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ef VttftA XnovUii/t. 




.amkp or m oah mmuwi 









TnB AcTvon'e first Mition of Ibis work wus [tubliElied in the year 
1831,atthe reciuest of the 'Srwiety forth* Diffusion of Useful Know- 
Iwlgr,' with n vitnt of supplyiog a work of refcrcnoo in connection 
with the natural history, g«D«ral iniinagomcnt, and treatment of the 
borae, in health and diaease. Since then it hns jummed Mirnngh two 
ottier edttioua, the Wt of vhivlt, by the late Mr. Gabriel, appeared 
in the yew 1861. 

Ib nndertaking the preparation of n fonrlh edition, tim Editor baa 
eodearoured as much as possible to carry out the original intentions 
of the autlior in accordance with the rapid advanct^ment which 
wlimnary science has of late years made. In doin^; thitt, conndcr- 
«ble alterations have been mado. The remarks on the ' eariv hialory 
attd the diSTerent breeilsof horses,' au<)thv 'trtntixoon draiiglit,' ara 
Dearly iinaU«ri:^. The illiutratioiis of Uio age of the horae, and some ' 
remarks on Mr. Rarey's meUiod of 'breaking in the honw' from 
Captain Ridxardson's work, also remain as in (be Last edition. lu 
otlter respects the present edition will be found to liAve iindergono 
a thorough roviuon nnd arrange mtuit^ innny fresh dise:i6es Iiavu 
be«n introduced, and the nature and treatment of others cnnsidnred 
in nrcon)ati«e with the pn'iiciplMi of rHerinarv science at the present 


The great object of the Kditor has been to make the work as prac- 
tical as possible for all classes of readers, by avoiding as iiiuch as 
circumstoDca would permit those techoical details which none but 
the Bcieutific reader would comprehend. It will therefore necessaril; 
follow that any lengthened anatomical details must be omitted, 
although it is believed sufiBcient have been retained to enable the 
general reader to understand the more important parts of the frame. 
The same remark applies to the chapters on medicines and poisons. 

In conclusion, the Editor trusts that the alterations and additions 
which have beou made will tend to enhance the value of the work, 
and render this the fourth edition equally worthy of the publie 
esteem and patronage which have been accorded to ita predecessors. 

KuoBv: October 17. 18RB. 
























Tire EAHLT tltl<TUlty OF THK llUU^It .... I 








tUE EAl:S — AJ<U TUE EYES .... h:? 


KDKINO PAITRi ... 236 



onoA.'as am 




TBE niND LEGS ....... 3HI 

THB FOOT .356 


ON SnOKl^O . . 419 





rOIM)NS 4»S 





iNinu »^ 




Frieie from Ih« Temple of Minerrii . 4 

Saal Cavitj . 

. 107 

The Oodolphin Anbiu ... 10 

UilKlea. NerTra, ud Blood-TcswU 

. 23 

of the HeKd and Upper Part of 

Bej Anluui 

. *!< 

Neck .... 


Coiwek Soldier occontn 

a tu 

r Ilia 


. 21S 



QleDOtd Cavity 

. 22(1 

Ths Cotond 


The Teeth 


fljiag OiMtn 


Spine and Itilm 

. 241 

Eeb'pu . 



. 312 



Stomach .... 

. 313 

The Hontei 



3 IS, S17 

TheHacknej' . 



. 322 

Tb« Couh Hone 



. 331 

Tba SuBulk PuQuli 


Catheter . 

. 311 

The Dnj Hone 

. 102 

pHatcmi . 

. 378 

The Slicilvid PoDj 

. 100 


. 386 

Oag-blt . 

. 119 


895, 337 

Spring Backla . 

. 121 

Shoe ... 

434, 436 

SkaleloD of the Hone 

140, 36(1 

Sandal .... 

410, 441 

Huelea of the Hone 

. 149 

Siiiiga, mode of fixing 

. 413 

Bead of ili^ Hone . 

. 14S 

firing, method <d 

. 46:: 

S^iial Con! 

. ISi 

Hobble«i method of fiibg 

. 4G3 

Tba Bjt . 

. 100 

Nerve on the loaide of the Leg 

. 470 

Koaele* of Ihe Eje . 

. loe 

DiagRuna iUtutiating (he Pri 


Tetuiui or Lodu4 J 


. 179 

of Dral^t . 

634— S71 

TbaT Uii* nninud existed before the Flood, the reseaicbea of geologists 
afiord ■bondant proof. There is not n portion of Europe, nor sc&rcoly any 
tmi of ttie globe, from tho tropical f>luinji of Imlin to the firozon regions of 
Sibena — from Out natihtra uxtremitira of Uio New World to tlio very 
■ontbem point of America, iu mIiicIi Uie foAsil remiuiis of tlio horso have 
not be«D foond mingled with the bones of the liippopotamoii, Uie ctcjihitnt, 
the riunoeero^ the beef, the tigtr, the doer, and varions other oijiiuals, 
■me of which, like the niMtodon, hnvo passed nwav. 

Tbero IB scnrccly b district in Oreut Bribiiu in wEiich the fossil remnins 
of thii tr"™'^ hare oot been discovored. In the majonty of cn^ea the 
booM ara of nearly the same aLeewilh those of the conunon breed of horses 
at tbe pnsent day ■, bat in Soath America the bones of horses of a gigantia 
aiae have b«cn dug up. 

Wbetlur tbo horitc had thon beeome llio wrvaot of nuui, or for whitt 
pv(|KWO ho WBK a»cd, we know nut. Every record of hint was swiipt away 
by the geoenl LB&ndation, except ihat the ark of Koali preserved a rem- 
■■■t of tfae nee Ibr tho nitoro ano of man. 

An iaterestiDg aitd Taloablo account of tho hictonr of the horse from the 
nriieat period ia siTcn W tliat learned aud indelktigahle natmTili»t, Col. 
namihon Snulh, m tlio l2t}i volume of the ' NatnruUst's Librarr-' TbiH 
woA, from tho extent of ite invoetisations, the largeness of its views, and 
tta carv'fal series of iadactions, roDaOT it one of the most compreheuaiTo 
and anthoritatiTo that hn« been prodnccd. In allnsion to theso moro 
NBOto data, he lutya, ' Wu know ao litU« of the primitive seat of civiliHu 
tion, the origtaal centre, perhaps in Baotria, in tbe higher valleya of llie 
Oxoa, or in uaafamere, whence knowledge radiated to China, India, and 
^Kjpi, thai H mBj bo sormiscd that the tirst domestication of tho j^od- 
iSim I'mi bofw> wbm achimrod in Centml Aain, or eonuaenced nearly mtniil- 
taaaonalf in aerenl regiona where the wild animals of the horse form 

In tKe sacred rohime, which, be«idr« ite higher claims to stand at ttia 
head of ' Tbo Fanner's Lihiary,' contajtm Uio oldcBt a-nthentic history of 
past trvnactionta, an enomeration is made of certain valuable giftJ< that 
were pmented to Abrafaam by Pharaoh, the monarch of E^ypt. They 
nnsatted ef tboep. oxen, aese« male and fcmatc, camels, men-sfrvantsaad 
maid-acmnla i bat the horso is not mvntioncd. Thin can scarcel/ bo 

^ • 


aoooaii(«d for, except on the anpposition tbat Ihui Doblo animal w*s not 
tbea fonad ui Ii^}l>(i or, nt Icut, hiid not been domcsticatoil thero. 

The first nllnnon Ui iho bane, nftor tbo period of lite Flood, is a por> 
fe^y iDcidcntal one. It is cuid, in OcnenM xxxvi. 2-1, of Anuh, iho eon of 
^bmo, R contempomrj of baao, wlut was bum about tliu year boforo 
Cluut, llillO, tlial he fonnd theuulMin tlie wildemesa — theprosenyof 
Um 00 and the horec — ns ho fed the uses of hia father. The wildemeai 
refarred to wm that of Manim. or Scir. Wlietlior thom were wild Loraaa 
that tnlialHted the deaertn of Idumna, or End been iinljjugnW hy innn, wo 
know not. History is altof^ther silent as to tlxe period wltcn th« con- 
nexion commenced or wm renewed between the huuuui being and thia hia 
most Taloablc servant. 

' Foecil remuns,' snjra the Colonol, ' of the horse have been found in nearly 
omj port of the world. His teeth lie in Uin polnr ioe along with tbo 
bonee of the Siberian uiammolh ; iti the Himahiya Minintains with lout, 
and but recently ascerlaineJ, (genera ; ia the caverns of Tortiuiiv, IruUiid, 
and, in one instance, from Uarbary, completely fossilised, llis bonus, 
accompanied by thoM of the elophiuit, rhinoceros, tiger, and hj-ama, rest 
by tbonoands in the cares in Conatadt, — in Sovron, nt Argcnteoil. — with 
thoee of the maatodou, in ViU d'Aruo, and on the bnnlcn of tlio Rhino, 
with colossal otiis. All the remains hitherto discavi-ruif npjifar no pcr- 
feetly similar in thwr conformation to the domescicated horse, that they 
cae scarcely be Mcribed to other Bpectes of the genns. From the commix- 
ture of Ibeir rcmnini, there cannot bo a douDt that tluty hnvr. existed 
together witli ■nreml great padiydennata ; but what is most deserving 
of BUontion i», that while all the other genera and specdes, found ondcr 
the Mine eonditiona, have ceased to exut, or have renioTcd to higher 
lemperatnree, the hone olooo bos remoisod lotJiejprr*cnttiniointhofi«mo 
regions witLoot, it woold appear, any protnotccl intrrmption, since from 
the circumstances which manifest d^Msits to bo of Ibo earliest era, fmg- 
meiita of its skeleton oontinnc to be traced upwards In snccesiive fotm^ 
lion* to the present soperficial mould.' 

BTeorly aoealuiy after this, wbmi Jacob domrtod from Loban, a iiingnlnr 
•ooonnt is given, ia Ocn. xxxii., of the number of goata and iihcep, and 
CAmcl.i, and oxen, and awes which he peesessed ; but no mention is made 
of the horw. This also would lead to the oonclusion that the horse was 
eitlier not known or woe not used in Ciuiaaii at that early period. 

Another centsiy or more poaaed on, and woegonN — conToyaaoeB drawn 
^ Stunats— wont sent to Canaan to bring Juwiph's fntluir into P^gypt. 
lio DMotian ia made of the kind of animals b}' whii^li tliese rtihicti'e were 
drawn ; but there are many fragnienta of the atrhiteclore of the early 
ogee, and particularly of the Kgrjitinn nrchitcctore, in which the chariots, 
even on state occMiow, were dj«wn by oxnn. Wo cannot, however, 
come to any certain oonolnMOP from Uiis ; but, nt no distant period, while 
Joseph and his bttier were stilt lirtng, a famine, preocdird by scTural 
years of plenty, occurred in Egypt. Joseph, who hud arriv<sd at the chief 
oflSoe in tbi! slate nnder I'haraoh, hod arnilcd himBctf of the cheapness of 
tbo eom during tlw plantifol ytar*, and hnd accnmnloted great qnontitioa 
of it in the royal gr an aries, which he aflcrwarda sold to tbo starring 
psonle for money, as loiw as it lasted, and then for their cattle and konut, 

lliis is Ibi! Grat ovrlaiD mention of the horse in sacred or profane his- 
tory : but it aflTords no clue as to the pnrpo^ea to which this a n i m al was 
then devoted. In a few years, however, nflir the ocMation of this fhmine, 
•Dmo oincidatioa of this intercating point is obtained. When Jaoob lay on 
hil deothhed, h» called his sons around him, and, under tlie influence of 
that inapuation which has been withheld in later times, propbesiod what 


wonld be tho cbarocUn* and fato of their descendants. Of Dan he saya, 
' Dan shatt be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path that biteth the 
horso'u heels, so that hie rider shall fall backward.' We have nothing here 
to do with the fnlfilment of this prediction. That which principally con- 
cerns the reader is the office which is, for the first time, assigned to the 
horse. He is ridden. 

We hear no more of the horse nntO the time of iTob, who lived abont 
twenty years before the laraelitea were brought ont of Egypt by Uoses. 
He was well acquainted with the horse, and admired him on account of 
his nnrivatled beauty and the purposes ta which he was devoted. Job's 
description of the horse is quoted in almost every work on the subject, 
and Dr. Blair cites it as an instance of the sublimity of the inspired 
writers. ' Hast thon ' — the Divine Being is snpposed to inquire of Job — 
* given the horse his strength ? Hast thou clothed his neck with his 
beautiiol mane ? The glory of his nostrils is terrible. He paweth in the 
valley, and rejoiceth in his strength. He hnrriea on to meet the armed 
men — he mocketh at fear — he turneth not his back from the sword. The 
quiver rattleth against tiim — the glittering spear and the shield — he 
swallowetb the ground with fierceness and rage ; neither bolieveth he that 
it ia the sound of the trumpet (ordering a retreat). He saith among the 
trompeta. Ha ! ha !— «nd be smelleth the battle afar off, and heareth the 
thunder of the captains and the shouting.' The Hebrew word, which is 
translated ' thunder ' in the 19th verse, also signifies the mane of a horse. 
Whoever has observed how much the mane of a thorongh-bred perfect 
horse, and under some momentary excitement, eontribntea to the noble- 
ness of hia appearance, will enter into the sublimity of the question, ' Hast 
thou clothed his neck with his beautiful mane P ' To ' clothing the neck 
with thunder ' no meaning can be attached. 

It appears from this that the horse, nearly 1500 ycairs before the birth 
of Chriat, was naed for the purposes of war. The noble animal which Job 
described belonged to the cavalry service of that time. 

The same author assigns to him another task. Job had been previously 
•peaking of the ostrich and of tho hunting of that bird, and he says, ' What 
tune she lifteth herself on high,' — springs from the ground as ahe runs, — 
'she BCometh the horse and his rider.' 

In less than twenty yeara a^r this, we are told that Pharaoh ' took GOO 
chosen chariots and all tho horses and cbsriota of Egypt, and all the horse- 
men, and pursued the Israelites to the Bed Sea.' Here we seem to liavo 
three distinct classes of horses, the «hoBon chariot horse, the more ordinary 
chariots, and the cavalry. In fact, tho power and value of the horse were 
now ftilly appreciated. Bnxtorff says tiat the word 'parash,' or 'horse- 
man,' is derived from the Hebrew root to prick or spur, and that the rithr 
derived hia name from the nae of the spur. It would seem from Bcreugur 
that riding was at this period not only a familiar exercise, but had attained 
a d^reo of perfection not generally imagined. 

In what countiy the horse was first domesticated there are no records 
certainly to determine. The most ancient of all histories is sileut as to hia 
existence in the time of Abraham ; although it can hardly be im^ned 
that this noble tt-nimal was not used when Nimrod founded the Babylonish 
monarchy, full 200 years before the birth of Abraham — or Semi ram is, 150 
years afterwards, reigned over the same country — or the Shepherd Kingsj 
a little while before that period, conquered Egypt. It is natural to 
imagine that the domestication of the horse was coeval with the establish- 
ment of civiliaation. 

The author was disposed, in a former edition of this work, to trace the 
first domesticaiion of the horse to Egypt ; but &rther oousideration has 

M it 


indncvM] htm In nilopl tW opininn of Cotonpl Hnmilton Sinitli, tlinl it toob 
pliirt' in Ci-iilral Asiii, and iM>Tlui|ia wnrlv (HinultiiiK'tmslj' in Ihc wvtrat 
n^innH wlit-n* Ibe wild ouiiuiils uf tliu fmniL- fiinn (-^islpii. From tho 
biglicr valleys of Ibe Oxua aud from Ca-shitu-'re ihe knowledge of his 
OJiefuliicwt seems to have radinu'd to Cliiua, India, and E[{y]>t. 

The original horeo of tho soalhcm and iTeetem counlrica cwne ftom the 
north-eavtem part of Asi*, tho domicile of those wito escaped from the 
nragM of the Flood. Indent, witboat the tud of the horse, tho advance- 
ment of colonisation would hnrc hem cxwWingly bIow. 

Colonel Smith is pcrfcetJy (Torrect when he lays lliot 'to ancient Egypt 
we appear to be indebted for tlw- fimt Hjstemulic at.lention to n-viving and 
improTing iho hrccds of horses; nunirriiun curved i>r outlined pictum 
n-prwent utec^lH whow symmetry, beauly. and eolour, altvat that tlnty are 
di-signcd from hig!i-bred tjiJcs.' Grooms also are i«proHeiili<d ua ' rubbing 
their jointu, and snlulouHly altiinding lo their comfort on e^cry proper 
ocoaaiou.' The borsufl, in all tho!«! tiisleful works of arl^, aro repre&cntod 
■a ntber being loose or haruesBi-d to ehariota ; no nuMitilfl cavalry arc to 
be seen nutil a comparatively late period. It is ihe tame with tho bns> 
nUeCl of PenepoUa. On the frieic, however, of tho temple of Mincrra, 
in tbe Aoropolia of Athens, boitt many years before the dostroction of 
Penepolis, there were nomcroos figures of men on horseback, but not ono 
of a hone haraessed to a charioL The following cut was latthfhlly copied 

: the ftieie of that Icmple. Tliis is a sivgtilar fac-t, tliat might Inad to 
^' wrong oonoliunon— namely, that the chariot waa in common um in 
PwMa, and not koown in Greece ; whereas the Fenians were &r mom 
decidsdlj a nation of horsemen than the Oreeks, hni chariote were 
occasionaUy naed by ihem in their solemn f(«li^-ala in hononr of their 
dirinitiaa, and therefore nalumlly found on Ihe frieze of their temples. 
Among the Orwiks, however, chariots were never used for the pnrpoees of 
war, mit only in tbuir pnbhc game*^ It may not be useless to pause for 
a moment, and Mudj the form anil chanMrlcr of them: horKcs and their 
There is con^dermble diBTereoov in the fonn and act Jon of the two hones. 



the righ^hand on«, and titt> foremost of tho two, u> snidiy defective in th» 
portions of the forc-nTms nhich wo ar« pormittcd to 8e«. Tho near ouo w 
|>oorly (applied witli muxil*!. 

Tm ofi^tioRte is out of ftll kccpiuft' Tbe liirgu earn pliiccd so low ; the 
ehuaay nreUiog of tliu lower part of the neck ; tlio bad union of it ivitli 
the breut; the length and tliinncss of tLe barrel compared with tb« hulk 
of the foro part«, notwiUwtwwling the nntural liiid (friicoAil pofiitioa of tho 
kind lags, vunf no tittla wont of •kill in the siiitunry. 

Tho more iuitniBl«d lioad of the left und tiindor bono, thi; in flbtinl nostril, 
the openina of the inoolh, the form and promiutmru of iho fxc, aad tliv 
laying of the ears, flufficimtlj ooniina the acconuta wliich we hav-o of tho 
Bpirit — coiDotimcs nntanw-nblo— of tlio primitivo hor§08. Thu nock, liow< 
«Tcr, ic too short cvvd for oiie with tlittiie tmrncnso forclituids ; it »j)ring^ 
badlj oat of Out oluMt ; the shoulder i* vury dvfi-dive ; but Uto foiv-urinn, 
their ezpreesiou &nd their position, are exoecdtugly good ; the loo^ lan>- 
arau Knid short leg are cxc«ll«Dt, and so are the off-fetloclc and foot, but 
tba tien«l is dehcioDt, the carcneo is tongthjr, and tho hlnd-qtiiu^rB are 
weak conpand with the (br»'«Tinii. 

^Hv boHitiflil execBttou of th« riding cannot escajie ohservntion. Tho 
perfect Oneian laoe, tho admirable exprctiaiou ol' the counU-nunec, tho 
raaadinff and pericdion ofoveiy limb, are sufBcieut proofd Ihut thu ridcrn 
wen portntit«, as prohubly the horwes were to a very uonstdeifihlo exl«nt. 

Thmo aaimala reniitid us of Homo of tlin hc^avy ones of the present day 
narticnlariy ; they liavu ihu be»uticui aud Uie d<.-t'cct« of many of tho modern 
Holiiiirin borses ; tliey are high, but pcrbapu heavy aotiiiued ; courageous, 
■pinuid, |<usiiibly fi«rce. They exhibit tire germs of mauy future improve- 
■jfia^r, and, taken all tognthr.r, mny bo cxiimind with conaiderablu plxusure, 
nmamberiiig that tbcy art; homes of acurW 'i'-it'O years ago. Art hn« done 
mocfa for tho lionto ninee lliut period, but the euuutouaneo and figure of tliu 
fcaman beii^ were at that time perfect. Theae horsemen liave not even 
Iha twilob to guide tlie animal : but they are holding by the mane with 
the Ml hand, and ara evidently directing tlic hon^o by pulling tho nano^ 
orvnuing the nock with the right hitnd a little higher up. 

The bfacding of tho honN.-, and hia (.-mploymeut fur pleaeturu and In war, 
were fbriiiddcn to the Israelites. They were comm&ndod to hvagh or 
kamdruty those that were token in War. The sheep yielded them their 
wool, and the cntilo their milk, and l>oth of them titdr flosh. iJy the 
latter of these animntx, tho land waa tilled and theuoru trodden out; whilo 
tho rulerrsand the judf^, and even the kiu^ of Inrael, are caiTied by n-isieti. 

The horao is uoeasionally mentioned in the early period of tho Israehtiah 
eonuiMUi wealth, No definite dntv, linwcvor, is OKxignc^ to him ; and it \i* 
■aid of tho then monarch tliut ' lie xhull not multiply hoivos to huDsi'lf.' 
There wero two rcBMonH for this: thoy were destined to bo a puculiar p[M>p!e, 
jmeei ulim in the narrow cotiftneo of their country the, knowledge and 
wonhip of the Irtie God : thereforo they were forbidden the means of 
wandering to other Iamb. Tlio natnT-e of tlioir country likewJKu liiriiado 
the exteanve breeding of tho honM>. It con.<cint4:d, in n grertt nivaaure. of 
moontuBS, and wn« bouiKled uu the west by Iho st-a, and on throe other 
sides by desert*. It was uul uulil ihe time of Solomon, r^W yeiirs aftor tho 
Waditica had left KgypI, that the horse was domosticuted Dmong them; 
and then ao rapidlv did he increase, that HoUimon had 1,-100 ehanotn and 
12,000 oavalry. and otablinff for -lOiOUU horsett. The (greater pari of these 
borsaa ware importrd from Etrypt. 

The Mill il historiiui gives the price both of the chariots and tho hotiictt. 
It !• the oldot doenment of tho kind on recoi-d. Tbo bono, including 
favfaably the expense of the journey, cost loO »livkel« of Hilver, or rather 


mora than \7l. TbD chiuiot co«L 600 shekels, or littto mom thnn GSJ. Of 
tlie oomjpftTutiTo vnluc of monej at thnt period it is inipo«mblo to Kpoak ; 
bat it waa probably many time« greater UMa at prcAcnt. 

It is a qtitntion vft dimntod, vhetber the uae of chariota or ttie art of 
riiiing was fityt cnltiratcia. According to Colonel Uamiltoa Smilh, tli« 
northern nations were eicluxircly riijcr*. At Nineveh, in Aiiin Minor, 
and India, they were both clmrioti*™ and rider*. In Ort-ocf, Ful«ttinc, 
and E^ypt, th^ w«re originally cliarIot«en only. The prabnbility, how- 
ever, if, thai although one nugbt prevail in partical&r eras and coontrles, 
the otltnr would not loos remain nnpmctifiod. 

Cdfuro a sketch of tho liistory of llio European home m attempted, it may 
bo inlori'stiiig to collect tho ncconnte givm by histoi-iaiia of the ohanotar 
and maDwvment of the borse in earlier poriodB. 

Upper Mypt and Bthio^a wem inhabited by horaomcn, of wild and 
DRdaoioiu liaiMtA : plunderuig'tboee who fell intc Uieir jiowcr, or hiring 
ibemaelTea to increase the army of any foreign polenlale. Many troopa 
of them attended Xerxes in his expedition into Grec^ce. 

In Iiibym, Kamidin, Itlnnnlnnin, nnd the Hettlemcnttt on the northern 
CMUl of Airiai, compriiiin)^ Slunxvo, Barbarv, Tunin, and Tripoli of the 
pretunt day, antl iho uorihera part of the Sahara, or Great Decert, the 
uones were nomeroas and tieot. ^filial) desoribes them aa being aomowliat 
ruleodcTly mn<)e, and seldom carrying mnoh flesh ; requiring little core and 
attendance from their owners: content with tlio common pasture which 
the country nJTordiHl, and on whitli they were tunieil, without further care 
or notice, aa »iX)u aa their work was done. Their present treatment is not 
a great deal better. 

They were at first ridden, lis they arc reprwonted on the fre«eo of the 
Parthenon, without citlier bridle or Muldle ; and the rider hnd notliing but 
a switch or atick by which to guide them.. Tliis is said to luire given 
them UD ni^meefiu and awlnntd appoarancv ; their necka being sti^ht 
and extondiHl, and their noaea pontiag soniewfaat upwards. ' It may, in 
some decree,' says Uerengar. *b« dincnit to conceive how a wand or 
■tick could be raSictcnt (o guide or control a snirited nr obstinate bom 
in the violctice of his oonne, or the tumult of buttle ; but tlie attention, 
docdiity, and memoty of this animal an mch, that it is liard tosay towliat 
a deignio of obedienco bo may not bo reduced. There is no mtson why 
ttiMO horses should not be brought to nndenrtand the intention and obey 
tits will of their riders with as much certainty and readiness as our cnrt- 
korws in our crowded streets attend to the voice of their driver, by which 
they are almost soleljr go?emcd.' The older wriicM say iliat the horse 
was (oQched on tin nghl of the face to moke him go forwvd- — on the left, 
to direct him to the right— oo the muxalo, when he was nqoired (o stop : 
while ths bcel was usm to urge him forward. The gnidaaee of the bona 
br the gentle touch of the fingers ia well repreaenled in the engranag 
gtrm at page -k 

Pfessiug the ls(hinn< of Suez, ancient writers say not a word of the horses 
of Ajalwft. These deserts upro not then inhabited by this Doblo anmiaJ, 
or then wss no^hinc nli^nl liiin worthy of record. 

PalcstiDei dnrinc <!"' later [*riiid» of the JowisLli nwniareliy, eontatoed 

nerons fanntcs. Meolion has been made of the forty lltoaMiid stalls lor 

horem built by Sokitoon ; but they wcio all hron^ht from Kgypi, and a 

^Tcry Utile portion of tlie Holy l^nd was ever di!Votett to the bre<>ding of 

bones after the ■•lllement nf tin' Isnvlitra iti it. 

Syria aef|niied little ri-|Hit»lwiTi, tm this aconunt, imr did AhI^ Sttnnr 
flOnerally, with the exceuljon of the oonntry around Colophon, Ifetween 
Smyrxa aod Ephectu^ whose cavalry was so namctoos and welt tnuncl 


ib&t tbey were Srlways in request as mercenaries, and deemed to bo iiiTin- 
cible. In all Ian? and tedious wars the assistance of the Colophonian 
troops iras courted, and the party that obtained supplies &Dm ihem were 
BO certain of success, t)is,t KoXo^>^ TiOiyeu, and afterwards among the 
Bomans, ' Colophonem impsnere,' were used proverbially for putting a 
conclusion to any affair. Strabo, lib. siv. 

We must now travel to Akmekia, on the west of Kedia, before we meet 
with anything to arrest our steps. A beautiful breed of horses was culti- 
vated in this district. The chariot of Xerxes was drawn by Armenian 
horses, being the stateliest and the noblest which his extensive empire 
could produce. 

Some writers, describing the horse at a later period, mention the great 
care that was taken of the dressing and adorning of the mane. Vegetiua 
gives a long account of this. It was cut into the form of an arch or bow ; 
or it was parted in the middle, thattheliairmigbt fall down on either side; 
or, more generally, it was left long and flowing on the right side— a custom 
which has been retained to the present day. 

Many old sculptures prove that the horsemen of almost every country 
mounted on the right side of the animal. There are a few exceptions to 
this. The mane hanging on that side would assist the rider in getting 
on the horse. There were not any stirrups in those days. The modem 
horseman always mounts on the left side, yet the mane is turned to the 

Media produced numerous horses of the same character as those from 

Cappadocu stood highest of all the eastern countries for its breed of 
horses ; not perhaps so speedy as those from some other districts, but dis-- 
ttngnished for their stately appearance and lofty action. Old Blundeville, 
jrom the inspection of many of the ancient scnlpturea, st^ that those were 
more heavy-headed than the heroes of the Parthians. Perhaps they were 
so ; but no one can dispute the stateliness of their figure, and their proud 
and high and equal step. Although often ridden, they were better cal- 
culated for tlie chariot. This kind of horse seems to have pleased the 
ancients ; and their painters and statoorira are fond of exhibiting them 
in their most striking attitudes. The horses in the cat at the commence- 
ment of this chapter are iUustrative of the remark. Oppiau says of them, 
what is true at the present day of many horses of this character, ' when 
young, they are delicate and we^ ; but strength comes with years, and, 
contrary to other horses, they are better and more powerful when advanced 
in age.' 

The PAETHIAN8 fought on foot in the army of Xerxes. Either they had 
not begun to be celebrated as horsemen, or there were reasons which no 
author states for their being dismounted at that time. No very long period, 
however, passed before they became some of the most expert riders that 
the world could produce, and were reckoned, and justly so, almost in- 
vincible. They are described as being exceedingly active and dexterous 
in the management of their horses. They wore as formidable in flight aa 
in attack, and would often turn on the back of the animal, and pour on 
their pursuers acloudof arrows that at once changed the fortune of the day. 

Vegetius gives a sLngular account of the manner of their breaking in 
their horses, and rendering them sure-footed when galloping over the most 
irregular, and dangerous grounds; for they were lighter and hardier 
horses than those of the Cappadocians or Modes, and better for their 
peculiar pace and manner of lighting. A spot of dry and level ground was 
selected, on which various trouglis or boxes, filled with chalk or clay, 
were placed at irr^ular distances, and with much irregularity of surface 


^d of liciglit. Here diu lionmt wcro Ijikm for rxcrci.ic ; nnd tlicjr luu] 
manj' n »Uiin1>1e an<I nuuiy a &U as ibej Rallopod over Uiix Ktriuijiflj- un- 
even coune ; but Uiey gTadu&ll; learned to lift their feet liit;bi-r. and to bund 
their ktlMS bettofi and to deal their steps samct'inics sbortcr And sometime* 
loogor, w tho ground roqnirciii, until they maid cnrry their ridprs vrith 
roKi: and KnfolT ori-r the most inrgiilar and dangnrouji plnri'H. Then it 
was tlia.t tlic farlliians euulJ fully put into ]>racticfl tlieir favouriU; ma- 
noeuvre, aud turn npon and destroy their nnsiupectingf foes. Thoy coutd 
also travel au almost iucrvdiblc distanrc without food or rest. 

To tlio Scythianii, tho Mcde«, Bad the Portliiiuui, in after times, and in 
npid racoMwicin (if, indeed, tliov were not diflcnvnt naracn for honlra of 
one coinroon ortffin), succeeded the Ostraces, tho Urals, the Mont-uis, tho 
Calmnoks, the Nogays, the Visigoths, the Ustragollis, and the Uuub — all 
people of tlio vast plains of Central Asia, whiph has been well ilenoniinated 
tho nnnicry of nationii. Thcito wem uU boracmon. Some of their loaders 
oonld bring from two to three hunilred iliouHand luintoroRn into tho field. 
The speed of their ui&rches ; their atta4;ks and tJieir rotroat^ ; the bardiliood 
to which they inured themselves nnd the nnimals by which Ihcy were 
carriod ; tho incnrsion, uid oflon settlement, of horde itfl«r horde, each as 
snntcrouK ux that to which it mcccwdcd ; — thoDo arc circniostancos that 
Biuit not bu foFKOtten in unr rapid skelcli of tlie liorttc. 

At the end (rf Ihe eighth century, when the Saracrus overran a great 
pari of Europe, tbey brought with them a force of 200,000 cavalry, in a 
nnch higher st*t« of disoiplino than tho Goths and Hans of fonocr afios. 

Of tho hontcs in llic south of Axia and the cnst of the Indus littlo 
mention oocnnt, except tliat botb chariots and cavalry were summoned 
from this dii^lant rvgion to swell tbe army of Xerxes. 

Celebrated as the borsea of Persia afterwards became, they were few, 
and of an inforior Jdnd, until tho wrign of Cyms. That monarch, whoso 
life was ilevotcd to tho amelioration and hapnini:s!> of his people, saw how 
admirably Prmia was adapted for tho brecdiug of horaeii, and how n«- 
oeiiary was their introdootioii to the m^tenauce of Oio iiidepeudeuou of 
Ilia country, lie tbcreforo derotod himself to tbe enoonn^eneat and 
im j irovomcnt of the breed of hone*. H« granted peculiar prinlegcs to 
tliMe who ponoxed a certain nnmbi-r of thmn animals ; so that at length 
it waa deemed ignominioos in a Persian to be seen in publie, except nn 
Iwneback. At lirst the I'ereians vi><d with each other in the beauty of 
(heir homos, and the spleiwlonrof Ihcir clothing ; and incurred the censnre 
of the liiatorian Athctwus tliat they were moiv desirons of intting at Ihpir 
eaao than of approTiog thcinHi-lveii dexterous and bold IiorrH-tiicn ; Imt 
Wider swh • monarch as Cyms they wett> soon inspired with a nobler 
amhitioii, and became the I>c8t cai-alry of ihe East. Tlie native Persian 
honii was sn highly tniied, that Alexander eonHidercd one of tlicm tho 
nobWt gift bo coold bestow ; and when the Icings of Pkrthia wontd 
propEtsalo their divinitica by tlie mont costly aacrifioe, a Pcr«ian tiorac was 
oOned on tho altar. 

Venetiu has presorrcd a domription of the Persian horse, which proros 
linn to faaTO bc«ii a valuable animal, according to the notions of Ihoso 
time* ; bnt capable of much improvement, aeeoiding to tho KtaDdard of a 
man modem period. He says that ' tbey surpassed other horses in Ihe 
prido and graeefuhiess of their pn<'ps, which were ho soft and easy as to 
|ilrnao and tolievc, nitlier than fatigue the rioter, an'l that the poco wan OS 
aaA as il was pItnKant ; and iJinl, wlwn thi-y wem bml on a larije Brulr. 
tbey oonstitnlod a coiiKiiIorable ]iart of llicir iwiiern' r(>veiiii>-.' He ndds. 
a* a oomraendation. 'Iha gracelU archinc of Iheir iiock», ko Ihut IhHr 
cliins Itwied upon thnr bnrasts, while thnr pare was something between 


a gtiJIop and au amble.' The horsemen of the preaent day would decidedly 
object to both of these things, and that which follows would be a still 
more serious cause of objection : — ' They were subject to tire upon a long 
march or journey, and then were of a temper which, unleas awed and 
subdued by discipline and exercise, inclined them to obatinacy and rebellion; 
yet, with all their heat and imger, they were not diScnlt to be pacified.' 

Botli the soldier and the horse were oilen covered with armour &om 
head to foot. They adopted mnch of the tactics of the Parthians in their 
pretended Sight. Even when retreating in eameat, they annoyed their 
puTsners by the coutinnal disch^ge of their arrows. Arrian girea a 
curious account of their manner of riding. They had no bridles, like the 
Greeks ; but they governed their ho^s by means of a thoug or strap, cut 
from the raw hide of a boll, and which they bound across their noses. On 
the inside of this noseband were little pointed pieces of iron, or brass, or 
ivory, moderately sharp. In the mouth was a small piece of iron, in the 
form of a small bar, to whioh the reins were tied, and with which the 
noseband was connected. When the reins were pnlled, the small t«ethon 
the noseband pinched the horse, and compelled him to obey the will of the 
rider. The modern caveson was probably derived from this invention. 

It is time to proceed to the early history of the horse in Europe. Kany 
colonies of Egyptians emigrated to Greece. They carried with them the 
love of the horse, and as many of these noble animals as their ships would 
contain. It would appear that the first colony, about the time of the 
birth of Hoses, landed in Thessaly, in the north of Greece. Their ap- 
pearance, ntonnted on horseback, according to the old fable, terrified the 
native inhabitants, and they fled in all directions, imagining that their 
country was attacked by a set of monsters, half horse and hajf man, and 
they called them Centaurs. Saoh was the origin of the figures which 
^e not unfrequent among the remains of ancient sculpture. 

Another and a more natural interpretation offers itself to the mind of 
the horseman. The Thessalians were the pride of the Grecian cavalry. 
Before the other provinces of Greece were scarcely acquainted with the 
name of the horse their subjugation of him was so complete, that, in the 
language of another poet of tar later days, but not inferior to any that 
Greece ever knew, (Shakspeare, in his exquisite tragedy of ' Hamlet,') 

Th(«r gallants 
Had witchCTHil: in 't— tLey greir unto their seat. 
And to Bach wocdroua doing brought llieir horse 
As thej faod been incorpBod, and d('n)i-iinturi.-tl 
With ihu bralB IwuhL 

Hence the origin of the fable and of all the expressive sculptures. Bu 
cephalus, the fevourite war-horse of Alexander, was probably of this breed. 
We are told by Plutarch that he would permit no one to mount him bnt hia 
master, and he always knelt down to receive him on his back, Alexander 
rode him at the battle of the HydaspM, in which the noble steed received 
hia death-wound. For once he was ilieiibodicnt to the commands of hia 
master : he hastened &om the heat of the fight ; he brought Alexander to 
a place where he was secure from danger ; he kncU for him to alight^ and 
then dropped down and died. 

Sixty years afterwards, another colony of Egyptians landed in the 
t&uth^n part of Greece, and they introduced the knowledge of the horse 
in the neighbourhood of Athens. Their leader was called Erichthonius, 
or the horse-brBaker ; and after his death, like the first Centaur, he found 
a place in the Zodiac under the name of ' The Archer.' Erichthonius 
likewise occnpicd a situation among the constellations, and was termed 
Auriga^ or &a Charioteer. 


BAftLT iiummr op tub uorsb. 

Tho Tlimiiliiiifi ftlwaja mointainod their c)iamc[«r tw the fint uid tlio 
ehedoMt of the Urpciao caviUr}'. In point of foot, it wm the only part ot 
tLe eoontij in irhicb horxcM could with doeidvd udrantoge bo broil. It 
abooitded in rich pruturv!!, vheraaa tbe reit of Orccco <*ra« compuntirely 
diy nd bftrrcn. BlutiileviUe, who WM an oxcellent classic ta well m 
hormnui, b&js : — ' The boraM of Greece have good le^gi's, ^--iv&t iHHlym, 
comely bmdB,aDdiira(rfahigliBtatiu<o,aad voiy woll made fornardc, bntt 
not backwarde, bpcatisp tlwj- nro pt/n-lullcxktd. Nothwitlistcindinp, thoy 
are TOi^e swiA, and of a Ixiltlc (.'ourage. But uf till tbn mc<M in Orwce, 
both tluB honwii uud marus of Tlit^salv tar their beiviii.', biji^noaso, bonntie 
and courage, uf all authors arc moec cetebratod. Tor which cauM Xonet^ 
OD his coining into Greece, innAv- a ranning of horses in ch&riots to be pro 
clajmed only in Thossalin, bccmiuo ho wonldo have his owne horsfls to 
nume wytho the beet boras* in Oiveci'. Juliwi Cawar, aUo, boyingUicla- 
tor ot 'Oomc, knowjng Ihe conragv of these liorsea, was tho lirat that 
ordejmcd thtuu as a spectacle before the people to fyghle wvthe wyldo 
ball^ and to kyll thrm.' 

From v»ri<«i» of tho Orcftk antbors wo can vprjr EatisfactorDy trace the 
T^d inpmremcnt which abuut tbta time tiiuk pliico in the character and 
nianagement of the liorse. It has been stated tlutt tbu soil and produce of 
Qrtece were not favootabie for the brwditip of horses, and that it conld 
be a matter of profit 011I7 id Tbcuwiy. I'iioy soon, hoirm'er, Iwciudl' 
neocssary in almost every part of tho countrj-, both fur ofleDce and defence : 
thercToro, in motit of tlic cilii-ti, and purticnlarly in Athens and in Sparta, 
ID order to indnoa the iuhabilauls to keef> tho requisite nninber, a 
new order of dliiens was instituted, denied the SMond in rank in 
the OOmmooimlUli, and distintrDiabod by certain honours and pririlegOM. 
Vbe equitea, or IcnightB in the l{i>nian n-puhiic, were formed on the same 

II ia in some of tho iirst Grecian acitlpliires that we first see tho bit in 
the hoswi'i moulli, but it is not always that we do see it ; on the ooutiary 
there is frei[uently neither bridle, saddle, nor stirmp. It however was 
frequently necessary to niako qko of cordu or thongs, in ord«r to confine 
(ho bono to tho placu at whidi it anited tho rtder for a while to leave him. 
Tbeae ooirds were batoned roii&d the animal's neck, and may bo scr^ in 
aavera) of the ancient flgnree. According to some wHtora, the occaaionat 
BtrngglMcf thciuiimnl to oscapo fran them tramoteie, aad Uw strength 
vhicn ha excrlc^t in order to aooo(D|ilish fats purpose, 6rst aoggmtod the 
idc* of hamttMuag him to certain maohinee for the pnrnoM of drawing 
than ; and it is very oridcnl that soon after this it must havo occnrrod to 
the boTWman, that if this rope were put over the bead, and over the 
nnnle m perbnps into tho moath of tho animal, ho wonld be more easUy 
b«tenod and Inl from place to pbwe, and more accnrcly gnidcd and maoBged 
whether tbu man bo off or on his back. Henco aroMi tbo tn-idlc. It pro- 
bably wiL-t at Ant Dothing moie than a haltor or cord by which the horse 
was usually oonBned. An improrenont on this was a deiaohed cord or 
rope, wiih prolongaUoQs ooming dp on both lidM of the mouth, and 
giviDB the rider arach gnatnr powto* over tho animal ; and aftor that, for 
the •ake of ctoantinces, and to prevont tho wear and tear of the rope, and 
alao giving yet more command over the animal, an iron bit was fitted to 
the month, and reslt'd ou the tongue, and the bridle was allaclied to each 
end of it. It mu lk« ecmmtm nt^fU bridle <^ Ike pnnnt dav, tiie iron 
being jointod and fiasible, or often oonpwed of a chain. Tfaero were, 
liowever, no crow pin^M to thene b«bi at nto month, but simple knobs or 
balbs. la Ibo inside uf wliioh tbo bita were atluebciL 

flita and bridles of this Itiw) uecnr IJT<incqitly in the Athenian icniptarfw 


of the time of Pericles, about 430 years before the CHrietiaQ era ; but tba 
bead-gear of tbe bridle bad not been long mtroduced , tbe bit being anp. 
ported, in some figures, bj the backling or tying of tbe bridle about tbe 
DOse, a little above the musizle. These, however, Hoon disappear, and wo 
have the present snaSe, with very bttle alteration except a straight leather 
or cord &oni tbe bead to the uoBeband, and that not always found. The 
obain under the chin ia occasionally observed, probably for tbe sake of 
keeping tbe bit steady in the mouth. 

hi no period of Grecian history, so far as tbe author is aware, was tbe 
severe and often cruel curbed-bit known. This was an invention of after- 
times. The only instmment of poiuBlunent which was then attached to 
ttie bit was found in the knobs at ibe corners of tbe mouth ; they had 
sbarp or roogh points on their inner snr&ce, which by a turn or twist of 
tbe bridle might easily be brought to bear pain&Ily on the cheeks and 
wiglea of the month. A bit bo conatmoted was termed a htpatum, from 
&e supposed resemblance of these sharp projectdons to the teeth of a wolf. 
It would seem that this was, among the Romans, tdmost coeval with the 
introductiou of the bit, for tbe poet attributes it to Il'eptune, tbe fabnious 
parent of the horse. 

Kaptnnna eqno, si certa priornm, 

Fuaa patft, primus teneris Lesissc Inpatia 

Oro, et littoreo domiiisiie ia pulvcre fertur. 

Neptune, if we may credit give lo fame, 

Firat taught villi bits tbe geiiM«us horse to tame. 

No mention is made of saddles, such as are nsed in modem timra ; but 
by way of ornament, and partly of convenience too, the horses are often 
covered with beautiful cloths, or with akina of wild beasts, secured by a 
girth or surcingle. Thus the horse of Partbenopius was covered with the 
skin of a lynx, and that of .^neos with a lion's skin. In their religious 
or triumphal processions tbe housings of the horse were particularly 
magnificent, being frequently adorned with gold and silver and diamonds. 
BiiSi collars were also bung round their necks, and bells adorned their 
crests. The trappings of the young knight in the days of chivalry did not 
exceed those of the Gtreciaq warrior on days of ceremony. 

The stirrup was likewise unknown. The adoption of that convenient 
assistance in mounting the horse was of singularly late date. The first 
mention of it occurs in the works of Eustathina, about the 1158th year of 
the Christian era ; but it was used in tbe time of William the Conqueror, 
nearly a centtuy before that. Berenger gives the figure of a horse saddled, 
bridled, and with stirmps, copied from the Bayeux tapestry, which was 
embroidered in the time of tite Conqueror by bis wife, and describes tlio 
circuuiBtancea preceding and attending his descent into England. Tba 
heroes of ancient times trusted chiefly to their own agility in leaping on 
flieir boises' backs, and that whether standing on tho right side or the left. 

They who fought on horseback with the spear or lance had a projection 
on tbe spear, or sometimes a loop of cord, about two feet &om the bottom 
of it, wJuch served at once for a fij-mer grasp of tho weapon, and a step on 
which tbe right or the left foot might be placed, according to the side on 
which the warrior intended to mount, and from which he could easily vault 
on his courser's back. The horse was sometimes taught to assist the rider 
in mountinf; by bending his neck or kneeling down. Tho magnates always 
had their bIiitcs by their horse's side to assist them in mounting and dis- 
mounting. Sonic made nse of a short ladder ; and it was the duty of llie 
local magistraiy, both in Rome and Ori'i'cc, to see that convenient stepping- 
rtones were placed at ulioi-t distflnci's iiVm^ iill Ihe ronfls. 

Tho boot fijT tho defence of llic leg from the dangers to witicli it wus 



Kcp-iacd was rory tmrlj' (tdoptcd, ad*] tho Ii««l of it vma, ooc&Kinnatlj at 
IciMt, arniiKl with % itjinr. 

Tlie Iiowuh" Tti-l vrure niuJiod, llie paved or Diuty roads, which ttne now 
80 diMtnictiTe b) Iho feety beinf{ in » manner unknoiro. Occnsioiinl!}', 
liowoTira-, from Datontl w^aknres of tho foot, or from tmrelling tno far or 
too fiurt- over thn cuuncwnjrit, liimfncM then, m now, occnmHl. In order 
to provfrut lliiti, l]t<! Orci-kti uid tliu BoroiuK wvrc ftcciuttomed to faiitcn a 
sort of ssndal or stoekinif, made of sedges twistod together tik« ft mat, or 
ols« of loothor, and whore the ownor coald nfford it, etreo^enod with 
pUte* of iron, and notnrlimos iKlomcd with silrrr and even with gold, m 
was thff OMO with the hnnwM of Poppna and Nero. 

^Mm was a peeuliarily iu the Orsek mode of riding, at l<>asl witit 
r«<gudtothe«aralr7horae«,aDd, BcmotimMithoMnsodforplcasaro. Two 
or thrco of therm were tied together by thnir bridl<i«, nnd tho horRen]An,at 
fn]t xpccd, leaped from ono to another at hia yilniuum. This might ooca- 
BioTudJy bo (ueful ; when ime horaf waa tiptd or woanded, the warrior 
might leap npon another; bat he would be so hampered h; tho manage, 
mont of oil of tbotn, and the attsntion which he wm compelled to p»y to 
them nil, tluit it norcr bocnmc the? gpnerol way of riding or fighting ; nor 
was it pnu.'tiiu>d in any other country. Burner, in liis 15tli Hiad, olludoii 
to it as a feat of skill attemp(<<d in sport. The following is a translatioa 
of tho paesage: — 'Jost as a skilful horsomnn riding four choecn homes 
along a pubbo rood t*> nomc grpufc city, wlion; h!« conmo in to tirminato, 
llie wholo town asiicmblcs to ticliuld him, and gase njian hini with wonder 
and applauBO ; whilu he leaps with eaae from the bade of one horM to 
anotJ)«r. and flies along with them.,' 

Tho CirwVs mnrt have carried thpir raanagrmont of iho hor«o to a TBiy 
high »tnto of pcHV^ion ; nnd ihc Orfrian hnwe mnst liavc btxin exceod- 
inffly dooili^ wh<ia exltilntionii of this kind ooold take plac«. 

It waa, however, to the drunglit of the chariot that tliis atiiiiia] was 
priaeJpaUy devoted in some other coanlries, and among the (rr<y-ks in the 
tufy panod of their history. No mention i* miide of n xinglc homnann 
OD dthrr side, during tho trn y(«n' negc of Troy ; bat U10 warrioni all 
foDght on Tout or iu eliariola. 

Tbiii charioU wore simjde in their stmoture, open at the back, and partly 
DD tiw sides ; nnd cootaining tho drirer in the IVont, and the warrior 
Ktnnding on a platfonn, ntiunlly aomcwhat olerutivl. Theiw rehiclea aeom 
ta have "been tarely broaghl into culliaion with each other ; but they warn 
driven rapidly over (he flild, tho wsurrior hurling his lances on eitherside, 
or alighting vhtoa he ntct witli n foo worthy of hiH attack. The»o cliariota 
wen> not only contrived for nervier, but were ofton mont xplendidlv and 
cxponaivdy ORiamcntcd. They won.' the piiie of tho euni(ucror. Sout«- 
times tbey were drawn by IfarK' horaea ; bnt the third wna a spore one, in 
eaas ritber of the others should be tired or woanded. Some had Ibw 
boiraea yoked abroost ; each was the charioi of Hector. 

Tho charioteer, ahhongh at tho ttine inferior to, or nnder Ibo eoramond 
of tho wmrrior, was iteldom or never a meniat. He was ofWo the intunate 
friend- of tho warrior ; thiu Nestor, and even Hector, are found acting as 
charioteem. When not the per>oi»l friend of the warrior, ho was nsnally 
a charioteer by profession ; nnd drove when; ho wm diivirtcd. 

OccaaioosJ mantioin ia made of the ettrrut fitteali, e)uu-iots with ornml 
JnirtnimfntatBthi'frrmef r-'y'h"', projediug rn>m theailes of ilie wheels, 
by nuana of iritkth whole ranks miglit bo mown down at onoo. They 
ware oonfined, bowover, to tho more bnrlmi>iiii nations, am) were ascd 
nrithDT in- the Or«*ka nor tlm ItnmuDH. They were ndrnntagcons only 
on loletaUy open or level grouml ; and il not uufre(|ueiitly happened 


«tfnglil«d by iho cbuiumr or tliu ImtUi), or hy wonnilft, tJio liomcs 
bmuiM tuigovc rouble, and, lumiiiy OB tlie nuikn uf tlicir frinndo, Uirow 
tlirm into ootoplele disorder. Vb«y were oa Uiis accouut kul utiJc^ cvon 
by Uie b«H»riuia Uiemselrm. 

In process of time, wKr-chariob of pvctt Irind r«ll into disuse, and tlto 
higber danes of wiuriora were coiitvtit to fight on bomcbuck, whpr« their 
IMnonBl stra^tb and courage mi^jbt be as well ditipluyed, ajid di«ciplino 
conld be betwr pr««ervied. 

SlUl, almost to th» period of Uu> ChristiaD era, and Ion;; afl«r that in 
HttDf conntriM, tli« hm! of the hone na confined to wnr, to the chase, 
aad to poblic pa^foantn. Tbl^ first era ploy niejit of tbu ]i)gy{>tiun colonists, 
vben tlioj landed in Tbeasaly, vas to rid the forests ol tlm wild cjittic, 
asd other dangerous animals, with which tlioy were tJien peopled. In th» 
cmlial and sotttfacrn part* of Grooco, tho cottntr; iras more open and Llie 
wilder nsimals wero •cur<M>Ij' known ; Init in Anryria and Pontin, nnd 
evtrj country in which tbu IcKitimalc- prey of the huntwr wiia fimnii, tho 
bono wiM employed in ils pursuit. 

In prooMB oftimo, in oraer to docido the comparative ralne of diflV-TCiit 
bonea^ or to gratify tho vanity of Uuiir owners, and also to give mora 
aBbot to certain religion* rilca and pubUo spectnt^IcB, hnrne-rnecs wore in- 
trodnoed. The most celebrated of Uivee ouiibitionH «»« tliut at Olj-mpin, 
in Peloponneeus, held every fourth year, in huntiur of Jupiter. The 
yoaafg mea flocked thither ftwm every district of Gi'occe, to couU-nd in 
l i t m r maol; oxcrciiw — hurling the jiivclin, looping, rnnnini;, wrestling 
an) Donog. The candidates wt-rc piirKmH of unlilomiiihrd rcpntatiou — 
tha oocttcat Ikirly and honourably couducltd, and tlm cunijuoror, n-owned 
with a laorel, or with gold, was received in his native tuwu witli u<^cla• 
MOtknia of joy. A brcadi was made in the vmll of tho town for one who 
had ao diabngnishcd hlimH-'lf to [hum. Ho watt, for tiff, cnlitli-d to preco- 
ianer at erery public eihibition; he was ciempted from all tAxf& and 
inlenoreiTQ offleeai his name was enrollGd in the archives of his country, 
asd stataea were crootnJ to his memory. This wiw (he Bonrw of the noblo 
piiit cf vnrolatiaa and Uxo ardent low of country by which tho Orvck wm 

Xeariy a ocnturr. however, p&»9ed before the attraction of the exliibi- 
tkm was increased bv the labours of the liorse. The lirst colonists oonld 
bring with thttn only a few of these noble tuumntx. In scTcml of tho 
wan in which tbcy were engu^c^, their deficiency in cavalry was 
lamoitably apparent. It was not nutil the 23rd Olympiad that the bono 
mii^[lcd in the contest. 

DiniDg tho first two Olympiiuln after this, hflrsemen niono appeared. 
Of ifaaasncca tho aocounta are exceedingly impcrfi^ut. Fitu-h liorse wns 
tiddcD hj his own«r, who waa obliged to nndergo preparatory ti-ials for 
Iho space of thirty days. The horses were divided into full and undor> 
^ed; but no explanation is given by any writf<r of the precise menning of 
(base tsnnt, nor is anything said of tho weight of tho ridrmi. Wc only 
ksew Iha ipaoe to be ran over, which somewhat exceeded four miles. 
Till HI waa one race called CoUie, in which marcs aloue wero p(imiitt«d to 
mn. Towards tho cod of tho eonwe tho riders were compelled to l«ap 
fron their backs, and, keeping the bridle in their hands, to nin alongsido 
of Asm to the winning-ptwt. 

In the S^th OlympiM, chariot-races w«r« introduced. Tho chanots 
wvn amngvd abreast of each other at th« atarting-post ; tho places — for 
it wiQ appear that theso gavo Komc imjriortant advantage* — having been 
preriooauT decided bv lot An altar was erected on one dde, Upon which 
•lood a bmnai cagw, dcd!eat«d to Jupiter, and a dolphin, sacred to 






Nsptono. At a tiffnal (Vom the |iroHi<liii(* ofllocr. the «af;1«, by Mm» 
meclunKBi, wpntng into Ihr air, th o Holphin Hank nnd^tr ci-onnd ; nni) itway 
tbe Itorsea started. Tim bijipoilrciinii, or oounc, wait ubout anivthiitl of a 
railo in length ; and at the fiwLlier oud iras a pillar, round nhiL-h Uio 
cluriota wcro tc bo itrivcn and back again to the starting- place six tiiuea, 
mukiui; ratbLT more than (oar milcH. 

Tbu rounding of tliU pillar vhxk Uiq fint tost of tho xlcill of the driver 
and tlie docility of tlie koraea, and muny an accident hnppuued thure. 

This dan^rous qwt ms no soonor passed, than the competitors camft 
at onoe npon a atrango fignro placed to try tho courage und nnri-o of tb» 
iMraea. It vraa an enoimouii wtutuo, catuHl Turiixippu-i, tlui torrilior of 
hontt ; and, ai^mrditig to old wnlera, well vfortUy of the iiaaio. None 
of tham describe this strangt) doitj, but all acroo that ho used sadly to 
(nf[ht«a tba itnodN, and onon lo diduignr Uwir Uvm, atid that of tha 

A litllc furilicr on was a lofty rocW, in the very walre of the course, 
loaring only a Tery narrow dcGlo, in the passing iJmDgh which the skill 
of tho chariotCOT was WTCnvlv tried ; vhilc Hiroral men, placed ou tho rock, 
lacraaaed thv oonfnaion anil tlio terror of tho horaea, by tho continual 
braying of Ibeir Irempeta. 

Aa nay bo well sappoaed, the number of the oompetilon was much 
diminiahod «ra tho conclusion of th« nco. Some rao againat the pillar, 
othcn wore frightimed out of tho conrae by the horrihlo atatne, and not a 
few were wrecked on that fearful rock. Some wen; duntroyed on the spot ; 
oUiers, who escaped withoat aerions iiyniy, ware derided % the spectaton^ 
ooacooontoftiioir want of skill; and the 6«gmenta with which tao ooone 
waa oovend rendered nlmiut cvcir atop porilon*' 'The conqueror in 
aadi a t«c^' itaj-» Pautaiiius, ' well deaorred die crown wlucb lie roc^ved, 
aitd the bonosn that were bestowed on him.' 

What were tlte opinions which p'ravulod at this early period respecting 
the proper form — tho noinU of tuo hone ? Lot Uiat maaler honieman, 
XeDopbmi, declare: — ' Tho Srst thing tiiat onght to be looked to is tlio 
foot ; for as a housu would he of iko use, thouf^h all tho upper parts of it 
wore bennUfuI, if the lower parta of it had not a propor foandation, ao a 
hone wouki not bo of any nao in war if he bad tender feet, even though 
be abouU bare all other good onalities ; for hia f^ood qualiliea could nut 
be made any valuable use of.' lliis maxim, more than 3,200 years old, 
beapeaks at onco tho honeman. 

'Thick liooEi make a faoiac's Ie«t better than Uiin onoa.' Thin must he 
aelf-eridcnt, where there was no artificial protection of the fuot~ The 
force with which the foot will come in oontaci with the ground at ev«rj 
step will prodnoo anlfieiont cxpanKion of the boel ; bat it is only a atroog 
loot that can long endure the eom^aiUMn, without being worn away. 

' It likewise musi not be forgotten to see whether toe hoo& are liigh or 
low ; and near tiw RoasdL botii belbre and behind.' Few thing* are of 
great^^ importanoo uaa this. If the tneli'siilion of tlw foot in front in tcea 
than its usual angle (ferty-fire degrees), it indicates a eontraetcd foot, and 
a morbidly hoUow sole^ and inflammation of the laming, and speedy and 
incoiableniDeaenL If the inclination is greater, and tbo angle acnlcr 
than it should bo, there is Batness of tho sole, and Uabili^ to serioos 
bruiiKj of it, or, pcrhauH, pumioed feet. 

* The pastemii, or winM immediately above tlte boo& and below tho 
(cUooks, ought not to be straight like tlutso of a goal, for this won Id sbako 
the rider, and such Ick" arc more subject to inflammatKin ; nor ought these 
bones to be too low, for the fetlock would be cbaied and nloemlcd if tb* ] 
borse was ridden over pUw^wd grounds, or aawng stonea.' If be had added 


tfaU the oUtqae pastem wu mlly liablo to sprain, ntiil there woalil artcti 
be injarT* thmagti the wholu cnarM) of tlto floxor Iviidon, uotiiiug could 
h^xv been naldctl U> iJic force itflin Abierv&tioD. 

* "nw biuMMi of UiB leg* ou^ltt to Iw liu^e, tunce they am mpparf^rs of 
the hodfi not, howeTer, tliiok with v&ioB or cellular mutter.' Ho ia 
gjiaiit iii]^ of tlic ivar-lior«e And tbo Luotcr ; aiid wliat can be moru Curri^ct ? 

*If tM oak in walking boikU his kneea trcoly, yoa innj jad^i^o, wbi'n bo 
vomai to b« riddco, thut hi* Ic^ will bo saptje; and f^nppto joiutit ai« 
jmUy coaaoanitni, ■» tbcy make » luirao len Hable to Ginmblo, and not 
tin no MMm B> n'lw'n liis juiula an- sttiT.' 

' The tli^ha ouJct the aLouldLTs (ilie ror«>amH), when they are large, 
arr both powerful and graceful ; and the cheat bouig Inrjio, contrilnitea not 
only to bvanty and stnmgth, bat to a borse'e being abh to continue a long 
ttrac in one pace. 

' The neck gbonld proceed frooi tbo nhcmt, rising npwtrdSt and it ehonld 
I be looee abont the bend of tlie heai) ; thu head too, being bony, shonid havo 
• anall ehwlc. The eye shonid be ataudiu(r ont, and not Hank in thu 
fhimt- The noatnls Uuit nro wido, are not only l>ett«r adapted for breath- 
ing tfcaa (lioae that an ooinpre«»ed, bat likewise caoae the horse to appear 
iiMM« terrible in battle. The top of tbo hoad being largi?, and the oara 
mall, laakee the head appear moru el^ant. The point of the Khoaldor 
S k ew iwt Ivbiff bigb, rendera that part of the hodv more conipaot.' Tha 
xaAar wae evMlenlly awsra of the advantage of tnut form, hut lie did not 
know the principloa on which it was foandod. 

• The noes, bung di-cp and dwelling towards the holly, make a horse in 
I Maetal more ootnmodioDs to bu M«t«i) on, and bettor able to digest his 

tood. The broader and shorti.>T his loino art;, the moro readily will ha 
tbraw tna fine feet oui ; and the bdly that appears sniaU, K-iiiK l»ri;'e, not 
eoly da^iirea a horee, but makea him weaker and less able to carry his 
rider.* '&m btwitifiitly again ho snistcs tlto point, altliough wo ol' tbo 
[■tiwijl day noile a tittle at hiit illnatration ! 

< The haonchM should be large and full oT flesh, Uiat they may corro- 
spood wHh the sides and the cJwst ; and when all these are firm, they make 
a liaree tighter for tbo (y>Drso and (iiller of animation.* 
I AaodMT wnrk of Xcnopbon, tltfii 'Wru^t, — on tbo manogemont of tha 

I kotM,— exlubita <M]uul proof of a knowli'dgo of the point* and propor trcat- 
imil of tkt* eaimal, mixed with the ahma iguomiic-e of the prtncipleii on 
whieh these things are foaude<L He was on acute observer, and the facta 
vm^ their doe impreBBJon, but do one bad yet taught the ajiatoniy and 
fbrnoiogj of the bor»e. 

The Romans, from tbo very building of their cities, paid inudi att^inlion 
to the breeding and inanagetoent of the liorsc ; hut tlus vins mora tluui 
700 yean after Ihts miimtl had been imported iiito Greece, and his value 
and unpoetaiice had begun to bo almost iinivorBally acknowJcdcied. 

Borae aad dioHot mcce were early introdnccd at Itomc, The chariot 
T*cca fell gradaaUv into disrepute, hut the bonw races were continued to 
the linMS of the (JKaaiw, and the young men of the equestrian onlor wrro 
tBtbaci^rtically devoted to this eien^iso. There were not, bowerer, any 
of the difficoltiee or dangers that attcudctl the Grecian rooes. They were 
cUefly triala of speed or of dexterity in the performance of certain circles, 
■0V |iroperly confined to our theatrical exhibitions. The rider would 
•toed vpright on hi« «tcv^ lie along his back, pick up things from tbo 
gnnnd at liiU s^w^d, and leap'from horse to horse in the swiftest gallop. 

A nngnlar circumstance in tho mnnagcin(>Tit of this animnl br the 
Rotuasa mt the superior Talno which tbtty attributed t« tho marc. Their 
BAtsral Ualorian*, ogricnlturisfai, and pieta unite in thia opinion. Pcrhnpa 1 

i J 


oni-r HisroBT of the horse. 

thio mtglit in pari oriw ftom the cti«l»m of tlic Romana to oaalratc all ths 
liontM llial were employed iu mercanlile aiid agi-iculturat purauiU. Tho 
hone, Iwwever, was not d«>fi;mdpd hy tlio opcratioo or the labour, bnt 
ralli«r Inn was made to occupy iho sitaution fur which n&tnrc dougiied him ; 
nitd from tbi£ time, and gnutunttr n%'or evcrj' port of Europe, he haa 
bcontno ono of tho moMt nitcful of we tiervaiiitt of man. 

To the Ronuuia roa^ he atlributed the iDveiiliou of tlie curb hit. Tbo 
Emperor Theodoaiua la represented in one of tho aonent sculptures ns 
naiii;; a Lit with a tremeodously long lover, and which could uiiliet 
drvadfol punishment if the rider were ho inclined. 

It m»y rckdilj: he Kuppnm.'d lliitt a kiiuwludfcu of tliu horse now became 
more pvtbot and inore diiTuHed. Terreulius Varro, who Sourialicd aboat 
tb« 7«ar 70 bafore ChrUl. aud during the exist«oce of iJie commonwealth, 
baa givonadOACription oftbo horse, wlticb hsK liearccly been eicellcKl iu 
modent timos. * Wo inny- prognosticate ^reat thingM of a colt,' aays he, 
'if, when running in the jioxtmrw, he i^ ambiliuua lo gel bcforo hia com- 
uuiionx, and if, in coming Lo a river, he strives to he the lirat (o pliinga 
into it^ Hit kittd •iouU be rmall, his lintha clean and compact, bia eye* 
bright and aparUiDg, his nostrila open and large, his c&rs plooed near L-aeh 
oilier, hie Eaano strong and fall, hia chest brood, his shoulders flat and 
alopii^; backward, hix barrel round and compact, hia loins brond and 
atroog, fait tail full oud buahy, his legs straight aud even, bin kncca broad 
Mid well knit, hia hoofs hard aud tough, and his veius large and swelling 
over all hia body.' 

Vir^l, eighty or niuciyyoais afterwards, gives somo interesting accounts 
of tlie horse, and partjcularly when taken Irom tlio pursuitB of war aud 
tmploycd in tho pcamrfal »crvic« of ugricullore. 

A fen- yean ahor him followed Columella, who, in a vrork dctvotod 
emhtnvely to agrioaltoK', treats at length of the management of tbo horsa 
and of many of his diseases. 

To him Boccoedod Palladiiu od agricaliiire, thonsnagcmcntofthevino- 
yard, and tbo apiary, &o. ; luid he also doacribea at oonaidcrubte length 
the tTcatuent and uut diseases of the horve. 

About the same time, or somewhat before, the Bona&D emperan being 
continually engaged ia fbreign wars, and in many of Uuee exiwditions the 
cskvaliy forming a most elective diridon of the army, 'ntmiuxj sniigeoiM 
Wore appoiutva to each of the legions. The horse and his mamwomoii 
and dioMsea were then for the finit time syatematically studied. The 
works, or extracts from the works, of a few of them are preeorTod, There 
(s, bowDTor, httio in them that is raluahle. 

About the middle of the foarthc«ntary a volume of a diUcrcnt character 
on the ri!t<:riuai7 art was written by Vegctias, who appears to haro been 
attached lo the army, Imt in wha,t ritnaboa is unknown. His work, with 
all its errors, is truly valoahle as a collection of the best remarks that had 
been written on relerisaiy mattors, from the earliest ace to his day and 
inclading axtrocts from tho works of Chiron and £G|>pooratcs, which 
wontd otnerwtie haro been lost. Thn history of the symptoms of varioiu 
iliwaMns is nn^uladj poiR«et> hut tlie mode of treatment refleda hUle 
credit OB tha veterinaiy aoqnirctnents of the author or the age iu which 
he Lived. 

Ahnost in his time the irmptians of the Ooths commcnc«d, and shortly 
ftfter evBtj reeord of scioncv was swept away in both tho cestera and the 
WMtotn empirH. 



[ Vk eonnuneo a^ftiu with that oomidy conneotcd with which wchaTQtba 
I ttrSeab hlatiuj of Qui hone. 


^otwittialaadii^ tho Aftttering rvports of tnivi-Ufrs, aixl ilmoitwrtionof 
Dr. Slaw Uwi Uw EffTptiiui bonus an.- pii.'fi.T!i1)l<- tu l\w BiiibtLry oqch in 
lite, beantT, aad goooneea, tho modem Iioi'so of this country had Utllu fii 
woo Bu n c nd him. Tho dcBpoiiMn ntidcr which tho inhabitants gixMuiod 
wMogtAher diacouraocd Uio rearing of u v&limbkt bn-i-d, for their possosiiion 
was oompIetcJj »t Uto mexcy of tSoir Turkish ufiprL'tiHom, und thn uhoiccKt 
of Uwil* snimftls were often taken fWm tliem without tho itlit^'ht^tit n'lnu- 
nnatian (nr tba wrong. It wwt t.licrofaro il connnon practico n-ith tho 
trwiHtr* of mpnrior or good to btonuKfa or to latixi them, in order 
tbal lh«7 mi;;ht noi be robbed uT (bum bf ordi-r of thu Ik'y. 

Of ttie slate to nhich Uw native horsos were reduced, mid uvcn nmtiy 
in Uic oirps of the MunolnVoft— the body-cunrd of tlio Hoy — tho follow, 
ini; cvidrocn from B compctimt nhscrvor wilt determine.. Wihoii, in his 
'^puditton to Egypt,' tirlitt mi — ' AllbouRh thu horHUH thi?n> m-lctom pne« 
oat of a foot p««i* eieejit for a (jallop of IlH) yards, moat of thorn aro foun- 
dered, and DODO, if qaickly trotted tea miloR, would be ahio, {mm irtatl of 
wind Ukd KtiuninA, to go rnHhrr/ 

The testimony of Ilarckhardt w to tho aamo effect : — * Tho Egyptian 
boTK b nj;lj, of ooureo Hhape, aud hiokJiif; more like a carUhone tluui a 
llm h'f^ and knees and short and think nic^ks am fWi(]ueiit 

dtActs aoioag them. Tho howl is somctinu^ tino, but I iifvcr miw good 
lrg« ta aa E^ptian honw. Tliuy uro uot able to bear atiy jfreat futigoe, 
bat when well fnd. tliitir action ociiMioually is more briUJaiit than diat of 
tke Aialnaii. Their iinpetaosily, however, rondors them peculiarly do* 
■raUe for beavj* cavaliy, and it is upon thia quality alono thitt th«dr 
Mlebritf haa ervr been foundrd.' 

Stnoe tho ocCMrion of MehiauTl Ali to tlie eovornmoDt of Enypt, a 
faencficial change haii hei^u efrt-ct<.-d in tho intornnl mnnngomcnt and pros* 
pes^jr of the oonntry, and the improTomcnt of tho hrond »f horses has 
oqwcially engaged his atfcntinn. Ho bus even guim so Ihr as to CMtablixh 
a veteinaij achoo) at Abou-^Viel, and, as should bo tho case with every 
laetitttLion of tfain kind, he baa not only idcntitied it with tho cavalry 
■OTiee, bat with tho agricnllorsd inti<r<!«t<t of tlio country. Tho happy 
iMHianqiKtnrrii of thia are neither doublful nor dititatit. 

TImtc i> a kma bat narrow tra^t of desert between tho Nile and the 
Bed Sea, on which nmo Arabian horses of the choicest breed ore roarvd. 



The kiocdom of Dongola, the miMlfrn. Nubin, lying botwcpn Kgypt and 
Abgwina, contains a breed of ho^8t^3 different from any ether tluit citlirr 
Arafaw or Africa proditcw*. Mr. liruco iipeiiks of it in the foUciwing 
■tnm taritut ot apprubation : — ' What figure tlio Nubinn breed of horses 
-wonld make in point of nwiftneiw in very doubtfnl, their form being n> 
cntifdiy diS^mnt fmm that ef tho Arabian \ but if tx-jintifid and aym- 
■tatrivl t^tris, gnal »iw and stmiigth, the molt a^ilo, nervous, and ola.stio 




muvoiDontA, ifrcat eiiduraucv of fatigac, doeilily uf Unniier, mid, Iwjronil 
any otlii^r doDio«tic animnl, eocming att«clini«Dt lo man, can pronuso wiy- 
thing Tor a, ^lullioii, the Nnbinn ia, ftboro nil compnrifton, the most elj^ble 
iti Uio wiirM. Few of them ntv EmH thnn nixtrcn ImTiil); high.' 

Buamiin. wlioso Joscriplionji provu Iiim (<> bi^ no liiul honifiniui, IhtiB 
epeaka of ilium :— ' Tho Dongola hones are tbo looftt pei-ffct iii tin; woiM, 
being beaotifiil, svmm^tricftl in tlieir parts, ncrroaa and clnstio iii tlicir 
movcmnntit, and docile nnd ntTfTtinnnto in thvir nuknnors. One of tbceo 
hnrscH wiift sold in 1810, ut Gram] Ciiiixi, for n imin aanivntcnt lo 1,0001.' 
Tliu DoogoU bonce an nati&Uy uf a bkick colonr, liut tbero am korio 
bright bays uid sorrela, Wlien Uicir exercise is over, tlio luiul bridlo is 
tnken »way, and a lighter one put npon lh«tn ; fin- the inlisbitante tell of 
nuui}- biittl<!H thnt wrro lout, ftum l^cir being attacked wlion their hui«i.-!i 
WLTD unbridled. 

The lender yet fiiifly set ou nftck, the uoblo crest, Iho elemt«d witlimi, 
tb« beautifnl action ftnd bearing of the animnl were admirable i but tito 
long and Hlondvr lcg«, tho woaknpM of the forr-nmi, the namirncfls mid 
«nuit of de]>lh of tlie chnt, and even a deficii-nry of iiti1»iiut(!0 abont the 
flank and quartrni. cuuld nut iiteaiKt obaerratioi]. Sacli au nuinul might 
lUTv qwod, bat bia endurance must be doubtful, and it ia difficult to 
mppOM thitt any breed of English horacA could bo mal«rially impruvud 
by It. 

Som« of IbcMo horatw liave lately reached England ; and (xu) of thorn 
was recently iu Luadon, and belonged to an officer of t]i« Life Quardii. 


Ludolpb, in bia history of l>liiii poontry. Bays l.hut Ibc horses nv strong, 
rimblc, Duittlt«oine, and mosl'ty block. Tlii<y on: umxI only fur war luicl 
in tJie eliaoe ; they tntfcl no long ond fiitigmng joumoya, and all th« 
drudgi'iT of cveiy kind is performwl by tliL' mole. 

An Abyiiiiuiun who aivompanied Ludoljih to Knropo oxpuMsed a great 
deal of pity for the horse* when lie saw tbcni drawing hravy carts, and 
londly oxcfaimcd at the crui-lty o>* potting *o nobtc a crrc«turo to siK'h Ixoiit 
and iierriUi cmploynirait. Ho hiUI tlwt lie wondt-rtd at the patience i>f 
the animals, aiul wua eTury uiomout fai ex|>cctalJon that tbt^ would rebel 
against snob nnbeard-of tyranny. 

The number of lionirs in Klh!n|na must haw Mauddtimbly deervMied. 
tor Cyrtaens, a former king uf thut coantry, entered Egypt at the bead of 
100,000 cawilrr. 

The art of flhocine had not in Ladolpfa's time (the tni<t<ltc of the Mven- 
tocnlh rvn(nrj) rrachod Abjnsinia ; and oonMxiuMitty, when tlio nntirea 
had to tmrrl over rough dim sbmy ground, they ttiamounted and got upon 
molM, and led their Hnrse* in hand, that by luving do burden lo carry, 
tb»jr DUKht ln.-ad the lif(Llcr. 

once saya littie of the EUuopian honw«: but Mr. Suit, an enterpriainff 
tntrdler, >an tliat tlw horsca axo gmcmlly slii'tig, well. made, and k^i 
in^Dod conoition ; that tlirir accantrenivntB are alao good, and the men 
ihanwlTM are excellent li»r>cincn. 

li^ the term Barbaij la understood the northern part of Afric-n, ex- 
tcnatng along the coast, and as far inbind aa the Grtat IX'sert, fixini Um> 
frontieni of Bf/jyt lo tbo Mf^itemuiean. The Aralis that arc fonwl in 
this eitensire dwtrict arv montly the dcscmdanta of tbooo who emtgnitMl 
or it«rc dnTeo from eastern Arabta. The hor«cs are likewLiHi all of 
Arab stock, eonsideraUy modified by change of climate^ food, and manago- 

Tiie BARB. 


Mr. Bmco related, tUat ' the l>t«t Afriotui hnnics ftre said to bu 

JwryntH from one at the fiv« od wUicli &Iatiomi-l and liU four inimcdiato 

TKK UCKKunil]! UtJLSatX. 

fled from Mi-ctui to Itrditia, nii ttic night of Uio Hefcira.' I'Iiin 
miul be t«oeived with vcrjr comoilonihlc all<ivraiia<. Tlie in)iabitaiittt of 
almuM the wbolc of Uieav coiintri<yi arw iis crutlly opjtreBsed m tho Fellahs 
of Kgyplf Bud the oonaeqiiLiM.'v uT Uiat opprOiMioii is thi> same. I'hc Arnhs 
win Mknely bo indacixl to cultivntv a bre^ of bontcs of much vulno, 
wbrn, withont scmpk' or coinpeiuatiou, lliey ntaj Im> dciMnvod of wttrr 
<vt|i by th« firKt man in power that ifaooses to take n Cnii-v tn it. It in 
only Maong Ihr trihcu of the Desci't, who an? hcynnd tin; i-roch of tlin 
tynuil* of tbHr muiiliy, tliat the It.irh of snjic^rior l)n^(-<l, fumt, am) 
pDirer, ti to be funnd. 

The coauuun huntft »f Rarhiirjr ui ft vury inferior miiiiiial — jiuit such a 
one aa inanj yean of Knpiiumm ami ticjfliiL'i wotiM |>niduce -, but tho 
Ulowinif are th« dkamcl«riHtii- puinlH nf a trni! Barb, and cftpociaJlf from 
Morocco, ¥vx, and (Jw interior of Trijwli, as described by Bcrengwr r— 
' Thr forrhnnij in loii^, slcivdcr, and ill* furnished with raain, Intt riiniig 
distinctly and bntdlT oat of Ihdr withers ; thi> head is i>niall and luui -, 
thci ntr* nrll-fortni^l and wcll-placvd; the sltonldcra light, Hlopinjf back- 
vanl. and Kbit; the withcn line and high ; ihr loiiui Ktraiglit and short ; 
the Bafdu and ribw nmnd lutd full, and with not too much band; the 
haanchea atmo^; the eroa{>, |>erliaiw, a littltr too lon^l t^c quarters 
atncmlar and well developed ; ihi! It-gH <;lean, with the tcndoiiH boldly 
dclaobed from Ibe bone -, the paaU'rii Hunitiwhat too lo&ff and nbli<|UL' ; and 
the GMt sound and good. They are rather lowtir than Hmi Aminan, 
wUon moecding fimrt^o'n hands and an inch, antt have not biH Kpirit, or 
^wed. or Gontinnancic, aJtlrangfa in geDcral form tliej- arc probably hiB 

Tho Barh ha» chidly rnntrilmfod to tho excetlfnco of the SjianiKh 
bonvi ; and. whm Ibt- improvejiicnt. of the hroc-d of hontetn bfgan to Iw 
ftyatcmaticnlly por-uiil in (imit Ilriluin, Ibo Barb wu« very parly in- 
trndnii^il- The IJo-lolpUin Arubiiui, aa Iw La caJIcd, and who waa IW 

e i 



(irigin of touip of onr btrst racing blnod. wm n Ilarb; and otiiffra of onr 
moft criobratvd tnrf-horars trace their dnonnt from Africnn ii>ni\«. 
Thi^y nro gcncrallr Bntt motintcd ut Lwu yean old. Tbi-y nro ncvor 
caMtratod, for a ' Mus^ulniui would not mutilate or sell tlw akin uf thu 
beaat of Uie Prt>|ilict.* Th« horses nlone are lued for Uie saddlo, aud 
th« niarca are kept for brrcding. No Amb ever monnto » Htnllion ; on 
tlio cnnlmty, io Africn tboj nercr rido miirc«. Ttin nuuion iit ninin. 
Tbo Arubii arc mnstantlir Ht wur witb tliL'ir ni-igbbuure, and alnrajra 
endeavour to lake tbi-ir eiioniifa by surprlae in the j-n«y of tlie evenuijt 
or Ibo dawn of Any. A slsllion no eoon«T Binella Ibe etaio of tbo mare iu 
Uie encioj-'s qanrtom. tbnn lio brginn to nHgli, and that woald give Uio 
nlarm to tbn [Hirty inltitidcil to bu curprUcd. Nu audi tliiDK <*-&« rvcr 
buppen when tlier ridu marea only. On tlio contrary, tliLi Africiui trusts 
only to Boperior farc«. Tboy arc in an open plain couutry, must be dis> 
conircd at maay miles' di«t4uiico,aacl all sudi siirprisc* and Btrntngoms are 
nmleaa to Uioni. Tim caralnr couirciM to w1ii<-h thnir hoiwMi arc vxpond 
b axooedinitly MTcre. Tb« Mixiriidi nictliod uf bj^btln^ prini--ipullr con- 
mtta in gallopioK <^t tbo rcry liej^^bt of ibeir burses' speed for tLu distanoa 
of a qoArter of a milo or mon-, then suddenly stopping while tbo rider 
throws hid Kpcar or disrlmrgoH his ranidcct. By wity of cxctvine, they will 
onmctimiw ouutiuue to do tluH without a momciit'ii iiit«rmiiuuoii to i-liaoge 
or to brvtttbe Itivir burse. All that is rcqiUKd of the bcst-tangbl oud 
most valuable Uarbary horso is thus to gallop nnd to stop, and to stand 
ictill, all tbo dft^ if it is nocMnnry, when his rider quit* him. As for 
ttMing, cnntennd, or araliling, it would bo an unpardonable lanit wuro 
bo ever to be guilty of it. A Barbarj- hor^ in KenenUy broken in iu a 
br Bareror way, and much earlier tlian bo ought to be, and thcroToro bo 
nanaUj becantm nnfit for scrvicn loDg boforo the Ambinn. Tbo ooiinl 
food for the IWb is horlcy and chopped atrmw, and Ei*"* while it is to bo 
found, but of till* prorisiDn for winter food in tlto form of bay tlicy an 
altage4faGr upturont. 

(£p(aiB Btdwd, in bis ' Biographical Sketches of Horacs,' gin* tbo 
following intcTCTling noeoiinl of ■ IJnrb «nd bis rider, at the C^pe of Good 
Hope : — ' In one nf the violmt iitornui whirh often ocrur tlicrc, a Tcasct in 
tbo roud dni;-|fivl her ancbont. oiul waa forced on tbu rocks, and bMtnn to 
pieces. The gre*itir i-artofthe crew pembed Irancdiately, bot wme few 
were seem fmm the abora clinging to diflemit pieces of tbo wreclc. No 
boat ooutd vi-nliiro to tlicar oMistanco. Monnwhilo a pbtnter c«me from 
his Cum to ace tlie shipwreek, and pen^civin^ no otber cbaDce of cscapo 
Ibr Ibe tarrivors, and Icnowiiijt the spirit of bis bom and bis excvlloDco 
a« a Kwimmer, bo detenaiuM to Biake one desperate effort for their 
dcbverancic, and imabcd into the midst of the bradcerx. At Smt bn4h 
diaopDMnd, b«t t)i«T were s-^n seen on the mirfscR. NoArin^' the wrock, 
ha tMnced two of the poor fcUowx to quit their hold and to eling to bis 
boola. and to be broo^t them saA ouiorv. lie repeated this porilons 
expeditioa aoren timn, and eared fonrteen lires ; but on bis rdum, the 
ctgfatbtimc, bis bonu! bring much fattgnod, and meitting with a formidable 
wavf^ the rider lu6t bis balance and waaovLTwlu-'lmcd m a nuimenl. Tbo 
hone fwam Mlb^ to land, Imt bis gallant rider was seen no more. Tbo 
Cape woe then a colony of the I>ntch. The direetors christ<.-nMt one of 
tJieir new vcaoela bIVt bim, luu) ordered a pillar to htt erected to his 
memory, but the local authorities refused to the eou a IrifliuK pbioo whieh 

Tbo Barb improvca towai<ds ibe Wcetcni const of Afriea, both im hia 
ibmi and gnui-ful action. 

Beep iu the Sahara Deeoii is a noUe breed of Barbs, known by the 



samp of the ' Wiiiil.itu»-ki>r or Uio DcBMH-liorsc.' JucVboii kiivs of him 
tlat thv Dcm-rt-liontt! ja lo tlie (Ximmoii Barbury licmi- wlmt tlin Dcnrrt- 
emmrl u to ibi? lUtuU caiucl of bordeD ; but iLal bi.- ciui only he inilui^n] to 
c*t bu'lcT' or wliMt — onta &ro novor g^vco to horoi^a in Africa; hni tbiit, 
inppticd with a litUo ounol's milk, ho will travel almost iocredible dt8- 
tMMM« afcnaa the DmoH. He is principnlljr cRi|)lojrcd in hontiiig the 
■aUtopa «iid the oKtricli. 

Thm i> NODM little engK^nticMi, however, About tliiti, for whmi ho is 
lisaaslit towards tho ooast, lind can no lon;^ get his canid'a milk, lie will 
est Me harlt-j and tb« stmw which aro givon to him, and will thriTo and 
get Git upon thviD. If ht! chimcot to din, it is from bcin^ BoOVtrvd to goi-ge 
too much ot hi« oew toad ; or if he luites a portion of hui irniiod and wind, 
it >• bocatuo ho lind 1n.i-o taken ont of nia oxcrolse, and jiimiittcd to 
aoeaixuilate flesh aud ful too &stt 

Uore in th« opntrc of Africa, in iho kingdom of Bonmou, ia a broed, 
which 3Ir. Tolly, io his olioost romsntio history of Tripoli, reckons soperior 
ana to thoan of Arabia or Barbary ; it [>ossc5sui>, oct.'urding to him, tlio 
bast qoalitic* of butli those bivods, being aa servioeablu oa tliat of Arutiiu, 
and »• beautifol as Ihnt of Uarbaiy. 

On the south of the GrcAt Sanm Desert we find again the Ambinn or 
the BarhatT horso in the poKH(«mon of aomo of the? chirfii of tho Foulnhs 
»nd tho Janb ; bat the giniaral chamctor of Uic tiuimal \a in f hosp tr>rri<I 
tvffion* much deteriocatod. These hcirace are small, weak, umafr-, luid 
antiaetable. The Fonlahs, howovor, oaii bring into the field ii<i fc-ivitr 
than 16,000 cavalry. Some writitii tinro anscvtod, that in tho luiigdom of 
B«mB a much larger nnrobcr ooald be colbrU'd. 

la tho eoantij lying between tliat of Uil- FouIuIih and the kin^om of 
Bwftin, there an few horses immediately on the cocuft, but tliey are inoro 
tmimmnia in tho inland districts. Uosoun, however, enyx of tbrni 
Ihiry aro verr ill-sbancd ; Uiat thm" curry their heads anil iifi-lcn mnrf pm- 
Jeeting and auprvsacu tlian orcn tiic naa ; thiit iluy are nhiw and ohiitiiukto, 
and only to he foroed ou by diet of blows ; and that they are so low, that 
a tall man sitting on their biioVs con Id toach tho ground nith his fi-et. 
He Mlds thai at Fida. on tho Slavo-coiuit, whence he jonmcved iiilan<l to 
Klmina, he boaght five or six of tliero, each of wliicb coot him Nonicwlint 
Imm than -if., but tlier did him no maimer of aerviee,aiid he wus compi^ltcd 
to leave them behind. Neither horses, nor any other prodnce of valtic, can 
be looked for in these unhappy countries, so long as thoy are doaolated by 
the abominnbh; slavD-trndc, nnd<:r tlui sunctiou of tho moro civUisod but 
truly nochrisliaii natiom of Europe. 


Kotliins ia certainly known of the western coast of Africa, deseending 
tuwuxla l£« sonth : but arriiing at tho Cape of Good Uope. we find that 
Ibe borse^ if a native of that <mnntry, is omy occaaionftlly seen in itic wild 
slate, llie honte* that wi^rc inlroduiW hy tlic firvt eolocistn, the l>nt«li, 
««!• nocUy procured from Batavia, Java, and S>tuth Auierica. At tlie 
ntyooiianeiicement of tlie colony, many horses were imj>ort«d from Persia. 
Tbeae were mingled together, and crossed in everj- possible way, except 
that not one notion of seicntifio imptxivcmnnt Hirrtnii Us have entered tAO 
head of the Dntdi boor. They woro a amall hardy race, capable of cndur* 
ncagnatdudof EBtigue.battneret^' way sadly neglected ; never dressed, 
BM oOeB in-fed. 

WbcB the Cape was ceded to the Knglish. both tho cnlonisia and tho 
gDveranunl set 4«mcstly to work to imnrovo then' undersized animalii, and 
with very conrid((nih!o sncttiss. The British light regiments of dn^g'ooiis, 


in their pAWUtgo to tiio ICUt, cui aovr trvqacMiy draw congidorable eapplica 
of bonm from thin laiUiiiy, iind itonm ivgiincnU liiivc bitcn itntin-lj mounU'd 
hwv, Tliia ia tiufliuiuiit proof of tliv deftiwi of improvmncnl wliich tliuy 
have reaclMiI. It is, hon-cTcr, said, by Perciral, iii his ' Cape of Goud 
Hopc'tlintthoriiling-nuuitnnt Imve ocouionnlly mncli trouble in brcnkiup 
in Liui CitiN) bontM, wliicli urw uutaniUy vioioux, luid ivtiisniJIy wfaiin put 
bfyoud the pace to wUicL tliey Lad b«*u uccnatuiuwl. Thi-y mrt-ly nUmd 
above fourteon bonds high ; thi>y are hardy, and when tlioron^-hly broken 
in, arc cmable of cndnring sicnt privations imd futi^ic. 1'liry nrc mmly 
mIkkI wktb tiuff renmin iu ihu i-oluny, or if they aro, it ia only on tbo foro 
ttvU Their principal fuotl is carrata, with a auiall quauUty of com. No 
hay is grown nonr Capo Town, nor aro Ihoro any pastoros on which the 
lii>nm( c*n he tnmis). 

The wild Iionieti liarc long disappeared near to the ouluny, and wo haro 
DO suthoutic rocord that any of Iheon wero ever token and atl«oipt«d lo be 

Tho lionw ii mrelT scon in any part of the owttTn coojit of Afrion. It 
ia not ft native of Hadafcaacar, but is again found in Ajan and Adul, on 
the toBtbera IWnitiora of Abyssinia. 


Although modem Europe owes so ranch to Arabia for the improveinml 
in her bned of borwtii, it mny bo donbtod wbotlier thcvo aiiimnla were 
found in that conntry a.i a nuitttir t>f uii.'n.'liandi>ii>, or )iid(H<d rxiiitnl thcmi 
■t all in liirffi' nnniera in wiry early tiiai-«. The author of tbo Uwik of 
Job, in dt-Hcribing the wc«dth of that patriarch, who wns « native of 
Arabia, nnd tbo richritt tnmn of his time, makra no mention of borsM, 
althnngli the writur sliowH himadf wry vonTenont witli that auimiil. 
five hundred rean aft«r that. Solomon imported Rpioes, Kold, and sUvor, 
fnim Arabia; but we are tol<l in Cbronicles, all tbo honws for his own 
cavalry aad cliariota, and thtnw with which Iw aupptiod tho Pbnmirian 
mnnaraha, lie proourt.'d fi'i>m Egypt. 

There ia a carious record of Hue oomnterci> of dilft'rent countries at tlie 
closn of the »ocond ccntnry. Among tho articles exjuirtcd from Eiupt to 
Antbijt, and pa.rti<nil»HT iia pniicnls tn reigning m»nikrch>, wero faoraM. 

In the fi>urth criilurT. two huudn-il Caji|xkiluuiaii hurus were aent br 
tho iloman rmpi-mr as tlio mo»t nooeptable present be oonid offer a pow«r» 
fnl prinot! of Anibia. 

So lato na the aerentb mntnrj the Arabs lutd f<TW lionM, and tliiMP of 
liUle valne; for wben Mahomet attacked the Korvisli near Mt<(M.-a, he had 
bat two horses in bis whole army i and at Uie chne of his mnrderoaa 
campaign, although he drovo off tw^nty-fonr tb^iuwnd eamots and forty 
thonmnil sheep, and oarried away twentv-luar llioumnil oanoui of ailver, 
not one horse appears in tike list of pliiniler. 

Tbmo circuraiitancni unfEcicntly )>rovo that, bownrrr onprrior mnr be 
tbo present breed, it ia comparulividy Utt^ly that tbe lionw wiui nntumlUrd 
in Ambia. Indeed the Arabs do not deny this ; for until within the last 
oentury. when their hones began to be so dcserrcdly vnlacd. they wen 
nnttont to limit their pedigrac to ono of the live on which Mahomet and 
his fimr immediate sneccssuni fted from Meoea to Mmlina on the night of 

Altbontrh in the snvntth cenlnry the Arabs had no liorws of value, yet 
those which tlivy lud dt-rivc.-d from Ibi-ir ncightiim™ bi't^n then to lie iire- 
•CTved with so mnch carv. and propagated so uniformly and crtnctly from 
Ibo finest of the breed, thnt in the ihirlrenth centnty tlw Arabian borso 
bcfiaB to aasunic a jiut and nnrivaUcd cebTbrity. 

There are now said to bo three breeds nr varieties of Arabian borvsa : 




tlw Jfffc-it, or inferior breed, on which the naUvos sci liltle value, nnj 
wliitrh luv foDiM) «'i1<l no sonx' |iart« of the ilviscrte ; the A'l'/iVfAi'. lilerultj 
iRiroM of on ankiMiwii rwp, unswcrin^ w our lu^lf-bred hor8e§— a mixm 
Inveili and the Kf/cblaai, harM>» whiuH-gnnrslogjr.Hccordineto themod^^i-n 
eiMCgvnt«<t nccoimbi, hiu< brm ciilliviitcil iliinnif two tnotiMind years. 
tiaay writim nnil alU-sltil |ittli;rni-s •■xtj'nJ, with trui; KiLilcni rxaggcni- 
ilum, to liwr vtiiil of Stilitniori. The Kt/Mani uru [irmi-i]«il!_v by the 
'Bedouin AnJiH in Uit? ivmolv deMi-rlft. A stalliuu maj ht- pruoart-d wilhnut 
tm>cb diffit-nlly, allbuu^h at ■ pr-at |>ric«. Thti Arab^ imaj-ioe that Uio 
fcnuili: is inorv cuui-tmi'd IbftU lh« male in the exccllunco and value of 
liui produce, auul the guanlogiea of their lioracA areiUways traced tiLrougli 
the dam. 

The Amb horm wonid not be acknoirledpxl by «roTy jndg« to poMoes a 
perfcrt form. Thu hrtid, however (Uke that wliicb ia ddincAtnd in tho 
titUvpn^), i* inimitable The brn-'uloess and B(|narettcs« of tho forehpnd ; 
tbc nnaltnrsM of the i-um ; the ]itviniiiicn<70 and brilliancy of tho eye ; the 
■bortnaB nod liiicoi!sit of tin' mn/xh* ; tho width of the noKtril ; tlie thin- 
■ma of iht- hiwerjaw, and the biimtifiiltr dcvdopnd eonrsi' of the veinH, 
— wiU olwkys characli-rise Un^ lirail <i(' tilt; Arabian horsL-. The ent in 
tbt tttlfopH^ is the l>ortr:ii) of (Jit; liciid of a blat-k Arabian [irfsciited to 
Williua IV. by the tuiaiuu of Muacat. It in n cIom' aiid honest liki-ueaa. 
The mnxtle, tbo nostrils, and tho eye. are iutraitAbJi'. In tho sale of the 
Hampton Conri Rtnd, in 1807, this aniuial reuliaed o^i) guineas ; it was 
bcPBpit for tbo King of Wiirtcinboi-L;. aiid was hi((hly priiied in Germany. 

Ttbc body of tbp Arab may. perhai*, be considered as too b'ght, and his 
chtrt too Mtrron- ; bub bvliind the arms tho barrel goncri-nlly ewells oat. 

mm) lean* raffinent room for the play of the longs. Thin is well wcbi- 
fattad ui the «!ut of Ui« grey Arabian tnam, who§e portrait ia hvro pvea. 



Shfi a fKr inferior to Uio black i>nt! m ihn p<!i'ulirLr drTnlopment of Ui« 
hew) and nock, ))iit in other nwpvcHji nfTonhi a moiv rultlifnl 8]irc'im<rn of 
tho tmo form of ttio ArKbi&n bonu. Sh» ut of tin- imri-Ht ['lUiU-, unit wm 
• prCMdt from lUt* name poU-nbitf by wlioni tlii' bliu.-k Ar.ibiua wa« givrn, 
Tna fu>] ftt her foot was by AcU-on. Sho was aold fur I'Xi guiucaa ddIv. 
Perhftfa her ooloor waa af^^&inst bcr. Uor floa-bitk'n tippcunLU(.-i! would 
not pUue trrvry one. Tho fnn), which bad more ttutn ihL> usiml cluiuBiiioas 
bcdonging to tlic yoimfnter, sold for hS gninc-nA. 

Tho neck of tlio Awnu) in long nnil nir-hcil, nnd bmntifally joined to 
tlio cbptit. The blitck honii; in th*- front iniiiiw! iiH'ordcd a pcrfoct apeci- | 
men of thin. In tho furmution uf thi- sbuuldir, nniit t<i tbnt of tho h(«d, 
tho Amb is npwrtur to any otbiT brev<L Tht- witburx nro high, and the 
shouldor-blAde baa iU proper iucUnation baukwnnbt. It in nliio thiekljr 
clothn) wilb muaclH, but without tbi« sli);hti?itt uppivimnco of hwiviiuiisn. 

Thu fiueiwttB of his logs and tho oblique {juaitioii of the ptwt;<Tmii mijchl 
bo BOppoaed by the uninitiatod to toBson hb appan-ut vtrcnftth, bat th« * 
Iw, uuioagh snLill ix deep, and composed of bone of the deDi«.-Ht ohanurti-r, 
^e lendkma uv «Rfli<;iciitly distuict from tho bon», aiid the ttturtiiiK 
mnadM of the farc-ami nnd the thigh indicate that be is lUUy capable of 
fteoomplishinc numy of the font* that uw recordod of him. 

As a faithliil npccimiin of tho gnncral form of theso horses, with per* 
hap« a bttlo driicicni.'y in tiic hi-iut tuul neck, wo rof«r once more to Uie 
following [Kirtntit of u bay Arahiun — an B:iimat of tho jmrost cast, Ne- 
sentcd itlno by the Imauni of Muiti^it. It was w>ld for 41() goineM. Tlio 
highor price that waa prou for the b1ui.'k Ambian proves that ho wtw iho 
g«n««l &TOurite; bat the bay one, blthou^'h nut no striking in hut liguro 
WM a Btion^r, a qiecdier, and a belter horse. 


n4t A&UUX 

Tlie Barb alone ezoe1> llie Anbian in n^vhlr and tcpiritKl action ; bat if 
thprv !!• a di.-fi.-ct about tbo hilU'r, bo i» jxirft-ct lor that which be Maa 
designed. He lutoenla the true oomUnatioD of »jKx-d and boUomi 

^^^^^^^ THE AR.^IA.V UOBSB. ^^^T k 

■I I miilITi oooo^li to carry more than a )%)il weiglit, and conrago tbat 
wonld cum lura to die raUuer than yield. 

Mr. Bnrcbhardt. in a letter to I'l-orcssor Sowctl. saj-s tiiat ' tbu Iribm 
lic^irat in bor»<» nrp thcoc who dwell, iliiriiig tlw eprin^; of tlie ytiar at 
laaet, in the fertile pUinn of IIIrM>potn.niiii ; for, noln-ithabuidinff sill that is 
•aid of UiB deacrt himu.', jiluclj of nutnLiomi Ax^d is nbsulat4^ly mquiHito 
for ila mcbin^ iu full rif^or aud grunili. Tbu numi^rDus trib»i on the 
Bed Sea, between Akaba and Mecca, &ud especially tliosci to tho south at 
Ueoea, nd aa fiur aa Teinon, bavo Tory fow boraos ; but tlio Curdes and 
Bedouiiu in tbo «a«t, and especially in ItlMopotaiain, possi-ss mort! hcirnrx. 
Had noie Tahiable vmoa, than ^ of tho Arabian Bcvdoutiis ; for tbo ricL. 
nrM of tbeir paatares eosl; nourishea the cutte, and filla tht-Ir atuclH.' 
Tbeae obeemdiona ai« rery important, and aro evidently fonnded on truth. 
He adds, that ' the nombrr of boraoa in Arabin is not more tlian bOfitM) ; 
a Bumber &r inferior to tbat found in any part of Europe, or Asia, on nn 
cqnal extent of ground.' 

'DnriuKtbo Wahabee goTemmont, horsce became ecareer evwy year 
aw«wg the Arabs. They were sold by thvir mftstera to foreign purchasurs, 
who carried tbt^m lo Ynmnn, Syria, and Einmora ; which htttcr place xnp* 
plies India witb .Antbiiin huntvii, bwuusc they wer« afraid of having Uiem 
Mimd upon by tJieir chie& — it having become tho castora, npun every 
atiglit pRitext of dtsobedieoco or crime, to declare the moHt valuuble 
BMouin mare forfeit to tho pnblic trenenry.' 

Syria is th^ \>rKt pbtcc to porchfisn true Arabian hloiKt-horeee ; and no 
district ia anperior to the Naurau, where tho horse nuiy be pnri-hased fi'om 
Uw finct baud, and chosen in the rery cncainpiuenld of the Ar^bs themsulvea, 
who fill tlveae plains in tho spring. The horses bought al Bas&ora for the 
Indian markoti are p&rchikKed MTond-hfrnd I'mm Dednnin donlei-s. These 
proeni* thctn from the MontifcU Ai%bK, who lire not curufid in mitintiun. 
ing a pars breed. Damusciu) would be the bee.t ri^sidenuu fur a pi^non 
oooatently employed iu lliia trade. 

While the number of borsoa generally is much entailer than hnd bci'n 
ni|ipaBt<d, there are compamtiTcTy fon-cr of Uuinc of perfect quality aud 
Imaiilj. — pcrhApH not more tJisn five of six in n whole triltn; probably not 
two hnodnd in the whole draterl. Eitch of thuHe in tlie dcwort itself may 
be worth (htm oiw hundred and filly to two hundred pounds ; but very 
few, if any, of thme have ever found tlieir wny to Knrope. 

There nn«, howerrr, been mnrh exa^gemtiim witli regnrd to tJiese }iedi> 
grcca. Burckluudt xny*, that in iho iutvriur of the diwrrt, tho lledoutns 
nsnr taake use of any, because, among tht^mselveo, thcv know tho 
yewealegy of their horac almost as well tu iJiat of their own InTnilics ; but 
if they carry their horses to nnr distjiner, iw to Itaasora, Dagdat, or 
Daawacnii, tliey take care to hnvr a wi-ittirn jK-digrne made out. in oi-der to 
pmmt it to iiu: pnrcbaaer. In Unit I'tiau only would a Bi^donin be I'miud 
poaOMd of his horvc'ti i>i.-digree. lie would laugh at it in the dt'Hi-rt. 

Tbe Kochlani are principally renml by the Itodoutn Ai-ahs in tho 
mnoter dwerts. One of txicra was nold at Acre for the sum of fifU'en 
thoosand piaKtmu 

It ia an error into which almost every writor on tho history of the horso 
baa hUcu, lliat tbe Ambiau is bred in the arid deserts, and owns the power 
«f endnnnce wlueb be possesses in bin ndult Htido to the hnrdihins which 
he endtttfd while he was a colt. The n-ul fact iA, that Uio AruiiH Kclect 
tor Unit broeding-plnecs some of those delightful spots, known only in 
conntnea like thrso, where, UiuukIi all may be dry and barren around, 
Uura ia {nstiire nnrinlled for ita succnlencv and ite nutritions or aroniatia 
properties. The powers of the young animal are afterwards dovelojied, as 



ihoy alone couM be, by tho mingled influence nf plptitirol anil brallliy 
food, tiiA Bulllcirnt, bnt nnt, rxcnpt in ono dny of Iriitl, itiirl rxnruiiw. 

Tho most oKtmonliiuiry oKru iit t4ikra io invhctvo \he piinty of tha 
1>r<T<l. Unrokliimlt «lttt(-s Uiat tbo favourite mare of Samd the Wnluibcii', 
whit^h be oottstauUj' ^o(l(^ io all his ripoditicms, and was knowii iu cveiy 
niart of Arabia, jirodnccd b colt of very niiiK-riur licauty njid proniiso, and it 
grew to ho tJi* linrst utollioii of bin d»y. Suvuil, Imwcvcr, wontd npver 
permit liim to bti owd for tlicpoiTKiai^of bn't-tiinir, bot-itiai^liin nmtluirwnt 
not nf puTu blood ; fuid not knowing what to do with liini, aa tlie Bvdotuiui 
nCTLT ride Btalliuus, ht- Rent him n» n jirowiit to tho w.hcriff. 

The parentngn wid hirtli of the foul ore (^an-fiilly nwnrdcd bjr rompetmit 
witnewMfli whom ccrlifiuutu iuoludea tlic marks of tliu eolt, niid tbo nuncx 
of tlie nre moA dam. 

The colt is n«ror ollowc) to fall on tho ground nt the jxrioil of birtJi, 
bat ia cnngbt in tho arms of thonc nbo xtiind bjr, and wiuihrd nii<l cniVBSod 
AS though it wiu nn infuiit. The oian- and bc-r fold uibaint tlic Kiunc trnl 
wiUi tJie Baloniu and his childn>a. The neck of tJie man) ia ot>«n th(> 
pillow of the rider, and more fi'oqucntly, of the childrm, who are rulliux 
I about upon bcr luid tlio foal. No ncviih-nt ovor occur*, and the aniiunl 
LkcqairrH tliat frirti(bdiij> and love for ni:ui whiob oocuiotia.1 ill-tnwtmmt 
wili not i-ansu hi-r fur a uionieot to forjfet. 

Al the end of a month the foal is wmned, and is fed on cornel's milk foi 

one hundred daj". Al tho expiration of tlint period, a, litWo wh«tnt is 

oJlowod ; and by ilcfcrcm tliat iiuiuitity is incrnutiii'd, the milk irontinuing to 

L bo tbc priscipaJ food. This mode of frcdiiiK eonlinai's imuthcr hundred 

Idajra^ wlien tne foal is pcmutted to gmze in lIieii('i^'lil>oui-hoo<l of the tent. 

iBiuleyifl alaogive-n; nnd l<> tliiKiioniecamers milk in added in the rvening, 

Kf tbo Anb can ulforil it. Itv thoM mean* tlio Arab bnm> hivomcii na 

dcHdMIy cfaanuTtcriiH^l for his docility and good temper, nti for h)K tipeed 

Mill i-oiirugc. Tlie kiudnms with wliich he ia treated from tho time of lus 

being foalvd, gives him an affection for bis master, a wish to plMse, a 

pride in exerting atct; energy in obr^dicnco to hU commands, anu, oonao- 

Suentty, on npjiurcnl ugneity whii'h ia ■(■ldi>m found in otlinr breeds. In 
mt di-lii-hirul book. Bishop Ileber'a 'Nurrativo of a Juunicy lhraut;li tlii> 
Upper Provinces of India," the following interesting character is given of 
him : — * S(y moniing ridm arc rcty plcaannt. ifv homo is n nioc, quiet, 
|jgoad-t(.-mpeivd little Arab, who is su IchtIi'mm, ttiat ncgoc« without trtnrlin^ 
fuoae to an elephant, and so gentle and docile that lie ««la bread out of my 
h.tnd, and has alnuwt m much attedunent and coaxing ways as a dog. 
This sfcma tbogenetal dwriKtcr of the Arab homes, to jadgo fttim what I 
afaave aeea in tJiis eouuti^*. It U not tho fiery dniihiu); animal 1 liad mxp- 
rpoBcd, hot wit]i inore rationality about him, and loorw apparent oonlidi-noo 
111 his riilor than the m.ijority of Kng^lisfa hones.' 

Wlien tiic Arab IiiIIh from his nutro, and ia nnablo to ris«, sImi will im- 
intediatcly stuiul still, and m-igh until aimiiitniKW arrirco. If he lit* down 
^to sleep, as fatigue aouiolimea cuuipula him in the intdst of tbo ilmcrt, alio 
Lslauda watchfal over him, and nei^'lis and arouaes him if either man or 
Dcast approacbcs. The Arab horses are taught to rcet occasionally in a 
atnnding position ; and a gri«t many of them norer lie down. 
I The Arab Iotcm hia borae aa truly and as much us t}ic honiv love* him ; 
iMnd no little jiortiun of liia time ta ofVn fl|)eul in talking t» bin and 
- oairasing him. 

An old Arab bad a valuable maro tliat had carried him for lifloen ynara 
in tnaoy a rapid weary march, and many a hat^l.fought Imttlc ; nt tenffth, 
nghty yearn old, and unable lengerto ride her, ho gave her, and a auunilar 
tbat luid been hi»fitlhcr'ii, tn hiseldcstsoi), and told him to appreciate their 




TirK AE.UllAK HORSE. 27 

vuluc, &nd never lie down to rest tmtil he bad rubbed them both ms bi-ijclit 
as a mirror. In the first ftdrmiBh in which the young man was ongagod, 
ho waa killed, and tibo mare fell into the hands of the enemy. When the 
news reached the old man, ho eiclaimed, that ' life woa no longer worth 
preserving, fo'r he had loKt both his sou and his mare, and he grieved for 
one as mnch aa tlie other.' He immcdiatcl; sickened and soon afterwards 

The following anecdote of the attachment of an Amb to his mare has 
often been told : — 'The whole stock of an Arab of the desert consisted of 
a mare. The French consnl ofiered to purchase her in order to send her 
to his sovereign, Louis XIV. The Arab wonid have i-ejected the pro- 
posal, but he was miserably poor ; he had scarcely a r^ to cover him, and 
his wife and his children were starving. The sum offered was grcat,^it 
wonld provide him and his family with food for life. At length, and reluc- 
tantly, bo yielded. He bronght the mare to the dwelling of the consul, dis- 
mounted and stood leaning upon her ; he looked now at the gold, and then 
at his favonrite. " To whom is it," said he, " I am going to yield theo 
np ? To Europeans, who will tie thoe close, — who will beat thee, — who 
will render thee miserable. Return with me, my beauty, my jewel, and 
rejoice the hearts of my children." As ho pronounced the last words, be 
sprung upon her back, and was presently out of sight,' 

One of OUT own countrymen, tho enterprising traveller, Major Dcnham, 
affords UB a pleasing instance of the attachment with which the docilii; 
and sagacity of this animal may inspire the owner. He thus relates the 
death of his favourite Arabian, iu one of the most desert spots of Central 
Africa. His feebngH needed no apology ; we naturally honour the man 
in whom true sensibility and undaunted courage, exerted for nsefnl pur- 
poses, were thus united : — 

' There are a few sitnations in a man's life in which losses of this nature 
are felt most keenly ; and this was one of them. It was not grief, but it 
was something very nearly approaching to it ; and though I felt ashamed 
of the degree of derangement I suffered from it, yet it was several days 
before I conld get over the loss. Let it, however, bo remembered, that 
the poor animal had been my support and comfort,— nay, I may say, com- 
panion, through many a dreary day and night; — had endured botii hunger 
and thirst in my service ; and was so docile, tjiat he would stand still for 
hours in the desert while I slept between his legs, his body affording mo 
the only shelter that conld be obtained from the powerful influence of a 
noon-day sun : he was yet the fleetest of the fleet, and ever foremost in 
the chase.' 

Man, however, is an inconsistent being. The Arab who thus lives with 
and loves his horses, regarding them as his most valuable treasure, some- 
times treata them with a cruelty scarcely to be credited. The severest 
treatment which the English race-horse endures is gentleness compared 
with t1i« trial of the young Arabian. Probably tho filly has never before 
been mounted. Her owner springs on her back,- and goads her over the 
sands and rocks of the desert for fifty or sixty miles without one moment's 
respite. She is then forced, steaming and panting, into water deep 
enough for her to swim. If, immediately after this, she will eat as if 
nothing had occurred, her character is established, and she is acknowledged 
to be a genuino descendant of the Kocklam breed. The Arab docs not 
think of tho cruelty T^hich he thus inflicts ; he only follows an invariable 

We may not perhaps believe all that is told us of tho speed and endurance; 
of the Arabian. It has been remarked, that there are on the deserlH 
which this horse ti-avcrscs no mile-stones to mark the distance, or wat4;1i(.'S 




to cnlonlalo (h« tiioc ; and that tho Bcdoiiin is nfttumllj given to eilfilCB^^^ 
ration, nod mrart of nil, when rclnting the prowrss of thr iLninin) that he 
lovoi Ml drArljr us bit) cltiJdrmi : yet it CAimot Imi itciiifiJ tbnt, ul the intro*. | 
dnotimi of tli« Arvbiiui iulu Ihu Eurupoun atubUti, there wok no bom 
«omparabl« to him, Th« mare m her native d«serte, will twrcl fiAy miles 
without Btopping ; sbo haa baen urged to tho nlmoet incrvdible distance of 
one hnndrcd and twoo^ milaa^ imd, oocasionnlly, neither she dot her rider 
hna tuMird tood for tbreo whole dAjR. 

Our Uanu-d woold fare badly on the scanty uounBlimcnt alTonli'd tho 
AraMft", The mare Tisaally has but two moala in twculy-fuur huum. 
thaiag the day sbo is tied to the door of the tent, ready for Lko Itodouin 
to Hpnng, tit a moment's wuminp, into the saddle ; or nhn in tnrned oat 
bc-furu tlic t4?nt ready Huddled, tbu bridle buin^ men-'ly talcon off, aad cho is 
so trained that she munediately ^llops np at ber tufuiter's calL At itigbt 
abe receives a little water ; and with hor GCant^ provender of five or aix 
poutMb of borlay or b<?«n)i, tuid tomctimex a little atraw, she lies dowa 
com tent, if nbo in occostomed to lie down at all, in tbo midst of her 
niMter'a bmily. 

Unreklianlt relates a slory of tie Speed and cndurtunce of one of tliem, 
and shows with what feelings an Arab regnrds his qiiadrapcd ftieud: — 
* A bvop of Dmscs on horiirliuck attnckod, in the Rommer of 1815, a p&rt^ 
of Bedouins, and pnmLil thi-ra to their encampment ; Qio Dcdoains wers 
then avisted by a superior foroe, and becoming the aaaailants in tlieir 
tnnt, IdDed all the Dmaea exoe^tine one who oad. He waa piusuiKl by 
•ome of tbo best moonted Bodonins, oat his mar*, although fntigncd, oould 
not be orertBi'cn. Bcfori: his nunmrrt f[nvo nn tlie i^iMc, tliey cnllcd to 
1'''", and U^ggrd to be permitted to kins liU cxeelli-nt mare, promising him 
nfe conduct for her aaSte, Ue might have taken tliem at llieir word, for 
the pledgu of an Arab, in such circoinatanoes, might have been i«licd on : 
he however refused. Titer iminadiatsly left tbo pumuit, and blessing the 
noble bmst, criod out to tno fngilaro, " Qo and iraah the feet of your m»rti 
and drink of)' the water." This expraanon ifl often uaed by tliv Bi-duuina 
(o show ihe rt-gard tliey hnve for their mares.' 

A periodieul writer in the ' Sportsman,' on what aothor^hr is not stated, 
bot Iu> is right in mimrt of the particniars if nut in idl of tbom, sayn, that 
'talcing tbo coinparativn exceltenoe of the diiTerent moeM, XejcJ, iHrtwocn 
the deaurt of Syria and Yemen, and now in the posseasion of uut Wahabi^, 
ia generally reolEOned to orodnco tho grandest, nobWt hones. J7«^m 
(extending alone the Bed S«*|fiKrm Monnt Sinai (o Tcmen, and inclnding 
in it Medina and Uocca) the handnomcst ; Yemen (on tlu; const of the Red 
Sea and the Indian Ocean, and Uie most fertile pnrt of Arabia) Uie moot 
durable; Byri»tberid»et incoloor; Uesopotamm the moat qniel ; Em>t 
the swifb^t ; Boiborj tbo most prolific ; and Persia and Koordiston the 
moet warlike.' 

The introdnction of the Ambi^n into Knglund, and the conceit whirh 
ha has hail in tho improvement of tlie Engliidi horw, will be trcul^Hl of in 
the nt-xt chapter. 


Kelt in the route which haa l>i:cn pnrsned along tiie aonth of Asia, to- 
wards the enet, uid yielding only to the Andnan in beanly and value, 
Btaads (he Persian borae. lie is of lai^ger growth than tho Arabian, — 
pu^Msely bred so, — and on that account some foreign— etill oset oonntey, 
Dnt not pnra Arabian blood, br^ng intnvlaeed. A hrger animnl, ono more 
adopted for modern wnr, is tlie n-Kult. hat with some diminntiim of K)ioed 
■nd endonuwe. The Persian is a nobler- looking animal at Uio Grst glance^ 


but he will not bear t}ie accurate examination that only increases oni' ad' 
luiratioa of the other. Berenger thus describes their principal points : — 
' They are in general small headed ; they have long and somewhat loo 
fine foreheads, and they are rather too narroir chested ; their legs are a 
little small, bnt their cronps are well fashioned, and their hoofe good find 
firm. They are docile, qnick, light, bold, fnll of spirit, capable of enduring 
much fatigue, Bwifl, sure-footed, hardy in constitution, and contented wil£ 
almost any provender.' They hare, since his time, lost somewhat of the 
beauty, elasticity, docility, speed, and almost never- failing ondnranco. 

The Persian Horses constitnted in ancient times the best cavalry of the 
East. The improved, incomparable Arabian breed was not then in 

An entertaining traveller (Sir B. Kerr Porter) gives the following account 
of them :■ — ' The Persian horses seldom exceed fourteen or fourteen and a 
half hands high, yet certainly, in the whole, are taller than the Arabs. 
Those of the desert and countiy about Hillah run very small, but are full 
of bone and of good speed. General custom feeds and waters them only 
at Bonrise and ennset, when they are cleaned. Their usual provender is 
barley and chopped straw, which, if the animals are picketed, is pat into 
a nose-bag and hang from their heads ; but if stabled it is thrown into a 
small lozenge-shaped hole left in the thickness of the mnd-wall for that 
purpose, bat mnch higher npthan the line of our mangers, and there the 
ftnimal eats at his leisure. Hay is a kind of food not known here. The 
bedding of the horse consists of his dung. After being exposed to the 
drying inP.uence of the sun during the day, it becomes palverised, and, in 
that state, is nightly spread under him. It is the usual flooring of the 
stable and the tent. The united inflncnce of the son and air deprives it 
of all unpleasant odour, and when from use it becomes a second time 
oflensive, it is again exposed to the sun, and all unpleasant smell once 
more taken away. Little of it tenches his body, that being covered by his 
clothing, a large muymmid from the ears to the tuil, and bound firmly 
ronnd his body by a very long surcingle. But this apparel is oiJy for 
cold weather ; in the warmer season the nighl>-clothes are of a lighter 
substance, and dnring the heat of the day tiie animal is kept entirely 
under shade. 

' At night he is tied in the court- yard. The horses' heads are attached 
to the place of security by doable ropes &om their halters, and the heels 
of (heir hinder legs are confined by cords of twisted hair, festened to iron 
tings and pegs driven into the earth. The same custom prevailed in the 
time of Xenophon, and for the same reason : te secure them from being 
able to attack and maim each other, the whole stud generally consisting 
of stallions. Their keepers, however, always sleep on their rugs amongst 
them to prevent accident ; and sometimes, notwithstanding all this care, 
tbcy man^o to break loose, and then the combat ensues. A general 
neighing, screaming, kicking, and snorting, soon ronses the grooms, and 
the scene for a while is terrible. Indeed no one can conceive the sudden 
nproaj- of such a moment who has not been in Kastem countries to hear 
i^ and then all who have, must bear me witness that the noise is tremen- 
doos. They seize, bite, and kick each other with the most determined 
fiiry, and fiiqnently cannot be separated before their heads and haunches 
stream with blood. Even in skirmishes with the natives, the horses take 
part in the fray, tearing each other with their teeth, while their mastei-s 
are in similar close qnsjiers on their backs.' 

His description of a Persian race docs not altogether remind us of 
Ifevrmarkot or Doncastor. 

' My coriosity was fiiEy on the spur to see the racers, which I could 



not doalit miutl liAvn bun) v^ioacn frum tlu: UmI iu tlio iintJon to cxhiliil 
the perfection of itH bn'ed U'r»n> lbi> «ovcriii.Ti. The rival borae« wcm 
dinoed into thr«« wU, in onlcr to Idngthcn tli« MBnsement. Tbey bad 
been in tnining Tor eorrml wttcka, going otot thn ^iDund vcr^ ofWn 
dnring thai timo ; and vrlicn I ilid meo tbcin, I found no muc-h pnins had 
been tiilcen to swi-ut und reduce tlurir w«igkt, tbat Ib^u" bon«3 n-i-rc nnnrl; 
ratting Uiv ak i n . Tb« diaianc« marked for the race wan a strotob of a four- 
aud-lwentjr niilMi and, th»t bis inajoxty might not. hnvc to wait when 
ho had reached tho ficUl, tbo bontc* hud tct forwuni long Iioforo, 1^ three 
dirisioiM, fVotn tho «t»rtiitf; jKunt, (a abort interval of linii--p>uiHmgb«tw«en 
each ■et,}aotli^thefmigbl begin to come in a f«w minutvH ailvrtboking 
had taken hia seat- The dilTcrcint divigions smvixl in rc^'ular order nt tho 
eoal, but all m Tati^od a»d nxhaiMtcd thnt tlicir fomrr bnAHtMl fliM)t4iess 
hnnlly exceeded n tnodente otuitiir wbL-ii thu}* jnuuhhI boforo the rcgral 

Tbo jibuiia of Persepolis, Mnlia, Ardcbil and I>erbaiM>, niar auniudlj' a 
great Damber of valunblo borws, but those hrod in Kardislan are oooounted 
the beat both in bcjinty and Htrr'n^b. 


Tho Circnantut homn, ntthoiigh infrrior to tbo Pondan, do(« not often 
find hia equal an»»iitc thi> jitvdutorj bvnlcs with which this port of Aaia 
aboonda. Vaat noiulwrx of bones and shoc)> are rauvd in the jUmbm of 
(^rcaoaia, and thej and liic alavea which are made in the eicvnriona 
fixnn tbo principal afticlca of the commercr of tbo native*. Almoct ov^ty 
bouhr of diriint.'tion aims at ponwHing a peculiar brcnl of liomm, ckvU* 
iiw. in tlu-'ir cHtiiiialioti, thnt of any other tribe. Each brved ia diatin- 
tfuiahed by iu |M.-cTuliar mark, to fbrge or bo ptaoo which ou an tnfe«4or 
breed woold be puniabed with death. The most valnablo breed of all is 
in the poaBeaaion of the reigning family, and it« diHtingiiishing mark is a 
full horse-shoe. Those horses possMS oonaidvrablo aUvngtb and upend. 


We will now travel furthvr isLatnunl, and fuuniuo the btveds of boniae' 
in our Indtaa poneanons. They aie small, smkI, ntiltongh aome have 
ooaaidnnbln enilamnee and «onrac^ Uu^ wcnr the gonend rbarart4>r of 
degeneracy from a nobler stock. I'irat in valuD is the Tiyirk-if, originally 
(ran a Toorkotnau and a Persian, bmutiful in hia form, ffraccful in his 
action, and docile in hia temper. When skilAdly managed hia carriiwaj 
n Ktntdy and gnuid. Ilia spirit rising as his oxortjons nre required, be 
exliilnta to bin boliutdora an anpearaaoe of lury in the iicrTormanco of bis 
laak, yet preaurving (o his lider the vtmusi playfUncM awl gtmtlcnpM. 
They are usoally from fimrteen to Bfleen hands high, and have the ci>mmon 
defect of the East India horse — snallness and length of bone below tho 
knera and abont the hocks. 

Next oomea the /maee, well Umbcd, and bis jninte cloaely knit, and 
particularly powerAd in the qnarten, bnl with hirgo bcaMi, and hanging 
Mn, and aeficiency of apiril. 

The gentle and docile C^naJtM is deep in the girth, powerfhl in the 
foro-ann, hot with Ui^ge head and ral-hnnuncd ; hardy, and calcnlated for 
long jt^arncys and severe aervice. 

The U'jinmitt have spirit, beanty, speed, and iwracvenmoc. 

The ToEMs is slight, hollow-hncked, and, for (hat rcaaon pcrham, de- 
ficient in strength. Hi* hinddrga atv ill iilTK-ed, and dnwged sa it wen. 
behind him, and he is itnbboru and irrilflblo; yet this horse ia sqjight 
after on aoooimt of the peculiar oaaincaa of his yaeet, a matter of »« 

I eauadcntion wliere Uie li«al u ao gmt nitil Iho )iliglit««t exettion 

A »to of haraw OMt tfae Compuij's etnd, at Hiasor, ts tboa tk-ecribvil 
brui cxccUont judge : — * Not )c^» iKad oixt tltonsaind borera were sbowu. 
Inugr weTe all nlxrvD fonrtvcn hiinils *n(l n Lnlf in hfigtit, tiigh-cresled, 
moA «bo«3r<lDo1cing' animaLt. The graat <l(!rcct nx-nMid a waat of bono 
below lb« Ichm, wlucli la jjtimem] to all tlie nuUvo borvo thmnglioat 
ladia ; Nkd also so great a 1«ndeaey U> hilnem in tlie books, tliat, tn Bag- 
hml, it wookl bo thoogbt Italf of ihcm faad blood spavins.* 

Tbcvtt an other mUuLi in diRVrrnt pcirts of Uit cnantry, in wlii<-h aonu) 
Tslaable •btUioos ore kvpi for tlio |nir]ia«c of improving thci rnrioas 
Indian breeds. Almoel all i>r Uiem have & greater or lontr portion o( 
AisbiMi blood in thetn, which gtrea Ibotu the appeuonce of ffooi cavaliy 
honm, Int mulcrs thnn inf^Tior to the Arabians gMMmll.v in swiftueas 
and iilwajv in endamore. For thin rcnwm tbo native cavalry arc princi- 

CUj awintwi on Arabtau horaos, wbkfa ura brongbt in gruit numljcra, 
I of ao considcro]>)« Taloe, fK«n Arabia aud Syna. 

It may ho rtadilT roppcMcd that it was not long bufore races weni 
carta bli«bed in (ho Eut Indie*, and that tboy won> pnqiorly pntronifod bj 
the guTemmeot. Tliej ware, however, c»iilincd almuort nitiriTtr to tlui 
Aiahtaii bonee, for tbooe of half-blood wero uuuufuKlljr inlvrior Ui 

1b 1838. Rccmit, by Wltalchonc, a bono of some celebrity at th« time, 
«u crnt out to Colcntta. Tbt» niu ib-vmod a pni|>nr opportunity to docido 
tbo ^aartion of SDpertorily belneon tfao |Kim Anib and the trao Engluib 
■adng blood, and hi; was uatcliod a^^aiunt Pyi^mua, tlie 1x?il Arabian lu 
TtiTwril The distance mu two milir«s iHtb girc ami txko ni'iglthi, foartc«n 
haaat to carry ninn stonc^ nod tbc Aralii^ui to lie idlowKd forca ixiniuU ; 
Becniit carried ten alanca twvlro poaudfs and Pyramua only i-it;bt stouea 
tbive pDOndi. Tbey elarUxl well t(>.i;«4hor, aod ran tho fii^t part of the 
■*^-**"'» oedc and neck, but At almnt half the distanoo Rocruit took lliu 
lead, and the Arabian was bontcn riunly by MivcnU lenglbN. Tho distaiM.'o 
waa rnn in thrrr tninutc* and finy-.-wvcn MNXinda. Anulbcr Uial took 
ptM» between Chauipioo, a first-nto<LConatanM',aniodt'rat«ly 
g«ad thumoghbrcd English borso. The Arabian won in a canter ; tlie 
HiMatiiiii. tbnvforc, is thonght by nomo nnnnnii to bo yet andccidcd. 

Tbna n nn Emit Indian pimy, callfd llic Tatl'To, nryuia from ten Ut 
twalfv handa iu hL-ij^Li. TIiih is a u-rvic>>ablv and liardy aiiiinnl for 
t mi r yia g bBtfg^gc or any light weight. Tavcmier descrilies ono wliirb lii> 
•aw ridden hy a younn Mogul prince, of rptmi or eight years of agp, and 
which was not mnch tK^vr than a grayliuund. 

In 17t'<3 one, nut muru than sevvu hands, or twenty-eiglit inches in 
brigbt, wa« aenl from India aa a present to the queen of Gcorec HI. It 
w«i taken trum llio ship to tbo polnce in a backncy-cofurh. It wna of a 
dm oeAoar ; and ita hair rcKcmbk-il ihat of a young fawn. It wan four 
nata old, well prapnrtioned, bad fine ears, a <|ulck eyc^ with a liatxlsoine 
liMV tail, and waa tboroai{ldy good natond and managenblc. 

tWt Mabrattas were two poworfnl tribca or nations, inhabiting the 
coUial part of IIindoo«tnn, and their tcnitory extending from sea lo s«a, 
fr^ t^ tAa aontb of the Dct^can. Their wars among themselves, or in aaioo 
vitb the Britiih against Tippoo Saib, and nncrwnrda against their former 
CTotectota and aOica, arcpiominont ebjrcln in Ibo modem history of India. 
Their troops consisted almost entinaly of cavalry, eomiirud-d of om- of llie 
laal nrirtin of the half.Uood Arabian and n.ttivu boriv. Tbc MabraUa. 
wbca aol on boraelnck, may be said to hp. alimiMt cuuat&ntiy employed in 
shainvotn^ his borao. It is properly so called, fur bo rubs biin violiintljr 


«iUi bu wrixhi luid olbovrs, utf ynJtt as liia liaiida, anil mould-n and licnilK 
hu lirabtt in vri>ry dirvetion. Tlio Mahrattan way of ridinjf ia a ainifular 
aiid, acoonliii;; to Buropcian notions, » very nnCTttceful one. [lis kncca aro 
aa bigb as Iiis hone's hack ; bo holdit on with his Iiprln, ftn<l cltn)^ with 
his hftnds oil.hcr to the maop or the peak of the aoddle. With iineh niibi, 
hi* aoat in moro sccnra tlinn at Brut xight it would appear to bo. The ni-nlc 
of ihe Baddio risei in the fonn of a crane's nock, and is said t» huvv t>nrn 
borravod from tho Uo;*n]s, A cropper and a mnrtingtvio are almost indiH. 
ponsablo &rcompaiumcnt« of tho Manrsttn hnrKr-fiimitiirc. It is a sin^^lar 
kind nf cninptT, hownvcr, not projecting from tho ccnttri of Ihn sniidlo, 
but atbuihnl to tioth nidnM. Tho tohta, or Ifatheni vusiMil out of whii-h tho 
hone eals his ooni, is kino sUaehed to Llio cropper, and tliia ]mrt uf tho 
trappiB)^ is genoially omameoitod witli silver knobs, or with silk t4iaaels 
or cmbroidciy, 

Thtrir horno, liko moot of thoxo in tho Eact, arc picltcfod, not onljr 
during tlte day, hnt vury frmiuently in tho night. A rope in earricd from 
tlw hwkd-staU on ouch nidv to a peg drivou into the grannd. A rope, or 
titons, ia also tied ronnd tho fetlocka behind, and carried liackwarda twen^ 
or thirbr fM, and fastened to a poff. This pnJIs tho horse back, and ke«^ 
him, irhon atonding, on the stretch, bnt docM not pitiTcnt him from lying 
down. When they ara thiis lethen^ thdr eyos are covcrei], that thny 
ma,r not l« ulamit<d by any object lliat paaoca. They aru liliio clothed, in 
orwr that the boantiAii, gloBay appearance of tlioir coat may be uiveorvcd. 

I^r DM tlia snaffle-bridte, bat it is so jnggcd and pointed that tli« 
animal may be punished to tho full content of any liarborian that may rido 
him. The headstall ia umntly onuunented, and from tliu rein a Uinng 
dean-uda by which tlie hono may be ocea^nally reminded of luH duty. 
The horseman has neither whip, switch, nor spar, but the horse ia oon- 
trotled, if ho ia disposed to rebel, by tho cmcl argument of th« bit. 

Th« braut of tho Mahratta hormi in more NptendidJy ornamented than 
any other ]>art. NamoTOua coins, of lUITonnt nie aud valoo — rupee* ami 
double ru|<(«9 — are formed into pliLteH more or leas highly onuunented, and 
which in lime of war form a rioh booty for the conqneror. Tho mane, too, 
is genrTally plaiu>d with silk-braida, and silver knoba attached to them, 
with A beuntifnl lop-knot lH^twee1l the conk If tlie rider has diatingai.ihcd 
himaelf in war, some curiuiu tails, eaii to be taken from Uio wild cow, 
d*tigl« <m ohber aide. 


Tltu Birman horMs ara rnnall, biit Kpiritf^l imd strong. There was one 
in 1*42 in tlio mcnagcrio belonging to the Zoological Society of FondoD. 
lie did not stand more tliau twelve hands high, bnt was a buaotiful Littlo 
fellow, and a piclore of strength. 

In SiAU the horsea are few, and inferior to thom of tbo Binoaa empire. 

In Cocji IX. China, on the eustcm oooat of tlio peninmis, tho horaoa are 
■till anuill, but thej- are better fortnod, and more active and strong, than 
tfae;y am at Siam. In Si'vtTU and Java t}ie horses have not iucruvsul 
in aite^ bat in form and nsefnlims thoy ecarooly yield to any in the aontli. 
wert of Asia. In Bobxio they are few, md acercely deserving of notice. 
The horxe of Crixa are, genemlly speaking, amall, ill-forrned, weak, and 
without spirit ; indeed they have tittle occasion fbr the horae in the greator 
paK of that immense empire. 

The new colonies of tho llrilish in Anstmlin and its dependencim will 
pr^^ut soractliing more satisfactory. Tlte grralcr part of ibo hor««a in 



New Sontli Wales, the eastern coast of Australia, were derived from tiio 
Ciipe of Good Hope and from India. Very little jndgracnt was employed 
in the selectioD, and indeed very few horses of good qn&tity could have 
been procured from either place. The consequence was, that a writ«r bo 
late as 1824 says of them, that ' they are principally of Ote nag kind, and 
bred without much care. They are. not veiy sightly in appearance, being 
narrow-cheated and sbarp-backod, and sadly deficient in the quarters. 
They have am incurable habit of shying, and they are not very sure- 
footed.' The New South Wales horses are seldom stabled, but are sup- 
posed to be healthier, and better able to endure fatigue, when kept in the 
open air. This, however, is probably only an excuse for neglect. 

The sheep, however, prospering so well, and Uie cattle mpidly increaa- 
iug and improving, the colonist began to be a tittle ashamed of his horses. 
Several of a better kind, cart and blood, wore consequently imported horn 
the mother-country — an Arabian was procured from India — -and tha 
Australian horse soon began to be a very differentsort of animal. A writer 
of a few years' later date aaya : ' We have few thorough-bred cart-horses, 
almost all of them havin? a spice of blood about them, which makes them 
unsteady at draught, restive, and given to jibbing when put to a hard pull.' 
This was a very erroneous cbargo, and the writer seems to be aware of it, 
for he adds, ' this may arise in a great measure from their being badly 
broken in.' It was the faulty mAnagoment and education of the horse, and 
not the portion of pure blood which he had acquired, that produced vices 
like these. The wiiiter proceeds : ' We have many fine gig, carriage, and 
saddle horses, and even some that have pretensions to rank in the list of 
racers.' In &ct, races were instituted at Sydney. A turf-club was formed, 
and horses of no despicable qualities entered the lisia. 

An excellent stallion, named Bay Cameron, was imported from England, 
and the owner netted by him, for the first season or two, more than 6001. 
per an-niTTn Horses generally rose more than fiileen per cent, in value. 
Even at Sydney, 2001. and more were given for a horse of extraordinary 
figure and powers ; and no good saddle, gig, or cart horse could bo pur- 
chased for less than 401. 

These horses were found to be remarkably hardy, and could undergo 
considerable fatigue. The greatest fault was a heaviness of the head, with 
a considerable degree of obstinacy and sulkiness — as much, however, tha 
fault of education as of natural disposition. 

A still later writer says : ' that Uie breed is n^idly improving, and par- 
ticularly the dia^tt horeea, from the importation of some of the Cleve- 
land breed from England.' The true dray-horse, however, was yet to be 
found, and could not be procured from any of the native horses, not even 
with the assistance of the Cleveland. The mixture of English blood has 
not lessened the endurance of the native breed ; for at the hottest time 
of the year, with the thermometer at times as high as ninety-sLx degrees 
iu the shade, the writer says that he has ridden the same animal fiAy miles 
a day for three successive days. They wiU all go Ihroiigh a vast deal of 
work, but they would have more endurance, if they were not broken in 
for the saddle and for harness bo young. It is no unusual thing to ride 
them sixty miles in less than seven hours, and immediately turn them out, 
to pick up what scanty herbage they can Bad. The number of good 
horses was so rapidly increased, that their price had materially diminished, 
and scarcely more than 35i. could be got for the best of them. 

The traveller adds, that there are some diseases to which the horse is 
subject in England, which are as yet unknown in New South Wales, 
Glanders has never made its appearance there. Grea^ heels, the almost 
peculiar disease of Britain, have not been seen there. Strangles, however, 




arc preralent, imd, tbo aatbor of the pNsent work Icams from another 
aonive, nniiHunlly vcrer*. 

In Viui Dicmim'* IaoiI tlio breed of hortM, originnlly derived from 
Isdift, u very good. A Yftloable brood of carUhorMS id betpwing to bo 
fbimed. Tbo ridtns-hones aj« smull, Imt they are hardy. Humus of 
«very kind «ro taxtj por cent, deorcrr in Vui Di«iiion*s Land ihaa in Ifew 
Bonui WiUm; bccunao th« 00I0D7 is smaUor, uid the tinmbor of honea 
that ore brad is nimpsrativi'ly sumll. Tbcir treatment is not so good m in 
tbo larger oc^ooj. Jlanj of theoi know not tlio taste of eom, and, whes 
it is giTOtl to tliem, it is usoally in tli« Btraw. . 


