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Full text of "Horæ hebraicæ et talmudicæ; Hebrew and Talmudical exercitations upon the Gospels, the Acts, some chapters of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, and the First epistle to the Corinthians"

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HOR^ 

HEBRAICJE ET TALMUDICiE : 
HEBEEW AND TALMUDICAL EXEKCITATIONS 

UPON 

THE GOSPELS, THE ACTS, 

SOME CHAPTERS OF 

ST. PAUL'S EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS, 

AND 

THE FIRST EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS. 



1/ '" 

JOHN LIGHTFOOT, D. D., 

MASTER OF CATHARINE HALL, CAMBRIDGE. 



A NEW EDITION, 

BY 

THE REV. ROBERT GANDELL, M. A., 

ASSIST jVJJT tutor OF MAGDALEN HALL, 
LATE MICHEL FELLOW OF QUEEN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD. 

IN FOUR VOLUMES. 
VOL. IL 

OXFORD : 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 
M.DCCO.LIX. 



HOR^ 

HEBRAIC^ ET TALMUDIC^.; 

OR, 

HEBREW AND TALMUDICAL 

EXERCITATIONS 

UPON THE 

GOSPEL OF ST. MATTHEW. 



LIGHTFOOT,, VOL. II. 



.y — ^^ — -^ 

>- DEC T 1C25 ^ 



TO* 
HIS DEAR FRIENDS, 

THE 

STUDENTS OF CATHAEINE-HALL, 

HEALTH. 



Those very arguments which, first and chiefly, moved me 
to turn over the Tahnudical writings, moved me also to this 
present work: so that, from the same reasons whence that 
reading first proceeded, from them proceed also this fruit and 
benefit of it. 

For, first, when all the books of the New Testament were 
written by Jews, and among Jews, and unto them; and when 
all the discourses made there, were made in like manner by 
Jews, and to Jews, and among them ; I was always fully per- 
suaded, as of a thing past all doubting, that that Testament 
could not but everywhere taste of and retain the Jews' style, 
idiom, form, and rule of speaking. 

And hence, in the second place, I concluded as assuredly 
that, in the obscurer places of that Testament (which are 
very many), the best and most natural method of searching 
out the sense is, to inquire how, and in what sense, those 
phrases and manners of speech were understood, according to 
the vulgar and common dialect and opinion of that nation ; 
and how they took them, by whom they were spoken, and by 
whom they were lieard. For it is no matter what we can 
beat out concerning those manners of speech on the anvil of 
our own conceit, but what they signified among them, in their 
ordinary sense and speech. And since this could be found 
out no other way than by consulting Tahuudic authors, who 
both speak in the vulgar dialect of the Jews, and also handle 

* English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 93. — Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 245, 

B 2 



4 DEDICATION. 

and reveal all Jewish matters ; being induced by these rea- 
sons, I applied myself chiefly to the reading these books. I 
knew, indeed, well enough, that I must certainly wrestle with 
infinite difficulties^ and such as were hardly to be overcome ; 
yet I undervalued them all, and armed myself with a firm 
purpose, that, if it were possible, I might arrive to a fuller 
and more deep knowledge and understanding of the style and 
dialect of the New Testament. 

The ill report of those authors, whom all do so very much 
speak against, may, at first, discourage him that sets upon 
the reading of their books. The Jews themselves stink in 
Marcellinus'\ and their v/ritings stink as much amongst all; 
and they labour under this I know not what singular mis- 
fortune, that, being not read, they displease ; and that they 
are sufficiently reproached by those that have read them, but 
undei-go nuich more infamy by those that have not. 

The almost unconquerable difficulty of the style, the 
frightful roughness of tlie language, and the amazing empti- 
ness and sophistry of the matters handled, do torture, vex, 
and tire him that reads them. They do everywhere abound 
with trifles in that manner, as though they had no mind to be 
read ; with obscurities and difficulties, as though they had no 
mind to be understood : so that the reader hath need of 
patience all along, to enable him to bear both trifling in sense 
and roughness in expression. 

T, indeed, propounded three things to myself while I turned 
them over, that I might, as much as I could, either under- 
value those vexations of reading, or soften them, or recreate 
myself with them, and that I might reap and enjoy fruit from 
them, if I could, and as much as I could. 

I. I resolved with myself to observe those things which 
seemed to yield some light to the holy Scriptures, but espe- 
cially either to the phrases, or sentences, or history of the 
New Testament. 

IT. To set down such things in my note-books, which car- 
ried some mention of^ certain places in the land of Israel, 
or afforded '* some light into the chorography of that land. 

*• Lib. xxii. [c.5. FaHentium Ju- rors, chap, x.] 
(l<Torum et tumultuantium tpedio ^ Enr/lish folio edit., vol. li. p. C14. 
peicitus. See Browne's Vnljrar Er- '^ Leitsden^s edit., vol. ii. p. 246. 



DEDICATION. 5 

III. To note those things which referred to the history of 
the Jews, whether ecclesiastical, or scholastic, or civil ; or 
which referred to the Christian history, or the history of the 
rest of the world. 

And now, after having viewed and observed the nature, art, 
matter, and marrow of these authors with as much intention 
as we could, I cannot paint out, in little, a true and lively 
character of them better than in these paradoxes and riddles : 
There are no authors do more affright and vex the reader ; 
and yet there are none who do more entice and delight him. 
In no writers is greater or equal trifling ; and yet in none is 
greater or so great benefit. The doctrine of the gospel hath 
no more bitter enemies than they ; and yet the text of the 
gospel hath no more plain interpreters. To say all in a 
word, to the Jews, their countrymen, they recommend nothing 
but toys, and destruction, and poison ; but Christians, by 
their skill and industry, may render them most usefully ser- 
viceable to their studies, and most eminently tending to the 
interpretation of the New Testament. 

We here offer some specimen of this our reading and our 
choice, for the reader's sake, if so it may find acceptance with 
the reader. We know how exposed to suspicion it is to pro- 
duce new things ; how exposed to hatred the Talmudic writings 
are ; how exposed to both, and to sharp censure also, to pro- 
duce them in holy things. Therefore, this our more unusual 
manner of explaining Scripture cannot, upon that very ac- 
count, but look for a more unusual censure, and become sub- 
ject to a severer examination. But when the lot is cast, it 
is too late at this time to desire to avoid the sequel of it ; 
and too much in vain in this place to attempt a defence. 
If the work and book itself does not carry something with it 
which may plead its cause, and obtain the reader's pardon 
and favour; our oration, or begging Epistle, will little avail 
to do it. The present work, therefore, is to be exposed and 
delivered over to its fate and fortune, whatsoever it be. Some 
there are, we hope, who will give it a milder and more gentle 
reception ; for this very thing, dealing favourably and kindly 
with us, that we have been intent upon our studies; that we have 
been intent upon the gospel ; and that we have endeavoured 
after truth : thev will show us favour that we followed after 



6 DEDICATION. 

it, and, if we have not attained it, they will pity us. But as 
for the wrinkled forehead, and the stern brow, we are pre- 
pared to bear them with all patience, being armed and satis- 
fied with this inward patronage, that " we have endeavoured 
to profit." 

But this work, whatever it be, and whatever fortune it is 
like to meet with, we would dedicate to you, my very dear 
Catharine-Hall men, both as a debt, and as a desire. For 
by this most close bond and tie wherewith we are united, to 
you is due all that we study, all that we can do ; if so be 
that all is any thing at all. And when we desire to profit all 
(if we could) which becomes both a student and a Christian 
to do ; by that bond and your own merits, you are the very 
centre and rest of those desires and wishes. We are suffi- 
ciently conscious to ourselves how little or nothing we can do 
either for the public benefit, or for yours ; yet we would make 
a public profession, before all the world, of our desire and 
study ; and, before you, of our inward and cordial affection. 

Let this pledge, therefore, of our love and endearment be 
laid up by you ; and, while we endeavour to give others an 
account of our hours, let this give you an assurance of our 
affections. And may it last in Catharine-Hall, even to future 
ages, as a testimony of service, a monument of love, and a 
memorial both of me and you ! 

From my Study, 
The Calends of June, 1658. 



HEBREW AND TALMUDICAL 

EXERCITATIONS 



UPON 



THE GOSPEL OF ST. MATTHEW. 



CHAP. I.a 

Ver. I : B^/3\o5 ycv€(r€(tis "'Irjaov Xpiarov The book of the ge- 
neration of Jesus Christ.'] \ "^^^ 711^2 "hv )^Dr\y^ rrvnv 

Ten^ stocks came out of Babylon: i. "^inb Priests. 2. 
"^"17 Levites. 3. 7fc«^*^\Z?^ Israelites. 4. '^b'^TTl Common per- 
sons, as to the priesthood : such whose fathers, indeed, were 
sprung from priests, but their mothers unfit to be admitted 
to the priests' marriage-bed. 5. ''l"'^ Proselytes. 6. "^"iT^n 
Liberti, or servants set free. 7. '^'^'ItD?^ Nothi: such as were 
born in wedlock ; but that which was unlawful. 8. ^^T^D 
Nethinims. 9. '^pin^ bastards : such as came of a certain 
mother, but of an uncertain father. 10. '^DIDt^ Such as were 
gathered up out of the streets, whose fathers and mothers were 
uncertain. 

A defiled generation indeed ! and, therefore, brought up 
out of Babylon in this common sink, according to the opinion 
of the Hebrews, that the whole Jewish seed still remaining 
there might not be polluted by it. ^1272 ^"WV Thv ^ ^'2 
: rV^p':^ nblD^ ^W^ ly For Ezra went not up out of Ba- 
bylon, until he had rendered it pure as four. They are the 
words of the Babylonian Geraara, which the Gloss explains 
thus ; " He left not any there that were illegitimate in any 
respect, but the priests and Levites only, and Isi-aelites of a 

* Leusden' sedition, vol. ii. p. 247. — English folio edit., vol.ii. p. 95. 
b Talm. in Kiddush. cap. 4, art. i. 



8 Hebrew and Talmudical [Cli. i. i . 

pure and undefiled stock. Therefore, he brought up with 
him these ten kinds of pedigrees, that these might not be 
mingled with those, when there remained now no more a San- 
hedrim there, which might take care of that matter. There- 
fore he brought them to Jerusalem, where care might *= be 
taken by the Sanhedrim fixed there, that the legitimate might 
not marry with the illegitimate." 

Let us think of these things a little while we are upon our 
entrance into the Gospel-history : 

I. How great a cloud of obscurity could not but arise to 
the people concerning the original of Christ, even from the 
very return out of Babylon, when they either certainly saw, 
or certainly believed that they saw, a purer spring of Jewish 
blood there than in the land of Israel itself ! 

II. How great a care ought there to be in the families of 
pure blood, to preserve themselves untouched and clean from 
this impure sink ; and to lay up among themselves genea- 
logical scrolls from generation to generation as faithful wit- 
nesses and lasting monuments of their legitimate stock and 
free blood ! 

Hear a complaint and a story in this case : " R. Jochanan'^ 
said. By the Temple, it is in our hand to discover who are 
not of pure blood in the land of Israel : but what shall I do, 
when the chief men of this generation lie hid V (that is, when 
they are not of pure blood, and yet we must not declare so 
much openly concerning them.) " He was of the same 
opinion with R. Isaac, who said, nrr^l^i TW'^X^y^ nPQtZ^n 
A family (of the polluted blood) that lies hid, let it lie hid. 
Abai also saith, We have learned this also by tradition, That 
there was a certain family called the family of Beth-zeripha, 
beyond Jordan, and a son of Zion removed it away." (The 
Gloss is, Some eminent man, by a public proclamation, declared 
it impure.) " But he caused another which was such" [that 
is, impure] " to come near. And there was another which 
the wise men would not manifest." 

III. When it especially lay upon the Sanhedrim, settled at Je- 
rusalem to preserve pure families, as much as in them lay, pure 
still; and when they prescribed canons of preserving the legiti- 

c English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 96. 

d Hieros. Kiddush. fol. 65. 3. Bab. ibid, fol.71. 



Ch. i.i.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 9 

mation of the people (which you may see in those things that 
follow at the place alleged), there was some necessity to lay 
up public records of pedigrees with them : whence it might 
be known what family was pure, and what defiled. Hence ^ 
that of Simon Ben Azzai deserves our notice : " I saw (saith 
hef) a genealogical scroll in Jerusalem, in which it was thus 
written; ' iV^., a bastard of a strange wife.'" Observe, that 
even a bastard was written in their public books of genealogy, 
that he might be known to be a bastard, and that the purer 
families might take heed of the defilement of his seed. Let 
that also be noted s -. " They found a book of genealogy at 
Jerusalem, in which it was thus written ; ' Hillel was sprung 
from David^ Ben Jatsaph fi-om x\saph. Ben Tsitsith Hac- 
ceseth from Abner. Ben Cobisin from Achab,'"&c. And 
the records of the genealogies smell of those things which are 
mentioned in the text of the Misna concerning ' wood-car- 
rying:' " The*i priests' and people's times of wood-carrying 
were nine : on the first day of the month Nisan, for the sons 
of Erach, the sons of Judah : the twentieth day of Tammuz, 
for the sons of David, the son of Judah : the fifth day of Ab, 
for the sons of Parosh, the son of Judah : the seventh of the 
same month for the sons of Jonadab the son of Rechab : the 
tenth of the same for the sons of Senaah, the son of Benja- 
min/' &iC. 

It is, therefore, easy to guess whence Matthew took the 
last fourteen generations of this genealogy, and Luke the 
first forty names of his; namely, from the genealogical scrolls 
at that time well enough known, and laid up in the public 
KeijiATjAta, repositories, and in the private also. And it was ne- 
cessary, indeed, in so noble and sublime a subject, and a thing 
that would be so much inquired into by the Jewish people 
as the lineage of the Messiah would be, that the evangelists 
should deliver a truth, not only that could not be gainsaid, 
but also that might be proved and established from certain 
and undoubted rolls of ancestors. 

'Itjo-ou Xpto-rou- Of Jesus Christ.'] That the name of Jesus 
is so often added to the name of Christ in the New Testa- 
ment, is not only that thereby Christ might be pointed out 

« Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 248. s Hieros. Taanith^ fol. 68. i. 

f Bab. Jevamoth, fol. 49. 2. •» Taanith, cap. 4. hal. 5. 



10 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. i. a. 

for the Saviour, which the name Jesus signifies ; but also, 
that Jesus might be pointed out for true Christ : against the 
unbelief of the Jews, who though they acknowledged a cer- 
tain Messiah, or Christ, yet they stiffly denied that Jesus of 
Nazareth was he. This observation takes place in numberless 
places of the New Testament ; Acts ii. 36, viii. 35 ; i Cor. 
xvi. 22; 1 John ii. 22, iv. 15, &c. 

Tiov Aa^ib- The Son 0/ David.] That is, " the true Mes- 
sias." For by no more ordinary and more proper name did 
the Jewish nation point out the Messiah than by T1"T p 
The Son of David. See Matt. xii. 23, xxi. 9, xxii, 42; Luke 
xviii. 38; and everywhere in the Talmudic writings, buti 
especially in Bab. Sanhedrim ^ : where it is also discussed, 
What kind of times those should be when the Son 0/ David 
should come. 

The things which are devised by the J ews concerning Mes- 
siah Ben Joseph (which the Targum upon Cant. iv. 5 calls 
' Messiah Ben Ephraim^) are therefore devised, to comply 
with their giddiness and loss of judgment in their opinion of 
the Messiah. For, since they despised the true Messiah, 
who came in the time fore-allotted by the prophets, and cru- 
cified him ; they still expect I know not what chimerical one, 
concerning whom they have no certain opinion : whether 
he shall be one, or two ; whether he shall arise from among 
the living, or from the dead ; whether he shall come in the 
clouds of heaven, or sitting upon an ass, &c. : they expect a 
Son of David ; but they know not whom, they know not 
when. 

Ver. 2 : 'lovbav Judas.] In Hebrew, min"' Jehudah. 
Which word not only the Greeks, for want of the letter h in 
the middle of a word, but the Jews themselves, do contract 
into mV Judah : which occurs infinite times in the Jeru- 
salem Talmud. The ^ same person who is called n "'H '^OV 1 
min B. Jose Bi R. Jehudah, in the next line is called ''DV "> 
mr^ S *>! B. Jose Bi R. Judah. So also Schabb m. And 
this is done elsewhere " in the very same line. 

Ver. 5 : Boof e^ rrjs'Paxtt/S' Booz of Rachal.] So far the 

' English folio edition, vol. ii. p. ' Demai, fol. 22. 3. 
97. '" Fol. 4. 4. 

^ Fol. 97. 1.. n Jom tobh, fol. 62. 3. 



Ch. i. 8.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 11 

Jewish writers agree with Matthew, that the}' confess Ra- 
chab was married to some prince of Israel, but mistaking 
concerning the person : whether they do this out of igno- 
rance, or wilfully, let themselves look to that. Concerning 
this matter, the Babylonian Gemara ° hath these words : 
" Eight prophets and those priests sprung from Rachab, and 
they are these, Neriah, Baruch, Seraiah, Maaseiah, Jeremiah, 
Hilkiah, Hanameel, and Shallum. R. Judah saith, Huldah 
also was of the posterity of Rachab/' And a little after, 
" There is a tradition, that she, being made a proselytess, 
was married to Joshua :" which Kimchi also produceth in 
Josh. vi. Here the Gloss casts in a scruple : " It sounds 
somewhat harshly (saith it), that Joshua married one that 
was made a proselyte, when it was not lawful to contract 
marriage with the Canaanites, though they became proselytes. 
Therefore we must say that she was not of the seven nations of 
the Canaanites, but of some other nation, and sojourned there. 
But others say that that prohibition took not place before the 
entrance into the promised land," &c. 

Ver. 8 : 'Icopaju, 8e eyeVyrycre tov ^0(iav' And Joram begat 
Ozias.'] The names of Ahazias, Joash, and Amazias, are 
struck out. See the history in the books of the Kings, and 
I Chron. iii. ii, J2. 

I. The promise that " the throne of David should not be 
empty," passed over, after a manner, for some time into the 
family of Jehu, the overthrower of Joram's family. For when 
he had razed the house of Ahab, and had slain AhaziahP, 
sprung, on the mother's side, of the family of Ahab, the Lord 
promiseth him that his sons should reign unto the fourth 
generation, 2 Kings x. 30. Therefore however the mean 
time the throne of David was not empty, and that Joash and 
Amazias sat during the space between, yet their names are 
not unfitly omitted by our evangelist, both because they were 
sometimes not very unlike Joram in their manners ; and 
because their kingdom was very much eclipsed by the 
kingdom of Israel, when Ahazias was slain by Jehu, and 
his cousin Amazias taken and basely subdued by his cousin 
Joash, 2 Chron. xxv. 23. 

II. JT^Dp D'^i^tp'^ V^). The seed of the wicked shall be cut 
° Megill. fol. 14. 2. P Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 249. 



12 Hebreio and Talmadical [Oh. i. ii. 

off^ Psalm xxxvii. 28. Let the studious reader observe that, 
in the original, in this very place, the letter i? (Ain), which is 
the last letter of i?U)"^ icicJced; and of V^), seed, is cut off, and 
is not expressed ; when, by the rule of acrostic verse (ac- 
cording to which this Psalm is composed), that letter ought 
to begin the next following verse. 

III. " Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven image. 
&c. For I the Lord thy God am a jealous God ; visiting the 
iniquity of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and 
fourth generation," Exod. xx. 5. 

Joramq walked in the idolatrous ways of the kings of 
Israel, according to the manner of the family of Ahab, 
2 Kings viii. 18. Which horrid violation of the second com- 
mand God visits upon his posterity, according to the threat- 
ening of that command; and thei'efore the names of his sons 
are dashed out unto the fourth generation. 

IV. The Old Testament also stigmatizeth that idolatry 
of Joram in a way not unlike this of the New ; and shows 
that family unworthy to be numbered among David's progeny, 
2 Chron. xxii. 2 : IH^tn^ n:U? Wnt^ D^i'nn«-]n Ahazias, 
the son of two and-forty years : that is, not of his age (for he 
was not above two-and-twenty, 2 Kings viii. 26), but of the 
duration of the family of Omri, of which stock Ahazias was, 
on the mother's side ; as will sufficiently appear to him that 
computes, the years. A fatal thing surely ! that the years 
of a king of Judah should be reckoned by the account of the 
house of Omri. 

V. Let a genealogical style not much different be observed, 
I Chron iv. i ; where Shobal, born in the fifth or sixth gene- 
ration from Judah, is reckoned as if he were an inmiediate 
son of Judah. Compare chap. ii. 50. 

In the like manner, Ezra vii, in the genealogy of Ezra, five 
or six generations are erased. 

Ver. 1 1 : 'Icocrtas 8e kyivvr]<je top ^lexoinav And Josias begat 
Jechonias.] The sons of Josias were these : the first-born, 
Jochanan ; the second, Joachim ; the third, Zedekiah ; the 
fourth, Shallum, 1 Chron. iii. 15. Who this Shallum was, 
the Jerusalem Talmudists"" do dispute : " R. Jochanan saith, 
Jochanan and Jehoachaz were the same. And when it is 
1 English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 98. "■ Shekal. fol. 49. 4. 



Ch. i. 12.] Exercitations upon >SV. Mattheio. 1 3 

written, Jochanan the Jirst-born, it means this ; that he was 
the first-born to the kingdom : that is, he first reigned. And 
R. Jochanan saith, Shallum and Zedekias are the same. 
And when it is written, Zedekias the third ShaUum the 
fourth; he was the third in birth, but he reigned fourth." 
The same things are produced in the tract Sotah^. But 
El. Kimchi* much more correctly : " Shallum (saith he) is 
Jechonias, who had two names, and was reckoned for the son 
of Josias, when he was his grandchild" (or the son of his 
son) ; "' for the sons of sons are reputed for sons." Compare 
Jer. xxii. ver. 1 1 with 24 ; and the thing itself speaks it. 
And that which the Greraarists now quoted sav, Zedekiah 
was also called Shallum, I'H H^l nxh'f^ lltlh^ ^X^'^l^ 
because in his days ' Shahnah,' '•an end was put to'' the kingdom 
of the family of David : this also agrees very fitly to Jecho- 
nias, Jer. xxii. 2<S — 30. 

Ver. 12: 'Itxoi'tas iyivvrjcre tov 'EakadLrjk' Jechonias begat 
Salathicl.] That is, " a son of the kingdom/' or successor in 
that dignity of the house of David, whatsoever it was, which 
was altogether withered in the rest of the sons of Josiah, but 
did somewhat flourish again in him, 2 Kings xxv. 27. And 
hence it is, that of all the posterity of Josiah, Jechonias only 
is named by St. Matthew. 

Jechonias, in truth, was areKvos, without children, Jer. 
xxii. 30 ; and Salathiel, properly speaking, was the son of 
Neri, Luke iii. 27 : but yet Jechonias is said to beget him ; 
not that he was truly his father, but that the other was his 
successor ; not, indeed, in his kingly dignity, for that was 
now perished, but in that which now was the chief dignity 
among the Jews. So i Ohron. iii. 1 6, Zedekias is called the 
son, either of Jehoiakim, whose brother indeed he was, or of 
Jechonias, whose uncle he was ; because he succeeded him in 
the kingly dignity. 

The Lord had declared, and that not without an oath, 
that Jechonias should be '^'^.'''^J^ without children. The Tal- 
mudists do so interpret ^y>V/> " R. Judah saith ^ All they 
of whom it is said, ^Tl*) D'^'^''"^i% These shall be areKvoi, with- 

^ Fol. 22. 3. * In Jer. xxiv. and i Chion. iii. 

" Hieros. in Schabb. fol. 9. 3. 



14 Hehreio and Tahnudical [Ch. i. i6. 

out children ; they shall have no children. And those of 
whom it is said, ^n^D"^ D'^')''li^ They shall die without children; 
they bury their children." [Lev. xx. 20, 2f .] 

So Kimehi also upon the place ; " The word *'"^'''^i^ (saith 
he) means this ; That his sons shall die in his life, if he shall 
now have sons : but if he shall not now have sons, he never 
shall. But our Rabbins of blessed memory say, That he 
repented in prison. And they say moreover, Oh ! how much 
doth repentance avail, which evacuates a penal edict ! for it 
is said, ' Write ye this man childless : ' but, he repenting ^, 
this edict turned to his good," &c. " R. Jochanan saith, His 
carrying away expiated. For when it is said, ' Write this 
man childless/ after the carrying away it is said, * The sons 
of Coniah, Assir his son, Shealtiel his son.'" These things 
are in Babyl. Sanhedrim y, where these words are added, 
]niDt^n n^ni'' l^^i^ innnrtZ? "m n^D^^ " Assir his son, 
because his mother conceived him in prison.'^ 

But the words in the original [i Chron. iii, 17.] are these, 
"IDS ^«^ri^i^tlj IDi^ n^DD"' '•pi^ which are thus to be ren- 
dered ; Nolo the sons of Jechonias bound [or imprisoned^ were 
Shealtiel his son. Which version both the accents and the 
order of the words confirm : for Zakeph hung over "^b^, to 

which Munach beneath n"^!l3"^ serves, persuades that it is a 

conjunct construction; to wit, that H^iD'] Jechoniah, and '^D^ji 
hound, should be joined together, that is, a substantive and an 
adjective. And the word "1311 his son^ placed after v'ii^^riT'^tl? 
Shealtiel^ not after "^D^JI hound, fixeth the genealogy in Sala- 

thiel, not in "^Dt;^ Assir at all. 

Ver. 16 : 'IaKco/3 8e iy^vvrja-^ top ^l(oar]<p avbpa Mapiar And 
Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary.'] 1^^ Dfc^ nHDU^D 
: JinDUJQ rT'Tlp The a mother'^s family is not to be called a 
family. Hence the reason may very easily be given, why 
Matthew brings down the generation to Joseph, Mary^s hus- 
band ; but Luke to Eli, Mary's father. These two frame the 
genealogy two ways, according to the double notion of the 
promise of Christ. For he is promised, as the ' seed of the 

" Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 250. ^ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 99. 
y Fol. 27. 2. a Juchas. fol. 55. 2, 



Oh. i. 17.] Exercitatiom upon St. Matthew. 15 

woman/ and as the ' Son of David;' that, as a man, this, as a 
king. It was therefore needful, in setting down his genea- 
logy, that satisfaction should be given concerning both. 
Therefore Luke declareth him the promised seed of the 
woman, deducing his mother's stock, from whence man was 
born, from Adam ; Matthew exhibits his royal original, de- 
riving his pedigree along through the royal family of David to 
Joseph, his (reputed) father. 

Ver. 17 : Feveal h^KaTiaaap^r Fourteen generations. Al- 
though all things do not square exactly in this threefold 
number of fourteen generations, yet there is no reason why 
this should be charged as a fault upon Matthev^^, when in the 
Jewish schools themselves it obtained for a custom, yea, 
almost for an axiom, to reduce things and numbers to the 
very same, when they were near alike. The thing will be 
plain by an example or two, when a hundred almost might be 
produced. 

Five calamitous things are ascribed to the same day, that 
is, to the ninth day of the month Ab. " For that day (say 
they ^) it was decreed, That the people should not go into the 
promised land : the same day, the first Temple was laid 
waste, and the second also : the city Bitter was destroyed, 
and the city Jerusalem ploughed up." Not that they believed 
all these things fell out precisely the same day of the month ; 
but, as the Babylonian Gemara notes upon it, r\137 T/^T'^IQ 
n'^TT Urh nmm ""t^Dt Uyh That they might reduce a for- 
tunate thing to a holy day^ and an unfortunate to an unlucky 
day. 

The Jerusalem Gemara ^, in the same tract, examines the 
reason why the daily prayers consist of the number of eighteen, 
and among other things hath these words ; " The daily 
prayers are eighteen, according to the number of the eighteen 
Psalms, from the beginning of the Book of Psalms to that 
Psalm whose beginning is, ' The Lord hear thee in the day of 
trouble/" [which Psalm, indeed, is the twentieth Psalm.] 
" But if any object, that nineteen Psalms reach thither, you 
may answer. The Psalm which begins, ' Why did the heathen 
rage,' is not of them," a distinct Psalm. Behold, with what 
liberty they fit numbers to their own case. 

** Taanith, cap. 4. art. 6. Taanith, fol. 65. 3. 



16 Hehreto and Talmudical [Ch. i. 18. 

Inquiry is made, whence the number of the thirty-nine 
more principal servile works, to be avoided on the sabbath- 
day, may be proved. Among other, we meet with these 
words ; U^-yyi m"T nm □'•'^nin rh^ " R. Chaninah^ of 
Zippor saith, in the name of R. Abhu^ F]7b^ Aleph denotes 
one, 112h Lamed thirty, t^H He five, "^^f Dahar one, D^'IHI 
Deharim two. Hence are the forty works, save one, concern- 
ing which it is written in the law. The Rabbins of Csesarea 
say, Not any thing is wanting out of his place: Vy^^A Alepk 
one, -fO^ Lamed thirty, H Cheth eight: pi"-) ^^i^^JDnrrS vh 
r\^rv7 t^n ■j'^l ]''\2}n our profound doctors do not distinguish 
between He and Cheth ;"'"' that they may fit numbers to their 
case ; for H?^ these, they write n7fc^, and change H (He) 
and n (Cheth) at their pleasure. 

" R. Joshua Ben Levi saith ^, In all my whole life I have 
not looked into the [tnystical'] book of Agada but once; and 
then I looked into it, and found it thus written, A hundred 
and seventy-five sections of the law ; where it is written, 
TV\1^ 'yt^'^ 'yil He spake, he said, he commanded, they are 
for the number of the years of our father Abraham." And 
a little after ; " A hundred and forty and seven Psalms, which 
are written in the Book of the Psalms [note this immber], are 
for the number of the years of our father Jacob, Whence 
this is hinted ^, that all the praises wherewith the Israelites 
praise God are according to the years of Jacob. Those 
hundred and twenty and three times, wherein the Israelites 
answer Hallelujah, are according to the number of the years 
of Aaron," &c. 

They do so very much delight in such kind of concents, 
that they oftentimes screw up the strings beyond the due 
measure, and stretch them till they crack. So that if a Jew 
carps at thee, O divine Matthew, for the unevenness of thy 
fourteens, out of their own schools and writings thou hast 
that, not only whereby thou mayest defend thyself, but retort 
upon them. 

Ver. 1 8 g : MvrjoTevOeCa-rjs rrjs fxrjrpbs avrov' When as his 
mother was espoused.] No woman of Israel was married, un- 
less she had been first espoused. " Before the giving of the 

<i Hieros. Schabb. fol. 9. 2. ^ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 100. 

^ Id. ibid. fol. 15. 3. s Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 251. 



Oh. i. i8.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 17 

law (saith Maimonides'^), if the man and the woman had 
agreed about marriage^ he brought her into his house, and 
privately married her. But after the giving of the law, the 
Israelites were commanded, that, if any were minded to take 
a woman for his wife, he should receive her, first, before 
witnesses ; and thenceforth let her be to him a wife, as it is 
written, HttJ^ l!J^^ Hp^ ^3 If any one take a wife. This 
taJcing is one of the affirmative precepts of the law, and is 
called espousing.'''' Of the manner and form of espousing, you 
may read till you are weary, in that tractate, and in the 
Talmudic tract, Kiddushin. 

Uplv 7] (TvvtXOilv avTovs' Before they came together."] " In 
many places the man espouseth the woman ; but doth not 
bi'ing her home to him, but after some space of time." So 
the Gloss' upon Maimonides. 

Distinction is made by the Jewish canons, and that justly 
and openly, -between "Tin^'' private society or discourse, between 
the espouser and the espoused, and nODDH the bringing of 
the espoused into the husband's house. Of either of the two 
may those words be understood, -nplv rj avveXdav avTov9, before 
iliey came together, or, rather, of them both. He had not 
only not brought her home to him, but he had no manner of 
society with her alone, beyond the canonical limits of dis- 
course, that were allowed to unmarried persons ; and yet she 
was found with child. 

EvpiOr] kv yaarpl eyovaa' She was found tcith child.] Namely, 
after the space of three months from her conception, when 
she was now returned home from her cousin Elizabeth. See 
Luke i. 56, and compare Gen. xxxviii. 24. 

The masters of the traditions'^ assign this space to dis- 
cover a thing of that nature. " A woman (say they) who is 
either put away from her husband, or become a widow, 
neither marrieth, nor is espoused, but after ninety days : 
namely, that it may be known, whether she be big with 
child or no ; and that distinction may be made between the 
offspring of the first husband and of the second. In like 
manner, a husband and wife, being made proselytes, a.re 

|i la miy« cap. I. Talm. in Jevaramoth, cap. 4. Che- 

i Ad niu;''t< cap. 3. tuboth, cap. 5, largelj'. 

^ Maim, in Gerushin, cap. 11. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. C 



18 Hebrew and Talmiidical [Ch. i. 19. 

parted from one another for ninety days, that judgment may 
be made between children begotten in holiness," (that is, 
within the true religion; see i Cor. vii. 14,) "and children 
begotten out of holiness." 

Ver. 19 : 'Icaarjcf) be bUaios ^v, &c. £ut Joseph, being a just 
man, &c.] There is no need to rack the word bUmos, Just, to 
fetch out thence the sense of gentleness or mercy ^ which many 
do ; for, construing the clauses of the verse separately, the 
sense will appear clear and soft enough, Joseph, being a just 
man, could not, would not, endure an adulteress : hut yet not 
willing -napabetyixaTia-ai., to make her a public example, being a 
merciful man, and loving his wife, ims minded to put her away 
primly. 

napabeiyixaTia-ar To make her a public example.] This doth 
not imply death, but rather public disgrace, riQD'^QT' to make 
her public. For it may, not without reason, be inquired, 
whether she would have been brought to capital punishment, 
if it had been true that she had conceived by adultery. For 
although there was a law promulged of punishing adultery 
with death, Lev. xx. to, Deut.' xxii. 22, and, in this case, she 
that was espoused, would be dealt withal after the same 
manner as it was with her who was become a wife ; yet 
so far was that law modified, that I say not weakened, by the 
law of giving a bill of divorce, Deut. xxiv. i, &c., that the 
husband might not only pardon his adulterous wife, and not 
compel her to appear before the Sanhedrim, but scarcely 
could, if he would, put her to death. For why otherwise was 
the bill of divorce indulged ? 

Joseph, therefore, endeavours to do nothing here, but what 
he might, with the full consent both of the law and nation. 
The adulteress might be put away ; she that was espoused 
could not be put away without a bill of divorce ; concerning 
which thus the Jewish laws "^ : " A woman is espoused three 
ways; by money, or by a writing, or by being lain with. 
And being thus espoused, though she were not yet married, 
nor conducted into the man's house, yet she is his wife. 
And if any shall lie with her beside him, he is to be punished 
with death by the Sanhedrim. And if he himself will put her 
away, he must have a bill of divorce." 

1 English folio edition, vol. ii. p. loi. '" Maimon. in T^\^Wi^ oaji. i. 



Ch. i. 23.] Exercitations uj)on St. Matthew. 19 

AaQpa a-noXva-ai ainp- Pwf her away primly.'] Let the 
Talmudic tract ' Gittin ' be looked upon, where they are 
treating of the manner of dehvering a bill of divorce to a 
wife to be put away : amonio: other things, it might be given 
privately, if the husband so pleased, either into the woman's 
hand or bosom, two witnesses only present. 

Ver. 23 : 'l8ov, r/ -nafiQh'o^ ev yacTTpl e^er Behold., a virgin 
shall he with child.] That the word TlT^iy'^, in the prophet, 
denotes an untouched virgin, sufficiently appears from the 
sense of the place, Isa. vii. 14, King Ahaz there was afraid, 
lest the enemies that were now upon him might destroy Jeru- 
salem, and utterly consume the house of David". The Lord 
meets this fear by a signal and most remarkable promise, 
namely, ' that sooner should a pure virgin bring forth a child, 
than the family of David perish.' And the prwnise yields a 
double comfort : namely, of Christ hereafter to be born of a 
virgin ; and of their security from the imminent danger of 
the city and house of David. So that, although that pro- 
phecy, of a virghis bringing forth a son, should not be ful- 
filled till many hundreds of years after, yet, at that present 
time, when the prophecy was made, Ahaz had a certain and 
notable sign, that the house of David should be safe and 
secure from the danger that hung over it. As much as if 
the prophet had said, " Be not so troubled_, O Ahaz ; does it 
not seem an impossible thing to thee, and that never will 
happen, that a pure virgin should become a mother ? But I 
tell thee, a pure virgin shall bring forth a son, before the 
house of David perish." 

Hear this, unbelieving Jew! and shew us now some 
remainders of the house of David : or confess this prophecy 
fulfilled in the Virgin's bringing forth : or deny that a sign 
was given, when a sign is given. 

§ In what language Matthew wrote his Gospel. 
"O ecTTL fjL€6epixr]V€v6ixevov' Which is, [being interpreted.'] 
L All confess that the Syriac language was the mother- 
tongue to the Jewish nation dwelling in Judea ; and that the 
Hebrew was not at all understood by the common people 
may especially appear from two things : 

" Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 252. 
c 2 



20 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh, i. 23. 

1. That, in the synagogues, when the law and the pro- 
phets were read in the original Hebrew, an interpreter was 
always present to the reader, who rendered into the mother- 
tongue that which was read, that it might be understood by 
the common people. Hence ° those rules of the office of an 

nterpreter, and of some places which were not to be ren- 
dered into the mother-tongue. 

2. That Jonathan the son of Uzziel, a scholar of Hillel, 
about the time of Christ's birth, rendered all the prophets 
(that is, as the Jews number them, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, 
the Books of the Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the 
twelve lesser prophets) into the Chaldee language ; that is, 
into a language much more known to the people than the 
Hebrew, and more acceptable than the mother-tongue. For 
if it be asked why he translated them at all, and why he 
translated not rather into the mother -tongue, which was 
known to all ? and if it be objected concerning St. Matthew 
and St. Paul, that, writing to the Jews, one his Gospel, the 
other his Epistle (to the Hebrews P), they must have written 
in the Syriac tongue (if so be they wrote not in Hebrew), 
that they might be understood by all :— we answer. 

First, It was not without reason that the paraphrast 
Jonathan translated out of the Hebrew original into the 
Ohaldee tongue, because this tongue was much more known 
and familiar to all the people than the Hebrew. The holy 
text had need of an interpreter into a more known tongue, 
because it was now in a tongue not known at all to the vul- 
gar. For none knew the Hebrew but such as learned it by 
study. However, therefore, all the Jews inhabiting the 
land of Canaan, did not so readily understand the Chaldee 
language as the Syriac, which was their mother-language, 
yet they much more readily understood that than the He- 
brew, which, to the unlearned, was not known at all. Hence 
it was not without necessity that the prophets were turned 
into the Chaldee language by Jonathan, and the law, not 
much after, by Onkelos, that they might a little be under- 
stood by the common people, by whom the Hebrew original 
was not understood at all. Weq read also that the Book 

o Bab. Megill. fol. 25, &c. Mas- p English folio edit. , vol. ii. p. 102. 
sech. Sopherim, cap. 11, 12, &c. 1 Hieros. Schabb. fol. 15. col. 3. 



Ch. i. 23 .] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 21 

of Job had its Targum in the time of Gamaliel the Elder ; 
that is, Paul's master. 

Secondly, it is no impertinent question, Why Jonathan 
and Onkelos did not rather translate into the Syriac lan- 
guage, which was the mother-language to all the people, 
when both they themselves were in Judea, while they were 
employed about this work, and laboured in it for the use of 
the Jews that dwelt there? To which we give this double 
answer ; i . That, by turning it into the Ohaldee language, 
they did a thing that might be of use to both them that 
dwelt in Judea, and in Babylon also. 2. The Syriac lan- 
guage was not so grateful unto the Jews, who used it for 
their mother-tongue, as the Chaldee was ; as being a lan- 
guage more neat and polite, and the mother-tongue to the 
brethren in Babylon, and which they that came up out of 
Babylon, carried thence with them into Judea. You may 
wonder, reader, when you hear that canon which permits a 
single man " to say his prayers in any language, when he 
asks those things that are needful for him, except only the 
Syriac : : ■'^'l^ ]1^'7r:> 'pH JT^^ ^Dn "^n^,« V^'^^ ^«"iU? "T^H'^ 
While "■ he aslceth necessaries for himself, let him use any lan- 
guage hut the Byriacy But you will laugh when you hear the 
reason : " Therefore, by all means, because the angels do not 
understand the Syriac language," 

Whether they distinguish the Syriac language here from 
the pure Chaldee, is not of great moment solicitously to in- 
quire : we shall only produce these things of the Glosser 
upon Beracoth s, which make to our purpose : — " There are 
some (saith he) who say, that that prayer which begins ty^p, 
is therefore to be made in the Syriac language, because it is 
a noble prayer, and that deserves the highest praise ; and 
therefore it is framed in the Targumistical language, that 
the angels may not understand it, and envy it to us,'' &c. 
And a little after ; " It was the custom to recite that prayer 
UJ^'lp, niD'^nn "^n^i after sermon -. and the common people 
were there present, who understood not the Hebrew language 
at all ; and therefore they appointed it to be framed in the 

«• 'tys 'in >pDD i.e. R. Oshaiae Beracoth, cap. 2. Bab. Schab. fol. 
Rabbpp. See Juchas. fol. 84. i. in 12. 2. Sotah, fol. 33. i. « Fpl. 3. i. 



2!2 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. i. 23. 

Targuniistical language, that it might be understood * by all ; 
for this is their tongue." 

Mark, the Hebrew was altogether unknown to the connnon 
people : no wonder, therefore, if the evangelists and apostles 
wrote not in Hebrew when there were none who understood 
things so written, but learned men only. 

That also must not be passed over, which, at first sight, 
seems to hint that the Syriac language was not understood 
even by learned men. " Samuel the Little", at the point of 
death, said, ^^mnS ^^ir^tZ?*»"! ]U*r2tZ: Siyneon and Ismael to 
the sword ; 'r\V''2h ^i^T^V ^3 li^ITI and all the other 'people to the 
spoil : p^in l^b^'^JD VpVy <^t^d there shall be very great calamities. 
infc^ n»2 ^V1^ ^h^ jm« n^n'^^ ptZ?Sm And because he 
spoke these things in the Syriac language, they understood not 
lohat he had said. This story you have repeated in the Ba- 
bylonian Gemara, where the words of the dying man are thus 

related; -^«u?"! «^t^p^ "^niinm vor\rh h^v^'^^^ pv^tt? 
: ^i2hv hv "^n^nS I'l-i'Tiv ]h^^;iD pj?i i^rn^ ^t:iV Let the 

Glosser ^ upon the place be the interpreter : " Simeon and 
Ismael to the sicord [that is, Rabban Simeon the prince, and 
R. Ismael Ben Elisha the high-priest, were slain with the 
sword], and his fellows to slaughter [that is, R. Akibah and 
R. Ohananiah Ben Teradion were slain by other deaths ; 
namely R. Akibah by iron teeth, and R. Ohananiah by 
burning alive before idols]; and the other people for a prey : 
and very many calamities shall fall upon the icorld." 

Now where it is said that, " They understood not what he 
said, because he spake in the Syrian tongue," we also do not 
easily understand. What ! for the Jerusalem doctors not 
to understand the Chaldee language ! For Samuel the Little 
died before the destruction of the city ; and he spake of the 
death of Rabban Simeon, who perished in the siege of the 
city ; and he spake these things when some of the learnedest 
Rabbins were by : and yet that they understood not these 
words, which even a smatterer in the oriental tongues would 
very easily understand ! 

Therefore, perhaps, you may beat out the sense of the 



t Leusdens edition, vol.ii. p. 253. " Hieros. Sotah. fol. 24. 2, 

^ Sanhedr. fol. 11. i. 



Oh. i, 23.] Exercitatiotis upon St. Matthew. 23 

matter from the words of the author of Juchasiny, who saith, 
He prophesied in the Syriac language, "^^"^^^ p\2}711 b^lDiirr 
But now, when prophecies were spoken only in the Hebrew 
language, however they understood ^ the sense of the words, 
yet they reputed it not for a prophecy, because it was not 
uttered in the language that was proper for prophetical pre- 
dictions. But we tarry not here. That which we would 
have is this, that Matthew wrote not in Hebrew (which is 
proved sufficiently by what is spoken before), if so be we 
suppose him to have written in a language vulgarly known 
and understood ; which, certainly, we ought to suppose : 
not that he, or the other writers of the New Testament, 
wrote in the Syriac language, unless we suppose them to have 
written in the ungrateful language of an ungrateful nation, 
which, certainly, we ought not to suppose. For when the 
Jewish people were now to be cast off, and to be doomed to 
eternal cursing, it was very improper, certainly, to extol 
their language, whether it were the Syriac mother-tongue, 
or the Chaldee, its cousin language, unto that degree of 
honour; that it should be the original language of the New 
Testament. Improper, certainly, it was, to write the Gospel 
in their tongue, who, above all the inhabitants of the world, 
most despised and opposed it. 

IT. Since, therefore, the Gentiles were to be called to the 
faith, and to embrace the Gospel by the preaching of it, the 
New Testament was written very congruously in the Gentile 
language, and in that which, among the Gentile languages, 
was the most noble ; viz. the Greek. Let us see what the 
Jews say of this language, envious enough against all lan- 
guages besides their own. 

" Rabban Simeon^ Ben Gamaliel saith, Even concerning 
the holy books, the wise men permitted not that they should 
be written in any other language than Greek. R. Abhu saith 
that R. Jochanan said, The tradition is according to Rabban 
Simeon ; that R. Jochanan said, moreover. Whence is that of 
Rabban Simeon proved ? From thence, that the Scripture 
saith, ' The Lord shall persuade Japhet, and he shall dwell 
in the tents of Sem :' the words of Japhet shall be in the 

y Juchas. fol. 21. I. z Megillah, fol. 9. 2. 

* English folio edit., vol.ii. p. 103. 



24 Hehreiv and Talmudical [Ch. i. 23. 

tents of Sera :" and a little after, nQ"]^ D^r^S^ P\^^_ God 

shall persuade Japhet ; i.e. Dtl? "''^TT^^n ^il^ nC V© inVD'' 
J%e <7raC(3 0/ Japliet shall be in the tents of Sem. Where the 
Gloss speaks thus ; " ' The grace of Japhet' is the Greek 
language ; the fairest of those tongues which belonged to the 
sons of Japhet." 

" Rabban Siraeon'' Ben Gamaliel saith, Even concerning 
the sacred books, they permitted not that they should be 
written in any other language than Greek. They searched 

seriously, and found, r\T\ri ^!3 Dii-innS rh^T minn p«u; 

rr^^'V t^v^^ that the laio could not he translated according to 
what teas needfid for it, hut in Greek.'' You have this latter 
clause cut off in Massecheth Sop1ierim<=, where this story also 
is added : - The five elders wrote the law in Greek for Pto- 
lemy the king : and that day was bitter to Israel, as the day 
wherein the golden calf was made, because the law could not 
be translated according to what was needful for it.^^ This 
story of the ' five interpreters^ of the law is worthy of con- 
sideration, which you find seldom mentioned, or scarce any- 
where else. The tradition next following after this, in the 
place cited, recites the story of the Seventy. Look at it. 

When, therefore, the common use of the Hebrew language 
had perished, and when the mother Syriac or Chaldee tongue 
of a cursed nation could not be blessed, our very enemies 
being judges, no other language could be found, which might 
be fit to write the (new) divine law, besides the Greek tongue. 
That this language was scattered, and in use^ among all the 
eastern nations almost, and was in a manner the mother 
tongue, and that it was planted every where by the conquests 
of Alexander, and the empire of the Greeks, we need not 
many words to prove ; since it is every where to be seen in 
the historians. The Jews do well near acknowledge it for 
their mother-tongue even in Judea. 

" R. Jochanan^ of Reth Gubrin said, There are four noble 
languages which the world useth ; the mothei'-tongue, for 
singing ; the Roman, for war ; the Syriac, for mourning ; 
and the Hebrew, for elocution : and there are some who say, 

^ Hieros. Megill. fol. 71. 3. ^ Hieros. Megill. in the place 

c Cap. I. artic. 7. above, col. 2. 

^ Leiisden's edit., vol. ii. p. 254. 



Ch. i. 23.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 25 

the Assyrian for writing." What is that which he calls the 
mother-tongiu; ? It is very easily answered, the Greek, from 
those encomiums added to it, mentioned before : and that 
may more confidently be affirmed from the words of JSIidras 
Tillin'', respecting this saying of R. Joehanan, and mentioning 
the Greek language by name. " R. Joehanan said, There are 
three languages; the Roman, for war; the Greek^ for speech; 
the Assyrian, for prayer." To this also belongs that, that 
occurs once and again in Bab. Megillah g, '^^1 V Yjhl In the 
Greek mother tongue. You have an instance of the thing ^^ : 
" R. Levi, coming to Ctcsarea, heard some )^}y^ T"^"^? 
prD'^]l7t^ reciting the phylacteries in the Hellenisticallanguage." 
This is worthy to be marked. At Csesarea flourished the 
famous schools of the Rabbins. ]'>1D*'p'7 r32°^ The Rahhins 
of Cwsarea are mentioned in both Talmuds most frequently, 
and with great praise, but especially in that of Jerusalem. 
But yet among these, the Gi'eek is used as the mother- tongue, 
and that in reciting the phylacteries, which, you rnay well 
think, above all other things, in Judea were to be said in 
Hebrew. 

In that very Ctesarea, Jerome mentions the Hebrew Gospel 
of St. Matthew, to be laid up in the library of Pamphilus, in 
these words : " Matthew, who was also called Levi,, from a 
publican made an apostle, first of all in Judea composed the 
Gospel of Christ in Hebrew letters andi words, for their sakes, 
who were of the circumcision and believed. Which Gospel, 
who he was that afterward translated it into Greek, it is 
not sufficiently known. Moreover, that very Hebrew Gospel 
is reserved to this day in the library at Csesarea, which Pam- 
philus the martyr, with much care, collected. I also had 
leave given me by the Nazarenes, who use this book in Berea, 
a city of Syria, to write it out."' 

It is not at all to be doubted, that this Gospel was found 
in Hebrew ; but that which deceived the good man was not 
the very hand-writing of Matthew, nor, indeed, did Matthew 
write the Gospel in that language ; but it was turned by 
somebody out of the oi-iginal Greek into Hebrew, that so, if 

^ Midr. Till. fol. 2.-,. 4. ^ Hieros. Sotah, fol. 21.2. 

e Fol. 18. I. i Englishfolio edit., vol. ii. ]). 104. 



26 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. ii. i. 

possible, the learned Jews might read it. For since they had 
little kindness for foreign books, that is, heathen books, or 
such as were written in a language different from their own, 
which might be illustrated from various canons, concerning 
this matter; some person converted to the gospel, excited 
with a good zeal, seems to have translated this Gospel of 
St. Matthew out of the Greek original into the Hebrew lan- 
guage, that learned men among the Jews, who as yet believed 
not, might perhaps read it, being now published in their lan- 
guage : which was rejected by them while it remained in a 
foreign speech. Thus, I suppose, this Gospel was written in 
Greek by St. Matthew, for the sake of those that believed in 
Judea, and turned into Hebrew by somebody else, for the 
sake of those that did not believe. 

The same is to be resolved concerning the original language 
of the Epistle to the Hebrews. That Epistle was written to 
the Jews inhabiting Judea, to whom the Syriac was the 
mother-tongue ; but yet it was writ in Greek, for the reasons 
above named. For the same reasons, also, the same apostle 
writ in Greek to the Romans, although in that churcli there 
were Romans, to whom it might seem more agreeable to have 
written in Latin ; and there were Jews, to whom it might 
seem more proper to have written in Syriac. 

CHAP. n. 

A calculation of the times lohen Christ teas horn. 

Ver. I : Tov hi '[jycrov yevviiOivTos' Now when Jesus was 
horn.l We thus lay down a scheme of the times when Christ 
was born : 

I. He was born in the year of the world 3928. 

For from the creation of the world to the deluge are 
commonly reckoned 1656 years. 

From the deluge to Abraham's promise are 427 years. 
This being supposed, that Abraham was born the 130th year 
of Terah : which must be supposed. 

From the promise given, to the going out of Egypt, 430 
years, Exod. xii. 40, Gal. iii. 17. 

From the going out of Egypt to the laying the foun- 
dations of the Temple are 480 years, i Kings vi. i. 



Ch. ii. I.] Exercitatiom upon St. Mattheio. 27 

The Temple was building 7 years, i Kings vi. 38. Casting 
up, therefore, all these together, viz. 

. 1656 

427 

430 
480 

7 

The sum of years amounts to 3000 

And it is clear, the building of the Temple was finished and 
completed in the year of the world 3000. 

The Temple was finished in the eleventh year of Solomon, 
1 Kings vi. 38 : and thence to the revolting of the ten tribes, 
in the first year of Rehoboam, were 30 years. Therefore, 
that revolt was in the year of the world 3030. 

From'*^ the revolt of the ten tribes to the destruction of 
Jerusalem under Zedekiah were three hundred and ninety 
years : which appears sufficiently from the chronical com- 
putation of the parallel times of the kings of Judah and 
Israel: and which is implied by Ezekiel, iv. 4-6 : " Thou' shalt 
sleep upon thy left side, and shalt put the iniquities of the 
house of Israel upon it, «Sec. according to the number of the 
days, three hundred and ninety days. And when thou shalt 
have accomplished them, thou shalt sleep upon thy right side 
the second time, and shalt take upon thee the iniquity of 
the house of Judah forty days. Concerning the computation 
of these years, it is doubted, whether those forty years are to 
be numbered together within the three hundred and ninety 
years, or by themselves, as following after those three hun- 
dred and ninety years. We, not without cause, embrace the 
former opinion, and suppose those forty years to be included 
within the sum of three hundred and ninety ; but mentioned 
by themselves particularly, for a particular reason. For by 
the space of forty years before the destruction of the city by 
the Chaldeans, did Jeremiah prophesy daily, namely, from 
the third year of Josias to the sacking of the city : whom the 
people not hearkening to, they are marked for that peculiar 
iniquity with this note. 

^ English folio edit,, vol. ii. p. 105. ^ Leusden's edit., vol.ii. p. 255. 



28 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. ii. i . 

Therefore, these three hundred and ninety years being 
added to the year of the world, 3030, when the ten tribes 
fell off from the house of David, the age of the world when 
Jerusalem perished, arose to the year 3420. 

At that time there remained fifty years of the Babylonian 
captivity to be completed. For those remarkable seventy 
years took their beginning from the third year of Jehoiakim, 
Dan. i. i, whose fourth year begins the Babylonian monarchy, 
Jer. XXV. I. And, in the nineteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar, 
the Temple was destroyed, 2 Kings xxv. 8, when now the 
twentieth year of the captivity passed ; and other fifty re- 
mained : which fifty being added to the year of the world 
3420, a year fatal to the Temple, the years of the world 
amount, in the first year of Cyrus, unto 3470. 

From the first of Cyrus to the death of Christ are seventy 
weeks of years, or four hundred and ninety years, Dan. ix. 24. 
Add these to the three thousand four hundred and seventy, 
and you observe Christ crucified in the year of the world 3960. 
\V'hen, therefore, 3'ou have subtracted thirty-two years and a 
half, wherein Christ lived upon the earth, you will find him 
born in the year of the world 3928. 

11. He was born in the one-and-thirtieth year of Augustus 
Caesar, the computation of his monarchy beginning from the 
victory at Actium. Of which matter thus Dion Cassius 
writes : Totavrrj rts i) vavixa\[a avrGtv rfi hcvrepq tov 2eTrre/x- 
jBpiov kyiv€TQ' TovTo he ovk aAAws eiTiov, &c. " This "^ their 
sea-fight was on the second of September : and this I speak 
upon no other account (for I am not wont to do it), but be- 
cause then Csesar first obtained the whole power : so that 
the computation of the years of his monarchy must be pre- 
cisely reckoned from that very day." We confirm this our 
computation, by drawing down a chronological table from 
this -year of Augustus to the fifteenth year of Tiberias, when 
Christ, having now completed the nine-and-twentieth year 
of his age, and entering just upon his thirtieth, was bap- 
tized. Now this table, adding the consuls of every year, 
we thus frame : 

"1 Dion. Cass. lib. li. in the beginning. 



A.M. 


A.U.C. 


Augus- 
tus. A . 


3928 


754 


31 I 


3929 


755 


32 2 


3930 


756 


33 3 


3931 


757 


34 4 



3936 


762 


39 


9 


3937 


763 


40 


10 


3938 


764 


41 


II 


3939 


765 


42 


12 


3940 


766 


43 


13 


394^ 


767 


44 


14 



Ch. ii.i.] Eoaercitations upon St. Matthew. ^9 

CONSULS. 

Cpes. Aug. XIV. and L. Mm\\. Paulus. 
Publius Vinicius and Pub. Alfenus Varus. 
L. jElius Lamia, and M. Servilius. 
Sext. vEmilius Carus, and C. Sentius Sa- 
turninus. 

3932 758 35 5 L. Valerius Messala, and Cn. Corn. Cinna 

Magn. 

3933 759 3^ ^ M. .^mil. Lepidus, and L. Aruntius. 

3934 760 37 7 A. Licin. Nerv. Silanus, and Q. Csecil. Metell. 

Cret. 

3935 761 38 8 Furius Camillus, and Sext. Nonius Quinti- 

liauus. 
Q. Sulpit. Camarin. and C. Poppeeus Sabinus. 
Pub. Corn. Dolabella, and C. Junius Silanus. 
M. ^mil. Lepid. and T. Statilius Taurus. 
Gennanicus Cses. and C. Fonteius Capito. 
L. Munatius Plaucus, and C. Silius Cfecina. 
Sext. Pomp. Sexti F. and Sext. Apuleius 
Sexti F. 
Augustus Caesar died the 19th day of August: on which 
day he had formerly entered upon the first consulship. He " 
lived seventy-five years, ten months, and twenty-six days. He 
bore the empire alone, from the victory at Actium^ forty-four 
years^ wanting only thirteen days. 

" Tiberius ° held the empire in great slothfulness, with 
grievous cruelty, wicked covetousness, and filthy lust P." 

CONSULS. 

Drusus Ca3S. and C. Norbanus Flaccus. 
C. Statil. Sisenna Taurus, and Scribonius 
Libo. 

C. Csecil. Rufus, and L. Pomponianus Flaccus. 
Tiber. Cses. Aug. III. and Germanicus 

C^s. II. 
3946 772 5 19 M. Julius Silanus, and L. Norban Flac. vel 

Balbus. 
M. Valerius Messala, and M. Aiu-el. Cotta. 
Tiber. Cses. Aug. IV. and Drusus Cses. II. 

D. Haterius Agrippa, and C. Sulpitius Galba. 
C. Asinius PoUio, and C. Antistius Veter. 

" Dion. Cass. lib. Ivi. — Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 256. 

° English folio edit ., vol. ii. p. 106. P Eutrop. lib. vii. 



A.M. 


A.U.C. 


Tiber. 


A.D. 


3942 


768 


I 


15 


3943 


769 


2 


16 


3944 


770 


3 


17 


3945 


771 


4 


18 



3947 


773 


6 20 


3948 


774 


7 21 


3949 


775 


8 22 


3950 


776 


9 23 



A.M. 


A.U.C. 


Tiber. 


A.D. 


3951 


777 


10 


24 


3952 


778 


II 


25 



30 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. ii. 1 . 

CONSULS. 

Sext. Cornel. Cetliegus, and Visellius Varro. 
M. Asinius Agrippa, and Cossus Cornel 
Lentulus. 

3953 779 12 26 Cn. Lentulus Getulicus, and C. Calvisius 

Sabinus. 

3954 780 13 27 M. Licinius Crassus, and P. L. Calphurnius 

Piso. 

3955 781 14 28 Appius Jul. Silanus, and P. Silvius Nei'va. 

3956 782 15 29 C. Rubellius Geminus, and C. Fusius Ge- 

minus. 

In the early spring of this year came John baptizing. In 
the month Tisri Christ is baptized, when he had now ac- 
complished the nine-and-twentieth year of his age, and had 
now newly entered upon his thirtieth. The thirtieth of Christ 
is to be reckoned with the sixteenth of Tiberius. 

Of Augustus, now entering upon his one-and-thirtieth year, 
wherein Christ was born, Dion Cassius hath moreover these 
words : OArjpw^eio-jjs 8e /cat rrfs TpCrrjs beKaerias, tyjv ^yrifxoviav 
Kol TO rirapTov (K^iaaOels brjdev viribe^aTo, TTpqoTepos re Koi 
oKvrjpoTepo^ vtto tov yn^pcor " Having now completed thrice ten 
years, being compelled, indeed, to it, he continued his govern- 
ment, and entered upon a fourth ten of years : being now 
more easy and slothful by reason of age." In this very year 
was the taxation under Cyrenius, of which Luke speaks, 
chap. ii. So that if it be asked when the fifth monarchy of 
the Romans arose, after the dissolution of those four men- 
tioned by Daniel, an easy answer may be fetched from St. 
Luke, who relates that in that very year wherein Christ was 
born, Augustus laid a tax upon the whole world. 

III. Christ was born in the thirty-fifth year of the reign 
of Herod : which we gather from the observation of these 
things: i. Herod q reigned, from that time he was first de- 
clared king by the Romans, seven-and-thirty years. 2. Be- 
tween the death of Herod and the death of Augustus there 
was this space of time : 

1 . The >■ ten years current of the reign of Archelaus. 

2. Coponiuss succeeds him, banished to Vienna in the 
presidentship of Judea. 

1 Joseph. Antiq. lib. xvii. cap. 10. [xvh.8.1.] «" Id. Ibid. c. 15. [xvii. 13. 2.] 
s Id. ibid, and lib. xviii. c. i. [xviii. i. i.] 



Ch. ii. I.] Exercitations upon St.Mattheic. 31 

3. Marcus Ambibuchus [Ambivius] succeeds Coponius. 

4. Annius Rufus* succeeds Ambibuchus [Ambivius], during 
whose presidentship Augustus dies. 

Since, therefore, only fourteen years passed from the na- 
tivity of Christ to the death of Augustus, out of which sum 
when you shall have reckoned the ten years current of Ar- 
chelaus, and the times of the three presidents, we must reckon 
that Christ was not born but in the last years of Herod. Thus 
we conjecture : 

In his thirty-fifth Christ was born. 

In his thirty-seventh, now newly begun, the wise men came : 
presently after this was the slaying of the infants ; and, after 
a few months, the death of Herod. 

IV. Christ was born about the twenty-seventh year of the 
presidentship of Hillel in the Sanhedrim. 

The rise of the family of Hillel took its beginning at the 
decease of the Asmonean family (Herod, indeed, succeeded 
in the kingly government) ; a family sprung from Babylon, 
and, as was believed, of the stock of David. For" " a book 
of genealogy was found at Jerusalem^^ (which we mentioned 
before), " in which it was written, that Hillel was sprung 
from the stock of David, by his wife Abital.^^ Now Hillel went 
up out of Babylon to Jerusalem, to inquire of the wise men 
concerning some things, when now, after the death of Shemaia 
and Abtalion, the two sons of Betira held the chief seats. 
And when he who had resorted thither to learn something, 
had taught them some things of tlie Passover rites, which 
they had forgot, they put him into the chair. You have the 
full story of it in the Jerusalem Talmud ^. We mention it 
chap. xxvi. i. 

Now Hillel went up to Jerusalem and took the chair a 
hundred years before the destruction of the city : 1iy?:;:)tr'T ^Sti 

njtz? p n-^nn ^"i^h ;n"it^"^;2}2 ^>r^1 pi^?3tr'i ':'«^Sn:i " Hiiieiy 

and 2 his son Simeon, and his son Gamaliel, and his son 
Simeon, bare the government for a hundred years before the 
laying waste of the Temple." Of those hundred years if you 
take away two-and-thirty and a half of the life of Christ, and 

^ Joseph. Antiq. lib. xviii. c. 3. ^ Pesachin, fol. 33. i . 

[xviii. 3. 2.] y Bab. Schabb. fol. 15. i. 

" Hieros. Taanith, fol. 68. i. z EnglMi folio <?£?t7., vol.ii.p. 107. 



Sa Hebrew and Tahnudical ^ [Ch. ii. i . 

forty years (as it is commonly deputed) coming between the 
death of Christ and the destruction of the city, there remain ^ 
the twenty-seven years of Hillel before the birth of our Sa- 
viour. 

Hillel held the government forty years : so that his death 
happened about the twelfth or thirteenth year of Christ. His 
son also held it after him, and his grandsons, in a long suc- 
cession, even to R. Judah the Holy. The splendour and pomp 
of this family of Hillel had so obscured the rest of the families 
of David's stock, that perhaps they believed or expected the 
less, that the Messias should spring from any of them. Yea, 
one in the Babylonian Gemara was almost persuaded, that 
" Rabbi Judah the Holy, of the Hillelian family, was the 
Messias. Babh'^ said, 'n'\pr\ "im ]T:53 «^^H p ''t^ If 
Messiah he amotic/ the living, our Holy Rahbi is such : if among 
the dead, Daniel was he." 

V. Christ was born in the month of Tisri ; somewhat an- 
swering to our September. This we conclude, omitting other 
things, by computing backwards from his death. For if he 
died in his two-and-thirtieth year and a half, at the feast of 
the Passover, in the month Nisan, you must necessarily lay 
the time of his birth in the month Tisri. But that he died at 
that age, not to make any delay by mentioning more things, 
appears hence, that he was baptized now beginning his thir- 
tieth year, and that he lived after his baptism three years 
and a half ; as the space of his public ministry is determined 
by the angel Gabriel, Dan. ix. [27] ; " In the half of a 
week" (that is, three years and a half), "he shall make the 
sacrifice to cease," &c. But of this hereafter. 

This month was ennobled in former times, 1. For tlie crea- 
tion of the world. Weigh well Exod. xxiii. 15, Joel ii. 23. 
2. For the nativity of the first fathers ; which the Jews^ assert 
not without reason. 3. For the repairing the tables of the 
law. For Moses, after the third fast of forty days, comes 
down from the mountain, a messenger of good things, the 
tenth day of this month, which was from hence appointed 
for the feast of Expiation to following ages. 4. For the 
dedication of the Temple, 1 Kings viii. 2. And, 5. For three 

* Leusdens edition, vol. ii. p. 257. ^ Sanbedr. fol. 98. 2. 

^ Hieros. Robh Hashanah, fol. 56. 4. 



Oh, ii, 1.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. B3 

solemn feasts, namely, that of the Beginning of the Year, 
that of Expiation, and that of Tabernacles. From this month 
also was the beginning of the Jubilee. 

VI. It is probable Christ was born at the feast of Taber- 
nacles. 

1. So it ariseth exactly to three-and-thirty years and a 
half, when he died at the feast of the Passover. 

2. He fulfilled the typical equity of the Passover and Pen- 
tecost, when, at the Passover, he offered himself for a pass- 
over, at Pentecost he bestowed the Holy Ghost from heaven, 
as at that time the law had been given from heaven. At 
that time the first-fruits of the Spirit were given by him 
(Eom. viii. 23), when the first-fruits of corn had been wont 
to be given, Levit. xxiii. 17. It had been a wonder if he had 
honoured the third solemnity, namely, the feast of Taber- 
nacles, with no antitype. 

3. The institution of the feast of Tabernacles agrees excel- 
lently with the time of Christ's birth. For when Moses went 
down from the mount on the tenth day of the month Tisri, 
declaring that God was appeased, that the people was par- 
doned, and that the building of the holy tabernacle was forth- 
with to be gone in hand with (hitherto hindered by and be- 
cause of the golden calf), seeing that God now would dwell 
among them, and forsake them no more ; the Israelites imme- 
diately pitch their tents, knowing they were not to depart 
from that place before the divine tabernacle was finished, and 
they set upon this work with all their strength. Whence the 
tenth day of that month, wherein Moses came down and 
brought this good news with him, was appointed for the feast 
of Expiation ; and the fifteenth day, and seven days after, for 
the feast of Tabernacles, in memory of their dwelling in tents 
in the wilderness, when God dwelt in the midst of them : 
which things with how aptly typical an aspect they respect 
the incarnation, when God dwelt among men in human flesh, 
is plain enough. 

4. Weigh Zech. xiv. 16, 17 : "And it shall come to pass, 
that every one that is left of all the nations which came 
against Jerusalem shall even go up, from year to year, to 
worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to keep the feast ol' 
Tabernacles. And it shall be, that whoso will not come up 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. D 



34 Hebrew and Talmuclical [Ch. ii. i. 

of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem^ to worship 
the King, the Lord of hosts, even upon them shall be no 
more rain." 

'Ey Bri6\ee[x- In Beth-lehem. It will not be improper here 
to produce the Gemarists themselves, openly confessing that 
the Messias was born now a good while ago before their times. 
For so they write : " After^ this the children of Israel shall 
be converted, and shall inquire after the Lord their God, and 
David their king, Hos. iii. 5. Our Rabbins say, That is king 
Messias: if he^ be among the living, his name is David; 
or if dead, David is his name. R, Tanchum said, Thus I 
prove it : ' He showeth mercy to David his Messiah' (Psalm 
xviii. 50). R. Joshua Ben Levi saith, His name is H^^ A 
branch (Zech. iii. 8). R. Judan Bar Aibu saith, His name 
is Menahem [012?^] [that is, irapaKkrjTos, the comforter']. 
And that which happened to a certain Jew, as he was 
ploughing, agreeth with this business : — A certain Arabian 
travelling, and hearing the ox bellow, said to the Jew at 
plough, ' Jew, loose thy oxen, and loose thy ploughs : for 
behold ! the Temple is laid waste.' The ox bellowed the 
second time ; the Arabian said to him, Jew, Jew, yoke thy 
oxen and fit tliy ploughs, for heJiold! King Messiah is born. 

t^^Sn 1^7^ «ni "y^ipDp nit^pi ^7^"^ iit^p ^«iv ■'«nv 

: t^n^n;?D. But, saith the Jew, 'What is his name?' 'Me- 
nahem,' saith he. 'And what is the name of his father?' 
' Hezekiah,' saith the Arabian. To whom the Jew, ' But 
whence is he?' The other answered, 'From the palace of 
the king of Beth lehem Judah.' Away he went, and sold his 
oxen and his ploughs, and became a seller of infants' swad- 
dling-clothes, going about from town to town. When he 
came to that city [Beth-lehem], all the women bought of him, 
but the mother of Menahem bought nothing. He heard the 
voice of the women saying, ' O thou mother of Menahem, thou 
mother of Menahem, carry thy son the things that are here^ 
sold.' But she replied, ' May the enemies of Israel be stran- 
gled, because on the day that he was born the Temple was 
laid waste ! ' To whom he said, ' But we hoped, that as it 
was laid waste at his feet, so at his feet it would be btiilt 

^ Hieros. Beracoth, fol. 5. i. « English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 108. 
^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 258. 



( 'li. ii. I .] Exerdtations npon Sf. Matthew. 35 

again/ She saith, ' I have no money.' To whom he replied, 
' But why should this be prejudicial to him ? Carry him what 
you buy here ; and if you have no money to-day, after some 
days I will come back and receive it/ After some days he 
returns to that city, and saith to her, ' How does the little 
infant?^ And she said, 'From the time you saw me last, 
spirits and tempests came, and snatched him away out of my 
hands.' R. Bon saith, AVhat need have we to learn from an 
Arabian? Is it not plainly written, ^ And Lebanon shall fall 
before the powerful One?' (Isa. x. 34.) And what follows 
after? 'A branch shall come out of the root of Jesse'" (Isa. 
xi. i). 

The Babylonian doctors yield us a confession not very 
unlike the former: "R. Chaninahs saith, After four hundred 
years are past from the destruction of the Temple, if any one 
shall say to you, 'Take to thyself for one penny a field worth 
a thousand pence," do not take it.^^ And again ; " After four 
thousand tw^o hundred thirty-and-one years from the creation 
of the world, if any shall say to you, ' Take for a penny a 
field worth a thousand pence,' take it not." The Gloss is, 
" For that is the time of redemption ; and you shall be 
brought back to the holy mountain, to the inheritance of your 
fathers: why, therefore, should you mispend your penny?" 

You may fetch the reason of this calculation, if you are at 
leisure, out of the tract Sanhedrim^: "The tradition of the 
school of Elias, The world is to last six thousand years,"" &c. 
And a little after ; " Elias said to Rabh Judah, ' The world 
shall last not less than eighty-five jubilees ; and in the last 
jubilee shall the Son of David come.' He saith to him, 
'Whether in the beginning of it, or in the end?' He answered 
him, ' I know not.' ' Whether is this whole time to be 
finished first, or not?^ He answered him, 'I know not.' 
But Rabh Asher asserts that he answered thus, ' Until then 
expect him not, but from thence expect him.' " Hear your 
own countrymen, Jew, how many centuries of years are 
past by and gone from the eighty-fifth jubilee of the world, 
that is, the year 4250, and yet the Messias of your expecta- 
tion is not yet come. 

Daniel's weeks had so clearly defined the time of the true 

f? Avodah Zarah, fol. 9. 2. '» Fol. 97. 

D 2 



36 Hebrev and Talmudical [Oh, ii. i. 

Messias's coming, that the minds of the whole nation were 
raised into the expectation of him. Hence it was doubted 
of the Baptist whether he were not the Messias, Luke iii. 15. 
Hence it was that the Jews are gathered together from all 
countries unto Jerusalem [Acts ii.], expecting, and coming to 
see, because at that time the term of revealing the Messias, 
that had been prefixed by Daniel, was come. Hence it was 
that there was so great a number of false Christs, Matt. xxiv. 
5, &c., taking the occasion of their impostures hence, that now 
the time of that great expectation was at hand, and fulfilled : 
and in one word, " They thought the kingdom of God should 
presently appear;" Luke xix. 1 1. 

But when those times of expectation were past, nor did 
such a Messias appear as they expected (for when they saw 
the true Messias, they would not see him), they first broke 
out into various and those wild conjectures of the time ; 
and at length all those conjectures coming to nothing, all 
ended in this curse (the just cause of their eternal blindness), 
Y'^p '^'yi^TTO 7II7 trrri X^'Z^ry May their sold he confounded who 
compute the times ! 

Mdyot a-n' avaToKQ>i'' Wise men from the eastJ] Mdyot, Magi, 
that is, wizards, or such as practised ill arts : for in this sense 
alone this word occurs in holy writ. 

Fro}?i the east. This more genei'ally denotes as much as, 
' Out of the land of the heathen/ in the same sense as ' the 
queen of the south' is taken, Matt. xii. 42 ; that is, ' a hea- 
then queen.' Consider this passage in the Talmud, DplD 

]'\Q'^^ '\^^^ ]1C2^ " From Rekam to the east, and Rekam is 
as the east : from Ascalon to the south, and Ascalon is as 
the i south : from Aeon to the north, and Aeon is as the 
north." These words R. Nissiml^ quotes from R. Judah, and 
illustrates it with this Gloss, " From Rekam to the furthest 
bounds of the land eastward is heathen land ; and Rekam 
itself is reckoned for the east of the world, and not for the 
land of Israel. So also from Ascalon onwards to the south is 
the heathen country, and Ascalon itself is reckoned for the 
south :" that is, for heathen land. 

Those countries where the sons of Abraham by his wife 
■ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 109. '' In Gittin, cap. t. art. i. 



Ch. ii. 2. 4.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 37 

Keturah were dispersed, are more particularly called the 
' eastern' countries, Gen. xxv. 6, Judg. vi. 3, and elsewhere 
often. And hence came these first-fruits of the Gentiles : 
whence it is not unlikely that Jethro also came, the first pros- 
elyte to the law. And that which is spoken by the Gemara 
concerning the Arabian, the first pointer-out of the Messias 
born, is perhaps some shadow of this story of the magicians^ 
coming out of Arabia, and who first publicly declared him to 
be born. 

Ver. 2 : EtSo/xez^ yap avrov tov aarepa Iv ttj avaTokfi' For 
we ham seen his star in the east.'] We, being in the east, 
have seen his star : — that heavenly light, which in that very 
night wherein the Saviour was born shone round about the 
shepherds of Beth-lehem, perhaps was seen by these magi- 
cians, being then a great distance off", resembling a star 
hanging over Judea ; whence they might the more easily 
guess that the happy sign belonged to the Jews. 

Ver, 4' : Kat awayayi^v Tidvras tovs 'Ap^iepels Koi Tpajj.- 
pt-ar^ls TOV Kaov' And tohen he had gathered all the chief priests 
and scribes of the people together ?\ That is, he assembled the 
Sanhedrim. Herod is said by very many authors to have 
slain the Sanhedrim, but this is neither to be understood 
of the whole Sanhedrim, nor, if it were to be understood of 
the whole, would it denote the total subversion of the San- 
hedrim. The Babylonian Gemarists do thus relate the story : 
" Herod "i was a servant of the Asmonean family. He cast 
his eyes upon a young maid [<>/" that family]. On a certain 
day he heard the Bath Kol [a voice from heaven] saying, 
Whatsoever servant shall now rebel shall prosper. He arose 
up against his masters, and slew them all." And a little 
after ; " Herod said. Who is there that interprets these 
words, ' Thou shalt set a king over thee out of the midst of 
thy brethren?' (Deut. xvii. 15.) The Rabbins [interpreted the 
words] . He rose up and slew all the Rabbins, leaving only 
13ava Ben Buta, with whom he consulted." 

Herod was to overcome two difficulties, that he might, 
with the peace and favour of the Jews, become their king. 
For, although he had been raised unto the kingdom by the 
Romans, nevertheless, that he might establish his throne, 

1 Leusderi's edition, vol. ii. p. 259. "^ Bava Batlira, fol. 3. 2. 



88 Hebrew and Tahnudical [Ch. ii. 2. 

the people remaining quiet and accepting him, first it seemed 
necessary to him that the Asmonean family should be re- 
moved out of the way, which, formerly governing the people, 
they had some affection and love for^ and which still remain- 
ing, he suspected he could scarce be secure. Secondly, that 
law of setting no king over them but of their brethren de- 
barred him, since he himself was of the stock of Edom. 
Therefore he took away all those Rabbins, who, adhering 
stiffly to this law, opposed, what they could, his coming to 
the kingdom. " But all the Rabbins indeed he slew not 
(saith the Gloss upon the place alleged) ; for the sons of 
Betira were left alive, who held the chair when Hillel came 
out of Babylon." 

Therefore he slew not all the elders of the Sanhedrim, 
but those only who, taking occasion from that law, opposed 
his access to the kingdom. Out of that slaugliter the two 
sons of Betira escaped, who held the first places in the San- 
hedrim after the death of Shemaiahand Abtalion. Shammai 
also escaped, who, according as Josephus relates, foretold 
this slaughter. Hillel escaped likewise, if he were then pre- 
sent ; and Menahem, who certainly was there, and who 
thenceforth sat second in the chair. Bava Ben Buta es- 
caped also, as the Gemara relates, who afterward persuaded 
Herod that ho should repair the Temple to expiate this 
bloody impiety. And others escaped. 

'kpxiipe.ls' The chief priests.^ When the Sanhedrim con- 
sisted of priests, Levites, and Israelites ( as Maimonides " 
teacheth), under the word dpxiepets, chief priests, are com- 
prehended the two former ; namely, whosoever of the clergy 
were members of the Sanhedrim ; and under the scribes of the 
people are comprehended all those of the Sanhedrim who were 
not of the clergy. 

Among o the priests were divers differences : 

I. Of the priests some were called Y"^fc«5n OV ^^113, as if 
you would say the plebeian jjriests : namely, such who indeed 
were not of the common people, but wanted school education, 
and were not reckoned among the learned, nor among such 
as were devoted to religion. For seeing the whole seed of 
Aaron was sacerdotal, and priests were not so much made as 

» In Sanhedr. cap. 2. " English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 110. 



Ch. ii. 2.J Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 39 

born, no wonder if some ignorant and poor were found among 
them. Hence is that distinction, D^^H^ ^^2V^ hi^^^"^ "«^Dl^ 
p!5p /^ The Y> poor Israelites and the poor priests are gatherers. 
Vli^n UV Xr\'y\ mn ^n^ a Votary priest., and a Plebeian 
priest. And caution is given, pt^H UV )p:h "nimn pb^tT 
That^ the oblation be not given to a Plebeian priest. And the 
reason of it is added, " Because whosoever giveth an oblation 
to a Plebeian priest doth all one as if he should give it to a 
lion; of which it may be doubted whether he will tread it 
under his feet and eat it or not. So it may be doubted of a 
Plebeian priest, whether he will eat it in cleanness or in un- 
cleanness." However ignorant and illiterate these were, yet 
they had their courses at the altar according to their lot, 
being instructed at that time by certain rules for the per- 
forming their office, appointed them by lot. You would stand 
amazed to read those things ■" which are supposed concerning 
the ignorance and rudeness even of the high-priest himself. 

n. There were others who were called rTltiSl''"!!! CZ3"'3n^ 
Idiot, or prioate., priests ; who although they both were 
learned, and performed the public office at the altar, yet 
were called private, because they were priests of a lower, 
and not of a worthier, order. 

HI. The worthier degree of priests was fourfold, besides 
the degree of the high-priest, and of the sagan his substi- 
tute. For, I . There were "^r^tDQ tl?^5"1 the heads of the Eplie- 
meries, or courses ; in number twenty-four. 2. There were 
11^5 TS^I t2?i^'^ the heads of the families in every course. Of « 
both, see the Jerusalem Talmud. 3. tr'''1p721 Vntl'' D"^31?272 
The presidents over the various offices in the Temple. Of them, 
see Shekalim '. 4. Any priests or Levites, indeed, (although 
not of these orders,) that were chosen into the chief Sanhe- 
drim. 'Apxtepets, cJtief priests, therefore, here and elsewhere, 
where the discourse is of the Sanhedrim, were they who, 
being of the priestly or Levitical stock, were chosen into that 
chief senate. 

TpaiJifxaTols tov kaov- The scribes of the people.'] HOID 
A scribe, denotes more generally any man learned ", and 

1' Hieios. Trumoth, fol. 44. i . & 2 . « Taanith, fol. 68. i . 

^ Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 90. 2. * Cap. 5. 

' Joma, cap. i. u Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 260. 



40 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch. ii.4. 

is opposed to the word nil rude, or cloionish. " Two ^, who 
ate together, are bound to give thanks each by themselves, 
D^'TCID Dn^:3U)U?3 when both of them are scribes : m^ ^2^^ 
: b^2V -lin ^-inn nSID 1in -rn^l "IDID But if one be a 
scribe, and the other ignorant [or a cloivn], let the scribe give 
thanks, and thence satisfaction is made for the duty of the igno- 
rant, or unlearned person." So we read of CTil^ ""IQID 
They scribes of the Samaritans ; that is, the learned among the 
Samaritans : for among them there were no traditionarians. 

More particularly, CD"^1ij1D scribes, denote such, who, 
being learned, and of scholastic education, addicted them- 
selves especially to handling the pen, and to writing. Such 
were the public notaries in the Sanhedrim, registrars in 
the synagogues, amanuenses who employed themselves in 
transcribing the law, phylacteries, short sentences to be 
fixed upon the door-posts, bills of contracts, or divorce, &c. 
And in this sense b^lCD a scribe, and t«^;3n a Talmudic 
doctor, are sometimes opposed ; although he was not ^53^ 
Tanna, a Talmudic doctor, who was not i^^lDD Sophra, a 
scribe, in the sense above mentioned. In =* the Babylonian 
Talmud it is disputed (a passage not unworthy our reading), 
what disagreement in calculation may be borne with between 
t^Dn an expoimder out of the chair, or the pulpits, and N*^iDD 
a writer of contracts, or bills of divorce, or a register, &c., 
in reckoning up the year of the Temple, of the Greek empire, 
&c. Concerning which matter, this, among other things, 
is concluded on, ni^CDID t^^Jl b5"^''!i2 b^*1i]D that a scribe 
computes more briefly, a doctor more largely. It will not repent 
one to read the place ; nor that whole tract called ri!DD^ 
CIDID The tract of the scribes ; which dictates to the scribes 
of that sort of which we are now speaking, concerning writing 
out the law, the phylacteries, &;c. 

But, fe.bove all others, the fathers of the traditions are 
called scribes (who were, indeed, the elders of the Sanhe- 
drim) : which is clear enough in these and such-like expres- 
sions : niin nmn a^i'-nn QnD"iD "^im The words of 

the scribes are more lovely than the words of the law ; that is, 
traditions are better than the written law : □''IDID "^IIHD nt 

X Bab. Berac. fol. 45. 2. y Bab. Sotah, fol.33. 2, 

z Avodah Zarah, fol, 9, r, &c. 



Ch. ii. 6. 9. 14.] Exercltations upon St. Matthew. 41 

This is of the words of the scribes : that is, ' this is from the 
traditionary decrees/ 

These, therefore, whom Matthew calls the scribes of the 
people, were those elders of the Sanhedrim, who were not 
sprung from the sacerdotal or Levitical stock, but of other 
tribes : the elders of the Sanhedrim, sprung of the blood of 
the priests, were the scribes of the clergy., the rest were the 
scribes of the people. 

We a may therefore guess, and that no improbable con- 
jecture^ that, in this assembly, called together by Herod, 
these were present, among others: — i. Hillel, the president. 
2. Shammai, vice-president. 3. The sons of Betira, Judah, 
and Joshua. 4. Bava Ben Buta. 5. Jonathan the son of 
Uzziel, the Chaldee paraphrast. 6. Simeon^ the son of Hillel. 

Ver. 6 : OvbajjLws eXaxla-Tr] er Art not the least.'\ These words 
do not at all disagree with the words of the prophet whence 
they are taken, Micah v. 2, ni^H^ '?/^rl ^IVH^ '^^V'^ 
which I thus render, " But thou, Beth-lehem Ephrata, it is a 
small thing that thou art" [or, art reckoned] " among the 
thousands of Israel ;'' for thou art to be crowned with higher 
dignity ; " for from thee shall go forth a ruler," &c. And in 
effect to this sense, unless I mistake, does the Chaldee para- 
phrast plainly render it, whom I suspect to be present at this 
very council, :nt^:?:2nh^b t^D^irr •^*'inD "Thou art within a 
little to become chief." See the same sense of the word 
l''i?T in the Targum upon Psalm Ixxiii. 2, Hos. i. 4, &c. 

Ver. 9 : 'Actttjp, ov elbov kv tt} avaroXfi, iTpofjyev avTovs' The 
star, which they saio in the east, went before them.] It is pro- 
bable the star had shone in the very birthnight : and thence- 
forward to this very time it had disappeared. The wise men 
had no need of the star to be their guide when they were 
going to Jerusalem^ a city well known ; but going forward 
thence to Beth-lehem, and that, as it seems, by night, it was 
their guide. 

Ver. 14: ''Av€X(apr}aev ds AtyvTTTov Departed into Egypt] 
Egypt was now replenished with Jews above measure, and 
that, partly by reason of them that travelled thither under 
Jochanan, the son of Kareah, Jer. xliii ; partly with them 
that flocked thither, more latewardly, to the temple of Onias, 
a English folio edit., vol.ii. p. iii. 



42 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch, ii. 14. 

of which Josephus writes b, and both Talmuds ^ : " When 
Simeon the Just said, ' I shall die this year/ they said to him, 
' Whom, therefore, shall we put in thy place V He answered, 
: ]VJin3 "^il T\1T\ ' Behold ! my son Onias is before you? They 
made Onias therefore high-priest. But his brother Simeon 
envied him. Onias, therefore, fled, first into the Royal Moun- 
tain, and then into Egypt, and built there an altar, repeating 
that of the prophet, ' In that day there shall be an altar to 
the Lord in the midst of Egypt."" " 

" He'i that hath not seen the cathedral church of Alexan- 
dria hath never seen the glory of Israel. It was after the 
manner of a court-walk, double cloistered. There were some- 
times there so many as doubly exceeded the number of those 
that went out of Egypt. There were seventy golden chairs 
set with gems, according to the number of the seventy elders. 
A wooden pulpit also placed in the middle, in which the 
bishop of the synagogue stood. And when the law was read, 
after every benediction, a sign being given by a private person 
waving a handkerchief, they all answered ' Amen.' But they 
sat not confusedly and mixedly together ; but every artificer « 
with the professors of the same art : so that if a stranger 
came, he might mingle himself with the workmen of the same 
trade, &c. These did wicked Trajan destroy,"" &c. 

The Babylonian Gemai'a ^ repeats almost the same things, 
alleging these last matters after this manner : " They sat not 
confusedly, but the artificers by themselves, the silversmiths 
by themselves, the braziers by themselves, the weavers by 
themselves, &c ; so that if a poor stranger came in, he might 
know his own fellow- workmen, and betake himself to them, 
and thence receive sustenance for himself and family. 

So provision was made for the poverty of Joseph and Mary, 
while they sojourned in Egypt (at Alexandria, probably), 
partly by selling the presents of the wise men for food and 
provision by the way ; and partly by a supply of victuals from 
their country-folks in Egypt when they had need. 

There are some footsteps in the Talmudists of this jour- 
ney of our Saviour into Egypt, but so corrupted with venom- 

*» Antiq. 1. xiii. c. 6. [xiii. 3. i.] ^ Id. Succah, fol. 55. i, 2.' 

c Menachoth, c. 13. Succah, c. ^ Leusden's edit., vol. i\. 1^.261. 
5. Hieros. Joma, fol. 43. 4. ^ Succah, fol. 51. 2. 



Ch. ii. 16.] Exercitations wpon {■it. Matthew. 43 

ous malice and blasphemy (as all their writings are), that 
they seem only to have confessed the truth, that they might 
have matter the more liberally to reproach him ; for so they 
speak : " When Jannai S the king slew the Eabbins, R. Josua 
Ben Perachiah, and Jesus, went away unto Alexandi'ia in 
Egypt. Simeon Ben Shetah sent thither, speaking thus, 
' From me Jerusalem the holy city, to thee, Alexandria in 
Egypt, my sister, health. My husband dwells with thee, 
while I, in the mean time, sit alone. Therefore!^ he rose up, 
and went." And a little after; " He brought forth four 
hundred trumpets, and anathematized" [Jesus]. And a little 
before that ; " Elisseus turned away Gehazi with both his 
hands, and R. Josua Ben Perachiah thrust away Jesus with 
both his hands." 

" Did* not Ben Satda bring- enchantments out of Egypt 
in the cutting which was in his flesh V Under the name of 
Ben Satda they wound our Jesus with their reproaches, 
although the Glosser upon the place, from the authority of 
R. Tam, denies it : for thus he ; R. Tam saith, This was not 
Jesus of Nazareth, because they say here, Ben Satda was in 
the days of Paphus, the son of Judah, who was in the days of 
R, Akiba : but Jesus was in the days of R. Josua, the son of 
Perachiah," &c. 

Ver. 16 : 'Atto SteroCs koI KaroyTepoi- From two years old, and 
under. \ It was now two years ago, or thereabouts, since the 
star had shone, and Christ was born. The reason of the 
tarrying of Joseph and Mary in BethJehem was this ; that 
they believed that the Messias, who, according to the pro- 
phet was born there, should have been brought up nowhere 
but there also ; nor dared they to carry him elsewhere, before 
they had leave to do so by an angel from heaven. 

The Jewish nation are very purblind, how and whence the 
Messias shall arise ; and " Nemo novit, no man knows whence 
the Son of man is," John vii. 27 ; that is, from what original. 
It was doubted : «in «^*^3m ^?:2 j''^* b^lH b^-i^H ^D ]^t^ 
whether ^ he should come from the living or from the dead. 
Only it was confessed by all without controversy, that he 
should first make some show of himself from Beth-lehem, 
which the priests and scribes of the people assert, ver. 4. 

B Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 107. 2. » Schabb. fol. T04. 2. 

h English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 112. ^ Hieros, Berac. fol, 5. i. 



44 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch. ii. 23. 

Hence you have Christ now in his second year at Beth-lehem, 
whither Joseph and Mary had again betaken themselves with 
him, when they had now presented him in the Temple, ac- 
cording to the law, being forty days old, Luke ii. 22. And 
they had taken care for his education in this place, and not 
elsewhere, until he himself, going forth from hence, might 
show himself openly the Messias, if they had not been sent 
away somewhere else by permission from heaven, 

Ver. 23 : "On NaCcopaios K\y]drjaeTat' He shall be called a 
Nazarene.'] Those things which are brought from Isa. xi.i 
concerning 'S^'l Netzer^ the Branch ; and those things also pro- 
duced concerning Samson the Nazarite, a most noble type of 
Christ, have their weight, by no means to be despised. We 
add, that Matthew may be understood concerning the out- 
ward, humble, and mean condition of our Saviour. And that 
by the word NaCwpaios, Nazarene, he hints his separation and 
estrangement from other men, as a despicable person, and un- 
worthy of the society of men, 

I. Let it be observed, that the evangelist does not cite 
some one of the prophets, but all : to pj-jdev 8ta t&v ■npo<pr]TG>v^ 
" spoken by the prophets," But now all the prophets, in a 
manner, do preach the vile and abject condition of Christ ; 
none, that his original should be out of Nazareth. 

II, David, in his person, speaks thus ; Pnt^T* "'H'^^n "TT^^ 
/ loas a stranger to my brethren^ Psalm Ixix. 9. 

IIL If you derive the word NaCwpatos, Nazarene^ which 
not a few do, from "^yi Nazir, a Nazirean, that word denotes 
not only a separation, dedicated to God, such as that of the 
Nazarenes was ; but it signifies also the separation of a man 
from others, as being unworthy of their society; Gen, xlix. 26, 
" They shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of 
the head of him that was separate from his brethren," 

Therefore, let us digest the sense of the evangelist by this 
paraphrase: Joseph was to depart with Christ to Beth-lehem, 
the city of David, or to Jerusalem, the royal city, had not 
the fear of Archelaus hindered him. Therefore, by the sig- 
nification of an angel, he is sent away into Galilee, a very 
contemptible country, and into the city Nazai'eth, a place 
of no account : whence, fi-om this very place, and the name 
of it, you may observe that fulfilled to a tittle which is so 
often declared by the prophets, that the Messias should be 



Ch. iii. 1.] Exercitations vpon St. Matthew. 45 

Nazor, ["^"if^] a stranger, or separate from men, as if he were 
a very vile person, and not worthy of their company. 

CHAP, m.k 

Ver. 1 1 : ^\(3)avvi]s BaTrrtcTT^s Krjpvaacav ev rfj eprj^KD Ttjs 
'loiiSaia?' John the Baptist j^reaching in the wilderness ofJudea.^ 
That John was born in Hebron, one may not unfitly conjec- 
ture by comparing Luke i. 39 with Josh. xxi. 1 1 ; and that 
he was born about the feast of the Passover, namely, half a 
year before the nativity of our Saviour, Luke i. 36. So the 
conceptions and births of the Baptist and our Saviour en- 
nobled the four famous tekuphas [revolutions'] of the year : 
one being conceived at the summer solstice, the other at 
the winter ; one born at the vernal equinox, the other at the 
autumnal. 

" John lived in the deserts, until he made himself known 
unto Israel," Luke i. 80. That is, if the pope's school may 
be interpreter, he led the life of a hermit. But, 

L Be ashamed, O papist, to be so ignorant of the sense 
of the word eprjju.09, wilderness., or desert ; which in the 
common dialect sounds all one as if it had been said, " He 
lived in the country, not in the city ; his education was more 
coarse and plain in the country, without the breeding of the 
university, or court at Jerusalem." pb?D H HnTT miJl 
: ]lVnn?2 IL'tD Y^'^U T\Ti:h'^yV An^^ ohlationfor thanksgiving 
consists of Jive Jerusalem seahs, which were in value six seahs of 
the wilderness ; that is, six country seahs. 

" A Jerusalem" seah exceeds a seah of the wilderness by 
a sixth part." 

ni'^'in-I?^ niDT'''^^ " 7%^° trees of the wilderness are those 
which are common, and not appropriate to one master:" that 
is, trees in groves and common meadows. 

So 2 Cor. xi. 26 : Kivbvvots kv 77oA.et, Kivhvvois h> eprnxta' 
that is, " in perils in the city, and in perils in the country." 

IL The wildernesses of the land of Canaan were not with- 
out towns and cities ; nor was he presently to be called an 
Eremite who dwelt in the wilderness. The hill-country of 

^ English folio' edit., vol. ii. p. 113. ^ Bab. Erubh. fol. 83. i. 
1 Letisden's edition, vol. ii. p. 262. ° Rambam in Demai, cap. i. 

"^ Menacholb, cap. 7. hal. r. 



46 Hebrew and Talnuidical [Oh. iii. 2. 

Judea, John's native soil, is called by the Talmudists, in 
"ih^Tl The royal mountain^ or Mil; and by the Psalmist, 
□"'111 "^^ip The desert hill-country. Psalm Ixxv. 6 ; and yet 
'' in the royal mountain were a myriad of cities P." 

III. David passed much of his youth in the wilderness, 
I Sam. xvii. 28 : but yet, who will call him an eremite? In 
the like sense I conceive John living in the deserts, not only 
spending his time in leisure and contemplation, but employ- 
ing himself in some work, or studies. For when I read, that 
the youth of our Saviour was taken up in the carpenter's 
trade, I scarcely believe his forerunner employed his youth in 
no calling at all. 

Beginning now the thirtieth year of his age, when, accord- 
ing to the custom of the priests, he ought to have come to 
the chief Sanhedrim to undergo their examination, and to be 
entered into the priesthood by them, " the word of God 
coming unto him," Luke iii. 2, as it had done before to the 
prophets, he is diverted to another ministry. 

Ver. 2 : Merai^oeire- Repent ye.^ A doctrine most fit for 
the gospel, and most suitable to the time, and the word or the 
phrase as agreeable to the doctrine. 

I. A nation leavened with the error of the Pharisees, con- 
cerning justification by the works of the law, was necessarily 
to be called off to the contrary doctrine of repentance. No 
receiving of the gospel was otherwise to be expected. 

II. However the schools of the Pharisees had illy defined 
repentance, which we observe presently, yet they asserted 
that repentance itself was necessary to the reception of the 
Messias. Concerning q this matter the Babylonian Gema- 
rists do dispute : whom Kimchi also upon Isa. lix. 1 9 cites, 
and determines the question : " From the words of our Rab- 
bins (saith he) it is plain there arose a doubt among them 
concerning this matter, namely, whether Israel were to be 
redeemed with repentance or without repentance. And it 
sprang from this occasion, that some texts of Scripture 
seemed to go against them : such as those ; ' He saw, and 
there was no man, and he wondered, that there was none to 
intercede; therefore ^ his own arm brought salvation/ And 

P Hieros Taanith, fol. 69. i. 1 Sanhedr. fol. y8, &c. 

*■ English folio edit. vol. ii. ]>. TI4. 



( 'h. iii. 2.] Exercitations upon St. Matfhev. 47 

also, 'Not for your sake, O Israel, do I this/ And again, 
* I will remember for them my old covenant/ &c. And these 
places, on the other hand, make for repentance : ' Thou shalt 
return to the Lord thy God, and shalt hearken to his voice.' 
And again ; ' And thence thou shalt seek the Lord thy God, 
and shalt find him, if thou seekest him with all thy heart,' 
&c. But these may be reconciled after this manner; namely, 
that many of Israel shall repent, when they shall see the 
signs of redemption. And hence is that which is said, ' And 
he saw that there was no man,' because they will not repent 
until they see the beginning of redemption." 

"If Israels shall repent but one day, forthwith the Redeemer 
cometh.^' 

Therefore, it is very fitly argued by the Baptist, and by 
our Saviour after him. Matt. iv. i 7, from the approach of the 
kingdom of heaven to repentance, since they themselves to 
whom this is preached do acknowledge that thus the king- 
dom of heaven, or the manifestation of the Messias, is to be 
brought in. For however the Gemarists who dispute of this 
were of a later age, yet for the most part they do but speak 
the sense of their fathers. 

III. The word [xeTdvoLa, repentance, as it does very well 
express the sense of true repentance, so among the Jews it 
was necessary* that it should be so expressed, among whom 
repentance, for the most part, was thought to consist in the 
confession of the mouth only. 

" Whosoever", out of error or presumption, shall transgress 
the precepts of the law, whether they be those that command 
or those that forbid, when he repents and returns from his 
sins, he is bound to make confession. Whosoever brings an 
offering for a sin, committed either out of ignorance or pre- 
sumption, his sin is not expiated by the offering, until he 
makes an oral confession. Or whosoever is guilty of death, 
or of scourging by the Sanhedrim, his sin is not taken away 
by his death, or by his scourging, if he do not repent and 
make confession. And because the scape-goat is the expiation 
for all Israel, therefore the high priest makes confession over 
him for all Israel." 

* Hieros. Taanith, fol. 64. i. * Levsden's edition, vol. ii. p. 263. 

" Maimon. in Teshubah, cap. i. 



48 HeJjrev' and Tahnudical [Ch. iii. 2. 

It is worthy observing, tliat, when John urgeth those that 
came to his baptism to repent, it is said, that they were 
baptized, " confessing their sins :" which was a sign of re- 
pentance highly requisite among the Jews, and necessary 
for those that were then brought in to the profession of the 
Gospel ; that hereby they might openly profess that they 
renounced the doctrine of justification by the works of the 
law. 

It is worthy of observing also, that John said not, "Repent, 
and believe the gospel," which our Saviour did, Matt. iv. 17, 
(and yet John preached the gospel, Mark i. i, 2, John i. 7) ; 
for his office, chiefly, was to make Christ known, who when 
he should come was to be the great preacher of the gospel. 

Therefore the Baptist doth very properly urge repentance 
upon those that looked for the Messias ; and the text of the 
Gospel used a very proper word to express true and lively 
repentance. 

'']AyyiK^ yap ?; fiaaiKeta tS)V ovpavCov For the kingdom of 
heaven is at hand.] I. The kingdom of heaven^ in Matthew, is 
the kingdom of God, for the most part, in the other evangel- 
ists. Compare these places : 

" Tlie kingdom ofhea/ven is at " The kingdom of God is at 

hand," Matt. iv. 17. hand," Mark i. 15. 

"The poor in spirit, theirs is " Blessed are the poor, for 

the kingdom of heaven," Matt, yours is the kingdom of God" 

V. 3. Luke vi. 20. 

" The least in the kingdom of " The least in t?ie kingdom of 

heaven," Matt. xi. it. God," Luke vii. 28. 

" The mysteries of the kingdom " The mysteries of the kingdom 

of heaven," Matt. xiii. 11. of God," Luke viii. 10. 

" Little children, of such is Little children, of such is 

the kingdotn, of lieaven," Matt, tlie kingdom of God, " Mark 

xix. 14. X. 14. 

And so we have it elsewhere very often. For □''?2t2J 
Heaven is very usually, in the Jewish dialect, taken for God, 
Dan. iv. 23, Matt. xxi. 25, Luke xv. 21, John iii. 27. And, 
in these and such-like speeches, scattered in the Talmudists ; 

D*'T2IL'' T^l XlTV^ra Death hy the hand of heaven : □IT' ^^HD^ 
D"'T2t2? The name of heaven is profaned : i^'^T^TDI ^^DnSlD The 



Oh. iii. 2.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 49 

worship of heaven : k^'>?2U}"I t^HJ^'^'^Dl ly the help of heaven^ 
&c. " For X they called God by the name of Haamn, because 
his habitation is in heaven." 

The story of the Jews is related, groaning out under their 
persecution these words, D^T^tl? "^W O Heavens ! that is, as 
the Gloss renders it, il TlTl^ Ah ! Jehovah ! 

II. This y manner of speech, the kingdom of heaven., is 
taken from Daniel, chap. vii. 13, 14; where, after the de- 
scription of the four earthly and tyrannical monarchies, that 
is, the Babylonian, Mede-Persian, Grecian, and Syro-Grecian, 
and the destruction of them at last ; the entrance and nature 
of the reign of Christ is described, as it is universal over the 
whole world, and eternal throughout all ages : " under whom 
the rule, and dominion, and authority of kingdoms under the 
whole heaven is given to the people of the saints of the Most 
High," ver. 27 : that is, "Whereas, before, the rule had been 
in the hands of heathen kings, under the reign of Christ 
there should be Christian kings."" Unto which that of the 
apostle hath respect, i Cor. vi. 2 ; " Know ye not that the 
saints shall judge the world?" 

Truly I admire that the fulfiUing of that vision and pro- 
phecy in Daniel should be lengthened out still into I know 
not what long and late expectation, not to receive its com- 
pletion before Rome and antichrist shall fall ; since the books 
of the Gospel afford us a commentary clearer than the sun, 
that that kingdom of heaven took its beginning immedi- 
ately upon the preaching of the Gospel. When both the 
Baptist and Christ published the approach of the kingdom 
of heaven from their very first preaching ; certainly, for any 
to think that the fulfilling of those things in Daniel did not 
then begin, for my part, I think it is to grope in the dark, 
either through wilfulness or ignorance. 

III. The kingdom of heaven implies, i. The exhibition 
and manifestation of the Messias, Matt. xii. 28 ; " But if I, 
by the finger of God, cast out devils, the kingdom of God is 
come upon you :" that is, ' Hence is the manifestation of the 
Messias.' See John iii. 3, xii. 13, &c. 2. The resurrection 
of Christ ; death, hell, Satan, being conquered : whence is a 

X Elias Levit. in Tishbi. y English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 115. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. E 



50 Hehreio and Talmudical [Oh. iii. a. 

most evident manifestation that he is that ' eternal King,' &c. : 
see Matt. xxvi. 29, Eom. i. 4. 3. His vengeance upon the 
Jewish 2 nation, his most implacable enemies : this is another, 
and most eminent manifestation of him : see Matt. xvi. 28, 
xix. 28. 4. His dominion by the sceptre of the gospel among 
the Gentiles, Matt. xxi. 43. In this place which is before us 
it points out the exhibition and revelation of the Messias. 

IV. The phrase □'^QtZ? m27D the kingdom of heaven very 
frequently occurs in the Jewish writers. "We will produce 
some places ; let the reader gather the sense of them : 

" R. Joshua ^ Ben Korcha saith, In reciting the phylac- 
teries, why is i^?5t^ Hear, Israel, [Deut. vi. 4^ &c.] recited 

before that passage S^bUJ Dh^ ^^^') ^nd it shall come to pass, 
if you shall hearken [Deut. xi. 13], &c. To wit, that a man 
first take upon himself the kingdom of heaven, and then the 
yoke of the precept," So the Jerusalem Misna hath it ; but 
the Babylonian thus : " That a man first take upon himself 
the yoke of the kingdom of heaven, and then the yoke of the 
precept." 

"Rabhb said to Rabbi Chaijah, ^np?Dl ^I'h Tvh ^T^^Xl ^ 
', 'd^iyS^ mivD 'n^hv ^Ve never saw Rahhi [ Judah] taking upon 
himself the kingdom of heaven. Bar Pahti answered, At that 
time when he put his hands to his face, he took upon him- 
self the kingdom of heaven.''"' Where the Gloss speaks thus ; 
" We saw not that he took upon himself the kingdom of 
heaven ; for until the time came of reciting the phylacteries, 
he instructed his scholars ; and when that time was come, I 
saw him not interposing any space." 

" Doth ^ any ease nature ? Let him wash his hands, put on 
his phylacteries, repeat them, and pray, D"'?2\I} illlDT'D fc^'^Pf Itl 
jn?27t2? and this is the kingdom of heaven fulfilled.'''' \I}1Dr\ Di^ 
0^72^ ni:)^n ^^ nilTl ^'•mm ^l^ " If^ thou shalt have 
explained Shaddai, and divided the letters of the kingdom of 
heaven, thou shalt make the shadow of death to be cool to 
thee ;" that is, " If, in the repeating of that passage of the 
phylacteries [Deut. vi. 4], ' Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God 
is one Lord/ «fee, you shall pronounce the letters distinctly 

z Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. *^ Gemara Bab. ibid. fol. 13. 2, 
264. " Ibid. fol. 15. 1, 

a Beracoth, cap. 2. hal. 2. '' Ibid. col. 2. in the Gloss. 



Ch. iii. :z.] Exercitations n/pon St. Matthew. 51 

and deliberately, so that you shall have sounded out the 
names of God rightly, 'thou shalt make cool the shades of 
death.'" For the same Gloss had said, «iniD V^"^ n«^-^p 
W^iy^J n'^D^?^ rhi'p Tlie repeating of that passage, ' Hear, O 
Israel, »Sz;c., is the taking of the kingdom of heaven upon thee. 
But the repeating of that place, 'And it shall be, if thou shalt 
hearken,' &c. [Deut. xix. 13] rhi'p ^rW Vintr» D« «TTT 
;ni5JO hy^ is the taking of the yoke of the precept upon thee^ 

" Rabbanf Gamaliel recited his phylacterical prayers on 
the very night of his nuptials. And when his scholars said 
unto him, ' Hast thou not taught us, our master, that a 
bridegroom is freed from the reciting of his phylacteries the 
first night V he answered, ' I will not hearken to you, nor will 
I lay aside the kingdom of heaven from me, no, not for an 
hour.'» 

" What g is the yoke of the kingdom of heaven ? In like 
manner as they lay the yoke upon an ox, that he may be 
serviceable ; and if he bear not tiie yoke, he becomes un- 
profitable : so it becomes a man first to take the yoke upon 
himself, and to serve in all things with it : but if he casts it 
off, he is unprofitable : as it is said, ' Serve the Lord in fear."" 
What means, ' in fearT The same that is written, ' The fear 
of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.' And this is the 
kingdom of heaven.''"' 

" The ^ scholars of Jochanan Ben Zaccai asked i. Why a 
servant was to be bored through the ear, rather than through 
some other part of the body ? He answered. When he heard 
with the ear those words from mount Sinai, ' Thou shalt 
have no other Lord before my face,' he broke the yoke of the 
kingdom of heaven from him, and took upon himself the yoke 
of flesh and blood." 

If by the kingdom of heaven, in these and other such- 
like places, which it would be too much to heap together, 
they mean the inward love and fear of God, which indeed 
they seem to do ; so far they agree with our gospel sense, 
which asserts the inward and spiritual kingdom of Christ 
especially. And if the words of our Saviour, " Behold, the 

f In eodem, cap. 2. tract. Berac. ^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 
hal. 5. 116. 

s Zohar. in Levit. fol. 53. ^ Hieros. Kiddushin, fol. 59. 4. 

E 2 



52 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. iii. a. 

kingdom of God is within you," Luke xvii. 31, be suited to 
this sense of the nation concerning the kingdom of heaven, 
there is nothing sounds hard or rough in them : for it is as 
much as if he had said " Do you think the kingdom of heaven 
shall come with some remarkable observation, or /ixera irokXrjs 
^avTaaCas, ivith much shoiv ? Your very schools teach that the 
kingdom of God is within a man." 

But, however they most ordinarily applied this manner 
of speech hither, yet they used it also for the exhibition and 
revelation of the Messiah in the like manner as the evan- 
geHcal history doth. Hence are these expressions, and the 
like to them, in sacred writers ; " The Pharisees asked Jesus 
when the kingdom of God should come ^^ " They thought 
that the kingdom of God should presently be manifested 1." 
" Josephus of Arimathea waited for the kingdom of God""/^ 

And these words in the Chaldee paraphrast, " Say ye to 
the cities of Judah, The kingdom of your God is revealed," 
Isa. xl. 9 : " They shall see the kingdom of their Messiah," 
Isa. liii. II. 

The Baptist, therefore, by his preaching, stirs up the minds 
of his hearers to meet the coming of the Messiah, now pre- 
sently to be manifested, \vith that repentance and prepara- 
tion as is meet. 

Ver. 4 : 'H 8e Tpo(f)r] avTov riv aKptbes' His food ivas locusts.~\ 

:D"'n;im D^:n -v^ii -^10« «n"» nu?nn p ■^iiin He^ that hy 

vow tieth himself from flesh, is forhidden the flesh of fish and of 
locusts. See the Babylonian Talmud ° concerning locusts fit 
for food. 

Ver. 5 P : 'H -nepiyoipos rod 'lopbdvov The region round about 
Jordan.] The word Treptx^apos, the region round about, is used 
by the Jerusalem Geraara : mVi HD'^IQ D^n IITI plIH n^:i72 
T^'y\^ ''*^D " From h Beth-horon to the sea is one region Trcpi- 
Xcopo?, round about," or, one circumjacent region. Y\^pi\(sipos, 
perhaps, both in the Talmudist and in the evangelist, is one 
and the same thing with a coast, or a country along a coast, 
in Pliny : " The country (saith he r) along the coast is Sa- 
maria :" that is, the sea-coast, and the country further, lying 

^ Luke xyii. 20. o Cholin, fol. 65. i. 

1 Luke xix. 11. p Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 265. 

m Luke xxiii. 52, &c. 1 Sheviith, fol. 38. 4. 

" Hieros. Nedarim, fol. 40. 2. ^ Lib, v, cap. 13. 



Ch. iii. 6.] Exercitaiions 7ij)on St. Matthew. 53 

along by that coast : which may be said also concerning 
the region round about Jordan. Strabo ^, concerning the plain 
bordering on Jordan, hath these words ; " It is a place of a 
hundred furlongs, all well watered and full of dwellings." 

§. A few things concerning Baptism. 

Ver. 6 : Kat ^^aiTTCCovTo- And were haptized.'\ It is no unfit 
or unprofitable question, Whence it came to pass that there 
was so great a conflux of men to the Baptist, and so ready a 
reception of his baptism ? 

I. The first reason is, Because the manifestation of the 
Messias was then expected, the weeks of Daniel being now 
spent to the last four years. Let us consult a little his 
text : — 

Dan. ix. 24. " Seventy weeks [of years'] are decreed concern- 
ing thy people," &c. That is, four hundred and ninety years, 
from the first of Cyrus to the death of Christ. These years 
are divided into three parts, and they very unequal. 

1. Into seven weeks, or forty-nine years, from the giving of 
Cyrus"'s patent for the rebuilding Jerusalem, to the finishing 
the rebuilding of it by Neheraiah. 

2. Into sixty-two v/eeks, or four hundred thirty-four years, 
— namely, from the finishing the building of the city to the 
beginning of the last week of the seventy. In which space ^ of 
time, the times of the Persian empire (which remained after 
Nehemiah, if indeed there was any time now remaining), and 
the times of the Grecian empire, and of the Syro-Grecian, 
were all run out, and those times also, wherein the Romans 
ruled over the Jews. 

3. The holy text divides the last week, or the last seven 
years, into two equal parts, ver. 27 ; which I thus render; 
" And he shall strengthen, or confirm, the covenant with 
many in that one week : and the half of that week shall make 
the sacrifice and oblation to cease : or, in the half of that 
week he shall make to cease," &c. Not in the middle of that 
week, but in the latter half, that is, the latter three years and 
a half of the seven. 

' [He seems to refer to a passage is not exact.] 
in book xvi. (Syria), p. 1073 of Fal- » English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 

coner's edition. If so, the quotation 117. 



54 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. iii. 6. 

First, seven weeks having been reckoned up before, and 
then sixty-two weeks, ver. 25, — now there remained one only 
of the seventy ; and in reference to that, in the middle of it 
the Messias shall begin his ministry ; which being finished in 
three years and a half (the latter halved part of that week), 
" he shall make the sacrifice and oblation to cease," &c. 

The nation could not but know, could not but take great 
notice of, the times so exactly set out by the angel Gabriel. 
Since, therefore, the coming of the Messias was the great 
wish and desire of all, — and since the time of his appearing 
was so clearly decreed by the angel that nothing could be 
more, — and when the latter half of the last seven years, 
chiefly to be observed, was now, within a very little, come ; — 
it is no wonder if the people, hearing from this venerable 
preacher that the kingdom of heaven was now come, should 
be stirred up beyond measure to meet hira, and should flock 
to him. For, as we observed before, " They thought that the 
kingdom of God would immediately be manifested," Luke 
xix. II. 

II. Another reason of it was this, — the institution of bap- 
tism, for an evangelical sacrament, was first in the hand of 
the Baptist, who, " the word of the Lord coming to him," 
(Luke iii. 3,) went forth, backed with the same authority as 
the chiefest prophets had in times past. But yet the first use 
of baptism was not exhibited at that time. For baptism, 
very many centuries of years backwards, had been both 
known and received in most frequent use among the Jews, 
— and for the very same end as it now obtains among Christ- 
ians, — namely, that by it proselytes might be admitted into 
the church ; and hence it was called TTTn^ n^'^llS Baptism 
for proselytism : and was distinct from mD nS^ltS Baptism 
[or icashing] from tmcleanness. See the Babylonian Talmud 
in Jevamoth^ 

I. I ascribe the first use of it, for this end, to the patri- 
arch Jacob, v.'hen he chose into his family and church the 
young women of Sychem, and other heathens who then lived 
with him. " Jacob said to his family, and to all who were 
with him, Put away from you the strange gods, and be ye 

s Fol. 45. 2. in the Gloss. • 



Ch. iii. 6.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 55 

clean, and change your garments/' &c. Gen. xxxv. 2. What 
that word means, ^"^ntsn^ and he ye clean^ Aben Ezra does 
very well interpret to be P^l^tl li^n'^'^tZ? the washhig of the 
hody^ or baptism ; which reason itself also persuades us to 
believe. 

II. All the nation of Israel do assert, as it were with one 
mouth, that all the nation of Israel were brought into the 
covenant, among other things, by baptism. " Israel (saith 
Maimonides*, the great interpreter of the Jewish law) was 
admitted into the covenant by three things, — namely, by cir- 
cumcision, baptism, and sacrifice. Circumcision was in Egypt ; 
as it is said, ' None uncircumcised shall eat of the passover/ 
Baptism was in the wilderness before the giving of the law ; 
as it is said, ' Thou shalt sanctify them to-day and to-morrow, 
and let them wash their garments.' " 

III. They assert, that that infinite number of proselytes in 
the day of David and Solomon were admitted"^ by baptism : 
" The'^ Sanhedrims received not proselytes in the days of 
David and Solomon : not in the days of David, lest they 
should betake themselves to proselytism out of a fear of the 
kingdom of Israel : not in the days of Solomon, lest they 
might do the same by reason of the glory of the kingdom. 
And yet abundance of proselytes were made in the days of 
David and Solomon before private men; and the great San- 
hedrim was full of care about this business : for they would 
not cast them out of the church, because they were bap- 
tized,'' &c. 

IV. " Whensoever y any heathen will betake himself, and 
be joined to the covenant of Israel, and place himself under 
the wings of the divine Majesty, and take the yoke of the 
law upon him, voluntary circumcision, baptism, and obla- 
tion, are required : but if it be a woman, baptism and obla- 
tion." 

That was a common axiom ^iniS^'l ^ID^^Z? "W '\^ J^^? 
No man is a proselyte until he he circumcised and haptized. 
It is disputed by the Babylonian Gemara^, "A proselyte, that 
is circumcised and not baptized, what of him I E. Eliezer 

* Issure Biah, cap. 13. x Maimonid. Issure Biah, cap. 13. 

'^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. y Id. ibid. 
366. z Jevaraoth, fol. 46. 2. 



56 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. iii, 6. 

saith,. Behold^ he is a proselyte : for so we find concerning our 
fathers, that they were circumcised, but not baptized. One is 
baptized, but not circumcised ; what of him ? R. Joshua saith. 
Behold, he is a proselyte : for so we find concerning the maid- 
servants, who were baptized, but not circumcised. But^ the 
wise men say. Is he baptized, and not circumcised ? Or, Is he 
circumcised, and not baptized l He is not a proselyte, until 
he be circumcised and baptized." 

But baptism was sufficient for women so far forth as this 

held good, ^:h^y^ t^nn:^^ Dtz;^ n'^nrjD i^^nnS rhi'^v^ 

'^'mI?D^^7 " One"^ haptizeth a heathen woman in the name of 
a ivoman, tve can assert that for a deed rightly doner Where 
the Gloss is thus ; " To be baptized in the name of a woman, 
was to be baptized n*T3 ■n^''IlI2 with the toashing of a tmman 
polluted, and not with the baptism to proselytisra. But we 
may, nevertheless, assert her, who is so baptized, for a com- 
plete proselytess ; because that baptism of washing for un- 
cleanness serves for proselytism to her ; for a heathen woman 
is not baptized [or washed] for uncleanness." 

V. They baptized also young children (for the most part 
with their parents). ' 11 ni^l hv im« ]''^''ni0t2 pp in 
They^ baptize a little proselyte according to the judgment of the 
Sanhedrim : that is^ as the Gloss renders it, " If he be de- 
prived of his father, and his mother brings him to be made 
a proselyte, they baptize him [because none becomes a pro- 
selyte without circumcision and baptism] according to the 
judgment [or right] of the Sanhedrim ; that is, that three 
men be present at the baptism, who are now instead of a 
father to him.^' 

And the Geraara a little after ; vriDlT V31 'll*'''i]n3tl? I^l 
pnin^ 1^2V1 ^^^2. ^rh ^n^21 in^r if w-ith a proselyte 
his sons and his daughters are made proselytes also, that which 
is done by their father redounds to their good. f]DV H t^ 
nin?37 D'^blD"' "^S^l^n B. Joseph saith. When they grow into 
years, they may retract. Where the Gloss writes thus ; " This 
is to be understood of little children, who are made proselytes 
together with their father." 

" Ad heathen woman, if she is made a proselytess, when 

a English folio edit.,\o\.\\. p.ii^. ^ Bab. Erubhin, fol. ii. i. 
*» Jevam. fol. 45. 2. ^ Jevam. fol, 78. i. 



Ch. iii. 6.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 57 

she is now big with child, — the child needs not baptism : 
n''r2^«l n^'int: rvh ^^hvi far the laptism of Ms mother 
serves Mm for baptism." Otherwise, he were to be baptized, 

: pp ^^>1 ^pr\\D ^b^lU?"' " If'^ an Israelite take a Gentile 
child^ ii;i pli'^ri i^2^ ^^ or find a Gentile infant, and bap- 
tizeth him in the name of a proselyte, — behold, he is a 
proselyte." 

We cannot also pass over that, which indeed is worthy to 
be remembered : " Any f one's servant is to be circumcised, 
though he be unwilling ; but any one's son is not to be cir- 
cumcised, if he be unwilling. R. Jochanan inquired, Behold 
a little son ; do you circumcise him by force ? Yea, although 
he be as the son of Urcan. K. Hezekiah saith, Behold, a man 
finds an infant cast out, and he baptizeth him in the name of 
a servant : in the name of a freeman, do you also circumcise 
him in the name of a freeman." 

We have therefore alleged these things the more largely, 
not only that you may receive satisfaction concerning the 
thing propounded, namely, how it came to pass that the 
people flocked, in so universal a concourse, to John's baptism 
(because baptism was no strange thing to the Jews) ; but 
that some other things may be observed hence, which afford 
some light to certain places of Scripture, and will help to clear 
some knotty questions about baptism. 

First, You see baptism inseparably joined to the circum- 
cision of proselytes. There was, indeed, some little distance 
of time ; for " theyS were not baptized till the pain of circum- 
cision was healed, because water might be injurious to the 
wound." But certainly baptism ever followed. We acknow- 
ledge, indeed, that circumcision was plainly of divine institu- 
tion ; but by whom baptism, that was inseparable from it, was 
instituted, is doubtful. And yet it is worthy of observation, 
our Saviour rejected circumcision, and retained the appendix 
to it : and when all the Gentiles were now to be introduced 
into the true religion, he preferred this ' proselytical intro- 
ductory' (pardon the expression) unto the sacrament of en- 
trance into the gospel. 

One might observe the same almost in the eucharist. The 

« Maimon. in Avadim, cap. 8. ^ Hieros. Jevamoth, fol. 8. 4. 

& Jevam. fol. 45. 2. 



58 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. iii. 6. 

lamb in the Passover was of divine institution, and so indeed 
was the bread. But whence was the wine ? But yet, rejecting 
the lamb, Christ instituted the sacrament in the bread and 
wine. 

Secondly h, Observing from these things which have been 
spoken, how very known and frequent the use of baptism was 
among the Jews, the reason appears very easy why the San- 
hedrim, by their messengers, inquired not of John concerning 
the reason of baptism, but concerning the authority of the 
baptizer; not what baptism meant, but whence he had a 
license so to baptize, John i. 25. 

Thirdly, Hence also the reason appears why the New Tes- 
tament doth not prescribe, by some more accurate rule, who 
the persons are to be baptized. The Anabaptists object, ' It 
is not commanded to baptize infants, — therefore they are not 
to be baptized.' To whom I answer, ' It is not forbidden to 
baptize infants, — therefore they are to be baptized.' And 
the reason is plain. For when Paedobaptism in the Jewish 
church was so known, usual, and frequent, in the admission 
of proselytes, that nothing almost was more known, usual, 
and frequent, — 

I. There was no need to strengthen it with any precept, 
when baptism was now passed into an evangelical sacrament. 
For Christ took baptism into his hands, and into evangelical 
use, as he found it ; this only added, that he might promote 
it to a worthier end and a larger use. The whole nation 
knew well enough that little children used to be baptized' : 
there was no need of a precept for that which had ever, by 
common use, prevailed. If a royal proclamation should now 
issue forth in these words, '^ Let every one resort, on the 
Lord's day, to the public assembly in the church;" certainly 
he would be mad, who, in times to come, should argue hence 
that prayers, sermons, singing of psalms, were not to be cele- 
brated on the Lord's day in the public assemblies, because 
there is no mention of them in the proclamation. For the 
proclamation provided for the celebration of the Lord's day 
in the public assemblies in general : but there was no need to 
make mention of the particular kinds of the divine worship 

^ Leusdeti's edit., vol.ii. p. 267. ' English folio edit., vol, ii. p. 119. 



Ch. iii. 6.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 59 

to be celebrated there, when they were always, and every 
where, well known and in daily use before the publishing of 
the proclamation, and when it was published. The case is 
the very same in baptism. Christ instituted it for an evan- 
gelical sacrament, whereby all should be admitted into the 
possession of the gospel, as heretofore it was used for admis- 
sion into proselytism to the Jewish religion. The particulars 
belonging to it, — as, the manner of baptizing, the age, the sex 
to be baptized, &c. — had no need of a rule and definition ; 
because these were, by the common use of them, sufficiently 
known even to mechanics and the most ignorant men. 

2. On the other hand, therefore, there was need of a plain 
and open prohibition that infants and little children should 
not be baptized, if our Saviour would not have had them bap- 
tized. Por, since it was most common, in all ages foregoing, 
that little children should be baptized, if Christ had been 
minded to have that custom aboHshed, he would have openly 
forbidden it. Therefore his silence, and the silence of the 
Scripture in this matter, confirms Psedobaptism, and con- 
tinueth it unto all ages. 

