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Full text of "Horse breeding in theory and practice"

iORSE BREEDING 

IM THEORY AND PRACTICE 



B. Von OETTINGEFS 



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HORSE BREEDING 

IN THEORY AND PRACTICE 




JOHN p. GRt E R 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/horsebreedingiOOoett 



HORSE BREEDING 

IN THEORY AND PRACTICE 



BY 

BURCHARD VON OETTINGEN 

I,ANDSTAI,I.MEISTHR AND DIRECTOR OF THE 
ROYAL STUD OF TRAKEHNEN 



TRANSLATED FROM GERMAN 



LONDON: 
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & CO. 

1909 



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NEW BOLTOti 



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PREFACE. 



THE wish has often been expressed that i^ractical men should make 
known more generally their experiences in horse breeding, but in 
desiring this it is easy to lose sight of the fact, that when a practical 
man commences to write he at once steps out of the bounds of the practical. 

Moreover, it has to be taken into consideration that practical experience 
is only gained bv long years of labour, whilst mere theorists may write 
their works when even quite young and practically without experience, but 
being gifted with criticism, intellectual insight, and inspiration. 1 must 
also point out that mv work at the Trakehnen .Stud has kept me alwavs so 
actively employed that, unfortunately, I have not been able to spare the 
necessary time to go thoroughlv through the large mass of material which 
I have accumulated in the cinirse of man\- years, and to treat same in as 
exhaustive a manner as an expert ought. In writing the last chapter on 
" The Establishment of .Studs " my time was ver\- limited indeed, and I have 
had to be satisfied with simplx' giving an outline. 

The short historical sketch on the development of the Ihoroughbred 
is the result of notes made from racing calendars and stud books, and the 
chapter on the alteration of weight differences is lilcewise the outcome of 
investigations made in the same quarti-r. it was onlv when 1 came to the 
conclusion, from the present work, that there .seemed to be a deterioration 
in the Thoroughbred, commencing fr<ini about the middle of llie nineteenth 
century, that 1 again went through ihe Racing Calendar, and .Stud Book, 
in order to more closely investigate tiiis apparent deterioration. In this way 
originated the chapter comparing the capabilities (Leislungsfahigkeit) of the 
Thor(jughbred of to-da\- with that of an earlier [)eriod, and the deductions 
arising therefrom. The higii regard whicii 1 ha\c for (lie Thoroughbred has 
not stopped, but rather stimulated me to in\estigate and ex]jress candidh- the 
ideas got from studying the present state of the Thoroughbred. 1 have 
taken nothing toi- granleii. '{"he results of these inxcstigations ha\c once 
again vindicated the nature of " I'ublic Opinion "' .so well described by 
Ranke. It has a true .sen.se f>f what is needed, but has not the slightest idea 



vi. Preface. 

of how to supply what is wanted. .As to whether the means which I propose 
for improving the Thoroughbred will be efficacious or not it is indeed difificult 
to prophesy. Experience alone will prove this. 

The chapter on " Inbreeding " is a modest attempt to come to a logical 
conclusion in this interesting, but as yet unexplored, region of thought. 
Without doubt the study of this question is in its veriest infancy. Up to 
the present time there has not been demonstrated the influence exerted by the 
bases of inbreeding, we do not yet know what is due to the own inbreeding 
of the base and what is due to its sex. Is it possible that the great prepotency 
of Melbourne, as shown in his female descendants, should be accounted for 
in the fact that the famous Termagant was the base of Melbourne's 
inbreeding? The computation of " Inbreeding " has entailed much labour, 
as unfortunately the necessary material has neither been collected n(jr 
published anywhere, and I know very well that in this difficult work many 
errors have crept in. 

In the chapter on Heredity, as well as in the practical part on Horse 
Breeding, much has been left out, as I take it for granted that only 
breeders and lovers of horses will read this work, who already know 
and are well acquainted with the elementary laws of horse breeding and 
sport racing. .\.ny man may make a mistake, and I claim this indulgence, 
but it has been mv earnest endeavour to take from the practical what I have 
recognised as right in practice. I do not lay any claims to completeness 
as regards the whole principles of breeding, such as is claimed in several 
books on this subject, as writers of these latter are often led into the error 
of copying ridiculous blunders of other, often injudiciously chosen, writers, 
and in this way spread incorrect teachings in this as in other branches. 

For a period of twelve vears in Trakehnen the long w inter evenings were 
shortened and brightened by these hippological studies, the results of 
which I give to the public in the present work, with the sincere hope that it 
will promote the love of that noble creature, the horse, its breeding, and 
trial on the race course. 

BURCHARD VON OETTINGEN. 

Trakehnen. October 1st, 1907. 



INDEX. 



Part I. Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse 
and its value in the Breeding of Half-breds. 

CHAPTER PAGE 

1. Sources fur Tracing- the Dcvflopiiiciu of ihc Thoroughbred and 

Race Trials in England 3 

2. Development of tiie Tliorougiil)red and Racing Trials in England. 

Most Important Events 9 

3. Origin and Cliange in the Weight Tables, and th ■ Conclusions 

to be drawn therefrom 32 

4. General Obser\ations on the X'aliie of the Thoroughbred for other 

Breeds 50 

5. .V Comparison of what Thoroughbreds ha\c done pre\ioiisl\- and 

w hal they are doing at the present time 101 

G. Conclusions and Pro])ositions as to the Imprcjvement and Breed- 
ing of Thoroughbreds 194 

Part II. Heredity. 

1. General Observations on Ih'redily 209 

2. The Transmission of .\cf|uiied Ch.'iracters 21-'5 

3. The Doctrine of Constan(\- and lndi\idual I'reiiolenc\' .... 220 

4. Inbreeding 22;") 

5. Hereditary Faults 321 

6. The 'Transmission of Coat Colour 329 

7. The .\rt of Mating 333 



viii. Index. 

Part III. The Practical Part of Horse Breeding. 

CHAPTER PAGB 

1. Judging and Treating [breeding Material 339 

(a) Judging Co\ering Stalli(jns 339 

(b) Judging Brood Mares . 343 

(c) Age and Treatment of Covering Stallions 345 

(d) The Stallion whilst Covering " 347 

(e) Age of Brood Mares 350 

(f) Twins 351 

(g) Firstlings 361 

(h) The Treatment of Broud Mares 366 

(i) Covering of Brood Mares 367 

(k) Fertilisation 372 

(1) The Time of Pregnane}' of Brood Mares 374 

(ni) Abortion and Joint-illness 376 

(n) The Birth 380 

(o) Treatment of the Brood .Mare after the Birth 381 

2. The Judging and Treating of Foals 383 

(a) Judging Suckling Foals 383 

(b) Treatment of Suckling Foals up to the time of Weaning . 385 

(c) Treatment of Weanlings 389 

(d) Treatment of the Skin and Hoofs of Weanlings .... 393 

(e) rhe Treatment of Yearlings and Older Foals 397 

3. Training 399 

(a) The Training .Methods 400 

(b) Stable Regulations and Instructions for Rubbing Down 

Horses 406 

(c) Food whilst Training 407 

4. Establishment of Studs 409 

5. Tables for Comparison of Various Measurements 422 

6. Tables showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line 427 



I 



I. 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse and 
its value in the breeding of Half-breds. 



CHAPTER ]. 

Sources for tracing the development of the Thoroughbred 
and Race Trials in England. 



There is no breed in the world which places at the disposal of the 
investigator such an abundant and autiienticated mass of material for the 
examination of the various problems on breeding as does the English 
Thoroughbred, but, unfortunately, up to the present time this material has 
been made very little use of. 

It is to be found chiefly — as far as 1 know — in the following : — 
1. The General Stud Book by James Weatherby (Iveeper of the Match 
Book, and Secretary of the Jockey Club, as successor of Tutting and 
Fawconer). X'olume I. appeared in 1793 
improved and enlarged in 1S91. 
\'olume 



the .5th Edition, \ery much 



•2. .An Inlroducti 



1I..J821. -Ith Ediiion, L89i. 

HI. 1827. 4th ■ ,, 1883. 

IV. 1836. 4th ,, 1899. 

V. 1845. 3rd ,, 1889. 

VI. 1849. 3rd ,, 1881. 

VII. 1853. 3rd ,, 1894. 

VIII. 1857. 2nd ,, 1883. 

IX. 1861. 2nd ,, 1903. 

X. 1865. 2nd ., 1893. 

XI. 1869. 2nd ,, 1904. 

XII. 1873. 

XIII. 1877. 

XIV. 1881. 
XV. 1885. 

XVI. 1889. 

XVI 1. 1893. 

XVIII. 1897. 

XIX. 1901. 

XX. 1905. 

n It) a General Stud Book by James Weatherby had 



already appeared in 1791, consisting of various collections of I'edigrees 
gathered from Racing Calendars and .Newspapers. 



4 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

3. The Turf Register and Sportsman and Breeder's Stud Book by 
William Pick. 

Volume I. appeared in York 1803. 
11 ]805. 

" \\\- " " " loL jbv R.Johnson. 

,, IV. ,, ,, ,, 1867. J - 

In this Turf Register the pedigrees and racing performances of the most 
prominent stallions and mares are very clearly arranged. There are also 
many valuable notes added on Breeding. 

4. The Ancestress of the English Thoroughbred, by Hermann Goos, 
1885. 4th Edition extended by Dr. A. de Chapeaurouge, 1907. 

5. Frentzel's Family Tables of English Thoroughbred Stock, 1889. 

6. Modern Pedigrees by Antwerp and Lamplighter, New York, 1895. 

7. Tables of Pedigrees of Thoroughbred Horses by Ch. Wackerow. 
Volume I., 1900, from the earliest accounts to 1897 inclusive. Volume II., 
1904, from the earliest accounts to 1902 inclusive. 

8. Historical List of all the Plates and Prizes run for on Clifton and 
RawclifTe Ings, also since being moved to Knavesmire, near the city of 
York, etc., appeared in 1748 at York. It contains the Reports of the Races 
at York from 1709 to 1747. 

9. The first Racing Calendar appeared in 1727, and was called : An 
Historical List of all Horse Matches run for in England and Wales, by John 
Cheny, 24 Volumes covering the period from 1727 to 1750. From 1741 the 
Races in Ireland were also included. 

10. After Cheny's death appeared the Continuation by Reginald Heber 
under the same title, 18 Volumes covering the period from 1751 to 1768. 

11. After Heber's death there appeared the Continuation, under the 
title of : The Sporting Calendar, by William Tutting (Keeper of the Match 
Book at Newmarket), and Thomas Fawconer (Secretary of the Jockey Club), 
4 Volumes, covering the period from 1769 to 1772. In the volumes for 1771 
and 1772 the Races in Jamaica are included. 

12. The Continuation appeared under the title of : Racing Calendar, 
edited by James Weatherby (Keeper of the Match Book at Newmarket and 
Secretary of the Jockey Club), 135 Volumes, covering the period from 1773 
to 1907. 

Up to 1800 the Races in Ireland are included, but from 1801 there is 
simply an abstract from the Irish Racing Calendar given, and in 1903 and 
1904 the Races in Ireland are left out altogether. Of Foreign Races are 
included : 1770, the Races in America (Annapolis, Philadelphia and New 
York), 1773, 1776, 1777, the Races in Jamaica; 1776, the Races in France 
at Sablon and Fontainebleau ; and in 1792 and 1793, the Races at Moscow. 
Since 1864 there has always been an Abstract of the important Races on the 



1. Sources for Tr.icirii;' the Development of the Thoroutjhbred, etc. 5 

Continent included. Since the Autumn of 1867 the Hurdle Races have been 
left out, and since July, 1871, the National Hunt Flat Races have been 
omitted. Up to 1840 the Reports on Cock Fighting were included. 

13. Irish Racing Calendar, 118 Volumes, covering the period from 1790 
to 1907. 

14. Turf Annals of York and Doncaster, by John Orton, appeared 1843, 
and contains in one volume the Races at York and Doncaster from 1709 to 
1843. 

1-5. Bailey's Racing Register appeared in 1845 in three thick volumes, 
and gives in a very convenient and lucid manner an abstract of all the great 
Races in England and Ireland from 1709 to 1842. 

16. The Racing Calendar Abridged appeared in 1829, and contains in 
one volume the important Races in England and Ireland from 1709 to 1750. 

17. Pick's Racing Calendar, 49 Volumes, covering the period from 1709 
to 1826, containing all the Races in England and Ireland, appeared first 
under the title of : The Sportsman and Breeder's Vademecum, then as 
Racing Calendar. Since 1803 as The Annual Racing Calendar, since 1811 
as Pick's (.\nnual) Racing Calendar. The lirst Editor, \V. Pick, died in 
1816. 

18. The Sporting Calendar, by John Pond, 18 Volumes, covering the 
period from 1751 to 1768, containing the Races in England and Ireland. 
In the Appendix of the volume for 1751 all the Matches which were held at 
Newmarket from 1718 to 1751 are included. 

19. The Pocket Racing Calendar for the Races in Great Britain from 
1821 to 1840 ( ?) 

20. .A.n Historical List of Horse Matches, Plates and Prizes in Great 
Britain and Ireland, bv B. Walker, 2 Volumes, covering the years 1769 to 
1770. 

21. The Sporting Magazine. First year of circulation, 1792. A 
competing paper appeared in 1839 under the title of " The Sporting 
Review," by Craven, and was amalgamated from 1847 with the " Sporting 
Magazine." Also, the competing papers " The Sportsman " and " New 
Sporting Magazine," appeared in 1831. Since 1855 the " Sporting 
Magazine " appeared with the addition : United with the Sportsman, Sport- 
ing Review, and Sporting Magazine. 

Bailey's Magazine, commencing 1870 (86 Volumes up to and including 
1906), may be considered as a continuation of the Sporting Magazine (156 
Volumes), which finished 1870. 

22. The Steeplechase Calendar. A cf)nseculive chronicle of the Sport 
in Great Britain from the great match over Leicestershire in 1826 to the close 
of 1844, to which is added the Irish Sport from the Autumn of 1842. 
Anonym, London, 1845. 

23. Supplement to the .Steeplechase Calendar. The Sport in (ircat 



5 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

Britain, Ireland and France, from [anuarv, 1845, to the close of the season 
1846, by Corbet. 

The following appeared under the title of : The Steeplechase Calendar, 
etc. The next and last volume by Corbet appeared under the same title, but 
did not include the Races in France. 

24. The Steeplechase Calendar, by Joseph Osborne, 18 Volumes, cover- 
ing the periods from 1848-49 to 1865-66. 

25. The Racing Calendar Steeplechase Past, by Weatherby, 40 
Volumes, covering the periods from 1866-67 to 1907. 

26. The Olde New-Markitt Calendar of Matches, Results and Pro- 
grammes, from 1619 to 1719, by J. B. Muir, 1892. 

27. Raciana, by J. B. Muir, appeared 1890, and gave various interesting 
notes on the few Matches at Newmarket and York, as well as the rider's 
colours. 

28. Gentleman's Magazine, 116 Volumes, covering the period 1731 to 
1846. 

29. The Sportsman's Dictionarv, bv experienced Gentlemen. London, 
1778. 

30. History and Delineation of the Horse in all his varieties, compre- 
hending the appropriate uses, management and progressive improvement 
of each, with a particular investigation of the character of the Racehorse, 
and the business of the Turf, by John Lawrence, 1809. This ran through 
14 Editions. 

31. How to Chase, Ride, Train and Diet both Hunting Horses and 
Running Horses, by Jessis Markham. London, 1599. 

32. The Complete Gamester, or Instructions how to play at Billiards, 
etc., together with all manner of usual and most gentle Games, either at 
Cards or Dice, to which is added the Arts and Mysteries of Riding, Racing, 
Archery and Cock Fighting. 1680. 

33. The Gentleman's New Jockey. Farrier's Approved Guide: con- 
taining the Exactest Rules and Methods for Breeding and Managing Horses 
in order to bring them up in the best manner for Profit, Pleasure, Service 
or Recreation, especially in what relates to Racing or Running, Coursing, 
Travel and War, etc. 3 Editions, 1696. 

34. The Post and the Paddock, by The Druid. London, 1857. 

35. Scott and Sebright, by The Druid. London, 1862. ^ 
86. Silk and Scarlet, by The Druid. London, 1862. 

37. Field and Fern (South), by H. H. Dixon. London, 1865. 

38. Field and Fern (North), by H. H. Dixon. 1865. 

39. Saddle and Sirloin, by The Druid. London, 1870. 

40. Life and Times of The Druid (H. H. Dixon), by Hon. Francis 
Lawley. 2nd Edition, London, 1895. 



1. Sources for Tracing the Development of the Thoroughbred, etc. 7 

41. A Treatise on the Care, 'IVeatment and Traininp of the English 
Racehorse, by R. Darvill. London, 18-28. 

42. History of the British Turf from the Earliest Times to the Present 
Day, by J. Ch.' Whyte. 2 Volumes, 1840. 

4:3. Horse Racing: Its History, and Early Records of the Principal 
and Other Race Meetings. Anonym, 1863. 

44. The History of Newmarket and Annals of the Turf, by J. P. Hore. 
3 Volumes, 1886. 

45. Portraits of Celebrated Race Horses of the Past and Present 
Centuries, by Th. H. Taunton. 4 Volumes, 1887. 

46. The Horse : How to Breed and Rear Him, by W. Day. London, 
1888. 2nd Edition, 1890. 

47. The Racehor.se in Training, by W. Day. London, 1880. 7th 
Edition, 1892. 

48. The Racehorse, by W'arburton. London, 1892. 

49. Racing Life of Lord George Cayendish Bentick, b\ fohn Kent. 
1892. 

■50. Ashgill, or the Life and Times of [ohn Osborne, by J. B. RadclifTe. 
1900. 

51. Breeding Racehorses by the Figure System, compiled by the late 
C. Bruce Lowe, bv W. Allison. London, 1895. Translated into German, 
1897, by V. Kirschy. 

52. The British Thoroughbred Horse : His History and Breeding, 
together with an Exposition of the Figure System, by W. .\llison. London, 
1901. 2nd Edition, 1908. 

53. The Horse Breeder's Handbook, by Joseph Osborne. 1889. 

54. Royal Ascot, its History and its Associations, by G. J. Cowthorne 
and R. S. Herod. 1902. 

55. From Gladiateiir to Persimmon, by Sydenham Dixon. London. 
1901. 

56. The English iurf, by Charles Richardson. London, 1901. 

57. A History of the English Turf, by Th. A. Cook. 3 Volumes, about 
1905. 

58. The British Turf and the Men who haye made it, compiled by the 
" Sporting Life." London, I90G. 

.■)9. On the Laws and Practice of Horse Racing, by .'\dmirai Rous. 
London, 1852. 2nd Issue, 1866. 

60. Horse Racing in England, by Robert Black. London, 1893. 

61. Kingsclere, by John Porter, edited by Bvron Webber. London, 
1890. 



g Trial of the Thoroui^hljn-d on the Racecourse, etc. 

62. Eclipse and O'Kelly. Being a Complete History, so far as is 
known, of that celebrated English Thoroughbred " Eclipse " (1764-1789), 
and of his breeder, the Duke of Cumberland, and of his subsequent owners, 
William A\^ildman, Denis O'Kelly and Andrew O'Kelly, now for the first 
time set forth from the original authorities and family memoranda, by Th. 
A. Cook. London, 1907. 

63. Heroes and Heroines of the Grand National, by Finch Mason. 
London, 1907. 

64. The Romance of the Derby, by Edward Moorhouse. 2 Vols., 
London, 1908. 



CHAPTER U. 

Development of the Thoroughbred and Racing Trials in England. 
Most Important Events. 

Going back to the time when England was ruled by the Romans, Anglo- 
Saxons and Normans, we find that Oriental blood was employed for (he 
purpose of breeding Racehorses in this country. Shortly afterwards the 
Crusades again gave the opportunity of introducing (Oriental blood, and as 
early as 1509-1547 Henry \'I11. had special paddocks made in his stud at 
Hampton Court for the breeding of Racehorses. During the reign of James 
I. (1G03-16-25) the importation of Oriental stallions increased very much, and 
during the reign of Charles II. (1660-] (585) ;-iO-40 Oriental mares, called the 
■'Royal Mares," were brought nwr. We have reason to suppose that u]3 to 
1750 about 60-80 Oriental mares had been imported to England, whilst the 
number of stallions imported from the East was much greater. It seems that 
only a very few of these Eastern stallions and mares were pure bred Arabs. 
The greater part were Berbers and Spaniards, whilst some were Turkish and 
others Persians. Also the home-bred English horse, so much praised by 
Ciesar, and after him by many other writers on this subject, on account of 
its staying powers and speed, contributed very largely to the building up of 
the English Thoroughbred. These native-bred horses in England and Ireland 
had the character of the wild horses of the Steppes, and are mentioned as 
living in the forests as late as the seventeenth century, with the remark that 
they were better and more capable than any other breed in Europe; whilst 
nowhere was there to be found such good, nourishing grass, as in England 
and Ireland (see the Sportsman's Dictionary, 1778). In the fourth part of 
the first volume of the " General Stud Book " there are 102 Eastern stallions 
given which have been used in the building up (if ihe Thoroughbred, but 
besides these there were many otiier Eastern stallions imported and used 
by breeders in England and Ireland (although the results, as far as the 
Thoroughbred is concerned, were probably very meagre), as can be gathered, 
for instance, from the publications in the old Racing Calendars. Of the 102 
Oriental stallions which, according to the Stud Book, were imported, about 
65 were imported before the famous Godolphin Arabian. It is worthy of 
note that, of the many Oriental stallions which were brought over to England 



_[() Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

after the famous Godolphin Arabian (probably a Berber), imported via Paris 
in 1730, none of them exercised any striking influence on the Thoroughbred 
of that time. Of the Oriental stallions imported from 1730 to the end of the 
eighteenth century (at least 40), probably the Cullen Arabian, imported 
in 1745, was the best, and even he did not leave behind any son of note, 
although many of Cullen Arabian's children won races, amongst which was 
Exotic, born 1756, up to the age of twelve inclusive, and although a son, 
called Camillus, born 1748, begot some race-winners, vet there has been 
nothing imperishable left behind. Of the many daughters of Cullen Arabian 
there are only two out of Lady Thigh in Fam. 12 a, one Foundation mare in 
Fam. 2 (born 1756), and one Foundation mare in Fam. 42 (born 1760) which 
can be said to have left an-\-thing lasting as breeding stock. 