'hrloTT oompreheuds & vast extvnt of couuLq', readiing from tli« 
Biutcru Ocean, to the Eoropean dominions of KnssiA, through ibu cx.-utnJ 
ntt of Asia and Europe. F^ut^Tii IVrt^ry belongs chiuHy to Hi in 11 
tin Wwtom has been irabjoctnl by Bnssia, 1>at n miudl portion of it about 
tlifl Caspian Sea claim it (o bu indepeudeut. The tribca which inhabit 
this immense space are dissimilar in their appearanoe, manners, and cus- 
toms ; bst, wito a few exoepttoDS, the charactor of the horM is nearly thu 

The WILD noBSi is found in rarioos parta of Tartary ; bat nowhere 
can it bo oooiadered as a remnant of an original raoo thnt has norer 
been domesticated. The horses of the Ukraine, aud thooo of Smith 
America, are eqaaUr tbo deacendiuitB of those that had escaped &om the 
slarenr of man. I'ho origin of the horses of Tartary has bpcu cloarly 
traood to those that werv employed in the sit^ of Axof in lt>t>7. Beine 
■oAmd, from want of forage, to penetrate into the desert iu order to find 
snWiittgnce, they strayed to too gr«at a distance to be porsaedortwodled, 
and became wild and created m now brvnd. They ara gtmerally of a re 
oolour, with a block stripe akms the back. They are diridetl into niunQi<> 
ooa herds, at the hcadofeaehofwliidi is an old stalliou, who but frnight 
his way to llie ciowB, and wboee pre^mioeBoe ia acknuwledgo by iLo 
rest. On the approach of apparent oan^r, the maroa and their foals aro 
driron into a cloeo body, iu Irtmt of which tbe maica are lansod. Thero 
are Imtiient oontesta between tlio diObienb herds. ^le ^miesticated 
herae, if be blla in their way unprotected by his master, is instauttr 
attacked and ^MedHy destroyed ; bat at tbo sinit of a haman being, and 
espedsJly raouried, they all take to flight, and gallop into the reccasoe of 
the desert. The young stalliom as Iboy ffrow up are driren from tho 
beid, and are seen atiaffgUDg aboat at a distance, until they are strong 
enough to form barda ofwild marcs for themselves. 

The Cossacks are aecostomod to hnnt the wild horacs, partly to koc}> up 
their own stock, and partly fiir food. A species of mltura is somctuaca 
matle use of in this aJbir. The Inrd ponnccs npov the DOor *«!'«■''; and 
ftstana itself on hia head or neck, fluttering his wings, and penleidiig, and 
hftlf-btiftdiRg him, bo that ho becomes an cany pn^y to the iWtor. Tbo 
yonnt; homm arc ^nasllT tam«d without much iHDictJty ; they luv, after 
a little while, oounUid with a tame horae, and f^Tow gcatle and olxMlienU 
The wild botsea tau rf^tsinHx! nro nsu-tlly foand to bo stronger and mora 
aerriceable than any which t«n bo brvd at home. 

In tbagrMtdesrrUorTartory, tbebeHsof wild borvcs aro mnch larger. 
Uany thousands, as on the Pampas of South Aiuerica, are on«u collected 
tofietlier. The Kirghise Tartan either cajitun them for use, or spear 
them for food. 

The fiesh of the borse is a beqaent article of fbod among the Tarten ; 
and allhougb tbeydo not, like the Indians of the Pampas, cat it mw, their 


modo of cookery would not be voiy inviting to tlic European epicure. 
Thejcnt Uie moBcnlar part into elices, and place tlieifi ouder their aoddlea, 
and after they have galloped thirty or forty miles, the lanat becomes tender 
and sodden, and fit for tiieir table. At all their fc(Lata,'.ihe first and last 
and most favoarite dish is a horse's liead,-tLnleeB they luvo a roasted foal, 
which is the greatest delicacy that can be procnrod. 

When water was not at hand, the Scythians nsed to draw blood from 
their horses, and drink it ; and the Dokes of Mnscovy, for nearly two 
hnndred and sixty fea^n, presented the Tartar ambassadors with the milk 
of mares. Uost of the Tartars mannfactnre a Hqnor Sailed koamiss, from 
the milk of the marc. It has a very pleasant taste of mingled sweet and 
sour, and is considerably nntritious. The Tartars say that it is an 
excellent medicine, and olmosta specific in consumption and some diseases 
of debility. It is thna made : — To a certain qnantity of fresh mare'e milk, 
a sixth part of water, and an eighth part of Tery boot milk, or of old 
ktnttnut, is added. The vessel is covered with a thick cloth, and set in a 
place of moderate warmth. It is thna left at rest twenty-four hours, when 
the whole of it wiU have become aonr, and a thick snbetance will have 
gathered oik the top. The whole is then beaten with a stick in the form 
of a chom-staff, nntil it becomes blended into one homogeneons mass. 
Twenty-four hoars after this the beating is repeated, or the Uquor is 
agitated in a chnrn, nntil the whole is again mingled together. The 
process is now complete and the hownUe is formed, but it must be always 
well shaken before it is used. 

The Tartars hare discovered a method of obtaining an ardent spirit 
from thia hntmisi, which they call rack, or rocky, from the nane given to 
the spirit manufactured in the East Indies. 

Some of the Tartar and Kalmuck women ride fully aa well aa the men. 
When a courtship is taking place between two of the young ones, the answer 
of the lady is thna obtained. She ia mounted on one of the best horaea, 
and off she gallops at full speed. Her lover pnrauea, and if he overtakes 
her, she becomes hia wife ; but it is seldom or never that a Kalmuck girl 
once on horseback is caught, unless she has a partialify for her pursuer. 

The donieaticated horses belonging to the Tartars that wander over the 
immense plains of Central Aaia are httle removed from a wild state. They 
are small and badly made, but capable of supporting the longest and most 
rapid journeys on the scantiest fare. 

One well-known circumstance wiU go &r to account for their general 
hardiness. The Tartars live mnch on the flesh of horses ; and the animals 
that are unable to support the labour of their frequent and rapid cnugra- 
tiona are first destroyed ; the most vigorona ai« alone preserved. 

Berenger gives the following account of the Tartar horses ; — ' Although 
but of a moderate size, they are strong, nervous, proud, fall of spirit, bold, 
and active. Th^ have good feet, but somewhat nairow ; their heads are 
well-shaped and lean, but too small ; the forehead long and stifiT; and the 
legs over long ; yet with aU these imperfections they are good and service- 
able horses, being nnconqnerableby la,bonr, and endowed with considerable 
speed. The Tartars live with them aimost in the same manner that the 
Araba do with their horses. When they are six or eight months old, they 
make their children ride them, who eiorciso them in small excnrsiona, 
dreaaing and forming them by degrees, and bringing them into gentle and 
early discipline, and after a while, making them nndergo hunger and 
thirat, and many other hardships. The men, however, do not ride them 
until they are five or six years old, when they exact from them the 
aevereat service, and inure them to almost incredible fatigue, travelling 
(wo or three days almost without resting, and passing four or five days 

D 2 


ronniGN BRi^tirDs or nocses. 

witli no more or lidtirr ni>nris1inu'nt tban n tmndrul of ((nas ani] witli 
notliiriK to quench tlieir tliirat..' This dbcijiliuo as maok eKfioeda Quit of 
tlio Arabs m Mverity and liomblo boibarity, as the Anibs oxoel tbo 
I'artnn in dvilintion. 

Tbo lH>niM of tbo EfngniR Tm-tAni nr« •onto of the bc*t of tlio roTing 
tribi-A. Tbej are stronger and billcr tbun tbo othcni ; ruiil tmino of tbom 
aw trained to draw carria;;««. It ia from tbem tliat Uie Khan of Tariaiy 
doriTDS tiu) priacipal part of his Bapi)ti«B. It is said thM in case of 
Doocwiilj thicy coiud fnrtiisb * hundred tbonnand num. Knch of the 
Nogttis oommunly faaA wilJi liim fotir li<inw« ; ano in fur bin own ridii^ ; a 
BOMnd to moont if the first abuuld bu tired ; and the other two to oanj 
tuB proriaoofl, his sIatw, and his boot;. 


Tarid«taii ia that part of South Tartary north-cast of the Caspian aea, 
and biu bcv^ or-lrbnibod from very cnrlv timcfl for prodncinf^ a pure and 
T&lDBblu brood of borws. They are ouUed Ihorkomajn. Thty tav anid to 
be preftntbla eren to the pure Persians for actual serrice. Ttinj aro 
bvpe, from flfloen to aixteon hands high, awtft, and ineibanstiblo under 
fttwoo. 8oino of them have travoUod nino hnndrod miles in eleven mo* 
etMxn daja. Thoj arc, however, eomewbat too amall in tho borrol, too 
hng on us Ism, oeCMMnally ewo-nccked, and always liaving n linul out 
of proportion lareo; yet SDch are tbo food qnalttios of the horse, tliat onu 
of the pnro blood ia worth two or thrvo Lnmlrecl pounds cTcn in that 

Caplaui leaser, who ia OTidmlly a nooA jndge of the horac.thna n^lfttc* 
the impRMSion which they made on hSo, in his ' Jonmey to Khorasau":— 
* They are deficient in compactness. Thdr bodies are long id proportion 
to their bulk. They are not well-ribbed np. They arc long on tlio legs, 
defident in nin»elc, falling off bulow the knee ; narrow-chested ; ]oDg> 
necked; head large, nucouth, and seldom well put on. Such was the im> 
preamon I reeeivra from the (tret tight of th^in. and it wm not for soma 
time tiiat titeir snpcrior vnlnablo iiuahtiea wcro appariTnt to mc' 

The Tooricoman* tmco their bn^d of borsos to Arfibiaii sirw ; and, most 
anziou tliat a anAcieat proportioa of the poro blood shall be retained, 
Umt hare flnqncot reoonrao to ttie b«et Aiabians they can procnre. 

Bcfor« a Toorkomnn starts on an expedition, hoprorideshinuH'lf with a 
few hard balls of bariuy-nual, wEuoh are to serve both him and bis Iiuma 
for sobeist«noe ontil hia ntara ; bat aoilMtiraeH when, crosnng the dcaert, 
he is onnsnallr fiint and wgaiy, ba opens the ja^lw vein of hia horaOt 
and drinkn n little of the blood, by which hn in uudoubbKlty refrvshod, 
and, ho thinks, his bona is rebered. Aceordtug to Sir John Malcolm, the 
ToorkonutD will think bttla oTiFiidiiig the same hor»o ono handrcd milea 
a day fer some aacoeanTe days ; and be adds, tiiat a honiL-nian niountod on 
a Toorkomnn horao brooght a pocket of lott«;ni from Sliiraa to Tebemn, a 
distance of lire faandrod nulee, in six days. 


Th« Turkish bonica are dcaeended pffaiopally rn>m the Arab, 
l^ the Percian and other kindred vaneties. They possess all the mnt . 
ncM and traotability of the parent rnor, but th<!y Iiaro loot some of tbeif 
vigour and need. The? bare contributed materiAlly to th« improverounin 
of the English breed. The Byeritnr and the Uelmsley Turk are nanwa 
familiar to eretr one oonvenant with borate, and ooonectod with oar beat 

Tbo lonmod and beneroleat Bojtbcqnioi^ who was amfaeasador at i 



stantdnople in the Beventeentli century, gives the followiug accoimt of the 
Turldsh horaea. Onr grooms, and their masters too, may leom a lesson of 
wisdom and hnmanity &om his words. 

' There is no creature so gentle as a Tnrkish horse, nor more respectftil 
to his master, or the groom that dreaf^s him. The reason is, because 
they treat their horses with great lenity. I myself saw, when I was in 
Ponta^ passing through a part of Bithynia cfdled Axilos, towards Cap- 
padocia, Low mdnlgent the conntrymen were to yonng colts, and how 
kbdly they nsed them soon after they were foaled. They would stroke 
them, bring them into their honses, and almost to their tables, and use 
them even like children. They hnng something like a jewel abont tlieir 
necks, and a garter which was full of amnlets against poison, which they 
are most ^«id of. The grooms that dress them are as indulgent as their 
maatera ; they frequently sleek them down with their hands, and never 
use a cadgel to bang their sides, but in cases of necessity. This Toakea 
their horses great lovers of mankind ; and they are so &r from kicking, 
wincing, or growing nntractable by tiiis gentle usage, that you will hard^ 
find an ill-tempered horse amongst them. 

* Sut, alas 1 our Christian grooms' horses go on at another rate. They 
never think them rightly curried till they thunder at theni with their 
voices, and let their clubs or horse-whips, as it were, dwell on their sides. 
This makes some horses even tremhlo when their keepers come into Uieir 
stable ; so that they hate and fear them too. Bnt the Turks love to hare 
their horses so gentle, that at the word of command they may &11 on their 
knees, and in tMs position receive their riders. 

' They will take up a staff or club upon the road with their teeth, which 
their rider has let fall, and hold it up to him again ; and when they aro 
peHect in this lesson, then, as a re^trd, they have rings of silver hung 
on their nostrils as a badge of honour and good discipline. I saw some 
horses, when their master was faUen &om the saddle, stand stock still 
without wagging a foot tiU ho got np again. Another time I saw a 
groom standing at a distance in the midst of a whole ring of horses, and 
at the word of command they would either go round or stand still. Once 
I saw some horses, when their master waa at dinner with mo in an upper 
room, prick op their ears to hear his voice, and when they did so they 
neighed for joy.' 


Before we can advance eastward into Europe, it will be convenient to 
dinK»e of the horses of the American continents. In South America, 
although constant warfare is carried on against them, there are innu- 
merab& herds of wild horses ; and in the back settlements of the south- 
western States of Korth America there is a horse resembling the wild 
horse of the Pampas ; bnt both are evidently the descendants of those who 
have escaped from the slavery of man. 


All traTeQers who have crossed the plains extending &om the shores 
of Ia Plata to Patagonia have spoken of numerous droves of wild horses. 
Some affirm that they have seen t«n thousand in one troop. They appear 
to be under the command of a leader, the strong^t and boldest of the 
herd, and whom they imphcitly obey. A secret instinct teaches them 
that their safety consists in their nnion, and in a principle of subordina- 
tion. The lion, the tiger, and the leopard are their principal enemies. 
At some signal, intelligible to them all, they either dose into a dense 
i and trample their enemy to death, or placing the mares and foab in 



tko centre, they form thcmwiTM into a oii'cle aud welcome liim with their 
bwh. In thio Dttitc):, MiiHr leader is the first to fHco the danger, audwluni 
prndence donumd* u n-tnut^ tliny follow hi* rapid flight. 

In the tliiulv iuhahit«<l (tartit uf Suutii Anuinoa it ■■ dangorona to foil 
in wilJi any of these troops. The wild hones apptOBoh u new iw tbey 
dare ; thej- call to the UxKlod hoiw> with the gteateat ea(;enieaa, and if thft 
ridor is not on the akrt, and ha* not considerahl* itreofftli ot arm and 
aharpDCM of Npnr, luH Ixast will divcat ^'■■"V'Jf of Us bnrncn, take to hia 
lioel«, and be gone Cat ever. Bjrron beaatifolljr desoribca this in his 

A trampEng lM<m: 1 ■«• th«m eomt : 

In OD* ta*t aiaitdion lli*> •ilisncnl 

I •UoTO lo C17 — m; lip* ir«ra damb. 

Tlie rtccik itmIi on id {donging pnd», 

Jtal KJicrf ans tbry the ttiiu wtio gutda t 

^^ A iLoassad bono uiil noa« to nd«l 

^H Vkh Aowisa uil *nd djing maat^ 

^H Wlda aoatrfu— soTcT Mnteh'd bjr psia— 

^H M'j'Ufrt bloodloi to Ih* \»t or rem, 

^H And (Mt Uwt iioB UHnv thod, 

^H And flaoka unMSlrd bj miirur rod— 

^B A lliuiuuid buiw. tb« villi, tha free, 

' Like mimi thst foUo* o'ortbe mm. 

On oamo Uii> trvop . ,. , 
Bh ThcT (lop— Ukij- sun — they laoff iht >Ir, 

^H Qtllop amainent htm and ihrrr, 

^^B Approoefa, ntirn vh**! round Hiid round, 

^K Tbui plonslBg badt wiili luddta tioutid ; 

^H Tbn fnort, tbfj loam, dn^Ii. Ewmv w^i^ 

^B AaAbuttwarAloOtfttitrBtttj. 

Onrfain Head give* the following acconnt of a tnttnting with a troop 
of wild hurSL-s, where tlte eonntij in moiv thickly' inliahitt^l. Some poor 
oaptiin-d animals are supposed to be ftiiced along bj tbi-ir ridi'n nt their 
very utmost qwed : — 'A^ tbov are tlnu (fallopinf; olouff, urged by thu 
■par, it is int«nsting lo epr thi? prnips of wiM homes on« puMS. The 
naros, wliii^ara never riJdi'n iii South Amcrio*, ttpvia not to nnd«rsland 
what BMlna the poor horae carry Itin )i««d so low and look so wiitry. 
The little innocent colla oome nuuucg to meci him, and then start away 
frightmn! ; whiln the old bones, wnoM white mnrka on the flanks and 
baon butmy thoir acquaintanow with the spur and saddle, walk slowly 
mway for some distomie, then bruakiug into a trot natbL'ytiM'k their safety, 
■nort and look behind them, first wrilh one eye and then with the otlicr, 
timing Ihoir nosM bum right to letX, and carrying their long tails high 
in tlio air.' 

The samn pteaaing writer doscribra the avatcm of borao-managvmcnt 
anunnff the rude inhMntanIa of the plains of South America. TIh-v hnra 
BO stables, no fenced paatnros. One horse' ia umally kept tied at tbe door 
of the hn^ fed sntntily at ni^ht on main ; or at otlier timoa aerend mnr 
bo cnckwrd in the eorralt whtoh ia a circnlnr apnea sarronniiK'd W rongn 
posts, dnrm firmly into the ground. Tbe miinui are never ridden, or 
attempted lo be tamed, but wrandor with their foals wherever they please. 

Wbeo the OatieKo, tlia native inhabitant of tho plains, wants boraos for 
luBHslf or fiiT the anpplv of a tm-velloiv ^ eitlur goes ^th his losto to 
the eorrai, and sdoets tboaa possibly who OB ti» ptvfie<hni; day had hr 
tlie first lima been bodtod, «r be wampem acroa the plain, and prescniiy 
nlums with an onwilliR?, Ktrag^ing, or subdnod captive. Wltcn tlio 
aw I i ces of the animals luvo boon ended, ho cillier takes tlirm to tho 
Oiimi/ and leeda thcni with a xmnll qnaiitlty of maixe, if Iw thinkii bo 


ftball presently need iliem again, or lie once more turns them loose on the 

Travellers giro some emnsing accotmta of the maimer in which all this 
is effected. Miera thus describes the lasso, simple in itfl constraction, bnt 
all-powerfnl in the hands of the Gancho : — 

'The lasBo ia a missile weapon ased by eveiT native of the United 
Provinces aod Chili, It is a very strong plaited thong of equal thickness, 
half an inch in diamater and forty feet long, made of many strips of green 
bide plaited like a whipttiong, and rendered sapple by grease. It has at 
one end an iron ring, above an inch and a half in diameter, through 
which the thong is passed, and this forms a running-noose. The Qaneho, 
or native Peon, is generaHy monnted on horseback when he uses the lasso. 
One end of the thong is affixed to his saddle girth : the remainder be coils 
carefully in his leil hand, leaving about twelve feet belonging to the 
noose-end in a coil, and a half of which he holds in his right lumd. He 
then swings this long noose horizontally round his head, the weight of 
the iron ring at the end of the noose assisting in giving to it, by a con- 
tinued circular motion, a sufQcient force to project it the whole length of 
the line.' 

When the Ganchos wish to have a grand breating-in, they drive a 
whole herd of wild horses into the corral: — 'The corral was quite fiill 
of horses, moat of which were young ones about two or three years old. 
The capUar (chief Giancho), monnted on a strong steady horse, rode into 
the corral, and threw his laaso over the neckof a young horse, and dragged 
him to the gate. For some time he was very nnwillmg to lose his com- 
rades ; but the moment he was forced out of the corral, his first idea was 
to gallop away : however, a timely jerk of the losBo checked him in the 
moat effectual way. The peons now ran after him on foot, and threw a 
lasso over his fore-legs jnat above the fetlock, and twitching it, they palled 
his legs &om under him so suddenly, that I really thought the faU he got 
had killed him, In an instant a Gancho was seated on his head, and with 
his long knife, in a few seconds, cat off the whole of the horse's mono, 
while another cut the hair from the end of his tail : this, they told me, was 
a mark that the horse had been once mounted. They then put a piece of 
hide into hia month to serve for a Irit, and a strong hide halter on his 
head. The Gaucho who was fo mount arranged his ajpnrs, which were 
DnaSDBlly long and sharp, and while two men held ihe horse by the eara, 
he put on the saddle, which he girthed extremely tight. He then caught 
hold of the horse's ear, and in an instant vaulted into the saddle ; upon 
which the man who held the horse by the halter threw the end to the 
rider, and &om that moment no one seemed to take any fiirther notice 
of him. , 

' The horse instantly began to jnmp in a manner which made it very 
difficult for the rider to keep bis seat, and quit« different from the kick or 
plunge of an English horse : however, the Gancho's spurs soon set him 
going, and off he galloped, doing everything in his power to throw his 

' Another horse was immediately brought from the corral ; and ao quick 
was the operation, that twelve Gaucbos were mounted in a spaoo which I 
think haiiily exceeded an hoar. It was wonderfol to see the different 
manner in which different horses behaved. Some would actually scream 
while the Ganchos were girding the saddle upon their backs ; some would 
instantly lie down and roll npou it ; while some would stand without 
being held, their legs stiff and in unuatural positions, their necks half 
bent towards their' tails, and looking vicious and obstinate : and I could 
not help ihiwlrtng that I would not have mounted one of those for any 



reward Hint could be olTcred mc, for thoy vrcro invanably tlio most itidi* 
colt to subdae. 

' It wns now cariotui t» look ftnynnd and nee the G»iiL'bo« on tho 
horUou iu difl«rent dueotiona, tiying to brin^ tKoir liurees back to tbn 
coml. wliicb is tbe ino»t diffi^l- part of dit-ii' wark, for tlio poor crostarca 
had hooD so scarod tboro that tbey iroro nnwilling to rctarn to tho plnro. 
It vriui otnnidBff to >m> tlio anticM of Uic honci ; thoy wl-to jumping; nnd 
dancing in dlflentiit wuj^h, while tlie rigbt aim of tAe OaucDOS waa irn-n 
flograng tluim. At last tliej brouKfat tliio horses back, apparwtlj Babduod 
ua DTokcn in. Tli« saddles and bridles wen takan on*, and tho jonng 
homcw tpottMl off toworda the corml, nd^hing to one anotlmr.' 

Tl«' munufiicturc of Um Ouucho's koota in sorat'wliat Kin^W : — ' Tho 
booU of ihe Gauclioa are fonued of the ham and part of tbe lei--ski>i of a 
oolt takon rM>kin(; from tho mother, which is said to be Fncnticod for the 
Bolc pnrpoKc, JDst at tht> timo of boaring, when tlu! hair hnit not Ix-gan to 
ffroir. At tlua atagc, tho skin atripN off oanity, aod in very whitv and 
Dcantiful in Iczlnre and aj>]Kiarauc«. The liam furma the calf of tka 
boot; tba bode Maily ada[>ts itself to tho heol, and tbe lep above tho 
Ibtlodc coDStitntaa w foot; tho whole making a nrntand clt^gnnt half- 
bont, wilb an mipmtan mtBatmt for tbe grtut too to pmjcct tliruugh.' 

Whm tbe Ganeho wtabca to lake a wild borse, liu mounts oiie tbat liaa 
beim used to the sport, and hiallops over the plain. As soon as bo cornea 
■Dffioi«ntly Dcnr his pr«j, * Uio Laaso is titrown roniid the two hind legs, 
and a« tho (lancbo ndoa a littJo on ooo xidc, tho Jerk nullx thi- cntnngl(!d 
Itorae'a f««t lutfrolly, ko aa to tbmw him on hia aidt, without enclaii)^'riTi|f 
bis knees or his fiu». Before tho horse cau recover tlie shock, the rider 
dixmoanta, and snatching his ptmeha or cloak fVom his abooldcn, wraps it 
round the pnudmtn animnl'a head. Ha then force* into bin mrmth onn of 
tlie powerful bridlca of tlie cfmntiy, stiupH a. saddle on kia back, and 
btctridiDR liitu, ramoTca tbe [wncbo ; upuu whiL-b the astooiabed hant 
■finnga on bis lei^, and ondeavoura bj a thousand v»ia efforts io dis- 
mcnjnbor himaelf of his new master, who sita quit* oompoiKdly on bis 
back, and, br a diaciplino which narcr &ils, redncca tka luirae to saoh 
completQ obedience, that he is aoon trained to lead his whole spe«d and 
strength to the capton of his companions.' 

Tluuae a n i m als posccw much of the form of tho Spanish honc^ from 
wliicb tbe7 q>raDe} Ibaj arc (amnd, as him bocn mtnt, with far Icat difli- 
colly thanooold Mthonght possible; and although tbi-irs is (be obedience 
of foar, and anforocd at nrst by tho whip and spur, there aro no borer* 
who BO aoon and ao perfectly cirrt their 8ngiu<itj und their power in Iho 
sernooofman. Thcjnrt! jmsscaiurd of no I'xlraordiiiary npfwl, but tbi'v 
an capable of eoduTLug imuieuse fatigue. They are frequcutly ridden 
tixty or sorcnty milea without drawing bit, nnd have been urged on by 
Ilia cniol ^itir of tba Oanc^ moro than a humlrt'd milcn, and at Ibc mt^ 
of twelrv roilea in the hour. 

liike the Arab horaea, tliej know no intermi'diate pace belve«D tbe 
walk and the gallop. Allboogb at the eiid of a day su bard, Ibcir stdra 
are horribly mangled, and tbey (^mplctely rxbaastcd, thcro is this oon- 
aulstion for them, — tbrr aiv immcdiatoly tamed kioae on tho plaina, aod 
it will be (lieir uwd fault if Ihcy ar« s|)Midily canght again. t1m> nutro it 
oocaaonnlly killed fur food, and cvpccialiy on ooCMiansof nnusual ft'stivity. 
Ocneral San Martin, daring the war for indopebdancc^ gare a front to tba 
Indian allies attiielicd U> bin army in whiL-li mama' Ib'Hb, and tbe blood 
mixed with gin, fonoed the wholo of tli« entertain men t. 

On snch £7 and mltiy plaina the aapniy of water is often sranty, and 
then a iipccitf of nuwlncMi (vixc* on the iiunx-K, ami their 4rm''rotis and 


docile qaalitieB are no longer recogmscd. Tlicj msli violently into ever; 
pond and lake, aavagely mangling and trampling upon one fLnother ; and 
the carcases of many thousands of them, destroyed by their fellows, have 
occaaionaDj been seen in and aronnd a considerable pool. That ia one 
of the means by which the too rapid increase of -this quadraped ia, by tbs 
ordinance of nature, there prevented. Humboldt says ihai during the 
periodical swellings of the large rivera, immense numbers of wild horEes 
are drowned, particularly when the river Apure is swollen, and tiieee 
ani-nmli; are attempting to reach the rising grounda of the Llaaos. The 
mares may be seen, during the aeaeon of high water, swimming about 
followed by Uieir colts, and feeding on the tall grasa, of which the topa 
alone wave above the waters. In this state Uiey are pursued by croco- 
diles, and tlieir thighs frequently bear the printa of the teeUi of these 
camivoTOna reptilea. Tbey lead for a time an amphibious life, smroonded 
by crocodiles, irater-seipeBts, and marsetees. When the rivera return 
again into their beds, they roam in the savannah, which is then spread 
ovee with a fine odoriferous giuas, and seem to enjoy the renewed vegeta- 
tion of spring, 

Numerous herds of wild horaea abound in the west of Louisiana, and of 
all colooTB. They are like thoae on the Pampas, the remains of the 
SpaiiiBli hoisca, and are hunted, caught, and sometimes destroyed for food 
by the savage inhabitants of the back settJements. 

Mr. Low, in his beautiini delineations of the Briti^ qoadropeds, gives 
QiB following account of the horaes of North America ; — 

' North America seems as well adapted to the temperament of the horse 
as any similar countries in the old continent. The Mexican horses are 
derived from, but somewhat deteriorated by, a lesscarefol management. 
Mexican horses have likewise escaped into Uie woodB'vnii savannahs, and 
although they have not multiplied, as in the plains of the Pbdt^ thence 
they have descended northward to the Boctcy Mountains, and the sources 
of the Coluiiibia. The Indiana of the country have learned to pnrane and 
capture them, employing them in hunting and transporting their famihca 
from place to place — the first great change that has taken place for ages 
in the condition of the Bed Mfi.Ti of the North Americim woods. The 
highest ambition of the young Indian of these northern tribes, is to 

Cess a good horee for the chase of the buffalo. The Osages form large 
bing-jMjties for the chase of horses in the country of the Bed Canadian 
Biver, using relays of fi«ali horses, until they have run down the wild 
herds. To st«al the horse of an adverse tribe is considered aa an exploit 
almost as heroic as the killing of an enemy, and tho distances that tbey 
will travel and the privations they will undergo in these preilatoiy eicur- 
sions are scarcely to be believed.' 

The Anglo-Americans, the Canadians, and the colonisla of the West 
India Islands, have all acquired the domesticated horse. The Canadian 
is found principally in Canada and the Northern States. He is snpposed 
to be of French descent, and many of the celebrated trotters are of this 
breed. Mention will be made of some of these when the paces of the 
horse aro described. 

These horses are much used for winter travelling in Canada and in the 
NorUiem States. One of them has drawn a light cabriolet over the ice 
ninety miles in twelve hours. Their shoes are roughened by the insertion 
of two or three steel screws, instead of the common European method. 
The cnny-comb ia never used upon them in the winter, lor a thick fiir 
has grown over them to protect them from the inclemency of the ecnson, 
Th^ are animals never refusing the collar, yet they are acrnstonifd to 
bod usage. Those of tho United States are of every variety, but croasid 



bj Okb modOTQ EnKliiih rmco or tbo Arab. The improvonumt of tbo horao, 
at this tune, occnpiu macfa of their attenlioD. Uorae-nicoB axe vetaiAisHicd 
in m«iiT jAaxx*, and paiticakrly in tim Sootkoni StaUrn ; and Ibcy bAvo 
■doptea, to a \eiy ctmmienbit degrao, tlia uMewuf Uid Knc>liii}i ttirf. 
Ttiev b»Ti> diffftriTiit TViietie* of oseful horaea for riding, nnd for tlinir 
public anil ptinte ouriagM. Habit, arisilig from boido cause or whim 
DOW not known, bu mado tbem Mi<i«l to tbo trottbig<horeo : and Uui 
filstost troUing-bonos in tho world am to be foond in tbo United Stati^a. 
The bn)cd« oT tbe Wot India lalandti arc tliosc of tbo giaivnt ntnkit. Tlio 
boraw of Oobn are derired from S]iain, and rufaun the diattoctivc cbn- 
racten of tbe pannt atocfc ; and tboso of tbo Engbsh oolonios bare boon 
iraprored b; continaed intorcoBtso witb tbn motbor cimnliy. 

A mncfa-Talocd ixnTrspondiHit, Mr. Rotoh, of IxnuKvillu, in th« State 
of Now York, thiui ad<]n«ac«theatitbor: — 'From ray own [)onoiul expo- 
ricnoc^ 1 iiboiikl aar Ibat all oar etock in Amcrioa socm to pfviVB a 
harder constitntton and ara mncb \ra liable to disoaso than in Sofihuid ; 
and that animaU, Wt a fow gvDcmtionjt mmovoil from tboee actually ira- 
ported, acqnircd mncb ictnmgGr coiutitationa tliao their anooiton ; and it 
hna been a question with me, and aoocdcd to br the late Jtav. H. Borrr, 
whether importationa of >omo of oor pnro-brod animals laigbt not aorao- 
tinea be made into your conntiy with adrantogo. I am anre that our 
hacks and nadxtcrs will endure a ffrcot deal ntoro faticno and bardabip 
than the nmo dcacription of hone in EnglaDd. I speuc witb confidence 
in these nulU-n, beatoM I have been a bneder in both ooantriea.* 

Tbat ibc greater hardsUp and labour to which tbo American horso of 
ttiia dascn-iptioo is exposed would prodn<!c » (greater dordopmont of animal 
powsT, there can bo no doabt, and a croas from the best of such a brc^d 
eoold not fail of beini; adrantagmras ; bat wo must adopt and perputnato 
(be circuuutancca ibat prodnood thin raperior power, or we ahoud not 
long rotain tbe adranlogc of tlic eroM. 

In the ostensire territory and varied cUmato of the United 8iaic» 
serent breeds of hotsee are found. 

The OoMMb^ horso ia fonnd in Pennfiylraiua and Uio middle Stales ; 
iaag ia tho le^ and lisht in tbo caroMii; aoniethnes ricing sorenloon 
ha^s ; used pnnalpallyfor tbo carriap.> -, but, when not too hi^^b, and with 
sD&oient sabstance^ usflil for bunting and the saddle. 

The Ettylith borce, witb a good dcoJ of blood, prornils in Virfpnia and 
Kentucky, and is found to a grvator or less dCj^rM in all the States. Ilie 
Amerieans bare at diflercnC times imporln-d some of tbe iH^t Kn^litb 
blood. It has been most dilieemtly and i>nr«ly pre'sorvod in titu Soiilli(.-m 
States. Tbo eolcbnted Shark, tho host liornn of liix day, imd oqaalltd by 
lew at any time, was the sini of the best Virgimut bonM^s ; and Tnlly-l>o, 
a son of Highflrer, peopled tbe Jersey*;. 


Tie limits of oar work cnmpol ns to bo oxooodingty Iiriof in our nooonnt 
of the broods of tbe diflcrvut couiilriLii of Borope. We Start from the 
sooth- west of this quartet of tho world. 


Tbo Spanish horwos for many a ocntnry ranked next to tlioac of Barbnij 
and Arabia. Tbt^y dMocndod from tli« Rarbs, or rnlber they were thfl^ 
Barbs InuiiplnntiM to a Eanipcwi aoil, and soiDowbat altend, hot i»fc 
n»attTiallj^ injured, by the rliv^pi. Soneyacl, the parfaU mitn-jvittt, girva 
en eloqu>-nt ilfscription of litem: — *I hare ann many 8|inmsfa bones; 


&.ef are oztremely beantiiol, and the most proper of all to be drawn hj a 
cnnona pencil or to be moonted hy a king, when he intendB to show himaelf 
in. his majestic glory to the people.' 

The common breed of Spani^ horseB have nothing extraordinaiy about 
them. The legs and feet are good, bat the head is mther large, the fore- 
hand heavy, and yet the posterior part of the chest deficient, ihe cmpper 
also having too much the appearance of a mule. The horses of Estre- 
madnra and Granada, and particularly of Andalusia, are most valued. 
Berenger, whoso judgment can be fully depended on, thoB enumerates their 
excellences and their defects : — ' The neck is long and arched, perhaps 
Bomewhat thick, bat clothed with a loll and flowing mane ; the head may 
be a little too coarse ; the ears long, but well placed; the eyes large, bold, 
and fhll of fire. Their carriage tofly, proud, and noble. The breast 
lai^ ; the shoulders sometimes thick ; tiie belly frequently too full, and 
swelling ; and the loin a little too low ; but the ribs round, and the croup 
round and foil, and the legs well formed and clear of hair, and the sinews 
at a distance from the bone — activB and ready in their paces — of quick 
apprehension ; a memoiy singiilarly faithful ; obedient to the utmost 
proof; docile and affectionate to roan, yet full of spirit and coun^.' The 
Par&it Uareschal shall take up the story again : — 'There will not be 
found any kind of horses more noble than they, and of their courage ! why I 
have seen their entraila hanging from them, through the number of wounda 
that thOT have received ; yet they have carried off their rider safe and 
sound with the same pride with which they brought him to the field, and 
after that they have died, having less life than courage.' It is delightful 
to read accoonte like these, and we know not which to admire most, the 
noble horse or the man who could so well appreciate his excellence. 

The modem Spaniah horses are fed upon chopped straw and a little 
barley. When Uie French and English cavalry were there, during the 
Peninsular war, and were without preparation put upon this mode of 
living, so different from tiiat to which they had been accustomed, they 
began to be much debilitated, and a considerable mortality broke out 
among them; but, after a while, they who were left regained their strength 
and spirits, and the mortali^ entirely ceased. 


There waa a time when the Lusitanian or Portuguese hoi^es wcro 
highly celebratod. The Roman historian Justin compares their swiflucss 
to that of the winds, and adds, that many of them might be said to be 
bom of tile winds ; while, on lie other hand, Berenger, who lived at a 
time when the glory of the Spanish horse had not quit« faded away, says, 
that ' the Portugal horses are in no repute, and differ as much from their 
neighboors, the Spaniards, as crabs from apples, or sloes from grapes.' 
He thus accounts for it. When Portugal was annexed to Spain, the 
latter conntiy was preferred for the establishment of the studs for 
breeding, and the few districts in Portugal which were aafficientJy sup- 
plied with herbage and water to fit them for a breeding country were 
devoted to the rearing of homed cattle for the shambles and the plongh, 
and mules and asses for draught. Hence, the natives regarded the horse 
aa connected more with pomp and pleasure than with utility, and drew 
the comporativcly few horses that they wanted from Spain. The present 
government, however, seems disposed to effect a reform in this, and there 
are still a sufficient number of Andalnsian horses in Portugal, and Biirlw 
in Africa, fnlly to accomplish the purpose. 




Acconlingto tbc sarvcjrof l^'29, Fnuico nontoinrd 3,400,000 bonet 
incloding t£ow> of emiy dcsu^ription. Thennmborof Qiarc8wuI,S27,78Li 
Tho grtiiitcr part of theao wDm einploj -ed in the breeding of mnlos, andj 
perhaps not more than » fourth [aiI wcto nood for keeping up the nnmbcrl 
of horaos. B(«id« those, nrorlj 27,000 horses arc aonoallr imported 
into Vnaix, riUif r on npfcnhition of immediAto snlo, or for tno expreat 
purpose of imiirovinjr the breed. 

Two-thmlfl of the iVcnch liorses u« devoted to pniposea of Ught wort, 
and pomen a ocrtAin dogroc, nnd tbstt gntdoalljr increasing, of Eauiera 
blood. Tbrre U room, howcrcr, for k gmtt deal more thnn tho Frvnch 
hor*B nfaallr posMSK*. OmsUiird of the honee are emploj'ed in br«ry 
work ; TO.oOO in post work ; and aboot tho same number are tegtBtirrod u 
fit for miiilAiy nae, nlthoagfa not more thnn lintf of them are ou actual 
nprrico. The ii«c^lainod nnmber of deut1i> in tvboat ono in 12 or 13, or 
tearing the avcmge age of tho horae at 12. T)u« Hpviiks strongly in 
Ihtoor of the bnmauity of tho French, or the hardihood of thi^ horera, for 
it exceeds the arerago dorniion of tho lifo of tho boree in England by 
mors than tiro jroom. Calcnliiting tho aromgn value of the Fivncb hoiM^ 
at 400 francs, or lOf. I3J. 4^., tbera resnllfl a sum of !>(>0,000,000 &niic& J 
or 40,000,000 ponnda sterling, as the gross valao of thia spocica of national| 

It most be snnposed that so cxtonsirp a country as Fnmoe ^ 
Tariou brc«d)i of horacn. AnrtrrjinL- and Poiton prodnco good ponica t 
gallowan; Init tho beat French "horses are bred in Limoiisin and No 
raamdj. From the former district come excetlent saddlc<horsM antti 
Imstars, and from the Inttca- a s t rongor species for tho road, the otvalt^rJ 
■srrioe, sod the carriage. 

U. Hoiiol boa recently pabUahcd an intcnxtting work on tho varieties < 
the horae in Fianoe. He states that in the time of th<> IlomanK there i 
bat two kinds of horses, — the irar-horso, and the snniptcr or pack-horee.1 
The carrisigr', or draught- homc^ ma coropAratirely or (jnito unknown ; 
and oven men of tlu! htgliL-Ht station suflbred thcmac^lves (o be indolootly^ 
drawn by oieo. Grvat caro wns taken to preserve or to renew tho 
strongth and speed of the wiir-hone, and African or Arab blood was 
diligently songfat. An animid, tho ^po of the Rnfrlish Cloveluid faraed, 
liialiaauoinMt and st9ronK<^at dL-ecrijptaon of thoooai.-h-boTiio, wnathiupro- 
ciued. By degrees, this horso was lonnd too valuable for a hacknry, andj 
too high-trotting for a long joamov, and a moro smoothly- moving animaU 
wwt gnkdnally intix>daced. Still tiio charger did not grow qnile ont 
liwhiun, and in Nommndy thu rearing of this animal Iiecame nn object 
mneh aUentioo to the Euuwr. At first they wera bred too aJow and pon- 
derona, bnt by degree* a horse was obtainixl of aomowlwt lighter action 
ud oonaidtraMo speed wHbont mncJi ncrifion of strength, and thcj now j 
eonstituto a most valnable breed. * I have not ebewbcrp,' aays 31. iloiicl. 
'seen Much horses at the collar, andarlbedili^genMi or tlie poM-oaniogo, or 
the CuTu-cort They are endnring and snargsbc beyond description. At tho 
voice of the bratal driver, or at the dreaded sonnd of his novor-ceaaing whip^ 
Ihoy not Ibrtli all Ihdr atrcngth, and thej keep tbeir condition wheat 
other hones would dio of negleot and hard treatSMDt.' The little Nomina 
caii-horae is pevhsps the best for fiimi-worlc. The Norman boraes — and 
the same observation applira to all the northern provincM of Ptaaco— ar9 
very gentle and docile. A kicking or viciona one ia almost naknows 
Ihcm; bflt tiny are. with Tr^ cicpptions, trvotod wi(h tyranny and 
cruelty from linrt to last. The reign of terror may lo a ctrrtain degree be 


necessaiy where there aro many perfect torecs ; but the principle of 
cruelty should not extend, as it too often doea, to the treatment of every 
kind of horse. 

Something mnst bo attributed to both canaeB. There is more humanity 
among the French thaji the English peasantry ; but, on the other hand, 
tiiere are horrible scenes of cruelty fo the horse hourly taking place in the 
streets of Paria, that would not be tolerated for a moment m ihe British 

The breeding of horses has more decidedly become a branch of agricul- 
toral attention and speculation than it used to be ; for it has b-^en proved 
to the fermer that, with the proper kind of paatnre, and within a fair 
distance of a proper market, inatead of being one of the most uncertain 
and unprofitable modes of using the land, it yields more than an average 

The establishment of races in almoat every part of France has given a 
spirit to the breeding and improvement of tie horae which cannot fail of 
being exceedingly bwieficial tnronghont the whole of the French empire. 
In (act, it may be atated without exaggeration, that the rapid improve- 
ment which is taking place ia attributable principally to this cause. In 
order to effect the desired improvement, the French, and with much judg- 
ment, have had recourse to the English thorongh-bred horse far more 
than to the native Arabian. A great many of the best English atallionB 
have been pnrchaaed for the French atnds, and have been beneficially 
employed in improving, and often creating, the hnnt«r, the racer, aiut 
ahnoet all of the better claaa of horses used for pnrposee of tnxury. 

It has been stated that the most valuable native horses are those of 
Normandy ; perhaps they have been improved by the English hunter, and 
occasionally by the English thoroagh-bred horse ; and, on the other hcmd, 
the English rt^dster and the hght draught-horse have derived considerable 
advantage from a mixture with the Norman, cot only in early times .when 
William the Conqueror was so eager to improve the horses of his new 
Bubjecte by means of those of Norman blood, but at many succeeding 

A certain number of Normandy horsea used to be parchaeed every year 
by the French Qoveinment for the use of the other departments. This 
led occasionally to considerable trickery and evil. None of the Norman 
horses were castrated nntil they were three, or sometimes four years old ; 
and then it frequently happened that horaes of superior appearance, but 
with no pure blood in them, were sold as belonging to the improved breed, 
and it was only in their offspring that the cheat could be diacovered. The 
government now purchases the greater part of the Normandy horses in 
their first year, and bringa them up in the public stads. They cost more 
money, it is true; but they are better br&d, and become finer animals. 
There is no deception with regard to these horses, and the amelioration of 
the other breeds is secured. 

Every country that has occupied itself with the amelioration of its breed 
of horses, has deemed it necessary to have a pnhhc register of the names 
and progeny of those of an acknowleged race. England has had its stud- 
book nearly half a century, containing a list of all the horses of pure blood 
that have existed in the country. France, in the year 1837, had her first 
stud-book, in which are inscribed the names of 215 stalliona, of puro 
English blood, imported into France or bom there ; 266 Aralra, Barbs, 
Persian, or Turkisn horses ; 274 English mares of true blood, and 41 
Eastern mares. Their progeny is also traced, so far as it waa practicably 
ThiB work will fixrm an epoch in the equestrian ajuials of that couutiy. 



TRS usmvuR un> wuicjur houbs. 

Tli<'7 are nnnU, woll-mado, nad capable of otKltiriug mach fadgiio ; aH 
Tor tln'ir otlicr (|iislitie» (stid tlicj arc not much chuigod At the prc«oDt 
i1iit4oiii what IBl-v foruiL-rly irurv), Blaiulci'ilte Khali Niwak of tbcm: — 
* Tlui hones that come out of the I^o of Sardy^iiia aui] (ionic* have tliort 
bodjcfl and be vott'd botilo ftnd counigcoiu, luid nnqaipt in tlieir pace, for 
Ibov bo K> RvTKC and hot« cbokriekB oomphuaOD, and thnmwith »o mach 
D>M to rruuuD^; to Uieir oaantrM aa thej wQl Btuid utiU <m du groundo. 
Aud, therofoiw, this kjDdo of horao Tcqnireui a diaereeto and pocieat ryd«r, 
who mniit not bo over hutic u correcting Um for fcnro of marring him 


Wa» oaco oelobratad for the bcant}' of hhi form and his pacta ; bat, lik« 
DVL-n'thiDf; ebe In that degraded cooDtiy, be baa sadly desencntcd. Hm 
Neapolitan horsei were patticalaj-ij' reraarksbto for tliieir sue and miycatia 
aotioa ; th«n) wim, howorw, a degroo of chimsincss aboat the heada, and 
Cbrehaad, and guooral s[^)earafic«, irhicli tlie srwrning grandeiir of (heir 
action wonUd not always conctal, and ihiej ware CocasJonally ontractuble 
and Ticions to nn idiLnniiig dogroo. They &re now much dctenomtcd, and, 
in bet, with bat fuw ourcptioos, acaioety of any valno. 

Some of the Italiaa raoee a» a disi^ruoefnl ImrloMiiio on those of other 
eovBtriea. At Borne they have become a Deeeasair Mipeuda^ to tho 
annnal carnival, aod there ti no other of the pastimea oi that guy avaaon 
in nliich thi! people tako an oqonJ dultf^ht^ Some of tho horsc-raoos re. 
semUe tltoeo in oilier oounbies, and arc talrly coutvatod; but tnnch 
efteoer U»6 BoauB contae preaente nothing but tho horso ruuninj; vritbont 
mty rider, and not from his own spirit and nmnti>tii>n, but stanUKt by Doisu 
aiM goiuldd on by ridicoloos and barbarotu ountrivancea. 

Tbi faotses IstudkI Buheri— because the race was at first eoutMtcd liy 
BartM — an brought to the startin^^posti their heads and their necVit 
gtuly ornamented : while to a ^rth which Rooa round the bodr of each 
are attached scruml loose straps, liavinfT at their cuds sniall bolu of luoU 
thickly set with sharp steel poiBta. At orar motioD theae an brought 
in contact with the fisoks and bellie-a of Ibe bones, and tba nMre Tioleot 
tlie motion, the more dreadful the incoKint tortnro. On their bark* nro 
placed sheets of this tin, or stiff paper, which, when agitated, will taake a 
matlin;. tattling BOise. 

It is difficult to coacvivo of tho roaring, kicking, pawing, and snorting 
which occun at tho Ktnrting-plaoo. A ropn [>!iunh] acrosa the street pro* 
Tcuta them from K^ttinR away, aud a aUmt jHsuuuit is employed wiUi eaeh 
bone ia a strugrie of downn^ii stivi^th, and. at tho hazard of limb and 
of tift, to restrain him. Occastonally eoino of them do break away and 
pass liiB rope before the atrcet— the noo-ooune— is cleared, and then 
amy serious aocident^ are aura to happen. 

mien all ia ready fur starting, a troop of dragoons gnllop through tho 
stiaet ia order to clear tho way. A trumpet Bounds — tho rope drop* — • 
the grooBis tot go their hoU, and. the horeee start away like arrows b-om 
a bow. ^le lurdcr thev run, tlie more they are pricked i the cause of 
tliia thoy aeon acanely ablo to oompreheod, for tlwy bite and plangit at 
each other, and a tnrriUe fight is souMtimca commenced. Othvra, (rum 
mere fright or salkineas, stand stock-stiU, aod it is by brute force alone 
that they can again bo inducad to move. 

A strong canras acrvcn is paaaed along the bottom of the atrcot. Thia 
is Ihe goaf It baa the appcamnoe of a waQ ; but some of the horsiw, in 


the excess of their agony and terror, dart full against it, tear through it^ 
or carry it away. 

After alL the prize is nothing more than an ornamental flag ; but it is 
presented by the goyemor of Rome, and it is supposed to be a pledge of 
llie speed and value of the horse which will descend as an heir-loom Croni 
generation to generation among the peasantry, to whom many of these 
horses belong. The decision of such a race, however, con have Uttlo to do 
with the speed or strength or value of the horses in any respect. The 
Italians, however, enter into the affair with all their characteristic eager- 
ness of feeling, and are guilty of every kind of eitmvagance. Daring the 
first six days of the carnival, the horses are fairly classed according to the 
age, height, degree of breeding, &c.; bat on the last two days — the 
choice days — they run altogether, and some in the manner that I have 
described, and thus increase the cou&sion, the riot, and the danger of the 

The Corso is very nearly a mile, and it has occasionally been ran in two 
minutes and twenty-one seconds : a very qnick pace for small horses, 
many of them not more than foorteen hands high. Baces of a similar 
character take place at Florence, of which Mrs. PioKzi gives the following 
description: — 'The street is covered with saw-dost, and made fast at 
both ends. Near the starting-post are elegant booths, lined with red 
velvet, for the court and first nobility. At the other end a piece of tapeatiy 
b hong, to prevent the creatures from daahing their brains ont when they 
reach the goal. Thousands and tens of thousands of people on foot fill the 
course, so that it is a great wonder to me still that numbers are not killed. 
The prizes are exhibited to view iu quite the old classical style — a piece 
of crimson damask for the winner ; a small silver basin and ewer for the 
second ; and so on, leaving no performer unrewarded. 

' At last come ont the horses, without riders, but with a narrow leathern 
strap hnng across their bodies, which has o lump of ivory fixed to the end 
of it, alt set full of sharp spikes like a hedgehog, and this goads them 
along while galloping, worse than any spur could do, because the faster 
they run the more this old machine keeps jumping up and down, and 
prickiiig their sides ridicolonsly enough ; and it makes one laugh to see 
that sonie of them are so tickled by it as not to run at all, but set aboat 
plunging in order to rid themselves of the inconvenience, instead of driving 
forward to divert the mob, who leap, and caper, and shont with delight, 
and lash the laggers along with great indignation indeed, and with the 
most comical gesture.' 

Before we quit the neighbourhood of Italy, we may perhaps notice 
another curious mode of horse-iacing, practised in Malta. The horses 
here are indeed mounted, hat they have neither saddle nor bridle. The 
riders ait on the bare back, and have nothing to guide or to spur on their 
hones, but a small pointed instrument, not unlike a cobbler's awl. These 
horses are small barbs, well tempered, or they would resist this mode of 
management, and they certainly are not swift. By pricking the horse on 
one side or the other of the neck, the rider can guide him a little in the 
way be should go, and certainly he may urge him to his fullest speed ; but 
stiU, although it affords a novel and amusing sight to the stranger, the 
horse and the spectators are degraded by such an exhibition, 

THE aiistkia:^ HOSSE. 

The following account is given by tho Dute of Ragusa of the imperial 
establishment for the breeding of horaea at Mcaohagyes, near Carlsburg, 
ill Anatria : — ' This is the finest establishment in the Austrian monarchy 
for the breeding and improvement of horses. It stands on ^,000 acres of 


1\)RE1G>> Dr. BEDS or HORSES. 

Iftnd of tii« bout qnnlitj, and ix mrronnilcd in iU wbolv extant, which i« 
Ifi Icoenm, i'y a brood luid duop ditch, aud hy * hroad phuiUiLicm dt} 
teet irulo. It vras form(>rlf dosignod to sapply Loraca to meruit tbo 
ckvafay ; ti, pnaont ita object a to obtain iitalliong of n good brood, which 
•n sont to ooFtoin dAp6ta for the tapply of tlio tmiohr prorinccn. To 
prodnco thew, 1,000 brood m&rM and 48 staUiouaarakept; 200 ndditionnl 
in&rea, aod 600 oxon ar» omployod in cnltJTating the ground. The plain 
ia divided into four etroMl parta, ntid nn«h of thoKo Hnbdiridcd into porbona, 
roHORihling ao many (anna. At tliu tfce of four ymin tlic yonn^ hnracs An 
nil coIl«ct<id in the oentro of the oatablialitnent. A aeivctiun ia fintt nude 
of tlie boat aninisla to supply the drificimoiea in l^p oRtabliahuienl, in order ^j 
alwan to keep it on the mmo footing. A aooond selection is then madtt^^l 
fur tho n»o of the ether : none of thesis, howercr, ft» sent away until thoy^^f 
■19 Biro yuara old; bat tbe horses tltot are not of autVicieut value to lio 
Mtectcd are Bold by aaction, or sent to the army to rcmonnt the cavalry, 
aa circumstancca mny n-rrniro. 

'The irhol<! nnmber or lioraea at prMunt hnre, including the atallionn, 
btnod-inurca, colta, and filliea, ia S.OQO. Tlio i>er«oua oinployed in tbo 
cnltivstion of Ibc ground, the ntro of tho animala, and the manacemeut of 
the establiahment gcncmlly, ore a innjor-di rector, IS anbattom offiocra, and 
1,170 aoldiers. 

'The TmperinltreaaatTadvunoeatothecatabliahmenteroryycAr 116,000 
florin! (the half riz-doUar or florin ia in Tsloe about it. li. Gugliiili 
money), and ia reimbnracd by the ante of 150 stallions, vhich ar« sont 
tmry yeor to the proTincm at tltc price of 1,000 florina each, and by the 
Toine of tbe honiC!i aoiiplicd to lb« cavalry, Tlie other cspenaoi ofi-vMr 
deacription arv paid for by tho prodnoe of the eatablishuent, which m 
reqnirvd to defray, uid doc^i defray all. This is, theroforo, an immonso 
valuta— a Cumt on a coloanl acalc — witlt a slud in preportion managed on 
scoonat of tho HOrcrvign, and which proiluc<.« a cuiuiderable roTenno, 
indopcnduntly of the principal object which ia attained, tho propaf^ion 
and moltipli^ion of toe best braMX of hon*ns. He can always supply Iha 
wants of bis army at a price nlmoxt inervdibly amall. For a bone of tbo 
tight cavalry he pays only 110 Qorina, for the diagoona 120, for tbo 
cnifuners 140, for tho train 160, and for the artillery 180. It is a i^Teat 
liliwmiiil of power to poariRtii at homo mch an immcnAo reaonroo n^initt a 
time of war, at an expense so far below that which the powera of tno weat 
and aouth of Boiopo are compelled to inoor.' 

So early aa 1790, a very aapcrior Arabian, named Torinnainath, was 
iiBport«d into Qmnany, and bin atock became ceMnvM, not only in 
nun^rnrr, but tlironghout moat of the Ocmum provinc««. In 181d th*. 
Arehdufcc Maximilian, brother to the emperor, pnrohaaed aomo valiutbl* 
racera and honten in Encland, and sent them to Anatria. Some of then 
went to tbo Imperial c«tablij>hment of which mention has just been midek 
and the others oontribntcd miiterially to tlie improvement of the hones 
whcrerer they were distribalcd. Raoee have been established fa) various 
puts of the Anatrion dominions, and Mtticnbrly nt Buda and at Peat, in 
Hungary. Of the good effect which tats wilt bare on the l^rccd of hfrnm, 
thert COB be no dispute, provided tbo nee do not di']^ni'Titl« into a mero 
contest of snporianty of speed, and exhibited in an animal that bom his 
yvntli must inevilably be injured or mined in tbo atninlB. 

The gipaie* need to be the principal horse-dealcn in Hnngnrr, bat they 
linvQ been getting into eompamtivo disrepute aincc tliv i.-atubliahmrnt ot 
tbe noble stads scattered through this district. Ho who wants a hone^ 
or to spocolate in borwa, may now go to head-quarters aod ohoon br 


THE BirraiAV HOaSB. 

It may be 'n^lt 8nppH>se(i that this animal will be of a vary different 
diameter in varions parts of this immenae empire. The heavy cavalry 
and the greater part of the horaeB for pleasure are descended originallT 
from Coaeack blood, bat imprbved by stallions from Poland, Prnssia, 
Holstein, and England ; and the stads are now fonnd on an immense 
scale in variona puts of Russia. The lighter cavalry, and the commoner 
horses, are, as these have ever been, Cossacka, without any attempted 
improvement, and are hardy and bett«r suited to the duties required 
from them. 

It has been snpposed that no horse, except the Arab, conH endnre 
privation like the CoBsack, or had combined speed and endurance equal 
tohim. The Cossack, however, was heat«n, and that not by horses of the 
first-rate English blood, in a race which fairly put to the test both quali- 
ties. It was a cruel affair ; yet nothing short of such a contest would have 
settled the qneation. 

On the 4tn of August, 1825, a race of forty-seven miles w%s run between 
two Cossack and two English horses. The English horses were Shu^r 
and Hina, well known, yet not ranking with the first of their class. The 
Cossacks were selected &om the best horses of the Don, the Black Sea, and 

On starting, the Cossacks took the lead at a moderate pace ; but before 
they had gone half a mile, the stirmp-leather of Sharper broke, and he 
Tan away with his rider, followed by Mina, and they went more than a 
mile, and up a steep hill, before thev could be held in. 

Half the distance was run in an hour and fourteen minutes. Both the 
English horees were then fresh, and one of the Cossacka. On their return, 
Uina fell lame, and was taken away, and Sharper began to show the 
effects of the pace at which he had gone in muniug away, and was much 
distressed. The Calmuck was completely knocked np, his rider was dis- 
mounted, a mere child was put <hi his back, and a Cossack on horseback 
on either side dragged bi'm on by ropes attached to his bridle, while 
others at the side supported him from faUing. Ultimately Sharper per- 
formed the whole distance in two hours and forty-eight mtnntes^ — sixteen 
milee an hour for three successive hours — and the Cossack horse was 
brought in eight minutes after him. At starting, the English horses 
carried tiiU three stone more than the Cossacks ; and during the latter 
part of the race a mere child had ridden the Cossack. 

The Emperor Nicholas established races in different parts of his vast 
empire, for the iropTOTement of the Cossack and other horses. On the 
20Uk of September, 18S6, the races at Ouralsk took place. The dis- 
tance to be run WB8 18 wersts, or about +i French leagues — rather more 
than 10 miles. Twenty-one horses of the military stud of the Cossacka 
of Onral started for the firet beat, and which was won in 25 minutes and 
19 seconds by a horse belonging to the Cossack Bourtche-Tchoumnief. 
The second race was dispnt^i by twenty-three horses of the Eergheese 
Cossacks, and which was won in 25 minutes and 5 seconds by the horse 
of the Cossack Siboka-IsterWe. On the following day the winners of the 
two first heats strove for Uie point of honour. The conrae was now 12 
wersts — 3 French leaguea, or about 6j miles. It was won in 15 minutes 
by the horse of the Cossack Bourtche-Tchoumnief The Russian noble- 
men who were present, admiring the speed and stoutness of the horse, 
irere uixious to purchase hiT ; but the Cosaack replied that ' All the 
gold in the world should not separate him from his mend, his brother.' 

fo Southern and Western Bassia, and also in Poland, tiie breeding of 




faanea and cattio bfts lAtclj occupii-d tho uLU-ntion of the ^fTPat Innd 
pra^iriotora, ftnd hae constitotod a vary coiisiderable put of their anuiuil 

SlipMMtt » Ciaaiil •nlilitr. AMOBlnd fsT hit ii]iimi7. uid turing all ihkt I* 
MM^fcr him iir fur Iiii hiin>'. It ffitm a Uttifnl l>u( Kinicwhat SatUriag 
nfNMntMbii Uitb of (he (oldipr and bU ftMd.] 

tDcnnw. There is •carccly now m ngnnriiil RTnidcnoo to which there is not 
attnch^d n v«st court, in four largi- diviiii<inii, and furround<^I by fital>le«. 
In e*ch of tho iuif*les of thi* omrt is a ]icuiaa;:o leading tn hcnutifnl aim] 
cixt«n)iiro ptuttirv'^^rooiida, diridvd uito Mjual comportmi-Rtx, uid all of 
Uieni having convenient aheds, onder wluch Uw bonirs nun' ^bcltor thtm- 
a«lvM from the nin or the ann. From iiusm atnda a hu^er kind of boras 
than that of the Co«N>clni k |>r!n(;ipnll; rappliod, and more fit for tho 
ngalar cavalry troops, and also f»r pMuinre and parade, than commoa 
iwe. The romounta of the prinvifKl ItonMa in 0«nnany aro dorivwl benoe; 
and froni the bame source ibu k"-**^ (hits in the dilTercnt i>tnt«« of tlia 
GoTtaan cmpiro are supplied. Tlte brPedinp of cattle is also maIouhIj- and 
profitnbljr pumtMl. "rii* oow-hoowH form tW greater portion of thi- other 
Duitdi]^ attn«hed lo th« mannoo. The lai^wt of ttirae in duaiinetl for 
the milefa cows, and anollier •qoare Inuldinir Bcrvea for a miUciog bouNo. 
Tbeae dairiv* an disposed and utt«d up like (hose in Switaerland. In the 


middle is a jet of water. Slabs or tables of nutrbte occnp; every sid% 
and a slight Lnclioatioii of the floor permits the obBerrance of the greatest 
possible cleanlineas. An npper story serves for the mano&ctare of diffe- 
rent kindfi of cheese, which are made in imitatioQ of, and sometimea equal 
those which ore most esteemed in other parts of Europe. 

There is another apace or court inclosed with walls, and with little 
bnildiDKB closed with iron bars. This is destined to be a menagerie for 
bean of the rarest and most beantifnl colours, and yielding the choicest 
fnrs. This specnlation is a very profitable one. A cnb of six months 
old, with black hair pointed with silver white, yields a very light skin and 
far, and which will obtain a considerable price, especially if there are 
others of the same fineness and variegated colonr sufficient to make a pe* 
lisse. A garment of this kind will sometimea be sold for 6001. or lOOOI. 
The skins of the old bears are employed for carpets, or linings of carriages, 
and the most supple of them form the clothing of the coachmec 

The stnd of the Russian Countess Orloff Tshesmensky in the province 
of Walonese contains 1320 horses, Arabs, English, natives and others. 
The ground attached to it amoante to nearly 1100 acres ; and the number 
of grooms, labourers, and others is more than 4000. The sum realised by 
the eale of horses is of considerable annual amount ; and they are dis- 
posed of not only on the spot itself, but in the regular markets, both of 
St. Petersbnrgh and Moscow. 

There are numerous troops of horses in this cold and inhospitable conn- 
try, descended, according to Mr. Anderson, from tho Norwegian horse, 
bul^ according to Mr, Borrebow, being of Scottish origin. They are very 
small, strong, ^id swift. There are thousands of them in the mountains 
which never enter a stable : but instinct or habit has tanght them to 
scrape away the snow, or break the ice, in search of their scanty food. A 
few are usually kept in the stable ; but when tho peasant wants more he 
cstehes as many as he needs, and shoes them himself, and that sometimea 
with a sheep's horn. 

This animal, according to Berenger, is small, but active and willing — 
somewhat eager and impatient, but free irom vice. He is used only in 
the winter season, when he is employed in drawing sledges over the snow, 
and transporting wood, forage, and other necessaries, which in the enmmer 
are all conveyed in boats. During the sununer these horses are turned 
into the forests, where they form themselves into distinct troops, and 
select certain districta from which they rarely wander. They return of 
their own accord when the season begins to change, and the forests no 
longer supply them with food. 

Is small, but nimble and willing. He is almost entirely fed on bread, 
composed of equal ports of rye and oatmeal. To this is added a consider- 
able quantity of salt, and, if he is about to start on a long journey, a Uttle 
brandy. 'While changing horses,' writes Sir A Brooke in his TtovbU 
in Stneden, * we were not a httle entertained at the curious group formed 
by the peasants and their steeds breakfasting together ; both cordiaUy 
partaking of a large hard rye cake. The horses sometimes belong to 
three or even more proprietors ; it is then highly amusing to observe the 
frequent altercations between them, each endeavouring to spare his own 
horse. Their affection for their horses is so great that I have seen them 
■bed tears when they have been driven beyond their strength. 




AKpeditioD, boworpr, with whicli those little nnimnU pnxMwd is mirpriaing, 
wncn WC connidi-r the MraallnoBUi of thnir n»*, wl]i<:li hiirdl)' rioocdfl thitt 
of % ponT. Tliu road be'mg iimverauUy ROod tliruiij;hout Sweden, thoj 
frDquonttj do not relax fivm a gallop trom <mi> post-hooso lo auothcr.' 

Arn jct KnuiUcr than tlie Swedvii, uad not mare tlum tnolvo liands bi^L 
They are beautifully formed and very fleet. Tlit-y, lilco tbo Swrdo*. ar« 
turoed into tlic forests in tho anmnior, and roust lie ftitclied tlionec wluta 
tlipv nro w»nt<!d by the tmvcltpr. Although apjini-cntly wild, they aro 
nndnr pitrfiwt coiilrul, and con trot alou)j wilJi euBc nt Uic mtc of twfelvo 
miles ill the hour. 

Ki«h is roach tuod, both in Finland and Lnplnnd, for tho niuter fuod of 
ba w M and cattK 

ts larger tbftn tho Swcdisli or Finland, bat U eqaully hardy anit mnnag0> ; 
able, and attadiMl to ita un nur, and it8 owner to it. T]i« timkLi in Norway 
are the rvvortHi of what they are in Sweden : tlioy are rouffli and aliunxt 
irapossablo for cniringcti, bnt the snre-footrd Nnrwt^an ecTdom Btniublea 
upon them. Pontoppidaa a|)eaks of their oct-niiional oont«iite with l>oarfl 
and wolvcH, and chiefly Iho latter. These occmrenceH arc now moro 
matter of titory than of actual fnct, but they do Bometimtja ooi^ur at tho 
present day. When tho bono pcrc^eivcx any of tlie«o animala, and hati a 
ronn; or fonl with him, he put< them behind him, and then Airionsly attacks 
bin enemy with hia for»de^ which be UKa »u cxnert]y as gencraliy to 
tinivD the conqueror ; bat if be tnrnB round in ortW to strike with liia 
bind-leg;B, the bear cloeett npiin him im mediate v, and ho in lo«t. 

Of the horora of the iilundii of Fr.BOE, Still belonging to tho Danish 
erown, Burcngcr speuk:! in teruia uf tnoch pnuse. Ue aays that ' they aro 
email of growth, hut atroug, swift, and sore of foot^ going over Ike 
rougbeat places with such oortainty that a man may more mraly rely 
upon Uism diaa tmvt to hi« own feet. In Suderoe, one of thoM wtandit, 
ther hiivo a lighter and nwiftiT breed than in any of the re«t. On tlieir 
backs the inliabitanU pnrmo tho shE«p, which ni« wild in this iaiand ; lite 
pony Fnrriee the man OTcr placet that would bo othprwino inacceiuiblo to 
tiim — follows his rider over other* — en tern into thf full npiril of thevbiuie, 
and vveii Icaocln down and halda tho prey under bia feet until Umi rider 
can take poaMMon of it.' 


B«taming to tka -Oaatinan^ and bavinc eroMed the Baltio, we moet 
■ritii a bom aa diSbnat fron tiiom wMdt MTe just boon dr-ncrihed a* it 
m poMible to imagine, Tho boiSM of Holetoia and MockhTnlmrg. and 
aoow of the ueigbboming distriet^ aro on the largest scale. Their usual 
hciffbt Is sutoeb, or saventeeD, or oighteen lianda. They are heavily 
ntada ; 8w neck is too thick ; the shoulders are h«*vy ; the biu-kii nra too 
kxi^, and the cronps are narroir compared with their fore-parta: bvt 
tlunr appfrance ia so noble and eomnundisg, tbeir notion so high and 
briniuttf SOkd their strength and spirit ara so evident iu every motion, that 
tliffir buta am jMidonod and forgotbm, and they arc eelcctcd for every 
ocouimi of poonliar Btate and ccrtnnony. 

Before, howerer, wo arrire at the native connlry of tiiese ma^ificent 
bones, wc mnEt gla&es at the altempi of one noble indiridital to unprore 
the geocn^ breed of koraos. In tho island of Alsen, separated froiD Uie 
dacliy of Slesmdc by a narrow channel, \» the nobbi habitation of tha 
Dnko of Aogutai^boaig. His stud is attached to it, and suder tbo in- 


mediate manBgement of the noble ovner. It containa thirty mares of 
pore bloo4l, and fifteen or sixteen stallions of tlie same grade ; and all of 
them selected witli care from the beat thorongh-bred studs in England. 
WotwithBtaTi ding this selection of pnre blood, or rather in its peculiar 
selection, it has oeen the object of tiie dnke to prodnce a horse Uiat shall 
be nsefal for the purpose of pleasore, cMtimerce, and agricnltDre. Some 
of the stallions are reserved for his own stud ; but witb regard to iixa 
others, such ib the spirit with which this noble establishment is conducted, 
and his desire to improve the race of horses in Sleswick, that he allows 
more than 600 mares every year, belonging to the peasants of the isle of 
Alsen, to be covered gratuitooaly. He keeps a register of them, and in 
the majority of cases he examines the mares himself, and chooses tike horse 
which will beat suit her form, her beanties, her defecte, or the purpose for 
which the progeny is intended. It is not therefore sniprising that there 
should be so many good boreee in thiB part of Denmark, and ^at the im- 

C'vement in Sleswick, and in Eolstein, and also in Mecklenburg, should 
BO rapid, and so universally acknowledged. 

There is another circumstance which should not be forgotten — it is 
t^t by which alone the preservation of a valuable breed can be secured 
— ib is that to the neglect of which the deterioration of every breed must 
be partly, at least, and, in many cases, chieSy traced. The duke in his 
stud, and the peasants in the surrounding country, preserve the good 
breeding mares, and will not part with one that has not some evident or 
secret fault about her. 

How mach have the breeders of Great Britain to answer for in tbo 
deterioration of some of our best breeds frota this cause alone ! 

There is, however, nothing perfect under the snn. This determination 
to breed only &om horses of pnre blood, although care is taken that these 
horses shall be tbe stonteat of their kind, has lessened the sfae and some- 
what altered the peculiar character of tbe horse in the immediate districts ; 
and we must go somewhat more southward for the large and stately 
animal of which frequent mention has been made. The practice of the 
country is likewise to a certain degree unfriendly to the full development 
of theAngnstenboui^ horse. The pasturage is sufficiently good todevelop 
the powers of the colt, and few things contribute more to his subsequent 
hardihood than his hving on these pastures, and becoming accustomed to 
the vicissitudes of the seasons : yet this may be carried too far. The 
Sleswick colt is left out of doors all the year round, and, except when the 
snow renders it impossible for him to graze, he is, day and night, exposed 
to the cold, and tiie wind, and the rain. We are no advocates for a 
^stem of nursing laborious to the owner and injurious to the animal, bat 
a full development of form and of power can never be acquired amidst 
outrageous neglect and privation. 

Prussia has not been backward in the race of improvement — or rather, 
with her characteristic policy, she has taken the lead, where ber influence 
and her power were concerned. The government has established some 
extensive and well-regulated studs in various parts of the kingdom ; and 
tataij of the Prussian noblemen have establisbmenti of their own. In 
some of the marshy districts, and about the mouth of the Tistula, there is 
a breed of lai^ and strong horses snited ia agricultural purposes. The 
■tuds produce others for pleasure or for war. In the royal studs particular 
attention has been paid to the improvement of the PrusaiBn cavaliy-horse. 
He has acquired considerably more fire and spirit, and strength aod endnr< 
•ace, without any sacrifice either of form or action. 




Ttie Flt!n*iih and Ihtlek lioraes aru l«ixe, auJ arc fttrongly fornuM]. 
Wo orr iiidi-lited to them for some of the best blood of our (Inu^^lit-harsM, 
luiil we BtJU Iwvo froancnt rocottrae to tli«in for kocpinff up and tm* 
proTing tbo brood. Thcj will bo more particalurlj deaonl>oa when tlw 
out-bone k spoken of. 



Tr earlieol record of tbe faorm in Great Britain is contained in tha 
hhbarj fgma hj Juliui (^Mur of hU invasion of our isWd. The Urittali 
wmrvnu nooompanicd iij uumcrooit wiir-<:hAriot«, diawn bv honic*. Short 
acruic* were faMvaed to the enda of the axle-troee, swwping down overj- 
tluog before them, and cttrrjing terror ftnd deTaetation into tbe ntuka of 
the eut^mj. Tho coDi]aerorgircs an animnbxt (lc»cHptioD of the dexteritj 
with which tlic«e bonea were mananed. 

niiat kiiMl of horee tho itritona then posMSBCd, it would be nadoai to 
inquire ; bnt, from tho cnmbrooa stroctoro of the car, and the tttry with 
which it wax drirtm, biuI the badncM of the roada, and the almost nod- 
«x>aUinc« of thoao that were paaiable, it miisl have been both actiro aivil 
pownAil in an eztraordinai; d»grw~ It ia abeord to anppoM, aa aamo 
natnraKsta hava done, that the poniea of Cornwall and of Deron, or of 
Walca, or of ShcUnnd, ore ty|x« of what tbo Brilixh liarao waa in eartT 
ttmea. He waa tlien aa erer the er«atara of the 001U1U7 in which he lircd. 
With BhoH &re and cipoonl to tho rigour of th» aaaaona, he was pmlxikly 
the little I^h^ tbing which we yd mrti him ; bot in the manhrK of tho 
Ken and tbe Withum, and on the boidtira of the Tous and tbe Clyde-, tlioro 
wootd be as mncb proportionata dorelopmcnt of ftamo and of slfvn^fth u« 
we find at thoprcacnt day. 

Qvear deemed theae bonee ao TBlnablei, that be carried many of them to 
Bome; aedtli«f mnhfiH- a oonadenble period afterwards, in ^nsit rrqucHt 
in varioiu parta of tlie Roman empire. 

HoraM mnat at that tune have been oiceodtrurly unmcrona in BritaiB. 
for we are totd that when the Britiah king, CBsaircllannuH, dinniiMea 
the main body of his anny, ho retained foor thousand Of bia war- 
ohnriota for tho pnrpoMc of haraasing the Bomana, when thejr attempted to 

Tbe Briliali bone now racoirDd ita fint croxx ; bot whothcr tho bned 
waa Iborcfay improrod cannot be niic«rta)uod. Tim Romnns bavinff Mtal^ 
liahed thomaelvta in Britain, found it ncctaaary lo aund orrr a nnatcrtma 
lioily of cavalry, in order effcvtanlly to chack tAe fV«queul insurrcctiana of 
llie iiati\-c«. rb« Romaa honoa wonld breed with thoae of tbe conntry 
and, h> a greater or leaa eztentt olnniie thenr ebancter ; and fmm thia 
time, tbe Knf^U\ hone woald consist of a compcnnd of the naliro animal 
aixl those from Oanl, Italy, Spain, and every proviaco from wiikh tha 
Koman eavalry waa anpplivd. 

Uany oontoriea afWrwards passed by witbont tearing any record of tha 
chaiaeter or Tmloc, imprarrmi'nt or deterioration, of the bone. Aboat tlia 
year 630, however, aoounling to Bede, Ibo English wora accofltooMd to 



nse Uie saddle- He aajs, th&t ' the bialiopB and otlierB rode on horeeback, 
wlio until then were wont to go on foot ; and that even then it was onlj on 
urgent occasions that they thus rode. They used mares only, as a mark of 
hnmility, the mare generaUy not being so handsome of bo much valaed as 
the horae.' 

Abont 920 years after the first landing of Ceesar, we find the varions 
British kingdoms united, and Alfred on tiae throne. Nothing that con- 
comed the welfitre of his kingdom was neglected by this patriotio monarch, 
and some of the chronicles relate the attention which he paid to the breed- 
ing and improvement of the horae. An ofBcer was appointed for this 
especial purpose^ who was entitled the Hcm-Than or MartB-Thane, or, as 
the historian renders it, Equorum Magiater, Master of the Horse. In 
every succeeding reign, this officer was always near the royal person, 
espc^aally on every state occasion, 

Atbelstan, the natural son of Alfred, having subdued the rebellions por- 
tions of the Hepfarchy, was congratolated on his snccess by some of the 
Continental princes, and received from Hugh Capet of France, who 
solicited his sister in marriage, several Qennan running horaea. Hence 
our breed received another cross, and probably an improvement. We are 
not, however, certain of the precise breed of these horses, or how fei th^ 
resembled the besutifiil state horses, whether black or cream-coloored, 
which we obtain from Germany at the present day. Atbelstan seems to 
have placed peculiar value on these horses or their descendants, or the 
result of their intercourse with the native breed ; for ho soon afterwards 
(l D. 930) decreed, that no borses should be sent abroad for sale, or on any 
account, except as royal presents. This provea his anxiety to preserve 
the breed, and likewise renders it probable that that breed was begiiming 
to be esteemed l^ our neighbours. 

It is not unlikely that, even at this early period, the beautiful effect of 
the English soil and cllmat«, and care in the improvement of the horse, 
began to bo evident. This will bo a subject for pleasing inquiry by and 
by ; but the experience of every age has proved that there are few 
conntri^ in which the native breed baa been rendered so much more 
valuable by the importation of a foreign stock, and every good quality of 
a foreign race bo certainly retained, as in England. 

In a document bearing dat« i.o. 1000, we have an interesting account 
of the relative value of the horse. If a horse was destroyed, or negligently 
lost, the compensation to be demanded was thirty shillings ; for a mare or 
colt, twenty shillings ; a mule or young ass, twelve shillings ; an os, thirty 
pence ; a cow, twenty-four pence ; a pig, eight pence ; and, it strangely 
follows, a man, one pound. According to the Anglo-Saxon computatian, 
forty-eight shillings made a pound, eqnal in silver .to about three pounds 
of oar present money. Five pence made one shilling : the actual value 
of these coins, however, strangely varied in different times and circum- 

In the laws of Howell Dha, Howell the Good, Prince of Wales, enacted 
a little before this time, there arc some curious particulars respecting the 
valne and sale of horses. The r^ae of a foal not fourteen days old is fixed 
at four pence ; at one year and a day it is estimated at forty-eight pence ; 
and at Uiree years, sixty pence. It was then to be tamed with the bridle, 
and brought up either as a palfrey or a serving horie, when its value became 
one hun£ed and twenty pence. That of a vtild or unbroken mare was 
si^r pence. 

Even in those early days, the frauds of dealers were too notorious, and 
the following singular regolations were established. The buyer was allowed 
time to ascertain whether the horse was free from three diseasea. He had 


tfaroa nigliU to nmv« him for Uio lAn^giw ; tbroc months to priJW'ttff 
nouiuIdumi of fait luiiga ; antl oue yuir (o uaoi'riuiii wliizlborhcn-iui infcTtivl 
wilfa gUmdenL I'or civer^ bleoiisbdiscuvi'ivi] tLniL'rthi-purciiu&e.oiiH-tliirtl 
of tbo moiKV wM to bo rvtnmpd, iMcnpt it slionlil boa blemish of the oan 
or tali], whicl) it wtm KunptHiwl to he bin own fniilt if the pnrchiuMir did not 
di*covcr. The seller also wurruuted lliat tlio liorsu would not lin.- whi-n 
on a journey with othtrrs, or n?rfii«(> his food teom hnrd work, ood that he 
wonM c»ny a load or draw n cnrringn np or down hill, nod not bo rfjfi/, 

Tht- (inictice of letting boraoi for liiir! tlitn cxisft'd ; aiid llirii, na now, 
tbo M-rviciM of tho poor h»cik wore too bmlnll}' exactt-d. The beaevoUmt 
Huwvlt di8d»iDsiiotto legislsto for tlir proU'ction of tliin nbiiscd Mid vnluAbU 
aorvant. ' Whnorcr khnll borrow a boric, und mb tbo htiir «> us to gnll 
tho back, Bhftll pKy foor pvoce ; if tUu iJciii n forc«d iuto tbt- fliwL, eight 
li^oe; if tbedwi be fon^ed to tho bono, eixtoon pcmco.* If a person tuned 
a horse, bo was to forfeit tho ntluo of tbo bniimil ; und if ho wna KRppoMd 
to b»VD kilL-d a hunto, be waa to porge himself by the oatbn of twcuty- 
four coinpurgKUirs. 

Then, as now, it would appear that some youn;* mon were a little (oo 
food of Dnw>rmnti>bln mischiof, or porhara there wcro tlueras in tbo 
otnintcy, even no mon ulWr Alfml'ii duy«, nfiowing kIro tho ontimution in 
which this portiou of tliv aulmal wxa bt-ld, and tUu nuuiiMrr iu wliioh the 
hair was mflered to grow, for it was dcci-eod that ho who cut off the hair 
from a horso's tail wa* to nmintain him uittil it was grown again, and in 
tfao mean tima to fumisb tlie owner with another horau. If liie t«il wajt 
eut off witli tli« hair, the miscreant who inflioled the outrage was mulrtul 
in thoTaluoof thoaninul, and tbehorso wAsdoeiDoduuStfbrftitaroserTioc. 

AtbolstiUt aoeoM to have ptaced considcrttblo vuluo on noroc of hia lionic* ; 
fur he bequeatlia, in Itia wil^ the boraea giruu hlni by Tliurbrand, and the 
wbito bonea preeentod to him by LlitbrsAd. Those aro appareatly Saxon 
natiiM, bnt Hio mcmoTy of tbcm is now lost. 

With William lite Criinijurmr canut n marked improromont in the Brilivh 
horwe. To his suporiority in cavalry tJuii ]irinoo waa chiefly indebted for 
the victoij of Uastinga. TbefaToorito charger of William was a Spaniard. 
His foUowen, both uba barona and tho common aoldicrs, principally came 
ttota a oountiy in which affricultimt had mado more mpid prof^reas than 
in Bnglaod. A rory considerable portion of tho kin^^um was divided 
•mong llieae nuni ; and it cannot bo doubtod that, howorer nnjast was the 
uaorpatioo of thu Nunuau, Knifland licm^fitiHl in its hoshaodn-, and par- 
licunriy in its horacs, by tli« i.'hiui(,'e of utasten. Some of the barons, aiul 
Mrticdlarly Roger do Boulo^e, oarl of ShrewiiburT, introduced th« 
Spaninfa ]iiono on their nowly-aoqaired estates. Tbo niHtoriiuia of thaao 
time», howevvr — principally moraka, and knowing nothing about hora o a— 
give IU VDI7 tittle iafonnatioD ou the subiect. 

Vbm SfMBiah honM was thrn lii|;hly and deservedly valued for hia Kta(«ly 
figure anil noble action, and wiu ui mu(-li riHiiieiit in tho tilts and lonma- 
nMnta that were Ibuu in (kahion. Thi- Sjianish borae was tlie war-liorae 
of every 000 who could afford to pnrcLnno and pro])crly acoontre so nobia 
an animal. The ooar^^ and tlio akill of tbo ndrr wtiru mont perfectly 
diipUytd when nnitt.'d with the strcagth aud activity, and Mpirit aid 
beauty, of the steed. 

One ci/etunatanoo dcMTTrn to bo niniarkrd, namciv, that in nono nf the 
earlieal faiatorieal roconbi of tliv Anglo-Saxons or tbo Welab ia tboro any 
nlhUMw to the Bse of the bone for the pkwgh. Until a L-ompamtively 
reoMtt prri<Hl, oioo akoe ««n> employed in England, as iiiother countries, 
for this purpdttc; hot about Ihua pvriod — tbo laltvr part of the tenth 
oo&taiT — eomo inuOTation on thta point was oomnMincing, asd a Wdali 



Liir furbode ib* tuiaet lo plough with komcN, nuuvs, or cows, bat with 
os«B alone. <>n o»o of tlie pivcta of th« Buvi-iu tapfstnr woven in tliu 
tiiBa of Willium th<' Conqnomr (i.i>. 1(><!<!), uien 'u Urn n^ns of » man 
driitcg K horn attached lo a hnrrow. This is tbo earliest notice tlutt vro 
bai-c uf tho OM of this uiunal in fidd-Ubtmr. 

In the reiga of lUnry 1. (ad. 11.11}, the luwt Ambinn horse, or atleut 
thfi first oo rocord, wm introdncod. Aleuuud«r I., kin); of Sootlnnd, 
prcsctttvd lo tho church of St. Andrew's an Arabian horsf>, with voilJjr 
famiUiTe, "Dukish armoor, many vulunhlo trinkets, and r oonsidentblo 

There hMxo Uxm some pretensions to tlie ezistoacw of a brovd tl«rir«d 
(rcta or imprntixl by thi« bonw, bat no certain proof of it can be addut^ud. 

In the Tvign of Hi-nry U. acTcnd foreign horses wcro iin))arted, bat of 
wbM kind is not mentjonod. Haddox spettks of ' thu incruwod nllowuiico 
that was made for tho enbastODCe of tbe Song's horses that wcr« lately 
broo^hl fmm beyond S(«.' 

SmithEdd is also now first spoken of as a hon^-markot, n field for 
tonnmaente, aiMla»ce-ooutw. Fitzstephen, who lived atthat time, git-ca 
the following animated accoont of the scene : — ' Without one of the galvH 
of ihe city is a ccrtaio field, plain or tntooth, both in luit/id and »Hii<itiim. 
Krery Friday, rxccpt some festival intervene, thorc is a fine ^aht of horses 
bcooght to be sold. Uauy came out of the city to buy or look on^ — to wit, 
saib, bsuuns, kui(;ht8, and dtiiens. It is a pleastittt tUiug to behold the 
hninn ther«, nil gny and sleek, moving np nnd down, some on the ambU 
aad some on the trol, which latter pa<«. altliough rooghcr to the rider, is 
belter suited to nwD who bear arms. Here idso are oolts, yet ignonuit of 
the bridle, who pnnce and bonnd, and givu early signs of spirit and 
eenrage. Hero aUo are mummmI or wn.r-hori>ci(, of tilcgunt shniH!, fnll of 
fire, and giving creij proof of a gencrons and noble temper. Horses aim 
for Uwcaft, dray, and ploogb, are to bo found hw9i maree^ big with foal, 
and others with their oolts wantonly rnnning by thoir sidM. 

'Kvery Sunday in (jcnt, after dinnirr, (t cotupuuy of young men ridcont 
into the fidds, on boms that are fit for war, and exoeUent for their apt^i). 
Erecj one among them b taught to nm the rounds with his )io»«. TIjo 
caliaens' sons issue out throngh tho gntcn by troops, foroishod with lances 
■od duelds. Tboyoangor sort huTetbuir pikes not headed with iron; nnd 
tfaar nake representntion of battle, and exercido a skirmiah. To this uer- 
fciSMnoe many oour1ie» resort, when the court is near; and yoau;; 
alri|dinga, yet nnlnitiaicd in arms, from the fiuoilios of borons and great 
pcraoDS to train and pmctiHc. 

' They b^n by dividing Uivmselves into troops. Some labour to oaU 
atrip their leaders, wtUioot being able to r«acb them ; others onhorec their 
lilagnniiUn. jet are not able to got beyond thnm. A nco is to be run by 
this sort of bones, and porhaps by others, which also in their kind aro 
dtoog and Beet, a shont U inunediatoly raided, and tho common horse* are 
osd««d to withdraw out of tho way. Three joelcrys, or aomotimes only 
twtt, as the match is made, rrrpiirc Ihi'iiiNi'lves for the contoft. The 
liornaao tlieir p*rt arc not witli»iil eiuulutiun : they tremble and are iiu- 
[■tiiml. and are couUnuaUy in mutiuu. At liict, the sdgiutl once given, they 
start, devour the coorso, and hurry alont; nilJi uiireoiitting svriftncss. 
ThejOckejB, inspired with the Ihonghtofupi'Umse and the ImjHi of victory, 
dap spurs to their willing horsta, brandish thtir whips, and chcur tlii-m 
with their eries.' This animated d«scripiiou reminds us of the moro 
le^tbened noes of tho present day, oud proves tho blood of the English 
bone, eren before the Kiutrm breed wn« tried. 

Close on this fdlowcd the Crosadcs. Tho ohunpiona of tha Crow 



ct<rbun]^ hod il in tlieir power to enrich Ihmr native country with someoF 
the cliuiocst vpecimciia of the Bwtem hone, but thi>}- wora oomplatcljr 
uuder the inHnencii of snporatitioa and fannticiiaio, mad cenunon leaM anxl 
(uefUDCM wcro forgotten. 

An old molrioal ronunoe, lieirorer, reooi^ tlie excellence of tvo horece 
boloogiiig to Ricli&rd Ccenr ilo Lion, which bo pnrchuod nt Cjrpnu, unit 
were, tboeforo, probably of BiiAlem origin :— > 

Yn llu* vnrldo tb«]r hnlde no ptrg^ 
Pramedan nor d«tnnr, 
S(i>dr, Rabjio, Ha Qiiaini'lc, 
GocUi none u ■wifto, nithout (kfle: 
For a tbomnnid pomi at soUiv 
H« ihoiUd tba ons Iw Mid*. 

Tlie bmd of tlie war-Btocd was omamentf^ with » creat, and tofipeihra 
with his choet nnd flnnka, wua wholly or pordtilly protocsted. SomotimM 
bo wna clsd in complot« steel, with tbo arms oT hia moater engmviKl or 
emboMed uu his liarJinyi. lite bridle of the horse was always M spluudid 
aa tiie circDDwtssoos m tJio kniiffbt allowed, anil thtis a horvo wae ofleii 
caUed bngtiadoru, from briylia aroro, t. bridle of gold. BcU« wnro a voiy 
bvonritu addition to the equipment of the horw. The old trunbttdonr, 
Arnold of Uarston. f»y9 that 'nothing is so proper to inspire Coiifid«DC« 
ia ■ knight and lerror in an enemy.' 

The price of lionea at this period was ainfrol&rly nnocrtnin. In 1185, 
fifteen breeding maree sold for two pounds twclro ahOliagS aod aixpenoo, 
Thef were parchnaod bj- the moniirch, and distribatod unong his tenants ; 
and in onlcr to K«t something by the bargain, ha charged them the gtnA 
nun of fuor ahillinga eadi. Twenty years aflerwards, ton oapilal horsce 
brotiKht no IcM tiian twenty pountls ench ; and twelve years later, a pair 
of horses wen imported from Ijomlmrdy, for which the oxtmragiutt price 
of thirlj-eight pounUft thirtiwu sliiUiii;^ aud fuurpcnoe was given. The 
nsnal price of good liaud^omt' liora<-s was ton pounds, and the nire of acar 
or eari with two horses wns t^mpcnco a-day. 

To Kine John, hntittul an lin wna in all other reancota, we are mnch 
indcbtc<l fur Ihu atlcutiou which }w paid to agriculture gcncruUy, and 
particaUrly to the improvoniont of th« breed of horoes. Ho import<.-il one 
linii<lr<Ml chonen NtaUiona of the Fliindcr* brrcd, and thus miunly contributMl 
to prv-purv our noble spvcics of dranght-honiea, as nnriralled in tboir way 
as ibc horses of the turf. 

John ooconatilutrd a rtiry nnmorous sad valuable stnd. He was eager 
to poascss himself of every bonw of more than nsual power; and at all 
tuoofl gbdf reeeired from the tenants of tha crown, himKn of a imperior 
ffluU^ tnrtoad of mooor for the rooowal of grants, or the payment of for^ 
fcitum belonging lo tne orown. It wna hu pride (o render his cavalry, 
and the botaea for the loumameul auil fur pli-uaart>, a* perfect as heoonld. 
ll waa not to bo expected that so haoghly and OTcrbennnff a ^rant would 
ooBoem hinnwlfmach with tba inftrior kinds; yet while tlie superior kinds 
wcro rapidly Iwwnning more valuable, the oUiers wonld, in an indirect 
manner, partake of the imptOTaoent. 

One handred jrmrs afterwards, Edwunl II, purchaacfl thirty lombordy 
tear-Jteraer,andtwelTo heavy dmngbl-hontcs. Ijomlwnly, Iluly.aiul Spain 
were the oonntriea wbenoc the ^freater port of Enrope was ttum snppbad 
wtdi the moat valnablo cavalry or parade horses. 'Thoaa for agrictutaral 
{■nnioSM were chiefly nrocn ml fmm tliuulcr*. 

Bdward III. devolwi one thuDiuuidiuiirks to thopttrrlutsoof fifty Spanish 
horses ; and of meh impi^rtance did ho oonaider this addition to the EagU^ 
or rather, mingled bluod thou canatmg, that lormal application waa made 


*ia tbm kino of Tnoix and SpAin to gntit mfo ooiulDct to the troa{>. 
m^ Umr ud nfelj anived at tJio n^iu atod, it wu cutntiated tiiftt tbey 
had ooat tbe monaKih no ten than ttuiieeii ponoda dx aliiUtngs and cight- 
pmee per faonm, cijnal in ralnc to ono bnndrcd and sixty ponods of our 
iwwnit moDOy. 

TImmo bonea w«to boaght in order to onaUo hun eurccesfaily to prose* 
cata a war agaiagt Scotland, and to prepare for a apk-udid toununnont 
which be waa about to hold. 

lintire boraea mra alone tued for thia mimio ooateet, and gcnorally so 
in tbe dntica and danger* of the field. It was nnHy tlio custom to caatnfa 
the oolta; and the iDtroductioD of tbo fomalo aooag «> many perfect 
boraca nttsht ooca ainm a ll T bo prodnctivii of ooaAudon. Tbo ouu« ma at 
tbia paii3 oompatatirely de^iaed. It iraa deemed disgraoefnl for any 
eaa Aon the common rank to rido ber, and ebe waa employed only iu 
thm Hoat aerrile officaa. Tbia fooliiig and pntctico was tbon prerident in 
aw^ part of tbo world. Wbcn, Iiowuvlt, it began (o bo tho oaiitom to 
oattnOe tbo yoooK koraea, ibe xrorlh and value of tbe marc wun aoon 
mppreciaiied ; and it is now acknowlnlged that nfoally she is not niucli, if 
ai aQ, ioEmor to thn pcrfmt bono ia many rospi^tii, whilo rho has far 
nore atrtn^tb, pni}iort*oi)ate coniago, and ondnianm thaii tlin E^r-lding. 

Una monucb had many nmnrnj^AoraM. TBu preduu! mt^aiung of tlio 
torn ia DO^ howerer, clear. Thoy might be light and apeoAj animals in 
V p poa iium to thoao daatisod for tbo cavalry en-vico, or iiorflC« that woro 
titmrnOy naed fbr tbo porpoao of lacia^. The avorago price of thoMi 
mnttajr-horMe wsa twenty noarka, or ttertceu pounda six ahJIlinga aud 

Edward waa derotod to tbe aport* of the turf and thff field, or ho bogun 
to lae tbe p r o p ri e ty of croaaang oar statirly aud )icqivy brood with those of 
a Iqrbter atmctnie and greater epeed. Thoru was, Itowcvtir, ono impcdi- 
nC to this, whi<^h was not for a rery lon^ prriml n'rnovcil. Tbo soldier 
I ouod in houTT armour, and the kniglit, with all liia aoooutrcmeota, 
rode moiv tbuo twtrDty-liTe atones. No httle bulk and slrcqigili 
I mnired in Ute nniTuftl destined to carry this hnok- breaking weight. 
Wmo tM imaket waa mbstilatoil for tbo cixiu-bnw and battlo-axo, and 
iUa iron deleneo, combroa* to the wotkrcr and doiitrucUvv to the bono, 
beeame vaeleaa, and waa laid aatde, the iinjirovemeut of the Bntiah borso 
in leality commeuccd. 

Wbile Kdwnrd wm tJina rager to avail hinuielf of foreign blood, be^ 
witb tbe too &«<]nent wctttHhiwiM of tliu ^urtBriiiui, would let no neighbour 
abaiv in (be adrantage. The ciportat4ou of liorsea was forbidden under 
b^*y poDaltit>s. Ono cam in which bo rclaxtKl from hi* imvnrity is 
reeonled- Ho pomtittoi! a Gorman merehaut to ro^xport soiuo Flauders 
hnw wfaicb be had bronglil on H^ieculatioD ; but he strictly forbade lum 
la aend IImoi to Scotland. Nay, so jealona were tbeso siatT-kingdnma of 
ItIi other's praspnrity, that nn lafn aa t)io timo of Elixubftli, it was 
daasaed felony to export horara from Eu^^lnud to Scotland. 

The Ifan^iirii bone wae adranciog, nllbongh slowly, to nn oqnnlily with, 

" "an anporiority over, tboM> of nrighbonring countrit-s. Hi* vtdmi 
I lo bo more gencntUy ami highly dtjiniiti-d, and his price i-apidly 
ae d eo much ao^ that Uie brordora find tho dmlcra, then, ns now, 
tin imponagon tbeinexTOrieneod, obbiim-'d fminmany of the young 
^. _ _aaa raomoas price* for tSwir cnttlo. This evil iooreoacd to Buoh an 
oirnt, tbat Ricbard TI- (138r>) inttnfered to m^^lato and determine tbe 
prise. The proclantation which ho iesntxl ia lutereatiDg, not only u 
■iTOTUig tibe mcTcascd valae of tbo hnrae, but showing what wen-, fciur 
bvMlnd and aeranty ycara agn, tbo obief breeding districts, ua tlM'y still 




caDimav U> be. It wua onlervd lo bo publitJied in Ibe conuticn of Linmln 
and Cambridge, and tll* Sut and North Ridings of Yorkaliiro ; uid tlio 

S'rico of tbo bono trw Twtr^otcd to tbnt which hnd bocn ilctormiDed by 
OTtaor monfLTolia. A mare enlighbenunl policy bus at tvogth baaishcd mil 
such ftbeord int«ri*«reDcea •nritli afp-tculturc and contmcrce. 

Wo c*n now collect bat littlo of the history of the horse until the reipi 
of Hcury VII., n.t Ibo clooo of tlio fificcnth ccntnry. Mo ooatinaed to 
prohibit the cxpurtutioD of HtuUion*, hnt uUowvd that of nutroa when mors 
tiian t(vo jeant old ; and under the value of six ihiUin;,-^ and eiffhlpencv. 
This rrguljition was, however, eiwily evaded ; for if a niaro could bo foaud 
worth more thnn nit iliiUingt and aghtponco, nho might bo frccljr cxportod 
ou thu [Kiymcnt of tliut num. 

The intention of this was to p^t au end to the exporffttion of perfeot 
horaes ; for it is recited in th« prmmblo * th»t not only a smaller unmber 
of good honw« wero IcA within tiie railm fur the defences thereof, biit also 
that greut and good plenty of Uto aame were in [HirU beyoud the nuu, which 
iti limee past were wont to be wiUiin this land, whereby the prico of hotsea 
wu greatly cnhanccil,' Jtc. The exception of thn mare, and the small sum 
for which Nho might bn exported, shows the unJoHt i:oDt«iiipt in which Hho 
was held. Another act of the same monarch, howuver unwillinglj- on hia 
parti restored her (o her proper mnk among her kind. 

It had beian th« costom to keep likrgc hcras of horses in the Tiostorra and 
coramon fietdo, and wlten thu harvcnt waa gathi-n-d in, Uie catuo of a gr«at 
many owners ftd prouuscnouBty together. The oousequcuce of tlua was 
that the progeny presented a sbwige admixture, and there vras often a 
great dctcrionitioD of the ftvonrito and best hrcc<]. On this ncconnt 
an act wiis paiBrrd nrohilntitig stiilUons from bcwg turned out into any 
couimuu paaturo. This, al no givat distance of time, ucceasarily led to 
the casbatiiig of all but a veiy few of tlio best Btnllions, and then, on 
comparing ths powers and work of tho tuar« with that of tlio gelding, 
nho noon tM^an to bu n4HTOutit4Hl Euoru valuable— more service was exacted 
from her — ^e was Ukeii mure care of, and the general breed of horses 
was materiaUv impioTed. 

Polrdora Viiyi), who llouridicd in Uiia rdgn, confirms tho Ntatrments 
atreaay made, t£at ' the Bngliah horses were ecldora acctutomed to trot, 
bnt exoelUid in the softer pace of the amhU.' 

H«nry Yll. wan an arbitrary monarch, and an^mcd to be too fond of 
prohibitory acta of [larliujnent ; but wo far lui the honie was ooncemcd tbcj 
wen most of them pohtic, althou^b ^rannical. 

Stuoeoding nionarchs acted on tbo some principle, and by prohibiting 
oxportation, and encoBraging a n umcniiui and good brtt-d of honKis, by 
poolio rewards and reoompuuHw, tivery uecMsary iucitvmcut was afforded 
rapidly to imnrove the biMd. 

Uoory VIll., a tynmnical and orns) prince, but fond of show and 
aniDndour, rta» very anxiotis to produce a valuable btt!«x] of bones ; and 
tlie nuNuui which bu adopted were perfectly tu unison with lus arbitrary 
disposition, altluKwb oertsinlv calculated to effect his object. He affixed 
a certain staadara, bdow which no homo shoald bo kept. The lowcat 
bcigtit for tho rtalKfm was fifteen hands, and for tlie mare thirteen hands. 
Thuoo whose looal intereeAs were injured loudly cotnplaiaed of this 
sriritraiy prooeeding. The small breed of Cornish boraes was in a manner 
eatingnisbcd. Tho dwarfii>h hot activo and uxcfbl inbabitanU of Uio 
Welsh tBOant&ins mpidly dimiuialicd, Uie Exmoors and the Dartmoois 
were eompetled to add an inch to ibeir stature, and a more onifonnlj 
•tool and uaefnl breed of horscs'waa prodnccd. 

The monarch was detonnincd to cffevt and to accnre bis object. At 


* tli« ne^libooHnit majriatraUii vnm- onji-ivil to ' iJrir«)' 
mad cominoM, tad not cmlr destroy such stallions, but kII 
tit*,' wbotbcr BUTM, or midineii, or foals, which tticy might 
not caJpnUted to produce n Tvluable Droud. 
He next had recourse to » muapiaarj law in order more fully to aocom- 
plisb bis otiQcct ; and, appcnling tt> tbe prido of thow wlio were concemed, 
aa hod so dtfGcidtj in tliia msttor. Eruty urabbiKbop and daico wm 
""""JT'"*^' ""^'^ oerl&in penalties, to k«ep aeven trutiiuf; iitaUitnui for tbe 
nddM. eacb oT vbicb was to b« fonrtera. butda high at the age of tbrce 

Tba« were rvry minute direoticmi with rC((ard to tbc number of tbo 
Mina kind of hotsw to be keiil by lb« otlicr ruiks of the clergy and uobi- 
litj, and the statnts oonclad«s 1^ cnHct.iug, thnt oroiy poreon baring 
b<sefio«to the lunonnt of onebiindm<l ponnilH ycitrly, and 'every Iftjmui, 
whoM wife shell wear any French hcx>d or boDuel of velvety' shall keep 
1M* aaA trotting stallioD ior the saddla. 

TWm onactnienta, ^rruintcal w they appear to ns. were onictly snb- 
"i**i«^ to in thoso days, and producod the kiud of bnmo whicii vsna tbon 
akoe eonpststirdy osefal, and wlioao alrengtb aud noble bwrbg and 
good Sfction were the fcnmdfttion of somethiog belter lu aAer days. 

The cS^i) dJOTffneioiin were at an end, thoro wn« no fwir of foreign 
iona — n> muDerons cavalry were needed — tbe labourM of ufrriciillore 
performed ohiefly by oxen, or by tbe smaller and inferior lireudn of 
tmcM w«re not established — the chaae had not begun to be 
with the ardour and uporA of modern dnjra — nothing, in fnol, wim 
wmnted or Bought fur, but an animu.1 more for oecaaional cxbibitiim 
for Sterling use, or if nsefid. prittcipally or solely with refcrenco to 
tt* I1MV7 cam^es and bad rcrnds and todioua trnvelting through tbo 
cuuiibj. If thin u rwhtly ooiuddonxl, it will be acknowledged Ibat, witJi 
all Ut ftolts, and with the coufeaston that be waa ever more actnatod by 
the detenninfttions of his own nngovorrnblr piuisionE than the ndvitntogo 
of hia peopio or of postority, wo still owe biin tbanks for tlie prcservutiun 
rftlnt bleed of bonm &om which in after tiities sprang Lhoae that were 
therion' of otJT oonntry and tbe enry of every otLer. 

niB foUowioff extract from a manuscript dated I'lVi, in the third year 
of Aa nJKD ofllenry VIII., and ontitkd iho Knjrulntianx and ISntniiliKh- 
of Uie HooaelM^d of Aluemon Percy, the tifth Ewl of Ni>rtliuinber- 
■■aj give the reader a sufficient knowledge of tbe dilTcrent kinds of 
then in om. 

^Tbig is the ordro of tbo obcqnirroul of the nombre of all tbo honiys of 
wj lonlia and my ladya that are apoyutcd to be In the obarKV of the iious 
venij, MB to say, gentil hors [<mo of the superior breed, in distinction 
DOB Uie ordinaiy race— the same term i* at prrxent applied to Ituliau 
hosata et the boat breeds] ; jsaUieyN [anmtler homu* of an inferior brev<d, 
— the beet of them, distiugnisheid for theirgeotleueea, and pleasant pncoa, 
woe set apart for the females of tho fotnily ; — " The bard that tells of 
pttfriad dttncs-" Otliera of inferior value wore ridden by the domcstioi 
of every kind. Thus Diyden says, 



n* (Bhlis and araoam* on pdrrtj* rjda.] 

._ rstn>i>S >n<t Active homee of rather smatl Ni«i, and said to have 

oei^nally of Irish extraction. Tho* Daviert, in his account of Ireland, 

my*:~-''Vor twenty hobblcr* armed — Irish horso-aoldiers — to called 
Iher sen-nl on hobbtes ; they bnd Gd. per diem"] ; nnggiv, [or 

, ao catted from their aapposed propensity to neigb, ineyya. They 




wen BnttU, aad not mnch vbIdcmI, but hcUto Itoraos : — "Thjr nags," >aj> 

Tk* Imwmi lUngii tilm, 
& rtij bud tiua loVn lo driia,] 

Cloth-aok bora, [ihftt c*meA tho clonk-bof;.] i lanlo-faora, [or mitil, viaa 
eqaivalont to portnik&tciin. Thou, in Chuui-cr, " I bnro rdiot Mid pardous 
ID toy male."] Firal. (^ntil-hors, to BUiid in mj lunlis ctaUe, Htx. Itfm. 
FkUkVfs of mj ladj''«, to wit, one for my lodj, and two for lior niaitiU 
womsn, and oono for her clunibomr. Fonr hobrs uui ntups for tnj 
lordi* ooDO Mulilill, vix. oonu fur m}' tontu to ridu, »otii3 to Irdc for jny 
lotde, and oodl' to Htay at home for my lorde. lUm, Cbaiiot Imn t»»liinil 
in atj lorde'a alablv jemXy. tiovon great trottTUge hon (o draw in tho 
cliariott [or car; wae the Tchiclo in varioaa fonna, bat for inferior to tlie 
vliariotor coach in oomnKMi lUd, in whioli tlie ftimitura or niovc«MiM wrto 
conreyed, or, pero)iaooe, the inlerior famaln of tbo family. Tti» lord and 
tho lady n^ially rodo on boraaback. Thcr wore «1ow-pnoi>d, hc«vy 
horaca, perhapa not much nnUko tbu oamaoc-luintRii a catitury ago, which 
ploogbed all tine w«ek, and took the fiunily to i^liurch on Ssnday. It 
Biiiat not bo forffott^n, a« marking the charact«r of the vehicle and ita 
ooDlaota, that tlie chariot-man, or ooachmnn, rode by tho side of tbo 
bonMa, and w condaot«d them and tlie com^-e], and a nags for tbo 
cbarioU-mon to ride; eight. Again, bora for lonlo Percy, bin lonlHliip'a 
•on and bcir. A grot« doblo trottrnge bonKi [a liuwc and broad-backed 
boiae^ the doproaaian alonswboaB book give* almoat theappcanuico of two 
boraea joined tofcetber. Thaa the EV«mch speak of U dmibte bidet ; and 
Virgil, rcft'irin^ to the horse, savs, "At duplex ngitorper InmtHH npina"] 
for my lonlo Percy to tmTcl on in winltrr. lUm. A ((rcUi doblo trottjiiKa 
bon, called a curtal, [otui with a docked tail. Thua. Ben Joitton : — " Hnld 
my fltitnp, my ooo lacqney, and look to my eurtal the otber,"] for bis 
lordship to ride on oat of townm. Another trottyngn gnmbaldjBe« 

Sgamhald waa the old word for gambol, and it nwduis a bonw that waa 
bnd of pbying and piandng about] hors, for bia lonUilp to ride upon 
when lie comos into townea. An ambling faora for his lordahip to joomev 
on dayly. A proper amblyng littlo nngg for hia lordnhip when 1k! goetn 
on banting or hawking. A grct umblynge gelding or tiottynge gelding to 
carry hia male.' — Semper on llur»emaitthij>. 

Hit Thomaa Ohalonor, who wroln in tlie early part of the reign of 
Eliutbvtli, and wboce praiMt of the departt-d monartih may l>o KUppnsul to 
he sincere, spmka in the hi|;hc!it terms of hia labonr lo introdace tmto his 
kingdom every variety of breed, aod fail aeleotion of tlia flaeat fit-^W 
which Turkey, or Kaploa, or SpatOi or Flnndura oould prodneo. Sir 

Thomaa waa now Iw^iilni at tbo court of Spain, and had an oppor- 

twti^of Bci-iii^-thi.- ralnabkhonofl which that ooantiy could prodaoo; and 
banjsUiat 'KD|,'land ooold AiraiA morobaantifnl aodawfal btooda than 
anjr whidi Cbrvign kingdotno roold supply.' Tho Euit waa, that cxoept &r 
pagoaatiy or war, and the xluw travelliii^t of those times, there waa no 
motire lo caltivato any new or valuable bmxX. Hie most powerfU atimn* 
Ins bad not yet been applied. 

Boroager, who would be good anlhorit<r iu ttich a case, provided axp^ 
rienoed koA tkilfnl penons to preside in his stahlos. and to spread by tiieae 
mrana the rults and elements of hon>vmaii>Lliip throngh the nntion. lie 
invitnl two llAlinnK, pnnils of Piirnalolli the nding mitler of Niipli'ii, and 
placed tJiem in hia si-rvice ; and ke likowiae bad an Italian fiurier named 
H a n nibain, who, IterooKcr quaintly remarks, 'did not discover ajiy tmmt 
tnysterica lo hi« Englijui brethren, but yet taught tbem more than th«y 
knew befoiv.' 


nere is noUuitg wortlij of nnnkrk tn the abort rc^n of E-lvard VL, 
l«aMpt tlw WMWl iiuUu g tbo vtaalbg of Iuwsm a felon/ wiUiout benefit of 

1b the twenfy-MOdad j«Kr of Elunbeth, tlw tuo of coaches «u intto- 
daoed. It baa been atrasd; temariud Ifa&t tlie hoids of nobtc faoiue« 
lasfvllsd almort from oim and of the kinKdom to Ui« othtr om konefawk, 
aaliB oocariowfly timj took rafngo in tao c«» that wtra geseraUr a|k 
|aap»Iahd to lluir houehold. Erai the Qncen rode behiiid bcr naxtrr of 
ibe none «4Mt aho went in slate to Si. Paal's. Tbe oonvenicnoc of tbis 
mw mod* of caniaga cmwd it to ba immgdiaM; adopted bj all wbo bad 
tha maaas ; and tbo hotata ware ao ia|Nillj boaght up fop thi* jmrpoaei and 
beoaine so exocbilantif dear, Ibat h was ajptaliBd in Pu-liamaBt wbetbor 
the Bse of caniaeee abouU not be confined to tbe higber cfawsM. 

Tbis bafcion woold baT« prodnccd ata tnjnrioiu dlbet on tbe cbaracter 
of tbe EngtUi bone. It ironld bare too macb enoon^ed tbe braad of 
tbe keavj and sfarw boraa, to tbe oompandve or alraoot total aegleet of 
Ow B^ttar fiamad and a|»ndy one : bat, gnopotrdcr bam^ been iuventod, 
asd htm/rj annonr bmaiuag to bo (timxeo, or, at tbis period, haTing 
Ubn into ahnoat panel neglect, a li{[btcr kind of bone vaa neoosaarjr 
in Older to givv tiSiei to manj of tbe naaaenrrcs of tLe oafabj. Henoa 
aioai tbe bgfat canlir — bgbt oonmrad with tbe liOTsenaeo of fiwmer 
dsy*— beavT oompareJ witb tboso afmodeni times ; and henca, too, an«« 
tta ligbler Lone, wbkb, except Ibr a few partieBlar pnrposos, gnidnailjr 
— | iei sai l ed tbe old beavy war and draught bovBe. 

A» aoeoaiii bas almidy bc«n ^von of tbo oocaskmal noes at SmitbSeU. 

* mj woe most!/ accidental tnab of stnngtb and speed, and tbcre vrmro 

I aaais j '-fcortn*, propcrljr spealdntf — none Ibat wt^ie kept for tbe pniw 

■a of dj^lajing tbeir ^-eed, aad dedicated to tbie [«rticnbr paipoae 

Rsgnlar ntcc«, bowcTrr, ir«m now artablinlicd in varion* parla of 

' , first at Oartcrty tn Torkshirn, Iben at Crordoo, at Tbeobald'a 

aM«rl»ae, and at Stamford. Boncb«r, in his History of Stamford, 

_, tbat tbe first vahiable pnbbc priio was ran for at tbat place in the 

lof Cbarles I. It was a nlnr^t cop and cover, of tbe ralneoi* SL, 

~ bf the oorpotation. Tbete was no aeknowledged system as now 

I breed of ncing-borsea ; bat backnoj^ and bontevs mingled tcgetber, 

1 no deaciiptioB of hone wae esclndrd. 

waa at first no ooentc marked out for tbe laoe, bnt tbo contest 
ooaritted in tbe rrmninf^ of /ra m s c sw f across tb« country, and 
Itbemoeti^fficiiltanddaiigeroaspari of tbe country was selected 
Aa aibibatioD. Oocaaionall}' our prtxtrnt iteeple-cliaiic wna ndoplod 
~ I aD its danger*, and more tbsn iln present barbarity ; for perMtia wre 
'■led cnicDy to ftu^ along tbe jaded and exhausted bone. This 
leqoiree a tit^ axplaaatioii. A match wan fomed called tbo 
r Chase,' between two borsca, niwl a tolerably anre trial it was 
^eed and banting pr opertie s of Uw botte. Whicberer borae 
>i the lead at twdre score yards &oni tbe starting poet, tbe other 
f WiptlliH to follow him wbarerer be went, and to keep witlun a oor> 
Pt'*-"- of bbn, M twice or Ibriee bis Icngtb, or else to be 'beaten 
^w hlpy e d ap to tbe raaHc by (be jud;ree wbo rode to sea fiiir play. If 
I got before tbe other twelve score yards, or any certatn dtstanoot 
J sa tbe natch was made^ be was aoooimted to be tbo winner ; 
tiflbebosaewfaidi at tbo beginning was behind, could get beloie him 
i ftnl led. then tbe other was bound to folktw, nd so on, nntil one got 
Uie eigfalb part of a mite, b>cfope tbe other, or reibasd aomo 
: lean i^iidi Uw other bad takeu. 
Bf degrees^ nowerer, certain borsea were dcTotcd to tbeao exhibitions. 



Mid vrpro pnrpnrrd for the race, &« ftu* as the myBt^iy of the tr&iiiiiig Btnble 
ooald thea be explored, Komonhnt in the nnmo wny ni nt pr««<ii)t. Tlie 
W«iffbt of the rider, liowi-ver, wua not tilmvH itdinst*^! to the agp or 
perronoaiices of the horse ; but do rider could stAii who weiglied less thftn 
10 »t. 

The raccn of thut period nerr not ditignusKl bj tho nyi-tcin of gambUng 
oud Iraad Mhich iQ lat«r tiiul'S scL-nia (o huvu bct'onip utmost inftcpKr^ble 
ittaa tbe uniiMa&MitB of the turf. No heavy st&kM wurc run for, and no 
iMUine tjvtem hod been mtiiblixlKHl. Tbo pHxe was Dsoallj & wooden 
btl! ndtinied with flowera. Thia wo« aitcryriirTlii <!Xrliiiiigr<l for (v gilvtr 
bell, and ' K'vea to him who should niii the best and furthmt on banwtifUTlc, 
and e6p«cialiy on Shrovo l'i)C«day.' Hence the common phrase of * btwriiig 
nm^ tbo boU.' 

Hcirse-ncing bfoame gndoallj more cattirut«d ; but it wiw not anlQ 
the last year of the reipn of J&mefl I, that rules wens promulgatod and 
Moandly nhscribod to for their rcKoUtioo. That pnuce was fouil of 
Seld-cportM. He btul cnconTiif{i.-(I, if be did not txtnbliHh, hnrso-nkcic^ in 
Scotlaud, and he bronf^lit with him to England hia prciiili'ction for it; 
but bis races wvre oR«ai matches against time, or (rials of sliced and 
bottom for abHurdly and oruelly long distance*. His fnTOnrite cooisea 
wtre nt Croyduu and od GnBeld-obaso. 

Altbuai;h the Turkish and Bnrbarv horsos had been froely uiii-d to 
produce with the EnghMb mam the brrrd that was best suited to this 
•XL-rciw-, little improvement bad been eS'e<.'t«d. Jamca, with gn^at judgruent, 
ilettrrmiued to try the Arab breed. Probably he luid not forRolUii the 
ttOTj of the Arabian that had brrn presented to one of bis Scottish 
charehni, fire centories liefort'. He purchased from a merchant, named 
Uarkbaro, a celt-'brated Arabian Lorse, for which be gave the extraTagant 
Rim of fire hundred pounds- Kings, bowerer, like their snbjcets, are 
olb^n thwarted andfovenkod by their servant*, and (he l>nke of Newcnslle 
took a dislike to this foroion aaJnaJ. Ho wroto a book, and a rery good 
on^ on horMimansliip ; but be deocribed Ou» Arabian as a little bony hone, 
of ordinaiT shape ; setting him down as almost worthless, bepnnse, after 
brnnf^ ntgruarly trained, he MTmcd to bo deficient in ^loed. The opinion 
ortbo dnke, probably altogollicr vrronooua, had for nearly a ocntuiT' (crrnt 
weight ; and the Arabian horse lost its repctation among the English 

A Knith-cttstem horae was aJlerwards brought into Ebwiand, and 
porofaaaed 1^ Jaux-s, ef Ur. Place, who afterwards became stud-master or 
noom to Olirer Cromwell. This bentilifal animal was called the White 
Tnrk ; and his name and that of his kecprrr will long bo ramembered. 
Shortly lifter this appeared the HelmsJcy Turk, introdnoed by TOlien, 
the Gi«t dnke of Bookingfaain. He was followed by Fairfhx's Uorocco 
bart>. These howoe apecoilj effected a oonnderable change in the cha- 
raeterof OBrbre«d, aotnalljord Hartcieb.oneof tbeoldnchoiit, comploini-d 
that tbo grcKt bono was fast disappvaring, and tUut borses were now bn?l 
light and fine iat the aake of speed only. 

Charles 1^ bowerer, ardently pumod tin's favonrite object of Engllidi 
gentlemen ; and, a little befnre but mptnrc with tlio parliament, Mtablisbod 
lacee in Hyde I'ark and at Kcwniarket. 

We owe to Charlca I. the introduction of the bit into uniTersal Dse in 
the eandiy terrioe, and genetally out of it The invention of th« bit bae 
bean ttaced to as early as tlie time of the Roman (Tmperura, bat Ibr Mtne 
iBexplicahle reason it bad nut been adoptc-d by the English. Charlea L, 
liowcver, in the third year of his reign, i^siieil a proclamation stating that 
mch homett as are employed in the •erricc, being more easily managed 

ntsTom or ths exgusq uora.^ 

citttf^nl and ' 
hnalii^— flo peraoa I 
Bi^ W Mtf fw , bat Ml oo^. 
tiwHittwy and noBK ras nAlciwE 
■O ti w ha t too twd progw; Jbr there is on ntori » —orM ikmbbjiS 
toQi Ml — , 'tondiin^tbestBtaof tlwkingdaai, sod tkedrfaeBf^of good 
■mt alont hor<w Cor ila ildcnoe^ « ■^"''""■* of the «tngng Htdiction inieb 
Itemtiea had to ncing and lunting hotwa, wlikfc, tar Ute mke t£ *wit^ 
aiM^ wac* of a lightsr mkI WMksr bokIcL' 

Tbn ctrQ wan MOMrarhat w yin J cd tlw cnqab^ iato tbii, aad aho tte 
iftiiBa ent of tlie breed ; jtt the advantai^ wlnofa waa derived hj botk 
yarliw frm * liglit and actiT* eavaby mUBcienll; ptond tbe napiKlanoa 
of tba ckaag9 uat had beva cdcctcd. CranwcU, ptreeiiii^ witti hk 
wmtad igarity liow mncJ) tfae« pnrmiu wcra coaatciad with tka 
p nwy ril y of lie eonsby, had his siaj of nK»Jiane>. 

At the BcatontioD a new impulse waa given to the cnJllvallea of tha 
hnn* b; the inclinatioa of tho covrt to patnmiM gue^ and dlMipatkm, 
Tbe nec« at Xcmnarki^, whii^h had been Ibr a wfaQa mmpumAtn, wnv 
iwtond ; bimI, u iia adilitMiud «{mr to emutaiioa, rajal phlea were Kivcn 
at cttch of the irindpal oonraea. Charles II. seat hu muter of the iione 
to tbe t«va&t. to parefcaac brood tnir«« and rtalliioas. Tliese were prto- 
d{mUr rtarlB and Tork*. 

3itam» U- litnl in too atujaUi a jictkjiI to bo cnnbiod to bMtow latich 
tia«ai Ilia Bporte of the turf or the fit-Id. He haa, hgwey er, been repre- 
fmtod as bdtagr txet/tdmeijF fowl of hmitiDg, and ahomag §a decided a 
paCeeence for tbe EngUiih faorcc an, afln- hui abdieatioB. to have aereral 
of thatn to his bULIm in Pnnoe. Bervnger ^leaka of Una with nuKfa 
feafia^: — ' He ezpreaHal a pecaliar aatiabcAioa in having thetn, and that 
•i a tmc, and in a sitoatioii in aihich it i* nataraJ to think that they wn« 
rather lilcelj to fanre given him nncaiinvaa aiMi-tnurlificalioii than lo hare 
afl inde dhim pleaaore. 

WBfiam III., and Anne, principally at the instigatian at her consort, 
Geoagi; Pnarv of Dnunark, wct« e c alom patrona of the tarf, and tha 
sralKn of tmpramm-nt »»« tadanjij punned ; eveir varie^ of Fnitmi 
Uaod wv> occaaiouiUy rnKnlled on onr own, and the anperioritf of the 
»ffwtjr>introdii«d breed abora the bc«t of the original stodc began to be 

Sana prwvmK imagined thai tluji ■jkvvI aud slontneM might poMdUjr be 
farther mcwaaed ; and Ur. Oarhry, in the latter part M the reign of 
Qnaon Aane, hnd reoooiw to tbo diccardcd and dei j iaad Arabian. Ho 
Ind nnch pnjndice to contaaid with, and itwaaaomettmebefbrathehorae 
wlieh hfl aclectcd, and which wia anerwarda known by the name of the 
Cacin Anfaian. attnctcd tnoch notice. At length the value of his pro- 
dace uegao to be recognised, and to him wo are mainly indebted for a 
faned of b u r M a of nncijonllrd bcuaty. speed, and itrviigth. 

Tbe Wt imprarvment farruHLnl dl iliat oootd badenred : nor waa thia 
trae only of ue thanmgh-bred or tarf-honxy — it wua to a rer^ nMtnru] 
degnv the eaao with tm^j deacription of horse. By a jtnIi(Tou» admix- 
tan attd pr uporti on of blond, we have rendered onr hnntcnt, oorhaofcneja, 
i — nay, eren our cart-horaea, abran^, mons active, and Bum 
, than they were before thn introduction of the ntcc-borae. 

r of the honw in EngUmi is a very inttrreating one, Tha 

1 — that of which mmtiofi in fint niad^' in history — seema to 

, valoaUe oim.-. The Conqt»?ror fairifii awny many specimens 

r werv loni; held in rvpuU- in fvcry oountry snbjngatml by 

The iuHtUr situation of Itritnin, and iU comparatively Uttlo 



nend of Ibe w»r-Uor»c, led uuderacvenU looD&rchs to a culpable defjirce of 
ne^liftence; and althoagti, perhaps, on iha whole the English were nut 
&r bolund thoir Cootiaontnl ncigilibonrn, yot »t no pcriixl, until withui tiie 
last ccDtnry and a half, has Ontat Bribun bmin at all (li»tin^iabod on 
thin acconnt: but from that tiinu, aad vajKKiUll^r during the latter part 
of it, tha Briliith liorsf has bean longbt atW in CTery port of thu worliL 
There ia nothing in our eliiMto that can acooanl for this — Dothin;; in our 
Boil, or this ffapcrior cuccllcnoo wonid harn l»mi aclmowlcdgod long »gtK 
'The grand firel muiu^,' iaj'k Mt. Wkl PerviviUI, in bin intnxlniHory loctare 
at Univonntjr Colk^i', iu 183+, * — lli»l, by tbo xtciuly proms; ution and 
xcicntiGu nianaf^eraeul of wUiob this anoccas has been brought abuut, 
KjtpeftTs to me to be breeding ; hy which 1 do not only meaa t^ procura- 
tion of original stock of a good description, bat the oontinnal progres* 
Bive coItivAtion of that ntnck in the progwny bjr th« greatMt caro in 
rearing and IcLsling, and by tbe moat oarefnl seleotion. On tlwHU) two 
drcnnutafloea^ and rartjcularly on the latter, a groat dwt more depend* 
than on tine original characters or attritral^M nf the pnrenta. By tbe«e 
raeiukd we liavo pragrcescd from good to bntter, loniiig niKht of no subsidiaiy 
help, ontil wo lutvc attaittL-d a perfection in horau<fU«h nnknown in the 
wbolt world bcitidii.' 

Tlio lore of the turf, and the Anxiona dotire to posaees horsoa of nn- 
rivalled cscelleuc«, have within tbo laat twenty years eprcod over the 
Kuropeaa coutinaat. KvoiTwhcro Ktnd-hoaars hare been bailt and 
periodioal non oetabtudicd, and uporting wocictie* formed of porcons of 
the greatest weight in tlie cominniiily, and, ewiywherc, hmiIodk ult(^mpI« 
have been made to improve the native Btodt. The rouraen of thi' Kiuit 
might have been eaaily procured — a now vnpply of Arabian blood might 
have been obtained mnn the native oountry of tlio Bari): bat FreBOh, 
and Italiann, Cbmnan*, Rnaxianji, and Flcmins;*, barr (locked Ui Iho Hriliuh 
litlrs). Thu pnn: blood of the prwenl Barb and Ambian has bi^n post- 
poned, and aU hare deeply diawn ttoai that of the tliorouKb-bred Engbiih 
lionie. This is a circiunataiioe with ivgard to which thcrri is no dispute. 
It is a matter of hi«tory— and it la highly crrditablo to oar sporting 
and brvndvts. Mr. Pcrmvall has riflliUv statisl the canae, bnt there 
■omo oiraimsianoes conuecied with tJiis jire-i-minence that may gira 
oocaaion for aerions roHoction, and which will bo be&t considuml «» the 
rcnpectiro breed* of bones pose in review. 



Thbib waa much dispute with rc^rard to the origin of the t\onniah hmS 
iomr. By eomo he was traced tbrouKb both stm and dnm to Bastem 
parentage ; while others bclievc<l him to be the native horx.', impnived and 
perfected hy jndicioua croMing with the Barb, the Talk, or the Arabiao. 
' The Stnd.Book.' whii-h is an authority adcnowledged by ereiy Bnghah 
brwdor, tntros all the old racers to some Eastern origin, or at least until 
tbo pedigree is lost in the nnccrtainty of an wirly prricMl of breeding. 
If die poligrec of a racer of the pment day is reciniivd, it i» traced 
back to a oottain extent, and ends with a well-known raoor ; or if an 


cwljfr dmrmliaa m nqund, llart CMk dtber witli an EMtern bone or in 

It b now mIimUwI t&at tbe preseot Ei^lisb Ututvogli-bTed bone u of 


mi ooccvkt" 

(brcign ezt>*ct*on, intprond acd perfected far the infliutDM of 'flnny^^ mai 
Hiligjinl caltintion. 'ni«n ai« tome excvpUoiw, a* in the mm» of Snap- 
•oa and Bajr lUbm, in e«oh of which, klthontrh the hest horaea of their 
dkj, there WMneriMB of vulgar bVwd: but tb^ ve onljr derationa from s 
gcnanl relc In ottr bort ncing-sUblee this is an acknowledged pmciplc ; 
■ad it n not, wbm pmpcrifoonsidertd, in tbv slightest dem* derogatoT; 
lo the endit oT onr oooDtrr- The Brituh climate and British bIoII made 
tfae thnoqgh-bml hone what he in. 

ne bcnntifbl tnlca of Eacteni coontriea and Kimcwhnt n.tnn>tc daya oiajr 
lead B8 lo imagine that the Anhian horse jmnHi-wirs ntan-t^Uuiia powers: 
bat il casDOt adimt of a doubt thai tbi? Rn(;1i>b-t mined Iiom ta moro 
■tifU and fiu* awifVr and stont«r thns the jtullj-faiixd coanen of tbo 
In the baming plains of the Bast and the froacn cli mate of 
, he hna inrariabljr bentm even antai^oniirt on hb native mmnd. 
It hna bBm itlMdjr stated that, a Unr yemn nga, RMrnit, ati Knglinb 
bonn of modnats rcpntntion, wurily beat Pjrnunus, tbc bent Arabian on 
the Bengal aide of India. . 

It moat not be objected that the number of EajitCTti horsee imported la 
Ikr too amall to prodoci: bo nnmerxnis a proifcny. It will he recollected 
that tha ihoaaaadaur wild lior«<« on tbc plat»s of Bonth Amrricado- 
a-andfd ftmn only twi> .Ttulliuua and fonr miuva, which tliv carijr Spanish 
ardrentama Wl beliUul thi-in. ^ 

Whatever mar be tl» truth a» to thi." origin of the raoe-horae, VM 




KtricteotaUenlion has for tlie Iwit hutxlrvd jean boon paid Va hiK podigrro. 
In tlie descent of almost orcnr niodf^ni rnn-r, not tW slif^hteiiit flaw enn bo 
discoTei«l : or whm, with tnc Mplcndut cxn^ptions of Sanipsi>n and Rav 
MshoD, OBQ drop nf oommon bltHul Iion ininglctil vritb the purv ■Imtm, it 
liM beta immodintcliF' iletu-'U'd in ulie iiiftrriority of form and deficit-acj* of 
staBuna, and if has rttjuirvd two or tluw gi-iUTrations to wipe awajr tbo 
stain and gt-t rid of itii cuDHi-queiice^ 

Th<! lUCPr iH ((viwmlly diatiugiiialit-d by hi« bcautifnl Arafaiftn besd i 
tapcnim and 6neljr-M-t-ou ULfk ; obli<(ui: lengthened shouMors ; wett-bont 
luud«r legs; aiuple. luuticuUr (iiuu-U.-r!t; flat legs, rather iihnrt from tho 
knee downward, allhuuj^U wit al waj-h hi dvup an tliry Khniild he ; and his 
long and elastic pattern. Tlies« will be Mipanal«:ly Vtinxidcrvd wlivn the 
etnuttore of the borso ia treated of. 

The Darley Arabian wan the t^atvat of our beat racing uttK-k, He waa 
porchased by Mr. Darley'a brotlier at Aleppo, and waa hn-d in the uvigb- 
boarin^ desi-rt of I'almjTa. llis iigaro trontained every point, without 
inneb fihow, that could be desired in it tarf-horsc 

The immediate descoDdnnts of thin invaluable horee wore the Devon- 
shiroor Vlyiag Childora; tbo BWding ur Barttott's Childers, who was 
iMiTvr tinned i Altaamtor, and olhort. 




n.vim cKnnuu. 

The two Cbildera wero the mranit ihroiigh wliich tlie blood and fiuneof 
their aire were widely cirrnlnUil ; and fnim tliem deacended aitolher C'hil- 
derv, ntaif. Snap, Sanp«nn. F^-lipue, and a lioat of exooUcnt tiorsea. 

The Drviniidiire or Mying Cliildera, ao called (kim tlte name of hi« 
bimlor, Mr. Childera. of Curr House, and the sale of him to the Dakv of 
D^rouifain. was tbn flnrtext horac of his day. lie wan at Rrst tnuncd a* a 
hnnl«r, but the fiuperior BfH.i'd and coninge which he discoTerad caniwd 
biin lo be sunn irniwATTwl to the torf. Common rrport affirms tltat ha 
ooald run a milu in a nunnt«; hut thero in no authentic nicord of this. 
ChDders nn over the round conrwt at Newmarket (tlirve milns idx fnr- 
\aofC» and nini-tylhiw yartts) in aix nitnntea and forty wconda, aud tlia 


I (fear miles, one farUm^, and ono bnndivd &di) thirty^dfthl 
wdi) ia ttmm numtee and liiirtv «ct-»nd». In 177:2, » miJo wu nui by 
rtwfcil in one nmmfe and fonr seconds. 

In 17^ Bay lEaJton. the propertj of the ]LlBr(|iiis of Rockiogluut), nm 
Ibe (bar-mile coarse at York m seven mmutiai iind ror^-threo aetModu, this 
liSn^ iCTea Meoods le» tiato than it had ev«r lM«n aocompliahcd in Ikefon:. 
Sene of thceo old odm couI>I ran last as well aa rioiiilT. Twcntj je^n 
■AerwmHs tliera ma ft WnnUfal hotw. the son <>f Eolt)iHc, and inheriting 
ft gwl poftioii of faia Epxd without his stoutuMs. Hh wun almoutt m»y 
wlin r»nr fiirirfaich ho ran, bat ho noror could accomplish a fanr-mth; an*. 
Be hvoke down, in 1779, ranning orcr the BeftOOn cooree. 

One of the moat reallg m-vvto racM that ever me ran took pUea nt 
Cbriiilein 1761. Tbcro was do le» than six heats, and two of them driul 
Htcb of the six was honestly contested bjr the winning homo : 
be Tan in good earocst twenty-four miles: nt Ihcro was no 
; down, dot any scoootit of Um> slightest injnry tvrcivcd. 

are aorae additional instances of the min^^lnl gpoed and 
I of t£en honea, and dcserrc to bo placed on rconrd : — 
1ft October, l~4l, at theCnnagb meetingin Inland, Mr. WiJde sngased 
to lido ooe fanndml awl twt-uty-aeren milca in nine lioun. He porfbrmed 
it in Bx hoim and twenty-one miuutrs. He rmployis] t^n horsos, and, 
allowing for monntini; and diamoouuug, tauX ii moment for refrndimcnt, ho 
nda dimng «x hours at the rate of twi-uty uiilca an liour. 
" Thocidiill, in 174o, eacceded this; for h« rude from Stilton to 

Ut^oa and back, and afi^ain to Txmdnn, beinp two hundred and tliirtccn 
iBil«,ni elenn hoora aiwi Ihirty-four minulee. Thssamounte, after allow- 
tu the l»»t pawiblp time for ehanifmjf howca, to Iweiity mitea an boor 


rvn bnan, ami nn the tnmpike-road and nnoven grofiod. 

Bhift^.^ io 1762, with leu hotws, and lire of tLem ridden twwft. 




ftooompUshed fifty milea and n qnjirtor m one hour nnd forty-nine mmiilo*. 
Inl?^, howonftBliUiaoreMtnionlmftryinntch. Bsenmiged to prociini 
a porson to rido one hnndml mUca a day for twenty-nine d«y».hiiving any 
iniBiborof horaw not cxcccdiug twcaity-nim- from which lt> nuik« hia hl'Uk- 
lion. H« uocompliiihcd it on fonrtwn horwas; but on oiio day he waa 
«Mni«]kil to ride a huudtwd and iiixty miles, on ncconnt of the tiring of 

his ftret horeo- 

Mr. UuU'b Quibblor, howcvi-r, iiflbrdcd the roost uitraoniiniiiT miiUtion 
on rccwd, "f the itoatuciw lu wt-U as spcod of the moo-hontc. In Decem- 
ber, 1788, bo ran twpnty-tlirew mi loaronndtbo flat at Nownu»Tk«t,ia filly. 

aoTcn nunutea and ten necoodfl. 