Fourthly, It is clear enough, by what hath been already 
said, in what sense that is to be taken in the New Testament 
which we sometimes meet with, — namely, that the master of 
the family was baptized with his whole family, Acts xvi. 15, 
•^2,, &c. Nor is it of any strength which the Anti-psedobap- 
tists contend for, that it cannot be proved there were infants 
in those families; for the inquiry is not so proper, whether 
there were infants in those families, as it is concluded truly 
and deservedly, — if there were, they had all been to be bap- 
tized. Nor do I believe this people, that flocked to John's 
baptism, were so forgetful of the manner and custom of the 
nation, that they brought not their little children also with 
them to be baptized. 

Some things are now to be spoken of the manner and 
form which John used. 

First, In some things he seems to have followed the manner 
whereby proselytes were baptized ; in other things, not to have 
followed them. Concerning it the Talraudic Canons have these 
sayings : — 



60 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. iii, 6. 

I. nS*'':'! ^> ^^^^'ItaTD pt^ 7"%!^ do not baptize a prose- 
lyte by night. Nor^ indeed, " were^ the unclean to be washed 
but in the day-time/^ Maimonides adds, "They"" baptized 
not a proselyte on the sabbath, nor on a holy-day, nor by 
night/' 

II. ntDl^tZ? *J^*l!J "i:i A-^ proselyte hath need of tliree : that 
is, it is required, that three men, who are scholars of the wise 
men, be present at the baptism of a proselyte ; who may takp 
care that the business be rightly performed, and may briefly 
instruct the catechumen [the person to be baptized], and may 
judge of the matter itself. For the admission of a prose- 
lyte was reckoned no light matter; 7i^ltl?'^7 D'^'^J D"'^p 
jnriDD^ Proselytes^ are dangerous to Israel, like the itch, was 
an axiom. For they, either tenacious of their former customs, 
or ignorant of the law of Israel, have corrupted others with 
their example ; or, being mingled with Israel, were the cause 
that the divine glory did rest the less upon them ; because it 
resteth not on any but upon families of a nobler pedigree. 
These reasons the Glossers give. When, therefore, the admis- 
sion of proselytes was of so great moment, they were not to 
be admitted but by the judicial consistory of three. 

III. Dn:in nt^ p^"'nio?o aii? mi n^^nt^^ -ityrjrr rr\piy2. 

They P baptize a proselyte in such a confluence of vMters as was 
Jit for the washing of a menstruous woman. Of such a conflu- 
ence of waters the lawyers have these words : " A^ man that 
hath the gonorrhoea is cleansed nowhere but in a fountain : 
but a menstruous woman, as also all other unclean persons, 
were washed in some confluence of waters ; in which so much 
water ought to be as may serve to wash the whole body at 
one dipping. Our wise men have esteemed this proportion to 
be a cubit square, and three cubits depth : and this measure 
contains forty seahs of water." 

AVhen"" it is said, that "he that hath the gonorrhoea is to 
wash in a spring [or a stream] ; but a menstruous woman, and 
all other unclean persons, in some confluence of waters," — it 

^ Jevamoth, fol. 46. 2. p Maimonid. Issur. Biah, in the 

1 Megillah, fol. 20. i. above place. 

™ Issure Biah, cap. 13. q Maim, in Mikvaoth, c. i. 4. 

n Jevam. in the above place. Talmud, in Mikvaoth, c. 2, 3. 
o Jevam. fol, 47. 2. «■ Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 120. 



Ch. iii. 6.] Exercitations u]pon St. Matthew. 61 

forbids not a menstruous woman, and other unclean persons, 
to wash in streams, where they might : but it permits, where 
they might not, to wash in some confluence of waters ; which 
was not lawful for a man that had the gonorrhoea to do. The 
same is to be understood concerning the baptism of a prose- 
lyte, who was allowed to wash himself in streams : and was 
allowed also, where there were no streams, to wash in a con- 
fluence of waters. 

IV. Whens a proselyte was to be circumcised, they first 
asked him concerning the sincerity of his conversion to Ju- 
daism : whether he offered not himself to proselytism for the 
obtaining riches, for fear, or for love to some Israelite woman, 
&c. And when they saw that he came out of love of the law, 
they instructed him concerning the various articles of the law, 
of one God, of the evil of idolatry, of the reward of obedience, 
of the world to come, of the privileges of Israel, &c. All 
which, if he professed that he embraced them he is forthwith 
circumcised. 

"As' soon as he grows whole of the wound of circum- 
cision, they bring him to baptism ; and being placed in the 
water, they again instruct him in some weightier and in 
some hghter commands of the law. Which being heard, 
: p-^l"! h:h ^«^tr»^:: ^^in ^"in rh:^^ ^ni^ he pUmges him- 
self, and comes up., and behold, he is as an Israelite in all things. 
The women place a woman in the waters up to the neck ; 
and two disciples of the wise men, standing without, instruct 
her about some lighter precepts of the law and some weightier, 
while she, in the meantime, stands in the waters, ^i "^nS^I 
: QrT'iDl n711tO ^nd then she plungeth herself; and they, 
turning away their faces, go out, while she comes up out of 
the water." 

In the baptizing of a proselyte, this is not to be passed 
over, but let it be observed, namely, that "lillb^ ^''^''^llSTi 
others baptized him, and that SlltiS i^im he baptized him- 
self, or dipped, or plunged himself in the waters. Now, 
what that plunging was, you may understand from those 
things which Maimonides speaks in Mikvaoth in the place 
before cited. hy\t^ h^ ^' Every person baptized" [ov dipped., 

s English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 120. 
* Jevam. Mairaon. in the places above. 



63 Hebrew and Talmiidical [Ch. iii. 6. 

whether he were washed from pollution, or baptized into pros- 
elytism], ''must dip his whole body, now stripped and made 
naked, at one dipping. And wheresoever in the law washing 
of the body or garments is mentioned, it means nothing else 
than the washing of the whole body. For if any wash him- 
self all over, except the very top of his little finger, he is still 
in his uncleanness. And if any hath much hair, he must 
wash all the hair of his head, for that also was reckoned for 
the body. But if any should enter into the water with their 
clothes on, yet their washing holds good ; because the water 
would pass through their clothes, and their garments would 
not hinder it." 

And now, a little to compare the baptism of John with 
that proselytical baptism, and ours with both, these things 
are to be considered : — 

I. If you compare the washing of polluted persons, pre- 
scribed by the law, with the baptism of proselytes, — both that 
and this imply uncleanness, however something different; 
that implies legal uncleanness, — this, heathen, — but both pol- 
luting. But a proselyte was baptized not only into the vvash- 
ing-off of that Gentile pollution, nor only thereby to be trans- 
planted into the religion of the Jews ; but that, by the most 
accurate rite of translation that could possibly be, he might 
so pass into an Israelite, that, being married to an Israelite 
woman, he might produce a free and legitimate seed, and an 
undefiled offspring. Hence, servants that were taken into a 
family were baptized, — and servants also that were to be 
made free : not so much because they were defiled with 
heathen uncleanness, as that, by that rite "^il 7^7 7t^1U?^5 
becoming Israelites in all respects, they might be more fit 
to match with Israelites, and their children be accounted as 
Israelites, And hence the sons of proselytes, in following 
generations, were circumcised indeed, but not baptized. They 
were circumcised, that they might take upon themselves the 
obligation of the law ; but they needed not baptism, because 
they were already Israelites. From these things it is plain 
that there was some difference as to the end, between the 
Mosaical washings of unclean persons, and the baptism of 
proselytes ; and some between the baptism of proselytes and 
John's baptism : not as though they concurred not in some 



Oh. iii. 6.] Exercitaiions upon St. Mattheio. 63 

parallel end ; but because other ends were added over and 
above to this or that, or some ends were withdrawn. 

II. The baptism of proselytes was the bringing over of 
Gerwtiles into the Jewish religion ; the baptism of John was . 
the bringing over of Jews into another religion. And hence 
it is the more to be wondered at, that the people so readily 
flocked to him, when he introduced a baptism so different 
from the known proselytical baptism. The reason of which 
is to be fetched from hence, — that at the coming of the 
Messias they thought, not without cause, that the state of 
things was plainly to be changed ; and that, from the oracles 
of the prophets, who, with one mouth, described the times of 
the Messias for a new world. Hence was that received opin- 
ion, ^^rh^v \Dirh" nn "pn Tnv^ u^ys ^^ That 

God, at that time, would renew the world for a thousand 
years. See the Aruch, in the word p"T2J, and after in chap. 
xxiv. 3. And that also, that they used b^lH 'uTsV the world 
to come, by a form of speech very common among them, for 
the times of the Messias ; which we observe more largely 
elsewhere. 

III. The baptism of proselytes was an obligation to per- 
form the law ; that of John was an obligation to repentance. 
For although proselytical baptism admitted of some ends, — 
and circumcision " of others, — yet a traditional and erroneous 
doctrine at that time had joined this to both, that the pros- 
elyte covenanted in both, and obliged himself to perform the 
law; to which that of the apostle relates, Gal. v. 3, "I testify^ 
again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor 
to do the whole law." 

But the baptism of John was a ' baptism of repentance '' 
Mark i. 4 : which being undertaken, they who were baptized 
professed to renounce their own legal righteousness ; and, on 
the contrary, acknowledged themselves to be obliged to re- 
pentance and faith in the Messias to come. How much the 
Pharisaical doctrine of justification differed from the evan- 
gelical, so much the obligation undertaken in the baptism of 
proselytes differed from the obligation undertaken in the bap- 
tism of John : which obligation also holds amongst Christians 
to the end of the world. 
^ Leusden's edit,, vol. ii. p. 269. ^ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 121. 



64 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. iii. 6. 

IV . That the baptism of John was by plunging the body 
(after the same manner as the washing of unclean persons, 
and the baptism of proselytes was), seems to appear from 
those things which are related of him ; namely, that he 
"baptized in Jordan;"" that he baptized "in ^non, because 
there was much water there C and that Christ, being bap- 
tizedj '' came up out of the water :" to which that seems to 
be parallel, Acts viii. 38, " Philip and the eunuch went down 
into the water," &c. Some complain, that this rite is not 
retained in the Christian church, as though it something 
derogated from the truth of baptism ; or as though it were 
to be called an innovation, when the sprinkling of water is 
used instead of plunging. This is no place to dispute of these 
things. Let us return these three things only for a present 
answer: — 

1. That the notion of washing in John's baptism differs 
from ours, in that he baptized none who were not brought 
over from one religion, and that an irreligious one too, — into 
another, and that a true one. But there is no place for this 
among us who are born Christians : the condition, therefore, 
being varied, the rite is not only lawfully, but deservedly, 
varied also. Our baptism argues defilement, indeed, and un- 
cleanness ; and demonstrates this doctrinally, — that we, being 
polluted, have need of washing : but this is to be understood 
of our natural and sinful stain, to be washed away by the 
blood of Christ and the grace of God : with which stain, in- 
deed, they were defiled who were baptized by John. But to 
denote this washing by a sacramental sign, the sprinkling of 
water is as sufficient as the dipping into water, — Avhen, in 
truth, this argues washing and purification as well as that. 
But those who were baptized by John were blemished with 
another stain, and that an outward one, and after a manner 
visible ; that is, a polluted religion, — namely, Judaism, or 
heathenism ; from which, if, according to the custom of the 
nation, they passed by a deeper and severer washing, — they 
neither underwent it without reason ; nor with any reason 
may it be laid upon us, whose condition is different from 
theirs. 

2. Since dipping was a rite used only in the Jewish nation 
and proper to it, it were something hard, if all nations should 



Oh. iii. 6.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 65 

be subjected under it ; but especially, when it is neither 
necessarily to be esteemed of the essence of baptism, and is 
moreover so harsh and dangerous, that> in regard of these 
things, it scarcely gave place to circumcision. We read that 
some, leavened with Judaism to the highest degree, yet wished 
that dipping in purification might be taken away^, because it 
was accompanied with so much severity. "InY the days of 
R. Joshua Ben Levi, some endeavoured to abolish this dipping, 
for the sake of the women of Galilee ; because^ by reason of 
the cold, they became barren. R. Joshua Ben Levi said 
unto them, Do ye go about to take away that which hedges 
in Israel from transgression V Surely it is hard to lay this 
yoke upon the neck of all nations, which seemed too rough 
to the Jews themselves, and not to be borne by them, men 
too much given to such kind of severer rites. And if it be 
demanded of them who went about to take away that dip- 
ping, Would you have no purification at all by water I it is 
probable that they would have allowed of the sprinkling of 
water, which is less harsh, and not less agreeable to the thing 
itself. 

3. The following ages, with good reason^ and by divine 
prescript, administered a baptism differing in a greater matter 
from the baptism of John ; and therefore it was less to differ 
in a less matter. The application of water was necessarily 
of the essence of baptism ; but the application of it in this or 
that manner speaks but a circumstance : the adding also of 
the word was of the nature of a sacrament ; but the chang- 
ing of the word into this or that form, would you not call this 
a circumstance also ? And yet we read the form of baptism 
so changed, that you may observe it to have been threefold in 
the history of the New Testament. 

Secondly, In reference to the form of John's baptism 
[which thing we have propounded to consider in the second 
place], it is not at all to be doubted but he baptized " in the 
name of the Messias now ready to come:'' and it may be 
gathered from his words, and from his story. As yet he 
knew not that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messias ; which he 
confesseth himself, John i. 31 : yet he knew well enough, 
that the Messias was coming ; therefore, he baptized those 

y Hieros. Beracoth, fol. 6. 3. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. F 



66 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. iii. 6. 

that came to him in his name, instructing them in the doc- 
trine of the gospel, concerning faith in the Messias, and 
repentance; that they might be the readier to receive the 
Messias when he should manifest himself. Consider well 
Mai. iii. i, Luke^ i. 17, John i. 7, 31, &c. The apostles, 
baptizing the Jews, baptized them " in the name of Jesus ;"" 
because Jesus of Nazareth had now been revealed for the 
Messias; and that they did, when it had been before com- 
manded them by Christ, " Baptize all nations in the name of 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." So you 
must understand that which is spoken, John iii. 23, iv. 2, con- 
cerning the disciples of Christ baptizing ; namely, that^ they 
baptized in ' the name of Jesus,' that thence it might be 
known that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messias, in the name 
of whom, suddenly to come, John had baptized. That of St. 
Peter is plain, Acts ii. 38 ; " Be baptized, every one of you, 
in the name of Jesus Christ:" and that, Acts viii. 16, "They 
were baptized in the name of Jesus."" 

But the apostles baptized the Gentiles, according to the 
precept of our Lord, " In the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost," Matt, xxviii. 19. For since 
it was very much controverted among the Jews about the 
true Messias, and that unbelieving nation denied, stiffly and 
without ceasing, that Jesus of Nazareth was he (under which 
virulent spirit they labour even to this day), it was not without 
cause, yea, nor without necessity, that they baptized in the 
name of Jesus ; that by that seal might be confirmed this 
most principal truth in the gospel, and that those that were 
baptized might profess it ; that Jesus of Nazareth was the 
true Messias. But among the Gentiles, the controversy was 
not concerning the true Messias, but concerning the true 
God : among them, therefore, it was needful that baptism 
should be conferred in the name of the true God, " Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit." 

We suppose, therefore, that men, women, and children 
came to John's baptism, according to the manner of the 
nation in the reception of proselytes ; namely, that they 
standing in Jordan were taught by John that they were 

, z English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 122. ^ Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 270. 



Ch, iii. 7-] Exer citations upon St. Mattheic. 67 

baptized into the name of the Messias, that was now imme- 
diately to come ; and into the profession of the doctrine of 
the gospel concerning faith and repentance; that they plunged 
themselves into the river, and so came out. And that which 
is said of them, that they were baptized by him " confessing 
their sins," is to be understood according to the tenour of the 
Baptist's preaching; not that they did this man by man, or 
by some auricular confession made to John, or by openly 
declaring some particular sins ; but when the doctrine of 
John exhorted them to repentance and to faith in the Mes- 
sias, they renounced and disowned the doctrine and opinion 
of justification by their works, wherewith they had been 
beforetime leavened, and acknowledged and confessed them- 
selves sinners. 

'Ev Tw 'lopMvrj' In Jordan.'] John could not baptize in 
any part of Jordan, so it were within the bounds of Judea 
(which the evangelists assert), which had not been dried up, 
and had afforded a passage to the Israelites when they came 
out of Egypt, and were now entering into the promised land. 

§ Some few remarls concerning tJie Pharisees 
and Sadducees. 

Ver. 7 : 'ISoji; 8e ttoWovs twv fJPapio-ai'coy koX EabbovKamV 
And seeing many of the Pharisees and Sadducees.] To at- 
tempt a history of the Pharisees and Sadducees, after so 
many very learned men, who have treated of their original, 
manners, and institutions, would be next to madness : we 
will briefly touch at a few things, and those, perhaps, less 
obvious, 

1. That the Pharisees do not derive their name (as some 
would have it) from the word ^U'^D which signifies to expound, 
is sufficiently evinced by this, that there were women-Phari- 
sees, as well as men. R. Joshua"^ saith, A religious man 
foolish, a wicked man ci'afty, a ivonian- Pharisee, and the 
dashing of the Pharisees [against the stones], destroy the 
world." Those things are worth observing, which are spoke 
by the Babylonian Gemarists on that clause, HII^'^ID HC^'^i^ 
A woman -Pharisee. rTj^^Sb^l H^]''''':^!? nSinn "l"K' 

'^ Sotah, cai>. 3. hal. 4. 

F 2 



68 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch. iii. 7. 

" The Rabbins teach. A graying \_'procax\ maid., a gadding 
widow.) and a boy whose months are not fidfilled, these corrupt 
the world. But R. Jochanan saith, We learn the shunning of 
sin from a maid, and the receiving of a reward from a widow. 
* The shunning of sin from a maid ;' for R. Jochanan heard a 
certain maid prostrate on her face thus praying ; Eternal 
Lord, thou hast created Paradise, thou hast created hell also, 
thou hast created the righteous, and thou hast created the 
wicked: let it be thy good pleasure that I be not a scandal 
to men, 'The receiving of a reward from a widow;' for there 
was a certain widow, who, when there were synagogues nearer 
everywhere, she always resorted*^ to the school of R, Jocha- 
nan to pray : to whom R. Jochanan said, O my daughter, 
are there not synagogues at hand round about you ? But 
she answered, '17 ID'' nii^^iDO "Sy^ b^?") Will there not be a 
reicard for my steps [or, for my journey hither] ? for [the tra- 
dition] saith, These destroy the world, as Joanna, the daughter 
of Retib." 

: n^::*'''^!? n^inn, by one Gloss, is rendered vhvi 
nS^Cn, that is, a maid given to prayer, or a maid of many 
prayers. By another it is rendered, rT^D^^?^!? t^n^ini a 
maid given to fasting : \ H'^T'inil r\121i^ il?2'^^!^D losing her 
virginity by fasting. 

A gadding widow they call her, " who always goes about 
from place to place to visit her neighbours;" they are the 
words of the Gloss. " And these corrupt the world, because 
they are no other but bawds and sorceresses, and yet they 
pretend sanctity." 

" Joanna the daughter of Retib [the Gloss also being wit- 
ness] was a certain sorceress widow, who, when the time of 
any child's birth drew near, shut up the womb of the child- 
bearing woman with magic arts, that she could not be de- 
livered. And when the poor woman had endured long and 
great torments, she would say, ' I will go and pray for you ; 
perhaps my prayers will be heard :"* when she was gone, she 
would dissolve the enchantments, and presently the infant 
would be born. On a certain day as a hired man wrought in 
her house, she being gone to a woman's labour, he heard the 

c English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 123. 



Ch. iii. 7.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 69 

charms tinkling in a pan ; and, taking ^ off the cover, the 
charms presently came out, and strait the infant is born ; and 
hence it was known that she was a witch." 

I have therefore cited these passages^, not only that it may 
be shown that there were women- Pharisees, and so that the 
name is not taken from interpreting or expounding^ but that 
it may be observed also what kind of women, for the most 
part, embrace Pharisaism ; namely, widows and maids, under 
the veil of sanctity and devotion, hiding and practising all 
manner of wickedness. And so much we gain of the history 
of the Pharisees^ while we are tracing the etymology of the 
word. 

II. That the Pharisees therefore were so called from the 
word tZ7"lD, signifying separation, is more commonly asserted, 
and more truly; and the thing itself, as well as the word, 
speaks it. So that by a word more known to us, you might 
rightly call the Pharisees, Separatists ; but in what sense, has 
need of more narrow inquiry. The differences of the Jewish 
people are to be disposed here into divers ranks : and, first, 
we will begin with the women. 

I. It were an infinite task to search particularly, how their 
canons indulged (shall I say ?) or prescribed the woman a free- 
dom from very many rites, in which a great part of the Jew- 
ish rehgion was placed. How numberless are the times that 
that occurs in the Talmudic pandect, Q^DIfJpl ^"^inVl □"'^3 
^"^ntOD " Women^, servants, and children, are not hound to these 
things. Women f, servants, and children, are not bound to 
recite their phylactories, nor to wear them, U^'Q^I vll? ]nDD 
r\'Wy The Passovers of immen are at their own will.'' And, 
not to dwell upon things that are obvious, let this one serve 
instead of many : "As certain matron asked Il.Eleazar,Why, 
when Aaron sinned in making the golden calf, the people are 
punished with a threefold death? He answered. Let not a 
woman be learned beyond her distaff. Hircanus his son said 
unto him, Because no answer is given her in one word out of 
the law, she will withdraw from us three hundred tenth cori 
yearly. To whom he replied, Let them rather go and be 
burnt, than the words of the law be delivered to women." 

'' Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 271. ^ Hieros. Kiddush. fol. 61. 3. 
^ Berac. cap. 3. hal. 3. s Bab. Sotah, fol. 21.2. 



70 Hebrew and Tahnudica I [Oli.iii. 7. 

From hence it appears that the women that embraced 
Pharisaism did it of their own free will and vow, not by 
command : which the men -Pharisees also did. 

2. Pass we from the women to the men ; and, first, to the 
lowest degrees of men in the distinction relating to religion ; 
namely, to them whom they ordinarily called "m illiterate, 
and Y"li«^n D3^ the people of the earth, or the ptleheians. Of 
them, thus the Gemara in Sotah^ newly cited : " One reads 
the Scriptures, and recites the Misna, and yet he waits not 
upon the scholars of the wise men ; what of him \ R. Eleazar 
said, y^b^n Dy Ht This is one of the people of the earth. 
R. Samuel Bar Nachmani saith, "^"^l riT "*'^n Behold, this 
is an illiterate man. R. Jannai saith, ' Behold, this is a 
Cuthean.' R. Achabar saith, ' Behold, this is a magi- 
cian." ''' And a little after, " Who is Y"l8^n DV ^he people of 
the earth ? R. Meith saith, ' He that recites not his phy- 
lacteries morning and evening with his prayers. But the 
wise men say, ' He, whosoever he be, that lays not up his 
phylactenes.' Ben Azzai saith, ■• He who hath not a fringe 
on his garment.' R. Jochanan Ben Joseph saith, 'He that 
instructs not his sons in the doctrine of the law/ Others 
say, ' He who, although he read the Scriptures, and repeats 
the traditions, yet attends not on the scholars of the wise 
men, this is, H ^ the jieople of the earth [or the plebeians']. 
Does he read the Scriptures, and not repeat the tradition ? 
]5ehold, this man is m illiterate.'' The Gloss upon the 
place speaks thus, " The people of the earth are they of whom 
there is suspicion of tenths and cleanness :" that is, lest they 
tithe not rightly, nor take care aright concerning cleansings. 
And "^"^1 the illiterate person is H Vt^ VT\^ more vile than^ or 
inferior to, the people of the earth.'''' Compare that, John vii. 49, 
" this people that knoweth not the law is cursed." 

Thoi Q'^l'^^n and Q'^^O^n ^l^T^^'H colleagues or associates, 
and scholars of the wise men, were opposed to these vulgar 
persons. Under the title of □'^D3n "'"T'^DTTl scholars of the 
wise men, are comprehended all that were learned and 
studious : under the title of D'^I^H religious, as well learned 
as unlearned. There were some of the learned whom they 
commonly called piJl'll «''^nn or J^Dnm pn^"inn colleagues 

^ Fol. 22. I. ' English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 124. 



Cli. iii.7.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 71 

0/ the Rahbins ; who as yet were candidates, and not pre- 
ferred to the public office of teaching or judging. The thing 
may be ilhistrated by one example : " D3i''7' in?D D'^'^'^^n 
tZ}inrT tZ^JlT^pv Do ^ the U^'y^'^H, the colleagues enter in to ap- 
point the neio moon ? R. Hoshaia said, When I was "^nn 
a colleague^ R. Samuel Ben R. Isaac led me in to the appoint- 
ment of the new moon, but I knew not whether I were of 
the number or no." And a little after ; " Do the colleagues 
\oY felloicsl go in to intercalate the year? Let us learn this 
from the example of Rabban Gamaliel, who said, Let the 
seven seniors meet me in the chamber. But eight entered, 
* Who came in hither,"" saith he, ' without leave V ' I,' an- 
swered Samuel the Little." 

In this sense the word lin a colleague, differs nothing from 
D^n "T"^QSil a scholar of a uise ma^i, in that both signify a 
student and a learned man. But the word I^H a colleague^ 
hath a wider sense, denoting all such who have more pro- 
fessedly devoted themselves to religion, and have professed a 
more devout life and rule than the common people, whether 
they were learned or unlearned, whether of the sect of the 
Pharisees, or of the Sadducees, or some other. Hence you 
have mention of ni3 nun a • religious Samaritan, and of 
"inn Dliini a "1 religious haker. And the phrase seems to 
be drawn from Psalm cxix. 6^ ; ^«^"J lirM-^^V ''ib^ "^in 
" I am " a companion of all those that fear thee :" 'jPT'' vj? \7lp 
TST\ir\ "^"^n They take upon them the habit of religioyi. See 
the Babylonian Talmud in Avodah Zarah " in the Gloss, 
That distinction also is worthy of consideration, of ^^'''^'^IFI 
t^'i'^l'^l"! and b5''n''*'i^t «"^^"^nn The p greater and the less re- 
ligious. 

Yet the word seems sometimes to be appropriated to the 
Pharisees, as being men who, above all others, put on a 
splendidly cloaked religion, which appears enough from the 
history of the Gospel. So, perhaps, is that to be understood, 
b^7'^7^2 p"l?2 i^'^'mn The'^ religious Galileans purify : that is, 
as the Gloss explains it, " They cleanse their wine and their 
oil for a drink-offering, if perhaps the Temple may be built 

^ Hieros. Sanliedr. fol. 18.3. " Fol. 7. 1. 

1 Bab. Berac. fol. 44. 2. P Hieros. Bava Bathra, fol. 17. i. 

n» Joma, fol. 8. 2. q Niddah, fol. 6. 2. 

" Lmsden's edition, vol. ii. p. 272. 



72 Hehreio and Talmudical [Oh, iii. 7. 

ill their days." Which, nevertheless, the Aruch citing, thus 
explains them : rT^n::^^ p^Sin p^^li^ Dmn The religious 
eat their common food in cleanness. By which very thing the 

Gloss defines PJiarisees ; nint^l JH^^in ''S:;1t^^ pU^inD^ 
To ■" the Pharisees ; that is, to them that eat their common food 
in cleanness. Behold, how the word D^")!2n religious., and 
rtDI'^D Pharisees, are convertible terms ; and how this was 
the proper notion whereby a Pharisee was defined, " That he 
ate his common food in cleanness :" that is, that he washed his 
hands when he ate. 

III. We must not think that Pharisaism arose altogether 
and at once, but it was long a-conceiving, and of no fixed 
form when it was brought forth. The same may, in a man- 
ner, be said of this, which is of the traditions : both these 
and that were the issue of many years. The ^ traditionarians 
do refer the first conception of the Traditions to the times of 
Ezra. But how many centuries of years passed before the 
birth of this whole monster was full ripe ? In like manner, 
the first seeds of Pharisaism were cast long before its birth ; 
and being now brought forth, was a long time growing, be- 
fore it came to maturity ; if so be any can define what its 
maturity was. 

We observe presently, that the foundations of Sadduceeism 
were laid in the days of Ezra, before there were any Sad- 
ducees : in his days also, I suspect, the foundations of Phari- 
saism were laid long before there were any Pharisees. For, 
since the Pharisees were marked with that title because they 
separated themselves from other men, as more profane ; 
and since, in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah, it was the 
great care, and that a holy care too, to separate the seed of 
Israel from the heathen inhabitants of the land, to wit, the 
Samaritans, the Ashdodites, the Moabites, &c., not much 
after ; some men, arrogating too much for themselves, took 
occasion hence of separating themselves from the men of 
the Israelitic seed, as too profane, and very unfit (alas !) for 
their conununion. Which very thing we experience in our 
present Separatists. For when the Scripture commands 
Christians that they communicate not " with unbelievers, 

f In Chagigah, fol. 18. 2. 

'' Hieros. Megill. fol. 75. i. Bab. Bava Kama, fol. 82. i. 



Ch. iii. 7-] Exei'citatious upon ^St. Matthew. 73 

\vith those who are without," &c., that is, with heathens ; 
some do hence make a pretence of withdrawing themselves 
from the assemblies of Christians : by what right, by what 
foundation, let themselves look to it. 

We shall ngt trace the time wherein the name of Pha- 
risee first arose ; this is done by learneder men : and there- 
fore let it be enough to have observed that only. After 
once this pretence of religion was received, " that it was a 
pious matter to separate a man's self from the common peo- 
ple," superstition increased every day, which served for a 
stay and patronage to this sect and separation. For when 
they had espoused a religion so supercilious, that they com- 
monly said, " Stand off, I am holier than thou" (which was 
also foretold by the prophet with an execration, Isa. Ixv. 5.), 
and that they placed the highest sanctimony ' in this, to 
withdraw themselves from the common people, as profane ; 
it was certainly necessary to circumscribe, and to put them- 
selves under a more austere rule and discipline, that they 
might retain the name andjaaie of religious persons in other 
things besides that separation, that argued so much pride 
and arrogancy. Hence the troubles about tithings and 
washings arose, and increased age after age : hence sprang 
the frequent fastings and prayers, the cares of the phylacte- 
ries, fringes, and other matters without number : so that (a 
thing fatal to Separatists) this sect, at last, was crumbled 
into sects, and a Pharisee was, in a manner, the same to a 
Pharisee, that the people of the earth was to a Pharisee. 

Both 'I Talmuds reckon seven sects of Pharisees, and so 
does the Aruch ^ : which it will not be irksome to describe 
with their pencil, that the reader may see to what a degree 
of madness this sect was come, as well as to what a degree of 
hypocrisy, tn TtDIID tli^m? The Pharisees are seven : 

1 . ^'r^Dtl? tD1"(0 A Shechemite Pharisee, uyi) TWV^ H\2}^ TW 
This y [Pharisee] does as Shechem. Where the Gloss is, 
" Who is circumcised, but not for the honour of God." 
iT'Dn^ hy TT^rWili'O V^V^ He ^ carrieth his precepts upon his 
shoulders : that is, as the Aruch explains it, " wood to 

* English folio edition, vol. ii. p. tah, fol. 20. 3. Bab. Sotah, fol. 
125. 22. 2. 

» Hieros. in Berac. fol. 13. 2. So- ^ In u;TiS. v Bab. ^ Hieros, 



74 Hehrew and Tahmidical [Ch. iii. 7. 

make a booth [in the feast of Tabernacles], or something of 
that nature," 

2. ''Dp''D t!711D^ Pharisee struck, or dashing. r\t^ ^T^p^Dn 
V7!l"1 Who^ dasheth Ms feet. The Gloss is, "He who walketh 
in humility, the heel of one foot touching the gj'eat toe of the 
other : nor did he lift up his feet from the earth, so that his 
toes were dashed against the stones," The Aruch writes, 
" Who withdrew himself a great way off, that he might not 
press upon men in the ways, and dashed his feet against 
the stones,'' J m!?r2 I'iV i^iJ^I 'h r|^p« Strike ^ me (or sur- 
round me), and yet I will perform the command. 

3. ■'!>?p tI}"inD A c Pharisee that lets out his blood. " He ^ 
strikes out his blood against the walls," The Gloss is ; 
" He shows himself such a one as if his eyes were hood- 
winked, that he might not look upon a woman ; and here- 
upon dashed his head against the walls, and let out his 
blood." The Aruch writes, " He so pressed up himself 
against the walls, that he might not touch those that passed 
by, that by the dashing he fetc|«d blood of himself." — " He ^ 
performed one pi'ccept, and one duty, and struck out blood 
at each," 

4. i-^^'in'T^Ii lUI'^C A Pharisee of the mortar. The Aruch 
thus describes him ; " He went in a loose coat, resembling a 
mortar with the mouth turned downwards. So he, \yith his 
loose garment, was straiter above and broader below," In 
the Jerusalem Talmud he is called Pf^'DiD tl^l'^C, " who saith, 
I withdraw whatsoever is mine, and fulfil the command." 

5. nitZ^V^I ^rmn nn miB " The Pharisee which saith, 
Let me know tohat my duty is, and I 'will do it." " I have ^ 
done my duty, that the command may be performed accord- 
ing to it," The Aruch thus ; " As though he should say, 
There is no man can show me wherein I have transgressed." 

6. n^?"^"^ \mD A Pharisee of fear : such was Job, 

7- mr\^ WT\t^A Pharisee of love : f^^^'O n^-nn "f^ phi 
Onni^^ mnhi tll'IlD t^S^^ Among ^ all these, none is xoorthy 
to he loved hut the Pharisee of love : as Ahraham. 

Whether Pharisaism ran out into any of these sects in 
the days of the Baptist, we dispute not. Let it be granted, 

a Bab, *> Hieros, ^ Bab. ^ Hieros. 

•= Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 273. ^ Hieros. s Hieros. 



Oh. iii. 7.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 75 

that the best and the most modest of that order came to 
his baptism : the best of the Pharisees certainly were the 
worst of men. And it is so much the more to be wondered 
at that these men should receive his baptism after that man- 
ner as they did ; when it was highly contrary to the rule 
of the Pharisees to converse among the common people, of 
whom there was so great a concourse to John ; and highly 
contrary to the doctrine of the Pharisees, so much as to 
dream of any righteousness, besides that which was of the 
works of the law, which the doctrine of John diametrically 
contradicted. 

The original of the Sadducees, learned men as well Jews 
as- Christians, do, for the most part, refer to one Zadoc, 
a scholar of Antigonus Socheus ; which Antigonus took the 
chief seat in the Sanhedrim after the death of Simeon the 
Just. Of him thus speaks the tract Avoth •' : " Antigonus of 
Socho received traditions of Simeon the Just. He said, Be 
not as servants, who wait upon their master for the sake of 
the reward ; but be ye like servants who wait upon their 
master not for the sake of the reward : but let the fear of 
the Lord rule you." 

" This wise man (saith Rambara* upon the place) had two 
scholars, Zadoc and Baithus ; who, when they heard this 
from their master, said among themselves, when they were 
gone away. Our master in his exposition teacheth us that 
there is neither reward nor punishment, nor any expectation 
at all [for the future] : for they understood not what he 
meant : therefore, they mutually strengthened one another, 
and departed from the rule, and forsook the lavv : and some 
company adhered to both. The wise men, therefore, called 
them Sadducees and Baithusees." And a little after ; " But 
in these countries, namely in Egypt, they call them Karaites, 
D'^b^'^p; but Sadducees and Baithusees are their names among 
the wise men." See also the Avoth of R. Nathan'^. 

Yet 1 that raiseth a scruple here : " Ki ^ the conclusion of 
all prayers in the Temple they said, UT\'jJ "TV /or ever. But 
when the heretics brake in and said, There was no age but 

^ Cap. I. Christians as Maimonides .'\ 

' [A name formed from tlie ini- ^ Cap. 5. 

tials of the full name, Rabbi Moses 1 English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 1 26. 

ben Maimon., better known among "^ Bab, Berac. fol. 54. 



76 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch.iii. 7. 

one, it was appointed to be said, D7lVn 1^1 Dbli?n )pfor 
ever and ever^ or from age to age." Upon these words thus 
the Gloss ; " In the first Temple they said only, ' Blessed be 
the Lord God of Israel for ever/ But when the heretics 
brake in and said there was no age but this, Ezra and his con- 
sistory appointed that it should be said, D71i?rf '^V^ aSiyH ip 
for ever and ever, ov from age to age, to imply there is a double 
world [this, and one to come], to root out of the heart the 
opinion of those that deny the resurrection of the dead." 

Take notice, reader, that " thei-e were some who denied 
the resurrection of the dead in the days of Ezra/^ when as 
yet Zadoc, the father of the Sadducees, was not born. After 
Ezra, and his great synagogue (which endured many a year 
after Ezra was dead), sat Simeon the Just, performing the 
office of the high-priest, for the space of forty years : and 
Antigonus Socheus, the master of Zadoc, succeeded him in 
the chair of the Sanhedrim. So that although the Saddu- 
cees, with good reason, do bear an ill report for denying the 
resurrection, and that was their principal heresy ; yet that 
heresy was, when as yet there were no heretics, called by 
the name of Sadducees. To which, perhaps, those words do 
agree (which sufficiently taste of such a heresy), " Ye have 
said, It is in vain to serve God," &c., Mai. iii. 14. 

It is not, therefore, to be denied that the Sadducee-heretics 
were so named from Zadoc ; but that the heresy of the Sad- 
ducees., concerning the resurrection, was older than that name, 
one may suppose not without reason ; nor that that cursed 
doctrine first arose from the words of Antigonus, illy under- 
stood by Zadoc and Baithus, but was of an ancienter original, 
when as yet the prophets Zecharias, Malachi, and Ezra him- 
self, were alive, if that Ezra were not the same with Malachi, 
as the Jews suppose. Therefore I do rather think that heresy 
sprang from the misunderstanding of the words of Ezekiel, 
chap, xxxvii ; which some understanding according to the let- 
ter, and, together with it, seeing no resurrection, dreamt that 
there would be none afterward. And this doctrine increased, 
and exalted itself into a sect ; when, at length, Zadoc and 
Baithus asserted that it was so determined out of the chair 
by their master Antigonus ", the president of the Sanhedrim. 
^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 274. 



Ch. iii. 7.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 77 

When I fetch the rise of the Sadducees not much after 
the death of Simeon the Just^ that does not unseasonably 
come into my mind, which is mentioned by the Tahnudists, 
that the state of things became worse after his death. " AH» 
the days of Simeon the Just, the scape-goat had scarce come 
to the middle of the precipice of the mountain [whence he 
was cast down], but he was broken into pieces : but, when 
Simeon the Just was dead, he fled away [alive] into the 
desert, and was eaten by Saracens. While Simeon the Just 
lived, the lot of God [in the day of expiation] went forth 
always to the right hand : Simeon the Just being dead, it 
went forth sometimes to the right hand and sometimes to 
the left. All the days of Simeon the Just, the little scarlet 
tongue looked always white ; but when Simeon the Just was 
dead, it sometimes looked white and sometimes red. All 
the days of Simeon the Just, the west light always burnt ; 
but when he was dead, it sometimes burnt and sometimes 
went out. All the days of Simeon the Just, the fire upon 
the altar burnt clear and bright ; and, after two pieces of 
wood laid on in the morning, they laid on nothing else the 
whole day : but when he was dead, the force of the fire 
languished in that manner that they were compelled to sup- 
ply it all the day. AH the days of Simeon the Just, a bless- 
ing was sent upon the two loaves and the show-bread, so 
that a portion came to every priest, to the quantity of an 
olive at least ; and there were some who ate till they were 
satisfied, and there were others to whom something re- 
mained after they had eaten their fill : but when Simeon the 
Just was dead, that blessing was withdrawn, and so little 
remained to each, that those that were modest withdrew 
their hands, and those that were greedy still stretched them 
out." 

TevvriiiaTa i\ibi'S)v' Generation of mpers^ I. "Octets, 
serpents, chap, xxiii. 33. Not so much " the seed of Abra- 
ham," which ye boast of, as " the seed of the serpent,^' 'O 
'AvtCxpi.(ttos, 6 ' AvTLK€iix(vos, the Antichrist, the Opposer, 2 Thess. 
ii. 4. A nation and offspring diametrically opposite, and an 
enemy to that seed of the woman, and which was to bruise 
his heel." 

° Hieros. Joma, fol. 43. 3. 



78 Hehrew a)id Talmudical [Ch. iii. 9, lo. 

II. Hence, not without ground, it is concluded that that 
nation was rejected and given over to a reprobate sense, 
even before the coming of Christ. They were not only y€vea, 
a generation, but y^vvrijxaTa, an offspring of vipers, serpents 
sprung from serpents. Nor is it wonder that they were re- 
jected by God, when they had long since rejected God, and 
God's word, by their traditions. See that Matt. xiii. 13 — 15, 
1 Pet. ii. 10, " Ye were not a people." 

There was, indeed, a certain remnant among them to be 
gathered by Christ : and when that was gathered, the rest 
of the nation was delivered over to everlasting perdition. 
ThisP is that Xeiju/xa, that remnant of the apostle, Rom. 
xi. 5, which then was, when he writ those things ; which 
then was to be gathered, before the destruction of that 
nation. 

'^vyilv uTib Ti]s fxeXXovaris opyrji' To jiy from the wrath to 
come.'] These words respect the very last words of the Old 
Testament, "lest I smite the earth with a curse," Mai. iv. [6]; 
and denote the most miserable destruction of the nation, and 
now almost ready to fall upon them. 

The receiving of John's baptism signed and fenced those 
that received it from the ruin that was just coming. To this 
belongs that of St. Peter, Epist. i. ch. iii. 20, 21 : in that man- 
ner as Noah and his sons were by water delivered from the 
flood, " so also baptism now, the antitype of that type, saveth 
us" from the deluge of divine indignation, which in a short 
time is to overflow the Jewish nation. Think here, if those 
that came to baptism brought not their little ones with them 
to baptism : when, by the plain words of the Baptist, those 
that are baptized are said to " fly from the wrath to come V 
that is, ' the wrath of God,' that was not long hence to destroy 
the nation by a most sad overthrow. 

Ver. 9 : Mt/ bo^-qre Xeyeiv Thhik not to sai/.'\ A Jerusalem 
phrase, to be met with everywhere in the Talmud : "^Q^D HD 
To think a word, or to be of that opinion. 

Ver. 10 : 'H a^ivr) -npos ttjv piCav The axe is laid to the root.] 
These words seem to be taken from Isa. x.33,34. The de- 
struction of the nation was to proceed from the Romans, who 

P English folio edition, vol. li. p. 127. 



Ch. Hi. 1 1,15.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 79 

had now a great while held them under the yoke. That axe, 
now laid to the root of the tree, shall certainly cut it down, 
if from this last dressing by the gospel it bears not fruit. 
In the Talmud % those words of Isaiah are applied to the 
destruction of the city ; and thence it is argued, that the 
Messias should be born not much after the time of that 
destruction, because presently after the threatening of that 
ruin follows, '^ A Branch shall arise out of the stock of Jesse,"" 
Isa. xi. I. 

Ver. 1 1 : OS ovk ufxl LKUfos to. vnahrnxara fiacTTacrai' Whose 
shoes I am not worthy to bear.'\ In Luke it is, Xvcrat tov ifxavTa 
Tb}v vTTohr]ixdT(>)v, (o uuloose the latchet of his shoes : which comes 
to the same thing : both sound to the same import, as if he 
had said, ' Whose servant I am not worthy to be.^ 

" A Canaanite"" servant is like a farm, in respect of buying: 
for he is bought with money, or with a writing, Jlptm "11^ 
or hij some service done, as a pledge or pawn. And what is 
such a pawning in the buying of servants ? Namely, that he 
looseth the shoe of him [who buys], or binds on his shoe, or 
carries to the bath such things as be necessary for him," «foe. 
These things Maimonides produceth out of the Talmud, 
where these words are, " How^ is a servant* bought nptPlD, 
bi/ service ? He looseneth the buyer's shoe ; he carrieth such 
things after him as are necessary for the bath ; he un- 
clothes him ; washes, anoints, rubs, dresses him ; puts on his 
shoes, and lifts him up from the earth," &c. See also the 
Tosaphta'i. 

This, by the way, is to be noted, which the Gloss intimates, 
that all servants, of what heathen nation soever, bought by 
the Jews, were called ' Canaanite servants,' because it is said 
of Canaan, " Canaan a servant of servants." 

Ver. 15^- OvT(a Tip^TTOV earlv rjiMV TiXrjpGiaai naaav bLKacoav- 
vr]V Thus it becomes us to fulfil all righteousness.'] That is, ' that 
we fulfil every thing that is just.' Now in the baptism of 
Christ there were these two just things especially : — I. That 
this great priest, being initiated into his ministerial office, 
should answer the type of the admission of the Levitical 

1 Hieros. Beracoth, fol. 5. i. t Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 275. 

r Maimoii. in miDa cap. 2. " Ad Kiddush. cap. i. 

s Bab. Kiddushin, fol. 22. 2. ^ English folio edit., vol.'n.^. 128. 



80 HehreiD and Talmudical [Oh. iii. i6. 

priests, who were initiated by washing and anointing ; so was 
he by baptism, and the Holy Ghost. II. When, by the in- 
stitution of Christ, those that entered into the profession of 
the gospel were to be introduced by baptism, it was just, 
yea, necessary, that Christ, being to enter into the same 
profession, and to preach it too, should be admitted by 
baptism. 

Ver. 16 : Kat ^airriaOels 6'lr]aovs' And Jesus being baptized.] 
I. That Christ conversed upon earth two-and-thirty years and 
a half (as many years as David lived at Jerusalem ; compare 
2 Sam. V. 5), is proved hence : — i. That he was baptized when 
he had now completed his twenty-ninth year, and had newly 
begun his thirtieth. That the words of Luke imply, oxret hcov 
TpLCLKovTa apyoyiivos oiV He began to be about thirty years old. 
Which words, although they are applied by some Christians 
to I know not what large latitude, — yet in the Jewish schools, 
and among that nation, they would not admit, certainly, of 
another sense than we produce. For therey this axiom holds, 
: n^tr n*Hr}n nitrn fn« DV The first day of the year is 
reckoned for that year. And, questionless, Luke speaks with 
the vulgar. For let it be supposed that the evangelist uttered 
these words in some Jewish school, " N. was baptized apxo- 
fjLfvos oi)v &)o-ei TpicLKovTa hdv, beginning to be about thirty years 
old:'''' how could it be understood by them of the thirtieth 
complete (much less of the thirty-first, or thirty-second, as 
some wrest it) ? when the words apx6p.ivos cLo-ei, beginning to 
he about., do so harmoniously agree with the said axiom, as 
scarcely any thing can do more clearly. 2. That, from his 
baptism to his cross, he lived three years and a half. This is 
intimated by the angel Gabriel, Dan. ix. 27 ; " In the half of 
a week" (that is, in three years and a half) " he shall make 
the sacrifice and oblation to cease;" and it is confirmed from 
the computation in the evangelists, but especially in John, 
who clearly mentioneth four Passovers (chap. ii. 13, v. 1, vi. 4, 
and xiii.i ) after his forty days' fast, and not a little time spent 
in Galilee. 

II. Therefore, we suppose Christ was baptized about the 
feast of Tabernacles, in the month Tisri, at which time we 

y Rosh Hashanah, fol. 2. 2. -• 



Ch. iii. 17.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 81 

s^uppose hira born ; and that John was born about the feast 
of the Passover, and at that time began to baptize. For 
when Christ Uved two-and-thirty years and a half, and died 
at the feast of the Passover, you must necessarily reduce 
his birth to the month Tisri, and about the time of the feast 
of Tabernacles : and when John the Baptist was elder than he 
by half a year, you must necessarily suppose him born about 
the feast of the Passover. But of these things we have said 
something already. 

Ver. 1 7 : Kal Ihov, (poivrj iK t5)v ovpavMV And behold, a voice 
from heaven.] Christ was honoured with a threefold testimony, 
pronounced by a voice from heaven, according to his threefold 
office. See what we say at chap. xvii. 2. 

You find not a voice sent from heaven between the giving 
of the law and the baptism of Christ. What things the Jews 
relate of Bath Kol^, they must pardon me if T esteem them, 
partly, for Jewish fables, — partly, for devilish witchcrafts. 
They hold it for a tradition : " After » the death of the last 
prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, tUlpH TVn np7jnD3 
; T'^^'^1D"'T2 the Holy Spirit departed from Israel [which was 
most true] : h^p rai J^'tZJ^^ntrn ]5 "Qr^^l ^ut they used 
thenceforth the Bath Kol." '■ The Bath .Kol was this ; 
in« ^Ip "l^inO «!JV D'^^tDH ]n «!i1'' ^ipU?2 WheM"^ a 
voice (or thunder) came out of heaven., another voice came out 
from it'' 

But why, I pray, was prophecy withdrawn, if heavenly 
oracles were to be continued ? Why, also, was Urim and 
Thummim taken away ? Or rather, why was it not restored 
after the Babylonian captivity? For " Five things (say theyc) 
were wanting under the second Temple^, which were under 
the first; namely, the fire from heaven, the ark, Urim and 
Thummim, the oil of anointing, and the Holy Spirit." It 
would certainly be a wonder, if God, taking away from his 
people his ordinary oracles, should bestow upon them a 
nobler oracle, or as noble ; and that when the nation had 
degenerated, and were sunk into all kind of impiety, supersti- 

' ["jip 1-12 Hebr. Filia vocis. See art. 29. 
Biixtorf Lex. Rabb. col. 320.] "= Hieros. Taanith, fol. 65. 1. 

a Bab. Sanhed. fol. 11. i. '^ En ylish folio edition, vol. ii. ji. 

^ Piske Tosaph. in Sanhed. cap. i . 1 29. 

LIGHTFOOT^ VOL. II. U 



82 Hebrew and Talmuclical [Ch. iii. 17. 

tion, heresy. When the last prophets, Haggai and the rest, 
were dead, the Sadducean heresy, concerning the resurrec- 
tion crept in, and the Pharisaical heresy also, weakening all 
Scripture, and making it of none effect by vain traditions. 
And shall I believe that God should so indulge his people, 
when they were guilty of so grievous apostasy, as to vouch- 
safe to talk familiarly with them from heaven, and^ to afford 
them oracles so sublime, so frequent, as the prophets them- 
selves had not the like ? If I may speak plainly what I 
think, I should reduce those numberless stories of the Bath 
Kol which occur everywhere under these two heads ; 
namely, that very many are mere fables, invented for this 
purpose, that hence the worth* of this or that Rabbin or 
story may be illustrated : the rest are mere magical and dia- 
bolical delusions. 

When I read these and such-like passages, that^ the Bath 
Kol in Jericho gave witness to Hillel, that he was worthy to 
have the Holy Ghost abide upon him ; that the Bath Kol in 
Jabneh yielded the same testimony to Samuel the Little ; 
that thes Bath Kol again in Jabneh determined the contro- 
versies between the schools of Shammai and Hillel, for those 
of Hillel;" and. innumerable other stories of that kind, I 
cannot but either suspect these to be tales, or that these 
voices were framed by art magic for the honour of the 
Rabbins. 

It is remarkable what is related in the Jerusalem Talmud ^; 
h\p ni nV^iyD "in« J^D^in y^V^^ 'S^ : R. EUezer saith, 
They follow the hearing of Bath Kol. And a little after ; 
" R. Jochanan, and R. Simeon Ben Lachish, desired to see 
the face of Samuel [the Bahylonian Doctor]; Let us follow, 
say they, the hearing of Bath Kol. Travelling therefore, near 
a school, they heard a boy's voice reading [in i Sam. xxv. i.] 
1^72 h^^'^'^^ And Samuel died. They observed this, and so 
it came to pass, for Samuel of Babylon was dead." 

" R. Jonah and R. Josah went to visit R. Acha lying sick : 
Let us follow, say they, the hearing of Bath Kol. They heard 
the voice of a certain woman speaking to her neighbour, ' The 

« Leusden's edit., vol, ii. p. 246. s Hieros. Berac. fol. 3. 2. 

f Bab. Sanhed. in the above ^ Schab. fol. 8. 3. 
I>lace. 



Ch. iv. 1 .] Exercitatiom upon St. Matthew. 83 

light is put out.' To whom she said, ' Let it not be put out, 
nor let the light of Israel be quenched/ " 

Behold ! reader, a people very well contented to be deceived 
with a new kind of Bath Kol. Compare these things with 
VirgWs lots'\ of which the Roman historians speak frequently. 
Not to be more tedious therefore in this matter, let two 
things only be observed: i. That the nation, under the 
second Temple was given to magical arts beyond measure. 
And, 2. That it was given to an easiness of believing all 
manner of delusions beyond measure. And one may safely 
suspect, that those voices which they thought to be from 
heaven, and noted with the name of Bath Kol, were either 
formed by the devil in the air to deceive the people, or by 
magicians by devilish art to promote their own affairs. 
Hence the apostle Peter saith with good reason, that " the 
word of prophecy was surer than a voice from heaven ; " 
2 Pet. i. 1 9. 

The very same which I judge of the Bath Kol, is my 
opinion also of the frequent appearances of Elias, with which 
the leaves of the Talmud do every where abound ; namely, 
that in very many places the stories are false, and, in the rest, 
the apparitions of him were diabolical. See the notes upon 
the tenth verse of the seventeenth chapter. 

CHAP. IV. 

Ver. 1 : 'Avrj\dri eh ttjv iprjixov vnb rod nvevixaros' Tieipaa- 
Orjvai, &c. He was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be 
tempted, t^c] The war, proclaimed of old in Eden between 
the serpent, and the seed of the serpent, and the seed of the 
woman. Gen. iii. 15, now takes place ; when that promised 
seed of the woman comes forth into the field (being initiated 
by baptism, and anointed by the Holy Ghost, unto the public 
office of his ministry) to fight with that old serpent, and at 
last to bruise his head. And, since the devil was always a 
most impudent spirit, now he takes upon him a more har- 
dened boldness than ever, even of waging war with him whom 
he knew to be the Son of God, because from that ^ ancient 
procla.mation of this war he knew well enough that he should 
bruise his heel. 

* [See Smith's Diet. G. and R. Antiquities, art. Sortes.'] 
^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 133, 

a 2 



84 Hebrero and Talmudical [Ch. iv. i. 

The first scene or field of the combat was the ' desert of 
Judea,' which Luke intimates, when he saith, that "Jesus 
returned from Jordan, and that he was led by the Spirit into 
the wilderness ;" that is, from the same coast or region of 
Jordan in which he had been baptized. 

The time of his temptations was from the middle of the 
month Tisri to the end of forty days ; that is, from the begin- 
ning of our month of October to the middle of November, or 
thereabouts : so that he conflicted with cold, as well as want 
and Satan. 

The manner of his temptations was twofold. First, invi- 
sibly, as the devil is wont to tempt sinners ; and this for 
forty days : while the tempter endeavoured with all his in- 
dustry to throw in his suggestions, if possible, into the mind 
of Christ, as he does to mortal men. Which when he could 
not compass, because he found ' nothing in him' in which 
such a temptation might fix itself, John xiv. "^o, he attempted 
another way, namely, by appearing to him in a visible shape, 
and conversing with him, and that in the form of an angel of 
light. Let the evangelists be compared. Mark [i. 13.] saith, 
"he was tempted forty days:" so also doth Luke [iv. 2.]: but 
Matthew, that " the tempter came to him after forty days -," 
that is, in a visible form. 

The matter of his temptations was very like the temptations 
of Eve. She fell by the 'Must of the flesh, the lust of the 
eye, and the pride of life :" which are the heads of all sins, 
I John ii. 16. 

By " the lust of the eyes : " for " she saw the fruit, that it 
was pleasant to the sight." 

By " the lust of the flesh ;" she lusted for it, because " it 
was desirable to be eaten." 

By "the pride of life;" not contented with the state of 
perfection wherein she was created, she affected a higher ; 
and she "took^ of the fruit, and did eat," that she might 
become wiser by it. 

The same tempter set upon our Saviour with the same 
stratagems. 

L As Eve was deceived by mistaking his person, supposing 
a good angel discoursed with her when it was a bad, so the 

1 Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 277. 



Ch. iv. 5.] Exercitations upon St. 3Iattheiv. 85 

devil in like manner puts on the good angel here, clothed 
with light and feigned glory, 

II. He endeavours to ensnare Christ by " the lust of the 
flesh ;"" " Command that these stones be made bread :'"' by 
" the lust of the eye ;" " All these things will I give thee, and 
the glory of them :" by " the pride of life f " ' Throw thyself 
down,"' and fly in the air, and be held up by angels."" 

Ver. 5 : 'Etti to iiTepvytov tov Upov- Upon the pinnacle of 
the Temple.'] Whether he placed him upon the Temple itself, 
or upon some building within the holy circuit, it is in vain to 
seek, because it cannot be found. If it were upon the Temple 
itself, I should reflect upon the top of the oblt^ 2^^^*^^^ ^f ^^^^ 
Temple: if upon some other building, I should reflect upon 
the 'S.Toav ^a(nkiKr\v, the royal gallery. The priests were 
wont sometimes to go up to the top of the Temple, stairs 
being made for this purpose, and described in the Talmudic 
book entitled Middoth"" ; and they are said to have ascended 
hither, " when" fire was first put to the Temple, and to have 
thrown up the keys of the chambers of the Temple towards 
heaven, with these words ; ' O thou eternal Lord, because we 
are not worthy to keep these keys, to thee they are delivered.' 
And there came, as it were, the form of a hand out of heaven, 
and took them from them : and they leaped down, and fell 
into the fire." 

Above all other parts of the Temple the DT'li^ porch of the 
Temple, yea, the whole -npovaov, space before it, may not un- 
fitly be called to TTTepvyiov tov lepov, the wing of the Temple, 
because, like wings., it extended itself in breadth on each side, 
far beyond the breadth of the Temple : which we take notice 
of elsewhere. 

If, therefore, the devil had placed Christ in the very pre- 
cipice of this part of the Temple, he may well be said to have 
placed him upon the wing of the Temple, both because this 
part was like a wing to the Temple itself, and that that pre- 
cipice was the toing of this part. 

But if you suppose him placed gttI a-Toav l3a<n\iKriv, upon the 
royal gallery, look upon it thus painted out by Josephus : 
" Ono the south part [of the court of the Gentiles] was the 

m Cap. 4. hal. 5. » Bab. Taanith, fol. 29. i. 

° Antiq. lib. xv. cap. 14. [Hudson, p. 703.] [xv. 11. 5.] 



86 Hebreiv and Talmudical [Ch. iv. 8. 

oToa ^acyiXiKi], the king's gallery^ that deserves to be mentioned 
among the most magnificent things under the sun : for upon 
a huge depth of a valley, scarcely to be fathomed by the eye 
of him that stands above, Herod erected a gallery of a vast 
height ; from the top of which if any looked down, (tkoto- 
biviav ovK €^LK0ViJL€vr]s TTjS oxj/ecos eh aixeTprjrov tov ^v66v he 
would grow dizzy, his eyes not being able to reach to so vast 
a depth." 

Yer. 8p : AeUwcnv avT(^ -ndaas ras l^aaiKeCas tov Koaixov, &C. 
Showed him all the Hngdouis of the world, c^c] That is, 
Kome with her empire and state. For, i. That empire is 
called -naaa olKovfxivr], all the world, (which word Luke [iv. 5.] 
useth in this story,) both in sacred and profane writers. 
2. At this time all cities were of little account in compa- 
rison of Rome, nor did any part of the earth bear any vogue 
without that empire. 3. Rome was 'the seat of Satan/ 
Rev. xiii. 2 ; and he granted to the beast of that city both 
it and the dominion. 4. This therefore seems to be that 
whereby he attempts to ensnare our Saviour in this object, 
namely, that he promiseth to give him the pomp and power 
of Caesar, and to deliver into his hand the highest empire of 
the world, that is, the Roman. This, antichrist afterward 
obtained. 

Ver. 13 : Kal KaraAtTrcoy Ti]v Nafape^, eKd<j^v KaTioKriaev eh 
Kairepvaovfji.' And, leaving Nazareth, he came and dwelt at 
Capernaum.'] Why he left Nazareth after he had passed six 
or seven-and-twenty years there, the reason appears, Luke 
iv. 28, &c. We do not read that he returned thither again ; 
and so, unhappy Nazareth, thou perishest by thine own folly 
and perverseness. Whether his father Joseph had any in- 
heritance at Capernaum, which he possessed as his heir, or 
rather dwelt there in some hired house, we dispute not. This 
is certainly called his city, Matt. ix. i, &c. ; and here, as a 
citizen, he paid the half-shekel, Matt. xvii. 24. Where it is 
worthy marking what is said by the Jews : l^y2 ^tl^ H^D 
: U?nn "y^ "CJ^n ^IZ;]^^^ b^rT'l How^ long does a man dwell in 
some city before he he as one of the citizens ? Twelve months. 
The same is recited again»" elsewhere. The Jerusalem Ge- 

P English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 131. i Bava Bathra, cap. i. hal. 6. 
*■ Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 112. i. 



Oh. iv. i^.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 87 

mara thus explains it ; " If he tarry in the city thirty days, 
he becomes as one of the citizens in respect of the alms-chest ; 
if six months, he becomes a citizen in respect of clothing ; if 
twelve months, in respect of tributes and taxes." The Baby- 
lonian adds, '•' if nine months, in respect of burial." That is, 
if any abide in a city thirty days, they require of him alms for 
the poor ; if six months, he is bound, with the other citizens, 
to clothe the poor ; if nine months, to bury the dead poor ; if 
twelve months, he is bound to undergo all other taxes with 
the rest of the citizens. See the Gloss. 

Ver. 15 : r^ Zaj3ov\(bv, koI yr] Ne0^aAei/x' The land of Za- 
bulon, and the land of Nephthali.^ It is needful that the 
words of Isaiah be considered, whence these words are taken. 
He had been discoursing, in the eighth chapter towards the 
end, concerning the straits and miseries that compassed ^ 
the transgressors of the law and the testimony. " To the 
law and to the testimony,'^ &c., ver. 20. 'D^'Sy TVii'p'^ nil Ili^T 
" But if a man transgress against it [that is, Hlin and m^i^n 
the laio and the testimony], it will redound to his hardship, and 
he shall suffer hunger," &c., ver. 21. " And he shall look to 
the earth, and behold trouble and darkness, dimness of an- 
guish, and he shall be driven to darkness," ver. 22. And 
then it follows, chap. ix. 1 , vh p^^D "i^^*«^ f]:^^^ «S ''3 
'' For the dimness shall not be like to that wherein it was ill 
with him, at what time the former [afflicter] lightly touched 
the land of Zabulon, and the land of Nephthali, and the latter 
grievously afflicted," &c. " That people who sat in darkness, 
saw a great light," &c. 

That which the prophet means here is this : i . That 
the contemners of Emanuel and his testimony, that is, the 
gospel, should undergo far greater calamities than those 
places had undergone, either under their first conqueror 
Ben-hadad', or under the second, the king of Assyria". For 
those places saw light at last restored to them, when the 
Messias preached the gospel there : but the contemners of 
the gospel are driven into eternal darkness. 2. He foretells 
the morning of liberty, and of evangelical light, to arise 
there, where the first darkness and the calamities of their 

^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. * i Kings xv. 20. 
278. " 2 Kings XV. 29. 



88 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. iv. 18, 19. 

captivity had arisen. St. Matthew citing these words, that 
he might show the prophecy to be fulfilled, of that light 
that should arise there, omits those words which speak of 
their former misery, that is, the first clause of the verse ; 
and produceth those words only, and that very fitly too, 
which make to his purpose, and which aim directly thither 
by the prophet's intention. The prophet Hosea affords us 
an instance of curtailing ^ a sentence after that manner, chap, 
i. II, ii. 1 ; when he proclaims Israel and Judah miserable, 
he calls them ' Lo-Animi,'and '^Lo-Ruchamah ;' when happy, 
* Amrai,' and ' Ruchamah." 

Ilipav Tov ''lopbdi'ov Beyond Jordan.] Not by Jordan, but 
beyond Jordan. For the latter afilicter, the king of Assyria, 
had carried away that country also into banishment and 
bonds, 1 Chron. v. 26. Here is an ellipsis of the conjunc- 
tion and. 

Ver. 1 8 : BaWoiras a[jL(f)L(3Xriarpov ds r-qv Oakafvaav Casting 
a net into the sea.] \ TVXlli:^ ^U." nD"^! 1^^2X112 Fishing 7 in the 
sea of Tiberias, in Talmudic speech. There the fathers of 
the traditions dream that Joshua the son of Nun gave ten 
laws to the Israelites, concerning having some things in com- 
mon, as lawful, and to be allowed of: ninn Ti^Dil "'in 
J^^trn^ Our Rabbins have a tradition that Joshua ordained 
ten conditions : V^^'yWVl V^VSO lIT'tl? That cattle graze i?i 
common in woody ^:>?aces. : Ql^mitl?! D'^JJ^ ri;Dp7?!iT And 
that a man gather wood in common in his neighbour'' s field, &c. 
Among others, r~f'*'^nt3 h^ Tl^^l p^inj^l And that any, in 
common, spread his nets for fishing in the sea. of Tiberias. But 
yet under this caution, HIl^DDH n« *l^Qy''T V^^ DT^D^ «SlT» 
That none set up a wall, which may be any stop to ships. The 
Gloss is, '' It is the manner of fishermen to fasten stakes in 
the water, and to make fences of canes or reeds, in which 
the fish may be taken : but this is not permitted, because it 
is an impediment to the ships.^^ However therefore the sea 
of Tiberias belonged to the tribe of Nephthali, yet it was 
free for any Israelite to fish in it, so it were under the con- 
dition mentioned. 

Ver. 19 : 'AAiets avdpooiriav Fishers of men.'] This phrase 

-'' English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 132. 
y Bava Kama, in the place above. 



Oh. V. 21,23.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 89 

is something agreeable with that of Maimonides ^ upon the 
Tahnud, JH^lin ^^^"T ^2172 "W nrj^Z?^ ^h\D Ajisher of the 
law. 

Ver. 2 1 : '^6.Ku>fiov top rov Ze^ebaiov James the son of Ze- 
bedee.] We meet » with a certain Eabbin of this very same 
name, "^"TIT "^1 IpV^ "1 J^. Jacob the son of Zabdi. 

Ver. 23 : AtSao-Kcor Iv rals avvayoiyoA.^ avrSiV Teaching in 
their ST/nagogues.'] Since we meet with very frequent mention 
of synagogues every where in the books of the Gospel^ it may 
be needful to know something more clearly what the customs 
and institutions of the synagogues were, for the better un- 
derstanding very many things which have some reference 
thereunto in the New Testament : let us here despatch the 
history of them h< k-niToixt], as briefly as we may, now when 
the mention of synagogues first occurs. 

§ Of the Synagogues. 
I. A synagogue was not formed anywhere but where 
there were ten learned men professedly students of the law. 
I. Let that of the Talmud b be observed. nSlTt ^^V T\V^ 
''What is a great city? \ pAl^n "^" HI W^ h^ That in which 
were ten men of leisure. \ "^DD Ht ^^T\ tt^S^^ mnS If there 
be less than this number, behold, it is a village." 2. Observe 
that of Maimonides " ; " Wheresoever there be ten of Israel, 
there a house must needs be built, to which they may resort 
to prayers in the time of prayer, and this house is called a 
synagogue." Not that any ten of Israel made a synagogue ; 
but wheresoever were ten learned men, and studious of the 
law, these were called p^Sl^D. Batlanin, men of leisure ; 
" who were not to be esteemed for lazy and idle persons, but 

"iin''!? "i::-!!?! ppOIS^T pS^^r^D pAi:n such who^," not 
being encumbered with worldly things, "■ ivere at leisure only 
to take care of the affairs of the synagogues, and to give them- 
selves to the study of the law." 

The e reason of the number of ten, though lean and empty 
enough, is given in the Talmud ^ : and it is this ; ^"^"^11 TTW 

2 Torah, cap. i. ^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 

a Hieros. Maasar Sheni, fol. 55. 2. 133. 

^ Megill, cap. i. hal. 3. ^ Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 279. 

^ Tephillah, cap. 11. f Sanhedr. cap. 4. hal. 6. 



90 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. iv. 33. 

!~T^\2?i^ A congregation consists of ten : which they prove 
hence, because it is said, ni^tn Mi^'^ri T^'^vh ^V^ I^T 
" How long shall I hear ivith this evil congregation, &c. (Numb, 
xiv. 27.) Take away Joshua and Caleb, and there remain 
only ten ;" namely, of the spies of the land, 
II. Of these ten men : 

1. Three bear the magistracy, and were called 7tZ} 12. 
nU^b^ The bench of three : whose office it was to decide the 
differences arising between the members of the synagogue, 
and to take care about other matters of the synagogue. 
These judged concerning money-matters, thefts, losses, re- 
stitutions, ravishing a virgin, of a man enticing a virgin, of 
the admission of proselytes, yjEipoOeaia, laying on of hands, 
and divers other things, of which see the tract Sanhedrim S. 
These were properly, and with good reason, called apxi'(rvvd- 
ycayoi, rulers of the synagogue, because on them laid the chief 
care of things, and the chief power. 

2. Besides these there was ' the public minister of the 
synagogue,' who prayed publicly, and took care about the 
reading of the law, and sometimes preached, if there were 
not some other to discharge this office. This person was 
called m"'!? IT^bu;' the angel of the church, and JlD^DH "jtn 
the Chazan or bishop of the congregation. The Aruch gives the 
reason of the name : " The Chazan (saith he) is 112!? TXh^ 
the angel of the church (or the public minister), and the Targum 
renders the word r~rb5*ll by the word nfin one that over- 
sees ; mi^'IT' *7^"^!J ^^intD for it is incumbent on him to over- 
see how the reader reads, and whom he may call out to read 
in the law," The public minister of the synagogue himself 
read not the law publicly ; but, every sabbath, he called out 
seven of the synagogue (on other days, fewer) whom he judged 
fit to read. He stood by him that read, with great care ob- 
serving that he read nothing either falsely or improperly; 
and calling him back and correcting him if he had failed in 
any thing. And hence he was called pn, that is, ^ma-KOTtos. 
or overseer. Certainly the signification of the word bishop, 
and angel of the church, had been determined with less noise, 
if recourse had been made to the proper fountains, and men 

s Cap. 4. hal. 1. 



Ch. iv. 33.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 91 

had not vainly disputed about the signification of words, 
taken I know not whence. The service and worship of the 
Temple being abolished, as being ceremonial, God trans- 
planted the worship and public adoration of God used in 
the synagogues, which was moral, into the Christian church ; 
to wit, the public ministry, public prayers, reading God's 
word, and preaching, &c. Hence the names of the minis- 
ters of the Gospel were the very same^ the angel of the church, 
and the hishoi^ ; which belonged to the ministers in the syna- 
gogues. 

3. There were also three deacons, or almoners, on whom 
was the care of the poor ; and these were called Parnasin^, 
[pD2'^D] or Pastors. And these seven perhaps were reputed 
l"^!^!! ^^110 ni,*2tZ? the seven good men of the city ; of whom 
there is frequent remembrance in the Talmudists. 

Of these Parnasin we shall only produce these things. 
There were two, who demanded alms of the townsmen ; and 
they were called, np"T!^ "'^l!! ^^tD the tivo'^ collectors of alms. 
np"T!i phrh ":i VnW ^l^ m^ 1^V'\ To ivliom was added 
a third to distribute it. 

" R. Chelbo'' in the name of R. Ba Bar Zabda saith. They 
do not make fewer than three Parnasin. For I see the judg- 
ments about many matters to be managed by three : there- 
fore much more these which concern life. R. Josi in the 
name of R. Jochanan saith, They do not make two brethren 
Parnasin. R. Josi went to Cephar, intending there to set 
Parnasin over them, but they received him not. He went 
away, after he had said these words before them, Ben Bebai 
was only set over the threaded [linen of the lamps], and yet 
he was reckoned worthy to be numbered with the eminent 
men of that age. [See Shekalim, cap. 5.] Ye who are set 
over the lives of men, how much more are ye so ! R. Chaggai, 
when he appointed the Parnasin, argued to them out of the 
law, all dominion that is given is given from the law. By me 
kings reign. R. Ohaiia Bar Ba t'^il^li^ D''p?D set apxovras, 
rulers, over them, that is, he appointed Parnasin. R. Lazar 
was a Parnas." 

This perhaps holds out a light to those words of the 

•» [See Buxtorf Lex. T. & R. sub ' Maimon. in Sanhedr. cap. i. 
V. col. 1822.] ^ ^ Hieros. Peah, fol. 21. i. 



92 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. iv. 23. 

apostle, J Tim. iii. 13, "They that have performed the office of 
a deacon well have obtained to themselves a good degree :" 
that is, being faithful in their care and provision for the 
poor, as to their corporal life, they may well be probationers 
for the care of souls. For when those Parnasin, as also all 
the ten, were learned and studious, they might with good 
reason be preferred from the care of bodies to that of souls. 
The apostles' deacons are to be reckoned also of the same 
learned and studious rank. And now let us turn our eyes 
a little from the synagogues to Christian churches, in the 
history of the New Testament. When the Romans permitted 
the Jewish synagogues to use their own laws and proper 
government, why, I pray, should there not be the same to- 
leration allowed to the apostolical churches ? The Roman 1 
censure had as yet made no difference between the Judaizing 
synagogues of the Jews, and the Christian synagogues or 
churches of Jews ; nor did it permit them to live after their 
own laws, and forbid these. I am not, therefore, afraid to 
assert, that the churches of that first age were wanting to 
themselves, if they took not up the same liberty of govern- 
ment as the Romans allowed the Jewish synagogues to use. 
And 1 do not think that was said by the apostle, i Cor. vi. 
2, 3, &c. without this foundation. Therefore, this power of 
their own government being allowed them, if so be they were 
minded to enjoy what they might, how easily may those words 
of the apostle be understood, which have so racked learned 
men (shall I say ?), or which have been so racked by them, 
I Tim. v, 17"^: Oi Kokws TtpoeaT&TCs Trpeal^vTepoi, &c. "Let 
the elders that rule well," &c. 

4. We may reckon the eighth man of these ten to be the 
tD^'^'in, that is, the interpreter in the synagogue ; who, being 
skilled in the tongues, and standing by him that read in the 
law, rendered in the mother-tongue, verse by verse, those 
things that were read out of the Hebrew text. The duty of 
this interpreter, and the rules of his duty, you may read at 
large in the Talmud». 



1 English folio edition, vol. ii. p. " Megill. cap. 4. Maimon. in Te- 

134. phillah, cap. 12, &c. Masseclieth 

•n Le^isden's edition, vol. ii. j). Sopherim, cap. 10, &c. and else- 

280. where. 



Ch. iv. 23-] ExercitationsaponSt.Mattheic. 93 

The use of such an interpreter, they think, was drawn 
down to them from the times of Ezra, and not without good 
reason. '\T\ «^p?Dn H» rrf\T\ ICD^ ^b^l'/'ll " And^ they 
read in the book of the law : that was the text. Ht tDTItp 
□13"in Explaining : that was the Targuni. 17'« 73t? □liT''] 
□"•TDl'tD And added the meaning : they are the accents : 
nnD?^?! nt N"^p?33 12''1''1 and they understood the text: 
that was the Masorethr See Nehera. viii. 8 ; see also Buxtorf's 
Tiberias, chap. viii. 

5. We do not readily know whom to name for the ninth 
and tenth of this last three. Let us suppose them to be the 
master of the dimnity -school, and his interpreter : of whom we 
shall have a fuller occasion of inquiry. And thus much con- 
cerning the head of the synagogue, that learned Decemvirate, 
which was also the representative body of the synagogue. 

III. The days wherein they met together in the synagogue 
were the sabbath, and the second day and the fifth of every 
week. Of the sabbath there is no question. They refer the 
appointment of the second and fifth days to Ezra. " Ezra 
(say theyP) decreed ten decrees. He appointed the public 
reading of the law in the second and fifth days of the week. 
Also on the sabbath at the time of the sacrifice. He ap- 
pointed washing to those that had the gonorrhoea. He ap- 
pointed the session of the judges in cities on the second and 
fifth days of the week," &c. Hence, perhaps, it will appear 
in what sense that is to be understood, Acts xiii. 42, YlaptKo.- 
\ovv TO. kOvr] eis to fxera^v aal3j3aTov kakr]6i]vai avrois to prjixara 
ravra. " The Gentiles besought that these words might be 
preached to them the next sabbath, or the sabbath between ;" 
that is, on the days of that intervening week, wherein they 
met together in the synagogue. 

IV. Synagogues were anciently builded in fields. " To^ the 
evening recital of the phylacteries are to be added two 
prayers going before, and two following after." Where the 
Gloss thus ; '• The Rabbins instituted that prayer [irO^^r 1«")^], 
that they might retain their colleagues in the synagogue. 
And this certainly respected their synagogues at that time, 

" Hieros. Megill. fol. 74. 4. Kama, fol. 82. i. 

P Ibid. fol. 75. I. Bab. Bava i Bab. Beracoth, fol. 2. iV 



94 Hebrew and Tahmulkal [Oh. iv, 23. 

because they were situated in the fields, where they might be 
in danger." And so Kabbenu Asher^ upon the same tract; 
" Anciently their synagogues were in fields : therefore they 
were afraid to tarry there, until the evening prayers were 
ended. It was therefore appointed that they should recite 
some verses, in which a short sum of all the eighteen prayers 
had been compacted ; after which that prayer l^^'^^.V '^b^l'' was 
to be recited." 

But the following times brought back their synagogues for 
the most part into the cities ; and provision was made by 
sharp canons, that a synagogue should be built in the highest 
place of the city, and that no house should be built higher 
than it. 

V. The like provision was made, that every one at the 
stated times of prayer should frequent the synagogue. " God* 
does not refuse the prayers, although sinners are mingled 
there. Therefore it is necessary that a man associate himself 
with the congregation, and that he pray not alone when an 
opportunity is given of praying with the congregation. Let 
every one therefore come morning and evening to the syna- 
gogue." And " It' is forbidden to pass by the synagogue in 
the time of prayer, unless a man carry some burden upon his 
back : or unless there be more synagogues in the same city ; 
for then it may be judged that he goes to another ; or unless 
there be two doors in the synagogue ; for it may be judged 
that he passed by one to go in at another. But if he carry 
his phylacteries upon his head, then it is allowed him to pass 
by, because they bear him witness that he is not unmindful 
of the law." These things are taken out of the Babylonian 
Talmud": where these are also added: "The holy blessed 
one saith, Whosoever employeth himself in the study of the 
law, and in the returning of mercy, and whosoever prays with 
the synagogue, I account concerning him, as if he redeemed 
me and my sons from the nations of the world. And whoso- 
ever prays not with the synagogue is called an ' ill neighbour,' 
as it is said, ' Thus saith the Lord of all my evil neighbours,'' " 
&c. Jer. xii. 14. 

r Fol. 69. 3. t Chap. 6. 

s Maim, in Tephill. cap. 8. " Beracoth, fol. 8. i. 



Ch. iv. 23.] Exercitations iipon St. Matthew. 95 

VI,-'' When they were met together in the synagogue on 
the sabbath-day (for this being observed, there is no need to 
speak any thing of the other days), the service being begun, 
the minister of the church calls out seven, whomsoever he 
pleases to call out, to read the law in their order. First, a 
priest, then a Levite, if they were present ; and after these 
five Israelites. Hence it is, O young student in Hebrew 
learning, that in some editions of the Hebrew Bible you see 
marked in the margin of the Pentateuch, i. !n3 The priest. 
2. ^'h The Levite. 3. '^^'h^ The third. 4. ''^^"^11 The fourth. 
5. ^V)^12T\ The fifth. 6. •'U^tZ? The sixth. 7. ^^^IIZ; The seventh: 
— denoting by these words the order of the readers, and mea- 
suring out hereby the portion i-ead by each one. Thus, I sup- 
pose, Christ was called out by the angel of the church of Naza- 
reth, Luke iv. 1 6, and reading according to the custom as a 
member of that synagogue. 

There is no need to mention that prayers were made pub- 
licly by the angel of the church for the whole congregation, 
and that the congregation answered Amen to every prayer : 
and it would be too much particularly to enumerate what 
those prayers were, and to recite them. It is known enough 
to all that prayers, and reading of the law and the prophets, 
was the chief y business in the synagogue, and that both were 
under the care of the angel of the synagogue. 

I. There seemed to have been catechizing of boys in 
the synagogue. Consider what that means, 1"^''!DT ^^^7D2 U'^'^l 
" What^ is the privilege oftvomen 9 : «r\\I?::!3 ''1^ IH^^^n ^"'I'^PWl 
This, that their sons read in the synagogue. IP?'^''!!^ ^"^I^D^^l 
; l^l'n "^1 That their husbands recite in the school of the doctors. 
Where the Gloss thus, " The boys that were scholars were 
wont to be instructed [or to learn] before their master in the 
synagogue." 

II. The Targumist, or Interpreter, who stood by him that 
read in the law, and rendered what was read out of the He- 
brew original into the mother-tongue, — sometimes used a 
liberty of enlarging himself in paraphrase. Examples of this 
we meet with in the Talmud % and also in the Chaldee para- 
phrast himself. 

^ English folio edit., vol. n. p. i^^. ^ Hieros. Biccurim, fol. 65. 4. 
y Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 281. Sanhedr. fol. 20. 3. Bab. Berac. fol. 
2 Bab. Berac. fol. 17. i. 28. i. and elsewhere. 



96 Hebrew and Tahnudical [Ch. iv. 23. 

III. Observe that of the Glosser, HtT'^nn in?2ti;b □'^^^n VH 
\ Vli^n "^DVI 0"*^^ Women^ and the common people were wont 
to meet together to hear the exjyosition or the sermon. But of 
what place is this better to be understood than of the syna- 
gogue ? That especially being well weighed which immedi- 
ately foiioweth, a:nh ni^ ^wr::h j^iiini ^T")^ i^ni And 

they had need of expounders [or preachers] to affect their hearts : 
which is not much unlike that which is said Acts xiii. 13, Et 
eoTt Koyo'i iv vjmv irapaKArjo-ews Trpos top Kaov If ys have any 
icord of exhortation for the pjeople, say on. 

IV. Service being done in the synagogue, they went to 
dinner. And after dinner to tl?'^1?2 TS^I the school, or the 
church, or a lecture of divinity ; call it by what name you 
will. It is called also not seldom by the Talmudists ■*t12'^!J 
and jlD3i The synagogue. In this sense, it may be, is 
fc«^n^'^7"'i^ b^rtI7"^D3 the upper synagogue to be taken, mentioned 
in the Talmud '^ ; if it be not to be taken of the Sanhedrim. 
In this place a doctor read to his auditors some traditional 
matter, and expounded it. rwyO> \T\^ DlDtD ILmr^n Ts^l 
'^Cyc^T\ In '' the Beth Midrash they taught traditions, and their 
exposition. 

There are three things to be taken notice of concerning 
the rites used in this place. 

I. He that read to the auditors spake not out with an 
audible voice^ but muttered it with a small whisper in some- 
body's ear ; and he pronounced it aloud to all the people. 
So that here the doctor had his interpreter in this sense, as 
well as the reader of the law his in the synagogue. " Rabh ^ 
went to the place of R. Shilla, rxhv X2p^rh «1172« HIH «':51 
and there was no interpreter to stand hy R. Shilla ; Rabh there- 
fore stood by him." Where the Gloss hath these words, 
«"1172« Xr\'n «b " He had no speaker, that is, p:i1inr5 
he had no interpreter present, who stood before the doctor when 
he was reading the lecture. ; n^lli? \1\I?b "h VilTvh D^nni 
And the doctor whispered him in the ear in Hebrew, and he ren- 
dered it in the mother-tongue to the people.*" Hither that of 
our Saviour hath respect. Matt. x. 27 ; " What ye hear in 



^ In Bab. Schab. fol. 30. 2. ^ Gloss, in Bab. Berac. fol. 17. i. 

c Hieros. Schab. fol. 3. i. e jjab. Joma, fol. 20. 2. 



Ch. iv. 2^.] Exer citations upon St. Matthew. 97 

the ear, that preach ye upon the house-tops." Consult the 
same place. 

2. It was customary in this place, and in these exercises, 
to propound questions. In that remarkable story of re- 
moving Rabban Gamaliel of Jafne from his presidentship, 
which we meet with in divers f places of both Talmuds : when 
they met together in the Beth Midrash, h^\D^ h^WH 172V 
" The questioner stood forth and ashed. The evening prayer, is 
it observed by way of duty, or of free will?" And after a few 
lines, the mention of an interpreter occurs : "The whole mul- 
titude murmured against it, and said to Hotspith the inter- 
preter, ' Hold your peace ;' and he held his peace, &c. 

3. While the interpreter preached from the mouth of the 
doctor, the people sat upon the earth. " Let^ not a judge 
go upon the heads of the holy people." The Gloss is, 
" While the interpreter preached "T)1''2J the synagogue [or 
the xohole congregation] sat on the ground : and whosoever 
walked through the middle of them to take his place, seemed 
as if he walked upon their heads." 

One^i may safely be of opinion that the word (rwaydiyi]., 
synagogue.) was used sometimes in the New Testament in this 
sense ; and that Christ sometimes preached in these divinity- 
schools, as well as in the synagogues. 

But by what right was Christ permitted by the rulers of 
the synagogue to preach, being the son of a carpenter, and 
of no learned education? Was it allowed any illiterate person, 
or mechanic, to preach in the synagogues^ if he had the con- 
fidence himself to it ? By no means. For it was permitted to 
none to teach there but those that were learned. But there 
were two things especially that gave Christ admission to 
preach in every synagogue ; namely, the fame of his miracles, 
and that he gave out himself the head of a religious sect. 
For however the religion of Christ and his disciples was both 
scorned and hated by the scribes and Pharisees, yet they ac- 
counted them among the religious in the same sense as they 
did the Sadducees ; that is, distinguished from V'^i-^n "DV 
the common people, or the seculars., who took little care of 

<" Hieros. Berac. fol. 7. 4. Taa- z Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 7. 2. 
nitli, fol. 67. 4. Bab. Berac. fol. ^ English folio edition, vo\.\\. \). 
27. 2. 136. 

LIGHTIOOT, VOL. II. II 



98 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. v. 3, &c. 

religion. When, therefore, Christ was reckoned among the 
rehgious, and grew so famous by the rumour of his miracles, 
and the shining rays of his doctrine, no wonder if he raised 
among the people an earnest desire of hearing him, and ob- 
tained among the governors of the synagogues a liberty of 
preaching. . 

CHAP. V.i 

Vers. 3, 4, 5, &c. : MaKapioi, [xaKaptoL, &c. Blessed, 
blessed, &c.] It is commanded, Deut. xxvii, that, upon the 
entrance of the people into the promised land, blessings 
and curses should be denounced from the mounts Gerizim 
and Ebal : the curses being particularly reckoned up, but 
the blessings not so. Which seems not to be without a 
mystery, since the law brought the curse with it ; but Christ, 
who should bring the blessing, was yet to come a great 
while hence. Now he is present pronouncing the blessings, 
and that on a mountain. The Jewish writers do thus relate 
that matter : 

" Six k tribes went up to the top of mount Gerizim, and 
six to the top of mount Ebal. But the priests and the Le- 
vites stood below with the ark of the covenant. The priests 
compassed the ark ; the Levites compassed the priests ; and 
the whole people of Israel stood on one side and on the 
other : as it is said, ' All Israel and the elders,^ &c. (Josh, 
viii. 33.) Turning their faces to mount Gerizim, they began 
with the blessing, ' Blessed is the man that shall make no 
idol, or molten image,' &c. And both the one and the other 
answered, Amen. Turning their faces to mount Ebal, they 
pronounced the curse, ' Cursed is the man who shall make an 
idol, or molten image :' and both the one and the other an- 
swered, Amen. And so of the rest. And at last, turning 
their faces to Gerizim, they began with the blessing, ' Blessed 
is the man who shall continue in all the words of the law ;' 
and the answer on both sides is, Amen. Turning their faces 
to Ebal, they pronounce the curse, ' Cursed is every one that 
shall not continue in all the words of the law :' and the an- 
swer from both sides is, Amen,'' &c. 

In like manner Christ here, having begun with blessings, 

i Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 282. 

^ Talm. in Sotah, cap. 7. Tosaph. in SotaVi, cap. 8. 



Ch.v.8.9-i7] Exercitations upon St. Matthein. 99 

" Blessed, blessed." thundereth out curses, " Woe, woe," 
Luke vi. 24 — 26. 

That which many do comment concerning the octonary 
number of beatitudes hath too much curiosity^ and little 
benefit. It hath that which is like it among the Jews : for 
thus they write ^ ; " There is a tradition from the school of 
R, Esaiah Ben Korcha, that twenty blessings are pronounced 
in the Book of the Psalms, and in like manner tv^enty woes 
in the Book of Isaiah. ' But I say,' saith Rabbi, 'that there 
are two-and-twenty blessings, according to the number of the 
two-and-tvventy letters." 

"Abraham"" was blessed with seven blessings/^ 

" These" six are blessed, every one with six blessings, 
David, Daniel, and his three companions, and king Messias." 

Ver. 8° : Ma/capiot ol KaOapol rfj Kap8ia' Blessed are the j^ure 
in heart.] Hearken, O Pharisee, all whose praise lies in 
outward cleanness. How foolish is this boasting of a Jew ! 
" ComeP and see, saith B, Simeon Ben Eleazar, how far the 
purity of Israel extends itself : when it is not only appointed, 
that a clean man eat not with an unclean woman ; but [that 
an unclean man eat not with an unclean man] that a Pha- 
risee that hath the gonorrhoea eat not with a common person 
that hath the gonorrhcea." 

Ver. 9: Ma/capiot ol dpy]voTioioi Blessed are the peacemakers.] 

peace hetween neighbours is numbered among those things 
which bring forth good fruit in this life, and benefit in the 
life to come. 

Ver. 1 7 : Mr) voixCariTe on rjXdoi^ KaraXvcraL tov vojjlov, &c. 
Think not that I am come to destroy the law, Sfc] I. It was 
the opinion of the nation concerning the Messias, that he 
would bring in a new law, but not at all to the prejudice or 
damage of Moses and the prophets : but that he would ad- 
vance the Mosaic law to the very highest pitch, and would 
fulfil those things that were foretold by the prophets, and 
that according to the letter, even to the greatest pomp. 

1 Midr. Tillin upon Psal. i. R. ° English folio edition, vol. n. p. 
Sol. upon Isa. V. 137. 

"» Baal Turim upon Gen. xii. p Bab. Schab. fol. 13. i. 

n Targ. upon Ruth iii. 1 Peah, cap. i, hal. i. 

H 2 



100 IlebrciD and Tahnudical [Ch.v. 18. 

II. The scribes and Pharisees, therefore, snatch an occa- 
sion of cavilhng against Christ ; and readily objected that he 
was not the true Messias, because he abolished the doctrines 
of the traditions which they obtruded upon the people for 
Moses and the prophets. 

III. He meets with this prejudice here and so onwards 
by many arguments, as namely, i. That he abolished not the 
law when he abolished traditions ; for therefore he came that 
he might fulfil the law. 2. That he asserts, that " not one 
iota shall perish from the law." 3. That he brought in an 
observation of the law much more pure and excellent than 
the Pharisaical observation of it was: which he confirms even 
to the end of the chapter^ explaining the law according to its 
genuine and spiritual sense. 

Ver. 18 : 'Aju,^y yap \ky<a v[xxv' Verily^ I say unto you.'] I. 
Such an asseveration was usual to the nation, though the 
syllables were something changed. " A^ certain matron said 
to R. Judah Bar Allai, Thy face is like to a swineherd or a 
usurer. To whom he answered, irT'liri "'T'lT' t>5m2?2TT 
p"'Dfc^ In truth, both are forhidden me. The Gloss there, 
h^il'^iO'T! " In truth is a manner of speech used in 
swearing." 

II. But our Saviour useth this phrase by the highest divine 
right. I. Because he is " Amen, the faithful witness/' Rev. 
iii. 14, 2 Cor. i. 20 : see also Isa. Ixv. i6s ; and Kimchi there. 
2. Because he published the gospel, the highest truth, John 
xviii. 37, &c. 3. By this asseveration he doth well oppose 
his divine oracles against the insolent madness of the tradi- 
tional doctors, who did often vent their blasphemous and 
frivolous tales under this seal, llt^b^ JltDi^^ They speak in 
truth : and " wheresoever this is said (say they), it is "y^Tl 
^y^D^ Tl^'ch a tradition of Moses from Sinai." 

'Iwra e'y One jot.] The Jerusalem Gemarists* speak almost 
to the same sense : " The Book of Deuteronomy came and 
prostrated itself before God, and said, ' Lord of the uni- 
verse, thou hast written in me thy law, but now a testament 
defective in some part is defective in all. Behold, Solomon 
endeavours to root the letter Jod out of me' [to wit, in this 

'' Bab. Berac. fol. 55. i. ^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 283. 

t Sanhedr. fol. 20. 3. 



Ch. V. 1 8.] Ewercitaiions upon St. Matthew. 101 

text, D"'tyi "^T^l- ^^> He shall not multiply ■wives, Deut. 
xvii. J 7]. The holy blessed God answered, ' Solomon and a 
thousand such as he shall perish, but the least word shall not 
perish out of thee.' R. Honna said in the name of R. Acha, 
The letter Jod which God took out of the name of Sarai our 
mother, was^ given half to Sara and half to Abraham. A 
tradition of R. Hoshaia : The letter Jod came and prostrated 
itself before God, and said, ' eternal Lord, thou hast rooted 
me out of the name of that holy woman.*' The blessed God 
answered, ' Hitherto thou hast been in the name of a woman, 
and that in the end [viz. in Sarai] ; but henceforward thou 
shalt be in the name of a man, and that in the beginning.' 
Hence is that which is written, ' And Moses called the name 
of Hoshea, Jehoshua.' " The Babylonians also do relate this 
translation of the letter Jod out of the name of Sarai to the 
name of Joshua, after this manner: "The^ letter Jod, saith 
God, which I took out of the name of Sarai, stood and cried 
to me for very many years. How long will it be ere Joshua 
arise? to whose name I have added it." 

You have an example of the eternal duration of this very 
little letter Jod, in Deut. xxxii. 18, where, in the word '^tli'ri, 
it is written even less than itself, and yet it stands immortal 
in that its diminutive state unto this very day, and so shall 
for ever. 

There y is a certain little city mentioned by name Jl'^p'l")"! 
Derokreth, which, by reason of the smallness of it, was called 
Jod in the Gloss. And^ there was a rabbin named Rabh 
Jod. Of the letter Jod, see Midrash Tillin upon the hundred 
and fourteenth Psalm. 

Mia KepaCa- One tittle.] It seems to denote the little heads 
or dashes of letters, whereby the difference is made between 
letters of a form almost alike. The matter may be illustrated 

by these examples, Mi^WV^ ^^"^ ^^^ ^^^y'\ rhl H^H 
y^'^n phi If^ it icere Daleth, and a man should haw formed 
it into Resh [on the sabbath], or should have formed Resh into 
Daleth, he is guilty. 

" English folio edition, vol. ii. p. v Bab. Taanith, fol. 21. 2. 

138. z Fol. 22. 2. 

^ Sanhedr. fol. 107. i. * Hieros. Schab, fol. 10. 4. 



102 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. v.i8. 

" Itb is written [Lev. xxii. 32.] ^t!?!,'^ D^T»^^ A^nn t^S 
Fe shall not 'profane my holy name : whosoever shall change 
n [Cheth] into Jl [He], destroys the world [for then i^b 
"TyyrVT), written with T\ [He] , makes this sense, Ye shall not 
'■praise' my holy name']. It is written [Ps. cl. 6], rf?Ot?|rT 73 
^\ ^ r?"^^ J-'^i Gvery spirit praise the Lord : whosoever 
changeth H [He] into n [Cheth], destroys the world. It is 
written [Jer. v. 12], n'in''^ ^^Dt' ^■^^^y ^^'^^ against the Lord: 
whosoever changeth 1 [Beth] into 3 [Caph], destroys the 
world. It is written [i Sam. ii. 2], HiiT'S t^lp^ \^^ There 
is none holy as the Lord: whosoever changeth 3 [Caph] into 
1 [Beth], destroys the world. It is written [Deut. vi. 4], 
inbJl n^n^ ^^V^\^. «^P"! '^^^ Lord our God is one Lord: 
he that changeth "T [Daleth] into '^ [Resh], destroys the 
world.^' 

But that our Saviour, by IGtTa koX KcpaCa, jot and tittle, did 
not only understand the bare letters, or the little marks that 
distinguished them, appears sufficiently from verse 19, where 
he renders it, one of " these least commands :" in which 
sense is that also in the Jerusalem Gemara of Solomon's 
rooting out Jod, that is, evacuating that precept Hlin^ b^7 

n^^2 He shall not multiply wives. And yet it appears enough 
hence, that our Saviour also so far asserts the uncorrupt im- 
mortality and purity of the holy text, that no particle of the 
sacred sense should perish, from the beginning of the law to 
the end of it. 

To him that diligently considers these words of our Saviour, 
their opinion offers itself, who suppose that the whole alphabet 
of the law, or rather the original character of it is perished ; 
namely, the Samaritan, in which they think the law was first 
given and written ; and that that Hebrew wherein we now 
read the Bible was substituted in its stead. We shall not 
expatiate in the question ; but let me, with the reader's good 
leave, produce and consider some passages of the Talmud, 
whence, if I be not mistaken. Christians seem first to have 
taken up this opinion. 

'' Tanchum, fol. i. i. 



Ch. V. 1 8.] Exercitations upon St. Mattheio. 103 

The Jerusalem Talmud treats of this matter in these 
words: '' R. Joehanan de Beth Gubrin saith'^, There are 
four noble tongues which the world useth : the mother- 
tongue, for singing ; the Roman, for war ; the Syriac, for 
mourning ; the Hebrew, for elocution : and there are some 
which add the Assyrian, for writing. The Assyrian hath 
writing [that is, letters or characters], but a language it hath 
not. The Hebrew hath a language, but writing it hath not. 
They chose to themselves the Hebrew language in the Assy- 
rian character. But why is it called '^IIU;^ the Assyrian? 
XlTiyi 'W^'i^t2:l ^^^^l27 Because it is blessed (or direct) in its 
meriting. R. Levi saith, Because it came up into their hands 
out of Assyria." 

" A. tradition. R. Josi saith, Ezra was fit, by whose hands 
the law might have been given, but that the age of Moses 
prevented. But although the law was not given by his hand, 
yet writing [that is, the forms of the letters] and the language 
were given by his hand. ' And the writing of the epistle was 
writ in Syriac, and rendered in Syriac,^ Ezra iv. 7. ' And 
they could not read the writing/ Dan. v. 8. From whence is 
shown that the writing [that is, the form of the characters 
and letters] was given that very same day. R. Nathan saith : 
The law was given in breaking d [that is, in letters more rude 
and more disjoined] : and the matter is as R. Josi saith. 
Rabbi [Judah Haccodesh] saith. The law was given in the 
Assyrian language; and when they sinned it was turned into 
breaking. And when they were worthy in the days of Ezra, 
it was turned for them again into the Assyrian. I show 
to-day, that I will render to you n2tZ^?i Mislmeh, the doubled, 
or, as if he should say the seconded^ (Zech. ix. 12). And he 
shall write for himself the Mishneh {the doubled) of this law 
in a book (Deut. xvii, 18), namely, in a writing that was to 
be changed. R. Simeon Ben Eleazar saith, in the name 
of R. Eleazar Ben Parta, and he in the name of R. Lazar 
the Hammodean, The law was given in Assyrian writing. 

Whence is that proved? from those words, D'^l^TSyil ''11 

(Exod. xxvii. 10). om^j^^ D^^iT rr>r\t^ h^ n^ii in''^ 

'^ In Megill. fol. 71. 2, 3. ^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 284. 

^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 139. 



104 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. v. i8. 

that the letter 1 [ Vau\ in the laio is like a pillar." So the Jeru- 
salem Talmudists. 

Discourse is had of the same business in the Babylonian 
Talmud f, and almost in the same words, these being added 
over : " The law was given to Israel in Hebrew writing, and 
in the holy language. And it was given to them again in the 
days of Ezra, in Assyrian writing, and the Syriac language. 
The Israelites chose to themselves the Assyrian writing, and 

the holy language; ]wh'\ nms» nniD nnt^^mn^ in^:m 

n"^^"1b^ and left the Hebrew ivriting and the Syriac language 
to ignorant persons. D^^X^ITl V^'O But who are those idiots 
(or ignorant persons) ? R. Chasda saith, "'i^miD The Sama- 
ritans. And what is the Hebrew writing I R. Chasda saith, 
nh^D'11*'7 ins :" that is, according to the Gloss, " Great let- 
ters^ such as those are which are writ in charms and upon 
doorposts." 

That we may a little apprehend the meaning of the Rab- 
bins, let it be observed, 

I. That by ' the mother-tongue' (the Hebrew, Syriac, Ro- 
man, being named particulai'ly) no other certainly can be 
understood than the Greek, we have shown at the three-and- 
twentieth verse of the first chapter. 

II. That that writing which the Gemarists call '^'y'J.V IIHD 
and which we have interpreted by a very known word, Hehrev:) 
writing, — is not therefore called "^inV^ because this was proper 
to the Israelites, or because it was the ancient writing, but 

(as the Gloss very aptly) '^MDH 'SlV ^"n \>m "•"llj? 1X^2 
because the writing or character was in use among them that 
dwelt beyond Euphrates. In the same sense as some would 
have Abraham called '^lli^ Hebrew., signifying on the other side, 
that is, beyond or on the other side o/"Amana. 

Many nations were united into one language, that is, the 
old Syriac, — namely, the Chaldeans, the Mesopotamians, the 
Assyrians, the Syrians. Of these some were the sons of Sem 
and some of Ham. Though all had the same language, it is 
no wonder if all had not the same letters. The Assyrians and 
Israelites refer their original to Sera ; these had the Assyrian 
writing : the sons of Ham that inhabited beyond Euphrates 

' Sanhedr. fol. 21, 3. et 23. i. 



Oh. V. 1 8.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 105 

had another; perhaps that which is now called by us the 
Samaritan, which it may be the sons of Ham the Canaanites 
used. 

Ill, That the law was given by Moses in Assyrian letters, 
is the opinion (as you see) of some Talmudists ; and that, in- 
deed, the sounder by much. For to think that the divine 
law was writ in characters proper to the cursed seed of Ham, 
is agreeable neither to the dignity of the law, nor indeed to 
reason itself. They that assert the mother-writing was 
Assyrian, do indeed confess that the characters of the law 
were changed ; but this was done by reason of the sin of the 
people, and through negligence. For when under the first 
Temple the Israelites degenerated into Canaanitish manners, 
perhaps they used the letters of the Canaanites, which were 
the same with those of the inhabitants beyond Euphrates. 
These words of theirs put the matter out of doubt : " The 
law was given to Israel in the Assyrian writing in the days 
of Moses : but when they sinned under the first Temple 
and contemned the law, it was changed into breaking to 
them." 

Therefore, according to these menu's opinion, the Assyrian 
writing was the original of the law, and endured and obtained 
unto the degenerate age under the first Temple. Then they 
think it was changed into the writing used beyond Euphrates 
or the Samaritan ; or, if you will, the Canaanitish (if so be 
these were not one and the same) ; but by Ezra it was at last 
restored into the original Assyrian. 

Truly, I wonder that learned men should attribute so 
much to this tradition (for whence else they have received 
their opinion, I do not understand), that they should think 
that the primitive writing of the law was in Samaritan : 
seeing that which the Gemarists assert concerning the 
changing of the characters rests upon so brittle and totter- 
ing a foundation, that it is much more probable that there 
was no change at all (but that the law was first writ in Assy- 
rian by Moses, and in the Assyrian also by Ezra), because 
the change cannot be built and established upon stronger 
arguments. 

A second question might follow concerning Keri and Kethib : 
and a suspicion might also arise, that the text of the law was 



106 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. v. j 8. 

not preserved perfect to one jot and one tittle, when so many 
various readings do so frequently occur. Concerning this 
business we will offer these few things only, that so we may 
return to our task : — 

I. These things are delivered by tradition ; It^IJD D'^IDD "^ 
rr^fi^l " Thej/a found three booh in the court, ^TW^ "^OD the 
book "^D12?^ Meoni, the book ''t01lDi>1 Zaatuti, and the book 
^5^n Hi. In one they found written, nin3 1«^^^ IPIt^l 
□Ip ^rh^ \\V^ ' The eternal God is thy refuge :' but in the 
two other they found it written, tDIp "^H^^ T\T\V^ (Deut. 
xxxiii. 27) ; ; in^^ 1^t2"^m D'^iU? 1?2''''p The^ approved [or 
confirmed] those two, but rejected that one. In one they found'' 
written, ^h^"^tZ}'' ''n ^IDV^i^t n^^ vh^'^^ but in two it was 
written», *. Sfc^-ill?*» ■'Dl "^"iX^D ri5^ vh^'^'^ ' And he sent young 
men of the children of Israel' (Exod. xxiv. 5). Those two 
they confirmed, but that one they rejected. In one they 
found written, t^TT J?U7r\ She teas nine ; but in the two was 
written, t^TT mtZ^'i^ Jnnfc^ She was eleven: those two they 
confirmed, and that one they rejected.^' 

I do much suspect that these three books laid up in the 
court answered to the threefold congregation of the Jews, 
namely, in Judea, Babylon, and Egypt, whence these copies 
might be particularly taken. For, however that nation was 
scattered abroad almost throughout the whole world, yet, by 
number and companies scarcely to be numbered, it more 
plentifully increased in these three countries than any where 
else : in Judea, by those that returned from Babylon ; in 
Babylon, by those that returned not; and in Egypt, by the 
temple of Onias. The two copies that agreed, I judge to be 
out of Judea and Babylon ; that that differed to be out of 
Egypt : and this last I suspect by this, that the word '^lOltDi^T 
Zaatuti smells of the Seventy interpreters, whom the Jews of 
Egypt might be judged, for the very sake of the place, to 
favour more than any elsewhere. For^ it is asserted by the 
Jewish writers, that "^t^lt^i^^ was one of those changes which 
the Septuagint brought into the sacred text. 

II. It is therefore very probable, that the Keri and Kethib 

s Hieros. Taanith, fol. 68. i. ' Leusden's edit., vol.ii. p. 284. 

^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. ^ Massecheth Sopherira, cap. i. 
140. art. 8. 



Ch. V. 21, 22.] Exerciiations upon St. Matthew. 107 

were compacted from the comparing of the two copies of the 
greatest authority, that is, the Jewish and the Babylonian : 
which when they differed from one another in so many places 
in certain little dashes of writing, but little or nothing at all 
as to the sense, by very sound counsel they provided that 
both should be reserved, so that both copies might have their 
worth preserved, and the sacred text its purity and fulness, 
whilst not 07ie jot nor one tittle of it perished. 

Ver. 21 : 'HKoi^o-are* Ye have heard.'] That is, ye have re- 
ceived it by tradition. DhS 11^2^^ li^T^tZ? Q^^ i/' thei/ have 
heard [that is, learned hy tradition'], they speak to them. ''DT^ 
TVch TW^CiX'^ They learned hy hearing, that is, by tradition ; 
a saying very frequent in Maimonides. 

"On eppiOrj rots apxatoLs' That it was said by them of old time.] 
That is, "it is an old tradition." For the particular passages 
of the law which are here cited by our Saviour are not pro- 
duced as the bare words of Moses, but as clothed in the 
Glosses of the Scribes ; which most plainly appears above the 
rest_, ver. 43, and sufficiently in this first allegation, where 
those words, " Whosoever shall kill shall be guilty of the 
judgment," do hold out the false paint of tradition, and, as 
we observe in the following verses, such as misrepresents the 
law, and makes it of none effect. If it be asked, why Christ 
makes mention of " those of old time?" it may be answered, 
that the memory of the ancienter Fathers of the Traditions 
was venerable among the people. Reverend was the name 
D^'DllT'i^l a'^n^On of the first good men, and D''31^t^"^ D^?:^^)! 
the first wise men. Therefore Christ chose to confute their 
doctrines and Glosses, that he might more clearly prove the 
vanity of traditions, when he reproved their most famous men. 
But the sense which we have produced is plain, and without 
any difficulty; as if he should say, " It is an old tradition 
which hath obtained for many ages.'" 

Ver. 22: 'Eyo) 8e Aeyco v^uv But I say unto you.] "^jb^^ 
} IDIt^ But I say, the words of one that refutes or determines 
a question, very frequently to be met with in the Hebrew 
writers. To this you may lay that of Isaiah, chap. ii. 3, " And 
he will teach us of his ways," &c. Where Kimchi writes thus, 

1 Sanhedr. cap. 11. hal. i. 



108 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch. v. 12. 

IT'^Qn ^T'D ^in ni'lDn This teacher is king Messias. And 
that of Zechariah, chap. xi. 8 ; where this great Shepherd de- 
stroys " three evil shepherds," namely^ the Pharisee, and the 
Sadducee, and the Essene. 

"Otl "^ Tras 6 opyi^ojueyos rcS abeX.(p(2 avTov etK?;, &e. That 
whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, &c.] First 
let us treat of the words, and then of the sentences. 

With his brother ;] The Jewish schools do thus distinguish 
between a brother and a neighbour ; that a brother signifies 
an Israelite by nation and blood : a neighbour, an Israelite in 
religion and worship, that is, a proselyte. The author of 
Aruch, in the word n''"^2 p A son of the covenant, writes 
thus ; " The sons of the covenant, these are Israel. And 
when the Scripture saith, ' If any one's ox gore the ox of his 
neighbour/ it excludes all the heathen, in that it saith, ' of 
his neighbour.''^ Maimonides writes thus; "It» is all one 
to kill an Israelite and a Canaanite servant : for both, the 
punishment is death ; but an Israelite who shall kill itZ^'in "U 
a stranger-inhabitant shall not be punished with death, be- 
cause it is said, ' Whosoever shall proudly rise up against his 
neighbour to kill him,' Exod. xxi. 14: and it is needless to 
say he shall not be punished with death for killing a heathen.*" 
Where this is to be noted, that heathens and stranger-in- 
habitants, who were not admitted to perfect and complete 
proselytism, were not qualified with the title of neighbour, 
nor with any privileges. 

But under the Gospel, where there is no distinction of na- 
tions or tribes, brother is taken in the same latitude as among 
the Jews both brother and neighbour were ; that is, for all pro- 
fessing the gospel : and is contradistinguished to the heathen, 
I Cor. v. II, " If any one who is called a brother :" and Matt. 
xviii. 15, " If thy brother sin against thee," &c., ver. 17, " If 
he hear not the church, let him be a heathen." 

But*' neighbour is extended to all, even such as are strangers 
to our religion : Luke x. 29, 30, &c. 

He shall be guilty :] 2'i'^H or ^''inD words signifying guilt 
or debt, to be met with a thousand times in the Talmudists. 
Isa. xxiv. 23 ; " They shall be gathered together, as captives 

'" English folio edition, vol. ii. j). 141. " In tViT] c. 2. 

° Leusderis edition, vol. ii. p. 286. 



Cli. V. 22.] Exercitations upon St. Mattheic. 109 

are gathered into prison." Where R. Solomon speaks thus, 

mD'^rT^7 m^^TT^ "^Tin^, "Ex/oxot yeivvp els yievvav, Guilty of 
hell unto hell : which agrees with the last clause of this verse. 

Of the council:'] Tw awehpCi^, of the Sanhedrim: that is, of 
the judgment, or tribunal of the magistrate. For that Kplaei, 
judgment., in the clause before, is to be referred to the judg- 
ment of God, will appear by what follows. 

"PaKa, Eaca.] A word used by one that despiseth another 
in the highest scorn : very usual in the Hebrew writers, and 
very common in the mouth of the nation. 

" One P returned to repentance : his wife said to him, Tl^'^'^ 
Maca, if it be appointed you to repent, the very girdle where- 
with you gird yourself shall not be your own." 

" A q heathen said to an Israelite, Very suitable food is 
made ready for you at my house. What is it ? saith the 
other. To whom he replied, Swine's flesh. Baca (saith the 
Jew), I must not eat of clean beasts with you." 

" A >■ king's daughter was married to a certain dirty fellow. 
He commands her to stand by him as a mean servant, and 
to be his butler. To whom she said, Raca, I am a king's 
daughter." 

" One s of the scholars of E . Jochanan made sport with the 
teaching of his master : but returning at last to a sober 
mind, Teach thou, O master, saith he, for thou art worthy to 
teach : for I have found and seen that which thou hast 
taught. To whom he replied, Hp"^"!, Baca., thou hadst not 
believed, unless thou hadst seen." 

" A * certain captain saluted a religious man praying in 
the way, but he saluted him not again : he waited till he had 
done his prayer, and saith to him, Hp"^"), Baca, it is written in 
your law," &c. 

El's TT/y yUvvav rov TTvpos' Into hellfire.] The Jews do very 
usually express hell, or the place of the damned, by the word 
□ID^n^ Gehinnom, which might be shown in infinite examples ; 
the manner of speech being taken from the valley of Hinnom, 
a place infamous for foul idolatry committed there ; for the 
howHngs of infants roasted to Moloch ; filth carried out 

P Tanchum, fol. 5. col. 2. ^ Id. fol. 38. col. 4. 

1 Id. fol. 18. col.'4. * Bab. Berac. fol. 32. 2. 

■^ MidrashTillin upon Psal.cxxxvii. 



110 Hebrew and Tahmdical [Ch. v. 22. 

thither ; and for a fire that always was burning, and so most 
fit to represent the horror of hell. 

" There "^ are three doors of Gehenna ; one in the wilder- 
ness, as it is written, ' They went down, and all that belonged 
to them, alive into helP (Nmn. xvi. 33.) Another in the sea, 
as it is written, ' Out of the belly of hell have I called ; thou 
hast heard my voice' (Jonah ii. 2). The third in Jerusalem, 
as it is written, Thus saith the Lord, whose fire is in Sion, 
and his furnace in Jerusalem,^ Isa. xxxi. 9. The tradition 
of the school of R. Ismael ; 'Whose fire is in Sion/ this is the 
gate of Gehenna." 

The Ohaldee paraphrast upon Isaiah, chap, xxxiii. 14, 
U^V niTp^ DID^n^ Gehenna, eternal fire, &c. Ttevva Tivpbs 
ai(oviov, the Gehenna of eternal fire. 

We come now to the sentences and sense of the verse. 
A threefold punishment is adjudged to a threefold wicked- 
ness. Judgment to him that is angry D^H, that is, without 
cause ". Judgment also, and that by the Sanhedrim, to him 
that calls Raca. Judgment of hell to him that calleth Ma)pe, 
Fool. 

That which is here produced of the threefold Sanhedrim 
among the Jews pleases me not, because, passing over other 
reasons, mention of the Sanhedrim is made only in the middle 
clause. 

How the judgment in the first clause is to be distinguished 
from the judgment of the Sanhedrim in the second, will very 
easily appear from this Gloss and commentary of the Talmud- 
ists, ' Of not killing :" " Hey is a manslayer, whosoever shall 
strike his neio-hbour with a stone or iron, or thrust him into 
the water, or fire, whence he cannot come out, so that he die, 
he is guilty. But if he shall thrust another into the water or 
fire, whence he might come out, if he die, he is guiltless. A 
man sets a dog or serpent on another, he is guiltless.^' See 
also the Babylonian Gemara there; "Whosoever^ shall slay his 
neighbour with his own hand, striking him with his sword, or 
with a stone, so that he kills him ; or shall strangle or burn 
him so that he die, in any manner whatsoever killing him in 
his own person ; behold, such a one is to be put to death by 

u Bab. Erubhin, fol. 19. i. ^ Sanhedr. cap. 9. hal. i. 

^ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 142. ^ Maimon. in nifl'l cap. 1 . 



Ch. V. 22.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. Ill 

the Sanhedrim, But he that hires another by a reward to 
kill his neighbour, or who sends his servants, and they kill 
him ; or he that thrusts him violently upon a lion, or upon 
some other beast, and the beast kill him ; or he that kills 
himself, U^iyi "TCItZ} iS'^i^^ "fnt*^ T'3 every one of these is a 
shedder of blood, and the iniquity of manslaughter is in his 
hand, and he is liable to death D''?2tL''7j by the hand of God ; 
but he is not to be punished with death by the Sanhedrim/' 

Behold a double raanslayer ! Behold a double judgment ! 
Now let the words of our Saviour be applied to this Gloss of 
the ancients upon the law of murder : " Do ye hear," saith 
he, " what is said by the ancients, Whosoever shall kill, after 
what manner soever a man shall kill him, whether by the 
hand of one that he hath hired, or by his servants, or by set- 
ting a beast on hira ; he is guilty of the judgment of God, 
though not of the judgm.ent of the Sanhedrim : and whoso- 
ever shall kill his neighbour by himself, none other inter- 
posing, this man is liable to the judgment of the Sanhedrim : 
but I say unto you, That whosoever is rashly angry with his 
brother, this man is liable to the judgment of God ; and 
whosoever shall say to his brother, Haca, he is liable to the 
Sanhedrim.'" 

These words of our Saviour, perhaps, we shall more truly 
understand ^ by comparing some more phrases and doctrines, 
very usual in the Jewish schools. Such as these, '^D'^1^ "^"^l^Q 
U'^'r^'^ '^T''^1 I'^TII ]21^ Absolved^ from the judgment of men, 
but guilty in the judgment of Heaven, that is, of God. nrT'TD 
D'^^ty'^''"I"^l nrT'^'l "t' n Death by the Sanhedrim, and death by 
the hand of Heaven. 

And in a word, n")3 cutting off, speaks vengeance by the 
hand of God. They are very much deceived who under- 
stand rr^S and Din^"^D cutting off, of which there is very 
frequent mention in the Holy Bible, concerning the cutting- 
off from the public assembly by ecclesiastical censure, when as 
it means nothing else than cutting off by divine vengeance. 
There is nothing more usual and common among the Hebrew 
canonists, than to adjudge very many transgressions to 
cutting off, in that worn phrase, r\13 ^T^^ hv T'^T\ or Dh5 

a Leusden's edit., vol.ii. p. 287. '' Hieros. Bava Kama, fol. 5. 2. 



11 a Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. v. 22. 

ri"lD TTT "Wd " If he shall do this out of presumption^ he is 
guilty of cutting off; but if he shall do it out of ignorance, he 
is bound for a sacrifice for sin." When they adjudge a thing 
or a guilty person to cutting off, they deliver and leave him 
to the judgment of God ; nevertheless, a censure and punish- 
ment from the Sanhedrim sometimes is added, and some- 
times not. Which might be illustrated by infinite examples, 
but we are afraid of being tedious. Let these two be enough 
on both sides. 

I. Of mere delivering over to the judgment of God, with- 
out any punishment inflicted by the Sanhedrim, those words 
speak, which were lately cited, " He is absolved from the 
judgment of men, but liable to the judgment of Heaven." 

II. Of the judgment of God and of the Sanhedrim joined 
together, these words in the same place speak : " If he that 
is made guilty by the Sanhedrim be bound to make restitu- 
tion. Heaven [or God] doth not pardon him until he pay it." 
But he that bears a punishment laid on him by the Sanhe- 
drim is absolved from cutting off. " AlK persons guilty of 
cutting off, when they are beaten are absolved from their 
cutting off: as it is said, ' And thy brother become vile in 
thy sight. ^ When he shall be beaten, behold, he is thy 
brother." 

"Eyo^os ets yievvav tov Trupos, Liable or guilty even to the 
hell-fire. He had said KpCcrei, guilty of Judgment, and avvebpm, 
of the council, before ; but now he saith ds yeevvav, unto hell, 
and that in a higher emphasis ; as if he should have said, 
" Whosoever shall say to his brother, Mwpe, Fool, shall be 
guilty of judgment, even unto the judgment of hell." 

But what was there more grievous in the word fool, than 
in the word Haca 9 Let king Solomon be the interpreter, 
who everywhere by a fool understands a loicked and reprobate 
person ; foolishness being opposed to spiritual wisdom. Baca 
denotes indeed morosity, and lightness of manners and life: 
but fool judgeth bitterly of the spiritual and eternal state, 
and decreeth a man to certain destruction. Let the judgings 
and censures of the scribes and Pharisees concerning the com- 
mon people serve us instead of a lexicon. They did not only<^ 
suffer themselves to be styled Q*'?;D3n tvise men, but also arro- 
*= Bab. Megill. fol. 7. 2. ^ English folio edition, vo].u. p. 14^. 



Ch. V, 23.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 113 

gated it to themselves, as their merit and due. But what do 
they say of the common people ? " This people, that knoweth 
not the law, is cursed/' John vii. 49. 

You have a form of speaking, not much unHke this which 
is now under our hands : ^yin ^TT' 11^ T^'inH^ «lIpH 
He^ that calls Ms neighhour Servant, let him be in excom- 
munication. The Gloss is, " They therefore excommuni- 
cate him, because he vilified an Israelite : him, therefore, they 
vilify in like manner."— a'^iri'^.b^n n« ^'.D^D '^)r2}2 "If he 
call him bastard, let him be punished with forty stripes. 
Trh IDi^ 1"^V 5;U,n if tdcked man, let it descend with him 
into his life :" that is, according to the Gloss, " into misery 
and penury." 

After this manner, therefore, our Saviour suits a different 
punishment to different sins by a most just parity, and a very 
equal compensation : to unjust anger, the just anger and 
judgment of God ; to public reproach, a public trial ; and 
hell-fire to the censure that adjudgeth another thither. 

Ver. 23 : ^'Ort 6 a8eA<|)o? crov e'xet Tt Kara crov, tfec. That tliy 
hrother hath ought against thee, ^'c] The emphasis is chiefly 
in the particle rt. For that which the Jews restrained only 
to pecuniary damages, Christ extends to all offences against 
our brother. 

"He^ that offers an oblation, not restoring that which he 
had unjustly taken away, does not do that which is his duty." 
And again; " HeS that steals any thing from his neighbour, 
yea, though it be but a farthing, and swears falsely, is bound 
to restitution, meeting the wronged party half way." See 
also Baal Turim upon Lev. vi. 

oblation is not offered for a sin, unless that which is [wrong- 
fully] taken away, be first restored either to the owner or the 
priest." In like manner, " Hei that swears falsely, either of 
the Prata [small money\, or what the Pruta is worth, is 
bound to inquire after the owner, even as far as the islands 
in the sea, and to make restitution." 

Observe, how provision is here made for pecuniary damages 

e Bab. Kiddushin, fol. 28. i. & Hal. 5. 
Chetubh. fol. 50. i. and elsewhere. '^ Maimon. in Gezelah, cap. 8. 

^ Bava Kama, cap. 9. hal. 12. > Cap. 7. 

MGHTrOOT, VOL. H. I 



114 Hebreio and Talmudical [Ch. v. 24. 

only and bare restitution, which might be done without a 
charitable mind and a brotherly heart. But Christ urgeth 
charity, reconciliation of mind, and a pure desire of reunion 
with our offended brother ; and that not only in money mat- 
ters, but in any other, and for whatever cause, wherein our 
neighbour complains that he is grieved. 

Ver. 24 : "At^es exet ro bS>p6v aov ejXTiporrdev tov Ovaiaarrjpiov' 
Leave^ there thy gift before the altar.'] This business was alto- 
gether unusual in gifts offered at the altar, in such a cause. 
We read, indeed, of the drink-offering, delayed after the 
sacrifice was offered : " For* the wise men say, That a man 
is not held in his sin, when the drink-offering is put off by 
some delay ; because one may offer his sacrifice to-day, but 
his drink-offering twenty days hence." We read also that 
the oblation of a sacrifice presented even at the altar, in some 
cases hath not only been delayed, but the sacrifice itself hath 
been rejected ; that is, if, in that instant, discovery was made, 
in sacrificing the beast, either of a blemish, or of somewhat 
else, whereby it became an illegal sacrifice ; or if some un- 
cleanness or other cause appeared in the offerer, whereby he 
was rendered unfit for the present to offer a gift. Of which 
things, causing the oblation of the sacrifice already presented 
at the altar to be deferred, the Hebrew lawyers speak much. 
But among those things we do not meet at all with this 
whereof our Saviour is here speaking : so that he seems to 
enjoin some new matter, — and not new alone, but seemingly 
impossible. For the offended brother might perhaps be 
absent in the furthest parts of the land of Israel, so that he 
could not be spoke with, and his pardon asked in very many 
days after : and what shall become of the beast in the mean 
time, which is left at the altar ? It is a wonder indeed that 
our Saviour, treating of the worship at the altar, should pre- 
scribe such a duty, which was both unusual (in such a case) 
and next to impossible. But it is answered : — 

I. It was a custom and a law among the Jews, that the 
sacrifices of particular men should not presently, as soon as 
they were due, be brought to the altar, but that they should 
be reserved to the feast next following, whatsoever that were, 
whether the Passover, or Pentecost, or Tabernacles, to be 

i' Leusdens edit., vol. ii. p. 288. ' Tosaphta ad Corbanoth, cap. 5. 



Oh. V. 25.] Exercitations upon St. Mattheu\ 115 

then offered. '' Teeming"^ women, women that have the 
gonorrhoea, and men that have the gonorrhoea, i-eserve their 
pigeons until they go up to the feast." — " The oblations'^ 
which were devoted before the feast shall be offered at the 
feast : for it is said, Th^ese things shall ye do in their solemni- 
ties," &c. But now all the Israelites were present at the 
feasts ; and any brothei', against whom one had sinned, was 
not then far off from the altar. Unto which time and custom 
of the nation it is equal to think Christ alluded. 

II. He" does silently chastise the curiosity used in defer- 
ring of a sacrifice brought about lesser matters, when this 
that was greater was unregarded. And he teacheth, that 
God is worshipped in vain without true charity to our brother. 
The same also, in effect, do the GemaristsP confess. 

Ver. 25 : "Ecos otov ei ev rfj 68(5 fx^r avrov' Whilst thou art 
in the way with him.] That is, " while thou goest v/ith him to 
the magistrate," ki! apxovra, Luke xii, 58 ; where there is a 
clear distinction between apyovra, the magistrate^ and KptTrjr, 
the judge : so that by apyovra, magistrate, or 7'uler, one may 
understand the judges in the lower Sanhedrims ; by Kpirrjv, 
judge, the judges in the highest. That allusion is here made 
to contentions about money matters, sufficiently appears from 
the following words, ver. 26 ; " Thou shalt by no means come 
out of prison till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing." 
Nowq it was the business of the bench, that consisted of 
three men, to judge of such matters. 

