us up. We shall be fables presently.' Herrick, 178, 
' So when you or I are made | A fable, song, or fleeting shade ; | All 
love, all liking, all delight | Lies drown'd with us in endless night.' 
Persius, 5, 152, cinis et manes et fabulafies. For fabula = theme 
of talk, cf. Epode 11. 8. There is a further Epicurean suggestion 
that the tales of a future life are fabulae ! nonsense (Ter. Heaut. 
2. 3. 95). Cf. Sen. Tro. 380, Verum est, an timidos fabula decipit \ 
umbras corporibus vivere conditis ? Callim. Ep. 15. 4. 

17. exilis: cheerless, barren of comforts (cf. Epp. 1. 6. 45, and 
plena domo, 4. 12. 24) or unsubstantial (cf. Verg. Aen. 6. 269, 
domos Ditis vacuas et inania regna, with possible suggestion of the 
' thin bat-like shrillings of the dead ' in Homer). Cf. Bacon's ' exile 
sound.' The house or chamber of death is a commonplace from 
Homer, the Bible, and Pindar, down. Plutonia : cf. Poe, The 
Raven, ' the night's Plutonian shore.' simul: 1.9. 9. n. 

18. The arbiter bibendi, symposiarch or master of the revels, was 
chosen by the dice. Cf. 2. 7. 25. n. For the Epicurean moral, cf. 
Fletcher, ' Drink to-day and drown all sorrow ' ; Lodge, ' Pluck 
the fruit and taste the pleasure | Youthful lordlings of delight ' ; 
Herrick, 541 ; 111, ' Sing o'er Horace ; for ere long | Death will 
come and mar the song ' ; Theog. 567-570, 973 ; Propert. 3. 7. 23, 
Dum nos fata sinunt, oculos saliemus amore : \ nox tibi longa venit 
nee reditura dies. 



160 NOTES. 



ODE V. 

What slim lad holds dalliance with thee now, O Pyrrha. He 
will rue the day that first he tempted the bright and fickle sea. 
I have long since hung up my dank and dripping weeds to Nep- 
tune.- 

Milton's version is well known. Imitation by Cowley, Johnson's 
Poets, 7. 73. 

1. gracilis: i<r\vos, schlank, svelte. Cf. Rossetti's 'gracile 
spring.' in rosa : probably bed of roses. Marlowe, Passionate 
Shepherd, 'There will I make thee beds of roses.' But potare in 
rosa and esse in rosa may refer to garlands. 

2. perfusus : Epode 13. 9. urget : woos. 

3. sub : under (the covert of) - in. Cf. 2. 1. 39 ; 3. 29. 14 ; 
Epod. 9. 3. 

4. cul : cf. Swinburne, ' Ah, thy beautiful hair ! so was it once 
braided for me, for me' ; Tibull. 4. 6. 3, Tibi se laetissima comp- 
sit ; Anth. Pal. 5. 228, flirt rivi TrX^eis %TI poarpvxov; flavam : 
Pyrrha means flava, the fashionable color. Cf. 2. 4. 14 ; 3. 9. 19 ; 
4. 4. 4. religaa: 2.11. 24; 4. 11. 5. 

5. simplex munditiis: 'plain in thy neatness' (Milton). Cf. 
Pliny, N. H. 2. 4, Nam quern KoV/xoc Gfraeci nomine ornamenti 
appellavere, eum et nos a perfecta absolutaqne elegantia mundum ; 
Cic. de Off. 1. 36, Adhibenda est munditia non odiosa neque exqnisita. 
Cf. Ben Jonson's, 'Still to be neat, still to be drest.' heu : cf. 1. 
15. 19. n. ; 3. 2. 9. fidem : thy faithlessness. Cf. 1. 18. 16; 3. 
24. 59 ; Ovid's de fide queri. Or supply mutatam. Cf. 3. 5. 7. n. 

6. aspera : cf. horrida, 3. 24. 40 ; Verg. Aen. 3. 285, Et glacia- 
lis hiems Aquilonibus asperat undas. And for transfer to lady's 
temper, cf. 1. 33. 15. For the image, cf. Sir Charles Sedley, 
'Love still has something of the sea, | From whence his mother 
rose ; | No time his slaves from doubt can free, | Nor give their 
thoughts repose ' ; Anth. Pal. 5. 1 ; 5. 190 ; 5. 156, ' A <f>t\fpus 
X.ap'JiTo'is ' AffK \rjTrtas aila Ya.\T)vris \ u/jL/j.a.ffi avfiirtiQei irdvras 4f>(aroir\0fiv ; 
Plautus Asin. 133; Simonides, fr. 7. 27; Heine, ' Oben Lust, im 
Busen Tucken, | Strom, du bist der Liebchen Bild : | Die kann auch 
so freundlich nicken, I Lachelt auch so from und mild.' 



BOOK I., ODE VI. 161 

7. Nigrla : effect as epithet of cause. Cf. Epod. 10. 5 ; 3. 7. 1 , 
candidi, 1. 7. 15; 2. 7. 21. n. For phenomenon, cf. II. 7. 64, 
/ufAavei Si re ir<Wo$ vir O.VTTJS ; Tenn., 'Little breezes dusk and 
shiver.' 

8. emirabitur: only here. Cf. 2. 14. 11, enaviganda. in- 
solens : unwonted to the sight. Cf. 2. 4. 2. n. ; 2. 3. 3 ; 1. 16. 21. 

9. credulus aurea : cf . 1. 6. 9. n. For vague use of aurea, cf. 
4. 2. 23 ; 2. 10. 5; Theoc. 12. 16 ; Pindar passim; Shaks., 'Golden 
lads and girls all must | As chimney sweepers come to dust ' ; 
Barry Cornwall, ' Lucy is a golden girl.' 

10. vacuam : fancy free, and so ready to entertain him. 

11. aurae : cf. 2. 8. 24. n. ; 3. 2. 20. n. 

13. iiites : perhaps keeping up the metaphor. Cf. Lucret. 2. 
559, Subdola cum ridet placidi pellacia ponti. But cf. Glycerae 
nitor, 1. 19. 5 ; splendet, 3. 3. 25 ; Catull. 2. 5, desiderio meo 
nitenti. tabula : for the votive picture, dedicated by shipwrecked 
sailors to Neptune, or Isis, cf. A. P. 20 ; Verg. Aen. 12. 768 ; F. Q. 
3. 4. 10, ' Then, when I shall myself in safety see, | A table for 
eternal monument | Of thy great grace and my great jeopardy, | 
Great Neptune, I avow to hallow unto thee ' ; Thomas Watson, 
Hecatompathia, 91, ' Hang up your votive tables in the quyre | Of 
Cupid's church.' 

15. potent! : with man's. 

ODE VI. 

Varius will chant thy deeds by sea and land, Agrippa. I cannot 
rise to tragic or epic heights I, the light singer of love. 

M. Vipsanius Agrippa was the right hand of Augustus in war, 
as Maecenas in peace. He commanded the fleet at Actium, mar- 
ried the emperor's daughter Julia, adorned Rome with magnificent 
buildings (the Pantheon), and was for many years virtually joint 
emperor with Augustus. Gardthausen, 2. 409 sqq. ; Merivale, 
3. 211-214. 

L. Varius, the intimate friend of Horace and Vergil, and editor 
of the Aeneid with Plotius Tucca after Vergil's death, wrote epics, 
tragedies, and elegies. Before the publication of the Aeneid he 
was regarded as the chief epic poet of the day. Sat. 1. 10. 43, 



162 NOTES. 

forte epos acer ut nemo Varius ducit. Cf. also Sat. 1. 5. 40 ; 1. 
5. 93 ; 1. 9. 23 ; 2. 8. 21 ; 2. 8. 63 ; Epist. 2. 1. 247 ; A. P. 55. 

The Augustan poets and their imitators frequently profess ina- 
bility to do justice to the achievements of their patrons. Cf. 
Sellar, p. 134 ; Sat. 2. 1. 12 ; Epist. 2. 1. 250 ; Odes, 4. 2. 28-36 ; 
Propert. 2. 1. 17 sqq. ; 4. 8. 

1-2. Vario . . . alite : generally taken somewhat harshly, as abl. 
abs. to save the syntax, tho abl. of agent without ab being thought 
inadmissible. Others emend aliti, dat. of agent. For bird = bard, 
cf. 2. 20. 10; 4. 2. 25; Theoc. 7. 47, Moi<rav 8pvi X es ; Thomson, 
Winter, ' Great Homer too appears of daring wing | Parent of 
Song ' ; Bacchylides, 5. 19 sqq. 

2. Maeonii : cf. 4. 9. 5. Enthusiastic friendship employed 
' Homeric ' then as freely as it does Shakesperian now. Cf. Propert. 
1. 7. 3 ; 2. 34. 66. 

3. quam . . . cumque : for the tmesis, cf. 1. 7. 25 ; 1. 9. 14 ; 
1. 16. 2; 1. 27. 14, etc. navibus . . . equis : abl. instr., a 
variation of conventional terra marique. Agrippa defeated Sex- 
tus Pompey, B.C. 36, for which navali corona a Caesare donatus 
est ; qui honos nulli ante eum habitus erat, Livy, Epit. Bk. 129. 

4. gesserit : with scriberis in an extension of the ' I know thee 
who thou art ' construction. Cf. 4. 14. 19. 

5. nos : cf. 1. 17 and 2. 17. 32, and Epist. passim. In the odes 
generally ego. neque haec . . . nee: for the paratactic form of 
parallels, cf. 3. 5. 27-30. dicere : very frequent in the odes for 
lyric utterance. gravem : Homer's oi>\o[j.fvr)v, II. 1. 2. The 
Greeks also said, &apvs x^os ; Aesch. Eumen. 800, fiapiiv nfnov. 

6. stomachum : bile, gall, spleen; cf. 1. 16. 16. A homely 
term, intentionally used for Homer's urivis, the epic theme of the 
Iliad. The figurative use of the word is not Greek, but is frequent 
in Cicero. Cf. Lex. s.v. ; F. Q. 2. 8. 23, ' But with stern looks and 
stomachous disdain.' cedere nescii: cf. Verg. Aen. 12. 527, 
nescia vinci pectora. Achilles was pervicax (Epod. 17. 14), impiger 
iracundus inexorabilis acer (A. P. 121), and recalcitrant even to 
the gods (II. 21. 223 ; Plat. Rep. 391 B). 

7. After the Iliad, the Odyssey. duplicis : iroXvrpoiros, versa- 
tile lowered to Snr\ovs (Eurip. Rhesus, 395), shifty, double tongued. 



BOOK I., ODE VI. 163 

Ulixei : cf. Epode 16. 60 ; 17. 16 ; Achillei, 1. 15. 34 ; Penthei, 2. 
19. 14 ; Alyattei, 3. 16. 41. 

8. Tragedy : cf. Milton, Penseroso, ' Presenting Thebes, or 
Pelops' line, | Or the tale of Troy divine.' The Thyestes of 
Varius was by friendly critics thought equal to any Greek trag- 
edy. Quint. 10. 1. 98. saevam . . . domum: Tantalus, Pelops, 
Atreus, Thyestes, Aegisthus, Agamemnon, a family upas-tree 
(Symonds). 

9. tenues grandia : cf. Ov. Am. 2. 18. 4, et tener ausuros 
grandia frangit amor. For Horace's favorite device of antithetic 
juxtaposition of contrasted words, cf. 1. 3. 10 ; 1.5-9; 1. 13. 14 ; 

I. 15. 2 ; 2. 16. 17 ; 2. 18. 10 ; 3. 7. 13 ; 3. 8. 1 ; 3. 11. 46 ; 3. 29. 17 ; 
3. 29. 49 ; 3. 30. 12 ; 4. 1. 6-7 ; 4. 4. 32 ; 4. 2. 31 ; 4. 4. 53 ; 4. 5. 9 ; 
and Sellar, p. 193. dum : while, shades into since. Cf. 1. 2. 17 ; 
3. 11. 50. 

10. potens: with lyrae. Cf. 1. 3. 1 ; 1. 5. 15 ; 3. 29. 41 ; C. S. 
1 ; Epist. 2. 3. 407, musa lyrae sollers. For thought, cf. Anacre- 
ontea, 23, fle'Aw \eyetv 'ArpfiSas- ... a BdpfiiTos Se Xp8a7s | fptara. 

flOVVOV T)X f ?- 

11. egregii: cf. 3. 25. 4; 3. 5. 48 ; Marlowe, Tamb. II. 1. 1, 
' Egregious viceroys of those Eastern parts.' 

12. deterere : lit. impair, by wearing away. Cf. tenuare, 3. 3. 
72 ; Epist. 2. 1. 235-237 ; Milton, ' Who can impair thee, mighty 
king?' Raleigh, Epitaph on Sidney, 'Whose virtues wounded by 
my worthless rhyme, | Let angels speak, and heaven thy praises 
tell ' ; F. Q. 3. 2. 3. 

13. quis : who but a Varius? adamantina : Homer's x a ^- 
Kox'trui'. Cf. 3. 24. 5. n. 

14. scripserit : for syntax, cf . G. L. 259 ; H. 486. The mood 
of the question is that of the expected answer, nemo scripserit. 

15. nigrum : swart, soiled. Cf. 1. 21. 7. n. ; 2. 1. 22. n. Meri- 
ones was the charioteer of the Cretan Idomeneus. Cf. 1. 15. 26 ; 

II. 8. 264, 13. 330-336. ope : cf. 4. 2. 2. 

16. parem : cf. impar, 4. 6. 5 ; Tydides, urged on by Pallas, 
-wounded Ares and Aphrodite, II. 5. 330-340, 846-855. 

17. proelia : e.g. Propert. 4. 7. 5 ; Ov. Am. 1. 5. 15. 

18. sectis : properly manicured nails are not very dreadful 
weaoons. acrium in iuvenes : cf. 1. 2. 39-40. 



164 NOTES. 

19-20. (sive) vacui aive : cf. 1. 3. 16 ; 1. 32. 7 ; 3. 4. 21-22. But 
sive quid urimur is really an afterthought. Cf. 1. 15. 25 ; 3. 27. 61. 
urimur : cf. 1. 19. 4. 11011, etc. : as is my wont. 



ODE VII. 

Beautiful are the isles of Greece, and her cities beloved of gods, 
famed in song and story. But 'Tibur is beautiful, too, and the 
orchard slopes and the Anio, | Falling, falling yet to the ancient 
lyrical cadence' (Clough). Thou, Plancus, whether in the shade 
of thy Tiburtine villa, or in the glittering camp, remember that 
wine is the best dispeller of care. This Teucer knew when, fleeing 
to exile from his angry father, he consoled his despondent mates 
with the promise of a new Salamis in a strange land. 

The loose juncture at 1. 15 led some ancient critics to assume the 
beginning of a new ode there. Lines 26 sqq. imply acquaintance 
with Verg. Aen. 1. 195 sqq., and can hardly have been written 
before B.C. 29. 

L. Munatius Plancus, a political turn-coat (morbo proditor, Veil. 
2. 83), founded Lyons as governor of Gaul in B.C. 43, was consul 
in 42, was intrusted by Antony with the government of Syria and 
Asia, and abandoned him for Octavian on the eve of Actiurn. In 
B.C. 27 he proposed the decree conferring on Octavian the title of 
Augustus, and was rewarded by the censorship B.C. 22. In what 
camp he could have been serving at this time, or what were the 
cares which Horace advises him to drown in wine, does not appear. 

1. laudabunt alii : cf. excudent alii, Verg. Aen. 6. 847. The 
antithesis is me, 1. 10. The ' praise ' need not be literary. Cf. 1. 1. 
17, laudat. claram: so Martial, 4. 55. 6; sunny. Cf. I'liny, N. 
H. 2. 62 ; Lucan, 8. 248, claramque relinquit \ sole Rhodon. But 
cf. Catull. 46. 6, ad dams Asiae volemus urbes ; 4. 8, Bhodumque 
nobilem, that is, renowned for its commerce, its art, and its schools 
of rhetoric and philosophy. Mytilenen : capital of Lesbos, pul- 
chritudine in primis nobilis (Cic.). 

2. Ephesus : capital of 'Asia,' called by Florus lumen Asiae. 
bimaris: so Ov. Met. 5. 407; Trist. 1. 11. 5, bimarem . . . 
Isthmon; Her. 12. 27; d^aAoj, Find. 0. 13. 40; a./j.<j>iOd\a<roos, 



BOOK I., ODE VH. 165 

0. 7. 33. Ai0cUa<rffor, cited by editors, does not seem to have been so 
used. Cf . Landor, ' Queen of the double sea beloved of him | Who 
shakes the world's foundations'; Anth. Pal. 7. 218, aXt&voio 
KopivBov ; Pind. 0. 13. 5. Corinthi : destroyed by Mummius B.C. 
146. Restored as colony by Julius Caesar. 

4. Tempe : Ov. Met. 1. 568, est nemus Haemoniae (Thessaly), 
praerupta quod undique claudit \ Silva: vocant Tempe, per quae 
Peneus, ab imo \ Effusus Pindo, spumosis volvitur undis; Tenn., 
'The long divine Peneian pass' ; Shelley, Hymn of Pan, 'Liquid 
Peneus was flowing, | And all dark Tempe lay | In Pelion's (sic) 
shadow outgrowing | The light of the dying day.' Cf. the descrip- 
tion in Aelian, V. H. 3. 1 ; Eurip. Troad. 214. 

5. unum opus : their one task, theme. intactae : virgin. 
Cf. 3. 4. 70, integrae. urbem: Athens. 

6. perpetuo : in continuous epic, not the short swallow-flights 
of lyric. Cf. Ov. Met. 1. 3, primaque ab origine mundi \ ad mea 
perpetuum deditcite tempora carmen. 

7. The olive was the gift of Athena and the symbol of Athens. 
To pluck from every quarter a wreath of olive for the brow, is to 
gather from all sources of legend and history material for the 
praise of Athens. Cf. Lucret. 1. 928, iuvatque novos decerpere 
flores | insignemque meo capiti petere inde coronam, | unde prius 
nulli velarint tempora musae. 

8. plurimus : many a one. Cf. Martial, 7. 36. 3, plurima 
. . . tegula; Verg. Aen. 2. 369; Juv. 3. 232. But in all these 
cases there is a substantive. Hence some deny the use. luno- 
nis: her three favorite cities were Argos, Sparta, and Mycenae 
(II. 4. 51). 

9. aptum . . . equis : l-mr6Borov (II. 2. 287). But this version 
of the Greek is perhaps due to a reminiscence of the words of 
Telemachus (Odyss. 4. 601) rendered (Epp. 1. 7. 41), ?IOM est 
aptus equis Ithace locus. dites : iro\vxpv<ros (II. 7. 180 ; Soph. El. 
9). ' Not yet to tired Cassandra lying low | In rich Mycenae do 
the fates relent' (Lang). The gold found there by Schliemann 
amply justifies the epithet. It was prehistoric to Horace as it is 
to us (Lucian, Contempl. 23 ; Anth. Pal. 9. 103). 

10. me: cf. on 1. 1. 29. patiens: hardy. Cf. Quintil. 3. 7. 
24 ; Epp. 1. 7. 40, patientis Ulixei; ' Spread on Eurotas' bank . . . 



166 NOTES. 

the patient Sparta the sober, hard, | And man-subduing city ' 
(Thomson, Liberty). 

11. Larisae . . . opimae : Thessaly is still the granary of Greece. 
Cf. II. 2. 841, lpiftia\a.Ka. percussit : cf. Vergil's ingenti percus- 
sus amore, G. 2. 476 ; Milton's ' Smit with the love of sacred song.' 

12 sqq. In order to enjoy Horace, the student should read up 
Tibur in Burn's Rome and the Campagna, or Hare's Days near 
Rome, 1. 191-207. Cf Sellar, p. 179 ; Clough, Amours de Voyage, 
3. 11, 'Here as I sit by the stream, as I gaze at the cell of the 
Sibyl, | Here with Albunea's home and the grove of Tiburnus 
beside me.' doinus : grotto. Albuneae : this old Italian oracle, 
described by Verg. Aen. 7. 83, gave its name to the last of the 
Sibyls. resonantis : from the cataract (Verg. Aen. 7. 84), nemo- 
rum quae maxima sacro \ fonte sonat ; ' To Anio's roar and Tibur's 
olive shade' (Thomson, Liberty). 

13. praeceps Anio : the Teverone. Cf. Wordsworth's wish, 
' To listen to Anio's precipitous flood | When the stillness of 
evening hath deepened its roar' ; Macaulay, Regillus, 10, 'From 
the green steeps whence Anio leaps | In floods of snow-white 
foam'; Clough, 'Tivoli beautiful is and musical, O Teverone, | 
Dashing from mountain to plain | Thy parted impetuous waters ' ; 
Propert. 3. 30. 14 ; Stat. Silv. 1. 5. 25. Tiburni : the Argive broth- 
ers Tiburnus, Catil(l)us, and Coras were the mythical founders 
of Tibur. Cf. 1. 18. 2, 2. 6. 5 ; Verg. Aen. 7. 670 ; Stat. Silv. 1. 3. 
74, ilia recubat Tiburnus in umbra. lucus : i.e. religious (sacred) 
grove. Cf. 1. 12. 60 ; Lucret. 5. 75 ; Milton, P. L. 1, ' (Moloch) 
made his grove \ The pleasant valley of Hinnom.' Tradition placed 
a villa of Horace here, domusque ostenditur circa Tiburni luculum 
(Suet. Vit. Horat.). uda: 4. 2. 30 ; 3. 29. 6. 

14. pomaria : Macaulay, Regillus, 36, 'From where the apple 
blossoms wave | On Anio's echoing banks.' Cf. Ov. Am. 3. 6. 
45 ; Propert. 5. 7. 81, ramosis (pomosis) Anio qua pornifer (spu- 
mifer') incubat arvis. mobilibus . . . rivis : the branches of 
the Anio and their rapids, ' cascatelle.' 

15. Horace may have pieced two fragments of verse together at 
this point, but we cannot separate them. albus : 3. 27. 19 ; 3. 7. 1. 
The south wind does not always ' rise with black wings' (Milton), 
as caeli fuscator Eoi (Lucan. 4. 66) . It is often (saepe) the white 



BOOK I., ODE VII. 167 

(whitening) \tvit6voTos and scours away the clouds. Cf. Arnold, 
Empedocles, 'As the sky-brightening south-wind clears the day, | 
And makes the niass'd clouds roll, | The music of the lyre blows 
away j The clouds which wrap the soul.' 

16. parturit : 4. 5. 26 ; Lucret. 6. 259, fulminibus gravidam 
tempestatem; Hymn. Orph. 21. 1, ce^'Aai . . . 6/n.ffpor^Kot. 

17. sapiens : be wise, with the wisdom of 1. 11. 6. 

17-18. finire . . . labores : so 3. 4. 39 ; Sat. 2. 3. 263, finire 
doJores. 

19. molli : mellow and mellowing. Tristitia is not sadness nor 
are labores, 'labors.' fulgentia: cf. Tac. Hist. 3. 82, fulgentia 
per colles vexilla ; They were decorated with bright silver disks, 
Pliny, N. H. 33. 58. Cf. 2. 1. 19. 

20. tenebit : apparently he is in camp. 

21. Teucer : non receptus a patre Telamone ob segnitiam non 
vindicatae fratris (Aiacis) iniuriae, ~Cyprum adpulsus cog'nomi- 
nem patriae suae Salamina constituit (Veil. 1. 1). Cf. Verg. Aen. 

1. 619. Ajax had slain himself because the arms of Achilles were 
awarded to Ulysses. For Teucer's anticipation of his reception, 
if he returned without his brother, cf. Soph. Ajax, 1007-1020. 
For Telamon's passionate invective (a popular scene in the early 
Roman drama), cf. the fragments of Pacuvius' play; Cic. de Or. 

2. 193 ; Ribbeck, Pacuv. Teucer, fr. 12. Cf. further, Isoc. 3. 28, 
9. 18. For the details that follow, Horace is our sole authority. 
Teucri vox, . . . patria est ubicumque est bene (Cic. Tusc. 5. 37. 108) 
expresses the sentiment of 1. 25. The personal application (if any) 
of the tale to Plancus is as obscure to us as is that of Pindar's myths. 

22. fugeret : sc. to exile. Cf . on 2. 13. 28 ; Sat. 1. 6. 13. uda : 
cf. on 2. 19. 18, 4. 5. 39 ; Tibull. 1. 2. 3, multo perfusum tempora 
Baccho. Lyaeo : Lyaeus (as if from \voa~), the releaser from care 
and tongue-tied dullness, epithet of Bacchus, because, as Browning 
(Aristoph. Apol.) puts it, men found 'That wine unlocked the 
stiff est lip and loosed | The tongue late dry and reticent of joke.' 
Cf. on 3. 21. 16, 1. 18. 4, 4. 12. 20; Fletcher, 'God Lyaeus ever 
young.' The god is put for his gift as Ceres for grain (Verg. Aen. 
1. 177), Venus for love, etc. Cf. Lucret. 2. 652, Bacchi nomine 
abuti | mavolt quam laticis proprium proferre vocamen. 

23. populea : as sacred to Hercules (Verg. Eel. 7. 61 ; Theoc. 



168 NOTES. 

2. 121), the wanderer (vago, 3. 3. 9) and guide, riyf/j.tav (Xen. 
Anab. 4. 8. 25.) In company with Hercules Telamon had taken 
Troy and won Hesione, the mother of Teucer. 

25. quo . . . cumque: cf. 1. 6. 3. melior: i.e. kinder. 

2(5-30. o socii . . . peioraque passi (30) : cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 
199, o socii ... o passi graviora ; Odyss. 12. 208, ' Worse deaths 
have we faced and fled from, | In the Cyclops' den, | When the 
floor of his cave ran red from | The blood of men.' Cf. also Tenn. 
Ulysses, 'My mariners, | Souls that have toil'd and wrought, and 
thought with me,' etc. ; multo graviora tulisti, Ov. Trist. 5. 11. 7. 

27. Teucro : the name is more inspiring than me. Cf. Macau- 
lay, Horat. 43, ' But will ye dare to follow, | If Astur clears the 
way ? ' So in Shaks. Julius Caesar, passim, ' Shall Caesar send 
a lie?' 2. 2. duce et auspice: suggests the formal ductu et 
auspiciis. A campaign was under the auspices of the Consul or 
Imperator (cf. on 4. 14. 33). It might not be under his personal 
conduct (Suet. Aug. 21). The auspices here are given in the next 
line. They carry Teucer and his fortunes. 

28. certus: unerring, j^ep-r^s. Cf. Find. Pyth. 9. 46, 3. 29. 
In 1. 12. 23 certus = &<pvtcros. For the oracle, cf. Eurip. Hel. 146. 

29. ambiguam : cf. 2. 5. 24. So that when Salamis was named 
men would ask, ' Which Salamis ? ' Hence, Lucan, 3. 183, Manil. 
5. 50, Sen. Troad. 854, seem to speak of a veram Salamina. 

31. nunc : so. dum licet. Cf. 1. 9. 18. pellite : Tibull. 1. 5. 
57, saepe ego temptavi curas depellere vino. 

32. ingens : awfipova. In 2. 10. 9 /uaicpd, ; in 4. 9. 19 irt\<S>pios. 
iterabimus : they had just returned from Troy. Cf. Odyss. 12. 
293 for the formula. 

ODE VIII. 

Lydia, why wilt thou ruin Sybaris with thy love ? He no longer 
witches the world with noble horsemanship, nor distinguishes him- 
self in the manly sports of the campus. Is he hiding in woman's 
dress like Achilles among the girls of Scyros ? 

The names Lydia and Sybaris are perhaps symbolic of luxury 
and effeminacy. Trans, by John Evelyn, imitated in Henry 
Luttrell's Advice to Julia. 



BOOK I., ODE VIII. 169 

1-2. per te deoa: the usual order. Cf. G. L. 413. n. 2. 
2. amando : by love, thine or his not distinguished. Cf. Verg. 
Eel. 8. 71, rantando rumpitur anguis, by song. 

4. campum : the Campus Martius by the Tiber. Cf. 3. 7. 26 ; 
Epist. 1. 7. 59 ; 2. 3. 162, aprici gramint: campi ; Sat. 1. 6. 126. 
patiens : He icho once bore so icell. With gen., as 3. 10. 20 ; Juv. 
7. 33, pelagi patiens. Cf. Sat. 2. 2. 1 10, metuensque futnri. 
aolis : so in Greek lit. the hardy man is ^A.jo>/tVos (Plat. Rep. 
556. D ; Eurip. Bacchae, 457). 

5. militares: among his soldier mates. Others, militaris (nom.), 
like a soldier. 

6. equitat : the indirect subj. is abandoned for the direct form. 
6-7. Cf. 3. 7. 25; 3. 12. 8 ; 3. 24. 54 ; F. Q. 1. 7. 37, 'A goodly 

person and could manage fair | His stubborn steed with curbed 
canon bit'; Stat. Silv. 5. 2. 113 sqq. The Gaulish horses were 
noted for their spirit. lupatis : jagged like a wolf's teeth. Cf . 
Lex. s.v. 

8. Tiberim: a swim naturally followed the exercises of the 
campus. Cf. 3. 7. 27 ; 3. 12. 7 ; Sat. 2. 1. 7, Ter uncti \ Trans- 
nanto Tiberim somno quibus est optis alto. olivum : the oil 
used for anointing wrestlers. 

9. sanguine, etc. : brachylogy for quam vital sanguinem. Cf. 
4. 9. 50. For viper's blood as poison, cf. Epod. 3. 6. 

10-12. He whose discus used to fly clear beyond the mark 
(vTr(pnTa.To aripaTa iravra, Odyss. 8. 192) no longer displays ('wears,' 
'sports') his arms black and blue from the bruises of the discus 
and the javelin (anna campestria, A. P. 379. Cf. Epist. 1. 18. 54). 
Cf. illust. in Harper's Class. Diet. s.v. Discus. 

14-16. Thetis, aware of the fate that awaited him at Troy, con- 
cealed Achilles in the garb of a girl among the daughters of 
Lycomedes, King of Scyros. Odysseus placed arms among gifts 
offered to the girls, and Achilles betrayed himself by seizing upon 
them. The tale is post-Homeric. It perhaps originated in the 
Cypria and Little Iliad, and was treated in a lost play of Sophocles 
(V 2Kupt<m). Cf. Ov. Met. 13. 162, Praescia venturi genetrix 
Nereia leti \ dissimulat cultu natum; Bion, Idyll 2. 15; Statius 
Achill. 1. 325 sqq. ; Sir Thomas Browne, Urn Burial, 'What song 
the Syrens sang, or what name Achilles assumed when he hid 



170 NOTES. 

himself among women, though puzzling questions, are not beyond 
all conjecture.' Cf. Sueton. Tib. 70, quod Achilli nomen inter 
virgines fuisset. 

13-14. marinae . . . Thetidis : cf. 4. 6. 6. 

14. sub: towards (the time of). Cf. sub noctem, 1. 9. 19. 
lacrimosa : 1. 21. 13. n. 

15-16. funera: cf. Lucret. 5. 326, funera Troiae. For thought 
that cities die like men, cf. Sulpicius (Cic. Fain. 4. 5), tot oppidum 
cadavera; Tasso, Ger. Lib. 15. 20, 'muoj6no le citta' ; Gosse, Ballad 
of Dead Cities; Lucian, Catapl. 23; Anth. Pal. 9. 151, 284; Pausan. 
8. 33. cultus : garb, 4. 9. 15. The Lycians were the chief allies 
of the Trojans. 

ODE IX. 

Winter and snow reign without. Let us enjoy a heaped hearth 
and a jar of Sabine within. Permit the rest to heaven, and rejoice, 
young man, in thy youth while thou inayest. 

Cf . Epod. 13 ; Alcaeus, fr. 34 : "Yet f*fv 6 Zeuj, tic 8' bpa.vS> fit-yas \ 
Xeiytt^f, ireirdycKTiv 8' vSarcav poai. . . . K<iB&a\\f rliv x fl ^i'\ &rl M* 1 ' 
Ttffels | irvp, fv St Ktpvals olvov d(/>ei3a>j, etc. 

Tenn. In Memoriam, 107 : ' Fiercely flies | The blast of North 
and East, and ice | Makes daggers at the sharpen'd eaves | . . . 
But fetch the wine, | Arrange the board and brim the glass ; [ Bring 
in great logs and let them lie, | To make a solid core of heat ; | Be 
cheerful-minded, talk and treat | Of all things ev'n as he were by.' 
(Trans, by Dryden and by Cowper, omitting the last stanza.) Cf. 
also Byron, Childe Harold, 4. 77 ; Victor Hugo, Apropos d' Horace ; 
Congreve, Johnson's Poets, 10. 278, ' Bless me, 'tis cold, how chill 
the air' ; ibid. 10. 421 ; Allan Ramsay's paraphrase, 'Look up to 
Pentland's tow'ring tap.' 

1. stet : stands out, looms up, conspicuous in its robe of white 
through the clear winter air. Cf. 3. 3. 42 ; Munro on Lucret. 3. 1. 
81 ; Verg. EC. 7. 53, Slant et iunipcri et castaneae hirsutae ; Aen. 
6. 471 ; Goethe, 'Die Myrthe still und hoch der Lorbeer steht^ ; 
Arnold, Obermann, ' The scented pines of Switzerland | Stand dark 
round thy green grave.' nive candidum : cf. 3. 25. 10. 



BOOK I., ODE IX. 171 

2. Soracte: twenty -six miles north of Rome. Byron, Childe 
Harold, 4. 74, ' Athos, Olympus, Aetna, Atlas, made | These hills 
seem things of lesser dignity, | All, save the lone Soracte's height, 
displayed | Not now in snow, which asks the lyric Roman's aid | 
For our remembrance, and from out the plain | Heaves like a long- 
swept wave about to break ' ; Macaulay, Regillus, ' White as Mount 
Soracte | When winter nights are long.' 

3. laborantes : cf. 2. 9. 7 ; there in the wind, here with the 
load of snow. 

4. constiterint : cf. Epist. 1. 3. 3, nivali compede vinctus ; 
Thomson, Winter, ' An icy gale . . . arrests the bickering stream ' ; 
Shelley, Sens. Plant. 3. 24 ; Ov. Trist. 5. 10. 1, Ut sumus in 
Ponto ter frigore constitit Ister. It was cold in the Sabine hills, 
but the Tiber rarely froze (Livy, 5. 13), and Horace is probably 
merely following his Greek model. acuto : Verg. Georg. 1. 93, 
penetrabile frigus ; Find. Pyth. 1. 20, x^ vos ofias. 

5. dissolve: cf. 1. 4. 1, solvitur ; Shelley to Maria Gisborn, 
' And we'll have fires out of the Grand Duke's wood, | To thaw the 
six weeks' winter in our blood.' super: 1. 12. 6; 3. 8. 17, dif- 
ferent. foco: Epod. 2. 43. The common fireplace in the atrium, 
perhaps in the country something like an Adirondack bonfire place. 

6. benignius : a<pfi.5fios, unstintingly. Contra, 1. 28. 23, ma- 
liynus. 

I. deprome : 1. 37. 5. With abl. unde. Here from the jar 
rather than the apotheca. quadrimum : about the right age for 
a cheap wine. Cf. 1. 20. 1 ; Theoc. 14. 16. 

8. Thaliarche : master of the revels ; coined by Horace. It sug- 
gests 8a\tas rbv apxovTa Or ffvjjiiroa(a.p\os. Cf. 1. 4. 18. 

9. permitte: cf. Milton's, 'Live well, how long or short permit 
to heaven ' ; Archil, fr. 51, TO?S deo'is n6e't(v~) avavra. cetera : cf. 
3. 29. 33 ; Epod. 13. 7. simul (ac): so always in Odes. Cf. 1. 4. 
17 ;. 1. 12. 27. In Satires and Epistles both simul and simul ac 
occur. Cf. Keats, ' She looked at me as [if] she did love.' 

10. stravere : cf. Tenn. Freedom, ' How long thine ever-grow- 
ing mind | Hath stilled the blast and strown the wave.' So in 
Greek, a-ropfwu^t. (Od. 3. 158), etc. 

II. deproeliantes : with one another. Cf. 1. 3. 13 ; Verg. G. 
1.318, Omnia ventorum concurrere proelia vidi ; Aesch. Prom. 1086. 



172 NOTES. 

13. Epicurean and Anacreontic commonplace : rb <rrifj.fpov ^Afi 
Hot, | rb 8' aKpiov T(S olSev; Cf. 1. 11. 8 ; 2. 10. 25 ; 3. 29. 42 ; 4. 7. 
17 ; Anth. Pal. 5. 72. fuge : i.e. noli. Cf. 2. 4. 22. 

14. fors: Fors Fortuna. 

14-15. lucro adpone : se< doicn to profit ; the language of book- 
keeping. Cf. 2. 5. 15; Cat. 28. 8, refero datum lucello ; Ov. Trist. 
1. 3. 68, in lucro est quae datur hora mihi and for thought, Epist. 

I. 4. 13, Omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum : \ Grata su- 
perveniet quae non sperabitur hora. 

16. puer : in thy youth. neque tu : recurs 4. 8. 4. Here tu 
emphatic = <rvyt. Epist. 1. 2. 60 ; Tenn. Love and Duty, ' Should 
my shadow cross thy thoughts . . . remand it thou." 1 

17. virenti : sc. tibi. Cf. 4. 13. 6 ; Epod. 13. 4 ; Theoc. 14. 70, 
27. 66 ; Ronsard, ' Antres, je me suis veu chez vous | Avoir jadis 
verds les genous.' canities: 2. 11. 8 ; crabbed, sullen, eld. 

18. campus et areae : the Campus Martius and the open 
squares around temples and public buildings. Cf. Pater, Marius, 
Chap. XI. sub fin., 'And, as the rich, fresh evening came on, there 
was heard all over Rome, far above a whisper, the whole town 
seeming hushed to catch it distinctly, the lively reckless call to 
"play" from the sons and daughters of foolishness, to those in 
whom their life was still green ' Donee virenti canities abest I 

19. susurri : cf. vv\lois yiOtcav odpois (Anth. Pal. 16. 202. 2); 
Tennyson's ' low replies ' ; Blandos audire susurros (Propert. 1. 

II. 13). 

20. Composita : of tryst. 

22. risus : sc. repetatur, but the consciousness of the verb need 
not be explicit. Cf. Pope, ' But feigns a laugh to see me search 
around, | And by that laugh the willing fair is found.' 

23. pignus : ' Frae her fair finger whop a ring, | As taiken of a 
future bliss' (Allan Ramsay). lacertis : dat. 

24. male : as neg. in normal prose with sanus only in Cic. G. 
L. 439. n. 2. Said to intensify words of bad sense, and nullify 
those of good sense. Cf. 1. 17. 25 ; Sat. 1. 4. 66 ; Cat. 10. 33. 
Here faintly resisting or mischievously resisting, according to 
point of view. 



BOOK I., ODE X. 173 



ODE X. 

The praise of Mercury as the Greek Hermes, god of eloquence 
(\6yios, facundus'), of athletics (tvay&vios), messenger of the gods 
(Sta/cropos), patron of thieves (icAe'n-TTjs), helper (tpiovvios), wielder of 
the golden wand and shepherd of the shades (xpiWp/ioTm ^"X~ 

TTO^iTTOs). 

On Greek gods in Horace, cf. Sellar, pp. 161-162. 

1. The Pleiads were daughters of Atlas, and 'of the eldest of 
those stars of spring Maia ... is born the shepherd of the 
clouds, wing-footed and deceiving, blinding the eyes of Argus, 
escaping from the grasp of Apollo, restless messenger between 
the highest sky and topmost earth, the herald Mercury, new 
lighted on a heaven-kissing hill' (Kuskin). Cf. Alcaeus, fr. 5, 
\cupt KuAAavas fa /ue'Sets <re yap juoi \ QV/J.OS t/jucrjf, rbv Kopvfyais tv aitrais \ 
Ma?a ffwa.ro KpoviSa fiiyfura. Simon., fr. 18 (27); Eurip. Ion, 1; 
Martial, 7. 74. 1 ; Ov. Fast. 5. 663. 

2. feros cultus : cf. Tenn., ' These were the rough ways of the 
svorld till now.' recentum : early, i.e. ' recent ' from their origin. 

3. voce ; ' I gave man speech, and speech created thought,' says 
Shelley's Prometheus. Before language men were mutum et turpe 
pecns (Sat. 1. 3. 100). cat us : an archaic word. Cf. 3. 12. 10. 
et decorae : cf. 3. 14. 7. Grace and beauty come from gym- 
nastic exercises. 

4. more : habit, practice. 

6. parentem : cf. ' father of chemistry and cousin of the Earl 
of Cork.' Cf. on 1. 21. 11 ; 1. 32. 14 ; 3. 11. 3. 

7. callidum . with complementary inf. Cf. 3. 11. 4, and collet, 
4. 9. 49 ; Epist. 1. 10. 26. iocoso : fj.d\a ySeiai a! K\owal rov Oeov 
(Philost. Imag. 1. 26). 

8. furto Eurip. (?) Rhesus, 217, <pri\-nTcev &va ; Longfellow, 
Masque of Pandora, ' by thy winged cap | and winged heels I know 
thee. Thou art Hermes | captain of thieves.' Cf. Shelley's ex- 
quisitely funny version of the Homeric Hymn to Hermes. 

9-12. Cf: Dobson, A Case of Cameos, ' Here great Apollo with 
unbended bow, | His quiver hard by on a laurel tree, | For some 
new theft was rating Mercury, | Who stood with down-cast eyes 



174 NOTES. 

and feigned distress | As daring not for utter guiltiness, | To meet 
that angry voice and aspect joined. | His very heel-wings drooped ; 
but yet not less | His backward hand the sun-god's shafts pur- 
loined.' reddidisses : the threat implied by minaci would run 
in the direct form nisi reddideris. Dum terret is equivalent to a 
secondary tense for the sequence. 

11. viduus : i.e. (to see himself) bereft of. Cf. Gk. Lex. s.v. 



12. risit: had to laugh. Cf. 3. 11. 22. 

13. quin et : a rather prosaic transition. Cf. 2. 13. 37 ; 3. 11. 21. 
Priam's stealthy visit to the Greek camp by night, under the con- 
duct of Hermes, to kiss the murderous hands of Achilles, and ran- 
som the body of Hector, is told in one of the most touching episodes 
of the Iliad, 24. 159 sqq. 

14. dives : perhaps with special reference to the rich ransom 
he bore (11. 24. 232). 

15. iniqua : a metrically convenient word freely used by Horace 
in various shades of meaning. Cf. 1. 2. 47 ; 2. 10. 4 ; 2. 4. 16 ; 2. 
6. 9 ; 3. 1. 32. Troiae : dat. of course. 

17. reponis : bringest to their appointed place. For force of re, 
cf. 1. 3. 7 ; 1. 9. 6. But cf. Sen. Dial. 6. 19. 5, mors . . . quae 
nos in illam tranquillitatem in qua antequam nasceremur iacuimus 
reponit. The idea then would be that pious souls are restored to 
the Elysium from which they were taken at birth. Cf. Verg. Aen. 
6. 756 sqq. 

18. sedibus : abl. virga : the caduceus, Kypvufiov, pdBSos 
(Hym. Herm. 529) ; ' The golden wand that causes sleep to fly | 
Or in soft slumber seals the wakeful eye ; | That drives the ghosts 
to realms of night or day, | Points out the long uncomfortable way ' 
(Pope's Odyssey, 24. 1-4) ; ' His sleepy yerde in hand he bore 
upright, | And hat he wered upon his haires bright' (Chaucer) ; 
' The serpent-wanded power | Draw downward into Hades with 
his drift | Of flickering spectres ' (Tenn. Demeter) ; Verg. Aen. 
4. 242. In Find. O. 9. 35, Hades has a similar staff. coerces: 
as a shepherd his flock. Cf. 1. 24. 18. 



BOOK I., ODE XI. 175 



ODE XL 

Have done with unlawful pryings into futurity, Leuconoe. Live 
while you live. Old time is still a-flying. 

Cf. Dobson's Villanelle, ' Seek not, O maid, to know, | Alas ! 
unblest the trying, | When thou and I must go ' ; George O. Tre- 
velyan's amusing parody, ' Matilda, will you ne'er have ceased | 
Apocalyptic summing, | And left the number of the beast | To 
puzzle Doctor Gumming?' There is a weak imitation in Dodsley, 
4. 105, and a poor version by Hamilton, Johnson's Poets, 15. 635. 
For the beautiful choriambic metre, cf. 1. 18, 4. 10, Catull. 30, 
Sappho, fr. 68 (19), and Swinburne's metrical experiment, 'Love, 
what ailed thee to leave life that was made lovely, we thought, 
with love ? ' 

1. quaesieris : ne with perf. subj. is a more peremptory col- \ /.^U^c 
loquial prohibition than ne with present subj., or the normal polite ,. ^ 
periphrasis with noli. Between Terence and Livy it is found only ^ 

in distinctly colloquial passages in Cicero and four times in Horace. 
Elmer, Latin Prohibitive, pp. 3, 19. scire nefas : cf. Lucan, 
1. 127 ; Stat. Theb. 3. 563 ; infra, 4. 4. 22 ; Epode 16. 14 ; 3. 29. 
32. 

2. nee : Elmer, Lat. Prohib. p. 27, says that Horace is the first 
poet to use nee with perf. subj. in clearly prohibitive sense following 
ne. Neve or neu was normal. It will be observed that nee temptaris 
is virtually a mere expansion of ne quaesieris, and adds nothing 
new; temptaris = temptando. Cf. Munro on Lucret. 5. 891. 

3. numeros : the calculations of Chaldaean astrologers, called 
mathematici. Cf. on 2. 17, and Tac. Hist. 1. 22. ut melius : 
how much better. Cf . Sat. 2. 6. 53 ; Verg. Aen. 2. 283. quid- 
quid erit : cf. Verg. Aen. 5. 710, quidquid erit, superanda omnis 
fort tin a ferendo est. 

4. hiemes : the years are marked by summers or winters to 
suit the rhetorical color. Cf. Tenn., 'A hundred winters snowed 
upon his breast.' tribuit: hasassif/ned; eS<aicei>, tirtK\taafv. 

5. debilitat : breaks the force of. Cf. Lucret. 2. 1155, fluctus 
plangentis saxa. pumicibus : any wave-eaten stone. Cf. Verg. 
Aen. 5. 214; Lucret. 1. 326, vesco sale saxa peresa. 



176 NOTES. 

6. liques: i.e. strain out the sediment through the colum or 
colander. spatio brevi : abl. abs. of reason, because of the 
briefness of our span. 

7. spem longam : cf. 1. 4. 15, the 'long thoughts' of youth; 
'quittez le long espoir et les vastes pens^es.' Cf. Cowley, Short- 
ness of Life, ' Horace advises very wisely, and in excellent good 
words, spatio brevi spem lonyam reseces ; from a short life cut off 
all hopes that grow too long. They must be pruned away like 
suckers that choke the mother-plant, and hinder it from bearing 
fruit.' dum loquimur : cf. Persius, 5. 153, vive memor leti, 
fugit hora, hoc quod loquor inde e.st; Longfellow, ' Wisely the 
Hebrews admit no present tense in their language ; | While we 
are speaking the word, it is already the past'; Boileau, 'Le 
moment ou je parle est de"ja loin de moi.' fugerit: will be gone. 
Cf. Lucret. 3. 915, iamfuerit; Milton, 'Fly, envious time, till thou 
run out thy race ' ; Fitzgerald's Omar Khayyam, 7, ' The Bird of 
time has but a little way | To nutter and the Bird is on the wing.' 
invida : that grudges to grant the prayer of happy youth, 'O 
temps, suspends ton vol,' etc. (Lamartine). 

8. carpe diem : catch as it flies or pluck the flower of. Cf. 
Martial, 7. 47. 11, vive velut rapto fuyitivaque gaudia carpe; 
But 3. 27. 44, carpere flores ; Juv. 9. 12(i, flosculus angustae mi- 
seraeque brevissima vitae Portio. The two points of view blend 
in Tennyson's ' They lost their weeks ; they vexed the souls of 
Deans | . . . And caught the blossom of the flying terms.' For 
the general Epicurean sentiment, cf. Epist. 1. 4. 13 ; 1. 11. 23 ; Eurip. 
Alcest. 782; Ecclesiastic. 14. 14. credula : cf. Epist. 1. 4. 13; 
Fitzgerald's Omar Khayyam, ' To-morrow ! why, to-morrow I may 
be | Myself with yesterday's seven thousand years' ; Trevelyan, 
'And book me for the fifteenth valse: there just beneath my 
thumb, | No, not the next to that, my girl ! The next may never 
come.' 

ODE XII. 

What man, what hero, what god shall we sing, Clio, while 
echo repeats his name in the fabled haunts of the Muses ? Of gods, 
the All-father first, then Pallas, Diana. Liber, Phoebus. Of heroes, 



BOOK I., ODE XII. 177 

Hercules, Castor, Pollux. Of men, Romulus and the worthies 
whose virtues and sacrifices built up the Empire of Rome. Bright- 
est in the constellation of glory shines the Julian star. Augustus, 
conqueror of the Orient, reigns on earth the vicegerent of Jove in 
heaven. 

The date seems fixed by 1. 46 to some time between the death 
of Marcellus, in B.C. 23, and the announcement of his marriage to 
Julia, which took place B.C. 25. 

Translated by Pitt, Johnson's Poets, 12. 381. 

1. quern virum, etc. : taken from Pindar's riva. 8t6i>, rtv 9ip<aa, 
riva 8' ai>5pz Ke\a8riffo/j.fi> ; (O. 2. 2). The attempts to trace further 
a spiritual resemblance between the two odes are fanciful. We 
might as well compare Sir Charles Williams' poem, The States- 
man, because of its beginning, ' What Statesman, what hero, what 
King, | Whose name thro' the island is spread, | Will you choose, 
oh, my Clio, to sing, | Of all the great living, or dead ? ' heroa : 
demigod. lyra is Greek, tibia Roman, but we need not press the 
distinction. acri : Quintil. 8. 2. 9. cites the epithet as aproprium. 
Cf. ' ear-piercing fife. ' Aryei'j;, II. 9. 186. 

2. sumis : so sumite materiem (A. P. 38 ; Epp. 1. 3. 7). cele- 
brare : cclebrandum in normal prose. G. L. 421. 1. b. Clio was 
later the Muse of history. But Horace uses the names of the 
Muses freely on the principle of the Alexandrian poet, Rhianus, 
iraffai 5' flcraiovffi, fjnTJs ore r otjvo/j.a Ae|eiy. Cf. On 1. 24. 3. 

3. recinet : 3. 27. 1. 

3-4. iocosa . . . imago : cf. 1. 20. 6. Imago alone may = TJX > 
Varro, R. R. 3. 16. 12 ; Verg. G. 4. 50, saxa sonant vocisque offensa 
resnltt imar/a ; Lucret. 4. 571, imagine verbi. Cf. Words. Power 
of Sound, ' Ye voices and ye shadows and images of voice.' On 
echo, cf. further, Ov. Met. 3. 356; Eurip. Hec. 1111; Soph. 
Philoctet. 186; Aristoph. Thesm. 1059; Daniel, 'Echo, daughter 
of the air, | Babbling guest of rocks and hills' ; Shaks. Twelfth 
Night, 1. 5, 'And make the babbling gossip of the air | Cry out 
Olivia ' ; Shelley, Adonais, 15. 

5. oris : cf. 2. 9. 4 ; the hem, border, or edge ' where Helicon 
breaks down in cliff to the sea.' Horace is thinking of the Boeo- 
tian or Hesiodic school of poetry, and there are touches that sug- 

N 



178 -NOTES. 

gest the vision of the Muses in Hes. Theog. 1-10 sqq., so exquisitely 
imitated in the last song of Callicles, in Arnold's Empedocles. 

6. Pindo : Verg. Eel. 10. 11. Haemo : the earlier Thracian 
seat of the worship of the Muses, and the tradition of Orpheus. 
Cf. Verg. G. 2. 488, 0, qui me gelidis convallibus Ifaemi \ sistat. 

7. temere : blindly, in mad rout; 2. 11. 14. 

8. Orphea : a symbol of the charms of music ' to soothe a sav- 
age breast, | To soften rocks or bend a knotted oak.' Cf. Simon, 
fr. 40; Aeschyl. Ag. 1629; Eurip. Bacchae, 562; Iph. Aul. 1211, 
etc. ; Anth. Pal. 7. 8; Apoll. Rhod. 1. 26; Ov. Met. 11. 44-46; 
Hor. Epp. 2. 3. 392 ; Shaks. Henry VIII. 3. 1, M. of V. 5. 1 ; 
Dry den, St.. Cecilia, 'Orpheus could lead the savage race, | And 
trees unrooted left their place | Sequacious of the lyre' ; Tenn. 
Amphion ; Dobson, A Case of Cameos, Sardonyx ; Words. Power 
of Music. Cf. also on 1. 24. 13; 3. 11. 13. 

9. materna : Calliope ; Verg. Eel. 4. 57. Cf. fraterna, 1. 21. 12. 
morantem : 3, 11, 14, morari. Cf. 'Thyrsis, whose artful strains 
have oft delayed | The huddling brook to hear his madrigal,' 
Milton, Comus ; Sen. Here. Fur. 577, ars quae praebuerat flumini- 
bus moras ; Verg. Eel. 8. 4. 

10. lapsus: cf. Milton's 'liquid lapse of murmuring streams,' 
and his ' smooth -slid ing Mincius ' ; Horace's labitur et labettir ; 
Epode 2. 25, labuntur. 

11. blandum: cf. 1. 24. 13 ; 3. 11. 15 ; 4. 1. 8 ; Propert. 1. 8. 40, 
blandi carminis obsequio. auritas : Tyrrell, Latin Poetry, p. 
184, says that ' long-eared oaks ' is a ' strange deviation from the 
lyrical manner.' Cf. Verg. G. 1. 308, auritos lepores. But cf. 
Plaut. Asin. Prol. 4, face mine iam . . . omnem attrition poplum ; 
Manilius, 5. 322, et sensus scopulis et silvis addidit anres ; Milton, 
' that wild rout that tore the Thracian bard | In Rhodope where 
woods and rocks had ears | To rapture.' fidibus canoris : Verg. 
Aen. 6. 120, Threicia fretus cithara fidibusque canoris. 

13. solitis : the customary ab love principium (Verg. Eel. 3. 60), 
the tK Aibs apx<a/*ftrOa. of Greek poetry ; Arat. Phaen. 1 ; Find. 
Nem. 2. 1. parentis: 2. 19. 21; Arnold, Empedocles, 'First, 
hymn they the father | Of all things ; and then, | The rest of 
immortals, | The action of men' ; Hesiod, Theog. 16-18. Cf. 3. 4. 
45 ; Verg. Aen. 1. 230. 



BOOK I., ODE XII. 179 

15. mundum: the universe, and more specifically the heavens. 
Cf. Munro on Lucret. 1. 73. 

16. temperat : governs, preserves the harmonious order of. Cf . 
3. 4. 45 ; Epp. 1. 12. 16 ; Propert. 4. 4. 26, quis deus hanc mundi 
temperat arte domum; Ovid, cited on 1. 49; Thomson, Spring, 
'And temper all, thou world-reviving sun, | Into the perfect year' ; 
Pausan. 1. 40. 4. horis: seasons. Cf. 3. 13. 9; A. P. 302. 

17. unde : ex quo. Cf. 1. 28. 28 ; 2. 12. 7 ; Sat. 1. 6. 12 ; 2. 6. 
21. So the Deity in Milton, ' For none I know | Second to me or 
like, equal much less.' 

18. secundum : cf. Quintil. 10. 1. 53, ut plane manifesto 
apparent quanta sit aliud proximum esse, aliud secundum; i.e. 
close following (sequor). Cf. Verg. Aen. 5. 320. Hence tamen 
is to be taken closely with proximus. 

19. occupavit = obtinet. Some read occupabit. 

20. Pallas : she is in Homer second only to Zeus. Hesiod says 
her power is equal to her sire's, Theog. 896. In Aeschylus 
(FAimen. 826) she boasts that she alone knows the keys of the 
chambers of the thunder-bolt. Cf. Callim. Hymn 5. 132-133. 

21. proeliis audax is a possible epithet of Liber conceived as 
the Greek Bacchus (cf. 2. 19. 28), and balances inimica and 
metuende if so taken rather than with Pallas. But the position of 
neque is unusual. 

22. Cf. on cohibentis arc?*, 4. 6. 34 ; Theog. 11, "Apre/ju 8ripo<p6vrj. 
virgo : voc. 

23-24. certa . . . sagitta : cf. Catull. 68. 113. Byron, Childe 
Harold, 4. 161, 'The lord of the unerring bow,' with which he 
slew the Python ; Ov. Met. 1. 438 sqq. 

25. Alciden : Hercules. Cf. Lexicon. So in English poetry, 
' Young Alcides when he did redeem | The virgin tribute paid by 
howling Troy,' Shaks. M. of V. 3. 2. puerosque Ledae: II. 3. 

237, KdiTTOpd 6' iiriroSafj.oi' Kal TTI>{ aya&bv no\vdevKea } Sat. 2. 1. 26, 

Castor gaudet equis, ovo prognatus eodem \ pugnis. 

27. quorum : when their. simul (c) : 1. 9. 9. 
27-28. alba . . . stella : cf. on 1. 3. 2. 

28. refulsit : cf. on 2. 17. 23. 

29-32. Cf . Theoc. 22. 15 ; note position of verbs : back from the 
rocks streams down die the winds away flee the clouds. Cf. 



180 NOTES. 

Tenn. Locksley Hall, ' Droops the heavy-blossomed bower, hangs 
the heavy-fruited tree.' agitatus humor : wind-blown spray, or 
'wind-shaked surge' (Othello, 2. 1). 

30. concidunt: cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 154, sic cunctus pelagi cecidit 
fragor. 

31. et : joins (29 + 30) to 31, 32. sic voluere : parenthetical 
formula of submission to or recognition of the inscrutable divine 
power. Cf. 1. 33. 10 ; II. 1. 5. Some read sic di. 

32. recumbit : Sen. Thyest. 589, mitius stayno pelagus recumbit. 

33. quietum : the peaceful reign of Numa Pompilius established 
the religious and civil traditions of Rome. Cf. Livy, 1. 21. 6. 

35. Tarquini . . . Catonis : the last king and the last republican. 
Proud rule of Tarquin = rule of Tarquin the Proud Superbus. 
Cf. Cic. Phil. 3. 9, Tarquinius . . . non crndelis . . . tied superbus 
habitus est et dictus. His reign was splendid on the whole, despite 
its disgraceful close. Macaulay, Virginia, ' He stalked along the 
Forum like King Tarquin in his pride.' dubito : the throng of 
great memories crowds on the soul of the bard. Cf. Verg. Aen. 
6. 842-845 ; Gray, The Bard, ' Visions of glory, spare my aching 
sight.' 

36. nobile letum : his suicide at Utica, which gave him the 
epithet Uticensis, and made him the idol of declaimers. Cf. on 
2. 1. 24. 

37. Regulum : cf . on 3. 5. 13 sqq. Scauroa : Niebuhr says he 
never could understand why Horace placed Scaurus in this roll of 
honor. See the character of M. Atinilius Scaurus, Sail. Jug. 15. 
Cicero often praises him. Cf. Juv. 11. 90. The reference is per- 
haps to the story of M. Scaurus, lumen ac decus patriae (Valer. 
Max. 5. 8. 4), whose stern rebuke to his son for joining the rout in 
the defeat of Catulus by the Cimbri drove the young man to suicide. 

38. L. Aemilius Paullus sought voluntary death on the field of 
Cannae (B c. 216), lost by the rashness of his colleague in the con- 
sulship, Terentius Varro. Cf. Livy, 22. 49. For prodigum, cf. 
Ov. Am. 3. 9. 64, sanguinis atque animae prodige Galle tnae. 

39. gratus: possibly in grateful memory, or merely pleasing. 
Cf. Martial, 4. 55. 10, grata non pudeat referre versu. insigni : 
in lofty strain, or quae reddit insignes. Cf. 3. 25. 7, dicam insigne. 
camena: cf. Lexicon, s.v. ; 2. 16. 38 ; 3. 4. 21 ; 4. 6. 27 ; 4. 9. 8. 



BOOK I., ODE XII. 181 

40 sqq. Cf. Milton, P. R. , ' Canst thou not remember | Quin- 
tus, Fabricius, Curius, Regulus? | For I esteem those names of 
men so poor, | Who could do mighty things.' The constancy of 
Fabricius, whom King Pyrrhus' gold could not seduce nor his ' big 
beast ' terrify, is in all the copy books. Cf . Cic. de Off. 3. 22 ; 
Plut. Pyrrhus. For M' Curius Dentatus, consul 275, who defeated 
Pyrrhus at Beneventum, cf. Macaulay, cited on Epode 9. 24. 
Camillus took Veii and delivered Rome from the Gauls (390). 
The names of all three were proverbial to point a moral. Cf. Otto, 
Sprichworter der Homer, s.v. Cf. Martial, 1. 24. 3 ; Juv. 2. 3. 

41. incomptis : Quintil. (9. 3. 18) quotes this line. There were 
no barbers at Rome till after B.C. 300. intonsis is read. Cf. on 
2. 15. 11. 

42. utilem : belongs to all these names. Cf. Eurip. Suppl. 887, 
ir6\fi wapaffx^f <ru>fj.a xp^^ 1 ^ " Of\tt ; Ov. Met. 14. 321, utilium 
bello . . . equorum ; Soph. Ajax, 410. 

43. paupertas : cf. 3. 2. 1 ; 3. 24. 42. apto : the dwelling 
matches the modesty of the little ancestral farm. 

45. pcculto . . . aevo: cf. Shakspeare's 'unseen, yet crescive 
in his faculty ' ; Anth. Pal. 7. 564. 3, aviaia-roio xp^voto ; Ov. Met. 
10. 519, labitur occulte fallitque volatilis aetas. Nauck, however, 
takes it of a tree whose roots go back to unknown antiquity, 
Kiessling of growth towards an unknown future ! For the com- 
parison of tree and family, cf. Find. Nem. 8. 40. 

46. Horace, like Vergil (Aen. 6. 860), blends the name andfame 
of M. Claudius Marcellus, who took Syracuse B.C. 212, with that 
of the young Marcellus, son of Octavia, husband of the emperor's 
daughter Julia, whose premature death B.C. 23 was so much de- 
plored. Cf. Propert. 4. 17. 15 ; Gardthausen, 2. 399 sqq. micat : 
cf. Ov. Trist. 5. 3. 41, sic micet aeternum vicinaque sidera vincat. 

47. luliutn sidus : cf. Verg. Eel. 9. 47, ecce Dionaei processit 
Caesaris astrum. A comet appeared after the death of Julius 
Caesar. Cf . Pliny, N. H. 2. 93. Gray, Ode for Music, ' The star of 
Brunswick smiles serene, | And gilds the horrors of the deep.' 
ignes : 'Doubt that the stars are fire,' says Hamlet; 'cold fires,' 
Tennyson calls them. 

48. minores: Epode 15. 2. Cf. Sir H. Wotton, 'You common 
people of the skies, | What are you, when the moon shall rise ' ? 



182 NOTES. 

Cf. Claudian's expansion of the image, In. Prob. et Olybr. Con. 
22 sqq. ; Sappho, fr. 3 ; Bacchylides, 9. 28. 

49 sqq. Jupiter in heaven, Augustus on earth. Cf. Ov. Met. 
15. 858, luppiter arces \ temperat aetherias et mundi reyna tri- 
formis : \ Terra sub Augusta : pater est et rector uterque. custos : 
4. 5. 2 ; 4. 15. 17. 

53-55. seu . . . sive : marking divers alternatives that lead to 
one conclusion. Cf. 4. 2. 10 ; 1. 1. 27 ; 1. 4. 12 ; 1. 16. 3 ; 2. 3. 5 ; 
1. 7. 20 ; 2. 14. 11 ; 2. 17. 17 ; 3. 4. 22 ; 3. 21. 2. 

53. imminent es : cf . on 3. 6. 9. 

54. egerit : the captives preceded the chariot of the triumphator. 
Cf. on 4. 2. 34. iusto : legitimo, fairly earned. 

55. subiectos . . . orae : beneath the margin of the eastern 
sky, or simply along the farthest eastern shore. Cf. Tenn. T iresias, 
'All the lands that lie | Subjected to the Heliconian ridge.' 

56. Cf. 1. 2. 22. n.; 4. 15. 23 ; 3. 29. 27; 4. 14. 42. 

57. minor: 3. 6. 5. 

59. parum castis : desecrated, polluted, by homicide or other 
crime. The stroke of the lightning was sufficient proof of the fact 
and required expiation (Preller- Jordan, 1. 193). 



ODE XIII. 



Jealousy. When thou praisest Telephus, Lydia, I turn pale, 
I weep, I burn. Deem them not pledges of a lasting love ' the 
ravenous teeth that have smitten | Through the kisses that blossom 
and bud.' These violent delights have violent deaths. Blest is the 
tie that truly binds, unbroken to the end. 

Translated by Blacklock, Johnson's Poets, 18. 216. 

1. Telephi : the angry repetition has the effect of a direct quota- 
tion of her fond iteration. Cf. on 1. 35. 15, and Plato, Symp. 212. 
D ; Sat. 1. 6. 45. For name cf. 3. 19. 26 ; 4. 11. 21. 

2. roseam: Verg. Aen. 1. 402, rosea cervice ; Tenn. Princess, 
'the very nape of her white neck | was rosed,' etc. cerea: ap- 
parently of the smooth even texture of the flesh. But Ovid uses 
wax as type of whiteness (A. A. 3. 199; Ex Pont. 1. 10. 28). 



BOOK I., ODE XIII. 183 

Lin-tea has been read. Cf. ' faite de cire a l'e"gard des bras,' Me"m. 
de Grammont (Munro, Eng. J. Phil. 11. 336). 

4. difficili : variously referred to the unpleasantness of the bile, 
or the moroseness of the bilious person. Perhaps the idea is that 
of Juvenal's difficili crescente cibo (Sat. 13. 213) and Shakspeare's 
' digest the venom of your spleen. 1 tumet iecur : cf. on 4. 1. 12. 
In Homer, II. 9. 646, olSou'erai KpaMr) x^V> Archil, fr. 131, assigns 
gall to liver; but in Sat. 2. 3. 213, Hor. writes vitio tumidum est 
cor. 

5. color: cf. Homer's rpfirfrat xpu*'* Eurip. Alcest. 174; Apoll. 
Rhod. 3. 297 ; Propert. 1. 15. 39, multos pallere colores. 

6. manet: cf. on 1. 3. 36. Some read manent after nee nee, 
citing Cic. Fin. 3. 21. 70. in geuas : cf. 4. 1. 34. 

8. quam : with penitiis. Cf. 2. 13.21. leutis: slow-consum- 
ing. Cf. 3. 19. 28 ; Tibull. 1. 4. 81. 

9. uror resumes iynibus. candidos : cf. on 2. 5. 18. 

10. immodicae : cf. modici, 1. 18. 7. mero : abl. cause. 

11. rixae : cf. on 1. 17. 25 ; Propert. 3. 7. 19. 

12. dente: like Catull. 8. 18, Tibull. 1. 6. 14, and the heroes of 
Swinburne, Telephus, in Lowell's phrase ' finds refuge from an in- 
adequate vocabulary in biting.' 

13. satis : idiomatic. Cf. 3. 15. 7. 

14. perpetuum : a constant lover. dulcia barbare: cf. on 
1. 6. 9. 

15. oscula : kisses and lips need not be distinguished. 

16. quinta parte : p*erhaps merely a goodly portion, as the 
Greeks said that honey was the ninth part of ambrosia ; possibly 
an allusion to the quintessence or W^wm) ovala of the Pythagoreans, 
which, of course, has nothing to do with the essences that ' turn 
the live air sick ' of the perfumer. 

17. ter et amplius : cf. 1. 31. 13. 

18. inrupta: unbroken = unbreakable for poetry. Cf. 1. 24. 7. 
copula: the yoke of love an appriKros 5eo>o'y. Cf. on 1. 33. 11. 
Hence solvet below. 

20. citius . . die: cf. on 1. 8. 9, 



184 NOTES. 



ODE XIV. 

The Ship of State : navem pro re publica, fluctus et tempesta- 
tes pro bellis civilibus, portum pro pace et concordia (Quintil. 
8. 6. 44). 

Sellar (p. 122) thinks the poem coincident with Epode 7. It 
might have been written at any time before the final establishment 
of the empire. It is idle to carry the allegory into every detail of 
the ode. As Professor Tyrrell wittily says : ' Horace no more had 
in his mind the Mithridatic wars when he wrote Pontica pinus 
than Tennyson thought of the Wars of the Roses when he wrote 
in the Talking Oak "She left the novel half uncut upon the rose- 
wood shelf." ' 

For image of Ship of State, cf. Alcaeus, fr. 18; Theog. 671; 
Plato, Rep. 488 A ; Aeschyl. Septem. 1 ; Jebb on Soph. Antig. 16-'! ; 
Longfellow's Ship of State ; William Everett, Atlantic Monthly, 
1895; Speech of Maecenas, Dio. 52. 16. 

The ode has been prettily translated by Dobson as a 'Ballade, 1 
'Ship to the roadstead rolled' ; by Calverly ; Gilbert West, Dods- 
ley's Poems, 2. 293; paraphrased by Swift, Johnson's Poets, 11. 
451 ; cf. Ode sur la situation de la Re'publique, 1794, Marie Joseph 
Che'nier. 

1. in mare : ancient sailors hugged the shore. Cf. 2. 10. 1-4. 

2. occupa : i.e. anticipate, ^flai/eic, the storm. Cf. Epist. 1. 6. 
32, cave ne portus occupet alter. Cf. Milton's 'like a weather- 
beaten vessel holds | gladly the port.' 

3. vides ut: 1. 9. 1 ; 3. 10. 5-8. For one verb used of both 
sight and sound, cf. Verg. Aen. 4. 490 ; Aeschyl. Prom. 21-22. 

4. nudum : we may ' understand ' sit rather than strain gemant 
by zeugma. remigio : cf. remigioque carens (Ov. Met. 8. 228). 

5. saucius: cf. volnerata navis, Livy, 37. 24. 8; Herod. 8. 18; 
and Longfellow, Wreck of the Hesperus, ' But the cruel rocks, they 
gored her side | Like the horns of an angry bull. 1 

6. funibus : uiro^ufj.ara, undergirding (Acts 27. 17; Plato, Rep. 
616. C). 

7. durare : Verg. Aen. 8. 577, durare laborem. carinae : 
timbers. 



BOOK I., ODE XV. 185 

8. imperiosius : may this have suggested Shakspeare's ' In 
cradle of the rude imperious surge ' ? 

10. di : images of tutelary divinities at the stern. They have 
been washed away. Cf. Ov. Trist. 1. 4. 8, et pictos verberat undo, 
deos; Lucan, 3. 512; Verg. Aen. 10. 171 ; Pers. 6. 30. 

11. Pontica : the Poutus was famed for ship-timber (Catull. 
4.9-1:}). 

1-2. filia : cf. Catull. 64. 1, Peliaco quondam prognatae vertice 
pinus ; Martial, 14. 90. 1, silvae filia Maurae (of a table). 

13. inutile : unavailing. Cf. on 3. 24. 48. 

14. pictis : Ov. Met. 0. 511, at simul imposita est pictae Philo- 
mela carinae. Cf. Verg. Aen. 7. 431, 8. 93; Sen. Ep. 76. 10. 
navita: 1. 1. 14. 

14-15. Unless thou art destined to be the sport of the winds, 
beware. Cf. Verg. Aen. 6. 75, rapidis ludibria ventis. 

15. tu: cf. 1. 9. 16. n. 

17. From sheer weariness and disgust at civil strife, Horace has 
passed to anxious solicitude for the prosperity of the new empire. 
' Ship of the State before | A care and now to me | A hope in 
my heart's core' (Dobson). 

19-20. A pretty picture at the close. Cf. 3. 28. 14, fulgentes 
Cycladas ; Verg. Aen. 3. 126, sparsasqne per aequor Cycladas ; 
Browning, Cleon, ' the sprinkled isles, | Lily on lily, that o'erlace 
the sea ' ; Dyer, The Gods in Greece, p. 365. There is a faint con- 
trast between their white beauty and the danger. Cf. Wreck of 
Hesperus, ' She struck where the white and fleecy waves | Looked 
soft as carded wool. ' 

ODE XV. 

Nereus, the wise old man of the sea (Hes. Theog. 233 ; 
Pind. Pyth. 3. 92 ; Apoll. Rhod. 4. 771), becalms Paris, re- 
turning from Sparta with Helen, in order to predict the doom 
of Troy. 

Cf. F. Q. 4. 11. 19, 'Thereto he was expert in prophecies, | And 
could the ledden (language) of the Gods unfold ; | Through which, 
when Paris brought his famous prize, | The fair Tindarid lass, he 
him foretold | That her all Greece with many a champion bold | 



186 NOTES. 

Should fetch again, and finally destroy | Proud Priam's town : so 
wise is Nereus old.' 

In this, perhaps youthful, experiment, Horace attempts, as 
Quintilian says of Stesichorus, to support the weight of an epic 
theme on the lyre. We cannot verify Porphyrio's statement, 
Hac ode Bacchyliden imitatiir, nam ut 'ille Cassandram facit 
vaticinari futura belli Troiani, ita hie Proteum (probably a slip 
for Nerea. Some eds. read Proteus in 1. 5). An extant frag- 
ment of Bacchylides warns the Trojans of the unfailing justice 
of Zeus who sitteth on high. Cf. further the imitation of Sta- 
tins, Achill. 1. 20 sqq. , and the Cassandras of Schiller and George 
Meredith. For the Voyage of Paris, cf. Hdt. 2. 117 ; II. 6. 290, 
where he returns by way of Sidon ; Andrew Lang, Helen of 
Troy, 3. 23 sqq. There is an imitation by Tickell in Dodsley's 
Poems, 1. 30. With 9 sqq., cf. Campbell, Lochiel's Warning. 

1. pastor: nef/s 6 jSoiWAos- (Eur. Iph. A. 180). Cf. Bion, 2. 
10 ; Verg. Aen. 7. 363, Phrygius pastor ; Spenser, Shep. Cal. July, 
4 But nothing such thilk shepherd was, | Whom Ida hill did bear, | 
That left his flock to fetch a lass | Whose love he bought too dear.' 
traheret: sc. apw^as (II. 3. 443). 

2. Idaeis : the poets picturesquely treat the pines of Ida of 
which the ships of Paris were built as the cause of all the woe. 
Cf . Eurip. Hec. 631 ; Tenn. CEnone, ' They came, they cut away 
my tallest pines.' perfidus hospitam : cf. 1. 6. 9. n. ; 3. 3. 26, 
famosus hospes ; Propert. 3. 32. 7, hospes in hospitium Menelao 
venit adulter ; Eurip. Tro. 866, ^evairdrrts ; Aesch. Ag. 401; II. 
13. 624. 

3. ingrato : the winds favored the lovers ; or as celeres (1. 12. 
10) hate otium, ' Like us the Libyan wind delights to roam at large ' 
(Arnold) ; or the epithet suggests the feelings of Paris. 

4. caneret: of prophecy. Cf. C. S. 25; Sat. 1. 9. 30; Epod. 
13. 11. 

5. avi : cf. 3. 3. 61 ; 4. 6. 24 ; Epod. 10. 1 ; Cat. 61. 20. So the 
Greeks, ' An ox or an ass that may happen to pass, | A cry or a 
word by chance overheard, I If you deem it an omen you call it a 
bird' (Aristophanes, Birds, 719 sqq. Frere). 

6. repetet : 'fetch again.' In Ov. Her. 15. 369, Paris assures 



BOOK I., ODE XV. 187 

Helen, aut igitur nullo belli repetere tumultu, \ aut cedent Marti 
Dorica castra meo. 

7. coniurata: at Aulis, Verg. Aen. 4. 425; Eurip. I. A. 50. 
Cf. Ov. Met. 12. 5, qui rapta longmn cum coniuge bellum \ attulit 
in patriam : coniurataeque seqituntur \ mille rates; Milton, 'The 
third part of heaven's sons | Conjur'd against the highest.' 
rumpere : a slight zeugma, dissolve and evertere. Cf. Sen. 
Here. Fur. 79, Titanas ausos rumpere imperium lovis. 

8. vetus : Priam was the sixth king. Cf. Aesch. Ag. 710, 
Upiauov ir6\is yepaid ; Verg. Aen. 2. 363, urbs antiqua ruit. 

10. sudor : cf. II. 2. 390, iSpdvf t 8 rtv 'Uwos ; Stat. Theb. 3. 210 ; 
Val. Flac. 5. 288. quanta : rhetorically stronger than quot. 
moves : dost stir, begin, cause. Dardanae = Dardaniae ; cf. 
Romulae, C. S. 47. 

11. aegida: the storm-cloud of Zeus (II. 4. 167) and his shield, 
explained by popular etymology as the skin of the goat Amalthea 
(and now again by the whirligig of Science as the skin of the 
theanthropic goat), and worn with the Gorgon's head attached to it 
by Athene as shield or breastplate. II. 5. 738 ; Eurip. Ion, 996 ; 
Verg. Aen. 8. 354, 435 ; Milt. Comus, ' What was that snaky- 
headed Gorgon shield, | That wise Minerva wore,' etc. 

12. rabiem : for wrath as a weapon, cf. Aristoph. Birds, 401- 
402, Wasps, 243. For union of abstract and concrete, cf. II. 4. 
447; Ov. Met. 2. 146 and passim; Tac. Ger. 1, Germania ... a 
Gallia . . . mutuo metu aut montibus separatur, and passim. 

13. Veneris praesidio : he awarded her the apple. Cf. Tenn. 
(Enone ; II. 3. 54. 64 sqq. ferox : trusting in. 

14. caesariem : II. 3. 55 ; Odes, 4, 5. 14, crines. 

15. imbelli : 1. 6. 10. divides: does this mean dividing the 
strain between the voice and the instrument ? or is it simply the 
division into measured times that belongs to all music ? Cf. Shaks. 
Hen. IV. 1. 3. 1, ' Sung by a fair queen in a summer bower, | with 
ravishing division to her lute ' ; Rom. and Jul. 3. 5, ' Some say the 
lark makes sweet division ' ; Carew, ' For in your sweet dividing 
throat | She [the nightingale] winters and keeps warm her note ' ; 
Milton, The Passion, ' My muse with angels did divide to sing ' ; 
F. Q. 3. 1. 40, ' And all the while sweet music did divide ) Her 
looser notes with Lydian harmony.' Cf. fne\i(fiv. 



188 NOTES. 

16. thalamo : as in II. 3. 382. 

17. spicula : 3.28.12. Cnosii: Cretan archers renowned. Cf. 
Verg. A en. 5. 306. 

18. strepitum : the din of battle. Cf. 1. 2. 38, clamor. celerem 
sequi : epexegetic inf. Cf. 11. 14. 520, 'Oi'Arjos TO.XVS vios, as dis- 
tinguished from Telainonian Ajax. 

19. tamen: resumes ncquiquam, etc. heu: objectively, a sigh 
for the doom, not of sympathy for the person. serus: adj. for 
adv. Cf. xfl'Co'y, U- 1- 424. So frequently, serus (1. 2. 45) 
mututinus, vespertinus, and even hodiernus (Tibull. 1. 7. 53). 

19-20. adulteros crines : for transfer of epithet, cf. Eurip. Tro. 
881, rrjs [juat<pov<aTa.T-r\s no/Ays fTria"!rd(7avTs ', Tenn. Prin., ' Melissa 
shook her doubtful curls.' Cf. -1. 37. 7. n. ; 3. 1. 17; 3. 2. 16; 

3. 5. 22. 

20. pulvere collines: cf. II. 3. 55; Find. Nem. 1. 68; Verg. 
Aen. 12. 99, foedare in pulvere crines \ vibratos calido ferro mur- 
raque madentes. 

21. Laertiaden : Ulysses' theft of the Palladium determined 
the fall of Troy. Cf. Epp. 1. 2. 18. 

21-22. exitium . . . genti : so Ka5jueioni/ ij\e6pov (Hes. Theog. 
326). Cf. Eurip. Troad. 811. Some read yentis. Cf. nostri generis 
exitium (Sen. Here. Fur. 358). 

22. respicis : expresses both the warrior's furtive glance at the 
pursuing foe, and the ancient conception of future time overtaking 
us from behind. Cf. Verg. Aen. 8. 697 ; II. 1. 343, oniaw ; Find. 
0. 10. 8. 

24. Teucer: 1. 7. 21. te : cf. 1. 35. 5; 3. 21. 13; 4. 1. 39; 

4. 14. 42, etc. Some Mss. read et instead of repeated te. 
Sthenelus : charioteer of Diomede. He boasts, ' we are better 
than our sires ' (II. 4. 405). 

24-25. scie.ns pugnae : utixn* e " el8<as. Cf. II. 5. 549 ; 3. 9. 10 ; 
and rudls agminum, 3. 2. 9. 

25. sive : as if sive had preceded. Cf. 1. 3. 16. But it is really 
an afterthought, vel si reproducing Homer's Kal Wi xph (Odyss. 
9. 50). 

26. Merionen: 1. 6. 15. 

27. furit . . . reperire : furit is a strong volt, hence the inf. 
Cf. Menelaus raging in quest of Paris (II. 3. 449). 



BOOK I., ODE XVI. 189 

29. cervus uti : sc. furjit. in altera ; other of two, i.e. on 
opposite side, across. Cf. Term., 'As the lone hern ... lets 
down its other leg.' 

31. sublinii . . . anhelitu : transferred from deer to Paris by 
the usual blending of the comparison and the thing compared. 
Sublimi may refer to the uplifted head. Cf. in Lady of the Lake, 
the 'Antler'd monarch of the waste' who 'Toss'd his beam'd 
frontlet to the sky,' and Landseer's 'Monarch of the Glen.' Or 
it may mean the 'shallow breathing of fear' (James' Psychology). 
Cf. Eurip. Here. 1092; Apoll. Rhod. 2. 207, l vTrdroio <rHj0fos 
ait-n-vtvaas ; O. W. Holmes, ' Fancying that her breathing was 
somewhat hurried and high or thoracic.' Cf. juere'wpos. 

32. tuae : to thy light o' love. For Paris' boasts of his prowess 
to Helen, cf. Ov. Her. 15. 355-364. 

33-36. ' The angry fleet of Achilles shall defer ' is the concrete 
Latin way of saying that the wrath of Achilles prolonged the war. 

33. diem : so ' day' in the prophets (Isa. 13. 6 ; Ps. 87. 7). 

35. post certas : e<rcrerai ?ifj.a.p brav, when the predestined ten 
years have elapsed. 

36. Note ignis, trochaic instead of spondaic base. Hence some 
read Pergameas. 

ODE XVI. 

The scholiasts call this poem an imitation of the ira\tva>tiia of 
Stesichorus to Helen (cf. Epode 17. 42-44), cited in Plato Phaedr. 
243 A. It is variously inscribed to Tyndaris, Gratidia, or Canidia. 
The mock-heroic tone is too playful for a serious recantation of the 
attack on the witch Canidia in Epodes 5 and 17 ; and the whole 
may be a mere exercise in verse writing. 

Daughter more lovely than thy lovely mother, burn or drown my 
abusive iambics. No frenzy of Corybant or heat of pale-mouthed 
prophet so shakes the soul as anger. Prometheus put the fury of 
the lion in our hearts. By that sin fell Thyestes and many a 
towered city. I, too, in my sweet youth was led astray by the fever 
of the blood. But now I recant. Be my friend, and restore me 
my peace of mind. 

There is a coarse imitation in Johnson's Poets, 11. 457. 



190 NOTES. 

1. A familiar quotation. Cf. Ov. Met. 4. 210, quam mater cunctas 
tarn matrem filia vicit. 

2. modum : cf. 1. 24. 1 ; 3. 15. 2 ; Cic. Verres. 2. 2. 118, modum 
et finem facere. The phrase seems intentionally ambiguous, ' put 
an end to,' or ' set bounds to ' the excesses of. 

3. iambis: cf. A. P. 79, 251 ; Epist. 1. 19. 23 ; Quint. 10. 1. 9, 
scriptores iamborum. Horace calls the Epodes iambi ; but no 
extant Epode is meant here. pones is a colloquial permissive 
imperative, so to speak. 

4. Hadriano : poetic specification. Cf. 1. 1. 14 ; 2. 13. 8, 
etc. 

5-8. Dindymene : Catullus' domina Dindymi (a mountain in 
Phrygia), the great mother of the gods Cybele or Cybebe, whose 
orgiastic rites are described in Lucret. 2. 600 sqq. Cf. Swinburne, 
' Out of Dindymus heavily laden | Her lions draw bound and un- 
fed | A mother, a mortal, a maiden, | A queen over death and the 
dead ' ; Wordsworth, Processions, ' And a deeper dread | Scattered 
on all sides by the hideous jars | Of Corybantian cymbals, while 
the head | Of Cybele was seen sublimely turreted ' ; Plato, Symp. 
215. adytis : felt as a foreign word, as the spelling with y shows ; 
Caesar, B. C. 3. 105, quo praeter sacerdotes adirefas non est quae 
Graeci aSura appellant. 

6. incola : with adytis, the god who dwells in his shrine there, 
the Pythian Apollo. Cf. Verg. Aen. 6. 77 sqq. ; Pind. O. 7. 32, 
fvudfos e aSvrou ; Catull. 64. 228, incola Itoni, i.e. Athene. 

7. Liber : cf. on 2. 19. 5. 

8. sic geminant : with this reading the clause is parenthetic and 
out of the main construction ; the Corybantes do not so wildly 
clash cymbal on cymbal, as angry passions disturb the soul. 
Reading si with Bentley ; when (if) the Corybants clash, etc. 
(they do not so shake the soul as angry passions). geminant: 
cf. Lucret. 2. 636, pulsarent aeribus aera; Stat. Theb. 8. 221, 
gemina aera sonant. Cf. Southey's, ' And the double double peals 
of the drum are there | And the startling burst of the trumpets' 
blare.' Corybantes: priests of Cybele. Cf. on 5; and Plato, 
Ion, 533 E. Huxley defined the Salvation Army as Corybantic 
Christianity. 

9. tristes . . . irae : cf . Verg. Eel. 2. 14, tristes Amaryllidis iras. 



BOOK I., ODE XVI. 191 

Noricus : cf. Epode 17. 71 ; Ov. Met. 14. 712, durior et ferro quod 
Noricus excoyuit iynis. 

10. naufragum : cf. navem fregit, was shipwrecked : Verg. Aen. 
3. 553, navifragum ; Tenn. Maud, 3, ' Listening now to the tide in 
its broad-flung shipwrecking roar.' 

12. luppiter: cf. on 1. 1. 25. n.; Epode 13. 2. ruens : for the 
Ciirli ntiiia, cf. 3. 3. 7, and Zevs KaTaiBdrijs. 

12-16. Prometheus is the maker of man in Plato's Protagoras 
and Lucian's Prometheus. But the fancy that the original clay 
gave out and that he was forced to take back a portion from every 
animal in order to finish man is peculiar to Horace. For the moral, 
cf. Emerson, History, ' Every animal of the barnyard, the field, and 
the forest . . . has contrived to get a footing, and to leave the print of 
its features and form in some one or other of these upright, heaven- 
facing speakers.' Construe fertur coactus (esse) addere et apposu- 
isse, or possibly, fertur, coactus addere, apposuisse et (= etiam) ; 
the construction fertur addere et apposuisse would be a dubious 
coupling of present and perfect. principi limo : Mr. Churton 
Collins compares Apoll. Rhod. 4. 674, wporepris e| i\vos. Cf. Soph. 
Pandora, fr. 441, KOI irpHiTov apxov (&pxv?y irri\bt> bpydfeiv x f P^ 1 '- 

14. undique : cf. Epist. 2. 3. 3. 

15. insani leonis : cf. 3. 29. 19 ; Lucret. 3. 296-298. 

16. stomacho : cf. on 1. 6. 6. 

17. irae: cf. Seneca De Ira, 1. 2; Landor, 'Strong are cities: 
rage o'erthrows 'em, | Rage o'erswells the gallant ship. | Stains it 
not the cloud-white bosom, | Flaws it not the ruby lip ? ' 
Thyesten : The banquet of Thyestes, whose own sons were served' 
up to him by his brother Atreus, was typical of the horrors of Greek 
tragedy. Cf. on 1. 6. 8 ; Epode 5. 86. 

18. altis : cf . on 4. 6. 3. ultimae : furthest back, and hence 
first. Cf. Catull. 4. 15, ultima ex origine. 

19. stetere: in prose exstitere, a stronger fuere. Cf. Verg. Aen. 
7. 553, stnnt belli causae, 

20. funditus : KUT oR-prjs, from turret to foundation stone. 

21. aratrum : Propert. 4. 8. 41, moenia cum Graio Neptunia 
pressit aratro \ Victor ; Jeremiah 26. 18, ' Zion shall be plowed 
like a field' ; Young and Burns, 'Ruin's plowshare.' insolens; 
in the pride of victory. Cf . on 1. 5. 8 ; Epod. 16. 14. 



192 NOTES. 

22. compesce mentem : curb your temper. Cf. Odyss. 11. 562, 
tdfuurov 5e fj.lvos ; Kpist. 1. 2. 63. 

23. temptavit : as a disease. Cf. Epist. 1. 6. 28. dulci : cf. 
Tennyson's Gama : ' We remember love ourselves iu our sweet 
youth.' 

24. Cf. on 3 ; A. P. 251, pes citus ; Catull. 36. 5, truces vibrare 
iambos ; Anth. Pal. 7. 674, es \vfffftavras ld/j.Bovs ; Waller, 'To one 
who wrote against a fair lady: "Should thy iambics swell into a 
book | All were confuted with one radiant look." ' 

25. mitibus : either- the abl. as here or the ace. as in 1. 17. 1-2, 
may be the tiling to which the change is made with mutare. Cf. 
A. G. 252. c ; G. L. 404. n. 1 ; H. 422. n. 2. 

28. animumque reddas : cf. Ter. Andria, 333, reddidisti ani- 
mum, my peace of mind. Others, thy heart, favor. Cf. 1. 19. 4. 



ODE XVII. 

Faunus oft exchanges his Lycaean mountain for my Sabine 
farm. He keeps my flocks from harm. The gods cherish the 
pious bard. Come, Tyndaris : here while the dog-star rages thou 
wilt enjoy the cool shade and cups of mild Lesbian, nor fear 
drunken brawls and the boisterous wooing of jealous Cyrus. 

Translated in Dodsley's Poems, 2. 278. 

1. Lucretilem : monte Gennaro, above the Saline farm, for 
which, cf. Epode 1. 31. n. 

2. mutat: cf. on 1. 16. 26; 2. 12. 23; 3. 1. 47. Italian Faunus 
is here the mountain-ranging (opfifltirris) Lycaean Pan. Cf. on 3. 
18, and Ov. Fast. 2. 424, Faunus in Arcadia templa Lycaeus habet. 

3. capellis : cf . Verg. Eclog. 7. 47, solstitium pecori defendite. 

4. usque: poetic for semper, like ' still ' in English. Cf. 2.9. 4; 
2. 18. 23 ; 3. 30. 7 ; 4. 4. 45. 

5. impune and tutum are two sides of the same fact, suggested 
again in deviae : they may venture to stray in quest of pasture. 

6. latentes : amid the thick growth of shrubbery. 

7. 'The harem of the rank spouse,' an 'ill phrase' according to 
Professor Tyrrell. Cf. Vergil's vir gregis, Eel. 7. 7 ; Theoc. 8. 49 ; 



BOOK I., ODE XVII. 193 

Martial, 9. 71. 1-2, pecorisque maritus lanigeri. Milton's cock 
' stoutly struts his dames before.' ' There in his feathered seraglio 
strutted the lordly turkey' (Longfellow). 

8. virides : cf. ' Lo ! the green serpent from his dark abode ' 
(Thomson, Summer). 

9. Martiales : the wolf is the associate of Mars for Romans. 
Cf. Verg. Aen. 9. 566 ; Macaulay, Proph. of Capys, 17. haediliae : 
' kids ' is the meaning wanted. There is doubt about the form. 
Some take it as a proper name. Cf. Lex. 

10. utcumque : whensoever, as soon as, when once. Cf. 3.4.29 ; 
1. 35. 23; 2. 17. 11; 4. 4. 35; Epode 17. 52. fistula: the pipe 
of Pan (fftptyt; cf. Verg. Eel. 2. 32; Tibull. 2. 5. 31) heard by 
the imaginative shepherds of Lucretius, 4. 586 : et genus agricolum 
late sentiscere quom Pan \ . . . unco saepe labro calamos percurrit 
Mantis \ fistula silvestrem ne cesset fundere musam. Mart. 9. 61. 
12. Cf. Mrs. Browning's ' What was he doing, the great god 
Pan ? ' dulci : ' listening to thy sweet pipings ' (Shelley, Hymn 
of Pan). 

11. cubantis : sloping, if Ustica is a. local hill, as Porphyrio 
says. Others, low lying, rifitvca iv x^pf (Theoc. 13. 40). 

12. levia : cf. \iaads . . . irfrpz. (Aeschyl. Suppl. 794). 
14. For the idiom cordi est alicui, cf. Lex. 

14-16. Construe copia opulenta rtiris honorum benigno cornu 
tibi manabit. For legend of horn of plenty, cf. Class. Diet. s.vv. 
Achelous and Amalthea ; Ov. Met. 9. 86 ; Fast. 5. 115. Cf. also 
C. S. 60 ; Epist. 1. 12. 29 ; Otto, p. 94; Tenn. Ode Duke of Well., 
'and affluent fortune emptied all her horn.' benigno: cf. 1. 
9. 6. n. 

16. honorum : cf. Sat. 2. 5. 13, et quoscunque feret cultus tibi 
fundus honores ; Stat. Theb. 10. 788, veris honor; Epode 11. 6; 
Spenser, Muiopotmos, 'gathered more store | Of the field's honor.' 
It is a commonplace of 18th century poetry. 

17. reducta valle : cf. Epode 2. 11 ; 2. 3. 6, in remoto gramine; 
Verg. Aen. 6. 703, in valle reducta; Keats, 'Deep in the shady 
sadness of a vale.' Caniculae : Procyon, 3. 29. 18 ; but not dis- 
tinguished from Sinus. Cf. 3. 13. 9 ; Aeschyl. Ag. 967. 

18. fide Teia : abl. instr. ; of Anacreon. Cf. 4. 9. 9 ; Epode 14. 
10 ; Byron's, ; The Scian and the Teian muse | The hero's harp, the 

o 



194 NOTES. 

lover's lute.' For imitations of Anacr. or the Anacreontic tone, 
cf. 1. 6. 10. 20 ; 1. 23. 1-4 ; 1. 20. 1-2 ; 1. 27 ; 2. 11. 13-24 ; 2. 7. 28 ; 
3. 19. 18 ; 4. 12. 28. 

19. laborantes in : cf. Catullus' love-sick Ariadne, in flavo 
saepe hospite suspimntem (64. 98). uno : Odysseus. 

20. The story of the Odyssey (10. 272 sqq.). vitream : cf. 3. 
28. 10 ; 4. 2. 3 ; 3. 13. 1 ; Stat. Silv. 1. 3. 85, vitreae iuya perfida 
Circes; Browne, Britannia's Pastorals, 2. 1, 'But of great Thetis' 
train | Ye mermaids fair | That on the shores do plain | Your sea- 
green hair ' ; Collins, Ode to Liberty, ' To him who decked with 
pearly pride | In Adria weds his green-haired bride.' 

22. duces: wilt quaff. Cf. 3. 3. 34; 4. 4. 17. sub umbra: 
1. 32. 1. Cf. 1. 5. 3, sub antro. 

22-23. Semele and Thyone (0.W, Find. Pyth. 3. 99, Horn. 
Hymn, Dion. 21) were both names of the mother of Bacchus. 
The Latin poets loved to use sonorous Greek proper names in a 
decorative way. Cf. Catull. 27. 7, hie merus est Thyonianus. 
Cf. Vergil's Phillyrides Chiron Amythaoniusque Melampus ; 
Georg. 3. 550. 

23-24. confundet . . . proelia : cf. Taparretv ir6\tiu.ov ; miscere 
proelia ; incendia miscet, Aen. 2. 329 ; Lucret. 5. 439 ; Milton's 
'there mingle broils.' For such irapoivix, cf. 1. 18. 8 ; 1. 27. 1-2. 

25. Cyrus recurs 1. 33. 6. male here reinforces the adj. Cf. 
on 1. 9. 24. suspecta : a hint that she may have given him 
cause for jealousy. 

26. incontinentes : cf. 1. 13. 9-10. The Roman elegists not 
infrequently express mock repentance at having torn their ladies' 
dress. Cf. Ov. Am. 1. 7. 3; Propert. 2. 5. 21; Tibull. 1. 10. 56; 
Lucian, Dial. Mer. 8 init. ; Anth. Pal. 5. 248. 

27. haerentem : Sat. 1. 10. 49, haerentem capiti cum multa 
laude coronam. 

28. immeritam : unoffending. Cf. 1. 28. 30 ; 2. 13. 12 ; 3. 6. 1 ; 
Sat. 2. 3. 7 ; Juv. 10. 60 ; Aen. 3. 2. So wdbos. Cf. Rich. III. 2. 1, 
' That all without desert have frowned on me.' 



BOOK I., ODE XVIH. 195 



ODE XVIII. 

Plant your vines, Varus. Wine is the only dispe^ler of care. 
But shun the excesses of the Centaurs and the wild Thracians, 
and the blind self-love and vainglory that follow the abuse of 
Father Liber's gifts. 

Varus is probably the Quintilius (Varus) of 1. 24, and the 
Quintilius praised as a faithful literary critic, A. P. 438. For 
praise of wine, cf. 3. 21. For Bacchus, cf. 2. 19 ; 3. 25. 

1. Modeled on Alcaeus' fr. 44 in same meter, ^Sfv <%\\o <pvTev<rris 
Trpdrepov StvSpiov a/j.irf\<a. sacra : to Bacchus. severis : cf. on 
1. 11. 1. 

2. circa: with solum and moenia a slight zeugma. mite: 
rarum, a light soil adapted to the vine (Verg. G. 2. 227-229). 
Catili : for Catilli. Cf. on 1. 7. 13 ; 2. 6. 5. 

3. siccis : cf. Epist. 1. 19. 9 ; the opposite of uvidus, 4. 5. 39. 
dura : predicatively. 

4. mordaces: SaKfOvpoi, 0vfj.oB6poi. Cf. 2. 11. 18 and Milton's 
'eating cares'; Verg. Aen. 1. 261. aliter: sc. than by use of 
wine (Eurip. Bacch. 278 sqq.). diffugiunt: Wine is 'The mighty 
Mahmud, Allah-breathing Lord, | That all the misbelieving and 
black Horde | Of Fears and Sorrows that infest the soul | Scatters 
before him with his whirlwind sword ' (Fitzgerald's Rubaiyat, 60). 
Cf. Alcaeus, dlvov \a0 KoiSea. 

5-6. Cf. on 3. 21. 13-20. ' Wine is a charm, it heats the blood 
too, | Cowards it will arm if the wine be good too ; | Quickens the 
wit and makes the back able, | Scorns to submit to the watch or 
constable' (Dekker and Ford, The Sun's Darling). 

5. post vina : cf. 3. 21. 19, post te. For plural, cf. 4. 5. 31. 
gravem : i.e. the hardships of. crepat : cf . Sat. 2. 3. 33 ; 
Epist. 1. 7. 84; 2. 3. 247; prates, rattles on, irarayt'i, understood 
by a very slight zeugma with the next verse too. 

6. Bacche pater : cf. 3. 3. 13 ; Epist. 2. 1. 5, Liber pater ; Verg. 
G. 2. 4 ; Ion. Eleg. 1. 13, wdrep Ai6wfft. The Greek Bacchus was 
ever young, but pater is not an epithet of age. It is a half humor- 
ous, half reverential recognition of the god's gifts. Cf. Villon, 
' Pere Noe" qui plantastes la vigne ' ; Herrick, Hesp. 320, ' Sit 



196 NOTES. 

crowned with rosebuds and carouse | Till Liber pater twirles the 
house.' decens: cf. 1. 4. 6. 

7. at : the other side of the picture. Recent editors generally 
read ac, and yet, with many Mss. Ac ne is perhaps not sufficiently 
adversative here. modici : the epithet is transferred from the 
use of the gift to the giver. transiliat: cf. 1. 3. 24. munera 
Liberi occurs 4. 15. 26. Cf. Bacchylides' Aiowaioun Swpois ; Verg. 
G. 2. 5. 

8. Centaurea . . . rixa : the strife arose out of the assault of 
the drunken Centaurs on the bride Hippodamia at the wedding of 
Pirithous, king of the Lapithae. Cf. 2. 12. 5 ; Ovid, Met. 12. 219 
sqq. ; F. Q. 4. 1. 23 : ' And there the relics of the drunken fray, | 
The which amongst the Lapithees befell : | And of the bloody feast, 
which sent away | So many Centaurs' drunken souls to hell ; ' 
Arnold, The Strayed Reveller. It was represented in the 
metopes of the Parthenon. oJvos nal Kfvravpov (Odyss. 21. 295) 
was proverbial. Cf. Anth. Pal. 11. 1; Callim. 62. 3. super 
mero : both Horace and Vergil use this abl. for more usual ace. 
Cf. 1. 9. 5 ; 1. 12. 6 ; 3. 1. 17 ; Eclog. 1. 80 ; Aen. 6. 203. 

9. Sitboniis: poetic specification for Thracian. Cf. 3. 26. 10; 
1. 27. 2 ; 1. 36. 14 ; 2. 7. 27. This misuse of wine is imputed to the 
severity of the god in the harsher northern clime. Cf. Pater, 
Greek Studies, p. 40. Euhius : from evoT. Cf. on 2. 19. 5, and 
Lucretius, 5, 743. The orgiastic appellations Euhius and Bassareu 
are aptly used when the darker side of the deity is emphasized 
rather than the friendliness of Liber pater. 

10-11. ' When in their greed they distinguish right and wrong 
only by the narrow line which their desires leave between them.' 
The line is untranslatable. For the general thought, cf. Arnold's 
' whom what they do | Teaches the limits of the just and true ' ; 
Shaks. Tim. of Athens, 5. 5, ' making your wills the scope of 
justice ' ; Dyer, ' Some weigh their pleasure by their lust,' etc. 

11. non ego te : recurs 1. 23. 9; 4. 12. 22. candide : 'bright 
god of the vine' (Martin). Cf. Epode 3. 9; Ov. Fast. 3. 772; 
Tibull. 3. 6. 1. But cf. Epode 14. 5. n. Bassareu: from the 
foxskin, Qao-ffdpa, from which the Bassarids = Maenads took their 
name. Macrobius (Sat. 1. 18. 9) speaks of a bearded Bacchus 
under this name. Cf. Class. Review, 10. 21. 



BOOK I., ODE XIX. 197 

12 sqq. The thought ' I will not abuse the gifts of Bacchus,' is 
clotht-d in imagery borrowed from his mystic rites. For the con- 
cealing leaves and the affected mystery of Bacchic orgies, cf. 
Theoc. 26. 3 ; Catullus, 64. 259, 260 ; Tibull. 1. 7. 48. 

13. sub divum : cf . 1. 1. 25 ; 3. 2. 5 ; 2. 3. 23. saeva : harsh, 
appalling. Saeva sonoribus anna (Verg. Aen. 9. 651). tene: 
check, hush. Berecyntio: the Berecynthian horn belonged to 
the worship of Cybele (Lucret. 2. 619), but was transferred to that 
of Dionysus also. Cf. Catul. 64. 264 ; Eurip. Bacchae, 78 ; cf. 3. 19. 18. 

14. caecus : Eigeuliebe macht die Augen triibe. Sen. Ep. 109. 
16, quos amor sui excaecat. 

15. plus nimio : this colloquialism, in Cicero nimio plus, recurs 
1. 33. 1; Epist. 1. .10. 30. Nimio is abl. of measure. gloria: 
vainglory. Cf. miles gloriosus, and the famous French epigram, 
'ci-git le glorieux a c6te de la gloire.' So in older English, 
'Laughter is a sudden glory' (Hobbes). 

16. fides prodiga : we may say that fides is a vox media, or call 
it an oxymoron, like Tennyson's ' Faith unfaithful kept him falsely 
true.' Cf. 3. 24. 59, and 1. 5. 5. per | lucidior : cf. on 2. 12. 25. 
vitro : cf. 3. 13. 1 ; 1. 17. 20. For the thought, cf. the proverbial olvos 
KO.I a\r)6fia and Karoirrpav eldovs %aA(cos &TT', olvos 8e vov, Aesch. fr. 
393 ; Alcaeus, fr. 53, 57. 

ODE XIX. 

I thought passion's reign was ended, but the imperious mother 
of the loves resumes her sway and suffers me to sing of naught but 
Glycera, whose bright beauty fires my heart. Quick ! an altar of 
turf and a victim to propitiate the resistless goddess. 

Imitated by Congreve, Johnson's Poets, 10. 278. 

1. Repeated 4. 1. 5. Cf. Find. fr. 122. 4, parep' 'Vp&rwv. The 
' Loves ' as attendants on Venus belong rather to the prettinesses 
of later Greek poetry and art. But cf. Aeschyl. Suppl. 1043 ; 
Bion. Epitaph. Adon. 80 sqq. ; Catull. 3. 1 ; Stat. Silv. 1. 2. 61 ; 
Claud.de Nupt. Honor. 72 ; Tenn. 'a bevy of Eroses apple cheeked.' 

2. Semelae puer : Bacchus, cf. 1. 17. 22. Some read Greek 
gen. Semeles. 

3. Licentia : vfipis, 'Love's wantonness.' 



198 NOTES. 

4. finitis : i.e. as I thought. animum reddere : cf. 1. 16. 28. 

5. urit : cf. Verg. Eclog. 2. 68, urit amor. Glycera recurs, 1. 
30. 3, 1. 33. 2. nitor : cf. 1. 5. 13 ; 2. 5. 18 ; 3. 12. 6. 

6. Pario marmore : cf. Verg. Aen. 3. 126, niveamque Paron; 
Ov. Fasti, 4. 135, marmoreo . . . collo ; Theoc. 6. 38; Browning, 
'great, smooth, marbly limbs.' 

7. grata protervitas : her pretty pertness ; her eye that ' sounds 
a parley to provocation ' (Meleager, \anvpots o^ao-i ; Anth. Pal. 
5. 180. 2). 

8. lubricus adspici : i.e. slippery to the eye as ice to the foot. 
Cf. Tenn. Lucret. 'And here an Oread how the sun delights | 
To glance and shift about her slippery sides ' ; Dante, Purg. 8. 34, 
' ma nelle facce 1' occhio si smarria ' ; Milton, II Pens. ' whose saintly 
visage is too bright | To hit the sense of human sight,' P. L. ' His 
countenance too severe to be beheld.' Somewhat differently, Suck- 
ling, The Bride, ' But, Dick, her eyes so guard her face, | I durst no 
more upon them gaze | Than on the sun in July.' Cf . also \nrap6rfts 
o/j./j.drtav ; Tenn. The Day Dream, 'Turn your face | Nor look with 
that too earnest eye | The rhymes are dazzled from their place.' 

9. ruens : Cf. Eurip. Hippol. 443, Kvwpis yap ov (poprirAs })v TTO\\^ 
pvf. 

10. Scythas : cf. 2. 11. 1; vaguely like Massagetae, Geloni, 
Thraces, Dad, Medi, Persae, Parthi. Cyprum : cf. on 1. 30. 2. 

11. versis . . . equis : for proverbial Parthian flight, cf. 2. 13. 
18 ; Verg. G. 3. 31. animosum makes a slight oxymoron. 

12. quae nihil attinent : not ipsam, but absolutely 'uncon- 
cerning things.' ' What have we to do | With Kaikobad the 
Great, or Kaikhosru ? ' As Keats says, ' Juliet weaning tenderly 
her fancy doth more avail than these.' 

13. vivum . . . caespitem : cf. 3. 8. 4. 

14. verbenas : any herb or green sprig used in religious rites. 
Cf. 4. 11. 7. tura : 1. 30. 3 ; 1. 36. 1 ; 3. 8. 2, etc. 

15. bimi : new wine was used (cf. 1. 31. 2) unmixed with water, 
men'. 

16. veniet : cf. supra, 9, ruens; Eurip. Medea, 630, el 5' a\is 
t\0oi Ki'mpis. mactata . . . hostia is perhaps vaguely used for 
sacro peracto. Tac. Hist. 2. 3. 5, speaks of sacrifices to the Paphian 
Venus, but even there the blood was not permitted to defile her altar. 



BOOK I., ODE XX. 199 



ODE XX. 

Come, Maecenas, and quaff cheap Sabine ordinaire bottled by me 
the day the Vatican hill reechoed the plaudits of the people wel- 
coming you back to the theater after your illness. You may drink 
Caecuban and Calenian at home. The wines of Falernus and For- 
miae do not qualify my cups. 

1. modicis : of quality, not size. Cf. Epp. 1. 5. 2, nee modica 
cenare times olus omne patella. Sabinum : ' le vin du pays,' but 
not from his own farm (Epp. 1. 14. 23). 

2. Graeca . . . testa : perhaps to give it a smack of the richer 
Greek wine, perhaps only an allusion to the tasteful Greek jar. 

3. levi: oblevi ; sealed, sc.pice. Cf. 3. 8. 10. 

4. plausus : about B.C. 30. Cf. 2. 17. 25. 

5. care : cf. dilecte, 2. 20. 7 ; amice, Epode 1. 2. paterni : the 
Etruscan Tiber. Cf. 1.1.1; 3. 7. 28 ; Sat. 2. 2. 32. 