EuUpM WM got by U&Tsk, a gmndaun of IhirtlcU » Chililcre, nna hia 
pedigree affonU a aiiif^lar illnBtmUon of tho dcsrewit of our thorongh-bn-d 
BDtsea from pure Kaelcni bltnid : — 

' •lilMfa (klUm 


ihni»> naa !•■• 

Lp(i«tw*' < 




{llid«r*Ul MMiB. 
!»(■»• at J ■>■•>• fl.Uut T>rt. 

lou VUkM. b* Uulbrt 

'Hin pedignw of Ecltpiu will lilcewiao aBbfd tmoliier corioOB illuiitratian 
of thu uncwrUiiiity which att^nda thorongh-bred horsee. Hank wm sold 
at tho sale of tho Uiike of Oiimlwrland'a Btad for a niero trifle, nnil iriw 
rafTcrcd to run alnuwt wild on tJio New KoreKt. Ilo wm aTb-rwarda 
panshoaed for one tbomaud KnitiiiM, atid bt'fom Iiih donth raveriHl for <in« 
Dundred (foiuoaa. Squirt, when the proju-rty of Sir Uniry Harpnr, vtaa 
ordered to be sliot ; and while he irM actaally boiii); Ii-U tu tlie dog-keunel, 
he was spared nt tho inttrocnioD. oTono of Sir Harry's f^roum^. Noitli«r 
Bartlctt'a Cliildcra, nor Snake, were tmo! tnined. On tho side of Ihe dnm, 
SpiloUa never started but oiu'o and was bmtoD; and tho Oodnlphin 
Arahinn was pnrckased from a water cart in Puriit 

Eclipae was bred by tho Onku of Cumberland, aiul Hold at bis death to 
Mr. ^\ ildman, a sheep salMuan, for serenty-five gutueaa. Colonel O'Kelly 
piarcha««d a share of him from Wildman. In the spring of the following 
year, when tho ropntation of tlii« wonderful animal waa at ita height, 
O'Kellr wished to bFcocno nolo owner of him, and bought tho remaining 
sham lor dcnm huuilrfd ^incaa. 

Eolipae was whai was termed a tluck- winded hone, and poffed and 
Kwnd so M to be heard at a oonndonble distance. For thia or aome oth«r 
caa»e, he was not brought on tho tarf ontil ho was Bre years old. 

O'Kclhr, awnro of hia borae'a pownni, had backed bim froety on his first 
raee^ in M^y I7C9. This exctt4.-<l onriiuity, or, pt^rhapa, ronaod Knji]iicioii, 
■od aomo peraoiia attempted to watch one of bin trial*. Mr. Juhn Iaw> 
ranca says, that, ' tliey wcro a liitJo too late i bat Ihoy found an old woman 
vho gavo tlicm all tho infin-mation thoy wanted. On inquiring whether 
aho bad seen a ntoe, aha n-pljixl aho could not toll whetlier it waa a ra«o or 






^^ but that ilia bad just inva a htirm!, with a whit« le^, ranniiig away at 
• BMHUAnms nto, and another hono a urcut wuy behind, ir>'iu;; to run 
after him ; but she was Bora ho would never aitvli liiu whito-loggcd horse 
if b» nm to the world's end.' 

The first heat vms casitjr iron, whon O'Ki^lly, obeeTviug tlmt thu rid«F 
hikd bt«fi pnlKoK at Bolipno duriag thu wholp of tlio race, oifered a wager 
that he ulaccd (Le honea in the ucxt limt. l^U imunuid a thing so highly 
improbable, that he immediatelj had b«HA to a large amotint, lloirif? 
caUad onto daclan, be replied, 'ficlipee first, and thereat nowluoxi!' TW 
«nnt jnatified his invdiction, for all tho others were distonoed by Ectipan 
vitb taa greatest caao, and thus, in tho longttagv of tho tnrf^ they had 
no place. 

In the spring of tho followinpr year, ho butt Mr. Wtiitwortli'» Bnix^ 
phalos, who had ney«r bcforo met with his eqoal. Two tbiyn iifUirwitrdis 
Be dislancod Mr. Stmdo's Pensioner, avcry f^d boree ; and tn tlio Auj^ibI 
of tlw Huno fear, bo won tho great snbacnption nt York. No hone daring 
lo mlor againat him, be doeed fain short career, of gorcniveii tnontlix, by 
■•Ikinff ov«r tbe Hevmatket course for the Kiiis's plate, on Ookibvr tho 
18th, 1770. Ha was nerer beaten, nor eror paid forfeit, and won for hia 
owner man than twvntr-fivo tho'iisand pounds. 

Bdipao was aftorwnrds employed na n Htnllinn, niid prodncod tho cxim- 
ordinary nomber of three hondred and tlitrty.fuur winnrrH, and thcAO 
iirlt«<l to their owners nion; than I60,O00J. uioluaivi- «f jilutca and t;u|Ki. 
The prodace of King Ucrod, a dceceudant of Flyiii;; Cliildent. was uvi-ii 
auttv nanMirons, Ho got n" Ipsa than four hiindrod and niiiety>sevon 
winoers, who gninrd for thi-ir proprirt/irn npw-nrds of two handrod Ihoo- 
aand poondB. Highflyer was » Hon of King llei\<i.t. 

The pitofit bruusbt to the owuvr of Ki'lipHo by litis services as a stallion 
anat have been iDunense, It is said Ihat ton ynm attc^r ]it\ wns with- 
drawn from tha tnrf, O'Kelly w»s aekcul »t wliut prii'i; ho would null liim. 
At first ho peremptorily romscd to i>cil him at auj price, but after some 
reSection, He said that ho would take 2^,0001., with an annnity cf 5001. a 
nar on bis own life, and the aimunl prtvile;^ of sending six mares to 
aim- The seeming cxlravaf^ouco of the snm eieit'od oonxidernble reniArk ; 
bat O'KellT decbuvd that bo bad alroodv clcttrrd muri' than 2.^,000^ by 
him, and uiat he woa yonng cnongh still to oaru doublo Umt mm. In 
bet, bo did live nearly ton juara afterwards, covering at 50 guineas a 
man!, for some part of iho lime ; bnt his foot having ht-cn carelessly and 
CTuelly neftl«l«l, ho became firandrmd. Hiw iWt rapidiv grew wiirao 
and worae until bo was a very unccrtjiin foul- get tCT ; and tlio viilno of his 
pngua waa more than snspucted. He died in Febmiu-y 1789, at tho 
Bcs of twenty-five years. Of tho beauty and yet the peculiarity of 
hia form thvcv lias been mach dispnto. His lownoas boforo wns evident 
enODj^ and was a matter of objection and reproach among those 
iriko oould not SCO how abundantly this was redeemed by tho extent 
and obliqoity of tho shoulder, the hroadness of tho loins, tho ample 
and fincly.pioportioned quarters, and tho swelling and Uie eiteot — 
the sloping and the power of tho mumbles of the fore-arm, and of 
(he Ihiglia. 

A little before tho death of Eclipse, M. St. Bel, the founder of tho 
retarinarr CoUego in St. Pancrwa. had arrived from France. In teaching 
tb* ymeD pupils tho general conformation of the horse, and the just pn>- 
p o rti ona of his Tai-ioim parts, it hiul been nvctesary that refcrcnco should 
MinBido toso«ne horse of aclcn<iwloiiE«l tacollenco. It octmrrcd to St. Bel 
tint this extraordinary and nnhcati-n horse would ho the propi-r atoutlard 
to which the Eogliah Rtudcnt might be referred fore timiuir purpose, and. 


with conBiilerable trouble, he formed an accnrato scale of the proportJoiu 
of this noble ftnitnal. It is oa follows : — 

raotoanom or Bcurn. 
Although it ii perfsetl; trua, uitawd bj Mr. Blains, in hii 'OutlinM of the Viterinnrj 
Alt,' that ' for racing, we reqaire that tha amUsat poaaiblo quiuitil^ of boDC, sod muaelv, 
and aintrw, ahonJd b« eot into the nnaUeat bulk, and that, in adJitiun to ETcat flexibility 
and aoma length, the limbs must be strongly nailed, the chait deap aaiTcaiVLcioua, and 
the hinder eitremitiea fitmislied vith powerful masclei ; for hunting, we must hnre a 
aimilar yet lomewhat bnlkier hone, with powerful loins, and more powerAil qnaitan, and 
tixi (he iaetna/, while ve nndarralua not the etreDgth of the loins and the quaiten, we 
look mora to the aleratcd withen, aod the deep and miuiCDtar shoulders, and the stnu^t 
and well-fonned leg ;' yet then is a nearer and a truer proportion between the eererul 
puts of these kiodnd animals than many parsons are disposed to allow; and this sketch 
of them in Eclipse, will not only be interesting, bat nsefnl, to the general horseman. 
The length of the head of the horse [s supposed to be diTidad into twcaty-two equal 

parts, which ore the common mensure for erery piut of the body. 
Three heads and thirteen parts will give the height of the horse from the foretop to tha 

Three beads Crom the wither* to the ground- 
Three heads from the rump to the groand. 
Tbma heads and three parts the whole length of the body, trma the most prominanl 

paJt of (ha cheat to tna eitn-mity of the buttocks. 
Two nends and twenty parts the height of the body, tlirough the middle of the centre 

of gravity. 
Two heude snd peTrn pnrts. the htigbt of Ibc highest pnrt of the chest fmm the proand. 
Two hends sad Hva parts, the height of tha perpPodicuUr line which fnlU fnim the 

articulation of the arm with the shoulder, directly to the hoof 
Om bead and twenty parts, the height of the perpaudirular line which falls from the 

top of tha fore-leg, diriding equally aU its parts to tha fetlook. 
One head and nineteen parts, the heiglit of the perpendicular line from the elbow to the 

One head and nineteen pnits, the distance from the top of the wither* to thp stifle. 

The Sana meaanre aUo gives the distance from the top of the rump to the elbow. 
One and a half head, (he leu^h of the neek from the withers to the top of the head- 

The same measure also gives the length of the neck from the top of (he bead to 

its insciiioD into the cbeat. 
Olo head, the width of the neck at its anion with the cheaL 
Twelre parts of a h<«d, the width uf the neck in its narrowest part. 
The same mMSare gives the breadth of the head taken below the eyes. 
One head and four ports, the thickness of the body fmm the middle of the back to thr 

middle of tha belly. 
The same measure give* the breadth cS the body. 
Also the runup from its summit to the eitrcmitj of the buttocks. 
Also the distnncii from the root of lh>' tail 10 the stifle. 
Also the length from tha stifle to the hock. 
Also tha beight from the extremity of the tioof to the horic. 

TwentT parts of a bead, the distance frum the extremity uf the buttocks 10 tha stifle. 
Also the breadth of the rump or croop. 

Ten parts of a head, iha breadth of the forc-lcgs from their anterior part to the elbow. 
Ten parts of a head, tlie breadth of one of the hind-legs taken beneath tho fold uf th' 

Eight partt of a hukd, the breadth uf the ham taken from the bend. 
Alao tha brandth of the head above the uustrils. 

Seven parts of a bead, the distance of the eyes from one great sngla tv the uther. 
Also the distance between the fore.legs. 
Five parts of a head, the thickness of the kner*s. 
Also the breadth of the fore-legs above the knees. 
Also the thickness of the hams. 

Foot saits of a head, the breadth of the pastern, or fetlock juiut. 
Also the thickness of the eomni't, 

Fonrand a half pans of the heud, the breadth of the rumnet, 
Thre« parts of a head, tho thiekiiims of ibv legs at Ilii'ii narruweat part. 
Also the breadth of tho hinder legs or slianks. 

Two and threeHiaarlpr parts of a head, tha thicknca* of the liind-pasteniB. 
Also tho breadth of Iha shanks of the fore-legs. 

Two and a qnarler part* uf a head, the thickneas of the fure-pastcms. 
Abo the breadth of the liind-pasterns. 
Om Md lIuM^aaHra' parts of a head, the tltiAim* of (k Ion and bind ahank*. 


Uote than twentj years after tJie Darloy Arabian, and when the valae 
of the Arabian blood was fully eatablished. Lord Godolphin poflses§cd a 
beantifiil but aingnlarly-shaped horse, wluch he called an Anbian, bat 
which waa really a Barb. His crest, lofty and arched almoBt to a &nlt, 
will fjiatingoiah him from every other horse. 

It will likewise be seen from the cnt (p. 19), that he had a sinking 
behind his shooldors, almost as pecoliar, and a corresponding elevation of 
the spine towards the kiins. His mozzle waa nncommonly fine, his head 
beantiiiilly set on, his shonlden capacious, and his quarters well spread 
oat. He was boaght in France, where he was actually einployed in 
drawing a c&rt ; and when he was afterwards presented' to Lord Godolphin, 
he was in that nobleman's stad a considerable time before his valoe was 
discovered. It was not antil the birth of Lath, one of the first horses of 
that period, that his excellence began to be appreciated. He was then 
styled an Arabian, and became, in even a greater degree than the Darley, 
the foonder of the modem thorongh-bred horses. He died in 1753, at the 
age of twenty-nine. 

An {ntimate friendship sabeisted between ^'m and a cat, which either 
sat on his back when he was in the stable, or nestled as closely to him as 
she conld. At his death, she began to refiise her food, and pined away, 
and died. — Mr. Holcroft gives a similar relation of the attachment between 
a race-horse and a cat, which the courser would take in his month and 
place in his manger and upon his back without hurting her. Chillaby, 
called from his great ferocity the Mad Arabian, whom one only of the 
grooms dared to approach, and who savt^ly tore to pieces the image of 
» man that was purposely placed iu his way, had his peculiar attachment 
to a lamb, who ased to employ himself for many an hoar in butting away 
the flies from his friend. 

Another foreign horse, waa the Welleslcy Arabian ; the very picture of 
a beaatiinl wild horse of the desert. His precise country waa never 
determined. He ifl evidently neither a perfect Barb, nor a perfect Arabian, 
but from some neighbouring province, where both the Barb and Arabian 
wonld expand to a more perfect liibiesB of form. This horse has been 
erroneously selected as the pattern of a superior Arabian, and therefore 
we have introduced him : few, however, of his produce were trained who 
can add much to his repntation. 

At the commencement of the last century, when public rac^ had been 
established in the neighbourhood of almost every lai^ town, and when 
many of them were especially patronised by royalty, tJthoagh there waa 
sufficient opportonily given for the value of the young stock to be ei- 
hibited, or at least guessed at, the contest principaDy lay among the ndultd. 
— The kind of contest which was best calculated to try the worth of the 
horse, and to promote the actual improvement of the breed, was one of 
mingled speed and endurance. They were mostly heats for distances of 
three or four miles. Occasionally they were for greater lengths, even ox- 
tending to six or eight miles ; and in one case, when the Puke of Qaecns- 
berry's Dash beat Lord Barrymore's Highlander, twelve miles. This, 
however, was cruel and absurd, and never established itself among the 
best supporters of the turf. 

Four miles constituted the avenge distance, not only for king's plates, 
hut for simple matches; and the horses did not sleep on their way. 
There were 04:casionally as extraordinary bursts of speed as are now wit- 
nessed in our mile and a half races. 

Did the horses of those days come to any extraordinary harm ? Did 
they ruin themselves by the exertion of one day and appear no more ? 
The ancmymooa writer of a most interesting and valuable work — ' A 



ComiiumtiTA Tieir of tka Engluih Rmict nnd Suldla Honw daring tho 
laiA mid Prf«i-ut Ooturtea ' — mentioDs a horse <^iiU«d Esolii!, tli*t wiw 
OD Iho turf «l«Teu yoara. ' We do not know,' aaya our author, ' how 
nugr times ho stnrtcd during this period, but in tho oonrse of it h« won 
UgbitMti titnrx. In hi* Mvcnth jrcnr on thp turf h« won » mce ftt P«t«r- 
borpugfa ooDHLCtwg of four htsits of four miloi inch.' 

'Foot borves wene hmidicaopcd hy Dr. B«lly«o nt Neirrnntln-undcr- 
Ljme— Sir John Egertoo's Ast«uiy, lAr. Mitlou'a Hiuidt.-!, Sir W. Wyiitni'ii 
TwmgoD, and Sir Thomas Stanlor'a Cedrio. The followin}^ tfoa tlic 
result: — Of tiu> fimt tJiroo hf-ntA thrro wne no winner. Tarragon and 
Kuidvl being nnch time none and lUMte, and, although Axtbarf wiw slnt^d 
to have bc«n thirtl in tho first hmt, yet he was so nenrly on a level with 
tho othora, that ther« was a difflcnltj of pbcing him an ciieh. Atlnr tho 
aeooad beat, the steward requested two OHMV gentlemen to took with liiin 
steadily as thoy caro«, to trjr to decide in taroai of one of tJiem, but it 
was impoisihlc to do so. In thu third dead heat Tarragon and Handel 
had strng^tcd with en^^h otlittr until tluTV reeled abont as if tliey woro 
dmok, and could Kitrceljr carry tJieir riiU-rs to the t>cal('!i. Anthury, who 
had laid by aflvr tlie first heat., theu uuuo out aud won. The anriab of 
the turf canoot produce another such contest, founded on a thorongfa 
kDowle<lt,>e of tJte borsos, their aces, and their preriouB running.' 

'in 17:37, Blaelc ChancKs >t tivo ycara old, won a nlnto at Dvrham, 
cairring 10 hL With the same weight he won the I^idiifi' plalu at Tovk, 
in that year. lu 1738, he won the kind's plute at Guildfun), beatuti^ 
BovenJ horses. He woo the plate alao at SoUsbory, at Winchester, at 
Lewes, and at Lincoln — fire king's plates in one season, and every mce 
four pules and contcstotl. The same hoi-»n was in tho field in 1 7-i-l^ and 
he walked orer for tho annual pl»t« at FnmiUn.' 

What aro oar neon now ? Thoj are apevdier. That it would bo foUy 
to deny. 

They are louger, lighter, but still mnscnlar, although shorn of much of 
their pridein this respect. They tire as boantifiil citMtureji tui thoeyowonhl 
wish to gase on, hnt tlif^ gn-iitcr [nrt of them give in liefuri! Imlf tho nca 
is nui ; and out ot a Huld of tiflw-'n, or even twenty, not more than two or 
three of them live, iu the exertion of their best eoergiei^ &r within the 

And what bocomes of them when ths simple ts orcrP Aftar tlis 
SMSre ncing, a« it is now called, of fnnnor tames, tbo horse came s^n to 
the >tartins-|)ost with not a singlo power impaired ; aud year sAer year 
he was ready to meet any and every rival. A single race, however, Uke 
that of tlie Derby, now occasion&lly disables (be winner from ever runniug 
again ; yet the dislAnoo is only a. mile and a half. "Fho St. Lrgor is tooro 
deslnictive to tho winner, altJiOQgh the distance is Ims than two mil««. 
He noe of the day has been run ; some hn«vy vUkos have been won by 
the owner ; the ammal by whoiMi exertions they were giuiiw) ia led away, 
and it is sonietiincs an vvi-n ehaoce whether he is ever heard of^ or, 
perhapn, thought of again, lie has answered tbo purpose for which he 
was bred, and he tins [mssed aw«y. 

Aud by what witohcrj has all thiN bera aeconipliahed ? How cuds it 
that skilfnl and honourable men dionld have connpired togi-thi-r to doto- 
Tiorate the character of the noer, ud with him that of tlie En|;llsh horse 
gCDsnlly P ^^/< l^t^ ^"^ °o OOnqnrMy in the matter. It was the 
natnnl oonne of things. The rAC«-faorsM of the beginning, and evw) of 
themiddll^ of the hist oentoiywetv fine powcrfnlanimnlH; they had almost 
iw much fleetacM H could be desirtxl, and they hiwl KtrviiKth that woald 
nerrr tjre. He who bred (or tbu turf might iii hiii uioiucuta of reflection 




1w fJwtit hj tim corariction that, while ho was sccomplishinK his own 
pttr yoae , be wm Imeding kh Miiimil ralnnbla to hi* oountiy. lie might 
I M gntified b; this reflection, ji-t il vronld not inflii>cnoo tho xjrutaa which 
I ha Huaueil. JI» vould In^ tt K-t'n ; and he would nUnmlly tir to uld 
» Ittd* Btoftt speed to Iho Bcknowlcyjpred power. Thence came tb« H^m- 
fariaoMwl tlM SwMt Brinr, *n<l otbcre vrbo had lost bnt little of their com* 
fmrJMiMt ct tarm — who had gat rid of a portion of UuU which ao eaetay 
aa^UaH eoanenos, bat nane of tlu: tapouify of the chest, or the snbetsjice 
or tke power of the mnsnil&r system — whose speed was certMidv incmaed, 
and WBOM vigour wm not impaired. 

It is noi IB hnmiui natnra to bo sntiafied evm with perfectioB ; uid 
it was tried whether » httio mora floofaMMS eoald not bo obtainocl. It 
WIS ao—moA, some thought, with % slight iniptunnmt of slontiiMs. 
Thee* WIS* tboM, and thej were not altageuer wrvn^, who mm in Sharic 
and Otsacrack aa evidaitt increoae of speed, and little dinunstion of 

It was easy to tnMgine wli*t wonid now ho tho rosolt. Tho praod prin- 
J ajia was speed. It «as (akL-n for gmnlfd that stoatncM woald follow^ 
I or tathsr, m the MlectioB of the stock, etontneai woa a minor coosHlentwR. 
\ twnlt of this was a horse with an elougated fnune — aa beantifnl as 
,or inoroso, bat tolhocj-pof theacuntifisiiiaBdisplajiBg 
[ m aa cl ca and tnn prominent sinews, and ahatparand lees power- 
withen. The fleetnosa was all that heart onnid de)un\ bat tho endor- 
I fearftdlj diminished. Irreaistible proof wu soon siren of this. 
Thef ooald not nm the distaoMS that their predeeesaon did with etun. 
Hssia becaiDo an&shionablo— the^ were eateeoned, aod with too tiiuch 
tntth. asrere and emd. We might refer to tho diagracafnl exUbitiona of 
Chalean Uargaox, and Uortgnoe, and LAmplightor. The neocooaiy ooo- 
s t qa sn oe was that the grotuid run 01,-er in the ordinary mafaAea was 
Itwned a (bll half. 

And was not this saffirient to conrince tho man of tho turf — the breeder 
of bones for his own use — was not this safiicivni to convinoo him of the 
(tmr which be had committiid ? Perhaps it wnii, with regnrd to thosn 
who wocdd give themsolva tho troalilo to think. But the cnur had hern 
eommilted. Tbu aU-important <{iu:«t*oa was, buw could it be nepaired ? 
Wei* they to breed haci again to their former stoutness ? There were 
iaJindvaU stout and speedy, but tit breed was goito. Ueade, the short 
laoe had bcootne fashionable. It wns drtcrmined in two or thjTo minnl**. 
Thar* was not tho lengthened mxpcnie of vftcd or eight rotations of the 
■eond-hand of the watch ; and who coutd resist (Jie omnipotence of 
^-*'i'— ? some harsh exprcanons hare been used with regard to tho 
Ifting sporting characters of (hat time : but what power Iwd they of 
I MiiilBii r n f They bsd bred for sprtHl. Thoy bad obteined it. They had 
obtsBDod that kind of rnoo that would b« popular, for it waa short. They 
Ind ao alternative, except with regard to the king's plate*. Th«ra they 
sboaM have made a Htiknd. The intereeta and honour of the country 
aboald not have been sacrifioed bccaaae tlM^ had erml. There should 
Isar* boss aooething left 10 roeoiint^ce tho oontinuance of tho old and nn* 
mailed bhx>d-'-«i>mothins to fall Ixtck np<m wlivn the fiixhionaUe Ictulers 
«ftiw sportins; world had discovered their error. This battle, however, 
■taat jet bo fought. Additional reaaons fur it will nupew when the pre- 
[Sastatalvof the hunter and the road-horee arc considered. 

Thei* Es one circunulAoc* connected with theae short lacea which 
sAapa has not been sufficiently appn:(.-iat«^. On tho oM Kyvtem, the 
_nWBeaa and tho stoutness of the horse would (pmcTnlly ininire the |>rise to 
I lum UuU best dcvcrrcd it ; hot with the prracnt you^ horsee and abort 




eonnvM, tltc nctn*] imoe being itniiHTtinicfi liltlo moro tium two or tliroo 
hoiulred j:inU, a Rmt dot! dcpciuLi on thu riik'r. If iht- liiUIq arc 
tolenbtj birlj matched, ttU i1«peni)a njton liim. If Le has cotifid<.-DC« in 
tlM atoabiaM of his boreo, he may diBtaooe all his competitor ; or be may 
mum tbo flwrt bnt tnwdy thing to almoct Um Iiwt stride, and dart by tti« 
wnmuig pout bofora kU rival ha« b(«n able to gather himielf np for th* 

One dung cannot be demud, that the cic<nacioutiuea§ iu the jock«jii of 
(heir powar, and the aooonni whic^ tiu>j Till pmbably bo called upon to 
Tvodar of tba manner in which the; hava vm^A it. haa led to far more 
erncl^ in tba manngcmcRt of tbcao rnooa than ever diagmonl tho rvoorda 
of former timea. Habit lutd given to the older lioraea of thoM day* a 
prinoipla of emulation and uf obedience. WIiod the race iu reality be^ian, 
tlio hoiao nndentood the moaning nf his rider, and it seldom rvqnmd 
any craol application of the whip or tbo spar to bring Iiim through if bo 
eoold win. 

Fomator mil afibrd nillicicnt illustnt*on of tbix. He had won many 
baidly-«ont««tod races ; bnt on an aufortnnato day h« was matvliod against 
an extraordinary horee, Klopliant, liolongiiig lo Sir Jcnnison Sliaftoe. 
It WM a foiir-milc hrat over tfao straight oonrao. They passed the flab 
— (bey fMoenilcd tlie hill u br aa the diatiuim pout — thrgr wcrv nOBS 
to DOM. Between this ami the chair, Bli-pliaut got a tittle ahead. 
Fovnaler in*de 07017 po—ihle effort tn rvcovor this lost grcmiul, until, 
finding aD his eSbrta mafbc(aal. he mndo one, desperate plnngi? — lie 
Mixed his antngonixt by tho jaw to hold him battle, and Ronld scarcely ba 
lorccd lo qait Ids liold. In like nuuinfir, a honw belonging to Mr. Qain, 
in 1 753, finiUng his adrenair gradmvUy poiuitng him, aeii«d him by tho 
k^; and both nden wm OMige<t to dismount^ in order to separate the 

nie youngsters may not hnvo icit all this emulation, nor be disposed 
painAilIy to oxert their enetgiee to tint TCry utmost; and it may be 
necessary — nccosaarr, in otder to aocompliah the paqMMe of the owner by 
winning the race — that the poor animal shnutd tie brut&Uy nrgul on, 
nntil the powan of nature fail, and ho rctirvs from the coarse a cripple 
for life. 

This is a ncoeasaiy part of the syalvm. It i> nccounted tho duty of the 
rider — it is a duty on ih« skilful diiK.-harp> of which a few of them planto 
Ibemsehes ; but it is that which sltould not bo tolerated, and the sysli^m al 
which it is a nocewBry part shonld undetgo RspeeHy and efToctual reforma. 
tion. We entirely agree with thw remarks of Nimrod on this subject. 
'There are many jockeys employed by the inferior l)lnck-leg spocaeaoC 

Ertsmen, and oven some of a hi(;hor cbas, who will not be conrinofd 
t a rider has acted houeeily, onlees hia borse is nearly diaiected idivo ; 
bnt, iu the s tiu u g ss t pfobability, every drop of blood drawn is otteriy 
■niiiiiiiisssij. as it is barbarous anil oontmry to the very idea of spoH, in 
which oven the horse himself ought to share. Such an opinion was givftt 
from the heart, as well as fWim thematuraJBdgment of the late Sir Thomas 
Charles Bunbury, within a few month* of his deoeSM, after five-aod.fifty 
yean of experience on tlic mmt rxlcniiivn scale. AHhiNigh the stont and 
game horse will mn to the whip, tlio excess of it ronst necrsmrilr f Aorfea 
Xm ttriitr, and, in oonm-, detract from hia speed. Many a race nas been 
loHt by a foul cut. or a brutal nsa of the spur— either liy damping tha 
spirit and enfeebling the nerve of the horse, or inducing a sullen dtsgiut 
and df^Kration. An example, much talked of nt the time, and through 
which a rttai sum of moiMry wan lust, oeeurnxl iti tbe owe of aliorsoof old 
Duke William, which was nenrly home ami winnii^. He raoeived a foul 






mt vilh iHe wfaip on a tender |«H, nnil iitstAnllj- huni; Lock aod lost ttia 
mod. With respeci to Uie tioUsjnntnl nn<l wiuhy llor8^-a. if thty mDnot 
■in iritlMiut the aid of the whip, tbey will wililomVin ivith it.' 

We hkTe boom cnsUed lo pla«e at tlu< hiiwl of our chnptor a pnrtmit of 
' The Cobuwl,' lalcon for this work by Mr. Harvey ; ami Mr. Goodwin, 
ntaiataj mir^icon lo the QneoD, bns kmdlj ftimialied ua irith n vontuder- 
Abl* pMt or the following aooonot of him and of Vlour-de^Lis : — 

Ha VMS chttDst ho»i.', fiOci-n hiuidx thrra ini^s hi^h, with good sah- 
Ktonc*. capitail lagi and f<>et, aud tru« &ctioI^ bred by Mr. I'ctn', in \i^5. 
Be -wnm «t bj Whoakor onl of a Delphini maiv — her diun, Ti|>)>Ii- Ctdnr, 
byKingFcr^fiis — thngrwuLunwns Sylvia, by Young Mnrak, out of (Vrret, 
by a brother to SylTio-Ri-frultus Ac 

Ue came ont in 1837, wLtin lie won thi- two-yuum itiikrx, healing Kitty, 
a colt by Tnunp, and a black oolt by Wliisktr.' 

In the MiDo yc«r ho carriod off tbo two<yeare old stakM at Ponlefmct, 
hcfttjiifi Vanuh ; and Una Champogno stAkcs at UoDca^tflr, beating a Glly 
by Blackleg. 

In 1828^ nui a dead luwl with Cadlaud fir tlie Di^rliy, Imating Zin- 
puieo and tvdve othcre, bat ho lost tha second hoat. He won, liowcrcr, 
the St. Lcenr at Doncaater, botiiis ilelinda, Velocipede, aud seTeutMit 
uthen ; and walked orcr for the 200 •ovcratgna stakes at the same place. 
At the latbT i^od of 1 828 he yn.* aoltl W Mr. Pctni lo Gwrgn TV. for 4,000 
guineas. Ho continued, how«ver. on Ihu turf, and won ninny ncrji. 

In lifi9 he wiu heat'^n at the York Sprau; Uee^h'. ^y Btisaie Bedlam, 
is a match for 300 fovormgns ooch — tho St. Lcg«r course, lie started, but 
W1M not placed, for the goht enp nt Ancot, bt^ing bcat«n by Zingnncc an<l 

In 1890 be won the Cmven stakes often sovereigns cacli, healing Harold, 
CBi\ and right othere- He ran acoond fnr tho gold cap at Ascot, being 
btatan by Lneatto, but boating GroenmnntJc; and ZingaiiMi. In the Rune 
Tear he won a *wcopatake at Stockbridge ; and ran tlurd for tho gold cup 
■t Goodwooil, bnt wM beaten by Fleur^do-Us and Zinganee. 

In 1831 he won the Craren stake* at K]MDm ; and ran a dead heat with 
Ifonch for the Oallanda at Ascot ; but running the second boat with her. 
ha broke down — the snsponsory lifrtiiients Iniling in Ixith lund I<^gs. Ho 
did not continue Inme ; Imt tlici i;n!ur;(i'iii<''»t uf the fetlock, and the truces 
of the iron, plainly indicated thai lie could no longer be depended upon as 
a racer. 

The Colonel wa« not sdccmsAiI m n etallinn; he wan iirnt to Germany 
by the Umsts. Tattonall, whoro he met witli no Iiettcr Kuecvajt, and was 
broogfat back lo this country to fmUh a carver that scarcely left an animal 
behind him of the anmllROt notoriety. 

We are also gratified in being enabled to present our rcadora with a 
portrait of that beautifol and almost nnrivalti-d mare, Flcur-de-Iis, by the 
SHM artist 

Sba was bred by Sir M. W. Ridky, Ju 1822, and was got by Bourbon, 
the Km of Sorcerer, ont of T^ly Itachel, by Stamrord— iwr dam. Young 
Bachel, by VolonU-er, out of Ratbi'l, sialor to Maid of All Work, and by 
both the ail* and ibe dam was desconded fit.m HiRliflyer, Jfcurbou started 
tweo^.thrre time*, ont of which ho was nucix-wfiii Bcv«nU-eu timw ; and 
«med off two rlftssMof the Newmarket October Oatland stokes, the Claret, 
tbe CraTcn, and the Trial, beaidi^ 4.130 guineas in specie. 

She was the finest mare in form and size fver prodnccd in England. She 
•toad foDy aisleen hands, and had extraortlinary good leg*, and G^et that 
nerer&iled. H.t speed was good, bnt Iwr forto was distance. Inde. 
pendsBt of her being so fiiW n tnarv iu every oilier rcapect, her chest -nm 



one oT •xtrMnlinarj capacity in an animnl of tmch nuasnal (l<']>th in tlw 
0irthiTi<; plwv. 

SIic fint iippoftWd on tbe tarf rt throe yc«a old, at Nowciwtle-npon-Tyno, 

''*^*- 9 

nscn-ns Lti: 

fbr the twcnty-five goioeaa swe«p8takc«— oiui tnile — aud ixrnt bor four 

On Sqrtcnibcr B, fibe won a sweepstake of tn-i^Dty guineaa, and twon^ 
added— ais inib«crilKim — at rnntefnurt. 

On UiL' 20tli ((f tho luunc month, iibe Hlart«d for the Great St. Log«r, 
and would prulinblj liave won it hod slie not txwii throwu down in tha 
nnuuBg in- AaUemi, at H)ie htat Mmnnou afUnvardfl, and all tiia beat 
honea of mat deacHption. On Ibo 23rd of September, however, nhe won 
a cwncjiatalce of twootj Boverai^ns tmoh, with twenty added — nineteen 

On May £0, 1826, tbe vaa in the aweemtakm of tnranty aoTcraisna each 
— two mite«— aonm asbaorfbera, at the York Spring UaatiDg. Lottery, 
Acta^u, and Oatterick were among her opponcnte. After the firet 100 
yunU, Ijottoty got in front, cloaelv followed by tho others nt Htron^ run. 
ning. He kept ahead until nfarfy tho dixtanoe pout, wlurn FIcnr-do-Ua 
abot ahead, Actvnn and Catlerick Ivtting loox* iit the nunc time. Tbe 
fillr, however, kept in front, and won in galUnt Hlylr by lutlfa length. 

On the next dny, nbe won the gold mj>, opiHineJ aK>un by Aotiron, and 
abto by tho Alderman and aix others. The IJeKiiiK wan neren bi fonr on 
tlie Aldeman, and four to one ugatuat tiu.- wtiiuer. Tlie Alilemuin took 
tlte lead, and madaall tlu» mnniug npto tbe diBtanoe-poat. They were inn ^ 
elnsler at the Htand, when Aotamn and Fleur-de-Us cane ouL A aereiw^ 
stni^f^le took pUce, the uiare winuing by a length. 

Joly G, ahewon the gold cup at Newcastle-upon-Tyne— ten sabacribcra. 
Tbe bettiog vaa fifteen to eight in favour of the winner. 

On the next day abo won the first heat for the town*plate, and walked 
over the coarK for the accond h(«t. 



Od Srplrmber 19, *lic woo Uii> Doacaaiet atake* of t«n soTerel^^ns tacb, 
with twenty kddcd by Oa oaq)or>tion — twei)tv-niae< sobscrib^rav She 
wi« opooaed Inr Actwon, LoUerj, Jeny, nnd otiwrg ; biit tbo beta wen 
file Id four on FleiuvdeJtlL 

Oa (lie ilBt she WOD tbe fgoiA cup, bcatii^ ilolatlo, HvlcauK, iumI 
otlMn. Tha battiiig was Ero to four o& li«r. 

Ob Um S9th iho imn the gold rap nt Uncolo, wolldng over the conrae. 

Ifi^ tha 12th, 1H27, «hc won th« CoMtttttUon ati^ca nt Uw York 
Sorii^ Ifeelui^— lifUva Bulucriben^ at twenty ^nineas each, among 
nkli wera Jerry, Bomphivj Clinker, And SiriuA; the bplUng six to Iivd 
agMUrt Fla«r-d»-Id8. Daring most of tbo waj' t*Ieur-d»-lis was in front, 
Jmnj wixtinA, Hamnhn^ Clinker thinl. stnd SiHns fourth. When bctwe«D 
th* laihi, Jerry looktil ua if bo wouM win, but mulclciily awcrving, Flear- 
dr.Lis wua CMJly by two luu^cUia. 

On the 27lh she ran at Uanchestcr, for a turcco, value 100 guineaa, 
«ilJh tWBOty-foor sabacnbors of ton eoveroigna «Aeh : bcttuig, five to foor 
oo her. 0^ m ak i ng the hut tarn nhn sUppod, nn<l noarly caino on her 
ndo. SkK, howBTCr , recOTcred ; bat, after a sovorcly-contentccl mcc, lost 

On July til* IStii, she won th« gold cup, and awMpetakes of t«n gmsMsaa 
tmth, Kk P rwfci B ; tweo^ mtwcribcrs. The course waa Uiree nulea sod a 
di»UJic«. It was dottbtod whether any hcirse coald he fottn<) to oompelft 
with neor^lc-Lix ; but at length Mr. Milton's otilt^y Iioivo EaphratM, 
«nd Sir W. Wynn's Signonna, entered the Uata. The old honw Innk<i<l tm 
well aitd appMred aa gay as erer, and Signariua was erer a well-known 
g«od tnaro ; bat the odda were throe to one on Flenr-d&-Lia. AfUir the 
naoMl prcpantjoiui tho compciitont were hmtight to the Dost, and away 
tfaey wt^t. EnphmteN mndi! ntny, daMhin^ oil' at >(Mre, and at abont half a 
mile bad ^^ to fiu- ahead, tbut Fleur>de-Uii, who evidently waa waiting 
CM 8if(noniia. foDad it neceaiauy to creep raltier aoarer, Icet the old geldii^ 
^MMild ttcal tha race. EnphraUr^ kept the lend, and •oomed delerniined bo 
to do »o aa long aa he conid ; and ho was nllowcxl to do this niitti withm 
a dictance from liome, when botli the ninrea Hhot ahead, and the 
: old hotae garo it up. Tbe oont4.-st mivr become liighly interesting. 

in well in, and waa beaten only by a ueok. 
tlikewiBe won a Goodwood cop, beating Um Colonel and SUng&u<<e, 
I oat of the same stable* with hetselTf and nearly distancing a field of 

Thtx i* a oontinnanee of Bnoceaa that ia acftrecly eqanlted in tho annals 
of the tart Tbe loea of the UaiuibeBter onp waa Boldy attributable to 
(be accident that occurred while she wns mnning. She likewise failed 
in tbe St. Loser; bat then> she wan thrown down ^another horse during 
Iba T^n!. She was never beaten in a fiiir stragifrlo. Hor owner, howover, 
waa perbapn justified in adling her, as hu did, fur 1,W0 gniiuwi, when he 
Insw Ibat be was eonaigning her to the roval stud ; for ne thns rendered 
it iaiHiMiUe that the laurels thnt she bad won could ever be torn from her. 
81m Boesoessd Um> point* and forrn nf a nicer to a degree of nerfeotion 
Ma been ixrcly' met with. It is true that she stood neany rixteon 
but the deptii of her cheat, her length, hor quartcn, her pasitams, 
—**— * ber aa eqaalty &am«d for motion and fi)r endvanee. Her colonr 
bay, with black legs and fi-et^ tuid a small stroke on her forehead. 
I elotiched enr has been found fault with by some ; othoni, and perhaps 
I won truth, have considered it aa an indicntion of pore blood. It ha* 
faeicditary in samn of our stables, n* in the Urvillu family. 
She WM bought of Sir M. W. Udley, for George IV., for 1,600 guinea*. 
Her ptodeoe, after ha\-ing been put into tho stud, waa eagerly son^t 



for by fomignfm, nad noit out of tlie country. Fleoivd^-ljiH wud in 1942 
in tku [KWiuiHiiun of MouBii.-ur Lupin, in France, who bou)>tit h>>r kt thn 
Haiai>toii Court nlu fur the inadoqnnto Rum of MO gainnu. Her «nd 
was aiagnkceful : sbc is Hiid t<i hnvc Iiui9>)ied her dii,j* in n iitt<oct c»b ia 
Pkriii, wknm Komn chnriteblu BtiKluiUiiiiin, sJiooked ftt Beeiutt hor in Ruch b 
minrttblu plight, bou^bt Uit fur a few pounds, and had n«r alioL Sbo 
was the dau) of SovitlIj^, an American BtoUion of oelobrit^, who iM tho 
rire of Charleston, now oJlvcrliitiHl to covtir at 20 gainca* a mixro in tixtM 
ooontiy M Uhi property of Mr. Tucbrock. 

Tbu raJtiJiblo maru Wiupt, the dam of Carantn, was sold to tbo luuna 
penou fur tiOO guineas; and Young MoosOi tho dam of RU Trap, for 34X> 

Sinco tha daji of tho anitnala vro bare bixin i^muribing, importAut 
n]t«.tstionN ham tAken plitoc upon the tutf ; lit'flta have bit'u ■-•iitiref; iJooa 
ftway with, except in a few counti^ phices, tuid this alouo, it is nippo«ml, 
has tended much to diminiah tho nto and strength of tho ntc«-hotse ; auit 
th«ro oro thoM who, if tboy coulil, would taku uwny tho 5000 gniiMna 
gnntiMl by act of parliunont as Qu<.>«u's Plates auuii&lly, and uppty tho 
money to tli« purcharc of what they doom more likely stAllious. But tf 
tbpse more likely t^lionn arc to bo (elected noldy for their appearance 
anil tho opiniona formed thereon, iiurttwd of their merits, as prored by 
fiuibi, who u there amoo^ ^^ *^" j>t^g*-'> <^iLh«r of speed or codnnmou, by 
looking to iho siio of animals, whitther it bo horso or grcyhoaDd ? Take, 
Aw uutoncip. the best horve Umt luia \xva ou thn tu:^ for the last JoMy 
rears — Bay Middleton, by Sultsu out of Cobwub, thf ]iru[)erty of tho 
Eui of Jersey. This boraft never was beattm : he won thu 2000 Koinut^ 
buutinj^ Elis, the nme Tear that Ulis won tho St. lA-g<ir ; and tlien won 
tlie Derby, beating Gladiator, VmiHon, Slaiw., and a fiftd of good horses. 
Tet, sncli WM the ahapv of this honH.', that Iho Iat« Mr. Thamhill, who 
was a greet brooder and antbority iu those days, promised, if such a rail 
M thia hone was, should win tbo Derby, he would cat him and bia shots 
afterwanU. Yet Bay liiddlcton was not only a long way tho beat bone 
of bis year, but he was the host of nfjilliooM ahio; he wan thn sirv of the 
Kkri of Bgtiuton's Flying Dutehinan. wiiuier of both tli« Derby and 
St. LFffer. and other noes of ffreat ralne, who bas n>cciitly hocn sold to 
tlu! Frvucb Oovenunent for 4000 gnineoo, which snvs but little for tbo 
kind ftx-ling of his owner, who pmfit^^l *o much by hiii pcrfownanw, imt 
for the patriotio fit-ling of thu tarfmen of thia country, to let aoeh a hone 
go out of it. 

There ara more raoo-borses now than were kqtt in fonucr years, and 
Umto alwaya will be, among th« 1,400 marra and 400 stalboiu which are 
koept to supply the bnt-d, suflicient to kiH-]t up thu iniMriority of the 
Ei^lkh thoroughbreil hone. Raciu^, like otlier paatimea, may have ita 
aboMs; still the race tolls as which is the best btwse, and the stud cut^ 
CmM or oantndiota tho opinion which has boon fortned upon shapo and 
qaalificatioiui only. 

In former duvs a flaw lu a pedigree waa a serious affiur, but now tbera 
aiv uumeraas lostanceB wWre faorees whli (h. h.), half bred, attacliHl to 
tlii-ir p«ligre««. arc found beating liclda of our heat-bred liorsra, and tlie 
definition of thonmghhrcd is more dilllGalt than erertodvfinn; for in- 
stance, IIot.i[mr and MKrlboi<ou|{h Duck, h. b., Tutuung acoand for tho 
Deihv ; Iddy Superior, h. b,, second in the Osks ; Oawrooch, )tni. Taft, 
and Mr. Sykea wmning the (^nrewitoh ; Sfongrel winning the NunetT 
Stakes, and boating la^ ficlda of the beat tbunmglibred honee: so that 
there will soon be a neeeaaity for phuHtig Iheae and their nnmeroaa 
pragan; is Ibo atad book. 


Tho facility of sending horses from one part of the kingdom, by railroad, 
to anptUer in the present day, has not improved the condition of onr raee- 
hursea, and their strength and chances of keeping sound are hazarded more 
than ever, and it ia nothing uncommon now to find two-year-olda running 
fitleen races, more or less, in a year, three-year-olds some twenty or thirty 
races, and old horses rmuung aji nnconscionahlo number. As an instance 
of the number of races a horae may mn for, I^iaherman, five years old in 
1858, ran in thirty-two races, and won twenty-one of the number ; he ran 
at York, in 1857, one day, and was beaten by Warlock for the Queen's 
Plate ; and the day after, alier having travelled in his own van on a rail- 
way ail night and day, he beat a field of horses at Abingdon, in Oxford- 
shire. Now it is quite impossible for horses to be in condition so many 
times in the year ; it tries the strength and ruins many young horses 
before they arrive at maturity, and it is almost impossible to find a sound 
old race-horse in the kingdom. 

The breed of race-horses has kept up its superiority in this country to 
ft surprising extent, considering that in all others ihe govommenta spend 
lai^ sums towards thoroughbred stock, while in this nothing but indi- 
vidual enterprise has sustained it and made it flourish above all othera. 
There is no doubt, however, but that more might be done by breeding on 
a large scale, with experience and judicioos management ; and although 
it must be admitted that our best horses have descended, as shown by 
Mr. Goodwin, in his valuable table of the pedigree of the thoroughbred 
horaa, from the Dariey Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian, and the Byerly 
Turk, it would be a great mistake to think of going bock to Arabian or 
other blood, to improve that whioh is in every way ao much ita superior, 

TEE HiniT£B. 

There are few agriculturists who have not a little liking for the sports 
of the field, and who do not fancy rich music in tlie cry of the hounda. 
To what ext«nt it may be prudent for them to indulge in these sporta 
circumstances must decide, and they deserve the moat aerious consider- 
ation. Few can, or, if they could, ought to keep a hunter. There are 
temptations to expense in Uie field, and to expense after the diase, which 
it may be difficult to withstand. The hunter, however, or the hunting 
horse, — i.e. the horse on which a former, if he is not a professed sports- 
man, may occasionally with pleasure, and without disgrace, follow the 
hounds, — is in value and beauty next to the racer. 

Faahion and an improved state of the agricolture of the countiy have 
materially increased tie apeed of the chase. The altered characl«r of the 
fox-hounds, and the additional speed which they have lately acquired, 
compel the farmer to ride a better horse, or he will not hve among his 
companions after the first burst. Stoutness is still required, but blood 
has become an essential quality. 

In strong, thickly-inclosed countries, the half-bred horse may got 
tolerably well along ; but for general use the hunter should be at least 
three-quarters, or perhaps seven-eighths bred. When he can be obtained 
■with bone enough, a tkoroughhred horse will form the best of all hunters j 
especially if he baa been taught to carry himself sufficiently high to be 
aware of and to clear his fences. 

He should seldom be under fifteen or more than sixteen hands high j 
below this standard he cannot always measure the object before him, and 
above it he is apt to be leggy and awkward at his work. 

The first property of a good hunter is, that he should be light in hand. 
For this purpose his bead must be small ; his neck thin and especially thin 
beneath ; hta orafit firm and arched, and his jaws wide. The head will 



tlien b« well wt on. It will foim thai anglo with the neck which givn a 
light tmA pleasant tmmtli. 

Tho forehand shouUt he loftier tban that of ttio mncr. A tnrf lionw maj 
bo for^vMi if bin liiiwi i|uarter8 rise nn inoh or cvim two nb»vc hU for© 
ones. His principal pow«r is wmnt^^l fmni bi-liinit, wul Uie wry luvmnw 
of tho forrhnnd m&y throw morv wrtgfat in ftont, and cfluso tbo wbolo 
machine lu Iw aiuru Muilyanil iip<»(Uly rnored, A lofty Torohand, bowevcr, 
is tndiKpaunble in the hnntor ; and n alioalder as rxtcnxivc ax in the racer 
and aa oUiqnv, and somewhat tliickor. The eaddlo will then bo in its 
proper phioe, uid will continiiu ao, however long miijr bo tliv run. 

The han«] dIkkiM bo roondm-, in order to f^ire eroaterroom for the h<«rt 
and InngH to play, and to send more and pnr«r blood to tbc brgttr frnmo 
of tbi* bom, c«pm:ially when tho ran oontinnos nnchcckod for a timo thai 
begitui (o be dittivsnng. A broad cb4«t iit alwajrn an e-X(H-ltence in a 
hunt«r. ta the rtolcitt and long-continncd L-zrruoit of tbu ubue Uio 
reeinrntimi is i-^oecdinf^j i{nioken^ and abuDdiuitly more blood is faorrted 
thionf>h the 1011^8 in a ^ven lime than whi-ii tlie auinia] is at rest. Tbcra 
mast bo eafficient room for this, or Iw will not only be distressed, but 
(wanUjr dtsttrnjiA Tba m^jori^ of tho boraea that perish in tho fivlcl 
am narrow-chiMtad. 

Tbe ana ahoald be m» mojtcular a.« Ihnt of tho racer, or oren more ao, 
for both etraigtb and endurance am wanted. 

Tbe leg ahoold be deeper ibaa U>at of tbe mo»-bonH' — Imuuler as we 
stand at the aide of the boree — and ecpeoialty beneath the knee. In pn>- 
|iortioD to tbn dixtanco of tho tendon from the cannon or abunk-buue, and 




mnre partioaUrljr a litUe below the knee, ia the mccliauicut ulvnntngtt 
with which it adfl. 

The leig should be shoricr. Higher lUTtinn is tvqnirod tkajn iu tlie racer, 
ta onkr Uut the Im maj be (ikiarly aiul tuMy lifled over laany an 
pbrtada, and, pttiticoWtjr, that tiiay may Ik> wril dutihlecl np in the IcHp. 

The p«»1<rti sbonhi be ahortor, and less alaiitiu^, y<i rrtnining ooiiitiddP- 
abfe ooliqaitf . Tho long pHKt«rn is awful, by the yii-ldiiiF,' rttit&tunoo 
whidi ite elHtid^ affbrda to break tho conaansion TCilh which tho racis 
bone from fai* """■"■■" atrido and *|>(!ei] inust oomt^ on tho groiuid : mid 
the obU<|i>0 diieotivD of the different bom« ht-aittiTuIly contri^tca to effbot 
the aame poipoae. With this elasticity, however, a coutiideruble deffree of 
imaVneni is neoMarilv cnnni^ti'il, and tho ntco-horso occasionally breaks 
dowB is the middle ut ht« cuurBo. Tho buntur, from his diir<ircmt action, 
talcM BDt thia kngth of stride, and tberefbro waiita not all tliis durtin 
mrr!i«iiltiin He more neoda stron^'th to sapport his own heavier uaruant!, 
and tho grctttcr weight of hia rider, and to undiirgo the btigae of a long 
day. Sonw oblianity, bowuvi-r, hn n^qiiiurs, otlicrwiao tho concnsslon oven 
at his afaorter ipulop, and more poiiiculiu'ly uf bia fre^nontly troroandoiia 
leans, woold ineritably lame him. 

The foot of the hnntcT is n must nuit^Trinl point. The narrow contmctcd 
foot is tho canw nf munb of the rsw.itig blund. Tho work of thr mccr,' 
however, is sU periurnied ou Uie turf: but the foot of tho huntrr in 
laUtervd aver many a flinty road and stony field, aud, if not partii^ularly 
good, will soon Im diimbiod and mined. 

The poaition of iixc fuet in tho hnntur rcquiroa Komo attontinn. I^licnr 
■boold if poaaible Htand slnuf;hl. If tbcy turn a litUe outward, tht-ro m 
■Tto serions objoclion ; biit if tboy tom inward, his actJon c&unut be safe, 
MTtic&laHy whnn ho is fnti^od or ovrr-wnighti^. 

Th« body ahoutd bo sJiort and cani|iiK-t, compared witli that of the noe* 
bom^ thai he may not in his )^llop tako too extt.'^ndcd a sli'idu. Tins 
-wootd he a serioos disadvBut^^ in a long day and with a heavy ridirr, 
rrara th« strttss on the postmris ; and mom scrions whrn going ovor oinyoy 
fHM)li«leroiuid dnring the winter niontlu. Tlio compuiH iihort-»trid<Hl 
Mine win ah»o«t Hkim the anrfacv, while the feet of tliu lonjter- reach t-d 
will nnk deep, and he will wear himself out by efforts to disengage 

/ nporting man knows how mach more ondaring is a slinrt-bodiiNl 
I in cumbing bilk, atthuugh perhaps not quito so much in dcscL-nditig 
tfefB. This is the secret of sniting the raee-hiTte to his course : and 
"■t^i-i* the apparent mystery of a horse decidedly Riiprrior on a flat and 
ttiMghl cosno^ being ofltm tieaten by a little hunte with fnJ* short«r stride 
ea uaa i w i gronnd and with several turniiiKB. 

The loins should be broad ; — the quarters long ; — the thighs muscnlnr ; 
—the hoeka well bcuts and woll nndor tho horse. 

Tbe reader needs not to be told how lassantial temper and oourage are. 
A hot irritable bnitc is a perfect naisanoe, and the coward that will 
rvatody Cioe the slightest fence oxpoees his owner to ridicule. 

The prnuiple of proparing both tho mcc-horso and the hunt«r for their 
week is the aamo, and can have no myiitory about it. It consiatein gutting 
nl of all vuperflnnns Beali and fat, by physio and exercise, yet williout too 
■acb loworing the aiiimal ; and, jiarticularly in bringing hiui by dint of 
fscmae into k*^ wind, and accnstoming him to tho full trial of his 
ym se i i vithoBt ovRrstiaining nr injuring him. Two or three doaes of 
iJiy a it as tho season appivaohi^H, and these not too strong ; plenty of good 
tinl Beat ; and a daily gallop of a eonjile of miles - — at a paeo not too 
k— will be neariy all that can he repaired. Phyaic must not indeed i 




be omitf«d ; bnt Uio thrm word*, atft crat/auro, food, conloin the grand 
■uciH anil art of train iuif. 

Thi* old Luut«r may be fairly ridilen tirioe, OT, if not with »ny Tery luud 
days, thrro timM in tbe wmk ; bnt, an«r o thoronghly tiyini; dny, and 
•ndsot diatroaa, tfami nr foar dnya' n^et shnnld bo nlTowcd. They nho am 
maroifdl to thoir borauH, alloir about thirty duy«' work in tho oonrw of tbo 
■finnn. with gentle exercise on ea«h of the intonnediftte days, and ))ar< 
ticularlr » sweat on tho dnv hnforo buniing. ThoTO i» an acponnt, how- 
vnr, of ooc home who fitltoncil tbu fox-hoands aovonty-fire tiiuM in ooo 
•OMim. This fual has nevti- been exceeded. 

Wo recollect to have scon the Inst Dtiko of Riehmoiid bat one, although 
an old man, and whnn ho had thn gnnt in hia handa bo Berernly tbnt bo 
wft« obliged to he liAiid ou borncbiick, and both amis buing {KL-'Ocd through 
the rcinit, wvm eroaaM ou his broasl, f^allopinfi; down the ateepcst part of 
Bow Hill, in the noighbonrhood of Goodwood, nlinoxt ns nbmpt &» lli« 
ridgo of an oriUnary houM, and duxiring on the honuda with oil the ardonr 
of iL yonth. 

Sir John Uuloohu (iii his SkelcLes of P«nia) sivee ao annuii^ aaoonni 
of tho impreuiun which » fox-hnot in tlie BngliBh i^le made on an Anfa. 

' 1 wna entertained by lirtimiiig to nn Arab peoaant, who, with animated 
'fCtaAunut, waa narmtin^ to a gruuii of liis cunntryineD all be hod ticen of 
this uoble haut> " There came tho fox." sud he, ]K)intin;> with a crooked 
stick to a elump of dato-treo», " there ho came at a great rale. 1 hallooed, 
bnt nobody heurd me, and I Uunight he mast t^t uwav ; bnt when ho got 
<]uilo out of si][ht, up eame a Wp* spottul duK, anu tJien another and 
another. Tbo]r>II)tftdtheirtiosrst')thegroimd, and g»TO tonf^^ — wfaow, 
whow, whow, so lond, I wn» frightened. Away went theec devils, who 
soon foond the nonr animal. After them gallojied the Poringoos (a Gor> 
rnj>tion of EVunic, tho luune given to a Buropeau over all Attin), tthoatinff 
and trying to make a noiae louder than the dogs. Ho wonder ihey lolled 
tho fux auiuD(> them." ' 

The Trcaimrer Bnrlitigh, llio u^ councillor of Qu('<m Elizabeth, oonld 
not enter into the pli-usures of tlie chaso. Old Ajidruw Fnller iclatca a 
quaint Ot/ary of him : — 

•When sorao noblemen hiid gotten William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, U> 
rido with tlmm a hunliug, and tlic Hport began to be col<l, " What calt jov 
this?" said tho treasurer. "Ob! now the do)<:8are at &ult," waethercplj. 
'* Yea," quoth tlie lrra«nror, " take me again in anch a foult^ and 1*11 giro 
yon leavtt to ]>nui«h me." 

In (brraer times it was the gabion for women to bant almost as often 
and aa keonlj aa the men. Qaecn Elizabeth was extremely fonil of tho 
chase. Rowland Wbyte, in n Iott«r to Sir Kobort Sidney, aaya, ' Hot 
M^iMty ia well, and oxeollcntly diapoecd to hnnting ; forerory acoeud day 
■he !a on honebaek, and continuLii the sjiort long.' 

Tliia outem bood afterwaida began to decUno, and the joke* and 
mntmUM of tk» witty oonrt of Charles II. coutriboted to diaoounU-naneo it. 

It is a cnrioa* circnmitanoe, that tho lirat work on hnntins that pro. 
oeoded from tho yrvaa wua from the ]icn of a' female, Juliana Bamee, or 
Bemcn, the aiiter of Lord Beraers, and prioresa of Uie nnnnory of S^te- 
well, abont the year 14)jl. 

The diffrn-ncn in the paoc, and tho ronneqnrnt difference in the br«od 
of the home, hnri) t^octed a oonaiderabli; alteration in tlie uHago of the 
huator. It ia the almost iuTariablo piaoUoe for each sporlaman to have 
two, or •ometimcs three bo iw in the liold, and after a moderate ibty'a 
Sport the boras ho* hia tliree or fonr days' rwt, and no fewer than Gve or 
MX allar • aevera mn. When a httlo numi apecd was introdooed into tits 

turf boTM!, the bnlf-brod or tbrccs-ptirU-bnxl horn, which constituted tha 
racer of thirtj-ye«ra a>KO, soon arqnjrcd n portion or th<^ incrnwKr' of speed, 
MDil in conseqDODoe of this bot^an to Iw incuovi'iiM-iitly or unnojinglv <!lni>o 
to the hoanaa. — A cbiitigc> then took placo in the broeJ of thu tiouiid. 
Thin, bowoTtr, a» might Imi iixiicvtcd, irnn carried a litlUj too far, aud 
thej aoott befiati to run »t a rate to which thu liir greuiev proportion of 
Urn hilf-brvda wore Altogether unequnl. The tlioroughbrvd honw then 
bcgaa to find his wajr into tlio fiiM. Tho prcjudioo waa stiun}; against 
him at fini. It warn aaid that lie coald not take hi» k-Aps liko tbe old 
hunter : bat^ after a liUle training, ha became canal in this resprct to tho 
verf best of his predecessors, and superior to tho greater part of thum. 
This is well trntod of by Nimrofl in bin work on ' The Chase.' 

Tho honn IhUj aharca in tbt' ontlmsiosm of his rider. It is bcMitifVil to 
watch tho old hunter who. uSXvr many \ winter's hard work, in turned into 
the park to eigoy himself for lifo. His attitude and bis eouutouonoa when, 
nerAanoo, he heart tbc distant cry of tho do^rs, are a study. If he can, 
ho will broak hi* fence, and, oror hod^, and liinL-, and brook, follow tbn 
chaae, and ootoe in first at the dtAth. 

A bone that had, a short time before, been severely fired on three legs, 
and was pbcod in a loose box, with tbo door, fonr feet high, closed, and 
BO aiiOTtan over it little more tlian three feet sqnaiv, and stnndlTig himself 
nearly nxtoen hands, aud luaster of fifteen stone, hearing the cheering of 
Ihe bttntsmao, and the ciy of the dogs at no groat distance, sprung through 
the aperture wiUioot tearing a single mark on the hotlom, the top, or the 

Then, if tho bono ia thos randy to oxort himself for onr phmanro — and 
plaasttra alotie ia here the object — it is indefensible luid brutal to urge hiui 
Deyoad his own natural srdour so BC>verely tis wo sometimes do, and even 
notil natsro is qnito cxhn.nstGd. Wo do not oftim hour of a 'hard <biy,' 
without being likewito informed, that ono or more horses either died iu 
the fidd, or ecareoly reached homo before they expired. Some riders Imvo 
fac«n Ibmgfatleas and craet enough to kiU two horses in ono day. One of 
tke le wii e st causes on record was by tbo king's sti^-hoands. Tlic-n^ u.-iui 
■a saintermptcd barst of four bnurH and twiinty niumtes. One Jjorso 
drappod dead in the Eeht ; another died before ho could reach the stable, 
aaa asTea more within the week ensuing. 

It is very concoivablo, find do::« oc™isiona!Iy hajnion, thati onfcrinc iw 
fiiUr a« hi* iniwtcr into tho oports of the day, the horse disdains to yield 
to bttgne. aud vdmitJirily pniasea on, iiulil. niitura being cibaualcd, ho 
&Us and die* : bat lunch oflencr, tho poor aiiimni lias, intoUigihly <:<iiough, 
hinted his distress ; nnivilling to givo in, y<^t niunfnlly and faltcringly 
bohling on, whilo tho mereilctts rider occaaionully, riLtlier limn give up 
oott bear's enjoyment, tortures him with whip aud spur, until he drops 
and did; — that man is a brute. 

AUhoBsh tbc hunter may not willingly relinqnish the chaae, he who 
* ia BMitiila] to liia beast,' will soon rvcogniso the symptoms of exeemivo 
a^ daageroua distnas. To tho drooping pace and BtaggeHog gnit, and 
hfTJnc flank, and beary bearing on tho banH. will Im added a very 
peculiar soand, Tho inezperioncml person will faney it Iu bo tho beating 
of tba heart ; bat that has almost ceased to pulaato, and the lungs aro 
faoooming goreed with blood. It is the oonTulsiYO motion of tho diaphragm, 
called into TtMent action to assist in tho now lalxirions oflloo of hKAlliitif . 
The laaa wbo ptT>oeeds a ringle stop after this, ought to suffer the pa&in- 
mmt h« IB infliotinfr- 

l«fc the rider insliintly dismount. If lie has a laneet nnd skill to use it, 
let him aBbtnct live or six quarts of blood ; or, if ho hiis no lauoot, lot 


him docpljr cat tho Inre of tlui palnto with » Imift:. Tho lang* will ho tlins 
rcKcred, nad the hoTM maj be tMo to cmrl liome. Then, or iKTon^ 
if poesible, let aotne powvrflil oordiiJ be Bdminuterod. Conltab wn, 
geoenUj ipMldiig, tbe diagnee tuwl hone of Um etablv ; but here, and 
■inoBt banaloiMtthiiTu* trnljrTnlaBliU!. Thoj maj toiuo th* oxhuuihMl 
powim of nstaro. Taaj mMy prcront wluU the meoical man wooM cult 
tho re«cUi>u cS iiithmnMlion, althoiifth tboj aro the T«rieat poison when 
itiflftDLmation bns oonumnood- 

A (aronrito bimter l«U oftar k long Wnit, Mid Inj KtretctMN) ont, oon- 
vuIiK'd, nnd apjNUCDtly dj^i^- ^^ miudfr pruinin.-d » luttlu of ptoA 
itlivrrT' fruni Uiu liooae of » neii^boaHuK frien<l, uiid poutvd it down Lli« 
aaiaMt)'* tliroat^ The pAtient imnwdktely b>'g»n to reriTo : bood albtBt- 
wafda^ b* got op, wnlkod homc^ and gradmdty rcx^ivnivd. The KportxRua 
nuj not nlwajrs be nUe to get tbia, mit he aay obUun a corduJ-b«ll from 
the noamt vcleriiutij BSTf;;ooo ; or, snch aid iiot boiii); at haiMl, ho may 
beg a little ginger from somo good honwiwirc, nnil mix it with waim ale ; 
or ho tiMV giro tho alo alone, or rrnn iitmigllicni-d with n littlo anient 
■tiiril. When ho gets lionie, or if be stops at tho lint stable he finda, let 
tlie bone be put iiito Ike oooUM yloff, and then vdl dotbed. and diligeatlj 
labbed aboat tbo lege aod bollj-. Thn pmcti<« of pattinc tlw aninwJ, tbni 
Jirtrcaaud, into ' a oomfortabk' warm stalili>,' and excbiding cvtrrj brcatli 
of air, hua defllrured many valuable liorsee. 

We are now dmcribing tbe vei^ csrlicet treatment to be adopted, and 
before it mxy ho poMiblo to call in an rxp(>ri<inro(l pnwtitiooar. Thia 
atimnlating jdan wonld be fiilal iwclvo houra afU-rwanU. It will, bow. 
erer, be tbe wieeat conrse to ooEomit the animal, the first moraernt it is 
practicable^ to the caro of the votorinArr snrgeon, if each a one rcaidea in 
tfaa noi^bonrhood, and in wbom cy>nlidi?noe can be nlaotid. 

The bboun mmI ^i-oauros of tho bunting aeaaon beu^ [MiaBcd, tbe bnner 
inakee litde or no differenoe in tlie managoDWnt of hia untrained home ; 
bnb tbe wealthier Bporismao is somewhat i^ a toes what to do with hia. It 
need to bo thoogb^ that when tho animal had aa long oontrilmlcd, oomo- 
tinue Tolontarily, and aomelimea wilb a little oomimlsion, to the cinojmeni 
of his owner, he ought for n few nionllis to be permitted to sook nia own 
■aanaenMmt, in liia own way ; and hr wan tnmni ont for a tnmmer's mn 
at gtaas. Fasbion, wbL-b govL-rus ercrrthing, and now and tben most 
craelljr and absordlj, has ciorvised her tyranny in the case of tho hnnter. 
His fioUl, whm; ho oonid wtui'Irr nnd gunbol as he likod, is changnl to a 
looae box ; and tbe liberty in wliieb he ■□ irvidontly oxal(<>il, to an hour's 
mOdn^ esSRiw dailf . He is allowed vcU-li««, or graas oosssioually ; bat 
from his box ho stira not, esoept for hia doll morning's round, nntU he is 
taki-n into training for tbe msxt winter's basinesa. 

In this, however, aa in most other things, tbero is a owidinm. There am 
few hones wbo hare not matenallir SBlIbred in their h>gs and foot, bolbre 
tbe doe* of tbe 'ffl"*™g ststson. There ta nothing so nfreabng to their 
fbet as tho damp ooolneat of the gntss into which th^ an tonMa in April 
or Iby ; and ootbing so calculated to mnoro overj cnlanfFment and 
quain, as the gentle eicfcise which the animal voluutaiily takes white bis 
Irs* BFi* eipiuol to the moling proccM of ovapotatiOD that is taking t>lac«| 
IV«ui tlie licrbace on which he irMMls. The exporisDOS of agos baa shown J 
that it is sapeTMr to all the embrocatMO* and bandages i>f tbe moat sk' 
Teteriuaiwi. It is tho rcnotatin^ process of itttare, where the art of i 
&fls ; let him ibercfore bare Iii* |)Badock as well as his looao box. 

Tbe spring grass is tlw bi-Bt [ihyaic that ean poniMy be admtnistcTod to 
the Iiunto. To a di'gnx% which no artificial aiwHcnt or dinrrtic oan reach, i 
it earrica off cTctj bumovr thatmajrbo Inridng aboat tbe animal. It fine* I 


down the ranndncA of tiie k-gs ; naS, «scppt tUcra is mme hany mluge. 
■kmt, r —t n w tli«m aJmoet to Uivir oriKinnI form and KtirniffUi. Wluin, 

how«Ter, llie nuBOwr liM thorouglily M- 1 III, the gntas ceows to m saccdcnt, 
■pmeot, or medicniAl. Thin gronnd is no longer cool ftnd moist, nt least 
dnrug Um dsj ; uid » ho«t of tonnniitora, in the tioifo of flies, are, froia 
w mrii o to annacl, penecnlinic tbo poor luiimal. Kutinuif;' and stunpiiiB to 
rid luBUelf of bi* plagnM, liu reptaiu battcml hythv bnnl Ktonoil.uid ho 
newlr. and jwrhapa morp wrrroly, iojurea bia legii. Kept in a eoui'tftnt 
slai« of irritiition nnd fever, he npidljr Iosm his condition, and soini-tinK^s 
cotaw np in AngnM liUl« bettor than n. sksloloo. 

Let Hoe hdisi- b« tunned out as soon as potdbla kftor the hunting eonsaii 
is <rrer. I^et him hnro tho wholo of Ma.f, and the gnmber part, or piMiibl^ 
tb» wholp of Jimo ; bat wbra tho gnu fails, and tho gronnd get* hard, 
and tbv flirx tomeot, Let him be Uikcn up. All tbe benoGta of turning 
ovt, and that which a loose box and artilicial phynio can never gire, will 
batre be«a obtolDeda without tho inconvenieum uiid injury that att«nd uti 
iujadiaaody pratnctol ron at gnuw, nnd which, arguing ngninst tUo 
OD of a tbing from the abuM.' of it, havo boon improperly urged against 
taming oat at alL 

Tbo Steele Chan » a relic of aocaant foolhardincs* aoil craellj. It 
waa Uw fbrm nnder which Ui« honw nico, at its first catabltjdinKtnl, was 
fivqiuntl;^ decided. It i* a laoe ocrou tho ooontiy, of tiro, or fotir, or 
era a greater number of miles, and it is generally contrived that tlieixi 
ihaD be KMne deep lane, or wide brook, and inaDy a stilT and dangeroua 
Isoee betweeo. It is ridden at tho imminent hazard of tbo lifo of ib» 
mntaaan ; and it Ukenise endangen tbo lifo or enjnyiiient of tbe hone. 
IIbi^ Mrieiu accidents hare happened both to ttii: horso and his rider, 
and the practice most ero long grt into disuse ; for, wliilu it can have 
BO poaaine reconunendatian bat its foollinnlitiois it has on many ocnu 
aiona bean diieneed bj bandkced diF<hua>.-«ty. It ha* all the Mvereat 
pvaialnDcnt of Um aefweat cbaae, without any of tho pl«Mraro and ex- 
atemeBl which enables this Doblo noimol so Qnflinchingly to stru^lv 
thn^agh it> 


Tbe perfect Hackidit is more difficult to find than even the hnoter er 
the cp p nier . TLen an aereral fnnlts tlmt may be overlooked in the hunter, 
but which tiie road-borao mnsi not have. The former maj guirt ; may bo 
awfcward in bis walk, or even his trot ; be inay hare thrualioa or cams ; 
bat if he can go a good slapping pace, and has wind and bottom, wo onn pnt 
up with him aud prise him : bat tho hackney, if he is worth havinj*, mti«t 
hava good foro-legs, and good binder ones too; bo muitt he eound on his 
Ibat; «iVB-tstnpBRd; no alerter; quiet, in whatercr situatioD bo may bo 
fdaeed ; not heavy in band ; and never diRposed to fall on his Imees. 

If tbsre ia one thing more than any other, in wliieh the poae o aaor, and, 
in Iris own eetunation at least, thu tulnruble jndjri! of tbo horse, ia in error, 
it is tbe ej4i'<n of the road-horse : ' Let him lift his legs wet),' it is aud, 
'and be wil) never come down.' 

Ib proportion, however, n* he lilbi hi* logs well, will he the force with 
wbicb be pola tbcm down again ; tho jar ana oooenssioD to tbo rider ; and 
the fcaUermg and wear and leer of the feol^ A Itomo with too great 
' knee action ' will not always be sprcdy ; ho will rarely bepleaaaut to 
ridei, aid he will not, in tho kHig-mn, be aufer than others. The careless 
ilei'fy ratffT. however pleasant on the lorf, should indeed be avoiilcd ; bat 
it is a rab^ not eften nnderstood, and sometimea dispatod, bat whiob 
I will fUJy oonHmi — that the aafely of the borao depends a great 


denl more on tine mnnnpr in wbicb he put» liia fwt down, Uimi on tbitt in 
wbich ka lifts tiwm Dp: — tnorc on tiio foot being pincvd nt nnccfUlun tbg 
nouni], or pcrhnpa too b«cl coming finrt in oonl»ct witli it, tiiau on Uxt ' 
nifffacal luxl most Hjilundid action. 

\VlieD tli« toe fint toaohes the gronni], it maj be rcadDj' supposed lluit 
tfae boTM will occuionall; be in diuigcr. An cmcxTHT^i'd ohiilncio will 
tfcraw tha CMitro of gmviljr forwatd. If lli« too iiigM into th« groajid 
boforo tltu foot is firailj' pWi-d, u little tiling will e*a»e » trip and k (nil. 

For pU-'ASAut riding' and Tur Kiifti'ly also, ft biMrkue}' fhoiihl not rany hi* 
Itgt too Ki'jh. Ilin ^iing a litilc f'» ncnr to the ground is not alniij'ft lo 
bsconaidoivd m nn innatmnibk nlijcctiun. Tbu t|Uciition in, docs b« dig 
hi« ton into tlio Kn>itnd t 

Hu idioald be muunttsi and put to tlio tMt. Let his fed be titkm up 
uid examined. If (he shoe, after hsving been on a w««lc, or a fortuiKbt, 
M not nnnooos«inl7 worn nt the tno, and he is folt to put his foot flat on 
the groond, he miijr l>n bonghl without Ncraplo, iJthongh he may not haTO 
the toffy action which mime have ononeonHly ihinight w> important. 

£verj honM.', however, is liable to fall ; and hence cumi-a the guUlvn mk 
of ridinf;, ' AViwr lni«( (o yi^ur hont,' but alwajs feci hja monlb liKbtlj'. 
Ho dnea wrong who constantly palla might and main ; bo will noon spoil 
the BDimaVs month. He does worac who cnreleaKly throws tbo reinA nn 
the nedt of tlie horso. AlKfti/tUfl iha mouth lighlli/, wiUi n nininltaneuna 
gentle prvarare uf both legs. Bj t1ie*e meacB the rider wiU iiunue a n^u- 
larltjr of |iace, and command the safety ftDd meed of his hoTM. If he 
depends entirely npon the feeling of Ihe hand, the month nu^ boootno too 
aonsitiTo, and rofiiH} to Iuito the jn-oper bearing npon the bit. The action 
of the horiHi may aUo b<: DncollMrt4!d, so that tbo hind foot may strike 
against or orerreaoh Out tore foot. Agnin, if the horeoman nwgitwta the 
elaatidty ami fine feeling of the hand, and makus too mnoh uae of his Icf^ 
alone, a calk>iia month and boring upon the hit will most likely rasalt from 
the practice. By this nnifonnity of feoting, the horeo may thns have 
occaaiunal and immediate nssistAnoo before ho ia too much im the centra 
of ytarity, and wbim a little check will save him. By thia <«natanl 
gentle /rMtx^ ho will likovrise be indnoed to carry his head well, than 
which few things are more ramdndve to the easy, bonntifui, and safe going 
of tlie horse. There ia one nntrrring criterion by which a good hack may 
bo known : if be can walk well he can do no othi-r puce ilL 

The roftd-lMno may, and shonld, like the hunter, poaauaa diffennt de- 
grco* of breeding, aceording to the nntora of the country, and the work 
rsnnin.ll of him. When approaching to thorough bred, b« mar ho a splen< 
dhi animal, bat be will be ocarovly tilti'd fur his <ln(y. His log* will Im 
loo slender: his feet too suatl i hia stride too long; and h« will rarely bo 
able to trot. Thrve parte of blood, or oven half, for the horse of all-work, 
will make a gon<l and nnnfoJ animal. 

Tho bat'kmiy iiluHild be a hunter in miniatnro, with these exocptioits. 
His livight sliould raroly exceed fifteen hands and an inch. He will be 
coffioieDUy *t*aag and more plMsant for general woric below that standmtd. 
Some will imagino, and pcrrhaps with jnstiiw, that tlic portrait which we 
give of the roswl-horKe n-|in-«enta him na sonMiwhat too tall. He rrrtuinly 
UMold be of a more tMHnpact forni than the hunter, and have nwre bulk 
aoooedini; to hia height ; for he has not u>orely to aland an oooaatoual and 
perhapa Mretn borat in the field, bat a great deal of ovary-day work. 

It ia of casentinl onnaeqneiKe tbnt the bonca boDcati) the kneo sboald be 
di^ and flat, and the tendon not Uefi tn. 

The pcwirm abonki be short, and although obliiiue or slanting, yet far 
leM to than tliat at the raoo-hgrsQ or the hunter. There shonld bo oblir]nitj 




mnnirh to fpn pl«ai«nt nctinn, but not to render the borse incApnblo of 
IliB wv&r Mid UroT of consitant, und, KomctinirH, hard 'ir:>rk. 

Til* fooC i» n tnalti-r ol" tlic ({rt'uUist t!oiiwiiiM;ncir in n fiackn^y. It Hhould 
bp of * nte canvcponding with the bulk vt uio iininuil, nritboi' too hollow 
nor too Oat ; open ut iJtti Ih-l-U ; and tmc IVom «i)rii.-< mid thmthcs, 

Yba Ibt^tngB should bi- [jt-rfeoily straiKhi. Tlii'i-e iiritHlii not n moini-nfs 
ecMwidontioD witli thi> public to bv couviiii.f'd that a honu! with hi« LiitfTti 
fatnt, will, from a alijfhl cnaee, and especially if he is ovir-wL-igljtcd, coin« 
dovn. The fm-t howofcr is. that a borso with bent foro-lega has rtui^ly 
btokiTD knevH. 

The back ahonld ho straight nnd xliort, ynt iinlBcicntly lonj^ to Ioavo 
oimfbrtmUo room for the xnildli? Iietwt^cm thu Hhinildi-m and itiu hnnnch 
wTthoat pmsing on Htbirr. S(>niu [lereonH prt-fi-r it hulhiw-biicked borso. 
Hn is gvticmlly tm eaa.j one to so. He will caiit(.-i' wtll with il lady ; lio 
nikj- not otrry m> litAvj a wuight, uur staud such very bard work, but it 
is ■ great luxarj to ride him. 

Tbe road-horse ahonld bo hish in Ihi3 forehand ; ronnd in tfao bamd | 
ud <Uwp in the ehcsi : the e«ddl« will not then prcis too forward, but Uie 
tprtktwill rpraaifi lirmly filed in their proper plaoe. 

A harknry is fnr moro viilniihld for Iho p]<-nMintne!M of hi* paires, and 
bi« Wrty, good tcnipi.'r. niid i'«durwncp, fchiin for his npiird. Wo mr<'ty 
w«nt to go roon? limii t-i^ht or li'ti inih-H in mi hour ; iiiid, on n jonniey, 
not more than nx or wv«n, Tlw liuit Iiomc-h, and <^s|)feinlly tho fiwt trot- 
tmr», atv not oftwi eaay in their pows, and aUhooKb t.hny mfty perform 
voy extraordin&iy toaU, ato dissbledaiid wortlilcw) h-Iil'ii UiOHlowerhorso 
is in his primp. 

Tbo sbovo is ibo portrait of one tliat belon^d Ui an old friend of tho 
■■thor. lie wiwi no briiuty, and yet ho wiui full of ff<^<l poinU. Ho wiu 
twwr out of t«>mp(rr — he never Ktumblcd — he tiever showed that he was 
ttred — nKwt tvrlainly wa« never off his feed— but, hcinff a stnuigo fclhn* 
I to f*t, hn MM.- <hiy. altliouKh tbo (^rooni hn<l a thousand tinu-B bccu 



cftntiiraed. gorged hinuwlf, and was i[iim(^lint«ij' tak^n ont by his 0WD<>r, 
itfnnmnt of tliia, in order lo bo ridden noinoirhiit fiu- iu)d fiurt. At nboot 
tine middle of tlie totended jonniej be ftbnoitt Ktopp^l ; — bo wunld Mftvr 
tiiin bATO t^na on at his obq&I [)acc, but it waa evident that somelliJUK 
onnmuJ nu tho nwttcr with hiro, and his roaster etoppod at tho first 
connaieiit plaoa. The Btomncb wu raptnrod, hikL, two days ftllorwitrd, 
bs died. 

Moat of oar rcodora probably nn> horsomcn. Tlioir memories will sappl; 
thom with nianj inittAnncs of intelligence and liilnlily in tlio honm, kiii 
portimilurly in the haoknaj' — the ovBry-d»y companion of man. A friend 
rode hiA borso thirty milea from homo into a oountry that was perfectly 
juw to bim. The rood was diflicnlt to find, but by dint of inqniiy ho at 
lonsth mK;he<l tJio ploco ht.- Houglit. Two yuant paiiM>d away, nnd 
BiRun had occasion to lakv Ui« same journey. No odo rode this horse 
hUDSel^ and he was perfectly acsorod that tbe animal ha<l not, since 
fint oxcareion, hot^n in that direction. Tlin« or four milca befon 
rcncboil his jonmoy'B end lie was bonighlM. Ho liad to trareno 
and common, and ho could scarcely sec his horse's head. The rain 

to pelt. ' Well,' thonglit ho, ' hnro I wn, apparontlr far from any 

and I know not nor cnui I him an inch of my nuul. I bav« bran! rancb 
the roomory of the horse,— ^t ia my ouiy ho|>e now,— so there,' Utrowt: 
the reins on hia hone's neck, 'go on.' In half an hour ho was safe at 
IH«^Qd*ii gate. 

The followiujr anecdote, given on the authority of Profeasor Kruger of 
Hatlu, proves both the saj^ncity and fidelity of tbe horse :■ — A frioud of hit, 
riding homo through a wood in a dark night, struck bis head against tJie 
branob of a tree and fell from his home stunned. The KtctHt immnliatalv 
robunwd to t>ie boose that tbcy hod lately lell, and nliich wu now ctoac^ 
and the Btmily iu bed, and ho pawed at the door until some one roae and 
Opened it. lie tnmcd about, an<t the man, wondering nt tho alTair, fbU 
lowed him. The faitliful and intelligent aoiuia] led him to the pUeo 
where hiit master tay nenseless. 

A few iastanccs arc selcctud of the s]>rcil and cndnranee of tho hackn^. 

On May 13, 179S, a h>ckm>y nitmiMl Sloven, waltcj twentj-twomiloaui 
tluve hours and fifty-two minutva. In Nowmber, ]7'jl, she Lad beaten tba 
tfWD oelebnied poacstrian, James Coturel, by walking twenty milea in 
throe honn and forty-one minut(«. It had hccn provionsly imaffined thak 
no honw! could, in fair walking, r^ntend with a man who bad aceactomed 
himMlf to ibat kind of exercise. 

Afl for (ha troOiny performances of the backnoj, they are so Bumeraai^ 
anil yet apparently ae extraordinaij, that some difficolty attends tiie 

In 1822. tti«n«Mftlliatohor siae miW between Mr. Bernard's man) 
and Captain Ooliton's borse, near Oemud's Cross, for AOO k^>cml It 
was won ciuuly by the mare, who perfimncd the diiitaaco in twenty-ai 
minvtca and forty-six neconds. Tbe horae went the iame distnace la 
twenty^aereB minates, furty-nino nocanda— which is n«ariy at the imte of 
iiinsteeD and a half miks an hour. 

Tbm, howoTor, had biwn eqnalled or exoclh-d some ycani beforo. Sir 
Kdwanl Astlojr's PheDuwouou inare. wlien twelve yeskni old, tititted 
stfreuteeB nulas in fifty-six raiDulce. There being some diffeionce about 
the taimtm of tho trotting, she performod the same distance a month after- 
wards is leas tban tiftr-tbree mmnt«!s, which was ntfaer more than n * ' 
leen miles an bmir. Her owner then (rffered to trot her nineteen and a 
milra an hoar; but, it being proved that in the last matoh abo did oni 
(oar miles in eleven uiantos, or at the rate of more tlian tMp^-oue am 



• }aU duIm KB boor, llio betting mea would lutvo nothing moro to do 
with lier. 

AAcr this, witli kImido bo it xpakcn, tine tivod u lifo of dradK«>7 anil 
■iMiiliiiit, and, eooamoaailj, of oraitl excrtioD, until, at twcutf-throa 
fmn old. At becaaw W changed u to bo ofTcnd tor nUo at 71. Kvon in 
tfau tteW she tnitt«d nine milea in twenty-i^iifhl iiucuU« and tt bnir — 
bcan^, M dcktI^ tia powiblfi, ninrhxm tnilos nn hour. Within six wouUm 
■Aennutis, it ts aaiil that kht- won four ritnvordinnry Tniit<-hc8 in one d&y, 
the pulktUara of which are not nwonliKl. In her twimly-iiiij:th jrJir sho 
bucMM tba prv>pi^rlr of tho la(« Sir R. C. Dauii^l, by whom nbn wiu well 
ted, wad had no diKgriMjcAil tukB iinnoB«d upon her ; and in a fuw iuuhUih 
Ac looked AS tmii and dean u|ion Den- U^ no in bcr bent days. So far 
as ip«ed wM oouoeracd, ther« was nothing iu the nuaala of trotting com- 
ponblv to bcr pcrforraftnccfl. 

Of ctoatneu, whrthcr ooofinod to this pooc, or the acoompliahmcnt of 
great diatancea with littlit or no rest, thrro arc loo many inHtanccs ; and 
ilia greater Bombcr of them irerv ucconipKniud b^ circunmliuiccB of dis- 
gracsAil bariMkritjr. 

Kr. 0>baldcatone had a cclebratod American trottinf;-horse, called Tom 
TbnmK He nuUvbcd him to trot 100 miles in Um hoim and a half. It 
aaonad to bo an am* ring di«taiKe,and tmnotaihlu to bo aocompliiihcd : bnt 
tha bona had done wonders as a trott«r : he waa in Uie highe»t oonditioa ; 
lb« Tchiclc did not weigh more than 100 lbs., nor tho driver more than 
lOaL SIba. He aoo omp liiihed hia ta«k tn t«n honn and sovon Diinotcfi; his . 
alopfagea to bait, Ac, ocoapicd tJurty-Hcrrcn minnten — to that, in fact, Lliv 
100 HUM were done in nine hours anil a liulf. Ho was not at any ticriu 
tfabaaaod ; and waa so fresh at Iho end of thi^nint'tiolh mile, that his owner 
alfanl to take ax tofonr that ho did fonrti^i'n miles in tlio nttxt hour. 

An BniiJiih-bred man waa nfterwarda rautch*^! to iicirninpUith the tama 
(aak. Sm «*8 one of Ihoao aiumala rare to bo met wilii, that oonld do 
abaoat anjrtliing aa a hack, a hunter, or in harness. On one occD«ion, 
afl^ having in foUowing the houndit, »nd travrlling to and from cover, 
goiK throDgb at Inul uxtjr milea of oonntij, nho Ihirly run away with her 
lidar otar aerenl ploughed fieJda. She acctinipUshed tht- match tn ten 
Imin and fonrteen minntca — or, dodocting thirteen minutes for stop- 
fagti^ in ten hoora and a minate'x actnol work ; and thus gnined the 
netarj. She waa a tittli' tinsl, and, V-ing turned into a looiie box, lust 
BO tiBM in taking her nrst. Ou the following day alio waa aa full of IJfo 
and apirit aa ttct. 'l'h«ao are matclioa which it is pleasant to record — 
and psrticBlarly the latter ; for tlie ownei had given poaitive etdera to tho 
dnrer to atop at once, on her showing dtcidi^ Bymptoma of diiitn-H.H, aa ha 
T^ued her more than anything he could gain by her endnritig aetnal 

O tWi a, bowcrcr, are of a dtRercnt diaractcr, and excite indignation 
••d diagnst. Battler, an Amerioan hone, waa, in lS2i), mntvlit^ to trot 
tarn MtQea with a Welsh mare, giving her a nunnte'a start. He comjiMiH) 
the distanee in thirty minntm and forty MConda— bcinc at tbe rali' of 
rather moiv than nincrteen mila an hnnr — and beating the mare by eixty 
yvida. AH this ia fairi but when the same horn waajBoaietiinoalV-rward, 
matobed to trot thirt^-fonr milM against another, and ia distressed, and 
Jmm in thalbUewiug night — when two bncknrys arc matehed against each 
oUmt, inm tiomlnn to York, IlXi miles, and one of them rans IBS of these 
milea and dica, and the other accompliidiCB the drcwlful feat in forty honra 
asd thirty- five niinntea, being kept for more than half Uiedintimre niidrr tho 
mSaawv of win^— when two brutes in Imman sha|iu niatoh their horses, 
the oaa a tall apd bony animal, and the olhur a mere pony, ugiunsl au^ 


a; or 

lAhvr for a distance of sixlir-lwo miles, aad Imtli are run to a compli-ta 
maadstill, tho odo at thirt;^ and tlic other nt eij^ht^ pirda froiu tlio 
wtDiuiig point, and, both heme vtiU argcd on, tlH?^ drop down and Ho— 
wlien we pcmae n-canlM likoMue, WBenrr not tlui feelings of tli« owner*, 
if indeed tliifrf are not delnaed Mow all f«eling. We akouU not liava 
fi^I satisttpd in riding an animal, tLat had done mnch and good Borriocv 
•OTcnl^ miles wben he was thirty-six yrnni old ; nor can wti unfiiriontly 
rG|)ronUc tbc man, who, in 18^7, ooold ridu a iimiUt n>ldtni; fmm Dahlin 
to Nenagb, uiuety-firo mil««, iu oompanj' with tlie Limt-riL-lc oouuh; or 
that greater delinquent who st&rt»d with the Kxotor mail, on n gallowaj, 
nndor foartooa hands hieh, nnd rmchrd that citf a (]nart4:rr of an 
bcfen the mail, being 17^ milrx, nnd [icrronuL'd at tliu nito of rather 
Ibau men mika an hour. The aathor eaw thia pouy, a fe<w month* 
allenmda^ stnined, rin^Mned, and foundered — a lanienlahle picture of the 
mgratitadeof aoBUt hnman bmtrs towards a willing and faithful tcrvant. 

THE FABHEE's R0i32. 

The Pjuures's Hokse is an animal of ail wori : to be ridden occa«onalI]r 
to Dwricet or for ploksare, bat to bo principalljr miplo]r«d for diaaght, 
Bb should bo higlif^r than thn road-horse, abont fimot hands nod two 
indioa majr be taktai a« Ibo btM sbuulard- A hono with a sboitlder 
thicker, luwvr, and len alantiiij; than would be <ifaoaon iii a backncy, will 
better suit the oollar ; and collar work wiU be chiefij rvqnircd of hun. A. 
stout compnct animal should be solcctcd, jrct not a hcAxj cloddy one. 
Some blood will bo dcsonble ; bat tlin half-wed honio will gcnnntlty beat 
suit the &nacr'8 purpose^ H« Hbould have weight enough to throw into 
Ibe collar, and snmoient actirity to gel over the ground. 

Farmers aro now beginning to bo awaro of tlie superiority of the moder- 
at«ly-si(cd, strontr, active horse, over the balkier and jitower animal of 
former daysL It im not only in harveat, and wlien a frosty morning most 
be setud to curt manure, that tlua la petoeived, bnt in the erery-day work 
of the Bum the sanng of lime, and Uie saving of proTondt'r too, will bo 
Terr oonsidetnhlv in tno course of a year. 

ft has often born said, that a honw nard much for dritnght, is neither 
pleasant nor safe for the saddle. The litlti- farmer dors not want n Hhnirr, 
oonplete hackney. Bo afaoald be content if he is tolL-mbly well ntrri<vi ; 
and — if ho liaK taken a little care in tho choioo of his horso — if ho baa 
srlectnl one vritb sound fed, shouldrni not too thii-i:, and legs not too much 
nndiT him ; and if he kmps hiia in good condition, anil dors not scandul- 
ousty overweight him. the five days' carting or barrow-work will not, to 
any matgrial oiogrrr, nnlit him for the saddle; especially if the rider bears 
in mind what wo hnrir tcrmnl tho Koldcn rtilo of hotscmanship, always a 
Ulll'- lii/ttl the mouth of the aniniiil hu in upon. 

A fimuer, and more |)articalarly a small larmiT, will prefer a maro to a 
mlding, both for rijling or driving. She will not cost him so much at 
firat; and he will get a gniit doal more work oat of her. There out be 
no doubt that, taking hoik fur bulk, a num in ntrongcr and more laatiDg 
than a gelding ; and in addition to this, the farmer hits hor to bnwd from. 
'Blia, and the (irofll wliifh is nttnched to it, ia well known in the breeding 
oondios; bni why tho bn'eding of hnrsrs for sale should be almost ex> 
dnair^ ooofined to a low nortbem districts, it is not easy to explain. 
Wherever tlwrv are good horses, with oonvt!Dienm for rearing the colts, 
the farmrr may start as a breeder with a fair obanec of stK^^css. 

If he hna a ft-w nseful C4irt maros, and crosses tlieui witli a well-knit 
half-bred horse, he will nrrtainly hare cnlta useful for eroiy purpose of 
^rknlture. and some of them sniBdently light for tlio van, post-daiae. 



or eoHch. If ho Iim ■ «B[MTior maro, one of th^ old Clfi-ehnd hnwd, uid 
tnrta bcr fa> k I*odj, UimsfoartJw-brvd honr, or, if Iw csn find ont) stoat 
Mid eonpoict moogb, & HTCD-rifjIitlis or » UioroogbbrMl otut, be «^ have 
a &ir «buioe to rwr » colt lluil wtU amplj repajr kirn m a hunter or 


The nuuv noed< not to be idle while *ho is biwiding. She maj be 
woricnl modcrsteljr almost to the period of her folding, and with benefit 
mlher tliaa otfaerwiae ; nor ia tiiere occasioii that mnch of her tioM dbould 
bo lostt even irhilo sfav ia fockliag. If she ia pat to boras in Jiuus tfao 
fcnliiig tino will Gdl, and the k>« of biboor will occur, in the moet leinre 
time of the jear. 

Tben are two rocks on which the bnner often strikes— hn pay* Uttlo 
attratjon to tho kind of nure. Mid lew to the proper nourialiinunt of Iha 
tamL It nay bo hud down oa a maxim in bnwding, boworer genenl nutj 
be the pRJodioe agaiiuit it, that the ntlae of the loal dopoods m much od 
Ifao dna M on the sire. The Aiabe go brtber than tlu*, for do price will 
bajr bom tbem a likelr cure of th« higfaMt blood ; and thej- tr»oe bock 
tbo pedigrM of their bonoa, not tbrongfa the nro, bat the dam. The 
QwA afurtuif; nun bold the nine opinion, k>n2 bcfora the Arab bono 
was Imonni. ' Vflmi chanoe of winain^ bavo I ? inqnlred a yootb whoeo 
borSB <na aboBt to Btart od the Olympic oooroe. ' Ask the dam of joar 
hom^* waa tho rcplT, founded <m eipcrioDoe. Biabop Hall, who mole in 
tbe tue of Jameo L, intimatai that cncb waa the optDioa of boneoun at 
Uui period. Hs aaks in one of bis sUiiea (lib. ir.), 

<)os» itrja prixB 

Thjhrml* bcwu' «gnh b; ihfiriLiEtf' qaaliticet 
6n~>« tboetilHeolltlMUfMTe mrfiH-fntrdtttri, 
Oadr Umom a JoMt did Un brnd f 
Or mf^ tbM tlw HUB ban* ^uU win the piiF. 

nw ttnoar, howoror, too froqacntly thinks that anj mare wQI do to 
bn«d IronL If be tma find agnttt pranciug slaUion, wiui a hif^li souadine 
—IIM. and loedul with fitt, be reclcona on having a vatoablo colt; aiid 
iboold be bH he attnbaleo the &alt to tho horse, nnd not to his own want 
of ndgntBt, Far mora dr'pcnds on the maro than ta dmuncd of in hie 

If be faM aa ondeniaed, or a blemished, or unsound mare, let him con- 
liwi lo nae ber on his farm. She probsblr did not cost him mndt, and 
A* will best snv svMine ; bnt let him not think of breeding from her. A 
wend mm, witli aome blood in bt'r, and trilli mo«t of tbe good potnta, will 
! anawer hi* piutioee. She may bear ab>~>at her the marks of huni'st 
(the bwcr of thoee, bowercr, tl>r IWtcr), bat she most not ham anj 
"niere is •caroc)}' a malady to which the home is sabiect that ia wrl 
brrrftaTT Contracted feet, coib, apavin, roaring, thick wind, blindness, 
■e to t i o aJ j dvawnd from the sire or dam to tho fbaL Ur. Roberts, in 
' n« Vtttr i »atian,' sbts : — ' Lost somrnvrr I was askod my ojiiiuoD of a 
bonik 1 ^ifwovod of hi* (brmatton with iho exception of tbe hocks, whcm 
tbors bsppencd to he two curbs. I waa then told his sister wan in tbe 
■BOW staUo : she also had two cnAa, Knowing tlw nro to be fret- from 
tfatae ilirfrr<<t I euiaired aboat tho dam : she likrwiiw hud two conflrmod 
esrbs. Sha was at this time mnning with a foul of hers, two yc;irs old. 
hj anotbar hotvs^ and be alu iLnd iwu iiirlis.' 

Tho feal abmiM be well taki-o care of for the fimt two yean. It ia bad 
policy to stiat or half-atarvo tbe growing oiilt. 

The oolt, wbotbn- iniendod lor a hiuiU>r or carriage-borse, may be 



cnrljr hnndlcd, bnt Khoald not bo broken in nntil Uirw jmn old 
tki-u, thu wry Iwst bnuking-is for Itie CMringishonw m to mkki! hiii 
ft little of liis Urinj|[. Ix-t liini bo put (o Imirow or li^lit ploujfh. I 
orer tbo rousk gmind will t^acb hiui to lifV bta fevt wl'II, and f(iv 
that high uur showy action, cicusnblo in tt carri^a-horge^ bat doc i 
otlivr. In tlwf mcocoding winter he will bo pcrlocUjr rotdy for tb< 
or coontiy market. 


Thut i» the proper plnoo to itpcnlc of Wut Cavalry TTorta- Th*t 
iiDimal whotic vurii^tica wtt uro drULTibing, und who !■ no ndminibt}- u, 
to oikiitributo to our ploaaure nud our oae, waa, in the <jarliesi po 
which we bare any account of him, devoted to the deetractivo pai-p 
wnr ; and the rjivitlrj in. At th« |n«Mnt duj, an iQdiiq>«<nMblc and f 
cfl'(?ctir«! bnincli iif tlin niTrricit 

Tlui carali^ borsea contain a different proportion of blood, aci?ord 
tho natiuD of the Bt-rvico niiuirod, or tbo caprice of thii comin' 
offioor, Tho« of thn honsonold troops arc fmrn liiilf to thrwi- 
brcd. Somo of tho ligbbir mgin)i.-nt« hitvn mcirv blond in thma 
ok-niry horactf yivm formerly lary and bt-avy. To llieir imposij 
was added action as imposing;. The horse was trained to a pecult 
gmnd, f ci beantafol mouiod of gt>ing ; hut he was often foand dcfi- 
ml Kirvioe, for thia voiy action ditainiubcd liis spood, and ttddcd 
labour sod liitifciieL 

A oonsidierable ofaaoffe has token place in the Gbaracter of oa 
hones. This neceasaj-ily followed from tho change that bnjt oocu 
the thorongfabred honic. If ho has toat much of hia muacuUr foi 
a<;tual [lower Ot endnnmi'c, u Himilur alteration will take plact< iti 
aprin);; li^htneaa and activity will succeed to bulk and strength, i 
akimusbiniif and sudden attack the change will be fi.n impraroaHB 
if the borso be improved, there still mquirea to be a great eh&ngaj 
in tfas bulk of tbo aceoutivmciits which is curried by ttio light i 
When the men are of oqunl weights, the aceoutrrments of 
Horamnan are, when on active service, quite as pondcmna m tbo 
lleavy Dragoon. Uonoo tho WAot of jadgnMoat ahowu in IhoHc i 
hig offioen of HuMan who coatinna to mounl their nt^enta with 
tbon>a{;hbred horses of litllu power, to oany weights of IS, 16, or 17 
stones. It was proved that in the onsagsmenls previous to and at the 
buttle of WntirrliKi, our hravy hon«ehold tro<»ps alotui were able to nrpalso 
the fonnidable cLurK" of the French ffuard. 

There are few thuif(a (hat more tnipcrionaly demand the atlention of 
gorvronMnt. If Arom tbe habit of runnins short distanosa, aad at the 
nry early ages of one and two yMini, with light wcighta, there i* n dcto- 
riontion in thn strength and NtontneiB of our thoruug^bbml honH<«, tbcy 
will become emy yeur leas and l«fls fitted tor gettins stock saffiedantly 
hardy and powerful to do credit to tho ooimga ana diaoiplnM of oar 

The fi^lowing anecdote of the memory and discipline of tho troop-horse 
is ralatin] on s^od aatfaority. The Tyroleae, iu one of their inaarrecttooa 
In 1800. took fifteen Bavarian horsM, and mounted them with so many of 
their own men ; but in n Rkirmiidi with a xqundron of the nuno rogiaMit. 
no aooBsr did the*c boracs hcur tho trumjiot and r«cognitic the nninnD a 
their old maaleia, than thejr set olT at flill gaUop, and curried their lidsrs^ 
in spita of all thtur efltHrts, tolo tbe BavariaB ranks, where they wen mads 

The wounds of « soldier are hunounhlo. The old war-horao can aonte. 



ttmt^ ^iliibit liis sh&rv of bcus. One of tbi^m, twenty-seven yesra old, 
birly dttxl at Stwoglctaii Lodge, new Uodfoiil, tluU hiid bcloni^eil to one 
of the mfpaoite of laacera, uid wu in tbo h$Mv of Wnterloo. and the 
ciig«f;micnt> of tjic two dunt that prccoilt'd it. No tcvrvr thnn eight mua- 
k*t-Mlb wen diaoorered in him aiU-r hut dtaith, und the K3kn of several 
woand* by the abre unil tht- Uuiue. 

A hone dieil al SuowrhUl, nev Gainsford, ld 17o3, tliat h»d been hi 
Geeeml Carpeuter'a regiment ftt the battle of Shirreff-Muir. iii 1716, 1>einf; 
•1. that time ecrcn yc*i« old. lie wae wounded by a bullet in liia neek m 
iiat wagagaaieat, and this balli-t van uxtntc-tt^l kftvr his death. 


This animal in external apfiewnsco ia a» diffeivnt from whu he was 
Utf n^n ago a> it U poeaible to conceiiw. The i-luinAy-lMknelled, cloddy* 
ahoMend, ronnd- legged, Mack family hone — i>eitber a coach nor n dray- 
bone, bat something beiween both— -es &I as an oz — but, with all liis 
pride and imuciog when bo first starts, not equal to mora than nx diUl-a 
aa hour, ukI ksocking-op with one hard day's work, is no more seen 

Bt in^ed was qnito in keeping with the vebiele h« hud to draw in oldaa 
tmm. Wh«l carriageji, brarmg any resemblance to ehariotA. (iret enmo 
ate main the reign of Richard 11., about the year IS88 ; th<-y wore wiled 
vhirKnUw, and were little birtter than litters or e„le» (roli,) j-huHid on 
wlieeU. We nro told by 5li«U-p John Stow.?, that ' Ric:Lar<! II. being 
Ikrealraed l>y the nA^Ax of Kent, rodo from the Tower of London to the 
Mib« End. and with him his mother, boOMM she was sick and wt-ak, in a 
whirlieote ;' and this is deacribod u an, ogly vehicle of four boards put 
toinUirr in a clumsy manner. 

Otaciw were not used nntil the time of Kiiabeth. wli.m we wm- toM 
(Stowe'a Surrey of London and We«tinii»l«r, book i.) ' divw* grvat ladies 



tiuulv thrm coachra, ftnd roAv in them up nnd down tho oountriai, to thn 
giv«t lulnurnHnn of nil the bchuldnra.' Thi! fWiioQ toon tpmud ; niu\ lu> 
iwlila, wliMt ia ofkn too truo iu tlii- pn!»i'iil Jay, ' the tvorld rona on vflwi-la 
witti many whose paniiU w«re i;lad t» p? on foct.' 

Tlii?8e coBiclies wero h^a^-y nid unwieldy, and probably boro kiria roagli 
KSfinblniica to tlic Btabo-conchcii now uwd Dc<:a«iotiuly in court pro- 


Now wo li&re, tiiste«d of liim. an aittiaal tftll, iloop-chcsted, rising in the 
wilhpra. sloDting in the 8hoTild«re. flat in the legs, witit far more ilnogUi, 
and with treble tlip «pn('d. 

Tlicri- iM a, great d(^ of cliicvption, liowervr, eren in tku beat of Uutiu 
impruvi-d coach -horacs. They prance it nobly through the BtreetA. and thuy 
hafo more work in therm than the old, clumsy, alDf^sh breed ; bnt th«y 
faaVD not the ondnranco that oonld bo triiihrd, and a piiir of |>oorr port- 
haiMN) would, at thu cnil of the feeeond day, bent thi-m hollow. 

The lciiee*M>tian and liigh liftin;* of the feet in thi> c&rriage*hor«e is 
deemed an ozocUeno«, bocaaso it adds to the gmndour of his appcAranco : 
bnt, AS hiM alrcadv txfm Ktatvd, it i.t mniiiiiMiilj ncconipAni<!d by moch 
wc«r and tcttr of tiiu hjp aiid fi-vt, aiid this is very tioon apparcut. 

The priutripal points iu the coach-horse are, ntbetance well>pLaoed, a 
Atts^ and woll-proportionod body, bone under th« knoc, and eoond, open, 
toat;l< f''t*- 

The Cletruso Bat i» tht^ oriiria of tlie better kind of coaoh-Itonto, nad 
is confined pmici[)ally to Yorksliiro and Durham, with, perhaps, Liocoln- 
filuro on ODD side, and NorihiiTnlKrland on the other, bnt dimcnlt to find 
para in cither oonnty. Tho Cleveland maro is crossed by a throe-foorth 
or thoron{{hbrod hoixe, of itulScieut aubsiaiioe and hd^ht^ and the prodiioo 
is the ooodt-horau most in repatc, with liia arched ct-m AaA hi^h action. 
FW>m the thoronghbred of snfficiont height, bat not of so much subetanoe, 
we oblain the foar-in-hnnd and stiporior curriolo Iiorse. 

frofossor Low, in his miporb work ' Illoatrationa of the Breeds of the 
Domostio Animals of tJie Britoah lalanda,' which abould adorn the library 
of eray itportsman and agricultnrist, ^Tee the following account of th« 
Clerelaud Bay : — 

' It is the pro^rnsidvc mixtnro of the blood of horses of hitrber breeding 
with tboK of thv eummon raoe, that baa prodnocd the rurinty of coach* 
horw osuallf termed the Cleveland Bay ; so called from ila colour and the 
AM'tile diatncl of that itamo in the North Riding of Yorksliire, ou the 
bonks of tho Tcos. About tho middlu of llui last ccotuir this district 
became known for the breeding of a superior cIhm of noworinl horses, 
which, with the gradual disiiso of the heavy old coucli-lionte, h>vamc in 
re^ncst for coaches, chariots, nnd similar can-]af,'ps. The breed, however, 
is not OML&Dod to (^evoland. Imt is caltirnted through all the great bratd- 
'lie district of this poit of Ku),'1iiud. It hoa b<.i?i] formnl by the progreonts 
mixtnra of tho blood of the raco-horso with the original breeds of the 
ooontiy. To rear this class of horsos, tlie same principles of breeding 
sbonld be applied m to thn rearing of tlie mc^c-hone himself, A class « 
mares, as well as stallionit, should ulso he uwd having the properties sought 
for. Tbo distnot of Clereland owes its superiority in the ppodai^ion of 
this bcontiJU noe of bones to the poMession of a deSnite brwd, furmod 
not hy accidental mixture, hut by continued cnltivatioD.' 

'Although tho Cleveland B*y nppi-uni to unite the blood of the Bner 
with that of tho largiir horses of the coutilrr. to oomhino iu:tion with 
■trangtb. yet many bare aought « fiuihcr infusion <J blood neann- to the 
nco-hone. Thoy ar« according'ly orawod by hunters or tfaoroushbred 
horses, and thus another nuiety of coach-horse is prodnood, ot lii^tar 



Hbrni and \ieka braediu^ ; and many of the Bnpnrior Clcreland imrriclti 
ffeful roor^iii'haiid bonee are now nearly tliorotiKblired. Tlie bny colour 
in in Um moat i^neral Mtinatioo, but the ^ev are not unfreqnentlv- maed.' 

From lem height nnil mora mbetance we have the hunter and h«tt«r 
•ort of hackiM-y ; and, from the hn]f-br««], wo derive the machimwr, thw 
pOBtte, and the comnKin mrni>^--bonic ; iodntid, CIcTelaod, and the viilo 
of Pic k et in g in t}ie East Riding; of TorkKhirc, muy be considered as the 
moctdecided bi«cdiiig ooontrics in England for coach-horses, hnnt^-i-H, and 
backaejB. Tbe coacn-horsc is nothing moix) than a tall, strong, over-sixed 

Wbrthw wc are nnjing aoppoHod iiaprorpmont too far, and sa^rificitig 
■tmgth and uavralnieaa to speed, ia a quention not diffictilt to r(<solve. 
Tlia nge for npid travelling wa» introduced by the improvement in tho 

rd of the rac«r, and for a while it became the bane of the poslmajitcir, 
deatraction of llie horstr, and a ditigmcc to the English character. 

Tbe stagva w«rt! then twelre, aUtern, or oven twenty miles ; the horses 
■tout and tme, bal formed for, and habituated to, a ninch slower pwc ; 
and Uie incRase of two, and even four, miles au hour, rendered vvery 
■l^e % acww t^ oOBtintioas barbarity, and speedily thinned the stables of 
thf |MMt and atagv nuwt«<r. The pn.-it-honie hns not U> tho present moment 
alloMBtln'rcacapcdfromthettyMtcmof barbarity to whieh lie wiis sahjected. 
lie u not exprveslr br*d for his work — that work is irrogular— thu paco 
ia izTVfralar — the leediDg and the time of rest nuccrtAiu — and tbe hursu 
hiMMifi deslinnl to be the victim iif all these means of aunovaDce and 
■dhnng and impaimieat [>f natural power, is not always or often either 
Wfmdy or tUtat. Tho ooacluuast'^r, on a large scale, has, however, leamrd, 
mad, geaentUj speaking, follow* np, a system at ouoe conducing to his own 
pr«£l, and th« health and oonoibrt and prolonged Inhmir of his horxe. lie 
Mjs a Rood liOTse, sayii Kimrod, ' one thiit lian,' in liia laii^ago uf tho 
hi^wat Butharity in tlwau mattcra, * actiun, sound feet and legs, power and 
iMWuTiiijt equal to the nature and len^'tk of tite ground bo will have tu 
wotfc ttpon, and good wind, without which no other qnnlili^'ntion will long 
avaH in &at work.' lie feeds him well — he wiirlui hini but little mom 
ihau two or tfarc« hoow ont of tlio foiir-and-lwcnty — hir rvsta him one 
dar out of rrcTj fire —he has ererytliing comfortable about him in liia 

■lalilii 1 by thuae means, that which waa OOM a life of lortare is one 

■f eompaiative cnjo^ent. This ia now the case in large and wcl]-con- 
daf tfil eotUMnui, odcI where the oye of the master or the oonfidential 
laaaagCT ovariooka and dircotn alL 

In other eatablisbmenta, and iu too many of them, there is yet mnoh 
■>,;n.«l mfiering. The public has to a rcry consideiable extent the power 
lo diatuifpuah between the two, and tn nphold the cansc of hnmanity. 

Reference has been mode to tho dn-ndfiil opemtionit which the uev 
irfrinn of honie management haa intrixlueed. Tlie cautery lesions are 
mora mimonms and aevere than they usnl to be, iu too many of i>nr entab- 
(iiliiniintii The iujoriea of tbe feet and logs are severe in pro[N>rtion to 
Iha iaetvaaed pace and Isboor ; for where the animal maehiue i* nrgcd 
iM^posd its power, and tlio tortnra continues ontil the limb or tliu whole 
ooSMtifaatioii nttarly ftilc, tbe tesiona must be deep, and tho torturo must 
be MTore^ hj Dxana of which the poor slave is rendered capable of return- 
iaf; Id ivnewed ezertJon. 

Tbcm k BO truth so easily proved, or so painfully felt by tie postmaster, 
at leMi in his poekct, an that il U ihr face that kilU. A horse at a dead 
pan, or at the be^nning of his eieriioii. is enabled, by the force of hia 

taclsa, lo throw a certain weight into the collar. If he walk* foor railca 

tba boor, uine part of that mnscniar energy mnst bo expended in the 

~ u 


»ct of walkiDK ; and, conseqa^ntly, tho power of draw tag must bo iiKipor. 
ttonAblf iliminiii liffd- )f hu trotn i4-ti milcH iti Hw hour, ntorc uiin^iu power 
ia expeDd«d in the trot, imi) leut remains fur Uio <]niui;lit ; but tin- ilmiiglit 
oontumca the Mime, and, U> enable bitn lo accuuipliab bin work, ho must 
tiu his ener^ea (O a Berious dogroe ; and this taxing, thia exhaustiDU, this 
suflerinff, mnBt bd inCTCaaod to a tno«t murdli'M nxtoat in tho poor b<?asl 
that, with all bis powcn required to druw Uiu load buhiiid hini, liu to 
carry the rxUu weightof the puat-boy. Skilful broediug, aud high bi-aUfa, 
and itiniulatiiiK toua, and a vciy linut«d tim« of work, can aluu« cuabla 
liim to eudiir« tbo liiUinr long, on tho snppoHitipii thnt tho eyst«m which 
has jost been deacribcd i* naorted to. Bol tho coach proprietor is not 
alwiiy* Hiiliiciuiitly tinlighUtned, or good-bearted, to sco ou which ludo his 
iuti.'i«>t lit^^ ; and then tho work is acconpUahed b; tho oventntned ax- 
eriioa — tho iojurr — Uic t^Mturo — tho dostmctioD of lite t«am. That 
which is tmo of Uio ootu;)i-borae ia uqoally no of every othrr. liot the 
rciulur apply it to his ovra auiiual, and act aa buuiauity &nd interest dictaUk 

Uaay a liorao osod on tbo pablio roads is uaablo to throw all his natniml 
power or weight into tho collar. Ho iH tcndcr-foot^id — lame ; but be la 
boDgbt at litUe prioo, and he is worked ou tJiu brutal and abominable 
princi|tli-, thnt he may be ' whipped Knmd.' And so, appanrntlj, ha is. 
At fir«t he aodly halts ; bat nrgod by the tortnre of the uui, he aeqatroa 
a pccoljar habit of going. The faulty limb nppoars to keep pace wiui tlie 
oukors, but DO Ntrewi or ubaur ia thrown njion it, and ho gradually con- 
trivet to make Ui« sound limbs perfotm among tlicm all the dutira of the 
nnaonad one ; and thus ho is bu-baroDsly ' whipped eoiuid,' and cmivlty ia 
utdaMTvedly rawardod. 

After all, nowQver, what baa bucn done f Three legs are made to do 
that whiiih v&a almcet too bard a ta^k fur four. Then ther mnst be most 
injoriouiily strakined, and soon worn out, and the general jMwin- of tbo 
tumal uiut be rapidly cxhuu*ted, and. at do great distance of time 
disean and death rolcMKi him from liiu morcilcM persecutora, Fortuiiatt<ly, 
for the sake of bomiuiity, this ixnxii and painful era has pnesod away, nnd 
even oonld the inoalcnlablo ndrantafm of tho toil to mankind alone be 
orerlooked or undorralned, it« introanction and uao must be hailed with 
doligbt M suporsoding the aufloriiig und tortuiv inorilablv acoentpaaytnff 
tho Later vuuii uf poetiii^ atago cuacliiiif;. wd tlw oonT-xying of the utaila. 

It ia said, that bt-tWMO Glasgow and Bdiuburgb, a ciirricr in a single* 
hoTM cart, wooding abontsavoQ hnndnxlwcight, will take a load of a ton, 
and at the rata of twen^-two mi Irs in » day. Tho Normanily carriera 
tvuvel witli a team of four honu-a, and from foortoon to twenty-two milca 
in a day, with a load of ninety hundrul wrigliL 

An nnparatlelcd instance of tbo powvr of » borao whon assisted by art, 
was shown near Croydon. Tlui Sarroy iron nilway bpins eompleted, a 
wager was laid between two gentleBun, that a modonle-sizt^l Ik>t*s 
oonld draw thirty-six tons six tnilea along tbo road — that be should 
draw the weight {eom a doad pull, as wt^ll as turn it round theoccaotonal 
windiags of the road. A nomcrous party of gcullumen aaserabled near 
ICeratliaiii to aoo this extraordinary triutniili of art. Twelve waggeoB 
laden with stonea, each wofi^oa weighing u>ore three tons, were cluutMl 
together, and a hat«e, takon promiscuously from llie timber carta of Ur. 
Hanrood, was yoked to tbo train. He sUuled from Umi Fox pnfalio-booae^ 
oaar Uerstham, and dmw the imm en se chain of wagifous, with amiaiviit 
eeec^ afanost to the tumpiko at Croydon, a dintanoo of six milea, ui oos 
hoar and fWty>one minute:*, which ia n««rly at the mtj> of four milee an 
boor. In the cooree of the jourDey ho was slopped (bur tinue, to ahow 
tiiat it waa nut by nny edvanlagn of tlrMent that this power waa aoqwred ; 




■ad &Aer Mtch stnpfnge he t^nin ilrev olT Iho chain of wa;n(ons with aer- 
tect eaae. Mr. BaiikH, wlio biul wugL-mil »n tho jmwor of the lion^, then 
ilMu«d ihnt four otlier hMdcil vnggitaa should br^ iiddcd to tJie cavalcade, 
WTlh which the mum horee aK^iii Blart«<) nnd with nndiminished paoe. 
Still farther to show the effect of tbo railway in fiunlitating motion, he 
davctod the nttmidiiig workoMn. to tlie ncunber of fill}-, to tnovnt on the 
wg yM "'. lud tli« horse proc«oded without the leattt diNtreaii; nnd, in 
truth, thi^Tv appeared to be swroel; any liniitntion lo the poww of hiit 
drau^hi. After the trial the iraggon« wcrr> tAkon lo the weighing machinL*, 
■nil it BfifKArvd that the wholo weight wa« lu follows: — 

Tw«l** •agnn* IM Uokml tugalfaar 
Foot ditto >n«miia attaAfil . 

ton. OUT, qs. 

38 4 2 

13 3 





The Clc'velaiid horses have bt«u known to curry more than saren hun- 
drad pouiuht sistj miles in tweutj'-fuiLr hours, aud tu (ivrfortn duB joarney 
bar t» D C» in a wcok ; and milUhorsea have carried nine hondrcd and ten 
poanib two or tbnw nuloa. 

vtM •mwut rcMca. 

Bonn for slower dmuifht, and sometimw ercn for tht- carringe, tuw 
pfffifm^ from tlM Scffolk Punch, eo i-alii-d on accoutit of his round 
Cnf*T form. He is dMeeiidud from Iho Nonnaii stallion and the Suffolk 
artmare. Tbo tnii- Snffulk. like tlic (JIuveland, i« now nearly extinct. It 
stood from fiftwtn to witeen linndn bixh, of n wirrel colour; was largts 
bMdad; low Bhonldered. and thick on tbo withers; deep and loond 
ciMMied; kwiK backed; high in Uio croup; lante and strong in the 
qnarton; fblf in the flaiJcs; round in thu k-gs ; and short in Uwj V*»*«'™- 



It ma tbe very hone to thrcrur bia wkcio weiglil mto tLe collar, iritk 
snffici«at aotiTil; to do it eflectualt; and hardiliood to stand a loug day'm 

The prceont breed poMMMamuijr of tho pccoliaritiM and good qualitios 
of iU ancvfltors. It in more or lew inoUned (o a surrvl coUmr ; it U n tnllnr 
hnniv ; bigli«r and finer in tUo ebouldura ; and is a crosa with tito Yorlc- 
nliirv luUf or iLree-fourtlia bred. 

Tbe eicoIioDo*, and a rnrw on*, of tba old SnfTolk — tho new breed hu 
not quiie loKt it — i!onBist<Hl in Dirabtcmwi of nctioa, nnd the bonoatf Mid 
con^nonce wiiii wliid) be would exert binmulf «1 a dead [inll. Mtmr a 
good dinnRbt borsc knows well what bo can efft-ct ; and. alW hi.- niu 
ftttampted it and failod, no tortorc of the whip will indaco bim to stiuin Ui« 
pomn beyond their tuitund extent. Tbct SuHblk, bowcTcr, would to); at a 
dand pnll until he; druppwL It was beautiful to iuk; a tc«m of tmn SnBbUtSi 
at a Hignul from the drlvec, and witliout tbe whip, down on tbuir know 
in a muineut, and dnig svwftbiti^ before tbom. Brutal wii^-«rs wvr» 

fVvqnoutly laid M to thoir power in tbia rcupcot, and nuuiy a good t 

was injured and raJnMl. Tbe inMnCTutu power of tbo Suffolk is accouled. 
for by tbo low jioHition of tbe sbonlder, which enabloa him to thror m 
much of bia weight into the oollar. 

Altboui,'b tbe Punch is not what be was, and tho Suffolk and Norfolk 
fanner can no longor boaat nf plrmghin^ moTv land in a day than any ode 
else, this ifl nndniiotodlj a vulunbli! bn'i'd. 

The Dako ttf Riolimond obtninc-U many exwlk-nt carnage hortco, with 
Ktrcngtli, activity, and fignre, by croaaixvg the Suffolk with one of liia Ixmt 

Tlie Saflblk breed is in rreat ivqaeet in tiio neighboiirin)^ countien of 
Korfolk and E°«ex. >[r. AVakptioM, of Dambam in Esses, had a stallion 
for which bo was oSvrod four bandml guim-iui. 

The CtTiicsiukLK ia a good kind of draught hanv, and particulaHy for 
fiuming busineaa and in a billy country. It derivva itn name from tlio 
diatrit't ou tbo Clyde, in Scotland, where it is principaltr bred. Hie 
Clydeadalo horse owes it* origin to ono of thu Dnkoi of Jlamillon, who 
cronod Mme of tbo bvHt I^inurk nuuvs with sUdliona Ibat bn had brought 
from Flaaden. Tbe ClydMdale ia larger than tliu Suffolk, and baa % 
betti-r fa«wl, a longer neck, a li^btor carcase, and dee{>er Lt^; be is 
ttnag, hardy, pulling true, and rorely rvntiro. The loalbem parta of 
Seotiaiid are principiilly lupplied from thin tlintrict ; and many Clydeodaka, 
not only Sir affricuttQrBl puqiuac^, but for tbe coaeb am! the naddld. Sod 
their way to l£e central, and ewu AouthL-m oonntiea ofEnghuul. DaaJen 
from almoat every pait of the Unitiid Kingdom atl«ud the mariccta of 
Oiaigow an) lluthergkn, 

Mr. TjOW eayii that 'the Clydesdalo horao as it is now bred ta nsnally 
mxtcvn hand* bi^. Tha provailin^ eolour in black, but tho brown or hay 
i» common, and la continuully gaining upon the other, and tho grejr {■ not 
nnfreqnentJj pruduced. They are longer in tbe body than the English 
black uorsie, aid IcM weighty, compact and musciJar, but tliey atepoat 
q>are frvelv, aad hftTo a morv useful action for ordinary labour. Tltey 
draw irti<ndily. and an) nmalty frM) from Tine. Tbo Inng utrido, cli»> 
nuTU-riBtic of the breed, is partly tbe remit of oanfoTroation, and partly of 
habit and ti«ining ; but, howerer prodoood, it adda gnatij to the naefal- 
tipwi of lbs bone, both on tho mad and in the Bdda. If o audi loada aitt 
known to be drawn, at the «anM^ piu-p, by nnr hnr*cs in the kingdom, as 
in the nngLe-horae oarta of earncra and otlien in the wont of Scotland,' 

In the ofrinJOD of this gentleman, 'the ClydL-adule boraea, although 
jn&rior in woght sad phymol atwngtb to the black hotee, and in fignn 



mnd iliowj action to tb« belter cUaa oftbe draagbt horera of XortJiambcrL 
knd kad Durham, jei po w wa propertiM which rcDdcr thorn exce«(Iiii|tlj 
nfauUe fiir all onli&ar7 uea. On the road thej perform task* that can 
soumlj be BarpMBcd, and is tho Iwlda tiuj are footid aUwlj, docile, and 

Tib Hutt Buck Horu is th« Urt vmnety it may be neceMu; lo 
Botiee. It in bred chiefly in the midlnad oonntics from Uneohuhif« lo 
Staflbodshira. Uanf are bon^ht up by the 8aTTV3r and BcrUiira ftrmm 
•t two yean old,— and, being worked moderately nntll they am taar, 
canung tfaair Imp all the whilr, thoy aro sent to the London market, and 
wldakai)vo6t of tenor twclvi; percent. 

It woold not answer the hveJer't porpoac to keep tliem nntil they ar« 
lit for (own work. He haa plc^oty of fiUie« and marp8 on hia farm for 
«TCfy pnrpOM that bo can roqnir«: he ihervfon? miIU tbcm ia a prrwtn 
neanr Ibo meferopotic, by whcoa thcv are gradually trainnl and prepaml. 
The traToIlor haa prahah^ wowlercd to sm fbvr of these enomioua aui- 
mala in a line befbre a plongh, on no TCry hcavr toil, and wbero two 
l^ter bonea would hare been quite sufficivnt. Obo farmer i* tnunin)^ 
them tor ihtat futnre destiny, and be does riffht in not requiring tb^ vx- 
ntioii of all tbeir etrmgth, for their boocn are not yet perfocilr fominl, 
nor tbmr joints knit; and were ho to nrgo them too aererely, he would 
[ht>bably injure and deEbrm them. By tho gcntlo and constaiit eseiviw of 
the iiloogh, he a preparing them for that eontitmoi and •gva^I* poll at 
tbe collar, which is afterwards so neceaaair. Theae boraea are adapted 
man fbr parade and rimw, and to gratify the desire which one brewer has 
to outvie his nd^hbonr, than for any pcenKar stiK^. They are certainly 
nobla-lookiny *iiiifi*t«, with their round fiit oaroaais, and their sleek ouulu, 
and the evident pride which they take in tfaeaiMlvec ; but they eat a K^i»t 
doU of hay and com, and, at hard and los^f-ooDtinnod work, thrv would 
be complctdy beaten by a tram of active mnaonlar honws an inch luul a 
half lower. 

The only ptea which can bo nfgod iu their bvoor, beside their noUe 
* IT*"**"** - '^ '^* ^ abaftJiOtsee, over the badly-paved streets of the 
netropob^ and with the jmiM^"* loads they often have behind thrm, 
gfeat pnlfc sad weight are necBSsniy to stand the nnavotdnUe battering and 
Siakii^. Weight mmt be ofnwaud to weight, or the hone would sonM- 
liiiiia he onite thrown off bis legii. A larm heavy boise tunst be in the 
shafts^ ana then little ones before him wobIo not look welL 

Certunly no one has walked the strvets of Ixmdon withoot pitying tho 
poer thilLoonD. ^tod from side to aide, and vx|io«od to manv a bruiu.-, 
ndsH^ with odmimblo devomMS, he aocommodatea himself to every 
notioo; bnt, at the aaine time, it most bo evident; that bulk and fat do 
not always oooatitate etrenf^. and thnt ft compRCt nnumlnr hunw, 
a|niirn%^^in(t to nztecn hands high, would noqait himself fur better iu 
aoch a situation. The dray-hontc, in the mere act of ascending from tho 
wfaarC may display a powerful effort, but he aflerwards maki-ii Ultlo 
•xsrtion, mnch of bis time hting expended in transporting hia own ovei^ 
cnjBu carcase. .^ 

ms hotsa (see engraving in next page) was selected from tho noblu 
aloek of dray>borsM belonging to itewra. BarcUy, PerkirLB, and Co., 
iMudan. by the author'* friend, Ur. B. Braby. Whili> he is a fioecpedBMB 
at this breed, ha affordit a siiuruUr illnstration of the modo of br««diBig 
oflen pmctiaed with rett[>ect to thcso fcorscs and the edscatioD irfaidt they 
nndsega He was brt^ in I^r™t*Tiihire, — his grand-cirs wsa a Flandem- 
bfsd bon», and his gntncl.dsm a Wiltiihiro raarR, — ^Itis siro wns a Witl^tiire 
boat, "d bi* dam a Bcrkahire uiaro. At two and a half yean old he 




nU to a bnner and di3fi)cr in Berkshire, on whoso groundii 1i« wm 
worked unlil ho vna four and n linlf rcnni old. He was Uum aold bB 
AbinifdoQ fair to the dealer fVom wliom Mcwir>. Barclnjr pambftaBd htm. 

These IwMivy horncs, hon-pvcr, arp bred in Uic hi^bntt perfection, a* In 
*ix«, in Ifao rcnH of tiinfolntihirF, unil (cvt of Uictm iirv ti'wi tlinn si-veutn!n 
hands hie-U nt twn nm) » Imlf yviira old. Ni-iUti-r tlui »oil, nor lh« produi-u 
of tko MOil. U Ix-'ttcr Uiun in other counties; ou lb« cuntmry, iniicu of tbo 
lowor part of UiieolnHliirc.- i» a eold, buDgry clajr. The triio cxphnfttiaa 
of ths matter is, that ilwre aro oertain ratnations better anitod than vOtiert 
to different kinds of farmiof;, and the bceediuft of iiSantO, aniniAls ; and, 
th*t not altoj^other dcpendiii); on richncoe of soil or paatntft. The principal 
art of the fnrmcr i^ iJi tiiid out what will best suit liJa soil, and ntake tbo 
produce of it most valuitblc. 

The Liucoliulu're colts tat also sold to the Willahtre and Bcrlcshire 
dcalon, aa an tJiosu that are bred in Warwickshire and Derksfaire. at two 
j-cara, or sonKtimea only one year old, and worked until the age of four or 
five jeors. 

A dray-hone sITould hare a brond brciuit, and thick and nprieht oboTiIdcra, 
(the more u[irit{ht tbc rollnr KtjitxlH tin liiin the better.) a low fnrFhotid, 
deep and round barrel, loins broad and high, ampk qnartrra, thick fun-- 
amu and thigfaa, short legs, round boob brooil ot the nrcls. iinil oolt-s nut 
too Bat. Tbo gnjat &ult of tbo larjit; druy-horM! in hin kIowuvhl Tbia ta 
•o gnicli in tlui bread, that eroti the diacipliuo of tiie ph>ughnian, wbo 
woold be butler pleased to >,f'l llieoaf;h an additional rood in the day, Cl 
panaaaently quicken him. Surely the breeder mifflit obriato this, 
a dray-Riiim be aelMtod, aa perfect as can be obtained. Let her he put to 
the Ntruii^Ht, krgest, most mmpact, thorongh-bred horse. If the prodaoe 
is a filly, let her bo coToreil by a xupcrior dmr-hone, and tlie RVUlt of 
this croR*. if a eoli, will be precisely the aiiinud reqntreii to breed bpta 

The tar^pst of this heavy breed of bhck horwa are used aa dray'-kanca. 



Thr next in urn; »iv aold a» iropgon-honet ,* and a anuiDer vaiiviir, anil with 
■on Uood, ooiMtibiUM n (MMuii^cnblo part of onr eacalry, an<l U likewtM 
d«nMed to naderteken' vruric. 

AU ear li««vy dra«i;ht liorws, %dA 0ome even of t)i« lighter kind, havo 
bssD lately nracti evwfsi hy tho Flanden breed, and irilli (tricWt impmrc- 
nwnt. LiUlc hu been Innt in ^tyth nnd hulk of carrasc ; but the forvhiind 
1mm been raised, (Iht Ictrs liavc bcra llntt^nril nnd il<ttpcncil, and vcrj uncb 
liH tie«fi K^lDcd in aoUritr. TI10 slow Iicatt 1lllw^k, with hi« two miles 
aad a half ui boar, bM been changed into a ligbtvr, but ,vc^ tixcKnUnelf 
pewTfiil horM*. thht will ficp fonr nilr-H in the eanio tiuM.', witli porfeot 
«B«n, and )uui coDHidcmbly mon! cndiimiirv. 

This ia the verr Hjiitvin, as aln-ady iliTNoribRd, which boa been ado])t4.'c], 
and witlt 80 Biuch suoeK-ss, in tbo blouj liursp, and bad mado tho Kni^'lish 
rawr and bonier, and the English horae generally, wh^t tln-y un^. As rhe 
nwvr is principally or piaroly of Kiuifom origin, bo bas tlie EnjcliHh dntnght 
bans ^nin^ chicBj firam Fkmtiiih blood, iind ta that bloml the agncul- 
terist haa reeoone for the perfvdton of lliu brvi-d. ('or Ihi> tlrn}', the spirit 
wsfntoo, and not too heavy loads, and for road work stmunilly, a ctom with 
titf HP^^I^ ''^' ^ adfnntagtviaB ; bnt< if tbo enormous hmvy horse mnst 
b^ ^k thocoal-wvegon, orthcdray, womnstleavo our midland black, 
« il^his nnwicMy ImDc nntouclicd. 

A» an ordinary beast of li^ht^r dnught, and particnhirly in tho nnigh- 
booritood of London, the wom^ont hackney, and the refase of tbo wwcli, 
and «Tea of tlvn hsckney-coaeb, is nsod. In Ibo hny-marketa of ^Vlijti.-. 
chspnl and CiundCTi Town ara canttnnally seen wntclii^ t^omit that would 
diagmoe (b« poorest dialriot of Ibe poorctt country. Tht^y who are nniu;- 
qaauit«d with this part of the country, would sc&rcely think it poHsible, 
that on the fbrmts and commons within n frw mili-o of Ijondon, m many 
ra««d, wild, mongtvl horses aj« to bo found ua iu any dialriiTt of tho 
Called Kingdom, and u good bone is acarcely by any chance bred there. 


A korsG bntwcts) thirt4.'RU and fonrl^^^eii hands iu liei(;hl is called n 
OuxowiT, &om a boautifhl breed of little hones once found in the south 
of Scotland, on tho shore of the Solwny Pirth, but now widly dcpencratcd, 
and aliiiost lost, throDgb the sttcmpts of the farmL-r to obtain n larger 
kind, and bctt<Tr adap<4Hl for the imr[>osee of aKrit^olture. Tbcro is a 
tsMUtion in that eoontry, that the nriied is of Spanish extraction, soma 
boraea baring; eac^wd trma one of tho r^'wicU of tho Grand Armada, 
Ifaak was wrecked on the nHghbonrin^ <v>^ This district, bownvnr, no 
cariy as Uw time of Edward I.,HuppliL-d thut inonarch with a great unmber 
Of nonca, 

Tba pan ({alloway was said to be noiu-ly foari«rn bands hiffh, and 

stiaua more ; of a bright bay, or brown, witli blnck logs, Bnioll head 

aaefc, and pc«!nli»irlr d«cp and cl€:iin li-gs. Its qualitii-s were speed, 

jtaMM^aadsuro-fboteaocsaovoraTtry nigged and mountniTious country. 

Sane rcnnuna of the old gallowayin nrc xUli to I10 nn't with in Uic Isle 
of Unll ; bnt tJiey are altogotbor linglecttN), and fast dcgoncruting from 
■diaistan with inlimor breeds. 

Dr. Andetson thns di-scribes the galtowny :— ' Tlii-re was once a breod 
of siaaD sJogant hones in Scotland, nimiinr to thoRO of Iceland and 
Owiilaa. and which werr- known hy the name of gullownys ; the bcjt of 
widelt sometimes naichcd the hi-ight of foortiM^n bands and n ludf. Ono 
of lUs dascriptign I nossessed, it havin g breu bought for my use when a 
boy. In point of elegance of shape it wns a lu-rfoct picture 1 and in 



dilfpoiiilion WOK gcntlr nnd mmpliMit. It mortMl almoiiL with ft viinh, nni 
nernr tlrad. I rode thin lilllt- crtaituru for twi-uly-five yean, wad twice in 
tltat tine I txtdo & Imudre^ uid fitly uuIm at a stretcK withont stoppong, 
eicvpt to bait, auil that not for above an honr at a time. It came m at 
ilio lost stoge wiih n« miich caiic And aUcrity Mi it trarcllcd the finit. I 
raald have ond<Trtaki'n to hnvn pcrfonnod. on tbiH l>nuiU whirn it vras in 
iu priniL-, sixty miltw a day fur a twdremooth miming, williout aiiy extra- 
onlinarv t-itrtioo.* 

Id ir/rl', Mr. Corker's gallowa.y went one hoodrDd Diilcsaday, fnr thrm 
sacoc«nva dnys, oror the Ncwinarkot Coorw, and withont thii adtghtott 

A gnlluwiiy, belonging to ICr. SLnchur, of Eirby-LanBdale^ perfurnied itt 
CarlJHlu th« L'ltraotdiDwy feat of a thousand wileB in a tiunuand hoars. 

Many of tho gallowavs now iu use are procured eith«r fVotn Wales or 
the N*-w Poreat; but thry hnvc mntmnlly (liminishcd ia nnmbt^r. 

Olil Mariik, hofnri! hi* valnc wiw kniiwn, contributed to tbc imgirunuiuuit 
of tho Ham[Hhin! bmxl ; aod lliu WuLdi puiiijea are aaid to be iuit«bt«d to 
the oelebmtf-vl Afurlin for much of their form and qualities. 

The modern Smn-for^Un, notwithstanding thoir Mnreic blood, aro 
loimerally ill-mnde, Iju-gr-hradod, ehort-QOoko£ and ra^iir(l-hi]>pod ; but 
nardy, stfv, and n«;ful, with mnch of their anctcnt S]itnt and Npncd, and 
all Iht'ir old patfS. The catohin(t of tlmsu pODii-s is as firtttt a trial of skill 
as the hontiug of tho wild boree on tho Pani]:as of Sooth America, and a 
greater one of pntjenoe. 