The words, therefore, of the verse have this sense : ' Does 
your neighbour accuse you of some damage, or of money 
that is due to him ? and are ye now going in the way to the 
bench of three to commence the suit ? compound with your 
adversary, lest he compel you to some higher tribunal, where 
your danger will be greater,' " For»" if the lender say to 
the debtor, ' Let us go, that judgment may be had of our case 
from the chief Sanhedrim,' they force the debtor to go up 
thence with him. In like manner, if any accuse another of 
something taken away from him, or of some damage done 

"» Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 11. i. p Bab. Joma, fol. 87. i. 

" Hieros. Rosh. Hashanah, fol. 'i Sanliedr. cap. i. hal. i. 
56. 2. r Maimon. in Sanhedr. cap. 6, 

" English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 144. 

1 2 



116 Hebreio and Talmudical [Ch. v. 25. 

him, and he that is the accuser will have the higher Sanhe- 
drim to judge of the suit ; they force the debtor to go up 
thence with him. And so it is done with all other things of 
that nature. 

Before, Christ had argued from piety., that men should seek 
to be reconciled ; now he argues from prudence, and an honest 
care of a man^s self. 

Kal 6 KpiT'^s (re irapaScp t<2 inrrjpeTr)' And the Judge delwef 
thee to the officer. ] A word answering to "^10112? or tDVTlD 
or b^il^DD an executio7ier, a ivhipper, among the Rabbins. 
•^j^^^'tp'S^i ^S-jrin □^npitin, D'^IDDill? Judges and officers 
shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, Deut. xvi. 18. □"'1^21^2? 
" are * vergers and scourge-bearers [executioners] who stand 
before the judges. These go through the lanes and streets 
and inns, and take care about weights and measures ; and 
scourge those that do amiss. But all their business is by the 
order of the judges. Wliomsoever they see doing evil, they 
bring before the judges," &e. And nmi ^71'' \>wh «^V Dl« 
tOVllD^ 1D?22U} *1D3 Vi^>^n Whosoever^ goes out into the street, 
let him reckon concerning himself, as if he loere already delivered 
over to the officer ; that is, as the Gloss hath it, " Contentions 
and contentious men will there be met with Gentiles and 
Israelites : so that let him reckon concerning himself, as 
though he w^ere already delivered over to the officer, ready 
to lead him away before the judges." The Gloss upon Babyl. 
Joma " writes thus ; i^!l"T^3?2 " is the executioner of the San- 
hedrim, whose office is to whip." 

Ver. 26 : YiohpavTr)v' Farthing.'] According to the Jerusa- 
lem Talmud, it is DtSDVTlp Kordiontes ; according to the Ba- 
bylonian, |T"^I^i1p Kontrih. For thus they write : 

5 IV'I^ID riD'^b^ '^ity "Two'' assars make ^ pondionl. 

J 'SD''^^ pD?l5lDD '^^12? Two semisses make an assar. 

\ D^1D?2 Dt^DVTlp '^yD Two farthings a semissis. 

: Dt^^Vl^p nit:"l"13 "n Two prutahs a, farthing. 

*i T'^D''^^ "^JtD I'^DVIilD A z pondion is in value two assars. 

', ]'^D?21D?2 "^iti) ID"^^ An assar is two semisses. 

s Maimon. in Sanhedr. cap. i. y Leusden''s edition, vol. ii. p. 289. 

t Bab. Schabb. fol. 32. i. ^ Bah. Kiddush. cap. i. Alphesius, 

w Fol. 15. 1. ibid. fol. 625. 2. 
>: Hieros. Kiddushin, fol. 58. 4. 



Cli. V. 26.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 117 

{ 'j'lp^'^ID^Ip "'Jtl} D?wD?3 A semissis is two farfhinps. 

: mtOIlD ""D^ )T"\t:5:3'lp a kontnc, or a farthing, is two 

pnttahs." 

That which is here said by the Jerusalem Talmud, "^2^ 
DtOiVTlp JlltOT^D Tico prutaJis make a farthing., is the very 
same thing that is said, Mark xii. 42, AeTjra hvo, o ia-rt ko- 
bp6.vTr]s, Two mites, which make a farthing. A prutah was the 
very least piece among coins. So Maimonides ^, TSTVD ]'^b^ 
lyty^i nt3l"lD mtL^Q That lohlch is not worth a prutah, is '^ not 
to he reckoned among riches. Hence are those numberless 
passages in the Talmudic Pandects relating to the prutah : 
" He ^ that steals less than a prutah is not bound to pay 
five-fold." " No ^ land is bought for a price less than a 
prutah^' that is, given as an earnest. 

You have the value of these coins in the same Maimoni- 
des: " Selaa (saith he^) is in value four-pence: a penny, six 
meahs. Now a meah, in the days of Moses our master, was 
called a gerah ; it contains two pondions : a pondion, two 
assars ; and a prutah is the eighth part of an assar. The 
weight of a meah, which is also called a gerah, is sixteen 
barleycorns. And the weight of an assar is four barley- 
corns. And the weight of a prutah is half a barleycorn." 

Luke hath layjxrov AeTrroy, the last mite, chap. xii. 59 ; that 
is, the last prutah, which "«p^lD^^n lD^«n Hi^tD^ri "^ was^ the 
eighth part of the Italian assarius. Therefore, Kobpai>s, a far- 
thing, was so called, not that it was the fourth part of a penny, 
but the fourth part of an assar ; which how very small a part 
of a penny it v»'as, we may observe by those things that are 
said by both Gemaras in the place before cited. 

5 "^D"*"! r]D2 71)^12 \!)(D " Six silver meahs make a penny, 

: r^VlDIQ ''iU? Hi?^ A meah is worth i\yo pondions. 

J riD'^i^ ^y^ |V1!31D A pondion is worth two assars." 

Let this be noted by the way ; TW^ a meaJi, which, as Mai- 
monides before testifies, was anciently called a gerah, was also 
commonly called fTJ zuz, in the Talmudists. For as it is said 
here, '^i'^T f]D3 TW^ tZJiy six meahs of silver make a penny, so 
in Rambam, D"^1TJ 1 "^]"'! a "^ penny contains six zuzim. 

a Gezelah, c. 7. e Jn Tract. Shekalim, cap. i. 

^ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 145. ^ Kiddush. cap. i. lial. i. 

c Gezelah, c. 7. s In Peah, cap. ult. hal. 7. 
^ Id. in Mecherah, cap. i, &c. 



118 Hebreiv and Talmudical [Ch. v. 27, &c. 

The priitah, as it was the least piece of money among the 
Jews, so it seems to have been a coin merely Jewish, not 
Roman. For although the Jews, being subjects to the Ro- 
mans, used Roman money, and thence, as our Saviour argues, 
confessed their subjection to the Romans ; yet they were per- 
mitted to use their own money, which appears by the com- 
mon use of the shekels and half-shekels among them : with 
good reason, therefore, one may hold the KobpdvTrjs, the far- 
tJiing, was the least Roman coin, and the Xhitov, the prutah^ 
the least Jewish. Whilst our Saviour mentions both, he is 
not inconstant to his own speech, but speaks more to the 
capacity of all. 

Ver. 27: ''i\KOV(jaTe, on ippiOrj rots apxaCois, Ov jxotxevaets' Ye 
have heard, that it hath been said hy them of old, time, Thou shalt 
not commit adulter^/.'] He citeth not the command or text of 
Moses, as barely delivered by Moses, but as deformed by 
those of old time with such a gloss as almost evacuated all 
the force of the command; for they interpreted it of the act 
of adultery only, and that with a married woman. So the 
enumeration of the six hundred and thirteen precepts of the 
lav,-, and that, Exod. xx. J4, ' Thou shalt not commit adultery,' 
hath these words, " This is the thirty-fifth precept of the lave, 
namely, That no man lie with another man's wife.'' 

Ver. 28 : Da? 6 (3\€tt(ov yvvaiKa irpos to iTnOvixTJaai,, &c. 
IVhosocver loohth upon a ivoman to lust after her, &c.] " He '* 
that looketh upon a woman's heel, is as if he looked upon 
her belly : and he that looks upon her belly, is as if he lay 
with her." And yet, W^'^l h^TsUrh "^ 'S blD '^ID'^I 1^ 
li^ ivas Rahban Gamaliel's custom to look upon v:omen. And 
in the other Talmud; " HeJ that looks upon the little finger 
of a woman, is as if he looked upon her privy parts." And 
yet " Rabh Gidal ^ and R. Jochanan were wont to sit at the 
place of dipping, Vv'here the women were washed ; and when 
they were admonished by some of the danger of lascivious- 
ncss, R. Jochanan answered, ' I am of the seed of Joseph, over 
M'hom an evil affection could not rule.' " 

Ver. 30 : Et 1) 8e£td aov xelp (rKavbaKC(€i ere, eKKuxj/ov avrijv' 
If ihy right hand offend thee, cut it off.] See here Babyl. 

h Hieros. Challah, fol. 58. 3. J Bab. Berac. fol. 24. 8. 

^ Id. Bciac. fol. 12. 3. ^ Ibid. fol. 20. i. 



Ch. V. 3'-] Exercitations upon St. Mattheio. 119 

Niddah, fol. 13, quite through. Among other things, R. 
Tarphon saith, " Whosoever brings his hand to his modest 
parts, let his hand be cut off unto his navel/^ And a httle 
after ; " It is better that his belly should be cleft in two,, than 
that he should descend into tlie well of corruption." The 
discourse is of moving the hand to the privy member, that ', 
by the handling it, it might be known whether the party had 
the gonorrhoea, or no : and "i yet they adjudge never so little 
handling it to cutting off the hand. Read the place, if you 
have leisure. 

Ver. 31 : '^O? av airoXvcrr] ti]}/ yvvoLKa, Soro) avr^ aTToaTa- 
(TLov Whosoever putteth away Ms imfe, let Mm give her a hill 
of divorcement.'] Notice is to be taken how our Saviour passeth 
into these words, namely, by using the particle 8e, hut. 'Ep- 
pi6r] 8f, " But it hath been gaid." This particle hath this 
emphasis in this place, that it whispers a silent objection, 
which is answered in the following verse. Christ had said, 
" Whosoever looks upon a v^-oman to lust after her hath 
committed adultery already :" but the Jewish lawyers said, 
" If any one sees a woman which he is delighted withal above 
his wife, let him dismiss his wife and marry her.^' 

Among the chapters of Talraudical doctrine, we meet with 
none concerning which it is treated more largely, and more 
to a punctilio, than of divorces : and yet there the chief care 
is not so much of a just cause of it as of the manner and form 
of doing it. To him that turns over the book Gittin (as also, 
indeed, the whole Seder Nashim, that part of the Talmud 
that treats of women), the diligence of the Masters about 
this matter will appear such that they seem to have dwelt, 
not without some complacency, upon this article above all 
others. 

God, indeed, granted to that nation a law concerning di- 
vorces, Deut. xxiv. I, permitted only " for the hardness of 
their hearts," Matt. xix. 8 : in which permission, neverthe- 
less, they boast, as though it were indulged them by mere 
privilege. When God had established that fatal law of pu- 
nishing adultery by death (Deut. xxii.), for the terror of 
the people, and for their avoiding of that sin ; the same mer- 
ciful God foreseeing also how hard (occasion being taken 
' Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 290. "^ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 146. 



120 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. v. 31. 

from this law) the issue of this might be to the women, by 
reason of the roughness of the men ; lusting, perhaps, after 
other women, and loathing their own wives ; he more gra- 
ciously provided against such kind of wife-killing by a law, 
mitigating the former, and allowed the putting away a wife 
in the same case, concerning w-hich that fatal law was given ; 
namely, in the case of adultery. So that that law of divorce, 
in the exhibition of it, imphed their hearts to be hard ; and, 
in the use of it, they shewed them to be carnal. And yet hear 
them thus boasting of that law : " The " Lord of Israel saith, 
rh'-^ b^.Ti"' *'3 That he hatdh putting away, Mai. ii. 16. Through 
the whole chapter, saith R. Chananiah in the name of R. Phi- 
neas, he is called the Lord of Ho$t& : but here, of Israel, that 
it might appear that God subscribed not his name to divorces, 
but only among the Israelites. As if he should say, ' To the 
Israelites 1 have granted the putting away of wives ; to the 
Gentiles I have not granted it.' R. Chaijah Rabbah saith, 
Divoi-ces are not granted to the nations of the world." 

Some of them interpreted this law of Moses (as by right 
they ought to interpret it), of the case of adultery only. " The" 
school of Shammai said, A wife is not to be divorced, unless 
for hlthiness [that is, adultery] only, because it is said, ''S 
111 rs'^^V T\1 ^!J?2 Beca^ise he hath found filthy nakedness in 
her" that is, adultery. 

" Rabh Papa saidP, If he find not adultery in her, what 
then ; Rubba answered. When the merciful God revealed con- 
cerning him that corrupted a maid, that it was not lawful for 
him to put her away in his whole life (Deut. xxii. 29), you are 
thence taught concerning the matter propounded, that it is 
not lawful to put her away, if he shall not find filthiness in his 
wife." 

With the like honesty have some commented upon those 
words cited out of the prophet, H^UJ fc^Dtl? ''3 For he hateth 
putting away. " R. Jochanan saith^, The putting away of a 
wife is odious." Which others also have granted, indeed, of 
the first wife, but not of those that a man took to himself 
over and above. For this is approved among them for a canon. 

" Mieros. in Kiddushin, fol. 5S. 3. i' Gemara, ib. 

«1 Gittin, cap. 9. ha], ult. ' 'i Ibid. 



Ch. V. 3 I .] Exercitatioris upon /SV. Matthew. \9A 

" Let r no man put away his first wife unless for adultery." 
And " R. Eliezer saith^, For the divorcing of the first wife, 
even the altar itself sheds tears." Which Gloss they fetch 
from thence, where it is said, " Let no man deal treacherously 
towards the wife of his youth ;" Mai. ii. 15. 

The Jews used polygamy, and the divorcing of their wives, 
with one and the same license : and this, that they might 
have change, and all for the sake of lust. " It is lawful (say 
theyf) to have many wives together, even as many as you will : 
but our wise men have decreed, That no man have above four 
wives." But they restrained this, not so much out of some 
principles of chastity, as that lest a man, being burdened with 
many wives, might not be able to afford them food and clothing, 
and due benevolence : for thus they comment concerning this 
bridle of polygamy. 

For what causes they put away their wives there is no 
need to inquire ; for this they did for any cause of their own 
free will. 

L " It is commanded to divorce a wife that is not of good 
behaviour, and who is not modest as becomes a daughter of 
Israel." So they speak in Maimonides and Gittin in the place 
above" specified : where this also is added in the Gemarists : 
" R. Meir saith. As men have their pleasures concerning their 
meat and their drink, so also concerning their wives. This 
man takes out a fly found in his cup, and yet will not drink : 
after such a manner did Papus Ben Judah carry himself : 
who, as often as he went forth, bolted the doors and shut in 
his wife. Another takes out a fly found in his cup, and drinks 
up his cup ; that he doth, who sees his wife talking freely with 
her neighbours and kinsfolk, and yet allows of it. And there 
is another, who, if he find a fly in his basket, eats it: and 
this is the part of an evil man, who sees his wife going out, 
without a veil upon her head, and with a bare neck, and sees 
her washing V in the baths, where men are wont to wash, and 
yet cares not for it : whereas by the law he is bound to put 
her away." 



■■ Mainion. in Gerushin, cap. 10. " English folio edition, vol. ii. y. 

^ Gittin, in the place above. T47. 

t Maimon. in nitl*''.'^ cap. 10. 14. ^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 291. 



122 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. v. 31. 

II. " Ifx any man hate his wife, let him put her away :" 
excepting only that wife that he first married. In like man- 
ner, E. Judah thus interprets that of the prophet, t^2^ ^'^ 
n^U? If he hate her, let him put her army. Which sense some 
versions, dangerously enough, have followed. R. Solomon ex- 
presses the sense of that place thus : " It is commanded to 
put away one's wife, if she obtain not favour in the eyes of 
her husband." 

III. " They school of Hillel saith, If the wife cook her hus- 
band's food illy, by over-salting or over- roasting it, she is to 
be put away." 

IV. Yea, " If, by any stroke from the hand of God, she be- 
come dumb or sottish," &c. 

V. But not to relate all the things for which they pro- 
nounce a wife to be divorced (among which they produce 
some things that modesty allows not to be repeated), let it 
be enouffh to mention that of R. Akibah instead of all : '■ R. 
Akibah said^, If any man sees a woman handsomer than his 
own wife, he may put her away ; because it is said, ' If she 
find not favour in his eyes.' '* 

'ATToordcrtoi'' Bill of divorce.^ And I3lj3\Cov airoa-Taa-Lov, A bill 
of dimrcc, Matt. xix. 7 ; and in the Septuagint, Deut. xxiv. i. 
Of which Beza thus ; " This bill may seem to be called a-no- 
araaiov [as much as, departing a7oai/], not in respect of the 
wife put away, as of the husband departing away from his 
wife." Something hard, and diametrically contrary to the 
canonical doctrine of the Jews : for thus they write, " It^ is 
written in the bill. Behold, thou art put away ; Behold, thou 
art thrust away, &c. But if he writes, I am not thy hus- 
band, or, I am not thy spouse, &c. ; it is not a just bill : for 
it is said. He shall put her away, not. He shall put himself 
away.'' 

This bill is called by the Jews mn'''^^ 1QD a bill of cutting 
of, and r!311T\ ")DD « bill of expulsion, and 103 an instrument^ 
and plltOID 1£i^ an instrument of dismission, and pplltl? n'l3''fc^ 
letters of forsaking, &c. 

X Maimonides in the place above. ^ Misna, ult. in Gittin, cap. 9. 
y Gittin, in the place above; and * Maimon. in Geriishin, cap, i. 
R. Sol. and R. Nissin there. 



Ch. V. 3 1 .] Exercitations upon Si. Matthew. 123 

I. A wife might not be put away, unless a bill of divorce 
were given. •' Therefore it is called (saith Baal Turim) 
riir\"'12 "^DD A bill of cutting off.^ because there is nothing 
else that cuts her off from the husband. For although a 
wife were obtained three ways" [of which see the Talmud^], 
" yet there was no other way of dismissing her, besides a bill 
of divorce'^,'''' 

II. " A wife was not put away, unless the husband were 
freely willing ; for if he were unwilling, it was not a divorce : 
but whether the wife were willing or unwilling, she was to be 
divorced, if her husband would d," 

III. " J.^ hill of divorce was written in twelve lines, neither 
more nor less.""' R. Mordecai gives the reason of this number, 
in these words; " Let*^ him that writes a hill of divorce com- 
prise it in twelve lines, according to the value of the number 
of the letters in the word IJjX Get. But Rabh Saadias inter- 
prets, that the hill of divorce should be written with the same 
number of lines wherein the books of the law are separated. 
For four lines come between the Book of Genesis and the 
Book of Exodus ; four between the Book of Exodus and the 
Book of Leviticus ; four between the Book of Leviticus and 
the Book of Numbers. But the four between the Book of 
Numbers and Deuteronomy are not reckoned, because that 
book is only a repetition of the law," &c. 

IV. You have the copy of a bill of divorce in Alphesius upon 
Gittin, in this form : 

>^'i^ y^ >yb^ ^nynz nu ^yo''r:b ^:h^T)^ ^^T^yt^i t^b^y; 

"•D-'D"' nonm n^pn^i nnrasT ^^:)D^J^J vhii w^^ m;m 
i^rsatyi ^"^^b n'^i nw by\ ^y\b^ nn n^ybii n^^ ^yh 

'^yh^ ^^J-^DQ■T ^yb n^^i nr^ by ^yb'^ ni i^n^jba r\^^ 

^ Kiddush. cap. i. hal. r. e Rashba in Tikkun Get, at the 

^ Baal Turim, upon Deut. x.xiv. end of Gittin, in Alphes. 

<' Maimon. in Gerushin, cap. i. ^ Ch. i. upon Tract. Gittin. 



124 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. v. 3 1 . 

:^s-it:^''i nt:;^ jiiD rp^^^ J^"^^^"! pViO^s to:n 

^ ^i7^ 0/* Divorce. 

" On the clay of the week JV., of the month of i\'^., of the year of 
the world's creation N'., according to the computation by which we 
are wont to reckon in the province iV. ; I, -^., the son of JS^., and 
by what name soever I am called^ of the city JV., mth the greatest 
consent of my mind, and without any compulsion urging me, have 
put away, dismissed, and expelled thee ; thee, I S say, iV^., the 
daughter of N'., by what name soever thou art called, of the city 
iV., who heretofore wert my wife. But now I have dismissed thee, 
— thee, I say, N'., the daughter of iV., by what name soever thou 
art called, of the city N^. So that thou art free, and in thine own 
power, to marry whosoever shall please thee ; and let no man hinder 
thee, from this day forward even for ever. Thou art fi'ce, therefore, 
for any man. And let this be to thee a bill of rejection from me, 
letters of divorce, and a schedule of expulsion^, according to the law 
of Moses and Israel. 

Reuben the son of Jacob Avitness. 

Eliezer the sou of Gilead witness." 

See also this form varied in some few words in INIaimo- 
nides'. 

V. This bill, being confirmed with the husband's seal, and 
the subscription of witnesses, was to be delivered into the hand 
of the wife, either by the husband himself, or by some other 
deputed by him for this office : or the wife might depute some- 
body to receive it in her stead. 

VI. It was not to be delivered to the wife, but in the pre- 
sence of two, who might read the bill both before it was given 
into the hand of the wife and after : and when it was given, 
the husband, if present, said thus, " Behold, this is a bill of 
divorce to you." 

s English folio edition, vol. ii. p. '' Leiisden's edition, vol. ii. j). 292. 
148. ' In Gerushin, fol. 273. 2. 



Ch.v. 32,33-] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 125 

VII. The wife, thus dismissed, might, if she pleased, bring 
this bill to the Sanhedrim, where it was enrolled among the 
records, if she desired it, in memory of the thing. The dis- 
missed person likewise might marry whom she would : if the 
husband had not put some stop in the bill, by some clause 
forbidding it. 

Ver. 32 : *0s tiv aTtoXvarj T'i]v yvvaiKa avTov^ &c. Whosoever 
shall put away Ids wife., c^'c] i. Our Saviour does not abrogate 
Moses's permission of divorces, but tolerates it, yet keeping it 
within the Mosaic bounds, that is, in the case of adultery, 
condemning that liberty in the Jewish canons, which allowed 
it for any cause. 

II. Divorce was not commanded in the case of adultery, 
but permitted. Israelites were compelled, sometimes even 
by whipping, to put away their wives, as appears in JNIaimo- 
nides'^. But our Saviour, even in the case of adultery, does 
not impose a compulsion to divorce, but indulgeth a license 
to do it. 

III. " He that puts away his wife without the cause of for- 
nication makes her commit adultery :" that is, if she commits 
adultery : or although she commit not adultery in act, yet he 
is guilty of all the lustful motions of her that is put away ; 
for he that lustfully desires, is said " to commit adultery," 
ver. 28. 

Ver. 33 : 'EppeOrj rots ap\a(,oi^, Ovk. iinopK'qaets, &c. Jt hath 
been said hy them of old time, Thou shall not forswear thyself, 
^c] The law forbids perjury, Levit. xix. 12, &c. To which 
the Fathers of the Traditions reduced the whole sin of swear- 
ing, little caring for a rash oath. In this chapter of oaths 
they doubly sinned : 

I. That they were nothing at all solicitous about an oath, 
so that what was sworn were not false. They do but little 
trouble themselves, what, how, how often, how rashly, you 
swear, so that what you swear be true. 

In the Talmudic tract ri1i?12tl? Shevuoth., and in like man- 
ner in Maimonides, oaths are distributed into these four 
ranks : 

First, ''"llO'^n Hi^'im? A promissory oath : when a man swore 

^ In Gerushin, cap. 2. 



126 Hehreiv and Talmudieal [Ch, v. 33. 

that he would do, or not do, this or that, &c. And this was 
one of the X^n"^^ p\Z} a^niD DlVinr twofold oaths, which 
imre also fourfold ; that is, a negative or affirmative oath; 
and again, a negative or affirmative oath concerning some- 
thing past, or a negative or affirmative oath concerning some- 
thing to come : namely, when any one swears that he hath 
done this or that, or not done it ; or that he will do tliis or 
that, or that he will not do it. " Whosoever, therefore, swears 
any of these four ways, and the thing is not as he swears, (for 
example, that he hath not cast a stone into the sea, when he 
hath cast it ; that he hath cast it, when he hath not ; that he 
will not eat, and yet eats ; that he will eat, and yet eateth not,) 
behold, this is a false oath, or perjury'." 

" Whosoever"! swears that he will not eat, and yet eats 
some things which are not sufficiently fit to be eaten, this 
man is not guilty." 

Secondly", h^l^z; H^^IIU? A vain or a rash oath. This also 
is fourfold, but not in the same manner as the former : 
I . When they asserted that with an oath which was contrary 
to most known truth ; as, " If he should swear a man were 
a woman, a stone-pillar to be a pillar of gold,"" &c. ; or when 
any swore that was or was not, which was altogether im- 
possible ; as, " that he saw a camel flying in the air." 2. 
When one asserted that by an oath, concerning which there 
was no reason that any should doubt. For example, that 
" Heaven is heaven, a stone is a stone,'" &c. 3. When a man 
swore that he would do that which was altogether impos- 
sible ; namely, " that he vv-ould not sleep for three days and 
three nights ; that he would taste nothing for a full week/' 
&c. 4. When any swore that he would abstain from that 
which was conmianded ; as, " that he would not wear ])hylac- 
tories,"" &c. These very examples are brought in the places 
alleged. 

Thirdly, ]11pC il>?11^"' An oath concerning something left in 
trust : namely, when any swore concerning something left in 
trust with him, that it was stolen or broke or lost, and not 
embezzled by him, &c. 



' Maimon. in Shevuoth, c. i. '" Talmiul in Shevuoth, c.3. 

n English folin edition, vol. ii. p. 149. 



Oh. V. 33.] Exercitations upon St. 3IattJie2v. 127 

Fourthly, iy\1^ DV^^D A testimonial oath, before a judge 
or magistrate. 

In three of these kinds of swearing, care is taken only con- 
cerning the truth of the thing sworn, not of the vanity of 
swearing. 

They seemed, indeed, to make some provision against a 
vain and rash oath : namely, 1 . That he be beaten, who so " 
swears, and become cursed : which Maimonides hints in the 
twelfth chapter of the tract alleged : with whom the Jeru- 
salem Gemarists do agree; "HeP that swears two is two, 
let him be beaten for his vain oath." 2. They also added 
terror to it from fearful examples, such as that is in the very 
same place. : DTHll I'TT ilvS")! Si " There were twenty- 
four assemblies in the south, and they were all destroyed for a 
vain oath." And in the same tracts, a woman buried her son 
for an oath, &c. Yet they concluded vain oaths in so narrow 
a circle, that a man might swear a hundred thousand times, 
and yet not come within the limits of the caution concerning 
vain swearing. 

II. It was customary and usual among them to swear by 
the creatures; ''Iff any swear by heaven, by earth, by the 
sun, «fee. although the mind of the swearer be under these 
words to swear by Him who created them, yet this is not an 
oath. Or if any swear by some of the prophets, or by some of 
the books of the Scripture, although the sense of the swearer 
be to swear by Him that sent that prophet, or that gave that 
book, nevertheless this is not an oath." 

" If s anv adjure another by heaven or earth, he is not 
guilty." 

Theyt swore by Heaven, i^in p D'*?^!!}!! Bij Heaven so 
it is. 

They swore by the Temple., "^When" turtles and young 
pigeons were sometime sold at Jerusalem for a penny of gold, 
Rabban Simeon Ben Gamaliel said, p^t^H Htn i?j/ this habi- 
tation [that is, by this Temple] I will not rest this night, unless 
they be sold for a penny of silver." 

" Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 293. ^ Talmud in the place above, 

P Shevuoth, fol. 34. 4. cap. 4. 

1 Fol. 37. 1. t Bab. Berac. fol. 55. 

*■ Maimonid. in the place above, »* Cherithuth, cap. i. hal. 7. 
cap. 12. 



128 HehreiD and Talmudical [Ch. v. 34. 

" R. Zechariah ^ Ben Ketsab said, ]nV^rr H^n % this 
Temple, the hand of the woman dejiarted not out of ray 
hand." " R. Jochanany said, i^73"^n By the Temple, it is in 
our hand," &c. 

" Bava Ben Buta"- swore by the Temple in the end of the 
tract Cherithuth, and Rabban Simeon Ben Garaahel in the 
beginning ; 7^1U7'^n ^n]?:2 T\T\ And so was the custom in 
Israel.''' Note this, " so was the custom." 

They swore by the city Jerusalem. " R. Judah saith*, 
He that saith, ' By Jerusalem,' saith nothing, unless with an 
intent purpose he shall vow towards Jerusalem." Where, 
also, after two lines coming between those foi"ms of swearing 
and vowing are added, h'T'n D^tDl^^n D^l!?1"1''^ D^tlJIl'' 
; 7D"'nil hy^Tv7 Jerusalem, for Jerusalem, hy Jerusalem. 
The Temple, for the Temple, hy the Temple. The altar, for 
the altar, by the altar. The lamb, for the lamb, by the 
lamb. The chambers of the Temple, for the chambers of 
the Temple, by the chambers of the Temple. The wood, 
for the wood, by the wood. The sacrifices on fire, for the 
sacrifices on fire, by the sacrifices on fire. The dishes, for 
the dishes, by the dishes. By all these things, that I will do 
this to you." 

They swore by their own heads. "One^ is bound to swear 
to his neighbour, and he saith, ^IDt^l ^^XXl "^7 "^ll Vow (or 
swear) to me hy the life of thy head," &c. 

Ver. 34 : M?/ oixoaai oAws* Swear not at all.'\ In the tract 
Demai^ are some rules prescribed to a religious man : among 
others. That he he not too much i7i swearing and laughing, 
p^niZ?ni Dmn y^-^.S ^'r\^ ^hw. where the Gloss of R. 
Solomon is this ; □'^11^2 ^112 " means this. Be not much in 
oaths, although one should swear concerning things that are 
true : for in much swearing it is impossible not to profane." 
Our Saviour, with good reason, binds his followers with a 
straiter bond, permitting no place at all for a voluntary and 
arbitrary oath. The sense of these words goes in the middle 
way, between the Jew, who allowed some place for an arbi- 

^ Chetubboth, cap. 3. et Tosapht. » Tosapht. ad Nedarim, cap. i. 

ibid. b Sanhedr. cap. 3. bal. 2. 

y Bab. Kiddushin, fol. 71. i. «= Cap. 2. halac. 3. 
z Jiichas. fol. 56. col. I. 



Ch. V. 36,&c.] Exercitations upon Bi. Matthew. 129 

trary oath ; and the Anabaptist, who allows none for a neces- 
sary one. 

Ver. 36'': Ov hvvacrai \x,iav Tpiya \evKrjV ?) fxekaivav Trotr/crai" 
Thou canst not make one hair white or hlacJc.'] That is^ Thou 
canst not put on gray hairs, or lay them aside. 

Ver. 37 : "Eo-rco 6 Ao'yo? vyi&v, Nat, vat Ov, ov' Let yoiir 
communication 5^, Yea, yea ; nay, nayJ] In Hebrew, 1^1 VT^ 

D^nin ^T^?2^n h^ )Dn?21 |«tZ7r2 t^^ ^h Giving^ and re- 
ceiving [that is, business] among the disciples of the wise men, 

;n p hv^ ^h ^ hv '^'^^ n3i?2^ni n^i^n Let it he in 

truth and faith, hy saying.. Yes, yes ; No, no : or, according 
to the very words, concerning Yes, yes ; concerning iVo, 010. 

" Iff it be said to a lunatic, Shall we write a bill of di- 
vorce for your wife ? and he nod with his head, they try 
thrice ; and if he answer \n VH 7^1 fc^7 ^h hv to No, no ; 
and to Yes, yes ; they write it, and give it to his wife." 

Ver. 38 : 'HKOvcrare on €ppedi-i,'0(f)6aXixbv avrl d(f)6aXixov, &c. 
Ye have heard that it hath been said. An eye for an eye, &c.] 
This law he also cites, as clothed in the Gloss of the scribes, 
and now received in the Jewish schools. But they resolved 
the laws not into a just retaliation, but into a pecuniary com- 
pensation. 

" Does ^ any cut off the hand or foot of his neighbour ? 
They value this according to the example of selling a ser- 
vant ; computing at what price he would be sold before he 
was maimed, and for how much less now he is maimed. And 
how much of the price is diminished, so much is to be paid 
to the maimed person, as it is said, ' An eye for an eye,' &c. 
We have received by tradition, that this is to be understood 
of pecuniary satisfaction. But whereas it is said in the law, 
' If a man cause a blemish in his neighbour, the same shall be 
done to him' [Lev. xxiv. 19]; it means not that he should 
be maimed, as he hath maimed another ; but when he de- 
serveth maiming, hordeserveth to pay the damage to the 
person maimed." They seemed, out of very great charity, 
to soften that severe law to themselves, when, nevertheless, 

d English folio edition, vol. ii. p. ^ Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 294. 

150. ^ Bava Kama, cap. 8. et Maimon. 

•= Maimon. in Peah, cap. 5. in pnOT l^mn cap. i. 
^ Gittin, cap. 7. hal. i. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. K 



130 Hehretv and Talmudical [Ch. v. 39. 

in the mean time, little care was taken of lively charity, 
and of the forgiving an offence, — an open door being still 
left them to exaction and revenge, which will appear in what 
follows. 

Ver. 39 : "Oorts o-e paTrCaet eirl ttjv be^idv crov cnayova' Who- 
soever shall smite thee on thy right cheek.] That the doctrine of 
Christ may here more clearly shine out, let the Jewish doc- 
trine be set against it ; to which he opposeth his. 

" Does i any one give his neighbour a box on the ear ? let 
him give him a shilling. R. Judah in the name of R. Josi of 
Galilee saith, Let him give him a pound." 

tit DTlh^D *h \iy\^ TM^D " Does he give him a blow upon 
the cheek ? Let him give him two hundred zitzees : if with the 
other hand, let him give four hundred." Compare with this 
passage ver. 39 : 'If any shall strike thee on the right cheek, 
turn to him the other also.' 

1^1 IDTfc^l D1!J " Does he twitch him hy the ear ; or does he 
pull off his hair ; or does he spit, so that his spittle falls upon 
him ; or does he take away his coat" [note this also, and com- 
pare ver. 40 with it, ' He that will take away thy coat,' &c.] ; 
" or does he uncover a woman's head in public ? Let him give 
four hundred zuzees." 

They fetch the reason of so severe a mulct chiefly from the 
shame done him that is thus injured, and from the disgrace 
of the thing itself; and, moreover, from the dignity of an 
Israelite : which is declared at large by the Gemarists upon 
the words cited, and by Maimonides '^. 

1"T113 "^57 75n " Those mulcts [say they] are established 
and inflicted according to the dignity of the person injured. 
But R. Akibah said, ' Even the poorest Israelites are to be 
esteemed as though they were persons of quality divested of 
their estates, because they are the sons of Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob.'" 

Hence the entrance to our Saviour's doctrine lies easy : 
I . He cites the law of retaliation, that, by laying one against 
the other. Christian charity and forgiveness might shine the ^ 
clearer. 2. He mentions these particulars which seemed to 
be the most unworthy, and not to be borne by the high quality 

i Bava Kama, cap. 8. hal. 6. 1 English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 

^ In p>iDi hyin cap. 1. — 3, &c. 151. 



Ch.v. 40,41] Exercitations iipon St. Matthew. 131 

of a Jew, that he might the more preach up evangelical hu- 
mility, and patience, and self-denial. But why was the law 
of retaliation given, if at last it is melted down into this ? 
On the same reason as the law of death was given concerning 
adultery, namely, for terror, and to demonstrate what the sin 
was. Both were to be softened by charity ; this by forgive- 
ness, that by a bill of divorce : or, if the husband so pleased, 
by forgiveness also. 

Ver. 40 : Kat rw OikovrC (rot Kpidrjvat,, koL tov xit&vo, crov 
Aa/3etv, &c. And if any loill sue thee at the law, and take 
away thy coat, &c.] XtrcSra, coat, that is, Jl'^7t:3 Talith. So 
in the words of the .Talmud alleged, in"'7tO "^"'li^n he takes 
his coat. Of this garment, thus the Aruch ; T'T^ ^^in ri*^7l3 
Talith is a cloah : and why is it called rT^^D, Talith ? ^^'^^ 
D*""!^! h^72 'nh^t^h Because it is above all the garments ; that 
is, because it is the outermost garment. 

In this upper garment were woven in those fringes that 
were to put them in mind of the law, of which there is men- 
tion Num. XV. 38. Hence is that, n^^St^^ TlTI rT'iJ*!?! ""^Htn 
ni»^i He"^ that takes care of his skirts deserves a good coat. 
Hereupon the disgrace was increased together with the 
wrong, when that was taken away, concerning which they 
did not a little boast, nay, and in which they placed no small 
religion : Matt, xxiii. 5, ^irwy kuI lixdnov, an upper and an 
inward garment ; to which p17m n'''7I:3 answer. "If" any 
give a poor man a penny to buy pITTl t/xdnoz', [an inward gar- 
ment], let him not buy r\"'7l5 x'™^^ [^ ^^^^^ ^or an upper gar- 
ment]." n'h:^^ pl'^n "h S''«U??2 He° lends Mm IfxaTiov koI 
Xi-T&va, an inner garment and a coat P. 

Ver. 41 : Kat oaris (xe ayyapevaei fxCXiov ev, &c. And who- 
soever shall compel thee to go a mile, &c.] To him that had 
some corporeal wrong done him were these five mulcts to be 
paid, according to the reason and quality of the wrong : 
nyi:2. ntZ7^nn ^1D*'in IVi^l p;n a q mulct for maiming, if so 
be the party were maimed : a mulct for pain, caused by the 



™ Bab. Schabb. fol. 23. 2. ordinarymeaning of the Greek terms, 

n Bab. Bava Mezia, fol. 78. 2. —See Smith's Diet. G. and R. Antiq. 

o Nedarim. fol. 33. i. art. Pallium.'] 

i" [Lightfoot has here inverted the <i Bava Kama in the place above. 

K 2 



132 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch.v. 41. 

blow or wound given : a mulct for the cure of the wound or 
blow ; a mulct for the reproach brought upon him : and a 
mulct for ceasing, when, being wounded or beaten, he kept his 
bed, and could not follow his business. 

To the first, the first words of our Saviour, M^ avTKrrqvai 
tQ> TTovrjpQ, That ye resist not evil, seem to relate : Do not so 
resist or rise up against an injurious person, as to require the 
law of retaliation against hira. The second and fourth, the 
words following seem to respect, viz. "Ocrris ae pa-nia^i, ' Who- 
soever smiteth thee, so that it cause pain and shame :' and 
those words also, ©eAoyn \LTS>va crov Xa^eiv, Him that will take 
away thy coat.' To the last do these words under our hand 
refer, and to the second certainly, if " some intolerable kind 
of service be propounded," which the famous Beza asserts. 

The word miTTTj very usual among the Talmudists, where- 
by •■ they denote accompanying him that goes elsewhere, 
out of honour and respect, reaches not the sense of the 
word ayyap^v^Lv, but is too soft and low for it. It is reck- 
oned for a duty to accompany a dead corpse to the grave, 
and a Rabbin departing somewhere. Hence is that story, 
" Germani ^, the servant of R. Judah Nasi, willing TTpoir^fj.yf/ai 
(n''11T''^D) to conduct R. Ilia going away, met a mad dog," &c. 
The footsteps of this civility we meet with among the Christ- 
ians, Tit. iii. 13 ; John, Ep. iii. ver. 6; they were marks of 
respect, love, and reverence : but that which was required by 
the Jewish masters, out of arrogance and a supercilious au- 
thority, was to be done to a Rabbin, as a Rabbin. 

But ayapp€V€i.v, to compel to go a mile, sounds harsher, 
and speaks not so much an impulse of duty, as a compulsion 
of violence : and the Talmudists retain that very word b^'^l^^^ 
Angaria, and do show, by examples not a few, what it means. 
" It * is reported of R. Eliazar Ben Harsum, that his father 
bequeathed him a thousand cities on the dry land, and a 
thousand ships on the sea : but yet he, every day carrying 
along with him a bottle of meal on his shoulder, travelled 
from city to city, and from country to country, to learn the 
law. On a certain day his servants met him, t«^"'"l^2b^ "13, ItZ^i^l 
and angariate, compel him. He saith to them, ' I beseech you, 

r Leusden^s edition, vol. ii. p. 295. ^ Hieros. Schabb. 8. 3. 

t Bab. Joma, fol. 35. 2. 



Oh. V. 43.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 133 

dismiss me, that I may go and learn the law/ They say to 
him, ' By the hfe of R. Eliazar Ben Harsura, we will not dis- 
miss you,'" &c. Where the Gloss is, nb^'ii:!^^^ " Angariah is 
"VVT^ "W "'V\1V the service of the governor of the city ; and he 
was here to serve himself [for he was lord of the cityj. But 
they knew him not, but thought him to belong to one of those 
his cities : for it was incumbent on them to attend on their 
master." 

Againu ; " R. EHezer saith^, ' Why was Abraham our father 
punished, and why were his sons afflicted in Egypt two hun- 
dred and ten years V Q^r^DH n^r^Sni h^'^'^;^:^? TWV^ ^l^t2 
Because he ' augariavit,' 'compelled' the disciples of the lolse men 
to go with him : as it is said "^''^''^nTli;^ vT^ ^^ armed his 
catechumens, or his trained, or instructed, Gen. xiv. 14. 

The same almost is said of king Asa : " RabbaY asked, 
Why was Asa punished [zoith the goitf]? b^''"^:i3« H^:^^ 
D''723n ''"T''?D7n2 Because he compelled the disciples of the 
wise men to go along with him : as it is said, ' And Asa 
gathered together all Judah, none excepted,' " &lg., i Kings 
XV. 22. 

We meet with mention also of angariating cattle ; " An^ ass 
is hired for a hilly journey ; but he that hireth him travels in 
the valley : although both be of the like distance, that is, ten 
miles, if an ass dies, he who hired him is guilty, &c. But 
{yi^ "f^tl? ^in 17 ")D1« «"""iriD^ n^\i;:7D\I7 1«) if the ass 
were angariated, the hirer saith to the owner. Behold, take your 
beast to yourself r &c. The Gloss is, «n:i3« rCtl^li^DU? Ib^ " If 
he were angariated, that is, if they take him for some work of 
the king," &c. 

You see, then, whither the exhortation of our Saviour tends : 
I. To patience under an open injury, and for which there is no 
pretence, ver. 39. 2. Under an injury, for which some right 
and equity in law is pretended, ver. 40. 3. Under an injury, 
compulsion, or violence, patronized by the authority of a king, 
or of those that are above us. 

Ver. 43 : Mt(r?jo-ets tov k^Qpov aov Thou shalt hate thine 
enemy.'] Here those poisonous canons might be produced, 

« English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 152. y Sotah, fol. 10. 1. 

^ Nedarim, fol. 32. i. ^ Bava Mezia, cap. 6. hal. 3. 



134 Hebrew and Talnmdical [Oh. v. 46. 

whereby they are trained up in eternal hatred against the 
Gentiles^ and against Israehtes themselves, who do not, in 
every respect, walk with them in the same traditions and 
rites. Let this one example be instead of very many, which 
are to be met with everywhere : " The^ heretical Israelites, 
that is, they of Israel that worship idols, or who transgress, 
to provoke God ; also Epicurean Israelites, that is, Israelites 
who deny the law and the prophets, are by precept to be 
slain, if any can slay them, and that openly ; but if not 
openly, you may compass their death secretly, and by sub- 
tilty." And a little after (0 ! the extreme charity of the Jews 
towards the Gentiles) ; "But as to the Gentiles, with whom 
we have no war, and likewise to the shepherds of smaller 
cattle, and others of that sort, they do not so plot their 
death ; but it is forbidden them to deliver them from death 
if they are in danger of it." For instance ; " A Jew sees one 
of them fallen into the sea ; let him by no means lift him out 
thence : for it is written, ' Thou shalt not rise up against the 
blood of thy neighbour :' but this is not thy neighbour." And 
further ; " An ^ Israelite, who alone sees another Israelite 
transgressing, and admonisheth him, if he repents not, is 
bound to hate him.^^ 

Ver. 46 : Ov^,^ '««^ 01 T^Xdvai to avrb ttolovo-i ; Do not even the 
publicans the same ?] How odious the publicans were to the 
Jewish nation, especially those that were sprung of that nation, 
and how they reckoned them the very worst of all mankind, 
appears many ways in the evangelists ; and the very same is 
their character in their own writers. 

" It<^ is not lawful to use the riches of such men, of whom 
it is presumed that they were thieves ; and of whom it is 
presumed that all their wealth was gotten by rapine ; and 
that all their business was the business of extortioners, such 
as publicans and robbers are ; nor is their money to be min- 
gled with thine, because it is presumed to have been gotten 
by rapine." 

Amongd those who were neither fit to judge, nor to give a 
testimony in judgment, are numbered '{"'DlDl^n') Tt^H^n the 
collectors of taxes, and the publicans. 

^ Mairaon. in hVII cap. 4. c Maimon. in nbtJ cap. 5. 

'' Ibid. cap. 13. d Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 25. 2. 



Ch. vi. J.] Exercitations tipon St. Matthew. 135 

Publicans^ are ^ joined with cut-throats and robbers. 
)''D31D^1 ]"'Qin^1 ^Tyrh ]nm3 " They sivear to cut-throats, 
to rollers and to 'publicans \invad%ng their goods\. This is an 
offering, &c. He is known by his companion." 

They were marked with such reproach, and that not with- 
out good reason ; partly by reason of their rapine, partly, 
that to the burden laid upon the nation they themselves 
added another burden. 

" WhenS are pubHcans to be reckoned for thieves ? when 
he is a Gentile ; or when of himself he takes that office upon 
him ; or when, being deputed by the king, he doth not exact 
the set sum, but exacts according to his own will." Therefore 
the father of R. Zeira is to be reputed for a rare person \ v/ho, 
being a publican for thirteen years, did not make the burdens 
of the taxes heavier, but rather eased them. 

" Wheni the king laid a tax^^, to be exacted of the Jews, 
of each according to his estate, these publicans, being de- 
puted to proportion the thing, became respecters of persons, 
burdening some and indulging others, and so became plun- 
derers.^' 

By how much the more grievous the heathen yoke was to 
the Jewish people, boasting themselves a free nation, so much 
the more hateful to them was this kind of men ; who, though 
sprung of Jewish blood, yet rendered their yoke much more 
heavy by these rapines. 

CHAP. VI. 

Ver. I : npoa-e'xeTe rqv ik^-qixocrvvrjv vixS>v firj Troteiy, &c. Take 
heed, that ye do not your alms, c§*c.] It is questioned, whether 
Matthew writ iXer]iJi.o(Tvvr]v, alms, or hiKaio(Tvvr\v, righteousness. 
I answer; 

I. That our Saviour certainly said JlpIS, righteousness (or 
in Syriac t^inplf), I make no doubt at all; but that that 
word could not be otherwise understood by the common 
people than of alms, there is as little doubt to be made. 
For although the word HpllJ, according to the idiom of the 

^ Nedarim, cap. 3. hal. 4. ' English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 

^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 296. 153. 

s Maimon. in the place above. k Qaon in Aruch io DlDD. 

*» Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 25. 2. 



136 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. vi. i . 

Old Testament, signifies nothing else than righteousness ; yet 
now, when our Saviour spoke those words, it signified nothing 
so much as alms. 

11. Christ used also the same word t^rip12 righteousness 
in the three verses next following, and Matthew used the 
word ikerifxaavvT], alms : but by what right, I beseech you, 
should he call it hiKaiocrvvriv, righteousness, in the first verse, 
and e\er}ij.o(Tvv7]v, alms, in the following, — when Christ every 
where used one and the same word ? Matthew might not 
change in Greek, where our Saviour had not changed in 
Syriac. 

Therefore we must say, that the Lord Jesus used the word 
np1!J, or t»^rip1!J, in these four first verses : but that, speak- 
ing in the dialect of common people, he was understood by 
the common people to speak of alms. 

Now they called alms by the name of np"T2 righteousness, in 
that the Fathers of the Traditions taught, and the common 
people believed, that alms conferred very much to Justijication. 
Hear the Jewish chair in this matter : 

" Fori one farthing, given to a poor man in alms, a man is 
made partaker of the beatifical vision." Where it renders 
these words Ti!? Htni^l pi^'2 ^ib;^ [Ps. xvii. 15] ' I shall be- 
hold thy face in righteousness,' after this manner ; ' I shall be- 
hold thy face because of alms? 

One saith, " This"i money goes for alms., that my sons may 
live, and that I may obtain the world to come." 

" A^ man's table now expiates by alms., as heretofore the 
altar did by sacrifice." 

" Ifo you afford alms out of your purse, God will keep you 
from all damage and harm." 

" MonobazesP the king bestowed his goods liberally upon 
the poor, and had these words spoke to him by his kinsmen 
and friends, ' Your ancestors increased both their own riches 
and those that were left them by their fathers ; but you waste 
both your own and those of your ancestors.' To whom he 
answered, ' My fathers laid up their wealth on earth ; I lay up 
mine in heaven ; as it is written, Truth shall flourish out of 

1 Bab. Bava Bathra, fol. 10. i. et " Id. Beracoth, fol. 55. i. 
Midr. Tillin, upon Psal. xvii. 15. " Hieros. Peah, fol. 15. 2. 

"1 Bab. Rosh hashanah, fol. 4. i. P Ibid. 



Ch. vi. 1 .] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 137 

the earth., but righteousness shall look down from heaven. My 
fathers laid up treasure that bears no fruit ; but I lay up such 
as bear fruit ; as it is said, It shall he well with the just, for 
they shall eat the fruit of their ivorJcs. My fathers treasured 
up where power was in their hands ; but I where it is not ; as 
it is said. Justice and judgment is the habitation of his throne- 
My fathers heaped up for others; I for myself; as it is said. 
And this shall be to thee for righteousiiess. They scraped 
together for this world ; I for the world to come ; as it is said, 
Righteousness shall deliver from death.""' These things are also 
recited in the Babylonian Talmud q. 

You see plainly in what sense he understands righteousness, 
namely, in the sense of alms: and that sense not so much 
framed in his own imagination, as in that of the whole nation, 
and which the royal catechumen had imbibed from the Phari- 
sees his teachers. 

Behold the justifying and saving virtue of alms from the 
very work done, according to the doctrine of the Pharisaical 
chair. And hence the opinion of this efficacy of alms so far"" 
prevailed with the deceived people, that they pointed out alms 
by no other name (confined within one single word) than 
np1!J righteousness. Perhaps those words of our Saviour are 
spoken in derision of this doctrine ; " Yea, give those things 
which ye have in alms, and behold all things shall be clean to 
you/' Luke xi. 41. With good reason, indeed, exhorting them 
to give alms, but yet withal striking at the covetousnesss of 
the Pharisees, and confuting their vain opinion of being clean 
by the washing of their hands, from their own opinion of the 
efficacy of alms. As if he had said, " Ye assert that alms 
justifies and saves ; and therefore ye call it by the name of 
righteousness : why, therefore, do ye affect cleanness by the 
washing of hands, and not rather by the performance of 
charity?^' See the praises of alms, somewhat too high for it, 
in the Talmud*. 

" R. Jannai " saw one giving money openly to a poor man ; 
to whom he said. It is better you had not given at all, than 
so to have given." 

1 Bava Bathra, fol. 11. i. * Bab. Bava Bathra, fol. 8, 9, 10, 

•■ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 1 54. 11. 

^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 297. " Bab. Chagig. fol. 5. i. 



138 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. vi. 2. 

Et 8e /xTjye, [xta-dbv ovk excre* Otherwise ye have no reward.^ 
He therefore seems the rather to speak of a reward, because 
they expected a reward for their alms-doing without all doubt ; 
and that, as we said, for the mere work done. 

" R. Lazar ^ was the almoner of the synagogue. One 
day going into his house, he said, 'What news?"" They an- 
swered, ' Some came hither, and ate and drank, and made 
prayers for thee.' 'Then,' saith he, ' there is no good reward."* 
Another time going into his house, he said, ' What news V 
It was answered, ' Some others came, and ate and drank, and 
railed upon you.' ' Now.' saith he, ' there will be a good 
reward.' " 

Ver. 2 : M?; a-a\7Tt(rrjs ifXTrpoa-Qiv aov, uxnrep ot vTioKpiTaX 
TTOLOvaLV €v Tols avvayooyois, Koi kv rais pvjxats' Do not sound a 
trmnpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogites, and 
in the streets.^ It is a just scruple, whether this sounding a 
trumpet be to be understood according to the letter, or in a 
borrowed sense. I have not found, although I have sought 
for it much and seriously, even the least mention of a trumpet 
in almsgiving. I would most willingly be taught this from 
the more learned. 

You may divide the ordinary alms of the Jews into three 
parts : 

I. ''iriDn the alms' -dish. They gave alms to the pub- 
lic dish or basket : "iin?2n Tamchiii (according to the defi- 
nition of the author of Aruch, and that out of Bava Bathra 
in the place lately cited) was a certain vessel, in which bread 
and food was gathered D7iy '^"'^J? 7 for the poor of the world. 
You may not improperly call it the alms'' -basket ; he calls it 
rr^i^jP a dish. By the poor of the world are to be under- 
stood any beggars^ begging from door to door ; yea, even 
heathen beggars. Hence the Jerusalem Talmud in the place 
above quoted, D'l^^ 737 '^inon The alms'' -dish was for every 
man. And the Aruch moreover, y2 DV 751 IT^l^i 
' ^1 Hp/TMyy^ This alms was gathered daily by three men, 
and distributed by three. It was gathered of the townsmen by 
collectors within their doors; which appears by that cautionX; 

" Hieros. Peah, fol. 21. i. y Bava Bathra, fol. 8. 2. 



Ch. vi, 2.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 139 

niDn7 nil The collectors of alms may not separate themselves 
one from another, unless that one may go by himself to the gate, 
and another to the shop. That is, as the Gloss explains it, 
they might not gather this alms separately and by them- 
selves ; that no suspicion might arise, that they privily con- 
verted what was given to their own use and benefit. This 
only was allowed them ; when they went to the gate, one 
might betake himself to the gate, and another to a shop near 
it, to ask of the dwellers in both places : yet with this pro- 
viso, that withal botli were within sight of one another. So 
that at each door it might be seen that this alms was re- 
ceived by the collectors. And here was no probability at all 
of a trumpet, when this alms was of the lowest degree, being 
to be bestowed upon vagabond strangers, and they very often 
heathen. 

II. nsip The poofs-chest. They gave alms also in the 
public poor's-box : which was to be distributed to the poor 
only of that city. oSli^n ^'^ivh ''inTOn The alms'- dish is for 
the poor of the world, "T^i^H Jlilli^ *''^]i^7 HSIp but the alms'- 
chest for the poor only of that city. This was collected of the 
townsmen by two Parnasin, of whom before, to whom also a 
third was added, for the distributing it. The Babylonian 
Gemarists give a reason of the number, not unworthy to be 
marked: "A tradition of the Rabbins. The alms' -chest is 
gathered by two, and distributed by three. It is gathered 

by two, U*^y2:i2 mns niT!? h)!! ni"inU? WmV J-'^^I? because 
they do not constitute a superior office in the synagogue less than 
of two, ni:iinD ''D^'ID ">1 np^nnril and it is distributed by 
three, as pecuniary Judgments are transacted by three. 

Thisz alms was collected in the synagogue, on the sab- 
bath (compare i Cor. xvi. 3.), and it was distributed to the 
poor on the sabbath-eve. Hence is that, H'2'QJ "21^^ ilDIp 
mi!;} I'^i?? " The alms''- chest is from the sabbath-eve to the sab- 
bath-eve ; the alms'- dish, every day." 

Whether, therefore, the trumpet sounded in the synagogue 
when alms were done, it again remains obscure, since the 
Jewish canonists do not openly mention it, while yet they 
treat of these alms very largely. Indeed, every synagogue 
had its trumpet. For, 

^ English folio edition, vol. ii, p. 155. 



140 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. vi. 2. 

r. They sounded with the trumpet in every city in which 
was a judiciary bench, at the coming in of the new year. 
But this was not used but after the destruction of the 
Temple ». 

2. They sounded with the trumpet when any was excom- 
municated. Hence among the utensils of a judge is num- 
bered a b trumpet. For p3^^"in ^h'Z the instruments of judges, 
as appears there, were ^^71^01 t^"^D1^ Jli^l^"^ bpT^ a rod, 
a whip, a trumpet, and a sandal'^, "^yvy) t^r\?^©7 ^^IDItt? 
'■'■A trumpet (saith the Gloss) for excommunication and ana- 
thematizing : and a sandal for the taking off of the shoe of 
the husband's brother." And in the same place d mention is 
made of the excommunicating of Jesus, four hundred trumpets 
being brought for that business. 

3. The trumpet sounded six times at the coming in of 
every sabbath : that from thence, by that sign given, all 
people should cease from sei'vile works. Of this matter dis- 
course is had in the Babylonian Talmud, in the tract of the 
Sabbath ^. 

Thus, there was a trumpet in every synagogue ; but whe- 
ther it were used while alms were done, I still inquire. That 
comes into my mind, '-[l-a X^V^^^ ^rV «^ "l^^"! Hpl!^ ^«1:1 
vin2 rt^'^DDty " The^ collectors of alms do not proclaim on 
a feast-day, as they proclaim on a common day : but collect 
it privately, and put it up in their bosom." But whether 
this proclamation did publish what was giving by every one, 
or did admonish of not giving any thing, but what might 
rightly be given ; let the more learned judge by looking upon 
the place. 

III. They gave alms also out of the field, and that was 
especially fourfold : i. The corner of the field not reaped. 
2. Sheaves left in the field, either by forgetfulness, or volun- 
tarily. 3. The gleaning of the vintage ; of which see Levit. 
xix. 9, 10, Deut. xxiv. 19. And, 4. "'jy "^ll^i^^ The poor's 
tenth ; of which the Talmudists largely in the tracts, Peah, 
Demai, and Maaseroth. To the gathering of these, the poor 



a See Rosh. hashanah, cap. 4. ^ FoL 107. 2. 

hal. I. e Foi. 3^. 2. 

'' Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 7. 2. ^ Hieros. Demai, fol. 23. 2. 
<= Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 298. 



Oh. vi.3.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 141 

were called, nmnni H'l^nn*! intTi nri nvrnt^ ";ii " % g 

three manifestations in the day ; namely, in the morning, and 
at noon., and at Minchah," or ' the evening.' That is, the owner 
of the jBeld openly shewed himself three times in the day, for 
this end, that then the poor should come and gather : in the 
morning, for the sake of nurses ; because, in the mean time, 
while their young children slept, they might the more freely 
go forth for this purpose : at noon, for the sake of children, 
who also at that time were prepared to gather : at Minchah, 
for the sake of old men. So the Jerusalem Gemarists, and 
the Glossers upon the Babylonian Talmud. 

There were the ordinary alms of the Jewish people : in 
the doing which, seeing as yet I cannot find so much as the 
least sound of a trumpet in their writers, I guess that either 
our Savour here spoke metaphorically ; or, if there were any 
trumpet used, that it was used in peculiar and extraordinary 
alms. 

The Jews did very highly approve of alms done secretly ; 
hence "^i^tDn n2tD7 the treasury of the silent was of famed 
memory in the Temple ; whither " some ^ very religious men 
brought their alms in silence and privacy, when the poor chil- 
dren of good men were maintained." And hence is that pro- 
verb, iij-ini nii^nn "inv "^nDn npi!? r^^^v'n hr\> 'o -noi&v 

€Xer]iJio<Tvvr]v ev Kpynrc^. He^ that doth alms in secret is greater 
than our master Moses himself And yet they laboured 
under such an itch to make their alms public, lest they 
should not be seen by men, that they did them not without a 
trumpet ; or, which was as good as a trumpet, with a proud 
desire of making them known : that they might the more 
be pointed at with the finger, and that it might be said of 
them, 'These are the men.' 

Ver. 3 : M?) yi'corco tj aptcrTepd aov, rC TroLel 77 be^ca aov Let 
not thy left hand know what thy right hand doth.] He seems to 
speak according to the custom used in some other things ; for 
in some actions, which pertained to religion, they admitted 
not the left hand to meet with the right. " The^^ cup of wine 
which was used to sanctify the coming in of the sabbath, was 
to be taken with the right hand, without the assistance of the 

e Peah, cap. 4. hal. 5. i Bab. Bava Bathra, fol. 9. 2. 

h Aruch in mn. ^ Maimon. in Schabb. cap. 29, &c. 



142 HehreiD and TalmucUcal [Ch. vi. 5. 

left." " Let no man receive into a vessel the blood of the 
sacrifice, bring it to the altar, or sprinkle it with his left' 
hand"!." And in the same tract, it is related of Shammai, 
that he would feed himself only with one hand". 

Ver. 5 : ^ikovaiv kv raZs a-vuaycoyais Koi iv tols ycovLais tS>v 
TrkaTctoiv eorcSTe? upoa-evx^o'do.i' They love to pray standing in 
the synagogues, and in the corner of the streets.'] i. They prayed 
standing, Luke xviii. ii, 13, Mark xi. 25. " It" is written, 
' And Abraham rose early in the morning at the place where 
he had stood before the Lord.' n^Sn «b« m^l^V p^^^ 
But to stand was nothing else than to pray : as it is said, 
77D'^1 Dn^S ibl^lJ'l And Phineas stood and judged." 

" OneP entereth into the synagogue, nSeni \^'\iy\V \i^'^iy\ 
and found them standing in prayer.'" '•' Let"? a scholar of the 
wise men look downwards, n7En2 1ty\V t^in\Z?i when he 
stands praying." And to name no more, the same Maimo- 
nides asserts»" these things are required in prayer; that he 
that prayeth, stand ; that he turn his face towards Jerusa- 
lem ; that he cover his head ; and that he fix his eyes down- 
wards. 

IL They loved to pray in the synagogues. " He* goes to 
the synagogue to pray." 

" Why do they recite their phylacteries in the synagogue, 
when they are not bound to do it ? R. Josi saith. They do not 
recite them in the synagogue for that end, that so the whole 
office of the phylacteries may be performed, but to persevere 
in prayer. For this recitation was to be said over again, when 
they came homef." 

Rabbenu" Asher hath these words: " When" any returns 
home in the evening from the field, let him not say, ' I will 
go into my house ;' but first let him betake himself to the 
synagogue : and if he can read, let him read something ; if he 
can recite the traditions, let him recite them. And then let 
him say over the phylacteries, and pray." 



1 English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 1 Maimon. in Peah, cap. 5. 

156. ' In Tephillah, cap. 5. 

' «n Bab. Joma, f. 49. i. ^ Tanchum, fol. 35. i. 

n Fol. 77. 2. * Piske in Berac. cap. i. art. 6. 

o Bab. Berac. fol. 26. 2. " Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 299. 

P Hieros. f. 20. i. * In Berac. fol. 69. 3. 



Oh. vi.5.] Exercitations upon St. Mattheu-i. 143 

But that we be not too tedious, even from this very opinion, 
they were wont to betake themselves to the synagogues, be- 
cause they were persuaded that the prayers of the synagogue 
were certainly heard. 

Ill, They prayed in the streets. So Maimonides ; " They 7 
prayed in the streets on the feasts and public fasts." " What^ 
are the rites of the fasts ? They brought out the ark into the 
streets of the city, and sprinkled ashes upon the ark, and upon 
the head of the president of the Sanhedrim, and the vice-pre- 
sident ; and every one put ashes upon his own head. One of 
the elders makes this exhortation ; ' It is not said, brethren, 
of the Ninevites, that God saw their sackcloth, or their fast- 
ings ; but, that he saw their works,' &c. They stand praying, 
and they set some fit elder before the ark, and he prays four- 
and-twenty prayers before them." 

But doth our Saviour condemn all prayers in the syna- 
gogue I By no means. For he himself prayed in and with 
the synagogue. Nor did he barely reprove those public 
prayers in the streets, made by the whole multitude in those 
great solemnities, but prayers everywhere, both in the syna- 
gogues and the streets, that were made privately, but yet 
publicly also, and in the siglit of all, that thereby he that 
prayed might get some name and reputation from those that 
saw him. 

I. While public prayers were uttered in the synagogue, it 
was customary also for those that hunted after vainglory, to 
mutter private prayers, and such as were different from those 
of the synagogue, whereby the eyes of all might be the more 
fixed upon him that prayed. 

" Hath«» not a man prayed his morning prayers ? When he 
goes into the synagogue, does he find them praying the addi- 
tionary prayer ? If he is sure he shall begin and end, so that 
he may answer ' Amen' after the angel of the church, let him 
say his prayers." 

II. They prayed also by themselves in the streets. " E. Jo- 
chanan said^, I saw R. Jannai standing and praying in the 



y In Tephillah, cap. ii. » Hieros. Berac. fol. 83. 

2 Taanith, cap. 2. hal. i & 2. ^ Hieros. in the place above. 



144 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. vi. 5. 

streets of Tsippor, and going four cubits, and then praying 
the additionary prayer." 

Two things especially shew their hypocrisy here : 

1 . That so much provision is made concerning reciting the 
phylacteries, and the prayers added (that it might be done 
within the just time), that wheresoever a man had been, when 
the set time was come, he presently betakes himself to prayers ; 
" A workman, or he that is upon the top of a tree, he that 
rides on an ass, must immediately come down, and say his 
prayers," &c. These are the very instances that the canonists 
give, which, with more of them, you may find in the tract 
Beracothc. Hence, therefore, those vainglorious hypocrites 
got an occasion of boasting themselves. For the hour of the 
phylacterical prayers being come, their care and endeavour 
was, to be taken in the streets : whereby the canonical hour 
compelling them to their prayers in that place, they might be 
the more seen by all persons, and that the ordinary people 
might admire and applaud both their zeal and religion. To 
which hypocritical pride they often added this also, that they 
used very long pauses, both before they began their prayers, 
and after they had done^ them : so that very usually, for 
three hours together, they were seen in a praying habit and 
posture. See the Babylonian Talmud e. So that the Canon- 
ists played the madmen with some reason, when they allowed 
the space, from the rising of the morning to the third hour of 
the day, for the phylacterical prayers ; because those three- 
hour praying men scarcely despatched them within less space, 
pausing one hour before they began prayer, and as much after 
they were ended, 

2. They addicted themselves to ejaculations, prayers, and 
blessings, upon the sight almost of any thing meeting them 
either in the streets or in the way. " When^ one saw a place, 
wherein some miracle was done for Israel ; a place, from 
whence idolatry was rooted out ; or a place, where an idol 
now was, a short prayer was to be used. When any saw a 
blackamoor, a dwarf, a crooked, a maimed person, &c. they 
were to bless. Let him that sees a fair tree, or a beautiful 

c Cap. 1-4. ^ Berac. fol. 30. 2. et 32. 2. 

^ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 157. ^ Berac. cap. 9. 



Ch. vi. 7.] Exercitations upon St. MaUheic. 145 

face, bless thus, Blessed be He, wlio created the beauty of the 
creature," &c. 

Ver. 7: M?j ^aTToKoyri(Tr]Te, cocr-ep ol kOvLKoi Use not vain repe- 
titions, as the heathen do.'] See the civil hattolony \yain repetitions] 
of the heathen in their supplications : " Lets the parricide be 
dragged : we beseech thee, Augustus, let the parricide be 
dragged. This is the thing we ask, let the parricide be 
dragged. Hear us, Caesar. Let the false accusers be con- 
demned to the lion. Hear us, Csesar. Let the false accusers 
be condemned to the lion. Hear us, Csesar/' &c. See also 
the same author inS Severus. 

" Antoninus^ the pious, the gods keep thee. Antoninus the 
merciful, the gods keep thee. Antoninus the merciful, the gods 
keep thee." See also Capitolinus, in the Maximini. 

Those words savour of vain repetition in prayer, i Kings 
xviii. 26 ; " The priests of Baal called upon the name of Baal 
from morning to noon, saying, Baal, hear us." 

After the sarne manner almost as the heathen mixed /3ar- 
ToAoyi'as, vain repetitions, in their prayers, did the Jews in 
theiri (jvv(xivv\xiai, using divers icords importing the sarne thing : 
not repeating, indeed, the same things as they in the same 
words, but speaking the same thing in varied phrases ; which 
appears sufficiently to him that reads their liturgies through, 
as well the more ancient as those of a later date. And cer- 
tainly, the sin is equally the same in using different words of 
the same thing, as in a vain repetition of the same words ; if 
so be there were the same deceit and hypocrisy in both ; in 
words only multiplied, but the heart absent. 

And in this matter the Jew sinned little less than the 
heathen. For this was an axiom with them, ni'^*2n ^D 
nii?j H/Cn Every ^ one that multiplies prayer is heard. 
Christ, therefore, does not so much condemn the bare saying 
over again the same petitions, either in the same words, or in 
words of the same import (for he himself spake the same 
things thrice, when he prayed in the garden), as a false 
opinion, as if there were some power, or zeal, or piety, in 
such kind of repetitions ; and that they would be sooner 
heard, and more prevail with God. While he strikes the 

E Latnprid. in Commodo. ' Lensden's edition, vol. ii. p. 300. 

^ Galilean, in A.vidio Cassio. •« Hieros. Taanith, fol. 67. 3. 

LIGHTIOOT, vol.. II. L, 



146 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. vi. 9. 

heathen, he strikes the Jews alsOj who laboured under the 
same phrensy : but there is mention only of the heathen, partly 
because this savoured rather of heathen blindness than of the 
profession of true religion, which the Jews boasted of ; partly, 
and especially, that he might not condemn the public prayers 
of the Jews without cause, in which they sinned not at all by 
using synonymous expressions, if it were done out of a pious 
and sincere heart. 

Ver. 9 : Owrws ovv Trpoa-evxea-de v^els' Ilarep i]ixm>, &c. 
Aftet^ this manner therefore pray ye : Our leather, &c.] Some 
things, which seem more difficult about this divine form of 
prayer, will perh^s pass into a softer sense, if certain things, 
very usual in the Jewish church and nation, be observed, to 
which the apostles could not but have regard when they 
clearly acknowledged here the highest conformity with them. 
For that it was customary with our Saviour, for the most 
part, to conform himself to the church and nation, both in 
religious and civil matters, so they were lawful, most evi- 
dently appears also in this form of prayer. Let these things, 
therefore, be observed : 

I. That the stated prayers of the Jews, daily to be said at 
that time when Christ prescribed this form to his disciples, 
were eighteen in number, or in a quantity equalling it. Of 
this number of their prayers, the Gemarists of both Talmuds 
treat at large K Whom consult. 

Whether they were reduced to the precise number of 
eighteen, in the order that they afterward appeared in while 
Christ was upon earth, some scruple ariseth from some 
things ^ which are said by the Babylonian Talmudists in the 
place alleged : but it might be plainly proved, if there were 
need, that little, or indeed nothing at all, wanted of the quan- 
tity and bulk of such a number. "'^'IpEn JIS^Q^I? Jil"! I^H 
'^y) "T) ^2^h niD^n "n*» I'^lDn " The Eabbins have a tra- 
dition (say they), that Simeon Pekoli reduced into order the 
eighteen prayers according to their course, before Rabban 
Gamaliel in Jafne. Rabban Gamaliel said to the wi^^e men, 
* Is there any that knows to compose a prayer against the 
Sadducees?' Samuel the Little stood forth and constituted 

1 Hieros. Taanith, fol. 65, 3. Bab. Beiacoth, fol. 28. 2. 
"^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 158. 



Ch. vi. 9.] Ejcei'clrat'ions upon St. Matthew. 14-7 

one," &c. That Eabban Gamaliel, which is here spoke of, 
was Paul's master. For, although Rabban Gamaliel (who 
was commonly styled ' Jafnensis/ of Jafne) was the nephew 
of PauFs master, Gamaliel, and this thing is mentioned to be 
done in Jafne ; yet Paul's master also lived in Jafne : and 
that this was he of whom is the story before us, sufficiently 
appears hence, because his business is with Samuel the Little, 
who certainly died before the destruction of the city. 

Under Gamaliel the elder, therefore, were those daily 
prayers reduced first into that order wherein they were re- 
ceived bv the followinof ajjes. Wliich, however it was done 
after the death of our Saviour, in regard of their reducing 
into order, yet so many there were in daily use at that time 
when he conversed on earth. Now he condemned not those 
prayers altogether, nor esteemed them of no account ; yea. 
on the contrary, he joined himself to the public liturgy in 
the synagogues, and in the Temple : and when he deliver- 
eth this form to his disciples, he extinguisheth not other 
forms. 

II. When all could not readily repeat by heart those 
numerous prayers, they were reduced into a brief suramarj^ 
in which the marrow of them all was comprised ; and that 
provision was made for the memory, that they should have 
a short epitome of those prayers, whom the weakness of their 
memory, or sometime the unavoidable necessity of business, 
permitted not to repeat a longer prayer, or to be at leisure 
to do it. This summary they called I^V'O a fountain. "Rab- 
ban Gamaliel saith, ' Let every one pray the eighteen prayers 
everyday.' R.Joshua saith, 'XV V^V^ hh^tV, Let Mm jyray 
the TV^-> i1^^ summary of those eighteen. But R. Akibah saith, 

"rv ^^vc^ vch n\^^ "rv hh^r\i2 rci ir.b^n rrr\w c« 

If prayer be free in his mouth, let him pray tlie eighteen ; hut if 
not., let him pray the summary of those eighteen"".'' That our 
Saviour comprised the sum of all prayers in this form, is 
known to all Christians ; and it is confessed that such is the 
perfection of this form, that it is the epitome of all things to 
be prayed for, as the Decalogue is the epitome of all things 
to be practised. 

III. It was very usual with the doctors of the Jews, 
" Bab. Beracoth, in the place above. 

L % 



148 Hebrew and Tahnudical [Ch. vi. 9. 

1. To compose forms of short prayers, and to deliver them 
to their scholars (which is asserted also of John, Luke xi. 1 ) ; 
whereof you will find some examples", and they not a few, 
in the Babylonian Gemara, in the tract Beracoth, and else- 
where. Not that by those forms they banished or destroyed 
the set and accustomed prayers of the nation ; but they super- 
added their own to them, and suited them to proper and spe- 
cial occasions. 

2. To the stated prayers, and others framed by themselves, 
it was very usual to add some short prayer over and above, 
which one may not amiss call ' the concluding prayer.^ Take 
these examples of these prayers : HTl'lb'!^ □"'''DOl "in2 t^ S 
^Dn IDN " R. Eliezer, tchen he had finished his prayers, teas 
wont to say thus, ' Let it be thy good pleasure, Lord, that 
love and brotherhood dwell in our portion/ &c. R. Jochanan, 
when he had finished his prayers, was wont to say thus, ' Let 
it be thy good pleasure, Lord, to take notice of our re- 
proach, and to look upon our miseries,' " &c. In like 
manner, 

1. Our Saviour, while he delivers this form to his disci- 
ples, does not weaken the set forms of the church ; nor does 
he forbid his disciples not to use private prayers : but he 
delivers this most exact summary of all prayers, to be added, 
over and above, to our prayers ; his most perfect to our most 
imperfect. 

2. The apostles, sufiiciently accustomed to the manners 
of the nation, could not judge otherwise of this form. In 
interpreting very many phrases and histories of the New 
Testament, it is not so much worth, what we think of them 
from notions of our own, feigned upon I know not what 
grounds, as in what sense these things were understood by 
the hearers and lookers on, according to the usual custom 
and vulgar dialect of the nation. Some inquire by what 
authority we do subjoin or superadd the Lord's Prayer to 
ours ; and feign arguments to the contrary out of their own 
brain. But I ask, whether it was possible that the apostles 
and disciples, who from their very cradles had known and 
seen such forms instituted for common use, and added more- 

" Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 301. 



Ch. vi. 9.] Eiicercitations ujjon St. Matthew. 149 

over to the set prayers and others, should judge otherwise 
of this form given by our Lord ; which bore so great con- 
formity with those, and with the most received rite and cus- 
tom of the nation ? 

IV. That church held it for a just canon, and that indeed 
no discommendable one neither, rTiU^Di 11'*']"'^^ ?]n^^^ D^TIi^^ 
b^n^"'!? ^"rn^. He P that lyrays ought alioays, when he prays, to 
join with the church. Which is not strictly to be understood 
only of his presence in the synagogue (that is elsewhere and 
otherwise commanded many times over), but wheresoever in 
the world he be placed, yea, when he is most alone, that he 
say his prayers in the plural number ^ : for thus the Gloss 

explains it, 0^1"-) \\vh2. «b« l^H^ ptZ}^! "pM ^^Drc h^ 
Let none pray the short prayer (that is, one different from the 
set prayers) in the singular number, but in the plural. In 
which number our Saviour teacheth us also to pray in this 
form ; and that upon very good reason, when, in whatsoever 
solitude or distance we are, yet we ought to acknowledge 
ourselves joined with the church, and to pray for her happi- 
ness as well as for our own. 

Y\6.T€p TjixSiv 6 ev rots ovpavois' Our Father which art in 
heaven.'] I. This epithet of Grod was very well known among 
the Jews, and very usual with them : 

: □''72t!;'lt2? "iD'^lt^ " Our^ Father xohich art in heaven., deal so 
with us as thou hast promised by the prophets." And in an- 
other place this is thrice recited ; " Whom ^ have we whereon 
to rely, D^'TilZ^^tZ? '13''2b^ hv besides our Father which is in 
heaven?" " Blessed t are ye, Israehtes; who cleanseth you? 
Your Father, who is in heaven." " Ye" gave not to your 
Father, who is in heaven, but to me the priest." 

II. But in what sense did the Jews call God their Father 
in heaven, when they were altogether ignorant of the doc- 
trine and mystery of adoption, besides that adoption whereby 
God had adopted them for a peculiar people ? I answer, 
For that very cause they were taught by God himself so 
to call him, Exod. iv. 22, Deut. xxxii. 6, &c. Nor was there 
any among them who not only might not do this, but also 

P Bab. Beracoth, fol. 30. i. s Sotah, cap. 9. hal. 15. 

1 English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 159. * Joma, cap. 8. hal. 9. 

" Maimon. in Tephilloth. " Hieros. Maaseroth, fol. 50. 3. 



150 Hehreiv and Talmwdical [Ch. vi. lo. 

who ought not to do it. While the heathen said to his idol, 
' Thou art my father/ Jer. ii. i'], the Israelite was bound to 
say, Our Father which art in heaven, Isa. ixiii. 16, Ixiv. 8. 

HI. When Christ useth this manner of speech so very 
well known to the nation, does he not use it in a sense that 
was known to the nation also ? Let them answer who would 
have the Lord^s Prayer to be prayed and said by none but 
by those who are indeed believers, and who have partook of 
true adoption. In what sense was our Saviour, when he spake 
these words, understood of the hearers ? They were thoroughly 
instructed, from their cradles, to call God the Father in hea- 
ven : they neither hear Christ changing the jihrase, nor cur- 
tailing any thing from the latitude of the known and used 
sense. Therefore let them tell me, Did not Peter, John, and 
the rest of the apostles, think that it \^'as as lawful for all 
Christians to say to God, Our Father lohich art in heaven, as 
it was lawful for all Jews ? They called God Father, because 
he had called them into the profession of him, because he 
took care of them, and instructed them, &c. And what, I 
beseech you, hinders, but all Christians, obtaining the same 
privileges, may honour God with the same compellation ? 
There is nothing in the words of Christ that hinders, and 
there is somewhat in the very phrase that pernn'ts it. 

Ver. 9, 10" : 'Aytacr5?/ra) to ovo^a crov. 'EA^eVo) 57 ^acnX^ia aov' 
Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come.'] This obtained for 
an axiom in the Jewish schools ; rTI^??^ HI p^^U? T^y^'2. 73 
: n5"^l ni3''i^ That^ prayer, wherein there is not mention of the 
kinqdom of God, is not a prayer. Where these words are also 
added : " Abai saith. Like to this is that of Habh to be 
reckoned, that it is a tradition b^^"l Tr>i!^tpn ""H'TIV «S 
TiniDtl? I have not transgressed thy precepts, nor have I forgotten 
them'''' (thoy are the words of him that offereth the first-fruits, 
Deut. xxvi. 13). " '\ have not transgressed,^ that is, by not 
giving thanks : ' And I have not forgotten them ;' that is, I 
have not forgot to commemorate thy name, and thy Jcing- 
dom." 

V€.vr)driroy to d^Krjjjii aov, w? iv ovpavo), &c. Thy loill be done, 
as in heaven, ^x.] " What^ is the short prayer? 11. Eliezer 

^ Leiisrlcus edition, vol. ii. p. 302. y Bab. Rciacoth, fol. 40. 2. 

z Bah. Berac. fol. 29. 2. 



Ch. vi. 1 1,13-] Exer citations upon St. Matthew. 151 

saith, D''?21D1 I^IIH TW)) Do thy will in heaven, and give 
quietness of spirit to them that fear thee beneath/^ or in 
earth. 

Ver. 1 1 : Tov aprov rifjL&v tov iiriovaLov, &c. Our daily bread.'] 
That is, provide to-morrovfs bread, and give it us to-day, that 
we be not solicitous for to-morrow ; as ver. 34, 'E-Trtovcnos from 
tTTtwy, eTTtoCcra, &c. that tchich next follows; not eTrovVios, sitpe?"- 
subsfantial, from eTreijut. 

" The necessities of thy people Israel are many, and their 
knowledge small, so that they know not how to disclose their 
necessities ; let it be thy good pleasure to give to every man 
inDi'^D ''ID what siij^ceth for food,'" &CG. 

Ver. 13a : 'Pvaai rjixas cltto tov -rrovripov- Deliver us from evil.] 
" Rabbi '^ [Judah] was wont thus to pray : ' Let it be thy good 
pleasure to deliver us from impudent men, and impudence ; 
from an evil man, and from an evil chance ; from an evil affec- 
tion, from an evil companion, from an evil neighbour, from 
Satan the destroyer, from a hard judgment, and from a hard 
adversary,""' &c. 

"On aov ka-Tiv ?; ^acnXeia, Sec. For thine is the kingdom, Sfc] 
I. In the public service in the Temple, the commemoration of 
the kingdom of God was the respond ; instead of which the 
people answered Amen, when the priests ended their prayers. 
" P'or tl}1p?2n n^nn p« )^::^V Vn ^h ''^n the tradition is, 
that they answered not 'Amen'' in the house of the sanctuary. 
What said they then ? ly") C^hrjh nni^^?:^ 1113 OD "[111 
Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever'^." 
Hence in the tract Joma (where the rubric of the day of 
Expiation is), after various prayers recited, which, on that 
day, the high priest makes, is added, " And the people an- 
swered, Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for 
ever and ever." See the places ^ of that tract noted in the 
margin. There a short prayer of the high priest is mentioned, 
in which he thus concludes; " Be ye clean before Jehovah;" 
and these words are added, " But the priests and people 
standing in the court, when they heard tDHQ?3rT D^ the 
name Jehovah pronounced out in its syllables, adoring, and 

a English folio edition, vol. ii. p. ^ Hieros. Berac. fol. 13. 2. 
160. d Bab. Joma, fol. 39.1. 41. 2. but 

^ Berac. fol.i6. 2. chiefly fol. 66. i. 



152 Hebrew and Tahnudical [Ch. vi. 13. 

falling prostrate upon their face, they said, '^y\ 'VTS^. '2 "^ 1 
Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever and 
every See also the tract Taanith^, where a reason is given 
of this doxology in the Gloss there. 

II. This also they pronounced softly, and in a gentle 
whisper, while they were reciting the phylacteries. It^ is 
said of the men of Jericho, that V?2\L^ Ht^ 'l''D"^1D they folded 
vp the Schemah. It is disputed what this means ; " And 
R. Judah saith, That they made some small pause after the 
reciting of this period, ' Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is 
one Lord :' but they said not, ' Blessed be the name of the 
glory of his kingdom for ever and ever.' But by what reason 
do we say so? R. Simeon Ben Levi explains the mystery, who 
saith, Our father Jacob called his sons, and said, ' Gather 
yourselves together, and I will declare unto you.' It was in 
his mind to reveal to them the end of days, and the Holy 
Spirit departed from him : he said, therefore, ' Perhaps there 
is something profane in my bed, (which God forbid !) as it 
was to Abraham, from whom proceeded Ishniael ; and to 
Isaac, from whom proceeded Esau.' His sons said unto him, 
' Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord ;' as, in thy 
heart, there is but one; so, in our hearts, there is but one. 
At that time our father Jacob began, and said, D ID 1 

1 7 7;!i Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever 
and ever. The Rabbins said. What shall we do ? Shall we 
say this doxology ? Our master Moses said it not. Shall we 
not say it? Our father Jacob said it. Therefore it was ap- 
pointed to say it softly," &c. 

You see how very public the use of this doxology was, and 
how very private too. Being a response, it was pronounced 
in the Temple by all with a loud voice ; being an ejaculation, 
it was spoken in the phylacterical prayers, by every single 
man, in a very low voice. And you see how great an agree- 
ment it hath with the conclusion of the Lord's prayer, " For 
thine is the kingdom," &c. 

III. As they answered Amen, not at all in the public 
prayers in the Temple, so they seldom joined it to the end 
of their private prayers. In the synagogue, indeed, the people 

e Bab. Taanith, fol. 16. 2. ' Bab. Pesachin, fol. 56. i. 



Oh. vi. 13.] Exercitations upon St.Maitheic. 153 

answered Amen to the prayers made by the minister : and 
also at home, when the master of the family blessed or prayed; 
but seldom, or indeed never, any one praying privately joined 
this to the end of his prayers. 

Ands now, to apply those things which have been said to 
the matter under our hands, consider the following things : 

1. That this prayer was twice delivered by our Saviour: 
first, in this sermon in the mount, when he was not asked ; 
and afterward, when he was asked, almost half a year after, 
Luke xi. 

2. That this conclusion is added in St, Matthew, " For 
thine is the kingdom," &c. ; but in St. Luke it is not. In 
St. Matthew is added moreover the word Amen ; but in 
St. Luke it is wanting. Upon the whole matter, therefore, 
we infer, 

I. That Chi-ist, in exhibiting this form of prayer, followed a 
very usual rite and custom of the nation 

IL That the disciples also, receiving this form delivered 
to them, could not but receive it according to the manner 
and sense of the nation, used in such cases : since he in- 
troduced no exception at all from that general rule and 
custom. 

IIL That^" he scarcely could signify his mind, that this 
prayer should be universally and constantly used, by any 
marks or signs more clear than those which he made use 
of. For, 

First, He commanded all, without any exception or dis- 
tinction, " After this manner pray ye f and, " When ye pray, 
say, Our Father," &c. 

Secondly, As, according to the ordinary custom of the na- 
tion, forms of prayer, delivered by the masters to the scholars, 
were to be used, and were used by them all indifferently, and 
without distinction of persons ; so also he neither suggested 
any thing concerning this his prayer, either besides the com- 
mon custom, or contrary to it. 

Thirdly, The form itself carries along with it certain cha- 
racters, both of its public and private and constant use. It 
may certainly with good reason be asked, ^V^hy, since Christ 

e Levsden's edit., vol. ii. p. 303. ^ English /oho edit., vol. ii. p. 161. 



154 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. vi. i6, 17. 

had delivered this prayer in such plain words in his sermon 
upon the mount, this command moreover being added, "After 
this manner pray ye," it was desired again, that he would 
teach them to pray ? What ! had they forgotten that prayer 
that was given them there ? Were they ignorant that it was 
given them for a form of prayer, and so to be used ? But this 
seems rather the cause why they desired a second time a form 
of prayer, namely, because they might reckon that first for a 
public form of prayer; since this might easily be evinced, 
both by the addition of the conclusion so like the public 
response in the Temple, and especially by the addition of 
Amen used only in public assemblies : therefore, they be- 
seech him again, that he would teach them to pray privately ; 
and he repeats the same form, but omits the conclusion, and 
Amen, which savoured of public use. Therefore you have 
in the conclusion a sign of the public use, by the agreement 
of it to tlie response in the Temple ; and of the private, by 
the agreement of it to the ejaculation in the phylacterical 
prayers. A sign of the public use was in the addition of 
Amen ; a sign of the private use was in the absence of it : a 
sign of both in the conformity of the whole to the custom 
of the nation. Christ taught his disciples to pray, as John 
had taught his, Luke xi. 1 : John taught his, as the masters 
among the Jews had theirs, by yielding them a form to be 
used by all theirs daily, verbatim, and in terms. 

Ver. 16 : ' AfpavtCovai ra Trpoa-ufna avTu>v They disfigure their 
faces^ That is, they disguised their faces with ashes; as he 
heretofore upon another cause, i Kings xx. 38 : "In' the pub- 
lic fasts every one took ashes, and put upon his head. They^ 
say of R. Joshua Ben Ananiah, that, all the days of his life, 
m^'DVn ^HDO VDD innUJin Ms face was black hy reason of his 
fastings. Why^ is his name called Ashur? (i Chron. iv. 5.) 
T^DD I'ln^Dintl? Because Ms face tvas black by fastings." 

Here let that of Seneca" come in ; " This is against nature, 
to hate easy cleanliness, and to affect nastiness." 

Ver. 17: 2v 8e vrjcrnxxav aX.€i,\l/aC (tov ttjv Ke<pa\i]V, &c. 
But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, &c.] For those 
that fasted neither anointed themselves nor washed. " On " 

' Taanith, c. 2. ^ Juchasin, f. 59. ' Bab. Sotah, fol. 12. i. 
"> Epist. 5. " Jotna, cap. 8. hal. i. 



Ch.vi. 17.J Exercitations upon 8t. Matthew. 155 

the day of Expiation it was forbidden to eat, to drink, to 
wash, to anoint themselves, to put on their sandals, to lie 
with their wives, liut the king and the bride may wash 
their faces, and a midwife may put on her sandals." See the 
Babylonian Gemara^ here. See also the Babylonian Talmud 
in the tract TaanithP, concerning other fasts, and the fasts of 
private men. 

They were wont to anoint their bodies and heads upon a 
threefold reason : 

I. ^lii^ilS For finer dr'ess. " Anointings is permitted to 
be used on the sabbath, whether it be for ornament, or not 
for ornament. On the day of Expiation both are forbidden. 
On the ninth day of the month Ab, and in the public fasts, 
anointing for dress is forbid ; anointing not for dress is 
allowed." 

II. :i')3yn^ i^b^ nyO They anointed themselves often, 
not for excess, or hravert/, or delight, but for the healing of 
some disease, or for the health of the body. lIL-h^l ri^ ^IDTH 
\\V:>?J ^D ]"DtOn ^2. "hv^ 1^? He"" that is troubled with the 
head- ache., or on whom scabs arise., let him anoioit himself tvith 
oil. 

'' A s tradition of the Rabbins. It is forbidden [^;^ fasts'] 
to wash a part of the body, as well as the whole body. But 
if it be defiled with dirt or dung, let him wash according to 
the custom, and let him not be troubled. It is also forbidden 
to anoint a part of the body, as well as the whole body : but 
if t a man be sick, or if a scab arise on his head, let him anoint 
himself according to the custom.^' 

Hence % when the apostles are said " to anoint the s^ick 
with oil, and to heal them," Mark vi. 13, they used an ordi- 
nary medicine, and obtained an extraordinary and infallible 
effect. 

Hence that of St. James, chap. v. 14: " Let the sick man 
call for the elders of the church, and let them pray over him, 
anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord :" that is, to 
that ordinary medicine, namely, anointing for recovery of 



° Fol. 77. 2. r Hieros. in the place above. 

1' Fol. 12. 2. and 13. 2. ^ g;;], Joma, fol. 77. 2. 

1 Hieros. in Maasar Sheni, fol. * heasdens edition, vol. ii. p. 304. 

53. 2. and Schabb. fol. 12. i. " Enxjlish folio edit., vol. ii. ]•. 162. 



156 Hebrew and TalmmUcal [Ch.vi. 22,23. 

health, let the prayers of the ministers of* the church be used. 

III. They used sometimes a superstitious anointing of the 

head, and nothing differing from magical anointing : t^intl' tTJ 

^rch\ nt" t^"^ ^n:i hv pti? \n"l2 ^rvh He^ that mutters, let 
him put oil upon his head, and mutter. This muttering is to 
be understood concerning the manner of saying a charm 
upon the wound, or some place of the body that feels pain ; 
nD?On hv tDm 7 muttering over the wound ; of which mention 
is made in the tract Sanhedrim!. Mention also is made in 
the tract Schahhath^ now alleged, that some used this en- 
chanting muttering in the name of Jesus : " One being sick, 
a certain person came to him, and muttered upon him in the 
name of Jesus of Pandira, and he was healed." And a little 
after ; " E. Eliezer Ben Damah was bitten by a serpent. James 
of Capharsam came to heal him in the name of Jesus : but 
R. Tsmael permitted him not," &c. See Acts xix. 13. 

If the words of James before alleged be compared with this 
cursed custom, they may well sound to this sense ; ' It is cus- 
tomary for the unbelieving Jews to use anointing of the sick 
joined with a magical and enchanting muttering ; but how in- 
finitely better is it to join the pious prayers of the elders of 
the church to the anointing of the sick !' 

Ver, 22 : 'Ear 6 ocpOaKixos crov airkovs rj- If thine eye he 
single. Ver. 23 : 'Eav 6 dcpdaXfxos (tov novrjpbs ?]• I/ thine eye 
he evil.] That the business here is about a covetous, or a not 
covetous mind, may be gathered, 

I. From the context on either hand : for, ver. 20, 21, the 
discourse is concerning treasures either earthly or heavenly, 
and, ver. 24, concerning serving either God or Mammon. 

II. From a very usual manner of speech of the nation. For 
a good eye, to the Jews, is the same with a bountiful mind ; 
and an evil eye is the same with a covetous mind. " This» is 
the measure of the Truma" (or, of the oblation yielded to the 
priests), D''ia"^i^^ 'fc^ HC ^'V ^ good eye yicldeth one out of 

forty ; that is, the fortieth part. " The school of Shammai 
saith, One out of thirty. A middling eye, one out of fifty. 
D''IZ}C72 h? Hi^im And an ecil eye, one out of sixty. |]min 

^ Hieros. in Maasar Sheni, in the ^ Col. 4. 
jilace above, and in Schab. f. 14. 3. ^ Trumoth, cap. 4. hal. 3. 

y Cap. 10. hal. I. 



Ch. vi. 26. — vii. 4.] E.cercitatiot'S upon St.MatiJieiv. 157 

nS'' W2 ]m: niTr^ Tllty^l He^ that pices a gift, let Jam gice 
icitJi a good eye : and he that dedicates any thing, let him de- 
dicate it T^Tth a good eye.'" See !Matt. xx. 15. Hence covet- 
ousuess is called kiriBvixCa tcHv 6(pda\ix^v, the lust of the eyes, 
1 John ii. 16. Therefore our Saviour shows here with how 
great darkness the mind is clouded and dimmed by covetous- 
ness, and too much care of worldly things. 

Ver. 26 : ITercu-a rod oipavov ov crmLpovau', &c.: The fowls 
of the ai)\ they soic not, &c.] " Have'^ you ever seen beasts or 
fowls that had a workshop : And yet they are fed without 
trouble of mind/' &c. See also Midras TilHn ^. 

Ver. 30 : 'OAiyoTrttj-of ye of little faith.] Hll'^h^ ^r't^p 
Small of faith, a phrase very frequent in the Talmudists. 

n:'i?2« ^:'^p72 n; nn inb^nn ^h^p T^ir^n He' that 

prayed vyith a loud voice, is to be numbered among those that are 
little of faith. oXiyo-iaTov^. The^ Israelites in the wilder- 
ness were n2'^.?2i^ ^!I2p oAtyo'-torot, of little faith. R. Abu- 
habh in the preface to Menorath hammaor ; '• E. Eliezer 
saith, 'Whosoever hath but a small morsel in his basket, and 
saith, What have I to eat to-morrow, behold, he is to be 
reckoned among n:i!2t^ "^:L:p those of little faith.' " 

Ver. 34 S: ^ApKerov tt) y)iJ-^pa ^) KaKia ain^/s" Sufficient to the 
day is the evil thereof ?\ j nririL'2 n'l!»^ JT'l There^ is enough 
of trouble in the very moment. 

CHAP. VH. 

Ver. 2 : 'Er w /^erpco p.eTpdr€- With what measure ye mete.] 
This is a very common proverb among the Jews : n"T23. 
\^h Yl~\^^ "ni'2 □It^C Li' the measure that a man mea- 
sureth, others measure to him. See also the tract Sbtah ^, 
where it is illustrated by various examples. 

Ver. 4 : 'Ex/SaAw to Kap(^os a-o tov 6(f)da\p.ov aov, &c. Let 
me pull out the mote out of thine eye, &c.] And this also was 
a known proverb among them : "It * is written in the days 
when they judged the judges, that is, in the generation which 

^ Hieros. Bava Bathra, fol. 14. 4. ^ Bab. Berac. fol. 9. 2. 

c Kiddushin, cap. ult. bal. ult. ' Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 100. i. near 

^ Fol. 15. I. the end. 

e Bab. Berac. fol. 24. 2. i' Cap. i, hal. 7, 8. 9. 

f Id. Erachin, fol. 15. i. i Bab. Bava Bathra, fol. 15. 2. 

? Emjlish folio edit., vol. ii. p. 163. 



158 Hebrew and Talinudical [Oh.vii.9,&;c. 

judged their judges, When "^ any [judge] DD'^p vlt^S 17 "^?;2')t^ 
'7'^D''^ V^ll^ said to another^ Cast out the mote out of thine eye ,• 

: ^^^**!^ ]''l^ n"l1D hy^ 'h 'V^y^ he ansimred. Cast you out the 
beam out of your oion eye" &c. 

" E. Tarphon " said, ' I wonder whether there be any in 
this age that will receive reproof : but if one saith to an- 
other. Oast out the mote out of thine eye, he will be ready 
to answer, Cast out the beam out of thine own eye/ " Where 
the Gloss writes thus ; 'GD'^p " Cast out the mote, that is, the 
small sin that is in thine hand ; he may answer, But cast 
you out the great sin that is in yours. So that they could 
not reprove, because all were sinners." See also the Aruch 
In the word DDp- 

Ver. 9 : M^j kidov eTrtScoo-et avri^ ; Will he give him a stone ? 
Here that of Seneca ° comes into my mind ; " Verrucosus 
called a benefit roughly given from a hard man, panem lapi- 
dosum, ' stony bread.' " 

Ver. 12 : Ylavra oaa av 6e/\.riT€, tva noiSxnv vyXv o\ avOpooiroL, 
&c. Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, &c.] 
A P certain Gentile came to Shammai, and said, ' Make me a 
proselyte, that I may learn the whole law, standing upon one 
foot :' Shammai beat him with the staff that was in his hand. 
He went to Hillel, and he made him a proselyte, and said, 

"f^nvn ^ ynrh ^'10 '7^1 That which is odious to thyself, 
do it not to thy neighbour : for this is the whole law. 

Ver. 13 : Evpvx'^pos fj bhor Broad is the way.] In these 
words, concerning the broad and narrow way, our Saviour 
seems to allude to the rules of the Jews among their lawyers 
concerning the public and private ways. With whom, " a 
private way was four cubits in breadth ; a public way was 
sixteen cubits." See the Gloss in Peah^. 

Ver. 141": Uv\r]- Gate.] Under this phrase are very many 
things in religion expressed in the Holy Scripture, Gen. xxviii. 
17, Psal. cxviii. 19, 20, Matt. xvi. 18, &c, ; and also in the 
Jewish writers, ' The gate of repentance' is mentioned by 
the Chaldee paraphrast upon Jer. xxxiii. 6 ; and ' the gate of 



"1 Leusden's edit., vol.ii. p. 305. P Bab. Schab. fol.31. i. 

" Bab. Erachin. fol. 16. 2. 1 Cap. 2. hal. i. 

o De Benefic. lib. ii. cap. 7. ^ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 164. 



Ch. vii. 15, &c.] Ezercitations upon St. Matthew. 159 

prayers/ and 'the gate of tears.' " Sinces the Temple was 
laid waste, the gates of prayer were shut, but the gates of 
tears were not shut." 

^Tevri -nvXy], Strait gate, seems to be the Greek rendering of 
tJCU^'D Pishpesh, a word very usual among the Talmudists : 
tDQ^L^Sn rib^ TMTS^ " Witht a key he opened the little door, and 
out of Beth-mokad" {the place of the fire-hearth) " he entereth 
into the court." U}5tI}D, saith the Aruch, is a little door in the 
midst of a great door. 

Ver. 15 : 'Ey evbvixaai -npo^aridV In sheep's clothing.'] Not so 
much in woollen garments as in the very skins of sheep : so 
that "outwardly they might seem sheep, but " inwardly they 
were ravening wolves." Of the ravenousness of wolves among 
the Jews, take these two examples besides others. " The " 
elders proclaimed a fast in their cities upon this occasion, be- 
cause the wolves had devoured two little children beyond 
Jordan. More'^ than three hundred sheep of the sons of 
Judah Ben Sbamoe were torn by wolves." 

Ver. 1 6 : ' Atto twv KapirSiv avT&v €T:Lyi>u)<rs(T6e avrovr By their 
fruits ye shall hnow them.'] That is a proverb not unlike it. 
^M^ rT'DlOpi^ r!J1Il ri^"^! a y gourd, a gourd, is hioian hi/ its 
branch. 

Ver. 29 : 'Os k^ovaiav e^^coy, koL ov^ ws ol ypaiiixaT^ls' As 
one having authority, and not as the scrihes.] It is said with 
good reason, in the verse going before, that " the multitude 
were astonished at Christ's doctrine :" for, besides his divine 
truth, depth, and convincing power, they had not before heard 
any discoursing with that avdevrua, authority, that he did. 
The scribes borrowed credit to their doctrine from traditions, 
and the fathers of them : and no sermon of any scribe had 
any authority or value, without 'j'';]!^ IDn The Ralhins have 
a tradition, or Q''1?D'lhi D''^3n The wise men say; or some 
traditional oracle of that nature. Hillel the Great taught 
truly, and as the tradition was concerning a certain thing ; 
"But^, although he discoursed of that matter all day long, 
'\':i'CiO ibllp h?7 they received not his doctrine, until he said at 
last, So I heard from Shemaia and Abtalion." 

s Bab. Berac. fol.32. 2. ^ Hieros. Jom. tobh, fol. 60. i. 

t Tamid, cap. i. hal.3. y Bab. Berac. fol. 48. i. 

" Taanith, cap. 3. hal. 7. ^ Hieros. Pesachin, fol. 33. i. 



160 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. viii. 2. 



CHAP. VIII. 

Ver. 2 : ^vvaaai /xe KaOapiaac Thou canst make me clean.'] 
The doctrine in the law concerning leprosy paints out very 
well the doctrine of sin. 

I. It teacheth, that no creature is so unclean by a touch 
as man. Yea, it may with good reason be asked, whether 
any creature, while it lived, was unclean to the touch, be- 
side man ? That is often repeated in the Talmudists, that 
" he that takes a worm in his hand*, all the waters of Jordan 
cannot wash him from his uncleanness ;" that is, while the 
worm is as yet in his hand ; or the worm being cast away, 
not until the time appointed for^» such purification be ex- 
pired. But whether it is to be understood of a living or 
dead worm, it is doubted, not without cause, since the law, 
treating of this matter, speaketh only of those things that 
died of themselves. See Lev. xi. 3 1 : " Whosoever shall touch 
them when they be dead," &c. : and ver. 32, " Upon whatso- 
ever any of them, when they are dead, shall fall," &c. But 
whether he speaks of a living worm, or a dead, uncleanness 
followed by the touch of it for that day only : for " he shall 
bo unclean (saith the law) until the evening:" but the carcase 
of a man being touched, a week's uncleanness followed. See 
Num. xix. 

II. Among all the uncleannesses of men, leprosy was the 
greatest, inasmuch as other uncleannesses separated the un- 
clean person, or rendered him unclean, for a day, or a week, 
or a month ; but the leprosy, perhaps, for ever. 

III. When the leper was purified, the leprosy was not 
healed : but the poison of the disease being evaporated, and 
the danger of the contagion gone, the leper was restored to 
the public congregation. Gehazi, the servant of Elisha, was 
adjudged to perpetual leprosy ; and yet he was cleansed, and 
conversed with the king (2 Kings viii. 5); cleansed, not healed. 
Thus under justification and sanctification there remain still 
the seeds and filth of sin. 

IV. He that was full of the leprosy was pronounced 

* Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 306. ^ English folin edit., vol. ii. p. 1A5. 



Ch. viii, 3,4.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 161 

clean ; he that was otherwise, was not. Levit. xiii. 12; " If 
the leprosy shall cover the whole body from head to foot, 
thou shalt pronounce him clean," &c. A law certainly to be 
wondered at ! Is he not clean, till the whole body be in- 
fected and covered with the leprosy I Nor shalt thou, O sin- 
ner, be made clean without the like condition. Either ac- 
knowledge thyself all over leprous, or thou shalt not be 
cleansed. 

Ver. 3 : "Hx/^aro avrov 6 'Irjtrous' Jesus touched him.] It was 
indeed a wonder, that when the leprosy was a creeping infec- 
tion, the priest, when he judged of it, was not hurt with the 
infection. It cannot be passed over without observation, that 
Aaron, being bound under the same guilt with Miriam, bore 
not the same punishment : for she was touched with leprosy, 
he not, Num. xii. And also that Uzziah should be confuted 
concerning his encroaching upon the priesthood no other way 
than by the plague of leprosy. In him God would magnify 
the priesthood, that was to judge of the leprosy ; and he 
would shew the other was no priest, by his being touched 
with the leprosy. It can scarcely be denied, indeed, that 
the priests sometimes might be touched with that plague ; 
but certainly they catched not the contagion while they 
were doing their office in judging of it. This is a noble 
doctrine of our High Priest, the Judge and Physician of our 
leprosy, while he remains wholly untouched by it. How much 
does he surpass that miracle of the Levitical priesthood ! 
They were not touched by the contagion when they touched 
the leprous person ; he, by his touch, heals him that hath 
the infection. 

Ver. 4 : "Tiraye, aeavrbv bel^ov rw Upel, &c. Go, sheio thyself 
to the priest, ^c] I. Our Saviour would not have the extra- 
ordinary manner whereby he was healed discovered to the 
priest, that he might pay the ordinary duty of his cleansing. 
And surely it deserves no slight consideration, that he sends 
him to the priest. However now the priesthood was too de- 
generate both from its institution and its office, yet he would 
reserve to it its privileges, while he would reserve the priest- 
hood itself. Corruption, indeed, defiles a divine institution, 
but extinguishes it not. 

II. Those things which at that time were to be done in 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. M 



162 Hebrew and Tahnudical [Ch. viii. 4. 

cleansing of the leprosy, according to the Kubric, were these : 
" Let him bring three beasts : that is, a sacrifice for sin 
[il^^^n], o, sacrifice for transgression TDtTb^], and a burnt- 
offering. But a poor man brought a sacrifice for sin of birds, 
and a burnt-offering of birds. He stands by the sacrifice for 
transgression, and lays both his hands upon it, and slays it : 
and two priests receive the blood ; the one in a vessel, the 
other in his hand. He who receives the blood in his hand 
goes to the leper in the chamber of the lepers :" this was in 
the corner of the Court of the Women, looking north-west. 
" He placeth him in the gate of Nicanor," the east gate of 
the Court of Israel ; " he stretcheth forth his head within 
the court, and puts blood upon the lowest part of his ear : 
he stretcheth out his hand also within the court, and he 
puts blood upon his thumb and his foot, and he puts blood 
also upon his great toe, &c. And the other adds oil to the 
same members in the same place," &c. The reason why, 
with his^ neck held out, he so thrust forth his head and ears 
into the court, you may learn from the Glosser : " The gate 
of Nicanor (saith he) was between the Court of the Women 
and the Court of Israel : but now it was not lawful for any 
to enter into the Court of Isi-ael for whom there was not a 
perfect exj)iation : and^ on the contrary, it was not lawful to 
carry the blood of the sacrifice for transgression out of the 
court." Hence was that invention, that the leper that was 
to be cleansed should stand without the court ; and yet his 
ears, his thumbs, and his toes, to which the blood was to be 
applied, were within the court. We omit saying more ; it is 
enough to have produced these things, whence it may be ob- 
served what things they were that our Saviour sent back this 
healed person to do. 

The cure was done in Galilee, and thence he is sent away 
to Jerusalem ; silence and sacrifice are enjoined him : "Opa 
fxrjbevl eiTrrjs, &c. See thou tell no man, &c. : koL TrpocriveyKe to 
h5)pov, tfec. : and offer the fift, &c. And why all these things ? 

First, Christ makes trial of the obedience 'l and gratitude of 
him that was cured, laying upon him the charge of a sacrifice 
and the labour of a journey. 

c English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 166. ^ Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 307. 



Ch. yiii. 6, 12.] Erercifations upon Si. Matthew. 163 

Secondly, He would have him restored to the communion 
of the church (from which his leprosy had separated him), 
after the wonted and instituted manner. He provides that 
he himself give no scandal, and the person healed make no 
schism : and however both his words and gestures sufficiently 
argue that he believed in Christ, yet Christ will by no means 
draw him from the communion of the church, but restore him 
to it. Hence is that command of his to him ; " See thou tell 
no man, but offer a gift for a testimony to them :"" that is, 
' Do not boast the extraordinary manner of thy healing ; 
think not thyself freed from the bond of the law, in case 
of a leper, because of it ; thrust not thyself into the com- 
munion of the church before the rites of admission be duly 
performed : but, however you have no business with the 
priest in reference to the purification and cleansing, go to 
the priest nevertheless, and offer the gift that is due, for a 
testimony that you are again restored into communion with 
them.^ This caution of our Saviour hath the same tendency 
with that, Matt. xvii. 27, " That we be not an offence to 
them," &c. 

Ver. 6 : Be^ArjTttf Lieth.] : ^tDI^ Laid forth. Thus, 
7t:21D r\t2 A dead man laid forth, in order to his being 
carried out. The power and dominion of the disease is 
so expressed. The weak person lieth so, that he is moved 
only by others ; he cannot move himself, but is, as it were, 
next door to carrying out. So, ver. 14, of Peter's mother- 
in-law, riv I3e[3kr]ijievi] koI -nvp^aaovaa, ivas laid, and sicTc of a 
fever. 

Ver. 12 : 'EKjSXrj^j/croirat 66? to ctkoto^ to €^a>T€pov Shall be 
cast out into outer darkness.] Hear, O Jew, thy most sad but 
certainly most just judgment, concerning thy eternal blind- 
ness and perdition. For whatsoever to ctkotos to e^wTepov, 
outer darkness, signifies, whether the darkness of the heathen 
(for to the Jews the heathen were 01 efco, those that are 
without), or that darkness beyond that, Isaiah ix. i, or both ; 
our Saviour clearly intimates the Jews were thither to be 
banished ; but that they were to be recalled again, he inti- 
mates not anywhere : if so be by v'lov^ (SaaiXeCas, chikhen of 
the kingdom, they be to be understood : which who is there 
that denies ? 

M 2 



164 Hebrew and Talnmdical [Ch. viii. i6. 

Ver. 16: 'Ox/^i'a? 8e y^voixivr]s' When the even was come.] 
Mark adds, ore ebv 6 17X10?, when the sun teas noio set, and 
the sabbath was now gone. 

I. The sabbath was ended by the Jews at the supper, or 
the feast. In vvhicli they used a candle (as they did upon 
the entrance of the sabbath), and wine, and spices ; and the 
form of a blessing over a cup of wine, and then over the 
candle, and then over the spices : " Does the sabbath end 
when he is now in the middle of his feast? He puts an end 
to his eating ; washes his hands ; and over a cup of wine 
he gives thanks for his food ; and afterward over that cup 
he useth the form of prayer in the separation of the sabbath 
from^ a common day : if he be now drinking when the sab- 
bath goes out, he ceaseth from drinking, and recites the form 
of separation, and then returns to his drinking^." 

II. The proper limits of the sabbath were from sun-set to 
sun-set. This is sufficiently intimated by St. Mark, when 
he saith, that ore e6v 6 r/Atos, ichen the sun was now set., they 
brought the sick to be healed : which they held unlawful to 
do while the sim was yet going down, and the sabbath yet 
present. 

The Tahnudic canons give a caution of some works, that 
they be not begun on the day before the sabbath, if they 
may not be ended and finished, DV "ni^lO while it is yet 
day : that is (as they explain it), U^DILTI Di^ while the sun is 

not yet sets. r\T?^ Dllp DV T^^::!^ p^^lH^ -f^!^ p^^ltJH 
(IT^nn ffe that lights a [sabbath] candle, let him light it while 
it is yet day, before sun-set^. " On the sabbath-eve it is per- 
mitted to work until sun-seti." The entrance of the sabbath 
was at sun-set, and so was the end of it. 

III. After the setting of sun, a certain space was called 
miD^^L^n ]''2 Bin Hashnashuth : concerning which these 
things are disputed^ ; "What is nitl^r^tOT ^1? R. Tanchuma 
saith, It is like a drop of blood put upon the very edge of a 
sword, which divides itself every where. What is "{^2 
mtyT^^n? It is from that time when the sun sets, whilst one 
may walk half a mile. B. Josi saith, nitT^^Dn ]''2 is like a 

c English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 167. ^ Maimon. in Schab. cap. 5, &c. 
^ Maimon. Schab. cap. 29. » Hieros. Sheviith, fol. 33. i. 

B Schab. cap. i. ^ Hieros. Berac. fol. 2. 2. 



Ch. viii. 17.] Exercitations upon ^t. Matthew. 165 

wink of the eye," &c. mtZ^D^TI pH properly signifies, 
between the smts : and the manner of speech seems to be 
drawn thence, that there are said to be two mi?^ptD sun-sets. 
Concerning which, read the Glosser upon Maimonides^ 
Where thus also Maimonides himself : " From the time that 
the sun sets till the three middle stars appear, it is called 
JTTltlJ^U? r2 hdiceen the suns : and it is a doubt whether that 
time be part of the day or of the night. However, they 
every where judge of it "^^^nnS to render the office heacy. 
Therefore, between that time they do not light the sabbatical 
candle : and whosoever shall do any servile work on the sab- 
bath-eve, and in the going out of the sabbath, is bound to 
offer a sacrifice for sin/' So also the Jerusalem Talmudists 
in the place last cited : " Does one star appear? Certainly, as 
yet it is day. Do two? It is doubted whether it be day. 
Do three? It is night without doubt/' And a line after; 
" On the sabbath-eve, if any work after one star seen, he is 
clear: if after r" two, he is bound to a ^orifice for a trans- 
gression ; if after three, he is bound to a sacrifice for sin. 
Likewise, in the going out of the sabbath, if he do any work 
after one star is seen, he is bound to a sacrifice for sin ; if 
after two, to a sacrifice for transgression : if after three, he is 
clear." 

Hence you may see at what time they brought persons 
here to Christ to be healed, namely, in the going out of the 
sabbath ; if so be they took care of the canonical hour of the 
nation, which is not to be doubted of. 

Ver, 17 : Avtos ras aadeveias rjfxcov eAa/3e" Himself took our 
infirmities.'] Divers names of the Messias ai'e produced by 
the Talmudists", among others :10U; ""n"^ tm t^n^llVH "The 
Rabbins say, His name is, ' The leper of the house of Rabbi ;"' 
as it is said. Certainly he bare our infirmities/' &c. And a 
little after, '' Rabh saith, If Messias be among the living, 
Rabbenu Haccodesh is he." The Gloss is, " If Messias be 
of them that are now alive, certainly our holy Rabbi is he, 
as being one that carries infirmities," &c. R. Judah, whom 
they called ' the Holy,' underwent very many sicknesses (of 
whom, and of his sicknesses, you have the story in the Tal- 

' In Schab. cap. 5. ™ Leusdeii's edition, vol.ii. p. ,308, 

" Bab. Sanhedr. fol.oS. 2. 



166 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. viii. 28. 

mud, " Thirteen years Rabbi laboured under the pain of the 
teeth," &c.); because of which there were some who were 
pleased to account him for the Messias ; because, according 
to the prophets, Messias should be ' a man of sorrows :' and 
yet they look for him coming in pomp. 

This allegation of Matthew may seem somewhat unsuitable 
and different from the sense of the prophet : for Isaiah 
speaks of the Messias carrying our infirmities in himself; 
but INIatthew speaks concerning him healing them in others : 
Isaiah of the diseases of the soul (see 1 Pet. ii. 24) ; Matthew 
of the diseases of the body. But in this sense both agree 
very well, that Christ's business was with our infirmities and 
sorrows, and he was able to manage that business : his part 
was to carry and bear them, and in him was strength and 
power to carry and bear them. In this sense, therefore, is 
Matthew to be understood ; he healed the demoniacs and all 
diseased persons with his word, that that of Isaiah might be 
fulfilled, He it is wh% is able to bear and carry our sorrows 
and sicknesses. And so, whether you apply the words to the 
diseases of the mind or the body, a plain sense by an equal 
easiness does arise. The sense of Isaiah reacheth indeed 
further; namely, That Messias himself shall be a man of 
sorrows, &c., but not excluding that which we have mentioned, 
•which Matthew very fitly retains, as excellently well suiting 
with his case. 

Ver. 28 P : Ets r?;y )(Oipav t&v Fepyearjvcav Into the country 
of the Gergesenes.'] In Mark and Luke it is, rwy Tabap-qviov, 
of the Gadarenes, both very properly : for it was the city 
Gadara, whence the country had its name : there was also 
Gergasa, a city or a town within that country ; which whe- 
ther it bare its name from the ancient Oanaanite stock of the 
Gergashites, or from the word t^]!^^"^;! Gargushta, which 
signifies cla]/ or dirt, we leave to the more learned to discuss. 
Lutetia, [Paris], a word of such a nature, may be brought for 
an example. 

Ayo haniovi(6iisvoi eK tS)V fivrjixeCotv efe/5)(o/>iei'ot, &c. Tivo 
possessed with devils coming out of the tombs, t^-c] " These n 
are the signs of a HI^IU? madman. He goes out in the night, 

" Hieros, Kilaim, fol. 32. i. P Enylish folio edit., vol. ii. p. 168. 

1 Hieros, Trumoth, fol. 40. 2. 



Oh. viii. 30.] Exercitatiom upon St. Matthew. 167 

and lodges among the sepulchres, and teareth his garments, 
and tramples upon whatsoever is given him. E. Houna saith, 
But is he only mad in whom all these signs are ? I say, Not. 
He that goes out in the night D'^2'''^l3'^2p is chonclriacus, 
hypochondriacal. He that lodgeth a night among the tombs 
□"^"Hr;7 ItipQ hurnB incense to devils. He that tears his 
garments D1|Tv'^3 is melancholic. And he that tramples 
under his feet whatsoever is given him is D'lp''""y"11p car- 
diacus, troubled in mind.'''' And a little after, HtDllD D'^^^D 
Dl /il D''DI?D " one while he is mad, another tvhile he is well : 
while he is mad, he is to be esteemed for a madman in respect 
of all his actions : while he is well, he is to be esteemed for 
one that is his own man in all respects." See what we say at 
chap. xvii. 15. 

Ver. 30 : 'AyeXr; \otpa)v 7to\XS>v jSocTKoixivr]' A herd of many 
sivine feeding.'] Were these Gadarenes Jews, or heathens ? 

I. It was a matter of infamy for a Jew to keep swine : 
" R. Jonah r had a very red face, which a certain woman 
seeing said thus, b^^D '^2.0 Seignior, Seignior, either you are 
a winebibber, or a usurer, or a keeper of hogs." 

H. It was forbidden by the canon: " The ^ wise men 
forbade to keep hogs anywhere, and a dog, unless he were 
chained." Hogs upon a twofold account: 1. By reason of 
the hurt and damage that they would bring to other men's 
fields. Generally, " the' keeping smaller cattle was forbid in 
the land of Israel ;" among which you may very well reckon 
hogs even in the first place : and the reason is given by the 
Gemarists, " That they break not into other men's grounds." 
2. The feeding of hogs is more particularly forbidden for 
their uncleanness. For D'^'Q'T ^Dl rrr\r\0 T^vh 11D« 
D''^^?^^^ It is forbidden to trade in any thing that is unclean^. 

III. Yea, it was forbid under a curse : " The^ wise men 
say, Cursed is he that keeps dogs and swine ; because from 
them ariseth much harm." 

" Lety no man keep hogs anywhere. The Rabbins de- 
liver : When the Asmonean family were in hostility among 

f Hieros. Shekalim, fol. 47. 3. ^^ Gloss, in Kama, in the place 

s Maimon. in Nizke Mammon, above, 

cap. 5. ^ Maimon. in the place before. 

t Bava Kama, cap. 7. hal. 7. y Bab. Kama, fol. 82. 2. 



168 Hebreio and Talmudical [Oh. ix. 9. 

themselves, Hyrcanus was besieged within Jerusalem, and 
Aristobulus was without. The besieged sent money in a 
box let down 2 by a rope; and they which were without 
bought with it the daily sacrifices, which were drawn up by 
those that were within. Among the besiegers there was one 
skilled in the Greek learning, who said, ' As long as they 
thus perform the service of the Temple, they will not be de- 
livered into your hands.' The next day, therefore, they let 
down their money, and these sent them back a hog. When 
the hog was drawing up, and came to the middle of the wall, 
he fixed his hoofs to the wall, and the land of Israel was 
shaken, &c. From that time they said, ' Cursed be he who 
keeps hog?, and cursed be he who teacheth his son the wis- 
dom of the Greeks.' " This story is cited in Menachotha, 

Therefore you will wonder, and not without cause, at that 
which is related in their Talmud : " Theyb said sometimes to 
Rabli Judah, There is a plague among the swine. He there- 
fore appointed a fast." What! is a Jew concerned for a 
plague among swine ? But the reason is added : " For Rabh 
Juduh thought that a stroke laid upon one kind of cattle 
would invade all." 

You may not, therefore, imj)roperly guess, that these hogs 
belonged not to the Jews, but to the heathen dwelling among 
the Gadarene Jews ; for such a mixture was very usual in 
the cities and countries of the land of Israel. Which we 
observe elsewhere of the town Susitha or Hippo, but some 
small distance from Gadara. 

Orc if you grant that they were Jews, their manners will 
make that opinion probable, as being persons whose highest 
law the purse and profit was wont to be. Since brawn and 
swine''s flesh were of so great account with the Romans and 
other heathens, there is no reason to believe that a Jew was 
held so straitly by his canons, as to value them before his 
own profit, when there was hope of gain. 

CHAP. IX. 

Ver. y : EtSey avOpuiirov KaOrnxwov kml to Te\(avtov, MarOoiov 
Xeyofievov He sato a man sittinf) at the receipt of custom, called 

^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 309. ^ Bab. Taanith, fol. 21.2. 

^ Fol. 64. 2. <■ English fnlio edit,, vol. ii. p. J 71. 



Ch. ix. 14.] Exercitations upon St. Mattheir. 169 

Mattheiv.^ Five disciples of Christ are mentioned by the 
Tahmidists, among whom Matthew seems to be named : 
" Thed Rabbins deUver, There were five disciples of Jesus, 
nnm "O"!!"! "1!J3 ''fc«^p3 '^b^no Mathal, Nalai, Nezer, and 
Boni, and Thodah," These, they relate, were led out and 
killed. See the place. Perhaps five are only mentioned by 
them, because five of the disciples were chiefly employed 
among the Jews in Judea : namely, Matthew who wrote his 
Gospel there, Peter, James, John, and Judas. 

Matthew seems to have sat in the custom-house of Caper- 
naum near the sea, to gather some certain toll or rate of those 
that sailed over. See Mark, chap. ii. 13, 14. 

" He^ that produceth paper [on the Sabbath] in which 
a publican*'s note is writ, and he that produceth a publican's 
note, is guilty." The Gloss is, " When any pays tribute to 
the lord of the river, or when he excuses him his tribute, 
he certifies the publican by a note [or some bill of free com- 
merce], that he hath remitted him his duty : and it was cus- 
tomary in it to write two letters greater than ours." See also 
the Gemara there, 

Ver. 14 : 'H/xeis koX 01 'i>apiaoA.oi. vr](TTevoiJ.ev TioAAd" We and 
the Pharisees fast oft.] Monsters, rather than stories, are 
related of the Pharisees'' fasts : — 

I. It is known to all, from Luke xviii. 12, that they were 
wont to fast twice every week. The rise of which custom 
you may fetch from this tradition : " Ezra ^ decreed ten 
decrees. He appointed the public reading of the law the 
second and fifth days of the week : and again on the sabbath 
at the Mincha [or evening service]. He instituted the session 
of the judges in cities on the second and fifth days of the 
week,^^ &c. Of this matter discourse is had elsewhere : " If& 
you ask the reason why the decree was made concerning the 
second and fifth days, &c., we must answer, saith the Gloss, 
from that which is said in Midras concerning Moses; namely, 
that he went up into the mount to receive the second tables 
on the fifth day of the week, and came down, God being now 
appeased, the second day. AVhen, therefore, that ascent and 
descent was a time of grace, they so determined of the second 

<* Bab. Sanhedr, fol.43. 1. f Bab. Bava Kama, fol. 82. 1. 

« Schabb. cap. 8. hal. 2. ^ Hieros. in Megill. fol. 75. 1. 



170 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch. ix. 15. 

and fifth clays. And therefore they were wont to fast also on 
the second and fifth days/^ 

IL It was not seldom that they enjoined themselves fasts, 
for this end, to have lueky dreams ; or to attain the interpre- 
tation of some dream ; or to turn away the ill import of a 
dream. Hence was that expression very usual, DItTT rT^JJ^n 
A fast for a dream ; and it was a common proverb, HD'' 
mil^A t^i^^ 'Crhrh t\^1Vr\ a fast is as fit for a dream, as 
fire is for flax. For this cause it was allowed to fast on the 
sabbath, which otherwise was forbidden. See the Babylonian 
Talmud, in the tract Schahhath^ : where also we meet with 
the story of R. Joshua Bar Rabh Idai, who on the sabbath 
was splendidly received by R. Ishai, but would not eat because 
he was Q'lbn n'^ii^nH under a fast for a dream. 

III. They fasted often to obtain their desires : " R. Josi^ 
fasted eighty fasts, and R. Simeon Ben Lachish three hundred 
for this end, that they might see R. Chaijah Rubbah.'^ And 
often to avert threatening evils ; of which fasts the tract 
Taanith does largely treat. Let one example be enough 
instead of many ; and that is, of R. Zadok, who for forty 
years, that is, from the time when'^ the gates of the Temple 
opened of their own accord (a sign of the destruction coming), 
did so mortify himself with fastings, that he was commonly 
called l«^U;)7n Chalsha, that is, 71ie weak. And when the city 
was now destroyed, and he saw it was in vain to fast any 
longer, he used the physicians of Titus to restore his health, 
which, through too much abstinence, had been wasted. 