7. The echo of applause from Pompey's theater in the Campus 
Martins was returned from the Vatican (or adjoining Janiculum) 
hill on the other side of Tiber. The topographical improbability 
of such an echo does not require us to pronounce the poem a for- 
gery. Cf. Shaks. Jul. Caes. 1. 1, ' Have you not made an univer- 
sal shout, | That Tiber trembled underneath her banks, | To hear 
the replication of your sounds, | Made in her concave shores ? ' 
Cf. also Plat. Rep. 492 B ; F. Q. 1. 6. 8, ' far rebounded noise.' 
Note Vaticani; elsewhere i. 

8. imago : 1. 12. 3. n. 

9-10. For the periphrasis and metonymy, cf. Tenn. ' The foam- 
ing grape of Eastern France ' = Champagne ; ' Such whose father 
grape grew fat I On Lusitanian summers ' = Port. 

10. tu bibes : cf . introduction to ode. The passage has been 
endlessly vexed. Some read turn bibes, i.e. you shall drink better 
wine after the Sabine, but you must not expect the best (Falernian, 
etc.) from me. The antithesis is imperfectly expressed, and the 
ode is not a masterpiece, but there is no real difficulty. Lines 11 
and 12 repeat the general idea, ' I have no choice wines,' with fresh 
examples. But cf. Munro, Eng. J. Phil. 3. 349. 

11. temperant: qualify (Epode 17. 80). The wines were mixed 
with water. The vines and hills that yield the wines are personified. 



200 NOTES. 



ODE XXI. 

A song for youths and maidens in honor of Apollo and Diana, 
as averting deities, a\f'ucaKoi. 

The occasion is unknown. Possibly the first celebration of the 
Actian games, B.C. 28 ; or the poem may be a sketch of a carmen 
saecMlare for the proposed earlier celebration of the secular games, 
B.C. 23. For motif, cf. Cat. 34. 1, Dianae sumus in fide. 

1. Diaiiam : the quantity of the i varies. Cf. 3. 4. 71 ; 2. 12. 20 ; 
C. S. 70. tenerae . . . virgines : cf. 4. 1. 26. 

2. intonsum: Milton's 'unshorn Apollo,' 'A/cfipe/c^ur/s ; Find. 
Pyth. 3. 14 ; II. 20. 39 ; levis, 4. 6. 28 ; Tibull. 1. 4. 37, solis ae.ti'rna 
est Phoebo Bacchoque iuventa, \ nam decet intonsns crinis utrum- 
que deum. Cf. Epode 15. 9 ; Calliin. Hymn. Apoll. 38. 

3. Latonam : as mother of Apollo and Diana. 

4. dilectatn : so with dat. (2. 4. 18). penitus : x-npSOt. 

5. vos : sc. virgines. laetam, etc.,"ApTe,uis wora/nia and Aipvans ; 
Diana nemorensis. Cf. Catull. 34. 9, montium domina ut fores \ 
silvaritmqtte virentium \ saltuumque reconditorum \ amniinnque 
sonantum ; Milton, Comus, 'And she was queen of the woods.' 
nemorum coma : cf. 4. 3. 11 ; 4. 7. 2 ; II. 17. 677 ; Odyss. 23. 195, 
aneKotya K^n-riv ravv<f>v\\ou Aanjs ; Soph. Antig. 419 ; Eurip. Alcest. 
172; Catull. 4. 10, comata silva ; Tenn., omitted stanza in Am- 
phion, ' The birch-tree swang her fragrant hair, | The bramble cast 
her berry ' ; Swinburne, Erechth. 1146, ' Fields aflower with winds 
and suns, | Woods with shadowing hair' ; Milton, P. L. VII., 'bush 
with frizzled hair implicit ' ; Ronsard, ' ta forest d'orangers, dont la 
perruque verte | De cheveux eternels en tout temps est couverte.' 

6-8. Cf. Swinburne, Erechth., 'all wildwood leaves | The wind 
waves on the hills of all the world '; II. 2. 632, Nrjprroc flvo(riq>v\\nv ; 
Pind. Pyth. 1. 28, Afrvay tv /j.f\a./LKpv\\ois . . , Kopu<f>dis ; Ar. 
Clouds, 279-280, ty-r)\Siv o/><W Kopu<f>as fin $ev5poK<i/j.ovs ; Catull. 
4. 11-12 ; Thomson, Winter, ' forest-rustling mountain.' 

6. gelido : cf. nivali, 3. 23. 9. Algido : a haunt of Diana. 
Cf. C. S. 69 ; 4. 4. 58. 

7. nigris : 4. 4. 58; 4. 12. 11. So Juv. Sat. 3. 54 renders 

\os by opacus. Cf. 2. 2. 15. n. Erymanthus: rat. in 



BOOK I., ODE XXII. 201 



Arcadia ; Artemis there (Odyss. 0. 103) ; 6 SepSpoK^urjs 'Epvnat>0os 
(Anth. Pal. 5. 19. 5). 

8. viridis : the ligliter green of the oaks and beeches contrasted 
with the dark green of the lirs and pines. Cragus : nit. in Lycia. 

9. Tempe : 1. 7. 4. n. An early seat of the Apolline religion. 
totidem: pure prose. Cf. 2. 8. 17 n. ; 4. 4. 29 n. 

10. natalem : cf. 3. 4. 6:]. n. 

11. insignem : sc. Apollinem. pharetra : 3. 4. 60. 

12. fraterna : of Mercury, 1. 10. 6 ; cf. materna, 1. 12. 9 ; Verg. 
Aen. 5. 72. umerum : ' Greek ' ace. probably, ' as to his shoulder.' 

13. lacrimosum : Verg. Aen. 7. 604, lacrimabile bellum ; H. 
5. 737 ; Anacr. fr. 31 ; Aeschyl. Suppl. 681, SaKpvoySvov "Apr;, 
etc. famem: there was a scarcity of grain, B.C. 23. Cf. Veil. 
2. 94. Famine and pestilence coupled, as Hes. *Epy. 243. 

14. principe : cf . 1. 2. 50. n. ; Epist. 2. 1. 256 ; 3. 14. 15. n. ; 
4. 15. 17. 

15. Britannos: 1. 25. 39. n. For the antique frankness of 
this prayer, cf. 3. 27. 21. n. Anth. Pal. 6. 240. 



ODE XXII. 

This famous ode has been translated or imitated by Campion 
(ed. Bullen, p. 20), Daniel: To Countess of Cumberland; Ros- 
cotnmon, Johnson's Poets, 8. 268 ; Hughes, ibid. 10. 28 ; Yalden, 
ibid. 11. 73 ; Pitt, ibid. 12. 381 ; Hamilton, ibid. 15. 635. 

The gods guard the pure in heart. As I strolled all unarmed in 
the Sabine wood singing of Lalage, a wolf fled from me. Place 
me in the burning zone or at the frozen pole, still will I love my 
laughing Lalage. 

There is no real inconsistency between the momentary flush of 
genuine feeling (1-8) and the mock-heroic continuation and jesting 
close. ' Vers de socie"te" ... is the poetry ... of solemn thought 
which, lest it should be too solemn, plunges into laughter' (Preface 
to Lyra Elegantiarum). We need not, however, with a worthy 
German editor, speak of a ' heiliger ernst ' ! 

For Horace's witty friend, Aristius Fuscus, cf. Epist. 1. 10 ; Sat 
1. 9. 61 ; 1. 10. 83. 



202 NOTES. 

1-4. ' The man of life upright, I Whose guiltless heart is free | 
From all dishonest deeds, | Or thought of Vanity ' (Campion). Cf. 
1. 17. 13 ; 2. 7. 12 ; 3. 4. 25-32. 

1. integer: cf. Milton, ' For such thou art from sin and blame 
entire ' ; Dante, Purg. 17, ' II giusto Mardocheo | Chi fu al dir ed 
al far cosi intero' ; Trench, On the Study of Words, 65. vitae is 
gen. of 'respect' with integer; sceleris. gen. of 'separation' with 
purus. Cf. Sat. 2. 3. 220 ; A. G. 218. c. ; G. L. 374. n. 6. ; H. 
399. III. 

2. Mauris: poetic specification. Cf. 1. 16. 4 ; 3. 10. 18. 

6. aestuosas : may refer to the hot sands of the shore or the 
'boiling' waters. Cf. 1. 31. 5 ; 2. 6. 4 ; 2. 7. 16 ; Epode 9. 31. 
F. Q. 1. 6. 35, ' Through boiling sands of Araby and Ind.' 

6. inhospitalem Epode 1. 12 ; Aeschyl. Prom. 20, airdvOpcairov. 

7. fabulosus : cf. 3. 4. 9. Storied. From the time of Alex- 
ander the tales of Indian travelers were proverbial. 

. 10. Lalagen: \a\f^ \x\ayew ; almost = 'Laughing Water.' 

11. termiiium: the bounds of the Sabine farm? Cf. 3. 16. 29. 
expeditis : the cares themselves are said to be freed (thrown 
off). Cf. Catull. 31. 7, quid solutis est beatius curis ? Cf. 
Epode 9. 38. 

13. portentum : the wolf, mock heroically, repots. Cf. 1. 33. 
7-8 for Apulian wolves. 

14. Daunias: (from Daunus (3. 30. 11 ; 4. 14. 26)), a part of 
Apulia, Horace's native province, to which he loves to attribute all 
the old Italian virtues. 

15. lubae tellus : Mauritania. The elder Juba was defeated 
at Thapsus ; the younger, his son, was made king of Mauritania 
by Augustus, B.C. 25, by which some date the ode. 

16. arida nutrix : a slight oxymoron. Cf. Homer's ^-rtpa. 
OnpSiv. 

17-23. For this geographical antithesis, cf. 3. 3. 55 ; 3. 24. 37. 

17. pigris: dull, barren from cold. Cf. iners (2. 9. 5 ; 4. 7. 12); 
Lucret. 5. 746, bruma nives affert pigrumque rigorem. 

18. recreatur : cf. 3. 20. 13 ; Catull. 62. 41, quern mulcent 
anrae. 

19. quod: i.e. in eo quod. latus mundi: cf. 3. 24. 38; Sir 
John Mandeville's ' West syde of the world ' ; Milton's ' back side 



BOOK I., ODE XXIII. 203 

of the world ' ; Keats' ' heave his broad shoulder o'er the edge of 
the world.' 

19-20. malus luppiter : an unkind Jove = sullen sky. Cf. 
1. 1. 25. 

20. urget: lowers, oppresses, broods, wie^tva (Hdt. 1. 142). 

21. Vergil's plaga solis iniqui (Aen. 7. 227). 

22. domibus : to the abodes of men. 

23. dulce : cf. on perfidum ridens (3. 26. 67). Cf. aira\bv yt\dffai 
(Odyss. 14. 465), and Sappho's &du Quvticras, already imitated by 
Catull. 51. 5. Roscommon's conceited rendering of these untrans- 
latable lines is a curiosity : ' All cold but in her breast I will 
despise, | And dare all heat but that in Caelia's eyes.' 



ODE XXIII. 

Cf. Dobson's roundel : ' You shun me, Chloe, wild and shy, | As 
some stray fawn that seeks its mother.' For difference between 
ancient and modern feeling, cf. Lander's exquisite ' Gracefully shy 
is yon Gazelle.' For the comparison of the girl to a fawn, cf. 
Anacreon, fr. 51. 

Spenser, F. Q. 3. 7. 1 : ' Like as an hind forth singled from the 
herd, | That hath escaped from a ravenous beast, | Yet flies away 
of her own feet afeard ; | And every leaf, that shaketh with the 
least | Murmur of wind, her terror hath increased.' 

Poor translation by Hamilton, Johnson's Poets, 15. 635. 

1. vitas: many Mss. read vitat, probably because of tremit 
below. 

2. pavidam: cf. 1. 2. 11. 

3. non sine : for this favorite Horatian litotes, cf. 1. 25. 16 ; 3. 
4. 20 ; 3. 6. 29 ; 3. 7. 7 ; 3. 13. 2 ; 3. 26. 2 ; 3. 29. 38 ; 4. 1. 24 ; 4. 
13. 27. 

4. siluae : trisyllabic. Epode 13. 2. 

5-6. veris . . . adventus : so the Mss. To this bold and 
beautiful expression it has been objected that at the coming of 
spring the trees have no leaves (but cf. umbrosis, 1. 4. 10) and the 
does no fawns, and many editors print, after Bentley, vepris . . . 



204 NOTES. 

ad ventum, which is ingenious and smoothly parallel with rubum 
dimovere below. Cf. Rossetti, Love's Nocturne, ' Where in groves 
the gracile spring | Trembles ' ; Swinburne, Atalanta, ' When the 
hounds of spring are on winter's traces | The mother of months in 
meadow or plain, | Fills the shadows and windy places, | With lisp 
of leaves and ripple of rain.' For adventus, cf. Milton's 'Far off 
his coming shone.' 

6. virides: cf. Verg. EC. 2. 9, Nunc virides etiain occultant spi- 
neta lacertos. Cf. XAcopo-<raC/>o. 

9. atqui: 3. 5. 49 ; 3. 7. 9 ; Epode 5. 07. non ego te : 1. 18. 
11 ; 4. 9. 30. aspera : cf. 1. 37. 26 ; 3. 2. 10. 

10. Gaetulus : 3. 20. 2. frangere : epexegetic, to crush with 
teeth. II. 11. 113-14. 

12. tempestiva: with viro. Cf. 3. 19. 27 ; .4. 1. 9; Verg. Aen. 
7. 53, lam matura viro plenis iam nubilis annis. sequi : with 
matrem. Cf. Eugene Field's amusing ' Chaucerian paraphrase,' 
' Your moder ben well enow so farre she goeth, | But that ben not 
farre enow, God knoweth.' Cf- also his ' But, Chloe, you're no in- 
fant thing | That should esteem a man an ogre : | Let go your 
mother's apron-string [ And pin your faith upon a toga.' But we 
must not forget in our amusement that free-and-easy English mis- 
represents Horace's exquisite ease quite as grossly as the pseudo- 
classic eighteenth century pedantry which tempts us less. 



ODE XXIV. 

A poetic ' consolation.' Cf. on 2. 9. Consolatur Vergilium impa- 
tienter amid sui mortem lugentem (pseudo-Acron). For (Quin- 
tilius) Varus, cf. 1. 18. The date is given, by entry in Jerome's 
(Eusebius') Chronicon, B.C. 24. Quintilius Cremonensis Veryilii 
et Horatii familiaris moritur. 

The sentiment is that of Malherbe's Consolation A Monsieur du 
Pe"rier : ' La Mort a des rigueurs a nulle autre pareilles ; | On a 
beau la prier, | La cruelle qu'elle est se bouche les oreilles, | Et 
nous laisse crier. . . . De murmurer contre elle, et perdre pa- 
tience, | II est mal a propos ; | Vouloir ce que Uieu veut, est la 
seule science | Qui nous met en repos.' Cf. 'Arnold, Scholar- 



BOOK I., ODE XXIV. 205 

Gipsy, ' and tiy to bear ; | With close-lipp'd patience for our 
only friend.' Vergil himself wrote, superanda omnis r fortuna 
ferendo est (Aen. 5. 710), and, according to Donatus (Life of 
Vergil, chap. 18), praised patience as the chief virtue of our 
mortal state : sulitus erat dicere : nullam virtutem commodiorem 
homini esse patienlia; ac nullam adeo asperam esse fortunam 
qnam prudenter patiendo vir fortis non vincat. Cf. Sellar, 
p. 189 ; Lang, Letters to Dead Authors, Horace, init. 

The Ode has been a favorite with poets. Cf., however, the 
petulant criticism which Landor puts in the mouth of Boccaccio 
(Pentameron): 'What man immersed in grief cares a quattrino 
about Melpomene, or her father's fairing of an artificial cuckoo 
and a gilt guitar ? What man on such an occasion is at leisure 
to amuse himself with the little plaster images of Pudor and 
Fides, of Justitia and Veritas, or disposed to make a comparison 
of Virgil and Orpheus ? ' 

There is a translation by Hamilton, Johnson's Poets, 15. 637. 

1. quis, etc. : cf. Swinburne, Erechth. 757, Who shall put a bridle 
in the mourner's lips to chasten them, | Or seal up the fountains of 
his tears for shame ' ; Tenn. In Mem., ' Let grief be her own mis- 
tress still.' For modus, cf. 1. 16. 2, 1. 36. 11, 3. 15. 2; with 
pudor, Martial, 8. 64. 15, sit tandem pudor et modus rapinis. 

2. cari capitis : Shelley, Adonais, ' Oh weep for Adonais, 
though our tears | Thaw not the frost which binds so dear a 
head ! ' This use of caput is warm with feeling, whether of love 
or hate. Cf . Epode 5. 74 ; Verg. Aen. 4. 354 ; Martial, 9. 68. 2 ; 
Jebb on Soph. Antig. 1 ; II. 18. 114 ; Od. 1. 343, -roiijv yap Kp\^v 
irofleo!. praecipe : teach, begin, start. 

3. Melpomene: strictly the muse of tragedy; but see 1. 12. 
2. n. Cf . 3. 30. 16 ; 4. 3. 1 ; George Peele, Aenone's (sic) Com- 
plaint, ' Melpomene, the muse of tragic songs, | With mournful 
tunes in stole of dismal hue, | Assist a silly nymph to wail her 
woe ' ; Keats, Isabella, 56, ' Moan hither all ye syllables of woe | 
From the deep throat of sad Melpomene' ; Tenn. In Mem., 'And 
my Melpomene replies.' liquidam: Lucret. 2. 145, volucres . . . 
liquidis loca vocibus opplent ; Ov. Am. 1. 13. 8; Tenn. Geraint and 
Enid, 'the liquid note beloved of men' (= the nightingale). 



206 NOTES. 

pater : both father of the muses (Hes. Theog. 52) and All-father 
(1. 2. 2X- 

5. ergo : a conclusion forced upon the reluctant heart. Cf. G. L. 
502. n. 1 ; Sat. 2. 5. 101, ergo nunc Dama sodalis nusquam est ; 
Ov. Trist. 3. 2. 1, Ergo erat in fatis Scythiam quoque visere nostris. 
Differently used, 2. 7. 17. Many critics think the poem ought to 
have begun here, which would meet most of Landor's strictures. 
perpetuus sopor: Catull. 5. 5, Nobis cum semel occidit brevis 
lux, | nox est perpetua una dormienda ; Moschus, 3. Ill, arep^oi'a 
vtiyperoi> vtrvov ; Arnold, Thyrsis, ' For there thine earth-forgetting 
eyelids keep | The morningless and unawakening sleep ' ; Job 14. 
12, ' till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, nor be 
raised out of their sleep ' ; Shelley, Adonais, 8, ' He will awake 
no more, Oh never more ! ' 

6. urget: lie heavy on, weigh down (his eyelids). Cf. 4. 9. 27 ; 
premet, 1. 4. 16 ; Verg. Aen. 10. 745, dura quies oculos et fcrreus 
urget \ somnus, etc. ; Lucret. 3. 893, urgerive superne obtritum 
pondere terras. cui: his peer. The emphasis of the introductory 
relative italicizes the English demonstrative that must take its 
place. Pudor: Ai8ws. The Greek and Roman religion made 
these capitalized abstractions more real to the ancients than they 
can be -to us, disgusted with their rhetorical use in eighteenth cen- 
tury poetry. Cf. C. S. 57. Cf. Preller-Jordan, 1. 250, for Fides; 
Gaston Boissier, Relig. Rom. 1. 8. soror : so Find. O. 13. 6. 

7. nuda Veritas : Ov. Amor. 1. 3. 14, has nuda simplicitas. 
Shaks. ' naked truth ' (Hen. VI. 2. 4) ; L. L. L. 5. 2 ; Chapman, All 
Fools, 4. 1, ' Time will strip truth into her nakedness.' 

8. inveniet: for sing, verb with pi. subject, cf. I. 2. 38 ; 1. 3.3; 
1. 4. 16 ; 1. 6. 10 ; 1. 35. 21, etc. parem : ' For Lycidas is dead, 
dead ere his prime, | Young Lycidas, and hath not left his peer.' 
Verg. Aen. 6. 878, of Marcellus, Heu pietas, heu prisca fides, etc. 

9. multis . . . flebilis : cf. 4. 2. 21 ; G. L. 355 n. ; H. 391. I. ; 
cf. Solon's wish, fr. 19. 

11. frustra piua : cf. 2. 14. 2. n. ; Ovid's vive pius moriere pins ; 
Verg. Aen. 2. 428, dis aliter visum ; 11. 157; Tenn. In Mem. 6, 
' O mother, praying God will save | Thy sailor, while thy head is 
bow'd | His heavy-shotted hammock shroud | Drops in his vast and 
wandering grave.' See Lang's comment: 'Ah, not frustra pius 



BOOK I., ODE XXIV. 207 

was Vergil, as you say, Horace, in your melancholy song. In him, 
we fancy, there was a happier mood than your melancholy pa- 
tience.' non ita creditum : not thus (i.e. to this sad end) com- 
mended (in thy prayers) to their keeping. Cf. 1. 3. 5; 1. 36. 3; 
custudes Numidae deos. It has been taken, ' not lent to thee on 
such terms ' that thou couldst rightfully demand him when with- 
drawn. That is rather a Christian thought. Yet cf. Cic. Tusc. 1. 
93; Sen. Dial. 11. 10. 4. 

13-15. quod si ... non: modern editors mostly read, with a 
majority of the Mss., quid si . . . num, with interrogation point 
after gregi (18). But the conclusion durum, etc., follows less 
aptly so ; and the long trailing question spoils the rhythmic effect, 
and is not justified by the example of 2. 12. 21, nor by Pindar's 
swift, splendid rhetorical questions. O. 13. 18 ; Pyth. 4. 70 ; Isth. 
4.39. 

13. blandius: 3. 11. 15. n. ; 4. 1.8. Orpheo: cf. 1. 12. 7. n. 
For his descent into Hades in quest of Eurydice, cf. further Eurip. 
Alcest. 357 ; Ov. Met. 10. 1-77 ; Verg. G. 4. 453-627, Aen. 6. 119 ; 
Milton, II Penseroso, ' Or bid the soul of Orpheus sing | Such notes 
as warbled to the string, | Drew iron tears down Pluto's cheek, | 
And made Hell grant what love did seek ' ; L' Allegro sub finem ; 
Spenser, Vergil's Gnat, 55 ; Ruins of Time, 392 ; Arnold, Thyrsis, 
1 And flute his friend like Orpheus from the dead ' ; Pope, Ode on 
St. Cecilia's Day. 

14. moderere : so 4. 3. 18, temperas. Milton, P. L. 7, ' All 
sounds on fret by string or golden wire, | Tempered soft tunings.' 

15. vanae . . . imagini : hollow wraith, empty shade. Verg. 
Aen. 6. 293, temies sine corpore vitas . . . volitare cava sub ima- 
gine formae. Wordsworth, Laodamia, ' But .unsubstantial form 
eludes her grasp,' etc. Homer's vfxvcov ttSte\a Ka^vriav ; Verg. 
Aen. 2. 785-95. sanguis : the blood is the life. Cf. the revival 
of the dead by draughts of blood (Odyss. 11. 98). 

16-18. virga . . . gregi : cf. 1. 10. 18. n. 

16. semel : 4. 7. 21, once for all, irrevocably, eva. xp&vov (II. 
15. 511) ; &ra| (Odyss. 12. 350) ; Aesch. Ag. 1019 ; Eumen. 648 ; 
ffj oira| (Prom. 750); Teun. Two Voices, ' "This is more vile," he 
made reply, | "To breathe and loathe, to live and sigh, | Than 
once from dread of pain to die " ' ; Verg. Aen. 11. 418. 



208 NOTES. 

17. non lenis : -with inf. as lenis, C. S. 14; non leni occurs 2. 
19. 15. precibus : perhaps abl. cause. But cf. Propert. 5. 11. 2, 
panditur ad nullas ianua nigra preces. For recludere in literal 
sense with dat. of person, cf. 2. 18. 33; 3. 2. 21. Valer. Flaccus, 
4. 231, has reclusaque ianua leti of the gate opened to admit the 
dead. The gates and gate-keeper of Hades and of death are com- 
monplaces. Cf. 3. 11. 16. n. ; 11. 8. 367. 

18. nigro : death and all that suggests death is niger or ater. 
Cf. 4. 2. 24 ; 4. 12. 26. compulerit : cf. coercet (1. 10. 18); cogi- 
mur (2. 3. 25); egerit Oreo (Sat. 2. 5. 49); 'AtSrjs aynffi\aos (Aesch. 

. fr. 406), 

19. patientia, etc. : ' but patience lighteneth what heaven for- 
bids us to undo ' (Lang). Cf. Otto, p. 134 ; Archil, fr. 9. 5. 

20. nefaa: 1. 11. 1. 

ODE XXV. 

The old age of the courtesan. Cf. 3. 15 ; 4. 13 ; Ov. A. A. 3. 69. 

1. iunctas . . . fenestras : the closed (by a bar, sera) wooden 
shutters of the window opening on the second floor. 

2. iactibus : more appropriate than ictibus for stones thrown 
against upper windows. protervi: cf. 2. 5. 15. 

3. amat : cf. Verg. Aen. 5. 163, litus ama. 

5. multum : by caesura is separated from facilis, and so, per- 
haps, is better taken with movebat. 

7-8. The words of the serenade, or rather TrapzK\a.vcridupoi>. Cf. 
3. 10. and Aiith. Pal. 5. 23. tuo : thy slave, thy lover. 

9. invicem : now in your turn. arrogantes : the pride, the 
disdain of. Cf. on 2. 4. 10. 

10. levis : lightly esteemed, i.e. despised. The lonely alley, the 
howling winds, the moonless night, heighten the sense of deso- 
lation. 

11. Thracio: Epode 13. 3. bacchante : cf. 3. 3. 55, and 
Sargent, 'A life on the ocean wave! | A home on the rolling 
deep, | Where the scattered waters rave, | And the winds their 
revels keep.' magis: i.e. ever louder and louder. sub: cf. on 
1. 8. 14. interlunia the time of the new moon was proverbially 



BOOK I., ODE XXVI. 209 

windy. For meter, cf. 1. 2. 19. For word, cf. Milton's ' hid in her 
vacant interlunar cave.' 

14-15. Cf.Verg.G.3.266. iecur: the seat of passion. Of. 4. 1.12. 

15-20. Her plaint is that youth prefers youth to age. 

17. pubes: cf. 2. 8. 17. virenti: 1. 9. 17, the green (bloom- 
ing) leaf is the symbol of youth, as the sere and yellow leaf of age. 
Archil, fr. 100 ; Aeschyl. Ag. 79. 

18. pulla serves to contrast the darker and lighter green. Cf. 
Tenn., 'That like a purple beech among the greens | Looks out of 
place.' The myrtle is viridis, 1. 4. 9. 

19. aridas : 4. 13. 9. sodali : cf. 3. 18. 6 ; cf. comes, 1. 28. 21 ; 
4. 12. 1. Eurus was a winter wind (Verg. G. 2. 339). The Mss. 
read Hebro. But why the dry leaves shall be consigned to the 
Hebrus is not clear. Cf. Shelley, Ode to West Wind, 1. 



ODE XXVI. 

Dear to the Muses, I give my cares to the winds, and ' what the 
Mede intends and what the Dacian.' Help me, sweet nymph of 
Pimplea, to twine a fresh chaplet of song for my Lamia. 

Tiridates (5) was king of Parthia in place of Phraates, expelled 
for tyranny. Phraates sought aid of the Scythians to recover his 
throne, and Tiridates fled to Augustus in Syria (B.C. 30), accord- 
ing to Dio. 51. 18 ; in Spain (B.C. 25), according to Justin, 42. 5. 5. 
The usually accepted date for the ode is B.C. 30-29. Phraates' res- 
toration is referred to in 2. 2. 17, and there is an allusion to the 
dissensions of the ' Medes ' in 3. 8. 19, in the ode written on the 
(first ?) anniversary of Horace's escape from the falling tree (2. 13 ; 
3. 4. 27). Those who adopt the later date reconcile Dio. and Justin 
by the hypothesis that Tiridates merely appealed to Augustus for 
aid in Syria (B.C. 30), and took refuge with him in person in 
Spain (B.C. 25). For Aelius Lamia, cf. on 3. 17. The poem has 
been thought Horace's first attempt in the Alcaic measure ; cf. 
novis (10) and the metrical awkwardness of 7 and 11. 

1. musis amicua : cf. 2. 6. 18 ; 3. 4. 25 ; Verg. Aen. 9. 774, ami- 
cum Crethea musis; Hes. Theog. 96 ; Theocr. 1. 141. tristitiam: 
1. 7. 18. 

p 



210 NOTES. 

2. protervis : Epode 16. 22 ; Verg. Aen. 1. 536, procacibns aus- 
tris ; Lucret. 6. Ill, petulantibus anris ; 1. 14. 16, ludibrium ventis; 
Shakspeare's 'the air, a chartered libertine.' Creticum : indi- 
vidualizing ; cf. on 1. 16. 4. But the Cretan sea was stormy. 
(Soph. Trach. 117.) 

3. portare: epexegetic inf. For thought, cf. Epode 11. 16; 
Homer, Odyss. 8. 408 ; Eurip. Troad. 419 ; Theoc. 22. 167 ; Apoll. 
Rhod. 1. 1334 ; Otto, Sprichwb'rter der Romer, p. 364 ; Catull. 30. 
10 ; Anacreontea, 41. 13, rb 5' &x os "'e^eu-ye mx^fv \ avffj.orp6<ptf 

6ue\\r) ; ibid. 39. 7 ; 2. 8. Cf. also Heine, ' Ich wollt', meine 
Schmerzen ergossen | Sich all' in ein einziges wort, | Das gab' 
ich den lustigen Winden, | Die triigen es lustig fort.' quis : 
nom. parallel with quid (5) rather than dat. ; a form not used in 
odes. Cf. Epode 11. 9. 

4. rex : of the Scythians perhaps, or possibly Phraates himself, 
or, if the reference is not mainly to the fears of Tiridates, the king 
of the Dacians. Cf. on 3. 8. 18. gelidae . . . orae : cf. Lucan, 
5. 55. 

5-6. unice . . . securus : quite (solely) unconcerned, se-curus. 
Cf. Ronsard, ' Celuy n'a soucy quel roy | Tyrannise sous sa loy | 
Ou la Perse ou la Syrie.' 

6. fontibus integris : d/cijparois, cf. Eurip. Hippol. 73, Lucret. 
1. 927 ; Verg. G. 2. 175 ; Sellar, p. 147. 

7. necte : So in Greek ir\fK(a and v<f>aivw (Find. 0. 6. 86 ; Nem. 
4. 44, fr. 179). Shelley, Alastor, 'woven hymns.' flores : sc. 
yiovffeoiv &6ea. 

9. Pimplei: cf. Lexicon, s.v. 

9-10. mei . . . honores : of my bestowing. Cf. Lucan, 9. 983, 
quantum Smyrnaei durabunt vatis honores. So n^ais (Find. 
Nem. 9. 10). 

10. novis : For Horace's claim to originality, cf. on 3. 30. 13 and 
Epist. 1. 19. 21. But he strikes the new chords Lesbio plectra, and 
his boast is that he ' tuned the Ausonian lyre | To sweeter sounds 
and tempered Pindar's fire : | Pleased with Alcaeus' manly rage to 
infuse | The softer spirit of the Sapphic Muse ' (Pope). 

11. Lesbio : cf. 1. 1. 34. sacrare : consecrate. So Stat. Silv. 
4. 7. 7. Cf. 4. 9. 25, vate sacro. plectro : see Lex. 



BOOK I., ODE XXVH. 211 



ODE XXVII. 

Far be the barbarous Thracian dissonance and the Persian dirk 
from our sober revels. And if I am to crush a cup with you, the 
brother of pretty Opuntian Megilla must reveal to us the lady of 
his secret thoughts. Surely he need not blush to name her. 
Ah, poor fellow ! with what a Charybdis were you struggling ! 
No Thessalian witch will deliver you from that monster. 

A verse exercise. The details are Greek, except Falerni (10). 
Cf. Auacreon, fr. 63. 

1. Natis. born for, made for, meant for. Cf. A. P. 82, natum 
rebus agendis. scyphis: abl. of weapon. Cf. Lucian, Symp. 
14 and 44. 

2. Thracum : cf. on 1. 18. 9. tollite : away with. Cf. 2. 5. 9. 

3. morem . in bad sense. Cf. Livy, 34. 2. 9, qui hie mos 
obsidendi vias. verecundum : proleptic. Bacchus is in himself 
inverecundus deus. Cf. Epode 11. 13. But the idea of the god and 
the use of his gifts blends. Cf. 1. 18. 7 ; and, for whole passage, 
3. 8. 15. 

4. prohibete : so, with seeming reversal of natural syntax, 
corpus prohibere cheragra (Epist. 1. 1. 31). 

5. vino: dat. Horace said 'different to.' Cf. 2. 2. 18; 4. 9. 
29. acinaces : has a distinguished foreign sound. Cf. Lex. 

6. immane quantum : cf. mirum quantum, a^xavov ovov, and 
Milton's 'incredible how swift.' 

8. cubito . . . presso : with left arm pressed into cushion of 
couch by weight of body. In Petron. Sat. 27, hie est apud quern 
cubitum ponetis means 'this is your entertainer.' 

9. seven : dpi/j.eos ; they were drinking dry, not sweet, Faler- 
nian. Cf. Athen. 1. 26. c. Strong as contrasted with the innocentis 
Lesbii of 1. 17. 21. Cf. Catull. 27. 2, calices amariores. 

10. dicat : challenges to name a toast were common at ban- 
quets. Cf. Theoc. 14. 18 ; Martial, 1. 71. 

10-11. the details individualize. Cf. on 3. 9. 14 ; 2. 4. 2 ; 2. 5. 
20 ; 3. 12. 6 ; 3. 9. 9. 

11-12. beatus . . . pereat: the poets abuse oxymoron in de- 
scribing what Thomson calls ' the charming agonies of love.' Cf. 



212 NOTES. 

Romeo and Juliet, 1.1, '0 heavy lightness, serious vanity,' etc, 
pereat is technical in the lover's dialect. Cf. Catull. 45. 5 ; Propert. 
1. 4. 12. Volnere, sagitta, ignibus (15) are all worn-out metaphors 
of love. Cf. Lucret. 1. 34; Verg. Aen. 4. 2; Eurip. Medea, 530. 
632; Odes 3. 7. 11. n. ; 2. 8. 15. 

13. mercede : i.e. condition. cessat voluntas ? he won't? 
his will pauses, halts, flags. For force of cesso, cf. Verg. Aen. 
6. 52, cessas in vota precesqne ; Odes 3. 27. 58 ; 3. 28. 8 ; Marvell, 
Ode on Cromwell, ' So restless Cromwell could not cease | In the 
inglorious arts of peace.' 

14. Venus: cf. on 1. 33. 13. 

15. erubescendis : cf . 2. 4. 20, pudenda. 

16. ingenuo : banteringly ; she is no servant maid like the flam 
Phyllis of 2. 4. 

17. peccas : technical. Cf. on 3. 7. 19. quidquid habes: 
cf. Catull. 6. 15, quare quidquid habes boni malique \ die nobis. 

18. depone : in Sat. 2. 6. 46, Horace modestly says that his 
great friend Maecenas confides to him only those secrets, quae 
rimosa bene deponuntur in aure. a miser ; after a pause in 
which the name is told. 

19. laborabas : all the while, though we knew it not ; the effect 
of &pa of surprised recognition with impf . in Greek. Charybdi : 
the comparison of a ruthless coquette to a gulf, abyss, or whirlpool 
was as familiar to the Athens of the new comedy as it is to modern 
Paris. Cf. Anaxilas apud Athen. 13. 558 A. 

20. flamma : dangerously like the images to which Quintilian 
objects that begin with a storm and wind up with a conflagration. 

21. Thessalia : Thessaly was the land of brewed enchantments. 
Cf. Propert. 1.5. 6, et bibere e tola toxica Thessalia ; Epode 5. 45. 

22. venenis : potions, philters, not necessarily poisons. So 
<(>dpfj.aKa. in Greek. 

23. triform! : II. 6. 181; Lucret. 5. 902, prima leo, postrema 
draco, media ipsa, Chimaera. 

23-24. Bellerophon mounted on the winged steed Pegasus slew 
the Chimaera (Find. 0. 13. 90), but from the toils of this Chimaera 
of a flirt even Pegasus could not free you. 

24. Chimaera : with both illigatum and expediet. For Pegasus, 
cf. 4. 11. 28. n. 



BOOK I., ODE XXVIH. 213 



ODE XXVIII. 

Apparently the dramatic monologue of the ghost of one who has 
been shipwrecked near the tomb of the philosopher Archytas on 
the shore near Venusia. In lines 1-6 the shade of Archytas is 
directly apostrophized in the manner of the Greek sepulchral epi- 
gram. Lines 0-20 moralize on the universality of death. In lines 
20-36 very loosely, if at all, connected with the preceding, a ghost 
that met shipwreck in the Illyrian waves implores with mingled 
entreaties and imprecations a passing sailor to give it the formal 
rites of burial three handfuls of earth. Attempts have been 
made to interpret the poem as a dialogue with change of speaker 
at 17 or 21. Cf. Sellar, p. 182. 

Archytas of Tarentum, the Pythagorean philosopher and mathe- 
matician, was a contemporary of Plato. Cf. Cic. Cato M. 12-41. 

1. arenae: cf. Catull. 7. 3; Otto, p. 159; Pind. O. 2. 108; the 
comic word ifa^a^fTia ; Milton, ' unnumbered as the sands | Of 
Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. ' Archimedes wrote a treatise entitled 

^a/UjlUTTJS. 

2. mensorem (terrae) : ytta/j.fTpris. cohibent : cf. 2. 20. 8 ; 
3. 4. 80 ; 4. 0. :J4. 

3. pulveris exigui : Verg. G. 4. 87, in exquisite symbolism. 
So Lucan of Pompey, Pharsal. 8. 867, pulveris exigui sparget non 
longa vetustas \ congeriem. It is the familiar contrast between the 
full-blown pride of living man and the ' two handfuls of white dust 
shut in an urn of brass.' Those who make Archytas himself the 
unburied speaker (22-23 ; 35-36) render the boon of a little dust 
(withheld). Matinum: cf. 4. 2. 27; Epode 16. 27, Matina 
cacumina; glossed variously by Porphyrio as mons Apuliae and 
mons Calabriae. Whether or how the tomb of Archytas was there 
does not appear. 

4. munera: Lex. II. B. 2. 

4-5. nee . . . prodest . . . temptasae : cf. Milton's ' nor aught 
availed him now | To have built in heaven high towers.' Temptasse 
suggests the audacity of the attempt. Cf. 3. 4. 31 ; 1.11.3; Verg. 
Eclog. 4. 32, temptare Thetim ratibus ; cf . also Lucretius of Epicurus, 
1. 73, atque omnem immensum peragravit mente animoque. Whence 



214 NOTES. 

Swinburne, ' Past the wall unsurmounted that bars out our vision 
with iron and fire | He has sent forth his soul for the stars to 
comply with and suns to conspire.' Cf. Plato, Thesetet. 173. e. 

6. morituro : with tibi, since thou wast doomed to die, despite 
thy immortal thoughts. Cf. on 2. 3. 4. 

7. Pelopis genitor, cf. 2. 13. 37. In Ov. Met. 6. 172, Pelops 
says, mihi Tantalus auctor \ cui licuit soli superorum tangere 
mensas. Cf. Pind. 0. 1. 55 ; Od. 11. 587 ; Goethe, Iph. 4. 5. 

8. Tithonus : was translated to the skies, removed to the airs, 
by Aurora who loved him. Cf. on 2. 16. 30 ; Eurip. Tro. 855. 

9. Minos- Aibs fj.eyd\ov oapiffrrfs ; Odyss. 19. 179. Cf. Plato's 
Minos. 

10-14. The son of Panthous (Euphorbus, II. 16. 808) had to die 
a second time, although in his reincarnation as Pythagoras he, to 
prove his metempsychosis, entered the temple of Hera in Argos 
and took down the shield which he wore in his first sojourn on 
earth as Euphorbus. Cf. Ov. Met. 15. 160. ff ; Max. Tyr. 16. 2. . 

10. Oreo : cf . Verg. Aen. 2. 398, multos Danaum dimittimus 
Oreo. 

13. concesserat : i.e. he had yielded only the body, not the 
soul, to death. atrae : cf. on 2. 3. 16. 

14. iudice te : Pythagoras would be no mean authority (litotes) 
to a Pythagorean. Cf. Verg. Aen. 11. 339, non futilis auctor; 
Livy, 30. 45, hand . . . spernendus auctor. 

15. Una : Simon, fr. 38 (52), irdvra yap fj.lav iKve7rai Sao-TrArjra 
XdpuBSiv. 'All that we are or know is darkly driven | Towards 
one gulf (Shelley, Revolt of Is. 9. 35). 

16. calcanda . . . via : 2. 17. 12, iter, ' the way to dusty death.' 
Cf. Propert. 4. 17. 22, est mala sed cunctis ista terenda via est. 
semel : 1. 24. 16. n. 

17. spectacula: cf. on 1. 2. 37. torvo: 'he smiles a smile 
more dreadful | Than his own dreadful frown,' etc. 

18. exitiost : G. L. 356 ; A. and G. 233. a. avidum : cf. 3. 29. 
61, but here for lives, not wealth ; cf. 2. 18. 30. 

19. mixta : as in Verg. Aen. 6. 306-308. 

20. saeva: imperiosa (Sat. 2. 5. 110), tiraivi). Proserpina: 
cf. on Verg. Aen. 4. 698 ; Eurip. Alcest. 74. For quant. 2. 13. 21. n. 
fugit : aoristic (cf. 3. 2. 32), shuns, neglects. But it is probably 



BOOK I., ODE XXIX. 215 

a reversal of the normal mode of expression (Proserpinam fugit), 
such as Jebb, J. H. S. 3. 168, notes in Pindar, O. 1. 53, etc. 

21. Orion was a proverbially stormy sign. Cf. 3. 27. 18 ; Epode 
10. 10 ; 15. 7 ; Milton, ' When with fierce winds Orion armed | 
Hath vexed the red seacoast' ; Apoll. Khod. 1. 1202, tvre fiA\iara 
| Xfi/aepiri o\oo1o Si/vis irf\fi 'npiiavos ', Antll. Pal. 7. 273 ; Hes. Op. 
619; Verg. Aen. 4. 52. comes: 4. 12. 1. 

23. vagae : wind-blown. malignus: cf. on benignius, 1.9.6. 

24. Note the rare and harsh hiatus. 

25. sic : i.e. if you grant my prayer. Cf. on 1. 3. 1. 

25-27. May the threats of the east wind spend themselves on 
the forests of Venusia while thou remainest safe. plectantur : 
be lashed, mulcted. 

28. uiide potest : sc. defluere, parenthetic. For unde, cf. on 
1. 12. 17. 

29. custode : TroAtoGxos. Taras, son of Neptune, was the epony- 
mous founder of Tarentum. 

30. neglegis : dost thou count it a light thing ? Cf. Catull. 
30. 5. The sailor seems to be about to refuse. 

31. te : ace. with committere rather than abl. with natis. 
ncglegis committere would probably mean neglect to commit. 
fraudem: wrong. Cf. Odyss. 11. 72 sqq. fors et: seems to be 
a phraseological equivalent of fortasse with a tone of confidence. 
' It may be too.' Editors cite Verg. Aen. 2. 139 ; 11. 50. 

32. due punishment and stern requital. debita iura has also 
been interpreted 'rites and justments of the dead' (sc. withheld). 

33. precibus : i.e. the denial of my prayers. inultis : cf . 
1. 2. 51. linquar : left (in the lurch); cf. Sat. 1. 9. 74. 

36. ter : the consecrated number. Verg. Aen. 6. 229. 506 ; 
Soph. Antig. 431. 

ODE XXIX. 

Iccius the scholar s'en va-t-en guerre to spoil the treasures of 
Araby the blest, and win a fair barbarian for his bride. Streams 
may run uphill when Iccius sells his library for a coat of mail. 

Cf. Epp. 1. 12, a complimentary letter written about five years 
later to Iccius as steward of Agrippa's Sicilian estates. The expe- 



216 NOTES. 

dition referred to is the unsuccessful campaign of Aelius Gallus in 
the year 25 B.C. Cf. Strabo. 16. 22 ; Augustus, Mon. Ancyr. 5. 

13, In Arabiam usque in fines Sabaeorum processit exercitus ad 
Oppidum Mariba ; Plin. N. H. 6. 160. 

For bantering tone, cf. Cicero's playful letters to his friend Tre- 
batius, who went to seek his fortune in the camp of Caesar. 

1. beatis : for transferred epithet, cf. 'perfumes of price] 
Eobb'd from the happy shrubs of Araby ' (William Browne, Book 
2. Song 3). iiuuc : i.e. after a life of study . The position italicizes 
in Latin. Cf. Arnold, Obermann Once More: 'And from the 
world, with heart opprest, | Choosest thou noio to turn ? ' 
Arabum : Arabia is alluded to as a sort of California by the 
Augustan poets. Cf. 2. 12. 24 ; 3. 24. 1 ; Ep. 1. 7. 36 ; Propert. 1. 

14. 19; 3. 1. 15, India quin Augusts, tuo dat colla triumpho \ ef, 
domus intactae te tremit Arabiae. Cf . also, 'the gold of Arabia' 
(Ps. 72. 15) ; Otto, p. 33, 34. 

2. gazis: oriental coloring. acrem militiam : 3.2.2. 

3. non ante: 4. 14. 41. Sabaeae : Sheba. Cf. 1 Kings 10. 1, 
and Milton's ' Sabaean odors from the spicy shore | Of Araby the 
blest.' 

4. Medo : Iccius will subdue the entire Orient. Cf . 1. 9, Sericas. 
horribili : cf. Cat. 11. 11, horribiles Britannos. The tone is 
that of Falstaff to Prince Hal, Hen. IV. 1. 1. 2. 4, ' Could the world 
pick thee out three such enemies again . . . Art thou not horribly 
afraid ? doth not thy blood thrill at it ? ' 

5. catenas : cf . the anecdotes of armies so confident of victory 
that they took more chains than arms into battle (Flor. 3. 7). 

6. Avoid the ambiguity of a recent English version, ' What 
savage maiden having slain her lover ? ' 

7. ex aula : Aulicus, regius, page. Cf. Livy, 45. 6. capillis : 
cf. Fitzgerald cited at 1. 38. 6, and Tenn. 'long-hair'd page.' 

8. ad cyathum : as cup-bearer to dip the wine from the cratera. 
Cf. Sueton. Caes. 49 ; Juv. Sat. 5. 66, flos Asiae ante ipsum ; 
13. 43, nee puer lliacus, formosa nee Herculis uxor \ ad cyathos ; 
Jebb on Soph. Philoct. 197 ; Daniel, 1. 3. 

9. doctus : Persian youth were taught rpta povva, linrevcti>, 
TociW Kal a\ri6iCeff0ai (Hdt. 1. 136). Cf. Strabo. 15. 3. 18. 



BOOK I., ODE XXX. 217 

teadere : strictly applicable to the bow. Cf. Verg. Aen. 9. 606, 
sp>cula tendere cornu ; 5. 507. Sericas : cf. 1. 12. 56. n. 

10-12. Proverbial expression for reversal of order of nature. 

Cf. Eurip. Med. 410, a.v<a Trora^lav iepSiv xiapovo-t irajai ; Suppl. 520 ; 
Cic. ad Att. 15. 4. 1 ; Propert. 3. 7. 33 ; 4. 18. 6 ; Verg. Aen. 11. 
405 ; Ov. Trist. 1. 8. 1 ; Her. 5. 27, cum Paris Oenone poterit 
spirare relicta, \ Ad fontem Xnnthi versa recurret aqua ; ex Pont. 
4. 5. 43 ; 4. 6. 45 ; Claudian. Eutrop. 1. 353 ; in. Rufin. 1. 159 ; infra. 
Ep. 16. 28 ; Otto, p. 139; Scott, Lay of Last Minstrel, 1. 18, ' Your 
mountains shall bend and your streams ascend | Ere Margaret be 
our foeman's bride ' ; Tenn., ' Against its fountain upward runs | 
The current of my days.' 

11. pronos : by nature. Cf. 3. 27. 18 ; 4. 6. 39 ; Shelley, Witch 
of Atlas, 41, ' and ever down the prone vale . . . the pinnace 
went' ; Manil. 4. 415, et pronis fugientia flumina ripis; Verg. G. 
1. 203. 

12. montibus : dat. -whither, or possibly abl. abs. 

13. coemptos: 2.3.17. nobilis : preferably with Pa naeti. 

14. Panaetius, a Stoic philosopher of Rhodes, friend of the 
younger Scipio, and author of a treatise irtpl TOV KaffijKovTos, fol- 
lowed by Cicero in his De Officiis. Socraticam domum : the 
writings of Plato, Xenophon, and the other Socratics. Cf. Peri- 
pateticorum familia (Cic. de Divin. 2. 1) ; Hor. Epist. 1. 1. 13, quo 
me duce quo lore tuter ; Sen. Ep. 29 ; Julian, p. 259 B, KO\ ri> 
^caxpdrovs Sufj-aTiov ; cf. Milt. P. R. 4, ' Socrates . . . from whose 
mouth issued forth | Mellifluous streams that water'd all the 
schools,' etc. 

15. mutare: cf. 1. 16. 26. n. Hibeiis: cf. Shak. Othello, 5. 2, 
' It is a sword of Spain, the ice-brook's temper.' 

16. pollicitus : cf . 1. 15. 32. tendis : cf . Epp. 1. 19. 16, tenditque 
disertus haberi. 

ODE XXX. 

Come, Queen of Love, with thy joyous train, abandon Cyprus 
and betake thee to the dainty shrine whither Glycera woos thee. 

A so-called K\T/]TIK^ vpvos. Cf. Alcm. fr. 21. 
Sappho, fr. 7 ; Pindar, fr. 122. 14. 



218 NOTES. 

1. regina : cf. Cat. 64. 96, quaeque regis Golgos, etc. ; Theoc. 
15. 100; John Bartlett, 'The Queen of Paphos Erycine.' Cnidus: 
Dorian town in Caria. Contained Venus of Praxiteles, of which 
the Medicean Venus is supposed to be an imitation. Paphos : in 
Cyprus. Cf. Odyss. 8. 362 ; Verg. Aen. 1. 415 ; Tac. Hist. 2. 2 ; 
Lucan, 8. 456. 

2. sperne : cf. 1. 9. 16 ; 1. 19. 10 ; 3. 2. 24. 

4. aedem : temple, shrine, chapel ; pi. house. The distinction 
may or may not be observed here. 

5. puer : Cupid. Cf. 1. 2. 34, and Aesch. Suppl. 1039-1040. 
solutis : Sen. de Ben. 1. 3. 2; Schiller, die Erwartung, 'Der 
Giirtel ist von jedem Reiz gelost. ' 

6. gratiae : cf. 1. 4. 6. n. properentque : cf. for free position 
of que and ve, 2. 7. 25 ; 2. 17. 16 ; 3. 2. 28 ; 3. 4. 11 ; 3. 3. 43 ; 3. 
4. 55 ; 3. 1. 12. 

7. luventas : 3jj8ij. The bloom of youth that charms not unless 
it is also ' the bloom of young desire and purple light of love.' For 
9i&n and Aphrodite, cf. Horn. Hymn Apoll. 195. 

8. Mercurius : as god of speech and persuasion. So TlttOu and 
Aphrodite constantly associated in Greek poetry. Cf. Plut. 
Coniug. Praec. init. Cf. ' \Vill when speaking well can't win her, 
| Saying nothing do 't ' ? 

ODE XXXI. 

The bard's prayer on the dedication of the temple on the Palatine 
to Actian Apollo, B.C. 28. For an account of the temple and the 
adjoining library, cf. Epp. 1. 3. 17 ; 2. 1. 216 ; 2. 2. 93 ; Suet. August. 
29 ; Dio Cass. 53. 1 ; Propert. 3. 29. 

Lanciani, Ancient Rome, p. Ill ; Duruy, History of Rome, 4. 1. 
p. 127 ; Merivale, 4. 24 ; Gardthausen, 2. 574. 

Horace prays neither for cornlands, vineyards, nor fat herds. 
He envies not the adventurous trader's gains. He asks only for a 
sound mind in a sound body and 'not to be tuneless in old age.' 

Cf. Pindar's prayer, Nem. 8. 37. 

1. dedicatum : used both of the deity and his temple ; perhaps 
because the god and his statue were confounded. Cf. Theog. 11 ; 



BOOK I., ODE XXXI. 219 

Ov. Fast. 6. 637, te qiioque magnified, Concordia, dedicat aede. 
Apollinem : for Apollo Palatinus, the work of Scopas, brought to 
Rome by Augustus, cf. Pliny, N. H. 36. 28; Baumeister, 1. p. 99. 
The statue stood between Praxiteles' Latona and Timotheus' 
Diana. Cf. Propert. 3. 29. 15. 

2. vates : the poet in his higher religious aspect as sacred bard. 
Cf. Verg. Aen. 6. 662, qnique pii vates et Phoebo digna locuti ; 
Epode 16. 66. In his prosaic mood he sneers at the old-fashioned 
word rehabilitated by Vergil. CY Epist. 2. 1. 26, annosa volumina 
valum. novum : new wine used in religious rites. Cf. 1. 19. 15. 

3. f undens . . . de : cf. 4. 5. 34, defttso. opimae : cf. 1. 7. 
11 ; Verg. Aen. 1. 621, opimam Cyprum. 

4. Sardiniae : with Sicily and Africa the granary of Rome. 
segetes : the harvest and the harvest field are virtually one. Cf. 
Epist. 2. 2. 161. 

5. aestuosae : hot, sunny. Cf. 1. 22. 5 ; Epode 1. 27. 
grata : a prosperous herd is a pleasing sight, especially to the 
owner. 

6. For ivory and gold, cf. 2. 18. 1. Indicum : cf. Tenn., 'La- 
borious Orient ivory.' The prehistoric Indian trade in ivory, silks, 
and gems impressed the imagination of the Romans. Cf. Lucret. 
2. 537, India . . . vallo munitur eburno. Cf. 3. 24. 2, divitis 
Indiae. 

7. rura : the home of Falernian and Massic. Liris : between 
Latium and Campania, 3. 17. 8. 

7-8. quieta, of motion ; taciturnus, of sound. Contra : longe 
sonantem . . . Aufidum (4. 9. 2 ; 3. 30. 10) ; loquaces (3. 13. 15). 
Cf. Longfellow, Monte Cassino, ' Beautiful valley ! through whose 
verdant meads | Unheard the Garigliano glides along ; | The Liris, 
nurse of rushes and of reeds ; | The river taciturn of classic song.' 

8. mordet: cf. Lucret. 5. 256, et ripas radentia flumina rodunt; 
Callim. Ep. 45. 3. 

9. premant : i.e. putvnt, amputantes coerceant. Cf. Verg. G. 
1. 157 ; like arat, Epode 4. 13, it is a poetic expression of owner- 
ship. Calena : cf. 1. 20. 9; for transfer of ep'ithet from vitem to 
falce, cf. 3. 6. 38, Sabellis ligonibus; Cat. 17. 19, Liguri securi. 

10. vitem : with both dedit (in thought) and premant, or better 
dedit (premere). 



220 NOTES. 

11. exsiccet : drain (greedily). Cf. 1. 35. 27. culullis : cf. 
Lex. s.v. and A. P. 434. 

12. Syra : eastern trade by way of Syria was greatly increased 
in the Augustan age. Cf . 3. 29. 60. reparata : apparently bartered 
for, taken in exchange for. Cf. 1. 37. 24. 

13. carus : ironical : he must needs be dear to heaven to run 
such risks with impunity. ter et quater : cf. 1. 13. 17. 

13-14. quippe . . . revisens : i.e. quippe qui revisat (G. L. 
626. n. 1 ; A. G. 320. e. n. 1 ; H. 517. 3). Cf. use of lire with 
part. 

15. me : cf. 1. 1. 29. n. olivae, etc. : a diet of herbs, the stand- 
ing antithesis to cloying luxury. So already Hesiod, Works, 41. 

16. leves malvae : regarded as laxative. Cf. Epode 2. 58, yravi 
salubres corpori. 

17-20. The expression is embarrassed. Perhaps the simplest 
way is to construe: (1) frui . . . dones . . . et valido . . . et 
inteyra cum mente, and (2) degere . . . (dones}, etc., extracting 
the ' and ' that connects the two prayers from the first nee. Or 
we may take the prayer for unimpaired faculties as part of the 
senectam clause, in which case the first et is left without a sym- 
metrical correspondent. The Mss. generally read at (1. 18), which 
is still harsher, and rejected by most editors. 

17. paratis : i.e. partis, what I have, TO. eT-ot/ta. 

18. Latoe : AIJT^ . For sentiment, cf. Juv. Sat. 10. 356, Oran- 
dum est, ut sit mens sana in corpore sano ; Theog. 789 ; Eurip. 
Here. Fur. 676; Fr. Erechth. 369 (Nauck). And Austin Dob- 
son's graceful tribute to Longfellow, ' Not to be tuneless in old 
age, | Ah surely blest his pilgrimage,' etc. Lines 19-20 appear on 
the title-page of Longfellow's Ultima Thule. 



ODE XXXII. 

A song is called for. Oh, my Lesbian lyre, we too have played 
with junketing and love. Now help me to a Latin strain thai 
shall sound through the ages like the spirit-stirring note thou didst 
yield 'when the live chords Alcaeus smote.' He sang of war 
and wine and love. Oh ' sovereign of the willing soul, enchanting 
shell,' be propitious to me also, if I invoke thee aright. 



BOOK I., ODE XXXII. 221 

The poem reads like a discarded prelude to one of the great 
patriotic odes in Alcaic measure. Translation by Hamilton, 
Johnson's Poets, 15. 637. 

On Alcaeus as Horace's prototype, cf. Sellar, p. 135 ; 2. 13. 27 ; 
4. 9. 7 ; Epp. 1. 19. 29 ; 2. 2. 99. See also notes on 1. 37. 1 ; 1. 9 ; 
1. 14; 1. 18; 2. 7.9-10; 3. 12. 1. 

1. poscimur : so Ov. Met. 2. 143 ; 4. 274. Poscimus, the read- 
ing of some Mss., enfeebles age die below. si : for pro forma 
condition in prayer, cf. 3. 18. 5 ; C. S. 37 ; II. 1. 39. vacui : 
sc. operum. Cf. 1. 6. 19, vacui, sc. amore; Verg. G. 3. 3, quae 
vacuas tenuissent carmine mentes. sub umbra : Epist. 2. 2. 78 ; 
Mart. 9. 84. 3, Haec ego Pieria ludebam tutus in umbra ; Swinb. 
Pref . Songs before Sunrise, ' Play then and sing ; we too have 
played, | We likewise in that subtle shade.' 

2. lusimus : lyric verse was trifling to a Roman. Cf. 4. 9. 9 ; 
Epist. 1. 1. 10 ; Cat. 50. 2 ; 68. a. 17. But cf. Find. 0. 1. 16, 
Tra.ifrfj.ei> ; Verg. Eel. 1. 10. Here the reference is to the lighter 
odes and studies from the Greek. 

2-3. quod . . . vivat : characterizing carmen rather than quid. 
Cf. Cat. 1. 10, quod, patrona virgo, plus uno maneat perenne 
saeclo. Vivat : ' Something so written to after times as they 
should not willingly let it die.' Cf. Epist. 1. 19. 2, vivere car- 
mina. 

3. age die : cf. die age, 3. 4. 1 ; 2. 11. 22. Latinum : Horace 
feels himself both imitator and rival of the Greeks. Cf. 4. 6. 27 ; 
4. 3. 23 ; 3. 30. 13. 

5. modulate : passive as detestata (1. 1. 25) ; abominatus 
(Epode 16. 8). Dative, because the chords attuned by him 
yielded music to him. civi : Alcaeus in his a-TaauariKa, his 
attacks on the tyrant Myrsilus, and ' Ship of State,' was emphati- 
cally a citizen and political poet. Cf. 4. 9. 7 ; 2. 13. 27 ; Dion. Hal., 
de iinitat., Usener, p. 20, Tro\\a.\ov yovv rb nerpov ris trfpif\oi, 
prjropeia.i' &j tvpoi iru\iri,K^v. 

6. Construe : qui (quamquam} ferox bello tamen (sire) inter 
arma, etc. 

7. Cf. Ov. Met. 14. 445, herboso religatus ab aggere funis; 
Verg. Aen. 7. 106 ; Cat. 64. 174, in Greta religasset navita funem. 



222 NOTES. 

udo : wave-washed, a\i'/cA.i/o"ros ; so Stat. Silv. 2. 2. 15. Note pov- 
erty of Latin vocabulary. In 1. 7. 13, udus = Siepfa ; in 1. 7. 22, 
0eftpeyfj.fi> os ; in 2. 5. 7, lAaSSrjy, t\e60pfirTos ; in 2. 7. 23, uyp6s, 
jro\vyvafj.irTos ; in 3. 29. 6, tSuSpos ; in Epode 10. 19, HcpvSpos ; in 3. 
2. 23, ^prfeis. Cf. 2. 2. 15. n. 

10. puer : cf. 1. 30. 5. For haerere alicui+ cf. Verg. Aen. 10. 
780, haeserat Euandro. 

11. Lycum: The name is found fr. 58, Bgk. Cf. Cic. De Nat. 
Deor. 1. 79. nig-ris . . . ni-gro : The variation in quantity is 
intentional. Cf. II. 5. 31; Theoc. 6. 19; Callim. Artemis, 110; 
Lucret. 4. 1259; Verg. Aen. 2. 663; Eel. 3. 79; F. Q. 3.2. 51, 
' Thrice she her turned contrary and returned | All cdntrary.' For 
black eyes and hair, cf. A. P. 37, spectandum nigris oculis nigro- 
que capillo. 

14. testudo : cf. 3. 11. 3. n. ; 1. 10. 6. n. ; Arnold, Merope, 
' Surprised in the glens | The basking tortoises, whose striped 
shell founded | In the hand of Hermes the glory of the lyre.' 

15. mini : cf. x '/* 6 ' A""? ' Sei inir gegnisst.' So Verg. Aen. 
11. 97. 

15-16. cumque . . . vocanti : i.e. quotienscumque te vocavero. 
No precedent is cited for this use of cumque, but the reading of the 
Mss. must stand till some happier emendation than Lachmann's 
medicumque is proposed. 

ODE XXXIII. 

Albius, do not ever be chanting doleful elegies for Glycera's 
faithlessness. 'Tis the cruel sport of love to make lis all follow 
her that flees and flee her that follows, and mismate us strangely. 

Trans., Hamilton, Johnson's Poets, 15, p. 637. Cf. Dobson, 
A Story from a Dictionary, 'Love mocks us all, as Horace said 
of old : | From sheer perversity that arch offender | Still yokes 
unequally the hot and cold | The short and tall, the hardened 
and the tender.' 

1. Albi: the Albius Tibullus of Epp. 1. 4, but no Glycera is 
mentioned in his extant elegies, the tender sentimentality of which 
might well seem lachrymose to Horace. Cf. e.g. 1. 5. 38, Saepe 



BOOK I., ODE XXXIII. 223 

ego temptavi curas depellere vino : \ At dolor in lacrimas verterat 
omne merum, for which the ' Shepherd ' in Pickwick offers the 
only parallel. ne doleas: cf. 1. 11. 1. n. It is also taken as 
purpose of following statements. Cf. 4. 9. 1. plus nimio : cf. 

1. 18. 15. 

2. immitis : litotes with slight oxymoron, since Glycera = 
sweet. 

3. elegos: A. P. 75-78; Jebb, Greek Poetry, p. 95. cur: 
suggests the querulous direct question more vividly than quod. 
Cf. Epp. 1. 8. 10; Fronton, et Aur. Epist., p. 116, Naber, equidem 
multum fratrem meum obiurgavi cur me non revocavit (revocarit). 
See Hale, Cum Constr., p. 106. iunior: Tibullus was probably 
about thirty. He died B.C. 19. 

5. tenui fronte : a low forehead was thought a mark of youth 
and beauty ; Epp. 1. 7. 26, nigros angusta fronte capillos. The 
beauty in Petron. Sat. 126 has frons minima et quae radices capil- 
lorum retro flexerat. 

6. torret amor: recurs 3. 19. 28. Cf. also 4. 1. 12; 3. 9. 13; 
Sappho, fr. 115, oirreus S/uM'- For Cyrus, cf. 1. 17. 25; Pholoe, 

2. 5. 17; 3. 15. 7. asperam : possibly proleptic, 'and to him 
she'll have nothing to say ' (Martin). But cf. Tibull. 1. 5. 1, asper 
eram, 'I was cross, ill-natured, petulant.' 

7. declinat : declinat cursus aurumque volubile tollit, says 
Ovid of Atalanta, swerving to pick up the golden apple. Cf. 
Tenn. Locksley Hall, ' Having known me to decline \ On a range 
of lower feelings and a narrower heart than mine ' ; Hamlet, 1. 5, 
' and to decline | Upon a wretch whose natural gifts were poor | 
To those of mine. ' 

8. Cf. Epode 16. 30 ; Verg. Eel. 8. 27, iungentur iam grypes 
eqnis. 

9. turpi : unhandsome, mean (in her eyes). peccet: 3. 7. 
19. n. adultero = paramo ur. Cf. 1. 36. 19; 3. 16. 4, and for 
case, 1. 27. 17 ; 3. 9. 5-6. 

10. sic visum : cf. Ov. Met. 1. 366, sic visum superis. 

11. iuga aenea : cf. 3. 9. 18. n. ; 3. 16. 1. n. ; Otto, p. 6. 

12. saevo : 1. 19. 1. ioco : Soph. Antig. 799, fyiraiCei Ofbs 
'AfpoS'iTa. Cf. 3. 27. 69. 

13. nielior : i.e. higher in the world. Venus: 'love.' 1.27. 14. 



224 NOTES. 

14. grata . . . compede : recurs 4. 11. 23. The singular first 
in Horace, perhaps metri causa. Cf. Epode 4. 4 ; Epp. 1. 3. 3 ; 1. 
16. 77 (plural). Cf. ' Willing chains and sweet captivity' (Milt.). 

15. libertina : Epode 14. 15. fretis acrior Hadriae : cf. 3. 
9. 23 ; Tarn, of Shrew, 1.2,' Were she as rough | As are the swell- 
ing Adriatic seas' ; Victor Hugo, Apropos d' Horace, 'Tu courti- 
sais ta belle esclave quelquefois | Myrtale aux blonds cheveux, qui 
s'irrite et se cabre | Coinme la mer creusant les golfes de Calabre ' ; 
Tenn. Audley Court, ' I woo'd a woman once, | But she was sharper 
than an eastern wind.' 

16. Curvantis: cf. 4. 5. 14; Ov. Met. 11. 229, sinus . . . 
falcatus in arcus. 

ODE XXXIV. 

A thunder clap in a clear sky (which the Epicureans say is im- 
possible, Lucret. 6. 400) has converted Horace from his youthful 
belief that the gods ' lie beside their nectar careless of mankind.' 
(Cf. Sat. 1. 5. 101, deos didici securum agere aevum.) He has felt 
' the steadfast empyrean shake throughout ' beneath the winged 
car of Zeus, and knows now that ' The Lord rnaketh poor and 
maketh rich : he bringeth low and lifteth up' (1 Sam. 2. 7). 

For the religion of the Odes, cf. on 3. 18 ; 3. 23 ; and Sellar, 
p. 159. Dryden, Preface to Odes, observes, 'Let his Dutch com- 
mentators say what they will, his philosophy was Epicurean, and 
he made use of gods and Providence only to serve a turn in 
poetry.' Leasing (Rettungen des Horaz) discusses this ode, and 
sensibly decides that it is the half playful record of a poetical 
mood which it would be sheer pedantry to interpret as a serious 
recantation. He points out that Augustus, according to Suetonius 
(Aug. 90), was so sensitive to thunder that he would shut himself 
up in a dark chamber on the approach of a storm. 

1. parcus . . . infrequens: his offerings had been scant and 
niggardly, his presence at the altar rare. Cf. parca superstitio in 
the beautiful lines of Statius on the worship of Pity (Theb. 12. 
481 ff.). 

2. insanientis . . . sapientiae : ' Because, though it cannot 
be denied that the Democritic hypothesis doth much more hand- 



BOOK I., ODE XXXIV. 225 

somely and intelligibly solve the corporal phenomena, yet in all 
other things which are of far greater moment, it is rather a mad- 
ness than a philosophy' (Cudworth, Intellect. System, 1. 1. 46). 
Cf. Byron, Childe Harold, 2. 8, ' Yet if, as holiest men have 
deemed, there be | A land of souls beyond that sable shore | To 
shame the doctrine of the Sadducee | And sophists madly vain 
of dubious lore.' For the oxymoron, cf. on 3. 11. 35. It is con- 
tinued by the antithesis of consultus erro, wandered, strayed from 
the path of truth, (though) an adept. Lucret. (5. 10, etc.) calls 
the Epicurean doctrine sapientia par excellence. 

3. consultus : this use is an extension of the expression iuris 
consultus. Livy, 10. 22, has iuris atque eloquentiae consultus. 
Cf. Sat. 1. 1. 17 ; Epist. 2. 3. 369. mine : makes the contrasted 
reference to the past in dum erro unambiguous. 

4. iterare : cf. 1. 7. 32 ; 2. 19. 12. 

5. relictos : the forsaken course is the naive faith of childhood. 
Bentley's relectos, retraced, is idiomatically cumulative with iterare. 
Horace perhaps could not have told us himself whether he meant 
simply 'turn back,' or more specifically 'sail back to the point 
where I started on the wrong tack and then enter on the right.' 

Diespiter : an archaic word for Jupiter as Lord of light and 
God of day. Cf. 3. 2. 29; 1. 1. 25. n.; Lex. s.v. ; Preller-Jordan, 
1. 189. 

6-7. nubila: emphatic. dividens: cf. 'Saw God divide the 
night with flying fire ' (Tenn. Dr. of Fair Women) ; Psalms 29. 7. 

plerumque : with dividens in preceding line. Cf. 1. 1. 23 ; 1. 31. 
2 ; 1. 35. 10. 

8. egit: he has this time driven across a clear sky, which is 
the marvel. Cf. Homer, Odyss. 20. 112-114; Lucan, 1. 525; 
Verg. Aen. 8. 524; Georg. 1. 487. currum: cf. 1. 12. 58; the 
irrnvbv apua of Plato (Phaedr. 246 E) ; Find. O. 4. 1. 

9. bruta : cf. mers, 3. 4. 45, contrasted with gliding streams ; 
Milton's ' brute earth would lend her nerves and shake ' ; and 
Tenn. In Mem. 127, "The brute earth lightens to the sky.* 
vaga : cf. 1. 2. 18; Pseudo-Tibull. 4. 1. 143, vago . . . Araxe ; 
Petron. Sat. 122, nee vaga passim flumina. The river as symbol 
of man's life is repeatedly called the Wanderer in Wordsworth 
and Arnold. 

Q 



226 NOTES. - 

10. invisi : hateful as all associations of death. Cf. on 2. 14. 23 ; 
and Verg. Aen. 8. 245. Lessing prefers to take it as imitation of 
the Greek ai8r)s, the unseen world, on the ground that otherwise 
horrida is tautologous. Taeuari : a rift in the rocks at Taenarum 
(Cape Matapan) was deemed the mouth of hell, "A<5a cro/ua (Find. 
Pyth. 4. 44). Cf. Verg. Georg. 4. 467, Taenarias etiam fauces 
alta ostia ditis ; Sen. Her. Fur. 667 ; Milton, Comus, ' rifted rocks 
whose entrance leads to hell.' 

11. Atlanteus finis : ' Where Atlas flings his shadow | Far o'er 
the western foam' (Macanlay, Proph. of Capys). Cf. reproves 
'AT\O.VTIKOI, Eurip. Hippol. 3 ; 747; 1053; Milton's 'Atlantean 
shoulders.' 

12. valet : for syntax, cf. 2. 5. 1 ; 3. 25. 15 ; 4. 7. 27 ; Epode 16.' 
3. For sentiment, cf. Job 5. 11 ; Horn. Odyss. 16. 211 ; Hesiod, 
Op. 6 ; Archil, fr. 56 ; Aesop, apud Diog. Laert. 1. 3 ; Find. Fyth. 
2. 89 ; Eurip. Tro. 608 ; Tac. Hist. 4. 47 ; Aristoph. Lysist. 772 ; 
F. Q. 5. 2. 41, ' He pulleth down, He setteth up on high ; | He gives 
to this, from that He takes away ; | For all we have is His : what 
He list do He may.' ima summis: Tac. Hist. 4. 47; Otto, p. 335. 

14. apicem : properly the pileus or conical cap of a flamen. 
Here tiara; cf. 3. 21. 20. But Horace may be thinking of the 
legend of Tarquin, Livy, 1. 34. rapax : participial or adverbial 
in effect. Vi.pugnax, 4. 6. 8. 

15. Fortuna : cf. next ode and 3. 29. 49. Fortuna and Deus 
shift as Nature and God in Seneca and Emerson. Cf. the Homeric 
fi.o'tpa Ai&s, and Find. Ol. 12. 1, ira.1 Zrjvbs . . . rvxa. Or she is con- 
ceived as God's minister, as in the beautiful description of Dante, 
Inferno, vii. Cf. Sir R. Fanshawe, "Tis he does all, he does it. 
all : Yet this blind mortals fortune call.' So Sir Thomas Browne, 

' The Romans that erected a temple to Fortune acknowledged . . . 
though in a blinder way, somewhat of divinity' (Relig. Med.). 
stridore: of her wings. Cf. 3. 29. 54; Verg. Aen. 1. 397, stri- 
dentibus alis ; Ov. Trist. 1. 1. 75, pennae stridore, ; Milton, P. L. 1, 
'and in the air, | Brush'd with the hiss of rustling wings' ; Swinb. 
' resounds through the wind of her wings.' 

16. sustulit : gnomic. posuisse: cf. on 1. 1. 4 ; 3. 4. 52. 



BOOK I., ODE XXXV. 227 

ODE XXXV. 

To FORTUNE. 

Queen of Antium, ruler of the vicissitudes of mortal lots, sup- 
plicated by pauper and feared by prince : before thee stalks 
Destiny with symbolic wedge and clamp. With thee abide 
"pure-eyed Faith, white-handed Hope." But Folly's brood, the 
summer friend, and the flatterer disperse at thy frown. Guard 
Caesar in his expedition against Britain ; guard our young sol- 
diers, the terror of the Orient. So may we forget our impious 
fratricidal strife, and whet our blunted swords against the Scyth- 
ian and the Arab. 

Augustus contemplated an expedition to Britain B.C. 27 (Dio. 
53. 22), but was detained in Gaul. The Arabian campaign of 
Aelius Callus (see on 1. 29) was preparing B.C. 26, the probable 
date of the Ode. 

The introductory prayer to Fortune is suggested by Find. O. 12. 
1-6. Wordsworth says of his Ode to Duty, ' This ode is on the 
model of Gray's Ode to Adversity, which is copied from Horace's 
Ode to Fortune.' A comparative study of the four odes illustrates 
in a very interesting way the transformations and various moral 
applications of a single literary motif. 

On Fortune cf. 1. 34. 15. n.; 3. 29. 49. n. ; Hes. Theog. 360, 
where Tuxi is an Ocean nymph; Hymn. Cer. 421; Theogn. 130; 
Pausan. 7. 26. 8; Pliny, N. H. 2. 22; Lucret. 5. 107; Plautus, 
Pseud. 2. 3. 14 ; Pacuvius, fr. incert. 14 ; Menander, fr. incert. 
594 (Kock); Philem. fr. incert. 137 (Kock); Anth. Pal. 9. 74; 10. 
70 ; Dante, Inferno, 7 ; Shaks. Henry V. 3. 6 ; Fronto, p. 157, 
Naber. 

Schmidt, Ethik der Griechen, 2. 68 ; Lehrs Aufsatze, p. 176. 

Etc., etc. As Shaks. says, ' Fortune is an excellent moral.' 

1. diva . . . regis : cf. 1. 30. 1. The divinity is pleased by the 
mention of her favorite abode. gratum : sc. tibi; cf. 1. 30. 2. 
But Cicero says of Antium nihil amoe.nius, ad Att. 4. 8. a. It was 
the capital of the Volsci, and at this time a seaside resort ; Strabo, 
5, p. 232. At the old oracle and temple of Fortune there the 
Fortunae Antiates, two images, were'consulted by lots, per sortes, 



228 NOTES. 

and as late as Theodosius were supposed to give responses by their 
movements. Cf. Mart. 5. 1. 3 ; Macrob. Sat. 1. 23. 13. 

2. praesens, a 'very present help' (cf. 3. 5. 2) is also potens or 
valens, which may take inf. For thought, cf. Praed, Chaunt of the 
Brazen Head, ' I think one nod of Mistress Chance | Makes credi- 
tors of debtors, | And shifts the funeral for the dance, | The sceptre 
for the fetters : | I think that Fortune's favored guest | May live to 
gnaw the platters, | And he that wears the purple vest | May wear 
the rags and tatters.' imo : cf. on 1. 34. 12; Tac. Hist. 4. 47, 
Magna documenta instabilis Fortunae summaque et ima miscentis. 

3. Mortale corpus : our frail dust; ' Dust are our frames ; and 
gilded dust, our pride,' etc. (Tenn. Aylmer's Field). Cf. Livy, 
22. 22, unum vile atque infame corpus. But cf. Epode 5. 13, impube 
corpus; Verg. Aen. 1. 70; 2. 18; Lucret. 1. 258, where corpus is a 
mere periphrasis. 

4. funeribus : vertere has construction of mutare, 1. 16. 26. Cf. 
A. P. 226. The death of tlje two sons of Aemilius Paullus on the 
eve of his triumph may have occurred to Horace (Livy, 45, 41). 

5-6. te . . . te : cf. 4. 1. 39. 

5. ambit : courts, like a canvassing candidate. Cf. Lex. s.v. and 
Shaks. Cor. 2. 3. sollicita: he is anxious for his crops (3. 1. 29). 

6. colonus : cf. on 2. 14. 12. dominam aequoris : she is 
sometimes represented with rudder (Fortuna gubernans, Lucret. 
5. 107 ; Pind. fr. 40) and a horn of plenty. Cf. Find. O. 12. 3 ; 
Aesch. Ag. 664. Fortuna is still a seaman's term for storm on the 
Mediterranean. 

7. Bithyna: poetic specification. Cf. 1. 1. 13; 1. 16. 4. But 
cf. on 3. 7. 3. lacessit : challenges, braves. For thought, cf. 1. 
3. 11 sqq. 

8. Carpathium: 4. 5. 10. 

9. Dacus : 1. 26. 4. n. ; Verg. G. 2. 497, descendens Dacus ab 
Istro. _ asper : 1 . 23. 9 ; 1. 37. 26 ; 3. 2. 10. te profugi Scythae : 
a tag ; cf. 4. 14. 42 ; nomad, cf. 3. 24. 9. n. 

10. urbes : 2. 20. 5 ; 3. 4. 46 ; 4. 15. 20. gentes: 1. 2. 5. n. 
Latium : so 1. 12. 53; 4. 4. 40. ferox: Eoma ferox, 3. 3. 44. 
Cf. 1. 6. 3; 1.32.6. 

11. matres : cf. 3. 2. 7. Atossa, the mother of Xerxes (Aesch. 
Persae, 163); Judges, 5. 28, the mother of Sisera. 



BOOK I., ODE XXXV. 229 

12. purpurei : ' And purple tyrants vainly groan ' (Gray, Hymn 
to Adversity) ; Verg. G. 2. 495, purpura regum. 

13. iniurioso : cf. Epode 17. 34. v&pia-riKif, insulting, contume- 
lious. pede : Aesch. Persae, 163. 

14. columnam : of their power. Cf. Lowell, Com. Ode, 
4 Shakes all the pillared state with shock of men.' 

15. ad arma : the repetition quotes their cry. Cf. Plato, Symp. 
212 D, 'Aydetai* . . . 'AydScava ; Ov. Met. 11. 377 ; 12. 241 ; Tac. 
Ann. 1. 59 ; Verg. Aen. 2. 314 ; 7. 460 ; 11. 453 ; Tass. Ger. Lib. 12. 
44, ' onde la guarda | all' arme, all' arine in alto suon raddop- 
pia' ; Pope, St. Cecilia, 'And seas and skies and rocks rebound | 
To arms, to arms, to arms.' cessantes: those who timidly or 
prudently hold back. On cesso cf. 3. 27. 68 ; 1. 27. 13 ; 3. 28. 8 ; 
3. 19. 19 ; Verg. Aen. 6. 51. 

17. anteit : like a Roman lictor before the magistrate. saeva : 
Some Mss. read serva, as thy handmaiden. necessitas : necessity, 
fate, and fortune are allied conceptions. Cf. Ruskin, Fors Clavigera, 
2, ' "Fortune" means the necessary fate of a man, the ordinance 
of his life which cannot be changed.' Dante makes Fortune one 
of God's ministers, and says of her: 'Le sue permutazion non 
hanno triegue, | Neeessita la fa esser veloce ' (Inf. 7). The nails, 
the tightening wedge, the inexorable clamp, the molten lead, are 
symbols of necessity. Cf . on 3. 24. 6 ; Aesch. Suppl. 945 ; Gilder- 
sleeve on Find. Pyth. 4. 71. with Shaks. Ham. 1. 3. 'Grapple them 
to thy soul with hooks of steel,' Much Ado, 4. 1, ' O, that is stronger 
made | Which was before barred up with hoops of iron ' ; Webster, 
White Devil, 1. 2, ' 'Tis fixed with nails of diamond to inevitable 
necessity.' Lessing's hostile criticism of this strophe (Laocoon, 
10. n. e.) assumes that these cumulative symbols must form an 
image. Horace may "have had some picture in mind, but the brazen 
(iron) hand is already beyond the limits of painting. Cf. Burke's 
observations on the emotional as distinguished from the pictorial 
use of words, Subl. and Beaut. 5. 5, ' The picturesque connexion 
is not demanded, because no real picture is formed, nor is the 
effect of the description at all the less upon this account.' It is 
sheer pedantry to work out an exact image of Fortune as a builder 
and Necessitas as an assistant carrying her tools. 

18. clavo trabali figere was proverbial. Cf. Otto, p. 85. In the 



230 NOTES. 

monuments clam appear as attributes of the Fortuna of Antium 
and the Etruscan Athrpa or Atropos. 

20. Molten lead was used to fix the iron clamps that held the 
stones together. Cf. Vitruv. 2. 8 ; Eurip. Andr. 267. 

21-28. Te Spes. etc: cf. Sellar, p. 183. The imagery wavers 
between the idea of this universal power (Fortune) and the Roman 
personified fortune or luck of a family or institution, as Fortuna 
populi Romani, Fortuna Tulliana, the fortune of the house of 
Barca, 4. 4. 71. Hope and white-robed faith 'follow the fortunes 
of a fallen lord,' and withhold not their companionship even when 
Fortune (the great divinity) grows hostile (inimica}, and his per- 
sonal Fortune puts on mourning and leaves the once lordly home. 
Perfect consistency is not attained, but the meaning is clear. With 
the moral sentiment of the whole, cf. Gray's imitation, Hymn to 
Adversity, stanzas 3 and 4. 

21. rara : cf. 1. 24. 7-8. 

22. velata: transferred to Fides from the priest who by the 
institution of Numa (Livy, 1. 21) worshiped her manu(que) ad 
digitos usque involuta. The cloth was white (Serv. ad Verg. 
Aen. 1. 292). But cf. Preller-Jordan, 1. 253; Hes. Works, 198. 
comitem : sc. se (Ov. A. A. 1. 127). 

23. utcumque : 1. 17. 10 ; 4. 4. 36. 

25. volgus infidum : contrasted with Fides. Cf. Sen. Phaedra, 
496, volgus infidum bonis ; Otto, p. 378. For the faithlessness of 
fair-weather friends, cf. poor Ovid's plaint, Trist. 1. 5. 33, vix 
duo tresve mihi de tot superestis amid : \ cetera Fortunae non mea 
turbafuit. 

27. cum faece : to the lees, dregs and all. Cf. 3. 15. 16; Theog. 
643. For the thought, cf. the proverb ej x^P a Cfl <' A ' a 5 Shaks. 
Timon of Athens, 2. 2, 'Feast-won, fast-lost.' 

28. Not loyal to bear the yoke of either fortune, to share the 
evil as the good. For the image, cf. on 1. 33. 11 ; 2. 5. 1 ; Theoc. 
12. 15; Pliny, Ep. 3. 9. 8, cum uterque pariiugo . . . pro causa 
niteretur ; Ov. Trist. 5. 2. 40 ; Propert. 3. 25. 8. 

29. ultimos: 4. 14. 47; Catull. 11. 12; Verg. Eel. 1. 67, et 
penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos. 

.31. examen: etymologically exagmen, swarm, levy. Cf . Aesch. 
Pers. 126. 



BOOK I., ODE- XXXVI. 231 

32. rubro : the Indian Ocean including the Persian Gulf and 
the Red Sea. 

34-38. Cf. 1. 2. 21 ; 2. 1. 29-36 ; Epodes 7 and 16. 

34. fratrum : cf. Verg. G. 2. 510 ; Liv. Epit. 79 (the story of 
a brother slain by a brother in the civil war) ; two epigrams, 
Le Maire, Poetae Minores, 2. 258 ; Lucan, 2. 148. 

35. nefasti : gen. with quid. 

38. O utinam : 4. 5. 37. 

39. diffingas : only here and 3. 29. 47. Here apparently recast, 
forge anew. Cf. Verg. Aen. 7. 630, and Al<ra <patryavovpy6s (Aesch. 
Choeph. 647). in: with diffingas, against. 

40. Massagetas : Scythians east of the Caspian. 

ODE XXXVI. 

A welcome to Plotius Numida (unknown) returned from the 
west, possibly from the Spanish campaign of Augustus, B.C. 27- 
25. Cf. 3. 14. For similar theme, cf. 2. 7. 

1. fidibus : fidicines as well as tibicines were employed at sac- 
rifices (Schol.). Cf. 4. 1. 21-23. 

2. placare : does not imply that the gods were offended. Cf. 
Pater, Marius, Chap. I., 'In a faith sincere but half-suspicious, he 
would fain have those Powers at least not against him.' Cf . pacem 
deorem exposcere. debito : cf. obligatam, 2. 7. 17. 

3. custodes: cf. 1. 24. 11. n. 

4. Hesperia : Italy for the East, Spain for Italy. Cf. 2. 1. 32 ; 
3. 6. 8. sospes : of safe home-coming, cf. 3. 14. 10 ; Gk. 0-<6W0ai 
(Plat. Gorg. 511. D). 

6. dividit : cf. Lex. s.v. I. A. 2. a. 

7. Lamiae : cf. Ode 26. 

8. actae : cf. A. P. 173, temporis acti se puero. non alio rege : 
under the same (f e)rule. Cf . rectores imperatoriae iuventae of Nero's 
teachers (Tac. Ann. 13. 2). Or rex may mean king of the boys' 
games (Epp. 1. 1. 59). puertiae: syncope, cf. 2. 2. 2. n. ; 4. 13. 20. 

9. mutatae . . . togae : cf. Pater, Marius, Chap. IV., 'At a 
somewhat earlier age than usual he had formally assumed the 
dress of manhood, going into the Forum for that purpose, accoin- 



232 NOTES. 

panied by his friends in festal array. ' The toga virilis was assumed 
in place of the toga praetexta about the age of sixteen. For Latin 
idiom here, cf. 2. 4. 10. n. 

10. Cressa : ter,ra creta (cernere'), or chalk, found in abundance 
at the island Kimolos near Crete, seems to have been called ' Cre- 
tan earth ' by a popular etymology. Lucky days were proverbially 
marked with a white line or stone. Cf. Cat. 68. 148 ; Pers. 2. 1 ; 
Otto, s.v. calculus. 

11. promptae : cf. 2. 4. 10. n. ; 3. 28. 2. modus: cf. 1. 16. 2. 

12. Salium : for saliarem, cf. 4. 1. 28. Others take it as gen. 
plur. The Salii, or jumpers, were, so to speak, the dancing Der- 
vishes of Mars. Cf. Livy, 1. 20 ; Ov. Fast. 3. 387 ; see their rude 
chant (Epist. 2. 1. 86, Saliare Numae carmen) ; Mommsen, Hist., 
Eng. Tr. 1, p. 294. The luxury of their banquets was proverbial. 
Cf. 1. 37. 2 ; 2. 14. 28. 

13. multi . . . meri : TTO^OIVOS. Cf. 3. 9. 7 ; 3. 7. 4 ; 4. 1. 15. 
Cf. Cic. Fam. 9. 26, non multi cibi hospitem. Damalis : frequent 
name of girls of her class, evidently from 8ayua\(s, a heifer. Cf. on 
2. 5. 6. For women and wine-drinking, cf. Catull. 27. 3. 

14. Bassum : unknown. amystide : a^vyri Trtvetv, draining 
the cup at a gulp was attributed to the Thracians. The noun 
DHOTIS (Anacr. fr. 63. 2). 

15. Cf. 3. 19. 22. 

16. vivax : rhetorically contrasted with breve! Cf. 2. 3. 14. n. 

17. putres : cf. Lex. s.v. II. ' But Enid feared his eyes, | Moist 
as they were, wine-heated from the feast' (Tenn.). 

19. adultero: 1.33. 9. 

20. ambitiosior : etymologically, clinging and climbing. Cf. 
Catull. 61. 33. 106 ; Epode 15. 5. Cf . 4. 4. 65. n. 



ODE XXXVII. 

Song of triumph over the fall of Antony and Cleopatra. Written 
apparently in the autumn of B.C. 30, when the news of Cleopatra's 
suicide reached Rome. 

Cf. on Epodes 1 and 9; Dio. 51. 6-15; Merivale, 3. 270-276; 
Propert. 4. 10. 30 sqq. ; 5. 6. 63 sqq. ; Verg. Aen. 8. 675. 



BOOK I., ODE XXXVII. 233 

The name of Antony is ignored, as it was in the declaration of 
war against Aegypt and in the triumph. 

The first two lines imitate Alcaeus' song over the death of the 
tyrant Myrsilus : v\>v xp^l fJ-eOvvdriv Kal nva irpbs &iav \ irivr\v tirnS}) 
Ka.rda.vf Mupai\os ; fr. 20. One of the earliest poems in Alcaic meter, 
as shown perhaps by metrical harshness of 5 and 14. 

1. pede libero: cf. 3. 18. 15; 1. 4. 7; Catull. 61. 14, pelle 
humum pedibus. But libero also suggests liberation from fear of 
the enemy. Cf. Hector's KprirTjpa i\ev9epov, 11. 6. 528 ; Aesch. Ag. 
328. 

2. Saliaribua: proverbial, as 2. 14. 28, pontificum. Cf. 1. 36. 
12 ; Otto, p. 306. 

3. pulvinar : see Lex. s.v., and s.v. lectisternium. 

4. erat : variously taken (1) as Greek imperfect of surprise or 
recognition (cf. on 1. 27. 19), or (2) more simply as rebuke of 
delay. Cf.'Ov. Am. 3. 1. 23, tempus erat, thyrso pulsum yraviore 
moveri, \ cessatum satis est, incipe mains opus ; Livy, 8. 5, tempus 
erat . . . tandem iam vos nobiscum nihil pro impe.no agere; Ov. 
Trist. 4 8. 24, me quoque donari iam rude tempus erat, \ tempus 
erat nee me peregrinum ducere caelum; Her. 6. 4 ; Tibull. 3. 6. 64 ; 
Arist. Eccles. 877. Logically this is somewhat inconsistent with 
antehac nefas, which favors (1), but in the rapid movement of the 
ode the exclamatory first strophe may be forgotten. A. and G. 
311 ; III. c. R., interpret, it would be time (if it were for us to do 
it, but it is a public act)*. 

5. depromere : cf. 1. 9. 7. antehac: dissyllable. Caecu- 
bum : cf . Epode 9. 1. 

6. Capitolio the symbol of Roman empire (cf. on 3. 30. 8 ; 
3. 3. 42) menaced by the foul Egyptian. Cf. Ov. Met. 15. 827, 
frustraque erit ilia minata, \ servitura suo Capitolia nostra Canopo ; 
Lucan, 10. 63, terruit ilia sno, si fas, Capitolia sistro. 

7. regina : a doubly invidious title to Roman ears. ' There was 
a Brutus once that would have brooked | The eternal devil to keep 
his state in Rome | As easily as a king' (Shaks. Jul. Caes.). Cf. 
3. 5. 9, sttb rege Medo; Epode 9. 12, emancipatus feminae; 
Propert. 4. 10. 39, scilicet incesti meretrix regina Canopi. . . . Ausa 
lovi nostro latrantem opponere Anubin. ; El. in Maec. 53. She is 



234 NOTES. 

called Regina or Qaaixwaa. on extant coins. Cf. Floras, 4. 11 ; Dio. 
50. 5. dementes : transferred epithet. Cf. 3. 1. 42; 1. 12.34; 

1. 15. 33, etc. Virgil's sceleratas poenas (Aen. 2. 576). 
8. et : loosely placed as 1. 2. 18 and passim. 

9-10. The Eunuchs, etc. Cf. Epode 9. 13 ; Shaks. Ant. and 
Cleop. 1. 2 ; Propert. 4. 10. 30 ; Tac. Ann. 15. 37. 

10. virorum: with emphatic scorn. morbo : like i/Jtroy, of 
base passions. impotens : with sperare, frenzied enough to. 
There is no equivalent in modern English. It denotes the weak- 
ness of uncontrolled passion. Cf. Shaks. ' As some fierce thing 
replete with inmost rage | Whose strength's abundance weakens 
its own heart ' ; Tenn. ' Impotence of fancied power ' ; Milton, 
' Will he, so wise, let loose at once his ire, | Belike through im- 
potence or unaware ? ' Cf . avpar-hs and impotentia, Epode 16. 62 ; 
and Trench, Study of Words, 70 ; F. Q. 5. 12. 1, ' sacred hun- 
ger of ambitious minds | And impotent desire of men to reign.' 

12. ebria: so n<6veiv, Demosth. Phil. 1. 49. Tenn. lias 'drunk 
with loss.' Cf. ' If, drunk with sight of power, we loose j Wild 
tongues that have not Thee in awe' (Rudyard Kipling, Reces- 
sional) . 

13. Vix una sospes: the escape of barely one ship. Cf. pn 

2. 4. 10. It was the fleet of Antony that was thus destroyed. 
Cleopatra fled early in the action, and Antony followed her. Cf. 
Ant. and Cleopat. 3. 9 ; Propert. 3. 8. 39, hunc insanus amor versis 
dare terga carinis \ iussit; and Tenn. 's youthful poem, 'Then when 
the shriekings of the dying | Were heard" along the wave, | Soul 
of my soul I saw thee flying, | I followed thee to save. | The 
thunder of the brazen prows | O'er Actium's ocean rung ; | Fame's 
garland faded from my brows, | Her wreath away I flung. | I 
sought, I saw, I heard but thee, | For what to love was victory ? ' 

14. lymphatam : her panic is attributed to Bacchus, author of 
panic fear, no less than Pan, or rather to her deep potations of 
sweet Egyptian wine. ' Now no more | The juice of Aegypt's 
grape shall moist this lip,' she says, in her death hour (Ant. and 
Cleop. 5. 2). The superstition that the sight of a nymph (lymphae, 
water-nymphs) caused madness is preserved in the word nympho- 
lepsy. 

15. veros: as contrasted with the panic alarms of 14. Cf. 



BOOK I., ODE XXXVII. 235 

Epist. 2. 1. 212, falsis terroribus ; Lucan, 1. 469, Vana quoque ad 
veros accessit fama timores. 

16. ab Italia : she had come against Italy, if she had not 
reached it. volantem : sc. Cleopatra. Cf. Vergil's pelagoque 
volamus. The imaginative transition is easy to the image of the 
fleeing (flying) dove in the next strophe. 

17. adurgens : as a matter of fact, Octavian returned to Italy 
to quiet a mutiny of the veterans, wintered at Samos, and entered 
Aegypt only in the following spring. accipiter : cf. H. 22. 139 ; 
Aeschyl. Prom. 856 ; Verg. Aen. 11. 721 ; Ov. Met. 5. 606. For 
Cleopatra's flight, cf. Verg. Aen. 8. 707-712 ; Propert. 4. 10. 51, 
fitgisti tamen in timidi vagaflumina Nili; El. in Maec. 47. 

19. Horace may have seen the plains of Thessaly white with 
snow in his travels with Brutus. Winter was the hunting season 
(Epode 2. 30. n.). 

20. daret: sc. Caesar, who was eager to exhibit Cleopatra in 
his triumph. Cf. Plut. Ant. 78. 

21. monstrum : sc. Cleopatram. Cf. Lucan's dedecus Aegypti, 
Latii fernlis Erinnys (10. 58). quae : synesis. generosius : 
'fitting for a princess descended of so many royal kings' (Ant. 
and Cleo. 5. 2). 

22. quaerens : with inf. Cf. 3. 4. 39 ; 3. 24. 27 ; 3. 27. 55 ; 4. 1. 12 ; 
Epode 2. 70 ; 16. 16. So Lucret. and Vergil, not, it seems, Cicero. 

muliebriter : Velleius, 2. 87. 1, Cleopatra . . . expers mulie- 
bris metus spiritum reddidit ; Ant. and Cleo. 5. 2, ' My resolution's 
placed, and I have nothing | Of woman in me.' 

23. ensem : she first attempted suicide with a dagger (Plut. 
Ant. 79). 

24. reparavit : Perhaps ' procured by exchange a place of 
hiding by her swift fleet ' a tortuous expression for ' sought 
refuge in remote lands.' Cf. 1. 31. 12. Penetravit, properavit, 
repe.tivit, etc., have been proposed. Dio. 51. 6 and Plut. Ant. 69, 
speak of schemes for taking refuge beyond the Red Sea, etc. 

25-32. The construction is awkward. Ausa (participle) fortis 
and ferocior, with their modifiers, expand the thought of 21-25. 

Deliberata morte (abl. abs.) motivates ferocior, fiercely defi- 
ant in (by) her resolve to die. (Non) humilis mulier effectively 
contrasted by juxtaposition with superbo . . . triumpho belongs 



236 NOTES. 

with invidens, and the consummation of her defeat in the triumph, 
privcftu deduci triumpho, is the thing Cleopatra grudges to the cruel 
Liburnian galleys of Caesar. 

25. iacentem : metaphorically. Cf . 4. 14. 36. 

26. asperas : cf. 1. 23. 9 ; 3. 2. 10. 

27. serpentes : the asps. Cf. Verg. Aen. 8. 697 ; Ant. and 
Cleo. 6. 2. atrum : cf. 3. 4. 17. n. 

30. Liburnis ; cf. on Epode 1. 1-2. 

31-32. Cf. the cry attributed to her in Livy, Apud Porphyr. 
ov Opia^evffo^ai ; Shak. Ant. and Cleo. 5. 1, ' her life in Rome | 
Would be eternal in our triumph' ; 5. 2. ' Shall they hoist me up, | 
And show me to the shouting varletry | Of censuring Rome ? ' 
Tenn. Dr. of Fair Women, ' I died a queen ' ; F. Q. 1. 6. 60, ' High- 
minded Cleopatra that with stroke | Of aspes sting herself did 
stoutly kill.' Her effigy was borne in the triumph. Cf. Propert. 
4. 10. 63, Bracchia spectavi sacris admorsa colubris. privata : 
discrowned queen. Superbo (1. 35. 3). non humilia : Martial, 
7. 40. 2, pectore non humili. 



ODE XXXVIII. 

This pretty trifle is intended to relieve the severity of the thirty- 
fifth and thirty-seventh Odes (Sellar, p. 137). Translated by 
Hartley Coleridge, and in two forms by Cowper. Austin Dobson's 
rendering in Triolets is well known : ' Davus, I detest Orient dis- 
play.' Cf. Thackeray's amusing, ' Dear Lucy, you know what my 
wish is, | I hate all your Frenchified fuss, | Your silly entries and 
made dishes | Were never intended for us ' ; and the irreverent 
' Persicos odi, puer apparatus, | Bring me a chop and a couple of 
potatoes.' 

1. Persicos: e.g. Achaemeninm costum (3. 1. 44). The ad 
of apparatus and adlabores (5) marks the unnecessary additions 
to the simple requirements of nature which the wiser Epicurean 
rejects. Cf. Lucret. 2. 20 sqq. puer: cf. 2. 11. 18; 1. 19. 14. 
Anacr. fr. 64. 

2. philyra : ready-made coronae sutiles, garlands sewn on lin- 
den bark, were bought at the shops. Cf. Ov. Fast. 5. 336. 



BOOK II., ODE I. 237 

3. mitte: cf. 3. 8. 17 ; Epode 13. 7 ; and omitte, 3. 29. 11. quo 
locorum : cf. 1. 29. 5, quae viryinnm. 

4. sera : the rose is a spring flower in Italy ; sub arta viie (7) 
suggests midsummer heat. 

6. sedulus: originally se dulo (?) malo, i.e. sine dolomalo. Here 
with adlabores of the servant's officiousness, cf. A. P. 116, sedula 
nutrix, and Delia serving Messalla in Tibull. 1. 5. 32, et tantum 
venerata virum hunc sedula curet. euro: with adlabores. Cf. 
Sat. 2. 6. 38, imprimat his, cnra, Maecenas signa tabellis. minis- 
trum: cf. Cat. 27. 1, minister vetuli puer Falerni; Fitzgerald, 
Omar Khayyam, ' And lose your fingers in the tresses of | The 
cypress-slender minister of wine' ; Mart. 8. 67. 5. 

7. arta: thick-pleached, trellised. 



BOOK II., ODE I. 

Pollio, forsaking the tragic stage and the triumphs of the Forum, 
undertakes the history of our civil wars setting his feet ' on the 
thin crust of ashes beneath which the lava is still glowing.' 
(Macaulay, Hist. Eng. c. 6. ) Methinks even now I hear the trum- 
pet's blare. Again ' our Italy shines o'er with civil swords.' 
Again the tale is told of great captains soiled with noble dust, and 
all the world subdued save Cato's indomitable soul. Now, Jugur- 
tha, thou art avenged. Our blood has fertilized every field, crim- 
soned every pool, and the crash of ruin in Italy rejoiced the ears of 
our enemy the Mede. But hush ! my light muse. So high a 
strain is not for thee. 

C. Asinius Pollio had been a friend of Cicero and member of the 
circle of Calvus and Catullus in his youth (Catull. 12. 8), had studied 
at Athens a few years before Horace's sojourn there, and fought 
under Caesar at Pharsalus. After his consulate B.C. 40 (cf. Verg. 
Eel. 4) he was sent against the Parthini, a Dalmatian tribe, by 
Antony, and celebrated a triumph over them B.C. 39 (cf. 1. 16; 
Verg. Eel. 8 ; Dio, 48. 41). From the spoils he established the first 
public library at Rome (Pliny N. H. 7. 115, 35. 10). Octavian 
allowed his plea that self-respect required him to be neutral in the 
conflict with Antony (Veil. 2. 86), and the remainder of his life 



238 NOTES. 

was devoted to letters and oratory. (Verg. Eel. 8. 10; Hor. Sat. 
1. 10, 43, 85 ; Quintil. 12. 11. 28.) As literary critic he detected 
faults in Cicero (Sen. Suas. 6. 15), Livy, and Sallust. His history of 
the civil wars in seventeen books is mentioned by Tacitus (Ann. 
4. 34), Suetonius (Caes. 30), and others. He first introduced at 
Rome the custom of authors' readings from advance she*ets of their 
own works (recitatio, cf. Sen. Contr. 4 praef.), which became such 
a nuisance under the empire. (Cf. Mayor on Juv. 1. 1-4, 3. 9.) 
The present Ode may well have been suggested by such a reading. 
It also testifies to Horace's independence, for Pollio had not pre- 
sented himself at court. Cf. Sellar, p. 152. 

1. motum ex Metello : the war began with Caesar's passage of 
the Rubicon B.C. 49, but the turmoil in the State dates from the 
consulship of Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer, B.C. 60, when Caesar, 
Pompey, and Crassus formed the private league known as the first 
triumvirate : inita potentiae socie.tas, quae urbi orbique terrarum 
nee minus . . . ipsis exitiabilis fuit (Veil. 2. 44). Cf. Suet. Caes. 
19, Floras 4. 2. civicum : archaic and poetic for civile, cf. civica 
corona ; hosticus, 3. 2. 6, 3. 24. 26 ; Sat. 1. 9. 31 ; civica iura (Epp. 
1. 3. 23) ; civica bella (Ov. Pont. 1. 2. 124). But Lucan 1. 1, bella 
per Emathios plusquam civilia campos. 

2. causas : enumerated by Lucan 1. 67 sqq., e.g. among the 
proximate causes the death of Crassus at Carrhae B.C. 53, nam 
sola futuri \ Crassus erat belli medius mora (Lucan 1. 99) ; and 
the death of Julia, the wife of Pompey and daughter of Caesar 
(ibid. 112). vitia : blunders, mistakes, vitia ducum, Nep. Alt. 16. 
4, but suggesting more. modos : phases, turns, vicissitudes. 

3. ludum: 3. 29. 50; 1. 2. 37 ; 1. 34. 16; Plato Laws, 709 A; 
Juv. 3. 40, quotiens voluit Fortuna iocari. Lucan moralizing on 
the death of Pompey invokes Fortuna six times (Phars. 8. 686, 
701, 708, 730, 767, 793). Cf. also 1. 84. Crassus and Caesar 
were in the end equally conspicuous examples of the sport of 
fortune. 

3-4. graves . . . amicitias : weighty, ruinous, fateful alliances. 
Cf. Lucan, 1. 84 the first triumvirate. 

5. nondum expiatis : cf. 1. 2. 29; Epode 7. 3, 20. uncta : 
stained, smeared, a stronger tincta (Epode, 5. 19). Cf. Silius, 9. 13, 



BOOK II., ODE I. 239 

unrjucre . . . tela cruorc. cruoribus: pi. mainly metri causa. 
Cf. 3. 27. 76. But cf. Aescll. Suppl. 265, aipdrtav nia.apa.cnv. 

6. opus: app. with sentence. Cf. 3. 20. 7. alea : proverbial 
of war. Cf. Aesch. Sept. 414; Eurip. (?) Rhesus. 183; F. Q. 
1. 2. 36, ' In which his harder fortune was to fall | Under my spear ; 
such is the die of war' ; Swinb. Erechth., ' Now the stakes of war 
are set, | For land or sea to win by throw and wear ' ; Lucan. 6. 7, 
placet alea fati \ alterutrum mersura caput ; Petron. 122, 1. 174. 
Caesar's famous iccta alea est, Suet. 32. Cf. Otto, p. 12. But 
Horace is thinking rather of the risks of the historian, 11. 7, 8. 

7. per igues. etc., per, over. Cf. 1. 6. 7 ; Propert. 1. 5. 5, et 
miser ignotos vestigia ferre per ignes. Cf . Prov. irvp vtrb TJJ <riro5ia ; 
Callim. Ep. 45. 2 ; Macaulay, supra (Page) ; Tyrrell, Latin Poetry, 
p. 203, censures the image. 

9. severae: solemn, stately ; Milton's ' gorgeous tragedy in scep- 
tred pall ' ; Plato's rj <re/j.vi] avrrj Kal 0ai/yua<rr^ ; Gorg. 502 B ; Ov. 
Amor. 3. 1. 11, ingenti violenta tragoedia passu. But possibly of 
some new severity of method in Pollio's closet tragedies. Cf. Verg. 
Eel. 3. 86, nova carmina, ibid. 8. 10 ; fidibus . . . sevens, A. P. 216. 

1 0. desit : complimentary they will be missed. theatris : 
cf. 2. 17. 26. There was but one (permanent), and Pollio's plays 
were probably not acted. mox ubi : 3. 27. 69, i.e. simul ac. 

11. ordinaris : set forth in order; Luke, 1. 1. Cf. componere, 
avvTa.TTtiv, and the usage by which the poet is said to do what he 
describes. munus: function, task, high themes. 

12. repetes : resume, return to, ' And the Cecropian buskin don 
anew,' Martin. Cecropio: Attico, 4. 12. 6. Cf. A. P. 275 sqq. 
for Athens as home of tragedy. coturno : A. P. 280, nitique 
coturno; Milton's 'buskin'd stage' as distinguished from the low 
sock (soccus) of comedy ; Mrs. Browning, Wine of Cyprus : ' How 
the cothurns trod majestic | Down the deep iambic lines ' ; Sat. 
1. 5. 64 ; Mart. 5. 30. 1 ; Propert. 3. 32. 41. 

13. praesidium : eight of the nine titles of his speeches known 
to us are for the defense. For the turn of the compliment, cf. 4. 1. 
14;'Ov. Fast. 1. 22, civica pro trepidis cum tulit arma reis ; Laus 
Pisonis, 39, cum tua maestos \ defensura reos vocem facundia misit ; 
Cornel. Severus on Cicero, 12 : unica sollicitis quondam tutela 
salusque. 



240 NOTES. 

14. consulenti : i.e. consilianti, 3. 3. 17, in its counsels, with a 
complimentary suggestion that it consults him. Curiae: the 
Senate, the House. Cf. 3. 5. 7. 

17. iam nunc, etc., complimentary anticipation of the vividness 
of Pollio's descriptions of which the poet lias perhaps heard a 
specimen. Cf . Petron. Sat. 120. minaci murmure : ' With harsh- 
resounding trumpets' dreaded bray ' ; Shaks. Rich. II. 1. 3. 

18. perstringis : see lexicon. Used of anything that dazzles, 
deafens, or confounds the sense. Cf. acies praestringitur; and 
gelidai stringor aquai (Lucret. 3. 687) ; Quintil. 10. 1. 30, qualis 
est ferri fulgor quo mens simul visusque praestringitur. litui : 
1. 1. 23, like the cornu it was used by cavalry. 

19-20. The scene is the defeat of Pompey's cavalry by Caesar's 
foot-soldiers at Pharsalia. 