In the following list are given the 36 Oriental stallions which have played 
a very conspicuous part in the breeding of Thoroughbreds, and which occur 
very often in the pedigree of every Thoroughbred of our time. 

We give below a list showing the probable year of their importation : — 

1. 1635 Lord Fairfax's Morocco Barb. 

2. 1660 Place's White Turk. 

3. 1665 Dodsworth's (Mother imported in foal). 

4. 1670 The Darcy Yellow Turk. 

5. 1675 The Darcy White Turk, or Sedbury Turk. 

6. 1680 The White-Legged Lowther Barb. 

7. 1680 Shaftesbury Turk. 

8. 1680 The Helmsley Turk. 

9. 1687 The Stradling, or Lister Turk. 

10. 1689 The Byerly Turk. 

11. 1689 Oglethorpe Arabian. 

12. 1690 Pulleine's Chestnut Arabian. 

13. 1690 Leede's Arabian. 

14. 1690 Fen wick Barb. 

15. 1690 The Taffolet, or Morocco Barb. 

16. 1695 The Marshall, or Selaby Turk. 

17. 1700 Curvven's Bay Barb, or Pelham's Barh. 

18. 1704 Holderness Turk. 

19. 1706 Chillaby. 

20. 1706 Darley's Arabian. 

21. 1707 The St. Victor Barb. 

22. 1708 Honywood's .Arabian, or William's Turk. 9 

23. 1708 The .\kaster Turk. 

24. 1709 Alcock's Arabian. 

25. 1711 Bethel's Arabian. 

26. 1712 The Strickland's Turk, or Carlisle's Turk or Barb. 

27. 1713 Woodstock, or William's Arabian. 

28. 1716 Bassett's Oxford Bloody-Shouldered Arabian. 



2. Development of tlu- Tlioroughbred, elc. H 

29. 1717 Wvnn Arabian. 

30. 1718 Hall Arabian. 

31. 1719 The Belgrade Turk. 

32. 1720 Cyprus Arabian. 

33. 1723 Lonsdale Hay Arabian. 

34. 1723 Hutton's or'Mul.so Bay Turk. 

35. 1725 Bloody Buttocks. 

36. 1730 Godolphin Arabian. 

Horse-racing as a popular amusement was indulged in even in the times 
of the Romans, and during the four years which King Severus passed at 
York (206-210) the Roman soldiers arranged races with Arabian horses at 
W'etherby, near York. King Athelstan (924-940) was presented with race- 
horses, which had been bred in Germany, b\' his brotiier-in-law, Hugo 
Capet, Duke of Burgundv, later King of France. 

The first race in England of which we iiave a reliable description took 
place in 1377. Unfortunately, the place is not stated. 

This race was a match between the Prince of Wales (later Richard II.) 
and the Earl of .Vrundel. In all probabilit\- it took place at Newmarket. 
But already in 1309, and probably earlier, races (tournaments) had taken 
place at Newmarket (founded 1226, after the Plague had destroved the (jld 
market). Further, according to reliable information, races took place at the 
following periods : — 

1511 at Chester (the Silver Bell, since 1609 Silver Cup). 

1552 at Hattinglon (Scotland). 

1574 

1585 

1.587 

1588 

1576 at Richmond. 

1585 at Salisbury. The Earl of Cumberland won the Golden Bell in a 
tiiree-mile race. 

1590 at St. James' Park. 

1590 at York. 

1595 at Doncaster. 

1599 at Carlisle (tiie Silver Bell). 

1601 at Teviotdale. 

1602 at Huntingdon. 

1605 at Newmarket in presence of James I. (1603-1625). 

1607 in November a hunting match or steeplechase took place at 
Huntingdon, between Lord Haddington and Lord Sheffield. 

1617 at Woodham .Moor, and at Lincoln races for the Cup took place in 
the presence of the King, James 1. 

1620 at Paisley (.Scotland), the Silver Bell. 

1632 at Harleston (Silver Cup). 



at Croydon in presence of the Oueen. 



12 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

1634 The establishment of the Gold Cup at Newmarket, the first winner of 
which, in 1719, was the Duke of Rutland's mare, Brown Betty, born 1713, 
b)- Basto (see Fam. 5). 

1661 at Epsom, formerly called Banstead Downs, in the presence of King 
Charles II. (1660-1685). Epsom was formerly famous as a health resort on 
accoimt of the healins; properties of its waters, and race meetings were held 
there even in the reign of James I. (1603-162-5). 

1672 at Liverpool. 

Towards the end of the seventeenth centurv race meetings were held 
regularly at Newcastle, Northamptonshire, Winchester, and many other 
places, and somewhere about 1635 a match, described in detail, took place 
in Hyde Park, London. 

From 1654 to 1658 races were forbidden by Oliver Cromwell for political 
reasons, although he himself was a breeder and owner of racehorses. 

There exists an exact register of the horses at the time when the Royal 
Tuttbury Stud in Staffordshire was handed over to the Parliament in 1649. 

There was in the Royal Stud at that time : 
•23 Brood Mares with 
23 Sucking Foals, 

15 Brood Mares without Foals, 

22 One-year-old Colts and Fillies, 
17 Two-year-old Colts and Fillies, 

16 Three-year-old Colts and Fillies, 

23 Four-year and older horses. 

After the Restoration, Charles IL (1600-1085) established in 1665 the so- 
called King's Prizes, known as The King's (Queen's) or His Majesty's 
Plates — also called the Royal Plates. Run over the new round course at 
Newmarket, R. C.= 3 miles, 6 furlongs, 93 yards (now R. C. = 3 miles, 4 
furlongs, 187 yards), with heats under 12 stone. 

These King's Plates have played an important part in the testing of the 
breeding material, and thev still exist, but without heats, and over shorter 
distances. 

Under the reign of James IL (1685-1688), Gentlemen's Races took place 
in Newmarket, as, for instance, in 1688, under 12 stone, over 4 miles, with 
3 heats. Towards the end of the seventeenth century there were races with 
conditions for sale. 

It can safely be taken for granted that as earlv as the beginning of the 
seventeenth century regular races were held at different places for the purpose 
of testing breeding material, whilst the races which took place before this 
time were more in the character of popular amusement. 

The first breeding tests with which we are acquainted arose from matches, 
about which we have an account in the collection published by Muir in 1892, 



2. Development of tlie Thoroughbred, etc. 13 

covering the period ]fil9 to 1719, but, unfortunately, in many cases the 
names of the horses are not given. 

The riders at that period were often Gentlemen, and sometimes even 
Kings. Charles II. and \\'illiam III. ran and won many races. Of one 
race in 1674 the report reads as follows : — 

" Yesterday His Majesty (Charles II.) rode himself three heates and a 
course, and won the Plate — all fower were hard and nt^er ridden, and I do 
assure you the King wonn by good horsemanshipp " (see Olde New-Markitt 
Calendar, by Muir, page 19). 

The distances were generally 4-6 miles, 1681 once 10 miles, 1708 once 12 
miles. Most of the races had to be run and won twice, that is to say, the 
races were run with " heats." The age of the horses on the racecourse was 
generallv over 6 years, the weight usually 8-l'2 stone. 

Newmarket was the chief racing place for all the best matches, and was 
famed as such, so that even Peter the Great expressed the wish to become 
acquainted with this sporting place. 

In 1698 the Czar visited Newmarket in the company of William III., and 
participated in a race meeting at that place. 

The following horses were winners of the races of that earh' period, and 
were used for the building up of the Thoroughbred : — 

1. Old Careless, born about 1()90, bv Spanker and a Barb mare, ran 
and won 1698-1702 at Newmarket, over 5 and 6 miles. 

2. Honeycomb Punch, born about 1692, by Taffolet or Morocco Barb, 
ran and won 1699 at Newmarket, over 4 miles. 

3. Basto, born 1702, by Byerly Turk and the Bay Peg, ran and won 
several times 1708 and 1709 at Newmarket, over 4 miles. 

4. Duke of Bolton's Bay Bolton, born 1705, by Grey Hautboy — 
Makeless, ran and won 1712 and 171.3 at Newmarket, over 5 and 6 miles, 
having already won the Gold Cup over 4 miles at York in 1710. 

5. Snail, born about 1710, by \\'hynot, ran several times at Newmarket 
in 1718, over 4 miles. 

6. Flying Chiiders, born 1711, by Darley's .Vrabian and Betty Leedes, 
won as a six, seven and eight-year-old, five matches at Newmarket, over 4 
and 6 miles. 

It was only after the year 1728 that a few races were arranged for four- 
year-olds; at Ilambledon, 3 miles without heats, 10 stone, and at Scar- 
borough, 2 miles with heats, 9 stone. 

In 1732 Blacklegs won a match as a four-vear-old. 

The first four-year-old winner of importance, as regards breeding, was 
Starling in 1727, by Bay Bolton (at Ilambleton). 

A sweepstakes for four-year-olds at Newmarket look place in October, 
1730, and since 1734 the same were arranged several vears in succession, 
4 miles without heats, 8 stone, -5 lbs. 



24 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

In order to give the small horses more chance in the races, in 1713, 
according to authority (but probably even earlier), the weights in special races 
were fixed according to the size of the horse. The races were called the 
" Give and Take Plates." Before 1750 the standard measurement for a horse 
was 12 hands high=122 cm.; normal weight 5 stone, and for each increase 
of 1 inch ^ stone more. Also 7 lbs. was allowed for each year under seven 
years. In 1751 therp were fifteen races for the King's Plates, and likewise 
fifteen for the Give and Take Plates. Whilst the races for the King's Plates 
are still in existence, the Give and Take Plates gradually disappeared in the 
first half of the nineteenth century. The qualifications for these latter were 
published for the last time in the Racing Calendar of 1858. In the eighteenth 
century these races were important, in so far as several of the winners of the 
Give and Take Plates were the source from which came the material for 
the building up of the Thoroughbred. They were as follows: — 

1. Grey Grantham, born about 1710, by Brownlock Turk, won 1717 at 
Newmarket. 

2. Y. Cartouch, born 1731, by Cartouch, won four times as a five, 
seven and eight-year-old. 

3. Squirt, born 1733, by Bartlet's Childers, won as a seven-year-old in 
Give and Take Plates with heats. 

4. Ankaster Starling, born 1738, b\- Old Starling, won as a nine-year- 
old twice, as a seven-year-old unplaced. 

5. Dormouse, born 1738, bv Godolpiiin .Arabian, won as an eight to 
eleven-year-old, four races with heats. 

6. Cub, born 1739, by Fox, won as an eight-year-old once w ith heats. 

7. Torismond, born 1739, by Old Starling, won as a seven-year-old 
once. 

8. Othello, born 1743, b\ Crab, won as an eight-}ear-old. 

The races for the King's Plates, established by Charles II. in 1665, 
formed, from about the beginning of the nineteenth century, the main trials 
of young Thoroughbreds, corresponding to our present so-called fi\'e classical 
races — Derby, Oaks, St. Leger, 1,000 and 2,000 Guineas Stakes. At first 
the King's Plates were only for six-year-olds under 12 stone, and over 4 miles 
with heats, but later both older and younger horses were admitted. Since 
1750 a part of the King's Plates were also open for four and five-year-olds, 
over 2 miles with heats, under 9 and 10 stone respectively. 

These King's Plates at first consisted of siher dishes of the value of ^TOO, 
upon each of which was engraved the name and pedigree of the w inner. It 
was not until the time of George I. (1714-1727) that, instead of these prizes, 
money prizes were given. This mone)' was partly raised by gentlemen who 
themselves had no racehorses, with the express idea that this money should 
go to the Crown, for races over long distances with heats and heavv weights, 
in order to improve the breed of Hunters, and not merely for breeding horses 



2. Development of the Thoroughbred, etc. 15 

with beautiful forms and great speed. (See the Gentleman's Magazine, 
April, 1739.) 

The most prominent winners of the King's Plates up to 1850, as well as 
those which have played an important part for breeding purposes, were the 
following : — 

1. Coneyskins 1712 by Lister Turk. 

■2. Cade 1734 by Godolpliin Arabian. 

3. Regulus 1739 by tiodolphin Arabian. 

4. Tartar 1743 by Herod. 

o. Shakespeare 1745 by Hobgoblin. 

6. Eclipse 1764 by Marske (or Shakespeare). 

7. Conductor 1767 by Matchem. 

8. Woodpecker 1773 by Herod. 

9. Highflyer 1774 by Herod. 

10. Mercury 1778 by Eclipse. 

11. Waxy 1790 by PotSos. 

T2. Gohanna 1790 by Mercury. 

13. Stamford 1794 by Sir Peter. 

14. Sorcerer 1796 by Trumpalor. 

15. Dick Andrews 1797 by Joe Andrews. 

16. Penelope 1798 by Trumpator. 

17. Orville 1799 bv 13eningbrougli. 

18. Walton 1799 bv Sir Peter. 

19. Sir Paul 180-i by Sir Paul. 
•20. Whalebone 1807 by Waxy. 

21. Catton 1809 by Golumpus. 

22. Master Henry 1815 by Orville. 

23. Langar 1817 b\' Seiini. 

24. Guiccioli 1822 'by Bob Booty. 

25. Little Red Rover 1827 by Tramp. 

26. Priam 1828 by Emilius. 

27. Birdcatcher 1833 by Sir Hercules. 

28. \'enison 1833 by Partisan 

29. Bees Wing 1833 by Dr. Syntax. 

30. Harkaway 1834 by Economist. 

31. Lanercost 1835 bv Liverpof)l. 

32. Clarion 1836 by -Sultan. 

3.3. Alice Hawthorn 1 8:38 by Muley Mnloch. 

34. The Cure 1641 by Physician. 

35. Elleidale 1844 by Lanercost. 

36. Canezou 1845 by Melbourne. 

37. Fiatcatcher 1845 by Touchslone. 

38. Kingston 1849 b\- X'cnison. 

39. '! orment 1850 bv Alarm. 

40. Rataplan 18.50 by The Baron. 



X6 Trial of the Thoroutjhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

The racing trials for iiorses in matches, which had been very costly for 
the owners, gradually became cheaper through tiie Sweepstakes, which were 
introduced at the beginning of the eighteenth century, and also by the 
increase of different Plates. In this way, and through the Handicaps, which 
were introduced in 1791, the participation in racing sport grew very consider- 
ably, less rich gentlemen now being able to participate in it. According 
to the statement of .'\dmiral Rous, there were for instance : — 

Matches. Sweepstakes. Plates. 

176-2 .... 19 88 205 

1807 . . . . 189 203 269 

1843 .... 86 897 191 

The further development of racing sport in England and Ireland can be 
seen from the following dates : — 

1709. The first Racing Report of the Races at Clifton and RawclifTe 
Ings, York (see Bailey's Racing Register). Gold Cup, 4 miles with heats, 
12 stone — 4 starters. Since 1731 the races take place at Knavesmire, York. 

1710. Bay Bolton won the Gold Cup at York over 4 miles with heats, as 
a five-year-old, under 12 stone, the weight for six-year-olds. 

1711. On the 11th of August, the opening of the new racecourse at Ascot 
in the presence of Queen .Vnn (1702-1714). A ;^50 Plate for six-year-olds, 
12 stone, 4 miles with heats — 7 starters. Winner, Duke of St. .\ibans' 
chestnut colt, Doctor. 

The racing reports gathered from newspapers and letters, covering the 
periods 1711, 1712,1713, 1720, 1722,1724 ana 1726, about the races held at 
Ascot, were first published in 1902 (see Royal Ascot, its History and 
Associations, by G. J. Cawthorne and R. S. Herod). 

1712. First race for five-year-old colts at York. The Ladies' Plate, 
10 stone, 4 miles without heats. The proposition of this race, later called the 
Great Subscription, remained unchanged until 1758, that is to say, they 
remained unaltered for a period of 49 years. Since 1759 only the weight was 
reduced to 9 stone. 

1715. First race for five-year-old mares at (Black) Hambleton. His 
Majesty's Gold Cup, 10 stone, 4 miles without heats — 15 starters. This race 
had always stronger fields than that for five-year-old colts at York. 1716, 12 
starters (winner, Brocklesby Betty, foundation dam of Fam. 23); 1717, 21 
starters; 1718, 19 starters; 1719, 31 starters; 1720, 18 starters ; 1721, 20 
starters; 1722, 22 starters; 1723, 19 starters; 1724, 26 starters. The 
proposition of this race remained unchanged, with the exception of the name, 
as long as the races were run at Hambleton, that is, up to 1775. After 1776, 
when these races took place at York, the racing propositions for three-years 
remained the same as for five-year-old mares; 10 stone, 4 miles — that is to 
say, they remained unaltered for a period of 64 years. 

1716. First racing report of the races which took place at Newmarket 



'2 Development of the Thorouyhbied, etc. 17 

(apart from the matclies from 1619 to 1719, which have already been men- 
tioned above, and in tiie special collection b\- Muir). 

1719. Bonny Black, foundation mare of the Fam. 39, won the Gold Cup 
at Hambleton as a four-year-old under 10 stone, at the weight for five-year- 
olds, over 4 miles, in a field of 31 starters. Bonny Black had already won a 
match as a three-year-old at Newmarket. 

1725. First racing report of the races at Riciimond. 

1727. On the 12th of March, Trcgonwell Frampton, Manager of the 
Royal Racing Stables under William 111., Queen Ann, George I. and 
George II. died, at the age of 86. He was called " The Father of the Turf," 
and was interred at Newmarket. 

1727. Appeared the first Racing Calendar, under the title of: "An 
Historical List of all Horse Matches and of all the Plates and Prizes run 
for in England and in Wales (of the value of ;i{^10 or upwards) in 1727," by 
John Cheny. From this year there has appeared regularly up to the present 
time a Yearly Racing Calendar. In the first Racing Calendar were included 
the races run at 112 places, amongst which the following are well known 
to-dav : Ascot Heath, Epsom, Hambleton, Liverpool, Nottingham, Rich- 
mond, Lewes, Lincoln, Ipswich, Stamford, Oxford, Peterborough, 
Winchester, York. 

1728. First race for four-year-olds at Hambleton, Bishop Auckland, and 
Hunmanbv, at Hambleton, 10 stone, 3 miles — 1-5 starters; 1729, 13 starters; 
1730, 17 starters; 1731, 15 starters; winner, Old Starling, born 1727 by Bay 
Bolton, first four-year-old winner which played an important part in the 
breeding of the Thoroughbred, and shortly afterwards in the first years of 
these races for four-year-olds the following are noteworthy : — 

Sedbury 1734 by Partner (won at Hambleton). 
Fox 1735 by Partner (won at Malton). 
Traveller 1735 l)y Partner (won at HanibicKjn). 

17.30. First race for four-vear-olds at Xcwmarket, S stone, 5 lbs., 4 miles 
— 4 starters. 

First racing reports in the Racing Calendar of the races run at : 

1728. Doncaster. 

1729. Chester. 
1731. Canterbur\-. 
1733. Manchester. 

1741. Curragh of Kildare (Ireland). 

From 1741 no races could be held with a prize of less than ^50, excepting 
the cases where the prizes were specially bequeathed (i.e., left as bequests). 
.\t the same time the following weights were agreed upon for the " King's 

Plates " : — 

For five-vear-olds 10 stone. 
For six-vear-olds 11 stone. 
For seven-year-olds 12 stone. 

c 



"[g Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

1750. jockey Club established at Newmarket. 

1751. 15 King's Plates were run for in England as follows: — 
10 for six-year-olds, 12 stone, 4 miles with heats. 

1 for five-year-olds, 10 stone, i miles with heats. 
1 for four-year-olds, 9 stone, 2 miles with heats. 

1 for four-year-olds and older, 4 miles with heats. 

2 for five-year-old mares, 10 stone, 4 miles with heats. 
15 Give and Take Plates. 

In Ireland : 3 King's Plates, 4 miles with heats. 
Altogether there ran in England and Ireland 681 horses, of which 
winners were : — 

21 four-year-olds. 

34 five-year-olds. 

26 six-year-olds. 

36 older. 

64 age unknown. 
According to the Sporting Calendar b\- John Pond, onlv 490 horses ran, 
of which winners were : — 

IS four-year-olds. 

33 five-year-olds. 

24 six-vear-olds. 

45 older. •' 

12 in Give and Take Plates. 