Ver. 15 1 : Ot viol tov vvix(j)S)vos' The children of the hride- 
chamher.] HDin ""^l The sons of the hridechamher, an ordi- 
nary phrase. There is no need to relate their mirth in the 
time of the nuptials : I will relate that only, and it is enough, 
which is spoke by the Glosser m, p^ltZ^^Dl n^^int ^^ih ^T\^ 
They ivere wont to break glass vessels in weddings. And that 
for this reason, that they might by this action set bounds to 
their mirth, lest they should run out into too much excess. 
The Gemara produceth one or two stories there : '' Mar the 
son of Rabbena made wedding feasts for his son, and invited 

h Fol. ii.i. ^ English folio edit., yo\.\\.T^.i']2. 

i Hieros. Kilaim, fol. 32. 2. "^ In Bab. Berac. fol. 31. i. 

^ Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 310. 



Ch. i\. 1 8.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 171 

the Rabbins : and when he saw that their mirth exceeded its 
bounds, t«^"1p1T21 ^^D3 Tl''"'t^ he hrought forth a qlass cup 
worth four hundred zuzoes, and brake it before them ; where- 
upon they became sad." The hke story is also related of 
Rabh Ishai. And the reason of this action is given ; TlDs^\2? 
"tnyi "T^Q pinir t"«^^0'^U? Dlb^S Because it is forbidden a 
man to fill his mouth loith laughter in this world. [Tantum 
aberant a jejunando filii thalami. Leusd.'\ 

ncin, or the days of the bridechamber, to the sons of the 
bridechamher, that is, to the friends and acquaintance, were 
seven : hence there is frequent mention of " the seven days of 
the marriage-feast :" but to the bride, the days of the bride- 
chamber were thirty. It is forbidden to eat, drink, wash or 
anoint oneself on the day of Expiation : nb^l "JT'?^!!'! 
Drr^iD li^H")'' But'' it is alloiced a ling and a bride to ^cash their 
faces. " For the bride is to be made handsome (saith the 
Gloss upon the place), that she may be lovely to her husband. 

nSiD n^'i'ip t^^n nnsin'^ qv "h h::^ And all the thirty 

days of her bridechamber she is called The Bride. ^^ 

It is worth meditation, how the disciples, when Christ was 
with them, suffered no persecution at all ; but when he was 
absent, all manner of persecution overtook them. 

Ver, 1 8 : "ISou, apxinv Behold, a rider.'] Distinction" is 
made between riD^DH ]tn the bishop of the congregation, and 
nD3Dn II}^'^ the head of the congregation. For while the 
discourse is there of the high priest reading a certain portion 
of the law on the day of Expiation agreeable to the day, thus 
it is said, JlDiDn W^'h IDm^l TTS^TS "IQD ^I5')2 HDDrJH pH 
The bishop of the synagogue takes the book of the law, and gives 
it apxto-vvaycayio, to the rider of the synagogue. Where the 
Gloss thus, nO^Dn n*^! " The synagogue was in the mount of 
the Temple, near the court [which is worthy to be marked] : 
U^Qiy JlDS^n ]'jn The Chazan [or bishop, or overseer] of the 
synagogue is the minister : and the ruler of the synagogue is 
he by whose command the affairs of the synagogue are ap- 
pointed ; namely, who shall read the prophet, who shall recite 
the phylacteries, who shall pass before the ark." 

Of this order and function was Jairus, in the synagogue 

» In Joma, cap. 7. hal. i. ^ Ibid. 



1752 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. ix. 20, 23. 

of Capernaum : so that the word ap\(av, ruler^ being under- 
stood in this sense, admits of little obscurity, although eis, 
one, or ris, a certain, be not there : " he speaking these words, 
' Behold, the ruler of that synagogue/ " &c. 

Ver. 20 : kliioppooxxra' Diseased with an issue of blood.'] 
ni'J Zeba, in Talmudic language. The Talmudic tract pit 
may serve for a commentary here. 

These things were acted in the streets of Capernaum : for 
there Matthew lived, and there Jairus also : and in his pas- 
sage from the house of the one to the house of the other, this 
diseased woman met him. Weigh the story well, and you will 
easily judge what is to be thought of that story concerning 
the statues of this woman and Christ, set up at Paneas, or 
Caesarea Philippi : of which Eusebius p speaks. 

Ver. 23 : 'TSwy tovs avki-jTar Seeing the minstrels.'] Dion 
Cassiusq concerning the funeral of Augustus : 'O 6e 8?) Tt/Se- 
pLos Kol 6 ApovcTos 6 vlos avTov ^aiav, top ayopaiov rpo-nov ■Tie- 
TTOir][X€vrii', elxov. Kal rod p.^v kLjSavcoTov Kal avTol kdvcrav tw 

8e av\rjTfj ovk ix^p^avTo' Tiberius, and Drusus his son, 

sacrificed frankincense themselves ; but they used not a minstrel. 

n'2T\p72i') *" Bven s the poorest among the Israelites [his wife being 
dead], icill afford her not less than two pipes, and one woman to 
mahe lamentation. 

" He ' that hireth an ass-keeper, or a waggoner, to bring 
r\D7 Ib^ Th>j^ D''7"'7n pipes, either for a bride, or for a dead 
person .-" that is, either for a wedding, or a funeral. 

" The " husband is bound to bury his dead wife, and to 
make lamentations and mournings for her, according to the 
custom of all countries. And also the very poorest among 
the Israelites will afford her not less than two pipes and one 
lamenting woman : but if he be rich, let all things be done ac- 
cording to his quality."'"' 

" If'^ an idolater bring pipes on the sabbath"" to the house 
where any one is dead, " an Israelite shall not lament at those 
pipes." 

P Ecdes. Hist. lib. vii. cap. 14. * Bava Mezia, cap. 6. hal. 1. 

1 Lib. Ivi. ed. Reimar, p. 830. u Maimon. in niiyw cap. 14. 

>■ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 173. " Schab. cap. 13. hal. 4. 
^ Chetub. cap. 4. hal. 6. 



Ch.ix. 23-] Exercitatiom upon St.Mattheio. 173 

This multitude was got together on a sudden : neighbours, 
for civility^s sake ; minstrels, perhaps for the sake of gain ; 
both the more officious in this business, as we may guess, by 
how much the parents of the deceased maid were of more 
eminent quahty. She died, when Christ, together with 
Jairus, was going forward to the house (Mark v. ^^); and 
yet, behold what a solemn meeting and concourse there was 
to lament her. There were two things which, in such cases, 
afforded an occasion to much company to assemble themselves 
to the house y of mourning : 

First, some, as it is very probable, resorted thither to eat 
and drink : for at such a time some banqueting was used. 
" Az tradition. They drink ten cups in the house of mourn- 
ing; two before meat, five while they are eating, and three 
after meat." And a little after : " When Eabban Simeon 
Ben Gamaliel died, they added three more. But when the 
Sanhedrim saw that hence they became drunk, they made a 
decree against this." 

Secondly, others came to perform their duty of charity and 
neighbourhood : for they accounted it the highest instance of 
respect to lament the dead, to prepare things for the burial, 
to take care of the funeral, to put themselves under the bier, 
and to contribute other things needful for that solemnity 
with all diligence. Hence they appropriated D'^IDPT niT'''^^ 
The renderhig [or bestowing'] of mercies to this duty, in a 
peculiar sense, above all other demonstrations of charity; 
"TDH ^n,in« vh^ \\yO in n^n "O^ea of the disciples of 
the wise men died, and meraj vms not yielded him ;" that is, 
no care was taken of his funeral. " But a certain publican 
died, "7Dn n^i^':'?^;^^^ «n]''~ra h^ n^'^nn^l and the whole 
city left offtoorJc to yield him mercy." 

JNIourning for the dead is distinguished by the Jewish 
schools into nii'^ii^ Aninuth, and ni^l« Ebluth. n^l^Di^ 
was on the day of the funeral only, or until the corpse was 
carried out; and then began Hl/li^, and lasted for thirty 
days. Of these mournings take these few passages : " He '• 
that hath his dead laid out before him, and it is not in his 
power to bury him, useth not m^'^Ji^ Aninuth [that kind of 

y Leusden's edit., vol.ii. p. 311. * Hieros. Sanhedr. fol. 23. 3. 

2 Hieros. Beracoth, fol. 6. i. '' Bab. Beracoth, fol. 18. i. 



174 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. ix. 23. 

mourning]. For example : If any die in prison, and the 
magistrate [or governor of the place], permits not his burial, 
he that is near of kin to him is not bound to that mourning 
which is called m]'^]^^," &c. And the reason is given a 
little after ; namely, because he who hath his dead laid out 
before him, or upon whom the care of his burial lies, is for- 
bidden to eat flesh, to drink wine, to eat with others, to 
eat in the same house (under which prohibition, thou, Jairus, 
now art), and he was free from reciting his phylacteries, 
and from prayer, and from all such -like precepts of the 

law. "in^n nns?:! t^^^ir^n ni^n« yhv ^n T'q " But 

wlien the funeral is carried out of the door of the house, then 
presently begins the mourning called niTTli^." From thence 
he is free from the foregoing prohibitions, and now is subject 
to others. Hence, 

1. niSZ^n r\^'^C3 The bending down of the beds ; of which 
the Talmudists speak very much : " From what time (say 
they) are the beds bended I from that time the dead body 
is carried out of the gate of the court of the house ; or, as 
R. Josua, From such time, as 771^ the grave-stone is stopped 
up :" for so it is commonly rendered ; but the Gloss some- 
where, the cover, or the uppermost board, of the bier. What 
this bending of the beds should mean, you may observe from 
those things which are spoken in the tract Beracoth : 
" Whence ^ is the bending of the beds ? U. Crispa, in the 
name of R. Jochanan saith, From thence, because it is said, 
yn^^7 irit>^ ^mJ^I And they sat with him to the earth (Job ii. 

13). It is not said, ' upon the earth,' but y^i^/ ' to the earth:' 
it denotes a thing not far from the earth. Hence it is that 
they sat upon beds bended down." 

2, n3«^n y^vh 11D« ^^■^^"hh^zhyi!^'' He that laments 
all the thirty days is forbidden to do his ivork ; and so his sons, 
and his daughters, and servants, and maids, and cattle ^," &c. 

These things concerned him to whom the dead person 
did belong. His friends and neighbours did their parts 
also, both in mourning, and in care of the funeral, employ- 
ing themselves in that affair" by an officious diligence, both 

c Hieros. Berac. fol. 6. i. '* Massecheth Semach. cap. 5. 



Ch. ix. 23.] Exercitations upon St.Mattheiv. 175 

out of duty and friendship, ^rrh^ l^i^l HD H^IIH h'2 
"Whosoever sees a dead corpse (say they), and does not accom- 
modate [or accompamjl him to his burial^ is guilty of that 
which is said, ' He that mocketh the poor reproacheth his 
Maker/ &c. But now (say they) no man is so poor as the 
dead man ^," &c. 

Ver. 24 ^: Ovk cmiOave to Kopdcriov, aXXa KaOevbei' The maid 
is not dead, but sleepeth.'] It was very ordinary among them 
to express the death of any one by the word '^i2"T, which 
properly signifies to sleep. ^?2*T 13 When N. slept ; that is, 
when he died : a phrase to be met with hundreds of times in 
the Talraudists. And this whole company would say, D^DT 
"^^i^^ ilH The daughter of Jairus sleeps ; that is, she is dead. 
Therefore it is worthy considering what form of speech 
Christ here used. The Syriac hath b^DDl ^5^« nn"^D ^^ 
She is not dead, but asleep. 

Ver. 33 : OvbeTrore kcpavi] ovtms kv 7<S ^\apar]\' It loas never 
so seen in Israel.'] These words seem to refer, not to that 
peculiar miracle only that was then done, but to all his mi- 
racles. Consider how many were done in that one day, yea, 
in the afternoon. Christ dines at Capernaum with Matthew : 
having dined, the importunity of Jairus calls him away : going 
with Jairus, the woman witli the issue of blood meets him, 
and is healed : coming to Jairus's house, he raiseth his dead 
daughter : returning to his own house (for he had a dwelling 
at Capei*naum)j two blind men meet him in the streets, cry 
out Messias after him, follow hira home, and they are cured. 
As they were going out of the house, a dumb demoniac enters, 
and is healed. The multitude, therefore, could not but cry 
out, with very good reason, '' Never had any such thing ap- 
peared in Israel.^' 

Ver. 34? : 'Ei* 7-<5 apyovn twv baLjjiovCbiv, &c. Through the 
prince of the devils, 6)^ ] See the notes at chap. xii. 24. 

CHAP. X. 

Ver. 1 : Kat TipoarKaXea-diJLevos tovs bdobcKa ixaOrjrds' And ^chen 
he had called to him the twelve disciples.^ Concerning the 

6 Bab. Berac. in the place above. ^ English folio edit., vol, ii. p. 174. 

s heusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 312. 



176 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch. x. i. 

number of twelve, corresponding to the tribes of Israel^ see 
Luke xxii. 30, Rev. xxi, 12, 14. These were called the twelve 
apostles, *'n*l7't!? or "TT' vt2} in Talmudic language, under which 
title Moses and Aaron are marked by the Chaldee para- 
phrast, Jer. ii. i : a word that does not barely speak a mes- 
senger, but such a messenger' as represents the person of him 
that sends him. For im^^ Dl« StI7 ^wh^ The^^ 'apo- 
stle' of any one is as he himself from whom he is deputed." 
See the fortieth verse of this chapter. If you read over the 
tract of INIaimonides here, entitled rCillllJI ITllv^ mes- 
sengers and companions, perhaps you will not repent your 
labour. 

For these ends were these twelve chosen, as the evangelists 
relate : 

I. That they might be with him, eyewitnesses of his 
works, and students of his doctrine. For they did not pre- 
sently betake themselves to preach, from the time they were 
first admitted disciples, no, nor from the time they were first 
chosen ; but they sat a long while at the feet of their Master, 
and imbibed from his mouth that doctrine which they were to 
preach. 

II. That they might be his prophets, both to preach and 
to do miracles. Thence it comes to pass, that the gift of 
miracles, which of a long time had ceased, is now restored to 
them. 

The ' seven shepherds, and eight principal men,"' Micah v. 5, 
are the disciples of the Messias, according to Kimchi. 

'E^oiKT^ai'' TTvevixaTcnv aKaddprcov' Power of unclean spirifs.l 
That is, ' over, or upon unclean spirits :' which therefore are 
called, n^^DIt^ mriTl unclean spirits, that by a clearer anti- 
thesis they might bo opposed to ©Tpn mi the Holy Spirit, 
the Spirit of purity. 

More particularly n^^?2lSrT nil the unclean spirit, Zech. 
xiii. 2 ; and TrvevixaTa aKadapra, tmclean spirits, Rev. xvi. 
i^, 14, are diabolical spirits in false prophets, deceiving 
Pythons. 

By a more particular name yet, according to the Tal- 
mudists concerning this business : " There "^ shall not be with 

^ Bab. Berac. fol. 34. 2. > English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 175. 

k Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 65. 2. 



Ch. X. 2.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 177 

thee, D"^nsnvb5 '^'y\1 « necromancer, Deut. xviii, ii. He 
is D^'n^SrCT't^ llj"^i"7 a necromancer who mortifies himself 
with hunger, and goes and lodgei^a-nights among the burying- 
places for that end, that nWDt:3 XVr\ the unclean spirit may 
dwell upon him. When R. Akibah read that verse he wept. 
Does the unclean spirit, saith he, come upon him that fasts 
for that very end, that the unclean spirit may come upon him? 
Much more would the Holy Spirit come upon him that fasts 
for that end, that the Holy Spirit might come upon him. 
But what shall I do, when our sins have brought that on 
us which is said, ' Your sins separate between you and your 
God V " Where the Gloss thus ; V^V 'n^'Hl!^ m^ PTItZ^nU? 
" That the unclean spirit dwell upon him : that is, that the 
demon of the burial-place may love him, and may help him in 
his enchantments." 

When I consider with myself that numberless number of 
demoniacs which the evangelists mention, the like to which 
no history affords, and the Old Testament produceth hardly 
one or two examples, I cannot but suspect these two things 
especially for the cause of it : — 

First, That the Jewish people, now arriving to the very top 
of impiety, now also arrived to the very top of those curses 
which are recited, Levit. xxvi. and Deut. xxviii. 

Secondly, That the nation, beyond measure addicted to 
magical arts, did even affect devils, and invited them to dwell 
with them. 

Ver. 2 : ^i/xcoy Simon^ p^^D Simon is a name very usual 
among the Talmudists for t'ipDt!? Simeon. By which name 
our apostle is also called. Acts xv. 14. 

Let these words be taken notice of, p?2''D "iD ^VD. '^ 1 
" R. Eliezer^ inquired of R. Simon concerning a certain thing ; 
but he answered him not. He inquired of B. Joshua Ben 
Levi, and he answered. R. Eliezer was enraged that pV?jt27 "^ 
R. Simeon answered him not." 

rTerpos* Peter."] Christ changed the names of three dis- 
ciples with whom he held more inward familiarity, Simon, 
James, and John. Simon was called by him Peter, or 
Petrosus, that is, referring to a rock, because he should con- 

1 Hieros. Schab. fol. 11.2. 

LIGHXrOOT, VOL. II. N 



178 Hebrew and Tahmdical [Ch. x.3, 4, 

tribute not only very much assistance to the church that was 
to be built on a t'ocJc, but the very first assistance, when, the 
keys being committed to him, he opened the door of faith to 
Cornelius, and so first let in the gospel among the Gentiles. 
Of which matter afterward. 

''Avhpias' Andreia.] This also was no strange name among 
the Talmudists. t^jm "IH '•''"^lih^ Andrew Bar Chinna'^. 

Ver, 3 : Bap6oXo}xaios' Bartholomew. ~\ Compare the order 
wherein the disciples are called, John i, with the order 
wherein they are for the most part reckoned, and you will 
find Bartholomew falling in at the same place with Nathanael : 
so ^ that one may think he was the same with him : called 
Nathanael by his own name, and Bartholomew by his father's ; 
"'DTTl *^2 that is, the son of Tahnai : for the Greek inter- 
preters render Tahnai QoXixl, Tolmi, 2 Sam. xiii. 37. And 
GoXofxalos, Tholomceus, occurs in Josephus°. 

'AA^atofP* Of Alpheus.] The name ''CTTT occurs also in 
the Talmudists : a word that may admit a double pronuncia- 
tion ; namely, either to sound Alphai, or Cleophi. Hence 
that Alpheus, who was the father of four apostles, is also 
called Cleopas, Luke xxiv ; which sufficiently appears from 
hence, that she who is called " Mary, the mother of James 
the Less, and Joses,"' Mark xv. 40, by John is called, " Mary 
the wife of Cleopas/^ John xix. 25. 

Ae/J^aios 6 e7n/c\?]^ets Qahhalos' Lehheus, whose surname was 
Thaddeus.^ ''b^in Thaddai was a name known also to the 
Talmudists : ''i^in X2 "'DV S B. Jose^ the son of Thaddeus. 
^'^1'n "jl '^ti-^T'b^ Eliezcr^ Ben Thaddeus. It is a warping of 
the name Judas, that this apostle might be the better distin- 
guished from Iscariot. He was called Lehheus., I suppose, 
from the town Lehha, a sea-coast town of Galilee : of which 
Pliny s speaks ; " The promontory Carmel, and in the moun- 
tain a town of the same name, heretofore called Ecbatana : 
near by Getta Lehha^ &c. 

Ver. 4 : 2iixcov 6 KavavLTi]^' Simon the Canaanite.'] In Luke 
it is ZrjkoiTris. See who are called ZTjXcorat, Zealots, in Jose- 



rn Hieros. Megill. cap. 4. 'i Massech. Derech Arets, c. i. 

n Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 313. ■■ Hieros. Kilaim, fol. 27. 2. Schab. 

o Antiq. lib. xx. cap. i. [xx. i. i.] fol. 5. 2. See Juchasin, fol. 105. 2. 
TP English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 176. ^ Lib. v. cap. 19. 



Oh. X. 4.] Exerciiatiom upon St. Matthew. 1 79 

phus. Of whose sect, if you should say this Simon was before 
his conversion, perhaps you would do him no more wrong 
than you would do his brother Matthew, when you should say 
that he was a publican. 

^la-KapibjTrjs' Iscariot.] It may be inquired whether this 
name was given him while he was alive, or not till after his 
death. If while he was alive, one may not improperly derive 
it from fc«?'I311pD Skortja, which is written also, ^^''lOllpDt^ 
IskoHja^ : where, while the discourse is of a man vowing that 
he would not use this or that garment, we are taught these 
things ; " He that ties himself by a vow of not using gar- 
ments, may use sackcloth, veiling cloth, hair cloth, &c. but he 
may not use "irn t^-^IO^IpDt^l «^pDD^I «TD'IO/' Of which 
words the Gloss writes thus ; " These are garments, some, of 
of leather, and some of a certain kind of clothing." The 
Gemara asketh, " What is ^^''tO^llpD^ Mortja ? Bar Bar 
Channah answered, b^72^"T ^^Din"'^ A tanner's garment." 
The Gloss is, " A leathern apron that tanners put on over 
their clothes." So that Judas Iscariot may perhaps signify 
as much as Judas with the apron. But now in such aprons 
they had purses sewn, in which they were wont to carry their 
money, as you may see in Aruch, in the words niDIDt^ and 
S'^^iri, which we shall also observe presently. And hence, 
it may be, Judas had that title of the purse-bearer, as he was 
called Judas with the apron. 

Or what if he used the art of a tanner before he was 
chose into discipleship ? Certainly we read of one Simon a 
tanner. Acts ix. 43 ; and that this Judas was the son of Simon, 
John xii. 4. 

But if he were not branded with this title till after his 
death, I should suppose it derived from ^513D^^ Iscara ; 
which word what it signifies, let the Gemarists speak : 
" NinC^ hundred and three kinds of death were created in 
the world, as it is said, TTib^Hiiri jl'ltsS') ^'Ud the issues of 

death. Psalm Ixviii. 21. The word nit^lJiri issues arithme- 
tically ariseth to that number. Among all those kinds, 
^^'^5D^^ Iscara is the, roughest death, np'^tDD'' is easiest." 

' Bab. Nedarim, fol. 55. 2. mortis placidissimsc et suavissimsc 

" Bab. Berac. fol. 8. i. See Buxtorf. Lex. T. and R. sub v. 

* [n|7'^; Oscidatin. Est genus col. 1405..] 

N 3 



180 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. x. 5 

Where the Gloss is, ^V'hl t2D?2Si:i]«ni3D« «"l5Di^ ' Iscara' 
in the mother-tongue is estrangulament, [etranglement.] By 
learned men for the most part it is rendered angina., the 
quinsy. The Gemara sets out the roughness of it by this 

simile, «it''2 ^-^inb^^i «-i?2i^"r i^mni «nrn!) «^ni fc>!t-i::Di^ 

" They Iscara is like to branches of thorns in a fleece of wool; 
which if a man shake violently behind, it is impossible but 
the wool will be pulled off by them/^ It is thus defined in 
the Gloss, pinn mim Q^VO^ h^'nr\72'n «"IDD^ ' The Is- 
cara^ begins in the boioels, and ends in the throat. See the 
Gemara there. 

When Judas therefore perished by a most miserable stran- 
gling, being strangled by the devil (which we observe in its 
place), no wonder if this infamous death be branded upon his 
name, to be commonly styled Judas Iscariot, or ' that Judas 
that perished ^51DD^^?2 by strangling.^ 

'O ^ Koi -napabovs avrov Who also betrayed him.] Let that of 
Maimonides be observed: " It^ is forbidden to betray an 
Israelite into the hands of the heathen, either as to his per- 
son, or as to his goods," &;c. " And whosoever shall so betray 
an Israelite shall have no part in the world to come." Peter 
spake agreeably to the opinion of the nation, when he said con- 
cerning Judas, " He went unto his own place," Acts i. 25, And 
so doth Baal Turim concerning Balaam ; '' ' Balaam went to 
his place,' Num. xxiv. 25 ; that is (saith he), DIDn^^ T1''''1, 
he went down to hell." 

Ver. 5^^: Eis iioKiv ^ajXapeiTuiv jxri do-eXO-qTe' Into any city of 
the Samaritans, enter ye not.'] Our Saviour would have the 
Jews' privileges reserved to them, until they alienated and 
lost them by their own perverseness and sins. Nor does he 
grant the preaching of the gospel to the Gentiles or Samari- 
tans, before it was offered to the Jewish nation. The Sama- 
ritans vaunted themselves sons of the patriarch Jacob, John 
iv. 1 2 (which, indeed, was not altogether distant from the 
truth) ; they embraced also the law of Moses ; and being 
taught thence, expected the Messias as well as the Jews : 
nevertheless, Christ acknowledges thei^ for his sheep no more 
than the heathen themselves. 

y Schabb. fol. 33. i. a !„ -,>jqt ij-^^)-, cap. i. 

z English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 177. ^' Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 314. 



Ch. X. 5.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 181 

I. Very many among them were sprung, indeed, of the 
seed of Jacob, though now become renegades and apostates 
from the Jewish faith and nation, and hating them more than 
if they were heathens, and more than they would do heathens. 
Which also, among other things, may perhaps be observed in 
their very language. For read the Samaritan version of the 
Pentateuch ; and, if I mistake not, you will observe that the 
Samaritans, when, by reason of the nearness of the places, 
and the alliance of the nations, they could not but make 
use of the language of the Jews, yet used such a variation 
and change of the dialect, as if they scorned to speak the 
same words that they did, and make the same language not 
the same. 

II. In like manner they received the Mosaic law, but, for 
the most part, in so different a writing of the words, that 
they seem plainly to have propounded this to themselves, 
that retaining indeed the law of Moses, they would hold it 
under as much difference from the Mosaic text of the Jews 
as ever they could, so that they kept something to the sense. 
" R. Eliezer^ J3en R. Simeon said, ' I said to the scribes of the 
Samaritans, Ye have falsified your law without any manner of 
profit accruing to you thereby. For ye have written in your law, 
□i\D iin?D "^il/t^ 72?^, near the oaken groves of Moreh, which 
is Sychem,^ " &c. (the word W2W is added.) Let the Samaritan 
text at Deut. xi. 30 be looked upon. 

III. However they pretended to study the religion of 
Moses, yet, in truth, there was little or no difference be- 
tween them and idolaters, when they knew not what they 
worshipped ; which our Saviour objects against them, John 
iv. 23 : and had not only revolted as apostates from the true 
rehgion of Moses, but set themselves against it with the great- 
est hatred. Hence the Jewish nation held them for heathens, 
or for a people more execrable than the heathens themselves. 
A certain Rabbin thus reproaches their idolatry: "R.Ismael<i 
Ben R. Josi went to Neapolis [that is, Sychem] : the Sama- 
ritans came to him, to whom he spake thus ; ' I see that you 
adore not this mountain, but the idols which ai'e under it : 



<-■ Hieros. Sotah, fol. 21. 3. Bab. Sotali, fol. 33. 2. 
'1 Micros. Avodah Zarah, fol. 44. 4. 



182 Hebrew and Tahmdical [Ch. x. 9. 

for it is written, Jacob hid the strange gods under the wood, 
which is near Sychem.' " 

It is disputed e whether a Cuthite ought to be reckoned for 
a heathen, which is asserted by Rabbi, denied by Simeon ; 
but the conchision, indeed, is sufficiently for the affirmative. 

IV. The metropoHs of the Samai-itans laboured under a 
second apostasy, being brought to it by the deceit and witch- 
craft of Simon Magus, after the receiving of the gospel from 
the mouth of our Saviour himself. Compare Acts viii. 9 with 
John iv. 4 r . 

From all these particulars, and with good reason for the 
thing itself, and to preserve the privileges of the Jews safe, 
and that they might not otherwise prove an offence to that 
nation, the Samaritans are made parallel to the heathen, and 
as distant as they from partaking of the gospel, 

Ver. 9*": Ets ras (oivas vixG>v, &c. In your purses, 8fc.'\ These 
things, which are forbidden the disciples by our Saviour, were 
the ordinary provision of travellers ; to which the more religious 
added also the book of the law. 

" SomeS Levites travelled to Zoar, the city of palm-trees : 
and when one of them fell sick by the way, they brought him 
to an inn. Coming back, they inquired of the hostess con- 
cerning their companion. ' He is dead/ said she, ' and I have 
buried him.''' And a little after, "hpl^ Urh n^'^TT^ 
\T\^1■rV7^^ nnin IDD") iS^i^im she brought forth to 
them his staff, and his purse, and the booh of the law, which 
toas i?i his hand. So the Babylonian Misna : but the Jeru- 
salem adds also shoes : and instead of that which in the 
Misna is IT'''?^'^]!, his ^mrse, in the Gemara is iniilDb^» 
which was an inner garment, with pockets to hold money and 
necessaries. 

That also is worthy mention ; ^ r^inn IH^ DD^"" ^ 

Let^ no man enter into the mount of the Temple with his staff, 
nor with his shoes, nor with his p>urse, nor rmth dust on his 
feet. Which words are thus rendered by the Gemara : " Let 
no man enter into the mount of the Temple, neither with 

'^ Hieros. Shekal. fol. 46. 2. b Jevamoth, cap. 16. hal. ult. 

• English folio edit,, vol. ii. p. 178. ^ Berac. cap. 9. hal. 5. 



Ch. X. 10.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 183 

his staff in his hand, nor with his shoes upon his feet, nor 
with money bound up in his Hnen, no?^ icith a purse hanging 
on his back, V^n^S» ' n^tI?Din irn^Dll." Where the 

Gloss thus: «"Tils iy\vi2 11 ]^3m3U} h'hn niti^ imDis 

' Ponditho' is a holloio girdle [or a hollow })elt\^ in which they 
jiwt up their money. See the Aruch in HlDIDb^ Aponda, and 
milQ Ponda. 

Ver. JO : Mr) irripav ds obov Nor scrip for your journe'i/.'] 
Tlie Syriac version reads, t<^772in i^T'l No purse. The word 
7''D"in and 7''?21in is very frequent in the Talmudists. 
" 7'^TD"^'in'' is^ a leather pouch, which shepherds hang about 
their necks, in which they put their victuals." R. Solomon^ 
saith almost the same thing, but that he appropriates it not 
to shepherds. The Aruch also in effect the same. 

A proselyte is brought in thus speaking»" ; " If an Israelite 
approaching to the holy things shall die, how much more a 
stranger, l7'^?2imi 17pQl b^ltZJ' who comes with his staff and 
his pouch V 

M7j8e hvo y^irSivas' Nor two coats ?^ A single coat bespake a 
meaner condition ; a double, a more plentiful. Hence is that 
counsel of the Baptist, Luke iii. 1 1, " He that hath two coats, 
let him impart to him that hath none." It is disputed by the 
Babylonian Talmudists, how" far it is lawful to wash garments 
IVyCl /\27 17im on the common days of a festival-ioeek ; and the 
conclusion is, " It is lawful for him ini^ pl^H «^i^ 1^ pfc^U? 
that hath one coat only, to wash it." 

MrjSe vTtohriixaTa' Neither shoes.^ That shoes are here to be 
understood, and not sandals, appears from Mark vi. 9 : and 
that there was a difference between these, sufficiently appears 
from these very places. The contrary to which I read in Beza, 
not without wonder : " But then from this place (saith he), as 
also from Acts xii. 8, it appears that the evangelists put no 
difference between vnohrnxaTa, shoes, and aavhaKia, sandals, as 
Erasmus hath rightly observed." 

Let the Jewish schools be heard in this matter: ""The 



i Bab. Berac. fol. 62. 2. hal, 4. 

J Rambam in Kelim, cap. 16. m Bab. Schab. fol. 31. i. 

lial. 4. 11 Taanith, fol. 29. 2. Moed Ka- 

^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 315. ton, fol. 18. i. 

1 Rambam in Kelim, cap. 16. ° Jevamoth, cap. 12. hal. i. 



184 Hehreio and Tahnudical [Ch. x. lo. 

pulling off of the shoe [of the husband's brother, Deut. xxv. 9] 
is right : and of the sandal, if it hath a heel, is right ; but if 
not, it is not right.'" 

" R. Josi P saith, I went to Nisibin, and I saw there a 
certain elder, and I said to him, ' Are you well acquainted 
with R. Judah Ben Betira V And he answered, ' I am a money 
changer in my city ; and he came to my table very often/ 
I said, ' Did you ever see him putting off the shoe ? What 
did he put off, shoe or sandal?' He answered, ' Rabbi, are 
there sandals among us V Whence therefore, say I, did R. 
Meir say, ^:L?D?2n p!J^in p« They do not put of the shoe ? 
Rabbi Ba, Rabh Judah say, in the name of Rabh, If EHas 
should come, and should say, ' They pull off the shoe of the 
husband's brother, let them hearken to him :' if he should say, 
'They pull off the sandal,'' let them not hearken to him. And 
yet, for the most part, the custom is to pull off the sandal : 
and custom prevails against tradition." See more there, and 
in the Babylonian tract Jevamoth^[. 

Shoes^ were of more delicate use ; sandals were more or- 
dinary, and more for service. "71 "yTJ 7tI7 7J^20 A shoe was 
of softer leather, TlTDp "Tli^ h'^ 71DD a sandal of harder^, «fee. 
There were sandals also, whose sole, or lower part, was of 
wood, the upper of leather ; and these were fastened toge- 
ther by nails*. There were some sandals also made of rushes, 
or of the bark of palm-trees ", &c. Another difference also 
between shoes and sandals is illustrated by a notable story 
in the tract Schabhath, in the place just now cited : " In a 
certain time of persecution, when some were hidden in a cave, 
they said among themselves, ' He that will enter, let him 
enter; for he will look about him before he enters, that the 
enemies see him not : but let none go out ; for perhaps the 
enemies will be near, whom he sees not when he goes out, 
and so all will be discovered.' One of them by chance put 
on his sandals the wrong way : for sandals were open both 
ways, so that one might put in his foot either before or be- 
hind : but he putting on his the wrong way, his footsteps, 



1' Hieros. ibid. fol. 12. i. ^ Gloss, in Jevam. Bab. fol.ioi.i. 

1 Fol. 102. I. t See Bab. Scliabb. fol. 60. i. in 

r Evf/Iish folio edition, vol. ii. p. Gloss. 

179. « Joma, fol, 78. 2. 



Ch. X. J i,&c.J Exercitations upon ^t. Matthew. 185 

when he went out, seemed as if he went in, and so their 
hiding-place was discovered to the enemies," &c. 

Money therefore in the girdle, and provision in the scrip, 
were forbidden the disciples by Christ ; first, that they might 
not be careful for temporal things, but resign themselves 
wholly to the care of Christ ; secondly, they ought to live 
of the gospel, which he hints in the last clause of this verse, 
" The workman is worthy of his hire/' 

That, therefore, which he had said before, " Freely ye have 
received, freely give,"" forbade them to preach the gospel for 
gain : but he forbade not to take food, clothing, and other 
necessaries for the preaching of the gospel. 

T^m coats and shoes are forbidden them, that they might 
not at all affect pride or worldly pomp, or to make themselves 
fine ; but rather, that their habit and guise might bespeak the 
greatest humility. 

Ver. 1 1 : Tts kv avrfj agios' Who in it is worthy ?\ In the 
Talmudic language, PT^t "^ti loho deserves. 

Ver. 14 : 'Efcrti^ctf are rov Kovioprov tS)V -nob&v Shake off the 
dust of your feet.] The schools of the scribes taught that the 
dust of heathen land defiled by the touch. " The " dust of 
Syria defiles, as well as the dust of other heathen countries." 

"Ay tradition-writer saith, ' They bring not herbs into 
the land of Israel out of a heathen land : but our Rabbins 
have permitted it.' in'^'^2''l ''t^D What difference is there he- 
tiveen these? R.Jeremiah saith, in''^2'^n W!3^i^ p'^tD'lA ^'^mn 
The care of their ^ dust is ainong them!''' The Gloss is, •' They 
take care, lest, together with the herbs, something of the dust 
of the heathen land be brought, which defiles in the tent, and 
defiles the purity of the land of Israel.'^ 

" By a reason of six doubts, they burn the truma : the 
doubt of a field, in which heretofore might be a sepulchre ; 
the doubt of dtist brought from a heathen land," &c. Where 
the Gloss is this ; " Because it may be doubted of all the 
dttst of a heathen land, whether it were not from the sepulchre 
of the dead." 

" Rabbi '^ saw a certain i)riest standing in a part of the 

^ Tosapht. ad Kelim, cap. i. ^ Bab. Schab. fol. 15. 2. 

y Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 12. i. •' Gloss, in Sanhedr. fol. 5. 2. 

2 Leusden's ediliov, vol. ii. p. 316. 



186 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. x. 17, &c. 

city Aco, which part was without the bounds of the land of 
Israel ; he said to him, ' Is not that heathen land concerning 
which they have determined that it is as unclean as a bury- 
ing-place <= V " 

Therefore that rite of shaking the dust off the feet^ com- 
manded the disciples, speaks thus much ; " AVheresoever a 
city of Israel shall not receive you, when ye depart, shew, 
by shaking off the dust from your feet, that ye esteem that city, 
however a city of Israel, for a heathen, profane, impure city ; 
and, as such, abhor it." 

Ver. 17 : 'Ev rat? crvvayuiyai'i avruiv jxaa-TiyaxrovcrLV vjxas' 
They shall scourge you in their synagogues.^ Beza here, as he 
does very often when he cannot explain a case, suspects it : 
for thus he writes ; " When I neither find synagogues else- 
where to have their names from houses of judgment, as the 
Hebrews speak, nor that civil punishments were taken in syn- 
agogues, 1 suspect this place." But without any cause, for, 

I. In every synagogue there was a civil triumvirate, that is, 
three magistrates, who judged of matters in contest arising 
within that synagogue ; which we have noted before. 

II.'' nirb^^ mD?D Scourging^ was hy that bench of three. 
So that fivefold scourging of St. Paul (2 Cor. xi. 24) was in 
the synagogue ; that is, ilUJT'^ vU? ' 121 By that bench of 
three magistrates, such as was in every synagogue. 

It is something obscure that is said, Flpoo-exere 8e a-no raiy 
avOpu>TT<av, But beware of men. Of whom else should they 
beware ? But perhaps the word 6.v0pa>Tiot, men, may occur in 
that sense, as '^IIJD^"^ men, in these forms of speech ; "^IZ;?]^ 
nb"T:in nODl and : pi n^n "^U?:i^ that is, the men of the 
great assembly, and, the men of the house of judgment, &c. But 
we will not contend about it. 

Ver. 23 : Ov /x?) rekecrrjTe ras TroAeis tov 'IcrparjX, &c. Ye 
shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, &c.] " Ye shall not 
have travelled through the cities of Israel preaching the 
gospel, before the Son of man is revealed by his resurrec- 
tion," Bom. i, 4. Lay to this Acts iii. 19, 2c, " Repent ye 
therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted 
out, OTTO)? av ekOoidi, that the times of refreshment may come" 

c See Pisk. Tosaph. in Sanhedr. ^ English folio edit., vo\.'\\. -p. 1^0. 
cap. I. artic. 30. e Sanhedr. cap. i. hal. 2. 



Ch. X. 25, &c.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 187 

(for ye expect refreshment and consolation under the Mes- 
sias) ; and he may send Jesus Christ first preached to you." 
And ver. 26, " To you first God, raising up his Son, sent him 
to bless you/^ &c. The epoch of the Messias is dated from 
the resurrection of Christ. 

Ver. 25 : BeeA^e/Soi^A- Beelzebub.] See chap. xii. 24. 

Ver, 27 : '^O eh to oSs anoveTe' What ye hear in the ear.] 
We have observed before, that allusion is here made to the 
manner of the schools, where the doctor whispered, out of 
the chair, into the ear of the interpreter, and he with a loud 
voice repeated to the whole school that which was spoken in 
the ear. 

" They f said to Judah Bar Nachmani, ^m rf^D^:i'^inD 
Wph the interpreter of Besh Lachish, ^^11?2^n 'H^hv Dip 
Do you stand for his expositor." The Gloss is, " To tell out 
the exposition to the synagogue, "^7 U?in7'^^ TVd which he 
shall whisper to you." We cannot here but repeat that which 
we produced before, Jl^mj? ]1U?S 'h ^Tvh DrJllH The doctor 
lohispered him in the ear in Hebrew. And we cannot but 
suspect that that custom in the church of Corinth which the 
apostle reproves, of speaking in the synagogue in an unknown 
tongue, were some footsteps of this custom. 

We read of whispering in the ear done in another sense, 
namely, to a certain woman with child, which longed for 
the perfumed flesh j "Therefore^ Rabbi said, rh ymxh l^n 
Go lohisper her that it is the day of Expiation. TO 'WSPh 
t^ttJTlT'^b^l They v)hispered to her, and she was lohispered:" that 
is, she was satisfied and at quiet. 

Kr]pv^aTe iirl tS>v bcajj-aTOiV Preach ye upon the housetops.] 
Perhaps allusion is made to that custom when ^ the minister 
of the synagogue on the sabbath-eve sounded with a trumpet 
six times upon the roof of an exceeding high house, that 
thence all might have notice of the coming in of the sabbath. 
The first sound was, that they should cease from their works 
in the fields ; the second, that they should cease from theirs 
in the city ; the third, that they should light the sabbath 
candle, &c. 

Ver. 34 : M?) ro/ixtarjre on rjKdov (3a\eiv dprjvrjv, &c. Think 

f Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 7. 2. s Bab. Joma, fol. 82. 2. 

^ Bab. Schab. fol. 35. 2. 



188 Hebrew mid Talmudical [Ch. x. 34. 

not that I am come to send peace, &c.] Although these words 
may be understood truly of the differences i between believers 
and unbelievers by reason of the gospel, which all inter- 
preters observe ; yet they do properly and primarily point 
out, as it were with the finger, those horrid slaughters ^ and 
civil wars of the Jews among themselves, such as no other 
age ever saw, nor story heard. 

" R. Eliezer ' saith, The days of the Messias are forty years, 
as it is said, ' Forty years was I provoked by this generation.'" 
And again ; " R. Judah "i saith, In that generation, when the 
Son of David shall come, the schools shall be harlots ; Galilee 
shall be laid waste ; Gablan shall be destroyed ; and the in- 
habitants of the earth [the Gloss is ' the Sanhedrim"'] shall 
wander from city to city, and shall not obtain pity ; the 
wisdom of the scribes shall stink ; and they that fear to sin 
shall be despised; and the faces of that generation shall be 
like the faces of dogs ; and truth shall fail, &c. Run over 
the history of these forty years, from the death of Christ to 
the destruction of Jerusalem (as they are vulgarly computed), 
and you will wonder to observe the nation conspiring to its 
own destruction, and rejoicing in the slaughters and spoils of 
one another beyond all example, and even to a miracle. This 
phrensy certainly was sent upon them from heaven. And 
first, they are deservedly become mad who trod the wisdom 
of God, as much as they could, under their feet. And se- 
condly, the blood of the prophets and of Christ, bringing the 
good tidings of peace, could not be expiated by a less venge- 
ance. Tell me, Jew, whence is that rage of your nation 
towards the destruction of one another, and those monsters 
of madness beyond all examples ? Does the nation rave for 
nothing, unto their own ruin ? Acknowledge the Divine venge- 
ance in thy madness, more than that which befell thee from 
men. He that reckons up the differences, contentions, and 
broils of the nation, after the dissension betwixt the Pharisees 
and the Sadducees, will meet with no less between the scho- 
lars of Shammai and Hillel, which increased to that degree, 
that at last it came to slaughter and blood. 



' Leusdeii's edition, vol. ii. p. 317. ^ Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 99. r. 
^ Evglish folio edit., vol. ii. p. 181. ■" Fol. 97. i. 



Ch. X. 34.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 189 

" The " scholars of Shammai and Hillel came to the cham- 
ber of Chananiah Ben Ezekiah Ben Garon, to visit him : that 
was a woful day, like the day wherein the golden calf was 
made. The scholars of Shammai stood below, and slew some 
of the scholars of Hillel. The tradition is. That six of them 
went up, and the rest stood there present with swords and 
spears." 

It passed into a common proverb, that " Elias the Tish- 
bite himself could not decide the controversies between the 
scholars of Hillel and the scholars of Shammai." They 
dream they were determined by a voice from heaven ; but 
certainly the quarrels and bitternesses were not at all de- 
cided. 

"Before" the Bath Kol [in Jabneh] went forth, it was law- 
ful equally to embrace either the decrees of the school of 
Hillel, or those of the school of Shammai. At last the Bath 
Kol came forth, and spake thus ; ' The v^^ords, both of the 
one party and the other, are the words of the living God ; 
but the certain decision of the matter is according to the de- 
crees of the school of Hillel.' And from thenceforth, whoso- • 
ever shall transgress the decrees of the school of Hillel is 
guilty of death." 

And thus the controversy was decided ; but the hatreds 
and spites were not so ended. I observe, in the Jerusalem 
GemaristsP, the word "^niTDU? Shamothi, used for a scholar of 
Shammai : which I almost suspect, from the affinity of the 
word t^ri?2tD Shammatha, which signifies Anathema, to be a 
word framed by the scholars of Hillel, in hate, ignominy, and 
reproach of those of Shammai. And when I read more than 
once of R. Tarphon's being in danger by robbers, because in 
some things he followed the custom and manner of the school 
of Shammai ; I cannot but suspect snares were daily laid by 
one another, and hostile treacheries continually watching to 
do each other mischief. 

" R.Tarphonq saith, ' As I was travelling on the way, I went 
aside to recite the phylacteries, according to the rite of the 
school of Shammai, and I was in danger of thieves.' They said 

n Hieros. in Schabb. fol. 3. 3. cab, 53. i. Jom. Tobh, fol. 60. 3, 

° Hieros. Beracotb, fol. 3. 2. &c. 

P See Trumoth, fol. 43. 3. Sue- i Bab. Beracoth, cap. r. hal. 3. 



190 Hebrew and Talmiidical [Ch. xi. 3. 

to him, and deservedly too, ' Because thou hast transgressed 
the words of the school of Hillel/ " This is wanting in the 
Jerusalem Misna. 

" R. Tarphon"^ went down to eat figs of his own, according 
to the school of Shammai. The enemies saw him, and kicked 
against him : when he saw himself in danger, ' By your life/ 
saith he, ' carry word unto the house of Tarphon, that grave- 
clothes be made ready for him.' " 

Thus, as if they were struck with a phrensy from heaven, the 
doctors of the nation rage one against another ; and from 
their very schools and chairs flow not so much doctrines, as 
animosities, jarrings, slaughters, and butcheries. To these 
may be added those fearful outrages, spoils, murders, devas- 
tations of robbers, cut-throats, zealots, and amazing cruelties, 
beyond all example. And if these things do not savour of the 
divine wrath and vengeance, what ever did ? 

CHAP. XI.s 

Ver. 3 : Su ei 6 kpyoii^vo^, r\ irepov TrpoirboK&iJiev ; Art thou 
he that should come, or do we look for another F] The reason 
of the message of John to Christ is something obscure : 

First, That it was not because he knew not Christ, is 
without all controversy, when he had been fully instructed 
from heaven concerning his person, when he was baptized ; 
and when he had again and again most evidently home wit- 
ness to him, in those words, " This is the Lamb of God,'^ &c. 

Secondly', Nor was that message certainly, that the disci- 
ples of John might receive satisfaction about the person of 
Christ : for, indeed, the disciples were most unworthy of such 
a master, if they should not believe him without further argu- 
ment, when he taught them concerning him. 

Thirdly, John therefore seems in this matter to respect his 
own imprisonment, and that his question, " Art thou he 
which should come," &c. tends to that. He had heard that 
miracles of all sorts were done by him, that the blind re- 
ceived their sight, the dead were raised, devils were cast out, 
&c. And why, therefore, among all the rest, is not John set 
at hberty? This scruple, as it seems, stuck with the good 

I' Hieros. Sheviith, fol. 65. 2. ^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 182. 
' Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 318. 



Ch. xi. 3.] Exercitatiom upon St. Matthew. 191 

man ; * Why do all receive benefit and comfort from Christ, 
but only I?' Perhaps he laboured under that dim-sigh ted- 
ness which the disciples of Christ and the whole nation did 
concerning his earthly kingdom, victories, and triumphs : 
from which how distant (alas !) was this, that his forerunner 
and the chief minister should lie in chains ! ' If thou art he, 
concerning whose triumphing the prophets declare so much, 
why am I so long detained in prison 1 Art thou he, or is 
another to be expected, from whom these things are to be 
looked forT 

First, " That I am he that should come, these things which 
I do bear witness, ' The blind receive their sight, the lame 
walk,' " &c. 

Secondly, " As to the present case of John, who expects 
somebody to come to deliver him out of bonds, and to free 
the people from the yoke of men, Let him (saith he) acquiesce 
in my divine dispensation, and, ' Blessed is he, whosoever shall 
not be offended in me,^ however all things are not according 
to his mind, which he hath expected to fall out, for his present 
and bodily advantage,"" 

And the words of our Saviour, ver. 1 1 , seem to express 
some secret reproof of this error in John, " He that is less in 
the kingdom of heaven, is greater than he." The Vulgar 
version renders well the word iJ-iKporepos, less, not least : as if 
he should say, " When ye went out into the desert to John, 
ye neither looked for trifles nor earthly pomp, neither ' a reed 
shaken with the wind,' nor ' a man clothed in soft raiment ;' 
but ye looked in good earnest for a prophet : and in that ye 
did very well; for he was the greatest of prophets, nay, of 
men, as to his office ; honoured in this above all others, that 
he is the forerunner of the Messias. Howbeit, there are 
some, which, indeed, in respect of office, are much less than 
he in the kingdom of heaven, or in the commonwealth of 
Christ, who yet are greater than he in respect of the know- 
ledge of the state and condition of his kingdom." A com- 
parison certainly is not here made, either in respect of office, 
or in respect of dignity, or in respect of holiness, or in respect 
of eternal salvation ; for who, I pray, exceeded the Baptist in 
all these, or in any of them ? but in respect of clear and dis- 



192 Hebrew and Tahmdical [Ch. xi. 12, &c. 

tinct knowledge, in judging of the nature and quality of the 
kingdom of heaven. 

Let the austerity of John's life, and the very frequent fasts 
which he enjoined his disciples, be well considered, and what 
our Saviour saith of both, and you will easily believe that John 
also, according to the universal conceit of the nation, expected 
temporal redemption by the Messias, not so clearly distin- 
guishing concerning the nature of the kingdom and redemp- 
tion of Christ. And you will the more easily give credit to 
this, when you shall have observed how the disciples of Christ 
themselves, that conversed a long time with him, were dim- 
sighted, likewise, in this very thing. 

Ver. 12" : 'H jSaaiXeta rcav ovpavm' ^ta^'eraf The kingdom of 
heaven suffereth violence.'] And these words also make for the 
praise of John. That he was a very eminent prophet, and of 
no ordinary mission or authority, these things evince ; that 
from his preaching, the kingdom of heaven took its begin- 
ning, and it was so crowded into by infinite multitudes, as if 
they would take and seize upon the kingdom by violence. 
The divine warmth of the people in betaking themselves 
thither by such numberless crowds, and with so exceeding a 
zeal, sufficiently argued the divine worth both of the teacher 
and of his doctrine. 

Ver. 14: Et ^e'Aere hi^acrOai, avrds ka-riv 'HAtas* If ye loill 
receive it, this is Elias.'] I72pn t^t^ If ye will receive it. 
The words hint some suspicion, that they would not receive 
his doctrine ; which the obstinate expectation of that nation 
unto this very day, that Elias is personally to come, witness- 
eth also. Upon what ground some Christians are of the same 
opinion, let themselves look to it. See the notes on chap, 
xvii. 10. 

Ver. 21 : 'Ev Tvpo) koI ^ibcavL- In Tyre and Sido7i.\ He 
compares the cities of the Jews with the cities of the Ca- 
naanites, who were of a cursed original ; " but yet these 
cities, of a cursed seed and name, if they had been partakers 
of the miracles done among you, had not hardened them- 
selves to such a degree of madness and obstinacy as yon have 

u English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 183. 



Ch. xi. 22, &c.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 193 

done : but had turned from their heathenism and Canaanitism 
unto the knowledge of the gospel ; or, at least, had betook 
themselves to such a repentance as would have prevented 
vengeance." So the repentance of the Ninevites, however it 
were not to salvation, yet it was such as preserved them, 
and freed their city from the wrath and scourge that hung 
over them. The most horrid stiffness of the Jews is here in- 
timated, of all impious men the most impious, of all cursed 
wretches the most cursed. 

Ver. 22 x; 'Hjuepa /cptcrecos- At the day of judgment^ DVl 
t^J^T In the day of judgment : and ^11 HD"*! DT^l In the day 
of the great judgment : a form of speech very usual among the 
Jews. 

Ver. 29 : Toy ^vyov jjlov My yoke.] So Jimn 71^5 The 
yoke of the law : '^^'^'t2 ^*^ The yoke of the precept : h^y 
D''DIL' m^T'D The yoke of the kingdom of heaven. 

CHAP. Xll.y 

Ver. I : 'Ey eKetyo) tw «atpw inopevOrj 6 'IjjcroSs rois crajijiacn 
bia t5>v (TTTopCixoiV At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day 
through the corn.'] The time is determined by Luke in these 
words, kv aa(3l36.T(^ b€VT€poTTpu)T(o' that is, on the sabbath from 
the second-first. 

I. Provision was made by the divine law, that the sheaf 
of firstfruits should be offered on the second day of the 
Passover- week, Lev. xxiii. to, 1 1 : ]rT2in ^2?^^ TS^WTl iyTp^^O 
On the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall shake [or v:ave'\ 
it. Not on the morrow after the ordinary sabbath of the 
week, but the morrow after the first day of the Passover 
week, which was a sabbatic day, Exod. xii. 16; Lev. xxiii. 7. 
Hence the Seventy, k-navpiov rrjs irpcarri^, the morrow of the 
first day ; the Chaldee, n^t: t^?2T "inn;2 after the holy-day. 
The Rabbins Solomon and Menachem, y\^ 'QV TTstMy^ 
nD2 71D ]1irt^in on the morrow after the first day of the 
Passover-feast : of which mention had been made in the 
verses foregoing. 

n. J3ut now, from that second day of the Passover-solem- 
nity, wherein the sheaf was offered, were numbered seven 

* Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 319. v English folio edit., vol. ii. i).iS4. 

LIGHTFOOTj VOL. II. O 



194 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch. xii. i. 

weeks to Pentecost. For the day of the sheaf and the day 
of Pentecost did mutually respect each other. For on this 
second day of the Passover, the offering of the sheaf was sup- 
plicatory, and by way of prayer, beseeching a blessing upon 
the new corn, and leave to eat it, and to put in the sickle 
into the standing corn. Now the offering of the first fruit 
loaves on the day of Pentecost (Lev. xxiii. 15 — 77) did re- 
spect the giving of thanks for the finishing and inning of 
barley harvest. Therefore, in regard of this relation, these 
two solemnities were linked together, that both might re- 
spect the harvest : that, the harvest beginning ; this, the 
harvest ended : this depended on that, and was numbered 
seven weeks after it. Therefore, the computation of the time 
coming between could not but carry with it the memory of 
that second day of the Passover-week; and hence Pentecost 
is called the ' Feast of weeks ^ (Deut. xvi. 10). The true 
calculation of the time between could not otherwise be re- 
tained as to sabbaths, but by numbering thus ; This is o-ci/3- 
IBarov bevTepoirpcoTov, the Jirst sabbath after the second day of the 
Passover. This is SevrepoSevrcpoy, the second sabbath after that 
second day. And so of the rest. In the Jerusalem Talmud ^, 
the word t^'^'^TD^llt^^ilQ ]l2t2? the sabbath irporoyaixias, of the 
first marriage, is a composition not very unlike. 

When they numbered by days, and not by weeks, the 
calculation began on the day of the sheaf -. " K^ great num- 
ber of certain scholars died between the Passover and Pen- 
tecost, by reason of mutual respect not given to one an- 
other. There is a place where it is said that they died fif- 
teen days before Pentecost, that is, thirty- three days after 
the sheaf.^^ 

At the end of the Midrash of Samuel which I have, it is 
thus concluded ; " This work was finished the three-and- 
thirtieth day after the sheaf." 

III. Therefore by this word Sevrepo'jTpajrci), the second-first^ 
added by St. Luke, is shown, first, that this fi^rst sabbath 
was after the second day of the Passover ; and so, according 
to the order of evangelic history, either that very sabbath 
wherein the paralytic man was healed at the pool of Be- 

z Hieros. Demai, fol. 24. i. » Juchasin, 36. i. 



Ch. xii. I.] Exerciiations upon St. Mattheio. 195 

thesda, John v, or the sabbath next after it. Secondly, that 
these ears of corn plucked by the disciples were of barley : 
how far, alas ! from those dainties wherewith the Jews are 
wont to junket, not out of custom only, but out of religion 
also ! Hear their Gloss, savouring of the kitchen and the dish, 
upon that of the prophet Isaiah, chap. Iviii. 13 : " ' Thou 
shalt call the sabbath a delight :' — It is forbidden," say they, 
" to fast on the sabbath ; but, on the contrary, men are bound 
to delight themselves with meat and drink. For we must 
live more delicately on the sabbath than on other days : and 
he is highly to be commended who provides the most deli- 
cious junkets against that day. We must eat thrice on the 
sabbath, and all men are to be admonished of it. And even 
the poor themselves who live on alms, let them eat thrice on 
the sabbath. For he that feasts thrice on the sabbath shall 
be delivered from the calamities of the Messias, from the 
judgment of hell, and from the war of Gog and Magog ^." 
' Whose god is their belly,^ Phil. iii. 19. 

IV. But was the standing corn ripe at the feast of the 
Passover ? I answer, 

I. The seed-time of barley was presently after the middle 
of the month Marchesvan ; that is, about the beginning of 
our November : ^' He '^ heard that the seed sown at the first 
rain ^ was destroyed by hail ; he went and sowed at the 
second rain, &c. : and when the seed of all others perished 
with the hail, his seed perished not." Upon which words 
the Gloss writes thus ; " The first rain was the seventeenth 
day of the month Marchesvan ; the second rain, the three- 
and-twentieth day of the same month ; and the third was in 
the beginning of the month Chisleu. When, therefore, the 
rain came down, that which was sown at the first rain was 
now become somewhat^ stiff, and so it was broken by the 
hail ; but that which was sown at the second rain, by rea- 
son of its tenderness, was not broken, &c. Therefore the 
barley was sown at the coming in of the winter, and grow- 
ing by the mildness of the weather, in winter, when the 
Passover came in, it became ripe : so that from that time 

b Maimon. Schab. cap. 30. Kim- ^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 
chi, in Isai. cap. Iviii. 185. 

c Bab. Berac. fol. l8. 2. e Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 320. 

O 2 



196 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xii. i. 

(the sheaf being then offered) barley- harvest took its be- 
ginning. 

2. But if, when the just time of the Passover was come, 
the bai'ley were not ripe, the intercalary month was added 
to that year, and they waited until it ripened : ^' For f, for 
three things they intercalated the year ; for the equinox, for 
the new corn, and for the fruit of the trees. For the elders 
of the Sanhedrim do compute and observe if the vernal 
equinox will fall out on the sixteenth day of the month Ni- 
san, or beyond that ; then they intercalate that year, and 
they make that Nisan the second Adar ; so that the Pass- 
over might happen at the time of new corn. Or if they ob- 
serve that there is no new corn, and that the trees sprouted 
not when they were wont to sprout, then they intercalate the 
year," &c. 

You have an example of this thing : " Eabban g Gamaliel 
to the elders of the great Sanhedrim, our brethren in Judea 
and Galilee, &c. ; health. Be it known unto you, that since 
the lambs are too young, and the doves are not fledged, and 
there is no young corn, we have thought good to add thirty 
days to this year," &c. 

Ot 8e ixadriTol avrov tTieCvacrav And his disciples icere an 
hundred.] The custom of the nation, as yet, had held them 
fasting ; which suffered none, unless he were sick, to taste 
any thing on the sabbath before the morning prayers of the 
synagogue were done. And on common days also, and that 
in the afternoon, provision was made by the canons, " That^^ 
none, returning home from his work in the evening, either 
eat, or drink, or sleep, before he had said his prayers in the 
synagogue." 

Of the public or private ways that lay by the corn-fields, 
let him that is at" leisure read Peah, chap. ii. 

Ver. 2 : YloLovcriv o ovk f^eart iroie'LV kv cra/3/3dr<{)' TheT/ do 
that which is not lawfid to do on the sabbath dai/.'] They do 
not contend about the thing itself, because it was lawful, 
Deut. xxiii. 25 ; but about the thing done on the sabbath. 

f Maimon. in Kiddush. Hodesh. fol. 11. 2. 
cap. 4. ^ Piske Tosaph. in Berac, cap. i. 

& Hieros. Maasar Sheni, fol. 56. 3. artic. 4. R. Asher ibid. 
Sanhedr. fol. 18. 4. Bab. Sanhedr. 



Ch. xii. 3.] Exercitations upon St. Mattheiv. 197 

Concerning which the Fathers of the Traditions write thus ; 

^T\'p n^l^^in tZ?Sini n^^n niili:! l^lp "He * that reaps on 
the sabbath, though never so little, is guilty. And to pluck 
the ears of corn is a kind of reaping ; and whosoever plucks 
any thing from the springing of his own fruit is guilty, under 
the name of a reaper." But under what guilt were they 
held ? He had said this before, at the beginning of chap, vii, 
in these words : " The works whereby a man is guilty of 
stoning and cutting off, if he do them presumptuously; but 
if ignoi'antly, he is bound to bring a sacrifice for sin^ )pit2 
r\T\h'\r\ )TV:y\ rsyyt^ are either primitive or derivative.'''' Of 
* primitive,' or of the general kinds of works, are nine-and- 
thh'ty reckoned ; " To plough ^, to sow, to reap, to gather 
the sheaves, to thrash, to sift, to grind, to bake, &c.; to shear 
sheep, to dye wool," &c, JlTlb^ri The derivative works, or 
the particulars of those generals, are such as are of the same 
rank and likeness with them. For example, digging is of 
the same kind with ploughing ; chopping of herbs is of the 
same rank with grinding ; and phicking the ears of corn is 
of the same nature with reaping. Our Saviour, therefore, 
pleaded the cause of the disciples so much tlie more eagerly, 
because now their lives were in danger ; for the canons of 
the scribes adjudged them to stoning for what they had done, 
if so be it could be proved that they had done it presumptu- 
ously. From hence, therefore, he begins their defence, that 
this was done by the disciples out of necessity, hunger com- 
pelling them, not out of any contempt of the laws. 

Ver. 3 : Aa/3t8, koI ol /ixer avTov' David, and those that were 
with him.'] For those words of Ahimelech are to be under- 
stood comparatively, " Wherefore art thou alone, and no 
man with thee?" [i Sam. xxi. i.] that is, comparatively to 
that noble train wherewith thou wast wont to go attended, 
and which becomes the captain-general of Israel. David 
came to Nob, not as one that fled, but as one that came to 
inquire at the' oracle concerning the event of war, unto which 
he pretended to come by the king's command. Dissembling, 
therefore, that he hastened to the war, or to expedite some 

' Maimon. Schabb.- cap. 8. ^ Talm. Schab. cap. 7. 

1 English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 186. 



198 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xii. 3. 

warlike design, he dissembles likewise that he sent his army 
to a certain place ; and that he had turned aside thither 
to worship God, and to inquire of the event ; that he had 
brought but a very few of his most trusty servants along 
with him, for whom, being an hungred, he asketh a few 
loaves. 

"Ot€ €TT€tvaa€V When he loas an hungred.'] Here 
hearken to Kimchi, producing the opinion of the ancients 
concerning this story in these words : " Our Rabbins, of 
blessed memory, say, that he gave him the show-bread, &c. 
The interpretation also of the clause, '^'^p^ DlTT '^3 ^^*\ 

** 733 yea, though it loere sanctified this day in the vessel, [v. 6.] 
is this ; It is a small thing to say, that it is lawful for us to 
eat these loaves taken from before the Lord when we are 
hungry ; for it would be lawful to eat this very loaf which 
is now set on, which is also sanctified in the vessel (for the 
table sanctifieth); it would be lawful to eat even this, when 
another loaf is not present with you to give us, and we are 
so hunger-bitten." And a little after; " There is^ nothing 
which may hinder taking care of life, beside idolatry, adultery, 
and murder." 

These words do excellently agree with the force of our 
Saviour's arguments ; but with the genuine sense of that 
clause, methinks they do not well agree. I should, under 
correction, render it otherwise, only prefacing this before- 
hand, that it is no improbable conjecture that David came 
to Nob either on the sabbath itself, or when the sabbath 
was but newly gone. " For " the show-bread was not to be 
eaten unless for one day and one night ; that is, on the sab- 
bath and the going-out of the sabbath ; David, therefore, 
came thither in the going-out of the sabbath.^' And now I 
render David's words thus ; " Women have been kept from 
us these three days," [so that there is no uncleanness with 
us from the touch of a menstruous woman] , " and the vessels 
of the young men were holy, even in the common way," [that 
is, while we travelled in the common manner and journey] ; 
" therefore, much more are they holy as to their vessels this 
[sabbath] day." And to this sense perhaps does that come : 

m Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 321. " R. Esaias in 1 Sam. xxi. 



Oh. xii. 5,8.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 199 

Tl^'n"^ ^DD^ '^'2V) :i^"r " But there was there one of the ser- 
vants of Saul detained that day before the Lord" [v. 8.] The 
reverence of the sabbath had brought him to worship, and as 
yet had detained him there. 

Ver. 5 : Ot tepet? kv tw lepw to aajBjSaTov (SelSriXovcri, koI 
avaiTLoi eiVi* The priests in the Temple profane the sahhath, and 

are guiltless.] milj^ ]"'^^ a^IIJ-np D^S «^H^ n"Tini> " Theo 
servile work lohich is done in the holy things is tiot servile. The 
same works which were done in the Temple on other days 
were done also on the sabbath." And ^^13 tDlp^Dl mitZ? ]^« 
There is no sahhatism at all in the Temple P. 

Ver. 8 : Kvptos yap eort koH tov cra^^aTov 6 vlos tov avOpdiiTov 
For the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.] I. He op- 
posed this very argument against their cavils before the San- 
hedrim, John V. When he was summoned into the court 
concerning his healing the paralytic man on this very sab- 
bath, or on the sabbath next before, he shews his dominion 
over the sabbath from this very thing, that he, the Son^ was 
invested and honoured Avith the same authority, power, and 
dignity, in respect of the administration of the New Testa- 
ment, as the Father was in regard of the Old. 

II. The care of the sabbath lay upon the first Adam under 
a double law, according to his double condition : i . Before 
his fall, under the law of nature written in his heart : under 
which he had kept the sabbath, if he had remained innocent. 
And here it is not unworthy to be observed, that although 
the seventh day was not come before his fall, yet the institu- 
tion of the sabbath is mentioned before the history of his 
fall. 2. After his fall, under a positive law. For when he 
had sinned on the sixth day, and the seventh came, he was 
not now bound under the bare law of nature to celebrate it ; 
but according as the condition of Adam was changed, and as 
the condition of the sabbath was not a little changed also, a 
new and positive law concerning the keeping the sabbath was 
superinduced upon him. It will not be unpleasant to pro- 
duce a few passages from the Jewish masters of that first 
sabbath : — 

" Circumcision q," saith R. Judah*', " and the sabbath, were 

" Hieros. Scliab. fol. 17. i. 'i English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 18*7. 

P Maimon. in Pesach. cap. i. '' Mid. Tillin, fol. 15. 3. 



200 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xii. lo. 

before the law." But how much backward before the law ? 
Hear Baal Turiras : " The Israelites were redeemed (saith 
he) out of Egyptj because they observed circumcision and 
the sabbath-day." Yea, and further backward still : " The 
inheritance* of Jacob is promised to those that sanctify the 
sabbath, because he sanctified the sabbath himself." Yea, 
and more backwards yet, even to the beginning of the world : 
"The" first psalm in the world was, when Adam's sin was 
forgiven : and when the sabbath entered, he opened his 
mouth and uttered the psalm of the sabbath." So also the 
Targum upon the title of Psalm xcii : " The psalm or song 
which Adam composed concerning the sabbath-day.*''' Upon 
which psalm, among other things, thus Midrash Tillin : 
'' What did God create the first day ? Heaven and earth. 
What the second ? The firmament. &c. What the seventh ? 
The sabbath. And since God had not created the sabbath 
for servile works, for which lie had created the other days 
of the week, therefore it is not said of that as of the other 
days, ' And the evening and the morning was the seventh 
day.' " And a little after, " Adam was created on the eve of 
the sabbath : the sabbath entered when he had now sinned, 
and was his advocate with God," &c. 

" Adam'' was created on the sabbath-eve, that he might 
immediately be put under the command." 

HI. Since, therefore, the sabbath was so instituted after 
the fall, and that by a law and condition which had a 
regard to Christ now promised, and to the fall of man, the 
sabbath could not but come under the power and dominion 
of the Son of man, that is, of the promised seed, to be or- 
dered and disposed by him as he thought good, and as he 
should make provision, for his own honour and the benefit 
of man. 

Ver. lo: Ei e^ecrrt rots crdfijiaai OepaTreveiv ; Is it laicful to 
heal on the salbath days ?] These are not so much the words 
of inquirers, as deniers. For these were their decisions in 
that case ; " Lety not those that are in health use physic on 
the sabbath day. Let not him that labours under a pain in 

s In Exod. i. '^ Bab. Sanhedr. fol.38. i. 

t R. Sol. in Isa. Iviii. 14. y Maimon. in Schabb. c. 21. 

" Targ. in Cant. i. 



Ch. xii. 1 1, 1 6.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 201' 

his loins, anoint the place affected with oil and vinegar ; but 
with oil he may, so it be not oil of roses, &c. He that hath 
the toothache, let hira not swallow vinegar to spit it out 
again; but he may swallow it, so he swallow it down^. He 
that hath a sore throat, let him not gargle it with oil: but he 
may swallow down the oil, whence if he receive a cure it is 
well. Let no man chew mastich, or rub his teeth with spice 
for a cure ; but if he do this to make his mouth sweet, it is 
allowed. They do not put wine into a sore eye. They do 
not apply fomentations or oils to the place affected," &c. 
All which things, however they were not applicable to the 
cure wrought by Christ (with a word only), yet they afforded 
them an occasion of cavilling : who, indeed, were sworn 
together thus to quarrel him ; that canon affording them a 
further pretence, " This^ certainly obtains, that whatsoever 
was possible to be done on the sabbath eve driveth not away 
the sabbath." To which sense he speaks, Luke xiii. 14. 

Let'^ the reader see, if he be at leisure, what diseases they 
judge dangerous, and what physic is to be used on the sab- 
bath. 

Ver. 1 1 : 'Eay iixTria-rf iTp6(3aTov rots (rafi^afnv eh fioOvvov, &c. 
If a sheep fall into a ditch on the sabbath days., (^c] It was a 
canon, b^^^^*» h'^ p^DD'':^ hv Din We'^ must take a tender 
care of the poods of an Israelite. Hence, 

" If '^ a beast fall into a ditch, or into a pool of waters, let 
\the owner] bring him food in that place if he can ; but if he 
cannot, let him bring clothes and litter, and bear up the beast ; 
whence, if he can come up, let him come up," Sec. 

" If a beast, or his foal, fall into a ditch on a holy-day, K. 
Lazar saith^, ' Let him lift up the former to kill him, and let 
him kill him : but let him give fodder to the other, lest he die 
in that place.' R. Joshua saith, ' Let him lift up the former, 
with the intention of killing him, although he kill him not : 
let him lift up the other also, although it be not in his mind 
to kill him.' " 

Ver. 16^: "\va jur/ (pavepov avrov TToirjcrciXTf That they should 

^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 322. ^ Hieros. Jom Tobh, fol. 62. i. 

* Talm. Schabb. cap. 19. <^ Maimon. in Schabb. c. 25. 

^ In Hieros. Avodah Zarah, fol. ^ Hieros. in the place above. 

40. 4. f English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 188. 



3502 Hehreio and Talmudical [Oh. xii. 20. 

not make him known.'] But this, not that he refused to heal 
the sick, nor only to shun popular applause ; but because he 
would keep himself hid from those who would not acknowledge 
him. This prohibition tends the same way as his preaching 
by parables did. Matt. xiii. 13 ; "I speak to them by parables, 
because seeing they see not." He would not be known by 
them who would not know him. 

Ver. 20 : KdAa/xoy avvT^TpLfxixivov ov Karea^ef A bruised reed 
shall he not break.'] These words are to be applied, as appears 
by those that went before, to our Saviour's silent transaction 
of his own affairs, without hunting after applause, the noise 
of boasting, or the loud reports of fame. He shall not make 
so great a noise as is made from the breaking of a reed now 
already bruised and half broken, or from the hissing of smoking 
flax only when water is thrown upon it. How far different is 
the Messias thus described, from the Messias of the expecta- 
tion of the Jews ! And yet it appears sufficiently that Isaiah, 
from whom these words are taken, spake of the Messias, and 
the Jews confess it. 

"Eo)? av kKfiakrj ets vIkos t'tju Kpiaiv' Till he send forth judg- 
ment unto victory ?\ The Hebrew and LXX in Isaiah read 
it thus, " He shall bring forth judgment unto truth." The 
words in both places mean thus much. That Christ should 
make no sound in the world, or noise of pomp, or applause, 
or state, but should manage his affairs in humihty, silence, 
poverty, and patience, both while he himself was on earth, 
and by his apostles, after his ascension, labouring under 
contempt, poverty, and persecution ; but at last " he should 
bring forth judgment to victory ;" that is, that he should 
break forth and show himself a judge, avenger, and con- 
queror, against that most wicked nation of the Jews, from 
whom both he and his suffered such things : and then, also, 
" he sent forth judgment unto truth," and asserted himself 
the true Messias, and the Son of God, before the eyes of 
all ; and confirmed the truth of the gospel, by avenging his 
cause upon his enemies, in a manner so conspicuous and so 
dreadful. And hence it is, that that sending forth and exe- 
cution of judgment against that nation is almost always 
called in the New Testament " his coming in glory." When 
Christ and his kingdom had so long lain hid under the veil 



Ch. xii. 24.] Exercitations upon St. Mattheic. 

of humility, and the cloud of persecution^ at last he brake 
forth a revenger, and cut off that persecuting nation, and 
shewed himself a conqueror before the eyes of all, both 
Jews and Gentiles. Let it be observed in the text before us, 
how, after the mention of that judgment and victory (against 
the Jews), presently follows, " And in his name shall the 
Gentiles trust." 

Ver, 24 : 'Ey roi BeeAC€/3oi;A. ap\ovTt t5>v baiiioviMV By 
Beelzehuh, the prince of the devils^ For the searching out 
the sense of this horrid blasphemy, these things are worthy 
observing : 

I. Among the Jews it was held, in a manner, for a mat- 
ter of religion, to reproach idols, and to give them odious 
names. 

" R. Akibah s saith, Idolatry pollutes, as a menstruous 
woman pollutes : as it is said, ' Thou shalt cast away the 
[idol^ as something that is menstruous, and thou shalt say 
to it, Get thee hence' (Isa. xxx. 22). R. Lazar saith, Thou 
shalt say to it, Get thee hence : that which they call the face 
of God^, let them call» the face of a dog : that which they call 
DID ri> the fountain of a cup, let them call ^Ip T*V the foun- 
tain of toil [or of flails] : that which they call n'^''1H fortune, 
let them call i^^"* v^ a stinJc, &c. That town which sometimes 
was called Beth-el, was afterward called Beth-aven." See also 
the tract Schahbath^, where these same words are'. 

"'i^l «ni:!J^^n Y'ln «"1^D« «r\13!I^^ h^ AU^^ jeering is 

forbidden, except the jeering of idolatry. This also is repeated 

in the tract Megillah"^ : where this is added, " It is lawful for 

a Jew to say to a Cuthite, "m "y\D^ H^n^b^^ "tV^ H^^p^ 

Take your idol, and put it under your buttocks." 

II. Among the ignominious names bestowed upon idols, 
the general and common one was° ^'\2^ Zebul, dung, or a 
dunghill. " EvenP to them who have stretched out their 
hands SlUTl in a dunghill [that is, in an idol-temple, or in 

e Hieros. Avodah Zarah, fol. & R. sub v. Nns col. 1086, ;.] 
^^h^See Strabo, lib. 16. p. apud me " ^ab. Sanhedr. fol. 93- 2. 

874. '11 n Pol. 25. 2. 

» Leusdm's edit., vol. ii. p. 323. " English folio edition, vol. 11. p. 

^ Fol. II. 4. 189. 

1 [See more in Buxtorf, Lex. T. P Hieros. Beracoth, fol. 12. 2. 



204 Hehrew and Talmudical [Ch. xii. 24. 

idolatry], there is hope. Thou canst not bring them [into 
the church], because they have stretched forth their hands 
712^2 in a dunghill: but yet you cannot reject them, because 
they have repented." And a Httle after, r^nt^ Dmb^ Hi^") 
1^1 ti^^ " He that sees them ' dunging' [for D*ni2tT2, that is, 
' sacrificing''] to an idol, let him say. Cursed be he that sacri- 
fices to a strange god." 

Let them therefore, who dare, form this word in Matthew 
into Beelzebub. I am so far from doubting that the Phari- 
sees pronounced the word Beehebul, and that Matthew so 
wrote it, that I doubt not but the sense fails if it be writ 
otherwise. 

III. Very many names of evil spirits or devils occur in the 
Talmudists. which it is needless here to mention. Among all 
the devils, they esteemed that devil the worst, the foulest, 
and, as it were, the prince of the rest, who ruled over the 
idols, and by whom oracles and miracles were given forth 
among the heathens and idolaters. And they were of this 
opinion for this reason, because they held idolatry above all 
other things chiefly wicked and abominable, and to be the 
prince and head of evil. This demon they called 7l2"t h^l 
Baal-zehul, not so much by a proper name, as by one more 
general and common ; as much as to say, the lord of idolatry: 
the worst devil, and the worst thing : and they called him the 
" prince of devils," because idolatry is the prince (or chief) of 
wickedness. 

We meet with a story q, where mention is made of pPTl'^ 
b^'^mi"! the prince of spirits. Whether it be in this sense, 
let the reader consult and judge. Also in the Aruchr we 
meet with these words, ^^nmi"r pHl'^ pl^tT'^ t^l^U? the 
demon Asmodeus, the prince of spirits. 

IV. The Talmudists, being taught by these their fathers, 
do give out, horribly blaspheming, that Jesus of Nazareth our 
Lord was a magician, a broacher of strange and wicked wor- 
ship ; and one that did miracles by the power of the devil, to 
beget his worship the greater belief and honour. 

" Bens ^-j^p Satda brought magic out of Egypt, by cut- 

<J Hieros. Peah, fol. 21. 2. r Ex Rabboth. 

s Bab. Schab. fol. 104. 2. [See more in Buxtorf, Lex. T. & R. sub 
V. ntOD coll. 1458 foil.] 



Oh. xii. 25.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 205 

tings which he had made in his flesh." By b^IDD XI Ben 
Satda, they understand Jesus of Nazareth, as we have said 
before ; whom they dishonour by that name, that they might, 
by one word and in one breath, reproach him and his mother 
together. For b^lt^D Saida, or Stada, sounds as much as 
an adulterous wife, which the Gemara shews after a few 
Hnes, riT'J^l^ ^"T PtlDD She loent aside from her husband. 
They feign* that Jesus travelled with Joshua Ben Perachiah 
into Egypt, when the said Joshua fled from the anger and 
sword of Janneus the king, which we have mentioned at the 
second chapter ; and that he brought thence magical witch- 
crafts with him, but under the cutting of his flesh, that he 
might not be taken by the Egyptian magicians, who strictly 
examined all that went out of that land, that none should 
transport their magic art into another land. And in that 
place they add these horrid words, TV'^rV fT'Dm ?]\2;3 ^W 
vt^ltD'^ nb^ Jesus practised magic, and deceived, and drove 
Israel to idolatry. Those whelps bark, as they were taught 
by these dogs. 

To this, therefore, does this blasphemy of the Pharisees 
come ; as if they should say, " He casts out devils indeed ; 
but he doth this by the help of the devil, the lord of idols, 
that dwells in him ; by him, that is the worst of all devils, 
who favours him and helps him, because it is his ambition to 
drive the people from the worship of the true God to strange 
worship." 

Ver. 23 : E 18015 ^e 6 'Ir/croi5s ras ivOvfii^a-ecs avT(aV But Jesus 
knowing their thoughts.] Behold, Pharisee, a sign of the 
true Messias, for^ a sign you would have: he smells out a 
wicked man. 

" It-^ is written of Messias, The Spirit of the Lord shall 
rest upon him, n n^^*^"^!! 'in^'^m and shall make him smell 
in the fear of the Lord. Rabba said, he shall smell and judge; 
as it is said, he shall not judge by the sight of his eyes, &c. 
Ben Cozba reigned two years and a half, and said to the 
Rabbins, I am the Messias : they said to him, It is written 
of Messias that he shall smell and judge (the Gloss is, he 

* Sanhedr. fol.107. 2- " Signum veri Messiae, etiam quod optas : Leusd. 
^ Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 93. 2. 



206 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xii. 27, 32. 

shall smell out y the man, and shall judge and know whether 
he be guilty). Let us see whether thou canst smell and 
judge. mT'^'I^p pi^-n rv^12) «^"r r^'^tm JVr:^ And when 
they saw that he could not smell and judge, they slew him." 

Ver. 27 '• Oi viol vjxGiv kv tlvi kK^aXKovcn; By ivhom do your 
children cast them out 9] By your children, Christ seems to 
understand some disciples of the Pharisees ; that is, some of 
the Jews, who using exorcisms seemed to cast out devils 
such as they. Acts xix. 13^; and yet they said not to them, 
" Ye cast out devils by Beelzebul." It is worthy marking, 
that Christ presently saith, " If I by the Spirit of God cast 
out devils, then the kingdom of God is come among you." 
For what else does this speak, than that Christ was the first 
who should cast out devils? which was an undoubted sign 
to them that the kingdom of heaven was now come. But 
that which was performed by them by exorcisms was not so 
much a casting out of devils, as a delusion of the people ; 
since Satan would not cast out Satan, but by compact with 
himself and with his company he seemed to be cast out, 
that he might the more deceive. 

The sense, therefore, of Christ's words comes to this : 
" That your disciples cast out devils, ye attribute not to Beel- 
zebul, no nor to magic ; but ye applaud the work when it is 
done by them : they, therefore, may in this matter be your 
judges, that you pronounce these words of my actions out of 
the rankness and venom of your minds." 

Inb the Gloss mention is made of a devil cast out by a Jew 
at Rome. 

Ver. 32 : Ovk a(f)e6^aiTaL avrw, ovt€ kv TovTca t(3 alSivi, ovre 
iv r(5 ij.^Kkoi>Tt' It shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, 
nor in that which is to come.] They that endeavour hence to 
prove the remission of some sins after death, seem little to 
understand to what Christ had respect when he spake these 
words. Weigh well this common and most known doctrine 
of the Jewish schools, and judge : 

" He<^ that transgresses an affirmative precept, if he pre- 
sently repent, is not moved until the Lord pardon him. And 

y Subolebit ei dehomine: Leusd. ^ Bab. Joma, fol. 57. i. 

^ Leusden's edition, voLii. p. ^24. <= Hieros. Sanhedr. fol. 37. 3. 

^ English folio edit., \o\.'n. p. igo. Bab. Joma, fol. 86. i. 



Ch. xii.32.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 207 

of such it is said, ' Be ye converted, O backsliding children, 
and I will heal your backslidings.' He that transgresses a 
negative precept and repents, his repentance suspends judg- 
ment, and the day of expiation expiates him ; as it is said, 
'This day shall all your uncleannesses be expiated to you.' 
He that transgresses to cutting off [5y the stroke of God^ or 
to death by the Sanhedrim, and repents, repentance and the 
day of expiation do suspend judgment, and the strokes that 
are laid upon him wipe off sin ; as it is said, ' And I will visit 
their transgression with a rod, and their iniquity with 
scourges/ But he by whom the name of God is profaned 
[or blasphemed] , repentance is of no avail to him to suspend 
judgment, nor the day of expiation to expiate it, nor scourges 
[or corrections inflicted] to wipe it off, but all suspend judg- 
ment, and death wipes it off." Thus the Babylonian Geraara 
writes : but the Jerusalem thus ; " Eepentance and the day 
of expiation expiate as to the third part, and corrections as 
to the third part, and death wipes it off: as it is said, and 
your iniquities shall not be expiated to you until ye die. 
npl?2D b^in'^?2I2} 131?dS i^n BehoU, im learn that death tcipes 
off.'' Note this, which Christ contradicts, concerning blas- 
phemy against the Holy Ghost ; " It shall not be forgiven, 
(saith he,) neither in this world, nor in the world to come ;" 
that is, neither before death, nor, as you dream, by death. 

'Ey Tfa) alGiVL rw ixiWovrf In the toorld to come?\ I. Some 
phrases were received into common use, by which in com- 
mon speech they opposed the heresy of the Sadducees, who 
denied immortality. Of that sort were i^^H uTs'^ atwy 6 
[kiWii^v, the Vjorld to come : 1*7^? p 'napaheiuos, paradise : 
□Ijn^ yhvva, hell, &c. 

" At^ the end of all the prayers in the Temple" (as we 
observed before) " they said D^li^ 1"^ for ever. But when 
the heretics brake in and said, 'There was no age but one,' it 
was appointed to be said, D^IJ^H "li^l D7"lj;n p for ever 
and ever." 

This distinction of ntH uh^V i^^s tcorld, and of ^7^V 
t^in the world to come, you may find almost in every page of 
the Rabbins. 

" The ^Lord recompense thee a good reward for this thy 
d Bab. Beracoth, fol. 54. i. e Targ. in Ruth, chap. ii. 15. 



a08 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xii.39. 

good word p"7n ^727^1 ^n this world, and let thy reward be 
perfected "^jni^l i^?D7y2 in the world to come.'''' 

" It ^ [that is, the history of the creation and of the Bible] 
begins therefore with the letter 1 [Beth] [in the word 
Jl'^tyt^lll Bereshith], because two worlds were created, this 
world, and a world to come." 

II. b^nn D7iy The loorld to come, hints two things espe- 
cially (of which see Earabams) : 1. The times of the Mes- 
sias: "Bei^ mindful of the day wherein thou earnest out of 
Egypt, all the days of thy life. The wise men say, By 
'the days of thy life,' is intimated 'this world :^ by ' all the days 
of thy life/ the days of the Messias are superinduced." In 
sense the apostle seems to speak, Hebrews ii. 5, and vi. 5. 
2. The state after death, r^"v^ Dl^H ^!?""^ 'SH'ih "nH 'V 
The^ icorld to come is, wheti a man is departed out of this 
world. 

Ver. 39^ : Fez/ea Trov-qpa koI iioixaXls a-qixelov iTnCrjTel, &c. 
An evil and adulterous generatioyi seeJceth after a sign.^ I. 
Their schools also confessed^ that signs and miracles were not 
to be expected but by a fit generation. 

"The^ elders being once assembled at Jericho, the Bath 
Kol went forth and said. There is one among you who is fit 
to have the Holy Ghost dwell upon him, •m'n \^'iW vhv^ 
'''^"13 hut that \this'] generation is not fit. They fix their eyes 
upon Hillel the Elder. The elders being assembled again 
in vTTep6(^, an tipper room in Jabneh, Bath Kol came forth 
and said. There is one among you who is fit to have the 
Holy Spirit dwell upon him, ^^i:: '^^1'^ \^^^ «^« but that 
the generation is not ft. They cast their eyes upon Samuel 
the Little." 

II. That generation by which and in which the Lord of 
life was crucified lay, and that deservedly, under an ill report 
for their great wickedness above all other, from the begin- 
ning of the world until that day. Whence that of the pro- 
phet, "Who shall declare his generation?" Isaiah liii. 2 ; 
that is, his generation (viz. that generation in which he should 

f Baal Turim, & Tanch. in Gen. • Tanchum, fol. 52. 
i. I. ^ English folio erfiY., vol.ii. p. 191. 

ff In Sanhedr. cap. Chelek. — Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 325. 
*i Berac. cap. i, hal. iilt. ' Hieros. Sotah, fol. 24. 2. 



Ch. xii. 40.] Exercitations upon St. Mattheio. 209 

live) should proceed to that degree of impiety and wicked- 
ness, that it should surpass all expression and history. We 
have observed before, how the Tahnudists themselves con- 
fess, that that generation in which the Messias should come 
should exceed all other ages in all kinds of amazing wick- 
edness. 

III. That nation and generation might be called adulterous 
literally : for what else, I beseech you, was their irreligious 
polygamy than continual adultery? And what else was their 
ordinary practice of divorcing their wives, no less irreligious, 
according to every man's foolish or naughty will I 

Ver. 39 : Ei /mt) to arjfjuLov ''Icova tov Tipo(pr\Tov' But the sign 
of Jonah the prophet.'] Here and elsewhere, while he gives 
them the sign of Jonah, he does not barely speak of the 
miracle done upon him, which was to be equalled in the Son 
of man, but girds them with a silent check"^; instructing them 
thus much, that the Gentiles were to be converted by him, 
after his return out of the bowels of the earth, as heathen 
Nineveh was converted, after Jonah was restored out of the 
belly of the whale. Than which doctrine scarce anything bit 
that nation more sharply. 

Ver. 40 : "Eorai 6 vio? tov avdpcairov iv ttj Kapbiq ttjs yrjs 
T/3€ts Tjixipas Kol Tpels vvKTa<i' The Son of man shall he three days 
and three nights in the heart of the earth."] i. The Jewish 
writers extend that memorable station of the unmoving sun 
at Joshua^s prayer to six-and-thirty hours ; for so Kimehi 
upon that place : " According to more exact interpretation, 
the sun and moon stood still for six-and-thirty hours : for 
when the fight was on the eve of the sabbath, Joshua feared 
lest the Israelites might break the sabbath : therefore he 
spread abroad his hands, that the sun might stand still on 
the sixth day, according to the measure of the day of tlie 
sabbath, and the moon, according to the measure of the 
night of the sabbath, and of the going-out of the sabbath ; 
which amounts to six-and-thirty hours." 

II. If you number the hours that passed from our Sav- 
iour's giving up the ghost upon the cross to his resurrec- 
tion, you shall find almost the same number of hours ; and 

"> [Sed tacito etiam stimiilo eos pungit, Lat.] 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. H. P 



210 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xii. 40. 

yet that space is called by him " three days and three nights,"'"' 
when as two nights only came between, and only one complete 
day. Nevertheless, while he speaks these words, he is not 
without the consent both of the Jewish schools, and their 
computation. Weigh well that which is disputed in the tract 
Schabhath^ , concerning the uncleanness of a woman for three 
days ; where many things are discussed by the Gemarists 
concerning the computation of this space of three days. 
Among other things these words occur ; " R. Ismael saith, 
mrii^"! inc D'^X^D Sometimes'? it contains four n^Tt'^ Onot/i, 
sometimes five, sometimes six. But q how much is the space 
of niiy an Onah ? E,. Jochanan saith either a day or a night." 
And so also the Jerusalem Talmud ; " R. Akiba ^ fixed a day 
for an Onali^ and a night for an Onah : but the tradition is, 
that R. Eliezar Ben Azariah said, ni^r^l T\T\V rhh^ Dl"^ 
(171513 ilili? A day and a night make an Onah, and a part of 
an Onah is as the whole.'' And a little after, ^2V hi^VO^^ S 
JlT^IS^ PTjIX^ n!Jp72 B. Ismael computeth a part of the Onah 
for the ichole. 

It^ is not easy to translate the word X^TW Onah into good 
Latin : for to some it is the same with the half of a natural 
day ; to some it is all one with wxQy'wxipov, a whole natural 
day. According to the first sense we may observe, from the 
words of R. Ismael, that sometimes four TilJIi^ Onoth, or 
halves of a natural day, may be accounted for three days : 
and that they also are so numbered that one part or the 
other of those halves may be accounted for a whole. Cora- 
pare the latter sense with the words of our Saviour, which 
are now before us : "A day and a night (saith the tradition) 
make an Onah., and a part of an Onah is as the whole." 
Therefore Christ may truly be said to have been in his gra,ve 
three Onoth, or rpls vv^Ow^pov, three natural days (when yet 
the greatest part of the first day was wanting, and the night 
altogether, and the greatest part by far of the third day also), 
the consent of the schools and dialect of the nation agreeing 
thereunto. For, " the least part of the Onah concluded the 
whole." So that according to this idiom, that diminutive 

" Cap. 9. hal. 3. f Schahb. fol. 12. i. 

P Bab. fol. 86. i. s English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 

'1 Bab. Avod. Zar. fol. 75. 1. 192. 



Ch. xii.45-J ■ Exercitations upon ^t. Matthew. 211 

part of the third day upon which Christ arose may be com- 
puted for the whole day, and the night following it. 

Ver. 45 ' : Owrws eorat koX ttj yevea Tavrr] ttj ■novqpa' >S'o 
shall it be to this evil generation.] These words foretell a dread- 
ful apostasy in that nation and generation. 

I. It is something difficult so to suit all things in the 
pai'able aforegoing, that they may agree with one another : 
I. You can hardly understand it of unclean spirits cast out 
of men by Christ ; when through the whole evangelic his- 
tory there is not the least shadow of probability that any 
devil cast out by him did return again into him out of whom 
he had been cast. 2. Therefore our Saviour seems to allude 
to the casting out of devils by exorcisms : which art, as the 
Jews were well instructed in, so in practising it there was 
need of dexterous deceits and collusions. 3. For it is 
scarcely credible that the devil in truth finds less rest in dry 
places than in wet : but it is credible that those diabolical 
artists have found out such kind of figments for the honour 
and fame of their art. For, 4. It would be ridiculous to 
think that they could by their exorcisms cast a devil out of 
a man into whom he had been sent by God. They might, 
indeed, with a compact with the devil, procure some lucid 
intervals to the possessed ; so that the inhabiting demon 
might deal gently with him for some time, and not disturb 
the man : but the demoniacal heats came back again at last, 
and the former outrages returned. Therefore, here there was 
need of deceits well put together, that so provision might the 
better be made for the honour of the exorcistical art ; as, 
that the devil, being sent away into dry and waste places, 
could not find any rest ; that he could not, that he would 
not always wander about here and there, alone by himself, 
without rest ; that he therefore returned into his old man- 
sion, which he had formerly found so well fitted and pre- 
pared for him, &c. 

Therefore these words seem to have been spoken by our 
Saviour according to the capacity of the common people, or 
rather, according to the deceit put upon them, more than 
according to the reality or truth of the thing itself ; taking a 

^ Leusdens edition, vol. li. p. ;^26. 

P Z 



212 Hehreio and Talmudical ' [Ch. xiii. 2,3. 

parable from something commonly believed and entertained, 
that he might express the thing which he propounded more 
plainly and familiarly. 

II. But however it was, whether those things were true 
indeed, or only believed and conceived so, by a most apt and 
open comparison is shown that the devil was first cast out of 
the Jewish nation by the gospel ; and then, seeking for a seat 
and rest among the Gentiles, and not finding it, the gospel 
everywhere vexing him. came back into the Jewish nation 
again, fixed his seat there, and possessed it much more than 
he had done before. The truth of this thing appears in that 
fearful apostasy of an infinite multitude of Jews, who re- 
ceived the gospel, and most wickedly revolted from it after- 
ward ; concerning which the New Testament speaks in 
abundance of places. 

CHAP. XIII." 

Ver. 2 : "flore avrbv KuOiiaOai, koI ttS? o o)(Aos etcrr?j/cef 
So that he sat, and the whole multitude stood J\ So was the man- 
ner of the nation, that the masters when they read their 
lectures sat, and the scholars stood : which honorary custom 
continued to the death of Gamaliel the Elder ; and then so 
far ceased, that the scholars sat when their masters sat. 
Hence is that passage : " From ^ that time that old Rabban 
Gamaliel died, the honour of the law perished, and purity 
and Pharisaism died." Where the Gloss, from 3Iegillah, 
writes us; " Before his death health was in the world, and 
they learned the law standing ; but when he was dead sick- 
ness came dovvn into the world, and they were compelled to 
learn the law sitting." 

Ver. 3 : 'Ev Trapa^oAats* In parables.] I. No figure of 
Jewish rhetoric was more familiarly used than that of pa- 
rables : which perhaps, creeping in from thence, among the 
heathen ended in fables. It is said, in the place of the 

Talmud just now cited, D'hz'^ n^h^r2 1^10^2 "?21 r\72Z^72 
From the time that B. Meir died, those that spaJce in parahles 
ceased : not that that figure of rhetoric perished in the nation 
from that time, but because he surpassed all others in these 

'I English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 193. ^ Sotah, cap. 9. hal. 15. 



Ch. xiii. 4.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 213 

flowers ; as the Gloss thei'e from the tract Sanhedrim speaks ; 

•^Snn «n^m «ni:^^^ «nSm «nyr^ti} «n^n a third part 

[of his discourses or sermons] was tradition, a third part alle- 
gory, and a third part parable. The Jewish books abound 
everywhere with these figures, the nation inclining by a kind 
of natural genius to this kind of rhetoric. One might not 
amiss call their religion Parabolical, folded up within the 
coverings of ceremonies ; and their oratory in their sermons 
was like to it. But it is a wonder indeed, that they who 
were so given to and delighted in parables, and so dextrous 
in unfolding them, should stick in the outward shell of cere- 
monies, and should not have fetched out the parabolical 
and spiritual sense of them ; neither should he be able to 
fetch them out. 

II. Our Saviour (who always and everywhere spake with 
the vulgar) useth the same kind of speech, and very often 
the same preface, as they did in their parables. "Ilin T\u7 
JlDI^T Tivi wjioKadrj, &c., to what is it likened, &c. But in 
him, thus speaking, one may both acknowledge the Divine 
justice, who speaks darkly to them that despise the light ; 
and his Divine wisdom hkewise, who so speaks to them that 
see^ and yet see not, that they may see the shell and not see 
the kernel. 

Ver. 47: '^A //ev eTiecre irapa t7]v obov, &c. Soine fell by the 
toay side, fcc] Concerning the husbandry of the Jews, and 
their manner of sowing, we meet with various passages in the 
tracts Peah, Dernai, Kilaim, Sheviith : we shall only touch 
upon those things which the words of the text under our 
hands do readily remind us of. 

There were ways and paths as well common as more 
private along the sown fields ; see chap. xii. i. Hence in the 
tract Peah ^, where they dispute what those things are 
which divide a field so that it owes a double corner to the 
poor ; thus it is determined, " These things divide : a river, 
an aqueduct, a private way, a common way, a common path, 
and a private path," &c. See the place and the Gloss. 

Ver. 5 ^ : "AAXa he eVeo-ey kin ra TTeTpa>hr]' Some fell among 
stony places.^ Discourse is had'^ concerning some laws of the 

y Leusdens edit., vol. ii. p. 327. ^ English folio edit., vol. ii. 1>.194. 

^ Cap. 2. *> Hieros. Kilaitn, fol. 27. i. 



214 Hebrew and Tahnudical [Ch. xiii. 7^ &c. 

Kihiini (or, of the seeds of different hinds), and of the seventh 
year : where, among other things^ we meet with these words ; 
" R. Simeon Ben Lachish saith that he is freed \^from those 
laws'] who sows his seed by the sea, □"'7i'*D "x^ IT^ISD "y^^ 
□''^"ItD T;^ upon rocks, shelves, and rocky places.^' These 
words are spoken according to the reason and nature of the 
land of Israel, which v,as very rocky ; and yet those places 
that were so were not altogether unfit for tillage. 
. Yer. 7 : "AAAa 8e eireo-ey km tcls aKavOar Others fell among 
thurns.] Here the distinction comes into my mind of m^? 
Vy^ a xohite fields that is, which is all sown ; and of r^^'^ TWQ 
a woody field, that is, in whicli trees and bushes grow here 
and there : concerning which see the tract Sheviith ^. So 
there is very frequent mention in the Talmudists of ril^^/^S 
beds, in fields and vineyards, ni^l^i^^ which speaks the same 
thing. Ande of nitl?2 nnip baldness in a field: that is, 
when some places are left not sown, and some places lying 
between are^ 

Ver. 8 : 'E8t8ou Kap-nov, o fxev tKarov, &c. And brought forth 
frait, some a hundred, 4'c.] These words are spoken according 
to the fruitfulness of the land of Israel ; concerning which 
the Talmudists speak much, and hyperbolically enough : 
which nevertheless they confess to be turned long since into 
miserable barrenness ; but are dim-sighted as to the true 
cause of it. 

TheyS treat of this matter, and various stories are produced, 
wliicli you may see : we will only mention these two : — 

" R. Jochanan said, The worst fruit which we eat in our 
youth excelled the best which we now eat in our old age : 
for in his days the world was changed. 

"R. Ohaijah BarBa said r.''':'!"!^^ Mi^D The Arbelite bushel 
formerly yielded a bushel of flour, a bushel of meal, a bushel 
of bran, and a bushel of coarse bran, and a bushel of coarser 
bran yet, and a bushel of the coarsest bran also : but now one 
bushel scarcely comes from one bushel." 

Ver. 13: BAcTToi^res ov ^kinovai, &c. They seeing see not.^ 
Hci'e you may observe this people to have been given up to a 
reprobate mind, and a spirit of deep sleep, now a great while 

'^ Cap. 2. ^ Peah, cap. 2. ^ Kilaim, c. 3. 

f Kilaim, c. 4. s Hieros. Peah, fol. 20. i, 2. 



Ch. xiii. 25,32.] Ejcercitations upo7i St. MattJieio. 9A5 

before the death of Christ. Which being observed, the sense 
of the apostle will more easily appear, Rom. xi. 8 ; where these 
very words are repeated. If you there state aright the rejec- 
tion of that people, you will understand more clearly the apo- 
stle concerning their call, which is there handled. Pharisaism 
and the sottishness of traditions had, now a good while ago, 
thrown them into blindness, stupidity, and hardness of heart ; 
and that for some ages before Christ was born : but when the 
gospel came, the Lord had his gleanings among them, and 
there were some that believed, and unto whom the participa- 
tion of the promises was granted : concerning them the apostle 
speaks in that chapter : see ver. 5, 'Ev tm vvv Katpo) Aei/x/Aa Kar 
€K\oyriv, &c. At this present time there is a remnant ac- 
cording to election^'' &c., which we have observed before at 
chap. iii. ver. 7. 

Ver. 25 : ZiCdina' Tares.] p3")t Zunin, in Talmudic language, 
ntn n^ n^^^^ ]r« \'T(T\^ D^t^nn Wheat^-^ and \^T\\' Zunin' 
are not seeds of different kiiids. Where the Gloss is this ; " pDIt 
is a kind of wheat, which is changed in the earth, both as to 
its form, and to its nature." By the best Lexicographers it 
is rendered zizania, in Latin. 

Soi that that field, in this parable, was sown by the lord 
with good wheat ; by the enemy, with bad and degenerate 
wheat ; but all of it was sown with wheat, one or the other. 
These words do not so barely mean good and bad men, as 
good and bad Christians ; both distinguished from other men, 
namely, from heathens, as wheat is distinguished from other 
seeds : but they are distinguished also among themselves, as 
good wheat is distinguished from that which is degenerate. 
So chap. XXV, all those ten women, expecting the bride- 
groom, are virgins; but are distinguished into wise and 
foolish. 

Ver. 32 : *0 ixiKporepov [xiv ^art iravTcov tS>v airepixdroiv, tfec. 
Which, indeed, is the least of all seeds, ^c.\ Hence it is passed 
into a common proverb, 7"T"^n i^')"!^ According to the quantity 
of a grain of mustard: and 7n"in HS'tDi According to the 
quantity of a little drop of mustard, very frequently'^ used by 

■> Kilaitn, cap. i. hal. 1 . > English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 195. 
^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 328. 



216 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. xiii. 33, 52. 

the Rabbins, when they would express the smallest thing, or 
the most diminutive quantity. 

Meitoy tS>v Kaxavoiv kari Is the greatest among herhs.~\ 
" There" was a stalk of mustard in Siehin, from which sprang 
out three boughs : of which, one was broke off, and covered 
the tent of a potter^ and produced three cabes of mustard. 
R. Simeon Ben Chalaphta said, A stalk of mustard was in my 
field, into which I was wont to climb, as men are wont to 
climb into a fig-tree." 

Ver. 'J,^ : Ets aXevpov o-dra rpia- In three (sata) measures of 
meal.] That is, in an ephah of meal. Exod. xvi. 36 ; " Now an 
omer is the tenth part of an ejyhah." The Chaldee reads, 
]"'t^D n^n:: t^lOy p in The tenth pan of three sata. The 
LXX reads, AeKarov tG>v rprnv ixirpav. The tenth part of three 
measures. And Ruth ii. 1 7, " It was as an ephah of barley.^' 
Where the Targum reads, "{""ni^D ]'*i^D nbil^ As it icere 
three sata of harley. 

"A'" seah contains a double hin, six cabes, twenty-four 
login., a hundred and forty-four eggs'' 

Ver. 52 : 'EK/3aAAet Ik tov Orjaavpov avrov Kaiva koI iraXatd' 
Bringeth forth out of his treasury things new and old.l These 
words are spoken according to the dialect of the schools, where 
the question was not seldom started, What wine, what corn, 
or fruits were to be used in the holy things, and in some rites, 
new or more old ; namely, of the present year, or the years past 
{1^"^ 1^^ \Z?"7n] . But now, a thrifty man, provident of his own 
affairs, was stored both with the one and the other, prepared 
for either, which should be required. So it becomes a scribe 
of the gospel to have all things in readiness, to bring forth 
according to the condition and nature of the thing, of the 
place, and of the hearers. " Do ye understand all these things 
(saith Christ), both the things which I have said, and why I 
have said them ? So a scribe of the gospel ought to bring 
forth," &c. 

' Hieros. Peah, fol. 20. 2. 
■" Al])lies. in Pesach. cap. 5. Kimchi in Miclol. 



Ch. xiv. 2, &c.] Exercitatlons upon St. Matthew. 217 

CHAP. XIV." 

Vkh. 2 : 02ros- ^rrriv 'ladvvrjs, &c. This is John, c^c] Was 
not Herod of the Sadducean faith ? For that which is said by 
ISfatthew, " Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Saddu- 
eees,"" chap. xvi. 6, is rendered by Mark, " Beware of the leaven 
of the Pharisees, and of the leaven of Herod," chap. viii. 15 ; 
that is, ' of their doctrine.' 

If, therefore, Herod embraced the doctrine of the Saddu- 
eees, his words, " This is John the Baptist, he is risen from 
the dead," seem to be extorted from his conscience, pricked 
with the sting of horror and guilt, as though the image and 
ghost of the Baptist, but newly butchered by him, were 
before his eyes : so that his mind is under horror ; and 
forgetting his Sadduceism, groaning and trembling, he ac- 
knowledgeth the resurrection of the dead, whether he will 
or no. 

Or let it be supposed, that with the Pharisees he owned 
the resurrection of the dead ; yet certainly it was unusual for 
them that confessed it to dream of the resurrection of one 
that was but newly dead : they expected there should be a 
resurrection of the dead hereafter : but this, which Herod 
speaks, believes, and suspects, is a great way distant from 
that doctrine, and seems, indeed, to have proceeded from a 
conscience touched from above. 

Ver. 4 : Ovk €^€(ttl aot, '^yeiv avTriv It is not laioful for thee 
to have her.] " There ° are thirty-six cuttings off in the law :" 
that is, sinners who deserve cutting off. And among the rest, 
ITli^ (It^b^ h^ HUn he that lies with his brother's ivife. 
Philip P was now alive, and lived to the twentieth year of 
Tiberius. 

Ver. 6 : Tev^aucv 8c ayoixivtitv tov ^Hpcabov And when Herod's 
birthday was l:ept.] The Jewish schools esteem the keeping of 
bii^thdgi/s a part of idolatrous worship : perhaps they would 
pronounce more favourably and flatteringly of thine, tetrarch, 
because thine. 

These '1 are the times of idolaters: ^5137p the Kalends; 

" English folio edition, vol. ii. ]i. i' Joseph. Antic], lib. iS. cap. 6. 

196. [.Kviii. 4. 6.] 

o Chciithuth, cap. 1. luil. i. 'i Avodah Zarali, cap. 1. hal.3. 



218 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xiv. 7. 

b^llilt^D the Saturnalia; D'^DlOlp /cpaT?jcrets [that is, when 
they first took upon them the empire] ; D'^iT'^ v^ b^'^D^i^l 
and the yevicria, the birthday of the kingdom ; TWhT\ DVI 
a7id the day of a man's birth.''^ While they distinguish yevi- 
(Tia and a birthday, they understand the beginning of that 
kingdom : of which distinction the Gemarists have many 
disputes. 

'Q^pyjicraTo rj OuyaTr^p, &c. The daughter of Herodias danced.'] 
Not so much out of Hghtness, as according to the custom of 
the nation, namely, to express joy and to celebrate the day. 
The Jews were wont in their public and more than ordinary 
rejoicings, and also in some of their holy festivals, to express 
their cheerfulness by leaping and dancing. Omitting the ex- 
amples which occur in the holy Bible, it is reported by the 
Fathers of the Traditions, that the chief part of the mirth in 
the feast of Tabernacles consisted in such kind of dancing : 
the chief men, the aged, and the most religious, dancing in 
the Court of the Women ; and by how much the more vehe- 
mently they did it, so much the more commendable it was. 
The"^ gesture, therefore, or motion of the girl that danced 
took not so much with Herod, as her mind and affection : 
namely, because hereby she shewed honour towards h's birth- 
day*, and love and respect towards him, and joy for his life 
and health : from whom, indeed, Herod had little deserved 
such things, since he had deprived her father Philip of his 
wife, and defiled her mother with unlawful wedlock and con- 
tinual incest. 

Ver. 7*: Me^' opKov wixoXoyqaev avTrj, &c. He promised her 
loith an oath, (§-c.] This kind of oath is called by the Tal- 
mudists ^"IDl nVlltZ? « rash oath : concerning which see 
Maimonides^, and the Talmudic tract under that title. If 
the form of the oath were "by his head," which'' was very 
usual, the request of the maid very fitly, though very un- 
justly, answered to the promise of the king ; as if she should 
say, ' You swore by your head that you would give me what- 
soever I shall ask ; give me, then, the head of John Baptist.' 

Ver. 10 : 'ATreKe^aAto-e tov 'liaavvqv He beheaded John.~\ 

f Sotah, cap. 5. " In mmtl» cap. i. 

s Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 339. * Sanhedr. c. 3. hal, 2. 
I Englishfolio edit., vol. ii. p. 197. 



Ch. xiv. 13.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 219 

Josephas relates that John was imprisoned by Herod in 
Machrerus : 'Tiro-^Cq tj) 'Hpcobov Stcrjutos els top Ma-x^aipovvra 
TTe^c^^ets* Throughy the suspicion of Herod he icas sent prisoner 
to Machesrus. Now Maehserus was the utmost bounds of 
Perea^: and Perea was within Herod's jurisdiction^. But 
now if John lay prisoner there, when the decree went out 
against his hfe, the executioner must have gone a long jour- 
ney, and which could scarcely be performed in two days from 
Tiberias, where the tyrant's court was, to execute that bloody 
command. So that that horrid dish, the head of the vene- 
rable prophet, could not be presented to the maid but some 
days after the celebration of his birthday. 

The time of his beheading we find out by those words of 
the evangelist John^^, " but now the Passover was nigh," by 
reasoning after this manner : It may be concluded, without 
all controversy, that the disciples, as soon as they heard of 
the death of their master, and buried him, betook them- 
selves to Christ, relating his slaughter, and giving him cau- 
tion by that example to take care of his own safety. He 
hearing of it passeth over into the desert of Bethsaida, and 
there he miraculously feeds five thousand men, when the 
Passover was now at hand, as John relates, mentioning that 
story with the rest of the evangelists. Therefore we suppose 
the beheading of the Baptist was a little before the Passover, 
when he had now been in durance half a year, as he had 
freely preached by the space of half a year before his impri- 
sonment. 

Ver. 13 : ' Avex^^PV^^^ CKcWev ev ttAoio) els epi)ixov tottov, 
&c. Be departed thence hy ship into a desert place., ^c] That 
is, from Capernaum^ into the desert of Bethsaida, which is 
rendered by John^', ' k-nrjkdev irepav ryjs Oakdaa-qs, He ivent 
over the sea. Which is to be understood properly, namely, 
from Galilee into Perea. The chorographical maps have 
placed 13ethsaida in Galilee, on the same coast on which 
Capernaum is also : so also commentators feign to themselves 
a bay of the sea only coming between these two cities, which 

y Antiq. lib. xviii. cap. 7. [xviii. ^ Id. de Bell. lib. ii. caj). 9. [ii, 

5. 2.] 6. 3.] 

^ Id. de Bell, lib. iii. cap. 4. [iii. •' Chap. vi. 4. '^ Luke ix. 10. 
3. 3.] ^ John vi. I. 



220 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xiv. 17. 

was our opinion once also with them : but at last we learned 
of Josephus, that Bethsaida was h rfj avco ravXavLnKrj, in the 
tipper Gaulanitis, (which we observe elsewhere,) on the east 
coast of the sea of Gennesaret in Perea. 

'i\KoXovOr](Tav avrCd Tte^iy Tliey followed Mm on foot ?\ From 
hence interpreters argue that Capernaum and Bethsaida lay 
not on different shores of the sea, but on the same : for how 
else, say they, could the multitude follow him afoot? Very 
well, say I, passing Jordan near Tiberias, whose situation I 
have elsewhere shewn to be at the efflux of Jordan out of the 
sea of Galilee. They followed him afoot ano rSiv iroXecov, 
from the cities, saith our evangelist : now there were cities of 
some note very near Capernaum, Tarichea on one side, Tibe- 
rias on the other. Let it be granted that the multitude 
travelled out of these cities after Christ ; the way by which 
they went afoot was at the bridge of Jordan in Chammath : 
that place was distant a mile or something less from Tiberias, 
and from Capernaum three miles or thereabouts. Passing 
Jordan, they went along by the coast of Magdala ; and, after 
that, through the country of Hippo : now Magdala was dis- 
tant one mile from Jordan, Hippo two ; and after Hippo 
was Bethsaida, at the east shore of the sea ; and after Beth- 
saida was a bay of the sea, thrusting out itself somewhat into 
the land ; and from thence was the desert of Bethsaida. 
When, therefore^, they returned back from thence, he com- 
mands his disciples to get into a ship, and to go to Bethsaida, 
while he sent the multitude away, Vvhence he would afterward 
follow them on foot, and would sail with them thence to 
Capernaum. 

Ver. 17 : Auo IxOvas' Twofshes.] What kind oi fish they 
were we do not determine. That they were brought hither 
by a boy to be sold, together with the five loaves, we may 
gather from John, chap. vi. 9. The Talmudists discourse 
very much of IT'T'Q salt fish. I render the word ^alt Jish, 
upon the credit of the Aruch : he citing this tradition out of 
Beracothf, H^Sq I^^dS IS^^nn ''Do they set before him first 
something salt, and with it a morsel ? He blesseths over the 
salt meat, and omits [the blessing] over the morsel, because 

c English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 198. ' Cap. 6. 

s Lensdcii's edition, vol. ii. p, 330. 



Ch. xiv. 20, &c.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 221 

the morsel is, as it were, an appendix to it. n'^7^ The salt 
meat, saith he, is to be understood of fish, as the tradition 
teaclieth, that he that vows abstinence from salt things is 
restrained from nothing but from salt fish/' Whether these 
were saltfsh, it were a ridiculous matter to attempt to deter- 
mine ; but if they were, the manner of blessing which Christ 
used is worthy to be compared with that which the tradition 
now alleged commands. 

Ver. 20 : Kat €cf)ayov irdvTes, koI k^opradOricrav' And tliey did 
all eat., and were filled.^ So m^i^D eating, or a repast after 
food, is defined by the Talmudists ; namely, " When they eat 
their fill. VxaM\^ saith, n^'t^ vh^ PQ ]^^^U: mii^D h'2 
TTT\VO All eating, where salt is not, is not eating." The Aruch 
citing these words, for IIT'Q salt, reads H'^t'^ something sea- 
soned, and adds, " It is no eating, because they are not filled." 

Ver. 22 : Kat evOeais ipoyKacri tovs jjLaOqras, &5G. And im- 
mediately he compelled his disciples, 4"c.] The reason of this 
compulson is given by St. John ', namely, because the people 
seeing the miracle were ambitious to make him a king : per- 
haps that the disciples might not conspire to do the same, 
who as yet dreamed too much of the temporal and earthly 
kingdom of the ]\Iessias. 

Ver. 23 : '0\/rtas 8e yerojuei-rjs* When the evening teas come.] 
So ver. 15, but in another sense : for that denotes the late- 
ness of the day ; this, the lateness of the night. So l"^i^ 
evening, in the Talmudists, signifies not only the declining 
part of the day, but the night also : " from ^ what time do 
they recite the phylacteries Jl^l'^yi in the evening? From 
the time when the priests go in to eat their Truma, even 
to the end of the first watch, as R. Eliezer saith ; but, as the 
wise men say, unto midnight ; yea, as Rabban Gamaliel 
saith, even to the rising of the pillar of the morning." Where 
the Gloss is, n^'^T'l ri*'!l"*i^l in the evening, that is, in the 
night. 

Ver. 25 : Terapr?/ 8e cfivXaKij tt/s vvktos' In the fourth loatch 
of the 7iight.'] That is, after cock crowing : the Jews acknow- 
ledge only three watches of the night, for this with them was 
the third ; rh^h ^U} ^PT '^'h'Q^ n^"l^ll}« The watch is the 

h In Bab. Berac. fol. 44. i. ' Chap. vi. 15. 

^ Berac. cap. i. hal. i. 



222 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xv. 2. 

third part of the night. Thus the Gloss upon the place now 
cited. See also the Hebrew commentators upon Judg. vii. 1 9. 
Not that they divided not the night into four parts, but that 
they esteemed the fourth part, or the watch, not so much for 
the night as for the morning. So Mark xiii. ^^, that space 
after cockcrowing is called Trpcoi, the morning. See also 
Exod. xiv. 24. There were, therefore, in truth, four watches 
of the night, but only three of deep night. When, therefore, 
it is said that Gideon set upon the Midianitcs in the " middle 
watch of the night,'" Judg. vii. 19, it is to be understood of 
that watch which was indeed the second of the whole night, 
but the middle watch of the deep night : namely, from the 
ending of the first watch to midnight. 

CHAP. XV.i 

Ver. 2 : Ylapa^aivovcn ti]v irapahocnv t&v Trpecr/Surepcoy ; Wh^ 
do they transgress the tradition of the elders ?] How great a 
value they set upon their traditions, even above the word of 
God, appears sufficiently from this very place, ver. 6. Out of 
infinite examples which we meet with in their writings, we 
will produce one place only; mm D'^^lD^lD '•'111 D^l^in 
min The^ icords of the scribes are lovely above the words of 
the law : for the words of the law are weighty and light ; but 
the words of the scribes are all weighty." 

" He that shall say, ' There are no phylacteries, trans- 
gressing the words of the law,' is not guilty ; but he that shall 
say, ' There are five Totaphoth, adding to the words of the 
scribes,"' he is guilty." 

: D^^'^n^ •'■llin D^:p^ "^m-r D^lir^n " The imrds mpecrfiv- 
T€p<av of the ciders are weightier than the words of the pro- 
phets.'''' 

" A prophet and Trpecr^vTepos an elder, to what are they 
likened ? To a king sending two of his servants into a pro- 
vince. Of one he writes thus, ' Unless he shew you my seal, 
believe him not :' of the other thus, ' Although he shews you 
not my seal, yet believe him.' Thus it is written of the pro- 
phet, ' He shall shew thee a sign or a miracle ;' but of the 
elders .thus, ' According to the law which they shall teach 
thee,'" &c. But enough of blasphemies. 

' English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 199. "^ Hieros. Berar. fol. 3. 2. 



Ch. XV. 2.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 223 

Ov yap viTTTovTai ras xeipas avT&v, &c. I^or tliey wash not 
their hands., &c.] The" undervaluing of the washing of hands 
is said to be among those things for which the Sanhedrim 
excommunicates : and therefore that R. Eleazar Ben Hazar 
was excommunicated by it, D'^1'' n7*'I031Il p'^'p^'^ because he 
undervalued the tcashing of hands ; and that when he was 
dead, by the command of the Sanhedrim, a great stone was 
laid upon his bier. " Whence you may learn (say they) that 
the Sanhedrim stones the very coffin of every excommunicate « 
person that dies in his excommunication." 

It would require a just volume, and not a short commen- 
tary, or a running pen, to lay open this mystery of Phari- 
saism concerning washing of hands, and to discover it in all 
its niceties : let us gather these few passages out of infinite 
numbers : 

I. D^i^D^ID ^"imn ]nS^nt:)T lD^*" rh'V:i1 Thev washing of 
hands and the plunging of them is appointed hy the loords of the 
scribes : but by whom, and when, it is doubted. Some ascribe 
the institution of this rite to Hillel and Shammai, others carry 
it back to ages before them : " Hillel ^ and Shammai decreed 
concerning the washing of hands. R. Josi Ben Rabbi Bon, in 
the name of R. Levi, saith, ' That tradition was given before, 
but they had forgotten it :' these second stand forth, and ap- 
point according to the mind of the former." 

II. " Although •■ it was permitted to eat unclean meats, 
and to drink unclean drinks, yet the ancient religious eat 
their common food in cleanness, and took care to avoid un- 
cleanness all their days ; and they were called Pharisees. 
And this is a matter of the highest sanctity, and the way of 
the highest religion ; namely, that a man separate himself, 
and go aside from the vulgar, and that he neither touch 
them, nor eat nor drink with them : for such separation 
conducetli to the purity of the body from evil works," &c. 
Hence that definition of a Pharisee which we have produced 
before, niHt^jn p^lH \'h^^^ ]"^L^11Q The Pharisees eat their 
common food in cleanness : and the Pharisaical ladder of 
heaven, " Whosoever * hath his seat in the land of Israel, 

n In Bab. Berac. fol. 46. 2. 1 Hieros. Schab. fol. 3. 4. 

o Leusden's edition, \o\.n. p. 331. '" Maimon. in p"!?31W nt*D1t3. 
P Maimon. in Mikvaoth, cap. 11. s Hieros. in the place above. 



224 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. xv. 2. 

and eateth his common food in cleanness, and speaks the 
holy language, and recites his phylacteries morning and 
evening, let him be confident that he shall obtain the life of 
the world to come." 

III. Here that distinction is to be observed between 
m^lD^^ rrh:^^72 forbidden meats, and ]'^^r2^^ \'h^^iii unclean 
meats. Of both jSlaimonides wrote a proper tract. For- 
bidden meats, such as fat, blood, creatures unlawful to be 
eaten (Levit. ii.), wei"e by no means to be eaten : but meats, 
unclean in themselves, were lawful indeed to be eaten, but 

. contracted some uncleanness elsewhere : it was lawful to eat 
them, and it was not lawful ; or, to speak as the thing indeed 
is, they might eat them by the law of God, but by the canons 
of Pharisaism they might not. 

IV. The distinction also between ^721^ unclean, and "»100 
profane or polluted, is to be observed. Rambara, in his pre- 
face to Toharoth, declares it. 

in^lt ^72::^'^ «btl? ^2^:iV h^DZ Profane or polluted denotes 
this, that it does not pollute another beside itself. For every 
thing which uncleanness invades so that it becomes unclean, 
but renders not another thing unclean, is called 7105 pro- 
fane. And hence it is said of every one that* eats unclean 
meats, or drinks unclean drinks, IH^'^'I^ ilbDDi that his body 
is 2>olluted : but he pollutes not another. Note that, " the 
body of the eater is polluted by unclean meats." To which 
you may add that which follows in the same Maimonides, in 
the place before alleged : " Separation from the common 
people, &;c., conduces to the purity of the body from evil 
works ; the purity of the body conduceth to the sanctity of 
the soul from evil affections ; the sanctity of the soul con- 
duces unto likeness to God, as it is said, ' And ye shall be 
sanctified, and ye shall be holy, because I, the Lord that 
sanctify you, am holy.' " Hence you may more clearly per- 
ceive the force of Christ's confutation, which we have ver. 
ly — 20. 

V. They thought that clean food was polluted by unclean 
hands, and that the hands were polluted by unclean meats. 
You would wonder at this tradition : " Unclean " meats and 

* English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 200. " Rambam in the place before. 



Ch. XV. 2.] Exercitations upon tit. Blatikew. 225 

unclean drinks do not defile a man if he touch them not, 
but if he touch them with his hands, then his hands become 
unclean ; if he handle them with both hands, both hands are 
defiled ; if he touch them with one hand only, one hand only 
is defiled." 

VL This care, therefore, laid upon the Pharisee sect, that 
meats should be set on free, as much as might be, from all 
uncleanness : but especially since they could not always be 
secure of this, that they might be secure that the meats were 
not rendered unclean by their hands. Hence were the wash- 
ings of them not only when they knew them to be unclean, 
but also when they knew it not. 

Rambam in the preface to the tract D"^"!"^ of hands, hath 
these words ; " If the hands are unclean by any uncleanness, 
which renders them unclean ; or if it be hid from a man, and 
he knows not that he is polluted ; yet he is bound to wash his 
hands in order to eating his common food," &c. 

VII. To these most rigid canons they added also bugbears 
and ghosts to affright them. 

: nin ^^rQ^^d t^nS'^D /^^ was the business of Shibta. 
Where the Gloss is, " Shibta was one of the demons who 
hurt them that wash not their hands before meat." The 
Aruch writes thus, " Shibta is an evil spirit which sits upon 
men's hands in the night : and if any touch his food with 
unwashen hands, that spirit sits upon that food, and there is 
danger from it." 

Let these things suffice as we pass along : it would be in- 
finite to pursue all that is said of this rite and superstition. 
Of the quantity of water sufficient for this washing ; of the 
washing of the hands, and of the plunging of them ; of the 
first and second water ; of the manner of washing ; of the 
time ; of the order, when the number of those that sat down 
to meat exceeded five, or did not exceed ; and other such 
like niceties : read, if you have leisure, and if the toil and 
nauseousness of it do not offend you, the Talmudic tract 
D'*'!^ of hands, Maimonides upon the tract Jllt^llp?^ lavers, 
and Babyl. Beracoth^ : and this article, indeed, is inserted 
through the whole volume entitled rillHtD cleamiess. Let 

^ Bab. Taanith, fol. 20. 2. v Fol. 46. 2, &c. 