19. fulgor armorum : cf. on 1. 7. 19; Homer's XO.\KOV arfpoirh', 
Shaks. Ant. and C. 1. 3, ' shines o'er with civil swords ' ; Othello, 
1.2, 'keep up your bright swords; Job, 29. 33, 'the glittering 
spear and the shield.' fugaces : proleptic. 

20. equos equitumque : ' The horse and rider reel,' Tenn. Sir 
Gal. ; 'While horse and hero fell,' Charge of the Light Brigade. 
voltus : We see the fright of battle on their faces as in a picture 
of Delacroix. But there may be an allusion to Caesar's command, 
' miles faciem feri ' (Floras, 4. 2. 50), or to the principle stated 
by Tacitus, Ger. 43, primi in omnibus proeliis oculi vincuntur, 
rendered by Herrick, 291, ' 'Tis a known principle in war, | That 
eies be first, that conquered are ' ; Plut. Caes. 45, oi>5' (TO\/*COV eV 
o(f>0a\iJ.o7s rbv albypov op&vrts. 

21. audire : he hears the clamor (1. 2. 38) and the strepitits 
(I. 15. 18), and sees, hears of, or feels as a living reality the rest. 
Cf. on 1. 14. 3 ; 3. 10. 5. There is a possible reference in audire to 
the recitations. videor: 3. 4. 6. 

22. non indecoro : cf. Tenn. Two Voices, ' When, soil'd with 
noble dust, he hears | His country's war song thrill his ears.' Cf. 
nigrum, 1. 6. 15 ; Verg. Aen. 2. 272. Contrast 1. 15. 20. 

23. cuncta terrarum : cf. Veil. 2. 56, Caesar omnium victor 
regressus in urbem. For the idiom, cf. on 4. 12. 19, 4. 4. 76. 

24. atrocem: here stubborn. So in good sense, Juv. 2. 12, 
Hispida membra . . . promittunt atrocem animum. Catonis: 



BOOK II., ODE I. 241 

already the idol of Stoics and declaimers. Cf. 1. 12. 36 ; Sen. 
Suas. 6. 2, M. Cato solus maximum Vivendi moriendique exemplum 
muri maluit quam rorjare. Florus, 4. 2. 70, and Plut. Cat. 59-70, 
describe his suicide at Utica on hearing of the defeat of the Pom- 
peians at Thapsus. Cf. Sir Thos. Browne, Urne Burial, ' And 
Cato, before he durst give the fatal stroke, spent part of the night 
in reading the Immortality of Plato, thereby confirming his waver- 
ing hand unto the animosity of that attempt'; Lucan. 1. 128, 
victrix causa deis plaruit sed victa Catoni ; Id. 2. 315-320, 380 sqq. ; 
Manil. 4. 87, et invicta devictum mete Catonem ; Sen. de Prov. 2, 
et passim; Cic. ad Fain. 9. 18; Val. Max. 2. 10. 8; Sen. de 
Tranq. An. 15 ; Martial, 1. 8. Verg. Aen. 8. 670, makes him 
judge of the blessed, secretosque pios ; his dantem iura Catonem. 
Cf. Dante, Purg. I. Julius Caesar found time to compose an Anti- 
Cato in reply to Cicero's encomium. Augustus stole the opposition 
thunder by praising Cato himself (Macrob. Sat. 2. 4. 18). In Eng- 
lish, see the literature that has gathered about Addison's Cato, 
especially Pope's Prologue, 1. 21, 'A brave man struggling in the 
storms of fate, | And greatly falling, with a falling state.' 

25 sqq. Cato suggests Thapsus. Sallust's Jugurtha had recently 
been published. Juno, in the legend, was the opponent of Aeneas 
and the patron of Carthage, and so of Africa against Italy. So 
Horace says in his complicated way that the gods who had with- 
drawn from the Africa they were helpless to save or avenge have 
now (by the terrible slaughter of Thapsus, B.C. 46) offered up the 
grandsons of the former victors to the shades of Jugurtha. Metel- 
lus Scipio, commander of the Pompeians, was the grandson of the 
Metellus Numidicus who subdued Jugurtha. 

26. cesserat : for the belief that its gods abandoned a doomed 
city, cf. Verg. Aen. 2. 351 ; Aesch. Sept. 218 ; Herod. 8. 41 ; Eurip. 
Tro. 25; Tac. Hist. 5. 13. The Romans had rites to draw away 
the enemies' gods (Macrob. Sat. 3. 9, evocatio ; Serv. on Verg. 
Aen. 12. 841). The Aztecs shut up in one great temple the gods 
of conquered tribes to prevent their returning (Re"ville, Hibb. Lec- 
tures, 1884, p. 31). impotens: etymologically (cf. on 4. 4. 65), 
not in the usual secondary sense of 1. 37. 10. 

29. Latino sanguine: Epode 7. 4. pinguior: Shaks. Rich. 
II. 4. 1, 'The blood of English shall manure the ground' ; Aesch. 

R 



242 NOTES. 

Sept. 587. In Persae, 806, cited by editors, iriacr/na refers to the 
river Asopus, and not to the corpses. Verg. G. 1. 491, bis san- 
guine nostro \ Emathiam et latos Haemi pinyuescere compos. 

30. impia: cf. on 1. 35. 34 ; Epode 16. 9. 

31. Medis: cf. on 1. 2. 22, 51. For case, cf. 1. 21. 4 ; 3. 25. 3. 
So a Frenchman,, in 1871, might have spoken of the Germans 
listening to Versailles bombarding the Commune of Paris. 

32. Hesperiae : western, here Italian. Cf. 3. 6. 8 ; 4. 5. 38 ; 
Verg. Aen. 2. 781. In 1. 36. 4, Spain. ruinae : crash, downfall 
(of a building, Juv. 3. 196). Cf. 1. 2. 25 ; 3. 3. 8. n. See in 
Florus, 4. 2. 6, the list of lands over which the civil war raged. 

33-36. cf. 3. 6. 34 ; 2. 12. 3 ; Macaulay, Regillus, 'And how the 
Lake Regillus | Bubbled with crimson foam, | What time the thirty 
cities | Came forth to war with Rome ' ; Tenn. Princ. ' Or by denial 
flush her babbling wells | With her own people's life.' 

34. Dauniae = Apulian = Italian. 1. 22. 14; 3. 5. 9. Specific, 
metrically convenient, helps alliteration. 

35. decoloravere : de intensive. Cf. 1. 3. 13; 1. 9. 11. 

36. caret : 2. 10. 7 ; 3. 29. 23 ; 4. 9. 28. 

37. ne : cf. on 1. 6. 10 ; 1. 33. 1. The sudden check is Pindaric. 
Cf. Ol. 9. 38, 3. 3. 72. n., 1. 6. 10 ; Sellar, p. 134. 

38. Ceae : Simonides of Ceos, who wrote the Epitaphs on the 
heroes of Thermopylae and Salamis, was noted for his pathos 
(Quintil. 10. 1. 64). Cf. Catull. 38. 8, maestius lacrimis Simoni- 
deis ; Swinb. 'High from his throne in heaven Simonides | Crowned 
with mild aureole of perpetual tears ' ; Words. ' or unroll | One 
precious tender-hearted scroll | Of pure Simonides.' neniae : 
dirge, ^vos, possibly with a disparaging suggestion of the droning 
monotony of the last three strophes. Cf. 3. 28. 16 ; Epode 17. 29 ; 
Epp. 1. 1. 63. 

39. Dionaeo: Dione was mother of Venus "(Horn. II. 5. 370; 
Theoc. 15. 106, Kvwpi Aicorata). But Dione is used for Venus (Ov. 
Fast. 2. 461, Pervigil. Ven.). Dionaean is a sonorous Greek adj. 
for Latin poetry. Cf. on 1. 17. 22-23; Verg. Eel. 9. 47. sub 
antro : 1. 5. 3 ; 3. 4. 40. 

40. leviore plectro: cf. on 4. 2. 33; 2. 13. 27 ; 1. 26. 11 ; Ov. 
Met. 10. 150. Cecini plectro graviore gigantas, nunc opus est 
leviore lyra. 



BOOK II., ODE II. 243 



ODE II. 

Silver shines only in use. Generous use of wealth makes Pro- 
culeius immortal. He that ruleth his spirit is better than he that 
taketh a city. Hydroptic immoderate desire is a disease curable 
only by removal of its cause. The true king sits^not on the throne 
of Cyrus. 'Tis he who is not the slave of greed. 

Translated by Cotton in Johnson's Poets, 18, p. 16. For similar 
'barren scraps, to say the least, of Stoic commonplaces' (Dobson), 
cf. 1. 16. 17 ; 3. 2. 17 ; 4. 9. 39 ; Sat. 1. 3. 125 ; Epp. 1. 1. 106. 

1-4. The parallel : silver has no lustre in the mine, wealth is 
worthless except for noble uses, is given a personal application by 
the substitution of the condition for its second member. All edi- 
tors since Bentley warn the student that inimice is the apodosis of 
nisi . . . splendeat. But the construction nullus . . . color est . . . 
nisi . . . splendeat is perfectly possible despite the verbal contra- 
diction, and is quite in Horace's pregnant, subtle manner. Cf. 
Milton's ' for what peace will be given | To us enslaved, but custody 
severe ? ' Jebb on Soph. Ajax, 100. 

1. color : cf. OVK Hffr' v avrpots \fvic6s, & |eV, &pyvpos, Anon, apud 
Plut. wepl dufftoirias 10. avaris: either as 1. 28. 18; 3. 29. 61; 
or by association with miser's greed. 

2. terris : preferably abl., if the ore of the mine is meant (CMM 
terra celat, 3. 3. 50), dat. perhaps, if the reference is to the miser's 
hoards (Sat. 1. 8. 43, abdiderint furt im terris). lamiiae : for syn- 
cope, cf. 1. 36. 8 ; Epode 9. 1 ; Kirkland, p. xv. Bullion, bar silver \ 
with implied contempt for the 'pale and common drudge 'tween 
man and man.' 

3. Crispe Sallusti : there is, perhaps, a touch of familiarity 
in putting the family name before the gentile. Cf. Hirpini Quinti 
2. 11. 2 ; Fusctis Aristius, Sat. 1. 9. 61. Sallustius was the grand- 
nephew and adopted son of the historian, and the fortunate owner 
of the famous Horti Sallustiani and of rich copper mines. Origi- 
nally an adherent of Antony, he was in later life a confident of 
Augustus and a signal example of his clemency. (Sen. de Clem. 
1. 10 ; Tac. Ann. 3. 30.) An epigram of the contemporary poet 
Krinagoras celebrates his liberality, Anth. Pal. 16. 40. 



244 NOTES. 

4. usu : that to shine in use is the test of true metal, both in 
physics and morals, is a favorite commonplace of Greek poetry. 
Cf. Theog. 417, 449-450 ; Aeschyl. Ag. 390 ; Soph. Fr. 780, \dprrei 
yap fv \plitU9ir &<rirep fKirpfir^s xaA.K<s. 

5. vivet: sc. the 'life of fame in others' breath.' Cf. Ov. Met. 
15. 878, perque omnia saecula fama, \ siquid habent veri vatum 
praesagia, vivam. extento aevo: abl. as occulto aevo, 1. 12. 45. 
Cf. 3. 11. 35 and Verg. Aen. 6. 806, virtutem extendere factis; 
10. 468, famam extendere factis. Proculeius : C. Proculeius, 
the brother of Maecenas' wife Terentia and of L. Licinius Murena 
(2. 10) shared his estate, Porphyry tells us, with his brothers, who 
lost their property in the civil wars. Cf. Cotton's naive expansion 
of the passage, ' Soon as this generous Roman saw | His father's 
sons proscribed by law, | The knight discharged a parent's part, | 
They shared his fortune and his heart. | Hence stands consigned a 
brother's name | To immortality and fame.' 

6. in: cf. 4. 4. 28. animi : gen. of 'reference' with notus. 
Page, holding this impossible, construes notus with vivet and animi 
as gen. of qual. with Proculeius. 

7. aget: bear aloft, upbear, cf. levat, 4. 2. 25. penna: cf. pin- 
nata fama (Verg. Aen. 9. 473). Cf. ibid. 4. 181 ; Spenser, Ruins 
of Time, ' But Fame with golden wings aloft doth fly,' etc. ; and 
Matthew Arnold, ' Hither to come and to sleep | Under the wings of 
Renown' (Heine's Grave). metuente solvi: unflagging, with 
a possible glance at the wax-joined wings of Icarus. Indissolubilis 
would be unpoetical and impracticable here. Periphrasis with 
metuo ekes out the slender resources of Latin as does periphrasis 
with careo. Cf. 3. 11. 10; 3. 24. 22; 4. 5. 20; Verg. G. 1. 246, 
arctos . . . metuentes aequore tingui. Cf. also 3. 26. 10. n. 

8. Cf. Ov. Trist. 3. 7. 50, me tamen extincto fama superstes erit. 
9 sqq. The Stoic paradox, dives qui sapiens est . . . et solus 

formosus et est rex, Sat. 1. 3. 125. Cf. Cic. Paradox. 6, on fj.6vos 6 
ffotybs Tr\ov<nos, which goes back to Socrates' prayer, irKowiov 5e 
voniCoitu rbv o-o(f>6i>, Plat. Phaedr. 279 C. regnes : cf . ' Yet he 
who reigns within himself, and rules | Passions, desires, and fears 
is more a king' (Milton, P. R. 2). 

11. Tyrrell (Latin Poetry, p. 197) says somewhat captiously, 
' What is the meaning of to "join Libya to the distant Gades" ? 



BOOK II., ODE H. 245 

Surely to unite Africa to Spain by a bridge.' But cf. the millionaire 
in Petron. 48, mine coniungere agellis Siciliam volo ut cum Africam 
Ubuerit ire per meos fines navigem. et: and (so). uterque 
Poenus : sc. of Carthage and of her Spanish colonies, where rem- 
nants of the old Phoenician population doubtless still lingered. 

12. Serviat : perhaps literally, since the latifundia were culti- 
vated by chain-gangs of slaves. With whole passage cf. 3. 16. 
31-41. uni : sc. tibi. 

13-16. The dropsy, symbol of greed, is personified and substi- 
tuted for the thing it signifies. SSp<a^ is both the sick man and the 
malady. The image is a commonplace. Cf. Polyb. 13. 2 ; Lucil. 
28. 27, aquam te in animo habere intercutem; Donne, 'the worst 
voluptuousness, an hydroptic immoderate desire of human learning 
and languages.' For thirst of dropsy, cf. Ov. Fast. 1. 215. 

15-16. aquosus . . . languor : lassitude caused by the water. 
A Greek poet would have had his choice between vdardiSris, vSfp-ijs, 
vtiardxpoos, A.eiwJxP* an( i a dozen other convenient derivatives in 
this connection. The poorer Latin has only the vague aquosus for 
all these, for 6/j.Bpotp6pos, Epode 16. 54, and Homer's iroAuu-rSaf as 
well. Cf. on 3. 20. 15. fugerit: cf. Epp. 1. 6. 29, quaere fugam 
morbi. 

17. redditum : despite his restoration. Cyri : typical, cf. 
Plut. Alex. 30, and Milton's ' won Asia and the throne of Cyrus 
held | At his dispose.' Phraaten: for his restitution to throne of 
Parthia, cf. on 1. 26. 5. 

18. beatorum : cf. 2. 3. 27, 3. 29. 35, for hypermetron, and 
4. 9, 46, and Epp. 1. 16. 18-20 for thought. 

19. Virtus : the Stoic sage, spokesman of the Stoic Virtue 
(3. 2. 17), uses the porticoes of the people but not their estimates 
of good and evil (dissidens plebi, cf. Epp. 1. 1. 71), like Socrates 
(Plato, Gorg. 470 e), refuses to count even the Great King happy 
without knowing how he stands in respect of culture and virtue, 
defines real kingship as ' a truer mental and higher moral state ' 
(Ruskin), and assigns the safer diadem and the inalienable laurel 
to him who can pass by heaps of treasure with unreverting eye. 
falsis : cf. Sal. Cat. 52, iam pridem . . . nos vera vocabula'rerum 
amisimus. 

21. regnum : for sage as king cf. Sat. 1. 3. 133 ; Epp. 1. 1. 59 ; 



246 NOTES. 

1. 1. 107; Sen. Thyest. 389 sqq. tutum : which the tiara of 
Phraates was not. 

22. propriam : cf. Sat. 2. 6. 5, propria haec mihi munera fa-sis ; 
Verg. Aen. 3. 85. 

23. inretorto : Cic. in Cat. 2. 1. 2 says of Catiline leaving 
Rome, retorqnet oculos profecto saepe ad hanc urbem.. For same 
idea in different image cf. Pers. Sat. v. 110-112. 

24. acervos: sc. aeris acervos et auri, Epp. 1. 2. 47; cf. Sat. 
1. 1. 44 ; 2. 2. 105 ; Epp. 1. 6. 35 ; Tenn. The Golden Year : ' When 
wealth shall rest no more in mounded heaps.' Milt. Comus : 
'unsunn'd heaps | Of miser's treasure.' 



ODE III. 

Temper thy joy and sorrow, Dellius, with the thought of death. 
Gather the roses of life while you may. For Dives and Laza- 
rus alike is drawn the inevitable lot that dooms us to Charon's 
bark and everlasting exile from the warm precincts of the cheer- 
ful day. 

Quintus Dellius, the boon companion of Antony, was wittily 
nicknamed by Messalla desultor bellorum civiliitm, the desultor 
being the circus rider who leaps from horse to horse. His last 
change of front was his desertion of Antony for Octavian through 
fear of Cleopatra. He stood high in the favor of Augustus, and 
was the author of memoirs of the Parthian wars and scurrilous 
letters ostensibly addressed to Cleopatra. Veil. 2. 84 ; Sen. Suas. 
1. 7 ; Plut. Ant. 59 ; Sen. de Clem. 1. 10. 

1. Aequam . . . arduis : the verbal antithesis faintly suggests 
a latent image : a level head a steep and rugged path. For 
animus aequus cf. Epp. 1. 18. 112; 1. 11. 30; Plaut. Rud. 402; 
Lucret. 5. 1117 ; Aequanimitas was the last watchword given out 
by the Emperor Antoninus Pius on the eve of his death ; metis aequa 
in arduis, the motto of Warren Hastings. 

2-4. non secus . . . laetitia: parenthetic parallel to leading 
idea, non secus : and likewise, nor less. Cf. 3. 25. 8. 

3. insolent! : joy need not be overweening or extravagant, but 
some men ' ont le bonheur insolent.' temperatam : cf. 3. 4. 6(3, 



BOOK ii., ODE in. 247 

and Sen. de Prov. 4. 10 : cum omnia qnae excesserunt modum 
noceunt, periculosissima felicitat is intemperantia est. 

4. moriture : the inevitable conclusion to the alternative con- 
ditions moestus vixeris and bearis. For neat use of future parti- 
ciple to express any future contingency or probability, cf. 1. 22. 6 ; 
1. 28. 6 ; 2. 6. 1 ; 3. 4. 60 ; 4. 3. 20 ; 4. 4. 16 ; 4. 13. 24 ; 4. 2. 3. 
Belli : some Mss. read ' Gelli.' 

6. remoto gramine : cf. 1. 17. 17, in reducta valle; Epode 2. 23- 
27 ; Tennyson's ' banquet in the distant woods,' In Mem. 89. 
per : for distributive force, cf. 2. 14. 15 ; 3. 22. 6 ; C. S. 21 ; Epp. 2. 
1. 147. 

7. reclinatum : cf. 2. 11. 14; Term. Lucretius: 'No larger 
feast than under plane or pine | With neighbors laid along the 
grass to take | Only such cups as left us friendly warm ' (Lucret. 
5. 1392-93) ; Milt. P. L., ' as they sat recline | On the soft downy 
bank damask'd with flowers.' 

8. interiore nota : inner brand for brand of inner-(most), i.e. 
oldest and best. For nota cf. Sat. 1. 10. 24; Catull. 68. 28, de 
meliore nota. The names of the consuls of the year were 
stamped on or attached to the cadus. Cf. 3. 8. 12 ; 3. 21. 1. 

9-12. Cf. Milton, Comus, ' Wherefore did nature pour her 
bounties forth | With such a full and un withdrawing hand ? ' 
quo : qua and quid have been read. Cf. Epp. 1. 5. 12, quo mihi 
fortunam si non conceditnr uti ? This use of quo is made clearer 
by the following quid. Cf. Ov. Met. 13. 516, quo ferrea resto ? 
quidve moror ? Cf. quo . . . cur, Verg. Aen. 12. 879. 

9. ingens piiius : cf. 2. 10. 9. The pine is dark by implied con- 
trast with albus, as well as tall. Cf. on 3. 13. 6-7. 

10. hospitalem : cf. ' Under the hospitable covert nigh | Of 
trees thick interwoven ' (Milt. P. R.); ' But now to form a shade | 
For thee green alders have together wound | Their foliage ' (Words. 
River Duddon, 5). Cf. Plat. Phaedr. 230 B. and Verg. G. 4. 24, 
obviaque hospitiis teneat frondentibus arbos. amant wavers be- 
tween poetic personification and (pi\ov<it, are wont. 

11-12. ' Why does the huddling brook strive to bicker down its 
winding way ?' Cf. Epp. 1. 10. 21, quae per pronum trepidat cum 
murmure rivum ; Ov. Met. 1. 39, fluminaque obliquis cinxit declivia 
ripis. 



248 NOTES. 

13. hue: hither bid bring. vina : ace. plur. always in odes, 
but vini 1. 4. 18; vino, 1. 27. 6. 

14. flores . . . rosae : cf. on 3. 29. 3. The rose has always 
been the symbol of the brief ' bloom of beauty in the south ' 
'Et rose elle a ve'cu ce que vivent les roses, | L'espace d'un matin.' 
Cf. breve lilium (1. 36. 16); cf. F. Q. 2. 12. 74-75; Waller's 'Go 
lovely rose ' ; Ronsard's ' Mignonne, aliens voir si la rose ' ; Auson, 
Idyll. 14 ; Herrick, 208 ; Anth. Pal. 11. 53. 

15. res : like ratio and causa, a blank check to be filled out by 
the context. aetas : thy youth. Cf. 1. 9. 17 ; 4. 12. 26, dum licet. 
sororum : sc. Parcarum, the Greek fates. Cf. Lowell, 'Spin, 
spin, Clotho, spin, Lachesis twist and Atropos sever'; Milton, 
Arcades, 'those that hold the vital shears' ; Lycidas, 'comes the 
blind Fury with the abhorred shears | And slits the thin-spun life' ; 
Plato Rep. 617 c. ; F. Q. 4. 2. 48, '. . . most wretched men whose 
days depend on threads so vain'; Boileau, Epitre VI., 'inon 
esprit tranquille | Met a profit les jours que la Parque me file.' 

16. atra: darkened by association with death. Cf. nigrorum 
(4. 12. 26) ; Stamina pulla (Martial, 4. 73. 4) ; but aurea in com- 
pliment to Domitian (6. 3. 5) ; 'whitest wool' (Herrick, 149. 17). 

17. coemptis : cf. 1. 29. 13 ; and for the laying of field to field, 
cf. Epp. 2. 2. 177; saltibus : hill pastures (Epp. 2. 2. 178); the 
'high lawns' of Milton's Lycidas. domo is the city house. 

18. villa: for villa by Tiber, cf. Propert. 1. 14. flavus : 
cf. 1. 2. 13. lavit : 'laves,' not lavat, ' washes,' is the form used 
in the odes. 

19. cedes : pathetic anaphora. Cf. 3. 3. 18 ; 4. 4. 70, and for 
sentiment, 2. 14. 21. extructis : cf. Epode 2. 43 ; Sat. 2. 3. 96, 
divitiis . . . quas qni construxerit. 

20. heres : cf. on 2. 14. 25. 

21-24. It matters not whether rich and sprung from ancient 
Inachus, or poor and of the lowliest lineage, thou lingerest in the 
light of day (doomed) victim (that thou art) of unpitying Orcus. 
Other renderings assume that sub divo must mean ' without a roof 
to cover your head,' and can apply only to the pauper. Cf. Corio- 
lanus, 4. 5, 'Where dwellest thou? Cor., Under the canopy.' 
Inacho : eponym of river and first mythical king of Argos. 
Cf. 3. 19. 1. n. ; Verg. Aen. 7. 372. 



BOOK II., ODE IV. 249 

23. sub divo : cf . 1. 18. 13 ; 3. 2. 5 ; vv a!8tpi, Aesch. Eumen. 
368. moreris : life is only a mora mortis, this world, 'this bat- 
tered cai'avanserai | Whose portals are alternate night and 
day,' is, as Epictetus and the Imitation tell us, an inn, not a 
home. ' 'Tis but a tent where takes his one day's rest | A Sultan 
to the realm of death addrest ' (Omar- Khayyam) ; irapfinSruula ris 
e(mv i> j8/os (Pseudo-Plat. Axiochus, 365 B) ; Commorandi enim 
natnra deversorium nobis, non habitandi dedit (Cic. Cat. Maior, 
23. 84) ; Paulumque morati \ serins aut citius sedem properamus 
ad unam (Ov. Met. 10. 32). For commonplace of impartiality of 
death, cf. 1. 4. 12 ; 2. 18. 32 ; 4. 7. 23 ; Job, 3. 19 ; Pind. Nem. 7. 
19 ; Simon. Fr. 38. 

24. nil miserantis: vr]\es tfrop fx wv (Hes. Theog. 456). Cf. 2. 
14. 6, and Ronsard, A Son Laquais, 'que nous sert 1'estudier, | 
Sinon de nous ennuyer, | Et soin dessus soin accrestre, | A nous 
qui serons peut-etre, | Ou ce matin, ou ce soir | Victime de 1'Orque 
noir ? | De 1'Orque qui ne pardonne, | Tant il est fier, a personne ? ' 

25. cogimur : as by a shepherd. So coerces, 1. 10. 18; com- 
pulerit, 1. 24. 18. 

26. urna : so Verg. Aen. 6. 432, quaesitor Minos urnam movet. 
Cf. 3. 1. 16 and Sen. Here. Fur. 193, recipit populos urna citatos. 
27-28 : ' When our lot leaps out it will put us on board Charon's 
boat for everlasting exile.' 

27. aeternum : note the suggestive hypermetron. Cf. 3. 29. 35. 

28. exsilium : cf . Longfellow, Cemetery at Newport, * The long 
mysterious exodus of death'; Dante, Infern. 23. 117, 'disteso in 
croce | Tanto vilmente nel eterno esilio. ' cumbae : cf . Transla- 
tions from Lucian, Emily J. Smith, p. 119; Propert. 4. 17. 24, 
torvi publica cumba senis; Verg. Aen. 6. 303 j S*en. Here. Fur. 779, 
cumba populorum capax; Juv. Sat. 2. 151. 



ODE IV. 

Horace banters with heroic precedents a gentleman who has 
fallen in love with a serving-maid. Xanthias of Phocis is as real 
or unreal as Gyges of Cnidus (2. 5. 20) ; or Hebrus of Lipara (3. 12. 
6) ; or Calais, the son of Ornytus of Thurium (3. 9. 14) ; or the 



250 NOTES. 

brother of Opuntian Megilla (1. 27. 10). For theme, cf. Ov. 
Am. 2. 8. 9. Translations by Duke, Johnson's Poets, 9. 215 ; by 
Hamilton, ibid., 15. 638. Imitations, by Howe, ibid., 9. 471; by 
Smart, ibid., 16. 76. Cf. also Ronsard's pretty ode, ' Si j'aime 
depuis naguiere | Une belle chambriere.' 

1. ne sit: don't blush or lest you blush. Cf. 1. 33. 1 ; 4. 9. 1. 

2. prius : you are not the first. Cf. Theoc. 13. 1-3. inso- 
lentem : stern, proud, as portrayed, A. P. 122, lura neget sibi 
nata nihil non arroyet armis. Possibly insolentem here = albeit 
unused to love. Cf. 1. 5. 8. 

3. Briseis : Horn. 11. 1. 346, 9. 343. Cf. Landor, ' And never 
night or day could be his | Dignity hurt by dear Briseis.' niveo 
colore: abl. instr. with movit. Cf. Theoc. 11. 20, \evKorepa 
iro/craj ; Supra, 1. 19. 5, Pario marmore purius. vi<p6t<rffa 'E\fvr) 
is quoted from Ion. Cf . also ' Her brow is like the snawdrift ' ; 
Shakspeare's ' Hide, oh, hide those hills of snow' ; 'nor scar that 
whiter skin of hers than snow' (Othello, 5. 2); and F. Q. 2. 1. 11, 
' Snowy breast ' ; and ' The daisies . . . looked dark against her 
feet; the girl was so white' (Aucassin and Nicolette); Anth. Pal. 
5. 84. 

5. movit: cf. 1. 2. 5. Telamone natum: TeAa^nos Afas. 
Cf. on 1. 7. 21 and 1. 15. 19. 

6. captivae : app. with Tecmessae. Antithetic juxtaposition 
with dominum. Tecmessae : note Greek prosody. On her, cf. 
Soph. Ajax, 211. 

8. virgine rapta: Cassandra, from altar of Athena, by Ajax 
Oileus, Verg. Aen. 2. 404. The syntax wavers between abl. abs. 
and that of 3. 9. 6 and 4. 11. 33. 

9. barbarae : Phrygiae : so frequently in Euripides and in Latin 
tragedy. Cf. Epp.. 1. 2. 7, Graecia barbariae lento collisa duello. 

10. Thessalo victore: abl. abs., before their Thessalian con- 
queror. Achilles, Neoptolemus, or the Thessalians collectively, 
according to the point of view. Achilles' slaughter of the Trojans, 
in the later books of the Iliad, is probably meant. ademptus 
Hector : the removal of Hector. The concrete Latin reserves the 
noun for the real thing or person, and denotes relations or aspects 
by limiting adjectives or participles, thus avoiding the abstract 



BOOK II., ODE IV. 251 

verbals of English idiom. Cf. 1. 3. 29-30, ignem . . . subductum; 

1. 18. 9 ; 1. 36. 9 ; 1. 37. 13 ; 2. 9. 10; 3. 7. 17 ; 3. 8. 14 ; 4. 4. 38-39 ; 
Hasdrubal devictus, 4. 11. 7. Cf. also n. on 3. 24. 42. 

11. leviora tolli : cf. II. 24. 243 ; Anony. Apud Sen. Suas, 

2. 19, Ite triumphantes, belli mora concidit Hector, and Verg. 
Aen. 9. 155. 

12. Grais : with both tradidit and leviora tolli (epexegetic). 

13. nescias an : Thou mayst think it likely, thou canst not 
know but that. Contra 4. 7. 17, Quis scit an, who can feel sure 
that ? generum : Horace playfully asks when he is to offer con- 
gratulations. beati: well-to-do, rich. Cf. 3. 7. 3. 

14. flavae : cf. on 1. 5. 4. The fine lady in Juvenal Sat. 6. 354 
\\a.sflavam cui det mandata puellam. 

15. regium : as who should say her sires were kings in the 
Emerald Isle. genus : with maeret, no need to supply est. She 
mourns her (lost) royal rank and the unkindness of the household 
gods. 

17-18. ' Rest assured that in her thou hast not chosen a love 
from the base plebeian throng.' 

17. scelesta : cf. infidum, profanum, malignum, volgus. 

18. dilectam : with dat. 1. 21. 4. 

19. aversam : perhaps playful, as the rapacity of her class was 
proverbial. 

20. pudenda : cf. 1. 27. 15, erubescendis. 

21. teretes : shapely. 

22. integer : heartwhole ; Contactus nullis cupidinibus, Propert. 
1. 1. 2. Cf. 3. 7. 22. fuge: cf. 1. 9. 13. 

23-24. octavum : Horace was forty years old B.C. 25. Cf. 
4. 1. 6, about ten years later, circa lustra decem. The technical 
phrase suggested and avoided is condere lustrum. Cf. condere 
diem, 4. 5. 29. For thought, cf. Thackeray's Age of Reason : 
' Then you know the worth of a lass | Once you have come to 
forty year.' Landor lowers the danger line by eight years : ' I 
know those ankles small and round | Are standing on forbidden 
ground ; | So fear no rivalry to you | In gentlemen of thirty-two.' 
trepidavit : ' has all too quickly reached ' or ' is hovering on the (j \, 
verge of.' A favorite word v Cf. 2. 11. 4 ; 2. 3. 12 ; 2. 19. 5 ; 

3. 27. 17; 3. 29. 32; 4. 11. 11. 



252 NOTES. 



ODE V. 

Lalage is not yet ripe for love. Cf. 3. 11. 9-12. The elaboration 
of the metaphors of the heifer and the unripe grape is displeasing 
to modern taste. Cf. Anth. Pal. 6. 124. 

1. valet: with inf., cf. on 1. 34. 12. 

2. aequare : sc. in drawing the plow. Cf. 1. 35. 28. 

5. circa : cf. 1. 18. 2 ; in this sense with animus, first in 
Horace, G. L. 416. 5. 

5-7 : So Silvia's pet deer alternates between the stream and the 
bank (Verg. Aen. 7. 494-495). 

6. iuvencae : for metaphor, cf. Judges, 14. 18; Theoc. 11. 21 ; 
Soph. Trach. 529. 

9. praegestientis : so praetrepidans (Cat. 46. 7). tolle : cf. 
1. 27. 2 and Epp. 1. 12. 3, tolle querelas. 

10. immitis : cf. contra, mitibus pornis, ripe apples (Epode 2. 17). 
uvae: cf. -rtptiv oiriapa 5' evtt>v\a.KTos ov5a.fj.us (Aeschyl. Suppl. 
998) ; o/x0a (Anth. Pal. 5. 20) ; ' no grape that's kindly ripe could 
be | So round, so plump, so soft as she, | Nor half so full of juice ' 
(Sir John Suckling). lividos : the curious distinguish three 
grades of ripeness marked by livor, purpureus color, and niger. 
Cf. one of the rare poetic lines in Juv. (Sat. 2. 81), uvaque con- 
specta livorem ducit ab uva ; Ov. Met. 3. 484, ut variis solet uva 
racemis \ ducere pnrpureum, nnndum matura, colorem; Cat. 17. 
16, puella . . . adservanda nigerrimis diligentius uvis. 

12: varius: epithet of effect transferred to cause. Cf. Tenny- 
son's ' Autumn laying here and there | A fiery finger on the leaves ' 
(In Mem. 99). 

13. sequetur : sc. Lalage. currit : i] 8' &pr) \a/j.vdd' t\ovffa 
rpt X t (Anth. Pal. 12. 29. 2; cf. 10. 81. 4). ferox: ruthless. 
Cf. invida aetas (1. 11. 7). 

14. dempserit : cf. Ovid's deme meis annis et demptos adde 
parenti (Met. 7. 168). It is not strictly logical here since the years 
added to Lalage are not taken from the lover ; but they are in a 
sense taken from his prime as anni recedentes (A. P. 176). Cf. 
Soph. Trach. 547 ; and Sir Charles Sedley, To Chloris : ' Age from 
no face took more away | Than youth concealed in thine.' 



BOOK II., ODE VI. 253 

15. adponet: cf. 1. 9. 15 and Persius, Sat. 2. 1-2, Hunc, Ma- 
crine, diem numera meliore lapillo \ qui tibi labentes apponit can- 
didus annos. proterva : possibly continuing the image of the 
heifer, but cf. 3. 11. 11. n. 

17. Fholoe: cf. 1. 33. 7. fugax: cf. Pope, 'The sprightly 
Sylvia trips along the green | She runs, but hopes she does not run 
unseen ' ; and inter vino, fugam Cinarae maerere protervae (Epp. 

I. 7. 28). 

18. humero nitens: cf. 'Though my arms and shoulders | 
Dazzle beholders' (Rossetti, A Last Confession). Cf. 1. 2. 31. 

19. pura: in cloudless sky. Cf. 1. 34. 7. renldet: 2. 18.2; 
3. 6. 12 ; Epode 2. 66. 

20. luna mari : cf. Herrick, 105, ' More white than are the whitest 
creams, | Or moonlight tinselling the streames.' ' A hand as 
white as ocean foam in the moon' (Tenn. Maud, 25. 2). 

22. mire : with falleret rather than with sagaces, though mire 
novus occurs (Sat. 2. 3. 28). 

23. obscurum : i.e. obscuratum. solutis : cf . 3. 4. 62 ; Epode 

II. 28. Cf. long hair of boy in Juv. 16. 137. 

24. So Statius, Achill. 1. 336, of Achilles hiding among the girls 
at Scyros, says, fallitque tuentes \ ambiguus tenuique latens dis- 
crimine sexus. Cf. 1. 8. 16. Lalage is forgotten. Of this pretty 
picture Tyrrell (Latin Poetry, p. 109) severely says, 'The runnel 
is exquisitely smooth, but its shallow waters flow where they will 
from their natural channel and end in a puddle.' 



ODE VI. 

Septimius, ready if need be to go with me to the ends of the world, 
may Tibur be the haven of repose for my old age, or, failing that, 
Tarentum, loveliest nook of earth, in the land of the olive and the 
vine. There, when the end comes, thou shall drop the tear thou 
owest on the ashes of thy poet friend. Cf. Sellar, p. 147. 

A Septimius is recommended to the good offices of Tiberius 
(Epist. 1. 9); and the name recurs in a letter of Augustus cited in 
Suetonius' life. 

Imitation in Dodsley, vol. 4, p. 280. 



254 NOTES. 

1. Gades: i.e. the pillars of Hercules, the proverbial limit of 
the known world (2. 2. 11 ; Find. Nem. 4. 69, and passim). Cf. 
1. 34. 11, Atlanteus finis. aditure : sc. si opus sit. Cf. 4. 3. 20, 
donatura ... si libeat, and 2. 3. 4. n. ' Where thou goest I will 
go ' was the conventional expression of friendship from the time 
of Pylades and Orestes. Cf. Cat. 11. 1, Furi et Aureli comites 
Catulli | Sive in extremes penetrabit Indos. 

2. Cantabrum : tribe of N. W. Spain attacked by Romans circa 
B.C. 29, rebelled and repressed by Augustus 27-25, finally subdued 
by Agrippa 19. Cf. 3. 8. 21 ; 4. 14. 41 ; Justin, 44. 5. 8 ; Flor. 4. 12. 
47. These facts hardly date the ode. iuga : the image is from 
oxen or horses. Cf. 2. 5. 1 ; 1. 33. 11 ; Find. Pyth. 2. 93 ; Soph. 
Antig. 291. It has become a literary commonplace. Shaks. Henry 
VI. 3. 3. 1, 'Yield not thy neck to fortune's yoke ' 5 Macaulay, 
Proph. of Capys, 22, ' Beneath thy yoke the Volscian | Shall veil 
his lofty brow ' ; Lucan, 1. 19, sub iuga iam Seres iam barbarus 
isset Araxes. Perhaps there is a hint, too, of the 'passing the 
enemy under the yoke,' sub iugum mittere (Caes. B. G. 1. 12). 

3. Syrtes : 1. 22. 5; Verg. Aen. 4. 41, inhospita Syrtis. 
Maura : is accurate enough for poetry. 

5. Cf. 1. 7 ; 1. 18. 2. Argeo : 'Apyeiy. Cf. 3. 16. 12 ; 3. 3. 67 ; 
4. 6. 25. positum : Verg. Aen. 4. 211-212, urbem . . . posuit. 
colono : colonist, not ruris colono (1. 35. 6 ; 2. 14. 12). 

6. utinam: 'A melancholy utinam of my own,' in Sir T. 
Browne's phrase. Cf. 1. 35. 38. senectae : the dative is warmer. 
For sentiment, cf. Martial, 4. 25. 7, vos eritis nostrae requies por- 
tusque senectae. 

7. sit: cf. 1. 2. 5. n. modus is felt first absolutely and then 
with the genitives. lasso maris : cf. fessi rerum (Verg. Aen. 1. 
178) ; peregrino labore fessi (Cat. 31. 8); odio maris atque viarum 
(Epp. 1. 11. 6). oAi'/c/iT/Toj. Cf. Anth. Pal. 9. 7. 5. 

9-12. Tibur and Tarentum similarly coupled Epp. 1. 7. 45. 

9. unde : sc. Tibure. Parcae . . . iniquae : the unkindness 
of destiny. Cf. 2. 4. 10. u., and for iniquae, 2. 4. 16. prohibent : 
1. 27. 4. 

10. pellitis : covered with skins to protect their fine fleece, ne 
lana inquinetur (Varro, R. R. 2. 2. 18). Hence the breed some- 
times called tectae oves. Cf. Plin. N. H. 8. 189. For quality of 



BOOK H.. ODE VI. 255 

their wool, cf . Martial, 2. 43. 3 ; 5. 37. 2 ; 8. 28. 4. ovibus : dat. 
with dulce. Galaesi : the river near Tarentum (Verg. G. 4. 126). 
The region was praised already by Archilochus as na\6s and 
f<pi/*epos . 

11. petam : subj. perhaps, putting conclusion as wish. 

12. Phalantho : the Spartan Phalanthus was said to have 
founded Tarentum circa B.C. 707. Cf. Paus. 10. 10. 6 ; Strabo, 6. 
278. For syntax, cf. 3. 29. 27, regnata Gyro Bactra, and Verg. 
Aen. 6. 794. 

14. angulus : with terrarum. Cf. angulus iste, of his Sabine 
farm (Epp. 1. 14. 23). Sainte-Beuve wrote on the margin of his 
Horace, " Heureux Horace ! quel n'a pas e"te" son destin ! quoi ! 
parce qu'il a une fois exprime" en quelques vers.charmants son bon- 
heur champetre et decrit son coin de terre prefere, voila que les vers 
faits a plaisir pour lui seul et pour 1'ami auquel il les adressait, se 
sont depuis empare"s de toutes les me"moires, et s'y sont si bien 
logo's qu'on n'en conceit plus d'autres, et qu'on ne trouve que 
ceux-la des qu'il s'agit pour chacun de ce"le"brer sa propre retraite 
che"rie." ridet : note quantity. Hymetto : "T>T/TTIOI/ /xe'A* (Sui- 
das) was proverbial (Otto, p. 169). Cf. 'And still his honied 
wealth Hymettus yields.' For the comparatio compendiaria, cf. 
2. 14. 28. 

15. decedunt : personifies. viridi: cf. 'Thine olive green as 
when Minerva smiled' (Byron); 'it is gray-green' (Ruskin) ; 
y\auK6xpoos (Pindar). 

16. Venafro : dat. (1. 1. 15. n.). Cf. Varro, R. R. 1. 2. 6, quod 
vinum (conferam) Falerno? quod oleum Venafro? Cf. 3. 5. 55 ; 
Sat. 2. 4. 69. 

17-18. Cf. 'Smooth life had flock and shepherd in old time, | 
Long springs and tepid winters on the banks | Of delicate Galaesus ' 
(Words. Prelude). 

17. tepidas: cf. Epist. 1. 10. 15, est ubi plus tepeant hiemes? 
Pers. Sat. 6. 6, mihi nunc Ligus ora \ intepet. 

18. luppiter : cf. Epode 16. 66. Aulon : apparently a vale 
(channel, av\iav), but cf. Verg. Aen. 3. 553 (C ?) Aulonisque 
arces. amicus : i.e. dilectus. Cf. 1. 26. 1. Bentley reads apri- 
cus, Heinsius amictits, i.e. clad with fertile vines. But forfertilis = 
giver of fertility, cf. Ov. Met. 5. 642, deafertilis. Cf. also Martial, 



256 NOTES. 

13. 125, and Statius, Silv. 2. 2. 4, qua Bromio dilectus ager, colles- 
que per altos \ uritur etprelis non invidet uva Falernis. 

22. arces : heights (cf. 1. 2. 3), but with a hint of the Epicurean 
sapientum templa serena (Lucret. 2. 8). Cf. Wordsworth, 'Stu- 
dents with their pensive citadels.' calentem : cf. Verg. Aen. 6. 
212-228; Munro on Lucret. 3. 906-907; Stat. Silv. ,2. 1. 2, et 
adhuc vivente faiilla. 

23. debita : cf. Shaks. Julius Caes. 5. 3, ' Friends, I owe more 
tears | To this dead man than you shall see me pay ' : Cowper, 
Loss of Royal George, ' And mingle with the cup | The tear that 
England owes.' 

24. vatis : cf. 4. 6. 44 ; 1. 31. 2. n. 



ODE VII. 

Welcome home at last, dear old companion of my tent and table, 
Pompeius ! Together we made the campaign of Philippi. when I 
lost my shield. Then Mercury snatched me away in a Homeric 
cloud, while the withdrawing wave swept thee back again to war. 
Come then and share the cask I have kept for thee ! I cannot 
drink too deep to thy home-coming. 

Pompeius is unknown. The ode tells its own story. 

1. tempus in ultimum : extremest peril. Cf. Cat. 64. 151, 109, 
supremo in tempore. 

2. deducte . . . duce : note verbal play. Brutus was captain 
of the war in the campaign of Philippi, B.C. 43-42. 

3. quis : no answer is needed, but the Jove of 1. 17 is meant not 
without complimentary allusion to the clemency of his vicegerent 
on earth (1. 12. 51), Augustus, who says of himself, Mon. Ancyr. 
1. 14, Victor omnibus superstitibus civibus pepercit. Cf. Verg. 
Eel. 1. 19. redonavit : cf. 3. 3. 33, where force of re is different. 
Quiritem : (the plural only, in normal prose) (1) burgher in 
antithesis to miles; (2) to full citizenship, i.e. not capite deminu- 
tus (3. 5. 42. n.). Cf. 'Apyelos a^p <x50(s (Aeschyl. Euin. 727). 

4. Italo: cf. 2. 13. 18 ; 3. 30. 13 ; 4. 4. 42 ; 4. 15. 13. 

5. Pompei : dissyllabic. Cf. Epp. 1. 7. 91. prime: earliest, 
or perhaps, in the enthusiasm of the hour, first and foremost. So 



BOOK ii., ODE vn. 257 

Catullus (9. 1) is not thinking of Calvus when he welcomes Veranius 
back from Spain, Verani omnibus e meis amicis \ antistans. 

6. morantem : cf . ' The better part now of the lingering day | 
They travell'd had'(F. Q. 1. 6. 34). 

7. fregi : cf. Tenn. In Mem. 79, ' And break the livelong sum- 
mer day | With banquet in the distant woods.' 

8. malobathro : see lexicon. Construe with nitentes. Syrio : 
Antioch was the emporium of Oriental trade. Cf. 1. 31. 12 ; 
2. 11. 16, Assyria; Cat. 6. 8, sertis ac Syrio fragrans olivo ; 
Tibull. 3. 6. 63. 

9. et celerem fugam: recurs 2. 13. 17. 

10. sensi : emphatic, ' they must take it in sense that feel it.' 
Cf. 3. 27. 22 ; 3. 5. 36 ; 4. 4. 25 ; 4. 6. 3. relicta . . . parmula : 
Alcaeus (fr. 32, Herod. 5. 95), Anacreon (fr. 26), and Archilochus 
(fr. 6). The jest to an ancient lay in the contrast between the 
awful severity of Spartan feeling towards the f>tya<nris [' return 
with this or on it,' said the Spartan mother] and the ingenuous 
avowal of Archilochus, 'Some Thracian strutteth with my shield,] 
For, being somewhat flurried, | I left it by a wayside bush, | As 
from the field I hurried ; | A right good targe, but I got off, | The 
deuce may take the shield ; | I'll get another just as good | When 
next I go afield.' The kind of folk that have no horror of a 
joke will decline to discuss Horace's courage in this connection. 
Cf. De Quincey's amusing diatribe, Works, Masson, Vol. XL, 
p. 121. 

10-11. The headlong rout, the loss of the shield, and the down- 
fall of those who were so bold before the battle, are so many 
indirect compliments to the prowess of Augustus. Horace is 
' reconstructed ' and can afford to laugh at the ' terrible whipping 
we got.' fracta virtus: cf. Cic. ad Fam. 7. 3. 3, integri . . . 
fractos. 

12. solum : simply, were overthrown, or bit the dust. Cf. II. 

2. 418. To take it as an allusion to the pitiful supplications of the 
defeated (Caes. B. C. 3. 98) would make Horace indeed the ' valet- 
souled varlet of Venusia ' of Swinburne. 

13. Mercurius: the guardian of poets, 2. 17. 29. 

14. sustulit aere : mock-heroic imitation of Iliad, 20. 444 ; 

3. 381. Cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 411. 

8 



258 NOTES. 

15. in bellum : with both resorbens and tulit. Cf. Epp. 2. 2. 47, 
civilisque rudem belli tulit aestus in anna. The image is perhaps 
primarily that of a shipwrecked sailor. Cf. avapui&Se? (Odyss. 
12. 105). But there is a suggestion of the commonplace wave of 
war. Cf. Tyrt. 12. 22 Kv/^a /j.d^-ns ; Lucret. 5. 1288, 1433 ; Aeschyl. 
Septem, 64 ; Arnold, Palladium, ' Backward and forward roll'd the 
waves of fight.' 

17. ergo: the conclusion of the whole matter, all's well that 
ends well". With different force, 1. 24. 5. obligatam : here of 
the thing vowed and due, in 2. 8. 5 of the person bound and 
due to penalties. dapem: technical for feast accompanying 
sacrifice. 

18. longa: B.C. 44-31? latus: cf. 3. 27. 26 and corpora depo- 
nunt for se deponunt (Lucret.). 

19. lauiu: a shade tree, 2. 15. 9. 'Peace has its laurels,' 
Horace slyly says. 

21-28. Orders for the imaginary banquet. Cf. 2. 3. 13 ; 3. 19. 10. 
On difference of treatment of wine in Greek and Latin poetry, cf. 
interesting remarks of Sellar, p. 126. 

21. oblivioso : effect as epithet of cause. Cf. Alcaeus, fr. 41, 
olvov . . . \a0iKr)5fa ; Shakspeare's ' insane root ' ; ' sweet oblivious 
antidote ' ; 'all the drowsy syrups of the world ' ; Milton's ' sleepy 
drench ' and ' oblivious pool ' ; Chaucer's ' sleepy yerde ' (the Cadu- 
ceus of Mercury); Tennyson's ' The sound of that forgetful shore ' 
(In Mem. 35). 

22. ciboria : in this rare word Biicheler sees an allusion to 
Pompeius' service with Antony in Aegypt. Cf. ra. Alyinrna Ki0wpia 
(Ath. 11, p. 477). exple : cf. Till high the bowl with Samian 
wine.' funde : sc. on your hair. 

23. quis : rhetorical questions to work up a Bacchanalian frenzy. 
Cf. 3. 19. 18; 3. 28. 1-4; 2. 11. 18-21. Mrs. Browning, Wine of 
Cyprus, 6, ' Who will fetch from garden closes | Some new gar- 
lands while I speak, | That the forehead, crowned with roses, | 
May strike scarlet down the cheek ? ' udo : soft, lithe, rather 
than dewy. Cf. vyp6s and Theoc. 7. 68, iroKvyi'a.n.Tnui re <re\(vc?. 

24. deproperare : prepare with speed. Cf. properet, 3. 24. 62. 
For intensifying de, cf. 3. 3. 55 ; 1. 18. 9 ; 2. 1. 35. 

25. curatve:-cf. 1. 30. 6. n. Venus arbitrum: cf. 1. 4. 18. 



BOOK ii., ODE vra. 259 

Venus, the best throw of the four tali, showed four faces all differ- 
ent; Canis, the worst, showed all four alike. 

27. Edonis: i.e. Thracians. Cf. 1. 27. 2. A lost play of 
Aesch., the Edoni, may have suggested the comparison. re- 
cepto : 4. 2. 47. 

28. furere : cf. 3. 19. 18. n. 



ODE VIII. 

A SONNET TO A COQUETTE. 

Fair and faithless I might trust thee yet, had the gods punished 
thy false oaths by marring one ivory finger nail or tarnishing one 
tooth of pearl. But at lovers' perjuries they only laugh. Thy 
beauty and the number of thy victims increase day by day. 

Cf. Sellar, p. 169. For theme, cf. Ov. Amor. 2. 8. There is an 
excellent translation by Sir Charles Sedley. Cf., also, Duke, 
Johnson's Poets, 9. 216. The origin of name Barine is uncertain. 
Some think it ' the maid of Bari ' (Barium). 

1. iuria . . . peierati : perhaps a new coinage after analogy of 
ius iurandum. pe is the pejorative per of perperqn\ and peior. 

3. dente : is perhaps strictly abl. of qual. with fieres, ungui 
abl. of deg. or cause with turpior, but this is to consider it too L 
curiously. For superstition that perjury entailed bodily blemish, 
cf . Theoc. 9. 30 ; 12. 24, and Ovid's ingenious elaboration of the 
idea (Am. 3. 3. 1. sqq.). 

6. votis: .dative, preferably, cf. Epode 17. 67 ; she has forfeited 
her head to the penalties (devotiunculis') invoked if she lie. Cf. 
Tennyson's Vivien, ' May yon just heaven that darkens o'er me 
send [ One flash that, missing all things else, may make | My 
scheming brain a cinder if I lie.' enitescis : cf. 1. 5. 13; 1. 19. 
5 ; Cat. 2. 5. 

7. prodis: walkest abroad, the cynosure of all eyes. Cf. 3. 
14. 6 ; Tibull. 3. 1. 3. So procedere, Propert. 1. 2. 1. So irpoifvat. 

8. cura : technical in love's vocabulary. Verg. Eel. 10. 22, tua 
euro, Lycoris. Propert. 3. 32. 9, Coventry Patmore, Angel in the 
House. 'And in the records of my breast, | Red-lettered, emi- 



260 NOTES. 

nently fair | Stood sixteen, who beyond the rest | By turns tn\ 
then had been my care.' 

9. expedit : you actually thrive on it. matris : cf . Propert. 
3. 13. 15. Ossa tibi iuro per matris et ossa parentis \ Sifallo cinis, 
heu, sit mihi uterque grams. opertos: i.e. sepultos (Verg. Aen. 
4. 34). 

10. fallere : swear falsely by. Cf. Verg. Aen. 6. 324. taci- 
tujna : the eternal poetic contrast between the severa silentia noctis, 
'The silence that is in the starry skies,' and the agitation of the 
human breast 'wherein no nightly calm can be.' Cf. Theoc. 2. 
38-39; Epode 15. 1; Catull. 7. 7, Aut quatn sidera multa cum 
tacet nox \ furtivos hominum vident amores ; O. W. Holmes, ' But 
when the patient stars look down | On all their light discovers, | 
The traitor's smile, the murderer's frown, | The lips of lying 
lovers ' ; and Heine : ' Wenn junge Herzen brechen, | So lachen 
drob die Sterne.' 

11. gelida : 'Death lays his icy hand on kings' (Shirley). 
'Barren rage of death's eternal cold' (Shak., Sonnet 13). 

12. carentes : cf. 3. 26. 10. n. 

13. ridet : cf. Rom. and Jul. 2. 2, ' Yet if thou swear'st | Thou 
mayst prove false ; At lovers' perjuries, | They say Jove laughs ' ; 
Pseudo-Tibull. 3. 6. 49, periuria ridet amantum; Plato, Symp. 
183 B; Callim. Epig. 27. 3; Anth. Pal. 5. 6. inquam : ridet 
repeats thought of expedit. 

14. simplices : guileless or easy going, et>;0s, faciles (Verg. 
Eel. 3. 9). 

14-16. Cf. the representation in ancient gems of Cupid turning 
the cos versatilis; the little loves sharpening their darts in the 
corner of Correggio's Danae, and Thorwaldsen's Vulcan forging 
arms for Cupid. Cruel Cupid bears irvp'nrvoa r6a, and his shafts 
are ai^ar^t/pra, dripping with hearts' blood. Cf. Anth. Pal. 5. 
180. 1. 

16. cruenta: is transferred to cote_from sagittas. 

17. adde quod : the hue accedit quod of prose. Latin poetry 
can hardly avoid an occasional prosaically explicit logical juncture. 
Cf. 2. 18. 23; 3. 1. 41 ; 3. 11. 21 ; Ovid. Pont. 2. 9. 47 ; Lucret. 
4. 1121-1122 bis. tibi crescit : cf. Sen. Here. Fur. 874, tibi (sc. 
morti) crescit omne \ et quod occasus videt et quod ortus. 



BOOK II., ODE EX. 261 

18. aervitus : to be thy slaves. Cf. Propert. 1. 6. 19. Turn 
grave servitium nostrae cogere puellae \ discere. 

19. Impiae : not necessarily because of her perjuries, but because 
' the slight coquette she cannot love.' Cf. Propert. 2. 9. 20 ; Ov. 
Met. 13. 301. Me pia detinuit coniux, pia mater Achillem. 
domiiiae : cf. 2. 12. 13. n. 

20. minati : the lover's inability to execute such threats was 
a commonplace of comedy. Cf. Ter. Eunuch. 1. 1 ; Hor. Sat. 

2. 3. 262 ; Pers. Sat. 5. 161 ; Tibull. 2. 6. 13 ; Anth. Pal. 5. 254, 
256. 5. 

21. iuvencis : for their sons, the image of 2. 6. 6. Cf. Lucret. 
5. 1073. 

22. miserae : from fear of Barine. 

23. Virgines: so puellae (3. 14. 11). 

24. aura: cf. the popularis aura (3.2. 20; 1. 5. 11); Propert. 

3. 23. 15, si modo damnatum revocaverit aura puellae; Ov. Am. 2. 
9. 33, incerta Cupidinis aura ; Eurip. Iph. Aul. 69, wvoia.1 . . . 'A#po- 
SJTTJS ; Sir Robert Ay ton, ' Thy favors are but like the wind | That 
kisses everything it meets.' ' The young girls that 'brought an aura 
of infinity ' (James, Psychol. 1. 233). There is no need to continue 
the metaphor of iuvencis with the aid of Verg. G. 3. 251. 



ODE IX. 

A poetic ' Consolation.' Nature shows not always her wintry 
face, but thou, Valgius, art still mourning the loss of thy Mystes. 
Even Nestor, the father of Antilochus, and the sisters of Troilus 
were consoled at last. Leave thy womanish laments and let us 
sing the triumphs of Caesar. 

There is a translation by Dr. Johnson. Cf. Ronsard, A Mr. 
Mellin, 'Toujours ne tempeste enrage"e | Centre ses bords la mer 
Eg6e . . . Toujours 1'hiver de neiges blanches | Des pins n'eufarine 
les branches,' etc. 

C. Valgius Ruf us, consul suffectus, B.C. 12, wrote elegies said to be 
alluded to by Verg. (Eel. 7. 22), medical and rhetorical works, and 
an epic which Tibullus (?) thought ' Homeric.' Valgius: aetemo 
propior non alter Hornero (Tibull. 4. 1. 181). Verses 19 and 20 



262 NOTES. 

have been thought an allusion to the Eastern embassy of Tiberius, 
B.C. 20, but may refer to the Oriental envoys sent to Augustus in 
Spain B.C. 27-25. Mon. Ancyr. 5. 51. 

1. non semper: so 2. 11. 9. Cf. Otto, p. 113. For sentiment 
and imagery, cf. Plut. Cons, ad Apoll. 5 ; Southwell, Time goes by 
Turns, Ward's Poets, 1. 482 ; Herrick, Hesper. 726, ' Clouds will 
noffever poure down rain ; | A sullen day will cleere again. | First, 
peales of thunder we must heare, | Then lutes and harpes shall 
stroke the eare ' ; Theoc. 4. 43; Sen. Ep. 107, 108. hispidos: 
possibly proleptic of the effect of the rain, or suggestive of the 
barren stubble of a wintry field, or of the neglected beard and hair 
(hispida fades, cf. 4. 10. 5) of grief. 

2. Caspium : a stormy sea. Cf. Milton, P. L. II. : ' As when 
two black clouds, | With heaven's artillery fraught, come rattling 
on | Over the Caspian.' But cf. 1. 1. 14. n. ; 1. 26. 2. 

3. inaequales procellae: either fitful blasts, Milton's 'gusty 
flaws,' or on analogy of inaequali tonsore, Epp. 1. 1. 94, roughen- 
ing gales. Cf. Shelley's ' curdling winds,' and Shaks. Sonnet, 6 : 
'winter's ragged hand.' 'Ruffling winds,' Herrick, 721. 

4. usque: cf. 1. 17. 4. Armeniis: i.e. on Mount Taurus. Cf. 
Xen. Anab. 4. 4. 

5. stat: cf. 1. 9. 1. iners: cf. 3. 4. 45; 4. 7. 12; 1. 22. 17, 
pigris . . . campis. 

7. Garganus is an exposed sea-girt promontory of Apulia. Cf. 
Epp. 2. 1. 202, Garganum mugire putes nemus. laborant : cf. 
1. 9. 3. Arnold, The New Sirens, 'saw the hoarse boughs labor in 
the wind' ; Shaks. M. of V. 4. 1, 'forbid the mountain pines | To 
wag their high tops and to make no noise | When they are fretted 
with the gusts of heaven ' ; Sappho, fr. 42, fatsos tear' tpos Spvcrlv 
tjurtffwv* 

8. viduantur: observe the cumulative touches that complete 
the picture of desolation. Cf. Tenn. Lady of Shalott, Part IV. 
init. 

9. tu semper : emphasizing his disregard of the lesson of nature, 
non semper. Cf. 2. 18. 17 ; 3.29. 25. urges : dwellest on, insistest 
on. Cf. Propert. 5. 11. 1, desine Paulle meum lacrimis urgere 
sepulcrum. 



BOOK II., ODE IX. 263 

10. ademptum : cf. 2. 4. 10. n. 

11. surgente : cf. Verg. G. 1. 440 ; Aen. 4. 352 ; Vesper of course 
does not 'rise,' but becomes visible in the west after sunset. The 
same planet (Venus) as Phosphorus, the morning star, at other 
times flees (vanishes in the light of) the swift rising sun. Cf. Cat. 
62. 35. Cf. Tenn. In Mem. 121, ' Sweet Hesper-Phospher, double 
name | For what is one, the first, the last.' Cf. Plato's exquisite 
epigram, 'AvTJip irplv /j.fv e\a/j.ires fvl faoifftv 'Eqpos, | vvv df Qaviav 
\d/j.wfts a E<rvfpos ft> tydtpfvois. ' Star of the morning shinedst thou, | 
Ere life was fled, | Star of the evening art thou now, | Among the 
dead.' decedunt amores: cf. Tenn. Mariana, 'Her tears fell 
with the dews at even, | Her tears fell ere the dews were dried ; 
Verg. G. 4. 465, te veniente die te decedente canebat; Helvius 
Cinna's lovely lines : Te matutinus flentem conspexit Eous, \ et 
flentem paullo vulit post Hesperus idem,- Tasso, G. L. xii. 90, 
' Lei nel partir, lei nel tornar del sole | chiama con voce stanca, e 
prega e plora.' 

12. rapidum : standing epithet of sol (Verg. G. 1. 424 ; 2. 321. 
Cf. Eel. 2. 10), perhaps from swift hot rays, or his rapid movement 
among the constellations, or the swift sunsets and sunrises of 
southern climes where twilight is short. Cf. Homer's 60^1 ct/|, and 
Coleridge, ' At one stride comes the dark,' Anc. Mar. 

13. ter aevo functus : Nestor, tertiam iam aetatem hominum 
vivebat, Cic. Cat. Mai. 31 ; II. 1. 250 ; rpiyepwv, Odyss. 3. 245. 

14. Antilochum : son of Nestor, often mentioned in Iliad. 
Alluded to in Odyss. 3. 112 ; 4. 187. Saves his father's life, Find. 
Pyth. 6. 28. Nestor at his funeral pyre, Juv. Sat. 10. 253 ; Propert. 
3. 5. 46-50. 

14-15. omnes . . . annos: the Homeric ij^ara -navra. 

15-16. impubem . . . Troilon: Verg. Aen. 1. 475, infelix puer 
atque impar congressus Achilli. Like Antilochus a stock example 
in the literature of consolations ; Plut. Cons, ad Apoll. 24 ; Cic. 
Tusc. 1. 93. 

16. sorores : Polyxena, Cassandra, etc. The wailing of 
Phrygian women was proverbial ; yet even they were consoled. 

17. desine : with gen. as A^yi/, iratW0ai. Cf. 3. 27. 69. n. ; 
2. 13. 38. 

19. Canternus takes three objects, Niphaten, flumen . . . volvere, 



264 NOTES. 

and Gelonos . . . equitare. tropaea : for date, cf. Intr. and 
Sellar, p. 143. 

20. rlgidum : ice-bound, or rock-bound. Niphates : was a 
mountain in Armenia. Cf. Verg. G. 3. 30, addam urbes Asiae 
domitas pulsumque Niphaten. Cf. Milton, P. L. III. in fine, 
' Nor stay'd till on Niphates' top he lights ' ; Lucan, 3. 245 ; 
Juv. Sat. 6. 409 ; Claudian and Silius speak of it as a river. 
Hence Johnson's translation has, ' Niphates .rolls an humbler 
wave.' 

21. medum flumen : cf. 3. 4. 36, Scythicus amnis ; 4. 4. 38, 
Metaiirum flumen. Cf. Verg. Aen. 8. 726, Euphrates ibat iam 
mollior undis. 

22. Cf. R. C. Trench, 'Alma, roll thy waters proudly, | Proudly 
roll them to the sea ' (Page) . 

23. Gelonos : a Sarmatian or Scythian tribe. Cf. Herod. 
4. 108 ; Verg. Aen. 8. 725 ; infra, 2. 20. 19 ; 3. 4. 35. praescrip- 
tum : the limits set them. 

24. exiguis : narrowed in comparison with their former liberty. 
equitare: 1. 2. 51. 

ODE X. . 

Of the mean and sure estate : A string of sententiae in praise of 
the golden mean and philosophic acceptance of the vicissitudes of 
fortune, frequently imitated. Cf. Sellar, p. 175 ; Surrey, Praise 
of Meane and Constante estate, Tottel's Miscellany, Arber, p. 27 ; 
ibid., p. 157; Cowper, Johnson's Poets, 18. 659; Cotton, ibid. 18. 
17 ; Beattie, ibid. 18. 558. 

L. Licinius Murena, probably the son of the Murena of Cicero's 
Pro Murena, was adopted into the Terentian gens by Terentius 
Varro, and so became the adopted brother of Proculeius (2. 2. 2) 
and of Terentia, the wife of Maecenas ; 3. 19 is apparently written 
to celebrate his cooptation into the college of augurs. He appears 
in the Consular fasti for the year 23. In the same year he was 
put to death for conspiring against Augustus. Cf. Veil. Paterc. 
2. 91 ; Dion. Cass. 64. 3 ; Suet. Tib. 8. It seems unlikely that 
Horace would have published the first three books of the Odes with 
these poems after that date. Cf. on 1. 3 and 2. 9. 



BOOK II., ODE X. 265 

1-4, 22-24. Life a Voyage. Cf. 1. 34. 3 ; 3. 29. 57 ; Epist. 2. 2. 
201 ; Plato, Laws, 803 B, Sta ro>~i n\ov TOVTOV rfjs (wijs ; Swinb. Pre- 
lude to Songs Before Sunrise, 10 ; Tenn. Crossing the Bar, etc. ; 
Anth. Pal. 10. 65 ; Marc. Aurel. 3. 3 ; Plato, Phaedo, 85. d. 

1. rectius : i.e. more wisely, sagely. 

2. urgendo : cf . 2. 9. 9. 

2-3. duni . . . horrescis : would be rendered in Greek by pres. 
part. Cf. Epist. 2. 3. 465 ; A. and G. 290. c, n. 

3. premendo : hugging. Cf. radere, legere, amare, litus. Cf. 
Epist. 2. 3. 28, tutus nimium timidusque procellae. 

4. Iniquum : cf. on 1. 10. 15 ; 1. 2. 47 ; 2. 4. 16 ; 2. 6. 9 ; 3. 1. 32. 

5. mediocritatem : cf. Cic. de Off. 1. 25, mediocritatem illam . . . 
quae est inter nimium et parum the peaov or ^trpiov of the Greek 
gnomic poets and tragedians, which Plato and Aristotle developed 
into the formal ethical doctrine that virtue ' is seated in the mean.' 
Cf. iravrl /j.(ffcp r~6 Kpdros Otbs Snrafffv, Aeschyl. Eumen. 529 ; Arist. 
Pol. 4. 11, rbv ptffov . . . Biov . . . 0f\rt<TTOV ; Otto, p. 216. 

6. diligit tutus : discreetly affects; chooses for his safety. Cf. 
A. P. 28 ; meter and concinnity favor this punctuation ; but many 
take tutus with caret, is safe and eschews. 

1. sordibus : the squalor of a mean hovel. invidenda : cf. 3. 
1. 45. It suggests the (p96vos of the Greeks (9-12). 

9-12. ingens, celsae, summos are emphatic. For the senti- 
ment, cf. Herod. 7. 10 ; Lucretius, 5. 1126, invidia quoniam ceu 
fulmine summa vaporant; Ovid. Trist. 3. 4. 6 ; Otto, 148. 352; 
Diimler, Acadeinica, p. 3 sqq. ; Lucillius in Anth. Pal. 10. 122, ov 
ffpvov ov /uoAa^Tjv &i>fu.6s irore ras Se ueyiffras \ tj dpvas T) ir\a-ravovs oiSf 
xafj.a.1 Kardyf iv ; Maecenas apud Sen. Epist. 19. 9, ipsa enim altitude 
attonat, summa; Wordsworth, The Oak and the Broom; Lord 
Vaux, of the Mean Estate, ' The higher that the cedar tree | Into 
the heavens doth grow | The more in danger is the top, | When 
stormy winds gan blow ' ; Campion, Ed. Bullen, p. 32, ' The higher 
trees the more storms they endure ' ; Dante, Paradise, 18, ' come 
vento | che le piu alte cime piii percote ; Shaks. M. for M. 2. 2 ; 
Herrick. Hesp. 484 ; 'My mind to me a Kingdom is,' 3 ; Spenser 
Shep. Cal., July ; Victor Hugo, Feuilles d'Automne, 4. The 
commonplace is often amplified in Seneca's Tragedies (Ag. 93 sqq., 
etc.); Seneca was imitated by Boethius, and hence, perhaps, rather 



266 NOTES. 

than from Aristotle's Poetics, arose the notion in mediaeval and 
renaissance literature that the one theme of tragedy is the sudden 
fall of the great. Cf. Chaucer, Monke's Tale, ' I will bewail in 
manner of Tragedie | The harm of them that fell from high de- 
gree.' And see the choruses of Gamier, and Ferrex and Porrex 
passim. 

11. turres: cf. 1. 4. 14; Juv. 10. 105. 

12. fulgura =fulmina. 

13-20 : cf. Herrick, Hesp. 726, ' In all thy need, be thou possest | 
Still with a well-prepared brest : | . . . And this for comfort thou 
must know, | Times that are ill wo'nt still be so. | Clouds will not 
ever poure down raine (cf. 2. 9. 1) ; | A sullen day will cleere again.' 

13. infestis . . . secundis : dat. rather than the abl. abs. 

14. alteram : a change of lot, i.e. the other of two. Cf. 1. 15. 
29. n. 

15. informes : beauty was ' form ' to the ancients. Cf. Dobson, 
1 A dream of form in days of thought' ; Mimnermus, and Theog. 
1021, &/j.op<f>ov 7%> ; Verg. G. 3. 354, aggeribus niveis informis terra; 
Juv. 4, 56, Stridebat deformis liiems ; Wither, 'Walks and ways 
which winter marred ' ; Shaks. Son. 5, ' For never-resting time 
leads summer on | To hideous winter a'nd confounds him there ' ; 
Lucian, Kp6vos 9, ol Aeiyuw^ts &/*.op<j>oi. reducit : for re-, cf. 1. 3. 7 ; 
3. 1. 21 ; 3. 8. 9. 

16. luppiter: cf. on 1. 1. 25 and Theoc. 4. 43; Theog. 25. 
idem : idiomatic, and likewise ; cf. 22 ; 2. 19. 27 ; 3. 4. 07. 

17. non denies the inference from nunc to olirn. male: cf. 
3. 16. 43, bene est ; Catull. 38. 1, male est Cornifici tuo Catullo. 
et : cf. Munro on Lucret. 3. 412. olim : yon time, past or future. 
Cf. on 4. 4. 5. 

18. quondam: sometimes; cf. Verg. Aen. 2. 367. 

19. suscitat: cf. Gray, Progress of Poesy, 'Awake, Aeolian 
lyre, awake ' ; Pind. O. 9. 51 ; Nem. 10. 21 ; Lucret. 2. 413, experge- 
facta. 

19-20. A familiar quotation generally employed in the sense, 
' All work and no play,' etc. Here it points the moral of compen- 
sations the god who sends the shafts of pestilence is also the 
god of music. Cf. C. S. 33. For a hint of the proverbial use, cf. 
Cic. de Senect. 11, intentum enim animum tamquam arcum habe- 



BOOK II., ODE XI. 267 

bat; Plut. de Ed. Plier. 13, /cal -yap ra r6%a. Kal ras \vpas avie/Mev 
iVo fVtrelVat 5vvr]0(a^ev ; nee semper Gnosius arcum Destinat, Laiis 
Pisonis, 142. Cf. the habitual misapplication of Shakspeare's 
'One touch of nature.' 
21. angustis : cf. on 3. 2. 1. 

23. contrahe : a frequent image in Greek drama. Cf. AT. Ran. 
1220, vffffOai yuoj Sox(?s ; Soph. El. 335 ; Cic. ad Att. 1. 16. 2, con- 
traxi vela. Propert. 3. 19. 30 ; Ovid. Trist. 3. 4. 32, propositiqne, 
precor, contrahe vela tui. secundo : from sequi, ' A wind that 
follows fast' ; Homer's i-iftevos ovpos. nimium : i.e. 'too fresh.' 

24. turgida: cf. Epist. 2. 2. 201, tumidis velis aquilone secundo; 
Verg. Aen. 3. 357, tumido austro ; Pind. Pyth. 1. 92, 'urriov avf^tv; 
Midsummer Night's Dreain, 2. 1. 



ODE XL 

Forget the cares of state, friend Quintius. Man wants but little 
here below. Old age will soon have us in his clutch. The chang- 
ing face of nature warns us that nothing endures. Let us drink 
and sport with Lyde while we may. 

Cf. 3. 8. 17-27. Feeble imitation in Dodsley, 6. 255. Date 
apparently B.C. 26-24 ; cf. 1. 1. Quintius Hirpinus is unknown. 
Epp. 1. 16 is addressed to a Quintius. 

1. Cantaber : cf. 2. 6. 2. n. Scythes : cf. 2. 9. 23. 

2-3. Hirpine Quinti: cf. 2. 2. 3. n. Hadria . . . obiecto : 
like a shield the barrier of the Adriatic (cf. 2. 4. 10. n.) often 
checked barbarian incursions in later times. 

3. remittas : as mitte, 1. 38. 3; omitte, 3. 29. 11, with further 
suggestion of relaxing the mental strain ; cf. also Ter. Andr. 827, 
nam si cogites remittas iam me onerare iniuriis. For thought cf. 
3. 8. 17-20 ; Theog. 763-764. 

4. trepides in usum : worry about (take anxious thought for) 
the icants. For force of trepidare cf. 3. 29. 32 ; Verg. Aen. 9. 114, 
ne trepidate meas, Teucri, defendere naves ; where the complemen- 
tary inf. takes the place of the prepositional phrase in usum here. 
For in, cf. ds, Soph. O. R. 980. 

5. pauca: cf. for thought Lucret. 2. 20, ergo corpoream ad 



268 NOTES. 

naturam pauca videmus \ Esse opus omniuo; Mauil. 4. 8. sqq. 
fugit: cf. the anni recedentes, A. P. 170. 

6. levis : unshorn, smooth-cheeked, cf. 4. 6. 28, and contra, 
hispidam, 4. 10. 5. arida: cf. 4. 13. 9; Sliaks. As You Like It, 
4. 3 : ' High top bald with dry antiquity,' Much Ado, 4. 1 : ' Time 
hath not yet so dried this blood of mine.' Plut. an Sen. ger. rep. 
9 ; aa\eip yjjpq, wizened. 

7. lascivos: 1. 19. 3; 3. 15. 12 ; 4. 11, 23. 

8. canitie: 1. 9. 17. facilem: 3. 21. 4. 

9. non semper : So. 2. 9. 1. Nature herself teaches muta- 
bility. Cf. 4. 7. 7. honor: beauty's bloom. Cf. Epode 11. 0; 
17. 18 ; cf. Martial, 6. 80. 5, tantus veris honos et odorae gratia 
florae ; cf. 1. 17. 16. n. 

10. rubens : This blush is as conventional as that which 
'paints' earth, flowers, berries, and dawn in Pope's pastorals. 
But rubens may be simply bright, ayKibs. Cf. Claudian, 29. 7, 
aeterno sed veris honors rubentes. Propert. 1. 10. 8, Et mediis 
caelo Luna ruberet equis. Verg. G. 1. 431, Vento semper rubet 
aurea Phoebe is not to the point. 

Por moon as type of change, cf. Juliet's ' swear not by the 
moon, the inconstant moon | That monthly changes in her circled 
orb.' Ov. Met. 15. 196, 'nee par aut eadem nocturnae forma 
Dianae \ Esse potest umquam.' 1 Hence Spenser, Mutability, 7. 
50, 'Besides, her face and countenance every day | We changed 
see and sundry forms partake | Now horned, now round, now 
bright, now brown and gray ; | So that, as changeful as the moon 
men used to say.' 'This Worlde's blisse | That changeth as 
the moon.' Nutbrowne Maid. 

11-12. aeternis . . . consiliis : ' long thoughts ' (cf. 1. 11. 6 ; 
4. 7. 7), 'thoughts that wander through eternity,' or ceaseless 
anxieties. 

12. consiliis : with both fatigas and minorem {unequal to them'). 

13. cur non : abrupt transition in imagination to a simple Anac- 
reontic carouse in application of these principles of ' sober sweet 
Epicurean life.' vel . . . vel : the choice is indifferent. pla- 
tano : 2. 15. 4. 

14. pinu : 2.3.9; cf. Tenn. ' under plane or pine.' Fitzgerald, 
Rubaiyat, 12, ' A book of verses underneath the bough, | A jug 



BOOK II., ODE XL 269 

of wine, a loaf of bread and thou.' sic temere: oSrtas f'Krj, 
Plat. Gorg. 506 D. ; cf. Plat. Syinp. 176 E ; Verg. Aen. 9. 329, te- 
mere inter teJa iacentes. Munro on Lucret. 5. 970 ; supra, 1. 12. 7. 
The careless easy-going phrase contrasts with Quintius's strenuous 
mood. Cf. Thomson, Summer, ' on the dark-green grass . . . lie 
at large.' rosa: cf. 1. 38. 3. ; Herrick, 583, 'Bring me my rose- 
buds, drawer, come ; | So, while I thus sit, crowned ; | He drink 
the aged Cecubum, untill the roofe turne round.' 

15. Canos : Horace was praecamts. Cf. Epp. 1. 20. 24 ; Ode, 
3. 14. 25. The Pseudo-Anacreon frequently alludes to his K^UJJ 
\evKij. Cf. further Lovelace, ' When flowing cups run swiftly 

-round, | With no allaying Thames, | Our careless heads with roses 
crowned, | Our hearts with loyal flames.' 

16. dura licet : ' Gather ye rose-buds while ye may," 1 Herrick, 
208 ; cf. 4. 12. 26 ; 2. 3. 15. Assyria : cf. 2. 7. 8 ; 1. 31. 12 ; 3. 1. 44. 
Martial, 8. 77. 3, si sapis Assyrio semper tibi crinis amomo \ splen- 
deat, et cingant florea serta caput. 

17. dissipat: cf. 1. 18.4; 3.21. 16. n. ; 4. 12. 20; Theog. 883, 
rov iriviav dirb /Afv xaAeTrus (r/ceSaireis /j.e\efia>vas, Eurip. Bacch. 280. 
Euhius: cf. 1. 18. 9. n. 

18. edaces : cf. 1. 18. 4. n. quis : cf. 2. 7. 23. puer : (slave) 
boy : cf . 4>f'p' v8up 0p' olvov S> ircu, Anacr. fr. 63, 64. 

19. restinguet: cf. Shaks. Cor. 1. 1, ' A cup of hot wine with 
not a drop of allaying Tiber in't.' ardentis: cf. Juv. Sat. 4. 
138, cum pulmo Falerno arderet; 10. 27, et lato Setinum ardebit 
in auro. Eurip. Ale. 758, <f>\6% otvov. Plato, Laws, 666 A. 

21. devium: coy(?), way-ward, or dwelling apart, with eliciet 
softens the bluntness of scortum : lure the icayward wench. 

22-23. eburna : inlaid with ivory, t\f<f>avT65eros. Ar. Aves, 218. 
die age : 3. 4. 1. die . . . maturet : 3. 14. 21. 

23. in comptum : her hair bound back in(to~) a neat knot in 
the manner of a Spartan girl. Bentley, followed by several editors, 
reads incomptam . . . comam . . . nodo, which does just as well, 
but is unnecessary. For Spartan coiffure, cf. Propert. 4. 13. 28, 
est neque odoratae cura molesta comae. Ar. Lysist. 1316 ; Ov. 
Met. 8. 318 (Atalanta). For motif, cf. 3. 14. 21. 

Ronsard a son Page : ' Et dy k Barbe qu'elle vienne | Les che- 
veux tors & la fagon | D'une folatre Italienne.' 



270 NOTES. 



ODE XII. 

You would not have me adapt to the lyre's strains the wars of 
Rome and the mythical combats of Greece, O Maecenas. You 
yourself will more fitly narrate in prose story the exploits of 
Caesar. Me the muse bids sing of my lady Licymnia, her bright 
eyes, her singing, her dancing, her kisses dearer to thee than all 
the unspoiled treasures of Araby. 

Licymnia is said to stand for the capricious wife of Maecenas, 
Terentia (Schol. Sat. 1. 2. 64), as Clodia for Lesbia in Catullus, 
Delia for Plania in Tibullus, Cynthia for Hostia in Propertius. 
Cf. Apuleius Apol. 10; Prior, ' Euphelia serves to grace my 
measure, | But Chloe is my real flame.' But the Latin poets used 
metrical equivalents, as Pope did when he substituted Atticus for 
Addison. 

There is a translation in Dodsley's Poets, 4. 281. 

1. longa . . . Numantiae: 141-133 B.C., ended by Scipio 
Africanus Minor. For their desperate defense and final suicide 
en masse, cf. Floras, 2. 18. 15 ; Cervantes's play ; and Schopen- 
hauer's epigram. 

2. durum : so Mss.'; note antithesis with mollibus. Many read 
dirum. Cf. 3. 6. 36 ; 4. 4. 42 ; and Quintil. 8. 2. 9. 

3. Poeno . . . sanguine: In first Punic war at Mylae, B.C. 260, 
and Aegates Insulae, B.C. 242. Cf. 3. 6. 34. mollibus: cf. 1. 6. 
10, imbellisque lyrae. 

5-8. Cf. Spenser's Vergil's Gnat, 5-6, 'For not these leaves do 
sing that dreadful stound, | When giants' blood did stain Phlegraean 
ground, | Nor how th' half horsey people, Centaurs bight, | Fought 
with the bloody Lapithaes at board.' 

5. Lapithas : cf. on 1. 18. 8. nimium mero : cf. Tac. Hist. 
1. 35, nimii verbis ; 4. 23, rebus secundis nimii ; 1. 13. 10 ; 1. 36. 13. 

6. Hylaeus: cf. Verg. G. 2. 457, ct magno Hylaeum Lapithis 
cratere minantem. Herculea manu: cf. 1. 3. 36. The oracle 
had declared that the gods could subdue the earthborn giants 
(ynyevfTs) only with the aid of a mortal. Cf. on 3. 4. 42 sqq. 

7. unde : whence = from whom. Cf. 1. 12. 17 ; 2. 13. 16, 
aliunde; Sat. 1. 6. 12. 



BOOK II., ODE XII. 271 

8. fulgens . . . domus : cf. on 1. 3. 29 ; 3. 3. 33 ; Verg. Aen. 
10. 101 ; Munro on Lucret. 2. 1110; F. Q. 1. 5. 19, 'That shining 
lamps in Jove's high house were light.' contremuit : cf. 3. 4. 49; 
2. 19. 21 sqq. 

9. tuques emphatic, and thou virtually = but thou rather. 
Cf. que in 2. 20. 4. pedestribus : irffa \6yy. Cf. Plato, 
Sophist. 237 A. Horace is said to be the earliest Latin author 
to borrow the expression. Cf. Sat. 2. 6. 17, satiris musaque 
pedextri. 

10. proelia Caesaris: cf. Sat. 2. 1. 10; Epist. 2. 1. 250 sqq. 
We cannot infer that Maecenas actually treated these themes 
which Horace's modesty declines. 

11. ducta: in triumph. Cf. 1. 12. 54; 1. 2. 49; 4. 2. 50. 

12. colla : cf . Cons, ad Liviain, 273, aspiaam regum liventia 
colla catenis; Propert. 2. 1. 34, aut regum auratis circuindata colla 
catenis, | Actiaque in Swra currere rostra via. The whole passage 
is in the vein of this ode. minacium : sc. before the battle. 
Cf. 2. 7. 11 ; 4. 3. 8, quod regum tumidas contiiderit minas. 

13. me: cf. on 1. 1. 29; 4. 1. 29. dominae: domina under 
the empire came to = Mrs., madam, my lady. It also belonged to 
the lover's vocabulary 'my queen.' A self-respecting Roman 
could use the term where dominus would have been servile. 
Licymniae : Terentia, if she is meant, was the half-sister of L. 
Licinius Murena. Cf. on 2. 10. Maecenas is apparently a bache- 
lor in the Epodes, but was married at the time of Murena' s fall. 
Cf. Sueton. Aug. 66. A modern gentleman would hardly write in 
this style of his friend's wife. But Terentia's coquetry was com- 
mon gossip. Cf. Dio. 54. 19 ; Sen. de Prov. 3. 10, morosae uxoris 
cotidiana repudia. 

14. lucidum: adverbial. Cf. 1. 22. 23; 2. 19. 6; 3. 27. 67. 
So Homer, II. 2. 269. 

15. bene : preferably with fidum. Cf. Cicero ad Att. 14. 7, 
litterae bene longae. So in French bien long. Verg. Aen. 2. 23. 
has male fida. 

17. ferrepedem: cf. Verg. G. 1. \\, fertesimul Faunique pedem 
Dryadesque puellae. dedecuit : litotes ; it became her well (Ov. 
Am. 1. 7. 12). A Roman lady might so condescend at a religious 
solemnity. Cf. A. P. 232, ut festis matrona moveri iussa diebus. 



272 NOTES. 

Or she may have danced and sung in private in the relaxation of 
the old Roman severity. Cf. on. 3. 6. 21 sqq. 

18. nee certare: recurs, 4. 1. 31. ioco: in light talk. dare 
bracchia : the arms were the chief feature in ancient dancing. 

19. ludentem : ira(ov<Ta.v. Cf. Verg. Eel. 6. 28. nitidis: in 
holiday attire. Cf. Tibull. 2. 5. 7, sed nitidus pulcherque veni. 
virginibus : dat. with dare. 

20. Dianae Celebris: lit. of thronged Diana. Cf. Tibull. 4. 4. 
21, iam celeber iam laetus eris ; Ov. Met. 1. 446; Lucret. 5. 1166, 
delubra deum . . . festis celebrare diebus. 

21. Achaemenes: eponymous ancestor of kings of Persia 
(Herod. 7. 11). Cf. 3. 1. 44. Cf. on 3. 9. 4. 

22. Mygdonias: a sonorous tautology for Phrygian. Cf. on 
1. 17. 22 ; 3. 16. 41 ; Homer, II. 3. 186. Midas, whose touch turned 
all to gold, was king of Phrygia. 

23. permutare veils : cf . Sappho, fr. 85 ; an old French poem 
in Moliere, Le Misanthrope, 1. 2, ' Si le roi m'avoit donne | Paris, 
sa grand' ville,' etc.; Aristaen. 1. 10; Catull. 45. 22. crine : 
' Beauty draws us with a single hair,' but the singular is probably 
collective here. Cf. 1. 32. 12. 

24. Arabum : cf. 1. 29. 1-3 ; Verg. G. 2. 115 ; Propert. 3. 1. 16, 
et domus intactae te tremit Arabiae. plenas : cf. 4. 12. 24. 

25. detorquet ad: so that they fall on her neck (Kiesslinp,), 
or on her mouth (Orelli) non nostrum inter vos. For caesura, 
cf. 1. 18. 16; 1. 37. 5. 

26. facili saevitia: playful cruelty; oxymoron. Cf. on 
3. 11. 35. 

27. poscente : Epist. 1. 17. 4.1, pins poscente ferent. gaudeat: 
subj. as giving reason for facili saevitia. 

28. rapere: snatch. occupet: cf. on 1. 14. 2. 



ODE XIII. 

Humorously exaggerated imprecations on a tree of the Sabine 
farm that barely missed the owner's head in its fall (1-12). Death 
comes when least expected, and no man knows the shape he will 
take (12-20). Narrowly has the poet escaped the dark realm of 



BOOK II., ODE XIII. 273 

Proserpina, where Aeacus sits in judgment, and Sappho and Alcaeus 
sing strains that charm the shades to silence and 'stay the rolling 
Ixionian wheel, and numb the furies' ringlet snake ' (20-40). 

For the incident, cf. 2. 17. 27 ; 3. 4. 27 ; 3. 8. 7. The probable date 
is B.C. 30. Cf. on 1. 26. There is a translation by Richard Crashaw. 

1-4. ille . . . ilium : guide the curse. ' He both planted thee 
on an unlucky day, whoever it was that planted thee in the begin- 
ning, and with a wicked hand reared thee for the destruction of 
posterity and the shame of the village.' 

1 . lief asto : for technical and popular meanings of the word, cf. 
Lex. s.v. 

2. sacrilega : in vague abusive sense. 

3. in : cf. 4. 2. 56. 

5. ilium et : the effect is, he, too, I am ready to believe, rather 
than, et . . . et, both . . . and. crediderim : perf. subj. of 
cautious assertion. 

6. fregisse cervicem : strangled. Cf. Epode 3. 1-2 ; Sail. Cat. 
55, frangere gulam laqueo. 

6-8. penetralia . . . nocturne . . . hospites : aggravate the 
horror. 

8. Colcha : i.e. Colchica, which some read. We have to choose 
between an exceptional hiatus, or an exceptional elision. Medea 
was the typical venefica. Cf. Epode 3. 10 ; 17. 35. 

10. tractavit: handled, dealt in (1. 37. 27). A slight zeugma. 
Cf. Epode 3. 8 ; Shaks. As You Like It, 5. 1, ' I will deal in poison 
with thee, or in bastinado, or in steel.' 

11. triste lignum: sorry log. Cf. 3. 4. 27, devota arbor. ca- 
ducum : ready or destined to fall. Cf . 3. 4. 44. 

12. immerentis: cf. on 1. 17. 28; Epode 6. 1. 

13. The special danger he should shun is never sufficiently 
guarded against for man from hour to hour. quid . . . vitet : 
represents the direct quid vitem. quisque : by Latin idiom keeps 
close to the relative. 

14. in boras : after analogy of in dies. The general proposition 
is followed by particular examples the sailor, the soldier, the 
Parthian. Bosporum : a typical dangerous strait. Cf. 3.4. 30; 
2. 20. 14. 

T 



274 NOTES. 

15. Poenus : a typical navigator ; but Thoenus = Thynus has 
been conjectured. 

15-16. ultra and aliunde: may be loosely pleonastic, or we 
may explicitly distinguish, that past . . . from any other quarter. 
The latter is facilitated by Lachman's timetve, which removes the 
irregular quantity timet, for which see 1. 3. 36 ; 2. 6. 14. 

16. caeca: like caeca saxa, not caeca fortuna. Cf. 3. 27. 21. 

17. miles: sc. Italus, Romanics. sagittas: cf. Catull. 11.6, 
sagittiferosve Parthos Shakspeare's 'darting Parthia.' celerem 
fugam: cf. 2. 7. 9, 4. 8. 15 for the phrase, and 1. 19. 11 for the 
thought. 

19. robur : the dungeon of the Tullianum (cf. Lex. s.v. II. A 2), 
or possibly the strength of the Italian youth. improvisa: em- 
phatic, when they least expect it. 

19-20. The conclusion in general terms. 

20. rapuit rapiet : so it has been and so it will be. 

21. quam paene: cf. Martial, 1. 12. 6 ; 6. 58. 3, quam paene 
tibi Stygias ego raptus ad undas. furvae: a transferred epithet. 
Cf. Propert. 5. 11. 5, fuscae deus audiat aulae. regna: cf. 3. 4. 
46. PrSserpinae: so Sen. Here. Fur. 549, vidisti Siculae regna 
Proserpinae. Elsewhere Proserpina. Cf. 1. 28. 20. 

22. For Aeacus (son of Zeus and Aegina and Eponym of the 
Aeacidae) as judge of the dead, cf. Plato, Gorg. 524 A. 

23. discriptas: appointed, allotted; others prefer discretas, 
the blest seclusion of the good. Cf. Verg. Aen. 8. 670, secretosque 
pios. In the following picture of the world below, Horace blends 
suggestions from many passages in Greek literature from Pindar 
and Plato (Apol. 41) down. 

24. Aeoliis : the dialect of Lesbos. querentem : Sappho, fr. 
41, and Swinburne's Sappho, 'singing | Songs that move the heart 
of the shaken heaven, | Songs that break the heart of the earth 
with pity, | Hearing to hear them.' 

25. Sappho : Greek accus. 

25-28. Cf. Ronsard, ' De 1'election de son Sepulchre ; | La 1& 
j'oirray d'Alcee | La lyre courroucee, | Et Sapphon qui sur tous | 
Sonne plus doux.' 

26. aonantem: so Ovid (?), Heroid. 15. 30, quamvis grandius 
ille sonet. 



BOOK II., ODE XIII. 275 

26-27. atireo . . . plectro : Find. Nem. 5. 24, xP vff *V v\d^rpai ; 
Quintil. 10. 1. 63, Alcaeus in parte operis aureo plectro merito dona- 
tur. Cf. on 1. 26. 11, and for Alcaeus, 1. 32. 5. n. 

28. fugae: exile; but Herod. 5. 95 mentions his flight from 
battle. 

29. silentio : cf. Milton's ' Worthy of sacred silence to be 
heard.' Cf. 3. 1. 2. 

30. dicere : the infinitive of direct perception, for which the 
participle is more usual. magis : the multitude prefers the 
themes of Alcaeus, his invective against the tyrants in his trra- 

fflUTtKO.. 

31. exactos : cf. on 2. 4. 10. 

32. densum : cf. spissa ramis, 2. 15. 9 ; spissae . . . coronae 
('ring'), A. P. 381 ; Tenn. Morte D' Arthur, 'That all the decks 
were dense with stately forms.' umeris : cf. ' a press | Of snowy 
shoulders thick as herded ewes '(Tenn. Prin.). bibit: cf. Propert. 
4. 5. 8, suspenses auribus ista bibam; Ov. Trist. 3. 5. 14; and 
Rosalind's ' I prythee take the cork out of thy mouth that I may 
drink thy tidings' ; Othello, 1. 3, ' with a greedy ear | Devour up 
my discourse ' ; Verg. Aen. 4. 359. 

33. stupens : spell-bound. 

34. demittit : droops, cf. xa*<*|a'* of the plumage of the eagle 
(Pindar, Pyth. 1. 6). centiceps: Cerberus has three heads gen- 
erally, fifty in Hesiod, one hundred in Pindar. Possibly Horace is 
thinking of the hundred snakes that enwreathe his head, 3. 11. 17. 

35-36. intorti . . . angues: cf. Aeschyl. Choeph. 1048; Catull. 
64. 193 ; Verg. Georg. 4. 481, quin ipsae stupuere domus atque intima 
Lett | Tartara caeruleosque implexae crinibus anguis \ Eumenides, 
tenuitque inhians tria Cerberus ora; Pope, Ode on St. Cecilia's 
Day, IV., 'But hark ! he strikes the golden lyre ; j And see ! the 
tortured ghosts respire ! | See shady forms advance ! | Thy stone, 
O Sisyphus, stands still, | Ixion rests upon his wheel, | And the 
pale spectres dance. | The Furies sink upon their iron beds, | And 
snakes uncurled hang listening round their heads ' ; Dryden, ' Hear 
ye sullen powers below,' ' Music for a while | Shall your cares 
beguile | . . . Till Alecto free the dead | From their eternal 
bands ; | Till the snakes drop from her head, | And whip from out 
her hands' ; Green: Dyce, Vol. II., p. 237. 



276 NOTES. 

37. quin et : cf. 1. 10. 13; 3. 11. 21. Prometheus : Horace 
here as 2. 18. 35; Epode 17. 67 represents Prometheus as de- 
tained in Tartarus, contrary to all other versions of the myth. 
Felopis parens: cf. 1. 28. 7; Epode 17. 65; Ody. 11. 582; 
Sat. 1. 1. 68. 

38. laborem decipitur: apparently a passive of decipere, fallere 
laborem. Many read laborum, beguiled out of, away from, K\fTrre- 
T0(. Cf. on 2. 9. 17. 

39. curat : cf. Verg. Aen. 6. 654, quae euro, nitentes | pascere 
equos, eadem sequitur tellure repostos. Orion: the Greek Nim- 
rod. In Ody. 11. 573 he hunts over the meadow of Asphodel the 
shades of the beasts he slew in the upper world. 

40. lyncas : cf. 4. 6. 34. 

ODE XIV. 

' For of all gods death only loves not gifts ; | Nor with burnt offer- 
ing nor blood sacrifice | Shalt thou do aught to get thee grace of 
him ; | He will have naught of altar and altar-song, | And from him 
only of all the lords in 'heaven | Persuasion turns a sweet averted 
mouth' (Swinb. after Aesch., fr. Niobe). 

In vain we shun the battlefield, the storm-tossed Adriatic, and 
the fever-laden autumn breeze. ' Cocytos named of lamentation 
loud ' we all shall see at last. One day thou must bid farewell to 
earth and the wife so dear, and of all the trees whose growth thou 
watchest, only the ' Cypress funeral,' shall go with thee to the 
grave. Then shall the 'hard heir stride about thy lands,' and the 
spilth of thy hoarded Caecuban stain thy marble floors. 

Postumus is unknown : perhaps merely typical. Cf. Martial, 
2. 23, non dicam, licet usque me rogetis, quis sit Postumus in meo 
libello ; Juv. Sat. 6. 28, uxorem, Postume, duds; Pro pert. 4. 11, 
is addressed to a Postumus. 

This ode with 4. 7 is Horace's consummate expression of the 
eternal commonplace of death. Cf. 1. 4. 13; 1. 9. 17 ; 1. 11. 7 ; 
1. 24. 15 ; 1. 28. 15 ; 2. 3. 5 ; 2. 3. 20 ; 2. 13. 20 ; 2. 18. 31 ; 3. 24. 
8 ; 4. 7 ; 4. 12. 26 ; 3. 2. 15. 

Students may choose between the admiration of Matthew Arnold, 
who shortly before his death selected this as one of his tw favorite 
poems, and the censure of Buecheler (Rhein. Mas. N. F. 37, p. 234), 



BOOK II., ODE XIV. 277 

who thinks it is proved a youthful effort by ' den krass mythologi- 
schen Ton, die breiten griechischen Reminiscenzen, die Neigung 
zum Hyperbolischen, einige Sprachliche Harten oder Verwe- 
genheiten ' (inlacrimabilis, enaviganda, carebimus, merum potius 
cents). One would like to hear his opinion of Gray's Elegy. 

There is a translation by Edwin Arnold. Imitated by Congreve, 
Johnson's Poets, 10. 278, and by Sir Wm. Jones, ibid. 18. 445. 
Cf., also, Austin Uobson's amusing skit, 'Ah ! Postumus, we all 
must go'; Villon's, 'mort, j'appelle de ta rigueur' ; Herrick, 
337. 1-2, ' Ah Posthumus ! our yeares hence flye, | And leave no 
sound ; nor piety, | Or prayers or vow | Can keepe the wrinkle from 
the brow : | But we must on,' etc. ; Locker, To My Old Friend 
Postumus, ' Ay, all too vainly are we screen'd | From peril day and 
night ; | Those awful rapids must be shot, | Our shallop will be 
slight,' etc. 

1. Postume, Postume : emotional repetition. Cf. on 3. 3. 18 ; 
4. 4. 70. 

2. labuntur : Ov. Fast. 6. 771, tempora labuntur tacitisque 
senescimus annis. ' Le temps s'en va, le temps s'en va, ma dame 1 
Las! le temps non ; mais nous, nous en allons.' The 'gliding' 
and the flight of time do not make a mixed metaphor 'my days 
are gliding swiftly by | And I ... would not detain them as 
they fly !' pietas, etc. : cf. on 1. 24. IV; 4. 7. 24^ Omar Khay- \ 
yam, 71, 'The moving finger writes ; and having writ, | Moves on : 
nor all your Piety nor Wit | Shall lure it back to cancel half a 
Line, | Nor all your Tears wash out a Word of it.' 

3. instant! : cf. on 3. 3. 3; Mimnermus, 5. 6, r%>ar . . . virtpitpf- 
nerai ; Sen. Praef. Q. Nat. L. 3, premit a tergo (premat ergo ?} 
senectus; Hamlet, 5. 1, 'But age, with his stealing steps, | Hath 
caught me in his clutch.' 

4. indomitae : i.e. indomabili. Cf. 1. 24. 7, incorrupta; the 
ending -bilis is avoided. 'ASa/xaen-os (II. 9. 158), &\\UTTOS (Anth. 
Pal. 7. 643) ; inexorable, the Conqueror Death. Cf. nemo potest 
impetrare a Papa bullam numquam moriendi (Imitat. Christi). 

5. The meaning is three hecatombs a day. We need hot apply 
mathematics to the hyperbole. eunt : 4. 5. 7 ; Epp. 2. 2. 55, 
anni . . . euntes. 



278 NOTES. 

6. amice : 2. 9. 5. places : conative. inlacrimabilem . 
active; 4. 9. 26 passive. Cf. aSaxpuros, flebilis, 4. 2. 21 and 
1. 24. 9; tutela, 4. 14. 43 and 4. 6. 33. For thought, cf. Milt. 
II Pens., 'drew iron tears down Pluto's cheek;' Sen. Here. Fur. 
582, deflent et lacrimis dijficiles dei. 

I. ter amplum : Tpurt&naTov (Eur. Here. Fur. 423); Lucret. 5. 
28, tripectora tergemini vis Geryonai ; Verg. 6. 289, forma tricor- 
poris umbrae. 

8. Geryonen : see Lex. and Verg. Aen. 8. 201 sqq. Heywood, 
Love's Mistress, ' Wert thou more strong than Spanish Geryon | 
That had three heads upon one man.' Tityon : cf. 3. 4. 77; 
3. 11. 21 ; 4. 6. 2 ; Odyss. 11. 576 ; Verg. Aen. 6. 595 sqq. ; Tibull. 

1. 3. 75, porrectusque novem Tityos per iugera terrae. They were 
big and burly, but death was stronger. Lucret. 3. 1030 sqq. points 
a similar moral with Xerxes, the Scipios, and Homer. tristi : 
Verg. G. 4. 479, inamabilis unda. 

9. compescit : Verg. G. 4. 480, navies Styx interfvsa coercet ; 
Lucan, 9. 2, nee cinis exiguus tantam compescuit umbram. 
unda : 2. 20. 8. scilicet : the wave which must in very deed. 
omnibus : 3. 1. 16 ; 1. 28. 15 ; 2. 3. 25. 

10. munere : the bounty of (mother) earth. Cf. II. 6. 142 ; 
Simon, f r. 5 ; ' The gods do not eat grain nor drink the ruddy wine, 
wherefore also they are immortal,' says Homer. For idea in 
munus, cf . Comus, ' Wherefore did Nature pour her bounties forth | 
With such a full and unwithdrawing hand ? ' 

II. enaviganda : an Horatian innovation e, to the further 
shore. 

11-12. sive . . . sive: 2. 3. 5, 6. 

11. reges : lords of lands, lords and masters, not necessarily 
kings. (Cf. 1.4. 14; Juv. Sat. 1. 135; 7. 45.) Contrasted with 
coloni, tenant farmers (1. 35. 6). Cf. 2. 18. 33-4. 

13. frustra : cf. 2. 13. 13 sqq. carebimus : cf. on 2. 1. 36; 

2. 10. 7. 

14. fractis : 'the breaking waves dashed high.' rauci : cf. 
Arnold, 'saw the hoarse boughs labor in the wind.' 'Hoarse 
torrent. ' 

15. autumnos : still dangerous at Rome, 3. 23. 8 ; Sat. 2. 6. 19 ; 
Epp. 1. 7. 5 sqq. ; 1. 16. 16. 



BOOK II., ODE XIV. 279 

16. corporibus : with both nocentem and metuemus. au- 
strum : the Sirocco from the Sahara. Cf. Shelley's ' wind-walking 
pestilence.' 

17. ater: cf. on 2. 3. 16; 2. 13. 34; 1. 28. 13; 4. 12. 26. 
flumiiie, etc. : meandering with sluggish flow. Cf. Verg. G. 4. 
478 ; Aen. 6. 131. Find. fr. 107, 0\nxp3i . . . irora/xoi. 

18. Danai genus : cf. on 3. 11. 23 sqq. 

19. longi : gen. of the sentence. G. L. 378. 3. For the word, 
cf. on 3. 11. 38 ; 2. 16. 30. Eccles. 12. 5, ' Man goeth to his long 
home.' 

20. Sisyphus: Epode 17. 68. The crafty king of Corinth. 
Odyss. 11. 593 sqq. ; F. Q. 1. 5. 35, 'And Sisyphus an huge round 
stone did reel | Against an hill, ne might from labor lin ' ; Long- 
fellow, Masque of Pandora, chorus of Eumenides ; Pseudo-Plat. 
Axiochus,371 E. Variously moralized, Lucret. 3. 995 sqq. ; Morris, 
Epic of Hades ; Ruskin, Queen of Air, 29. Aeolides : II. 6. 154. 

21. liuquenda tellus : cf. the exquisite dirge in Lucret. 3. 894 
sqq. ; the Earth Song in Hamatreya, Emerson. Nero, 4, 7, 
' Hither you must and leave your purchased houses, | Your new- 
made garden and your black-browed wife : | And of the trees 
thou hast so quaintly set | No one but the displeasant Cypress 
shall | Go with thee.' Gray, ' Left the warm precincts of the cheer- 
ful day.' placens. 3. 7. 24 ; Ov. A. A. 1. 42, elige cui dicas l tu 
mihi sola places. 1 

22. colis : Petronius about to end his life changed the position 
of his funeral pyre that it might not injure a favorite tree (Tac. 
Ann. 11. 3). 

23. invisas: by association with death (1. 34. 10). Cf. Verg. 
Aen. 6. 216 ; Epode 5. 18 ; Lucan, 3. 442 ; Ov. Met. 10. 141 ; F. Q. 
1.1.8; Browning, Up in a Villa, ' Except yon Cypress that points 
like death's lean lifted forefinger.' ' They brought a bier and hung 
it | With many a Cypress crown ' (Macaulay, Virginia). 

24. brevem : 6\iyoxpviov, Lucian, Nigr. 33. Cf. 1. 36. 16 ; 1. 4. 
15; 2. 3. 13; Macbeth, 5. 5, 'Out, out, brief candle'; Shelley, 
Liberty, 19, ' As a brief insect dies with dying day' ; Tenn. 'Our 
brief humanities.' Man is ' sick for the stubborn hardihood ' of the 
tree that outlives him. See Tenn. In Mem. 2. 

25. absumet : cf. Epp. 1. 15. 27. heres : Ecclesiastes 2. 18, 



280 NOTES. 

' Yea, I hated all my labor which I had taken under the sun : be- 
cause I should leave it unto the man that shall be after me.' For 
the perpetual moral of the 'heir,' cf. on 4. 7. 19 ; 3. 24. 62 ; 2. 3. 
20 ; Epp. 1. 5. 13 ; 2. 2. 175 ; 2. 2. 191 ; Pers. Sat. 6. 60-65. - 
dignior : ironically pointing the Epicurean moral he knows the 
use of wealth. Cf. 3. 24. 61. n. 

26. centum : so 2. 16. 33 ; 3. 8. 14. 

27. tinguet: Timon of Ath. 2. 2, 'when our vaults have wept| 
With drunken spilth of wine ' ; Cic. Phil. 2. 105, natabant pavi- 
menta vino madebant parietcs ; Petron. 38. superbo : we speak 
of a generous liquor ; but it is conceivably an hypallage for super- 
bus. The wine, too, outlasts the man. Hortensius left 10,000 
casks of Chian in his cellars. Cf. Petron. 34, complosit Tri- 
malchio manus et ' eheu ' inquit ' ergo diutius vivit vinurn quam 
homuncio.' 1 

28. pontificum : their banquets proverbially splendid, 1. 37. 2 ; 
Martial, 12. 48. 12. potiore cents: comparatio compendiaria. 
Cf. 2. 6. 14 ; II. 17. 51, 'Locks like the Graces.' 



ODE XV. 

One of those diatribes against luxury which were a standing 
commonplace in the rhetorical literature of the Romans. Cf . Odes 
3. 6 ; Sail. Cat. 12. 13 and 20; Petron. Sat. 119 ; Manilius, 5. 374; 
Gratius Cyneget. 312 sqq. ; Lucan, 1. 170 ; Tac. Ann. 3. 53 ; 
Martial, 3. 47. 58 ; Sen. Contr. 5. 5. 

It was a cherished object of Augustus' policy to foster Italian 
agriculture, ruined by latifundia, slave labor, the decay of the 
peasantry, and the competition of Sicily and Africa. Cf. Vergil's 
complaint, squalent abditctis arva colonis (G. 1. 507), and his allur- 
ing picture of the delights of the farmer's life (ibid. 2. 457-510). 
Horace is less successful in this perfunctory, impersonal ode ; 
but he can do better. Cf. 3. 1-6. 