1752. First known steeplechase match in Ireland over 4i miles, between 
Mr. O'Callagnan and Mr. Edmund Blake. 

1756. P'irst race for three-\'ear-oId colts, mares and geldings, on the 
4th of October at Newmarket — 2 miles, 8 stone, 7 lbs. During the next 
thirteen years this was the only race for three-year-olds, and there were 
always good fields. 
There were run : 

18 King's Plates in England. 
5 King's Plates in Ireland. 
There ran altogether, in England and Ireland, 924 horses — 779 in 
England and 145 in Ireland — of which winners were : 

1 three-year-old. 
45 four-year-olds. 

45 five-year-olds. 

33 si.x-year-olds. 
49 older. 
73 age unknown. 
1760. The establishment of Tattersall's in London by Richard Tattersall, 
who in 1779 bought Highflyer for ^,'2,500, and thereby laid the foundation 
of his fortune. 



2. OevL'Iopiutnt uf lliu ThuiDii^'hbred, clc. 19 

17G2. Second Orlnbcr Meeting at Xewmarket. 

1763. First winner in the rare for three-year-olds which played an 
important part for bn-eclint: purposes, viz., \Mrago (see Fam. 9, dam of 
Hollandaise L.). 

1764. On the 1st of April Fciipse was Ijnrn in the Duke of 
Cumberland's stud at Windsor (born 1721, died 17(')5), wliere already Crab, 
Marske and Herod iiad been born and kept as stallions. 

1765. First race for three-\ear-olds in Ireland; Scplcniber, Curragh. 
'2 miles; 7 stone, 7 lbs. 

1766. The first Classical Cup-Race, which is still run at the present 
time : (Gold) Cup at Doncaster, at first for five-year-olds and older, 4 miles 
with heats; since 1772 for four-year-olds and older, 4 miles without heats; 
since 1786 for three-year-olds and older, 4 miles; since 182-5, 2 miles, .5 
furlongs; and since 1891 to the present time, 2 miles. 

1771. July Houghton and Craven Meeting in Newmarket. For the first 
time the Craven (Trial) Stakes for three-year-olds and over, about 1\ mile- — 
a very popular race, with very strong fields. For instance : 177;"), 29 starters; 
1776, 2G starters; 1777, 29 starters; 1778, 29 starters. Up to 1812 no three- 
vear-old was able to win the race. At the beginning there were many 
classical winners, viz. : Pantaloon, \\'oodpecker (three times), Pot8os, 
Buzzard (twice), Hambletonian (twice), Selim, Rubens, and others. Since 
1878 the race has been only for three-year-olds, over 1 mile. 

1771 and 1772. Races in Jamaica were included in the S{)orling 
Calendar. 

177.3. First volume of the Racing Calendar, by \\'eatherby, including 
also the races in Jamaica. 

I'irst race for two-vear-olds and older al Xewmarkei in Xoxcmbcr, but 
in which )W hvo-y ear-olds took part. 

Two matches between two-year-olds and four-\- car-olds at X'ew inarkcl, of 
which the two-year-old colt Baby won, over 4 miles. 

Sir Ch. Bunbury (since 1768 Steward, the First Dictator of the Turf, 
born 1740, died lcS21), Lord Bolingbroke and Mr. J. Shafto were the 
Stewards who had already sanctioned ihc races for I wo-year-olds in 1770, 
about which there were very different opinions. 

19 King's Plates in I'ingland, of which were: 

7 for six-vear-olds ; 12 stone; I miles willi heats. 
1 ,, six-year-olds; 12 stone; 3^ miles with heats. 
1 ,. fi ve-}ear-olds ; 10 stone; 4 miles with heats. 
1 ,, five-year-olds; 10 stone; .'i miles with heais. 

1 ,, five-vear-olds ; 9 stone; 3 miles with heats. 

2 ,, five-\ear-olds ; <S^ stone; 3 miles with heats. 
1 ,, four-year-olds; 9 stone; 2\ miles with heats. 
1 ,, four-vear-filds and over; I miles with heats. 



20 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

1 for five-year-old mares; 10 stone; 3j miles without heats. 
1 ,, five-year-old mares; 9 stone; 1 miles with heats. 

1 ,, four-year-old mares; 8|^ stone; 2 miles with heats. 
10 King's Plates in Ireland, of which were : 

6 over 4 miles with heats. 

2 without heats. 

Altogether there ran l,0fi9 horses in England and '206 horses in Ireland. 

1774. By special command of the King, from 1774 all King's Plates 
were to be run at York without heats. 

1775. October, Newmarket, 1 mile match, one three-j-ear-old, 8i stone, 
beat a two-year-old, Fron ti no, 6|^ stone. 

1776. In the Racing Calendar, the races in France (at Sablon and 
Fontainebleau), as well as those in Jamaica, were specified. 

From this time onward all races at Newmarket were to be run without 
heats. 

First race for two-year-olds October, Newmarket; h mile; 7 stone, 
10 lbs. ; 3 starters. Sweepstakes of £?)Q for each. 

First St. Leger (convened as a sweepstakes) at Doncaster; 2 miles, 
colts, 8 stone; fillies, 7 stone, 12 lbs. The distances were later: Since 
1806, 1 mile, 6 furlongs, 193 yards; since 1826, 1 mile, 6 furlongs, 132 yards. 
Weights since : 

1790. 8 stone, 2 lbs., and 8 stone respectively. 
1826. 8 stone, 6 lbs., and 8 stone, 3 lbs. respectively. 
1839. 8 stone, 7 lbs., and 8 stone, 2 lbs. ,, 

1862. 8 stone, 10 lbs., and 8 stone, 5 lbs. 
1884. 9 stone, lbs., and 8 stone, 11 lbs. ,, 

1777. The races in Jamaica were specified in the Racing Calendar. 
The first winner in a race for three-year-olds which had an important 

bearing on breeding, viz., Highflyer. 

1778. First St. Leger under this name at Doncaster — 8 starters. Named 
after Lieut. -General Anthonv St. Leger, of Park Hill, neighbour and friend 
of the Marquis of Rockingham, who became Prime Minister in 1782, and 
owner of Alabaculia, which was the first winner of the St. Leger, 1776. 

1779. First Oaks, on Friday, May 14th, at Epsom ; 8 stone, 4 lbs. ; IJ 
miles — 12 starters. Named after the estate belonging to Lord Derby, called 
the " Oaks," not far from Epsom. 

Distance since 1872 : 1\ miles and 29 yards. * 

Weight since : 

1787. 8 stone. 

1808. 8 stone, 4 lbs. 

1842. 8 stone, 7 lbs. 

1862. 8 stone, 10 lbs. 

1892. 9 stone. 



2. neveIo[)nipnt of the Thorouj^Iibrcd, etc. 21 

1780. First Derby, on Wednesday, the 4th of May, at Epsom. 

Colts, 8 stone; fillies, 7 stone, 11 lbs.; 1 mile — 9 starters. 
The distances : 

Since 1784. li miles. 

,, 187-2. IJ miles and -Ji) yards. 
Weights since : 

1784. 8 stone, 3 lbs., and 8 stone respectively. 
1801. 8 stone, 3 lbs., and 7 stone, Ti lbs. respectively. 
1803. 8 stone, -5 lbs., and 8 stone respectively. 

1807. 8 stone, 7 lbs., and 8 stone, 3 lbs. respectively. 

1808. 8 stone, 7 lbs., and 8 stone, -2 lbs. ,, 
1862. 8 stone, 10 lbs., and 8 stone, 5 lbs. 
1884. 9 stone, and 8 stone, 9 lbs., respectively. 

The greater number of the races at Epsom were still run with heats. 

October, Newmarket, three races for two-year-olds; one for fillies only, 
7J stone; and two for colts and fillies, distance 1 mile, iieside these, several 
other races for two-year-olds and over were held. 

1781. 19 King's Plates in England. 
12 King's Plates in Ireland. 

Only 8 of these were run without heats, and 13 over 4 miles with heats. 
Altogether 1,069 horses ran in England and Ireland. The winners were : 

9 two-year-olds. 
77 three-year-olds. 
100 four-year-olds. 
58 five-year-olds. 
•38 si.x-year-olds. 
39 older. 

30 age not known. 
."Xmcjugst the two-^ear-old winners was Assassin, winner of the next 
year's Derby, and also Ceres, winner of next \ear's Oaks. 

Afterwards (in 1785) Fidget won three races as a two-year-old, and 
later became sire of the nameless Derby winner of 1797. Besides this. 
Wren won five races as a two-year-old, and in 1790 became the dam of 
Bellisima, winner of the Oaks. At this time ihe races for two-year-olds 
became very popular. 

1786. First classical race for two-year-olds : July Stakes at Newmarket. 
Colts, 8 stone, 2 lbs; fillies, 8 stone; offspring of Eclipse or Highflyer, 
3 lbs. extra. (This extra weight for Eclipse and Highflyer's oflspring was 
customary in many other races, just as at an earlier period Herod's ofTspring 
had to carry 3 lbs. extra). Distance, T. Y. O. C. = o furlongs, 136 yards = 
1,130 m. — 7 starters. 

1790. The first races in Ireland for two and three-year-olds together. 
First volume of the Irish Racing Calendar. 



22 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

1791. First Handicap: The Oatlands Stakes, at Ascot; 2 miles — 19 
starters. Prize, 2,950 Guineas. Winner, Prince of Wales' six-year-old, 
Baronet, 8 stone, 4 lbs. The famous Escape, six-year-old, 9 stone, 10 lbs., 
not placed. The three-year-old Vermin, 5 stone, 3 lbs., had the lightest 
weight, and started as favourite. The race was very popular, and there must 
have been about 40,000 people at Ascot. The following year this Handicap 
was removed to Newmarket, and in 1870 was won by the three-year-old, 
Adonis, 7 stone, 2 lbs., over the Cambridgeshire course. In 1804 it was 
won by Penelope, a six-year-old, 9 stone, 1 lb. 

1791. \'eterinary School founded in London by Charles Vial de 
Saintbel, a Frenchman, who became known in England through the 
dissection which he made of Eclipse in 1789, and the publicity caused by 
same. He was made first Professor of the Veterinary College of London. 

1791. First race for two-year-olds in Ireland (at Ennis) ; f mile. There 
w-as also a race for two-year-olds in the following year at Curragh. 

First match with yearlings, October, Newmarket ; 8 stone. Distance, 
Y. C.= 2 furlongs, 147 yards=.524 m. \\'inner, the one-eyed grey mare of 
Mercury — Herod, which ran once again as a two-year-old not placed, then 
up to 14 years was used as a riding and carriage horse. After that gave 
birth to nine foals, amongst which were three foundation mares of the Fam. 
5 b. She was foundation dam of the Marigold, and when she was 27 bore her 
last foal. 

The yearling, Cash (later Ariel), b}' Ready Rhino — Herod, won two 
matches in October at Newmarket against three-year-olds. Distance, Y. C. 

The racing of yearlings was first ofticially forbidden in 1876. 

The two-year-old, Anthony, (1789) by Diomed and the Golden Rose, 
ran fourteen races and won in eleven (including one w. o.). 

1792. Three races in Moscow, Russia, were included in the Racing 
Calendar. 

First known steeplechase in Leicester, over 8 miles. 

1793. First j-ear's circulation of the Sporting Magazine. 

From this date the lengths of the different courses at Newmarket were 
stated. 

First race for yearlings, sweepstakes, at Newmarket, October; 8 stone, 
2 lbs. Distance, Y. C. — 3 starters. 

Besides this, two matches took place between yearlings. 

Already in April a race had taken place at Newmarket for two-year-olds, 
7 stone, 4 lbs. Distance, J mile — I starters. 

22 King's Plates in England, and 13 in Ireland, of which 16 were over 
4 miles with heats, and only 8 were over 2 to 4 miles without heats. 

Altogether there ran in England and Ireland 923 horses. Winners were : 

3 one-year-olds. 
28 two-year-olds. 



2. Development of the Thoroughbred, etc. 23 



'J;j tliree-ycar-olds. 
79 foiir-\ear-()lds. 



45 fivc-vcar-nlds. 
84 six-vpar-olds. 
88 older. 
.'id age unl<nci\\ ii. 
Also, there were specified in tlie Rariny Calendar three races which were 
lun at Moscow (the eiijht-\ear-old (irev Dionied, by Diomed, won the 
Cup Prize, over 4 miles with heats). 

First volume of the General Stud Book. 

1795. One sweepstakes for yearlings at Newmarket, October; 8 stone, 
•2 lbs. Distance, Y. C. 

In consequence of the political unrest of the period, the breeding of 
Thoroughbreds and racing trials was neglected. It was not until after 1815 
that it again commenced to recover. 

On account of the Rexolution, a part of the races in Ireland did not take 
place. In the linglish Racing Calendar it is stated, erroneously, that no 
races were held, but some, as a matter of fact, did take place. In Ireland, 
the Racing Calendar for 1798 and 1799 appeared later in one volume. 

1799. On the ioth of March, at Newmarket, took place the famous match 
between Hambletonian, 8 stone, 3 lbs., and Diamond, 8 stone; distance, 
B. C. = 4 miles, I furlong, 138 yards. Both seven-}'ear-olds. Hambletonian 
won in 7J minutes. 

1800. In September, at Doncaster, race for t\\o-\ear-old C(jlts, 1| 
miles (later 1 mile) ; 8 stone. 

1802. I'irst Racing Report, about the three days' meeting at Goodwood. 

1804. The famous match for lOUO Guineas on the 'J5th of August, at 
\'ork. Over 4 miles, without regard tcj weight: Mr. IHint's Brown I'lmrn- 
ville, seven-year-old, by X'olunteer. Ridden by the ow ner. — Colonel lliorn- 
ton's Vinagarella, about twenty-year-old, by Woodpecker. Rider, .Mrs. 
Ihornton. In the last mile the aged Vinagarella became lame, and iherelore 
Brown Thornville won easily in 9 minutes, 59 seconds. 

1S05. On the 24th of .August, at York, the famous match for 700 
Guineas and a Cuj); 2 miles: Colonel Ihornton's six-year-old, Louis<-, by 
Pegasus, !) stone, (i lbs., rider, .Mrs. Ihornton, and Mr. Blomfield's six-\ car- 
old, Allegro, bv Pegasus, 13 stone, (1 lbs., rider, I-'rancis Buckle. Amidst 
till' unequalled enthusiasm of a iremendous crowd of spectators, such as had 
never before been seen at York, the famous ladv rider beat I'Vancis Buckle, 
the most noted jockey of that period, after a very e.xciting struggle, by half a 
neck. 

1807. Fitzwilliam Stakes, in .September, at Doncaster; IJ miles, for 
two-year-olds and older. .Since LS50 Handicap. 

For the first time the second classical race for two-vear-olds, the W'oodcot 



24 Trial of the Thoroug-hbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

Stakes, at Epsom, at Derby time; i mile, for two-year-olds. Colts, 8 stone, 
3 lbs.; fillies, 8 stone. 

For the first time : The Gold Cup at .\scot, for three-year-olds and older, 
2J miles. 1845-1853 the prize was given by the Czar of Russia. 

1809. For the first time : 2,000 Guineas Stakes at Newmarket, three- 
year-olds. Colts, 8 stone, 3 lbs. ; fillies, 8 stone. R. M.= l mile — 8 starters. 
Distance the same up to the present time. Weight now: Colts, 9 stone; 
fillies, 8 stone. 9 lbs. 

1813. For the first time : The Wokingham Stakes (Handicap) at Ascot, 
f mile. 

1814. For the first time : 1,000 Guineas Stakes at Newmarket, three- 
year-old fillies, 8 stone, 4 lbs. D. .M.= 7 furlongs, 178 yards. Distance 
since 1873 R. RI. as in the 2,000 Guineas Stakes. Weight now 9 stone. 

1816. For the first time : Gold Cup at ^Manchester, for three-year-olds 
and older. 

18'23. For the first time : The third classical race for two-year-olds. The 
Prendergast Stakes, at Newmarket, October, T. Y. O. C. 

1824. For the first time : Chester Cup, for three-}'ear-olds and older. 

1825. For the first time : Goodwood Gold Cup, for three-year-olds and 
older; 2 miles. Since 1833 7 lbs. allowed for horses whose dam or sire was 
Oriental (including Persian or Turkish). Since 1834, 14 or 28 lbs. allowed, 
according as one or both parents were Oriental. Since, the allowance was 
raised to ]8 and 36 lbs. respectively. In 1897 this allowance was done away 
with, as Orientals did not take part. 

1826. For the first time : The Clearwell Stakes, at Newmarket, October, 
for two-year-olds — 11 starters. 

On the 31st of March, 1826, Capt. Ross won the first steeplechase match 
which is recorded in the Racing Calendar, at Leicester, over 4 miles, with 
his famous Hunter, Clinker, by Clinker — Sancho — Fidget, and the Lily of 
the Valley, bv Eclipse. A detailed description of this match is to be found 
in the Sporting Magazine, volume 68, page 42. 

1827. 26 King's Plates in England, 16 King's Plates in Ireland— 17 
over 4 miles with heats, 16 without heats. 

1829. For the first time : The Criterion Stakes, for two-year-olds, at 
Newmarket, October. 

First year's circulation of the Sportsman. 

1830. F"irst steeplechase, at St. Albans, for Cavalry Officers — 16 starters. 
1830-46. Lord George Bentick (born 1802 at Welbeck, died 1848) had 

100 brood mares, 60 racehorses, and 3 training establishments. He was the 
second Dictator of the Turf, and he cleared the racecourse of defaulters. 

1830. For the first time: The Lavant Stakes, at Goodwood, August; 
J mile. 15th September, opening of the first railway in England, from 
Manchester to Liverpool, in the presence of the Duke of Wellington. 



2. Development of the Thorouf^hbrcd. etc. 25 

1S31. The Racing Calendar recorded the famous bet of Mr. Osbaldiston 
(born 1787. He was a celebrated sportsman, and also well known on account 
of his duel with Lord Bentick), who, on the 5th of November, rode, at New- 
market, R. C, with 11 stone, -2 lbs., 200 miles=322 km., in 8 hours, (-2 
minutes, using 29 horses, which he changed every 4 miles. 

1S34. In the Spring Races at Newmarket the age of ihc horses was 
reckoned, as at the present time, from the 1st of January, instead of the 1st 
of Mav. For all other racing places up to 1858 the following held good : — 

" Horses take their ages from May Day, i.e., a horse foaled any time in 
the year 1830 will be deemed a year old on the 1st of May, 1831." 

183G. On the 29th of February, first Liverpool Grand National Steeple- 
chase; 12 stone, 4 miles, gentlemen riders — 10 starters. Winner, Capt. 
Becher, after whom, later, the famous water leap was called, and over which 
Capt. Becher tumbled with Conrad. It was at first arranged as a Sweep- 
stakes with selling conditions, and was run 1836-1838 over a course at 
Maghull, and only since 1839 over the course at Aintree, as at the present 
time. Since 1843 as a Handicap. 

1S37. On the 25th of October, auction at Ihimpton Court of the 
Thoroughbreds (5 stallions, 43 brood mares, 13 colts, and J.s fillies, sold for 
15,692 Guineas). 

1850, the stud of Thoroughbreds again established, and in 1894 disposed 
of for the second time. 

1S;JS. For the first time : Gold Vase at Ascot. 

1839. For the first time, the two famous Handicaps at Newmarket : The 
Cesarewitch Stakes (the Russian Grand Duke Alexander gave /,'300), and 
The Cambridgeshire Stakes. 

184-0. For the first time : The Coronation Stakes at Ascot, three-year-old 
fillies, 8 stone, 7 lbs., 1 mile; and Stewards Cup (Handicap), f mile. 

The last reports on cock fighting in the Racing Calendar. 

1842. At Epsom still five races w ith heats ; at Goodwood three races with 
heats; at Doncaster two races with heats. At the smaller racing places most 
of the races with heats. 

1843. For the first time : The Royal Hunt Cup (Handicap) at Ascot, 
for three-year-olds and older, 1 mile— 24 starters. 

1848-49. First volume of the Steeplechase Calendar, bv J. Osborne. 

1851. For the first time : The City and Suburban Handicap at Epsom, 
IJ miles — 16 starters. 

1853. For the first time: The Lincolnshire Handicap, li miles, in 
March, at Lincoln. Still the first great Handicap of the year. 

1855. Admiral Rous, "the third Dictator of the Turf," became 
Handicapper of the Jockey Club. The number of the two-year-old racing 
horses increase, and since 1856 outnumbers the three-year-olds. 

185(J. Jn November, at Shrewsbury, races for yearlings. Colts, 7 stone. 



26 Trial of the Tiiorouf^hbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

7 lbs. ; fillies, 7 stone, 4 lbs. ; j mile — 7 starters. Winner, Heroine, founda- 
tion mare in Fam. 2 b ; 3rd, Saxony, foundation mare in Fam. 14; unplaced, 
Polly Peachum, foundation mare, Fam. 9. 

1857. In November, at Shrewsbury, races for yearlings, as in 1856 — 4 
starters. Winner, Tomboy, bv Idleboy and Alexina. There were also 
several hurdle races with heats, of which the well-known half-bred mare, 
Heads or Tails (born 1854, by Sir Hercules, 27 years old), won a few. 

1858. In November, at Shrewsbury, races for yearlings, as 1856 — 4 
starters. 

All the King's Plates in England without heats, and only one over 4 
miles. 