I.Klin TOOT, vol.. II. Q 



226 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch. xv. 5. 

this discourse be ended with this canon ; " For z a cake, and 
for the washing of hands, let a man walk as far as four 
miles." 

Yer. 5 : Awpoi-, o kav i^ ejuoC o}(j)€\rj9i]s, &c. It is a gift by 
whatsoever thou mightest he profited by me^ &c.] I. Beside the law 
alleged by Christ, " Honour thy father and thy mother," &c., 
they acknowledge this also for law, np^?01 Vnt^ h^'im:^ p 

rhT<\ v-[^ v:d ^ryya\ D''3D?:i"i b^^r,D no^ni tr-iiSr^ 

A^ son is bound to provide his father meat and drink, to clothe 
him, to cover him, to lead him in and oiit, to icash his face^ 
hands, and feet. Yea, that ^ goes higher, " A son is bound to 
nourish his father, yea, to beg for him." Therefore it is no 
wonder if these things which are spoken by our Saviour are 
not found verbatim in the Jewish pandect ; for they are not 
so much alleged by him to shew that it was their direct 
design to banish away all reverence and love towards parents, 
as to show how wicked their traditions were, and into what 
ungodly consequences they oftentimes fell. They denied not di- 
rectly the nourishment of their parents, nay, they commanded 
it, they exhorted to it; but consequently by this tradition 
they made all void. They taught openly, indeed, that a 
father was to be made no account of in comparison of a 
Rabbin that taught them the law c ; but they by no means 
openly asserted that parents were to be neglected : yet 
openly enough they did by consequence drawn from this 
foolish and impious tradition. 

II. One might readily comment upon this clause, h&pov, 
" it is a gift" (or, as Mark, Kop^av, " it is Corhan") by 
lohatsoever thou inightest be profited by me, if we have read 
the Talmudic tracts Nedarim and Nazir, where the discourse 
is of vows and oaths ; and the phrase which is before us 
speaks a vow or a form of swearing, 

I. Vows were distinguished into two ranks, tyipH ^IID 
vows of consecration^ and nD"'t«^ "'"^ID voivs of obligation, or 
^prohibition. A vow of consecration was when any thing was 
devoted to holy uses, namely, to the use of the altar or the 
Temple : as when a man, by a vow, would dedicate this or 



z Hieros. Challah, fol. 58. 3. '' Hieros. Kiddushin, fol. 61. 2, 3. 

a Tosaphta,in Kiddushin, cap.i. <= Mainion. in Gezelah, cap. 12. 



Ch. XV. 5-] Exer citations upon St. Matthexo. 227 

that for sacrifice, or to buy wood, salt, wine, ha. for^ the 
altar : or fT'^n pH7 for the reparation of the Temple, &c. 
">1D''i<^ "113 A vow of obligation or prohibition was, when a man 
bound himself by a vow from this or that thing, which was 
lawful in itself; as, that he would not eat, that he would not 
put on, that he would not do this or that, &c. 
• 2. This went for a noted axiom among them, *'*^13*'!D /3 
D'^llii D''n"T!3 All^ epithets of voivs are as the vows themselves. 
They added certain short forms, by which they signified a vow, 
and which carried with it the force of a vow, as if the thing 
were spoken out in a larger periphrasis : as for example, "^If 
one should say to his neighbour, DD^p H^lp Qwlp Konem., 
Konah, Kones., behold, these are epithets of a thing devoted 
unto sacred uses." 

The word D21p Konem, Kambam thus explains ; tinptllD 
'^T'i^ ^n^ Let" it be upon me as a thing devoted. So also R. 
Nissimii, «in tZ^lpH ptl?^ nn mip D]1p Konem, Koneh, are 
words of devoting. 

We produced before, at chap. v. 33, some forms of oaths, 
which were only Assertive : these under our hands are Votive 
also. In the place from Beracoth just now alleged, one saith, 
□^1^^ '':i^ ntlp J^^niZ? Di^llO ^:«U} p^n n^lp Let the wine 
be ' Konem' which I shall taste., for wine is hard to the bowels : 
that is, Let the wine which I taste be as devoted wine : as 
though he had said, I vow that I will not taste wine. " To 
which others answered. Is not old wine good for the bowels ? 
Then he held his peace." 

III. But above all such like forms of vowing, the word 
]l"lp Kopl3av, Corban, was plainest of all ; which openly speaks 
a thing devoted and dedicated to sacred use. And the reader 
of those tracts which we have mentioned shall observe these 
forms frequently to occur, ^7 n^HJ ''!3t^II' \^'^P> ^^^ ^Tip 
y7 'n^'il^ "^it^tl?- Let it be ' Corban/ whereby I am prof table to 
thee ; and, Let it be ' Konem,' whereby T am prof table to thee. 
Which words sound the very same thing, unless I am very 
much mistaken, with the words before us, " Let it be KoplSav, 



^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. ^ Ibid. hal. 2. 
201. e In Bab. Berac. fol. 51. 

e Nedarim, cap. i. hal. i. ^ In Nedarim, cap. i. 

Q % 



228 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch.xv. 5. 

Corhan, or h&pov, a gift, by whatsoever thou mayest be pro- 
fited by me." 

Which words that they may be more clearly understood, 
and that the plain and full sense of the place may be dis- 
covered, let these things be considered : 

First, That the word hCipov is rather to be rendered. Let it 
he a gift, than It is a gift. For Konem and Corhan, as we have 
noted, signified not UJIpn^ TVH 'It is' as something devoted, but 
\Lni^n5 t^n'' 'Let it he' as something devoted. And he, of whom 
we had mention before, who said, Ciyil3 ''Dfc^^ pTl D]"1p 
meant not. The wine which I shall taste is as something de- 
voted, but Let whatsoever wine I shall taste he as something 
devoted: that is, To me let all wine he devoted, and not to he 
tasted. 

Secondly, This form of speech ^ HDHD ^D^tZ; Jlip AcSpoi;, 
6 kav e£ kfiov oxpfXrjOfjs A gift, hy lohatsoever thou mightest he pro- 
fited hy me, does neither argue, that he who thus spake de- 
voted his goods to sacred uses, nor obliged him (according to 
the doctrine^ of the scribes) to devote them ; but only re- 
strained him by an obligation from that thing, for the denying 
of which he used such a form ; that is, from helping him by 
his goods, to whom he thus spake. He might help others 
with his wealth, but him he might not. 

Thirdly, The words ai'e bx'ought in as though they were 
pronounced with indignation ; as if, when the needy father 
required food from his son, he should answer in anger and 
with contempt, Let it he as a thing devoted, whatsoever of mine 
may profit thee. But now, things that were devoted were not 
to be laid out upon common uses. 

Fourthly, Christ not only cites the law, ' Honour thy father 
and mother,' but adds this also, 'O KaKoKoySiv -narkpa r) [xrirepa, 
He that curseth father or another. But now there was no koko- 
Aoyta, cursing, here at all ; if the son spoke truly and modestly, 
and as the thing was, namely, that all his estate was devoted 
before. 

Fifthly, Therefore, although these words should have been 
spoken by the son irreverently, wrathfully, and inhumanly, 
towards his father, yet such was the folly, together with the 

i Leusden's edition, vol. 2. p. 333. 



Oh. XV. 1 1, &c.] Exerciiations upon St. Matthew. 229 

impiety, of the traditional doctrine in this case, which pro- 
nounced the son so obliged by these his words, that it was 
lawful by no means to succour his needy father. He was not 
at all bound by these words to dedicate his estate to sacred 
uses ; but not to help his father he was inviolably bound. 
excellent doctrine and charity ! 

Sixthly, The words of the verse, therefore, may thus be 
rendered, without any addition put between, which many in- 
terpreters do : Whosoever shall say to his father or mother. Let 
it he a [devoted] gift., in ivhatsoever thou mayest he helped hy me : 
then let him not honour his father and mother at all. 

Ver. 1 1 : KotvoX tov avOpco-nov Defileth the man.'\ Or, maketh 
him common ; so the word 71DS seems to be rendered in the 
Pharisaic idiotism, as I may so speak ; because they esteemed 
defiled men for common and milgar men : on the contrary, a 
religious man among them is "ITT' a singida,r man. In Acts 
X. 14'^, Koivov 7) cLKaOapTov, common or unclean, seem to speak 
the same thing with ^DtO 1^ 7"1DD among the Talmudists. 

Ver. 20 : 'AftTrrots x^P^^' ^Vith unwashen hands.^ He saith 
not with unclean hands, but unwashen; because, as we said 
before, they were bound to wash, although they were not con- 
scious that their hands were unclean. In Mark it is Koumls 
X^paX, with common or defiled hands, Mark vii. 2 ; which seem 
to be called by the Talmudists impure hands, merely because 
not washed. Judge from that which is said in the tract 
Challah: "A' cake is owing out of that dough which they 
knead with the juice of fruits: m^niDD Q^"'! n^D^^JT 
and it is eaten with unclean hands." 

Ver, 22 : Tvvt] XavavaCa' A woman of Canaan.] In Mark it 
is, 'EWrjvh, 1,vpo(f)oivLaaa tw ye'yct, A Greek woman, a Syrophm- 
nician hy nation, chap. vii. 26. 

I. XavavaCa, of Canaan. It is worthy observing, that the 
Holy Bible, reckoning up Jlltili^ t the seven nations, which 
were to be destroyed by the Israelites, names the Perizzites, 
who were not at all recited among the sons of Canaan, Gen. x., 
and the Oanaanites as a particular nation, when all the seven, 
indeed, were Canaanites. See Deut. vii. i, Josh. ix. i, xi. 3, 
Judg. iii. 5, &c. 

^ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 202. ' Cap. 2. hal. 2. 



2S0 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. xv. 26. 

The reason of the latter (with which our business is) is 
to be fetched thence, that Canaan himself inhabited a pecu- 
liar part of that (northern) country, with his first-born sonS;, 
Sidon and Heth : and thence the name of Canaanites was 
put upon that particular progeny, distinguished from all his 
other sons ; and that country was peculiarly called by the 
name of ' Canaan/ distinctly from all the rest of the land 
of Canaan. Hence Jabin, the king of Hazor, is called the 
* king of (/anaan/ Judg. iv. 2, and the kings of Tyre and 
Sidon, if 1 mistake not, are called ' the kings of the Hittites,' 
1 Kings X. 29, 

II. 'EXK-qvh, 'S.vpocjioU'UTa-a' A Greek woman, a Syropliceni- 
cian.] Although Judea, and almost the whole world, had now 
a long while stooped under the yoke of the Romans, yet the 
memory of the Syro-Grecian kingdom, and the name of the 
nation, was not yet vanished. And that is worthy to be noted, 
D^DV ^:h'ch «^b^ pID ^^« Th^XlIn^ the captimUj, they 
compute the years only from the kingdom of the Greeks. They 
said before, "That" the Romans, for a hundred and fourscore 
years, ruled over the Jews before the destruction of the Tem- 
ple ;" and yet they do not compute the times to that destruc- 
tion by the years of the Romans, but by the years of the 
Greeks. Let the Jews themselves well consider this, and the 
Christians with them, who reckon the Roman for the fourth 
monarchy in Daniel. 

Therefore that woman that is here spoken of (to reduce all 
into a short conclusion) was a Syro-Grecian by nation, a Phoe- 
nician in respect of her habitation, and from thence called a 
woman of Canaan. 

Ver. 26 : Tois KvvapCotr To the dogs.] By this title the 
Jews, out of spite and contempt, disgraced the Gentiles, 
whose first care it was to hate, to mock, and to curse, all 
beside themselves. D^n^::3 'h^'O^ uh^V P^f^M^ The'' na- 
tions of the world [that is, the heathen] are likened to dogs. 
From the common speech of the nation, rather than from his 
own sense, our Saviour uses this expression, to whom ' the 
Gentiles^ were not so hateful, and whose custom was to speak 
with the vulgar. 

"1 Bab. Avodah Zarah, fol. 10. i. " Fol. 8. 2. 

o Midr. Tillin. fol. 6. 3. 



Ch. xvi. 3.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 231 

This ignominious name, like a stone east at the heathen, at 
length fellP upon their own heads; and that by the hand and 
justice of* God directing it : for although they out of pride 
and contempt fixed that disgraceful name upon the Gentiles, 
according to their very just desert, the Holy Spirit recoiled it 
upon themselves. See Psal. lix. 6 ; Phil. iii. 2 ; Rev. xxii. 
15, &c. 

Ver. 361 : Evyapif^rricras '^Kkaae He gave thanks and brah.] 
See here the tract Beracoth^, where it is discoursed of the 
manner of giving thanks when many ate together : niZ?7\D 
t?2t7 "'I'^TI 173^5^ Three who eat together ought to give thanks 
together: that is, one gave thanks for the rest (as the Gloss 
writes) " in the plural number, saying, Let us give thanks." 
So when 'there were ten, or a hundred, or a thousand or 
more, one gave thanks for all, and they answered after him 
Amen, or some words which he had recited ^. 

CHAP. XVI. 

Ver. 3 : AiaKpCveiv to, arjjoiera rav Kaipav ov bvvaade ; Can ye 
not discern the signs of the times ?] The Jews were very curious 
in observing the seasons of the heavens, and the temper of 
the air. 

" In' the going out of the last day of the feast of Taber- 
nacles, all observed the rising of the smoke. If the smoke 
bended northward, the poor rejoiced, but the rich were trou- 
bled ; because there would be much rain the following year, 
and the fruits would be corrupted : if it bended southward, 
the poor grieved, and the rich rejoiced ; for then there would 
be fewer rains that year, and the fruit would be sound : if 
eastward, all rejoiced : if westward, all were troubled." The 
Gloss is, " They observed this the last day of the feast of 
Tabernacles, because the day before, the decree of their judg- 
ment concerning the rains of that year was signed, as the 
tradition is. In the feast of Tabernacles they judged concerning 
the rains." 

" R. Acha" said, If any wise man had been at Zippor when 

P heusderi's edition, vol. ii. p. 334. ^ See halac. 3. 

1 English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 203. * Bab. Joma, fol. 21.2. 

«■ Cap. vii. u Hieros. Taanith, fol. 65. 2. 



232 Hehreto and Talmudical [Ch, xvi. 6. 

the first rain fell, he might foretell the moistness of the year 
by the very smell of the dust," &c. 

But they were dim-sighted at the signs of times ; that is, 
at those eminent signs, which plainly pointed, as with the 
finger and by a visible mark, that now those times that were 
so much foretold and expected, even the days of the Mes- 
sias. were at hand. As if he had said, " Can ye not dis- 
tinguish that the times of the Messias are come, by those 
signs which plainly declare it ? Do ye not observe DanieFs 
weeks now expiring ? Are ye not under a yoke, the shaking 
off of which ye have neither any hope at all nor expectation 
to do ? Do ye not see how the nation is sunk into all manner 
of wickedness I Are not miracles done by me, such as were 
neither seen nor heard before ? Do ye not consider -an infinite 
multitude flowing in, even to a miracle, to the profession of 
the gospel ? and that the minds of all men are raised into a 
present expectation of the Messias? Sti"ange blindness, volun- 
tary, and yet sent upon you from heaven : your sin and your 
punishment too ! They see all things which may demonstrate 
and declare a Messias, but they will not see." 

Ver. 6: Ilpocr^eTe a-no rijs C^/^*?? '''^^ ^apta-atcov, &c. Beware 
of the leaven of the Pharisees, Sfc] There were two things, 
especially, which seem to have driven the disciples into a mis- 
taken interpretation of these words, so that they understood 
them of leaven properly so called. 

I. That they had more seldom heard leavoi used for doc- 
trine. The metaphorical use of it, indeed, was frequent 
among them in an ill sense, namely, for evil affections, and 
the naughtiness of the heart ; but the use of it was more rare, 
if any at all, for evil doctrine. 

Thus one prays : " Lord^ of ages, it is revealed and known 
before thy face that we would do thy will ; but do thou sub- 
due that which hinders: ni*'^^^ ^"Q^U?') HD^ilUtZ? -1"lt^U7 
namely, the leaven which is in the lump^ and the tyranny of 
[heathen] kingdoms J" Where the Gloss is thus; " The Heaven 
which is in the lump,' are evil affections, which leaven us in 
our hearts," 

J y^^nn t2?'Tl3 Cyntsy loas leavened, that is, grew worse. 
'' Bab. Berac. fol. 17. i. y Id. Rosh Hashanah, fol. 3. 2. 



Ch. xvi. 13.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 

Sometimes it is used in a better sense ; " The Rabbins say^, 
Blessed is that judge who leaveneth his judgment." But 
this* is not to be understood concerning doctrine, but con- 
cerning dehberation in judgment. 

II. Because very exact care was taken by the Pharisaical 
canons, what leaven was to be used and what not ; disputa- 
tions occur here and there, whether heathen leaven is to be 
used, and whether Cuthite leaven^, &c. With which cau- 
tion the disciples thought that Christ armed them, when he 
spake concerning the leaven of the Pharisees : but withal 
they suspected some silent reproof for not bringing bread 
along with them. 

Ver. 13 : Tiva fxe Xiyovcnv 01 avOpumoi dvai, tov vlbv rod 
avdpcanov ; Whom do men say that 1 the Son of man am f] 
I. That phrase or title, the Son of man, which Christ very 
often gives himself, denotes'^ not only his humanity, nor his 
humihty (for see that passage, John v. 27, "He hath given 
him authority of executing judgment, because he is the Son 
of man'') ; but it bespeaks the 'seed promised to Adam, the 
second Adam :' and it carried with it a silent confutation of 
a double ignorance and error among the Jews: i. They knew 
not what to resolve upon concerning the original of the 
Messias ; and how he should rise, whether he should be of 
the living, as we noted before, the manner of his rise being 
unknown to them ; or whether of the dead. This phrase 
unties this knot and teaches openly, that he, being a seed 
promised to the first man, should arise and be born from the 
seed of the woman. 2. They dreamed of the earthly vic- 
tories of the Messias, and of nations to be subdued by him ; 
but this title, The Son of man, recalls their minds to the first 
promise, where the victory of the promised seed is the bruising 
of the serpent's head, not the subduing of kingdoms by some 
warlike and earthly triumph, 

II. When, therefore, the opinion of the Jews concerning 
the person of the Messias, what he should be, was uncertain 
and wavering, Christ asketh, not so much whether they ac- 
knowledged him the Messias, as acknowledging the Messias, 
what kind of person they conceived him to be. The apostles 

^ Kimchi in Isai. chap. 1. 17. ^ See Hieros. Scliabb. fol.3. 3, &c. 

* English folio edit., vol. ii. \). 204. « Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 334. 



234 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xvi. 14, 17. 

and the other disciples whom he had gathered, and were very 
many, acknowledged him the Messias : yea, those blind men, 
chap. ix. 27, had confessed this also : therefore that question 
had been needless as to them, " Do they think me to be the 
Messias ?" but that was needful, " What do they conceive of 
me, the Messias?" and to this the answer of Peter has 
regard, " Thou art Christ, the Son of the living God :" as if 
he should say, " We knew well enough a good while ago that 
thou art the Messias ; but as to the question, *• What kind of 
person thou art,' I say, ' Thou art the Son of the living God.' " 
See what we note at chap. xvii. 54. 

Therefore the word riva, xoliom, asks not so much con- 
cerning the person, as concerning the quality of the person. 
In which sense also is the word ^Q loho, in those words, 
I Sam. xvii. 55, n)"'^^~'j2; not, " The son of whoniy'' but the 
son " of what kind of man " is this youth? 

Ver. 14 : "Erepoi he ^\€peiiiav' But others, Jeremias.] The 
reason why they name Jeremiah only of all the prophets, we 
give at chap, xxvii. 9. You observe that recourse is here 
made to the memory of the dead, from whom the Messias 
should spring, rather than from the living : among other 
things, perhaps, this reason might persuade them so to do, 
that that piety could not in those days be expected- in any 
one living, as had shined out in those deceased persons. 
(One of the Babylonian Gemarists suspects that Daniel, 
raised from the dead, should be the Messias.) And this 
perhaps persuaded them further, because they thought that 
the kingdom of the Messias should arise after the resurrec- 
tion : and they that were of this opinion might be led to 
think that the Messias himself was some eminent person 
among the saints departed, and that he rising again should 
bring others with him. 

Ver. 17 : 2ap^ koI aXixa' Flesh and blood.] The Jewish 
writers use this form of speech infinite times, and by it oppose 
men to God. 

" If d they were about to lead me Dll ^'0)1 'j'?^ ^DD^ 
before a king of flesh and blood, &c. ; but they are leading me 
before the King of kings." 

"A^ king of flesh and blood forms his picture in a table, 
^ Bab. Berac. fol. 28. 2. ^ Tanchum, fol. 12. 4. 



Ch. xvi. 1 8.] Exercitatiom upon St. Mattheio. 235 

&c. ; the Holy Blessed One, his, fee." This phrase occurs 
five times in that one column : " the*^ Holy Blessed God doth 
not s, as flesh and blood doth, &c. Flesh and blood wound 
with one thing and heal with another : but the Holy 
Blessed One wounds and heals with one and the same thing. 
Joseph was sold for his dreams, and he was promoted by 
dreams." 

Ver. i8: Si; ei Uirpos, &c. Thou art Peter, &c.] I. There 
is nothing, either in the dialect of the nation, or in reason, 
forbids us to think that our Saviour used this very same 
Greek word, since such Gi-secizings were not unusual in that 
nation. But be it granted (which is asserted more without 
controversy) that he used the Syriac word ; yet I deny that 
he used that very word ^iD''^ Cepha, which he did presently 
after: but he pronounced it Cephas, after the Greek manner; 
or he spoke it ''i^D''D Cephai, in the adjective sense, according 
to the Syriac formation, For how, [ pray, could he be under- 
stood by the disciples, or by Peter himself, if in both places 
he had retained the same word HD''^ n3^^ Tho^^ art a rocJc, 
i^C^S hv^ and upon this rock I will build my church ? It is 
readily answered by the Papists, that " Peter was the rock." 
But let them tell me why Matthew used not the same word 
in Greek, if our Saviour used the same word in Syriac. If 
he had intimated that the church should be built upon Peter, 
it had been plainer and more agreeable to the vulgar idiom 
to have said, " Thou art Petei-, and upon thee I will build my 
church." 

II. The words concerning the rock upon which the church 
was to be built are evidently taken out of Isaiah, chap, 
xxviii. 1 6 ; which, the New Testament being interpreter, in 
very many places do most plainly speak Christ. When 
therefore Peter, the first of all the disciples (from the very 
first beginning of the preaching of the gospel), had pro- 
nounced most clearly of the person of Christ, and had de- 
clared the mystery of the incarnation, and confessed the 
deity of Christ, the minds of the disciples are, with good 
reason, called back^ to those words of Isaiah, that they 
might learn to acknowledge who that stone was that was set 

^ Id. fol. 1 8. 3. ff English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 205. 

^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 336. 



236 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xvi. 19. 

in Sion for a foundation never to be shaken, and whence it 
came to pass that that foundation remained so unshaken ; 
namely, thence, that he was not a creature, but God himself, 
the Son of God. 

III. Thence, therefore, Peter took his surname ; not that 
he should be argued to be that rock, but because he was so 
much to be employed in building a church upon a rock : 
whether it were that church that was to be gathered out of 
the Jews, of which he was the chief minister, or that of the 
Gentiles (concerning which the discourse here is principally 
of), unto which he made the first entrance by the gospel. 

Ver. 19: Kat Swcro) crol ras kAcis rrjs fiacnX^ias rdv ovpav&v 
And I ivill give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven.'] That is. 
Thou shalt first open the door of faith to the Gentiles. He 
had said that he would build his church to endure for ever, 
against which " the gates of hell should not prevail/' which 
had prevailed against the Jewish church : " and to thee, 
O Peter (saith he), I will give the keys of the kingdom of 
heaven, that thou mayest open a door for the bringing in the 
gospel to that church." Which was performed by Peter in 
that remarkable story concerning Cornelius, Acts x. And I 
make no doubt that those words of Peter respect these words 
of Christ, Acts xv. 7 ; 'A^' rjixepatv apxa^(>>v 6 0€os €V rjixiv i^e- 
\e^aTo bta tov (TToixaros (xov aKovaai to. eOi^rj tov \6yov tov iv- 
ayyekiov. koI TrtoreOo-af A good while ago God made choice 
among us, that the Gentiles should hear the word of the gosj^el hy 
my mouth., and believe. 

Kat o kav h-q(Trj<s Im tyjs y^s, &c. And whatsoever thou shalt 
hind on earth, &c. Kat 6 kav Xvar]^ iirl rrfs y^?, &c. And ivhat- 
soever thou shalt loose on earth, «&c.] I. We believe the keys 
were committed to Peter alone, but the power of binding and 
loosing to the other apostles also, chap, xviii. 18. 

II It is necessary to suppose that Christ here spake ac- 
cording to the common people, or he could not be under- 
stood without a particular commentary, which is nowhere 
to be found. 

III. But now to bind and loose, a very usual phrase in the 
Jewish schools, was spoken o^ things, not of persons ; which is 
here also to be observed in the articles o and oaa, what and 
whatsoever, chap, xviii. 



C/h. xvi. 1 9. j Exerciiations upon St. Maithe^v. ^3T 

One ' might produce thousands of examples out of their 
writings : we will only offer a double decad ; the first, whence 
the frequent use of this word may appear ; the second, whence 
the sense may : 

1. " R. Jochanank said [to those of Tiberias], ' Why have 
ye brought this elder to me 1 "^D^T "^D« t-^im ^'W ^^:«"f 
^"W ^ini Whatsoever I loose, he hinds ; whatsoever I bind, he 
looseth.' " 

2. '^'y'^n is?') TiDi^Pi ^h Tkou^ shalt neither bind nor 
loose. 

3. " Nachum m, the brother of R. Ilia, asked R. Jochanan 
concerning a certain matter. To whom he answered, t^~> 
"'lU^n ^5^1 l")D^^r\ Thou shalt neither hind nor loose.'''' 

4. "^Ity im "SCi^ in TVw's" man hinds, but the other looseth. 

5. "R. Chaija« said, nn« D1p?2D "f^ ^ri"^D«tZ7 HD ^D 
]h^3 "77 Tnmn whatsoever I ham hound to you elsewhere, 
I tcill loose to you here." 

6. IDt^l Q2n7 /b^^ HeV asked one wise man, and he 
hound : n'^rC t^?2t? "^ni"^ n^rh ^«U?^ i^h Do not ask another 
wise man, lest perhajys he loose. 

7. "T^nniZ? ilD i^in "^Di^t!} JID ThC^ mouth that hindeth is 
the mouth that looseth. 

8. pTlD lS«1 ]nD1fc^ I^^IL"' ^3 hv ^^ '' Although^ oHhe 
disciples of Shammai, and those of Hillel, the one hound, and 
the other loosed ; yet they forbade not but that these might 
make purifications according to the others." 

9. : "i^nm "iD« -in'^ioi w^io pn nt<^ ptz: Din a « wise 

man that judgeth judgment, defileth and cleanseth [that is, he 
declares defiled or clean']; he looseth and hindeth. The same 
also is in Maimonides *. 

10. Whether it is lawful to go into the necessary-house 
with the phylacteries only to piss? ^Db^ ^^"I« 2^ ''^tZ? HD^ni 
Rahhena " looseth, and Babh Ada hindeth. 13''i<5t27 niJ^ 7i*l 



' Englishfolio edit., vol. ii. p. 206. Avodah Zarah, fol. 7. i. 

^ Hieros. Join. Tobh, fol. 60. i. i Demai, cap. 6. hal. 11. Mai- 

1 Ibid. mon. in Gezelah, cap. 4. 

^ Id. ibid. fol. 63. 1. r Tosaphta in Jevam. cap. i. 

n Bab. Megillah, fol. 26. 7. " Id. ib. cap. 4. 

° Hieros. Orlah, fol. 61. 2. * In Mamrim, cap. i. 

P Id. Schabb. fol. 16. 4. Bab. " Bab. Berac. fol. 23. i. 



238 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xvi. 19. 

I^n?^ 1D")^5^57'1 i^7 The X mystical doctor^ who neither hindeth 
nor looseth. 

The other decad shall show the phrase apphed to things : 

1. "Iny Judea they did [servile^ works on the Passover-eve" 
(that is, on the day going before the Passover), " until noon, 
but in Galilee not. n^HH Y^H "1^ ]n^nD "jin l^DIt^ Vn 
But that which the school of Shammai binds until the night, the 
school of Hillel looseth until the rising of the sun." 

2. " A z festival-day may teach us this, UW^ 11 T^^nntZ? 
n^t^T'^ in ichich they loosed by the notion of a [servile'] loork" 
killing and boiling, &c., as the Gloss notes. DI^'D 11 IID^^I 
rmtl} But in lohich they hound by the notion of a sahbatism : 
that is, as the same Gloss speaks, ' The bringing in some food 
from without the limits of the sabbath.^ 

3. " They a do not send letters by the hand of a heathen 
on the eve of a sabbath, no, nor on the fifth day of the week. 
: p-l^nn "nil ^r^n"(l 1^*'2« \^"-\D1t^ ' m Yea, the school of 
Shammai binds it, even on the fourth day of the week ; but the 
school of Hillel looseth it," 

4.'' "Theyc do not begin a voyage in the great sea on 
the eve of the sabbath, no, nor on the fifth day of the week. 
: X^-VT^O ' nni •'i^'^n'^n 1^"^C« jnOlhi "^1 Yea, the school of 
Shammai binds it, even on the fourth day of the week ; but the 
school of Hillel looses it." 

5. " To^ them that bathe in the hot-baths in the sabbath- 
day, : r\T^ pS inTim ryrm yh I'ID^ they bind ivasMng, 
and they loose sweating." 

6. " Womene may not look into a looking-glass on the sab- 
bath-day, if it be fixed to a wall, : p"lD1b^ Q^^Dni "WSO "^11 
Rabbi loosed it, but the toise men bomid it." 

7. " Concerning f the moving of empty vessels [on the 
sabbath-day] , of the filling of which there is no intention ; 
'["'ITlt^ nijT I'^HDIt^ U?l the school of Shammai bi?ids it, the 
school of Hillel looseth it.'''' 

8. " Concerning g gathering wood on a feast-day scattered 

^ Hieros. Horaioth, fol. 48. 3. c Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 337. 

y Pesachin, cap. 4. hal. 5. <l Hieros. Schab. fol. 6, i. 

z Ibid. cap. 6. hal. 2. e i^. ibid. fol. 7. 4. 

a Hieros. Schab. fol. 4. i. ^ Id. ibid. fol. 16. 2. 

^ Id. ibid. s Id. Jom Tob, fol. 61. i. 



Ch, xvi. 19-] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 239 

about a field, the school of Sharamai binds it, the school of 
Hillel loosetl it." 

9. n^r ]S T^D^ ^^ t^ni"!:^ ^^ rsw ^h nh^v^ They i^ 

never loosed to us a crow, nor hound to us a pic/eon. 

10. " Dothi a seah of unclean Truma fall into a hundred 
seahs of clean Trimia f The school of Shammai hinds it, the 
school of Hillel looseth it." There are infinite examples of 
this nature. 

Let a third decad also be added (that nothing may be left 
unsaid in this matter), giving examples of the parts of the 
phrase distinctly and by themselves : 

I. :i^^D iiwvh "i-fi jm« i-id« «^tz? dnni '^ The^ 

things which they hound not, that they might have a hedge to 
the law." 

2. '^m■^D^^ opioid " Tke"^ scribes hound the leaven." 

3. yc^tV Y^nn ^^^« 1^D«^ IDDp ^ They^ neither pun- 
ished nor hound, unless concerning the leaven itself. 

4. Y72n h'2^ D"'?Din 1"^Db^ " The'^ loise men bound the 
eating of leaven from the beginning of the sixth hour," of the 
day of the Passover. 

5. " R. Abhu° saith, R. Gamaliel Ben Rabbi asked me. 
What if I should go into the market? "17 ^r\1D^1 and I 
bound it him.'''' 

Thev Sanhedrim, lohich looseth iioo things, let it not hasten to 
loose three. 

2.q " R. Jochanan^ saith, uh^ n^^lt? ITm pmiT^ 
nm^n They necessarily loose saluting on the sabbath." 

3. D'^jnUJn Snn ]''1*'n^ D^'DDH The^ toise men loose all 
oils, or all fat things. 

4. " The* school of Shammai saith, They do not steep ink, 
colours, and vetches" on the eve of the sabbath, " unless they 
be steeped before the day be ended : pnT)?2 T'TTl TVy\ but 

^ Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 100. i. P Maimon. Mamrim, cap. 2. 

' Truma, cap. 5. hal. 4. Q English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 

^ Maimon. Mamrim, cap. 2. 207. 

1 Id. in Hamets et Matsah, cap. i. r Tanchum, fol. i. 3. 

>" Id. ibid. cap. 5. s Jd. fol. 74. 3. 

•^ Id. ibid. cap. 9. t Schabb. cap. 1. hal. 5. 

° Hieros. Avod. Zarah, fol. 39. 2. 



240 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xvi. 19. 

the school of Hillel looseth it." Many more such like instances 
occur there, 

5. ^'Sllh n^Tin "^*'^r2 '1 " R. Meir^ loosed the mixing of 
wine and oil, to anoint a sick man on the sabbath." 

To these may be added, if need were, the frequent (shall I 
say ?) or infinite use of the phrases, ini?21 "11 Db^ hound and 
loosed, which we meet with thousands of times over. But from 
these allegations, the reader sees abundantly enough both the 
frequency and the common use of this phrase, and the sense 
of it also ; namely, first, that it is used in doctrine, and in 
judgments, concerning things allowed or not allowed in the 
law. Secondly, That to hind is the same with to forhid, or to 
declare forhidden. To think that Christ, when he used the 
common phrase, was not understood by his hearers in the 
common and vulgar sense, shall I call it a matter of laughter 
or of madness ? 

To this, therefore, do these words amount : When the time 
was come, wherein the Mosaic law, as to some part of it, was 
to be abolished and left off; and as to another part of it, was 
to be continued, and to last for ever : he granted Peter here, 
and to the rest of the apostles, chap, xviii. 18, a power to 
abolish or confirm wdiat they thought good, and as they 
thought good, being taught this and led by the Holy Spirit : 
as if he should say, " Whatsoever ye shall hind in the law of 
Moses, that is, forhid, it shall be forhidden, the Divine au- 
thority confirming it ; and whatsoever ye shall loose, that is, 
permit, or shall teach, that it is permitted and lawful, shall be 
lawfid and i^ermitted" 

Hence they hound, that is, forbade, circumcision to the be- 
lievers ; eating of things offered to idols, of things strangled, 
and of blood for a time to the Gentiles ; and that which they 
hound on earth was confirmed in heaven. They loosed, that is, 
allowed purification to Paul, and to four other brethren, for 
the shunning of scandal. Acts xxi. 24:. and in a word, by these 
words of Christ it was committed to them, the Holy Spirit 
directing that they should make decrees concerning religion, 
as to the use or rejection of Mosaic rites and judgments, and 
that either for a time or for ever. 

« Hieros. Schabb. fol. 3. i. 



Ch. xvi. 19.] Exercitations upon St. Matthetv. 241 

Let the words be applied, by way of paraphrase, to the 
matter that was transacted at present with Peter : " I am 
about to build a Gentile church (saith Christ) ; and to thee, 
O Peter, do I give the keys of the kingdom of heaven, that 
thou mayest first open the door of faith to them ; but if thou 
askest, by what rule that church is to be governed, when the 
Mosaic rule may seem so improper for it, thou shalt be so 
guided by the Holy Spirit ^ that whatsoever of the law of 
Moses thou shalt /brii'c? them shall he forbidden; whatsoever 
thou grantest them shall be granted^ and that under a sanc- 
tion made in heaven." 

Hence in that instant, when he should use his keys, that is, 
when he was now ready to open the gate of the gospel to the 
Gentiles, Acts x. 28, he was taught from heaven, that the con- 
sorting of the Jew with the Gentile, which before had been 
hound, was now loosed ; and the eating of any creature conve- 
nient for food was now loosed.^ which before had been bound ; 
and he, in like manner, looses both these. 

Those words of our Saviour, John xx. 23, " Whose sins ye 
remit, they are remitted to them," for the most part are 
forced to the same sense with these before us ; when they 
carry quite another sense. Here the business is of doctrine 
only, not oi persons ; there of persons, not of doctrine : here of 
things lawful or unlawful in religion to be determined by the 
apostles ; there of persons obstinate or not obstinate, to be 
punished by them, or not to be punished. 

As to doctrine, the apostles were doubly instructed : [.So 
long sitting at the feet of their Master, they had imbibed the 
evangelical doctrine. 2. The Holy Spirit directing them, tliey 
wei'e to determine concerning the legal doctrine and practice ; 
being completely instructed and enabled in both by the Holy 
Spirit descending upon them. As to their persons, they were 
endowed with a peculiar gift, so that the same Spirit direct- 
ing them, if they would retain and punish the sins of any, a 
power was delivered into their hands of delivering to Satan, of 
punishing with diseases, plagues, yea, death itself; which Peter 
did to Ananias and Sapphira ; Paul to Elymas, Hymeneus, and 
Philetus, &c. 

^ Leusdeti's edition, vol. ii. p. 338. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. R 



242 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. xvii. 2, 4. 

CHAP. XVII.y 

Ver. 3 : Kat ixzTqxop(^u)6iy And was transfigured.'] When 
Christ was baptized^ being now ready to enter upon his evan- 
gehcal priesthood, he is sealed by a heavenly voice for the 
High Priest, and is anointed with the Holy Spirit, as the high 
priests were wont to be with holy oil. 

In this transfiguration, he is sealed for the high priest : 
for mark, i. How two of the greatest prophets, Moses and 
Elias, resort to him. 2. How to those words, " This is my 
beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased," which also were 
heard from heaven at his baptism, is added that clause, 
" hear ye him :" which compare with the words of Moses, 
concerning a prophet to be raised up by God, Deut. xviii. 
19, "Whosoever shall not hearken to my words, which I 
shall put into his mouth," &c. 3. How the heavenly voice 
went out of the cloud that overshadowed them, when at his 
baptism no such cloud appeared. Here that is worthy ob- 
serving, which some Jews note, and reason dictates, namely, 
That the cloud of glory, the conductor of Israel, departed 
at the death of Moses ; for while he lived, that cloud was the 
people's guide in the wilderness ; but when he was dead, the 
ark of the covenant led them. Therefore, as that cloud de- 
parted at the death of Moses, that great prophet, so such a 
cloud was now present at the sealing of the greatest Prophet. 
4. Christ here shines with such a brightness, nay, with a 
greater than Moses and Elias now glorified ; and this both 
for the honour of his person and for the honour of his doc- 
trine; both which surpassed by infinite degrees the persons 
and the doctrines of both of them. When you recollect the 
face of Christ transfigured, shining with so great lustre when 
he talked with Moses and Elias, acknowledge the brightness 
of the gospel above the cloudy obscurity of the law and of the 
prophets. 

Ver. 4 : IloiTjo-ajjuey (55e Tpets crKr]vas, &c. Let us mahe here 
three tabernacles, i^c] The transfiguration of Christ was by 
night. Compare Luke ix. 37. The form of his face and 
garments is changed while he prays ; and Moses and Elias 

y English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 208. 



Oh. xvii. 5, 10.] Eoeercitations upo7i /St. Matthew. 243 

come and discourse with him concerning his death (it is un- 
certain how long), while as yet the disciples that were present 
were overcharged with sleep. AVhen they awaked, O what a 
spectacle had they ! being afraid^ they observe and contem- 
plate, they discover the prophets : whom, now departing, 
Peter would detain; and being loath that so noble a scene 
should be dispersed, made this proposition, " Let us make 
here three tabernacles," &c. Whence he should know them 
to be prophets, it is in vain to seek, because it is nowhere to 
be found ; but being known, he was loath they should depart 
thence, being ravished with the sweetness of such society, 
however astonished at the terror of the glory ; and hence 
those words, which when he spake he is said by Luke " not 
to know what he said ;" and by Mark, " not to know what 
he should say ;" which are rather to be understood of the 
misapplication of his words, than of the sense of the words. 
He knew well enough that he said these words, and he 
knew as well for what reason he said them ; but yet " he 
knew not what he said;" that is, he was much mistaken 
when he spake these words, while he believed that Christ, 
Moses, and Elias, would abide and dwell there together in 
earthly tabernacles. 

Ver. 5 : "Eti. uvtov kaXovvros, ibov, ve(j)€kri, &c. While he yet 
spake, hehold, a cloud., <§*c.] Moses and Elias now turning their 
backs, and going out of the scene, Peter speaks his words ; 
and as he speaks them when the prophets were now gone, 
" Behold, a cloud," &c. They had foretold Christ of his death 
(such is the cry of the Law and of the Prophets, that " Christ 
should suffer," Luke xxiv. 44); he preaches his deity to his^ 
disciples, and the heavenly voice seals him for the true Mes- 
sias. See 2 Pet. i. 16, 17. 

Ver. 10^ : Tt ovv o\ ypajj,iJLaTeL9 klyovcrtv, on 'HAtay Sei 
iK6€iv TTpSiTov ; TVhy therefore say the scribes that Elias must 
first come ?] L It would be an infinite task to produce all 
the passages out of the Jewish writings which one might 
concerning the expected coming of Elias : we will mention a 
few things Iv irapobco, in passing, which sufficiently speak out 
that vain expectation, and the ends also of his expected 
coming. 

z Leusdm's edit., vol. ii. p. 339. a English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 209. 

R 2 



244 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xvii. lo. 

1. Let David Kimchi first be heard upon those words of 
Malachi, " Behold, I send you Elias the prophet :" " God 
(saith he) shall restore the soul of Elias, which ascended of 
old into heaven, into a created body, like to his former body : 
for his first body returned to earth when he went up to 
heaven, each element to its own element. But when God' 
shall bring him to life in the body, he shall send him to Israel 
before the day of judgment, which is ' the great and terrible 
day of the Lord :' and he shall admonish both the fathers 
and the children together to turn to God; and they that 
turn shall be delivered from the day of judgment," &c. Con- 
sider whither the eye of the disciples looks, in the question 
under our hands. Christ had commanded in the verse be- 
fore, " Tell the vision" of the transfigui'ation " to no man, 
until the Son of man be risen from the dead." But now, 
although they understood not what the resurrection from the 
dead meant, (which Mark intimates,) yet they roundly 
retort, " Why therefore say the scribes that Elias shall first 
come?"" that is, before there be a resurrection and a day of 
judgment : for as yet they were altogether ignorant that 
Christ should rise. They believed, with the whole nation, 
that there should be a resurrection at the coming of the 
Messias. 

2. Let Aben Ezra be heard in the second place : '^ We 
find (saith he) that Elias lived in the days of Ahaziah the son 
of Ahab : we find also, that Joram the son of Ahab and Je- 
hoshaphat, inquired of Elisha the prophet ; and there it is 
written [2 Kings iii. J i], ' This is Elisha the son of Shaphat, 
pT^ "^tlJhi tvJto poured water upon the hands of Elijah.' And 
this is a sign that Elias was first gone up into heaven in a 
whirlwind : because it is not said p!JV ' who poureth water,' 
but ' who poured. ' Moreover, Elisha departed not from 
Elijah from the time that he first waited upon him until 
Elias went up. And yet we find that, after the death of 
Jehoshaphat, in the days of Ahaziah his son it was written, 
' And a letter came to him from Elijah the prophet.' And 
this proves that he then writ and sent it : for if it had been 
written before his ascension, it would be said, a letter was 
found or brought to him, which Elias had left behind him. 
And it is without controversy, that he was seen in the days of 



Ch. xvii. lo.] Exercitations upon St. Maitheic. 245 

our holy wise men. God of his mercy hasten his prophecy, 
and the times of his coming." So he upon Mai. iv. 

3. The Talmudists do suppose Elias keeping the sabbath 
in mount Carmel : " Let not the Trumah (saith one''), of 
which it is doubted whether it be clean or unclean, be burnt ; 
lest Elias, keeping the sabbath in mount Carmel, come and 
testify of it on the sabbath that it is clean." 

4. The Talmudical books abound with these and the like 
trifles : " If*^ a man finds any thing that is lost, he is bound 
to declare it by a public outcry ; but if the owners come not 
to ask for it, let him lay it up by him until Elias shall come.*" 
And, "Ifii any find a bill of contract between his countrymen, 
and knows not what it means, let him lay it up until Elias 
shall come." 

5. That we be not tedious, it shall be enough to produce a 
few passages out of Babyl. Erubhin^ : where, upon this sub- 
ject, " If any say. Behold, I am a Nazarite, on the day 
wherein the Son of David comes, it is permitted to drink 
wine on the sabbaths and feast-days," it is disputed what day 
of the week Messias shall come, and on what day, Elias: where, 
among other things, these words occur, irT^bt"^ i^Hi:^ b^7 
T'1?2nh?0 Elias came not yesterday: that is, the same day 
wherein he comes he shall appear in public ; and shall not 
lie hid to day, coming yesterday. The Gloss thus : " If thou 
sayest, perhaps he shall come on the eve of the sabbath, and 
shall preach the gospel ("^ITl'*) on the sabbath ; you may 
answer with that text, ' Behold, I send you Elias the prophet, 
before the day of the Lord come f you may argue, that he 
shall preach on that very day in which he shall come."" 

'"i:n ^«nU}^^ ]Th ntOniD " The Israelites are certain that 
Elias shall come, neither on the sabbath eves, nor on the eves 
of the feast days, n"^1I5 "^^CQ by reason of labour." And 
again, Tsl^l IH^S^ Tlt^ ^ Elias cometh not on the sabbath 
day. Thus speak the scholars of Hillel^: " We are sure 
Elias will not come on the sabbath, nor on a feast day." The 
Glossers give the reason, " Not on the sabbath eves, or the 
eves of the feast days, by reason of labour/' that is, by 

•> Hieros. Pesach. fol. 30. 2. e pol. 43. 2. 

«: Maimon. in Gezelah, c. 13. f Hieros. Pesach. fol. 30. 2. 

ti Bava Mezia, cap. i. hal. ult. &c. 



240 Hehretv mid Talmudical [Ch. xvii. 1 1. 

reason of the preparation for the sabbath ; namely, lest they 
should leave the necessaries for the sabbath unfinished, to go 
to meet him : " Nor on the sabbaths, by reason of labour" in 
the banquets; that they omit not those feastings and eat- 
ings» which were esteemed so necessary to the sabbath, 
whilst they went out to meet Elias. 

Let these three observations out of the Glossers upon the 
page cited serve for a conclusion : — 

1. "-Wlh ^r\^h^ b^l'' lll p ni^^n '•DQ^ Before the coming 
of the Son of David, Elias shall come to preach of him. 

2. nntrn inn n^iIIJn "^nh^ Vh " Messlas cometh^ mt on 
the first day of the sahhath, because Elias shall not come on 
the sabbath." Whence it appears that Elias is expected the 
day before the Messias's appearing. 

3- rh^nn ^:h iS ti?'' rpv \i n^^i^ t^^n is not Mes- 

sias Ben Joseph to come first ? 

II. We meet with numberless stories in the Talmudists 
concerning the apparitions of Elias : according to that which 
was said before by Aben Ezra, " It is without controversy 
that Elias was seen in the days of our wise men." There is 
no need of examples, when it may not be so much doubted 
who of these wise men saw Elias, as who saw him not. For 
my part I cannot esteem all those stories for mere fables ; 
but in very many of them I cannot but suspect witchcrafts, 
and the appearances of ghosts^ which we also said before 
concerning the Bath Kol. For thus the devil craftily de- 
luded this nation, willing to be deceived ; and even the ca- 
pacity of observing that the coming of the Mcssias was now 
past was obliterated, when here and there, in this age and 
in the other, his forerunner Elias appeared, as if he intended 
hence to let them know that he was yet to come. 

Ver. 1 I : Kat d7roKaraoT77o-ei Ti&vra' And he shall restore all 
thiiips.] The Jews feign many things which Elias shall re- 
store : D*nt?3Qn iriD^ " lie' shall purify the bastards, and 
restore them to the congregation. He shall render to Israel 
the pot of manna, the vial of holy oil, the vial of water; and 
there arc some who say, the rod of Aaron i^." Which things, 

ff English folio edition, vol. ii. p. • Bab. Kiddushin, fol.71. i. Kim- 
210. rhi, in Zech. chap. ix. 

1' Leitsrlors edition, vol. ii. p. 3^0. ^ Tanchum, in Exod. i. &c. 



Oh. xvii. 15.] Exer citations upon St. Matthew. 247 

alas ! how far distant are they from those which are spoken 
concerning the office of Elias ! 

'A7:oKaTaa-r7/(re£, he shall restore, or make up, not into the 
former state, but into a better. There were xpovoi a-noKwra- 
a-TCLCTeois 7TdvT(t)v, times of restitutio7i of all things., determined by 
God, Acts iii. 21 ; wherein all things were to be framed into 
a gospel-state, and a state worthy of the Messias : a church 
was to be founded, and the doctrine of the gospel dispersed, 
the hearts of the fathers, the Jews, to be united to the sons, 
the Gentiles ; and the hearts of the sons, the Gentiles, to the 
fathers the Jews : which work was begun by the Baptist, 
and finished by Christ and the apostles. Which term of the 
restitution of all these expiring, the commonwealth of the 
Jews expired also ; and the gifts of revelation and miracles 
granted for this purpose, and so necessary to it, failed. 
" Plowever, therefore, ye have crucified Christ," saith Peter 
in that place of the Acts now cited, " yet God shall still send 
you Jesus Christ in the preaching of the gospel to fulfil 
these things. Him, indeed, as to his person the heavens do 
contain, and shall contain, until all these things be perfected; 
expect not, therefore, with the erring nation, his personal 
presence always on earth : but he shall make up and consti- 
tute all things by us his ministers, until the times deter- 
mined and prefixed for the perfecting of this restitution shall 
come." 

Ver. 15 : 2eA.rjytdCeraf He is lunatic.^ Luke ix. 39, nvevixa 
kaix[3dv€L avTov, a spirit taketh him; Markix. 17, e^et -npevixa 
dKakoif, hath a dumb spirit. 

I. He that is skilled in the Talmudic writings will here 
remember what things are said concerning JllDIUI'l \Z?in ct 
deaf and mad man., concerning whom there is so much mention 
in their writings. 

" There' are five who do not pay the Trumah ; but if they 
do, their Trumah is no Trumah : HL^ItDI ID^n the deaf and 
dumb, the Imiatic" &c. " Any ^ one is fit to sacrifice a beast, 
except pt:}p1 HlOltZ^I '^'Sn a dumb and deaf, a lunatic, and 
a child:" and very many passages of this nature, &c. I have 
rendered U?in deaf and dumb., according to the sense of the 

1 Trumah, cap. i. hal. i. m Cholin, cap. i. hal. i. 



248 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xvii. 15. 

masters, who, in the first place cited, do thus interpret the 
word ; ^"^H " concerning which the wise men speakj is he 
wlio neitlier heareth nor speaJceth.'' See there the Jerusalem 
Gemara, where, among other things, this occurs not unworthy 
our noting ; " That all the sons of R. Jochanan Ben Gudgoda 
Avere ]*U)'"^n deaf and dumhy 

II. It" was very usual to the Jews to attribute some of the 
more grievous diseases to evil spirits, specially those wherein 
either the body was distorted, or the mind disturbed and 
tossed with a phrensy. 

; ^binn " If° any one, vexed loith an evil spirit, shall say, 
v^hen the disease did first invade him. Write a bill of divorce 
for my wife," &c. 

: Dp"^""*!"!"))":) "I^nb^ty "^12 " Ip any, ivhom Kordicus vexeth, 
say. Write a bill of divorce for my wife," &c. " Kordicus, 
say the Glossers, is a demon, which rules over those that 
diink too much new wine. D1p"^"^"mp "^ISD What is 'Kor- 
dicus ? ' Samuel saith^ When new wine out of the press hath 
caught any one." llambam'i, upon the place, hath these 
words ; " Kordicus is a disease, generated from the repletion 
of the vessels of the brain, whereby the understanding is con- 
founded ; and it is a kind of falling-sickness.^' Behold the 
same a demon and a disease ! to which the Gemarists applied 
exorcisms and a diet*". 

" Shibtas is an evil spirit, who, taking hold on the necks of 
infants, dries up and contracts their nerves." 

" Het that drinks up double cups, D'»lt2? ^"J plf^i is pun- 
ished by the devils.'' 

From this vulgar opinion of the nation, namely, that devils 
are the authors of such kind of diseases, one evangelist brings 
in the father of this child, saying" of him, aekrjvtdCtTai, he is 
lunatic, another, exei irvev^a, he hath a spirit. He had been 
dumb and deaf from his birth ; to that misery was added a 
phrensy, or a lycanthropy, which kind of disease it was not un- 



n English folio edition, vol. ii. p. ' Babyl. Gittin, fol. 67. 2. 

211. '5 Aruoli, in Shibta. [«nntl?] 

" Maimon. in Gerushin, cap. 2. t Bab. Berac, fol. 51. 2. 

P Gittin, ca[). 7. hal. I. " Lewsr/pw's cf'iVJo;?, vol. ii. p. 341. 
'1 Gcmar. Bab. which sec. 



Oh. xvii. i7,&c.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 249 

usual with the nation to attribute to the devil ; and here, in 
truth, a devil was present. 

Ver. 17: 'i2 yev€a aTTLaros Kal bieaTpaixjjLevr], &c. faithless 
and percerse generation., (^c] The edge of these words is levelled 
especially against the scribes (see Mark ix. 14) ; and yet the 
disciples escaped not altogether untouched. 

Christ and his three prime disciples being absent, this child 
is brought to the rest to be healed : they cannot heal him, 
partly, because the devil was really in him ; partly, because 
this evil had adhered to him from his very birth. Upon this 
the scribes insult and scoff at them and their master. A faith- 
less and perverse generation, which is neither overcome by mira- 
cles, when they are done, and vilify, when they are not done ! 
The faith of the disci[>les (ver. 20) wavered by the plain diffi- 
culty of the thing, which seemed impossible to be overcome, 
when so many evils were digested into one, deafness, dumb- 
ness, phrensy, and possession of the devil ; and all these from 
the cradle. 

Ver. 20: Wiarw &)s kokkov o-imTrew?, &c. Faith as a grain 
of mustard seed, ^c] ; ^"T^H inti or ^T^n nO "^153 As a 
seed of nmstard, or as a drop of mustard^ in Talmudic language. 
See chap. xiii. 23. 

'Epetre t(^ opet tqvt(o, &c. Ye shall sqt/ to this mountain, »^c.] 
See what we note at chap. xxi. 2\. 

Ver. 2 1 : Tovro to yivos ovk kKTiopiv^rai, et p.T] iv irpoaevxfj 
Kal vr](TTeia' This kind goeth not out hut hy prayer and fast- 
ing.] It is not much unhke this, which is said^, Hl'^ "'iDQ 
: 'S^'^V ri^ ^l^lD^ ^'b^tin l^n^ TW^ % reason of an evil 
spirit a singular or religious man may afflict himself with 
fastings. 

Ver. 24 : Ot ra Uhpaxp-a \aiJLJ3dvovT€s- They that receive the 
{didrachma) tribute-money?^ Two things persuade me that this 
is to be understood of the half-shekel, to be yearly paid into 
the treasui'y of the Temple : 

I. They word itself whereby this tribute is called, hihpa\p.a. 
Concerning this, thus Josephus writes : ^opov h\ rois 6-nov 877- 
■noT ovatv 'lovSatots cTre'/^aXe, h'uo bpa\iias eKaarov KeXevaas ava 
•nav hos eh to KaTrercoAtor cp^peiv, axnrep irpoTepov eh tov iv 

^ Bab. Taanith, fol. 22. 2. v English folio edition, vol.ii. p. 212. 



259 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xvii. 24. 

'iepoaokuixois I'ecav crvveT€\ovv " He^ laid a tax upon all the 
Jews wheresoever they were, namely, two drachms ; command- 
ing every one^ of whatever age, to bring it into the Capitol, 
as before they had paid it into the Temple at Jerusalem/' 
And Dion Cassius of the same thus, Kal a-F kKdvov Uhpayjxov 
erdxOr], &c. "He^ commanded all to bi'ing the didrachm yearly 
to Jupiter Capitolinus." 

The Seventy Interpreters, indeed, upon Exod.xxx. 13, render 
it TJfjuKn' Tov hi.hpa)(jxov, half a didrachm; but adding this more- 
over^ o kcTTiv Kara to hihpayjxov to ayiov, tvhich is' accordmg to 
the holy didrachm. Be it so ; the whole shekel was btbpaxpiov 
ayiov, the holy didrachm : then let the half shekel be, bibpaxiJ-ov 
hTf]jx6aiov, the common didrachm. However, the thing is, he 
that paid the half-shekel, in the vulgar dialect, was called, 
he that paid the shekels ; and that which is here said by 
Matthew, bCbpaxfJ-a XapiftdvovTes, they that receive the didrachm-, 
the Talmudists express, D'^^pU? ^''iyiin or pni:i they that 
demand or collect the she/eels. The Targumists render that 
place, Exod. xxx. [13], i«^;i'7D n')j7i3 the half of the shekel; 
the reason of which see, if you please, in Maimonides*'. "The 
shekel (saith he) concerning which the Law speaks, did weigh 
three hundred and twenty grains of barley ; but the wise men 
sometime added to that weight, and made it to be of the same 
value with the money i^7D Sela, under the second Temple, 
that is, three hundred eighty-four middling grains of barley/' 
See the place and the Gloss. 

2. The answer of Christ sufficiently argues that the dis- 
course is concerning this tax, when he saith. He is son of that 
king for whose use that tribute was demanded : for, " from 
thence were bought the daily and additional sacrifices, and 
their drink offerings, the sheaf, the two loaves (Lev. xxiii.17), 
the shewbread, all the sacrifices of the congregation, the red 
cow, the scapegoat, and the crimson tongue, which was be- 
tween his horns'^," &c. 

But here this objection occurs, which is not so easy to 
answer. The<^ time of the payment of the half shekel was 
about the feast of the Passover ; but now that time was far 

z De Bell, lib.vii. cap. 27. [Hud- ^ Shekal. cap. i. 
son, p. 1311. 1. 18.] [vii. 6. 6.] ^ ibid. cap. 4. hal. i, 2. 

* Lib. Ixvi. ^ Ibid. cap. i. hal. 3. 



Ch. xvii. 24.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 251 

gone, and the feast of Tabernacles at hand. It may be an- 
swered, I. That Matthew, who recites this story, observed 
not the course and order of time, which was not unusual with 
him, as being he among all the evangelists that most dis- 
joints the times of the stories. But let it be granted that 
the order of the history in him is right and proper here, it is 
answered, 2. Either Chi'ist was scarcely present at the Pass- 
over last past ; or if he were present, by reason of the danger 
he was in by the snares of the Jews, he could not perform 
this payment in that manner as it ought to have been. 
Consider those words which John speaks of the Passover 
last past, chap. vi. 4, "The Passover, a feast of the Jews, 
was near;" and chap. vii. i, "After these things Jesus 
walked in Galilee ; for he would not walk any more in Jewry, 
because the Jews sought to kill him." 3. It was not unusual 
to defer the payment of the half shekels of this year to the 
year following, by reason of some urgent necessity. Hence it 
was, when they sat to collect and receive this tribute, the 
collectors had before them two chests placed ; in one of which 
they put the tax of the present year, in the other of the year 
paste. 

Butf it may be objected, Why did the collectors of Ca- 
pernaum require the payment at that time, when, according 
to custom, they began not to demand it before the fifteenth 
day of the month Adar? I answer, i. It is certain there 
were, in every city, monerj changers (pDH/lty) to collect it, 
and, being collected, to carry it to Jerusalem. Hence is 
that in the tract cited, " The fifteenth day of the month 
Adar, the collectors sit in the cities," to demand the half 
shekel ; " and the five-and-twentieth they sit in the Temple." 
2. The uncertain abode of Christ at Capernaum gave these 
collectors no unjust cause of demanding this due, when- 
soever they had him there present; at this time especially, 
when the feast of Tabernacles was near, and they about to 
go to Jerusalem, to render an account, perhaps, of their 
collection. 

But if any list to understand this of the tax paid the llo- 
mans, wo do not contend. And then the words of those 

c See Sliekal. cap. 2. Maimon. ilnd. 
f Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 342. 



252 Hebrew and Talmiidical [Oh. xviii. i. 

that collected the tribute^ " Does not your master pay the 
didrachm ?■" seem to sound to this effect, " Is your master of 
the sect of Judas of GaHlee V 

CHAP. XVIII.»- 

Ver. I : Tis apa jxetCoiV irrrlv kv Ttj fiacnXeia t&v ovpavStv ) 
Who is thd greatest in the kingdom of heaven f] It cannot be 
passed over witliout observation, that the ambitious dispute 
of the disciples concerning primacy, for the most part fol- 
lowed the mention of the death of Christ and his resurrec- 
tion. See this story in Mark ix. 31 — 33, and Luke ix. 
44 — 46 : " He said to his disciples, Lay up these discourses 
in your ears : for the time is coming that the Son of man is 
delivered into the hands of men. But they knew not that 
saying, &c. ; and there arose a contest between them, who 
among them should be greatest." Also Matt. xx. 18 — 20: 
" He said to them, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem ; and the 
Son of man shall be betrayed unto the chief priests, &c. 
Then came to him the mother of Zebedee's children with 
her sons, saying, Gi'ant that these my two sons may sit, one 
on thy right hand/'' &c. And Luke xxii. 22 — 24 ; " The Son 
of man indeed gooth as it is determined, &c. ; and there arose 
a contention among them, who of them should seem to be the 
greater." 

The dream of the earthly kingdom of the Messias did so 
possess their minds (for they had sucked in this doctrine 
with their first milk), that the mention of the most vile death 
of the Messias, repeated over and over again, did not at all 
drive it thence. The image of earthly pomp was fixed at the 
bottom of their hearts, and there it stuck ; nor by any words 
of Christ could it as yet be rooted out, no, not when they saw 
the death of Christ, when together with that they saw his re- 
surrection : for then they also asked, " Wilt thou at this time 
restore the kingdom to Israel?" Acts i. 6. 

However, after Christ had oftentimes foretold his death 
and resurrection, it always follows in the evangelists that 
" they understood not what was spoken ;" yet the opinion 
formed in their minds by their doctors, that the resurrection 

s English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 213. 



Oh. xviii. 6, &c.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 253 

should go before the kingdom of the Messias, supplied them 
with such an interpretation of this matter, that they lost not 
an ace of the opinion of a future earthly kingdom. 

See more at chap. xxiv. 3. 

Ver. 6 : ^vixipipei awrw, iva Kpeixacrdfj juvAos oviKos, &C. It 
were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his necJc, 
&c.] 2vix(})(p€L avTi^i t7 m] It is good for him, in Talmudic 
language. 

MwAoj OVIKOS seems to be said in distinction from those 
very small mills wherewith they were wont to grind the 
spices that were either to be applied to the wound of circum- 
cision, or to be added to the delights of the sabbath. Hence 
the Gloss of E). Solomon upon Jer. xxv. 10; '"^ The sound 
of mills and the light of the candle :" " The sound of mills 
(saith he), wherewith spices were ground and bruised for the 
healing of circumcision." 

That Christ here speaks of a kind of death, perhaps no- 
where, certainly never used among the Jews ; he does it 
either to aggravate the thing, or in allusion to drowning in 
the Dead sea, in which one cannot be drowned without some 
weight hung to him : and in which to drown any thing, by 
a common manner of speech, implied to devote to rejection, 
hatred, and execration ; which we have observed elsewhere. 

Ver. 10 : "AyyeAoi avTG>v kv ovpavois 8ta iravTos ^Keirovai, &c. 
Their angels in heaven do alioays behold, &c.] This one may 
very well expound by laying to it that which is said, lleb. 
i. 14, "The angels are ministering spirits, sent to minister 
for them who shall be heirs of the salvation to come :" as 
if he should say, " See that y» do not despise one of these 
little ones, who have been received with their believing 
parents into the gospel-church : for I say unto you, that 
after that manner as the angels minister to adult believers, 
they minister to them also." 

Ver. 1 2 li : 'Eay TrXavrjdfj ev, a(f)eh to. hvevr}K0VTaevv4a, &c. If 
one of them be gone astray, doth he not leave the 7iinety-and-nine, 
&c.] A very common form of speech : — " In ' distributing 
some grapes and dates to the poor, although ninety-nine say, 
' Scatter them ;' and only 07ie, ' Divide them :' they hearken 

^ English folio edit,, vol. ii. p. 214. i Peah, cap. 4. hal. 2. 



254 Hebrew and Tahnudical [Oh, xviii. I5,&c. 

to hinij because he speaks according to the tradition." "If^ 
ninety -nine die by an evil eye," that is, by bewitchings ; " and 
but one by the hand of Heaven," that is, by the stroke of 
God, &c. " If ninety-nine die by reason of cokl, but one by 
the hand of God," &c. 

Ver. 15 ^ : "EAey^oy amov ixera^v aov koL avrov ixovov Tell 
him his fault hetiveen thee and him alone.] The reason of the 
precept is founded in that charitable law, Levit. xix. 17 ; 
" Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart ; but thou 
shalt surely reprove him, and shalt not suffer sin in him." 

Here the Tulmudists speak not amiss : " The "^ Rabbins 
deliver, ' Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart.' Per- 
haps he docs not bent him, he does not pull off his hair, 
he does not curse him : the text saith, ' in thy heart,' speak- 
ing of hatred in the heart. But whence is it proved that 
he that sees his brother doing some foul action is bound 
to reprove him I Because it is said, IT'Din FT^Sin In re- 
proving, thou shalt reprove. He reproves, h^'^p b^71 but he 
heareth not: whence is it proved he is bound to a second 
reproof? The text saith, ' In reproving, thou shalt reprove.' " 
And a little after, " How long must we reprove ? Rabh saith, 
' Even to blows \ " that is, until he that is reproved strikes 
him that reproves him : " Samuel saith, ' Until he is angry.'" 
See also JNIaimonides ". 

Ver. 16 : Ylap6i\a^€ fxeTo. aov eri eva rj bvo, &c. Take with 
thee one or two more, &c.] The Hebrew lawyers require the 
same thing of him that sins against his brother: " Samuel ^ 
saith, ' Whosoever sins against his brother, he must say to 
him, I have sinned against ♦liee. If he hear, it is well : if 
not, let him bring others, and let him appease him before 
them. If perhaps he die, let him appease him at his sepul- 
chre, and say, I have sinned against thee.""" 

But our Saviour here requires a higher charity ; namely, 
from him who is the offended party. In like manner, " Thel' 
great Sanhedrim admonished a city lapsed to idols, by two 
disciples of the wise nipn. If they repented, well : if not, 

^ Hieros. Schab. fal. 14. 3. 1 Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 343. 

"i Bab. Erachin, fol. 16. 2. " In Peah, c. 6. 

° Hieros. Joma, fol. 45. 3. et Bab. Joma, fol. 87. i. 

P Maimon. in Avod. Zarah, cap. 4. 



Ch. xviii. 17.] Exercitations upon St. Mattlievo. 255 

all Israel waged war against it." In like manner also, " The 
jealous husband warned his wife before two witnesses, ' Do 
not talk with N: " 

Ver. 17: EtVe r?/ cKKX-qaui' Tell it unto the church.] That 
which was incumbent upon him against whom the sin was com- 
mitted was this^ that he should deliver his soul by reproving 
his brother, and by not suffering sin in him. This was the 
reason that he had need of witnesses, for what else could 
they testify? They could not testify that the brother had 
sinned against him that reproved him ; for this, perhaps, 
they wei-e altogether ignorant of: but they might testify this, 
that he against whom the sin was committed used due re- 
proof, and omitted nothing which was commanded by the law 
in that case, whereby he might admonish his brother, and, 
if possible, bring him back into the right way. The witnesses 
also added their friendly admonition : whom if the offender 
hearkened not unto, " let it be told the church.^^ 

We do not here enter upon that long dispute concerning 
the sense of the word church in this place. However you 
take it, certainly the business here is not so much concerning 
the censure of the person sinning, as concerning the vindica- 
tion of the person reproving ; that it might be known to all 
that he discharged his duty, and freed his soul. 

It was very customary among the Jews to note those that 
were obstinate in this or that crime after public admonition 
given them in the synagogue, and to set a mark of infamy 
upon them. 

r"r Tl^ini rrn^n J^D"»^!? J^:: "^ AIP these have need of public 
admonition in the consistory. The business there is about 
some shepherds, collectors, and publicans ; and it is declared 
how incapable they are of giving evidence in any judiciary 
matter; but not before public admonition is gone out against 
them in the consistory. 

" If s any deny to feed his children, they reprove him, 
they shame him, they urge him : if he still refuse, they make 
proclamation against him in the synagogue, saying, ' iV. is a 
cruel man, and will not nourish his children : more cruel 

1 English folio edit,, vol. ii. p. 215. ^ Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 26. 2. 

s Maimon. in niti>''« cap, i 2. 



Q5G HehreiD and Talmudical [Ch. xviii. 17. 

than the unclean birds themselves, for they feed their young 
ones,' " &c. 

" A t provoking wife who saith, ' I will create vexation to 
my husband, because he hath done thus or thus to me, or 
because he hath miscalled me, or because he hath chid me,' 
&c. The consistory by messengers send these words to her, 
' Be it known unto you, if you persist in your perverseness, 
although your dowry be a hundred pounds, you have lost it 

all/ nTm?2 ^nnm n"i^D33 ^nni rvhv pTnnn "f3 ^n«T 

And moreover they set forth a public proclamatmi against her in 
tlie synagogues, and in tlie divinity schools every day for four 
sabbaths." 

"EcTTcsi (Tol ajcTTrep o eOviKOs Koi 6 reAwi'jjs" Let him be to thee 
as a heathen and a publican.'] He saith, "Eo-rco aoi, Let him be 
to ' thee ;' not "Eo-toj tj; eKKXrja-Ca, Let him be to ' the church :' 
because the discourse is of peculiar and private scandal 
against a single man ; who, after three admonitions given, 
and they to no purpose, is freed from the law of brotherly 
obligation ; and he who being admonished does not repent, 
is not to be esteemed so much for a brother to him, as for 
a heathen, &c. 

I. Christ does not here prescribe concerning every of- 
fender, according to the full latitude of that law, Levit. xix. 
1 7 ; but of him that particularly " offends against his brother ; 
and he does particularly teach what is to be done to that 
brother. 

II. Although he, against whom the offence is committed, 
had a just cause, why he should be loosed from the obligation 
of the office of a brother towards him, who neither would make 
satisfaction for the wrong done, nor be admonished of it ; yet 
to others in the church there is not the same reason. 

III. The words plainly mean this ; " If, after a threefold 
and just reproof, he that sinned against thee still remains 
untractable, and neither will give thee satisfaction for the 
injury, nor, being admonished, doth repent, thou hast deli- 
vered thine own soul, and art free from brotherly offices to- 
wards him ;" just as the Jews reckon themselves freed from 

t Id. ibid. cap. 14. " Leusdoi's edition, vol.ii. p. 344. 



Ch. xviii. i8.] Exerciiations upon St. 3Iatthew. 257 

friendly offices towards heathens and puhlicmis. That of Mai- 
monides is not much different: "A^ Jew that apostatizes, 
or breaks the sabbath presumptuously, is altogether like a 
heatheyi." 

1. They reckoned not heathens for brethren or neighbours: 
" If y any one"'s ox shall gore his neighbour''s ox: his neigh- 
bour's, not A, heathen'' s : when he saith neighbours, he excludes 
heathens." A quotation which we produced before. 

2. They reputed publicans to be by no means within reli- 
gious society : in^iinn?:: ini« x^nn ■'«xt nci^itr» mn a ^ 

religious man, who becomes a publican, is to be driven out of the 
society of religion. 

3. Hence they ate neither with heathens nor with publi- 
cans : concerning which thing they often quarrel [icith'] our 
Saviour. Hence that of the apostle, i Cor. v. 1 1 ; " With such 
an one no not to eat," is the same with what is spoke here, 
" Let him be to thee as a heathen," &c. 

" It a is forbidden a Jew to be alone with a heathen, to travel 
with a heathen" «fee. 

4. They denied also brotherly offices to heathens and publi- 
cans: " It^ is forbidden to bring home any thing of a heathen's 
that is lost." " If^ is lawful for publicans to swear that is an 
oblation which is not ; that you are of the king's retinue when 
you are are not," &c. that is, publicans may deceive, and that 
by oath. 

Ver. 1 8 : "Oo-a kav 87;o-?jre km Trjs yrjs, &c. Whatsoever ye 
shall bind on earth, ^c] These words depend upon the former. 
He had been speaking concerning being loosed from the office 
of a brother in a particular case : now he speaks of the au- 
thority and power of the apostles of loosing and binding " any 
thing" whatsoever seemed them good, being guided in all 
things by the Holy Ghost. We have explained the sense of 
this phrase at chap. xvi. ; and he gives the same authority in 
respect of this, to all the apostles here, as he did to Peter 
there ; who were all to be partakers of the same Spirit and 
of the same gifts. 

^ In Gerushin, cap. 3. a Maimon. in nvil cap. 12. 

y Aruch in nnn p. b Maimon. Gezelah, cap. 11. 

='• Hieios. Demai, fol. 23. i. c Nedarim, cap. 3. hal. 4. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. gl 



258 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xviii. 19, 20. 

This 'I power was built upon that noble and most self-suffi- 
cient foundation, John xvi. 13, " The Spirit of truth shall lead 
you into all truth." There lies an emphasis in those words, 
" into all truth." I deny that any one, any where, at any 
time, was led, or to be led, into all truth, from the ascension 
of Christ, unto the world's end, beside the apostles. Every 
holy man, certainly, is led into all truth necessary to him for 
salvation : but the apostles were led into all truth necessary 
both for themselves and the whole church ; because they were 
to deliver a rule of faith and manners to the whole church 
throughout all ages. Hence, whatsoever they should confirm 
in the law was to be confirmed ; whatsoever they should 
abolish was to be abolished : since they w-ere endowed, as to 
all things, with a spirit of infallibility, guiding them by the 
hand into all truth. 

Ver. 1 9 : "On Vdv hvo v\xS>v avfJicfx^ivria-caa-LV Itti ttjs 77)9, &c. 
That if two of you shall agree upon earth, <^c.] And these words 
do closely agree with those that went before : there the speech 
was concerning the apostles' determination in all things re- 
specting men ; here, concerning their grace and power of 
obtaining things from God. 

I. Ave vjxGiv Two of i/ouJ] Hence Peter and John act 
jointly together among the Jews, Acts ii, iii, &c., and they 
act jointly among the Samaritans, Acts viii. 14; and Paul 
and Barnabas among the Gentiles, Acts xiii. 2. This bond 
being broke by Barnabas, the Spirit is doubled as it were 
upon Paul. 

II. Svjat^coyj/crcoo-f Agree together.^ That is, to obtain some- 
thing from God ; which appears also from the following words, 
ov eav alTi](T(j)VTat, touching any thing that they shall asJc : sup- 
pose, concerning conferring the Spirit by the imposition of 
hands, of doing this or that miracle, &c. 

Ver. 20 : Ov yap elcn bvo 7) rpeHs (Tw-qyiiivoi eh to kyMV 
ovofxa, e/cet et/xt ev [x^cr(^ avTu>if' For where tivo or three are 
gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of themJ] 
The like do the Rabbins speak of two or three sitting in 
judgment, that 113^5^7 the divine presence is in the midst of 
them. 

^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 216. 



Ch. xix. 1, 3.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 259 

Ver. 21 : 'A(f)i]crb) avT(2 ; ecos kirrdKLs ; Shall 1 forgive him? 
till seven times ?] This question of Peter respects the words 
of our Saviour, ver, 15. " How far shall I forgive my brother 
before I proceed to the extremity? What! seven times ?^' 
He thought that he had measured out, by these words, a 
large charity, being, in a manner, double to that which was 
prescribed by the schools : "He^ that is wronged (say they) 
is forbidden to be difficult to pardon ; for that is not the 
manner of the seed of Israel. But when the offender im- 
plores him once and again, and it appears he repents of his 
deed, let him pardon him : and whosoever is most ready to 
pardon is most praiseworthy." It is welK; but there lies a 
snake under it; " For (say theys) they pardon a man once, 
that sins against another ; secondly, they pardon him ; 
thirdly, they pardon him ; fourthly, they do not pardon 
him," &e. 

CHAP. XlX.h 

Ver. I : ^HKdev ets ret opia rrjs 'lovSaias itipav tov ^lophavov 
He came unto the coasts of Judea beyond Jordan. \ If it were 
barely said, opta t?js 'lovSaias i:kpav tov 'lophavov, the coasts 
of Judea beyond Jordan, by the coasts of Judea one might un- 
derstand the boufids of the Jews beyond Jordan. Nor does such 
a construction want its parallel in Josephus ; for " Hyrcanus 
(saith hei) built a fortification, the name of which was Tyre, 
fxira^v Tj)? re ^ApajSias (cat r^s 'lovbaCas ire pap tov ^lopbdvov, ov 
TToppoi Tijs 'Ea-aeficoviTibos, between Arabia and Judea, beyond 
Jordan, not far from Essebonitis^'' But see Mark here, chap. 
X. I , relating the same story with this our evangelist : "Epx^- 
rai ets ra opia ri/s'IowSata?, hia tov iripav Tov^lophavov He came, 
saith he, into the coasts of Judea, (taking a journey from Gali- 
lee,) along the country beyond Jordan. 

Ver. 3 : Ei i^ea-Tiv avOpcajrco airoXvaaL ti]V yvvaiKa avrov Kara 
■naaav ahiav ; Is it laicful for a man to put aicay his toife for 
every cause ?] Of the causes, ridiculous (shall I call them .'') or 
wicked, for which they put away their wives, we have spoke 
at chap. v. 3 1 . We will produce only one example here ; 

p Maimon. in hiyu cap. 5. h English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 

^ Leusden's edition, vol. \\. p. 345. 217. 

s Bab. Joma, fol. 86. 2. ' Antiq. lib. 12. cap. 5. [xii. 4. 11.] 

s 2 



260 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xix. 8. 

V),r>yh b^^in )«?:5 r*^^?:^ ^"^tDi-r^ y^pn '^nnn " when Rahh 

loent to Darsis ('whither,'' as the Gloss saith, 'he often went'), 
he made a public proclamation, What woman will have me for 
a day ? Rabh Nachman^ when he went to Sacnezib, made a 
pubhc proclamation, What woman will have me for a day V 
The Gloss is, " Is there any woman who will be my wife while 
I tarry in this place J?" 

The question here propounded by the Pharisees was dis- 
puted in the schools, and they divided into parties concerning 
it, as we have noted before. For the school of Shammai per- 
mitted not divorces, but only in the case of adultery ; the 
school of Hillel, otherwise*^. 

Ver. 8 : "On Mcoctt/s Trpos ttjv aKXripoKapbCav vixcov €TriTpe\}/ev, 
&c. Because Moses /or the hardness of your hearts suffered, t^c] 
Interpreters ordinarily understand this of the unkindness of 
men towards their wives ; and that not illy : but at first sight 
a-KXrjpoKapbia, hardness of heart, for the most part in Scripture 
denotes rather obduration against God than against men. 
Examples occur everywhere. Nor does this sense want its 
fitness in this place ; not to exclude the other, but to be 
joined with it here. 

I. That God delivered that rebellious people for the hard- 
ness of their hearts to spiritual fornication, that is, to 
idolatry, sufficiently appears out of sacred story, and par- 
ticularly from these words of the first martyr Stej)hen, Acts 
vii. 42 : "EcTTpexf/e be 6 0eo9, Koi Trapebotxev avrov^ Xarpevew rfj 
(TTpaTLa Tov ovpavov, &c. God turned^ and gave them up to 
worship the host of heaven, &c. And they seem not less 
given up to carnal fornication, if you observe the horrid re- 
cords of their adulteries in the Holy Scripture, and their not 
less horrid allowances of divorces and polygamies in the 
books of the Talmudists : so that the particle -npos carries 
with it a very proper sense, if you interpret it to, according to 
its most usual signification ; " Moses to the hardness of your 
hearts added this, that he permitted divorces ; something 
that savours of punishment in itself, however you esteem it 
for a privilege." 

II. But you may interpret it more clearly and aptly of the 

J Bab. Joma, fol. 18. 2. ^ See Hieros. Sotah, fol. 16. 2. 



Oh. xix. 8.] Exercitations upon >St. Matthew. 261 

inhumanity of husbands towards their wives : but this is to 
be understood also under restriction : for Moses permitted 
not divorces, because, simply and generally men were severe 
and unkind towards their wives; for then, why should he 
restrain divorces to the cause of adultery ? but because, from 
their fierceness and cruelty towards their wives, they might 
take hold of and seek occasions from that law which punished 
adultery with death, to prosecute their wives with all manner 
of severity, to oppress them, to kill them. 

Let^ us search into the divine laws in case of adultery a 
little more largely. 

1. There was a law made upon the suspicion of adultery, 
that the wife should undergo a trial by the bitter waters. 
Num. v : but it is disputed by the Jewish schools, rightly 
and upon good ground, whether the husband was bound in 
this case by duty to prosecute his wife to extremity, or 
whether it were lawful for him to connive at and pardon her, 
if he would. And there are some who say n^in, that is, he 
was bound by duty ; and there are others who say m^"l 
that it was left to his pleasure™. 

2. There was a law of death made in case of the discovery 
of adultery, Deut. xxii. 2i — 23: "If a man shall be found 
lying with a married woman, both shall die," &c. Not that 
this law was not in force unless they were taken in the very 
act ; but the word ^^^^"' shall be found, is opposed to sus- 
picion, and means the same as if it were said, " When it shall 
be found that a man hath lain," &c. 

3. A law of divorce also was given in case of adultery 
discovered, Deut. xxiv. 1 ; for in that case only, and when it 
is discovered, it plainly appears from our Saviour's gloss, and 
from the concession of some Rabbins also, that divorces took 
place : for, say they in the place last cited, " Does a man find 
something foul in his wife? he cannot put her away, ^^7127 
; '^^'^V Tll t^!J^ because he hath not found foul nakedness in 
her /" that is, adultery. 

But" now, how do the law of death and that of divorce 
consist together ? It is answered. They do not so consist 

1 English folio edit., vol. ii, p. 218. •" See Hieros. Sotah, as before. 
*» Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 346.J 



Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xix. 8. 

together that both retain their force ; but the former was 
partly taken off by the latter, and partly not. The Divine 
Wisdom knew that inhuman husbands would use that law of 
death unto all manner of cruelty towards their wives : for 
how ready was it for a wicked and unkind husband to lay 
snares even for his innocent wife, if he were weary of her, 
to oppress her under that law of death ! And if she were 
taken under guilt, how cruelly and insolently would he tri- 
umph over her, poor woman, both to the disgrace of wedlock 
and to the scandal of religion ! Therefore the most prudent, 
and withal merciful lawgiver, made provision that the woman, 
if she were guilty, might not go without her punishment; 
and if she were not guilty, might go without danger; and 
that the wicked husband that was impatient of wedlock 
might not satiate his cruelty. That which is said by one 
does not please me, " That there was no place for divorce 
where matrimony was broke off by capital punishment ;" for 
there was place for divorce for that end, that there might not 
be place for capital punishment. That law indeed of death 
held the adulterer in a snare, and exacted capital punishment 
upon him, and so the law made sufficient provision for 
terror : but it consulted more gently for the woman, the 
weaker vessel, lest the cruelty of her husband might unmer- 
cifully triumph over her. 

Therefore, in the suspicion of adultery, and the thing not 
discovered, the husband might, if he would, try his wife by 
the bitter waters ; or if he would, he might connive at her. 
In case of the discovery of adultery, the husband might put 
away his wife, but he scarce might put her to death ; because 
the law of divorce was given for that very end, that provision 
might be made for the woman against the hardheartedness 
of her husband. 

Let this story serve for a conclusion ; " Shemaiah^ and 
Abtalion compelled Carchemith, a libertine woman-servant, 
to drink the bitter waters." The husband of this woman 
could not put her away by the law of JNIoses, because she was 
not found guilty of discovered adultery. He might put her 
away by the traditional law, which permitted divorces without 

° Bab. Beiac, fol, 19. i. 



Ch. xix. 18.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 263 

the case of adultery ; he might not, if he had pleased, have 
brought her to trial by the bitter waters ; but it argued the 
hardness of his heart towards his wife, or burning jealousy, 
that he brought her. I do not remember that I have any- 
where in the Jewish pandect read any example of a wife 
punished with death for adultery. There P is mention of 
the daughter of a certain priest committing fornication in 
her father's house, that was burnt alive; but she was not 
married. 

Ver. 12: Evvovxoi ck KoikCa^ iir]Tp6r Eunuchs from their 
tnother^s tvo7nb. Evvovxpt, oiTives evvov^Cadrjaav vtio t€)V avdpca- 
TTav Eunuchs, lohich loere made eunuchs o/men.] TTOTl D^"^D 
and D"ri^ D^^lD, in the Talmudistsq. 

Ver. 13'": Tore -npoa-qvix^r] avr^ maiUa' Then were little 
children brought unto him.] Not for the healing of some 
disease ; for if this had been the end propounded, why did 
the disciples keep them back above all others, or chide any 
for their access? Nor can we believe that they were the 
children of unbeheving Jews, when it is scarcely probable 
that they, despising the doctrine and person of Christ, would 
desire his blessing. Some therefore of those that believe 
brought their infants to Christ, that he might take parti- 
cular notice of them, and admit them into his discipleship, 
and mark them for his by his blessing. Perhaps the dis- 
ciples thought this an excess of officious religion ; or that 
they would be too troublesome to their Master; and hence 
they opposed them : but Christ countenanceth the same 
thing, and favours again that doctrine which he had laid 
down, chap, xviii. 3 ; namely, that the infants of believers 
were as much disciples and partakers of the kingdom of 
heaven as their parents. 

Ver. 18 : Ov (povevaets, &c. Thou shalt do no murder, <Src.] 
It is^worthy marking, how again and again in the New Tes- 
tament, when mention is made of the whole law, only the 
second table is exemplified, as in this place ; so also Rom. 
xiii. 8, 9, and James ii. 8, 1 1 , &c. Charity towards our neigh- 
bour is the top of religion, and a most undoubted sign of love 
towards God. 

P Hieros. Sanhedr. fol. 24. 2. sub v. D1ID, col. 1554.]. 

q [See Buxtorf Lex. T. & R. r English folio edit., vb\.u..V.2\^. 



264 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch, xix. 11,24. 

Ver. 21 : YiiaXrjcrov aov to. vit&pyovTa^ koX bos t,to)xols' Sell 
thai thou hast., and gim to the poor.'\ When Christ calls it 
perfection to sell all and give to the poor, he speaks ac- 
cording to the idiom of the nation, which thought so : and he 
tries this rich man, boasting of his exact performance of the 
law, whether, when he pretended to aspire to eternal life, he 
would aspire to that perfection which his countrymen so 
praised. Not that hence he either devoted Christians to 
voluntary poverty, or that he exhorted this man to rest ulti- 
mately in a Pharisaical perfection ; but lifting up his mind to 
the renouncing of worldly things, he provokes him to it by 
the very doctrine of the Pharisees which he professed. 

" For^ these things the measure is not stated; for the 
corner of the field" to be left for the poor; "for the first- 
fruits for the appearance in the Temple'^ (according to the 
law, Exod. xxiii. 15, 17, wliere, what, or how great an obla- 
tion is to be brought, is not appointed), " for the shewing 
mercy, and for the study of the law." The casuists, discuss- 
ing that point of ' shewing mercy,' do thus determine con- 
cerning it : "A stated measure is not indeed prescribed to 
the shewing of mercy, as to the<^ affording poor men help 
with thy body," that is, with thy bodily labour ; " but as to 
money there is a stated measure, namely, the fifth part of 
thy wealth; nor is any bound to give the poor above the fifth 
part of his estate, mi^DH niDl ]!3 HU?'^ ON "?n^ imless 
he does it out of extraordinary devotion. See Rambam U})on 
the place, and the Jerusalem Gemara : where the example 
of R. Ishbab is produced, distributing all his goods to the 
poor. 

Ver. 24; Kd[xri\ov 8ia rpuTnj/xaros pa^iSos bieXOiU', &c. ^4 
camel to go through the eye of a needle, <S'C.] A phrase used 
in the schools, intimating a thing very unusual and very dif- 
ficult. There, where the discourse is concerning dreams and 
their interpretation, these words are added. TVh nn?D ^h 

Thcy^^ do not shew a man a palm tree of gold, nor an elephant 
doing through the eye of a needle. The Gloss is, " A thing 



s Pcah, cap. i. hal. i. * Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 347. 

" Babyl. Berac. fol. 55. 2. 



Ch. xix. 28.] Exercitations upon St. MaUheui. 9.Q5 

which he was not wont to see, nor concerning wliich he ever 
thought." 

In like manner R. Sheshith answered R. Amrain, disputing 
with him and asserting something that was incongruous, in 
these words ; " Perhaps ^ thou art one of those of Pombe- 
ditha, who can make an elephant pass through the eye of a 
needle :" that is, as the Aruch interprets it, " who speak 
things that are impossible." 

Ver. 28 y: 'Tjweis 01 aKo\ov6r](TavTi^ fxoi, ev ttj iraKiyy^Viaia' 
Ye that have foUoivcd mc, in the regeneration?^ That the world 
is to be renewed at the coming of the Messias, and the 
preaching of the gospel, the Scriptures assert, and the Jews 
believe ; but in a grosser sense, which we observe at chap, 
xxiv. Our Saviour, therefore, by the word naXiyyev^aia, 
regeneration, calls back the mind of the disciples to a right 
apprehension of the thing ; implying that renovation, con- 
cerning which the Scripture speaks, is not of the body or 
substance of the world ; but that it consists in the renewing 
of the manners, doctrine, and a dispensation conducing 
thereimto : men are to be renewed, regenerated, — not the 
fabric of the world. This very thing he teaches Nicodemus, 
treating concerning the nature of the kingdom of heaven, 
John iii. 3. 

' Orav Ka6i(Ti] 6 vlos tov avOpcoirov em dpovov ho^rjs avTov, 
KaOtacaOe kol vfxeXs' When, the Son of man shall sit upon the 
throne of his glory, ye also shall siV.] These words are fetched 
out of Daniel, chap. vii. 9, 10, Vp"1 ]3?1^ ' which words I 
wonder should be translated by the interpreters, Aben Ezra, 
R. Saadia, and others, as well Jews as Christians, thrones 
were cast down. R. Solomon the Vulgar, and others, read 
it righter, thrones loere set up : where Lyranus thus, " He 
saith thrones in the plural number, because not only Christ 
shall judge, but the apostles, and perfect men, shall assist 
him in judgment, sitting upon thrones.'"' The same way very 
many interpreters bend the words under our hands, namely, 
that the saints shall at the day of judgment sit with Christ, 
and approve and applaud his judgment. But, i , besides that 
the scene of the last judgment, painted out in the Scripture, 

^ Bava Mezia, fol. 38. 2. >' English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 220. 



266 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xx. i. 

does always represent as well the saints as the wicked stand- 
ing before the tribunal of Christ, Matt. xxv. 32, 2 Cor. v. 10, 
&c. ; we have mention here only of " twelve thrones.^^ And, 
2, we have mention only of judging the " twelve tribes of 
Israel." The sense, therefore, of the place may very well be 
found out by weighing these things following : 

I. That those thrones set up in Daniel are not to be 
understood of the last judgment of Christ, but of his judg- 
ment in his entrance upon his evangelical government, when 
he was made by his Father chief ruler, king, and judge of 
all things: Psalm ii. 6, Matt, xxviii. 18, John v. 27. For 
observe the scope and series of the prophet, that, after the 
four monarchies, namely, the Babylonian, the Medo -Persian, 
the Grecian, and the Syro-Grecian, which monarchies had 
vexed the world and the church by their tyranny, were de- 
stroyed, the kingdom of Christ should rise, &c. Those 
words, " The kingdom of heaven is at hand," that judiciary 
scene set up Rev. iv. and v., and those thrones Rev. xx. i, &c. 
do interpret Daniel to this sense. 

II. The throne of glory, concerning which the words before 
us are, is to be understood of the judgment of Christ to be 
brought upon the treacherous, rebellious, wicked, Jewish 
people. We meet with very frequent mention of the coming 
of Christ in his glory in this sense ; which we shall discourse 
more largely of at chap. xxiv. 

III. That the sitting of the apostles upon thrones with 
Christ is not to be understood of their persons, it is suffi- 
ciently proved ; because Judas was now one of the number : 
but it is meant of their doctrine : as if he had said, " When I 
shall bring judgment upon this most unjust nation, then your 
doctrine, which you have preached in my name, shall judge 
and condemn them." See Rom. ii. 16. 

Hence it appears that the gospel was preached to all the 
twelve tribes of Israel before the destruction of Jerusalem. 

CHAP. XX.z 

Ver. I : 'Ef^A^ey ajua Tipwi jJucrOaxraa-Oai, kpyara's' Who 
went out early in the morning to hire labourer s.~\ You have 

2 English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 221. 



Ch. XX. 2.] Exercitations upon St. Mattheic. 267 

such a parable as this, but madly applied, in the Talmud : we 
will produce it here for the sake of some phrases : " To ^ what 
was R. Bon Bar Ohaija like ? D^bj^lD "l^IDtZ? "jSd^ To a king 
who hired many labourers ; among which there was one hired, 
who performed his work extraordinary well. What did ^ the 
king ? He took him aside, and walked with him to and fro. 
"yyV "^nin^i^S 6\//ias yevoixevris, IVhen even was come, those la- 
bourers came, tlS^ /IIO'^T' 'Iva Xr]\}/o>VTai tov jMcrObv airGiv, that 
they might receive their hire, and he gave him a complete hire 
with the rest. pr^J^^inO D^^S-'ICn Vm Kai kyoyyvCov ol 
kpyarai Xiyovres, And the labourers murmured, saying, -^^^ 
DT^n /D y^^y^ ' We have laboured hard all the day, and this 
man only two hours, yet he hath received as much wages as 
we :' the king saith to them, ' He hath laboured more in 
those two hours than you in the whole day.' So R. Bon 
plied the law more in eight- and-twenty years than another 
in a hundred years." 

"Ajua -rrpcot' Early in the morning.] " The^ time of working 
is from sunrising to the appearing of the stars, and not from 
break of day : and this is proved from the chapter □117 lOi^ 
nil?;272rf the president o/ the priests saith to them^ ; where they 
say, ' It is light all in the east, and men go out to hire la- 
bourers :' whence it is argued that they do not begin their 
work before the sun riseth. It is also proved from the tract 
Pesachin, where it is said that it is prohibited on the day of 
the Passover to do any servile work after the sun is up ; in- 
timating this, that that was the time when labourers should 
begin their work," &c. 

MiaOdiiijaaOai ipyaras' To hire labourers.] Read here, if you 
please, the tract Bava Mezia, cap. vii. ; which begins thus, 
C^SV^Sn Di^ '^^'yl3^ He that hireth labourers: and Maimonides, 
mi^iU?, a tract entitled Hiring e, 

Ver. 2 : "Ev^cjibivricras (k brjvapiov rrjv r^xipav Agreed for a 
penny a day.] A penny of silver, which one of gold exceeded 
twenty-four times ; for fp^ '^l^T tC'D ^IH IHt U**"! A penny 
of gold is loorth fice-and-twenty of silver ^. The canons of the 



^ Hieros. Berac. fol. 5. 3. d Joma, cap. 3. Tamid, cap. 3. 

'' Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 348. ^ Cap. 9. 8. 11. 

<= Gloss, in Bab. Bava Mezia, fol. ^ Gloss, in Cherithuth, cap. 2. 
83.2. 



268 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch. xx. 8, 13. 

Hebrews concerning hiring of labourers distinguish, as 
reason requires, between DV "T^^tt} being hired hy the day, and 
]11S?\2? 'T'Dir he'ing hired (only) for some hours : which may be 
observed also in this parable : for in the morning they are 
hired for all the day, and for a penny, but afterward for 
certain hours ; and have a part of a penny allotted them, in 
proportion to the time they wrought. 

Yer. 8 : KdAeo-oz; tovs epydras, &c. : Call the labourers.^ 
For "it is one of the affirmative precepts of the law, that 
a hired labourer should have his wages paid him when they 
are due, as it is said, ' You shall pay him his wages in his 
day :' and if they be detained longer, it is a breach of a ne- 
gative precept ; as it is said, ' The sun shall not go down 
upon him s/ " &c. 

Ver. 13'^: Ou)(i hr}vapiov crvv€(j)u>vr](jds juot ; Didst not thou 
agree with me for a penny ^] In hiring of labourers, the 
custom of the place most prevailed ; hence came that axiom, 
I'^X*^ '^^'Tli ''^TI "^f n7 Observe the custom of the city ' ,• speak- 
ing of this very thing. There is also an example, " Those ^ 
of Tiberias that went up to Bethmeon to be hired for la- 
bourers, were hired according to the custom of Bethmeon," 
<S:c. By the by also we may observe that which is said by 
the Babylonians in the place cited, mt^ «p t^!5^n?2 ''"TDDT 
■^fc^t^lp^H that is, as the Gloss renders it, " Notice must be 
taken whether they come from several places ; for at some 
places they go to work sooner, and at some later." 

Hence two things may be cleared in the parable before 
us : I . Why they are said to be hired at such different hours ; 
namely, therefore* because they are supposed to have come 
together from several places. 2. Why thei'e was no certain 
agreement made with those that were hired at the third, 
sixth, and ninth hours, as with those that were hired early 
in the morning ; but that he should only say, " Whatsoever 
is right I will give you :" that is, supposing that they would 
submit to the custom of the place. But, indeed, when their 
wages were to be paid them, there is, by the favour of the 
lord of the vineyard, an equality made between those that 
were hired for some hours, and those that were hired for the 

g Maimon. mi^Dty cap. 11. ■ Bab. Bava Mezia, fol. 83. 2. 

h English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 222. ^ Hieros. Mezia, fol. 1 1. 2. 



Ch. XX. 22.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 269 

whole day ; and when these last murmured, they are an- 
swered from their own agreement, ^vv€(f)(avr](Tds /xoi, Yoio 
agreed toith me. Note here the canon ; " The ^ master of 
the family saith to his servant, ' Go, hire me labourers for 
fourpence :' he goes and hires them for threepence ; although 
their labour deserves fourpence, they shall not receive but 
three, nh^ h>V n?D"i:)in urh IZ^^I ip'^IV ^V 'h:iy^ because 
they hound themselves hy agreement., and their complaint'''' {yoy- 
yv(Tixbs, murmuring, in the i ith verse,) " is against the ser- 
vant.'''' 

Ver. 22 : To ^ci-nrtcr/xa, 6 eyw /Ba-nTiCoixaL' The baptism 
that I am ba2ytized ioith.'\ The phrase that goes before this, 
concerning the cup, is taken from divers places of Scripture, 
where sad and grievous things are compared to draughts of 
a bitter cup. You may think that Jl'l^i^'^ID D"l5 the cup of 
vengeance, of which there is mention in Bab. Beracoth^\ 
means the same thing, but it is far otherwise : give me leave 
to quote it, though it be somewhat out of our bounds : " Let 
them not talk (say they) over their cup of blessing ; and let 
them not bless over their cup of vengeance. m^i^lID D1^ ''t^'^ 
What is the cup of vengeance ? The second cup, saith R. Nach- 
man Bar Isaac." Rabbena Asher and Piske are more clear : 
" If he shall drink off two cups, let him not bless over the 
third." The Gloss, " He that drinks off double cups is 
punished ^ by devils." But to the matter before us. 

So cruel a thing was the baptism of the Jews, being a 
plunging of the whole body into water, when it was never so 
much chilled with ice and snow, that, not without cause, 
partly, by reason of the burying as I may call it under water, 
and partly by reason of the cold, it used to signify the most 
cruel kind of death. The Jerusalem Talmudists relate, that 
" in the days of Joshua Ben Levi, some endeavoured quite to 
take away the washings [n7"^3.t5 baptisms'] of women, because 
the women of Galilee grew barren by reason of the coldness 
of the waters ;" which o we noted before at the sixth verse of 
the third chapter. 

1 Maimon. as before, cap. 9. » Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 349. 

™ Fol. 51. 2. o Berac. 6. 3. 



270 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. xxi. i, &c. 

CHAP. XXI. 

Ver. I P : ITpo? TO opos t&v ''E\atS)v' To the mount of Olives.] 
D'Ti'^in "^n Mons Olivarum, Zech. xiv. 4. Natse illic sunt 
alise arbores prseter oleas ; ast ab illis nomen, et quod major 
harum numerus, et dignior earura fructus. 

Ficus produxithic mons: quod patet per ficum maledictam. 
Atque inde forte nomen loci Bethphage, id est, Locus Gros- 
sorum. Et ficuosus forsan fuit iste tractus Bethphage oppo- 
situs. Alibi forte mons magis olivosus : unde nomen loci 
Gethsemani ; id est, Torcular oleaceum. 

Cedros etiam aliquas genuit, easque miras, si Gemaristis 
Hierosolymitanis hie fides. " Duse cedri (inquiunt) erant in 
monte Oliveti. Sub una quatuor erant tabernae, vendentes 
necessaria ad purificationes. Ex altera deduxerunt uno- 
quoque mense quadraginta Seas columbarumn." Nimietate 
historise historiam perdunt. 

Ver. 2 : "Ovov koX iioikov An ass and her foal.'] In the 
Talmudists we have the like phrase, ]'ir:3p '^"n'^''^1 "^IT^n an'' 
ass and a little colt. In that treatise Mezia, they speak con- 
cerning a hired ass, and the terras that the hired is obliged 
to. Among other things there, the Babylon Gemara* hath 

these words, "|^n vnp2 n^:i Si^i h^ r\vi Sir n^ni>D h^ 

Whosoever transgresses against the loill of the oicner is called a 
roller. For' instance, if any one hires an ass for a journey 
on the plains u, and turns up to the mountains, &c. Hence 
this of our Saviour appears to be a miracle, not a robbery ; 
that without any agreement or terms this ass should be led 
away ; and that the owner and those that stood by should 
be satisfied with these bare words, " The Lord hath need of 
him.'' 

Ver. 5 : Upav^, koX e7rt/3e/3rjKa)s km ovoif Meek, and sitthig 
upon an ass^ This triumph of Christ completes a double 
prophecy : i . This prophecy of Zechariah here mentioned. 
2. The taking to themselves the Paschal lamb, for this was 
the very day on which it was to be taken, according to the 

P See " Pauca interserenda in ■■ Hieros. Bava Mezia, fol. 11. i. 

quaedam Horarum Hebraicarum et ^ Cap. 6. halac. 3. 

Talmudicarum Loca:" in Leusden's * Fol. 78. i. 

edition, vol. iii. p. loi. " English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 223. 

1 Taanith, fol. 69. i. 



Ch. xxi. 8.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 271 

command of the law, Exod. xii. 3 ; " In the tenth day of this 
month, they shall take to them every man a lamb." 

It scarce appears to the Talmudists, how those words of 
Daniel concerning the Messias, that " he comes with the 
clouds of heaven,'^ are^ consistent with these words of Ze- 
chariah, that " he comes sitting upon an ass." " If (say 
theyy) the Israelites be good, then he shall come with the 
clouds of heaven ; but if not good, then riding upon an ass." 
Thou art much mistaken, O Jew : for he comes " in the 
clouds of heaven," as judge and revenger, because you are 
evil and very wicked ; but sitting upon an ass, not because 
you are, but because he is, good. t^^T'TS "^11^2? "H^h "^D^^ 
7^51^^277 King Sajjores said to Samuel, ' You say your Messias 
will come upon an ass, I will send him a brave horse.' He 
answers him, * You have not a horse with a hundred spots as 
is his ass^."" In the greatest humility of the Messias they 
dream of grandeur, even in his very ass. 

Ver. 8 : KKdbovs earpcovvvov kv ti] oSw* Strewed brandies in 
the waj/.] Not that they strewed garments and boughs just 
in the way under the feet of the ass to be trod on ; this 
perhaps might have thrown down the rider ; but by the way- 
side they made little tents and tabernacles of clothes and 
boughs, according to the custom of the feast of Tabernacles. 
John also adds, that taking branches of palm trees (T^y^w) 
in their hands, they went forth to meet him. That book of 
Maimonides entitled iSl7l 11310 Tabernacles and palm- 
branches, will be an excellent comment on this place, and so 
will the Talmudic treatise, Succah. We will pick out these 
few things, not unsuitable to the present story : " Doth^ any 
one spread his garment on his tabernacle against the heat of 
the sun, &c.? it is absurd; but if he spread his garment for 
comeliness and ornament, it is approved." Again, " The^ 
boughs of palm trees, of which the law, Lev. xxiii. 40, speaks, 
are the young growing sprouts of palms, before their leaves 
shoot out on all sides ; but when they are like small staves, 
and these are called Il'^IT'." And a little after, " It is a 
notable precept, to gather I7I7 young branches of palms, and 

* Dan. vii. 13. * Maimon. Succah, cap. 5. ar- 

y See Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 98. i. tic. 17. 

2 Ibid. ^ Cap. 7. 



272 Hehreiv and Tahnudical [Ch. xxi. 9. 

the boughs of myrtle and willow, and to make them up into a 
small bundle, and to carry them in their hands," &c. 

Ver. 9 : 'Haavva rw vl^ Aaj3ib' Hosanna to the Son of 
David.^ Some are at a loss why it is said tw wt(p, to the Son, 
and not S vie, Son : wherefore they fly to Caninius as to an 
oracle, who tells us, that those very bundles of boughs are 
called Hosanna ; and that these words, Hosanna to the Son of 
David, signify no more than houghs to the So?i of David^." 
We will not deny that handles are sometimes so called, as 
seems in these clauses, «Dyiinnn «2^")^'^ \I}T« ^"^1^ ^ 
and «ii>y;in2 ^'ih'h \D^y\^ '\^Th «S where it is plain, 
that a branch of palm is called H^lS Lalah, and boughs of 
myrtle and willow bound together are called t<^iytDin Ho- 
sanna^ : but, indeed, if Hosanna to the Son of David signifies 
houghs to the Son of David, what do those words mean, 
Hosanna in the highest? The words therefore here sung 
import as much as if it were said, We noio sing Hosanna to 
the Messias^. 

In the feast of Tabernacles, the great Hallel, as they call it, 
used to be sung, that is, Psalm cxiii, cxiv, cxv, cxvi, cxvii, 
and cxviii. And while the words of the Psalms were sung or 
said by one, the whole company used sometimes to answer 
at certain clauses, Halleluia. Sometimes the same clauses 
that had been sung or said were again repeated by the com- 
pany : sometimes the bundles of boughs were brandished or 
shaken. "^ But when were the bundles shaken?" The rubric 
of the Talmud saithg, "At that clause TO yT\T\ Give thanks 
unto the Lord, in the beginning of Psalm cxviii^, and at the 
end. t-^iVtrin n i^Dh^il and at that clause, Save noiv, I 
beseech thee, Lord, (Psalm cxviii. 25,) as saith the school 
of Hillel : but the school of Shammai saith also, at that 
clause, ^5]] (irT'T'iin ' n Lord, L heseech thee, send now 
prosperiti/. R. Akibah said, I saw R, Gamaliel and R. 
Joshuah, when all the company shook their bundles they did 
not shake theirs, but only at that clause, Save now, L beseech 
thee, Lord\" 

^ See Baronius at the year of ^ See the Gloss. 

Christ 34. s Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 350. 

^ Bab. Succah, fol. 37. 2. h Englishfolio edit., vol. ii. p. 224. 

^ [See Buxtorf Lex. T. & R. ' Succah, cap. 3. halac. 9. 
sub V. col. 992.] 



Ch. xxi. 9.] Exercitations upon Si. Matthew. 273 

On every day of the feast, they used once to go round 
the altar with bundles in their hands, singing this, H ^^2^5 
b^3 nrr^S^^n 'n t^i rri^'^Il^'in Save noit\ I beseech thee, 
Lord; I beseech thee, Lord, send now prosperity. But on 
the seventh day of the feast they went seven times round 
the altar'', &c. " The tossing or shaking of the bundles 
was on the right hand, on the left hand, upwards and 
downwards'."' 

" The reason of the bundles was this, because it is written, 
' Then let all the trees of the wood sing,' (Psalm xcvi. 12.) 
And afterward it is written, ' Give thanks unto the Lord, 
because he is good,' (Psalm cvi.i.) And afterward, 'Save 
us, Lord, O our God/ &c. (Psalm cvi. 47.) And the reason 
is mystical. In the beginning of the year, Israel and the 
nations of the world go forth to judgment ; and being igno- 
rant who are to be cleared and who guilty, the holy and 
blessed God commanded Israel that they should rejoice with 
these bundles, as a man rejoiceth who goeth out of the pre- 
sence of his judge acquitted. Behold, therefore, what is 
written, 'Let the trees of the wood sing;' as if it were said, 
Let them sing with the trees of the wood, when they go out 
justified from the presence of the Lord," &c.'i^ 

These things being premised concerning the rites and cus- 
toms of that feast, we now return to our story : — 

L It is very much worth our observation, that the com- 
pany receives Christ coming now to the Passover with the 
solemnity of the feast of Tabernacles. For what hath this 
to do with the time of the Passover? If one search into the 
reason of the thing more accurately, these things occur ; 
First, The mirth of that feast above all others ; concerning 
which there needs not much to be said, since the very name 
of the feast (for by way of emphasis it was called ^H, that 
is, Festivity or Miiih) sufficiently proves it. Secondly, That 
prophecy of Zechariah", which, however it be not to be un- 
derstood according to the letter, yet from thence may suffi- 
ciently be gathered the singular solemnity and joy of that 
least above all others ; and, perhaps, from that same pro- 

k Maimon. on Succah, cap. 6. m Rabbenu Asher on Succab, fol. 

1 Bab. Succah, fol. 27. 2. 66. 2, 3. " Chap. xiv. 16. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. 11. T 



274 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. xxi. 12. 

phecy, the occasion of this present action was taken. For 
being willing to receive the Messias with all joyfulness, tri- 
umph, and affection of mind (for by calling him the 8on 
of David, it is plain they took him for the Messias), they 
had no way to express a more ardent zeal and joy at his 
coming, than by the solemn procession of that feast. They 
have the Messias before their eyes ; they expect great things 
from him ; and are therefore transported with excess of joy 
at his coming. 

II. But whereas the Great Hallel, according to the custom, 
was not now sung, by reason of the suddenness of the present 
action, the whole solemnity of that song was, as it were, 
swallowed up in the frequent crying out and echoing back of 
Hosanna ; as they used to do in the Temple, while they went 
round the altar. And one while they sing Hosanna to the Son 
of David ; another while, Hosanna in the highest ; as if they 
had said, " Now we sing Hosanna to the Son of David ; save 
us, we beseech thee, thou [who dvvellest] in the highest, save us 
by the Messias.'''' 

Ver. 12: 'E£e/3aA.e Trdyras tovs ircoXovvTas koI ayopdCovras iv 
rw lepw* He cast out all them that sold and bought in the 
Temple.'] I. There was always a constant market in the 
Temple in that place which was called nVDll the shops ; 
where every day was sold wine, salt, oil, and other requisites 
to sacrifices ; as also oxen and sheep, in the spacious Oourt 
of the Gentiles. 

11. The nearness of the Passover had made the market 
greater ; for innumerable beasts being requisite to this so- 
lemnity, they were brought hither to be sold. This brings to 
mind a story of Bava Ben Buta: " He° coming one day into 
the court found it quite empty of beasts. ' Let their houses,' 
said he, ' be laid waste, who have laid waste the house of our 
God.' He sent for three thousand of the sheep of Kedar ; 
and having examined whether they were without spot, brought 
them into the Mountain of the House ;" that is, into the Court 
of the Gentiles. 

Ta? TpaTT€(as t&v Kok\.v^t(TTS>v Karicnpe^c Overthrew the tables 
of the moneychangers.'] Who those moneychangers were, may 

° Hieros. Jorn Tobh, fol. 61. 3. 



Oh. xxi. 12.] Exerciiations ujwn St. Maitheio. 275 

be learned very well from the Talmud, and Maimonides in the 
treatise SheJcalim : — 

" ItP is an affirmative precept of the lawi, that every 
Israelite should give half a shekel yearly : even the poor, who 
live by alms, are obliged to this ; and must either beg the 
money of others, or sell their clothes to pay half a shekel ; as 
it is said, ' The^' rich shall give no more, and the poor shall 
give no less.' " 

" Ins the first day of the month Adar, they made a public 
proclamation concerning these shekels, that every one should 
provide his half shekel, and be ready to pay it. Therefore, 
on the fifteenth day of the same month, the exchangers 
(pinSlirri) sat in every city, civilly requiring this money : 
they received it of those that gave it, and compelled those 
that did not. On the five-and-twentieth day* of the same 
month they sat in the Temple ; and then compelled them to 
give ; and from him that did not give they forced a pledge, 
even his very coat." 

" They" sat in the cities, with two chests before them; in 
one of which they laid up the money of the present year, 
and in the other the money of the year past. They sat in 
the Temple with thirteen chests before them; the first was 
for the money of the present year ; the second, for the year 
past ; the third, for the money that was offered to buy 
pigeons," &c. They called these chests Jll'^D'^tD trumpets, 
because, like trumpets, they had a narrow mouth, and a 
wide belly. 

" It" is necessary that every one should have half a shekel 
to pay for himself. Therefore, when he comes to the ex- 
changer to change a shekel for two half shekels, he is obliged 
to allow him some gain, which is called ^llvlp {koKKv^os) 
Jcolhon. And when two pay one shekel [between them], 
plSlpl pl'^'^n Dn"'2tI7 each of them is obliged to allmo the 
same gain or fee.'" 

And not much after, pn^lpH "TW^^ fc^lH HD^ " How 
much is that gain ? At that time when they paid pence for 



P English folio edition, vol. ii. p. ^ \^^ WnA. Talm. Shekal. cap. r. 

225. ^ Leusden^s edit., vol. ii. p. 351. 

1 Maim. Shekal. cap. i. " Talm. Shekal. cap. 2. 

^ Excel. XXX. 15. ^ Idem, cap. 3. 

T % 



276 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxi. 15. 

the half shekel, a kolhon [or the fee that was paid to the 
money-changer] was half a mea, that is. the twelfth part of a 
penny, and never less. But the Jcolbons were not like the 
half shekel ; but the exchangers laid them by themselves till 
the holy treasury were paid out of them." You see what these 
moneychangers were, and whence they had their name. You 
see that Christ did not overturn the chests in which the holy 
money was laid up, but the tables on which they trafficked 
for this unholy gain. 

Twy TTU)Xovvru)V Tas Treptorepa?* Of those that sold doves. ^ 
W^yp *'22)72 sellers of doves. See the Talmudic treatise of 
that title. : int ^3^1 D^lDT^^n a'^:j^p m2V " Dovesl 
were at one time sold at Jerusalem for pence of gold. Where- 
upon Rabban Simeon Ben Gamaliel said, ntH pJ^T^n By this 
temple, I will not lie down this night, unless they be sold for 
pence of silver, &c. Going into the council-house, he thus 
decreed, A woman of five undoubted labours, or of five un- 
doubted fluxes, shall be bound only to make one offering ; 
whereby doves were sold that very day for two farthings." 
The offering for women after childbirth, and fluxes, for their 
purification, were pigeons^, &c. But now, when they went up 
to Jerusalem with their offerings at the feasts only, there was 
at that time a greater number of beasts, pigeons, and turtles, 
&c. requisite. See what we have said at the fifth chapter, and 
the three-and-twentieth verse. 

Ver. 15 : TTatSa? Kpa(ovTas kv rw lepw, /cat Kiyovras 'D.(Tavvd' 
The children crying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna.^ 
Children, from their first infancy, were taught to manage the 
bundles, to shake them, and in shaking, to sing Hosanna. 
nS"^^ n'^Tl Vyvh Xnvn ]1I5p a child\ so soon as he hiows 
how to wave the bundle, is bound to carry a bundle. Where the 
Gemara saith thus ; '■ The Rabbins teach, that so soon as a 
little child can be taught to manage a bundle, he is bound to 
carry one : so soon as he knows how to veil himself, he must 
put on the borders : as soon as he knows how to keep his 
father's phylacteries, he must put on his own : as soon as he 
can speak, let his father teach him the law, and to say the 
phylacteries," &c. 

y Cherithuth, cap. i. halac. 7. ^ Levit. xii. and xv. 

* Succah, cap. 3. halac, last. 



Ch. xxi. 19.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 277 

Ver. 19 : Ovhev €vp€V kv avrfj el jxr] (f)v\Xa ixovov Found 
nothing thereon but leaves only?^ This place i8 not a little 
obscure, being compared with Mark xi. 13, who seems to say, 
that therefore figs were not found on this tree, because it teas 
not yet the time of figs, ov yap rjv Katpos (rvKcav. Why then did 
our Saviour expect figs, when he might certainly know that 
it teas not yet the time of figs ? And why, not finding them, 
did he curse the tree, being innocent and agreeable to its own 
nature ? 

I. We will first consider the situation of this tree. Our 
evangelist saith, that it was in the loay, em ttjs ohov. This 
minds me of a distinction used very often by the Talraudists, 
between b "ipOT^ and 11?2^ that is, between the fruits of trees 
of common right, which did not belong to any peculiar master, 
but grew in woody places, or in common fields ; and the fruits 
of trees which grew in gardens, orchards, or fields, that had a 
proper owner. How much difference was made between these 
fruits by the canonists, as to tithing, and as to eating, is in 
many places to be met with through the whole classes, entitled 
D'^y^f Seeds. This fig-tree seems to have been of the former 
kind : rTinilD n^^n a tcild fig-tree, IpDHl growing in a 
place or field, not belonging to any one in particular, but 
common to all. So that our Saviour did not injure any parti- 
cular person, when he caused this tree to wither ; but it was 
such a tree, that it could not be said of it, that it was mine or 
thine. 

II. He found nothing thereon hut leaves, because the time of 
figs was not yet a great while, Mark xi. 13. 

1. " At^ what time in the seventh year do they forbear to 
lop their trees ? The school of Shammai saith, nil^'^t^n 73 
1^^'^!iV\Z!'?2 All trees from that time, they bring forth [leaves]. The 
Gloss, " The beginning of leaves is in the days of Nisan." 

2. " Rabban^i Simeon^ Ben Gramaliel saith, From the put- 
ting forth of leaves, till there be green figs, is fifty days ; from 
the green figs, till the buds fall off, fifty days ; and from that 
time till the figs be ripe are fifty days." If, therefore, the first 
putting out of the leaves was in the month Nisan, and that 
was five months' time before the figs came to be ripe, it is 

b English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 226. d Jeius. Sheviith, fol. 35. 4. 

"^ Bab. Pesachin, fol. 52. 2. e Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 353. 



278 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch. xxi. 19. 

plain enough that the figs of that year coming on were not 
expected by our Saviour, nor could be expected. 

That we may pursue the matter somewhat home, and make 
it appear that the text of Mark, as it is commonly read, for 
the time of figs was not yet, is uncorrupted, 

I. AVe must first observe what is said about the intercala- 
tion of the year : " They intercalate the year upon three 
accounts ; for the green year, for the fruit of the tree, and 
for TeJcupha f." Mairaonides is more large ; whom see S. 
Now if you ask what means the intercalation for the fruit of 
the tree, the Gloss answers, " If the fruit be not ripened till 
Pentecost is past, they intercalate the year ; because Pente- 
cost is the time of bringing the firstfruits : and if at that 
time one should not bring them along with him when he 
comes to the feast, he would be obliged to make another 
journey/' But now this is not to be understood of all trees, 
but of some only, which put forth their fruit about the time 
of the Passover, and have them ripe at the feast of Pente- 
cost. For thus Maimonides in the place cited : '^ If the 
council sees that there is not yet any green ear, and that 
the fruit of the trees which used to bud at the feast of the 
Passover is not yet budded [mark that, 'used to bud'], 
moved by these two causes, they intercalate the year." 
Among these the fig-tree can by no means be reckoned : 
for since, our Saviour being witness 'i, the putting forth of 
its leaves is a sign that summer is at hand, you could not 
expect any ripe figs, nay (according to the Talmudists), not 
so much as the putting out of leaves, before the Passover. 
When it is before said that Pentecost was the time of bring- 
ing the firstfruits, it must not be so understood as if the 
firstfruits of all trees were then to be brought, but that 
before Pentecost it was not lawful to bring any ; for thus 
it is provided for by a plain canon, " The firstfruits are not 
to be brought before Pentecost. The inhabitants of mount 
Zeboim brought theirs before Pentecost, but they did not 
receive them of them, because it is said in the law', ' And 

^ Bab. Sanliedr. fol. 11. 2. [See h Matt. xxiv. 32. 
Buxtorf Lex. T. & R., sub. v. ncipn, ' Exod. xxiii. 16. Biccurim, cap. i. 

col. 2003.] hal. 13. 

? Kiddush Ho.desh. cap. 4. 



Ch. xxi. 19.] Exercitations upon St.Mattheio. 279 

the feast of harvest, the firstfruit of thy labours which thou 
hast sown in thy field.' " 

II. There are several kinds of figs mentioned in the Tal- 
mudists besides these common ones ; namely, figs of a better 
sort, which grew in gardens and paradises : i . prT'tZ) shithin. 
Concerning which the tract Demai \ prT^U? "ifc^mnC? yhpTl 
1^1 that is, among those things which were accounted to 
deserve lesser care, and among those things which were 
doubtful as to tithing, were ^TT^tZ? shithin : which the 
Glosser tells us were nV^11?2 ''^t^n wild Jigs. 2. There is 
mention also in the same place of TTOp^ JIIIQ which, as 
some will have it, was a fig mixed loith a plane-tree, ^D^^]1 
: jl^li^n riD"n^ 3. But among all those kinds of figs, they 
were memorable which were called nit^DlD ; and they yet 
more, which were called mil? Hl^l ; which, unless I mistake, 
make to our purpose : not that they were more noble than 
the rest, but their manner of bearing fruit was more unusual. 
There is mention of these in Sheviith ^, in these words, 111133, 

n^l'^ "27 nitDIi^ We will render the words in the paraphrase 
of the Glossers : " HltD ni22 are white figs, and mt^DIQ 
are also a kind of fig : the seventh year" (that is, the year of 
release) " is to those the second ^^ (viz. of the seven years 
following) ; " to these, the going out of the seventh. niDD, 
nitl7 put forth fruit every year, but it is ripe only every third 
year : so that on that tree every year one might see three 
sorts of fruit, namely, of the present year, of the past, and of 
the year before that. Thus the Jlli^D^lD bring forth ripe 
fruit in two years,^' &c. 

Concerning T^VD m^l thus the Jerusalem Gemara : " Do 
they bear fruit every year, or once in three years I They 
bear fruit every year ; but the fruit is not ripe till the third 
year. But how ^ may one know which is the fruit of each 
year ? R. Jona saith, ' By the threads that hang to them.' 
The tradition of Samuel, ' He makes little strings hang to 
it,'" &c. 

III. The fruit of very many trees hung upon them all 

^ Cap. I. hal. I. 1 Cap. 5. hal. i. 

"" English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 227. 



-80 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxi. 19. 

the winter, by the mildness of the weather, if they were not 
gathered or shaken off by the wind : nay, they ripened in 
winter. Hence came those cautions about tithing : " The ^ 
tree which puts forth its fruit before the beginning of the 
year of the world" [that is, before the beginning of the 
month Tisri, in which month the world was cieated], '^ must 
be tithed for the year past : but if after the beginning of 
the world, then it must be tithed for the year coming on. 
R. Judan Bar Philia answered before R. Jonah, ' Behold the 
tree Charob puts forth its fruit before the beginning of the 
world, and yet it is tithed for the year following.' R. Jissa 
saith, • If it puts forth a third part before the year of the 
world, it must be tithed for the year past ; but if after, then 
for the year following." R. Zeira answers before R. Jissa 
' Sometimes palm-trees do not bring forth part of their fruit 
till after the beginning of the year of the world ; and yet 
they must be tithed for the year before.' Samuel Bar Abba 
saith, ' If it putso forth the third part of its fruit before the 
fifteenth day of the month Shebat, it is to be tithed for the 
year past ; if after the fifteenth day of the month Shebat, 
for the year to come.' " Hence that axiom in Rosh Hasha- 
nah, " The p first day of the month Shebat is the beginning 
of the year for trees, according to the school of Shammai ; 
but, according to that of Hillel, the fifteenth day." 

Howevei', fig-trees were not among those trees that put 
forth their fruit after the beginning of Tisri ; for you have 
s^een before, out of the Tahnudists, that they used to put 
forth their leaves in the month Nisan : and that their fruit 
used to be ripe in thrice fifty days after this. Yet, perhaps, 
it may be objected about them, what we meet with i;i the 
Jerusalem Geniara, at the place before cited : " One gathers 
figs (say they), and knows not at what time they were put 
forth" (and thereby is at a loss for what year to tithe them). 
" R. Jonah saith, ' Let him reckon a hundred days back- 
wards ; and if the fifteenth day of the month Shebat falls 
within that number, then he may know when they were put 
forth.' " But this must be understood of figs of a particular 
sort, which do not grow after the usual manner, which is 

" Jems. Sheviith, fol. 35. 4. " Leusdcns edition, vol. ii. p. 353. 

P Cap. 1. hal. I. 



Ch. xxi. 1 9.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 281 

plain also from that which follows ; for, " they say to him, 
' With you at Tiberias there are fig-trees that bear fruit 
in one year :' to which he answers, " Behold, with you at 
Zippor there are trees that bear fruit in two years.' " Con- 
cerning common fig-trees, their ordinary time of putting out 
green figs was sufficiently known ; as also the year of tithing 
them : but concerning those trees of another sort, which had 
ripe fruit only in two or three years, it is no wonder if they 
were at a loss in both. 