Palaces and fish ponds, useless shade trees, and flowery parterres 
are displacing the vine and olive. Our fathers roofed their homes 
with turf and built their temples of marble. But we have changed 
all that. 



BOOK II., ODE XV. 281 

1. iam : soon. Cf. 1:4. 16. regiae: regales, royal. 

2. moles : piles. Cf . 3. 29. 10 ; The Deserted Village, ' Along 
the lawn where scattered hamlets rose | Unwieldy wealth and 
cumbrous pomp repose.' 

3. visentur : cf. 1. 37. 25 ; will meet the gaze, visere is often 
more convenient metrically than vldere. 

4. stagna: fish ponds, piscinae. Horace says they are larger 
than the Lucrine Lake (near Baiae) connected with Lake Avernus 
and converted into an artificial harbor, the Portus Julius, by Agrippa. 
Cf. A. P. 63. So Sen. Controv. 5. 5, naviyabilium piscinarnm freta. 
Cicero (ad Att. 1. 19. 6) uses piscinarios as a nickname for the 
degenerate nobles. platanus: 2. 11. 13; it was a shade tree, 
d,u<piAa4>T?s. Tennyson's ' broad-leaved platan.' Cf. Nux Elegeia, 
17, at postquam platanis sterilem praebentibus umbram \ uberior 
quavis arbore venit honos. Quintus Hortensius was said to water 
a favorite plane-tree with wine. caelebs : as contrasted with the 
ulmi maritatae, the ' vine-prop elm ' (Epode 2. 10). Cf. on 4. 5. 30, 
and Martial, 3. 58. 3, vidua; Ov. Met. 10. 92, 95, 100; Quintil. 
8.3. 8, sterilem piatanum . . . maritam ulmum. Cf. 2. 11. 13. 

5-8. Cambridge's version of this strophe (Johns. Poets, 18. 244) 
is a curiosity of literature : ' Now flowers disposed in various 
groups [ Dislodge those honors of your soups, | The tasteful rich 
legumes.' 

6. copia narium : store of (all that delights) the nostrils. Cf. 
Aelian's o^OaAju&ic iravfiyupts and his avOtcav . . . fls toprriv tyews 
(V. H. 13. 1); Wordsworth's 'cups the darlings of the eye'; 
Milton's ' Flora's earliest smells ' and his ' flowers that open now 
their choicest-bosomed smells kept for thee in store ' ; Juvenal, 
gustits elemcnta (11. 14). 

7. olivetis : abl. of place, or possibly personifying dative. Cf. 
3. 18. 14. The meaning perhaps is not that the trees are destroyed, 
but that the interspaces are sown with flowers and not with useful 
crops. 

9. spissa ramis : cf. densum humeris (2. 13. 32); umbrae 
enormes . . . lauris (Pliny). laurea : (arbor) = laurus. 

10. ictus : the strokes, arrows, darts of the sun. Cf . Lucretius' 
lucida tela din; Bo\a1s i)\lov (Eurip. Phoen. 169). 

11. praescriptum : sc. est. intonsi: cf. on 1. 12. 41; Tibull. 



282 NOTES. 

2. 1. 34, intonsis . . . avis. Catonis: the elder Cato the Censor, 
the type of old Roman austerity. Cf. 3. 21. 11. 

12. auspiciis: i.e. example; lit. chief command, guidance. 
13-14. Now it is just the reverse. Sail. Cat. 52, publice egesta- 

tem, privatim opulentiam. 

13. census: see Lex. brevis: i.e. the inventory is short. 
Cf. exiguus (Epist. 1. 1. 43); tennis (Epist. 1. 7. 56). 

14-16. No colonnade measured with ten-foot rods wooed (took, 
lay in wait for, 3. 12. 12) the cool (shady) north (ern breeze) for 
private (citizens') pleasaunce. Or privatis may be construed with 
decempedis. Cf. Verg. Eel. 1. 52, frigus captabis opacum ; Juv. 7. 
183, et algentem rapiat cenatio solem. For similar complaints and 
contrasts, cf. Demosth. Olyn. 3. 25 ; Cic. pro Flacco, 28, pro Mu- 
rena, 76, odit populus Romanus privatam luxuriam, publicam 
magnijicentiam diligit. 

17. fortuitum : the first that came to hand, die erste bests, 
wporux^v (Find. Pyth. 4. 35). caespitem : cf. Verg. Eel. 1.68, 
congestum caespite culmen; or perhaps the reference is to altars. 
Cf. on 1. 19. 13 ; Tibull. 2. 5. 100, caespitibus mensas caespiti- 
busque torum. 

18. leges : Horace could hardly have cited chapter and verse. 

19. iubentes : the laws which bade. 

20. novo: 3.1.45. Possibly fresh-hewn ; more probably of the 
marble, new and strange then, but familiar to modern luxury. 
Cf. on 2. 18. 3. Possibly a compliment to Augustus, the restorer of 
temples. Cf. on 3. 6. 2 ; ' " Brickwork I found thee and marble I 
left thee," their emperor vaunted ; | " Marble I thought thee, and 
brickwork I find thee!" the tourist may answer' (Clough); cf. 
Suet. Aug. 28. 

ODE XVI. 

Peace is the prayer of the storm-tossed sailor and of the Thracian 
mad with battle peace whose price is above purple and fine gold. 
For the consul's lictor cannot dispel the mob of passions that beset 
the soul. He only lives well who has 'the art to live on little with 
a cheerful heart.' Vainly we strive to forget 'in action's dizzying 
eddy whirled, the something that infects the world.' We cannot 
escape ourselves nor the cares that pursue us swifter than the east 



BOOK II., ODE XVI. 283 

wind. When happy, borrow no troubles of to-morrow, and temper 
adversity with slow, patient smile. There is a law of compensa- 
tion. Achilles had glory and an early death. Long-lived Titho- 
nus withered slowly in the arms of Aurora. A hundred herds 
low for thee, me fate hath dowered with my Sabine farm, a 
breath of the inspiration of the Greek, and the poet's scorn of 
scorn. 

Translated by Otway, Cowper, Hamilton, Johnson's Poets, 15. 
638, imitated by Jenyns, ibid. 17. 607, and Hughes, 10. 28. 

Poinpeius Grosphus is known only from Epistle 1. 12. 22-24, a 
letter of introduction to the Iccius of Odes, 1. 29. 

There was fighting in Thrace about B.C. 30. A plausible date for 
the ode is 29 or 28. 

1. otium : the Roman world was very tired and ready to accept 
arapa^ia as the chief good in life and politics. Seneca says of 
Augustus, de Brev. Vit. 5, omnis eius sermo ad hoc semper revolutus 
est ut speraret otium. l Deus nobis haec otia fecit,' 1 says the 
Vergilian shepherd of the firm ruler, qui cuncta discordiis civilibus 
fessa nomine principis sub imperium accepit ; Tac. Ann. 1.1. Cf. 
Renan, First Hibbert Lecture, Introd. Pax was the sailor's word. 
Cf. Plaut. Trinum. 837 ; Lucret. 5. 1229, non divum pacem votis adit 
ac prece quaesit \ ventorum pauidus paces animasque secundas ? 
patent! : alto, the open. 

2. prensus: i.e. deprensus. Cf. Verg. G. 4. 421 ; Lucret. 6. 429 ; 
Catull. 25. 13, deprensa navis in man vesaniente vento. 

3. condidit : so Verg. Aen. 6. 271, ubi caelum condidit umbra. 
certa: cf. Tibull. 1. 9. 10, ducunt instabiles sidera certa rates. 
Milton, Comus, ' Unmuffle, ye faint stars ' ; Tenn. Choric Song, 
'Eyes grown dim with gazing on the pilot stars.' 

5. bello furiosa : apfi/j.avijs, Sopi^vfis. Thrace was Mavortia 
terra (Verg. Aen. 3. 13). Cf. Gray, Progress of Poesy, 'On 
Thracia's hills the Lord of War | Has curb'd the fury of his car.' 

6. pharetra : cf. 3. 4. 35, pharetratus. decori : 3. 14. 7. 
7-8. venale : cf. 3. 14. 2, and for meter, 1. 2. 19. 

ft. nee : is read for neque to remove the only case of elision in 
the Adonic verse. 

9-12. A favorite moral of Latin poetry. Cf. Munro on Lucret. 
2. 25-50 ; Lucan, 4. 378 ; Sellar, p. 165. 



284 NOTES. 

10. summovet: technical of clearing a path through a mob. 
tumultus : the mob of passions ; mentis is emphatic. 

11. laqueata : 2. 18. 2, paneled. 

12. volaiites : like bats or obscene birds. Cf. Theog. 729, for 
wings of care. 

13. vivitur: passive (cf. the vivere parvo of Sat. 2. 2. 1), ab eo 
vivitur cui. Cf. Juv. 8-9, coram Le.pidis male vivitur. parvo : 
cf. Lucret. 5. 1118; Cic. de Fin. 2. 28 ; Lucan, 4. 377 ; Claud, in 
Rufin. 1. 215; Tibull. 1. 1. 25, contentus vivere parvo. 

14. salinum : almost proverbial. Cf. Pers. 3. 25, purum et sine 
labe salinum; Valer. Max. 4. 4. 3 ; Sen. de Tranq. An. 1. The 
family salt-cellar brightly polished is the one piece of silver on 
the frugal board of the man who knows, ' What and how great the 
virtue and the art | To live on little with a cheerful heart ' (Pope). 
splendet : cf. Epist. 1. 5. 23. tenui : cf. Epist. 1. 20. 20 ; Herrick 
337. 7, ' If we can meet, and so conferre, | Both by a shining salt- 
seller.' 

16. leves somnos: 2. 11. 8, facilem ; 3. 1. 22, lenis; Gray, 
Ode on Eton College, ' The slumbers light that fly the approach of 
morn.' cupido : always masc. in Horace. 

17. For sentiment, cf. Find. Nem. 11. 43; Bion. Idyll. 7. 8; 
Eurip. Bacchae, 395 ; Arnold, A Southern Night, ' We who pur- 
sue | Our business with unslackening stride, . . . and see all 
sights from pole to pole, | And glance, and nod, and bustle by ;| 
And never once possess our soul | Before we die.' brevi fortes : 
cf. on 1. 6. 9 ; but aevo goes with iaculamur. iaculamur : aim 
at, attempt. So ro^fvdv. 

19. sole cf. Verg. G. 2. 513, atque alio quaerunt patriam sub 
sole iacentem. Tenn. The Brook, ' Katie walks | Far off and holds 
her head to other stars. ' mutamus: sc. patria; cf. on 1.17.2. 
For moralizing on vain restlessness of travel, cf. Sen. de Tranq. 
An. 2; Emerson. Patriae: cf. Ovid Met. 9. 409, exul mentisque 
domusque, and Milton's 'Heaven's fugitives.' Theoc. 24. 127, 
(f>vyas Apyeos. 

20. ae quoque: cf. Epist. 1. 11. 27, caelum non animum mu- 
tant qui trans mare currunt. Sat. 2. 7. 112-110 ; Lucret. 3. lOtiO- 
1070 ; Sen. Dial. 9. 2. 14, sequitur se ipse et urget gravissimus 
comes. Epist. 28, tecum fuyis. Milton, ' nor from hell | One step 



BOOK II., ODE XVI. 285 

no more than from himself can fly | By change of place.' Byron, 
To Inez, ' What exile from himself can flee ? ' Emerson, Self- 
Keliance, ' I pack my trunk . . . and at last wake up in Naples, 
and there beside me is the stern fact, the sad self, unrelenting, 
identical, that I fled from.' fugit : gnomic. 

21-22. Cf. 3. 1. 39; Lucret. 2. 48 sqq. vitiosa : corking, fell ; 
strictly, morbid; cf. Epist. 1. 1. 85, vitiosa libido. nee . . . 
relinquit: i.e. ke.eps up with. 

23. Cf. Sen. Phaedra, 745, odor nubes glomerante Coro. Odor 
Euro, etc. Proverbial. Cf. Otto, p. 366 ; Burger, Lied vom braven 
Mamie, ' Die Wolken flogen vor ihm her, | Wie wann der Wolf die 
Herde scheucht.' 

25. laetus in praesens is, as it were, the condition of oderit, 
an emphatic nolit. Cf . 3. 8. 27. quod ultra eat, TO. xdppw, 
futura. 

26. lento: cf. lenteferre, etc., pladd, quiet. 

27-28. The commonplace of Emerson's Essay on Compensation, 
to be illustrated in 29 sqq. ab omni parti : cf. Quintil. 1. 2. 15, 
nam quid fere undique placet ? Bacchyl. 5. 54. 

29. clarum cita : Achilles says, II. 9. 412, ' If I abide here 
. . . then my returning home is taken from me, but my fame shall 
be imperishable.' Cf. II. 1. 505, wKu/moptaTarov &\\a>v. 

30. Tithonum : cf. 1. 28. 8 ; Mimnermus, fr. 4 ; Horn. Hymn 
in Ven. 220. As type of old age, Aristoph. Acharn. 688 ; Otto, 
p. 349. minuit : cf. Tenn. Tithonus, ' I wither slowly in thine 
arms.' Gray, 'slow-consuming age.' But longa here = unending, 
as 3. 11. 38; 2. 14. 19. 

31. et: and so. 

32. porriget: half personifies the glad hour (iro\vyr)9ijs, 11.21. 
450) ' that in a gracious hand appears to bear a gift for mortals 
old or young.' Cf. on 3. 29. 48 and 3. 8. 27. 

33-34. greges . . . vaccae : virtually a hendiadys. 

34. tibi tollit hinnitum: picturesque periphrasis for est tibi. 
Cf. 2. 15. 15. For elision at end of line, cf. 2. 2. 18. 

35. equa: mares were preferred for racing. Cf. Find. Pyth. 
2. 8 ; Verg. G. 1. 59 ; and if any one will try to write this strophe 
with equns, he will find them metrically preferable. te : cf. 
Martial, 2. 43. 3, Te Lacedaemonio velat toga lota Galaeso. bis : 



286 NOTES. 

SiBoHpa. Cf. Epode 12. 21, muricibus Tyriis iteratae vellera lanae', 
Epist. 2. 2. 181 ; Spenser, Vergil's Gnat, ' Ne cares he if the fleece 
which him arrays | Be not twice steeped in Assyrian dye.' For the 
murex, cf. Class. Diet, and 2. 18. 7. n. 

37. parva rura : the Sabine farm. Cf . Bacchylides, fr. 28. 

38. tenuem : as a term of literary criticism would mean ' re- 
fined,' ' delicate ' (Epist. 2. 1. 225) ; but it seems to be used in 
modest deprecation here. Cf. Burns, Epist. to James Smith, 
' The star that rules my luckless lot | Has fated me the russet 
coat, | And damned my fortune to the groat; | But in requit, | 
Has blest me wi' a random shot | O' countra wit.' 

39. non mendax: cf. C. S. 25, vosque veraces cecinisse Parcae. 
Persius, 5. 48, Parca tenax veri. Buecheler fancifully takes it 
'rightly named,' because sparing (parca) of her gifts. 

40. spernere : the scorn of scorn. He is invidia maior. 



ODE XVII. 

Maecenas, though a valetudinarian tormented by fever and 
insomnia, clung desperately to life (Pliny, N. H. 7. 172 ; Seneca, 
Epist. 101). Horace, toying with the astrological superstitions of 
the age to which Augustus and Maecenas were devoted (Sueton. 
Aug. 94 ; Dio. 52. 36), assures his friend that their horoscopes 
coincide, and that it is the will of Heaven that they be not divided 
in their death. The poet's prayer, ' that we may die the selfsame 
day,' was, in substance, granted. He died B.C. 8, not long after 
Maecenas, who in his last days wrote- to Augustus, Horatii Flacci 
ut mei memor esto. The allusion to the fall of the tree (27, cf. 
on 2. 13) makes it probable that the ode was written soon after 
B.C. 30. 

Cf. Tennyson's unfulfilled prayer (In Mem. 84): 'Thy spirit 
should fail from off the globe | What time mine own might also 
flee, | As linked with thine in love and fate.' 

1. exanimas : so occidis saepe rogando (Epode 14. 5); Enicas 
(Ter. And. 660); awoKrdvfiv (Eur. Hipp. 1064). Quintil. 8. 3. 32 
seems to object to the word which is used by Cic. pro Mil. 93. Cf. 



BOOK ii., ODE xvn. 287 

1 Carcasses exanimate ' (F. Q. 2. 12. 7); 'Be heir to those who are 
now exanimate ' (Sonnets from Port. 33). 

2. amicum : the Homeric <pi\oi> elvai their pleasure, their will. 

3. 8bire: cf. 3. 29. 11. 

4. decus: cf. 1. 1. 2. columen: cf. Tenn., 'the pillar of a 
people's hope' ; the 'pillar apostles'; Ter. Phorm. 287, columen 
vero familiae ; Catull. 64. 26 ; Homer's 'ipKos 'Axaitav ; Callinus, 20, 
irvpyov ; Archil, fr. 17, Na|ou . . . xlovas ; Alcaeus, fr. 23; Theognis, 
233 ; Pind. O. 2. 7 ; Eurip. Alcest. 311, etc. 

5. partem : cf. 1. 3. 8 ; Tenn. In Mem. 85, ' I, the divided half 
of such | A friendship as had master'd time ' ; Minuc. Felix, 1. 3, 
crederes unam mentem duobusfuisse divisam ; Tickell on death of 
Addison, ' Can I forget the dismal night that gave | My soul's best 
part forever to the grave ? ' ; and Villon's ' Deux estions et n'avions 
qu'ung coeur ; | S'il est mort, force est que devie.' rapit : 2. 13. 20. 

6. maturior : premature,, untimely. Cf. 1. 2. 48, odor. vis: 
2. 13. 20. 

7. cams: sc. mihi ipsi. Cf. Epist. 1. 3. 29, si patriae volumus 
si nobis vivere cari; Plato, Rep. 621 C, fifnv avroh <pi\oi, wrongly 
rendered by Jowett, ' dear to one another.' aeque : i.e. as before. 
So in Greek dfnoius. superstes: 3. 9. 12, Epode 1. 5, with both 
cams and integer. 

8. integer: because 'the divided half.' utramque : of both 
of us. 

9. ducet : not adducet, but dabit, faciet. Cf. Verg. Aen. 2. 466, 
trahere ruiiiam. non ego : cf. on 2. 7. 26. But non here is gen- 
erally taken with perfidum. 

10. dixi sacramentum : the technical term for soldier's oath 
(Caes. B.C. 1. 23). 

11. Utcumque : cf. on 1. 17. 10. supremum : TV vearav 68bv 
(Soph. Antig. 807). 

12. carpere: Sat. 1. 5. 95, carpentes iter; Verg. Georg. 3. 142, 
carpere prata fuga. 

13. Chimaerae: 1. 27. 24; 4. 2. 16; Verg. Aen. 6. 288. 
igneae : irvpTrvtovaav (Eurip. Ion, 203). Cf. 1. 17. 2; 3. 3. 10. 

14. si resurgat : were he to rise up to confront me from under 
the superincumbent mountains. Cf. 3. 4. 69-73. Gyas : the 
spelling of the Mss. varies. Editors generally read rvijr, not 



288 NOTES. 

in Hes. Theog. 149. Cf. 3. 4. 69, and Ov. Trist. 4. 7. 18, centi- 
manumque Gyan. 
15-16. sic ... placitum : cf. 1. 33. 10. 

16. iustitiae : cf. 1. 24. 6. AI'KTJ and Elptfvri are sisters of the 
Fates in lies. Theog. 902-904. But Horace is thinking also of 
Themis and of Sophocles' VVOIKOS ruv Kdria OeS>v AIKTJ (Antig. 451). 

17-22: whether Libra or the Scorpio, shape of fear, or Capri- 
cornus, tyrant of the western wave, be the predominant aspect of 
my natal hour, the stars of us twain consent in wondrous wise. 

17. Scorpios : lighters were born under this sign (Manil. 4. 220). 
For Libra, a propitious sign, cf. Manil. 4. 548. adspicit: the 
influence is present through life. The astrologers seem to have 
spoken technically of the stars aspecting each other at the birth ; 
but the notion of the star looking down on the birth like a deity 
was a natural development of this way of speaking. Cf. on 4. 3. 2. 

18. pars violentior : it is not quite clear whether this means 
simply 'as the predominant,' or more specifically 'as the malign' 
which may be counteracted by the more auspicious stars, such as 
Libra and Jupiter. 

19. tyrannus : cf. 1. 3. 15. But here the reference is to the 
assignment of particular constellations to particular quarters of 
the globe. Cf. Manil. 4. 791, tu, Capricorne, regis quidquid sub 
sole cadente \ expositum; Propert. 5. 1. 86. 

21. nostrum : gen. plur. For caesura, cf. on 2. 12. 25. 

22. consentit : cf . Persius' imitation, 5. 45, non eqnidem hoc 
dubites amborum foedere certo \ consentire dies et ab uno sidere 
duci Shaks. Hen. VI. 1. 1, 'the bad revolting stars | That have con- 
sented unto Henry's death ' ; Herrick, Hesp. 106, ' stars consenting 
with thy fate.' Hence, probably, Wordsworth's 'Twice seven 
consenting years. 1 astrum : cf. Epist. 2. 2. 187, scit genius natale 
comes qui temperat astrum. But Horace obviously does not take 
it seriously. 

23. tutelar of a deity. Cf. on 4. 14. 43; Tibull. 2. 5. 113. 
Technically of a constellation (Manil. 2. 334 ; 4. 698 et passim). 
Saturno : with both refulgens (cf. 1. 12. 28) and eripuit. Saturn 
a malign star ; Propert. 5. 1. 84, et grave Saturni sidus in omne 
caput. 

24. volucris : with alas. Fati : death. 



BOOK II., ODE XVIH. 289 

25. alas: cf. Sat. 2. 1. 58, sen Mors atris circumvolat alis; 
Eurip. Alcest. 260, -n-Ttpwrbs "Aidas ; Schol. Ale. 843 ; Gratius, 
Cyneg. 343 ; Byron, ' The angel of death spread his wings on the 
blast ' ; Matthew Arnold, ' death's winnowing wings ' ; Lessing, 
' Wie die Alten den Tod gebildet.' 

25-26. Cf. on 1. 20 ; Propert. 4. 9. 4, et manibus faustos ter 
crepnere sonos. 

26. crepuere : cf. on 1. 18. 6. 

27. truncus: cf. on 2. 13. inlapus : cf. 'The swift illapse | 
Of accident disastrous ' (Thomson, Summer). 

28. sustulerat: cf. on 3. 16. 3. Faunus : cf. 1. 17. 2. In 
3. 4. 27 it is the Muses, in 3. 8. 7 Liber, that saves the poet. 

29. Mercurialium : cf. 1. 10 and 2. 7. 13. Horace playfully 
wrests the word from its meaning of devotees of Mercury, god of 
gain (Sat. 2. 3. 25). 

30. reddere : cf. on 2. 7. 17. 

32. nos humilem : for similar contrast, cf. 4. 2. 53 and Ov. 
Trist. 1. 10. 43, nonfacit ad nostras hostia maior opes. 



ODE XVIII. 

Rape, congere, aufer, posside : relinquendum est. 

Martial, 8.44. 9. 

I have no marble halls and train of prosperous clients. I am 
content with my kindly poetic vein and my dear little Sabine 
estate. You, with one foot in the grave, continue to rear your 
seaside villas and evict your pauper tenants. But there is one 
' who builds stronger than a mason, a shipwright, or a carpenter,' 
the builder of the house of death. The impartial earth opens 
for pauper and prince alike. 

For the sentiments, cf. 1. 31. 2-6 ; 2. 16. 33-40 ; 3. 1. 40-47 ; 
3. 16. 17-43 ; 3. 29. 9-16 ; Bacehylides, fr. 28 ; Verg. Georg. 2. 461 
sqq. ; Tibull. 3. 3. 12 sqq. ; Propert. 4. 1. 49 sqq., etc. For free 
imitation of lines, 1-8, see Crashaw, Description of a Religious 
House, Ward's Poets, 2. 208. 

1. ebur : of the eburnum and aureum lacnnar (cf. 2. 16. 11) 
rather than of ivory tables. Cf. Propert. 4. 1. 50, nee camera 
u 



290 NOTES. 

auratas inter eburna trabes ; Bacchylides, fr. 27. 8, xP vffc i> 8> faffavn 
re fj.ap/j.aipoicnt> olKoi ; Lucret. 2. 27, nee domus argento fidget auroque 
renidet. 

3-4. No architraves of bluish-white marble of Mt. Hymettus rest 
on columns of Numidian giallo antico in my atrium. Cf. Martial, 
5. 13. 5 ; 9. 75. 7-9. 

3. Hymettiae : cf. ' Where with bright marbles big and future 
pomp, | Hymettus spread, amid the scented sky, | His thy my treas- 
ures to the labouring bee' (Thomson, Liberty). 

5. Attali : cf. 1. 1. 12. 

6. ignotus expresses the surprise of the windfall, occupavi the 
greedy haste of the heir. 

7. Laconicas : ' Vast heaps of the shells of the murex brandaris 
in Cythera and on the neighboring Laconian coast . . . demonstrate 
to this day the importance of the sea to Phoenician industry ' 
(Holm, Hist, of Greece}. Cf. on 2. 16. 36 ; Aeschyl. Ag. 958 ; Juv. 
8. 101, Spartana chlamys. 

8. trahunt has been understood of trailing robes (l^a-ri(av f\fis, 
<rvpfti>, traxitque per pulpita western, A. P. 215), and more simply 
spin, lanam trahere. The meaning is, ' I am not so high that my 
very clients are rich.' purpuras : cf. 3. 1. 42. 

9. at : the other side of the medal. Cf. 3. 7. 22. 

10. vena : probably a vein of ore. Cf. sine divite vena, Epist. 

2. 3. 409. But the Roman poets also thought of vena aquae. Cf. 
Ovid. Trist. 3. 14. 33 ; Auson. Mosella, 448, ast ego quanta met 
dederit se vena liquoris. For benigna, cf. Tenn. Edwin Morris, 
'But you can talk, yours is a kindly vein.' Cf. "Ercles' vein,' 
etc. pauperemque dives: cf. on 1. 6. 9; Sellar, p. 176. The 
Greeks rang the changes on the saying about the wise man going 
to the doors of the rich. For me petit, cf. on 2. 20. 6. 

12. amicum : Maecenas. Cf. nil amplius oro; Sat. 2. 6. 4. 

14. satis beatus: cf. Catull. 23. 27; .Epode 1. 31; Odes, 

3. 7. 3. uiiicis: cf. 3. 14. 5. Sabinis : sc. praediis. Cf. 3. 4. 22. 
Cf. Martial, 4. 77, numquam divitias deos rogavi. 

15. truditur: cf. onproterit, 4. 7. 9 ; urget, Epode 17. 25; sic 
vita truditur, Petron. Sat. 45 ; Otto, p. 112. 

16. And still (pergunt) the new moons only wax to wane. Cf. 

4. 7. 7. 



BOOK II., ODE XVIH. 291 

17. tu : cf. on 2. 9. 9. 

17-18. secanda . . . locas : allot to be cut let the contract 
for cutting (sc. to the redemptor, 3. 1. 35). The Romans affected 
to regard as a reprehensible luxury the use of cut marble slabs for 
paneling and wainscoting. Cf. Pliny, N. H. 36. 50. 

20. Bais : a famous Campanian watering-place near Naples. 
Cf. 3. 4. 24; Epist. 1. 1. 83. For villas built out into the water, 
cf. 3. 1. 33-38 ; Martial, 10. 30 ; Hare's Days near Rome. obstre- 
pentis : cf. 3. 30. 10. 

20-2 1 . urges submovere : (cf . urgere opus) press on to push 
out the shore line. 

22. continent!: prob. abl. abs. Variously taken as the 'con- 
fining,' the 'continuous,' and 'of the mainland.' Cf. Livy, 44. 28, 
continenti litore; Marlowe, Tamburlaine, 1. 1. 1, 'Africa and Europe 
bordering on your land, | And continent to your dominion.' 

23. quid quod : nay more, a prosaic transition. Cf. on adde 
quod, 2. 8. 17 ; 3. 1. 41 ; 3. 11. 21. usque : 'still.' Cf. 1. 17. 4. 

24. revellis : a picturesquely strong moves. The sanctity of 
landmarks in primitive times is well known. Cf. Proverbs 22. 10, 
11, 'Remove not the old landmarks, and enter not into the field 
of the fatherless ' ; Plato, Laws, 843 A. In Roman inscriptions 
curses are invoked on those who disturb the landmark. Terminus 
was a god. et ultra : so 4. 11. 29. 

25. clieiitiuin : fraus innexa clienti was the most heinous of 
crimes in Roman eyes. Patronus si clienti fraudem fecerit sacer 
esto (Twelve Tables). 

26. sails : cf. on revellis, supra. 
26-28. A picture of an eviction. 

27. in sinu : cf. Tac. Ann. 1. 40, incedebat . . . perfuga duds 
uxor parmilum sinujilium gerens. 

29-31. But no hall awaits the rich lord more surely than the 
appointed bourne of greedy Orcus. Fine (fern. Epode 17. 36) is a 
virtual synonym of aula which could not well be repeated, with 
the further implication that ' the vasty hall of death ' (cf. 3. 11. 16 ; 
Eurip. Alcest. 259) is our final home, mors ultima linea rerum est, 
Epist. 1. 16. 79 ; 0Wrojo TeAeu-Hj. It is quite unnecessary to con- 
strue destinata with aula, or with aula understood, and to inter- 
pret fine ' by the limit set by ' or ' in the confines of.' For the 



292 NOTES. 

thought, cf . Butler, ' Our noblest piles and stateliest rooms | Are 
but outhouses to our tombs ' ; Longfellow, ' For thee was a house 
built | Ere thou wast born.' 

30. rapacis : Tibull. 1. 3. 4 ; Catull. 3. 13, malae tenebrae \ 
Orci quae omnia bella devoratis ; Callim. Ep. 2, ap-n-axrrip. 

32. ultra: cf. 3. 29. 31, 'beyond the finis orci' ; beyond the 
little that life requires ; more generally, why strive to ' pass beyond 
the goal of ordinance ? ' aequa : cf. on 1. 4. 13. 

33. recluditur: 1. 24. 17. n. 

34. pueris . the resolution que pue in lyric iambics has been 
questioned. Dogmatism is out of place. satelles : 3. 16. 9, 
Charon. The force of nee, is felt with auro cap/us as well as with 
revexit. Cf. Epist. 2. 2. 178, si metit Orcus \ grandia cum parvis 
non exorabilis auro ; Theog. 727-728. 

35. Promethea ; cf. on 1. 16. 13; 2. 13. 37. callidum: 

JTOIKlAofJ.'/ITril'. 

36. hie is Orcus or Charon = death = Orcus. revexit: sc. 
across 'the unpermitted ferry's flow.' 

37-38. Tantali genus: Pelops, etc. Cf. 1. 28. 7; 1. 6. 8; 
2. 14. 18, Danai genus. 

38. coercet : cf. 2. 14. 9 ; Verg. Aen. 6. 439, noviens Styx inter- 
fusa coercet. levare : the zeugma of non vocatus audit is soft- 
ened by construing levare with audit = consents. functum : cf . 
2. 9. 13; 4. 15. 29; Epist. 2. 1. 22, suisque temporibus defuncta ; 
abs. Tac. Agric. 1, narraturo vitam defuncti hominis. 

39. For sentiment, cf. Aeschyl. fr. 255 ; Soph. O. C. 1220 ; 
Burns, 'Man was made to mourn': '0 Death, the poor man's 
dearest friend ' ; Praed, The Chant of the Brazen Head : ' I think 
poor beggars court St. Giles | Rich beggars court St. Stephen ; | 
And Death looks down with nods and smiles, | And makes the 
odds all even' ; F. Q. 2. 1. 59, ' "Palmer," quoth he, "death is 
an equal doonr| To good and bad, the common inn of rest." ' 

40. vocatus . . . audit: hearkens to the prayer. Cf. Shaks., 
'hearkens my brother's suit.' 



BOOK II., ODE XIX. 293 



ODE XIX. 

Horace pretends to have caught sight of Bacchus and his train 
on the lonely hillside. He affects the poetic frenzy of the dithy- 
ramb, and, with many allusions to Greek poetry and legend, 
affirms his right and inspiration to sing the attributes and exploits 
of the God of wine and song. 

Cf. 3. 25 ; Ovid. Met. 4. 17 sqq.; Propert. 4. 16 ; Ovid. Trist. 5. 3 ; 
and Fletcher's ' God Lyaeus ever young.' 

1. remotis : cf. 2. 3. 6. Bacchus and his train haunted solitary 
mountain tops. Cf. Soph. O. T. 1105, Antig. 1126; Dyer, Gods 
in Greece, pp. 112, 113 ; Anacreon, 2. 

2. docentem : even as Apollo teaches his choir the nine Muses. 
Cf. Pater, Study of Dionysus, pp. 10-11. credite poster!: 
Epode 9. \\,posteri negabitis. 

3. nymphaa : his nurses and playmates in Greek poetry. Cf . 
1. 1. 31 ; Soph. O. C. 678 ; Anacr. fr. 2. 

4. capripedum : cf. Lucret. 4. 580, haec loca capripedes Satyros 
nymphasque tenere \ finitimi fingunt ; Tenn. Lucretius, 'Catch her, 
goatfoot.' Pan is rpay6irovs, Simon, fr. 133, and the attribute is 
transferred by Roman poets from the Panisci to the Satyrs. Cf. 
Pater, Study of Dionysus, pp. 9-10. acutas : perhaps 'pricked 
up to. listen ' ; but cf. the question of the pointed ears in Haw- 
thorne's Marble Faun. 

5. euhoe: i.e. efiot Cf. 1. 18. 9, euhius; Juv. Sat. 7. 62, Satur 
est cum dicit Horatius euoe; Shelley, Prom., ' Like Maenads who 
cry loud euoe, euoe ' ; Verg. Aen. 7. 389, euoe Bacche fremens. 
trepidat : with the excitement of the vision. Cf. II. 20. 131 ; 
Verg. Aen. 4. 279 sqq. 

6. pleno : cf. 3. 25. 2; Ovid. Fasti, 6. 537. turbidum: TI&O- 
Xta^vov. Cf. on 2. 12. 14 ; 3. 27. 67. 

7. parce : the enthusiast at once courted and dreaded the mad- 
dening presence of the god. Cf. Catull. 63. 91-93 ; Verg. Aen. 6. 
77 sqq. 

8. metuende: cf. 1. 12. 23. thyrso: 'and our fingers must 
beware of the thyrsus, tossed about so wantonly by himself and 
his chorus. The pine-cone at its top does but cover a spear-point ! 



294 NOTES. 

and the thing is a weapon the sharp spear of the hunter Zagreus ' 
(Pater, Greek Studies, p. 60). Cf. Eurip. Ion, 216. But gram 
may refer to the madness caused by its touch. 

9. fas: the vision brings authentic inspiration. Cf. Ov. Fasti, 
6. 7, Fas mihi praecipue voltus vidisse deorum, etc. pervicaces : 
untiring, persistent. Cf. 3. 3. 70 ; Epode 17. 14. Thyiadas : 
from 0v<a, to rave, a synonym of Maenad, Bacchante, Bassarid, 
Euiad, etc. 

10-12. For similar miracles of Bacchus, cf. Eurip. Bacchae, 141. 
708 ; Plato, Ion, 534 A ; Propert. 4. 16. 20 sqq. ; Fletcher, ' From 
thy plenteous hand divine | Let a river run with wine.' Cf. Exod. 
3. 8 ; Hesiod, Works, 232 ; Verg. Eclog. 4. 30. 

12. iterare : rehearse, tell, renew the fact in speech. 

13. beatae : deified. coniugis : Ariadne. Cf . Apoll. Rhod. 

3. 1002, a.ffTfp6ets tTTftyavos T^V re K\fiovcr' 'ApidSvTjs ', Mrs. Brown- 
ing's How Bacchus comforts Ariadne (from Nonnus), ' But I will 
wreathe thee, sweet, an astral crown | And as my queen and spouse 
thou shalt be known'; Ov. Fasti, 3. 459; Heroides, 6. 115; Sen. 
Here. Fur. 18 ; Propert. 4. 16. 8 ; Ov. Met. 8. 176 ; Verg. G 1. 222. 

14. honorem : Verg. Aen. 7. 814, regius . , . honos. Penthei : 
the Bacchae of Euripides describes the punishment of King Pen- 
theus of Thebes for his impious resistance to the introduction of 
the worship of the new god. His palace was thrown down by an 
earthquake (633), and he was torn in pieces by his mother and 
sisters in their Bacchic frenzy (Theoc. 26). Cf. Pater, Greek 
Studies, pp. 68, 74. Horace moralizes the tale (Epistle 1. 16. 73). 
Cf. Ov. Met. 3. 511. 

15. nonleni: 1. 24. 17; 1. 18. 9. 

16. Lycurgi: Homer, II. 6. 130 sqq., 'Nay moreover even 
Dryas' son mighty Lykurgos was not for long when he strove 
with heavenly gods, he that erst chased through the goodly land 
of Nysa the nursing-mothers of frenzied Dionysos. . . . Then 
IMonysos fled and plunged beneath the salt sea-wave. . . . But 
with Lykurgos the gods that live at ease were wroth, and Kronos' 
son made him blind, and he was not for long, because he was 
hated of all the immortal gods.' Cf. Soph. Antig. 955; Propert. 

4. 16. 23. Aeschylus wrote a play on the theme. 

17. flectia : tamest avoids zeugma with mare. amnes : he 



BOOK II., ODE XIX. 295 

dried the Hydaspes and the Orontes, by the touch of his thyrsus, 
in the expedition to India. mare : cf. Sen. Here. Fur. 907, 
adsit Lycurgi domitor et rubri marts (the Indian Ocean). 

18. separatis = remotis. uvidus: cf. 1. 7. 22; 4. 5. 39; 
Eurip. El. 326, 0pf X 0(is- 

19. viperino : cf. Catull. 64. 258, pars sese tortis serpentibus 
incinytbant. 

20. sine fraude: i.e. without harming them. Cf. C. S. 41; 
an archaism found in Twelve Tables (se fraude) and in Livy 
(1. 24. 5), and imitated by Milton several times; e.g. 'To draw 
the proud king Ahab into fraud.' 

21-32. His defense of heaven against the giants (a post-Homeric 
legend), and his descent into hell to fetch his mother Semele. 

21. parentis: 1. 12. 13. regna : the plural magnifies (1. 4. 
18 ; 2. 13. 21 ; 3. 4. 46), but is resorted to largely metri gratia 
(4. 14. 26). 

22. scanderet : Pindar, fr. 162, actually speaks of a ladder. 
Cf. on 2. 12. 7 and 3. 4. 42 sqq. 

23. Rhoetum : a giant whose name is selected for alliterative 
effect. Cf. 3. 4. 55. 

24-25. He assumed the form of a lion, as in Hymn. Horn. 7. 44. 
25. quamquam : with ferebaris, of which aptior dictus gives the 
reason. For Liber fit for war, cf. 1. 12. 21. n. 
27. sed idem : if idem is used idiomatically, as in 2. 10. 22 and 

3. 12. 10, medius must = arbiter, minister, or equally adapted to. 
If idem is the predicate, we construe, ' but thou wast the same in 
the midst of peace and of war. ' 

29. iiisons : harmless to thee. 

30. cornu : the reference is rather to the golden horn of wine 
with which he propitiates Cerberus and the beasts than to the 
horns often attributed to him by the poets (Tibull. 2. 1. 3 ; Propert. 

4. 16. 19 ; Orphic Hymn 52. 2). 

30-31. atterens caudam: <raiv<av, adulans, 'wagging.' Cf. 
Gildersleeve on Find. O. 4. 4 ; Theoc. 6. 30. 

31. trilingui: triple-beaded and triple- tongued is all one reck 
oning, 'save the phrase is a little variations.' 

32. tetigitque : for que, cf . on 1. 30. 6. 



296 NOTES. 



ODE XX. 

Horace prophesies in a somewhat artificial poetic frenzy his own 
immortality. He is to be translated into a ' tempest-cleaving swan 
of ' Italy, and will be known to all the peoples of the earth. Let 
no one weep for him or celebrate vain obsequies. 

For motif, cf. 3. 30 ; 4. 3 ; Alcman, fr. 118. For transformation 
of poet to swan, cf. Plato's Repub. 020 a; Eurip. fr. 911. For 
bard = bird, cf. 1.6.2; Find. 01. 2. 96 ; Theoc. 7. 47 ; Verg. Eel. 
9. 35, and 4. 2. 25. n. Ben Jonson's ' Sweet swan of Avon.' 

1. non usitata : cf. Epode 5. 73. Cf. Milton's 'adventurous 
song, | That with no middle flight intends to soar.' For the boast 
of originality, cf. 3. 1. 2 ; 3. 30. 10 sqq. n. 

2. biformis : swan and poet is the obvious meaning, but Por- 
phyrio says quod et lyrica scribat et hexametros, and some moderns 
follow him on the ground that Horace would be wholly trans- 
formed into the bird. But this is to consider it too curiously. 
liquidum : cf. Verg. G. 1. 404. Clear as contrasted with udam 
. . . humum, 3. 2. 23, or yielding as Milton's ' buxom air ' ; Pind. 
Nem. 8. 41, irpbs vypbv \ aiOtpa. 

3. vates : cf. on 1. 31. 2. 

4. invidia maior : cf. Tac. Agr. 8. 3, extra invidiam ; Callim. 
Ep. 23, ttptiffffova BavKavtiis. Cf. on 4. 3. 16 and 3. 24. 32. 

5. urbes : concretely picturesque. Cf. 1. 35. 10 ; 3. 4. 46. 
5-6. pauperum . . . sanguia : Horace never disavows his 

humble birth. Cf. 2. 18. 10 ; 3. 30. 12 ; Sat. 1. 6. 46, quern rodnnt 
omnes libertino patre natum. 

6. vocas : invitest (to thy board, or simply companionship). 
Cf. Catull. 44. 21, qui turn voc.at me. If any dignity is lost, it is 
recovered by dilecte. Cf. Gildersleeve on Pindar's ^I'AOS addressed 
to Hieron (Pyth. 1. 92). In 2. 18. 11, he says dives me petit. The 
interpretation of ' dilecte ' as direct quotation of Maecenas' words 
is generally abandoned. 

8. unda : cf . 2. 14. 9. 

9-12. Tyrrell, Latin Poetry, p. 198, comments on the bad taste 
of these details. 

9. iam iam : Epode 17. 1. He begins to feel the ' feathery 



BOOK II., ODE XX. 297 

change ' come over him like Arnold's Philomela. cruribus : 
usually taken as abl. of place ; conceivably dat. Cf. residunt in 
partem (Verg. Aen. 9. 539). asperae : the skin wrinkles and 
roughens as it shrinks and settles into place. 

11. superng : so Lucret. 2. 1153, 6. 544, 597 ; A. P. 4. leves : 
antithesis with asperae. 

13. Daedaleo : cf. 1. 17. 22. n. notior : many Mss. read odor 
with harsh hiatus. Cf. Ov. Amor. 1. 9. 40, notior in caelo fabula 
mtlla fuit. Bentley proposed tutior, which H. doubtless meant, 
but perhaps did not need to say. Cf. on 4. 2. 2 ; cf. Martial, 1. 1. 2, 
Toto notus in orbe Martialis. 

14-20. Cf. Sargeant's lines, ' But on strong wing, through upper 
air, | Two worlds beneath, the old and new, | The Roman swan is 
wafted where | The Roman eagles never flew.' 

14. Visam: cf. 2. 14. 17. gementis: cf. Iliad, 16. 391,23. 
330 ; Ody. 12, 97, aydurrovos ; Aeschyl. Prom. 712 ; Soph. Ajax, 674, 
(TTfvovra irAvTov ; Tennyson, ' the inoanings of the homeless sea ' (In 
Mem.); 'The deep | Moans round with many voices' (Ulysses); 
Christina Rossetti, ' Why does the sea moan evermore ? ' Bos- 
pori : 3. 4. 30. 

15. Syrtes : 1. 22. 5 ; 2. 6. 3. canorus : of Swan Song, Verg. 
Aen. 7. 700 ; cf. 4. 3. 20. n. 

16. Hyperboreos : cf. Swinb. r ' Beyond the north wind lay the 
land of old, | Where men dwelt blithe and flawless clothed and fed 
| With joy's bright raiment and with love's sweet bread, | The hap- 
piest flock of earth's maternal fold.' Cf . Pind. 01. 3. 16 ; Pyth. 10. 
30-44 ; Aeschyl. Choeph. 373 ; Pliny, N. H. 4. 89 ; Bacchyl. 3. 59. 

17. dissimulat : ' masks his fear. ' 

19. Geloni: 2. 9. 23. peritus: the learned Spaniard may 
have sounded like a jest to Roman ears, though the next genera- 
tion gave the Senecas and Quintilian to Rome. Or possibly a dis- 
tinction is drawn between the ' culture ' of the province that shall 
learn the poet, and the outer barbarians that shall come to know 
of him. Cf. Statius, Theb. 12. 814, lam te (sc. his poem) mag- 
nanimus dignatur noscere Caesar, \ Itala iam studio discit memo- 
ratque iuventus. 

20. potor : vivid for accola. Cf. 3. 10. 1 ; 4. 15. 21 ; Horn. 11. 2. 
825 ; Pind. Ol. 6. 85 ; Verg. Eclog. 1. 63. 



298 NOTES. 

21-24. Cf. Epitaph of Ennius, Cic. Tusc. 1. 34, nemo me lacru- 
mis decoret nee funera fletu \ faxit ! cur? Volito vivus per ora 
virum. 

21. inani : a cenotaph sine corpore funus. neniae : properly 
the hired mourner's wailing dirge. 

22. turpes : disfiguring : the gashing of cheeks and beating of 
breast. querimoniae : of friends and kin. 

23. clamorem : the conclamatio or clamor supremus (Lucan, 
2. 20 ; Verg. Aen. 4. 665, 674). 

24. mitte : 3. 8. 17. supervacuos : the Ciceronian superva- 
caneus would be unmanageable in Horace's verse. Maecenas had 
written cynically, nee tumulum euro, sepelit natura relictos. But 
Horace means that his monument is his poetry. 



BOOK III. 

The first six odes of the third book were read by Porphyrio as an 
cpd$) multiplex per varios deducta sensus an ode sequence whose 
unity, like that of the sonnet sequences of modern poetry, depends 
on identity of metre and general similarity of moral purpose and 
aesthetic effect subsisting amid much diversity of detail. 

Like 2. 15, 2. 18, and 3. 24, these odes are addressed not to any 
individual, but to all patriotic citizens. The first, beginning with 
an unusually solemn proclamation of the poet's mission, proceeds 
to preach the familiar doctrine that power, wealth, and the curious 
inventions of modern luxury cannot restore lost sleep or free us 
from the black care that sits behind the horseman. The Sabine 
farm is better than burdensome riches. 

In the second the Roman youth are admonished to preserve 
their vigor in the stern schools of poverty and war. Death for the 
fatherland is sweet. Virtue opens the veiy heavens to those who 
have merited such immortality. Fidelity, discretion, silence, also 
have their sure reward. 

The third opens with the famous picture of the upright and 
dauntless man, firm of purpose type of the old Roman virtues 
that won apotheosis for Romulus and Augustus, and world-wide 



BOOK III. 299 

empire for Rome. The glories of that empire are prophesied by 
Juno urging upon the gods in council assembled the final destruction 
of Troy. Troy shall become a lair of wild beasts it shall never 
be restored. But in the West a greater than Troy shall rise. 

The first half of the fourth ode is an address to the Muses who 
watched over Horace's infancy when he strayed a poetic babe in 
the woods of Mt. Voltur, who rescued him from the rout at 
Philippi, from the fall' of the accursed tree, and from shipwreck in 
Sicilian seas. They will keep him safe though he visit the fierce 
tribes of Britain, or those of Spain that yet engage Caesar's arms. 
When Caesar himself dismisses his war-worn legions and seeks 
refreshment from cares of state, 'tis to them he turns. They give 
him counsels of gentleness, and delight in his magnanimity. Then, 
with seemingly abrupt transition, the poet passes to a covert warn- 
ing against the folly and wickedness of rebellion against Caesar's 
gentle rule. The second half of the ode depicts in flattering alle- 
gory the warfare of the giants against Jupiter, Apollo, and the bright 
Olympian deities, their defeat and final overthrow. 

The parallel, Jove in heaven, Augustus on earth, is made explicit 
in the fifth ode. Augustus will be a very present god when he 
shall have added the Britons and the Persians (Parthians) to our 
empire. Ah, the shame of it ! The defeat of Crassus is still un- 
avenged, and his soldiers have taken barbarian brides and serve in 
the ranks of our foes, forgetful of the name of Rome and the eternal 
fire that burns on Vesta's hearth. Not such the temper of the men 
who made Rome great of Regulus, for example, whose story 
occupies the remainder of the ode. 

It is the decay of religion, the sixth ode continues, that has 
brought this disgrace upon us and almost delivered us as a spoil 
to the Dacian and the Aethiopian amid our dissensions. The 
sanctity of the family has been polluted too. 'The maiden fan- 
cies wallow in the trough ' of Ionian licentiousness. Not from 
such mothers as these sprang the youths who struck down Pyr- 
rhus, and Antiochus, and Hannibal. They were a hardy yeomen 
soldiery inured to toil by the severe discipline of stern Sabine 
matrons. 

On these odes, cf. further, Sellar, p. 153 sqq. ; Pliiss, Horaz 
Studien, p. 185 sqq. 



300 NOTES. 

They seem to have been written in the years 28-24. The title 
Augustus in 3. 11 probably dates that ode after Jan., B.C. 27. Cf. 
on 1. 2. Ode 6 appears to have been written under the still fresh 
impression of the war of Actium, and while the restoration of the 
temples and the moral reforms undertaken in the year 28 were 
still in contemplation or progress. 



ODE I. 

1-4. ' Hence, ye profane ; I hate you all ; | Both the great vulgar 
and the small. | To virgin minds, which yet their native whiteness 
hold . . . these truths I tell ' (Cowley's Paraphrase (Of Greatness)). 

Cf. Verg. Aen. 6. 258 ; Aristoph. Frogs. 353 sqq. ; Callim. Hymn. 
Apoll. 2. 2. 

2. favete linguis : Verg. Aen. 5. 71, ore favete ; Ov. Am. 3. 13. 
29 ; Propert. 5. 6. 1 ; Tibull. 2. 2. 1 ; ev^/j.f'tre, Aristoph. Frogs, 
354, Thesm. 39; Acharn. 237. Ill-omened words could be surely 
avoided only by silence. Cf. Pater, Marius, Cap. 1. ' There was 
a devout effort to complete this impressive outward silence by that 
inward tacitness of mind, esteemed so important by religious 
Romans in the performance of their sacred functions.' Quintil. 
Decl., Templum in quo verbis parcimus, in quo animos componi- 
TOMS, in quo tacitam etiam mentem custodimus ; Sen. Dial. 7, hoc, 
verbum no, ut plerique existimant, a favore trahitur, sed impera- 
tur silentium, ut rite peragi possit sacrum nulla voce mala obstre- 
pente. non prius : it is perhaps over-curious to make the novelty 
consist in the employment of Alcaics for the admonitory themes of 
Old Roman precept and Greek Elegiac. But cf. 2. 20. 1. n. ; 3. 30. 
13. n. ; Epp. 1. 19. 23. 32. 

3. sacerdos: cf. Vergil's pii vates and Musae quarum sacra 
fero (G. 2. 475) ; Milt., ' Smit with the love of Sacred Song ' ; Ov. 
Am. 3. 8. 23, ille ego Musarum purus Phoebique sacerdos ; Theoc. 
16. 29. Ancient critics thought of the poet as a teacher ; Epp. 2. 
1. 126 sqq. ; Aristoph. Frogs, 1054 ; Jebb, Gk. Poetry, p. 226. 

4. virginibus puerisque : a formula and familiar quotation ; 
Ov. Trist. 2. 369, Fabula iucundi nulla est sine amore Menandri, \ 
Et solet hie pueris virginibusque legi ; Martial, 9, 68. 2, calls a 



BOOK HI., ODE I. 301 

schoolmaster, invisum pueris virginibxsque caput. Cf. 3. 69. 7 ; 
Horace sings to the unspoiled ' jeunesse des e"coles.' 

5. regum, etc. : ' 'Twixt kings and subjects ther's this mighty 
odds, 1 Subjects are taught by men ; kings by the Gods' (Herrick, 
25) ; ' But hear ye this, ye sons of men ! | They that bear rule and 
are obey'd, | Unto a rule more strong than theirs | Are in their 
turn obedient made' (Arnold, The Sick King in Bokhara); 'And 
kings sat still with awful eye, | As if they knew their sov'reign 
Lord was by ' (Milt. Nativ.) ; Sov\ot &affi\f<av fia-iv 6 /Sao-iAeus Otiav, 
Philemon; Suet. Caes. 6 ; Sen. Thyest. 607 sqq. in: the authority 
and awe go out to. Cf. 4. 4. 2, regnum in aves ; Plaut. Men. 1030, 
siquid imperist in te mihi ; Propert. 4. 10. 18, inque meum semper 
stent tua regna caput ; Ov. Fast. 3. 316. greges : in the tone 
rather of Seneca's ignoti servorum domino greges (Contr. 2. 1. 26) 
than of Homer's kindly woi/ueVes Aoic, shepherds of the people. 

7. Giganteo : 2. 12. 7 ; 2. 19. 22 ; 3. 4. 50 ; rryoKToAeTwp (Lucian, 
Tim. 4). 

8. supercilio moventis : the phrase is a development from the 
Olympus-shaking nod of Zeus in Homer, II. 1. 528-30 ; Verg. Aen. 
9. 106 ; Catull. 64. 204 ; Ov. Met. 1. 180 ; ' His black eyebrow whose 
doomful dreaded beck | Is wont to wield the world unto his will ' 
(Spencer, Mutability, 6. 22); Dion. Orat. 12. 383 E., TOV 5Hj<rairoj 

o\iy<p vtv/j.a.Ti -riav b<ppv<av rbv ffv^iravra Ohvfiirov ; Mart. 1. 4. 2, ter- 

rarum dominum pone supercilium ; Tenn., Princess, ' The lifting 
of whose eyelash is my lord.' 

9-17. Men differ in wealth, birth, and honor, but the necessity 
of death makes the odds all even. 

9. estut: (it) is (indeed the case, true) that; A. G. 332. a. 3; 
G. L. 553. 3. 4 ; H. 501 ; Ter. Phor. 925, sine est ut velis manere 
illam apud te; Epp. 1. 12. 2, non est ut; Epp. 1. 1. 81, esto aliis 
alias rebus studiisque teneri. viro vir : frequent juxtaposition. 
latius: 2. 2. 9 ; 2. 15. 2. ordinet: cf. Quiutilian's directi in 
quincuncem ordines, and Pope's ' rank my vines.' 

10. arbusta : the vines or the trees to which they were wedded ; 
Verg. Eel. 3. 10 ; G. 2. 416 ; 2. 289, ausim vel tenui vitem commit- 
tere sulco. 

11. descendat : literally from the heights on which the palaces 
of the nobility stood ; metaphorically as competitor into the politi- 



302 NOTES. 

cal arena. Campum : the voting booths, saepta, were in the Cam- 
pus Martins. The forms of popular election were preserved by 
the policy of Augustus; Tac. Ann. 1. 15, Turn primum (at acces- 
sion of Tiberius) e Campo contitia ad patres translata sunt. 

13. turba : in his anteroom at the Salutatio (Epode 2. 7, 8. n.) 
or in his train at the Forum, a point of honor with ambitious 
Romans. Cf. Martial, 11. 24. 11, ut tibi tuontm \ Sit maior nume- 
rus toyatulorum, and passim ; Cic. Muren. 34 (70). 

14. aequa : impartial. 1. 4. 13 ; 2. 18. 32. n., ' Sceptre and 
crown | Must tumble down, | And in the dust be equal made 
With the poor crooked scythe and spade' (Shirley). Neces- 
sitas : 1. 3. 32 ; 1. 35. 17 ; 3. 24. 6. 

15. sortitur : Lex. s.v. II.; Verg. Aen. 3. 375, sie fata deum 
rex | Sortitur. insignes: 1. 34. 13. 

16. urna : 2. 3. 26. n. 

17. destiictus eiisis : for the story of the proverbial hair- 
suspended sword of Damocles, see Cic. Tusc. 5. 61 ; Pers. 3. 40. 
Here it symbolizes the terrors of conscience. Cf. Ronsard, Au Sieur 
Bertrand, ' Celuy qui sur la teste sienne | Voit l'espe"e sicilienne, | 
Des douces tables 1'appareil | N'irrite sa faim, ny la noise | Du 
rossignol qui se desgoise | Ne luy rameine le sommeil ' ; Shelley, 
Prom. 1, 'Like the Sicilian's hair-suspended sword | Which 
trembles o'er his crown.' cui : (ei) cui = cuius. impia : trans- 
ferred, 1. 37. 7. n. 

18. cervice : Cic. uses plural. Siculae : proverbially luxurious. 
Otto, s.v. ; Athenae. 12.3 ; Plat. Rep. 404 D. 

19. elaborabunt: force appetite, give artificial savor to the 
viands. 

20. avium. etc. : for aviaries in Roman palaces, see Pliny, N. H. 
10. 72, 17. 6 ; Rutil. 1. Ill ; Varro, R. R. 3. 5. Maecenas suffered 
from insomnia and was said to seek sleep, per symphoniarum can- 
turn ex longinquo lene resonantium ; Sen. Dial. 1. 3. But Horace 
would hardly allude to that. Cf. further Epode 2. 28. n. ; Epp. 1. 2. 
31 ; Tibull. 1.2. 77 ; Tenn. Choric Song, ' Music that brings sweet 
sleep down from the blissful skies.' 

21-22. reduceut: re, his (lost, due) sleep. agrestium . . . 
virorum : felt with domos, though the position of non . . . non 
would seem to construe it with somnus. For the thought, cf. Epp. 



BOOK HI., ODE I. 303 

1. 7. 35, somnmn plebis laudo ; Eccles. 5. 12 ; Anacr. fr. 88 ; Teles 
in Stob. 93. 31 ; King Henry's Soliloquy ; Hen. IV. 2. 3. 1 ; Dekker, 
' Art thou poor, yet hast thou golden slumbers ? | O sweet content ! ' 
Greene, ' The homely house that harbors quiet rest.' Sir John 
Denhaui, ' Morpheus the humble god that dwells | In cottages and 
smoky cells." See also Statius' beautiful invocation to Somnus, 
Silv. 5. 4. 

24. tempe : 1. 7. 4. n. ; here generalized for any beautiful valley ; 
Verg. G. 2. 469 ; Catull. 64. 35 ; Theoc. 1. 67. 

25. desiderantem, etc. : on the concrete effect of the participle, 
cf. Sellar, p. 194. The golden slumbers of sweet content serve as a 
transition to moralizing on the blessedness of content generally. 
quod satis est: recurs 3. 16. 44; Epp. 1. 2. 46; Publ. Syr. 677, 
quod volt habet, qui velle quod satis est potest. 

. 26. sollicitat : cf. 3. 29. 26 ; Epode 2. 6, and the expansion of 
the thought in Merchant of Venice, 1.1,' Your mind is tossing on 
the ocean,' etc. 

27. Arcturi. etc. : the season of equinoctial storms ; Anth. Pal. 
7. 495 ; Plaut. Kudens, Prol. 70, Nam Arcturus signum sum 
omnium unum acerrimum. \ Vehemens sum exoriens quom occido 
vehementior. 

28. Haedi : Theoc. 7. 53 ; Verg. Aen. 9. 668, pluvialibus Haedis ; 
Ov. Trist. 1. 11. 13. 

29. verberatae : cf. 3. 12. 3. n., 3. 27. 24. n. ; Shelley, The Cloud, 
' I wield the./?i7 | Of the (f)lashing hail. grandine : Epp. 1. 8.4, 
haud quid grando \ contuderit vites ; Herrick's Christian Militant 
(324), who is more Horatian than Christian, is a man that Teares 
not the fierce sedition (tumultus!} of the Seas: | That's counter- 
proofe against the Farm's mishaps.' 

30. niendax : slightly personifies. But the thought was a com- 
monplace. Cf. 3. 16. 30; Epp. 1. 7. 87, spem mentita seges ; Verg. 
G. 2! 460, iustissima tfllus ; Ov. Met. 5. 480, arvaque iussit \ fallere 
depositum; Cic.de Offic. 1. 15; Pliny, Letters, 9. 37; Philemon, 
-rrj yrj $av(iftv KpfiTrdv effnv ^ Bporols; Tibull. 2. 3. 61 ; Ov. Fast. 

4. 645 ; Hosea 9. 2 (Vulgate), et vinum mentietur eis ; Habakkuk 
3. 17, mentietur opus olivae. The feigned millionnaire in Petron. 
117 talks of aurum et argentum, fundosque mendaces et perpetuam 
terrarum sterilitatem. 



304 NOTES. 

30-31. arbore . . . culpante : keeps up the personification. 

30. aquas : sc. caelestes, 3. 10. 20. 11. 

31. torrentia: Epode 16. 62. 

32. sidera : cf. aarpa^^ra . . . <pvrd ; Theophrast. C. P. 5. 9. 1. 
iniquas : Arnold, Strayed Reveller, ' Worms | In the unkind spring 
have knawn | Their melon harvest to the heart 1 ; cursum mutavit 
iniquum frugibus amnis, A. P. 67. 

33. contracta, etc. : cf. 2. 18. 21. n. ; 3. 24. 3. n. ; Manil. 4. 
262 ; Petron. Bell. Civ. 88, expelluntnr aquae saxis ; Lucan, 2. 677, 
sic ora profundi \ arctantur casu nemorum. The hyperbole is per- 
haps more in Lucan's manner than in that of Horace. 

34. iactis : the technical word ; Sen. Thyest. 459, retro mare \ 
iacta fugamus mole; Verg. Aen. 9. 710-12. molibus : the massive 
foundations of stone. frequens : probably frequens . . . cum . . . 
famulis, with or amid a throng of laborers rather than frequens 
redemptor, many a contractor. Cf. Shelley, Alastor, ' Halls | Fre- 
quent with crystal column.' Cf. Verg. Aen. 6. 359, cum veste 
gravatum ; Ter. Andr. 1. 1. 80, cum illis . . . aderat frequens; 

Soph. 0. R. 750, e'x^ei /Sato's. 

35. Caementa : cut (up) stones to fill interstices. redemptor : 
cf. Lex. s.v. and 2. 18. 18. n. 

36. terrae: with fastidiosus (2. 18. 22; Sen. Epist. 89. 21, nee 
contenti solo, etc.). 

37. minae: threatening shapes conjured up by his anxious fore- 
bodings. 

38. scandunt: 2. 16. 21. neque: so at end of line, 1. 3. 38; 
1. 18. 3; 2. 7. 19, nee; 3. 29. 46. 

39. aerata: 2. 16. 21; Tenn., 'The thunder of the brazen 
prows | O'er Actium's Ocean rung.' But this is a priva triremis 
(Epp. 1. 1. 93), and not a ship of war. 

40. atra Cura: 3. 14. 13; 4. 11. 35; 'Old Dives there rolls in 
his chariot, but mind | Atra Cura is up with the lackeys behind ' 
(Locker, Vanity Fair; cf. Thackeray passim) ; 'Jove, what a day, 
black care upon the crupper | Nods at his post and slumbers in the 
sun' (Dobson) ; 'Sorge sie steiget mit dir zu Ross, sie steiget zu 
Schiffe' (Goethe, Vier Jahreszeiten. Sommer) ; 'Le chagrin monte 
en croupe et galope avec lui' (Boileau, Epitre 5). 

41. quodsi: 1. 24. 13. n. dolentem: i.e. me, i.e. (my) pain 



BOOK III., ODE II. 305 

Latin concreteness. For the thought, cf. Lucret. 2. 48, where 
quodsi is more suitable, summing up a long impassioned argument. 

Phrygius lapis: colored marble of Synnada, pavonazetto, used 
in some of the columns of the Pantheon. Cf. 2. 18. 3 ; Stat. Silv. 

1. 5. 36; Martial, 6. 42. 13. 

42. purpurarum: 2. 18. 8; 2. 16. 36. aidere clarior: II. 
6. 295, aff-rfyp 8' us a.irf\a/j.irv (the ireirAoy). 

4.3. usus: for periphrasis, cf. Verg. G. 2. 466, nee casia liquidi 
corrumpitur usus olivi. Clarior is transferred. Cf. 1. 37. 7. n. 

44. Achaemenium : 2. 12. 21 ; Epode 13. 8. costum: 2. 3. 
13; 2. 7. 23; 2. 11. 16. 

45. invidendis: 2. 10. 7; Tibull. 3. 3. 20 ; Martial, Liber Spect. 

2. 3, invidiosa feri radiabant atria regis (of Nero's Golden 
House); Shaks. Tim. of Athens, 3. 4, 'Who can speak broader 
than he that hath no house to put his head in ? Such may rail 
against great buildings.' Does this explain Milton's 'th' Almighty 
hath not built | Here for his envy,' which puzzles editors ? 

46. sublime: Ov. Met. 2. 1, regia solis erat sublimibus alta 
colnmnis. Novo ritu while adverbial with moliar is by position 
felt rather with sublime. For meaning cf. 2. 15. 20.n. moliar: it 
is a moles to build a moles, 2. 15. 2 ; 3. 29. 10 ; Verg. Aen. 1. 33. 

atrium: luxury still displays itself in the large hall, correspond- 
ing to the Roman atrium, 2, 18. 1-4 ; cf. Herrick, ' Low is my 
porch as is my fate ; | Both void of state. ' 

47. permutem: 1. 16. 26. n. ; 1. 17. 2. Sabina : cf. Epode, 
1. 32. n. 

ODE II. 

There is an imitation in Dodsley, 6. 159. Paraphrase by Pitt, 
Johnson's Poets, 12. 388. Lines 13 to end translated by Swift, 
ibid. 11. 402. 

1. angustam : straitened; 2. 10. 21; Epp. 1. 5. 20, contracta 
. . . panpertate ; Juv. 3. 165, res angusta domi ; Milt. P. R. 2, 'bred 
up in poverty and straits at home.' amice . . . pati : take kindly 
to, endure gladly, almost welcome as a friend. Cf. lente ferre, 
aegre ferre, ayairijTus <pepnv, and the like. pauperiem pati : the 
x 



306 NOTES. 

phrase recurs 1. 1. 18 ; 4. 9. 49. Horace passes from the vanity of 
riches (3. 1. 41-48) to the fostering of the old Roman virtues in 
the stern but salutary school of poverty. Cf. 1. 12. 43 ; 3. 24. 42- 
63 ; 4. 9. 45-52. For praise of poverty, cf . further 3. 29. 55. n. ; 
Eurip. fr. Alex. 55 ; Aristoph. Plut. 510, 558 ; Theoc. 21. 1 ; Dante, 
Paradiso, 11. 

2-4. robustus, and eques metuendus : are felt predicatively 
as coordinate parts of the wish, and not as mere attributes. 

2. acri: 1. 29. 2; ou/ "Apr] a (II. 2. 440); saevam (Epp. 1. 18. 
54). militia : with robustus probably. Cf. Cic. Cat. 2. 20, genus 
exercitatione robustum. puer : 1. 2. 41. n. 

3. condiscat: 4. 11. 34. Cf. con-, 1. 37. 28; 4. 2. 33. Far- 
thos: 1. 2. 22. n.; 1. 2. 51. 

4. vexet : so 4. 14. 23. eques : as a knight. Augustus re- 
established and fostered Roman cavalry. Hence perhaps the 
allusions of Horace and Vergil to horsemanship (Verg. Aen. 5. 
519-602 ; Odes 1. 8. 6 ; 3. 7. 25 ; 3. 24. 54). 

5,6. subdivo: 1. 1.25; 2.3.23 ; 1. 18. 13. trepidis in rebus ; 
cf. 2. 19. 5; 3. 27. 17; 4. 11. 11 ; amid alarums (all' artne). Cf. 
Verg. Aen. 9. 14 ; Livy, 4. 17. 8 ; Tibull. 2. 3. 21, saepe (luces 
trepidis petiere oracula rebus. 

6. ilium : emphatic, and saves formal transition. Cf. 2. 2. 7 ; 
2. 13. 5 ; 3. 3. 33 ; 4. 3. 3 ; illam (3. 15. 11) ; non ille (3. 21. 9), etc. 
ex moenibus hosticis, etc.: cf. II. 3. 154, and 22. 463, where 
Andromache sees Hector trailed in the dust from Achilles' chariot ; 
Verg. Aen. 11. 475; Hesiod, Scut. Her. 242; Eurip. Phoeniss. 88; 
Stat. Theb. 7. 240 ; Tenn. Oriana, ' She stood upon the castle wall, 
Oriana : She watched my crest among them all, Oriana ' ; Andrew 
Lang, ' The daughter of the Lesbian king | Within her bower she 
watched the war,' etc. The bellans tyrannus is the besieged king 
(e.g. Priam); the sponsus regius perhaps a young allied prince, to 
whom he has promised his daughter's hand (e.g. Coroebus, Verg. 
Aen. 2. 343). The position of matrona makes suspiret ne, etc., felt 
only with adulta (nubias') virgo. 

9, 10. ne . . . lacessat : depends on suggestion of fear in sus- 
piret, or, what amounts to the same thing, is an imitation of the 
Homeric half-independent wish with ^77. 

9. rudis agmiimm : cf. rudem belli (Epp. 2. 2. 47) ; Verg. Aeu. 



BOOK III., ODE II. 307 

11. 151, belli . . . dura rudimenta (cruel initiation) ; Milton's Lat- 
inism, ' lay down the rudiments \ Of his great warfare ' (P. R.). 

10. 11. lacessat : i.e. needlessly, recklessly challenge. Cf. 1. 
35. 7. asperum tactu: 1. 37. 26, asperas . . . tractare. Cf. 
1. 23. 9. The Greeks say of the dead Hector (11. 22. 373) that he 
is softer to handle, juoAo/coirepos 01^0^000-601, than when he hurled 
fire on their ships. 

11. leonem : so often of warrior in Homer (II. 5. 136 ; 20. 164). 
cruenta : transferred from leonem, which has its epithet. 

12. per medias: cf. 4. 14. 24. rapit ira : 0ep 6TO " /*"' ( u - 
20. 172). 

13. dulce. etc. : and if he (the young Roman lion) dies, why 
' how can man die better ? ' Cf. 4. 9. 52 ; Tyrt. fr. 10 ; Eurip. Tro. 
380; Cic. Phil. 14. 31, O fortunata mors, qtiae naturae debita pro 
patria est potissimum reddita 1 

14. mors : emphatically resumes mori, and spares formal tran- 
sition. et : also ; persequitur qui non desinit sequi (Donatus). 
fugacem : <pvy6fj.axoi', as 2. 1. 19. For the thought, cf. Simon, fr. 
65, 6 5' av Odvaros KI'X Kal rbi> <pv-y6naxov \ Callin. fr. 1. 13-15; Cur- 
tius, 4. 14 ; Otto, p. 229. 

16. poplitibus, etc.: Livy, 22. 48. 4, tergaque ferientes ac popli- 
tes caedentes. For the shame of wound in the back, cf. II. 8. 95 ; 
Tyrt. fr. 11. 19, 20; Find. Nem. 9. 26; Macaulay, 'And in the 
back false Sextus | Felt the good Roman steel.' 

17. virtus : 2. 2. 19. n. Horace takes for his text the Stoic para- 
dox that only the virtuous sage is praetor, consul, or king in the 
truest sense. Cf. 4. 9. 39. n. ; Epp. 1. 1. 107 ; Sat. 1. 3. 136. re- 
pulsae : technical for defeat of candidate for office. (Epp. 1. 1. 43, 
turpemque repulsam.) nescia: perhaps suggests a soul too lofty 
even to be aware of vulgar losses. Cf. Seneca, on Cato ignoring 
an injury, maiore animo non agnovit quam ignovisset. sordidae : 
disgraceful, humiliating, in popular esteem. ' And it would be a 
poor tale indeed . . . that a gentleman like you, to say nothing 
of the good of the country, should have gone to the expense and 
trouble of a canvass for nothing but to find himself out of Parlia- 
ment at the end of it ... it looks bad in the cleverest man to 
have to sing small' (George Eliot, Felix Holt). Cf. the conduct 
of Cato (Sen. Ep. 104), and Cicero's remarks (Tusc. 5. 54). 



308 NOTES. 

18. intaminatis : as if from tamino. i.e. incontaminatis. Politi- 
cal honors (1. 1. 8) are not always unsullied. fulget : 3. 16. 31. 
Virtue 'by her own radiant light' shines brighter than the ' bright 
honor ' of Lucretius (3. 76, c.laro qui incedit honore) and Hotspur, 
Hen. IV. 1. 1. 3. Cf. Cic. pro Sest. 60, Splendetque per sese semper, 
etc. 

19. secures : the fasces of the lictors. Macaulay, Virginia, 
' He stalked along the Forum like King Tarquin in his pride : | 
Twelve axes waited on him, six marching on a side ' ; ibid., ' The 
axes and the curule chair, the car, and laurel crown.' 

20. aurae: 1. 5. 11 ; 2. 8. 24; 1. 1. 7, mobilium ; Epp. 1. 19. 
37, ventosae plebis suffragia; Verg. Aen. 6. 817, nimium gaudens 
popularibus auris; Cic. harusp. resp. 43; pro Cluent. 130, ventus 
popularis. 

21. recludens : but for the multitude aequa tellus recluditur, 

2. 18. 32, immeritis mori: ou5 -rtQvaai 6av6vrfs, Auth. Pal. 7. 
251, of the heroes of Thermopylae. ' Some few who ne'er shall 
be forgot, | Shall burst the bondage of the grave.' It is the 'sub- 
jective ' immortality of 3. 3. 9-16, the only one known to Horace. 

22. negata : 1. 22. 22 ; Sen. Phaedr. 229, solus negatas invenit 
Theseus vias (to Hades). Virtus as subject of temptat = the 
virtuous man by a natural shift. Cf. Lowell, Cominem. Ode 25, 
'Virtue treads paths that end not in the grave.' For temptat, cf. 

3. 4. 31. 

23. udam : dank, misty, in contrast with the liquidnm aethera 
(2. 20. 2. n.), 'Regions mild of calm and serene air | Above the 
smoke and stir of this dim spot, | Which men call earth ' (Milt. 
Comus). 

24. sperait : ' Soaring the air sublime | With clang despised the 
ground' (Milt. P. L. 7). 

25-32. The virtues of silence and discretion which Horace would 
wish to claim for Maecenas as counsellor of Augustus, and for him- 
self as confidant of Maecenas. Let not the revealer of holy mys- 
teries share my hearth or ship. For the divine judgment oft con- 
founds the innocent with the guilty, and Justice, though she limps, 
comes up with the wicked at last. 

25. est, etc. : a translation of Simon, fr. 66, said to have been a 
favorite maxim of Augustus, iWt /col aiyas cucivSwov yfyas (Plut. 



BOOK III., ODE II. 309 

Moral. 207 D). Cf. Aesch. fr. 188; Soph. fr. 78; Verg. Aen. 3. 
112, fida silentia sacris ; Sat. 1. 3. 95 ; 1. 4. 84, commissa tacere \ 
qui nequit : hie niger est ; Odes 1. 18. 16. An allusion to Mae- 
cenas' betrayal to his wife Terentia of the discovery of the con- 
spiracy of Murena is extremely improbable ; Suet. Aug. 66. Horace 
shows his own discretion by stoutly asseverating that Maecenas 
confides to him only trifles, qiiae rimosa bene deponuntur in aure 
(Sat. 2. 6. 46). So Swift of himself and Harley. 

26-28. vetabo ... sit : Lex. s.v. veto, 1. b. 

' 26. Cereris sacrum : the Eleusinian mysteries, or secret Roman 
rites of Ceres -and Liber, or any mysteries; Cic. in Verr. 5. 187; 
Soph O. C. 1051. 

27-28. sub isdem . . . trabibus : 6ncap6(t>ios (Antiphon. 5. 11); 
irapianos (Soph. Antig. 372); It^oroixos (Callim. Cer. 113). 

28. fragilem : conventional epithet, 1. 3. 10 ; but emphasizes 
the risk. Cf. Spenser, 1. 27. 19. n. 

29. solvat: Epode 10. 1, soluta navis; 1. 32. 7, religarat . . . 
navem. For the naive notion that the guilty facilitated the divine 
vengeance when they exposed themselves at sea, cf. Ov. Her. 7. 57, 
nee violasse fidem temptantibus aequora predest ; Book of Jonah, 
1. 7-8; Aesch. Sept. 602; Eurip. Elect. 1354, fr. 852; Xen. Cyr. 
8.1.25; Schmidt, Ethik der Griechen^ 1 . 66. Diespiter : 1 . 34. 5. 

30. neglectus : a vague word covering a multitude of sins. So 
Di . . . neglecti, 3. 6. 7 ; integrum : 1. 22. 1. n. For the idea that 
the gods destroy the innocent in the company of the guilty, cf. 
supra on 29 ; Aesch. Eumen. 285. 

31-32. 'The thought itself of these lines is familiar enough to 
Homer and Hesiod ; but neither Homer nor Hesiod . . . could pos- 
sibly have so complicated its expression as Horace complicates it, 
and purposely complicates it, by his use of deseruit ' (Arnold, On 
Trans. Homer, p. 208). This complication misled the legendary 
fourth-form boy into the rendering : ' Rarely has a Carthaginian 
lady abandoned her criminal antecedent.' 

32. Poena : in 4. 5. 24, Culpam Poena premit comes. The 
image of her lame pursuit may have been suggested by the parable 
of the Litae in Homer, II. 9. 503, or by the v<TTfp6irovs NfV<m or 
oTrt<r66irovs AIKIJ of the Greeks. The thought is a commonplace. 
Cf. Plutarch. De sera numinum vindicta; Solon, fr. 4. 16, 13. 25 



310 NOTES. 

sqq. ; Aesch. Ag. 58 ; Choeph. 383 ; Eurip. fr. 969 ; II. 4. 162 ; 
Tibull. 1. 9. 4, sera tamen tacitis Poena venit pedibus ; Juv. 13. 
100, ut sit magna tamen certe lenta ira deorum est ; Sen. Here. 
Fur. 389 ; Gratius, Cyn. 455 ; George Herbeit, ' God's mill grinds 
slow but sure ' ; Milt. P. L. 10, ' Justice divine mends not her slowest 
pace | For prayers or cries ' ; Browning, Cenciaja, ' God's justice 
tardy though it prove perchance | Rests never on the track,' etc. ; 
Swinb., ' I am the queen of Rephaim. | God, that some while refrain- 
eth him, I Made in the end a spoil of me,' etc. 



ODE JII. 

Imitated by Walsh, Johnson's Poets, 8. 417. Translated by 
Addison, ibid. 9. 544 ; by Hughes, ibid. 10. 25 ; by Fenton, ibid. 
10. 422. 

1-4. 'No wrath of Men or rage of Seas | Can shake a just man's 
purposes : | No threats of Tyrants, or the Grim | Visage of them 
can alter him ; | But what he doth at first entend, | That he holds 
firmly to the end' (Herrick, 616). These lines were recited by 
Cornelius de Witte on the rack, and their repetition nerved Fred- 
erick the Great in his desperate struggle with all Europe (Ste.- 
Beuve, Causeries, 3. 202). Socrates, who withstood the ardor 
civium in the trial of the generals of Arginousae, and ignored the 
threats of the instans tyrannus under the Thirty (Plato, Apol. 
c. 20), is the perfect type of that virtue of 'constancy' which 
Horace here celebrates as the tradition of the makers of Rome. 

propositi : Epp. 1. 13. 11, victor propositi. Caesar, Bell. Civ. 
1. 83, has tenere propositum. 

2. iubentium : suggesting the technical use, senatus decrevit 
populusque iussit. 

3. voltus : cf . ri> ffbv Selects irp6ffa>irov (Soph. O. T. 448) , where 
Jebb comments, 'the blind man (Teiresias) speaks as though he 
saw the vultus instantis tyrannV Cf. Gray, The Bard, her 'awe- 
commanding face' (of Elizabeth), and the biblical use of 'face.' 
Instans Tyrannus is the title of one of Browning's poems. For 
the urgency of instans, cf. 2. 14. 3, and Sat. 2. 6. 39, ' Si vis, 

addit et instat. 



BOOK III., ODE III. 311 

4. mente : is abl. of respect or specification (A. G. 253 ; B. 226 ; 
G. L. 397 ; H. 424), but the analogy of <?/cirA^TTt', Aesch. Prom. 
360, suggests excutit, shakes, dislodges from. 

4. solida : at least an incipient image, which is developed, Sen. 
de Const. Sap. 3, quemadmodum proiecti in altum scopuli mare 
frangunt, ita sapientis animus solidus est. So Herrick felt it, 390, 
' A just man's like a Rock that turns the wroth | Of all the raging 
Waves into a froth.' Cf. Tenn., Princess, ' The roar that breaks the 
Pharos from his base | Had left us rock.' See also Tenn., Will. L 

5. dux . . . Hadriae : 1. 3. 15. n. ; 2. 17. 19. 

6. fulminantis : when he thunders = his thunderbolts ; not so 
nearly a mere epithet as tonantem, 3. 5. 1. 

7-8. Should the whole frame of Nature round him break, | In 
ruin and confusion hurled, | He, unconcerned, would hear the 
mighty crack, | And stand secure amidst a falling world ' (Addison). 
' If (though) the heavens fall ' is proverbial. Cf. Theogn. 869, 
and the boast of the Celts to Alexander that they feared naught 
else; Ter. Heaut. 719. See Otto, p. 61. Heywood's 'When the 
skie faith we shall have Larkes' is matched in French and German 
proverbs. Fiat iustitia mat caelum is modern. 

8. impavidum : 1. 15. 23. ruinae : 1. 16. 12, ruens; Verg. 
Aen. 1. 129, caelique niina; Milt. P. L. 6, 'hell saw | Heav'n 
ruining from heaven.' 

9. hac arte : sc. constantia. But cf. 4. 15. 12, artes ; ars is 
as vague as res, ratio, causa, status. Cf. Ter. Andr. 32, nil istac 
opus est arte ad hanc rem quam paro, \ sed eis quas semper in 
te intellexi sitas, \ fide et taciturnitate ; Marvell, Horatian Ode 
on Cromwell, ' The same arts that did gain | A power must it 
maintain.' Pollux: as an ideal type, Aristotle, fr. 6. 9, Bgk. ; 
Find. Nem. 10. 65-90 ; Epp. 2. 1. 5, cum Castore Pollux, etc. Cf. 
1. 12. 25; 3. 29. 64. vagus: iro\inr\ayKTos, of his travels in the 
service of man (Verg. Aen. 6. 801, nee vero Alcides tantum telluris 
obivit; Eurip. Here. Fur. 1196 ; Pind. Isth. 4. 55). For Hercules, 
as theme of Stoic moralizing and servant of humanity, see Munro 
on Lucret. 5. 22 ; Sen. de Const. Sap. 2 ; Dio Chrys. Orat. 1, in 
fine; Browning, Balaustion. The whole passage interprets the 
apotheosis of the ancient religion in the sense of a conception of 
"subjective immortality " akin to that expressed in George Eliot's 



312 NOTES. 

'Choir Invisible '; cf. Epp. 2. 1. 5-12. Pliny, N. H. 2. 7, Deus est 
mortali iuvare mortalem ; et haec ad acternam gloriam via. hac 
proceres iere Bomani. This is the thought that underlies the con- 
ventional imagery of compliment. 

10. enisus: struggling up and on ; Tac. Ann. 1. 70, in editiora 
enisus. igneas : starry or of the aether. Cf. Ov. Met. 15. 858, 
arces . . . aetherias; Trist, 5. 3. 19. But ignes = stars, 1. 12. 47. 
Cf. Ovid's siderea arx, Am. 3. 10. 21. Statius to Domitian, Silv. 

4. 3. 155, ibis qua vagus Hercules et Eultan (Bacchus) \ ultra 
sidera flammeumque solem. On the "stars" in the conventional 
rhetoric of immortality, cf. Cic. Somn. Scip. 16 sqq. ; Rohde, 
Psyche, p. 672. 

11. Augustus : he received the title B.C. 27, which seems to 
date the ode; cf. on 1. 2. recumbens: at tahle, Epp. 1. 5. 1 ; 
cf. Verg. Eel. 1. 1, recubans sub tegmine fagi. 

12. purpureo: we may choose between the 'purple light' of 
youth, the halo of apotheosis, and a 'purple-stained mouth' from 
a beaker full of the true, the blushful Hippocrene. Catull. 45. 12, 
illo purpureo ore saviata. Verg. Aen. 1. 590 ; 2. 593, roseo . . . ore. 
bibet: the reading of some Mss. predicts, as does Verg. G. 
1. 24-42, and may be thought to save Horace from sinking to the 
level of Martial, 4. 8. 9, et bonus aetherio laxatur nectare Caesar. 
bibit visualizes. On the imperial apotheosis and this form of 
flattery, cf. 4. 5. 35. n. ; 4. 15. Gaston Boissier, Relig. Rom. 
1. 109 sqq. 

13. hac : with merentem, sc. caelum, such honor ; cf . Ov. Trist. 

5. 3. 19, to Bacchus:- ipse qnoque aetherias mentis invectus es 
arces. His travels and labors follow, ibid. 20-24. Bacche pater : 
1. 18. 6. n. 

14. vexere: sc. ad caelum. tigres: the Roman poets seem to 
have substituted the Armenian tiger for the panther of Bacchus. 
Verg. Aen. 6. 805. Ov. Am. 1. 2. 48. Ars Am. 1. 550. But 
Propert. 4. 16. 8 has lyncibus ad caelum vecta Ariadna tuis; cf. 
Keats, 'not charioted by Bacchus and his pards.' The tamed 
tigers may symbolize his civilizing power. 

15. hac : it is perhaps painfully explicit to construe hac Quiri- 
nus (merens caelum') fugit. For the disappearance of Romulus 
(Quirinus) in a storm, and the legend of his translation to 



BOOK III., ODE III. 313 

heaven in the chariot of Mars, cf. Livy, 1. 16. Plut. Rom. 28. Ov. 
Fast. 2. 496, Hinc tonat, hinc missis abrumpitur ignibus aether: \ 
fit fuya. rex patriis astro, petebat equis. Met. 14. 820. 

16. Acheronta fugit : Find. fr. 120, iropd^v irt>evy6Tes 'AX- 
povros. Theoc. 17. 46. 

17-68. The Roman instance provides Horace with a transition 
to his central theme, the destiny of the Roman State foretold by 
Juno in a speech addressed to the assembled gods deliberating on 
the reception of Romulus among the immortals. The treatment 
of the myth gives the ode a Pindaric cast (cf. 3. 11 ; 3. 5; 4. 4; 
1. 12; 3. 27). 

The vehemence of Juno's protest against any attempt to rebuild 
Ilium has been taken as an allusion to some design of the Emperor 
to remove the Capitol to an Eastern site (cf. Sueton. Jul. Caes. 
79). Others fantastically interpret it as an allegory of the rule of 
the Optimates which passed away forever at Pharsalia and Actium, 
or of the vices and luxury of the old. Empires of the East which 
must not be permitted to corrupt Rome. It is more simply taken 
as a dramatic keeping up the character of Juno. In accepting 
Romulus and consenting to join with Jupiter in cherishing the 
people of the toga (Verg. Aen. 1. 280), she still remembers the 
spretae iniuria formae, and is careful to explain that she abates 
not one jot or tittle of her just hatred for perjured Troy. Cf. Verg. 
Aen. 12. 824 sqq. 

The motif of the deorum concilium was borrowed from Ennius, 
who represents Jupiter as promising Mars before the foundation of 
Rome the apotheosis of Romulus ; unus erit quern tu tolles in 
caerula caeli \ templa; cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 254 sqq. In Eurip. Hel. 
878, there is an allusion to a similar consultation. 

17. gratuni : they were pleased at her yielding to the general 
desire. 

18. Ilion. Ilion : anadiplosis of strong feeling. Cf. Dante's 
St. Peter, Paradis. 27. 22, 'quegli chi usurpa in terra il loco mio \ 
il loco mio, il loco mio ' ; Aesch. in Ctes. 133, Brjffai Se, TjBai- 

19. fatalis : Hecuba, the mother of Paris, dreamed that she had 
brought forth a fireband (Eurip. Tro. 919 ; Verg. Aen. 7. 319 sqq. ; also 
AwTTrcrpis AiVoTrapis). incestus : not of his lust (cf. 3. 2. 30), though 
that was his bribe. (II. 24. 30, nax^oo-vvtiv ; Teiin. CEnone, ' I prom- 



314 NOTES. 

ise thee | The fairest and most loving wife in Greece.') index : 
Catull. 61. 18, venit ad Phrygium Venus \ iudicem ; Verg. Aen. 1. 
27, indicium Paridis ; Tenn., 'Hear all, and see thy Paris judge 
of gods.' The judgment of Paris, first mentioned II. 24. 28-30 (if 
genuine), was told in the Cypria, and is frequently alluded to by 
Euripides (Hec. 629 ; Iph. Aul. 1300 ; Troad. 925 ; Hel. 23 ; Andr. 
281) and often represented on vases. In Eng. lit. it is the theme 
of poems by Greene, Beattie, Parnell, Tennyson, etc. (Lang, Helen 
of Troy, 1. 49-57). 

20, 21. mulier : Juno disdains to name Helen. Cf. 'the strange 
woman ' of the Bible. vertit in pulverem : duaflui/ei. ex quo : 
from the day when, with damnatum forfeited, addictum, abandoned 
to our vengeance. deos : Apollo and Poseidon served a year 
with King Laomedon, and one or both (the legend varies) built 
the walls of Troy. ' But when the joyous seasons were accomplish- 
ing the time of hire, the redoubtable Laomedon robbed us of all hire 
and sent us off with threats' (II. 21. 450 (Lang)). Cf. II. 7. 453 ; 
Verg. G. 3. 36, Troiae Cynthius auctor ; Tenn., 'Like that strange 
song I heard Apollo sing | When I lion like a mist rose into towers.' 

22. mini: for dat., cf. dassis Teucro damnata Quirino (Propert. 

5. 6. 21--24). 

23. castae: 1. 7. 5. 

24. fraudulento : Verg. Aen. 4. 541, necdum \ Laomedonteae 
sentis periuria gentis? Pind. Isth. 5. 29, Aao/ueSoi/Teiav vxep a/nir\^- 
Kinv ; Aen. 5. 811. 

25. splendet : 1. 15. 13 ; 4. 9. 13-15 ; II. 3. 392, <(ti\\ei re ff ri\&tai> 
ical e'tuaffi ; Eurip. Tro. 991 ; Iph. Aul. 74. adulterae: prefera- 
bly dat. Cf. 1. 5. 12. For death of Paris, cf. Quint. Smyr. 10. 235 ; 
Term., Death of CEnone ; Lang, Helen of Troy, 5. 54-68. 

26. famosus hospes : he was the notorious and infamous ex- 
ample of violated hospitality (1. 15. 2. n. ; II. 13. 626). 

27. periura: perhaps alluding also to the violation of the oath 
(II. 4. 157 sqq.). pugnaces: 4. 6. 8. n. 

28. Hectoreis: 2.4. 10, 11. n. opibus : vague word. Cf. 1. 

6. 15 ; 4. 4. 60. refringit: Lex. s.v. B. II., beats (hurls) broken 
back. 

29. ductum : protracted (trahere bellum, Sail.) by our divided 
partisanship (se(d)itionibus}. Cf. Ov. Trist. 1. 2. 5, Mulciber in 



BOOK 111., ODE III. 315 

Troiam, pro Troia stabat Apollo : \ Aequa Venus Teucris, Pallas 
iniqua fitit. 

30. resedit: from resido ; the storm of war has abated, the 
winds and waves subside. Cf. 2. 7. 15, 16. n.; Verg. Aen. 7. 27; 
6. 407 ; Tenn., 'Sea was her wrath, yet working after storm.' 
protinus: So noir, henceforth (since Troy is punished), Juno re- 
nounces her wrath and her hatred of her grandson Romulus, the 
son of Mars and Rhea Silvia or Ilia (1. 2. 15. n.; Verg. Aen. 1. 
273, 274). 

33. redonabo : 2. 7. 3. n. Here virtually = condonabo. There 
is a slight zeugma in its use with both iras and nepotem. In Pe- 
tron. 31 the angry master, pardoning a slave at intercession of 
friends, says, 'do/to vobis eum." 1 ilium: 3. 2. 6. n. lucidas : 
1. 10. n. ; 'O\I/HTTOU napnapoeaffav aiy\av. Soph. Antig. 610. 

34. ducere: quaff (1. 17.22 ; 4.12.14). ManyMss. read discere, 
grow wonted to the strange draught. 

35. 36. adscribi . . . ordinibus : almost technical, be listed, 
enrolled. 

35. quietis: the gods who live at ease. Cf. on 1. 34 ; Sat. 1. 5. 
101 ; Verg. Aen. 4. 379, ea cura quietos \ sollicitat ; Tenn., Lucret., 
'aught they fable of the quiet gods' ; Arnold, Emped., 'The rest 
of immortals, | The action of men.' The rhythm of quietis here 
seems to match the sense. Cf. 1. 31. 7. 

36-68. Rome may grow great beyond the seas and become a 
dreaded name, but Troy must not revive : occidit occideritque 
sinas cum nomine Troia (Verg. Aen. 12. 828) ; ' It shall never be 
inhabited. . . . But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there ; and 
their houses shall be full of doleful creatures : and owls shall dwell 
there,' etc. (Isaiah 13. 20, 21) ; 'But where I sought for Ilium's 
walls | The quiet sheep feeds and the tortoise crawls' (Byron, Don 
Juan, 4. 77) ; Lucan, 9. 969, etiam periere ruinae. 

37. inter saeviat : the position produces the illusion of a com- 
pound. Cf. 3. 27. 5. This may have suggested to Herrick his 
quaint 'intertalkt' (264) and 'superlast' (406). 

38. exsules : slightly spiteful, and with beati a faint oxymoron. 

40. busto : Vergil's iacet ingens litore truncus, etc. (Aen. 2. 
557) was not yet published to preoccupy the imagination. 

41. insultet, etc. : Tvufy firiOpuffKiav, II. 4. 177; Eurip. El. 327 : 



316 NOTES. 

'They say the Lion and the Lizard keep | The Courts where 
Jamshyd gloried and drank deep ; | And Bahrain, that great Hunter 
the Wild Ass | Stamps o'er his Head, but cannot break his sleep ' 
(Omar Khayyam, 18); ' et les tombeaux des rois sont des trous 
a panthere ' (Victor Hugo, Zim-Zisimi) ; Lamartine, Le Lizard sur 
les Ruines de Rome ; Pope, Windsor Forest, ' The fox obscene to 
gaping tombs retires. [ And savage howlings fill the sacred quires.' 

42. inultae: 1. 2. 51. n. stet: 1. 9. 1. n. Capitolium: 1. 
37. 6 ; 3. 30. 8. n. ; 3. 24. 45 ; 4. 3. 9. 

43. fulgens : with stet predicatively. It had been gilded when 
rebuilt by Catulus after the conflagration of B.C. 83. Cf. fastiyatis 
supra tectis auro puro fuhjens praelucet Capitolium (Sen. Contr. 
1. 6. 4). Cf. Verg. Aen. 8. 347, Capitolin . . . \ aurea nunc, olim 
silvestribus horrida dumis. triumphatisque : Lex. s.v. II. Eng- 
lish prose idiom "would turn the participle by a clause coordinate 
with dare iura. 'Subdue and impose her laws upon.' possit : 
in her might. 

44. ferox : 1. 35. 10. dare iura : i.e. exercise sovereignty over. 
Cf. 4. 15. 22 ; Verg. Aen. 3. 137 ; Liv. 1. 8. 1. Media: 1. 2. 22. 
51. n. 

45. horrenda late : horreat Aeneadas et primus et ultimus 
orbis (Ov. Fast. 1. 717) ; Macaulay, Capys, 31, '. . . Where Atlas 
flings his shadow | Far o'er the western foam, | Shall be great fear 
on all who hear | The mighty name of Rome ' ; Tibull. 2. 5. 57-60. 
But nomen is q^asi-technical ; 4. 15. 13. 

46. medius liquor : at Straits of Gibraltar. For medius, cf. 
Verg. Aen. 3. 417. 

47. secernit: Europam Libyamque rapax ubi dividit unda, 
cited Cic. Nat. D. 3. 24. ' The narrow seas, whose rapid inter- 
val | Parts Afric from green Europe' (Tenn., Timbuctoo). Afro = 
Afris = Africa. 

48. qua . . . Nilus : Macaulay, ' Where Nile reflects the endless 
length | Of dark-red colonnades.' tumidus rigat, 'As when old 
father Nilus gins to swell \ With timely pride above the Egyptian 
vale, | His fatty waves do fertile slime outwell, | And overflow each 
plain and lowly dale ' (F. Q. 1. 1. 21) ; Verg. G. 4. 292 ; ' The higher 
Nilus swells, \ The more it promises' (Ant. and Cleop. 2. 7). 

49-56. aurum, etc. : Horace here is speaking through Juno. 



BOOK III., ODE III. 317 

sic melius situm, etc. : a well-worn moral ; Sen. Nat. Quaest. 
5. 15. 3 ; Manil. 5. 276 ; Tac. Ger. 5; Boeth. Cona. Phil. 2. 5, pretiosa 
pericula foclit ; Ov. Met. 1. 140 ; F. Q. 2. 7. 17 ; Milt. P. L. 1, ' with 
impious hands | Rifled the bowels of their mother earth | For 
treasures better hid ' ; Vaughan, The Golden Age, ' Alas ! who was 
it that first found | Gold hid of purpose underground | That 
sought out pearls and dived to find | Such precious perils for man- 
kind ' (an unavowed translation of Boethius) ; Pope, Epist. 3, 
' Opine that Nature, as in duty bound, | Deep hid the shining 
mischief underground.' 

50. spernere : it is pettifogging to object that the gold cannot 
be spurned while yet inrepertum. We need not rush to the Klon- 
dike for it. fortior: courage is displayed in resisting cupidity as 
well as in confronting danger (Plato, Laches, 191 D ; Verg. Aen. 
8. 364, aude hospes contemnere opes; F. Q. 2. 6. 1). 

51. cogere : 2. 3. 25. humanos in usus : with rapiente 
primarily. According as the period is placed after Nilus ordextra, 
fortior may be made a condition of the prophecy tanget, or a 
limitation on the concession horrenda . . . extendat. Either is some- 
what awkward, and the strophe is in effect a parenthesis. Cf. 4. 
4. 18-22. 

52. omne : 1. 3. 25. n. sacrum: generally, and also more 
specifically ' the hid treasures in her sacred tomb | With sacrilege 
to dig' (F. Q. 2. 7. 17). 

53. obstitit = oppositus est ; obstitisse (obsisto) = obstare. 

54. visere : 1. 2. 8 ; 1. 37. 25 ; 4. 13. 26 ; 2. 15. 3. 

55. debacchentur : revel unchecked (1. 25. 11. n.) ; 'Like us 
the lightning-fires | Love to have scope and play ' (Arnold, 
Emped.). For de, cf. 1. 3. 13; 1. 9. 11 ; 1. 18. 9 ; 2. 1. 35. For 
the whole, cf. 1. 22. 17-22 ; Verg. G. 1. 234-236. 

56. pluviique rores : mist and rain. So dpfoos. 

57. fata . . . dico : cf. fatidicus; fatum (fari) = quod semel 
dictum est (C. S. 26); in declaring their destinies she ratifies them. 
Quiritibus : i.e. men of the spear; Ov. Fast. 2. 477, sive quod 
hasta curis priscis est dicta Sabinis. 

58. lege: condition, namely, ne . . . velint. pii: the piety 
of a colony towards the Metropolis, and ancestral home (avitae). 
In an old Roniaj* poet the soldiers of Scipio Asiaticus on first 



318 NOTES. 

beholding Troy exclaim, patria, divom damns Ilium et incluta 
bello | Pergama. 

59. tidentes : -3. 4. 50. 

61. Troiae: 'Should Troy revive in evil hour, her star again 
should set in gore ' (after Conington). English cannot reproduce 
the transference of renascens to fortuna, and the double applica- 
tion offortuna to the new city and the old. alite : 1. 15. 5. n. 

63. ducente: as in Verg. Aen. 2. 612-614. 

64. Verg. Aen. 1. 47; II. 16. 432. 

65. ter: the conventional number (Verg. G. 1. 281).- murus 
aeneus : II 21. 447, Spprj/cros. The phrase is conventional (Epp. 
1. 1. 60). So ffiSdpeov Te?x os aSapavTivov rtl'X.os. Cf. 1. 33. 11, 
iuga aenea. 

66. auctore Phoebo : cf. 1. 21-22. n. ; Find. 0. 8. 31. meis : 
1. 7. 8. n. 

67. excisus : exscissus, which some read (cf. Verg. Aen. 2. 
177), would be cacophonous. 

Argivia : the agent is an instrument. Cf. Juv. 10. 155, Poeno 
milite portas \ francjimus (which, however, is conceivably abl. 
abs.). Others take it dat. agent. 

69. non hoc, etc. : for the sudden check, cf. 2. 1. 37. n. and 
1. 6. 10. iocosae : forgets the claim of musarum sacerdos (3. 
1. 3). So Tennyson affects to rebuke his muse for darkening 
'sanctities with song' (In Mem. 3. 7). Cf. Herrick, 2, To his 
Muse, 'Whither, mad maiden, wilt thou roame ? ' Ronsard, Au 
Sieur Bertraud, ' Taisez-vous, ma lyre mignarde, | Taisez-vous, 
ma lyre jazarde, | un si haut chant n'est pas pour vous.' 

70. pervicax : 2. 19. 9. 

72. tenuare : cf. 1. 6. 12, and Milton's 'Who can extenuate 
thee?' parvis: modestly ; cf. 4. 2. 31, petrous; 3. 25. 17. Per- 
haps also contrasting the Alcaic with the versus longi of Epic. 



ODE IV. 

1 . descends caelo : the Muses dwell in heaven (II. 2. 484, 
491). But Porphyrio fancifully understands it as a descent from 
the sermones deorum (3. 3. 71). So perhaps Milton, P. L. 7 init., 



BOOK III., ODE IV. 319 

'Descend from heav'n, Urania ... Up led by thee | Into the 
heav'n of heav'ns I have presumed.' Cf. Tenn. In Mem. 37, 'Go 
down beside thy native rill,' etc. die age : 1. 32. 3 ; 2. 11. 22. 
tibia: 1. 1. 32; 1. 12. 2. 

2. regina : as revered goddess (3. 26. 11) and for the time ruler 
of his soul. longum : this is in fact the longest of the Odes, but 
we need not take it so literally. Calliope: Tenn. Lucretius, 'Poet- 
like, as the great Sicilian called | Calliope to grace his golden verse' ; 
Lucret. 6. 94 ; Emped. 383 ; Hes. Theog. 79 ; Alcman, fr. 45 ; Au- 
son. Idyll 20. 7, carmina Calliope libris heroica mandat. But cf. 

I. 12. 2. ii.; 1. 1. 33 ; 1. 24. 3 ; 3. 30. 16 ; and the simple Musa (1. 
17. 14; 2. 1. 9; 2. 12. 13; 3. 3. 70). 

3, 4. seu . . . seu : 1. 4. 12. The expression is confused. The 
option seems to be song or recitative to the accompaniment of pipe 
or string. The Mss. mostly read citharave, but fidibus w> uld hardly 
distinguish the lyre of Mercury from the cithara of Ph >ebus, and 
Vergil's hendiadys, Threicia fretus cithara fidibusque can<>ris (Aen. 
6. 120), favors que. Any stringed instrument will do. Cf. \vpr> 
KiQapifav (Hymn Merc. 423). 

5. auditia : i.e. is it real, or does the poet's ecstasy ' Pipe to the 
spirit ditties of no tone ' ? 

6, 7. insania : the 0eia pavta (Plat. Phaedr. 245) of 'the lunatic, 
the lover, and the poet.' videor : sc. mihi. Cf. 2. 1. 21 ; 'I seem 
through consecrated walks to rove, | I hear soft music die along 
the grove : | Led by the sound, I roam from shade to shade | By 
godlike poets venerable made' (Pope, Windsor Forest, 267-270). 
pios . . . lucos : Movtrtov vdwai (Plato, Ion, 534 A). Cf. 1. 1. 
30. n. 

8. aubeunt : lit. enter, approach ; but more etymologically here, 
beneath whose covert glide. Slight zeugma with aurae. 

9-12. me : i.e. for I have been the Muse's prote"ge" from the 
cradle. fabulosae . . . palumbes : the storied doves that 
carry ambrosia to Zeus (Odyss. 12. 62), and fed Semiramis. 
Similar tales were told of Pindar, Stesichorus, Aeschylus, Plato, 
and others. Cf. Tenn. Eleanore, 2; Pind._O. 6. .54; Pliny, N. II. 
10. 82; Aelian, V. H. 10. 21, 12. 45. Apulo . . . Apuliae. 
we may assume an intentional variation of the quantities (cf. 1. 32. 

II. n.; 3. 24. 4); or we may read limina Pulliae with an ingenious 



320 NOTES. 

German, who thinks fabulosa Pullia, the story-telling nurse Pullia, 
a good pendant to playosus Orbilius (Epp. 2. 1. 71), the birch-loving 
pedagogue. If the text is kept, Mt. Voltur must be supposed to 
bestride the boundaries of Apulia and Lucania. Horace speaks 
of himself as Lucanas an Apulus anceps (Sat. 2. 1. 34). Emenda- 
tions are countless : altricis limina villulae ; patriae ; limina . . . 
sedulae ; Volture in avio, abdito, arduo, etc. 

11. fatigatumque : the trajection of que (1. 30. 6. n.) brings out, 
if not intended to mark, the slight zeugma : Spent with play and 
(overcome by, buried in) sleep. Cf. II. 10. 98 ; Pausan. 9. 23. 2, 

I(6TTOS Kdl VTTVOS, 6tC. 

12. nova: 4. 1. 32. n. 

13-20. mirum quod foret (quod = ut id, tendency, characteris- 
tic, or result of me . . . texere (Epode 2. 28)) ... ut ... dor- 
mirem . . . ut premerer : epexegetic of quod mirum, and so of 
me ... texerc, in form of indirect question. Cf. Epode 16. 53, 
pluraque . . . mirabimnr : ut ; 1. 9. 1. 

14. quicumque : i.e. all the dwellers round about, picturesquely 
amplified by the Homeric descriptive epithets applied to the little 
(modern) towns, Acerenza, Banzi, and Forenza. celsae . . . 
nidum : Cic. de Or. 1. 19G ; Macaulay, Horat. 3, 'From many a 
lonely hamlet, | Which, hid by beech and pine, | Like an eagle's 
nest, hangs on the crest | Of purple Apennine ' ; Browning, Sor- 
dello, 'The hamlets nestled on the Tyrol's brow.' 

15,16. saltus : the 'high lawns' (Milt.). arvum pingue : 
the fat ' well-tilled lowland.' 

17. atris: deadly (1. 37. 27; Verg. G. 1. 129, ille malum virus 
serpentibus addidit atris'). Cf. 1. 17. 8. n. But the viper was 
black. 

18. premerer : Epode 1. 33. For the picture, cf. Swinburne's 
imitation of Pindar, O. 6. 54, 'Violets | fair as those that in far 
years . . . hid the limbs of lamus' ; Wordsworth, The Brownie's 
Cell, ' Where bud and bloom and fruitage glowed | Close-crowding 
round the infant-god ' ; Arnold, Merope ; Tenn. Eleanore, 2 ; 
Philostv. Imag. 2. 12. sacra : the laurel to Apollo, the myrtle to 
Venus. 

20. non sine dis: oi M**; (Ody. 18. 353). Cf. II. 5. 185. 
animosus : the high-souled babe was confirmed in the ' animosity 



BOOK III., ODE IV. 321 

of that attempt,' as Sir Thomas Browne would say, by the spe- 
cial favor of heaven. 

21. vester . . . vaster : since he is a dedicated spirit and Moi^ 
ad.uv BfpzTraiv from the cradle, he is theirs everywhere. 

22. tollor : climb, with a faint hint of ' soar ' ; 2. 7. 14 ; 2. 20. 1. 
He is eV Moiffatffi iroTavbs in every sense (Find. Pyth. 5. 114). 

22-23. frigidum Fraeneste : it was high and cool. Verg. Aen. 
7. 682 ; Juv. 3. 190 ; Horace is there, Epp. 1. 2. 2, with Homer for 
summer reading. 

23. Tibur: 1. 7. 13 ; 2. 6. 5. supinum : the slopes of. Juv. 
3. 192, proni Tibur is. 

24. liquidae : cf. 2. 20. 2. n. ; Verg. G. 4. 59, per aestatem 
liquidam ; Gray, Ode on Spring, ' And float amid the liquid noon ' ; 
Kiessling takes it of the waters. Baiae : 2. 18. 20. n. Horace 
there, Epp. 1. 15. 2 sqq. 

25. amicum: because I was dear to (1. 26. 1. n.). fontibus : 

1. 26. 6 ; Hes. Theog. 3 ; 3. 13. 13. 

26. Philippis : 2. 7. 9. Abl., whence with versa, or place with 
extinxit. 

27. devota: sc. dis inferis, accursed (Epode 16. 9), 'To de- 
struction sacred and devote' (Milt.). arbos : cf. on 2. 13; 

2. 17. 27. 

28. Nothing is known of Horace's escape from shipwreck near 
the Lucanian promontory of Palinurus named from Aeneas's pilot 
(Verg. Aen. 6. 381). 

29. utcumque : if only you be with me. Cf. 1. 17. 10. n. 