Tho W^hprmy i» ono of tho moA beantifnl little animals that can bo 
tmagiui^. Hi; ba-i a iinmll head, high witbon, divn yvt round bamJ, 
abort joiut«, Bat legs, and good round feet. He will live on any (tn, and 
«-ill noTcr tire, 

Fony'huntisg used to be ono of the fnvoarite amnscniinit« of tbe WcJah 
GuTOora and mamati?, a contnry and a half ago, and it has not, «rcn now, 
ttUoa altogvUior into dinuiu.'. TbL- fulluwiug Htory of unu of tliuH! expcdt- 
tionx, narntod in t)i« Cambrian <Juart«rty Magauu«, is foundt^d on Gkot : — 

' A EuToer. naniM Uu^ni Uaronwr. lived in ttio neighbourhood of 
Idwcyn Oeoric. Although ho handled the small tilt ploa^ and other 
fiirraing tonU in thrir daa Kaiwn, yet the flatohing uf tho mcrlyn, tbn fos, 
and tbe bare, wen.- more ouu^tiiiial poraniia ; and the tninbles and Iburope 
which he received, and from wliicli do pony>huntcr was exempty aerred 
but to attach him to the Rport. Rnggrd, however, a« the KferiotMiddshire 
ooajit and its (.-nrirona vrcrtr, and alioiinding witli priM-ipin-n and munuM>«, 
wone mijdiapa vrurv aouietimcs L-xix-'rivocLil^ — and so it ba|t{>i-ui.-d with 

'Be set oat one uonung with Iua la^ao coiled round his waist, and 
attended by two hardy dqiendents and their greyhounds. Tbe lasso waa 
tJion familiar to the Wclaliman, and as adroitly managed by him as by 
any gan^n mi tlic plainii of South America. As tliu bnut«ni climbed tbu 
monntain'ii bruw, tbe distant burd of ponii^a tuok alarm — sometimes cal> 
loping onwards, and tlieu suddenly balling and wheoting ronnd, BBOrtingi 
as if in defiance of the intmden^ and fnrionalv pawing tha grooM. 
QaroDWT, with tlie annistonoo of his survanta anJ tJie greyfaounus, con- 
tri(«d tu cuup them up in a oonier of the hills, wbera perpeodionlar rocks 
pr«v«ntod tbi-ir escape. 

'Already bad he captorod thtfw of Um mo«t bcaatifnl little fallows ia 
tlie world, wliich he c()M.-ctiHl to lu'll fur 4^. or &J. each at tho noxt Bala 
Eur — tJ* him a <x>iiiiidcndile sum, and amounting to a fourth of tbe wnniml 
rmt whicli iiri |did for his sboep-watk. Theni mnainod. however, otto 
iDuat nnlamvaUe crtaton^ whovc created uanr, and Sowing tail, and wild 



CTV, and diatondcd nactri), showed that Ii« was a perfect Bitct-plisliu of tlio 
Inik ; nor, mdoed, ms H wfe to att»ck him io tae onliiuuy w»y. Maii/ 
of ill* t hi we- y cT-olds liad been known to bm^ Ibo lego of their porauen, 
aod aane had b(«a dumountM and tmnpkil to di^uth. 

* GwoDW7 was determuwd to pvi- tho uubl« Il-Uuw a cbntfc over tho 
UUi^ Bad ao overcome him bj fatigno boforo tho laeso was Buuji. Thn 
dogi were uiuilippod. Bad olf Uh-t nrnt, swift as the win<lfs Gnronwjr laU 
fcm in g , and the two iiiiiiilniid peetcd oa u. nvi^hhaaring eminence. Vain 
«■« tbe effini to tin; (be meHjm. Hugo, natunJlj iiup»tt«nt, And irittiont 
■■■111%' to incBrtBin that the ooils vera all clear, fluop the laaso over Uio 
fcMd of the trild horse. The extremity of the cord vm twisted round 
Ub own bod jT, and tigfalcning lu tho luiininl vtmgglcd, the corn prcssiou 
Inmmiim uuiappoftabk', and, at iL-ngth, in afdte of vtltj effort to disengage 
"— ^^l Gatonwy waa dia^gted froin hia hone. 

* The aflH^ted merlyn finding himself manacled hy tlie rope, dart«d 
«ff witb all the speed of wliich ho n-iu capable, dramng poor (laronwy 
o««r Um nxdcj ground and ittuntcd bmnhwitnd. TEin occurred at Home 
^■t*"***" &om the men. Tbey eallcd in thL-ir ioga Uiat tho apocd of tho 
nerijn mi^rht not bo increased, but, ere they could arrive at the Hpot 
U whii'h the accident bapMiwd, the horse and the man had vaulted. 
Whadwr the mSeringt of tno hnntor wxiro protratited, or he was dashed 
■^"T* MBia friendlr nick at the com mrnoement of tliia horrible race, wm 
Denr knows ; but loc wild auiinal, fn-iizii*d and hlindi'd by terror, miihcd 
vnr a beetling chlf, at a cousidorable distance, overhanging the soa-shun.', 
nd (be hunter and the horse wore found at tho bottom, a mis-ahapcu 
■■ihhiii II of what tbey bad been wWo Irring.* 

A gnat many iionita of Itttbi value lunfX to be ri'ared ou tlie Wildmoor 
(eu, in the neti^boorhood of Boalou, in Lincolnshire. Tboy seldom 
iMclMd thirf^ffi bands ; the head wa« large, luid the fomhimd low, tho 
Wdc Hndght, the loff Bat oad good ; bnt iha fuut, t-vou for li Lineulnnhiro 
|0^, vnnatorally large Thry wurc aiiplii-d Io very inferior purpoaos 
<na on the fctui, and were tuuKinal to bard and flinty and hilly ri»)ds. 
^htwd beoamfl geaenUj Doglocled, and, at no very distant time, will 
kiaobaUy extinct. 

Us Hmoor poniet, although gcoenUly utfly enongh, are hardv and 
)aAL A well-Known sportsman says, that he rode one of them talf-a- 
faai miks, and never ielt such power and action in so small a couipaM 
'An. To show his aooomplishments, bo was turned over a gate at least 
^0A incbce bi^ier than his Ixvck ; and hiii owner, who rid(« fourteen 
"fU, tnntlled on him from Itriitol to South UoUon, eighty>six mili-s, 
^UJM the coach which ruiui the itaiii« rood. 

IWboTsca which were once usi'd in Devonshire, and particularly in the 
■Mem and aouUiera districts, nndi^r tho doaonunation of Pack-RObabs, 
^alu][er variety of the Kstnnnror Dartmoor breed. The wuIdliNborsee 
•f OtniMhire ars mostly procured &um the more eastern counties. 

IWaant stfll aome fanns in the scclnded districts in tlint bvnutiful g^art 
rftbe Idngdom ou which then* is not a pair of whcck. Huy, cora, straw, 
^ Ibiaics, daog. lime, are carried on honichuck ; and in haricst, rth-dgv* 
dnwb hr oxen and horses are cmt Joyed. This was probably, in early times, 
ft* BOW of conroyanco throughout the kingdom j but it is now rapidly 
gMting into dimtsc ervn in Devonshire. 

niss* is on Dartmoor a raco of ponim nineh in reqn«*t in that riuinity, 
fc^iy sn^footed and hardy, and oduiirably culculuted to acramble over 
lbs roach roads and dreary wilds of ilmt niotuitaiuoua district. Tho 
OarUiioor pony is larger than ibo Kxtnuor, and, if possible, n(-Her. IIo 
then almost in a state of Dalore. The lato Coplain Cotgmre, 



gowroor of tUc prixon, W) a jrtvat dariro to |kkumuu ono of Uiom of miio> 
whit sufK-riur ui^ru U> itu It'llon-d : uuil hariR^ sowral iniMI Ui uxraai 
htm, thej st-panitvd it Troru tLe U<--rO. They dnire it on Kiini; n)cka br tbo 
ndfi of a tor (aa abrnpt poiat«l liiU). A man followed on )ic>nH.--lni'k, 
while the Cftplain stood below watching; the clutfic. The liillu aoinuO 
beini; driTOn into ft comor, leaped completely over the man ai>d liurae, au<l 

'I'hc Ui-jhiand pinig in far inf<!rior to tlio gnllomijr. Tho he*d is large ; 
ho lit Low boToiv, ton;; in tliu baak, almrt in the logn, upright in tho 
pnatemit, mtlwr nluw in hiH paoos, and not plcuaanl to H<l<-, rxtvpt in tfao 
cunter. Hia Ualiiu luako liim iardy ; for he ia nrvXy houM-d in tho 
Humrnvr or the winter. The Ilev. Mr. Hall, in liia ' Tmrelii in Scotland,* 
imys, ' that whcm these animals como to any hojtiiy piece of gjound, Ihey 
Bret put their nou to it, nnil then pat on it in a peculiar way with one of 
their fore-foot ; and from thi> imanil nnd feel of the ground, they kiMw 
whether it will Ix^ir them. T)i<-y do tho tamo with ice, and determine in 
a miiinto whritln-r Ihcy will proceed.' 

The Skritatid pony, called in Sootbuul tltellU; an inhabitant of tli« 
vxtrenMUit norttiorn Scottish isles; ia a very diininutivn luiimal— *oinctimes 
not mofv than seven hands and a half in height, and nirety i;xc«odiu{; tutut 
and a half. 

Tin •OTTTjufti rmn. 

TTc ts often rxre<v1ing1y btantiful. wilh a small hrnd, gc»od>t 
connleimnco. a xlmrt m-ck, fine towards the Ihrottle, ohonldcrrs low and 
thick, — in Mf litil<> a cn-atnre far from bi-itii; a lili-miiih, — back ibarti 
qnartnra cxitanilci) and powerOiI. legs flat niid tln<'. ami prvt^ roond ftaL 
TbeM poniea poMeas iinmeiue ulrrngth for their sixe: will &tt«n npon 
abnoat anything ; and are perfectly dorile. Ono of tliem. nine handa (or 
thiT*' frer) in hrii;hl, carried a man of twelve Ktono forty miles in one day, 

A frii-nil i>r the nnthnr wac, itot l<mg nifo, nrraenti'<l with one of iheae 
vlc^nt little aniuiala. He waa scTurul milca from homo, and pozxlod bow 


to eaa*C7 bU Dewlj-aeqairod pmpertj. Thn Sbctbrnlcr warn BCtuvclj 
man Uwa mna huub hi^ sad m docile u be ww bcoatifnl. ■ 0am we 
not taawj loin n jour ebuae ? ' vid his fncnd. The Mnagc expc rin wot 
mm trim. The uidtw na placed in ttw bottont or the fii^. and rarured 
■p ■« wcO aa ooold be maiUKed «ritb the uproti ; n few bite of brvad kept 
km qMalj and thus be ma aafalj conveyed awaj, and exhibiwd the 
oariaas ipwfack of » hone riding in a gig. 

Is tfa« aontbrra [arts of the kingdoca the SheUaaden bftro a Tery 
ploHne appeernnce lutmcmnl to a bght fierden-dtur, or cerrjiof; an 
alnoat babr-nder. There are eeteral of thccn bow nmniiiir in Windaor 


la aonw oftfaendi gracing ooootiea, aa Menth nnd RoMcomtnon, alaive, 
long bleod*lMtt«e la rauvd, of oonadcmtblo value. He M-ldotn Iiu the 
degBBM ef tike Wnetiah bone; he ia larger-beaded, morn lefniy. nt^gcd- 
fci|irt^t BBgalar, yet with great powrr in tho quarters, much d<^pUi 
b«Ha*h the knee, elont awl hardr, fall of 6rc and cmincf, an<l an ex- 
lalliiil k«per. It is not, howereT, the hiaping of tlie Knehth borate 
alridii^ aa it were over a low fence, and atretebcd at hi* full length orrr 
a ki|^Hr one : it u the ptvp*r i<tnp of the deer, beautilU to look at, diS- 
att Ib ait, and, both m lici^t and extent, onequallcd by the E^gii«& 

1b the hat forty years, immense imprevetnuuta have been made in 
iMtand in all Unda of ^griceltDral stock. The Iriah banter ia sow one 
<f (ka noat valnable of but c)***, with abandaiioo of bone and breeding. 
Iielaed ia the mireerr Ibr re-monnting our cavalry, and iiboalil a r«gitncnt 
hkve the eotmby witb inferior horaee, it only proree tlic great want of 
jlrti lai ■! in Ike oScer who faaa had the selection of them. 

4en «n tot tew bonm in the ngricnhnml diatrictit of Ireland ex- 

dannly itrtetoi to drought. The minntc diviaiao of tho (arain ix^ti'lcra 

it infaaable (or thtrin to be kept. Thu occupier even of u gcxxl Ii-iiih 

km wMrta a hone thai shall cany him to maricct, and drnw hid small 

<v,ad perform evciy kind of drndgny^a horse of, tberefore 

<ls tboToegh drangbt-hoier, wbetbsr Leicester or Solfolfc, is tairiy fbond. 

If n look to tbe commerce of Inland, there are few stage-waggons, or 

kij« wilk large caltk) belonging to them, but almost everything in done 

^ ilbiMaB carta. In the north of Ireland some stont noreea am cm- 

P<9td in tho caniage of Uacti ; but the majority of tbe garreau used in 

■tenllnra or oomneRial pnnraita are misrralrfc and half-starred nnimnia. 

I* IW north, it ia somewhat bett4.T. There ia a native brocd in Itiitcr, 

J, and aBi«-foo(ed, bat with liule pretension to bom^ or »fixtL 



A igun of itadf wontd bo reqnircd to do justice to a sabjeet pOBseBBing 
* inBT ftetarte of tnttni^ and importanoe as tho rffecta of breeding 
*«Brdi8cRait claaKS of tho horee. Oar olMcrvationK, then-fore, on it 
*9 Bcanasriljr In: brief and of a gonomi nattme. That breeding lias a 



eoninder&tilo influcnc« od the Tikln« of oar diffonMit class of horses will bo 
Kttdilj admittod, tuid tho ^rrnt nttrntion which liiwt bcvn girrn to this 
•at^ect hj brocdrrs during Uin Ituit twcntjr yi-iirH, biu< hrt-a niwunUKl with 
*he mo«t imccctwfal naults. Hovtctit mncli may liavi- btwu «aid or writti'ti 
of Intc nsipi-otuig Uie di<t«ribrattott of our brt-cd of Lorsos, tto arv iiicUtiiyJ 
to believe th&t this connby never possessed such numbers of Taln&bla 
wiimalB in orctry clnm. ns at the present. Tho gmcml wdom laid down 
is that * like will producv like,' and tbn.t tliv progeny irill inherit the 
gooeml or miugli-d qualitiM of thu paruuta. Tluii fact sbontd vot only bo 
takeai iuto couaidcnitioD with regard to tiie general confonnation, temper, 
Ac^ of the aDimal. bat also ia regard to tho tntastnission of disease. That 
disMae is tnuismimiblo frant thc^ jian-nta to tho ofREtiring, there eantiot bo 
adonbt;aDdmich!aibeberedibiry naturooft^-TtaiDuiauuioH, tlutt, althongh 
they maj not show themselves in tlie immediate pi-OK^''^' they freqaeiitly 
do ao in the next andovon more distant rnnoration. There ia abandant 
proof that blindsMs, roariiig, broken wind^ sidcbonaai aparina, jnaAotam, 
nnuDitis and naricnlar diseiuie, liari) been buqneathod to their ompri n g 
both by Hiro and dam. Xor is tliia all, for altJiouf;)i the fniedom trota 
diotiuae of some particular or^^an on the part of one of the parcnta may 
counteract, and to a certain extent ohlitemlo a palpable defect in that 
organ in tho other, thnw will still remain a peoaliar weakness, or ten- 
dency in tiiejiart, which rv<{iiir<a but some alight exuiting rnuse t« brin^ 
about ita fall deretopment. To illustrate this, we will anp|Kwo a marw 
pcrieollr sound in her wind is sent to a horse afflictcU with roaring : 
althoagn tho prodace may bo (rvo from rairing, and nmy continue so fur 
wma timo without giving any cridenoe of the dinenNe, nevertheless, how 
oftoD doeji it liapnen that an atlai^ of influenza in anceeoded by llu; aDimol 
becoming a coonrmed roarer ? Ag^o, send a man.' with carbs on her 
hocka, to a horse with perfecUy soond onos, and what is IVequvntly the 
losult on the prodnco f The young animal mav not possess the groat de- 
focta obaorvablc in the dam — ^iu short, may not hnvecnrtis at all; be irill, 
novertWcas, in all ]irububtltty liavo weak and iMully-aiiAncd hocks, what 
ai« oomiDO&ly cidled curbj hocks, wliich will rfquiro tint ^Isit Htress 
npOB the part to dovcloo the diaeaso inheritod from the dam. Ucurv the 
nocMri^of a thorough Knowledge of both siro and dam. One of the fintt 
prinoiplefl we would tlienifoR) impms upon the brccidtrrs of all animals, 
and the horso in particular, ia tbat both parents should be froo from dia- 
oase. This has been too mach lostsight of, especially in countiy distrifrU, 
whore stad-horses aro kept for getting hunters, many of whieh ore mrtbing 
better than caat-oHs from tho rocing stable, in eonseqaenoe of some dtsi»se 
(uut uiifrH|uctitly of tli« raopimlory orgiuui), which makes tbem valaeluH 
for tho ininMsea for whieh titey have been reared. Tho nwiilt in tbo 
OMtne 01 a low yean will be manifest in U>e yoon^ produce exhibiting ia 
a jtraalnr or ma Aegrec the infirmitin of the sii«. There cannot bo a 
dooht that the eniplayioent of xuch animalx for braoding imrpoaea ia cal- 
culated to prtidueL- tlie t^Ttak-at evil atuuiigxl all cJOMca of borses i and tbo 
bcai ooone that cooM bo adopted would be to ooningn tWn to an oponk 
tioa, which, while it wouUI allow of their being loado oacflil for soma 
pfirpoaea, would prevent the upreml of their dt'tclcrious inllui-iice. Pent- 
lianty of Ibrm and coustitutiun will also be inherited. This is a moat 
important but neglected conaidoratian, for however dmirablc or o^en per^ 
fcot may liavo boon tbo oonfortnatioa of tlie aire, e%'ery good point may 
bo mntraliwxl, or loat, bv tho drfcctivo stractnre of tbe man;. "Vh^ naoa- 
lial points should be good in botii porvnta, or some minor defect in eiUior, 
be ra<!t and got rid of by e3C(rU(.>uoe in that toirticular point in the other. 
The unsldlfnl ur careless breeder tocoften so oadly paint tbc ar,ini)>lii that 



r good poinia of Mch >n ■Imost lost, the dejecta or botli increased, nnd 
hojmdaoa tu tnTenor to both sire Mid clnni. 

Toat the oonatihitioD Mui eniliuaiiue of the faorae «ro inheritfid, no 
an enr doabtod. The qualities oT the eim or the d*ta drscrnd 
firan geitentiOB to gencratJOD, ud the excelknoes or defvcU of ccrtnin 
I an oftoB ttand, and jiutlf to, to motac pocoltarit; in & Eu--dist«nt 

It wmf, perhapa, be jostljr ■ffiraoed, tli&t Oiere is m»n.- difficulty in &»• 
lectiiig ft 8(>od man to breed from than a good horse, becaaw nbc should 
poaMM nowwhat oppoaite qoalitiea. Her carcase ahoold be long, in 
oadar to gin i«om for the eroWtb of the ftstae ; and yci with this there 
JwwiH bo eompaetaMa of Ibrm and shnrtni'-ra of Ivg, What can thejr 
ncpaet whoae waetioe it is lo uurcLasc uroru-out, sparined, fensdercd 
BB«a, aboQl wbom tbef boc; there have b««n somo f^txxl poicla, uul 
meaA tbera far in the ooontiT to brmNl from, and, with all their varietj 
«f du^fti to bo ooTvrod bj the mmo bans f In a lottoy like this there 
WBf b* now and tbon a priie, tnt there mnst be niany blanka. If hor«o- 
liimtiii. ynMCMed of giood Jadgment, wonld paj th« same attention to 
hue J aaid abl^n as Ur. BakewvU did with his sheep, th«7 would pro. 
faiUjr attaiBtMirwiabea in as oqaald^Tce, and graaUf to their advantage, 
wfaetbw tat ncnig or bnntiiv, for the collar, or the road. 

Aa to the ahape of the utaUion, little mtMrfaciorj can be said. It miuit 
iaptuA ao that of the mare, and the land of botae wished to be bred; bnt 
if tbetw is one point absoluletv tasontiil. it iB 'compactneeB ' — as ninch 
laodaeM and strength as paHoblo oondonsod into a Uttlo space. 

On tlia aalnect of bntdmg in and m, tbnt is, pcreerering in the snmo 

tnad, and aMceting the bwt on eilhvr side, mach has been said. The 

•jstant ot oressinffreqnir^ more judgment and experience than bivedere 

HBslhr iimmm Th« bnd qonlitics of tho cmss are too soon ongraftcd on 

IhaongoAl stock, and, once mgmnDd there, are iLol, for nianf generations, 

nadicatod. The good qnalities of both are occasiooallr nentrelisvd to a 

soit norti^inK degree. On the other hand, it is tbs net, liovrcvor some 

nmf Aaty it, Uiut strict confinement to one breed, bowerer valnabte or 

pMct, ptt>dDcee ^radnal deterioration. C rousing should be attempted, bat 

>ilh great caation. The vnloablo points of the old Irwtd shoald be ro- 

linsa, bnt Tnrind or improved b<r the introduction of some new and 

sabafale qnalitj, with reference to beauty, stireu;^, orspeed. Tliis Is the 

mati of the turf. Tbo mure south -oiwicm blood is never left, bnt the 

MoA is oAen changed wiui manife-st iwlviuitnge. 

Coosdetable discnanon has reeciitir taken jvlooe with regard to the 
■fcsBOS of weight and the di^aiice reqtilrt^ to be no, upon the breed 
rfonrme^honM. It has be<en said that the preeent system of placing 
i|to waghta on animals, and allowing them to run bnt short lUstnBCCS, 
M sljwin mach diminished the capabilitit-ji and enduranco of our reoa* 
Tbt fallowing, amongst otiier reinurks upon the subject, con- 
is a letter to the 3V«m» newspaper. June 29lh, 1864, by one so 
AoN^Jj acquainted with it as Admiral Rons, will saiRcinitly indieat« 
■r rirwa on the point He uyn, ' Thero can bo bnt one opinion among 
<l fanoaa who are interested in the tnif, that the f^ioud object in breed- 
^ is to eombme good siie, great stiengdi, and power of ondumoee with 
■ need. This has never bMn lost stghtm. Our motto is " Fortes 
r tortibns ct bonis." We have sueoceded in establxsking a bm>d 
■tt «MsUll more spcod and rtrenplli than the ori^nal KtocK — an in- 
avent^ statnrt' from fourltvu hands to fifteen nnd a half — in 
li akai MMTotions, from the first imported stallions, Darlev Arvbitui, 
fTork, withOBt a drop of mixed mood, and we have a firm convic- 



tioii, with ready proof, thai no lioreea in tho world can be compared t<r- 
Uium. On (he authority of Abd-<<l-Knder fuid my Indian friondB, the noo 
of Zad-ol-Hnkob, tho gift of Sotomao to thn tritKi of Axod, hns not dis 
gaoumtod Kinoi) 1720, wht.<n thu cotibtv uf tbo Entfli^l) rnott-honw wm 
probftUy on a ptix with tliu BttrW wliioh now aduru tho Qihrultar nuwtiiig. 
Admit bhta fact, and it is patent to every racing man tliat tho b««t of 
tiien " diriBO borws" which, nccordini^ to Kn«t«ni history, dcsc«Dded ob a 
hewranly gift Iram Adam to Ishmiwl, IftliniAol to Soloman, from Solomon 
to Ui^oinot, and from Mithomvt (o our own tiiDC«, oannol oompotu with 
thd An^lo- Arahiau at a diOciwnoe of Sve stone ; a thoniiigbbred butobin-'H 
hade mil b^iit the Flower of the Desert sw dittanoe imdn- 100 milcit. 
If there is a dcprociation, why oscriho it iothoftboKt4onof honvy weoghta, 
or to tlin nalMititutdon of shurti-r coiintcit P Tlio natural iotiition WODM Iw 
tliat it in ovrmx to tliv nutu of oar most valoable atook to ovt-ry country in 
Europe, to China, to Ausijuha, Ntnr Zealand. But we have i^iiough lufl 
to challoQ^ all tho world. In 1843, tho total amonnt of alakea, plate*, 
and uiatcli<-«, ma 190,000^ ; in 1863, it wm above £60,000/., without in. 
eluding the royal nlatvit. The deterioration of horaea ia a pnre fictioa, 
Btockwvll, Kiufc Tom, Touug Uelbottme (Nabob, sold to nance), and 
many other ataOiona are framed, to gallop nnder twenty stone : the first 
chai^EM 1001., Kins Tom 75^, next ru?tuu>n for tlw chnsce of a foal Toa 
may aoe tn Lord Olatgow'H and Darun RoUiaohild'a ■tabten, twan^boata 
up to «ii{fateen tAotuf; Misty yuunt ago you could not huvo foand Sva 
tnoioogbbred horaea of this dL-»«ription in the Uuited Kiii(;diun. P!no 
yearling oolts fetch at auotiou from 4^0 to 800 guineas, if they appear 
likely to slny a distanco and to carry heavy weights. That ought to M a 
siiffidont anawDT to thoM persons who imagine that light wd^ta and 
abort couracs are dutrimentiil to the breed, uiul enoouiago " leny woeda." 
Tbo foUowtug table of the length of the different oonraea at Newmariiai 
will give aome geaenl idea of the distanoo asually required to be run 


The Biaeui Oovne . . . • . 

SoaDdOoimo .... 

Snmnar Oeone (twit 3 milta of It. C) . 

laM Ihm mnM of a C . 

Dildi in (ftorn th« nintiia^^Hu le Uw tod of B, C) 

The luit miln and a £*bnm laV-C , , 

Ancaalrv Hilv (lut mila •trai At) 

Critwian, Butland, aail Onabjr OrnnM (trom thp Itim of ih« 

Land* in) . . .... 

AodU; EndOaoiM (tern ih* aurtjug-pot <rf Ibr T. Y. C m 

«iodorB.a) . 
AcRM tb* Flu . 
Rowlry Hi)* (iMt mitr of A. P.) 
Ditdi]lil*(flntjDifeof A F.) 
Alinodoa Bfile (oo dw Flal) 
PlMhalf otAb. U. 
L«M half of All. U. 

T» Biudi* tnikfl «f a a 

Lut ^b a>d ■ hair of T. M. M. 

Tn Year Obi Coqim (co th* FlU) 

M<» Two Yw OM CooM (w the a M.) 

iMtUfmii*orN>*T.y. a .... 

TMiBng Ovum (on tie Flat) .... 
Teailiw Omim Ifnm tbutinm-pMi of U«i half Ab. M. to 

«iufi»£M of Di M.) .... 

Banfau* Hila (a )tn*|)il mllr, fliuihingal ih* ciulaf It,C) 
ChaM«aUC«un*(la>«bair<-raU.) . 
Bertb; 8t^n Ouun* (ba lix Air «f R. H.) 



Ciifwilch Cean* (fmn tli« ttaiUue coM of T. IL M. to tlie 

«rfafib»Fbl) 2 

ICiatfUnAiM 0»ane(lM( mb anda dtsluin, MmsIu) 1 

f8iA>lkei>kn0iMfM(luladUuidahairiL&) 1 

f^nUbtdSukraCcanorlMtilnr. orA.F.> 4 
I Tnm gMituw-FM of Imi lull it Ab. U. ta T. Y. a wbiiiiiiK- 

' po* 

' Vna Old B«niacFMl od Crttnica Coone to thai rad of K C 

nd. tr. tM. 




Vrooi Um aboiTB it will be mxn that ^jvt raricif of dutUMX* >■ aHopUxi 
nngiw from I (brlong 143 y*rda to 4 eiuIm 1 fiutong 178 yaH«. woll I'nl- 
caUMtotMttbogoDemBpeod andcDdnraDccof «v«i7olM8 0f ra«i*-ltor«i;. 
A nwra u cajmblo of brtsntling nt two yiMt* olcC but Nhoald not be 
allowed to do so beforo tlirw or fuur ytMTt old. Somi; faitro itijndi- 
Gu«al7 ooBUDeBoed at two y«ara old, belbn her form and atrvn^tli aro 
BafloanUjr dorclopcxl, and with tho dffrelopmeot of which Diia nrljr 
' wiD mntorial); intcrfitiT!. If a murv docs litllo mnro thnn Ihrnv- 
nr Gontinuu to bn bml fium until aha is Duorly twvoty ; but if 
been oardlj worked aud benrs th« marks of it, lot hur lutvo been 
»y in hor f»Qlb. sbowill decpJTetho expectation of the breeder 
' old age. Til R mure luninllr cHimrs into hrnt in iW cnrif pait of 
I Mpriag. Slio is said to ft° n-iui ftml elvvcu monthit, but there ia norao- 
a» a •tnn^ iiregularity about thisL Some have been known to foal 
I werts «aini0r, wnile the time of oihon haa been extendt-d aix weeka 
. the olonen months. Wo may, howercr, take oIoTcn months as the 
* ttmOb 

L the tinaof oorarin^, to witliiu a fuw dkj-s of the expected period 
Soaliiig. the carUmara majr ^ ^^ ^t >uodent« labonr, not only witli* 
oni injmjr, bnt with docidod adraotai^. It will thon Iw pmdnnttoreloam 
her (rani work, and keep her near home, and under the rrv<iut.-ut utnpi'otion 
of aome eaiefnl petson. 

When nevlj half the time of proGmancy has elapsod, the man should 

Ian a little better food, i^ho^honld bo allowed one or two (beds of com 

in Iha d^- Thi* is about tho period when thcT aro aocuatonicd to slink 

iMr touiu, or wlum aburlion oceuni : the cyti of the owner should, Utere- 

fcn. be ftcqtieDUy upon tbem. Good fivoding and moderate exercise wQl 

k Ihe beM prO¥eDtiTta of this mishap. The mare that has once aborted 

a iiUs to a rrpotition of tho aiccidcnt, and Uiercfoni nhonld never lio 

■fctd to be witlt other nutn-N bctwucn Uie fourth and HfUi months ) for 

■cb ia tike power of imuf^inalion or of sympathy in the mare, that if one 

*fai libonMiit, others in the samo piulnr^ will too often sbara the samo 

W Fhrmen wash, and pttint, and tor thrir stables, to prevent some 

%PuM,d infection ; — 4he infectaon Ues in tho imagination. 

ne tlionm^i-bccd mte — the stock bnng intended for sporting fnr- 

ei—AooM be keptgiiiet and apart fiom other horsrs, alter tho firrt 
or five months. MThen tho period of pRrturitlon is divwin([ uear, 
*> ihcmkl be watched, and shut up during Uio night in a aufi* yard or 

If the Bwrc, whether of the pnre or common breed, bo thns taken care 
■find be in cood h««ltii while in fool, Httlo diuiger will attend tho act of 
Muition. If tfacro ia fiilse pnaontation of the fuTtus, or diSicnlty in 
Mkibk '^ it will be beitw to hare recourse to a wcU-iniormed pta«- 
'*i«ni, Uian to injure Urn mother by the riolont and injurious attempts 
*lt an often made to reliere her. 

Iht partmriticit) bring over, the maro iilioald be tnrntJ into some wdl- 

itHwed MstntT-. with a hand or sbwl to mn info when she pleasea ; and 

bMppowng that akc luta foalvd in April, tlw grass is Bcanly, she shoiihl 


('■■tl, 1 


"f 7,a '■ - ■ . ■ ;. T 

K'"iT - -~ ■■;■ ::. 


i\ilmi -—■ 

iiii'so -.:.■-:. 

lufivi - - " • .>r i 

t» Mi -■--■-, . .,. 

rlif^l ~ '- -~ •■•■ : -;;:.j 

iiru-fc ~ ■ ■- ■■-■ ■-.y 

If til "...-■ ' -~ ■ - f,.ll 

"I- til --""■■; ■■ •:.<» 

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Q&S fbal dtonlcl bo daOy bandlMl, nccuKtonuxl (o tlic Iialtor, led about, and 
•no tied opL The Craclabilitjr, ^j^ood teiti|)er, nod vnlno of the faorae df- 
pcnd B grwt ifekl man apon this Uiau breeders an avnm ; tliis shoald bo 
dooo ■« mncli u poaaiblo br tbo titan bv irhom the; are Tnl, sod wfaoM 

wmnii r nf llii iii tbonld bu blwnyK kiiitl und gcntlo. Tber« IB no limit 

''tat wUob & bned«r sfaculd so inrwmbty ducluirgo bis smTxat as cniellf , 
or CTTCB hnrghnw, lowards the minff stock ; for the principle ou n-Jikh 
llMtr Rfier tuofeluon is foandcd ia atUKshment t«, and confidence in mnn, 
and ofaodicDCV, implicit obcdicDce, rvsaltiiig principAlI; from these. With 
tba bone aaed 6tr agrindtiuid puqxKtea, aAvr the sooond vrintor, the irork 
Af bwfclng'in maj rouuecce lu pjod oanteet. He mtty fint bo bittod* 
■Dd • tnt centaUy selected that will not hurt bis mouth, and much mudlor 
than Aoee ia cotninoa uw ; irith this ho may bo EnfTcred la amnse himself^ 
SDd to plaji and to cbamp &r an hoar, on a few kuccvuito ihja. Itxviag 
m IHile tikdable, porttous of tli« kuvraa aoty be pat npon him, 
of all, the blind winkers; aod a few days anor he uuiy go into 
It wcnld be bettor if tbeni could be one bcforo and oiie bchiud 
beaiilo th« kImA borfc. Lot thrro be finit tbo mcro cinpt}- waggon. 
T— ♦^'■pfl be done to Lua except (h«t be vaay bare an otciuoonal pat or 
1 wonL The other hones will kot)]] him moTin^ and iu bia placo : 
BO preat timo will pass, Eomotinica not cTcn the first day, bef<>re he 
begin to pnll with thf iv»t ; thi^ tbo lo«d may bo gradually incn-aet-d. 
ha Bgricnltnrul horac is wanted to ride as well as to draw, liri Ibis 
leaaon be giren when lie is ia tbo team. Let liis fcviler, if pi»»il>l(!, 
fiisl pint upon hiin ; be will be too much hmupcred by liia hai-u<-s!i, and 
\f the otlMT horses, to auke nracb renflt-.uco ; and, in the mnjon'ty of 
CMSS, will qaietJy and nt onoe mbmit. Wo bmd not rt:[icat that no whip 
or •pa' rfioud be nsed in ginng the Hnrt lessons in ridiuf;. When he bis 
«m > little to Budcntond his business, backing, the most difllcalt part of 
£■• work, may be luught him ; first, to back well niihont anything behind 
fcim, then with a light carl> and aft^mnrds witJi some serioas load ; and 
leldfqc tlM pMleet care not to hurt his tooutb. If the first lesson cnnsee 
BPifilt MnoMS of tbo gnnu, tbo colt will not readily sulnnit to a eocond. 
If be bM been roDdenyl tnetable before by Idltd nsagc, timo and patienco 
win do all that can be wubed here. Sonto csirtenareintfacbubitof blind- 
the oolt when teaching lum to bock; it may be neocasat; with the festive 
_ obetinate one, and ^omld be nsed only as a Ias6 roeort. The colt 
>TUig bc«n tliuK jartially br«keu-in, tlio necessitv of implicit obedience 
nr be langbt him, and that not by scvrrity, bat liy Gmuicss luid steadi> 
m i Ibe Tmee will go a great war, bat tbo whip or the aptir is &ometimcs 
fajntiitBWi' — not so cradly npplted aa to excilo the auimal to resistance, 
toeoOTtBOO bim that wv Imvo the po\icr to enforce mbmigsion. Few, 
w« woold atmost aay, no honws, aro natnraJI^ viciona. It in cruel usngo 
which haa fintt pcvvoked reststance ; thn.t r«istanoe has been followrd by 
gi^ita severity, and tbo stabbontness of the animal has increased ; open 
var&re baa enaacd, in wliicb the man seldom gwinrd nn adrantngr, imd 
IbabotaawaafrrqucntiT rendered nnsorvioeablc. Correction may or mtist 
ba naad to mfoT"- impticit obedionco afUr the education hiut proc^^did to 
carteb axteiit, but tho early lessons iboald bo incolcatcd with kinduesa 
Touts colts a™ aometimea very perrcrsc ; many days will occa- 
iT pase before thor wiU permit the bridle to be pot on, or tbo saddle to 
n; one act of harsfaaesa wiU donblo or troble this timo. P»[jcDCe 
fciadiMM wfll, after a while, prevail. On some morning, of better 
than tiaoal, tbo bridle will hit put on, and the saddle wiU bo worn ; 
oamnttance being follow.-d by kindness and soothing on the part 
-, and ou iDcuuvijiitnec or piin being Kuflbrcd by I he animal, all 



rc*iHtauco will bv at an oaiL Tbc nine princiitloi will t\\i\t\y to tlic bit«k- 
ing-in of tka borae for the road or the cbstao. Tbo ti&inlling uid uiue 
portion of instmctun alioald commeitce from the time of wMmiiig. Too 
futur« tra«t«bili^ of tli« horse will mnch depend on this. At two ymi» 
ftad ft hulf, or thrve touv, tho ragolu pn>c<rM of brciikiii>;-in itboald ootna 
OD. If it bi» dclajrol until tlio uumal is four yvars old, Iiia 6tn.-uj<lh and 
obsUucj will be inoru diffictUt to orercomo. We caimot much improve 
OD the plan osnall; panned by tbe br«alcer, except thut thoro abotud be 
moeb mom IdndiicM luid patdpnoo, »ad ftr lew hwwhiww and cmeltjr, ttum 
theao pervDiia nro nccantoniod to exhibit, and a grvat deal morv attenlicm 
to tiie form and uatund action of llie horec. A Lcadslall is put on tbo 
oolt. and a carcsson (or appat&tus to oanfine aod pinch the nose) sfEiril 
to it, with lon^ reins. lie i» &nt eccoatomed to tbo ruin, then led round 
a ring i>n «olV eronnd, and at length mount<.'d and biii;;bt hid puoua. Kcxt 
to prwicrviujc the iempur »itd docility of thu horse, tiiore is uoUiiuK of ito 
mnch importance as to teach hiui evety pAoc, and every port of hia du^, 
distinctly and thoroughly. Eoch must constitute a ncpAmte and som»- 
tixnoe ktig-oontuiiied lesson, and that taught by a man who vrill 
■nftr his pajsion to ^ the better of hia diravtaon. 

AAer the carcesoo has been attached to the beadatall, and the lonjf rt>ia 
pit on, tho tirst Ic«»>ii is, to be quietly lod about hy the brtiaker. a steady 
Doy following behind, by occsnannl threatening with tho whin, hot norur 
by an actual Mow, to keep tbo colt af. Whim the animal follows mtdily 
and quietly, he may be taken to tlie nng, and walked ronnd, right sud left, 
in a very small circle. Care should be t«k«it to teoeh him this pace tho> 
roughly, never snlTering liim to bn;ak into a trot. Tho boy with hix whip 
may here af[aia be necustary, but not a single blow should actually (all. 

Beooani; toknUr perfect m the walk, he should bo c|uick^M>d to a 
trot, and kept aiaadify at it : the whip of the boy, if needful, urging him 
on, and tho CBTeMoo restnuntng him. Thcw Iciwons should Iw alunt. 
The pace ahoutd be kept perfect and dialinct in cAeh ; and docility and 
improremeDt rewarded with froqaiut caresses, and h&udfula of ooni. The 
leiu^ of the rein may now bo gradually increased, and the [noo qnidcenod. 
and the time extended, until tho animal becomes tmctnblo in this his fir»t 
leaeonn, towards the conolusion of which, cmpper-ntnip*, or aoroetfaing 
■miiar, may bo attached (o the oJotliing. These, playing about the sides 
and flanks, noennUim him to tho flftpping of the coal of tlto rider. Ttto 
annoyanoe which they occasion will pass orer in a dny or two ; for wheo 
the animal Units that no harm comes (o htm on acconnt of theee atraps, be 
will onoso to rrganl them. 

Xi-xtoomi-'iitiio bitting. The- fait should bo large and Bmooth,ud the ivins 
■huuldbp buckled to a ring on dthtir tide of tbo pad. There are many cnriooa 
and expenaire machines wr thu purpose, but the stm{Jo rein will be qnitn 
sufficient The reins shonld at first be slack, and rerr gradually tightened. 
Tliia will povpare for tbo morn prrfoct tnannrr in which tbo bend will bo 
aAcETwanls got into it.t ihdim't poitition, when the oi>It is acenatomoil to the 
saddle. OcCTMinnaHy tJie oroaker should Ht.-kiii) in &unt uf the oolt, and 
take held of ea<A ndo rein noor to the mouth, and press upon it, and 
Ihns hrtfin to tench him (o *lop and to bark at the prSMVe of tha nia. 
rewiinbng cvoryact of docility, nndnotlx-iDg tooeogortopnotsh iiiiaiiniial 
caralessness or waywardneaa. 

The oolt may now ba taken into the road orstrect to bo grodiiany aoen*- 
(oumnI to the objects among which his nrrricca will be reqiurol. Ber«, 
ftom Gnu- or playfulncas, a eo«uidtTnd>|p dcgrro of idarting anil sliring may 
he exiiibitnl. As little notice oit possible should bn btlcen of it. Tbt 
•ome or ■ tiiniibr object should be soon pasaed again, but at a grea te r £»> 



1ftliemnat31dtu«,)ctthodwtaDC«ba&rf]Mrincrf-aficd,tmtiI he 
UcM no notice of the obJMTt ; tlien he msj bo gimiaaJij bronght nciuvr to it, 
tuul this will be Dsaall; cfToctod witLoat tlio sliglttMtt difficollr ; wlierona, 
had tbm been ui Bttcmpttororce tfaeuiimal close fcoitinUie&^iastaiieo, 
tha retnonbnuico of the ccnttist vroold hkvo bcmi aesociated witli tlio 
otnect, ftnd tbe b&bit of ahjing^ woold hnro bmrn cstablislicd. 

mtterto, wilii a cool and patieut bi«aker, the wliip mxy haro btxra 
■bovB, bot will ecnrocly bars been used ; the colt must now, howeror, bo 
aeeostotaed fa ffaa aeccmry instnuncnt of aathoritf. Let the bretJter 
«alk hj the ntle of (ha anuu], ukI throw hU ri?ht arm nrer hU back, 
liilliliHI the raiw in hie leA ; and ocakxunuilly qwdccn his pace, and, at the 
noBWnt of doing this, tap the bone with the whip in his right hand, and 
at 6iit TSff geotlf . Tho tap of tJi« whip and the qnickoning of the paoa 
■wis toon become aMOcialcd totfvthor in thp mind of the nminal. If Dcce«- 
nty, the lApe maj gndiuUl/ fall a little hcaricr, and (he feeling of pain be the 
mOfutor of the neoeesi^ of increaaed exertjon. The lecsona of reimng in 
aad atomiag, and baclmig on the preoenre of the bit may omttBoe to be 
nractiacd at the mtat time. He irttty now bo (iuigli( (o bear the saddle, 
bome little caDtionirill bo nooeauiT' at the first patting of it on. The breaker 
dtoold Bland at the head of the oolt, patting hun, ai^ engaging his atten- 
tion, vliito one aoistant, on the off-nde, sbwij tightens ux girthit. If he 
wabimia quietly to thl«, m ho gcnpmlly will when the prerioits pro^wM of 
twiafcing-in hu bn^ pmpcrljr condnctcd, the oeremmj of motmtiiif; may 
W attamptod on the following or on the third day. llie breaker will n<y^ 
twosMMacta to acoomplisb thta Opemtion. Iln will remain at the bu:ul 
ef the oolt, patting and making ranch of him. The rid<rr nill put his fuut 
into tho ftirmp, and bear a littlo wot(;lit apon it, while tho miai on tho 
off-mda prijw equally on the othirr ulirrnp-li-athc-r, and acconlicg to the 
doeiliQr of tho animal be will grwlutilly incrcow tho weight, tuitil he 
*—'*—— Itiwi—lf on tho atirrap. If tlio colt be uneasy or fcarfnl, ho 
•boald be noken kind^ to and pattod, or a moathfal of com bo girca 
him; bat tf be o(r<-ni wrinns rrsintnnoo, tlin IrxKniu; miuit ti'miicntc for ihub 
day ; be mav pmlmbly In- in licttcr hiinioiir on tlin morrow. liVhi;ii tlio 
rider hoa bahmn^l Limaclf for a miuutv or (wo, he may geiitly throw hia 
le^ oter, and quietly seat himself in the saiidle. Tho breaker nill then 
bad ttw animal rvnnd tho ring, tlic rider sittini; perfectly Btill. Aflcr a 
fr«r ■itrotee ho will take the rcina, and handle tliem ns gently as poseilik*, 
end guide the hotae by the preaeuro of (hem ; patting him frei^nently, and 
wTTrn al l r when he tbuuks oiT diamonnting — and afUT having dismounted, 
Maring him a little com or CToen mcnt. The nsc of the rein in checking 
(tnn, and of the pixaeu ro of the hig and tho (onch of (he hocl in qnickeninff 
im pace, will aoon be taoght, and the edaoation will bo nearly completed. 
TIm bocee baring (baa braubmittod himsolf to tho breaker, these patting* 
and rewards moHt bo gradually dimininhcd, and implicit obedience mildly 
bat fimly enforced. Scrcrity will not oflon be neoesearj : in the great 
najori^ of autca it will be allogelher nucalled for i but ahoold tho anima), 
ia a moment of waywardneea, dispute the command of tho breake*", he 
nmX at oooe be taught that he is tho tAnro of man, and iViat we havo ttie 
pOTrer . by other nwiana tlian that of Icindnctn, to bond him to our will. 
Tht emcation of the honte t> that of tho child. Pleasure is as much ad 
Ifftiln aaMciatcd with the early Icsboob i but firmncm, or if need bo 
cowreian, raost confirm the haWt of obedience. Tvruuny BJid emelty will, 
uera speedily in the horn than eron in tho child, prorelce tho wish to 
dinbej, and on crery pmcticAble occsnion, tbe nsistaiice to comnintid. 
Vhe rMtiTC and vici<iaK horo; in, in ninety-nine casos ont of a handred, 
I ao by ill-naage, and not bj nature. None but thoM who will take 

1 z 



tbft trooblo to tty Uio experimeDt, w nwitro how nbsolato a comtami 
tits diu> ndmixturo of fimuiMS aad kindnects will soon givo tu OTer any 

A •amewliftt now svgtcan of bro&kin^'-in horwe was inbodaced into thii 
ooimti7 by Mr. lUrpy, of Oliio, in 1S58, which at the timo attractvii 
ooiuiidornblo attvutiiiti, tvnti waa Lhoaglit would Biipcracde tbo old sja^om 
of horK-brGaluDj;. But the coiaplicatjuus aud other dlffiouUica aLt«Ddaiit 
npoD it» beiaf; fully earned out harA preT«Dt«d ita genonl adoption, ^id 
^ above syvlctn ia that now generally otoployod. The following is % 
descriptioi) of Mr. Raruy'a method. 

Mr. Rwy oommetioea liia acquauiitanco with thn coU when at pastora ; 
and by the ({entlest awaoSi and almoet without ;,-VHUi.-iiIutioD, he wUl ontic* , 
or urge tJie colt to cDtor into th» prodncta of a bam, stable, or outlionjA-l 
in the imtnodtatu nd^hbourhuod. Tlit- colt in very qnictJy surromklod, OFi 
an old horse vt first led in. ^Slieii the colt has Liitvti;d he ix 1^ alonsl 
with ihu operator, every one and every thiog having lifo Ixdjijf i.-xclndedj 
ao that the attontion of tlie coh rany bn ontiraly ab§orbod in th« pcnoit < 
the man wlio htut to train and subdou him. AiUr a short pana0,tlw mi 
advancMi very slowly, holdiajf out either baud and BjM^king to tfao colt 
with the gontlest toao of voice. HvcntuiLlly the cult will abo approach, 
aioell the hand, when occasion mart bo token to Btroko the newt, then the 
front of tho fiwe, cbeuka, and neck. So aooo na the colt remains |_ 
poiwvo and content with this treatment, then a touthem halt«r is yvrjr^ 
(ipantljr passed up and od to his he«d. Ilope halters, from their eoanencM, 
are highly ohjoctiooablo, and should only bo employed Upon Koemm. 
Wh«o the halter is suourod, a plain smooth soa£9e bndJe with a nuiaafHa 
sizod snaffle bit is passed into the mouth and fitted to tho head. 8ho<nM 
the oolt lesist the iniroduction of the snaffle, thou the k-fl hand having 
the iron bit in it is placed immodiatoly behind the lowi>r lip, and tho 
fiof^er and tlinmb focling Uio bora of the mouth within the lips, instantly 
inthiOM the oolt to move the tongne and open the mouth. At that mnmnnt 
the snaffle ■■ inaarted within tho front teeth, and is drawn well into the 
mouth by the headstall in tho right liand. This must bo ofiiwted without 
hurry or in any mnnner to distnri) tin! fwiitigs of the animal. ^Thon the 
hridio is scx-inrcd with tho retni in tho led hand, tho pciaon proceeds withJ 
his training by handling with the utmost ({cntienesa, the ncdc, diotdder,r 
and near toro-leg. This operation may ni^aiie some time to alEMt t ~' 
eomtiDaedaadolt-repcatsd pattings and ooaxinga, nnoe tlw nemaaMH 4 
nemrwnam of some leads Uiem to strike with tho n«ar hind-foot, and 
fiillow Willi rapidity ^e band of the operator. liVhen tho oolt permlla the 
handling of tho log and fotiodc, tbe froat of the sbaak IB takcDmthepalmJ 
of (he hand, and tho foot raised from the grooad. Soraetiines ft pnwmrfrl 
of tltn bacV sinow with the (ingcr and thumb will oondiico to lift the hgii 
at other*, tumitiij tho Cult's litttd aud neck well to the left will aMut tiie 
moveoncnU When tho foot has been onoo stirred, the operation mBBt ha 
repeated ontil tho cult will alJow the foot to bo bent near to the dbow 
joint, and to bo retained for a time in that position. The gcoAo Ctiiiitg 
of tho hand then prooeeds along the body near the hind quuler aad Isjg. 
The htndJeg shomld bo Ufled ia the quiebtet manner and raised ae hlgfa am 
poanUe. Too tail is then wdl handled, and the off-indo of the colt fl«MiT»i«i 
the pimiaw ef handling or gentling. Should the colt eviiioe any nncvnn- 
■Mn of temper, the BpM>dter method of tiraining oonasta ia strapping m 
both of the fore-legs, and bringing the colt to the ground upon kia 

Wh(4i this prow s ia drtrrroined ngion, Qw. shibln, loom Im, or bam 
ihouM bo corned with straw or Utter to the depth of a foot; awl if the 



fcaadalien be of stone or brick, tbo knees of tho colt iDnat be prot^olcd hf 

Tbe (tnp tor tivo nrsr fnru-log mu^it bo about thr^e fret in Icngf 1i, iind 
ui inch in bruKltb. It lias ft bniiklo at tbo end with a mHal d or u loop 
on Um incide, sbont two 
indm from the backlc. 
Tba ttnp i* fiorforminl 
witb holo* {pom tbo point 
to the balf of ita tcuf^th. 
Tbe point of tbe stisp ia 
painil ba twecp tbo Tna 
cloae to Ibe <^uwt, ftuil run 
tiironrii the n. Tbo strap is then nllovred to slide down tbo near fore-jeg 
Kad cup thia postern. tl>o opomtor tf-anding upright, Bnd holdini; on b; 
the point of tbo dnp. Strain is Uien roado on tlii.' i)iuli.Tn to lift the foot, 
aad % moTOZiait to tlie left will eQectually do so. iVbi-n tbe colt reiuaina 
qtOMOent with the foot woll ap, ths point of the strap is carried over tbo 
mrm Of mdiu* Ihronnh the bnckli! ; nnd tbn limb is thTis fnetcnixl up 
■nd benl togetber. Tbe colt i* tben inciti-il to move bbont on three legx, 
eitlier bybendiuR him round bj aid of the bridle to tbo nurtr or to tlie off. 
aide, or b^ mining him backwards — the latter procoea is objcctioiiabid, na 
in the connUivo npring, ho may roar and fall liackiriLrde. When the 
animal ta in a great mossore reconciled to bin cripjited state, the handling' 
of the body and hind-legs mast be again proceedi-d with. Except in very 
TioioBB dif^oeitMna, ih» confinement of the near foro-le^ will bo a soUicieut 
HHinif to enable the moHt nurvous ojiui-utor to carrir tlin)ii)>b tho jiTnrcm 
of tiMi^tiW tbo eolt. Some horses will attempt to*kick when npoo throa 
)rf% and tbe lebra will kick and bit« in ai>y position, even whtn lying 
npoD hia back ; bat such inxtanr^s of vioo in general are tare. As soon 
•a tho ooK will permit bis body to be handled, let a suroinglo or roller be 
fMliiuiil loond it. 

Sboald the oott not remain qniet with tho bonding up of tbe near forth 
la^ alone^ then proceed with strapping up tbo off fore-li^e also. The strap 
for this pnrpoee must be about tux feet in lenL;th, ou iueli or an iach and n 
«nn«r ut width, and of Ibe 
Uttcknoas of strong rciD or 
Sriit etinup lattber. It hu« 
k loop of three tnobca, or a 
■BOtaf n at one end. Tbe 
loop or D in jNuacd mnnd 
the pastcra of tho off foro- 
W, tbe point of tbo strap 
laSea Ihroagh it, and tho 
■limp diuwn tight to the 
I— Itrriu Tho point of the strap is tlien cjirricil vritbin the surcini^lo or 
nflv Bad bald tightly in tho right band. Wbi-ii the operator is desiroas to 
niae the off fore-Vg, ho inclines tbe head of tbe colt by tho aid of the 
bridle to the right or left hand ; and tho instant tbo foot is removed, it 
ia dnmi np to the sureingle with force, and retained in that position, 
U piMaiMn Oencrally speakiug, a succession of violent plunges will 
aarosed the lall, during tbo whole of which tlie person must retain 
Us liold npon the leg, and by placing his shoulder lo tho near fora- 
faand of the hone with a strong DMring upon the off teln to bend tlw 
ItMd and neck oatwards, ko that tba animiii cuonot collect with advan- 
tage bia muBonlar force, ho aoon cor)i>cIii tbo eolt lo yield up tito con- 
m* part of tbe proccflfl most, on uo account, bo homed orcr or 


niitipipnUTl. The plnnpM may coutinno fiir livi>, ten, or fiflcvn ininnUts 
■eldom loDj^T. liut tbo colt must bt' allowvd liis own linio lo lie down 

and sDCcnmb. fivcntnftlly he fiillK to Hthcr side, g«>npral)r on the near 
sido. Wlieo down, vxtvad Uic bc«d and neck to the flUl extent bori> 

lontallj. H«Bdl« the bnd, neck, body. Kmlio, and tail in mfloe^on aatat 
tJto colt romaiiui oomiilrtely piasivo under llio trMitment, taktiiR aenrmX 
tppportonitw* lo lit down npou tlio fonliAnd, the body, imd th« hind 



qnarters. Ai this period, the Baddle without girths or stirmps may be 
temporarily placed apon the Ixdy, or the hameBs may be laid apoa 
the hind quarters. The hobble and strap represented as attached to the 
bind-le^ of the zebra are only nHed when an animal is a violent, savage, 
and confirmed kicker, and in ^iibduing horaea that will not allow their 
feet to be touched or shod. When you have to deal with a horse as 
Bavaee and wicked as ' Cniizer,' of the zebm, a horse that con kick from 
one Teg as fiercely as others can from two ; in that case, to subdue and 
compel him to lie down, have a 
leather surcingte with a ring 
&stened on the belly part, buckle 
the hobbles on the hind-legs, and 
pass the ropes through the ring '■ 
when the horse is thrown down 
by the strapping up of the fore- 
legs, the hind-legs must he drawa 
close up to the ring in the sur- 

a the horse has any pr»- 
pensity to indulge in the vice of 
biting, the head must be drawn 
up forcibly to the operator, bs he 
eilB upon the forehand, and taking 
the front and back part of the 
month in both hands, the jaws 
are opened and shut with &e- 
qnency so that the teeth are made 
to chtsh a^iainst each oth»- very 
palpably. But for conquering a 
vidouB, biting horse, there is 
nothing equal to the large wooden 
g^-bit which Mr. Baney first 
exhibited in public on the zebra, 
A muzzle only prevents a horse 
from biting, a gi^ properly used, 
cures: for, when he finds he 
cannot bite, he by degrees aban- 
dons this most dangerous vice. 
Colts inclined to crib-bite, should 
be dressed with one on. Thia 

will prove io the horse his utter impotoncy, and may he considered by fre- 
qnent repetition to be the most perfect specific for a vice otherwise and 
hitherto deemed to be incuraUe^ When the oolt is perfectly quiet, the 
foro-legs are freed from the straps which are then drawn out to tiieir 
fhll extent, and the surcingle removed from the body. 

Thus the horse lies in the horizontal position thoroughly subdned, and 
for the moment may be said to be quite tamed. He has now to be raised 
by gentle means, and without disturbing the equanimity of his feelings by 
the use of stick or whip. 

Take hold of the mane with both hands, and nuse the head and neck to 
tiie upright praition. In the course of this movement the colt will double 
np the fore-legs, and remain in the natural position of lying at ease. The 
fore-legs are then drawn out straight to the front, as the first natural 
movement to rise, and by inciting the colt by means of the bridle and the 
voice, he will instantly rise to his feet. If the saddle has not been removed 
at the Kane time with the straps, it must now be girthed, and t)ie itumpa 



ftdded also. Bal uliontil it hare bocti rcmwred, i( must now bo ofl(>T«() to ' 
tlic ativntion of tlit' bunM-, who an soou as he lias smell nt and touchod it 
nilh bis noac, will iinuic-diatol^r permit it (o l>e qoioUjr put Qpon his back. 
Tilt- saddle most bo placed n (nil bnnd's braadth fixnn tho abouUcr blada^ , 
and tbe gtrlhs Taotciicd witltntit tigbtnen or eansinK diitnrbuiee. TI19 ' 
trainer tkon attemntii to inouut b;^- putting tlie ball of the left foot in tbo 
iitirmpi, preuiiiK tue kiioe wfll a^inst Iho saddle to pHrvcnt tli« point uf 
tbe toe irum irritAting tbo eide of tii« colt ; taking linld of tbo ofr-side of | 
tho ponim«l with the right hand, or thu nuitlo of the Kuddl« a* nuMib con- 
Tpnieml, a lock of Uic nuuio in tho Icfl baud, oud spriuguiff very gently 
and offectiullf into tbe avtA. 

If ihe liorse will not remain completely at rest during tbo aboro opera- 
tion, 8tr)4> np tho near t'oro-lrg, ojid pr(K;rcd to mount him m ho stnnda 
upon three IcRs, or begin tbo whole proccnH of tbmwin){ down, hnndlin^ ' 
tmd iMning throughout ulreali. Evety colt should be thrawu and tonud j 
two, Ihnw, four or five tinuM in snoccflsion, and withoot int«niU8sion, ^ 
according to the nataro of it* disposition, l>d<iro tho trainer commonoos 
npon aqy Myntfimof movnnaatteBnmcqneut to the ect of mounting, bccmao 
by inicli proofMM the horae wiU become tliorongildy famJliariaed, and 
olmdioDt to the Bound of tho human voice, and trsetablo to every part of 
t<«ching that may follow. Miirporor, by repeating the operatJona oon> 
•eoatircly, the mind of the nuiraaJ will become imptMKd witli Out mom 
of tliat wliioh will be rvqoired &om him, and by anticipatian and a oon- 
nctum of the nselessness of re«ifitanc>\ readily yiold to Ihe direotioBB of 
the traiBor. Thus every fall will be attended by fewer and leeaor atragglM^ 
and OTontnally, or in the eonmu of two or throe dnya' clo»o schooling, the 
Bioct refractOTy oott will knoel ami Uo down at the word of cotnmMd. 

Bat the opemtioo of tbrowing; down, though oxoeodtngly Bimi)le in 
ilacU^ requires a certeia amotuit of dGiterity, fearlcMness, and pbyaioal 
energy only pOMO—sd bf a tut limited nnmbcr of indlvidnala. The tatr 
ertion ncceanry to tiro the ammnl will, in warm weather, and in a T017 
Confined Htnu)a)>herc, also exhaust tho ener^'iea of artiong man. Thenrfinv, 
in order to render tho procom more simple and attainable by the moak 
timid practitioner, a w^-acting or iqiriiig barkle Iws been tnveDted, wUcli 
haa the power of retainlof^ Ihe off ure-ug in its bent np position witlioiit 
nirther asmstonco or interference on toe part of thi! emjiloycr. The 
bncklo ia attached to tho end of the strop, which in thii case u an inch 
and a quarier wide, aeven fret nix inches long, and porfonted with bolcM - 
throstpioat. Another spnng bnokle of maUer mxe is fixed on the iasida ' 
of tbe strap, at thm inches' distance fl-om the larger one. TW einp ia 
fa«lrn<xl round the poetera of tbo off foro-ltv by drawing tlie strap rooad 
it and tlirungb tho BnMller bnckln. The pomt of the strap ia then (alcen 
within tbe onreiiwle, and drawn through thr larger Imckle^ and the iuatent 
tho foot is raised mnn the frronnd. it i^ rapidly dmwa npto the nrdngk^ 
and fined in position by the power of the spring. Tbu sar|ilns end of the 
atmo is then hitched within tho «nrciiigla, and tho operator loolu quietlj 
on durins tho itmogles of the hone, or leisnnly goidoe his ht-ad to the 
Drar or off.aide, ae the fiukOj may direct. Tbna, tbe whole of tbe physical , 
[•owcr requisite to cany throo^ntlieoiwration to asueoesxful taane, will be . 
jnst so much as will cBaMo the pratctitiocier to poll np the off fiire-lt^, and 
to niiao Um) licad and neck from tno lunionlal position when on the ^ronnd. ' 
If* large metal n be placed npon the saroinglc, and the end of the strwp' 
be paMed within the roller of it, then a stablo boy may bo enabled (o raim 
the Ibre-lrg with facility, einoo with one hand an adult can raise to the 
snretngle » itJiont spvnt rffort a M lb, weight, wid the power of Ihe spring 
bncklo will rftnin it at any given height. The strop is relcas.d by drew- 



iaif it tn tatlxY ndc ot tlio interior of lIid biidtlo. 80 eooii na tJi« tonguo 
of ibe Ira^e ia ivitlulmwn Irnm Uio liolc, uitt prrmes upon tk? Mlid 
Iwlhw, tbe slrap is madt? to ididc awiiy with the ntnioct cum. 

Sp^'^g bocklus eon bu roudily mada hy any wUtctimitli, guiunnitli, or 
•««n Micketnitlt, who profcasua to lie tut ingeuioas lui-cliamo. The oi)en- 
it^ of Uui fVune mut be ths exact width of the stntp ; odo inch and a. 
qtwrfaT. The doplb of tho bnt;klc from the roller k> ttio cTom bar, upon 
irlucb ftt« &8(«iU!d the ton^u and tl)e Btrap, about onn inch and tlirco 
quart«ra. having Wut cheeks to admit tbe jiointa of tho Gng«r aud tbtunb, 
•nd tbe distAuce &om the baae to tbo oroM bar ie entirely optional, nay 
ImIT SB inch. Th« Rprisg mnsi bo sprang trcaa tbe undor sido of the 
h— I!, beotoM expericsoo hM provnl uiat tf it he fastened to tho upper 
aiila, it cannot be made to rvaial i!frL'i.'tually tliu violent coucnssions in the 
ptonging of the horae. The point of tho epritj;; most cUp with eiactuess 
1^ tos^iui, Bad bo made to rouoh within hnlf oninoh from il« point. The 
nring lUclf must be ttroag, and of Itic linuNt toiupnr, utbnrwuto it will be 
tkitiwu out of gett- ia a very abort ttuie. It ta madu to screw on to the 
bM0| 80 that ii can be raodilj remoTed to bo repaired or exchanged. The 
itnngth of the fmnw mftv bo aboat n qnnrtor of an inch, or oven irjs in 
th^i*"' m Tbe amallcr bunklo maxt jumI admit tho strap to bo sboutcd 
lo eitlier skb) when nxiuLrud t^i bu rek-nsed. 

By tluM ne&us, wo wilt oondude tho operator to bo qnietlj »nd eecurely 
AxM in tbe saddle, llo is now placed npon a timid creature, that has felt 
Tm1*'rr whip nor spur, and in whose mouUi tho muconn membrane ia aa 
fine in tho filxr^ uid as suoaitiro to the toaoli, aa is the interior oovning 
of his own orf^aiiisBtion. Moreorer, ho now has attained a moral sway 
OWtr the animal, hithorto nnknowo to the horse himself, and perfectly 
auapprociatcd hy tbe man also. Tlicrcforo thu ridi^r iwiat feci his own 
way with gunlk-ncss, and not duetray that fine feeling, which ia thus 
qsdun to rwolt, by the exhibition of brute foroo, guidsd by the spirit of 
wwward tyranny. 

iB ottempttng to nrgo the cnlt inlu ciotion, llio readiest mutJiod is to 
b^id the head and neck to oitlier Kidu, aud tlius iiidact- biin to move in a 
euooilooa eourae. So soon as be does bo with facility, tbe process of 
BKrring in any direction will bo rendtired extremely einipio. The walk 
moMt DO the only pace of exorciso fur tbe oolt, until bis bouee, stnews, and 
eonsdtntion arc thcnmshly accustomed to tho weight of tho rider, and 
lb* petiods of tioio required for exertion. Tbe qniot prcasore of the leg^ 
umltaoeoos with geotle feelings on the mouth, must gradually tend to 
ooOcet Um colt in his walk, nnd luuiitt to perfect his metliod of cam'nge 
and oofiect n^xdority of pmw. Tlwrc are voty few of the presunt race of 
h uis e-b i BskcTW who pr»cticully know tho difl'iireiioe between tbe amble 
sad tbe true walk, aud if bad habitfl arc taught lu tho ilrst instance, tho 
sbuff'f'g gait may continue through life 

Sbcnild the udt be required excluai vcly and immediately for (he pniposee 




u( bameas, thca tho liiflirrent parU of Ute ham<«B mtiBt bo qnicHlj [in>- 
BPDtcd Ui ita notioc and sense of hiuoII, befim they am ifiplied to tli* bodj 
of th« nnimal. If it bo inclined io be raatiT*, Him the dcht jbtv-lcg tmast 
bo immodkf«lj iitreppcid up, or tlio colt mnst bo thraira down, temcd, and 
poriullj harDMoed in the lionioutat jjOHiliou. If upon rising tben still 
CondnnM a dispoaitiva (o kick, tbe near fore-1^ tniLBt bo aeuD strapped 
npt and tho oolt fesiooed ap in Uic brcnk upon uaw )c^ OdIj. The coH 
is tlua mowd to tlw risht or left, to induou bun to bear Wdl upon tbo 
collar, and thns take a ciroutar direction. Wben he boa |pooe quitt]^ r<ir 
MOW dutanoe npon (hrve legs, the ne«r fore-le^ maj bo rolaaoed troai ita 
conbumsnt. In a vory inveu^ratc kickor, it will be fbllj nocessnr; to r^ 
tain a purcbaac npon tlio pust^im of tli<! wiar fortvk-ir hj a Ntrap which 
shall be made to paas from the jta^ern through the riu^ of Ibu haracm 
into the hand itf um drirer, so that up<:iu tbe tint intimntinn of r«stiranM^ 
tho Ice may bo instantly dmwn np iui<l rrtaiued in poHition for a poDiidaN 
able tune. If the oolt do iutitmlca for alow and hcarj dnnght, tho wry 
hwt educati^m it can ivc«ivo will be to be placed as Ui« oentru of a tcwn 
of three, so that it cannot recede or progi««a without the ooncurrenoe of 
tiie remaining two. 



Tna ia a most important part of our sabjeot, and deaerrtng tbe oarefal 
attentioD of^ parties interatod in tho health and condition of tJ» horse. 
Wo will arrange tba most important pointa of gonvnU maongemcnt nni 
the following Reads :— 


^Hiere cannot bo a donbt that the proper rentHation of ear ataUea 
vety gnat iniiuenoe iu di-ltiraiiuiog the Mahb Bod rigonr of the anii 
eonSned in thorn. Bat altbongh attention boa of Ifttv years been i 
to this snliject, and oonddcrablc improvcmcnln curried ont in the manage- 
ment of some of our beat iital>li'>, aa u general rale the vrolilatian of Uw 
raiyori^ of atablos, and eepeciuUy tboa« in which agrieultumi b<irKes are 
oonfinoa, will bo foond very deficient, and in many ioBtaacos ntterly 
devoid of any wpadal azrangmnent by which tliis rcry importent proccM 
can be earned on. 

Mr. Clarke, of EdinboTRh, was tbe first who adi-ooated the nae of well- 
nntilated stables. After him Pro&MOr Ooloman ntnblishrd tbem in tbe 
(nuvton of tho cnvaby tr>30f», and tltere eannot Iw a donbt that lie aared 
tiie OoTCnuncnt many thooaand ponnils every year. His system of venti- 
lation, bowercr, like many other (uUotAr}- iuuovationa, w as at fiist strongly 
tHislad. Mneh cril waa predicted ; bat after a time, diwaaee that nsed to 
fsDOUDt whole troops afaaost entiTely disappeared flNnn the anny. 

It should always be borne in mind tliat tlio brmthing of pare atr ii 
Mccnsaiy tn Um exiatenc« and thv beallb of man and beoal, and in pro- 
poriiOD to the pnri^ of the air in which an animal is kept, will be found 
Us greater or less ngour and bmlth with which all the AinctionB of the 
tiody will he tM-HVrmed. T^ro are two cbicf lo a r oes from which tha 
im|iaritia« of the itable are derii-od, via. : the chaagea prodnoed in tlie air 
by tlw process of re«pint«on, and the gasoons matters which are fctnud 
l^ *li* iWftm ii^fi^ym fff fFinmiM^ititioM Bod Btlur nuttMsfroB the 




^^^^^t diuiiftgs OF ntvlcci. To innk« tlio en))j««t clcttrly uiidi-nitooi], 

H^K^nriedr deM-nbe tbo comnodtion of tlw( atmosjilicri' and tlic cbauj^a 

r which are brouKtil about in it, dj tlie fnnction of n-npimtion. Tbo air 

I which RBrronudB ns, iu iia ardinary stat«, cuoaista of two priucipul gams 

I skiDrd oxj-gmi and tutrogcn, in the propoi-tions of about a tiflli hy fanilc of 

I the formar to tMBrlj four^fifUiB of tho latter ; besides then there are also 

I feijr amall nnantitiM of oorbooic add and some watoiT Tsposr. Kitlior 

^oxj^eii or nitrogen gaa, in a aeparata state, or combined in any otiicr pro- 

iBtRtuva, would proTo destmctire or olhurwisc iajtmoos to Ul'u, Imt bv a 

JBMftifal Brraogcmoiit, thc^ are blended lo^^etber id each propordooa tuat 

UpBaatevBtirtt properties of mch aro ncatraliscd uid made one of the 

■Bf anas bj wbieh lh« life of tana and animala is Bustaioud. Tho fonc- 

fttOB flf wptratioa conssla of two distinot parts, viz. ioepiration and 

njnatuiiL At each inspiration niado by the animal a cootndetabla 

' r of air paaRCS into the longs, and baring ponotTatcd to the nmoteet 

rllio fanmchial tabes, entcn what are callod the air-cells. Around 

oalls raiaiiy great muDbers of veiy ciinnte blood^Tt^ssuls called 

cajOlarwi^ coataiiUDg the blood which has boen rendtrod impora in ita 

pBMHetliroagh tho system of tho animal. Apccnliar change here takes 

plaoe uetwceti the air and tho blood. The oxygen of tlii^ air cambiacs 

with tha Mood, and uniting with the cikrhoii cuutAined in it, and which 

iSBdwa it impore^ finmaearbouic acid, thus rendi-ring it again £t to pass 

aaaad ■ipptj'tbowaateof the ^^em,wki]D the carbonic atrid and nitrogen 

(botliiB tfieir present Btaia dcHtmctivo poisons) are expelled from the longs 

Ilbe proocas of ezpiratioD into thu sorroiindiiig atmosphere. From the 
nitvillbeseen thatanabnnd&uieuprily of pure air is noccssary fur 
AanMintsnaacaof tho health and b'fo of tne animal. Tho effect of several 
hsneabeingshntapinthosamvKlAhlBisaomplGtely toempoisoa thenir;Mid 
ri^ereti in the present day, there are too nianj who cai-efall^ cluae every 
VBtars hf which a breath of &eah air can by possibility gam admission. 
u«8cciiog this, evon tho key-hole and tho threshold ore not forgotten. 
Wlai, of DcoeMotj, most bo tlio conBc<i<ii.-ncc' of this ? The breathing of 
vmyaniinal eoutamiuatM the air, and when in tho course of the night, 
*tt«rw7 aperture stopped, it posses again and again through the Inngs, 
ttiUood cannot andorm its proper and henlthy change', digestion will 
H( be 10 perfectly pctlonncd, tho binin and nervous system will suffer, 
*iill the fanations of liiia be more or lues injured, and one need not fuel 
mfami at finding son throat, inflamed tua^fi^ diseaeed ey«s, greaao, 
■MlC and glondon, at times making their atppuKwaw in such stables, 
w other chief saareo of imparity to tho air in stablea, is tho presence of 
Mtita ddetertous gases resolting from tlie dccompositiou of the urino 
*^ img of the ftriiMft.1, and also of other vegetable substances, caust-d 
'^trbf daCbctiTQ dioinago ornegloct. The principal gnsce evolved aro 
n> sauiuuujuds of eolphnr and carbon with hydrogen and ammonia, all 
*(M or 10H injnriofis to health. ^Vhcn n person nnt enten on ill-man- 

tlitaUe, and eepecialty early in thu morning, ha ia annoyed, not only by 
kcatof thaoottflned air, bat by a pungt^nt smell, resembling hartshorn. 
" W boon aaoBrtaiood hy cbomical cxpcrimcnis that the urine of tbo 
Wat f™«>»!i*i IB it iionedingly lar^ quantities of ooiupoands riuily oon- 
'^'ttd br dooompositiou into mnitnimn ; and not only so, bat that iiiflu< 
^tti \)f the b«at of a crowded stable, and poemblybgr other decompositions 
^M» going fijTward at tti« same linuiy this wnmouiocal rapcnr begins 
|b he iifndly given onf almott iminediftt«ly after the urine in voidod. 
"^n diirssn begins to appvar un^g ttie {nhabitnnts of these ill-r<!nti- 
^M piaoea^ ia it wondernd that it should rapidly spr^ead among them, au<l 
Ihl tM pbgna^fot shooM be, as it were, pkcud on the door of suoh a 



slablo? VThm inflnmun nppcun) in npring or in kutomi), it itt, in my 
many cuiWi to br tmn-sl to siuilt a pcKt-houM!. It in pot-uliu-l}' Tulal tbfi«. 
The hones belongintt lu m small MUUiskmcnt. tuid nliuiujly trt^Unl, Imvo 
ii compMntavcly aeldoco, or liave it li^litlv ; but among tin inmalca of a 
crowded eUble it is mre to display itself, and tlwra it is mart Intot. Tbe 
experience of every nrtorinuy wnrgtxm, and of mry liirgc proj>rii>tor of 
Ivonice, will corroDanitv t3n» statement. A^<^)turicts shutild bring to 
their ktablcfl tlia oommoii Bcnae wMcli dir«cta tliem in the unt&l ouuouma 
of UGa, and sboiUd bcj^in, vh«n their pleasims and their property are so 
mnob at Make, to uxnnic tbn.t sutbuHty, and to enforce that obodienoe, to 
tfae Is^ of which iji to ho nttributod thcgTcaUtrpartofbadHtabto-inAniico- 
mont and horse-dtseaae. Of iiotluiif; arv wo more eortain than that Um 
majority of the m&ladiea of the borse. and those of the worst and most Ikfail 
character, are directly or indiroctly to bo attribnted to a deficient suiiply of 
air, craol exaction of worlc, and iniiafKcicnt or bad faro. Each of these 
evils is to bs dreaded— cttoh is, in a mnnnur, watcliin;^ for its ptoy ; and 
when they are combined, more t^bau half of the tnnuitvii of the stable an 
oftvn swept away. 

rbetemperAtore of the stable is also another important oonaidcwatioti. 
This shoola seldom oxoood 70° in the sninmer. or fall below 40* or 50* io 
the winter. It may 'w readily ascertained by a thcrroomirtcr, whicli no 
stabliilunent where lai}^ nnnuiOTS of lior«ca are kept sbuuU be witbont. 
A hot clable baa, in the mind of tiio eroom, been Umg oonncotcd with a 
glossy coat Tho latter, it is thoogbt, cannot bo obtained, without tlia 

To this we shonld rq>]y that, in winter, n thin, glossj: coat is not desir* 
able. XaLnra gives to crcry ■"'"'■' a warmer clothing when tlw coll 
weather aiiuroachee. Tbs hone — tbe agrienlttual liorae eopeeiaUy— 
aoqnires a tiiioker and a lengthened ooat, in order to delinid him ftrom the 
so rroon ding cold. Man pvts on an additional and a warmer coveringtMid 
bis comfort is incn«sod sod his facklth pn wcrv od by it. He who biowa 
onytlitng of the fanner's hone, or caree about his enjoyment, will not 
object to a ooat a little longer and a Ultle ronghened wbeu the wintry wind 
blows bleak. The ooat, howoTcr, ooe>ds not to be so long as to be 
nuBghtlj ; and warm clothing, even in a cool stable, will, with plenty of 
honest grooming, keep the hair sulBdently smooth and gluany to satisTir tha 
most fastidious. TIm orer^healed ur of a close stable saTea mnch of this 
grooming, and ihcntan (he idle attendant anscnipalotulj aoorificea the 
hoalth aad Bafigi^ of the horse. 

Lot this be oonsiderod in another point of viow. Tho horse stands 
twenty or two-and -twenty hirnra in thin unuitural raponr bath, and Ihon 
he is soddenir stripped of all his clothing, he is led into tbe open air, and 
there he is Lopt a couple of honn or more in a temporotore fifteen or 
twen^ degrees bolow that of the stable. Puttbg tho inhiunanity of this 
oat of tho qoewtion, must not the animal, thus lumataially and abesrdlj 
treated, be mbjecled to rhenmaliwJn, catarrh, and ToHons other oomptaiata ? 

It is not so generally known oa it onght to be, that tho return to a hot 
stable is qnito as dangerous as ttio change from a heated otmospfaoe to ft 
oold and biting air. Many a boree that uaM travellMl withont hormorwa 
blcdk poontiy, has boon suddenly seixed with inflainmatlop and Cercr when 
ho han, imraodtately at tbe end of his jonniey, been surrounded with healed 
and fool air. It is the sudden change of temperntaro, whether &o«n heat 
to oold, or from cold to boat, that docs the mischief, and yceriy deatroji 
thonsands of horsM. 

The stablu shoold be lai^go in fMoporliun to the niunber of horses which 
It is destined lo oontaiu. It nnialty consists of loose boxes, each to bold 




pBe bocM, or diiided into eUUa in wbich a munbrr of horscB can bo kept 

■Mimd bj tiw head. Boxes are preferable to tUiUs, innsmach an tlicty 

pDoir eouidarablo spocc for tbo animal to move in aiul oicrcise lunucel^ 

rmd alao '«ii*Ue bim to lio duini uad rot ailcr a hard day's work, with 

loH eittnoa of bein^ diMurbud. Boxm rue nl*o cmentinlly neccs^iy for 

nek liotsci^ And Mpecudly wlieo euffurm;; from any contac^otis (liKoiiio. 

Eatb box sbonld be about fiftoen foot in t«ngtfa by ton in wiiltli, viiih tbo 

«d* mils front nino to twolvo foot high, and whore epaco will admit, th« 

ofMniag «boTo«lM>iiM extend to tlto roof. A adAblo fornix liorsosdiridcd into 

" I sbonld not be lesa than forty feet in length, and Bltvcn or sixteen 

. wide. If tbore be do IoH above, the inside of tJic roof sliontd always 

I pbstond, to proTent diroct corrcntfl of air, and occasional di-oppio)^ 

ftvim broken tilm ; tuid tho brafcd and fonl air iihonid escape, and cool and 

Pm air be admitttvd by (.-k-rulion uf the central tile*, or other opening in 
■oof sulEoientl^ pt«tceted toprovent the beatioz in of the ruin; or by 
Htip [dwed higb np in tiie walla. Tbeee latter aperturoa alionld bo 
&r MOT* the mraes m tboy cmi oonreiiiontly bo placed, by which 
roirant *11 injnrioiudnnght wilt be prerontcd. 

If thero b a loJV aborc tlw alablv, tho oviiing ulionld be plaston^, in 

^ to prerent tlie fool air from peootratiug to the bay abuvu, (uiil in- 

: bolb ita taato and ita wbolosomcnoss ; and no opoiiiii^^ aliotild be 

1 above the ntcka, through which tbo hay may bo thrown into thorn ; 

' will pennit tbo foni air to iMccnd to the pnivender, and also in tUo 

' tilling tlie rack, and whilu tho bono ■• cogcriy gncing upward for 

(uod, a graas awd may &U into tbu eye^ uid produce eonsidi-mbin 

i JntMninatiiin At otlier timos. when tho careless {^loom has lotl open tlie 

b»-door, a atnani of cold air beats dnwn on tho heiul of tho horso. 

Tho stable with a loft over it ihontd never bo leas than twelve feet bigb, 
Ml DTOper ventilation sboiild bu secnred, t-illier bv lubes carried tbrongh 
ttauft to the roof, or by gratings closo to tho ceiling. ThcBc gratings or 
•MiDga abontd be enlarged or contracted by moans of a covering or that daring siwiiig, nuanier,iind antamn tho stable maypoasesa 
Mttlf tha mn« tcmpeiatiini with tbo open air, nnd iu winter a teiDpei&- 
tmof not more thou ten or fifreeu degrees above that of the extomal 


HiTiBg spoken of tho vaponr of oounonia, wliioh Is ao raj>!Jly and so 

f^ati^if givro oot frton the urine of a hoi-se in a boated stable, wo next 

t"^ into conMdeiaUon Ibe subject of litter. The first eantion is fi'crjiiently 

to naaoTe it. Tlio early ovolutioo of ga* »liows tho rapid juntir^fuetioa of 

taurine; and the oonseqncnoo of whioh will bo tlio lautd pntrufuctiun 

filia titter that has boen moistened by it. Everything hastening to do- 

naporition shonUI bi- carrfully removed where life and health nnt li> b« 

pnstrrcd. Thv liUvr thai lias boon much wottod or at all aofU^nod by thu 

nriBs, and is beginning to docny, shiinhi bo swont away cveiy morning; 

tfce greater part of tbo romaindor may tlim be piled onder the monger, a 

tittia bebf W on tho hard pavcnu^iit duriiiK the day. The soiled and 

■aomtad portion of that which was left eboold be removed at night. Id 

tka better kind ofsUUea, bowover, tho stall shouhl bo oomqxletalr emptied 

' jnonung. 

• heap of fermenting dnng dioold bo safFored to romiun during the 

I the eororr or in any part of the stable. With rogard to this the 

aooa of tbo mnrirr should bo peremplnry. 

..jiltabl(!>iliimld bi- so contrived IIihi tbu urine shall (jiiickly mn off, 

1 ilia offeoMive and injurioas vapour from tbo docoiupoein^ fluid nini tbu 



Utter ynS thus Ite nmtvi'iAllj ksaoned : if, howcrpr, (lie unite is carrii'i] 
away b; means of & gutter r unning along the stablo, the floor of the stalls 
ranst sUnt towards that gntler, anil the declivity ma»t not he no great as 
to strtiin till! hack sinow*, and bocomo on occaHounl, olthongh unKimprot'Cd, 
ckTun of huai-iu^sa. Mr. R. Lkwronoti well ohourvi'S, that, ' if IIiq n-uder 
will slimd fur a few minates witli his toca higher than his hotels, the piun 
he will tM in tho caJree of his logs will soon convince him of the truth 
of this rciuarlc. Hcnco, whpn » home in not outing, he ftlways endeaTonra 
to Snd hij Irvot, either bjr Klauiling across the atall or viae as for back u 
hid hnltn- will permit, bo th&t his liiad-lcga may inetit ike uoent of tho 
other sido of the dutonoL' 

This inclination of tho stnll is rIm at times the caose of contraction 
of tho heels of tho fnot, by throwing too grcnt a proportion of tJio weight 
upon tho toe, and n'uoviug that pmessiue on thu heels wbioh tend« moai 
to ki>epihem«p«aL. Care, tiaerefoMi, iDBBt be taken that the BUntlng: of tlia 
floor of tho stalls xhall be no more tbaa is sufficient to drain off the nrme 
with tolrniblo mpidity. Stall* of tliis kind certainly do best for marcs; bat 
for honws wo mnch prefer thoM with a grating in iho ncntiv, and a alight 
inclination of the floor on every edde towards the middle. A abort bmnch 
nay MnUBnnicate with a loivsr dntin, bf means of which the urine may he 
carried off to arpscrroirontrndatiiA stable. l>nps aro now contrivod, and 
may be prornred at little expense, by means of which neither any offcniiivo 
sini-ll nor cnrrect of air eau pass through (lie gmting. 

Thu fkrmer should not lose any of the urine. It ta from the dang of the 
horeethat be derives a princapal and tho most TalaaUo part of his manoro. 
It is that which carlie«t takes on the process of pntn&ction, and fomui 
one of tlu) Ntrongntt and most dniablo dressian. That whti:h i* moat of 
all eoncomed with the nptdity and the perfection of the decomposition is 
the urine. 

Huiutuiity and inlorcst, lut wrH as tho appearance of tho stabls^ should 
induce the proprietor of tho home to plaee a modfirato qnanti^ of litt«r 
nnder him dnring the day, Thi" fanner who waitta to convert every 
othcrwioo useless substance into manure, will hare adtlitional reason for 
adopting this practice: espocially as ho does not conlino himself to that 
to which in towns and in gentlctrtoD's ttablea cuxtom noemii to haro limitvid 
the bed of the hone, vix. wheat and oat stniw, and Homctimes, daring 
the Bommer months, tan or sawdust. Pea and betin haulm, and heath, 
occupy in tho stable of tb« fanner, during a pnrt of tho year, the place of 
wheatvn and oaten stmw. It should, however, bi< remembered that those 
Hubiitanees are disposed more easily to ferment and putrefy than stimw, 
and Ibervforo should be more cantft^ly examined and ullouor remoTed. It 
is tiio fanlty custom of some formers to lot tho bed accumulate nnlil it 
rcschn altwnt to tho horse's boll v, and tho bottom of it is a mass of dmig. 
If tliora wero'nat ofton many a bole and nanny through which the wind 
can enter and dispcrao the foul air) the health of the animal wonld mattN 
rially sulTer. 


This neglected bnadi of stable management is of Ihr mote oonaeqiicBoa 
than is generally imagined ; and it is patticalarly neglected bjr those for 
whom these treetisee are princinally designod. The farmers stable is 
frsqnontly destitnta of any gUxcd wiiidow, and has only a nhnttcr, iriiieh 
]■ nusrd in warm weather, and closed when the wcntlier Ixvonira cold. 
Wlieu the hoTTO L» tn the stable only during a few hours in tlie day, this 
is not nf ■■-! ntnoli conse"]i>i-iwe. n»r of •o itiiieh. jirrilidl'ly, with regard lo 
horses of slow work ; but to carriage horses and hackneys, m fkr, at least. 



I Kc coaccmed, m dvk ttable u little lesa injuimiB ftko a fun) 

d one. Comlbrt, doonloKM, and Hrolth, are all ooiUHct«d witb 

ttii ^BCttiop ; Mul why Btoibles an not aa iri-ll ligbtvil ua uij of the rooms 

» dwattbg-bonaea, it ia not eaaj to nj— Uu. idea of too much l^ht 

~ ~ ; in tmr wa^ injurious is ndicolooa ; horses, as well aa toeo, m a 

(if natare, lire in cl«aro|icn daf tight; and thm is no renaon why, 

> atata of domeatict^, one ahonU not do *o aa nvU a« tli« other. A 

proportkm of stablas are dark, (bnl, and anbealthj ; the two latter 

often drpcnding, to » considerable ettenl. OB tbe fonner; for, waa 

agBrient light adinitti.'d, the causes of tho latter would be more «Tident 

and their accomolatioa would be pmrentod ; bat, as it is, both in town 

and the eonntiy, darifiw»w ooreni a multitode of sins, mm, in many 

napocta, in otherwise well«7rdf>r«d eatablishmcnta. In order to illnstnito 

thi^ referenoe nwy be mado to tho unpleasant fooling, and the utter 

iminTtiilrttifT of seviug distinctly, when n man aoddonly aBwrges from a 

dant place into tbe full blase of day. The sensation of mii^od pain and 

gMdina— ia not soon forgotten; and BOme minutca pass before tbe eye ean 

aoearamodate itself to the increased light. If this were to happen every 

da^, or aerenl times in tho dny, the Fight would be irrepnrnbly injnrod, 

nbly bliudtieas wtmld cnsne. Can we wonder, then, that the faorac, 

frcoa a dark stable into a glare of lights filing, probably, as we 

do under similar circomBtances, and nnable for a considerable 

I tp sea anything aroiund him distincth-, shoold bocome a starter, or 

; tlio frequently npealed nolent effiect of sadden light sbouU indnoe 

■wnMrinrii of tlie tjo SO int«ii8a aa to t«nninate in UindnesaP Theno 

Ih, mdnTnl. no doabi that hones lu<pt in dark stables are freqaonlly 

' MrtniooB atartoTs, and that abominablo hubit hna been pmperly traced to 


Ytenara know, and shoold proBt by tfae knowledgo, that the darkness 
rfiha stable is not unfrei^ently a cover for great niMihuinlincRi. A gloxrd 
'ritdow, with leaden divu>on> between tho small panes, would not coot 
nch, ud WDold admit a degree of liriib somewhat more approa«hiiig to 
Ikrt of day, and at the same time wo^ render tfae conoMlatent of gross 
faiUnition and want of dcanlincM imposudhte. 

ff plco^ of light is admitted, the wuUa of tlic stable, and Mpncially that 
pMicn of tfaem which is before the horse's lioad. mnut not be of too 
^'■vg a colour. The const&Dt reflection from n white wall, and especially 
a tht tun slunes into the stable, will bo as injarioim t« the ej'e as the 
hUh changes (rom darkness to light. The pt-Tpi-liial flight excess 
(f itiaialiu will do aa much "imfcinf as the oceofiional but more violent 
me when the animal is taken from a kinil of twilight to Ihc blase of day. 
Asoolourof the stable, therefare, Hhould drp^nd an tho qanntitj ofligbt. 
Where mneh oan be odmiltrd, tbe walla uhould bf of a fijey hue. Where 
diiluasa would otherwise preratl, &eqaent whitowashing may in sonto 
iVgnss dissipate the gkram. 

For another reajum, it will be evidt^nt that tho Btnlilo »lionld not poH««« 
loo glaring alight: it ia tli*- n-sting-plnce of tin- burse. In the quieUwsa 
ef • dimly-ligbted stable ho obtains repoao, and a<«umnlatea ficsh and fat. 
"■ ' •% are perfoctly aware nf tWs, Tbey Iiave their darkened siablos, ia 
tbe young horae, witli little or no cxereiso, and fed upon masluis 
; ground coni, b made np for sale. The round and plump appcarauoo, 
WTer, which may delade the unwary, soon vanishes with altered trest- 
^mit, and the animal is found to be unfit for hard woi-k, and predisposed 
to many an inflnminatory dlwajie. Tho circunictnncrs, then, nnder which 
. ctable somrwhat dajkcDol may ^^e Allowed, will \v, eiuHly dHiTmined 1>y 
! owner of the bom ; bat, aa a general rule, dark stablt!* are utifrieDdly 



to clconliacas, and tlio fiwqnent oaoM of the vioe of sttfUng, and of Has 
mcvt wrioiu disoaaoB of the eye. 


Of Om much nood not bo said to the asricultnrUt, sinoo ciuloni, itad 
Bppaivntljr withoat ill uRoot, liiui atlott«d to 1ittl« of tho conil) &iid bnuli to 
the fafiDcr'a hono. Thu auiiiia.! Uiat U wurkcid kU dkjr, And ttirued oat at 
iwh^ reqoins little more to bo done to him thau to havo the dirt brash«d 
off hu limbs. ItoguUr groomine. br nmdemig Iiia dkiu raoro icnsible to 
the altemtion of IcmpaTiitim, luul the iaclcmcnc-^ of the wmtlidr, wonkl 
bo pi^qndicial. Thu bone (hat in altogether tiim(,tl ont nc^ods ao groonung. 
Till) dapdriffof tcurf which aocTUimlateB *t the roots of the hair, isApro- 
Tiaion of ualuro to defund him &om the wind and the oold. 

It ia to the stnhlod hone, highly fvd, and little or iiregnlarlf worked, 
that grooming i« of so mnofa coiuoqucncc:. Oood rubbing with the bnuih 
or the cunjoomb opens the pores of tiie slcin, circulates the blood to the 
•xtranitiea of the bodj, produces ft-ee and healthy pcnpimtioii, and stands 
La the room of exorciso. No horso will conr a nne coat withont oithor 
unnatural heat or dn-Ming. They both cffoct tlie same ptupose ; they both 
incTPiLN) tho insenaible punijiniliuu : but the Grst dooa it nt the ezpenso 
of iKstth and strength, wliilu the BL-cond, at the same timo that it prodncee 
a glow on the sldn, and a dci«rminatioD of blood to it, rouiwH all the 
energiofl of tho &uno. It would l>n well for tho proprietor of the honM 
if ho worn to inxixt— and to »vc lluit his orders are really obcyed^lhat 
Ihn fine coat in wbidi he and bin t^room so much diJight, ia produced 
by honest rubbiug, and not hy a bmtod stable aud thick clothing, nnd 
■oost of all, not by stiinnlnting or injnrioas spioce. The horse aliould bo 
ref^olarly dressed cTciy d*y, in uddition to tho grooming that is neceesMy 
after work. 

Tliurv is no ncoussity, however, for half thu pmuHbnient whtL'h many > 
groom inflicts npon (lie horse in tiio act of dres&ing; nnd particularly on unu 
whoso skin is thin and Bonaitlvo. llio cnrry-cnmb ehonld nt rII times bo 
tightly applied. With many hontra its uac may be almost di^cuBcd with ; 
aivd even the 1>niih needs not tu be ao hard, uor the points of the bristloa 
HO imgnUr us they often are. A soil brush, with a little more wei^t of 
tlie baod, wUl be equally elToetiial, and a gixat drnl more pleasant (o the 
borae. A hair-cloth, while it will seldom irritate and tca«e, will bo aluMb 
suBicient with horse* that barn a thtn akin, and tlial have not boon ufl^| 
leoled ; the Lay wliixp and the linen rubber are thu moans by whii^ W^ 
ooat is kept in tho most pejfcet order, and tliey cannot too genenJly bo 
had reooune to, for their effect on tlie skin is movt soothing, and to do 
jnrt of his draaaiflg does the horse, parlienlarly t^ well-bred onc^ so wiU- 
logly snbmii himself ss to this. After all, it is no slidbt task to droM k 
borsu as it onght to lio dune. It occupies no little time, and dnoands 
oonaidcfuble palk-nce, as well as dexterity. It will be rcmlily asoertaine«l 
whether a horae has been wall dresaed by nibbing him with one of the 
fingers. A greasy stein will detect tho idleness of the groom. When, 
bowwer, the hone b changing hia coat, both the curT}--oomb and the 
brn^ should be used as lightly as poeaible. 

Whoever wonU bo oonvinoeil of the benefit of fnctton to the borse'l 
akis, and to the bono aenenUT, needs only to obserre the effeeta pro- 
duced by well hand-riKifatng the legs of a tired hotM. While etvty 
•ahugemeBt mbddes, sod tlio nninfui stiffaaaa dissfipoBrs, and the legs 
attain thmr nUnnl wnnolh. and Im-uroo fine, tho animal ia eridenUr and 
ngiidly rei-iving; benttncks bis food with a(ipelit(v <uid tbcs qnietiy be* 
down to rest. 



^■^ ^ MEBCISB. 

Oar otMerrntiona on this importAut bn^Doli of Htublc-manngnnciit tnnet 
bnvotOyk slight rvfermoe to the ngrimltDrsI Lorai'. lIis workis mmtilljr 
rtgnlar and not cxbiutiiUng. He is n<!ithcr pr^iiispniuiii lo ilisense hy iil]i>. 
new, aor worn out by eseenive exertion. lie. tiko his mnstor, hne cnongfa 
lo do b> kMp him in health, «aA uol eiuough to ilistrviiH »r injiim )uni : an 
tlw oontnnj, the rnfrnloritT of Iiin work prolongs life to an «xtoiil mroly 
witoeMed in the stable of txie ifviitk'mnn. Our ivmftrkH on rxc^rcJHc, then, 
■DU4 b*re * general bearinjif, or b&ve pHucijiiil refoiviicn to thom- persons 
wbo am in tfa* mHdIo RtntionH of life, and who oontrivu to kci-p a hone 
for bnnDeM or plnasure, bnt cwinot KiTord to tnnintnin a servniit for thw 
espn«* panxMC of lookinfc alWr il. Th« first rule we wonld lay dowii id, 
U»t erery norBo shoiiU hnvo daily exercise. The auimiLt ttmt, with the 
osokl ctoblo feeding, (tanda idle for thnx: or four days, as is tho caeo in 
ma^y wlaliluhnw.-nla, nitut aulTur. Ho ii pmUMpomid to forcr, or to 
pwwe. or, moat of all. lo diseases of the foot ; aud if, dftt-r three or fonr 
days of inactivity, he i« ridden far nnd fnet', h« is liable to have inflamua- 
tioD of tbo Inngs or of tbu foot. 

A eentleiniui or tnulcaman's horse sulTi-ra a fncai deal more fmm idln- 
I Uab ho does fh»n work. A at&ble-fed horse should buve two hours' 
t CTCTT day, if he in to bo kopt fVv« from disoase. Nothing of ex* 
mxj or even of ordinary lubnar can bo oSoctod on the road or in 
. willioat snffidcDt and rv^ilar excrciau. It is this tdnnc which 
Fftire enersj to the systtqn, or develop the powi^rs of any aiiiinal. 
How then » this esor«i«ti to bo givoo ? As mnrh ns poHBihlo by, or 
vaixr ttio snnrrintcndcooc) of, the owni-r. Thn cxtTreiKu ^von by thr 
tnom ia mnJy to be depended upon. It is inolheii^nt or it is extreme, 
(t is in many cases both irre^olar and injurioun. It in lit-'itntdimt apon 
fte caprioe of him who i« performing a tojik, aiid nho witl ruudrr thiit 
Ink mhnn-ricnt to his own pleSAun.' or purjWBe. 

In tr&imiiK tiie hnnter and tlie raoe-hori«o. rcgnlar ejcorciiw ia tbo most 
■npntint of all oonsidcrationa, howevrr it may he forgotten iii the nanat 
■MigHMint of the stable. The eien-isc-d horse will discharge his task, 
■IseBetiiDC* a seme one, with ease nud pleasoro ; whih idle nnd 
wiUeled one will b* fttigaod ere half his labour is acuompliBhi-d, unci, if 
k ia jnabed a EittJc too far, dnngL-rous inflammation will cnsn«. How 
■A^ affveKhelMs, does it happni, tliat the horse which baa stood inactive 
■ 4* stable thne or fonr days, in riddnn or drivm thirb^ or forty milns 
■ftswane of a singlo day I Thin rcjit i« (>fl<:n purpoeely giveu to pre- 
fn fin* sxtta-eiertion :— to lay in a stock of strvuffth for the perfomifvnce 
^the task reqniivd of him : and then the owner u snrprisea, and diua- 
^^ai if tbe Miimitl ia Rurly knockr<l up, or poHnility liccnmrs sl^^iously til. 
VoiUag ts BO common and so prvpoitLTOiis. aa for u percou to buy n horse 
&Wi a^saW's stahld, where ho has been idly fattening for nnlo for many 
ftdfty, and immediately lo grn him a lone run nncr the houmlB, ami then 
Is eoDplatn bitterly, and think that he hiuilwon imposed npoD, if the animal 

it asbaustcd bafiiva tlia end of the chaso, or is compelU^ to ho led home 
mSniag from riolt'Dt iufiammation. R«gular and gradually incronaing 
mfij r- i fit woiiU have made the same borsn apwar a treasam to bis owner. 
bcnise sliovld bo somewhat proportionptl to thn b«« of the hone. A 
fouigliatao reqnirea more than an old one. Katnre lias given to young 
fiifat»i» of Bttrj kind a disposition t/i nct.ivity ; bnt the eicrriwi mart not 
ba noknt^ A grMi deal doponds upon tht' manner in which it is gi^-en. 
To {ircaerre the tcmprr, and to promote bmiith, it idioald be moderato, at 



Itnst at tlic boginnmg lUitl tlio (nrminxtioii. The mpiJ trot, or eron lli« 

Sllon, Riny be rctwrtwJ to in the middio of the pjcrci*o, but the borae 
onld lx> brou^lil in cooT. If tbo owiicr woold acldom intraiit biR bono 
U> bojs, and would insist ob tho cxorcisia bcin^ tukeu within stj^tit, or in 
tbe neigbboarliood of bin roBidL-iice, tu&ar &□ acctdmt amd iircparablo in* 
inij vonld be avoided. It gbould l>o l)ic owner'* plrtLciiro, and it i« hia 
interost. persoBally to aftonrt to nil thmc thingn. He tniuiogcit cvtrr otlmr 
port of bis connrrn^ nntt be may deptrod oo it tliat he uaSvn Wticu lio 
ncglcicta, or ia in a nuiuiiur vsc)u<]i>d from, bia atabloe. 


Tbe ^jBtMB of mangcT-foediDi; is becoming general among fanoore. 
71i«re «« tsw hoTBM that do not bnbitnatly wMto a pnrtion of their h*y ; 
Knd br somo the grcBter part £■ polled down and tnmipUsI undc;r foot, in 
order firat to call we s«reet<at ana best locks, and wbioh could not be dona 
while the bay was inclosed in tbo rack. A good feeder will afterwards 
pick up much of that wbicli wiu thrown down; but aomo of it must ho 
eoitod and raukred disgnoting, and, in manjr coam, ooiythird of this divi- 
rion of tbeir food is waslvd. Some of tho oats and beans are imperfectly 
chowvd by all borso*, and scaivrly at all by bnngrr and greedy ones. Tbo 
^pcanmoe of Um dang will suflli'icntly crinco this. 

The obwrvXioD of tliis iuJuoed tbe aduplioo of mangold feodtng, or of 
nixing » portion of chaff with the com. Dy this means the soiouuM com- 

EUed to chew bis food ; he cannot, to any great dcgrm, waste the stow or 
y ; tlie chaff ia too bard and too almr]! to be swallowed without oou- 
adorable mastication, and, while be is fum-U to grind that down, the oata 
and bMtna an> ground with it, and yield more nourish uieiit ; the Btonukch 
is more slowly filled, and tlierolbre eofa bettor on il« oontenfa, and i> not 
so likely to he overloaded ; and the inereuAed quantity of aaliTB thrown 
ont iu the letigtheued mastication of the food, sonons tt, and nakee il 
moro fit for iligostioD. 

As Professor Stowart very properly rennarks, ' Uany hones swallow 
ihelr corn iu gnat haste, and when much is taten, that habit is exceedingly 
dangerous. Tho atoBiadi is filled— 4t is overloaded before it faaa time to 
make prepaiBtion for Ktiag on its contrnt« — tbe food fermmla, and pein* 
All or dangerou eolie enonea. By lulding chuff to his com, the horee mast 
tnko more timo to eat it, and time is given for the ooDunenoeinent of di- 
gestion, bofon fermentation con oconr. In this way ohnff ia Tory nsefid, 
especially after long fasta.' 

1£, wb«n oouiderablo prorender was waclMl, the hone maintained hta 
eondition, and w«a able to do his work, it wae evident that much might be 
saved to the fhrmer, when he adopted a Byvicm bj which the horw ate all 
that mw set before him ; and by- degrOM it was found oat, that even Ibod 
Bomewbat Ims nntritioos, bat a. great deal cheaper, and which the ba«aa 
dthcT would not cat, or would not properly grind down in its natontl state, 
might be sdded, wliilo tho animal would Ixi in (|nit« as good plight, and 
always ready for work. 

Chaff may bo composed of oqitnl qtumtitios of clover or meadow hay, 
and whcatcn, oaten, or bikrl<'y Ntmw, cat into piooM of a quarter or balf an 
inch in htugth, and mingled well to(,*<:tber ; tno allowance of oats or bcane 
is afterwards added, aiM nixeil with the chalT Uauy fiinnerH very mo- 
[inrljhrniii thii niitn nrtieini Tbo whole oat is apt (o slip out of tlie chaff 
and be lost; bnt when it is bniiaod, and ciqKx-ially if tho chaff is a littla 
wetted, it will not readily separate ; or, should a portion of it i-scapa the 
gtinden^ it will be partly prepared for digestion oy tbe act of bmiaing. 
Tbe pr^indioe against brniting tho oats is, so far as the Gumer's bocea, 




swl tke waggrm bone, and cmy homo of clow tlrau^Lt^ are coiicwnied, | 
allogellier Boluanded. Tlio r|uaiitily uf stmw in tha chftS'will always 
connlcnet any mppowd pargatitu ([lutlily in the bruLtiKl onU. HnmrH of 
qoickvr dnaght. oxoept ihcv aro aatnrally disposed to scour, will UirivD 
hnUBT with bmtaed tlum wiUt whole ontii ; for a gre«l«r qaantity of nutri- 
meat will be extmctcd from tha food, and it will alwavn ho onsy to apportiou 
ihe qnautity of slnw or tK^iift to the c^Tect of Uiu mijttaiv on thn bowcU 
of tho bono. Tfaff prinripnl alteration that should Ixi madu iu tlie horao 
of iMtrdar aad moiv mpid work, mr.h im l.hc jtnst-horso. is to incn.'ose tlio 
qnanlitr of liar, and dim in UK ihitt of Ktraw. Two triiwoB of bay may bo 
cut witli one of stiaw. 

Seme genUem«q), in dpRnnco of the prejudice and opposition of Iho 
'«»^"'"* or tbo groom, hnvo introilac;^^ this inodo of feeding into the 
atablca of tlieir carria^ huraro and hnokncyv, and wiUi manifcit ndnuitngv. 
TlieK has been no losa of couJititiu or puwiT, and (^uiiiudi)! nvtng of 
pn>v«nder. This system is not, howovor, calcnlated fur the hunter or thu 
tMXkliorae. Tlirir food mnst lid in smnJW bnllt, in order that tho acdon 
of flu: Ini^iH mar nut hn impudod by the distennoD of tJio stomncb ; yet 
■May hunten huvv KOue well over Iba fidd who liave bera munger-fiHl, 
lite pnoortion of com. however, being inateriaUy incremswL 

tvr u* agricnltaral and cart hone, oieht pounds of oats and two of beans 
diould bo addr<l (n c-vcrv tweiitr potutds of ohaff- 'I'hirty-fonr or thirty- 
nx pounds of tlte miituri) will ne saOIciiiMit for any modcnto-Hiind horm, 
with Cur, or even hard work. Tfao dray and wukKO" hoi'Ke may riH^nirc 
hrtf pounds. Hay in tlui nick at nigbt is, in this ease, suiiposcd to lie 
«nutlnl alloeethcT. Thnnu-k, however, maynTnain, nsoi^cAHionailyuiuifbl 
br the dick norM, or to cuntaiu t«n-e or other ktvcu meat. 

Hcnaea mn nry Caxui of this provender. Tlie majority of tbem, aft«r 
hMing been aocastomod to it, will leave the bent ont« ifiven to thrm iil(iiii\ 
far Um flake of thn mingled chnH' and euro. Wo would, bowui'irr, euutiim 
the bfinpr not to Hrl ujiart diunu;(ed hay for the manuracture of the chalT. 
He bnrvL- may be thus induced to eat that which he would othorwiso 
R&«e : bol if the nourishing property of the hay hut been impairml, or it 
tiM acquired an iiijnrions principliN tJic animal will cither Ifise condition, 
w bcoomo ili*ca«rd. Mnch more iujury is done by eating damaj^'d hay 
or mn«ty oata t htn is generally imngincid. There wilt bo stifGeient wiviug 
a the dtmiiualked cost of the nrovr^der by the introdnction of thn hi nivr, 
a^ ti>e iinprored condition ol the hunm, without poisoning him with the 
rrfUB of tne &mi. Por old hurse-i. aud for tlicsti with deroctivo t«eth, 
chaff is piiTiliariy uKeful, and for tbem the gnun should be broken down 
M well vi t1>l^ foddar. 

WliiU- the miitui« of chaff with thn com praventd it from being loo mpidiv 
doTonrcd and a portion of it swallowed whole, and therefore thu stomucn 
isaottoofeeded with that on whioh, as containing the most nutriment, its 
chiaf digestive power shoold bo es«riod, yet, on the whole, n groat deal of 
time ie gained Vf this mode of feeding, and more in left for rcatt. When a 
liene ooraee in wearied at tlio close of the day, it oeeupiett, atler he hns 
eaun his coro, two or tluv« liouni lo dear bin rack. On iho system or 
Miaa g w- feediag, the obalT being already cat into *ma11 pioco*, and the 
faewM ^"^ oata bruised, ho is able fiilly to mtiKtV bin iippetil« in tu3 hour 
and a half. Two additional honm are tbercfuro ilevoted to rost^ Thii is 
a ctmntstanoo deonrviog of much consideration even in tho fiirmcr'a 
•tabfe^ aad of immenHo eoiuie({ueiice lo the postmaster, and the owner of 
trtrj hard- worked horae. 

Ifai^er food will bo the nsoal support of the farmer's horse during tlie 
rtatar, aitd wbilo at coniitunt or owasioiiaJ hard work j but from tho 

s 3 



niddlo of Apnt lo the end of Juljr, he nukf be fed witb Uiia mixtnra in 
thd dhy Biul tnmtid ont at mf,'lit, or be maj remain out dnrioft every net- 
day. A. team in constant omploj shoold not, however, bo Boffercd to bo 
cnl at night after tbe ond of AagnM. 

The htngr ihonld tuko core thut the puturc ia thiclc and good ; and that 
the dulanoo tram Hm jard is not too K^«t, or tho fields too laixe, otlnTwiao 
■ veiy coDsidetable pMiion of time will bo occupied in cntcUii^g the Ikonea 
in the momin)*. He will likpwi»o have to take into consid<-iation the 
he woold have for hin har, and tlio neci^ty &>t *vrrvt and nntmddm »•• 
tare for hi« cattle. On thu wliole, however, turniag out in tJii» way, wimn 
uirannutaDCea wilt adniit of it, will be Ibnnd to bo niuro bencra'ial fur the 
horae, and cheaper than roiling in tht! yard. 

The hoiso of thn inferior &nni.-r ia iHuiictiinefl fed on hay or p-Mg alone, 
and the animal, aHlimiKli be rarely geta a fi-ed of coni, niaitituiiiK hinuu'lf 
in tol«ntl>lc ooiulition, and doca the work that is re(]uired of hiiii : but 
and grMBSlrae; however ^od in quality, or in whatever qoaniilyallowi 
will not mpport a horso nndpr hard work. Otli«r mbstanccs oon 
a larger proportion of nntrimcDt in a "wallw compaM, hare been 
Thi^ aliaJl be briefly enumerated, and an eetjmate formed of their oom- 
paratira i»la«. 

In alnwMt «rery part of Great Britain, Oats Iiavo been oclected as 
portion of the food which ia to afford tho principAl nouriidimcnt. Tl 
contain seven hondred and forty-three pArta oat of a thonaand of nntritiva 
matter. Thej shonld be about or w>inuwhat lem (hxa a yeur old, heavy, 
dry, and §we«t, pinmp, lmf;^ht in colour, and free from tinpleaaant luate or 
anull. Now oot« will weigh ten or fifWen per cent, more than old ones ; 
bnt tho diffcrronco conaiata priiwipally in wati^ mntlvr, which iagradnally 
araporuted. Xew oata an not ao readily jj^uud down liy tho teolli sa 
old onea. Tbey torm a more xlutinoua mat», diOlcult to digxat, and, when 
oaten in considerable qoautiliM, are aot to occasion colic and even ata<^ 
gvrs. If they arc to be nsod before tJicr arc from tJirro to five montJia 
olil, they would bo nial<<ri»lly impmred uy a little kiln-drying. There is 
no fisar for liie hortca frani nmpio dnring, if the coru wun good wbon it 
ma pat in the kiln. Tlie old oat wrma, wbra chewed, a smooth and 
aniforiD taaaa, which readily disaolvea in the stotnnch, and yields tlw 
nonrinfainent which it contains. Porhap* some chemical change may have 
been ilowly vflectcd in tho old nat, digpomng it ta ho more readily aanmi- 
lated. The musty aciuU of wcttol or damaged com ia prMiuced br 
Aingaa which grows upon the MOd, and th« deep rod (foi^) colour which 
soma eata poaaoM, is produced by CKOOMSTa ftrmentatioa m the rick, and 
ia both tbew: conditions they will have an injurious eRect on tho nrinaiy 
orgMU^ and often on the intotinm, proiIaciuK prufuae staling, inflanunaliaii 
of the Iddueya, colic, and iDflammaliou of the bowels. 

This masty smell is removed by- kiln-drpng the ont ; bat care ta bora 
rcqnisHa that too great a degree of heat is not omplnyrd. It ohnuld he 
sufficient to destroy tho fnn)rna wttiiont injariug the life of the wnl. 
Uany peraons. but witliout Just cause, ha*« eoMJiurable &»r of the kiln- 
bomt oat. It is said to pnxhice inHnRimatHn of the bladder, ami of tho 

rn, and miuigy affections of the skin. The foct is, that many of (be kiln. 
•d oabt that are given to horaca were damaged bcfijn they wrm dried, 
aiMl thus became onlMalthy. A CMiisidi'mblo improvetnent would be v(- 
laetad, by cultinff (ho untLresfaed oal-strnw into Gbair,and the expense of 
Utfcabing wonldlto saved. Oat-straw is better tluin that of barley, but 
doM not nmtain no much nntrimeut us that of wlicat. 

When tho horse is fed on hay and oat«i, tho (guantity of the oala moat W7 
whh hii >iao and tho worlc to bo porfbrmod. In wint«r, four feeds, or froni 


FOOD. 1^3 

ten to AvrtecD ponnda of oats in the dmy, wiU be a fair kllownnco for a 
borw of fiftMH tuuul* one or two idcImw high, and tli»t hiui modcmto 
woric. In HLBunBT, half thu aiuntdt^, with grcco food, will bo anOiotinit. 
ThoM who woric on Uie form nave Srom ten to foartooa poonds, and the 
hoBler bom twelve to nxteoi. There aro no efficient ttad lafo snbstitntes 
ibr good wis; bntt on th« contruy, wo are much icclini-d to bclievo that 
thav posMM as tnr^uniting prvjicrtj which in not found in olhcir food. 

OskDCal, in thu form of groel, cousUtnlcfl one of tbo most importaut 
artidca of diet for the nek norao — not, indeed, forced apon him, bat a 
pail Gootainiag it being tlnng in hi* box, and of which he wU! aoon Wipn 
to dnok when watvr ia dvoMsl. Few groom* tnako good gmcl ', it in 
eitlier noi boiled long eaongb, or a sufBoiuit quantity of oatmeal has mi't 
been oaed. The proportioos should bi\ a poond of miial tlirawn into a 
ipdlm of wator, luid kept conatantl}' etiirod nntil it boils, and fire iniuuU^ii 

Wbita-wat«r, niadu by etirrii^ a pint of oatmuol in a pail of wator, tho 
dnll being taken front it, ia an exceUent beverage for liio thirstgr and tirod 

Bailbt ta a common Ibod of tlic horse on Tarious ports of the Continent, 
and, mntil the intivdncUou of tlio oat, seems to bare constitntod almost his 
only fiiod. It is more nutritioaa than oaU, oontaining nino hundrad and 
twnitf parta of nntritire nialtor in every thousand. There ae«ma, how- 
ever, to DO •omething noocmaiy besides a great proportion of natritive 
matbo*, in ordur (o render any snbstanco whotcMEnc, strengthening, or 
fctmiing ; thcreforo it ia tliat, in many livnu-a that ara hanllv workod, 
aad, indeed, in hones gpn«r*]Ir, barley does not agroe with tLein so w<!ll 
a* oata. Thojr arc orourionaUy so^joct to inSiunmatorjr complalnta, and 
narticnlariT to snHiMt and maxum. 

Wben Mrley ia given, the qoaotJly should not exceed a pcuk daily. It 
dKmId alway* b» Ivwised, and the cboff should consist of equal quantities 
of ha^ and barlcj-stnw, and not cut too idiort. If tho fnnnor has a 
■jaaatity of spotti.'d or nnsaloible barloy that ku wishes thns to get nd of, 
ho maat reij gndutOj acoostom bis hones to it, or be will probably pro- 
doee Mtms Qnoaa wmoag tham. For horsos that are recort-ring Irom 
ilfauM^ bariay, in th« form of mnit, is often ncrviccable, as tompttag Ibe 
■|ipotHa and recmitin;; thL- ntrcn^'lh. It is best given in mnaliits — water, 
QonsidenUr b^w the boiling bi-at, beiug poured upon it, and tho vom.-I 
or pail kepi covered for half an hour. 

Onins frosh from the miuih-tab, either atone, or mixed with oata or 
chaS^ Or bolli, may be occauonaOy given to horses of slow dranght ; thoy 
woold, bowever, afford very iusamciecit noorishuicnt for horses of quicker 
or barier work. 

Waur is, in Qrcat Dntain, more nkrely given than bnrli>y. It contwns 
BIBB hnndred and fifty •five parte of nutritive idBttcr. When fiLrmors haro 
It dMnag^ed or nninarketable aaniple of wht-at, tlu-y sometime* give it to 
llMir boneSt and, bouig at fint nsod in small quantities, they beoomo ae- 
enatoinod to it, and thrim and work well ; it must, howovar, always be 
bniaed and given in cliitlT. WIi(.-at cuutniits a greater portion of gtutertf 
or ttidgr adbeaiTC maltL>r, than any otiier kind of grain. It is difficult of 
i]%ili)inii, and apt to cake and form obstmctions in the bowels. This will 
oftVHr bo tho caso if the honte is suffered to drink uin^ water soon aft«iF 
fcolinp apon wheat. 

Ti.WawiM»ti«ii of the bowola and feet, colic, and death, aixi occAaJonally 
the eoBM<qnenc« of eating any great quantity of wbcaL A borso that is 
tei on whoai sbonld have very little bay. The pruportion should not bo 
DWfV than one tmas of hay to two of Btntw. Wbcalen flour, boiled ia 



waXvt io tli« tliiclcims oT starch, is ^vcn witli good cScol in orcr-irarging, 
aad •qmdAUy if eombinod witb cshMk ntul u|itani. 

BuXi or too groniid bnsk of the wlu-al, useil U> bo freqaMkUf fp\na to 
Kick faorsM on Koowit of tli« mppoaedadTantagedcnvnirromitoiebuns 
tho bowel*. Then ia no doubt that it dnt« opoi^ )r'''*''7 ^i '^ tntaatuid 
ca^wl, and unsU in qnickcnini^ tlic |Ki«uL;ti! of iu contenta, vhen it is oo- 
easionjJ^ gircn ; but it mont uot bv a (xniatiuit, or oven tivqnent food. 
Mr. Kmcji utU-Dclcd Ibree milli at wfaieb manj hcnes were )c«i>t, aud tlicm 
were atirftj-H two or three CMOS of indif^cstian firam tho aocuninlaUon of 
bran or poUstd in Ut« large intj^tinm. Ilntn tnity, howCTCr, b« UMAi) as 
■a oocauona] aperient in tbc form of a nuuiti, but nnvr ilumld become » 
ngnlar nrtiflk- of food. 

Bkaxb.— Tbuse fonn a etHking illustration of tlw principle, tint tlw . 
DuuriahtBf; or Btrau;tii«iiing offmrt^ of tho difroroniariiclps of fooddopvnd 
mon> on some pocnliar property it hiob thoT (kuhi'sn, or eome combuiBtion 
which tbcj" form, (lian on tho eolual qtuuidlr of [mtriUvw matter. Bcsns 
contain Imt five handrod and mronty porU of uutrilire niatt«r, yet thojr 
add tuatfriftlly to the Tigoor of the horse. There are tnanj hor*(« that 
will not stand haid weak withoai beans being minf^nd with Uieir food, and 
these not horses whose tcndoney to pnrg« it may bo aeontigiuty to rostnun 
by the astringmoT of the bean. There ia do trardlur who in not awnre of 
tJi« differaaw in UM spirit and eontinnaiioe of his horao wli«tli«r h^ allow* 
or dvnios him boons on his joarncy. 1'bcy aflbirl not manly a temporary 
BtiinnJnH, but they maybe daily used withont losing iJiAtr power, or pn> 
dnoinfi exhaiutioo. Th«y are indispouaable to the hard-worked tXMu-h 
hone. Waahy horara oould never got through their work wilhoot them ; 
and old horses woold ofl«n sink under tho task imposed npon du'm. They 
sbovld not be given to the honws whohi or split, bnt cmsbcd. This will 
Ruiko a material difference in the quantity or notHnuiat tlint will bo ex- 
tracted. They are satnelimca given to tnrf lioraea, but only as an occa- 
■iottal stimolant. Two poomls of beans may, with advaniaf{L>. Im mixed 
with the chaff of the aKrii-ultntwl home, daring the winter. Iu snmnivr 
tb<^ ^Buntity of beans should be leaseaed, or they slwald bo altocirther dis- 
euutinned. Beans are gMMnlly givsn whole. This ia vny abmtd ; fiir 
the TOang horve, whose teeth am strong, iieldom reqnires th«-ui ; while the 
old honie, to whom they ai« in a manner netHauuuy, is scarmly able Lo 
wisstiinUi- (h«n, swallows many of theon whole wliioh he is nnahle to liniak, i 
aad drops mneh iHirn from liis mouth in the ineSbotoal attempt to cnidi ' 
them. Ikxnit iiluiald not bo m<T(dy iiplil, Imt crushed; they wiUev'^lheal 
give snSBoiout uinplormeat to tbu Bnndcra of tho aninuu. Some post- ' 
aaslem ue obaff wita beau instead of oats. With hardly-worked horves , 
they nay possiUy be allowed ; ba*, ta goooinl cases, bettna, wiUioat oats, 
woud be too binding and sttmnlating, and would produce fnnliif iirsi.siid 
probahly mofrrims or staggers 

BwtivH iliould be at least a twcl wmuolb old larfom they nn> given to tha ] 
horse, and should be plomp, and carefully preserved from damp and 
mooldiiiess, whiHi at Inwt di^>gnst the Itorse if lhi<y do no other narni, 
and buboer an imtect that dostrors tlie inner part of the bean. 

The straw of the bcaa ik nntritave and whotr-eome, and is usually giveni 
to the horses. Its nntritivo propaiiies ara snppotwd to be little inienor U> 
those of oats. 

Pus MO occasionally ghm- Thov appear lo be in a slwht degree 

aoniMluiig than beaoa, and not so neating. They oootatn five ban 

mni soventy-fbar parts of nnlritive maUi<r. For horees of slow weak th^^ 
may be nsed ; but tho quantity of chaff iluiold bo increased, and a few 
«als added. They hare not boon found lo au»wvr with hoises of qviek 



dmq^A. It ia MMntial Ifaat they ofaoold bo cnuhod ; utlicrwiee, on ach 
eoaBtoTtlwirirlotiQlw ronn, th^j ara mpt totHKApc from tbo U-cth, und 
amaj an twiiUawed wbotc. Kxpoacd to vrarmth luid uiuiHtuiti in tho 
i tapf li, tbej Kwell coiuudi-Tulilv, iind mnir pninfnllv nad iuorioualj <lix- 
tnd Ik The peaa that are given to boi-ai^H nboald bn aonita, and al least 
ft twidrtraoath old. 

Ib kibm) nortbem oonntrics pca-mcal is frequently nmx), not only aa an 
^wjmIUw* tood Cor tlw bone^ Iml aa a remody for diabetcg. 

^*»— " ia aoo>e4imea ciren to uctc bonns — ran', groDtid, and bmled. 
It ia aiippoaed to be nsenal in cases of catarrh. Mr. Black, vrtnrinnr/ 
M iM O U of the 14th Dnwoona, mya, that aagar was tried aa an nriietc of 
food daring iho PcninanSir War. Ton hnrscv were sclwlcd, nacli of whiok 
got 8 Iba. a day at IbiimtionB. Tb^ took it very irndiiy. and their coata 
became fliw, Braootb, and gloasy. They gut no corn, lind only 7 iba. of 
hay, nutood of the ofdinaijr allowance, which is 12 Ibii. The sugn^r W!L-roi.'d 
to anpplj the pbicr of the oom m well, that it would have been probably 
giren abroad : bot [kscu came, and the rirctunstaooos that rondored the 
■ae of Mnr for oom dcdmble ocoecd, and tliu Iiotma rotnmcil to Ibpir 
vsoal dJM. TLat the sn^ir might ool be apprui>riatcd to other purpospit 
ii waa rivhily ficcntiil with aasafaitids, wtuch did not produce any ap* 
|«f«itt eScct upon thmi. 

Herbage, K^tvn aod dry, coofititotea a princiraJjpart of the food of the 
hone. Then* are few Ihinga with rofrord to which the farmer is so cure* 
}tw» u the ndnare cf gntitt on both his upland and meadow pasture. 
Haaea wa find, in the Manu field, lh« ray-fn'aaa, coming to perfection only 
in a loainr soil, not fit to cnt until thn tniddin nr tnttiT nurt of July, and 
yielding little aftennath ; the meadow foi-tsul, Ktrt euttivatcid in a clayey 
atnl, fit for the scythe in the beginniu;,' of June, iwd yielding a plentiful 
aflermath ; the glaucoas feecae-KraM;, rondy at tbn iniddte i^ June, and 
rmpidly detcnovuting in mine an ila scwla ripen | and the fertile uii-oiiovr- 
miM, larreesing iu valne until the end of July. Tliese are cirenni stances 
U»e inmortaDce of winch will, at uo distant period, bo ns^ngnincd. In the 
mnaiitinw. Sinclair's account of Iho diflVrrnt gnuvci', or tho condensation 
of the moat important pait of his work in Sir Humphry Davy'M Agrioul- 
twal Chomuitry, or Low's Elements of Practical Ajj^culture, are well 
ili'eeiiiim of the diligent perusal of the farmer. 

H^ ie most in neriVccion wbon it is aliout a twelv«month old. The 
boasa perfai^is would prefer it vorliLT, but it is neither no wboluiome nor 
ao oatrilire, and oHen has a purgative quality. When it ia about a year 
old, it rctaina, or dMmld retain. soniowbatofit« green colour, itaagreeabla 
sauU| and ila pleasant IojiIcl It hna undergone the slow prooon of fei^ 
■wntetMn, br which the sqr^ wliicli it ountaius is dm-cloped, and ita 
DDtHtire qusJity is fully cxerrised. Old hay beoomea dry and tastdeM, 
and ioantritivB and uuRholrHomc. After tno gnaa is cut, and the hay 
■(■dud, a alight di-grec of funaentatiun takes pUce in it. This is noces- 
aaij far the dirrrlupiniMit of the Bacch»riuo principle ; but oncosionolly it 
pavoBodt too £u- and the hay becomm movifrum', in which idate it is injuri. 
oBM, flr CTVo poisODona. The horee soon showa the eF»et wliioh it has npon 
him. He hae dinbatcK to a conniderable degroO — he bevonie* hidebtmnd-- 
his etmgth is wasted— hi* thirat ia exoesamvend ho is almost worthlnu). 

Vlisretheityttcmof mati;;er-foeding is not adupU-d, or where hay is still 
■Uvwcd at night, and choiT and mm in the day. tliero m no error into 
whdd the farrarris so apt t')faU as to give an nndue ([uantity oflwy, and 
that gmcrnilly vf the wont kind. If the mnngcr-iiyittem is good, tliero can 
tat BO iwownty fur hay. or only for a amoll quantity of it ; but if the rack 
ia Offerlosdod, tbo greedy horto will be eating all night, instead of taking 



his rest — irhca tbe time for th« morDm? f>^ arrivM, bin atoinacb will Ixt 
■Ireadj fiUexl, and he will bo 1m« oapabb of work from tfae vraiit of alii.-})^ 
nnd from the long-oontiniMxl diitensioii of the stomach rcndcnng it iiuims. 
iiihln for tho food to bo properly digested. 

or tliu voluo of Tares, as forming a portion of lh« lutv Kpring (md iiniii- 
BUr food of tho stsbled and aericnltnrHl liorae, there cau be uo donbt. 
iniOT are cut aftw the pods arc formed, but a connderablo time before ilia 
tcrja arc ripe. Thi-_v supply a l&rjifpr qnnntity of food for » limitod tinw 
tliaii aliiioet any otlior forago-crop. TIir Vida milivii in the most profitkbta 
Tariff of tho tJirr. It in TDry nutriiive, aod acta a^ a j^utlu apiri-i<Ttit. 
When unrfeit-lamiu »j>pRU' on tho akin, and Iho borne begins to rub him- 
self BRkiiul the divisiuufl of tlie stall, and ttici Icgn nwcll, nnd Ibo beeli 
threaten to crsck, % few tares, cnt itii with tho fhuff, or given iniitond of) 
portion of the hnv, will afford wiiiiiiucmblo reUet Ten or twelve pooinrfs 
tn»y be allowed cli^Iy, and half that wi-i(,'ht of hay sobtracted. It is ft 
erroneous notion, that, g-Iven in inodei'»t<' (jnantitice, they oithor 
tli« coat or lessen tho CApnbilitf for hard work. 

Bn OuiUi nffordii & valnnblc article of food, htit i» inferior to the Iatci. 
It is not Mu nutritive. It it) apt to scour and, oeoasiou&Uy, and late in tbtt 
Bprinff, it has appeared to be ii^orioas to the horse. 

CLOTEit, for Fading tho bono, is infcnor to the tim) and the tjx> gnus, 
bat DoTcrthclciui ut ucAil when th^ cannot be obtained. CIotlt hay in, 
p«rhapa, pr«feruhlt> to meadow hay kr chaff. It will aometimee tempt tba 
sick horse, and may be given with adntDtsge to thoio of »Iow and oM^ 
work ; bot ciulom sootna properly (o havo forbidden it to tho faaDt«r and 
the haokney. 

LccERU, where it mn be obtiuned, in preferable even to t&res, and SjiiK- 
roix is superior to lucem. Although (hoy contain but a sinnll quantity 
of nutritive matter, it is easily digi-Htod, and perfectly aiwimiUtcd. Th^j 
•pMilily put both moMite and fat <m the hurtie that is worn down by labotuy| 
and they are abnoit a Bpeeifio for bide-boond. Somefanncis have thuughfi 
BO highly of Inoem as to mbstitiita it for ont«. This nay bo allowablo for 
Ihn agriciiltntal honw of itow ai;d not acvfro work, bnt ho from whom 
s{)WHlicr action iii somrlimc-s re<inired, and the horee of all work, must haro 
a OTOportion of hftrd moat within him. 

Tit SwKDisn TcBJiiF in an article of food Iho vnlne of which ha« not 
been anffidently appreciated, and particnlarly for ngricnltural borsoa. A 
tfaoDgfa it is far trma oontainioK the qnantlty of nntritire malt«r wluc 
has been supposed, that which it haAxccmn to be capable of easy and con^' 
nlets digealioo. It ■Iwnld he kUi;'!^ with r.hopped straw, and witboitt hay. 
It qiucl3yfkUeD8thehor«e. and producM a smooth gloaity coat iind alooao 
skin. It will bo good pimctico to give it once in tho day, and that at n^it 
when the work in done 

Carbots. — The rirtoM of this mot arc not cnfficivntly known, whether 
as oonlHbuting to the strength and inidunuicc of the wonnd horxc, or lh*J 
rapid reooveiy of the sick one. To tlie healtliy horse they should ho girmf 
sliced in his chaff. Haifa bnfihcl will he » large daily allowance. Then 
is littlo prorcndiTr of which the honw is fundt-r. 1'nc following account 
of the value of the carrot is not exaggerated in Stowart in hut Stafala 
Koonomj. 'This root is held in much esteem. There is noae better, nor 
perh^aao good. When first givMi it is iiiighily dinretic and fauatrrc) 
Dul as the norao bcannes acoustomed to it tlicMi effRots ctaao to be pn>> 
duMd. They also improve tho state ofthe skin. They fonn a good sub. 
fltit(it« for (rnuu^ and ao cxcellont idteralive for horse* out of cODditioa.., 
To siok and idtc lionm they n-udiT com unnivnunry. They are bcoefic 
is all chraojo dJaeaiiL-a Mmnoctod with breathing, and bare a BMrite 




Mocace apon dirouic coagh ftod bfokt-D mnd. TVr orv E^rviotsble in 
lliBt— M of lb* aidn. And in combination with otda Uioy restore & work 
hone nacb sooiwr tluui oats iklonc.' 

PoTftion han been givm, »od «!tJi ndruitM;o, in thfitr nw etat«, iili«nl 
wilh tbo ch*ff ; bot, wluitv it baa bvL-u eonvenicBt to boil or Bt«*ui ihtm, 
fbc boooAt bas beeo &r mora evideuL PorKuifc Ium tbcn nmiy cavned. 
SoDM h&v* gmo boiled potatom ftkmc. and homos, iaNt««d of r^octing 
tfacm, hftvo •oon preferrvd thorn even to tfa* o*t ; bnt it ia belter to r»^ix 
tbetn witli tlw Banal nungor feed, in tlic [iropartion of one poBnd of potatoes, 
to two and a half poonda of lbs other in^indieDtti. Tbo lutc of Iho potatoe 
noat depend on ila chnpiMas, and the wciliir for boiling it. Half adoasn 
bona* would aooD repa^ the cxpnuc of a atMninr botier in the aaving of 
pgoTcaider, witbotit taking; tnto the acooant their nupvoTed cooditton aiul 
BMfMhij for wotk. Prdiusaar Loir saj-s that 15 Iba. of pototors pold as 
much aoiuiahDMiit aa four poonda and a half of oota. Von Thayer mworts 
that three bushels ai« aqtwl to Hi lbs. of hay, and Carurcn,* who tried 
pofatoca fatcnuiTiJj in the feeding of borsea, aan that an acre f;Qix tm &ir 
■a foor ncmt of Lay. A faorae fed on potatoes b1i«i1H havo hia qoanti^ of 
wster materially cortailed. 

Ftra ba« aomotifnM been giron during the winter montha. There is 
eoaaUUnblo troable attending the pnrpantdon of it, althoa^ih it« ploi- 
tifUnaae and little raloo for other purposes would, on a large Cnna, wdl 
r^i^ that trouble. The tone b oat down at ubiiiit tliree or fear years* 
growtb ; tbe greeu branches of that and the pn-ovding yi<ar are bruiMd In 
a mU, and then given to tbo horeea in the state in which they oomo &oni 
a* Bdn, or cot np with the ohalf, Horsca arc vrry fond of it. If tweot j 
p'imdf of the funio are given, fire ponnda of atnw, the beana, and threo 
ponnda oC the <Ma, may be withdrawn. 

It mt^ not be uninteresting to oonclade thin catiOogiie of the diifonat 

artklea of horse-food with a ust of the qnantttic* of nutritive matter onot- 

tarasd is each of theni; for atthonghthMu quAutitii.ii cannot be eonaidaicd 

■saxRvaai]^ the aetnal value of eat-b. Umtsum.' other circumstanoeabeeidea 

the ample ^joantity of nntrimoat eocin to iiiilumoc their cA^ in anppdrt* 

big fte abrsngth wid condition of the hontc, yi-t tnanj^ a osofnl hint naj 

ba itaii^wl wun the bnner looks over the prulucc »f bi> noil, and inquires 

wba4 other ri seats or vegetables nuKht suit liia l&od. Tbe list is partly 

tafcea Ikra Sir Humphry Davy's Agricaltnial Chemistry : — 1,000 parim of 

«hMt contain 955 part* of natntirc Rmtbrr ; bsriey, 930 ; oats, 743 ; peu, 

Wi: beans, 570 ; potatoes, 230 ; red U-«t, 148 ; paraiips, 99 ; carrots, 98. 

OC ike greats, l.OiX) parts of tbe meadow cat'a-tail contain, at the time of 

■tAi|^ 98 parts of nntritire matter ; narrow-leaved meadow gnuts in 

wd, aptd swest-aoeotdd soft giaaa in flower, 95 ; narrow-leaved and fiat- 

<*dliid maadow grs<a in ilowcr, fertile meadow gru«a in ih«H, and IaIJ 

(■(«• in Sower, 9S; fertile meadow grass, meadow fobcue, r««U-lii:vf<.'»cn(-, 

*>' cneping soA gnwu in flowor, 78 ; swect-eceoted aoft grass in Howor, 

1*4 lbs aft«nnatb, 77; fiorin, cut in Llio winter, 7(>; talllrsctio, in tho 

■Aaaatb, snd mcaduw soA Rnw in fiower, 74 ; cabbage, 73 ; cresu^d 

^(.tsQ and brome when Sowering, 71; yellow oat, in Bower, 66; 

B*(dish toruips, 64; narrow- IcnTtnl mrfwlow t^nn, crcpiiig beet, round- 

^Mded eochafbot, and iqnknl f(«(;ue^ :>9 ; roughish an J fertUe meadow 

Bowrrinp, ^0 ; fiorin, in summer, 54 ; common turnips, 42 ; aain- 

, aad broad-kaved and long-rooted clover, S9 ; white clover, 33 ; and 


I times of feeding sbonid be aa oqnally divided as oonventcnee will 

t; and when it i» likely that the hone will be kept longer Ifaaansoal 

V^varisblj be takeo. Tbe amaU i 



of tli« liono IN amptiod in n tuw buurit ; &tid if he is anffurod (o renaiit 
bnngiy tnneli bejond his aocvstomcd time, ho irill nnorimnlM dcvonr his 
food SQ TonciouUf u b> distend tha stonmrh und dulMigur un uttaolc of 
atagS'en. Wbrn thii> tlinnuii! A.iipc»r« iu tiut fiumur's stalile, he nuj 
littnbato H ta vtmunit cuuam ; iiw true one, iu Lli« uu^ority of inslanns, 
in imvidiuaijr in ftM^diiiK- When extra work is rpqnirca fram tbo Bniiunl, 
the sjatcm of manaf^moot is oi\iMi injndidoDO, Inr » dmiblt* fL<cd i« pst 
before him, wnd b« soon u hn luis GwiUlowcd it lie ia Hlart«d. It woulii bn 
br botlcr to give bim n duubU- feed oii Uic pmriona oToning, wbicb would 
be diaiMtai before be is wanted, and then he might sot ont in the mom- 
iDf; aiWr a T«rj small portion of com haa bocn eivm to him, or perhnps 
oiil;- n littlo hay. Odd of the taost snccc^sfut mctuoda of enabling n horw: 
to tfrt well throuEcb n lung jounicy ia to give liiin onlj' a lilUe at a timu 
while on tlio loud, luid ul iii;;lit lo iiiilul(^ liirn with a donble food of ooru 
and a foil allowance of beans. 