IV. Christ, therefore, came to the tree seeking fruit on it, 
although the ordinary time of figs was not yet ; because it 
was very probable that some fruit might be found there. Of 
the present year, indeed, he neither expected nor could 
expect any fruit, when it was so far from being the time of 
Jigs, Kaipos (TVKOiv, that it was almost five months off: and it 
may be doubted whether it had yet so much as any leaves 
of the present year. It was now the month Nisan, and that 
month was the time of the first putting out of leaves ; so 
that if the buds of the leaves had just peeped forth, they 
were so tender, small, and scarce worth the name of leaves 
(for it was but the eleventh day of the month), that to expect 
figs of the same year with those leaves had not been only 
in vain, but ridiculous. Those words seem to denote some- 
thing peculiar, e^ovcrav (fjvKXa, hamng leaves ; as if the other 
trees thereabout had been without leaves, or, at least, had 
not such leaves as promised figs. JNIark seems to give the 
reason why he came rather to that tree than to any other ; 
namely, because he saw leaves on it, and thereby hoped to 
find figs. " For when he saw (saith he) a fig tree afar off 
having leaves, he came, if haply he might find any thing 
thereon." From the leaves he had hopes of figs : these, 
therefore, certainly were not the leaves of the present spring, 
for those were hardly so much as in being yet : but they 
were either the leaves of the year past, that had hung upon 
the tree all winter ; or else this tree was of that kind which 
had figs and leaves together hanging on it for two or three 
years before the fruit grew ripe. And I rather approve of 
this latter sense, which both renders the matter itself more 
clear, and better solves the difficulties that arise from the 
words of Mark. This tree, it seems, had leaves which pro- 



282 Hehreiv and Talmudical [Ch. xxi. 2 t . 

mised fruit, and others had not so ; whereas, had they all 
been of the same kind, it is likely they would all have had 
leaves after the same manner. But when others had lost all 
their leaves of the former year by winds and the winter, and 
those of the present year were not as yet come out, this kept 
its leaves, according to its nature and kind, both summer and 
winter. St. Mark, therefore, in that clause, which chiefly 
perplexes interpreters, ov yap rjv Katpos (rvKOif, for the time of 
figs was not yet, doth not strictly and only give the reason 
why he found no figs, but gives the reason of the whole 
action ; namely, why on that mountain which abounded with 
fig trees he saw but one that had such leaves ; and being 
at a great distance when he saw it, he went to it, expecting 
figs only from it. The reason, saith he, was this, " Because 
it was not the usual time of figs :" for had it been so, he 
might have gathered figs from the trees about him ; but 
since it was^ not, all his expectation was from this, which 
seemed to be the kind of flli^D'^D or TTCyj T^Xily which never 
wanted leaves or figs. For to take an instance in the tree 
TW^ ty^y^. \ That tree (suppose) bore figs such a summer, 
which hung upon the boughs all the following winter ; it 
bore others also next summer ; and those, together with the 
former, hung on the boughs all this winter too : the third 
summer it bore a third degree, and this summer brought 
those of the first bearing to ripeness, and so onwards con- 
tinually ; so that it was no time to be found without fruit of 
several years. It is less, therefore, to be wondered at, if 
that which promised so much fruitfulness by its looks, that 
one might have expected from it at least the fruit of two 
years, did so far deceive the hopes it had raised, as not to 
afford one fig ; if that, I say, should suffer a just punishment 
from our Lord, whom it had so much, in appearance, disap- 
pointed : an emblem of the punishment that was to be in- 
flicted upon the Jews for their spiritual barrenness and 
hypocrisy. 

Ver. 21 : Kav rw opet rovrw etTrrjre, " kpOrjTi Kal pXi]dr}Ti cts 
Ti]v ddXacraav, y€vi](TeTai.- But if ye shall say unto this mountain, 
Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea ; it shall he done.^ 

1 English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 228. 



Oh. xxi.33> 35-] Exercitaiions upon St. Matthew. 283 

This is a hyperbolical way of speaking, taken from the common 
language of the schools of the Jews, and designed»' after a 
manner for their refutation. Such a hyperbole concerning 
this very movintain you have Zech. xiv. 4. 

The Jews used to set out those teachers among them, that 
were more eminent for the profoundness of their learning, or 
the splendour of their virtues, by such expressions as this ; 
D'^'^n ^p^V ^51(1 He is a rooter up (or a remover) of moun- 
tains. " Rabh^ Joseph is Sinai, and Eabbah is a rooter up of 
mountains.'" The Gloss ; " They called Rabh Joseph Sinai, 
because he was very skilful in clearing of difficulties ; and 
Eabbah Bar Nachmani, A rooter up of mountains., because 
he had a piercing judgment." " Eabba* said, I am like Ben 
Azzai in the streets of Tiberias."" The Gloss ; " Like Ben 
Azzai, who taught profoundly in the streets of Tiberias ; nor 
was there in his days irTiD^ D'^'lll "^pli^ such another 7'ooter 
up of mountains as lie^ " He ^ saw Resh Lachish in the 
school, as if he were plucJcing up mountains and grinding them 
one upon another." 

The same expression with which they sillily and flatteringly 
extolled the learning and virtue of their men, Christ deserv- 
edly useth to set forth the power of faith, as able to do 
all things, Mark ix. 23. 

Ver. 33: 'E^wevcrey a/xTreXwra" Planted a vineyard.^ Con- 
cerning vines and their husbandry see Kilaim'^, where there 
is a large discourse of the beds of a vineyard, the orders of 
the vines, of the measure of the winepress, of the hedge, of 
the trenches, of the void space, of the places within the hedge 
which were free from vines, whether they were to be sown or 
not to be sown, &c. 

Ver. 35 : "ESefpay, heat ; aireKTeivav, killed ; kXido^oXxjcrav, 
stoned.^ There seems to be an allusion to the punishments 
and manners of death in the council : t . "Eheipav, which pro- 
perly signifies i\\e flaying off of the skin., is not amiss rendered 
by interpreters heat ; and the word seems to relate to lohip- 
ping, where forty stripes save one did miserably flai/ off the 
skin of the poor man. See what the word 2S^D properly 

r Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 354. " Id. Sanliedr. fol. 24. i. 
s Bab. Beracoth, fol. 64. i. •'^ Cap. 4, 5, 6, and 7, 

t Id. Erubhin, fol. 29. i. 



284 Hebreiv and Talmiulical [Ch. xxi. 38, &c. 

means in that very usual phrase, expressing this whipping 
D''X^l"^^rT ty^ y^TO heatenwith forty stripes. 2. ^A-niKTuvav, 
killed, signifies a death by the sword, as X^T\ doth in the 
Sanhedrim; T\r\ HD'^'ltD H^'^pD "m^ l-^D?^: nin^?3 S 
p^m Four kinds of death are delivered to the Sanhedrim., 
stoning., burning, killing, and strangling^ . 

Ver. 38^: OSro? k(TTiv 6 KXrjpovoixos, &c. This is the heir, 
Sfc] Compare this verse with John xi. 48 ; and it seems to 
hint, that the rulers of the Jews acknowledged among them- 
selves that Christ was the Messias ; but being strangely 
transported beside their senses, they put him to death ; lest, 
bringing in another worship and another people, he should 
either destroy or suppress their worship and themselves. 

Ver. 44 : Kat 6 Tx^aiov eirl tov XCOov tovtov, avvOXaaOrio-eTai, 
Sic. And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall he broken, <§"«.] 
Here is a plain allusion to the manner of stoning, concerning 
which thus Sanhedrin ^ : '' The place of stoning was twice as 
high as a man. From the top of this, one of the witnesses 
striking him on his loins felled him to the ground : if he 
died of this, well ; if not, the other witness threw a stone 
upon his heart," &c. " R. Simeon b Ben Eleazar saith, 
There was a stone there as much as two could carry : this 
they threw upon his heart." 

CHAP. xxn. 

Ver. 9 : Ilopewecr^e kill ras hi^^ohovs tu>v obHv, &c. Go ye 
into the highways, tS'c.] That is, ' Bring in hither the travel- 
lers.' "Whaf^ is the order of sitting down to meat? The 
travellers come in and sit down upon benches or chairs, till 
all are come that were invited." The Gloss ; " It was a 
custom among rich men to invite poor travellers to feasts." 

Ver. 1 6 : Mera rSiv 'Hpctibiavcov' With the Herodians.^ 
Many things are conjectured concerning the Herodians. I 
make a judgment of them from that history which is pro- 
duced by the author Juchasin'^, speaking of Hillel and Sham- 
mai. " Heretofore (saith he) Hillel and Menahem were 
(heads of the council); but Menahem withdrew into the 

y Sanhedr. cap. 7. hal. x. ^ Bab. Gemara. 

2 English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 229. *= Bab. Beracoth, fol. 43. i. 

a Cap. 6. hal. 4. <i Fol. 19. i. 



Ch. xxii. 20.] Ease rciiat ions upon St. Matthew. 285 

family of Herod, together with eighty men bravely clad/' 
These, and such as these, I suppose were called Heroclians, 
who partly got into the court, and partly were of the faction 
both of the father and son. With how great opposition of 
the generality of the Jewish people Herod ascended and 
kept the throne, we have obsei'ved before. There were some 
that obstinately resisted him ; others that as much defended 
him : to these was deservedly given the title of Herodians ; 
as endeavouring with all their might to settle the kingdom in 
his family : and they, it eeems, were of the Sadducean faith 
and doctrine ; and it is likely had leavened Herod, who was 
now tetrarch, with the same principles. For (as we noted 
before) ' the leaven of the Sadducees' in Matthew ^, is in 
Markf ' the leaven of Herod.' And it was craftily con- 
trived on both sides that they might be a mutual establish- 
ment to one another, they to his kingdom, and he to their 
doctrine. When I read of Manaera or Menahem &, the 
foster-brother of Herod the tetrarch *^, it readily brings to 
my mind the name and story before mentioned of Menahem, 
who carried over with him so many eminent persons to the 
court of Herod. 

Yer. 20': TiVos 7} ^IkIov avrt] koI ?} iinypaff)-)] ; Whose is this 
image and superscription .^] They endeavour by a pernicious 
subtilty to find out whether Christ were of the same opinion 
with Judas of Galilee. Which opinion those lewd disturbers 
of all things, whom Josephus brands everywhere under the 
name of zealots, had taken up ; stiffly denying obedience and 
tribute to a Roman prince ; because they persuaded them- 
selves and their followers that it was a sin to sr.bmit to a 
heathen government. What great calamities the outrageous 
fury of this conceit brought upon the people, both Josephus 
and the ruins of Jerusalem at this day testify. They chose 
Caesar before Christ ; and yet because they would neither 
have Csesar nor Christ, they remain sad monuments to all 
ages of the divine vengeance and their own madness. To 
this fury those frequent warnings of the apostles do relate, 
"That every one should submit himself to the higher powers'^." 

e Matt. xvi. 6. h Acts xiii. i. 

f Mark viii. 19. i English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 230. 

s Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 355. ^ Rom. xiii. i. i Pet. ii. 13, &c. 



286 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch, xxii. 23, 32. 

And the characters of these madmen, " they contemn domin- 
ions V and " they exalt themselves against every thing that 
is called God^." 

Christ answers the treachery of the question propounded, 
out of the very determinations of the schools", where this 
was taught, " Wheresoever the money of any king is current, 
there the inhabitants acknowledge that king for their lord." 
Hence is that of the Jerusalem Sanhedrin° : "Abigail said to 
David, ' What evil have I done, or my sons, or my cattle V 
He answered, 'Your husband vilifies my kingdom.' ' Are you 
then,' said she, ' a king V To which he, 'Did not Samuel anoint 
me for a king?" She repHed, : ^It^^ p?2T Ht^^Din X'^'W 
□"lip ' The money of our lord Saul as yet is current :"'"' that is, 
' Is not Saul to be accounted king, while his money is still 
received commonly by all V 

Ver. 23 : "^ahhovKoioi, o\ keyovres fxi] etvat avacnadiv' The 
Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection^ " TheP Sad- 
ducees cavil, and say, The cloud faileth and passeth away ; so 
he that goeth down to the grave doth not return," Just after 
the same rate of arguing as they use that deny infant bap- 
tism ; because, forsooth, in the law there is no express men- 
tion of the resurrection. Above, we suspected that the Sad- 
ducees were Herodians, that is to say, courtiers : but these 
here mentioned were of a more inferior sort. 

Ver. 32 : Ovk eorty 6 Qebs Geo? v^KpS>v God is not the God 
of the dead.] Read, if you please, the beginning of the chapter 
Chelekq, where you will observe with what arguments and 
inferences the Talmudists maintain ^12 G^Ht^Tl ry^'^TlPO 
rr^inn the restirrection of the dead out of the law ; namely, 
by a manner of arguing not unlike this of our Saviour's. We 
will produce only this one ; " R. Eliezer TJen R. Josi said. In 
this matter I accused the scribes of the Samaritans of false- 
hood, while they say, That the resurrection of the dead can- 
not be proved out of the law. I told them, You corrupt your 
law, and it is nothing which you carry about in your hands ; 
for you say, That the resurrection of the dead is not in the 
law, when it saith, ' That soul shall be utterly cut off; his 

1 3 Pet. ii. 10. Jud. ver. 8. «* Fol. 20. 2. 

"^ 2 Thess. ii. 4. ^ Tanchum, fol. 3. 1. 

» Maim, on Gezelah, cap. 5. 1 In Bab. Sanhedr. 



Ch. xxii. 32.] Exercitations ujpon St. Matthew. 287 

iniquity is upon him^.' ' Shall be utterly cut off;' namely, 
in this world. ' His iniquity is upon him:' when? Is it not 
in the world to come?" I have quoted this, rather than the 
others which are to be found in the same place ; because 
they seem here to tax the Samaritan text of corruption ; 
when, indeed, both the text and the version, as may easily 
be observed, agree very well with the Hebrew. When, 
therefore, the Rabbin saith, that they have corrupted their 
lava (□3il"^'in □n3'^''"5), he doth not so much deny the purity 
of the text, as reprove the vanity of the interpretation : as if 
he had said, " You interpret your law falsely, when you do 
not infer the resurrection from those words which speak it 
so plainly." 

With the present argument of our Saviour compare, first, 
those things which are said by K. Tanchum^ : " R. Simeon 
Ben Jochai saith, God, holy and blessed, doth not join his 
name to holy men while they live, but only after their 
death; as it is said, 'To' the saints that are in the earth.' 
When are they saints I When they are laid in the earth ; for 
while they live, God doth not join his name to them ; because 
he is not sure but that some evil affection may lead them 
astray : but when they are dead, then he joins his name to 
them. But we find that God joined his name to Isaac while 
he was living : ' I am the God of Abraham and i\\e^ God of 
Isaac X.' The Rabbins answer. He looked on his dust as if it 
were gathered upon the altar. R. Berachiah said. Since he 
became blind, he was in a manner dead." See also R. INlena- 
hem on the Lawx. 

Compare also those words of the Jerusalem Gemara^ : '' The 
righteous, even in death, are said to live; and the wicked, 
even in life, are said to be dead. But how is it proved that 
the wicked, even in life, are said to be dead ? From that 
place where it is said, TS^T] rt\iy3. yiSn^jJ 'is7 I have no 
delight in the death of the dead. Is he already dead, that is 
already here called r\t2 dead ? And whence is it proved that 
the righteous, even in death, are said to live ? From that 
passage, ' And* he said to him, This is the land, concerning 

' Numb. XV. 31. * Gen. xxviii. 13. 

s Fol. 13. 3. y Fol. 62. r. 

t Psal. xvi. 3. ^ Berac. fol. 5. 4. 
" English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 231. 



288 Hebrew and Talnmdical [Ch. xxii. 35. 

which I svvare to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob,' "I^Db^T*- 
What is the meaning of the word "^T2^^7 ? He saith to him, 
Go and tell the fathers, whatsoever I promised to you, I have 
performed to your children." 

The opinion of the Babylonians'^ is the same; " The living 
know that they shall die. They are righteous who, in their 
death, are said to live : as it is said, ' And Benaiah, the son of 
Jehoiada, the son of '^H U?''^^ a living man,'' [The son of a valiant 
man. A. V. 3 Sam. xxiii. 20.]" &c. And a little after; "The 
dead know nothing : They are the wicked who, even in their 
life, are called dead, as it is said, «""U}:] i?^l ^^H T^T^^^ 
J T'i^liZ?"' And t/iou, dead wicked 2^'^i'^^c^ of Israel." The word 
V TTf, which is commonly rendered profane in this place, they 
render it also in a sense very usual, namely, for one wounded 
or dead. 

There are, further, divers stories alleged^, by which they 
prove that the dead so far live, that they understand many 
things which are done here ; and that some have spoke after 
death, &c. 

Ver. 7^c^^ : Eh e£ avrwv yo/xt/co'?.] Si distinguendum sit inter 
ypajjiixaTia et voyLiKov, ut alius sit hie ab illo, voixikoX sunto illi, 
qui ipsum tcxtum legis explicarunt, et non traditiones. 
D"^2^m, non D'SJin. Exempla sumamus ex hac historia. 

Rabbi Judah transiit per oppidum Simoniam, et Simoni- 
enses prodierunt ei obviam, et dixerunt ei. Rabbi, prsebe 
nobis virume aliquem prselecturum nobis, hevrepovvTa nobis, 
et judicaturum nobis judicia nostra. Dedit iis R. Levi Ben 
Susi. Struxerunt ei suggestum magnum, atque ilium in eo 
collocarunt. Proposuerunt ei quasstiones [ex Deut. xxv. 9. 
exeitatas] niiT'in '^^^TI n?2)l'' HD'^^ Si truncata manibus 
sit frairia, qiiomodo detrahendus per earn est calceus leviri ? 
in?2 □"! T^pp'^ Si consputet sanguinem ; quid turn ? [Quse- 
stiones profunda, et quae CEdipum aliquem traditionarium, 
eumque Q^^diposissimum, requirerent.] " Quibus cum ille 
nihil haberet quod responderet, dixerunt, 13, Tch h^D7T 
i^in ni^t^ "^1 tDv*l^^ Forte ille non est doctor traditionum, 

^ Leusden's edit., vol. ii. I). ^^6. quopdam Horarum Hebraicarum et 

^ Berac. fol. 18. i. Talmudicarum loca." Leusden's 

^ Ibid. col. 2. edition, vol. iii. p. toi. 
'i See " Paiica interserenda in ^ Leusden's edit., vol. iii. p. 102. 



Ch. xxiii. 2.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 289 

sed doctor explicationis. Proponunt ergo ei textum [ex Dan. 
X, 2 1.] explicandum." 

Sub hac classe ordinare licet expHcationes istas, quse vulgo 
vocantur Rahhoth. In quibus traditionum quidem parum, 
ast Glossemata in textum varia, atque ut plurimum vafra 
satis. 

In hisce Oommentariis occurrit infinitis vicibus hsec phrasi- 
ologia, nnQ S Rahbi N. aperuit. Scio vocem nPO reddi 
posse incepit. Cui opponitur Dnn Finiit : ast reddo Aperuit., 
partim ex ipsa rei memoratse evidentia, et partim ex verbis 
liisce Magistrorum : *' «"^p ^«nS ^^nnS pHniD p321 Rah- 
Jj'ini apcr'umt apertionem (vel ostium) huic Scriptur<s. Prae- 
varicati sunt contra Dominum. Nam filios alienos genue- 
runt; jam devorabit mensis eos et portiones eoi'um. [Hos. 
V. 7.] Ad docendum, quod cum mortuus esset Josephus, 
inane reddiderunt t'oedus circumcisionis, et dixerunt, Erimus 
sicut vEgyptii. Unde discis, quod Moses circumcidit eos, cum 
egrederentur. Quod cum fecisset, immutavit Deus amorem, 

quo eos amaverant iEgyptii, in odium Ad implen- 

dum illud quod dicitur, Devorabit eos mensis cum portionibus 
suisS. 

Et ubicunque de aliquo dicitur, quod nnD (quod dicitur 
infinities) Rabbinus iste in manus sumit aliquem textum 
Scriptur.ie, et aut verba ejus explicat, aut sensum applicat, 
aut utrumque. Exempla sunt innumera : pi'sesertim in l^ere- 
shith Rabba, atque in introductione ista ad Midras Echa, 
quam vocant ''D'^iDni t^nnriD ApertioneSy vel Explicalioms 
Sapietduni. 

Illos ergo, qui sese explicandis Scripturis addixerunt hoc 
modo, vofxLKov9 ego dici arbitror, ut distinctos ab iis, qui ope- 
ram dederunt docendis atque illustrandis traditionibus. 

CHAP. XXIII. 

Vfr. 2 : 'Em tt/s Mcoo-eo)? KaO^bpas, &c. In Moses'' seat, Sfc.'\ 
This is to be understood rather of the legislative seat (or chair), 
than of the merely doctrinal: and Christ here asserts the au- 
thority of the magistrate, and persuadeth to obey him in law- 
ful things. 

f Shenioth Rabba, sect. i. s Vid. Bemidb. Rab. fol. 257.3. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. U 



290 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxiii. 4. 

Concerning the chairs of the Sanhedrim there is mention 
made in Bab. Succah^^ : " There were at Alexandria seventy- 
one golden chairs, according to the number of the seventy-one 
elders of the great council/^ Concerning the authority of 
Moses and his vicegerent in the council, there is also men- 
tion in Sanhedrim'^ : " The great council consisted of seventy- 
one elders. But whence was this number derived ? From 
that place where it is said, ' Choose me out seventy men of 
the elders of Israel : and Moses was president over them/ 
Behold seventy-one ! " 

What is here observed by Galatinus from the signification 
of the aorist kmOicxav, sat, is too light and airy : " He saith, 
They sat (saith he), and not, They sit, that he might plainly 
demonstrate, that their power was then ceased J." But if we 
would be so curious to gather any thing from this aorist, 
we might very well transfer it to this sense rather : " The 
scribes and Pharisees, the worst of men, have long usurped 
Moses''s seat ; nevertheless, we ought to obey them, because, 
by the dispensation of the divine providence, they bear the 
chief magistracy." 

Concerning their authority., thus Maimonides'^ : " The great 
council of Jerusalem was T^T^i^T "^p^V (orvAos koX edpalwjxa, 
the^ pillar and ground) the ground of the traditional law, and 
the ^nllar of doctrine : whence proceeded statutes and judg- 
ments for all Israel. And concerning them the law asserts 
this very thing, saying, ' According ^ to the sentence of the 
law which they shall teach thee.' Whosoever, therefore, be- 
lieves Moses our master and his law, is bound to rely upon 
them for the things of the law." 

Christ teacheth, that they were not to be esteemed as ora- 
cles, but as magistrates. 

Ver. 4 : <i>opTLa /Bapea' Heavy burdens.'] "''^DIFT, in the Tal- 

mudic language. Hence"* 11^)1 'YID'^^ ci heavy prohibition ; 

'y^l^Tyan ^"^nt^ 'ibin Let^ Mm follow him that imposeth 

heavy things. There are reckoned up four-and-twenty things 

ty '"2. ^h^yp^ n '1 ''l?^inT2 of the imighty things of the school 



'1 Fol. 51. 2. 1 See i Tim. iii. 15. 

* Cap. I. hal. 6. m Deut. xvii. 11. 

J Cap. 6. book 4. » Jerus. Rosh hashanah, fol. 56. 4. 

^ In Mamrim, cap. i. " Maim, in Mamr, cap. t. 



Oh. xxiii. 3.] Exercitations upon St. BlaUheiv. 291 

of Hillel, and the light things of that of Shammai P. " R. Joshua 
saithfJ, A fooh'sh religious man, DIIV' 5^tZ}"1 a crafty toicJced 
man, a she-pharisee, and the vokmtary dashing of the Pha- 
risees, destroy the world." It is disputed by the Gemarists, 
who is that XTT^)) V'^"\ crafty wicked man : and it is answered 
by some, " He that prescribes light things to himself, and 
heavy to others." 

Ver. 5 : MkaTvvovai h\ to. cj)v\aKT/]pia avToiv' They make broad 
their phylacteries.^ These four places of the law, 

Exod. xiii. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 

Exod. xiii. 1 1, 12, i^., 14, 15, 16. 

Deut. vi. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 

Deut. xi. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 ; 
being writ upon two parchment labels (which they called 
p7Qn tephillin'^), were carried about with them constantly 
with great devotion, being fastened to their forehead and 
their left arm. To the forehead, in that place <^ 7li? IPIIT^U? 
?iDTl p13^n ichere the pulse of an infanfs brain is. This of 
the forehead was most conspicuous, and made broad: hence 
came that", " Let nobody pass by the synagogue while prayers 
are saying there. — But if he hath phylacteries upon his head, 
he may pass by, because they show that he is studious of 
the law." — " It is not lawful to walk through burying-places 
with phylacteries on one"'s head, and the book of the law 
hanging at one's arm"." 

They are called in Greek phylacteries, that is, observatories ; 
because they were to put them in mind of the law ; and per- 
haps they were also called preservatories, because they were 
supposed to have some virtue in them to drive away devils : 
" It is necessary that the phylacteries should be repeated at 

home a-nights, "?ipi"{?2n Hi^ r!"^"l!2nS ^'^lU^^ ^^ drive away 
devilsv.'' 

Concerning^ the curious writing of the phylacteries, see 

P Jenis. Jom Tobh, fol. 60. 2. and « Maimon. on Tephillah, cap. 8. 
hotah fol. 19. 2. -^ Bab. Berac. fol. 18. I. 

" Ir ;■ ?£• ?• ,•■ *• , - ^ Jerus. Berac. fol. 2. 4. Pisk in 

' Lnglish folio edit., vol. u. p. 232. Berac. cap. i . art. 6. Rabben. Asher. 

s [See more in Buxtorf Lex. ibid. cap. i. col. i. 
T.& R. sub V. n|sn col. 1743.] ^- Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 

* Bab. Taanith, fol. 16. i. in the 357- 
Gloss. 

V 2 



292 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxiii.y. 

Maimonides on Tephillm^. Concerning their strings, marked 
with certain small letters, see Tosaphoth on Megillah^. Con- 
cerning tiie repeating of them, see both the Talmuds in 
Beracoth^. How the Jews did swear touching their phy- 
lacteries, see Maimonides in Shevuoth ^ : and how God is 
brought in swearing by the fhylacteries^ see Tanchum^. 

Our Saviour does not so much condemn the bare wearing 
of them, as the doing it out of pride and hypocrisy. It is not 
unlikely that he wore them himself, according to the custom 
of the country : for the children of the Jews were to be 
brought up from their infancy in saying the phylacteries ; that 
is, as soon as they were capable of being catechised^. The 
scribes and Pharisees made theirs very hroad and visible, that 
they might obtain a proportional fame and esteem for their 
devotion with the people ; these things being looked upon as 
arguments of the study of the law, and signs of devotion. 

MeyaXuvoutTi ra /cpdo-TieSa rwy [[xaTuov avroov Enlarge the 
borders of their garments.] See Numb. xv. 38 ; Dent. xxii. 12. 
— "He^ that takes care of the candle of the sabbath, his 
children shall be the disciples of wise men. He that takes 
care to stick up labels against the posts shall obtain a glo- 
rious house ; and he that takes care of the rT'Ji'^!?, of making 
borders to his garment, shall obtain a good coat." 

Ver. 7 : Kat KaXelaOat 'Pa/3/3t, 'Valijii. And to be called 
Rabbi, Rabbi.'] I. Concerning the original of this title, see 
Aruchs: "The elder times, which were more worthy, had no 
need of the title either of Rabban, or Rabbi, or Rabh, to adorn 
either the wise men of Babylon or the wise men of the land 
of Israel : for, behold, Hillel comes up out of Babylon, and 
the title of Rabbi is not added to his name : and thus it was 
with those who were noble among the prophets; for he saith, 
Haggai the prophet [not Rabbi Haggai]. Ezra did not come 
up out of Babylon, &c. [not Rabbi Ezra] ; whom they did not 
honour with the titles of Rabbi when they spoke their names. 
And we have heard that this had its beginning only in the 
presidents [of the council] from Rabban Gamaliel the old 
man, and Rabban Simeon his son, who perished in the de- 

2 Cap. T. 2. * Fol. 26. 2. ^ Berac. fol. 22. i. in the Gloss, 

b Cap. I. 2, 3. ' Bab. Schabb. fol. 23. 2. 

c Cap. II. ^ Fol. 6. 3. p: In the word "'>:2«. 



Ijh. xxiii. 7.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 293 

struction of the second Temple : and from Rabban Jochanan 
Ben Zaccai, who were all presidents. And the title also of 
Rahbi began from those that were promoted [to be elders] 
from that time, Rahbi Zadok, and R. Eliezer Ben Jacob : and 
the thing went forth from the disciples of Rabban Jochanan 
Ben Zaccai, and onwards. Now the order, as all men use it, 
is this : Rahbi is greater than Rabh, and Rabban is greater 
than Rabbi; and he is greater who is called by his own 
(single) name, than he who is called Rabban." 

That'i this haughty title of Rahbi was not in use before 
the times of Hillel sufficiently appears from thence, that the 
doctors before that were called by their plain names, and 
knew nothing of this title. Antigonus Socheus, Shemaiah 
and Abtalion, Gebihah Ben Pesisa, Oalba Savua, Admon and 
Hanan, Hillel and Shammai, and many others, whose names 
we meet with in the Jewish story. Yet you shall find these, 
that were more ancient, sometimes officiously honoured by 
the writers of their nation with this title, which they them- 
selves were strangers to. They feign' that king Jehoshaphat 
thus called the learned men : " When he saw (say they) a 
disciple of the wise men, he rose up out of his throne and 
embraced him, and kissed him, and called him ''2i>5 "^Hi^ 
no "'no ''11 ^ni Father, Father, Rabbi, Rabbi, Lord, 
Lord.'' And Joshua Ben Perachia^^ is called Rabbi Joshua. 
■^11^ ''Ifc^ "'D.l are here rendered Rahbi in the eighth verse ; 
'father,' in the ninth ; and ' master,'' KaQi)yr]rj]s, in the tenth. 
We do not too nicely examine the precise time when this 
title began ; be sure it did not commence before the schism 
arose between the schools of Shammai and Hillel : and from 
that schism, perhaps, it had its beginning. 

II. It was customary, and they loved it, to be saluted with 
this honourable title, notwithstanding the dissembled axiom 
among them, mimrr Mt^ ^W^ T^l^^h^n n« nin^^ Love 
the worh, hut hate the title^. 

I. Disciples were thus taught to salute their masters'^ : " R. 
Eliezer saith, 11"^ '^lint^ S^DM^Dn he that pray eth behind the 

hack of his master, y^rh □I'^ii? "innTDni ^'^'h uhD \p^T\'^ 

•» English folio edition, vol. ii. p. k Sanhedr. fol. 107. 3. 
233. 1 Maim, on Talin. Tor. c. 3. 

» Bab. Maccoth, fol. 24. i. "i Bab. Berac. fol. 27. i. 



294 Hebrew and Tahnudical [Ch. xxiii. 14. 

and he that salutes his master, — or returns a salute to his master, — 
and he that makes himself a separatist from the school of 
his master, — and he that teaelies any thing, which he hath 
not heard from his master, — he provokes tlie Divine Majesty 
to depart from Israel." The Glossers on theye words, ' He 
that salutes, or returns a salute to his master,'' thus com- 
ment ; "he that salutes his master in the same form of words 
that he salutes other men, and doth not say to him, D1 7^17 
^Hl y°7V God save you, Babhi^\'^ It is reported also,, that^ 
the council excommunicated certain persons four and twenty 
times, m Tsy^ hv for the honour of master ; that is, for not 
having given due honour to the Rabhins. 

2. The masters saluted one another so. "R. AkibahP 
said to R. Eleazar, Rahbi, Rabbi." — " R. Eleazarq Ben"^ 
Simeon, of Magdal Gedor, came from the house of his master, 
sitting upon an ass : he went forward along the bank of the 
river rejoicing greatly, and being very much pleased with 
himself, because he had learned so much of the law. There 
meets him a very defoi'med man, and said, ''H 'vhv DIT"^ 
Save you, Rabbi: he did not salute him again, but on the 
contrary said thus, ' Raca, how deformed is that man ! per- 
haps all your townsmen are as deformed as you.^ He an- 
swered, ' I know nothing of that, but go you to the workman 
that made me, and tell him, how deformed is this vessel which 
thou hast made!'" &c. And a little after, "when that de- 
formed man was come to his own town, his fellow citizens 
came out to meet him and said, •'^IT^ ^ni '•ll ^'hv Dl^t!? 
''"^^^ Save you, O Rabbi, Rabbi, master, master. He [R. 
Eleazar] saith to them, ' To whom do you say Rabbi, Rabbi ?' 
They answer, ' To him that followeth thee.' He replied, 
' If this be a Rabbi, let there not be many such in Israel.'" 

Ver. 13 : Karecr^tere ras olKtas tSivx^P^^' Ye devour widoios' 
houses.'] The scribes and Pharisees were ingerrtous enough 
for their own advantage. Hear one argument among many, 
forged upon the anvil of their covetousness, a little rudely 
drawn, but gainful enough : " The* Lord saith, ' Make me an 

" See also Hieros. Shevuoth, fol. 'i Bab. Taanith, fol. 2. 

34. I. •' Lensdens edit., vol.ii. p. 35S. 

o Id. ibid. fol. 19. I. s Bab. Joma, fol. 73. 2. 
P Jems. Moed Katon, fol. 81. i. 



Oh. xxiii. 14.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 295 

arkofshittimwood; nwvh p12Jn ^')^V ^22^" Tirh ]«5r2 
iriDt^^D 17 Hence it is decided (say they) i?i behalf of a dis- 
ciple of the wise men, that hisfelloio citizens are bound to per- 
form his servile work for him?^ — money, thou mistress of 
art and mother of wit ! So he that was preferred to be pre- 
sident of the council, was to be maintained and enriched by 
the council ! See the Gloss on Babylonian Taanitli^. 

They angled with a double hook among the people for re- 
spect, and by respect for gain. 

I. As doctors of the law : where they, first and above all 
things, instilled into their disciples and the common people, 
that a wise man, or a master, was to be respected above all 
mortal men whatsoever. Behold the rank and order of 
benches according to these judges i " A " wise man is to 
take place of a king ; a king of a high priest ; a high priest 
of a prophet ; a prophet of one anointed for war ; one 
anointed for war of a president of the courses ; a president 
of the courses of the head of a family ; the head of a family 
of a counsellor ; a counsellor of a treasurer ; a treasurer of 
a private priest ; a private priest of a Levite ; a Levite of 
an Israelite ; an Israelite of a bastard ; a bastard of a Ne- 
thinim ; a Nethinim of a proselyte ; a proselyte of a freed 
slave. But when is this to be ? namely, when they are alike 
as to other things : but, indeed, if a bastard be a disciple, or 
a wise man, and the high priest be unlearned, the bastard is 
to take place of him. A wise man is to be preferred before ^ 
a king : for if a wise man die, he hath not left his equal ; but 
if a king die, any Israelite is fit for a kingdom.^^ 

This last brings to my mind those words of Ignatius the 
martyr, if indeed they are his, in his tenth epistle, Tt/txa, (Prjalv, 
vie, Tov Qebv, &c. : " il/y son, saith he^ honour God and the 
king : but I say, ' Honour God as the cause and Lord of all : 
the bishop as the chief priest, bearing the image of God ; in 
respect of his rule bearing God's image, in respect of his 
priestly office, Christ's ; and, after him, we ought to honour 
the king also.' " 

II. Under a pretence of mighty devotion, but especially 
under the goodly show of long prayers, they so drew over 

t Fol. 21. I. » Jerus. Horaiotli, fol. 84. 2. 

^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 234. 



296 Hebrew and Talmudical [Cli. xxiii. 15. 

the minds of devout persons to them, especially of women, 
and among them of the richer widows, that by subtle at- 
tractives they either drew out or wrested away their goods 
and estates. Nor did they want nets of counterfeit autho- 
rity, when from the chair they pronounced, according to 
their pleasures, of the dowry and estate befalling a widow, 
and assumed to themselves the power of determining concern- 
ing those things. Of which matter, as it is perplexed with 
infinite difficulties and quirks, you may read, if you have 
leisure, the treatises Jetamoth^ Cheiuhoth, and Gitiin. 

Concerning the length of their prayers, it may suffice to 
produce the words of the Babylon Gemara in BcracothY : 
" The religious anciently used to tarry an hour [meditating 
before they began their prayers] : whence was this 1 R. Joshua 
Ben Levi saith, ' It was because the Scriptui-e saith, "^"^.l^^?! 
';^n''!l "^Htpi"' Blessed are they icho sit in thy house' R. Joshua 
Ben Levi saith also, ' He that prays ought to tarry an hour 
after prayers : as it is said, The just shall praise thy name, 
T32"n« Q'"l9"; Xl^l the upright shall sit before thy face :' it 
is necessary, therefore, that he should stay [fnedUating] an 
hour before prayers, and an hour after ; and the religious 
anciently used to stay an hour before prayers, an hour they 
prayed, and an hour they stayed after prayers. Since, there- 
fore, they spent nine hours every day about their prayers, 
how did they perform the rest of the law ? and how did they 
take care of their worldly affairs? Why herein, in being re- 
ligious, both the law was performed, and their own business 
well provided for." And in the same place ^, " Long prayers 
make a long life." 

Ver. 15 : UoLrjaaL €va irpooriXvTov To maJce one j^roselyte.l 
The Talmudists truly speak very ill of proselytes : ^'Our* Rab- 
bins teach, n'^iuT^n D^ ]^2yj72 jiipii^-Q ovHrr^m cn:i 

that proselytes and Sodomites hinder the coining of the Blessias. 
nnCDi T'i^lIL'''' / □"'1^ Proselytes are as a scab to Israel. 
The Gloss ; " For this reason, that they were not skilled 
in the commandments, that they brought in revenge, and 
moreover, that the Israelites perchance may imitate their 
works," &c. 

y Fol, 32. 2. '^' Fol. 54. 2. a ]3a]^, Midclah, fol. 13.2. 



Ch. xxiii. 16.] Excrcitatlons upo7i St Matthew. 297 

Yet in making of these they used their utmost endeavours 
for the sake of their own gain, that they might some way or 
other drain their purses, after they had drawn them in 
under the show ^ of religion, or make some use or benefit 
to themselves by them. The same covetousness, therefore, 
under a veil of hypocrisy, in devouring widows' houses, which 
our Saviour had condemned in the former clause, he here also 
condemns in hunting after proselytes ; which the scribes and 
Pharisees were at all kind of pains to bring over to them. 
Not that they cared for proselytes, whom they accounted as 
" a scab and plague ;" but that the more they could draw 
over to their religion, the greater draught they should have 
for gain, and the more purses to fish in. These, therefore, 
being so proselyted, " they made doubly more the children 
of hell than themselves." For when they had drawn them 
into their net, having got their prey, they were no further 
concerned what became of them, so they got some benefit by 
them. They might perish in ignorance, superstition, atheism, 
and all kind of wickedness : this was no matter of concern 
to the scribes and Pharisees ; only let them remain in Ju- 
daism, that they might lord it over their consciences and 
purses. 

Ver. ]6 : 'Os 8' av o^iomj kv t<2 xpva<2 tov vaov, ocpiLKei, &c. : 
Whosoever shall sicear htj the cjold of the Temple, he is a debtor.^ 
These words agree in the same sense with those of the 
Corhan, chap, xv. 5. We must not understand the gold of 
the Temple here, of that gold which shined all about in the 
walls and ceilings ; but the gold here meant is that which 
was offered up in the Corhan. It w^as a common thing with 
them, and esteemed as nothing, to swear Htn pi^^H hy the 
Temple, and nit^^n hy the altar, which we have observed at 
the 31st verse of the fifth chapter: and therefore they 
thought themselves not much obliged by it ; but if they 
swore ]!r^p Corhan., they supposed they w^ere bound by an in- 
dispensable tie. For example : if any one should swear thus, 
' By the Temple, or, By the altar, my money, my cattle, my 
goods c shall not profit you;' it was lawful, nevertheless, for 
the swearer, if he pleased, to suffer them to be profited by 

^ Leusden^s edition, vol. ii. p. 359. 
^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 235. 



298 Hebrew and Tahimdical [Oh. xxlii. 23, 

these : but if he should swear thus, ' Corhan, my gold is for 
the Temple, Corhan, my cattle are for the altar/ this could 
noways be dispensed with. 

Ver. 23 : 'A7ro8eKaro{!re to i-jhvoafxov^ &c. : Ye pay tithe of 
mint.'] I. " This is the general rule about tithes ; whatsoever 
serves for food, whatsoever is kept [tJiat is, wJiich is not of 
common rtghf], and whatsoever grows out of the earth, shall 
be tithed d." 

II. According to the law, cattle, corn, and fruit were to 
be tithed : the way and measure of which, as the scribes 
teach, was this : " Of bread-corn that is thrashed and win- 
nowed, I . A fifth part is taken out for the priest ; this was 
called ^7'^l^ n?2T^r\ the great offering. 2. A tenth part of 
the remainder belonged to the Levite ; this was called "ItD^D 
tltUb^"^ the first tenth, or tithe. 3. A tenth part again was 
to be taken out of the remainder, and was to be eaten at 
Jerusalem, or else redeemed ; this was called "^yj^ ^WV^ the 
second tithe. 4. The Levite gives a tenth part out of his to 
the priest; this was called "IC^yon 1tZ}i^?2 the tithe of the 
tithe.'''' These are handled at large in Peah, Demui, Maase- 
roth, &c. 

III. pl"^1 p'V liri,*?^ The tithing of herbs is from the 
Rabhins^. This tithing was added by the scribes, and yet 
approved of by our Saviour, when he saith, " Ye ought not 
to have left these undone." Hear this, thou who opposest 
tithes. The tithing of herbs was only of ecclesiastical insti- 
tution, and yet it hath the authority of our Saviour to con- 
firm it, " Ye ought not to have left these things undone :" 
and that partly on account of the justice of the thing itself, 
and the agreeableness of it to law and reason, partly that it 
was commanded by the council sitting in Moses's chair, as it 
is, ver. 2. 

IV. To 7]bvo(TiJ.ov, mint : this is sometimes called by the 
Talmudistsf n3121il; and is reckoned among those things 
which come under the law of the seventh year. Where 
Rambnm saith, " In the Aruch it is i^tOJ''^ mznta.'''' It is 
called sometimes ^^JlD'^TD mintha : where R. Solomon writes, 
" In the Aruch it is t«5I0D'^?2 niinta in the mother tongue, 

f' Maaseroth, cap. i. lial. i. ^ Sheviitli, cap. i. hal. i. 

c Bab. Joma, fol. 83. 2. s Oketsim, cap. i. hal. 2. 



CIi. xxiii. 27.] Exercitaiions upon l^t.Mattlieic. 299 

and it hath a sweet smell; therefore they strew it in syna- 
gogues for the sake of its scent." 

To ai-i]9oi>, anise : in the Talmudists riltU'S where R. Solo- 
mon, " ptlW is a kind of herb, and is tithed, both as to the 
seed and herb itself." Rambam writes thus : " It is eaten 
raw after meat, and is not to be boiled ; while, therefore, it 
is not boiled, it comes under the law of tithing." The Gloss i 
r\2'^ " in the Roman language is anethum [anise], and is 
tithed, whether it be gathered green or ripe." 

To Kvjjiivoi', cummin ; with the Talmudists p?:^^. It is 
reckoned among things that are to be tithed i^. 

Ver. 27 : napo/zoidfere rd^ot? KeKoviaijJvot^' Ye are like 
uihited sepulchres.'] Sepulchres are distinguished by the mas- 
ters of the Jews into Dinil "^Ip a deep sepidchrc, which 
cannot be known to be a sepulchre ; ixvrnx^lov abrjXov, (/raves 
that appear not^j and 1^^)^'0 "l^p « painted sepidchre, such as 
were all those that were known, and to be seen. Our Saviour 
compares the Scribes and Pharisees to both ; to those, in the 
place of Luke last mentioned ; to these, in the place before 
us, each upon a different reason. 

Concerning the whitinp of sejndchres, there are these tra- 
ditions ^ : " In the fifteenth day of the month Adar they 
mend the ways, and the streets, and the common sewers, 
and perform those things that concern the public, 'j'^i'^"'!i?3l 
iTTl^pn P.N and they paint (or mark) the sepulchres.^^ The 
manner is described m Maasar Sheni^^ ; T^OI TSlp T^T''^'^12 
^Q'^^'^ nn^^ The^/ paint the sepulchres with chalk, tempered 
and infused in ivater. The Jerusalem Gemarists give the 
reason» of it in abundance of places : "■ Do they not mark 
the sepulchres (say they) before the month Adar? Yes, but 
it is supposed that the colours are wiped off. For what 
cause do they paint them so ? That this matter may be like 
the case of the leper. The leprous man crieth out, ' Unclean, 
unclean ;' and here, in like manner, uncleanness cries out to 
you and saith, ' Come not near.' " R. Ilia, in the name of 

'" Oketsim, cap. 3. hal. 4. m Shekalim, cap. i. hal. i. 

i Bab. Avodah Zarah, fol. 7. 2, " Caj). i. hal. i. 

^ Demai, cap. 2. hal. i. o Lcusdeu's edition, vol.ii. p. 360. 

1 Luke xi. 44. 



300 Hebrew and Talinudical [Ch. xxiii. 28. 

R. Samuel Bar Nachman, allegeth that of Ezekiel"; " If one 
passing through the land seeth a man's bone, he shall set up 
a burial sign by it°." 

The Glossers deliver both the reason and the manner of 
it thus : " From the fifteenth day of the month Adar they 
began their search ; and wheresoever they found a sepulchre 
whose whiting was washed off with the rain, they renewed 
it, that the unclean place might be discerned, and the priests 
who w^ere to eat the Trimiah might avoid it." Gloss on 
Shekalim, and again on Maasar Skeni : " They marked the 
sepulchres with chalk in the hkeness of bones ; and mixing 
it with water, they washed the sepulchre all about with it, 
that thereby all might know that the place was unclean, 
and therefore f to be avoided." Concerning this matter also, 
the Gloss q speaks ; " They made marks like bones on the 
sepulchres \\itli white chalk," &c. See the place. 

Ver. 28 : OiVco koI v/zeiy e^co^ey jjiev (paLveade rots avOpcairoLs 
bUaiOL, &c. J^oeu so t/e also outwardly appear righteous unto 
men.'] Such kind of hypocrites are called pi?13,!l distained\ 
or coloured. Jannai the king, when he was dying, warned his 
wife that she should take heed ptD"^C^ l^iniltZ? ]"'i?'a!^n yt2 
Vr\T^'2 "^iDr ^•'U^pn?^"! ^-^nt nm^^ p^IDyntZ; of painted 
men, pretending to be Pharisees^ tohose worJcs are as the ivorks of 
Zimri, and yet they expect the reward of Phineas. The Gloss 
is pi?12!i " Those painted men are those whose outward show 
doth not answer to their nature ; they are coloured without, 
D"^13 ]5ir\ l^'h? but their inward part doth not answer to their 
outward ; and their works are evil, like the works of Zimri ; 
but they require the reward of Phineas, saying to men, That 
they should honour them as much as Phineas." They had 
forgotten their own axiom, nn ]^« "l^ll^ i:nn ]^b^^ nn, A 
disciple of the wise, who is not the same within that he is loithout, 
is not a disciple of the wise ^. 

"Eo-cri^ey he /xeorot eore vTroKpLcr^bis «at avoixias' But within ye 
are full of hypocrisy and iniquity.'] The masters themselves 

" Ezek. xxxix. 15. P English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 236. 

" See Jerus. Maasar Sheni, fol. 1 Bab. Moed katon, fol. 5. 10. 

55. 3. Moed katon, fol. 80. 2, 3. «■ Bab. Sotah, fol. 22. 2. 

Sotah, fol. 23, 3. s Bab. Joma, fol. 72. 2. 



Cli. xxiii. 29.] Exercitaiions upon S't. Maitheio. 801 

acknowledge this to their own shame. They inquire *, what 
were those sins under the first Temple for which it was 
destroyed ; and it is answered, " Idolatry, fornication, and 
bloodshed." They inquire, what were the sins under the 
second ; and answer, " Hate without cause, and secret ini- 
quity ;" and add these words, " To those that were under the 
first Temple their end was revealed, because their iniquity 
was revealed: D!J''p H^J.ni ^b UTW nSlin] ^^ D^DI-^H^ 
hut to those that ivere under the second their end was not re- 
vealed, because their iniquity/ tvas not revealed.'''' The Gloss, 
" They that were under the first Temple did not hide their 
iniquity ; therefore their end was revealed to them : as it is 
said, ' After seventy years I will visit you in Babylon :' but 
their iniquity under the second Temple was not revealed : 
: inD2 D''>^t!}'^ Vn ^W U^lpO "^il those imder the second 
Temple loere secretly wicTced!''' 

Ver. 29 : Kocr/jierre rh. [).vr\\i.^a tS>v biKatu>v' Ye garnish the 
sepulchres of the righteous.] imp bi? tr}D3 "h pDin" The 
Glossers are divided about the rendering of the word tZ^Di^. 
Some understand it of a kind of building or pillar ; some of 
the whiting or marking of a sepulclu'e above spoken of. The 
place referred to speaks concerning the remains of the di- 
drachms paid for the redemption of the soul : and the ques- 
tion is, if there be any thing of them due, or remaining from 
the man now dead, what shall be done with it ; the answer 
is, " Let it be laid up till Elias come : but K. Nathan saith, 
inip by tl^SDi 1 7 "j'^311 Let them raise some pillar [or build- 
ing'] upon his sepulchre.'''' Which that it was done for the 
sake of adorning the sepulchres is proved from the words 
of the Jerusalem Gemara'' upon the place ; ri"i^Q3 X''Qr\V \"^ 
P"T13"I 1(1 in"^lD,l D*'p'^"I!JT' Oi) Kocrixovai jj-vrjixda tQv biKa[o>v, 
They do not adorn the sepulchres of the righteous, for their own 
sayings are their memorial. Whence those buildings or orna- 
ments that were set on their sepulchres seem to have been 
sacred to their memory, and thence called nitZ^DD, as much 
as souls, because they preserved the life and soul of their 
memory. 

These things being considered, the sense of the words 

t Bab. Joma, fol. 9. 2. ^ Shekalim, cap. 2. hal. 5. 

'f Fol. 47. I. 



302 Hebrew and Talmudkal [Oh. xxiii. ^'^, &c. 

before us doth more clearly aj^pear. Doth it deserve so 
severe a curse, to adorn the sepulchres of the prophets and 
righteous men ? Was not this rather an act of piety than a 
crime? But according to their own doctrine, O ye scribes and 
Pharisees, "^TO^ ]n p*"!!"! their otvn acts and sayings are 
a sufficient memorial for them. AVhy do ye not respect, 
follow, and imitate these ? But neglecting and trampling 
upon these, you persuade yourselves that you have performed 
piety enough to them, if you bestow some cost in adorning 
their sepulchres, whose words indeed you despise. 

Ver. yi, y : 'Atto rf;? KpCasois Ti]s yeivvijr The damnation of 
hell.] : D'lDTTJ Ti!)' n^"'! The judgment of Gehenna. See the 
Chaldee paraphrast' on Ruth ii. 12; Baal Turim on Gen. i. i ; 
and Midras TiUin ». 

Ver. 34 : 2o<^ous koX ypafxixardr Wise men and scribes.'] 
QiTODn wise men, and □"'"^SID scribes. Let them observe 
this, who do not allow the ministers of the word to have a 
distinct calling. The Jews knew not any that was called 
D^n a icise man, or *^D1D a scribe, but who was both learned, 
and separated from the common people by a distinct order 
and office. 

Ver. 35 : "Ecos tov aiixaros 2.a\apiov v'lov 'Qapa)(iov' Unto 
the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias.] That the discourse 
here is concerning Zacharias the son of Jehoiada"^, killed by 
king Joash, we make appear by these arguments : 

I. Because no other Zacharias is said to have been slain 
before these words were spoken by Christ. Those things 
that are spoke of Zacharias, the father of the Baptist, are 
dreams ; and those of Zacharias, one of the twelve prophets, 
are not much better. The killing of our Zacharias in the 
Temple is related in express words : and why, neglecting 
this, should we seek for another, which in truth we shall 
nowhere find in any author of good credit ? 

II. The Jews observe, that the death of this Zacharias, 
the son of Jehoiada, was made memorable by a signal cha- 
racter [;nota] and revenge : of the martyrdom of the other 
Zacharias they say nothing at all. 



y English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 237. * Fol. 41. 2, 3, &c. 
"^ Leusden^s edition, vol. ii. p. 36r. ^2 Chron. xxiv. 



Ch. xxiii. ^^.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 303 

Hear both the Tahiiuds^ : " R, Jochanan said, Eighty thou- 
sand priests were killed for the blood of Zacharias. R. Judah 
asked R. Acha, ' \Vhereabouts they killed Zacharias, whether 
in the Court of the Women, or in the Court of Israel ¥ He 
answered, ' Neither in the Court of Israel nor in the Court 
of the Women, but in the Court of the Priests/ And that 
was not done to his blood which useth to be done to the 
blood of a ram or a kid. Concerning these it is written, 
' And he shall pour out his blood, and cover it with dust.' 
But hero it is written, ' Her '' blood is in the midst of her ; 
she set it upon the top of a rock, she poured it not upon the 
ground.' And why this? ' That^ it might cause fury to come 
up to take vengeance. I have set her blood upon a rock, that 
it should not be covered."* They committed seven wicked- 
nesses in that day. They killed a priest, a prophet, and a 
judge : they shed the blood of an innocent man : they pol- 
luted the court : and that day was the sabbath day, and the 
day of Expiation. When therefore Nebuzar-adan went up 
thither, he saw the blood bubbling : so he said to them, 
' AVhat meaneth this V ' It is the blood,' say they, ' of calves, 
lambs, and rams, which we have offered on the altar.' ' Bring 
then,' said he, ' calves, lambs, and rams, that 1 may try whe- 
ther this be their blood.' They brought them and slew them, 
and that blood still bubbled, but their blood did not bubble. 
' Discover the matter to me,' said he, ' or I will tear your 
flesh with iron rakes.' Then they said to him, ' This was a 
priest, a prophet, and a judge, who foretold to Israel all these 
evils which we have suffered from you, and we rose up against 
him, and slew him.' 'But I,' saith he, 'will appease him/ 
He brought the Rabbins, and slew them upon that blood ; 
and yet it was not pacified : he brought the children out of 
the school, and slew them upon it, and yet it was not quiet : 
he brought the young priests, and slew them upon it, and yet 
it was not quiet. So that he slew upon it ninety-four thou- 
sand, and yet it was not quiet. He drew near to it himself, 
and said, ' O Zacharias, Zacharias ! thou hast destroyed the 
best of thy people ' [that is, they have been killed for your 

c Hieros. in Taanith, fol. 69. i, 2. Bab. in Sanhedr. fol. ^6. 2. 
'^ Ezek. xxiv. 7. e Ver. 8. 



304 Hebrew and Talmiidical [Ch. xxiii. 35. 

sake] ; ' would you have me destroy all ? ' Then it was quiet, 
and did not bubble any more," &c. 

The truth of tliis story we leave to the relators : that 
whicb makes to our present purpose we observe : that it 
was very improbable, nay, next to impossible, that those that 
heard the words of Christ (concerning Zacharias slain before 
the Temple and the altar) could understand it of any other 
but of this, concerning whom and whose blood they had such 
famous and signal memory ; and of any other Zacharias slain 
in the Temple there was a profound silence. In Josephus, 
indeed, we meet with the mention of one Zacharias, the son 
of Baruch, (which is the same thing with Barachias,) killed in 
the Temple, not longf before the destruction of it: whom 
some conjecture to be prophetically marked out here by our 
Saviour : but this is somewhat hard, when Christ expressly 
speaks of time past, i(f)ovevaaT€, ye slew; and when, by no art 
nor arguments, it can be proved that this Zacharias ought to 
bo reckoned into the number of prophets and martyrs. 

There are two things here that stick with interpreters, so 
that they cannot so freely subscribe to our Zacharias: i. That 
he lived and died long before the first Temple was destroyed ; 
when the example would have seemed more home and proper 
to be taken under the second Temple, and that now near 
expiring. 2. That he was plainly and notoriously the son 
of Jehoiada ; but this is called by Christ " the son of Bara- 
chias." 

To which we, after others who have discoursed at large 
upon this matter, return only thus much : 

T. That Christ plainly intended to bring examples out of 
the Old Testament; and he brought two, which how much 
the further off they seemed to be from deriving any guilt to 
this generation, so much heavier the guilt is if they do derive 
it. For a Jew would argue, " What hath a Jew to do with 
the blood of Abel, killed almost two thousand years before 
Abraham the father of the Jews was born ? And what hath 
this generation to do with the blood of Zacharias, which was 
expiated by cruel plagues s and calamities many ages since?'' 
Nay, saith Christ, this generation hath arrived to that degree 

f English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 238. s Leusdeii's edit., vol. ii. p. 362. 



Ch. xxiii. ^^.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 305 

of impiety, wickedness, and guilt, that even these remote 
examples of guilt relate, and are to be applied to it : and 
while you think that the hlood of Abel, and the following 
martyrs doth nothing concern you, and believe that the hlood 
of Zacharias hath been long ago expiated with a signal 
punishment ; I say unto you, that the blood both of the one 
and the other, and of all the righteous men killed in the in- 
terval of time between them, shall he required of this gene- 
ration ; I. Because you kill him who is of more value than 
they all. 2. Because by your wickedness you so much kindle 
the anger of God, that he is driven to cut off his old church ; 
namely, the people that hath been of a long time in covenant 
with him. For when Christ saith, That on you may come all 
the righteous hlood, &c. ; it is not so much to be understood 
of their personal guilt as to that blood, as of their guilt for 
the killing of Christ, in whose death, the guilt of the murder 
of all those his types and members is in some measure 
included : and it is to be understood of the horrible de- 
struction of that generation, than which no former ages have 
ever seen any more woful or amazing, nor shall any future, 
before the funeral of the world itself. As if all the guilt 
of the blood of righteous men, that had been shed from 
the beginning of the world, had flowed together upon that 
generation. 

II. To the second, which has more difficulty, namely, that 
Zacharias is here called the son of Barachias, when he was 
the son of Jehoiada, we will observe, by the way, these two 
things out of the writings of the Jews, before we come to 
determine the thing itself: 

1. That that vei'y Zacharias of whom we speak is by the 
Chaldee paraphrast called the son of Iddo. For thus saith 
he on Lament, iii. 20: " 'Is it fit that the daughters of 
Israel should eat the fruit of their womb?' &c. The rule 
of justice answered and said, ' Is it also fit that they should 
slay a priest and prophet in the Temple of the Lord, as ye 
slew Zacharias the son of Iddo, the high priest and faithful 
prophet, in the house of the Sanctuary, on the day of Ex- 
piation I ' " &c. 

2, In the place of Isaiah^», concerning Zechariah the son 

'> Chap. viii. 2, 
LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. X 



306 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxiii. ^^. 

of Jeberechiahj the Jews have these things' : " It is written, 
' I took unto me faithful witnesses to record, Uriah the 
priest, and Zechariah the son of Barachiah,' [in'^i'^1 writ 
without Jod prefixed,] Isa. viii. i. But what is the reason 
that Uriah is joined with Zechariah? for Uriah was under 
the first Temple ; Zechariah under the second : but the Scrip- 
ture joineth the prophecy of Zechariah to the prophecy of 
Uriah. By Urias it is written, ' For your sakes Sion shall 
be ploughed as a field. ' By Zechariah it is written, ' As 
yet old men and ancient women shall sit in the streets of 
Jerusalem. ' When the prophecy of Uriah is fulfilled, the 
prophecy of Zechariah shall also be fulfilled."" To the same 
sense also speaks the Chaldee paraphrast upon the place : 
*' ' And I took unto me faithful witnesses.' The curses which 
I foretold I would bring, in the prophecy of Uriah the priest, 
behold they are come to pass: likewise all the blessings which 
I foretold I would bring, in the prophecy of Zechariah the 
son of Jeberechiah, I will bring to pass.^^ See also there 
RR. Jarchi and Kimchi. 

From both these we observe two things : i. If Iddo did 
not signify the same thing with JeJioiada to the Jewish na- 
tion, why might not our Saviour have the same liberty to call 
BaracMas the father of Zacharias, as the Chaldee paraphrast 
had to call him Iddo ? 2. It is plain that the Jews looked 
upon those words of Isaiah as the words of God speaking to 
Isaiah, not of Isaiah relating a matter of fact historically ; 
which, indeed, they conjecture very truly and exactly ac- 
cording to the printing of the first word HT^i^t^l for the 
conjunction Van, being pointed with Sheva, it is a certain 
token that the verb is to be rendered'^ in the future tense, 
not in the preter ; which also the Interlineary Version 
hath well observed, rendering it thus, Et testificari faciam 
mihi testes fideles, And I ivill make faithful witnesses testify 
to me. 

For if it had been to be construed in the preter tense, it 
should have been pointed by Kamets, rT'J^^'l Et testificari 
feci, And I caused to toitness. Which being well observed, 
(as I confess it hath not been by me heretofore,) the diffi- 

» Bab. Maccoth, fol. 24. i, 2. ^ English folio edition, vol.ii. p. 239. 



Oh. xxiii.35.] Exercitations upon tit. Matthew. 307 

culty under our hand is resolved, as I imagine, very clearly : 
and I suppose that Zechariah the son of Jeberechiah in 
Isaiah is the very same with our ZacJiarias the son of Je- 
hoiada ; and that the sense of Isaiah comes to this : in that 
and the foregoing chapter^ there is a discourse of the future 
destruction of Damascus, Samaria, and Judea. For a con- 
firmation of the truth of this prophecy, God makes use of a 
double testimony : first, he commands the prophet Isaiah to 
write, over and over again, in a great volume, from the 
beginning to the end, " Le maher shalal hash baz C that is, 
'' To hasten the spoil, he hastened the prey :" and this volume 
should be an undoubted testimony to them, that God would 
certainly bring on and hasten the forementioned spoiling and 
destruction. "And moreover (saith God), I will raise up to 
myself two faithful martyrs," (or witnesses,) who shall testify 
and seal the same thing with their words and with their 
blood, namely, Uriah the priest, who shall hereafter be 
crowned with martyrdom for this very thing, Jer. xxvi. 20, 
23, and Zechariah the son of Barachiah, or Jehoiada, who is 
lately already crowned : lie, the first martyr under the first 
Temple ; this, the last. Hear, thou Jew, who taxest Mat- 
thew in this place : your own authors assert, that Uriah the 
priest is to be understood by that Uriah who was killed by 
Jehoiakim ; and that truly. We also assert, that Zechariah 
the son of Jehoiadah is to be understood by Zechariah the 
son of Jeberechiah ; and that Matthew and Christ do not at 
all innovate in this name of Barachias, but did only pronounce 
the same thijjgs concerning the father of the martyr Zacha- 
rias, which God himself had pronounced before"^ them by the 
prophet Isaiah. 

Objection. But since our Saviour took examples from the 
Old Testament, why did he not rather say, " from the blood 
of Abel to the blood of Uriah the priest ?" that is, from the 
beginning of the world to the end of the first Temple ? I 
answer, 

I . The kilhng of Zechariah was more horrible, as he was 
more high in dignity ; and as the place wherein he was killed 
was more holy. 

1 See chap. vii. 8. 17, 18, &c. viii. 4. 7, 8, &c. 
"1 Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 363. 

X 2 



308 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. xxiii. 7, &c. 

2. The consent of the whole people was more universal to 
his death. 

3. He was a more proper and apparent type of Christ. 

4. The requiring of vengeance is mentioned only concerning 
Abel and Zechariah : '^Behold", the voice of thy brother's 
blood crieth unto me." And, " Let° the Lord look upon it, 
and require it." 

5. In this the death of Christ agrees exactly with the death 
of Zechariah ; that, although the city and nation of the Jews 
did not perish till about forty years after the death of Christ, 
yet they gave themselves their death's wound in wounding 
Christ. So it was also in the case of Zechariah : Jerusalem 
and the people of the Jews stood indeed many years after the 
death of Zechariah, but from that time began to sink, and 
draw towards ruin. Consult the story narrowly, and you will 
plainly find, that all the affairs of the Jews began to decline 
and grow worse and worse, from that time when " blood 

'touched bloodP," (the blood of the sacrificer mingled with the 
blood of the sacrifice), and when " the people became conten- 
tious and rebellious against the priest n." 

Ver. 37 : ^lipovaaKi]^, tj cnroKTeivovcra rovs Ttpoiji/jTas' Jeru- 
salem, that Jc'dlest the j^^ophets.] R. Solomon on those words, 
" Buf now murderers ;" " They have killed (saith he) Uriah, 
they have killed Zechariah." Also on these words, " Your^ 
sword hath devoured your prophets;" " Ye have slain (saith 
he) Zechariah and Isaiah." " Simeon* Ben Azzai said, ' I have 
found a book of genealogies at Jerusalem, in which it was 
written, Manasseh slew Isaiah,' " &c. 

CHAP. XXIV." 

Ver. 1 : 'ETriSei^at avrw tus olnoboixas rod Upov' To shew Mm 
the buildings of the Temple?^ " He'^ that never saw the Temple 
of Herod never saw a fine building. What was it built of? 
Habba saith, Of white and green marble. But some say. Of 
white, green, and spotted marble. Ho made the laver to sink 

n Gen. iv. 10. ^ Bab. Jevam. fol. 49. 2. 

o 2 Chron. xxiv. 22. " English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 

P Hos. iv. 2. 1 Id. ver. 4. 240. 

>■ Is. i. 21. ^ Bab. BavaBathra, fol.4.1. Suc- 

^ Jer, ii. 31. cab, fol. 51. 2. 



Ch. xxiv. 2, 3.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 309 

and to rise" (that is^ the walls were built winding in and out, 
or indented after the manner of waves), " being thus fitted 
to receive the plaster, which he intended to lay on ; but the 
Rabbins said to him, ' let it continue, for it is very beau- 
tiful to behold : for it is like the waves of the sea : ' and 
Bava Ben Buta made it so," »fec. See there the story of 
Bava Ben Buta and Herod consulting about the rebuilding 
of the Temple. 

Ver. 2 : Ov ixq aipeOfj w8e XlOos em XiQov There shall not he 
left one stone upon another.'] The Talmudic Chronicles y bear 
witness also to this saying, " On the ninth day of the month 
Ab the city of Jerusalem was ploughed up ;" which Maimo- 
nides^ delivereth more at large : " On that ninth day of tho 
month Ab, fatal for vengeance, the wicked Turnus Rufus, of 
the children of Edom, ploughed up the Temple, and the 
places about it, that that saying might be fulfilled, ' Sion 
shall be ploughed as a field.'"' This Turnus Rufus, of great 
fame and infamy among the Jewish writers, without doubt is 
the same with Terentius Rufus, of whom Josephus speaks a, 
Tepevrtos 'Pov(f)os ap\(t)v ttj? crrpaTtas KareXeAetTiro, Terentius 
Biifus was left general of the army hy Titus ; with commission, 
as it is probable, and as the Jews suppose, to destroy the 
city and Temple. Concerning which matter, thus again 
Josephus in the place before quoted'', KeAevet Kaiaap j/877 rrjj; 
re ttoXlv anarrav kuX tov veoiv KaracrKaTTTeLV The emperor 
commanded them to dig up the lohole city and the Temple. 
And a little after, Owrcos e^wjuaAicray o\ KaTacTKaTTTovT^s, &c. 
" 77ms those that digged it up laid all level, that it should 
never be inhabited, to be a witness to such as should come 
thither." 

Ver. 3 : Kai tl to a-qiielov 77/s crrjs TTapovcrids, /cat rjjs avvreXeLas 
TOV alQivos ; And what shall he the sign of thy coming, and of the 
end of the world?] What the apostles intended by these words 
is more clearly conceived by considering the opinion of that 
people concerning the times of the Messias. We will pick out 
this in a few words from Babylonian Sanhedrin.^ 

" The tradition of the school of Elias : The righteous, whom 

y Taanith, c. 5. son, p. 1298.] [vii. 2. 2.] 

2 Taanith, cap. 4. hal. 6. b Cap. i. [vii. i. i.] 

a De Bell. lib. vii. cap. 7. [Hud- ^ Fol. 92. 



310 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxiv. 3. 

the Holy Blessed God will raise up from the dead, shall not 
return again to their dust ; as it is said, ' Whosoever shall be 
left in Zion and remain in Jerusalem shall be called holy, 
every one being written in the book of life.' As the Holy 
(God) liveth for ever, so they also shall live for ever. But if 
it be objected, What shall the righteous do in those years in 
which the Holy God will renew his world, as it is said, ' The 
Lord only shall be exalted in that day V the answer is, That 
God will give them wings like an eagle, and they shall swim 
(or float) upon the face of the waters." Where the Gloss 
says thus ; " The righteous, whom the Lord shall raise from 
the dead in the days of the Messiah, when they are restored 
to life, shall not again return to their dust, neither in the 
days of the Messiah, nor in the following age : but their flesh 
shall remain upon them till they return and live i<5'Q7 TTiV^ 
to eternity. And^ in those years, when God shall renew his 
world (or age), □'"^U} f^^^ n^n Ht qSiJ^ TV^IVX this world 
shall he wasted for a thousand years ; where, then, shall those 
righteous men be in those years, when they shall not be 
buried in the earth?" To this you may also lay that very 
common phrase, ^?in uh^V the world to come; whereby is 
signified the days of the Messiah : of which we spoke a little at 
the thirty-second verse of the twelfth chapter : " If^ he shall 
obtain {the favour) to see the world to come, that is, the exal- 
tation of Isi'ael," namely, in the days of the Messiah. ^'The^ 
Holy Blessed God saith to Israel, Li this world you are afraid 
of transgressions ; but in the woi'ld to come, when there shall 
be no evil affections, you shall be concerned only for the good 
which is laid up for you; as it is said^^, 'After this the 
children of Israel shall return, and seek the Lord their God, 
and David their king,'" &c.; which clearly relate to the times 
of the Messiah. Again, " Saith^ the Holy Blessed God to 
Israel, ' In this world, because my messengers {sent to spy out 
the land) were flesh and blood, I decreed that they should not 
enter into the land : but in the world to come, I suddenly 



^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. s English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 

364. 241. 

6 Gloss, in Bab. Berac. fol. ^ Hos. iii. 5. 

9. 2. » Tanchum, fol. 77. 3, 

^ Tanchum, fol. 9.2. 



Ch. xxiv. 7.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 311 

send to you my messenger, and he shall prepare the way be- 
fore my face'^'.''^^ 

See here the doctrine of the Jews concerning the coming of 
the Messiah : 

1. That at that time there shall be a resurrection of the 
just : : ID^ '^^''U?'' I^'iyh Tr\V TT^^'C^ TJw 3Iessias shall raise 
up those that sleep in the dust^. 

2. Then shall follow the desolation of this world : □T'li^ 
D^itZ? ?)7b^ 2'^n TXl This world shall he wasted a thousand 
years. Not that they imagined that a chaos, or confusion of 
all things, should last the thousand years ; but that this world 
should end and a new one be introduced in that thousand 
years. 

3. After which fc^117 'WsV eternity should succeed. 

From hence w^e easily understand the meaning of this ques- 
tion of the disciples : — 

1. They know and own the present Messiah; and yet they 
ask, what shall be the signs of his coming ? 

2. But they do not ask the signs of his coming (as we be- 
lieve of it) at the last day, to judge both the quick and the 
dead : but, 

3. When he will come in the evidence and demonstration of 
the Messiah, raising up the dead, and ending this world, and 
introducing a new ; as they had been taught in their schools 
concerning his coming. 

Ver. 7 : 'Eyep^rjo-erat yap eOvos inl 'idvor Nation shall rise 
against nation.'] Besides the seditions of the Jews, made hor- 
ridly bloody with their mutual slaughter, and other storms of 
war in the Roman empire from strangers, the commotions of 
Otho and Vitellius are particularly memorable, and those of 
Vitellius and Vespasian, whereby not only the whole empire 
was shaken, and " totius orbis mutatione fortuna imperii 
transiit" (they are the words of Tacitus), the fortune of the 
empire changed with the change of the lohole loorld, but Kome 
itself being made the scene of battle, and the prey of the 
soldiers, and the Capitol itself being reduced to ashes. Such 
throes the empire suffered, now bringing forth Vespasian to 
the throne, the scourge and vengeance of God upon the 
Jews. 

k Mai. iii. t. » Midr. Tillin, fol. 42. i. 



312 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxiv. 9, 

Ver. 9 : Tore irapabcaa-ova-iv vjua? et's 6XL\lftv Then shall they 
deliver you up to he afflicted.'] To this relate those words of 
Peter, 1 Ep. iv. 17, "The time is come that judgment must 
begin at the house of God ;" that is, the time foretold by our 
Saviour is now at hand, in which we are to be delivered up to 
persecution, &;c. These words denote that persecution which 
the Jews, now near their ruin, stirred up almost everywhere 
against the professors of the gospel. They had indeed op- 
pressed them hitherto on all sides^ as far as they could, with 
slanders, rapines, whippings, stripes, &c. which these and 
such Hke places testify; i Thess. ii. 14, 15; Heb. x. '^'^, &c. 
But there was something that put a rub in their way, that, 
as yet, they could not proceed to the utmost cruelty ; " And"^ 
now ye know what withholdeth ; " which, I suppose, is to be 
understood of Claudius enraged at and curbing in the 
Jewsn. AVho being taken out of the way, and Nero, after 
his first five years, suffering all things to be turned topsy 
turvy, the Jews now breathing their last (and Satan there- 
fore breathing his last effects in them, because their time was 
short), they broke out into slaughter beyond measure, and 
into a most bloody persecution : which I wonder is not set 
in the front of the ten persecutions by ecclesiastical writers. 
This is called by Peter « (who himself also at last suffered in 
it) 7rvp(j)(TLs irpos Treipacr/ioy, a fiery trial; by Christ P, dic- 
tating the epistles to the seven churches, 6\l\j/ls yjixep^v Sexa, 
trihidation for ten days; and rj Spa tov ireipacrixov r; piekkovcra epx^" 
crOat eTTi Tiys olKovpivrjs okr]<i, the^ hour of temptation., lohich shall 
come upon all the tvorld of Christians. And this is " the reve- 
lation of that wicked one" St. PauF speaks of, now in lively, 
that is, in bloody colours, openly declaring himself Antichrist, 
the enemy of Christ. In that persecution James suffered at 
Jerusalem, Peter in Babylon, and Antipas at Pergamus, and 
others, as it is probable, in not a few other places. Hence, 
Eev. vi. II, 12 (where the state of the Jewish nation is deli- 
vered under the type of six seals «), they are slain, who were 
to be slain' for the testimony of the gospel under the fifth 

m 2 Thess. ii. 6. '2 Thess. ii. 8. 

" A.cts xviii. 2. s Z/eusden's edition, p. 36(5. 

° I Pet. iv. 12. P Rev. ii. 10. ^ En</lishfolioedit.,vo\.n. p. 242. 

1 Rev. iii. 10. 



Ch. xxiv. i2,&c.] Escerciiations upon St. Mattheiv. 313 

seal ; and immediately under the sixth followed the ruin of 
the nation. 

Ver. 1 2 : ^vy)]cr€Tai, ?; ayaTrrj rStv ttoWSiv The love of many 
shall wax cold.] These words relate to that horrid apostasy 
which prevailed everywhere in the Jewish churches that had 
received the gospel. See 2 Thess. ii. 3, &c. ; Gal. iii. i ; 
I Tim. i. 15, &c. 

Ver. 14 : Kai Krypv^^j/crerat toCto to evayy4\tov ttjs /3acrt- 
Aetas iv oktj rfi ocKov^jiivr]' And this gospel of the kingdom shall 
he preached in all the world.'] Jerusalem was not to be de- 
stroyed before the gospel was spread over all the world : 
God so ordering and designing it that the world^ being first 
a catechumen in the doctrine of Christ, might have at length 
an eminent and undeniable testimony of Christ presented to 
it ; when all men, as many as ever heard the history of 
Christ, should understand that dreadful wrath and severe 
vengeance which was poured out upon that city and nation 
by which he was crucified, 

Ver. 15 : To /SSeAuy/xa tt/s kp-qixuxrear The abomination of 
desolation.] These words relate to that passage of Daniel 
(chap. ix. 27), Dr;iiUJ?p Q^i^^ptp r|3Q hv^ which I would render 
thus ; " In the middle of that week," namely, the last of the 
seventy, " he shall cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease, 
even until the wing or army of abomijiation shall make deso- 
late" &c. ; or, eve7i hy the xoing of abominations making desolate. 
?]i3 is an army, Isa. viii. 8 : and in that sense Luke" ren- 
dered these words, " when you shall see Jerusalem compassed 
about with an army," &c. 

*0 avayiv(a(TK(iiv voeCTo>- Let him that readeth understand.] 
This is not spoken so much for the obscurity as for the cer- 
tainty of the prophecy : as if he should say, " He that reads 
those words in Daniel, let him mind well that when the army 
of the pi'ince which is to come, that army of abominations, 
shall compass round Jerusalem with a siege, then most 
certain destruction hangs over it ; for, saith Daniel, ' the 
people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city, 
and the sanctuary,' &c., ver. 26. And the army of abomina- 
tions shall make desolate even until the consummation, and 
" Chap. xxi. 20. 



314 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxiv. 20,22. 

that which is determined shall be poured out upon the deso- 
late.' Flatter not yourselves, therefore, with vain hopes, 
either of future victory, or of the retreating of that army, 
but provide for yourselves ; and he that is in Judea, let him 
fly to the hills and places of most difficult access, not into the 
city." See how Luke clearly speaks out this sense in the 
twentieth verse of the one-and-twentieth chapter. 

Ver. 20 : "\va ixt) yevrjTaL rj (pvyi] vixSiv yeijxG>vos' That your 
flight he not in the winter.'] R. Tanchum observes a favour of 
God in the destruction of the first Temple, that it happened 
in the summer, not in winter. For thus he ^ : " God vouch- 
safed a great favour to Israel ; for they ought to have gone 
out of the land on the tenth day of the month Tebeth, as he 
saith, ' Son of man, mark this day ; for on this very day,' &c. 
What then did the Lord, holy and blessed ? ' If they shall now 
go out in the winter,' saith he, ' they will all die :"■ therefore 
he prolonged the time to them, and carried them away in 
summer. '^ 

Ver. 22 y : Koko^wOria-ovrai al i]}xipai kK^ivac Those days 
shall he shortened.'] God lengthened the time for the sake of 
the elect, before the destruction of the city ; and in the de- 
struction, for their sakes he shortened it. Compare with 
these words before us 2 Pet. iii. 9, " The Lord is not slack 
concerning his promise," &c. It was certainly very hard 
with the elect that were inhabitants of the city, who under- 
went all kinds of misery with the besieged, where the plague 
and sword raged so violently that there were not living 
enough to bury the dead ; and the famine was so great, that 
a mother ate her son (perhaps the wife of Doeg Ben Joseph, 
of whom see such a story in Babyl. Joma^). And it was 
also hard enough with those elect who fled to the mountains, 
being driven out of house, living in the open air, and wanting 
necessaries for food : their merciful God and Father, there- 
fore, took care of them, shortening the time of their misery, 
and cutting off" the reprobates with a speedier destruction ; 
lest, if their stroke had been longer continued, the elect 
should too far have partaken of their misery. 

^ Fol. 57. 2, y English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 243. z Fol. 38. 2. 



Oh. xxiv. 22.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 315 

The Rabbins dream that God shortened the day on which 
wicked king Ahab died, and that ten hours ; lest he should 
have been honoured with mourning a. 

Ver. 24 : AoWot^crt o-rjjueia /xeyaAa koX T^para' Shall shew 
great signs and wonders.] It is a disputable case, whether the 
Jewish nation were more mad with superstition in matters of 
religion, or with superstition in curious arts. 

I. There was not a people upon earth that studied or 
attributed more to dreams than they. Hence 

1. They often imposed fastings upon themselves to this 
end, that they might obtain happy dreams ; or to get the 
interpretation of a dream ; or to divert the ill omen of a 
dream : which we have observed at the fourteenth verse of 
the ninth chapter. 

2. Hence their nice rules for handling of dreams ^; such 
as these, and the like : r^TCJ "n:D IV ^^^ O'hrh Dl^ r\Z}T 
Let one observe a good dream two-and-twenty years, after the 
example of Joseph "^ : " If you go to bed merry, you shall 
have good dreams ^^^ &c. 

3. Hence many took upon them the public profession of 
interpreting dreams ; and this was reckoned among the 
nobler arts. A certain old man (Babyl. Beracothe) relates 
this story: "There were four- and -twenty interpreters of 
dreams in Jerusalem : and I, having dreamed a dream, went 
to them all : every one gave a different interpretation, and 
yet they all came to pass," &c. You have^ R. Joses Ben 
Chelpatha, R. Ismael Ben R. Joses, R. Lazar, and R. Akiba 
interpreting divers dreams, and many coming to them for 
interpretation of their dreams. Nay, you see there the dis- 
ciples of R. Lazar in his absence practising this art. See 
there also many stories about this business, which it would 
be too much here to transcribe. 

II. There were hardly any people in the whole world that 
more used, or were more fond of, amulets, charms, mutter- 
ings, exorcisms, and all kinds of enchantments. We might 
here produce innumerable examples ; a handful shall serve 
us out of the harvest : nn?21?2n p *13*'t^\r' ptn i?*'Dpn fc^^l 

a See R. Sol. on Isa. xxxviii. ^ Schab. fol. 30. 2, in the Gloss. 

iJ Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 366. ® Fol. 55. 2. 

<= Beracoth, fol. 14. i. f Jerusal.MaasarSheni,fol.52.2.3. 



316 Hebrew and Talmiidical [Ch. xxiv. 22. 

'' Let s not any one go abroad with his amulet on the sab- 
bath day, unless that amulet be pi'escribed by an approved 
physician" (or, " unless it be an approved amulet ;" see the 
Gemara). Now these amulets were either little roots hung 
about the necks of sick persons, or, what was more common, 
bits of paper with words written on them (IH^ hw V'^l^ip or 
r"1pi^ vtl? V'^'-p) whereby they supposed that diseases were 
either driven away or cured : which they wore all the week, 
but were forbid to wear on the sabbath, unless with a caution : 
" They ^ do not say a charm over a wound on the sabbath, 
that also which is said over a mandrake is forbid" on the 
sabbath. " If any one say, Come and say this versicle over 
my son, or lay the book" of the law " upon him, to make 
him sleep ; it is forbid :" that is, on the sabbath, but on other 
days is usual. 

: dSu?*I'^''1 ]^J^1:iD l^tZ; Vn D^'^^DI^ " They used to say 
the psalm of meetings (that is, against unlucky meetings') at 
Jerusalem. E. Judah saith, Sometimes after such a meeting, 
and sometimes when no such meeting had happened. Hut 
what is the Psalm of Meetings \ The third psalm, ' Lord, 
how are my foes increased!' even all the psalm: and the 
ninety-first psalm, ' He that dwelleth in t]ie secret place of 
the jMost High,^ to the ninth verse." There is a discourse i 
of many things, which they used to carry about with them, 
as remedies against certain ailments ; and of mutterings over 
wounds : and there you may see, that while they avoid '^ the 
enchantments of the Araorites, they have and allow their 
own. You have. Bah. Joma^ fol. <S4. i, the form of an en- 
chantment against a mad dog. And, Avodah Zarah, fol. 1%. 
2, the form of enchantment against the devil of blindness. 
You have, Ilieros. Schah. fol. 13. 4, and Avod. Zarah, fol. 40. 
4, mutterings and enchantments, even in the name of Jesus. 
See also the Bahyl. Sanhedr. fol. loi. i, concerning these kind 
of mutterings. 

III. So skilful were they in conjurings, enchantments, and 
sorceries, that they wrought ai^ij.da fxeydXa, great signs, many 
villanies, and more wonders. We pass by those things which 



s Schabb. cap. 6. hal. 6, » Ibid. col. 3. 

^ Jems. ibid. fol. 8. 2. '^ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 244. 



Ch. xxiv. 24.] Exercitations upon Si. Matiheio. 317 

the sacred story relates of Simon Magus, Elyraas, the sons of 
Seeva, &c., and Josephus, of others ; we will only produce ex- 
amples out of the Talmud, a few out of many. 

You will wonder, in the entrance, at these two things, in 
order to the speaking of their magical exploits ; and thence 
you will conjecture at the very common practice of these evil 
arts among that people : 1 . That " the senior avIio is chosen 
into the council ought to be skilled in the arts of astrologers, 
jugglers, diviners, sorcerers, &c., that he may be able to judge 
of those who are guilty of the same'. 2. The Masters tell us, 
that a certain chamber was built by a magician in the Temple 
itself : " The "^ chamber of Happarva was built by a certain 
magician, whose name was Parvah, by art-magic." " Four- 
and-twenty" of the school Rabbi, intercalating the year at 
Lydda, were killed by an evil eye :" that is, with sorceries. 
R. Joshua^ outdoes a magician in magic, and drowns him in 
the sea. In Babyl. Taanith p, several miracles are related that 
the Rabbins had wrought. Elsewhere ^, there is a story told 
of eighty women-sorceresses at Ascalon, who were hanged in 
one day by Simeon Ben Shetah : " and the women of Israel 
(saith the Gloss) had generally fallen to the practice of sor- 
ceries : " as we have mentioned before. It is related • of 
abundance of Rabbies, that they were D'^DIQ Q'^"T?2l7^ sJcil- 
fid in ivorJcing miracles: thus Abba Chelchia, and Chanin'', 
and R. Ohanina Ben Dusa^; of which R. Chanina Ben Dusa 
there is almost an infinite number of stories concerning the 
miracles he wrought, which savour enough and too much of 
magic*. 

And, that we may not be tedious in producing examples, 
what can we say of the fasting Rabbies causing it to rain in 
effect when they pleased? of which there are abundance of 
stories in Taanith. What can we say of the Bath Kol very 
frequently applauding the Rabbins out of heaven? of which 
we have spoken before. What can we say of the death or 



1 Maimon. Sanhedr. cap. 2. 


1 Hieros. Sanhedr. fol. 23.3. Bab, 


™ Gloss, on Middoth, cap. 1^. 


Sanhedr. fol. 44. 2. 


1I.3. 


"■ Juchas. fol. 20. I. 


" Hieros. Sanhedr. fol. 18. 3. 


s Id. fol. 56. 2. 


Ibid. fol. 25. 4. 


t See Bab. Berac. fol, 33. et 34. 


i> Fol. 24. 





318 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxiv. 27. 

plagues foretold by the Eabbins to befall this or that man ? 
which came to pass just according as they were foretold. I 
rather suspect some magic art in most of these, than fiction 
in all. 

IV. False Ohrists broke out, and appeared in public with 
their witchcrafts, so much the frequenter and more impu- 
dent, as the city and people drew nearer to its ruin ; be- 
cause the people believed the Messias should be manifested 
before the destruction of the city; and each of them pre- 
tended to be the Messias by these signs. From the words 
of Isaiah 11, '' Before her pain came, she was delivered of a 
man child,'' the doctors concluded, " that the Messias should 
be manifested before the destruction of the city." Thus 
the Chaldee paraphrast upon the place ; " She shall be 
saved before her utmost extremity, and her king shall be 
revealed before her pains of childbirth." Mark that also; 
" The^ Son of David will not come, till the wicked empire 
[0/ tJie Romans] shall have spread itself over all the world 
nine months ; as it is said y, ' Therefore will he give them 
up, until the time that she which travaileth hath brought 
forth.' " 

Ver. 27 : "Q.aTrep yap 7/ acnpa-nr], &c. For as the liglitnitig , ^c^ 
To discover clearly the sense of this and the following clauses, 
those two things must be observed which we have formerly 
given notice of: — 

I . That the destruction of Jerusalem is very frequently ex- 
pressed in Scripture as if it were the destruction of the whole 
world, Deut. xxxii. 22 ; "A fire is kindled in mine anger, and 
shall burn unto the lowest hell" (the discourse there is about 
the wrath of God consuming that people; see ver. 20, 21), 
" and shall consume the earth with her increase, and set on 
fire the foundations of the mountains." Jer. iv. 23 ; "I be- 
held the earth, and lo, it was without form and void ; and the 
heavens, and they had no light," tSsc. The discourse there 
also is concerning the destruction of that nation, Isa. Ixv. 17; 
" Behold, I create new heavens and a new earth : and the 
former shall not be remembered," &c. And more passages 
of this sort among the prophets. According to this sense, 

" Chap. Ixvi. 7. ^ Bab. Joma, fol. 10. i. y Micah v. 3. 



Ch. xxiv. 28, 29.] Exercitations upon St. Mattheiv. 319 

Christ speaks in this place ; and Peter speaks in his Second 
Epistle, third chapter ; and John, in the sixth of the Revela- 
tion ; and Paul, 2 Cor. v. 17, &c. 

2. That Christ's taking vengeance of that exceeding wicked 
nation is called Christ's " coming in glory," and his " coming 
in the clouds," Dan. vii. It is also called, " the day of the 
Lord." See Psalm i. 4 ; Mai. iii. i, 2, &c. ; Joel ii. 31 j Matt, 
xvi. 28 ; Rev. i. 7, &c. See what v/e have said on chap, xii, 
20; xix. 28. 

The z meaning, therefore, of the words before us is this : 
" While they shall falsely say, that Christ is to be seen here 
or thei-e : ^Behold, he is in the desert,' one shall say; another, 
'Behold, he is in the secret chambers :' he himself shall come, 
like lightning, with sudden and altogether unexpected venge- 
ance : they shall meet him whom they could not find ; they 
shall find him whom they sought, but quite another than what 
they looked for. 

Ver. 28 : "Oiiov yap iav fj to irT&fjLa, &c. For ivJieresoever the 
carcase is, ^c] I wonder any can understand these words of 
pious men flying to Christ, when the discourse here is of quite 
a different thing : they are thus connected to the foregoing : 
Christ shall be revealed with a sudden vengeance ; for when 
God shall cast off the city and people, grown ripe for destruc- 
tion, like a carcase thrown out, the Roman soldiers, like 
eagles, shall straight fly to it with their eagles (ensigns) to 
tear and devour it. And to this also agrees the answer of 
Christ, Luke xvii. 37 ; when, after the same words that are 
spoke here in this chapter, it was inquired, " Where, Lord I" 
he answered, "■ Wheresoever the body is," &c.; silently hinting 
thus much, that Jerusalem, and that wicked nation which he 
described through the whole chapter, would be the carcase, 
to which the greedy and devouring eagles would fly to prey 
upon it. 

Ver. 29 : 'O ijXios crKOTLaO-qa-eTaL, &c. The sun shall he dark- 
ened, Sfc.'] That is, the Jewish heaven shall perish, and the 
sun and moon of its glory and happiness shall be darkened, 
and brought to nothing. The sim is the religion of the church; 
the moon is the government of the state ; and the stars are the 

2 English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 245. 



320 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxiv. 30, &c. 

judges and doctors of both. Compare Isa. xiii. 10, and Ezek. 
xxxii. 7, 8, &c. 

Ver. 30 : Kat t6t€ ^ayv/trerai to crrjixeiov tov vlov tov avOpamov' 
And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man. ^ Then shall 
tlie Son of mail give a proof of himself, whom they would not 
before acknowledge : a proof, indeed, not in any visible figure, 
but in vengeance and judgment so visible, that all the tribes 
of the earth shall be forced to acknowledge him the avenger. 
The Jews would not know him : now they shall know him, 
whether they will or no, Isa.xxvi. 11. Many times they asked 
of him a sign : now a sign shall appear, that he is the true 
Messias, whom they despised, derided, and crucified, namely, 
his signal vengeance and fui-y, such as never any nation felt 
from the first foundations of the world. 

Ver. 3 1 : Kai^ aTrooreAet rev's ayyikovs avTov, &c. And he 
shall send his angels, 8fc.'] When Jerusalem shall be reduced 
to ashes, and that wicked nation cut off and rejected, then 
shall the Son of man send his ministers with the trumpet 
of the gospel, and they shall gather together his elect of the 
several nations from the four corners of heaven : so that 
God shall not want a church, although that ancient people 
of his be rejected and cast off: but, that Jewish church 
being destroyed, a new church shall be called out of the 
Gentiles. 

Ver. 34 : Oi; jxrj -napikOij 1) yevea avrr], &c. This generation 
shall not pass, Sj-c] Hence it appears plain enough, that the 
foregoing verses are not to be understood of the last judg- 
ment, but, as we said, of the destruction of Jerusalem. There 
were some among the disciples (particularly John), who lived 
to see these things come to pass. With Matt. xvi. 28, com- 
pare John xxi. 22. And there were some Rabbins alive at 
the time when Christ spoke these things, that lived till the 
city was destroyed, viz.'' Rabban Simeon, who perished with 
the city, R. Jochanan Ben Zaccai, who outlived it, R. Zadoch, 
R. Ismael, and others. 

Ver. ^6 : Ovbeh olbcv, ovbe ol ayyeXot' iVb man knoweth, no, 
not the angels.] This is taken from Deut. xxxii. 34 : " Is not 

* Leusderi's edition, vol. ii. p. 368. 
^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 368. 



Oh. xxiv. 37, (fcc.J Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 321 

this laid up in store with me, and sealed up among my 
treasures V 

Ver. 37 : "ihTu^p 8e al j/^xepat tov N&ie, &c. But as the days 
of Noe were, ^c.\ Thus Peter placeth as parallels, the ruin 
of the old world, and the ruin of Jerusalem, i Pet. iii. 1 9 — 21 ; 
and by such a comparison his words will be best understood. 
For, see how he skips from the mention of the death of 
Christ to the times before the flood, in the eighteenth and 
nineteenth verses, passing over all the time between. Did 
not the Spirit of Christ preach all along in the times 
under the law I Why then doth he take an example only 
from the times before the flood? that he might fit the 
matter to his case, and shew that the present state of the 
Jews was like theirs in the times of Noah, and that their 
ruin should be like also. So, also, in his Second Epistle, 
chap. iii. ver. 6, 7 . 

«nn 'V^ '^^ nnb ]^« ^n?2n "^m Tlm^ age or genera- 
tion of the flood hath 110 portion in the tcorld to come : thus Peter 
saith, that "' they were shut up in prison :" and here our Sa- 
viour intimates that " they were buried in security,^^ and so 
were surprised by the flood. 

CHAP. XXV. 

Vek. 1 : AeKtt isapOivois' Ten virgins.'] The nation of the 
Jews delighted mightily in the number ten, both in sacred 
and civil matters : HllDi^Q nninD 'n~\'^V p^^ ^ synagogue 
cotisisted not but of ten at the least : which we have observed 
before, when we spoke about synagogues. This also was 
current among them, n"l^i??0 nn'ini) T^IW y^^ An order 
or ring of men consisted not but often at the least^. The text 
is speaking of a company to comfort mourners : which the 
Gloss thus describes, " When the company was returned from 
burying a dead body, ^n^^^ I'^HD nilltW Y^^^V I'H they set 
themselves in order about the mourners, and comforted them : 
but now such an order or ring consisted of ten at the least." 
To this commonly received number there seems to be an 
alluding in this place : not but that they very frequently ex- 

'^ Sanhedr. cap. 10. hal. 2. "^ Gloss, in Bab. Berac. fol. 16. 2. 

i.IGHTFOOT, VOL. 11. V 



32'2 Hebrew and TahnudicaJ [('h. x\v. 2. 

ceeded that number of virgins in weddings of greater note, 
but rarely came short of it. 

El's a-ndvTrjo-iv tov vvixcfjiov To meet the bridegroom.'] To go 
to a wedding was reckoned among the works of mercy. 

D'^IDH m /'^?0^ " The^ shelving of mercy implies two things : 
1. That one should assist an Israelite with one's wealth, 
namely, by alms and redeeming of captives. 2. That one 
should assist him in one's own person ; to wit, by comforting 
the mourners, by attending the dead to burial, 7^0117 h^lSl 
CDnn and by being present at the chambers of bridegrooms." 
The presence of virgins also adorned the pomp and festivity 
of the thing. Marriages are called by the Rabbins pb^^U?''^ 
receivings., «fee. Th'2 PD'l'Znl the introducing of the bride, 
namely, into the house of her husband. There were no 
marriages but of such as had been before betrothed ; and, 
after the betrothing, the bridegroom might not lie with the 
bride in his father-in-lavv"'s house before he had brought her 
to his own. That 'bringing' of her was the consummation 
of the marriage. This parable supposeth that the bride was 
thus fetched to the house of her husband, and that the virgins 
were ready against her^ coming; who yet, being either fetched 
a great way, or some accident happening to delay her, did not 
come till midnight. 

Aajiovaai tcls kainrdbar Took lamps.] The form of lamps is 
described by Rambam and R. Solomons, whom see. These 
things are also mentioned by R. Solomon : " It is the fashion 
in the country of the Ismaelites to carry the bride from the 
house h of her father to the house of the bridegroom before 
she is put to bed ; and to carry before her about ten wooden 
staves, having each of them on the top a vessel like a dish, 
in which there is a piece of cloth with oil and pitch : these, 
being lighted, they carry before her for torches." The same 
things saith the Aruch in 1Q7. 

Ver. 2 : Ilevre (}}p6viixof Five wise ; -nevre ixcopaO Five 
foolish.'] A parable, not unhke this, is produced by Kimchi' : 
" Rabban Jochanan Ben Zaccai saith (as he hath it), This 
thing is like a king, who invited his servants, but did not 

^ Rambam on Peah, fol. i. i. s In Kelim, cap. 2. hal. 8. 

f English folio edition, vol. ii. p. h Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 369. 
247. i On Isa. Ixv. 13, 14. 



Ch. XXV. 5,&c.] Ejcerciiations upon iSlt. Matthew. 3953 

appoint them any set time. DmH' QTlpD Those of them that 
tvere wise adorned themselves^ and sat at the gate of the 
palace ; Dm^ D"'tZ?Dt5 those that ivere foolish were about 
their own business. The king on a sudden called for his 
servants : those went in adorned ; these, undressed. The 
king was pleased with the wise, and angry at the foolish." 

Ver. 5 : 'Eiv(TTo.^av vaaai KaX (KaOevbov They all slumbered 
and slept.] \ yai^T\ 1?^]733n3 or 1DU}*'1 1?DiDinD in Talmudic 
language^ : "If some sleep" [while they celebrate the paschal 
supper], " let them eat ; if all, let them not eat. R. Josi saith, 
'h'2^'^ "lDiD:n:3 Do they slumber 9 let them eat. ^h 'V2'}'^2 
r7'2^^ Do they sleep ? let them not eat.^' The Gemarists 
inquire, DIl!D2n?:2 ''^1 "'DTf " Whence a man is to be reputed 
as a slumberer ? R. Ishi saith, He sleeps and doth not sleep, 
he wakes and is not awake. If you call him, he answers ; 
t^"HD "'ninbs7 VV H7 but he cannot answer to the purpose.'' 
The Gloss, " If you speak to him, he will answer b57 ")t< pn 
yes, or no ; but if you ask any thing that hath need of think- 
ing ; as, for instance, where such a vessel is laid up I he can- 
not answer you." 

Ver. 15 : Kal w //ey eSwKe -nivre rdKavra, &c. And unto one 
he gave five talents, <§'c.] You have a like and almost the same 
parable, Luke xix. ; yet, indeed, not the very same ; for, be- 
sides that there is mention there of pounds being given, here 
of talents., — that parable was spoken by Christ, going up from 
Jericho to Jerusalem, before the raising up of Lazarus ; this, 
as he was sitting on Mount Olivet, three days before the 
Passover, That, upon this account, " because he was nigh 
to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of 
God should immediately appear," Luke xix, 1 1 , and that he 
might shew that it would not be long before Jerusalem should 
be called to an account for all the privileges and benefits con- 
ferred upon it by God (see verses the fourteenth and seven- 
teenth) ; but this, that he might warn all to be watchful, and 
provide with their utmost care concerning giving up their ac- 
counts at the last judgment. 

Ver. 27 : "ESet ovv ae I3a\€iv to apyvpLov p.ov ro6s rpa-jre^'tTats, &c. 
Thou oughtest tlierefore to have pid my money to the exchangers, 

^ Pesachin, cap. 10. hal. 8. 

Y 2 



324 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi. 3. 

4*6.] The lord did not deliver the talents to his servants with 
that intent, that they should receive the increase and profit 
of them by usury ; but that, by merchandise and some honest 
way of trade, they should increase them. He only returns 
this answer to the slothful servant, as fitted to what he had 
alleged ; " You take me for a covetous, griping, and sordid 
man : why then did you not make use of a manner of gain 
agreeable to these qualities, namely, interest or usury (since 
you would not apply yourself to any honest traffic), that you 
might have returned me some increase of my money, rather 
than nothing at all?" So that our Lord, in these words, doth 
not so much approve of usury, as upbraid the folly and sloth 
of his servant. 

TpaTreCiVais^ exchangers, answering to the word ''DnS'lU? very 
usual among the Talmudists : niy^t^rD ^'y2 «"IH "•Dn^'IlT' 
" An exchanger^ (frapezita) sells money; and because a table 
is always before him, upon which he buys and sells, therefore 
he is called mensarlus^'' one that stands at a table. 

Of the same employment was "^iTl^n the shopkeeper, of 
whom is as frequent mention among them. He exercised 
the employment of a usurer in buying and changing of fruits, 
as the other in money : for in these two especially consisted 
usury : of which you may see, if you please, the tract Bava 
Mezia^. 

CHAP. XXVI. 

§ Of the present Authority of the Council, and 
of its Place. 

Ver. 3 : ^vvriyfiricrav ets ti]v avki]V ap\iepi(s)s' Assembled to- 
gether imto the palace of the high priest.^ Those ominous pro- 
digies are very memorable, which are related by the Talmud- 
ists to have happened forty years before the destruction of 
the Temple. 

" A tradition". Forty years before the Temple was de- 
stroyed, the western candle""' (that is, the middlemost in the 
holy candlestick) " was put out. And the crimson tongue" 
(that was fastened to the horns of the scapegoat, or the 

1 English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 248. "> Aruch. " Cap. 5. 

o Jems. Joma, fol. 43. 3. 



Ch. xxvi.3] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 325 

doors of the Temple) " kept its redness. And the lot of the 
Loi-d" (for the goat that was to be offered np on the day of 
Expiation) " came out on the left hand. And the gates of 
the Temple, which were shut over night, were found open in 
the morning. Rabban Joehanan Ben Zaccai said, ' There- 
fore, Temple, wherefore dost thou trouble us? we know 
thy fate ; namely, that thou art to be destroyed : for it is said. 
Open, O Lebanon P, thy gates, that the flame may consume 
thy cedars.^ " " A tradition q. Forty years before the 
Temple was destroyed, judgment in capital causes was taken 
away from Israel." " Forty"" years before the Temple was 
destroyed, the council removed and sat in the sheds." 

With these two last traditions lies our present business. 
What the Jews said, John xviii. 31, 'Hjixry ovk e^eorty a-no- 
KT€tvai ovhiva' It is not laivful for us to put any man to death, 
signifies the same thing with the tradition before us, " Judg- 
ments in capital causes are taken away from Israel." When 
were they first taken away? " Forty years before the de- 
struction of the Temple," say the Talmudists : no doubt 
before the death of Christ ; the words of the Jews imply so 
much. But how were they taken away ? It is generally re- 
ceived by all that the Romans did so far divest the council 
of its authority, that it was not allowed by them to punish 
any with death ; and this is gathered fi'om those words of the 
Jews, " It is not lawful for us to put any man to death." 

But if this, indeed, be true, 1. What do then those words 
of our Saviour mean ^, Trapahiacrovaiv vixas ets avvebpia, they 
will deliver you up to the councils ? 2. How did they put 
Stephen to death ? 3 . Why was Paul so much afraid to 
commit himself to the council, that he chose rather to appeal 
to Caesar ? 

The Talmudists excellently well clear the matter : " What 
signifieth that tradition (say they) of the removal of the 
council forty years before the ruin of the Temple ? Rabh 
Isaac Bar Abdimi saith, ' It signifieth thus much, that they 
did not judge of fines.' "" And a little after ; " But R. Nach- 
man Bar Isaac saith, ' Do not say that it did not judge of 



V Leusdeus edition, vol. ii. p. 370. ■■ Bab. Avodah Zarah, fol. 8. 2. 
1 Idem, Sanhed. fol. 24. 2. ^* Chap. x. 17. 



'M6 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi. 3. 

fines, but that it did not judge in capital causes/ And the 
reason was this, "hy^ Vn^ X'nT\'\ IhS ^;Z}^SJ1 I^HT ]V3 
II^TD/ because they saw murderers so much increase that tliey 
could not judge them. They said therefore, ' It is fit that we 
should remove from place to place, that so we may avoid the 
guilt.' '■ That is, the number and boldness of thieves and 
murderers growing so groat that, by reason thereof, the au- 
thority of the council grew weak, and neither could nor dared 
put them to death. " It is better (say they) for us to re- 
move from hence, out of this chamber Gazith, where, by the 
quality of the place, we are obliged to judge them, than that, by 
by sitting still here, and not judging them, we should render 
ourselves guilty.'' Hence it is that neither in the highest 
nor in the inferior councils any one was punished with death. 
(" For they did not judge of capital matters in the inferior 
councils in any city, but only when the great council sat in 
the chamber Gazith," saith the Gloss.) The authority of 
them was not taken away by the Romans, but rather relin- 
quished by themselves. The slothfulness of the council de- 
stroyed its own authority. Hear it justly^ upbraided in this 
matter " : " The council which puts but one to death in seven 
years is called Destructive. R. Lazar Ben Azariah said, 
' Which puts one to death in seventy years.' R. Tarphon 
and R. Akiba said, ' If we had been in the council' (when it 
judged of capital matters), ' there had none ever been put to 
death by it.' R. Simeon Ben Gamaliel said, ' These men 
have increased the number of murderers in Israel.' " Most 
certainly true, O Simeon ! for by this means the power of 
the council came to be weakened in capital matters, because 
they, either by mere slothfulness, or by a foolish tenderness, 
or, as indeed the truth was, by a most fond estimation of an 
Israelite as an Israelite, they so far neglected to punish blood- 
shed and murder, and other crimes, till wickedness grew so 
untractable that the authority of the council trembled for 
fear of it, and dared not kill the killers. In this sense their 
saying must be understood, It is not lawful for us to put any 
man to death: their authority of judging not being taken 
from them by the Romans, but lost by themselves, and de- 
spised by their people. 

t English folio edit., vol.ii. p. 249. " Maccotli, cap. i. hal. 17. 



Ch. xxvi.3-j Exercitations ajjon St. Matthew. 327 

Notwithstanding it was not so lost, but that sometimes 
they exercised it ; namely, when they observed they might 
do it safely and without danger. " Dat veniam corvis," &c. 
S})ares crows, hut vexeth pigeons. Thieves, murderers, and 
wicked men armed with force, they dared not call into their 
judgment ; they were afraid of so desperate a crew : but to 
judge, condemn, torture, and put to death poor men and 
Cin-istians, from whom they feared no such danger, they 
dreaded it not, they did not avoid it. They had been ready 
enough at condemning our Saviour himself to death if they 
had not feared the people, and if Providence had not other- 
wise determined of his death. 

We may also, by the way, add that also which follows 
after the place above cited, "'^n l^rO^^ ^nV p X^V^"^ ^^""l 
Sw^tL^^'Q m]31?D?3 In^ the day of Simeon Ben Jochai, judgments 
of pecuniary matters were taken away from Israel. InY the 
same tract this is said to have been in " the days of Simeon 
Ben Shetah," long before Christ was born : but this is an 
error of the transcribers. 

But now, if the Jewish council lost their power of judging 
in pecuniary causes by the same means as they lost it in ca- 
pital, it nmst needs be that deceits, oppressions, and nmtual 
injuries were grown so common and daring that they were let 
alone, as being above all punishment. The Babylonian Ge- 
marists allege another reason ; but whether it be only in 
favour of their nation, this is iio fit place to examine^. 

That we may yet further confirm our opinion, that the 
authority of that council in capital matters was not taken 
away by the Romans, we will produce » two stories, as clear 
examples of the thing we assert : one is this ^ ; '' R. Lazar 
son of R. Zadok said, ' When I was a Httle boy, sitting on 
my father's shoulders, I saw a priest^s daughter that had 
played the harlot compassed round with fagots and burnt.' "" 
The council no doubt judging and condemning her, and this 
after Judea had then groaned many years under the Roman 
yoke ; for that same R. Lazar saw the destruction of tiie city. 

The other you have in the same tract '^, where they are 

^ Hieros. Sanhedr. fol. 24. i. ^ Hieros. Sanhedr. fol. 24. 2. 

y Fol. 18. I. * Leusdea's edUion,\'o\.'\\.\^. ^11. 

'■ See Avodah Zarah as before. ^ Yo\. 25. 4. 



328 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi. 3 . 

speaking of the manner of pumping out \expiscand%\ evidence 
against a heretic and seducer of the people : " They place 
(say they) two witnesses in ambush, in the inner part of the 
house, and him in the outward, with a candle burning by him 
that they may see and hear him. Thus they dealt with Ben 
Satda in Lydda. They placed two disciples of the wise in 
ambush for him, and they brought him before the council, 
and stoned him." The Jews openly profess that this was 
done to him in the days of R, Akiba, long after the destruc- 
tion of the city ; and yet then, as you see, the council still 
retained its authority in judging of capital causes. They 
might do it for all the Romans, if they dared do it to the 
criminals. 

But so much thus far concei-ning its authority : let us now 
speak of its present seat. " The'^ council removed from the 
chamber Gazith to the sheds, from the sheds into Jerusalem, 
from Jerusalem to Jafne, from Jafne to Osha, from Osha to She- 
pharaama, from Shepharaama to Bethshaarim, from Bethshaa- 
rim to Tsippor, from Tsippor to Tiberias," &c. We conjecture 
that the great bench was driven from its seat, the chamber 
Gazith, half a year, or thereabout, before the death of Christ ; 
but whether they sat then in the sheds [a place in the Court 
of the Gentiles] or in the city, when they debated about the 
death of Christ, does not clearly appear, since no authors 
make mention how long it sat either here or there. Those 
things that are mentioned in chap, xxvii. 4 — 6, seem to argue 
that they sat in the Temple ; these before us, that they sat 
in the city. Perhaps in both places; for it was not unusual 
with them to return thither, as occasion served, from whence 
they came ; only to the chamber Gazith they never went 
back. Whence the Gloss upon the place lately cited, " They 
sat in Jafne in the days of Rabban Jochanan ; in Osha, in 
the days of Rabban Gamaliel ; for they returned from Osha 
to Jafne," &c. Thus the council, which was removed from 
Jerusalem to Jafne before the destruction of the city, re- 
turned thither at the feast, and sat as before. Hence Paul 
is brought before the council at Jerusalem when Jafne at that 
time was its proper seat. And hence Rabban Simeon, presi- 

^ Bab. Rosh hashanah, fol. 31. i. 



Oh. xxvi. 3.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 329 

dent of the council, was taken and killed in the siege of the 
city; and Rabban Jochanan his^ vice-president was very near 
it^ both of them being drawn from Jafne to the city, with the 
rest of the bench, for observation of the Passover. 

Whether the hall of the high priest were the ordinary 
receptacle for the council, or only in the present occasion, 
we do not here inquire. It is more material to inquire con- 
cerning the bench itself, and who sat president in judging. 
The president of the council at this time was Rabban Gama- 
liel, (Paul's master,) and the vice-president, Rabban Simeon 
his son, or Rabban Jochanan Ben Zaccai (which we do not 
dispute now). Whence therefore had the chief priest, here 
and in other places, the precedence and the chief voice in 
judging ? For thus in Stephen's case the high priest is the 
chief of the inquisition, Acts vii. i ; also in Paul's case, Acts 
xxiii. 2, see also Acts ix. 1. Had the priests a council and 
judgment seat of their own ? or might they in the chief council, 
when the president was absent, hear causes of life and death ? 
To this long question, and that enough perplexed, we reply 
these few things : 

I. We confess, indeed, that the priests had a bench and 
council of their own, yet denying that there was a double 
council, one for ecclesiastical, the other for civil affairs, as 
some would have it. 

We meet often with mention of the chamber of the coun- 
sellors, '^XToTyi r\y2r?-> next the court, which is also called 
rnrr^D ilDIDv: concerning which thus the Babyl. Joma^ :, 
'•'• The tradition of R. Juda. What, was it the chamber of 
^"'1"T!1"1D ? Was it not the chamber "^tDllv")! /BovKevr&v, of the 
counsellors ? At first it was called the chamber of the coun- 
sellors, j3ov\€VTO)v, '^t^yy?')'! PiD'^h : but when the high priest- 
hood came to be bought with money, and changed yearly, 
p'TimD^ as the king''s jyresidents, irpoebpot, are changed every 
year, from that time forward it was called the chamber of the 
presidents, irpoibpcov.'''' 

Hear the Glosser on this place : " The high priests were 
wicked, and did not fulfil their whole year ; and he that suc- 
ceeded the other changed this building and adorned it, that 
it might be called by his own name." Hear also the Ge- 
c English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 250, f Fol. 8. 



330 Hebreic and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi.3. 

mara; " The fii-st Temple stood four hundred atid ten years, 
and there were not above eighteen priests under it. The 
second stood four hundred and twenty years, and there were 
more than three hundred under it. Take out forty years of 
Simeon the Just, eighty of Jochanan, ten of Ismael Ben 
Phabi, and eleven of Eleazar Ben Harsum, and there doth 
not remain one whole year to each of the rest." 

Behold the chamber of the ISovXevr&u, counsellors, properly 
so called, because the priests did meet and sit there not to 
judge, but to consult ; and that only of things belonging to 
the Temple ! Here they consulted, and took care that all 
]iersons and things belonging and necessary to the worship 
of God should be in readiness ; that the buildings of the 
Temple and the courts should be kept in repair; and that 
the public Liturgy should be duly performed : but in the 
meantime they wanted all power of judgings and punishing ; 
they had no authority to fine, scourge, or put to death, yea, 
and in a word, to exercise any judgment ; for by their own 
examination and authority the}^ could not admit a candi- 
date into the priesthood, but he was admitted by the author- 
ity of the council: " In^^ the chamber Gazith sat the council 
of Israel, and held the examinations of priests : whosoever 
was not found fit was sent away in black clothes, and a black 
veil ; whosoever was found fit was clothed in white, and had 
a white veil, and entered and ministered with his brethren the 
priests." 

2. We meet also with mention of D'^inS /117 Tl rV2 the 
council house of the priests. ^Op Q"^^"!!:! D^^H^n ^W^ 
" The'^ high priests made a decree, and did not permit an 
IsraeHte to carry the scapegoat into the wilderness." But 
in the Gloss, TVI'Ci WlT}^ h^ "m VH ^ The council of 
the priests did not permit this. D'^DHD 711} 'll^ ''The^ council 
of the priests exacted for the portion of a virgin four hundred 
zuzees, and the wise men did not hinder it." 

First, This was that council of which we spoke before in 
the chamber of the counsellors. Secondly, That which was 
decreed by them concerning the carrying away of the scape- 
goat belonged merely to the service of the Temple, as being 

e Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 372. ' Hah. Joma, fol. 66. i. in Gemara. 
^ Bal). Joma, fol. 19. 1. ^ Chetul). chap. i. hal. 5. 



Oh. xxvi. 3-] Exercitations upon Si. Matthew. 331 

a caution about the right performance of the office in the day 
of atonement. Thirdly, and that about the portion of a virgin 
was nothing else but what any Israelite might do: and so the 
Gemarists confess ; " If any noble family in Israel (say they) 
would do what the priests do, they may." The priests set a 
price upon their virgins, and decreed by common consent, 
that not less than such a portion should be required for them; 
which was lawful for all the Israelites to do for their virgins 
if they pleased. 

3. There' is an example brought of "Tobias a physician, 
who saw the new moon at Jerusalem, he and his son, and his 
servant whom he had freed. The priests admitted him and 
his son for witnesses, his servant they rejected : but when 
they came before 11 the bench, they admitted him and his 
servant, and rejected his son." Observe, i. That p"T rT'Q 
the council is here opposed to the priests. 2. That it belonged 
to the council to determine of the new moon, because on 
that depended the set times of the feasts: this is plain enough 
in the™ chapter cited. 3. That what the priests did was 
matter of examination only, not decree. 

4. nir»^© h'^ ""a nt "VVTS ^y^\ The-^ eiders of the city 
(Deut. xxii. 18,) are the triumvirate bench.: "11 HT n"1i^ll?n 
S*)1^ tnD h'QJ ' at the gate'' (ver. 24.) meaiis the bench of the 
chief priest. The matter there in debate is about a married 
woman, who is found by her husband to have lost her vir- 
ginity, and is therefore to be put to death : Deut. xxii. 13, &c. 
In that passage, among other things, you may find these 
words, ver. 18 ; " And the elders of that city shall lay hold of 
that man and scourge him." The Gemarists take occasion 
from thence to define what the phrase there and in other 
places means, " The elders of the city:" and what is the 
meaning of niyU}!! the word gate, when it relates to the 
bench : " That (say they) signifies the triumvirate (.bench : 
this the bench or council of the high priest :" that is, unless I 
be very much mistaken, every council of twenty-three ; which 
is clear enough both from the place mentioned and from 
reason itself: 

I . The words of the place quoted are these : " R. Bon Bar 

1 Rosh hasbanah, cap. i. lial. 7. "» English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 251. 
" Jerus. Chctub. fol. 28. 5. 



332 Hehmo and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi. 3. 

Chaija inquired before R. Zeira, What if the father [of the 
virgin] should produce witnesses which invalidate the testi- 
mony of the husband's witnesses? if the father's witnesses are 
proved false, he must be whipped, and pay a hundred selaim 
in the ti'iumvirate court ; but the witnesses are to be stoned 
by the bench of 'the twenty-three, &c. R. Zeira thought 
that this was a double judgment : but R. Jeremias, in the 
name of R. Abhu, that it was but a single one : but the tra- 
dition contradicts R. Abhu ; for '^''■))T^ "^DpT Tt^ To the elders 
of the city, ver. 5, n2}7L"' /11? "1I Ht is, To the triumvirate- 
hench. 7TT^ ^TO Si PIT rrni^tDH but at the gate, means the 
hench of the hinh priest." It is plain, that the hench of the 
high priest is put in opposition to the triumvirate bench ; and, 
by consequence, that it is either the chief council, or the 
council of the twenty-three, or some other council of the 
priests, distinct from all these. But it cannot be this third, 
because the place cited in the Talmudists, and the place in 
the law cited by the Talmudists, plainly speak of such a 
council, which had power of judging in capital causes. But 
they that suppose''f/he ecclesiastical council among the Jews 
to have been distinct from the civil, scarce suppose that that 
council sat on capital causes, or passed sentence of death ; 
much less is it to be thought that that council sat only on 
life and death ; which certainly ought to be supposed from 
the place quoted, if 7l"T!l 1113 7\1? '"Tl the council of the high 
priest did strictly signify such a council of priests. Let us 
illustrate the Talmudical words with a paraphrase: " R. Zeira 
thought, that that cause of a husband accusing his wife for 
the loss of her virginity belonged to the judgment of two 
benches ; namely, of the triumvirate, which inflicted whipping 
and pecuniary mulcts ; and of the ' twenty-three,' which 
adjudged to death ; but Rabbi Abhu thinks it is to be 
referred to the judgment of one bench only. But you are 
mistaken, good Rabbi Abhu ; and the very phrase made use of 
in this case refutes you ; for the expression which is brought 
in, "To the elders of the city,'' signifies the triumviral bench; 
and the phrase°, "at the gate," signifies the bench of twenty- 
three ; for the chief council never sat in the gate. 

2. Now the council of tioenty -three is called by the Tal- 

" Leusdens edition, vol. ii. p. 373. 



Oh. xxvi. 3.] Exer citations iipon St. Matthew. 333 

mudists the bench, or the council of the chief priest, alluding 
to the words of the lawgiver, Deut. xvii. 9, where the word 
priests denotes the inferior councils, and Judge the chief 
council. 

II. In the chief council, the president sat in the highest 
seat, (being at this time, when Christ was under examination, 
Rabban Gamaliel, as we said) ; but the high priest excelled 
him in dignity everywhere : for the president of the council 
was chosen not so much for his quality, as for his learning 
and skill in traditions. He was T^p'O (a phrase very much 
used by the author of Juchasin, applied to presidents), that 
\s, keeper, father,WL\di deliverer of traditions; and he was chosen 
to this office, who was fittest for these things. Memorable 
is the story of Hillel's coming to the presidentship, being 
preferred to the chair for this only thing, because he solved 
some doubts about the Passover, having learned it, as he saith 
himself, from Shemaiah and Abtalion. We will not think it 
much to transcribe the storyP: "The sons of Betira once 
forgot a tradition : for when the fourteenth day [on which 
the Passover was to be celebrated] fell out on the sabbfith, 
they could not tell whether the Passover should take place of 
the sabbath or no. But they said, There is here a certain 
Babylonian, Hillel by name, who was brought up under 
Shemaiah and Abtalion; he can resolve us whether the Pass- 
over should take place of the sabbath or no. They sent 
therefore for him, and said to him, ' Have you ever heard in 
your life, [that is, have you received any tradition,] whether, 
when the fourteenth day falls on the sabbath, the Passover 
should take place of the sabbath or no?' He answered, 
' Have we but one Passover that takes place of the sabbath 
yearly ? or are there not many Passovers that put by the 
sabbath yearly ? namely, the continual sacrifice.^ He proved 
this by arguments a pari, from the equality of it, from the 
less to the greater, &c. But they did not admit of this from 
him, till he said, ' May it thus and thus happen to me, if I 
did not hear this of Shemaiah and Abtalion.' When they 
heard this they immediately submitted, and promoted him to 
the presidentship," &c. 

Itq belonged to the president chiefly to sum up the votes 

P Jerus. Pesach. fol. 33. i. 'i English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 252. 



334 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi. 6. 

of the elders, to determine of a tradition, to preserve it. and 
transmit it to posterity ; and, these things excepted, you will 
scarce observe any thing peculiar to him in judging which 
was not common to all the rest. Nothing therefore hindered 
but that the high priest and the other priests (while he ex- 
celled in quality, and they in number) might promote acts 
in the council above the rest, and pursue them with the 
greatest vigour ; but especially when the business before 
them was about the sum of religion, as it was here, and in 
the examples alleged of Paul and Stephen, It was lawful 
for them, to whose office it peculiarly belonged to take care 
of sacred things, to show more officious diligence in matters 
where these were concerned than other men, that they might 
provide for their fame among men, and the good of their 
places. The council, indeed, might consist of Israelites 
only, without either Levites or priests, in case such could 
not be found fit : " Thus ^ it is commanded that in the great 
council there should be Levites and priests ; but if such 
are not to be found, and the council consists of other Israel- 
ites only, it is lawful." But such a scarcity of priests and 
Levites is only supposed, was never found ; they w^ere always 
a great part, if not the greatest, of the council. Rabban 
Jochanan Ben Zacchai, the priest, was either now vice-presi- 
dent of the council, or next to him. Priests were every- 
where in such esteem with the people and with the council, 
and the dignity and veneration of the high priest was so 
great, that it is no wonder if you find him and them al- 
ways the chief actors, and the principal part in that great 
assembly. 

Ver. 6: Tov 8e 'Irjo-ou yevoixevov iv Br]daviq, &c. Now tchen 
Jesus teas in Betliany, ^c?\ That this supper in Bethany was 
the same with that mentioned John xiii, I dare venture to 
affirm ; however that be taken by very many for the paschal 
supper. Let us examine the matter a little home : 

T. This supper was before the Passover ; so was that : 
that this was, none need doubt ; no more may they of the 
other, if we consider these things : 

T. It is said by John in express words, Trpo rr\'i kopTrjs rod 
U6.<Txa, before the feast of the Passover, ver. i, UAaxa, 
^ Maimon. Sanhedr, cap. 2. 



Ch. xxvi. 6.] Exerc'daiions upon aS7. Matthew. J335 

Passover^ indeed, not seldom signifies the lamb itself; some- 
times the very time of eating the lamb ; sometimes the sa- 
crifice of the day following, as John xviii. 28. But kopri] tov 
riao-^a, the feast of the Passover, alway signifies the whole 
seven days' paschal feast, both in the language of the Scrip- 
ture and of the Talmudists : a Jew would laugh at one that 
should interpret it otherways. 

2. When Christ said to. Judas going out, " What thou 
doest, do quickly," some thought he meant this, " Buy those 
things that we have need of against the feast/' at the twenty- 
ninth verse. For v^htxt feast, I pray? for the paschal supper? 
That, according to the interpreters which we here oppose, 
was just past. For the remaining part of the feast of that 
solemnity ? Alas, how unseasonable ! Where were those things, 
I pray, then to be bought, if this were the very night on which 
they had just eaten the lamb ? The night of a feast day was 
festival : where were there any such markets to be found then ? 
It was an unusual thing indeed, and unheard of, to rise from 
the paschal supper to go to market : a market on a festival- 
night^ was unusual and unheard of. It would argue some ne- 
gligence, and a little good husbandry, if those things that were 
necessary for the feast were not yet provided ; but that they must 
be to run, now late at night, to buy those things they knew 
not where, they knew not how. It is certainly very harsh, and 
contrary to reason, to understand these things thus, when, 
from the first verse, the sense is very plain, before the feast of 
the Passover. The Passover was not yet come, but was near 
at hand : the disciples, therefore, thought that our Saviour had 
given order to Judas to provide all those things that were ne- 
cessary to the paschal solemnity against it came. 

3. Observe that also of Luke, chap. xxii. 3, &c. : " Satan 
entered into Judas, and he went his way, and communed 
with the chief priests," &c. And after, in the seventh verse, 
" Then came the day of unleavened bread." Hence I inquire, 
Is the method of Luke direct or no ? If not, let there bo 
some reason given of the transposition : if it be direct, then 
it is plain that the devil entered into Judas before the Pass- 
over : but he entered into him at that supper in John xiii. 27 ; 
therefore that supper was before the Passover. For, 

s Leiisden's edition, \o\, ii. p. 374. 



336 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi. 6. 

4. Let them who take that supper in John xiii. for the 
paschal supper, tell me how this is possible, that Judas after 
the paschal supper (at which they do not deny that he was 
present with the rest of the disciples) could make his agree- 
ment with the priests, and get his blades s together ready to 
apprehend our Saviour, and assemble all the council, ver. 57. 
The evangelists say that he made an agreement with the 
chief priests. Matt. xxvi. 14, koX yot? arparriyols, and loith the 
captains, Luke xxii. 4, and " with all the council," Mark xiv. 
i o, 11. But now, which way was it possible that he could 
bargain with all these in* so small a space as there was 
between the going out of Judas from supper and the be- 
traying of our Lord in the garden ? What ! were these all 
together at supper that night ? This is a matter to be laughed 
at rather than credited. Did he visit all these from door to 
door ? And this is as Httle to be thought, since he had scarce 
time to discourse with any one of them. Every one supped 
this night at home, the master of a family with his family. 
It would be ridiculous to suppose that these chief priests 
supped together, while, in the mean time, their families sat 
down at home without their head. It is required by the law 
that every master of a family should be with his family that 
night, instructing them, and performing sacred rites with 
and for them. These were, therefore, to be sought from 
house to house by Judas, if that were the first time of his 
treating with them about this matter : and let reason answer 
whether that little time he had were sufficient for this ? We 
affirm, therefore, with the authority of the evangelists, that 
that supper, John xiii, was before the Passover ; at which, 
Satan entering into Judas, he bargained with the priests 
before the Passover, he appointed the time and place of his 
betraying our Saviour, and all things were by them made 
ready for this wicked deed before the Passover came. Ob- 
serve the method and order of the story in the evangelists, 
Matt, xxvi, 14 — 17 ; Mark xiv. 10 — 12: " Then went Judas to 
the priests, and said, ' What will ye give me,'' &c. And from 
that time he sought opportunity to betray him. Now, the 
first day of the feast of unleavened bread, the disciples came 

s [Turbam sicariorum.j * English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 253. 