30. insanientem : cf . 3 7. 6. n. ; Tibull. 2. 4. 9, insanis . . . ven- 
tis; Propert. 1. 8. 5 ; 4. 6. 6 ; Arnold, Scholar-Gipsy, ' Where the 
Atlantic raves | Outside the western straits ' ; Verg. Eel. 9. 43. 
Bosporum: 2. 13. 14. navita : opposed to viator, 32. 

31. temptabo : 1. 28. 5. ^-urentes: cf. 1. 22. 5. n. Some 
read arentes. 

32. Assyrii = Syrii - Eastern. Cf. 2. 11. 16. 

33. Britannos: 1.35.30; Catull. 11. 11, ultimosque Britannos; 
Verg. Eel. 1. 66 ; Tac. -Ann. 14. 30, represents them as savages. 

34. Concanum : a Cantabrian tribe. See on 2. 6. 2 ; Verg. 
G. 3. 461, attributes the drinking of horse's blood and inilk to the 
Geloni. 

T 



322 NOTES. 

35. Gelonos: 2. 9. 23; 2. 20. 19. pharetratos : cf. Milton's 
' quiver' d nymph ' (Comus). 

36. Scythicum . . . amnem : the Don, Tanais. Cf. 3. 10. 1 ; 
3. 29. 28, and, for the periphrasis, 2. 9. 21. 

37. vos : returning to the leading thought, the muses and their 
gracious influence. 

38. abdidit : i.e. withdrew from public view the vast armies. 
Cf. Epp. 1. 1. 5, latet abditus agro. The Mss. vary reddidit 
assigned to, and addidit, apparently the technical term for enlarg- 
ing a colony by a settlement of veterans (Tac. Ann. 13. 31), 
are read. The disposition of. the 120,000 veterans cost Augustus 
enormous sums (Mon. Ancyr. 3. 22), necessitated widespread con- 
fiscations, and led to the founding of new towns whose names 
indicate their origin, as Aosta Merida (Emerita Augusta), Sara- 
gossa (Caesar Augusta). Cf. Merivale, 4. 65. 

39. finite: 1. 7. 17; Sat. 2. 3. 263. labores : his own and 
those of the Roman world. Cf. 2. 16. Intr. ; also 4. 15. 9. 

40. Cf. Herrick, 1124, 'After thy labour take thine ease, | Here 
with the sweet Pierides ' ; Find. Pyth. 6. 49, V /ni/xoio-t UifpiSwv ; 
Martial, 12. 11. 3, Pimpleo . . . antro. For Augustus' literary 
studie's, cf. Suet. Aug. 84. 85, and the lives of Horace and Vergil. 

41. lene : the gentle muses are /j.fi\ix6&ov\oi, and Augustus, 
who accepts the counsel they rejoice to give, is iacentem \ lenis 
in hostem; C. S. 52. consilium: trisyllabic. Cf. 3. 6. 6. 

42. scimus : the drift seems to be : Augustus is a benign ruler, 
but those who rebel against his easy yoke and attempt to throw 
the Roman world back into the chaos of civil war, will meet the 
well-known fate of the blind Titanic powers that sought to over- 
throw the fairer order established by Zeus and the bright Olympian 
deities. Horace blends the various Greek legends in one composite 
picture. 

44. sustulerit: overthrew, crushed; the subj. is (I'ZZe) qui, 45. 
Keep the Latin order: were struck down by the bolt (from the 
hands) of him who, etc. caduco : 2. 13. 11 ; (swift) descending ; 
Ko.Ta.iRa.Tns (Aesch. Prom. 359). 

45-47. All-embracing antitheses: the brute earth (1. 34. 9), the 
heaving wind-swept sea, the cities of the living and the dolorous 
realm of death, the (quiet) gods, and the agitations of man. 



BOOK III., ODE IV. 323 

45. temperat : 1. 12. 16. n. 

46. regna : 2. 13. 21. tristia: Milton's 'dolorous mansions' 
(Nativity, 14). Cf. II. 20. 64 ; Verg. Aen. 8. 245. 

49. terrorem : cf. 2. 12. 7 ; F. Q. 7. 6. 15. It is inconsistent 
with the calm omnipotence of 45-48 ; but even in Aeschylus and 
Milton the mythology is sometimes imperfectly harmonized with 
the religion. 

50. fideiis : presumptuous. horrida: i.e. horrens bracchiis, 
TTf<(>piKuia. iuventus: the Hecatoncheires (Centimanus, 69), Bri- 
areus (II. 1. 402), Gyas, and Cottus, the first brood of Uranus and 
Gaea (Apollod. 1. 1 ; Hes. Theog. 149). In Hesiod Uranus confines 
them beneath the earth. Zeus releases them, and they help him to 
defeat the Titans, whom they afterwards guard in Tartarus (Theog. 
617 sqq. ; 730 sqq.). 

51. fratres : the Aloidae, Otus and Ephialtes. Odys. 11. 308; 
Verg. G. 1. 280 ; Aen. 6. 582 ; Find. Pyth. 4. 89 ; not in Hesiod. 
opaco: Homer's elvo<ri<j>u\\ov (cf. 1. 21. 6-7. n.), which Vergil, 
G. 1. 282, renders frondosum. So Juvenal's opaci Tagi (Sat. 3. 
55) is put back into Greek by Jebb (Bologna Ode), as /ueAa/iupuA.- 
AOIO TdyoLo. Homer picturesquely puts the ' forest-rustling moun- 
tain ' on top ; but the metre often places Horace's epithets. With 
the whole cf. Ov. Met. 1. 151-155. 

52. imposuisse : cf. 1. 1. 4. n. ; 3. 18. 15. 

53. Typhoeus : in Hesiod, Theog. 820, the latest born monstrous 
offspring of earth, who, after the defeat of the Titans, wages war alone 
against Zeus; cf. also II. 2. 782 ; Verg. Aen. 9. 716 ; Aesch. Prom. 
354; Find. Pyth. 1. 16, with Arnold's imitation in ' Empedocles.' 
Milt. Nativity, 25, 'Typhon huge ending in snaky twine.' P. L. 1, 
'As whom the fables name of monstrous size, | Titanian, or Earth- 
born, that warred on Jove, | Briareus, or Typhon, whom the den | 
By ancient Tarsus held.' Mimas: in Hes. Scut. Her. 186, a cen- 
taur (?). In Eurip. Ion, 214, a giant repelled by Pallas. Apoll. 
Khod. 3. 1227. 

54. Porphyrion : king of the giants, Pind. Pyth. 8. 17 ; cf . 
Aristoph. Birds, 1252 ; cf. Keats's list, Hyper. 2 ; ' Coeus, and 
Gyges, and Briareus, | Typhon, and Dolor, and Porphyrion.' 

55. Rhoetus : 2. 19. 23. truncis : ' thrower with ' by analogy 
of ' throw with.' 



324 NOTES. 

56. Enceladus : Verg. Aen. 3. 578 ; Eurip. Ion, 209. 

57-58. contra . . . (possent) ruentes : cf. ruit, 65 ; Pallas, 
the type of heavenly wisdom, is put first. sonantem : II. 17. 595, 
Zeus thunders and shakes the Aegis. Or it may be vaguely con- 
ceived as a ringing shield; cf. 1. 15. 11. n. 

58. nine, etc.: cf. dough, Amours de Voyage, 1. 8; ' Eager for 
battle here | Stood Vulcan, here matronal Juno, | And with the 
bow to his shoulder faithful | He who with pure dew laveth of 
Castaly | His flowing locks, who holdeth of Lycia | The oak forest 
and the wood that bore him, | Delos' and Patara's own Apollo.' 
The monotonous enumeration is relieved by a picture ; cf. on 

1. 12. 29 sqq. avidus : both as devouring element (cf. Lucret. 

2. 1066, Milton's 'huge convex of fire | Outrageous to devour') 
and \i\ia6/j.evos iro\ftj.oio ; cf. Verg. Aen. 9. 661, avidnm pugnae. 
Tac. Hist. 4. 71 ; % Ann. 1. 51 ; F. Q. 1. 8. 6, 'And at him fiercely 
flew, with courage fill'd, | And eager greediness through every 
member thrill'd.' 

60. arcum: cf. 1. 21. 11 ; Eurip. Alcest. 40. 

61. Castaliae: Pind. Pyth. 1. 39; 'O Phoibos, lord of Lykia 
and of Delos, who lovest the Spring of Castaly on thy Parnassos ' 
(Myers). lavit: cf. 4. 6. 26; 2. 3. 18. n. 

63. natalemque: cf. 1. 21. 10. 

64. Patareus : of Patara in Lycia, where he spent the six win- 
ter months. Serv. on Verg. Aen. 4. 143-4. Ov. Met. 1. 516. 

65. vis, etc. : the moral of the myth in a Pindaric Sententia ; 
cf. Pyth. 8. 15; Euenus, fr. 4; F. Q. 3. 10. 2, 'Might wanting 
measure moveth surquedry ' (presumption, u/3pis); Eurip. fr. 732; 
Milton, Samson Ag. 53. 

66. temperatam : cf. Milton's 'temper'd awe,' Comus. 

67. idem odere : but they likewise hate. Cf. 2. 10. 15, 22 ; 3. 
12. 10 ; Eurip. Hel. 903. 

68. omne : cf . 3. 3. 52. n. 

69. testis : in Pindar's manner ; cf. fr. 146, rfKnalpoft.au. 0. 2. 
24; 9. 105; cf. juapTi/pe? 5e in tragedy. Gyas : 2. 17. 14. n. 

70. integrae : 1. 7. 5, intactae. 

71. temptator : only here ; a rendering of weipav (not wfipdfciv 
as eds. say). Pind. Nem. 5. 30 ; ' In part she is to blame that has 
been tried, 11 Lady Mary Montagu ; cf. F. Q. 1. 5. 35, ' tempt the 



BOOK III., ODE V. 325 

queen of heaven,' etc. Orion: 2. 13. 39. The legends varied. 
Horace follows that found in Cic. Arat. 420. Hygin. astr. 2. 34. 

72. domitus sagitta : Solely biary. Cf. Find. Pyth. 4. 90, 
' moreover, Tityos was the quarry of Artemis' swift arrow sped 
from her invincible quiver' (Myers). 

73. iniecta : vasta giganteis iniecta est insula membris, Ov. 
Met. 5. 346. The material earth groans with physical oppression 
((TTovax'C T ffTeivoufvri, Hes. Theog. 160), the poetically per- 
sonified earth mourns her offspring, as she does in the Pergamene 
frieze. 

74. luridum : the realm of ' flickering spectres lighted from 
below | By the red race of fiery Phlegethon' (Tenn.). 

75. nee peredit : his punishment endures. Fire eats already 
in II. 23. 182. It 'devours with angry jaws,' Aesch. Prom. 368. 

76. impositam . . . Aetnam : the legends varied. Cf. Claud, 
de R. Pros. 1. 152, Aetna giganteos (over the giants, cf. 3. 1. 7) 
numquam tacitura triumphos; Verg. Aen. 3. 578, Callim. Hymn. 
Del. 141-143 ; Arnold, Empedocles, ' Typho only, the rebel o'er- 
thrown, | Through whose heart Etna drives her roots of stone.' 

77. incontinentis : lustful. Tityi : cf. 2. 14. 8. n. ; Find. 
Pyth. 4. 90; Spenser, Vergil's Gnat, 48, 'And there is mournful 
Tityus mindful yet | Of thy displeasure, O Latona fair.' 

78. ales : the vulture that preyed on his liver (Verg. Aen. 6, 
597). nequitiae : technical, like peccare. Cf. 3. 15. 2 ; Ov. Am. 
2. 1. 2, Ille ego nequitiae Naso poeta meae. additus: a guard 
that can't be shaken off. Cf. Vergil's Teucris addita luno (Aen. 
6. 90) ; so vpooKtiiJitvos, Plato, Apol. 30 E. 

79. amatorem : ironical ; not amantem. Cf. the jealous wife 
in Plautus, surge, amator, i domum; some detect a hint of 
Antony, who 'kissed away kingdoms.' trecentae: 2. 14. 5, 26. 

80. Pirithoum : cf. 4. 7. 28. n. ; with Theseus he attempted to 
carry, off Proserpina. 

ODE V. 

Of this poem Landor (Pentameron) says, ' in competition with 
which ode, the finest in the Greek language itself has to my ear 
too many low notes and somewhat of a wooden sound.' 



326 NOTES. 

See, also, Lang, Letters to Dead Authors, p. 209, ' We talk of 
the Greeks as your teachers. Your teachers they were, but that 
poem could only have been written by a Roman ! The strength, 
the tenderness, the noble and monumental resolution and resig- 
nation, these are the gifts of the lords of human things, the 
masters of the world.' 

1. caelo: with regnare. Cf. 1. 12. 57-58. tonantem : both 
epithet (Lex. s.v. II. B), and cause of credidimus Lucret. 5. 
1187-93. 

2. praesens: cf. 1. 35. 2; 4. 14. 43; Epp. 2. 1. 15; Ov. Trist. 
2. 54, per te praeseutem conspicuumque deum; Veget. R. M. 2. 5, 
imperator . . . tamquam praesenti et corpora?! deo. 

3. adiectis : i.e. cum adiecerit. Britannia: 1. 35. 30. n. 

4. imperio : 1. 2. 26. n. gravibus: 1. 2. 22. 

5. Crassi : cf. Intr. 3. 1-6. coniuge barbara : abl. abs. 
motivating turpis maritus. But ' husband by a wife ' = ' husband 
of a wife ' is a possible construction. For the shame cf. Vergil's 
nefas, Aegyptia coniux (Aen. 8. 688). 

6. vixit : closely with maritus, endured to live as. curia, that 
Senate (house) which the envoy of Pyrrhus pronounced an assem- 
bly of kings, whose elders, refusing to abandon Rome, had awaited, 
each on his curule chair, the approach of the victorious Gauls 
(Livy, 5. 41). Cf. Cic. pro Plancio, 71, stante urbe et curia. 

8. socerorum : avoid father-in-law. Cf. 3. 11. 39. n. For pi., 
cf. II. 3. 49. in armis : Bentley would read, with some Mss., 
in arvisj the Parthians enlisted captives and slaves (Justin. 41. 
2. 5). 

9. The good old Italian names in invidious juxtaposition with 
the hateful name of king and Mede. Cf. 1. 37. 7. n. 

10. Cf. Macaulay, Regillus, 38, ' Hail to the great Asylum ! 
Hail to the hill-tops seven ! Hail to the fire that burns for aye, | 
And the shield that fell from heaven.' Anciliorum : cf. Lex. 
s.v. and Harper's Class. Diet. s.v. fialii. nominis : civis Eoma- 
nussum! togae : Verg. Aen. 1. 282, Romanos, rerum dominos 
gentemque togatam. 

11. Vestae: Macaulay, Capys, 15, 'And there, unquenched 
through ages, | Like Vesta's sacred fire, | Shall live the spirit of 



BOOK HI., ODE V. 327 

thy nurse, | The spirit of thy sire.' Virginesque Vestales in 
urbe custodiunto ignem foci publici sempiteruum (Cic. de. leg. 
2. 20). 

12. Incolumi love: i.e. Salvo Capitolio. Cf. 3. 30. 8. n. 

13. hoc : note effective Latin order, ' 'twas just this ... he 
guarded against ... in his forethought . . . did Regulus when he,' 
etc. "Twas this that Regulus foresaw, | What time he spurn'd' 
(Conington). Reguli : Consul, 256, captured in Africa by Car- 
thaginians, 255 (Polyb. 1. 34). Sent by them to Roman Senate, 
250, to treat for peace, or, failing that, for an exchange of pris- 
oners, he advised the Senate (auctor . . . fuit) to reject both propo- 
sitions (Livy, Epit. XVIII). A favorite text ; cf. Cic. de Or. 3. 
109; deOff. 1. 39; 3. 99. 

14. condicionibus : the terms of peace ; dative. 

15. exemplo : the precedent of ransoming soldiers that had not 
known how to die. Cf. Livy, 22. 60. trahentis: so Mss. ; with 
Beguli ; drawing from such precedent (a presage of) ruin for 
future time. The precedent is defined by si non periret. Ovid 
has traxit in exemplitm, Met. 8. 245. Eds. generally read trahenti 
with exemplo, which they construe.with dissentientis. 

16. veniens : Lucan, 7. 390, populos aevi venientis. Cf. Vavenir, 
and the ' To-come ' in Tenn. and Shelley. 

17. periret: cf. 1. 3. 36. n. But the ictus does not fall on 
the lengthened syllable here, and some read perires or perirent. 
Or we may say that Horace permits himself the Greek form 
\j w- 

18. signa : Horace wishes the reader to think of the standards 
of Crassus in Parthia. Cf . 4. 15. 6. ego : his own eyes have 
seen the shame during his five years' captivity. 

20-21. militibus sine caede . . . derepta: with cumulative 
irony. Cf. Arnold, Culture and Anarchy, chap. 2, ' If he had 
allowed his soldiers to interfere their rifles (might have been) 
taken from them . . . with bloodshed' ; Verg. Aen. 11. 193, spolia 
occisis derepta Latinis. 

21. civium: yes, civium Romanorum. 

22. retorta (u) tergo: cf. Epp. 2. 1, max trahitur manibus 
regum fortunn retortis. An ingenious commentator has recently 
taken it not of the Roman captives but of the Carthaginians strolling 



328 NOTES. 

peacefully with hands clasped behind their backs! libero: a 
liberty they had not known how to guard like the freeman. Cf. 
4. 14. 18. For the transfer, cf. 3. 2. 10, timido teryo. 

23. portas: of Carthage no longer fearing the Romans, cf. 
A. P. 199, apertis otia portis. Cf. Lang, Helen of Troy, 6. 9. 

23-24. arva . . . coli: for syntax, cf. 2. 9. 19-22. n. 

25. Cf. Livy, 22. 60, speech of T. Manlius Torquatus against 
ransoming the captives of Cannae, pretio redituri estis eo unde 
iynavia ac neqiiitia abiistis? 

26. flagitio : the disgrace of their cowardice. 

27. damnum: the injury to the morale of the Roman army 
hinted at in scilicet acrior, and explained in 26-3G. Others take 
it naively of the ' damnation of the expense,' a satiric (Sat. 2. 2. 
96) but hardly an heroic thought. Cf. The Tempest, 4. 1, 'There 
is not only disgrace and dishonor in that, monster, but an infinite 
loss 1 ; Eurip.(?) Rhes. 102. 

27-32. neque . . . nee ... si ... erit : two allegorical parallels 
illustrating the thought that valor, like chastity, is irrecoverably 
forfeited by a single lapse. For this scheme of expression by para- 
tactic simile, cf. Aesch. Sept. 564 ; Suppl. 226, 443 sqq. ; Ag. 322 ; 
Eumen. 694 ; Choeph. 258 ; Find. 0. 10. 13, etc. 

27. colores: i.e. its native hues, the simplex ille candor of 
Quintil. 1. 1. 5. 

28. medicata : dyed with false hues. So <f>ap/j.d<T<Teii>. 

29. semel: 1. 24. 16. n. 

30. curat: with inf. 2. 13. 39. deterioribus : dat., the loss 
(excidit) makes them so. Homer could never have so complicated 
his simple, ' Whatever day | Makes man a slave, takes half his 
worth away' ; Od. 17. 302 (Pope). 

33. perfidis: cf. 4. 4. 49. n. ; with credidit, cf. 3. 7. 13; 3. 
27. 25. 

34. marte : as in 24, war; cf. 1. 7. 22. n. altero: a second 
= another = some future. 

36. iners : helpless, submissively, tamely. Cf . inertiae, 4. 0. 
29 ; Epp. 1. 5. 17, ad proelia trudit inertem. 

37. unde . . . sumeret : represents dubitative unde sumam. 
Forgetting that the soldier must keep his life with the sword, he 
confounds war with peace (and tries to buy it ?). 



BOOK III , ODE V. 329 

40. minis: 'by the,' instr. abl., but virtually 'above the.' 

41. fertur : ' sti'.l is the story told ' how, etc. Note the modula- 
tion from the passion of Rcgu'.us' peroratiori to the quiet, awestruck 
description of his heroic sel. -sacrifice. Lines 41-56 are translated 
by Thomson, Liberty, 3, ' Hence Regulus the wavering fathers 
firmed | By dreadful counsel never given before ; (45, 46) . . . On 
earth his manly look | Relentless fix'd, he from a last embrace, | 
By chains polluted, put his wife aside,' etc. pudicae : 4. 9. 23. 

42. capitis minor : caput is status ; capitis deminutio is total or 
partial loss of civic rights. Cf. Livy, 22. 60, sero mine desideratis, 
deminuti capite, abalienati iure civium, servi Carthaginiensium 
facti. With heroic Roman pedantry Regulus, applying this tech- 
nicality to himself, declined to speak from his place in the Senate 
(Cic. de Off. 3. 27) or to claim the rights of a paterfamilias. 

44. torvus : sternly, grimly. 

45-46. donee . . . firmaret: may be taken as determined by 
the dependence on fertur ; but ' while he was ' blends with ' until 
he could' (get through with the hard duty). Cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 5. 

46. auctor : by the weight of his authority ; but cf. Livy, cited 
on 1. 13. alias : before or after. 

48-51. egregius . . . exsul: cf.' 3. 3. 38. n. ; 3. 11. 35. n. 
properaret and dimovit may express the alacrity of duty done, or 
his impatience of distressing importunity, and desire to 'have it 
over. ' 

49. atqui : and yet, /ecu'. Cf. 3. 7. 9 ; 1. 23. 9 ; Cic. Off. 3. 27, 
neque vero turn ignorabat he knew all the while. 

50. tortor: completes the legend (Cic. Off. 3. 27; Gell. 7. 4), 
but has no historical authority. The whole story is unknown to 
Polybius. 

50-53. non aliter . . . quam si: with like unconcern as 
though, Con. 

52. reditus : -um -um -em would have been cacophonous. Cf . 
Epode 16. 35. 

53. longa : tedious. For this burdensome duty of a great Roman 
towards his clients, cf. Epp. 2. 1. 104 ; 1. 5. 31. 

54. diiudicata : it does not appear whether he is conceived 
as counsel or judge (arbitrator) . relinqueret : had been or 
were leaving ; rura subnrbana indu-tis . . . ire Latinis, Epp. 



330 NOTES. 

1. 7. 76 is an anachronism for the age of Regulus ; but the 
picture is timeless. 

55. Venafranos : 2. 6. 16. 

56. Lacedaemonium : 2. 6. 12-13. n. Note the quiet, idyllic 
close. Cf. Sellar, p. 184. 



ODE VI. 

Horace apparently sets out to celebrate the moral and religious 
reforms of Augustus, but lapses into pessimistic reflections on 
modern degeneracy, from which he fails to return to the more 
cheerful theme. 

Cf. on 3. 24 ; 2. 15 ; 4. 5. 20-25 ; 4. 15. 10-15 ; C. S. 17-20, 45. 

Translation in Dodsley, 3. 18 ; by Roscommon, Johnson's Poets, 
8. 271. 

1. maiorum : especially the generation of the civil wars, 8831. 
immeritus : cf. 1. 17. 28. n. ; here not generally guiltless, but 
innocent of the ' sins of the fathers,' which are visited upon them. 
Cf. Solon, fr. 13. 29-32 ; Eurip. fr. 980 ; Exod. 20. 5 ; Ezek. 18. 2. 

2. Romane : so sing, Sat. 1. 4. 85 ; Verg. Aen. 6. 851 ; Macaul., 
' Thine, Roman, is the pilum.' refeceris, etc. ; aedas sacras vetns- 
tate conlapsas aut incendio absumptas refecit (Suet. Aug. 30). Cf. 
Mon. Ancyr. 4. 17 ; Ov. Fast. 2. 63, templorum sancte repostor. 

3. deorum et : 3. 3. 71. 

5. 6. dis, etc. : even Greek sceptics commended the Roman 
religion as a social and political safeguard (Polyb. 6. 56 ; Gaston 
Boissier, Relig. Rom. 1. 28-36). Cf. Propert. 4. 10. 64, haec di 
condiderunt, haec di quoque moenia servant; Cic. N. D. 3. 5. 
minorem : 1. 12. 57 ; ' walkest humbly with thy gods.' 

6. nine : a verb corresponding to refer is felt, but not ' supplied.' 
Cf. hinc illae lacrimae. principium : as 3. 4. 41. Cf. Liv. 45. 
39, maiores vestri omnium magnarum rerum et principia exorsi ab 
dis sunt et finem statuerunt. 

7. neglect! : 3. 2. 30; Liv. 3. 20, sed nondum haec quae nunc 
tenet saeculum neglegentia deorum venerat. 

8. Hesperiae: 2. 1. 32; 1. 36. 4. 

9. ' Let Crassus' ghost and Labienus' tell | How twice in Par- 



BOOK III., ODE VI. 331 

thian plains their legions fell. | Since Rome hath been so jealous of 
her fame, | That few know Pacorus' or Monaeses' name ' (Ros- 
common, Essay on Translated Verse). bis: three defeats are 
known : that of Crassus at Carrhae, B.C. 53 ; that of Decidius Saxa 
by Pacorus, B.C. 40 ; avenged by Ventidius, B.C. 38 (cf. Ant. and 
Cle. 3. 1); the disastrous repulse of Antony, B.C. 36. A Monaeses 
is mentioned (Dio, 49. 23. 24) as an exiled pretendant to the 
Parthian throne, supported by Antony. Horace cared as little for 
the historical details as we do. mantis : 4. 11. 9 ; Epode 16. 4. 

10. non auspicatos : may refer vaguely to the dire auspices 
under which Crassus set out (Veil. 2. 46; Cic. Div. 1. 29), or to 
neglect of auspices in some other campaign, or to the general dis- 

- pleasure of heaven. contudit : 4. 3. 8. 

11. adiecisse: 1. 1.4. n. praedam : our rich spoils, contrasted 
with exiyuis. 

12. torquibus : cf. the a-rptirTol and tyt\ia mentioned as insignia 
of honor (Xen. Anab. 1. 2. 27 ; Cyrop. 8. 2. 8). renidet : 2. 18. 2 ; 
yrins with delight, beams with joy, = gaudet, hence inf. 

13. paene : with delevit. 

14. Dacus : i.e. the tribes of the north with Antony (Dio, 51. 
22; Verg. G. 2. 497, descendens Dacus ab Histro). Aethiops: 
the Egyptian fleet of Cleopatra (Verg. Aen. 8. 687 sqq.). 

17 sqq. The fountain-head of evil is the corruption of the pure 
family life of old Rome. Cf. 3. 24. 20-24 ; 4. 5. 21-24 ; C. S. 17 ; 
Juv. Sat. 2. 126, pater nrbis \ unde nefastantum Latiis pastoribus? 

18. inquinavere : Epode 16. 64. 

21. motus . . . lonicos : ' skirt-dances ' will serve. Cf. Athen. 
14. 629 E ; Plaut. Pseud. 1274 ; Stich. 767. With motus cf. Epp. 
2. 2. 125, movetur ; A. P. 232, moveri. Roman moralists were as 
severe censors of dancing as Byron. Cf. Sail. Cat. 25, psallere et 
saltare elegantius quam necesse est probae. 

22. matura : 'the rare ripe maid' (Gildersleeve). artibus : 
of the coquette. 

23. iam nunc : before marriage. Cf. mox, 25. 

24. de tenero . . . ungui : e'| aira\uv ovvxtav, i.e. from the quick, 
means in every fibre, with all her soul, through every nerve, to the 
finger-tips. Cf. Anth. Pal. 5. 129 ; 5. 14 ; Plut. de lib. educ. 5 ; 
Plaut. Stich. 759, usque ex unguiculis. It is apparently also used 



332 NOTES. 

in the sense 'from infancy' (Lyd. de Magg. 2. 26; Cic. ad Fam. 
1.6). 

33. non his : not from such fathers and mothers sprang the 
youth who, etc. 

34. infecit aequor : 2. 12. 3 ; sc. in the great naval battles of 
the first Punic war. 

35. Pyrrhum: at Beneventum, B.C. 275. Of. 1. 12. 41. n. 
ingentem : i.e. magnum, Antiochus the Great, defeated at Mag- 
nesia, B.C. 190. 

36. dirum : 2. 12. 2. n. ; 4. 4. 42 ; ' the dreaded name of 
Hannibal ' (Martin) ; ' Forced even dire Hannibal to yield, | 
And won the long-disputed world at Zama's fatal field ' (Ros- 
common). , 

37. 'The hardy offspring of a yeoman soldiery.' 

38. Sabellis : cf. 1. 31. 9. The Sabines type the old Italian 
virtue (Verg. G. 2. 532, hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini). 
Cf. Livy, 1. 18. 4. 

39. severae : cf. Lucret. 5. 1357, agricolae . . . severi. 
41-44. portare fustes : after field work was done they must 

still hew and fetch fagots, at the command and to the content- 
ment of (ad arbitrium} the stern matron. sol . . . curru: a 
quiet evening idyll. Cf. Tenn. In Mem. 121, ' The team is loosened 
from the wain, |"The boat is drawn upon the shore,' etc. 

41-42. ubi . . . mutaret : probably subj. of repeated action (cf. 
Catull. 63. 67), though ^t may be taken in subordination to the 
implied command (arbitrium). In the cases of the plupf. indie, 
cited from Horace, the ubi clause is more distinctly prior in time, 
and the subj. would be metrically inconvenient. Epp. 1. 15. 34. 
39 ; Epode 11. 13. 

42. umbras : Verg. Eel. 1. 84, maioresque cadunt altis de monti- 
bus umbrae. iuga demeret: cf. 0ov\vr6s; Verg. Eel. 2. 66, 
aspice, aratra iugo refemnt suspensa iuvenci. In Hesiod, Op. 581, 
dawn TTO\\O'IITI 5' twl vya /3ov<rl Tidrfffi ; El. in Maec. 99-100. 

43. amicum : welcome ; ' Oh Hesperus, thou bringest all things 
good.' 

44. agens abeunte : faint oxymoron. For agens, cf. Verg. 
Eel. 8. 17. curru: Epp. 1. 16. 6, sol . . . discedens curru fugi- 
ente. Cf. Car. Saec. 9-10. n. 



BOOK III., ODE VII. 333 

45. damnosa : note effective position : alas ! the ravages of 
time. imminuit : has and does. 

46. peior avis : cf. 2. 14. 28. n. 

47. daturos : cf. 2. 3. 4. n. Without this fut. part. Horace 
could hardly have packed four generations in three lines. Cf. 
Arat. Phaen. 123. 

ODE VII. 

The best commentary on this pretty idyl which comes to relieve 
the severity of the preceding odes is Austin Dobson's charming 
imitation, 'Outwai'd Bound.' Cf. also Sellar, p. 170. 

There is a coarse imitation by Stepney, Johnson's Poets, 8. 360. 

Weep not, Asterie, for thy absent lover Gyges. He will remain 
constant despite the arts of his hostess Chloe and the naughty mytho- 
logical precedents quoted by her emissaries. But thou 'On thy 
side forbear | To greet with too impressed an air,' the gallant 
Enipeus who witches the world with noble horsemanship on the 
Campus Martius. 

' Without a trace | Of acquiescence in your face | Hear in the 
waltz's breathing space | His airy chatter. | If when you sing you 
find his look | Grow tender, close your music book, | And end the 
matter.' 

1. Asterie: the name is significant. Cf. on sidere pulchrior, 

3. 9. 21 ; Anacreon's 'Acrrepis and Plato's 'Ayr-ftp. candidi : i.e. 
brightening. Epithet, fr. effect. . Cf. on 1. 5. 7 ; 1. 7. 15 ; 2. 9. 3. 
Swinburne, 'Rolls under the whitening wind | Of the future the 
wave of the world.' 

2. Favonii : cf. on 1. 4. 1 ; 4. 12. 2. 

3. Thyna = Bithyna here. Cf. Claud. Eutrop. 2. 247 ; Thyni 
Thraces arant qnae nunc Bithynia fertur. merce: cf. 1. 35. 7; 
Epp. 1. 6. 33, Bithyna negotia. beatum: cf. on 1. 4. 14; Manil. 

4. 758, Bithynia dives; Catull. 31. 5. 

4. fide: archaic gen. 

5. Gygen : note position. For the name, cf. Tvyns 6 Tro\i>xpvtros 
(Archil, fr. 25). Oiicum . Gyges has been driven into the harbor 
of Oricum in Epirus by autumn storms, and there impatiently 
awaits the opening of the next season's navigation to cross the 
Adriatic to Italy. Cf. Propert. 1. 8. 19, Ut tefelicipost laeta Ce~ 



334 NOTES. 

raunia (cf. on 1. 3. 20) remo \ accipiat placidis Oricos aequoribus 
cf. on 4. 5. 9-12. 

6. insana: cf. on 3. 4. 30 ; 3. 29. 19. Caprae : its rising was 
end q Sept., its setting end of Dec., signum pluviale Capellae (Ov. 
Fast. 5. 113). 

7. non sine : cf. on 1. 23. 3. 

9. atqui: 1. 23. 9; 3. 5. 49 ; Epode 5. 67. sollicitae : sc. 
amore, as in Sat. 2. 3. 253. hospitae : i.e. Chloe, at whose house 
he lodges. 

10-11. tuis . . . ignibus uri: subtly blends Gyye and Gyyis 
amore. Chloe burns for Asterie's ' flame ' with a fire of love such 
as Asterie feels. Cf. Ov. Am. 3. 9. 56, vixisti dum tuus ignis eram ; 
cf. 1. 27. 20. And for the internal 'flame,' cf. 1. 19. 5; 4. 1. 12; 
3. 19. 28. In this sense meis ignihus is like meos sentire furores 
(Propert. 1. 5. 3); tuis of course is the indirect report of the poet. 

12. temptat: cf. on tentntor, 3. 4. 71. mille vafer modis : 
in a thousand artful ways (Martin). 

12-20. Chloe's messenger tells of the Josephs of antiquity, Bel- 
lerophon (II. 6. 155 sqq.) and Peleus (Pind. Nem. 4. 56 ; Plato, Rep. 
391 C; Aristoph. Clouds, 1063), each falsely accused by a woman 
scorned, and almost done to death by the too credulous husband. 

13. perfida credulum : cf. on 1. 6. 9. 

16. maturare : note force of verb ; inflict untimely death. 

17. datum . . . Tartaro : cf. leto dare. datum Pelea : cf. on 
2. 4. 10. 

18. Magnessam : as distinguished from the Amazon Hippolyte. 

19. peccare: technical. Cf. 1. 27. 17; Propert. 3. 30. 51, quam 
facere ut nostrae nolint peccare puellae. 

20. movet: starts. Cf. mentionem movere. Some read monet. 
21-22. frustra: cf. 3. 13. 6. 'In vain. Let doubts assail the 

weak. | Unmoved and calm as "Adam's Peak" | Your "blame- 
less Arthur" hears them speak' (Dobson). scopulis surdior 
. . . audit : cf. Epode 17. 54 ; Verg. Aen. 6. 471 ; and for the oxy- 
moron Eurip. Medea, 28. Icari : probably the island, cf. 1. 1. 15. 

22. integer: 2. 4. 22. at: 'But Laura, on your side, forbear' 
(Dobson). Cf. on 2. 18. 9 ; Epode 2. 29. 

23. Enipeus : the name of a Thessalian river, the chider, 
brawler. Cf. Hebri, 3. 12. 6. 



BOOK III., ODE VIII. 335 

24. plus iusto : so plus aequo in Ovid's cur mihi plus aequo 
fl'i.i-l pliit-nere capilU f 

25. flectere equum : cf. Tac. Ger. 6, variare gyros, ghaks. 
Hen. IV. 1, 'Turn and wind a fiery Pegasus'; F. Q., 'and under 
him a gray steed he did wield.' Verg. Aen. 9. 606, flectere ludus 
equos. 

2(3. gramine Martio : cf. Epp. 2. 3. 162, gramlne Campi. 

28. Tusco: 1. 20. 6. n. denatat : for the swiui in Tiber, cf. 
1. 8. 8. n. ; 3. 12. 7. The word is found only here. 

29-30. Cf. Ov. Am. 2. 19. 38, Incipe iam prima claudere nocte 
forem; and Shylock's admonition to Jessica, M. of V. 2. 6, 
' Lock up my doors, and when you hear the drum | And the vile 
squealing of the wrynecked fife, | Clamber not you up to the case- 
ments then.' sub cantu, i.e. during the serenade ; contrast sub 
with ace. 1.9. 19. querulae: plaining. despice : not despise, 
but look down. 

32. duram: cruel; Catull. 30.2; Verg. Aen. 4. 428. diffi- 
cilis : obdurate ; cf. 3. 10. 11. 



ODE VIII. 

You are puzzled, learned friend Maecenas, by a bachelor's sacri- 
ficing on the ladies' Kalends. 'Tis the day of my escape from the 
falling tree. Come, quaff a hundred cups to the preservation of 
your friend. Dismiss your cares of state, ' and what the Mede 
intends and what the Dacian.' Our foes have yielded to Roman 
prowess or are wrangling among themselves. Forget for once that 
you are a public personage, cease to borrow trouble, and enjoy the 
gifts of the passing hour. 

The date is fixed by 17-23. Maecenas is in fact, if not in title, 
iirbis cuslodiis praepositus (Veil. 2. 88. 2 ; cf. Tac. Ann. 6. 11), in 
the absence of Octavian, who returned to Rome in the summer of 
B.C. 29. There was fighting against the Dacians, who had helped 
Antony, in B.C. 30-28. Rome perhaps heard of the contest between 
Phraates and Tirklates for the throne of Parthia in January, B.C. 29. 
Cf. on 1. 26. The dramatic date, then, is March 1st, 29, and the fall 
of the tree occurred March 1st, B.C. 30. Cf. on 2. 13. But Friedrich, 
Horatius, p. 74, argues for date of March, B.C. 26. 



336 NOTES. 

1. Martiia . . . Kalendis: the femineae Kalendae of Juvenal 
(9. 53), on which the Matronalia were celebrated near Maecenas' 
house on the Esquiline in honor of Juno Lucina. Cf. Ov. Fast. 
3. 245 sqq. ; Martial, 5. 84. 10. 

2. velint: mean. flores: Ov. 1. 1. 253, ferte cleae flores. 

4. caespite: 1. 19. 13. n. 

5. docte: Epp. 1. 19. 1, Maecenas docte. sermones: in the lore, 
the literature. utriusque : only Greek and Latin count. Cf . utrius- 
que linguae auctoribus, Suet. Aug. 89 ; Plut. Lucull. 1 ; Cic. Off. 1. 
1 ; Plin. N. H. 12. 11 ; Stat. Silv. 5. 3. 90, gemina . . . lingua. Fried- 
rich, Op. 1. p. 75, thinks Latin and Etruscan are the two tongues. 

6. voveram : sc. prior to these preparations and your wonder. 
album : black victims were offered dis inferis. 

I. Libero : the poet's protector, though Faunus warded off the 
blow, 2. 17. 28. capiuni : the enemy of the vine was appro- 
priately sacrificed to the vine god. Verg. G. 2. 380 ; Ov. Fast. 
1. 357 = Anth. Pal. 9. 75 ; 9. 99. 5-6 ; Mart. 3. 24. 2. 

9. anno redeunte : with the returning season. Cf. Sat. 2. 2. 
83, Sive diem festum rediens advexerit annus 3. 18. 10; 3. 22. 6. 
festus : 3. 14. 13. 

10-12. In order to mellow the wine, the Apotheca was placed so 
as to receive the smoke of the furnaces. This necessitated careful 
sealing (with pitch). Cf. Columell. 1. 6. 20 ; Ov. Fast. 5. 518, 
promit fumoso condita vina cado. 

II. bibere : to smoke is viveiv Kaw6v in modern Greek. 
institutae : set or placed (so as) to ; others ' taught. ' 

12. Consule Tullo: a Tullus was consul in B.C. 66 and in 33. 
Horace probably served something better than Sabine Ordinaire 
on this occasion. Cf. 3. 21. 1. n. ; Tibull. 2. 1. 27. 

13-14. amici sospitis : gen. of the toast. Cf. 3. 19. 9. n. 

14. vigiles : cf. Anth. Pal. 5. 197, <f>i\d-ypvTrvov \i>xvov. Cf. 3. 
21. 23-24. 

15. perfer : Tyrrell, Lat. Poetry, 197, says this can only mean 
' endure the smoke of the lamps till dawn.' But vigiles is a trans- 
ferred epithet, and to ' wake with the lamps till dawn ' would try 
the nerves of the valetudinarian Maecenas. procul, etc. : it is 
to be verecundus Bacchus, 1. 27. 3, not a noisy revel. Cf. Ody. 1. 

369, /UTjSe &Or)TVS | fffTW. 



BOOK III., ODE IX. 337 

17. mitte, etc. Cf. the defense of Maecenas' Epicureanism in 
El. in Maec. 93, sic est, victor amet, victor potiatur in umbra, \ 
victor odorata dormiat inque rosa. The victors of Actium had 
earned the right to take their ease. But Horace does not mention 
Actium. super : 1. 9. 5; 1. 12. 6. 

18. occidit: 1. 28. 7 ; 4. 4. 70. Cotisonis : cf. Introd. and 
Suet. Aug. 63. 

19. infestus; sc. Romanis, our enemy the Mede. sibi: best 
taken primarily with luctuosis, but felt with infestus and perhaps 
with dissidet, which, however, may be used absolutely. 

22. Cantaber : 2. 6. 2. n. Spain was the first province entered 
by the Romans, but the last to be finally subdued (Livy, 28. 12). 
domitua : referring to the successes of Statilius Taurus and Cal- 
visius Sabinus, B.C. 29-28. 

23. Scythae : 2. 9. 23 ; 4. 14. 42. 

25. neglegens ne : as if nee . . . legens, not taking anxious 
thought lest. 

26. parce : i.e. noli. 

27. dona . . . horae : cf . 2. 16. 32 ; 3. 29. 48. n. Cf. Milton to 
Cyriac Skinner, 'For other things mild Heav'n a time ordains, | 
And disapproves that care, though wise in show, | That with 
superfluous burden loads the day, | And, when God sends a cheer- 
ful hour, refrains.' 

ODE IX. 

Horace (?) and Lydia, or the lovers' quarrel. Amantium irae 
amoris integratio est (Ter. Andr. 555; cf. Plaut. Amphitr. 940- 
944). 'And little quarrels often prove | To be but new recruits 
of love' (Butler). 'Blessings on the falling out, which all the 
more endears ' (Tenn.). 

A general favorite. Translations or imitations, by Ben Jonson, 
Herrick (181), Austin Dobson, Edwin Arnold, Alfred de Musset, 
Ponsard (who expands it into a charming little drama), etc. 

Cf. also Rowe, Johnson's Poets, 9. 472 ; Somervile, ibid. 11. 
206; Boyse, ibid. 14. 542; Jenyns, ibid. 17. 616; Cambridge, 
ibid. 18. 294 ; Dodsley's Poems, 2. 49 ; Davidson's Poetical Rhap- 
sody (ed. Sullen), Vol. 1, p. 87 ; ibid. Vol. 2, p. 181. 



338 NOTES. 

2. potior: i.e. preferred, favored. Cf. Tibull. 1. 5. 69, At tu, 
qui potior nunc es, meafata timeto. 

3. dabat: i.e. circumdabat. 

4. Persarum rege : proverbial for happiness (2. 2. 17 ; 2. 12. 
21); in Elizabethan version, ' King of Spain.' 

5-6. alia . . . arsisti : burn with love for another. Cf. 2. 4. 7. 

6. Lydia : cf. 1. 8. 1 ; 1. 13. 1 ; 1. 25. 8. Chloe : cf. 1. 23. 1 ; 
3. 7. 10 ; 3. 26. 12. 

7. multi nominis : lit. of much name ; gen. of quality ; iro\v<e- 
W/J.OS, [ieya.\(ai>ufj.os ; his verses spread her name and fame abroad. 
Cf. 1. 36. 13 ; r, VijS^Tos (Anth. Pal. 5. 150; 7. 345). 

8. Ilia : 1. 2. 17 ; 3. 3. 32. 

10. docta . . . modos : cf. docte sermones (3. 8. 5). Cf. 4. 
6. 43; 3. 11. 7; 4. 11. 34. citharae sciens : 1. 15. 24. 

12. animae : animast arnica amanti (Plaut. Bacch. 191); 'Soul 
of my soul,' Ant. to Cleopatra (Term.); 'HAio5a>/>ac | i^X??" "}* 
^"X^ s (Anth. Pal. 5. 155). superstiti : proleptic, to survive ine. 

13. mutua: 4. 1. 30. 

14. Thurini, etc. : the details lend verisimilitude. Cf. 1. 27. 
10-11 ; 3. 12. 6. There may be a hint of the luxury of Thurii on 
the site of old Sybaris. 

15. bis : so in Vergil's eclogues the respondent strives to outbid 
the expression of the first singer; 51 y Qavftv (Eurip. Orest. 1116). 

17. redit Venus : cf. Dobson, ' Love comes back to his vacant 
dwelling, | The old old love that we knew of yore.' 

18. cogit: 2.3.25; 3. 3. 51. iugo. . . aeneo : 1. 33. 11 ; 1. 13. 
18. Merchant of V. 3. 4, 'whose souls do bear an equal yoke of 
love.' 

19. flava: 1. 5. 4 ; 2. 4. 14. excutitur faintly suggests excu- 
tere collo iugum ; 'Admit I Chloe put away | And love again love- 
cast-off Lydia ' ( Herri ck). 

20. ianua : metaphorical if Lydiae is dative, literal if genitive. 
To cite 3. 15. 9 is to insult Lydia. But cf. Anth. Pal. 5. 164. For 
metaphor, cf. Much Ado, 4. 1, ' For thee I'll lock up all the gates 
of love.' 

21. sidere pulchrior : cf . 3. 19. 26 ; II. 6. 401 ; ' And like a star 
upon her bosom lay | His beautiful and shining golden head ' 
(Hobbes) ; ' Fair as a star when only one | Is shining in the sky ' 



BOOK in., ODE x. 339 

(Wordsworth); 'Whereon the lily maid of Astolat | Lay smiling 
like a star in blackest night' (Tenn. Lan. and Elaine). 

22. levior : lighter, i.e. unstable, fickle. improbo : 3. 24. 62. n. 

23. iracundior : Horace says of himself, irasci celerem, tamen 
ut placabilis essem. Hadria : 1. 33. 15. 

24. tecum, etc.: Tibull. 1. 1. 59, Te spectem, suprema mihi 
cum venerit hora, \ Te teneam moriens deficiente manu ; 'Then 
finish, dear Chloe, this pastoral war ; | And let us, like Horace and 
Lydia, agree : | For thou art a girl as much brighter than her, | As 
he was a poet subliiner than me' (Prior, A Better Answer). 



ODE X. 

An imitation of the vapaK\avffiOvpov, or lament of the excluded 
lover before the door of his mistress. Cf. 1. 25. 7 ; Anth. Pal. 5. 
23 ; Propert. 1. 16 ; Ov. Am. 2. 19. 21 ; Burns, ' O Lassie, art thou 
sleeping yet ? ' 

Rendered as Rondeau by Austin Dobson, ' Not Don's barbarian 
maids I trow | Would treat their luckless lovers so.' 

A Lyce grown old is addressed in 4. 13. 

1. Tanain . . . biberes : cf . on 2. 20. 20 ; 4. 15. 21. 

2. saevo : a part of the supposition, for Scythians punished 
infidelity with death, 3. 24. 24. asperas : cf. Epode 11. 21, non 
amicos . . . pastes. 

3. porrectum: stretched out, prone; Epode 10. 22. incolis: 
native there. Cf. 1. 16. 6. 

5. nemus: probably the trees of the inner court. Cf. Epp. 1. 
10. 22, nempe inter varias nutritur silva columnas. This implies a 
large mansion. 

6. remugiat : cf. 3. 29. 57 ; Epp. 2. 1. 202 ; Verg. Aen. 12. 722; 
Martial, 1. 49. 20. 

7. ventis : abl. cause, or more prettily dat. with remugiat. 
ut : so 1. 9. 1. The zeugma audis . . . remugiat . . . glaciet (hear- 
ing for seeing) is too common to need further illustration. Cf . on 
1. 14. 3-6; Aeschyl. Prom. 22. glaciet nives : the clear cold 
glasses with ice the fallen snow. 



340 NOTES. 

8. luppiter is in a sense the sky. Cf. on 1. 1. 25. numine 
is the divinity and ' operation ' of a god, Verg. Aen. 4. 2(>9 ; puro 
numine combines as no English phrase can the ideas of cloudless 
sky and divine power. Cf., however, Tennyson's 'Once more the 
Heavenly Power makes all things new | And domes the red- 
ploughed hills | With loving blue ' ; numine luppiter recurs 4. 
4. 74. 

9. superbiam : cf. 3. 26. 12 ; Anth. Pal. 5. 280. 8 ; and the 
Hippolytus of Euripides, which turns wholly on Venus' displeasure 
at this kind of ' pride.' 

10. ne, etc. : an overstrained virtue will break, and great will be 
the fall. ' Lest the wheel fly back with the rope ' seems to be a 
Greek proverb (Lucian, Dial. Mer. 3; Aristid. Panath. 118, Jebb) 
taken from the sudden breaking or slipping of a windlass. retro : 
with both currente and eat. 

11. Penelopen: the type of wifely virtue. difficilem : 3.7.32. 

12. Tyrrhenus : individualizing, with a suggestion of Tuscan 
luxury. She is anything but an austere Scythian. 

13. quamvis : in 3. 11. 18, with subj. 

14. tinctus viola pallor: the lover is proverbially pale and 
wan ; Sappho, fr. 2, x*&>poTe'pa iroias ; Shelley's 'Naiad like Lily of 
the Vale | Whom youth makes so fair and passion so pale ' ; Tibull. 
1. 8. 52 ; Verg. Eel. 2. 47, pallentes violas of the pale yellow violet 
\euic6iov. 

15. Pieria: cf. Thressa Chloe, 3. 9. 9. saucius: 1. 14. 5; sc. 
volnere amoris. Cf. Lucret. 1. 34; Verg. Aen. 4. 1. The lover 
urges the husband's infidelity as in a ' scrofulous French novel.' 

16. curvat: flectit; the image is continued in rigida. sup- 
plicibus : i.e. if human motives fail to move thee, spare thy suppli- 
cant as a goddess. 

18. Mauris: cf. 1. 22. 2. For the snakes of the Libyan desert, 
cf. Lucan, 9. 700 sqq. ; pestiferos ardens facit Africa, ibid. 729. 
19-20. aquae caelestis : so Epp. 2. 1. 135, of rain. 
20. latus: he is lying on the doorstep ; Epode 2. 11. 22. 



BOOK III., ODE XI. 341 



ODE XI. 

Yield me a strain, O my lyre, to which obdurate Lyde, shy as 
any colt, may lend an ear. Thon canst charm tigers and Cerberus, 
keeper of the gate of hell ; thou didst soothe the anguish of the 
damned and madest the daughters of Danaus forget to fill their 
leaky urns. Let my Lyde mark the tale of their crime and the 
late punishment that awaits girls who sin against love. They slew 
their husbands, all save one who nobly false to her perjured sire 
said to her young lord: Arise and escape from my wicked sisters. 
Me my father may punish as he will ; but thou depart night and 
Venus be thy speed and carve a plaint for me upon an empty 
tomb. 

Lyde (the name, 2. 11. 22; 3. 28. 3) merely supplies a motive 
and setting for Horace's pretty treatment of the more pleasing side 
of the myth. 

Danaus, descendant of lo the daughter of Inachus, returned with 
fifty daughters from Aegypt to his ancestral home, Argos. Con- 
strained to marry his daughters to their cousins, who had pursued 
them from Aegypt, he bound the girls to assassinate their husbands 
on the bridal night. Hypermnestra alone spared her husband 
Lynceus, and became the ancestress of the line of Danae, Perseus, 
and Hercules. 

Cf. Find. Nem. 10. 6 ; Aesch. Prom. 853-869 ; Supplices passim, 
and the lost play the Danaids ; Apollod. 2. 1. 5; Ovid, Heroides, 
14, an Epistle from Hypermnestra to Lynceus, should be compared 
throughout. Also Chaucer, Legend of Good Women. 

Horace's readers were familiar with the statues of .the Danaids 
that stood in the intercolumniations of the temple and library of 
Palatine Apollo. Cf. on 1. 31. 1 ; Propert. 3. 29. 3, Tola erat in 
speciem Poenis digesta columnis, \ inter quas Danai femina turba 
senisj Ov. Trist. 3. 1. 61, si$na peregrinis ubi sunt alterna 
columnis \ Belides et stricto barbarus ense pater. 

1. nam : motivates invocation of Mercury, the author of the 
lyre (1. 10. 6). Cf. Epode 17. 45 ; Horn. II. 24. 334 ; Od. 1. 337 ; 
Verg. Aen. 1. 65, Aeole namque tibi; 1. 731 ; Milton, P. L. 3, 
'Uriel, for thou,' etc. docilia : with te magistro^ teachable and 
taught an apt pupil. 



342 NOTES. 

2. Amphion : he reared ' the song-built towers and gates ' 
(Tenn. Teires.) of Thebes. Cf. A. P. 394, Dictus et Amphion 
Thebanae conditor arcis \ saxa movere sono testudinis; Tenn. 
Amphion. See on 1. 12. 12. 

3. testudo: cf. on 1. 32. 14 ; 4. 3. 17, ' Upon an empty tortoise 
shell | He stretched some chords and drew | Music that made men's 
bosom swell | Fearless, or brimmed their eyes with dew,' Lowell, 
The Shepherd of King Admetus ; Gray, ' enchanting shell ' ; 
Shelley, Trans. Hymn to Mercury, 5. 6. 7-9. septem : Hymn 
Merc. 51 ; Pind. Pyth. 2. 70 ; Nem. 5. 24 ; Terpander, fr. 5, boasted 
that he first rejected the four-stringed lyre for that of seven strings ; 
Ion, fr. 3, boasts a lyre of eleven strings. 

4. callida: cf. on 1. 10. 7. 

5. loquax : Sappho, fr. 45, "Aye (8))) x& v 8 "* M' | ^ovdtaaa 
yevoio ; Shelley, ubi supra, ' I know you will sing sweetly when 
you're dead' ; Odyss. 17. 270, rjirvft. Note Latin poverty (3. 13. 15, 
loquaces). Cf. AoAos, \d\ios. mine et: cf. 4. 13. 6. Elsewhere 
Horace elides final et. Cf. 1. 7. 6 ; 1. 3. 19 ; 1. 9. 13 ; 1. 35. 11 ; 

2. 6. 1, 2 ; 2. 13. 23 ; 2. 15. 5 ; 2. 16. 37 ; 3. 1. 39 ; 3. 3. 71 ; 3. 4. 
59 ; 3. 6. 3 ; 3. 8. 27 ; 3. 26. 9 ; 3. 27. 29 ; 3. 27. 46 ; 3. 27. 22 ; 

3. 29. 3 ; 3. 29. 7 ; 3. 29. 9 ; 3. 29. 49. He avoids it in the fourth 
book. Cf. on 4. 6. 11. 

6. mensis : 1. 32. 13 ; Odyss. 17. 270 ; Shelley, ut supra, ' King 
of the dance, companion of the feast ' ; Ronsard, A Sa Lyre, 
' Toy qui jadis des grands rois les viandes | Faisois trouver plus 
douces et friandes.' The nurse in Eurip. Medea, 201-203, cen- 
sures the custom, but II Trovatore still sweetens the viands at 
the 'Grand Hotel.' templis: cf. on 1. 36. 1 ; 4. 1. 23; Dionys. 
Hal. 7. 32. 

9, 10. Cf. Anacr. fr. 75 ; Theog. 257 ; Eurip. Hippol. 547 ; Aris- 
toph. Lysistr. 1308 ; Lucil. 30, 61 ; Ronsard, Amours de Marie, 
'Mais tout ainsi qu'un beau poulain farouche,' etc. ; Tenn. Talk- 
ing Oak, ' Then ran she gamesome as the colt,' etc. Cf. also on 
1. 23. 1 ; 2. 5. 6 ; 3. 15. 12. 

9. trima : colts were broken in fourth year (Verg. G. 3. 190). 

10. exsultim : only here. Cf. exultare of horses, and Anacre- 
on's ffKipTwira Troi'Cfu. metuit . . . tangi : cf. on 2. 2. 7 ; 4. 5. 20 ; 
Catull. 62. 45, sic virgo, dum intacta manet. 



BOOK III., ODE XI. 343 

11. protervo ; cf. on 2. 5. 15 ; 'And he may be rude, and yet 
I may forgive' (Lady Mary W. Montagu). 

12. cruda : 2. 5. 10 ; 3. 6. 22, matura. 

13. 14. Cf. on 1. 2 and 1. 12. 7 sqq. que: cf. on 1. 30. 6. 

15-24. Cf. on 1. 24. 13; 2. 13. 33-40; Verg. G. 4. 510, mulcen- 

tem tigres. 

15. immanis : 3. 4. 43; 4. 14. 15; preferably with aulae, iani- 
tor being sufficiently characterized in next strophe. Cf. Sil. 2. 
552, insomnis lacrimosae ianitor anlae. For aulae, cf. on 2. 
18. 31. Verg. Aen. 6. 400 has ingens ianitor; 6. 417-418, Cer- 
berus . . . recubans immanis in antro. blandienti: 1. 12. 11; 
1. 24. 13. 

17-20. Cerberus, etc. : cf. on 2. 13. 34, belua centiceps. 

17. furiale: fury-like. Cf. 2. 13. 36. 

18. angues : F. Q. 1. 5. 34, ' Before the threshold dreadful Cer- 
berus | His three deformed heads did lay along, | Curled with 
thousand adders venomous'; Verg. Aen. 6. 419, horrere videns 
iam colla colubris; Callim.fr. 161, ^x'^a'O" SaKer6v. eius: 
may be made emphatically demonstrative by a comma after caput. 
Cf. 4. 8. 18. But Vergil avoids the word altogether, Ovid uses it 
about twice, and so some critics reject the strophe as unworthy 
of Horace. 

20. trilingui : 2. 19. 31 ; Verg. Aen. 6. 417, trifauci. 

21. quin et: 2. 13. 37. Ixion: F. Q. 1. 5. 35, 'There was 
Ixion turned on a wheel, | For daring tempt the queen of heaven 
to sin' ; Find. Pyth. 2. 21 ; Soph. Philoct. 671 ; Sen. Here. Fur. 
752 ; Verg. G. 4. 484, Atque Ixionii vento (cantu f) rota constitit 
orbis ; Ov. Met. 10. 42, stupuitque Ixionis orbis; Tenn., 'And 
stay'd the rolling Ixionian wheel'; 'Onstept the bard. Ixion's 
wheel stood still' (Landor, Orpheus and Eurydice); Browning, 
Ixion in Jocoseria. He is not found with Tantalus (2. 13. 37), 
Sisyphus (2. 14. 20), and Tityos (2. 14. 8; 3. 4. 77; 4. 6. 2), in 
Homer's Hades. 

22. risit: cf. 1. 10. 12. urna: Phaedr. App. 1. 5. 10, Urnis 
scelestae Danaides portant aquas \ Pertnsa nee complere possunt 
dolia ; F. Q. 1. 5. 35, ' And fifty sisters water in leak vessels draw.' 
This form of punishment, alluded to by Plato (Gorg. 493 B) and 
Bion (Diog. Laert. 4. 7. 50), is first specifically appropriated to the 



344 NOTES. 

Danaids in Pseudo-Plat. Axiochus, 371 E. It appears on Italian 
vases of the 3d century B.C. Moralized, Lucret. 3. 1007-1010. 

25. notas : the scelus also is notum, of course. 

26. lymphae : with inane, gen. 'plenty and want.' 

27. dolium : Horace puts the leak in the larger jar. Cf. supra, 
on urna, and the illustration hi Harper's Class. Diet. s.v. fundo : 
by (way of). pereuntis: etymologically, running out by. Cf. 
on 4. 4. 65. But cf. Odyss. 11. 686 (in diff. connection), vSwp CLTTU- 
\eaK(To ; Lucret. 1. 250, pereunt imbres. 

28. sera : cf. on 3. 2. 32 ; Verg. Aeii. 6. 569, distulit in seram 
commisscC piacula mortem. 

29. sub Oreo : sc. rege, editors say, citing 3. 5. 9, 2. 18. 30, on 
the doubtful ground that Horace always personifies Orcus. Cf. 1. 
28. 10 ; 2. 3. 24 ; 3. 4. 75 ; 3. 27. 50 ; 4. 2. 24 ; Epp. 2. 2. 178. But 
virb xOov)>s, KaTet 705 (Pind. O. 2. 65) is the meaning wanted. Cf. 
Aesch. Eum. 175, vn6 re yav (pvylav ov TTOT' f\evBfpovrai. 

30. 31. impiae: cf. 3. 27. 49, 50. potuere : in 30 of physical 
or logical, in 31 of moral, possibility er\-ri(ra.v, 'had the heart to.' 
duro : Homer's /IJA. x^^v- Cf . saevis, 1. 45. 

33. una : one only. Cf. Aesch. Prom. 865, piav Se TraiSwv ; Pind. 
Nem. 10. 6, novAtyaQov . . . |i<pos. face: of Hymen. Cf. Milt. 
L' Allegro, ' There let Hymen oft appear | In saffron robe with 
taper clear.' 

34. periurum : the betrothal involved a plighted faith. 

35. splendide mendax : cf . Tac. Hist. 4. 50, egregio mendacio ; 
Cic. pro Mil. 72, mentiri gloriose ; Aesch. fr. 301, airdrris StKaias; 
Soph. Antig. 74 ; Eurip. Hel. 1633 ; Sen. Ep. 95. 30, gloriosum sce- 
lus ; Tasso, Ger. Lib. 2. 22, magnanima menzogna ; Ruskin, 'splen- 
did avarice' ; Tenn., 'Bright dishonour' ; 'His honour rooted in 
dishonour stood,' etc. For oxymoron in Horace, cf. 1. 18. 16 ; 1. 
33. 2 ; 1. 34. 2 ; 1. 22. 16 ; 1. 33. 14 ; 2. 12. 26 ; 3. 4. 5-6 ; 3. 20. 3 ; 
3. 24. 59 ; 3. 5. 48 ; 3. 27. 28 ; 3. 3. 38 ; 3. 6. 44 ; 3. 8. 1 ; 3. 16. 28 ; 
3. 25. 18 ; 3. 27. 25-26, etc. On the ethical question, cf. Jacobi, 
cited by Coleridge ; the quaint ' Christian Horace,' published for 
young Catholics at Lyons, eliminates the dangerous suggestion, 
reading : digna crudelisfera iussa patris \ iure contempsit. 

37. surge : Ov. Her. 14. 73, surge age, Belide, de tot modo free- 
tribus unus : \ nox, tibi niproperas, ista perennis erit. 



BOOK III., ODE XI. 345 

38. longus somnus : cf. 1. 24. 5,perpetnns sopor; the passage 
is parodied by Ausonius (Ephemeris, 18-19). For poverty of 
vocab., note use of longus, 2. 14. 19 ; 4. 9. 27 ; 3. 3. 37 ; 2. 16. 30 ; 
3. 27. 43 ; 3. 5. 53, etc. Or is it restraint ? 

39. socerum : my father; avoid -in-iaw. 

40. falle : Aa0e ; 1. 10. 16 ; postico falle clientem, Epp. 1. 5. 31, 
elude. sorores : may mean cousins. Here perhaps ' the sisters,' 
without, distinction of meum and tuum. 

41. leaenae : as in II. 5. 161. 

42. singulos : suum quaeque maritum; Aesch. Prom. 862, yw)i 
yap i>5p' e/caoTov. lacerant : the lions, blending image and thing 
compared as usual. For the details, cf. Ov. Her. 14. 35. 

44. tenebo = retinebo. 

45. In Ov. Her. 14. 3, she writes, clausa domo teneor gravibus- 
que coercita vinclis. Cf. Pausan. 2. 19. 6, for her trial ! 

46. clemens misero : cf. on 1. 6. 9. 

47. me : ' as for me, he may do his worst, I will not regret hav- 
ing spared thee' ; Ov. Her. 14. 13-4, non tamen ut dicant morientia 
'paenitet' 1 ora, \efficiet. extremes: 3. 10. 1; Epp. 1. 1. 45; 
Catull. 11. 2. 

48. classe : vyvalv &yav, II. 21. 41. releget : suggesting the 
technical rclegatio, banishment. 

49. pedes et aurae : an all-including formula. Cf. Epode 16. 
21. Those who choose may take it literally, to the coast on foot 
and then back to Aegypt by sea. 

50. Venus: who prompted her to spare him (Aesch. Prom. 
865), and by whose intervention she was saved in Aeschylus' lost 
Dan aids, fr. 43. 

51. nostri : i.e. mei, of me, as 3. 27. 14 ; TibuU. 3. 5. 31 ; 3. 2. 25. 

52. querellam : in Ov. Her. 14. 128, she composes it, exul 
Hypermnestra, pretium pietatis iniquum, \ quam mortem fratri 
(cousin) depulit, ipsa tulit. In the age of Trajan, a Cook's 
tourist, who knew her Horace, scrawled on the Pyramid of 
Gizeh : et nostri memorem luctus hanc sculpo querelam. 

Unlike Pindar, Horace closes with the myth, and Lyde is 
forgotten. 



346 NOTES. 



ODE XII. 

Monologue of love-lorn Neobule (the name is from Archilochus), 
who cannot spin for thinking on the bright beauty of young 
Hebrus, horseman, athlete, hunter. 

The pure Ionic meter, one of Horace's 'metrical experiments,' 
is identical with that of a line of Alcaeus preserved by Hephaes- 
tion : %fi.e 5ei\av epe itaaav KO.Kord.r<av irtf\oiaav (Fr. 59). 

For the theme, cf. Sappho (Fr. 90) y\vicfia fnarep oUrot 5vva.fj.ai 
KpfKyv rbv larov ir69cfi Sojuetua iraiSos fipaSlvav 8i" 'A((>p65iTav ; also 
Lander's pretty imitation, ' Mother, I cannot mind my wheel, | My 
fingers ache, my lips are dry.' Seneca, Hippol. 104. 

1. miserarum : not that she herself desires the solace of the 
wine cup. She merely contrasts the narrow lot of woman with the 
distractions open to men. Cf. the soliloquy of a girl in Agathias, 
Anth. Pal. 5. 297. dare ludum : faintly suggests dare operam. 
But dare ludum is used by Plautus in sense of humor, give free 
play to, Bacch. 1082. Cf. hidere, 3. 15. 12. 

2. lavere : cf. on 2. 3. 18, and eluere, 4. 12. 20. aut : or else ; 
on pain of. Cf. 3. 24. 24. So ^, Plat. Theaetet. 205 A and often. 
exanimari : 2. 17. 1. metuentes : the shift from the gen. to 
the ace. with inf. is natural. 

3. patruae : the proverbial cruel paternal uncle of the ancients. 
Cf . Sat. 2. 3. 88, ne sis patruus mihi. verbera : cf. 3. 1. 29 ; 
3. 27. 24. Verba and verbera were easily associated. Cf. Ter. 
Heaut. 2. 3. 115, tibi erunt parata verba huic hornini verbera. But 
the metaphor is a commonplace. Cf. verberari convicio. Shaks. 
King John, 2. 2, 'He gives the bastinado with his tongue; | Our 
ears are cudgelled.' Tarn. Shrew, 1. 2, 'And do you tell me of a 
woman's tongue, That gives not half so great a blow to the ear ? ' 

4. tibi: she addresses herself, as often in monologue. Cf. 
Catull. 8. 1, and examples in Orelli. Some less aptly make the 
poet the speaker throughout. ales: i.e. alatus; Love is so 
represented in the oldest works of art. Cf. ' The first born love 
out of his cradle leapt | And clove dun chaos with his wings of 
gold' (Shelley, Witch of Atlas, 32, after Aristoph. Birds, 697). 

5. Operosae Minervae : Athena tpyavri. ' But farther : Athena 



BOOK III., ODE XIII. 347 

presides over industry as well as battle ; typically over women's 
industry, that brings comfort with pleasantness.' Ruskin, Queen 
of the Air. Cf. Moore, ' Thus, girls, would you keep quiet hearts, | 
Your snowy fingers must be nimble : | The safest shield against 
the darts | Of Cupid is Minerva's thimble.' 

6. Liparaei : the specific local epithet merely individualizes. Cf. 
on 1. 27. 10. Lipara was a small volcanic island off the north 
coast of Sicily. Cf. Arnold, ' To Aetna's Liparaean sister fires.' 
There is a possible suggestion of \nrap6s, sleek, shining. nitor 
Hebri : with puer the subject of aufert. Love, the lover, and the 
lover's bright beauty are 'all one reckoning.' nitor: 1. 19. 5; 
Anth. Pal. 16. 77, /jiapnapvyfiv. Hebrus is a river in Thrace. 

7. simul (ac) . . . lavit: closely with nitor rather than with 
eques, which is better taken in opposition with nitor Hebri = 
Hebrus. unctos : cf. 1. 8. 8. Sat. 2. 1. 7, ter uncti \ transnanto 
Tiberim somno quibus est opus alto. Cf. the trr-tiffta <n'i\$ovra. 
which took the maiden's eyes in Theoc. 2. 79 ; note lavit. Tibe- 
rinis : Roman details with Greek names, as often. 

8. eques: cf. on 3. 7. 25. Bellerophonte : from n. Bellero- 
phontes. Cf. 3. 7. 15. 

9. segni pede i.e. because of sloth of foot. Cf. nulla . . . fuga 
segnis equorum ; Verg. Aen. 10. 592. Some equivalent of segni is 
implied with pugno. 

10-11. catus: 1. 10. 3. idem: 2. 10. 22; 2. 19. 27.-^per 
apertum : across the open. agitato . . . grege : with fu gient es. 
celer : with inf. 1. 15. 18. 

11-12. arto . . . fruticeto: deep covert. Homer's $v AC*XMJ 
Ttvxivri. Odyss. 19. 439. 

12. excipere : sc. venabulo, or absolutely of lying in wait to 
take something. Cf. Epp. 1. 1. 79; Verg. Eel. 3. 18. 



ODE XIII. 

A mediaeval document mentions a fans Bandusinus near Hor- 
ace's birthplace, Venusia, and tradition or Horace himself may 
have transferred the name to the fons rivo dare nomen idoneus 
(Epp. 1. 16. 12 ; cf. Sat. 2. 6. 2) on his Sabine estate. 



348 NOTES. 

There is an interesting description of the locality, together with 
an account of the theories of antiquarians, in Ancient Classics for 
English Readers, 'Horace.' Of. Epode 1. 31, 32. n. 

The occasion of the poem may have been the festival of the Fon- 
tanalia, October 13, when, according to Varro, L. L. 6. 22, et in 
fontes coronas iaciunt et puteos coronant. Cf. Ruskin, Aratra. 
Pentel. 88, for this feeling of the ancients; also 1. 1. 22. It has 
been a general favorite. Cf. Sellar, p. 187. Cf. Dobson's version 
as a Rondeau ; Ronsard, A la Fontaine Bellerie ; Warton in John- 
son's Poets, 18. 99; ibid. 167 ; Beattie, ibid. 18. 559; Wordsworth, 
River Duddon, 1, ' Not envying Latian shades if yet they throw | 
A grateful coolness round that crystal spring, | Blandusia, prattling 
as when long ago | The Sabiiie Bard was moved her praise to sing.' 

1. Bandusiae : possibly a corruption of navdotrla. Nymph and 
fount blend as in Pindar. vitro: cf. on 1. 18. 16; 4. 2. 3. Ov. 
Met. 13. 791 has splendidior vitro of Galatea. Cf. Verg. Aen. 7. 
759. Lucret. 4. 211 has splendor aquai. 

2. The wine was poured into the fountain with the flowers. 
Cf. Varro, supra. non sine : 1. 23. 3. 

4. cui irons : 'A qui 1'une et 1'autre corne | Sortent du front 
nouvelet' (Ronsard). For the description of the victim, cf. 3. 22. 
7 ; 4. 2. 55. 

5. destinat : marks him for, presages. 

6. 7. frustra : cf . 3. 7. 21 ; the nequicquam of ruthless destiny 
in Lucretius and Vergil. gelidos and rubro : suggest as ' com- 
plementary colors ' calido and limpidos. Cf. 2. 3. 9. 

6. inficiet: cf. 3. 6. 34. For the practice, cf. II. 23. 148, ts 
7r)7as ; Ov. Fast. 3. 300 ; Martial, 6. 47, where a porca is offered. 

8. lascivi: 3. 15. 12. 

9-12. Cf. Wordsworth, Near the spring of the Hermitage, ' Parch- 
ing Summer hath no warrant | To consume this crystal well ' ; Proc- 
tor, Inscript. for a Fount., 'Whosoe'er shall wander near | When 
the Syrian heat is worst, | Let him hither come nor fear | Lest he 
may not slake his thirst' ; Ronsard, 'Ton ombre est espaisse ei 
drue | Aux pasteurs venans des pares, | Aux boeufs las de la char- 
rue, | Et au bestial espars' ; cf. Anth. Pal. 16. 228. 

9. bora: season (Epp. 1. 16. 16); A. P. 302, sub verni temporis 



BOOK III., ODE XIV. 349 

horarn. Caniculae: cf. on 1. 17. 17 ; 3. 29. 18 ; ' L'ardeur de la 
canicule | Tou verd rivage ne brule' (Ronsard). 

10. frigus: i.e. cool shade. Cf. 3. 29. 21 ; Verg. Eel. 1. 52, hie, 
inter flumina nota \ etfontis sacros, frigus captabis opacum. 

11, 12. fessis . . . vago : cf. Ronsard, supra. 

13. nobilium : one 'of those we read about.' 'Such,' says 
Nauck naively, ' were Arethusa, Castalia, Dirce, Hippocrene, and 
is now near Schulpforte die Klopstocksquelle.' 

14. me: et me fecere poetam \ Pierides is Horace's feeling. 
impositam : 4. 14. 12. For the picture, cf. on 3. 25. 10. 

15. unde : cf. II. 2. 307, Sflec, etc. loquacea: Anth. Pal. 16. 
13. 3, Kax\dovffiv . . . va^aai. Cf. Leigh Hunt, Rimini, 'There 
gushed a rill | Whose low sweet talking seemed as if it said | Some- 
thing eternal to that happy shade ' ; Words., ' Or when the prattle 
of Blandusia's spring j Haunted his ear, he only listening' ; Ron- 
sard, ' L'eau de ta source jazarde | Qui trepillante se suit.' The 
' prattle ' is perhaps suggested by the repeated i's. Contrast taci- 
turnus amnis (1. 31. 8). 

16. desiliunt : cf. Epode 16. 48. 

ODE XIV. 

The conquering hero returns. Go forth to greet him, Livia, 
Octavia, and ye mothers and brides of our young soldiers. I too 
will celebrate the glad day, fearing nought while Caesar rules the 
world. Go, page. Fetch chaplets and old wine and bid Neaera 
join me. If the surly'porter will not admit you give it up. Yet 
I had not been so patient in my hot youth when Plancus was consul. 

In honor of the return of Augustus, B.C. 24, from an absence of 
three years in the West, where he had been engaged in subduing 
the Cantabrians and settling the affairs of the Provinces. For 
some months before his return he had been ill at Tarraco, and 
much anxiety had been felt at Rome (Dio, 53. 25). He declined a 
formal triumph (Justin. 2. 53). For the theme, cf. 4. 2 and 4. 5. 

1. Herculis : cf. 3. 3. 9. n. For the comparison with Augustus, 
cf. 3. 3. 9 ; 4. 5. 36 ; Verg. Aen. 6. 802. Hercules too had re- 
turned victor from Spain. plebs : the people generally ; not in 
its special political sense. 



350 NOTES. 

2. morte venalem : cf. emit morte immortalitatem, Quintil. 9. 
3. 71; Aesch. in Ctes. 160; Isoc. 6. 109; Verg. Aen. 5. 230; 9. 
206 ; Find. Pyth. 6. 39 ; ' He came and bought with price of purest 
breath | A grave among the eternal ' (Shelley, Adonais, 7); Hen. VI., 

2. 3. 1, ' Or sell my title for a glorious grave.' venalem . 2. 16. 7. 
3-4. Hispana . . . ora : the west coast of Spain. Cf. 3. 8. 21. 

5. unico: cf. 1. 26. 5 ; 2. 18. 14. It suggests unice amare, etc. 
He is her all in all. Others take it peerless, comparing Catull. 29. 
11, unice imperator. mulier: the empress Livia. See Merivale, 

3. 218 ; 4. 124. 

6. operata : the present and past force of this part, need hardly 
be distinguished. She has been and is engaged in the religious 
offices of the day. Cf. Lex. s.v. Some read divis for sacris. 

1. soror: Octavia. et decorae : cf. 1. 10. 3; 2. 16. 6. 

8. supplice vitta : there was probably a supplicatio in place of 
the declined triumph. This special vitta may have been something 
more elaborate than that ordinarily worn by free-born women. 

9-12. The stanza seems to be either carelessly composed or cor- 
rupt. If virginum and puellae both refer to the wives of the 
young soldiers, as by linguistic usage they may (cf. 3. 22. 2 ; 2. 8. 
23), the emphatic repetition and antithesis with matres are awk- 
ward. Moreover, pueri et puellae is the standing phrase for un- 
wedded youth. Bentley reads non virum expertae, which gives 
three classes : the matrons, the young soldiers and their wives, 
and the boys and girls. 

10. aospitum : 1. 36. 4. It is felt with virginum also. 

11-12. male ominatis : to cure the hiatus nominatis a sup- 
posed equivalent of Suffcavi/nots is read in some Mss. Bentley con- 
jectured inominatis (Epode 16. 38), male being intensive (1. 9. 24). 
parcite : cf. Ep. 17. 6. The meaning is favete linguis (3. 1. 2). 

13 sqq. The poet shares the public rejoicing. Cf. 1. 37 ; 4. 2. 
45; Epode 9. 1. vere : with/esiws, which is taken predicatively. 
Cf. 3. 8. 9. atras : 3. 1. 40 ; 4. 11. 35. 

14. tumultum : cf. on 4. 4. 47. 

15. metuam: with inf. 2. 2. 7; 4. 5. 20. tenente : 3. 17. 8. 
For the thought, cf. 4. 15. 17, and Nux Elegeia, 143, sed neque 
tolluntur nee dum regit omnia Caesar, \ incolumis tanto praeside 
raptor erit. 



BOOK III., ODE XV. 351 

17 sqq. Cf. the sudden orders for the carouse in 2. 3. 13 ; 
2. 11. 17; 3. 19. 9. puer: cf. 1. 19. 14. 

18. cadum: 3. 29. 2 ; 4. 11. 2. Marsi: the Marsic or Social 
War, B.C. 90-89. Spartacus and his gladiators (Epode 1G. 5) 
plundered Italy in 73-71. Cf. Juv. 5. 31, calcatamque tenet bellis 
socialibus uvam (dives'). Sir Thomas Browne, Urne Burial, 'The 
draughts of consulary date were but crude unto these ' ; Tenn. 
' Whether the vintage, yet unkept, | Had relish fiery-new, | Or, 
elbow-deep in sawdust, slept, | As old as Waterloo.' Cf. also 
Martial, 3. 62. 2 ; 7. 79. 1. 

19. si qua : if haply. Cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 18, si qua fata sinunt. 

21. die . . . properet: cf. Epp. 1. 7. 60, die \ ad coenam 
veniat. argutae : \iyia, 4. 6. 25. n. Neaerae : borrowed per- 
haps from Parthenius. Cf. Gildersleeve, A. J. P. 18. 1, p. 122. 
Cf. Milton, Lycidas, 'Or with the tangles of Neaera's hair.' For 
the motif, cf. 2. 11. 21. 

22. murreum : as fragrant as myrrh, rather than chestnut. Cf. 
Lex. 

25. lenit: cf. Epp. 2. 2. 211, lenior et melior fis accedente 
senecta ? The line was quoted by Fox on a famous occasion. 
albescens: Horace was forty-one, but prematurely gray, prae- 
canus; Epp. 1. 20. 24. Cf. Anth. Pal. 11. 25, -fi owrH) Kpor<i<t>tav 

awTfTai rifierfpcav. 

26. protervae : 2.5.15. 

27. nonego: 2. 7. 26; 2. 17. 9; 2. 20. 5. ferrem: for tense, 
cf. on 1. 2. 22 ; Ennius, Medea, nam numquam era errans mea 
domo ecferret pedem. 

28. L. Munatius Plancus was consul in B.C. 42, the year of the 
campaign of Philippi. The fever in Horace's blood has cooled with 
that in the body politic. 

ODE XV. 

The unpleasant theme of 1.25; 4. 13 ; Epode 8: Turpe senilis 
(still more anilis) amor. 

2. nequitiae: technical. Cf. 3. 4. 78 ; Propert. 1. 6. 26. fige 
modum : the forcible word fige suits the impatience of tandem. 
Cf. 1. 16. 2 ; 1. 24. 1. 



352 NOTES. 

3. famosis : in bad sense. Cf . Epp. 2. 3. 469, where it is neutral 
or ironical. laboribus : love is 'sweating labor' for her as it 
was for Cleopatra, Anth. and Cle. 1. .3. 

4. maturo : her death would not be immatura. 

6. inter: cf. 3. 3. 37 ; 3. 27. 51. ludere : 4. 13. 4. So irai^v. 

6. nebulam: 'Nor fling thy hideous shadow o'er | Their pure 
and starry graces' (Martin). 

7. non si: cf. 4. 9. 5 ; 2. 10. 17. Pholoen: 2. 5. 17 ; 1. 33. 7. 
satis: 1. 13. 13. She may more fitly sport, hers is the lasciva 
decentius aetas ; Epp. 2. 2. 216. 

8. filia: i.e. Pholoe. 

9. expugnat: in the revel or comus, reversing the relation of 

3. 26. 7. To prove it possible editors quote Sen. Praef. Nat. Quaest. 

4. 6. They might as well quote Congreve, Double-Dealer, 1.1. 

10. pulso: cf. on 2. 4. 10. Thyias: cf. on 2. 19. 9; Horn. 
Hym. Cer. 387. tympano : 1. 18. 14. 

12. lascivae: cf. 3. 13. 8, and Epp. 2. 2. 216, cited on line 7. 
similem : so 1. 23. 1. 

13-14. Spinning is the fit occupation of the old woman. Cf. 
Tibull. 1. 6. 77. The wool of Luceria in Apulia was celebrated 
(nobilis). Cf. Plin. N. H. 8. 190. 

15. flos rosae : cf. 3. 29. 3; 4. 10. 4. purpureus : cf. on 
4. 1. 10. 

16. poti : pass, with cadi ; 4. 13. 5, active. vetulam : with te. 
Cf. 4. 13. 25. Note the effectiveness of reserving it to the end. 
faece terms: anb rpvybs, h rpv-ya, cumfaece, 1. 35. 27. 



ODE XVI. 

The myth of Danae as a symbol of the power of gold and a 
preface to moralizing on the superior happiness of contented com- 
petency. Cf. 2. 2 ; 2. 16 ; 3. 1. 

Acrisius, king of Argos, fearing the fulfillment of an oracle that 
his grandson should slay him, shut up his daughter Danae from all 
suitors. But Jupiter found access to her in a shower of gold, and 
she became the mother of Perseus. 

Cf. 11. 14. 319 (where there is no brazen tower) ; Apollod. 2. 4 ; 



BOOK III., ODE XVI. 353 

Pausan. 2. 23. 7 ; Simon, fr. 37 (the exquisite lament of Danae); 
Find. Pyth. 12. 16 ; Is. 6. (7) 5 ; Jebb on Soph. Antig. 945 ; The 
fragments of Naevius' Danae ; Ter. Eun. 585-590 ; Spenser, F. Q. 

3. 11. 31 ; Herrick, 284, 15; 298, etc. ; John Fletcher, ' Danae in 
a brazen tower | Where no love was loved a shower ' ; Prior, An 
English Padlock, ' Miss Danae when fair and young | (As Horace 
has divinely sung) | Could not be kept from Jove's embrace | By 
doors of steel and walls of brass.' 

Cf. also Correggio's Danae, and Tennyson's beautiful line, ' Now 
lies the earth all Danae to the stars.' The conceits of Cowley's 
quaint and subtle paraphrase of this ode are interesting (Essays, 
Of Avarice). 

Horace's cynical interpretation of the myth seems to have been 
a commonplace. Cf . Anth. Pal. 5. 31. 6 ; 5. 33 ; 5. 217 ; Ovid, 
Amores, 3. 8. 33 ; Petronius, Le Maire Poetae Minores, 2. 120 ; 
Find. fr. 2G9. 

1. inclusam : ichen Danae was shut. turrisaenea: foraenea, 
cf. on 3. 3. 65. But the prehistoric (Mycenaean) bronze-plated 
walls may be meant. Cf. Soph. Antig. 946, tv x x ' )5e ' Ta '* av\ais ; 
Ov. Am. 2. 19. 27, si numquam Danaen habuisset aenea turris; 
Herrick, 298, ' Rosamund was in a bower | Kept as Danae in a 
tower ' ; id. 284, ' It be with Rock, or Walles of Brass | Ye Towre 
her up, as Danae was.' 

2. robustae: of oak. Cf. 1. 3. 9; 2. 13. 19 (?). 

3. tristes : surly, grim. Cf. Propert. 2. 6. 39 ; Ov. A. A. 3. 601, 
trirtis ciistodia servi. excubiae : 4. 13. 8 ; Verg. Aen. 9. 159. 
munierant : cf. on 2. 17. 28, they had and would still have si non. 

4. adulteris : 1. 33. 9. n. 

5. si non : 3. 24. 34. 

6. pavidum : he feared the oracle, like Pelias in Find. Pyth. 

4. 97. 

7-8. risissent : ' But Venus laughed to see and hear him sleep ! ' 
(Cowley). fore enim. etc. : their thought in indirect disc. Cf. 
Verg. Aen. 1. 444 ; F. Q. 3. 11. 31, 'Vain was the watch, and bootless 
all the ward, | Whenas the god to golden hue himself transfar'd.' 
The unpicturesque pretntm, perhaps the best word his vocabulary 
supplied (cf. 3. 19. 5 ; 3. 24. 24 ; 4. 8. 12), serves Horace to intro- 

2A 



354 NOTES. 

duce the rationalization of the myth. Cf. Ov. Am. 3. 8. 33 ; 
Marlowe, Ed. 2. 3. 3, 'like the guard | That suffered Jove 
to pass in showers of gold | To Danae.' deo: probably 
dative. 

9. aurum, etc. : that ' every door is barred with gold and opens 
but to golden keys ' has always been a commonplace. Cf. Pind. 
fr. 222; Shaks., 'saint-seducing gold'; Menander's, xP uff bs 5' 
avoiyei na.vra. Kal adov irv\as. satellites : Cf. 2. 18. 34. 

10. amat: gaudet and solet. Cf. 2. 3. 10. n. perrumpere: 
cf. on 1. 3. 36. saxa : walls of stone ? 

11-12. ictu : cf. on 1. 8. 9. auguris Argivi : Amphiaraus, 
whose wife Eriphyle was bribed by Polynices with the necklace of 
Harmonia to constrain her husband to join the expedition of the 
Seven against Thebes, in which he met a foreseen death. Their 
son, Alcmaeon, slew Eriphyle to avenge his father, and was 
haunted by the furies of his mother, like Orestes. The ' house ' 
was thus like that of Pelops (1. 6. 8), a theme of tragedy. Cf. 
Ody. 11. 326-327; Plato, Rep. 590 A; Apollod. 3. 6; Ov. Met. 
9. 406; Stat. Theb. 2. 267; Arnold, Frag, of an Antigone, 'nor 
... his beloved Argive seer would Zeus retain \ From his ap- 
pointed end ' ; Frazer, Pausanias, III. 608, 5. 30. 

13. demersa : possibly a hint of Amphiaraus' end, swallowed 
up by the earth (Pind. O. 6. 16). exitio: 1. 16. 17. diftidit: 
with bribes, as with the cleaving ax or thunder-bolt. urbium : 
as Potidaea, Olynthus, Amphipolis. 

14. vir Macedo : Milton's 'Macedonian Philip'; Demosthe- 
nes' MaKfS&v avfy (Phil. 1. 10). For his briberies, cf. Plut. 
Aem. Paul. 12; Juv. 12. 47, callidus emptor Olynthi; his saying 
that any fortress could be taken that could be reached by an ass 
laden with gold, Cic. ad Alt. 1. 16. The oracle of Delphi bade him 
'fight with silver spears.' submit: undermined. 

14, 15. aemulos . . . reges: his rivals for the throne of Mace- 
don (Diodor. 16. 3), and others. 

15. munera : Ov. A. A. 3. 653, munera, crede mihi, capiunt 
hominesque deosque. Hence Spenser, F. Q. 5. 2. 9, quaintly per- 
sonifies munera (as if fern, sing.) as daughter of Pollente, ' Her 
name is Munera, agreeing with her deeds.' Note resumption of 
aurum (1. 10) by lucrum, munera, and pecuniam. 



BOOK III., ODE XVI. 355 

15, 16. navium . . . duces : possibly an allusion to Menodorus 
or Menas, the faithless admiral of Sextus Pompey. Cf. Dio, 48. 
45 ; Suet. Oct. 74 ; Epode 4 ; Shaks. Ant. and Cle. 2. 7. With the 
whole, cf. Andrew Lang's Ballade of Worldly Wealth, ' Money 
taketh town and wall | Fort and ramp without a blow.' 

17. crescentem, etc.: but for all its power, the sage will desire 
it in moderation. Cf. 2. 2 ; 2. 16. 9-12 ; 2. 18. 12 ; 3. 1. 47 ; 3. 24. 
1-5 ; 3. 29. 56-60. 

18. maiorum : neuter. fames: cf. Epp. 1. 18. 23; Vergil's 
aim sacra fames (Aen. 3. 57); Odes 2. 2. 13; 3. 24. 63; Juv. 14. 
139, crescit amor nummi quantum ipsa pecunia crevit; Theoc. 16. 
64. perhorrui: airtpptya. So Emerson often states his counsels 
of perfection in the first person indie. 

19. conspicuum : proleptic. tollere verticem: 1. 18. 15. 

20. Maecenas: an example of sage restraint. Cf. on 1. 1. 1, 
1. 20. 5, and Propert. 4. 8. 2. 

21-22. plura : in worldly goods. plura: in real goods. 

23. castra, etc. : the image of the two camps may have been 
suggested by Grantor's famous comparison of wealth and virtue. 
Cowley ingeniously expands, ' From towns and courts, camps of 
the rich and great, | The vast Xerxean army, I retreat, | And to 
the small Laconic forces fly | Which hold the straits of poverty.' 
nudus: i.e. unincumbered by the impedimenta of riches. Cf. 
the philosopher's boast, omnia mea mecum porto ; Job 1. 21, 
' Naked came I out of my mother's womb, and naked shall I return 
thither.' 

25. contemptae : despised by the millionnaire. Cf. Cic. Para- 
dox, 6. 47, meam pecuniam contemnis, etc. splendidior : in the 
eyes of the sage who uses words rightly (2. 2. 19). 

26. arat : i.e. the produce of the plow. For quantity, cf. 1.3. 
36. n. impiger: cf. Epode 2. 42. For fertility of Apulia see 
Strabo, 6. 284. But any other name would serve. 

27. occultare : i.e. condere, 1. 1. 9. meis: so proprio, 1. 1. 9. 
Cf. mea in the periphrasis for riches, Epode 1. 26. dicerer : 
wealth so great as to be a theme of rumor. 

28. inter opes inops : oxymoron arising from the contrast of 
the popular and the philosophic point of view. Cf. Epp. 2. 18. 98, 
semper inops . . . cupido ; 1. 2. 56, semper avarus eget ; Claud, in 



356 NOTES. 

Ruf. 1. 200, semper inops quicumque mpit; Herrick, 106, 'Those 
who have the itch | Of craving more are never rich.' 

29. rivus, etc. : see the descriptions of his own farm, Epp. 1. 
16. 12 ; 1. 18. 104 ; 1. 14. 1 ; and Odes, 1. 22. 9. 

30. fides: cf. 3. 1. 30. n. ; Lucan, 1. 647. 

31. 32. 7s a truer happiness than the glittering lot of the lord of 
fertile Africa, though he knows it not; lit., escapes him (his notice) 
(being) happier in lot, in imitation of the Greek \av6dfti bx&uLrfpov 
*ov. The want of bv makes the Latin awkward. The great procon- 
sul of Africa may be meant. Cf. sors Asiae, the proconsulship of 
Asia (Tac. Ann. 3. 58). But fertilis and the context make 'lord 
of great African estates ' more probable. Cf . Sat. 2. 3. 87 ; Odes, 
2. 2. 10-12 ; Anth. Pal. 5. 31. 6. 

33-36. Cf. 1. 31. 5. n. ; 2. 16. 33 sqq. n. 

33. Calabrae . . . apes : 2. 6. 14 ; 4. 2. 27(?). 

34. Laestrygoiiia : Formian. Cf. on 3. 17 and 1. 20. 11. 

35. languescit: mellows (3. 21. 8, languidiora vinci). pin- 
guia : the Greek could say 5affufj.a\\ot. Gallicis : Cisalpine Gaul, 
renowned for fine white wool (Pliny, N. H. 8. 190). 

37. importuiia : (4. 13. 9) the pinch of poverty, distressful pov- 
erty. Cf. Epp. 2. 2. 199, immunda pauperies. Not the 8ei\}] or 
ouAojUfVrj irevii) of Theogn. 351, Hes. Theog. 593. Poverty in itself 
Horace commends (1. 12. 43 ; 3. 2. 1 ; 3. 29. 56). 

38. Cf. 2. 18. 12 ; Epode 1. 31. 

39. contracto, etc. : cf. 2. 2. 9 ; Plato, Laws, 736 E ; Lucret. 
5. 1118 ; Cowley, 'The most gentlemanly manner of obliging him, 
which is not to add anything to his estate, but to take something 
from his desires ' (after Epicurus); Sen. Epist. 21. 7; Min. Felix, 
36. 5, omnia si non concupiscimus possidemus. 

40. vectigalia : Sat. 2. 2. 100, ego vectigalia magna divitiasque 
habeo ; Cic. Paradox. 6. 49, qitam magnum vectlgal sit parsimonia. 
Cf. Hamlet's use of ' revenues.' porrigam: Sen. Epist. 89. 20, 
quousque arationes vestras porrigetis. 

41. quam si: 2. 2. 10. Mygdoniis: Phrygian, 2. 12. 22. 
Alyattei : Bentley's reading of the hopelessly confused Mss. 
Horace's readers would think of Croesus, recalling Herod. 1. 6 : 
'Croesus was a Lydian and son of Alyattes.' Cf. Croesi regia 
Sardes (Epp. 1. 11. 2). The longer sonorous name helps the 



BOOK HI., ODE XVII. 357 

meter. Cf. on 1. 17. 22-23. Bacchyl. 5. 40, 'A\v<i[r]Ta. SJ/w. 
For form of gen., cf. 1. 6. 7. 

42. campis : preferably dat. continuem : Livy, 34. 4 has 
ingens cupido agros continuandi ; Isaiah 5. 8, 'Woe unto them 
that join house to house, that lay field to field.' 

43. bene est : almost colloquial. Cf. Epist. 1. 1. 89 ; Catull. 
14. 10 ; 38. 1, male est; Cowley, ' Thrice happy he | To whom the 
wise indulgency of Heaven, | With sparing hand but just enough 
has given.' 

44. quod satis est : 3. 1. 25. 



ODE XVII. 

To L. Aelius Lamia, the friend of 1. 26, and probably the con- 
sul of A.D. 2. Under the empire the Lamiae became types of 
ancient nobility. Cf. Juv. Sat. 4. 154 ; 6. 385. Lamia appar- 
ently is at his seaside villa. Horace playfully traces his friend's 
pedigree back to Homer's cannibal king Lamos, and bids him, since 
a storm is brewing, get in his firewood and prepare to ' loaf and 
invite his soul.' 

2. quando motivates duds. Since all the Lamiae are descended 
from Lamos, you too must derive your lineage from the founder 
of Formiae (which Cicero, ad Att. 2. 13, identifies with Homer's 
Laestrygonia ; Odyss. 10. 82); the parenthesis ends with tyrannus, 

1. 9. hinc: cf. unde (1. 12. 17); hinc (Verg. Aen. 1. 21). 

4-5. fastos : cf. on 4. 14. 4. Here (family) records. They do 
not appear in the consular fasti till A.D. 2. auctore: cf. 1. 

2. 36. n. 

7. innantem : the quiet Liris (1. 31. 7) near its mouth over- 
flows in marshes at Minturnae, where the Italian nymph Marica 
(sometimes identified with Circe) was worshiped. 

9. late tyrannus : tvpvKpfiwv. Cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 21, late regem; 
Epp. 1. 11. 26 ; Pliny, Epp. 3. 5, latissime victor. 

10. inutlli : cf. on 3. 24. 48. Here proverbially worthless. Cf. 
vilior alga (Sat. 2. 5. 8 ; Verg. Eel. 7. 42). 

12. aquae . . . augur : vfro^avr^. Cf. 3. 27. 10 ; Lucret. 5. 
1086 = Verg. G. 1. 388. ster.iit: bestrew. Cf. 4. 14. 32. 



358 NOTES. 

13. annosa: cf. 4. 13. 25; lies. fr. 183; A rat. Phaen. 1022; 
Lucret. 5. 1084. Tennyson's ' many-wintered crow ' ; Bryant's 
' century -living crow.' 

14. geiiium : the ghost, spiritual double, inner animistic self, 
birth-spirit, or guardian angel of anything. Under the influence 
of the Platonic doctrine of the Daimon or Guardian Angel and 
higher self, this conception of the popular Roman religion was 
deeply moralized in later literature and poetry. Cf. Plato, Tim. 
90 A; Rep. 619 E ; Boissier, Religion Romaine, Vol. II., p. 145; 
Schmidt, Ethik der Griechen, 1. 153; Hor. Kpp. 1. 7. 94 ; 2. 2. 187 ; 
2. 1. 144 ; 2. 3. 210 ; Petron. 62 ; Ter. Phorm. 44 ; Pers. Sat. 2. 3 ; 
F. Q. 2. 12. 47-48; Shaks. Jul. Caes. 2. 1, 'The genius and the 
mortal instruments ' ; Ant. and Cleop. 2. 3, with Macbeth, 3. 1 ; 
Matthew Arnold, Palladium, Scholar-Gipsy, ' To the just-pausing 
genius we remit | Our well-worn life, and are what we have been ' ; 
Mrs. Browning, Son. fr. Port. 42, 'my ministering life-angel.' Phrases 
like indulge, care for, propitiate your genius, etc., were used collo- 
quially like our ' be good to yourself,' ' invite your soul,' etc. 

15. bimestri : see Lex. ; bimenstri is perhaps better. 

16. operum solutis : cf. on 2. 9. 17 ; 3. 27. 69. For solutus 
with abl., cf. Sat. 1. 6. 129. 

ODE XVIII. 

To Faunus, guardian of the flocks. The Faunalia occurred on 
the 13th of February (Ov. Fast. 2. 193). Horace here seems to 
speak of a local festival in December. Cf. 1. 17. 1-8. 

There is a charm in the Epicurean poet's kindly affectation of 
sympathy with the rustic faith of his neighbors. Cf. on 3. 23 ; also 
the beautiful lines of Lucret. 4. 580 sqq. ; Probus ad Verg. G. 
1. 10, Eusticis persuasum est incolentibus earn partem Italiae quae 
suburbana est saepe eos (sc. Faunos) in ayris conspici ; Herrick, 
Hesp. 106, ' While Faunus in the Vision comes to keep, | From 
rav'ning wolves the fleecie sheep ' ; Ronsard, Pour Helene : ' Faunes, 
qui habitez ma terre paternelle, | Qui menez sur le Loir vos dances 
et vos tours, | Favorisez la plante et lui donnez secours, | Que 1'este" 
ne la brusle et 1'hyver ne la gelle.' 

There is a translation by Warton, Johnson's Poets, 18. 99. 



BOOK III., ODE XVIII. 359 

1. amator : by identification with the Greek Pan (1. 17. 2). Cf. 
Ov. Met. 1. 701 sqq. ; Shelley's Pan, ' Singing how down the vale 
of Maenalus I pursued a maiden ' ; Thomas Warton, Hecatom- 
pathia, ' If country Pan might follow nymphs in chase ' ; Brown- 
ing, The Bishop orders his Tomb : ' Those Pans and nymphs ye 
wot of.' For ' Dan Faunus ' as lover of the nymphs, cf. F. Q. 2. 2. 7. 

3. Note chiastic order. lends : Pan's wrath was dreaded 
(Theoc. 1. 16). 

4. alumnis : yeanlings, tender young. Cf. 3. 23. 7. 

5. si : the purely formal condition in prayers. pleno : exacto 
(3. 22. 6) ; redeunte (3. 8. 9). cadit : as a victim, sc. tibi. 

6. Veneris sodali : Pan is often associated with Aphrodite in 
Gk. art. But to separate sodali from craterae would be very 
harsh, and the bowl may be personified as Venus' mate on the 
principle Sine Libe.ro et Cerere friget Venus. Cf. Aristoph. fr. 
490, oii/os "AcppoS/TTjy yd\a. 

7-8. vetus : possibly an old altar which Horace found on the 
estate. Note the asyndeton. multo . . . odore : cf. 1. 30. 3, 
multo ture. 

9-16. The suggested image of the festival develops into a descrip- 
tion. Cf. the festival of Anna Perenna (Ov. Fast. 3. 523 sqq.). 

10. tibi : emphatic ; thy. 

12. pagus : Mandela, now Bandela. Cf. Ov. Fast. 1. 669, pagus 
agat festum. 

13. audaces : Shelley's ' dreadless kid.' Faunus is conceived 
as Lupercus qui lupos arcet. 

14. spargit : the December 'fall of the leaf (Epode 11. 5, 
December . . . silvis honorem decutit) is by a pretty personifica- 
tion taken as a <pv\\o&o\ia, in honor of the god. Cf. Pind. Pyth. 
9. 134, 'Many the leaves and wreaths they showered on him ' ; 
Verg. Eel. 5.' oO ; Tenn. Princess, ' Shall strip a hundred hollows 
bare of spring | To rain an April of ovation round.' 

15. invisam : because of the toil she exacts. pepulisse : cf. 
1. 4. 7 ; 1. 37. 2; and, for the tense, 1. 1. 4 ; 3. 4. 52. fossor: 
delver, slave working in chains on great estates (Martial, 9. 22. 4). 
Here, generally, peasant. 

16. Note the adaptation of sound to sense, and cf. the rustic 
jollity in Lucret. 5. 1401-2, atque extra numerum procedere 



360 NOTES. 

membra moventes \ duriter et duro terrain pede pellere matrem. 
ter : cf. tripudinm. Cf. 4. 1. 28 ; sen cantare iuvat sen ter pede 
laeta ferire \ gramina (carmina?) nullus obest sings the shepherd 
in Calpuruius, Eclog. 4. 128. 

ODE XIX. 

' You prate of Inachus and ancient history,' Horace cries to a 
learned prosy friend, ' when the question is what brand of Chian 
shall we procure, and at whose house shall we dine together to- 
night.' Then, transferring himself in imagination to the carouse, 
he takes the chair as arbiter bibendi, gives out toasts, orders the 
mixing of the wine and water, and bids them wake the echoes till 
envious old January, ill-mated with beauteous May next door, 
hears their revelry. 

Or we may conceive the whole scene, the inopportune antiquarian 
talk and the jovial interruption, to take place at the banquet. 

If the Murena of 1. 11 is the Murena of 2. 10, the date can hardly 
be later than his conspiracy against Augustus, B.C. 23 (Veil. 2. 91 ; 
Suet. Octav. 19. 66 ; Sen. de Clem. 9 ; Dio, 54. 3). 

1. distet: chronologically. Inacho : cf. on 2. 3. 21; F. Q. 2. 
9. 56, ' The wars he well remembered of King Nine, | Of old As- 
saracus and Inachus divine.' 

2. Codrus : semi-mythical last king of Athens. In war with 
Dorians he provoked his own death because of prophecy that the 
enemy would win if they spared the life of the Athenian king (Cic. 
Tusc. 1. 116). timidus: so 4. 9. 52. 

3. narras : colloquial, almost slangy, like French 'Qu'est-ce que 
tu chantes ? ' The lexicons do not bring this out. Cf. Sat. 1. 9. 
52 ; 2. 7. 5 ; Martial, 3. 46. 7 ; 4. 61. 16 ; 3. 63. 13 ; 4. 37. 6 ; 8. 17. 3, 
etc.; Propert. 3. 7. 3 ; Petron. Sat. 44 ; Sen. de Morte Cl. 6 ; Per- 
sius, 1. 81, quid dia poemata narrent, where this force is necessary 
to the point. genus Aeaci : Zeus, Aeacus, Peleus, Achilles, Ne- 
optolemus, Telamon, Ajax, and Teucer. 

4. pugnata . . . bella: cf. on 4. 9. 19; Epp. 1. 16. 25, beUa tibi 
terra pugnata mariqne. sacro: *IA<OS Irf. For gender, see 1. 10. 14. 
. 6-7. Apparently the feast is to be a ffvfj.Bo\-fi, where each con- 



BOOK III., ODE XIX. 361 

tributes his part and one lends his house and. provides the hot water. 
A Chian cask = a cask of Chian. Cf. Sabina diota, 1.9.7. The 
Chian was prized. Cf. Epode 9. 34 ; Mrs. Browning, Wine of Cy- 
prus, 7, ' Go ! let others praise the Chian.' 

6. aquam temperet : perhaps for the bath ; perhaps, since it 
is cold, for the wine. Sat. 1. 4. 88, qui praebet aquam is the host. 

7. praebente domum : in Sat. 2. 8. 36 he is playfully called 
parochus, the purveyor. quota: sc. hora. 

8. Paelignis : the Paeligni, high in the Apennines, were prover- 
bially cold (Ov. Fast. 4. 81). taces : what you speak-of you can 
be-silent^of. Cf. 4. 9. 31. 

9. da: sc. cyathos, vinum. lunae : gen. of toast. Cf. 3.8. 
13; Anth. Pal. 3. 136; 5. 110; 5. 137; Theoc. 14. 18. novae: 
the month was originally lunar, and the Kalends would be conven- 
tionally the new moon. Cf. 3. 23. 2. 

10. noctis : 3.28.16. mediae: they won't go home till morn- 
ing. auguris : apparently Murena has recently been chosen into 
the college of augurs. 

11. 12. The cups shall be mingled with 3 or 9 cyathi (of wine) 
at your choice. Fractions were reckoned in twelfths of the as or 
the sextanus by unciae and cyathi respectively. Anacreon drank 
10 water to 5 wine (fr. 64). Cf. Athenae, 10. 426 sqq. Page takes 
3 and 9 of the quantity the number of ladles to a bumper. 

12. commodis : cf. 4. 8. 1. Others render 'just,' or 'full.' 

13. impares : they were nine. 

14. ternos ter : T 9 ^ wine, the stronger mixture. attonitus : 
cf. Lex. s.v. B; otvtf ffvyKpavi'<a6e\s (pptvas (Archil, fr. 74). 

15. tres . . . supra : probably above three (the weaker mix- 
ture), suited to him who sacrifices to the graces! It has been 
taken the three beyond (9) ; that would make it unmixed wine. Cf . 
Ov. Fast. 3. 813, altera tresque super. 

16-17. metuens: with gen. (3. 24. 22). Gratia, etc. : cf. on 
1. 4. 6 ; 4. 7. 5. nudis : until the third century B.C. art showed 
them clothed. Cf. P>azer on Pausan. 9. 35. 6. 

18. insanire iuvat: cf. on 2. 7. 28. Berecyntiae : cf. 1. 18. 
13 ; 4. 1. 22 ; Epode 9. 5. 6. The tibia was orgiastic. 

19. cessant : cf. on 1. 27. 13 ; 3. 27. 58. flamina : \urov 
na.ro. (Eurip. Phoen. 788). 



362 NOTES. 

20. pendet . harps and lyres conventionally hang when not in 
use (Odyss. 8. 671 ; Pind. O. 1. 17 ; Scott, Prelude, L. of L., ' Harp 
of the north! that mouldering long hast hung,' etc.). fistula: 
4. 1. 24 ; 1. 17. 10. Tacita with both nouns. 

22. sparge rosas : cf. 1. 36. 15 ; Epp. 1. 5. 14, potare et spargere 
flores Herrick's and Martial's ' Now raignes (regnat) the rose.' 
The hand that scattered winter roses would not be niggardly. Cf. 
Martial, 4. 29. 3 ; 6. 80 ; Lucian, Nigrin. 31 ; Pater, Marius, Chap. 

12, sub fin., ' And at no time had the winter roses from Carthage 
seemed more lustrously yellow and red.' audiat, etc. : Propert. 
4. 8. 9, dulciaqne ingratos adimant convivia somnos. \ publica 
vicinae perstrepat aura viae. 

23-24. Lycus . . . Lyco : cf. on 1. 13. 1-2 for invidious repe- 
tition. There is a neighbor AUKOS in Theoc. 14. 24. 

24. non habilis : not tempestiva (27). 

25. spissa : no 'thin and icy crown.' nitidum : cf. on 2. 12. 
19, 'well-groomed.' But cf. Pind. Nem. 1. 68, <}>ai8i/4av . . . tcS^ar. 
Tenn. El., ' Her bright hair blown about the serious face.' 

26. puro: i.e. in a clear sky. Cf. 2. 5. 19; 3. 10. 8; 3. 29. 45. 
similem . . . vespero: cf. on 3. 7. 1; 3. 9.21. Telephe : 1. 

13. 1; 4. 11.21. 

27. tempestiva : cf. 1. 23. 12; 4. 1. 9, supra, non habilis. 
petit: 1. 33. 13. Rhode : ' whose name and fame are of roses' 
(Symonds). 