1859. Lord Jersey died. He was the greatest opponent to races for 
two-year-rjlds, and would not let his own two-year-olds run. He won the 
Derby three times: l<s25 with Middleton, 1827 with Mameluck, 1836 with 
Bav Middleton. He won the Oaks once with Cobweb in 1824, and the 2,000 
Guinea Stakes five times: 1831 with Riddlesworth, 1834 with Glencoe, 1835 
with Ibrahim, 1836 with Bay Middleton, 1837 with Achmet. He won the 
1,000 Guinea Stakes twice : 1824 with Cobweb, 1830 with Charlotte West. 

1859. In November, at Shrewsbury, races for yearlings : The Anglesey 
Stakes, as in 1856 — 9 starters. Winner, Little Lady, foundation mare in 
Fam. 2 c, dam of Camballo 2. 

33 King's Plates without heats in England, and 17 King's Plates in 
Ireland, of which one only was with heats. 

Only at fifteen small racing places were races with heats still run. 

1860. The proposal of Lord Redesdale to fix the minimum racing weight 
at 7 stone was rejected h\ the Jockey Club, and the minimum weight was 
fixed at 5 stone, 7 lbs., w hich was raised to 6 stone in 1889. 

1803. The establishing of the National Hunt Committee. 

1804. The Derby winner, Blair Athol, ran his second race in the 
Grand Prix at Paris, and was beaten with two lengths b}' Vermouth. 

Since this year a small portion of the most important races on the 
Continent have been recorded. 

1806-67. First volume of the Racing Calendar for Steeplechases, by 
Weatherby, as a continuation of tiiat issued by J. Osborne. 

1800. For the first time: The Middle Park Plate (1,000 Sovereigns, 
given by Mr. W. Blenkiron) for two-year-olds, at Newmarket, October; 6 
furlongs — 15 starters. 

1873. For the first time : Jockey Club Cup, at Newmarket, Cesar. 
Course — 6 starters. Winner, Flageolet. 

1872. Middle Park Stud was sold after the death of the Manager, Mr. 
W. Blenkiron; Blair Athol to the Cobham Stud Co., newly established. 



2. Development of thu Thoroughbred, etc. 27 

for 12,500 Guineas; Gladiriteiir for 7,000 riiiincas to (apt. Ray; and 
Brcadalbane for 6,000 Guineas to Germany. 

1874. I'or the first time: {"he Brorklesby Stal<es for two-year-olds; 
i mile, at I,incoln, in Marcii — IS starters. First rare in the year for two- 
year-olds. 

1875. For the first time : Dewhiirst Plate for two-year-olds, at New- 
market ; 7 furlongs — 11 starters. Winner, Kisber. 

1878. First Race Meeting at Kempton Park (three meetings). 

1879. For the first time : The Hartwicke Stakes for three-year-olds 
and older; 1^ miles, at Ascot. 

Disposal of the Gobham .Stud Co. which, after many a change, finally 
came into the possession of the International Horse Agency and E.xchange, 
46a Pall Mall, London, S.W., under the management of Mr. W. Allison. 

1880. In England all the King's Plates were run over a two-mile 
course, but in Ireland there were still six over a three-mile course and two 
over a four-mile (as at present). 

1886. The first ;^T0,000 race : Eclipse Stakes, for three and four-year- 
olds, at Sandown Park; 1^ miles — 12 starters. Winner, Bendigo. 

1887. The Royal Stud for Thoroughbreds was established at 
Sandringham. 

1888. Ormonde was sold for ;£,'30,000 to the Argentine, and afterwards 
to Mr. .Macdonough, California, Menlo Stud Stock Farm, near Francisco, 
for ^'31,000, where he died. 

1889. For the first time : The Newmarket Stakes for three-vear-olds. 
Distance, A. F.= i mile, 2 furlongs — 17 starters. \\'inner, Donovan. 

1894. The second ;{,T0,000 race : Princess of Wales', at Newmarket, 
for three and four-year-olds. Distance, B. M. = l mile; July — 7 starters. 
Winner, Isinglass. .Since 1901 for four-vear-olds and older. Distance 
since 1902, Suff. St. C.= U miles. 

1897. Commencement of the American Jockey invasion. 

In October Tod Sloan (born 1873) came to England, rode in fifty-three 
races and won twent\-. On the last racing dav he rode five races, won four 
times, and once came in second. In the f(jllowing year Sloan came to 
England in September, ran ninety-eight races and won forty-two, among 
them the .Middle Park Plate with Caiman, beating I-'lying Fox. In 1S99 
Sloan ran 343 races and won lOM, came second with Caiman in the 2,000 
Guineas, and in the .St. Leger. In th(> Derbv the I-'rench grey colt, Holo- 
causte, broke his fetlock in struggling with i^'lying Fox. 

In June, 1899, came the two brothers, L. Reiff and J. Reiff (14-year-old); 
and in 1900 D. Maher (18-year-old), from .\merica to England. 

1898. Introduction of the .Vustralian starting machine for two-year-old 
races, and in the following year also for three-year-t^id races. 



28 



Trial of the Thorouirhbrecl on the Racecourse, etc. 



1900. Of the ten most successful jockeys who had won more than 50 races 
five were Americans, of whom L. Reiff stood at the head with 553 mounts 
and 143 wins. The most famous EngHsh jockc}- up to this time, S. Loates, 
followed with 809 mounts and 137 wins; then J. Reiff, with 604 mounts and 
124 wins. The American style of seat at race-riding was now generally 
accepted. In the following table are named the champion jockeys of 
England in the last 50 years. 



Wins. 

1859 G. Fordham 109 1884 

1860 G. Fordham 146 1885 

1861 G. Fordham 106 1886 

1862 G. Fordham 166 1887 

1863 G. Fordham 73 1888 

1864 J. Grimshaw 164 1889 

1865 G. Fordham 142 1890 

1866 Kenyon 126 1891 

1867 G. Fordham 145 1892 

1868 G. Fordham 121 1893 

1869 G. Fordham 95 1894 

1870 W. Gray 77 1895 

1871 G. Fordham 88 1896 

1872 T. Cannon 88 1897 

1873 H. Constable 109 1898 

1874 F. Archer 147 1899 

1875 F. .Archer 172 1900 

1876 F. .Archer 207 1901 

1877 F. .Archer 218 1902 

1878 F. .Archer 229 1903 

1879 F. Archer 197 1904 

1880 F. .Archer 120 1905 

1881 F. .Archer 220 1906 

1882 F. Archer 210 1907 

1883 F. .Archer 232 1908 



Wins. 

F. .Archer 241 

F. .Archer 246 

F. .\rcher 170 

C. Wood 151 

F. Barrett 108 

T. Loates 167 

T. Loates 147 

M. Cannon 137 

M. Cannon 182 

S. Loates 222 

M. Cannon 167 

M. Cannon 184 

M. Cannon 164 

M. Cannon 145 

O. Madden 161 

S. Loates 160 

L. Reiff 143 

O. .Madden 130 

W. Lane 170 

O. Madden 154 

O. Madden 161 

E. Wheatley 124 

W. Higgs ' 149 

W. Higgs 145 

D. Maher 139 



1900. Twelve yearlings from Eaton were sold by auction for ^"45,465, 
amongst which were: Sceptre, for ;^10,000 to Mr. Sievier; Flying Fox, a 
four-year-old, for ^^39, 375= roundly, one million francs, to Mons. E. Blanc. 



2. Development of the Thorouerhbred, etc. 29 

\tinil)cr (jf Horses whicli ran in Enijland and Ireland. 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


In the 










There 


In the 












Year 




Years and older 




ran 


Year 




Years and older 





There 
ran 



Number of Winners 



1741 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1751 


— 


— 


— 


21 


160 


1756 


— 


- 


1 


45 


200 


1757 


— 


— 


1 


51 


166 


17.58 


— 


— 


1 


58 


215 


1773 


— 


1 


— 





— 


1781 


— 


9 


77 


100 


165 


17!« 


3 


28 


93 


79 


153 


1795 


1 


31 


90 


ft4 


132 t 



Number of Horses that ran 



1797 


— 


67 


191 


142 


312 


1802 


— 


39 


142 


123 


346 


1827 


— 


158 


390 


250 


570 


184!) 


— 


264 


419 


254 


378 


1856 


7 


527 


457 


275 


376 


1857 


4 


508 


500 


251 


mi 


1858 


4 


601 


436 


280 


318 


1859 


9 


576 


496 


240 


324 


18()0 


— 


608 


521 


:i02 


286 


1861 


-- 


061 


550 


214 


at2 


1802 


— 


626 


528 


291 


381 


1863 


— 


643 


510 


291 


393 


imi 


_ 


664 


548 


298 


4:i8 


1S65 


— 


659 


572 


364 


447 


1866 


— 


729 


572 


359 


449 


1867 


— 


752 


661 


408 


«i- 


18(IS 




844 


631 


418 


617 


1869 


— 


842 


673 


402 


617 


1870 


— 


807 


709 


442 


611 


1871 


— 


732 


740 


450 


501 


1872 


- 


699 


627 


:J82 


390 





1873 


— 




1874 


— 


4(17 


1875 




(Wl 


1876 


_ 


!)24 


1877 


— 


885 


1878 


_ 


931 


1879 


— 


1275 


1880 


— 


106! 1 


1881 


— 


!)2:^ 


1882 


— 


834 


188:^ 


— 




1884 


— 




1885 


— 


712 


1886 


— 


m) 


1887 


— 


1368 


1888 


— 


1315 


1889 


— 


1642 


1890 


— 


1624 


1891 


— 


16:-!!) 


1S!)2 




1645 


18!)3 




1717 


18!)4 




1767 


1895 




isai 


lSi)6 


— 


i,s;i7 


1897 


— 


1948 


1898 


— 


20)2 


l.S!)9 


— 


21(1!) 


1900 


— 


24.")S 


1901 


— 


i-.lii 


1!H)2 


__ 


■SM 


1903 


1 


2.V)!) 


1904 


i 


2l.s:{ 


1!K)5 


— 


2(J!)S 


liJ06 


— 



(>94 
710 
784 
769 
805 
873 
844 
820 
800 
840 
859 
840 
88:^ 
880 
908 
949 
986 

9:« ' 

1062 
1091 
1108 
1255 
1297 
1276 
1.369 

ism 
14:« 
1528 [ 
1445 
la-jl I 



602 


:i5<> 


572 


320 


5.50 


354 


5!)2 


:«i 


(i04 


318 


612 


321 


(i:« 


314 


610 


313 


587 


304 


553 


252 


607 


292 


572 


294 


578 


279 


.593 


293 


523 


290 


566 


287 


.V)3 


276 


607 


273 


&43 


296 


772 


:«6 


727 


399 ' 


779 


417 


900 


417 


868 


459 


965 


616 


1039 


517 


1059 


558 


1116 


589 


1179 


614 


1070 


647 



127 

:«i 

396 
:«) 
330 
291 
322 

28;s 

279 
271 
312 
276 
293 
310 
286 
321 
316 
290 
.314 
365 
:«4 
455 
475 
511 
6(J6 
651 
6i)8 
688 
719 
762 





not given 




1297 


1001 1 576 ' 


677 


1»18 


981 1 525 


6SW 



207!) 

v.m 

2084 
20.->4 
2057 
2097 
2113 
2026 
1970 
1916 
2070 
1982 

2o:« 

2076 
2(X)7 
212:^ 
2131 
2105 
21^5 
25(U 
2(il8 
2!)IK> 

:nm 

3114 

:i")5() 
:i-)7l 

a)2i 

3957 

38:«) 



:i->5i 
:i>l4 



Since Aiitiinin, 1807, the Hurdle Races, and since July, 1)^71, (he 
N'ationai Hunt l-'lat Races, are nut given in above tigures. 



30 



Trial of the Thorouijhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



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2;5b 258 

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383 397 353 
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2. Development of tlie Thorousrhbred, etc. 



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5 :; 3 13 





CHAPTER III. 

Origin and Change in the Weight Tables, and the 
Conclusions to be drawn therefrom. 

In the beginning and middle of the eighteenth century, i.e., up to about 
1760, the difference in weight of horses of various ages was calculated 
generally at the rate of 1 stone=14 English lbs. per year. For instance : 

4 year-olds 9 stone. 

5 year-olds 10 ,, 

6 vear-olds 11 , , 
Older 12 ,, 

1759 to 1765. October. Newmarket, so-called weight scale according to 
age for distance, B. C. = about 4 miles. 

Difference 

4 year-olds 6 stone, 11 lbs. | i stone, 7 lbs. 

" } 1 stone. 



5 year-olds 8 ,, 


4 


6 year-olds 9 ,, 


4 


Older 10 ,, 






} 10 lbs. 

1766. So-called weight scale according to age at Newmarket. October. 
Distance, B. C. = 4 miles. 

Difference 



4 year-olds 7 stone, 7 Ibs.j i stone, 2 lbs. 

5 year-olds 8 ,, 9 ,, ) ^^ ., 

6 year-olds 9 ,, 7 ,, .[ "" 
Older 10 ,,_,,) 7 lbs. 

At the establishing of the Gold Cup in 1768 at Newmarket, to be run in 
October, over 4 miles, the weights were : 

Difference 4^ 

4 year-olds 7 stone, — lbs. | i gtone, 5 lbs. 

5 year-olds 8 ,, ^ „ | ^^ ibs 

6 year-olds 9 ,, 3 ,, | "" 
Older 9 ,, 10 ,, / 7 lbs. 

At that time there was no universally accepted scale of weights, and the 
following examples show the average differences in weights in 1775 : 



3. Ori),'in and ("li.int,'e in the Weif^ht Tables, etc. 



33 



In July, at Xewmarket, over 2 miles : 



Difference 

1 Stone, '2 lbs. 
12 lbs. 

5 lbs. 

2 lbs. 

Difference 

3 year-olds (; stone, -- lbs. I i ^^^^ne, 7 lbs. 
•4 year-olds 7 ,, 7 " • j]^ i^g 

5 vear-olds 8 ,. 1 ,, . 

} 8 lbs. 



3 year-olds fi stone, 11 

4 year-olds 7 ,,13 

5 year-olds 8 „ 9 
G vear-olds 9 ,, — 
Older 9 „ 2 



bs. y 
) 



In August, at Newmarket, over 4 miles 



() vear-olds 8 ,, ]2 
Older 9 ,, 3 ,, ) ^ lbs 

In October, at Newmarket, over 4 miles : 



Difference 



4 year-olds 7 stone, 3 Ibs.j. i stone, 2 lbs. 

5 year-olds 8 , , 
(i vear-olds 9 ,, 
Older 9 ,, 



( 

" '1 



J 



9 lbs. 
.-) lbs. 



Hereafter the differenct-s in wcitrht were, on the a\erage, about as 
follows : 

1775. 



3 year-olds 

4 year-olds 

5 year-olds 
G j-ear-olds 
Older 



1 st(jne, 2 lbs. to 1 stone, 7 lbs. 
10 lbs. to 1 stone, 5 lbs. 

') lbs. to 1 stone, 2 lbs. 

2 lbs. to 8 lbs. 



2 year-olds | 

3 year-olds 

4 year-olds 

5 year-( ilds 
G vear-olds 
Older 



1800. 
I stone, 12 lbs. to 2 stone, 2 lbs. 
I stone to 2 stone. 
7 lbs. to 1 stone, 2 lbs. 
I lbs. to 10 lbs. 
•J lbs. to () lbs. 

1830. 



2 year-olds | i stone, 12 lbs. to 2 stone, 3 lbs. 



3 year-olds 

4 year-olds 

5 year-olds 
G \ear-olds 
O'lder 



1 stone to 2 stone. 

7 lbs. to 1 stone, 1 lb. 

2 lbs. to 9 lbs. 
to 3 lbs. 



34 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

1850. 

2 year-olds | i gtone, 12 lbs. to 2 stone, 3 lbs. 

3 year-olds j ^ ^^^^^^ ^ j^g_ ^^ o stone, 6 lbs. 

4 year-olds ^ _ ,, , -,ri iu 

_ ■' ,j f 7 lbs. to 10 lbs. 

5 year-olds : 

6 year-olds { - l^s. to 6 lbs. 
Older ) to 1 lb. 

1900. 

2 year-olds j i stone, 1 lb. to 2 stone, 5 lbs. 

3 year-olds , ^ lb. to 1 stone, 13 lbs. 

4 year-olds ^ 

5 year-olds ( « to 8 lbs. 
Older } 0. 

On page 35 is given the weight scale worked out by Admiral Rous in 
1873. This scale has been frequently altered, and holds good at the present 
time. From 1832 the weights for the King's Plates were fixed for the 
different racing places in the Racing Calendar. At Newmarket alone were 
the weights for the King's Plates fixed by the Stewards. In the Racing 
Calendar for 1861 appeared for the first time the universally accepted weight 
scale for the King's Plates, which we give below. It was not until 1881 that 
the first copy of the weight scale worked out by Admiral Rous appeared in 
the Racing Calendar. A special table is given herewith for comparison of 
the weights from 1881 and of those from 1906. 



3. Origfin and Chatifje in the Weight Tables, etc. 



35 



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36 



Trial of the Thoroutrhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



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3. Origin and Chanjfe in the W'eiyht 'i'ables, etc. 



37 



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38 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

In order to arrive at a fair comparison of the weights carried formerly 
with those carried at the present time, hereafter will be given the weights 
for definite yearh- periods, distances, seasons, and, of course, only for races 
without heats. 

The first race for two-year-olds and older horses in November, 1773, at 
Newmarket, distance D. J. = about 2 miles, stipulated as weight for two-year- 
olds, 4 stone, 8 lbs., and for three-year-olds, 6 stone, 7 lbs., that is, a 
difference of 1 stone, 13 lbs. According to to-day's scale the difference would 
be 4 lbs. more, i.e., 2 stone, 3 lbs. It is very interesting to note how exactly, 
even at that time, the capabilities of the two-year-olds were valued against 
those of the three-year-olds. For further comparison of the weights for two- 
year-olds, as well as three-year-olds, the following examples will serve : — 

1777. October. Newmarket. Distance | mile Ab. M.= 6 furlongs. 
3 year-old, 8 stone (won). ) Difference, 

2 year-old, 6 stone, 8 lbs. J 1 stone, 6 lbs. 
According to the present day scale : 1 stone, 7 lbs. 

1777. October. Newmarket. Distance Ab. M.= l mile. 

3 year-olds, 8 stone. ] Difference, 

2 year-olds, 6 stone, 8 lbs. (paid forfeit), f 1 stone, 6 lbs. 
According to the present day scale : 1 stone, 12 lbs. 
1781. October. Newmarket. Distance J R. M. = 4 furlongs. 
2 year-old, Assassin, 7 stone (won). ] Difference, 
3}^ear-old, Puzzle, Sstone, 3 lbs. j 1 stone, 6 lbs ' 
According to present day scale : about 1 stone, 1 lb. 

Assassin, winner of the next vear's Derby, and the three-year-old. Puzzle, 
were racing horses of almost equal value, and Puzzle won directly afterwards 
the — at that time — classical Perram Stakes at Newmarket. 

1800. October. Newmarket. Distance D. J. = about 2 miles. 

Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds, 1 stone, 12 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 2 stone, 3 lbs. 

1800. July. Newmarket. Distance 2 Y. O. C.= . 5 furlongs, 136 yards. 

Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds, 2 stone, 2 lbs. 

,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 13 lbs. 

1800. October. Newmarket. Distance, 2 Y.O.C.= 5 furlongs, 136 yds. 

Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds, 1 stone, 7 lbs. 

,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 7 lbs. 

1800. October. Newmarket. Distance D. J. = about 2 miles. 

Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds, 1 stone, 12 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 2 stone, 3 lbs. 

' Taking into consideration the usual 3-lbs. allowed for fillies. 



3. Origin and CInange in tlie Weiglit Tables, etc. 39 

1830. July. Liverpool. Distance 2 Y. O. C. = about 5 furlongs. 

Difference in weight between "2 and 3 year-olds, 2 stone, 2 lbs. 
M ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 11 lbs. 

1830. September. Doncaster. Distance IJ miles. 

Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds, 2 stone, 4 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 2 stone, 3 lbs. 

1850. July. Goodwood. Distance 2 Y. O. C. = 6 furlongs. 

Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds, 2 stone, 2 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 13 lbs. 

1850. July. Liverpool. Distance 2 Y. O. C. = about 5 furlongs. 

Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds, 2 stone. 

,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 11 lbs. 

1850. September. Doncaster. Dist. Red House = 5 furlongs, 152 yds. 
Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds, 2 stone. 

,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 8 lbs. 

1850. October. Newmarket. Distance 1 mile. 

Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds, 2 stone, 4 lbs. 

,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 12 lbs. 

1850. October. Newmarket. Dist. 2 Y.O.C. = 5 furlongs, 136 yards. 

Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds, 1 stone, 11 lbs. 

,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 7 lbs. 

1850. October. Newmarket. Distance J Ab. M. = 4 furlongs. 

Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds, 1 stone, 10 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, lib. 

1850. October. Curragh. Distance Red Post=l mile, 6 fur., 3 yds. 

Difference in weight between 2 and 3 year-olds, 2 stone, 11 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 2 stone, 2 lbs. 

For comparing three and four-year-olds the following examples will 
serve : — 

1775. April. Newmarket. Craven Stakes. Distance 1 mile, 2 furlongs, 

44 yards. 
Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 7 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 7Jlbs. 

1775. July. Newmarket. Distance 2 miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 2 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 4 lbs. 

1775. August. Newmarket. Distance 4 miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 7 lbs. 
,, ,, according In to-day's scale, 1 stone, 9 lbs. 