Oh. xxvi. 6.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 337 

came," &c. When was it that Judas came to the priests to 
treat about betraying Christ ? surely before the first day of 
unleavened bread. Luke also, whom we quoted before, pro- 
ceeds in the very same method : " From that time (say they), 
he sought for an opportunity to betray him." If then first 
he went to and agreed with the priests when he rose up 
from the paschal supper, as many suppose, he did not then 
seek for an opportunity, but had found one. The manner of 
speaking used by the evangelists most plainly intimates some 
space of deliberation, not sudden execution. 

5. Let those words of John be considered, chap. xiv. 31, 
'Eyetpeo-^e, aycofxev ivrevOev, Arise, let us go hence, and com- 
pared with the words, chap, xviii. i, "When Jesus had spoken 
these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook 
Cedron." Do not these speak of two plainly different de- 
partures ? Did not Christ rise up and depart when he said, 
" Arise, let us go hence ?" Those words are brought in by the 
evangelist without any end or design, if we are not to under- 
stand by them that Christ immediately changed his place : 
and certainly this change of place is different from that which 
followed the paschal supper, John xviii. i. 

6. In that thirteenth chapter of John there is not the 
least mention nor syllable of the paschal supper. There is, 
indeed, plain mention of a supper before the feast of the Pass- 
over, that is, before the festival day ; but of a paschal supper 
there is not one syllable. I profess seriously, I cannot wonder 
enough how interpreters could apply that chapter to the 
paschal supper, when there is not only no mention at all in 
it of the paschal supper, but the evangelist hath also pro- 
nounced, in most express words, and than which nothing can 
be more plain, that that supper of which he speaks was not 
on the feast of the Passover, but before the feast. 

7. If those things which we meet with, John xiii, of the 
sop given to Judas, &c. were acted in the paschal supper, 
then how, I pray, was it possible for the disciples to mistake 
the meaning of those words, " What thou doest, do quickly V 
In the paschal supper he said, " He that dips with me in the 
dish is he ;" and the hand of Judas, as some think, was at 
that very moment in the dish. To Judas asking, " Is it IV 
he plainly answered, " Thou hast said :" and besides, he gave 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. Z 



338 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi.6. 

him a sop for a token, as they say who maintain that opinion : 
then with what reason, or with what ignorance", after so clear 
a discovery of the thing and person, could the disciples ima- 
gine that Christ said, " Buy quickly those things that are 
necessary, or give something to the poor V 

8. And to what poor, I pray ? It was unseasonable, truly, 
late at night, to go to seek for poor people here and there, 
who were now dispersed all about in &evQVdX families {'^parpiaC), 
eating the passover : for the poorest Israelite was obliged to 
that duty as well as the richest. They who supposed that 
Christ commanded him to give something to the poor, could 
not but understand it of a thing that was presently to be 
done. For it had been ridiculous to conceive, that Christ 
sent him so hastily away from supper to give something to 
the poor to-morrow. But, if it be granted that the matter 
was transacted at Bethany, and that two days before the 
Passover, which we assert, then it is neither necessary you 
should suppose that supper to have been so late at night ; nor 
were poor people, then and there, to be far sought for, since 
so great a multitude of men followed Christ everywhere. 

II. This supper was at Bethany, two days before the Pass- 
over : the same we conclude of that supper, John xiii, both as 
to the place and time ; and that, partly, by the carrying on of 
the story to that time, partly, by observing the sequel of that 
supper. Six days before the Passover Christ sups at Be- 
thany, John xii. i. 

The next day (five days before the Passover)'' he came to 
Jerusalem riding on an ass, John xii. 12: and in the evening 
he returned to Bethany, Matt. xxi. 17 ; Mark xi. 11. 

The day following (four days before the Passover) he went 
to Jerusalem, Mark xi. 11, ic^, &c ; and at evening he re- 
turned the same way to Bethany, Mark xi. 19. 

The day after (three days before the Passover), he goes 
again to Jerusalem, Mark xi. 27. In the evening, he went 
out to the mount of Olives, Matt. xxiv. i, 3 ; Mark xiii. 1,3; 
Luke xxi. 37. Now where did he sup this night? at Bethany. 
For so Matthew and Mark, " After two days was the Pass- 
over," &c. " Now when Jesus was in Bethany." And from 

^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 375. ^ English folio edit. vol. ii. p. 254. 



Oh. XX vi. 6.] Exercitations upon Ht. Matthew. 339 

this time forward there is no account either of his supping or 
going to Jerusalem till the evening of the Passover. 

From that supper both the evangelists begin their story 
of Judas's contriving to betray our Lord; Matt. xxvi. 14; 
Mark xiv. 10: and very fitly; for at that supper the devil 
had entered into him, and huiTied him forward to accom- 
plish his villany. 

We therefore thus draw up the series of the history out 
of the holy writers : Before the feast of the Passover (John 
xiii. 1), namely, two days (Matt. xxvi. 2, 6), as Jesus was 
supping in Bethany, a woman anoints his head : and some of 
the disciples murmur at it. Our Saviour himself becomes 
both her advocate and encomiast. Before supper was done 
Christ riseth from the table, and washeth his disciples' feet ; 
and, sitting down again, acquaints them with the betrayer. 
John asking privately about him, he privately also gives him 
a token by a sop, and gives a sop to Judas. With this the 
devil entered into him, and now he grows ripe for his wicked- 
ness : " The devil had before put it into his heart to betray 
him/' ver. 2 ; now he is impatient till he hath done it. He 
riseth up immediately after he had the sop, and goes out. 
As he was going out, Jesus said to him, " What thou doest, 
do quickly :"" which some understood of buying necessaries for 
the feast, that was now two days off. It was natural and 
easy for them to suppose, that he, out of his diligence (having 
the purse, and the care of providing things that were neces- 
sary), was now gone to Jerusalem, though it were night, there 
being a great deal to be done, to get all things ready against 
the feast. He goes away ; comes to Jerusalem ; and the 
next day treats with the priests about betraying our Lord, 
and concludes a bargain with them. They were afraid for 
themselves, lest they should be either hindered by the people, 
or suffer some violence from them on the feast day. He frees 
them from this fear, provided they would let him have soldiers 
and company ready at the time appointed. Our Saviour 
lodges at Bethany that night, and spends the next day and 
the night after there too : and, being now ready to take his 
leave of his disciples, he teaches, instructs, and comforts tliem 
at large. Judas, having craftily laid the design of his 
treachery, and set his nets in readiness, returns, as is \}V0- 

z 2 



340 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi. 7, &c. 

bable, to Bethany ; and is supposed by the disciples^ who 
were ignorant of the matter, to have performed his office 
exceeding diligently, in providing necessaries for the ap- 
proaching feast. On the day itself of the Passover, Jesus 
removes from Bethany with his disciples : " Arise (saith he), 
let us go hence," John xiv. 31, and comes to Jerusalem. 

Ver. 7 : Kariyeev k-nl ttjv K€(f)aXr}V avrov avaK^iixivov Poured 
it upon Ms head, as he sat at meat.'] Therefore, it was not the 
same supper with that in John xii. i ; for then our Saviour's 
feet were anointed, now his head. I admire that any one 
should be able to confound these two stories. Oil, perfumed 
with spices, was very usual in feasts, especially sacred ; and it 
was wont to be poured upon the head of some one present. 

" They school of Shammai saith, He holds sweet oil in his 
right hand, and a cup of wine in his left. He says grace 
first over the oil, and then over the wine. The school of 
Hillel saith, Oil in his right hand, and wine in his left. He 
blesseth the sweet oil, and anoints the head of him that 
serves : but if the waiter be a disciple of the wise, he anoints 
the wall ; for it is a shame z for a disciple of the wise to smell 
of perfumes." Here the waiter anoints the head of him that 
sits down. 

Ver. 8 : Et? ri. rj air(l>kua avrr] ; To what purpose is this 
waste ?] It was not without cause that it was called " pre- 
cious ointment," ver. 7, and " very costly,'" John xii. 3 : to 
shew that it was not of those common sorts of ointments 
used in feasts, which they thought it no waste to pour upon 
the waiter's head, or to daub upon the wall. But this oint- 
ment was of much more value, and thence arose the cavil. 

Ver. 9^: Kai boOrjvaL toIs irTcaxolr And be given to the poor.] 
That it was Judas especially who cavilled at this, we have 
reason to believe from what is said of him in another supper, 
John xii. 4. Compare this with those words, John xiii. 29. 
When Jesus said to Judas, " What thou doest, do quickly," 
some thought he had meant, " Give something to the poor." 
That supper, I presume, was the same with this : and see, 
how these things agree ! When a complaint arose of that pro- 
digal waste of the ointment here, and before in John xii, and 

y Hieros. Berac. fol. 11. 2. ^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 376. 

* English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 255. 



Ch. XX vi. 12, &c.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 341 

that it seemed unfit to some that that should be spent so 
unadvisedly upon our Lord which might have been bestowed 
much better, and more fitly, upon the poor, how easily might 
the others think that Christ had spoken to him about giving 
somewhat to the poor, that he might show his care of the 
poor, notwithstanding what he had before said concerning 
them, and the waste of the ointment. 

Ver. 1 2 : Upbs to kvTaipiaaai [X€ (iroCrjacv She did it for my 
burial.] She had anointed his feet, John xii. 3. out of love, 
duty, and honour to him ; but this (which is added over and 
above to them) is upon account of his burial ; and that not 
only in the interpretation of Christ, but in the design of the 
woman. She, and she first, believes that Christ should die ; 
and, under that notion, she pours the ointment upon his head, 
as if she were now taking care of his body, and anointing it 
for burial : and it is as if Christ had said to those that took 
exceptions and complained, " You account her too ofiicious 
and diligent for her doing this ; and wasteful rather than 
prudent, in the immoderate profession of her friendship and 
respect ; but a great and weighty reason moves her to it. 
She knows I shall die, and now takes care of my burial : what 
you approve of towards the dead, she hath done to one ready 
to die. Hence her fame shall be celebrated, in all ages, for 
this her faith, and this expression of it." 

Ver. 15 : TptaKovTa apyvpia. Thirttj pieces of silver.] The 
price of a slave, Exod. xxi. 32. Maimon.b « The price of a 
slave, whether great or little, he or she, is ^i^vD 7 thirty 
selaim of pure silver : if the slave be worth a hundred pounds, 
or worth only one penny." Now Y7D a selaa, in his weight, 
weighed three hundred and eighty-four barleycorns'^. 

Ver. 1 7 : Uov ^e'Aeis krotpLaaoiixev, &c. Where wilt thou that 
we prepare, Sfc] For they might anywhere ; since the 
houses at Jerusalem were not to be hired, as we have noted 
elsewhere, but during the time of the feast they were of 
common right ^. 

Ver. 1 9 : 'Hroijuao-ay to Yiacrya' They made ready the Pass- 
over.] Peter and John were sent for this purpose, Luke 
xxii. 8 : and perhaps they moved the question rtov ^e'Aets 

^ In poD >pt3 cap. II. c Shekalim, c. i. 

^ Bab. Joma, fol. 12. i. 



342 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi. 19. 

€Toiixd(T(iiiJL(i;, where wilt thou, &c. They only knew that Judas 
was about another business, while the rest supposed he was 
preparing necessaries for the Passover. 

This Peter and John were to do, after having spoken with 
the landlord, whom our Saviour pointed out to them by a 
sign, to prepare and fit the room. 

I. A lamb was to be bought, approved^ and fit for the 
Passover. 

II. This Iamb was to be brought by them into the court 
where the altar was. 

" The^ Passover was to be killed only in the court where 
the other sacrifices were slain : and it was to be killed on 
the fourteenth day after noon, after the daily sacrifice, after 
the offering^ of the incense," &c. The manner of bringing 
the Passover into the court, and of killing it, you have in 
Pesachin?^, in these words: "The Passover is killed in three 
companies ; according as it is said, [Exod. xii. 6,] ^t^HUJT 

Tt^'^.tL'"' mV ^nj^ ^i) irrifc"^ and all the assembly of the con- 
gregation of Israel shall I: ill it {the Passover) ; assembly, congre- 
gation, and Israel. The first company enters and fills the 
whole court : they lock the doors of the court : the trumpets 
sound : the priests stand in order, having golden and silver 
vials in their hands : one row silver, and the other gold ; and 
they are not intermingled : the vials had no brims, lest the 
blood should stay upon them, and be congealed or thickened: 
an Israelite kills it, and a priest receives the blood, and gives 
it to him that stands next, and he to the next, who, taking 
the vial that was full, gives him an empty one. The priest 
who stands next to the altar sprinkles the blood at one 
sprinkling against the bottom of the altar'' : that company 
goes out, and the second comes in," &;c. Let them tell me 
now, who suppose that Christ ate his Passover one day sooner 
than the Jews did theirs, how these things could be per- 
formed by him or his disciples in the Temple, since it was 
looked upon as a heinous offence among the people not to 
kill or eat the Passover in the due time. They commonly 
carried the lambs into the court upon their shoulders : this 



•> Maimon. in Korl)an Pesach, cap. i . ^ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 256. 
s Cap. 5. hal. 5, 6. ^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 377. 



Ch. xxvi. 20,1 Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 343 

is called 'ini^lH its carrying., in Pesacliin'^ : where the Gloss, 
" The carrying of it upon a man's shoulders, to bring it into 
the court, as into a public place/' 

III. It was to be presented in the court PIDD □tDT' under 
the name of the Paschal lamh, and to be killed 1*'''1DQT' for the 
company mentioned. See what the Gemarists say of this thing 
in Pesachin^ : " If they kill it for such as are not to eat, or 
as are not numbered, for such as are not circumcised or 
unclean, it is profane : if for those that are to eat, and not to 
eat, numbered and not numbered, for circumcised and not 
circumcised, clean and vmclean, it is right : " that is, for 
those that are numbered, that atonement may be made for 
the not numbered ; for the circumcised, that atonement may 
he made for the uncircumcised, &c. So the Gemarists and 
the Glosses. 

IV. The blood being sprinkled at the foot of the altar, 
the lamb flayed, his belly cut up, the fat taken out and 
thrown into the fire upon the altar, the body is carried back 
to the place where they sup: the flesh is roasted, and the 
skin given to the landlord. 

V. Other things were also provided. Bread according to 
God's appointment, wine, some usual meats, and the same 
called r\D1in^ Charoseth: of which commentators speak 
everywhere. 

Ver. 20 : 'AviKeao ju,eTa tmv bcabeKa' He sat down with the 
twelve.'] : ID**!! is the word among the Talmudists. 

I. The schools of the Rabbins distinguish between Hl'^tl?'^ 
sitting at the table, and m"'Dn lying at the table: ITT™ 
715b^S rit2}V " If they sit to eat, every one says grace for 
himself; 'll'^DH if they lie., one says grace for all."" But now 
" that lying," as the Gloss on the place saith, *' was when 
they leaned on their left side upon couches, and ate and 
drank as they thus leaned." And the same Gloss in another 
place ; " They used to eat lying along upon their left side, 
their feet being on the ground, every one on a single couch :" 
Babyl. Berac.n As also the Gemara»; TV'iyD t^7 'pp^^ 

' Pesachin, cap. 6. hal. i. ™ Berac. cap. 6. hal. 6. 

^ Cap. 5. hal. 3. n Bab. Berac. fol. 46. 2. 

^1 [See Buxtorf Lex. T. et R. o Pesachin, fol. 108. i. 
sub V. col. 831.] 



344 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvl. 20. 

nn'^Dn n^r^u? «^ pD'^ nn^Dn ni^on ^o ?«^ on one's hack 

is not called lying down ; and to lie on one's right side is not 
called lying down. 

11. The Israelites accounted such lying down in eating a 
very fit posture requisite in sacred feasts, and highly requisite 
and most necessary in the Paschal supper : " We P do not use 
lying down but only to a morsel," &c. " And indeed to 
those that did eat leaning, leaning was necessary. But now 
our sitting is a kind of leaning along. They were used to lean 
along every one on his own couch^ and to eat his meat on his 
own table : but we eat all together at one table." 

IID'^U? nv ^Dt^^ i^h h^'^^^yi) "«^J? I^^D^ Evem the 
poorest Israelite must not eat till he lies down. The canon is 
speaking about the Paschal supper; on which thus the Baby- 
lonians : *' It is said that the feast of unleavened bread 
requires leaning or lying down, but the bitter herbs not : 
concerning wine, it is said in the name of Rabh Nachman 
that it hath need of lying down : and it is said in the name 
of Rabh Nachman, that it hath not need of lying down : and 
yet these do not contradict one another ; for that is said of 
the two first cups, this of the two last»"." They lie down on 
the left side, not on the right, " because they must necessarily 
use their right hand in eating." So the Gloss there. 

III. They used and were fond of that custom of lying 
down, even to superstition, because it carried with it a token 
and signification of liberty : "R. Levi saith*. It is the manner 
of slaves to eat standing : but now let them eat lying along, 
that it may be known that they are gone out of bondage to 
liberty. R. Simon in the name of R. Joshua Ben Levi*, Let 
that which a man eats at the Passover, and does his duty, 
though it be but as big as an olive, let it be eaten lying 
along." " They" eat the unleavened bread the first night 
lying down, because it is a commemoration of deliverance. 
The bitter herbs have no need of lying down, because they 
are in memory of bondage. Although it be the bread of 
affliction, yet it is to be eaten after the manner of liberty." 

P Another Gloss in Berac. cap. 6. « Hieros. Pesach. fol.37. 2. 

in the place above. * English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 257. 

1 Pesach. cap. 10. hal. i. " Bab. in the place above in the 

"■ Bab. Pesach. fol. 108. i. Gloss. 



Ch. xxvi. 22.] E xer citations wpon St. Matthew. 345 

See more there. " We ^ are obliged to lie down when we eat, 
that we may eat after the manner of kings and nobles." 

IV. " When there were two beds, \rt>^^n ID^D ^11^ the 
worthiest person lay uppermost; the second to him, next above 
him. But when there were three beds, the worthiest person 
lay in the middle, the second above him, the third below 
himy." On which thus the Gloss: "When there were two, 
the principal person lay on the first couch, and the next to 
him lay above him, that is, on a couch placed at the pillow 
of the more worthy person. If there were three, the worthiest 
lay in the middle, the next above him, and the third below 
him 2 ; that is, at the coverlids of his feet. If the principal 
person desires to speak with the second, he must necessarily 
raise himself so as to sit upright ; for as long as he sits 
bending he cannot speak to him ; for the second sat behind 
the head of the first, and the face of the first was turned 
another away : and it would be better with the second \in 
respect of discourse] if he sat below him ; for then he might 
hear his words^ even as he lay along." This affords some 
light to that story, John xiii. 23, 24 ; where Peter, as seems 
likely, lying behind our Saviour^s head in the first place next 
after him, could not discourse with him, nor ask about the 
betrayer : therefore looking over Christ's head upon John, he 
gave him a sign to inquire. He sitting in the second place 
from Christ with his face towards him, asketh him, 

Ver. 22 : M?jn eyw d[xt., Kvpie ; Lord, is it I?] The very 
occasion, namely, eating together and fellowship, partly 
renews the mention of the betrayer at the Paschal supper; 
as if he had said, " We are eating here friendly together, and 
yet there is one in this number who will betray me :" partly, 
that the disciples might be more fully acquainted with the 
matter itself: for at the supper in John xiii, he had pri- 
vately discovered the person to John only; unless perhaps 
Peter understood it also, who knew of John's question to 
Christ, having at first put him upon it by his beckoning. 
The disciples ask, Is it I ? partly through ignorance of the 
thing, partly out of a sincere and assured profession of the 
contrary. 

» Mairaon. in nVit^O tyn^Q. Bab. Berac. fol. 46. 2. 

y Hieros. Taanith, fol. 68. i. et ^ Leusden's edition, xol.ii. p. ^^S. 



346 Hebrew and Tahmdical [Ch. xxvi. 24, &c. 

Ver. 24. Kakov -qv avr^, d ovk lyevvrjOrj' It had been good 
for him if he had not been born.^ ', b^"mi b^7^ 17 HID It^ 
were better for him that he were not created. A very usual way 
of speaking in the Talmudists. 

Ver. 26. AajSoiv 6 ^Irjcrovs top aprov, &c. Jesus took bread, S^c] 
Bread at supper, the cup after supper : " After supper he took 
the cup," saith Luke, chap. xxii. 20 ; and Paul, 1 Cor. xi. 25 ; 
but not so of the bread. 

That we may more clearly perceive the history of this 
supper in the evangelists, it may not be amiss to transcribe 
the rubric of the paschal supper, with what brevity we can, 
out of the Talmudists ; that we may compare the things here 
related with the custom of the nation. 

I. The paschal supper began with a cup of wine: "They^ 
mingle the first cup for him. The school of Shammai saith, 
He gives thanks, first for the day, and then for the wine: 
but the school of Hillel saith, He first gives thanks for the 
wine, and then for the day." The Shammeans confirm their 
opinion, i^^"^\y y^h DH^ DTn^T Because the day is the cause 
of their having wine ." that is, as the Gloss explains it, t^l'^U? 
nili^D D"11p that they have it before meat. "They^ first 
mingle a cup for every one, and \the 'master of the famihj\ 
blesseth it ; ' Blessed be he that created the fruit of the vine :' 
and then he repeats the consecration of the day, *07^T\ [that 
is, he gives thanks in the plural number for all the company, 
saying, ' Let us give thanks,'] and drinks up the cup. " And 
afterward he blesseth concerning the washing of hands, and 
washeth." Compare this cup with that, Luke xxii. 1 7. 

H. Thend the bitter herbs are set on : " They*^ bring in 
a table ready covered, upon which there is "^n^i pi"»"! ni?;^ 
sour sauce and other herbs.'''' n"TfrQ 72t^?0 1''3dS Ib^'^^n 
riDn^ n"^Q"ia^ i^'':i^U? 1V Let the Glosserss give the in- 
terpretation : " They do not set the table till after the conse- 
cration of the day : and upon the table they set lettuce. 
After he hath blessed over the wine, they set herbs, and he 
eats lettuce dipped, but not in nD1"^n the sour sauce, for that 

a Bab. Berac. fol. 17. i, &c. ^ English folio edit. ,\o\.\x. p.258. 

^ Pesach. cap. 10. hal. 2. ^ Maimon. 

«= Maimon. in Chamets umatsah, ^ Pesachin, as before, 

cap. 8. e Bab. fol. 114. i. 



Ch. xxvi. 26.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 347 

is not yet brought : and this is not meant simply of lettuce, unless 
when there be other herbs." ncn n'^-D^^sS V'^yt2^ iy His 
meaning is this, before he comes to those bitter herbs which 
he eats after the unleavened bread, when he also gives thanks 
for the eating of the bitter herbs, '^as it is written," Ye shall 
eat {it) with unleavened bread and bitter herbs : " First un- 
leavened bread, and then bitter herbs. And this first dipping 
is used only for that reason, that children may observe and 
inquire ; for it is unusual for men to eat herbs before meat." 

III. " Afterward there is set on unleavened bread, and the 
sauce called rDIIH; and the lamb, and the flesh also of 
the Chagigah of the fourteenth day.^^ Maimonides doth not 
take notice of any interposition between the setting on the 
bitter herbs, and the setting on the unleavened bread : but the 
Talmudic Misna notes it in these words ; TOn Vlth ^'^'^^1T\ 
Tliey set unleavened bread before Mm. Where the Gloss, 
" This is said, because they have moved the table from before 
him who performed the duty of the Passover : now that re- 
moval of the table was for this end, that the son might ask 
the father, and the father answered him, * Let them bring the 
table again, that we may make the second dipping ;^ then the 
son would ask, * Why do we dip twice V Therefore they bring 
back the table with unleavened bread upon it, and bitter 
herbs," &c. 

I Y. He begins, and blesseth, " ' Blessed be He that created 
the fruits of the earth :' and he takes the herbs and dips 
them in the sauce Charoseth, and eats as much as an olive, 
he, and all that lie down with him ; but less than the quantity 
of an olive he must not eat: then they remove the table^ 
from before the master of the familyi." Whether this removal 
of the table be the same with the former is not much worth 
our inquiry. 

V. *^W D13 17 lllf^ " Now they mingle the second cup for 
him: and the son asks the father; or if the son doth not ask 
him, he tells him himself, how much this night differs from 
all other nights. ' On other nights (saith he) we dip but 
once, but this night twice. On other nights we eat either 
leavened or unleavened bread ; on this, only unleavened, &c. 

^ Leusden's edition, vol. 2. p. 379. » Maimon. 



348 Hehrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi. 26. 

On other nights we eat either sitting or lying; on this, all 
lying.' " 

VI. " The table is set before them again ; and then he 
saith, ' This is the passover, which we therefore eat, because 
Clod passed over the houses of our fathers in Egypt.' Then 
he lifts up the bitter herbs in his hand and saith, ' We there- 
fore eat these bitter herbs, because the Egyptians made the 
lives of our fathers bitter in Egypt.' He takes up the un- 
leavened bread in his hand, and saith, ' We eat this unleavened 
bread, because our fathers had not time to sprinkle their 
meal to be leavened before God revealed himself and redeemed 
them. We ought therefore to praise, celebrate, honour, mag- 
nify, &c. him, who wrought all these wonderful things for our 
fathers and for us, and brought us out of bondage into liberty, 
out of sorrow into joy, out of darkness into great light ; let 
us therefore say, Hallelujah : Praise the Lord, praise him, O 
ye servants of the Lord, &c. to, And the flint-stone into 
fountains of waters' [that is, from the beginning of Psalm 
cxiii to the end of Psalm cxiv] . And he concludes, ' Blessed 
be thou, Lord God, our King eternal, redeeming us, and 
redeeming our fathers out of Egypt, and bringing us to this 
night ; that we may eat unleavened bread and bitter herbs :' 
and then he drinks off the second cup." 

Vn. " Then washing his hands, and taking two loaves, he 
breaks one, and lays the broken upon the whole one, and 
blesseth it ; ' Blessed be he who causeth bread to grow out 
of the earth :' and putting some bread and bitter herbs toge- 
ther, he dips them in the sauce Charoseth, — and blessing, 
'Blessed be thou, Lord God, our eternal King, he who 
hath sanctified us by his precepts, and hath commanded us 
to eat,' he eats the unleavened bread and bitter herbs toge- 
ther ; but if he eats the unleavened bread and bitter herbs 
by themselves, he gives thanks severally for each. And after- 
ward, giving thanks after the same manner over the flesh of 
the Chagigah of the fourteenth day, he eats also of it, and in 
like manner giving thanks over the lamb, he eats of it." 

VHL " From thenceforward he lengthens out the supper, 
eating this or that as he hath a mind, and last of all he eats 
of the flesh of the passover, at least as much as an olive ; 
but after this he tastes not at all of any food." Thus far 



Ch. xxvi. 26.] Exercitations wpon St. Matthew. 349 

Maimonides in the place quoted, as also the Talmudists in 
several places in the last chapter in the tract Pesachin. 

And now was the time when Christ, taking bread, insti- 
tuted the eucharlst : but whether was it after the eating of 
those farewell morsels, as I may call them, of the lamb, or 
instead of them? It seems to be in their stead, because it 
is said by our evangelist and Mark, 'Ecr^toyrwi; avr&v, &c. 
As they were eating., Jesus took bread. Now, without doubt, 
they speak according to the known and common custom of 
that supper, that they might be understood by their own peo- 
ple. But all Jews know well enough, that after the eating of 
those morsels of the lamb it cannot be said, As they were 
eating; for the eating was ended'' with those morsels. It 
seems therefore more likely that Christ, when they were now 
ready to take those morsels, changed the custom, and gave 
about morsels of bread in their stead, and instituted the sa- 
crament. Some are of opinion, that it was the custom to taste 
the unleavened bread last of all, and to close up the supper 
with it ; of which opinion, I confess, I also sometimes was. 
And it is so much the more easy to fall into this opinion, be- 
cause there is such a thing mentioned in some of the rubrics 
about the passover ; and with good reason, because they took 
up this custom after the destruction of the Temple, 

Y^vKoyricras, hXaae' Blessed and brah it."] First he blessed, 
then he brake it. Thus it always used to be done, except in 
the paschal bread. One of the two loaves was first divided 
into two parts, or, perhaps, into more, before it was blessed, 
|!1Q "int^ ph^'n One of them is divided : they are the words 
of Maimonides, who also adds, "But why doth he not bless 
both the loaves after the same manner as in other feasts ? 
Because this is called "^y]^ L^vh the bread of poverty. Now 
poor people deal in morsels, and here likewise are morsels," 

Let not him that is to break the bread, break it before Amen be 
pronounced from the mouths of the answerers^. 

TouTo eoTt TO awfjid ixov This is my body.'] These words, being 
applied to the Passover now newly eaten, will be more clear : 
" This now is my body, in that sense, in which the paschal 

^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p, 259, 1 Bab. Berac. fol. 47. i. 



350 HehreiG and Talmudical [Oh. xxvi. 27. 

lamb hath been my body hitherto/^ And in the twenty- 
eighth verse, " TJiis is my blood of the new testament, in the 
same sense, as the blood of bulls and goats hath been my 
blood under the Old," Exod. xxiv., Heb. ix. 

Ver. 27 : To Tro-n^piov The cup^ Bread was to be here at 
this supper by divine institution : but how came the wine to 
be here ? and how much ? and of what sort ? 

I. "A tradition"^. It is necessary that a man should cheer 
up his wife and his children for the feast. But how doth he 
cheer them up ? With wine." The same things are cited " in 
the Babylonian Talmud » : " The Rabbins deliver," say they, 
" that a man is obliged to cheer up his wife and his do- 
mestics in the feast ; as it is said, ' And thou shalt rejoice in 
thy feast/ (Deut. xvi. 14). But how are they cheered up 2 
With wine. R. Judah saith, ' Men are cheered up with 
something agreeable to them ; women, with that which is 
agreeable to them."' That which is agreeable to men to 
rejoice them is wine. But what is that which is agreeable 
to women to cheer them ? Rabh Joseph saith, ' Dyed gar- 
ments in Babylon, and linen garments in the land of Israel.' " 

TI. Four cups of wine were to be drunk up by every one : 
niDID 11 V^y^^'n Sin "All are obliged to four cups, men, 
women, and children : R. Judah saith, ' But what have 
children to do with wine V But they give them wheat and 
nuts,'" &c. 

The Jerusalem Talmudists give the reason of the number, 
in the place before quoted, at full. Some, according to the 
number of the four words made use of in the history of the 
redemption of Israel out of Egypt, ^rh^T] ^rhpT) ^r\m^rr\^ 
*^Pinph'^ And I will bring forth^ and I will deliver^ and I will 
redeem, and I loill taJce : some, according to the number of 
the repetition of the word D'iS cup^ in Gen. xl. 11, 13, which 
is four times ; some, according to the number of the four 
monarchies ; some, according to the number of the four cups 
of vengeance which God shall give to the nations to drink, 
Jer. XXV. 75 ; li. 7 ; Psalm xi. 6 ; Ixxv. 8. And according to 
the number of the four cups which God shall give Israel to 



"^ Jerus. Pesachin, fol. 37. 2. " Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 380. 

° Pesach. fol. 109. i. 



Ch, xxvi. 27.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 351 

drink, Psalm xxiii. 5 ; xvi. 5 ; cxvi. 13. ^^U?N mVI^'' D1!3 
r'^in the cup of two salvations. 

III. The measure of these cups is thus determined P : 

"'p^io^^n p^ r\^v''i'> \y^^ i"^?2«ti7 niDi:3 nvi"i« "Rabbi 

Chaia saith, Four cups contain an Italian quart of wine.' " 
And more exactly in the same place : " How much is the 
measure of a cup ? l>n!^i^ Dl") hy^ '"•^JTliii^ ^i> D''''^!!^^^ 
J^ll'i^ \r''T'I2?T nUinOI Tivo fingers square, and one finger and a 
half and a third part of a finger deep'\^'' The same words you 
have in the Babylonian Talmud at the place before quoted, 
only with this difference, that instead of i?l!ib^ UJ'^7tI? tlie third 
part of a finger, there is Vn!J« ^OIH the fifth part of a 
finger. 

IV. D'lli^ p'^n rib5!J7 nii^JD It is commanded, thai he should 
perform this ofiice icith red wine. So the Babylonian »", ^"illJ 
ni^'^DI DVIO 1^ i^rT'lZ? " It is necessary that it shoidd taste, and 
look like wine." The Gloss, D'^^5 t^TV^ that it should he 
red. 

V. t^JJ"^ TI Ib^n^l?^ If he drinks wine pure, and not mingled 
with water, he hath performed his duty ; but commonly they 
mingled water with it : hence, when there is mention of wine 
in the rubric of the feasts, they always use the word i:\tD 
the^ mingle him a cup. Concerning that mingling, both 
Talmudists dispute in the forecited chapter of the Passover : 
which see. " The ' Eabbins have a tradition. Over wine 
which hath not water mingled with it they do not say that 
blessing, ' Blessed be He that created the fruit of the vine ;' 
but, ' Blessed be he that created the fruit of the tree.' " The 
Gloss, "7^^?^ ptn Qi"''^ Their toine teas mry strong, and not fit 
to be drunk without water," &c. The Gemarists a little 
after : " The wise agree with R. Eleazar, ' That one ought 
not to bless over the cup of blessing till water be mingled 
with it.' " The mingling of water with every cup was re- 
quisite for health, and the avoiding of drunkenness. We 
have before taken notice of a story of Rabban Gamaliel, who 
found and confessed some disorder of mind, and unfitness for 
serious buisness, by having drunk off an Italian quart of wine. 

P Jeinis. Scbabb. fol. 11. i. s English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 

1 Pesach. 260. 

"■ Hieros. as before. t ]jab. Berac. fol. 50. 2. 



352 Hehrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi. 27. 

These things being thus premised, concerning the paschal 
wine^ we now return to observe this cup of our Saviour. 

After those things which used to be performed in the 
paschal supper, as is before related, these are moreover 
added by Maimonides : " Then he washeth his hands, "lllTOI 
t1t?:2n n3l3, and Messet/i the blessing of the meat'''' [that is, 
gives thanks after meat], " over the third cup of wine, and 
drinks it up." That cup was commonly called n^lin D13 
the ciqy of blessing ,• t^n3"^lT i^D^i^ in the Talmudic dialect. 
pt?jrT nSIl TOni T\2? DID The cup of blessing is when the^ give 
thanks after supper, saith the Gloss on Babyl. Berac.^ Where 
also in the text many things are mentioned of this cup : 
" Ten things are spoken of the cup of blessing. niTin 
nO'^tDti;'"! Washing and cleansing :" [that is, to wash the 
inside and outside^ namely, that nothing should remain of 
the wine of the former cups], "^n " Let pure wine " be poured 
into the cup, and water mingled with it there. t^7D1 " Let 
it be full : '^M^'^^ the croioning f that is, as the Gemara, " by 
the disciples." While he is doing this, let the disciples 
stand about him in a crown or ring. Pjlt^'^y The veiling ; 
that is, " as Rabh Papa, he veils himself and sits down ; 
as R. Issai, he spreads a handkerchief on his head. 'ITISID 
I^T^ "^nU?! He takes up the cup in both hands^ but puts it 
into his right hand ; he lifts it from the table, fixeth his 
eyes upon it, &c. Some say he imparts it (as a gift) to his 
family." 

Which of these rites our Saviour made use of, we do not 
inquire ; the cup certainly was the same with the " cup of 
blessing :" namely, when, according to the custom, after 
having eaten the farewell morsel of the lamb, there was now 
an end of supper, and thanks were to be given over the third 
cup after meat, he takes that cup, and after having returned 
thanks, as is probable, for the meat, both according to the 
custom, and his office, he instituted this for a cup of 
eucharist or thanksgiving ; To iioiripiov r?}s eiXoyCas o evXo- 
yovixiv. The cup of blessing lohich we bless, i Cor. x. 16. 
Hence it is that Luke and Paul say that he took the cup 
" after supper ;" that is, that cup which closed up the 
supper. 

" Fol. .^i.i. 



C'h. xxvi. 27.] Exeixitations upon St. Matthew. 353 

It must not be passed by, that when he instituted the eu- 
charistical ^ cup, he said, " This is my blood of the new 
testaxnent," as Matthew and Mark : nay, as Luke and Paul, 
" This cup is the new testament in my blood." Not only 
the seal of the covenant, but the sanction of the new cove- 
nant : the end of the Mosaical economy, and the confirming 
of a new one. The confirmation of the old covenant was 
by the blood of bulls and goats, Exod, xxiv., Heb. ix., be- 
cause blood was still to be shed : the confirmation of the 
new was by a cup of wine ; because, under the new testa- 
ment, there was no further shedding of blood. As it is 
here said of the cup, " This cup is the new testament in my 
blood/' so it might be said of the cup of blood (Exod. xxiv. 8), 
" That cup was the old testament in the blood of Christ." 
There, all the articles of that covenant being read over, 
Moses sprinkled all the people with blood, and said, " This is 
the blood of the covenant which God hath made with you :" 
and thus that old covenant or testimony was confirmed. In 
like manner, Christ having published all the articles of the 
new covenant, he takes the cup of vt'ine, and gives them to 
drink, and saith, " This is the new testament in my blood :" 
and thus the new covenant is established. 

There was, besides, a fourth cup, of which our author 
speaks also ; " Then he mingled a fourth cup, and over it 
he finished the Hallel ; and adds, moreover, the blessing of 
the hymn, 'l^IDn PD"^!1 which is, ' Let all thy works praise 
thee, Lord,' &c. ; and saith, ' Blessed is He that created 
the fruit of the vine ;' and afterward he tastes of nothing 
more that night," &c. ' Finisheth the Hallel ,•' that is, he 
begins there where he left off before, to wit, at the beginning 
of Psalm cxv., and goes on to the end of Psalm cxviii. 

Whether Christ made use of this cup also, we do not 
dispute ; it is certain he used the hymn, as the evangelist 
tells us, vyivriaavTis, when they had sung a hymn, at the 
thirtieth verse. We meet with the very same word pi^OTT 
in Midras Tillimy. 

And now looking back on this paschal supper, let me 
ask those who suppose the supper in John xiii. to be the 

* Leusdeii's edition, vol. ii. \>. 381. y Fol. 4. 2. & 42. i. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. A a 



354 Hebrew and Tahmidical [Oh. xxvi. 27. 

same with this, What part of this time they do allot to the 
washing ^ of the disciples' feet ? what part to Judas's going 
out ? and what part to his discoursing with the priests, and 
getting ready his accomplices for their wicked exploit ? 

I. It seems strange, indeed, that Christ should put off the 
washing of the disciples' feet to the paschal supper, when, 
I. That kind of action was not only unusual and unheard of 
at that supper, but in nowise necessary or fitting : for, 2. 
How much more conveniently might that have been per- 
formed at a common supper before the Passover, as we 
suppose, when he was not straitened by the time, than at 
the paschal supper, when there were many things to be done 
which required despatch ! 

II. The office of the paschal supper did not admit of such 
interruption, nor was it lawful for others so to decline from 
the fixed rule as to introduce such a foreign matter : and why 
should Christ so swerve from it, when in other things he con- 
formed himself to the custom of the nation, and when he had 
before a much more fit occasion for this action than when he 
was thus pressed and straitened by the time ? 

HI, Judas sat at supper with the rest, and was there when 
he did eat. Matt. xxvi. 20, 2 1 ; Mark xiv. 1 8 : and, alas ! how 
unusual was it for any to depart, in that manner, from that 
supper before it was done ! It is enough doubted by the 
Jewish canons whether it were lawful ; and how far any one, 
who had joined himself to this or that cfiparpCa, family, might 
leave it to go to another, and take one part of the supper 
here, and another part there : but for a person to leave the 
supper and go about another business, is a thing they never 
in the least dreamed of; they would not, they could not, 
suppose it. You see how light a matter Judas's going away 
to buy necessaries, as the disciples interpreted it, seemed to 
them, because he went away from a common supper : but if 
they had seen him thus dismissed, and sent away from the 
paschal supper, it would have seemed a monstrous and won- 
derful thing. What ! to leave the paschal supper, now begun, 
to go to market ! To go from a common supper at Bethany, 
to buy necessaries for the Passover, against the time of the 
Passover, this was nothing strange or unusual : but to go 
^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 261. 



Cli. xxvi. 34.] Exercitatiom upon St. Matthew. 355 

from the paschal supper, before it was done, to a market or 
fair, was more unusual and strange than that it should be so 
lightly passsed over by the disciples. 

We, therefoi'e, do not at all doubt that Judas was present 
both at the Passover and the eucharist ; which Luke affirms 
in direct words, chap. xxii. 20, 21 : nor do we doubt much of 
his being present at the hymn, and that he went not away 
before all was done : but when they all rose up from the 
table, and prepared for their journey to mount Olivet (in 
order to he at Bethany, as the disciples supposed), the 
villanous traitor stole away, and went to the company \_co- 
liortes], that he had appointed the priests two days before 
to make ready for him at such a time and place. Methinks 
I hear the words and consultations of this bloody wretch : 
" To-morrow (saith he) will be the Passover, and I know my 
Master will come to it : 1 know he will not lie at Jerusalem, 
but will go back to Bethany, however late at night, where he 
is used to lie. Make ready, therefore, for me armed men, 
and let them come to a place appointed immediately after 
the paschal supper ; and I will steal out privately to them 
while my Master makes himself ready for his journey ; and I 
will conduct them to seize upon him in the gardens without 
the city, where, by reason of the solitariness of the place and 
the silence of the night, we shall be secure enough from the 
multitude. Do^ ye make haste to despatch your passovers, 
that you may meet together at the council after supper, to 
examine and judge him, when we shall bring him to you ; 
while the silence of the night favours you also, and protects 
you from the multitude.^^ Thus, all things are provided 
against the place and time appointed ; and the thief, stealing 
away from the company of the disciples as they were going 
out towards the mount of Olives and hastening to his armed 
confederates without delay, brings them prepared along with 
him, and sets upon his Master now in the garden. 

Ver. 34 : Ylpiv oKiKTopa ^(ovrjaai, rpls aTTapvrjcn) fxe' Before 
the cock croio., thou shalt deny me thrice.'] The same also he 
had said, John xiii. 38, " The cock shall not crow till thou 
hast denied me thrice." Therefore some say, that that was 
the same supper with this of the Passover. Very right, in- 

* Leusden\^ edit., vol. ii. p. 382. 

A a 2 



356 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi. 34. 

deed, if aX^Krop ov (f)(av^(T€L ought to be rendered, the cock 
shall not croio once, or the cock shall not crow at all. But it is 
not so ; but it amounts to this sense, " Within the time of 
coekerowing " thou shalt deny me thrice ; for Peter had de- 
nied him but once before the first crowing of the cock, and 
thrice before the second, Mark xiv. 68^ 72. From hence, 
therefore, we may easily observe in what sense those w^ords 
are to be understood, which were spoken to Peter two days 
before the Passover, John xiii. 38, " The cock shall not crow," 
&c : not that the cock should not crow at all between that'' 
time and Peter^s denying; but as if our Saviour had said, 
" Are you so secure of yourself, Peter I Verily, I say unto 
you, the time shall be, and that shortly, when you shall deny 
me thrice within the time of coekerowing." 'Ey dAe/cropo- 
(f)(aviq., at coekerowing^ Mark xiii. o^^. At the Paschal supper 
it is said, " This night, before the cock crow," &c. Matt. 
xxvi. 34 ; Mark xiv. 30 ; Luke xxii. 34. But there is nothing 
of this said in that supper, John xiii. 

Concerning the coekerowing, thus the masters : " R. 
Shilla*^ saith, Whosoever begins his journey before cock- 
crowing, his blood be upon his head. R. Josia saith, If 
before the second crowing : but some say. Before the third. 
But of what kind of cock is this spoken ?" ''ilD'^2 71^2ini 
Of a middling cock ; that is^ as the Gloss explains it, " a cock 
that doth not crow too soon nor too late." The Misna on 
which this Gloss is hath these words ; " Every day they 
remove the ashes from the altar about coekerowing ; but on 
the day of atonement at midnight," &c. 

You may wonder that a dunghill cock should be found at 
Jerusaleni, when it is forbid by the canons that any cocks 
should be kept there : ^DD^ oSlI^ll^n \^^"i:iD"in \hl>12 \^^ 
D''Il?1"Tp " They^ do not keep cocks at Jerusalem, upon account of 
the holy things ; nor do the priests keep them throughout all 
the land of Israel." The Gloss gives the reason ; " Even 
Israelites are forbid to keep cocks at Jerusalem, because of 
the holy things : for Israelites have eaten there peace offer- 
ings and thank offerings : but now it is the custom of dung- 
hill cocks to turn over dunghills, where perhaps they might 

^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 262. •= Bab. Joma, fol. 21. 1. 

^ Bava Kama, cap. 7. hal. ult. 



Ch. xxvi. ;^6, &c.] Exercitatmis upon St. Matthew. 357 

find creeping things that might polhite those holy things 
that are to be eaten." By what means, and under what 
pretence, the canon was dispensed with, we do not dispute. 
It is certain tliere were cocks at Jerusalem, as well as at 
other places. And memorable is the story of a cock which 
was stoned by the sentence of the council for having killed 
a little child e. 

Ver. 2,6 : re6(ri]ixavr]' Gethsemane.] The place of the olive- 
presses, at the foot of mount Olivet. In John ^, it is " a 
garden beyond Oedron." " TheyS do not make gardens or 
paradises in Jerusalem, because of the stink, i^ni''D D1tZ}?2- 
The (jJloss, " Because of the stink that riseth from the weeds 
which are thrown out : besides, it is the custom to dung 
gardens ; and thence comes a stink.^^ Upon this account 
there were no gardens in the city, (some few gardens of roses 
excepted, which had been so from the days of the prophets^,) 
but all were without the walls, especially at the foot of Olivet. 

Ver. 49 : KaT^cfyiKrjcrev avrov Kissed him.'] It was not 
unusual for a master to Mss his disciple; but for a disciple to 
fcs^his master was more rare. Whether therefore Judas 
did this under pretence of respect, or out of open contempt 
and derision, let it be inquired. 

Ver. 6o: lloWoiyv ^cvbofxapTvpoiv irpoacKdovTbiV Many false 
witnesses came.] Inquire whether these are to be called 
D'^ZDDTP O'^IV of which the Talmudists speak at large ; espe- 
cially in the treatise MaccothK n^72'!2^'\ are commonly ren- 
dered false witnesses ; and deservedly : and yet Maimonides 
reckons up these as necessary in that city where the council 
of twenty-three is placed : " Why (saith he) is such a council 
not set up but in a city where there are a hundred and 
twenty men ? Namely, that there may be three-and-twenty 
for the council, and three ranks consisting of sixty-nine men, 
and ten men to attend upon the affairs of the synagogue : 
two scribes, two bishops [episcopi], two to be judged, two 
witnesses." pDT^It ^7272^'^ ^:tl?"l \'D72i^': ^2U; &c. The reason 
of the thing is a little obscure : the characters of the men 
you may take in these examples : " The witnesses say, Wo 

c Jerus. Erubhin, fol. 26. 1. *» Avoth R. Nathan, fol. 9. i. 

^ Chap, xviii. i. ' Cap. i. 

? Bava Kama, in the place above. 



358 Hebreio and Talmudical [Ch. xxvi. 6^. 

testify that N. killed N. They say to them, How do you 
depose this, when the killer, or he that was killed, was with us 
in such a place on that day ? These as yet are not ]'^?:i'21t. 
But k if they should say, How can you testify this when you 
were with us on that day ' V &c. On which Misna, thus Mai- 
nionides ; " The witnesses depose that Reuben killed Simeon : 
and afterward Kohath and Hushim come, I^D'^tHI and dis- 
prove their testimony : there come afterward other witnesses, 
and depose the same with the former ; namely, that Reuben 
killed Simeon ; and Kohath and Hushim disprove their tes- 
timony also : if a second, third, and fourth, nay, if a thou- 
sand pair m come and depose the same thing, while those two 
so disprove them, they nuist all die by the testimony of these 
two,'' &c. 

There was the like testimony in other things : thus in the 
first Jialacah of the chapter quoted; □"'tri^i D'^IJ^H ll'^'D 
]"'D?D^t " Hoio are witnesses made U^iy!y\^ ? We testify con- 
cerning N., that he is the son of a divorced woman, &c. They 
do not say, Let this witness [if he prove false] be made the 
son of a divorced woman instead of the other, but he is 
beaten with forty stripes." The words are obscure enough, 
but their meaning is this : Since a false witness was by the 
law to suffer the same things which, by his perjury, he had 
designed to bring upon another, it is here inquired, in what 
cases a witness is so far to be accounted false as to undergo 
such a retaliation ? And it is answered. Not in all : and this 
reason is alleged. If any one, by false witness, should en- 
deavour to deprive another of his legitimacy, and, by conse- 
quence of the privileges of being legitimate, by saying that 
he is the son of a divorced woman, though he were indeed 
D^*)t "7V a false toitness, yet he must not be punished in the 
like kind, to be made as the son of a divorced woman ; but 
he must be whipped. But in capital cases the custom was, 
that whosoever endeavoured to procure death to another per- 
son by false witness, must himself be put to death. 

Ver. 65. Tore 6 apxtepevs bupprj^e to, i/xana avrov' Then the 
high priest rent his clothes.'] "When" witnesses speak out 
the blasphemy which they heard, then all, hearing the blas- 

>* Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 383. "^ English/olio edit., vol.ii. p. 263 . 

1 Maccoth, cap. i. fol. 6. » Maimon. in Avod. Zarah, cap. 2. 



Ch. xxvii. I .] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 359 

phemy, are bound to rend their clothes." See more there. 
" Theyo that judge a blasphemer, first ask the witnesses, and 
bid him speak out plainly what he hath heard ; and when he 
speaks it, the judges standing on their feet rend their gar- 
ments, and do not sew them up again," &c. See there the 
Babylonian Gemara discoursing at large why they stand upon 
their feet, why they rend their garments, and why they may 
not be sewed up again. 

CHAP. XXVII. 

Ver. I : ripojtas hi yei^o/xeVrjy, &c. When the morning teas 
cone, Sfc] Let us trace a little the proceedings of this 
council: — 

I. They spend the night in judging on a capital cause, which 
is expressly forbid by their own canon : V^yi ]11^03 ''3'^'^ 
QVii 'j^"1?21^'l DV3, Th:y handle capital causes in the day time, 
and finish them hy dayV. Money matters indeed that were 
begun by day might be ended in the night, which is asserted 
in that place ; but capital causes were only to be handled by 
day : but here, in sitting upon the life and death of our 
Saviour, there is need of night and darkness. This judgment 
is begun in the night, and carried on all the night through in 
a manner. 

II. This night was the evening of a feast day, namely, of 
the first day of the paschal week, at what time they were also 
forbid to sit in judgment : " They^ do not judge on a feast 
day." How the lawyers are divided on this point, I will not 
trouble you now with recounting. This very canon is suffi- 
cient ground for scruple, which we leave to them to clear, 
who, through rancour and hatred towards Christ, seem to 
slight and trample under feet their own canons. 

III. ripcDta? yevojxivqs' When it ivas morning.] This was the 
time of saying their phylacteries, namely, from the first day- 
light to the third hour''. But where was these men's religion 
to-day ? Did you say your phylacteries this morning, my good 
fathers of the council, before you came to sit on the bench ? 
Another business that you had in hand (effectually to destroy 

° Sanhedr. cap. 7. hal. 10. n Moed Katon, cap. 5. hal. 2. 

P Sanhedr. cap. 4. hal. i. '' Berac, cap. i. hal. 2. 



360 Heh'ew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvii. i. 

Jesus), either robbed you of your prayers, or robbed your 
prayers of charity. 

IV. Now appears nDDH h\D JltZ^b^"! "lO\ the first feast day of 
the Passover, when they used to present themselves in the 
Temple and oifer their gifts^ Exod. xxiii. 15. But when and 
how was this performed by them to-day ? They take heed of 
going into the judgment (or Praetor''s) hall, lest they should 
be defiled, but that they might eat the Chagigah^, or Passover^ : 
but you will scarce find what time they allowed to-day for that 
purpose ; nor indeed was it lawful for them to eat any thing 
on that day ; it being provided by a canon, '^ That when the 
council shall have adjudged any one to die, let them not taste 
any thing that day"." 

Evix^ovKlov eAa/3oi' uxttc OavarGxrai avroV TooTi counsel to put 
him to death.'] Let that be considered; r^f m;]1D^2 ''3''"T 
117"' /1 riD'l^T UV2. " Gases ^ of money are hear dv in the day- 
time, and may he determined in the night. Capital causes are 
tried in the day, and finished in the day. Judgment in cases 
of money is passed the same day, whether it be for fining or 
acquitting. Judgment in capital causes is passed the same 
day, if it be for acquitting : but if it be for condemning, it is 
passed the day after." The reason of this difference is given 
by the Gemarists ; whom see. The reason of the latter is thus 
expressed : in ilh^ ynnOtD )^'^1'r\ 'nL\^ Blessed is the 
judge icho leveneth his judgment : that is, as the Gloss, " who 
delays his judgment, and lets it rest all night, that he may 
sift out the truth." 

The difference between pDT and p'^rOI^ is greater than the 
reader may perhaps think at first sight. By the word V^yi 
they signify the whole process of the trial, the examining of 
the plaintiff and defendant, and of the witnesses, the taking 
the votes of the council, and the entering of them by the 
scribes : p'^?25'1^ signifies only the passing of judgment, or 
giving a definitive sentence. You may better perceive the 
difference from the Glossary on Babyl. Sanhedrim^ : in the text 



s English folio edition, vol. ii. p. ^ Sanhedr. in the place quoted, 

264. cap. 4. 

* See John xviii. 28. and Chagig. y Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 

cap.!. 384. 

« Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 63. i. z Fol. 35. i. 



Ch.xxvii.5-] Exercitations up07i St. Matthew. 361 

this is decreed, 1115 Q'l"' n"^:^! ^^^^ nn© ni^l b^^ ^''H j'-t^ 
Let them not judge on the eve of the sabbath^ nor on the eve of a 
feast day ; which is also repeated in other places ;< . The rea- 
son of the prohibition is this, namely, that the trials which 
were begun on the eve of the sabbath, or a feast day, should 
not be finished on the sabbath or feast day. " Which indeed 
(saith the Gloss), is observed in pecuniary trials, and care is 
taken that there be no writing" (for it is forbid to write so 
much as a letter on the sabbath): "but in capital causes it 
takes not place upon that account ; for the votes of those that 
acquitted or condemned were written the day before." 

You see in the history of the gospel, i . The trial concerning 
our Saviour's life, was not despatched at one and the same 
sitting. 2. And that too on a feast-day. 

Ver. 5 : 'A77r/y^aro* Hanged himself] Sfranc/ulatus est, was 
strangled: namely, by the devil, who had now been in him 
three days together. The words of Peter, Acts i. i8, do not 
suffer me to understand this of hanging himself. Uprjvris 
yerojueyo? iXaKr^ae /xetros" Falling headlong he hurst asunder in 
the midst. Interpreters take a great deal of pains to make 
these words agree with his hanging himself; but indeed all 
will not do. I know the word a-rnqy^aTo is commonly applied 
to a man's hanging himself, but not to exclude some other 
way of strangling. And I cannot but take the story (with 
good leave of antiquity) in this sense : After Judas had thrown 
down the money, the price of his treason, in the Temple, and 
was now returning again to his mates, the devil, who dwelt 
in him, caught him up on high, strangled him, and threw him 
down headlong ; so that dashing upon the ground, he burst 
in the midst, and his guts issued out, and the devil went out 
in so horrid an exit. This certainly agrees very well with the 
words of Peter now mentioned, and also with those that fol- 
low, '' This was known to all that dwelt at Jerusalem." It 
agrees also very well with the deserts of the wicked wretch, 
and with the title of Iscariot. The wickedness he had com- 
mitted was above all example, and the punishment he suf- 
fered was beyond all precedent. There had been many in- 
stances of persons who had hanged themselves ; this would not 

a Hierob. Clietub. fol. 24. 4. and Moed Katon, fol. 63. 1. 



362 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvii. 9. 

so much have stirred up the people of Jerusalem to take notice 
of it, as such a strangling and throwing down headlong, which 
we suppose horrible above measure, and singular beyond ex- 
ample. See what we have said at the tenth chapter con- 
cerning the word Iscariot. 

Ver. 9 : To p-qOlp bta 'Up€[xiov tov Trpo^rjrof That which 
was spoken hy Jeremy the prophet.~\ How much this place 
hath troubled interpreters, let the famous Beza, instead of 
many others, declare : " This knot hath hampered all the most 
ancient interpreters, in that the testimony here is taken out of 
Zechariah, and not from Jeremiah ; so that it seems plainly 
to have been aixaprrjiia p,vriiiovLKov, a failing of memory, as 
Augustine supposes in his third book, ' De consensu evange- 
listarum,' chapter the seventh ; as also Eusebius in the 
twentieth book'' 'ATroSet^eo)?, of demonstration. But if any one 
had rather impute this error to the transcribers, or (as I 
rather suppose) to the unskilfulness of some person, who 
put in the name of Jeremiah^ when the evangelist had writ 
only, as he often doth in other places, hia tov -npotp-qTov, hy 
the prophet, yet we must confess that this error hath long 
since crept into the Holy Scriptures, as Jerome expressly 
affirms," &c. 

But (with the leave of so great men) I do not only deny 
that so much as one letter is spurious, or crept in without 
the knowledge of the evangelist, but I do confidently assert 
that Matthew wrote Jeremy, as we read it, and that it was 
very readily understood and received by his countrymen. We 
will transcribe the following monument of antiquity out of the 
Talmudists^, and then let the reader judge: "A tradition of 
the Rabbins. This is the order of the prophets. The Book 
of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, 
and the twelve." And a little after: " But since Isaiah was 
before both Jeremiah and Ezekiel, he ought to have been set 
before them : ^^Dni"^n H^D^D 'O^'lh'Cr^ JVD but since the Book 
of Kings ends with destruction, t^DillH H'^T'IID PT'^D'^^I and 
all Jeremiah is about destruction, and since Ezekiel begins with 
destruction and ends with comfort ; and all Isaiah is about 

comfort, fc^nnnA t^nrjnD") fc^Dn^inS «iinin p'lSt^D 

'' English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 26,-,. '^ Bab. Bava Bathra, fol. 14. 2. 



Ch. xxvii. i6, &c.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 363 

the^ joined destruction with destruction, and comfort with com- 
fort:" that is, they placed these books together which treat 
of destruction, and^ those together which treat of comfort. 

You have this tradition quoted by David Kimchi in his 
preface to Jeremiah. Whence it is very plain that Jeremiah 
of old had the first place among the prophets ; and hereby 
he comes to be mentioned above all the rest, Matt. xvi. 14, 
because he stood first in the volume of the prophets, there- 
fore he is first named. When, therefore, Matthew produceth 
a text of Zechariah under the name of Jeremy, he only 
cites the words of the volume of the prophets under his 
name who stood first in the volume of the prophets. Of 
which sort is that also of our Saviour, Luke xxiv. 44 ; " All 
things must be fulfilled, which are written of me in the Law, 
and the Prophets, and the Psalms." " Li the Psalms;" that 
is, in the Book of Hagiographa, in which the Psalms were 
placed first. 

Ver. 16: Bapa(3(3av Barahhas.l '^1'ik "^D, Bar Abba, a 
very usual name in the Talmudists : " R. Samuel Barabba, 
and R. Nathan Barabba e." Abba Bar Abba^, t^n« "^l i^nt^ 
Li the Jerusalem dialect it is very often uttered i<51 "H Bar 
Ba : " Simeon Bar BaS." " R. Chaijah Bar Ba^." This 
brings to my mind what Josephusi relates to have been done 
in the besieging of the city, Skottoi k-nl tG>v iivpydiv KaOe^o- 
jji^i'OL TTpoeixijvvov, oTTOTav cr)(a(T6eiri to opyai^ov, kcu 1) irirpa (f>e- 
poiTO, Ti) TTUTpiw yXcacrcrr] (3o(OVT€S, 6 vibs [lbs Huds.] ep^eraf 
When huge stones were thrown against the city by the Roman 
slings, some ]jerso7is sitti7ig in the towers gave the citizens team- 
ing by a sign to take heed, crying out in the vulgar dialect, ' The 
Son Cometh,' that is, i^n "^^. The Son of man indeed then 
came in the glory of his justice and his vengeance, as he 
had often foretold, to destroy that most wicked and profligate 
nation. 

Ver. 19: MrjSev o-ot koll t(5 biKalw e/cetW" Have thou nothing 
to do with that just man.] iim D^ni pO'^ "fS ^irT'b iih 
; jT1!i " When ^ king Sapores went about to afflict Rabbah, 

«I LewA'rfen's erfi/iore, vol. ii. p. 385. . *> Chagigah, fol. 76. 6, &c. 

e Hieros. Moed Katon, fol. 82. i. * De Bell. lib. v. cap. 18. [Hud- 

f Bab. Berac. fol. i8. 2. son, p. 1232. 1. 35.] [v. 6. 3.] 

s Taanith, fol. 66. i. ^ Bab. Taanith, fol. 25. 2. 



364 Hebrew and Tahnudkal [Oh. xxvii. 26, &c. 

his mother sent to him, saying, □"^111 'pOV '^ '^^'n^h 'i^ 
*^^Tin^ '^inS, Have thou nothing to do with that Jeio," &c. 

\ er. 26 : Tov h\ 'Ir/o-our (ppayeXXcoaas TrapibcoK^v tva arav- 
pooOfi ■ When he had scourged Jesus, lie delivered him to he cru- 
cified.'] Such was the custom of the Romans towards those 
that were to be crucified : Ov<i ' jxcictti^i irpoaiKLcrdiJ.evo't ave- 
uravpoio-ep' Whom after he had beaten with whips, he crucified. 
And a httle after, Maa-TLySxrai Ttpb tov prjixaTos, kol TTavp^ 
Tipocr-qX.^aai.' To he whipped before the judgment seat, and to be 
nailed to the cross. 

Ver. 29"': KaXajxav eirl ttjv be^Lav A reed in his right hand.] 
See those fictions in Tanchum", concerning an angel that 
appeared in the shape of Solomon : TT^^ Hwpl In lohose hand 
there was a reed: nip2 imi^ p3D1 and whom they struck 
with a reed. 

Ver. 31 : "" Aiir\yayov avrov ets to aTavpoia-ai.' Led hi)7i away 
to crucify him.] These things are delivered in Sanhedrim «, of 
one that is guilty of stoning : " If there be no defence found 
for him, they lead him out to be stoned, and a crier went 
before, saying aloud thus, ' IN . the son of N. comes out to be 
stoned, because he hath done so and so. The witnesses 
against him are N. and N. : whosoever can bring any thing 
in his defence, let him come forth and produce it.' " On 
which thus the Gemara of Babylon : " The tradition is, that 
on the evening of the Passover Jesus was hanged, and that a 
crier went before him for forty days making this procla- 
mation, ' This man comes forth to be stoned, because he 
dealt in sorceries, and persuaded and seduced Israel ; who- 
soever knows of any defence for him, let him come forth and 
produce it : but no defence could be found, therefore they 
hanged him on the evening of the Passover. Ulla saith, His 
case seemed not to admit of any defence, since he was a 
seducer, and of such God hath said, ' Thou shalt not spare 
him, neither shalt thou conceal him,'" Deut. xiii. 8. 

They led him that was to be stoned out of the city, Acts 
vii. 58 : so also him that was to be crucified : " TheP place 
of stoning was without the three camps ; for at Jerusalem 

' Joseph, de Bell. lib. ii. caj). 25. " Fol.59.4. 
Hudson, p. 1080. 1. 45. [ii. 14. 9.] " Cap. 6. hal. 4. 

'" Englishfolio edit., vol. ii. p. 266. P Gloss, in Bab. Sanhed. fol.42. 2. 



Ch. xxvii. 3' •] Exercitations Kjjon Sf Mattheic. 305 

there were three camps," (namely, God's, the Levites"", and 
the people's, as it was in the encamping in the wilderness :) 
" and in every city also where there was a council," (namely, 
of twenty-three,) "the place of stoning was without the city. 
For all cities that have walls bear a resemblance to the camp 
of Israel." 

Because Jesus was judged at a heathen tribunal, therefore 
a death is inflicted on him not usual with the Jewish council, 
namely, crucifixion. In several things the circumstances and 
actions belonging to his death differed from the custom of 
the Jews in putting persons to death. 

1. "Tnb5 □1''2 W^y^ Vll Y^ They never judge two on the 
same day^. But here, besides Christ, are two thieves judged. 

2. They never carried one that was to be hanged to hang- 
ing till near sunset ■•: nX^'ptZ?^ ^1?2D "fj^ init^ pntr"2 
imt^ ]^n^0?D1 l^n n« ^^^^niZn n^nn They stay tin near 
sunset, and then they pass sentetice, and execute him. And the 
reason is given by the Glosser ; " They do not perfect his 
judgment, nor hang him in the morning, lest they should 
neglect his burial, and happen to forget * themselves," and 
the malefactor should hang till after sunset; "but near sun- 
setting, so that they may bury him out of hand. " But 
Christ was sentenced to death before noon ; and at noon 
was nailed to the cross. For, 

3. im^ xh^T^ ^3 "int^l ^m« ^^ir^^ They first put the 
condemned person to death, and then hanged him upon a tree : 
but the custom of the [Roman) empire is first to hang them, 
and then to put them to death*." 

4. They did not openly lament for those that were led 
forth to be put to death ; but for Jesus they did, Luke xxiii. 
27, 28. The reason of this difference is not to be sought 
from the kind of the death, but from the persons : V'n t^ v 
nSn «^« nii'-ib^ ]^^^^ \^3]1« ^n« ]"^^l«nn They^ did 
not beioail for a person led out to execution, but they lamented 
imoardly in their hearts. You will wonder at the reason which 
the Gloss thus gives you : " They did not openly bewail him, 
upon this account, that his being vilified" [when nobody 

1 Sanhedr. cap. 6. hal. 4. * Sanhedr. in Gemara. 

"^ Ibid, in Gemara. » Ibid. 

s heusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 386. 



366 Hebrew and Tahimdical [Ch. xxvii. y^^, &c. 

openly lamented him] •' mig-ht help to atone for him ; bnt 
they sorrowed for him in their hearts ; for this did not tend 
to his honour, nor lessen the atonement." Those were 
better instructed, who lamented for Christ both as to the 
thing and person. 

Ver. '^^ : ToXyoQa- Golgotha.'] Beza pretends that this is 
written amiss for GolgoUha, ToKyoXdd, when yet it is found 
thus written in all copies. But the good man censures amiss ; 
since such a leaving out of letters in many Syriac words 
is very usual : you have this word thus written without the 
second A, by the Samaritan interpreter, in the first chapter of 
Numbers. 

Ver. 34^ : "EboiKav avT<a Tticlv o^os ixera xoAtjs ix€\xiyixivov 
They gave him vi?iegar to drink mingled toith gall.] " To 
those y that were to be executed they gave a grain of myrrh 
infused in wine to drink, that their understanding might be 
disturbed,'^ (that is, that they might lose their senses) ; " as 
it is said, ' Give strong drink to them that are ready to die, 
and wine to those that are of a sorrowful heart,' &c. And 
the tradition is. That some women of quality in Jerusalem 
allowed this freely of their own cost," &c. 

But it makes a scruple that in Matthew it is o^os [i^ra 
XoA?js, vinegar toith gall; in INlark, (aixvpvtir[x€vov olvov, wine 
mingled with myrrh. If wine, why is it called vinegar ? If 
wine mingled with myrrh, why gall ? Ans. The words of 
Mark seem to relate to the custom of the nation ; those of 
Matthew, to the thing as it was really acted. I understand 
Mark thus, They gave him, according to the custom of the 
nation, that cup which used to be given to those that were 
led to execution ; but (as Matthew has it) not the usual mix- 
ture ; namely, wine and frankincense, or myrrh ; but for the 
greater mockery, and out of more bitter rancour, vinegar and 
gall. So that we may suppose this cup not to have been 
prepared by those honourable women, compassionating those 
that were to die, but on purpose by the scribes, and the 
other persecutors of Christ, studying to heap upon him all 
kind of ignominy and vexation. In this cup they afterward 
dipped a sponge, as may be supposed : see the 48th verse. 

" English folio edition^ vol. ii. p. 267. >' Bnh. Sanhedr. fol. 43. i. 



(;h. xxvii. 35' 3^-] Exercitations upon ^t. Mattheto. 3fi7 

Ver, '^^ : ALeixepta-avro to. lixaTid fxov Parted my garments.^ 
Of stoning, we have this account^ ; " When he is now four 
cubits from the place of stoning, they strip him of his clothes ; 
and if it be a man, they hang a cloth before him ; if a 
woman, both before and behind. These are the words of 
R. Juda : but the wise say, A man is stoned naked, a 
woman not naked," So that it is plain enough he was cru- 
cified naked. 

Ver. 38 : Avo XtjaraL- Tim thieves.'] See, in Josephus, who 
they were that, at that time, were called Aryorai, and how 
much trouble and pains the governors of Judea were at to 
restrain and root out this cursed sort of men : 'ECcKtas ap^t- 
Ar;(T7^? X^i-poiOeh vc}) 'Hpcabov Ezekias^, the chief robber^ ivas 
subdued hy Herod. 1,ip.ijiv ns Trepttwy fxed' oJv rjOpoKx^ Xijariav 
TCL iv 'leptxoi jBacriKeia KaTa7tip,Trpr](TL^' One Simon, straggling 
about with the robbers with ivhom he associated, burnt the palaces 
in Jericho. [4>7/Aif] ap\Lkri(TTy]v 'EAeafapov ereatv eUocn tijv \(a- 
pav br}a>adfJi€vov, koI ttoWovs tovs avv avT^ t<»yp7j(Ta?, &c. \Felix^'\ 
having caught the chief robber Eleazar, tvhofor twenty years had 
toasted the country loith fire and sword, sent him to Rome, and, 
many others loith him. "Erepof et8os XijarSiv kv 'lepoo-okvixois 
vTr€(pv€To, at Ka\ov[x€vot (TiKapioi, &c. Another^ hind of robbers 
sprang tip in Jerusalem., called sicarii, who slew men in the 
day time, and in the midst of the city," &c. 

There is a rule set down^, and the art shewed, of dis- 
covering and apprehending robbers : " Go to the victualling- 
houses at the fourth hour" (the Gloss, " That was the hour 
of eating, and they went all to the victualhng-houses to eat") ; 
" and if you see there a man drinking wine, and holding the 
cup in his hand, and sleeping, &c., he is a thief; lay hold on 
him," &c. 

Among the monsters of the Jewish routs, preceding the 
destruction of the city, the multitude of robbers, and the 
horrible slaughters committed by them, deservedly claim the 
first consideration ; which, next to the just vengeance of God 



^ Sanhedr. cap. 4. hal. 3. ^ Ibid. cap. 22. [Hudson,p.io75. 

a De Bell. lib. ii. caj). 6. [Hud- 12.] [ii. 13. 2.] 
Ron, p. 1053.] [ii. 4. I.] '' Ibid. cap. 23. [11.13-3.] 

'J Ibid. [ii. 4. 2.] e Bab. Bava Mezia, fol. 83. 2. 



368 Hehrew and Tahimdical [Ch. xxvii. 39, j/^- 

against that most wicked nation, you may justly ascribe to 
divers originals. 

1. It is no wonder, if that nation abounded beyond mea- 
sure with a vagabond, dissolute, and lewd sort of young men ; 
since^ by means of polygamy, and the divorces of their wives 
at pleasure, and the nation^s unspeakable addictedness to 
lasciviousness and whoredoms, there could not but con- 
tinually spring up bastards, and an offspring born only to 
beggary or rapine, as wanting both sustenance and ingenuous 
education. 

2. The foolish and sinful indulgence of the council could 
not but nurse up all kind of broods^ of wicked men, while 
they scarce ever put any one to death, though "never so 
wicked, as being an Israelite; who must not by any means 
be touched. 

3. The opposition of the Zealots to the Roman yoke 
made them study only to mischief the Romans S, and do all 
the mischief they could to those Jews that submitted to 
them. 

4. The governors of Judea did often, out of policy, indulge 
a licentiousness to such kind of rapines, that they might 
humble that people they so much hated, and which was con- 
tinually subject to insurrections, by beating them, as it were, 
with their own clubs ; and sometimes getting a share in the 
booty. Thus Josephus concerning Florus : ^rjiiovs^ aOpoovs 
e\viJ.aCv€To, &c. " He spoiled all the people, and he did in 
effect proclaim, that all might go out in the country to rob, 
that he might receive a share in the spoils." And thus a 
sword, that first came out of their own bowels, was sheathed 
in them. 

Ver. 39 : Kifowres ras Ke^aAas* Wagging their heads.] mT'p 
tlJh^'^ To shah the head, with the Rabbins, signifies irreverence 
and hghtness. 

Ver. 46 : 'HXt, 'HAt, Aa/xa aa^axOavi- Eli, Eli, lama sahach- 
thani.] T. All the rout indeed and force of hell was let loose 
at that time against Christ, without either bridle or chain : 
he calls it himself, e^ova-Cav tov aKorovs, the poiver of dark- 

f Leusden^s edition, vol. ii. p. 387. ^ De Bell. lib. ii. cap. 24. [Hud- 
P English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 268. son, p. 1078. 8. [ii. 14. 2.] 



oil. xxvii.47,5r.] Exercitatmis upon St. Matthew. 369 

ness, Luke xxii. ^t^. God who had foretold of old, that the 
serpent should bruise the heel of the promised seed, and now 
that time is come, had slackened the devil's chain, which, in 
regard of men, the Divine Providence used to hold in his 
hand ; so that all the power and all the rancour of hell might, 
freely and without restraint, assault Christ ; and that all 
that malice that was in the devil against the whole elect of 
God, summed up and gathered together into one head, might 
at one stroke and onset be brandished againat Christ without 
measure. 

II. Our most blessed Saviour, therefore, feeling such tor- 
ments as either hell itself, or the instruments of hell, men 
conspiring together in villany and cruelty, could pour out 
upon him, cries out, under the sharpness of the present pro- 
vidence, " My God ! my God ! why hast thou delivered me 
up and left me to such assaults, such bitternesses, and such 
merciless hands?" The Talmudists* bring in Esther using 
such an ejaculation, which is also cited in the Gloss on Joma'': 
" Esther stood in the inner court of the palace. R. Levi saith. 
When she was now just come up to the idol-temple, the divine 
glory departed from her : therefore she said, Eli, Eli, lamma 
azahhtani." 

Ver. 47 : 'HAtay (fxovel ovror This man calleth for Elias. 
Ver. 49 : "ISw/xey et epxerai 'HAias a-dcroiv ovtov Let us see 
whether Elias loill come to save him.] That Christ here used 
the Syriac dialect, is plain from the word sahachthani: but 
the word Eli., Eli, is not so properly Syriac : and hence 
arose the error and misconstruction of the standers by. In 
Syriac he should have said, '^l^ "'l?;^ Mari, Mari : but Eli 
was strange to a Syrian ear : this deceived the standers-by, 
who, having heard more than enough of the apparitions of 
Elias from the Jewish fables, and being deceived by the 
double meaning of the word, supposed that Christ was tainted 
with the same folly and mistake, and called out to Elias for 
help ; which it was no strange thing for that deluded people 
to expect. 

Ver. 51 : To KaraniTacr^a tov vaov l(TyJ.(j6r] €is hvo, &c. The 
veil of the Temple was rent in twain, Sfc] Let us hear what 

' Bab. Megill. fol. 15. 2. ^ Fol. 29. i. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. B b 



370 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvii. 51. 

the Fathers of the Traditions say concerning this catapetasm 
or veil^ : " The wall of the pronaon was five cubits, the pro- 
naon itself eleven. The wall of the Temple was six, the 
Temple forty. I'^Dp'^lD TV2^, the Tapanis one cubit, and the 
entrance, twenty." What taraxis means, Maimonidesf" will 
tell you ; " In the first Temple there was a wall one cubit 
thick, separating the Holy from the Holy of Holies; but 
when they built the second Temple, it was doubted whether 
the thickness of that wall should be accounted to belong to 
the measure of the Holy, or to the measure of the Holy of 
Holies. Wherefore they made the Holy of" Holies twenty 
cubits complete, and the Holy forty cubits complete ; and 
they left a void cubit between the Holy and the Holy of 
Holies, but they did not build any wall there in the second 
Temple : only they made two hangings, one contiguous to 
the Holy of Holies, and the other to the Holy; between 
which there was a void cubit, according to the thickness of 
the wall that was in the first Temple ; in which there was but 
one catapetasm [or w«7] only." 

" The» high priest [on the day of atonement] goes forward 
in the Temple, till he comes to the two hangings that divide 
the Holy from the Holy of Holies, between which there was a 
cubit. R. Josi saith, There was but one hanging there ; as it 
is said, ' And the hanging shall separate [to, or] between the 
Holy and the Holy of Holies.^ '' On which words thus the 
Gemara of Babylon P : " R. Josi saith rightly to the Rabbins, 
and the Rabbins to thee : for he speaks of the tabernacle, 
and they, of the second Temple ; in which since there was 
not a partition-wall, as there was in the first Temple, there 
was some doubt made of its holiness., namely, whether it should 
belong to the outward part of the Temple or to the inward ; 
whereupon they made two hangings." 

While, therefore, their minds were troubled about this 
affair, not knowing whether they should hang the veil at the 
Temple, or at the inmost recess of it, and whether the void 
space between of a cubit thick should belong to this or that ; 
they called the place itself by the Greek word rapa^is, that is, 

• Middoth, cap. 4. hal. 7. " Englishfolio edit., vol. ii. p. 269. 

™ In Beth habbechirah, cap. 4. « Joma, cap. 5. hal. 1. p F0I.51.2. 



Ch.xxvii.52.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 371 

trouble., as Ariich plainly affirms, and they hung up two veils, 
that they might be sure to offend neither agairst this part 
nor that. 

You will wonder q, therefore, that Matthew doth not say 
Kara7reTa(7/xara, veils, in the plural ; or perhaps you will think 
that only one of these two veils was rent, not both. But it was 
enough for tlie evangelists Matthew and Mark, who speak of 
this miracle, to have shewed that that fence between, which 
hindered seeing into the Holy of Holies, and going into it, 
was cleft and broken. This is it they mean, not being soli- 
citous in explaining particulars, but contented to have de- 
clared the thing itself. Perhaps the priest, who offered the 
incense that evening, was in the Temple at the very moment 
when this miracle happened : and when he went out amazed 
to the people, and should tell them. The veil of the Temple is 
rent, it would easily be understood of a passage broken into 
the Holy of Holies by some astonishing and miraculous rend- 
ing of the hangings. Compare Heb. x. 19, 20. 

When the high priest went into the inmost recess of the 
Temple on the day of atonement, he went in by the south side 
of the outward hanging, and the north side of the inner''. 
But now both are rent in the very middle, and that from the 
top to the bottom. 

Vev. 52 : Kat itoXKa (rcajxaTa tS)v KeKOifxrjfxivoiV ayiuiv i)y^pOy]' 
And many hoclies of saints ichich slept arose.'] You can hardly 
impute the rending of the hangings to the earthquake, but it 
must be ascribed rather to another peculiar miracle ; since it 
is more proper for an earthquake to break hard things than 
soft, and to rend rocks rather than curtains. Rocks were 
rent by it in those places where sepulchres had been built, so 
that now the gates of the resurrection were thrown open, the 
bonds of the grave were unloosed, and the bodies of dead 
men wore made I'eady, as it were, for their rising again when 
Christ, the firstfruits, was raised. The Jews had a fancy that 
the kingdom of the Messias would begin with the resurrection 
of the dead, as we have noted before ; vainly indeed, as to 
their sense of it; but not without some truth, as to the 
thing itself: for from the resurrection of Christ the glorious 

n Leusden's edition, vol. ii. \i. 38 S. "■ Joma, in the plnce before. ; 

R b 2 



372 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvii. 54, 56. 

epoch of the kingdom of God took its beginning, as we said 
before (which he himself also signifieth in those words Matt, 
xxvi. 29) ; and when he arose, not a few others arose with 
him. What they thought of the resurrection that was to be 
in the days of Messias, besides those things which we have 
already mentioned, you may see and smile at in this one ex- 
ample : " R, Jeremiah s commanded, ' When you bury me, 
put shoes on my feet, and give me a staff in my hand, and 
lay me on one side ; that when the Messias comes I may be 
ready.' " 

Ver. 54 : 'k\-qOG)s 0eo{) vtos r}v ovto^' Truly this was the 
Son of God?^ That is, " This was indeed the Messias." 
Howsoever the Jews deny the Son of God in that sense in 
which we own it, that is, as the second Person in the Holy 
Trinity, yet they acknowledge the Messias for the Son of 
God (not indeed by nature, but by adoption and deputation ; 
see Matt. xvvi. 6-i^^, from those places, i Chron. xvii. 13 ; 
Psalm t ii. 12; Ixxxix. 26, 27, and such-like. The centu- 
rion had learned this from the people by conversing among 
them, and, seeing the miracles which accompanied the death 
of Christ, acknowledged him to be the Messias of whom he 
had heard so many and great things spoken by the Jews. In 
Luke " we have these words spoken by him, " Certainly this 
was a righteous man :" which, I suppose, were not the same 
with these words before us ; but that both they and these 
were spoken by him, " Certainly this was a righteous man : 
truly this was the Messias, the Son of God." Such are 
the words of Nathanael, John i. 49, " Thou art the Son of 
God ; thou art the King of Israel." Peter, when he declared 
that " Christ was the Son of the living God," Matt. xvi. 16, 
spoke this in a more sublime sense than the Jews either 
owned or knew ; as we have said at that place. 

Ver. 56 : Map^a r] M.ayhaKr\vr]' Mary Magdalene.'\ That 
Magdalene was the same with Mary the sister of Lazarus 
Baronius^ proves at large; whom see. It is confirmed enough 
from this very place ; for if Mary Magdalene was not the 
same with Mary the sister of Lazarus, then either Mary 

s Jerus. Chetubboth, fol. 35. i. " Chap, xxiii. 47. 

t English folio edition, vol. ii. p. * Annal. ad An. Christ. 32, p. 
270. 147. 14^. &c- 



Ch, xxvii. 56.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 373 

the sister of Lazarus was not present at the crucifixion of 
Christ, and at his burial, or else she is passed o\er in silence 
by the evangelists ; both which are improbable. Whence she 
was called Magdalene, doth not so plainly appear ; whether 
from Magdala, a town on the lake of Gennesaret, or from the 
word t^7l^?D which signifies a plaiting or curling of the hair, 
a thing usual with harlots. Let us see what is spoken by the 
Talmudists concerning t^7"I^D U'^'S^ Mary Magdala, who, 
they say, was mother of Ben Satda 7 : 

" They stoned the son of Satda in Lydda, and they hanged 
him up on the evening of the Passover. Now this son of 
Satda was son of Pandira. Indeed, Rabh Chasda said, 
* The husband \of his mother'] was Satda ; her husband was 
Pandira ; her husband was Papus the son of Juda : but yet 
I say his mother was Satda, i^'^tDi ^^7"7^T^ D"^1D namely, 
Mary, the plaiter ofivomen/s hair ; as they say in Pombeditha, 
nbiOO Wl r\t2D she departed from her husband.' " These 
words are also repeated in Schalbath ^ : " Eabh Bibai, at a 
time when the angel of death was with him, said to his officer. 
Go, h^^^;Z}3 ^V^^ ^l^r^ 0^172 'h ^n^''« bring me Mary the 
plaiter of moments hair. Ho went and brought to him 3'^1?2 
"'PTTf ^^Sl^O Mary, the plaiter of young men's hair^ &c. 
The ^ Gloss ; " The angel of death reckoned up to him what 
he had done before : for this story of Mary, the plaiter of 
womeiis hair, was under the second Temple, for she was the 
mother of N., as it is said in Schabbath.'" See the Gloss there 
at the place before quoted. 

" There ^ are some who find a fly in their cup, and take it 
out and will not drink ; such was Papus Ben Judas, who 
locked the door upon his wife, and went out." Where the 
Glosser says thus ; " Papus Ben Juda was the husband 
t^^ii^j;^ i^7i:i^ □'•1^2 of 31 ary, the plaiter ofimmen's hair; and 
when he went out of his house into the street, he locked his 
door upon his wife, that she might not speak with anybody ; 
which, indeed, he ought not to have done : and hence sprang 
a difference between them, and she broke out into adulteries." 
See Alphesius on Gittin^. 

y Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 67. r. b Gittin, fol. 90. i. 

^ Fol. 104. 2. Chagigah, fol. 4. 2. ^ Pol. 605. 
* Leusdens edit., vol. ii. p. 389. 



374 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxvii. 56. 

I pronounce b^ltDD D Ben ' Satda,' not that I am ignorant 
that it is called ' BeJi Stada' by very learned men. The reason 
of our thus pronouncing it we fetch from hence, that we 
find he was called miDID X2 Ben Siifdah by the Jerusalem 
Talmudists '^ ; to which the word Satda more agrees than 
Stada. By the like agi'eement of sounds they call the same 
town both ^^71^7:3 Magdala^ and i^7lZl1^ Mugdala, as we 
have observed elsewhere. 

As they contumeliously reflect upon the Lord Jesus under 
the name of Ben Satda, so there is a shrewd suspicion that, 
under the name of i^7125j3 D''l?:2 Mary Magdala, they also 
cast reproach upon Mary Magdalene. The title which they 
gave their Mary is so like this of ours, that you may with 
good reason doubt whether she was called Magdalene from 
the town Magdala., or from that word of the Talmudists, 
b^yl^O a plaiter of hair. We leave it to the learned to 
decide. 

Ver. 56: 'iwaf/" J OSes.'] "'DV Josi ; a very usual name in 
the Talmudists e : » Five were called "^DV S "'l Be B. Josi, 
Ismael, Lazar, jMenahem, Chelpatha, Abdimus.'" Also, *' R.f 
Joso Ben R. Chaninah e," &c. One may well inquire why 
this Mary is called the mother of ' James and Joses/ and 
not also of ' Judas and Simon/ as Mark vi. 3. 

Ver. 58 ^ : 'Hrjj.Taro to au)^.a rod 'Irjo-ou- Begged the hody of 
Jesus.] It was not lawful to suffer a man to hang all night 
upon a tree, Deut. xxi. 23 : nay, nor to lie all night unburied : 
\1iyn i^Sn "^mir in^ ni^ \'hr2n h^ whosoever suffers a 
dead hody to lie all night unburied violates a negative precept. 
But they that were put to death by the council were not to 
be buried in the sepulchres of their fathers ; but two burying- 
places were appointed by the council, one for those that were 
slain by the sword and strangled, the other for those that 
were stoned [who also were hanged] and burnt." There, ac- 
cording to the custom, Jesus should have been buried, had 
not Joseph, with a pious boldness, begged of Pilate that he 
might be more honourably interred : which the fathers of the 
council, out of spite to him, would hardly have permitted, if 

«i Sanhedr. fol. 25. 4. e See Juchavsin, fol. 61. 62. 

c Jems. Jevamoth, fol. ?. 2. ^ English folioedit., vol. i\.i>.2']i. 

i Jbid. fol. 4. 3. 



Ch. xxviii. i .] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 375 

they had been asked ; and yet they did not use to deny the 
honour of a funeral to those whom they had put to death, if 
the meanness of the common burial would have been a dis- 
grace to their family. As to the dead person himself, they 
thought it would be better for him to be treated dishonour- 
ably after death, and to be neither lamented nor buried ; for 
this vilifying of him they fancied amounted to some atone- 
ment for him ; as we have seen before. And yet, to avoid 
the disgrace of his family, they used, at the request of it, to 
allow the honour of a funeral '. 

CHAP. XXVIII. 

Ver. I : 'Ov|/-e 8e aalBficiTOiV In the end of the sabbath.'] 
In the Jerusalem Talmudists it is ^^IIIZ? "^pIDl in the coming 
forth of the sabbath ; vulgarly, nil!? ^i^!J1Dl in the going out 
of the sabbath : ^yw T^^TsV ^^in On^ a certain eve of the 
sabbath, namely, when the sabbath began, " there was no 
wine to be found in all Samaria : t^li;!? ""pIDl but at the end 
of the sabbath there was found abundance, because the Aram- 
ites had brought it, and the Cuthites had received it." '0\/^€ 
signifies all the night. 

Els [jiLav cral3(3dTb)V Toicards the first day of the loeeJc.'] The 
Jews reckon the days of the week thus; t>5!lt!?l inh^ One 
day (or the first day) of the sabbath : t^m?l ^HH tv:)o (or the 
second day) of the sabbath: " Two^ witnesses come and say, 
h^HZ}2 im The first of the sabbath this man stole, &c. "^"^jm 
fc^llDH and, on the second day of the sabbath, judgment passed 
on him." 

T\yD1 ^^^^ The third of the sabbath ; " A virgin is mar- 
ried on the fourth day of the week ; for they provide for the 
feast rati?! in^^ the first day of the iceek. j-QU?! ""iU? 
The second day of the week : illlLO '^t!?'' vt2? and the third day 
of the tveek"^." 

Jmi?!! '^V'^l'^H " On the fourth day of the week they set 
apart him who was to burn the red heifer^." 

rau?n '^U^^'^ni On the fifth of the sabbath. " Ezra or- 
dained that they should read the law publicly on the second 

• See Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 46. 2 ; i Bab. Maccoth. fol. 5. i. 
47.1. ni Bab. Chetub. fol.2i. 

^ Avodah Zarah, fol. 44. 4. » Gloss, in Parah, cap. 2. 



376 Hebrew and Tahnwdical [Oh. xxviii. t. 

and fifth days of the sabbath, &c. He appointed that judges 
should sit in the cities on the second and fifth days^ Ezra 
also appointed that they should wash their clothes n^U/l TO, 
on the fifth day of the sahbathv." 

The sixth day they commonly called nit!?rT IVJ the eve 
of the sabbath: " Toi wash^ their clothes on the fifth day 
of the sabbath, and eat onions on the eve of the sabbath." 
^C.W^ nn^ nii?T nntyn ^^*^?2n^ On the fifth day of the sab- 
bath [or iceek']^ and the eve of the sabbath, and the sabbath^. 

The first day of the week, which is now changed into the 
sabbath or Lord's day, the Talmudists call ^"l!^1] DV the 
Christians' , OT the Christian daij : "jIDb^ D^li? "'"^lil!: DV, On^ 
the Christians' day it is ahcays forbidden for a Jew to traffic 
with a Christian. Where the Gloss saith thus : '^"^^ID A 
Nazarene or Christian is he who followeth the error of the man 
who commanded them nntTin "^l "t'^i^ tTl"^ Uvh T^WV^ 
to make the first day of the iceek a festival day to him : and 
according to tlie words of Ismael, it is always unlawful to 
traffic with them'^ three days before that day and three days 
after ; that is, not at all the week through." We cannot 
here pass by the words of the Glossers on Babyl. Rosh ha- 
shanah " ; " The Baithusians desire that the first day of the 
Passover might be on the sabbath, so that the presenting of 
the sheaf might be on the first day of the week, and the feast 
of Pentecost on the first day of the week." 

With good reason did our blessed Saviour remove the 
sabbath to this day, the day of his resurrection, the day which 
the Lord had made, Psalm cxviii. 24, when now the stone tvhich 
the builders refused was become the head stone of the corner. 
For, 

I. When Christ was to make a new world, or a new crea- 
tion, ity was necessary for him to make a new sabbath. The 
sabbath of the old creation was not proper for the new. 

II. The kingdom of Christ took its beginning principally 
from the resurrection of Christ : when he had now overcome 
death and hell. (The Jews themselves confess that the king- 

° Hieros. Meg. fol. 75. i. ^ Bab. Avodah Zarah, fol. 6. i; 

P Bab. Bava Kama, fol. 82. 7. 2. 

1 Leusderi's edit., vol. ii. p. 390. " Enr/lishfolio edit., vol. ii. p. 272. 

^ Bab. Bava Kama, fol. 82- ^ Fol. 22. 2. 

» Id. fol. 37.2. y Isa. Ixv. 17. 



Ch. xxviii. 9.] Exercitations u^)on St. Matthew. 377 

dom of the Messiah was to begin with the resurrection of the 
dead, and the renewing of the world.) Therefore it was very 
proper that that day from which Christ's kingdom took its 
beginning should pass into the sabbath^ rather than the old 
sabbath, the memorial of the creation. 

III. That old sabbath was not instituted till after the 
giving the promise of Christ, Gen. iii. 15; and the rest of 
God on that seventh day was chiefly in having perfected the 
new creation in Christ ; that also was the sabbatical rest of 
Adam. When therefore that was accomplished which was 
then promised, namely, the bruising of the serpent's head by 
the resurrection z of Christ, and that was fulfilled which was 
typified and represented in the old sabbath, namely, the 
finishing of a new creation, the sabbath could not but justly 
be transferred to that day on which these things were done. 

IV. It was necessary that the Christians should have a 
sabbath given them distinct from the sabbath of the Jews, 
that a Christian might be thereby distinguished from a Jew. 
For as the law took great care to provide that a Jew might 
be distinguished from a heathen ; so it was provided by the 
gospel with the like care, that partly by the forsaking of those 
rites, partly by the bringing in of different manners and ob- 
servances, a Christian might be distinguished from a Jew. 
The law was not more solicitous to mark out and separate a 
Jew from a heathen by circumcision than the gospel hath 
been that by the same circumcision a Christian should not 
Judaize. And the same care it hath deservedly taken about 
the sabbath : for since the Jews, among other marks of dis- 
tinction, were made of a different colour, as it were, from all 
nations, by their keeping the sabbath, it was necessary, that 
by the bringing in of another sabbath (since of necessity a 
sabbath must be kept up), that Christians might be of a dif- 
ferent colour from the Jews. 

Ver. 9 : Xatpere- AUhail.] In the vulgar dialect of the Jews^ 
'^^!?''^^ "The Rabbins saw a certain holy man of Caphar Immi, 
and said lU}^^^ x«^pf' ^^^ hail^r h^ ''^}2^h^r2 \h^^'^ HD 
7^^1127"' ffoio do they salute an Israelite ? 'W'^'* All hail'^. 

^- Heb. ii. 14. b lb. Sheviith, f. 35. 2 ; 36. i. 

a Hieros. Taanith, fol. 64. 2. "^ Id. Gittin, fol. 47. 3. 



378 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch. xxviii. 19. 

'EKpaTTjo-ay av-ov tovs 'nohas' They held him by the feetJ\ 
This seems to have been done to kiss his feet. So 2 Kings iv. 
27. For this was not unusual : "As R. Janni and R. Jonathan 
were sitting together, a certain man came and kissed the 
feet of R. Jonathan ^l" Compare the evangelists here, and 
you will find that this was done by Mary Magdalene only, 
who formerly had kissed Christ's feet, and who had gone 
twice to the sepulchre, however Matthew makes mention but 
of once going. The story, in short, is thus to be laid toge- 
ther : At the first dawning of the morning Christ arose, a 
great earthquake happening at that time. About the same 
time Magdalene and the other women left their houses to go 
to the sepulchre : while they met together and made all 
things ready, and took their journey to the tomb, the sun 
was up. When they were come, they are informed of his re- 
surrection by the angels, and sent back to the disciples. The 
matter being told to the disciples, Peter and John run to the 
sepulchre ; Magdalene also followed after them. They having 
seen the signs of the resurrection return to their company, 
but she stays there. Being ready to return back, Christ ap- 
pears to her, she supposing him to he the gardener. As soon as she 
knew him, she worships him ; and embracing his feet, kisseth 
them. And this is the history before us, which Matthew re- 
lates in the plural number, running it over briefly and com- 
pendiously, according to his manner. 

Ver. 19^: YlopevOivT^s ovv jJLadrjTcva-aTe Tiavra to. (.Ovq, (Bair- 
TtCovres avTovs, &c. Go ye therefore and teach all nations, 
baptizing them, c^-c] I. The enclosure is now thrown down, 
whereby the apostles were kept in from preaching the gospel 
to all the Gentiles, Matt. x. 5. For, first, the Jews had now 
lost their privilege, nor were they henceforward to be counted 
a peculiar people ; nay, they were now become " Lo-ammi." 
They had exceeded the heathens in sinning, they had slighted, 
trampled upon, and crucified the Creator himself, appearing 
visibly before their eyes in human flesh ; while the heathens 
had only conceived amiss of the Creator, whom they neither 



^ Hieros. Kiddusbin, f. 61. 3. 

e English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 273. — Letisdeus edition, vol. ii. p. 391. 



Ch. xxviii. I9-] Exercitations iqwii St.Mattheiv. 379 

had seen nor conld see, and thereby fallen to worship the 
creature. Secondly, Christ had now by his blood paid a price 
for the heathens also. Thii'dly, he had overcome Satan, who 
held them captive. Fourthly, he had taken away the wall of 
partition : and fifthly, had exhibited an infinite righteous- 
ness, 

II. Ma^rjreware, that is, make disciples. Bring them in by 
baptism, that they may be taught. They are very much out, 
who from these words cry down infant-baptism, and assert 
that it is necessary for those that are to be baptized to be 
taught before they are baptized, i. Observe the words here, 
IxaOriTeva-are, make disciples ; and then after, bibdcrKovTes, teach- 
ing^ in the twentieth verse. 2. Among the Jev/s, and also 
with us, and in all nations, those are made disciples that they 
may be taught. A certainf heathen came to the great Hillel, 
and saith, '^31?2^ntL' "dX'^ "'^''''1'''^^ Male me a proselyte, that 
thou mayest teach me. He was first to be proselyted, and then 
to be taught. Thus first, make them disciples (jxaOr^Teva-aTe) 
by baptism ; and then, teach them to ohserve all things, &c. 
hiharrKeTC avTovs Trjpiiv iravra. 

III. BaTTTiCovTcs, baptizing. There are divers ends of bap- 
tism: — I. According to the nature of a sacrament it visibly 
teacheth invisible things, that is, the washing of us from all 
our pollutions by the blood of Christ, and by the cleansing of 
grace, Ezek. xxxvi. 25. 2. According to the nature of a sa- 
crament, it is a seal of divine truth. So circumcision is called, 
Rom. iv. 1 1 ; " And he received the sign of circumcision, the 
seal of the righteousness of faith,"" &c. So the Jews, when 
they circumcised their children, gave this ver}' title to circum- 
cision. The words used when a child was circumcised you 
have in their Talmud. Amongg other things, he who is to 
bless the action saith thus, " Blessed be he who sanctified 
him that was beloved from the womb, and set a sign in his 
fiesh, \Lnp n"^^n nit^n ann Vb^!i«!i1 a^id sealed his chil- 
dren with the sign of the holy covenant, &c. 

But in what sense are sacraments to be called seals ? Not 
that they seal (or confirm) to the receiver his righteousness ; 
but that they seal the divine truth of the covenant and pro- 

f Bab. Schab. fol. 31. i. b Hieros, Berac. fol. 13. i. 



380 Hehrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxviii. 19. 

mise. Thus the apostle calls circumcision ' the seal of the 
righteousness of faith :' that is, it is the seal of this truth and 
doctrine, that 'justification is by faith/ which righteousness 
Abraham had when he was yet uncircumcised. And that is 
the way whereby sacraments confirm faith, namely, because 
they do doctrinally exhibit the invisible things of the cove- 
nant ; and, like seals, do by divine appointment sign the 
doctrine and truth of the covenant. 3. According to the 
nature of a sacrament, it obligeth the receivers to the terms 
of the covenant : for as the covenant itself is of mutual obli- 
gation between God and man ; so the sacraments, the seals 
of the covenant, are of like obligation. 4. According to its 
nature, it is an introductory into the visible church. And, 
5. It is a distinguishing sign between a Christian and no 
Christian, namely, between those who acknowledge and pro- 
fess Christ, and Jews, Turks, and Pagans, who do not ac- 
knowledge him. Ma^Tjrevcrare navra to. ^6vr] ^aTrrifo ires' 
Disciple all nations, baptizing. When they are under bap- 
tism, they are no longer under heathenism ; and this sacra- 
ment puts a difference between those who are under the 
discipleship of Christ, and those who are not. 6. Baptism 
also brings its privilege along with it, while it opens the way 
to a partaking of holy things in the church, and placeth 
the baptized within the church, over which God exerciseth a 
more singular providence than over those that are out of the 
church. 

And now, from what hath been said, let us argue a little 
in behalf of infant-baptism. Omitting that argument which is 
commonly raised from the words before us, namely, that when 
Christ had commanded to baptize all nations, infants also are 
to be taken in as parts of the family, these few things may be 
observed : 

I. Baptism, as a sacrament, is a seal of the covenant. 
And why, I pray, may not this seal be set on infants ? The 
seal of divine truth hath sometimes been set upon inanimate 
things, and that by God's appointment. The bow in the 
cloud is a seal of the covenant ^ : the law engraven on the 
altar. Josh, viii, was a seal of the covenant. The blood 
sprinkled on the twelve pillars that were set up to represent 

h English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 274. 



Ch. xxviii. 1 9.] Exercitations upon St. Matthew. 381 

the twelve tribes was a seal and bond of the covenant, Exod. 
xxiv. And now tell me, why are not infants capable, in like 
manner, of such a sealing ? They were capable heretofore of 
circumcision ; and ou7' infants have an equal capacity. The 
sacrament doth not lose this its end, through the indisposition 
of the receiver. Peter and Paul, apostles, were baptized : 
their baptism, according to its nature, sealed to them the 
truth of God in his promises concerning the washing away of 
sins, &c. And they, from this doctrinal virtue of the sacra- 
ment, received confirmation of their faith. So also Judas 
and Simon Magus, hypocrites, wicked men, were baptized : 
did not their baptism, according to the nature of it, seal 
this doctrine and truth, " that there was a washing away 
of sins?" It did not, indeed, seal the thing itself to them; 
nor was it at all a sign to them of the ' washing away' of 
theirs : but baptism doth in itself seal this doctrine. You 
will grant that this axiom i is most true, " Abraham received 
the sign of circumcision, the seal of the righteousness of 
faith." And is not this equally true \ Esau, Ahab, Ahaz, 
received the sign of circumcision, the seal of the righteous- 
ness of faith : is not circumcision the same to all ? Did not 
circumcision, to whomsoever it was administered, sign and 
seal this truth, that there 'was a righteousness of faith?' 
The sacrament hath a sealing virtue in itself, that doth not 
depend 07i the disposition of the receiver. 

II. Baptism, as a sacrament, is an obligation. But now 
infants are capable of being obliged. Heirs are sometimes 
obliged by their parents, though they are not yet born : see 
also Deut. xxix. 11, 15. For that to which any one is obliged 
obtains a right to oblige " ex sequitate rei," from the equity 
of the thing, and not "ex captu obligati,"" /rom the apprehen- 
sion of the person obliged. The law is imposed upon all under 
this penalty, " Cursed be every one that doth not continue in 
all," &c. It is ill arguing from hence, that a man hath power 
to perform the law ; but the equity of the thing itself is very 
well argued hence. Our duty obligeth us to every thing 
which the law commands ; but we cannot perform the least 
tittle of it. 

' heusdeii's edition, vol. ii. p, 392. 



382 Hehreto and Tahnudical [Ch. xxviii. 19. 

III. An infant is capable of privileges, as well as an old 
man ; and baptism is privilegial. An infant hath been crowned 
king in his cradle : an infant may be made free who is born a 
slave. The Gemarists^^ speak very well in this matter ; " E-abh 
Houna saith, They baptize an infant proselyte by the com- 
mand of the bench, h' 12p ""WTD Upon v:liat is this grounded ? 
T7 ^in m^tl On this, that baptism becomes a privilege to 
Mm. VDSn b^vtl? D"f^^7 T^tl And tlmj may mdoio an ab- 
sent person with a privilege : or they may bestow a privilege 
upon one, though he be ignorant of it. Tell me then, why an 
infant is not capable of being brought into the visible church, 
and of receiving the distinguishing sign between a Christian 
and a heathen, as well as a grown person. 

IV. One may add, that an infant is part of his parent : 
upon this account, Gen. xvii. 14, an infant is to be cut off if 
he be not circumcised, when, indeed, the fault is his parents' ; 
because thus the parents ai'e punished in a part of themselves, 
by the cutting off of their child. And hence is that of Exod. 
XX. 5, " Visiting the sins of the fathers upon the children,'^ 
because children are a part of their fathers, &c. From hence 
ariseth also a natural reason of infant-baptism : the infants of 
baptized parents are to be baptized, because they are part 
of them, and that the whole parents may be baptized '. And 
upon this account they used of old, with good reason, to bap- 
tize the whole family, with the master of it. 

El's TO dvojxa Tov Trarpos, &c. In the name of the Father, (^c] 
I. Christ commands them to go and baptize the nations ; but 
how much time was past before such a journey was taken ! 
And when the time was now come that this work should be 
begun, Peter doth not enter upon it without a previous ad- 
monition given him from heaven. And this was occasioned 
hereby, that, according to the command of Christ, the gospel 
was first to be preached to Judea, Samaria, and Galilee. 

II. He commands them to baptize in the name of the 
Father., and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost : but among 
the Jews they baptized only in the name of Jesus ; which we 
have observed before, from Acts ii. 38 ; viii.i 6 ; xix.5. For this 
reason, that thus the baptizers might assert, and the baptized 

'^ Bab. Chetubboth, fol. 11. i. ^ [Ut patres toti baptizentur.] 



Ch. xxviii. I9-] Exercitations upon St. Mattheio. 383 

confess, Jesus to be the true Messias : which was chiefly con- 
troverted by the Jews, 

Of the same nature is that apostolic blessing, " Grace and 
peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ." 
Where then is the Holy Ghost? He is not excluded, however 
he be not named. The Jews did more easily consent to the 
Spirit of the Messias, which they very much celebrate, than 
to the person of the Messias. Above all others, they deny and 
abjure Jesus of Nazareth. It belonged to the apostles, 
therefore"!, the more earnestly to assert Jesus (to be the 
Messias), by how much the more vehemently they opposed 
him : which being once cleared, the acknowledging of the 
Spirit of Christ would be introduced without delay or scruple. 
Moses (in Exod. vi. 14) going about to reckon up all the 
tribes of Israel, goes no further than the tribe of Levi only ; 
and takes up with that to which his business and story at 
that present related. In like manner the apostles, for the 
present, baptize in the name of Jesus, bless in the name of 
the Father and of Jesus, that thereby they might more 
firmly establish the doctrine of Jesus, which met with such 
sharp and virulent opposition ; which doctrine being esta- 
blished among them, they would soon agree about the Holy 
Ghost. 

III. Among the Jews, the controversy was about the true 
Messiah ; among the Gentiles, about the true God ; it was, 
therefore, proper among the Jews to baptize in the name of 
Jesus, that he might be vindicated to be the true Messias : 
among the Gentiles, In the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost, that they might be hereby in- 
structed in the doctrine of the true God. Hear this, Arian 
and Socinian ! 

IV. The Jews baptized proselytes into the name of the 
Father, that is, into the profession of God, whom they 
called by the name of Father. The apostles baptize the 
Jews into the name of Jesus, the Son : and the Gentiles, 
into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost. 

V. The Father hath revealed himself in the old covenant, 

•" English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 275. 



384 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xxviii. 1 9. 

the Son in the new ; in human flesh, by his miracles, doctrine, 
resurrection, and ascension ; the Holy Ghost, in his gifts and 
miracles. Thus the doctrine of the ever-blessed Trinity grew 
by degrees to full maturity : for the arriving at the acknow- 
ledgment of which it was incumbent upon all who pro- 
fessed the true God to be three in one to be baptized into 
his name. 



UORM 

HEBRAIC^ ET TALMUDIC^; 

OB, 

HEBREW AND TALMUDIOAL 

EXERCITATIONS 

UPON THE 

GOSPEL OF ST. MARK. 



LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II, C C 



SACREDa 

TO GOD AND THE KING, 

AN ALTAR 

IS HERE TO BE ERECTED BEFORE THE PORCH ; 

AND 

THANKSGIVINGS TO BE OFFERED ON IT, 

FOR THIS LEISURE GRANTED TO THE STUDIES OF LEARNING ; 

FOR THE MUSES PRESERVED, 

FOR ME AND MINE SNATCHED FROM IMMINENT RUIN, 

TO 

JEHOVAH THE DELIVERER, 

AND TO 

C^SAR THE PRESERVER: 

TO CESAR THE THINGS WHICH ARE C^SAR's, 

AND 

TO GOD THE THINGS WHICH ARE GOD's. 



OOME hither, stranger, [viator], aud stand by me, while I am 
sacrificing ; and when you hear me relating my own story, help my 
prayers with yours ; assist me in this holy office, and worship the 
same deities with me. 

I sing the mercy of God, and the clemency of the king, by which 
I was preserved from suffering shipwreck, when I had been already 
shipAvrecked ; and from being driven out of doors, when I had been 
already driven out. 

This rectoiy of Great Mundon, which I have now enjoyed for 
almost twenty years, belongs to the royal donation and grant, jiUno 
jure, as they use to speak. By which right two rectors were placed 

" Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 394. 

C C 2 



388 

here heretofore by two kings : persons they were of eminent name, 
of no ordinary worth, and the like to whom their times produced 
not many. One was the very famous George Downham, S.T.D., 
presented by king James, who was promoted hence, and sent over 
to the bishopric of Deny in Ireland. And he leaving it, that ex- 
cellent person Samuel Ward, S. T. D., master of Sidney Sussex Col- 
lege, in the university of Cambridge, and also the most grave and 
learned professor of the lady Margaret in the same university, 
was made his successor by king Charles. Upon his decease I suc- 
ceeded here ; far unequal (alas !) to so great men : and as unhappy, 
that I was not admitted by the same right, but by that power that 
then, while the wars prevailed, possessed all. The brittleness of 
this my weak title lay not concealed ; but when the king's majesty, 
in which we now rejoice, by a happy turn of Providence returned 
to his own rights, it was presently discovered ; and this rectory was 
granted to one who was a suitor for it, by the royal donation. 

Thus I and my fortunes are shipwrecked, and my affairs are come 
to that last extremity, that nothing now remains for me but to leave 
my house and these quiet retirements wherein for so many years I 
followed my studies with the highest satisfaction and the sweetest 
leisure. But another thing there was that stuck more close, namely, 
that I seemed to see royal majesty offended with me, and that brow 
that shined on others with a most sweet serenity, sad, clouded, 
bended on me ; and certainly to perish under the displeasure of a 
king is twice to perish. 

Under these straits what should I do ? There was no place for 
hope, when the fatal instrument was now signed against me : but to 
despair is to subscribe to one's OAvn misfortune, is to derogate 
fi'om the king's mercy, is to submit to certain ruin under uncertain 
suspicion. Perhaps the most merciful king is not angry with me 
at all, for eagles do not use to be angry with flies. Nor, per- 
haps, is it too late, nor altogether to no purpose, to seek after a 
remedy for my wound, not yet incurable ; for as yet the fatal decree 
was not gone out without repeal. Perhaps my case is altogether 
unknown to the best king, or disguised by some unjust complaint ; 
and it is a comfort that my business lies before a king, not before a 
common man. 

To the altar, therefore, of his mercy I humbly fly in a lowly sup- 
plication, begging and entreating him to consider my case, to revoke 
the destructive decree, and to vouchsafe to continue and establish 
my station in this place. Take now^, England, a measure of 

^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 395. 



389 

thy king ; and, even from this one example, learn what a prince 
thou hast to boast of. The royal father of his country received my 
supplication cheerfully, complied with my desires, and granted me 
his donation, — established it with his great seal, and (which I desire 
might be written in letters of gold to last for ever) by a particulai*, 
and, as it were, paternal care, took order that hereafter none, by any 
means whatsoever, should proceed to do any thing that tended either 
to my danger or ruin. 

! how would I conamemorate thee, thou best of princes, greatest 
Charles, how would I commemorate thee ! WTiat praises or what ex- 
pressions shall I use to celebrate or set forth so great clemency, com- 
miseration, and goodness 1 Those are light obligations that speak, 
these my obligations stand amazed, are speechless, and swallowed 
up in admiration. It is for common men to do benefits that may 
be expressed in words, it is for Charles to oblige beyond all that 
can be spoken. 

1 will add another thing also, stranger, which the same mercy 
and goodness also added. For when I feared the same fortune iu 
the university as I had felt in the country, and fled again to the 
same altar, the royal bounty heard me, gTanted my petition, ratified 
my desires, and confirmed and strengthened my station there also. 

To comprise all in a word, which indeed exceeds all words. 
Although I were an obscure person and of no note, altogether 
unworthy and of no merit, wholly unknown to the king's majesty, 
and lying possibly under some kind of accusations, (for it wanted 
not an accusation that I was put into these places by that au- 
thority that I was,) yet twice within two weeks by the royal favour 
I obtained his gi-ant, confirmed by his hand, and the great seal of 
England. And thus rooted out here he replanted me ; and ready 
to be rooted out elsewhere he preserved me, rescued me from 
danger, freed me of my fear : so that now I, as well as my 
worthy predecessors, have this to boast of, that I have a king to 
my patron. 

But far be it, far be it, from me, most unworthy man, to boast : 
all this, most great, most merciful prince, redounds to your praise 
alone ; and let it do so : rather let England glory in such a prince, 
and let the prince glory in such mercy. Triumph, Csesar, triumph 
in that brave spirit of yours, as you well may. You are Charles, 
and you conquer ; you subdue all by pitying, delivering, giving, and 
forofivinfj all. 

That conquest I shall always acknowledge with all humility and 
thankfulness : and thou, little book, and you, trifling sheets, where- 



390 

soever ye shall fly, tell this abroad in my name everj^where, and to 
every man, that although there be nothing else in you worthy to be 
read, yet that this my sincere profession may be read and heard ; 
that, next after the divine mercy, I owe to the mercy of the king, 
that I enjoy this SAveet leisure for learning, that I enjoy these quiet 
retirements, that I enjoy a house, that T enjoy myself. 

So, father of the country, may the Father of mercies reward you 
sevenfold, and seventy times sevenfold into your bosom ; and may 
you feel every day the benefit and sweetness of doing good by the 
recompenses that are made you by Heaven. Thus may your mercy 
ever triumph, and ever reap as the fruit of it the eternal favour of 
the Divine mercy. Thus may England be crowned for a long time 
with her king ; and may the king be crowned for ever with the love 
of God, with his protection, his blessing, his grace, his glory. 

Made these vows, 
Jan. I, 1661. 



TO THE 

RIGHT REVEREND FATHER IN CHRIST, 

GILBERT, 

BY THE DIVINE PROVIDENCE, LORD BISHOP OP LONDON. » 



J. HE sacrifice by the law was to be delivered into the hands of the 
priest, and to be offered by him : and since your hands, reverend 
prelate, vouchsafed to offer my evKTiKa, j^etitions, to the king's 
majesty, I now become an hvimble petitioner that those hands would 
please to offer also my xap'o'T'jpta, these testimonials of my thanks. 

I bring the firstfruits of my replantation which the royal favour 
indulged me by the intercession of your honour, when I had been 
rooted up. For since by that favour I am restored to these seats, 
to peace, and my studies, there is nothing I now desire besides, 
nothing more than that that most excellent prince may perceive, 
that he hath not been a benefactor to an ungrateful person, however 
unworthy, however obscure : and that your honour may see that 
you have not interceded for a forgetful person, howsoever unde- 
serving. 

I shall never forget, gi*eat sir, with how much kindness and can- 
dour your honour received me in my straits, altogether unknown to 
you, and whose face you had never before seen : with how great 
concern you pleaded my cause before the king's majesty, before the 
most honourable the lord chancellor of England, and before the 
right reverend my diocesan : how your honour consulted for me, 
wi-ote letters, laid stops, that my ruin might not proceed beyond a 
possibility of restoration. All which while I reflect upon, which I 
ever do, and while, together with that reflection, I consider what 
obligation lays upon me on one hand, and my own meanness on the 

* Lemden's edition, vol. ii. p. 396. 



392 DEDICATION. 

other ; on one hand how unworthy I am of so great favour, and 
how altogether unable to make any recompense on the other ; what 
else is left me but to fly again to the same kindness, humbly im- 
ploring it, that as it at first so obligingly received me, a person 
unknown and unworthy ; so it would now entertain me, knoAvu and 
bound by so great obligation, and approaching with all the thanks I 
can give. Those thanks so due to your honour I have committed to 
these papers ; unlearned indeed they are, and undressed [imjjolitis] ; 
but such as cany sincerity with them, though not learning, thankful- 
ness, though not eloquence. And I have intrusted this charge with 
them the rather, because I suppose they may dispei'se themselves 
far and near, and pei'haps may live to posterity : and that which I 
desire of them is, that they would declare to all how indebted he is 
to your honour, and to your great humanity, with how gi'eat obli- 
gations he is bound to you, and ^vith how grateful a mind and 
inward affection he professeth all this, and will acknowledge it for 
ever, who is, 

My Lord, 

Your Honoui''s most obliged servant, 

JOHN LIGHTFOOT. 



HEBREW AND TALMUDIOAL 

EXERCITATIONS 



UPON 



THE GOSPEL OF ST. MARK«. 



CHAP. I. 

Ver. I : 'Apx^ Tov cvayyeXLov The beginning of the gospel.] 
The preaching and baptism of John were the very gate and 
entrance into the state and dispensation of the gospel. For, 

I. He opened the door of a new church by a new sacrament 
of admission into the church. 

II. Pointing, as it were with the finger, at the Messias that 
was coming, he shewed the beginning ^^^H u7^V of the world 
to come. 

III. In that manner as the Jews by baptism admitted 
Gentile proselytes into the Jewish church, he admits both 
Jews and Gentiles into the gospel church. 

IV. For the doctrine of justification by works, with which 
the schools of the scribes had defiled all religion, he brings in 
a new (and yet not a new) and truly saving doctrine of faith 
and repentance. 

Ver. 2 : 'X2s yiypa-nrai iv toIs TrpocpijTats' As it is written in 
the prophets.'] Here a doubt is made of the true meaning : 
namely, whether it be h toTs 'npo(pi]Tais, in the prophets, or er 
'Ho-aia 7-(5 7rpo(^7jTr;, in Esaias the prophet. These particulars 
make for the former : 

I. When^ two places are cited out of two prophets, it is 

* English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 331. — Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 435. 
b English folio edit., vol. ii, p. 332. 



394 Hebrew and Talnmdical [Oh. i. 2. 

far more congruously said, as it is icritten in the prophets ; 
than, as it is written in Esaias : but especially when the place 
first alleged is not in Esaias, but in another prophet. 

II. It was very customary among the Jews (to whose 
custom in this matter it is very probable the apostles con- 
formed themselves in their sermons) to hear many testimo- 
nies cited out of many prophets under this form of speech, 
□"^i^^lDl nn^^ as it is written in the prophets. If one only 
were cited, if two^ if more, this was the most common man- 
ner of citing them^ as it is ivritten in the prophets. But 
it is without all example, when two testimonies are taken 
out of two prophetSj to name only the last, which is done 
here, if it were to be read, as it is written in Esaias the 
prophet. 

III. It is clear enough, from the scope of the evangelist, 
that he propounded to himself to cite those two places, 
both out of Malachi and out of Esaias. For he doth two 
things most evidently: i. He mentions the preaching of 
the Baptist ; for the illustrating of which he produceth the 
same text which both Matthew and Luke do out of Esaias. 
2. He saith that that preaching v/as " the beginning of 
the gospel," to prove which he very aptly cites Malachi, of 
" sending a messenger," and of " preparing the way of the 
Lord." 

But what shall we answer to antiquity, and to so many 
and so great men reading, as it is written in Esaias the 
prophet 9 " I wonder (saith the very learned Grotius), that 
any doubt is made of the truth of this writing, when, beside 
the authority of copies, and Irenseus so citing it, there is 
a manifest agreement of the ancient interpreters, the Syriac, 
the Latin, the Arabic." True ^, indeed ; nor can it be de- 
nied that very many of the ancients so read : but the an- 
cients read also, as it is written in the prophets. One 
Arabic copy hath, in Isaiah the prophet : but another 
hath, in the prophets, Irenseus once reads in Isaiah : 
but reads twice, in the prophets^. And "so we find it 
written," saith the famous Beza (who yet follows the other 
reading), " in all our ancient copies except two, and that 

*= LeusderCs editio7i, vol. ii. p. 436. '' Lib. iii. cap. 1 1. 18. 



Ch. i, 2.] Exercitations upon St. MaH\ 395 

my very nncient one, in which we read, kv 'Ho-ata rw upo- 
(f)riT7], in Esaias the prophet.^'' 

The whole knot of the question lies in the cause of 
changing the reading ; why, as it is written in Esaias the 
prophet, should be changed into, as it is written in the pro- 
phets. The cause is manifest, saith that very learned man, 
namely, because a double testimony is taken out of two 
prophets, " But there could be no cause (saith he) of 
changing of them." For if Mark, in his own manuscript, 
wrote, as it is loritten in the prophets, by what way could this 
reading at last creep in, as it is written in Esaias, when two 
prophets are manifestly cited I 

Keader, will you give leave to an innocent and modest 
guess ? I am apt to suspect that in the copies of the Jewish 
Christians it was read, in Isaiah the prophet ; but in those 
of the Gentile Christians, in the prophets : and that the 
change among the Jews arose from hence, that St. Mark 
seems to go contrary to a most received canon and custom 
of the Jews": " He that reads the prophets in the syna- 
gogues, «"^lA ^^'a;i!2 |'':iS"'i(0 ]^t^ let him not skip from one 
prophet to another. But in the lesser prophets he may skip ; 
with this provision only, that he skip not backward : that is, 
not from the latter to the former." 

But you see how Mark skips here (from whom far be it 
to be subject to such foolish canons) from a prophet of one 
rank, namely, from a prophet who was one of the twelve, to 
a prophet of another rank : and you see also how he skips 
backward from Malachi to Isaiah. This, perhaps, was not so 
pleasing to the Christian Jews, too much Judaizing yet : nor 
could they well bear that this allegation should be read in 
their churches so differently from the common use. Hence, 
in Isaiah the prophet, was inserted for in the prophets. And 
that they did so much the more boldly, because those words 
which are cited out of Malachi are not exactly agreeable 
either to the Hebrew original or the Greek version, and 
those that are cited from Isaiah are cited also by Matthew 
and Luke ; and the sense of them which are cited from 
Malachi may also be fetched from the place alleged out of 
Isaiah. 

c Megill. fol. 24, 1. 



S96 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. i. 6. 

Ver. 6 : 'EfSeSv/xeVo? rpCya^ KafxrjKov Clothed with camel's 
hair.] In the Talmudists it would be read D''7Dn 172)^ cameVs 
icool : " He ^ hath not a garment besides a woollen one ; 
Q'^li'l^^ "l?2!^1 ahr^y "in^i rr\Th to add wool (or hair) of 
camels, and loool of hares : y2r\'^))^ D^^r^H •^?:i!J1 uhrr\ 'yo^ 
wools of sheep, and wool of camels, which they mix, &c." And 
a little after, uh^^^i l?2!Jn "T:Q TWV I^^Dt^l " If he male a 
garment of cameVs hair^ and weave in it but one thread of 
linen, it is forbidden, as things of different kinds." 

There ^ is one that thinks that those garments of Adam 
concerning which it is said [Gen. iii. ai.], that God made 
for them *Tii^ Hi^rO coats of skins, were of camel's hair : 

•\1« ni:ni mn^ 1«!J?2 'cS mini " in the law of R. Meir 
they found written *Tlt^ rTIHn^ garments of light. R. Isaac 
saith* that they were like those thin linen garments which 
come from Bethshan, R. Samuel Bar Nachman saith they 
were of the wool (or hair) of camels, and the wool of hares." 

We cannot pass that by without observation, that it is said, 
" That in the law of R. Meir they found written ^1« m^n^ 
garments of light, for Ti"^ Pt^^D^ garments of sHns.'''' The like 
to which is that, " In ^ the law of R. Meir they found it 
written, instead of 1h^?D 2115 rr^m Behold, it icas very good, 
m?2 mt^ T\1TV\ And behold death is a good thing. Where by 
the law of R. 3Ieir seems to be understood some volume of 
the law, in the margin of which, or in some papers put in, 
that Rabbin had writ his critical toys and his foolish pieces 
of wit upon the law, or some such trifling commentary of his 
own upon it. 

'Ea-Qmv oLKpibas' Bating locusts.] They who had not nobler 
provision hunted after locusts for food. The Gemarists ' 
feign that there are eight hundred kinds of them, namely, 
of such as are clean. That lexicographer certainly would be 
very acute who could describe all these kinds particularly by 
their names. 

" The Rabbins deliver : '^y) ]"'Um D'^^T} "I!^n He «> that 
hunts locusts, wasps (a kind of locusts), hornets, and flies, on 

^ Menacoth, fol. 39. 2. > Beresh Rab. sect. 20. 

e Orach. Chaijim, lib. ii. 309. ^ Ibid. sect. 9. 

h English folio edition, vol. ii. p. ^ Hieros. Taanith, fol. 69. 2. 

333. >" Bab. Schabb. fol. 106. 2. 



Ch. i. 13, &c.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 397 

the sabbath, is guilty/' The Gloss there, " PUH are a kind 
of clean locusts, and are eaten." And the Gemara, a little 
after ; " He that hunts locusts in the time of the dew {on the 
sabbath) is not guilty/' The Gloss there writes thus ; " The 
locusts in the time of the dew are purblind, so that if you 
hunt them at that time they stop their pace." The Gemara 
goes on, " Eliezer Ben Mabbai saith, ' If they go in flocks he 
is not guilty.'" The Gloss writes, " If they flock together 
in troops, and be, as it were, ready to be taken, he is not 
guilty who hunts them even in the time of heat." 