WiTM. — ThiN lA It part of dnblo moDagnncnt littlo rognnlnd bj tho 
bimcr. He U.-ta hin }ii)r>H.-n Iooihi muniing mid uight, and tbu}' (,■« tu Ihn 
BcuMt poud or bro(^ and driuk t)it-ir fill, aud no liann results, for ihcj 
obttin tliat kind of wstor whic-b nnturo dongned them to bttTe, in » 
MWDSor pnnMircd for thi'io hy Kome unknown iiiflu<iDce of the almoepben^ 
aa wdl aa far the dopa«ition of nuuij wdine ftdmuclarMi. The diArenoo 
between htm and sofl water is koowa to ercryone. !□ liard water aoop 
will curdle, regetables will not boil aoft* attd tho sacclinrine matter of Uio 
mnlt oannot bi^ liill; obtained in the pTOCeH of brewing. There is notliing 
in irhicli the difiinvnt eSiiCt of hard and soft water ia ku rvittrnt iu> in tlto 
stomavh and di|{e>tive o»acs of tho hone. Hard water, drawn fn-^h 
from tJie well, wUl aAsmvdly make the ccuil of a horse uiiaocustoiued to it 
atatD, and it will not nnfrcqnrntlif gripe and othrrwino injure him. lu- 
stinct or cotporipnce has mnde trt-cn tho borwo himself oonncioiui of ihif, 
for he will nenr drink bard water if he ban accoca tu nofl, and he will 
leave the most tnuDsparent and piire water of tho well for a river, alllioagh 
tha stream may be turbid, nnil ereo for tJie muddiest pool. 

Some trainera have so mnr.b r<«r of hard or Ftrangc wntds*, that tboj 
cany with them to the diffcreet courses Uie whIlt tlu>t tha anioHd haa 
brm rwxmstnmrd to drink, and that whic^ they know of^reee with iL 

He in injanxl, howorcr, not so much by tlto hardness of the well-water 
as bj ita coldneoB — purticubirly by ila ooldnnui in sommer, and when it is 
many decrees below (he tempetatore of the atmospberv. The water in 
the brook and tlie pond being warmod by long exposure to the air, as well 
as luving become soA, the horm tbinka freely of it without danger. 

If the horse were watered ihroo timea a day, and ospoeially in tmrnmar, 
he would oftoD be Baved from the sad tortoie ef thirrt, and from many a 
dia w so. Whoever has obsorved t-he (•geniesa willi nliieh Ibe over-workMl 
bone^ hot and tited, plnngca his tnnutu into tha pail, and the difficulty of 
slopping liiin until hv )iaa dnined the last droj^ may form soum idea of 
wliat he had prciioosly suffered, and will not wonder at the viokict 
cpiiKmi, nnd inflammntion, and Knildcn death, that often rMultd 

Then- i» a prejudice in the mindH itf mnnr pentoos against the bona 
bi-ing fairly ftopplii-d with wat^r. Thi'y thitiK that it injures his wtad, 
sitd disaUca him for quick and hard a-ork. If ho is galloped, na he too 
oden IS) itmnedtately after drinking, his wind may be irrepatably injared -, 
but if he were oRoneT suflrrcd to satiate hii thirst at the mter^ls of real, 
ha would he buppjer and bettur. It is a furt anKii,FpM-t4^ by thoiw who 
hare not rar^fully observed the horse, that if lie hits frnqooat aonma to 
water be vrill not drink so much in tho ronne of the day, aa aaothor will 
do, who, to oDol hia parched month, swalkiws as fast aa lie can, and know* 
tiot when to stofi^ 



K jonnu^, B bvne «lioDld be Ubrrttlty sopntird vrilli wnlpr. Wheoi lie 
~ti a bttie ooojed, two or three cjnarbi maj be givrii Ui him, luul after ttuU, 
kU find. Before he baa fiuioliM hu com two or llirtw quurtu moro mny 
b« cAnd. Ua w31 tAko no barm if this is rapcated three or four ilnm 
il i n'ifg ■ Ions *od hot d*v. 

It u ft jadtcioiu rule with IrftvellerM, that wIkd ft lionic Iw^iut to refuse 
hi* food, lie ohoold be pnsLed no farther that dajr. It may, lionc\-tr, bo 
wortk wiiila to try wht^Jior tJiis doe* not prooeed front Uuret, as uiuch an 
from cxlmutioii, for in many inxtnnccs his appettto and his spirits will 
i«tain BOOB after be luta partaken of the ntfrvaliing diftnght. 



«ra K> many thoiuand itpccica of liring bcrinea, »onio so much 
ibling eftch other, and othen ao atranf^y nud altognthor difTurvnt, 
thfti H vonld hftre been impoasible to bave arran^^d iliem in any unlcr, 
or to hava g^vco any dwcripitton tbnt coaUl bo nnderstood, had not 
BatVftliata a^n<rd on certain p«cnliarittea of form which should cha> 
ructtnaa ecrfftin claaaeti, auil otoer leoaer peculiariticH again aubdividii^ 
thmc dwtn. 

Th« first dinsiod of animals ia into wrUbnUd and mvertebrated, 
VmMfnlnd aaimab are thoao whii^ hftve ft enoniuiTi, or bonjr cnritj 
omtfttBing tha fanin, and a ancoeenon of bones osllcd the tpinv, and tbtt 
divMoaa ot it named wiUbnr, proceeding from the cmnium , and contamiiitj 
a prolongation of tbp Inain, dt^ominntoa tho rpinal marrmo. 
tmtvtgbraltd BtiiiaBli> are lho!ti> wUiob bnvo no Tort«1)r». 
The lioise, thru, hvl'iuga to tho Jk-ixiim ctrlebraUd, because he has a 
aanhun or aknll, and a fjiioe or laoffo of vertcbna procoadine from it. 

The Tsrt«braiod onimali an! cxocndingly nnmoran*. Tiuy tncjndo man, 
^oadrvpoda of all kiniLt, birdii, &thei^ and nutiiy reptikii. Wo natarally 
took lor mmte aubdiTiuon, and a very aimiile line of dlatincUon ia souu 
priwated. Certain of thexi v«rtebrMed animals l>»vo mamma or taata, 
with whiob the female anoklo their vanng. Tlio human fomnlo has two. 
Ilia Ban has two, the cow four, Ui« bitch t«u or twcJre, aui! the aow more 

Tins cUm of rcrtahratcd unimala baring mammm or ti-Atti in called 
wi^walhs ; and the faorsa behmgt to the cliviiiiou ivricbrala, luid the claw 
a i iftal M . 

nadaa mammalia is still exceedingly large, and we most again sub- 
JHi^it. It in KtatiHt (r,dbraiy of Entcrtiiining Knnwlrdg(\ vnl. i. p. 13) 
Ait ' this cbuM of quadrupeds, or niammifuroiui quadrupt-'dK, admtta of a 
*nw>n into two Tnitw. 

'I TLoae whoao c-xln-mitics an divided into Gngoia or toen, seifRti. 
'otf called an^uiftilalii, from the Latiu word for nail ; and EI. Thoao 
*W cxtrvmiti«s are hoofed, edenlifically called wn^uIaCo, from the I^ntin 
■art fiw biyif. 

'TLe cxtrpmitics of iIm.' first are amnjd with claws or naila, which 
liUu tbrm to grasp, lu cliinh, or to burrow. Tli« oxtromitica of tbe 
''Rnd tribe an emplojed merely lo sapport and move tlin hudv.* 

The MtP M HtMntt c^ the horao ai-c corrrrd with a hoof by which tho body 
>■ (opparied. and with whkh hi? cannot grasp anything, and tltcrvfbne be 
Wm^ to ti^ trii« untftttaia or hooftd. 
Bat Oun is a great rarioty of hoofod animalN. The elephant, tl\a 



rbinoctiroH, ti\f hippiipotamux, thv sirino, tko liontc, tUo Nh<H']t, tlio dtcr, 
uul many otIicrN, mv ungtiinUil or hoo/ed; Hv-y iwlniit, biin-i-vrrr, of an 
eeary divUiou. Somo of Uicui tiuutioatc, or cbew their food, ami it ia im* 
llM>atat«ly T«K>oivctl into tli« stomach and dif^ted ; hot in otla-r* iho food, 
pn<T>ouB to digratioti, undergoes a very Htognlar process. It U n-tnrnod 
to the mouth to bo rcmiuilicatcd, or chewed n^'ain. Tlicae arv callixt 
ruminattia, or mini'rutnif, froDi tho food being rctnrtiod from one uf tbo 
stomachs (for they bare foar).caJlod thu rutwn nr paunch, for the puqioiw 
of remasticntinn. 

The ungulala that do not rurainat*! an% Homcwhat immnpcrlv, caUasl 
jpa^tudermaitt, from tbo thickucKS of tbcir Kkin*. Tbr bono does not 
rmmnato, and tborvfuru b<?loug!J to the vnler jmchijdennala. 

Tbv pnchyJiToialii who liave only one toe belouK to Ibc famili/ >ioiip«da 
— ^inale./odftvf. Tlierefore tlie horse ranks nnder the divinion rortobiata — 
tlio cfatsft mammalia— 4be tribe un^lnt^— the order (lachydorinata — and 
the Cunitj solipeda. 

The solipe«la oonast of several tpetuM, as the liorae, the aau, the maiet 
and theqnagga. 

Knt Maiulo the Kqcijs Cuiallvs, or Coxuo!! lIuRse. 

Animala are likewiMt diatJnguinbed according to the number, deacri|^ 
tiou, and idtoation of their teeth. Th« horse has aix innnort or et^ima 
to«tb in the front of each jaw ) and ono oxnine tooth or iiuk. 

On cnvb jiide, above and bulow- — at sDmo distance from tho incisan, 
and liobind the canines, and with some inUirvoning spac«^~are six molor 
toctb, or grinders; and those molar t«eth have flat crowns, with ridge* <rf 
cnantitl, and ibnt enamel penetrating into the anbiitanco of the tooth. 

The whole is tbtis repnnent«d by natural hiittorians: — 

Horee.^ — Incisora -;. caninu» ,^|. molar -^—,. Total, for^ t«etli. 

« Tbrfe ^ w n r nwaillsfy er aadN jaw. 


i Tlie ■operior mszilluy or npper jaw. A little Imrec down than Ihe lettar i« n ftiramoi, 
Ihraogli which paai the Darvss sod blood-Tesseli which chiefly luppl; the lovat 
put ^ the bee. 

t Tba raUt, or cavity contaiiiiDg ths Kja. 

d The nanl hones, or bones of the aoan. 

t Tb4 intnn dividing the parietal bones below frum the oodptal bones abon. 

/ The infsrior mojillary bone, contflining the upper incisor teeth. 

B ^e Serea Cerrical Tertebne, or bones of the neck. 

C The Eighteen Dorsal Venebm. or bonea of the back. 

D The Six Lumbar Vertebne, or bones of the loins. 

£ The Five Sacral Vertebne, or bones of the hannch. 

F The Caudal VertehrEc, or bones of the tail, geneisUy about flftsen. 

The Scapula, or Bhonldei--blade. 

H The Steranm, or foropart of the cbest 

1 The Costs or ribs, eight ardculacing vith the stemnm, and called the trvt ribi, and 

ten onited together b; cartilage, called Iha/aite ribl. 
J The Humerus, or upper bona of the arm. 
K The Radius, or bone of the fore-arm. 

L The tTloa, or elbow. The point of the elbow is called the OleoonoD. 
M The Carpus or knee, consisting of seceD bones. 
N The metacarpal boses. The larger melacarpol or cannon or shank in front, and the 

smaller metacarpal or apliot bope behind. 
y The paatem, con anting of the O9 Suffrsgiuis, or the upper and larger psotem bone, 

with the sesamoid bones behind, articuladng with the coddod and grsBter 

postern ; A, the Os Coronse, or lesser pontern ; t, the Os Pedis or coffin bone, 

and the Os Navicular, or navii^Qlar, or ahuttle-boDe, not seen, and articulating 

with the gmalJer pastern and coffin bones. 
ff Hi The corresponding bones of the hind-feet. 

The Haunch, ooosiBtiDg of three portions, the Iliaio, the Ischiam, sad the Pubis. 
V The Femur or thigh. 
Q The stiflejoint with the Patella. 

R The Tibia or [ooper leg-bone — behind is a small bone called the fibula. 
B The Tsrsns or hock, composed of ax bones. The promineDt part is the Os CaLas, or 

point of the hock. 
T The Metatarsals of the hind leg. 


Having finished the deacriptioii of ihe skeleton, it mar now be desiiA- 
lle to give the more important of the mnscles bj which they are acted 
<m ; this description, however, mnst be a very general <me, and will be 
limited t« the first hiyer of moBcles, or those found immediately under the 
sidn, on wbich, however, the shape and power of the SJiimal, to a very 
considerable degree, depends ; one plate will be sufficient to delineate 
these, and its descriptiou will include all that is necessary for the general 
reader to be acqn^nted with. 

1. Levator Angliosis, is a portion of the paniculus camosoB converpng 
towards the angle of the month, which it retracts or draws back. 2. 
Retractor Lahii Saperunis, arises from the superior portion of the mazil- 
laiy bone, and is inserted into the upper part of the angle of the mouth, 
wluch it draws on one side. 8. Levator Lahii SitperiorU alaqtte Nan, 
arises from the junction of the lachiymal, nasal, and superior maxillary 
bones, and divides into two parts, one inserted in the lateral part of the 
nostril, and the other into the upper and lateral part of flie lip ; its actioa 
is to raise the lip and dilate the nostril. 

4. Zygomatics, arises from the zygomatic ridge, and is also inserted 
into the angle of the month, which it retracts. 5. Oanimit is a penniform 
muscle r the superior portion arises from the superior maztUaiy bone, a 
littb above the upper canine tooth ; the lower from the posterior maxil- 
lary, just below the lower canine tooth ; the two meet .each other in the 
space between the upper and lower jaw ; it« use is to compress the cheeks. 
6. BiKcinalor arises from the superior and inferior maxillary bones, from 
just above and below the edges of the alveolar sockets, a little posterior ta 


the last molar tooth— ia inBCrted in the corner of the month, and amistii 
tJio tongue in moving abont the pellet of food in the act of mastication. 
7. Retractor Labii hijerwria &nsc8 from the lower jaw, aa lar back u 

the last molar tooth, whcro it becomes blended n-ith the orbicataris ons, 
and is inserted into the inferior part of the lower lip, which it retracts. 
8. 6. Punuieuiiu Cnmo»n», a portion of a thin niuKcle xprcad orer the head, 
neck, and body, to cormgatc the skin whi'n irritiitt-d, as a compensation 
for the want of hands. 9. Orbicularig Falpehrani, sniToniidB tie anrfitoe 
of the eyelids. 10. Temparalia arises from the occiput, frontal, parietal, 
squamous, temporal, and sphenoid boms, and is inttcrtcd in the caracoid 
process of the lower jaw ; its office is to close the month. 1 1 . Orhicmlarii 
Oris surronnds the utouth, is more developed in the upper than in tbo 
lower lip ; its action is to close the lips. 

12. 12. 12. Levator Humeri, arises from the mastoid process of tka 
petrous temporal bone, tlio wing of the atlas, from the second, third, and 
fooTtb cervical vertcbrtc, and from the lower jwrtion of the ligamentnm 
nuchie ; it is inserted into the anterior and inferior |>art of tlic hnmem^ 
and its action, when the head is fixed, is to advance the foreleg, or when 
the legs are fixed, one mnsclo will pull the head on one side, or both will 
curve the head downwards. 13. The S/'h'nius arises from the maBiud 

SiroccM of the petrous tcmjtoral bone, the spines of the second, third, and 
burth dorsal vcrtebne, and is inserted into the five first ci'i-vical vvrUAnm 
and wing of the atlas ; it curves the head on one nidc or, Iwth acting, nise 
it. 14. The I'arulid Olaud, which secretes the most cunHiderable portion 
of the saliva. 

A. TrajK-ii'm arisefl from the M-<'ond to the eleventh dorsal, and frem 
the ligamcnlum nuchio, as far furwuni as the third cervical vertefarw ; it ia 
inser1e<l into the spine of the scapula, and it« action is to draw the sfaouldw 
upwards and backwarda. 



Caiumnw Porti sriMM from Uio tutcia of tho loins, and Um snperior 
* GgaoieBti it ia itia«v1«d into ikv itimr oiilo »f the biunrma; it nida 
'SCtng tl)« nnn and bracing the musck-a uf thu liack. 

J. l\a iti u Bpituxhit w ikttncKcd to tbo wholo sarfocp of tlie posterior foami 
■f tfc* loapBla ; it u inKcrtnl into tho hmncrns n litllo beliind th« ciut<.'r 
taberda^ and abo to tli« uiifior part of tJiu ridgu^on tho upper and outr^r 
part of this boDO. It Bexea the um ou tLe Baiaalder. 

D. AtiUa Spitaha in kttnchrd suponorlf to the rarfiun of th« nnunior 
famm, sod two-tUinU of the nnti'rior «o*fa of tbo Mcapaln, infuriurljr to tho 
g rmtB i moA l««acr tubercle of the humerus. It stniglitens the biunenu 
en Um flopnla and tbrona the ahonlder outwards. 

B. IVnw RrUrmit nriitM fnua n tulnivJc on t.lio pnictcriar nnclo of tlio 
ff^p^W, and ia inserted into the uiiju-r aiid outer Ktirfiii:o of tliu litunoniK ; 
itaxla in flaxins the ahoalder ou llio artu. 

P. BcapvJo ijlftant arisos from tbo upjicr pitrt of tho superior ttnd pos- 
toior aani of tho acapala, insortpd into tho inner and nppftr pnrt of tho 
abw, whi^ it flexea on the aaipula, unil ilmwH the elluw inwanin. 

O and H. OapMt Mayrmm and Mtdium of the Uicept etletuor brachil, 
win* from the posterior margin of tbc soapala, firom a ridge on ita ut^ck -, 
ftooi tbttontor nde, and from tbo body of tlio linmoms, and is initrrlcd into 
Ihe obomtMni or point of the elbow. It is of (croat nnu in drunght, in 
pasbiag the body against the collar, or in forcing the for«l«ss imdor the 

L PmekmiU Mamtu aritfca from ihe &uicia of the extomnl oblique 
flie enailorni cartilsf^ and fram the thruo Inst bones of tho 
, and is inserted into tho inferior prtrt of the inner tubercle of the 
it aid* the muicloii of tho hnunch in tho propnlaioD of the 
bmnk, and itstiirls in re^nrntioii. 

K K K. Btnvbu Ma^u* arises &om tho four last corvical vertcbne, 
from thA whole length of tho first four Hhn, and from portions of Uio four 
BBzii H is inaertcd iutu tho concaritj of tbu aoapulit. It raoviui tbi! 
sboMldw in prOj p ea o iop, and when at rent oalnr^^ the cheet aad assitita 
•■ bboored leapmtuia. 

I> h. OWiiftHU £itenuis Abdammat ariao* by HiMihjr (ligitulionn fmrn tlio 
famtsoi postoricv riha, from two-thaids of the ercst of tlie iliutn, and il« 
•■faricr Wfoa/oaa piooeas ; it pMM* onr the tat«ral and inferior portiuuH of 
Aaballjr lo meet its fellow frota ^opposit« niilc, and form tho liaettfilba, 
paihiriuily, into the i^rmphysiit pubia ; it saNHl« in expelling the ficocs and 

)L OltUmu ifan'ma* arises from tho crista nn<l the dorsiuo of tht- iUum, 
wA Epmb the sacro-sciatie ligamifut ; it is iwierled into the ercnt trocbaTitor 
Mdslaoakn^ the body of the femur, aa far tui Uii- KmiUl ext^nwl tm. 
daatsr-, tie nae when tho hindlogs aro fixed, is in rnisiu)^ tlii- anterior 
|art (f the bodr ; when in action, it abdueta and retracts th>:< fiminr, and 
■ Mbidf caigaged in kicking. 

S. GlaUmt BtUmtLt arime firom the spiDce of tLo ilium and sfvcmm nnd 
■itBBted into the small trochantor of tho (omur and tho fiwcia of the 
"^j it advanoea the Fumiir. 

00 O. SVicepr Ahdaetor Fentorit arises froia the spines and trnnxrerKe 
pKoaea of the Bscrunt — from tho Hu-To-gci»tio lii^aoMnt, from tlie great 
^hiiilei of tho femur and the tuboroiiitr of the iiohiTun ; it i^ iiuerled 
■*>« tbe onter side of tlie patella and Uie iiu[iLTior [lurtion of the tibia; its 
*<taD b to ateadjr thf body, and to raiuu it kIior the foct aro fimly filed, 
' ^ in leaping ; it is a most important' oi'gan of pnvgreaiuon, and is not 
Bi4h« is Idddng. 
P- Bit9f$ Salabr TibiaU* arittea from the last sacral and two finrt 


coo^veal bones, ili« poaterior part of the taberosify of tlie iBchinm ; in- 
Bcriei into the inner, upper, and anterior part of the tibia : rotates and 
abdncta the thigh. 

Q. Tensor Vagina arisea &om the anterior spine of the ilinm, and is 
inserted into the trochanter minor extemna of the femnr, the &0cia of Qta 
hannch and the patella ; it adTances the leg and tightens the &»da (^ tha 



Beautiful as is the horse, and identified so mnch with onr plcaenre and 
oar profit, he has been the object of abnost nnivcrsal regard ; and there 
are few persons who do not pretend to be somewhat competent jadges of 
his form, qualities, and worth. From the nobloman witb his nnmerona 
and v&Inabte stnd, to the meanest helper in the stable, there ia scarcelj a 
man who wonld not be offended if he were thoaght altogether ignorant of 
harBe-fleah. There ia no anbject on which he is so positive ; tnere is no 
sal^ect on which, ^eneralljr speaking, he is so deficient ; and there are few 
horses, on some points of which these pretended and sclf-anfficient jitdgM 
wonld not give a totally opposite opinion. 

The truth ia, that this supposed knowledge is rarely founded on priiu 
ciple — or is the result of the slightest acquaintance with the actual atmo- 
tnre of the animal, the form and connection of parts on which strength, or 
fleetnesB, or stoutness must neceflsarilj depend. 

In speaking of the structure of this animal, and the points which guide 
the opinion of real judgea of him, we shall, as briefly and as simply as we 
are able, explain those fandmnental principles on which his nsefulneM 
and beanty must depend. We require one kind of horse for slow and 
heavy draught, and another for lighter and qnicker work ; one as a ^em- 
sant and safe roadster — another, with ntore speed and equal oontinaaBoe^ 
as a hunter — and another still is wanted for the race-conrve. What is 
the peculiarity of structure— what are the particular points that will fit 
each for his proper business, and, to a certain degree, unfit him for sreiy- 
thing else ? The &nner will require a horse of aU-vxirle, that can can^ 
him to market and take him round his farm— on which he can occaaioa- 
ally ride for pleasure, and which he most sometimes degrade to the dnng- 
cart or the harrow. What combination of powers will enable the ■■"'tiJ 
to discharge most of these duties well, and all of them to a certain extmk 
profitably r 

Much time apent among horses, an acquired lore of them, and a littl^ 
sometimes possibly too dearly-bongbt, experience, may give the agriont 
tnrist some insiKht into these matters. We will try whether we caonot 
■wsist him in this afiair — whether we cannot explain to him the re— on 
why certain points must be good, and why a horse without them mnat of 
necessity be good for nothing. Perhaps some nsefal rules mar thna b« 
more deeply impressed upon his memory, or some common but dangennu 
fin^judices may bo discarded, and considerable degree of error, difl^>poinfc> 
ment, and expense avoided. 

If we treat of thia at cotisidcnibte length, let it be remembered that tlM 
horse ia onr noblest servant, and that^ in describing the etmctore and 
economy of bis frame, wo are in a great mcaanre describing that of oUiar 
(lomMitic quadmpcda, and nhall hereafter have to speak only of pdnii of 



difTerence reqntrod hj the difTercnt services and uses for 'whicb thoy were 
deatinedi And further, let it bo remembered, tbat it is 0017 bj being well 
■cqnunted with, the atmcture and anatomy of the horse that wo can 
appnci^ his shape and nses, or understand the different diseaaes to 
which he ia liable. It is from the want of this that much of the mass of 
ignoraaoe and projadico which eiiate as to the diseases to which he is 
■nbiect is to be referred. 

We bt^gin with the head, containing the brun and the moat important 
ormns of sraise. 

The following cut represents the head of the horse divided into the 
nomerona bones of whidi it is composed, Etnd the boundaries of each bona 
clearly m&rked by the sutures whidi connect it with those aronnd. 

The upper and broadest part is the cranium or skull in which the brun 
is contained and by which it is protected. It is composed of twelve 
bones, four pairs and four single ones : the four pairs are the two &ontal, 
two pariet^ two aqnamoos teniporal, and two petrons temporal ; tho 
■ingle are, the occipital bone, the sphenoid, the eUunoid, and the OS triqao- 
trom i of these, the ones sketched in the plate are :-^ 

» « The frontal boooa, or bones of tha forehead. 

i b The Bupra-orijital Ibramiiia or holes abow tho orbit 

tbrotif;)! vhich the nerree and blood-reseelii auppljing 

the forehead puB out The small hole beneath reeeives 

thi> vessels miich dip into and suppl; the bona, 
e The parietal bones, or walk of the bIeuII. 
1^ i^ The temporal booee, or bones of the temples. 
4 t Ths ijgomatic, 01 joke-£bsped acch. 
ff The temporal fbssa, or pit above the eje. 

STha ocdtntal bone, or booe of the hinder part of the bead. 
h The orbits eontumug and dpf^nding the eje. 

Tha laehiymal bonee belonging to the ooDveyaiiM of the 

Uaxt from the eyes. 
The BaBul bones, or bones of the noas. 
Tha malar, or cheek-bonea. 
The superior maiillaiv, or that portion of the upper jav 

Goutaiaine the molar teeth or grinders. 
The inbSHirbital fornmen— a hole below the orbit, through 
which pa^ bmnchEs of oerres sjid blood-vesselfl to 
rapiily the lower part of the iac^ 
'T\>» lienor mazillaiy, the lover part of tha upper jaw- 
bone — s separate bone in qmulnipede. containing the 
indsor or cuttiiig teeth, and the upper tuehes at the 
point of unioD between the superior and inferior maz- 
o Tha ippto' iDelsor or cutting teeth. 

fp The openbgs into the DOSe, with the bone* forming the 

There is an evident intention in ^lis division of the head into so many 
bonea. When the fcetua — ^the unborn foal — first begins to have life, that 
which afterwards becomes bone, is a mere jelly-like substance. This is 
eroduaUy changed into a harder material — cartilage ; and, before the 
birth of the animal, nmch of the cartilage is taken away by vessels called 
absorbents, and bone deposited in its stead. In flat bones, like those of 
the head, this deposit takes place in the centre, and rays or radiations of 
bone extend thenoe in every direction. Then, by having so many bones, 
there aro so many centres of radiation ; and, consequently, the formation 
of bone is carried on so much the more mpidly, and perfected at the time 
when the necessitieB of the animal require it. At the period of birth, 
however, this process is not completed, but the ed^es of the bones remain 
Kunewhat soft and pliant, and therefore, in parturition, thqy yield a little 




m m 




knd overlap each oUurr, and thns, b^ rondcring Uio birtli toon oamr, ttiff 
«ave the mottier much pain, nnil contribute to the lafotr of tbc foiu. 

The Brat of thno bono*, or tbv tirot mir of them, ocoojiyitig Uiu brood 
exp&DM of tko fiireheod, are culkil Uifi /rcmtal brmet, a a. Tluty aro 
nutod togelbn- by * most cunous and intrioate dore-tailuig, to defend 
Um bmn wliich lies bmonth tho umtw pud of thorn. Lower dcwn, aod 
vthvre tho oaviiy of the nose is to M dsfimdcd, their union is snf^ient, 
but far kiSS compUoatmL Tbns, at fint atarting, tlic-ro is an uvidcnt proof 
of design, au iluialraliou of that adaptation (o cimumstunciM which will 
aeain and again present itself in the most iutcM'slm^- poiuts of vic^w. 
Peeuliar strength of onion is given where n most important or>,-ati is to bo 
defe&d«d--tlM satnrv is them intricate and likhonrod. Where less iia- 
portant parts arc oiivurud, it i» of u far sioiplur <;huntctcr. I'hc irii>er 
plate of the froulal bone covers a coaKJdL'rable portion of the antirrior part 
of tbe brain, and it is etnddod witJi deprenioiu oonvspondiug u-illi 
irregolarities on tho snrfnoe of tbe brain. 

Vov things moru ctcurljr indiuatc tho brood or blood of tho horse than 
the form of tho froulal bcuee. Who )uu not mmiirkcd the broad angular 
forehead of tbe blood horse, giviug him a bvautitiil vxpiv^Hnii of int«U 
ligimcx) and fire, and the &oe gnkdoaUy tapering from tlio furcbced to the 
muzxle, contrasted with the lai^ laee of tlie («rt or draj hoive, aad tba 
forehead scarcely wider than thii fiioc ? 

At/, iKitwdiu the froulal houee, is the pit or cavitjr abore tlie tje, uid 
bjr the d(!plh of which we form some idea of the u^; of the hoiMK Then 
in plaCL-d at the back of the eye a considerable qnantity of fattj snbsfaaoe, 
on which it may rerolvn rtualy and without friction. In SKed bonKts, and 
in dis(«scs attondi.'d witli grncral Ionh of condition, uinclt of this dia- 
appearsi llio eve bccomen suukc-n, aud the jiit above itdeepcois. It isaaid 
that some of the lowor chtss of LoKe-diwIers puootore the skin, and, with 
a tohaooD pipe or small tube blow into tho orllice, uutU the doprmsioa !• 
almost filled up. This, with tlio aid of a higliopped tooth, may give a Uae 
appearanoo of youth, that will remain durin;; somo hours, and may deoeiva 
tho unwary, but tbc trickery may uaaily bo detected by Prossini.' on the parta 

These iHiniti, honever, are not solid, but a connidiTnlilc portion of uum 
is compoHcd of two plates recedingfrom «adi other, and leaving nnmerona 
and largo vacuitius or cells, ^mm vteuitiea an called Oie fmUoi 

The sinus ou tlte diSeront sides of the i(>PohcAd do not oommunicato 
with eiu^h otlicr, but with other ainases in the ethmoid, and spbonoid, and 
upper jaw-bones, and also with the cavities of tbe nuiu on tlietr re^Mctive 
■UM. ThMO sinnsofi afford a soRicwhnt ineres«od protection to the brata 
beneath; aad by llui oontinuouN and ilightly projecting line which llm 
form, MfTonl Ughtuesa, while they ^ve btiantv to the forehead ; but theur 
priucipul use probably is, like the wiudinga of the French horn, to iocrmss 
the cleaniMS and loudness of the nnghiug. It will be tenuuled that they 
are very irregular in depth, which at one place is an inch or inorv. 

InuaodiatcTy above the fremlal, aad extending from tho fkrntal to the 
poll, are the parietal bonce^ o o. They are twoi onitod together by a suture 
when the animal is young, but tliat sutnre soon becoming obliteratnL 
They have the oeeipital. g, (p. 145) abore, Xh^franiaU, a a, below, and the 
Umponia, dd,oit either side. Tkoy ant of a ch)ser and harder textan 
than tlie frontaU, bceanso they aiv more exposed to injury, and mon oca- 
ciTDod in defending the btain. 

Jl very small portJon only of the jtarielaU U naked, and that is com* 
pond of bone even harder than the other part, and with an sdditMMial 
layer of bone rising in the form of a crest or ridge externally. Eivfj 



o(fav|n>t oT tli«s(< IioDi-s is rovt'ml Uy m thick mass of miutcio, Uui /«iii- 
/ *nrf UBMle, which is priucipilljr cuoonmod in cfaewiuK llie food, hot 
■whatk ^vnae, by {(« ^dioff roaiKtouoe, mMwdilv nnd cSt-ctually braakn 
tlw ftroB of the inort vioUmt blow. A woolpadc bang over tho wall of a 
O i r tn i. whra tiir. cnciay i« bnttcriDg (o el&ot a breach, renders t]i« 
tiMfiM* aittUi-nr Mlmottt harmlnw. 80 tlie yioldiufr rcetHbuuw vf the l/fm. 
f «nal iubsoIm uCi»da asiuvdedcmoeto the brain, however auddeu or viotciot 
naf be the blow which falls on the poriL'tal. Thcso bcueroltmt proviaiona 
will DM be disregarded hj tho rvflcrctiiip; miud. 

Ob the tide of the hiuid, and under ibo parietak (d <I, n. 145) am tho 
lim p aral bone t , oae tm each yaAo, ff. Tbc«e again ar« oiridcd isto two 
pfttfa, or eonaiet of two duttnct botneii ; tho jietrou* portion, §0 called from 
Um great or (tony hardness, and conlaining tho wottdorfol mechanism of 
Uw ev, and tho sjiunnau* portion tVom the aiipeaiunco of itM unioa with 
the paiietal, ovcrhojuiiig it hko n great kaU. 

Vmta the bUter there |inijc^t« a portion of bone, s, which nnitcs with 
(Le frontal, and forms a Htrong areh — tho zygomatic — diHtinctlj' to bo 
tcH at the aide of the li«:id !iiuui-Oisti>]^' ubovn tbo tjjc, Tliis arch is 
dcngned to prob-ci the upj-er part of tlm lower jaw, the motion of which 
maj yvj plainly be sotd beneath it wheo the horaa is feeding. It if very 
itroag, and it ought to b<-, for if it worn depressed or forci-d iuwurd, tho 
kme would starre. There is one spccioe of I'iolcnce which cauHeii tliiii 
arch fa> reqnira no common ettength ; and thnl is, tho brutal maiuuir in 
-whtch the i-ollar is on«n forced orer the bead. 

At the base of th« arch is an important cavity not viaible in tho cat, 
reeeinag into it, and forming a joint witb, the head of the lower jnw — it 
win b* praMutl; doecribed. 

Bkriag reached tho base of the tcmpnml bone-, it i^ fonnd nnitod to tho 

WHMlal, not by a simple sntarc, it* l)ie lower part of (he fivntnle, or tho 

knws of tho noM! (aec fig. a and J, p. liH), nor by a dove-tailed suture, ns 

tbe upper pari of the Cr^tab (see the eamo cut], bat it is spread over thu 

|BrielM ia the form of a larRe aeah), and hence, as before obserred, called 

Ute t^iom«v portioD of the temporal bone. In fact, than arc two plates 

<'f lioa* iiutead of one. Was tnore dei>i^ in this ? Y<^a, cridontly so. 

in tbo Crst place, to incrooae the ■treo^'tU of the huae of the tj/aomalie 

arch. This extensire tinion bftwcen the leiuj>oral and purietAl hones 

ws e ni hlea the buttress or msss of masonry attjicbcd to the base of erery 

arch, iu otAer to ononleract its IslomI nrpvsore. Tho coticassion. liliewise, 

wki<^ might be ccmmnnicntcd by a blow on the lop of tho arch, is thus 

Unwl cmr a lar^ sarfitoo, and oonsequi-utty wciukcniK) and rendered 

esmpantiTcIr harmleai : and Uiat SDrfacct is composed of the union of two 

haaes of diaatmilar construction. Tbo flonij structure of the jiiiripUU 

isiery dillerenl fiom tho tooefaor mal^-riitl of the temporal; and t)ius as 

> Wer acts on a sounding suss, the %-ibmlJon cemintinicuted to the tcni- 

pnl is at onco stopped, km the bnin roctrives no injury. 

Than is another piT>of of adminble dengu. Where ia Uiis tpiamotu 
pniaa of tiM temporal bone eitaAl4>d f On the aide of the head. And 
*Wis the figure of the cranium or eknll, and principally that port of it 
*bh eontaina the corcbnun or brain ? It is an elhptical or ornl urch, 
"irniiiiKi is made 00 the crown of that arch — if a blow is reeeivcd on 
^sttctre between tlie porietaU sufficient l« cttuso the clastic materials of 
'^Kh tho sknll i> cuiiipoMd to yi(<ld — tbi> scut of dnnger iknd injury is at 
(buds. If a man receives a rtolent blow on the crown or bacit port of 
tWkead, the fracture, if there is any, ia generally about tbo temple, and 
Aantiavasation of blood is oftonetit fouud there. The following (ignre 
■^■zpli^ this:— 




tint the line 1 B C n>]>rei>eiil au vlHjilical arch, composed of elastic Rmt«- 
rink.' Soino foree BfauU be applied at u aafflcient tocwue it to jiold. Wo 

oasnot oompiv3B it into smallvr cotnpa» i 
but jniit in nroportioii aji it fields nt B will 
it rpur or uolgv out at D, and give irny 
■oioetimm aa ropnamtcd at E. lu a domo 
Ota weight of tne materials constiuilly act- 
ing may bo (xmsidcrod m rcprraenting the 
foroo applied at n ; and $o gmt u tM la* 
tend pruMnuv, or tendency to bnJgo out 
(vitie D and 6), tliat it is neceuaty eitfaiir 
to dove-tail the materials into oneanotlier, 
or lo pam tttrong iroi. chains round Lliom. For want of sufficient attention 
to this, ' tbe dome of St. Sophia, in Constantinople, bailt in the time of 
tho Kinperor Jostiniao, foU tkno timea daring itn erection ; end the dome 
of tho cathedral of Florenco stood uufirikbed a hundred and tircntj* je*z%, 
tar want of an BTchi:ecL* 

Nature, in tho coiiatniclioa of tbe horso'a head, has taken avay tho 
tmasure, ot temoTod the probability of injniy, by giving an additional 
layer of bono, or a mas* of musc^In, whoro alono there wns danger, and baa 
dOTO^ilod all the taitlurinlw. Further than this, in order to make 
assuranoe doubly sure, Rhe bae placed this eOectual girder at the ba«o, i& 
the overlepinng of the s<nuuD0iu j>ortiou of the teiapoial bone. 

Above ttie jiaritlaU, and Mparoted from titcm by a euturo (fig. <7. p. 145), 
ia tho ot^i'Uat bone. Supenorif it coTor« and protects tho smaller por- 
tion of tho brain, tho ccrebellnm ; and as it there constitutM tbe 
Bommit or crest of the head, aud is particularly exposed to danger, mmI 
not protected by rauseles, it la interesting to see what thieknieM it 
aasumea. The head of the horse does not, like that of the humAnbeLup, 
ride nprwht on tlie neck, nith all its weight nippnrtod on tbe spinal 
oohunn, tne only office of tlio muscles of the neck being to more tlis 
head forward, or inrkward, or horixonially on itK pirot ; but it hanes in a 
slanting position fcuiu tbe eitrenutr of the neck, and the neck ifjKlf pro- 
jeeta a oousiderable distance IVom the chest, and thus the whole winght of 
the bead and neck are suspended from tbe oheet, and require Tery nvat 
powar in order to support them. In addition to tho siiitplo weight of the 
neod and neek, the biHer projeeting from the cJiest> and tho bead hanging 
from the eztramity of the neok, act with enormoos meohanioal force, 
and increase more than a hundredfold the power neeessafy to support 

thn head and nock of tho honw, and particularly of some boraea of a 
eeano breed, are of no littlo bulk and weight. It will hereafterbe shown 
in what breeds and for what purvoses a light or heavy head and neck are 
adTantageooa ; bat it may be safely affirmed that, projecting so fiv from 
the cheats and being oonaeqnffiitW at eo great a. distance frtim thefnlenua 
or support^ &» ligntoat head will aci or bear upon the joint between the 
last bisno oif the neck and the first rib with a force equal to many thousand 

How U this weight to be supported t Is muscular power equal to tlia 
(ask 7 Tho mnsolM of the animal frame can act for a oostaia tirao wi^ 
axtraofdinaiy broe ; but aa tho exertion of thia [lowvr is attended with 
tiw eooanmption of vital eocrgy, the period soon arrivM when tWr action 
ia remitted or altogether sospi-ndoi. A provisioD, bowerer, is made (or 
the porpoee, simple and complete. 

from the back of the oeoi|Ktal bone, and immediately below the exeats 
proooodsRn>andoordofooasidenkUobaIk,andcompo»cd of a ligamentooa 



nMnoe, wbicli rcftchc* down and in sccnroljr itttAcLi'd to tli« spines of 
tlw Tg rte bT», or boDcH of iho hikck ; nnd bj tln> ligHiuont — the tiga. 
mtmimmt eolii, Iwununl o{ the aixk, couuaoalj calk-d tlii; jiiic/.u'a.i — the 

l%«t« atn, bovorer, •ome admirable contriT&nces couucL-U'd with tL« 
■1 ■■ufpHnentt of tiie lifamftlmm colli. As it procoedsfrom the Lend, ttiii ta 
tli* Sma of a ronod oora. It in contteet^d witli the atUu, or tirst bone of tho 
neck, and tlmi, Httuctung iti«cir iitmii)(lj to tlia aecond honp, pi-inn'pally 
■apporta tfao bead t>)' iU union with tUTa I)on«. The meohauiuit disiulviui. 
te^ ta inerGaMd ; but the head is tuned more fVeely on the fimt nnd eoaond 
beoe*. Tbe pniMipal alxtm it on th« ttvntata^ or eccond hone, ao much so, 
that, in poU-«ril, tbia lignmcnt mnr bo divided without serious inconvi;. 
nicDCa to the bone. It tben audik-nir kihIcs dw^por, and comrniinicateit 
wWi an lb« (Ahn veri«bm. Bach of these cu mm imitations buoomcs a 
•epante point of snpport, and as they appraa«h nearer to the base, Uie 
neohaiacal diaadvoBtaga^ or tiie force mth which tho weigbt of the head 
and nook prcasaa and aoto, is matcnail; lessened. 

"nte bead, tJurn, while the animal is in u stjite of rest, Is sapporled bj 
tbts Ugatnent, without any aid l>oiu nmacnlitr energy. 

nwn tl^ bowever, eometliing jet wanting. The bead muat not ho 
alwns do'ntod. The animal Imb his food to seek. In a state of ualora 
this food lies prindpally on th« nvnnd, nnd the head most bo lowered to 
•noble tbe bone to get at it. How im this effected ? This lignmcnt, oa 
k baa been caUed« beeaoae it reaembles in appearance the other liKiimentA 
at (be bod/, pO MW ia a property wliich they have not, and whieh Uicy 
mnat Dot baTo, or they would he useloss. No well-knit joint conld cxiat 
if it bad tbia property. It i* eLutie. It will rield to n, force impressf'd 
Bpoo tt, and wUl Tvmmo ila uituml dimensions when that foree is removed. 
It aaatoini perfectly the weif^ht of tbe bead. That portion of tenacity or 
atmigtb Is ((Ifen to It which will not give way to the simple weight of tbe 
baad, bnt which will yield to a very lit-tlo additional weight. lU resisting 
pewvr i> so admimbly adjnstod to that wbieb it hae to saafiLin, that when 
oeft>in miuwlcii, whose action i« to depress or lowor tbe head, begin to net, 
and add tbcir power lo the previous weii^lil it had to bear, the liguinent 
atoddua, and wben tbe horso is bronsing, it la fall two iucbos longer than 
wbctt the bead is erect. 

Wben Uie animal faaa satisfied himvlf, these depressing muscles ccoee 
to actt and other noadoawbich an; designed to assist in mising the hcnd, 
begin to (sort tbenuKlrua; and by tht-ir aid — but more bv the inhcix-nt 
ibStiritj- of tbo bgomonb — Uie head ia onee more ek-valed, and rentniiis 
ao wiibout tbe slli^'litest exertion of muscular jiower. I'his is oue of the 
naany ^plications of the principle of elasticity which will be discovered 
and admirod in tbe ponstmction of thn nninint frame. 

^w lifRunmt of tbe neck is insi^rtctl iiilu tin? centre of tbe book part of 
tbe oceipila] bone, and inuncdint^'ly Im-Iow tho vertex or crest of the bono ; 
and tberdore t]>e bono ia so thick at tbis part. 

Mauj iuge and poweribl rooscles iire necessary to Inm the lic^id iu 
VMMNU ditectknU) aa well as lo Aesint in rnising it when depressed. Tbe 
ae upila l bona picecid« a ^plne running down tho centre, and a largo 
toncbanad rarAce for tlic uttnchnient of uiuietes. 

Ijowct down, and still at the back of the occipital lione, are two ronnded 
pnAaberanceo, b; which tbe head ia conncef^t with the alla», or npper or 
Biat Teriebra, or bone of the neck ; and tbcso ore calUsl tbe condjiMd 
laiirniiin of tbo oocipital bone. All tb« ]>erpendiciilar tuotiona of tb9 
Dead ata perforated by ibtH jmnt. 

fiatwaen tbcm ia a large bole, the/orameH tnafputn, or great apcrtniei, 



throDgli wliicU tbo coDtiaafttioa of tbc bmtn, termed tbo s]>iiial cord or 
marrow, pasMis mil of the skull. 

Aa an ndditioiiAl contri;-nuiv to anpport the enormous wei^bt of t]io 
hoad, ore two oLlior projuclioiis of ihc occipital bone, peculiar to aniuiulH 
irhose heiwlfl are set on in a slAntitig direction, and to which poworful 
mnsolea are inaertod. Tbey arc pnltcil tho {oratoid, bcok-likn, proccsiics 
or proloDgatioas of the nccipilul Iwno. 

itnnning forwnrd, and furiuinf; outwardly a part of tho baae^ and in- 
wardly a portion of llw floor of the aknll, ia what, from it« wedji^likei 
■hape, b caU«d the baailar procsM of tho ocripitAl bono. It is thick, 
Btronif, and solid, and pUcod at tho bottom of thi: HknII, not only to bo a 
proprr fnandatioD for, and Ui nvr additiunul streuftth to the arob on latbcr 
fide, but KjioedUT to ntop ull vibrj-tion aiid concussion. 

At Uiu bast! or the skull, and anterior to or below tho oect'pitat, lioa tho 
tjiluniuid, wvdge-Uke bono. This bone branches out into four irrogubu* 
bodice or plnlM, two of which nro otilli>d tho tcinjjt, and two mnninff to 
tll« pnlnto, tho try*. Tliciv in nothing impurlant beluuging to tbum, ho far 
M tbi« work ia conocmcd. Iut«ruallj the sphenoid foroA a, portion of iLo 
cavity of Iho skull. 

Of the etkmoid — sievo-Iilto — bone, little can be se*n outwardly. A 
small portion ifi found in tho bmik part of the orbit nnd in the caritjoflho 
craninu : bot the niont imjwrtant part of it is that which i» compoxrd of 
a mat nnmbcr of tlun couvolut«u plat«s, funaiug nnmci^iua cnvitic* or^^J 
oeUs lined witJi tho mucous membrane of the nose, and mlering into iU'^^f 
cavity. The upper portion is called the cribriform or sicTc-shatiti ivlale, ^^ 
from it* being perforated W a multitude of little holes, through which llie 
nerve connocti^ with nnelling pwssfa and :iprciid>i over tho nogo. 

Altogethi-r IbfBU boiifiti form a cavity of an irrpgulnr oval lOinpc, l>nt the 
Icutorium stretching across it, gives it the appearance of being dinded 
into two. 

Tho cavity of the elmtl may he snid to bo npchcd alt ronnd. The 
builder knows the stmiglli which is conaertcd with the foi-m of an arch. 
If projwrly construefinl, it is e<iaal lo u suUd mass of iniwonri'. The nreh 
of the borve'a akull htis n<it much woi^ht to sapport, hut it is cx|>n9e<l lo 
many iignric« (Wim the hmt«Uty of those by whom lie shonid bo prolceti.'d, 
■nd from ncoidonlal ciiiues. 

The roof of tho skull is composed of two plates of bono : tho outer one 
bard and tongb, and the dilTiTeut paria dore>tailed togctlwr, so as oot to 
ho easily &»ctnn)d ; the inner plate being ekurtie. By the union of iboM 
two subftonoce of dtflbront eonatmction, the vibration is lessened or 
destroyod, so far iw safety rrqiiirofl. 

Ou laisiug any jiurt of tlie skntl of tbo homo, the denso and >tnx 
numbmie nich is at onee llie lining of Ibe ennJom and tltu eoveriag 
Oe iwaia — the dttm maUr — pnaeots itself. Betwe«i this uenib« 
oommon to the emniiim and tJio limin, and tW proper inventing tnnic 
Unit or^^, IK f>iUTi<l llint di-licnte ((iKHUincrx' web iip)>r<>priiili<ly enlled the 
AnuAnoii'^lhu Hpidc-r's UH-iubmuf — atid which in set.'n in other unimabs 
deaigned cither to M«rct« the fluid which ia uili^rposcd, for the purpose of 
obviating iiyurious ooncnssion. or, pcrhnps, to prevent the hnin (mm,- 
readily mupathising with any inflammatory action prodnoed by iiyat; of 

Beneath is the proper inreetiag membrane of tho bnin — the pia mater 
—it is indeed the vaaenlar neubnne of the brain, being that throng 
tlie mcdinin of which tho artenMt oonvcy the blood to the brain — wliii-fa 
not only covi-n llic rKlomal snriiKV of iJie brain, hot _peDotrat(4 ititurrcry 
depression, and elotbeseveryim'gnlanty and patit ana portion of the bnin. 



I W« sow arrire at the bmtn iUctf. The timin of tlio liorse oorrcupondn 

l-wilk the «&ntf in wliich it in phced. It in a flnttonixt ora,l. It Is dividad 

linta (wo parts, ono mnch Inr^r th&n tliu otbor — the c/^rrhnim or biuin, 

nnd tbe oarrielitiKi or little bmin. In the huumu bcrin^ thi< oftrcbrum ia 

fatwre the oen^Mittam, in the (^niwlnipcd it is below ; auil yut ia both they 

TCtain ifae ■aim' rcUtiv« mtnution. Tho oorcbellam is ne&ror to tlw Ibnu 

mcn tlirou}-h uliiih (he bmn passu onb of tho Nkall, thnn the cerebrum, 

tnt portjofia from c»oh unite lo form tlia nioduUa oblongatii, which paasiniF 

ont of the caritv of t.ho crnninm into the spinal Canal, become tbotfpinal 

tori. In tliR hiiitinn hotul tliix fnnimcn is ntthebiueof iJiosknll ; butin tlio 

qsadniped, in whom tliL- huiul i» plttcnl nlnnting, it is ncccss-irily clovtitL-d. 

He who for the first time **■"■■"" tbu bnus of the Iiorse vril'l be stniek 

vitb its oomparativediminnliTeaize. Thu humiLu b«ng is not, grn<Tn,l!y 

~ aff, niotv fhftn one-sizth of tho si«o and weight of the horai.' ; yet 

I brMn of the liiprd in twice na Int^ ntid ae heavy ta that of the quad- 

aped. If it had bcwn thr^ lirain of the ox that hitd hcon heiv exposed, 

, woold have b(<(!u hut tn-o-thirdii of that of llic home. If the dog hnil been 

1 subject, it would hare been rery considcmblv lai-Ki-r, oumfiiiring thn 

■Jiral bnlfc of each animal. This is Bin"7iiar. The hunuui brain lar;^at 

I comnantiro fanlk ; tlien tho bnun of the dog, tho horae, the oz. Tliut 

fmU Mw be eUuttd m Ike *eal« nf in/filtgciu:«. 

lithe hnia ia more ckutly oxatuinnl, it will be obserycd llmt thcro 
I not Utat rofindnesa and brooduutw fiinnd iu the hi:mtm bring; it ia 
IVoninratiTety level and flat. There ia, faowerer, ttafCcioiit Iiroi^uliirity of 
tlwro am projections and depressions to remind iis that, the 
fbrenologual derclopnicnt of the brain of the home Rliould not ho lost 
nghb of — hja pnde and love of oppn>lmtion, hi" oeuto remianbranco of 
yasona and plaoos, hJa peroe{)tion of muflic and time are extraordinary, 
JUW tlM dog. tbero is no animal endowod with moro intoiligencc than tho 
kma. Wore tho brain of tho bcnver, of thn hare, or the rubbit, or of nimo.-it 
uy bird, Rnbatitntod lor it, thero won Id bo no oonvoladonH or irrcgnlarities 

Tke im^iakritiM oothomrfitoeofUtebrwi are not eo bold and so deep 
in the ox ■« ia Ibt horse, nor in tlio hone aa in Uw dog. Wo do not know 
VDM^Ii, as yet, of the AinctioDB of the pnrticnlar portion* of the bnin to 
MMioato thoM convohitions, accnm.t<>ly, with any partieular powera of 
Bi>d, or good or bod propeniriticii ; thongb, donbtloas, such knowledge wiQ 
dliuldy bo obtained. It would oooopy two ranch space fully to ent«r 
■Ha theee qocfltiona ; bat there are some diseiises to which the horse is 
•fcjwt, for which a voiy nBel\il operntion— tho diriwon of nome of the 
*>nai — u bad rccoorao to, the effect of wluch operation eonld not bo 
ttdmood withont a provioux itliglit account of this tinporlaut or^n. 

VbcB tbe biaiD is cnt, it b found to be composed of two Rabstaneca 
^ udflce in appearance j one, principally on the ontside, pcj", *•■ "l"- 
^^nrad, and therefore c^lod tho ccrtical (Imrimie) from ita situAtion, 
^tnmUatu (tuhw) from it« colonr; and tho other Ij^t; d«cptT iu tlio 
Jj»»,aiid from ita pnlpv nature callod themattullary substniii-e. Allhongh 
V^ti in appoMtiun with each other, and aecmingly minglinjf. thev never 
'tninto the same maas, or change liy ficgrecs into one another, but are 
y^tially diBtinct in comitmction iw well as iu function. Wo are told by 
"f- ScJly, in bia most vmlnable work on the bmin. that tlio caneritiona or 
'•'kjortion of the bndn is the sonroe of mental power— that is, it is tho 
}*'t>ODofth« brain by meana of which the mind or instinct developceitai'lf; 
"•* >l ii col!*w1ed in masses of varinblc form and elinpe, both within aud 
•illoni the brain, called i^nglin, and tliat these ganglia am the imroediat* 
*'«B» of menul demountnitiwii, while the mcdnllaty or wklto portioo 




of tbo brnin, hu (bo W!oand»ry ufliL-o of being Uie conductor of Uuit 
d<unODiitratioD to every part of the body, it is not dovolopiHl iii tliu fornt 
of irrf-guW ma&sea or gangUft) but is mooldod into the more eyoimetrioal 
form of noireB, 

1'ho medullary portion iR connMted witli tlu) norrous eystcm. The 
aomw ftru jirolangbtions of it, and are coDCeomed iu die discliar^ of «ll 
the officios of lif(i. They gire motioD and enor^ to tho linibe, the ht.-urt, 
the longs, the Btomach, ami cvGry part oonncctcd with life, 'i'bcy are Uio 
tnodium Ihrongh whk'h smMition is ccnvoynl ; uttd thi-y sup]>ty the mind 
nitli matcrinlii to think and work npon. 

Tho tineriUatu part has a difTerent appoaranco, and is differooUy con- 
■tituU'd. Some have anppoBod, nnd with mudi appoarance of tmth, thai 
it is tho residonco of thr mind — rtwriviiig thn iinpr««ion« that are oon • 
ycycd to the hrain hr thn MnKiliro ni.Ti*rikmid dirL-cting tbo operation and 
notion of thorie whiuh give ruotion to tho iiiiiljB. In aocordaiic« with thin, 
it happens that, where superior iDt«lli(p:iico is found, the cineritioua por- 
tion prontils, nnd whprv little beaido bi-nlc ntncatgth and animal appetite 
osixlA, tho ciwhillurr portion iit enlarged. Tbi?ro 'vt, comtAring bulk with 
bnlk, hiu of the uit>dullary substance in the horse than ui tlio ox, and in 
the dr'}- than in the horse. Tho ndditionnl bnlk of brain is coinpoaed of 
cin<Tiliouamatt«r; and how different i*tJie chnrnolcr of these animals P— 
tho sliiggi«b, stnpid ox,and the iuteltigeut hortio ; the silly shocp, and tho 
intelliictaal oompaoionaUe doff I 

111 a work like this, it would bo somewhat out of place (o enter deeply 
into any metanhyvicnl spmilntion; but the conni-xion betwe«n the cineTi- 
ti»nB paii of tac bmin and tbo inlelluciuul principle, and that between llio 
medulhuy portitm and the mere auiinal principle, do Hccra faighty proliabla. 
Ilw Ifttter is the medium thrttugh which the tmpreasion in (-ouveycd, or 
lira motion is offectod -, the fomicr is tho snb«lance to which llist luurea- 
sinn is referred — ^whero it is rooedvcd, re^iiti^rrd, and compared, and by 
which tho oprriLtion of the motor nen'M is iiitluirnced and govcrmNl. 

Tlio coriUnl HubsUueo ia small in the quadruped ; fur in Uieir wild aUto 
bra(«a have no ooncevn and no idm borond their food and reptxMlne4ioo { 
and in ihar domcatacalod vlatc they arc destined to bo the ser\-ant« of nMa. 
The aontonees of their aenaea, and the prepondentnoe of animal power, 
qnalify Ifacm for these porposes ; but vera proportionato iatelleetoai cagio- 
eity added to thii; — wore they tnndeeon^iooB of tbmr strength, they wonU 
bunit their boudH, nnd man would, in litK turn, be tho victim and tlie slave. 
The coriioal part ts found in eftch in tbo pro|)ortion in which it wouhl 
sc^m to be nced«d for onr pnrpoMv in or^r that inU-lligenoe xboald l« 
milled to animal power. Almost ercry monlnl facnl^, and almoat ercn 
virtue, too, mUT be traced in the bmte. The difTcrenco is in doKToe, and 
not in kind. Yhe one being impmred by drvumstanocs and the otbor 
contaminnted, tho qufldmpcd is decidedly the snpcrior. 

Prom tbo mednllaiy sabetnnce — an nln-ndy slated — pt»iee*d certain 
cords or proJonntians, termed nam4, by which the nninui] is enabled to 
receive inuwesaMnM ftem Hanoonding objeda, and to connect Iiimnclf with 
them ; maa alao to pows w Many ptowaMle or painftil aenaationa. One of 
them is spread ovrr the membmne of tho no«e, and dvrs the sense of 
Bmell; another i-iixinds on the Iiuek of the eye, nnd the fnenltyof Bgbl 
ia gained ; and a tliinl goee lo the internal utmolnro of tho nu-, nnd the 
anitani ia conMHons of ftonnd. Other nerres, proceeding to diflerent parts, 
jlire tbo farolty of motion, while equally important ones bestow llie power 
of feeling. 

Ono division of ncrvm nyrinaing fri)m a jimlons'sif'nn of the bmin, 
irandctB lo diffcn>&l jiarts of (be frame, for important |rarpo«cs connected 



Milh rcvpintidii or Iveatliii 


^ of breathing is cesonlia] to lif«, 

Mad woe it to etmat, the uumnl would die. Tltw* xrc oerves of I'ncofuu- 
Ury Motion ; ao 

ttwt, whfriber bo " 

it kwake or asleep^ 
eoiwoioiis of it or 
aot, Uw luDf^ 
1hm« utd life is 
Mpfncted. Lostlj, 
«rtcBding from 
tbs ncditlbi ob. 
longBte is di« 
vinl cord — a 

tion uf the brain, 

nnni«[ tliroagh « cavity in tlie bones of llie neck, back, ami loins, iind 

olaw&ig to toe Mcral cmiaI — from which other ner\'e§ are yiviu off at 

t it rtMim utterrals. This cnt delincntos a pair of them. The jiorlica «f 

^Bfll cord represiaitcd, is sapposcd to be placed with it* inner or lower 

^uftee tovards na. The Kpinal corcI, a, is composed of six diattnct 

fi'TBODa or rods, ronning thrcin^h its whole Icnetli — three on either sido. 

IW two npptrr diviaioiMi procewl from those tmcts of the bmin devoted to 

iMMitMii. Namemns dixtiuct fibres sprine almiptty from the cotlimn,ntid 

wUeb OoUect tog^Uier, and, developiup a little giuigliou or cnliirgpment, 

i—aa cailargcfapnt of a nervoua cord is called u gwiKlioii— Iwromo tt ncrvo 

cf nocation. From the lower or inner siJt^— a proIuu^tHlioii uf tlii! track 

diTotcid to motioi) — proceed other tibres, nliich also eullect k'^^'"^"^ 

lagsUwr, and form S dcttoiu cord, e. piriatf the pKiwer of motion. Ueyoiid 

ifci ganglion the two unite, and form a pei-fect spinal nene, 6, possessing 

the power both of sensation and motion ; iind tho filjn* of the two eohimns 

ynijuj to their destination, cnTcloped in tlic siimv shrath, nnil apparent \y 

•• nerre. Pich portion, however, ronlinnrs to be wnippcd in it* own 

wnbiwne. Tbcjr arc onilcd, yet diiitinet ; t.hi'v coiiKtitnio ono nerve, ^ ct 

rt ttf their sauHtance nor their office in vcnfoumltth Our rut, i-lnsety 

i^Mniiud, will girc at b immc idrti of thi? muniirr in whic^h these dixtinct 

"Wilte oontinocd ; — ««ch iwivi-n.'J by itit «wn mimibmne hut (il! (■nvclopiMl 

■ a common envelope. Thi- (lifTeri'iK'e i)f at'tion in the Hiiitient lUid motive 

}*tiuMof the ncri'wi muNt not he lost Hi^,"hl of: in thi- si-nliitit, the ini- 

T'MUaR oom)nei>ei.-!i in (he minute ram ificnt inns of the nerve, iind if itirriud 

^ throii{[b the trunk to the sensorium: while, on the coiilmrv, in tbo 

^Mor. the volition originates in the brain itself, and is communicated to 

Ai tnifclM : the impression in the sentient nerves traversing from the 

^« to ttie brain, and in ihe motor fmni the hmin to the taasnc*. 

All these iwrvea are orj^ins of simmtion anil motinn alone; liut tliere 
^MkcfS wboee origin swnis U> be (mt«iih'i>f iind Im'Iow tlie brain. These 
*^^ tympathetif, no called from thirir niiion and symputhy with all ilia 
*^«i^ and identifiod with life ilwlf. They arise fruin n nnall eidargement, 
'W the anterior cervicaJ ganglia. In the upper tmrt of the neeJc, and are 
***«■ IcM dintribuled t'ver every [>art of tlie body. They go to the heart, 
**' iti beala ; and to the atomach, and it digests. 1'hev form a network 
''^'■d each blood^veanl, ftnd the cnrrent flows on. They surround the 
^ ninaUsl veeaela, Uid the fVame is nnnrishfit and bnilt up. They are 
^JJlal* of semaUion, and tliey are (Kirfeetly lieynd the eontrol of the will, 
■le rcailcr, wo tmal. will now comprehtiuil thtK wnnderfnl yet simple 
?'™aiefy, and be able, by-and-by, to refer lo it. the esjilunation of wveml 
, and particularly of the operation to winch we have referred. 


Li ^ 



They wbo know uiytlune of tlio horse p»v much attention to the ku^ 
Betting ou, and motioo of t^e enr. Eiira mther smftU tlum large— ^Iftoed 
not too fur npart — crnct nii'l qii ick in motion, indicAto both bredding uaA 
npiHt; And if a honu u frvcjnnitly iti thebiibit of citnying onv mr fonrtrd 
luid tho otlua- back ward, aud f.iueL-iallj' if he does ao on n ionmejr, ho will 
^onumlly poaseaa both Hoirit and continiuuice. Tho stietaui^ of the mra 
ID contrary dircctioDH shows that ho ta »tt«Dtive to orwTtiiiiiK i^'^t is 
tAking pinoc nronnd him, iLiid, while bo is doing thin, ho Cknnot be much 
fatigtii^d, or likely noon to bccouio so. It liiut bctm RmwrkcKl that few 
iKirNex niw-p without jwinUng one ear forward and iLe other btckward, in 
onlvr that Du-y may r^ceivo notico of the approach of objeota in crcfy 
direction. ' WTien boracs or mnlcs,* says Dr. Amott, in his ' Ekaunbt of 
Physic,' ' march in company at ni^bt, tnoMc in front direct their Mra lar^ 
wards ; thiKO in the riMtr diriict thvm backwards ; mid those in tbo oeuin 
turn them bitonlly or acroM ; the wholo troop seeming thiu to ba aotnated 
by oao fiwliug, wbiob watches tho gonciml snfety.* 

The ear of tbo horeo is one of the most benutifnl parts abont him, aaj 
by few things is tho temper mom tiunrly indioiitcd than tiy its motioo. 
Tiio r-ar is more ioteltigibte uvei] thau the «yc ; and a pwrson aocnsloioed 
to tiu'. bane, aud an otmerver of him, can tell b}' ^« oxpressiro notioD of 
that organ almost ail that he thinks or moans. It is a common Mtying, 
that when a boreo lays his oara Sat back upon his neck, aud keeps thom 
so, ho most n«sarotlly is meditMting miachii^, and tho slander by abonld 
beware of bin ho^ or Ms tn^li. In phiy, thu cam will bo laid hack, bot 
not HO decidedly or ao long. A quick chiuigu in their position, and more 
particularly tho oxpresuon of tha eyo at tliu time, will tlistiiigninh botwvcn 
pliiyfuluciia aud vice. 

i'he external cor is formod hj a cartiln^ of an oral or cone-like *bap(\ 
flexible, yet firm, and Icrminatino' in a [loitit. It Iiax, dirrctcd towards the 
side, yot somewhat pointing furward. a Urge D|K.-iiitie <'xtmding fWtm Iba 
top to tho bottom. Tbo iutvuLion of this is to collcol the sound, and 
oonrcf it to tlie interior part of tho ear. 

The bearing of the horse is remarkably acute. A thousand vibrations 
of the air, too slight to make any impmsion on the human car, aro readily 
porcmvod 1^ him. It ia well known to every huntine man, that the cry 
of the hounds will be rocogiiiiti'il by the horse, and his ears will ho erect, 
and he will be all spirit and impatience a oonsJderablo time lidbro the 
rider is conscious of tho least soond. 

Thinenntom of cutting the cars of the horae ori^natcd, to its sluuno, in 
Oirat Dritaiu, and for many yean was a nractioe not only cmel to tlio 
animal, hut depriving him aLo of umeh of his beauty ; and was so obatt- 
tialely pnrsncd. that at length the deformity become in aomu hereditary, 
and a brood of bones bom n-ithont oars was prodnced. Fortanalrhr (or 
this tooK)A«D abusod animal, erupping ia not now the (bahion. Some 
Uuntghtlcm or nnfepling yount; men endeavoarod, a 1it4lc while a^, *gata 
to intnxlncc it, but the voice of i-eaaon and hnmanity preraikd. 

This cartilage, tho conek or shdl, is attached to the head by ligaments, 
and sustained by muscles, on which its action depends. Il reslii apon 
another oartUwe, roond without and incgulnr within, called Ibe rtwaaliir, 
riog-liko, cartimge, and conducting to the interior of the ear; and it i* 
Uknriso snpnortod aud moved by a tliird small oartOage, placed at tba 
fore part of the base of tho conch, and into which aereral mnsclea an 

The oar is oororad by skin thinner than in most other parts of the Iwdj; 
and ahogetlm- dnrtitnte of tki, in ordrr that il may not he too bnlky and 
fcaavy, and may be more easily morcd. Under thu >kin lining the uunda 



carinago arc nnmcroos glands that eccrrfc or tlirow ont a scaly 
R* grtatf matter, wlijch nuiy be rabbi»l off by tlie lingor, and ia 
Uonl (o Bnppt« tliia pnrt uf the iiir, and to keen it soft and smootli. 
Dw tliia are otli» glaiula, wiiicli pour out a peciiUaJ-, sticky, bttU-T fluid 
I wax — probnbly displeasiDg to insects, and thorofoi'o det^i-i'iii)- tticin 
I crawling dovm tlic car and iumoying tbo nniinnl, or by its Btickiiiesa 
■lllliim thoT progn-nt. 

t inlemal part of Hat condt i* covcrcsl with loug hair, whicli iilands 
I the pwaage in ove^ direcliou. This likewnsi> is t« proleot Ibo «tr 
[jawcta, that can witfa difficulty penetrate throogh this thick dt^funcc. 
1 cold air i» likowiso prevented hvm rwiching the interior of the ear, 
i tlie •ennd i« moderated, not arreat^'d— jtciic-tiutitig rcflditjr Imt not 
Dlantlf — and not Ainhing iujuriouBly on the membrane covering tiio 
M the car. C&n theeo purposes be accomplished when it in the 
, of BO mftny c(u-tcrs and grooms to cot out the hair of the ear so 
' (SoMly and indimtHoiuily a* Uirjr do F The groom who Hinges it to tho 
foot with a candle citlic-r be very ignorant or very bratal. It mil 
tXj h* aocomf^hod without siugi'iug; the car aa well ah the huir. 
' a troablMome aore ia occasioned by this; and many a horse tliitt 
perfect]/ qoiet boforo rmidered diSiciilt to handle or to halter, and 
' disposed to be otherwine vii-iooH, from a recollection of the pain 
b he nflered during the absurd and barbarous operation. 
JSm aottnd collecled by the oun^r t-ar paitsi's tlirotiKb tlm lower op 
ir, rin^f-shapcd earitla^, and through irrcgularitloa wliicit, wbilo 
' break and modify it, convoy it on to another canal, partly cartilugi. 
I and partly bony, coadncting immciiintoly to tho intcmnl mechauiem 
'if tlw car. Tniii canal or pa«m^ ik called the extcniul audiUiry piu)f<nge, 
■id at ^10 base of it ia jilaoed, strctebiug across it, and elotiiiig it, a thick 
ud elutie memfanuie, twrniirana bjjiipani, called the membrane of the 
dram. TUanMBkbrme ia supplied with unmerous itbrrx, from the fll\h 
pair, or aenritiTe norre of tho hciul, for it is nccosBary that it should pos- 
nn extmno ocniiibitity. 

Between this membmoe and a (mailer one abnost opposite, leading lo 
the (till interior part of tlie ear, and on which the nerve of bearing is ex- 
msdni. are four little bones, united to these membranes and lo each oilier. 
Ilwtr office is to convey, more perfectly than it could be done throufjh the 
I air of the cavity, tbo vihrntionit tlint have reactiod tho ntembrana 


Tmh boutfa are connected together, and are covored by a cartihiginoua 
calataDM, elastic in (he great^vt dcgroc, by means of wliicb the force 
of the Tilnation is niach increased. 

It is convened lo a strangely irrcgnlar cavity, filled with an n(|Ucou8 
laid, and the mbatanco or pulp of the partio mollU or hoI\ portion of Ihn 
asvmth pair of uerrea, tho aitditonj nerv^, expands on the membrane that 
fines the walls of this cnvity. 

Somd is propngnted far more intcnnply tlirongh water tlian Ihmngh 
■ir. and thercforo it i« tliut an nqueouii fluid oi-ciijnoi thono chnuilM-rM 
of the ckr on the walls on which the auditory nerve ia eii>a&ilcd. By 
this contnranoe, and by others, which wo have not space now to nar- 
rate, the MStse of bearing is fntly eqaal to every possible want of tbe 

The Sy4 is a most important organ, and comes next under ooniridcra- 
tioo, sa enclosed in the U>ncs of Llit- skuU. The eye of the horse should l<o 
krge, SMsewluit but not too prouincut, and (he eyelid line and thiu. If 
the ere is sunk in the bead, and iijii»irenHii little --for there is actually a 
*»tfti"g difiercnoe in the ei«e of the eye in animals of the same 8^oui«:<t 



Uid bulk, and Uuit (vvming diflerence arises &oin tli« Iarp«r or smAlkr 
opeaiag iMtwees tlio lids — and the lid is Ihirlc, and rapocinlly if thero ia 
any pttcfcerilUf toTarda the inner comer of Hui lids, Umt rvc cither ia 
discaacd, or Ium lately been nubjcct to diMAae; and, particolarlr, if ooa 
ej« ia smaller than tliu otbcr, it liaa at no gnat dutaaoe of time been 

Tbo eye of the hone enablee na with tolcmblo accuracy to gnou at hta 
temper. If mach of tfae irUito is bcto, tbc bujrr ithoatd panto ere bo oom- 
plctaa Ilia bai^hi ; b?cauiic', nlthongb it may, yut very niruly, bappen tliat 
tlie eontea or tTuo>i|iarcQt part ia mniataralfy small, anil tlMvefora Bo nit- 
lunal porUon of thu wliite of tbe eye is seen, expcrienoo boa shown that 
tiiia duplay of white is dangerons. llic miscliic^ooa hone ii slyly on tbe 
look out for opportumUM to do mischief, and tbo tiv(|niciit book ward direc- 
tion of Uie <grc, wbem tbo white is mvai perecptiUe, la only to give mrer 
effect to (he blow which he ia about to aim, 

A citraoiy deaeriptioo of tbe eye, and tbo oscs of ita diSeront part^ 
must bo given. 

The tjt» arc placed at the sido of the Iniad, bnt tbo direction of the 
conmd cavity wliich tbcy occnpy, and of tbe aheatb 1^ wluoh they am 
0ni7O>andcd within the orbit, fpvea tbem a prorailini; directioit forWwdi^ 
m> that tbe animal has a veiy extcnd(»i field of iision. Wo most not 
aiuiert tliat the ore of tbo horso commondfi a whoW iipbcre of vision ; bat 
it cannot be dtuuvd tlint bis cyca ore pliuxxl niurv forward than tbow of 
cuttle, sheep, or swine. Hu nxiuirus au eiU-usivL- field of vision to wan 
him of tbe approach of his enemies in his wild state, and a dircctioD of 
tlio orbita oonndenbly forward, in order to ooablo him to puvao with 
safety tbe hoodlooR conreo to wliicb w« somrtimm urge him. 

Tbe eyeball ia [daocd in tbc untcu-ior and niust eajMcaoaa part of tbe 
orlnt, nsftrcr to the fionlal than tbe tempoTttl aide, with a degree of promi- 
Bonoe ntying with diflbrent individuals and tbo will of the aninioJ. It 
is prcitoctod by a bony soekel booeath and on tlie inside, bnt ia partially 
t^xpoKtHl on Ibo roof and on the ontcidc. It in, however, coveted and 
Bocaredfar thick and powerfiil mnsolca — by a uf ndipoae matter 
which iadistrihntedtOvarionaiMrta of tbe orbit, upon which tbe eye may 
be rcodity moved withont friction, and by a sheath of consiilerablo deosily 
and firmncM, and capecially where it is most needed, on Uio externa] and 
mp«rior porlions. 

The adiposu matter existn in a conHtdcrable qnantily in the orbit of the 
eye ofthenone, aud enables that crgaanadily to rvrulve by tbe slightest 
ooutniclion of Iho muscles. By the absorjitiou of this faity mattrr ia 
Nckness or old ago, tbe eye is not only to a cmrtoin degree sunk in tbc 
orbit) bnt the roof of the orbit postorior to tlio frontal bone, being deprived 
of ita aapport, it oonsiderubly dL-preiuwd. 

In fiont the eye is covered and protected by tbe lids, whieh, ch>«iiig 
Tspidly, secure it from many an injury that threatens — diflnso over it 
that tnoistore which is nocessary to preM>rvo ils (mnii|nivncy — in Ike 
noaamtarj act of closing give a coftain and sufficient rmpite to a d ct ica W 
organ, which would otherwise be fktigned and worn out by the conataal 
riareofday — de&nd it when the eye labours nnder indiunmation ftom 
file ttimBloa of light — and, gradually drooping, pennit the animal to eajejr 
that repose wliicb nature reqaircs. 

Exlendin)j^ ronnd both lid*, and, it may bo almost nid, barisg luillMr 
oriifin nor initortion, is a muscle called the orhietJarit pafytbrmmn, tt 
rir<-uUr mnsclr. Its olTiec is to cloM the bds in the act of winking or 
otlirrwisr', but only while the naimal is awatfi<. niien be liWpa this it 
eOeded by another and very ingeaioiia mcebanism. The naUual state of 


■ (^'Adbf ts tluit of Ucini; closed, ftnd iJii-y oi-g ki'pt open bj iJic ciifrgy 
\ho taxacU» vLost' vIBce it is U) nuse tin* upper UJ. As sleep Ktcnls ujioa 
, MBinal. theaa muscles ctaau (o net. aiid tlio llik clusei Ijy Uie iahriront 
' otiiiiO merabnce of which t'hi'j nrs composed, 
iin of tfac lid i«, liko that of thu cor, oxcc'cclinglv fine, in oi-diT to 
at nimcctoaty weight and protourr on iruoli a piut, ncd to give mora 
eWf ud exteiuiive motiun. The lidu cIom! iiccarut*.'Iy when drik>m over 
«7<V and Uiia b dTi-dcd hy a litllu strip of camluge at the edge of 
% of them, which toaj be eosilj folt u'ilti the linger, and prenurvea 
I in a hoopKke form, and itd»pt« thctn cloNoly to tbo cyo atid to I'Oich 
Tha kiwcr c*riala«s howorcr, dons not pmscnt, townrds ttio inner 
' of the tijL', the whole of its flntHurfttcc to tiic npper, but it evidently 
I inward, aad oidj- the oatw edge of the under !id tonches tho utippv, 
mcana » little gutter is fonuei], throogh whioh tlie saperlluuun 
I of the eye Bows to the inner comer, whcro there ia a eanttl to 
, awajr. By this contrivBtifo it neither accnmnktcs in the eyo 
saa&ntlj nuiit down tbo <ihcek. 
J tbeedsut^lhulids are[>laced nuineroos littJo bollowK, which 
cut be plainly dtstiDguiahed even in tho living horse by slightly turning 
dnra too IhL These are the openings &aiD the meibomian or eiliiiry 
gkodi oontaiQiiig a Uuck and nnctnons fluid, by mctins of which the 
ma am mora accnnl«ly doted, and the edges of tho lids defended from 
ibe acrimoDy of the tears. 

Tkt bone has no eyr&rmce, and the ft/thiiJieg are very peculiarly nr- 
nnj^Ml The rows of hair are longest and most uanieroas on the upper 
lid, aad especially towards tlic enter or tempoitil coviKir, iKcnnso tlm tJi^ht 
CGDiee from above; and, m the animal etn-nds, particularly wlien hc< is 

^pu■a^ and Irem the Iat4tml Kitnatioit of his <:jcfs, the greater portion of 
wliglrt,aiid tbeattsdutof inaecte, and the rolling down of moi.ilurf, 
vesUTchieBy be from Ibe ontslde or temples. Towards the iriner comer 
rfllie upper lid there is little or no eyelash, because there is no probable 
ittgeror sniaaDoe in that direction. Only a smult qnautity of light can 
iite from Wow, and therefore the lasbeB are thin and iihort ; but an, in 
ibttttotgnBOg, initeotsmay more readily climb np and bo troublesome 
lettacrfe, towards the inner angle, there the principal or only bwr is 
tad «Q tlte lower lid. These apparently tritling circumstances will not 
U enrlookod by tho carpfnl ob!H!rver. 

Tb^ who are unBcquninted with tlii^ ubHurditJea of stuble management, 
vrtoharenotoarelully exuniinud the abuses that may exist iu their own 
tiiililiiliiiiiiitii, can scaroely believe the foolish nnd craol practices of sumn 
nrtMs and grooms. When the groom is anxioim thnt his horse shoutd be 
•■ tnm and seat all orer as art can make him, the very eyelashes are 
casaOy mcrificcd. What hiM tJie poor auimul suffen^d, when, troroliing 
■ &enoan of day, the full tilaxu of tliu sun has fallen upon his eyes; auu 
bov Baay aecidenta have probably happened from his being dazzled by 
fta Brittf which have been attributed to other caases I 

ITwe bone has no eyebrow, there arc eeverol hairs or bristles sc»tt«red 
oa tW Bpper ejrtdid, and there is a projecting fold of Uie lid which dis. 
dsi^w Borty the naie olEoc. tt is moru coiiB]>ii.-uauB iu old horses than 
jB nnnv onea. Some horvemcn do not like to see it, and nsaociate the idea 
flf it wiui wedmesa or discaee of tlie cyo. This is perfectly erronuous. It 
is a fcoriaoD of nature to accomplish a cci-tAin puqiose, and has nothing 
lo ds «Aar wftb health or disease. 

On Ae lowvr lid is • mtvfnl provimon to warn the horso of the near 
M pcpa t h ^anj objoct that mi^ht incommode or injure him, in the form 
at long pnyocting tain or bnstlcs, which aro plontcously imbued with 



BCTvous influonc«, so that the sL'^htont toucli aboultl pnl thi! animal on his 
^lard, Wo would ivquwit onr rcAdyi-s lo toQch very slixLtly tlie filn-mity 
of ono of thcso Imirx. Tlicy will bo surprised to olwcrvo the suddt^ii ood- 
mUiv* twitfluiig of tlio Ud, rendering tim nttnck of tho iasect absolutely 
iiii|)aasibli^ Tbo grouuis, liuwuvc-r, wlio cut avmy tlio eylaahu, do not 
spare Htvte amful (w\vra. 

The eye is exposed to tho action of the atmosphuHo air, aud the procrw 
nf ovaponitioD, destructive of iti; transparoDcy, is continoally KOing on. 
'i'ho eyo of t,\xo boreo, or tlto risiblo pnrt of the ore, is, likewise, mora 
piMininent BJid IftTger than in tho homnn being. And tho nnimal is oft«n 
Kubjcnt to extreme nmtoyftuci! from duit and inac-ctx, while ho bu no 
bands or otbur giuutl lo defend hiinsclf from the torture wbicji th«y ooc^ 
siou. What ia the provision of nature against tbis ? Under, and a littlo 
within, tbe outer corner of tho upper lid, is an irregular body, the Itiehry- 
mai gland, compnrativi^ly Inrgor than in tho hamiin binnj;, sroivting ui 
lujncoiis Ruid, wtiich, uliiwly iwraing from tho gbuid, or occiuii<miitly prv«8^ 
out of it in the act of winking'. 6owa over the ev^, HuiijilicH it witb moutikro, 
ftnit i--leiinw!!i it from all iinpunties. Uitmau uigi-nuily couM not baro ■•- 
tcL-luI a situation from which the fluid could bo conveyed over Iba i^' 
with more advantage for tJiiR tmrponc. 

When this fluid is socratod in an nndncqnnniitrand flows over the cm 
it » callad Uan. An incrcastrd Bow of tcun is produced by •artliiii^ tnsit 
initotes tho tyo, and, therefore, a couHtaut accompaniment and symptom 
of inllunmation. A horee with any deL-ree of iveeping Bhoold bo rcffwded 
Mrith mneb ansmdon. In the human Wn^ tut nniisua] secretion of tean 
is often oansea by bodily pain, and emotaoiu of tho mind; and so it is 
oeeadonally in tho horse. Wo bare seen it repeatedly under acute pain 
or brutal usage. John TjawrcnoR, speaking of the cmelty eiemsod by 
some doalen in what they eull * firing ' a horso before be is I<xl ont for 
sale, ID ordin- to rouao eveir spaxk of mettle, says, ' more than fifty yean 
have passed away, and I have befom my evos a ]>oor mare stone blind, 
ex(]nis[te3y shaped, and showing all the marKis of high blood, whom I saw 
nnmetvifully out with the whip a (lunrtiT of an honr before tho aale^ to 
bring her to tlio use of her stifleued lirabci, w!iile IKa (tars wn trieUoM 
down her cltoek*.' 

Having passed over the eiye. the fluid is conveyed by the Httle canal to 
vhidh ws have alludeil. formed by the sloping of the under lid, towards 
the oomer of the eye ; and thero aro two littJo orifices that conduct it to 
a small reservoir within, and at tlie upper part of the lacbn-innl I<obs 
(fig i, p. 145). A little protubunmoo oiablaek or pied cotonr,' callnl tbs 
rttnintie, placed in the roiy comer of the eye, and to be sera withoat 
opening tlie lids, is 8itn&t«d between Iheae onfices, and gwdea the flaid 
into them. Vrom thix re-«erToir the teaiv ara conveyed by a long eaaa^ 
the laehrymtU duel, partly bony, and partly membnnoait, to tbo lower part 
of tbo noso. A littlt- within the niMtril, and on the dirimon between iha 
noattiK is sorn the lower opening of thia canal ; tho aitaatioti oif which 
abonld lie carefully ohaen-cd, and its real use home in mind, for not onl^ 
borstmcii, bat even some careless veterinary surgeons, have mistakea tt 
iw a glandetoas nlecr. and have oondcmned a nadiil and valoabla aauwL 
It is tound just before tbo skin of the mazxie tomunatoi, and the more 
delicate membrane of the nostril oomimiices. The opening <if the canal is 
placed thus tow because the membrane of the nose is exceedingly delioale, 
and weald be irrilalvd and made sore by the frequent or conslaab roaniag 
down of tho tears. 

Tltere is, however, something yet wantiag. Wo have a provinon fir 
sngiplying the eye with requisite moisture, and for washing from off tlM 

Tint SBJreoRrAL pi'scnot*. iti 

, pari of it iuaecte or dust Umt mar annoy the What 

faMOiwM of tlik'sc impurities when tbos wwhea olTP Arf tlioj- curriifl l:^ 
Um !<■« to Umj ccniw of tho oyc, and go poag down this diwt, mid trritato 
And abstract it; or do tlicjr uoRumalutc at the iirnDT angle of tlio vyo? 
TbcTC is ft bcantiTul ooutrivsncv fur dispcwmg of thom as (set ns they accu- 
lBal»t«^ Coiice«fed irithin tli« imicr coruur of ibu eye, ur just at tlia 
m»tpii of it, black or pied, is visible a triangalar-«ba^ed cartilu^i!, tlir kaw, 
wtik ita browl part tbnrords. It is ooacave within, euctl; Ui atut tJm 
^ob» of tho Cfo ; it i* convex n-ithont, itccDrnto);- to adnpt it«eLf to the 
mnbrnaa Umug the lid; and tltv buac at it is rcilocod to n thin or almost 
aliBip ed^ At the will of tho auiinal this is anddcnly protnidod from 
its faidiog-'place. It passes isindlr over the eye, and thoveb np oroy 
Bttltannt uuied with tho t«ara, una then botng speedily drawn bade, the 
dast or insect ia wiped away u tho oartilagv again posses nuder the conter 

How t* this nuuiaK«d ? The ouiilogo ha« no mnitole attnchod to it ; 
■ad the Umba and tho different parts of tho body, when put into motion 
hj the inflnencc of the trill, are mored invariably by niusctca. Tho 
^wrtwiiirn, hovergr, ijt ximplo and oBcctual. There is a considerable 
•MM of &tty matter at tho h^k of the eyp, in order that this organ may 
bs imrfj mored ; and tlua Ebt m [urtivuhu'ly acoomnhitMl about tno Inner 
fomcr of iho eye, and beneath, and at the point of this cortilngo. Tho 
qv of the hone has likewise rery stronj; mosclua attached to it, and anp, 
yewJiar to qnadropeds, of axtmonlinary power, by whose lud, if tJte animal 
Im ant bands to ward off a dansor that lhrcat«>na, he 19 at loaetenabkd Ui 
draw the eyv back aknojit out of the rmch of that danger. 

Dost, or gravel, or lUHects, may have entered tho cyo, and annoy the 
konfc This moselc suddenly acts: Uic oyc is forcibly drawn buck, nnil 
preMOt apoo the &itty matter. That may be displaced, bnt cannot bo 
ndaoed into Ims compass. It i» forced fiolcntly tiwards the inner coruer 
(€ llw ajv, and it ilHvrs before it Lhc hnn- ; and the huw, baring Iikcwiso 
Bn# &t abinit ita point, and being placed butwocn tho eye and an excood- 
in^ cmooUi aud polished bono, and being pressed upon by the cyo as it 
isTuknUy drawn bade, shoot* ont with the rapidity of h^hLning, an<l, 
{Bded by tbo ^vlids, pr^rjccte ovor tho eye, and thus carries olf the 
tAndi&g matter. 

In what war shall wo dr&w the haw back again without mnscular 
•dion ? Another principle is called into phtr, of which mention has 
ibmdj been made, and of which wo shall hare much to say — ehiednty. 
b is tbat principle by which a body yields to a certain furce imprcsHi'd 
^on it, and retams to its former state ba scon as that force is n-niuvcd. 
It is tbat by which tho ligiimcnt of the ttc'ck (n. 15^), while it supports 
lb* baad, enable* the horve to graze — by whicli tho hnnrt expands nflcr 
**"^-y en and propi^lling fbrward the bloud in itx ventricles aud tho 
Srtnj ecmtracts on the blood that has distended it, and many of the niost 
ia y o rta nt Ainctktna of life arc inflnenood or govcnicd. Tliis muscle ceasea 
te act, and the oyo rcsnmcK its natural mtnation in the orbit. There ia 
roon (or the latty matter to return to its jplaoe, and it imm(<ilint«!ly rctnnia 
hr IIm daatjcity of the tncrabraiie by which it is eorercd, and draws after 
It this eartila^ with which it is connected, and whose return is as rapid as 
was tbe prctfectkm. 

n# oU arrivTB strsngoly misnndcnttond the nature and design of the 
law, Bi>il many at the present day do not sct^m to he mnch betlcr uiformod. 
Wban, from aympathy with other iiarts of the eye Inboaring under in- 
Camaatien, and becoming itself itmamed and incrcaeed in bnlk, and the 
lM<n!ilsiiliiim parts likewise thickened, it is either forood oat of its place, 



or TuliintMrilj protrndctl to defend tho vyc fVom lUc iwtion of lighU &nd 
ciiniiot retam, tlipy mittlakc it for nomo injuriouit cxcrpstccncc or Vtimoar, 
and prococd to iiut it init. The ' hiui in thv evL- ' in n difMiuic wi'll kndwn 
to the mnjoritv of grucimit, and tlii* Mud r«raeuy for it iit <1<.imii(.-<I the only 
cure. It w u Durbaroua iiraotifi-, and if they were coin|ifl!i^ to walk linlf 
B doi«n iml(\'( ill a thick duat, without buinjf pcrmittod lo n i[M- or to vlemtiMi 
tbo (^e, they would feel tho torlare to which they doom thia uobk* knima]. 
A littl<; patieuw having bcCTj exorcised, and » few coohnf; applications 
mnilo to thi-- cyi! wliilo the infinrontatJOD Iftstod, and afl«rwanls sonve mild 
nstringi-tit oiicn, atid other proper mmns Iwing iiniptoy«d, the tnnunr 
wniild biivu dinELppoared, thi> haw woald hiivc rctnmc-d to itfi plntMi. and 
t!ir (iiiinml would have dischnrgwl the duties ntiuired of him iritbout 
iiicouvfuience to himself, ioKtonir of the agoiiy to which an unguiLrdcd and 
uiiprolcctwl eyo moat now (otposo him. 

The loss of blood oocuioaed l>3r tho cxdiuon of tlie haw m«y frcqaenUy 
relievo the inflniiLrajttJOD of the vy* > and tho cvidL-iit aDumdiiK'nl wliich 
follows induces tlic«o wiso men ta boIi«n) thiit thi^y hu.i'u performed au 
excellent operation ; hut tho samo Ioh of blood by scjiririuution of tbo ove<^ 
loEtdod vcMoU of the coujunotjvu, would be (.■[[uuUy bi'UL'ficifll, aiid tlui animal 
would not bo depnred of au instruineut of admirable use to hire. 

ITm) oyo ia of a globular fisutw, yet not a perfect Kl'>bo. It i« rathor 
compoiied of part« of two globes ; the half of one of ibem smaller and 
tranflporcRt LQ front, and of tbo other larger, and tho coat of it opaqno^ 
Iwliiud. Wo shall most oouTcniently bc^ with tho coats of ttio oyo. 

A B a inripo«e<l obJMt TJMrfJ br tlio aninutl, and an invrrl'd jnug* ot vhich, «, 1^ 

iVrown oa the rriiQn »l ihn b*<li of th" rjr. 
d t The rayi pnMi>«dint( from ihi' >itrr-inittr« of Ibe olgpct lo the 'jm. 
c e The point* whrm ilii> mn^ bmriag puupj Uio eonisa and Icni. omnrga hj Iha 

(rftwliv* povor of tbr Inut. 
/ The nirw«, or bomj bp-1 trftnapar«ii( |vt of the tjr, eoretvd bj Om an^w^dm, 

aniens dlSbronl pan* k«MDi^. 
TbKci7NAtna(«i7«ul or glwgrjlMii^ behind the pqpit, and iaft«Gt of Uw ritiMW 

Niucles of Ihie eye 
Thr optic nrrvv^ or um* of ngJtU 
Tbv utrralica (bard flrtn egat) cortti ^ the whole of th* <j« ocMpI tha pottiM 

ocnipied by tbo ootnia, and bMng a anaiiBg proloiipuion of Ibe eoncinf <if ite 

The eian^As (netflscje or mveringX nr rh'rrii nnt rriTrnil irjihilihit tmititw 

or paiat. 
The irii Off Tainbow-coloBtvd tiieaUt mianhniiio udiIpt th>' tomM. tn (raat of tha 

rjv, aod on which rb* folnur of t^ ey* Jepeoda. Tbn dupUmnre brhiarf la A* 

oiro, &D« beiii£ <oloiiml lih* a p^g*- The opening in tb* tBuUn ii tha f^fi- 
The «tliuy (luu>liRe) f ioc t mi * . 
thf rrtBM, or nct-llka eapannoo of llie c^itio ttem, (pn«d oritr ibe whol* of tfa 

dlONddM M br «a Ihn leoa. 
ThaTitn«M<glaM-Uk«)kBniourfItliu£ the whole cf the eatritj <4 Urn n* 

Tb* aquraof (vBtrT'£ke) btunonr flUiiig ibo iipa<« brtwwu tha conira and the 







T^ eet^Tirti'ra, f, is Outt nicmlirJinc vrliirli linos (Iio lido, and ooTcre 

h*- fore part of tlm oyp. It ■pr'cinU over all tliat wo can aeo or fpcl of tbo 
tnat it* ItiMiiintuviit purt, luitl in thm rrHccfd over the ink'fuiil 
I of tbe liil. 1( in itaelf tnuiaparunt, und ImDHinita tli<^ colonr of tko 
larta l)«ti«*tb. It ia vcrj gaaoeplible of Jnllaiiimation. iluritig which tlic 
tiaiiig of the lida will twcoins intensely red, and the wTiitc of thu pye will 
be fint ^rtaked witb rrd vruh-'Ih, itnd thra covi-mtl with n mmt'lclc luuiih 
of than, >nd Ihe oomea vrill Wcomi- i-luudj* and opHJiui-. It in the scuit of 
Twiooj diacMM, and, pftrticulai-ly. it fi»t &anouncea t\ial aad iailumimitioi) 
of tbo horae*s nj^ wnicih bids dc>finncfi to iiiv Yetcria&ry sorgeou'd skill 
ftnd slmott inrtiriubly lcrmituitv« in blindness. 

The exBiniastion of thu coujoucLiva, bjr tnruing Aowo tb6 lid, will cn- 
■Ub us to form an accurate judgmeDt of tho degree of infbuuniatioa wbicli 
ezittH m the oyo. * 

CoTcriag the bade pttrt of tlie eyi', and indiHid fuur-fiflba of Oie gloho 
of it, is the KWvhVo, it. Il is an exceedinglv stronf; momhninK, <.-oiiii)oH(?d 
of libra* iuti-rwe«riDg with cftch otlicr.nnd nlmost deifying the [tosaibilily 
of Wpftretion. An orgua so d«Licnto luicl bo importnnt OS tlio cji', requires 
me an prattxition. 

Jt t« to » OL-rtiiiu vitmt coTDpnratiTolj- iuohdtic. It ia ncccasaiy that it 
■heald be so. when it ia consiilcrod that the eye is sarrouiidod by several 
Teiy pown-Ail mnsclw, which muKt tcnipomrily, find even for the pnrposea 
nf Tinoa, alter ila form. Thu Hli^bt clusticily nf the sclerotica is usefully 
A w lope d in tawaing the globe of ihe eye to resomo its Ibnnar and natural 
Am, M soon M the action of the mosclo ceases. 

Tb# •cierotica baa scry few blood vcmcIs — is scarecly sensible — and its 
dta^UM, cxoopt when it jmrticijiuti^H in guuenil diatarbanee or disorgunisa- 
tioB, ara tarttj brought uudi-r our notice. 

Tlia earaea ta, or we should wish it to be, the only visible part of the 
honw's eye, for tbe exhibition of mncli while around it is n frpqtient 
mnptom of wickcdnciu. The comeii tilhi up the vacuity which \» lell by 
ih« •derotica in the fore p»rt of the eye, ntid, although closely united 
tu tbesderalica, maybe separated from ir, njid will drop out like a wntcb- 

K' IK. It is not ronad, but wider from niile to side than irom the top to 
bottom; and tbo curve nkther broader tuwurda the imier tlian thn 
outer comer of thn ere, bo that the near eye may be known from tbe ofT 
one afl«r il ia lalteo from the head. 

The oonrexity or pn>jactio<n of the cornea in a point of considerable 
importaiiee. Th« prominence of thu eye ccrioinly a^lds nurb to tho 
baaty of tho animal, but we shall sec presently, when we ooasider tlie rye 
^ Ihe Of^aa of sight, that by being too prominent, the rays of light may 
\m Kadered too oonvergODt, and tho rixion indistinct ; or, if the cornea is 
satf and Rat, the rays may not be convergent onougli, and perfect vision 
dcatmed. In cither case the horse may uuplensaully start, or enddeitly 
a*d dttBgeroosly tora ronnd. An eye neither too prominent nor too flat 
• iD be neerest to perfecltou. 

It ahontd be pnrfecUy trnn«pnrent. Any cloudiness or opacity is the 
etHMoeaeBcr of diieuie. It is an eioeediugly firm aud dense membrane, 
acid (an acarvely be ]nerced by tbe sharpest inatrnment. 'llie cornea is 
(uo^oeed of many dxtTorent plnt^-s, laid over one another; and between 
-fiTTr. •! laaat in a state of health, is a fluUI that is tbo cause of its trana- 
fMWHj', and the erapontion of whicrh. after death, prodnccx the Icadca 
or ^naed app«aranee of the eye. When it appears to be opunnc, it is not 
oAca, and nerer at Brst, that the 4^omca. has undergone any change. 

Within tho •clorotioi, and couneoted witli it by innnmembtn minute 
■hm and tcsKcU, is tho ehuruid coat, I. It is a rery delicate membnuW) 



uul oxUnids over ncwljr tbo wtolo of the inlornal piu-t oT the eyo, Trom 
tliQ optic nerve to tho cornea. It tfocrctcs > <Urk-coloun)d substaooe or 
paint, bf which it is covvred ; the iuluntioii of which, liko tho inddo of 
our l^duttcopes and microacopes, ia proLttbl}- to abHUrb luij wundering lajrs 
of light which might dszzlo and coafaae. Tho block paint, jnffantitmn 
nijrrwn, eccins parfccti; bo dinL-hnrgn this function in th« bnmui eyv. It 
is placed immeaifttely onlaido the rvtica or exponaion of tho optjc DCTTe. 
The niya of light fall on the retina, aJid w-ueUnling ita dclicat* nubstnncw^ 
Bro imiucdiatily absorbed or dcelrOTcd by the black coTcrin^ of the cho- 
lOidOB ondcmcath. For the pt-rfoction of mittiy of bis boat plc«aart«, uitl 
partaonlart/ uf hi.i iat^Uvola^ jiom-ni, man wanta tho vi\-id imprMaion 
which will be caused by tho aduiissJoii of the nys o( light into a pcrfbctlf 
d^rk chamber ; and when tho light of tho son bcgiua lo fiiil, his raperior 
intolli^onco hiia rnnhlcd him to disciiver rariow mothoda of rabBtitatinff 
Ml nrtificikl dny, tSiw the natiiniJ one haa doaed. Other antmaila, withoas 
this pow«r of Kindling tuiothcr, although iiiTcriiur light, have fur more to 
do with the night than wo have. Uauy of them aloep through the glara 
of day, and ar« awnko and busy daring tho period of darknoaa. Tho ax 
occupies come haum of the night in gnixiog ; tltc ahccp doea »o when not 
foldvd in his pen ; and the hone, worked daring Uie dAj for onr oonT»- 
nieuoo and proAt, haa ofWn httle more thau tho period of night allotted to 
him for noarishmcnt and ropoao. tt ia ncceasatT' then that, by aouia 
peculiar and ndofiuiiic oontrirancc^ those hour* of comparatiro or total 
daricneaa to oa xhuuld bo partially yet aoffioientJy iUuninated for them ; 
and therefore, in the horso, the dark>broWD or black coot of the choroidM 
doca not extend over the irliolc of the iDtenial part of the eye, or T«lher 
it ia not foand on any part on whieh the rays proceeding from tbo obJMia 
oonld fhlh It doca not occupy the amtilleat [lortiun of what may bo called 
tiie field of riaion ; but, in ita pla<M, a bright variegated grc«n ta apreftd, 
called the lapefnm IvciJunt, and more over the nppor part than Ifae lower, 
beoanao the animal'a food, n.Dd tbo objocta whtco it ia of conM>quonc!« for 
him to nnticn, tax umially bcilnw tlio level of hia bend — thax, by «nlTering 
the impromon to reniun longer ou the rvtin&, or by aoiuu portion of Ught 
reflated from this Taiiegsted bed on which the r<4iiia n-noees, or in aomo 
other inexplicnblo bnt ofTictcnt way, enabling tho animal, even in com|»- 
ntivo darknvaa, to posaeaA a power of ri«inn m^uaI to his wants. 

Tbo T«ader may aee ia the dnsk, or even when daakinvBM !a fitat yielding 
to uttor darkneaa, tho beantafal acn-greeu reflection ttom the eye of the 
iMtw. It ia that hirid mrirgntt^t rnrppt of which we are now ^leaking. 

Who is nnawaitt that in tbo Ijtding glimmering of tbo oroaing, and eren 
in the darker ahade« of night, hia horse can see aurroanding objeots mne-h 
better than his rider : ana who, resigning hiEaself to the gntdanm of that 
■aoradoaa aod fiulhflll animal, has not bwn carried in safety to his jout^ 
nn's end, when ho wtnild otberwiao have bocn nttcrly bewildered f 

If tho Tvader hna not cxamin<!d tliia beautiful pi^Tnent in the oyo of tlM 
faoreo, ho BhonlJ take the carlieitt opportunity of doing no. Ue will haw 
a beautifnl illuatntion of the oare wcJch that Being who gare all things 
lUb baa taken that each shall bs fitted for hia situation. The horso baa not 
tho intelligonce of man, and maj not want for an^ pai^uee of ploasan or 
improrciDcnt the rivid picture of anrroundiiiK objecU which tM retina of 
the bnmon being presents. A thousand minute bat exqniaite beauties 
would be loat npon him. If, therefore, hia acnae of vision may not bo 
BO strong daring tho day, it is mado np to him by the increased power of 
visioa in the night. 

pBrfedly while and ervara-eoloured horses bsve a peenliar appennuioe 
of tha eyes. Tbo pupil is red instead of black. There ia no Uacic paint or 





^H^mt^^poi. It is Die cboruiJ I'linL iUolt' n-liicU wc rcc in llirm, »n(1 
^Bbtt cotvHi^ ; imd the ivd ftppourauce is canxcd by tLc iiunwruun bluuil- 
VBmilI* whicli ore t'oiind oo cruty port of that coat. 

Wluin wc huvi; Ui txttut, of oUuir domestic animals, wo Khali eco how this 
cartel ia ruicd in coluiu- lo suit tlit- siliiutiuii iiuti nuL-uKuty Drciu^li. lu tho 
dx U is of a dark gnxn. Ho liaa uol ni&uy etiecuieH tu fi-ar, or umvli 
difficulty in scarcbit^ (br noamhmcnt, and the colour of iho eye is ndapkd 
to hia food. In tho cat and all his vuriclics it in yellow. We have hoard 
of die eyes of the Uun ^poaring liku two fliLmitw torches in the nieht. 
There we few of our teadere v&t Imve uol m«ji Qi« wuue tiiu^ulur gluru 
fron tlM oyca of tho doiucfelic cat. lu tbe wolf, aod likewise in the dog, 
vbo^ in hit wild Ntntc, prowls chiefly nt iiight, it IB grey. In tlie poor 
vinnatly-penecal«d bailgrr, wlto BaiTusly' darcii to crawl forlli at night, 
altbongh alueltered by tlic thickest du-kui-iut, it ia vrixiUi : luid thv furret, 
who is deetinod to hunt Lis prey tbrough all its winding rctrcate, and 
it) wliat would bo 141 lis absolute ilarknt«s, hne vo nnint on tlio dioroidcs. 

^^meii^ the oboruidi^s townrdii the furo purt of Uie vyu, we porcvivv that 

u nflectcd from the side to ihu cd^i^ of tlu- Itns, n, luid has the ftppoar> 
*nce of oevcral plaile or folds. They arc actually foldings of the toetliDraiie. 
it is not diniini)dM!il in nzc, Init it hiw Io«s cpooo to cover, nud thcro most 
bo dnplicKtvreji or pluitx. Tbcy aic UBufnlly erapliiyed in tlic place in 
wlueh wo find Ibeiu. They tireveut the pussa^ of any roys of l^ht on tho 
imimiifi of the leas, asd wnicn, proooeding forward in various aii'ectjons, 
■ad QBCondmaml by tbe powrr of the lens, would render vision confascd 
or imperfect. Thme foltU of the cboroidcB one called tlie ciliary procc-itci. 

Oceapying tLe fore part of the eye, is tbe aqueoun humour, q, so terniei 
bcim ila TfTTBiWaaffiT to pore water. It is that by which tbe cornea is prc- 
Mt^eJ ia Us pvotabcrant and ronndod form. It cxtendn to the ctytaUiuo 
\tBB, jTi and therefore a portion of il, although a very muutl une, ia bebind 
(Iw iris. Floating in Uiis fluid ia a membraLnie, witii aa oblong aperture, 
celled the Ini (m, y. \&)). It is iliat which givea colour to tho eye. Tho 
fannuui eye ia said to bo blade, or hnxcl, or blue, according to tlio colour of 
this mcmbmao or curtain ; and it is dcnomiuat^id the iris, or rainbow, 
from its beenliful, intfrtuingliug hues. Tbe colour varies little in tlio 
honei except that it alwnys bears Bonw analogy to thnt of tlic skin. Wo 
tarely eec it lighter than a huxel, or dnrlurr ttinn n brown. Horses per- 
iioctly white, or crean).co1oured, liu\« the m<t vlijtv awl the pupil red. 
When horv.'fi of other colours, and that are usually pied, have a white iris 
•ad a black pupil, tbcv arc said to bo waU-fj/ed. Vulgar opinion Ima 
decided that a wall.«yca bono ia never aubject to blindufsK, but Ibis is 
altogether erruncwuK. There \a no diffeTence of structure that can produce 
tine exemption ; but tho wall.cyed borso, fn>tn tJiis siugnltirond uup1ea»int 
appMnnoe, and his frequent want of breeding, miiy not bo *» much uned 
and expoead to many of the uKual cituseM I'f iuilajunialiun. 

The apertnre in tne iria is tvnued the ju'pil, aud through it light pncms 
to the inner chamber of the eye. The pupil is oblong, and variable in size. 
It diifen with tbe intensity or d(«ree of light thai faUa upon the eye. In 
» daric ainhle the pnpil in i:x])iiude<l to uduiit a great proportion of the 
y^t that &1U upon the cornea ; but when tho horse is hronght towarda 
tbe door of the viable and more liglit is thmwn u]>on tlio eye, the pnpil 
oontiacle ia order to keep out that cxtru qiuuitity which would bo minml 
fc> IIm wiT"*l , *»^ isjvrions to vinion. When opiiosed directly to tno mm, 
the •pertnre will almost cIo.hc. 

Thia altcmtion of fonu in the pupil is ctTocfed by the muscular fibres 
that enter into the ocunpowtion of the iria. There are two orders of these 
Sbree, the circular and tlw atraightormdlating. When tho circolsr fibres 




act, tbo popilUrr opening ix cloiicl^ oontnictcd, b&ring Uic apjiMnum^ nf 
R ainglc lino ; when, on tlic coutmry, the nujiating Gbm are broogbt 
into aotion, Uio pnpil U dilated to its gnfttest «xtent A strong %hl 
induces the action of ihs formor, to Iceara it« ftkct, and k dim light Um 
latter, to admit tb* gmktMt pooriblo ([nncUtj of it. Thv Ii|;ht, hon'trrn*, 
doM sot not on the iris itselT. but on tlie optio ner1-l^, and it U from » 
reflected actioa from the brain titat tbe mnsculnr power of the iris ia 
icfliMDoed. The motionfl of the irig nrc tmtat nil nniler Uin oimtro! of tlie 
will, BOT ia the nnitnnl scnidblo of them. Tlicj' arc produced by apnimthj' 
wiUi tlie aliil* of tho retina. WTieo, howcvw, a deficient portJou orlif^ht 
raaebee tha rvtina, and rision ia indistinct, iro arccnnscionKof nn appnreut 
effbrt lo brinp Ibo object more cIoatI^ into view, and tho fibt«« then ooa- 
tract, and tbe apt-rtiirc cnbtrgct, Rnd more light is admitted. 

This dilatation or oontnutlJon of the pu^ ^vcb a useM method ot 
uccrtaining tbe existence of blindneM in one eye or in both. The 
ooreea and ciTvtalliiie lens remain perfect^ tnnaparent, but the nrtion is 
palsied, and is not stfTootod by ligbt ; and man^ pcmns havt! liccn dcM^rrd 
whan blindni'ss of tJiis daacnpUon baa been confined to one eye. A Itorae 
blind in both ejea will luuaUj hRve his cars in constentand rapid motion, 
dinctiag tlwm in qniclc gnnccuion to OTCry qnarter. He will tikewiae 
lumg back in bis baiter in a peculiar way, and will till bi« (cvt high as if 
lie were stepping orar some obstacle, when there is actnallj- ncShing to 
obstraot his passage, aikd tliere will bo an cridont nncertainly in the pat- 
ting dowTi of his loot. In blindnoss of one eyo little or nothing of this 
chnractfiristic gait and nutnn<!r can be pcrociTcd. Altbongh a ODc-cycd 
liorac may not be a1»olutuly condemned for the common bnnnojw of th* 
camaf^ or the road, he is gcnentlly deterioriated as a bnnlur, for be can- 
not measure his distaaoes, and will nm into his leaps. Many a sporlmiaa, 
puzzled and nng^y at the nuddm blundering of bis horac, oriignrodbyooo 
or mom Klunning tails, Iuls fonnd a tctj natnrnl altbon^ naoxpocted 
explanation of it iu the blindness of one eje, and (hat pertiape pTi>dnoMl 
Ihrovgfa his own fknlt, hy over riding his willing and excellent servant and 
i^Biihfg a dotorminntion of blood to tbo cyo, which profed fatal to the 
delloato texture of the retina. Even for tbe carriage or the rood be is 
considerably deteriorated, for his field of obeerration must bo matcEriallj 

Let the size of both papils So carefhlly noticed before the horse is n- 
noTod from the stable, and, as ho is led to tint door, obnerrc whothertliey 
both contmct, and equally so, with tbe increase of Hgfat. If tlie boraa 
should he first seen in tbo open air, tot it be obeerred whether the pnpib 
ore precisely of the same size ; and let the hand be placed orer each eyo 
altematelT' and held there for a little while, and l(<t it be obwrred whether 
thepnpil dilates with the abstraetion of bgbt, and eqniUly in each ey«, 

fijuging &am the npper edge of the pnpil of the hone* arvtwuorthiiM 
ronsd black snbatanoca, as lai^ ns millet loedii, colled the eorpora wiffru. 
When the horse ia saddJenly broogbt into an intenM light, aod the pttpD ia 
r-loeed, they present a singtilar appenranee, as they ane prcsaod oat mm 
between the edgim of the iris. An equal number, bnt much smaller, an 
attached to thi' etljce of the lower portion of the iris. Their g|eiunl itae ia 
probably (d intercept rays of tight which wonM bo troahleaoKU or ti^Jiui- 
ono, aad their principal fiuctioin is accomplished dnrmgthoactefgrMBiMf. 
They are largiTr on tlio upper edge nf the iris, and are placed on the owler 
aid* cf the pupil, eridently to diRchurgn the same flmction which we h>n 
BttribBtod to the ejeltahea, vii., u> obflimct tbo hgfat in those direotioaa 
in which it would come with greatest force, both ftom aborc and evea tnn 



twlow, while, at the sam« time, the GcId of view is pcrfuutJy open, so &ra8 
' . Rtgaida tha pAstorc on wliich tbe horse is greaiug. 

In OUT cut m girc* n dnpliciiiiMo of tho iris, or the back snrlkce of il. 
I Thia ia okUed the Mreo, uid it in carercd with a thick coot of black mtiouB, 
I to VT«sl the rays of liK^t, and to prevent them &om eatcriDg the cy o in 
\*Btj otbar wa; thaa throogh the pupil. The colour of tht- iris is, in soniu 
I iinkiitnni w»y. coitDcctmi with this bliiofc paint behind. Wall-ej'ed horafs, 
f 'Wrlioia ilia ia while, bavo no avea. 

We now amre »t a body on which all the important uaes of the eye 

FlBMnljr depend, the cfyatolltwa lent, g, p. 160, so callod from lU resemblonoe 

f tos ptaoa of orjatol, ortrnnsparentglaiw. Itisof nj-ieldiug j«lly-likecan- 

r^-^r-"'. thic^r u>d finni'r towards tlie centre, and conTex on eiK'h sidt', 

but mote Codtcx on the poat«rior than tho anU-rior side. It is enclosed in 

I delicate- traosparrat bag or capsule, n.nd is placed between the aqaeous 

tho Tiln<oa>; hnmonra, and received into a hoUow in tbe vitreoua 

r, with whii^h it exat-tlj- corresponds. It has, from its denailry and 

ble convciiLv, the chief concern in conrerging tho rays of light 

I j«as into the popiL 

BAaai (lio Iwta, and occnpying fonr-fiAhs of the cavil}* of the eye, is the 

IctfemNu hufiKur (KlaaKT, or rowunbling glass). It Becms, when find: taken 

fbom the eye, to he of the oonsistvace of a jellj, and of bcatitifiit trans- 

fArODCy ; but if it is punctured a fliiid escapes IVom it as limpid and as tliin 

1 water,aad whcnthishna been sufTcT^Ml cnmplct<ilylo noze out, a tissue of 

tmimaront mombraneona bag* or cells rcmiiinG. The vitremu hamnvr 

httmof Ami 

■ watery fluid conUincd iu these cells ; but the flttid and tlio 
I cell* form a body of considerably greater density than tho aqueous fluid 
in the front of tho oyo. 

Last of all, between tho vilreous huniour and the choroid Cou(, is the 
rWtiut, a, p. 160, or nut-like membrane. It is an expansion of the Bubslancc, 
i, of lie optic nerve. When that nerro lias readied tlu' b<u:k of the eye, and 
nenetiated through tho sclerotic and choroid coats, it firat eulargi^B into » 
littJe white prrrtnincnM^ from which mdiationa or expan»ons of nervous 
matter proceed, which spread over the whole of tbe choroid cnal> and form 
the third tnveaiment of the eye. The membrane by which this nervous 
pulp ia supported, is bo oxeeedingly thin and delicate, that it will tear with 
the alighteat toach, and brvak even with ita own weight. The memhrune 
aad tho pulp arc pcrftsctly transparent in tho living animal, The pupil 
apprarc to be black, because in tho dstvtinio it imperTcctty rc&(s:t« tho 
eolonr of tho choroid coat beneath. In tbednskit is greeiiisli, because, the 
^Bi« of day being r«moTod, (ho actual green of the naiut appeai-s. 

Ob t*"'* QxpanaioD of nervous ptilp, the rays of lignt from surronndiug 
tj^M.(a^ eoodonaed by the lens and tho hnmonre, fall, and prodncing h 
certain imifp oorreeponding with these objects, tbe *"'"'■' is conscions of 
llieir szjatenee and pmcDoe. 

It may, howrver, so happen that from the too great or too little con- 
vcntj of the eye or a portion of it. tho placo of most distinct vision may 
Dot bo immediately on tlio retina, but a little before or behind it. In pro- 
Mrtioa aa tfaia ia the case, the sight will be indistinct and imperfect ; nor 
ahall wo be aMo to ofler any remedy for thia defect of sight. There i« a 
tifima, oflen tho rvault of cowardice or jilayfalnosa, or want of work, but 
at cmr timm prminp, beyond contradiction, a defect of sight even wore 
daagvona than blinduesa. A blind herso will resign himi;i>lf to Uie guid- 
^..^.^i of hk rider or driver ; but against the miacoDCOption und arlartiug of 
a aliTiii^lKRW Uwn> in no deftmce. That horsca ^w ahy aa they k'ow 
oU no ofio aocnatontcd to them vrill dnny ; and no inlelligent person will 
b« alow ia attributing it to the right cauM— a decay in tlio or^an of visioiit 


TiiE SEXsoRr.a fuxctiow 

— » k>8s of conrcsitf in tho ejrv, loMcnuig thi; convergcncy of Uii; rnyc^ 
and Ihroiring the pcriect imaf^ bejoDi], tmd not on Ui« retina. Thiiv in » 
■trikii^ difleivnce in tlio coDTexitv of the cornea in Uie colt and tho old 
borM 1 and botli of tbom, probablj, ranj Ay Anjri oppo«t« oausea — tfae 
one from a cornea too prominent, and tlio ot£er from one too flat. In tbe 
nmul cxiiininaliom of U10 hone prerioosly to purchase, aaffioientattcntioD 
ia Dot always pud to the co a re rity of the oomra. 

The remedy for shying nill bo coiMidcred when wo spcnk of tbo victt of 

There is a proiidon yet wanting. Tlio horn baa a rery extended field 
of view, bnt many peraons are not perhnpg aware how little of it be con 
command at a time. Thcro ia not one of our rMidnrs who nn make oota 
■inglo line of our trcatiao withoat chuugin)^ Ihe direction of the eye. It ia 
ennona to follow tbe motion of the ejes of a rapid reader. Nalnro bna 
siTen no Ims than Boren mnsclos to the horse, in order to turn ibii littlo 
bnt unportaot organ ; and that ibey may net with safEcicnl power and 
qnidnicu, no fewer (ban six nerrcs are tltrcct«d to tho mu«c1cs of the eye 
nnendly. Or to rrarticular onc« — while the eye rests on a inflaa of (at, tliat 
it nay be tomea wiUi little exertion ot power, and without (rictien, 


There are foor straight mnsclow, three of *which, d, e, and /, are repr9> 
aontcd in ear cot, rising from the bac^ of the orbit, anid inMrtcd into the 

ball of the eye, opposite to and 
at equal distnnces &om eadi 
other. One, d, mnx to the upper 
part of the eye, just behind tbo 
tTOnRpnrent and risible portion 
of it, and il« office is oWrly to 
raise tbcoye. When it contracti^ 
the eye must bo drswn upward. 
Another, /, is insi-rtcd rxactly 
ojiposile, at the bottom of tbe 
eye ; and its ofKco ia as eUarly 
to depnas the eye, or enable the 
■aimal to look downwards. A third, e, is inserted a( tbe oaler oomor, and 
llj meens of it the eye ia tonied ontwartl, and from the aatustiou uf the 
eye of tho bono, oonaiderably backward i and the fosrtli ta inserted at the 
inner oomes', turning tho ejro inward. Tbm can thus rotate or tarn the 
eye in any direotton the animal wi'ahes, and by the aotien of ona, or tbe 
combined power of any two of them, tho eye caa be imnediatalT and 
accnratcly diieotod to erery point. 

These mnsclaa, knrerer, have another duty to diecbarse. They aup. 
port the cyo in ita plaeo. In the nsna] position of tbo bend of the borae^ 
IImj must be to a cnrtnin d■^gne timplorrd for this purpoae ; but when ba 
ia granng or feeding, tbe pnacipal wn^bt of the (Qre rests apon tlHm. 
Another naaole is tharefore added, pecaliar to qiiun>|ied«, called tba 
tsfroclor (Amiotr-badi), or tbo futpmtcntu (MMpmspry) mnscle, g. It 
afisca Awns the edge of the foramen through whieh the optjo norra enters 
the orbit — sorroonda the none as it proceeds fiyrward, and then, partially 
diridin^ into foar portMnia, is attncfaiM to the back part of (be eye. \tm 
offir*! is fridmtly to nippiirt thn<7-p (^Derally, or, wlw-n niiJ>l«<ily callnl 
into pownrful auttoii, and uiuiLiIrd by tJM) straiKJit iiia!iolm,itdr*WB tbr eya 
W^k out of the rc*eh of tlirenleuiii;; dnoi^, and in the aot of drawing ** 
back cansM Uw haw to protrude, as an BdiUtiflanl defenoe^ 



power of tUs mnaclo w vcty great It tviulitn aome operationa on 

almost uopoastblcL It Is tui sdmimlilc snbvtituto for tbo waat of 

to defcUMl lh« ejv &om nuny UunKa that would injnn it; and, 

pttrtuUf scparatod into four diriaitMis, it aaaisla the Mnight muaclL-a 

them wnaolw diwliarKe auoth«r ut<3 a mont iraportaiit offioe. If wo 
«f ming DMT and dutant objecis tlLrou^^h a t«t«HCCrpc, w« most otter tho 
Jvemt ; most iticrr-uo or dtmiiuBh tbo length of the tube. Wo most 
ahorteatlalittlo when wcczumi&e distant object*, bociiasotb«m]r8,ooiBiBg 
to us from them iu a Ivs* dtTi>r^i'utdtr<.'ct4un,arBaooncr lirooglitto aniint 
bj- tbo power of the lena. Thua the straight au^ n-tractor musclM ur&w> 
intt back tho cj^r, anil forcing it Upon the sabrtasc* behiod, and in a slight 
dt};nw fla(t«iuiiK it, bna^ the lens ncamr to tho nitinai, kdo adapt tbo e]r» 
to the observation of diiitant objects. 

Still, bowcrver, being constaotiT employed iii snpporting (be weight of 
the tja, them mosclcs may not tie nhlo to turn it so rapidly and so exten- 
sirely u the winhcs or wanla of tbo imitnal rcqniro ; tncivforc tno othrrs 
•n nfandded which are oseil auldy in tnining the eye. They are eallf d 
oltfifo* nawle^ because their oonrae is obliqaely acroas the eye. The 
Bpper one is most cnrioosly constructed, a, b. It oomea from the bock 
|nri ot the orbit, and takes a direction npwiutl* and towards the inner side, 
•ad tbon, joH nudi-r the ndge of the orbit, it posses through a pcrfi-ct 
■wiTiiiiiial poUey, and turning ronod, prooeoda iM:ru«d thv i-ye. uiider tlio 
tendon of the a pgwr straight muscle, and is inserted ralL«r beyond the 
aaddle uf Lhv eye, towards tho outer side. Thus tho elolic of the ryo is 
itly din-dfil duw-nwards and oulwonls. Something more, huwevL-r, 
iplisbrd by this singular mechaiiiain. The oyeis nato rally deep in 
'ita oilnt, that it may be more pcrfeclly defcndpd j bnt it innjf bo iu-<:nsary 
cecMnuoally to bring it forwnnl, and cnlurgf tbo Held of vision. The eyo 
ii MtaaUy pmtrudcd umlt^r the iuCai^nou of fi-ar. Not only are the lids 
0|lil>wl mora widelr, but the eye is bioDght more forward. How is Ibis 
t c onip Kahed ? 'tmen m no muscles anterior to or befurc the G}-e — there 
■B no place for HuSt insertion. Tho object is resdiiy effected by tliia sin- 
gmlarpolk^, e. By the power of this musele.^the (roeAtoaris, or pulley- 
mnadi and Uw abaigbt muscles at the same time not opposing it, or only 
fwnlaling tho dir«ction of tbo eye. it is rtmUy bnmgbt somnnhitt forward. 
Tm lower ohhqao mnsclo rise* jost within tho laohiynml boiii.' (t, p. 1 GG), 
and, proceeding aorasa the oyo, is fixed into the part of the sclei-otica op- 
ponte to the other obIi(|De muscle, and it turns the oyo in a contrary 
diw ct i on, Mttsting, however, the upper oblique in bringing Iho oye forward 
jnnB !<• socket. 




BBAin — 7BB 

yWt hare now arrirod at a convenient realing-placa in our somewhnt Aty 
fjbat Dcceasajy dewcription of tbo stmcluro of the horse, and we willingly 
l-titTTi to mora praettcal matter. AVo will coninder the injuries and dlseoM 
r*f the parts we hATe snrreyed. In entering, however, on this division of 
fcmr work we would premise, that it is impoeaiblo for ns to pve the farmer 
•acb an aceoant of Iho nature and treatment of the diseases of horses 
I will anabie him with safety to practise for himself, except in tho com- 


rREssmE OS tue eraix. 

monoEt OUMW. Tlie cantuM of most dlseascB arc bo obscura, thvir §j-mptui»ii 
BO rnriiible, tiail thisir connection with other tiiutiulicH »o complicntcd aod 
inj:ttt«rioiLS, lli&t A life dpTotd to proftixidunul ntuily will alone quali^ k nun 
to bocome a judiciaas nntl gnraviutul pracliLiuuer oa tlie diaeaitcii of un- horsa 
aod other daiuMtio wiimalit. Our object will be lo commonicate aulCdv'ul) 
instmution to Uiu fa^rmer to enable tiim to net with prom ptnrsH and jnd};- 
meut when he cannot obtnin prafuHsionid tutsistjuioc, to qoulity him to form 
a satisfactory opinion of the skill of t^e TCt^nnuy anrKL-un whom ho 
nwj- (implo^, and, more espeoiallj, to diveat bim of those atnage Mid 
alwnnl priTjudicus which in a mri«br of ca0D6 notonl}'producoaDdpro>lot>|f 
diiituiAe, bat bring it to a fatal tcrnunatioR. 


This oonsila of a sudden intvrraptioii of the fun>i.ians of the brMn, 
cnnscd I7 ioma meohanical iiyniy to the head, such as a fall or riobint 
blow, not Deceosarily accomnnnioa by stractnnd injuiT' to the brain it4wlf. 
It is fi-o(inpnt1y pTMlncRd by the horao nraring aiul foiling baolcwMrda, 
bringing tho huad with Kivnt violunce to the ji^und, or by the animal 
mnning uwuy and ilie hood coming in contact with a wait or aomo bard 
substauce. After tho injury, tho animat gcnemlly licfl motionleaa and in- 
sensible, and ntny cuntinuo no from a few minutes to half an hour. When 
in this statu, ho should be allowed to remaiu fur a time withont being dis- 
turbed, and, in most caeiie, sennbility will qnickly return. The aninud 
baring risen, should be rcmornd into a well wntilntod bnt somewhat darlc 
stable. Ho slioiild Iw kitpt fur a few days porfecti v qnict; a doae of pur- 
gatiru mcdidnt- should bo given, and his diet consist of sod fboda, ncm aa 
brau-madh — when, if do other Bymptdou fHunr tberaselrca, ho may bo 
coBxidored oODTalcacent. Tho tnort Berioni remtlta ithich sometimei follow 
Uiis injury of tbo btiin, are fracture of thn liones of tho skull, or niptura 
of some largo vowol oomni-ctcd with Lhv bruin. 



Tiydattda are oflen fonnd wilhiii the cranial cavity, and lying niion or 
inibntdcd in tlio bruin of oxen and ahccp. Thdrexislonoo ia nsoalnr &tal 
to the animal. There ia uo welKantheDticated account of tk* exutenoe 
of an hydatid in the cranial carily of the faone ; but cyiita, oattkaimn^ 
a acrona or visoid fluid, arc octssionally obaarrad. The following it dw 
bi*tOT7 of one: — A bone exbibiti^ iijrmptonia of vertigo, or sti^cgera, 
which disappeared afler copiouu bk<cding and purgntircs. About twelve 
months afWwards the saiiie complaint was evident. Ho carrtod his head 
low and inclined to tho right side. lie staggered aa he walked, and tlia 
motion of bia limbs wiui marketl by a pconhar action, confined to the fora 
cztremitiea. He movi>d by a Hacoesaioa of epoamodic bo<undinca. Ha 
waa completely deaf; and rapidly lost flesh, althoogh bo ate and drank 
TOfsdonaly. He ramainMl in this state, to the shame of tho owner and 
the pmctitioniv. aovinal Timnti™, utd thm be had n fnrflh nttafilr rrf Trrtign. 
and died sudduuly. On examination of the bmin, its mombnnea wan 
foond to bo completely roddoned ; and between the two lobnt of the braia 
was a mnnd cyst as larm aa a pullet's rgg. 1*ho preaeurv of this waa tha 
nuuiifrst rnoiN.' of tlko rouebtef. 

riii4 niity also be prodnced by some flnid thrown ont between the mem- 
btaooa, or ocenpying and dikti-nding tlio veulriolea uf tbn hntin. In the 
AUl-gTQwn boras it mrely ucL-ani ; bat it is well known to brvrden as aa 
oovnaioaal diioaeia of Uie luol. undur the luune of ' wat4>r in the hoad '— 
hydixMwjihahis, Tbo head ia either maeh enbrged, orstnuij^t'Iy defbraio^ 




■ lariL -, and ttto uima: dies, ritbor in tiie birtb, or a fow 

macb moro commini otuc of presanrs on the brain ui-Uctt 1 

riili dcpmuion of Uu- bouu; wbon an iti:cid<mt occufb cither from a&U or 

1 blow, and it is followed by aa tiiuiu!dui,t« nbitu of Mtnpor or iiuuuKibilitjr, 

wiU be found to bo tbe case, and a carvfnl exuntnaliou of thu craniuiii 

'"mtUI at ottoo dctvct it; or vor]r iMoirlv as rapid a elate of stupor luajr 

w ap err e ae wben, bom the accideD^ a bliiml-Tcsael ismptorcd, and effusion 

■ of Mood on the vur&oe of tbe bnun folluwaL 


Dader Uus head thrM varictifH ar« fkmiliarly known : viz., Stomach 
flf m.i " 1 1. SWpy Sta(7^n, and Mod StaKj^ers. Tbuy all mora or Irjis 
WCiiiMp tinch otb<>r, Hifforing only in their de^roo of violence, and tlio 
CBUta in operation to produce tliem. 


^ til* aanw tndicntMi, n gcncr«11; prodtuwd hj some deranffement of 

the digeattn organ*, conwcqucnt npon Kume rainnanagBmont oitner in th« 

bodiiiK of the animal or in tltu uHturv of tlio food upon whioh he has been 

fid. When the faorao has been k(>pt for some Laura withont eatin);, atid hix* 

t>MD worked hard, and bocomo thnronghl^ hiingty, he feeds ravenously on 

vrvy Idnd of food ho can gnt at, nrallowingit fustfirtbnn hia small stomach 

^ui d^Mt it, and no watvr being givon lo ttuRiii iind hii«t«Q its p^sal^^, 

tfae Itomacb beoomee eramntied, and having U'eii pit^viouslj exhausted hy 

hmg biting, is onaUe to contract npon ils contonts. The food soon begins 

to trmwint and to avrell, oaQKine g>vat distension ; the brain s^mpntbises 

with tJiis DTcrkwJcd organ, and staggers are producpJ. Wo can cueily 

"*tjpnr this, when we remeinber the sad head-achea occasionally arising 

fnw aa overfilled and disordered stomacTi. 

Una diMOM >■ Ibnnd more freqnnnlly in the Ebible of the poetmaster and 
the ftnncr than anvwhcTO clac, Tliirly yestra ago it was tiio very pest of 
'Hw itaHfw. and the I<ms sastalned by some persons was cnDrmous ; but, 
■iTrteniMlT science prograesed, the niU-oro and the causia nf tliit diiwaeo 
*■< bcttflr nndsrstood, and thcro is not now one coso of Hfaggt^ra whoro 
tmn^ nsod la oocnr. 

IWsfstem ofhoree inanugumuiit is now essentially changed. Shorter 
■Mms, a dirinon of the labour of the day, and a inifGcicnt int«rvRl for resti, 
W far feeding, havo, mmparativcly snmking, hiaiinhed tloToaeh rfaggerw 
^mho >tabj«s of tho pdHtmuatLT. Tliu division of the Bumiitiff and 
'^'■■ooa labour of the farmer's horse, with the introduetion of that 
l'9'*hnt invalnable contrivnnco, i!'e Tions-bag, having rooderod this die* 
"■■ eonpaiativcly mro in tho extithliiihnicnt of the aericnltnrist. To tho 
T^ VrobnoT Coloman wo are indebted for some of these most importuut 

.liiiK«ca are more mbjectio etnggera than yonngon<«, for the stomaoh 
''kcome weak by tbo ri^pntition of the abuses jnst dceoribed. It has 
"* power lo digcut and nspcl the food, and thus becomes a source of 
P***!, aad p«rtiouIarly of cerebral, disturljaiico. 
Baii u s al gnas are occasionally attnckcd by thtti discaee ; but tboy are 
"TiUy poor, haid-workMl, bulf-vtarvcd animals, turned on riohor pusture 
iheir impiured digmttvo organs are equal to. I'crbupii tho weather is 
", the sj-inpathy of the brain with tho undtiu labour of tho stomach 
ohOt excited, and a datonnimtion of blood to tho brain more 
"•tflf effected. 

Mr, Percivall gives a very satisfaotory illustration of tlio production of 
■mm in this way. Ho says that ' when his &ther first entered tko 



wn'ics of tt>o OiilnAiice, it vrui Uie cnatom to tarn bonMM wlituli IjaJ 
Imoodm low in oonditJoa, bat wre atill well upon Ouar lega, into llio 
BiMiihti^ in order (o rMniit their etranglh. During the months of Julj, 
Aagnst) and Soptembor, aothinff wm moro oonunon thnn »n nttarl- of 
fltaggcn raKNig Umw korvct, ana wliiefa yn» nrntniaDj attributed to tb« 
iQxnrinot putai* thqr wen turned into, combined with tLe dependent 
pDilore of the head, and tiio saltrr hMt to which they wers fixpoaM.' 

Wlt«Q the boreo ia »t(nckM) with xtomach Htiiggm, he grnrmlljr^ypMn 
dnll Biid nloopjr, iU«ndiii^ with bin head huiging duirn, uiid iiumiotied fagr 
the nunger, or tioahed forward agsisBt (ho wall, l>i>?a(hiug ht-avilj-, vrilh n 
alow, oppniBaed palace bowols eonatipalod and sbdonM^n fr^qnentlj dis. 
tended. He alaeps or eci^nm to do m, aa h« stand*, being panlj* nnccn- 
adona of RiTTonDaing objects. Wlicn arooMd he wilt look vuf anllj^ aroniM), 
pcrluip«Bnioaloekofha7, and dOM again with ilin liia moalh. He nwj 
coutinuc in this state for aev«r»l dajrs, and will cither begin alowlj to 
teoover, or the ajmiptoma will take a more Ttolent fi>rm and tenninate 
Filherio apoptc^^ or phienitia. In regard to the taxatmcnl, it will be 
Tuxcimiuy for the owdBT or the Vttornary attendant lo iuMilulv veir care- 
ful iuquirj. or bo will not detact tba n»l caoBca of the disease. Does it 
arise from improper tnnna^nitcnt, to which the borMi hiw brm in a manner 
habitoatod P Had he been inbjectod to long labour itnd ftuting, and bad 
then the opuortuuilT of gorging to excess ? Did it procued from accidental 
repletion — from the animal havisg got loose in tbo ui^'bt, and found out 
the com or tbo cbaS' bin, and lilted himself Almont to bursting P Theie 
ia nothing in the ^mcannce of the animal which wilt lead to a discovesy 
of the csoae — no y dloirDeaa or twitdUDgS of the akin, no local nwcllioga, 
aa aonw have doecribod ; bat the practitioiMT or the owner must gc4 at Uie 
tnth of tbo matter na well ae ho cnn, and tbao proeoad accordinglj. 

Our first olgtct, thm, Hhootd be to remore if po)wil>)o tho cauaea ia 
opention producing tlua di^ase, and with thin ricw Urge doaaa of 
eb^noua tmrgatiTea ahoold be«r«d, and repeated erei^ mx 
hoBfa, and aoiiiig the mleml a Ftiinulant, aucb as the aromatM siiirit of 
aamonia, givoa in bupgemantitMaof water; clyiiti^niDliwof aoopandwacm 
irstar ahoold be freqoentlj adminiaterod. and all food rcmorcd from the 
^mm*l Bboold this trMtmmt bare the deaired efleet and the bnrae 
iKgia to aadubit sips of rvtnming oonacMNWMaa, ha ahoald be kept oaiot 
Ibr a time, caro beui^ taken to keep the b(iwoIs frocly opvo, and 'm**'''^ 
bat aoft and eeaOj digcettUe food aOowod liim. If but itB^TK^tring Tsnua^ 
a blister ehonU be applied at the bac^ of hie head. When anflieMBtl; 
recoTwad he may be tnrDod ont with advantage on rather bore pactam. 
One circnmstance, howcrrr, iibonid never bo forgotten, that the hcffaa whe 
has onoe been attacked with stu^gora is liable to aretoniof the COOinlaM 
from eaeaea that would not otherwise affMt him. Let no fitmor deladf 
huQMlf with the idea that sloraMsh staggers is conta^jfioiiia. If hia harm 
have occasionally slight filn of abiggera, or ifthodiKnuwrarrieeoffMireral 
of than), ha ma/ be mm tbeie ia aomethiog wrong in his awnagenteati 
One honM majr get at tlie corn-Inn and crum liimself to bnrvting, bnt if 
■evenl are atlwSted, it is time for lh« owner to look about him. 