1800. April. Newmarket. Craven Stakes. Distance 1 mile, 2 fur- 
longs, 44 yards. 
Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 2 stone. 

M ,, according to to-day's .scale, 1 stone, 7 J lbs. 



40 Trial of the Thorouffhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

1800. ' May. Newmarket. Distance 2 miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 12 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, Tibs. 

1800. July. Newmarket. Distance D. J. = about 2 miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 5 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 st<jne, 4 lbs. 

1800. July. Stockbridge. Distance=2 miles. 

Difference in Weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 3 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 4 lbs. 

1800. July. Stamford. Gold Cup. Distance=4 miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 7 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 10 lbs. 

1800. August. Ireland. Distance=4 miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 3 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-dav's scale, 1 stone, 9 lbs. 

1800. October. Newmarket. Distance=2 miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 13 lbs. 

1807. June. Ascot. Gold Cup. Distance=2J miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 4 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 7^ lbs. 

1830. April. Newmarket. Craven Stakes. Distance 1 mile, 2 furlongs, 

44 yards. 
Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 2 stone, 4 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 7i lbs. 

1830. May. Liverpool. Distance=2 miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 6 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 7 lbs. 

1830. May. Epsom. Craven Stakes. Distance=lj miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 2 stone. 

,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 4 lbs. 

1830. June. Ascot. Gold Cup. Distance 2J miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 6 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 7J lbs. 

1830. June. Manchester. Gold Cup. Distance 2 miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 13 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 6 lbs. 

1830. July. Liverpool. Croxteth Stakes. Distance Ij miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 8 lbs. 
. ,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 1 lb. 



3. Oriffin and Chanjje in the Weifjht Tables, etc. 41 

1830. .Viigiist. York. Distatife 2 miles. 

Difference in weigiit between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, -2 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's .scale, 1 stone, 1 lb. 

18.30. September. Doncaster. Cup. Distance '2 miles, 5 furlongs. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 3 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, IJ lbs. 

1830. October. Epsom. Metropolitan Stakes. Distance IJ miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-filds, 1 stone, 4 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 9 lbs. 

1850. April. .Xewmarket. Craven Stakes. Distance 1 mile, 2 furlongs, 

44 \ards. 
DitTerencc in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 12 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 7J lbs. 

1850. May. Epsom. Craven Stakes. Distance 1^ miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 2 stone, 2 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 4 lbs. 

1850. June, .\scot. (jold Cup. Distance 2^ miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 9 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day'r. scale, 1 stone, 7J lbs. 

1850. July. Liverpool. Croxteth Stakes. Distance IJ miles. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, Bibs. 
,, ,, according tfi to-day's scale, 1 stone, 1 lb. 

18-50. September. Doncaster. Cup. Distance 2 miles, 5 furlongs. 

Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, 1 stone, 5 lbs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 1 stone, 1^ lbs. 

1850. October. Xewmarket. Distance, T. Y. O. C.= 5 furl., 136 yds. 
Difference in weight between 3 and 4 year-olds, Tibs. 
,, ,, according to to-day's scale, 4 lbs. 

Those examples, which may serve as a comparison, are, especiallv in the 
years before l.SoO, often ditticult to gather, as most racx'S then were run with 
heats, and are therefore unsuitable as comparisons with tiie present time, 
and because only few races were set apart for horses of each age. The many 
Handicaps for hcjrses of each age are very difficult to manipulati; as com- 
parisons. From above examples one easily can see, however, that the weight 
difference between two and three-year-olds as well as between three and 
four-year-olds was, up to the year 1800, nearly according to the present 
scale of weights, and that they often were somewhat smaller for longer 
distances. From bSOd to about 1850 these weight differences increased some- 
what, viz. : The differences between two and three-year-olds less (about 2-7 
lbs.), those between three and four-year-olds .somewhat more (about 3-11 lbs.). 
In other words, the proportion of weight carrying capability has been 
approximately the same up to about 1800 as it is to-day for two, three and 



42 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

four-year-olds, whilst after about 1800 up to about 1850 the three-year-olds 
and the four-year-olds especiail}- were expected to carry more, according to 
the table just quoted. It appears that the races for two-year-olds, which took 
place at that time in a reduced degree, and not too early in the year (which 
races became popular after Assassin's Derby victory, 1782), improved the 
capabilities (Leistungsfahigkeit) of the future three and four-year-olds, whilst 
after about 1850 the increase of races for two-year-olds, especially in the 
early part of the year, seems to have annulled gradually this favourable 
effect. 

The changes of weight differences between four-year-olds and older horses 
are shown by the following examples, in their historic development : — 

1775. April. Newmarket. Craven Stakes. Distance 1 mile, 2 furlongs, 

44 yards. 

Difference in weight : According to present scale : 

4 year-olds \ g ibg 4^ lbs. 

5 year-olds 1 ^ rv 
b year-olds [ 

7 vear-olds [ ^ 

O'lder 1 2 ,, 

1792. July. Newmarket. Distance 2 miles. 

Difference in weiglit : According to present scale : 

4 year-olds \ iq lbs 3 lbs. 

5 year-olds \ ^ n 

6 year-olds / ' " " 

Older } 2 ,, 

179"2. October. Newmarket. Distance 2 miles. 

Difference in weigfit : According to present scale : 

4 year-olds | jo ibs lbs. 

5 year-olds , 

6 vear-olds / "^ ' ^ " 

o'lder } 3 ,, „ 

1792. October. Newmarket. Gold Cup. Distance 4 miles. 

Difference in weiglit : According to present scale: 

4 year-olds | n ibs 6 lbs. 

5 year-olds ^ 

6 year-olds / '^ " ^ " 

o'lder ! 1 '> ,, 

1800. June. Ascot. Distance 2J miles. 

Difference in weight : According to present scale : 

4 year-olds | iq lbs 5 lbs. 

5 year-olds \ n 

6 year-olds ' " " 

Older } 3 „ 



3. Origin and Chang-e in the Weight Tables, etc. 43 

1800. July. Newmarket. Distance 2 miles. 

Difference in weight : According to present scale : 

4 year-olds | g lbs 3 lbs. 

5 year-olds ^ , ,^ r. 

6 year-olds ) ^"^ ' ^ " 

Older j ^ " ^ " 

1800. October. Newmarket. Distance 2 miles. 

Difference in weight : According to present scale : 

4 year-olds | 7 ibg lbs. 

5 year-olds ^ „ 

6 vear-olds f ' 

Older ,0 ,. 

1807. April. Newmarket. Craven Stakes. Distance 1 mile, 2 furlongs, 

44 yards. 
Difference in weight : According to present scale : 

4 year-olds | 9 jbs . 4^ lbs. 

5 vear-olds 1 ^ n 

6 year-olds [ 

7 year-olds ^ '^ ' ' 

Older / 2 ,, „ 

1807. June. Ascot. Gold Cup. Distance 2^ miles. 

Difference in weight : According to present scale : 

4 year-olds \ iq i^s .5 lbs. 

5 year-olds -) 

G year-olds J " " 

Older ) ,. 

1830. April. Newmarket. Craven Stakes. Distance 1 mile, 2 furlongs, 

44 yards. 
Difference in weight : According to present scale : 

4 year-olds j 9 j^s 4J lbs. 

5 year-olds 1 ^ 

6 vear-olds ■> ' " 

O'lder 1 4 ,, ,, 

1830. iNIay. Epsom. Craven Stakes. Distance l\ miles. 

Difference in weight : According to present scale : 

4 year-olds | 9 jbs 3J lbs. 

5 year-olds ^ 

6 year-olds » ' " *^ " 

Older ) 3 ' .- 

1830. June. Ascot. Gold Cup. Distance 2J miles. 

Difference in weight : According to present scale : 

4 year-olds j jq lbs 5 lbs. 

5 year-olds , 

6 year-olds J "^ " ^' '• 

Older } ,, 



44 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

1830. June. Manchester. Gold Cup. Distance 2 miles. 

Difference in weight : .According to present Malt : 

4 year-olds | g 155 4 lbs. 

5 year-olds \ . 

6 year-olds f ■* " ^ ,, 

Older ) ,, ,. 

1830. August. York. Distance 2 miles. 

Difference in weight : According to present scale . 

4 year-olds | g ib^ 2 lbs. 

5 year-olds 1 

6vear-olds I * " ^ " 

older } ' „ 

1360. September. Doncaster. Gold Cup. Distance 2 miles, 5 furlongs. 

Difference in weight: .According to present scale: 

4 year-olds | 7 15^ 3 ,^5. 

5 year-olds \ , 

6vear-olds J ' ^ " 

Older } ,, „ 

1830. October. Newmarket. Distance 1 mile, 2 furlongs, 44 yards. 

Difference in weight : .According to present scale : 

4 year-olds | 7 ibs. ...... lbs. 

5 year-olds \ 

6 year-olds / " ^ " 

Older j ,, 

1850. April. Xewmarket. Craven Stakes. Distance ] mile, 2 furlongs, 

44 yards. 

Difference in weight : According to present scale : 

4 year-olds | 9 jb^ 4^ lbs. 

5 year-olds "i 

G year-olds ^ '' ' '^ " 

Older } ,, 

1850. May. Epsom. Craven Stakes. Distance 1^ miles. 

Difference in wciglit : According to present scale ; 

4 year-olds | g lbs. ...... 3^ lbs. 

5 year-olds ^ 

6vear-olds .» " ' ^ " 

Older } ,, ,, 

1850. June. .Ascot. Gold Cup. Distance 2J miles. 

Difference in weight : .According to present scale : 

4 year-olds | 9 ibs. ...... 5 Ibs. 

5 year-olds ^ 

6 year-olds I "^ " ...... .0 „ 

Older } ,, ., 



3. Orif,nn and Chanj^^e in the \\Vi,y;lit 'I'ables, etc. 45 

1850. September. Doncaster. Gold Cup. Dislance 2 miles, 5 furlonp;s. 

Difference In weight : Accordinj; to present scale : 

4 year-olds \ 7 i^g 3 lbs. 

5 year-olds ^ 

6 vcar-olds ' ' " 

Older } ,, 

18-50. October. Newmarket. Distance 1 mile, 2 furlongs, 44 yards. 

Difference in weiglit : Accordinf! to present scale: 

4 year-olds | 5 |bs lbs. 

5 year-olds ^ „ 
/» ij_r ^ »t '-' ». 



Older 1 



6 vear-olds f 

) 

1851. May. York. Match. Distance 2 miles. 

Difference in According to 

. i» ,.■ o » 1 weifjht: present scale : 

4 vears \ oltigeur, S st. { ^, °, ' ,, 

5 years 1- lying Dutciiman, S st., b^ lbs. (wnn) J 

It is difficult t(i cnmpile examples of the King's Plates wliich can be of 
any use, as most of the King's Plates were formerh- run w ith heats, and those 
without heats were onlv iield for liorses of tiic same age. The few suitable 
examples wliich follow will suffice, however, -for our purpose : — 

1820. .-Vugust. York. Distance 4 miles. 

Difference in DifTerence in weight as per scale of 

weight: IStil and 1881 

4 year-olds | j stone, 2 lbs. 9 lbs. .5 lbs. 

,5 year-olds ) o ., n 

6 year-olds / '^ " " " " " 

Older } 2 ,, ,, ,, 

1832 to 18-50. May and June, in Chester, Ascot and Manchester. 

Distance 3 miles. 

DifTerence in Difference in weight as per scale of 

weight: IStil and 1881 

3 year-olds \ 2 stone 10— 13 lbs. 9— 10 lbs. 

4 year-olds , 

-5 year-olds J ' 

6 year-olds and older } 5 lbs. 2 .. 1 ,, 

1850. August. York. Dislance 2 miles. 

Differenc-e in Difference in weight as per scale of 

weight: 1861 and 1881 

• 3 year-olds | 1 stone, 3 lbs. ] stone, 2 lbs. 1 stone, 1 lbs. 

4 year-olds if. - o 

5 year-olds { ^ " • n " n " 

6 vear-olds { ^ " ^ " ^ " 
older ) 2 „ ,, ,, 



46 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



From these weight differences it can be seen that the abilities of four, five 
and six-year-olds changed very little up to 1850. An improvement of horses, 
on the other hand, after six years old ceases gradually altogether. In other 
words, the influence caused by two-year-old races and mentioned on page 42 
with the weight-differences between two, three and four-year-olds, has not 
affected the carrying capacity of four, five and six-year-olds, but has stopped 
the further improvement of six-year-olds. Accordingly horses at six years 
old reached the height of their capabilities (Leistungsfahigkeit). 

The preservation of the capabilities of four, five and six-year-olds up to 
1850 in the same proportion to each other (in spite or in consequence of the 
two-year-old races) is all the more remarkable, as in the same time (shown 
above) a progress in the development of three-year-olds, and still more of 
four-year-olds, must be assumed on account of the weight differences. From 
this we might suppose that the improved four-year-old would more closely 
approach the five-year-old and older horses, which ought to be seen by a 
diminution in the weight dift'erences. As up to about 1850 this diminution 
did not take place, the continued improvement of five-vear-old and older 
horses must be all the more appreciated. After 1850, or even later, the 
frequent and very early two-year-old races seem also here to have impeded 
the favourable development of horses after their fourth year. 

As a further example to confirm above conclusions, let me here mention 
the Thoroughbred Fitzwilliam Stakes, at Doncaster. 

This race was founded in 1807, and set apart for two-year-olds and older 
horses, over a course of 1^ miles, with the following weights : 

According to present scale : 
2 Stone, 3 lbs. 
11 lbs. 



2 year-olds 

3 year-olds 

4 year-olds 

5 year-olds 

6 year-olds 
Older 



6 stone. 



Difference in weight : 



8 
9 
9 
9 



lbs. 



} 



2 stone. 
9 lbs. 
6 „ 
4 „ 









Two-year-olds in this proportionately long distance of IJ miles had no 
chance (Oiseau was in 1811 the only two-year-old winner). Therefore the 
following changes were arranged in 1826 : — 



2 year-olds 5 

3 year-olds 8 

4 year-olds 9 

5 year-olds 9 

6 year-olds and older 9 



stone, 10 lbs, 



6 
10 



} 



Difference in weight : 
2 Stone, 4 lbs. 

1 „ 
6 lbs. 
4 „ 



The weight difference between two and three-year-olds is here only 1 lb. 
more than according to present scale. In this race from 1834 two-year-olds 
are left out. The weight difference of 1 stone (11 lbs. to-day) between three 
and four-year-olds remained stationary till the race became a Handicap in 



3. Origin and Change in the Weight Tables, etc. 47 

1850. The weight difTerence, however, between four and five-year-olds 
increased in 1834 to 6 lbs., in 1838 to even 12 lbs., and decreased in 1839 to 
7 lbs., whilst according to the present day scale the difference is nil. The 
weight difference between five and six-year-olds in 1834 came down to 2 lbs., 
and remained so to 1850. 

In the celebrated race between the three-year-old, Voltigeur, with 7 stone, 
7 lbs. up, and the four-year-old. Flying Dutchman, carrying 8 stone, 12 lbs., 
over a course of 2J miles, in the Doncaster Cup, on the 20th of September, 
1850, there was a weight difference of 1 stone, 5 lbs., against 1 stone, IJ lbs. 
of the present scale. In the year later, in that well known match of the 13th 
of May, 1851, at York, over a distance of 2 miles, the four-year-old, 
Voltigeur, carried 8 stone, the five-year-old. Flying Dutchman, 8 stone, 
8J lbs. The w-eight difference was therefore 8J lbs., against 5 lbs. according 
to present scale. There was each time a close finish. In the Doncaster Cup, 
Voltigeur won by half a length, and in the Match, Flying Dutchman won 
by one length. We may, therefore, assume that the then existing weight 
differences corresponded with the average capabilities of three, four and 
five-year-olds. 

Therefrom follows that the present four and five-year-old racehorses are 
each 3J lbs. worse than those in the middle of last century. 

Against these conclusions one may, however, answer that it is just in con- 
sequence of the many and early two-year-old races, as well as in consequence 
of the progress made in the art of training in the second half of the nineteenth 
century, that the weight carrying capability of two and three-year-olds has 
been much improved, and that, therefore, three-year-olds have almost 
approximately reached that point of weight carrying capability which was 
formerly only held by five and six-year-olds. 

The consequences, therefore, would of course be that the four-year-old 
and older horses could not improve in such proportion as to justify the 
greater weight differences which were formerly extant. Therefore, the 
weight differences between three, four and five-year-olds must become less. 
In other words, the zero point from which we count, i.e., the weight carrying 
capability of two and three-year-olds, would become much higher. If this 
were so, then, with the assumed quicker and better development of two and 
three-year-olds, the weight difTerence between these two ages ought also to 
have become larger. This, however, it is remarkable to have to say, is not 
so. In the gradual building of the weight scale, one point is very noticeable : 
that the weight differences between two and three-year-olds are almost the 
same to-day as they were at the end of the eighteenth century, when two- 
year-old races were just beginning. On the other hand, the above-mentioned 
increase of weight differences of 2-7 lbs. between two and three-year-olds 
speaks for itself for the healthy development of two-year-olds in the years 
from about 1800 to 1850. Furthermore, it is very doubtful whether the 
present two and three-year-olds are really better than they were in the middle 



4:g Trial of tlie Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

of the nineteenth century. We have no proof of this. Such horses as 
Touchstone, Cotherstone, Orlando, The Baron, Surplice, Flying Dutchman, 
Voltigeur, Stockweil, West Australian, Fisherman, Blink Bonny, Thor- 
manby, etc., are they reall}- worse horses than our present day champions? 
All these said racehorses yet belonged to those times in which there approxi- 
matel}' existed for difTerent ages that difference of weight which we have 
mentioned above for 18-30. 

Finally, we ha\e only to deal with one point, namely, that two-year-olds 
themselves are much better than they were before. If this reallj- be the case 
to such a great extent as to justif)- the above mentioned large weight differ- 
ences, then the progress in the average records of time should be more 
remarkable than the comparisons show hereafter. As the weight difference 
between t\»o and three-year-olds as above-said are the same as they were one 
hundred years ago, the records of three-year-olds suffice for comparison. 
The increase of weight differences between two and three-year-olds after 
1800 has been shown above to be a result of the improvement of three-year- 
olds, probably in consequence of the races for two-year-olds. 

There is yet the possibility that the two-year-olds became worse, 
and that, therefore, the weight differences could rise. There is, however, 
no plausible reason for this possibility, whilst the assumed improvement of 
three-year-olds, through training and racing as two-year-olds, appears very 
probable. It is, rather, to be assumed that as everything improves, two- 
year-olds also impro\e in course of time. This, however, need not be at 
the expenses of three-year-olds. 

In breeding, where only two-year-olds improve, one can hardly speak 
of a general progress. I seem, therefore, to be justified, for the sake of com- 
parisons, in taking the capabilities of twd-year-olds as a standard, although 
an improvement, h(»wever slow, in the course of time is desirable, and also 
appears probable. 

The weight differences in the scale for King's Plates from the vear 18G1 
are, as can be seen by comparison, considerabl)' higher than to-day. The 
weight differences of the lirst weight scale of Admiral Rous of 1881, compared 
with those of the scale of 190G, show, as can be seen from the figures of 
the table printed in larger type, that also in the last twenty-five yeaps, a 
diminution of weight differences has taken place. 

If one takes, therefore, the capabilities of two-year-olds as a standard, in 
comparing with the capabilities of other ages, one must consider the 
diminution of weight differences always as a sign of deterioration of 
stock. 

According to above comparisons of weight differences in 1861, 1881 and 
190G, from 1861 a gradual deterioration of stock appears probable if looked 
at from this standpoint. 

Even if the pretended greater capabilities of present two and three-year- 
olds were approximately right, there still remains a grave doubt whether the 



3. Origin and ("hanf^e in llie Wciicht Tables, etc. 49 

lessened development capability of four-year-olds and older horses has also 
produced a lesser resisting power, as we show later on, in the chapter on the 
capabilities of the Thoroughbred formerly and now. 

Taken altogether, these f)bservati()ns justify us in assuming that, 
considered from the standpoint of the altered weight differences, the improve- 
ment of racehorses took place about up to ihc middle of the nineteenth 
cenlur\-, and also speciallv, that a favourable development of four-year-old 
and older horses up to the sixth year existed. Furthermore, that simultane- 
ouslv with the frequent occurrence of races for two-year-olds partly in the 
beginning of the }-ear, and with the existence of the many short Handicaps, a 
retrogression of the development of racehorses after their third year began 
soon after the second half of the nineteenth centurv. The time in which the 
ninnber of two-\-ear-old racehorses began to exceed the nimiber of three- 
year-olds, denotes the turning point. 



CHAPTER IV. 

General Observations on the Value of the Thoroughbred 
for other breeds. 



The prominent position occupied by the Thorouc^hbred in the breeding of 
half-bred horses^ has no equivalent in the breeding of any other animal. 
Breeding carried on for two hundred years and for a set purpose, as it has 
been done in England and Ireland, where soil and climate constitute an 
environment admirably adapted to horse-breeding, has produced the 
Thoroughbred of the present day. Breeders of other animals have also done 
great things in the same time, but in the breeding of horses one very great 
factor has co-operated which is more or less absent in the breeding of other 
animals. This mighty factor was passion. Battle and sport are the found- 
ations of horse breeding. These two have as if bv magic produced a 
passionate love for this breeding. This love works with more power, 
wisdom, ingenuitv and industry than all book wisdom of the wisest heads and 
all conscientiousness of the most industrious of men. To horse breeding, as 
well as to all that lives, the words u{ the Apostle St. Paul apply: "The 
greatest of these is Love." 