Ver. 13" : Kal ■^v ixera t&i/ O-qpioav' And teas ivith the wild 
beasts.'] He was among the wild beasts, but was not touched 
by them. So Adam first before his fall. 

Kat 01 ayyeXoL birjKovovv avTU)' And angels ministered unto 
him.] Forty days he was tempted by Satan invisibly, and 
angels ministered to him visibly. Satan, at last, put on the 
appearance of an angel of light, and pretending to wait on 
him, as the rest also did, hid his hook of temptation the more 
artificially. 

Ver. 24 : 'HA^es aTToXiaai rj}xas ; Art thou come to destroy 
us ?] Us ? Whom ? The devils ? or those Galileans in the 
synagogue ? See what the masters" say : " In that generation, 
in which the Son of David shall come, saith Rabban Gamaliel, 
Galilea shall be laid waste, and the Galileans shall wander 
from city to city, and shall not obtain mercy." If such a re- 
port obtained in the nation, the devil thence got a very fit 
occasion in this possessed man of affrighting the Galileans 
from receiving Christ, because they were to expect nothing 
from his coming but devastation. 

Ver. 38 : Kco/xoTroAets* Towns.] What this word means may 
be excellently well discovered by searching into the distinction 
between D^3")i and Q"^1DD and ilTH^'^i^j to which Tro'Aetj, 
cities, and Koiixai, villages, and KWjutoTro'Aeis, towns, in the evan- 
gelists, do answer : — 

I. I render D''3l3 by Tro'Aets, cities: but by what woi'd, 
you will say, will you render ril"^'''^^ ? By KoiixoTrokeis, towns : 
— " Ap man cannot compel his wife to follow him to dwell, 
'^^yh "["llDn «^1 "^^^h '>^:)r2 i^h from towji to dty, nor 

n Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 437. ° Massecheth Derech Arets Zuta, c. 6. 
P Bab. Chetub. fol. no. 



398 Hebrew and Tahmidical [Ch. i. 38. 

from city to townT The proper English of which take from 
what follows : ^'^ih '^'^!^^ i^^^^t^^ " It is plain why he can- 
not forced her from city to toicn ; 'h'^'O 7!] '^rT^wU)' ^">321 
because in a city any thing is to be found,'''' or to be had ; 
y^V^ is7'i^ but in a town any thing is not to be liad. The 
Gloss writes, ^*'i?^ SllJl "["13 ' Kerac' is greater than ' /r/ 
(that is, a city than a toion) ; and there is a place of broad 
streets, wliere all neighbouring inhabitants meet at a market, 
and there any thing is to be had." So the same Gloss "" else- 
where ; " Kerac is a place of broad streets, where men meet 
together from many places," &c. 

The Gemarists go on : " E.. Josi Bar Chaninah saith, 
Whence is it that dwelling in V^'y^D Kerachin {cities) is more 
inconvenient I Yoy it is said, ' And they blessed all the people 
who offered themselves willingly to dwell at Jerusalem'" 
(Neh. xi). Note, by the way, that Jerusalem was ^*^D 
Kerac. The Gloss there is, "Dwelling in ^Kerachin'' is worse, 
because all dwell there, and the houses are straitened, and 
join one to another, so that there is not free air : but y^V2. 
in a toicn are gardens, and paradises by the houses, and the 
air is more wholesome." 

D^!3')5 Kerachim therefore were, i . Cities girt with walls. 
Hence is that distinction, VltT^^^H^ ^IT^:^ HDin pi^p^^H ]^;3n3 
that there icere some 'Kerachin'' which were girt with walls from 
the days of Joshia, and some walled afterward. 2. Trading 
and mart cities, and those that were greater and nobler than 
the rest. 

II. D*'"^C3 therefore were villages or country towns, in 
which no synagogue was. Hence is that tl'^^'^n "pDD in 
Megill. cap. i : 1jDD!3 pi:: pIl^IDl '^ yi l^'iW "J^!) A Kerac 
(a city), in which are not ten men to make a synagogue, is to be 
reckoned for a milage. And Megill. cap. i, where some of a 
village are bound to read the Book of Esther in the feast of 
Purim : nD''3!Dn ^Ssh tS'1T'^'^rT\ It is indidged to them to do 
it on a synagogue-day : that is, when they had not a synagogue 
among them, but must resort to some neighbour town where 
a synagogue was, it was permitted them to go thither on 
some weekday, appointed for meeting together in the syna- 

1 English folio edition, vol.ii. p. 334. '' Joma, fol. 12. 



Ch. ii. 4.] Exercitations upon St. Marl:. 399 

gogue, and that they might not take the trouble of a journey 
on another day, however that day was appointed by law for 
that lection. 

III. *^'^i^, which word is commonly rendered urbs, or 
civitas, a city ; and denoted generally fortified citieis, and 
towns also not fortified, where synagogues were, and villages, 
where they were not. Hence is that distinction, HtIU l^'iS^ 
" That was a great cltij where there was a synagogue :" 
n^t^p T'i^ " a small city where there was not." 

By Ku>iJ.o-n6\ii^ therefore here are to be understood towns 
where there were synagogues, which nevertheless were not 
either fortified or towns of trade ; among us English called 
church-toicns . 



CHAP. II. 

Ver. 4 : ' k-necTTiyacTav ti]v oreyrjr, &c. Tkei/ tmcovered the 
roof, 8fc.] Here I recollect that phrase p:);i '^"11 the way of 
the roof: " When^ Rabh Houna was dead, his bier could not 
be carried out through the door," the door being too strait ; 
V'^y ^'^ "hyd^^ "^"IID "therefore they thought good to 
draw it out and let it down through the roof, or through the ivay 
of the roof But Rabh Chasda said to them, ' Behold, we have 
learned from him that it redounds to the honour of a wise 
man to be carried out by the door.' " 

"It* is written, 'And they shall eat within thy gates' 
(Deut.xxvi. 12); that is, when^ the entrance into the house 
is by the gate, VS^y^ ^T] ^pyDt^ to except the way through 
the roof"" " Does^ he enter into the house, DTHID ^"n 
U?QrHl??:3 ]'':i:i ^^l 1« U}?2ntD?D using the way through the 
gate, or using the loay through the roof?" The place treats of 
a house, in the lower part of which the owner dwells ; but the 
upper part, that which is called v-nep^ov, is let out to another. 
It is asked, what way he must enter who dwells in an upper 
room, whether by the door and the lower parts, where the 
owner dwells; or whether he must climb up to the roof 
r^ 'yyi by the way to the roof: that is, as the Gloss hath it, 
" That he ascend without the house by a ladder set against 

s Bab. Moed Katon, fol. 25. i. '^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 438. 

t Bava Mezia, fol. 88. i, "■' Ibid. fol. 117. i. 



400 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. ii. 7. 

it for entrance into the vir^p^ov, the upper room, and so go 
into the upper room." 

By ladders set up, or perhaps fastened there before, they 
first draw up the paralytic ctti Sw/za, upon the roof, Luke v. 19. 
Then seeing there was a door in every roof through which 
they went up from the lower parts of the house into the roof, 
and this being too narrow to let down the bed and the sick 
man in it, they widen that space by pulling off the tiles that 
lay about it. 

Well^, having made a hole through the roof, the paralytic 
is let down ds to inrep^oi;, into the upper chamber. There 
Christ sits, and the Pharisees and the doctors of the law 
with him, and not in the lower parts of the house. For it was 
customary for them, when they discoursed of the law or reli- 
gion, to go up into the upper chamber. 

" These ^ are the traditions which they taught rT'^/i^S, in 
the upper chamber of Hananiah, Ben Hezekiah, Ben Garon.'" 
^'They elders went up Vi^'^hy^ *^^o ^n upper chamber in 
Jericho. They went up also into an upper chamber in Jabneh.'* 
"Rabhz Jochanan and his disciples went up ds vTT€pQov,toa'n 
upper chamber, and read and expounded." Compare Mark 
xiv. 15 ; Acts i. 13 ; xx. 8. 

Ver. 7 : TCs bvvaTat acpUvaL aixaprCas ; Who can forgive sins ?] 
" A certain heretic ^ said to Ilabh Idith, It is written, ' And 
he said unto Moses, Come up unto the Lord,' Exod. xxiv. i. 
It should rather have been said, ' Come up to me.' He an- 
swereth. This is Mitatron^, whose name is like the name of 
his Lord, as it is written, ' My name is in him,' Exod. xxiii. 21. 
If it be so, then said the other, he is to be worshipped. To 
whom Idith replied, It is written 11 "^D-^^r^n S« 12 ^DH ^« 
properly, Do not imbitter or provoJce him ; but they illy and 
perversely read, Do not change for him, do not exchange me for 
him. If that be the sense, said the other, what is the mean- 
ing of that, 'He will not forgive your sinsT He answered, 

True indeed, n"':Vnp ih "«nD t^p311133 I^^DNI for we re- 
ceived him not so much as for a messenger.'" The Gloss is, 

^ English folio edition, vol. ii. ^ Juchas. fol. 23. 2. 
p. 335. a Sanhedr. fol. 38. 2. 

X Schabb. cap. i. hal. 7. ^ [See Buxtorf Le.x. T. et R. 

y Hieros. Sanhedr. fol. 24. 3. sub v. ]iT£ffin col. 1 192.] 



Ch. ii. 9, &c.] Exercliations upon St. Mark. 401 

''* He will not forgive your sins ;' that is, He cannot pardon 
your sins ; and then, what advantage is there from him ? For 
he had not the power of pardoning our sins ; we therefore re- 
jected him," &c. Ye rejected him, indeed, in whom was 
the name of Jehovah ; but alas ! how much to your own 
mischief ! 

Ver. 9 : Tt ianv evKoirutTepov dT,€iv' Whether is it easier to saj/, 
^c.'\ He that observes the use of the word Wn'*^ it is easy, 
and ^^'^tlJp it is hard, in the Jewish schools (and. the school- 
men were now with Christ), cannot think it improper that 
€VKOTT(aTepov should be of the same import with ^n^2, which 
word denotes the thing or the sense plain, smooth, and with- 
out scruple ; ^^''tDp it is hard, denotes the contrary. As if 
our Saviour had said, " Were not the sense plainer, and more 
suited to the present business to have said, ' Arise and take 
up thy bed,' than to say, ' Thy sins are forgiven thee V But I 
say thus, that ye may know that the Son of man hath 
power," &c. He does not speak of the easiness of the pro- 
nunciation of the words, but of the easiness of the sense. 
And I should thus render the words, " It is easier to say to 
the paralytic, Thy sins are forgiven thee, than to say," &c. 
' Whether to say,' as it is vulgarly rendered, hath a sense not 
to be disapproved of; but, 'than to say,' hath a sense more 
emphatical. Is not the sense easier as to the present business 
to say, 'Thy sins are forgiven,' than to say, 'Rise up and 
walk r 

Ver. 12 : 'E^yKOiv Ivavriov iravTOiV He went out before them 
all.] It is very well rendered, " before them all :" and it 
might truly be rendered " against them all," accoi-ding to 
another signification of the word kvavriov. That is, when 
the multitude was so crowded that there was no way of 
going out through it, he, being not only made whole, but 
strong and lusty, pressed through the press of the multitude, 
and stoutly made his way with his bed upon his shoulders. 

Ver. i6: Kat a/zaprcoAwy And sinners.] Who were they? 
" Dicers*^, usurers, plunderers, publicans, shepherds of lesser 
cattle, those that sell the fruit of the seventh year," &c. 

Ver. 26^ : 'Ewt ^Ajitadap tov apxiep(.ciir In the days of 

c Sanhedr. fol. 25. 2. f* English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 336. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. D d 



402 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. iii. 5, 17, 

Ahiaihar the high priest. '] It is well enough known what is 
here said in defence of the purity of the text ; namely, that 
Ahimelech the father was called Abiathar, and Abiathar the 
son was called also Ahimelech. But I suppose that some- 
thing more was propounded by our Saviour in these words. 
For it was^ common to the Jews under Abiathar to under- 
stand the Urim and Thummim. Nor without good reason, 
when it appears, that under the father and the son, both of 
that name, the mention of inquiring by Urim and Thummim 
is more frequent than it is ever anywhere else ; and, after 
Abiathar the son, there is scarcely mention of it at all. 
Christ therefore very properly adds, kiil 'A^idOap apxiepicas, 
in the daps of Abiathar the high priest, therein speaking ac- 
cording to a very received opinion in the nation : as though 
he had said, " David ate the shewbread given him by the 
high priest, who had the oracle by Urim and Thummim pre- 
sent with him, and who acted by the divine direction." 

" AhitopheK, that is, a counsellor, Benaiah, the son of 
Jehoiada, that is, the Sanhedrim; □'«^ni Om^ 1^^« "(n"'!^, 
Abiathar, that is, Urim and Thummim." 

CHAP. III. 

Ver. 5 : 01 8e eaKa-mov But they held their peace. 1 This re- 
minds me of the like carriage of the Sanhedrim in judging a 
servant of king Jannseus, a murderer, when Jannseus himself 
was present in the Sanhedrims. It was found sufficiently 
that he was guilty ; but, for fear, they dared not to utter 
their opinion ; when Simeon Ben Sheta, president of the 
Sanhedrim, required it : :^p•^p^ DH^^Q ^)2J2^ '\Tr2'h H^DD 
" He looked on his right hand, and they fixed their eyes upon 
the earth; on his left hand, and they fixed their eyes upon the 
earth," &c. 

Ver. 17 : BoavepyeV' Boanerges.'] I. See what Beza saith 
here. To which our very learned Hugh Broughton, a man 
very well exercised in these studies, replies : " The Jews to 
this very day pronounce Scheva by oa, as Noabhyim for 
Nebhyim. So Boanerges. When Theodore Beza will have it 

f Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 439. ^ Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 16. 2. 

& Sanhedr. fol. 19. i. 



Ch. iii. I7-] Exer citations upon St. Mark. 403 

written Benerges, the very Jews themselves will defend our 
gospel." 

Certainly, it is somewhat hard and bold to accuse the 
Scripture of St. Mark as corrupt for this manner of pro- 
nunciation, when, among the Jews, the pronouncing of some 
letters, vowels, and words was so different and indifferent, 
that they pronounced one way in Galilee, another way in Sa- 
maria, and another way in Judea. " And 1 remember (saith 
the famous Ludovicus de Dieu''), that I heard the excellent 
Erpenius say, that he had it from the mouth of a very learned 
Maronite, that it could not be taught by any grammatical 
rules, and hardly by word of mouth, what sound Scheva hath 
among the Syrians." 

That castle of noted fame which is called Masada in Jose- 
phus, Phny', Solinus, and others (in Hebrew m!^D),. in 
Strabo^^ is Moasada, very agreeable to this our sound : [TeVpas 
Tims k-niK^Kav[xivas huKVvovcri Tpa)(tias Trepl Moaadba' They 
shew some scorcJied rocJcs about 'Moasada.' Where, without 
all controversy, he speaks of Masada. 

II. There is a controversy also about the word erges: it is 
obscure, in what manner it is applied to thunder. But give 
me your judgment, courteous reader, what b^ST^'^'^ is in this 
story : " The ' father of Samuel sat in the synagogue of 
Shaph, and Jathib, in Nehardea : nr^U? fc^T\i^ the divine 
glory came ; pD^ «^"1 ^^IT'jm Sip l^^U? he heard the voice of 
^'^T'^ ' liigsha,' and irenf iwt out : the angels came, and he 
was affrighted." 

Of the word ^^UJJl''! Bigsha, the Glossers say nothing. And 
we do not confidently render it thunder; nor yet do we well 
know how to render it better: if so be it doth not denote"" 
rjxos uKTTTsp ^epojiiieyjjs livorjs /36ata?, the sound as of a mighty 
rushing tcind, Acts ii. 2 : but let the reader judge. 

III. As obscure is the reason of the name imposed upon 
these two disciples, as the derivation of the word. We have 
only this certain in this business, that we never find them 
called by this name elsewhere. Christ called Simon Peter, 
and likewise others called him Peter, and he calls himself so. 

h In his Prsefat. ad Ai)oc. Sy- "^ Strab. Geograph. lib. xvi. [c. 2.] 
riac. 1 Megill. fol. 29. i. 

» [Nat. Hist. V. 17.] m English folio edit., vol. ii. p.337. 

D d 2 



404 Hebrew and Tahnudical [Ch. iii. 17. 

But you never find James called Boanerges, or John so called, 
either by themselves or by others. We must trust conjecture 
for the rest. 

IV. It is well enough known what the phrase 7lp ill Bath 
Kol, the daughter of thunder^ means among the Jews. Our 
Saviour, using another word, seems to respect another ety- 
mology of the name. But it is demanded, what that is. He 
calls Simon Peter with respect had to the work he was to ply 
in building the church of the Gentiles upon a rock. For he 
first opened the door to let in the gospel among the Gentiles. 
Whether were James and John called sons of thunder with 
respect had to their stout discoursing against the Jews, we 
neither dare to say, nor can we deny it. James did this, as 
it seems, to the loss of his life, Acts xii. 

But what if allusion be here made to the two registrars, or 
scribes of the Sanhedrim ! whereof one sat on the right hand, 
and the other on the left ; one wrote the votes of those that 
acquitted, the other the votes of those that condemned™. Or 
to the president himself, and the vice-president ? whose defi- 
nitive sentence, summing up the votes of the whole Sanhedrim, 
was like thunder and lightning to the condemned persons, and 
seemed to all like the oracles given from Sinai out of lightning 
and thunder. 

V. But whatsoever that was in the mind of our Saviour, 
that moved him to imprint this name upon them, when these 
two brethren, above all the other disciples, would have fire 
fall" from heaven upon that town of the Samaritans which 
refused to give Christ entertainment, Luke ix. 54, they seem 
to act according to the sense of this surname. And when the 
mother of these desired a place for one of them on Christ's 
right hand, and for the other on his left, she took the confi- 
dence of such a request probably from this, that Christ had 
set so honourable a name upon them above the other dis- 
ciples. And when John himself calls himself the elder, kut 
(ix(l)aau>, and he was sufficiently known to those to whom he 
writ under that bare title, 6 7rpeo-/3vrepos, the elder ; I cannot 
but suspect this distinguishing character arose hence. AH 
the apostles, indeed, were elders, which Peter saith of himself, 

- ni Sanhedr. fol. 35. 1. and Maimon. in Sanhedr. cap. i. 
" Leusden's edition, ^1. ii. p. 440. 



Ch. iii. 21 .] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 405 

1 Pet. V. I : but I ask, whether any of the twelve, besides this 
our apostle (his brother James being now derd), could be 
known to those that were absent under this title, the elder, 
by a proper, not additional name, as he is in his two latter 
Epistles. 

Ver. 21 : "On l^icrT-q- He is beside himself.] In the Tal- 
tmudists it' is ^T^V'^ HD^ltDD his judgment is gone, and fp 
nT>V"T /^«'s understanding is ceased. " If» any becomes mute, 
M^Vl HDI^iT and yet is of a sound mind, and they say to 
him, Shall we write a bill of divorce for thy wife I and he nods 
with his head, they try him thrice, &;c. And it is necessary 
that they make trial of him more exactly, ^T^V^ rTD"^tOi ^?2IZ7 
lest, perhaps, he might he deprived of his senses." This is to 
be understood of a dumb person, made so by some paralytica! 
or apoplectical stroke, which sometimes wounds the under- 
standing. 

" TheP Rabbins deliver : If any one is sick, and in the 
mean time any of his friends die, they do not make it known 
to him that such a one is dead, ^^\V^ f]"^tDn ^12"^ lest his un- 
derstanding be disturbed." " Oneq thus lamented R. Simeon 
Ben Lachish ; ' Where art thou, O Bar Lachish ? Where art 
thou, O Bar Lachish?' n^ni^l ?]tZ}l "T^ H"!^ «p H^m 
And so cried out until his understanding perished." For so the 
Gloss renders it. 

How fitly this word e^ia-rt] expresseth these phrases is 
readily observed by him who understandeth both languages. 
And a Jew, reading these words in Mark, would presently 
have recourse to the sense of those phrases in his nation ; 
which do not always signify madness, or being bereft of one's 
wits, in the proper sense, but sometimes, and very frequently, 
some discomposure of the understanding for the present, from 
some too vehement passion. So say Chrisfs friends, HCHt^SD 
ir\i^"T His knowledge is snatched aioay; he hath forgotten him- 
self, and his own health ; he is so vehement and hot in dis- 
charging his office, and in preaching, that he is transported 
beyond himself, and his understanding is disturbed, that he 
neither takes care of his necessary food nor of his sleep." 
Those his friends, indeed, have need of an apology, that they 

° Maimon. Gerush. cap. 2. p Moed Katon, fol. 26, 2. 

1 Bava Mezia, fol. 84. i. 



406 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. iv. 1,4. 

had no sounder, nor holier, nor wiser conceit of him ; but it 
is scarcely credible that they thought him to be fallen into 
plain and absolute madness, and pure distraction. For he 
had conversed among the*" multitudes before, at all times 
in all places ; and yet his friends do not say this of him. But 
now he was retired to his own house at Capernaum, where he 
might justly expect rest and repose; yet the multitudes rush < 
upon him there, so that he could not enjoy his table and his 
bed at his own home. Therefore his friends and kinsfolk of 
Nazareth (among whom was his mother, ver. 31), hearing 
this, unanimously run to him to get him away from the 
multitude ; for they said among themselves, 'Ef eVrr/, He is 
too much transported beyond himself, and is forgetful of him- 
self. 

CHAP. IV. 

Ver. I : "Hp^aro hihacrK^LV He began to teach ^ That is, 
he taught ; by a phrase very usual to these holy writers, be- 
cause very usual to the nation : n^niS:!?! ■J^HT^ «3^ 1"! ^'W 
Eahh s Canah began to be tedious in his prayer ; that is, he was 
tedious. '^'21 i^l'^^hpt ^MlTl "^1\27 that ' scholar began to weep ; 
that is, he wept, '^l^^ ^'"I^D " the " ox began to low ^ that is, 
he hived. "When the tyrant's letter was brought to the 
Rabbins, ^i"^!)! )r\'W they began to weep ^ ;" that is, they 
wepf. 

This our evangelist useth also another word, and that 
numberless times almost : the others also use it, but not so 
frequently ; namely, the word €v6vs, and evdiois, presently ; 
which answereth to the word I'^T^ out of hand, most common 
among the Talmudists. We meet with it in this our evan- 
gelist seven or eight times in the first chapter, and elsewhere 
very frequently : and that not seldom according to the custom 
of the idiom, more than out of the necessity of the thing sig- 
nified. 

Ver. 4 : "O fx€v heac And some felL] ', n7^D3 """ID Ac- 
cording y to what falls. The Gloss there, " According to the 
measure which one sows." And there the Gemarists speak of 

r English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 338. » Beresh. Rabb. sect. 33. 

« Hieros. Sanhed. fol. 18. 3. " Ibid. sect. 64. 

t Ibid. fol. 23. 3. y Bava Mezia, fol. 105. 



Ch. iv. 5,&c.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 407 

T^ riT'lD^ se^d /ailing out of the hand : that is, that is cast 
out of the hand of the sower: and of D'^llltZ? D^IDD seed 
falling from the oxen : that is, " that which is scattered and 
sown" by the sowing oxen. " For (as the Gloss speaks) 
sometimes they sow with the hand, and sometimes they put 
the seed into a cart full of holes, and drive the oxen ^ upon 
the ploughed earth, and the seed falls through the holes." 

Ver. 5 : Am to fxrj ex^Lv jSddos yrjr Because it had no depth 
of earth.'] For it was rocky, whose turf nevertheless was thick 
enough, and very fruitful ; but this ground which the parable 
supposeth wanted that thickness. " You » have not a more 
fruitful land among all lands than the land of Egypt ; nor a 
more fruitful country in Egypt than Zoan. And yet Hebron, 
which was rocky, exceeded it sevenfold." Note that ' it 
was rocky, and yet &o fruitful.' 

Ver. 7 : Et? tols aKavdar Among thorns.] The parable sup- 
poseth, niJIpn^IZ? t^7 ni\2} a field not freed from thorns^. 

Ver. 1 1 c : 'EKetVots 8e rois e^co* Unto them that are without.] 
01 e^co, those loithout, in Jewish speech, were the Gentiles; 
a phrase taken hence, that they called all lands and countries 
besides their own, y^t^b TXTiH without the land. Would you 
have an exact instance of this distinction ? " A tree ^, half of 
which grows within the land of Israel, and half without the 
land, the fruits of it which are to be tithed, and the common 
fruits are confounded : they are the words of Rabba. But 
Rabban Simeon Ben Gamaliel saith, ' That part which grows 
within the place, that is bound to tithing" [that is, within 
the land of Israel], " is to be tithed : that which grows in the 
place free from tithing" (that is, without the land) " is free." 
The Gloss is, " For if the roots of the tree are without the 
land, it is free, although the tree itself extends itself sixteen 
cubits within the land." 

Hence Q"'i1!JTT D'^IDD hooks oi e^co, that are without, are 
heathen books: n^DII"» riDDH ^U7 D^il^S^^nn OnDD extra- 
neous hooks of Greek wisdom «. 

This is the common signification of the phrase. And, 
certainly it foretells dreadful things, when our blessed Sa- 

z Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 441. ^ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 339. 

a Setah, fol. 34. 2. Chetub. 112,1. '' Bava Bathra, fol. 27. 2. 
^ See Sheviith, cap. 4. hal. 2. ^ Aruch in the word D1"ia. 



408 Hebrew and Talmudkal [Ch.iv. ii. 

viour stigmatizeth the Jewish nation with that very name 
that they were wont to call the heathens by. 

The word D'^^II^TT those tvithout, occurs also in the Tal- 
niudists, when it signifies the Jews themselves ; that is, some 
of the Jewish nation. Here f D*^"^!";) the Karaites, who re- 
jected traditions, there D'^^ITH o\ e^co, those tviihout, are op- 
posed to D'^T^^n the loise men: '-He that puts his phylacteries 
on his forehead, or in the palm of his hand, D"'h^"*prT ^1 It '^"^n 
hehold! he follows the custom of the Karaites. And he that 
overlays one of them with gold, and puts it upon his garment 
which is at his hand, D^^DIlJTin "Y^l Tt """^n hehold I he follows 
the custom of those that are icithout. Where the Gloss, 
" D^'^^liTT are men who follow their own will, and not the 
judgment of the wise men." They are supposed to wear phy- 
lacteries, and to be Jews ; but when they do according to 
their pleasure, and despise the rules of the wise men, they 
are esteemed as those that are without, or heathens. So was 
the whole Jewisli nation according to Christ's censure, which 
despised the evangelical wisdom. 

'Ey TTapalSoKals to. vaina ytveTaf All things are done in pa- 
rables.'] I. How much is the Jewish nation deceived con- 
cerning the times of the Messias ! They think his forerunner 
Elias will explain all difficulties, resolve scruples, and will 
render all things plain ; so that when the Messias shall come 
after him, there shall be nothing obscure or dark in the law 
and in religion. Hence these expressions, and the like to 
them : " Ones found a bill of contracts in his keeping, and 
knew not what it meant, IH^'^^^ ^^Tvl? IV H^l^ i^rr» 
Let it be laid up till Elias shall come!'^ And more in the same 
tract, concerning things found, when it is not known to whom 
they are to be restored, " Let them be laid up till Elias 
come." ni!?nD^ IH^^^ l^nv It Ht^lD That h passage, (Ezek. 
xiv. 18, 19, where n7^>* a burnt offering is called Jl^^ton 
a sacrifice for sin,) Elias toill unfold." Infinite examples of 
that sort occur. 

But, alas ! thou art deceived, O Jew. All things are made 
clear which make to eternal salvation, Elias and Messias, 



^ Mejrill. fol. 24. 2. s Bav. Mezia_, cap. i. hal. ult. 

'> Menacoth, fol. 4,5. i. 



Oh. V. I .] Exercitations upon St. MarTc. 409 

John and Christ preaching the gospel when they came ; but 
they are obscure to you, both by reason of your voluntary 
blindness, who have shut your eyes and your mind against 
the saving doctrine of the gospel ; and from the just judg- 
ment of the Messias, who justly preached in clouds and in 
covered expressions to them who would not see the sun and 
the open light, 

II. How those words have wracked interpreters, " Is a 
candle put under a bushel,'" &c. ; and, " There is nothing 
hidden," &c. : you may see also without a candle. A very 
easy sense of them is gathered from the context. When 
Christ speaks in parables, " A light is put under a bushel :" 
but " the light (saith he) is not come for this end,'^ that it 
should be so hidden ; nor, indeed, were it fit so to hide it, 
but that the divine justice would have it so, that they who 
will not see the light should not enjoy the light. But " there 
is nothing hid " which shall not be made manifest by the 
brightness of the doctrine of the gospel, so there be eyes that 
do not refuse the light, nor voluntarily become purblind. 
Therefore, take you heed how you hear, lest ye be like them, 
and divine justice mete to jou by the same measure as is 
measured to them ; namely, that they shall never hear, be- 
cause they \\ill not hear. 

CHAP. V.i 

Ver. 1 : Ets Ti]v \(i}pav rcav Tahapiii>&v' Into the country of 
the Godarenes.'] So also Luke : but Matthew, ets ti]v ^u>pav 
Tepyearjv&v, into the country of the Gergesenes. And, which 
ought not to be passed over without observation, Mark and 
Luke, who call it the country of the Gadarenes., make mention 
only of one possessed person ; but Matthew, who calls it the 
country of the Gergesenes., speaks of tioo. We know what is 
here said by commentators to reconcile the evangelists. We 
fetch their reconciliation from the very distinction of the 
words which the evangelists use, and that from those con- 
clusions : 

I. We say the region of the Gergesenes was of broader 
extent and signification than the region of the Gadarenes 

> English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 340. 



410 Hebrew and Tali nudical [Oh. v. i. 

was, and that the region of the Gadarenes was included 
within it. For whether it were called so from the old Ger- 
gashite family of the Canaanites, or from the muddy and 
clayey nature of the soil, which was called ^H^^l^ Gergishta 
by the Jews, which we rather believe; it was of wider ex- 
tension than the country of the Gadarenes ; which denoted 
only one city, and the smaller country about it, and that 
belonged to Gadara. But this country comprehended within 
it the country of Gadara, of Hippo, and of Magdala, if not 
others also. 

II. We say Gadara was a city of heathens, (hence it is 
less marvel if there were swine among them :) which we 
prove also elsewhere, when we treat of the region of 
Decapolis. 

III. ^Ve say there were two possessed persons according 
to Matthew, one a Gadarene^ another coming from some 
other place than the country of Gadara, namely, from some 
place in the country of the Gergesenes. 

IV. We believe that that Gadarene was a heathen; and 
that Mark and Luke mentioned only him on set purpose, 
that so they might make the story the more famous. Any 
one skilled in the chorography of the land of Israel might 
understand that the country of tJie Gadarenes was of heathen 
possession : they therefore mark him with that name, that it 
might presently be perceived that Christ now had to do 
with a heathen possessed person ; which was somewhat rare, 
and except the daughter of the Syrophoenician woman, 
without any example. Matthew would describe the great- 
ness of the miracle ; he therefore mentions tioo most miser- 
ably possessed persons : but Mark and Luke choose out only 
one, and him more remarkable for this very thing, that he 
was a Gadarene, and by consequence a heathen. These 
things, well weighed, do not only confirm the concord be- 
tween the evangelists, but render the story far clearer. 
For, 

First, It is to be marked that the devil adjures Christ 
not to " torment " him, ver. 7, which is not elsewhere done by 
him : as though he were without Christ's jurisdiction, not 
being among his people the Jews, but among the heathens. 
And, 



oil. V. 9.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 411 

Secondly, Christ does not elsewhere ask any about their 
name, besides this alone, as being of more singular example 
and story. 

Thirdly, The heathen name Aeyewi', legion, argues him a 
heathen concerning whom the story is. 

Fourthly, The devils besought him much that he would not 
send them out of the country ; for being among heathens, 
they thought they were among their own. 

Our Saviour, therefore, healed those two in Matthew 
together, the one, a Gadarene and heathen, and the other 
from some other place, a Gergesene and a Jew ; and that not 
without a mystery ; namely, that there should be comfort 
in Christ both to Jews and Gentiles, against the power and 
tyranny of Satan. Of those two, Mark and Luke mention 
the more remarkable. 

Ver. 9 : Aeyewi; 6voix6. \xoi' My name is Legion.] 1, This 
name speaks a numerous company, the devil himself being 
the interpreter ; " Legion (saith he) is my name., for we are 
many.^' 

And among the Jews, when a man would express a great 
number of any thing, it was not unusual to name a legion : 
" R. EHezerii Ben Simeon saith, ]V:\^ h^h Q"ft^^ tb mi 
7''7'^!l D'^n'^T S'tl) in^^ It^ is easier for a man to nourish a 
legion of olives in Galilee., than to bring up one child in the 
land of Israel.''^ 

II. Among the Talmudists, a legion bespeaks an unclean 
company ; at least, they reckoned all the legions for unclean : 
"The"™ Rabbins deliver: "^ni^H 'IVXT' a legion that passeth 
from place to place, if it enter into any house, the house is 

thereby become unclean, ^b pt^U7 \vAl ]'\^^h h^ ']h ^^^ 
T'hBp'^p HDD for there is no legioji lohich hath not some car- 
caphalia. And wonder not at this, when the carcaphaUon of 
R. Ismael was fastened to the heads of kings." h^p^p 
" ' CarcaphaV (saith the Gloss) is the skin of a head pulled off 
from a dead person, which they make use of in enchantments." 
It is a Greek word, saith the Aruch, KapaKi<paXr\. 

III. What the Romans thought of their legions, take from 

^ Beresh. Rabb. sect. 20. ' Erifflish folio edit., vol. ii. p. 341. 

"> Cholin, fol. 123. I. 



412 Hehreio and Talmudical [Ch. v. 14, &c. 

the words of Csesar to the Spaniards: "Did" ye not con- 
sider, if I were overthrown, that the people of Rome have ten 
legions, which could not only resist you, but pull down even 
heaven itself?"" What then is the power of " more than twelve 
legions of angels !" 

Ver. J 4 : ^ Avr^yyiCkav ets rows aypovs' Told it in the countiy.^ 
Told it els Tovs aypovs, in the fields. But to whom ? To them 
that laboured, or that travelled in the fields? So chap. vi. 36: 
'ATTcA^oVres et? rovs KVKKiii aypovs, ayopddMaLV eavrols aprovs' 
That they may go away into the 'fields' round about, and buy 
themselves bread. From whom, I pray, should they buy in 
the fields ? And ver. ^6 : Kai ottov av eia-eTTopevero ds K(op.as rj 
aypovs, fi> rats ayopals hidovv tovs aadevovvras' And ichere- 
soever they entered into towns or ^fields,' they laid the sick in the 
streets, or markets. What streets or marJcets are there in the 
fields ? 

" Rabba» saith, That food made of meal, ^■Il^'^ODn ^«^pm 
n^2 of those that dwell in the fields, in which they mingle much 
meal, over it they give thanks." ''t<^7pn, saith the Gloss, are 
■^DD ^r^ inhabitants of the villages. And the Aruch saith, 
" fc^n'^'^v'pn are private men who dwell in the fields:" that is, 
in houses scattered here and thei-e, and not built together in 
one place, as it is in towns and cities. 

Ver. 1 5 : ^(acppovovvTa- In his right mind.] J irii^T 11^13^ 
firm, or sound of tinderstanding , in Talmudic speech. 

Ver. 23 : To Ovyarpiov p.ov' My little daughter.] 'Hy yap 
hSiv 8w8eKa" For she ivas tivelve years old, ver. 42 : "Ap 
daughter from her birthday, until she is twelve years old 
complete, DpIiT» 1^^ il^^lp!3 HJtiJp is called 'little,' or 'a 
little maid.'' IP.i^ DV^ 712^ 'y niD but when she is full 
twelve years old and one day over, TT^V^ r\i^'^p2 she is called 
' a young woman."" 

Ver. 26 : Kai ttoWcl Tradovcra vtto iroXkcav laTpSiV And had 
sufif^ered many things of many physiciayis.] And it is no 
wonder : for see what various and manifold kinds of medi- 
cines are prescribed to a woman labouring under a flux : 



^ Comment, de Bell. Civil, lib. vi. solum vobis obsistere, sed etiam 

[c. 42.] [An me deleto non ani- coelum diruere possent.] 

madvertebatis, decern legiones ha- ° Babyl. Beracoth, fol. 37. 2. 

bere populum Romanum, quae non P Mairaon. in m {!>''« cap. 2. 



Ch. V. 29.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 4] 3 

"E.Jochanansaithq, «m^D^^b^ «Z^V i^tlt h^lM2 ^n^^S 
Bring (or take) of gum of A lexandria the loeiglit of a zuzee : 
^h^^ '^'^1'^ fc^tlf 7|"n^1 and of alum., the weigJd of a zuzee : 
^p^^'^ «r2^ni3 b^nt ^pnrDI and of crocus hortensis the 
iceight of a zuzee: «nSn Hlt^ *'Tin ^Hl in^^'pniT'^ST 
t«^1^m let these he bruised together, and he given in wine to the 
woman that hath an issue ofhlood, &c. 

" But if this Moes not benefit, ^:Dni!:} TDp ^rhn ^n'^'h 
"'b^D'^5 take of Persian onions thrice three logs, boil them in 
wine, and then give it hei' to drink, and say '^"^lt?2 Dip Arise 
from thy flux. 

" But if this does not prevail, D**!]"!! U;i£^5 Hnn*)^ set her 
in a place where two tcays meet., and let her hold a cup of wine 
in her hand ; and let somebody come behind her and affright 
her, and say, ^*lt^ Dip Arise from thxj flux. 

" But if that do no good, «:iDD1 «211 ^n^"^^ take a 
handful of cummin., i^p'*"^?^"! b^DI!!! OLnd a handful of crocus, 
i^Dhwy^l «Din and a handful of fcenum grcecum. Let 
these be boiled in wine, and give them her to drink, and say, 
Arise from thy flux." 

But'" if these do not benefit, other doses and others still are 
prescribed, in number ten or more, which see, if you please, in 
the place cited. Among them I cannot omit this : 

«i-,«i2 't ^'^yh Let them dig seven ditches: inn "'^p'*^') 
nbnj?"! m?'' t^niZ^'^iHiZ? in which let them burn some cuttings 
of such vines as are not circumcised, [that is, that are not yet 
four years old.] And nn^l b^^^'^HT i^D2 H^IOpAl let her 
take in her hand a cup of wine. And nnuni/l "i^XV^ TVQip\) 
\^TV^ let them lead her away from this ditch, and make her 
sit doivn over that. And i^Hb^ Hnm^T «H^ n?Dp1^1 let 
them remove her from that, and make her sit doicn over another. 
And yiyrt^ Dip rh ^rsh i^im t^in ^3«1 in every re- 
moval you must say to her, Arise fro^n thy flux," &c. 

Ver. 29 : 'E^rjpdvdri rj -nrjyr] tov a'ifxaTOs avTrjr The foimtain 
of her blood was dried up.] Of the fountain of the blood, or 
of the flux, called by the Hebrews llpTO, see Niddali, cap. 2. 
hal. 4 ; Maimon. in Issure hiah, cap. 5, 6. Where also it is 
treated of n^TT^ mt the greater proflitvious woman, and 

1 Bab. Schabb. fol. 110. «■ English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 342. 



414 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. v. 41, 43. 

tlDI^p ni'y the lesser. The former title you may well bestow 
upon this woman, who had laboured under a flux for twelve 
years. 

Ver. 41 : TakiOa, kov[jll' Talitha kumi.] " Rabbi Jochanan 
saith^ We remember when t^n^''^D1 «"'''StD ^^*^IOn boijs 
and girls of sixteen and seventeen years old platjed in the 
streets, and nobody was offended with them." Where the 
Gloss is, ^^ri'^'^btSI b^'^^bt^ Tali and Talitha is a boy and a 
girl. 

To Kopdatov, [(Toi A.eya),] 'iyupai' Damsel, I say unto thee, 
arise.'\ Talitha Jcumi signifies only To Kopdcnov, eyeipai' 
Maid, arise. How comes that clause then, / say unto thee, to 
be inserted ? 

I. You may recollect here, and perhaps not without profit, 
that which was alleged before ; namely, that it was customary 
among the Jews, that, when they applied physic to the pro- 
fluvious woman, they said, " Arise from thy flux ;" which very 
probably they used in other diseases also. 

II. Christ t said nothing else than what sounded all one 
with. Maid, arise : but in the pronouncing and uttering 
those words that authority and commanding power shined 
forth, that they sounded no less than if he had said, " Maid, 
I say to thee, or I command thee, arise." They said, "Arise 
from thy disease ;" that is, " I wish thou wouldst arise :" 
but Christ saith, Maid, arise ; that is, " I command thee, 
arise." 

Ver. 43 : ET-ne boOijvai avrfj <j)ayeiv He commanded that 
something should be given her to eat.] Not as she was alive only, 
and now in good health, but as she was in a most perfect 
state of health, and hungry : " The son of Rabban Gamaliel 
was sick. lie sent, therefore, two scholars of the wise men 
to R. Chaninah Ben Dusa into his city. He saith to them, 
' Wait for me, until I go up into the upper chamber.' He 
went up into the upper chamber, and came down again, and 
said, ' I am sure that the son of Rabban Gamaliel is freed 
from his disease.' The same hour he asked for food." 

s Bava Bathra, fol. 91.2. * Leusdeti's edit., vol. ii. p. 444. 



Ch. vi. 3,&c.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 415 

CHAP. VL« 

Ver. 3 : O^x ovTos ecTTLv 6 t€kto)v; Is not this the carpenter? 
Among other things to be performed by the father for his 
son this was one, to bring him up in some art or trade. 
" It" is incumbent on the father to circumcise his son, to 
redeem him, to teach him the law, and to teach him some 
occupation. R. Judah saith, ' Whosoever teacheth not his 
son to do some work, is as if he taught him robbery.'" 
" R. Meir y saith, ' Let a man always endeavour to teach his 
son rT'^^p^ m^^^lh^ an honest art,'' " &c. Joseph instructs and 
brings up Christ in his carpenter's trade. 

Ver. 8 : M^ irripav Nor sc7'ip.~\ Concerning the scrip 
we said somewhat at Matt. x. lo : let us add this story : 
" The 2 Rabbins deliver : There is a story of a certain man, 
whose sons behaved not themselves well. He stood forth 
and assigned over his wealth to Jonathan Ben Uzziel. What 
did Jonathan Ben Uzziel do ? He sold a third part ; a third 
part he dedicated to holy uses ; and a third part he gave 
back to the sons of the deceased. Shamraai came to him 
I7''^"im ^vp72)2 ivith his staff and with his script The 
Gloss saith, " He came to contend with Jonathan, because 
he had violated the will of the dead." Behold the vice-pi'esi- 
dent of the Sanhedrim carrying a scrip, in which he laid up 
victuals for his journey. 

Ver. 13 : "HAett^joi' eXatw ttoAAovs apputcrTovs' Anointed with 
oil many that loere sickr\ " The oil, therefore, was (saith the 
famous Beza) a symbol of that miraculous power, not a me- 
dicament whereby they cured diseases." But the Jews say, 
and that truly, such an anointing was physical, although it 
did not always obtain its end. But this anointing of the apo- 
stles ever obtained its end : " R. Simeon ^ Ben Eliezer saith, 
' R. Meir permitted the mingling of wine and oil, and to 
anoint the sick on the sabbath. But when he once was sick, 
and we would do the same to him, he permitted it not.'" 
This story is recited elsewhere, Schah. f. 14. 3 ; where for 
' R. Simeon Ben Eliezer,' is ' R. Samuel Ben Eliezer.' Per- 

*» English folio edition, vol. ii. p. y Kiddush. cap. 4. hal. ii. 
343. ='- Bava Bathra, fol. 133. 2. 

^ Tosapht. in Kiddush. cap. i. a Hieros. Berac. fol. 3. r. 



416 Hebrew and TalmucUcal [Oh. vi. 27,&c. 

haps in the manuscript copy it was written with an abbrevia- 
tion U}1, and thence came the ambiguity of the name. 

Let it be granted such anointing was medicinal, which 
cannot possibly be denied ; and then there is nothing obscure 
in the words of James, chap. v. 14; " Let the elders of the 
church be called, and let the sick man be anointed by them, 
or by others present, that their prayers may be joined with 
the ordinary means. 

Ver. 27 : STreKovAdrwpa" An executioner.'] So the Targum 
of Jonathan upon Gen. xxxix. i : b^'^llID/j/IDD 1"! Hab 
Bpeculatoraia. See the Aruch, in the word "^VJTptD Spe- 
culator. 

Ver. 37 : AiaKoo-icoz; h]vapi(siv' Two himdred pence.] I. "^D"^"! 
Denarius and lit zicz are of the same value among the Rabbins. 
" The b fourth part of a shekel of silver in the Targum is 
t^DDD"? "TPI Wtit one zuz of silver. For a shekel of the law 
was J^7D selaa. And so in the Targum, 7p^ a shekel, is 
b^i77D selaa^ and is worth four denarii,'' ov pence. 

But now ^ penny and zuz are the same : " They<^ Gdi}\ pence, 
in the language of the Gemara, zuzim.'' 

IL But^ now two hundred zuzees, or pence, was a sum 
very famous, and of very frequent mention. " lf<^ one of 
elder years lay with a woman of less years, or if one of less 
years lay with a woman of elder years, or one that is wounded, 
their portion is D'^nb^?;2 tifo himdred zuzees.'''' " Iff one gives 
another a blow upon the cheek, tit '^Jl^^Q 1 v tm^ let him give 
him two hundred zuze-es." " A ° woman that is now become a 
widow, or ^ dismissed by a divorce, who was married a virgin, 
let her have for her portion two hundred zuzees.''^ 

Hence, perhaps, is the same number of two hundred pence 
in the mouth of the disciples, because it was a most celebrated 
sum, and of very frequent mention in the mouths of all." 

Ver. 40: YlpacTiaX -npaaLai- By rajiJcs.] T^XyV^J riTlIlD 
rank by rank, in Talmudic language. The university of 
Jabneh is very frequently celebrated under the name of 
nDl*"! DID the vineyard in Jabneh. And R. Solomon gives 

^ Aruch ia nr. e Chetub. cap. i. hal. 2. 

<= Gloss, in Bathra, fol. 166. i. ' Bava Kama, cap. 8. hal. 6. 

^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. & Chetub. fol. 17.1. 
344. *i heusderCs edit., vol. ii. p. 445. 



Oh. vii. 3, 4.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 417 

the reason • ; r\T\'W ni'^1\i; ]^n\I?'i'^ VHtT Because the scholars 
sat there ranJcs by ranJcs, HIIIIT ni'^lIZ? ^"It^iJn □"^33 UJce a 
vineyard which is planted Trpacnal Ttpacnal, rank hy rank. 

CHAP. VII. 

Ver. 3 : 'Eav )U7/ Tivyixj] vL\f/u)VTaf Except they ivash their 
hands oft.] Uvyixfi, the fist. When they washed their hands, 
they washed the fist plDH 1'^ unto the joining of the arm. 
p"<Dn IV rsyyn^''^^ ni^Dt^n an*' the^ hands are polluted, 
and made clean unto the joining of the arm. " The^ Rabbins 
deliver : The washing of hands p^^cn IV Vh'^PO as to common 
things (or common food) loas unto the joining of the arm. And 
the cleansing of hands and feet in the Temple was to the 
joint." p'^D' saith the Aruch, is lohere the arm is distinguished 
from the hand. So, also, where the foot is distinguished from 
the leg. 

" The •" second waters cleanse whatsoever parts of the 
hands the first waters had washed. But if the first waters 
had gone above the juncture of the arm, the second waters 
do not cleanse, p^DH iy ^^^^^ p"ini2^ p«^ ^D^ because they 
do not cleanse beyond the juncture. If, therefore, the waters 
which went above the juncture return upon the hands again, 
they are unclean." 

Ver. 4: Kat aTro ayopa<i, lav jxr] (BaTTTiacovraL' And when 
they come from the market, except they tvash.] The Jews used 
n^^'^ rh'^^2 the washing of the hands, and D'^1"' n^'^HIO 
the plunging of the hands. And the word vL^iovrat, wash, in 
our evangelist seems to answer to the former, and pa-nriCcavTai, 
baptize, to the latter. 

I. That the plunging of the whole body is not understood 
here, may be sufficiently proved hence ; that such plunging is 
not used but when pollution is contracted from the more 
principal causes of uncleanness. " A " man and vessels con- 
tract not uncleanness, nt^^lt^^n lt^72 i^7i^ but from the father 
of uncleanness : such as uncleanness from a creeping thing, 
from the seed in the unclean act, from him that is polluted 
by the dead, from a leper, from the water of purification, 

» In Jevamoth, cap. 8. ™ Gloss, in Judaim, in the place 

i' Judaim, cap. 2. hal. 3. above. 

1 Cholin, fol. 106. n R, Sol. in Kelim, cap. i. 

IJGHTFOOT, VOL. II. EC 



418 Hebreio and Talmudical [Ch. vii. 4. 

from him that lies with a menstruous woman, from the flux 
of him that hath the gonorrhoea, from his spittle, from his 
urine, from the blood of a menstruous woman, from a pro- 
fluvious man," &c. By these a man was so polluted, that it 
was DV '7'°)2''t0 a day's ivasliing ; and he must plimge his 
whole body. But for smaller uncleannesses it was enough to 
cleanse the hands. 

II. Much less is it to be understood of the things bought ; 
as if they, when they were bought for the market, were to 
be loasJied (in which sense some interpreters render the 
words, " And what they buy out of the market, unless they 
wash it, they eat it not "), when there were some things which 
would not endure water, some things which, when bought, 
were not presently» eaten ; and the traditional canons dis- 
tinguish between those things which were lawful as soon as 
they came from the market, and those which were not. 

III. The phrase, therefore, seems to be meant of the im- 
mersion, or plunging of the ha?ids only ; and the word TTvyfxfi, 

jist^ is hero to be understood also in common. Those that 
remain at home eat not, lav ixr] ttv/ixj] v^yj/covraL, unless theij 
wash the fist. But those that come from the market eat not, 
ear }j.ri TTvyfifj /SaTrrt^coirai, unless they plunge their fist into the 
water, being ignorant and uncertain what uncleanness they 
came near unto in the market. 

" The P tvashing of the hands, and the plunging of the 
hands, were from the scribes. The hands which had need of 
nb'^niD p>lunging^ they dipped not but in a fit place ; that is, 
where there was a confluence of forty seahs of water. For 
in the place where any dipped vessels, it was lawful to dip 
the hands. But the hands which have need of nT'^153 wash- 
ing only, if they dip them in the confluence of waters, they 
are clean ; whether they dip them in waters that are drawn, 
or in vessels, or in the pavement. They do not cleanse the 
hands \as to washing], until waters are poured upon the hands 
out of a vessel : for they do not wash the hands but out of a 
vessel." 

Bea-T&v Pots.] It is doubtful whether this word be derived 
from $€(TTris, a sectary (a certain measure), or from ^ecrra, 
vessels planed or engraven. To take it as speaking of sex- 

o English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 345. P Maimon. in Mikvaoth, cap. 11. 



Ch. vii. II.] Exercitations upon St. Marl:. 419 

taries is, indeed, veiy agreeable to the word, and not much 
different from the matter. And so also it is, if you derive it 
from ^eora, by which word are denoted vessels planed or 
turned% that is, of wood. And perhaps those vessels which 
are called by the Kabbins Q^tOltTQ Jlcit, and are opposed to 
□''^^pT^ such as may contain something imthiti them, are ex- 
pressed by this word. Of that sort were knives, tables, seats, 
&c. Concerning which, as capable of pollution, see Mairao- 
nides'^, and the Talmudic tract Kelim^ : where are reckoned 
up, 1. jriSlZ;' The very table at wliich they ate. 2. '^pDlT'Tn 
The little table, or the wooden side-table, where wine^ and 
fruits were set, that were presently to be brought to table. 
3. vDOD A seat. 4. P]nD1I2} The footstool for the feet under 
the seat. 

XaAKtcoy Brazen vessels.'] n^H^ ^h'D- 

KXlv&v Of beds.] Beds contracted uncleannoss ; either that 
which they called DIITD n^?2'lt5, or that which they called 
UyXO V^^ rii^?C)113. One can hardly put these into good 
English without a paraphrase. DlID n^?2I5 HIOTD was a 
bed, on which a profluvious man or woman, or a menstruous 
woman, or a woman in childbirth, or a leper, had either sat 
or stood, or lain, or leaned, or hung. D'lID W?2 Hb^DtO 'H^'d 
was a bed, which any thing had touched, that had been touched 
before by any of theses. 

The word, therefore, ^aTrrKr/xovs, ivashings, applied to all 
these, properly and strictly is not to be taken of dipping or 
2)lunging, but, in respect of some things, of washing only, and, 
in respect of others, of sprinkling only. 

Ver. 1 1 : KopjBav (o ecrri, Awpor)' Corban {that is, ' a giff).^ 
The word h5>pov, a gift, was known and common among the 
Talmudists: t^^H p^ll rh^V ^^^ "^^t^ Babba'' saith, A 
burnt sacrifice is b&pov, ' a gift.' Where the Gloss writes 
thus ; " A burnt sacrifice is not offered to expiate for any 
deed ; but after repentance hath expiated the deed, the 
burnt sacrifice comes 0*^33 T'^lprtT', that the man may be re- 
ceived with favour. As when any hath sinned against the king, 
]''t;D7'p*^D "'^V iniiJ'^Tl and hath appeased him by a paraclete \an 

1 [rasilia, tornatilia.] » [See Buxtorf Lex T. & R. sub 

r In Kelim, cap. 4. s Cap. 21. v. DIID col. 580.] 

t Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 446. ^ Zevachin, fol. 7. 2. 

E e 2 



420 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. viii. 1 2. 

advocate'], and comes to implore his favour, he brings pniT 
hcipovy a oift." 

'. n''tl?D^ P"'"^'^ t^'^nnU? C"\Ii72 Egypt'' shall bring b&pov, 
' a gift,' to the Messiah. 

Ver. 19^: 'Ac^eSpwm- The draught.'] t^D^n TS^I The house 
of the secret seat. 

CHAP. VIII. 

Ver. 12: Tt 7; y^v^a avrrj a-rjixdov eTriC^rei; Whg doth this 
generation seek after a sign ?] Instead of a comment, take a 
story : " On y that day, R. Eliezer answered to all the ques- 
tions in the whole world, but they hearkened not to him. He 
said therefore to them, 'If the tradition be according to what 
I say, let this siliqua [a kind of free] bear witness." The sili- 
qua was rooted up, and removed a hundred cubits from its 
place : there are some who say four hundred. They say to 
him, ' A proof is not to be fetched from a siliqua.' He saith 
to them again, ' If the tradition be with me, let the rivers of 
waters testify:' the rivers of waters are turned backward. 
They say to him, 'A proof is not to be fetched from the 
rivers of waters.' He said to them again, ' If the tradition 
be with me, let the walls of the school testify :' the walls 
bowed, as if they were falling. R. Josua chid them, say- 
ing, ' If there be a controversy between the disciples of the 
wise men about tradition, what is that to you ? ' There- 
fore the walls fell not in honour of R. Josua. Yet they 
stood not upright again in honour of R. Eliezer. He said 
to them, moreover, ' If the tradition be with me, let the 
heavens bear witness.' The Bath Kol went forth and said, 
' Why do ye contend with R. Eliezer, with whom the tradi- 
tion always is?' R. Jonah rose up upon his feet, and said, 
' It is not in heaven' (Deut. xxx. 12). What do these words, 
' It is not in heaven,' mean ? R. Jeremiah saith. When the 
law is given from mount Sinai, we do not care for the Bath 
Kol." 

Shall we laugh at the fable, or shall we suspect some 
truth in the story ? For my part, when I recollect with 
myself, how addicted to and skilful that nation was in art- 

"^ Pesachin, fol. 118. 2. ^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 345. 
y Bab. Mezia, fol. 59. 2. 



Ch. viii. 12.] Exer citations upon tit. Mark. 421 

magic ; which is abundantly asserted not only by the Tal- 
mudists, but by the Holy Scriptures ; I am ready to give 
some credit to this stoiy, and many others of the same 
nature : namely, that the thing was really acted by the art 
and help of the devil by those ensign-bearers and captains of 
errors, the more to estabUsh their honour and tradition. 

Therefore, from tjie story, be it true or false, we observe 
these two things: — 

I. How tenacious the Jews were of their traditions, and 
how unmovable in them even beyond the evidence of mira- 
cles. That Eliezer was of great fame among them, but ho 
was a follower of Shammai. Hence he is called^ once and 
again TlltDIT the Shammean. When, therefore, he taught 
something against the school of Hillel, although he did mira- 
cles (as they themselves relate), they gave no credit to him, 
nay, they derided him. The same was their practice, the 
same was their mind, against the miracles of Christ. And to 
this may these words of our Saviour tend, " Why does this 
generation seek a sign?" a generation, which is not only alto- 
gether unworthy of miracles, but also which is sworn to retain 
their traditions and doctrines, although infinite miracles be 
done to the contrary. 

H. You see how the last testimony of the miracles of this 
conjuror is fetched from heaven : " For the Bath Kol went 
forth," &c. Which the followers of Hillel nevertheless received 
not : and therein not justly indeed ; when they feign such a 
voice to have come to themselves from heaven, as a definitive 
oracle for the authority of the school of Hillel, not to be gain- 
said : concerning which the Talmudists speak very frequently, 
and very boastingly. 

After the same manner they require a sign from heaven of 
our Saviour; not content with those infinite miracles that 
he had done, the healing of diseases, the casting out devils, 
the multiplying of loaves », &c. They would also have 
somewhat from heaven, either after the example of Moses 
fetching manna from thence ; or of Elias fetching down fire ; 
or of Joshua staying the sun ; or of Isaiah bringing it back- 
wards. 

z Hieros. Trumah, fol. 43. 3. Jom Tobh, fol. 60. 3, &c. 
^ heusderCs edition, vol. ii. p. 447. 



422 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh, ix. i, 2. 

CHAP. IX.b 

Ver. I : T^y (iacnkiiav tov ©eoS kXfiXvQvlav h< bwdixef The 
kingdom of God coming in power.] In Matthew, it is tov vlov 
TOV avOpdiTTov ep\6[X€vov €v Tj] fiacnkeicL avTov, the Son of man 
coming in Ms kingdom. The coming of Christ in his vengeance 
and power to destroy the unbcheving and most wicked nation 
of the Jews is expressed under these forms of speech. Hence 
the day of judgment and vengeance : 

I. It is called " the great and terrible day of the Lord," 
Acts ii. 20 ; 2 Thess. ii. 2, 3. 

II. It is described as " the end of the world," Jer. iv. 27 ; 
Matt. xxiv. 29, &c. 

III. In that phrase, '' in the last times," Isa. ii. 2 ; Acts ii. 
17;! Tim. iv. I ; 2 Pet. iii. 3 ; that is, in the last times of that 
city and dispensation. 

IV. Thence, the beginning of the "new world," Isa. Ixv. 17; 
2 Pet. iii. 13. 

V. The vengeance of Christ upon that nation is described 
as his " coming," John xxi. 22 ; Heb. x. 37 : his " coming in 
the clouds," Rev. i. 7 : " in glory with the angels," Matt, 
xxiv. 30, &c. 

VI. It is described as the ' enthroning of Christ, and his 
twelve apostles judging the twelve tribes of Israel,' Matt. xix. 
28 ; Luke xxii, 30. 

Hence this is the sense of the present place : Our Saviour 
had said in the last verse of the former chapter, " Whosoever 
shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous 
and sinful generation ; of him also shall the Son of man be 
ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with 
the holy angels," to take punishment of that adulterous and 
sinful generation. And he suggests, with good reason, that 
that his coming in glory should be in the lifetime of some 
that stood there. 

Ver. 2 : Eis opos v\j/r]X6v Into a high mountain.^ Now 
your pardon, reader ; I know it will be laughed at if I should 
doubt whether Christ were transfigured upon mount Tabor ; 
for who ever doubted of this thing ? But let mo, before I give 

'' Enylish folio edition, vol. ii. j». 34C. 



Ch. ix. 2.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 423 

faith to the thing, reveal my doubts concerning it : and the 
reader, laying before his eyes some geographical map of 
Galilee, perhaps, when he shall have heard me, will judge 
more favourably of my doubting. 

I. Let him consider that Christ, in the story next going 
before, was in the coast of Osesarea Philippi, Matt. xvi. 13 ; 
Mark viii. 27; Luke ix. (8; and, for any thing that can be 
gathered out of the evangelists, changed not his place before 
this story. Who will deny that those words, " There are 
some that stand here who shall not taste of death," &c., were 
uttered in those coasts of Csesarea Philippi 1 And presently 
the story of the transfiguration followed. 

IL Six days indeed came between : in which, you will 
say, Christ might travel from Caesarea Philippi to Tabor. 
He might, indeed: but, i. The evangelists intimate no change 
from place to place, saying only this. That he led up into 
the mountain three of his disciples. 2. It seems, indeed, a 
wonder that our Saviour would tire himself with so long a 
journey, to choose Tabor whereon to be transfigured, when, 
as far as we read, he had never before been in that mountain ; 
and there were mountains elsewhere where he conversed fre- 
quently. 3. Follow the footsteps of the history, and of 
Christ in his travel, from his transfiguration onwards. When 
he came down from the mountain, he healed a child possessed 
with a devil : and when he betook himself into the house 
they said, " Why could not we cast out the devil ? &c. And 
they departed thence, and passed through Gahlee, and came 
to Capernaum," Mark ix. 28, 30, 33, 

III. And now, reader, look upon the chorographical map, 
and how incongruous will this travelling seem ! i . From 
Csesarea Philippi to mount Tabor through the whole length 
almost of Galilee. 2. Then from mount Tabor by a course 
back again to Capernaum, a great part of Galilee (espe- 
cially as the maps place Capernaum) being again passed 
over. Whereas Capernaum was in the way from Csesarea 
Philippi to Tabor, and there was a mountain there well known 
to Christ, and very much frequented by him. 

IV. So^ that it seems far more consonant to the history of 
the gospel, that Christ was transfigured in some mountain 

^ English folio edition, vol. ii. j). ,346. 



424 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. ix. 38, &c. 

near Csesarea Philippi ; perhaps that which, Josephus being 
witness, was the highest, and hung over the very fountains of 
Jordan, and at the foot whereof Csesarea was placed. 

In that place, formerly called Dan, was the first idolatry 
set up, and now in the same place the eternal Son of God is 
shewn, both in the confession of Peter, and in the unspeak- 
ably clear and illustrious demonstration of the Messias. 

Ver. 38: Ylho}xiv nva kv rw ovoixaTt crov eK^aXkovra batfxovta' 
We saw one casting out devils in thy natne.] 1. Without 
doubt he truly did this work, whosoever he were. He cast 
out devils truly and really, and that by the divine power ; 
otherwise Christ had not said those things which he did, 
" Forbid him not : for there is no man which shall do a 
miracle in my name, that can lightly speak evil of me," &c. 

II. AVhence then could any one that followed not Christ 
cast out devils ? Or whence could any one that cast out 
devils not follow Christ ? 

I answer'i : We suppose, 

I. That this man cast not out devils in the name of Jesus, 
but in the name of Christ, or Messias : and that it was not 
out of contempt that he followed not Jesus, but out of igno- 
rance ; namely, because he knew not yet that Jesus was the 
Messias. 

II. We therefore conjecture that he had been heretofore 
some disciple of John, who had received his baptism in the 
name of the Messias now speedily to come, (which all the dis- 
ciples of John had ;) but he knew not as yet that Jesus of 
Nazareth was the Messias: which John himself knew not 
until it was revealed to him from heaven. 

III. It is probable, therefore, that God granted the gifts 
of miracles to some lately baptized by John, to do them in 
the name of the Messias ; and that, to lay a plainer way for 
the receiving of the Messias, when he should manifest himself 
under the name of ' Jesus of Nazareth.^ 

See ver. 41 : In my name, o-n Xptcrrou eore, because ye 
belong to Christ ; and chap. xiii. 6, " Many shall come in my 
name ;" not in the name of Jesus, but in the name of the 
Messias : for those false prophets assumed to themselves the 
name of the Messias, to bring to nought the name of Jesus. 

•* heusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 448. 



Ch, ix. 43, 49. Exercitatiom upon St. Marie. 425 

That, John xvi. 24, "Hitherto ye have asked nothing in my 
name," differs not much from this sense : ' The apostles 
poured out their prayers, and all the holy men theirs, in the 
name of the Messias ; but ye have as yet asked nothing in 
my name Jesus,' &c. 

Ver. 43 : 'Attokov/tov amriv Cut it off.'] " Rabh Mona^, in 
the name of R. Judah, saith, A drop of cold water in the 
morning [applied to the e^/e], and the washing of the hands 
and feet in the evening, □7"IJ^2^ '{"^">')7"'p h^72 is good beyond 
all the collyrium [eyesalve] in the whole icorld. For he said, 
i^!?pr\ Ti^T" T' The hand applied to the eye [in the morning, 
before icashing], let it be cut off. The hand applied to the 
nostril, let it be cut off: the hand put to the ear, let it be 
cut off," &c. 

Ver. 49 : lias yap -nvpl aXtcrO^aeTai' For every one shall be 
salted with fire.'] The great Scaliger is well chastised, and 
not without cause, by John Oloppenbergf, because he changed 
the reading here into Tracra Tivpia aXtcr^rjcrerat, every sacrifice 
shall be salted. See what he saith. 

Ylas, all, is not to be understood of every man, but of 
every one of them " whose worm dieth not," &c. 

The sense of the place is to be fetched from those words, 
and the sense of those words from Isa. Ixvi. 24 : " And they 
shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the men that 
have transgressed against me : for their worm shall not die, 
neither shall their fire be quenched ; and they shall be an 
abhorring unto all flesh." Upon which place thus the Jews 
write ; " ' They shall go forth and look, ' &c. Is not the 
finger of a man, if it be put into the fire, immediately burnt I 
But God gives power {or being) to wicked men to receives 
torments." Kimchi upon the place thus : " They shall see 
the carcases of them full of worms, and fire burning in them:" 
and yet the worms die not. 

The words therefore of our Saviour respect this : " Their 
worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched ; for every one 
of them shall be seasoned with fire itself, so as to become 
unconsumable, and shall endure for ever to be tormented, as 
salt preserves from corruption. 

« Bab. Schabb. fol. 108. 2. ^ In Spicileg. Scholae sacrific. Problem. 3. 
s English folio edit.,\'o\.'\\. p. 347. 



426 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch.ix. 49. 

That very learned man mentioned before called the com- 
mon reading very improper. For what is it, saith he, akC(etv 
TTvpC, to season with fire f Let me retort, And what is it 
■nvpi(ttv aXi, to fire loith salt ? And yet that sense occurs 
very frequently in the Talmudists. For in them n"'"Tpn is to 
hum, (which it signifies properly indeed,) and very frequently 
it is, to corrupt any thing vnth too much salting, so that it 
cannot be eaten : to he fired loiih salt. So in this place, to he 
salted with fire, that it cannot be corrupted or consumed. 

Kal TTaaa dvaCa bX\ aXiad-qairai' And every sacrifice shall he 
salted with salt."] Here the discourse is of salting, which 
was done at the altar, see Levit. ii. 13 : " In^ the ascent of 
the altar, they salted the parts of the sacrifice : and on the 
top of the altar they salt the handful of meal, of frankin- 
cense, of incense, and the mincha of the priests, and the 
mincha of the anointed priest, and the mincha of the drink- 
offerings, and the sacrifice of birds." Yea", "il'^p D"^^^ 
n7?2 ]''-")yi01 tn nn^^ the very wood is a corhan of the 
mincha^ and is to he salted. 

But in the former clause, the allusion was not to the fire 
of the altar, but to the fire in the valley of Hinnom, where 
dead carcases, bones, and other filthy things were con- 
sumed. Carcases crawl with worms; and instead of salt 
which secures against worms, they shall be cast into the fire, 
and shall be seasoned with flames, and yet the worms shall 
not die. But he that is a true sacrifice to God shall be sea- 
soned with the salt of grace to the incorruption of glory. 

Our Saviour speaks in this place with Isaiah, chap. Ixvi. 20: 
" k^ov<n roi/s d8eA</)oi;s v\}.QiV Ik Ttavroyv tG>v kOvQiv h5>pov Kvp[(a — 
(OS aveviyKacaav oi viol 'IcrpaT/A ras Ovatas avTcop €p.0L ixera 
■^a\p.S>v els Tov oXkov Kvpiov They shall hring your brethren out 

of all the nations for a gift to the Lord, as the children of 

Israel offer their sacrifices to me ivith jjsalms in the Jiouse of the 
Lord. And ver. 24 : Kat i^eXevaopTat., kol o'^ovrai ra K&Xa r&v 
avdp(oTTcov T(av Trapafie^rjKOToov (V €p.oi' 6 yap (TK<a\r]^ avT&v ov 
TeAeurTjcrei, koI to irvp avT^v ov (r^e(T6t](reTaL, &c. And they 
shall go forth, and look upon the limbs of men that transgressed 
against me : for their worm shall not die, and their fire shall not 
he quenched, &c. 

'' Menacoth, fol. 21. 2. » Fol. 20. 2. 



Ch. X. 1.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 427 

Ylaa-a Ovcria, emry sacrifice, saith our Saviour, concerning 
holy men seasoned with grace : so the prophet, " They shall 
bring your brethren for a gift to the Lord, as the children of 
Israel do the sacrifices." 

'AAto-^Tjo-orrat -uvpX, shall he seasoned with fire, saith our 
Saviour of wicked men : in the same sense Isaiah, " They 
shall be in unquenchable i^ fire, and yet their worm shall not 
die/' 

Their fire and their worm : whose ? Concerning the former, 
it is somewhat obscure in our Saviour's words, and so, indeed, 
that it is without all obscurity that he refers his words only 
to the words of Isaiah : but who the}' are in Isaiah is plain 
enough. 

CHAP. X. 

Ver. [ : "Fipyj^Tai eis ra opia ttjs 'lovbatas, bia tov Trepav tov 
'lopbdifov Cometh into the coasts of Judea by the further side of 
Jordan.] Here is need of a discerning eye to distinguish of 
the true time and method of this story, and of Christ's journey. 
If you make use of such an eye, you will find half a year, or 
thereabouts, to come between the uttering of the words im- 
mediately before-going, and this travel of our Saviour ; how- 
ever it seems to be intimated by our evangelist, and likewise 
by Matthew, that when he had finished those words, forth- 
with ho entered upon his journey : when, in truth, he went 
before to Jerusalem, through the midst of Samaria, to the 
feast of Tabernacles, Luke ix. 51, &c. John vii. And again, 
from Galilee, after he had returned thither, through the cities 
and towns to Jerusalem, Luke xiii. 22; to the feast of Dedi- 
cation, John X. 22 : and again 1, " beyond Jordan" indeed, John 
X. 40 ; but first taking his way into Galilee, and thence be- 
yond Jordan, according to that story which is before us. The 
studious reader, and that in good earnest employeth his 
labour upon this business, has no need of further proof; his 
own eyes will witness this sufficiently. Thus, the wisdom and 
Spirit of God directed the pens of these holy writers, that 
some omitted some things to be supplied by others ; and 
others supplied those things which they had omitted : and so 

^ Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 449. 1 English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 347. 



428 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. x. 17. 

a full and complete history was not composed but of all joined 
and compared together. 

I wish the reverend Beza had sufficiently considered this, 
who rendereth -nipav 'lopbavov, not heyond, but hy Jordan, 
and corrects the Vulgar interpreter and Erasmus, who render 
it ' beyond Jordan,' properly and most truly : "As if, by 
Perea (saith he), or the country beyond Jordan, Christ, 
passing over Jordan or the lake of Tiberias, came into Judea 
out of Galilee ; which is not true." But take heed you do 
not mistake, reverend old man. For he went over Jordan 
from Capernaum, as it is very probable, by the bridge built 
over Jordan between Chammath, near to Tiberias, at the 
Gadarene country : he betook himself to Bethabara, and 
stayed some time there, John x. 40 : thence he went along 
Perea to the bank over against Jericho. While he tarrieth 
there, a messenger, sent from Mary, comes to him concerning 
the death of Lazarus, John xi ; and thence, after two days, he 
passeth Jordan in Judea. 

Ver. 1 7 : YovvniTriaa^ avrov Kneeled to him.'] So chap. i. 40, 
YlapaKaXa>v avrov, koI yovvTTCT&v avrov' Beseeching him, and 
kneeling to him. This is variously rendered, procidit ad pedes, 
genu Jlexo, genu petens, ad genua procidens, &c. He fell at 
his feet., boioing the knee, beseeching upon his Jcnee, falling 
down at his knees. Which renderings are not improper, but 
I suspect something more is included. For, i. It was 
customary for those that so adored to take hold of the 
knees or the legs, 2 Kings iv. 27 ; Matt, xxviii. 9. 2. To 
kiss the knees or the feet, See what we have said at 
Matt, xxviii. 9. 

When R. Akiba '" had been twelve years absent from his 
wife, and at last came back, his wife went out to meet him : 
" and when she came to him, falling upon her face, i^p 
n'^V"^57 Tl'w npt!7]?2 she kissed his knees." And a little after, 
when he was entered into the city, his father-in-law not know- 
ing who ho was, but suspecting him to be some great Rabbin, 
went to him, and falling upon his face n''i^"^!D7 Tl'^h HpU^D 
kissed his knees. Speaking" of Job, H^i^H^^ H^ptl?: ptD ^^n 
"Satan came, and he kissed his knees: but in all this Job sinned 

"^ Bab. Chetub. fol. 6^^. i. » Id. Bava Bathr. 



Ch. X. 21.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 429 

not with his h'ps," &c, Wheno a certain Rabbin had discoursed 
of divers things, r^m^i^ rfptl^SI «?2n 11 Dp Bar Ghama 
rose up and kissed his knees. 

Ver. 2 J : ^Hyd-nrjaev avrov Loved Mm.'] That is, he mani- 
fested by Fome outward gesture that this man pleased him, 
both in his question and in his answer : when he both seriously 
inquired concerning attaining eternal life ; and seriously pro- 
fessed that he had addicted himself to God's commandments 
with all care and circumspection. 

Let us compare the customs of the Masters among the 
Jews : EliezerP Ben Erech obtained leave from Rabban Jo- 
chanan Ben Zaccai to discourse of some things before him. He 
discoursed of Ezekiel's chariot {'ni'^yO TWV^ Ezek. chap, i ), 
or, of mystical divinity^. "When he had made an end, 
Rabban Jochanan arose up, rT^^b^"^! rT'ptZ^DI and kissed his 
head." " R. Abba^" Bar Cahna heard R. Levi disputing pro- 
foundly. When he had made an end. R. Abba rose up and 
kissed his head." There is a story ^ of a certain Nazarite 
young man that exceedingly pleased* Simeon the Just with a 
certain answer that he gave. Whereupon, said Simeon, " I 
bowed towards him with my head, and said, son, let such 
as you be multiplied in Israel."'"' The story is found elsewhere", 
where for "^tyb^"!! T^JlDDirT / botoed toioards him toith my head, 
it is IL^'^^'l hv VnpiDiT Vinpnn / embraced him and kissed 
his head. " Miriam^, before the birth of Moses, had pro- 
phesied, My mother shall bring forth a son who shall deliver 
Israel. When he was born the whole house was filled with 
light. His father stood forth, ntT^^*) hv TipOT\ and kissed 
her upon the head, and said. Thy prophecy is fulfilled. And 

when they cast him into the river, nU}^1 hv nriDI^ he struck 
her upon the head." 

What if our Saviour used this very gesture towards this 
young man ? And that the more conveniently, when he was 
now upon his knees before him. Some gesture, at least, he 

o Sanhedr. fol. 27. 2. v. nnrjia col. 2258. q.v.] 

P Hieros. Chagigah, f. 77. i. r Hieros. Horaioth, fol. 48. 3. 

<i [Hebrsei vocant principium s ij. Nedarim, fol. 36. 4. 

Ezechielis n^D'lD ntyi>D opus qua- * Leusden's edition, vol.ii. p. 450. 

driym. Hoc opus mysterio plenum " Nazir. fol. 51. 3. 

est, ideoque non quibuslibet expli- x 3^]}. Megill. fol. 14. i. 

candum. Buxtorf Lex. T. & R. sub 



430 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. x. 46. 

used, whereby it appeared, both to the young man and to the 
standers-by, thaty the young man did not a little please him, 
both by his question and by his answer. So "^lHinfc^ / Jiave 
loved, Psalm cxvi. 1, in the LXX, riydTTr^aa, I have loved, one 
may render well, complacet mihi, it pleaseth me well. So Jo- 
sephus^ of David's soldiers, (i Sam. xxx. 22): "Those four 
hundred who went to the battle would not impart the spoils 
to the two hundred who were faint and weary ; 'AyaTTJ/o-eti' h'k 
(r€<ToocriJ.ivas yvvoLKas aTtoXaix^dvovras eAeyoy and said, That they 
should ' love' [that is, be well pleased] that tliey had received 
their wives safe again." 

In some parity of sense, John is called the disciple, ov riyaTra 
6 'Irjaovs, tvhom Jesus loved ; not that Jesus loved him more 
than the rest with his eternal, infinite, saving love, but he 
favoured him more with some outward kindness and more 
intimate friendship and familiarity. And why ? Because John 
had promised that he would take care of Christ's mother after 
his death. For those words of our Saviour upon the cross to 
John, ' Behold thy mother ! ' and to his mother, ' Behold thy 
son ! ' and that from thence John took her home, do carry a 
fair probability with them, that that was not the first time 
that John heard of such a matter, but that long before he had 
so promised. 

'Hyd7r>j(T(i a^, I have loved thee, Isa. Ix.io, is the rendering of 
'T|'^ri?pn'^ / have had pity upon thee: which may here also 
agree very well, "Jesus had pity upon him." 

Ver, 46 : T169 Ttjuatov Bapri/iiaios' Bartimceus, the son of Ti- 
mccus.] Some suspect the evangelist here guilty of a solecism, 
by making a tautology : for it was neither necessary, as they 
think, so to render the Syriac word in Greek ; nor is it done 
so elsewhere in proper names of that nature. For it is not 
said by any evangelist, Bartholomeus, the son of Tholomeus : 
Bar Abbas, the son of Abbas: Bar Jesus, the son of Jesus: nor 
in the like names. True, indeed ; but, 

I. When the denomination is made from a common name, 
and not a proper, then it is not so ill sounding to interpret 
the word : which is done once and again ; Mark iii.17, Boavep- 
yes, ianv, viol ^povTrjs' Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder: 

y English folio edit,, vol. ii. p. 348. '^ [Antiq. vi. 14. 6.] 



Oh. xi. II, 13.] Exercitations upon Si. Mark. 431 

Acts iv. 36, Bapra^as, o lariv^ ftos Trapa/cAijo-etos* Barnabas^ 
icMcli is, A son of consolation. 

II. Bar Timai ma-y be rendered otherwise than the son of 
TimcBUS : namely, either HT^'^ri 'll a son of adiniraiion ; or, 
which is more proper, "i!2''!0 "^!! a son of profit. The Targum 
in Esther iii. 8 ; pnJD "^n'^15 Tvh T\h «!)Sn^ To the Jcing 
ariseth no profit {'Timai'') from them. The evangehst there- 
fore, deservedly, that he might shew that this Bartimceus was 
not named from this, or that, or some other etymology, but 
from his father's name, so interprets his name, Baprt/xatoy, vtos 
TiixaCov, Bartimeus, the son of Tvmeus. 

III. Perhaps there was a Timeus of some more noted 
name in that age, either for some good report or some bad : 
so that it might not be absurd to the Jews that then eon- 
versed there to say, This blind Bartimceus is the son of the 
so much famed Timceus. So it is unknown to us who Alex- 
ander and Rufus were, chap. xv. 2 1 : but they were without 
doubt of most eminent fame, either among the disciples, or 
among the Jews. 

IV. What if t^"'D^n Thiyna be the same with ^^^12^0 
Simai, hlind., from the use of Ts [Thau] for D [Samech] among 
the Chaldeans \ so that Bartimceus the son of Timceus might 
sound no more than the hlind son of a hlind father. 

CHAP. XI. 

Ver. 1 1 : Kat TTepi^\i\j/dixevos iravTa' And when he had 
loo/ced round ahout upon all things.'] Compare Mark with the 
other evangelists concerning the time of casting out the mer- 
chants of the Temple, and it will appear that the word Trept- 
^Xeyj/Ajxevos, he looked ahout, denotes not a bare beholding or 
looking upon, but a beholding with reproof and correction ; 
iT^rrj^^ admonition, among the Jews. 

Ver. 13 : Ov yap rjv Kaipbs ctvkoou' For the time of figs was 
not yet.] See what we have said at Matt. xxi. 19. The sura 
is this : 

I. The time of figs was so far off, that the time of leaves 
was scarcely yet present. 

II. The^ other fig trees in the mount were of the common 
kind of fig trees : and on them were not leaves as yet to be 

^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 348. 



432 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xii. i. 

seen. But that which Christ saw with leaves on it, and there- 
fore went to it, was a fig tree of an extraordinary kind. 

III. For there was a certain fig tree called VIW HIIll 
Benoth Shuach, which never wanted leaves, and never wanted 
figs. For every year it bare fruit, but that fruit came not to 
full ripeness before the third year : and such, we suppose, was 
this fig tree. 

Ver. 16^^: Kat ovK i](j)Lev tva rts huviyKi] trKeCos hia 7ov Upov' 
And would not suffer that any man should carry any vessel through 
the Temple.'] " Whaf^ is the reverence of the Temple? That 
none go into the Mountain of the Temple" [or the Court of 
the Gentiles] " with his staff", and his shoes, with his purse, 
and dust upon his feet : p^pl^l t^'^'^liDp ^ys:}T vh^ and that 
none malce it his common thoroughfare., nor make it a, place of 
spitting." 

The same thing is ordered concerning a synagogue ; yea, 
concerning a synagogue that is now laid waste, much more 
of one that flourisheth : " A^ synagogue now laid waste, 
t^'^TliDp rtll'IV "^h let not men make it a common passage ?'' 
And^ "his disciples asked R. Eleazar Ben Shammua, Whence 
hast thou lived so long ? He answered, I never made a syna- 
gogue a common thoroughfare." 

Tt is therefore forbid by the masters, that the court of the 
Temple be not made a passage for a shorter way. And was 
not this bridle sufficient wherewith all might be kept back 
from carrying vessels through the Temple ? But the ' castle 
of Antonia' joined to the court ; and there were shops in the 
Court of the Gentiles where many things were sold ; and that 
profane vessels were brought hither is scarcely to be denied. 
And these vessels might be said to be carried hia tov Upov, 
through the Temple ; although those that carried them went 
not through the whole Temple. 

CHAP. XTl. 

Ver. r : 'AjUTreAwt-a icpvTcvaev avOpooTTos, &c. A certain man 
planted a vineyard.] The priests and Pharisees knew, saith 
Matthew, that "these things were spoken of them," Matt, 
xxi. 45. Nor is it any wonder; for the Jews boasted that 

^ Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 451. d Megill. fol. 28. i. 
«^ Bab. .Tevamoth, fol. 6. 2. e Yo\. 27. 2. 



Oh. xii. 2.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 433 

they were the Lord's vineyard : and they readily observed a 
wrong done to that vineyard by any : but how far were they 
from taking notice, how unfruitful they were, and unthankful 
to the Lord of the vineyard ! 

" The f matter may be compared to a king that had a 
vineyard ; and there were three who were enemies to it. 
What were they ? One cut down the branches. The second 
cut oif the bunches. And the third rooted up the vines. 
That king is the King of kings, the Blessed Lord. The vine- 
yard of the Lord is the house of Israel. The three enemies 
are Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezzar, and Haman," t&c. 

'A/xTTeAwz^a* A vineyard.'] " If S a man plants one row of 
five vines, the school of Shammai saith, That it is a vineyard. 
But the school of Hillel saith, It is not a vineyard, until there 
be two rows of vines there.'' 

YlepU6r]K€ <ppayij.6v' Set a hedge about it.'] "What^^ is a 
hedge ? Let it be ten handbreadths high :" less than so is 
not a hedge. 

"Q^pv^ev vTToKriviov Digged a place for the tmne-fat.] V*'17l 
: 'l 2.'n^^ '"^ pl^:? «inil? Let ' the fat he ten handbreadths 
deep, and four broad. 

" aiKoh6p.y](Ti^m>pyov Built a tower.] '^ nrni:! D'^^HZ? Hir^ltZ? 
5 1 nnnil Let'^ the tvatchhouse, which is in the vineyard, he 
ten high, and four broad. Cubits are to be understood. For 
Rambam saith, (11?2^U? is a high place where the vitie-dresser 
stands to overlook the vineyard. 

'E£e8oro avrbv yiiapyolr Let it out to husbandmen.] "^DIT^H 
1D1t277 ^t2'^'D 'O aiTobovs api.'neX&va avrov, &c. " He'^ that 
lets out his vineyard to a keeper, ^^''TDIDI Tl HlD'^'lt^l rn 
D^n either as a yeapybs, a husbandman, or as one to keep it 
gratis, and he enters into covenant with him, to dig it, prune 
it, dress it, at his own cost ; but he neglects it, and doth not 
so ; he is guilty, as if he should with his own hand lay the 
vineyard waste." 

Ver. 2 : 'ATTeoretXe Trpos tovs yccopyovs rw KaipQ' And at the 
season he sent to the husbandmen.] That is, in the fourth year 
after the first planting it : when it now was ''^in 0*^3 <* 

^ Tanchum, fol. 54. 3. ^ English/olio edit., vol. ii. p. 349. 

s Kilaim, cap. 4. hal. 5. 1 Ibid. cap. 5. hal. 3. 

*» Ibid. hal. 3. » Ibid. m Maitnon. in m'T'DU' c 2. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL, II. P f 



434 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. xii. 4. 

vineyard of four years old ; at least before that year there 
was no profit of the fruits, niflpl inii^ \'T'^'^'t2 ^V^^ D"^5 
rf?D1b^ " They "^ paint [or note'] a vineyard of four years old hy 
some turf [or clod] of earth, coloured ; rT^Dini PrS'^y vtZ7 
and that uncircumrAsed with clay ; and sepulchres with chalk," 

The Gloss is this : " On a vineyard of four years old they 
paint some marks out of the turf of the earthy that men may 
know that it is a vineyard of four years old, and eat not of it, 
because it is holy, as the Lord saith, Lev. xix. 24 ; and the 
owners ought to eat the fruit of it at Jerusalem, as the 
second tithe. And an uncircumcised vineyard/' [that is, 
which was not yet four years old; see Lev. xix. 23,] "they 
mark with clay, '^'WT\ tD"^l3 b^in that is, digested in fire. 
For the prohibition of {a vineyard) uncircumcised, is greater 
than the prohibition concerning that of four years old : for 
that of four years old is fit for eating; but that uncircum- 
cised is not admitted to any use. Therefore, they marked 
not that by the turf, lest the mark might perhaps be de- 
faced, and perish ; and men not seeing it might eat of 
it," &c. 

Ver. 40: Ai6o^oXri<TavT€s iKecfiaXaCbxrav At him they cast 
stones, and toounded him in the head.] I. I see no need to 
wrest the word eKe^aAaicoo-ar from its true and genuine sense. 
K€(f)a\aLovv signifies to reduce and gather into a certain sum, 
as the lexicons teach us : and why not in the same sense in 
this place ? They cast stones at the servant, and deriding 
him, made up the sum with him : saying, perhaps this, or 
some such thing to him, " Do you come for fruit and rent ? 
Behold this fruit,'^ (casting a stone at him;) "behold another 
fruit," (casting another stone ;) and so many times together : 
and so they sent him away -qnixoiixivov, derided, and loaded 
^oith disgrace. 

IL But be it that the word is to be translated as it is 
commonly rendered, " they wounded him in the head :" then 
this way of stoning is thus distinguished from that whereby 
they were slain who were stoned by the Sanhedrim. That 
was called kiOo^oXia, stone-casting : for it was the cast of a 
stone, indeed, but of one only, and that a very great one ; 
and that upon the heart of the condemned person, when now 
« n Maasar Sheni, c. 5. hal. i. " Leusdm's edition, vol. ii. p. 432. 



Ch. xii. lo, &c,] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 435 

he lay along upon his back. But this stoning was of many 
stones, thrown out of the hand through the air, striking him 
here and there and everywhere. The head of him that was 
stoned by the Sanhedrim was unhurt, and without any 
wound ; but here, The;^ cast stones at Mm, and toounded him 
in the head. 

Ver. lo: A.i6ov, ov aTiiboKtixacrav The stone which the builders 
rejected.] The Targum upon Psalm cxviii, thus, ^^''710 
^^''T'^l'Ti^ ip"^!!!!? the builders rejected the child. [Either for 
pt^ he read pn, or rendered it according to the Arabic 
idiom, the son : so also R. Solomon.] And ver. 27, MID'2 
t^^n nDDi7 i^''7t5 " Bind the child to the sacrifice of the 
solemnity with chains, until ye shall have sacrificed him, and 
poured out his blood upon the horns of the altar : said 
Samuel the prophet." 

Ver. 16 P: T[vos rj etKcoy; Kato-apos* Whose is this image? 
Ccesars.] I. This was a Ccesars penny. TT^^'^O^p t^l^*'! 
denarius Ccssareanus. For zuz, among the Jews, was also a 
•penny, as we shewed elsewhere ; but we scarce believe it was 
of the same form and inscription : Xv> TUTl nb^D"^?:^ t^liin 
njfc^lD''p ^^"^3"^'^ ^^ A^ certain heathen sent to JR. Judah the 
prince a Ccesarean penny, and that on a certain festival 
day of the heathens. Resh Lachish sat before him. R. 
Judah said. What shall I do ? If I receive it, I shall consent 
{to their festival) : if I receive it not, enmity will rise against 
me. Resh Lachish answered, Take the penny, and while 
he looks upon you cast it into the well/"' &c. 

II. It was a silver penny, not a gold one. DTTD DilD ^"^^"^1 
fjD^ 7U? Pence, absolutely put, are to be understood silver pence. 
Where the Gloss is, " Pence, absolutely put, are silver, until 
it is explained that they are gold." 

But now a gold penny was worth five-and-twenty silver 
pence. "Whenr turtle-doves and young pigeons were sold 
at Jerusalem sometime for a gold penny, Rabban Simeon 
Ben Gamaliel said. By this Temple, I will not rest this night, 
unless they are sold for a silver penny." Where the Gloss, 
" A gold penny is worth five-and-twenty silver pence." 

III, It was "1112^ a Roman penny, not it3''U:'Q a Jerusalem : 

P English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 349. <i Bab. Avod. Zar. fol. 6. 2. 

r Cherithuth, cap. i. hal. 7. 

F f 2 



436 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xii. \6. 

for this distinction they sometimes use. ''tD^L^Q "'TTT, the Gloss 
being witness, are n!]"^1D "^tlT Jerusalem zuzees. But more 
frequently, m^J Vl'^'^ and riT^'^'O hw VltDD money of 
Tziir, and money of Jerusalem. '^ni!J i^^lID^ one may well 
render Tyrian money. But hear the Aruch, where he had 
been treating of money "'"Tl!? of Tzur ; at length he brings in 
this passage : " R. Eliezer saith, Wheresoever in the Scrip- 
ture n!J Tzur is written full, the Scripture speaks of the 
city Tyre : but where it is written defectively [*^!^ without "^ 
(Vau)], it speaks of Rome.'''' Be it Tyrian or Roman money, 
this held among the masters : " Wheresoevers any thing is 
said of the silver money n2*TD 7117 of Jerusalem, it is the 
eighth part of the Tyrian money.'" 

Hence I should resolve that riddle at which the Glosser 
himself sticks, if I may have leave to conjecture in a Jewish 
affair, after a doubting Jew. In the tract now cited* there 
is a discourse concerning m^07lI71'^'' HVlfl^ illj^t^i Jeru- 
salem Cozbian moneys. A riddle truly. Ben Cozbi, indeed, 
coined moneys when he made an insurrection against the 
Romans". But whence is this called Jerusalem money, when, 
in the days of Ben Cozbi, Jerusalem lay buried in its own 
rubbish ? If I may be the resolver, it was so called, because 
it was of the same weight and value with the Jerusalem money, 
and not with that of Tyre. 

" The Jerusalem money (say they) is the eighth part of the 
Tyrian." Here again some words of the masters entangle 
me in a riddle. The Aruch ^ saith, " A penny and zuz are the 
same." And elsewhere y, " They call pence, in the Gemaristic 
language, Zuzim f which we observed at chap. vi. ver. 37. 
' Zuz' was Jerusalem money : how, then, was it the same with 
a penny, which was Tyrian money, when it was the eighth 
part only ? And these words spoken by Rambam ^ do add 
a scruple over and above ; D'^tl'J 'l "^^''Tn a penny contains 
six zuzim. If ^ he had said eight zuzim, it had been without 
scruple. But what shall we say now ? 

The former knot you may thus untie : that zuz, among the 

s Bava Kama, fol. 36. 2, in Gloss. y GlossinBavaBathra,fol. 166. i. 

t Bava Kama, fol. 97. 2. ^ In Peah, cap. 8. hal. 7. 

u Hieros. Maasar Sheni, fol. 52. 4. * Leusden's edition, vol. ii. 453. 
^ In tit. 



Ch. xii. 28.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 437 

Jews, is called also a penny ; a Jewish penny, indeed, but dif- 
ferent from the Roman : as the Scots have their shilling, but 
much different from our English. But the second knot let 
him try to untie that is at leisure. 

IV. This money was signed with the image of Caesar ; but 
of the Jerusalem money, thus the Jews write, whom you may 
believe when you please: " What^ is the Jerusalem money? 
"inh^ 1)^2. n^blDI "yn David and Solomon were stamped on 
one side ; and on the reverse, tZ7"T)pn "S^V D71D11'' Jerusalem 
the holy city" But the Glosser inquires whether it were lawful 
to stamp the image of David and Solomon upon money, which 
he scarcely thinks. He concludes therefore that their names 
were only inscribed, not their effigies. 

" Uponc Abraham's money were stamped, on one side, an 
old man and an old woman ; on the other, a young man and a 
young maid. On Joshua's money, on one side, an ox; on the 
other, a monoceros. On David's money, on one side, a staff 
and a scrip ; on the other, a tower. On Mardochai's money, 
on one side, sackcloth and ashes; on the other, a crown." 
Let the truth of this be upon the credit of the authors. 

Ver. 28<i : Yloia iarl irpcoTr] TTaa&v hroX-q ; Which is the first 
commandment of all?'] It is not seldom that this distinction 
occurs in the Rabbins, between n"^ir\ the laiv, and ir\y^'0 
the precept : by the latter they understand some special or 
greater rite (themselves being judges); such as circumcision, 
the repeating of the phylacteries, keeping the sabbath, fcc. 
This question, propounded by the scribe, seems to respect the 
same : namely, whether those great precepts (as they were 
esteemed) and other ceremonial precepts of that nature, such 
as sacrifices, purifications, keeping festivals, were the greatest 
precepts of the law, or no : and if it were so, which among 
them was the first ? 

By his answer he seems to incline to the negative, and 
to prefer the moral law. Whence Christ saith, " That he 
was not far from the kingdom of heaven :" and while he suits 
an answer to him from that very passage, which was the first 
in the reciting of the phylacteries, bi^liy*^ J??Dtt7 Hear, O 
Israel, — he directs the eyes and the minds of those that 

^ Bava Kama, fol. 97. 2. <= Bereshith Rab. fol. 24. 2. 

•^ English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 350. 



438 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. xii. 41, 42. 

repeated them to the sense and the marrow of the thing re- 
peated, — ^and that they rest not in the bare work of repeating 
them. 

Ver. 41 : "OyXos (SdWei xa-'^KoV* The people cast money. ~\ 
{ nii^?:Dn 012} 'j''7'^tOt2 y^T\ They^ were casting in small money 
there. According f to his pleasure, any one might cast into 
the chests how httle soever he would; namely, in the chest 
which was for gold, as little gold as a grain of barley would 
weigh ; and in the chest for frankincense, as much frankin- 
cense as weighed a grain of barley. But if he should say, 
"^hv *'"^rT Behold, I void wood ,• he shall not offer less than 
two pieces of a cubit long, and breadth proportionable. Be- 
hold, I vow frankincense ; he shall not offer less than a pugil 
of frankincense :" that is, not less money than that which 
will buy so much. 

Ver. 42 : AcTrra bvo, 6 eort Kobpdvrrjr Two mites, which 
make a farthing.'] 'tD^^V^ip mt^llO H Twos prutahs are 
a farthing. " AJ^ prutah is the eighth part of an Italian as- 
sarius. An assarius is the twenty-fourth part of a silver 
penny."" We rendered before, " The people cast money, 
XakKov, brass,'''' by illi^D p 7'^15?2 Vtl they were casting in small 
money : one would think it should rather be rendered, Vn 
ntDin^ ]^7'^lDt2 They loere casting in brass. But consider well 
this passage: ^W '^Wf2 h^T vSd IDllDn "He' that changeth 
the ' selaa' of the second tenth, the school of Shammai saith, 
Vho 73 n'1>^?3 Let him change the whole ' selaa' into mj?^. 
You would perhaps render it, into moneys, or into meahs, but 
it is properly to be rendered iiito brass, as appears by what 
follows : " The school of Hillel saith, TS^V'O h'pm r)D3 hp22 
into a shekel of silver, and a shekel of brass." So also the 
Glossers ; and the Aruch moreover'', " He that changeth a 
selaa, and receives for it nit2"l"^D jnU? ntlJin;] h^ Mli^n 
brass money, that is, prutahs.''"' 

None might, by the canon even now mentioned, enter into 

the Temple, no, nor indeed into the Court of the Gentiles, 

with his purse, therefore much less into the Court of the 

Women ; and yet scarce any entered who carried no money 

^ Gloss, in Shekal. fol. 8. 4. » Maasar Sheni, cap. 2. hal. 8, 9. 

^ Ibid. Adajoth. cap. i. 9, 10. 

s Hieros. Kiddush. fol. 58. 4. k Iq t^^g ^ord toTiQ. 
^ Bava Mezia, fol.^. 2. 



Ch. xiii. 3, 7.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 439 

with him to be offered to the Corban, whether in his hand, or 
in his bosom, or elsewhere, we do not define : so did this very 
poor woman, who for two mites purchased herself an eternal 
fame, our Saviour himself setting a value upon the thing 
above all the gifts of them that offered. 

CHAP. XIII. 1 

Ver. 3 : Ets TO opos t&v 'EKamv KarevavTi tov Upov' Upon the 
mount of Olives, over against the Temple.'] " The east"^ gate 
of the Court of the Gentiles had the metropolis Sushan 
painted on it. And thi-ough this gate the high priest went 
out to burn the red cow." And, '-'All» the walls of that 
court were high, except the east wall ; because of the priest, 
when he burnt the red cow, stood upon the top of mount 
Olivef^, and took his aim, and looked upon the gate of the 
Temple, in that time when he sprinkled the blood." And, 
"TheP priest stood with his face turned westward, kills the 
cow with his right hand, and receives the blood with the left, 
but sprinkleth it with his right, and that seven times, directly 
towards the Holy of Holies." 

It is true, indeed, the Temple might be well seen from any 
tract of Olivet : but the word KarevavTi, over against, if it 
doth not direct to this very place, yet to some place certainly 
in the same line : and it cannot but recall to our mind that 
action of the high priest. 

Ver. 7 : Mrj Opoeia-Oe Be not troubled.'] Think here, how 
the traditions of the scribes affrighted the nation with the 
report of Gog and Magog, immediately to go before the com- 
ing of the Messiah : — 

" R. Eliezer Ben Abina saith^, When you see the kingdoms 
disturbing one another, rT^U!»^ vtZ? '^T'^'^7 HD!? then expect 
the footsteps of the Messiah. And know that this is true from 
hence, that so it was in the days of Abraham ; for kingdoms 
disturbed one another, and then came redemption to Abra- 
ham." And elsewhere; " So ^" they came against Abraham, 
and so they shall come with Gog and Magog." And again, 

1 English folio edition, vol. ii. p. " Lewsrfew'* ecZzY., vol. ii. p. 454. 

350. P Parah, cap, 3. hal. 9. 

n» Middoth, cap. i. hal. 3. 1 Beresh. Rabb. sect. 41. 

" Cap. 2. hal. 4. ' Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 95. 2. 



440 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. xiii. 8. 

" Thes Eabbins deliver. In the first year of that week \of 
years] that the Son of David is to come, shall that be fulfilled, 
' I will rain upon one city, but I will not rain upon another,' 
Amos iv. 7 . The second year, the arrows of famine shall be 
sent forth. The third, the famine shall be grievous, and men 
and women and children, holy men, and men of good works, 
shall die. And there shall be a forgetfulness of the law 
among those that learn it. The fourth year, fulness, and not 
fulness. The fifth year, great fulness ; for they shall eat and 
drink and rejoice, and the law shall return to its scholars. 
The sixth year, voices. (The Gloss is, ' A fame shall be 
spread, that the Son of David comes,** or, '• they shall sound 
with a trumpet.') The seventh year, wars ; and in the going 
out of that seventh year the Son of David shall come." 

Ver. 8 : "" kpyjxi wbivcav ravra' These are the hegmnings of 
sorrows^ Isa. Ixvi. J , 8 : Wpiv ti]v diblvovcrav t€K€lv, irplv ekdeXv 
Tov TTovov t5)V d)bCv(ov, e^i(f)vye Kal ^rcKev apaev. Tts y)K0V(Te 
ToiovTo; &c. Before she travailed she brought forth ; before the 
labour of pains came she was delivered, and brought forth a male. 
Who hath heard such a thing ? &c. Ei iahive yfj kv 57/ixepa /xta, 
ri KoX kriyfir] iOvos eis aira^, otl <abtV€ koX IreKe Stcov to, iraibia 
avTrjs ; Does the earth bring forth i?i one dat/, or is a nation also 
brought forth at once ? For Sion was in travail and brought 
forth her sons. 

The prophet here says two things : — 

I. That Christ should be born before the destruction of 
Jerusalem. The Jews themselves collect and acknowledge 
this out of this prophecy : " It* is in the Great Genesis, 
[Bereshith Rabba'] a very ancient book : thus R. Samuel Bar 
Nachaman said, Whence prove you, that in the day when the 
destruction of the Temple was, Messias was born ? He answered, 
From this that is said in the last chapter of Isaiah, ' Before she 
travailed she brought forth ; before her bringing forth shall 
come, she brought forth a male child.' In the same hour that 
the destruction of the Temple was, Israel cried out as though 
she were bringing forth. And Jonathan in the Ohaldee trans- 
lation said. Before her trouble came she was saved; and 
before pains of childbirth came upon her, Messiah was re- 

s Ibid. fol. 97. I. [Max. Biblioth. Vet. Patrum, Tom. 

t Hieron. a sancta fide, [Joshua xxvi. p. 533. De la Bigne.] 
Lorki] lib. 1. contra Judeeos, cap. 2. 



Ch. xiii. 8.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 441 

vealed." In the Chaldee it is, ni7t2 •'S^H"' A king shall 
manifest himself. 

" In" like manner in the same book : R. Samuel Bar Na- 
chaman said, It happened that Elias went by the way in the 
day wherein the destruction of the Temple was, and he heard 
a certain voice crying out and saying, ' The holy Temple is 
destroyed.' Which when he heard, he imagined how he could 
destroy the world : but travelling forward he saw men 
ploughing and sowing, to whom he said, ' God is angry with 
the world and will destroy his house, and lead his children 
captives to the Gentiles ; and do you labour for temporal 
victuals?' And another voice was heard, saying, 'Let them 
work, for the Saviour of Israel is born,' And Elias said, 
* Where is he ?' And the voice said, ' In Bethlehem of Judah,""' 
&c. These words this author speaks, and these words they 
speak. 

II. As it is not without good reason gathered, that Christ 
shall be born before the destruction of the city, from that 
clause, " Before she travailed she brought forth, before her 
bringing forth came [ttoVo? tSjv (Lbivcov, the pangs of travail^, 
she brought forth a male child ;" so also, from that clause, 
et ere'x^^ edvo? els aira^, otl cubtve /cat ere/ce 2ta)i^, &o. Is a 
nation brought forth at once ? for Sion travailed and brought 
forth her children, is gathered as well, that the Gentiles were 
to be gathered and called to the faith before that destruction ; 
which our Saviour most plainly teacheth, ver. lo, "But the 
gospel must first be preached among all nations.^'' For how 
the Gentiles, which should believe, are called ' the children of 
Sion,' and ' the children of the church of Israel,^ every where 
in the prophets, there is no need to show, for every one 
knows it. 

In this sense is the word wdtVwz;, pangs or sorrows, in this 
place to be understood ; and it agrees not only with the sense 
of the prophet alleged, but with a most common phrase and 
opinion in the nation concerning n*'^!??:^ '^/HH the sorrotvs of 
the Messiah, that is, concerning the calamities which they ex- 
pected would happen at the coming of the Messiah. 

n''::^Dn'^t^ ifh^ ^n^^ iih^v '^^^ " c^^^«^ ^aitk, The 

" English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 351. ^ Sanhedr. fol. 98. 2. 



442 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xiii. 32. 

Messias shall come, hut I shall not see him. So also saith 
Rabba, Messias shall come, but 1 shall not see him ; that is, 
he shall not be to be seen. Abai saith to Rabba, Why? 
rT^tl?^ 7^ 17in D^U}^ because of the sorrotos of the Messias. 
It is a tradition. His disciples asked R. Eliezer, What may 
a man do to be delivered from the sorrows of Messias ? Let 
him be conversant in the law- and in the works of mercy." 
The Glossy is, "l73,n that is, the terrors and the sorrows 
which shall be in his days." " He ^ that feasts thrice on the 
sabbath day shall be delivered from three miseries, T'tZ? 17inT2 
n^tZTO from the sorrotos of Messiah, from the judgment of 
hell, and from the war of Gog and Magog." Where the Gloss 
is this, " ' From the sorrows of Messias :' for in that age, 
wherein the Son of David shall come, there will be i>^''11^lOp 
an accusation of the scholars of the wise men. Vwh l/in 
rnT'V '^h^Jn The loord *hlT\ denotes such pains as women in 
childbirth endure.'''' 

Ver. 32 : riept 8e tt)? ri\x€pa<i CKCtvrj'i Kal rrjs &pa<i, ovheh oXh^v 
But of that day and hour hnoweth no man^ Of what day and 
hour ? That the discourse is of the day of the destruction of 
Jerusalem is so evident, both by the disciples' question, and 
by the whole thread of Christ's discourse, that it is a wonder 
any should understand these words of the day and hour of the 
last judgment. 

Two things are demanded of our Saviour, ver. 4 : the one 
is, " When shall these things be, that one stone shall not be 
left upon another ?" And the second is, " What shall be the 
sign of this consummation V To the latter he answereth 
throughout the whole chapter hitherto : to the former in the 
present words. He had said, indeed, in the verse before, 
" Heaven and earth shall pass away," &c. ; not for resolution 
to the question propounded (for there was no inquiry at all 
concerning the dissolution of heaven and earth), but for con- 
firmation of the truth of the thing which he had related. As 
though he had said, " Ye ask tvhefi such an overthrow of the 
Temple shall happen ; when it shall be, and what shall be the 
signs of it. I answer. These and those, and the other signs 
shall go before it ; and these my words of the thing itself to 

y Leusden's edition, vol. ii. ]>. 456. z Schab. fol. 118. i. 



Ch. xiii. 32.] Exercitations upon St. Mark. 443 

come to pass, and of the signs going before, are firmer than 
heaven and earth itself. But whereas ye inquire of the pre- 
cise time, that is not to be inquired after ; for of that day 
and hour hnoweth no man.'' 

We cannot but remember here, that even among the be- 
holders of the destruction of the Temple there is a difference 
concerning the day of the destruction ; that that day and 
hour was so little known before the event, that even after 
the event, they who saw the flames disagreed among them- 
selves concerning the day. Josephus, an eyewitness, saw the 
burning of the Temple, and he ascribed it to the tenth day of 
the month Ab or Lous. For thus he»; ^^The Temple perished 
the tenth day of the month Lous (or August), a^ day fatal to 
the Temple, as having been on that day consumed in flames 
by the king of Babylon.^' Rabban Jochanan Ben Zaccai saw 
the same conflagration; and he, together with the whole 
Jewish nation, ascribes it to the ninth day of that month, not 
the tenth ; yet so that he saith, " If I had not lived in that 
age I had not judged it but to have happened on the tenth 
day."" For as the Gloss upon Mairaonidesc writes, "It was 
the evening when they set fire to it, and the Temple burnt 
until sunset the tenth day. In the Jerusalem Talmud, there- 
fore, Rabbi and R. Joshua Ben Levi fasted the ninth and 
tenth days." See also the tract Bah. Taanith^. 

Ovhe ol ayyeXoL' Neither the angels^ " ' For® the day of ven- 
geance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come,' 
Isa. Ixiii. 4. What means ' the day of vengeance is in mine 
heart V R. Jochanan saith, I have revealed it to my heart, to 
my members I have not revealed it. R. Simeon Ben Lachish 
saith, I have revealed it to my heart, b57 il"1U7n ^!D^^T'?D7 
Tl'^T';! hut to the ministering angels I have not revealed it." And 
Jalhut on that place thus: «^2*13 "h^ vh «?21D^ b^l^ 
*h'^ 1^^D7 My heart reveals it not to my mouth ; to whom should 
my mouth reveal it 9 

Ovbe 6 vlos' Nor the Son.^ Ovbe ayy^koi ovhe vlos, that is. 
Neither the angels, nor the Messias. For in that sense the 
word Tto's, Son, is to be taken in this place and elsewhere 

a De Bell. lib. 6. cap. 26. [Hud- <= In Taanith, cap. 5. 
son, p. 1278. 1. 19.] [vi. 4, 5.] ^ Fol. 29. 1. 

b Englishfolioedit.,\o\.\\.^.^^i. ^ Bab. Sanhedr. fol. 99. i. 



444 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. xiii. 32. 

very often : as in that passage, John v. 1 9, " The Son," that 
is, the Messias, " can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth 
the Father do:" ver. 20, "The Father loveth the Messias," 
&c. : ver. 26, " He hath given to the Messias to have life in 
himself," &e. And that the word Son is to be rendered in 
this sense, appears from ver. 27 ; " He hath given him au- 
thority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of 
man." Observe that, " because he is the Son of man." 

I. It is one thing to understand " the Son of God" barely 
and abstractly for the second person in the Holy Trinity; 
another to understand him for the Messias, or that second 
person incarnate. To say that the second person in the 
Trinity knows not something is blasphemous; to say so of 
the Messias, is not so, who, nevertheless, was the same with 
the second person in the Trinity : for although the second 
person, abstractly considered according to his mere FJeity, 
was co-equal with the Father, co-omnipotent, co-omniscient, 
co-eternal with him, &c. ; yet Messias, who was God-man, 
considered as Messias, was a servant and a messenger of the 
Father, and received commands and authority from the 
Father. And those expressions, " The Son can do nothing 
of himself," &c. will not in the least serve the Arian^s turn ; 
if you take them in this sense, which you must necessarily do ; 
" Messias can do nothing of himself, because he is a servant 
and a deputy." 

II. We must distinguish between the excellences and per- 
fections of Christ, which flowed from the hypostatical union 
of the natures, and those which flowed from the donation and 
anointing of the Holy Spirit. From the hypostatical union 
of the natures flowed the infinite dignity of his person, his 
impeccability, his infinite ^ self-sufficiency to perform the law, 
and to satisfy the divine justice. From the anointing of the 
Spirit flowed his power of miracles, his foreknowledge of 
things to come, and all kind of knowledge of evangelic mys- 
teries. Those rendered him a fit and perfect Eedeemer ; these 
a fit and perfect Minister of the gospel. 

Now, therefore, the foreknowledge of things to come, of 
which the discourse here is, is to be numbered among those 

^ heusden^s edition, vol. ii. p, 456. 



Ch. xiii. 32.] Exercitatiom upon St. Mark. 445 

things which flowed from the anointing of the Holy Spirit, 
and from immediate revelation ; not from the hypostatic 
union of the natures. So that those things which were re- 
vealed by Christ to his church, he had them from the revela- 
tion of the Spirit, not from that union. Nor is it any 
derogation or detraction from the dignity of his person, that 
he saith, ' He knew not that day and hour of the destruction 
of Jerusalem f yea, it excellently agrees with his office and 
deputation, who, being the Father's servant, messenger, and 
minister, followed the orders of the Father, and obeyed him 
in all things. " The Son knoweth not," that is, it is not 
revealed to him from the Father to reveal to the church. 
Rev. i. I, "The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave 
unto him." 

We omit inquiring concerning the knowledge of Christ, 
being now raised from death : whether, and how far, it ex- 
ceeded his knowledge, while yet he conversed on earth. It 
is without doubt, that, being now raised from the dead, he 
merited all kind of revelation (see Rev. v. 9, " And they sung 
a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and 
to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain," &c.) ; and 
that he, conversing on earth before his death, acted with the 
vigour of the Holy Spirit and of that unspeakable holiness 
which flowed from the union of the human nature with the 
divine, the divines nature, in the meantime, suspending its 
infinite activity of omnipotence. So that Christ might work 
miracles, and know things to come, in the same manner as 
the prophets also did, namely, by the Holy Ghost, but in a 
larger measure ; and might overcome the devil not so much 
by the omnipotence of the divine nature, as by the infinite 
holiness of his person, and of his obedience. So that if you 
either look upon him as the minister and servant of God ; 
or if you look upon the constitution, as I may so call it, and 
condition of his person, these words of his, " Of that day and 
hour knoweth not the Son also," carry nothing of incongruity 
along with them ; yea, do excellently speak out his substitu- 
tion as a servant, and the constitution of his person as ©edii/- 
dpcaiTos, God-man. 

s English folio edition, vol. ii. p. 352. 



446 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xiv. 3. 

The reason why the divine wisdom would have the time of 
the destruction of Jerusalem so concealed, is well known to 
itself; but by men, since the time of it was unsearchable, the 
reason certainly is not easy to be searched. We may conjec- 
ture that the time was hid, partly, lest the godly might be 
terrified with the sound of it, as 2 Thess. ii. 2 ; partly, that 
the ungodly, and those that would be secure, might be taken 
in the snares of their own security, as Matt. xxiv. 38. But 
let secret things belong to God. 

CHAP. XIV. 

Ver. 3 : NapSou TnaTLnfjs- 0/ spikenard.] What if I should 
render it, nardinum balaninum, nardin of halanus f " Nardin 
consists h of omphacium, balaninum, bulrush, nard, amomum, 
myrrh, balsam,^^ &;c. And again', " Myrobalanum is common 
to the Troglodytes, and to Thebais, and to that part of Ara- 
bia which divides J udea from Egypt ; a growing ointment, as 
appears by the very name, whereby also is shown that it is the 
mast \_glans] of a tree.^' 

BdA.ai;o?, as all know, among the Greeks, is glans, mast, or 
an acorn : so also is t>^p]lDD pistaca, among the Talmudists. 
There are prescribed by the Talmudists various'' remedies for 
various diseases : among others, this ; "^3 ^Pi^h DD'^IT' 
llliyil t^pjHD'^D For a pleurisy (or, as others will have it, 
a certain disease of the head), take to the quantity of the mast 
of ammoniac. The Gloss is, t>^pilD"'D is the mast of cedar. 
The Aruch saith, " ^pDC^B is the grain of a fruit, which is 
called ^I'h^ glans." 

The word vdpbov, nard, is Hebrew from the word Hi 
nerad; and the word ttiotik^ is Syriao, from the word t<^pnD''D 
pistaca. So that the ointment might be called unguentum 
balaninum, balanine ointment, in the composition of which, 
nard and fc^pHD^D mast., or myrobalane, were the chief ingre- 
dients. 

Kare'xeei^ avTov Kara ttj? K€(f)akrjr Poured it on his head.] 

In Talmudic language, H^lT^n^ i^Tl^n n,rT^"T. "What' are 

the testimonies, that the woman married is a virgin ? If she 

goes forth to be married t^^Dimi with a veil let down over 

h Pliny, lib. xiii. cap. i. ^ Bab. Gittin, fol. 69. i. 

» Idem, lib. xii. cap. 21. ' Bab. Chetubh. fol. 17.2. 



Ch. xiv.3.] Exercitations upon Si. Mark. 447 

her eyes, yet with her head not veiled. The scattering of 
nuts is also a testimony. These are in Judea ; but what are 
in Babylon? Rabh saith, pmi t^ID-^^^t^ t^HlDm I/ ointment 
be upon the head of the Habbins." (The Gloss is, " The women 
poured ointment upon the heads pT'^TTl of the scholars, and 
anointed them.") " Rabh Papa said to Abai, b^niTTD 
"^72 "l^i^p NHICDrn Does that doctor speak of the aromatic 
ointment used in hridechamhers f'' (The Gloss is, " Are the 
Rabbins such, to be anointed with such ointments V) " He 
answered, ^^T^H'' orphan'''' (that is, thou unacquainted with 
the customs), h^lT^^S ^rW12> ^TH'^'} ip^ "fS ^11V «S 
]i;32"Tl " did not thy mother pour out ointment for you (at thy 
wedding) upo7i the heads of the Rahhins ? Thus, a certain 
Rabbin got a wife for his son in the house of Rabbah Bar 
Ulla ; and they said to him, Rabbah Bar Ulla also got a wife 
in the house of a certain Rabbin for his son, i<ntl}?2 ^"^im 
'{*'il"l"T b^tD^lb^ and he poured out ointment upon the head of the 
Babbins." 

From the tradition produced it may be asked, whether it 
were customary"^ in Judea to wet the heads of the Rabbins 
with ointments, in the marriages of virgins, as it was in 
Babylon ? Or, whether it were so customary otherwise to 
anoint their heads ; as that such an anointing at weddings 
were not so memorable a matter as it was in Babylon ? Cer- 
tainly, in both places, however they anointed men's heads for 
health's sake ", it was accounted unfitting for Rabbins to 
smell of aromatical ointments : " It is indecent (say the 
Jerusalem Talmudists°) for a scholar of the wise men to 
smell of spices." And you have the judgment of the Baby- 
lonians in this very place, when it is inquired among them, 
and that, as it were, with a certain kind of dissatisfaction. 
Whether Rabbins be such as that they should be anointed 
with aromatical ointments, as the more nice sort are wont to 
be anointed 1 From this opinion, everywhere received among 
them, you may more aptly understand, why the other dis- 
ciples as well as Judas, did bear the lavish of the ointment 
with some indignation : he, out of wicked covetousness ; but 
they, partly, as not willing that so precious a thing should be 

™ Leusden's edit., vol. ii. p. 457. " English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 352. 
° Hieros. Berac. fol. 11. 2. 



448 Hebrew and Talmudical [Oh. xiv.5. 

lost, and partly as not liking so nice a custom should be 
used towards their master, from which the masters of the 
Jews themselves were so averse. And our Saviour, taking off 
the envy of what was done, applies this anointing to his 
burial, both in his intention and in the intention of the 
woman ; that it might not seem to be done out of some 
delicate niceness. 

Ver. 5 : 'EnAvw TpiaKoaioiv brjvapiav More than three hundred 
pencer\ T. The prices of such precious ointments (as it seems 
in Pliny) were commonly known. For thus he, " The P price 
of costus is sixteen pounds. The price of spike {nard) is ninety 
pounds. The leaves have made a difference in the value. 
From the broadness of them it is called Hadrosphserum ; 
with greater leaves it is worth X. xxx," that is, thirty pence. 
" That with a lesser leaf is called Mesosphserum, it is sold at 
X. Ix," sixty pence. "■ The most esteemed is that called 
Microsphserum, having the least leaf, and the price of it is 
X. Ixxv.,"" seventy -Jive pence. And elsewhere'!: "To these 
the merchants have added that which they call Daphnois, 
surnamed Jsocinnamon, and they make the price of it to 
be X. ccc"" (jpiaKoa-lovs brjvapCovs, three hundred pence). See 
more there. 

II. It is not easy to reduce this sum of three hundred 
pence to its proper sense ; partly because a penny was two- 
fold, a silver penny, and a gold one : partly because there 
was a double value and estimation of money, namely, that 
of Jerusalem and that of Tyre, as we observed before. Let 
these be silver (which we believe), which are of much less 
value than gold : and let them be Jerusalem pence (which 
we also believe), which are cheaper than the Tyrian ; yet 
they plainly speak the great wealth of Magdalene, who 
poured out an ointment of such a value, when before she 
had spent some such other. 

Which brings to my mind those things which are spoken 
by the Masters concerning D'^^IZ}!!! DCIp the box of spices, 
which the husband was bound to give the wife according to 
the proportion of her dowry : " But '' this is not spoken, saith 
Rabh Ishai, but of Jerusalem people. There is an example 

p Lib. xii. c. 12. i Cap. 20. ■" Bab. Chetub. fol. 66. 2. 



Ch. xiv. 7,12.] Bxercifations upon St. Marl: 449 

of a daughter of p^'i'lpi Nicodenius Ben Gorion, to whom 
the wise men appointed four hundred crowns of gokl for a 
chest of spices for one day. She said to them, ' I wish you 
may so appoint for their daughters ;' and they answered after 
her, ' Amen/" The Gloss is, " The husband was to give to 
his wife ten zuzees for every manah, which she brought with 
her to buy spices, with which she used to wash herself," &c. 
Behold ! a most wealthy woman of Jerusalem, daughter of 
Nicodenius, in the contract and instrument of whose marriage 
was written, " A thousand thousand gold pence out of the 
house of her father, besides those she had out of the house 
of her father-in-law f whom yet you have in the same story 
reduced to that extreme poverty, that she picked up barley- 
corns for her food out of the cattle's dung. 

Ver. 7 : YlavTOTe yap rovs Tiroiyovs e^ere /ne^' eavrStv For ye 
have the poor with you alioays.^ " Samuel saith '^, ' There is no 
difference between this world and the days of the Messias,'' 
m'^D7D "T')lVtl? fc^7b^ unless in regard of the affiictioii of the 
heathen Jcingdoms ; as it is said, ' A poor man shall not bo 
wanting out of the midst of the earth,' " Deut. xv. 1 1 . Ob- 
serve a Jew confessing, that there shall be poor men oven in 
the days of the Messias : which how it agrees with their re- 
ceived opinion of the pompous kingdom of the Messias, let 
him look to it. " R. Solomon and Aben Ezra write, ' If thou 
shalt obey the words of the Lord, there shall not be a poor 
man in thee : but thou wilt not obey ; therefore a poor man 
shall never be wanting." Upon this received reason of the 
thing, confess also, O Samuel, that there shall be disobedient 
persons in the days of the Messias ; which, indeed, when the 
true Messias came, proved too, too true, in thy nation. 

Ver. 12*: Kai rrf TjpfoTi] rjfji-ipa t&v aCvp-oiV And the first 
day of unleavened bread.] So Matt. xxvi. 17 ; Luke xxii. 7. 
And now let them tell me, who think that Christ indeed 
kept his Passover the fourteenth day, but the Jews not 
before the fifteenth, because this year their Passover was 
transferred unto the fifteenth day by reason of the following- 
sabbath : let them tell me, I say, whether the evangelists 
speak according to the day prescribed by Moses, or ac- 
cording to the day prescribed by the masters of the tradi- 

s Bab. Schabb. fol, 63. i. * English folio edit., vol. ii. p. 353. 

LIGHTFOOT, VOL. II. G g 



450 Hebrew and Talmudical [Ch. xiv, 1 2. 

tions, and used by the nation. If according to Moses, then 
the fifteenth day was Ttp^rr) aCvfj.a>v, the first of unleavened 
bread, Exod. xii. 15, 18 : but if according to the manner of 
the nation, then it was the fourteenth. And whether the 
evangelists speak according to this custom, let us inquire 
briefly. 

Sometime, indeed, the whole seven days' feast was trans- 
ferred ^ to another month ; and that not only from that law, 
Numb, ix, but from other causes also : concerning which see 
the places quoted in the margin *. But when the time ap- 
pointed for the feast occurred, the lamb was always slain on 
the fourteenth day. 

I. Let us begin with a story where an occasion occurs not 
very unlike that for which they of whom we speak think the 
Passover this year was transferred ; namely, because of the 
following sabbath. The story is this : " After y the death of 
Shemaiah and Abtalion, the sons of Betira obtained the 
chief place. Hillel went up from Babylon to inquire con- 
cerning three doubts. When he was now at Jerusalem, and 
the fourteenth day of the first month fell out on the sabbath 
[observe thaf], it appeared not to the sons of Betira, whether 
the Passover drove off the sabbath or no. Which when 
Hillel had determined in many words, and had added, more- 
over, that he had learned this from Shemaiah and Abtalion, 
they laid down their authority, and made Hillel president. 
When they had chosen him president, he derided them, 
saying, * What need have you of this Babylonian ? Did you 
not serve the two chief men of the world, Shemaiah and 
Abtalion, who sat among you V " These things which are 
already said make enough to our purpose, but, with the 
reader's leave, let us add the whole story : " While he thus 
scoffed at them, he forgot a tradition. For they said, ' What 
is to be done with the people if they bring not their knives V 
He answered, ' I have heard this tradition, but I have forgot. 
But let them alone ; for although they are not prophets, 
they are prophets' sons.' Presently every one whose pass- 
over was a lamb stuck his knife into the fleece of it ; and 

" Leusden's edition, vol. ii. p. 56. 3. Maimon. in Kiddush. Hodesh. 
458. cap. 4. 

^ Hieros. in Maasar Sheni, fol, y Hieros. Pesachin, fol. 33. i. 



Ch. xiv.i2.] Exerciiations upon St. Mark. 451 

whose passover was a kid, hung his knife upon the horns 
of it." 

And now lot the impartial reader judge between the reason 
which is given for the transferring the Passover this year 
unto the fifteenth day, namely, because of the sabbath fol- 
lowing, that they might not be forced to abstain from servile 
work for two days together; and the reason for which it 
might with good reason be transferred that year concerning 
which the story is. The fourteenth day fell on a sabbath ; 
a scruple ariseth, whether the sabbath gives way to the 
Passover, or the Passover to the sabbath. The very chief 
men of the Sanhedrim, and the oracles of traditions, are not 
able to resolve the business. A great article of religion is 
transacting ; and what is here to be done ! O ye sons of 
Betira, transfer but the Passover unto the next day, and the 
knot is untied. Certainly if this had been either usual or 
lawful, they had provided that the affairs of religion, and 
their authority and fame, should not have stuck in this strait. 
But that was not to be suffered. 

II. Let us add