Although this dia e ae o mnoh reaenhlea atomaoh staffgen in ita genanl 
dianet«n,tt cannot be Iraoad to the aamecaaae, Tia., donagement oftta 
digMttre organs, bnt is geneiaUj oooaidered to be a primaij dJaoaM of 
the bnia. The symnioms are much the aanin a* in fdomnch ataggen, Iha 
animal appearing dull and slcirpj, pnshing his bead forward in a peonSar 
tnaiiner aga i aat tbo wall or nun^r, not bowoTer with ao mnch Ibrce aa ii 





Unt ■^■r"— Wbcn aroosad W sonu; sulden roiao, be siArts up iu a stato 
of aium, Mptariiig fngfaleneJ, >ook» np, and pcrhapa recognises those near 
him, aad tMB nimce into Ids former state of stupor. Tbe ddIm is slow 
aad tmmtatA, vitb tbo nMpiratioD bboui^d. Tbe atontacti frcqci-ntly 
frrwrtaiw bot litilo Ibod, and do dirtcnaion of (be abdom<in is prvsentv Bj* 
mj of tivatiitrat a taS dose of aloe*, in oorofabuitioii wilb calomel, shoold 
bo giTCD. and a blut«r at once applied to the upper and back pMt of tbo 
1m^ The animal in tbe iDcantuno ahonid be it«pt perfectly qniet, and 
allowed ootldog bol soft food, mcb aa bran-niMh, Ae. to «at. Sbould tho 
tymptoaiM Bot pan off in a ttw daja, aa attack of pfarenitia will gvncrally 

^H Altboogb apoplozj it a disoajte Munuwhat raiv in tho horse contrviivd 
^KrU) man, it mooh roMmfalea it in ita geotnUf fiilid t^irminatton. It dc- 
^^anda npoD Bomo endue prMsnre on the snbsbuice of tUo brain, aoJ nay 
iMult flmn seveial causes, sachastonioarsprossing' on tbe brain, fiactuna 
and depTttsmoii of bone, or niptora of *oino btood-rosMi, and cstraTBsatioin 
of blood, atther tbo leanlt of injury, such an concnason, or as n t«rminntioii 
of a oongeded atate of the Teesela of the brain. Apople^ aa reanlting 
£nMB tlM laat-auned cans* ia tho form in vrhich we most eonuaonly meet 
with tbe ftinitaiHr in tbe born, bving gcnemlly n termination of stomach 
WtUfmat. The nmptoma will depend a|H>n tbe cause in operation. When 
apapioxj ia produced by fraeture and dupreastuu of bono or tbe sudden 
of aome blood-Teas^ tho result of violenco, the symptoms will 
^jbate taiUaw the injury, but wbon it is nrodaced by the giving wa^ 
prmuusly caogost^d blood-veasela, we nave nsaally some premoni- 
^ mpto ma. Theao will be found di-^oribed under alonmcli aluf-^^i'm, 
may eoatinoe for eotne days, when th«y suddenly assume a more 
aerieiia character. 

Tlw animal, which has hitherto been only in a partly nnnoDiicioua atato, 
will iMnr be Ibnnd perfectly iMensible ; the eye opeua, but it lia^ an nn- 
mntag glare ; tbe band U mored before hiju, but tbe eye closes not ; 
W ii spoken to, bat ho beare not. 

Bt aow begins to Ibem it tho mouth. Hin bnathing is laborious and 
Ind. It is perfbmMid by the influence of the artfanic nerviui, und thune of 
niml hfe no longer knd their aid. Tlio pulite is alow and upjirtiiHcd — 
^Hnaulo IN cold, and Ibedischarge of tbe fseoes involuntary, lie pinds 
■■ttsth — twitrhings Bt«a1 orer his face and attack his linihs —they soini^ 
**■■ proceed to oonvnisions, ami dmulful ones too, in wbinh thi; borsci 
Mil honBetf about in a tcrriblu manner; but there ia rarely disposition to 
'^■oKlusf. IntfaegroatcrnnniberorcasQstheaeoonvulBionalaBtuot long, 
'It lift act of Toluntary motion which ho will attempt is usually to drink : 
^ke has little power over tbe mnscW of dc^lntjtion, and the llnid ru- 
'"M tfarongh tho noetrils. All tho powers of life arc oppreiMud, and death 
"^jiily doses the scene. 

litikoan be boned &om the treatment of apoplexy, as in ciont coses all 
°**ftirts will fail in affording relief. If there be time for modiaJ treat- 
*IM^ o<ir first effort shoold bo to prevent inOammation. and procure 
'Wpiion of Qm exbaTaeated blood. Copious bleeding, therefore, from 
^jigalar Tein, to the extent of seven or eight (joarls, should be at onoe 
MiSiOrt to, and a tbil dose of porgative mcdtctoo, from dg^ to ten 
^^fiWnii of aloes, adininiiiU>red ; riyiitrnt bIho of wann water and Boap^ 
lUtUbefrrnumtly thrown np the refluiii. The animal shouM be allowed 
of Qool air, and be ke|>t iierfectly (juiot. .ShonM tlio more aetivn 
•bate^ wbieh lbe» b too much fear will rarrly be tho cass^ care 


Bhoald bo takon to Iceicp tho bowols freely relaxed, and a blister may now 
be applied totliebackof the bead, ora Beton inserted. For some time tha 
horse sbould be kept on a restricted diet ; masbes sboold be given ; ffroea 
meat in no great qnantitj' ; a moderate allowance of bay, and very little 
com until BnffidenUy recovered, wbeu be may be allowed a more gen»- 
rona diet. 

PHKEvma — nmjuauTiov ot thi buix — kid btaooxbs. 

Inflammation of tbe brain or its membranes, or both, sometimes occora, 
and of the membranes oltenest when both are not involved. It may be 
prodnced by several canaea, each as from a tnmonr pressing on the brain, 
or &actnre and depression of bone, inflammation Bnpervcning after th» 
comatose stage has passed oS*. It may also be prpdnced by metastasin, 
but we most commonly meet with pbrenitis in the horse, as a termination 
of either stomach or sleepy staggers, most freqnently the latter. Whaterer 
be the origin of phretutis, its early symptoms are scarcely different from 
those of stomach or sleety staggers. The horse is drowsy, stnpid ; his ero 
closes ; he sleeps while be is in the act of eating, and doKS nntit he ^He. 
The poise is slow and creeping, and the breathing oppressed and laborions. 
The symptoms may differ a little in intensity and continnanoe, but not 
mnch in kind. 

The pbrenitic horse, however, is not so perfectly comatose aa another 
that labours nnder apoplexy. The eye will respond a littie to the action 
of light, and tbe animal is somewhat more manageable, or at least more 
snsceptible, for he will shrink when he is stmck, while the other frequently 
cares not for the whip. 

If remedial measnrefl have not become effectual in the early stsige, the 
scene all at once changes, and the most violent reaction snoceeds. The 
eye brightens — strangely so ; the membrane of the eye becomes suddenly 
reddened, and forms a &igbtfol contrast with the traun)aren<7 of the 
cornea ; the pupil is dilat^ to the utmost : the nostril, before scarcely 
moving, expands, and quivers, and labonrs ; the respiration becomes short 
and qnick ; the pulse bard and &eqaont i the ears are erect, or bent for- 
ward to catch the slightest sound ; and tbe horse becoming more irritable 
every instant, trembles at the slightest motion. The irritability of the 
patient increases — it may be said to change to ferocity — but the animal 
has no aim or object in what he does. He dashes himself violentlr abont^ 
plunges in overy direction, rears on his hind Ic^, whirls round ana round, 
and then falls backward with dreadful force. He Hes for a while ex- 
hanst«d — there is a remission of the symptoms, but perhaps only for k 
minute or two, or possibly for a quarter of an hour. 

Now is the surgeon's time, and his courage and adroibiess will be pnt 
to the teat. He must open, if he can, one or both jaBulars : bat let him 
be on bis guard, for the paroxysm will return with ita fonner violence and 
without the slightest warning. This is a cose, and tiie only cose, in iritich 
a ligature should be placed round the neck pravionsly to the vain being 
opened ; for this beins done, however soon the paroxysm of violenoo may 
Tetam, a full abstraction of blood may confidently be relied on. 

The second attAck is more dreadful than the first. Again the animal 
whirls round and round, and plunges and foils. He seizes bis clothing 
and rends it in pieces ; perhaps, destitute of feeling and of conscionanosa, 
he bites and t^ra himself. He darts fnrionsly at eveiytbing within lua 
reach ; but no mind, no design, seems to mingle with or govern his fbrr. 

Another and another remission and a return of tbe exacerbation follow, 
and then, wearied out, he bttoomes quint ; but it is not the quietneas of 
rotoming rmson — it is mere Btnpor. This continnes for an nnoortaia 

fKTiod, and tLcn lie ttPiftiiH to straggle agnSa ; Imt Tie is now pmbalily 
unuUe to rise. He pnut« — bo iuoiiui — hL Icuglh, uuniplcklj- oxhiiustud, lio 

Thera mre but two diaMgcs witb wHicli pbrcnitjs crtn bo confonnded, 
Kid tbey ars ooUo and nbies. In oolic, tb« borso rises and foils; ho 
n>Ik ttfaoot and lacks attua belly; bat his Btrn^gles ans tume cotnjmriiJ. 
vilh tboM of tho ]>hrttmtic horve. There is no involantAry spaEm ol a:r 
of the Umbii ; tbo animal ia pcricctly Kcnnblu, and, looking pitcously at lus 
fiaak*, *uems dedgnedly to indJuitv tbe scat of pain. The bcantifal yet 
lEeatfullj excut«d oonDtcuance of tlie one, and tbe pitwras, anxions gaxc of 
Uie otbor, are mflkicntly distinct ; and if it cnn bo got at, tbe rapid bouud- 
tug ptdM of tbo oDo, and that of tho oUicr scarcely losirg it« natural 
chancier in tiie early Kti^', citniiot bu miatuki-n. 

In nbiee, when it docs a^BiiiDe tbe ferocious form, Uiera is evtra more 
vjolenoa tJKii in pbmiiitiB ; bat there ia method, and treacheiy too, in tbat 
violoaoa. Then ia tbu Actire of miaobief for it« own ntko, and there ia 
freqnantly tha art/nl stmlagem to allnre the viutini «-itbtn tbe rsncb of de- 
■ttaetioB. Tbere is not a motion of which tbe rubid horse is not const^ions, 
mar • ftnaa whom ha dow not recognise ; but he bibours nuder one alU 
afaaorfatng ieelis^-— the iotcnao \oagitig to devnstoto and destroy. 

TIwpoat-nioriflDi appeoianoea are alloKetber nnoertuiii. There is usually 
Vcvf gnal injection and ioflammaituu of the membranca of the brun, And 
M«n of poitioua of the mbatance of the brain ; but in other casts there ia 
Haraaly any trace of infflamtnntion, or even of increased Tascalarity. 

Th9 Imati nent of phmiitiji biu bei-n very ahortly bint«d at. The first — 

lk» imdkpoiiMUe pnoceedinji; — ia to bleed ; to abatnu^t aa mach blood as 

can ks oMained ; to lot tlie anima,! bleed on af^r he is down ; aud indoud 

not to pin optbOTinn of the pbreoitic h<~'rffp nt all. The patient Trill never 

W loat bj this dociairp prooivding, Imt the ittllummutton mity be snbdticd, 

tod here the fint blow la the wlule of tbe battle. Tho phyaic should bu 

that whidh ia most readily gtrea and will most speedily act. The fariiia 

■ «f the eraton will, perhaps, hare the preference. Hull' a dmchm or two 

r wnuilia of it may bo ftarlcaaly'ndsiiuiatt.-r«d. Tbe int«tise inlhimmutioii of 

A* Main girea sufficient assurance that no daogcrouH inflammation will 

k MsOy aet ap in the intestinal canal. This Eoedjcino can be formed into 

tfoy UUlo ball or drink, and in some momeDtury remission of tbe nmp- 

tw^ ailministorod by means of the probang, or a stick, or the horn. 

, 'HrttimT* the phrenttio hone, when bo will take nothing elec, and ia 

Mwnadotts of eTerylbing else, will drink with aridity gruel or wutcr. 

Stpttled doaes of purgatire medicino may perhapn be tbns given, aud 

fti^ nut be eontinned until tbe b»wo1a resjiond. Tbo bleeding and 

Htw hkTing been enoi^ctically had recuurae to, these must be followed 

y bf the imnit«rraiite(I a|iplioation of cold in any aud e\-ery form ;^ice, 

■ it can be pro«tired, the OMdest water dashed freely against the head, or 

f*<nd OB it from a oonaderable bdgbt, and for a oonaiderable lenffth of 

tvt, ii the only luljanct that offen a ehanco of rehef;— continue it unre- 

iMW dirir '<"' honrm; — bliaters are not only nselesa but alwplufcly injurioua, 

tad in lUa actire, rapid, and fatal disen«i> should never be bud recourse to. 

% bow^ baring be«n well opened, emetic tortnr, with calomel or nitre, 

4"tU be eiren. Tho animal ^onld bo kept aa quiet na poanblo in a 

I "iMSwhat &A bat well-ventihited stable. 

WUle tlie dismirn continues, no attempt must be made to indnco the 
Wh to feed; and ona when appetite rctuma with tbe ubatetnont of 
iifciiiiiiiniiii. great caotion muxt be exercised both with rogiml to tho 
fttatity and quality of the food. 




Tlicra lire bat few diMnitcs in Uie bone, napcctinff Ute aatan of which 
•oowny diflca«nl riewa Imro iKen ent«r(auied,uiidoiwlucli, ni.'vaTtluilowi, 
oral ai the present day, so little ia uuderstood, aa meCTinu. By tamo it 
bu t)eei> considered as* miM form of apopW}', dcprsding nponon uoduo 
supply of blood to Uh> brain, and hj ouivn upon junt tJio opponto atal^ 
Tic somo obctraotion to the notnnu eopply of blJod to tbat or^gnn, Mr, 
Fercnall tnatoofitu n 8p(«iee of vertigo, but probably the more genoni 
opinion at tiie present time inclines to tbe belief ibat it is a diseue analo- 
gooa to tliiit t<Tmc<l rpilppsy in tho homnn sahjrct. It ia occuionallj 
RicC with in all c1ium» of hontiii tuid noder a variety of circamatwicce, 
n-bna boUi at rent and at work, but laudi mora &«<ia«iit1y amongsd borvu 
that are uaed for haraeea parpasoa, wpeciaily when uwd for tbat purpo«c, 
on the bright, sunny dny" of apring ud ■ammcr. 

It oomparatiroly rmniy bupncn* wbm the bi>rK> is riddf^n ; but shoold 
ho be driven, and pvrliapa ratlicr quickly, be nwy perform a part of liig 
joumOT with hia onial cheerfblneSB and ea«e ; he will Ibon cuddenly sto|i^ 
flbake Itia bead, and exhibit sridcmt giddiness and half-nnoonsotoasnoM. 
In a Diinnto or two thin will ptm mvr, and ho will go on again as if 
Dol.liing hml bapiicuod. 

Oocnaionally, lioworcr, the atlack will be of a mon aniona satnre, 
Hu will&Il without theah'^test wanuug,or auddimly run round once or 
twice, and then fall. He will oitber lie in a slate of complete inseunbility, 
or straggle with tbo atmust riolonoo. In 6vo or too niinotos h« will begio 
grndniu^ to oome to bimaelf ; ko Kill got np and ptooood on his jonroey, 
Twt somewhat dull, aad enduutty afFvotvd and exhaoatod by what bad 
haiipened, altboiwfa not serionsly'or pennanently iU. 

TloM is a very daogvrons dinonse — danirarotta to the horse, wbiab «riU 
occftsioniillydieonthciipot, tuid ]iarticuhirTy dnngemnsio those wlio dnvo 
him, fur tliero will be no waniiug or opportunity to escape. When the 
burse in atlAt-kod with negriins, the &nt object of Ui« driver should bo 
to control tho Tiolence of the animal as much as possible ; he should luosesi 
tha eiub-nin, oaso the coUiir, and, if at hand, daeh some cold water over 
the animal's head, and punoe his journey as slowly u oircoiastatioes wiP 

rmit, WLcn the horse gvl^ liome a doee of porgativo medicine ihoald 
giroD to him, and be kept on bran-mash for tluee or four days, giwl 
attention being aTtfrward* pud to the stato of tho digeetive orftans. !■ 
all this ncecosary bccaoao a hone hns happened to have a fit of the ID» 
grinis P Yes, and mote too. lu tho mind of the pntdont nuui ; for it is 
seldom that the borae has the megriuu wilhout the predinposition to a 
second attack romaining. The testimony of experience is oniform in te> 
gnnl to thix, and ho would not do jnstico to himeelf or bis fiunily who 
truMlod hiiiUL-lf K-1iind a honao that hiul a second attack of megrims. TW 
anmbera ofboreea (Lai in Loudon are oonstuotly being sold oi^ resoldl 
MOOant of this ntftWy, ix perfectly astonisliiii^-. Tlicrc are a set of a ~ 
■bout town, knuwn by tho name of 'toutcrs,' who cither panooaliy, 
throng the invilium of the common snlu yards, dispose of ao fnJnwl v 
this aSlxti'm at price* vaiyioff from IM. to 301. In a short tims 
nnfortanate pdTcfaaaer diseovera his mistake, and ia too hnnpy to gsti 
of him for a fow ponndi, to be resold to a fresh victim. Su notoiii 
in this the case, that some horsos aro so wvll known to bo sukjcot lo I 
atiacVs, that a roar of laegbter announoea their urind in tbo jvd. 




Thia is aaotlicT uiil Trarfal disoase of tlie nervoua Hjrdtfin. It results 
from tbc bit« of » rvbiil iiniiual, n.nd most coihrkidIt of tho companion 
and fiieod of the borea, tbo couch-dov- The occoant now giv^in of thiH 
iBklkd; is «zmct«d from leotures vrlucb Uic author of tin; jirot^nt nurk 
'dolirtmd to hi» claw, 'fbera is occasional wanuiig of llic approach of this 
ilinwnn in tbo horse, or rethor of tha 0]dat«nce of some nnosOAl Eoaltidy, 
th» real nature of which is probabty mistaken. A miire, belonging to Mr. 
Kanblce, had, t«n dajs before the rccogiiitioa of Uie disease, been droop- 
iug. rsAuing her food, hMTiog at the Hanks, and pawing occasionally. 
It WM plain onoogh that sh» was indispoeed, but at length the fnrions fit 
caniA upon her, aud she destrpjwd almost everji'liiiig in the slnblo in tha 
cDtme of an hour. The lat« Ur. lfoDc_\-iacnt liad a two-jeikrs-uld colt 
brong h t to his istabMshmant. It waa taken ill in tlie nllenioou of tho 
preosdii^ daj, when it fint attracted altention by reftiaing its food, and 
ibrawinff itself down and getting up sgnin inunodiat«ljr. From sni!!! a 
dcNciutlon, Ur, Afooejment oonvlmlcd that it was a coao of diotic ; but, 
when oo went into tli« j^rd, and taw the ponjr, and observt'il his wild and 
anzMNH conntcnancv, and his ejccossive uorvous aensibilitv, ho was con- 
Ttsoad that so m et hing noncmmcn wns amiss with him, a]tJioagh ho did 
ant ni first mspeiA i& real nature of the case. 

The earhf symptons of rabies in the borse bare not bucn carefully 
'. or well racordod ; bat, in the majority of cast's, so far as our 
go, then will not aft«n be preiikonitoiy symptoma saiEdcntly 
cisiTe to he noticed by tho groom. 

The hono goea oat to bis osnal work, and, for a certain time and dijt- 
" taoee^ performs it as well as he had heun accustomed to do : then he stojis 
bU at once — trembles, benv«s, paws, slA^>;^ra, and falls. Almost im- 
■ adiat a ly ho risca, drogH his load a little forthcr, and ngnin stops, looks 
•lent him, books, slagRcm, and faltw onci: marc. This is not a lit of me* 
^iiBi — itia Dotasnuaendoterminutiuuofbbod lo tho brain, for the horse 
■not Aranngtemomcnt inscnaibie. Tlionoonerhe is l«d homo the better, 
far lbs prM;rc«is of tlic disease is as rapid as the lirst attack is eaddcn ; 
■ad, peHaUy, he will fall twice or tlinco bol'oro lit! rcocht^s his etiiblc. 

In Iba great majori^ of cases — or, mihcr, with very fi^w exceptions — 
titite oT excitation ensoee, which is not exceeded iy that of the dog 
niv tho most fcarfbl form of the malady : bat there arc inf«rval8 when, 
if he had boon naturally good-tempered and hnd boon attached to hie rider 
^Ui groom, he will reowniso ms former fri<md and srek his cwveses, 
■dbnid on him one oTthom piteous, aearchbg looks, which, onco 
•wtuwl, will never be forgotten : hot there is danger about this. Pro- 
*M lir snccords another paroiyeni, without warning and withoot control ; 
^Hl there is no safety for him who had prcnously the moat complete 
^^HhiT over tlui anifial. 

^^B*M onoe attending a rabid horse. The owner wonid not hare him 
^Hm«d, under the vain hope that 1 had mistaken a case of pbrouitis for 
^^^Hfinfawa, and that tho disease might licld to tlic profuse abstraction 
^^Bbodtliatlbadbeen premiied on to eflVct, and the purgative in flu cm co 
^^Bbfaimof the crotOD-nut, with which he hnd been nhnndimtty snp. 
P^Rfe ID aarly stage of the malady. 1 insisted on his bi'ing slung, so 
F ""Mira wem protected from injury from hin kicking or phknging. Ha 
I *^ boid &m nxe upon mo as if be would search m« throng and 
I '^'Vh, and would prevail ou me, if I could, to relievo bhn fivm K>me 
I *vdfal oril by which ho was ihreat«ned. IIo would then ])mih[ahead 
I tiBA ay boaon, aad koop it there n minute or more. All at onco, 



flomo unlcnonm cuum, or ut tho approncli of a strutgcr. Prom time to 
time diflurcnt porU uf tliv fnunc — tbu cri-a — Umi jnws — purtiutdMr limbt 
— will be ooniiilsoil. Tlit- t;ye will ocuuiiuuat]/ vnu)d«r afW aome imagi- 
cat; objoc^ and tko horse will snap agtuQ and aj^uo at tJutt wliich baa 
no real ezistwncc. Thon will come va» impmnble desire to bite tLo 
attcndnnttt or tho luiimaU witliin iiJi reach. To tliis will succeed tbo do- 
molitiou of tho nok, the miui)cer, uid tbo wholv fumiturv of tbe aUiblu, 
nceoiQiiauiod b; the puouUttr dread of water wbicb luui been alitwlj 

l^nnrds the clow of the disease there is gonorall^ poral^is, asDallf 
oomfined to tbe loins and tbe binder oxtromitic*, or iovoliring tbon orgsns 
wldoli ilenTO their nerroiu inflnenoe from this portion of tbu apinal ooni ; 
— ^lenee tbo diatresaiu^ teueaums wbiob is ooca^onaUy seen. 

Tbe disease rar«>Iy extends bojoiid tbe third day. 

After death, tboro is oniformly found intlnmmntion at tho back part of 
(be month, and at tbe top of ibu windpipe, niul Lkcwiso in tbe stomach, 
and on tbe membrane covering tbo luugs, and wlu^re tbe NpiiiBl marrow 
first iiiauea &om tbe brain. 

When the disease can be clearly connected with a previous bite, tbo 
sooner tho animal is destroyed tbo better, /or there it no e«re. If tbo 
gpnploma bear oonjddenblo rcttunbliuico to rubii^*, althonffb no bito is 
•napvcted, tbo horoe should at luaat bo bIuuXi aud tbe medicine, if any 
is administered, f^na in the fbrm of a driuk, and witb tbe band w^ 
pmitactod; for i£ it shoold be sciatebod in balling the horeo, or tbe sUu 
shoidd hnvi! boon prcrionsly broken, tbe saliva of Uio animal is capable of 
commuuieuUiig the diaeuse. Several furieni hare liwt tluur lirue fiom 
being bitluu or acratdied in Ihe act of adnuuiatering mt-didne to a rabid 

It is always daogGcoiiB to encourage any dogs about the ataUe, and 
especially if ttuj^ become fond of tho honiM, nod aro in tlie habit of jauiK 
iDg np and Uokmg thnm. Tlio comem of the month of tho bonM are oAoi 
■ore mm tiia preesaro of the bit ; and when a in a gentleman's 
■table — and it is tilutly to happen in every stable, and with every dog— 
heuornDS rabid and dice, tho home too freqaenUy ftllows him at no great 
distuioo of time. 

If a horse is bitten by a dog ondor dUKpicioas circnmafanoos, he sbonld 
be caroMly examined, and svny wouud, and oron tlio abgbtest acnOcb, 
wall bomcd with the Jiinar caustic (nitrate of nlrer). The aoah shoaU 
bo tvmorcil and tlii' operation repeated on the third day. The hot tras 
diMM uot aiuwer so wcl^ and otbur caustics aro not so manageable. U 
tbe spring of 1827, fbor horsea were bitten, near Hydn Purk, by a nod 
dog. To one of tbeu tbe lonar oaostic wa« twice severvlv applied— he 
livM. The led-hoC tnn wu onsparisg^ used on tbo otners, and thef 
died. Tin caastio most raadisTary part of the wound. At tbe ezphatioA 
of tbe feorth moBth, the horse may bo cossiderod to bo safe. 

nTAvns, OK tocos jaw. 

Tetaniu it ■7"^'"f thr r""f^^n^n^^^ll^nd fntnl diensnim tift irbif^h llwliiiiiii — 
W sabjoct. It is called LOckid jaw, bncnaae the nmaelM of the jaw ar^* 
earliest affected, aod tbe month is obvti&atvly and imiooroably closed. £ 
is a pcnnaneot spasm of all tbe TOluntar^- uusolcs, and nartioDlarly of lhe«^* 
cJ (be nock, tbe ■pi>e> ^"d the head. It is sometlmn slow and tnacbeioa.^ 
in its attack. Tlie horse, for a day or two, dovi not apjN.'ar to be qoit^', 
well ; be docs not feed as osanl ; be partly chews bis food, and drops it » 
and bo gulps his water. The owner at laogtli Gods that tlie motion of tb^ 
jaws is oonsidonbly limited, and aoiae saliTa is drircUing &«m tbo moalb' 

bj emj mttieltT qain-rin^; from tho ili-Kive of ^-icitemcnt under w1ii<.-h 

PkUmirML A t^nMiii, pnrtiuiiung on ibu fonitor obcdioncr of tlio animal, 

tnlond ia, and «Qd«aFO«red to put » liead^tell anon him. Hritlicr tlio 

imrim nor mjrmlf oould fwreoadc hini to forbear. I waa rare of mischief. 

lot I bad obMTvnl tbe car IjHne flnt upon the neok, nod I could aco tlio 

■ad slance of tho njo; I tlicreforo nrmod tnj-wlf with a Iiaary 

I ttick tluU. w»a ttt luuiil, and climbed into tho nmngrr of tlio nsit 

Thft mao Lad not adv&ucud two «t«|>a Into tlie box bufuit: I coald 

! Uw akifting po<sitiou of the fore feet, and ti\e pn-par&tion (o ■pring 

■ \m rictini i «nd ho «roald hav« sprung upon him, bat my mapou 

1 with all th« force I oonld tirg« upon his hoM. nod ho dropped. Thft 

' , bat tJie bnito wui up u^iu in an ins:&uit, and wo trembled 

partition of liic box should vit-ld to bia violenci.-, aud Iw would 

ilbe gciMikic description of Ur. Itloino, wben be suoaks of tiin tniAd 

lU'lenBlline worj'laing before liim, bimsolf awontug^ aod snorting, 

I mi fbtndng aoiioit Otn niitii>.' 

I 1 Wo bnd oocanioii niorv llian oncn bo witnoM tlie evident pain of tho 
telra part, and tlio maiuiiT in wbicli Iho lior«o iu Uiti inlen'iiU of hi* 
pHiuftiua emploj-s Uiraselfin licliing and jfiiawinjt tht^i [-ii'^iitris. One 
vinat had bwn bitteo id tliv chest, and be, not in the iutervak bvtwceu 
tW naoarbationa. hat when tho pnroxyxm waci most riolent, noald bite 
■idtMr binuwlf until his broaat wua ahockingljr mangled, and the blood 
WmI Imai it in a Htrieain. 

tha nwat inttiiMting aud salia&ctory symptom in llic cv-ident dnsid of 
^livwhid) exJBto in m decidad Dtajority of cuh's, and the imposaibihty 
'4 nallowing any considcmhlo qnantitv. Professor DnpiiT gives an 
Mnant of thia cirmniiitaiioi-:'— ' A rabid bonw wait coDfiiicil in ono of 
*h mdc-haxcfi. Hit fuud iriui ^i\-vn to him through an opening o\-«r the 
dnr.osd a bucket was suspuuded from the door, and aapplwd with wat«r 
tff ufoa of a coppu* tobe. As soon ns he hmrd thg wntor foiling into 
w pail, ha lall into riolont canvnbdonii, noised tho tal>n, and cmshoo it to 
^JeoB. Whan tbo water in hia baoket wua Agitated, the conx-alstons wcra 
•ueved, Ba wuold oeoaaioDally appnuach the bueket as if he n-Lshid lo 
4nak, and then, after agitating the vrnter for an instant, ho would fall on 
Wi fitter, uttering a boarae cry ; bat h<' would nxa n^in iJmont. imme* 
4aldT. T1m«o nnnptotns were dmiidfully inereuaed if waU-r wiui llirown 
^mIim hvad. Ho would tbeu eud^uvoar to seize it as it fell, and bita 
•vk fury at ereQ'tbing within hia reach, his whole frame being dreadfully 


At the diaeatfo pTogreaaeti. not only is tha animal rapidly debilitated, but 
^^ ia the pacidtar staegering gait which is ohwrralilD in the dog — 
'ifaaUa to evident loaa ta power in tho muMclcs of tho Inmbar region. I 
4« Hw a mare sittinfi; oa her bauucheu, axul oiiable to riae ; yet aaing 
WliiK le«t witli tho utiooat fun', and anflbring no one to oome within 
^nach. She, loo, would eomMimes pinnae bur mnxxle into the ofiervd 
M: and immediBloly withdraw it in oridont terror, while every limb 
kmbled. At other times the lowering of tite pail would affright bcr, and 
^veaU fall on her aide and atrug^e furioualy. Although ihia aymp- 
^ m not oAen obaerred tu the dog, it is a satisfactoiy idnitifioatioa of 
|W diiaue, when it ia »o freqneudy seon in tho home, and ao inrariably 
> tu hamaa being. 

Hw aariieat, and pcrhspa thomoat deciaivo.aymptom of tho DMtr approach 
if labjoa in the hona, ia a apoamodio moveiDcnt of the npper lip, porticn- 
WtroT the aivlca of the lip. Cloae following on this, or oontnnpnmneoaa 
«itft it, an t£e deim'siiil and ansioua connfcnanrc, and inquiring gaao, 
addmly huwewr liifhtt-d np and brcouung tierce and invtuM.-iu(^ lion 


oontfnct with all tho power they poaaeas, and tboro is » dt^groo of ' bido- 
faosikd ' Appcontnoo nnd rigiditf , aod of tacking up of tlut belly, whi<'h is 
HOD nndier no otliur compliunt. The tail beconuut in cotuttont mutiun 
fVom tlie ohwokte uid noleot action of tlie museba tiutt eler»t« and 
depreaa it. 

ConatipfttMrn, and to sn almost iaanniKniiitabta degrao. now appcan. 
Tho abdonuoal moDclrit nrp so powcrfnllj contntctod, tint do portion of tha 
iHintcntn of the nbdonuv can pans on and Iw discliiu^'d. 

By duffTM-'M the ii[kisiu i-tUMids and beooioes uvciywhwo more violent. 
Tlie motjou of Uiewbolsftwne is lost, and tbo bona Manda fixed mtlieiui* 
vatstal po^ure which be hu assnmed. Tha ootutteoance beoonaa wildBr 
and mora haggard — its expnaaion woi ncvrr br rITiKX'd from tbo mamofy 
of him who caroa abont tbeholingKorabnito; tiift&ilisnovpermanantlj 
railed, and, if itrijiiiaanil for a mmnant by the luuuL, iuntauUy raauBea ito 
elevation. Tlie Tioleot cramp of a naglu mnsclo or set of mysolea inakea 
tL« BtODteet heart quail, and diawa fiwtii the most fHlMma oriaa — wliat» 
then, mast it bo for this tortnra to peirade the wholo fVapie, and to con- 
ttnoe, with littlo respite, Irom dsy to day, and from wri^ to week. Wbao 
hi« attcndimt ajiproaobea and toaohes him, be ecaroely moves; bnt tbn 
dcapiurin^ gi^^, and the sodden acceleration of the polw, indicate what be 
feeU aud (etu^ 

TetanoB, then, is evidently au aS^ction of tho nervos. A small fibre of 
some norre has been ntjurM^and the effect of that ininry has spread to the 
origin of tbe dbtvo — the bnua llien beoomea aflocted — and nnivoMl 
dincuaod action fbtbwa. TeUnna is a spasm of the whole frame^Dot 
merely of one set of masolea, but of their antagonists also. The fixidity of 
the animal is the efibct of opposed and violent mnxcnW contraction. It 
boloDBs to the lower column of tinnrcs only. Tliu iK^ngiibilityis nnimpaired 
• — perhaps it is heightened. Tbo borse would (ukt if he I'uuld ; he tries to 
fade np some moisture from his masb ; and tho avidity with which he lends 
bimaelf to assist in tfae admiuistorin^ of a little gruel, shows that the feel- 
ing of hunger and thint remain nnimpnirrd. 

The di8ea*<t may terminate btolly in forty -i-iKbi hoam, liut a« a nila 
death takcx tiliuie from the third to tliv sixth ^y ; if the borsc shonid 
snrvive till the sovonth or eighth day. a favoonbliB termtnatioD may be 
expected, aHhongh in some caaea tbey will die » nontli after the attack. 
If from strength of constitution or nM>dii^ul braatmaot% ha ahoald rsoorar, 
the Amt favourable symptom is a slight and short nanisaion of the apans; 
the thna of tlis naniBsioii gradoally (eogtbeaing, and the jaws a little ti^ 
laxiiig;bgttlwpro g raaa«'cnro is exowdtngly alow, and the borso is left 
Terr weak. 

On jMrf-merlem oxomination the mnsculnr fibre will axhibit snAdent 
proof of the labonr which has been exacted from it. The mnncirs will 
H>pcar as if they had been maoeisted— their texture will bo aoflcned, and 
thoy will be torn with tha graoteet ease. Ttt hings will, la the minority 
of caiwn, be highly infltned, fbr tliey have been labouring Umg and painfc]^ 
to fbreiah artoial blood infiafliriciitqnnntify to support Ihis great Bxpesd^ 
tore of anima] power. The stomach will contain patchrs of inflammatioa, 
but tho intcKtinoa, in most eases, will not exhibit mnob departure fmta ihs 
hue of bcaltli. The examination of tbo brain will be altogether nnaatia- 
fadoty. There may be slight iiyoction of some of the meoabrwnes, bu, 
in the majority of cases, there wilt not be any morbid change worthy of 

Tctanoa is ntnally tlie result of the injory of seme nervooa fibre, and 
tlie i-ff«>ct of that lesion propagated to the brain. It oocora at aU agw^ 
Ihjui tbo foal a fortnight old, and amongst all claaaes of tha bone; Dvt 



^^Halnvd, Inilable mniinala »tc Uie lanst linbli> to it. It may result fmin 
HBactevvty tviety of wound, uo uiatWr wlial iU BiCuatiun. It would 
■ppcsr, howcv«r. that wonnds in somep&rte li»vc »mnch gi^aler t«&ileiicy 
to prodncv Uiis disease tiiui in othcra. Tbo foot in & very trcqnont source 
or Ibcu of tetanic inituy. Tbi: honu bccoioiMi liuiie — tlic- injury may luive 
been ckkAUI/ livated, olrdmaly trtated, or not treutfd at all — Uie liuuunma, 
bomrer, disappears, bat the wound bas not li«a]od. There is au uii> 
Imhliintw kbont it. Mid at the cxpirstian of mght or Um days, totanns 
appeal*. Smiib nnTOBs fibre lioa been irritated or infliuned bj tbc ncd- 
deut, alight a« it was. 

Docking, rnddng, orcmaeli, sapporating corns, castration and injnriiiK, 
•tpedally aboat tho orbit, are fro<^uent cnasra of tctanos. In all theae 
^Mea tiMi attack ia tenncd Tnttunatio TetJuiiM u* nriBiog &om, or licpriid 
in^ OB, Muao injot^ nceived, but tmiiueittioniibly it may be set u[> wttbuut 
aoj ozlanuki 11^1117 whatover. The rexwrds of veterinary proceeding 
contain nncoant^ of tHanos following lalioiir, brntnlly emctcd beyond tbe 
amtnal'H natural ctit^ngth, in the druag)it of lieavy toads, Horst'd thftt 
kare btea matcli«<l ugainst timo have too frequently died of teljinnx u 
little while ant.'rwards. Sndden exposui'e to cold afler being liead-d by 
•zarciBa baa produced this drctulfnl «tAta of nerrous actios, aad especially 
if tlie lunae baa atood in a partiiU dninebt, or cold wntor bas been dripping 
•a th» lodns. TlicM cases are called iJiuputliio TottmnA, tliAt in, anning, 
Sk* «liy otteraeTcre malady, from some pi-i-uliar Husce[itibiltly to donuijte- 
wat of tba coogtitntion iteol£ 

TiauaatM; Tetanno in much the moet dnng^rini; kind, ajid will general]/ 
pnra &tal ; on tl>« otber biuid, fi-om IiiiofmtJiic IVlnnm tho nnimnl not 
Ulfrsi]1Wutly recoveni. Oilier terms uro sIkd applied lo dintiu^ulsli when 
COTtein parts only are affected. When th« e^itiNiiis confined to the muscles 
of tkoiawa it is nanuNl Trifimns ; whim tlic miisulo* of tho noi'k and hack 
•n ebicAy aficotMl, it w aIIliI Opistholouos : the reverse of thtK, when 
Ika inferiw nnsetes are aflecied, is Eniprosthotonos; whi>n the body is 
dmwB tooiMside, tkatof Fletuoalbotonos. AltlumghthcnndilfrTvntKtntrs 

Buy axiat in tliA bnman aolgect, wc nhitU rurvly meet with tlii-m in tho 

hens, and tlion onh- is tbo Ibna of TriKinita or Opisthotonos. 
Tbt (natneDt of tetanuN ia aimple, and woald be oni-ner successful if 

tttriad to ita fUl exteut. The indication of can ia plain enough — tfia 

yrfen mmtt b« lnuquiUi»«d. 
Sght or t«n dmchms of aloes, with Jt. to jij. miomcl, ttbonld bo ad- 

fttaistcred. If tiie rvmiMnon of tha kjiukiq in alight, tliere in anotlior pnr- 

Wi»» — not so certain in ila action, but more powerful when it doeii act — 

toa &riiia of the croton nut> Tbeia is Utile or no danger of exciting 
summation of the muooTis membrane of the intestinos by this prompt 
iMUrgetie ailmiuiatration of pargatire mcdii-ino, for there is too much 
•tion of vital power towarda the nervous system — too ronch 
: tbara — to Icatc cause for dreading the possib^ty of metuiitiuiia 
■rbere. It would be desirable if a certain degree of inflammation coold 

* «uat«d, bccauHc to Uiat rxtnot tbe irritatiun of lie nervons nvBtcto 
^l^ght b* aUayed. Tbens in auoliier reason, and a veiy powerful one — 
**«»a is i^dly passing. The t«taDic action may c«tcnd to the intestinaa, 
^*d tin oo-opernlion of the abdominal moiiclca in keeping up the pcrislaltio 
!'*'**io« of tht Uiwrlii, and cutpclling their contents, may Iw lost. W« hate, 
^yl««l, more faith ia the eflcet ot physic, as a remedy for this dreadful 
^* aa wi, than any other ; if active purgatioo can be set up— and a cbanca 
*^ wcaier y i« Ivfl — that pnrcation will insure ttv Use the balling prohang, 

Tl'Oni^ a ■tick, snytbing, to mtrtjduco a full doso of phasic into his throat ; 

H aotioto bis (brimt, leave it on llie longuo ) if that m iin]>o>»ihlo, insert 


it between lli« iiya udA the nindcm — this rraj alwnys be done'— aiul In a 
OCErisintj a emter portion of if will milaiUhr bo Firiillowcd. This ahoDlil 
be followed Df tW n^tniniiittvtioii of 5ij. at pawArTnl njntiin froqacnity 
TvpMtML Opiam ■■ not onlj^ n Talnable drug, bat it is that on which 
Kwne denendcnoo can be placed in Ibis diaoue:. C]\-st«n< mar ab» bo 
unplojrca to a^dat tn promotin(; the action of the bowelft. Blc«din^, 
bliaterin)*, lrii?4ion to Ino baok, aod tbo application of cold water aru 
caleiili)t<ld to do do good, and sncUtka mnoriiM should not bo had rosort 
to. The otm great object in the treafanant of tetannjt Hhonkl bo to keep 
tbc aniinid mt qmet aa poanblc^ and frve from thoac att^ntiumt ■■nmning 
the Mlinpi' of rvmedia) meaMtlM which an> too apt lo incrcttiu? t]iu already 
excited atate of Uis Berroiu qrstom. Tho horac should bo pbccd in a nnn, 
•omewhat dai^ bat w^ventilat«d dnlilc, RrlciTtod as free aa possible flron * 
nil pxtornnl iKMms, Both Uia flooroflhe ulablo and nhio fnr some distunce 
ont«iilr ahuuld b« oerored with abort littvr. Tbi- «tablo Hhonld W lorkcd, 
Dd no one allowed to see the animal bnt the atb^ndont or prufcsnonnl 
laii. and when this ia rendered neeeaeaT^ for the admiuialralion of fboal 
or medicint^ ffvat cantiori should bo nsoa in praTDDtiDg any sodden aotao 
or movtmont which may dinttirb the animal. 

One thing shootd not be for^fut ten, namely, tliat a hnntc with locked jaw 
u aa hnngry aa when ia lu-nlth. and every posaahk' conlrivanon f^hnnUi bo 
adopted to IVimish him with that nutriment which will support him under 
hifl torturo, and poiwibly rniiblo him to wonlhcr the storm. If a |itul of 
good gruol is placed within bin n-uch, how wilt honuKzlo in it, and contrive 
lo drink Kucne of it too ! If a iliorouglily wet tnaah is placed bofiire him in 
a fMiil, ho will bury his nose in it., and manage to extract no smaU poftion 
i>f nutrinient. Uy mranx of a sroall horn, or a bottle with a very narrow 
neck, it will otiea ho pnmible to giro him a nnnll qnnntity of j^mt-l ; but 
the flexible pine that ncornnpanica Read'M patent puran will rendor this of 
euier aocompliithment, for the nutruneat may bo aominirtowKl without 
elevating the b«^ of the luirae, or inflictiii):; on him the extreme tortnra 
which used to accompany the act of drmichinf^. If the jaw iu emr *o 
closely clenched, the pipe mny hv intro<lncrd between tlio tushas aiul the 
grinders, and carried lolembty far buck into the mouth, and anv noanlilv 
ofgniol or raeilicine introduced into the aloiuach. Xor is thia Uw only 
way ia which this nklnablo iimtrnment may be nuide BTailable in this 
fearfUl disonso ; for with an enema pipe attnehci) to the end of the tube, 
eonsidepablc quantiti«e of tfood beef t(A, Htrong infnaiona of oala or malt, 
combined with thick well^boilcd ({niel, may be injected into tlio int4)Stinea, 
and the animal's strcngllt supported to a cousidcrsble extent. 

It will also bo good practice to lel< a small portion of food be in the 
manger. Tbo horse will not at Rrst bo able to take up the slighteal 
quantity, bnt Imi will attentpt to do no. Small porlions may ))e placed 
between hiii grinder*, and tliey will prmenlly drop from hi* nioulli iicarccly 
er at all inaxiicaled : bnt some good will bo done— there is the attempt tn 
pat tbu mtuolee of the jaw to their proper new. On the followinf^ day he 
will soiweed a Uttle bettor, and make some trifling advance towards In m\ Jim 
tlu ehsm of maamodio action. ExperienM wul leadi tlio caroAiI g i o oia 
tbo value of tnnw miuutiw of practice ; and Ibe Kuocesrftit terminatum i~" 
ti»m a eaMo taay he traced to the careful nnr»ini* uf (In- |>ul(enl. 

When tlie hoiM isgettiD^dccidcdlybritor.aM the weather will ^ 
there can lie no bettsrrpractioe tltnn to tnni him out for n few boon in 
miilitte of the day. lus toddling uImmiL will regain to him the nse uf I 
limlm ; tlie attempt to stoop in order to gmne will dimininb llw tqwKm 
bis neck ; the aet of graslng will rehui ibe mnsclea of lli« jawa ; and Im 
eaa have no better Ibod than the fresh grass. 




I b ft sadden, Invohintur, aod painful roulractiou oF a [iHiiii-tiliir 
90r a«tof mnacleB^ II differs fti>mte1«uuiiiuiUi>]iurtvrduratiuu,iuid 
inilaooCMODftll^ ftttaddng the miuclcs of organic life. It nutybo t«i-m(«la 
apecin of tevnaitmy toUans, lUTccUtig mostij tbc liind cstromitics. It ig 
gi3M3«Uy olNcerved wbeu tlw bono ia limt lirvaglit out of tlio atAtilc, mid 
eneeiftlij if lie has been hardly worlied. Oiio of the legs it]ipoai« stiflT, 
baiadbla, ftnd is, to a slight degree, dra^^f^d aflor the aiuiual. After he 
htM liroccodcd a few steps, the etifincss iicarlj' or quite dlsappciirs, or only 
% ri^t drgrco of liunpncss rriniiiiui iJnring tho greater pan of Uio day. 

Crwup may be brought oa by exponuru lutlicr to * higb or low t^mpcni- 

If ft eerUin degree of lameness lemaina, tlie attendant on the Iiono 
Aoold codsftTOor to find oat tho moscla chiefly affected, irhich he may 
CMily do by a feeling of liMdncas, orancxpreMnon of pnin, when he prcsse* 
on l£e pari aflvcted. Frii'tion with thu hand will vt^ry frvqui^ntly Ikt all 
tlifti >■ ueiwBsaiy to TWnore cnmp, but should this not be effectual, hot 
fawMilftlinna to tho par^ attd tto aoininislration of laxative medicines, must 
In Ind rcaort to. 


This is ft sadden and tpannodic action of some of tlie musclea of tho thigli, 
lemble when the hmm IK finrt Icil from the stable. One or both legs 
I oangfit np at ctuit step with grciit mptdity and violonci*, ho thnt tlio 
' fcUodc aometimes touches llie bcfly. In the great m^urity of onses it 
docft not disappear sfler exercise, but the horse continues to bo afflicted 
widi this peculiar gsit. In n fewcascH, howrvrr, after the horse bag been 
tmim UUlo while^ it pnrlialty goes off, and the nomml notion of iJic limb, 
to ft oertnin extent, rvtums. 

Stringbalt is not a perfectly involuntary action of a ccrtnin niueclo, or a 
entun set of mnsdeft. llio limb is flexed at tho comraand of the n-ill, 
hat it acts to a grantcr extent and with more vii)Ieneo thuD tlic will Iind 
Tmmpted. Then n an accumulation nf i-xcitabilily in the mu&olu, and 
At intnnbo which should hare called it Into uatunil and modemto action 
tuna it to tako on a spasmodic one. 

Bat ahhoagh the pc«atiar nction coni^rtitnting stringhalt is developed 

llkiinigh the nosclc*, it muirt not hn tnkm for granted that the cnuso 

'^ the affection Uca in tlie intuieleN theniHi-tves. bnt rather in the tiuon 

""TOagh wbidi the muscular action is exeKed. namely, the nerroe ; and, 

*■• general rule, i( may bo stated that disease of ihn ncrroa themsotros, 

^'*n paHicalarly of tbo great Ischiatic! ncrt*e, or of tlie cnnid tlirongh 

*kach tfacy pacs fmm Ibo Rpinal oord, will ho found to exist. Either the 

*^W«t Ha origin is soflcned and discoloured, or its egress from the ve^ 

^bnl ttaal is through a ronghened and irritating foramen instead of a 

"^HMtb ODd polished one. 

Abaj iDgenions but eon fnMlii^ory theories have lieen advanced in order 
J? socoont for thin nernlinritT of ijaJt. "Wliat muscles are coDComcd ? 
2**''/ thoeo by which the tlugh is broujjlit under the belly, and tlio 
f^ok u flaxod, and tlie pustems are firtit Antrd and then extended. But 
■T nibh of them is the effect principally produced ? What muscle, or, 
***• properly, what nerve is conciTmeil ? Instcnd of cntciing into any 
"*^llHl oontrovrrsT on this point, a case shall bo rotated, and ono of tbo 
**V interesting theiv is on record : the author was pononolly cognisant 
•^amr narticnlar. 

Od&lfrrd, first called Roundhead, and then T/indlord, was foak-d in 



162G. Ui! vraa f^L by UuiniMlcii out of a Sir IImtt nimsdnlc marc. In 
1828, aiul beiii^ two yean old, wid the prviprrty of Uw; I>ukc of Itii^limond, 
he won » jiOJ. plats at Goodwood. In 1^29, knd belottffing to IajtiI W. 
Leimoi, ho u-on >^5 guinetM at Hunpbon. Bcuik thea tnuosferred to Mr. 
CDlemiui, be won Mi guiniMA at Guildibrd ; bsd In tlie same yt»r, having 
been pnrcbfteed by Mr. Pefirce, be won CO giiiiicn» at Bnjnngf^oko. 

In tfao ooarae of this y<«r stringhnlt U'giin li> »{>|iFar iu a «tight d4!ffror, 
and it evidently, nitliungh ilowLr, incroaM.'d. Tlierc toon bi^f^ tu bo it 
little ditlicutty lu K"'^'"K biiu OS; bat when he bad once startled, n«titber 
bia ttpecd uor Iua stoutness appeared to be in the sligbtrat degree im* 
paired. Ue cootinned on the tnrf until 1831?, and wod for hb diffment 
owners seventeen nic(!«, the produce of which, cxeltuivc of bot«, amoantcd 
to l.t3.V. 

Tbe diiEcuUy aud Ions of udvaiilaKL- in stnHuift bad now uwimiMd to a 
degree which rcudi-red it prudent Iv n ithdrhw biin from the Inrf, and lio 
came into Uie posseesion of Oockemy, who nscd him for tbe purpoee of 
lending tlie young bonres that bo hnd under training. This is well known 
(o bo liiLrd work, and bis rider wan a man of lome woischt. In ndtlitinn to 
this, be was generally hunt«d twioe in the «ivk. Hi.-< Grat aUut'tng into 
a gallop had something singular abont it. It was n bon-ible land oToon* 
vuliiire action, and so violent, thnt he frcqnently knocknl olT hut sbixw on 
thi: very ddiy that they were pnt on ; but wlion bo got a liltio wanned, 
all this diaaopoarad. He galloped benutifully, and was a n-iy aura ftuoer. 
The xnort, Dowwer, bnng over, and he returning to a slow pace; tlM> 
stringnnlt waa aa bad aa ever. 

At length the old horao heciunp artiiil, and it wax with grcnt difficulty 
that be oould be mode to lead. Sum>?timfa bo ivfuHL-d it aJlogctlirr. In 
conaeqaence of this, lie was sent to St. Mariin's Lauo to be sold. The 
higbeet bidding fnr him wras 3'. 14«.,and the hero of tbe turf and the field 
waa doom<Hl to the omnibun. There hn wna craelly nurd, and this ^MMinodio 
eonrulnion of hiH hind legs sadly u^ravated hu turtnm. The iilcin wmi 
presently nihb«d frum Us dioolders, bia hips and tiaaiich<^ vreru bruiwd 
IT. every part, and his sti^M were oontinaally and puiufuUy coining in 
contact with the pole. 

In this aituatiuu he was seen by tbe veli^nnry mrgeon to ' The Society 
for tbe Preventieoof&ueltTtoAiiimalB.' There U a fund at tbe diapoiMl 
of that nociety for thepurcnaso of wom-ont horava, who mn iminediately 
released fnnn their misery by the polivaie of the knacker. Tbe hone 
was bought fV>r this parpose, anotbiir and bmilaldo motive tnllucncing the 
purchase — tint winb to atcvrtaiu what light thu disKVclion »f an nnnnat 
that had had stringbalt to such an aggravated extentt and tot so long a 
period, would cast on the nntare of tbis disease. 

The author of this wurk iinw bima little whiln before he was slaoghtered. 
He was still a noble- looking uniirial, and seemtil to poiuiNw all bis fonner 
Strongtb and niirit utiimpaired; but ho whm Mully Hcarn-d ull over, in mm* 
aaqtUDee of his being put to a kind of work for Mhich bis spajngodta 
iiomplnuit so antijaly inr4kparitatc<l bim. So aggravated a caae of Btiing- 
halt Bad rarely been scon. Both hind legs were alhcted, and botb in an 
e(|ital dnn«e ; and the belly was fiwciblv slnick by the |in«tem jotnta ererv 
time the hind feei were UCmI. Tbehelly and tbe paalt^m joint were U-th 
denndud of hair in mnw-anfmrp nf tbin ronKtant h(ktt<^rins. 

He <m» dasln>ynl l>y the iiijceliun uf pniKKic lu-iil into tho jngnlar vrta, 
and tho diaaectioii of him was oondncled by Prufumor Spoonnr, of tbe 
Rin-al Vrtcrinary Colle^ 

On taking off tl>e nkin, nil tho roaadca ptvfmtnl thmr iwrfivt bmlthy 
clumctor. ITiera waa not the slimiest onlargi'mcnt or dtsoolofatiun 



BIm> &sct)e>. The tniuclea of both extreniificfl v/cro dissected Irom tlieir 

r' ' I to tbnr toDi^noafl terminations. And tlipir fibrons stract^ire care- 
examined. TkcT werp bU bcantiAilly itovulupod, pivncaiting no 
^IneqaalitjT or irregnlftri^ of struclurv, nor aoglit tint would vrarmnt the 
wm aaion that anj one of them poBE«&$ed an tutdue power or iuflneiioe 
bojrbnd the otiicirs. The onl/ 9U>noniuU circnniBtaDco aboui Uwm ma 
tfakt Uwj wm of » mtlicr diu-kcr yellow id colour Uuui in nnttlljr fouDd. 
Una rc Ca re d to lliom gcocrttUy, and not to any [Hirllciilar mnicui or strts 
of muscles. 

Tlie Inmbar, crural, and sciatic Dierrvs irere examined li<om tlic spot at 
vbicb tliVT emerge from tho spiiwl cord to their ultimate dislribationa, 
Tlic emnu and lumbar nt-rrnt wen: porr<^Rtlv lumltby. Th« ndiiliu n«rvi^ 
at tltc B(iDrtaiv tliruuKb whicb it csoupi^a uwa diu «|>iii«, was lUrkcr in 
ookntr ihaa ie mual. beiu)^ of a yi'Uo wish- lira wu hoe. its texture vas 
■BltM(id.Bad its fihrilli? somewlnl loosely crmnacled together. TlionervA 
««• of il« VMOa} siu; but, on tncing it in it* oouirn Itironch tlii.i mnnclcs 
of tlie baimeh, acreral iipat» of eouhymnitin prcHenlefl Llii-m.irlvc^ and wcro 
a>0*« parttoa]arly m&rki^d on tliat port of the nen-e whidi ih <K>uDUcl<>d 
with ttue niDnMciatic ligament. Aa tho nerve approacli«d tlie Lock, it 
aasuiud its natanU colour and tone; and the fibres given ofT from it to 
tb> nnaclcs titaiatcd infnrior to Ifie stiflo-joint were of a perfectly houUiiy 

On diaaectins out a portion of tho nerve wboro it appcaml to be in a 
daeeawd state, it waa found that this eechymosiH wiia oonfiuod to tlic nitfin- 
brasoos inTVstitnra of the norre, and that iu aubalauoe, when prtiaaed from 
tla khmitii, prc«r<nted a porfrcUy natnral cbai'tictcr. 

TW caritv of tlie cranium, and the wholiT extent of thi! Hpinnl cnniil, 
««« next bid open. Th« bnuu and apinni luarrow were UtrprivtHl of their 
mwabtanona corerings, and both the thocio and their conleuta dihgeutly 
Piaminad. Tlicra wva do lesion in any part of tliciu, not «T<m at the 
luobar remaa. 

_ TIm arttcnhttioDR of overy joint of tlui faind cxfMmitica th«n underwent 
tBMetion, and no diauaM could bo detected in either of them. 

rntnaor Spooner was of opinion that ibis pecitliar affection <ra8 not 
nfaaUo to any duK«8od state of the bitiin or spinal cord, nor t^o anr local 
•Acliua of tlie mnsctrs of the limbii, lint simply to a ni<irbid ollRCtioil 
*( dm actattv nerre. Hs had not diiist;ct«d a stiigLe ciuw of striu^flialt in 
*^h he bad not found dtaeaao of this nerve, which mainly cotitrihutea 
'"■apply the Kind extremitiee with semation and tho power of voluntary 

Ai a proof that vtringhalt may come on Kuddunly the following in n awo 

'■ point. A noo-lione called ' Warwick' fell out of a horsf-l«>x, wht-n 

"Vrdlimp at the ntc of twenty miles per hoar by rail between Holywell 

**^ FEbIi and when he got np he was nffec1<Hl with idringhnit ; h« won 

IJ^y net» aftorwnnls. The eaiiiin of the atridpnt was Ihis: the hontc- 

^^ wan standing agininat a wall, aod, while loading, (he porters fi>rgot to 

r*ten the door ni^it the wall. Shortly aAer the train wwi in molion, the 

^^ or door of the box fell down, letting the horec's hind jiarta ool ; bving 

^!* iro widi a smi^l raoo-horso bwuI-coTlar, fcirtuuattly it broke, and the 

^'*^»l fdl ont on the ntilii. Being a roM inoriiiug he was wrapt np in 

^^*** TTig», whif^h so i-iiveloited liiin ns to prevent tho luiU cutting Sim. 

V"* train wan iilO{i]>cd, and tbu Iiithu wss f>mnil Ijinff (|uitc unncfxed : 

~^ inslaBt be was spoken to be got up, and thu .itahle-lmy led him away 

J**«. The only iiynrj ho TCioc-ired wnn utriiiK'i'^'t '" ^^^ '"fps "'"1 ''" 

•"^ acrw shown tho leant aymptomN of it before: ho was Are yeara old 


Now comcfl a Tciy important qnestion, Wliat coimectJoD is there bo- 
twecn stringhalt uid the supposed valae or dcteriorBtion of the horse f 
Some experienced practitioners have maintained that it is a pledge of more 
than nsnal muscular power. It is a common saying Uiat * there nerer waa 
a boree with atringhalt that vaa incapable of doing the work required 
of him.* Host c«rttun1y wo continually meet with horses having stringhalt 
that pleasantly discha^ all ordinary, and even extntordioary, serrioe ; 
and althoDgh stringhalt is excess or irregnlar distribution of nerroua 
power, it at least shows the existence of that power, and the capabihty in 
the muscular s y stem of being acted upon by it. Insular distributions of 
Tital energy are not, howerer, things bo be desired. They ai^e disease 
Bud denuigement vf the system, and a prenlispoeition to greater derange- 
ment. They materially interfere with the speed of the horse. This was 
decidedly the case with regard to the poor fellow whose history has been 

Stringhalt is decided nnsonBdncss. It ia an irregular supply of the 
neiTOOS influence, or a diseased state of the nervous or muscular system, 
or both. It prevents us &xnn suddenly and at once calling upon the borso 
for the fiill exercise of his speed and power, and therefore it ia ujuound- 
lieu ; but, generally speaking, it so httle interferes with the serviocs of 
the animal, that, althou^ an unsoundness, it would not weigh a great deal 
against other manifest valuable qualities. 


The stream of nervous influence is sometimes stopped, and thence 
results pal^. In the human being general palsy sometimes occnrs. 
The whole body — every or^an of motion and of sense — ia pondysed. The 
records of our practice, however, do not aSbrd os a single instance of this ; 
but of partial paralysis there are several cases, Mid most nntractable ones 
they were. The cause of them may be altogether unknown. In the 
human being there is yet another distinction, Hemiplegia and Paraplegia. 
In the former the aflbction is confined to one side of the patient; in the 
latter tho posterior extremity on both sides is afiected. Few cases of 
hcmipteda occnr in the horse, and they are more manageable than those 
of paraplegia ; but if the affection is not removed, they usually degenerate 
into paraplegia before the death of the animal. It would appear singular 
that this should be the most common form of pal^ in the human being, 
and so rarely seen in the quadruped. There are some oonsidorationH, 
however, that will partly account for this. Palsy in the hoTBO usually 
proceeds from injury of the spinal cord ; and that cord is more developed 
and far larger than m the human being. It is more exposed (o injuir, and 
to injury that will affect not one side only, but the whole of tho cord. 

Palsy in the horse, although sometimes attacking the tore extremitica, 
is far mora frequently mot with in tho hind ones. The reason of this is 
plain. The fore hmlm are attached io the trnnk by a denso mass of highly 
elastic substance. Thin was placed between tho shouldoi'-blade and the 
ribs for the purpose of preventing that concussion, which would be an- 
noying and even dangerous to tho horse or his rider. Except in conse- 
Sience of a fall, there is scarcely tho possibility of any serious injury to 
e anterior portion of tho spine. The case is very different with regard 
to tho bind limbs and their attachment to the tmnk ; they arc ncccsBarily 
liable to many a shock nnd spmtn injurious to the spine and its coDteiit«. 
Tho loins and the back oflenent exhibit the li-sions of palsy, because there 
are some of (he most violent muxcnlar efTtirt.H, nnd tliere is the greiit«it 
movement and tho least support. It may, consequently, be taken as an 


uom to gaide ibc judgment of the pnictitiout-T, that [lalsy in the homa 

\iuemt ianuiiMf prooeeda fVom diiiuasu or injury of the b|)uic. 

We most ftvi|iicntly nwwt with compli't« paraplegia in the horee, m the 

reeiUl of some injnty to thn npinc. It sometimps cnmics wlHTti the nnimnl 

haa been cast for iho pt-rfovumiii-o of Komi; opt^mtioii : fao Btrupglc-s viti- 

Icntlrat tiret, bat after a liun- ci-anuit. Tliu ojwnitiou being ecufluilod tho 

hobbM nro ramorcd, nnd ftttempta are made to cause the iuiimal to arise ; 

tmt thMM are IrnitlcM, and to the ^reat antiofiuice of tbe operator, his 

bind sxtnmitiM are found to be totaulf pnmlyBod. It is also mot with iu 

the huatiDg-field, as a vumuiinence of the animal dropping the hind cx- 

tnmatiea ioto a fence, or when Kallopiug acroae a 6ula, suddenly pladug 

ik» hind tm into a dnua or hidden trench ; when this happens the aniniul 

Dcnemlh- drags hia hind cxtrcmitit^ n short di^nco and fttlls; ho will 

Ubea make frequiiit ciri>rts to i^t up ngiiin, but vrill onlr sncceed in raising 

ha (bra eottremities ; tliu hind oni^^ uro paralysc^d : in sh(irt, his ' back is 

\q«lun.' It may aUo be produced by getting co^t iu the etahle, and 

■tppiag np, Ac. In most of these OOMS Uie postencr dorsal or lumhtu- 

mtehv will bo fonnd to bo cither dia^l»G«d or fraoiurpd.iird the nymptonis 

«8I appear immediately after the injury. Other cuitisc" ofpnnilysis arc — 

tiMMre to cold and nioiHture, and aisroeo aflV-cling tlie spinal cord itsi-lf, 

oritonanbTanra. When this is Hit i-ujo, we soin<^imea Ret premonitory 

'jM^viiiH The first eymptoma ^roueiully uotiei-d will be a peculiar 

nng nsstcadinns in the animal's walk, which will be tiicrensed when 

Wii made to favt, tho hind legs being to n certain extent dn^gcd after 

fe This nuj oonttnno fur un nnccrlitin Irngth of tiuiv, Init in moat 

am, the animal will get gradually wurue in u f«w days, until be falls 

nil* unabtetori»e again. Paralysis may also l:« confined to ccrtnin ]>iLrtA 

diM on one Hide of Uio laijiuc, pro- 

W^iioeh n» the fii^', car, nnd lips; nnnther fiTtincint instance of' thia 
*>bt(boni] in pumlysU of the muHcl 
'xng roaring. 

1W troatment of paralysis will not generally prov« very Knccessf^I. 

IfftRmilH from n Tiolent injoiy, and wo haTo rcncon to believe from tho 

'■Voutmcc* conniK^ttid with it, nnd the total less of both motive and 

^<Mat power in Hm hind estniuiLii's, that some fraetnre or didlociiliou 

^ *• Tert«bra h^a taken place, the animal shonld be at once destroyed. 

"■tluve premonitory symptoms mfficiemt to indicate the approach of an 

■'Uck ef partilyvis, a strong dose of fiaivatiTC racilicine should be nt once 

'Wintered, and this shonld be auurtod by frequent injections of warm 

••*•. The kona should be covered with a muaUrd poultice, frequently 

••■wl. The patient shoold bo placed in a well- ventilated iitablc, kt-'pt 

^vly clothed, and his food consist for the first few days of nothing hut 

*iA-naab. If the horse ho down, the bettor plan to adopt will Xo to 

^bhim aa comforluhlu na possible, taking care to torn him on Uie otJier 

<M> aooaaioQally, so that the muscles may not become cramped. This 

*■! W better than placing him in slings. If favourable symptoms app^ir, 

**Jtt» animal hegina to regain the n»c of his hmb«,hc mint not be iu tlio 

''fUatdrgrvo m^gleotcd, nor medical Irtatmcnt suspended. There are 

^ iiaiaiii in which the animal is more liable to a relapse, or whore a 

Mhpaa would be so btal. The bowels sbnnid bo knpt reliuccd, cuunti:<r- 

"■hfioa conlinaod over the loins, and [froat attention [uud to the aninmrs 

*1 Strychnine, nod many other nwJicines, have been Htrongly ntcom- 

^aded in attadca of iMtmlyiiis, hut thr:y nro dimbtful und jujwerfulty 

'■feniaa remedies. If the diyenne nisuracH a soinuwhat clironic form, 

*a nteDaire and stimnUting cliiir^ over t.hi^ loinn shonld be applied. It 

*iB aeooniplish threo piirponi'H — tliei'e will be the principle of ooudIit- 

!__■._.•._ dtfenco againitt Iho coM, aad a mwful support of the limbH- 



Wti«n paralysia !b cnnGnod to certain partH »lone, Bnoh M tlie <*r, lifM), 
and Inrvnx, wiy iippan-iit cnune Hliould be at onoo removod, and ikvn 
treated })y oountor-uTitauts, aiii-h as blistcra sod Mtons. 


Tbo diiioAM!* of Uui e^« coDHtitnl« a ver^ important, but a most uaaatin- 
tacUiry division ofuur work, for the maWlics of this organ, althoof^h fuw 
in uuuib«r, ore A-eqneiit in thotr atppoarmnco. Tbcjr nrv siully obstinatCj 
and ofien bhfHo all slcill. 

OcOMinniiHy a wound ia infliut«d bv a paAsionftt« or camleas servMit, 
Tlie <tyf itHcIf ia ra-n-ly iiyured. It ia placed on a itiaea of liit, and it lunu 
moat niulilj', and the j>roi)g of iJie fork el»ncc« otl'; bnt tbo eiibstano6 
ronnd the vvo inny bo dei^ply wntiiutiM), and very oomndnsble infLimnuition 
may cnKur. 'I'liin Hhould be nbutvd by poolUuea, and blMdin){, aiid pbvKic ; 
btitnuprubtrnbuuldbo aacd uud(>rllie foolish ideaof aeccrtatning tbe ilcptli 
of lUe wound in ihe lid, sapposing that ilicrc shniilil bo one, for, from Uia 
constant motion of tlin nyc, it in almoHt impn«Mbli> U> puu tha probe into 
the original wound, and tJic oflurt to acciompliEih it would give a great deal 
of pHJn, and increase the iiiAauu nation. 

The eyeli'la are sabject to occ-aaional inflammatioil from blows or otber 
injnricH. Fomentation with wiirm water will bo wrrtocablo hOTC. 

The hontu luw oouononnlly a scaly (irn]>tion on th« cdgca of tbo Ayclids, 
attended with frre&t itdiiuK, in the vflbrt to alluy wbicli, by rubbing the 
part, the eye may be bJemislif.'d. Tbu nilnitiid ointment of mercury, mixed 
with an eqiinl quantity of lard, tnar bo slightly mblxKl on the adf^ of iha 
lidti with coDMuIorublo good oSbct. 

Tilt) I'velidii will MMnetimM become a)deiuulous. Homox that are fed tn 
low and buiuid pastures are subject to this. It is also the oonat(|nenc« «i 
inflammation badly treated. Tlio eyelid* arc oompoivd of a lax atmoton^. 
and tho tiasiW! is somavrhnt do&cirnt in vilulitr — betx-o this dispoeition lo 
unliltmtion. StHnetimes the coUeutJon of fluid accuoiulatva ao tapMilT, aad 
«o uitenaively, that the ey^s are ctosed. They should be well h^cd with 
warm wator iQinglod with an uromatiQ (inctnre. Tbf oeLlolar subatonn! 
of tlin lidii will Lhua be diapOKod to uontnwt on thoir oontcnl« and caaM 
Uifir al>ii>>rplion. 

Old earrings honies aro sabjoct to this oodcma ; and it frequently aecom- 
paniiM l)ot)i clironio aiid common ophtludmia. 

W«aknuas and dropping of the upja-r lid ia rauind by diminulioa or Ina 
of power in ita mnaotos. Dry fi-ictioiia and ftxtriugi-nt lotiotta will b» 
qiiontly restore the tone of the p«rts. 

The tnrelidii are auhji^ to oi^cauiiona] injary from their BilBatMa and 
oflioo. In KtnuJl inuiwd wounda of tbem gnnt cam nboold be taken tliai 
Ihe divided edges unite bv the first iutt'nt^ou. Thia will barton lb« care 
and preToot d^orroity. If any of the muscles we divided, it is nsnallr 
tho ciliniy or orlncabiria juilpcbraruni. Ttds loritm nmst be hnUod, tf 
pondblr, by tlie Sntt intcutwo, and either by mmnii of ndboaire plastvr or 
ihi! Huture. The enCare is probably the prderable agent. 

If the aooident has ocrnrred many hours before Deing nottcod, and ft 
portion of the upper lid hnngs over tho oye, it sbonid on no aoooont b* 
raotovcd without atti-tTipt« being miulc to oauae it to tiDiti' by taking a 
sharp scalpel, and rouioving a lunaU portion bom the laconttcd odjjisi and 
afterwards bringing them togetlier with netaUic sutures. Great catf 
sliuuM be aAcrwarda taken to MKmre the animal's head iu such a poaitKV 
that he eanuot rub tlie wound ■gaituit the loiu^^rr or wall of the atable. 

^u|^nitBtiug wounda iu the ejrulida may be ihc oonan^nuntxi of the at- 



nouy afcitnction of n ci>nsiil<;m1i!c siiiTni'i? of tho skin in the rpmoral of 
wttrtB or tanoum. Tlu: {)rinci]Hil thing to hv iilkmtli--d to ia the tn-qncnt 
moDOTBl of thi' pus bv meaiu of low or cotton wool. The rest maj 
gnwnlljr be leA to natar«, 

Inversion oTtlie lid w of raiy ntro oocnrronco in ttio horse. 

Wftrto are wrmetunai nttoched to the edgiw of tho lids, nnd nre n aoarco 
ofgnmi inilatioii. When mbbi-d di<-y bUiJ, arid the tominon opinion ia 
tm*— that tli«j kfc propagated by the blood. They sboittil be tukon off 
with ft sharp ptur of scissors, nnd thrir root« tnnchcil with the lunar caiiBtio;. 

The meiabnini; whic-h covm tho h»w is snbjt^t to infliimmiitjon. It 
ia> tndood, a conttniution of th« conjunctiva, tJie inflamiuation of which 
enoatitnleii ophthalmia. An account of this inBanuuation will b<> bctlnr 
poKtnoned until the nataro fuid trcntirtput of ophthalmia comes oudur 
pKTticalar nnticv. 

Th« Haw, or Sfembrana Ntflitaru, is aiibject to inniLramiition pccniinr 
to itaeU^ arining from the introduction of foreign bodit«, or from blowK or 
other accidents. The entire substance of the naw becomes iuiliuiied. It 
bwvUb and protrnde* IVom tlio inner iinele of the ejrc. The heat eitid red* 
ii(«B gmdaalljr dimpncor, but the membrane ofl«n oontinnre to proti-nde. 
Tho taflammatiou of this orgiui assumes a, cbranio cburut'tnr in a rcry 
short tfane^ on aoconnt of the stractaro of the parts, which are in genunil 
littts nuenttible of reaction. 

Hw onunafT caniav of tliis dim-iMc in tho horso are repented and 
periodical atlaoxa of uplithalmia, and blows on the pirt. Tonng and old 
hoewM ara nwst mbjcet ti> it, 

EnoUient applicationB, bleeding, and restricted diet will be proper at 
the OOmnenceatSDt nf the dinrnsr, nnd, the inlliunmntlnn being nbntod, 
slight aetringrota will be useful in pnTrf-'ntiii^ ihe engorgement iif the 

rl. ttoa^.watvr with snbaoetal« of lead will form a proper colljriam, 
the protmding body does not diminish nfVr proper means have been 
kried, and for a snfficifmt (irriod, it must Iki ri'moved witli a curved pnir of 
tdaaors. No ilungL-r will alt^rnd this operaliou if it is performed in time, 

UlocTfttiou and caries of the cartilnge will sometiTnos bo accempuuied hj 
■kontion of the ooiyanctivs. This will frequently provo a very serious 

The Carnncnla ItfchrjTnalis, or Tubercle, by meftuB of which the teai^ 

Vv directed into the e&nul throu);b which they are to escape from thn 

■Mbil, ■ aometimes enlarged in consequence of inflnnimation, and the 

Pwta lAchtymalia, or conduit* into which tlie team pass from the ey«^ 

■•putially or completely clo«tJ. The applieuliou of warm nnd emoj. 

faifetians will Ki-nerally remove the collected mncua ortlieinflammution 

'(titt parla; but if the passage of a stylet or other more complieatvd 

*Mh are roqnircd, thn nMistanco of & vftcrinnry surgeon should be 

I ^Mdaately obtained. The lachrymal sac into which the teitm pnM from 

L fc p»etft has oooaaionally participated in the intlummatiou, luid been 

■ ^JMiaded aad mpfeored by the tears and mucus. This lesion is termed 

W A^de Jjoikrymiuit. It hu ocuunonikUy exiated is coH«, and vriU roqoin 

[ "^^rdiata and {leeuUar treatment. 

IW indieattcns of common inlhuumntion of tho eye are so clear, that 
' i aner oaght to be oonfonndod with speolGe, fbr in it tho external 
tm'mtgK of the (70 ntoiui an implicjtteil ; we have enfpif;«anent of the 
onajnctival membinue, aooora(>a>mi-'d with a marked cireumscribvd opacity 
•f iha tranaianmt oorueo, and that is nil ; there is no effusion in tho 
Mlerior diamber, giring that discoloured muddy uppuimnco ao ohartio- 


8I-£CIF1C orilTtl.VIJIIA, 

Lcriotio in Hi)ccifio optitlutltiiiii ; the ilia rvnuuuit ck«r knJ Iniglit, and Um 
kma ia aiatmscted. 

tcriotio I 

This conmoa ipflummiition ia ^tieraUy sudden in its atUck. Il hi 
occaeionftUy conaectnl with an attftck of mloirh or colil ; but it is ns oft«n 
nnacoompwdcd b^thin, nnd dop«nids on rxtirnal imhition, m » blow, or 
tbo praenoe of ft bit of Itnr-Kucd or oat-liUNk wiUiin tko liil, and towards 
Ibu onter oomer wliere the liaw cturnot reach il : Uiervforv the lida kbotild 
always be carefUliy examiutnl as U> this possible soiirc« of the «>in)>laint. 
Tbe lids will bo found swollen, and the eyes partially closed, with more or 
IcM wmping, th« inner sarihcc of the cyrlidR rod luid tnmid, snd the comM 
will entber spjMMr bright or oloady, uucording tu the cxtimt of the injary. 
It not uiifn.-(|u(.-utl_v huppuu wh(.-a the ii^oty has n-aulu-d from llie Ism 
of a whip, or a thorn, that th^ coujunctinl membraue Ik-ooiuks laoerated; 
and eomotiiaes the injury extends to th» oomos. 

Onr first objoot by way of tnatmcnt shonld ho to osoortuD the oubo of 
tbu misofaief by osmnlly yxamining tbo «y<i luid thti rrmoval of any of- 
feuding object. The uutmal sbotild do pk<;(;d iu a cool but nomuwluit duxk 
box, th« ey« sboitld be bftUied with warm wster, laiativo me<diotne giTca, 
and tfao sniaul kept od soft ^t If the inflaimnstion be vei7 scat«, l>kiod 
may bn tnkini from thr; facial win. In a frw days the iufismnutioD will 
)^.iiL>ni)ly Hubiudc-, and then u weak solution of salphatc of sum suy be 
applied. Wht!u Out acuiti iiifla-iiiniaiioii haa ]xuu»hi uwuy, tbo eomoft is 
sometimes lett very tt-use aud cloudy : we may now apply stimtilaBto to ite 
surface in the form ofeolutionnicra(« of silver (gr. viii to ^jaqusdiBtiUala), 
lit timt injoct<nl for twenty-four hoars, and then ceasing for two or three 
duyn, sad again imiployitig it if noCMwnry. Wbcm uro gvt gnuralstions on 
thi' coniMt us tbo icsult of Ivsiona, nitroto of silTCr must Ite appliod is 
its pure state. 


In tbis we hftve a far morv formidnblc and di'stnictivn dinnuto tban llw 
one jost deaeribcd ; it in, indoud, one of the (.•ppmbisof TeterintuyscieBoa^ 
Dttrrly IwHUiig all its neeourcos aud ruutiiug its course emticaJly, indeed. 
but uioMl Bur«ly sod destructively. The aqneons humour often lost* 
its transparency — oven the iris cluuietw its colour, uid the pupil is exceed- 
ingly oontmcted. Indeed the term Iritis, or inSammalion of thn iris, will 
convey a mneh morv inteltifi^ble idea of th« disease than any other, for it 
is tiiis, with the other int«nial tissues of the eye, that cspeciuly tatter from 
its devsetAtions. The oxt«rDal parts trf the eye are comparatively bal 
little implicated, and sulfei- only in n comoantjre degree ; bot see its inflects 
ou tbu iris, which gives tho eoloiiringand bonntv to the^e, — its brilliaocj 
is lost, its texture is broken down, il ix a dark, utscolonrra cnrtoiu ; look at 
Uie ^mtiiietrical pupil with ita fall ruundMl ed^^— b ia laeemted and torn, 
jagged and dis^^ired, aa if meolianical dMtractioD had torn it ; then its 
conitre otnaakoit, Uie beaatiM leoa, ttan^Mnnt as a crystal, Ble^r oa a 
djaraoiid, is become disorgaaisod, omshad, ditoolourvd, a sbapdeas opaqita 
lump, inxt^uul of thn bright transparent rondiictor,^th<) ligiit of heavea 
■■an no lunger peniieute tt, and total blindness is the rmnlt. 

The veteriuaiy surgeon has now an obsliuate disease lo combat, and od» 
that will generally """'"*»""" its ground in spite of aU his efforts. Fur three, 
or Cbur, or five weeks, the inflainmation will rcmaio ondimiuisbcd ; or if il 
appaars to yield on one day, il will nrtura in redoubled vielenoe oa tba 
next. At IcAgth, and ofle-n unconnected with any of tbo oicnna tbat ha** 
been aaed, tbo eye heuins to btttr the light, the rednesa of the iiiiiiiitiniia 
of the lid disappean, the oomea clears up, and tho only veotige of ' ~ 
which remains ks a alight ihicko&ing gf tbe tide, aud apparent 
wbcn ezpoecd (o a my atnog light 



If (Tic OWTipT imagines Hint lip Ilaa got rid of llic dinciisc, he will bo 
Baailj difB|>|>ainU^t, for, in tlii^ <'<iiir»c or throe wrfks nr u montli, citliL-r 
flic aune 170 nndervoe* a stwonil uiil mmiliLr utlnck, »r thn other ono 
tteoaroos anecUd. All aftaio seeiua to uutu orcr. t.-xi*i'|jt lliut tlir? c-yc in not 
•o petfectly rastorv^, and a slight, decplj-HC<ati«l cloudlncBs U'l^iun U> 
mffstri tiA ntier ivponted nttncks, aod altcmationa of di^^caae iroui cyo 
to eye, the niBiir trrmitintcfl in opwity of tlic Icn« or its caiMato, attonded 
iritia perfect blindniiu cither of one era or both. This nBrction tvns 
fjiBHiil; known br the name of moon^bliudiiese, fram iU pvriodimt ix^inrn, 
and aomft nppowa inflnenoe of the moou. That bod/, huwever, luia not, 
and annot twro aDything to do trilh it. 

What is (he practitioner doing uU this while ? Ho is an aiucioas and 
borjr, bntalmort powcrlem )tp«;tiit(ir. Hr> fonicnt-a tLe eyes with wiiiTn 
water, or sppUi-s cold lotiosn ; hu lilei'ds, not from tlie U'lnporal artery, 
fcr that do** uot snpplj- the orbit of the eye, but from the faeial vein, 
or be scarifies tbo Uauig of tho lid, or subtracts a considerable qnanlily 
of blood from the jngnbir vein. Tbo scarifying of the conjunctiva, which 
aaj be easily »ccomptislie<l without a twitch, Iiy exposing the inniile of tho 
lidH, and drawing a kecu lancet slightly orcr Ihcio, in tli<! mnict effectual of 
all ways to abate InBaminntion, fur we arc tluro inimcdialely unloading 
the dtateoded imnniln He places his scions in tlit.- ehet'k, ei' hia rowels 
under tbe jaw; and he luvpn the animal low, and gives physic or fever 
medicine. Tho di«ca«e, howcTcr, ehbH and Sows, rotrcats niid attacks, 
■ntil it roachea it* natniiil (vrminiiticm, litindness of one or both cyrs, 

Cart-boTM* ere tlie must subject to thisdiaea«c. and the period at whiok 
H gvaerelly ap[>cars ia f^om the aj-e of three to 61 e yoara. He haa llien 
eompleted Uiii ^-rowth. Ho is ftiU of blood, aiid linhlo to inflnmnintoiy 
complaints, and tlie Ojro i« tho organ nttnckcd from a peculiar predisposi- 
tion in it to inflammation, tlio nature atid cause of which catinot always 
t» «l^ilaiiiv<l. Rvcry aflevtion of the cy« ajipcariug about tlua age mint 
be regarded with much raapicioa. 

Aa tliis malady eo freqnontly deatroya the night, and there are certain 
periods when the inflammatioD has seentingly subeiiled and the incx- 
periOBOed petaoo wonJd be docrlred into the belief lliat all danger is at an 
^id, tbo 1^0 ahoald be most carefully observed at the time of porchusc, 
aad tlie examiner sbonld be tiitiy aware of all the minate indications of 
pteriou or approacliuig diseaee. 

Tbere ia uolDing which dc«crrcs so tnnch attention from the pnrchaacr 
of B borse, aa the perfect tranjiparcney of the comca over the whole of its 
WbAco. Tho ore should be examined for tliis pur(iosc, both in front, and 
■wHh the faca ef the examiner oloxe to Llic clicck of the horse, under and 
SAi*-* the i-ye. The latter method of looking tlirongh the cumea is tho 
■inet Mtis&ctotj, so far as the tranaparancy of that part of th« eye ia con- 
^— iiH. During thia exanunatioo, the horse should not lie in the open air, 
bat in the stable, standing in the door-way and a little witliin the door. Tf 
tlicte be tbickcping of the lid«, or puckering towards the inner comer of tho 
cjroja difircnoo in the apparent size of the eyea; a cloudiness, although pcr- 
bs|M ecarcely perceptible, of tho snrfaco of the cornea or more deeply Heated, 
or ft iaxj drcle ronnd ite edge ; a gloominess of e^o generally, and dnllnesa 
at ft« iria: with the enrfaco of the corpora nigra r^K"! ^^d hiuiging 
down, or a mimt«, (aint, da«ky spot in tho eentre, witli or without minnto 
fibne or lin» direrging from it, we may feel aBsared that inflammation 
bu oocnrrH at no venr dialaut period, and there will be every probability 
of ite itrtnm. There la one little cautiori to be added. The cornea in ita 
iMlunl state is not only a beautiful transpamtt body, bnt it reflecta, even 
to its tiaiiKpurcncy, many of the rays which tall npon it, and 


Sl'KCli'a; Ol-HTHALMIA. 

if there bo a wliito object inimcdialvly before the rye, ns a vprj' lij^bt 
wnistcoat, or mucb dixplniy of n nliitn m-ckclntb, the n^tttiction inny ]iiizale 
nn fiXpoHoncod obiterver, unci luui miiiltHl Um careless one. Tlio ctiut Nlionid 
bi! butUmwl up, and Oxe wliito cr&vat carefully conoealed. Tbc' ctnuno of 
tbis inflaiHiiiatiop ia tmdoubtedly a etroug pi-edispouticiD to it iu tUe ejo 
of the borse, but assigt^d by ovor exertion and tUo nealod and cnipoisoiwd 
air of tniuiy vtnblos. I'lic heatod nir has much t« do with th<t prodacttun 
of tho dineiiM) ; the cinp(>iHun(»l iiir a great deal more ; for eri^ ono miut 
liiivti obiurwil, on enluring a doiii- Htnble early in llie morung, iitron^ 
fuuiea of amiuouia, which vr«re painful to his eyes, and caosud l)i(i tuira to 
flov. What nio^t be the couslant action of this ou lh« eves of the hone? 
I'he dang of tho horse, and the titter of the atabica, whenbcoomingpatrid, 
emit famoa of volatile alkali or ammonia. Often, very noon uli«r tlie 
ei-:icuati(m!t arc voided, thny brgiii lo yield an imineiicc quantity of thia 
pungent f^. If wu are ncurt-v-ly able to bi-ar tliiii when we iitanil in llio 
Stable tir only a few minntee, we ueed not wonder at tlie provaluuoo uf in- 
6Miuiiation in the eye of the stabled horse, nor at the difficulty of abating 
irflnmmatinn whiln this organ contiaacs to be exposed to Kiich pninfiu 
cxeitomi'nt. Stablr« are now mnch better vcntilitii^l than they uiicd to he, 
and ophthalmia ia far from buiag so pri.'valont a* it waa fifty yuan mo. 
This disvaae generally comuiencea durini; tho uiglit, and ia oaa^TSa- 
teoted in the morning, as soon as the horse ia turned In his stable to navs 
lus head and nock drt^ued. In many cases one eye only sufTerc, the atteek 
lasting Ion days or a fortnight, tlii^n nnln^ding. and rotnming periodically 
erory threa weekii or a montli. Wlii-n this is this case, tho otacr eye en- 
tirely eaetities, receiviu;- additional value from ita OMni>arisoD wiUi it« nji- 
furtnnate Uillow. ])ut nnfoHunatcly ihia too often is not th« case; baton 
the aubeidalion of tho attack in one ore, the mischief is browing in tho 
other; it hu to go throngh tho sanio donui luting proomv, and the result 
to both is derangomont, wor*o almost in ita diecU tluui eumjdi.'to dia- 

Tlu! proportion of vnriouH dioeasoH, and this more than any other, from 
tbu sire to his nro^^ny. has not been sufficiently conwdered by breeden. 
lA<t a stalhon that is blind, or whnsc sight is defoctivo, poaaoaa avei7 oUur 
point and nnality that can bo wished, yet he is worse than nscleM \ for I 
reiy oonaitlerable jiroportion of Ids offspring will moNt aAiiiredly inliirrit 
wciUC eyes or become lolally blind. Thuru ia no Giet bettor estabUidiod 
(ban tJus, there ia do more positive proof of the existence of lieredttaiy 
disease than this: in m«ij mstaoooa the entiro progeny of the blind aba 
or dam have been implicatod in tlio dcrt ru c Uv o aisoaao. 

Tlie most ^■qtiont conaequoDcea of this discoao are oloodinOKa of the eye^ 
and oataraeU The eloadinesa is sin^lar in ita uatnie. It will change in 
twenty-four hoars Erom the thinnest film to the thickest opacity, u^ m 
suddenly, the eye will nearly regain its perfect tnun^tanucyi but only lo 
lose it, and as rapidly, a second time. 

Tho most hnrbarons mrtliods hare been resorted to for tho purpoae of 
remOTing this clondinew. Chalk, and salt, and sngar, and eren paoiKlsd 

?hM have bees introduced into the c^'e meolianically to mb olT iba film, 
b waa fbmttoi that the olondiDOas vraa the eSbct of inflammation ) tliafc 
niMU M bM>li md emol vera veiy Vhely to recall that inflamnatiaii ; 
that tbeee roogh and sharp mlMtAnccs mniit of necessity inflict ezctw* 
ciating pain ; and that, aHcr all, it generally was not a fibn on the snrEue 
of the ooroutt, but a dimaeaa parradiDg lU anhatance, and oren siBkin| 
deep within it, and theretbn DOt capable of being removed. Wbcrv the 
ckmdinom can be removed, it will bo be«i eBoded by fint a)>atintr inflatr* 
jaatioOf and than exciting the absorbenta to take up the grey deposit, bj 


waghiiig (lie eje with- a very weak solutiou of nitrate of silver or aalphate 
of elnc. 

Opacity of the leiiB is another conseqnonce of specific inflammatioii. A 
trhito epeck appears on the centre of the lens, which gradually spri'uila 
over it, and completely covers it. It is generally bo white and pearly aa 
not to ho misteken ; at other tunea it is more hazy, deceiving the inex- 
perieiiced, and occasioning donht in the mind of the professional mnxi. We 
nave seen many instances in which the sight has been considerably affected, 
or almost lost, and yet the horse has been pronounced sound by very fair 
jadffea. The eye most be exposed to the light, and yet under the kind of 
Ambgr which has been already described, in order to discover the defect. 
The pupil of the horse ia seldom black, like that of the homan being, and 
its gr^ish hne conceals the recent or thin film that may be spreading 
over the lens. 

Confirmed cataract in tlie eye of the horse admite of no remedy, for two 
obvions reasons : the retractor mnscle draws the eye hack so powerfully 
and w deeply into the socket, tliat it would be difGcnlt to perform any 
operation ; and slionld on operation bo performed, and the opaque lens 
removed, the sight wonld be so imperfect, from the rays of li^'ht not iH'in^ 
sufficiently converged, that the horse would be worse to as tlion a blind 
one. The man who has undergone the operation of couching may put a 
new lens before his eye, in the form of a convex spectacle ; but we cannot 
adapt spectacles to the eye of the horse, or fix them there. 

^noe the publication of the first edition of ' The Horse,' some commn- 
nicotionB have been made in the seventh volume of the ' Veterinarian' 
with regard to the occasional appearance and disappearance of cataract 
withont any connection with the common nioon-hhndness. It is there 
stated, that cataracts might be formed in a furtnight or three weeks ; that 
many instances had been known in which they had been completed in less 
time, and without any previous apparent disease of the eyes ; and tlint 
they had been detected on examination, when the owners had not the 
slightest suspicion of disease in the eye. These cataracts, however, were 
very minute, and occasionally wci-e found after a time to have disappeared. 
They differ entirely from the catjiracts produced by the I'cpL-iited attacks 
of specihc ophthalmia, in being small and t(.'mj>orary, and in the otJier tissues 
of the eye remaining intact. 

That excellent veterinarian, Mr. Percivall, had a case of this description. 
A gentleman brought a horse one morning to the hospital, in consequenoo 
of its having faUen in his way to town, and grazed his eyebrow. On 
examining him carefnily, the cornea was partially nebnloas, and a cataract 
was plainly visible. Neither of these defecte was sufficient te attract the 
notice of any unprofessional observer, and both were unconnected with the 
slight bruise produced by the fall. The owner was told tliat the corneal 
opacity might possibly bo removed ; but as for the cataract ho might 
regard this as beyond the reach of medicine. He returned with his horse 
on the fiflh day, saying that the physic had operated well, and that he 
thought the eye was as clear as ever. Mr. Porcivall examined the eye, 
and could discover no rehc either of the corneal opacity or of the cataract. 

The opinion respecting cataract is therefore essentially modified. It 
ina,f not of necessity be the resalt of previous iufiammation, althoagh in 
the great majority of ctkses it is so, nor does it always lead to blindnees. 
Still it is a serious thing at all times, and, although existing in the 
minutest degree, it is vruimitdnetn, and very materially lessens the value 
of the horse. 

' Were I asked,' says Mr. Percivall, ' how the practitioner could best 
distinguish a cataract of tho above descrijition from that which is of ordi- 




nary occorrvuco, and known bj us all to conftiitato Ui« oommoD termina- 
tion of |Mriodical nphthalmia, I should my that th« nna*aall; Incid and 
heftllhy wpwit which owty othv part of tlio tije pratmta ia onr best 
diagnoatie sign ; tho slightesl indieataon, hoirerer, er tae slighUat mspicion 
of prior or preaeot inflaromatioa, beinfc a r«ason for ooming to a different 
oonclnsion. As to tha piriod of time a catArttd of ibis snocics, sappoaing 
it to bo monbraaoiiB, wauM require for its fonnittioii, I Rlu>nld npprohtxid 
that its prodnction mi^lit bn, tut iln di.iuppviiraiioi' otVit noald iM-tu to bo^ 
tho wort of a ve:y aliurtintcrvul, {H.-i-liupH uot more Uiiu five or nijc days.* 
As to tho caoM ud treatmeut of it, we are at pr«seDt coiiipIet«ly tn tha 
dark. If it does not soon disappear, tho hydriodate of potash administorad 
internally might oRor tho bost prospect of roccoM. 


Another species of blindnc-x*, and of whioh mention was made irhon da> 
scribiiig tbu retinu, iH Outta Si-ntna, miunuinly calW <;i>u« eija. Thn panti 
is more than usually dilated: it is iuunorabl^. bright, aud gWay, aud tiia 
animal is totally blind. This is palsy of the optic nerve, or its ez- 
punson, tho retina. It may bo [irodacod by severnl causes, snch as 
trom a blow ob tho head, internal hiDmorrbng;i', nrrminn, th<i rcsnlt of 
tuBOim, or i-Suaioo npon that paiticnlar jukrt of thi- brain from whrnoo 
ttM optic ner\-M arise, temo Bonft disease of the nrtiaa itself, or as ilx r^ 
mlt of debilitating diseases. The treatmant of Outta Serena is OBite ss 
dtSienIt as that of cataract. Wo hava hoard of ancoeesflil osbm, bat we 
mtrer saw odo; nor iihoald wn bn diiipoiiod to in en r much rxpcnuo in endea- 
vouring to aocompliab tmpoii.iibiUtii.-a. If it procwd from iujurit.'s such as 
blows, Ac, warm foin«itatioua shonld be employed and sutons inserted, 
lazatiTe medioinea being giren ; if from debility we should allow nutritioos 
food, and give veg«table aod minprat tonics. If wv soc«cied it mnst be by 
conrtitntional treatment. As to local trcatuuut, the seat of dlsoaao is oat 
of our renoh. 


This is a disnso oooutonally suit with as a trrmmntion of ophtlialmia, 
and known by the name of |Raea cafamct ; bat it is much mors frvqneotlT 
met with as a result of age in very old horaM. On cxaminatioD tfa« popU 
will bo fouod dilated, and tho interior of the eye prMcnting a peculiar 
sea-grcciD appmrancr, the animal being blind. It is a diseased oondition 
of the vitreous humour, and admits of no rdiot 


Wounds of tlie ear are usually tho conBe<inence of careleas or brvtal 
tnatment. Tfao twitch tna^ bo applied to it, when absolnto oeoeeail^ ra- 
quiM lUa dsgr«o of coercion ; but trooblcaome ulccn aod brniaea nava 
bean Hia ooaanui^noc of tho abuse of Ibis spvoioa of pnnishmcnt, and mom 
■apeeially haa vie farrier done irreparable misobief when hu has bmtally 
made use of his plyen. 

These bmisc* or wonnds will gvnernlly — Ibrtnnatcly for the *"'im>l. and 
fortonattdy, perhaps, tor the brute that inilict«d tho injury — speedily heal j 
bat occMtonaUy amuses aud absoessee will result that bed dofiaaoe to tha 
OMMt akilfhl tavatment. A simple booration of tbe oaxtilaea is eaailf 
nBMdied, The divided odgni arc hrooght into apposition, and the bead is 
tied np closely for a few dnys, and kII is woll ; but, occaaiooally, nloevatiaa 
of the integument and oellnlar snbstanon, and carim of the cartilsae, will 
lake plaoe — deep sluuma will be formed, and tho wound will biddvfiaBca 





b> Qie most skitful trcutmttot. Tlii! writer of thie work had once a casu of 
tliii klni) uailer Uu cure mure thu.ii two niunthii, tiiicl he vraa nt length com- 
p>>lled K> cut off tbe ear, tlie other ear ri>l)ovru>g it, for the sake of ani- 
fbmu^ of appearanoe. The lunar canstio, or llie muriate of antimonir, or 
tba heat«d iron, mitst bo oarly oniplojod, or the labour uf the practitioner 
will be in vain. 

It liaa be«n the tuisfortunc of the aanui poriion bo witnean two cases in 
which tbe aoditoij poaaage waM closed and the facutt/ of hnnrii^ de- 
fltrojed, by blowa on the ear violently inflicted. No jiuuiahmuiit can be 
too ■•¥«■-(■ for thoM bmtm in hamait shape. Whenever there ia ooDEider- 
■bl« Rwelling abgut thcnmtr of tJi«<;ar, and thoflnotnation of a Raid wilbiu 
can be detected, it should be immcdinteljr opened with a lancet, end the 
paralent fluid libcf%i«d. 

The abeoeaa usnaUj^ begins to form about the middle of the eonch, or 
nUtor nettnr the base uan the poiut. The incision should be of con. 
micnble lengtli^ or Ihn opening will close again in foil r-and- twenty houra. 
TW pamlvnt nutter hiiring br«n evacuated, the incifion iihonid not be por- 
miU<d to doae until tha edgoe of the nioer have adhered to each other, 
and Ilia abaceM is obliteratM. 

^Maixeaud tlteearriageof theear do not always pleaee. The ears may 
bs larnr and more dependent than fashion ro^niree tiiem to be, aud this is 
reinadied by an operation. On either aide of the projection of the occipital 
bone, and id a ntniight lino forwanl and bacWiird, a fold of the ekm ie 
ir™**—^ np and eut away. Th« divided cdgra on either side are th(<n 
Broug h t together, and confined by two or three atjtches >- they preeently 
■aite, and the owner has a l>ettor-tonkitig hnrao, and noon forgets or caret 
voi ahovt the pnniibnient which hn hnit inllicti-d on him. 

Tha can of other hor»c« mar bo noppuned to be too close to each other. 
mua &ali b oorrecttHl by anotber pii.'ce of craelty. Similar slipx of akin 
are cat away on the outaide of the baao of the f-nr, ami in the name dime- 
lion. Tbe edges of the wound arc then bmtiKht togi^hcr. eonfincd by 
autumn, and the earw am drnvrn farther apart from (!fti-b otlier, and have 
diSerent itiructionii fiiven bi thcro. A very alight axammation of either of 
Iha hones irill teadilj detect tbe impositjon. 


Of th« octmaional extatence of this in the horse, thrrc is no donbt. Tho 
lisnilliflll play of the eara has ceased, and tho hnrsc henm not thci voice of 
bis uttrtar, or the aoiind of the whin, Moi^h of the? apjuirent atiipidity of 
m Unr bomw ia attribniablo to thirir inipiTfL'Ct hearing. It oiTDxiuniilly 
mvftmrm to follow thn d<s^ilue of various di^t.-nst'a, aud eiipi-cially uf those 
t&at aAct the head and the reapiratoiy paesnges. It Ima been the conee- 
UnaiMH nf hrnluil treatment closing the condnit of the ear, or ruptnnng the 
tpopannm -, and it is cr^rtoinly, as in otlior domesticated a nim al s , the ac- 
eoa^MoiineDt of old age. 

In tbe pm«nl state of veterinaty know)L>d^ it is an inenrablo complaint ; 
tbe tinly thing that can be done is not to punish tho poor slave for hia 
■I^Mreni stopidity, prodncpd pcrbaps by nvcr-exertiou in our service, or, at 
ths natural' attendant of the close of a Uf« devoted to ns. 





Wl now proceed to B desoription of the face, or lower part of the head of 
ths Horee. The natal bonet, or bones of the nose (j j, p. 146), Kce con- 
nected yriih tiie frontal bones above, and with the lachrymal, i i, and 
the bones of tiie upper jaw, 1 2, on either side. They are anited together 
toy a plain eatare, which is a continnation of the frontal, and th^ ter- 
minate in a point at the nOEtril (p, p. 145). They are rounded and arched 
above, becaase they are exposed to occasional riolence and injnry, which 
the arch-form will enable them beet to resist ; and at the base of the arch, 
where the main strength should be, they are overlapped hy the npper jaw- 
, bone, as the temporal bone overlaps the base of the pariedl. These bonM 
form a principal part of the face ; and the length or shortness, and the 
oharaoter of the face, depend npon them. Sometimes there iB an appear- 
ance of two little arches, with a depression between them along the 
sntnres. This is often found in the blood-horse, with his comparativelj 
broad head and &oe. The singla elevated arch is found in the long and 
narrow &oe of the heavy draaght-horse. 

The nasal bones porsne their course down the face, in some hones in a 
■trught line — in others, there is a slight prominence towards the opper 
put, while in a considerable nnmber, a depression is observed a EtUe 
lower down. Some persona have ima^^ed that this deviation in the line 
of the face affords an indication of the temper of the animal, and there 
may be a htfJe truth in this. The horse with a straight profile may be 
good or bad tempered, but not often cither to any great excess. The one 
with the prominent Boman nose will generally be an easy, |i^xid-t«mpered 
land of beast — hardy — i«ady enongh to feed, not always, perhaps, bo 
readv to work, but may be made to do bis duty without any cruel nrging, 
and having no extraordinary pretension to speed or blood. On the other 
hand, a depression across the oentre of the nose generally indicates some 
breeding, especially if the head is small, bot occasionally accompanied by 
a viciouB, uncontrollable disposition. 

There is another way, however, in which the nasal bones do mora 
eertainly indicE^ the breed, viz., by their comparative length or shortness. 
There is no rarer criterion of a well-bred horse, than a broad angular 
forehead, prominent features, and a short face ; nor of a horse with little 
breeding, than a narrow forehead, small features, and lengthened nose. 
The comparative development of the head and face indicates, witli little 
error, the preponderance of the animal or intetloctofd principle. 

These bones form the roof of an important cavity — the nasal cavity, aa 
shown in the cut (a, a, p. 197). The sides are constituted above by the 
nasal bones, and, lower down, by the upper jawbones (^tuperuyr maxUlarltt), 
while plates from these latter bones project and compose the palate, whit^ 
is both the floor of the nose and the roof of the month (i, 6). Above is 
a bone called the paiaHne (e), although it contributes very little to the 
formation of the palate. It is the termination of the palate, or the border 
of the opening where the cavities of the month and nose meet. The 
frontal sinuses and large racnities in the npper jaw-bone, and in the 
■thmoid and sphenoid bones, oonunnnickte with and enlvgo the cavity 
of the now. 



This cavity Is diridcvl intn two parts by n L-arulngi' ciUli^d the Sfpltl»\ 
I ((/, d). It u of cutuidcniblc thickness and strtngUi, luid di\-id<« tho 

<wty of the nose into two etiaal partii. H ik flkeod in th<i centre for tho 
I*rpo(ir of dtrmglh. and it is roraux) of caTtilam, m ordiir that, by ila 
nMnallj yicliUng resistance, it maj neutraliso abnotit any furcu tlial may 
W applied to it. 

When we open tho nostril, wo sco tho membrane by which tlie cartiht)fe, 
■ad the wholp of tho carity of thp nose, is lined, and by the colour of vrbich, 
uarh more than by thnt of thr Uning of the CTelidn, we judge of tho degree 
<f Icrwr, and paFticalarly of infljunmntion of the lungs, or nnv «>f the nir- 
MMBgM. The above cut showK tht; niniifioiilidiiii of the blood-veaseld, 
oDth arterial and Tenona, on the nwmhninu of the nose. Il bL-aulifiilly 
acrrmnts for the aecunite connection which we Imoe between the colour 
of thr natal tnembrane, and various diseasea or sintee of the circulation. 
By the nope placea or nlcei^ttona discovered on this membrane, we 
BkcwiMT di-ti-miine respectinf; the existence of glanders ; and the int.-r- 
poaition of tite nrptiun is a wise and benevolent prorinon lo hinrtcr tho 
^■iumI of tJir miKebief, by cutting off all comninni cation with the nrigb- 
bonriag piriA, and alto ti) ]>rcM>rT9 one nostril ptn-viouK, when the other is 
diteaaed oroliHtnirtccI. The niiml cavity in, on either side, oiTapictl by 
two bonea, which, frum their brine rollcid np M»n«what in the furni uf a 
torban. are oaUcd the lurbinateJ or liirb'in.^hapeJ bones. They are iw 
thin as gani«, and perfoniteil like game, with a thousand holea. IJctween 
tbrtn are left sufficient possat^-a for the nir. 

If they were nnroUed, they would pi*8ent a very considCTable surface ; 
and on every part of ttieni is spread the sobstance or pulp of the ol/aetory 
or finrt pair of nerves. These bones, lined with delicate nienibranoB and 
eorenpil hy the olfactory nerves, are the geat of »m«U ; and ihcy are thua 
txpanded, benannc the sense of smell in tho horse must, t«> a very couwder- 
aUo degree, itnpply the place of the aenne of toacb and the iMSona of ex- 
teritmcff in the Imtnikn being. By thin alone he is enabled to aelect, amongat 
ihe nutritive and poiminoiui herbnge of the meadow, that which woold 
■apport and not de*troy him. Tlie tvoupN of wild hoi'seH are said (o smell 
Um approach of an enemy at ii vrrt- ceni^idenible distance. Tn his domestic 
Bate, tho horse does not examine the diiferent f<x>d which is pluet^d before 
lim with his eye, bat with hia nose ; and if the sm<-ll displnittes him no 
nmxing will induce him to eat. lie examines a Ntrangerby the smell, and, 
l^ verv inti'lligible signs, expresses the ^minion which he fomix of him by 
, tRis iTiiinisitioti, The horse will evidentnlly reeiufnine bia favourite gmom 
alvn he haa nothingelsn to in[licitt<:- hiu upiiroucb Init tlie M'Tuk! uf smell. 
t^HiMC cavities are lilccwin; organa of voice. The aound rererborates 



thmtgh thcco, moii iDcrvaMs in loudncBa, as tkn>iij[b tbo wiudmga of 
KrctKUi htim. 

Tbu eKt«nAioa of the noatrQ *t Om lower part of tboae cavities ia 
iroporlant part of lh« boc. and intimately connor1<^ with bTMding, cooragft, 
fend spec<). The horse ran bnnfiio onlr through tho DOSft. All tho air 
which goita t» luid r^iima from tbi! luD^ most poM Ihroo^ the nostrilii. 
In t^ oumnHm tu^t of brtaUtinif. tliew an sufllciiiDUjr bti^ ; bat when tb« 
aaimal k pvt od hia veed, and tbereapanUMO b qaidcened. tlteaQ pnBwgf 
uut dilate, or he will be mndi distresMd. The expanded nostril u a 
vfariking feature in tho blood ■ hontp, (-tip<x-ialtj when ht^itaa boon excited and 
not oTor-blown. The oporttu); mun wilt uot fnr^Ttthosuddenoffoct which 
ia giTra to tho oonnt«aanoe of tlit< huut«r, when biii fan b(.-coini! erect, atul 
kis DOelrib dilate as he flrat tiatvns to the ciy of tlit- bounds, and tmortit, 
and MttBto tbam alhr off. Tbo painfU and vpumod etr«t«liinfF of tlus part, 
in tfae poor orvrdrirsn poMt-harao, will sfaonr how noowwii^ it ia tliat tlw 
painago to thn lan^ HbouM be free and open. The uuiitrila alionld not odIj 
sa laise, bnt the mvmbrauoua aabataaoe wbicli covum the onltance into the 
Boae uoiild be Uub lad elaetic, that it nwy more readily yield when the 
•eeean^ of the animal roqaimn n grrntCT sapply of air, and aAerwatds 
retam to its lutnrul diml^nKio1>•. TluirGfore, natnre, which ■i^i^>te the 
aitimal to faiii Mtnation and uai; hae given to the uart-lionie, that i« seldom 
blown, a confined nostril, and surronuded by mnck c«Uular anbatance, 
and a thick eldn ; and to tbo borao of more breeding, whose use oon*i«ta 
in his apood and bia oontinnaace, a wider nostril, and one muck more 

Tbo iiihabilanta of aome oonntried were aociuitamitl to slit the Boabrila 
of Ibeir hontcH that Ihey might be Ii-kh diKtrMMd in the anvrre and long- 
onn^ued exertion of their speod. The Icelanders do ho to the pnwmt 
day. Tlier« is no neoeesity for this, for natnre has made ample proriaion 
for all the ordinary and even extraordinary exertion we can require from 
the hontn. 

Boiaa very nowcrfiil mtucles prooeed from difli-rent parta of tho &ce to 
tlui noigbbourliood of the uoRtrils, in order to draw them baok and dilate 
them. Fonr of tbcM.' an- ^von in the next cot, which i« tnbodnoed to cxim- 
plete onr present sabject, and which will bo often refemd lo in tlie course 
of oar work ; 1, in, o, and p, are iudsc1i« employed fi)r tbui paq>o»c. 

There nre nlm four distinct ca>tilage& atteehed lo Uie nostriU, which, 
by their eltuilicity, bring bacJc tho nortnls (O their former dimtm-nicnui, as 
aooB M the moselea eease to a«!L Tho bonce of the nose ( ;>, p^ 1-U) an 
alto dMffMDed off to ajpoint, to give wiilcr range for the action of the 
mnecles ; while tlie ofertfltgea art! bo contrived, ua not only to djaehferge 
th<- office wc hare nealutaed, bnt to protect ihiit projection of bone finm 

There are two draimslanom, which, mom than any othora, will enable 
not only llie Tet<.-ri[iiu-y 5iiiv^<>n, buttbuownerofahenc also, accurately to 
judge of the characlvr and dc^rM' of many dia c eeea, and to which veri- few 
persona pay anfflcient attention; tlieee an the pnlse^ of which wc »hall pm- 
acDtly apsak, and the ooloor of the membraiw of the nose. It in the ca«t(im 
of moat reterinary auveoia and liorae-meu to lift the Bpper evelid, and to 
form their opinion by tne colour which its lining preaonta. Ifitbvvfy red, 
there ia ooitfidetaMo forcr; if it ie of a pale pinkich hno, thera ia littie 
dannr. The bos*, howerur, ia more caailygoit at;— tbo mrfnco presented 
to the rlew is mora cxtenaiTe; — ituHymimthy with almost all the important 
ormna ia greater i — and thechangt-e prodtioud bydi»ease are more striking 
aiM mora cDnolDnrr. Let the reader first make hiniarlf well aeqnaint«d 
witb tba anilbrm pale pink appawnnoe of that portion of the meuhrmae 



whifb carets the lower part of tbft c&rUbtffinouit partition Vintvroon Uie 
Dustfila. when ibe bone is in ii«alth and <iuivt; tben iIil- inrrrumxl Mash 
of nd, betokening aome etzcit«ment of ikt.* b^sU-ui — the straklMrd »ppr*mnce 
of inflftnunatioa commeuoed, and ttuvatetuiig to increase- — tlte intcDsa 
Bond red, of acato inflamnntiTn — the pale f;proun<t with patches of vivii] 
ncl,sbowiitg tiie b&If sabdoed, hot still cxistiug fcrer — the nnifomi colour 
■Ithoiigb aomewlutt ndckr thno natural, predicting ft rcttini to healthy 
circnlfttioo — the pftloncn approaching to white, marking tho stage of 
debibty, and sometuaea iatenniDgled witia radintiona of orimson, inducin|{ 
Ibo Kupicioa of larking miMibicri nnil tbo dark livid colour of aiipronvliing 
Manation of tb<i vital cumiit. Tliriio, with all Uieir Hbsuleii of (lifTdrcncv, 
wiU be guided lo his opinioa and trratmcut, wluch every one who has 
•tndied them will hiKlUy apprL-oialo. 


*11i^p(r paft of thft liguumt ofthnnMk. 

* »• lamtor iimuH ^»I*mar «f th« abouMNX ariaiog from tb« tiit>«rr]« of th* wcipll, 

^_ A* witoid (aipplr-diaped) iiiiii im of llir ccirisf iMnpural boot, the Ctuibw** 

^k HiXNMiB (oiMB ^iQMtioiM} W tlitt fcoT flr« taoe* cA Ibo nci-k. n-nA tbc ligUDpQl uf 

^r lb* a«dt, and cotng to the mmelM of the nhouldfri. nnd dtf upper bone of the 

MM : to dntir forniA tbo *bouliVr and sim ; or tarn thp head and D*ck ; ud, 

^ whw thft two UvMon Kt, lo dppnM thf haid. 

»n* liadoa OMDmon to tha IrathtU tnatMdtm, uid iptmiiu (<pliiii-liko): U llta 
MMloid paocEM of the petrou traipan] bonv. tt> taito tha hoftd. or tho miudiw on 
^ «■• mit aimM aeliiK (o ton ii. 

7l> jfmw ■aitftoii (britw^ltia lo th» lamst-l-uDn tnd Iovit j>w\ from tlipmlilaM 
bl (taat of lb* diMI lo tb« angls of the lower jaw : lo iu«i>t in opeoiog Uu 


Iht (tfliMautfaiif, ftnm tbc styloid (pcnrildhapod) or ooraroid (hMk-abaps^) procoN 
^ of the ocdpot, to tb« «n|tl'' of thr jaw : lo pull tbn jaw bockwurd uid n|H>n it 

' Tk* »»A«>M/iWa tfoijnt, from tJii> /ojria uf talmnptdttru \o thi; builj of lhi< ot kuoidrt 
(tlM boM at tha toot of tbe toagae furmwl lika a Oroek n, v) r lu tlrsv txick thtl 

•' Thfiiimrii (ilmiiii^l . n moti powerftil mnscti-. ronUliuiInn the cheek of the bona: 
fraoi tV apprr jiV'botiv into t)if> rrriiffh ■urface roaod th« angl* of the lower: to 
. aaan in rlwisg III* mouth and cbewini- Ih* fi»d. 

* 1^ tritttdttri* falpthrarum [oKvia*). «iin«iiiidinK iha ejo uid eloaing the lida- 
' TU ngomaticiu. Onm ihe momuie aich and nuuwl^r lo the conu-i of the mouth, to 
<nw lack lb* aagUof Ibo mouth. 


yssAL roLYprs. 

i The tmxinaiiir (■rnnipMa'X ^m >!■• iMid* of lli> noult uid cbmk)^ to iIk nagi* ot 

th» BoMh, lo chn- it bad. 
/ Hb immIw ba^wt Wn jnvTT.vTU (Wlon^iie to <hir Dfeirf lyytr Up), from «dtp««- 

Moa at tfca jtnttioe «/ ihc MDrrior niniilluj. Whijuwl, IM malnr boiira to tlw 

uppir lip : to nun tb* Up and dikta tlw noMrih. 
ai M tmtor JiiM npnorit jh^ut iiAHh A^XB <^ jaBCtion ef Ih* laeb^mal, aanl. and 

tnwtor i»*KiO*ty bODM^ to tb "W^ ^ ™ 1^*)** MMril : to niaa ifaa lip aad 

diialB tie QoMriL 
« iZ«fnctor ttCii iif/ivwnu (paDn b«(i of the iiiid«T lip), lo tli»nd»ef Ihe infftHrttazlDa 

and uiiilBr hp: lo draw it bock. 
p OrU«Waiu oru (cirFolBr muKk of tin nontli). fOKoaiiding tlw moadi; tucloMiba 

q n* uppar portion «f llip pATOtid gka*] (ijlniid naw tb* au) NT<n*d, lo ihev llw bfcmd* 

vMMUKod n«rn«l>wraili it. 
r Til* (Mmtid duel pianong th* <liMk. lo dMoliaisB 1^ tafin into tbe BKnilli. 
< Tb» —— iii-TT ^>nd (^land of the lonr ja*) silk f la dart. 
( Tberagnlar {dmIe) tro. aiter (he t«o bnscha baw united. 
m At laia kttcr, &e (ubmnsillnrj ■rtcfjr, • ImiMb ct Om joffnlar, and tb* parotid dwt 

pnaa n»drr and within th« uigle of the lone jaw ; thaj coma out acain at m, ami 

diinb ap iLa ebrck. 
• Tb« tinponJ tbh and aituty. pawitK undar tk* lT|pniistiil urh 
*g liw Butor norfta orUi" fans •mi-ncinR &«M Bnoarth* porolid gland. 
( BnnebM of both unrMi with anuLll blw<l-Ttu»il». 


By a polyjms i& mnont an oxcrescence or tnnioar, x»rymg in mm 
strudDrv, nuJ cousisteiKH', nn^I attnc'licil l>v a poilicic to n mnoond suHtMre. 
The tmo polvpas is fttlAcbod to tnacomi mcrabnuioii, nnd in njiiiallj- foniid 
in tho nostnJj, tfao plwijiix, the oUima, or i\ie vagintt. Tamnars luvo 
iNjcn KOen lifta^ng lootH! in Uie xiia* and v«utricled of the lit«rt ; nnil in 
tlie largL'rbloM-vesaeU tli(>re hare been accumulations of the fil>nn« of tJio 
blooil, with pednncniar attacbtneata. 

The nasal polt-piu ssonll; ndhftrm to samo pordoD of the rapctrior torin- 
luted bon(\ or it hM coijio fn>m korio of the nuiutM cooium^IciI with tliat 
f-nvilj. It cwnpcd, wliila kmall, thruuj^h the ntlvular opcnini; nndor tho 
anpt^rior turbinatvd bone into the cari^ of the noee, and tht-rv attoinoil 
ilH full ^pvwth. 

No b('tl4>r n<v^oant, hnnrrnr, onji Iw n^vrn of tho ouao of their appMr- 
nnc« Ihitn tl>at of latoi>uni in oilier [Kirbi of the bodj. TImij evidoatlj 
liaro a coiiHtilotiunal ori^ui: tbej we froqiienUy her«ditar<r, and tM 
animal in whieh thcj havo once appeared is sobject lo a r^tiiru of Ibnni. 

Uj sonut mmnx, probably the incrouing weight of lh« lumonr, and bans 
in a dependent jiitnitlton, the polj'pH)) i* gnuliuill]; dvtai-h<xl front iu faaM^ 
and foroea with it tbo aoft and eon]; dutonaible nMmbrane of tjie uwe. 
An it coBtiones to desoend, this portion of menibtwie ia Euther dongatod, 
and forms the pedtele or root of the (lunonr ; — if that nay he tcrmod a 
root wliteh ia a more duplicate of its investing mombnuie, 

The polj-pun. when it ftanffn few. in tJio tiasikl cjivity, is osnallr of a pyri- 
tbm or pear-tikn nhnpo ; and it Tani^u in wvi|j;hl, from a fow dntohms to 
three or fimr pouoOs, 

flnw i* the Hiuveou to prot^ecd P Can he by hold of Uw polyrnu br 
the GiifTLT, ortl)onrc«pa> or (fnr these la mnu re do no* poaMeamuehitenn- 
bilitv) tlie tonacDlnmf To ucertain thin, he will cast the hone, and fix 
the iiend in a poaitiun to takftthe ffrealeet advantage of the lieht. If ba 
nnnot (aixXj fpfl at thv iiiui<.>ur by onj of thoflo Bmaa, be will lot it aloaa^ 
It will eontiiiue to grow — the nwrnbrano consritutiiig the pcdida will 
be lengthotMid — and Um )K)ljinaK will at lengtli (low«q>d, and be vMn\j 
Time and jMtictioo will offect wondcn in this tuid nutnf wmilar 

got at. 





— pcdi 

^|iptMiing it to Inve grown, Kiid tlic sargeon U cndonvoui-in^ to Axtract 
it, lie tuoMt not tue any Rnat forcv. It mtut not bu torn out bv- the root ; 
tlie tanwar mnst bo ^-eutly brooglit dowu, and a ligature passM rooiid tlio 

'icie, ifl high up as it can oonvotiirnilv bo placod. If the polypus cau 

on bn rrtnrnril to ikn notxs the aninml will SRff<^r very tittio incon- 
Tcaievce ; and in aft^wdayii it will slough oflT, and tbo podiolv will oontroct, 
ftnil irraduuUv di.iftpjM.>ar. 

If tli« polypus 18 BO large tliat it cannot be wotl illumed oiler it ban 
bwB broogfat down, -we miut, notwithstanding, OEe the h'gnture, pnAtiiig it 
round the pedicle mffidcntly lii;htl}- to ctit olT thp Kiipply of blood to tlie 
tamour. W« may then immddiatitly pxdsn it. Ex(M!i>t Uio pttdiclo >S ex> 
eeedin^j thiok. Hum will bo littlo or no luvniorrlia^^. Blu>ald Komo 
bleeding ocnir, it wUl probably eoon atop, or may be stopped by thi> 
Cttatery, whioh should, howrvor, bn arnidrd if possible, for oar object ia 
to prodaco aa little irritation ua muy \n: in ih^ nidmbmnp, and the actual 
cautery will be Eftplivd williconaidunkblu difficulty in tbooavity of thonose, 

la very bad ouett, ivli«u tUe tomoar caiuiol be drawn out at tbo nom, it 
may be neoKsary to slit npthealacr side of tlie nostril. It will bti belter, 
ikowerer, nat to c^t tbrongb the fnliw nmtrit, for tliat consists of a dtiplica. 
taivof Kucfa tbin inti-'gninent^ that the nt.itcbriicnti bnrdly be retauned in it, 
when the honM will be eontinually nuorting at tlin It^ii-it inconvonicDoe. It 
will aUo be diAoolt to bring the edgva of thiH tUin mt'tnlirano nocnratvly 
lfi}^tlber agun, or, if this bo effected, there is scurocly lifo emingh in it for 
the parta readily to nnito. Tho fiilno nostril should be avoided, and the 
incision made along thv Ut<-riti nlge of th<t nnj«l bono, boginning at its apex 
orponit. The llup will llien convvtm-nltj lum dnn'u, no ax to expose the 
am^ benoatli : and tliero will be suflioitut luuscnlur Hulmtance to Hccaro 
an suBtimt certain nnion by the Erst intention. The nostril boin^' oinmed, 
lb* pedicle will probably be displayod, and a ligature nutT be pnsscd round 
it. Ml alrrady rrwominended ; or if it in not actually in aigbt, it may 
pTDfaably gradnnlly be brought within reach. 


There IN a eooslant Hccrutiou of fluid to liibrinat« and uouitcn tbo mcm- 
••iBe that Unee the cavity of the nose, and which, nuder oatarrli or cold, 
*lBcnaBed in qoantity, and att«rcd in apprarancc and consistent. Thin 
?*|«iperty belong to the lucnnnt of cntairh or cold ; but tliat which ia 
^^diately nndor conttidoration io a continncd and oflonb'roee proAiM 
J*Wife of lliiclccned mnoua, when ert-i'y symufcom of cntarrb and fever 
•■•wmwl away. If the horse is at grass, the (bscliarfte is alrauitl an green 
'^we i>od on which bo lives ; — or if he is stabled, it is while, or simir* 
•■•Ufd. or brown, or even bloody, and Romctiroos pnrolent. It is cither 
ywmlj ranning, or snorted out in auutnea many tiniCK a duy ; tnwiing 
J^Wiwev and W-comiug a porfeL-l unisauce in tJie itoble, and to the rider. 
T^ hat bcvn known to continue seycral months, and eventually to deetroy 

^ discharge i> wmctirom confined to one noatril, and tliero may eunt 
•^■deiablo t«mi-fiirfion of the submajcillary gh^uds, which has caused 
~^ disease to be luiiiiakcn fur glanders. Shonld any donbt nxiNl, no time 
^'^ be lost in obtaining the opinion of a wttorinary tturgeon rc«]>octing 

« the dinchargc i« not offpnjiive to the smell, nor mi^cd with pnrulcnt 
^'Uo', it i» probably merely an increased and eomewhnt ritirtled secretion 
""•the Cttviticaof ihe nose: and all feviir baring liiimpjiriu'cd, will fre- 
fnHj yield to small doMB of blue vilHot, given twice lu the day. If 



the dischoive is coDsiderable and mingled wilb pna, we may conclude, Had 
tbe di twoo naa Mrtwi<tod tothc rinnaca of the be*d. aod thwabp c e wM hava 
fomned, mocb likal;, in tlin front*] aaxu. The dlacWge baisg vttj 
oBriudTCi, wQ] indirato lluit tlw duwu* hw oxtondcd to Uin bonm Mid 
cartilage. Tlie treatment irbouM conaut of Uw inleni&l mlniinitttrelion of 
aolphate of copper, eilltftr mingled with the antraarB com, or in combinft- 
tion with giitmr and gmlian, mntinacd for a cy>DsidorablD time, for thia ja 
a di»r«M whjch will not vtarj qnicklj' vteld to trcatnent. Tbo aoimal 
Hhoukl be kept on the moat nalntioiu diet, sKftt attentioii being paid to 
ckttnliaeaa. If the diachaige doea mat yiala to tbia tnatmeut, iba ncsi 
coorae to adopt wiU b» to cfm tiw mnis«a of the bead with the trefduiw 
(tbctnclhodofdougtluawUl bo drscribrd nndcr ' OfKirations'), aod after 
baring wciU iiyriiiMa Ibo nrta with narm water, injoct autao aatrintfent 
wlntion, •ni;h' aa ue antpbale of aino or oopjier. The injection ahonld ba 
at fiiat weak, but gradaaUj increoaed tu strenij^h. If the diackai^ ooo- 
tnao tor a bo^th of time, vritbout yielding to treatment, there ia dangfir 
of il« torminabag io glaudeia. 


USKSA is nlcei}ttioD of tbo motnbnuio of tbo ooso not alwaj's or ofteu 
visible, but racoeniaod b^ tbo diitdiarga of mnco-pamlont matter, of a 
pocotiar (intor, from which the diawic derivea ite name. It reattmbloa 
glaodera in bein)^ oou&ned in muat instaoces to one noatri], aitd tbe Kob- 
maxillary f^Iand on the same eido being enlarged ; but diflera from it, in 
the (,'land not bein? adberont, and tbo diecbni^, Irom il« cnrliott otagc^ 
being puraleDt ana stinlciu^. 

Thvre is eomctimuct a ftutul disebargu Irom ihu notitril in oonseqnenoo of 
inflammatjan of the lun^ or produiwd hy aome of Ifae seqaeln of pnon- 
monia; dictingnisfaed, bowerer, trom o«-ua bj its nsoallT BowinA imgu- 
lartj, being coughed up in great qnantiti(«, more domdealy ponuent, and 
the gland or glanda seldom afiimted. The diacharge from oicdb ia ooa- 
ataoT, muco-pnmlcnt, and attended by enlaigemmtt of tbu gland*. It is 
of immenae coaaeqaence that wa ahonld be enaUed to diiitingitiah the one 
from the other; for while oaona may, aametunea at least, bo manageab 
tbe other is fno froqoentJ]' tbo pracnnor of doath. 

The cnoac of ooena cannot always bediaoororcd. Chronic mfiamti 
of lbi> luombvaoe maj aaamad auothor and malignant diaiactor. In i 
ealArrh the membrane may become abraded, and the abrasions may i 
gaoerate into fool and fcetid oloars. It is not an onCreqiient oonaeqotinca 
of opidemio catarrh. It hiw bwm prmtuctKl hv caostio applicationa to tba 
lining membrane of tbe noiu.'. It luui fuiluncd bmnorrbBgo, apontMMOW^ 
or the oonaeq;wooe of injury. 

In BOne caaaa, and those na obetiualo as any, it cannot jierluipa bo traoed 
to any probable oaase, and the health of the animal has not appeared to 
bo in the slifflttaat doerao affbotaxl. 

TW mnmbraae of the uotH> ia highly auuBitiveand irritable, and an nicer, 
in whnt4.'i-or way Canned on it, does not readUy heal. It oilan rum on to 
gangrene, and deetntya sot oidjr the membrane, but the bone bvnealb and 
eren tbe catiilacuiou wptnni. This is ^**^7 the caao in glaadeiB ; aad 
the ravagea of uo chnnCTOoa nlcem lire niinaUy confined to too nMubmWk 
The nkoiation prooceda to a certAin point — itu prognxia is then arroated, 
nauall^ by DOtore akoe — the discharge gradually lessens — it loaes its 
oflennve chanotor, aad at length oeaMa, 

Local applicationa ai« seldom aroilsblo in tbo trcfttmrnt of this disease ; 
far we know not tha ettnation uf tbo uloer, and if wv did, wo 

the one 

may dfr^ 

OUiSDSBS. 203 

could not mt nt it. Some haTs recomnienilud setona. Where are they 
to be ftppUed f If the seat of niceratioa is unknown, the aeton may only 
give luueas p«in. Several pott-morlem eiaminationa have Bhown that 
the frontal siniLges are a frequent seat of the diaeaac. Yet what injectioa 
Goald m nse P An emollient one wonld be thrown away. A atim.alatmg 
injection might convert ozena into glandi-re. Other eTaminationa have 
shown Uiat the anperior portion of the central meatus waa dtaeased. What 
instnunent can be contrived to reach that P Internal medicinea are ahnoat 
thrown away in thia complaint : yet something, perhaps, may be dono 
vnder tJu form of a local apphcation. The diacardod noae-bag (nnder- 
fdhud at least W too many practitioners) will afford the meana of em- 
ploTing an emolhent fomentation. The steam fium a brtm-raash, scalding 
aot, will probably reach eveiy part of the nasal cavi^, and so afford 
■ome chance of being beneficially applied to the alcor. It will, at least, 
thoroughly cleanse tne part. By memia of the noae-bag and the warm 
mash, me chloride of lime may be introduced into the cavity, not only 
comlnning with the extricated gases, and removing the fixtor, but arroating 
the tendenoy to decompoaitiou. 

Then there ia a digestive — a gentio stimulus to abraded and ulcerated 
gnr&cea, rousing th^ to healthy action, and without too much irritating 
them — tunientine. Thia may be applied in the form of vapour, and in 
the best of all waya, by using the best yellow deal shavings inatead of 
bi^D. Thia digeative may be brought into contact with every port of the 
Schneiderian membrane, and hoe been aeiriceablo. 

There is another reaonrce, and one that bids fairer to be succesalnl than 
my other with which we are acquainted — the spring grass. It is the 
finest alterative, depurative, and restorative in our whole materia medica ; 
and if it is accessible in the form of a salt marsh, there ia no bett«r chance 
of doing good. 


The moat formidable of all the diaeaaea to which the horse is sabject ia 
GuKDSBS. It has been recognised from the time of Hippocrates of Cos ; 
uid few modem veterinaiy writers have given a more accurate or com- 
plete account of ite ^mpfcoms than is to be found in the worka of the 
&ther of medicine. Three-and- twenty hundred years have rolled on since 
then, and veterinary practitionera are not yet agreed as to the tissue 
primarily affected, nor the actual nature of the diaease : we only know 
that it ia at the present day, what it waa then, a loathsome and an incu- 
rable malady. 

We ahall therefore, in treating of this disease, pursue our course slowly 
utd cautiously. 

The earliest symptom of Glanders is an increased discharge frY)m the 
nostril, small in quantity, constantly flowing, of an aqueous character and 
a httle macuB mingling with it. 

Connected with this is iin error too general, and highly mischievous, with 
regard to the character of this discharge in the earliest stage of the disease, 
when, if ever, a cure might be effected, and when, too, the mischief from 
contagion is most frequently produced. The discharge of glanders ia not 
sticky when it may be firat recognised. It ia an aqueous or mucous, but 
small and constant dischai^e, and is thus distingnisbod from catarrh, or 
nasal gleet, or any other deflusion from the nostril. It ahould be im- 
preaa^ on the mind of every horaeman that this small and oonatant 
defluzion, overlooked by the groom and by the owner, and too often by 
the veterinary aui^eou, is a niost suspicious circumstance. 

Ur. James Turner deaervea mnoh credit for having first or chiefly 



dircuLod Uici attvntjun of borsemen to this iinportant but diiBroganl<!>] 
syinptoiu. If a horM is in tlio higltost enndition, yet bftB thia bhuUI 
ft^nconB constant dischtu^, anil rfpcicinllf from om luwtril, nn time shoold 
bo \ogt in soparatinff liiin from hiN camptinioD.-i. No harm will Im doQO by 
tliiji, nlthougfa thadcdaxion Hhould uut nlttmatoly betmj larking mi»ch>of 
of 11 ivurae ^laneter. 

Mr. Turaw relates & case veiy mach in poinL A fannitr A&kcd hut 
Oi)iuion reajipcling a mare in ezcollont concliiicm, vrith a nloolc coat, and in 
foil work. Ho bad had h<;r hovki or eight aiunlhtt, and during Uio whole 
of that time tliDm Iind b«un a dixcharge from tho right nostril, bat in ao 
aUght a degree uu acari^L-Iy to be deemed worthy of notice. He now 
wanted to sell her, bnt, like an honefit man, he wished to know whtrther 
he might warrant her. Mr. Tomer very properly garo it a« his opinioiL, 
that tbo dischnr(r<' hnving <>xiiU-d for nu Iuhk a time, ho would not be 
jnstiliod in aonding hi-r into thi> market, A fiu-ricr, howev«r, who«e ideaa 
of glandera hftd afwuv^i been ommi-ctid witli a aticky discharge and an 
adherent gtaud, bougnl her, and led hor nirnj-. 

Three months passed on, when Mr. Tomer rxamiiiing tho podt-horsce 
of a neighbonriiig inn, discorirtK) that two of tbnn vrcre glniKlrrvd, and 
two more larded, whihi, afAndirig iifxt to the firal that was attuckod, and 
hia partner in work, waa hia oti] acquaintance the fiirmor'a lna^l^, witli the 
■ame JiscJiarge fVom her nostril, and who hod, beyond ()Destion, been the 
canse of all the mischief 

The pocnllar vi^nidity and ghiincus which is gcnirrnlly supposed to 
distinguish t1ic dinchurgu of gltuiden from all othra* mtinotis and provalrat 
■eorotiona hclongii to the second stage of the discoiH-, and, for luany months 
bRfore Uiis, glauilers may havo existed inaninsidioaaand highly oontagiona 
form. It muat bo aoknowlcdgod, however, that, in tiic majority nf raans. 
some degree of Btickinves do^'-s chankotmiMthoduchargtiof giandorabvra 
a reiy early period. 

It la a aingalar eireiuuitance, for wbieh no Mtis&etory aoconnt has n4 
been given, Uiat when one nostrU alone is attacked, it is, in a gruat majontj 
uf caaM, the near, or led. U. Dapuy, the director of the Teteriaaiyaclionl 
at Toolomae, pecs a rvry Bingnlar acxwnnt of thia. Ha says thkt, oat of 
riglity cnorit of gliuidom that came luidcr hia nntiov, only oiui wm affected 
in thi! right nustril. Tlie difTerenee in tlie alTi-clcd iiOHtrj] doc* not «rirt 
tu so gnat au extent in Great Britain ; bat in two hors««i out of three, or 
three ont of four, the djsobargo is from the loll nostril alone. Wu might 
arcount for the trft leg biting ofteoor than the right, for wo ntouut and 
dinmuunt on thu left HiiL- ; the homo generally leads with it, and them b 
more wear and testr of that limb : but we cannot KatUraetorily aoooiuit 6v 
thia naual aS^tion of the left nostril. It is ti-ne that the reins am held in 
tbo left hand, and then? may bo a littlo mnro bnnring and praaBore on tha 
left ddo of the month ; bnt thin anplin nnly to si^dlc-horMa, nod even 
wfth tbem dooe not anfficientlj explain tht- rt'ciilt. 

This diwharge, in aaacs of contagion, may continue, and in sa alight a 
dt^Tee as to be MMreely perceptible, for many mouths, or ereo two or three 
yean, nnattended by any other disnuio, cvtm tilcymtion of the uiMtril, atid 
yet the hone bring diHadodlr glandt^red from tbo beginning and capaUe 
of propagating the malady. In pTOceesi of time, however, pns minglea wilta 
tbo discharge, and then another and a charaeteHttic symptom amicaii 
Some of this la ahoorbrd, and the Doiglibonring glands bocume ail h c lw L 
If there is a dij«harge from both nostnlji, tbo gbnda within the nndarjaw 
will bo on both sides cnbrgeiL If the diacharge i* Iram one nMtrO onlr, 
the Bwelled glund will be found on tliat side aUme. Glandera, however, wUl 
ftvqncntly exist at an early ago witlkont these swelled gland*, and acnne 



oO»» J iooowB , « ealanli. will produce tliem. HdBnuMtpKbl^mMfar 
aatD» paao&mtj ibont tiicw sl&oda, uid wo HhlLD''1ttiBffirnd'9l TEb 
nvUhig taaj bo at fint acrmewhat }argc und diffo-iLvl, but ttui mirruuiiditig 
cohrKVBWtit soon goes off, aud oue or two snuU diBtiuct glauds rt-mam ; 
■nd UB7 ve not in the c«ntro of thi; channel, hot adhere closely to the jaw 
tm Ike ^ffitUdtide. 