That this passion, otherwise so useful, may also lead to erroneous paths, 
is without doubt true in horse breeding. If this happens, and, unfortunately, 
it happens often, then wise counsel must step in; but this counsel must not 
kill the principal lever for the breeding of Thoroughbreds, namely, the just- 
mentioned passionate love. 

The facility with which the horse acclimatises itself everywhere has 
produced the spread of breeding of Thoroughbreds all over the world. 
All half-bred horses of the old and new world., even the Trotters, have, 
by mingling with the Thoroughbred, produced the required steel in 
their breeds, which otherwise could not have been produced as well and 
as quickly. Even the breeds of the Steppes of Russia, America and 

' In Germany all improved light breeds of horses, save the Thoroughbred, are called "edles 
Halbblut," which means "high quality Half-breds." All of these light breeds as well as the 
Thoroughbred itself are also called warm or hot-blooded horses, as contrasted with the cold-blooded 
heavy or draft breeds of horses, which are summarized in Germany under the general term " Kaltblut." 



4. \',ilur cif ilu- ■rhoniui;hbi"0(.l lor Oilier Brucds. 51 

Australia, have, with the aid of Thoroiijjhbrod stallions (often, unfortunately, 
of very low quality), influenced the capabilities (I.eistun<;sfahig;keit) of their 
horses. When the celebrated Cossack officer, Hetman PlatoiT (the celebrated 
stallion, Iletman Platoff, born 1830, was called after him), about a hundred 
years aj^o, durino- the fitrht for liberty aj,^ainsl Napoleon in the West of 
Europe, learned lo know and to esteem the Thoroughbred, and other tine 
breeds derived from same, he caused to b(' imported many Thoroughbred 
stallions of good, and of the best class, into the Cossack breeding stables 
near ihe Don, and the neighbouring Steppe breeding places. The conse- 
quence was that l\ussian ca\alr\- soon after, in fact, up to the middle of the 
last centurv, were mounted on the best horses an army ever possessed. That 
was a time in which (here were often matches belween Co.ssack horses and 
Thoroughbreds. The most celebrated of these races took place on the 4th of 
.\ugusl, lS-i5, near St. I'etersburg, distance 75 versts, i.e.. about SO kilo- 
metres. Two Cossack horses started against two rhoroughbreds. The 
Thoroughbred, .Sharper, born 1819 in the stud of Lord ligremont, by 
Octavious and ^'. .\mazon, won easil\- in '2 hours, 48 minutes, although he 
carried 40 lbs. more {'■] stone). The race took i>lace on the high road, and the 
rider of Sharper broke a stirrup in the middle of the race. In Kngland, 
.Sharper had won as a three-year-old, a small selling race, as a four-year-old, 
two small Handicaps and a walk-over, and as a tive-ycar-okl, (lircc races, 
inclusive of two King's Plates. 

The good results which haxc been ol)tained, especialU- in the S(]Utli uf 
I'Vance, bv the mixed Anglo-. \rabic breeding, seem to lead lo the con- 
clusion that one could ])erhaps also improve th<' Oriental horse, including 
the .\rabs, in their own homes, by the introduction of Thoroughbred 
stallion:s. If the small mistakes made in breeding Thoroughbreds were 
avoided, it is more than probable that in future original Oriental breeds 
could be im|3roved bv Thoroughbred stallions than vice versa. Lately, in 
lingland, the\' ha\'e tried to improxi- Thoroi:ghbreds b\- the infusion of 
.\rabic blood, but in \ain. It is \er\- remarkable, after the importation of 
Godolphin .\rabian in 1780, that no Oriental stallion c<iuld produce any 
great influence on the breeding of Thoroughbreds, although in man\- races 
Oriental blood was f;i\<)ured by lighter weights, whilst, on the other hand, 
for exami^le, the offspring of lu'lipse and llighflver had in main races to 
carry about 3 to 5 lbs. more, according to proposition. In the (ioodwood 
Gold Cup .\nglo-.\rabic hor.ses were favoured from 1885 to 189() with 14 lbs. 
less weight, later with 18 lbs. less. Thoroughbred Orientals, inclusive of 
Turks, Herbs, etc., iiad in this race at lirsl -JS lbs. less to carr\-, later 36 lbs., 
without having any success, 'i'hese fads and figures (3() lbs. less) are not 
suitable enouglt to recommend larger importations of Oriental blf)od for the 
breeding of light horses. 

The most important spheres of action of the Thoroughbred have been 
mentioned pretty exhaustively above, namely, ILalf-breds, Trotters, Steppe 



52 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

horses, and Oriental breeds. There still remains to be mentioned the coarser 
crosses of Thoroughbreds on some Coach Breeds and Heavy Breeds. In 
these cases also the Thoroughbred has been successful, and the successes 
would probably have been more frequent if the said breed had not become 
spoiled and too heterogeneous through pampering without trials. 

That the heavy horse breeds have not amongst themselves produced a 
" Thoroughbred " drafter (sit venia verba) as a representative of what they 
are capable of, is the regrettable consequence of the breeding which was built 
up for show without testing capability. There has not been sought for pro- 
minent performances, but rather for zoological attributes. As long as the 
breeding of drafters is carried on in this one-sided way, one cannot expect any 
progress in the capabilitv for employment (for use and breeding). The so- 
called earl)- maturity of the cold-blooded stock, together with early decav, 
rests on its effeminating method of rearing. It is not quite the same as what 
is called in the breeding of other animals early maturity. Neither as regards 
its earlier capability nor as regards its earlier breeding capacity, is the 
drafter earlier mature than the Thoroughbred. The expression, " early 
maturity," ought, in my opinion, to be eliminated in the breeding of horses, 
for within every breed the so-called earlv maturity can be obtained in a short 
time by a corresponding practice, without at the same time causing the 
shortening of life which accompanies early maturity. 

One often speaks of the better use of food with heavy horses, but I 
think this is based on a wrong idea. Apart from the motion of exorbitant 
loads, as it is required, for example, in different industries and in the beet- 
root districts, the Half-bred, and also the Thoroughbred, perform the daily 
slow work of the drafter in agriculture, with considerablv less food — a fact 
which I have noted at Beberbeck with teams composed of drafters and Half- 
breds. With quicker work, however, in trotting, the draft horse falls still 
more behind. He requires still more food, and finally gets off his feed. To 
make good use of food when doing nothing, or working at a comparatively 
slow rate, does not mean much. That the drafter of to-day, in spite of his 
irrational breeding, can, on account of its heavv weight, carry a larger load 
than a Thoroughbred, is unquestionable. 

There is also no doubt that the Thoroughbred will bear a load correspond- 
ing to its weight, viz., 20 cwts. (which, considering the usual weights of 
practice, is a large load, a good Belgian horse carrying about 80 cwts.) quicker, 
at longer distances, and over worse roads. In a Thoroughbred, through many 
generations, more muscle power, energy, etc., has been amassed than in the 
present dav drafter. Of course, it is to be expected that a reasonable breed- 
ing of cold-blooded stock, based on performance, will also here beat the 
Thoroughbred. The great popularity and spread of the heavy breeds is 
based principally on their easy temperament, which has been bred into them 
by pampering them. That a drafter bred on performance will be just as 
easy in temperament as the actual draft horse is highly improbable, because 



4. Value of the Tliorous^hbred for Oilier Breeds. 53 

it is very difficult to Cdinbinc two qualities which arc so different and so con- 
tradictory as is the case with powerful energy and comfort. This ease, 
demanded only by easy workmen, will always influence the good quality of 
the material. 'i'he great mistake made in comparing different breeds of 
horses is always the consequence of unjust parallels, as, for example, want 
and use of food, quiet and restless temperament of light horses at ()uick work, 
and of heayy horses at slow work. The same unjust comparison is often 
made with the so-called Thoroughbred knacker and a picked prominent 
Half-bred. Within the light breeds the same difference in the temperament 
of horses is observable. The most pleasant and most reasonable tempera- 
ment as a riding horse is in most cases the Thoroughbred when it has left 
the track, and the most difficult, violent and nervous temperament is found 
in Half-breds when they are taken seriously into training. The less highly 
bred the horse is, the more the above symptoms show themselves. If the 
work which is required from a horse in training often reaches the limits of 
its capacity, or even exceeds it, it is natural that a certain fear to do the work 
shows itself. Thereby nervousness ensues, which in Thoroughbreds shows 
itself most with the worst of them. I have seen Kinscem, Ormonde, Flying 
Fox, .\rd Patrick and others, as quiet and reasonable before a race as after 
one. 

Of all Half-bred horses which so far have been trained for races in 
Trakehnen, I have only observed three which remained absolutely quiet and 
reasonable up to the last quick gallop, namely, Morgenstrahl, born 189G, by 
Blue Blood and Moba, winner of the Fanfarro Race, 1900, in Insterburg; 
and the two Cadiz fillies, Jagdkonigin and Kastanie, both winners of the 
Breeders' Races in KiJnigsberg. These three horses were stj superior to 
their comrades that the limits were reached neither in racing nor in training. 

In consequence of its hard training, the Thoroughbred acclimatises itself 
very easily in different districts, whilst the softly raised draft horse is most 
sensitive in this regard. Pure-bred Percherons, which I saw in the year 1887 
in the magnificent Steppes of the Russian Royal stud at Derkul, Government 
Charkow, soon lost their type, and had already in the second generation an 
Arabic appearance, thereby reminding one of their ancestors. In the form of 
croup one could still distinguish the Percheron ; in its noble bearing, in the 
vivacity of its temperament, one seemed to recognise the Arabian cross-bred. 
The pure-bred Sufff)lks and Clydesdales reared there were soon stunted in 
their growth, and could not stand the rock\- meadows and strong sun. The 
long marches, which are necessitated by the life on the Steppes, from the 
meadows to the distant watering-places, did not offer them the comfort which 
they were accustomed to, and which is necessary to their growth. Drafters 
bred on performance would very likely, if recjuired, stand the life of the 
Steppes, just as the Thoroughbred can be raised in a low, watery district. 
Of course, neither the draft horse on the Steppes nor the Thoroughbred on 
the marsh would prosper. 

A real breed of heavy horses founded on performance tests would not 



54 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

produce tlie powerful dimensions whicli are, unfortunately, to-day still 
demanded, and even rewarded. The judging^ of horses only b}' measure- 
ments expressed in figures, whether it be for weight or dimensions of certain 
parts of the body, is not sufficient, and often dangerous. For many years the 
measuring of cannon bones has pla\ed the leading part, which, as a matter 
of fact, is often very useful in helping the eye when judging of the strength 
of the fundament within the same breed. The comparing of cannon 
measurements of different breeds of horses has become a modern sport. 

Often incommensurable \alues are compared. The fore foot of a drafter 
which has become thick through doing nothing or only light work, is 
most probably (without science showing it definiteh) of a softer texture, 
therefore less capable of resistance than that of the Thoroughbred or Half- 
bred, grow n hard through hard work. The examinations of different cannons 
by Professor Kramer, in I3ern, seem to confirm the above supposition. I 
here observe that comparative examinations on this subject lose in value if 
the bones are not bones of well-known horses. One must know genealogy, 
age, as well as the feeding and training of hor.ses, if the bones are to be used 
for experiments in pressing and bending, as well as for showing specific 
gravity. One only may compare results if they are taken from horses of the 
same breed, same standard quality, same age, same state of health, especially 
as probably small differences may have a great importance in these experi- 
ments. If the quality of the cannons is of equal value, one must first answer 
the question how advantageously the weight of the body is supported, i.e., 
how much weight rests on a definite square measurement of supporting 
surface. This question is answered by putting the square of the cannon 
girth in proportion to the body weight which it supports. If, however, the 
question is put how easily the supporting column (in this case the cannon) 
can break or bend, the cube of the cannon girth must be put in proportion 
to the weight. 

Apart from the different quality of the mass of the bones in different 
breeds, of the larger marrow cavity of the cannon in drafters, etc., I believe 
that these measures often lead to mistaken conclusions. Practical use and 
experience will often lead to <jther and more correct results. In any case, 
the present horses of draft blood are the most unsuitable breeds to create in 
warm-blooded Half-breds, strong, good and firm fore legs. In the breeding 
of drafters, as well as in that of man^- Half-breds, one may observe that a 
soft method of rearing \yith little movement, and then only at a slow rate, 
is eminently suitable to produce strong (i.e., big) fore legs. 

Against all these errors and dangers there is only one remedy, namely, 
performance tests. The isolated attempts to introduce at exhibitions and 
shows performance tests of heavy horses will become general, if only the 
general public rightly honours same and requires them. ]'ulgus vult decipi, 
ergo decipiatur — till it is undeceived. 

In the year 18G7, at the last Napoleonic Exhibition in Paris, several 



4. \'aliic iif llu' 'rii(ir()Lit;lilMril l(ir ()llu-r Ur<T(ls. fjy 

prizes were oiven for iKirscs wliitli coiikl carrx- the largest If)ad in proportion 
to their own weigiit. A \cr\ excellent idea. The prize (1 believe the first) 
was not won, however, i)\- a draft horse, bnt h\ liie coll Wapsikas, bred in 
Torgel (l-'stland), (>() degrees latitud<', lalcr for a long linn- ihc Royal stud 
stallion in Torgel. i'lirelv Ivstlandii , i.e.. of light breed — a small, well- 
|>roportioned horse, similar to a small liast Prussian. This unexpected 
result, however, has, so it appears, prevented a repetition of this proposition. 

The knowledge that sham is easier and cheaper to produce than the real 
thing, and the fact that there are still people enough who are deceived by 
sham, has just as much a deteriorating influence in the producing of wine 
and tobacco and other things as in the breeding of horses. The claims of the 
consimiers on the capabilities, and the interest of the producer to produce as 
cheaplv as possible, will always be difficult to meet. I'he craftiness of the 
breeder to produce showy stock \ery cheaply has often made greater 
progress than the expert knowledge of the consumer. Experts of cattle 
breeding complain about the same thing. Finally, one would think that 
the real thing. Truth, wtiuld pre\ail in the end. The breeding of 
Thoroughbreds and Trotters bred for performance is genuine, as well as, 
for example, the unfortunately dying out breeding of the Russian 
Steppes; the breeding of horses for the Russian soldiers, formerly in 
tlie L'kraine, now at the .Manitsch ri\er, was very much based on it. Since the 
cultivation of land, and with it the breeding of cattle and the use of the 
plough, have driven away the breeding of the Steppes from the magnificent 
Ukraine to the Manitsch river, and from thence still further and further into 
the unsuitable salt-containing I^astern Steppes; even Russia, so rich in 
horses, is forced to establish a modern swstem of horse-breedincf in order to 
produce horses for its soldiers. The hope to get thereby just as nice-looking 
cavalry horses as the other great nations is a sop to \anitv, and suppresses 
the knowledge that horses lose thereby in capability. The difficultv of the 
organisation of a successful breeding of horses, like we have in East i'russia, 
is perhaps thereby under-estimated, and the c|uality of the breed of horses 
produced with a beautiful sham appearance is over-estimated. 

That one has to fight against this production of the beautiful sham, ext-n 
in the breeding of Thoroughbreds, one can see in many Ivnglish studs which 
breed for the yearlings' market. In this respect, in the course of the last fifty 
years, things have gone verv much to the bad in luigland, as now more than 
half — according to some authors e\en nine-tenths — of all Thoroughbred 
yearlings are brought up for the yearlings' market. .Mthough this showy 
stock very seldom becomes also breeding stock, f)n account of the race tests — 
in any case, not breeding stock which has an important influence on the 
breeding of Thoroughbreds — it is a pity that through human sin much good 
material is wasted w hich was destined by Divine Nature to be chosen material. 

Apart from the performances obtained by no other breed than the 
Thoroughbred, over anv distance and under anv weight, the 'I'horoughbred 



5G 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



is also superior to all other breeds in various breeding performances. This 
is an eloquent proof that the tests to which the Thoroughbred is subject have 
also had a good influence on its fertility and longevity (as will be shown 
hereafter by many examples). The number of dams which, according to 
the statement of the General Stud Book, have produced sixteen living foals, 
is such a large one that for want of space they have been left out of the 
following lists. We only mention brood mares which have produced seven- 
teen and more living foals. As the first volume of the General Stud Book 
only appeared in 1793, the foals born in the eighteenth century are only 
given in so far as they were known through the Racing Calendar, the chief 
basis of the Stud Book. It is clear, therefore, that in the first book many 
living foals are not mentioned, as they have not appeared on the racecourse. 
Therefore, the number of brood mares which in the eighteenth century 
produced seventeen and more living foals is less in the following list : — 

Register of Thoroughbred Mares in the General Stud Book which have had 
not less than seventeen living foals. 







r- "^ 




2,^ 






No. 


Names of the Mares. 




Sires of the Mares. 


o 3 
t; a- 


Remarks 




1 


Sister to Sampson 


172:^ 


Greyhound 


20 


Dam of the 
Fam. 12 a 




2 


Prntt's Old Mare 


1750 


Squirt 


17 


Dam of the 
Fam. 24 




3 


Mare 


1777 


Matchem 


18 


Fam. 15 




4 


Mare 


1780 


Y. Marske 


18 


Dam of the 

Fam. 34 




5 


Nimble 


1784 


Florizel 


17 


Dam of the 
Fam. 32 




6 


Heiress 


1786 


Paymaster 


17 


Fam. 12 




7 


Mare 


1788 


Adamant 


17 


Fam. 3 




8 


Amelia (Grand- 

daug-hter of No. 2) 


1788 


Highflyer 


17 


Fam. 24 




9 


Beatrice 


1791 


Sir Peter 


17 


Fam. 7 




10 


Mare 


1791 


Y. Marske 


18 


Fam. 9 




11 


Platina O. 


1792 


Mercury 


19 


Fam. 5 b 




12 


Bay Javelin 


1793 


Javelin 


17 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 3a 


foal 


13 


Mare 


1795 


Skyscraper 


17 


Fam. 2e 





14 


Miss Gunpowder 


1797 


Gunpowder 


20 


3 year-old first 
Fam. 34 


foal 


15 


Rosamond 


1798 


Buzzard 


17 


Fam. 5 a 




16 


Carthaj^e (Firstling) 
sister to Hannibal D. 


1798 


Driver 


18 


Fam. 3 




17 


Grey Duchess 


1799 


PotSos 


19 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 6 


foal 



4. Value of the Thoroimhbrcd for Other Breeds. 



57 



No. 


Names of the Mares. 




j Sires of the Mares. 




Remarks 


18 


Miss llaworth 


1802 


Spadille 


17 


3 year-old first foal 
Fam. 29 


10 


Mare 


1802 


Precipitate 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 5 


20 


Bronze O. 
sister to Castrel 


1808 


' Buzzard 


17 


Fam. 2d 


21 


Mare 


180:5 


' Star 


17 


Fam. 23 


22 


Mare 


1804 


Hanibletonian 


18 
or 
19 


Fam. 18 


23 


.Maniac (Firstling) in 
19 rears 


1806 


Shuttle 


19 


Fam. 4 b 


24 


Mare 


1807 


Shuttle 


18 


Not in the 
Goosschen Table 
Frentzel Fam. 46 


25 


Barrosa (Grand- 
daughter of No. 5) 


1808 


Vermin 
out of Nike O. 


17 


Fam. 32 


26 


Ladv of ' he Lai<e 


1809 


Sorcerer 


17 


Fam. 43 


27 


Mare 


1810 


Sancho 


19 


3 year-old first loal 
Fam. 18 


28 


Wire 


1811 


Waxy 


17 


Fam. 1 


29 


Miss Cantley 


1812 


Stamford 
out of Sister to Silver 


17 


Fam. 5b 


30 


Mare (Kirsthng) 
(Daughter of No. 24) 


1812 


Dick .'\ndre\vs 


17 


3 year-old first foal 
Not in Goosschen 
Table 
Frentzel Fam. 46 


31 


Clinlierina 


1812 


Clinker 


18 


Fam. 8 


32 


Mare 


1812 


Shuttle 


20 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 15 


33 


Sister to Corduroy 


1812 


Shuttle 


20 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 5 


34 


Nancy 


1813 


Dick .Andrews 


17 


Fam. 9 


35 


Coquette 


1814 


Dick .Andrews 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 12 


36 


Filagree 


1815 


Soothsayer 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 1 b 


37 


Mare 


1815 


Election 


17 


Fam. 2 a 


38 


Mare 


1815 


Orville 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 12 


38 


Velocipede's dam 


1817 


Juniper 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 3c 


40 


Marion 


1819 


Tramp 


17 


Fam. 5a 


41 


Snowball 


1810 


Prime Minister 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 2a 



58 



Trial of tlit- ThoroLiphbred on the Rncecourse, etc. 



No. 


Names of the Mares. 