28. me: Epode 14. 15. lentus: 1. 13. 8; Tibull. 1. 4. 81, 
lento me torquet amore. Glycerae: 1. 19. 5; 1. 30. 3 ; 1. 33. 2. 
torret : 1. 33. 6 ; 4. 1. 12. It is a smoldering fire. Theoc. 3. 
17, os (it Karafffivxtav. 

ODE XX. 

Have a care, Pyrrhus. Thy furious rival will rush upon thee as 
the Homeric lioness robbed of her whelps charges the hunt. Mean- 
while Nearchus, the object of your strife, stands unconcerned, the 
breeze fanning his perfumed locks, a Greek marble, fair as Nireus 
or Ganymede. 

1. non vides : you don't see? nonne vides (1. 14. 3); don't you 
sesf moveas : Kivttv, disturb. 

2. Gaetulae: 1. 23. 10. 



BOOK III., ODE XXI. 363 

3. post paullo : so Epist. 1. 6. 43. The usual paullo post 
would be intolerably prosaic. iiiaudax : apparently an Horatian 
coinage for oroAjuos ; with raptor it forms a slight oxymoron. 

5-10. The imagery is Homeric. Cf. II. 18. 318 ; per obstantes 
catenas recurs in a martial setting, 4. 9. 43 ; here the expression 
is a mock heroic equivalent of the 0aAepoi al^rjoi, the lusty war- 
riors of the Homeric hunt. 

6. insignem : he is easily known by his beauty. Cf. 1. 33. 5 ; 
Verg. Aen. 7. 762, Virbius insignem quern mater Aricia misit. 

7. grande certamen : apposition with sentence. Cf. Verg. 
Aeu. 6. 223, and Shaks. 'Hangs one that gathers samphire 
dreadful trade.' 

8. illi : so the Mss. ; maior must then be rendered rather. Of 
course, strictly speaking, the prize falls to one or the other, and 
there is no greater or less portion. But provided the meaning be 
clear, poets are quite ready to sacrifice this kind of logic to the 
rhythm or the desired turn of phrase. Modern editors generally 
read ilia and render maior superior, i.e. victorious. 

10. dentes acuit : still Homeric. Cf. II. 13. 474 ; 11. 416, of 
the boar. 

11. arbiter : he is prize and judge in one. posuisse : his foot 
is planted on it. nudo: helps the picture. Cf. Tenn. CEnone, 
' From the violets her light foot | Shone rosy white' ; cf. 4. 1. 27. 

12. palmam : of victory, 1. 1. 5. 

13. recreare : 1. 22. 18. 

14. umerum : cf. on 4. 10. 3. 

15. Nireus : ' Nireus was the fairest man that to fair Ilion 
came' (Chapman), II. 2. 672. aquosa: cf. on 2. 2. 15; Tenny- 
son's ' many-fountained Ida' ; cf. II. 11. 183. 

16. raptus : Latin has no article. For Ganymede, cf. 4. 4. 4 ; 
II. 20. 233. 

ODE XXL 

To a wine-jar born with Horace in the year 65, and now to be 
opened in honor of (M. Valerius Messala) Corvinus. 

Messala was a student at Athens, B.C. 42, with Horace and 
Marcus Cicero. After Philippi, he declined the leadership of the 
remnant of the republican party and joined the triumvirs. At 



364 NOTES. 



the time of the peace of Brundisium, he left the service of Antony 
for that of Octavian, on whose side he was found at Actium. He 
was consul B.C. 31, and was granted a triumph for victories over 
the Aquitanians B.C. 27. Henceforth he devoted himself to his 
law practice and lettered ease. His eloquence is praised and com- 
pared with that of Asinius Pollio by Quintil., 10. 1. 113. He was 
the Maecenas of the circle of Tibullus. Servius (on Verg. Aen. 
8. 310) reports a symposium graced by the presence of Maecenas, 
Horace, and Vergil, cum ex persona Messallaede vi vini loqueretur 
the theme of this ode. 
Paraphrase by Rowe, Johnson's Poets, 9. 472. 

1. L. Manlius Torquatus was consul B.C. 65. Cf. Epode 13. 6. 

2. queiellas . . . geris: some men ont le vin triste; others, 
gai. For the fancy that the bottle contains its effects, cf. Heine, 
Buch Le Grand, V., 'Gestern bei Tische horte ich jemand eine 
Thorheit sprechen die anno 1811 in einer Weintraube gesessen, 
welche ich damals selbst auf dem Johannisberge wachsen sah.' 
So Emerson, ' there is much eloquence in a cup of tea.' 

3. 1. 13. 10-11 ; 1. 17. 25. Or cf. 1. 27. 4 ; 1. 18. 8. 

4. facilem . . . somnum: cf. 2. 11. 8 ; 3. 1. 20-21. n. pia : 
the position emphasizes the preferable alternative. Or it may 
be felt merely as a half-humorous fondling epithet of the ' dive 
bouteille.' Others explain, faithful to its charge (servas,!). 
testa : 1. 20. 2 ; 3. 14. 20 ; Epp. 1. 2. 70. 

5. quocumque . . . nomine : strictly a figure from book- 
keeping, on whatever account. lectum . . . Massicum : gath- 
ered (grapes of) Massic, i.e. Massic vintage. Or, choice Massic. 

6. moveri : cf. Epode 13. 6, tu vina . . . move. For inf. pass, 
with dignus, cf. Sat. 1. 3. 24. It is common in silver prose. 

7. descende : from the apotheca. Cf. 3. 8. 11. n. ; 3. 28. 7. 

8. promere : cf. 1. 36. 11 ; 1. 37. 5. languidiora : cf. 3. 16. 35. 

9. non ille : cf. 4. 9. 51; non ego, I. 18. 11. madet : he is 
steeped in Socratic discourse, but has no churlish (horridus) 
aversion to other steepings. Cf. madidus homo, uvidi, 4. 5. 39, 
' a wet night,' and the like. For the metaphor, cf. Martial, 7. 51. 
6, iure madens ; 1. 39. 3,' si quis Cecropiae madidus Latiaeque 
Minervae. 



BOOK III., ODE XXI. 365 

11-12. prisci : stern old, good old. Cf. 2. 3. 21 ; 4. 2. 40 ; Epode 
2. 2 ; Catull. 64. 159, saevaquod horrcbas prisci praecepta parentis ; 
Epp. 2. 2. 117, priscis . . . Catonibtts atque Cethegis. Catonis : 
cf. 2. 15. 11. n., and for the periphrasis with virtus, cf. 1. 3. 36. 
n. ; Sat. 2. 1. 72, virtus Scipiadae et mitis sapientia Laeli. 

13-20. For similar praises of wine, cf. 1. 18. 3-6. n. ; 4. 12. 
19-20 ; Epp. 1. 5. 19 ; Bacchylides, fr. 27 ; Ovid, A. A. 1. 237-242, 
an imitation of this passage ; Cotton, Ode upon Winter ; Herrick, 
197, 'The Welcome to Sack' ; 773, A Hymn to Bacchus ; Burns, 
'Scotch drink,' John Barleycorn, sub fin., The Holy Fair, 'Leeze 
me on drink ! it gies us mair | Than either school or college : It 
kindles wit, it waukens lair, | It pangs us fu' o' knowledge' ; Agnes 
Repplier, Atlantic Monthly, Oct., 1896. 

13. tormentum : rack, spur, pressure. Cf. Lex. s.v. III. A. ; 
Bacchyl. fr. 27, y\vK*i' avdyKa ; Epp. 2. 3. 435, torquere mero; with 
lene an oxymoron. 

14. plerumque : cf. 1. 34. 7. 

14-16. Cf. Odyss. 14. 463-466, ' Wildering wine that sets even a 
wise man on to sing aloud, and to laugh merrily, and uttereth a 
word that were better left unsaid.' iocoso : cf. 4. 15. 26. Lyaeo : 
cf. 1. 7. 22. n. The Romans associated Liber (Aei/Sa ?) with liber, 
free. Cf. Sen. Dial. 9. 17. 8, Liberque non ob licentiam linguae dictus 
est inventor vini, sed quid liberal servitio curarum animum, etc. 

17. spem, etc. : cf. 4. 12. 19 ; Epp. 1. 5. 17 ; 1. 15. 19. 

18. viresque : que connects reduc.is and addis. cornua : cf. 
2. 19. 30. n., Lex. s.v. II. ; Coleridge, Biographia Literaria, p. 208 ; 
1 Sam. 2. 1. 

19-20. ' Inspiring, bold John Barleycorn ! | What dangers thou 
canst mak' us scorn' (Burns, Tarn o' Shanter). 

19. post te : cf. 1. 18. 5, post vina. iratos : transferred epithet 
or hypallage. Cf. 3. 1. 42-43. 

20. apices : cf. 1. 34. 14. 

22. segues . . . solvere : loath to loose. nodum : of twining 
arms. Cf. 1. 4. 6. n. ; 3. 19. 17. 

23. vivae : cf. 3. 8. 14. producent : prolong, keep up. So 
cenam producimus (Sat. 1. 5. 70); noctem producere vino (Martial, 
2. 89. 1); Tibull. 1. 4. 5. lucemae : the lamps are personified 
with the rest. 



366 NOTES. 

24. dum . . . fugat : (all the) while he is doing it virtually = 
until he can get it done. Cf. Lucret. 1. 949, dum perspicis omnem \ 
naturam rerum. For image, cf. ' And Phoebus in his chair | En- 
saffroning sea and air | Makes vanish every star' (Drurmnond of 
Hawthornden) ; ' Wake ! For the Sun who scatter'd into flight | The 
Stars before him from the Field of Night,' etc. (Omar Khayyam, I.). 

ODE XXII. 

Dedication of a pine, at the poet's villa, to Diana Nemorensis. 

1. For Diana, Queen of the Woods, etc., cf. on 1. 21. 5; Catull. 
34. 9. 

2. In this function, "Apre/as Diana was identified with Juno 
Lucina. Cf. Catull. 34. 9, Tu Lucina dolentibus \ luno dicta puer- 
peris, | tu potens trivia et notho es \ dicta lumine luna. puellas: 
so Ov. Am. 2. 13. 19, tuque laborantes utero miserata puellas. 

3. ter : 1. 28. 36. 

4. Diva triformis : as Luna, Diana, Hecate. Cf . Catull., supra ; 
Verg. Aen. 4. 511, tergeminamque Hecaten, tria virginis or a Dia- 
nae; Ov. Met. 7. 94, per sacra triformis \ ille deae. Her image at 
the crossways had three faces. Ov. Fast. 1. 141, or a vides Hecates 
in tres vertentia partes, \ servet ut in ternas compita secta vias. 
Modern poetry variously symbolizes it : ' Goddess whom all gods 
love with threefold heart, | Being treble in thy divided deity ' 
(Swinb. Atalanta, init.}; 'Thro' Heaven I roll my lucid moon 
along; | I shed in Hell o'er my pale people peace, | On Earth,' etc. 
(Browning, Artemis Prologuizes) ; ' Goddess triform I own thy 
triple spell : | Queen of my earth, Queen too of my heaven and 
hell ' (Lowell) ; ' With borrowed light her countenance triform | 
Hence fills,' etc. (Milton). Cf. the quaint old Latin distich, 
Terret, lustrat, agit, Proserpina, luna, Diana, \ ima, suprema, 
feras, sceptro, fulgore, sagitta. 

5. tua : sacred to thee. Cf. Verg. Aen. 10. 423, tua quercus. 
6-8. quam . . . doiiem : that I may, etc. 

6. per: 2. 3. 6. exactos : 3. 18. 5; Verg. Aen. 5. 46, annuus 
exactis completur mensibus orbis. laetus: the libens merito of 
votive inscriptions. 



BOOK III., ODE XXIII. 367 

7. obliquum : Homer's \tKpifls eu'|as (Od. 19. 451 ; H. 12. 148). 
Cf. Ov. Her. 4. 104, obliquo dente timendus aper ; Met. 8. 344, et 
olliqno latrantes (the dogs) dissipat ictu. For the periphrastic 
description of the victim, cf. 3. 13. 4; 4. 2. 54. 



ODE XXIII. 

Horace, Epicurean and Student of Greek Philosophy, "tells the 
farmer's little girl that the Gods will love her, though she has only 
a handful of salt arid meal to give them " (Ruskin, Queen of the 
Air, 48). 

Translated, as a sonnet, by Austin Dobson. Cf. Lang, Letters to 
Dead Authors, p. 210. For Horace's religion, cf. on 1. 34, 3. 18 ; 
Sellar, pp. 159-160. 

1. caelo : dat. Cf. manusque susum ad caelum sustulit suas 
rex; avarftvats ovpavy x f *p* (Find. Is. 5. 41). supinas : like 
SJTTIOJ, of upturned palms (Aesch. Prom. 1005; Verg. Aen. 4. 205). 

2. nascente luna : on the first day of each (lunar) month. Cf. 
3. 19. 9. Phidyle : <t>eiSo/j.ai, the sparing, thrifty one. 

3. ture : Tibull. 1. 3. 34, reddereqite antiquo menstrua turn Lari ; 
Herrick, 334, To Larr. horna : Epode 2. 47 ; a sheaf or garland 
of the new grain as first fruits. Tibull. 1. 10. 22, sen dederat sanc- 
tae spicea serta comae. 

8. Lares: cf. Harper's Class. Diet. s.v. avida : the homely 
proprium lends a touch of intimacy. Cf. Keats' ' small gnats,' 
Vergil's exiguus TOMS. porca: Tibull. 1. 10. 26. Cf. 3. 17. 15; 
Sat. 2. 3. 165, porcum Laribus. Servius, on Verg. Aen. 8. 641, says 
that female victims are more efficacious. Quintilian, 8. 3. 19, thinks 
that the form porco would have destroyed the Vergilian elegance of 
caesa iungebat foedera porca. 

5. Africum : 'sirocco.' 'Africbane' (Dobson). 

6. fecunda : /Jorpuo'eis, thick-clustered. sterilem : active, as 
sterilis Sirius (Verg. Aen. 3. 141). 

7. Robigo : blight was regularly worshiped as a deity to be 
propitiated (Ov. Fast. 4. 907). alumni : 3. 18. 4. 

8. Pomifer autumnus (4. 7. 11) is 'season of mists and mellow 
fruitfulness,' as well as of the nocentem Austrum (2. 14. 15). 



368 NOTES. 

grave tempus : Liv. 3. 6, grave tempus et . . . pestilens annus. 
anno : season ; P^pode 2. 29. ' The sick apple-tide '(Dobson). 

9. Algido : 1. 21. 6; 4. 4. 58 ; Macaulay, Herat., ' When round 
the lonely cottage | Roars loud the tempest's din, | And the good 
logs of Algidus | Roar louder yet within.' 

10. devota . . . victima : Milton has ' to death devote.' Cf. 
4. 14. 18. 

11. crescit : cf. 4. 2. 55. Albania: in the pastures assigned to 
the temples for the purpose (Dionys. 3. 29). 

13. te : for similar contrast, cf. 4. 2. 53. attinet : it concerns 
thee not, thou hast no need. 

14. temptare : try, besiege, importune. Cf. 1. 2. 26, fatigare ; 
2. 18. 12, lacesso. bidentium : see Lex. s.v. B, first explanation. 

15-16. parvos . . . decs : Ov. Fast. 5. 130, signaque parva deum ; 
the little images of the Lares ; in her case of wood. 

17-20. immunis, etc. : ' If there is no guilt in the hand that 
touches the altar, it could not (hath not, doth not, gnomic) more 
acceptably with costly sacrifice appease the estranged Penates (than 
it doth) with pious grain and crackling salt.' The gnomic perfect 
mollivit does double duty, and is a somewhat harsh expression of 
the conditional idea (others make non . . . hostia a parenthesis, 
and blandior = blandior futura). Immunis, in Horace, usually 
means without a gift. Cf. 4. 12. 23 ; Epp. 1. 14. 33. In the sense 
immunis scelerum it would seem to require a genitive. Cf. Ovid's 
immunes caedis habere manus. But the absolute use is no harsher 
than that of acervos in 2. 2. 24. In any case, the thought is the 
religious commonplace that Heaven prefers innocence and the 
pauper's mite to the splendid offerings of the rich. Immunis is 
the emphatic word ; the rendering without a gift merely says that 
the small offering is as acceptable as the great, and misses the 
main point of the utterance. Cf. Gildersleeve, on Persius, 2. 75 ; 
Psalms 69. 31 ; Eurip., frs. 946, 327, Nauck; Isoc. 2. 20. 

18. sumptuosa : if we could read sumptuosa blandior, assum- 
ing that Horace allowed the form w w , hostia could be the 

subject of mollivit, and the sentence would run smoothly enough. 

19. aversos : cf . Epode 10. 18. But they are not positively 
hostile in Phidyle's case. Cf. 1. 36. 2. n. 

20. Cf. Pliny, N. H. Praef., mola tantum salsa litant qui non 



BOOK III., ODE XXIV. 369 

habent tura ; Lev. 2. 13, 'with all thine offerings thou shalt offer 
salt' ; Herrick, 106, ' Making thy peace with heav'n, for some late 
fault, | With Holy-meale, and spirting-salt ' ; Swinb. At Eleusis, 
' Faint grape-flowers and cloven honey-cake | And the just grain 
with dues of the shed salt'; Tibull. 3. 4. 10, Et natum in curas 
hominum genus omina noctis \ Farre pio placant et saliente sale. 
saliente : ' that crackles in the blaze.' 



ODE XXIV. 

Villas by the sea and all the wealth of Araby or Ind cannot 
deliver thee from death or the fear of death. Better the rude 
virtues of the nomad Scythian than our luxury and vice. Who 
will prove the true father of his country and curb this license ? 
Posterity will give him the honors that envious contemporaries 
grudge. But of what avail are laws or complaints when our 
manners recognize no disgrace save poverty ? Away with our 
gems and pernicious gold. Our youths must be trained in a 
sterner school. What marvel if the son cannot keep his saddle 
and prefers dicing to the hunt, when his perjured sire defrauds 
his associate and still piles up gold for an \xnworthy heir ? 

The moralizing is in the vein of 3. 1. 14-45, 3. 2. 1-7, 3. 6, 2. 15, 
with the fervid rhetoric of Epode 16. In 4. 5. 21-25 and 4. 15. 10- 
15 the savior of society here invoked is found in Augustus. Cf. 
Sellar, p. 156; Sueton. Octav. 34. 89; and the boast of Augustus, 
Mon. Ancyr. 2. 12-14, Legibus novis latis complura exempla maio- 
rum exolentia iam ex nostro usu reduxi et ipse multarum rerum 
exempla imitanda posteris tradidi. 

The date may be approximately that of 3. 6, B.C. 28-27. 

1. intactis: unrijled(cf. on 1.29. 1); ' richer than the treasures ' 
is a natural brachylogy (cf. on 2. 14. 28; 1. 8. 9). 

2-3. Indiae : 1. 31. 6. n. caementis : 3. 1. 35. 

4. Tyrrhenum . . . Apulicum : All Mss. read Tyrrhenum. 
For Apulicum many have publicum. The text can be defended 
only as a loose hyperbole for 'every coast.' Lachmann's ingen- 
ious terrenum . . . et mare publicum is not really proved, as 
German editors affirm, by Porphyrio's non terrain tantum, verum 
etiam maria occupantem, etc., which might be said, whatever the 
2B 



370 NOTES. 

text here, by any one familiar with 2. 18. 22 and 3. 1. 36. Mare 
publicum, it is true, prettily brings out the special force of occu- 
pes ; we cannot dogmatize about the quantity of Apulicum. Cf. 
3. 1. 40. 

5. figit : cf. 1. 3. 36. n. adamantines : cf. Plat. Rep. 616 C ; 
L. and S. s.v. dSefytas. Older English writers use 'diamond.' Cf. 
'nails of diamond,' 1. 35. 17. n. 

6. summis verticibus : the image will not square with matter- 
of-fact logic. The meaning seems to be, ' You build, but the last 
nail will be driven by destiny.' Cf. on 2. 18. 29-31 ; 1. 35. 17. 
Summis verticibus will then be in (or into) the topmost gable. It 
has also been taken ' up to the heads ' (of the nails), and, somewhat 
grotesquely, 'into the heads ' (of men). 

8. laqueis : 0. T. passim, e.g., Psalms 18. 5, 'the snares of 
death prevented me ' ; Stat. Silv. 5. 155, ' undique leti \ vallavere 
plagaeS The Hindoo death-god Yama flings a noose. Aeschylus 
is fond of the 'net of doom' (Ag. 361, 1048, 1376; Prom. 1078). 
Milton has ' tangled in the fold | Of dire necessity' (Sams. Ag.); 
Shelley, Cenci, ' a net of ruin.' 

9. campestres : of the plains (steppes). Cf. 3. 8. 24 ; 1. 35. 9. 
melius : Tac. Ger. 19, melius quidem adhuc eae civitates, etc. 

10. vagas : not proleptic, but a poetic oxymoron with domos. 
Cf. Pind. fr. 105, a.^o<p^pr]Tov olxov ; Arnold, Strayed Reveller, 
'They see the Scythian | On the wide steppe, unharnessing | His 
wheel'd house at noon' ; Sen. Here. Fur. 537, intravit (Hercules') 
Scythiae multivagas domos. Cf. also. Aesch. Prom. 709 ; Milton, 
P. L. 3, ' the barren plains | Of Sericana where Chineses drive | 
With sails and wind their cany waggons light.' rite : after their 
manner (Verg. Aen. 9. 252). 

11. rigid! : frozen (2. 9. 20), or stern and rude, severe; Epp. 
1. 1. 17, virtutis verae custos rigidusque satelles ; Epp. 2. 1. 25. 

12. immetata . . . liberas : the land is undivided and its 
produce common, as in the golden age. Verg. G. 1. 126, ne sig- 
nare quidem aut partiri limite campum \ fas erat : in medium 
quaerebant ; Ov. Met. 1. 135; Claud, in Rufin. 1. 380. 

13. Cererem : cf. 1. 7. 22. n. ; Epode 16. 43. 

14. cultura . . . annua : i.e. they stay only a year in one place, 
and only a part of the tribe is detailed to raise the year's crops. So 



BOOK III., ODE XXIV. 371 

Caesar, B. G. 4. 1, relates of the Suevi, and Tac. Ger. 19, of the 
Germans. 

15. defunctum : of the year's labors here ; in 2. 18. 38, functum, 
of .all life's labors. Cf. Bre"al, Se"mantique, 170. 

16. recreat : i.e. 'spells,' relieves. sorte : abl. manner, on 
like terms. 

17. illic : there among those children of nature all the virtues 
flourish for Horace's imagination, as they did for Tacitus (Ger- 
mania), for the Greek rhetors of the empire (Dio Chrysost. Or. 
69), and for Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Goldsmith in China, 
Persia, or Peru. 

18. temperat : spares (deals kindly with) the motherless step- 
children. The cruelty of the iniusta noverca was proverbial. Cf. 
Epode 5. 9 ; Otto, s.v. innocens : tcronging them not, perhaps 
etymologically not nocens. Cf. on 4. 4. 65. 

19. nee dotata : dowries ai-e unknown. By the Greek proverb, 
' a dowerless woman cannot speak her mind.' The richly dowered 
apparently could (Plaut. Men. 759; Aul. 526; Martial, 8. 12). 
The dower had to be returned if the husband divorced her. 

20. nitido : spruce, dandified. Cf. 3. 19. 25. fidit : coniunx, 
rather than dotata coniunx, is felt as the subject. 

21. dos . . . magna : a moral or metaphorical dower. Cf. 
Plaut. Amphitr. 839 ; Anth. Pal. 9. 96. 6. 

22-23. Cf. Tennyson's daintier expression ' . . . The laws of 
marriage character'd in gold | Upon the blanched tablets of her 
heart . . . crown'd Isabel . . . The queen of marriage, a most 
perfect wife.' metuens : cf. 3. 19. 16; 3. 11. 10. certo 
foedere : cf. 1. 13. 18. Loose characterizing (or absolute ?) abl. 

24. et peccare nefas : editors generally supply illic est. It 
can be more idiomatically taken as the third part of the dowry, 
which consists of (1) honorable birth, (2) sensitive purity, (3) the 
stern tradition of Scythian morality. The idiom is an extension 
of that of ademptus Hector (2. 4. 10) , which young students cannot 
take too much pains to master. Cf. Lucan, 2. 656, where Roma 
. . . capi . . . facilis is one third of the subject ; Juv. 10. 1 10, 
summus nempe locus nulla non arte petitus = the unscrupulous 
pursuit of power. peccare: cf. 3. 7. 19. n. aut: 3. 12. 2. n. 
pretium : a vox media. Cf . Juv. 13. ' 105, ille crucem sceleris 



372 NOTES. 

pretium tulit, hie diadema ; so /j.i<r66s (Aesch. Ag. 1261); Spenser, 
'Bold Procrustes' hire 11 (punishment). Or, oxymoron. 

25. O quiaquis : returning to wicked Rome and the hope of 
reform. impias: 1. 35. 34-35. n. 

26. rabiem : Epode 7. 13. civicam : 2. 1. 1. n. 

27. pater urbium : a variation on pater patriae. Cf. 1. 2. 50. n. ; 
Cic. ad Q. Fr. 1. 1. 31, parentem Asiae ; Stat. Silv. 3. 4. 48, 
pater . . . urbis. Augustus appears in an inscription as parens 
coloniae. The provinces and cities of Asia took the lead in the 
apotheosis of the emperor. Hence conceivably urbium is to be 
taken with statuis. Some editors print PATER URBIUM, but it is 
to be taken predicatively with subscribe. 

29. refrenare : cf. Tennyson's etymological ' trade refrain the 
powers.' For the image, cf. 4. 15. 10; Cic. de Or. 3. 41, validae 
legum habenae (quotation); Cic. de Div. 2. 20; Shaks. Hen. V., 
5. 3. 3, ' What rein can hold licentious wickedness | When down 
the hill he holds his steep career?' Hen. IV., 2. 4. 4, 'For the 
fourth Harry from curb'd license plucks | The muzzle of re- 
straint.' 

30. post genitia : posteris, 6tyiy6vois, posterity, found only here. 
quatenus : in so far as, inasmuch as, since. G. L. 538. n. 5. 
It motivates post genitis. The thought is elaborated, Epp. 2. 1. 
10-20, 86-89, whence Pope's imitation, ' These suns of glory please 
not till they set.' Cf. Menander, Stob. 125. 3 ; Veil. 2. 92 ; Propert. 

4. 1. 22 ; Ov. Am. 1. 15. 39 ; Phaedr. Fab. 5 Praefat. Mart. 5. 10. 12, 

5. 13. 4 ; Herrick, 624, ' I make no haste to have my numbers 
read : | Seldome comes Glorie till a man be dead' ; Tenn., ' neither 
count on praise : | It grows to guerdon after-days' ; Ruskin, Pref. 
Modern Painters, 2d ed. heu nefas : 4. 6. 17. 

31. incolumem : in the living, 1. 3. 7, 3. 5. 12, 4. 5. 27. 

32. quaerimus : i.e. requirimus, miss. Cf. Mart. 5. 10. 5, sic 
veterem ingrati Pompei quaerimus umbram. 

33. tristes : dismal, austere, not sad. Cf. 3. 16. 3. 

34. reciditur : in Sat. 1. 3. 122, of pruning (furta) falce recisu- 
rum. In Ov. Met. 1. 190, the metaphor is surgical : sed immedi- 
cabile minus \ ense recidendum ne pars sincera trahatur. 

35-36. leges sine moribus vanae : the words reinforce each 
other as in the phrases, coram a presentibus, ignari casu aliquo, 



BOOK III., ODE XXIV. 373 

palam ante oculos. Cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 392. For thought, cf. 4. 5. 
22 ; Tac. Ger. 19, plus ibi boni mores valent quam alibi bonae 
leges. 
30-41. For thought, cf. 1. 3, Intr. 

37. pars: 3. 3. 55. inclusa: shut in (away) from man 
domibus negata, 1. 22. 22. Cf. Lucret. 5. 204, inde duas porro prope 
partis fervidus ardor \ adsiduusque geli casus mortalibus aufert. 

38. latus : 1. 22. 19. 

39. solo : i.e. (in) solo. 

40. mercatorem : the thought of 1. 3 (Intr.), The restless 
merchant seeks unnatural gains. Cf. 1. 1. 16 ; A. P. 117 ; Sat. 1. 

1. 6, 29 ; Epp. 1. 1. 46, per mare pauperiem fugiens; Pers. 5. 55, 
132 sqq. ; Herrick, 106, ' Thou never plow'st the Ocean's foame | 
To seek and bring rough pepper home.' horrida callidi : man's 
cunning pitted against nature. Cf. on 1. 6. 9; Soph. Antig. 335 
sqq.; ' And skilful shipmen flout the horrors of the deep ' (Martin). 

42. Cf. on 1. 24, for Latin and English idiom. 

43. quidvis : cf. 1. 3. 25. n. ; 3. 3. 52, omne. Cf. Sat. 2. 3. 91- 
92 ; Lucian de Merc. Cond. 717, treviav iracTo iroitiv Kal traffx^v avairfi- 
aovtrav ; Eurip. El. 375 ; Shak. R. and J. 6. 1, ' My poverty but not 
my will consents.' 

44. virtutis viam : r^v 5i' aper^s 6dl>v, Xen. Mem. 2. 1. 21. It is 
proverbially steep. Hamlet, 1. 3, ' Show me the steep and thorny 
way to heaven ' ; Hes. Op. 289 ; Simon, fr. 58 ; Tenn. Ode on 
Duke of Well. 8 ; Stat. Theb. 10. 8. 45, ardua virtus. Cf. tier, 3. 

2. 22. deserit : the felt subject is pauper. 

45. Horace, in the role of a Savonarola, calls for a 'bonfire of 
vanities,' so to speak. 

45-47. vel . . . vel : the method is indifferent, so the end be 
attained. 

45. in Capitolium : sc. feramus latent in mittamus (50), to 
dedicate them to Jupiter amid the plaudits of the crowd, clamor et 
turba (46), as in a triumph. For the enormous treasures deposited 
there by Augustus una donatione, cf. Suet. Octav. 30. 

47. proximum : cf. onfortuitum, 2. 15. 17. 

48. gemmas et lapides: the separate application of these 
terms to pearls, cut gems, and precious stones generally, is dis- 
puted. See Lex. inutile : not as 1. 14. 13, unavailing, or 



374 NOTES. 

(3. 17. 10) worthless, but by litotes, baneful. So Cic. Phil. 1. 19, 
iniquum et inutile. 

49. materiem : wealth is not merely the root but the constituent 
matter of evil, or perhaps the fuel that feeds the fire. Cf. Sail. 
Cat. 10, igitur primo pecuniae, deinde imperi cupido crevit : ea 
quasi (so to speak) materies omnium malorum fuere. 

50. si ... paenitet : if our repentance is sincere. 

51-52. eradenda . . . elementa : if Horace felt elementa here 
as letters, the figure is that of making tabula rasa ; if he felt it as 
seed-germs (root ol 'grow'), we must think of the gardener's hoe. 
Perhaps he did not go back of the faded generalized meaning. 

55. haerere : apparently the normal word. Cf. Cic. pro Deiot. 
28, haerere in eo (sc. equo*) ; Ov. Met. 4. 26, pando non fortiter 
haeret asello. ingenuus : heightening the shame. 'But chiefly 
skill to ride seems a science | Proper to gentle blood ' (F. Q. 2. 4. 1). 

56. doctior : scornful antithesis to rudis. 

57. trocho : the Greek name invidiously (Juv. 3. 67) for the 
effeminate sport (hoop-trundling, KpiKtt\a.ffia) opposed to the manlier 
exercises of Rome. Cf. Sat. 2. 2. 9 ; Epp. 1. 18. 49. For the vogue 
of the trochus, cf. A. P. 380 ; Ov. Trist. 2. 486 ; Martial, 14. 169. 

58. mails: not mails! vetita : nominally, Cic. Philip. 2. 56; 
Ov. Trist. 2. 471. 

59-60. cum . . . fallat : cf. Hale, Cum-Const., p. 191 ; ' Faith- 
less faith such as Jove kept with thee ' (Shelley, Prom. 3. 3) . 

59. fides : 1. 5. 5. n. ; 1. 18. 16. n. 

60. consortem sociem : his associate in business, partner. 
Sors is the capital of the business. 

61. indigno : contrast the irony of 2. 14. 25, dignior. 

62. properet : trans.; cf. 2. 7. 24. scilicet: yes, truly, 'Let 
us hear the conclusion of the whole matter.' improbae : 3. 9. 22, 
unconscionable, transferred from the man who is never satisfied 
to the object of his insatiate greed. Cf . Verg. Aen. 2. 356 ; Lucret. 
5. 1006. 

63. crescentem : 3. 16. 17 ; 3. 16. 42. 

64. curtae : no estate is ever complete ; it always falls short of 
the owner's growing desires. Epp. 1. 6. 34-35 ; wealth is an 
faapov, AT. Eth. Cf. Solon, fr. 13. 71 sqq. rei: 3. 16. 25. 



BOOK HI., ODE XXV. 375 



ODE XXV. 

A dithyramb. Horace affects the Bacchic inspiration in order 
to set the name and fame of Caesar among the stars. The new 
theme, recens (1. 7) may possibly be the overthrow of Cleopatra 
(cf. 1. 37, Epode 9) or more probably the bestowal of the title 
Augustus upon Octavian, B.C. 27. 

On the apotheosis of Augustus, cf. 3. 3. 16. n. ; 4. 5. 35. n. ; Sellar, 
p. 156. With the whole, cf. the ode to Bacchus, 2. 19. 

1. Cf. Herrick, 416, ' Whither dost thou whorry (hurry) me, | 
Bacchus, being full of thee ? ' 

2. plenum: cf. on 2. 19. 6. quae : (in) nemora, etc. Cf. 
Verg. Aen. 6. 692, quas ego te (per) terras et quanta per aequora 
vectum. 

4. antris : as dat. rather than loc. abl. personifies grots as listen- 
ers and avoids tautology with in specus. egregii : 1. 6. 11. n. 

5. aeternum : perhaps proleptic. meditans : ^eXerwi/. Cf. 
Verg. Eel. 1. 2 ; 6. 82. j Milton's, ' strictly meditate the thankless 
muse. ' Perhaps composing aloud, as was the practice of Words- 
worth. 

6. stellis inserere : - Tac. Dial. 10, et nomen inserere possunt 
famae; Tenn., 'Not this way will you set your name | A star 
among the stars ' ; Id. Last Tournament, ' The knights | glorying 
in each new glory set his name | High on all hills and in the signs 
of heaven ' ; Lucret. 5. 329. 

7. insigne: cf. 1. 12.39. 

8. indictum : Epp. 1. 19. 32, non olio dictum prius ore. 

8-12. non secus . . . ut : so aeque . . . ut (1. 16. 7-9). Ac mihi 
after ac ped,e (1. 11) would have been a horrible cacophony. Non 
secus (2. 3. 2). Horace compares his sensations to those of ' the 
Maenad, in the glorious amaze of her morning waking on the 
mountain top' (George Eliot, Romola), as she looks out on 
the panorama of the Thracian plain, the river Hebrus, and the 
snow-capped summit of Mt. Rhodope in the distance. This assumes 
the reading ex somnis. Exsomnis, &VMOS, pervigil must mean 
sleepless (all the night). Either conception is possible. The 
Maenads certainly reveled through the night (Soph. Ant. 1152), 



376 NOTES. 

and they as certainly slept the sleep of exhaustion and awoke to 
frightened soberness or to fresh revels (Eurip. Bacchae, 682 ; Ov. 
Am. 1. 14. 21). 

8. in iugis : cf . Anth. Pal. 6. 74, Parrirapis . . . o-KOTreAoSp^uos ; 
Verg. Aen. 3. 125 ; Sil. 4. 776 ; Lucan, 1. 674, qualis vertice Pindi \ 
Edonis (cf. 2. 7. 27) Ogygio decurrit plena Lyaeo. 

9. stupet: Ov. Trist. 4. 1. 42, dum stupet Edonis exuhilata 
iugis. Euhiaa : cf. on 2. 19. 7 ; 2. 11. 17. 

10. Hebrum : the poetic river of Orpheus, Verg. G. 4. 524. 

prospiciens : a picture like the Ariadne of Catullus (64. 61) on 
the seashore straining her gaze for Theseus, quern procul ex alga 
maestis Minois ocellis \ Saxea ut effigies Bacchantis prospicet eheu. 
Or rather, the spirit of a Greek marble is caught by the poet. Cf. 
3. 20. 11-14. nive candidam : 1. 9. 1. 

11. Thracen : 2. 16. 5. barbaro : a wild desolate scene; or 
merely Phrygian, Thracian, by Greek usage. 

12. lustratam : cf. Vergil's virginibus bacchata Lacaenis \ Tay- 
getn. English poets render lustrare by ' trace.' Cf . Milton, Comu*, 
' May trace huge forests and unharbour'd heaths.' Rhodopen : 
Milton, P. L. 7. init., 'But drive far off the barbarous dissonance | 
Of Bacchus and his revellers, the race | Of that wild rout that tore 
the Thracian bard | In Rhodope.' 

13. ripas: so absolutely, 3. 1. 23; 4. 2. 31. nemus : 1. 1. 30. 
14-20. Cf. Arnold, The Strayed Reveller, ' And sometimes, for 

a moment, | Passing through the dark stems | Flowing-robed, the 
beloved, | The desired, the divine, | Beloved lacchus' ; cf. ibid. 
Bacchanalia, I., too long to quote. 

14. potens : 1. 3. 1. Cf. 2. 19. 3. 

15-16. valentium . . . vertere : as they do in Eurip. Bacch. 
1109. vertere : evertere. For inf. with valeo, cf. 1. 34. 12. 

17. parvum : 3.3.72. humili modo : rairtivov, sermones . . . 
repentes per humum, Epp. 2. 1. 250. 

18. mortale : Milton, P. L. 7, when his muse descends from 
heaven, says : ' Standing on earth not rapt above the pole, | more 
safe I sing with mortal voice.' But Horace is resolved to be ' rapt.' 

dulce periculum : oxymoron. Cf. 'sweet sorrow,' /caAbs 6 
Kivtiwos. For the danger, cf . on 2. 19. 5 sqq. ; Homer, II. 20. 131 ; 
Judges 13. 22. 



BOOK III., ODE XXVI. 377 

19. Lenaee : cf. Orph. Hymn. 50, ATjvcue (\r)i>6s, a wine-press). 

20. Cf. on 4. 8. 33. cingentem : perhaps of the god (cf . Mil- 
ton's ' ivy-crowned Bacchus ' ; Pindar's KurffoSfTav 6ebi>, if. 75. 9), 
possibly of the poet his follower (cf. on 1. 1. 29). 

ODE XXVI. 

Horace is no longer fit ' to trail a pike under love's colours ' 
(Chapman), and he dedicates to Venus his useless arms, the lover's 
lute, the torch that lights him to his lady's door, the ' portal- 
bursting bar ' (Dobson) that wins him admission. His one prayer 
is that the goddess may give that disdainful Chloe one touch of 
her uplifted lash. 

The sixth book of the Anthology is full of serious or playful 
dedications of arms or implements by superannuated warriors, 
craftsmen, or coquettes. Cf. Epp. 1.1.4; Sat. 1. 5. 65. 

Paraphrased by Austin Dobson, Rondeau of Villon. 

1. vixi : 'tis over. Cf. 3. 29. 43, and Dido, Verg. Aen. 4. 653. 

idoneus : 4. 1. 12 ; 2. 19. 26. 

2. militavi : cf. 4. 1. 2 ; Ov. Am. 1. 9. 1, militat omnis amans 
et habet sua castra Cupido; A. A. 2. 233; Propert, 1. 6. 29, non 
ego sum laudi non natus idoneus armis. \ Hanc me militiam fata 
subire volunt; 'Love calls to war, | Sighs his alarms, | Lips his 
swords are, | The field his arms ' (Chapman) ; Herrick, 873 ; Tibull. 
1. 1. 75. non sine : cf. 1. 23. 3. n. 

4. barbiton : the barbiton of Anaoreon. Cf . on 1. 6. 10. 

5. laevum : why the left side does not appear. Possibly as of 
good omen ; perhaps a particular temple is meant. marinae : 
4. 11. 15 ; 1. 3. 1 ; Eurip. Hippoly. 415, Secrirotva -nov-ria. Kvirpi ; Anth. 
Pal. 6. 11 ; ibid. 5. 17. 6. Ovid's explanation will do, Her. 15. 24, 
in mare nimirum ius habet orta mari. ' It is through Cyprus that 
the religion of Aphrodite comes from Phoenicia to Greece. . . . 
First of all, on the prows of Phoenician ships, the tutelary image 
of Aphrodite Euploea, the protectress of sailors, comes to Cyprus 

to Cythera ; it is in this simplest sense that she is primarily 
Anadyomene' (Pater, Greek Studies, p. 229). The 'Science of 
Mythology,' of course, has many other explanations. 



378 NOTES. 

6. ponite. 1. 19. 14. 

7. fuualia : torches of rope or tow dipped in wax or resin. Cf. 
Verg. Aen. 1. 727. And for their use here, Theoc. 2. 128. They 
are by nature lucid, though not burning, as soiled garments in 
Homer are resplendent, and the midday heavens starry. arcus : 
if genuine, is best understood of Cupidinis arcus, transferred, by 
loose association of ideas, to the lover. The bow would hardly help 
to burst in a door. Bentley read securesque. 

9. beatam : rich and prosperous, and blest in her favor. 
tenes : 3. 4. 62. n. 

10. Memphin : Herod. 2. 112, speaks of a worship of fyiv-ri 'Atppo- 
Sir-n there. Bacchylides, fr. 39, calls it axti/JLavros. carentem . . . 
nive : these periphrases with careo show the poverty of the lyric 
vocabulary at Horace's service. Cf. 1. 28. 1, numero carentis, 
avJipiOf*.!)* ', 1. 31. 20, cithara carentem, aniOapis, &\vpov, a<p6p/j.tKTos ; 

2. 8. 12, morte carentes, dflai'aroj ; 3. 24. 17, matre carentibits, 
dyUTJrcop, 6p<f>a.i>os ; 3. 27. 39, vitiif carentem. Sithonia : 1. 18. 9; 
Verg. Eel. 10. 66, Sithoniasque nives ; Ov. Am. 3. 7. 8. For the 
use of the epithet here, cf. on 4. 2. 27. 

11. regina : 1.30. 1. sublimi : 1. 1. 36. We see the lash in 
air. flagello : for the image, cf. Find. Pyth. 4. 219 ; Nonnus, 4. 
177 ; Tibull. 1. 8. 6 ; Martial, 6. 21. 9. 

12. For the surprise, cf. 4. 1. 33. 

ODE XXVII. 

Bad omens for the bad. All good omens go with thee, Galatea, 
since go thou must ; be happy and forget me not. I know the ter- 
rors of the wintry Adriatic ; but may the wives and children of our 
foes tremble at them even as Europa trembled ; and with this 
forced transition Horace passes to his real theme, the rape of 
Europa (25-34), her self-reproachful soliloquy far from home on 
the Cretan shore (34-66), her consolation by Venus (66-76). 

Galatea (the name Theoc. 6 and 11, Callim.) is a pretext. The 
ode (in this unlike Pindar) closes with the myth, one aspect of 
which is chosen for detailed lyric treatment. Cf. the structure of 

3. 11 and 3. 5. But in 4. 4. 72 and 1. 12. 49, Horace returns after 
the myth (history) to the person honored. 



BOOK III., ODE XXVIL 379 

For propempticon to a lady, cf. Ov. Am. 2. 11 ; Propert. 1. 8. 

For legend of Europa, cf. II. 14. 321; Mosch. Idyll. 2 ; Ov. Met. 
2. 836 ; Fast. 5. 605 ; Lucian, Dial. Mer. 15 ; Anacreontea, 35. It 
had been treated also in lyric by Stesichorus, Bacchylides, and 
Simonides. Cf. further Spenser, Muiopotmos, F. Q. 3. 11. 30; 
Lanclor, Europa and her Mother ; Tenn., Palace of Art. 

There is an amusing travesty of the myth by Burger. It has 
been a favorite theme of art in ancient and modern times. 

1. impios : emphatic, as hostium (21), in antithesis with ego 
(7). The powers of evil are to spend their malice on the wicked ; 
/will invoke the good to guard thee. parrae: unknown; owl 
will do. recinentis: probably of insistent droning repetition. 
'The moping owl does to the moon complain.' Cf. 1. 12. 3. The 
omens mentioned are 'signs seen on the way,' eV<J5<o< <rifytj3oAoi 
(Aesch. Prom. 487). 

2. ducat : attend. 

3. rava : Epode 16. 33, ravos leones, tawny, fire-eyed. Lanu- 
vium lay on a height (decurrens), about a mile east of the Appian 
Way, the route to Brtmdisium and Greece. 

5. rumpat : it is quibbling to object that the same journey can- 
not be attended and broken off by bad omens. If Galatea was 
superstitious, she would turn back and start with happier auspices. 
Gaston Boissier, Religion Romaine, 1. 15. 

6. per obliquum : i.e. darting athwart. similis sagittae : 
Aeschylus, Eumen. 181, calls the arrow ir-r^i/bj' apy-riffr^v 6<piv. 
Dante, Inferno, 25, Come il ramarro . . . Folgore par, se la via 
attraversa ; ibid. 8. 13 ; Verg. G. 4. 313. 

7. mamios : Gallic ponies, Epode 4. 14. n. cui: i.e. ei cui 
timebo . . . suscitabo (11). 

9-12. In writing Sapphics it is often necessary to choose be- 
tween giving nothing or an entire strophe to the expression of 
an idea. Hence perhaps this awkward expansion of the simple 
thought, 'I will prevent (anticipate) bad omens with good.' 
stantes : stagnant. Or does it suggest the dead lull before the 
shower ? For the signs of rain, cf. Arat. Phaen. 949 ; Verg. 
G. 1. 388. 

10. divina avis: cf. 3. 17. 12; Lucret. 5. 1083; A. P. 218, 



380 NOTES. 

divina futuri ; Milton, P. L. 9, ' Yet oft his heart, divine of some- 
thing ill' ; ibid. 7, (birds) that 'wedge their way intelligent of sea- 
sons/ Verg. G. 1. 415 denies that it is quia sit divinitus illis \ 
ingenium. 

11. oscinem : for special force and distinction from praepes, cf. 
Lex. s.v. oscen ; Verg. Aen. 3. 361. 

12. soils ab ortu : the lucky quarter. Cf. laevus, 15 ; solis ab, 
4. 15. 16. 

13. sis: optative. licet helps fill the measure. Sis licet is 
phraseological (Plaut. Rud. 139). But the suggestion per me licet 
is not really wanted. Yet cf. Propert. 1. 8. 17, sed quocumqne 
modo de me periura mereris, \ Sit Galatea tune non aliena viae. 
The smooth sweetness of this strophe seems intentional. 

14. memor nostri : a formula. Cf. 3. 11. 51. n. 

15. laevus : boding ill on the left. Cf. Verg. Eel. 9. 15, sinistra 
. . . comix. In augural usage laevus was propitious. Cf. Lex. 
s.v. II. C. The Augustan poets generally follow Greek usage, 
which conforms to the natural associations of ' right' and 'left.' 

16. vaga : on the icing to the pools (10). Cf. 4. 4. 2. n. 

18. pronus : Lex. I. B. Cf. 1. 29. 11, 4. 6. 39, for other uses 
of the hardworked word. Orion : 1. 28. 21. n. quid sit: Sat. 
1. 6. 15 ; Epp. 1. 11. 7 ; almost ' all about.' ater : fatal, 1. 28. 13, 
atrae ; or, in the darkness of the storm, 2. 16. 2 ; Macaulay cited 
on 1. 3. 20, and Regillus 36, ' So comes the squall blacker than 
night | Upon the Adrian main ' ; or, when its waves blacken under 
the wind (1. 5. 7. n. ; Verg. Aen. 3. 195), so contrasting with the 
bright sky overhead (albus lapyx, 1. 1. 15). 

19. novi : he had crossed to Greece. Cf. also 2. 6. 7 ; 3. 4. 28. 
sinus : Epode 10. 19 ; Catull. 4. 9, trucemve Ponticum sinum ; 
F. Q. 2. 7. 14, 'And in frail wood on Adrian gidfdoih. fleet.' 

19-20. quid . . . peccet : his misdeeds ; possibly his treachery. 
Cf. Lucret. 2. 557. 

20. lapyx: 1. 3.4. 

21. bostium : hostibus eveniat was almost proverbial. Cf. Ov. 
A. A. 3. 247 ; Propert. 4. 7. 20 ; Verg. G. 3. 513. See 1. 21. 13-16 ; 
Apoll. Rhod. 4. 448, 8vff(j.fvt<ai> M -natalv. caecos: un(fore)seen, 
i.e. squalls. Cf. 2. 13. 16, caeca . . . fata; Verg. Aen. 3. 200, 
caecis erramus in undis, ' where noway appears' ; cf. Tenn., Talk- 



BOOK III., ODE XXVII. 381 



ing Oak, ' those blind motions of the-spring, | That show the year 
is turned.' 

22. sentiant : 2.7.10; 4.4.25. orientis: surgentis normal 
of wind. Cf. Verg. Aen. 3. 481, surgentes Austros. 

23. nigri : 1. 5. 7. n. Note the r-sounds. Cf. Pope, ' But when 
loud surges lash the sounding shore | The hoarse, rough verse should 
like the torrent roar.' 

24. verbere: cf. 3. 1. 29; 3. 12. 3; Verg. Aen. 3. 423, et 
sidera verberat undo; Ov. Trist. 1. 4. 8; Procl. Hyrnn. 6, KC/xa | 
Trdvra Tro\v<p\oi<r&oi(nv tots pttOpoimv tfj.dffaov. The wind lashing the 
waves is more common. Cf. Anth. Pal. 5. 180. 5 ; 7. 696 ; Lucret. 
6. 115. 

25-26. doloso credidit : see 1. 6. 9. n. ; 3. 5. 33. 

26. latus: 2. 7. 18. 

26-27. scatentem beluis : 1. 3. 18; 4. 14. 47. 

27. medias fraudes : the perils that environed, or possibly the 
ruse that betrayed her. She had come into the midst of dangers, 
or the ambush planned by Zeus. 

28. palluit audax : but now so bold, paled with fear at. So 
expalluit trans., Epist. 1. 3. 10. Contrast the oxymoron of 3. 20. 3. 
Cf. Ov. Met. 2. 860, metuit contingere primo ; 868-869, ansa est . . . 
tergo considere tauri; 873, Pavet haec, litusque ablata relictnm \ 
respicit. 

29. nuper : pointing the contrast between the picture in 29-30 
and that in 31-32. studiosa : puellari studio, Ov. Met. 5. 393, 
of Proserpina in like case. 

30. debitae : 1. 36. 2 ; 2. 7. 17. 

31. sublustri : Verg. Aen. 9. 373, sublustri noctis in umbra; 
Shaks. M. N. Dream, 2. 1, 'Didst thou not lead him through the 
glimmering night ?' These two lines follow Moschus, 2. 127. Cf. 
Spenser, Muiopotmos, ' But (Lord !) how she in every member 
shook, | When as the land she saw no more appear, | But a wild 
wilderness of waters deep : | Then 'gan she greatly to lament and 
weep.' 

33 sqq. The bull vanishes, and Venus consoles the conscience- 
stricken maid, pending the return of the god in his proper shape. 
Moschus, 2. 158, and Lucian, Dial. Mar. 15, are more direct. 

33. simul: 1. 9. 9. n. centum, etc. : Homer's K^rrj f/car^- 



382 NOTES. 

iro\n, II. 2, 649, was a literary commonplace ; Epode 9. 29 ; Verg. 
Aen. 3. 106 ; Sen. Tro. 830, urbibus centum spatiosa Crete ; ' In the 
hundred cities of Crete such glory was not of old,' Swinb. Ode on 
Insurrection in Candia. 

34. pater : in Homer, II. 14. 321, Phoenix ; in Ovid and Lucian, 
Age nor. 

35. If filiae is dat. agent, nomen refers to pater ; if, preferably, 
genitive, she breaks off incoherently: 'Father nay, I have re- 
nounced the name of daughter.' Cf. Andromache's cry, 11. 22. 477, 
"EKTOP, lyb Svarrivos ; Eurip. Medea, 166. Note the nominatives in 
exclamation. 

36. victa : Ov. Met. 13. 663, victa metu pietas. 

37. unde quo : the eager Greek double interrog. of excitement, 
TI'S ir69fv, and the like ; Verg. Aen. 10. 670, quo feror, unde abii. 
But there may be also a hint of the Greek, airb o'las . . . es o"av 
(Thucyd. 7. 75), i.e. from that flowery mead to this desolate shore. 
una mors : seems quasi-proverbial, like Greek 'die many times.' 
Cf. Propert. 5. 4, 17, et satis una malae potuit mors esse puellae ? 

38. virginum : the plural generalizes and softens. culpae : 
dat. ; see 3. 6. 17. vigilans, etc. : do I wake, or am I innocent, and 
is it all a dream ? 

39. vitiis : suggests and avoids vitio. 

40. ludit : 3. 4. 5 ; Verg. Aen. 1. 408. 

41. vana quae : cf. nota quae, 1.2. 10; proxima quae, Verg. 
Aen. 3. 397. Others, vana, quae against rhythm and idiom. 
eburna : the ivory gate of false dreams is well known from Verg. 
Aen. 6. 898 ; Odyss. 19. 562. 

42. meliusne : self-taunting irony. 

42-43. fluctus . . . longos : not Homer's Kv/aia-ra /j.at<pd, but the 
r6(Ti}v a\a of Moschus, 2. 153. Cf. 3. 3. 37, longus pontus. 

43. recentes : cf. 4. 1. 32. n. 

45. siquis : Horace's familiarity with Greek makes it safe to 
say that this is a wish passing into a condition. The bull has dis- 
appeared. 

46. lacerare : cf. 1. 71 ; the big words, frangere, enitar, express 
the impotens ira of the petulant girl. 

47. modo . . . amati : she had twined its horns with flowers. 
Ov. Met. 2. 868 ; *al Kvae -ravpov, Mosch. 96. 



BOOK III., ODE XXVII. 383 

49. impudens : cf. 3. 11. 30, impiae. 

50. Orcum moror : to keep death or Charon waiting is a familiar 
expression in Greek. Eurip. Alcest. 255. Cf. 1. 58, quid mori 
cessas ? Stat. Theb. 7. 364. 

52. nuda : may, but need not, mean defenseless. With the 
whole cf. Catull. 45. 6, Solus in Libya Indiaque tosta \ caesio 
veniam obvius leoni ; Shaks., All's Well, 3. 2, ' better 'twere | I met 
the ravin lion when he roared | With sharp constraint of hunger.' 

53. decentes : cf. 1. 4. 6. n. 

54. sucus : she was still, like Sir John Suckling's 'Bride,' and 
the girl in Terence, 'full of juice,' corpus solidum et suci plenum 
(Ter. Eun. 318). Cf. arida, 2. 11. 6 ; inrfo i}3ijy, A nth. Pal. 5. 258. 

55. praedae : with self-pity. speciosa : still fair. A solici- 
tude avowed by Sir John Falstaff ('a death that I abhor; for the 
water swells a man ') may be permitted a coquettish girl. But 
the feeling is a 'survival' of primitive beliefs. Cf. Odyss. 11; 
Verg. Aen. 6. 494 ; Soph. Antig. 817 ; Stat. Silv. 2. 1. 154 ; Chariton, 

I. 5. 7, Gtyunfv Ka\\ipr>6r)v en Ka\r)t> ; F. Q. 1. 10.42, 'Ah, dearest 
God, me grant. I dead be not defoul'd ! ' 

57. pater urget : his stern image pursues her ; but the words 
that follow belong still to her soliloquy. For urget, cf. 1. 22. 20 ; 
Ep. 17. 25 ; Milton, P. L. 1, 'but torture without end | still urges. 1 

58-59. potes hac . . . zona : everything is ready. 

59. bene : bitter irony. Cf. non bene, 2. 7. 10. The zone was 
the symbol of maidenhood. Odyss. 11. 245 ; Catull. 2. 13. 

00. laedere collum : perhaps intentional ,ueia><m. But we must 
not overinterpret. The prosaic elidere fauces would be hard to 
manage.- Cf. 2. 13. 6. n. The heroines of Greek tragedy choose 
hanging as method of suicide. 

61. sive : 1. 15. 25. rupes, etc.: the cliffs and the jagged 
rocks below made sharp for thy death. Cf. lo in Aesch. Prom. 748. 

62. procellae : the gale that will waft her out and down. 

63. erile : set by a mistress. So erilis Jilius, ' master's son.' 

64. carpere pensum : to card the stint of wool, and aid the 
mistress in spinning, was the traditional task of the bond maiden. 

II. 6. 456 ; Propert. 4. 5. 15. 

65. regius sanguis : emphasizing the ignominy. So Creusa, 
Verg. Aen. 2. 785-786, non ego . . . Graiis servitum matribus ibo \ 



384 NOTES. 

Dardanis et divae Veneris nurus. For sanguis, cf . 2. 20. 6 ; 4. 2. 
14. tradi : to her mercies. Cf. the treatment of Andromache by 
Hermione, Eurip. Andr. 

66-67. barbarae : not Greek or Latin, 1. 29. 6. Europa herself 
is ' barbarian.' But Horace has the plaints of Greek tragedy in 
mind. Cf., however, 3. 5. 49 ; 4. 12. 7, 'cruel.' paelex : and hence 
an object of jealousy, 3. 10. 15; Epode 3. 13. aderat : dramati- 
cally we see her approach with mocking smile while the heroine 
declaims. perfidum: cf. 1. 22. 23; 2. 12. 14. 

67-68. remisso . . . arcu : his bolt was shot. Somewhat dif- 
ferently Tenn., Eleanore, 7, ' His bow-string slacken'd, languid 
Love, | Leaning his cheek upon his hand, | Droops both his wings, 
regarding thee.' 

69-70. lusit : sc. Venus. irarum : see 2. 9. 1 7 ; 4. 9. 38 for gen. 

71. cum: tune cum. laceranda, etc., mocking repetition of 45. 

73. uxor . . . esse : by Greek idiom for te uxarem esse. But 
disce, below, favors ' knowest not how to comport thyself as.' 

74. mitte: 3. 8. 17. 

75. sectus orbis : half the world, which some divided into two 
parts (Sail. Jug. 17 ; Varro, L. L. 5. 31 ; Isoc. Pan. 179 ; Pliny, 

N. H. 3. 5) ; others into three (Find. Pyth. 9. 8 ; Cic. de Nat. Deor. 
2. 165 ; Ov. Fast. 5. 617). In Moschus, she dreams that two con- 
tinents contend for her. 

76. nomina : 4. 2. 3. n. ; Ov. Met. 15. 96, nomen. ducet : so 
Sat. 2. 1. 66, duxit . . . nomen. 



ODE XXVIII. 

A summons to Lyde to celebrate the festival of Neptune (Nep- 
tunalia, July 23), not in the company of the picnicking mob, but 
with good old Caecuban wine and Amoebean song at home. 

1-2. A happy thought. Cf. Tibull. 2. 1. 29, non festa luce ma- 
dere \ est rubor errantes et male ferre pedes. 

2. prome: 1. 36. 1 1 . reconditum : 1. 20. 3; 2. 3. 8 ; Ep. 9. 1. 

3. strenua : if we could determine the controversy which rages 
in Germany as to whether Lyde is the severe housekeeper at the 
Sabine farm (like the ' Lyddy ' of Felix Holt), or a casual flute girl, 



BOOK III., ODE XXVIII. 385 

we should know whether strenua is to be taken as an attribute, or 
adverbially with prome. 

4. Cf. F. Q. 2. 11. 1, ' What war so cruel, or what siege so sore | 
As that which strong affections do apply | Against the fort of 
reason evermore.' Cf. 3. 21. 14; 4. 12. 28, for the moral. For 
the image, cf. further, Munro on Lucret. 2. 7, bene quam munita 
tenere \ edita doctrina sapientum templa serena; Wordsworth, 
' Students with their pensive citadels.' 

5. inclinare : cf. inclinato iam in postmeridianum tempus die 
(Cic. Tusc. 3. 3. 7) ; Sol meridie se inclinavit (Livy, 9. 32. 6) ; Sol 
inclinat (Juv. 3. 316) ; inclinabat dies (Tac. Ann. 12. 39. 2) ; 
$tie\tvbv K\'LVOVTOS vwb 6$ov i)(\ioio (Apoll. Rhod. 1. 432). The 

whole heaven revolves, carrying the sun and stars with it. Cf. 
Lucret. 2. 1097, 5. 510 ; Verg. Aen. 2. 250 ; Milton, P. L. 4, 'for the 
sun | Declined was hasting now with prone career | To th' ocean 
isles, and in th' ascending scale | Of heaven the stars that usher 
evening rose.' 

6. et : and yet. stet volucris : cf. on 1. 6. 9 ; 1.11.7; 4. 13. 16. 

7. deripere: cf. 3. 21. 7, the strong word like the reproachful 
parcis expresses impatient haste. horreo : i.e. the apotheca. 
Cf. on 3. 8. 11. 

8. cessantem: cf. on 3. 27. 58; 1. 27. 13. To his impatience 
it seems to linger. Bibuli : the faineant consul with Caesar, 
B.C. 59, when the wits dated their letters, lulio et Caesare con- 
sulibus. The name Bibnlus is ominous. For dating of wine, cf. 
3. 21. 1 ; 3. 8. 12. 

9. The result is the same, whether nos means we, and invicem, 
in turn, ' I 1 being implied for 1. 10, or (preferably) nos is ' T,' and 
invicem, in my turn. 

10. virides: cf. on 1. 17. 20; Epode 13. 16. Sea-goddesses 
wear the hues of ' the pale-green sea-groves' (Tenn. The Merman). 

11. curva: 1. 10. 6. recines: 3. 27. 1 ; 1. 12. 3. 

12. Cf. 1. 21. 3; 1. 15. 17 ; 1. 12. 22 ; 1. 21. 2. 

13. summo carmine : apparently, we will join in a final hymn 
to Venus (earn) quae . . . tenet. For summo, cf. Epp. 1. 1. 1, 
summa dicende Camena. Cnidon: cf. on 1. 30. 1. 

14. tenet: cf. 3. 4. 62. Cycladas : cf. on 1. 14. 19-20; Verg. 
Aen. 3. 126. 

2c 



386 NOTES. 

15. iunctis . . . oloribus: so 4. 1. 10. In Sappho, Aphrodite's 
car is drawn by (TTpouBji, sparrows. Statins, Silv. 1. 2. 141, Silius, 
7. 440, assign her a team of swans. So Ovid, Met. 10. 708, 718. 
English poets vary. Spenser, Prothal. 63, 'that same pair (of 
swans) | Which through the sky draw Venus' silver team ' ; Shaks. 
R. and J. 2. 5, 'Therefore do nimble-pinioned doves draw love.' 
Cf. Tempest, 4. 1, 'dove-drawn'; Marlowe, Hero and Leander, 
' and then God knows I play, | With Venus' swans and sparrows 
all the day'; 'His mother's doves and team of sparrows' (Lyly, 
Cupid and Campaspe). iunctis: 'like Juno's swans | Still they 
went coupled and inseparable' (Shaks.). 

16. dicetur: hence perhaps ea cantabitur, not earn cantabimus, 
above, 1. 13. nenia : not a dirge, as 2. 1. 38, but a sweet and low, 
plaintive good-night song. 

ODE XXIX. 

Come, Maecenas, to the wine and roses that await you at the 
Sabine farm. Linger no more amid the smoke and din of Home, 
gazing longingly from the cloud-capt towers of your gorgeous 
palace towards Tusculum and Tibur. Luxury palls at times. 
Come, ' give thy soul a loose, and taste 'the pleasures of the poor.' 
The dog-star rages ; the midsummer midday quiet holds the hill. 
'Tis better up in a villa than down in the city. A truce to cares 
of state. God veils the future from us. The course of our life is 
a rushing stream. To-day only is ours. The well-filled hour is a 
gift which, once granted, God himself cannot withdraw. Cruel 
Fortune loves to sport with the life of man ; but I will be no stop 
for her finger to play what tune it will. If she smile, ' we smile 
the lords of many lands ' ; and if she frown, ' we smile the lords of 
our own hands.' When the Southwester descends on the Aegean, 
and the wealthy merchant grovels in prayer lest he be driven to 
' enrobe the roaring waters with his silks,' my little life-boat and 
the great Twin Brethren shall bear me safely through the storm. 

Lines 25-28 point to the date of Augustus' absence in the West, 
B.C. 25 and 26. 

There is a translation by Sir John Beaumont (Johnson's Poets, 
6. 19). Dryden's Pindaric Paraphrase is a classic. See also- the 
Sargent prize translation, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 8, p. 683. 

1. Tyrrhena : cf. 1. 1. 1. n. For the hypallage, cf. Epode 10 
12. n. ; Munro on Lucret. 1. 474 ; 4. 734. 



BOOK III., ODE XXIX. 387 

2. verso : tipped, decanted, broached. The cadus held about 
t\\\> uallons. lene: mellow. Cf. 3. 21. 8 ; Epp. 1. 15. 18. 

3. flore . . . rosarum : 2. 3. 14 ; 3. 15. 15 ; 4. 10. 4 ; Simon. 
fr. 148, fidSwv aa>Tois ; Browning, Fra Lippo Lippi, ' Flower o' the 
rose, | If I've been merry what matter who knows ? ' 

4. tuis : cf. 2. 7. 20, tibi destinatis. balanus: 'ben nut.' See 
Lex. ; ' Arabian dew ' or ' Tirian balm ' will serve. Cf. Herrick, 
201 , ' Now raignes the Rose, and now | Th' Arabian Dew besmears I 
My uncontrolled brow, | And my retorted haires.' 

5. iamdudum : he has been waiting. So Epp. 1.5. 7, iamdu- 
dum splendet focus et tibi munda supellex. 

6. ne: some Mss. read nee. udum : 1.7.13; 4.2.30; Ov. Fast. 
4. 71, et iam Telegoni iam moenia Tiburis udi \ Stabant. Aefulae: 
in the hills between Praeneste and Tibur. Formerly misspelled 
Aesulae (Livy, 26. 9. 9). Cf. Clough, Amours de Voyage, ' Seen 
from Montorio's height Tibur and Aesula's hills.' 

8. Telegoni iuga : Tusculum, founded by Telegonus, son of 
Circe and Ulysses, who traveled in search of his father and unwit- 
tingly slew him in Ithaca. Arist. Poet. 14 ; Hygin. Fab. 127 ; 
Epode 1. 29. 

9. fastidiosam : 3. .1. 37, that palls, cloys,' Propert. 1. 2. 32, 
taedia dum miserae sint tibi divitiae. Fastu taedium (?). 
4 Deep weariness and sated lust made human life a hell.' For 
this Roman ennui, cf. Lucret. 3. 1060 sqq.; Victor Hugo, Odes et 
Ballades, 4. 8. 

10. niolem : pile (2. 15. 2), his palace on the Esquiline. See 
Sat. 1. 8. 14 ; Lanciani, Ancient Rome, p. 67 ; Merivale, 4. 199 ; 
Epode 9. 3. From its tower, the turris Maecenatiana, Nero was 
said to have watched Rome burn (Suet. Nero, 38). It commanded 
the entire Campagna towards Tusculum and Tibur. 

11. 5mitte : 1. 16. 19, stetere; Epp. 1. 18. 79, omitte tueri. 
beatae : 1. 4. 14 ; 3. 26. 9. 

12. A famous line. Cf. Tenn. In Mem. 89, 'The dust and din 
and steam of town.' To Rev. F. D. Maurice, 'far from noise and 
smoke of town ' ; Stat. Silv. 1. 1. 65, Septem per culmina caelo \ it 
fragor et magnae vincit vaga murmura Bomae ; Arnold, Resigna- 
tion, ' Here, whence the eye first sees, far down | Capp'd with faint 
smoke the noisy town.' 



388 NOTES. 

13. gratae: sc. sunt. vices: change (Quint. 1. 12. 5). 

14. mundae : 1. 5. 5 ; Sat. 2. 2. 05 ; Epp. 2. 2. 199. sub lare -. 
i.e. beneath the humble roof. Cf. 1. 5. 3 ; 1. 12. 44. 

15. aulaeis : tapestries, strictly canopies above the dining-hall, 
triclinium (Verg. Aen. 1. 697 ; Sat. 2. 8. 54). ostro : the purple 
of tapestries and upholstery (Lucret. 2. 35-36). 

16. explicuere : gnomic. Sat. 2. 2. 125, explicuit vino con- 
tractae seria frontis. 

17. clams occultum : 1. 6. 9. n.; Epist. 1. 12. 18, obscimtm. 
Cepheus, King of Aethiopia, the father of Andromeda, was 
'sphered up with Cassiopeia' her mother 'that starr'd Ethiop 
queen that strove | To set her beauty's praise above | The Sea- 
nymphs, and their pow'rs offended ' (Milton, II. Pens. ; Ov. Met. 4. 
667). The constellation begins to show bright the light hidden 
before early in July. 

18. ostendit : Catull. 62. 7, nimirum Oetaeos ostendit noctifer 
icjnes. Procyon: (lit. antecanis) the minor dog-star rises in the 
morning, July 15, about eleven days before Sirius the ' dog of 
Orion.' furit : Pope, 'the dog-star rages' ; Dryden, ' The Syrian 
(sic) star [ Barks from afar. 1 

19. stella . . . Leonis : Regulus, a Leonis, rises July 30. 
vesani : the word, A. P. 455 ; the thing, Epp. 1. 10. 16, et rabiem 
Canis et momenta Leonis ; Mart. 9. 90. 12, et fervens iuba saeviet 
leonis. Cf. insana, 3. 7. 6. 

20. siccos : also in sense of 4. 12. 13. 

21-24. A summer picture. Cf.Tenn., CEnone, 'For now the noon- 
day quiet holds the hill' ; Theoc. 7.22; Tibull. 1.1.27; Sellar, p. 180; 
Odes, 2. 5. 6 ; 3. 13. 9-12 ; and the idyll of spring, 4. 12. 9-12. 

22-23. horridi : shagged, the god of the bush is bushy. Cf. 
4. 5. 26. n. Silvani: Epode 2. 22. n. 

23-24. caret . . . ventis : ' No stir of air was there, | Not so 
much life as on a summer's day | Robs not one light seed from 
the feathered grass ' (Keats, Hyperion). 

25. tu : 2. 9. 9. n. status : policy, constitution. As vague a 
word as ratio, res causa. Maecenas had been chief counselor in 
the establishment of the new constitution of the Empire. Dio, 
52. 16. He would feel the burden of responsibility in Augustus' 
absence. For the tone of the strophe, see 2. 11. 1-4 ; 3. 8. 16-20. 



BOOK III., ODE XXIX. 389 

26. urbi : with times preferably Urbi et Orbi, of course. 

27. Seres: 1. 12. 56; 4. 15. 23, ironical hyperbole. regnata: 
2. 6. 11. Gyro: 2. 2. 17. n. 

28. Bactra: Xen. Cyr. 1. 1. 4, ^p{ 8e Kal BaKTplav. A Greek 
Bactrian kingdom existed circa 250-125 B.C. The remotest 
Parthian province is put for the Parthian Empire. Propert. 4. 

1. 16, qui finem imperil Bactra futura cement. Tanais: i.e. 
Tunain props flumen orti (4. 15. 24), the Scythians. Cf. 2. 9. 21 ; 

2. 20. 20. discors : and so less dangerous to us. 3. 8. 19. 

29. prudens: 1. 3. 22. n. For the commonplace, cf. Pind. O. 
12. 7-9 ; Solon, fr. 17 ; Isoc. 13. 2 ; Eurip. Alcest. 786 ; Thucyd. 
passim; Benn, Greek Philosophers, 1. 46; 2. 126; Peele, 'But 
things to come exceed our human reach | And are not painted yet 
in angel's eyes ' ; Pope, Essay on Man, ' Heaven from all creatures 
hides the book of fate | All but the page prescribed the present 
state ' ; Arnold, To a Gipsy Child, ' The Guide of our dark steps a 
triple veil | Betwixt our senses and our sorrow keeps ' ; Emerson, 
Experience, ' God delights to isolate' us every day, and hide from 
us the past and the future. . . He draws down before us an im- 
penetrable screen,' etc. Cf. Bacchyl. 16. 32, 10. 46. 

30. caliginosa: Juv. 6. 556, et genus humanum damnat caligo 

futuri ; Theog. 1077, opQvr) yap rerarai. preniit : 1. 4. 16. 

31. ridet : ' The gods laugh in their sleeve | To watch man 
doubt and fear' (Arnold, Ernped.) ; 'But God laughs at a man 
who says to his soul, Take thy ease ' (Cowley, Of Myself) ; ' And 
how God laughs in heaven when any man | Says " Here I'm learned, 
this I understand"' (Mrs. Browning). Cf. also, Psalms 2. 4; 
Aesch. Eumen. 560 ; Milt. P. L. 8, ' perhaps to move | His laugh- 
ter. ' mortalis : emphasizing the Ov-nra <ppovtlv of the Greeks. 
Cf. 2. 16. 17 ; 1. 4. 15 ; 1. 11. 6 ; 4. 7. 7. 

31-32. ultra fas: 1. 11. 1. 

32. trepidat : 2. 11. 4 ; 2. 3. 12. We need not take it definitely 
of unlawful pryings into futurity, but merely of man's vain agita- 
tions rhomme s'agite. 

32-33. quod adest . . . componere : ri> irapbv OeoQai ica\>s, 
' Improve the present hour, for all beside (cetera) \ Is a mere 
feather on the torrent's tide ' (Cowper, On Bill of Mortality, 1788). 

32. memento: 1. 7. 17; 2. 3. 1. 



390 NOTES. 

33. aequus: 2. 3. 1. n. cetera: 1. 0. 9. 

33-34. fluminis ritu: 3. 14. 1 ; A. P. 62; Sat. 2. 3. 268, tern- 
pestatis prope ritu. For comparison of life to personified river, 
cf. Words. River Duddon, 9, 32, 33 ; Arnold, Sohrab and Rustum, 
in fine, ; Shelley, Alastor, etc. 

34. medio: cf. 4. 7. 3-4; 1. 2. 18. alveo: 3. 7. 28. 

35. cum pace: A. G. 248; B. 220; G. L. 399; H. 419. III. 
The line too flows peaceably. Etruscum : for elision, cf. 2. 3. 27. 

36. adesos : for wave-worn pebbles, cf. Theoc. 22. 49. 

37-41. For river in flood, cf. 4. 14. 28 ; Ov. Met. 1. 285 ; Lucret. 
1. 281 ; Verg. G. 1. 481 ; Aen. 2. 496, 12. 523 ; F. Q. 2. 11. 18. 

39. clamore: II. 17. 165; Verg. Aen. 3. 566. 

40. diluvies: 4. 14. 28; Lucret. 5. 255, 6. 292, ad diluviem 
revocari. diluvium normal. quietos r sc. before. Cf. occultum, 
17. Cf. 1. 31. 7, quieta. 

41. inritat : cf. Milton's 'vexed the Red Sea coast'; Tenn., 
' vext the dim sea.' amnes: its waters, or possibly the minor 
tributary streams. See Pliny, Epp. 8. 17. potens sui : fyKpa-r^s 
eavrov, avrdpKris. ' This man is freed from servile bands | Of hope 
to rise, or fear to fall ; | Lord of himself, though not of lands ; | 

| And having nothing, yet hath all' (Sir H. Wotton). Cf. Epp. 
1. 16. 65. 

42. in diem: Sat. 2. 6. 47 with dixisse; in diem vivere is to 
live from hand to mouth. 

43. vixi : see Seneca's sermon on this text, Epist. 12 ; Cowley, 
Of Myself, ' But boldly say each night, | To-morrow let my sun his 
beams display | Or in clouds hide them I have lived to-day'; 
Emerson, Works and Days, 'so that I shall not say . . . "Behold, 
also an hour of my life has gone " but rather, " I have lived an 
hour." ' eras : cf. Martial, 2. 90. 3 ; 1. 15. 11, non est, crede mihi, 
sapientis dicere ' vivam ' ; | Sera nimis vita est crastina ; vive hodie ; 
Herrick, 656, ' Drink wine, and live here blithefull, while ye may : 
The morrow's life too late is, Live to-day.' But that is rather the 
lighter vein of 1. 11. 8. Stoic and Epicurean unite in the faith 
that respect for the present hour is the only wisdom. 

44. polum: 1. 28. 6. pater: 1. 2. 2. 

45. puro : 3. 10. 8. n. inritum : void; diffingct, 1. 35. 39, 
recast, reshape ; infectum, undone, are cumulative expressions of 



BOOK HI., ODE XXIX. 391 

the old thought : ' But past who can recall, or done undo ? | Not 
God omnipotent, nor Fate ' (Milton, P. L. 9). Cf. Find. O. 2. 18-20 ; 
Theog. 583 ; Simon, fr. 69 ; Agathon in Aristot. Eth. 6. 2 ; Tenn. In 
Mem. 85, 'The all-assuming months and years | Can take no part 
away from this ' ; Pliny, N. H. 2. 27 ; Plato, Protag. 324 B. 

48. fugiens : 1. 11. 7. n. nor a vexit: some insist that vexit = 
avexit into the past because of semel (1. 24. 16). But semel can 
mean what is once (for all) mine as well as what is once past ; and 
the hours as bringers of gifts are a tradition of poetry. Homer, 
II. 21. 450 ; Theoc. 15. 104 ; Spenser, Epithal. ' But first come ye 
fair Hours,' etc.; Mrs. Browning, Son. fr. Port. I., 'I thought 
once how Theocritus had sung | Of the sweet years, the dear and 
wished-for years, | Who each one in a gracious hand appears | To 
bear a gift for mortals, old or young ' ; Congreve, Mourning Bride, 
1. 1. 7 ; Tenn., Love and Duty, ' The slow, sweet hours that bring 
us all things good, | The slow, sad hours that bring us all things 
ill.' See also 3. 8. 27, dona home, and for vexit, Verg. G. 1. 461, 
quid vesper serus vehat; Lucret. 3. 1085, posteraque in dubiost 
fortunam quam vehat aetas. 

49-56. Fortuna, etc. : see Dryden in Lyra Elegantiarum, 87. 

49. saevo laeta : 1. 6. 9. n. ; Boeth. Cons. Phil. 2. 1, gemitus 
dura quos fecit ridet ; sic ilia ludit, sic suas probat vires. 

50. ludum : 2. 1. 3. n. ; Sat. 2. 8. 62; 1. 34. 15-16 ; 1. 35; Tenn. 
Enid's Song in Geraint and Enid ; Anth. Pal. 10. 64, 10. 80 ; Juv. 
6. 608 ; F. Q. 3. 7. 4, ' That fortune all in equal lance (scales) doth 
sway | And mortal miseries doth make her play.' 

53. laudo manentem, etc. : ' I can enjoy her while she's kind ; | 
But when she dances in the wind, | And shakes her wings and will 
not stay, | I puff the prostitute away : | The little or the much she 
gave, is quietly resigned : | Content with poverty my soul I arm ; | 
And virtue, tho' in rags, will keep me warm-' (Dryden). Cf. The 
Newcomes ; Burns, ' Blind chance, let her snapper and stoyte on her 
way ; | Be't to me, be't frae me, e'en let the jade gae.' manen- 
tem: a rare coin of Commodus is inscribed, FORTUNAE MANENTI. 
Plutarch (de Fort. Rom. c. 4) said that Fortune laid aside her 
wings when she came to the Romans. So the Greeks worshiped 
a Wingless Victory. 

54. Pemuu : cf . 1. 34. 15. Cf. Frouto, Oral. p. 157, ed. Naber. 



392 NOTES. 

Fortunas omnes cum pennis, cum rotis, CMVI gubernaculo rcperias, 
resigno : so Epp. 1. 7. 34. Apparently a commercial term = 
rescribo (Festus), I make an entry on the opposite side, and so 
cancel the debt, repay, resign. See Lex. s.v. II. 

55. virtute . . . involve : in the cloak of my virtue. So the 
women in Plato, Rep. 457 A, are clothed in virtue, as Tennyson's 
Godiva is ' clothed on with chastity.' 

56. sine dote : choosing Poverty for a bride, like St. Francis, 
in Dante. 

57. non est meum is sermo familiaris. Cf. Plaut. As. 190. 
mugiat, etc. : 3. 10. 6. n. ; 1. 1'4. 5-6. 

58. miseras : craven, abject, groveling. 

59. decurrere: Verg. Aen. 5. 782, preces descendere in omnes; 
Herod. 1. 116, Ka-raftaivfiv. votis pacisci : contemptuously of 
the mercantile conception of prayer. Cf. 1. 31. 1 ; Plato, Eu- 
thyphro, 14 E. 

60-61. merces addant: M. of V. 1. 1, 'dangerous rocks | 
Which, touching but my gentle vessel's side, | Would scatter all 
her spices on , the stream, | Enrobe the roaring waters with my 
silks.' 

61. avaro . . . mari: 1. 28. 18, avidum; Shaks. Hen. V. 1. 2, 
'And make your chronicles as rich with praise | As is the ooze 
and bottom of the sea | With sunken wreck and sumless (sunless ?) 
treasuries' ; Rich. III. 1. 4, 'unvalued jewels | All scattered in the 
bottom of the sea.' 

62. biremis: two-oared, not bireme with two banks of oars. 
The scapha is a light skiff, or life-boat, attached to a larger vessel. 
If we press the image, Horace escapes in this from the wreck of 
the merchantman without lamenting the wealth he abandons. But 
that is perhaps an over-curious interpretation , and the figure may 
be merely the voyage of life. 

63. Aegaeos: 2. 16. 2. tumultus: 3. 1. 26. 

64. geminusque Pollux : cf. Catull. 4. 27, gcmelle Castor et 
gemelle Castoris ; Epode 17. 42. See also, 1. 3. 2. n. 



BOOK III., OLE XXX. 393 



ODE XXX. 

Epilogue to the three books of the Odes, circ. B.C. 24-23. 

'There are but two strong conquerors of the forgetfulness of 
men, Poetry and Architecture' (Ruskin, Lamp of Memory). 
Horace boasts that he has built ' A forted residence 'gainst the 
tooth of time and razure of Oblivion.' 

For similar utterances of ancient poets, cf. Sappho, fr. 32 ; 
Propert. 4. 1. 55; Ov. Am. 1. 15. 41 ; Met. 15. 871 sqq.; Phaedr. 
Epil. bk. 4 ; Martial, 7. 84. 7. Cf. also Spenser's Epilogue to 
Shepherd's Calendar ; Cowley on the Praise of Poetry ; and F. T. 
Palgrave, Ancient and Modern Muse, 'The monument outlasting 
bronze Was promised well by bards of old ; The lucid outline of 
their lay Its sweet precision keeps for aye, Fix'd in the ductile lan- 
guage gold.' ' Wonderful it seems to me ... that an infirm 
and helpless creature, such as I am, should be capable of laying 
thoughts up in their cabinets of words which time as he moves by, 
with the revolutions of stormy and eventful years, can never move 
from their places ' (Boccaccio, in Landor's Pentameron). 

1. exegi : Ov. Met. 15. 871, iamque opus exegi. Cf . Ruskin's 
phrase, ' I think the Dunciad is the most absolutely chiseled and 
monumental work ' exacted' in our country.' aere : statues and 
brazen tablets. 

2. regali : cf. regiae, 2. 15. 1. situ: loosely for 'structure,' 
' pile.' Others, less probably, ' crumbling magnificence,' 1 citing Mar- 
tial, 8. 3. 5. pyramidum : cf . Spenser, Ruins of Time, ' In vain 
do earthly Princes then, in vain, | Seek with Pyraniides, to heaven 
aspired j ... To make their memories for ever live,' etc. ; cf. 
Herrick, 201, ' Trust to good verses then ; they onely will aspire, 
When Pyramids as men, Are lost, i' th' funerall fire'; cf. 211, 
' His Poetrie His Pillar.' The last poem of the Hesperides is 
quaintly printed as a pillar of fame. Cf. Milton's Epitaph on 
Shakspere, 'Under a star-y-pointing Pyramid.' 

3-5. edax : cf. Ov. Met. 15. 234, tempus edax rerum ; nee edax 
abolere vetustas (Met. 15. 872). Cf. Burns, On Pastoral Poetry, 
'The teeth o' Time may gnaw Tantallan, | But thou'9 forever.' 
For tooth of time, cf. further Shaks. Son. 19, ' Devouring Time ' ; 



394 NOTES. 

Otto, p. 113 ; Simon, fr. 176. For imber, cf. Pindar, Pyth. 6. 10. 
impotens: cf. on 1. 37. 10. fuga : cf. 2. 14. 1 ; 3. 29. 48. 

6. non omuls : Herrick, 367, 'Thou shalt not All die.' pars : 
cf. Ovid's parsque mei multa superstes erit (Am. 1. 15. 41), and 
his parte tamen meliore mei super alia perennis \ astraferar (Met. 
15. 875; Sen. Tro. 382). 

7. Libitinam : melon omy for death, or rather to avoid tautol- 
ogy with moriar, the rites of death. Cf. Lex. s.v. II. B. usque : 
'still' with crescam. postera: of after-days, i.e. posterorum, 
'It grows to guerdon after-days,' says Tennyson of 'praise.' 

8. crescam: i.e. his fame. Cf. Propert. 4. 1. 34, posteritate 
suum crescere sensit opus. recens : cf. Epist. 2. 1. 53, Naevius 
in manibus non est et mentibus haeret \ paene recens? 

8. Capitolium : the symbol of the eternity of Rome. Cf. 3. 3. 
42 ; 1. 2. 3. n. ; Verg. Aen. 9. 448 ; Ovid, Trist. 3. 7. 51. Cf. 
Sergeant, cited on 2. 20. 14. 

9. scandet, etc. : there is a doubtful tradition (Lydus, de mens. 
4. 36) that the Pontifex Maximus and the chief Vestal (virgo 
maxima) went up to the Capitol on the ides of March to pray for 
the welfare of the State. But Horace's impressive picture is 
symbolical. 

10. qua : with princeps . . . deduxisse rather than with dicor ; 
but it is virtually the same thing to be remembered as a poet in his 
humble birthplace, and to be remembered as one who in or from 
that humble place attained the poet's fame. obstrepit: brawls. 
Cf. 2. 18. 20 ; 4. 14. 48 ; Aufidus : 4. 9. 2 ; 4. 14. 25. It was sub- 
ject to freshets. 

11. pauper aquae : cf. Epode 3. 16, siticulosae Apuliae. 
Daunus : 4. 14. 26 ; 1. 22. 14. agrestium : cf. 3. 16. 26 ; 4. 14. 
26-27. 

12. regnavit populorum : Pind. 0. 6. 34, avtipiav ' ' Pip>td*><av &va<rrr(. 
Greek gen. ; cf. G. L. 383. 1. 3 ; H. 409, V. 3. ex humili potens : 
cf. Soph. 0. T. 454, rv<t>\bs etc SeSopKdros, and Milton's ' speakable 
of mute.' Horace always anticipates the sneers at his humble 
origin. Cf. 2. 20. 5 ; Epist. 1. 20. 20. potens : cf. 4. 8. 26, poten- 
tium vatum. Or, with Daunus to save Horace's modesty. 

13-14. Horace's claim to originality is that he first introduced 
Greek lyric measures into Latin poetry. He ignores the few 



BOOK IV., ODE I. 395 

experiments of Catullus. Cf. Sellar, p. 118, and Epist. 1. 19. 19-32. 
Aeolium : cf. 1. 1. 34 ; 2. 13. 24 ; 4. 3. 12 ; 4. 9. 12. 

14. deduxisse : has been interpreted by deducere coloniam, and 
by such phrases as tenui deduct u poemata Jilo, Epp. 2. 1. 225 (from 
spinning), and mille die versus deduci posse, S. 2. 1. 4. Sume 
superbiam : opposite of pone superbiam, 3. 10. 9. modes: 
loosely, the measures, the strains, the sounds and special laws of 
the Latin tongue. 

15. Delphica : Apollinari, 4. 2. 9 ; Phoebi Delphica laurus 
(Lucret, 0. 154). 

16. volens : so Qt\aiv, 0eAowo (Find, and Aeschyl.), graciously. 
Serv. ad Aen. 1. 731, Sic enim dicunt : Volens propitiusque sis. 
Cf . Livy, 7. 26 ; 1. 16. Melpomene : 1. 24. 3 ; 4. 3. 1 ; 1. 12. 2. n. 



BOOK IV., ODE I. 

Collecting at the age of fifty this little aftermath of occasional 
poems, the chief of which were written in the quasi-official capacity 
of poet laureate at the request of Augustus, Horace hi phrases 
reminiscent of the earlier odes gracefully warns the friendly reader 
that he must no longer be regarded as the light singer of the loves. 
Cruel Venus shall spare him. He is too old for Cupid's wars. 
Paulus Maxitnus, young, handsome, eloquent, all accomplished, 
will grace her service more. Horace has ceased to dream that 
' two human hearts can blend in one.' And yet . . . 

For the main occasion of the book, see the introductions to 4, 
5, 14, and 15. Ode 2 is a second deprecatory preface Horace 
does not claim to be a Pindar. Odes 3, 6, 8, 9 proclaim the poet's 
proud consciousness of his own fame and the power of poetry. 
Ode 11 shows him still loyal to the old friendship for Maecenas. 
Odes 10 and 13 recall old erotic motifs. Ode 7 is an exquisite 
summary of his gentle Epicureanism tinged with poetic melancholy. 

There is a translation of this ode by Jonson, Works, 3. 385 ; 
by Rowe, Johnson's Poets, 9. 472 ; by Hamilton, ibid. 15. 639. 
It is imitated by Pope and by Prior (Cantata). 



396 NOTES. 

I. intermissa : with bella. Again! after so long a respite. 
2-3. bella : cf. on 3. 26. 2. moves : cf. on 1. 15. 10. 

parce : 2. 19. 7. non sum quails: cf. 3. 14. 27 ; Epp. 1. 1. 4. 

4. regno : metaphorical. Cf. regit, 3. 9. 9. Cinarae: appar- 
ently the only creature of flesh and blood among all Horace's 
Lydes and Lydias. Cf. on 4. 13. 21 ; Epp. 1. 14. 33, 1. 7. 28. 

5. = 1. 19. 1. The love Leitmotiv is faintly heard again. 

4-5. dulcium . . . saeva : cf. Sappho's y\v><vinKpov, and Catull. 
68. A. 17, dea . . . quae dtilcem curis miscet amaritiem j Theog. 
1353 ; cf. 1. 27. 11 n. 

6. circa : the prepositional phrase without pronoun (me) or 
participle is somewhat harsh. Latin has no definite article or 
pres. part, of sum. lustra decem : Horace was 50, B.C. 15. Cf. 
on 2. 4.24. flectere: 3. 7. 25. The figure seems to be that of a 
hard-mouthed horse. mollibus : antithesis with durum. 

7. imperils : dat. with durum rather than abl. with flectere. 
So durus ad and ditrus with complementary inf. 

8. revocant : re, (more) fitly, or simply back. 

9. tempestivius : cf. tempestiva, 3. 19. 27. 

10. Paulus Fabius Maximus, consul B.C. 11, a friend of Ovid 
(ex Ponto, 1. 2 ; 2. 3. 75) and of Augustus (Tac. Ann. 1. 5). pur- 
pureis : little more than bright. Cf. El. in Maec. 62, Bracchia 
purpurea candidiora nive ; Vergil's lumenque iuventae purpureum 
(Aen. 1. 590); Gray's 'purple light of love,' etc. ales: winged, 
i.e. charioted by. oloribus : cf. on 3. 28. 15. 

II. comissabere : Kwnafciv, hie with joyous revelry. Hence 
in domum, like K. els or iro-rl. 

12. torrere: 1. 33. 6, 3. 19. 28. iecur: 1. 13. 4. quaeris 
with inf., 3. 24. 27. 

13 sqq. et . . . et : the polysyndeton draws out the list of his 
qualities. Cf. 2. 1. 1-5 ; 3. 11. 25 sqq.; 1. 36. 11 sqq., neu. nobi- 
lis : Ov. ex Ponto, 1. 2. 1, Maxima, qui tanti mensuram nominis 
imples. 

14. Cf. 2. 1. 13 ; Ov. Pont. 1. 2. 118. non tacitus : cf. Intr. 

15. centum : 2. 14. 26.. artium : cf . Catull. 12, 8, est enim 
leporum disertus puer ac facetiarum. 

16. signa feret : cf . Merry Wives, 3. 4, 'I must advance the 
colors of my love.' 



BOOK IV., ODE I. 397 

17-20. And when by the grace of Venus he shall have smiled 
in triumph over the gifts of a lavish rival, he will dedicate her 
marble image in a shrine (possibly at his villa), by the lovely 
lakes of the Alban Hills. quandoque : cf. 4. 2. 34 ; A. P. 359 ; 
Lex. s.v. I. 

18. muneribus : 3. 10. 13. Abl. comp. with potentior. riserit 
. . . potentior: like risit . . . viduus, 1. 10. 12. 

19. See description of the Lago d'Albano and the Lago di Nemi 
in Hare's Days Near Rome. 

20. ponet : cf. Sat. 2. 3. 183, aeneus tit stes ; Verg. Eel. 7. 31. 
So in Gk. Iff-rdvai. citrea : The Romans misapplied the name 
citrus (Vergil's Medic apple) to the African cedar. Cf. Hehn, 
Kultur Pflanzen, p. 431. Milt. P. R. 4, 'Their sumptuous glut- 
tonies and gorgeous feasts | On citron tables.' 

21-29. The worship of Venus in the temple of the Poet's imagi- 
nation. Cf. the Temple of Augustus, Verg. G. 3. 13 ; of Venus, 
Chaucer, Knightes Tale, 1939 sqq. ; of Pysche in Keats' Ode. 

22. duces : so ducere aerem, spiritum. tura : 1. 19. 14, 1. 30. 3. 
Berecyntia: 1. 18. 13; 3. 19. 18. If we read lyra . . . Bere- 
cyntia . . . tibia (abl. instr.), mixtis carminibus will be abl. abs.; 
if we read lyrae, etc., with many editors and Mss., lyrae and tibiae 
may be gen. with mixtis carminibus, or, conceivably, tibiae gen. 
with carminibus, and lyrae dat. with mixtis. Cf. Epode 9. 5 ; and 
for fistula, 1. 17. 10, 3. 19. 20. 

25-26. At morning song and even song. teneris : 1. 21. 1. 

27. candido : the naked foot gleams white in the dance, as in 
Homer. Cf. on 3. 20. 11. 

28-29. Salium: 1. 36. 12. ter : 3. 18. 16. humum : 1. 4. 7, 
1. 37. 2. me: cf. on 1. 1. 29. 

30 sqq. Cf. Sellar, p. 173. credula : 1. 5. 9. mutul : 3. 9. 13. 
Cf. Arnold, To Marguerite, ' And love, if love, of happier men. | 
Of happier men, for they at least | Have dreamed two human hearts 
might blend | In one, and were through faith released | From iso- 
lation without end.' 

31. certare: 2. 12. 18; certare mero^Epp. 1.19. 11. Cf. 1.36. 18. 

32. vincire: 1. 7. 23; 1. 4. 9. noviu: of spring, 1. 4. 10 ; or 
fresh-plucked, 3. 4. 12. Cf. 3. 27. 43, recentes. 

33-40. The playful inconsistency of 3. 26. 11. 



398 NOTES. 

33. Ligurine : the imaginary personage of 4. 10. 

34. rara: cf. 1. 13. 6 ; furtim; contra, plurima Iccrima (Epp. 1. 
17. 59). Or can it be, as a German editor suggests, that years have 
dried the source ? Cf . Tenn. The Grandmother, ' Nor can I weep for 
the rest ; | Only at your age, Annie, I could have wept with the best.' 

35-36. Cf. Epode 11. 9; Catull. 51. 9, lingua sed torpet; Dido 
in Verg. Aen. 4. 76, incipit effari, mediaque in voce resistit. 
decora . . . inter : synapheia. Cf. 3. 29. 35. 

40. aquas : cf on 3. 7. 26. volubilis: cf. Epp. 1. 2. 43, labi- 
tur et labetur in omne volubilis aevum. 



ODE II. 

To vie with Pindar is to essay an Icarus flight. Like a river in 
flood his lawless verse rushes on through Dithyramb, Paean, Epini- 
kian, or Dirge. He is the tempest-cleaving swan of Dirce. I am 
the laborious bee that gathers honey from flower to flower. 'Tis 
thou, friend Julius, that must sing in lofty strain the pomp that 
shall wind down the Sacred Way and the people's joy at Caesar's 
vouchsafed return. Thou wilt sacrifice ten bulls in honor of the 
glad day. A young calf will be a fit offering for me. 

Apparently composed, like 5, about B.C. 14 in anticipation of 
Augustus' return from the west, whither he had gone in B.C. 16 
after the defeat of M. Lollius (cf. on 9) by the Sygambri. Julius 
Antonius may have suggested that Horace should celebrate the 
achievements of the emperor in Pindaric strain. Or the ode may 
be a deprecatory preface to 4 and 14. The failure to mention the 
victories of Drusus does not prove that it was written later. 

Julius Antonius, the son of the triumvir and Fulvia, was brought 
up by his step-mother Octavia and treated as a member of the 
Julian house by Augustus, who married him to Marcella, the 
daughter of Octavia, and raised him to the consulship B.C. 10. 
He was the author of an Epic in twelve books, the Diomedea. 
On the discovery of his intrigue with the emperor's daughter, Julia, 
he was put to death, B.C. 2. Cf. Veil. 2. 100 ; Dio. 55. 10. 

For the influence of Pindar upon Horace, see Arnold, Grie- 
chischen Studien des Horaz, p. 102 sqq ; cf. also notes on 1. 12. 1 ; 
2. 1. 37 ; 3. 3 ; 3. 4. 69 ; 3. 11 ; 3. 27 ; 4. 4. 18 and 73. 



BOOK IV., ODE H. 399 

Cowley's Praise of Pindar (Johnson's Poets, 7. 129) is an imita- 
tion of this ode. 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the ' Pindaric Ode ' 
was a recognized and very quaint literary type. Cf. Gosse, English 
Odes, Intr. ; Garnett, Ital. Lit., p. 278. 

1-4. Cf. Quintil. 10. 1. 61, Homtius eum [Pl'ndorum] merito 
credidit nemini imitabilem. Yet he smilingly encourages (Epist. 
1. 3. 9) his young literary friend Titius, \ Pindanci fontis qui non 
expalluit haustus. 

2. Iul(l)e : found in an inscription as praenomen of Julian 
gens. Vergil wrote lulus as trisyllable. To get the required dis- 
syllable Peerlcamp read ille. The use of the praenomen is fa- 
miliar, but * Julian ' is always complimentary in the Augustan 
poets. lulius a magno demissum nomen lulo (Verg. Aen. 1. 288). 
' Valerius smote down Julius | Of Rome's great Julian line ' (Ma- 
caulay, Reg.). ceratis: wax-joined. ope: 1. 6. 15. Daeda- 
lea : cf. on 1. 3. 34 ; Ov. Met. 8. 189. 

3. nititur : cf . nisus (4. 4. 8) ; Verg. Aen. 4. 252, paribus nitens 
Cyllenius alis. Soars, balances, poises, strains. vitreo : cf. on 
3. 13. 1 ; and Wordsworth's 'glassy sea' ; Arnold's 'clear, green 
sea ' ; Milton, ' On the clear hyaline, the glassy sea.' daturas : 
cf. on 2. 3. 4. 

4. iiomina : cf. 3. 27. 76 ; Ov. Trist. 1. 1. 90, Icarus aequoreis 
nomina fecit aquis; Stat. Theb. 12. 625, casurum in nomina ponti. 
That the plural is merely for metrical convenience appears from 
Trist. 3. 4. 22, Icarus immensas nomine signet aquas. 

5 sqq. Cf . Cowley, Praise of Pindar, ' So Pindar does new words 
and figures roll | Down his impetuous dithyrambic tide, | Which 
in no channel deigns to abide, | Which neither banks nor dikes 
control.' decurrens : cf. Lucret. 5. 946, montibus e magnis 
decursus aquai. amnis : Cicero has flumen ingenii, flumen ora- 
tionis. Cf. Tenn. ' full-flowing river of speech ' ; Dante, ' quella 
fonte, | che spande di parlar si largo fiume.' 

6. Cf. King John, 3. 1, ' Like a proud river peering o'er his 
bounds ' ; Mids. Night's Dr. 2. 1, ' Have every pelting river made so 
proud, | That they have overborne their continents.' notas : cf. 
1. 2. 10 ; Ov. Met. 1. 370, ut nondum liquidas sic iam vada nota 



400 NOTES. 

secantes; Milt., II Pens., 'while Cynthia checks her dragon yoke | 
Gently o'er the accustomed oak.' aluere : cf. Tenn., 'full-fed 
river' ; Homer, II. 15. 621, Kv^ard re rpo^fVTa. 

I. fervet : cf . Sat. 1. 10. 62, rapido ferventius amni ingenium. 
immensus ruit : like TTOA.I/S e?. The language of the image is 
retained in the application to the poet. The whole expresses the 
beatissima rerum verborumque copia of Quintilian (10. 1. 61). 

7-8. profundo . . . ore : i.e. deep-mouthed. Not the mouth 
of the river, but the os magnum (Ov. Pont. 4. 16. 5); the os magna 
sonaturum (Sat. 1. 4. 43); the osrotundum (A. P. 323), of the poet. 

9. laurea : 3. 30. 16. donandus : the conclusion of sen . . . 
seu . . . sive, etc. The 'fut. pass.'. part, is only less convenient 
than the fut. act. (cf. on 2. 3. 4). Horace employs it with special 
frequency in this book. Cf. 45; 47; 4.68; 9. 4 ; 9. 21; 11. 3; 
11. 14; 11. 34; 14. 17. Cf. also on 11. 30. Apollinari : cf. 
3. 30. 15. n. ; Ov. Met. 1. 557-565. 

10. audaces : bold metaphors and compounds were character- 
istic of dithyrainbic poetry. Cf. Cope, on Aristotle's Rhet., 3. 3. 
Boileau in his Discours Sur L'Ode, prefixed to his Ode sur la Prise 
de Namur, naively says, ' A 1'exemple des anciens poetes dithy- 
rambiques j'y ai employe" les figures les plus audacieuses, jusqu'a 
y faire un astre de la plume blanche que le roi porte ordinairement 
a son chapeau. ' 

II. devolvit: cf. volventis, 3. 29. 38; Tenn., A Character, 
' devolved his rounded periods ' ; ' Devolving through the maze of 
eloquence | A roll of periods ' (Thomson, Autumn). 

12. lege solutis : Soluta oratio normally means prose. One is 
legibus solutus who is not bound by a law. Pindar's difficult meas- 
ures may have seemed lawless to Horace, or he may mean -merely 
poems not composed in strophes. Cf. Klopfstock (Nauck), ' Willst 
du zu Strophen werden, O Haingesang ? Willst du gesetzlos ? ' 
etc. ; Cowley, Liberty, 6, ' The more heroic strain let others take, | 
Mine the Pindaric way I'll make : | The matter shall be grave, the 
numbers loose and free.' On the error of this view, cf. Jebb, 
Greek Class. Poetry, p. 141. It is as old in Greek lit. as Himerius 
(Orat. 3. 1). But in the school of Statins' father the boys were 
taught qua lege recurrat \ Pindaricae vox flexa lyrae (Silv. 6. 
3. 151). 



BOOK IV., ODE IL 401 

13-16. The hymns and Paeans. 

13. reges : not the historical kings, Hieron, Theron, etc., cele- 
brated in the Epiuikian odes, but the legendary heroes, Pirithous, 
Theseus, Bellerophon. 

14. sanguinem : cf. 3. 27. 65. 

15-16. Centauri: cf. on 1. 18. 8; Pind. fr. 143. tremendae : 
4. 6. 7; 4. 14. 12. Chimaerae : 1. 27. 24 ; 2. 17. 13. 
16-20. The Epinikian hymns. 

17. Elea : the palm of Elis, Olympia, is typical of the four great 
games. Cf. on 4. 3. 3. 

17-18. domum . . . caelestes : the triumphant home-bringing 
of the victor is everywhere emphasized by Pindar, who warns him 
that he must not strive to become as a god and that he cannot 
scale the brazen heavens. Cf. 1. 1. 6. 

18. pugilemve equumve : the boxing and riding of Castor and 
Pollux (1. 12. 26) stand for all athletic contests. Cf. Epp. 2. 3. 83. 
Pindar does not forget the horse (O. 1. 18), but equum here is 
probably used for metrical convenience. 

19. potiore signis : cf. the expansion of the thought 4. 8 ; also, 
Pind. Nem. 4. 81 ; Agathias, Anth. Pal. 4. 4. 9. 

21-24. The lost Dirges (Bp^voC). Horace seems to have a par- 
ticular poem in mind. 
21. flebili : cf. on 1. 24. 9. 
22-23. Note hypermetra. Cf. 3. 29. 35. 

23. aureos ; is it 'golden lads' (cf. 1. 5. 9), or such as the 
golden age knew, or, proleptically, ' to the golden skies ' ? Cf . 
Arnold, Thyrsis, 'And all the marvel of the golden skies.' 
astra : 3. 25. 6. nigro : cf. on 1. 24. 18. 

24. invidit Oreo : cf. 3. 2. 21 ; 4. 3. 27, caelo musa beat. 

25. Cf. Denham, On death of Cowley, 'On a stiff gale (as 
Flaccus sings) | The Theban swan extends his wings, | When 
through th' ethereal clouds he flies ; | To the same pitch our swan 
doth rise.' Dircaeum : for fountain Dirce, cf. Lex. cycnum : 
cf. on 4. 3. 20 ; 2. 20. Gray, Progress of Poesy, describes Pindar 
as the Theban eagle ' sailing with supreme dominion | Through the 
azure deep of air.' 

27. apis : cf. Epp. 1. 3. 21 ; 1. 19. 44 ; Pind. fr. 152 ; Pyth. 10. 
54; Bacchyl. 10. 10; Plat. Ion, 534. A; Aristoph. Birds, 749; 



402 NOTES. 

Erinna, Anth. Pal. 7. 13. 1. Matinae : 1. 28. 3. The Matinian 
bee is at Tibur as the Hyblaean bee is in Lombardy (Verg. Eel. 1. 
55). Cf. 3. 26. 10. 

28. more modoque : mere alliterative formula. Cf. A. G. 
248. K. 

29. per laborem : cf. per dolum (1. 10. 10); per vim (3. 14. 15). 

30. plurimum : with laborem rather than with nemus. Cf. 
De Quincey (Masson, 11. 379), 'There are single odes of Horace 
that must have cost him a six weeks' seclusion from the wicked- 
ness of Home ' ; Tenn. In Mem. 65, ' And in that solace can 1 
sing, | Till out of painful phases (phrases ?) wrought | There nut- 
ters up a happy thought | Self-balanced on a lightsome wing.' 
circa: 1. 18. 2. uvidi: 1. 7. 13. 

31. operosa : cf . Ruskin's Queen of the Air, 48, ' I, little thing 
that I am, weave my laborious songs as earnestly as the bee among 
the bells of thyme on the Matin mountains.' See the whole passage. 
Cf. 3. 1. 48 ; 3. 12. 5 ; and Philips' ' operose Dr. Bentley.' 

33. conchies : the transition is abrupt, but pronouns and adver- 
sative particles were not easy to manage in Latin Sapphics. Cf. 1. 
20. 10. Possibly we should read concinet. maiore . . . plec- 
tro: cf. on 2. 1. 40 ; 2. 13. 26. It may be abl. char, with poeta, 
or abl. instr. with concines. 

34. quandoque : cf. on 4. 1. 17. trahet : 'dragged in triumph' 
is the natural phrase. Cf. Epp. 2. 1. 191. But in the order of the 
triumph the captives preceded. Cf. 1. 12. 54. 

35. sacrum clivum : the part of the Sacred Way from the Arch 
of Titus to the Forum. Cf. Epode 7. 8 ; Martial, 1. 70. 5, sacro 
. , . clivo ; Macaulay, Proph. of Capys, 30, ' Blest and thrice blest 
the Roman | Who sees Rome's brightest day, | Who sees that long 
victorious pomp | Wind down the Sacred Way | And through the 
bellowing Forum, | And round the Suppliants' Grove, | Up to the 
everlasting gates | Of Capitolian Jove.' decorus: cf. 3. 14. 7; 
2. 16. 6. 

36. fronde : the wreath of laurel. Sygambros : they had de- 
feated the legate Lollius (cf. Intr.), but hastened to make peace 
with Augustus. Cf. 4. 14. 51. 

37-40. Augustus is heaven's last best gift to man. The phrase 
suggests Cic. Acad. Post. 1. 7, and Plato, Tim. 47. b. For the 



BOOK IV., ODE II. 403 

flattery, cf. Epp. 2. 1. 17 ; Ov. ex Pont. 1. 2. 98 ; Sellar, p. 157, 
' In the odes of the 4th book the ideal is supposed to be realized ; 
but there is less perhaps of the ring of genuine sincerity in the cele- 
bration of its triumph. The tone of the poet is more distinctly 
imperial than national. . . . The adulation which was the bane 
of the next century begins to be heard.' Cf. on 4. 15. 4 ; 3. 3. 16. 

38. boni : cf. 4. 5. 1. 

39. aurum : i.e. tempus aureum (Epode 16. 64). 
40-41. priscum: cf. Epode 2. 2. laetos: festos. 

42. ludum : the technical phrase is ludos, but Horace prefers to 
vary familiar formulas, and, like Tennyson, would almost rather 
sacrifice the sense than bring two s's together, though, like Ten- 
nyson, he sometimes does, e.g. 1. 2. 27 ; 1. 25. 19 ; 3. 18. 6 ; 4. 7. 17 ; 
4. 9. 10. Cf. on 3. 5. 52. impetrato : vouchsafed in answer to 
our prayers. There are coins of B.C. 16 inscribed S. P. Q. R. V. S. 
(vota suscepta) Pro S. (salute) ET RED. AVG. Cf. also Dio, 54. 
19. 