The mcmbnuic of the no*a aboulil now ho Rxamint^, and will miitcriiilly 
gindie onr ofMiuon. It will eitbor bu of ii dtu-k iiurjiUNli hue, or nlniust uf a 
fcaJeB colonr. or of any shade betweeo lliv two ; or tf there la some of the 
redaMs of infiamiDation, it will have a parple tiuge : but tfioro will oevcT 
be tho Iwnt pink b!a»h of bmlth, or tbc intcngp and virid red of hbuhI 
■nflMnmatioti. Spots of uk-vnition will probiilil)- apjKAi- on thv miintbrunfl 
cohe rin g the cartiJu^ of thu iio«i — not uiure Kora piMoet, or streoka of 
abrwdoo, aod tjoite BUperfioIal, bat tunall ulcers, nsnally ftpproacMiip; to a 
duenlar form, d«op, and with the edgr§ abmpt and promiiieut. When 
IboM af>pc«nuu!c8 aro obsnrtrod, thcrt- ciin hv: no doubt abnut tho niHtlcp, 
Chre ahonld bo bdtrn, Iiowittlt, to aaci^rtuin thnt thosr nlcri'n do nctnnlly 
exial, fin- qwU of naeva adhering to tb<? mi'inbraui! Imvo lic^<m mori' thiiii 
onae taken for them. Th« Soger ahonid, if possibk-, bu pu^i-d ovt^r (lit- 
■ufitioaed oJcer, in onler to detonaino whothor it can be wiped au ny ; and 
H u^d be rvcolleofaxl, aa waa hinted wlii'n dencnbin^ tlie dnct thnt 
W Te ja tbo tears to th■^ n»:<c, tliut tlui oiificc^ of thnt dtict. jnst within tb» 
malru, and on the inufr Hiilt) of it, baa bcco mixtiikm for it chani-niutt 
■leer. This orifioe is on the contmuation of the oommou nkiu uf llio uiuxkIo 
wbidt nus a littlo wtiynp tho nostril, while the ulcer of gkndi^ra is on the 
fraper mambtmno of tho noim nbovo. Tito lino of sopanttion liotwcoo tbo 
two is aridont on tbe aligfatoat initpontion. 

Wbro oloera begin to appear on the membrano of the nn.-ii', the con* 
Hitatiou of tJM horae ia soon eridently aB«ctod. The piLtiunt loaea Uoah — 
ba bally is tacked np — hia coat unthrifty, and raodily coming off—the 
^felita ia impaired— tho fitrenfflh bila — c<nigh. mora or less urgnnt, may 
M heard — the diacluuvi.- fi-om tTiti iiohc will increase in qiiiuitity ; it will be 
dittoloond, bloody, olTi'iuive to tbo smell — tbe ulcunt in the iioae will 
bcooaie larger and more nnmeroua, and tlie alr-puaagea being obstroctcd, 

■ pating, choking ooise will bo heard nt every act of breathing. There 

■ lew a peculiar umdcmcM abont the forchwid, Tho membrane lining 
tke frontal KiniutcH in iafianuxl and ntei^mti-'J, and tbe intcgnmont of the 
imfaead beoomes tbiokened and Humewbat Hwellei). Farcv is now super- 
■dded to glandera, and more of tbe absorbeuta are involved. 

At or beforo this time littlo tnmonrti appear abont the mnseles, and 

het, and sock, following tbe conno of the reins and tbe absorbents, for 

ikR* ran iddi! hv nido ; and tlioMo tnmoura noon alcomte. Tomours or 

bui^ atill pnmung the path of tbe abaorbeuta, noon apptiar on tbo imride 

of the thic^. Tlwy are ooimeded to^fetber by a eurdel] rabsianoc. This 

ia tha mflamed and enlarged lymphatic ; and uloeration qnickly follows 

Uw ifiMaraRco of thc«i> buils. Tho decpor-seated abBorbent« aro next 

aflectad ; and one or Iwth of tlio bind-lt^ swell lo a grrnt xiu^ and 

tecBmi ttifl*, and liot, and toader. The Ioks of flcjJi and atrungtU is more 

■larfcad erety day. The mem^brane of tliu nose becomes of a dirty livid 

ooloar. Tbe meoibrane of tbe raooth is strangely pallid. The oyo ia 

tiiffHtttH with a rollow fluid ; and the diechorgn from Ibo noso bocomos 

non proftue. and insaflcrably ofFensivo, The aninud projienta ono maaa 

oTpBtnActioai, and at last dioa exhrnintnl. 

Tba anlarganent of tbe anbmainlliiry K'^ti<K ^a connected with tliia 
diaeaaa, may, perhaps, require a little fartlier consideration. A jMrtion 
rf the fioid aecnlcd by the membituie of the nose, and altered in obanicler 



hy Iho peculiar infliunnuiiion Uiere exiating, Uabaorbed; xoi aa it ia ccm- 
TCjnrd lUong the iTmphatica^ in order to arrive at tito place of tl« d^wtiiia. 
tton, it iniuuaM theni, aad eMi^«« them to enlarge and iiappTirate. Tlm« 
i^ luiwenr, » pwmliaritj aonrnpanying thr inilninniiitina irhicb ttiev taka 
ftvn tii0 abaorptaon of the virtu of Klondcrw. The; ar« nuvlj Muvo, 
oxoept at Gnt, or hot, or teodur ; but iht-y are cbar«ot«riacd by a tingnlar 
hBrdneH, & proximilir to the jaw-bone, and, freqaentlj, actual adhMiom to 
It. Tbs MUMOB ia prodnood by th« inftaBunator^ action goins forward 
in the gland, aad tho efliu^ioD of coagulabla Iftnnh. Thin hnnlnc^ anil 
adboBion accompnimnK diudiai^ from tlie nootrtl, and being' on the Muno 
ddo with tbtt noatrU wlmMa tlie diadtarg« prooeeda, afford proof nut to bo 
nootnretted that tho bone ia glandeivd. Kotwithstsading tLia, howewr, 
tiinre are cnew in which tfa* glaiuU arc iMrithor luihenint nor mach en- 
largod, and j«t thon ui constant diaohnrvo from one or both noiitnls. The 
Tvf«rinarj forgcon woold bare little hevilAtion iu prouuuneins tbem to ho 
oaMS of ^loiRdprv. He will tntst to the adhcaion of the plana, bnt be will 
not be nualcd by its looncncse, nor cron by it« absence altogstlMr. 

OlMfUn has often bonn oonfbnnded witli jfraiijrfOT, and 1^ tboM wfao 
owht to hare known better. Stnnsles are peenliar (o yonnn boraos. The 
tarty stage rasemUeB Mmmon eold, with eome degne of fcv-er and mm 
throat — generaHy with distressing congfa. or at least fVoqnent wheesing; 
and when tho onlat^ommt nppciuv IxoHialh tbn jaw, it is not a nngle snaU 
gland, bat a nrotluig of the whole of tho subttancc brtwRrn the jaws^ 
growing harder towards the centre, and, after a while, aii|ic«riiig to 
contain a fliud, and bnaking. Xa strangles the membrane of Uie noiio will 
be intensely red, and the diecbarge from the noso proAue and purulent, or 
mixed with mact<^r aInuMt from ino first. Whvu the tnmoar has bursty the 
ftfer will abatv, and tlie homci n-ill speedily got writ. 

Should tbo discharge from the nose continue, tut it aoinetimn doos, for 
a oonsideiafale lime after the ho>se has recovered from titnuiglea, tfaore is 
IU) oaose for fmr. Stinpla strangles need never degenerate into ghuidonL 
Good k«ep, and small wan of tooio medicine, will gradually pcofeot the 

Glanders has been oonfonndod witfa catarrh or cold ; but the distiao- 
tion bdtweeD them is plaia odob^l Fsver, and losa of appetite atHl sote 
throat, accompai^iiip ooH — the qaiddiag of the Ibod and gulping of the 
water an> snmoient indications of tho Utter of these ; the oiscna^e from 
tho nose is profowo, and perhaps pamlcnt; tho glands under the jaw, if 
■wdled, ate moreable^ there is a thiekcuing around (bent, and they ate 
leader and hot. With prtwer tnatnwnt the fever abates ; the cough dis- 
appears ; tbe swellinga itniur the throat sabside ; and the diachargo firoos 
the nose gmduAlly c cee o s, or, if it remains, it is usually very £fiiBr«ni 
from that which chiuticleru>es glnndeni. In glanders there is seldom eoogb 
i>f any consequence, and giTticmlly do euuftfa at all. 

A mnning frtntt the uoee, sniaJl iu qoanti^, and, from the smallaHe of 
its qoantily, drying about tbo cdgvs of the Bostril, aad preseating kmm 
appoanaoe of i<tickin(>M, will, in a few cna**, ronuun after aevese oatarrh, 
and espeoatly aAer tho iuilucnxa of spring; and tboao han gradoaUy 
aasumedlhatiMraotar ofglaitden, and more particularly when uiey have 
be«B MOOBpUMd hj eawged glands and ulceration in tho dum. Here 
the aid of a jndicwns TotefiasxT snr^ooQ is _iiidi>|wuHUe ; uad be will 
sometunM oxperienco considenkUe difionlfy in deeidiag tho ease. Oae 
oin^unulunci; will principally guide him. No disease will ran on le 
glanders whleh has not, to a considerable and palpable degree, impsuied 
and brokiii down the oonxtitntion ; and «v«ry dtmuo that ^mw Uw miU 
rtm cm ti> j/landert, Uc will look then to the general stalo and conditton 

of the bona, as well ma to the sifonliou of the glands, the nature of tlw 
diachsTf^e, and the cliAi«cter of Uiu uloerbliou. 

If. &n«r all, he ia in dottbt, an oxperiment la&y be roaort«d to, whiuh 
w«sr« indeed the %mttnai» of crooHy, an<l whkb on\j the Eafi<ty ot a 
ralnibltf ■"■■"*'. or uf a whole team, con juntifr. He will iiiocnliit« tin twa, 
or a boras alrMily ootklomtMMl to the houudH, with the ouit.tcr distihnrgpd 
trim Uw noas. If the horse is slandered, the aympluma of Rhuidi-ra or 
IkrCT will appear in the inoculftt«d tuunukl in the coureo of a ti-w davs. 

ifu jMvMiiortem examtnatioD of the horse will romnve evPiy doubt as 
to tbe eharacter of thu diMMWe. Tite nostril is gcn<!nill]: more or less 
Wanrthni, witli apota or Unas of iufiainiuation of cousiderablu intcmiiitj. 
OlMvation is almost iovariably fonnd, and of a i^hanorons chanct«r, on 
Um wptnio, and also on the K'thmoid and torbinaled bones. The nlcers 
«ridcntljr follow thn coorac of the nhsorbcnts, sometimoa almost confined 
to tbe track of the main veaad, or, if scutt«red owr the mambntno gtme- 
rwUj, thickeat over tha patli of tbe l,>-ui>)istio. The ntbnioid and turbinated 
bones are oftoo filled with pus, aud Honietimea eateu throii{[h and carious ; 
hni, ia the nwority of cases, the olcerat-ian is confined to the external 
■Miiilinim. althoa^ there majr bo pns within. In a^gnivat«d casea the 
diaeaae Bxtendii through all the (wIIn of tho Jnco and hoad. 

tba path uf the diseaso down the larynx and windpipe in easily trnow], 
aad Ibe nloera ftdlow one line — that of tho abiiorl>ent6. In aggravatoit 
etatB, this can generally be tiSiced on to Uio Innj^s. It prodooes inflam- 
aiBtkiB to th«eo orgiuus chanu-(«riMd in some cases by conf^i^stion ; hut tu 
otber oaeea, tlui mjoecstinn hivi mmo on to hc^tiwvtion, in which tho 
eeOBlar texture of tho lutigs is ub]iti.>riitod. Hcmt frcqnentlr, whan tlio 
liugB ara affectod at all, tuberelus aru found — miharj- tubercles— minu to 
giwatlkted spots on the aarfaee, or in the substance of tit» langSi and not 
aeoonpanied br ranch inSnmmntion. In iv few caeoa there nre lor^r 
tnbttrclcs, which nnfti-n and bnmt, and tcrminato in cavidei of mry\i\g 
•ne ; they uru then called ruuiicie. 

In some CTtaee^ and ehowiiif; ihat ^'IaIidl^nl is not essentially or neces< 
•arily a dieetM of tbe Innjip, there is no morbid aObction what«Ter in 

The hiatory thne giron of the ttympt^tniti of glondora will clearly point 
oat ite Datore. It ia aa aSbcticiu of tbu uii^inbnme of tbe nose. Some aay, 
md ■! tbeirbead is Profeeeor Dupuy, that it is the production of tubenlea, 
or anonte tamonra in tfae upper cells of tbe uoso, which may Iod); exist 
niwl e tect ad. except by a soanolT perceptible running from the nostril, 
caaaed by tbn imtntion which they oc<^iuit>n. TIicmi tnbrrcIcK grnilnntly 
becoone tnore numerous ; they vlust«r tO||;«lh^r, suppurate oiid break, and 
^nall oloentions are formed. The olcers discharge a puisunous luntter, 
which ia absorbed and tak4)D up by the neighbouring glands, and this, with 
greetof or Icae rajptdi^, vitiatos tho conKtitntion of tho animal, and ia 
cayble of oommanicatJng the diiuoMolo othcni. Some content themselves 
with aaying thai it is an iuHamnialion of the mcmhnuio of the uohp, which 
I Bi»j 181111111 an acute or chronic form, or in a very short timo, or cx> 
I ooedingly slowly, run on to ulccratiim. 

^m It ia inflamnwHon, whetlicr «pcdlic or common, of tho lining membrane 
^B|if the Doao— pOMiihly for mnntha, and ov«n for years, conRncd to that 
^■BMnbraDe, and eren to a portion of it — the health and tho uivfhlneMi uf 
^^Wte *"''"»i not being in the slightest degree impaired. Then, from aorae 
rakaown eaose, not a n«w but an intcnsor action iti net up, the i nffamm o- 
lioo mora speedily rans it* course and tho menibraue becomes ulcerated. 
n* taflaounntioo ipmuls on either ndi- dovru the septum, and the alcora< 
tka ak leagth BMmnBw that pL-cuUar cLuncrous form which chonustoriffca 



inlbunmaUon <4H|Hh'^>o^- Et'uu tlten, whc-n ttio ducliargD bt^oomw 
([lue/, and eomefS^Smer cli&norcs bavi^ appeared, Die Iiuntu is a{i|>uxint]jr 
w«ll. Tbcro an> hundroda of gtnnderod horaefl about th(< cuuutrj with not 
K Ricic one nmoiig them. Por months or yean this iliscaao may do no 
mjoty to thrgdicnd huulth. Thn infliimmAUon i* partly local, and is ouly 
recognised l^ the iuvKrikblL- iu.-c()in))iiiiiniunt of inflammation and iu- 
croaaed aecrewn. Ita uHighbourB full uruund, bot tbu diatwu; »f)oct« not 
th9 animal whcnco it came. At l«ti|^ a consiilDltonal inflamnmtion an- 
jtt^n i fiircjr in c»tablisliod in iu most borriblo form, and desUi ip««diljr 
clonpK tho PCt-no. 

W}uit, ihtm, is the catuw of tluH inicidiana drowlfnl dinMuic P AllhoOKh 
wo may be in » maimer puwerleaa a« to Uie removal of the outliuly, yet if 
we can trace ita c-aneo and manner of actioD, we way at l(«uit bo able to 
do aometliine in Uio way of prevention. Mneh bns been aocompliii]>cd in 
thin war. Crinodeni diH.-s not commit onotrnth [mrt of the ravages which 
it did thirty or forty ytwra a^o, and, gLixTiJly vjiciJdng, it ia now oal|jr 
found ta ft fretj^ueut and provalitut diaeaac where ii«filect, aiut fiUh, and 
WBDt of vmlQation exist. 

Oloiutos may bo citlior brod in tho borsff, or commanicated by oou- 
b^ion. ^Vhiit wr< have further to renuirk on this malady will be anaof^ 
nnuer tbene two lu-uds. 

Iuiprii])Hr Hiablu uiau^mcDt we believe to be a &r tnore freqannt ranae 
of glaudcn tliau ceulatpoii. Tbo air whieh ia oeoeeaaty to KVpiratiun ix 
chniged and empoisoned in it« passag« throogb the lungs, and a frenh 
mpi^ is noeessary for tbc support of hfo. That annpl^ may bo sufBoienI 
hanly to nrpport life, hut not to prnTeiit the vitiatod air froni again and 
again paning to tho InngK, and producing irritation and diacaao. The 
mnnbmne oftlio noiu.', [Kwntiiiied of extreme setuibitity for the pimioxos of 
Bndl, ia <«iiily irntat<<d b>- this poison, and close and ill-ventilated Btablea 
oAcDcetirittieas the raTai^of (glanders. Professor Coleman relates a caaa 
which proves to deiuoiistration the rapid and btail agency of this oaoae;, 
' In the expedition to QniVwron, tho hontcs had not been long on board 
the transport* before it bonamo nuce»ary to tthnl down tho hahJiwnya tbt 
a few honnt ; the comtuioenco of this was, that some of Ibera wera mA 
focalvd, and that all tlie r««t were dismbarked eiUter pandered or 

In II close stable, the sir U not only poicnned by living rrprsfntty broaUted, 
bnt thrrc an- other and more [""Wf-rlul ncmrocs of miiiebicf. The dang and 
the oiine urn snlTcivd to remain fi-rnientin);, and fri^*'"? ""t injurioos 
gana. In many dark and in-manai(L-d utabltn, a portion uf the duuf; nwy 
rie swept awaj, but the urine lies for days at the bottom of l)i« bed, the 
difgnsting and putrcfyinff nalore of which is ill-cottcoalod by a little frv«li 
straw which the lasy horsokeeper scatter* over the (np. 

The stables of the gvotleman nro gtncmlly kept hot enongh, and Gv too 
hot, although, in many of them, a more rational mode of treatment ia 
banning to be ado]<t«d ; hut tbey are Jody and roomy, and the horses 
am uot loo much crow dcd together, and a most snmpnlooa rogard is paid 
to oleanliness. Glanders seldom iirevaib there. The stables of the faiiiiw 
are ill>maoi^^ asd filthy enon^n, and the ordure and urine ■niiwtiiaes 
remain 6om week to week, until the home lii« or a peffeot dnngUIL 
CHandots seldom preraib there ; for the siuue cnmloMUoa* which ]>emiilB 
the filth to aocumnlate leaves tniuiy a cranny for the wind to enter and 
Kwasp away the deleterious (umos from this badly-roofed and aucciled 

I'he Blabka of tho horse-dealer are hot enosffh ; bat a{irincipleafstnct 
cIcaBlioMs is enforced, far tborv mtmt be nothing to offend the eye ur " 




■ordtecnMnmi^, niul Iherc eUmlcrs UsptJom Potindi l>iit if tlie sUtbleti 
of maay uf uur [Hut uiiil umiiibtu lioritcs, ttod of tlioM! employed on our 
OMmIs, ore cxMniiied, slttiost too low for a tall hona to uliuid npriglit iu 
tiMia,— ^oo dork for the Dccnninkitioii of iiUh to bo [terc^ivcU, — too fur 
fitm tlw Bj-o of the mutor, — ill-ilnuiied nnd ill-pnvcJ, — and eovnrned by 
a bite principle of eoonoiny, wliich bt-grudgcs tJio laboar of t&c man, aud 
tli0 (Jeftnlineas uxl eoufort of the aumal ; these vrill ha tlic very hotbeda 
<tf the dipoftco, and in many oftbeBeoetablisbniuute it Uaii almost conittatit 

Olaiidon miky bo proitncod by ao^lhin g that ugnrcs, or Ibr ft Icugtli of 
fume kctn upoD and wuukmii, tbn \ntkl onc-rgy of thia membnuio. It baa 
been known to follow a fravture of the buiioa of the now. It lui8 bct^n tho 
flooaeqaence of violent catarrh, aud partjculariy tho lott^-coutiDuciI din- 
cbarga fJrota the nostrils, of which wo have spoken. It h&s been produced 
far ms injvctian of stimnlnting and acrid cahstanrnn tip tlie nostril. 
Bmythtng thut wcaknnti tbu conatilutton generally will Icwl tii gliuidor*. 
It ia act only from Itid nlablc luauuffeiueitt, but from tho Imntabips which 
dwy andnn^ and tine eihaustcd state of titcir const! ta lion, that post and 
■ffliiftci honM are so subject to glnndcrg ; and there is scai'cely an iii- 
flsnUBBtory dincane to which thv liorse is subject that IM not occiMionally 
t) «a d np and temiiniitcd by the ujipi^unuicu of glaadcrs. 

AniHig Uie oouMS of k''"")^''^ ^ want of rei^ular exercise. Thir con. 
iwNiliiWi, ahhoagh not eridpnt at first glance, is too certain. W)i«ti a huma 
tm» been worked with pcralinr ncvttrify, and is become ont of spiritfl, 
■ad Ul« away in Bvsh, and refoMw to e«t, a little rest and a ftw mnAhoa 
wonld rttak« all right a^aiu ; bat the ^room ptitis biui with cordiulii, aud 
add* fuel to fire, and ag^avates the state of fever thfit hua commeueod. 
Wbai >■ the B«w8a»ry conseooouco of Ihis ? The weakest goes to tlie 
wall, and eitber tJie lan^ or the foct, or tbts miuubruue — thitt of the ooBS 

Ihn weakcvt of aU.eiposed day al\i-r day to tbe stiinuluting, di:J)tlitatiug 
{■fliiiiiinia tliat harv been described, becomes the priai:i[>al S4:at of inOnin. 
inatioo that terminates in glnndem. 

It i« in thin w»y thitt glnndon htuc no frvi^aently been koown to follow 
a hard day'a cbmtie. The se«dj of thu ilineaHe may have previously existed, 
b«t it* iiumwii will be hastened by the ^nersl ttnd fohrilo action excit«l 
— Ibe aoenrd neasnres which am odopli^ not being calculated to Kubdno 
lfc» bvar, bat to tacrcoao the atimolun. 

Kreiy exciting riiiiin rif rlinmnn nmrtn ita chief aiid ile worst influence 
aa tins laembraDe. At the clou of a sorore cauijtaign the horses are mora 
tfcaa dsdimatad by thia pest. At the fertnination of the I'cniDsular war 
t^ rmTBMS of tbia diaeoao were dreadful. Every dimtuie will pr^^pcue 
tkm ne^nane of tlia aose to take on the inflajmnation of jilaiiilem, and 
witfa taany, as stcanglea, catarrb, bronchitis, and pneumonia, there is a 

alimi^ of mambtanc, no nNtoeiution of funotioni aud a thouHind 

la not a diacnjsc which may not Iny the fonndntion for Klandera, 
Wcaki^ and moothi, andyvunt may totorvene but ween the predispoxing 
eaSM Bad the actual evil; but at leuj^ili the whole frame may become 
Mcoitcd or debilitated in many a wny, ami then this debilitated poi-tion of 
it is the firrt to yieM to tho uttAck. Atmoephcrio influence has somewhat 
to do witli tlic pret-altTUcc of tthuulura. It i* not so fraquent in tho summer 
aa in ibe winler, partly attributable, perhaps, to tho diCTenint iilAte of the 
atabl« IB tiie anmiuer months, Doithar tho nir so clone or bo foul, nor tha 
ahemaliona tf fjTmperntnro ao great. 

Thai* ara aooDc remarkaMo caaoK of the connection of moistnre.or moiAt 
fxbalationa, tiiat davrre iVeard, Wlitu pew stabling wiw buiU for the 




troopii nt Hj-thc, and iuhaliitvd K-rorc tlic wulls wen porfeotl; dry, maaj 
of iLs honas that had been t^uuri'd from tm open, dry, and healthy 
litastion, becftmo ai1oct«d with glaudi^rs ; but, Bom« time bartDg paMtd 
over, the horeoe in tht-uc »tnt>Ic« w«r« as hcaltiiv lu tlw others, mm gha- 
dftrs OMMcd to HiiiMnir. An innkncpcr nt Wakclii^ld built Koiiie uxUmiuTs 
stabling for liin bunH^s, and tuluibitttig them too soon, lost » great pn>> 
portiuu of Ilia cattle from glaiidcn. Tlioro are not now mor* heallhf 
Stablaa id tho place. Tho immcDee ran^^ of stsblcs nndor tJi« Adelpbi, 
in tho Strftod. where light never ontcni, and the sii]ip!y of rrcali air in not too 
nbiinitntit, vnro for n Long time notorionxly unhntlthy, and many Taliui)>!o 
horMiH WM« dcotroytsd by );liLiid«n ; Imt noir tbi>y are fldhid with tbo 
GnMt wagio^n and dray-hontea tliat tliu mMro|K)li8 or tbe oonntTy oon- 
toins, Uld thoy aro fully as healthy aa in the m^ority of atablM above* 

Thcro ta ono more oatiM to bo slightly montioned— Iiercditary pr«di«po- 
aition. Tliia hita not bcwn imfEcicntly etttimated, witli regard to tbe aiM»- 
tion now under considenUoti, as well aa with respect to overytlui^ 
connected with tho breeding of the horse. Thsre ia soarooty a diMasa 
that doos not run in tho stock. Tbero is that in tiko itrnctDro of rarioaa 
piiru, or tlicir dinpoxition to ho aRi>ct4;d l^ cm-tain !nl]ni.-nci.>ei, whioh Mr- 
pulnatva in tho ofTapring tbu diseaoiii of the xiro ; and thus cootxaouon, 
ophthalmia, roarintf, are decidedly hereditary, and so is glanderB. U. 
Diipny relates some dManve cases. A maiv, on dissection, cxhibiUvd 
OTcry appoarance of glaaden ; her filly, who n>sninh1i>d her in form and in 
her riciooa propenxitios, died glandmtid at six yean old. A second and 
a third mare and their foaU presented tbe same fatal proof that glandeia 

Glanders is highly conioffioas. Tho farmer cannot bo to diwpty ini- 
prvstwl with tbe certainty of this. Considering tho dt^rca to which thia 
diwHuo, ervn at tbu prMont iny, otWn prevails, t^ lefn^latore would bo 
jnstifled in iiitcrferiuff by some aerere coactmenta, as it haa done in tba 
case of Uie small-pox in tbo human subject. 

Tba aarly and marked xymptam of slanders is a dischai^ from tba 
nostrils of a peculiar obarncter; and if that, crcu before it beoomsa pom- 
lent, is nibbed on a wound, or on a mncoua auriiKC, as the aostnls, tt will 
produce a similar dis6a«e. If tho division between two horaos wera s<dB* 
dcntly high to preront all smelling and snorting at aaohotlMr and oontwl 
of every kind, and they dnudc not out of the same poil, Ik sonikl bona 
might lire for yeonii aninfeoted, br Uus sida of a glaodered one. Tbe 
matter of glaaden baa been loixed'up into a hall, ai^ given to a healthy 
horsey witooni effect. Some hones have eaten the bar loft by those that 
worn glaadered, and no Imd conaeqaanoo has followed ; bat othera bare 
been speedilr infcelod. The glandDroni tnatfar rnnat come in contact with 
a wooad, or nil on some tnembrttncy thin and deUoate like that of tbe nosc^ 
and through which it may be absorbed. It is easf , than, aocoslaiDad •■ 
hoTM* are to be crowded together, and to rocoffuso eoob other bf tte 
smell — eating oat of tbe Rame manger, and dnnkuig Iran the same pai^ 
to imogioe that the diaeasp may be vcnr nmlily cornmimioaled. One botsa 
haa paased anolher when he waa in tlM aot of saoHii^, and has bocoa* 
glaaoeted. Some 611iee have received tbe contagion fr«m tbe matHr 
Elown by tho wind acroas a lano, when n glaadorod borao, in tbe oppoaiis 
Geld, has claimcl ooqaaintnnoo by neighing or snortiDg. It is almost i^ 
poaaibto for a glondered Ikmiw to roakain long in a stahlc with c4bn 
witboot inepaiable misoluef. _ 

If some peraona nndertato the danger, it is becanse the ilitnaan nf 
nnaia nMeaog na ed in the iofiMtod bono for snne nuintfaa, oc eren ytens 



I it ikppcnrs, it is attrilinicd to other causes or to afU'r 

No );''>'"^<'''<^' lutrsi» tliould be canplnycil on Huy farm, nor 

■boald B glBodcml lionto U- ixM-initlird to work on nii^ rond, or even to 
|]k«biiu on buj field. Mi»cliii5r ni:iv be bo eaaily aitd extiMimvct^r t^fleclod, 
that tlie pubUc interest demaDila (hat ovety infected onitual .■>houtd be 
akmmarilr de^lmTcd, or given over for cjiperiiii«Dt to a vet^iriaary Hurg(M>iu 
or rMqgnitcd rcUirinuy est«bli«hiDonlv 

Then u« a few iixlaiiOM of the spontmDecinii cnro of chronic elandcrs. 
ThL- dmiMrfft lias cxisUd for a oonnderxblo time. At Uingth it hns 
endasUy diminished, and has ceased; and this ban ucuurrud UTid«r every 
nndof trc*lineiil-,and n-itbontanj medical treatment: but in tlie majority 
cttitom Riippo«cd c«i*ca,th*iniiitt<;rwiu! only pent lip for a vhil^.andtheu, 
bomting from itn cunHntuiifnt, it flowi'd oguiii in iloiiblu qnantity : or, if 
plaoden has not retippcared, the home, in ci){kt«en or Ivrenty-foiir 
imm^hf. hai become farcied, or consnniptive, and died. Tliesu supjiuHud 
cnrmuefinratid fiu" betw-ceo, and ni-o to be rogsrdcd with much Hii^piciou. 

Aa (or nuiilMTinr, theiv is wuuvely a drag to which n fair trinl hnx not 
been gircn, and manj of them have luul a t^mpomry rcpiitntion ; but tlioy 
have passed away, one afW the other, aad aiv no Uinf-vr heuni of. Tlie 
Use vitriol and the Spanish-fly have hold out lon^et ; and in a few cases, 
mtktr Datore or those mctliducs have done wonHei's, bnt in the majority 
of hudattcc* they have pulpobly failed. Thcdiniodidcof copper has lately 
aoqniied some n^latiun. It has boeti uf great servioe in ca.-icit of farcy, 
bnt ia not to be depended UDon in inlanders. 

Vhat* the life of a ^nablo animal is at stake, and the owner adopts 
•vMy pTOcantMn fo pntvent inftiction, he may enhjcct thc> horse to niodical 
bcatanent; ba( every humane man will iiidifrnatttly obJL-ct to the Hiittine 
of (he Boatril. aod Ifae scraping of the cartila>;e, and scaring of the gland, 
aadfiringof the frontal and nMalboncn, and to those injections of mnstard 
and c^aicom, oorromro snbliinat« and vitriol, by wliich the horse has bi;en 
tortsnd, and the praetttJoner dinirruced. At the reterinary school, and by 
Tctorinaty snigeooa, it will be most desirable that every experiment should 
be tried to discover a remedy for this post ; bnt, in onlinory instances, ho 
ia not fiuthfol to his own inlorest or that of his neighbours who does not 
tnaartt the poMibilitv of <langcr io the most sumcutLry way. 

If, howeii-er, remedial measures are resorted to, a pure aljuosjiliere U 
tLat which shoold fint be tried. CSlandere is the peculiar disease of the 
■tabled borM^ and the preparation for, or the foundation of, a cure mnst 
eonsut in the psffect removal of evoiy exciting cause of the malady. The 
borae miwt brcntlte a cool and puru atoioephere, and lie must be turned 
Odt, or placed iu a situation equivalent (o it. 

A. salt marab is, above all otheni, the situation for tliix cxperinient ; but 
there ia mn^ caation reqiiircil. No lotind inniii be in the Knmo 
paetttra, or a Beighbouring one. The j>itliiigs or thu gales may rei.'t>ive a 
portian of tbe matter, which may harden upon them, and, many a month 
■AerwatdSy be a source of mischief — nay, tbe virus may cling about tho 
veiy herbage and empoison it Cattle and ohccp should not be trusted 
■ritli a fflandcTTKl horsD, for the exnttrimcntji aro not suOiciently uumeroua 
or decided as to the exemption of these aiumuls fVom the contagion of 

BappoaiDg that glandcn has made il^ appcamnce In the stablea of a 
hmar, ia tlMnt any danger after be baa removed or destroyed the infected 
bone ?— Cvrtainly there in, bnt not to the extent that is commonly 
eoppoeod. There is no-neceasity lor pulling down the nutlca and man- 
gen, or enen the stable itself, as some Imvn ilone. Tlie poi«on resides 
fMjt in the breatli of the animal, but in the nuMil discharge^ and that can 




Diit^ reii^li (^■''VHBP* o** ^'^ stiiblo. If tlie mangcni, tnii flH|H| 
lialod, aud partfffiBE^WB firat well ncrapod. iLud scuun-d witb wi^^BP 
WAtor, and tlii^ii tboronghlj wsabeid witli a solution of the chloride of lime 
(onu pint of tfao ohlondo to k pnilfiil of water), nnd tlic wnlls lav limo- 
wBitiH, ftnd t^ iiead-gRar bamnd, nnd tho aUittin^ bakiKi or washed, and 
the p^la nswlj paiatod, and tho iron-work exp<M«<l to a red iMat, all 
danj^er will ooaee. 

Iiittio tlint in nitiflfaototy con be said of the prMwnfa'cni of glondflra. 

Thu first and moct oficotnat loodo of prvvMition vrill bo to koop tho 
atsblcH cool and wuU ventilntnil, fur the hot uid poisoned air of low and 
OOallDed stables is one of thv luuat preralemt oanaes of glandeM. 

Kpit (o ventilation oomcs good and eSIoiMit drainage. The nrine 
nhonld ncvi!r bo allowcMl to lie on tbo suiHaco, biit have tvadj menna of 
o.fcupu tUn>U|;h ample and wcll-arrangitd dninH ; fur thu foul air front tlio 
furuiontiiig litter, and urinu, and dunff. miiat not only be luf-lily injurioiu 
to health geiMrallr, bnt irritate and predispose to inUammation that <teli- 
eat« membraiie whirh is the priinarr seat of tho dinonso. If to this be 
added ntgnliir nxervim-j nnd upciuiionivl grenn mfut daring the (Fummcr, and 
eftrrot« in tlie wiutur, we nball liuve etatvd lUI that can be done iu tho waj 
of pFerentioii. 

OlanJ«n in the human being.— \t cannot bo too often repeated, that a 
glandorvd home can mrcly rpmnin among Konnd onca withoiat serious 
miKibiof cnsuiuff ; and, wonw than all, the man who attvnda om that bone 
is iu datjger. - The eaooo are now beoomiog far too nusieroot in wbioh 
the groom or the Teterinar^sorgeen attending on ))laudeTod hoTMa beeomec 
tnfeeted, and in tho majorit}- of ciwi<-s dion. It is, howoTcr, aoouwlMb 
more manogeablo in the ntimnn being thiui in thu (iiiitdnipvd. Somacefles 
of rocoTorr from {itrnj and Klandt-m sitand on record with regard to th* 
hnman being, but the; are fuw and (m betivoen. 

Fare; i« intimately connected with glanders ; they will run into fwA 
other, or their symptoms will mingle together, and before either anivw 
at its blsl tormination the otbor will grnrrally appear. An ■"'™^j 
inoculated with the matter of Gwcy will of^vn bo alBictod with etandera, 
while the matter of glanders will frequently prodaoe fitroy. They are 
diflorent type* of the same dieeaoe. There is, liowerer, a very material 
difllBrenoe in their tjmflbciam and progren, and this moat important one 
of all, that while glanders is incnrablo, farcy, in its early stage and mild 
form, may be succesuifnlly trcnti-d. 

While the oapilluiy vecssls of the ortcriea are evetrirlieTv empk^vd in 
building up the frame, the ^isoriwnts are no less dtlig«ntly at work in 
•electiiur and carrying away ereir otdeai or worn-out portion or part 
of it. There is no sanaoo — there la no aMignnble npot on which thov- 
aandx of thcuo littlo months do not open. In the diacliarg« of tbcir dnty, 
tfaey not only remove that which is become osolces, and ofleu lliat which 
it ualtlij, bnt that which is potsonoos and dcxtructive. They a^tm apeii 
tfao SOT&ce of oroiy glanderous chancre. Thoy alwDrb a portion of lb* 
vims which ii secreted by tlm ulcer, and as it paHnea aklog theao little 
tube*, (hny sulTer frinii its acriiuouioua quality ; hence the eonhi oeMw, ■■ 
tbey an called by the Ikrrier, or, more properly, the thiokaned and in- 
flamed absoibento fdlowing tho oonmo of tlxt veins. 

At ccrlikin ditlaitccn in uie coarse of the abiorKtnte are loose daplioa* 
lores of ibi! lining nirmbraoe, fomiing valvec, which are praied agaiut 
Iha side of the vraad and permit tlie finid to |>asa iu a itirection lowardt 
Uis idtaat, bat belJy oat and impede or aneat ita progresi from ifaa 




The rinta *t Oeas pkCM, and Uw lulililioiuil inflamriiAticin tlieru cxoilciJ, 
» to II greater or less degree erUknl to the eje and to the foelius- They 
are nsudly first obwrvcd aboat the Hpn, tke nose, the neck, the oxillai-y 
•paces of the cliest, and Ibo thighs. Tliev ara rerj hard — orcn of a 
acirrhoas hardnwtt, more or loiat tvnder, Acid with porccptiblo beat about 

The poisonoas matter b«4iig thus confiu«d and preaaiug on the part, mp> 
pantioD and nlcoration onsac Tho nlccrs have the same characters aa 
ihe glaoderoiu eatn on the memhmno of tJin noun. Thoj' are roondod, 
vritfa an eletstod edge and a pula inir&ce. Thej ttre tme ohancreo, and 
ihcy discbanra. B rims as iufoctiooa and as dangerous as the matter of 
glnndenu Wliihi thej ruinain in their hard prominent Mate, they are 
called iuttOBt orfarey budt; and the; ivre connected together Djr the in- 
flamed and corded auorbente. 

la MOM cases the horse will droop for manj' a day before the appear- 
ance of the corded veins or buds— his appetite will bia impaired — his coat 
irill stare — he will lo^o fWh. Tho poison ia evidently at work, bnt has 
not gained saiEctcnt poiri-r to cttiute tSe nbxorbenls to cnlsree. In a few 
eMH these bads do not nlcemte, bnt become hard and difficult to disperse. 
1b» procrem of ihe disease is thi>n suspended, and possibly for some 
n on t na ihe hontc will i^ipcar to be restored to health ; but bo boors the 
seeds of the maladv about him, and in due time the larcgr aesomes its 
▼inlent form, and harries him off. These buds h:ive sometimes been 
ooofinmded with tho little tumours or lumps termed mtrjeil. They are 
genanlly higher than l^oeo tniuonrs, and not tK> broad. Thcj have a 
mora knotty character, nuJ an principally found on the insiilo of the 
tinlM, instead of the outsidi.'. 

V0ir things an more unlike, or more perplexing', than the diSerent 
ionns which farcr aBsnmcs at different times. Ono of the logs, and par- 
ticnlarly one of the hinder Irg^ will n^uddi-nly swoll to an enormons siso. 
At night the honw will apio-or to Im pt^rfoclly well, and in the morning 
one leg wUl be three times ihv size of the other, with considerable fever 
Hid scarcely the power of moving tho limb. 

At other times the head will bn Kuhjcct U> this eiiIiirt;r:nont, the muzzle 
partieuhrty will swdl, and an offunflivo diacharge will proc'L>uil from tho 
Doee. SooietiiDes the horae will gradually lose fl«sh and strength; be 
win be hida-boand ; mangy eruptions will appear in difi'orcnt parts ; tho 
legs will Kwcll ; cracks will bo seen at the heels, and nii inoxpcrirnocd 
pcrrmon may txraocivo it to be a mere want of condition, combined with 

By de^rew the aflVction becomes general. Tho virus has readied the 
termination of the absorbents, and mingles with the general circulitting 
ttnid, and is convoyed with tho blood to every part of the firuno. Thore 
are no bmgcr ai^ valvtm to impede its progress, nnd consequently no knots 
or Awb, but the myriada of CKptlhu^- absuilicnts that penetrate every nart 
' * ) inflamed, and thickened, and enlfirgc^d, and cmiso to dischsrKu Ixicir 

UvBiBa arises enlsrgemoQt of tho snbstunoo of various parts, 
I of the leg), and chest, and head — sudden, painful, enormous, and 
' by a heat and londemesH, which do not accompany other 
, ienl«. 

I a qoestion considered somewhat difficult to nmrer, whether Ihroy 
CUI mdat wjtboot prcriona glandera. Cortninly it can ; there aro'iranto- 
nms inirt«nc«)» of cimcs of far^y ranning their courae porelv us such, and 
nltinial(--)y arriving at a rfcovery, without « singV- symptom of 
^anden iuteneniug. Farcy is a curable form of tho disfuji?, jjlandeni 
litf incurable ; and this most important distinctiMi bet<rvcu lliciu at oitne 



proves that ttlthoogli tiiej' inav bo, knd most prolwblr arc, types of onn 
ftod the nnw diiWMM.', Ui«7 are nol id«uti(«I irilh each otli«r. Tiieru i* 
tbtt lopg-ooatinaBd tnaiduma progr w of glandprs — tho tim« which may 
elapse, aad ofteo docs, before tba owner is atearo or the vrtcrinarj- sarg«oa 
Bnreofit — the poxnhilitjr that minnla ■Iceration may hnve for a long 
-while cxiiited in mame of the reccewM of the nose— ^ra- lliat th^u «lig)it tlU- 
eharge, nndreaded and nureco^tiia^d, jet ritiatod, poisoned, and cataU>Ui 
of eommnnicatiDg tlw diwaee, nuijr hare btxa long tmv«lliDg throiif;n tho 
{ramo, and aActang di* abeorbenta, and preparing for the sadden dJgplaj 
of farcy. 

One thing, however, is undemable, that (broj does uot long <uid ex- 
tAniiToIy prevail witboQt being acoompatued 1^ glanders, and that it 
Dover destroys the nnimnl withiiDt phuntj SMmdating itwelf with glanders. 
Tliry arr, in fact, ^pca of the aumu diMauic. 

Glandi-ni is inflammalioo of the niuiubranc of the nose, nmlnRing as 
altered and pcisODOna aecretion, and when sofficieut of this vitiated necro- 
Ijon has bean taken np to produce inflaBunatioD and ulceration of the 
abeorbente, fiircy is eatablislMML Ila program is occaaionallj Xtaj ca> 
pricionK, continnin^ in a few caaee tor months and jemn, tne rigotu* of 
the hone remaining unimpaired ; and at other Unua, nuuung oo to ita 
fatal tenninatioii witb a rapiditj perfcctlj ■wrtOMJahiiy. 

FarcT- has been confooaded with other disMaos; but he mast be eardeaa 
or ignorant who mictook sprain for iL The inflammatioo is too ciroun* 
scribed and too pUinlj coniKvtcd with the joint or the tondon. 

Il loaj be raadily iL(itiii};^iali(.<(l from grease or swcll«<l k-gs. In gmuw 
there iaiuaaU^aome cmckor scurfineM,a peculiar teDaeneaa and redness 
and plonneas of the sliin. gr>mc icboroos dacharges »ful » atngnlar spaa- 
modio catching np of tbn li^. 

In farcy llio engorgement tji even more anddo) than that of grease^ 

Tli« horse is well (o-day, and to- morrow ho ifl gorged from the tetSoA to 

the haunch, and although there ia not tho same redness or gtosainraa, 

*there is great ttiidomess, a burning heat in tho limh, and nioch ^nL-rsI 

fevor. It is Rimaltancoiu inflammation of all tho absorbmts of tbo limb. 

Snrfeit can acorodj be confounded vritb fnrcT or glandm. It is a 

Soatvlar eruption — mirf^t humjs, ns they are called, aud terminating in 
aeqnanintion, nnt in nlccmtinn, nithongh numerous, yet irregularly placed, 
and nevrr following tho conrso of the abnurbvnts, but scattered over tiie olca. 
Local dropsy of ibe ceUularmeinbcane,andi»rticnlariy tltatcnlnrgeoneBt 
beneath the rhorai which has the strange apjidlation of «rafor-/iirii^, have 
none of the chamclers of real farcy. It is ^>i'oer«l dehihty tu a nt*t«r or 
leaw 6/tgn-e, and not inflammation of the absorbents. If proper^ treated, 
it aooo dtiuij>i>ears, except that, occjuiionally, at the cloao of some aerioaa 
diseOMi, it indicatea a breaking np of the conHtitntion. 

I^BM^. like glanders, apriugH frum coulugiun and (rum had stable m* 
menlv It is produced by all the causes which give rise to glandcra, 
this dificrence, that it is more freqaent )y eenerated, and soinetliius ittu^ 
nnvalent in particular districtit. It wiU attack, at tba aame tiaM, aercr 
noma in the aama tl]*oonducted alable, and others in Uw Dewboorlkoad 
who hare been exposed to the iMUns prvdispoaiug enaaea. Some haw 
denied that it is a conti^ons diacMW. They must hare had little rxperi- 
euee. It is true that tlu! mnltcr of farcy mast come ia contact with a 
wound or sore, in onler to cutnmnnicaUo the disctuw ; bat acnialomed im 
borsM am to nibble and play with each other, and nun: as the roraera ofth* 
month are frequently rvndi>n*>l by (be bit, it is eOKv to inugino that thk 
may be eamly effected j und eiiwrienco lolls us, tluit u burw- having fiiivy 
alcancajuiol besullefed tuirnuiiii with others without exirv-me risk. 



The (reainient of Srcy diflera irith the (brm tb&t it MsainM. An a 
griutml rule, kod vspcciAlIjr when the buttons or bads mre begiamng to 
Bnp«ar, » mild dow of phjw sbotild lint bo MbniitisUTpi). The bodA 
ahould then be canfolly euKtunod, nnd if maj of them fa«vo broken, 
the boddiag-iroB, M » dull red heal, should be sfiplied. If pus shoold be 
feltiDtbem,*bo<riogthutbpj-&rediBpoeed lo bnak, they Bboutd be pene> 
Imted irith the iion. TlMaewoaadsBboa.l<i bedailf uupoBted,aiidi(«bea 
lb* aloiiRh of the cKotcrj oomce oS*. they look pole, mdjO fimt, rad spongy, 
aad dii dmg e a ihin taatter, thej- duiold be freqacnUjr vnuibod with ■ 
ttnag lotion of oonoBTe anbtimaie, diuoWed in r«cU£«d spirit, \\~lxn 
tfatf wonnda begin to look red, wid the bottom of them is eren and firm, 
■ad thmj diediwse « thick white or f clloir mottor, tine Kriar*E bklam will 
omalljr di«poee iXrni to ht*l. 

A«, bovtrrer, tlio con^dtmtioti ia now tainted, loeel appUoUiona will not 
be mSciont, aad the dtwasc mnst bo ailackod bj internal medicine M soon 
■■ the phjaio baa ctnaiid to opcnito. 

CoTTO$ic t athiimaU need to be a faTOtinte medicine, combined with 
Ionics, and repeated mornii^ and night imttl tlte nloen diiappearad, unlem 
the tnoatii became WNT* or tba horae WM violeittly pOTged, w heu the cnlpbalo 
of copper waa anbiititnted for the corrosro aaUiotato. Daring this trea^ 
ment the animal was [daeed, tf poaaible, in a large box, with a free eiren- 
lation of air ; and fT^^en mcst or carrota. and particularly Uie latter, wcra 
ciTen, with a foU allomuioo of com. If he conld be tuniod out iu the ilajr, 
U was deemed higfatjr adraatagcona. It ia filiated by Hr. Ulaine, that a 
hone, ao rt<dand u* not to be able to stand, was drawn into a field of tarea, 
wd suSraed to take his obance. The <.-<nu)Miueuee was that, when he had 
ntai all within faia nacb. ho contrive to move about and search for more, 
and OTsntaally reoorerad. Xnay horses rccorcr under the nac ef the 
■aUimate, bnt tbe great majori^ of thi-m dio. 

Ur. Tines introduced a more effectiro ntedicino — eatitkarid**, in combi- 
MtioB lik«wisc with the vegetable bittera — as a t-uro for farcy and 
riuden. It cttnnot tie denini, tliat mnny animala labouring under the 
■ner, and a lew undi-r the l>itti.-r, were to ull ap|>earai>co radically cured. 
^ Medicine was suspended tn awhile if affection of tbe kidneys sDpcr> 

A atillnunvefrsctaal medicine hiutx-en introdncod by Professor 3Iortoa, 
MMly, Uu din i o d i d e of copper, and it luis lievm found of essential seri-ice 
IB iucy and in diseaMS simulating glanders. He says that its action is 
t^ ot a Etimnlant to the absorbent vnwelx, and a Ionic The gentiut 
Kd is ttanally GOtnbinod with it. Cnnthiu-idcK, in small qnantitiea, mar be 
■dnatagtMody added. An iudicatiuu of ilit luflueuve ie a sorenesa of the 
fclMd parts atuing Irooi the absorbent vessels being ronsed into i&< 
wtaaud action : the agent should tlMD ba for a time withheld. 

Vjtnt-FiKCT, confounded by name witJi llie common fiircy, and by 
*iieh roneh coufu.-iiinii baa Iic«d cnoited, and a gn>at (lt>al of uuBchief done, 
» a dropsioal affeoliou of the skiu, either of tlto chest or of the limbti, and 
UlooigB to anotber part of the subject. 


The lipK of the horse arc tar more important organs than many suppose. 
Tbey af« the hand* of the aninial ; and if any one will take llie trouble to 
i>l— IIP the manner in which be (p^tbers up bi« curn with them, and cot- 
bets Icvetber the grass before ho diriilc* it with his nippcra, lui will bo 
MlialWfl tlMi the horse would bo no more able to conrcy the food to hia 
■lostti witboDt them, than the human being coctid without bis hands. 
Thi* has awn been pnt lo the teat of cipenmout The aerree which 



BU|>i>l; Uie tips were divkted in » poor sm, to iUnBtrateaome poinl ofpliTsio-l 
logT. Th« MQsibilitf of th« bps iras lost, and he knew not wbra be 
luQchod tiig food with them. The motion of the lips nu lo»t. And hn oonM 
not ^t tbe oafM between hi« t4Wtlii, althnngh tho muigor mtui fiill of tfacm: 
at teogllt, driven b_v bunker, be (XMitrivcd to lit-k n|> a fi'w of tliem witfa turn 
loagodi but when ihey w«re on his tunj^e, the (greater port of them were 
ndmd off hofyn he coold get them into liis mouth. 

It u on Account of thin ii»o of the lips, that tlicy may 1)0 bronght int« 
contact vfitli the food witlmut inconvpnicnpc or injury to other part* of 
the &ce, that the beads of motrt qniidru[HvlB aru wi V-iig<liL-DFd. 
mitsclea go to the lipe from different ))ai-t8 of the jaw ami fHco. Some i 
th^ra arc shown in tlio cot, p. 199. The orbicularis or circnlar muscle, j«,] 
cmployod in panhiiig out tho lip« nnd cloning them, nnd cnubliog ihtt hor«« t 
to iwiKe and h»ld his food, ii paiiicularljr vridimt ; tuid io the eipUnation 
of the cut, the action of other moooles, i, it, m, and o. was deecribi'd. The 
nerves likewise, y, taking their course along the cheek, and 
■npplying thi; lim with tho power of motion, nnd thnnr', z, proccodin^l 
Lhn furaiui-'n, or tiolo in the opper jaw, doervu ulli-nliuii. 

The lips are composed of a amscnlar snbst&uco for the sake of strengtb, 
and a mnltitade of small glnnds. which secrete a fliiid that covers the in^-J 
side of tlm lipi and the ^mi, in order to prevent friction, and likcwia 
fumiiih a jjorlion of tlie iDoistnru no neccMUiry for tht; proper chewing 
tho food. The skin covering the lips ia exoupdiuglr thiu, in order 
their pccniiar Rcnxibility nay be proBarrecIf and for the aame pupoee t 
aro acantily covered u-itb hair, nnd that hair is fine ud inott, I 
baim or fbelenv t^rnied tlii; beard, art! itniicrnddnd with ttic Mime iotentMHU 
Tlie hotee b guided and ifoveraed princ^ijially by Die mouth, und then^or* i 
tho lips are endowed with rery gr««t seiuibuity, bo that the animal fccU 
the slightest motion of the hand of the rider or driver, and seems to 
anticipal« hi» vorjr thougbtji. The finenets or yoodium nf th« mouih eon- 
sists in i(« exqautite feeling, and that depends on tho thiuncM of this 

Tho lip* of the horse sbonid be thin, if tho beanty of the head is regardcil ; 
jot, allhuugh tbin, they nhoold eridently pottsoss power, and be atroDgly 
and regnlu-ly clownl. A firm, comprejuud month gives a favonrabte and i 
no deceptive idea of the iiiuacular power of the animal. LipN apart frontl 
each otAer and hanging down, indiedte weakncea or old 8ge, or iliihiiM 
and slnggishnntiL 

The d^h of the nioulti, or tho dintanco from tbo fore-part to the BiqHo 
of the lipn, vbould be considentblo. A abort protubcmnt month wonld be 
a hud fiuiah (o the tapering face (if the blood-bume. More room ia like- 
wise given for the opening of tho noetril, which has been Khown to be an 
important oonsiderstioD. The bridle will not be earned well, and the 
bom irill hang heavy on hand, if tbero is not conniderable depth of month. 

The ooniers or angW nf the li|« arc fiequently made sore or wounded 
by the imAUnew, or ahortoesa, or peentiar twisting of the nuJHr, and the 
nnntooeaarj and cnel tightness of the bearing rein. This rain wu in- 
irodaced as erring the borae a gmnder appearance in haniesa, and placing 
the head in that ponitton in irhirb the bit most eSbctnally presaee a}fOa the 
jaw. It is an nsoful adjunct to driving aafeW, for, dennred of this coo- 
tfol, many bones would bang tbeir beads Jow. anil be disposed vr*ry 
moment to stiunble, and wonld do^ nil pulling, if they tried to ran away. 
There ix, and can be no neooiuity, howoror, for usii^ a bearing- ret a mi 
tight aa to cramp the muscle* of llie bead, or to injoro and excoriate lite 
•BCJ[ea of Ibe tips. 

The IbUowiug is tlit a^iuiuu of Kiinrod, and to a more oonpefeiit judge 



^pMl: — *As to tlie nnivvTMl disom of ^ bearing- rein 
tntb Eag&eb horses, it tan nci^r Ujle jJate. The clMtg* ngniust il of 
croelty at OMW lUb to th« ^roaii<), bcNmu.10 to mftkvBttKn vrork togctWr 
in fiwt irork, ev«ry hone s boiul must 1m aa nuich roatnuncd hv thti 
coopUng-mu &a it would be and » br the bearia^mn. Iia exoeUcooe 
(wnusts in keeping honca* moutha (Vcsh — in enabling a Cdachman to in- 
dalg« a bona with libcHj- of min, withoat lattans !i><n be nil nbrosd, which 
bs would be with hi* head quitv looae, and of addtliooaJ wiicty to tho 
coach-borte, ba pivved bj the bet of Mther that or tho crupjii^r hIkuitm 
girinff way when ho falls down. There are, howover, t^aois tn which it 
zmy Sb dilpcnM^l with, nnd thr hoTMC have nn mlvnntngi? in their working 
agUBBi bilfai. A* to the compariaon of tlu! mad c»iu^]i-iioi-K(;x on the Con- 
tinent utd unr own, lot anj one exanune the kneea of tho Fi^uch diti^tci'tico 
and jioat-LoKes, which are allowed perfect liberty of head, and he will 
be eonvincod thnt the dsc of the btrn ring-rein dooe not kocp them on tbc4r 
legs,' The tuinut in which it mny l*c dispenaed with nro tho«o in which 
tike boraM natanllj carrT their heads well ; that is, much in the tnmo 
poaitraa in which the bc«rinff-reiu would place them. 

The month is injored muen oflener than the careless owner suspects by 
Ibe preosore oTa uaip bit. Not only nro the bun) wounded and deeply 
alonated, bat the loww jaw, between the ttwh and the grinders is some- 
tiiDaa worn even to the bone, and the bone itself iilFcrtcd, and portions of it 
K&liate away. Il may be necessary to Lave a sliarp bit for the hcsdHtroHg 
aad obetinate beast; yet if that bit is severely and Dnjnstifiably e&lled into 
oxercise, the animal may rear, and endaJiger himself and bis rider. There 
can. however, lie no oeeanon for a thoutuuidtli part of the torment which 
the trapfnofcs of lite month often inflict on a willing and docile M!rTnnt^ 
mud which either render the month Lard, and destroy all the pleasure of 
riding, or canse tho home to Iwcome fretful or vioioiiH. 

8in>ll aWrs are HimetiincM fonnd in vuriuuH [Hirlti of the mouth, said to 
b« produced by nislj- hjla, but otVncr arisinij from contafliorw inflicted by 
the bit, or from inflammation of the mouth. If the curb- bit is in &ult. a 
analBd or Pelbatn>bit shoald be nsed. If there is inflammation of the 
month, a little cooling medicine may ho administered ; and to the ulccTH 
thcBiMlrcM, tinctore of myrrb, diluted with water, or alum distolvcd in 
water, may be applied with adiantage- 


TWt bODM constituting and giving farm to the moutli are the mpcrior 
maxillary or npper jaw (b, p. }'lO, and /, p. 14-!i), containing tlic upper 
(*rinden and tnxhM; tlim anterior miutillary, or lower part of the ni)ppr 
jaw (_/, p. 140, n, p. 14>5), conl«iiung the up|*r.nipi>er!i or cutting-teeth ; 
the palatine bone {e, p. 197) ami the posterior inasiltaiy or under jaw (o, 
p. 140), containing all tbe uoder teetb. 

The Mpcrw maxillary in, with the cxenfition of tho lower jaw, tho 
largeet bono in thii fiuiu. It uuit*-* above with the lachrymal bone, and 
more on the side, with the mular or check bone, and a portion of it, con- 
timed opwatd, ajid underneath, enters into tbe orbit. Above, and on the 
front 01 the face, it nnitos witli Ibo txinex of the no*e, and bulow, with 
tbe nfiRior maxillary. That which nioat descnes uotioc in it cxleruatly 
ia tbe ridge or xpinc, coutinued from the lutse of tbe )tygomatic arch, and 
meram the m^lar b<Mie. It and the surface beneath sorvo to give attach- 
Bwat to the massetor muscle, concerned, almost aa much ae the temponil 
one, in the act of chewing. On the anterior surface is a foramen or hole, 
Ihroogh which a bmnch of the fifth pai r of nerves proceeds to pive aeniii- 
lalily to tbe lower part of the face. As it appronchcs tbe teeth, thin bui>o 



eeparatfc into two plntts, and llicnc nrc divided Hy long nnrtitions, which 
contain and firmly hold the upper grimlfni. Thi- Iowit yAxtc thrn projects 
inward*, «ik1 formii tlic priiici|>ftl }iortiun of the roof <if thn mouth, and 
tlie floor of the <uvity of the boms. Tlie i^orrt-npotidiiuc b<»ui oo tiim othor 
ndo amcla it« fellow in the centre of ilto pal&w. The nopcr jftw-boos 
contiuna in its largo canties besides those for iht- teeth, and tncse open into 
and eiilaiye the cavity of the doso- They are connected with the voire, 
hut not with the smell, for tho exraittioD of the olfactory or ainelUi^ 
nerve has never been traced Itcyond utsboiuisaiMlinembraneB of the prnffer 
cavity of the noee. The niftxillary Binase* MVgtmcrally filled with matter 
in bad cnsc-ii of glanders. 

Below thcM are the antwior maxillary bone«, containing Iht' upper 
cutting tc<4h, with the tnahan belonging hiitb to thit nn[)cr and anterior 
bon«)i. TbffM.' are the btmes to which the up|)cr lip ik attttcluHl. TIm> 
Buporior and aiil^^rior maxillaiy bones are scpuralcd lu aninutlH with long 
&oei^ like the horse, that, by 0Ter1^>piiig each other, strength might bo 

The palatine bone forms bnt a very tmnll portion of the palate. It 
mrronnds the edge of the communication between the cavitry of the nose 
and the back parts of the nwmth< 

•na PIUTB. 
Adhering to a portioD of thf thrc« bones jost described, antl conatU 
tnting the lining of the roof of the mouth, is the palalv. composed of an 
claotic anil drrw wnhntancc divided into Rcvcral ridgca called Bar*. The 
following cut, givrs a Ti«)W of thrm. 

It will alio point out the btewling place, if it iihould occasionally be 
ileemed adviaubln to abstract blood fram the mouth ; or if the \tonc dwuld 

1)0 attacked with inc^nis on a journey, and the 
driver, having no lanctii, ahould be ™mpi?!l«?(! 
to make one of his knift), the inoision sliuuld bo 
miulo 1>eitweeQ the ceutt^l and second nippera 
on either side, about an inch within the mouth, 
and cntting through the second bar. A stream 
of blond will l>c thus obtained, which will 
nmiAlly ccann to How when two or thrm quarts 
have t-'Hcapcd, or may generally bo arrested 
by the application of a iqionga fiUctl with cold 

Tliis, bowerer, is a msVc-iihin xort of bleed- 
ing that may be allownbtt- on a tounwy, and 
powibly iu some cases of lani^ia^ but whieh is 
deoidea^ otpeoUonable as the usual mode of 
shstnctini; blood. The nnanli^ withdrawn 
cannot be measured, tJi« dcOTco of inflamma- 
tion cannot bo aiicertained hy the manner in 
which it coAf^lntcs, and there may be diffi- 
cally to the operator, and tuinoynncc and pain 
to the hor«p, in xlopping the hlM^ing. 

Thin rnt tikewiw; dcpicta the appcaronoc of 

tlie roof of the moatJi if the bani wcni du- 

K!Ctod oir, and of t)ic nuawroux ve*wbi, arterial 

and rcaouK, which ramtfy over it. 

At the hack of tltc pelatc, and hIUcImx) to the cre»oenU«hapcd border of 

tt-p palatiiK- lionc, in a denote mcniliniKinjt curtain. Its anperior and hack 

rarface b a continuation of tJie lining membrane oftheiwae, and ilaanlcrior 




or inferior one Ibai of tbe jwlnte. It in culloti tho cwMvJWb'*> or veil uf 
the palftte. It esteods aa Tar back aa tlio larynx, Aak^mt^^a the iIorsuR) 
of tae epiglottis, anil is a perfocl tciI or curiam uiterposed botwcfn tha 
csTitiM of tbc on*c immI monui, imtting oft' all oonQmnaication between tbem. 
Tvod by ita aUschmcnt to tbu palatine bone, it will open but ft Uttl« way, 
wul tliAt «iil,r in oue dirvction. It will permit a |it;ltot ol' fixxl to poM into 
tlie (MophBtiu i bat it will clo&o wli«ii &uj ptv«sar« is nuule upon it from 
, ^■fcrml. Two (iniriiliir fiicts nocrssarily follow from tLis; the borve breathes 
tbc noKtrilii alone, and thcM- nro capncion? aod easily expaaaible to 
■ degree Men in no ulber tuunaal, and fully ooiiiiauii*nntt« U> tm waots of 
-tikO *"'*"* V 

It IB also evident that, in tlie net of vomiting, tbe C0Dt«nta of tbe stomach 
mn«t be retonw-d thmugh tbo nostril, and not throngb tbo nioiilli. On 
this occotuttntrtlr it in that tbo Itonw con ivitb grmt difKcalty be cicitod 
to Toanit. Tliere la a stmctnre at the cntrauou to thn «t<>mat'h which, ex- 
eepi taader ^vrj peculiar drcamstancea, preveots it« return to the throat, 
Md cooseqneDtly to the montlL 


The ban occastoaally swell, and rise to a Wei iritb, and eroa beyond 
tha adgo of, (ho teeth. They mv xcrf sore, and tbo bono fe«ds badly on 
BTOoant of the pain be Hnffi-nt from the prcwniro of the food on tlicm. 
Tbia t* culk<d iliH Lamfas. It may arise firom infiaminntinn of lbc> gnms, 
propagated to tlie ban, when the horse i« shtrddinji liis ttt-th— luiJ youn([ 
aonM ara mon ml^ect to it than others — or from some slif^hl febrilo 
toodency in the constitntiim gcntirullr, n« whnn n young hom oas lately 
been taken up fn>m grass, and has bi^ci] ovcr-fi-d, or not unfficiL'ntly ei- 
orcued. At times iiappeara in b^^A borsf><, Ibe process of p^row thin the 
toatli of the bors« cootinoiDg durint;: iho nhnio lifo of the animnl. 

In the majority of caaos the swelling will .voun Ntilwido wiihonl mi'dirjil 
trestmcnt; or a few maabea, and i^nlti.' alUtrfttives, will relieve tliu 
^"'"■■' A few slight iuciaions across tbe bais with a lancet or penknife 
will rettere the inflammation, and eause Ibe swelling to subside ; indeed, 
Una acarilicatioD of tbo bars in lampas will seldom do harm, although it ia 
fcr frooi being ao neecsxury as is Ktipp<iscd. 

The brutal ctutoia of the farrier, who scars and fanms down tbo bars 
wilh a T«d-bot iron, ia most objeetJoDable. It is torturing the horse to no 
parpoee, and cn1culat«d to do f^rions injniy to the parts. It may be pro- 

rat in case of lampas to rxtuninc tbo grinders, and moro particularly the 
■1mm, in order to UMa-rtaiu whether either of them is making its way 
RMgh the gum. If it is so, two inclnous across each other should lie 
idl^ on tbe tooth, and the horse will experience iramediafo relief. 

The posterior or lower jnw nmy bo conniiIc^n<d as forming the Boor of 
thtt month. The body or lower part of it contain.-! the undt-r cuttii^g 
^^torth and tbe tuslie*, luid at the siji-s are two flat pieces of boue conlainiDg 
^^Flhe grindera. On the iuiiide is a foramen or hole through which blood- 
^Hveaaels and nerve* ent^r to supply the iceth, and noino of which escape 
^Vflgant at aootbor orifice on the outside, and mtur the nippers. Tbe branchcB 
^^ an broader and thinner, rotindcd at the angle of the jaw, andlenninating 
I in tw o processes. One, the caraeoid, tiom its shivrpness or snpposod re- 
^■^■Uaace to a beak, passes under the xygomatic arch (see p. 140) ; and 
^^^^HaBponl muscle, arising IVom the wliole Mirfikctt of tbi' pMrietal bone, is 
^^^mCTtaa into it, and wni|med rounil it; and by ils action, principally. Hie 
^^nw ia luOTcd, and the foud \» ground. Tlic other, the eotutylotd, or 



rounded process, is received into the glenoid (ehallow) cavity of ihe 
temporal bone, at the base of the zygomatic an:b, and forms the joint on 
which the lower jaw moves. This joint is easily seen in the cut at p. 140 ; 
and being placed so near to the insertion of the muscle, or the centre of 
motion, uie temporal mnsole mast act with very considerable mech&mcal 
disadvantage, and, consequently, must possess immenBe power. 

The joint is admirably contrived for the purpose which the anim&l re. 
quires. It will admit freely and perfectly of the simple motion of a binge, 
and that is the action of the jaw m nippmg the herbage and seizing the 
com. But the grass, and more particnlarly the com, must be crushed and 
bruised before it is fit for digestion. Simple champing, which is the 
motion of the human lower jaw, aod that of most beasts of prey, would 
very imperfectly break down the corn. It must be put into a mill ; it most 
be actually ground. 

It is put into the mill, and aa perfect a one as imagination can conceive. 

The following cuts represent the glenoid cavity, in a camivorons or 
flesb-eating, and herbivorous or grass-eating, animal, viz. the tiger and 
the horse ; the one requiring a simple hinge-like motion of the lower jaw 
to t«ar and crash the food ; the other, a later*! or grinding motion to bring 
it into a pplpy form. We first examine this cavity in the tiger repre- 
sented at B. At the root of the zygomatic process D, is a hollow with andge 
along the greater part of the upper and inner side of it, standing to a 
oousiderable height, and curling over the cavity. At the lower and op- 

posite edge of the cavity, but on the onteide, is a similar ridge, E, lilcewise 
rising abruptly and cnrling over. At C is another and more perfect *-iew 
of this cavity in a different direction. The head of the lower jaw is re- 
ceived into this hollow, and presses against these ridges, and is partially 
surrounded by them, and forma with them a very strong joint where dis- 
location is scarcely possible, and the hinge-like or cranmng motion is 
admitted to its fullest extent ; permitting the animal violently to seize his 
prey, to hold it firmly, and to crash it to pieces; but from the extent and 
curling form of the ridges, forbidding, encept to a very slight degree, alV 
lateral and grinding motion, and this because the animal does not want it. 
Afl before mentioned, the food of the horse mast be ground. Simple 
braising and champing would not sufficiently comminute it for the 
purposes of digestion. We then observe the different construction of 
the parts to effect tliis. A, gives the glenoid cavity of the horse. First, 
there is the upper ridge assuming a rounded form, P, and therefore 
called the mailnid prneert ; sufficiently strong to sopport the pressure 
and action of the lower jaw when cropping the food or seizing an enemy, 
but not encircling the licwl of that bone, and reaching only a little way 
along the side of the cavity, where it termiiiatos, ha\-ing its cdgrs 
KKwded off so OS to admit, utd to be evidently destined for, a circular 




motum altont it. At tlie other and lower cdgo of the caTitv. »nd on the 
uutoide, Q ia placed — m>t n rurling rid^ as in the tiger, bat » mora 
toberole : and for what rcoaou ? uvidcntly to limit tliia lateral or rirculftr 
notioi) — to permit it aa ^ &a iLu uufi^silios of tlm aDimul requiro il, iind 
Umo to MTMt it. How is this dooe ? Xot suddenly or abruptly ; but the 
taborotn, of which wo hnvo alrtquly spoken as strcnii^heDiog tbis portion 
of Um SJgpamiui arob, row diHchnrging nnnthcr nflicc, has r gmoolli nnd 
gradnal Mcent to ity up wbiirb tlw Iow<ir jaw miiy olimb toaonrtnincxlent, 
■md ttMO( l!j dej^rees, be elopped. Wu Kjiva): nut now of Um moveable 
cvlila^ wnich o plncod in this cari^-. ntid between the bones, lo render 
tbo motion earner and freer. It isfbnnd in thin joint, in every (joadmpedj 
and it is fonnd wberuvcr motionii arc rupid nnd of limi; oontinn.inco. 

So gnat is (he cooformity between tUe ntructuro iif the unimiil iitid his 
iliwliiiiiliiiii. that ft tolerable student in comparative luialocuy, by a iiten> iu> 
spoctton of tlui glenoid caritj, would nt once dol^rmitie whether the animal 
to whioh it belonged was camivorgnn, and wnnttnt no Intentl motion of tho 
jaw ; or omnivoroiut, living oczuuKJonuIly on all kind.i of food, and rciiuirijtg 
lonte decree of grinding motion ; or herbivorous, and needing tho ooustuut 
IM of this itdmirably-coRBtmcl^d mill. 

At y. p. 199, 'm roprcsnntod tho manetrr mnnclo, an exceedingly strong 
MiB,oooatatBtiiig tlie olieck of Ihvhome — arising from tlic KUporiarma3iiUiiry 
udor Iho ridge continned from the zygoinatiu aroh, and insi;Hed into the 
lowvr jaw, and particnlarly round theroa^h border at the angle of the jaw. 
TUa acta with tie temporal niisclo in closing the jaw, and in ^ving tha 
diract onttiDg or champing motion to it 

Willuii the lower iaw, on either ndo, and occupying the whole of tho 
Ulowed porlJon of them, and opposite lo tlie maeseters, are the pterygoid 
'■iDMlM^goiagfrom the jaws to bones moro in tho centi'o of the channel, 
^^cinn A?T™g tlio month, and alno, by their alternate action, giving that 
piiulisg motion which ha* Iiccn dovcribed. 

The naee between tliu bmuches of the lower jaw, called the channel, in 
^ccnnocnble coDaequeoce. It c&n scarcely be too wide -, for if it in too 
■•tow, Uie hone will nerer bo abl* to bond hi* hi?ad freely nnd graeeftilly ; 
** *tl] b« always palling or boring upon the hand, nor can be possibly be 
"tUrmoad in. 

tk jaws contain the toetlt, which are the millstones employed iji com- 

niimtingtiiefbod. Tbeooonthof the horspnt tivo ycJirs old conWnH fbrty 

ImIi, nz. six nippers or cutting tc<Hh in front, above and below, a tush on 

(Hk nde, and six nolhrs, or gr^ndini; teeth, ou ea«h aid% above and below. 

1^ an conliunod in cavities iu the upper and lower jaws, sun-ouodcd by 

^My partitions, to which they are accunilrly litted, 

Uu brwhioh they are firmly mpportod. l^'ornlittlu 

oy at>oT6 tJieso bony cnvittc*, they are nurrounded 

liT a firm sobstanoc cidlcd thf cum, so dense, and 

iohsriog so cloaoly to the teeth and tho j'awk. lut 

Bot to bo separated without Twy groat dilUcnlty — 

irngttlarly oempaet, that it may not be wounded by 

the bard or sharp porticlca of thu feud, and almost 

devoid of fwtinK, for the ttiuc purpose. 

Savm or oi^t months before the fonl is bom, 
tlw gofms or beginnings of the tr«th ar« visible in 
Iba cMvilicM of the jaws. The tooth (?row8, and 
HI Mia to tho surface of the (fuiu. and forces its way through it ; and, at 
tlte Hw n' of birth, the Unit and second gruidem have appeared, largo oom- 
|«r«d with the siise of the jaw, am) Meeniingly filling it. In the eoorae of 
«■ sight days the two ccntml ninpew aro Keen as bore reprvacnted. 


THE PB0C-R3S OP TEErrnixo. 

Tlity likcwiM apjvu- Ui Iw lurfp-. ainl to fill U>e front of tli« montli ; 
alLbougfa titty will afl^nr&rda be found to be small, rompanxl wilb th« 
peRoaiMBtttMblliat roHoff. In tbo coarse of tlie tint month Ihr third 
gijader ajypmni aliorc nnd bclnw, and, not long aAcr, and gvnondlv b»- 
fore ux vr«-ka Lav« espiri.-d, ajioUur inciaor abovo and mIow wtU fan 
Been on each side of tlkc two first, wliich have now considerably grown, 
tmt not attained tbpir ncjfcct height. This rat will r<^>mant the appear- 
BBue of the month at taut time 

At two looaths, the cvutnl nippera will have reachiod tbcnr nittarm) 
level, and between the second and utird mouth the seoood p«ir will have 
ov«rtnkcn them. Thrj' will then begin to we&r 
awBT s little, and thv outer cdgtt, which was at flrat 
•owewhat nuavd and aharp, i.t bmiight to a lowt 
with Hub inner one^ and so the month continoea 
utn some time betwsMttlie sixth and ninth monifa, 
when atu>UiKr nipper bc^na io appear on ettch side 
of the two firvt, mukitix nix nlxivo and bolotr, 
aud contpletiDg the coil's mouth ; afWr which, 
the onl; otwerrable difleroscv, nutil belweeo the 
Mcood and third yev, is in the wear of these 
The t«nn mpp*r is femJlJar to the honemsji nad 
the liirrier, and mnch better p>pr«8ms the action of these teeth llwn the 
wwd inciwr or «;att«r, which is adofrtcd br niuiloiniBts. Whoervr has 
observMl n borso in the act of browHintt. and tlto twitch of tbo bead which 
acoompanic* the i«piiration of each portioa of grass, will pcrreive that it 
in nipped or torn tuUivr than cnt off. 

TlivM tee4h an oowred with n pnljshfxl and exceMdinglj haird mb> 
Btatic«, called the Mtamcl. It imr<M(b orcr that portion of the twtll 
which appears aboro the gnm, ana not only m, but an they are to be •» 
much oropUiTed in nipping the ffnM> and (gathering up the aninttl's feod, 
and in tach em]Joymeut even tliis hard ffobntanco moft be grsdnallj worn 
away, a portion of it, as it pnfWJt over Iho upper nuAoo of the teeth, is 
boDt inwnni, and mnk into the body of the t«e<h, and forms a little pit ia 
tiifim. The inaide and bottom of this pit beinfi blackened by tlw Ibod, 
(<oiulitutea the marl' of tho teeth, by tho gradual disappeanuce of which, 
in coniKqtienee of the wcahng down of the cd^, we are enabted, far 
Mveial yuuK, to jndgo of the age of the animal. 

The colt's niMnng teeth are rounded in front, aontewliat hollow towards 
the mouth, and present at finA a catting siuihoe, witli the outer edge 
rising in a slanting diraction above the inner edge. Thii!i, however, totm 
begins to wtar down until both surfiicca are level, and the mart, which 
was oriffiikaUy long and narrow, becomes shorter, 
and wider, and fainter. At six montha the four 
nippcn are bcKtnning to wear to a leveL Tbe >fr 
nexi^ cut will conv4-y some idea of the appear 
auoe of the teeth at twelve months. The bar 
middle teeth are almost level, and the oomeronss 
becoming so. The mark in the two middle teelhii 
witl(! and faint; in the ta'om^xt t<«th it is dadnr, 
and longer, and narrower; and in tho oomertselh 
it is the darkest, and longest, and iiamiwr«t. 

Tho back tceih, or grinders, will not guidsas 
&r in aaoortwnins tho agcnf the animal, for we «•■ 
noieasily inspec(ili<.-[u; but tWr(>ateaomeuitcte«ti]Mtf)nrtM.-aknemuMCtsil 
withtbnn. Tbefgalisboniwitb twogriaderfliae*(»^w,abonuidbel0*i 



OP tlwy (ipp«T within throe or fonr dars after tho liirtli. Itoforo tbo ex- 
pmtion ol* A month th*y are emccooiled by k tliinl, mons liac-kwnrtt. Th« 
crowiu of the grindors arc ctntiivly cororc^l by eiutinvl on llin lop und tddes, 
bat nUrition aoon wmrn it iinny fn>Tn tlio top. and tbem rtTnuiti* n t^in- 
pound Mr&ce of nttcnuitv hiyom of cnisia (ictromi, ecamet and ivory, 
which an) era|>lojed in irrinding down tho hardest portionB of the foiH). 
Xuturc bad llivrefdrti nutde an udditioniU |>rovunon for tJioir etrcn;^ and 

This cnl rc)n««enla « griiuk-r satvL-d uorosM. It HH-ms to bo « most 
uTTjfubir uul intricate atructare; but lliv i?xplanatii}n U not difficult^ 
The tooilt is formed and prepared in caviliiw 
williiD tbo jaw-bi>iiee. A dclicnlo m«mbranoaA 
t»g, containing a J4>]tj-tiko eubfitanco, is found, in 
the anbom animn), in a littlo cell vritbin the jaw* 
bon^ It assamrs, by docrpca, the form of (he 
tooth that ia to, and thru tho jelly n-ithin 
tb« mcmbnuio bcginn to chango to bony mattor, 
and a hard and beautiful cryxhilliwition m formed ^ 

on tfan nirmbmiKt witbimt, and no wo havo (tiit cuttiog looth cuTeivKl by 
■la enamel. In the formation, hnwvvM*, of nu'h of these grindera of tbe 
bovae, there aru oHfrimilly five minubrantnin bngs in the upper jair, and 
Cinr iu ibe lower, fitled with j^lly- Tbi^ by dngrtM glTca place to bonr 
matter, wbicb 'm tlimwii uul by bttle ves-tel* ponoturtingf into it, and in 
nmaented by the darker portiona of tb« cut with contral black xpoln. 
The ciraiulliaatiou of enamel can be ti-aced round <«cb, and there wonld 
be fire distinct bones or teeth. A. third siib^teni^e. liowewr, is now 

MCTBted (which is represented by the vrhito spaces), and in a powcrflil 

eeawBt. tttiitini; all tboKr distinct hoiicM into one body, and making one 

tooth of tfaa five. Thin being done, another coat of enamel spreadii over 
(ha ridea, but not tlm top, and the tooth ia completed. I)y no other con- 

trivaDco could we have tlie grinding tooth cajiable, witlionl iujuTy and 

without wearinK, to rub down the bay, and oat«, and bcunx, wliich con»ti- 

tnto tiu) alablcfood of hones. 

?1w griudera in tlie lower jaw, baring' originally but four of tliese bag* 

or tfielb, are anialler, and narrower, and more regular than tbo upper 

ooea. Tbey am not placed bonionlally in either jaw ; but in tbo lower, 
(be higher side is within, and shelving; gmdnally ontward ; in the upper 

jaw tbe higher side is without, and shelving inward, and thus the grinding 

noticn) ia most advantageously performed. There la also an evident dif- 

finooa ia the imteanmce and Rtmrture of 

Mch of tfae grindera, no Uint a enir^lnl o1>- 

nmr ooold tell to which jaw every une 

balongnd, and what Ntualiun it occujnuj. 
At the ciMnplL-tton of the first year, a 

fimrtli grinder uaually oomea up, and tlie 

yculing lias then, or soon afterwarda, six 

m ippa * and four Krindera abore and below 

01 each jaw, which, with the alteraiion 

m llie ^ftearance of the nipprni tbnt< we 

fawre juat d««ribed, will ennblo tut to cal- 
culate BraHjr thvage of the foal, nibji-ct to 

mamtm variatxiiM anstng Irom the period of 

Wesninc <^nd the tiatare of the food. 

At the agv of one vear and a half, the mark in tbo centntl nip]M>ni will 

Irmaefa aborter and fninter: Uiat in the two other pairs will bavo 

undergone an evident change, and all ibo nippen nill be lut. 



At two Te&TB Uib will be more numUi'sl. The niKi'Mtafa.nying cut 

deserrea attention, m Kivin^ un >ncurAt« 
repreaetilAltou of ibc niitpt-nt in tlw! lower 
jaw of thei two<y«ftra-<4it cult. 

About tbia period a fifth grindnr will 
apprar, And now, likewise, will onm- 
mnicv another process. Tbo first tiietli 
nrc kdnptcd to the. ntc aiid wants uf th« 
vonng animal. Tbrr nrv sufBdentJy 
Urg:i! lo o<)cnpy and fill thp roIl'« j«wa ; 
IruL wbl^n tbcKo boncit barr rxpanded 
with thp int-TTONing growth of (he oninial, 
the u-ctli uri! ■cparatnl too fnr fmm vnch 
1 '-Vi' -'^^^H^V Qtbcrtobu useful, unci iinolhcratul Inrger 

\ I 1 1 mB^K^B ^^ '^ riMliiirird. Evidt-nt provtHirm i» 

\ aSP^^^mt made for th<!m, <<veu Ix-furv tli« cult in 

\ Jr'^" ^^W ^ foaled. In cavities in the jaw, hcneath 

the firet and tvniporary tM>lh, are to ba 
seen tlie radiroentd of a second and peminnent H't. llieso tn^dualljr 
incrfOO, SOtno wit3i greater rapidity ihon others, and, pressing upon IM 
Tooti or fkngs of tW first toctD, do not, ne would bo imaginod, force oat 
tlu> fornuir odim. but tlia portion prrivod u}ion gnutuiilly diimppMira. It is 
uAvorbct/— talccn up, and carried away, by numerous mitititc vrsfwle, whose 
office it ia to get nd of the wora-oot or nMlcsN nart of llic xyiitcRi. This 
abttorption continue* to proceed M the aecona tevUi grow and prm 
npwanlH, nnlil the whole of the fo»g is gone, and (he crown of the tooth, 
or that part of it which wan above the gum, having no lutif^-r firm hold, 
dro|).i out, aiiil the wcoad te<-th appear, larger and 6troiigi>r and p^rtuaaenL 
In a few iniitanceit, huwevcr, the second teeth do not rise ininitdiately tuider 
the teuipiirari' or uiilk teeth, but BOOMwhat by their side i and t lie ti. instead 
of thia };raduul [ircieess of absorptioti and disnpponninco from ihc point of 
the root apwards, the root being coinDrc«M>d sidewa;^"- diminifilH-H thningh- 
out ita whole balk. The crown of Inr totftb dinitniti}i<4 wHtli Uie root, and 
the whole ifl pnahed out of ita place, to the fore part of the limt grinder, and 
remuinH for a coniiidcmbli! (imn under the name of u ttoir* I'^k, raaa- 
ing awelliiig and Borenwa of the gums, and (Vequeiilty wonuding the 
cheeks. They woold be gradually qtiile absorbed, lint the pfocem might be 
slow and the taiaapaee would be great, and, tfaerefom, they are est»cir<l. 

The change of the teeth eommencea in those which earlieat appeared, 
and, thcrcforr, the front or first griuder gives way at the age of two ytmn, 
and \k unccccded bv a larger MM peimanent tooth. 

During the period between ths tailing ont of the central nilk nippeti^ 
and the coming np of the permanent ones, the colt, havine a broken 
raouUi, may titid some difHcnItv in grazing. If he kIkiuM Bid) nway eoa> 
aiderubly in rondition, he should be fed witli mnnheii and com, iir cut meat. 
T]u^ next cut will nrprtMM'nl a tliree-yi.'iin-4dd mouth. The ccntnd teeth 
are larger tbiin the othera, with two grooves in (he outer ron\-ex tnarftcsk 
and the mark ia long, narrow, deep ujkI black. NM laviugvel attained 
their full (:rowth. they are mtbvr lower than the others. The marie in 
the two next Dij^rs is nmrly worn out. and it is wearing away in the 
comer Dippera. Is it possible to fifive thin nrnatfa tonn early two-yearn -old F 
The ago of all horaes naod to bo recknnrd Irom May. hnt some are foaled 
even *o enrly as Jannaiy, and being aetaally four mnnthx orer the tw* 
years, if they hare been well nnrMil and frd, and are Strang and Inrg^ 
they may, with the inexpeii'incrd, have ud addilicmal yejir put npoo tlmt. 
The central iiipgH-rx arr punched t>r dmwn out, and the otlicn appear three 
QT knr nioiithi. i-arlicr tti.".ii they ullierwisc would. In (be ttutiiml proreai 



they eoaU only rige by long prtesiiiK u\ion, and paiisinp: the abswrption of 
tlu-' fir»t mrt. But opiKuition from llie lirat stit beuiir ri>niovt>d, it ia nwy to 
i m agi n e tbni their pragrrass will be moi* rapid. Three or four montbn 
will b« gHtned in tbi-> appmntncc of the teeth, and tlieae three or four 
tnonlli^ uiAy eii*ble Uit- brvoil<rr to trrm him a late coltof aprooediogyftar. 
To btm, bowever, wbu in iM^cusrtonMiI lo horwn, tlio gciipral form of iJio 
uaiiDal — iJie little deTelopmmit of the forw-hiind— thn continnnnco of Iba 
mftrk on tlio ueil pair of luppi-rs — il« raowr (tridetit cxistunctt in tbo 
eonwr ooee, some ^nlarf^Ntient or im-)TtUanl}- about tbe g:unis frnm thn 
▼ioloDoe nstid in forcing ont the toeth^the Biiiall Krovrlh of the first and 
fiflb griiidtrs and tbe non ■appearance of the sixth ^rtindcr, which, if it is 
Dot throogb the gnm nt tinvc years old, ia swelling nnd«r it^ and pr6|jaring 
to ftrt lhrDti<;b — Any or all of thrso circumstiuicoe, carefully attended to, 
will Iw a Knfticicnt MHnirity ngainiit dctiirjiHon. 

A bonu! St Ibrvv yvani old otight to Imvo tlie central pcrmnnont nippen 
gtovnug — tbo o(h«r two |iaira wa«tin£ — six grinders in each jaw, abovo 
ttad befow^-tfae firat and fifth luvpl with ~ 

afloUieraaiidtheBUthprotrudiufr. The 
■baip edge of the now incison, although 
it conld not bo well expressed in the cut, 
will bo vtfTf evident when compared with 
the ncishboiiring ti.'eth. 

Aa we pemmnent nippvni wear, and 
oontinne to ^^w, a nsrmwcr portion of 
the eonoe-sbapvd tooth is vxpostrd Uy tho 
attritiaB, and they look aalf theyh^bi'i-ii 
eonpnMfd, bat it is not so. The mark, 
of ooonc, gradually disnppeara as the pit 
is wurn awny. 

At three yr*ni and n half, or hotwc^ea 
that and fnar, the nrit pair of nipprra 
will be chan^^l, and tlu» month at that time oumot be miatakcD. The 
oentral nippiTH will Iwve attainod m^iHy their fbll growth. A vaenity 
will be left wlK-n- the aecood stood, or tlioy will bupu to peep above the 
nm, and the oomer onea will bo diuiiiiisbi-d in breadth, worn down, and 
BH marie becomiiifi small and taint. At tliia period, likewise, the second 
nir offfHnders will be sbed. Previously to this may be the attempt of the 
uW to give to his throe -years-old an additional year, bat the fraud will be 
delected by an psamination similur to that which has beon al ready ditscribcd. 
At fbar yeara, the oontrnt nippers will bo liiUy dc-relujicd ; tho sburp 

*d)[« soniowhat worn oST, and the mark 

•hortcr, widi-r and fainter. The ni^jit 

^r will l>e up, but they will bn small, 

"till the mjirlc dt-rp, and exIendinK 

into acrusi them. Tho comer nippers 

*ill te litrKtf r than thu inside ones, yet 

Mttltr than ihey were, and flat, and the 

■■HtBearlr eira..-cid. The Rixth grinder 

■in Wro nsi>n to a level with th<' otbcn, 

**i liw tsshes will bngin to nppmr. 
K)*r. room than any uthL-r time, will 

'wdeaierbeanziouM toput auaitdilioiial 

fl" Bpon tbo nninial, for tli« differenoe 

M«uii Ik fnur-yi-EU^-uId colt and » fivo 

J^Mn<iM-bortc. in strength, utility ami iithie, in riTy gtnat ; but, the want 

rfwfltr in the other ni]>p«T» - iht- Hinall itiiu* of the mmvr ones — tbe ilttln 




erowtti of the tneh — the smallnen of the ncciunl gtinAvr — iJie low tovn- 
btmd — Ui« ie^ncHS of tlio cult, ft&d tlid thicknou nnd little lIl^Ilth of the 
mouth, vrill, to the man of common cxprn^nro tunong hurst-M, dt onca 
detect tho chiwt. 

Tho tmihw (see below a, a) »re four in nombw, two in each jaw, 
RJtnAtml Ijctweoa the ni^^iera aiid the (ctiudon — much nearer to the foimer 
thnn the latter, And nearer in the lower jaw llian in the upper, bat this 
dintance iucreAaing in both jntrs with the a^ of the Bnimal. In Khspo i( 
iiumewhat reeemblea a «ono ; it protradcs nboiit nn inch from the gum, 
and haa its extremity ichnrji-pointoct and carved. At the ag« now nndtsr 
GonBid«ntioa, the tuchut ore ulmiwt pwuliiir Ui tliu bonie, vul canration 
don not appotr to prevent or retard their duvolopment^ All mana, bow- 
OTtr, bavo us gmnii of them iu th« chambers of the jaw, and thef appear 
extomally in the mty'ori^ of old mares. Their dso is not evident. Per- 
hapit, in the wild state of the animal, thej^ are weapons of offence, and 
be is enabled b; them more 6nnly to sdno, and more denplj wound his 

The breeder ofWn ntt«mptii to hMt<in the appearance of tho t^ish, and ho 
.entn deeply through tlie fcnm tii remove tho opponition which tluit wonid 
afford. To a little eittiil he nuwd-dii, Htt nwy possibly gniti a few weolcii, 
but not more. AfWr all, lliure in much unc*-rUiinty as to the appranuioe 
of tho tush, and it may varj- front thf fourth year to fuur years rwid mx 
onths, It belonsB, in the nppor jaw, both lo Uie inferior aiid Huporior 
^^. KiUaiy bones; for, while its &ng is deeply imbedded m tlie inferior 
mnxilkn,-, the tooth penetrates tho pn>cesa of the superior maxiliaiy at 
ihe nnton of thcMc bonca. 

At fuur ycarw and a half, or botwont tliat and five, the last important 
change taken place tn tho mouth of tfas horse. The comer nippora an 
alusl, and thv jienaaneiit ones begin to appr-ar. The ecntrni nipiv-nt ars 
conjiiderubly worn, and the next pair arv corameneing to nhuw initrku of 
tuam. The tush lins now prclmded, and is generally a full balf-Jnch in 
bn^t; extemaity it has a rounded prominence, with a groove on either 
mde, and it ia oridently hollowed within. The reader nc^ds not to be UAi 
that aRer the rising of the comor nipper the ariimal changes its tiaiae^ 
tbe colt beooroea a noraei, and thn tilly a mare. 

At five years the horse's mouth U idmont ptn^vct. The comer nippora 
are quite up. with the long deep mark irregular on the inside ; ana tha 
other nippers bearing evident tokens of inoraanng wearing. Tho taab ia 
much grown — tho grooves hare almost or qvile daappean^, and the enter 

snHhce is regularly convex. It is atill 
as concave within, and with the eda« 
iicnrty as sharp, as it was six moBwS 
lii'ore. The sixth molar is quite m, 
ami the third molar is wanting. Tba 
hml circnmsbinc», if the gmoTtSmppotr- 
ance of tbe animal, and particniany bis 
forehead and the wearing of tho cmtiv 
□i|)pcrft, and tl»c growth and shape of 
thi- IuhIk*, are Ulcewise careful^ 
attended to, will nrenni deoeplion, if 
a la(« fimr-y«Bm^ ia attconplud lo b* 
iRibatitatedlbraflve. TbenipMniBt^ 
be brought op a few raontlia bdon tlMV 
tiiM^ and thf tashea a few wccVs, but the grinder ia with difficulty dia- 
plaoed. The three last grinders and tho tashsa are neror shad. 

At six years tlie uiaiic on Ui« central nippers is worn onb Thare w3l 



MtO he » (lifftreBM of colour in tlw onnhr- of tlw iaoth. The ocinMit fill- 
ing ihe hol«, ma(t» bjr tite <Ii|>]i!iig In of llu! rnnmrl, will |>n'».iit a 
browner ha« than the other part of 
lbs tooUi, and it will be evidently 
rairmiKled Inr ui edge of eiumel, 
and tluro will tn-nn rrmnin a little 
d iipmwi on in tbc nmtm, ktul aI>o a 
di^renHum itiaiid the cam: of <ni>- 
wp! : but ibe derp holu in the wm- 
tnof the twth, with the bbek- 
ened «Br&ce irhich it imoenta, uid 
Um «IeT»t«d ed^ of enamel, will 
h»T»'diMppwTed. IVrmiifl not 
■racfa ■GcmtoRicd to honv* huve 
bca pazsW han. Tbrjr ex- 
pccb^ to find k pUin KDrface of 
» ttntfurm colour, nod knew not 
wfaat oouclufiioii to dmw when 
ibere wm both dUcoloomlion and 

In the next incisors the mark is shorter, broader, and &inter; and in tbs 
coner teeth theedj^oftlieena- 
Bel we more rej^olar. and the 
■nftce is widf^tlj worn. Tho 
(■■fa baa Attained it* fall growth, 
bnnff fu^rijr trr qiiiti> an inch in 
lrn(^ ; ronvrx outward, concave 
witlnn ; ti.-ndiog' to a point, and 
Ih* etttvmity auinewhat curved, 
T)w (bird fp^oder b birly up; 
■od ail the grinders are level. 

At BIZ Tears old the proflk of 
tiM OKmUi cxhibili; ihc teeth in "^^^K ' J?' 

a Gnn and npright piiaition, 
which in gTsdnidly lo«t ■« the 
ansmal inrmwes in age. 

Tha hone may now be aatd to Hart^ a petfect mouth. All the teetb 
areMOdSMd, ftiUy grown, and have hitherto siwlained no Dialcrinl in)urT. 
Donag tbeeo important i^hnngm of 
tb« tMth tbo aniDwI ha* NnfTi-red 
Imb tban conld be mnpoaed jiosaible. 
la ebildrcn, the pnriod of teething is 
ftao^t witl) dan^r. Dngj^ are sob- 
jtet la CDnmlitioDS, and hnndrpiix 
of tboB die from the irritation canwil 
hf the cutting or shedding of their 
leetb; but the horso aiip<'jm (o fei-l 
thtin tDCDBvmimce. The gmns and 
|Mlatc an oocanionally sMnewhat hot 
nkd vwollen ; bat the alightert scnriK- 
eatioa will remove thifl. The t«eth of 
th« borae are more necessary to him 
than thoae ct the other animntu are to 
thrm. The^ild may be fi>d, and the dog 

will b)lt his food : but that of the borne 

naat b«w«Ilgnninddown, or the nutriment c:iu: 

:i..l Lv !• 

xtmctod from Ik 



Al aeren j-ean, the murk, iii tli« way in which w« luiv« ileAcribnl it, is 
worn oat in the four cimtml nippere, wid Taut vrmnng away in llwi 
comer tf«th ; Uie tush aUo is beginning to be •Itrri'd. It ta rtiQode<) »t 
the point ; rounded at the edges ; etill rooiul without ; and begintuug 
to get ronnil in^de. 

At cijjlit yt*rt old, tho tnsh in ronndi-r in every w»y; th« mark is f,-one 
from nil the bottom nippen, and it muy almost bo iaid to bo oat of llie 

month. Thrrc i» nothing rraaain- 
ing in til" bottom nijmcm tlint con 
ftftcrwurdH ciciirlv nhow tlm ag« 
of the borw--, or jUBtify the' tomI 
oxperienoed examiner in giriog 
a poBitive opiuiou. 

I>ishouost dealers Itave n- 
sorted to a method of protgnginK 
the mark in the lower nippcTi=. It 
is called ^hoping. Witn ma en- 
graver's tool a hole IN dag in tho 
'/'•^ , 'JV^ "'"' almottt plain Kurfaui] of tho 

Vji^^ ^^HeJ comer tentli, and in shape and 

^■U^^B ^^f depth rvMimbling th« mark in a 

^^^^^■' * ^r scvcn-ycAnuotd borae. The hole 

^^^^u U is thm bunted with a heated imn, 

MV^^HB. JV and a pornuwcnt bhtek stain \* 

P* ^^^' "• left ; but tho irrvKolar ^pear- 

auce of Uw onrily, th« dif- 
ibiiOD of t]ie Uade Blain, and the general appear&nce of th« monlh, can 
DOTor deceave a oareflil sxanuDcr. 

Honemen, afl«r the Gnimal is pipht years old, are Bfcnstomed to look 
to the nippers in tho upper jaw, and some oonclusion lias been diHwn ftom 
the appearanceB which ui«j pronent. Itcnnnot be doubted that th« naric 
remains in iliem mme yean after it hiw been obliterated from the nippcn 
in the InwiT jnw ; beouue tho hard nbctanoe, a kind of (;rincnt by which 
th? pit or runnel iu tho centre of the tooth in ot-oipii'd, doex not rmch so 
liiKb, iiud there is a grettter depth of tootli to bo worn away in order to 
oonie at it. To this it mny bo added, llial the upp^r nippeni arc not «o 
mnch exposed to friction and wear as the under. The lower jaw alonv is 
moved, and pntsMid forcibly upon the food : the upper jaw is wit]>ont 
motion, and luw only to rMJKt thst preasiire. 

There an,- varioua opinions asi to uio interrals between the disappearance 
of tho marks frciin tlic diflenmt cutting-tooth in (ho upper jaw. Some 
havi! aronigtd it at two years, and others at one. The aolhor is inolined 
to mlupt the Uttvr opiuion, and then the agn will Iw tlins determiited : at 
nine years the mark will be worn out from t)ie middle nippen. from th» 
iiett uair at ten, and from all the u[)per uijipcni ut vteven. Dnring IhMH 
periods the tush is likewise undergoii^^ a nuuiif««t ehange; it ia blav 
shorter, and rounder In what degree this take* plaee in the diB 
periods, long and moat &voaroblo opjwrtunities for obaerratton qui aJo^^ 
enable the horseman to decide. 

The toshes are eipnaed to )<nt tilth' iti-ar and tear. Ttie frictjan n«aiiMl 
thcnn mnrt \m Hli^-ht, prixNi-diiitf only fmm tlio passage of the food mcr 
thrm. feiiil fmm the motion of ih<! tongue, or fn>ni the bit ; and their 
altirrstiun of form, slthou^i Ki'oenilly sh we hare de«criln<d it. is 6»- 
(foeiitly niicertiiiii. Tlit tiish will iiumt'tiiiii-v Iw hinnt at eigtil ; at otlMT 
timi-a it will rvmaio |)uiiikHl at *-iKlilH.-ii. The u|ipcT tnsh, alliion^b 
lattiit in appearing, is soonest worn away. 



An> tbi-w any cin-iiinxltmcM to pnidu our jmJgmotit, nftcT tliis P Thcro 
ai* lliose which will jinpiirc nn to ^eas at thu asr<' of thp horw>. or ti> 
^■prosch uHlhin » few of it, until he boeomus vonr old ; but Uittni 
an non<> which will enabk- us mieiinitolv' to detormioe liie qncstioD, antl 
tba iodicatiana of ago must now in: tnJcoD from tJi« abapo of tho upi>er 
Kir&«M of thB nippers. Al oiRht, tliuy vo all oval, the iMifrUi of tlip oval 
nmuintr acroiw fnum tooth to tooth ; hot a* horec Bote oldtir, tint Ut^lh 
dimiiiiah In si«>, and thig coiiiin«ncitiK in thi^ir wndth. and not in tlicir 
thiekiuw. Tht-y U-wnKs a little apart from i-iuih othrr.and their Biirfiict-ii 
•raimiDded. At niDL>, tlin ccmtiTi nippt^ra aru oridttntly so; at ton. llic 
odiecs begin to have tbe oval it}iort<^ned ; at eleven, tho swon<l |mir of 
nippiffs ar« quite rounded ; and itt thirteen, tlio fortif r one* l>«vo that 
mwamnre. At foaitoen, tha &ee« of tho central nipjiwK bnctimo 8omf>' 
^Mi triwigukr. At sovantaeD, ihey arc all so. At ninrfwat, thp angle* 
bcftin to wuur off, and tho central t«.-th nro n^n oval, bat in a nivrmoil 
diiwtion, vijt, trum outvrard, inward ; and nt twcnty-ono they lUl wuar 
tbut form. Tliis ts tUo opinion of somti ContinmtAl veterinary surgeoni, 
and Mr. Pcreivall first pnsientt^d them tu u* in an English drtas. 

It wonid bo folly to expect 
poricct accuracy at tliLs advanced 
a^ of tho hone, wLen we aro 
bonod to confcw that the roles 
wbicb wo hnro bud down for 
drbmiining thi» matter at an 
carlicrr period, idt.hough they nra 
ncognMBed in boracmcn grn emily, 
and reiefTeatoincourtsof jnHticc, 
will not Btude an in ev<-ry raw. 
Stablttd bonea have tlio murk 
aoooer worn out tluui tho^ ilmt 
■re at gnm; and a crib-biivr 
naf dMeive tho best jud^re by 
one or twoytara. At nlno or ten the bnrs of the month becomo less pro> 
nnwiitt aod tlioir twnlardiminotinn will deKigriiito increasini; ngv. At 
dmo or hrrfrw tho lower nippers changi- thrir original upright dirpction, 
and pmJ4«t forward or horisontally, and bi-coniu of a yellow colonr. They 
»(v yrlUiw, becanac tbe tmtb moct grow in ordor to answer to tbdr wear 
and (ear; bat thccnamd wliioh covfrod their nuftee when they were 
Bnt moducM! catmot be ropatrt-d, and lliat whieh wears this yellow colour 
iu ola a|,>e ia the part which tn jouth was in the socket, and Uicrefore dca- 
|jtnl« of enamel. Tlio |>nn)8 have receded and wsstcd away, and tho 
to»bM arc worn to stumps, and project directly ontward. 

Id conDoction with the ag« of the horw slionld be monfionM thp vala- 
■liltt ialbnnation, for whicli wo arc indcbti^d to Pnifimior Simondn, of tho 
Boyal Tct«rinarr Collegv, on tho age of ntlier domes lit'iiU'd auiiuala — in 
two leotnrea dehreitd before tlio Ro>-al Agricultnrtil Sueii-Iy of Etigland, 
acd which were pahliabed at Ihct rts^ncKt of tJial iHidy ; ho very clearly 
elaeidatvd the development of tlie tveth a8 itidicativi- of llie ago of the ox, 
tlte abeep, and tbe pig. The rt«alt of his inrestigaliona, most eystemati- 
odlr pwmed, would appear to be, tha.t the ok lias liis loelh fully acvclnpcd 
at from tfareo yvara to throe yean and nine months old, the sheep at fn<m 
three jMn to thiee jrears aiia • hali^ &ud the pig at ono year and a half. 




or llio dbcaaea of tbe Itt-lh iu tin- lioi-so wl- know litUu. Curious or 
bollow l^c'th ftre oocneionallr, bat not oflfo seen ; but (Jih e<l;o» of |}in 
grinderB, from ttui wcmriug olf of tho oiuuddI qt tho invgnltu' (growth of 
the tt^ith, bucome rough, and wuuiid tliu iciiidi: uf tbo choiik ; it is tb*B 
nooMUury to adopt » ffummar; but effi-iHual method of cmv, namdjTt to 
rasp Uum smooth ; tlw ontsad* edg«8 of thft pitid«n in the upper jaw 
oloDO roqiura tlia npplic«tion of tho tooth nup, nnd if tbo fiugnr ia carefully 
iutroducvd inaido iuo ohedc, before and after lU use, tbe result will be nit- 
tnistakeable. Mauy bad ulcere bavo betrn produced in the mouth hy tlio 
oeglect of this. 

Tho t^ii^h nomcUmte frTx)w irrei^ularljr in length, and this is parlicularlj 
the ease with the |^ludc-ra, from not being in exaet opposition lo eoeb other 
when the moalh is shut. Tho growth of tbe teeth still going on, and then 
being no lOM^utnioI opposition to it, one of tho back teeth, or a portion oif 
one of them, shoots up considcntblf above tlie others. Sometimes it 
penetratt^ the bare above, aud caujscs soreness and ulceration ; at other 
times it iDU^rferes purtinlly, or nltognthcr, with tho grinding motion uf the 

Sim, and thit unimul pinea away without tbe eanse beuig nupected. 
ere the gaw abould be usni, and the projecting portion rednced to a lersl 
with tho other tooth. Tho hnrM? that hiM once been Buhjc<olcd to this 
operntion shotild oflerwurda Iw frnqticntly examined, and especiidlj if baj 
lo«ra oonditjon : and, indeed, every hurHu tliat gvla liiin oront of cooditiaa 
without fL-viT, or otfaur apparent causo, shonld have his teeth and mont 
eanfcUjT examined, and oHpecialljr if, without anr indication of sore thn 
he qnidfl — partly chewing and tlurn droppiug^fais food, or if ho holds 
head somewhat on one aiae, while he eatn. in order to get tbe food I 
tbe outer edges ef the teeth. A horse that has once had very ir 
teeth in materialtj leasenod in value, for, although they majr b» tAvu 
as oaiefiiUy as nossible, thnr will projeot again at no groat "^'f^^tii" of 
time. Such a noniu i.t to all iutents and pnrposea unsonnd. In order to 

bo fit for scrriee, he should be in posseeSMn of his fnll nsturnl powers, and 
these powers cannot be sustained without Mrfect nutrition, and nutritJoa 
would bo rr^diTL-d ladly im|wrihot fajr any ueTect in the opemtion of i 
cation. Sot only do aume diata m e of tlie teeth render th» >eiof mastii 
dificult and troublesome, but, from the food acquiring m Ifastid odour dn 
ita detention in (he month, the hone acqniivs a distaato for alii 

loe oootinuance of a carioos tooth often produces disease of the neigh- 
bovriBg omas, and of the jaw itwif. 1c should therefore bo remored, u 
soon H ita rot state in evidenL Dmdfulcawn of fungus hmmatodealiaTS 
ariiu-n trom the irritation caused bv ft eariooa tooth. 

The mode of extracting the teeth reqnira* manh mrormation, and con> 
siderablo imirovonents have hr«n made in dental instimments by Hr. i 
Oowiag of Cwadcn Town, by which the eztnwtiun or diriiuim of a lootlt 1 
is oonsidombly (w-ilitatml. The hammer and the pwch should neror b*j 
had recoune to. Tho koy«d instrument of the hnman subject, but on ^1 
larger scale, is the only one that nhould be pcrmiltnl. ' 

^isislho pnipur pluce to Hpeak more at length of the effect of dontitioa' 
on tlw syxtem (;euerally, lluiiteitiFn in gmonu think too UghUy of it, and 
tbey scarocly dream of thi> animal duffering to anyoonaidoraible dsgn^ or 
absolute illness being produoi-d ; yet be who has to do with yonag honea 
will oooasionallT discovor a considerable degree of felirile affinetiaat, whieh 
he can refer to tJiiit coum niono. Keror, cough, catarrlial alTectiaaa ffODOSBlhr, 






dllgaan oftSe eyes, cataneoiu nflitclioiDi, ditirrhcea, djeenlerv, loss ol 
uipotit*^ uid gODciral deiftngement, will frviiooutl}- be ti'aced, by Ijie carerul 
ODMrror, to irntation firou teething. 

It is amli!ii<auvcIjrBidmittuig of tlid slightest dvvintion, tlint, whcnyoan;^ 
borUB are hbouring luulor utj fcbrili; nflVctitm, tlio loontli eboiitd bci 
•anuiwd, Aod if th« toshtis am iiromiiituit and pushing against the K^ua, 
a erncul incisioia Khonid bo mado acro§s theru. 'En this way,' snys Mr. 
PtrotTmU, * I hvn *ocn o&bLirhal twd bronchial inilnmnuitiona atuittid, 
oongfas nliered, lymphatio and other (;laiidiilur tumourB a>kout Lltu liuid 
Todnood, cntMieoBs eruptions pit rid of, dvrauxud bowela restored toorder, 
appetite tvtamod, and lost cooditioD rcpurod. 


The toogtui ia tbo organ of tast«. It is also employed in disposing the 
food for being ground bntwcpn tho toctb, aod fcfUirwards collocting it 
tOjgetfaer, aod ouuveyiuK it to tho buck piirl of the moiitli, in order to bo 
■mllowed. It ia likewise tht- m&iu iiutraminil in doglutitiou, and the 
cmmI tlirauah which tho irat«r passes tti the act of drinking. The root of 
it ia linnly hxcd at the IwttaiQ of thp mouth by a varioty of maeck^K; Homo 
of UkMe equscIm orij,'iiutte from tliii ot hjmih* or bono ol the tongue, wliiiili 
eooatitates its be^e, and ta couuected with the ttmi|ionU bone, tJie laryux, 
nod tbo pharynx ; tho font part is loose in tlie mouth. It is oorered by a 
oontinnalion of tbo mtnnbmno that linpa tho month, and whiclii doubling 
beneatji, and confiniiif^ the motiunB of tbo ton^nc, ia cullvd ite frmnwat, or 
bridlo. On tbo Ixtok of the tongue, tjiia lueuibi'aTiu is thickened and rough- 
ened, and IN eorered with nuBoroiis conical papillm, or bttio cjuinencps, 
OB which the fibrva of tho giutfttory bmnch of tlie ladh pair, and tho 
OloasB Ffaai^Dgeal nerviw expand, oommunicuting the Heuae of toate^ The 
,«mrioQt inotw>iu of tho tongue are aooompliabed by moans of tho Qioth pair 
et nerrai. Tho anbctanco of the longno is cnmiMiwed of miiMnuhir tibrcn, 
viUt much &tly wattor intcrpoxod between them, and which gives to this 
organ its pecoLiar sofUnesi. 


Tbo toDgno is somotimes eiposod to injury fioni Cftrelossncss or violenco 
ID tbo act of drmohing or udni in interring n bnli, it lieing pressed t^ainut 
and cut by the edges of the grinders. A little diluted tincture of niyrrb, 
or ohm dicsotvod in water, or even nature onaosistcd, will speedily beal 
tbo wonnd. The homo will somotiincs liito his tongue, moat frcqacntty in 
Ins alaepL If tbo injury is trilling, it roquiroo litUo eare ; but, in Honin 
'—**"'*■. a portion of tJiu tongue bos be«n deeply looemted or bitiou uD'. 
Tbo awdstuioe of a reterinary practitioner is here required. 

ThcTB aro lomo iot«re8ting aoconnts of tho resnlte of this lesion. Mr. 
Diekeas of Kimbolton rclateM n vane, in the sixth vohimn of the ' Vvteriu^ 
riau,' in which be found a iiortion uf the tongue of a mum, I'xteuding as 
&r as tbo &«num beneath, lying in the manger in a strangely lacotattKl 
eooditioa, oad fost ai^roachinf^ to decomposition. Ho hml hor cost, and, 
exebiny all tbo onboiUthy portions, be drcKScd tho wuund nitb chloride of 
aod* aod tinclnre of myrrh. In Imh thiut a week the laceration wits nearly 
bsalod, and, soon aAemrards, she oonld eat with very little difBculty, and 
ksn» bendf in good condition. Tho injnry was proved to have been 
*■**■*—* by a bmtol borscbmaker, in revenge fur some slight affront. 

A oarious case is recordctl in the Memoirs of tho Society of Calvados. 
A horse was •lifficnll to groom. Tho soldier who had tho care of him, in 
order the better to manago bim, fixed in his mouth and on his tongue a 
strong cboin of iron, deeply inrmtiHl, while another man gare to this chain 



a ton'ilile jerk whcDovor the torw wne diajjoscd fo Iw robelliuus. Tlie 
animnl, under sncb Inrtnrri, bcrAino untiuuiai;i?ftb)<>, and th(< man nlio held 
tiro dinin miwiug iiwtiv wit)i uU hiH fiLrtMi;{Ui, Uiu totij^u wun o»tii[)!nlin1jr 
out off at tlio [Hiiut wLiuh Sf|MiraU.-H ita baeo from Uie trw [luriiun (if it. 
Tilt! wouud lieali*d Givounibly, and he was aoon ab]e to maua;ft> a masli. 
After tbat sonip hay was giron U> bim in email qnsntitiiw. Ho took it aud 
formnd it into » kinti of pullot with hix lip*, and thpn, pnuinirig it agninut 
tho bottom of his man^r, bu frnwlually fum.'d it auffioicntly back into thtt 
inoutli to be viiablt>d to ati'uv it with his griudt-rs. 

Anothsr hone cnmo to an iintimplr end in a singular iray. Ho Lad 
worooljr oaten anvthing for tbrro virckK. Ho seiemcd to be nnablo to 
Hwalloir. The cuiuinel bifuoath the lower Jaw bad niuuh tmlnrgemonl), 
about it. Tbi^re waa not any known cause for this, nor auy account d 
violenco done to tb(< tongnoi. At Icx^th a tnmonr appeared under the jaw. 
Mr. Yoang of Ikfairhioul panoturod it, and a considerable qnnntily o{ 
pnrnlcnt matter GMuHpvd. Tho bonte could driuk his ^ut-1 aHcr Ihin, but 
not take any BOlid food. A week atlerwarda he was fouud dead. Upon 
BeparaliDf; tho h«ad IVom the trunk, acd cutting transTeiwly upon th« 
ton^Oi nearly opporite to tho MM'ond grinder, a net-die was loand tjHng 
lengitodinally, aiid wlu^ bad pduetrati.'d from thi' sid» to the infi>rior 
portion of tho tongue. It was an inch and a quarter iu leD)^h, and tlw 
ncjsllboilring HuhRtanco was in a fLtat« of gangrene. 

VMietoanill Hometimeaappcarnloiig tin- uniliTrnido of Ibc tongue, which 
will incrt-uai! to a cuiuiderabli! aiio. The tongue itaelf will Iw mncli cnlarffecl,' 
thL- animal will bo nutible to swallow, and a great quantity of ropy Muivs 
will dnTel from the niontli. Thin dinaase onea CZistB without the nature 
of it being miiiprelod. If the Rioulli is <iticned, ono largo bltkdder, or » 
ntooOHion of bfuddi^m, of a purple hue, will be eeeii ex(<indirig alotig tha 
wlioln of tlu) under side of the tongue. If they ai« laiiCF<d freely and 
dee|>ly, from end (o end, the MWollinc; will rery rapidly abalo, and any 
little fever that n-niaiim may lie niiliiJiied by cooling mcdiciur. A mild 
solution of alum, applied by meunii of a small pi«ec of iip»iigi> frnqnenlly 
during the day, will aoc«IcTat« tlie core. The cauM of tliis diai»>e is not 
dearly knowu. 


In order that tlie food tuay be proj>erly eonmunuted prepaistoiy to 
digestion, it is nocemtary tbat it should be prerionsly moistMiea. The food 
of tho stabled horse, however, is drir, and his meal is genentlly ooDclndod 
without any fluid bein^ offered to lum. Nature hiui made a prarisioti for 
thia. She has placed in the nei);hboiirhood uf the month ranons glanda 
to secrete, and that plcntifnllv, a limpid fluid, somewhat Mline to the taataL 
This fluid is eonve^ed from the glands into tJi« month, bj varions dncta, 
ID the act of chewmg, and, briiw mixed with the food, rendcTs it mora 
oaaily grouud, more uwily pa««d afterwards into the stomach, and hotter 
fitted for di|(c«itiDn. 

The pfinapal of these is the r"rv(<VI gland (sco cut, p. 199). Itix 
in the nollow which extends from the root of the imr to the anglo 
lower jaw. The portion of it, ij. ia re])r«a«nt«d aa turned up, to show tb* 
mtnatKra of tho blood -vmiii.>Is uuiierueallL In ulmo^it every case of oold 
connected with sore Uiroat^ an enlargement of the parotkl gland Heridetit 
to the feeliitg, and eren to tho rye. It is eomposod of nunmona mmU 
glaadfl eoDDMted togrthir. and k minnte .tub« prnoeedii^ fton each, to 
cariT away tho secreted fluid. TtiMe tubt'i nnit« in oow oommoa mnL. 
At Uie letter w, the parotid duct is aeen to pass nnder the anf la of Ike 
lower jaw, together with tho sabniaxillaiy artery, aud a bt«a*li of the 


^ and they came ont ntruin ai ui. At r, tho dact ia seen 

•ejpknted from <h« other ft^iit-l^ uUmbing up the olu^Ic, nnd pi«rRins it 
lo diachargo itfl contents into the mouth, oppoaitu to thu Hi-coiict grinctrr. 
The qoantitjr of fluid thus poarod into the month tivni each tif the jiarutid 
glnnda amionnt* to n pint nnd n hiilr in nn hour, durinff the actiou of 
niMtioatioii ; tuul, nuniL-linifH, vilina tho dui-t huK hi'cn ncciilpntnlly opened, 
it has spirted out to the disiiLuci.- of ticn-ral fin.-t. 

Tho parotid sland Bjrmpathises with even' iulluiuuinlorf aOecliuu of thu 
upp^T part of tho throat, and thorofore il in found swollen, hot. and t«uder, 
in aInuMt evtrj cutarrh or cold. 1'ho entnrrh i(i to be trcntod in Iho usual 
wsy ; while a stimulutinK applinitioii, utmost umou tiling to a blixtcr, tfoll 
rabbed over the ^laud, will hi-tit miIkIuu the uilluiuiiiiilioii of tluit body. 

In bful lEtmngieH, mid, eometiuies, in violent cold, this gland will he 
mneb mlnrgtMi .iiid nlrcrated, or an obBtniction will tnko place in §onie 
part of tha dnut, and tho ncrumn luting fluid will hiirxt the veK«el, nnd a 
Satnlooa nicer b« formed thiit will be very diflicult to liiiiL Similar 
Mnba nsy be prodoced by its beiu^; viuituded by & laucvt iu oimmnji na 
abwe W t and it occasionally oceura Iram accidental wounds. The apphca- 
ticm of colloditun, ncoompiiniiid with tho adhesivo plni^ter, should bo 
promptly hud ivcourwe to, tui if the wound nesumoe * fiRtulons character 
the eon is tedious aud difflcult. A veterinary unrgton alone will be com- 
pelMifc to tho trftatment of either case; and tlia priiinplu by whieh ho 
will be ptidod will bo to heal the abscess in the gland as speedUy as he 
can, and, probablr, by tho apptimtion of the hoatod in>n ; or, if the ulcer 
ia in the dud, either lo renton.- the pttssi^re through the duct, or to form 
k new one. 

A second source of the saliva is IVom the »ui»>\a;rillo.rt/ glands, or tho 
glands uddor the jaw. One of thorn ia reprseeuted at *, p. tS9. Tho 
mbniaxillaiy gland* oocup^ thii npuM underneath and between the sides 
of the lower jaw, and cousiat of uumerous small bodies, each vrith its proper 
duct, uniting together, and forming on each side a common duct or vessel 
thai pierces through the mnscIcH iit the root of the tontpie, And Open* in 
little projectionn, or h<«ds, upon tlic /ra-niim, or bridio <if tile tongue, 
aboat an inch and a faulf frniu tht.' front teeth. Whi*ii Uie horse has 
cntnrrh or oold, these glands, like the parotid gland, enlarge. This is oAen 
to be obaerred after strangles, and several distinct kernels are to be felt 
under tho jaw. It has nlrcndy hccii slnti'd that they may be distingnished 
from tho dwellings that aecroiapany or indioati: glnndcm, by tboir being 
hrgvr, genendly noi so dinUnet, more in the centre of the chauiifl. or 
•poeu bptwevn the jaws, and never adhering to tho jaw-bones, Tiio 
CuTiots call them vivcii, and often ndopt cruel and nbsnrd mcthodx to 
dia|wne Ibcau, — as bumii^ them with a tight4Nl candle, or hot iron, or 
•TCB catling Uiem out. Tney will, iu tho miyority of tustAiiees, gradually 
dispene io proportion as the disease irhioh produced them sobsidcK ; or 
they will yield lo slightly stimulatia^ embrocations ; or, if they arc obnti- 
naie in their rwitinnaneo, tbiw arc of no fiirthcr poiiN<?ijueinw, ihau as 
indicating that thr horra boa tabouriHl under severe cold or strangles. 

During catarrh, or inflammation of the month, lie little projections 
marking the opening of theso ducts on either sido of the bridle of thu 
tonne are apt to enlarge, and the month ondcr thi' tiingiin ia a little red 
And boit and tender. The farriers t-all these swelliugH bubbi! or PArs : 
sod u aoon aa they discover them, mintaking the effect of disease for tho 
OBOM of it, they aei to work U> cat them close off. Tho bleeding that 
fbllom thu operalien somewhat abates the local inflnmniation, and 
Mtfbrda toaporaiy relief; but the wounds will not Kpeodily huaL Tliu 
•atira continues to Sow from the orilicu of tho duet, and, running into tltc 



iRWnUniics of tho wound, pjiumm it to upriNul wid ileepcn. Even when it 
hcAW, tltn moatli ol' thu duct buiug irequL-utly cloned, aud Lhe aaliv» oou- 
tinuing to be BvcreU'd by the mbmudllaij glMid, it nccnmnlatcB in the 
duet, until that vcesol borsta, and tiMXtmot wo fbrmod which cat deeply 
under tbo Toot of th<; tongne and long torment tliu poor Miimitl. Whnn, 
nilnr a gri'itt diiid of trouble, they am closed, the<y aro apt to break out 
agiuii tor mouths aud yean afWrwards. 

All that ia neoesMir with regard to them pap« or barba ia to ahiit« 
the infiunmntioa or cold that cnoncd thorn to a[>p<Mr, luiid they will rcrf 
noon and poribotly anbaiUu. Hu who talks of cutting them out is not 61 
lo be traced wilii a horse. 

A third aoarc« of sftliva u Irom glandu under (ho tongue — the mb- 
liai^itai //landf, which opun by many little oriflcev, under the lungna 
naembtiug Utlia fuld» of the akia of the month, hanging {toia the lower 
garlhC9 of this organ, or found on tho bottom of tlic laouth. TlH--m tike- 
wiM snRictimw tmlnree daring catarrh or inflammation of thu month, and 
uru Milled 'jig*, and bladder*, and Jlaps in the moviK. They have tho 
appearauoe of small piinplGH, and tho fanier ia too apt to cut them away, 
or bom thorn off. The better wtvy ih to let thom oloDO — for in a f«w 
days they wilt generally diaapptiar. Stumtd ivny nloeratiim remain, a littia 
lincturu of niyTrli, or a nolntion of hluui, will readily heal theiu. 

Beside these three principal sourceie of eaHv», there are small glands . 
to be found on ovi-ry part of tho month, eb(^eks, and lips, which poor OBt ■ 
a coiuiderublo (juautity of fluid, to u«sist in moistuniug and prrparing the 


This is a diseoM principally incidMut lo yonn? horses — usually a|>. 
pearing between the aooond and fourth year, and olVm^r in thn aprintj 
tliau in any <}tbcr part of the year. It in preCt-dod by cuugh, otod caa 
at &nt BOaKvly be lUntiuguiidied ti-um comiuuu oouffh, exL'«pt thai there ia 
more dieobargft bvia the nostnl, of a yellowish oolour. mixed with pltt, ' 
nod gonenlty withont nsoll. Thoro is likewinn a eonxiderable tliBrharoa 
of ropy flnid from the moulli, and ftreater nwelliug than uanal luider too 
throat. This nraDing increawe with luicertAin rapidity, acoompaoied by^ 
vome fever, and disinclinntinn to <.-nt, partly arinng trata the Arer, but 
more frum the pain which the aniuuU fcdx in the act <^ maatication. Tbnv 
ia conaidorablo Chiret, bat ailer a gntp or two the horse eeAses to drink, yot 
ia evidently doairouji of oontinaiDglua draught. Intlieatt^mpttoBwallow, 
and socii^limctf when not drinking, a oonvolsire cough cornea on, wladi 
fllmoet tlireatcns to aulTooate the animal — and thence, probably, the nama 
of the disoaao. 

The tnmonr i* under tho jaw, and abont tho cvntro of tho chaonal. It 
foon filla the whole of the Kpacc, and in evidently one untfonn body, and 
may thos be dutinguiahed Ir^m gl&sders, or tbo etilar(^ glaoda uf catarrh. 
In a few days it becomes more prominant and soft, and evidently contains 
a fluid. Iliie rapidly incroaaoa ; tiie tumour bamta, and a xn»X qoaotity 
of piu ia discharged. Aa soon as the tumour baa brokcui, tlie ooo^ nb- 
sidee, and the hone speedily menda, although some degree of weaknasa 
may hang about him for a contiiderable time, b'cw horsea, poaaibly noo^ 
escape its attack ; but, tho dinciuH] having poaiied over, the animal is free 
from it for tho remainder of his life. Catarrh may precede, or may pr»- 
dispose to, the attack, and, ondonbtodty, the slate at the atmospbeiw has 
mouh to do with it, for both lis pnralciKW and its sorerity aro ocpnasoted 
with certain actuuDs of tliie year and changes of the weather. 

Uaan«. FterciTall aiid Cantley have oome the ncsresl lo a suliafactorj 



view oTtlie nature of atTungl<:«L Mr. C'ludb}' in ' The VctcriiiariaD ' says 
Umt ' (lie period of sbvujjles i» oflou u niuub aiaro ity'uijt and critical timo 
for youiglwMsea Una most people aeom to be «waru of ; Ui^t wUen colu 
^wU OTor thi* oompkint, iMfgmanily begin to thriT« and improvo 
in * romarkablo mannw, or tlwro is wiractimM a« great ft chaugo for tha 
wone : in bet, it •eetns to efieot aamo duoidcd coiutitiitioaal cWoga in 
tW animal.' 

Mr. Pvrcivall adds, ' The explanation of Uie caad appeara to me to be, 
tlMt tba animal ia cuJSitriii^ mom or Um troai what I would call ttrangla 
^evm'i—* ferur tlie di^iotitioii and tendcnojr of which is to prodnce local 
tamoor and abeoeae, aod most oommouly iu tlmt situaLiou nudoroeatli thu 
jami in which it has obtained the name of stxaogles.' 

ProleaMir Dick, of bMinbnrgh, odds that wbioh is conclusiw on the mib- 
jeo^ tlui 'altbuugh thu ilJMwae oommaiily tcrminalea bv an abscess imdep 
tliejftw, jet it may. audoc^aaioii&Uy does, give rise to oollectioaa of matl«r 
OB oilier pafta of the surface.' 

To this ooiMiIanion then wn am wnrmntod in coming, — that stmnglra is 
a ssecifio afTtvtion to wluch hor«i-s aro nuturully cnbicot at some poriod of 
tbeir lives, and the natural cure of which aeema to oe a sap)inrativo pro- 
oeee. From somo cause, of the oaturo of which we are ignorant, tlus 
sappnntiTe process mmatlr takes phicc in tho epnce betwoen the branchM 
of ute maxillary bone, and occnmiig there it appcnfs in tho mildeet form, 
and little danger attends. When the disease ib ushered iu by oansiderabla 
febrile distorlnnoe, aod the suppaiMioa takes place elsewhere, the hone 
too froqnontly cinks under the attack. 

The tRAtmcnt of atrvn^lea ii wiy simple. As tlio essence of tho dia- 
(•MS consists in (be fomiatjou and suppuration of tht- apeci£o loinour, the 
piincipal. or almost the sole attention of the pnictitioner should be directed 
lo the hnet«nine of these proocsses: therefore, ns soon us tlie tamoor of 
strsntflcs is decidedly apparent, ttiu pitrt should be actively blistered. Old 
praotttioDen nsed to recommend poulcicLs, which. tVom tho thickness of 
the horse's akin, most have very little cifcct, even if t\ivy could bo confinc-cl 
on the part; and &om the diliicnlty and almost impossibility of this, and 
tfaidr getting cold and liitrd, ihcy neoe.ssarily weu^eued tlie energies of 
aktoni, and delayvd tlic npuuing of the tumour. Komoutaltoiis are little 
morv eflWctual. A blifatvr will not only secure the coinpk-tiou of tlie pro* 
oess, but hasten It by many days, and sure the patient ranch pain and ex> 
baiutioo- It will pi-odai'i? anntlicr t{°"d effect — it will, prcviouitly to tho 
opcaing of tho tumour, abule thi- iuloriuil ind&mmatioo aiul burunuittt of the 
toroal, and thus lessen the conj,'h and vrheesing. 

As eooD as the swelling is soil on i\a surface, and oridontly contains 
matter, it dioald bo ftrvly and di^-ply lanf^ed. It is u hail, nlthoneh fro- 
qnmt practice, to suiFer tho tumour lo burst naturally, fur u, niggud ulcer 
is Conned, rerj alow to beal, and difficult of treatment. If l.ho incision is 
deep Slid large enough, no second collection of mntt«r will \x\ formed: 
and that which is already tlmre wax be euflcred to run out gluwly, all 
pre«sar« with the tiiiKcTii being aroiiud. The part should be kept clean, 
and a litde SViar'a busam d«u^ injected into the wmind. 

Tho remainder of the treatmeut will depend on the Kymptoms. If there 
is unob ferer, and evident nllitction of toe cliest, which should caroAiIlj 
be dwtittfniabod from the upprossJou and choking occanoned by the pr«*> 
snn of we tumour, it will bo propor to give cooling inodjoincs, as nitre, 
emetao tartar, and perhaps di^bJis, as the oasu rafuires. Tho appetite, 
or, lalber, the abilitv to e*t^ will genemlty return with the opening of the 
alMtw Bran.iniuhrii, fresh-out grass or tares, should be UbetaOy sap* 
plied, which will uul only afford sutEcicot nourishment to recruit the 



atoBDcUi of tlio auimal, bnl keep thn liownlit gmUjr open. In <mk* of 
iittnm^t B tmall qtuntity of tonio meilicini', as ohjunomilr. frentian, or 
gingor msjr bo adnuniatenid. It most bowOTer be boroc in uiiiiil, tbat in 
A great miijoritj of caoea, little or no tr«iim«Dt is roqaircd, and in Terr 
uiuuy iuBtance«, the diseoee in oolts hue mn it* oonmc nltogr^hrr unnoticed. 
On the other band, it occwriounlly ik productive of great auflcring, Mid tbia 
in moTo csprrinlly tlio c»mk where the ubsci-iis buret* intenwllj~, wbcn, to 
nitD tbo gmphio account of Mr. Pcicivall in die Dxlb Toiiim« of 'Tbo 
Vutvnnaiwi,' ' vrbile tiundenl ntfttur is issuing in profusion from bis 
8wuU>.-n noetrils, and sJftTCT founn out from bRtwn-n lit» tnmifical lim, it >« 
distnuniff to bottr tho noi»o that bo m«k(!)i in jiuinful und laboiuwi cflorte 
to brcatbfl. llM^rc i* imminent dun^cn- of suiTocalion in Boeh a caw aa 
tlus ; and even althongb some relief, so far as tbo bmttbing is coDcetned. 
maj be obtained from tbe operation of traehnQlontf, jvt, from tlio p*tn and 
irritation ha is tnfforing, nddod to tbc impoMibilitj of setting aliment into 
bin Ktnmocb, Iio must spoudily siak to rise no more.'— Fefmna nan, yxii. vL 
p. Oil. 



TU sack of tbe hontc, and of avery aoiautl belonging to tbo clMt awm* 
nutltB, exocpt onn specie^ ia eompoaed of Noren bonm called vtrUbnt, 
moTcabbv or turning apon each olber (see col. p. 140). Thej are ooq- 
nud^id togvtbcr by strong ligaments, and form so many distinct join td, in 
order togiTe anfficiently oxtonsirB mction to this important part of the 
body. TbebononoaronttotboKkall iKcaJIcd thcatfa<,b«cBnso,intbebaman 
being, it sapportK tbe bead. In tlic borse Uio b«ad in miiipnndcd from it. 
It is a mere ring-shaped bone, wi(b broad projections Ktdeirays; batwitb- 
out tbe sbarp niid irnxnlar procMSM which arc found on aU tbe otbets. 

The KNion'l bone of the ncvk 'utitadentaifi, baring a process like a LootJi, 
bjr which it foniu a joint with tbo Krat bono. In tbc fnrmnlion of thai 
joint, a portion of the spinal marrow, which mns through u canal ja the 
centre of »ll tbrsir hone", in eiponcd or covered only by ligament ; and by 
tho diriaion of tbo marrow at tbia spot an animal is matiuiUj deatrorMi 
Tbe (^ration is called pHhing, from the name (/A< pitk) givon by bvtdiera 
to the spinal marrow. 

Tbe other neck or raei bonea, aa tltcy are denominated by tbo famer 
(B, p. 140). are of a etruignty irrcfphiV shape, yet bearing 'con>ide«mb)a 
mKunblanca to each other. Tbejr cotaaistofa central bone, perforated for tlia 
paMage of the apina) marrow with a ridgo on the top for Uia attaclunent of 
tba liganwot of the neck, and four irr^iulur plalm or pmoowMM from the 
■idea; for theattacbmontormaaclefl ; at tbebaae of onn of which, on either 
aide, with the eidcption of the acrentli, are holoa fur tbe paauigf of tba 
verlebral arteries. At tbc upper end of mch is a round head or ball, 
and at (be lower end a cavity or cnp, and tbe hrad of the one being 
nceived into tbe mp of the other, they are Diiiti.>il idt^hir. fnrmitig so 
many ioontc. They am likewise united hy ligauit-uta frum Ihiae piooccara, 
aa well as tbo nroper liRiimcntu of tlic jnint«, and bo secorvly. tliut no dia- 
location can laVe pLu:e iK-iwivn nay uf Uiem, exoopi tlui first and aeoooid, 
tbe eonatqiuince of which would bo Ibe imraedtate death of the nnintal. 

Tba laaty or aovantli bone^ has the eleralioD on Ibe back or top of it 




cootinoed into r long nnd sharp prolotigiitinn (n fpinoua procea'), anil is 
the befpmituK of tlwl ridn^ uf bum-n dc-iiomttuttod Ika wUhen {aen rata, 
|>p. 140 and below) ; and aa it ia tlw banc uf the- c-olamn of neck bonea, and 
iherv must be a great pressure ou it from the wei|^lit of tbe head aiid neck, 
it U ciuioaslj poatrivM to rcet upon and nmte with the two first nlia. 


TW bonm of the nrck sprrw m iho fnunowork to which natDcoYiaa 
moiidM uoocomcat in the niotioiiK of thn hciul nnd ncclc aro Bttnch«d. Tho 
WMght of the liLiul and ntick is itapporti^l by the li^motit without tnniunilaF 
aid, ftod without &ttguo to tho aniinivl ; but in nnlcr to niinir tltit lii'iid 
bigber, or to Iuwlt it or turn it in t- very din-ctiDu, a coiiipticat«d aystvtn 
of imaelu is neoessary. Thuai? wIiohu ofTuyi- it is to raise the bead are moat 
nnminoafl and poneri\il. and ai« plucvd on ihe upper and side part of the 
ned:. The cat in p. 190 contains a (vvt uf them. 

« marks a tendon common to two of the most important of them, tho 
tpUmiu or spliot-tiko mnscle, and the 
eomplp-nu tnajnr, or larger compli- 
cBtc<l muHnlc. Tho »p!mtiu» ftriacs 
from tho pmoi'Kitm of all th<^ l)nnc« of 
the neck with the execption of the liut 
lima, and |>ost«riorlj inmi tlie ndc* 
of tbe aoterior donu n-rtt-hric nith 

tendons ninniuK feum the upper piirt 
of it to the fint bone of the oeek, 
and to a proccAsof the temporal bone 
of tbc head. Its oelion i? iiuffioiently 
cridcntf namely, vcrjr powprfullyto 
elcvnte the knnd ami arvk. Tlio 
princiiml bmutj' of the n<K;k ili-ttenits 
on this musek'. It wua udiuirubly 
developed in the horse of whose UL-nk 
tl>e annen-d cat gives an accumto 

If tho cnrve were qnit^ reRnlar fVom the poll to ibe nitliero, wa 
shonld call it a perfect nock. It is rather a lon^ noek, and we ilo not 
like it tho less for thiit. In the cHiriape-horse. a neck that ia not half 
oonooalcd by the eoHnr ii> iniiiK|>c>isiibIo, so far as appearance Roes; and it 
ia only tbe nornc with a ni-ck ot'tolerablo lon^h thnt enii bear lobe reined 
n|i, M> aa to give Uiin part tho arched imil btruntifiil nppenronce which 
fitabion detnandH. It is no detrimenttotbericling-hariie, ami thervnr^few 
bones of OJtranrdinary speed that lia-ve not tlic; neek rather long. Tlio 
racchhone at the top of his speed not only trxt<'nilH tt ita far as he ean, that 
lite air passages may be as sti^ight as he ean make them, and that he may 
tbarefore be able to breathe more freely, but the weight of the bend and 
sack, and the rflect inerwwing with their distance from the trunk, add 
nwterially to the rapidity of the nnimnrx motion. It hiui beiti Knii], thnta 
bono with a Intig ni'ck will Iit»r hciny on the hand; iwitherthe Iciigtb of 
tbo Back nor even tliu bulk of the head baa any influence in canstn^ this. 
They are bolli eounlerbulaiieed by tlie power of the lif^ament of the neck. 
TIui H^iiHji ('■■ of Ihe head is moat of all connected with heavy bcAfing on 
tbe baud, and a &hoi-t>neeked horse will bear heavily, bccanse, from the 
IhirlrnrM of the lower part iif tbe neck, consequent on its shortneiui, the 
bead eannot he rigblly ptaoed, nor. gencmJly, the shonlder. 