?" c 


Sires of the Mares. 


o =) 
a a- 


Remarks 


42 


Arinida 


1819 


Rinaldo 


17 


Fam. 15 


43 


Bequest 


1819 


Election 


17 


F'am. 3 a 


44 


Emma 


1819 


Orville 


18 


Fam. 3a 


45 


Mare 


1819 


Rubens 


17 


Fam. 27 


46 


Adeline 


1821 


Soothsayer 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 11 


47 


Katherine 


1821 


Soothsayer 


18 


Fam. 22 


48 


Monimia 


1821 


Muley 


17 


Fain. 12 a 


49 


Mary 


182:^ 


Friday 


19 


Fam. 5a 


50 


Mare 


1823 


Merlin 


17 


Fam. 10 


51 


Miss Thomasina 


1823 


Welbeck 


17 


Fam. 15 


52 


Mare 


1824 


Cervantes 


17 


Fam. 1 


53 


Emma 


1824 


Whisker 


17 


Earn. 7 


54 


Mare 


1825 


Phantom 


17 


Fam. 1 


55 


Banter 


1826 


Master Henry 


17 


Fam. 14 


56 


Marg-ellina 

sister to Memnon L. 


1826 


Whisker out of 
Manuella O. 


19 


Fam. 11 


57 


Europa 


1829 


Reveller 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 2 e 


58 


Medea 


1831 


Whisker 


18 


Fam . 8 a 


59 


Mare 


1&32 


Whisker 


19 


Fam. 1 


60 


La Belle 


1833 


Voltaire 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 17 


61 


Manilla 


1833 


Mulatto 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 26 


62 


V'alentine 


1833 


Voltaire 


17 


Fam. 12 a 


63 


.Annette 


1835 


Priam 


19 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 16 


64 


Parade 


1835 


Pantaloon 


18 


3 year-old first foal 
Fam. 2e 


65 


E.xccutrix 


1836 


Liverpool 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 4 


66 


Mare 


1836 


Muley 


18 


3 year-old first foal 
Fam. 8 


67 


Lapwing' 


1837 


Bustard 


17 


3 year-old first foal 
Fam. 19 


68 


Martha Lynn 


1837 


Mulatto 


18 


Fam. 2c 


69 


Mare 


1837 


Pantaloon 


18 


Fam. 14 


70 


Palmyra 


1838 


Sultan 


17 


Fam. 12 a 


71 


.\rethusa 


1839 


Elis 


18 


Fam. 20 


72 


Bohemienne 


1839 


Confederate 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 8 


73 


Equation 


1839 


Emilius 


18 


Fam. 7 



4. \';iliic i)f the Tliiirdiii'hliicd for Oilier Breeds. 



59 







_^. 




^2 




No. 


Names of the Mares. 


'-' -t 


Sires of tlie Mares. 


?3 


Remarks 


7+ 


Florence 


l&id 


Velocipede 


20 


Fam. 2a 


75 


Mare 


18:« 


Sir Hercules 


19 


4 year-old first lo.-d 
Fam. 2 


76 


Treacherous 


1839 


Pantaloon 


17 


Fain. 2 


77 


Mare 


1839 


Plenipotentiary 


17 


4 year-old first toal 
Fam. 10 


78 


Barbarina 


1840 


Plenipotentiary 


18 


Fam. 23 


79 


Titania 


1840 


Emilius 


17 


Fam. 3c 


80 


Boardiiii;-Scliool-.Miss 


IHll 


Plenipotentiary 


17 


Fam. 3b 


81 


Emerald 


1811 


Defence 


17 


Fam . 3 a 


82 


Phvsalis 


1841 


Bay Middleton 


17 


Fam. Ha 


83 


Mare 


1841 


Plenipotentiary 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 1 a 


84 


Black Bess (Grand- 
daughter of No. 45) 


1842 


Sheet .\nchor 


17 


3 year-old first foal 
Fam. 27 


85 


Stamp 


1842 


Emilius 


17 


Fam. 1 


86 


The Duchess of 

Lorraine 


1842 


Pantaloon 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 2 


87 


Little Finch 


1842 


Hornsea 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 29 


88 


Eulogy 

(Daughter of No. 68) 


1843 


Euclid 


19 


Fam. 2c 


89 


Jocose 

(Daughter of No. 55) 


18t:^ 


Pantaloon 


17 


Fam. 14 


90 


Queen .Mary (Firstling) 


1813 


Gladiator 


19 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 10 


91 


Tour de Force 


1843 


Sir Hercules 


17 


Fam. 22 


92 


Defenceless 


1844 


Defence 


19 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 6 a 


{« 


Irregularity 


1814 


Birdc.-ilcher 


18 


3 year-old first foal 
Not in Goosschen 
Table 
Frentzel Fam. 72 


94 


Sister to Leaconfield 


1844 


Hampton 


17 


Fam. 2 a 


!(5 


Makeless 


18W 


St. Martin 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 2d 


96 


The Prairie Bird 


1844 


Touchstone 


20 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 1 a 


97 


Sultana 


1844 


Hetm;m Platoff 


17 


Fam. 6 a 


98 


Themis 


1844 


Touchstone 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 9 


99 


Contraction 


1845 


Emilius 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 43 


UJO 


Nourmahal 


1845 


Lanercost 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 2e 



fiO 



Trial of the Thorout^hbred on the Racecourse, etc. 















No. 


Names of the Mares. 




Sires of the Mares. 


- c- 


Remarks 


101 


Troica 


1845 


Lanercost 


17 


Fam. 3 a 


102 


Midia 


1846 


Scutari 


17 


Fam. 3 a 


103 


Sacrifice 


1847 


Voltaire 


17 


Fam. 4 d 


104 


Sunflower 


1847 


Bay Middleton 


18 


4 year-oUl lir^t foal 
Fam. 1 c 


105 


.■Xgnes 


1848 


Pantaloon 


17 


Fam. 28 


106 


Plush 


1848 


Plenipotentiary 


19 


Fam. 1 a 


107 


Bav Rosalind 


1849 


Orlando 


20 


Fam. 11 


108 


Butterfly 


1.S4!) 


tonight of the Whistle 


18 


Fam. 20 


109 


Gossamer 


1849 


Birdcatcher 


17 


Fam. 19 


110 


Miss Conyngham 


1849 


Slane 


18 


4 year-old lir^lt foal 
Fam. 1 


111 


.Amazon (in 18 year>) 


1850 


Touchstone 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 4 


112 


Latona 


1&50 


Lanercost 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 3 


113 


Georgiana 


1851 


Touchstone 


17 


Fam. 7 


114 


Black Cotton 


1852 


Faugh-a-Ballagh 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 6 


115 


Jeu d 'Esprit 


1852 


Flatcatcher 


17 


Fam. 7 


lit) 


Mare 


1&52 


Jon 


19 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 8a 


117 


Defamation 


imi 


.lago 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 14 


118 


Stuff and Nonsense 


1,85:^ 


The Libel 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 1 


119 


All's Well 


1854 


The Cure 


17 


Fam. 5 


120 


Christabelle 


1854 


Fernhill 


17 


Fam. 3c 


121 


Countess 


1854 


Slane 


18 


3 year-old first foal 
Fam. 8 


122 


Countess of 

Westmorland 


1854 


Melbourne 


19 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 3 


123 


Daisy 


1854 


Touchstone 


18 


Fam. 12 


124 


Media Noce 


1854 


Weatherbit 


18 


Fam. 5b 


125 


Electra 


1855 


Touchstone 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 2e 


126 


Mare 


1855 


Melbourne 


18 


Fam. 5 a 


127 


Emotion 


1856 


Alarm 


17 


Fam . 1 a 


128 


.Amethyst 


1857 


Touchstone 


18 


Fam. 11 


129 


Codicil 


1857 


The Cossack 


19 


Fam. 6 a 


130 


Emma 


1857 


Storm 


18 


3 year-old first foal 
Fam. 19 


131 


Lambda 


1857 


I'mbriel 


17 


Fam. 19 


i:?2 


Spring Blossom 


lS.-,7 


Touchstone 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 14 



4. \'.iliR- iif the Tliurouirlibri'd for Other Breeds. 



61 




133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 

139 
140 



141 
142 



143 



Charniione 

Lady Blanche 

Miss Fanny 

Tartlet 

Verijiss Mein nicht 

Dewdrop 

Entreniet 
Mare 



Leda 
Pompadour 



Mare 



144 Amaranth 



145 


Bonnv Bell 


146 


Crucifixion 


147 


Last Love 


148 


Novara 


149 


Old Orange Girl 


150 


Pimpernel 


151 


The Doe 


152 


Mystery 


153 


Tomfoolery 


154 


Mare 


155 


Agile 


156 


Lady Charlotte 


157 


Money Spinner 


168 


Danisli Rose 


150 


Delilah 


180 


Laura 


161 


Lina 


162 


Murcia 



1858 
1&58 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1859 

1859 
1159 



1859 
1&59 

1&-J9 
1860 

1860 
1860 
1860 

186(J 
1860 
1860 
1861 
1861 
1861 
1861 

1862 

1862 

1862 

1863 

1864 

1864 
1864 

1864 



Orlando 
Voltigeur 
Vanderdecken 
Birdcatcher 
Flying Dutchman 
Mildew- 
Sweetmeat 
Lambton 



VVeatherbit 
Stoclvwell 

y. Melbourne 
Newminster 

V'oltiijcur 

Pelion 

Annandale 

Weatherbit 

Kingston 

Sweetmeat 

Turnus 

Augur 

King Tom 

Wild Dayrell 

Gibraltar 

Fandango 

Marsyas 

Surplice 

Thormanby 

Lambton 
Stockwell 

Lord of the Isles 



17 


Fam. 2 c 




17 


Earn. 2d 




19 


Fam. 8 




19 


Fam. 21 




17 


Fam. 9 




19 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 8 a 


foal 


17 


Fam. 2e 




18 


4 year-old first 


foal 




Not in Goosschen 




Table 






Frentzel Fam. 83 


17 


Fam. 2a 




18 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 2e 


foal 


17 


Fam. 9 




17 


3 year-old first 
Fam. 20 


foal 


17 


Fam. 10 




17 


Fam. 27 




18 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 4 


foal 


19 


Fam. 2 




17 


Fam. 7 




17 


Fam. 2c 




18 


Fam. 8 




17 


Fam. 2e 




17 


Fam. 2 




17 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 3b 


foal 


17 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 3 


foal 


17 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 8 


foal 


17 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 16 


foal 


17 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 12 


foal 


18 


4 year-old first 
Fam. Ic 


foal 


18 


Fam. 17 




18 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 7 


foal 


18 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 6 


foal 



62 



Trinl of tlie Thoroui^hbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 


Names of the Mares. 


Year of 
Birth. 


.Sires of tlie MareS. 


2,2 

o 3 
a a- 


Remarlcs 


163 


Ninna 


1864 


Buccaneer 


18 


3 year-old first foal 
Fani. 11 


164 


Queen l^sther 


1864 


Warlock 


22 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 4 c 


165 


Perea 


1865 


Voltigeur 


17 


Fam. 3 


166 


Siluria 


1865 


Caractacus 


17 


Fam. 1 a 


167 


The Sphynx 


1865 


Newminster 


18 


Fam. 2 a 


168 


Thrift 


1865 


Stocku.-ll 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 10 


169 


Jenny Diver 


1866 


Buccaneer 


20 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 20 


170 


Night jar 


1866 


Wild Daxrell 


19? 


Fam. 15 


171 


Cestus 


1867 


Newminster 


17 


Fam. 3b 


172 


Performer 


1867 


.Adventurer 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 1 c 


173 


Canonical 


1868 


Cathedral 


20 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 11 


174 


Furiosa 


1868 


Orlando 


17 


Fam. 45 


175 


Lady Mortimer 


1868 


Kettledrum 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 10 


176 


Claretto 


1869 


Claret 


19 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 25 


177 


Eva 


1869 


Bre.idalbane 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 2c 


178 


Wee Lassie 


1869 


Scottish Chief 


18 


Fam. 2 a 


179 


True Blue 


1870 


Oxford 


20 


Fam. 32 


180 


Cherry Duchess 


1871 


The Duke 


18 


Fam. 27 


181 


Mirror 


1871 


Speculum 


17 


Fam. 49 


182 


Pillase 


1871 


Cambuscan 


19 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 8 


183 


Pomona 


1871 


Skirmisher 


18 


Fam. 19 


184 


Turn of the Tide 


1871 


Mandrake 


17 


Fam. 18 


185 


Enig^ma 


1872 


The Rake 


17 


Fam. 2a 


186 


(Daughter of No. 167) 
Katrine 


1872 


Blair .\thol 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam . 5 b 


187 


Katrine 


1873 


Blinkhoolie 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 9 


188 


Orchestra 


1873 


Trumpeter 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 12 


189 


St. Editha 


1873 


Kingley Vale 


18 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 16 


190 


Stone Chat 


1873 


.Adventurer 


17 


4 year-old first foal 
Fam. 16 



4 Value uf llu- 'I'hiiiouijhlin'il lor Oilier Breeds. 



m 



No. 


Names of the Mares. 


-I ^ 


Sires of tlie .Mares. 


Number 
of Foals. 


Remarks 




191 


iMiss .Maniieriny; 


1874 


Blair .\lliol 


19 


4 year-old lirst 
Fam. 43 


loal 


102 


Palinllower 


1874 


The I'.dmer 


17 


Fani. 20 




198 


hihalemuc 


1874 


O.xford or The Duke 


18 


4 year-old first 
Fam. L'd 


loal 


194 


kill 11 


1876 


Rosierucian 


18 


Fam. 4 




195 


.Mrs. Knight 


1876 


Kni,L;ht of the Garter 


17 


3 _vear-old first 
Fam. 4b 


foal 


196 


Osmunda 


1876 


Sterlinjj 


17 


Fam. 2 a 




197 


Festival 


1877 


Sterling 


17 


4 year-old first 
Fam . 1 b 


foal 


198 


lUumiiiata 


1877 


Rosierucian 


18 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 1 c 


foal 


199 


.Miss Mabel 


1877 


Knight of the Garter 


17 


Fam. 11 




200 


Pink Thorn 


1877 


Cathedral 


18 


4 year-old lirst 
Fam. 2 a 


foal 


201 


.Sciph\' 


1877 


St. .Mbans 


18 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 12 


foal 


202 


Celandine 


1878 


King Tom or .Macaroni 


17 


Fam. 1 c 




203 


Eus:enie 


1878 


Pero Gomez 


17 


Fam. l(i 




204 


I^oving; Cup 


1878 


Brown Bread 


17 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 23 


foal 


205 


Rent Day 


1878 


.Macgregor 


17 


4 year-old first 
Fnm. 3 b 


foal 


•m; 


True Love 


1878 


Sterling 


18 


Fam. 3c 




207 


Bonny Rose 


1879 


Rosierucian 


18 


Fam. 31 




208 


Biserta 


1880 


Lord Lyon 


17 


Fam. 22 




209 


Fisher Lass 


188') 


Exminster 


18 


4 year-okl first 
F.-mi. S 


foal 


210 


Hall Mark 


1880 


Standard 


17 


Fam. 2 b 




211 


Jennie Winkle 
(I)auj,'hterof No. 109) 


18«0 


Mr. Winkle 


17 


4 year-old first 
F;im. -JO 


foal 


212 


Dnnt^ola 


1883 


Doncaster 


18 


4year-olil lirst 
Fam. G a 


fo;il 


213 


Red riove 


1883 


.Sterling 


17 


4 year-old first 
Fam. 3 b 


foal 



I know u( no lior.sc bri'cd wliicli c.-in .show, even ai)proxiniat('l\, sii(-li 
breeding merits as tlic I"!nf;Iisii hncil of 'riioroughbrcds, accordini; to the 
alcove li.st. in 'IVakelinen only two cases liave tal<en place, in more than 100 
years, in which one hoise has given birth to 10 living foals. To the following 
li.st I have to add that twf) Thf)roiigIibred dams with l.'~l foals each are not 
nicnlif)ned. 



54 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

List of Brood Mares in Trakehnen having; prodiued 17 and more living foals. 



No. 


Names of the Dams. 


Born. 


Sires of the Dams. 


Number 
of Foals. 


1 


Lemma 


1810 


Oronocco I 


17 


2 


Duellona 


1814 


Rodrich 


17 


3 


Des-Jemona 


1815 


Caril 


17 


4 


Junia 


1815 


Rodrich 


17 


5 


Bazilia 


1817 


Caril 


18 


6 


Crab 


1818 


Oronocco I 


18 


7 


Czarina 


1818 


Oronocco II 


17 


8 


Zoraide 


1818 


Rodrich 


18 


9 


.Anta 


1819 


Pretender 


19 


10 


.•\rcade 


1819 


Pretender 


18 


11 


Persienne 


1819 


Teheran ox 


19 


12 


Angloise 


1820 


Scrapall xx 


17 


13 


Ultima 


1820 


Blackamoor xx 


17 


14 


Victory 


1820 


Blackamoor xx 


18 


15 


Doris 


1821 


Scrapall xx 


17 


16 


Masora 


1822 


Eminlik ox 


18 


17 


Olympia 


1823 


Blackamoor xx 


17 


18 


Collina 


1826 


Trafalgar 


17 


19 


Alzire 


1828 


The Cryer xx 


17 


20 


Hipponome 


1834 


Acarnas 


17 


21 


Jupine 


1834 


Sterling IV 


17 


22 


Medina 


1838 


Big Ben xx 


17 


23 


Vecordia 


1839 


Black Hambleton xx 


17 


24 


Antha 


1852 


Paragone 


17 


2.5 


Perina 


18(il 


Promoter 


18 


26 


Injurie 


1863 


Venerato 


17 


27 


Lava 


18a3 


Grezano 


17 


28 


Herz 


1866 


Duplicat 


17 


29 


Harmonica 


1874 


Journey 


17 


30 


Atella 


1883 


Fliigel 


17 



In order to fully appreciate the work of Thoroughbreds not attained also 
in Trakehnen, as regards the living born foals of one dam, I add a list of 
brood mares, of Half-breds having produced 17 and more living foals. 
I. Beberbeck. Stud Book, Volume I. 342 brood mares. 

1. Lolly 1862 by Hipparch 17 foals. 

2. Custozza 1867 bv Thanat(3s 17 ,, 

3. Gurly 1868 by J. Harlequin 18 ,, 

II. Ostpreussen. Stud Book, Volume IV. 4.060 brood mares. 

1. Kunzine 1881 by Mercos No. 4868 ... 17 foals. 

2. Granate 1882 bv Dativ No. 2763 .... 17 ,, 

3. Viva 1883 by Vivat No. 2073 17 „ 

Besides these only 11 dams which had 16 foals. 



\'alue of the Thorouq-hbrecl for Other Breeds. 



65 



[II. Hannover. Stud Book, Volume III. 3,527 brood mares. 
1. Godelinde 1872 bv Goldoni No. 2399 . . 18 foals. 
■2. Xumana 1873 by Xord No. 107 .... IS ,, 

The superiorit\- of the English Thoroughbred over all Ilalf-breds and 
draft breeds is perhaps shown still more clearlv from its special work at a 
great age, or under diflirult circiunstances, as can be seen from tiie following 
examples. I ha\e tu add that there are numerous cases in which English 
Thoroughbred mares 22 to 29 years old have still brought fortli living foals. 
In the following list only such cases are specially mentioned where the off- 
spring of these aged mares have shown themselves to be reall}- good horses, 
either on the racecourse or in the stud. 

Special Breeding Performances of Old Thoroughbred Glares in England. 



No. 



Name and Pediijree. B(irn. 



Breed! US' Performances. 



Brown Farwell 

b}' Matheless — Brimmer. 



4 ' Look at Me Lads 

by Grasshopper — New- 
ton's Bav Arabian. 



Spinster 

by Partner out of Bay 
Bloodv Buttocks. 



1710 



Sister to Sampson 1723 

by Greyhound — Curwen 
Bay Barb 

Little Hartlev Mare 1727 

bv Bartlett's Childers out 



IT.M 



1735 



16 foals, 7 of which were Pedigree Mares in 
Fam. 4. One born in the 2Uth year (had 16 
foals); one in its 21st year (dam of Sweep- 
stakes) ; one in the 22nd year (dam of Dor- 



mouse) ; and 
Matchem). 



one in the 25th year (dam of 



20 foals. In its 26th year Sally, a g-ood 
racer, 4 to G years, and a good Brood Mare 
(11 foals). 

13 foals, of which were : Tortoise, Janus, 
Blank, Old England, Trimmer, Shakespeare 
(according to Lawrence sire of Eclipse). In its 
24th ye.'ir Miss Meredith, Foundation Mare in 
l""am. 1.5, and in its 25th year, a mare with 
good progeny. 

As a 6 year-old, at Newmarket, King's 
Pl.ites, ran, not placed. Had first foal when 
20 years of age. 12 foals, amongst which 
were: in its 21st year. Lottery by Blank; at 
24 a mare by Ancastor Sterling, Foundation 
Mare of Fam. 14; at 30, Whisper by Blank, a 
good racer; at 32, Amazon by Blank, a good 
racer and brood mare; at 33 its last foal. 

Won the King's Plates as a 5 and 6 year- 
old at Newmarket. First foal at 8 years of 
age; Spinster (Foundation Mare in Fam. 4), 11 
foals. At 25, Golden Grove, Foundation Mare 
of Fam. 4 d. 



6(3 



Trial of the Thorouc-hbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 



Name and Pedigree. 



iBorn. 



Breeding Performances. 



10 
11 

12 
13 

14 



15 



Sister to Regulus 

bv Godolphin Arabian out 
of Grey Robinson. 



Miss Wilkinson 

By Regulus out of Miss 
Lay ton. 

Duchess 

by Whitenose out of 19 
year-old Miss Slanierkin. 



Spiletta 

by Regulus out of Mother 
Western. 

Cypron 
"by Blaze out of Salome. 