44. litibus orbum : the closing of the courts, iustitium. For 
or&MW, cf. Lucret. 5. 840, orba pedum; Pind. Isth. 3. 26, upipavoi 
v&pios. 

45 sqq. The Augustan poets frequently describe themselves as 
humble spectators of the emperor's triumphs. Cf . Propert. 4. 3 ; 
Cons, ad Liv. 273 sqq. In this case, Augustus declined the triumph 
and entered the city by night. The ludi took place in the year 14 
(Dio, 54. 27). audiendum : i.e. worth hearing. 

46. bona pars : i.e. my voice shall freely swell the acclaim. 

46-47. Sol pulcher: cf. 4. 4. 39. recepto: 2. 7. 27. 

49. teque: personifies the Triumph itself, as in Epode 9. 21. 
Tuque, found in some Mss., would imply that Antonius is to be 
the chief figure of the procession. Moreover, 53 begins with an 
emphatic te, referring to Antonius in a different connection. 

51-52. dabimus : at the totam delubra per urbem (Verg. Aen. 
8. 716). tura: 4. 1. 22. 

53-54. te . . . me : cf. 2. 17. 30-32. 

54. solvet : sc. voto ; he would be voti retts. 

55-60. Quiet, homely or idyllic ending. Cf. 2. 19. 29-32 ; 3. 5. 
53-56. So Tennyson closes Walking to the Mail, Edwin Morris 
and The Golden Year. 



404 NOTES. 

55. iuvenescit : ordinarily to grow young. Cf . Lex. herbis : 
cf. 3. 23. 11. 

56. in: i.e. to pay. 

57-58. The phrasing is suggested by the familiar expression, 
cornua lunae. Cf. C. S. 35 ; Claudian de Rapt. Pros. 1. 129, 
(vitula) nee nova lunatae curvavit germina frontis. The new 
rnoon shows a slight sickle, or crescent, on the third evening. 
Shelley, Hellas, 'The young moon hasted | Her exhausted horn.' 

referentis: 3. 29. 20. 

59-60. Cf. Horn. II. 23. 454, 'A chestnut all the rest of him, but 
in the forehead marked with a white star.' Cf. \fvnofteTcairos. Cf. 
Moschus, 2. 84. Cf. ' The glory of the herd, a bull | Snow-white, 
save 'twixt his horns one spot there grew; | Save that one stain, 
he was of milky hue.' (?) 

59. duxit : so ducere . . . colorem (Ov. Met. 3. 484) ; Juv. 2. 
8l', uvaque conspecta livorem ducit ab uva; Verg. Eel. 9. 49. 

ODE III. 

The propitious eye of Melpomene upon the natal hour makes of 
the poet a dedicated spirit who has no part in the labors, ambitions, 
and rewards of ordinary men. Such a spirit Rome now recognizes in 
Horace, the voice of Envy is silenced, and the poet thanks the sweet 
Muse to whom he owes his inspiration and power to please. 

The poem celebrates the realization of the aspirations of 1. 1. 

Cf. Sellar, p. 190 ; Andrew Lang's pretty Ballade of the Muse ; 
Ronsard, A sa Lyre. There is a good translation by Bishop Atter- 
bury. Cf. also Pitt, Johnson's Poets, 12. 388. 

1. Melpomene: cf. 3. 30. 16. n. semel: 1. 24. 16 ; C. S. 26. 

2. nascentem . . . videris : not astrological, as adspicit (2. 17. 
17). Cf. Hes. Theog. 82 ; Find. O. 7. 11 ; Boileau, A. P. 1 ; Les- 
sing, To his brother, 'Auch dich hat, da du wardst geboren, Die 
Muse lachelnd angeblickt.' 

3. Isthmius: typical, as Olympicum (1. 1. 3), Elea (4. 2. 17). 

labor: -nAvos (Pind. 0. 5. 15, et passim). Cf. 4. 2. 18. 

6. Achaico : simply Greek. The glory of the Greek chariot 
race is compared with the grandeur of a Roman triumph. 



BOOK IV., ODE III. 405 

6. res bellica : cf. res ludicra, comedy (Epp. 2. 1. 180). 
Deliis : of Apollo. Cf. 4. 2. 9; 3. 30. 15. A branch of laurel was 
borne by the triumphator. Cf. F. Q. 1. 1. 9. 

8. regum . . . minas: cf. 2. 12. 12. tumidas: Sat. 1. 7. 7. 
contuderit: cf. 3. 6. 10; Verg. Aen. 1. 263; Cons, ad Liv. 17, 
Ille genus Suevos acre indomitosque Sicambros \ contudit inque 
fugam barbara terga dedit. 

9. ostendet Capitolio : cf. on 4. 2. 35, and Propert. 4. 3. 13. 

10. Tibur : his own favorite retirement put typically for the 
Muse's 'green retreats.' Cf. on 1. 1. 30; 1. 7. 13 sqq. prae- 
fluunt: so 4. 14. 26 for praeterfluunt. 

11-12. spissae: 3. 19. 25. nemorum comae: cf. on 1.21.5; 
4. 7. 2. Aeolio: 3. 30. 13. 

13. Cf. 4. 14. 44 ; Epp. 1. 7. 44, regia Roma. 

15. ponere: cf. inserere (1. 1. 35) ; ponetur (Epp. 2. 1. 43). 

16. dente : cf. Epode 6. 15; Sat. 1. 6. 46, quern rodunt omnes; 
Sat. 2. 1. 77 ; Epist. 2. 1. 151 ; Pindar, Pyth. 2. 53 ; Ov. Trist. 4. 
10. 123 ; ex Ponto, 3. 4. 74 ; Phaedr. Prol. 6 ; Martial, 5. 28. 7 ; 
Anth. Pal. 9. 356 ; 16. 265. 5 ; Shaks. Jul. Cats. 2. 3. ' My heart 
laments that virtue cannot live | Out of the teeth of emulation ' ; 
Gray, Eton College, ' Or jealousy with rankling tooth.' 

17. testudinis: 3. 11. 3; 1. 32. 14. aurea: cf. on 2. 13. 26; 
Pind. Pyth. 1. 1, xpv<*f<* 4><W'7l- 

18. dulcem : with strepitum, a slight oxymoron. Or it is con- 
ceivably proleptic. strepitum : Epp. 1. 2. 31 ; float/, Pind. O. 
3. 8 ; Pyth. 1. 13 ; Nem. 5. 38 ; Homer, II. 18. 495 ; y\vK^u av\S,v 
OTO&OV (Soph. Ajax, 1202) ; ' How they seemed to fill the sea and 
air | With their sweet jargoning ' (Col. Anc. Mar.); 'La noise du 
rossignol ' (Ronsard) ; ' That melodious noise ' (Milton, At a 
Solemn Music ) ; ' For all their groves, which with the heavenly 
noises | Of their sweet instruments were wont to sound ' (Spenser, 
Tears of the Muses). temperas: dost govern, modulate. Cf. on 
1. 24. 14, moderere; Propert. 3. 32. 80. 

19. mutis : traditional epithet. Cf. eAAoirej, l\Aol, SvauSoi, in 
Greek Lex. The Scarus was thought the only exception. Cf. 
Anth. Pal. 10. 16. 13; Oppian,'Hal. 1. 134. But the trout of the 
river Aroanius in Arcadia were believed to sing (Pausan. 8. 21. 2). 
IxOvwv a.(j>iat>6Tpoi was a proverb. Cf. Troilus and Cress. 3. 3, ' He 



406 NOTES. 

is grown a very land-fish, languageless ' ; Shelley, Hellas, ' Joy 
waked the voiceless people of the sea'; Swmb. Erech., 'tongue- 
less waterherds. ' After Aeschyl. Persae, 577. quoque: even. 

20. donatura: cf. on 2. 3. 4. cycni : cycnum (4. 2. 25). For 
swan's song, cf . 2. 20 15 ; Plato, Phaedo, 84. E ; Aeschyl. Ag. 1445 ; 
Ov. Her. 7. 1 ; Callim. Hymn. Del. 252 ; Wordsworth's Sonnet, ' I 
heard (alas ! 'twas only in a dream) ' ; Byron, ' There, swan-like, 
let me sing and die ' (Don Juan, 3. 86. 16) ; Shaks. Merch. of V. 3. 2 ; 
King John, 5. 7 ; Othello, 5. 2 ; Hale's Folia Literaria, p. 231 sqq. ; 
Ael. Var. Hist. 1. 14, e-ya> 8e qSovros KVKVOV OVK ^ou<ra, tcrcas 5f ovSf 
&\\os- TTfiriffTevrai 5' olv on dSfi. Frazer, Paus. 2. 395. 

21. Cf. Ov. (Trist. 1. 6. 6) to his wife, siquid adhuc ego sum 
muneris omne tui est. 

22. Proverbial. Cf. Pers. 1. 28 ; Lucian, Herod. 1, Somnium 11 ; 
Aeschyl. Ag. 1332 ; Tac. Dial, 7 ; Martial, 9. 97. 3 ; Cic. Tusc. 5. 
36, etc. Sometimes it signifies finger of scorn (Ov. Am. 3. 1. 19). 

23. fidicen is Latin (cf. Epp. 1. 19. 32); lyrae, Greek (cf. 4. 6. 
25-27). 

24. spiro : cf. 2. 16. 38, 4. 6. 29 ; Epp. 2. 1. 166 ; Find. O. 13. 
22, Mo<a' advirvoos ; Ronsard, A sa Lyre, ' Par toy je plais, et par 
toy je suis leu : c'est toy qui fais que Ronsard soit esleu Harpeur 
Fran9ois, et quand on le rencontre, Qu'avec le doigt par la rue on 
le monstre,' etc. tuum est: but cf. 4. 6. 29, Apollo; 2. 16. 39, 
Parca ; 3. 30. 15, mentis. 

ODE IV. 

Like a new-fledged eagle swooping down on its quarry, like a 
fresh-weaned lion rending its first kid, in such guise have the 
Vindelici beheld young Drusus waging war beneath the Raetian 
Alps. Subdued at last, those fierce tribes have been taught what 
the sons of the Neros, bred at the hearth of Augustus, can achieve. 
What Rome owes to the house of Nero let the battle of the river 
Metaurus bear witness, the overthrow of Hasdrubal, and the first 
day of hope that dawned on Italy after all the years in which Han- 
nibal rode like a storm wind or forest fire over her fields. That 
was the beginning of the end. Hannibal knew it, and said : ' We 
are like deer that madly turn upon their natural pursuers. The 
indomitable race that issued from burning Troy grows stronger 
through hardship and defeat, and renews itself like the hydra of 
Hercules. Never again shall I send proud heralds of victory to 



BOOK IV., ODE IV. 407 

Carthage. All is lost with the fall of Hasdrubal.' Such were the 
deeds of the Claudians. And what may they not do, guarded by 
Jupiter and guided by sagacious counsels ? 

The campaign celebrated in this ode was undertaken in order 
to give Rome control of the eastern passes of the Alps and put a 
stop to the incursions of the unruly Alpine tribes. " P. Silius 
engaged these tribes in 738, and worsted them. The year fol- 
lowing . . . Drusus, the emperor's younger stepson, now in his 
twenty-third year, took the command of the legions from Silius, 
overthrew the Rhaetians in the Tridentine Alps, traversed the 
Brenner pass, and defeated the Breuni and Genauni in the valley 
of the Inn. It is ... probable that he turned westward to effect 
a junction with his brother Tiberius, who had been dispatched at 
the same time to attack the Vindelicians in the rear. . . . Tiberius 
penetrated the gorges of the Upper Rhine and Inn in every direc- 
tion ; and at the conclusion of a brilliant and rapid campaign, the 
two brothers had effected the complete subjugation of the country 
of the Orisons and the Tyrol," which with adjacent territory were 
constituted the province of Rhaetia. "The free tribes of the Eastern 
Alps appear then for the first time in history, only to disappear again 
for a thousand years." (Abridged from Merivale, 4. 160. Cf. Dio, 
54. 22; Strabo, 4, p. 206.) 

Tiberius (afterwards emperor), born 713, and Drusus, born 716, 
sons of the empress Livia by her divorced husband Tiberius Claudius 
Nero, were adopted by Augustus. Drusus was the emperor's favor- 
ite (Suet. Claud. 1), and is, with some partiality, celebrated not only 
in this ode, but in the fourteenth, which treats of the exploits of 
Tiberius. 

Horace often professes that he is unapt to sing of war. Cf. 1. 6. 
5, 4. 2. 30 sqq. ; Sat. 2. 1. 12 sqq. This ode, and indeed the fourth 
book generally, was written, Suetonius tells us, at the express com- 
mand of the emperor : Scripta quidem eius usque adeo probavit 
mansuraque perpetua opinatus est, ut non modo Seculare carmen 
componendum iniunxerit sed et Vindelicam victoriam Tiberii Drusi- 
que, privignorum suorum, eumque coegerit propter hoc tribus carmi- 
num libris ex longo intervallo quartum addere. Horace evades the 
difficulty by a Pindaric treatment, the long historical digression 37- 
73 representing the myth. 



408 NOTES. 

Translation by Lyttleton, Johnson's Poets, 14. 182. Prior's Ode 
to the Queen (1706) is a feeble imitation. 

1. The construction is qualem . . . propulit (6) ... vernique 
. . . docuere (8) . . . mox . . . demisit (10) . . . nunc . . . egit 
(12) . . . qualemve . . . vidit (13. 16) . . . (talem~) videre (17). 
In translating, disregard the Latin syntax and follow the Latin 
order. ministrum : flammigerum, lovis armiger ( Verg. Aen. 6. 
255). Attribute of alitem, but we translate winged minister. 
The eagle clasping the thunderbolt is fouml on coins. 

2. regnum: oltavuv &acn\ta (Find. Ol. 13. 21). Cf. Pyth. 1. 7; 
Isth. 5. 50. Bacchyl. 5. 17 sqq. 'Sailing with supreme dominion 
through the azure deep of air.' in: cf. on 3. 1. 5. vagas: rjepo- 
QO'ITOVS. Cf. 3. 27. 16, vaga comix. 

3. permisit : Lex. s.v. II. B. 2. expertus, etc.: having found 
him faithful in (the case of}. 

4. Ganymede : cf. 3. 20. 16 ; Verg. Aen. 5. 255 ; Tenn. Pal. of 
Art, 'Or else flushed Ganymede, his rosy thigh | Half-buried in 
the eagle's down, | Sole as a flying star shot thro' the sky | Above 
the pillar'd town.' The eagle is post-Homeric. Cf. II. 20. 233- 
235. flavo : cf. on 1. 5. 4. 

5. olim : yon time, once, sometimes. Used even with future 
(Epist. 1. 3. 18). Hence frequent with gnomic utterances, whether 
with the present (Sat. 1. 1. 25) or aoristic perfect. Olim, mnx, 
nunc (11), mark the stages in the growth of the young eagle, 
which is, of course, no longer the particular bird that carried off 
Ganymede. First it essays its wings, then swoops down on the 
folds, then does battle with serpents. 

6. propulit : ' gnomic ' aorist of simile. 

7. vemique : the fact that eagles are hatched in late spring 
and are not full-fledged till autumn need trouble us no more 
than Pindar's golden-horned doe, Keats' ' Stout Cortez ' on Da- 
rien or his ' warm gules ' in the moonlight, or the singing of 
Tennyson's female nightingale. Cf. Aristotle, Poetics, 1460. b. 
31-33. 

8. nisus : sc. pennarum = labores. Cf. 4. 2. 3, nititur pennis, 
and Lucretius, 6. 911, pedum nisus. 

9. mox: 1. 1. 17; 2. 1. 10; 4. 14. 14. 



BOOK IV., ODE IV. 409 

10. vividus impetus: the inner impulse or, more idiomati- 
cally, the actual swoop ; Spenser's ' dreadful souse ' (F. Q. 4. 
3. 19). 

11. dracones: serpentes would not fit the meter, and the poeti- 
cal Greek word suggests the combat of eagle and snake in Homer 
(II. 12. 200 sqq.). Cf. Verg. Aen. 11. 751; Shelley, Revolt of 
Islam, 1. 8. 

13. laetis : luxuriant ; ' laetas segetes ' etiam rustici dicunt 
(Cic. de Or. 3. 38). But there is a suggestion of the joy of the 
new-bom flocks, as in Lucretius' pabula laeta (1. 257). 

14. matris ab ubere : with caprea rather than, somewhat tauto- 
logically, with lacte depulsum leonem ; fulvus, though a more fre- 
quent epithet of the |av0bs A<=W (Verg. Aen. 4. 159, etc.), is a pos- 
sible epithet of the goat. Cf. 4. 2. 60, and the German ' Rotwild.' 
Ab ubere virtually = relicta matre. Ab with intenta means that it 
has turned away from the udder and is intent upon the pasture. 
lam, like ^877, is timeless, or rather marks a point of time to be em- 
phasized. The lion has reached the point where, being weaned, 
he begins to be dangerous. The two descriptions, then, though 
parallel, are by no means identical. It is considering it too curi- 
ously to object that Horace would not represent the enemies of 
Drusus as feeble and timid. For eagle and lamb, cf. Macaulay, 
Regillus, 15. 

15. depulsum : the technical word. Cf. Verg. Eel. 7. 15 ; &9ij\os. 
. 16. peritura : it looks up ... into the jaws of death. Cf. on 2. 

3. 4. Raetis : i.e. Baetids. So Heinsius for Eaeti of Mss. ' The 
Vindelici saw ... at foot of Raetian Alps ' is equivalent to ' the 
Vindelici and Raeti saw.' 

17-22. quibus . . . omnia : this inopportune archaeological 
digression has been much discussed. It may be a mere failure of 
Horace's art, an attempted Pindarism, or, as has been conjectured, 
a sly allusion to some contemporaneous pedantry, e.g. in the Ama- 
zonis of Domitius Marsus. The scholiast is ready with a theory to 
account for the Amazonian battle ax in the hands of the-Vindelici. 
Ovid calls Amazons securigeras puellas (Her. 4. 117). Cf. Class. 
Diet. s.v. securis, and Xen. Anab. 4. 4. 16. 

21-22. obarmet: coined by Horace. sed: 5' olv, resumptive. 

24. consiliis : Cicero renders ffroarriyrjua by consilium impera- 



410 NOTES. 

torium. revictae : long victric.es, now defeated in their turn. 
But cf. refringit, 3. 3. 28. 

25. sensere : 2. 7. 10 ; 4. 6. 3. 

25-26. rite . . . nutrita : go with both mens and indoles, mind 
and heart (character, temper). 

26. sub : cf. sub lare, 3. 29. 14. penetralibus : cf . Velleius, 
2. 94, innutritus (sc. Tiberius) caelestium praeceptorum disciplinis. 

28. in : cf. 2. 2. 6. Nerones : Neronis . . . quo significatur 
lingua Sabinafortis ac strenuus (Suet. Tib. 1). 

29. Strong and brave are the offspring of the brave and good. 
Not the strong and brave are born of sires brave and good. Cf. 
Skaks. Cymbeline, 4. 2, ' Cowards father cowards, and base things 
sire base ' ; Pindar, Pyth. 8. 44 ; Plato, Menex. 237 A ; Theog. 
537. Fortis et bonus is a formula, cf. Epp. 1. 9. 13. 

30-32. ' Even the homely farm can teach us there is something 
in descent' (Tenn., Locksley Hall Sixty Years After). 
31. imbellem feroces : cf. on 1. 6. 9. 

33. Bed -. concede what we will to nature, nurture too plays its 
part. Cf. Pind. Ol. 10. 20 ; Eurip. Iph. Aul. 557 ; Cic. Tusc. 2. 5. 
13 ; Poet Archias 15 ; Quintil. 2. 19. 2. 

34. cultus : cf. Bacon's Georgics of the Mind ; and Cic. Tusc. 
2. 5. 13. roborant : we say ' hearts of oak ' but ' steel the breast.' 

35. utcumque: when once. Cf. 1. 17. 10 ; 1. 35. 23 ; 2. 17. 11. 
mores: i.e. recta morum disciplina. 

36. dedecorant : so Epist. 2. 1. 245. Most editors read inde- 
corant. bene nata: the neuter generalizes (cf. 1. 34. 12), but 
metrical convenience may determine its use. 

37. quid debeas : the defeat of Hasdrubal at the river Metaurus 
B.C. 207 was due mainly to the audacity of C. Claudius Nero, who, 
leaving half his army in camp before Hannibal in Southern Italy, 
marched with the remainder the whole length of the peninsula to 
reinforce his colleague, M. Livius Salinator (ancestor of Drusus on 
the mother's side) to whom the northern province had been as- 
signed, and returned victorious with the head of Hasdrubal before 
Hannibal had discovered his absence. See the spirited account in 
Livy, 27. 43 sqq. ; Polyb. 11. 1. 

38. testis : cf. Catull. 64. 357. Metaurum flumeii: some- 
what differently 2. 9. 21, Medum flumen. 



BOOK IV., ODE IV. 411 

38-39. Hasdrubal devictus : cf . on 2. 4. 10. 

39. pulcher : cf . 4. 2. 47 ; Romeo and Jul. 4. 5, ' Never was 
seen so black a day as this, | O woeful day, O woeful day.' 

40. Latio : abl. with fugatis rather than dat. with risit . 

41. risit : cf. 4. 11. 6. n. adorea: an archaic, metrically con- 
venient, and sonorous synonym of Victory. Cf. Lexicon. 

42. dims: cf. 2. 12. 2 ; 3. 6. 36. ut: since. Cf. Epode, 7, 19. 
Ov. Trist. 4. 6. 19, ut patria careo bisfrugibus area trita est. 

43. ceu : only here in Horace. 

44. equitavit: cf. 1. 2. 51. Afer is the grammatical, flamma 
or, rather, Eurus the felt, subject. Cf. Eurip. Phoen. 211, 2i/ceAt'as 
Ze<t>vpov irvoais iirirevffa.vTos. 

45. post hoc : Cicero (Brutus, 3) dates the turn of fortune 
from the battle of Nola, posteaque prosperae res deinceps multae 
consecutae sunt. usque: cf. on 1. 17. 4; 3. 30. 7. secundis 
. . . laboribus : prosperous enterprises. For labor, cf. 4. 3. 3 ; 
and the Greek irows = battle ; H. 6. 77 ; Theog. 987. 

46. pubes : 3. 5. 18. crevit : waxed strong. Cf. 3. 30. 8. 
irnpio : they pillaged the temples. 

47. tumultu : of the distress and confusion of a home or border 
war. Horace slightly extends the technical force of the word as 
seen in tumultus Italicus, tumultus Gallicus. Cf. Cic. Phil. 8. 1. 

48. rectos : upright, and righted. Cf. deiecta simulacra; 
1 Sam. 5. 3, ' Dagon was fallen upon his face to the earth . . . 
And they took Dagon, and set him in his place again.' 

49. perfidus : perfidia plus quam Punica, Livy, 21. 4. 9. Cf. 
on 3. 5. 33 ; Livy, 9. 3, Romano in perfidum Samnitem pugnanti; 
Martial, 4. 14. 4. 

50 sqq. Cf. Livy, 27. 51, 'Hannibal . . . agnoscere se fortunam 
Karthaginis fertur dixisse. cervi : cf . II. 13. 101 sqq. lupo- 
rum : Macaulay, Horatius, 43, ' Quoth he, " The she-wolf's litter | 
Stands savagely at bay." ' 

51. ultro : beyond what is reasonable or natural ; ' actually.' 
Cf. Verg. Eel. 8. 52, nunc et ovis ultro fugiat lupus. opimus 
suggests the technical spolia opima. 

52. Slight oxymoron, as also is 53. fallere : 1. 10. 16 ; 3. 11. 40. 
53 sqq. The central idea of the Aeneid, which everybody had 

been reading. Cf. Juno's complaint, 7. 295, Num capti potuere 



412 NOTES. 

capi, num incensa cremavit Troia viros? medias acies mediosque 
per ignes, \ invenere viam. Cf. 3. 3. 40. 

54. iactata : preferably with sacra. Gens is sufficiently de- 
scribed. Cf. iactatus, Aen. 1. 3 ; Victosque Penates, ibid. 1. 67. 

57-60. Cf. Thomson, Liberty, ' This firm Republic, that against 
the blast | Of opposition rose ; that (like an oak, | Nursed on fera- 
cious Algidum, whose boughs | Still stronger shoot beneath the 
rigid axe) | By loss, by slaughter, from the steel itself | Even force 
and spirit drew. ' He uses the same image in Rule Britannia, ' Still 
more majestic shalt thou rise, | More dreadful from each foreign 
stroke ; | As the loud blast that tears the skies | Serves but to root 
thy native oak.' 

58. iiigrae: cf. on 1. 21. 7 ; Verg. Eclog. 6, 54, ilice siib nigra. 

Algido: 1. 21. 6; 3. 23. 9. 

59. caedes is equally applicable to lopping a tree and cutting 
up an army. 

61-62. This image applied to Rome is attributed to Cineas, the 
counsellor of Pyrrhus, in Plutarch, Pyrrh. 19. Cf. also 'Flor. Epit. 
1. 18; Ov. Met. 9. 74, crescentemque malo domui; Verg. Aen. 8. 
300 ; Eurip. Here. Fur. 1274. The first symbolic literary use of 
the image is Plato, Repub. 426. E. 

63. submisere : the Roman soldiers spring up like the fabled 
brood of the dragon's teeth sown by Jason at Colchi or Cadmus at 
Thebes. Cf. Lucret. 1. 7, daedala tellus submittit flores. 

64. Echion was one of the survivors of the Theban Dragon 
brood, and, by marriage with the daughter of Cadmus, ancestor of 
the Theban kings. Any person associated with a place in Greek 
mythology may supply the Latin poet with a sonorous epithet for 
the place. Cf. 1. 17. 22, 23. n. 

65. merses : hortatory (imperative) subj. as virtual protasis to 
evenit. For the word, cf. 3. 16. 13 ; Verg. Aen. 6. 512 ; Lucan, 
1. 159, quae populos semper mersere potentes. profundo : abl. 

evenit : used here in its primary etymological, not in its sec- 
ondary, sense. Cf. on 1. 5. 8 ; 3. 11. 27, pereuntis ; I. 36. 20, 
ambitiosior ; 2. 1. 26, impotens ; 3. 24. 18, innocens; Epode 
17. 67, obligatus; 3. 3. 51, cogere ; 3. 7. 30, despice; 4. 2. 7, 
immensus f Epode 2. 14, feliciores. 

66. luctere : so Aristophanes boasts of the Athenians, that if 



BOOK IV., ODE V. 413 

they ever chanced to take a fall they wiped off the dust and 
denied it. Eq. 571-572. 

66-67. niulta . . . cum laude : amid loud acclaim. But cf. 
Catull. 64, 112. 

66. integrum : the victor would be unscathed, a.Kpai<t>vljs. 
proruet : the shift to the f ut. need trouble nobody. 

68. coniugibus : of the enemy ? Cf. Catull. 64. 349, illius . . . 
claraque facia. \ Saepe fatebuntur gnatorum in funere matres ; II. 
8. 157 ; or in fireside talks at Roman hearths ? Cf. Macaulay, 
Horatius, 70. For Roman constancy in defeat, cf. Livy, 9. 3, ea 
est Romana gens quae victa quiescere nesciat ; Livy, 27. 14 ; 
Justin, 31. 6. 

69. Cf. the story in Livy, 23. 12, of the three bushels of gold 
rings, taken from Roman knights, poured out on the floor of the 
Carthaginian senate. 

70. Cf. Isaiah, 20. 9, 'and he answered and said: "Babylon is 
fallen, is fallen"' ; Dryden, Alexander's Feast, 'He sang Darius 
great and good | By too severe a fate | Fallen, fallen, fallen, fallen, | 
Fallen from his high estate ' ; Tenn. Princess, ' Our enemies have 
fallen, have fallen.' 

73-76. Closing reflections after the myth in Pindaric manner. 

74. numine luppiter: 3. 10. 8. 

75. curae : possibly, their own sagacity ; more probably, that 
of Augustus balancing Jupiter, as often in the Augustan poets. 
Cf. also, 4. 14. 33, te consilinm. 

76. expediunt : bring safely through ; disengage. Cf . Verg. 
Aen. 2. 633. acuta belli : possibly metaphorically of dangerous 
rocks. But cf. subita belli, Livy, 6. 32; 33. 11, aspera belli,' 
Tac. Hist. 2. 77, 4. 23, proeliorum incerta, fortuita belli; Homer, 
II. 4. 352, ovv "Ap-na. Also, Lucan, 7. 684, prospera bellorum; 
Catull. 63. 16, truculentaque pelagt. 



ODE V. 

Too long absent, great guardian of the race of Romulus, restore 
the light of thy countenance to thy people, who yearn for thee as a 
mother longs for a son detained beyond seas by contrary winds. 
Bounteous harvests, seas freed from pirates, faith, chastity, justice 



414 NOTES. 

at home, the barbarian cowed abroad, such are the blessings of 
thy reign. After a busy day among his vines the husbandman 
pours his after-dinner libation to thee as to his household gods, 
and invokes thy name as grateful Greece invokes her mythic bene- 
factors. 

The three years following the defeat of Lollius by the Sygambri 
(B.C. 16; cf. 4. 2. 36), Augustus spent in the West, partly with a 
view to restoring order in Gaul and Spain, partly, as was said (Dio, 
55. 19), in order, like Solon, to escape by absence the invidium 
aroused by his measures of reform. In this carefully polished offi- 
cial utterance the Poet Laureate expresses the loyalty of the growing 
class who gratefully recognized that ' 1'einpire c'est la paix.' Cf. 
Sellar, p. 189, and Velleius, 2. 89. The ode follows the praise of 
Drusus in 4, as 15 follows the praise of Tiberius in 14. 

1. divis . . . bonis: may be abl. abs. (cf. Sat. 2. 3. 8, iratis 
natus dis) , or abl. of origin with orte. The birth of Augustus was 
a gift of boni divi (4. 2. 38); and he was Veneris sanguis (C. S. 50). 

Romulae : as adj. Cf. C. S. 47. But Catull. 34. 22 has Romuli 
. . . gentem. The oblique cases of Romulus have to be replaced 
by those of Remus in hexameters, but he comes to his own in lyric. 

2. custos: 1. 12. 49; 4. 15. 17. 

4. sancto : august ; a standing epithet of Senatus. Cf . Verg. 
Aen. 1. 426. 

5. lucem: the Homeric- $605. Cf. Aeschyl. Persae, 300; Verg. 
Aen. 2. 281. tuae: emphatic. dux bone: cf. 37, and 3. 14. 7. 
He is the war-lord and captain to whom allegiance is due. 

6. instar : usually of quantity, as in Vergil's instar mantis equum. 

veris: cf. Shelley, Revolt of Is. Ded. 7. 2, 'Thou friend, whose 
presence on my wintry heart | Fell like bright spring upon some 
herbless plain.' 

7. it dies : cf. 2. 14. 5, quotquot eunt dies. 

8. soles : for poetry, as for Heracleitus, the sun is veos it? rjntpri. 
Cf. 4. 2. 46. 

9-14. Editors cite, for the image, Oppian, Hal. 4. 335. Kiessling 
suspects that the mother is substituted here for some love-lorn hero- 
ine (of Callimachus) waiting like Asterie (3. 7) for her lover. 

9. mater iuvenem : note juxtaposition ; the details may follow. 

invido : so the river that keeps Ovid's lover from his tryst is 



BOOK IV., ODE V. 415 

'invidious,' and the first rays of the dawn that is to sever Romeo 
and Juliet are 'envious streaks.' Carpathii : 1. 35. 8. 

11. longius annuo : navigation has closed, and he must pass the 
winter in the East, as Gyges (3. 7. 5) in Oricum. 

13. Cf. Livy, Pref. 13, cum bonis potius ominibus votisque et 
precationibus, etc. She makes vows, consults the omens, and 
offers prayers in her impatience. 

14. curvo : a standing epithet. Cf. Epode 10. 21 ; Verg. Aen. 
3. 223, etc. 

15. icta : Ifiiptf irfir\Tjy/j.fvos. Cf. Lucret. 2. 360, desiderio per- 
fixa iuvenci. desideriis : pi. mainly metri causa. 

16. quaerit : cf . 3. 24. 32. patria Caesarem : cf . 9. 

17 sqq. Cf. Ov. Fasti, 1. 701-704, Gratia dis domuique tuae, reli- 
gata catenis \ lampridem vestro sub pede bella iacent. | Sub iuga 
bos veniat, sub terras semen aratas, \ Pax Cererem nutrit, pads 
alumna Ceres ; Germanicus, Aratea, 9, Si non parta quies te prae- 
side puppibus aequor | cultorique daret terras. 

17. tutus: cf. 1. 17. 5. perambulat : grazing in conscious 
security. Others, walks before the plough. 

18. rura : the fields which. Horace repeats and dwells on the 
image with complacency. The contrast with the picture in Verg. 
G. 1. 506-508 would flatter Augustus. Faustitas: found only 
here. There was a Fausta Felicitas. Cf. Austria (Hdt. 5. 82), 

Auw, and 0aAA.cc. 

19. pacatum : from pirates, by defeat of Sextus Pompey, B.C. 36. 
Cf. Ant. and Cleop. 1. 4, ' Menecrates and Menas famous pirates | 
make the sea serve them.' Augustus boasts (Mon. Ancyr. 5. 1), 
mare pacavi a praedonibus. Cf. also Suet. Oct. 98 ; Epode 4. 19.. 
volitant: cf. Vergil's pelagoque volamus (Aen. 3. 124); Epode 
16. 40 ; Catull. 4. 5 ; Homer, Odyss. 11. 125, 23. 272 ; Hes. Op. 626 ; 
Verg. Aen. 1. 224, mare velivolum; Lucret. 5. 1442; Eurip. Tro. 
1086 ; Hippol. 752 ; Aeschyl. Pers. 565 ; Prom. 468 ; Tenn. In Mem. 
9; Merchant of Ven. 1. 1, 'As they fly by them with their woven 
wings,' etc. 

20. metuit: cf. 3. 11. 10; 2. 2. 7. fides: commercial, as in 
3. 24. 59. 

22. mos et lex: 3. 24. 35. lex: the leges luliae de adulteriis 
etpudicitia (B. C. 18). Cf. C. S. 18-20. edomuit : e, completely. 



416 NOTES. 

'The publication of the AYS Amandi a few years later, and the 
career of the two Julias, afford an impressive commentary on these 
lines' (Sellar, p. 155). 

23. simili prole : for, or rather by, the resemblance of the child 
to the father. Cf. Hes. Op. 235; Catull. 61. 226, sit suo similis 
patri, etc.; Martial, 6. 27. 3; Shaks. Winter's Tale, 1. 2; Pater. 
Marius, chap. 13. 

24. Punishment no longer limps with tardy foot (3. 2. 32). For 
premit comes, cf. Sat. 2. 7. 115. 

25-28. Cf. 3. 14. 15 ; 4. 15. 17 ; and the fine epigram of Crinago- 
ras (Anth. Pal. 9. 291). 

26. lionida : suggests Germany silvis horrida, Tac. Ger. 5. Cf. 
Verg. Aen. 9. 382. 

26-27. parturit fetus: 1. 7. 16; German fecundity. Cf. Mil- 
ton's 'A multitude like which the populous North | Poured never, 
from her frozen loins to pass | Rhene or the Danau'; ovS' V rep,ua- 
vii\ "Pyvov airavr' ftpir) (Crinagoras). incolunii : 3. 5. 12. 

28. Hiberiae : cf. on 2. 6. 2 ; 4. 14. 50. 

29. condit: cf. cantando . . . condere soles (Verg. Eclog. 9. 
52); Georg. 1. 458; Munro on Lucret. 3. 1088, condere saeda. 
colllbus: 1. 20. 12; Verg. Georg. 2. 521-522, et alte \ mills in 
apricis t coquitur vindemia saxis. suis : emphatic ; his own vine 
and fig tree, as it were. 

30-31. viduas: i.e. unwedded. Cf. on 2. 15. 4 ; Epode 2. 10. 
ducit : cf . ' or they led the vine | To wed her elm ; she spoused 
about him twines | Her marriageable arms ' (Milton, P. L. 5) ; 
Catull. 62. 49 ; Shaks. Com. of Err. 2. 2, ' Thou art an elm, my 
husband, I a vine'; F. Q. 1. 1. 8, 'The vine-prop elm'; Gray's 
letters from Italy, ' Very public and scandalous doings between 
the vine and the elm trees, and how the olive trees are shocked 
thereat' ; Juv. 8. 78 ; Martial, 3. 58. 3, etc. redit: sc. domum. 

31-32. alteris . . . mensis : at dessert ; ' across the walnuts and 
the wine.' This 'second course,' mensae . . . secundae (Verg. 
Georg. 2. 101), was prefaced by libations to the household Lares, 
with whom, by popular feeling and express decree of the Senate, 
Augustus' name was associated. Cf. Merivale, chap. 33 ; Dio, 51. 
19 ; Kirkland on Epist. 2. 1. 16 ; Ov. Fast, 2. 633. 

32. adhibet: cf. Verg. Aen. 5. 62, adhibete Penates . . . epulis. 



BOOK IV., ODE VI. 417 

33. te : for stylistic effect of the repetition, cf. 4. 14. 41 sqq. 
prosequitur : cf. Lex. s.v. II. A. 

34. defuso : cf. 1. 31. 2-3, de . . . f widens. For Latin concrete- 
ness here, cf. ou 2. 4. 10. 

35-36. The genitives are construed with numen, but felt also 
with memor. For the popular feeling towards Augustus, cf. 
further Epist. 2. 1. 16; Renan, Hibbert Lectures, p. 15; Boissier, 
Religion Roinaine, 1. 141 ; Ov. Fasti, 2. 633 sqq. 

37. o utinam: 1. 36. 38. feriaa: 'vacation' is peace. 

38. Hesperiae: cf. on 2. 1. 32. integro: when the day is 
still intact and wholly ours. Cf. Pater, ' Marius,' p. 132, ' that 
youth the days of which he had already begun to count jealously 
in entire possession.' 

39. sicci: 1. 18. 3. uvidi: 1. 7. 22; 2. 19. 18; 3. 21. 9; Sat. 
2. 6. 70, uvescit; Sat. 2. 1. 9, irriguum. 

40. Quiet close ; cf. 4. 2. 55-60. n. 



ODE VI. 

A prelude addressed to the chorus of noble youths and maidens 
who were to sing the carmen saeculare (q.v.). 

Apollo that didst punish Niobe and Tityos and overthrow even 
Achilles (4-12), who else would have left alive no child of Troy to 
found Rome under happier auspices (12-24), thou inspirer of the 
Grecian muse, uphold to-day the honor of Latin song. And you, 
noble maids, mark well the measure of this sacred chant. Happy 
matrons one day you will boast that on the great festival day you 
learned and sang the strains of Horace the Bard. 

1. Dive: lines 5-23 are a digression suggested- by Achilles; 
and the verb of the prayer is defende (line 27). Apollo slew 
Achilles and so made possible the escape of Aeneas and the found- 
ing of Rome. Niobea : cf. Tenn. ' a Niobean daughter ' ; II. 24. 
608, 'for that Niobe matched herself against fair-cheeked Leto, 
saying that the goddess bare but twain, but herself many children : 
so they, though they (Apollo and Diana) were but twain, destroyed 
the others all' ; Ovid, Met. 6. 135; Jebb on Soph. Antig. 823 ; 
Landor's Niobe ; and the famous group of statues at Florence. 

2E 



418 NOTES. 

2. linguae : a big tongue is Greek for boastful tongue. Cf. 
Soph. Antig. 127 ; Verg. Aen. 10. 547 ; Swinburne, Erechtheus, 
' Yet happiest was once of the daughters of gods and divine by her 
sire and her lord | Ere her tongue was a shaft for the hearts of her 
sons, for the heart of her husband a sword ' ; Dante (Purg. 12) 
cites Niobe among the examples of punita superbia. This moral 
significance of the myth was first emphasized in a lost play of 
Aeschylus. It was also represented in the reliefs carved on the 
throne of the Olympian Zeus. Horace had seen a Niobe group at 
Rome. Cf. Plin. N. H. 36. 28, Par haesitatio est in templo Apol- 
linis Sosiani Niobae liberos morientes Scopas an Praxiteles fecerit. 
The relation of this group to the one now at Florence is uncertain. 
Cf. Anth. Pal. 16. 129-134. Tityos : cf. on 2. 14. 8; 3. 11. 21; 
3. 4. 77 ; Ody. 11. 576 ; Pind. Pyth. 4. 90. raptor : sc. Latonae. 
Cf. ATJTOI yap T^\Kri<re. 

3. sensit : cf. 4. 4. 25. prope victor: by slaying Hector 
(cf. on 2. 4. 11), who dying prophesies his death by the hand of 
Apollo (II. 22. 359). Cf. Quint. Smyrn. 3. 62. altae : cf. 1. 16. 
18 ; II. 13. 773, "l\tos alireivfi ; Verg. Aen. 1. 7 ; 1. 95 ; 10. 469. 

5. impar : cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 475, impar congressus Achilli. 

6. films : son of Thetis though he (was and) shook. marinae : 
cf. 1. 8. 13 ; Pind. Nein. 3. 35, irovriav Qtriv. 

7. tremenda : see its description, II. 16. 140-144. 

8. pngnax : participial effect of adj. Cf. Livy, 22. 37. 8, pug- 
nacesque alias missili telo gentes ; Simonides, alxwral irpb TT^XTJOJ. 

9. mordaci : cf . Macaulay, Regillus, 8, ' Camerium knows how 
deeply the sword of Aulus bites ' ; Arnold, Strayed Reveller, 
; They feel the biting spears | Qf the grim Lapithae ' ; Shaks. Merry 
Wives, 2. 1, 'I have a sword and it shall bite upon my necessity ' ; 
Aeschyl. Sept. 399 ; Eurip. Cycl. 395, ire\eKftai> yvddois. icta : 
Verg. Aen. 6. 180, icta securibus ilex. 

10-11. Cf. II. 5. 560; 16. 483; Macaulay, Horatius, 46, 'And 
the great Lord of Luna | Fell at that deadly stroke | As falls on 
Mount Alvernus | A thunder-smitten oak ' ; Catull. 64. 105-109. 

10. impulsa : cf. Juv. Sat. 10. 107, et impulsae praeceps im- 
mane ruinae. 

11. late : Homer's jue'-ya* ^ya^oxrrl (Od. 24. 40) ; but the fallen 
tree is still present to the mind. Cf. Verg. Aen. 2. 466, Danaum 



BOOK IV., ODE VI. 419 

super agmina late \ incidit; Macaulay, ut supra, 'Far o'er the 
crashing forest | The giant arms lie spread. 1 

13. ille non: cf. non ille (4. 9. 51). The stratagem of the 
Wooden Horse is familiar from Verg. Aen. 2. Minervae: per- 
haps with both equo and sacra. 

14. mentito : cf. Lex. s.v. II. B ; Verg. Aen. 2. 17, votum 
pro reditu simulant. male : it was a luckless holiday for 
them. Cf. Aen. 2. 248 ; Eurip. Tro. 616 ; Lang, .Helen of Troy, 
6. 8 sqq. 

16. falleret : virtually = the metrically inconvenient fefellisset. 
Cf. on 1.2. 22. 

17. palam : with captis, antithesis to falleret. gravis: /3apvs. 

heu : 1. 15. 9, 19. heu nefas : 3. 24. 30. 

18. nescios fari : infantes; vy-ina. T^KVO. (II. 22. 63). 

19. latentem, etc.: cf. II. 6. 58. 

21. ni: freely used in the Satires and by Vergil (Aen. 1. 58). 
Elsewhere in odes, nisi. 

22. pater: cf. 1. 2. 2 ; 1. 12. 13; Verg. Aen. 1. 254, 10. 2. 
adnuisset : cf. on 3. 1. 8. Horace by this time knew the scene in 
Verg. Aen. 1. 257. 

23. rebus : cf. rerum (2. 17. 4) and Vergil's res Troiae (Aen. 
8. 471). 

23-24. potiore . . . alite : melioribus auspiciis. Cf. on 1. 15. 
5 ; and for thought, C. S. 41-44. 

23. ductos : traced in line rather than built up. Cf . Verg. Aen. 
1. 423, ducere muros, and ducere valhim, etc. 

25. Argivae : some read argutae, \tytias. Cf. on 3. 14. 21. 
The reading Argivae brings out more clearly the antithesis be- 
tween the Greek Thalia and the Italian Camena. Horace is 
Somanae fidicen lyrae (4. 3. 23). 

26. Cf. on 3. 4. 61. The Lycian Xanthus is meant. 

27. Note alliteration. Dauniae: 2. 1. 34. 

28. levis: unshorn. Cf. on 1. 21. 2; Callim. Hymn Apoll. 36. 

Agyieu : guardian of the ways (Aeschyl. Ag. 1081), used more 
for its pretty Greek sound than for the sense. 

29. spiritum : cf. on 2. 16. 38. 

30. poetae : elsewhere in Odes votes, etc. 
32. orti : 4. 5. 1. 



420 NOTES. 

33. tutela : maids are Dianae . . . in fide (Catull. 34. 1). The 
word is passive here as in Ovid, Trist. 1. 10. 1, flavae tutela Min- 
ervae. For active use, cf. 4. 14. 43; Juv. Sat. 14. 112 ; Dekker's 
Lullaby, 'Care is heavy, therefore sleep you, | You are care, and 
care must keep you.' fugaces : 2. 1. 19. 

34. cohibentis : her shafts stay their flight. Diana has "a 
hand | To all things fierce and fleet that roar and range | Mortal, 
with gentler shjafts than snow or sleep " (Swinburne). Cf. Ben 
Jonson, ' Lay thy bow of pearl apart | And thy crystal-shining 
quiver ; | Give unto the flying hart | Space to breathe, how short 
soever' ; Callim. Hymn Dian. 16. 

35. Lesbium : Sapphic. Cf. on 1. 1. 34. 

36. pollicis : marking time or, perhaps, assuming the time de- 
scribed by Lesbium peclem, touching the lyre to guide the melody 
like Greek x<>po5i5o<r/ca\os, to whom, in imagination, Horace likens 
himself. 

37. rite : duly, meetly. It was a solemn function performed ex 
ritu majorum. 

38. crescentem : not of shape. Cf. Milton's ' Astarte, queen 
of heaven with crescent horns.' face: cf. Lex. s.v. I. B, 2 ; 
Orph. Hymn, 9. 3, SoiSoCxe. Noctilucam : wKTi^a^s. The ar- 
chaic word has a hieratic effect. Luna had a temple on the Pala- 
tine under the name. Cf. Varro, L. L. v. 68. 

38. prosperam : transitively. Cf. C. S. 29, fertilis frugum. 
Connected with spes, as spero and old form speres show. Cf. spem 
mentita seges ; Tennyson's ' lead through prosperous floods his holy 
urn ' (In Mem. 9); and the ' prosperous flight ' of Jeremy Taylor's 
lark. pronos : cf. 1. 29. 11 ; Tennyson's 'cherish my prone year' 
and his 'I heard the watchman peal the sliding season.' 

40. volvere : cf. Verg. Aen. 9. 7, volvenda dies; 1. 269, vol- 
vendis mensibus. menses: cf. Shelley, Witch of Atlas, 4, 'the 
mother of the months ' = the moon ; Hymn Orph. 9. 5 (5ia o-e- 
\i\vri) xpdvov fj.ijr'jjp <pepeicc.pirf ; Catull. 34. 17. 

41. nupta : one, as often, represents the chorus, and the old 
teacher naturally addresses the girls of the class. iam : with 
nupta, idiomatically ; presently, i.e. you will soon find yourself 
already married and looking back on your girlhood. Not ' many 
years hence.' Cf. on iam, 4. 4. 14. 



BOOK IV., ODE VII. 421 

42. saeculo : cf . C. S. Introd. referente : cf . 3. 29. 20 ; C. 
S. 22. luces : so 4. 15. 25. 

43. reddidi : cf. reciting what has been learned (4. 11. 35). 
modorum : cf. on 1. 15. 24-25 ; 3. 9. 10. 

44. vatia : cf. on 2. 6. 24. 



ODE VII. 

Spring is here once more. The seasons come and go, and come 
again ; but man goes, and comes again no more. 

For sentiment, cf. 1. 4. 

For Torquatus, cf. Epp. 1. 5. The date is not known. 

There is a translation by Johnson. 

1. diffugere: cf. Verg. Aen. 2. 399 ; and for expansion of meta- 
phor, Wordsworth, ' Like an army defeated | The snow has re- 
treated | And now doth fare ill | On the top of the bare hill.' 
campis : ' whither ' and ' for whom ' dative blended. 

2. comae: cf. on 1. 21. 6; 4. 3. 11. 

3. mutat . . . vices: undergoes her annual changes, 'the 
season's difference.' Mutat may be intransitive. For vices, cf. 
1. 4. 1 ; Epode 13. 8 ; and the imitations of later Latin poets in 
Orelli. Cf. Milton's ' rule the day | in their vicissitude ' and 
Gray's Ode on Vicissitude. Cf. also Rossetti, House of Life, 83, 
'Once more the changed year's turning wheel returns' ; Tenn., 
' Once more the Heavenly Power | Makes all things new.' terra : 
tersa, the dry land. decrescentia : no longer nive turgidi (4. 
12. 4). 

4. praetereunt : not as in 1. 2. 19 or 4. 2. 6. So Jonson, 
Underwoods, ' The rivers in their shores do run, | The clouds 
rack clear before the sun.' 

5-6. The three Graces. Cf. on 3. 19. 16 and 1. 4. 6. Spenser, 
Shepherd's Cal. 6. 25. 

7. immortalia : neuter plural for English abstract. So also in 
Homer. monet : is the warning of; 1. 18. 8. annus : the 
revolving year, irfpnr\6fi.fvos eviavrAs. almum : fostering, kindly, 
cheerful. Cf. C. S. 9 ; Verg. Aen. 5. 64. 

8. hora : cf. on 3. 29. 48. 



422 NOTES. 

9. Zephyris: cf. on 1. 4. 1 ; 4. 12. 2. preterit: cf. 3. 5. 34. 

For metaphorical use here, cf. Romeo and Juliet, 1. 2, 'Such 
comfort as do lusty young men feel | When well-apparelled April 
on the heel | Of limping winter treads ' ; Tenn. Poets and Cities, 
' Year will graze the heel of year ' ; Faber, The Shadow of the 
Rock, Night treads upon the heels of day ' ; Swinburne, ' When 
the hounds of spring are on winter's traces ' ; supra, 2. 18. 15, 
truditur dies die. Others take it of the heat trampling down and 
destroying the vegetation of spring. 

10. interitura : cf. on 2. 3. 4. 

11. pomifer : cf . 3. 23. 8 ; Epode 2. 17. Keats' Autumn con- 
spires with the maturing sun 'To bend with apples the mossed 
cottage trees.' effuderit : suggests the horn of plenty (Epist. 
1. 12. 29, aurea fruges \ Italiae pleno defundit Copia cornu. But 
fundo is regularly used by Lucretius of the production of crops. 
Cf. Verg. Georg. 2. 460. 

9-12. The March of the Seasons is a favorite motif of Poetry. 
Cf. Lucret. 5. 737 ; Ov. Met. 15. 206 ; Claudian, 1. 269 ; Spenser, 
Mutability, 7. 28 ; Shelley, Revolt of Islam, 9. 21 ; Tenn. In Mem. 
85 ; Herrick, 70, ' The Succession of the Foure Sweet Months ' ; 
Burns, Bonnie Bell, ' The flowery spring leads sunny summer, | 
And yellow autumn presses near, | Then in his turn comes gloomy 
winter, | Till smiling spring again appear.' Dobson, A Song of 
the Four Seasons. iners: cf. on 1. 22. 17 ; 2. 9. 5. 

13-16. Cf. Arnold on Translating Homer, p. 207, ' "The losses 
of the heavens," says Horace, "fresh moons speedily repair ; we, 
when we have gone down where the pious Aeneas, where the rich 
Tullus and Ancus are, pulms et umbra swmws." He never 
actually says where we go to ; he only indicates it by saying 
that it is that place where Aeneas, Tullus, and Ancus are. 
But Homer, when he has to speak of going down to the grave, 
says definitely, " The immortals shall send thee to the Elysian 
plain." ' 

13. reparant : cf. Milton, Lycidas, ' So sinks the day-star in 
the ocean bed, | And yet anon repairs his drooping head ' ; P. L., 
' roses which the morn repaired ' ; Ov. Met. 1. 11 ; Lucret. 5. 666, 
solis reparare nitorcm. 

14. decidimus : cf. Epist. 2. 1. 36 ; Ov. Met. 10. 18, where the 



BOOK IV., ODE VII. 423 



word suggests the falling into the pit, abysm, or Sao-irA 
(Simonides), of death. 

15. Aeneas is pater as indiges. Cf. Liv. 1.2; Tib. 2. 544 ; 
Ennius, fr. 33; Verg. Aen. 1. 699. But plus, his usual epithet in 
the recently published Aeneid, is perhaps preferable. All his piety 
could not save him. Tullus dives: for his glory and wealth, cf. 
Livy, 1. 31. Ancus: a consecrated example. Cf. Epp. 1. 6. 27; 
Lucret. 3. 1023 = Ennius, Ann. 151, lumina sis (suis) oculis etiam 
bonus Ancus reliquit. 

16. pulvis : ' Two handfuls of white dust shut in an urn of 
brass ' (Term) ; ' Af5a rav o\iyav ffiroStdv (Erinna) . umbra : in 
lower world, Verg. Aen. 6. 264; Soph. Electra, 1159, aitoUv -re 
KO.\ aKLav a.va><l>\ri ; Auth. Pal. 5. 85, ocrrea Kal cnroSrf). Herond. 
fr. 1. 

17. quis scit : cf. on nescias an 2. 4. 13 ; also 1. 9. 13 ; and 
for thought, Eurip. Alcest. 783 ; Sen. Thyest. 619 ; Herrick 170. 
sum in ae : cf. 1. 4. 15. 

19-20. So in Epist. 1. 5. 15, Horace tells Torquatus that it is 
folly to stint yourself for your heir. Cf. Persius, Sat. 6. 60. sqq. 
For the ' heir ' as a poetical memento mori, cf. on 3. 24. 62 ; 2. 14. 
25. Horace was a bachelor, amico animo (dare) is equivalent 
to indulgere genio, genio bona facere, <pi\y tyvxfi x a P' l ffft)ai i e ^ c - 
Cf. Simon, fr. 85. 11 ; Aeschyl. Pers. 840. Cf. on 3. 17. 14. 

21. semel: cf. on 1. 24. 16. splendida: transferred from 
Minos, whose state is described Odyss. 11. 568, to his august 
decrees. occideris . so Catull. 5. 4, in Jonson's imitation, ' Suns 
that set may rise again | But if once (semel) we lose this light | 
'Tis with us perpetual night.' For sentiment here and supra (10- 
15), cf. also Ronsard, A Sa Maitresse, 'La lune est coustumiere | 
De nestre tous les mois : | Mais quand nostre lumiere | Est esteinte 
une fois, | Sans nos yeux reveiller | Faut long temps sommeiller ' ; 
Herrick, 337. 3, ' We see the seas, | And moons to wain ; | But they 
fill up their ebbs again : | But vanisht. man | Like to a Lilly -lost, 
nere can, | Nere can repullulate, or bring | His dayes to see a 
second spring,' etc.; El. in Maecen. 113, redditur arboribus florens 
revirentibus aetas | et ver non homini quod fuit ante redit; Mos- 
chus, Epitaph. Bion. 109 sqq. ; Herrick 185. 

23-24. Cf. Martial, 7. 96. 5, quid species, quid lingua mihi quid 



424 NOTES. 

profuit aetas; Landor, Rose Aylmer, 'Ah ! what avails the scep- 
tred race, | Ah ! what the form divine ! ' 

23. facundia: the lawyer's eloquence (Epist. 1. 5. 15) avails 
nothing at that bar. pietas : cf. on 2. 14. 2 ; 1. 24. 11. 

25-26. neque . . . liberat: so in the Hippolytus of Euripides. 
In the legend followed by Vergil (Aen. 7. 761 sqq.), Ovid (Met. 
16. 533 sqq.), and Browning (in Artemis Prologuizes), she restores 
him to life, and transfers him, under the name of Virbius, to the 
grove of Diana at Aricia. 

25. pudicum : his death was caused by the fury of a woman 
scorned, his step-mother Phaedra, who, when repulsed, de- 
nounced him to his father Theseus. 

27. valet : cf. on 1. 34. 12 ; 3. 25. 15. 

28. Pirithoo: cf. on 3. 4. 80. Theseus, who shared P.'s pun- 
ishment, was freed by Hercules, but could not free his friend. 
There were other versions of the legend. Cf. Frazer, Paus. 5. 381. 
Cf. Chaucer, Knightes Tale, ' So well they loved as olde bokes 
sain | That when the one was dead, sothely to tell | His felawe 
went and sought him down in hell.' These mythological examples 
merely exemplify the general truth, non te restituet. 

ODE VIII. 

Marbles and bronzes are not mine to give, friend Censorin'us, nor 
do you want them. In song thou delightest, and my present is a 

song. 

' Who will not honor noble numbers when 

Verses out-live the bravest deeds of men ? ' 

Herrick. 

C. Marcius Censorinus, consul B.C. 8, is known only by this poem 
which thus fulfils its boast and by Velleius' mention of him 
(2. 102) as virum demerendis hominilnis genitum. 

Imitations by Jenyns, Johnson's Poets, 17. 608, and by Mason, 
ibid. 18. 418. 

For the theme, cf. on 3. 30 and 4. 9 ; Cowley, Praise of Poetry ; 
Martial, 10. 2: 9-12 ; Eleg. in Maecen. 37. Statius, Silvae, 5. 1. 
1-10, expands the first few lines. Cf. also Propert. 4. 1. 57. 

1. donarem: probably as strenae (e"trennes) on the Saturnalia 
and Kalends of March. Divite me (5) is the protasis. commo- 



BOOK iv., ODE vm. 425 

dus : if the gifts are grata, the giver is complaisant, prevenant. 
Cf. Epp. 2. 1. 227 ; 1. 9. 9, Odes 3. 19. 12. 

2. aera: vasa Corinthia, 'bronzes.' 

3. tripodas: cf. Pind. Isth. 1. 18, 'And at the games they 
entered oftenest for the strife, and with tripods and caldrons and 
cnps of gold they made fair their houses' (Myers); Hesiod, Works, 
656 ; Homer, Odyss. 13. 13. 

5. ferres : i.e. auferres. artium : so Tf^vri frequently in Pausa- 
nias, for work of art. 

6. Parrhasius : the great painter of the close of the fifth cen- 
tury B.C. In an epigram in Athenaeus (12. 543. C) he boasts that 
he had attained the limits of art. Scopas : the great sculptor of 
the first half of the fourth century ; author of a Niobe group, per- 
haps the prototype of that now in Florence. protulit : created, 
invented. Cf. Tibull. 1. 10. 1, quis fuit horrendos primus qui pro- 
tulit enses ? 

7. liquidis : suggests as complement the hard stone. Cf. 3. 13. 
0. n. 

8. ponere : technical. Cf . Lex. 

9. vis: i.e. I have not the power (to give them). Hederae vis 
(4. 11. 4), a quantity of, is not parallel. 

10. egens: with res, he is rich and could buy them; with ani- 
mus, his desires are not set on such ' curios.' 

12. pretium dicere : tell the worth ; a slight variation on pre- 
tium ponere or statuere, set a price, Sat 2. 3. 23. 

13-20. Not inscribed marbles, nor all the deeds of Scipio, confer 
so sure an immortality of fame as the Calabrian muse (of Ennius). 
The general proposition is stated with reference to the special case 
of Scipio the Elder. But incendia Karthaginis impiae was the deed 
of the younger Scipio (B.C. 146). We may, then, either reject the 
line (which lacks the caesura), or assume that Horace mingled the 
glories of the two Scipios and meant the phrase, eius qui domita 
nomen ab Africa, etc., to apply to both, as it conceivably may, 
regardless of the fact that Ennius did not live to sing the younger. 
If we omit also line 33, we get 32 = 8 x 4 lines, which is an object 
with some critics. 

13. ' The marbles cut by the letters ' is more plastic than the 
' letters cut in or into the marbles ' would be. There is a possible 



426 NOTES. 

allusion to Augustus' design of setting up, in the portico of his 
Forum, statues of the great Roman generals, with inscriptions re- 
counting their deeds. Cf. Suet. Octav. 31 ; Cell. N. A. 9. 11. 

14. spiritus et vita: cf. Verg. Aen. 6. 847, imitated in Macau- 
lay's ' The stone that breathes and struggles, | The brass that seems 
to speak' (Proph. of Capys, 28). 

15. celeres fugae : the abandonment of Italy or the flight from 
the field of Zama, or both. Editors query the force of the plural. 
The nom. sing, would not give the rhythm. Cf. celerem fugam 
(2. 13. 17 ; 2. 7. 9). 

16. minae : cf . 4. 3. 8. The threats of ' Hannibal at the gates ' 
of Rome were hurled back at Carthage by Scipio after Zama. 

17. impiae : cf. 4. 4. 46. 

18. Cf. Sat. 2. 1. 66, qui duxit ab oppressa meritum Karthagine 
nomen ; Milton, P. R., 'How he surnamed of Africa dismissed | 
In his prime youth the fair Iberian maid.' eius : cf. on 3. 11. 18. 

19. lucratus : a purposely low word. In Val. Max. 3. 8. 1, 
Scipio boasts that he has gained nothing from the subjugation of 
all Africa but a cognomen. 

20. Calabrae Pierides: is a contradiction, if we consider Pie- 
rides too curiously. Ennius was a native of Rudiae in Calabria. 
Nos sumus Romani qui fuvimus ante Rudini, he boasts. He had 
celebrated Scipio, both in his Annals and in a special poem. 

21. chartae: so 4. 9. 31. sileant: transitive, cf. 3. 19. 8. n. 

22. Iliae: cf. on 1.2. 17. 

23-24. puer: cf. 4. 6. 37. invida: cf. on 4. 9. 33 ; 4. 5. 9. 

25. Aeacum : cf. on 2. 13. 22. 

26. virtus: his virtue. Cf. 3. 2. 21, and Find. Isth. 8. 24. 
favor: may be 'popular acclaim,' or it may, like lingua, go with 
vatum. potentium: the power of which Corneille boasts when 
he cries to a young beauty, ' Vous ne passerez pour belle | Qu'autant 
que je 1'aurai dit.' Cf. Shaks. Sonnet 55, 'Not marble, not the 
gilded monuments, | Of princes shall outlive this powerful rhyme.' 

27. divitibus = beatis. Cf. 1. 4. 14. insulis: loc. abl. For 
Islands of Blessed, cf. on Epode 16. 42. 

28-30. Cf. Sellar, p. 181. Horace is not careful to distinguish 
the immortality of mythical or imperial apotheosis, that of the 
' choir invisible,' and that conferred by poetry. Cf. on 3. 3. 9-12. 



BOOK IV., ODE IX. 427 

28-29. Cf. Bacchyl. 3. 92. sic: i.e. by the power of song. 
Cf. hac arte, resuming what precedes 3. 3. 9. 

30. optatis : it was the goal of his striving. Cf. Epp. 2. 3. 412. 
So Hercules frequently points the moral in Pindar. 

31. Cf. 1. 3. 2; 1. 12. 27. 

32-33. quassas: cf. 1. 1. 18. 33. Cf. 3. 25. 20. 

34. vota . . . ducit : like interest and eripiunt is a concrete 
expression of the general idea of deification. Cf. Verg. Eclog. 
5. 79. 

ODE IX. 

Scorn not the lyre ! The Greek lyrists have their place after 
Homer. The heroes of Troy were not the first who loved and 
fought. Brave men were living before Agamemnon, but their 
fame is lost in the dark backward and abysm of time because 
they lacked the sacred bard. But my song shall guard thee, 
friend Lollius, from the iniquity of oblivion. Thine is a states- 
man's soul, sagacious, steadfast, upright. Thou art the Stoic 
sage, consul not for one year only, but whenever the right pre- 
vails. Happy he who uses wisely the gifts of heaven, and fears 
not poverty, or death for friends and fatherland. 

M. Lollius, a trusted minister-of Augustus, was consul in B.C. 21, 
and governor of Gaul, where he was defeated by the Sygambri, 
B.C. 16. He died in the East, B.C. 1, while acting as tutor and 
adviser of the Emperor's grandson, Gaius Caesar. Velleius (2. 97 ; 
2. 102) accuses him of cupidity and hypocrisy. There seems a note 
of loyal defiance in Horace's defense of his friend. But a man is 
not on oath in an ode any more than, according to Dr. Johnson, in 
a lapidary inscription. Velleius was possibly prejudiced by the 
dislike of his patron Tiberius for Lollius (Tac. Ann. 3. 48 ; Sueton. 
Tib. 12. 13). 

The ode is partly translated by Pope. There is a deliciously 
na'ive imitation by Ronsard. Lines 35 to end are freely rendered 
by Swift, 'To Archbishop King.' 

Cf. also Stepney, Johnson's Poets, 8. 361 ; Somerville, ibid. 11. 192. 

1. ne . . . credas : the purpose of the statements, non . . . latent, 
etc. Cf. on 1. 33. 1 ; 2. 4. 1. 

2. longe sonantem : cf. 3. 30. 10 ; 4. 14. 25 ; Catull. 34. 12, 



428 NOTES. 

amniumque sonantum ; Hes. Theog. 367 ; Aristoph. Clouds, 283 ; 
Lucret. 5. 940; 11. 18. 576. 

3. Cf. on 3. 30. 13. There is a suggestion also of 3. 1. 1-4. 

4. socianda chordis: lyric, as distinguished from the i|/i\a of 
epic poetry. Cf. Ronsard, A Sa Lyre, ' de marier aux cordes les 
victoires' ; Epp. 2. 2. 86, verba lyrae motura sonum; ibid. 143, 
verba sequi fidibus modulanda Latinis. 

5. non, ai: cf. 3. 15. 7; 2. 10. 17. Maeonius : 1. 6. 2. 

7. Ceae: 2. 1. 38. Alcaei: cf. on 1. 32. 5; 2. 13. 30. 
minaces: 'what new Alcaeus fancy-blest | Shall sing the sword in 
myrtles drest?' (Collins, Ode to Liberty) ; 'Nor such the spirit- 
stirring note | When the live chords Alcaeus smote, | Inflamed by 
sense of wrong ' (Wordsworth) ; ' L'audacieuse encre d'Alce"e ' 
(Ronsard). 

8. Stesichori : cf. on 1. 16. graves: epici carminis onera 
lyra sustinentem (Quintil. 10. 1. 62). He treated long myths in 
lyric form, and is an important link, in the development of Greek 
legends, between Homer and Pindar. 

9. lusit: cf. on 1. 32. 2. Anacreon: cf. 1. 17. 18; Epode 14. 
10. Horace is probably thinking of the Anacreontea, pretty 
Alexandrian trifles known to English readers in Moore's version. 

10. spirat adhuc amor: cf. her words in Swinburne's Anac- 
toria, ' I, Sappho, shall be one with all these things, | With all 
high things forever . . . and . . . my songs once heard . . . cleave to 
men's lives.' 

11. vivunt : cf. spiritus et vita (4. 8. 14). commissi : i.e. 
' with this key' Sappho unlocked her heart. Cf. Sat. 2. 1. 31, cre- 
debat libris. 

12. puellae : Sappho. Construe with fidibus. 
13-16. Cf. on 3. 3. 25 and 1. 15. 20. 

13. arait probably governs crines directly ; but we forget this 
flash of passion in the long admiring gaze that follows, and feel 
mirata with all four accusatives. 

14. crines: cf. 1. 15. 20. illitum : cf. oblitus (Epp. 2. 1. 204); 
Verg. Aen. 3. 483, picturatos auri subtemine vestis ; Milton, 
4 grooms besmear'd with gold.' 

15. cultus: 1. 8. 16. 

16. Helene Lacaena: i.e. the ' Heavenborn Helen, Sparta's 



BOOK IV., ODE IX. 429 

Queen,' of song and story. Cf. Vcrg. Aen. 2. 601 ; Ronsard, Au 
Sieur Bertrand, ' Hele"ne Grecque estant gaigne"e | D'une perruque 
bien peigne"e ' ; and, for the sentiment, Landor, ' Past ruined Ilion 
Helen lives, | Alcestis rises from the shades : | Verse calls them 
forth; 'tis verse that gives | Immortal youth to mortal maids.' 

17. Teucer : cf. 1. 7. 21. The best archer of the Achaeans (H. 
13. 313). Cydonio : cf. 1. 15. 17 and Lexicon. 

18. non semel Ilios does not refer to the various legendary 
sieges of Troy, but to the infinite possibilities of the unknown 
past. Cf. Plato, Laws, 676 B, 'and have not thousands upon 
thousands of cities come into being in this (boundless) time, and 
as many been destroyed ? ' Shelley, Queen Mab, II. ; the final 
Chorus in Hellas ; and Verg. Eel. 4. 36. 

19. ingens : 1. 7. 32. n. 

19-21. pugnavit . . . proelia: cf, pugnata bella (3. 19. 4). 

20. Idomeneus : leader of the Cretans in Homer. Sthenelus : 
1. 15. 24. 

22. vel: ve. Mainly metri gratia. 

22-23. Cf. Andromache's lament for Hector (II. 24. 729). De- 
iphobus was brother of Hector. Cf. Verg. Aen. 6. 494 ; Ronsard, 
naively, ' Hector le premier des gendarmes. ' 

23. excepit : cf. Lex. and 2. 15. 16. pudicis: 3. 5. 41 ; alSol-ps 
(H. 6. 250). 

25. A familiar quotation. Cf. Byron, Don Juan, 1. 5, 'Brave 
men were living before Agamemnon | And since exceeding valor- 
ous and sage, | A good deal like him too, though quite the same 
none ; | But then they shone not on the poets' page. Cf. also, 
Ben Jonson's elaborate imitation, The Forest, 12 ; Boileau, Epitre, 
1 ; and, for the general idea, Sat. 1. 3. 107 ; Find. Nem. 7. 12. 
For immortality of poetry, cf. further on 3. 30 ; 4. 8 ; Theognis, 
237 ; Tibull. 1. 4. 65 ; Propert. 4. 1 . 23 ; Theocr. 16. 48 ; Sappho, 
fr. 68, 'Thou shalt die and be laid low in the grave, hidden from 
mortal ken | Unremembered, and no song of the muse wakens thy 
name again ; | No Pierian rose brightens thy brow, lost in the 
nameless throng, | Thy dark spirit shall flit forth like a dream, 
bodiless ghosts among.' 

26. inlacrimabiles : virtually passive here ; active, 2. 14. 6. Cf. 
Wordsworth's ' incommunicable sleep.' 



430 NOTES. 

27. urgentur: cf. on 1. 24. 6 ; 1. 4. 16. longa: cf. 3. 11. 38; 
Propert. 3. 7. 24, nox tibi longa venit nee reditura dies. 

28. sacro : cf. on 3. 1. 3 ; Lucan, 9, 980, sacer et magnus 
vatum labor, omnia fato \ Eripis, et populis donas mortalibus 
aevum. 

29. Cf. Herrick, 460, ' Vertue couceal'd (with Horace you'l 
confesse,) Differs not much from drowzie slothf uhiesse.' Cf. also, 
iners (3. 5. 36). Sepultae and celata are felt with both nouns. 

30. non ego te : cf. on 1. 18. 11. 

31. chartis: 4. 8. 21; Sat. 1. 4. 36; 1. 4. 139. inornatum : 
proleptic. 

32. labores is taken by some editors as a hint that his efforts 
were not achievements. 

33. carpere suggests tooth of envy. Cf. 4. 3. 16. lividas : 
cf . 4. 8. 24 ; Shaks. ' envious and calumniating time ' ; Temporum 
iniuria ; ' Soon | Oblivion will steal silently the remnant of its 
fame,' Shelley, Queen Mab ; 'The iniquity of oblivion blindly scat- 
tereth her poppy,' Sir Thomas Browne, Urn Burial. 

34. est animus : for the turn of phrase, cf . Verg. Aen. 9. 205, 
est hie, est animus lucis contemptor, etc. 

35. rerum prudens: cf. rerum inscitia (Epp. 1. 3. 33) ; rerum 
. . . prudentia (Verg. G. 1.416). 

36. dubiis : virtually = adversis. rectus connotes both firm 
and upright. Cf. mentes rectae quae stare solebant (Ennius, Ann. 
208). 

37-38. He punishes cupidity in others and is abstinent himself. 
abstinens . . . pecuniae : cf . on 3. 27. 69 n. 

38. Cf. on 3. 16. 9;"Epist. 1. 1. 52; and Vergil's auri sacra 
fames. cuncta: 2. 1. 23; 3. 1. 8. 

39. The Stoic sage was pedantically affirmed to be the only true 
consul or king. Cf. on 2. 2. 21 ; 3. 2. 17. Popular etymology may 
help here, qui recte consulat, consul cluat. See Lex. Cf. Martial, 
4. 40. 4, pauper eras et eques sed mihi consul eras. ' John Brad- 
shaw, ' says Milton, ' appears like a consul from whom the fasces 
are not to depart with the year ; so that not on the tribunal only, 
but throughout his life, you would regard him as sitting in judg- 
ment upon kings.' 

40-44. Confused lines, variously interpreted. Horace is shifting 



BOOK IV., ODE X. 431 

from animus to Lollius and from Lollius to the ideal sage, whose 
authority is displayed whenever he prefers the right and triumphs 
over wrong. Rendering index as a judge, we refer it explicitly to 
Lollius, who may have been a index selectus or may have exercised 
judicial functions in the senate. We may take quotiens with all 
these clauses and understand explicuit . . . victor literally ; or we 
may conceivably take explicuit . . . victor metaphorically and make 
it the apodosis of quotiens praetnlit (et) reiecit, in which case a 
colon is required after anni. 

41-42. honestum . . . utili: the Ka\bv and ffv^epov of Greek 
ethics. dona nocentium : i.e. bribes of the guilty. 

43-44. Cf. 3. 5. 51. explicuit: cf. expediunt (4. 4. 76). 

45. non ... vocaveris : ' Ton would not rightly call blessed. 1 
The thought of 2. 2. 17-20. Cf. Sellar, p. 167 ; Epist. 1. 16. 20. 

46. occupat: cf. on 1. 14. 2 ; 4. 11. 21. 

49. callet: cf. on 1. 10. 7. pauperiem pati : 1. 1. 18. 

50. peiusque leto: cf. on 1. 8. 9; Epp. 1. 17. 30, cane peius et 
anyui. 

51. non ille: cf. 3. 21. 9 ; Verg. Aen. 5. 334, 6. 593 ; ille non 
(4. 6. 13). 

52. Cf. 3. 19. 2 ; 3. 2. 13. 

ODE X. 

To the beautiful boy Ligurinus (cf. 4. 1. 33). Youth's a stuff 
will not endure. 

For the vein of .sentiment, cf. Anth. Pal. 12. 186, 12. 35, and 
Shakspere's Sonnet," ' When forty winters shall besiege thy brow,' 
and his 'Look in thy glass and tell that face thou vie west.' Old 
translation in Musarum Deliciae, Vol. I. p. 181. 

1. muneribus : Homer's gifts of Aphrodite (II. 3. 54). 

2. insperata : perhaps more than unexpected, dreaded. 
plurna : apparently down. Bentley's bruma would be prettily 
illustrated by Heine's ' Es liegt der heisse Sommer Auf deinen 
Wangelein; Es liegt der Winter, der kalte, In deineni Herzchen 
Klein. Das wird sich bei dir andern, Du Vielgeliebte mein ! 
Der Winter wird auf den Wangen, Der Sommer in Herzen sein ' 
(Xauck). 



432 NOTES. 

3. humeris involitant: the long hair usually shorn on the 
assumption of the toga virilis (cf. Juv. 3. 186). Cf. 3. 20. 14 ; 
2. 5. 23 ; Epode 11. 28 ; and Pindar's Jason, Pyth. 4. 82, ' nor were 
the bright locks of his hair shorn from him, but over all his back 
ran rippling down.' deciderint: i.e. tonsae, under the scissors. 

4. flore . . . rosae : cf. on 3. 29. 3. est . . . prior : outvies. 

5. Some editors read Ligurine, taking verterit as intransitive. 
hispidam : cf. on 2. 9. 1 ; the opposite of levis, 4. 6. 28. 

6. speculo : by means of = in. Cf. Lais'" ' dedication of her 
mirror,' Anth. Pal. 6. 1. alterum: cf. Ronsard, 'Jeune beaute, 
inais trop outrecuid^e | T)es presens de Venus, | Quand tu voirras 
ta peau toute rid^e | Et tes cheveaux chenus, | Centre le temps et 
contre toy rebelle, | Diras en te tan9ant : | Que ne pensois-je alors 
que j'estois belle | Ce que je vay pensant?' Cf. also Auson. Ep. 
13. 5 ; Herrick, 62, 164. 

8. incolumes : fresh, unwrinkled. Cf. Shaks. Son. 68, ' Thus 
is his cheek the map of days outworn.' 



ODE XI. 

Come, Phyllis, and help me keep Maecenas' birthday, dearer than 
my own. Telephus is a youth out of thy star. Fling away ambi- 
tion ; by that sin fell Phaethon and Bellerophon. Come, last of 
my loves, and learn a song to drive dull care away. 

Cf . the motif of 3. 28. 

Maecenas was out of favor at court, during the last years of his 
life, and is not elsewhere mentioned in this book devoted especially 
to Augustus. 

2. Albani : in Sat. 2. 8. 16, Maecenas is given his choice of Alba- 
nian or Falernian. Cf. Juv. 13. 214, Albani veteris pretiosa senectus. 

3. nectendis : dat. of purpose. Cf. gerundive in legal expres- 
sions (A. G. 299. b ; G. L. 429; H. 544. 2. n. 3). apium: cf. 1. 
36. 16 ; 2. 7. 24. 

4. vis = copia is Ciceronian. Nauck doubts multa vis, and con- 
strues multa with fulges. 

5. qua: with fulges only. religata : cf. 2. 11. 24. fulges: 
may be present of fulgeo, or future of fulgo. 



BOOK IV., ODE XI. 433 

6. ridet : cf . II. 19. 362 ; Hes. Theog. 40 ; Lucret. 2. 326, acre 
renidescit tellus ; Catull. 64. 284 ; Milton's ' pleased with the grate- 
ful smell, old ocean smiles'; splendet (Epist. 1. 5. 7). ara : of 
turf, caespite vivo. 

7. verbenis : cf. on 1. 19. 14. avet: faint personification. 

8. spargier : archaic inf. pass, only here in odes. In Sat. 1. 
2. 35. 78 ; 2. 8. 67 ; Epist. 2. 1. 94 ; 2. 2. 148. 

9. manus : not hand, but band ; as Verg. Aen. 6. 660. Cf. 3. 
6. 9. Cf. the bustle of preparation for the guest in Juv. 14. 59. 

10. cursitant : developing festinat. pueris : dat. 

11. sordidum: sooty, alBa\6fvra. trepidant: bicker, quiver 
with eagerness ; personifying, as avet. 

11-12. rotantes vertice : whirling in eddies. Cf. Homer's 
f\tff<To/j.evn irtp\ Ka.itv<f (II. 1. 317); Apoll. Rhod. 1. 438, \ryvi>v \ 
TtopQvpfais k\'iKeaaiv (vaiffifjLov otitraovffav ; Lucret. 6. 202 ; Milt. P. L. 
6, ' smoke to roll | In dusky wreaths reluctant flames ; ' Herrick, 
871. 18, 'And (while we the gods invQke), | Reade acceptance by 
the smoake.' 

13. ut tamen noris : cf. Epp. 1. 12. 25, ne tamen ignores. 

14. Idus : thought to be derived from iduare, to divide ; V findit. 

15. Veneris marinae : cf. 1. 4. 5 ; 3. 26. 5. 

16. Aprilem : perhaps, because of false etymology, a<j>p6s, 'A<f>po- 

S'lTfl. 

17. sollemnis = anno redeunte festus (3. 8. 9).. mihi : more 
closely with sanctior. Cf. Tibull. 4. 5. 1, qui mihi te, Cerinthe, 
dies dedit hie mihi sanctus \ atque inter festos semper habendus erit. 

19-20. '"This is the birthday of Maecenas" is expressed by 
words which should mean from this day forth Maecenas revises 
the calendar,' says Tyrrell captiously (Latin Poetry, p. 197). 

19. adfluentes : the years that flow to us on the stream of time ; 
not quite the venientes anni of A. P. 175. Cf . Tennyson's ' There's 
somewhat flows to us in life ' ; Persius, Sat. 2. 1-2, Hunc, Macrine, 
diem numera meliore lapillo \ qui tibi labentes apponit candidus 
annos. Or it may be the rich or bounteous years. 

21. Telephum: cf. 1. 13. 1; 3. 19. 26. occupavit : cf. on 
1. 14. 2. 

23-24. grata compede: cf. 1. 33. 14. 

25-29. The tone is mock heroic. 

2F 



434 NOTES. 

25. ambustus Phaethon : cf. ^uiSaijs *ae0a/ (Apoll. Rhod. 4. 
598); Catull. 64. 291, flammati Phaethontis. Shakspere also uses 
the myth to symbolize a too-ambitious love : ' Why, Phaeton (for 
thou art Merop's son), Wilt thou aspire to guide the heavenly car, 
And with thy daring folly burn the world ? Wilt thou reach stars 
because they shine on thee' (Two Gent. 3. 1). Cf. Rich. II. 3. 3, 
' Down ? Down I come ; like glistering Phaeton Wanting the man- 
age of unruly jades ' ; Marlowe, ' Clymene's brain-sick son | That 
almost brent the axle-tree of heaven ' ; Ov. Met. 2. 1-328. 

28. Bellerophonten : cf. on 3. 12. 8 ; 3. 7. 15. Pindar first 
made the myth a symbol of vaulting ambition (Isth. 6. 44): 'Thus 
did winged Pegasus throw his lord Bellerophon, when he would' 
fain enter into the heavenly habitations and mix among the com- 
pany of Zeus. Unrighteous joyance a bitter end awaiteth.' Pega- 
sus opened the fountain Hippocrene with his hoof, and is called 
Utip-nvaioi u(a\os by Eurip. (El. 475). This and Persius' Prologue 
would readily suggest the conception of him as the poet's steed. 
It has not been traced back of the Italian poet Boiardo. Spenser 
already has it (Ruins of Time): 'Then who so will with virtuous 
deeds assay | To mount to heaven on Pegasus must ride, | And 
with sweet poets' verse be glorified.' 

29-31. semper ut . . . vites: this is pure prose, with all the 
logical links exposed. Exemplum praebet = monet . . . ut sequare 
. . . et putando = putans . . . (ut~) vites. For the form, cf . Pindar, 
Pyth. 4. 90, 'Yea, and the swift shaft of Artemis made Tityos its 
prey in order that men may set their desires on permitted loves.' 
For the general sentiment disparem vites, cf. the proverbial /ojSeCffat 
Kad' taurbv of the Greek (Aeschyl. Prom. 890). 

30. putando : for this use of the abl. of gerund, cf. A. G. 301 ; 
G. L. 431. n. 3 ; H. 542. IV. Cf. also Propert. 1.1.9; 1. 4. 1. 
It sometimes has virtually passive force, as uritque videndo (Verg. 
Georg. 3. 215); sometimes active, as tuendo (Aen. 1. 713). 

32. finis : cf. Propert. 1. 12. 20, Cynthia prima fuit, Cynthia 
finis erit. 

33. calebo : cf. 3. 9. 6 ; 1. 4. 19. 

34. condisce : cf. on 3. 2. 3. inodos : this ode, or any other 
song. 

35. reddas: cf. 4. 6. 43. atrae: cf. 3. 1. 40; 3. 14. 13. 



BOOK IV., ODE XII. 435 



ODE XII. 

The swallow and the spring zephyrs are here again. 'Tis a 
thirsty season. Couie, Vergilius, and quaff a cup with me. But 
you must pay for your wine. An alabaster box of your precious 
nard will lure forth a cask from the Sulpician cellars. Come, let 
be the pursuit of gain, forget the funeral pyre. 'Tis sweet to relax 
in season. 

The phrases iuvenum nobilium cliens and studium lucri hardly 
fit Vergil the poet, who, for the rest, had been dead six years when 
this book was published. The scholiasts sagely conjecture that an 
unguentarius, a mercator, or medicus is meant. A physician dis- 
pensed his own drugs and would charge well for the precious 
nard. 

There is a translation by Lord Thurlow. For the spring motif, 
cf. 1. 4 and 4. 7. For the jocose invitation, cf. Catull. 13. Cf. 
also, Herrick, Hesperides, 643, ' Fled are the frosts and now the 
fields appear | Reclothed in fresh and verdant Diaper. | Thaw'd 
are the snowes and now the lusty spring | Gives to each Mead a 
neat enameling. | The palms put forth their Gemmes, and every 
Tree | Now swaggers in her Leavy gallantry. | The while the Dau- 
lian Minstrell sweetly sings | With warbling notes, her Tyrrean 
(qy. Terean ?) sufferings ' ; Anth. Pal. 9. 363, 10. 5, 10. 14, and 
passim ; Sellar, p. 197. 

1. lam: cf. Catull. 46. 1, lam ver egelidos refert tepores; Anth. 

Pal. 9. 363. 9, fjSt) 5e irXuovaiv ^JT' tvpea Kvfj.a.Ta. vavrat \ trvoiri ainij- 

tj.d.vT<f Ze<f>vpov \lva. KoKirdxjainos. temperant : soothe, calm. Cf. 
on 1. 12. 16 ; 2. 16. 27 ; 3. 4. 45. 

2. impellunt : cf. Tenn. Maud, ' when the far-off sail is blown 
by the breeze of a softer clime' ; Seneca, Thyest. 126, nives . . . 
aestas veliferis soluit etesiis. Thraciae : cf. 1. 25. 11 ; Epode 
13. 3. Editors differ as to whether north winds blowing at the end 
of winter, or the zephyrs are meant. Homer (II. 9. 5) makes both 
Zephyr and Boreas blow from Thrace, and Zephyrus, as the paral- 
lel passages show, is the conventional spring wind. Cf. Lucret. 
1. 11; 5. 737-738; Chaucer, Prologue, 5. 

3. prata: cf. 1. 4. 4. rigent: rigidum Niphaten, 2. 9. 20. 
fluvii: 4. 7. 3-4. strepunt: cf. on 3. 30. 10. 



436 NOTES. 

4. Cf. on 4. 7. 3-4. 

5-8. For the story of Itys, Procne, and Philomela, cf. Class. 
Diet. s.v. Tereus ; Ovid, Met. 6. 424 sqq. ; Matthew Arnold's Phil- 
omela ; Swinburne's Itylus ; and the allusive summary of the tale 
in the spring chorus in ' Atalanta,' ' And the brown bright nightin- 
gale amorous | Is half assuaged for Itylus, | For the Thracian 
ships and the foreign faces, | The tongueless vigil and all the 
pain.' 

There is some question whether the bird that moans for Itys is 
the swallow or, according to the other version of the legend, the 
nightingale. But though Sappho calls the nightingale, in Ben 
Jonson's paraphrase, ' the dear glad angel of the spring ' (%pos 
&yyf\os l/n.ep6(ptavos a^tav\ the swallow is the regular poetical har- 
binger of spring. Cf. PIomeric(?) Elpeauevn, 11; Hes. Works, 564 ; 
Simon, fr. 74; Aristoph. Eq. 419; the popular song, $\6', 3\0e 
XeAiSwj' ; Hor. Epist. 1. 7. 13, cum zephyris . . . et hirundine 
prima; the proverb, 'one swallow does not make a spring,' Aris- 
totle, Eth. 1. 7. 15; Ovid, Fasti, 2. 853, veris praenuntia; Anth. 
Pal. 10. 14. 5, ot e<f>vpoi trvfiouffi tirirpv^et 8f x f A.iSaii' | Kap(pfin KO\\riTbv 

irri^/j.fvn Bd\a/j.ov ; Verg. Georg. 4. 306 ; in Gray's Ode to Spring, 
' The Attic warbler pours her throat ' ; Cicero's \a\aytvffav, ad 
Att. 9. 18. 

6. et connects infelix and opprobrium. Cecropiae: cf. on 2. 
1. 12. Pandion, the third mythical king of Athens, was the father 
of Philomela and Procne, who served up her own son Itys at the 
table of King Tereus, her husband, to avenge his maltreatment of 
herself and violation of her sister. 

7. male : i.e. with excessive cruelty. 

8. regum : the plural generalizes. Cf . on 3. 27. 38. 

9. dicunt: sing. .Cf. on 1. 6. 5. tenero : it is early spring 
' when all the wood stands in a mist of green | And nothing perfect ' 
(Tenn.). Later it would be in tenaci gramine (Epode 2, 24). 

10. fistula: cf. on 1. 17. 10; abl. instr. 

11. deum: Pan deus Arcadiae (Verg. Eel. 10. 26) ; Pan curat 
ovcs oviumque magistros (Ibid. 2. 33). nigri: cf. on 1. 21. 7. 

12. placent : cf. C. S. 7. 

14. pressum Calibus: cf. on 1. 20. 9 ; 1. 31. 9. ducere : cf. 
1. 17. 22. 



BOOK IV., ODE XII. 437 

16. merebere : fut. = colloquial imperative. nardo : cf . on 
2. 11. 10. vina: cf. on 1. 18. 5. 

17. eliciet suggests personification. Cf. 2. 11. 21 and descends 
(3. 21. 7.) 

18. We can only guess whether Horace bought or stored his 
wine at the Sulpician vaults or storehouses, which later scholiasts 
and inscriptions place at foot of the Aventine. 

19. donare . . . largus: cf. Intr. , notes on syntax. 

19-20. amara . . . curarum : cf. on 4. 4. 76. For thought, 
cf. 3. 21. 17. 

21. gaudia: cf. 4. 11. 14. properas : not physical hurry. Cf. 
Sat. 1. 9. 40 ; Epp. 1. 3. 28. 

2:2. merce continues the jest of merebere, if it is a jest. non 
ego te : cf. 1. 18. 11 ; 4. 9. 30; 1. 23. 9. 

23. immnnem : acrvn&o\ov, 'without paying your scot.' Cf. 
Ter. Phorm. 339 ; Epist. 1. 14. 33, immunem Cinarae placutsse 
rapaci. 

24. tinguere : cf. Alcaeus' reyye irvfiiuovas olvtf, jSpe'xf"', madidus, 
irriguus mero, 'a wet night,' and similar phrases. 

24. plena : cf. 2. 12. 24. 

25. verum : only here in odes. pone moras : cf . 3. 29. 5, 
eripe te morae. 

26. Cf. Lucretius, 3. 913-915 ; and Tennyson, Maud, ' O, why 
should Love, like men in drinking songs, | Spice his fair banquet 
with the dust of death?' nigrorum . . . ignium: the fires of 
the funeral pyre are conventionally 'dark.' Cf. Verg. Aen. 11. 
186 ; 2. 3. 16, fila atra; Lucretius, 2. 580, funeris atri. memor: 
cf . Sat. 2. 6. 97 ; Martial, 2. 59. 4. dum licet : cf . Sat. 2. 6. 96 ; 
Epist. 1. 11. 20; also, odes 2. 3. 15-16; 2. 11. 16. 

27. consiliis : dat. For thought, cf. 3. 28. 4. 

28. A familiar quotation, ' A little nonsense now and then | Is 
relished by the wisest men.' in loco : kv xaip-f. Cf. Ter. Adelph. 
216, pecuniam in loco neglegere. 



438 NOTES. 



ODE XIII. 

The old age of the wanton. The unpleasant theme of 1. 25 and 
3. 15. For the motif, cf. Anth. Pal. 5. 21, 5. 27, 5. 271, 5. 273 ; 
and Swinburne, ' The Complaint of the Fair Armouress,' after 
Villon. 

There is an imitation by Gilbert West in Dodsley's Poems, 2, 
p. 318. 

1-2. Lyce : perhaps meant for the Lyce of 3. 10, though line 21 
is against it. For anaphora, cf. 3. 5. 18 ; 3. 11. 30 ; 4. 6. 37. 

I. vota : sc. devotiones as 2. 8. 6. 
4. ludis : cf. on 2. 12. 19 ; 3. 15. 5. 

* 5. pota : cf. 3. 15. 16 n. 

6. virentis: cf. 1. 9. 17 ; and, for contrast with aridas (9), cf. 
on'l. 25. 17-19. et: Cf. 3. 11. 15. 

7. doctae : cf . 3. 9. 10. Cliiae : cf . Delia and Lesbia, like- 
wise named from places. 

8. excubat : cf. on 3. 16. 3. in genis : cf. Jebb on Soph. 
Antig. 783 ; Rom. and Jul. 5. 3, ' beauty's ensign yet | Is crimson 
in thy lips and in thy cheeks. ' 

9. importunus : a vague word ; not conducive, distressful, 
ruthless. Cf. 3. 16. 37, and F. Q. 2. 6. 29, ' And with importune 
outrage him assailed.' aridas: cf. on 2. 11. 6. transvolet: 
"Epus . . . wa.pne-ra.rai (Callim. Ep. 32). 

10. luridi: cf. livido dente (Epode 5. 47). 

II. te : with both fugit and turpant. 

12. capitis nives : Quintil. 8. 6. 17, censures the image as 
far-fetched, sunt et durae, id est a longinqua similitudine ductae 
translationes nt capitis nives. Cf. Anth. Pal. 6. 198, iro\icp yi.pai 
vi<p6iJLtvov ; Catull. 64. 309, niveo . . . vertice; Ronsard, 'Ja cin- 
quante et six ans ont neige" sur ma teste ' ; Carew, ' or if that 
golden fleece must grow | Forever free from aged snow ' ; Donne, 
' Ride ten thousand days and nights | Till age snow white hairs on 
thee ' ; Tenn. Pal. of Art., ' A hundred winters snowed upon his 
breast | From cheek and throat and chin ' ; Herrick, 164, ' And 
time will come when you shall weare | Such frost and snow upon 
your haire. ' 



BOOK IV., ODE XIV. 439 

13. Coae : a costly gauzy silk affected by the demi-monde and 
often alluded to by Roman poets. Cf. Sat. 1. 2. 101 ; Tibull. 2. 3. 56. 

14. cari lapides : sc. gems. Cf. Ovid, A. A. 3. 129, can's aures 
onerata lapillis. Others read clari. semel : cf. on 1. 24. 16. 

14. notis condita : her years are known and irrecoverable. 

16. volucris dies : cf. 3. 28. 6 ; and Eurip. Troad. 847, rZs 

\tvKowrepov apepas. 

17. venus: charm, grace. 

18. illius, illius : cf . 3. 26. 6 ; ' Long, long ago ' ; Sappho, fr. 33, 
ypapav . . . fffOev . . . ird\a.i irord ; ' For he is like to something I 
remember | A great while since, a long, long time ago' (Ford). 

19. spirabat: cf. on 4. 9. 10. 

20. surpuerat : surripuerat, syncope. Cf. on 1. 36. 8 and Sat. 
2. 3. 283. For thought, cf. Catull. 51. 6, eripit sensus mihi; and, 
on a higher plane, Tennyson's ' Smote the chord of self that trem- 
bling passed in music out of sight.' 

21-22. The meaning seems to be, ' happy (as the reigning belle) 
after (in lime or possibly order of precedence) Cinara (cf. on 4. 
1. 4) and a face (beauty, aspect, " vision of delight ") well known, 
too, for arts of pleasing.' For genitive, cf. on 2. 2. 6. 

24. servatura . cf. on 2. 3. 4. 

25. cornicis : cf. on 3. 17. 13. ut : we need not distinguish 
purpose and result. fervidi : ' Let temple burn or flax : an equal 
light | Leaps in the flame from cedar-plank or weed : | And love is 
fire' (Sonnets from the Portuguese, 10). But Lyce is a burned- 
out torch, 5a\As (Anth. Pal. 12. 41). Cf. Tenn. Merlin and Vivien, 
' the lists of such a beard | As youth gone out had left in ashes ' ; 
Shaks. R. and Jul. 4. 1, 'The roses in thy lips and cheeks shall 
fade | To paly ashes.' 

27. non sine : cf. on 1. 23. 3. 

28. dilapsam : delapsam would mean fallen into the ashes. 
in cineres: cf. Vergil's considere in ignes (Aen. 2. 624 ; 9. 145). 

ODE XIV. 

Augustus, first in war. Under thy auspices Drusus has over- 
thrown the fierce tribes of the Alps, and Tiberius descended upon 
the Raeti as Auster descends on the storm waves or Aufidus in 



440 NOTES. 

flood time on the fertile fields. For three lustres, since the day 
when Alexandria opened to thee her harbor and her deserted 
palaces, fortune has crowned with success all thy campaigns. All 
the peoples of the earth bow beneath thy yoke, from India to 
Britain, from the Nile to the Tigris and the Danube. 

For the events alluded to, cf. 4. 4. Intr. and Sellar, p. 156-157. 
There is an imitation, in the form of an ode to Queen Anne, in 
Dodsley's Poems, 1, p. 69. 

1. Poetic variation of the official formula, Senatus populusque 
Bomanus. 

2. plenis: iustis, adequate. honorum : both offices (1. 1.8) 
and honorary decrees here. 

3. in aevum : cf. on 3. 11. 35-36 ; Epist. 1. 3. 8. Augusts : 
cf. on 1. 2. 52; 3. 3. 11 ; 3. 5. 3. 

4. titulos: inscriptions. Cf. notis publicis (4. 8. 13). me- 
moresque fastos : cf. on 3. 17. 4 ; Claudian, 1. 279, Longaque 
perpetui ducent in saecula fasti. 

5. Aeternet : ae(vi)ternet (with aevum as ludum ludere, 3. 
29. 50), a rare archaic word. Cf. F. Q. 1. 10. 59, ' in the immortal 
book of fame to be eternized ' ; Milton, ' their names eternize here 
on earth ' ; Dante, ' Come 1'uoin si eterna.' 

6-6. habitabiles . . . eras : y otKovufvij. 

6. maxime principum: i.e. maxime princeps. Cf. on. 1. 2. 50. 
7-9. quern . . . didicere . . . quod . . . posses: the Greek 

construction, 'I know thee who thou art.' Cf. Tennyson's ' Hast 
thou heard the butterflies, | What they say between their wings ? ' 

7. legis expertes : i.e. as yet unsubdued. 

8. didicere : cf. 4. 4. 25, sensere. 

10. implacidum : first found here. genus : cf. Verg. Aen. 4. 
40, Hinc Gaetulae urbes, genus insuperabile bello. 
10-13. Cf. Crinagoras, Anth. Pal. 9. 283. 

12. impositas : 3. 13. 14 ; Sat. 1. 5. 26 ; Epist. 2. 1. 253. 

13. deiecit: a slight zeugma with Breunos and arces. Cf. 
Epist. 2. 2. 30, praesidium regale loco deiecit. plus vice sim- 
plici : lit. with requital more than one-fold, i.e. inflicting heavier 
loss than he suffered. For plus, cf. Lex. s.v. multus II. A. 8. ; 
for vice, cf. on 1. 28. 32. 

14. maior Neronum = Tiberius, a nomen, ' quod versu dicere 



BOOK IV., ODE XIV. 441 

non esf.' Cf. on 4. 4. 28 ; Cons, ad Liviam, 149, Nee quom victo- 
rem referetur adesse Neronem, \ Dicere iam potero ' motor an alter 
adest" 1 f mox : the attack of Tiberius from the north came a 
little later. Cf. the description of the campaign in Veil. 2. 95, and 
Dio, 54. 22. 

15. immania : cf. 3. 4. 43 ; 3 11. 15. For their cruelty, cf. 
Strabo, 4. 6. 8. 

17-19. spectandus . . . fatigaret : cf. on 7-10. 

17. Note absence of normal caesura. Cf. 1. 37. 14. 

18. devota : cf. 3. 4. 27 ; 3. 23. 10 ; Wordsworth, ' the guardian 
Pass, | Where stood, sublime, Leonidas | Devoted to the tomb.' 
liberae suggests ' freely dying' and 'a freeman's death.' 

20. indomitas: slightly personifies the waves. Literally, the 
Raeti were not ' unsubdued,' but their tempers were as tameless as 
the waves. prope seems a rather prosaic limitation. Cf. Sat. 2. 
3. 268 ; Epist. 2. 2. 61 (?). Perhaps Horace is trying to reproduce 
the Greek o-xeSoV n. 

21. exercet : cf. Epod*. 9. 31 ; Milt. P. L. 2, 'Pain of unextin- 
guishable fire | Must exercise us without hope of end.' Auster : 
cf . 3. 3. 4. choro : cf . Propert. 4. 5. 36, Pleiadum spisso cur coit 
igne chorus. 

22. sciudente nubea : cf. Tennyson's ' When | Thro' scudding 
drifts the rainy Hyades | Vext the dim sea.' 

22-23. impiger . . . vexare : cf. on 4. 12. 19. 

23. vexare : cf. 3. 2. 4. turmas : cf. 2. 16. 22. 

24. per ignes : the fires of the burning villages, if the fire of 
battle is thought too sudden a plunge into metaphor. Bentley read 
per enses. Cf. Silius, 14, 175, per medios ignes mediosque per 
enses. 

25-28. Cf . Maeaulay, Regillus, 36, ' So comes the Po in flood- 
time | Upon the Celtic plain ; ' Iliad, 5. 87 sqq. 

25. tauriformia : ravponoppos. Cf. tnformis (3. 22. 5). Horace 
avoids the picturesque compounds of Greek, English, and early 
Latin poetry. Diespiter (\. 34. 5) , noctUucam (4. 6. 38) , homicidam 
(Ep. 17. 12) are archaic or legal. Naiifrayus, locuples, and sacri- 
legus were in common use. Otherwise he does not venture beyond 
compounds with numerals or prepositions, e.g. centimanus (2. 17. 
14). Greek art and poetry represent the genii of rivers with head 



442 NOTES. 

and horns of a bull, symbolizing, perhaps, the roar of the rushing 
stream. Cf. II. 21. 237, nfnvichs rivre ravpos ; Verg. Georg. 4. 371; 
Jebb on Soph. Trach. 507. Aufidus : cf. 3. 30. 10 ; 4. 9. 2. 

26. Dauni : cf. 1. 22. 14 ; 3. 30. 11. praefluit : cf. on 4. 3. 10. 
It is on the boundary. 

28. diluviem : cf. 3. 29. 40. meditatur : some Mss., mini- 
tatur. 

29. Claudius : Tiberius. Cf. on 14 supra, and Epist. 1. 3. 2. 
29-30. Cf. Homer's eppri^e <t>d\ayyas, and Tennyson's 'clad in 

iron burst the ranks of war.' 

30. f errata may refer to the use of mail (cf. Lex. s.v. n.), or of 
chains to hold the men together, or it may be loosely figurative. 

31. metendo : cf. on 4. 11. 30. For image, cf. II. 11. 67, 
19. 223 ; Catull. 64. 353-355 ; Verg. Aen. 10. 513 ; Aeschyl. Suppl. 
637; Gray, The Bard, 'And thro' the kindred squadrons mow 
their way ' ; Macaulay, Regillus, 23, ' Like corn before the sickle | 
The stout Lavinians fell ' ; Swinburne, Erectheus, ' Sickles of man- 
slaughtering edge | Ground for no hopeful harvest of live grain ' ; 
Shaks. Tro. and Cress. 5. 5, 'And there the strawy Greeks ripe for 
his edge | Fall down before him like the mower's swath.' 

32. stravit : cf. 3. 17. 12. sine clade : majore cum perictdo 
quam damno Bomani exercitus (Veil. 2. 95. 2). Cf. Shaks. Much 
Ado, 1.1, 'A victory is twice itself when the achiever brings home 
full numbers.' 

33-34. I.e. (ductu) atque auspiciis tuis. Cf. on 1. 7. 27. 

34. quo die : from the day when, rather than on the anniversary 
of the day. Alexandria was taken and the civil wars ended B.C. 30, 
in the month Sextilis, to which the name Augustus was given by 
decree of the Senate B.C. 8. 

36. vacuam : cf. on 1. 37. 25. Abandoned by death of Antony 
and Cleopatra. 

37. lustro . . . tertio : through three lustrums, perhaps, rather 
than at the expiration of the third lustrum. This effect is helped 
by the position of prospera between lustro and tertio. The con- 
tinued favor of fortune through fifteen years is the point. pros- 
pera : cf. on 4. 6. 39. 

39-40. And has associated glory and honor to heart's desire 
(optatum, coveted, 4. 8. 30 ; Epp. 2. 3. 412) with (to) the accom- 



BOOK IV., ODE XIV. 443 

plishment of thy imperial commands. Arrogavit is virtually 
equivalent to addidit ; its associations for a Roman, as well as those 
of imperils, must be learned from the lexicon s.v. Others inter- 
pret, ' and has now added this glory (the victory of Drusus) to 
thy past achievements' (cf. C. S. 27). But Horace is done with 
Drusus and is reviewing the reign. 

40. arrogavit : cf. Epp. 2. 1. 35 ; 2. 3. 122. 

41-52. The subject nations, victae longo online gentes (Verg. 
Aen. 8. 722). For a similar imperial theme, cf. Oscar Wilde's 
Ace Imperatrix, 'The brazen-throated clarion blows | Across the 
Pathan's reedy fen, | And the high steeps of Indian snows | Shake 
to the tread of armed men. . . . The fleet-foot Marri scout who 
comes | To tell how he hath heard afar | The measured roll of 
English drums | Beat at the gates of Kandahar.' 

41. Cantaber : cf. 2. 6. 2 ; 3. 8. 22. non ante: 1. 29. 3. 

42. profugus : cf. 1. 35. 9 ; 3. 24. 9. Medus : cf. on 1. 2. 22. 
Indus : cf. Suet. Aug. 21 ; Mon. Ancyr. 5. 5. 

43-44. Cf. Cons, ad Liv. 473; Martial, 5. 1. 7 (of Dornitian), 
O rcmm felix tutela salusque. As Lucan says. 5. 385, Namque 
omnes voces per quas jam tempore tanto \ mentimur dominis haec 
primum repent aetas. Cf. on 3. 3. 11. 

43. tutela: cf. 2. 17. 23; 4. 6. 33. praesens : cf. 1. 35. 2; 
3. 5. 2. 

44. dominae : cf. on 4. 3. 13, and Martial, 1. 3. 3 ; 10. 103. 9. 

45. A commonplace of classical poetry. Tibull. 1. 7. 23 ; Lucan, 
10. 193. Cf. Swift, Apollo's Edict, ' No simile shall be begun | 
With rising or with setting sun, | And let the secret head of Nile | 
Be ever banished from your isle.' 

46. Nilus : the Aethiopians (Mon. Ancyr. 108). Hister: the 
Dacians (4. 15. 21 ; Verg. Georg. 2. 497). Tigris : cf. on 2. 
9. 21. 

47. beluosus: cf. on 1. 3. 18; 3. 27. 26; Milton, Lycidas, 
' Where thou perhaps under the whelming tide | Visit'st the bottom 
of the monstrous world.' Cf. Homer's fj.eya.Kiirris (Od. 3. 158), 
commonly interpreted ' monster-teeming.' 

48. obstrepit: 2. 18. 20; 3. 30. 10. Britannis : cf. on 1. 
35. 30. 

49. The Romans imagined that the teaching of the Druids kept 



444 NOTES. 

the Gauls from fearing death. Cf. Caesar, B. G. 6. 14. 5 ; Lucan, 
1. 459 ; Arnold on Celtic Lit. , p. 38. 

51. Sygambri: cf. on 4. 2. 36. 

52. Resembles, in metrical structure, 1. 9. 20. 



ODE XV. 

Augustus, first in peace and first in the hearts of his country- 
men. When I would sing of wars, Phoebus rebuked me. (But I 
may tell how) thy age, O Caesar, has brought back the harvests 
to our fields, recovered our standards from the Parthians, curbed 
licentious wickedness, and renewed the old Roman virtue that built 
up the empire. No fear of civic strife or external foe disturbs us 
now. But lingering over the wine with wife and child, after due 
prayer to the gods, we will sing in old time fashion the great 
captains of the past and the scion of Venus and Auchises. 

The poem has been read as a continuation of the preceding. It 
is, in any case, its complementary antithesis. It is ' 1'envoi ' to 
Augustus, and affirms the fulfillment of the hopes expressed in 1. 2 
and elsewhere, as 3. 24, 3. 1-6. 

1-2. Cf. Verg. Eclog. 6. 3 ; Propert. 3. 3. 25. Lyra is probably 
to be construed with loqui, as' the scholiasts take it. Cf. Quintil. 
10. 1. 62, epici .carminis onera lyra sustinentem. The trajection is 
harsh, but it would not be easy to find a better place for the word 
in the two lines. Editors generally construe with increpmt, quot- 
ing Ovid, A. A. 2. 493, Haec ego cum caiifrem subito manifestus 
Apollo | movit inauratae pollice fila lyrae. But ' sounded at me on 
his lyre' is an ill phrase. For thought, cf. on 1. 6. 5; 3. 3. 70; 
Epp. 2. 1. 251 sqq. 

3. For the metaphor, cf. Propert. 4. 2. 22 ; 4. 8. 4, quid me scri- 
bendi tarn vastum mittis in aequor? \ Non sunt apta meac grandia 
vela mti ; Verg. Georg. 2. 41 ; Ovid. Trist. 2. 329 ; .Shaks. Sonnet, 
86, ' Was it the proud full sail of his great verse ? ' Dante's ' la 
navicella del mio ingegno' ; and Cowley's quaint Piudarique Ode 
to Mr. Hobbes, ' The Baltic, Euxine, and the Caspian, | And slen- 
der-limbed Mediterranean | Seemed narrow creeks to thee and 
only fit | For the poor wretched fisher-boats of wit. | Thy nobler 
vessel the vast ocean tried' ; Boileau, Epitre I., Au lioi, ' Cette 



BOOK IV., ODE XV. 445 

mer ou tu cours est celebre en naufrages,' etc. Tyrrhenum : cf. 
on 1. 16. 4. 