C%oi>ected with the tiilmiu* miiwJe, an<l parity pro(liiee<l by il, are tho 
thicknoiia and munenlanty of the mvk. ie> il .i|>niig!> from the iihouhlerti, in 



Uiiti cut; tfaehriglitAt wliich it coniM out fnMn Ihem forming ncarlrn lina 
with the withora ; and tlio mAimi.-r in wliu^h it tapers wt it ■pprcMcnea tfaa 
heail. The neck of a wi'tl-furueil liorsi\ however flnu at tlie top, shonld b« 
muKolBrat Uiv bultom, orihe hormn-ill goncrally b« weak ana worthless. 
Nedca devoid of thii moKnilaHty atv railed tocM mdn 1^ borannicn. And 
are always considerod a rciy W-Tiotui ubji-clion to tJip anitnal. If Hip neck 
is thia and lean at l3ie tipper pari, and is otherwise vrcU shaped, the horsn 
will mcnnlly cany himself well, and the head will be prDperly carved tat 
U*ntf of appeanuico and mu: of riding. Whtm an iiwtanoe to tfaa contraiy 
ocean, it is to br tiiuM>d to vi-ry improper iniumgnncnt, or to tho gpaoa 
batwaan tbo jawa hi-ing uiinaturallv small. 

TkespfWiu iiiiuc]e,altlionghamainBgpnt inraisin^tfaeliead aiid uedc, 
mar be too large, or coverad with too much ci'ltnlar unbatMUW or fal, thoa 
givinfr an apM^noco of hiuvinvHii or «vcn clumxiacaH to tbo neck. This 
pocnliaritj of form voiulitittes the distiuctiou betwoeu tbo perfect horao 
luid the mare, and alBo tbe geldinff, imloM ceatt»t«d at a var; late period. ; 

This tendon belongs alan to anothitr mnnolo, which makea up tlte pnncipal ' 
bulk of th« lowcTT part of tLr neck, and in railed Ibe comploxiw major, or 
larger oomnlicMted muscle. It arises parllj aa low as the transraiaa . 
pjooBBaou or the four or five first bonea of tbo back, and from all the I 
of the neck, ezoept the &nt ; and tho fibrca from thoeo Tancma aooice* ' 
anjtisg bwatlier, ibnn a veir lur^ge and powerful mnaele^ tho hu^gt«t aad 
atr ongwt m tbe uwk. As it approaches the head, it kasena in Uilk, and, 
temunatea partly with the splcTiins, in this tmdon, bat is prineipallra 
insorted into tho hack part of tlin occipital honv, by tho side of tbo linment ' 
of the neck. Ita office ia to nuse tlio neck and dovate ike facatd ; and 
being in»ert«d into such a part of tbe ocdpnt, it will more partknlarlj 
protrude tbe noae, while it nuaes the bead. Its action, however, may M 
too powerful ; it may bo habitoallT no, and then it may prodnoe deformity. 
The hnck of tbe hiud being [mlled hack, and tho mtusxlo protmdcd, ibe 
borne cannot by poaxibility cany haa head well. He will become what is 
tecJlioically called » star-gazer i — heavy in band, boring npon the bit, and 
nnssfe. To remedy Uiin, n>coanK! is ba*!, and in tbe minority of naea 
without a^'ail, to the martingale, a^intit which the home is continually 
fighting, and which is oflcn a oomploto annoyance to the rider. Snch a 
horao is almost uaelcax for hanicHa. 

Iiiae|M»ble &om Uiia is another aad defect, aa far as the beauty of tlia 
boma U concerned ;— be becomea mra-aee^irf ; t.f. lie has a nack Uke a 
awe — not arelied above, and ctrniglit below, ontil near to the bead, bat 
lioUowed alxn'e and pn>j«?ticg below ; and tho neck rianc low oat of tlia 
dwst, even lower sometimca (ban Oie point* of the shonldBre. TltenMa 
scarcely be anything more unsightly in a bone. His bead can never ba 
got fairly dnwn, and the bearisK reign of bamees nast be to htm a ivmraaj 
of constant torture. In remdtav, bowover. the length and die form of 1 
tbe neck, roGBrcnoe mart be had to the purpose for which tbe horse ia( 
inlended. In a baekney few thinifs can be moiv abominable than a neck ' 
80 diipr op o rti onable. so long that the hand of the rider (n-ta tired in 
naaaoiDg the hml of the horv. In the Ri«c-hor*e this leti(,-tbeiui^ uf the 
neck u a decider! oilrantage. 

Among Um) muscles enipk^cd in raising (be bead, an tbe eomtpUamt 
mivmt (smaller oomplieated), and the ritr/> (straif^it), and tbe obtjqi 
inasdes of the npper part of the neck, and bolongmg principally to ' 
two ftrst bones of the neck. 

Aaton^ tbe mnaclea employed in lowering the head, some of wbidi ara 
riren in tbe some cat. is the nt^nny-matiUant, tl, bvlon^ig to tKe bi 
bone and Um tower jaw. It can likewise be tiaced, alllKKigb not 

tlie wi, pftfce 237. It Ilea immedmU-tj nndor tbe ttkin, pnv 
rjecUng tma, or ooDstitalmg, Uie front of the breast Ixme (H, p. 140), and 
pnxModB up tli« neck, of no gntt- balk or Htrongth. At abont tbree-fourthii 
of itJi lenfftli npirnrd, it changr* to n Ibi-t tendon, whic-h insirinSit«B itwif 
betmcD Ui(! parotid ftjid aubmkxilliu-v f;laii(lE, in onlitr to bo irwcrtcd into 
the »agle of tho low^r jair. It is used in beuding tlie bekd tuwurdc the 

Anodtcr mnade, tli« t^rmiiuttion of which in aocn, ja ths Imaior hwm«ri, 
er of the shoulder (b, p. 199). Thut U a mnoh largw maado thnn tba 
. bocftose it hits more antr to perform. It rises trota tho b*ok of the 
~i wad four fin>t bonos of uie nock and tlio ligsiuont of tbe nec^ kod is 
Idoirn tn tboHhonldor, mixing itiinlf partly with iu>ino of thomosclea 
I dtonldur, and ftii&llf contiuuvd down to and terminating oo the 
'lliuaema (J, p. 140). Its offim is double. If th« horw is in action, and 
t)w head and neck aro fixed pointn, the contraction of this muscle will 
dmr forward the ihoaldirr and arm; if tbe horse in standing, and the 
dMXtUirr and arm are fiilHl points, t)ua musold will dcprvioi Uin hnod and 

The mnsoloa of the nock arc all in pairs. Ono of them is found on each 
ndo of the nock, anil the office whicli has been attribntod to them ,cnn only 
be aeoomfiliafaed when both act to|;ether ; bnt mpponn^ tlutt one atonn of 
tba elavatiu)^ rausolcs should act, the hwd would m raised, but it wonld 
ittiiennu; time W tnniod towardu that ni do. Ifoaeonlr ofthe depreaaor 
miiKclrs wrro to act, tlia bead would bo bent d<iwnwnnl9, bnt it would tike- 
wiiM bv tamcid towards that aid«. Then it will be easily s(«n tliat hy this 
BDiple method of havinff the muscles in pairs, provision is made for tirary 
kiM^^motaoB, npwanu, downwnrHn. or aa either side, for which the 
aaimal can pmuibly ham occasion. Little more of a pimoticnl nnturo (vinld 
be mid of tlic muic^les of Uie neck, altUough they are pr<^r and iutcruHt- 
iuji atadii-s for the anatomist. 

This is the proper placv to sp<'ak of lh« inane, that long liair which corera 
tiM crest of thn neck, and luldH so much Ia the Ixaiaty of tho animal, 
^ntia, faowerer, is not its uuly praise. In a wild stattf' the faorso has many 
twlilro to fi^dit, and his neck depnred of the mnno wonld be a vulnerable 
fni. The hair of the mane, ttio tail, and the logn, is not shed in the sama 
anaaser aa that on tho body. It dcH.'!i not £ill so n-^ularly nor ao often ; 
<br if all wnre sbfd at i]ttce,lhe parts wuuld be left fur a long time defeooo- 

The maae is generally dressed ao as to lie on the right eide — some per- 
MOBS divide it equally on both ndca. For poniea it oscd to be cut oiT near 
the root* ; only a fow stumps being left to stand petpendicnlarly. This 
^*aa tenned the hog-maoe. Tho groom sometimee bpslows a great deal of 
taiaa in getting the mane of bis norao into good and &whionablo order. 
It it welted, plait<Mi, and laadol with lead; and even hair that ia a littlu 
too Ions ia polled out. The mane and tail of Uie neary dmnght-horse 
Me aeldam thin, buton the well>bred horse the thin and well-arranged 
I Is ornamental, 


J down the under part of the nock arc the principal blood- vcExels 
going to and retnming trnm tho hcttd, with windpi|>e and grdlet. Tbe 
tittrnal arteries are tlw tamlid, uf which there are two. They aecmd the 
Bsek on either side, dose tu the windpipe, nntil th^y have rtacbed the 
Onddle of tbe node, where they somewhat dirorgr, and lie mofv deep^, 
Tluj ai« covered by the etenio-nuLxillaris muscle, which has been jnsb 
denribed, and are aoparatal from tho jugulars by a smalt portion of 


mnscalar snbstanoe. Having reached the larynx, they divide into three 
bmnches, the external, the internal, and the ramus onastomaticua ; the 
first goes to every part of the face, the second to the brain, and the third 
to join the Tertebral artery. 

The vertebral arterioB ran through canals in the boncH of the neck, with 
the exception of the seventh, Bnpptying the neighbouring parte as tiiey 
advance, and at length form the junction before stated with the third 
bruich of the carotid, and ramify on and gnpply the brain. 

Few cases can happen in which it would be either necessary of jnstifiaUa 
to bleed from an artery. £veii in mad-staggers the bleeding is more 
practicable, safer, and more effectual, from the jagular vein than from the 
temporal or any other artery. If an artery ia opened in the direction in 
which it raas, there is sometimes very great difficulty in stopping the 
bleeding! it has even been necessary to tie the vessel in order to accomplish 
this purpose. If the arteiy is cat across, its coats are so elastic that the 
two ends are often immediately drawn apart under the flesh at each side, 
and aro thereby closed ; and ^ter the Gnt gash of blood no more can be 

TEC nan <a the wick. 

The external veins which return the blood from the head to the heart 
are the jugulars. The horse has bat one on either side. The bnman 
being and the ox have two. The jagular takes its rise &om the base of 
the skull ; it then descends, receiving other branches in itA way towards 
Ihe an^le of the jaw and behind the parotid gland ; and emerging thence, 
and bemg united to a large branch &om the face, it takes its course down 
the neck. Veterinarr surgeons and horsemen have agreed to adopt the 
jngular, a little way below the union of these two branches, as the usoal 
place for bleeding ; and a very convenient one it is, for it is easily got at> 
and the vessel is lai^. The manner of bleeding, and the states of con< 
stitation and disease in which it is proper, will be hereafWr spoken of. 


From the horse nibbing and sometimes striJdng his poll against the 
lower edge of the manger, or bung ing back in the stall and braising the 

Cwith the halter, — or from the frequent and painM stretehing of the 
lonta and muscles by uimecessary tight reining, and, occasionally, 
&om a violent blow on the poll, carelessly or wantonly inflicted, inflamma- 
tion ensues, and a swelling appears, hot, tender, and painiiU. It used to 
bo a disease of frequent occorrence, but it is now, &om better treatment 
of the animal, of comparatively rare occnrrence. 

It has just been stated that the ligament of the neck pMaos over the 
atlas, or firat bone, without being attached to it, snd the seat of inflamma- 
tion is between the ligament and the bone beneath ; and being thus deeply 
situated, it is serious in its nature and difficult of ti-eatment. 

Another cause, especially amongst cart-horses, is the iajorr inflicted to 
the poll bv forcing a small collar over the animal's head. To theee also 
may bo added hereditaty prc<lis[)osition. Many instances are on record 
of the stock from parentH safluring from poll-evil becoming aflectcd 
with the same disease. 

The first thing to be attempted is to abate the inflammation by bleeding, 
physic, and the application of cold lotions to the part. In a very rariy 
period of the case, a blist^T niight have consiilerable efiect. Strong purf|[». 
tires should also be employed. Uy tliesc means the tamonr vrill somt-liiiies 
bo dispersed. This syst(>ni, liiiwcver, mast not be nnraued too far. If the 
Rwelling incn-aHcM, and the heat and tenderness likewise increase, matter 



I finiM in tiio tanionr : and tli«D our oltjcvt alMnild be (o liulcn ila for- 
'du hy warm fcmt^l.tUans. poultices, or atimuUling ambrociUioiiw. 
I MOD M tbir niKUcr b rormcd, which ti»v be Icnowu by ihe mHiumi of 
'tb« tmnonr, mil bvfom it bus tioie U> «|^^c*d krannd nmi oxUinil iuto tiie 
tw^lNMuiug |>arU, it sfaould be evMtiaivd. Xov ouotoa tlu- wholo ftrt of 
treating poll-«ril ; lit ttptniny wife the tuinour mutt be to etmlriced thai alt 
ths tnaiUr ikalt mn ouf, luvl eontinsc a/lrrirnnlil to ran out us quickljr u 
it i* fomu^ Mid nul ci>U«.'l at tbo buttom at' tliu iil(«r, irntatjnc and 
p-trruding ii. Thia can bo effected bj a seton aJonu. Tbu noodla uunld 
«iiltT St the tap of tha tnmoar, poii«trat« thraogh its bottom, and ha 
bmnifht oat at tao lidc of tbo nock, a littla bcJoir tho abscess. Without 
anrtbing more tbau l^, (.'icrpt triMinoat fomuulalian with wrnrm water, 
ia order to keep tiio part cleao, and to obviate iuiUmuation, pulUuvU in 
tU CKrlj stage will frec|n<>ntlj bo currd. 

If tbo uleor lias deepcucil and iprond, and tUrralcn* lo eat into Ihc Ijgw- 
■Bcnlaof tbe joiula of tbe nc-vk, it may btt ui-ccsstini' to Ktimaliilc its fiiirthcn, 
and perhaps punfully aa, in order to bring it to a lieakhf itutv, and dia- 
poae it t» lill op. In cxtroatc ciuaca, some higld^ slimolatinf; apcdiciation 
majr be prnploydl, but not the lualdioK mixture) iif tlio ^urii-ni of uio olden 
tiBK. All mtsutuntf, Uowcvi'r. will b« ineficiclual, nuk'Wi tho dun or mattoi' 
■a, by the use of setone, or by a {no and eitcnsivo iuciaiua, porfoctir 
cracaated. Tkc npplicatioo of tbcae (ctons or tbo makins tlut incision wiU 
re<)aira tho Rkill lukd anatomical knowledge of the vetennarjr Borgran. In 
deapcvatc oaaui, (ke wonnd may not be &irly cxpuii«d to Ibe action of thu 
—HStin without the division of the ligamont of tli« ocok. This may ho 
> effected with jicrfoct »tl-ty ; for nlUion^ th» Utfiuncat ia uarriod on to tbo 
' cipitid bout!, and aomo otrcngtb is |{aiuL'd b}* Uiis ptolonpiiion cf it, thn 
in atnaci la ou the second bone, and tbe head wiQ continut.' lu bu uup- 
The diridcd ligamant, alKa, will toon onita aguin, iind ila furmor 
itscftdncas will be nntorcd wbon Lbi: wound ie bealitd. 

i raruvxATtos of the teik. 

' II is dsqa] nod pmpcr, afiw bJi»diog, to bring tho odjtia of thu wound 
csfwfbUy topothcir, and to hold ihciu in oontaoCby iusurtiu); a pin thruu^'h 
: skin, wftb a Unit! tow twisted round it. In ninety<nino cases out of a 
tli« wound quiokljr licidn, and girm no troablo; but in a f«w 
anoca, from nsing ii blunt iiuttrumunt, or a dirty or rustr one ; or 
king too bard aiul bruising the reiii i or, in the act of panuiiig Dp. 
ins tht^ skin too far fi«in tbo nock and imirfTrijig some blood to iDsinual« 
ilai4f into tbe cellular texture ; or ncglivling t<i tic the horse nn for a 
little wbijc, and tbna enabling him to ruh the btuiHling plnce agauist thu 
T and t«ar oot tbe pin ; or from tho uuima) being worked inune- 
/ afterwards; or the reins of tho bridle nibbiog against it; or several 
TsitavinKbcen clumsily t;>von,andalurgf andrn^ed wound made; or 
B soeu) £siMMtion to influmnatton about tbe borae (for tbe blecdi^ is 
alwaya in unit), tbe wound does iu>t beat, or. if it ckiscs for a little 
"' it t«-opens. A slight bleeding appcam — aomo tame&ction coni- 

ja— tbo edgrs of tho orifice separate-, and become swoUon and rod^ 

I diacbaixv of asnious blood; fluid proceeds fWua the wound, bUowed, 
Tia pi , ui a few days, by porulotit mnt'iir. Tba neck iwella, and is hot 
, tender both above and below the incision. Tlio lins of the wound 
lererted'thc swelling increases, particularly sboTtt the wound, 
s ihm rein ia tnost hard and oonjy the horse bu^pua to loatbu Ilia 
and little abaoessea fonn round tbe iirifice. Tbe corilincss uf tbe vein 
rapidly tncreasea. Not only the vein il«vir lia& bcrouio obslructMl iMxi) lia 



coats thickened, but tlie cellular tlasno iuflumcd and Iinrdcncd, and is bd 
additional sooroo of irritation and tortnre. 

Homan sni^eons Bay that inflammatioii of a vein apreflde lowards the 
tieart. In the horse, and we will Tentore to say in every animal, it 
spreads in the direction in which the coagulation is formed, and that in the 
jagnlar most be upward, although from the heart. In iJie veins of tlio 
arm and leg it will likewise spread upward, and then toward* the hear^ 
hecanso the cotwolation takes placo in ttiat direction. 

The two grand questions hero are, the cause and the cnro. The first 
would Beem to admit of an easy reply. A, long list of circamstonces haa 
been just given which would Boem to refer ttje matter entirely to tlte 
operator ; yet, on the other hand, eiroeriencc tells us that ho has little to 
do with these morbid effects of bleeding. Mr. Porcivall states, that l&r. 
Cherry tried several times to produce inflammation by the use of rusty 
lancets, and eschiirotica of various kinds, and ligatures, and frequent sepa- 
ration and friction of the granulating edges, but in vain. Professor 
Spooner tried to prodnoe the disease, but could not. 

On the other hand, it is well known, that while inflammation rarely or 
never follows the operation of bleeding by some practitioners, others are 
continually getting into scrapes about it. The writer of this work had 
three house-pupiU, two of whoin be nsed to trust to bleed his patients; 
and no untoward oinmniatanoe ever occurred ; bat as sorely as he sent 
the third, he hod an inflcimed vein to take care of. 

Tliero is something yet undivnlged in the process of healing the vein, 
or in the circumstances by which that healing is prevented. The most 
poweHnl causes probably ore, that the lips of the wound have not been 
brought into immediate apposition, or that a portion of the hair — a single 
hair is Bafficicnt^has insinuated itself. The horse has nat, perhaps, had 
his head tied up to the rack after bleeding, which should always be done 
for at least an hour, dnring which time the cxtravasated blood will beoome 
firmly coagulated, and the flow of blood to the heart will establish it> 
uninterrupted course. ]t ia also probable that atmospheric ag8n<7 may 
he concerned in the affair, or a diseased condition of the horse, and par> 
ticularly a susceptibility of tnking an inQammatory action, although the 
exciting cause may be exceedingly slight. 

Of the means of cor© it is difficult to speak confidently. The wound 
should be carefully examined — the divided edges brought into exact 
apposition, and any hair interposed between them removed— the pin with- 
drawn — ^the part carefully and long sponged with cold water, repeated at 
short intervals day and night — the head shoatd be kept stoadied liy being 
tied short to the rock, and cold slop diet alone allowed ; the effect of the 
cold wat«r will he aided by the addition of spirits of wine, whicb will 
increase the evaporation, and the apphcation of ioe itself, if obtainable, 
ia very desirable. In six-and- thirty bonrs, should not the appearance of 
the wound have improved, should not the very circumscribed swelling 
around it have subsided, apply a hhst«r, the size of a otowd, immediately 
over the wound; thepromptnseof this remedy will in very many instances 
cut short the disease. 

If two or three days have passed and the discharge still remains, the 
application of the budding iron — not too large or too hot— may produce 
engorgement of the neighbouring parts, and union of the lips of the wound. 
This should bo daily, or every second day, reprateil, according to circum- 
stances. The blister may be repeated over the orifice, and should not the 
lips of the incision be nnit«d, a solution of the sulphate of zinc or snlphata 
oi ooppep may bo injected twice a day ; this is the mode of treatment the 
TOteriuaiy surgeon consulted would most probably adopt. ' Somoiimcs,' 



. ChrtwrigU, in tlmfiMrtfa < 

ne or llie abetnets of tte VptiTiiimry 
M in an nlcvnttire state 1 lutri.- laU 
It «pen, mad a{)fWied caaaiic ditaun;;, and it hatt bttird up. I bavw lateljr 
baa a cue in which fiw or tix abmi pBOW had formi'd abovt- tbf ordinal 
movnd, and thp two sopnior ooes fa(u«t< through ilie parotid Kl*n^ tbs 
extent of the ukvmlina being oridcnt in tbo ([Dantitf of ealira that flowed 
throuKh cHtch ortiioc.' 

Bat another renr acnooa nmlt of an tpflaroai t'ein k one tmt raivljr 
notioad, and to which too litti« attention has bec'D paid, but which when 
it doca oocor la of a (afficiontljr ahmning cJuwnctcr; this ia aocoDilar/ 
i u e m oi ihag e t he uloeratiTe |Iiiiiiim has aztewliid to tita rain ilatJf, and a 
noat proAiw bleading ensnea. Preasate Ii; any neana, wilh conwderuble 
«layalion of the head, in thoontjr imntfdiata eliiwk, onlU thcarriraJortlw 
valaiDvj ■Uffoon, when the appUoationof a ligntam rmind the vrrin aiot* 
the otifloe oonatitatea the pemaiwnt caj% In four caaoi, in our cooutr/ 
pnctice, tlua opcntion petfcctiy anceeedvd. 

Tbo owner or the boiac will tint it his intornrt to apply to a rcttcnnaiy 
prap tit ioaier na aMii as a caae of iiiflnnitii vrin ooctini. 

Should the v^iu be deaUoy«d, tiie hnrae wiU uoi be imfiarablT injued, 
mdpeHia{ia.>inocTcatdistant«of tiino,acairctyinjarodataU; Rxrnatnre 
ia illilMiiiiin in maKine pmrisiun to atrry on the cimilation of th* blood, 
AG tta TUMda cuavvyutif the blood from tlu' heart tu tJie different jiarta of 
the fraOM^ or bringiag it lack a^^aiu to the heart, eonunnnicate with each 
Other hy ao nuojr chuuH'b, atiii in anch nmriDH waya, that it is impossiblB 
bv the eloaore or Ion of any one of thc-m hniK rouii.-nultr to inip<'tlo tJia 
flow of the vital eanvOL If the jugular Ja desliDyoc), the hlood wiUcirvnlatfl 
Ihroogli other vvsaek almost as fm^ly aa bnfnrp ; bot tbo liorm coold not 
be eonnidercd as sonnd, frr he might not he L-<jual to the whole of the a'orle 
rninirvd of him. 



kciresT. in tlw) homontiil iMMiitinn iit which it is placed in the cut, is 
«. - •omewhat ovnl G^^irv, willi ita extnMa>ti«s tmncnt^. I'be spine is its 
mof : the stvTTiuiu, or bn?n«t, ita floor ; Ibc ribs, its sidni ; the trachea, 
<e*3|iha|^na, and gr^nt Mood-TMools peaatn;; ihrouj^'h ita anterior cxtranttj 
aad the dia)ihf*gia,hcing ita posterior. 1 1 is contracted infnnit, broad and 
deep towards the coittal boondanr, and ngnin oonlrnctod post«riorIy. It 
anelaaea the heart and the Iimga, tbi; origin of the artrrial, lutd tlie 
tenaiiiation of the v«tHMui tmutks and tloi oulWied Teasels of Uie absorlKints. 
Tba windpipe posebntee into it, and the cesopliagaa tinvenca its wbolo 

A earity whoaa oootenta aro thns important should be seonrely defcnclod. 

^B The roof is not n>nip>M4M] of one nnyieldin;; prolonntion of Mntt, which 

^K night powibhr han- bti-n atrong enongli. yit would hare mihji'Ctvd il lo a 

^ft Ih' ^"'^ ni^ and dangeroos Khncka ; hut there is a cnriously-oontrivpd 

^B vtiea of bones, knit toeotbcr by strong ligaments and dvnso fibro- 

^^ cartilsgioons substance, forming so many joints, each fioasi-sitvd hat of tittle 

buliridaal motiaa, but the whole unitM and coustitutiiig a column of such 

azmuntcly'routrivcd flexibility and Btredglli, that all ooncnwion is nroidcd. 

Mid no external riolcnop or wi-iglit can injure that which it protects. It is 

■■l^itMl chioBy by the anterior ejctrrmitidw, aiid beentifhl aru tha 


cniitrivancea adoptei) to prevent injarionsconnoction. There is no inflexible 
bon^ union between the Blionlders luul t)ie chest; but while tlie spine is 
formed t« nentralise mnch of the coocoBsion that might be received — while 
the elaatio connections between the vertchrw of the back, altemfltety 
affording a yielding resistance to the shock, and regaining their natnral 
siiuation when the ext«mal force is removed, go far, by this playAil motion, 
to render harmless the mdest motion— there is a provision made by the 
attachment of the shonlder-blade to the chest calcalated to prevent the 
possibility of any rode concossion reaching the thorax, ' Had,' says Mr. 

a The first rib. 

i Ths ortilfif^ of the ten hiDdrrmosI, oifaUt ribs, connected together, and anitiiig with 

th>t at tlie eiglith or Ust Irut rib. 
o The brewt-bone. 
4 The lop, or poiat, of the withrra, which ue formed b; thr lengthened Bpincxu, or apnglit 

proceaees of the tea or eteren Bnt bones of the back. The bones of the back are 

eighteen in number. 
( The riba, uiuall; <-igtiteen on each side ; the eight flnt nnited to the breast-bona bj 

cartilage ; the eartiiiiges of the remaining ten anited to each other as at h 
f Thai portion of the spine where the loine commence, and composed of fire bona. 
g The bones fortnin^ (he hip, or hauauh, and into the cavity at the bottom of which tha 

head of tha thigh-bone is received. 
k The portion of the apine belonging to the haunch, and coniialing of five piece* Galled 

(he aacmm. 
■ The bonesof the tail, uauallj thirteen in number. 

Percivall in the fifleenth volome of ' The Veterinarian,' ' the entire rtb 
been one solid piece of bone, a violent blow might have broken it to 
pieces. On the other hand, had the ribs been composed from end bo end 
of sartilage only, the form of the areh coald not have been snstainod, bat, 
■ooDsr or later it mnst have bent inward, and so have encroached npon 
the cavity of the chest as to have compressed the organs of respiration and 
cfrcnlation to that degree that conid not but have ended in suffocation and 
death of tho animal. It was only the judicious and well-arranged 
combination of bone and gristle in the constmction of the chest that ooald 
answer the ends an all-wise Providence had in view.' 

At tho shoalder Is a mnscle of. immense strength, with tendinous 
composition, the terralua magiitu, spreading over one-third of the internal 
Bur&co of the shonlder-blside and extending to the four last cervical 
vcrtcbne and a portion of the chest. A spring of easier play could not 
havo been attached to tho carriage of any invalid. It is a carriage hang 
by springs between the scapulie, and a delightful one it is for eaay 
travelling ; while there is combined with it, and the nnion is not a little 
difficult, strength enough to resist the jolting of the ronghest road and tha 
most rapid pace. 

Laterally there is sufficient defence tuminst tdl oommon injury by the 
expansion of tho ahonlder over the chest from between the first and second 



^nowB mmsMi tib; imd behind and beloir that Ibere is fo« bonj* fltractnro 
^■of tin Hbo, of DO littlo Mn^ngth ; nnd Uifrir iirchnl form, nlthough k 
V flaHcned utili ; and Iha fiehUng moUoa ul iLe Iih.i>< of i-aoli rib, rcnulting 
W (nnn its jointed ooUMCtiDDwiUt the spine al>ove and ila carlilnj^inous union 
«itli the Bterantn bdnvr. 

A w&l num importADt coniridcratioB nrith irvnrd to th« juunotM of (li« 
thoTkx in tli« Tniwmef ia utii^li tlir<r i-'an ibdapt tnelDBvIvi.-8 to the clinni;iiig 
balk of the cOotenlA of the cavily. Tlio oqMkdt; of tlie cIil-bI i» iMlr. 
■tfteted b; tint extcntftl contnction and dilatatioD of the hetirt, for wlira 
ita ventrieln an coUapaod its nariclpa arv diHtctidml, nnd ^vhon its auricU-a 
nt coBi p r MScd ita Tcntiiclvii cxp«iid ; but ivitli regard to tiw lung* it is a 
TEiy dtSerent BflBir. Iii tli«ir statA of cullapnu aDil expaiisioa they vuty in 
uaiMntive bulk. oD<i-si(tti pari or more, and. in either state, it U uecesaary 
for Uw pnvper dischftrgv of tlie fiuiotion of ro^imtioD that the pariet«a of 
Um cbMt snouM be in contact wit^ tbun. 

The rib* an eighteen in number on either «■■]«. Eight of tbcm tav 
perfect, and oommoDl; called the (tim, or, more propcrlj, ttemal ribx, 
fcrttadiag from the spim to the atonmm. TheremaiDiut; tiin aro posterior 
•ad dlCVtm', nnd ara on!; indiTooUjr coniiected with the stemnm. 

The rib« are united to the corresponding Tortobim or bones of the spine, 
w as to form perfect jointa — or rather, each rib forms two joints. The 
head of the rib ia reoeivwi between the vert«bnB or bones of the cpino, 
befbivand behind, so that it shall alwaj'spivEenttwoarticiiliitingBiirnu.'vs, 
one opposed to tbo verterbm immcdintol^ before, and the other to (hat 
imnfialatel^ behind, luid ettcli forming » distinct joint, with a perfect 
capsular ligamral, and admiltiug of a rutatoi^ motion. Tlie lalirivic of 
the rib SODnkB to be received into the cartilaginous ligameulous aubalance 
be twe ea the vcrtcbiwi, and i« arttciilntm) to the tmnKTorso process of the 
poatariov Tertcbno ennnocted iritli the head. Nothing couM be ntora 
adrairablj dcTi&Ml fur uiotion, ao far as it is required, and for etreueth of 
union, that txa scarcely be broken. 

Ik>foie the ribs reach the stemnm, tlicy tcrminntA in a. cartiln^aons 
proton gatjon, or the lower part of the rib amy be imid to bo cartihiginous ; 
lad whore it unites with the stemtiin there is a third joint, with a perfect 
lad oompleto capnihir ligament. 

The eartilage of the posterior ribs ore also united to thf bnny pnrtion. 
tlMjr are not, howorer, pralongf<d nolHrnji thoaternnm; but Uie extmmity 
cf one lies upon the linclj of that which ii> immixliatuly before it, bound down 
upon it bf a cellolar substance appnitui'liing U) the uature of li|>amonl, yet 
caahhamif ■omesepGiwte niotion, and all of them connected imlircctlv with 
Hkb III mil II II I hf means of tlic inst sl«mnl rib. It is nn udmtmUe eontnvaucc 
to p reserre tbo requisite motion which must attend every act of brealhini;, 
•TVfT cxtcaicinD and contraction of the chest, with a degree of strength 
vhii^ Bcanetr an; accident can break throngh. 

Tks St^nmmt or bniast-bona, Is more complicated than it at first i^peara 
to be. It constitutes the floor of the chost, and is a lone fiivt spongy bone, 
fixed between the ribs on either aide, artienlating with their csrlilages, and 
■errins as a point of support to them. It is eumpcised of f>oni seven to 
Btae p*ec«e, ooited togoUior by cartili^e ; and whatever clisnges muy take 
place IB other parte rf the fhune, tliis cartilngo is not converted to bono 
«na in extreme old age, although thero may, possibly, be some spots ^of 
(■iifii matter foend in it^ 

• 'The poBftt of the bresst-bonc may bo occawonally injured by blows or by 
the pressore of tbo oolJur. It has been, by hratnl violence, eompletely 
broken off bom tlw sternum ; but oftcnor, and that &am some cruel nsage, 



a ktud erf tamnur lias been formed on lliopoiat of it, which has occasionally 
ulwratcd, and provod very djflictilt to Ii«il. 

Thp front of the (thoat in u Tury imporUuit C'-iimidiTation in th« trtractttm 
of tim honv. It sUuulcl be prominent uid broad, aud full, aud tliu mdo* of 
it wvU occajned. When Ifae brenst is narrow, the chost has gvntrrallj (he 
Bame appearance ; the nninuit in flnt-aidod, the pmppi- cAvitT of the (^tcet 
iii lent, nitd the nbunitui of the harm: am mixU-na\W (tiniiiiisti<-<l, nithoagh, 
pnrhnpH, his Hpfod for iihurt dialancuA may iiot bu sSm^ted. ^Vbi-n lhi> 
vliect IS vATTOvf aud the fore 1^|;8 aiv loo close toKothtn-, in addition to the 
irnnt of bottom they vrili intCTfcre with cnch other, and (hero will bu 
wonads on ttie fotWks nn<l bmiitm briow thr knee. 

A rbriit too broud is tutt ilosiruble, but a flrsliy niid n prominent one : 
jut «Ti'n tUi.t, perhttps, iiia,y rw|uiiv some oxplaiiatton. ^Vlit-ii lli« forv l<^ 
appvAT to Koede and to shelt^^r tlx^mrclves nndci* (he body, there b » 
&alty position of the foro limbii, n Ixind or HtAodine over, an D&aatanl 
lengutiDcM about thu foro ]inrt« ot the LireiiBt, Madly diwodvanlngcotu in 

Tbeni ia aUo a pofit«rior appeniUx to the storaoni. which b ahtfi 
cortihiKmoas. It is called tho entifonn cartilage, although it bean littlo 
rmenUance to a swoiVl. It ih flat nod Ilcxiblo, yet rtrong, and aonrm as 
tba conuncD[.-enieiit of tlut floor or xupport of the abdomen. It ako girca 
inaertioii to aaam of the abdominal m<uol«, and mora oourunicuUy than it 
could have been obtained from the body of the fterniua. 

Th^ intereoftal itmct«f. — The borders of tho ribs nr* antvrioriy concave, 
thin and sharp — posteriorly r<>nn<led, and prcHentins* nndcnioaib a lnngi> 
tndisal dsweaBiDn or channel, in which run both^It and norm. 
Tho apace Dotweun them boocupiiMl by mascular subfltacce firmly attachwt 
to the bonlerauf tlieribe. TbesomnsclcaaroEingalarlydiEtribuiod; ibcir 
fibres cross each other in tho Ibrtn of an X. Thoro ta a manifest adnuiteAo 
in thb. If tho tilircs mn riraigfat ai'roM from rib to rib, thc^ might act 
powcrfhily, bnt tliirir uctiouH wuuld be vxcmnUdk'It limited. A Hliort 
mnxolc oau eonlnw-l but a httio way, and only a slight chan^ of form or 
diniiMuiou can bo produced. By ronning diasonally from rib to rib. Ihnac 
tnasclcs are doublo tho length tht^' cottld o&firwiao barv boen. It ia a 
eenrnd ruli^ with tvgnrd to mnacnlar notiao, tliat tho power of thu moscUi 
Oepcnds on Ua balk, aud the extant of it« actioii on its lentfili- 

The ribs, while ihoj protect the important Tisoora of the thonui ftom 
injury, are poworfnl agents, when acl«d on by tho napiratory musdM^ in 
extcndiug and oontrntiting the chut in the alternate inspirntKm and 
expiration of air. In wlutt proportion they discharKe the labour tif 
mpiratioD b a dispnled ouestion. and into the consideration of which we 
catuMt antflr nitliIaoiBe4hing is known of the ^nd rc«|Hnilory mnscle, the 
diaphngn. Thna &r, howoro-, may be said, that they arc inactive in 
natnral rupimtion, or they certainly act only a sceoudaiy part; but in 
hurried mtpiiation, and when the demand for artorialised Mood b iiinirasrit 
by tiohmt exertion, they are valnaMa and poworfnl anxiliariM. 

This k'ads to a rcrr imporlnnt ronaidesation, Ibo moat adntataeoons 
form of the che«t f»r thu jinippr diKi^liarge of the nataral or extnnrdinaiy 
function* of the thoracic risoi-ra. Tho oonhsta of the diest arv tlw lnn|^ 
aud the heart : the flrsty to render the btood nntrioat and stinmlaliutr. 
and to ^re or rostnro to it that Titnlity which will (■niihUi it Ut sajiuutt 
every part of tho fnimc in the ittxchar^ of its fuiicUun, «u<l dornid of 
which thu nimpliciiUsJ uid buauLiful iiinchiiie is iiicrrt and dt«d ; and tli^ 
poctmd, to cuuvt-y ihia purified art«ri»li««<t blood to every part of ihv frsmc. 

In order to prodnre and to convey to the rnriomi parta n mOhrieat 
qoantity of bkxM, thenc o-^^is Biust lu hirjfo. If It amounts iMlt to 


Iijpertcophj', tlic Urger Uie baxrt and the targcr Uie lung^ tfac nion) rapid 
tbo prooew of uutrlUon, and Um inore pcril'Ut the dutuluu^ of overf 
MuRuU fbnctjon. 

Then it miglit be ituiiginnl that, M a circle u » fignre wfaicli oontftins 
more tiiui utj uUior of cquid ^irtli luid tuttnoiidurcni<rnt, a circalnr form u( 
tlM cheat would be most tMivuuULK»iiis. Nut anuAly wi ; for thii C(int<-nU 
of tbe cbcct ar« ftltornatol^ pxpiuidiiij:^ aud cuuLructiu^. Thu oitx'uUir 
cbr«t cnold aot cxpimd, Imt ovciy rhniigi; of form would be a duuiuution 
at empaatj. 

That form of cheat wUch approaclies ccurust to u tnrclci whilo if admiU 
of mfficient expMUum Aod oontraclioii, ia tbo best — certuinlv for noma 
Baimals, iMii) for oU luidcr pocnliar circuni«t«uioc«, nnd with ntfi-reiice tu 
the diacbiirgv of ccHJiin functiotut. Thix wn« thcgnuid principle on wbic-li 
Ur. BaktfwuJl pruvctnlt'd, and uu ivlmdi nU our itupruvcmcntti m tlio brcud- 
ingrof csttio were founded. 

Xli« prtDcipie holds good frith rpg%rd to some breeds of horses Wu 
*«Ido the hcftfy divngbt house nut only on ncixHint of his simple rauitciil:(r 
power, bat tbu w<-ij{bl which, hy uii-'Iium of tbiit ptiwcr, ho in nblo to thn>w 
(oto the collar. A liKbt liurst? itiay ho (jruftTablo fot Uj{ht druu^bt, but vru 
must opposu weight to weight wh*.-D otu- foada are beavT. lu tlio dniy 
km* w« prise the circular chest, not only that he nuy be proportionally 
hoMTwr belbre — to biui no disudvuitoffo — but that, by means of tbo in- 
cnaaed oapaeity of liia cliuet, he may ohtain the bulk and ato which best 
II him for our service. Uiit he would not do far speed, be woold not 
do for ordinAiy qniclc exertion, aod if hio wero pushed far beyond hia pace, 
ba would become lirokcn-wiudcd or have iufliimcd lung*. 

Somoof oor Mddl(."bor9t.'a and cubs have bai-itls Tonnd onoui^h, and n-o 
Tilas thetn on account of it, for they atv always in condition and tliey. 
nnij tire. But when wo look at them nioro canifally, thi-ro id just that 
departnre IVoia the cirvulur funu of wliioh mention has bei^u mudc^that 
bupy racdium botwevu the circle and the ellipse which retains the ciu 
ftioxtf of the one and the exjian nihility of tho other. Unrh n horse is 
tBTaJwble for common purposi's^ but bo is seldom tv boTitn of Hpced. If ho 
is permittnl lo go hi* own puco, and thut not a slow one, hu will work on 
tor evcTi but if Jtu is too uiacb burriud he is soon diatj'easod. 

n« Unmii Deep Chest. — Then for the nsnnl pnrpose« of tlie road, and 
more particalarly for rapid proercusion, search i* made Ibr tbat form of 
11m eboat which shall unite, and to as ^reat a degree aa pOMible, con- 
ndwablo capaoily in » quiescent state, and tbe power of InoreaMiiK tliitt 
c^iacity when the animal requires it. Tliero must bo the broad chest for 
Ibe prodnclion of muscles and sini'ws.and the deep cbcitt, to etro tlio «tp»city 
or power of fnmialiiug arivrial blood (M^uid to tlie tnoRt rapid <txhaii£tion of 

This form of tbe chest is consistent with litrhtness, or at least with all 
(be %fatiiM8 that can he rotionallr required. The brond-chmlcd home, or 
be tbat, with modcmtc dcptJi at the girtb, awi^lU and barrels ont inunu- 
dinldy behind l1ii> uIIiow, may have us light a forehoad and as elerated a 
wither a£ tbe burae with tho narrowest chest ; but the animal with tbe 
bsnd approaching to near to rotundity is invariuhly btnvy abtrnt the 
■booUen and low in t}io witben. It is to the mixture of the Arubian 
blood tbat WD priwupally owe this pecnliar and fldTontiujeoas formation of 
tbe cbeat of tJie borae. Tho Arab is light ; some wonld my too mnoh so 
before; but imraedialely tichind the nrms the barrel alniost inrariably 
■welts out, and kwvrs plenty of room, and where it is most wanted Ibr tbe 
play of the long*, and at the uiuc time where tho weight does not prenso 
ezDlneitely on the fore legs, and expose tbo feci to connutrion and injnij. 



Manj- Iiorscn witli niirmw chost*, rind n great ilrat of <Ia_v]iif'>l ntnlc 
tlwni, linTf plenty of Kpiril Mill williDgTw^sfur wnrk. Tbeyalww llii-innclvdi 
oft' well, and exliibtt tlii' uddrL-a» and gratify the vanity of tbeir i-idt-rs cm 
ili<i [mnutt-or in the piirk. oiitttioy have not tiip ap|>etil« nor the endurance 
that will cnnj tbcm throng'h thrvo euccetrarp dn-ys' jinrd work. > 

Five oat of Ntx of thi> nnimitls thnt poriah from inHonird Inngx arc niir> 
rovr-cl)««t«d, and it miKbt Ix; smfi^ly alfirmod tlwt the fur (^'atc.T pari o0. 
tiutae who ttre lost in tite Geld after a hard day's run, Irnve been Iiorscdi 
whoao training liaa been uc(^lect«il, or who have no room for tlw longs to 
oxpnod. Tho most important of all points in the conformntjon of the 
horao i» hero clncidatori. An olnvnted withrr, or obliqtui nhonldcr, or 
pOvrvriiU qnnrlcnt, are groat odvantogrM ; but tliat wliicb m roOHi of all 
connuotud with tlio gcneiul biiilth of llto animal, and with GOtDbined 
flei^ni>a8 or bottoui, is a dwp, and broad, and an-elling cUc^ witli sn&lcieul 
leiii^thening of the at«miim, ot brMutt-bone, beneath. 

If a chest that cannot eipnnil with (he incrrasing pxpannion and Inbonr 
of the hmga ia co rpHohi; » detriment to the borsu, everything tlint in- 
iorfens with thft iirtion of Ibu intorvostal innsoltw ia carefully to \m: avoided. .] 
■Kght jjirtl»inj{ ranks ainoujj; llu-ai>. and foremost amoufr tlii-m. The oloaa- 
neaa with which tlie roller is backled on in the stable must bo a seriooB 
inconrcniencc to the horae ; and the pnrtiiJly depriving thc»o muscles of 
their powrr of artion, for tu> miiny hours in priiry dii^, imiat indixpom 
tlicm for labour when quicker and fuller r<Mi]>irati«n ia required. At aD 
ereiila, a tijiht iprtli, thoujjh an alnifist nL-ecisary uuisance, is a y«j oon* 
eidorable on«^, whi-n all the exertion of which he is capable is required 
frwm the horse. Who has not perceived the address with which, by 
bellying ont the chest, the old horse rrndern rvory attempt to girth him 
tieht Ci>mpantivcly nscle*;) ; nnd vlicn a honu' is blown, what immediate 
Wlicr haa nngirthing liim aOurdcil, by permitting tho iutvrcotilala to act 
with greater power ? 

A jwint of consequence regardiiiK the capacity of the ch«t is the length 
or shurtnt'iis of the carcase ; or the extent of the ribs tmm Ibo olbow 
backward. Some horses are what is called ribbed A-?mo ; Uioro is bat 
little spaco (sc« cnta pp. 140 and S-M) between Uie lust rib and tbo hip> 
bone. In othen tho distance iit conaiderubly greater, and ia plain); 
evident by the falling in of the ftiiik. The question then is, wliat aerrioa 
is required from the borsQ P Kho has to carry a heavy woigh^ and ha* 
ranch work to do, he should be rililied homo— the last rib and the hif^ 
bonn should not be fnr from ttuch other. Tlierc is m'»rc capacity of chcvt 
and of belly, there ia Icsa distance Ixrtivecn tlie points of mpport, mi 
greater strength and endutauce. A hackney (and we would almost mj a 
hunter) can scarcely bo too well ribbed home. 

If speed, however, is required, there roust be room for the full aHion of 
the hinder limbs; and this can only exist where there is soSicient space 
betwMD the last nb and the hip-bone. The owner of Uiu honw moat make 
nphisBUildas to what he wants from him, and be satiafied if he obtaina 
that ; for, lot hSm lie asnun-it that ho GUinot have evetytfung, for thk 
woold require tliose difleieuocs of I'onforBAtion that cannot potnbly exist 
in the min« animal. 

Tbc! thorax, or chest, is formed by tho spine/, above (p. S44) ; the rilM 
*, on either side ; and the sternnm, or breast-bone, e, bennth. 




Tli« Bpioe, or back, conaista of s cliain of Iwcca from tlie poll to du' 
Wrtrtaniiy of tbo tail. It ib roado np of tn'entj-tbre« bono from tJi« neck 
to tbs munch ; oight«!cii, csllnl tlirrtal v^rUbrtp, componng tlio back t tnd 
fire, lumbar tKrltbrai, ocoupvin^ Uie loinx. On this part of tlic animnl the 
weight or burdeu is Uid, aad ihere are two tiling* to bo prineipally con- 
nd«recl, easiiiCM of cftrria^ aod atrength. If tiie buck were oo[npoi«i>d of 
navitld^ig motoriiUti— if it raacmblml n bar of wood or iron, nticli jnrmig 
and jolting, in till- mnid motion oftbu animiil, con Id not poagiblvbv endured. 
In onlur to avoid tbu, ad well aa to aaaist iu turning, the bock is divided 
into nnmeroiuboniM: &nd between «ach pair of bone« ihr^v i« inUrposud 
■ CHtilagiDoas mibatancv, most highlj elastio, that will ^iL'ld nnd ^ivo way 
to vnaj jar, not «o macb ■• to occonion inwcuri^ between tbe BnncN, or 
to permit t!eD>id«raUe motion betwMn anj one pair, bat forming altogi^or 
an tfcgre^tla man of such pevftct elaalioitj^ tluit tbo rid«r Bit« almost 
nadistiubed, however bigh may bo the action or bowcvor rapid the pace. 

Stmmth i« aa imporlnnt u.i cnM? ; thcrofora the bonca nic tuiitod 
fogvtbor with pwniliar fiminrt*. Tbe n>nnd Iicad of on« is exactly littod 
to Ike cap or cavity of tliat immediately before it g and botwoen Uiem ia 
plaoed the clastic ligamoDtoos Babstance which boa been just descnbed, 
■D strong, that in endcaTonring to acporato the bones of tfao back they 
will break bdam tbi* KabHtanoe will givo way. In. addition to this Ihcro 
■ra UgamvutA rtinniuK along tlio brood under-snrGtco of these bones — - 
ligaments between cacii of the tran^i-ena processes, or Hide projections of 
tb» bones — lignmcnts bctwoon tbo ipaiAiu proceasos or oprigut projections, 
and alao a continoation of the atrong UgMicnt of tlic neck ruiming along 
tba wboto cnuRtti of the back and loins, leugtbening nnd oontntctiug, as in 
Um neek, with tbe motions of the animal, and forming a powerful bond of 
nmen between the boniis. 

By thwe means tbo hunli^ will carry a heavy man without fiitignc or 
■train tiirovgh a long cbaac ; aud thoitu Hboclu and jim are avoided whidi 
w-nnld bo annoying to th« tiiur aud injurious and spcodily fatal to tliu 


Tbeae provisions, however, although adcqnalo to eommon or even sev«t« 
ttxartiOB, will not protect the animal fmm ilii! coDSoqnencea of bnital osago ; 
*nd, thmvfoTtt, if tbo honK is much oTi-nvi-iijfhti'd, or rioleutly esorciiwd 
or too saddenlr pulled upon liis IiaDncbcs, tbL'He lignnumt« are strained. 
laflammatioa follows, Uhe ligatnonts become clLaugod to bone, and tUo 
joiati o( the bock loan their ^wingincn nnd rwte of motion ; or rather, in 
point of bet, th^ ora<« to exist. On ocL-ount uf the too hard icrrico nt- 
Vttirad from them, and e«pecially bcfor« tbi-y luid ^-aincd tlicir full strongth, 
ftw sra Ibw old borsos who hnve not some of the bones of the bock or 
^^1 Q»ehyleetid — united togi^thcr by bony mntlor and not by ligament, 
WTmi this eiiatH to any oonsiderebla extent tin; borx^ is not pleasant to 
'^dc; he turns with diifioolty in bis stall, bo is nnwiUing to lie down, and- 
^liro down to riae again, and ho has a aingolar straddbng action. Such 
^rv« Mv said to be br--Ji«n-hackcd or otnttiM in the bafJe. 

1*heleoftthof tbebackiiianim|)ortantconsidentUon. Along-bnckodhorao 
*^ be (M)r m bis nocea, because the increased distance between tbo fore 
*'*I hind loga, wbicli are the snppcrla of tbi- spine, will afTuni ^niatvr mnni 
"^ the play of the joiiiU of Uii! Inrk. A bnig xnring bao much nioro pUv 
"**a a uort one, and will bctti^r obviutu coDcnssioa. A long-backed luinw 
I ** likef^M formed lor speed, fur there is room to bring bis bindeir legs 
I ^'"n wkitT him in tbe art of galloping, and tlins Dkhv povrerfntly |irv>pel 



or dfire Ibrvud Uw body ; bnt, on Ibe oU>m- htad, r km^-tnckcd l>one 
viO be eottpantinljr wmk in i^ b^ck, ukI cuihrorcmtglitnl. A long 
Kinu lutjr D* Msiljr beat or broken. Tbe we^fat oS (be ridir, Itkewac, 
ptoeoa fiutber fron die eKtranitM, wiO act with aMcbMUcal diBad*Mibiga 
npaa tbao, and be sure Ukd; to stnio litem. A dtoet-baclcrd bane m^j 
be » good backuT, ami able to <sarrj Uw hwrkrt we^^it, and p a—— 
monoBdnnBct; tnt hH|«eM wUI not be ao ea«r, nor Ida ipeed ao gnat, 
lad be maj be aft to orerreaelt. 

Tbe oanpantive adnntkce of a long or abort carcaae dependa futirelj 
m tbe nae for vhicb tbo borw ia uttended. For gco«rsl fiarnoMa tbe 
harm with a abort oroaae ia mfy pHycri j p re fe rr e d. He mil poaacae 
bcabh and atrtngtb ; for hont* at tbia make are proreriNallj- haidr. He 
win bare anAcieDt tawJBCiia of action not to btiffiM the lider, and i^wcd 
tor eTCT7 ordinaiy pnrpoaa^ Length of back will alnjrs be deauahle when 
there ia moTe than nsna] snbatann' gMWTalljr, and particiilaii; wben the 
toRia are wide and tbv maiiL-lni rrf thn loina lar^ and aircUing. Tbe tar^^U 
ivnaiittea, abmigth and apu^d, will Uitm ^fa^^ be onited. ^^ 

The back ahtnld bad«ireaaad«Httletnuni»dMteIjrb(luBd the witlicn; 
and Uien oontnne in an anaort atraigbt Kse to the kmu. This i» tiio fonu 
noet conaiatmt witb bL-onlT and rtrmgtfa. Snmi! hnrsm lure a ri^ oon- 
ttdnable bolluw b^liind Uu; witliL-rs. Thi^- are ifaid tu Ur taddU'laektd. 
It aeeiDa ae if a depriaaion were parpoeel; made for the aaddla. 8u(.-b 
boTMa are mdontljr ea^ gwra> for this carvo inwnnl moat naceaaarily 
incTMiM thr nlny of tbn joasts of the hock \ bnt in tbo anise prop ort ion 
thc^ am wvak ui<l UaUe to apnuo. To the irencral aopeaianoe of tbo 
bone, tbia defMt ia not tn any ^^vat d<!(;Tee iayanaaa ; for tbe \iaBtm at 
tbe back ia uniformly acoompanioil hy a beantiinllj arched ereet, 

A few horw^s havrthocureoatwaid. ThOTaresaidtobenNMA-frMM, 
from tbo iiappnwMl merablanoe lo tfaa aiobed backof theroacb. ndaiaa 
very aoHnoii di-fnct; altogi-ther incompatible with bcMnlj, and natenalty 
diminiiihing lli« oHL-fuliicia of the animaL It is almost impoaaible to ptv. 
vent the aaddlo frvm being thrown on the sltonldon, or tht^ Mck from being 
galled; tho cliuticity of tbo »jnne i* fUxtrofcd; the mrop ia badljr ae^, 
on I Um binder W> are too UI11.-I1 under the aniinal ; Im ia cont' 
orerreachtng, and his head ia carried nwkw&rdly low. 

TBS unvs. 


Tho loins are attentively ezuinined br orcty good hnnmnaa. They eait 
acareely be too btoad and uinscalar. lite strength of tbo back, and. espe- 
cially, the atnuffth of the hinder eztranitiea, win depend matcriaUy on 
this. Tbe brcaam of tli« loina ia rognlated by the leiqifth of the traasveno 
or aide proeeaaea of that part. Tbe bodlsa of tbo bonea of tho loins arv 
likewiae larger tbaa thoas of tlie back ; and a mora dove-tailed kind of 
nnkm aafasistabetirMDtlieMboneB than between Iboao of tbe b«^. Every 
proriMOB is nuuto fbr strength bero. The luuon of the back and loins 
sboald be cnn-follr obaerrod, lor tbom ia Mnxitnaoe a d o pfaaaioa betwran 
tbocn. A kind of line is drawn acroaa, which iiliowa imperfectioa is tbe 
oanatniotioD of tbe spiixe, and ia regarded aa an indimtiou of weakneai. 


nifl apiiiMis or npri^^bt ptoc eo aea of tbe doiaal vwMme, or bones of 
back, abore the npp«r pari of tho abonlder, aro as remarkable for ll 
kngtti aa are the tnuwwne or dde procewca nf tho htmcs of tba loiiA 
Tli^ ani IbUtoned and tenninated hy ruagh blunted vxtrentitisa. Tba 
(dirvatod riflgo which they form is called tbe vilhtrd. Il will be snni in 
tkeoaU(pp. 140 and 244), that tbe spine of the Br«t bono of the back hai 

tMckhai I 




Vat little cIev«liofl tad is slisi^ and upright The Boeonj ts !Aii(rcr nnci 
indioed backv«rd ; th« third >sd fourth incroaso in loDgtli, aud t£v Bfth 
ia tlia l»ngc«t; tbo; tbcn ^mdunlly HhnHiin until Uno tw^Ui or thirteenth, 
whicti beaKnu lerd witli Uw buni-H of tlic loina. 

Hislt wilben hare Iwen always, in tlie mind of tbo judge of the horso, 
■MaocuMed with good action, and genomllj with speed. The rca^n i* 
plain enoBgh : they afford Urgcr surface for tiio altAcbnurnt of tho lous- 
oFtboMck; aiid in proportion to the clftvntion of tho withers, Iheeo 
' » act with ^:re»l«r ftdvanlagtt. Tlie risine of ttio forrprtrto of ^o 
eT«o in the trot, and mam especially in Uie FT^lop, ilcpondii not 
' on the action of thei inneclcs of the legs and shoulders, hut ou tlioiiu 
kHDK, iDMrted into th« npinnns procc(w<-s of those boues of thu baelc, 
a<!ting with greater power in pn^mirtion im tlte-sm profTsiii^H, eoiisti* 
inting the witben^ are huiKtlieucd. Ttio arm of tlie Jever to which the 
fowvr is applied wQl be longer ; and in proportion to the length of this 
•nu will be the eoae and tho height to which s weight ia raised. Thera- 
fonf ^lood and bifHi action will dopcmd mooh on clovntod wiihere. 

It in not difficult to nndorslKnd how xpccd will likcwiM be promoted by 
tbo aamc oonformution. Tho power of ite bureo is in bi* hiitder-c]iinrt^iia. 
In tbem liea the mainspriu^' of the frame, aud the fore-ijuarters are i-liicHy 
'«lerat«d and thrown forward to receive the weight forced on them by tlio 
ftettOO of tbe hinder-quarters. In proportion, however, as tliG fore-quiLrlerti 
tn alB**ted. will tiiry be thrown fnrtlioc forwnrd, or, in other words, will 
the irtride of tbe borne bo Iiawthent'd. Tet many TWxe» have the forvhasd 
low. Tim ttiu'ivuIledEcltpeo(aeep.09) was a remarkable iuHtani-coftbi]); 
bat tbe imple and ftDely>proportioned qnartore, and the muscDlarily of lira 
tbigll and fora-ann, rendered the aid to bo derived (mm tho withers ]>er 
fertly nnnM-fjBinrT. Tin- h«Lvy drunght-horso doc« not rccjiiire ctcv»ted 
withcm. Hi" utility dejMMida ou lli« power of dopressinp liis fore-qiuvrterji, 
Bad throwing their wt-iKht fully into tho collar ; but for common work in 
the hackney, in tbe farmer's horse, and in tho hunter, well-formed withers 
wQl be as mrnitini advantage^ ae oontributing to good and nfo action, Mid 
likwwiao to ipted. 

xncLU or the bseast. 

Tho* are aome importitnt muselMattnehed to the brcoat connected with 
fittt tapoanon of the che>t which every borae should poaaoM. In theeat, 
pa^ S37, are acen a Tcry important pair of muscles, the ccofcnifet tratu. 
veni, or pectoral mnocleeL forming two prominences in the ftvnt of tho 
ehest, and exteudint; biickword between tho legs. They come fVom (lio 
Ccrre and npjrar part of tbe Inraat-bone ; [mim aeroM the inward part of t}io 
arm, aad rencb from tho elbow almoat duwn to the knee. They confine 
to tho side in the r»pid motion of the horse, and prerent him from 
wbat honeincn would call, and what is seen in a home puiihcd 
hia natotal power, 'all uhroad.' Othor tnniwtua, pcclariiUt magiti 
I, th0 gnat and little {iM'toiula, Rttber nbore but Wiiud theeei go 
tbe brca«b-bona to the arm, in order to draw bock the point of the 
looldvr, and bring it uprigj^ht. Another and smiUlor mniiclo goa from the 
IiumI biiiM to the shoulder, to nsirist in tlu: sumo ofGce. A liorse, tber^ 
ten, Ifaia aud narrow in tlie hrcnst, must be dellcieut in important muscular 


BetwMm the 1>^ and along thv breest<bone is the proper place in whidi 
In itwrrt rowcb, in oases of inflamed Inngu. 




The moat important mQacIes wLich belnug to tltis part of the frame juv 
priDC)|MU7 tboM which extend firom tbo oontiniwtwo of Um ligament of 
tbo neck, along the wbol« of tho hack and loins ; and HkewiM ftom the 
last oemca] bone ; — the nywrjCctoiw and tnuu vm a l i t eotbtmm, or mpor- 
Scial and tmurene nueua of the ribs, gma^ from thia ligament to the 
irapcr part of tba nba to rl«rat« thrm, and tn oMuit in tho expanaiika of 
too cfawt; alao the largo imus of tnaaclR, the lunyUtimtu Jorti, or lang«et 
mnacle uf the buck, fmin Uie npuioaa and tmurerae proeeaaea of th« ver- 
t«fcne to the riba, and hj which all the motioiu of the 8ptne,aiid hock, bikI 
lOEos, to which allosion has been made, ara principaUT produced ; bj vrhkh 
the foi«-qanrtrr« are nuscd Dpon tho hind once, or &t) hind onon the fom 
ooca, aooordiog as eithor of tbem is tho fixed poinL This is th« principal 
a^Ltit in rearing and lucking. 

The last moscli! to be noticed IB the «pHuilM tfom, tlie spinkl maacle of 
the back, from tho spinons proceaaee of eomo of the lut bcmae of the back 
to tfaoae of the fora-part ; thick and Rtrang abont the withen, sad broadlj 
attached to them ; and mure powerfnltjr attached, and nmre strooglj acting, 
,iu proportion to the olevaliuu of the withen ; and pioccedtiifc on to the 
three lowest bonca of the neck, and tbenifore mainlf conccniod, as alrcadr 
described, in olenting tho fonvqtiartors, and pnxlncing high and Ba& 
action, and coDtribntiag to sp<MHl. 

nsnruiin inTaiB& 

'^Vlien (he saddle has been anffcrvd to press long upon the withen, a 
tDfuoor will bo formed, hot and rxeeedii^ljr tender, it m»y sometimes be 
dispersed hj the cootine aptilicadons ncommended in the treatment of 
poll-ovil ; but il^ in diwpite of th^e, the swelling slM<uld ramain statioiuu;, 
and eipticudlj- if it shavM become larger and more tonder, wana ItMnes- 
totiona and pooltioes, and stimnlatiDg embmcations, should be diligeoU/ 
applied, in order to luMtm tho fortnatton of pas. Ax soon ax that can M 
fiiirljr di.-tc«tcd, a seton Khoald bn fioMicd from the top to tho Ixittom of tho 
tumour, so that the wbuLc of the matter maj' be eviu.-uat(«l, luid ctititiiiurd 
to bo disclinrg<:<l as it is afterwards Ibrmod ; or tho knife may bo frvdjr 
Bsod, in order to get nt tbo bottoan of erorr ahina, Tfao knife has aav* 
ceeded many a lime when the ai-ton has faiksl. The after trcatntnttt mast 
be jneciserly that which was rKxnniucndMl fur a ftiiuilar disuise in the poll. 

In negtect^^ fistnkms withers the nicer may be larger and dcMior, and 
more d«lmctivo than in poll-oviL It majr barrow beneath the ahonldeto 
bladc^ and the pius ajiptsr at tho point of the shouklcr or tho elbonr ; or 
the boott of the withets mar beoumo oarions. 

Very gnat itDprorement hu taken place in tbo oonstraclian of saddta 
for oODUnOB OM and ia tiie cavaby eerrioo. CertAin ralea hare now been 
laid down from which the saddlor abonld ttover driiatr, and attending to 
which the animal is saved from mneh aoflering, and tho mechanic from 
dcsrrvrd diagnoe. 

Tbo finl nile in the fitliug *>f a saddle ie, that it shotdd bear opon the 
hack, and net on the spine or tho withcte, for these are parts that will not 
endnre prrason'. 

Kext in u&itenui) iip|>liciitinn in the uudi.Tiitundiiic that the saddle should 
hare everjwhere an equal beariii);, n(<itber tilting furwanl npon tho poinli 
nor bui^'kward upon the aeaL 

\V'hcn the saddle is on, and the Ki>^s fastvoind, there shonld maain spate 
snfficiuul brtirrvn the withnni and the pommel for the introdnctian of tks 
hand nademeatb the latter. 


pimtlt of tlie trrc iihoiilii c!i]> nr embrare tlic sides without pincliinR 
lem, or iO Rtaudinc uutwitril that tba prcsKuro ui oil ilownwnnis, nnil iipoit 
on« place, instead of beiuft iu a direcUon ixiwarJs ax well iis down wards, so 
•a tt> be distribnted unifonnlj' over evoiy part of lite poiiit dial touoLfH tba 
nde;. HonMi that huvic tow and thick vrith<\n nro most lik<'l y to have thiin 
mjimid, in oonMqnenceaf the (loiitinii;!] riding forward of the Erti]illi>, nnd 
tU coBseqvcrat pra»iu« upon thuin. Flealiy luid &t. sliotdders luid sidrit nro 
also antgect to become hurt by the points of the trcos cither pmcliini^ tlit-m 
Brom bdsg too narrow in tba arch, or Irotn the brnring being directly 
oowvward upon tlionL. 

lavaiy ocvauouaUy rcau]ta from tbe iut«miptioii whidi a loo forwotd 
■kddJ« presenta to the workii:i;,' or motion of tlie ahoulder, and lliu I'utmR- 
qoent iriclion tlic sod parte Eaatain between the flhonlder-blado inwardly 
' the point* of Uio Muldla-trMtoiitwiirdlj. 



On oUmtt pnrta of the back tninonra nncl very tronbleeome tUoenmaybe 
prodncod by the Minw caa«c. Thooo n«tilting from th« prosaro of tb« 
^Mle are called taJiSe galU, and, whc-ti thiry nlccrat*!, thry froquently 
bMwme tUf'uU. Saddle f>alla are small clrnnlar brniinw, or exlnivasationa 
of blood, wherv tbcr« has boon an uudae pressure of the saddle orhanietis. 
If a bor»c u sabjoct to tlipw trnnonrs. Iho saddle shoold tenuun on Itiia 
two or tbroo Itoun after be boa mtnmi^ tn the stable It x» only for a 
eortain tun(% bowever, Ibal tbin will prrfra-tly inii'crtLiI, for by the froquont 
application of the pr«ssni« the skiii and the ei'llular sukatanee are bruixcd 
aradterwiM) injored, and a pcrniaiieiit soro or tunionr, of a rery annoying' 
dncriptioB, tAkcspJaon. Thcorntrcofthc sori! gmdnally loMaitfiriKdity, 
A MMiatian tolcce plocu fmm thi- Huiruunding integumeut, and there i« a 
cirMUar piece of dried and burdHkinrKruHiuing iu the centre ; by removing 
tbti with th« knifo, more is dooc in a few minute's than days will efTect in 
tW old nnitinc of poalticing and blintoring; and thn wound will readily 
1m«1 by tbc axe of turpontine drcMrings, more or Icsii atimulating, according 
to eireanutanocs. 

Wilh nitard, however, to all tlicsQ lumonrs and excoriations, the hnmaue 
man will liave the saddle cased audpaddodUBOonasit begins to bo of tbo 
bast iacotmoMiica to tbc borsc. 

Dropsical Mrellingn often »j>pi:«r bDiwit-n the fore Irgs ond on tbn chi'Kt. 
n>ej an efinsioaa of fluid underneath tliu skin. Tlify uccompuiy various 
rlisisaf s. particnlarty when the animal is weakened by them, and aumetiiuea 
^pear when there is no other diwuc than thodebitity, which, in the spring 
ud &11 of tbo roar, aocomnnniea the chanf^ng of tho coat. The trratmenl 
willraty with uiecaaseofUie affection or tbo aoconiiianyiu^ disease. Small 
{amcturta with Iho lancet will seldom do hami ; thction of the part, if it 
can bo borne, will be lerviccablei mild exercise should bo nned; diaretiua 
gireo. miied with somo cordial, an carrots, malt nutahc*, and occaaionallr 
a rery mild dowi of phync, and that fullow^'d by tonic* and cordials, with 
^nrvnca. Th« regctablo tonio, as gentian and cohimbo witb ginger, will 
be moat effectual. 

9$l AVATOUT ASD disease or TIIE l{|£PIR.\Tt)RT ORGANS. 



ItiTim ta die preriow diapler giveo a brief OttUiae of tiie cxtviiuU 
fenxAtion of thtt dMrt, »ad mrrotiMiag urt*, we now proceed to a do. 
scnptMO of ita contmU, and the orgsos atracti/ coniwetod with the hao* 

tj«a* of raspintioa. 


Boanding the tborax postonorlj'— J]ie Iwio of Um oodc ta tho hniaaa 
nlgact— tho mtorpoaed oattaia faetweoo the tboms ftnd tho abdonion in 
the honte, ia the diulingni. It ia an irrr^iilar muscolar eipttn-iioo, pn>. 
i>i«tdiTg tkom the iaforior mrCuw of tho Innilnr rcrtobnp posteriorlf and 
s a naworly, adhering to the rilM am) eartUi^ce on either ndo, md exteodiitf 
ofallqBeljr fiirward utd downward to the starniun ; or, rather it ia a flattened 
nnMCle ariaiBg from alt thoee poanta, with Ha 6br«a all oomrerging towanla 
(he oentro, mmI tcnniBatiiig there in an expannon of tondiaoaa aabetaaee. 
jt ia lined anteriorly bjr the pleura or inreatiiif membrane of the tlxxniao 
carilj, and posteriorly by the pcritotictim or ioTeeting menibnuie of tbo 
abdominal carity. 

Anal^nv of 1m DiaphrayiA, — Id tbe short acoonnt which it is propoaed 
to giro of the itraetare of the diaphragm, Ui« deacription of llr.' Per- 
eiTaU will be doeolT foUnwf<d. ' The diaphntgih Okay be diniled into Uie 
main circular muacle, with ita oontrel t«idinoaa oxpansion fomoii^c the 
lower pert, aad two appmdioe*, or cruru, aa they are called, from tbcir 
pocnliar thmixf, ixiustitnting ita saperior portioo. Tbe 8eeby ori^ of the 
grand moaofe may be tnoad laterally and inforiorly. ootiuncnoing from the 
cartilage of tiw eighth rib aatvriony, and closely foilowiag ih/e union of 
the poaterior rflia with tbnr artilag«s ; exoeptiiiK, however, tho two iMt, 
The attach meat iapacniiarlyrtrong; itdigitatoswithtlietranBreraomnaele 
of the abdomea, and oncirclca tbn whole of the Intcml imd inferior part (tf 
the obaat, aa tkr aa the atemunt, wln-ru it i» ounuMitcd with the enat 
form carti%ae. Immediately nndor tho loins are the appendieM of tbe 
diaphragm, commencing on the right SKlr. (Vom the inJerior eor&cca dt 
the fifo lamtiur Tnrtvbrv, by Btmng tendooii, which aooobeoomemnaciilar, 
and fimn a kind of pillar -. and on tbe loA, proo(«ding from tho two ftrrt 
Ituabar rertebnv only, and Timoi tbe aidca rather than Ibe bodiee of tboaa 
TCrtelins^ aad tboao also uniU^ and form a e1toH«r pillar, or leg. The leA 
enu, or appendix, ia afaorter tlian thi; riirht, that it may bo more oat of the 
wayof preaeore from the left curvature ttf tbe atomach.whicji, with theaploaa, 
liea onaemeath. Oppoaite to the eereBteanth donal veHebne theao two 
pillara mite and form a thiekiosaa of mnaolee, (totaclnod IVom the Terteb(«^ 
and leaving a kind of pooch between them and tbe rertebrm. Tht^BOtoalr 
nnilo, but Uiey decuaaat^; their fibra mingle and again aepaiata from oaea 
other, and cb«n proceed oninud to tbe central ten^uma expansion towaid* 
wbicli tbe fibroi from thocironlar tnnnclo, and the appondioM, aJI onnvety*.' 

Ttii* tna*cle, ao important in itaofBce, b plentUluUy anpnlioil with blood- 
mutfl)!. As the poaterior aorta paMcsbnieath the cmra of the diaphn^m, 
it gi*«a ont Bometimea a aioglo vceiicl which soon bifitrcatea ; tfmrtirff 
two brancboi^ which apcedDy jilnngo into tbo appondioee or crura, while 
muaerDos anmll veaeels, cecaping tr^m tlif m. spriRMl orer tlie central lendi- 
nous expansion. Aa tho Ut)^ mnsclc of tho diaphragm epnngs from the 
aidcn nwl ibo base of tbo chest, it rccoivca manjr runifioationa ftom tbe 



pectoral, d«rivpi] trota tho anb-rioraorta ; but mora from Uie pos- 
Urior intcrcostnis ivhtch epring from t]]« posterior aorta. 

Tbe reina of tbo dinphnigm belong cxclnnivrlr to the postci-ior ren* 
e%\m. Tbeni uv osiwllr thrcr on ritiii^r mlv ; but ih^y mny ho Iv^^t roreirod 
to two ebief IruiLk-s wliich comi! from the cipcuuifrnrnco of the dinphrngm, 
_o<nrCfw« towards the c«atr«, uid run. iutu Ibe poHU'rior cava tut it pojMcs 

"brovgh tlu t«nditioaa enanrion. 
_ Th* finictuKisl dvttc of tlw diophragm, or that from which it derires its 
principal aetMm, knd whicb cooxtitntt* it a mnsclo of rwipiriit.inn, ia tho 
pfanme or diap)mfnn*tio. AlUiongb it doe* not procwd from tbut portion 
of th« raedidla oblongata whicb fpvt» rise to the (t'<3>w-P^""'3'^'r>'<-'^ ^ncl tbo 
par ragnm, yot tliero is suffiownt toindaceustosii^wct that it arises IVani, 
and alMnld boncfcrrcit to, til* Ut«ral column betwoaQtbesaporiorandiii. 
ftrior, tba Mnaitivc and motor norrea, and witicb nay bo ondnatljr traood 
from tlw poos varolii to tlie rtry termination of tbe spinal cbord. 

Tbs diaphraf^ is tbo main af^eut in tbo work of respiratiou. Tbe uth«r 
imuelMar« m«rc onxiliarics, little nordcd in ordinaiy breathing, butaffiird- 
iBf; the tno«t important aMiKtanco.vIicQ th« broathiog is more than nsnally 
harried. The meohaniam of rt:ii[Hratioa nui; bo tbtw explained : — Lot it 
be aappoaod that tlw lniiK!> are iu a qnieaoont state. The net of expiration 
baa been perfona«d, and all is sliU. Prom sooio cauM envdopcd tn myn- 
letj — ooniMOted with tbo will, bat ind«pend<*Dt of it — aonie Btiianloa of aa 
■nmplainMl and unknown kind — tho phrooic ncn'o sots od tho diapluaffot, 
and that muffolo oontraola ; and. hv cnntnuitiitg, ita oonTOxitf into Ui« choNt 
IK diroininbed, and tbe cavity of Ine cbfist ia enlarged. At tbe aame timo, 
Bad by wme conaentaneous influenee. the inlerooatal muaclca act ; with no 
^reat fuiY«*, iudced, in audiaturbcd breattuDg; bul^ in proportion as 1>hey 
art. tbe riba rotate anthinraxea, tli«ircdgMU« thrown ontward, and thna 
a iwofold etfoct onsDM ; tho posbsrior margin of the ohest is nxjuutdi^l, tbe 
carhy ia plainly enbu^ed, and nlao, by the partial rotation of evety rib, the 
can^ U atill more inoreaaed. 

By aome utber consetilanooDs inflnsnce, tho spinal aooeMOTT nerve tikei 
wiw exi^rta its pow<T. and the Blorno-mnxillaris mnsclo ia atimalntcd by 
the aBterior division of it, and tbe motion of tlie head and neck correaponcM 
■itb ami aaiiida that of tbe cbcnt; white tbe posterior di'riaaOD of toe ae- 
' nerve, by ibt auaatoiDOsas with tlie nmtor nerves of tbe levator 
ri and the BpleDioa, and many other of tlio mnacles of the neck and 

> dtonlder, and by its direct inflnenoo on tho rhomboidous, B«i!Ociat«a 
■ flvvry iddmIo of tbe mwk, tbe abonldcr, and tbe cheat, in tbeespan- 
riea of tbe thorax. Tbc«u hitler are muaoloa which, ia audiaturlied reapi* 
tatioo, ibe animal at^arei-ly uewla; but which are neoeaaary to hiin when 
the nofiirslMD ia mncb distorbcd, and to obtain tbe aid cif wliich he will, 
Bsder pnenmoinB. ebwtinately stand nntil he llills exIianKird or to die. 

^M carity of the cheat ia now enlar^l. But thia ia a closed cavity, and 
Imt wa eu ita contenta and tbe parietea of the chest a vacnnm would bo 
(braoed; or ladwr aa tneqnalily of atmospheric presanra i« produced from 
the Bwanent the chest begins to dilate. Aa the diaphi^:m reeedei^ there 
is Bothtnf; to connterbalanco tbe proaanro of the atmospheric air com- 
muiicating with the Inng* tbrongfa tbe medium of the noittrilH, and it 
w forced into tbe Kapiratory tnben already d<w<!ribe«l, and the Innga aro 
erpaiided nod atall kept in oontnct aith tbe reeedingi walla of tlw chest. 
There ia no anddnj;, no inhalcnt power in tlie aet of iuspiratiou ; it is the 
ainpte eolanfement of tho cheat from tbe entrance and prcMnre of tbe air. 

rnm lome cause, aa inexplicable as that which produced the cxpannon 
of the chest, the rpainratory nerres cease to act ) and the diaphragm, by 
tl« i&bercnt thyttiuity of ila tendinons expannion ami roosenlar fibres, i<^ 



tnrni) tfi iis nfttiiml form, oner more projfwting its convoxity iiito Uio tliomx. 
Tbc abdomitml nitiscloH, iiImo, wliit^li hiul hdrii piit on l)io stratch bjr tfao 
SoTfaag at the vintwra into tbc poatt^rior piirt of ibu abdomen, bjr minuks of 
the stniiftitvuinf- i>r the diaphi-ngm, contract and ai.-celcntte tbu rebim of 
thnt miinciolo ite qaiefloeot ligure ; nnd i.ho ribs, all ttrmcd with «la<[ic 
CArtiliigTH, rognin Umr former Kittuitioti and Benrv. Tho idiikcIos of tba 
eliouldtir luid iiic cliut rebu. n jiurtion of tim Fnngs nrw prcssud on every 
sido, and the air witb which tliey were dtat«nded is agatii forced out. Tluiro 
M onlv one Ect of niuec1(>s activplf emnloyod in expiration, namely, tbv ab- 
dominnl ; tbc cliuitii^itv of tbe prirtii diiiptaCGd in inspiration btnng alniort 
■ul&deiit to iwoinplittti Ibu purpo.ii". 

Tl)t< luQj^ however, are not alto^ther paasira. The hronuhia] tnbei; 
■to far fts they can lie tTiuM)d, are lined with oartilagv, divided and siibdi- 
.vidod for tho purpote of folding ap whcoi tlin lungs nrv niniprcesed, bat 
eliutiu cDUugh to ufibrd a yielding rusiNtiiiiee i^;uiiuit botli uiiiimuil o^mu* 
«on and coutracllou. In their u&oal «late tbe air<tubca ore dixtomdvd 
beyond their natural calibre ; for if the jmi-iot«8 of the thor&s ue poi^ 
forAt<id, and the preasuru of the atnioimherc n<ndorcd ctiuiJ within and 
witUuut tbtio, the tiuigs iimnediutvly (^iilliipiic. 


Thft mncona inMtihnuie of tba aoao in dialinguiidit^d tmm otbw m ap MI 
nrfiwM, not only by ilA thickaeas, bat iU vaaoularity. Ths Mood-Ttaidl 
■ro likcwiso mporfioial ; tbc^ tuv not covered cT«n by integnmont, bat 
merely by a muoonx coat. They are di^opor unitcil, indued, than in the 
huiuaii being, and thoy ftru mure pruteutL'd from ixgaiy ; and therefore tlicre 
is fiir lesB heamotrlu^ce trom tLe nostril of the horee Ihan fVom that of tba 
human being, whether spontADeous or aocidentftl. Lving imtoediately 
iitidcr tbo mnooiu coat, thp«c> vcshHm give a ptMmUnr, and, to thi: horsoman, 
» nuMt important tinge to the mumbnuu-, and particularly obtiervable en 
the septula. They present him with a failhlhl indication of Ibe state oT 
the circnlatkin, and cniecially in the membranes of the Otixer rc^nralocj 
pAMMgiW with whir^b thin i* i;ontinuauii. 

Tb<! horseman and tlie vvteriunry but^uu do not poiMeM many of the 
anxiliaries of the hmusu pnetitiriner. Their patients are dumb; they 
can neither tell the seat nor the degreo of pain ; and the blunders of the 
practitioner are frctiiiontly bnrii^ with tbo jtatientv Well, ho mait nae 
gpeatcr diligence iu availing himself of the adrantagoe lie doee posKas ; 
and he has some, and retj important ones too. The Tairing hue of tlia 
Schnddarian membrane is the mo^t important of all ; ojm, with noard to 
tbo moMt freqneDt and Ehtal dijtctucs of the horee — thoae of the rcajnntorj 
passages — it give* almost all llio infortnaUon with regard to the state of 
the circulation in those parts that can poedbly be rvqnircd. Veterinarians 
too generally overlook tAia. It has not yet been anfadantJy tnni:ht in oar 
•chools, or inculcated in our brst works on the patholon' of thv horse. 

It is the eostom with almost ei,f 17 boraeman who taikea any ymiot to 
ascertain the state of his patient to torn down the lower tje-lid, and la 
form his opinion of the a^reo of general inflammntioii by the cobmr 
which tho lining membrane of the lid pmcnts. If it is very ml, bo eo^ 
clodni tliat there in considftiable fever ; if it la of a pale pinkish hue, there 
ia cuniparutjrely little danger. This is a vcr)- important oxamioatKnt, and 
the ooticluaion which he draws from it is geneiallr true ; bat on the st|^ 
turn of tho nose bo hm a mrmbrwnd moru immcaiatoly coBtinnosa with 
those of the rcepiraltiry organH, more euaily got at, presenting a latgse 
suHiuv, the raiiiificationa of the hlood*Teescb better seen, and what is 
duly iii>t>or1snl, indicalins not omly the general aBcction of the racmbniK^ 
but of iImmc with which no is most of all concerned. 




Wo miald, then, aaj to crcry horecmrin iind practitionrr, stndy the 
clikntct«r at thut portion of Hu: mumbnuio whlcli ixivura tli« low^r ]jurt 
of iht toembmie of the notw — tli&t vrliich you can moat readil/ brmj; into 
▼i««. Okf after day, and under all tbo Tarying circunutanoM of honJth 
and diaeaM, stady it nntil yon are i>nablnl to rrcngniNc^ nnd yon toon will, 
u>d tfaat with a acerco of iixiurtitudo you would Iiavd vourcely tbuuslit 
poMible, tJu) paU.- piiUc huu when Uiu horaa ia in healUi— the iucreaamg 
bltuh of red, and thu general and nniform painting of tho membrani>, 
belofentiur soma excateHunt of the njstem — the streaked npivnmuce whon 
inflaoniiataint n tluvotcaiag or oonunenoiiig — the int«nsi'ly Sorid riHl of 
ittflaiBoifttion bucaminK acnte — the starting of the vvuBL-k from Lliolr 
^omauur ooat, and their seeminf^ to run bare orer the m^iiibrsine, when 
the inflanmtttion i» at the highoet — the \<ah groan<l with pntohM of rivid 
rrd, showing th» half-mbduod but Ktdll existing fevL-r — the uniform <.'o!onr, 
but iMtnewhut mldfr lUtui ualural, indtiMiixig a, returu to a litaltby Htaiu of 
the ciieoUtion — the paleui^Bs approaching to white, accompanytug a aUite 
of debili^, and jot •onw radiatione of crrimBon, showing that there is still 
eoaatdorablc initabili^, and that misRhic-f may ha in the wind — thn palo 
brid coloor, warning you lliat Uiu din<.-aiiu is aosuming a typhoid cbanuH^^r 
— il>a daricer hvid. anuounciug that the typhna iti imtubhalifd, aud that 
Um vital convnt is stagnnting — and tho browner, dirty painting, inter- 
mingbng with and Enbdning thi! lividnu**, and indicating that tho game 
(• op. Thov appuaniuccti will be guides to oar opinion and trvatnu^nt, 
wbtaih we can aerer loo highly appreciate. 

la plaetid on the top of the windpipe, immediately b«low and in ounfact 
with the phuynz, and ia tiie inner guard of the Innga if any iiyurioaa 
rihaiMtet ahdiild {Moetnttt ao far : it i« tho miLin protection againat the 
pMMge of food into the reapintorr tubes, and it is at tbo ■nmo time tint 
mttrnniest of voiw. In this last cliaiacter it losea much of ita importuuoo 
in the qaadruped, bat still in the dumb animal it ia a beaatlfhl piece of 

Tbi BriOi>0TTi3 ia a hciui-xhapcd turtilago, placed at tho superior 
opcniiig into the larynjt, with ile buck oppuse^ to the phurtnix, su that 
menapetleiof food panes from the pharynx in itsway to theu-ooplisgna, 
it proanca down the nnglottis, and by this means, as alrcmly deacnbtK], 
cloiMa the aptirtara of tho larynx, and prifventa any portion of the fuod 
from cntrring it. The food having pasBed over the epiglottis, it, from ite 
own etasticily, and that of the iDrmbrnne at it« base, and more par- 
ttcolarly the power of the hyo^piglotiduoa musclo, riic4 ngain and reiiunit's 
ita fimner citnalion. 

Ths THTBOin C>Knuoa oocopies almost the whole of tho external part 
rf the laiynx, both anteriorly and laterally. It enTelopea and protect* 
Ul Hie TMt; a point of coneiderahli- importance, considi>ring the injury 
to trloGh the larynx is oxpooL-d, by our ^-Htera of carbtng and tight-rein- 
ing. It also forma a point of attachment fur the inaerliou of thn greater 
part of tbe delicate muscles by which tho othor cartibgca WAUorud. Tbo 
Hber artilaiges are the criooid and two arvtenoid. Too cricoid, or ring* 
He* CBTtOa^ ia plaoMl at the base of the thyroid, connecting it with 
the fraeJUa or windpipe : the two arytenoid, or ewer^hapcd cartilages, 
fimn the npper and hack part of the larynx, as the thyroid duea ibe 
ippar front and latond portion. It is principallv nppliod with nerves by 
IM Ivyiigsttl brsncbca of the par vagnm and the rectureut nervM; and 
tfaer* an also fieqnent anaatomosos wiui the motor norros of the apinal cord. 

Tbe bwtifiil niedianism of tho larynx is gOTomed or worked by a 




aonuiwhftt com|dickted njiitaa of mnscles, for a d(«cri]>twa of wliicb tK« 
rcJidcr w rcferntl to tlto 6lh toI. of ' Tbo Virt«riniiri»o," p. 447. T1m» 
mtiro prooen of respiration ia parllr niuler tha conlnd of Uw will, uut 
tha miiMlefl of the iaajitx oooMtned in one «lag6 of H arc likewiae so, bnt 
tbe7 aln Mt iade^endmittj of th» will, fijr dnriog Bleep Mid BseoDseuNiniMa 
tbo mkcbina ooRtumi's to irorlc. 

The origin of tlie uiiery wiuoh supplies ibese pArta witli blood is aoine- 
timM derived from tbd suin truok of tlie carotid, bnt olWior it h » 
fatanch of the tbrroideal utorj. 

TliA liniDK nif mhnuin It ■ continoaiioii of that of tbe pbarjnz abor* 
and tbo tracueu bi-low. It iti ooTcrod with itinntncnibW follicular fflanda, 
from whoM mooths there ooeos a mnoouN fluid that nioiiboni and labricatn 
its «ir&o«. It is poHCBsed of very great seiuibility, which it derived from 
the Boperior iBrrngrJil nprvo, and its ftutcdoo reanirea it. It is, as has 
been siniadf ctatixl, tbo tnniir guard of th« hiAgt, and the lai^-nx mtut 
nodcrgo a mnltittidi.- of cbimfpM of form in order to adapt itself to ocrriaia 
diBfi^va in thn act of rMpirstion, and in order to producu tbo voioe. Tfas 
vuicw of the kjrae is, however, extremely limited, comparud with th&t of 
the boman being ; the samo •oosibility, thcreforv, is not rcqairod, aad 
exposed as onr qoadrapod slaves am to alward and barbarous naage^ too 
gtmt sensibility of anj f^rt) u>d particnlarljr of this, would bs a cone 
to tli« uninuL 

Theooune of tlio inipirod air from the hirjmx to tbo Hnn is now tobft 
traeed, and it will be fotuid to be convey eu throujtfa a siitgularly con- 
stmcted tnb^, passing akmg the •oterior portioD of the neok, and naching 
Irom the lower odgo of tba cricoid cartala^ to tbo hutga. In the com- 
menoeni<<nt of its coarso it is aomiewhat napirriicially plaocd, bat as ii 
dctcnnd* towards the Uioiux it beoomea gnultially dra'per, and more eeu- 
c«aled. In onier to dischaigo it* Auctions as an a)r>tn)ie, it is eesentkl 
that it shoold always be pomoiH, or, at least, that any olMtroctioii to Um 
process of rosptratiaD shoald b» but mnamantarj. Attaobed lo tt pari 
ondownd with snob extennve motion tm tbe nMk, it is also bscmmij Ifaal 
(t rfunild bo Bauble. It is oonipoeed of oartila^, an exoaediariy nlaalin 
•nbelsacfl^ and at the nmo time pompsBng a oertain degree of lazibilifef. 
Tho windpipe is compased of oartilaee, but not of one entin ptcee, for 
that wonli) iim-eiuuirily be eitber too thick and firm to be PfinMe. or if 
it were sulEciently flexible to aeeoiBinodate itaelf to tbo actioB of the Dst^ 
it vonld be too weak to resist ervn oonmion preoon or iiynfjr. and tbo 
paflsage throoeb it would often bo inoonveniently or d&agcrcmdy o^ 
atreefod. Bcaidea, it is necessaiT' that tbin robe shoold oooasionally «|niit 
of doogation to a uonaidenUe degre«. When tbe nock is extended in 
the aol of gnziu^ or ulberwise^ tfae tnrli«a must be Imgthejiod. 

The structnre of the cartthm of tbe windpipe is admirably ■Jt>|i4fd to 
effect every porpoeo. it is dinaed into rings, fifty or flftr-two in nmalKr, 
omA poes oss iag saffident thicknem and strength to rr-sist ordinary pnmmn, 
and each oonstitntinff a junction with tlio one abore and bok>w, kod thiB 
admiltinKaf all the flt'iibility that could bo nqniivd. Those rings ai« 
oooneoted together by an intorposod fibro-ligameatona sabetaiKM^ exta^ 
aibfe, elastio, and yet so strong that it is scarcely noasibLe to mptara U| 
and tbo fibres of that ligament not mnning vertioaliy IroBti one to anotlHt^ 
and tberoforo admitting of littie more motion than Um rotation of the head, 
bnt oovapoaed of two layers ranning obtiqaely, and tn eontnuy dirnnlinna, 
>o as to adapt t)ioniv<lves to erory variety of motion. 

Tbeao rings are Uiickcst in front, and project circnlarlj', Oppcaing an 



arcLlIka fbnn. Thm-e, too, tiie lif^amcnt in widest, m order to admit of 
■be rrt»tett motion id the diractioo id wliich it is roost needed, when the 
linuTui clcviit«d or dcprnMcd. LAtvmlly thesti nngs tire thintior, bticiiiuc 
tbey wx>, lo a greul dcgrw, proltMrli-d li_v tlie surroundiuft [larta ; ujid, 
pOBt«riorlj, theiy overlap c&eh other, and the^ OTcrlappinf; portioueare con- 
nsctod toe«th«r hy » stroDg ligiuniMttoos snbstnn<M?. liiis, vrhilo it does 
not tmpMO tli« motion nf the tiibo, gives tirmnc^M nod ctatijli^ ta it. 

WHliiB tho tnahe* iu imotber very curious Btmotniv. At tuo poinla at 
wliiofa, posteriorlj, tine rinfca bvj^ia to bend inwurdljr, a muscl« is found 
■Cratchiag acroM tlie windpipe, dividing: tbo caua] into two anoqaal por> 
tioiw — tbc antvrioF one (.■muHtnting tho proper air-piuongc, Mid thn 
posterior one oocnpied 1^ cetlulur tvxtiir«. It in to givo udditiotinl Ktreogtb 
to parts. It is ths tie wLuofa prerents the iiri.-li from spnrriuK o^t. In the 
natural stato of tho windpip« tliis muscle is, probably, quiescent ; but 
"wlien anj corandorablo pmanrs ts mads on tho crown of tho nmh at tho 
i^pcr part bj t^ht-n-initii;, or at tiie luwi-r c^d by an ill-mode colltir, or 
M^wfaere by bratol or accidoutal violeiite, this mnade contracts, i-Ter^ 
Miioufl expHnnon or depression of the arch is prevented, and tbg part is 
pnaiiiwud from iirriouii injury. 

It ni»y also bo Ttuidily inutciiKMl tbnt, when in riolrjit exertion, «nrrry 
part of tho Teqiiratory canal is on tlio utrt-tcJi, tliui bund mny presHrre Uie 
wiDdpipo from iinnry or lacoration. There are many beautiful poiuts in 
tba pliTaoloKy of tlu! hone which dc«crve mach greater attention than 
has hilWto Mon paid to them. 

Tbs windpipe tlicntld pt«ject from tlie neok. It should almost ecvm aa 
it it were detached from tho ncclc, for two imjxirtnnt r^incnns r first, that 
■t may easily fnt<T l«?twifa the rhnnncU of the .jaw, no thiit tlie hone may 
be tv4n«d up without )iujr(.'i-tBK incouveuience : aud next, (hat beiii^ Eoors 
lonscly attach^ to tlien<«k, it may more roadiIya<lapt itself to tbochaDgte 
rg quir sd than if it were SDvelopcd hy fat, or manclc to a certain degree 
mjiclding: thcrofore, is every wcU-fomied neck — uud it will be seen in 
tlie out (p. 237)— K in indiK|ienDubL> that the windplpo should be promiBOot 
and loose oo tlie neck. This is uut required in tlie heavy cart>horae^ and 
«« do aot oA«D End it, bccanso ho is not so much expoMd to thoao cir- 
camslanoes tliat will hnrry respiration, and rvquini an dBlargemont in 
tlic KM! of the prinicipal uir-ttibe. 

When the tnohe& arrivM at lliu tLaras. it suddenly alters its form, in 
order to adapt it«elf to the narrow Lriarti.Tilar aperture throngh which it 
butopSM. It prescn-eB tho same cnrtilaginonn iitructure ; for if it has 
Dot theprcKSoniof thoextonuil mum-k-H, or of lu^uidotitul violence, to resist, 
it is expoeed to the pressure of the Innj-s, wh«n they are inflatinp:. and it 
ahaice ib tlie pressure of lli« diaphmgiti, and of tlie intercostal niuscles, in 
tbe act of cxpitatian. UoYing entered tho cheet, it pn«RePi a little to thn 
ri^t, IcttTing tlie oosopliagiu^ or ffullet, on tho left ; it iie{)arat4.'S from Uie 
iliwsil T«9t«bne : it passes thronfcu the dnplicature of tlio mediastinum to 
,4be baas of the heart, and it divides beuc«.th the postorior aorta. Its divi- 
noow are called the IrroncKial tube*, and have much to do with the wuU- 
beiag of the borae. 

Ita rtBf^ remain as perfect as before^ but a new portion of caiiHi^ 
begina to present itself : it may be traced as high so tho tenth ring fnm 
the bottom ; it spreads over the onion between the post«nior terminntiona 
of llwringv; it bold* tlu^min cloirund firmer connection wttlt eM^ other ; 
ifc dkehargea the daty of the transrerve mnHcle, wtudi begins here to die- 

rmr, ana Uw sapport of the cerrical and dorsal Tertohns ; it prevents 
npantion of tAo rings wfaeo llie trachea ia distended ; it ^ucads down 
BpOB, and defends tin comnuBOeoWBt of the bronchial tubes. Some other 

* 3 



■ beui 
^ Its 


smnll p!nt«B of eiutiliifo rcocli u considerabk- way down Out diviuonH of 
the bronchi, luid (Jio lasl ruig haa a oeutml triangular projectiou, which 
covers aud defouds the biAircation of the trachea. 


The windpipe haa been traced through its course down the neck into 
the chest. It is there cootijiaod throagli the mediastuinm to the base at 
the heart, octd then dlvidod into two taboi oonvBpoDdiiig with the two 
divistous of the laiigs — the Broschul Tl7ttE8 — the right of which is rathor 
the largest. These Ironks enter deeply into the substance of the lungs. 
Tlioj pi-cscntly subdivide, and the sobdivision is oontinnod in «vory direc- 
tion, until branches from tbo trachea penctrnte evuiy assignaUo portion 
and part of the lunga. Tliuy am alill air-paMiages, oatTTing on tlus fluid 
to its destination, for the accomplishineDt of a vital piu^>OBe. 

Th«gr also continni* exposed to pressuroi but it is prcssnro of a new 
kind, a preamro all4.Tnat«Ij supplied and retaoreiL The luaga in which 
tliej ore embedded alternately contract and expand ; and these tubes must 
contract and expand likewise. Embedded in the lungs, the cartilagiiUKU 
ring of tho bronnhi remains, but it is divided into fire or six scgni«ul« eon- 
neul«d with each other. The luugs being oompreflst-d, ilio sej^cntn over- 
lap each other, and fold up and occupy Utile space ; but the principle of 
oluadcity is stiUnt work; and oa the prsBBuni is removed, thmr start again, 
and resume Iht-ir previous form S3id calibre. It is a beautiful contrivance^ 
and esijiiiBilely adapted to the sLtuatiuu in which these tubes ant plarffji. 
and the functions tboy have to discharge. 

The luugs are the seat of a peculiar circulation. They coDvey throng 
their comparatively small bulk the blood, and other fiuids scarcely tnj»> 
formed into blood, or soon wparatod from it, which trnvorao the whole 
of tbs frame. Thioy couadst of countless tamificatlons of air-tolMS aad 
blood-Tussels conu«eted together by intervpuing cellular substance. 

They form two distinct bodies, the right somowhat Eaiver than the left, 
and are divided fimn each otbitr by the duplioature of the plcnni, which 
htui IwoD already described — the mediastinum. Each lung boa the ■ams 
structure, and properties, and uscM. Each of them is subdivided, tlia right 
lobn connixtiug of thmo lobes, and the li^ of two. The intj>ntkni of ihfan 
diviaiatiH is prabuUy to adapt tlie substance of the lungs to the form of tho 
cavity in wliich they an juaoed, and to onablo them more perfectly to 
occupy and fill the chest. 

If QUO of these lobe* is cut into, it is found to consist of innnmcnblo 
irregularly (bnned compartmenta, to which anatomists hare givm th« 
name of u-httlet, or little lobes. They are distinct fiom each other, and 
impervious. On dose examination, they can be subdivided ahnost wiibont 
«nd. There is so communication between tham, or if nerrham^ sach 
eommunication cxisla, it constitat«s tlie diseaoe known fiy the aamo of 

On tlie delicate membrane of which these cells are oompoaad, innomeih 
able minute blood.vcssels ramify. They proceed &om the heart, thioo^ 
tho mrii^^Ti of the pulmonary arlirry — Uiev foUow all the sobdivisioDS of 
die farootdiial tulies— they nuniry upon tiic memlnane of th«se mnltita- 
dinons lohulea. and at lenfirth rctam (o tbe heart, through the naodiam of 
tho paltDonuy vrins, the blood, tbo ohamctor of which luui bom maiiiiitiaHj 
ohaoged. The office of the longs may be very shortly statnl. Tho blood 
pisnng throDgb the capillaries of tho body and oontrilxtting to tha 
Booriabinent m the frame, and ftmushing all the secretioDB, b e comc i , m 



ve bare described, (jianged. It is do longer able lo mtpport life: it la 
poitiKMinl of a poinonoiu princinUi, Rnd th»t priQcipl« is a snpernbuiidHncn 
of ft snbatanc« culled oarbim, witush tmutt bo got nd of, bof'^ni tlit- blood 
OU *^>U> be naefcdlj- em^f ed. Tbere is on tngrediiml in tlin &tmi>RpIicrio 
air euM mwm, which Tim a strong attrartion for tlus carbon, und which 
will nnite willi it wlwirovcr it finds it. Tho cJic§t DDlaifiiOB by tie nclloa 
of tbo diaplmen), and the intorcoittnl and othrr maHcTm, as wo havo 
namted, ud til* hugs expaudiiiK with iho cbmt, in order to fit! up tlio 
riu^nm wbich would oihorwim oxist betw(«D tbc-m and ilia aidt-n of tlm 
du-itt, tbi!Nc odU (iDlargc, and a, kind of vncnnm is formod in pnoh of Uieui, 
and tbo air nahm down and fills th(Mu, and being <]iTi<liHl from tho vcinoua 
and poisoned blood bf these membranes aIoDi>, it iti enabled to net upon 
tho blood, tbo oxygon combines with the rarbon to form carbonic aoid, 
and tfaus porifics it, and rtmdora it ariorinl blond, and tit for tho parpows 
of life. This being aocompjished, tho cliesl oontruct«, the Innn aro 
prMsed into sm^er compass, and a portion of tlie air impreKimted witlt 
carbonic acid, and raod«r«d poisonous in its tarn, is pressed ont. Presently 
dw ebesi expands Benin, and the lungs cxpnnd with it, and fW^sh, pare sir 
is admitted, which is uliortly pressed oat again, erapoiaoood by tlm carbon 
of the btond: nnd these altercate expansions and conttactioua constituUi 
tho Bct of brcnthing, 


Tho walls of tho chost arc lined, and the longs are corDred, by a smooUi 
gtjjt'wnillg mcmhmnn, thx pli^uni. It is ft (prniM membrane, »•■ cstllcd from 
tha natuv of it* cibalatiun, in diittinction from tbe mufinu aetretiim y\Q\iirA 
hf (he membrane of the air-paa^af-t's. Tho serons meaibrtino ^■t-ncrEtUy 
iBTOVts lbs meet important orCTHS, and rIwhtk t.hoHo thnt aro riuicntially 
MBBactod with Ufe, and linosall the <-qc1oii<^1 cavities of the ludy; while tho 
mnoooa mcnnlmno lines tlio iuti-Tior of thuBi> cavities which have citemaJ 
ofenlngB. Tbe pleura is the iuvi-stin^ membrane of the lan^ and a mocom 
■Monlnane tbe lining one of tho bronchial tubes. 

Anwyng tbe rircntnstnnccM prindpiilly to bo noticed, with regard t» the 
pteoTK, is the pnliih of its internal trarfai^. The ^tistvuing aupearance of the 
tnn^ and of the inside of Uie cheat, ia to be attribnted to tine membrane by 
which tbey are oovered. «nd by meAns of which the mfitioo of thn rarimis 
organs is freer and !o<u> dangrron*. Altbougb the langs, and the bony vralk 
which contain tiuim,iireiu constant approximation vriih each other, both in 
expiration and inHpiratJou, yet in the irequently hurried imd violent motion 
of the animal, and, in fact, in every act of rx]iiration and inspiration, of 
diUtatJon and contraction, raach and iniuriuna friction would emme if the 
■OT&oea did not elide freely over each other by means of the peculiar 
l>«li«ti of this meinbriLDe. 

E*a7 seioiu membrane bas innnmcrmbln rxHalent Tcsaels npcn its 
•n&o«i £rom wbich a certain qnantity of fluid is poured out. In life and 
Auias bf Ml it exisis in the cnest only as a Itiud of dew, just safEcient 
to Infarioate the sntAoee. When tho chest is opened wmu alter death, we 
Ti H*> gril '^ it in tbe steam that arixcs, and in tbe few drops of fiuid, wbicli, 
Im^V ooodooMd, am found at the lowest part of the chcHt. 

The qnantity, however, which is exha-led from all the serous membranes 
nnut bo very fTi'eat. It is perhaps eqtml or sujaTior to that which is 
rislded by tbe vmboIs od the Rar6M:o of tlie body. K very little is fonnd 
ai flvdinaiy cases; H is hooanse the absorbents aro as nmnuruuH and as 
aelf¥e ^ tbe exhalenls, and, darinc hoitltb, thut which is poured out by 
tta one is taken np by tbe other ; hot in circumstances of disease, eithw 
when the exbalcots are stimnkited to undue action, or the pov«r of the 




absorbenU ia diininiBho<l, tlio fluid rapidly uid grcatlj' nfcnmulatcs. Hhu 
we have hTdrothomx or dropey uf Ike client, aa one of Uie eonttcif ueuccs nf 
mflnnunnboD of the dlust ; anil tlie aaine diatorbed balance of acUoD will 
prodnoe fimj^r edUaiou in otbcr cavities. 

Tha adaptation of mpiDhmno generally is nowhere more strilcinzly di9> 
played tbnii in tbc lerouH inmubranca. and particularly in that Diutvr con^ 
aidirrutiuTi. Hew different the bulk of the tunf^ before tlie act of inajMra- 
tioD fafts oommenced, and after it hiwt been complcUd, and especially iu Ui« 
laboirions raepirfttion of diseaite or rapid exertion ! In eitlittr state of tbo 
Innfpi tho pWra ia perfectly fitted to that wkicb it eavelopi-fl. 

Tbo plean> like other serous Dieiubiuuea, is possessed of very little 
sensibility. Pew nerves from the eensitiTo column of the spinal ootd 
reach it. Acnto feeling would render these menilinuu'ii gnncintUv, Mad 
this membrane in particular, unfit for tlie funetton they have to diadiai^. 
It has too much motion, even during sleep ; aud far too forcible biotion 
with the parietos of tho thoriu in morbid or hurried respiration, to render 
it convenient or ntcful for it to possiua much nentuttion. Somo of thoM 
nontomiHta, whoMo oxperinit-nta on the liWng auiuial do no credit to tbair 
huniauity, have (ipveo moat singular proof of the inscDMbilily, not only 
of these serous memhmneit, but of the orgnns which tlicy invOTt, Bicbat 
frrninnntly exiuniiicd thii Kpletm of dugs. Ho ili^tnchi^l it from some of its 
mUumuobr, and lell it protruding from the wound iu the abduiuen, in order 
' to study the phenomena ; ' and he saw ' them tearing off that orjjan, and 
eating it, and thus fecdinE; upon their own luihutjuioo. In some ezpeiv 
mental, in whieb ptirt of tlii3ir iutentines were lol\ out, bo obtierrod tM»( 
aa soon aa they had the opportonity, tear to piuoos theirown riaoeia with- 
out any visibte pain. 

Althoogb it may be ndvuiiegeona that thcso imporlimt or^rans shall be 
tbos devoid of eensibilitj when in health, in order that we may be 
unconRciona of thdr n4;tion and motion, and that they mar bo randered 
perfiictly indcpendont of the will, yet it is equally needful that, by tho 
feeling of pain, we thould be warned of the codftance of any dsAgeroaa 
disease : and tbenco it happens that this luombrvnoi, and also tho orgita 
which it invciitK, ncqoiro nnilcr inflnmnintion the highest degree of aeiu&- 
biUtr. The countciiaitee of the bomu lulKinring nnder plenrivy or ptiea> 
moma will sofBciently indicate* alate of suffering ; and the spanaed bend 
of hi* neck, and his long and nnxioiu and intense gau upoo hia aide, lell 
DS thut that Huffmitig is oxtnane. 

Natniv, howerer, U wi«e aud beoevolent eren here lb ia not of ereiy 
morbid alTectioo, or morbid cfaan)i;o, that the miima l is oonsciooa. If a 
miUMna mtTmbmne is dineaaed, be ia rendered painftdly aware of that, for 
BiUher rea]>iraliun nor digcation coald bo norfecity carried on white thera 
msany ooosiderablc h-niouof it; Irat, on the othor hand, we find tnbnrelM 
in the pannchyma of iJie lungs, or indoia^oo or hepatisatjon of their 
nhstance^ or ext«naivo ndhesioaa, of which there were few or no indict 
tinna dnrinir hfe. 

The pleura adheres intiniutcly to the r!b« aud to tho snbstaace of Ube 
htngs, yet it is a rery singular coanection. It ia not a oontinasnoe of tbe 
Mnie organisation ; it is not nn int^ivbaiwo of Tcwola. Tbe orgaa tad ita 
memlnnae^ although ao closely oonneotcd for a particnlar pnipoM, jvt n 
Tery many eaaea, and where it would least of all bo raspeded, haTe UtQ* 
or no synipathy with each other. Inflamma^on of the Innga will e<w 
timea exiri, and will ran on to difuirgnnisation, while tho plvnr* irill fa* 
very Utile aducted ; and, muidi olWncrr, the plnara will bo the nM of 
Infinmawtian and wilt be ftUended by increased exhalation to aurh an 
latent u to laflbcntotlwaniiuliftDd jet the longs will exhibit liuio other 




Tiwmid Bppmmoa tbim Uiat of mero conipression. The disease cf a 
mucuuH TavmbniM spreads to other piirU^tbnt of a Kcrons one ia )>t>n«nlij 
uokted. It waa to limit tL» [>n)(;r«M of diaeaao tJmt thi« differeuoe of 
vtliiicbira between the organ ftnd it« membrane yna coulriwd. 

TIi« UlTCBting EtieinbraDCi of the Inngs Bad that of the heart are ia con- 
tinnal oonttKit with e*c]i other, but th^ arc u di«tiiict and nncoDoect^d, 
as if tbiej weie pUoed in diOi^nMil parU of tJio frame. It tbcro do moruung 
in this? 

It is to pioacivo the pirHVct indopcnd<inco of organs oqnaUy important, 
Tct altogether different in iitrui?tare and funirtion^W oppoeo an insBpcrable 
Mirier to hurtful Hvuipulhy betirueu them, and oBpeoialljr to out oS* tlio 
OonnumicatioD of disease. 

Pprhftp* > littio light hiipini to be thrown on a circumatance of which 
we have occiudotud piainfhl cxtioriimci;. While we may administ«r phj'sic, 
or mild aperiiMitti ut iMuit, in plturiHy, not Qntf witli little danger, but with 
manifevt adranta^, we mayjuat a« well pive a doeeof pmaou BaapliyaiiN 
ball to a borae labcoiring nndor pnoiunonia. The pleura is contiectj^d with 
lb« hmgii, and with the IntigM alono, and tbo orgnuisntion is so difierentf 
that tun is vecj little iirnipiithy bctrwmm them. A physic-baU majr, 
tfaerefbret sot aa a counter-irTitauttOrasffinngaiiewdutiTimuation to tho 
rital cerrant, without the propagation of aympathotio irritatJou ; hut the 
Iragfl or tbo bronehial tnbrn thatnunt^ through them arc contiauona with 
the macoos membnuics of the digeatiTv na welt n* all tho rtnipirntoiy 
iMMRun ; and on account of the coutinuitj and Kimilarit;^ "^ orgunimtion, 
uam ia much sjmpathj' between them. If there ia irritatiou exeiled ut 
Um suae titof in two dilferr.nt portions of tbo same membnuiv, it ia pro- 
babla that, iaiit«ad of being nhiircd hctwi'en tbcm, the one will be tnna- 
frmd to the otlien~-vnll increase or double the other, and act with tettr- 
(b1 and &ta] rioIencQ. 


B The diapli^m ia Bubjcot to lujury and diaeaai> of a aortoua and varied 
H|aract«r. Wutaver may be the ori^nnl xoat of Ihomcic nr nbdomit>:tl 
Mfancot, tbo dis^hmgm soon bccomps irritable and inflamnl. Thin accxiuiita 
lor tba breathing of the borne being ko much aflectivd under everv inflnin- 
nalioii or eidtvmcDt of tfaa uheet or belly. The irritability of tbia muscle 
ia often erinced by a Bugnlar apaamodic action of a portion, or tlie whole 

Ifr. Owttcy, in 'The Vcteriniirinn ' for 1831, tfana describoa a caao of 
it: — 'A horae bad been very much distreaaed in a run of nearly Uurtecn 
milea, without a ch«ck, and liia rider etippcd on the road towarda home, 
to nvt him a little. With difliculty ho wiu bmnght to the atable. ilr. 
CaaUcy wiui Kent for, aR<t bo Miym,— " When I firiit utw the animal, hia 
breathing and attitude indicated the greateefe dtatreaa. The nromineait 
■yiBptom, however, waa a couTolaive motion, or jerking of the woolo body, 
■adma at Bcverol ynniit' diotnnee, and oridently proceeding from luH 
iiMUa ; the bests appt^anrd to be iilKiut forty in a minute. On placing my 
hand over the heart, the action of that organ oould be felt, but very in- 
dialitietly ; the beating evtdentiy came iVom bdiind the heart, and waa 
BUM* plainly to be felt in tbo din>ction of the diaphragm. Again pUeing 
ny hand od the abdominal mnaolea, tJiu jerka appMred to oomo from 
bdGm bockworda ; tlie imprewrion on my mind, tbrrefore, waa, that this 
wofl a spoantodio affection of the diaphiogm, brought on by violent dis- 
tma in rtmniog." ' 

Mr. Caatloy's account is iiui<trt«d thus at length, because it was Ihe 
first of the Iciud cm itoord, with tbo exception of an opinion of itr. 




Apperley, in hi* iro?!: * Nunrod on tbe CoDilhion of Hnstcis,' which come 
Teijneorto the trvtb. ' When & hone i> rcrf mniofaflxhttastodaftvr > toD^ 
raa with bcwkU, a notaa wiU aoiaettmes be beard to prooeed bvm hi* 
inside, whicb i« oA«n emnwody njtpoaad to b« Ui« b«a£iag of lus heart, 
whcrtu it Dcocceds from the «xcomito motion of the ■bdominal nusdes ' 

Mr. OaatlBj BhaU pume hia caae (it wiU be a moot ueful cnido to tbo 
treatneni of tbeae cmm) : ' Piiidin« that there waa little pabatioo to bo 
felt at tho snbniaxillarT anory, and jadeing from that caKamatenoe that 
ati}' attempt to blt-cd at tluU timo wooU bo worac than tt^Vwi. I onlerod 
etimalanla to be Kirifu. We fint ailmuuntered three ooncw of npirit of 
nitric ether, in a bottle of varm water ; bat this prodooing no K°od oBcct, 
wa abortljr afterwards garc two dntchms of tboBob-carbonato ofauinonia 
■a m ball, allowing tho patient, at tho aaine time, olcnty of white w«ter to 
drink. Aboot a qnartor of an hour after (Lie, be broku oat into a nrofnca 
penpuation, wbiui continued two boon, ormore. The breathing iMscaoie 
more tntnqitil. bat thecanvolsivc motion of th* diaphnua atOl oonttBued 
wttboat anj abatement. Alter tlic nwcoting bad oooaed, tho polaa became 
mo>«peroeptiblo, anil tlif mrlion uf the hiairl more diatiact, and I oon w h i td 
Una to be the proper time to bleed. When about ten pounda bad faoeacx- 
tnctod, I thoqBl>* that tba beating and tba breathing aeened to incnaae; 
theblooding wMatoppad, and the patient littered op »r the night. In the 
nioniin^', the afleetwm of the dia.phragm was maeh modc1at4.1l, and aboat 
eleven o'clock it ceaaed, after oontiniuug eighteen or ninet^ui bonm. A 
littJc tonic modioiDO waa afterwards adminuterod, and the horse aoon n»- 
covt-rvd bis unud anpctito and ipirits.' 

L«ter HnrKMnii wlmiuJgter, aiiil with good i-ifL-ct, optom in small doeea, 
toi^thtir with amniooia, or nitric ether, and bave tecootse to bleeding m 
sooD as any n«ction is pcroeived. 

voT-faligae. of almost orcr; kind, baa nrodnced spasm of the diaphragm, 
aod ao has orcr-distcnsioD of the srtomacn with grass. 


^lia is an aocident, or the coDsi>qu«m.'e bf dis«aw, vary latelj- broofrbt 
onder the ooguisaoce of the Totorinarj' saiveon< T>ic firat comiuiimcation 
of its occiirreDce w»« from Mr. Kinp;, a fi-icnd of Sir. PcroivmU, in "Tbc 
Vvlcrinarian,' IftiS. It oocnrrwl in a mare that had becu ridden ubitrplj 
for half a down miles when aha was full of frrass. Sb« soon afterwnjds 
cxhibilod a^rmptoms of brokan-wind, nod, at length, died aaddeahr, while 
ataadisK in tho stable. Tba diaphragm waa lacaiated on tho mA aides 
tliroagh ltd whole eitjL-tit, throwing the two oavitiea into one. 

Since that period, from the isflreaaing and vorj pn^ier habit of examiniBg 
«my deed horec, cnsos of this acddent baro rapidly multiplied. Hr. 
ftin'irall atoliw, in bis * Hippopatbology,' tliut it nutr follow any act of 
oxtn»ordiii«ni' i-i<:rtion,'aud ulltnts of ever}' kind, )>urtu,-alarly on a fbll 
atomacli, or u-liea the bowels are distended with green or other food Ukdjr 
to geoorate gas. Considerable cantion, however, should be exereiaed when 
nmh gaaaona fluid is presotit, for tho bowels may bo diatendod, aod limed 
■gnat the diaphragm to snob a def^ree as lo thttalen to buret. 

An intorottingcaeeof ruptnreof tiio di^>hragm was related by ProfaMor 
Bpooner at one <^ the meetings of tho Voterinai^ Medical Aasoeiatioa. A 
bone haviaft been NMldlod and bridled Eor ridinff, wmi tnmi^d in his stall 
and fitstned by tJio bit-stmpa. Something frJK^ttiDed liim— he Tvarad. 
broke the bit-alnp, and fvU backward. On the following UMMnuny be was 
erideDtly in groat pnin, kiekin^, b<ttving, and oocssioBally lying down. 
Ur. S. was scot for to axamino bim, but was not told of tho event of tha 
preceding day. He considered it to be a ease of enteritis, aod tiwUid it 




uvordin^l;. He bled him Ur^l v, and, in tlii! <x>ar!ie of the dny, the horse 
itupcarvd to bo deoidedl}' belter, i-verv =_vmptom of piiiii harinff vnnishcid. 
The hone wm more lirely — he at« with appetite, but his bowuk rcmauiod 

On tho following dsj there wM n fvorlul cluing. The dniioaJ was 
eiUTfrini; laiiUy — liM breaihmg was labonoua, and the ninmbnuio of the 
noM inteueljr r^ a§ if it vm» mom a caso of liiflfuuination of tlic lungs 
th«R of the DowoU. Tho bow«l« waro still contitipktod. The patient wait 
Ued and pbjrnickcd agniii, bul withoat htwI. Ho died, iukI ibcre waa 
fotuwl rupture of th« diuphmgm, protnuiou of tnt«sUnu iuto tho thoracio 
cavilj, oimI cxt«neive pleoral and peritoneal inflammatioii. 

In rnpttuv of the dinphmgtn the harto occnsiotiaUj' sita on hia haaiic)ica 
like B dog, bal this '%» Cir frum being ftn in&Uible ajinptain of the diseH^e. 
It aceompaoicB introsusceptiuu, as well as raptnre of the diaphnivm. l^g 
wei^t of th» intestines ma; possiblj cnura uny pratnidod part of thum to 
dcwMod agnia into the abdonten. 

Catarrk, or cold, is ftttondcd by tt sb'ght defluzion from the nose — now 
•ad tboo, a Blighf«r weciring from tho c^e, and some increased Labour of 
bnsUuag, on accwnnt of tho nnouaincni which the nnimnt erpiiriences fVom 
1^ pasnge of the au* over the natarrUly senBttive tind now tnoro tliui 
tmuulj initable anr&ce, and irom the air-pass.'ige being diminisht.'d hv a 
thickening of tho iDOiubrano. When this is iv uiniply local iuilamniaUOB, 
Bttrndml Dj no loss of sjipetite or increoscil unimixl bmip'Tutiire, it may 
vpeedtly paasovar. 

In many caMS, howerer, the inflammation of a mombrane natnrally so 
wnsitire, and nnKlorad so morbidly irritnblo l>y onr absurd treatment, 
rai'idlj icprnidii, and involrcH tho fuuet-a, th« lymphnlic and some of tho 
Miliraiy gUndii, the throat, the pnrotid gland, and tho mentbrane of tho 
Wyaz. n'e h»ve then increased diKchii.rgiC! from tho noM, giwter redness 
of thA msmhntiia of the nnHit, more dirtliuiion fr»ni tlio oyos, and lom of 
a p pstit a fi<oni a degree of forvr ussociutiiii^ ifsi-lf with tks h>cal affection, 
sad then also bduK a greater or less dcin^e of pain in the act of swatlow- 
ing^ and wbieh if the animal feels ho wi 11 never cat. Cough now appears 
More or Imb fraqueDt or painfal ; hut with no grout ucuolonition of tho 
pnba^ or ImsTing of the flankit. 

Catairh may arin.' from a thostand ca-nses. Ifcmbranes subjected to so 
tnany sources of irritation mon bocomc irritnblo. Kxposurc (o cold or 
Tun, change of stable, change of wrtttlicTr, ohnngo of the; .tlighloiit portion 
of clotliine, neglect of grooming, and a Tariety of circuinatancca uppa- 
rantlj trifling, and which they who are muoowtomed to homes would 
thiiik ooold Dot possibly nrodaco any injnrioni fffoct, aro the causes of 
tiatorrh. In Uie spring ol the Tear, iind while moulting, » gxtat many 
jomg hnrcr* hara cough ; and m the dealers' stables, whore the process 
of making op the hoT«a tat sale is caTTjing on, there is scarcely ono of 
IhcBt thai escapes this diseasa. 

la tbt m^ority of caaea, a few warm ma>lhM^ wmru clothing, and a 
mm! alablo^ and a fever hall or two, will set all right. Indeed, all wonid 
aoon be right without any luedicine ; and much moro iip<M>di]y and pcr- 
fieetlr than if the cordials, of which grooms and &rrii.-rH am so fund, had 
baaa gireii. Kinetooa boracs oot of twenty with common catarrh will do 
wieO ; hot in tho twentie^ oaso, a ne^Ieoled cough may bo tho procnnor 
of brosdUtM, and pneiunomii. These chest aflcctionB oAon insidiously 
etvep oo, and inflammation is fVvqnffntJy cstahtiiihcd before any one be- 
|pngi«g to the horse is awaro of ilc uxiatence. PargatiTO medioinos 



should lurrcr bo pvm in cntftirh. It con acftrcc'ljr Ik> knoi^Ti what rjtd- 
pnthy nuiy oxiftt betwvvn tli« portioa of memliraue alreAil/ affected, und 
iLe mucoas □i«mbTan« geoeTulf , In severe tltoriMric affection, or iu tbnl 
which m»y soon bonomo so, n do*« of phvaic wcuW bo litiln Iwttcr than a 
do»o of poinon. If, howcrer, mreful ion-stifro^i^n rvndt-rs it ovidimt tknt 
then is no affiectXon of the Inngs, and that tjbe disease luts not prooecdMl 
benxodtlMfkQoes, small doses of aloes maj^ with adTantsoe be anited mlfa 
otDsr iBGdidnc* in ordnr to evBoante th« intaatlnal canal, and rodnoo the 
fieonl dischsr^ to a pnltnceons fbrm. 

If cvlarrh is Mxmnipanied bj sore throat ; if tlie parotids should eolargs 
atid become tender — there arc no tonsil]|, anu/ffdatai, is the horse — or if 
tho mbmaxillonr glands shonid be tnflunKxl, and Oxo animal Khoald quid 
liis food luid |pi]> his wat«r, tlus will be au additional ruaaon for c»n, 
and also for warm clothing and a comfortnble stable, A hot stable is aol 
meant bj the term comfortabki, in which the foul air is breathed oreranid 
over aeain, bat a tcmpnratnra aoine degrees abuvn tbitt of tho external air, 
and where Umt dut«nnii]atioii to the skin and ineruasud action of the 
eihatent Teasels, which in these cases are so desirable, maj tako plaon. 
Bra7 stablsi both for bonca in siokneM and in health, shoald have in it a 

Some stimulatinfc liniment may be applied over the iniUroed glsnd, 
stroi^ euoagifa to produce considerable uritation on the skin, bat not to 
blister, or to destroy tho hair. An embrocation snISdcnUj- poworfdl, 
and jet that uuvit dcHtrofa tlub batr, consiaU of equal parts of hart»> 
bom, oil of turpealiue, and eam|ibonkt«d spirit^ witli a sioall qiMuiti^ «{ 


StHctly speaking', this r>?fL'r$ to inflnnimalion eontinod to the laijiiXibat I 
either catarrh or bronchitis, or both, frdinentlj- accompany the complidnl. | 

It« approach is often iniiidious, ucareely to bo diittiii^Tuahod (tmn catsirlt 
except liv being attended with mure soreneas of throat, and loss enlarge- 
ncnt of the parotid glands. There are aL«o more decided and riotntt 
CAToxyBina of cooghing than in common catnrrh, attended bj a gurelias 
noiae, which may do heard at a little diittanou from the horse, and whicli, 
bv nnscnhation, is decidedly rv'femble to the latynx. The hrcatlung is 
shorter and qalcker, and evidently more painM tfaaa tn Gatarrh ; the 
tnembrone of the noae ta redder ; it is of a ook) modana oolonr ; and the 
horao idirinks and extufaita f^rent. yaia when the larynx is pressed tipon. 
The inroxysms of eont,'hing bceome more fVi^aent and violent, and lbs 
animal appears at times almost snffooated. 

As tbo soreness of the tbivat proceeds, the h«ad of the animal is pro- 
jected, and Iho neck luu a pecnlior stiffness. There is also much difficulty 
of swallowinff. Cuimt durable ewcUing of the larynx and tbo pharynx 
cnsnes, and wo of the parotid, sublii^aal, and sobnuxillary glands. As 
the ipflammatioB incrsaaos, the cooafa boooBMs boam and feslds, aad in 
some cases nltoiRstbcr suspended. At tlw oomnonosmenl then is naaally 
little or no nasM dcfl n x ion , but the aecreliOB soon appeafs, oitber pnn or 
mixed with an nnnsnal qnantitr of saliva 

AoBcnltalion is a very important aid in tho discovery of the natars and 
asrioos or trifiin|f ehantcter of tliis disease. It cannot be too often t^ 
peatod that it is one of the most valuable means which we pnnsnss of 
oelecting tbo seat, i]iteos% and resolts, oftfaa maUdiea of therssnratory 
pasawea. No inslnuiiintt is rmoirod ; tha nakad ear can be appbaa vveatlr 
and wty, and with a very fJiifht prritmre, on any part that it ta of 
iiaportanoe to axamine. TIhi healthy suuud, whan tba ear is ai: 



the windpipe, in that of a body of air pASsini; Diiintorrnptedly through n 
iaao0tfa tnoe of itHucrwrliut catwMirriiblp cnlibro : it voiy maoh resembles 
the KXind of a pair of foixo bullouni, wlica not too violently workod. 

&t who is deairoas of aao^rt^uiu^ whiter there Is auy diseoao in tho 
Utrnx of • hnrvCi sboold »pply his car to the lower part of the wiudjiijio. 
If Da finda that the air piusmi in hikI ont without intcrmptioD, there ie tto 
diMMe of any conMKiueocu cither in the windpipe or the chcet; fur it 
would iinmedutety be detected by the loudutias or the intMrujition of thn 
sanramr. Thvn M him gradually proce«i3 up the neck with hia car atill 
npon the windpipe. Perbiipn he Hnon hrgins to recognise s. little ^rgliui*, 
gTBting loiuid. Ad he coutiuui'.-i to uacMind, tliut xonnd in more (InciHtvc, 
ningled with an occasional wheczio;;, whialliuf- iioJae. He oau hnvc no 
mar proof that bore ia th« iinpodin)cnt< to the passage of tho air, proceed* 
iiig from the liiipkrningof thcmembninonnd diminution of tho passngc, or 
iacreaAL-d eecrtiirin of mucua, which bubbk-s aud rattles as the brcAth 
paane. T' .1 degree of the Tattling or whistliu^, tho owner will jud)^ 
wUcb i~ Iwtrnction prvponderatce — in fact, ho will have discovei«d 

ffatt KAt atvi Liu.' HtAte of the dueuMt, and the soonor ho has rccoarBo to 
yolhwiontil advii-x^ the better. 

CArOMd taiyttyUit ia of more frequent occum-iii-'e t)ian acute. Hauy of 
tlM ooi^ha that are most troublesome are to bo tmoed to this source. 

In violcDt owm laryti^tiM trrminiilrii in milTocation ; in otbcre, in thick 
wind or in tvuriiig. OccuaioiuUly it is lux^nsaiy to Imvo R^oouriKi to tho 
opnatioo of tn«ih«oloniy. 

In wnto hgjtl^tia the treatment to ba pursued is efficiently plain. 
Blood mnst bo abstnctod, an<l thnt from tho jngnlar vnin, for there will 
then be Uk oorabbied Bdvantoge of gunerai and lociU blc^din^j;. The blood 
Huut be Kxnewhat copioualy withdrawn, dopending on the de(p«o of iu- 
SamioiilioD*— the pnkctitiouor novcr for n moment forgottang that he has to 
So with inflammation of a mncmia meiiibnin<', and that what lie doM 
W vaut do qniokly. Ho will hiivo luHt tho opportunity of atruKk'li^ff 
■lui— ifiitlji witli tltu diavoae when it has altered its dianoter and debility 
iam RiocMded. Tlie Maes miut be few and fiu- between whan the rnrgcon 
ttakea ap liia mind to any dotormioatc qiiivntity of blond, and 1»vm-h his 
tMistenl or his fpwan to ab«tnu:t it ; he in nut hinuulf bleed, and until tlie 
pnlaa flntters or the constitntiun is cvideutly afibcted. 

Next tnut bo ^ven (be fever medicine a! ready recommended : the nitrO) 
and emetio tartar, wiUi aloc«. Aloes nuty here bo safely given, bcvooM 
Iba dieat ia not yet implicated. To this must be added, luid immediately, 
abBster, and a ahnrp one. The sui-^^u is sure of tht- purt, and he cilu 
btiM bia oonDter-irritont almost into contact with it. 

^danimatioo of the taiytix, if not speedily snbdnod, produces snd disor- 
paiHtiiHi in this curioiuily formed and iui[>orbuit maoliine. Imnph is 
iftsa»l. morbidly adbeHiTV, and speedily organised — the membnine becomea 
(Uekotwd, coosulenbly, permanently so — tJie submucoos oethUar tissna 
tiff>ffinft oedematODs : tbe inflammation xpronds from the mcmbntBa of tba 
iatjiut to the cartilages, and difficulty of bi«tttlun|[, and at lengtb oonflnaed 

nrrLAKSATios of thb trachea. 
Inflaounation of tbe membrane of tho tnrrnx, and cxpoctiilly when it has 
T W" OB b> olcvration, raaj rapidly Rprooil. luid involve tbe erenter part or 
Iha wbole of tho lining mamoranu of the trachea. Aoacoltationmll dia* 
«0nr when this is taking plaoe. If the disooso is cxtendingr down the 
trarbw. it mnat bo followed. A blister most nadi as low an tho rattling 
aonnd can be datecti.'d.andBomewbiitboyODd thia,and the fever mcdioinvs 
^■■■t ba adminutered in somewhat inormaed doeea. 


GaunOj «pe*Liii^, howvrtr, alUteo^ the jnt l mnmm &m it sow ap- 
pnaditBS thft dM^ lU SKt^MOB into Ab IimiIma is not ta tmfin'osiBlM 
■jnnp tem. IH«yw»dowr»»MwrtoMWwrftic<,>pdiai>ot«ttfatBot 
or mlisctofal*. It is iuTahin^ * pwi of&a tiwnB Imb coroplicaied, and 
ip^n IcM miachkf caa bo effected. Trae^ if tht caae ia lu-glcctcd, it miut 
t ri w i i i i a tn fataHj ; bst it ia eonaiii; mora wiUtin readi, and more aader 
MfOBaiid, tad, tb» pnpcr kmhu bcdng adopted, tba c^iig* ia latfaer a 
bTQnnUa OII& 

Tho diaorgaa^aatiaiH produced in the bachea are nmikr to boow which 
ban been deacribed is tbe larTar. Tka aana Ibmiation of or^aniaad 
faaoda «r ooagaiatsd lyinpli, tba aaai«tliidcaaiag«f Bi«nbtaas,diiunatiaD 
of caUbra, and feondatian for roaring. 

The pnaort wiD bt tbe proper pbtra to nwak of that sinffolar inpair* 
Bunt oftbc mcpiraUny function reoogniaodbT tfai* oanie. It is an tuma- 
tual, kxul gpinti"g lunuul made hj tbe antwirtl In the act of lifnf (t| | i |if 
nhea m qudt actioa or on any soddeB axartioo. On careful!}- liatming 
to the mmmd, it will appear tlutt tho raariiw is arodaoed in the act of ia> 
tfintufa and not in that of expiration. irtb« lionc is bruklv trotted ob 
a lanl tKoiue, and moce partKnlarly if b» is uoiImI up Jiill, or if ho is 

itf thrartaiMid with a Bticic, this paonliar sonnd wul be beuxl nitd 
eannot be inti«tafceB. When diahontat dcalon an showing a horae that 
roars, but not to an7 gnat dome, thej trot awaj Mntl/, ud as soon as 
tbef ara loo &r for the soond to be h«ard, show off thei b«st paoea of the 
■anmU : on retanuDg, thiijr gradoally slacken their Hppcd wheo the;^ oooie 
within a saspicioas ^j^|^^l^tIl^^« This ia aumctimes lochnicolly called ' the 
dnlors' ton^ troL' 

^-^^"g IB exceedingly anpleasant to thfl iSdar, and it is manifest on- 
■iiiiiiiliHM It is the sodden and riok-nt nmhine of tbe air throngh a tabs 
llf dinunMied calibre; and if tho impulimL-nt, wnatercr it ia, randenit so 
jil^T^H tor the air to pass in somewliat lacreased action, sufficient oaiiaol 
be w^mtttf* to giro an adeqoato supply of aHenalisod blood in cstia> 
etdinaiy or lone-oontiiiacd cxcrHoa. Thorvlbre, as impairing tbe fbaetioa 
of l es pua tion, aJtbongb, somctinwa, only on extiaordinary oociwions, it )* 
nnsonndneas. In as many cases as otlMrwise, it is a reiy seriona oaass of 
OBsowidneea. Tbe roarrr.wluTn hardtjr prcssrd, is often Uownerenloths 
hasard of soflbcation, and there arv casva on rroord of his Buddenly draf^ 
ping and djing wbm nrj^ to (he top of his Hpccd. 

It mast not, bowerer, be taken for grant«d that the roarer is aloaji 
worthless. Tbore an; few linuta in whiob tbonisnotoneof tbesebonA 
who aoqnils himself very birh- in the field ; and it fag« oocanonsll; *" 
bapponed that the roarer has been the terj cnck hone of ttie hmt : jt* 
he mirt be ridden wiUi jDdgment, and ewed a little when going np-htO. 
ThereisBTillnge in the West Riding of VortnJiire, through wbid a bssJ 
ofsnngglor* niw^ froqnentljr to pass in the d«ad of night: the horae of^ 
leader, and the best Mne of thu tnx)p,andon which his owncsrwoBldW 
^^l^%^ll^» to all pnrsiiit, was so rank n rooror that he ooald be bsnid its 
ooDsidarablo digtAnr". Tlie clattering of all the rrat scarcely made M 
mnob noise as t)ic.> maring of lIli- captain's bone. When this becams a 
Ittllo too bad, ami be did not Tear immediato pursuit, Um amoggfer used to 
bait the troop at sonto oonrcnicmt hnjrick, on the roadside, and, haviag 
■nffered tho ■ntm"! to distend his stomach with this dir food, as he wst 
alwaja ready eneagh to do, he would remount and S^^wp on, and, for s 
wbilsv the roaring was scarcely beard. It is mmnwhat difflealt to accnant 
fbrthis. Perhapa tboloadodstomaQhnowprcasiBgagaiiuttlkediajihnifm, 



tfaat nmsde Imd liBrjcr TTork to displaoetliuTiBaumfhe notof Anfavginx 
the chest sod prodneinff tl>" act of ini^irKtioii, and nocotnpliiihitd it more 
almrl]', and tlierefoiv, tiie air passiiiK luoro ^owly bjr, Uic roitrine waa 
diniuBluKl. We do Dot dare to calcolate wliat most li&ve b««ti iht in. 
rrraard labanr of tlw diaphracm in moving tfa* loaded stomach, nor how 
nraoh aooner the Iwrae most luive bcim cxhaujited. Thix did not ent^r 
iala tbe ownor's reckoning, and probably Xixo appUeatluu or whip and spnr 
woold doprira faim of Ute HMftiu of formin); a proper calculation of it^ 

Rooriiw prooeeda finni obntmctioR in sonifi portinn of the respiratory 
oaiial,uiaoReiMwtin1beUn'iix,whi'relhc!r«ia tbu leant room to spiini — thnt 
fluttteginona box being occupied by the luecbaDism of the roiee : n«xt in 
frammcy it i» in the trochoa, bat, in fctct, obstmction anywhere wilt 
praance it. Ur. Blaino, emoting &om a French jonmaliiit, tavf., thnt a 
piecv of ribft&d lodged wiUiin one of the naaal fo«8W produced roaring, 
md tliat tmn the displacement of a molar tooth has been the rupposrd 
esoM of it, Patjpt in tbo ooetrils have bcm accoinpBnied \j^ it. Hr, 
Svwell foond, on an evident cnnw of roaring, an cxoi>to«iK bctwmni tbs two 
fitvt ribe, and pressing npon the trueheft ; and Mr. Ferrirall goca &rtber, 
and aajm that his father repeatedly blistered and fired a horae for bad 
roaiing, and irvco porforatod tbo operation of tmcheotoTnT, and at length 
tba nxriug being ao load when tho boroo wn« ted out of the itnble, that it 
wu painfoJ to h«ar it — the poor animal wan destroyed. No thickening 
of the mombraiM was found, no disease of the larynx or Iraohea ; but the 
fainga wera Iwpatitnd Ihroaghoot the greatvr part of their sabetAOoe, and 
many of thennalkr dirisioDi of tho bronchi were so coraprcnaed, that they 
we>« htfdly perrions.