5. Cf. on 4. 5. 17-18. Observe polysyndeton of et, correspond- 
ing to anaphora of non in lines 19-24. 

6. The recovery, by Augustus' diplomacy in B.C. 20, of the 
standards lost to the Parthians by Crassus at Carrhae (cf . 3. 5. 6 ; 
3. 6. 9) was regarded as a triumph by the court poets. Cf. August. 
in Mon. Ancyr. 40 ; Epp. 1. 18. 66, 1. 12. 27 ; Verg. Aen. 7. 606, 
Purthosque rcposcere signa; Propert. 4. 4. 48. nostro . . . 
lovi : i.e. Jupiter Capitolinus. So Propert. 4. 10. 41, ausa Jovi 
nostro latrantem opponere Anubim. Cf. 3. 5. 12. The standards 
were afterwards deposited in the temple of Mars Ultor, dedicated 
B.C. 2. Cf. Mon. Ancyr. 5, 40, and supra on 1. 2. 44. 

8. vacuum : proleptic. duellis : cf . on 3. 5. 38. 

9. lanum Quirini : apparently an intentional variation of the 
official phrase lanum Quirinum. Cf. on 3. 6. 42. For two-headed 
Janus, the god of gates and beginnings, cf. Class. Diet. s.v. The 
gates of the covered arcade passage near the Forum, commonly 
called the temple of Janus, were closed only in time of peace by 
the institution of Numa. Cf. Livy, 1. 19. 2. They were shut once 

. in the reign of Numa, once at the end of the first Punic war, and 
thrice by Augustus, in 725, 729, 746. Suet. Oct. 22 ; Mon. Ancyr. 
2. 42; Verg. Aen. 7. 607, 1. 294; Ovid, Epist. Ex Ponto, 1. 2. 126, 
clausit et aeterna civica bella sera. 

10. evaganti: cf. Lex. s.v. II. frena: cf. on 3. 24. 29, and 
Sat. 2. 7. 74, lam vaga prosiliet frenis natura remotis. 

12. artes : cf. on 3. 3. 9 ; and, for thought, Verg. Georg. 2. 532- 
535, and Gratian, Cyneget. 320 sqq. 

13-14. Note the three stages of the growth of, the empire. 

13. nomen : cf. on. 3. 3. 45. 

14. imperi: cf. on 1. 2. 26. 

15. maiestas is more than majesty. Cf. Lex. s.v. 1. 2. 
ortus : some read ortum. Cf. 3. 27. 12. 

16. Cf. Sail. Cat. 36 ; Dion. Chrysost. orat. 1, p. 13, cwr' &vl- 
ffXovros r)\iov (ifX.pi Suopfvov iracrrjj i}px e "YQS- 

17-18. Cf. on 3. 14. 15. 

17. custode : cf. 4. 5. 2. 

18. exiget : used normally of persons (cf. 2. 13. 31), slightly 



446 NOTES. 

personifies. Some read eximet. For personification in procudit, 
cf. Aeschyl. Choeph. 647 ; Soph. Ajax, 1034. 

19. ira : cf. 1. 16. 

20. inimicat : new coinage of Horace, as apprecati, 28. 

21. qui . . . bibunt : cf. on 2. 20. 20 ; Crinagoras, Anth. Pal. 
16. 61,5, olSev 'Apdr]s \ Kal 'Pijvos, Sov\ois fOveffi wiv6^voL. 

22-24. Cf. C. S. 51-56. 

22. edicta . . . lulia : the ordinances of Augustus ; not to be 
taken technically, though it suggests the legis luliae. Getae : cf. 
3. 24. 11. 

23. Seres: cf. 1. 12. 56. Fersae: cf. 1. 2. 22. infidi : cf. 
perfide Albion, Graecia mendax, Punica fides, Parthis mendacior 
(Epp. 2. 1. 112), perfidus Hannibal (4. 4. 49), and similar inter- 
national amenities. 

24. The Scythians. 

25. uosque : emphatic. profestis : cf. Sat. 2. 2. 116, profesta 
luce ; working days plus holidays are all days. 

26. Cf. on 4. 5. 31-32. munera Liberi : cf. 1. 18. 7. iocosi : 
cf. 3. 21. 15. 

29-32. It was the policy of Augustus to foster the sentiment of 
historic patriotism. Cf. Suet. Aug. 31, and supra on 3. 1-6. 

29. virtute functos : a variation on vita functus, laboribus 
functus (2. 18. 38). Cf. aevoftmctus (2. 9. 13). more patrum: 
cf. Cic. Tusc. 1. 3, est in Originibus (Cato's Origins) solitos esse 
in epulis canere convicas ad tibicinem de clarorum hominum 
mrtutibus. 

30. Lydis : perhaps ' soft Lydian airs ' suited the wine (cf. 
Plato, Rep. 398 E), perhaps the epithet is used merely for poetic 
specification. remixto : a rare word. Cf. A. P. 151, ver is falsa 
remiscet. 

31. almae : cf. 4. 5. 18; Lucretius, 1.2, alma Venus. 

32. progeniem : sc. Augustus. Cf. 4. 5. 1, and C. S. 50. 



CAKMEN SAECULABE. 



The student will find in Harper's Classical Dictionary, s.v. Ludi 
21, a practically sufficient account of the origins of the Secular 
games, their revival and transformation by Augustus, B.C. 17, in 
somewhat tardy celebration of the establishment of the empire and 
the ceremonies of the festival as described by the historian Zosimus 
and the Sibylline oracle. These ceremonies are more accurately 
known from the official inscription discovered in Rome, September, 

1890. It has been edited by Mommsen, Monumenti Antichi . . . 
della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, 1891 ; Ephemeris Epigraphica, 

1891, pp. 222-274. It is interestingly discussed by Lanciani, 
Atlantic Monthly, February, 1892 ; Moramsen, die Nation, Decem- 
ber, 1891 ; Gaston Boissier, Revue des Deux Mondes, March 1, 
1892; Professor Slaughter, Transactions of the American Philo- 
logical Association, 1895. 

Carmen composuit Q. Hor[at] ius Flaccus are the words that 
chiefly concern us. Horace was thus virtually recognized as the 
laureate of the new empire, a position won by such odes as 1. 2 ; 
1. 12 ; 3. 1-6 ; and sustained by 4. 4, 5, 14, and 15. Something 
of his pride in this official recognition is reflected in 4. 6. 25-44, 
and 4. 3. The poem itself is an extremely polished formal official 
production marked by the dignity and by something of the stark 
rigidity of the tables of the old law. The vague mystic humanitarian 
inspirations which Vergil's fourth eclogue (circa B.C. 40) draws 
from the thought of the world's great age beginning anew are 
wholly wanting. From Vergil, however, is derived the one central 
poetic idea (37 sqq.) standing out amid the prescribed formulas of 
the ritual the idea of the imperial destiny of Rome embodied in 
the recently published Aeneid. To be just we must remember the 

447 



448 NOTES. 

ceremonial character of the poem, composed, not to "be studied in 
the closet, but to be chanted before a vast concourse in the open 
air. Horace's unfailing tact recognized that the austere simplicity 
of Roman ritualistic language was more consonant with the dignity 
of the occasion, than any. elaborate prettiness of phrase, or imita- 
tion of the splendid lyric diction of the Greeks that it was in his 
power to achieve. 

The sapphics are finished with the utmost care. Notable is the 
frequent lilt of the feminine caesura, 11. 1, 14, 15, 18, 19, 35, 39, etc. 

The poem was sung on the third and last day of the festival 
before the temple of Apollo on the Palatine. Sacrijicioque per- 
fecto pueri [X~\XVII quibus denuntiatum erat patrimi et matrimi 
[whose fathers and mothers were still living] et puellae totidem 
carmen cecinerunt ; eodemque modo in Capitolio. The natural 
meaning of the last words is that the rendering of the ode was 
repeated on the Capitol. There has been some idle debate as to 
whether the repetition was prearranged or an encore. Mommsen 
chooses to suppose that the ode was sung as the procession moved 
from the Palatine to the Capitol and back ; and exercises his 
ingenuity in determining the precise point at which each group of 
stanzas was chanted. The distribution of the strophes between the 
youths, the maidens, and the ensemble has been endlessly debated. 

1. Phoebe : Actian and Palatine Apollo, the patron deity of the 
emperor and the empire, is fittingly invoked first. Cf. 1. 31. 1. n.; 
1. 21 ; 3. 4. 60 sqq. silvarum potens : cf. 1. 21. 5. n. ; 1. 3. 1. n. 

2. caeli decus : as sun and moon, cf. 9, 36 ; Verg. Aen. 9. 405, 
Astrorum decus et nemorum Latonia custos ; Sen. Hippol. 408. 

2-3. colendi . . . culti : a worshipful fullness of expression. 
Cf. Ov. Met. 8. 350, si te coluique coloque ; ibid. 726 ; Odes 4. 2. 38, 
donavere . . . dabunt; Epp. 1. 1. 1., prima dicte mihi summaque 
dicende Camena. 

5. quo: with dicere (8). Sibyllini : cf. Harper's Class. Diet. 
s.v. Sibyllae. The old collections which Tarquin was said to have 
bought of the Sibyl were burned with the Capitol, B.C. 83. Augustus 
as Pontifex, B.C. 12, deposited a revised collection in the temple of 
Apollo Palatinus. The extant collections are late forgeries. The 



CARMEN SAECULARE. 449 

thirty-seven Greek hexameter verses prescribing the order of the 
ceremonies preserved in Zosiuius were compiled or invented by 
the scholars who organized the festival for Augustus. They fix the 
safculum as 110 years (see 1. 21), and an attempt was made to show 
that this period had been observed four times. Claudius, however, 
adopting 100 years, repeated the celebration in A.D. 47, and 41 
years later Domitian again summoned the people to the spectacle, 
' which no living man had seen or would ever see again.' 

6. lectas . . . castos : both epithets felt with each noun. Cf. 
4. 6. 31. 

7. dls : the guardian deities generally, 0eo?s iro\io6xi*- sep- 
tem : Verg. Georg. 2. 535 ; Martial, 4. 64. 11, septem dominos videre 
monies; Macaulay, Regillus, 38, 'Hail to the hill-tops seven.' 
placuere : were and still are dear. Cf. 3. 4. 24, 4. 12. 12 ; Propert. 
4. 10. 64, Haec, di condiderunt, haec di quoque moenia servant. 

9-10. Alme : cf. 4. 7. 7. Sol : *o?os '\ic6\\a>v \ oart Kal 
r^Aio? KiK\-f]ffKfrat, the Orac. 16. curru . . . celas : cf. 3. 6. 
44. n. Also Mayor on Cic. Nat. Deor. 2. 19. 49 ; Jebb on Soph. 
Ajax, 674. 

10. alius et idem : similarly Catullus, 62. 34-35, of Venus, 
identical as morning star and evening star. 

12. visere : sc. in thy course; but cf . 1. 2. 8. n. mains: cf. 
Verg. Aen. 7. 602, maxima rerum ] Roma; Goethe, Elegien XV., 
' Hohe Sonne du weilst und du beschauest dein Rom. | Grosseres 
sahest du nichts und wirst nichts grosseres sehen, | Wie es dein 
Priester Horaz in der Entziickung versprach.' 

13-14. rite: fulfilling thine office. aperire . . . lends : cf. 1. 
24. 17. n. ; lenis is included in the prayer (cf. fertilis 29, and 3. 2. 2) 
and is felt again with the imperative tuere. 

14. Ilithyia : the birth goddess identified with Juno Lucina 
(15) ; cf. Lex. and Class. Diet. s.v. According to the inscription, 
consecrated cakes were offered, Deis Ilythyis, on the second night. 

Cf. Orac. 9, f.l\ei6uias dpeVa<r#ai | TraidordKovs. 

15-16. sive . . . seu: the scrupulous care of the ancient religion 
to propitiate the god by the apt epithet is reflected in this usage of 
the poets. Cf. Aesch. Ag. 160; Catull. 34. 21, sis quocumque tibi 
placet | sancta nomine ; Milt. P. L. 3. 7, ' or hear'st thou rather,' 
etc. ; Sat. 2. 6. 20, Seu lane libentius audis. 



450 NOTES. 

16. Genitalis : only here as name ; perhaps imitation of ftve- 

TV\\IS. 

17-20. Pure prose. producas : rear, as Kovporp6<t>os. Cf . 2. 
13. 3. subolem: 4. 3. 14; 3. 13. 8. patrum . . . decreta : 
the lex lulia de maritandis ordinibus, B.C. 18, encouraged marriage 
and imposed pains and penalties on celibacy. Horace, a bachelor 
of fifty, celebrates it with a somewhat artificial ardor. Cf. Meri- 
vale, 4. 39, Chap. 33 ; Suet. Aug. 34 ; Livy, Epit. 59 ; Dio. 54. 16. 
Cf. 3. 6. 

18. super : cf. Lex. s.v. II. B. 2. b. 

20. lege marita : so Propert. 5. 11. 33, facibus maritis, the torch 
of marriage. 

21-24. 'That so this festival may not fail (certus) to be kept by 
joyous throngs at each returning saeculum of 110 years ' is the 
meaning. 

22. orbis : cycle. referatque: cf. 1. 30. 6. n. 

24. frequentes : with ludos. Certus and frequentes emphasize 
by position the main idea. 

25. veraces : cf. 2. 16. 39. n. ; Catull. 64. 306 ; Arnold, Myce- 
rinus, ' Fell this dread voice from lips that cannot lie, | Stern 
sentence of the Powers of Destiny.' cecinisse : an extreme case 
of complementary inf. with adjectives. Parcae: 2. 17. 16. n.; 
2. 3. 15. n. The sacrifices of the first night were to them. Cf. 
the Orac. 9, Upa. . . . Motpais &pvas re Kal alyas. The Moerae were 
originally birth-goddesses. Cf. Pind. Nem. 7. 1 ; Arnold's ' He 
does well too who keeps the clue the mild | Birth-goddess and the 
austere Fates first gave. ' 

26. quod semel dictumst = fatum (cf. 3. 3. 57-58. n.), in 
this case the 'manifest destiny of Rome.' Cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 257, 
manent immota tuorum fata tibi, etc. semel : cf. 4. 3. 1 ; 1. 24. 
16. n. 

26-27. rerum terminus : cf. Verg. Aen. 4. 614, hie terminus 
haeret. The phrase suggests the god Terminus whose refusal to 
yield to Jupiter "was taken as an omen of the stability of Roman 
power. Livy, 1. 55; Ov. Fast. 2. 667. 

27. servet : sudden, somewhat illogical transition to prayer 
that the fate be accomplished. Servat is also read. peractis: 
4. 14. 39. 



CARMEN SAECULARE. 451 

20. fertilis fmgum : so Livy, 5. 34. 2, Gallia . . . frugum 
hominumque fertilis fuit. Cf. 4. 6. 39; and, for the blessings 
invoked, cf. Aesch. Suppl. 689-692; Eumen. 924-926, 938 sqq.; 
Psalms 94. 13. tellus : a black sow was offered to Terra Mater 
on the third night. 

30. spicea . . . corona : cf. AT/O? T# in-axvoffTetyavy, Anth. 
Pal. 6. 104. 8 ; Cf. Tibull. 1. 1. 15, flam Ceres tibi sit nostro de 
rure corona \ Spicea. (At the Ambarvalia, see Pater, Marius, 
Chap. I.) Cf. Warton, First of April, 'Fancy . . . sees Ceres 
grasp her crown of corn | And Plenty load her ample horn ' ; 
Hamlet, 5. 2, 'As Peace should still her wheaten garland wear.' 

31-32. cf. Catull. 62. 41, (flos) quern mulcent aurae, firmat sol, 
educat imber. lovis : cf. 1. 1. 25. n.; Epode 2. 29. fetus: i.e. 
crops. 

33-34. condito . . . telo . . . Apollo : not showering the shafts 
of pestilence as in Hoiner, II. 1. 45 sqq., but gracious and benign 
as represented in his Palatine temple. Cf. 2. 10. 19 ; 3. 4. 60. 

35. siderum regina : cf. 1. 12. 47. n. bicornis : cf. 4. 2. 57 ; 
Anth. Pal. 5. 123, SiKtptas 2eATjj>*? ; ibid. 5. 16, xP' JffOK ^P (as '> Milt. 
P. L. 1, ' Astoreth, whom the Phoenicians call'd | Astarte, queen 
of heaven, with crescent horns.' 

37-44. si : cf. 3. 18. 5. If, as the Aeneid had recently brought 
home to every Roman, the world-empire of Rome was a divine 
dispensation, the gods should cherish their own handiwork. 

38. litus Etruscum : i.e. Lavinia litora. tenuere : won 
(their way to). 

39. iussa pars : and if it was by divine command that a part of 
them. Cf. Verg. Aen. 4. 346, Italiam Lyciae iussere capessere 
sortes. pars: i.e. the companions of Aeneas; apposition with 
turmae. 

41. per ardentem: cf. Verg. Aen. 7. 296, mediosque per ignes 
invenere viam. sine fraude : cf . 2. 19. 20. n. 

42. castus: i.e. plus. Cf. incestus, 3. 2. 30. patriae : so 
mihi, Epode 5. 101. 

43. munivit : cf. Lex. s.v. munire, II. B.; Lucret. 5. 102. 
daturas : cf. 2. 3. 4. n. 

44. plura relictis : Rome is more than Troy. Cf. Propert. 
5. 1. 87, Dicam, Troia cades, et Troica Roma resurges. 



452 NOTES. 

45-46. docili and placidae are proleptic. 

47. Romulae : cf. 4. 5. 1. n. ; 1. 15. 10, Dardanae. pro- 
lemque : hypermetron the cup runs over. 

49. quaeque : object of veneratur, construerl as verb of asking. 
Cf. Sat. 2. 6. 8 ; Cic. Fam. 6. 7. 2. bobus . . . albis : white 
.bulls were sacrificed by Augustus and Agrippa to Jupiter Capito- 
linus on the first clay, white cows to Juno Regina on the second. 
Cf. the Orac. 12. For white bulls as victims, cf. Verg. Aen. 2. 
146 ; Macaulay, Horatius, 7 ; Capys, 29 ; Epode 9. 22. 

50. Anchisae: 4. 15. 31. sanguis: 4. 2. 14. 

51-52. Perhaps meant as a quotation of the famous parcere sub- 
jectis, etc. (Verg. Aen. 6. 853). With the following, cf. Aen. 6. 792. 
With iam, etc., 54 sqq., a favorable answer to the prayer is assumed. 

53-56. Cf. 4. 14. 41-52. n. ; 4. 15. 6-8, 20-24. The civil wars 
are ignored. 

54. Albanas : i.e. Roman. Cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 7. 

55. Scythae: cf. 2. 9. 23; 4. 14. 42; 3. 8. 23. responsa 
petunt : as from a god, an oracle, or declarer of the law. Cf. 
Verg. Eel. 1. 45 ; Aen. 7. 86, Hinc Italae gentes . . . in dnbiis 
rcsponsa petunt. 

57-60. The empire means peace, plenty, and the old Roman 
virtues. Cf. 4. 5. 17 ; 4. 15. 5, 10-13. 

57. Fides, etc.: cf. 1. 24. 6-7. n. ; 1. 35. 21. Pax : Peace had 
an altar at Athens, and is called fairest of the gods by Euripides 
(Orest. 1682). Honor: Marcellus dedicated a temple Honori et 
Virtuti (Livy, 27. 25). 

68. priscus: Verg. Aen. 6. 879, heu prisca fides. 

60. copia: cf. 1. 17. 14. n.; Epp. 1. 12. 28. 

61-75. Concluding prayer to Apollo, prophet, musagetes, and 
healer, and to Diana. 

61. augur: cf. 1. 2. 32. fulgente: with silver (II. 1. 37) or 
gold (Pind. O. 14. 10). 

62. Cf. Arnold, Empedocles, ' 'Tis Apollo comes leading | His 
choir the nine.' 

63-64. Cf. 1. 21. 13-14. 

65. si : if, as he surely does. aequus : cf. 1. 28. 28 ; 1. 2. 47. n. 
arces : so most Mas. Others, aras of the special altars on which 
the sacrifices were offered before the temple. 



CARMEN SAECULARE. 453 

66. rem Romanam : cf. Verg. Georg. 2. 498, res Romanae; 
Enmus, Ann. 479, qui rem Romanam Latiumque augescere voltis. 
felix : the prosperity of Latium. Others take it with lustrum. 

67. lustrum : cf. 2. 4. 24. The imperium conferred on Augustus 
for ten years, B.C. 27 (cf. on 1. 2), was renewed. B.C. 17, for five 
years. semper: i.e. from lustrum to lustrum. Cf. Tibull. 1. 
7. 63, At tu natalis mnltos celebrande per annos \ candidior semper 
candidiorque veni ; Ov. Fast. 1. 87. 

68. prorogat : there is good Ms. authority for the subjunctive, 
but not in 70 and 71. The chorus no longer implore but feel the 
presence of the deity. Cf. Epp. 2. 1. 134. The que of remque (66) 
does not connect videt and prorogat. 

69. Aventinum : for the great Latin temple of Diana there, cf. 
Livy, 1. 45. Algidum : 1. 21. 6. 

70. quindecim, etc. : the quindecimviri sacris faciundis were 
one of the four great priestly colleges of Rome. They stood to the 
foreign religions much as the Pontiffs to the national cult. They 
were said to have been instituted by Tarquin to guard the Sibyl- 
line verses (cf. Verg. Aen. 6. 72). They took charge of the cere- 
monies under the presidency of Augustus and Agrippa. Pro 
conlegio XV virorum magister conlega -M. Agrippa ludos saeculares 
fed (Mon. Ancyr. 4. 36). 

71. puerorum : includes the girls. Cf. Naevius' Cereris puer 
Proserpina. 

73-74. haec . . . sentire : depends on spem reporto. For 
reporto sing., as in Greek chorus, cf. 4. 6. 41. n. 
75. doctus : cf. 4. 6. 43. 



EPODES. 



Epode in later Greek meant the shorter verse, or iambic dimeter, 
of an Archilochian couplet following as a refrain the longer iambic 
trimeter (cf. Liddell and Scott s.v.). The grammarians gave the 
"name to these poems of Horace composed mainly in thai measure. 
Horace himself called them iambi with reference botn to the pre- 
vailing iambic meter and the satirical tone (lan&tKi) iSea. Cf. Od. 
1. 16. 3, 24. n.; Epod. 14. 7 ; Epp. 1. 19. 23). 

They seem to have been written in the decade following Philippi, 
B.C. 41-31, and were published contemporaneously with the second 
book of Satires about B.C. 30 (cf. Epode 9 with Ode 1. 37). They 
have little of the mellow charm of the Odes, but are of interest as 
enabling us to watch the origin and growth of Hoi ace's lyric style. 
Odes 1. 4 and 4. 7 are composed in an Archilochian epodic measure, 
and Epodes 1, 9, 13, and 14 would be equally in place among the 
odes of the first book. Epodes 2 and 16 display a youthful exuber- 
ance of expression which Horace's maturer judgment would have 
pruned. The harsh and sometimes indecent invective of 4, 5, 6, 8, 
10, 12, 17 may reflect Horace's mood in the h'ard years of his early 
manhood when he was still seeking his way, or it may be merely a 
scholastic imitation of tha manner of Archilochus. 

EPODE I. 

To Maecenas about to accompany Augustus in the campaign of 
Actium. Maecenas probably was not present at Actium, but 
returned from Brundisium to take charge of the government of 
Italy (cf. Sen. Epist. 114. 6 ; Dio. 51. 3). The author of the Eleg. 
in Maec. (45) however affirms Maecenas' presence at the battle, 

454 



EPODE I. 455 

and the vividness of Epode 9 is sometimes alleged as proof that 
Horace was with him. 

Horace, though unapt for war, will accompany his friend. He 
will fear less so. No hope of gain impels him. Maecenas' bounty 
has already filled his cup to overflowing. 

1. ibis: can it be that, etc. So Tibull. 1. 3. 1, Ibitis Aegaeas 
sine me, Messalla, per undas. Liburnis : abl. instr. The light 
Liburnian galleys of Octavian are contrasted with the ponderous 
battlemented ships of Antony in all descriptions of the battle. Cf. 
Verg. Aen. 8. 691 ; Merivale, 3. 252 ; Shaks. Ant. and Cleop. 3. 7, 
' Their ships are yare, yours heavy.' 

4. tuo : sc. periculo, i.e. to share. 

5. te . . . super stite alone is a sufficient condition for the con- 
clusion quibus vita iucunda ; but the formula si contra used to 
avoid the ill-omened te mortuo introduces the parallel si which 
must be completed in thought by est or vivitur. For the senti- 
ment, cf. 2. 17. 5-9 ; Catull. 68. 160, Lux mea, qua viva vivere 
dulce mihi est. 

7. utnunne : is said not to occur before Horace. iussi : 
submissively, as you bid. persequemur : yield myself to 
idleness, seek ease. Cf. Cic. de Off. 3. 1, otium perseque- 
mur. otium: Verg. Georg. 4. 564, studiis florentem ignobi- 
lis oti. 

9-10. laturi (sumus ?) : 'Or shall we with such spirit share | 
Thy toils, as men of gallant heart should bear?' (Martin). 
If the ellipsis of sumus is thought too harsh, we may insert 
a comma after laborem and construe it with persequemur by a 
slight zeugma. 

12. inhospitalem . . . Caucasum : cf. 1. 22. 6. n. For thought, 
cf. 2. 6. 1. 

13. sinum : cf. Verg. Georg. 2. 122, India . . . extremi sinus 
orbis. 

15. roges: A. G. 310. b; H. 507. III. 1. labore : laborem of 
the Mss. violates the meter. 

16. Homer's dirrJAeyuos Kal &va\Kts. But firmus parum refers to 
his health. 

18. qui: sc. metus. maior: adverbially. 



456 NOTES. 

19. adsidens: the brooding bird need not be actually on the nest. 

20. aerpentium adlapsus : II. 2. 308 ; Aesch. Sept. 290 ; Mos- 
chus, 4. 21 ; Verg. Aen. 2. 225, lapsu . . . dracones. 

21. relictis: dat. Cf. Verg. Aen. 2. 729, comitiqne onerique 
timentem ; or abl. abs. ut adsit: concessive, even if she were 
with them. A. G. 266. c; G. L. 608 ; H. 515. III. 

22. latura: cf. 2. 3. 4. n. praesentibus : cumulative resump- 
tion of adsit by frequent Latin usage. Plaut. Pseud. 1142 ; Ter. 
Adelph. 393 ; Verg. Aen. 4. 83. 

23-24. militabitur bellum : cf. 3. 19. 4,pugnata bella. 

25-28. Cf. 1. 31. 3-5. nitantur : 'the ox toils through the 
furrow,' suggesting the richness of the loamy soil. meis : the 
main idea. mutet : 1. 16. 26; 1. 17. 2. 

29-30. Perhaps a contrast is suggested between the heights of 
Tusculum crowned with the villas of Cicero, Lucullus, Hortensius, 
etc., and the poet's humbler retreat, 'Folded in Sabine recesses the 
valley and villa of Horace' (dough). The villas of Frascati still 
gleam white against the dark foliage. Cf . Hare, Days Near Rome. 
Circaea : founded by Telegonus, sou of Circe and Ulysses. Cf. 
3. 29. 8. 

31. satis superque: cf. 17. 19; Sat. 2. 6. 4, nil amplhis oro. 
benignitas : generosity. The Sabine farm, ' the fittest gift ever 
made by a liberal man of fortune to a needy man of parts,' was 
given to the poet by Maecenas about B.C. 34, the time of the publi- 
cation of the first book of Satires. To the dignity and the tran- 
quillity it brought into Horace's life we probably owe the Odes. 
Horace describes it lovingly, Epp. 1. 16. 1-17, and often contrasts 
his beloved retreat with the smoke and din and fever of Rome. 
Cf. Sat. 2. 6. 1-4 ; Epp. 1. 10. 8 ; 1. 14. 1 ; 1. 7. 1-15 ; Odes, 1. 17 ; 
1. 22. 9 ; 2. 16. 37 ; 2. 18. 14 ; 3. 1. 47 ; 3. 4. 22 ; 3. 13 ? ; 3. 18 ; 
3. 29. There is an interesting account of it in Blackwood's 
Horace for English readers (Martin), p. 69. Cf. also Gaston 
Boissier's delightful chapter in his ' Nouvelles Promenades Arch- 
fiologiques.' 

32. paravero : note exactness of Latin tense. The acquisition 
must precede the use. 

33. Chi ernes : apparently the typical miser of some comedy not 
extant. 



EPODE II. 457 

34. disciiictus : for ' IOOSP airdk d ' metaphorically as ' dissolute ' 
cf. Sulla's warning about Caesar, Sueton. Caes. 45, ut male prae- 
cinctum puerum caverent. perdam : some Mss. read perdam ut. 



EPODE II. 

The praise of country life in the manner of Vergil (Georg. 
2. 458 sqq. ), with touches resembling, if not suggested by, the 
idyllic passages in Aristophanes (Pax, 569 ; N}<roj, 1). 'The pro- 
fusion of detail is a mark of Horace's earlier muse ' (Sellar) ; but 
the poem is very beautiful, and is converted into a satire only by 
the Heinesque surprise at the close. Cf. Sellar, p. 126-127. 

It has been often imitated or translated. Cf. Tibull. 1.1; 
Martial, 1. 49, in same meter; also 3. 58; Ben Jonson. The 
Forest. 3 ; Works, Vol. 3, p. 264 ; ibid. Vol. 3, p. 384. A transla- 
tion is appended to Cowley's Essay of Agriculture. There are 
also translations by Dryden (Johnson's Poets, 9. 160), and by 
Somervile (ibid. 11. 208). Cf. Herrick, 106, 663, The Country 
Life ; Klopstock, Der Kamin. 

1. beatus : cf. .Pope, Solitude, ' Happy the man whose wish 
and care | A few paternal acres bound ' ; Verg. Georg. 2. 458, 
fortunatos nimiurn, etc. procul negotiis : diraAAa7eWa r<a JCT' 
ayopav irpaynarcav, Aristoph. Nijffot ; ' Far from the madding crowd's 
Ignoble strife.' 

2. prisca : cf. 3. 21. 11; 'Like the first gplden mortals' 
(Cowley) ; Hunc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini (Verg. Georg. 
2. 532). 

3. exercet : Verg. Georg. 1. 99, exercetque frequens tellurem, 
atque imperat arms. Cf. 4. 14. 21. 

4: He is neither a borrower nor a lender. Anticipatory hint 
of 67. 

5. Nor a soldier. Cf. Verg. Georg. 2. 539 ; Tibull. 1. 1. 4, Martia 
cm sornnos classica pulsa fugent. 

6. horret: cf. 1. 1. 15-17 ; Sat, 1. 1. 6. 

7. forum : law and politics. Verg. Georg. 2. 501, nee ferrea 
iura \ insanuiitquc furttm aut populi tabularia vidit. 



458 NOTES. 

7-8. superba . . . limina : the morning salutatio of the rich 
patron, which Vergil describes so magnificently (Georg. 2. 461), 
and Martial found so burdensome. 

9. ergo : and so, being free. adulta : after three years' 
growth. propagine : sets, layers, slips. Cf. Lex. s.v. 

10. alias : the tall slim branchless poplar (II. 4. 482) and the 
elm were especially suited for this. maritat: cf. on 2. 15. 4; 
4. 5. 30 ; Cato, R. R. 32, arbores facito ut bene maritae sint. 

11. in reducta valle : 1. 17. 17. mugientium : mugitusque 
bourn (Verg. Georg. 2. 470). 'The lowing herd winds slowly o'er 
the lea.' Cf. balantum, sheep (Verg. Georg. 1. 272) ; natantum, 
fishes (ibid. 3. 541); Lucret. 1. 887, laniyerae. And on such ap- 
pellations of animals generally, see Classical Review, November, 
1894. 

12. errantes : 3. 13. 12, pecori vago. 

13-14. Pruning and grafting. Cf. Verg. Georg. 2. 69, 81. 

14. feliciores : etymologically. Cf. femina, fecundus. Cf. 
4. 4. 65. n. 

15. pressa : cf. Verg. Georg. 4. 140, spumantia coy ere pressis 
mella fams. More properly of wine (Epode 13. 6). 

16. infirmas : the standing epithet. Cf. Ov. Ib. 44 ; Lucret. 
1. 260. 

17. vel : the choice of another aspect of country joys to contem- 
plate. Aut is merely disjunctive. Que (13) must be given the 
force of ve, which some would read. 

17-18. For Autumn personified, cf. on 4. 7. 11 ; 3. 23. 8. 

17. mitibuq: cf. immitis, (2. 5. 10). If agris is abl., Autumn 
rises from (in) the fields ; if dat., she displays her beauties to 
(for) them. 

19. ut : how. Cf. 1. 61; 1. 11. 3. decerpens: cf. carpsit 
(Verg. Georg. 2. 501). Normal prose would use inf. with gaudet. 
Cf. Greek '/iStrai Sptiruif. 

20. purpurae : with the purple (dyes of art). Cf. 2. 5. 12. And, 
for dat., 2. 2. 18; 1. 1. 15. 

21. Priape : the Hellespontic garden god, to whom so many of 
the licentious epigrams of the Anthology are addressed. pater: 
cf. on 1. 18. 6 ; Verg. Georg. 2. 494, Pannque Silvanumque senem. 

22. Silvane : cf. 3. 29. 23. Old Italian wood god, and so perhaps 



EPODE II. 459 

tutor finium as guardian of the bounds of the primitive farmers' 
clearing. Cf. Freller-Jordan, Rom. Myth. 

23. iacere: 1. 1. 22 ; 2. 7. 19; 2. 11. 14. 

24. tenaci : matted (Dry den). Cf. ' Ripe grasses trammel a 
travelling foot ' (Swinburne, Atalanta). Cf. on 4. 12. 9. 

25. altis . . . ripis : brimming, to the height of their banks 
apparently. Cf. Lucret. 2. 362, summis labentia ripis; Quintil. 
12. 2, 11, ut vis omnium maior est altis ripis multoque gurgitis 
tractu fluentium, etc. Others, with Bentley, take it of the height 
of the banks brought out by the low water of summer. Some 
Mss. and eds. read rivis. 

26. queruntur : cf. on 4. 12. 5 ; Ov. Am. 3. 1. 4, et latere ex 
omni dulce queruntur aves ; Verg. Eel. 1. 59. 

26-27. ' Though haply you should fall asleep | To clink of silver 
waters ' (Mrs. Browning). 

27. lymphis : somewhat tautological instr. abl. obstrepunt : 
absolutely as 3. 30. 10. Markland's conjecture frondes is tempting. 
The foliage then murmurs to the waters, as in Propert. 6. 4. 4, 
mnltaque natims obstrepit arbor aquis, and slumber distils down 
through the rustling leaves, as in Sappho's exquisite fragment, 

aiduaffoiJLfixav 5e if>v\\wi> \ KW/JLO. Karappfi. Cf. 3. 1. 21 ; ThCOC. 8. 

79 ; Verg. Georg. 2. 469 ; Sen. Phaedr. 508, an imitation of the 
whole passage. 

28. quod: its antecedent is the cognate ace. felt with obstre- 
punt, a sound such as to. leves : 2. 16. 15. 

29. at : a corresponding winter scene. Cf. on 3. 7. 22 ; 3. 18. 9. 
tonantis : the standing epithet (cf. on 3. 5. 1) has special fitness 
here. annus : cf. on 3. 23. 8. 

31 sqq. Cf. Herrick, 663 : ' To these, thou hast thy times to goe | 
And trace the Hare i' th' treacherous snow ; | . . . Thou hast thy 
Cockrood, and thy glade | To take the precious pheasant made : | 
Thy Lime-twigs, Snares and Pit-falls then | To catch the pilfring 
birds, not men.' 

31. trudit: a stronger agit. Cf. 2. 18. 15. hinc et hinc: 
5. 97. multa : so Verg. Aen. 1. 334 multa ... hostia. 

32. plagas: 1. 1. 28 ; 3. 5. 32. Lex. s.v. 3. 

33. Smite levi : the smooth pole, or pertica aucupali. Cf . Lex. 
s.v. rara . . . retia : wide-meshed. So Verg. Aen. 4. 131. 



460 NOTES. 

34. turdis : Martial, 3. 58. 20, Sed tendit avidis rete subdolum 
turdis. dolos : apposition with ret ia. 

35. Note the two anapests and the tribrach. But some get rid 
of that in the fifth foot by taking laqueo as a dissyllable by syni- 
zesis. Cf. 1. 79, and 11. 23. advenam: migratory. Milt. P. L., 
' So steers the prudent crane | Her annual voyage, borne on winds.' 

37. curas : attracted to rel. clause for metrical convenience 
probably. 

39-60. Construe quodsi . . . mutter iuvet . . . exstruat (43) . . . 
siccet (46) . . . adparet (48) . . . non me iuverint, etc. (49 sqq. 
apodosis). Nbn . . . descendat, etc., is not felt as a part of the 
apodosis, but as an independent development of the thought that 
far-fetched and dear-bought luxuries would give less pleasure than 
the unbought joys of a simple country home. 

39. in partem : she plays her woman's part ei's Sow uQevu in 
the words of Electra, Eurip. El. 71 ; cf. the picture of chaste 
domestic happiness, Verg. Georg. 2. 523-524. 

41. Sabiiia : cf. 3. 6. 37 sqq. the type of antique virtue 
hand similis tibi Cynthia, as Juvenal says. Cf. the imitation of 
the passage in Stat. Silv. 5. 1. 122 sqq. perusta : tanned, fi\i6- 
Kuvffros ; Arnold, Empedocles, ' His hard-task'd, sunburnt wife, | 
His often laboured fields.' solibus : cf. on 4. 5. 8. ; Verg. Georg. 
1. 66, maturis solibus; Lucret. 5. 251, perusta | solibus adsiduis; 
Epode, 16. 13. 

42. pernicis : cf. impiger, 3. 16. 26. 

43-44 : cf. Gray's Elegy, ' For them no more the blazing hearth 
shall burn, | Or busy housewife ply her evening care ' ; Tibull. 1. 10. 
42. The details of in partem iuvet without conjunction. 

43. sacrum : to the Lares. Cf. 3. 23. 15 ; 4. 5. 34 ; Herrick, 
334, to Larr, ' Go where I will, thou luckie Larr stay here, | Warme 
by a glit'ring chimney all the year.' vetustis : hence dry. 

44. sub : 'against.' 

45. textis cratibus : a-qnois, ' wattled folds.' laetum : cf . on 
4. 4. 13 ; Verg. Georg. 2. 144, armentaque laeta. 

47. hoi na : 3. 23. 3. dulci : hardly yet fermented in the great 
earthen jars where it was kept till bottled. 

48. inemptas : cf . y\vKta na.1itiira.va. (Aristoph. Pax. 593) ; Verg. 
Georg. 4. 132, dapibus mensas onembat inemptis; Martial, 4. 66. 



EPODE II. 461 

5, etc. In imitation of this usage of the Latin poets, English 
writers of the eighteenth century employ the expression freely as a 
laudatory term. Cf. Burke's famous characterization of chivalry : 
' The unbought grace of life, the cheap defence of nations.' 

49. Lucrine oysters were much prized. Cf. Juv. 4. 140 ; Martial, 

6. 11. 5 ; Milt. P. R. 2, * All fish from sea or shore ... for 
which was drain' d | Pontus and Lucrine bay, and Afric coast.' 
For the Lucrine bay, cf. 2. 15. 3. 

51-52. The scar was supposed to be driven down into the Mediter- 
ranean from the Pontus by storms. Ennius, Heduphagetica (8) 
calls it cerebrum lovis paene supremi. For the rhombus, cf. Juv. 
Sat. 4. 39-43. 

52. intonata : deponent. 

53. Afra avis : Numidian hen, guinea-fowl. 

54. attagen : heathcock ? Martial, 13. 61. 

55. pinguissimis : what bears fat olives should itself be fat. 

57. gravi : costive. Cf. Martial, 10. 48. 7. 

58. malvae, etc.: cf. on 1. 31. 16. 

59. Terminalibus : the festival of the god Terminus, VII Kal. 
Mart. (Ov. Fast. 2. 655, spargitur et caeso communis Terminus 
agno}. The rustic tastes meat only when it is provided by a sacri- 
fice or an accident. 

60. lupo : Martial, 10. 48. 14, haedus inhumani raptus ab ore 
lupi. There was a belief that the wolf selected the best, and that 
rek \vtt60pa>Ta were most toothsome (Plut. Sympos. 2. 9). 

63-64. Cf. on 3. 6. 42 ; Verg. Eel. 2. 66, aspice, aratra iugo 
referunt suspensa iuvenci; Ov. Fast. 5. 497. 

65. The swarm of homebred slaves, a sign of rustic opulence, 
sit at supper near the fire in the atrium, while the wooden images 
of the Lares, polished and gleaming in the firelight, seem to smile 
upon the scene. Cf . Sat. 2. 6. 66, quibus . . . ante Larem proprium 
vescor vernasque procaces \ pasco libatis dapibus; Tibull. 2. 1. 23, 
turbaque vernarum, saturi bona signa coloni ; Martial, 3. 58. 22 ; 
4. 66. 10. 

67. Alfius : apparently a traditional type like many of the names 
in the Satires. Cf. Columella, 1. 7. Dryden substitutes ' More- 
craft.' 

68. iam iam : ironically emphasizing his eagerness. 



462 NOTES. 

69-70. redigere and ponere are the technical terms for calling 
in and placing loans, cf. Lex. ; for Ides and Kalends as settling days, 
cf. Cic. Cat. 1. 4 ; Hor. Sat. 1. 3. 87. 



EPODE III. 

Horace has eaten at Maecenas' table a dish perhaps intentionally 
(iocose, 20) overseasoned with garlic, and relieves his feelings by 
mock-heroic imprecations. 

1. olim : ever. Cf . on 4. 4. 6. 

2. guttur fregerit : cf. 2. 13. 6. 

3. edit: archaic subj. for edat. Cf. Sat. 2. 8. 90. cicutis: the 
hemlock, employed in the execution of Socrates. Cf. Epp. 2. 2. 53. 

4. messorum: cf. Verg. Eel. 2. 10, Thestylis et rapido fessis 
tnessoribus aestu \ alia serpyllumque herbas contundit olentis. 

6-6. veneni: with quid. viperinus: 1.8.9. 

7. fefellit : without my knowledge. Cf. 3. 16. 32. malas : 
Verg. Aen. 2. 471, coluber mala gramina pastus. Cf. mala cicitta 
(Sat. 2. 1. 56). 

8. Canidia: cf. Epodes 5 and 17 for this poisonous witch. 
tractavit : handled, had a finger in, cf. 2. 13. 10. 

9. ut : when. Cf . 6. 11. praeter omnes : with mirata est. 
candidum : 1. 18. 11. 

10. Medea: the typical venefica of mythology. ducem: Jason. 
mirata: cf. 4. 9. 15. 

11. igiiota : insueta, cf. 4. 2. 6; they were not wonted to the 
yoke. For the story, cf. on 4. 4. 63. 

12. peranxit: cf. 1. 5. 2, perfusus. A potent drug may be 
poison or antidote. Medea anointed Jason to preserve him from 
the fire-breathing bulls which he was required to yoke in order to 
plow the furrows for the dragon's teeth. Cf. Find. Pyth. 4. 220, 
' Then speedily she showed him the accomplishment of the tasks 
her father set, and many drugs withal gave him for his anointment, 
antidotes of cruel pain.' hoc : emphatic. 

13. paelicem : so in Seneca's Medea she names (Glauce) Cre- 
ousa, the young Corinthian princess for whom Jason abandons, her, 
and whom she slays by the gift of a poisoned robe, escaping, at the 



EPODE IV. 463 

end of the play, in a chariot drawn by winged dragons. Cf. Epode 
5. 61 sqq. ; Eurip. Medea. 

15. siderum : the dog star is meant. Cf. 16. 61 ; 3. 29. 18. 
insedit : cf. Sen. Oed. 47, sed grams et ater incubat terris vapor. 
vapor : heat, as in Lucret. 1. 663. 

16. siticulosae : 2. 41 ; 3. 30. 11 ; Eurip. Alcest. 560, ^lav 

\06fa. 

17. munus: the sacrificial robe steeped in the poisoned blood of 
the Centaur Nessus, which jealous Deianira sent to Hercules as a 
love charm. Cf. 17. 31; Ov. Met. 9. 130; Milt. P. L. 2, -As 
when Alcides from Oechalia crown'd | With conquest felt th' 
envenomed robe, and tore | Through pain up by the roots Thes- 
salian pines ' ; Soph. Trach. efficacis : for all his mighty deeds 
reduced to sob like a girl, as he says in Soph. Trach. 1071. 

19. at : in imprecations, as 5. 1. 



EPODE IV. 

A bitter invective against a typical parvenu of those troublous 
times. Still scarred with the brands of slavery, he struts down the 
Sacred Way, farms huge Apulian estates, sits in the knights' place 
at the theater, and commands the soldiers of Rome. 

Variously referred by scholiasts and moderns to Menas or Meno- 
dorus, the freedman of Sextus Pompey, who twice deserted to 
Augustus (cf. on 3. 16. 15, and Merivale, 3. 194); and to a Vedius 
Rufus supposed to be the magnus nebulo of Cic. ad Att. 6. 1. 25. 

Cf. Anacreon, fr. 21. 

1. sortito: by allotment, or law of nature. The enmity of 
wolves and lambs was proverbial from II. 22. 263. Cf. Ov. 
Ibis, 43. 

3. hibericis: thongs of Spanish broom used for whips. 
peruste : burn, for sting. Cf. 0d\iros, and Epp. 1. 16. 47, lor is 
non ureris; Sat. 2. 7. 58, uri virgis; Martial, 10. 12. 6, colla 
perusta lugo ; Anth. Pal. 5. 254, fj.<iarTi KaTafftivty. 

4. dura : Tibull. 1. 7. 42, crura licet dura compede pulsa sonent. 

5. ambules : strut. Cf. 5. 71 ; Odes, 4. 5. 17. 

7. Sacram . . . viam : the fashionable lounge. Cf . Sat. 1. 9. 1, 



464 NOTES. 

ibam forte via Sacra sicut meus est mos ; 4. 2. 35. n. metiente : 
possibly of the sweeping toga, or merely striding along, pacing ; 
Ov. Met. 9. 447 ; Lucan, 5. 656 ; Wordsworth, ' the sailor measur- 
ing o'er and o'er | His short domain upon the vessel's deck.' 

8. trium : most Mss. read ter. 

9. ut: cf. 1. 9. 1. vertat: the scholiast and Nauck interpret 
averts; others, 'plucks all gaze your way.' Cf. Epp. 2. 1. 196, 
vulgi converteret ora. Kiessling, ' changes their color, makes them 
flush with anger.' Cf. Sat. 2. 8. 35, vertere pallor turn . . . faciem. 
For hue et hue with euntium we should expect hue et illuc. Cf. 
hinc et hinc (2. 31). 

11 sqq. The expression of the liberrima indignatio. Cf. libera 
bills (11. 16). 

11. sectuB : a stronger caesus. triumviralibus : the triumviri 
capitales inflicted summary punishment on slaves, foreigners, and 
the lower classes. A herald, perhaps, proclaimed the nature of the 
offense during the whipping, as in Plato's Laws, 917 D. 

13. 'Plows' is a poetical 'possesses.' Cf. 1. 26. 

14. ' In his cool hall with haggard eyes | The Roman noble lay | 
He drove abroad in furious guise | Upon the Appian way ' (Arnold, 
Obermann). mannis: 3.27.7; Lucret. 3. 1061,'cwm'f agensman- 
nos ad villam praecipitanter. The Appian Way led to the Falernian 
vineyards. terit: cf. Martial, 11. 13, quisquis Flaminlam teris 
viator , Statius, Silv. 2. 2. 12, Appia longarum teritur regina via- 
rum. 

15-16. He snaps his fingers at the famous law of L. Roscius 
Otho, Tribune of the people 67 B.C., which reserved for the equites 
the fourteen rows of seats in the theater next to the senators, who 
occupied the orchestra. Cf. Epp. 1. 1. 58, and Juvenal and Martial 
passim. 

15. magnus : with scornful irony. 

17. quid attinet : what is the use of sending ships against the 
runaway slaves of Pompey's piratical fleet, when we ourselves make 
military tribunes out of slaves ? 

17-18. ora rostrata navium : virtually equals naves rostratas. 

20. hoc, hoc : this angry repetition frequent in epodes. Cf. 
5. 53; 6. 11; 7. 1 ; 14. 6; 17. 1 ; 17. 7. 



EPODE V. 465 



EPODE V. 

Canidia, the venomous witch, in company with three grewsome 
hags, is about to torture to death a young boy in order to prepare 
from his liver and marrow a love philter (37-38) for her faithless 
paramour, old Varus (73). The scene of the horrid drama is a 
house in the Subura at Rome, not Naples, as has sometimes been 
inferred from 43. Lines 1-10 contain the pitiful appeals of the 
child, dimly aware of the fate in store for him. From 15 to 24 
Canidia casts into the magic flames ingredients resembling those 
of the witches' caldron in Macbeth. Lines 25-28 briefly depict 
Sagana sprinkling the house with unholy water. In 29-40 Veia 
digs the pit in which the naked child is to be planted up to the 
chin, there to die with starving eyes fixed on food beyond his 
reach. Lines 41-46 tell of the presence, affirmed by the gossips of 
Neapolis, of lewd Folia, who can draw down the moon and stars 
like a Thessalian witch ; 49-82 repeat Canidia's invocations of the 
powers of darkness, her objurgations of her disreputable old lover 
still unaffected by her conjurations, her dark hints of yet more 
dreadful spells to which she may resort. Thereupon, 83-102 the 
despairing child breaks out into open imprecations, and threatens 
that his ghost will haunt her. 

The whole is a genre picture, a dramatic study of the hideous 
superstitions that flourished in the teeming lower life of the cosmo- 
politan capital. Cf. Ov. Am. 1. 8 ; Cic. Vat. 14 ; Apuleius, Apol. 
47 ; C. I. L. VI. 19747, an inscription on a boy supposed to have 
been similarly done to death by a witch. 

That Canidia was a mistress of Horace with whom he had quar- 
reled, that her real name was Gratidia, and that to her is addressed 
the Palinode of 1. 16, are unverified fancies of the scholiasts. 
Epode 17 is a mock recantation of this poem and an appeal for 
mercy by the poet. There are further allusions to her in Epode 
3. 8 ; Sat. 1. 8 ; Sat. 2. 1. 48 ; 8. 95. 

1-2. Nay by all the gods. at : cf . Epode 3. 19 ; Verg. Aen. 2. 
535. quidquid : so Lydorum quidquid, etc., 'all the Lydians' 
(Sat. 1. 6. 1). 

3. fert : imports, means. 
2n 



466 NOTES. 

4. voltus in : 1. 2. 40. 
6. te : Canidia. 

6. Lucina : C. S. 15. veris : a sneer of the poet not wholly 
appropriate in the mouth of the child. Cf. 17. 50. 

7. The purple hem of the toga praetexta of childhood ought to 
protect him, but does not ; hence inane. 

8. improbaturum : litotes. 

11-14. The child is stripped by the witches. insignibus: the 
bulla and praetexta. corpus : apposition with^Her. 

15-16. A Medusa-like head. Cf. furiale caput (3. 11. 17). 

17. caprificos : often mentioned as growing on tombstones and 
abandoned walls ; Juv. 10. 145 ; Martial, 10. 2. 9, marmora Mes- 
salae findit caprificus ; Tenn. Princ., 'And the wild fig-tree split | 
Their monstrous idols.' 

18. funebris : cf. 2. 14. 23. 

19-20. Construe : ova strigfs uncta (2. 1. 5) sanguine ranae (cf. 
Lex. s.v. rubeta) plumamque (strigis). 

21. lolcos: in Thessaly. Cf. 1. 27. 21. n. Hiberia : near 
Colchis in the Pontus. Cf. Verg. Eel. 8. 95, haec Panto mihi lecta 
venena. With the whole, cf. the witches' scene in Macbeth, and 
Propert. 4. 5. 27-30. 

24. Colchicis : 2. 13. 8. n. 

25. expedita : succincta. Sagaiia : the tribrach expresses the 
lightness of her movements. 

26. Avernales : lake Avernus was an entrance of hell, and its 
waters were appropriate in the rites of the infernal deities. Cf. 
Verg. Aen. 4. 512. 

28. currens : balancing expedita, not limiting horret. 

29. Ruthless, deterred by no sense of guilt. conscientia: is not 
quite our ' conscience. ' It is more the knowledge of the guilty 
secret, conscire sibi. 

30. duris : perhaps suggests her hard heart. Cf. 3. 11. 31. 
humum : of the inner court or impluvium. 

32. quo : with infossus. 

33. longo : lengthened by torture. bis terque : often, repeat- 
edly, cf . ' once and again ' ; bis terve, two or three times at most. 
mutatae : shifted to whet his desire. 

34. iuemori : with dat., an expressive coinage. 



EPODE V. 467 

35. cum promineret : is equivalent to a participle of attendant 
circumstance. 

36. suspensa mento, etc. : i.e., swimmers. Cf. Macaulay, 
Horat. 62, 'And our good father Tiber | Bore bravely up his chin.' 

37. exsecta : exsucta is also read. iecur : the seat of passion. 
The boy's liver dried with unsatisfied longing for food would com- 
municate the property of awakening desire to the philter. For this 
development of the idea similia similibus, cf. J. S. Mill, Logic, 1. 
3. 8, and the advertisements of patent medicines. 

39. cum semel : cf. 4. 7. 21. 

41. defuisse : she would have been missed ! Cf. 2. 1. 10. n. 

43. otiosa : idle, gossipy. Cf . Ov. Met. 15. 711, in otia natam \ 
Parthenopen. 

44. omne, etc.: every village and villa on the luxurious bay of 
Naples. 

45-46. F. Q. 3. 3. 12, ' For he [Merlin] by words could call out 
of the sky | Both sun and moon, and make them him obey.' Cf. 
Epode 17. 6; Verg. Eel. 8. 69; Aristoph. Clouds 748; Propert. 
1. 1. 19 ; Tibull. 1. 2. 43 ; Plat. Gorg. 513 A. 

47. hie : here (upon), then. inresectum: as befits a fury. 
Cf. 1. 6. 18. 

48. rodens : in her rage. Cf. Propert. 2. 4. 13, et saepe immeri- 
tos coivumpas dentibus ungues; Martial, 4. 27. 5. 

49. dixit . . . tacuit : probably merely the familiar idiom of 
dicenda tacenda locutus, Epp. 1. 7. 72, faro. KO.\ &ppijra. But tacuit 
has been rendered 'or rather thought,' as if even she would not 
venture to give such thoughts utterance. 

50. arbitrae : witnesses. Cf. Lex. and Milton's ' overhead the 
moon sits arbitress.' 

51. Diana : of the crossways = Hecate ; cf. Medea in Ov. Met. 
7. 194, tuque triceps Hecate quae coeptis conscia nostris, etc. 
silentium : a condition of magic as of holy rites. 

53. hostilis : belongs to the formula of ancient prayers. Cf. 1. 
21. 15; 3.27.21. 

55-56. Cf. the description of night in Verg. Aen. 4. 522. 

57-60. She prays that the dogs may bark at the perfumed old 
dandy as he pursues his amours in the slums of the Subura, or that 
they may give her notice of his approach to her door (Verg. Eel. 



468 NOTES. 

8. 107). If the latter is meant, the contemptuous tone expresses 
the poet's feeling rather than hers. quod omnes rideant : closely 
with senem . . . adulterum. Cf. Satan's speech in Milt. P. L. 
10, 'him by fraud I have seduced | From his creator, and, the more 
to increase your wonder, with an apple.' 

61 gqq. Why have her spells failed? minus: idiomatic with 
valent. Cf. 1. 2. 27. 

62. venena Medeae : identical with those of Medea. In the 
Medea of Euripides, Jason abandons Medea in order to marry 
the daughter of King Creon of Corinth. The forsaken wife sends 
the new bride a poisoned robe, which corrodes her flesh and causes 
her to die in exquisite torture. Medea then slays her own children 
and escapes in a car drawn by winged dragons to Athens. 

66. munus : apposition with palla. 

66. abstulit : 2. 16. 29. 

67-70. She has missed no herb required for the philter. And 
yet he sleeps in his perfumed bed oblivious of every mistress (in- 
cluding Canidia) . Or, possibly, he sleeps in a couch anointed with 
(drugs to bring) oblivion of every mistress (other than Canidia) . 

71-72. I have it the spell of some more potent witch frees him. 
ambulat : Epode 4. 5. 

73-78. No ordinary potion, no mere Marsic spell will I employ 
to bring thee back. 

74. caput : 1. 24. 2. n. 

76. For Marsic spells, cf. Epode 17. 29 ; Verg. Aen. 7. 760. 

77. maius : sc. aliquid. 

78. fastidienti : sc. me. 

79. inferius : scanned inferyus. 

81-82. utt bitumen: cf. Verg. Eel. 8. 82. atria: sooty, 
smoky. 
88. sub haec : thereupon. 

85. unde : i.e. with what words. Cf. Dido's quae quibus ante- 
feram (Verg. Aen). 

86. Thyesteas : such imprecations as Thyestes utters in the 
play when he learns that he has been made to devour the flesh of 
his own children, Aesch. Ag. 1600 sqq. ; Enn. fr. 309 ; Cic. Tusc. 
1. 107, in Pis. 43 ; Sen. Thyest. 

87-88. venena, etc. : sorceries, witch, cannot reverse (confound) 



EPODE VI. 469 

right and wrong after the fashion of men. Cf. Verg. Georg. 1. 506, 
fas versum atque nefas. For vicem, cf . Lex. s.v. vicis II. 2. 0. 
This rendering treats maya as a noun, and non . . . non as pathetic 
repetition. Others render : ' magic philters cannot reverse right and 
wrong, nor (avert ?) human retribution (the punishment that 
awaits guilty men).' Vicem is then explained by vices, 1. 28. 82. 
M<i [Hi non is Haupt's emendation of the Mss. magnum, which is 
rendered ' change the great (divine) laws of right and wrong,' with 
the alternative interpretations of humanam vicem already given. 

89. detestatio : ' my solemn curse.' 

90. Cf. 1. 28. 34. 

91-93. Cf. Dido's threat, Verg. Aen. 4. 385, et cum frigida mors 
anima seduxerit artus \ omnibus umbra locis adero. 

93. quae vis : such is the -power of. Cf. Livy, 3. 68, on the 
manes of the murdered Virginia. 

95. adsidens : like an incubus. 

97 sqq. ' You, foul hags, will be stoned by the mob and your 
bodies cast to the vultures of the Esquiline ; my parents alas, not 
I, will see it.' 

100. Esquilinae : for Maecenas' purification and conversion into 
villa grounds, of the ' Potter's Field ' there cf. Sat. 1. 8. 14 ; 
Lanciani, Ancient Rome, p. 67. 



EPODE VI. 

Invective against a cowardly defamer, a hound who snaps at the 
wayfarer and flees the wolf. But Horace is a faithful shepherd- 
dog who can bite back, a bull with sharp horns for his enemies, a 
second Archilochus or Hipponax, who will not tamely submit to 
insult. 

1. hospites : passers by. So in epitaphs, and, perhaps, Catull. 
4. 1, phaselus Hie quern videtis hospites. 

3. quin : Verg. Eel. 2. 71, quin tu . . . paras? But here it is 
more of a direct question. potes : virtually audes. Cf. 8. 11. 31. 

4-5. remorsurum : cf . on 2. 3. 4. For Molossian and Spartan 
hounds, cf. Verg. Georg. 3. 405 ; Mids. Night's Dream, 4. 1, 'they 
bay'd the bear | With hounds of Sparta.' 



470 NOTES. 

6. via: Lucret. 6. 1220, fida canum vis; Verg. Aen. 4. 132, 
odora canum vis ; Theoc. 5. 100, KVOIV <f>t\oirotfj.vi>s. 

7. agam : the image and the thing compared are blended. 
sublata : arrecta. Cf. demittit aures (2. 13. 34). nives: 2.30; 
1. 37. 19. 

8. fera : attracted to case of quaecumque. 

9-10. His bark is terrible, but a morsel of meat contemptuously 
flung to him (proiectum) stays his bite. Cf. Cerberus (Verg. Aen. 
6. 422). 

12. cornua : cf. the proverbial faenum habet in cornu (Sat. 
1. 4. 34) of a vicious bull. 

13. The satirists Archilochus and Hipponax were said to have 
driven their victims Lycambes and Bupalus to suicide. infido 
gener : Lycambes promised Archilochus the hand of his daughter, 
Neobule, and then broke faith. 

15. an: cf. 17. 76. atro : cf. Epp. 1. 19. 30, versibus atris; 
Martial, 5. 28. 7, robiginosis cuncta dentibus rodit. dente: cf. on 
4. 3. 16 ; Epp. 2. 1. 150, doluere cruento \ dente lacessiti. 

16. inultus : probably with subject of flebo, not with puer ; but 
cf. order in 1. 34. 

EPODE VII. 

Hold your fratricidal hands ! Too much of Latin blood has been 
spilt in wars that bring no triumphs. When wolf spares wolf, 
what curse is Jhis that sets Roman against Roman ? The curse of 
a brother's blood that stained Rome's first walls. 

Perhaps written in B.C. 38 on the prospect of a renewal of hos- 
tilities with Sextus Pompeius. 

There is an imitation (addressed to the English) by Duke 
(Johnson's Poets, 9. 222). 

1. quo quo : cf. 4. 20 n. scelesti : cf. 1. 2. 29 ; 1. 35. 33 ; 2. 

1. 5. ruitis : cf. 1. 3. 26. dexteris : dat. with aptantur. Cf. 

2. 12. 4. 

2. conditi : sheathed after Philippi. Cf. C. S. 33. 

3. Three constructions have been proposed, super campis atque 
(super) Neptuno ; (in) campis atque super Neptuno ; superfusum 
campis, etc. 



EPODE VII. 471 

5. non ut: the preceding rhetorical question is virtually an 
affirmation. For the thought, cf. Lucan, 1. 10, cumque superba 
foret Babylon spolianda tropaeis. . . . Bella geri placuit nullos 
habitura triumphos ? invidae : cf. Sal. Cat. 10. 1, Carthago 
aemula imperi Romani. 

6-7. arces : 2. 6. 22. intactus : cf. 3. 24. 1. The hasty inva- 
sion of Britain by Julius Caesar is ignored. Cf. 3. 5. 3 ; 1. 35. 30. 

7-8. descenderet . . . via : cf. on 4. 2. 35. 

8. catenatus: cf. Jul. Caesar, 1. 1, 'wherefore rejoice? | What 
conquest brings he home ? | What tributaries follow him to Rome, | 
To grace in captive bonds his chariot wheels ? ' 

9. secundum vota : the natural feeling of an enemy. Cf . 2. 
1. 31 ; II. 1. 255. sua : cf. 16. 2. 

11-12. Umquarn, besides doing duty with mos fuit, is felt as 
numquam with feris owing to the position of neque : never fierce 
to their own kind (except to their unlike). Some editors read 
numquam, holding that fuit as gnomic can dispense with the 
adverb. Others construe in dispar with mos, not with feris. The 
thought is a commonplace. Cf. Plin. N. H. 7. Praef. 5 ; Seneca, 
Controv. 2. 9 ; Sen. Ep. 95. 31 ; Juv. 15. 159. 

13. Is it sheer madness, fate, or conscious guilt ? caccua : 
Verg. Aen. 2. 244, caecique furore. vis acrior : apparently a 
variation of the legal phrase, vis maior quam Graeci Oeov Blav . . . 
appellant (Gaius); ' the act of God.' Cf. the vis abdita quaedam of 
Lucretius, 5. 1231, and supra, 2. 17. 6, maturior vis. 

15. albus . . . pallor : so Tasso, ' bianca pallidezza.' 

17. sic est : it is fate determined by guilt, as in the Greek 
drama. agunt : so ditaicciv of avenging furies. Cf. 5. 89. 

18. fraternae : i.e. of Remus, cf. Lucan, 1. 95, fraterno primi 
maduerunt sanguine muri. 

19. ut : cf . on 4. 4. 42. in terrain : cf . Aesch. Choeph. 401 ; 
Eumen. 261 ; Genesis 4. 10, ' And he said, What hast thou done ? 
the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground.' 
So strong was the feeling that the ground was sometimes covered 
to prevent the victim's blood from reaching it. Cf. Frazer, Golden 
Bough, 1. 181. 

20. sacer : see Lex. s.v. II. B. b. 



472 NOTES. 



EPODE IX. 

A song of triumph on the receipt of the news of the victory of 
Actium, September, B.C. 81. The direction of Antony's flight is 
still unknown (29-32). Cf. on 1. 37, Epode 1, and Sellar, p. 124. 

I. repostum : cf. 3. 28. 2, reconditum. For the syncope, cf. 1. 
36. 8; 4. 13. 20. ad: for. 

3. sub: 1. 5. 3. alta: 3. 29. 10. 

4. beate : generally rich and happy (1. 4. 14), especially happy 
to-day. 

5. mixtum : for the blending of wind and stringed instruments, 
cf. II. 18. 495 ; Pindar, 0. 7. 12. 

6. barbarum = Phrygian, as opposed to Dorian. Cf. 3. 19. 17 ; 
4. 1. 22 ; 2. 4. 9 ; Catull. 64. 264. 

7. nuper : after the defeat of Sextus Pompeius at Naulochus, 
B.C. 36. actus : cf. ayam (6. 7); sc. fugatus (in) freto (Sicnlo). 
Neptunius : Sextus Pompeius called himself the Son of Neptune 
(Appian, B. C. 5. 100). 

8. ustis: cf. 1. 37. 13; Appian, 5. 121. 

10. servis : with detraxerat grammatically, but by scornful im- 
plication also with amicus. Cf. 4. 19. n. 

II. Romanus is felt by itself (3. 6. 2; Verg. Aen. 6. 861), and 
miles is felt in separate antithesis to spadonibus, but we need not 
commit the construction to a comma before or after miles. 
posteri : cf. 2. 19. 2. 

12. emancipatus : the bond slave of. See Lex. The schol. 
on Aen. 8. 696 says Antony bade his legions obey Cleopatra. Cf. 
Shaks. Ant. and Cleop. 3. 7, ' so our leader's led | And we are 
women's men.' 

13. spadonibua: cf. on 1. 37. 10; Plut. Ant. 60; Shaks. Ant. 
and Cleop. 3. 7, ' and 'tis said in Rome, | That Photinus an eunuch 
and your maids, | Manage this war. ' 

14. rugosis: cf. Ter. Eun. 689. potest : 3. 11. 31. 

16. sol: from Homer down, the sun, who oversees and over- 
hears all things (II. 3. 277), has been invoked as a witness 
of shameful deeds. Cf. Aesch. Choeph. 986. conoplum : a 
mosquito net, from Kiovcety ; then tent or luxurious canopied 



EPODE IX. 473 

couch. Cf. Propert. 4. 10. 45, foedaque Tarpeio conopia tendere 
saxo. 

17. ad hoc : (in disgust) at this. So Bentley, quoting Epp. 1. 
19. 45, ad haec ego naribus utl \ formido. The Mss. vary, and 
editors read at hue, ad hunc, adhuc, etc. Two thousand Galatians 
deserted to Octavius (Plut. Ant. 63) and a part of Antony's fleet 
apparently sought refuge in the port sinistrorsum citae (20), left- 
ward urged, the precise interpretation of which would demand 
more knowledge of the topographical details than we possess. 
It has been taken ' backing water. ' frementes : cf . 4. 14. 23. 
Note verier unt. 

18. canentes: cf. Verg. Aen. 7. 698, ibant aequati numero, 
regemque canebant. 

21. Triumphe : the personified (as in 4. 2. 49) and eagerly 
awaited triumph seems to delay its own progress. 

22. intactas : uncontaininated by human service, unyoked. 
Vergil's intacta totidem cervice iuvencas (Georg. 4. 540). They 
were white and richly adorned for sacrifice. Cf. Plut. Aem. 33 ; 
Macaulay, Capys. 29, 'And deck the bull, Mevania's bull, | The 
bull as white as snow.' 

23-26. Octavius is greater than Marius, who subdued Jugurtha, 
and than Scipio Africanus, who overthrew Carthage. 

24. reportasti : ' Hurrah ! for Manius Curius, | The bravest son 
of Eoine, | Thrice in utmost need sent forth, | Thrice drawn in tri- 
umph home' (Macaulay, Capys. 29). 

25. neque Africanum : nor (so great a captain) in that (Scipio) 
Africanus for whom, etc. Exact parallelism would require ' nor 
from the Punic war,' but Horace varies the expression. Scipio, of 
course, was not buried at Carthage, but her destruction was his 
monument, as Velleius (1. 12. 4) says. Many read Africano, 
sc. bello, and interpret sepulchrum condidit, ended, citing Cicero's 
bellum . . , sublatum ac sepiiltum. But the Jugurthine war was 
also African, and the figure which Caesar helps out by a synonym 
would be harsh here, and would hardly bear expansion into the 
clause cui . . . condidit. 

27. hostis: Antony. He (the poet's imagination tells him) has 
exchanged the general's purple paludamentum for a common sol- 
dier's cloak. So Pompey, after Pharsalia. Cf. Caes. B. C. 3. 96. 



474 NOTES. 

28-29. mutavit: cf. on 1. 17. 2. centum: cf. on 3. 27. 33. 

30. non suis : situs ventus is a favorable wind. Ignoranti quern 
portum petal nullus suus ventus est (Sen. Ep. 71. 3). 

31. exercitatas: cf. 4. 14. 21, exercet. Syrtes: 1. 22. 5; 
2. 6. 3. 

32. incerto : i.e. incertus, aimlessly. 

33. capaciores: cf. 2. 7. 21-23; Catull. 27. 

34-35. Chian and Lesbian were sweet Greek wines which would 
be sickening in excess. Hence vel, or rather (?), the dry tonic 
Caecuban. 

35. nauseam : the ancients were painfully frank. Buecheler, 
to save Horace's taste, argues that he was actually at sea, returning 
from Actium (cf. on Epode 1), and feared seasickness. 

36. metire : wine and water with the cyathi (3. 19. 12). 
38. Lyaeo: 1. 7. 22; 3. 21. 16. 

EPODE X. 

Propempticon to an enemy, the counterpart of 1. 3 ; cf. Swin- 
burne's ' Launch of the Livadia.' 

The poetaster Maevius is damned to everlasting fame by Vergil's 
qui Bavium non odit amet tua carmina, Maevi (Eel. 3. 90). 

1. mala . . . alite: cf. on 1. 15. 5. soluta: 3. 2. 29. 

2. olentem: merely abusive. But cf. Sat. 1. 2. 27. 

3. ut : as in colloquial and older Latin, ut ilium di 'perdant ; 
memento is parenthetical. verberes: cf. on 3. 27. 24. latus: 
1. 14. 4. 

4. auster, etc. : contrast 1. 3. 4. 

5. niger : cf. on 1. 5. 7. inverse : Verg. Aen. 1. 43 ; 1. 84-85. 
6-7. differat: cf. 5. 99. quantus : as fierce as when. 

8. frangit. . . ilices: Lucret. 5. 1096 ; Homer, II. 16, 769. 

10. qua : it is to be not only a starless night, but the prover- 
bially stormy night of Orion's setting. Cf. 1. 28. 21 ; 3. 27. 18 ; 
Epode 15. 7. tristis: 1. 3. 14. 

11. feratur : sc. Maevius. 

12. Graia victorum maims : for this ' derangement of epitaphs,' 
as Mrs. Malaprop would say, see Munro on Lucret. 1. 474 ; Gilder- 



EPODE XIII. 475 



sleeve on Find. Pyth. 4. 149 ; and Find. fr. 112, 
ayf\a, ' a Spartiin bevy of maids.' 

13-14. cum Pallas: cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 39 sqq. ; Homer, Odys. 4. 
499 sqq. usto : cf. cremato, 4. 4. 53. impiam : because of the 
rape of Cassandra from her temple, Verg. Aen. 2. 404. 

15. instat: cf. adest, 1. 15. 9. 

16. luteus : Homer's x^upo" Stos, the yellow paleness of the 
olive southron. Cf. 3. 10. 14, and Tibull. 1. 8. 52. 

17. ilia: deictic, 'hear him'; or perhaps his (customary). 
eiulatio : Cic. Tusc. 2. 55, ingemescere nonnumquam viro concessum 
est idque raro, eiulatus ne mulieri quidem. 

18. aversum : cf. Winter's Tale, 3. 3, 'A thousand knees, | Ten 
thousand years together, . . . could not move the gods | To look 
that way thou wert.' 

19. Idnius : the lower Adriatic. Maevius, like Vergil in 1. 3, is 
going to Greece. udo : Cf. Verg. Georg. 1. 462, umidus Auster; 
Ov. Met. 1. 264, madidis Notus evolat alis. remugiens : 3. 10. 
6. sinus: 1. 33. 16; 3. 27. 19. 

21. opima . . . praeda : cf. Macaulay, Capys. 25, ' And Apen- 
nine's gray vultures | Shall have a noble feast.' curvo : 4. 5. 14. 

22. porrecta : as a corpse. Cf. 3. 10. 3. merges : generally 
for birds of prey (as in Pers. 6. 30). They do not touch corpses. 
iuverit : cibo iuvere is not uncommon. iuveris is the conjecture 
of a painfully explicit mind. 

23. libidinosus . . . caper : the victim is humorously suited to 
the person, olentem (2). 

24. agna : Tempestatibus agnam \ Caedere delude iubet (Verg. 
Aen. 5. 772). 

EPODE XIII. 

Without the winter rages. Let us banish care with wine and 
song and cheerful discourse. Such was the Centaur Cheiron's 
teaching : ' Great Thetis' son, thou wilt not return from Troy. 
Solace all thy troubles there with song and wine.' 

Cf. Odes 1. 9. 

1. contraxit: has narrowed the heavens to 'one cloudless 
chink in a black stormy sky ' (Macaulay); or, 'drawn the clouds 



476 NOTES. 

down close about the earth.' There is a suggestion of contractae 
frontis (Sat. 2. 2. 125), the scowling face of heaven. Contraxit 
may conceivably govern imbres also by zeugma. 

2. deducunt lovem: cf. 1. 1. 25. n.; Verg. Eel. 7. 60, luppiler 
et laeto descendet plurimus imbri; Anacr. fr. 6 (?). siliiae : 
1. 23. 4. 

3. Threicio: &pi\nd<f. Cf. 1. 25. 11. Note hiatus. 

4. de die : i.e. ' which the day presents,' with a further com- 
plicating suggestion of the phrases de die bibere, de die convivia 
facere, etc. virent : 1. 9. 17. n. genua : Homer notes that the 
weakness of old age is felt first in the knees. Cf. Verg. Aen. 
6. 432. 

6. obducta: clouded. senectus: i.e. the moroseness of age. 
Cf. 1. 9. 18. 

6. Cf. 3. 21. 1. n. 

7. cetera : 1. 9. 9 ; 3. 29. 33. But there is more definite ref- 
erence here to the recent anxieties and losses of the civil wars. 
mitte: 1. 38. 3. deus haec, etc.: for thought, cf. 2. 10. 15-17. 
Haec is our present troubles, and possibly the gloomy weather 
which types them. 

7-8. benigna . . . vice : generous compensation. Cf. 1. 4. 1 ; 
4. 14. 13. 

8-9. Achaemenio : 3. 1. 44. perfundi : 1. 5. 2. Cyllenea: 
i.e. of Mercury. Cf. Lex. and 1. 10. 6. n. 

11. grandi : i.e. of heroic stature. cecinit : as an oracle. 
Centaurus : for the education of Achilles by Cheiron, cf. II. 11. 
832 ; Find. Nem. 3. 43. Xfipuvos uTrofl^ai, the counsels of Cheiron, 
is the title of a gnomic poem attributed to Hesiod. Cf. Dodsley's 
Poems, 1. 172. 

12. invicte : may be a noun, as Verg. Aen. 6. 365. mortalis 
dea : cf. 1. 6. 9. n. 

13. temanet: cf. 16. 41, nos manet. Assaraci: i.e. of Troy. 
Cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 284. 

13-14. Cf. Catull. 64. 357, where the fates prophesy of Achilles, 
testis erit magnis virtutibus undo, Scamandri, etc. 

13. frigida : with reference to the cold spring at its source (II. 
22. 151); or general, like Tennyson's 'flow down, cold rivulet, to 
the sea.' parvi : it is ^eyas U1 H- 20. 73. 



EPODE XIV. 477 

14. findunt: cf. Tenn. (Enone, 'river-sundered champaign.' 
lubricus : 'smooth-sliding.' Cf. Lucret. 5. 947. 

15. uiide : with reditum. subtemine: abl. instr. with rvpere. 
The web or spinning of the Fates is or fulfills destiny. Catull. 64. 
327, currite ducentes subtegmina, cun'ite, fusi; Tibull. 1. 7. 1. 
Cf. 2. 3. 16. n. 

16. caerula : cf. 3. 28. 10. n. 

17. illic : the supplicatory embassy finds him singing to the lyre 
(II. 9. 186). 

18. adloquiis : trap-nyopiau (?) ; perhaps slightly personifies aegri- 
moniae. Cf. Catull. 38. 5, qua solatus es adlocutione ? 

EPODE XIV. 

Love's languors will not let Horace complete the promised volume 
of epodes. So burned Teian Auacreon. Maecenas, too, knows 
the flame but more happily. 

1. cur . . . diffuderit depends on rogando (5). 
1-2. imis . . . sensibus : so Verg. Eel. 3. 54, sensibus haec 
imis . . . reponas. 

3. Lethaeos : cf. 4. 7. 27 ; Plato, Rep. 10. 621 ; Verg. Aen. 
6. 714; Keats, Ode to a Nightingale, 'My heart aches, and a 
drowsy numbness pains | My sense, as though of hemlock I had 
drunk, | Or emptied some dull opiate to the drains | One minute 
past, and Lethe- wards had sunk.' ducentia : cf. 3. 1. 21 ; Tibull. 
1. 2. 79, soporem ducere ; Epp. 1. 2. 31. 

4. traxerim : a stronger ducere; 1. 17. 22; 4, 12. 14. Cf. 
fUmr. 

5. candlde : so Epp. 1. 4. 1, he calls Tibullus nostrorum sermo- 
num candide index. Cf. Sat. 1. 5. 41, and the frequent use of 
candid and candour in eighteenth-century English. occidis : 
cf. 2. 17. 1. n. It belongs to the sermo familiaris. Cf. Plaut. 
Men. 922, occidis fabulans. 

6. deus : the god, i.e. Cupid. nam r ' you slay me with your 
questions, for I tell you.' 

7. carmen : -apposition with iambos. For position, cf. Verg. 
Eel. 2. 3, inter densas, umbrosa cacumina, fagos. For promissum, 



478 NOTES. 

cf . promissi carminis auctor (A. P. 45) . iatnbos : the epodes. 
Cf. Epp. 1. 19. 23 ; 2. 2. 59. 

8. umbilicum: cf. Lex. s.v. III. C ; Martial, 4. 89. 1, Ohe iam 
satis est, ohe libelle, \ iam pervenimus usque ad umbilicos. 

9. arsisse : 2. 4. 7 ; 3. 9. 6. 

10. Teium: 1. 17. 18. 

11. flevit : flebiliter cecinit. 

12. non elaboratum : the poems to Bathyllus are not preserved. 
The reference is probably to the simple glyconic measures. 

13. ignis : equivocally of the fire of love, its object, and ' The 
fire that left a roofless Ilion,' (Tenn. Lucret.). Cf. Lucret. 1. 474, 
ignis Alexandri Phrygio sub pectore gliscens; Marlowe, 'the face 
that launch'd a thousand ships, | And burnt the topless towers of 
Ilium.' 

15-16. tino contenta : the standing phrase. Cf. Catull. 68. 95. 
16. macerat : 1. 13. 8. 

EPODE XV. 

Thou didst swear eternal faith to me, Neaera, beneath the moon 
and stars. Now thou art another's. But he, too, be he rich as 
Midas, wise as Pythagoras, beautiful as Nireus, shall weep thy 
changed faith. 

There is a paraphrase by Somervile (Johnson's Poets, 11. 205). 

2-3. inter, etc.: cf. 1. 12. 47. cum: so-called cum inversum 
(G. L. 581). laesura : by perjury. Cf. quo numine laeso (Verg. 
Aen. 1. 8). 

4. in verba, etc. : technically of repeating the military oath, 
sacramentum, at dictation. For another metaphorical use, cf. 
Epp. 1. 1. 14, nullius addictus iurare in verba magistri. 

5-6. 'More closely than the clinging vine | About the wedded 
tree, | Clasp thou thine arms, oh, mistress mine, | About the heart 
of me ' (Lang, A la belle Helene ; after Ronsard). Cf. 1. 36. 20 ; 
Catull. 61. 33. atque: than. 

1. The line is complete in itself. The addition of 1. 8 causes a 
slight anacoluthon. For wolf and lamb, cf. Epode 4. 1. For 
Orion, 1. 28. 21. 



EPODE XVI. 479 

9. intonsos: cf. on 1. 21. 2. For the terms of the oath, cf. 
Verg. Eel. 5. 76 ; Aen. 1. 607. 

10. hunc : my, ' this of ours.' mutuum : 4. 1. 30. 

11. dolitura : Catull. 8. 14, at tu dolebis. virtute : explained 
by viri, etc. (12). If she be not fair to him, he will be too much of 
a man to endure her caprices longer. Cf. Ter. Eun. 154, eu, noster, 
laudo, tandem perdoluit ; vires. 

13. potiori : 3. 9. 2. 

14. et : English idiom expects an adversative. parepi : one 
whose soul doth bear an equal yoke of love. Cf. on 1. 33. 10 ; 
Propert. 1. 1. 32. 

15. offensi : sc. Flacci from Flacco (12). When I have once 
taken offense and the iron has entered into my soul, my resolution 
will not give way to your beauty. Offensi is Bentley's conjecture 
for offensae, which can be construed with formae, thy beauty once 
grown hateful (a stone of offense) to me. 

16. si ... dolor : he postpones the ultimatum ; the door is 
not yet shut ; nondum perdoluit. 

17. et tu : Tibull. 1. 2. 88, at tu, qui laetus rides mala nostra, 
caveto ; Id. 1. 5. 69, At tu, qui potior nunces, meafata timeto. 

18. superbus incedis : the complacent strut of the successful 
rival. Cf. 4. 5. 

19. sis ... licebit : rare for sis licet. So Sat. 2. 2. 59. 

20. tibi : 2. 16. 34. Pactolus fluat : as for Midas, \4yerai 8* 
roiircfrbv TlaKTtii\bv ^puar'bv pevtrai (Schol. Aristoph. Plut. 287). 

21-22. Pythagorae : cf. on 1. 28. 10. arcana : the secret or 
esoteric doctrines. Nirea : 3. 20. 15. 

24. ast: archaic form used in Sat. 1. 6. 125, 1. 8. 6, and by Ver- 
gil. riser o : the fut. perf. which represents the thing as good as 
done, expresses confidence or colloquial emphasis. So in Greek. 



EPODE XVI. 

A second generation is wearing away in civil strife, and Rome, 
that no foreign foe availed to harm, will be made a desert by her 
own impious offspring (1-14). What resource remains for those 
who would choose the better part ? Let us abandon our city like 
the Phocaeans of old, and swear a mighty oath not to return till 



480 NOTES. 

stones shall swim and the lion lie down with the lamb (1538). 
Somewhere in the western seas the fabled islands of the blest await 
us, reserved by Jupiter for the saving remnant of the golden age in 
an age of iron. 

Cf. Epode 7. The poem may have been written at the outbreak 
of the Perusine war, B.C. 41. At any rate it represents Horace's 
feelings in the years immediately following Philippi, before he 
became the friend of Maecenas and accepted the rule of Octavian. 
Cf. Sellar, p. 120, ' Horace seems to express the feelings of the 
losing side before the peace of Brundisium ; Vergil [Eel. 4], those 
of the winning side after its conclusion. ' 

The motif of the Fortunate Isles may have been suggested to 
Horace by the tradition that Sertorius after his defeat purposed to 
take refuge in the Canary islands. Plut. Sert. 8; Sallust, fr. 1. 61. 
For the Islands of the Blest in Greek literature, cf. Rohde, Psyche, 
p. 68. 504 sqq.; Odyss. 4. 563; Hes. Works and Days, 170; Pind. 
01. 2. 78, etc. In modern poetry cf. inter alia, Shelley, Epipsy- 
chidion ; Tenn. Voyage of Maldune ; Teires. in fin. after Pindar, 
Ulysses ; Dennis Florence McCarthy, The Voyage of St. Brendan, 
pt. 6 ; Andrew Lang, Fortunate Islands. 

The youthful ardor and luxuriant imagery of the poem have 
made it a general favorite. 'Dean Berkeley used to apply the 
same description to Bermuda, and his scheme of going thither, and 
was so fond of the epode . . . that he got Mr. Pope to translate it 
into English' (Spence's Anecdotes). Berkeley's famous poem, ' On 
the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America' (' Westward 
the course of empire takes its way ' ) , witnesses to this admiration. 

1. altera : the first generation was that of Marius and Sulla 
(B.C. 88). aetas ; 1. 9, and 1. 35. 35 ; 3. 6. 46. 

2. Cf. 7. 10; Odes, 3. 4. 65; Livy, Praef., ut iam magnitudine 
laboret SM, and Lucan's nee se Roma ferens (1. 72) express a 
slightly different shade of thought. 

3. Marsi : the leaders in the Social war, B.C. 91 (cf. 3. 14. 18), 
the avowed object of which was to destroy Rome and make Cor- 
finium the capital of Italy. 

4. Porsgnae : ' Lars Porsena of Clusium | By the nine gods he 
swore | That the great house of Tarquin should suffer wrong no 



EPODE XVI. 481 

more' (Macaulay, Horatius). The legend of Horatius was perhaps 
invented to hide the fact that the Etruscans took Rome. For 
PorsSna, cf. Macaulay's preface. 

5. Capuae: the Romans never forgave Capua for going over 
to Hannibal after Cannae and aiming at the hegemony of Italy. 
Cf. Livy, 23. 6 ; Cic. de Leg. Agr. 2. 87. Spartacus : 3. 14. 19. n. 

6. novis rebus : in time of revolution (treason). The story is 
familiar from Cic. in Cat. 3. 4 ; Sail. Cat. 40 sqq. 

7. The invasion of the Ciuibri and Teutones, B.C. 102-101. 
caerulea : blue-eyed. Cf. Juv. 13. 164 ; Tac. Ger. 4. 

8. parentibus abominatus : cf. 1. 1. 24. 

9. Cf. 1. 35. 34. devoti : 7. 20 ; Odes, 3. 23. 10. 

10. feria, etc.: cf. 3. 3. 40-41. n. 

11. barbarus: cf. 3. 6. 14. 

12. eques : with barbarus, but not necessarily in translation ; 
cf. Ezekiel 26. 11, 'With the hoofs of his horses shall he tread 
down all thy streets.' 

13. osaa : though Romulus was rapt to heaven in the chariot of 
Mars (3. 3. 15. n.), his grave was shown post Rostra. 

15-16. The sentence takes an unexpected turn. If we must be 
explicit, the simplest construction is (si) forte quid expediat commu- 
niter (quaeritis) aut (si) melior pars quaeritis carere, etc. From 
the question of the best counsel for all, there is a sudden shift to 
the desire of the better part to be rid altogether of what is past 
mending. Some Eds. read quod and take carere as inf. of purpose 
with expediat, i.e. ad carendum. For pars, cf. C. S. 39. 

17. hac : sc. (quam) ire (21). Fhocaeorum, etc.: B. C. 534, 
rather than submit to Harpagus, the general of Cyrus. Cf. Herod. 
1. 165. 

18. exsecrata : having bound themselves by imprecations. 
QwKatwv dpa 'seems to have been proverbial (Herod. I. c. ivoffiaavro 

Iffxvpas Kardpas, etc.). 

19. agroa . . . Lares : with profugit. Some take them with exse- 
crata or with reliquit. 

19-20. habitanda . . . reliquit, etc. : cf. 3. 3. 40. 

21. Cf. 3. 11. 49. 

22. vocabit : cf. Catull. 4. 19, laeva sive dextera \ Vocaret aura. 
protervus : cf. 1. 26. 2. 

2i 



482 NOTES. 

23. sic placet : suggesting the legal placetne? placere Senatui, 
and the like. 

23-24. secunda . . . alite : cf. 10. 1. 

25. in haec (verba) : 15. 4. n. One aSi/varov sufficed the Pho- 
caeans. They sunk a mass of iron, and swore not to return till it 
came to the surface. The rhetorical Roman elaborates the conceit : 
the river Poe shall wash the mountain tops, the Apennine shall 
extend into the sea. animals shall join in monstrous unions, and 
the shaggy goat grow smooth and inhabit the salt sea. For this 
rhetoric of impossibles (dStWra) cf. II. 1. 234 ; Archil, fr. 74 ; 
Verg. Eel. 1. 59-64; 8. 27; Odes, 1. 33. 7; Herrick, 154, 198. 
renarint : 2 Kings 6. 6, 'and the iron did swim '; Swinb., the 
Bloody Son, ' When chuckie-stanes shall swim in the sea, | O dear 
mither'; Plut. Aristeid. 24. 

30. monstra : the unnatural union makes them 'prodigious.' 

32. miluo : dat., trisyllable. 

33. credula : proleptic. ravos : 3. 27. 3. 

35. haec : obj. of exsecrata. et quae : and whatever else. 
reditus : pi. mainly metri causa, cf. 3. 5. 52 ; 3. 27. 76. dulcea : 
Homer's MfAujS^s or y\vxepbs v6<nos (Od. 11. 99 ; 22. 323). 

36. Cf. 1. 18. 

37. pars: cf. 1. 15. 

37-38. The unteachable mob, the weakling and the faint-heart, 
may remain. exspes : 'We judge of a man's wisdom by his 
hope' (Emerson). 

38. inominata : only here ; but cf. 3. 14. 11. n. 

39. virtus, muliebrem : cf. 1. 6. 9. n. tollite : cf/2. 5. 9. 

40. Etrusca : of Etruria, supposing them to follow the coast. 
praeter : 3. 27. 31. 

41. nos : the bard and the melior pars whom he now addresses. 
manet : cf. Milt. P. L. 9, 'Ale of these nor skilled nor studious, 
higher argument | Remains.' 1 circumvagus : coined by Horace, 
perhaps for Homer's Stream of Ocean returning upon itself, tydppoos. 
Cttjcircumftuus (Ov. Met. 1. 30). This merges in the idea of the 
all-surrounding ocean, Aesch. Prom. 138; Bryant, Thanatopsis, 
' and, poured round all, | Old Ocean's gray and melancholy waste.' 
Porphyrio construed circum with arva, and, though that is not the 
construction, the idea is suggested. Cf. Pind. O. 2. 79 ; Shelley, 



EPODE XVI. 483 

Hellas, ' where the stream | Of ocean sleeps, around those foam- 
less isles ' ; Swinb. Atalauta : ' Lands indiscoverable in the un- 
heard-of west, | Round which the strong stream of a sacred sea | 
Rolls without wind forever,' etc. 

41-42. arva . . . arva : cf. 4. 5. 17-18, rura . . . rura. 

43. reddit: cf. on 1. 3. 7, 1. 9. 20, 3. 1. 21, 4. 1. 8. Cererem : 
cf. 1. 7. 22. n. inarata : Verg. Eel. 4. 39-40 ; Ronsard, 'La terre 
sans labeur de sa grasse marnuielle | Toute chose y produit.' 

45. numquani fallentis : cf. 3. 1. 30. n. 

46. suaru : i.e., not grafted. Cf. Verg. Georg. 2. 82, non sua 
poma. pulla dark, ripe. 

47. mella. etc.: cf. Ov. Met. 1. 112 (the golden age), Flavaque 
de viridi stillabant ilice mella. montibus altis . cf. montibus e 
magnis decursus aquai (Lucret. 5. 943). 

48. desilit pede : 3. 13. 16. Cf. Lucret. 5. 272, liquido pede 
detulit undas. Words : ' No fountain from its rocky cave | E'er 
tripped with foot so free.' 

49. iniussae : cf. Verg. Eel. 4. 21, Ipsae lacte domum referent 
distenta capellae \ ubera. 

51. vespertinus ; cf. 1. 15. 19. n. 

52. intumescit alta . swells and heaves with. Others take alta 
of the deep soil, and intumescit of the snakes swollen with wrath. 

53. Some editors plausibly transfer 11. 60-61 to this place. ut : 
cf. 3. 4. 17. n. 

54. Aquosus : cf. 2. 7. 21. n. ; 2. 2. 15. n.; Propert. 3. 8. 51, 
Aquosus Orion. radat imbribus: cf. 2. 9. 1. n. 

55. urantur : cf. Verg. Aen. 3. 141, sterilis exurere Sirius agros. 

56. utrumque : i.e. either extreme of inoist or hot. temper- 
ante : cf. 1. 12. 16. n. 

57-60. For vein of sentiment, cf. on Odes, 1. 3. 

57. pinus : so -Catullus' description of the voyage of the ship 
Argo .begins, Peliaco quondam prognatae vertice pinus (64. 1). Cf. 
1. 14. 12. 

58. impudica : Medea, who left her home with Jason. Cf. 3. 
27. 49, impndens. 

59. Sidonii : The Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon were the first 
great navigators. cornua : Lex. s.v. II. B. 2. e. ; Verg. Aen. 3. 
549. 



484 NOTES. 

60. laboriosa : cf. 17. 16. Tenn. Lotos-Eaters, 'Most weary 
seem'd the sea, weary the oar, | Weary the wandering fields of 
barren foam.' 

61-62. Cf. 53. n. contagia : Verg. Eel. 1. 50-51. astri: i.e 
Sirius. Cf. 3. 29. 18 ; Alcaeus fr. 40, rb yap Harpov it tpn (\\trai. 

62. impotentia : cf. 1. 37. 10. n.; 3. 30. 3. 

64. inquinavit : alloyed. 

65. aere : cf. 1. 2. 4. n. dehinc ferro : Hesiod's five ages are 
gold, silver, bronze, age of Trojan heroes, iron (Works and Days, 
109 sqq.). Cf. Ov. Met. 1. 89. sqq.; Juv. 13. 30. quorum : with 
piis the melior pars. Others take it with fuga, an escape from 
which. 

66. secunda : cf. 1. 23. 

EPODE XVII. 
An ironical palinode to Canidia. Cf. Epode 5. 

1. iam iam : cf. Catull. 63, 73, iam iam dolet quod egi. do 
manus : as a captive yields his hands to the fetter ; yield, ' throw 
up the sponge.' 

3. non movenda : not to be disturbed (vexed) with impunity, 
inviolable, possibly pitiless. 

4. libros : of magic. So Prospero says, 'And deeper than did 
ever plummet sound, | I'll drown my book.' 

5. retixa : proleptic. They are nailed to the spangled vault of 
heaven. Cf. 1. 28. 11. devocare : cf. 5. 45-46. n. 

6. sacris : may mean one thing to Canidia and another to 
Horace. Cf. 7. 20. n. 

7. For the rhombus, or ' bull-roarer,' whirled at the end of a 
string in magic rites, cf. Lang, Custom and Myth, p. 29 ; Proper t. 
4. 5. 26 ; Lucian, Dial. Meretr. 4. 5. citum (ciere ; cf. 9. 20) : 
proleptic with retro. Reversing the motion unbinds the spell. 

8-18. Three mythological instances of supplication and relent- 
ment. (1) Telephus, king of Mysia, wounded by Achilles, was 
told by the oracle that he could be healed only by the rust of the 
spear that bit him. Achilles took pity on him. (2) The body of 
Hector was withheld from burial by Achilles ' Till Priam did what 



EPODE XVII. 485 

no man born hath done, | Who dared to pass among the Argive 
bands, | And clasp'd the knees of him that slew his son, | And 
kiss'd his awful homicidal hands' (Lang, Helen of Troy, 5. 30). 
Cf. 1. 10. 14. n. (3) Ulysses constrained rather than implored 
Circe to restore his companions, transformed into swiue by her 
spells (Odyss. 10. 320 sqq.). 
8. nepotem : Thetis was daughter of Nereus. 

11. unxere in the style of the Epodes may stand for the rites of 
burial. Others, luxere, lamented, with reference to the dirges in 
II. 24. 719 sqq. addictum, etc.: so Achilles vows in his grief 
and wrath at the death of Patroclus (II. 23. 180). 

12. homicidam : dvSpo^oVoj, ' kill-man,' is Hector's standing 
epithet. 

14. heu : Macaulay could not read the passage of the Iliad with- 
out tears. Cf. Trevelyan's Life. 

16. laboriosi : epithet of the much enduring Ulysses ; or possi- 
bly with remiges. Cf. 16. 60. 

20. amata . . . multum : in ironical compliment. instito- 
ribus : 3. 6. 30. 

21-36. Mock heroic description of his sufferings. 

21. verecundua : the blush of modesty resembles the glow of 
health. 

22. reliquit : the subject is color, or the general notion iuventas 
et color. 

24. reclinat : Lex. s.v. II. Cf. Keats, 'the dreadful leisure | 
Of weary days, made deeper exquisite, | By a foreknowledge of 
unslumbrous night.' 

25. urget : cf. 3. 27. 57 ; Shelley, Adonais, 21, ' As long as skies 
are blue and fields are green, | Evening must usher night, night 
urge the morrow.' Cf. 2. 18. 15. neque eat : and (but) it is not 
(possible). 

26. tenta spiritu : strained, oppressed, gasping. Cf. Archil, fr. 

9. 4, olSa\fovs 5' ttyu<' dSvvytr' ?x o M I/ I ifvevftovaf. 

27. negatum : i.e. quod negaveram. 

28. Sabella: for Sabine witchcraft, cf. Sat. 1. 9. 29. incre- 
pare : do agitate with their clamors. 

29. dissilire : 'be split.' 

31-32. Cf. Epode 3. 17. n. fervida : with ./ 



486 NOTES. 

34-35. ventis : dat. agent. cales : dost glow ; literally, and 
with eagerness. Cf. Epp. 2. 1. 108, calet uno scribendi studio. 
officina : she is a whole laboratory of poisons in herself. Col- 
chicis : 2. 13. 8. 

30. stipeiidium : ransom. 

38. expiare : to do penance. Some omit the comma and read 
iuvencis, in 1. 39, 'make expiation with.' 

38-39. seu . . . sive : gives her a choice of two methods. 

39. mendaci : ambiguously referring either to what he has said 
or to what he promises to say. The irony is transparent. 

40. sonari : others read sonare, construed with paratus. tu 
pudica, etc.: cf. Catullus' mock apology (42. 24), Pudica et proba, 
redde codicillos. 

42-44. Stesichorus was blinded by Castor and Pollux for insult- 
ing Helen in his verse. He wrote a Palinode, and recovered his 
sight. Cf. Odes, 1. 16. intr. 

42. Helenas . . . vicem : cf. meam vicem, for my sake, on 
my behalf. 

46-52. He heaps insults upon her by affecting to deny them, 
she is no daughter of a squalid hovel, no ghoulish graveyard witch, 
her generous hospitality to all men, her happy motherhood, are 
well known. 

46. obsoleta : cf. 2. 10. 6, 7. 

48. novendiales : 'newly buried.' Cf. Lex. s.v. II. 

50. venter : i.e. child. Similarly aSis, Aesch. Ag. 1418. 

52. fortis : implying that the indisposition was feigned, and the 
child supposititious. 

53-81. The reply of Canidia. 

54. non saxa . . . surdiora : English idiom presents the rele- 
vant aspect of the fact : the rocks are not more deaf when, etc. ; 
Latin idiom presents the material fact : Neptune lashes the rocks 
(not more deaf). nudis : i.e. shipwrecked. 

56. 'What! Think, unpunished, to deride' (Martin). For this 
use of ut, cf A. G. 332. c ; G. L. 558 ; H. 486. II. n. Cotyttia : 
of the Thracian Cotytto, cf. Lex. ; Milt. Coinus, ' Dark- veiled 
Cotytto, t' whom the secret flame | Of midnight torches burns ; 
mysterious dame,' etc. 

67. volgata : cf. 3. 2. 27. 



EPODE XVII. 487 

58-59. Sat. 1. 8, burlesques her foul rites on the Esquiline. 
pontifex is either a sneer at Horace for undertaking the role of 
Grand Inquisitor, or a hint that he too dabbled in forbidden arts. 

60. quid proderit : i.e. what profits my skill if it cannot pro- 
cure me revenge ? Paelignas anus : her teachers in sorcery. 

61. velocius : with toxicum. 

62. qq. But no swift poison shall end his miseries. The linger- 
ing tortures of Tantalus, etc., await him. votis : sc. tuis. 

63. in hoc : her purpose, further denned by ut . . . suppetas. 

64. laboribus : cf. 2. 13. 38, 2. 14. 20. Some Mss. read dolori- 
bus. 

65. infidi : Catull. 64. 346, periuri Pelopis. He hurled into the 
sea his charioteer Myrtilus, by whose aid he had won the race with 
Oenomaus for the hand of Hippodamla. Soph. Electr. 504-515, 
traces the curse of the house of Pelops to this crime. 

66. benignae : in tantalizing abundance. Cf. 1. 9. 6. n. 
67-68. obligatus : cf. 4. 4. 65. n. Sisyphus : cf. 2. 14. 20. n. 
70-74. Thou wilt essay all modes of suicide. 

71. Norico : 1. 16. 9. 

72. vincla : noose, rope. 

73. fastidosa : 3. 29. 9. 

74-75. She will ride him like an old man of the sea, and spurn 
the earth in her pride. 

76. an, etc. : cf . 6. 15. movere cereas imagines : to animate 
waxen images, as she did in the magic rites on which he spied 
(curiosus) in Sat. 1. 8. 30. Cf. Verg. Eel. 8. 81 ; Theoc. 2. 28 ; 
Rossetti, Sister Helen, ' Why did you melt your waxen man, Sister 
Helen ? ' 

78. deripere Lunam : 1. 5, and 5. 46. n. 

80. desideri . . . pocula : cf. 5. 38. 

81. plorem, etc. : i.e. ' bewail the failure of my arts on thee,' 
in thy case. 



THE STUDENTS' SERIES OF LATIN CLASSICS. 

UNDER THE EDITORIAL SUPERVISION OF 

ERNEST MONDELL PEASE, A.M., 

Leland Stanford Junior University, 

AND 

HARRY THURSTON PECK, PH.D., L.H.D., 

Columbia College. 



This Series contains the Latin authors usually read in American 
schools and colleges, and also others well adapted to class-room 
use, but not heretofore published in suitable editions. The several 
volumes are prepared by special editors, who aim to revise the 
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play, and the like, these editions will be admirably suited for the 
rapid reading of other plays. 

The Series also contains various supplementary works prepared 
by competent scholars. Every effort is made to give the books a 
neat and attractive appearance. 

1 



The following volumes are now ready or in preparation : 

CAESAR, Gallic War, Books I-V. By HAROLD W. JOHNSTON, Ph.D. 

Professor in the Indiana University. 
CATULLUS, Selections, based upon the edition of Riese. By THOMAS 

B. LINDSAY, Ph.D., Professor in Boston University. 
CICERO, Select Orations. By B. L. D'OoGE, A.M., Professor in the 

State Normal School, Ypsilanti, Mich. 
CICEEO, De Senectute et de Amicitia. By CHARLES E. BENNETT, 

A.M., Professor in the Cornell University. Ready. 

CICERO, Tusculan Disputations, Books I and n. By Professor 

PECK. 
CICERO, De Oratore, Book I, based upon the edition of Sorof. By 

W. B. OWEN, Ph.D., Professor in Lafayette College. heady. 

CICERO, Select Letters, based in part upon the .edition of Siipfle- 

Bockel. By Professor PEASE. 

EUTROPIUS, Selections. Ready. 

GELLIUS, Selections. By Professor PECK. 
HORACE, Odes and Epodes. By PAUL SHOREY, Ph.D., Professor in 

the Chicago University. Ready. 

HORACE, Satires and Epistles, based upon the edition of Kiessling. 

By JAMES H. KIRKLAND, Ph.D., Professor in Vaaderbilt Uni- 
versity. . Ready. 
JUVENAL, Satires. By JAMES C. EGBERT, Jr., Ph.D., Adjunct Pro- 
fessor of Latin, and NELSON G. McCREA, Ph.D., Instructor in 

Latin, Columbia University. 
LIVY, Books XXI and XXII, based upon the edition of Wolfflin. By 

JOHN K. LORD, Ph.D., Professor in Dartmouth College. Ready. 
LIVY, Book I, for rapid reading. By Professor LORD. Ready. 

LUCRETIUS, De Rerum Natura, Book III. By W. A. MERRILL, Ph.D., 

Professor in the University of California. 
MARTIAL, Selections. By CHARLES KNAPP, Ph.D., Professor in 

Barnard College. 
NEPOS, for rapid reading. By ISAAC FLAGG, Ph.D., Professor in the 

University of California. Ready. 

NEPOS, Selections. By J. C. JONES, A.M., Professor in the University 

of Missouri. 

I 



OVID, Selections from the Metamorphoses, based upon the edition oi 
Meuser-Egeu. By B. L. WIGGINS, A.M., Professor in the Univer- 
sity of the South. 

OVID, Selections, for rapid reading. By A. L. BONDURAST, A.M., 
Professor in the University of Mississippi. 

PETEONIUS, Cena Trimalchionis, based upon the edition of Biicheler. 
By W. E. WATERS, Ph.D., President of Wells College. 

PLATJTTJS, Captivi, for rapid reading. By GROVE E. BARBER, A.M., 
Professor in the University of Nebraska. Ready. 

PLAUTTJS, Menaechmi, based upon the edition of Brix. By HAROLD 
N. FOWLER, Ph.D., Professor in the Western Reserve Univer- 
sity. Ready. 

PLINY, Select Letters, for rapid reading. By SAMUEL BALL PLAI- 
NER, Ph.D., Professor in the Western Reserve University. Ready. 

QUINTILIAN. Book X and Selections from Book XII, based upon 
the edition of Kriiger. 

SALLUST, Catiline, based upon the edition of Schmalz. By CHARLES 
G. HERBERMANN, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor in the College of the 
City of New York. Ready. 

SENECA, Select Letters. By E. C. WmsLow, A.M. 

TACITUS, Annals, Book I and Selections from Book II, based upon 
the edition of Nipperdey-Andresen. By E. M. HYDE, Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor in Lehigh University. 

TACITUS, Agricola and Germania, based upon the editions of Schwei- 
zer-Sidler and Driiger. By A. G. HOPKINS, Ph.D., Professor in 
Hamilton College. Ready. 

TACITUS, Histories, Book I and Selections from Books n-V, based 
upon the edition of Wolff. By EDWARD H. SPIEKER, Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor in the Johns Hopkins University. 

TEEENCE, Adelphoe, for rapid reading. By WILLIAM L. COWLES, 
A.M., Professor in Amherst College. Ready. 

TEKENCE, Phormio, based upon the edition of Dziatzko. By HER- 
BERT C. ELMER, Ph.D., Assistant Professor in the Cornell Uni- 
versity. Ready. 

CIBULLUS AND PEOPEBTIUS, Selections, based upon the edition of 
Jacoby. By HENRY F. BURTON, A.M., Professor in the University 
of Rochester. 

8 



VALERIUS MAXIMUS, Fifty Selections, for rapid reading. By 
CHARLES S. SMITH, A.M., Late College of New Jersey. Ready. 

VELLEIUS PATEECULUS, Historia Komana, Book H. By F E. 
ROCKWOOD, A.M., Professor in Bucknell University. Ready. 

VERGIL, Books I-VI. By JAMES H. KIRKLAND, Ph.D., Professor of 
Latin, and WILLIAM H. KIRK, Ph.D., Instructor in Latin, Vander- 
bilt University. 

VEEGIL, The Story of Turnus from Aen. VII-XII, for rapid reading. 
By MOSES SLAUGHTER, Ph.D., Professor in University of Wis- 
consin. Ready. 

VIRI ROMAE, Selections. With Prose Exercises. By G. M. WHICHER, 
A.M., Teachers' Normal College, New York City. Ready. 

LATIN COMPOSITION, for college use. By WALTER MILLER, A.M., 
Professor in the Leland Stanford Jr. University. Ready. 

LATIN COMPOSITION, for advanced classes. By H. R. FAIRCLOUGH, 
A.M., Professor in the Leland Stanford Jr. University. 

HAND-BOOK OF LATIN SYNONYMS. By Mr. MILLER. 

A FIEST BOOK IN LATIN. By HIRAM TUELL, A.M., late Principal 
of the Milton High School, Mass., and HAROLD N. FOWLER, Ph.D., 
Western Reserve University. Ready. 

A NEW LATIN COMPOSITION, for schools. By M. GRANT DANIELL, 
A.M., formerly Principal of Chauncy Hall School, Boston. Ready. 

THE PEIVATE LIFE OF THE ROMANS, a manual for the use of 
schools and colleges. By HARRIET WATERS PRESTON and LOUISE 
DODGE. Ready. 

BEEEK AND EOMAN MYTHOLOGY, based on the recent work of 
Steuding. By KARL P. HARRINGTON, A.M., Professor in the Uni- 
versity of Maine, and HERBERT C. TOLMAN, Ph.D., Professor in 
Vanderbilt University. Ready. 

ATLAS ANTIQUUS, twelve maps of the ancient world, for schools and 
colleges. By Dr. HENRY KIEPERT, M.R. Acad. Berlin. Ready. 

Tentative arrangements have been made for other books not ready 
to be announced. 



BENJ. H. SANBORN & CO., Publishers, 

110 and 120 Boylston Street, Boston. 
4 



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