Pratt's Old Mare 
by Squirt — Mogul. 



^Nlare 

by Rib out of Mother 
Western. 

Polly 

by Black and All Black 
out of Fanny. 



Mare (chestnut) 
bv Tartar— Mogul 



1743 



1747 



1748 



1749 



1750 



1750 



1751 



1756 



1757 



Calliope 

by Sloutch out of Lass of 
the Mill. 



1763 



16 foals, of which were : at 23, Grey Mare 
by Snap, Foundation Mare in Fam. 11 (Bird- 
catcher); and at 27, Mussulman, a famous 
racer. 

Won a race as a 4 year-old. First foal when 
8 years old. 10 foals. At 25, Mare by Syphon, 
Foundation Mare in Fam. 43. 

Ran 4 — 7 year-old 16 times and won 12 times. 
First foal at 9 years old. At 23, Pyrrha, 
Foundation Mare in Fam. 7, which had 
Beatrice when 20 years old, dam of 17 foals. 

Not run. First foal at 10 years old. At 23, 
Garrick (own brother to Eclipse), and at 25, 
Briseis. 

Not run. First foal at 5 years old. 16 foals 
without a break, amongst which was Herod. 

Not run. 17 foals, amongst which were 12 
good racers. .At 24 Purity (by the 25 year-old 
Matchem), dam of Rockingham and 12 other 
foals. Lived to 27 years old. Fam. 24. 

Not run. Five grey foals, amongst which, 
at 24, was the Foundation Mare of Marsyas, 
Kingston, Archibald, Hermit, etc. Fam. 12. 

3 year-old ran once. First foal at 8 years 
old. 14 foals, amongst which were : King 
Fergus, at 20; Fanny, Foundation Mare in 
Fam. 6; and at 25, Cast-off (a good racer). 

Did not run. First foal at 6 years old. 16 
foals, amongst which were : 10 chesnuts by 
Eclipse; at 21, Mercury; at 23, Volunteer; at 
28, Queen Mab, a famous Foundation Mare in 
Fam. 9, with 16 foals, amongst which were 
Remembrancer L., and at 20, Remembrance, 
Foundation Mare in Fam. 0. 

4 — 6 year-old ran six times, won twice. 
First foal at 7 years old. 10 foals, of which 
were : at 18, Omphale L. ; at 20, Sir John Fal- 
staff, a good racer; and at 25, a Mare by 
Phonomenon, that gave birth to living twins, 
amongst which a Foundation Mare in Fam. 2 



4. Value of the Thorousrhbrcd tor Other Breeds. 



67 



No. 


Xanie and Pedigree. 


Horn. 


Breeding Performances. 


16 


Jo 


1767 


Ran as a 3 and 4 year-old four times, won 




by Spectator — Blank. 




once. First foal at 11 years old. 10 foals. 
At 20, Patriot, a very fine racer, winning 2 — 
8 year-old. 


17 


Mother Brown 


1771 


4 — 12 year-old ran 39 races and won 20. 




by Trunnion — Old Eng- 




-As 8 year-old, and in foal, won a race over 




land. 




4 miles. As a 9 year-old, after foaling, ran 
again four times and won four times (amongst 
which was one King's Plates). As a 10 year- 
old ran six times, winning five times (one 
King's Plates). .Xs an 11 year-old ran six 
times, winning twice. .'Xs a 12 year-old ran 
once, not placed. Had 6 foals. .At 21, Toby, 
a good racer, in Ireland; at 25, Jerry Sneak, 
a splendid racer in Ireland, won as a 13 year- 
old, and was the sire of many good racehorses; 
at 26, Mare by Bagot, grandmother of 
Nabocklish, Fam. 4. Was about 30 years old 
when it had last foal. 


18 


Cypher 

by Squirrel out of 23 year- 


1772 


4 year-old ran once. 12 foals. 3 Foundation 






Mares in Fam. 3 a. At 24, Alfred by John 




old Mare by Regulus. 




Bull. 


19 


Termagant 


1772 


First foal at 12 years old (Edmund 2nd in 




by Tantrum out of Canta- 




L). 11 foals by 10 different stallions. At 19, 




trice. 




Evelina, dam of Orville, P.iulowitz, and 
Cervantes; at 27, Sparrow Hawk (3rd in L). 


20 


Mare 


1772 


Did not run. First foal at 10 years old. 10 




by Syphon out of 25 year- 




foals without a break, last foal in ils 27th year. 




old Miss Wilkinson. 




Foundation Mare of Fam. 43. 


21 


Calash 


1775 


4 vear-old ran six times, winning five times. 




by Herod out of Teresa. 




First foal at 8 years old. 11 foals, amongst 
which as Firstling Paragon L; at 14, Whiskey; 
and at 24, Lady Charlotte, dam of Cwrw 2. 


22 


Calia 


1775 


3 year-old ran once. 14 foals. At 23, High- 




by Herod out of Proser- 




land Fling by Spadille. 




pine (own sister to 








Eclipse). 






23 


Miss Hervey 


1775 


3 and 4 year-old ran eight times, won twice. 




by Eclipse out of Clio. 




First foal at 8 years old. 13 foals. At 22, 
Haphazard by Sir Peter, and at 23, a Marc by 
Sir Peter — Foundation Mare of Fam. 35. 


24 


Fan 11 V 


1776 


Not run. First foal at 11 years old. 14 




bv Eclipse out of 20 year- 




foals, of which was Volante O., Fam. 6. 




old Pollv. 







OS 



Trial of the Thorouarhbrecl on the Racecourse, etc. 



Xo. 



Name and Pedigree. 



Born. 



Breeding Performances. 



25 Mare 

by Matchem (28 year-old) 
— Syphon. 



26 



27 



28 



29 



m 



31 



32 



m 



34 



Hnratia 

by Eclipse out of 28 year- 
old Countess. 

Camilla 

by Trentham out of 
Coquette. 



Expectation 

by Herod out of 21 year- 
old Mare bv Skim. 



Faith 

by Pacolet out of 
Atalanta. 

Luna 

bv Heft-od out of 
Proserpine. 

Maria 

by Telemachus out of 20 
year-old A-la-Grecque. 



1777 



1778 



1778 



1779 



1779 



1779 



1783 



Nimble 1784 

bv Florizel out of Ranti- i 
pole. 



Pewet L. 
bv Tandem out of Terma- 
i^-ant (No. 19) 

Prunella 

bv Highflyer out of 
Promise. 



1786 



1788 



3 year-old ran seven timel^, won once. 18 
foals, of which were : Eager D, Fidget, 
Bustler ; at 24, Professor (ran twice as a 3 
year-old) ; at 25, Sinbad (later Rainbow, ran 
as a 3 and 4 year-old four times, won twice); 
and at 27, Fan (ran once as a 3 year-old, and 
had 8 foals). At 32 last foal. 

3 — 5 year-old ran nine times, won three 
times. First foal at 8 years old. 15 foals. 
At 19, Archduke D, and at 25. Paris D. 

3 — 6 vear-old ran seventeen times, won six 
times. First foal at 9 years old : Y. Camilla, 
a famous Foundation Mare in Fam. 11. 12 
foals, at2S, Jerboa, Foundation MareofVenison, 
The Little Wonder D, St. Simon, Ornue, etc. 

5 year-old ran twice. First foal at 8 years 
old. Spinster, Foundation Mare in Beberbeck. 
13 foals. xM 23, Anticipation, Foundation Mare 
in Fam. 4 (Executrix, Vanessa, Manganese, 
Alice Hawthorn, etc.). 

Ran and won 3 — 7 year-old, ran as 8 year- 
old, not winning. First foal at 11 years old. 
9 foals. At 18, Marcia; at 22, Vesta, Founda- 
tion Mares in Fam. 2 a ; at 24, Camillus. 

Not run. First foal at 8 (?) years old. 14 
foals. At 24. Cardinal Puff by Cardinal. 

3 and 4 year-old ran eight times, won twice. 
First foal at 8 years old. 10 foals. At 15, 
Marianne, dam of Octavius D and Caroline 
O ; at 22, Marybella, Foundation Mare in Fam. 
23; and at 24, Breslaw, a famous racer. 

2— 6 year-old ran 36 times, won 19 times. 
First foal at 7 years old. 17 foals, of which 
were once twins, Nike O, and at 23, Donna 
Clara, Foundation Mare for Fam. 32. 

3_(3 year-old ran thirteen times, won four 
times. First foal at 8 years old. 9 foals. .At 
16, Sir Paul; at 18, Pauline L; and at 26, 
Clinkerina (dam of Humphrey Clinker). 

3_6 year-old ran eleven times, won three 
times. First foal at 8 years old. 12 foals, of 
which 9 were very fine. .\t 23. Prudence, 
Foundation Mare in Fam. 1 a. 



4. \'alue of the Thorouirhbred for Other Breeds. 



09 



No. 


Name and Pedigree. 


Born. 


Breeding Pcrforni;iiKi^. 


So 


Sister to Silver 


1790 


Ran and won as a 1 year-old at New niarliet. 




by Mercury — Herod. 




Was used for many years as a riding and 
carriage hor.se, and had only one eye. First 
foal at 14 years old. 9 foals. M 22, Miss 
Cantley; at 23, Belvoirina, both Foundation 
Mares in Fam. ob (Marigold). In its 27th 
year it gave birth to a foal with one eye, and 
was shot when 28 years old. 


3(j 


Evelina 

by Highflyer out of Ter- 


1791 


3 — .3year-old ran eight tijiics, won three 






times. First foal at 7 years old. 12 fonls. .\l 




magant (19 year-old). 




22, Paulowitz by Sir Paul. 


37 


Platina O. 


1792 


Ran once as a 3 and once as a 4 year-old, O. 




by Mercury — Herod (own 




First foal at 5 years old. 19 foals. At 25, 




sister to No. 33). 




.\delicia (ran as a 2 year-old and became a 
good brood mare); at 27, .Akarius (a very good 
racer 2 — 4 year-old, won twice as a 2 year-old, 
was not placed in the -St. Leger), and lived to 
28 years of age. 


38 


Mare 


1794 


Not run. First foal at 7 years old. 12 foals. 




by PotSos out of Editha. 




once dead twins. .\t 24, the grandmother of 
Neville, Fam. 3 c. 


30 


Mare 


1795 


Not run. 17 fonls. .\t 2.">, \\'ise;icre. ,i good 




by Slcvscaper out of 




racer. 




Isabel'. 






40 


Mare 


1796 


Not run. First foal at 8 jears old. 16 foals. 




by Precipitate — Wood- 




.\t 2-3, -Monimia, a good racer and Foimdatiun 




pecker. 




Mare in Fam. 12 a; at 27, The Captain, a 
good racer. 


41 


Mare 


1797 


Ran three times as a 3 year-old. First foal 




by Ruler out of Tree- 




at 12 years old, Oiseau by Camillus. 13 foals. 




creeper. 




.\t 25, Miss Crachami, a good racer, and 
I'oundation Mare in Fam. 42. 



42 V. Lalage 
j by Chocolate out of 21 

year-old Lalage, which 
I 4 — 12 year-old won races. 

43 Marcia 

bv Coriander out of Faith 
(3-7). 



1797 R.in four times as a 2 and 3ye,ir-old, won 

once. 11 foals. .At 27, De \'erc by I'cramor/, 
a famous racehorse in Ireland. 



1797 3 — 9 year-old a splendid racer, ran twenty- 

eight times, won nineteen times. I'irsi foal at 
11 years old, 7 foals, amongst which were : 
Marciana (Foundation M:irc in l"am. 2 a, 
grandmother of Hetman Platoff and Don John 
L). .\t 20 had her last foal. 



70 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 


Name and Pedigree. 


Born. 


Breeding Performances. 


44 


Rosamond 


1798 


3 and 4 year-old a good racer, ran nine 




by Buzzard out of Rose- 




times, won three times. First foal at 6 years 




berrj'. 




old. 17 foals. At 22, Barefoot L, and 26, a 
JNIare by Tramp, Foundation Mare in Fam. 5 a. 
Lived to 31 years of age. 


45 


jMandane 


1800 


Ran six times as a 2 and 3 year-old, won 




by PotSos out of Y. 




twice. First foal at 4 years old. 13 foals, 




Camilla. 




amongst which were : Mannella O, Altisidora 
L; at 20, Lottery by Tramp; at 21, Brutan- 
dorf by Blacklock ; and at 22, a Mare by 
Whisker, dam of Liverpool. Lived to 26 years 
of age. 


4G 


Parasol 

by PotSos out of Prun- 
ella (No. .34) 


1800 


Ran and won 3 — 8 year-old, at 8 years in 
foal, ran foiu" times and won twice. First foal 
at 9 years old. 12 foals, amongst which were : 
Partisan, Pindarri 2; at 19, Pastille 2, O; and 
at 24 her last foal. 


47 


JMare 


1802 


Not run. First foal at 6 years old. 15 foals. 




by Delpini out of Tipple 
Cyder. 




At 20, Wildwood, and at 21, Sir Catton, both 






good racers ; at 23, The Colonel L, and at 24. 








The Captain, a famous racer. 


■IS 


Thomasina 

by Timothy out of Violet. 


1804 


A verv good racer 2 — 5 year-old. First foal 
at 8 years old. 16 foals without a break. 


49 


Remembrance 

by Sir Solomon out of 


1805 


A very good racer 3 — 5 year-old. First foal 
at 8 years old. 13 foals. At 26, Oblivion, dam 




20 year-old Queen Mab. 




of Springy Jack and grand-dam of Daniel 








O'Rourke D, Foundation Mare in Fam. 9. 


50 


Little Folly 

by Highland Fling out of 


180(5 


Ran three times as a 3 year-old, won once. 
First foal at 6 years old. 13 foals. At 24, 




Harriet. 




Folly, I'oundation Mare in Fam. 5 (Miami, 
Rosicrucian, etc.). 


51 


Lisette 


1806 


A good racer 3 and 4 year-old. First foal at 




by Hanibletonian out of 




7 years old. ]4 foals. At 24, Clearwell 2. 




Constantia. 






52 


Snowdrop 


1806 


.A good racer 2 — 4 year-old. First foal at 7 




by Highland Fling out of 




years old. 11 foals. At 22, Galantine 1. 




Daisy. 






53 


Miss \\'asp 


1807 


Won as a 2 year-old. First foal at 7 years 




by \\"axy out of Trum- 




old. At 21, Y. Muley, and at 23, Vespa 6. 




petta. 






54 


Mare 


1808 


Not run. First foal at lOyear-old. 11 foals. 




by Walton out of 19 year- 




At 23, Black Agnes, Foundation Mare in Fam. 




old Y. Noisette. 




28. 



4. Value of the Thoroutrlibretl for Oiher Breeds. 



71 



No. 



Name and Pcdiijree. 



Born. 



Breeding Performances. 



55 



56 



57 



58 



59 



60 



61 



62 



6;^ 



61 



Manuella O. 

by Dick Andrews out of 
Mandane (No. 45). 



1809 



Lady of the Lake 1809 

by Sorcerer out of 20 
year-old Mare by Salt- I 
ram. 

Bella 1811 

by Beningbrougli out of 
Peterea. 



\Mre (sister to Whale- 
bone) 
bv Waxv nut of Penelope. 

Mare 

by Orville out of Miss 
Grimstone. 



Sister to Corduroy 
by Shuttle out of 18 year- 
old Ladv Sarah. 



1811 



1812 



1812 



Octaviana 
bv Octavian- 



^Shutllt 



Sihcrtail 

bv V. Gohanna- 



~Or' 



Mare 

by Comus — Delpini. 

Lacerta 

bv Zodiac out of Jerboa. 



1815 



1815 



1816 



1816 



3 — 5 year-old ran thirteen times, won three 
times. First foal at 8 years old. 15 foals with- 
out a break, amongst which were : Memnon 
L, Belzoni, Margelina (had 19 foals); at 20, 
Nitocris, Foundation Mare in Fam. 11 (Fisher- 
man, Strathcona, etc.); at 21 and 22, two good 
racers, Belshazzar and Belluno. 

3 — 4 3'ear-old a good racer. First foal at 6 
years old. 17 foals. At 22, Ophelia, Founda- 
tion Mare in Fam. 43, and last foal at 27 years 
old. 

Ran twice as a 6 year-old, won once. First 
foal at 8 years old. 13 foals. At 24, Bellona, 
Foundation Mare of the Fam. 44; at 25, last 
foal, ran in race. 

3 and 4 year-old a good racer. First foal at 
8 years old. 17 foals. At 22, Verulam ; at 26, 
her last foal. Lived to 28 years of age. 

Not riui. 14 foals, amongst which were : 
Tranby by Blacklock ; at 22, Miss Bowe, and 
at 25, a Mare by Priam or Zinganee, the two 

chief Foundation Mares in Fam. 21. 

Not run. First foal at 4 years old. 20 foals, 
the first 19 without a break, at 24, the last foal 
by Waverley (ran as a 2 year-old, had 11 foals, 
and became Foundation Mare in Fam. 5), and 
lived to 26 years old. 

2 and 3 year-old a good racer. First foal at 
5 years old. 15 foals. At 22, Crucifix O. 2. 1, 
dam of Surplice D. L. 

3 — 4 year-old a good racer. First foal at 6 
years old. 15 foals. At 24, Bonney Bonnet, 
Foundation Mare in Fam. 2d. 

Not run. First foal at 14 years old. 8 foals. 
At 22, Miss Lydia, Foundation Mare in Fam. 
9; at 24, Nutwith L. 

3 — 4 year-old moderate racer, then w.is used 
as a riding horse. First foal at 10 years old. 
15 foals. At 21, Little Wonder D, and at 25, 
Little Fairy, grand-dam of St. .Angela, St. 
Simon's dam, Foundation Mare in Fam. 11. 



Trial of the Tliorousrhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 



Name and Pedigree. 



Born. 



Breeding Performances. 



65 



67 



70 



71 



Mare (Velocipede's 
dam) 
by Juniper — Sorcerer. 

Electress 

by Election — Stamford. 



Mare 

by Rubens out of Tippity- 
wichet. 



Guiccioli 

by Bob Booty out of 
Flight. 



1817 



1819 



1819 



1823 



Mare i 1824 

bv Cervantes — Camillus. 



Clari 

by Smolensl-:o- 
Precipitate. 



Greenmantle O. 

bv Sultan out of Dulcinea. 



1821 



1826 



Not run. First foal at 4 years old. 18 foals, 
of which 7 were Foundation Mares in Fam. 
3 c. At 24, Merope, grand-dam of Galopin D, 
Moslem 2, and Knight of the Crescent. 

2 — 4 year-old a good racer, once slipped twins. 
First foal at 9 years old. 11 foals. At 16, 
Vauban ; at 19, Miss Twickenham (dam of 
Teddington); at 20, Mare by Sir Hercules 
(Foundation Mare in Fam. 2 and had 20 
foals); at 22, Splitvote (grand-dam of St. 
.Albans L, Savernake and Gang Forward 2); 
last foal at 24 years old. 

2 and 3 year-old ran twice, was second in O. 
First foal at 6 years old. 17 foals, amongst 
which were: Phosphorous D, May Day 1; at 
20, Firebrand 1 ; and at 23, Ratafia, Founda- 
tion Mare in Fam. 27. 

2 — 6 year-old a very good racer. Ran as a 
6 3'ear-old, after foaling and again in foal (pro- 
duced a healthy foal), si.\ times, won twice, in 
the King's Plates, over 4 miles with heats, in 
September, in Curragh (6 starters), and in 
Northumberland Handicap in October, at 
Curragh (11 starters, amojigst which were 
such good horses as Skylark, a 3 year-old, and 
Napoleon, a 5 year-old). First foal at 6 years 
old. 13 foals, amongst which were : Bird- 
catcher and Faugh-a-Ballagh ; at 21, living 
twins, one of which was Gramachree, Founda- 
tion Mare in Fam. 11 ; and at 24, St. John 
(later Carlo w), a good racer 2 — 7 year-old. 

Not run. First foal at 8 years old. 17 foals 
without a break. Foundation Mare in Fam. 1. 

Not run. First foal at 5 years old : Clara, 
2 — 5 year-old a good racer, and Foundation 
Mare in Fam. 6 a. The next 7 foals were 
used in Ireland as riding horses. 13 — 18 she 
was a riding horse, and afterwards, 19 — 27, 
she had 7 more foals, the greater part of which 
were good racers. Altogether she had 13 
foals, and lived to 29 years of age. 

2 — 4 year-old a very good racer. First foal 
at 8 years old. 13 foals. At 24, Kernel, 
Foundation Mare in Fam. 6 a. 



4. Value of the Thorou£jhbred for Other Breeds. 



73 



No. I Name and Pedigree. 



Born. 



Hreeding Performances. 



72 ! Catherina j 1830 

by Whisker out of Alecto. 



n 



76 



77 



79 



Black Agnes 1831 

by Velocipede out of 23 
year-old Mare by Walton. 



Burletta 
by Actiion out of Comedy. 



1&32 



Bee's Wing 1833 

by Dr. Syntax — Ardrosean. 



Miss Bowe 

by Catton out of a 22 
year-old Mare by Orville. 

Garland 

by Lanjjar out of Cast- 
steel. 



78 Red Pape 

by Rowton out of Pigmy. 



Pocahontas 

by Glencoe out of Mar- 
pessa. 



1834 

1835 

ia35 
1837 



A splendid racer, ran 2 — 11 vcar-old 17G 
times and won 81 times, 12 times as an 11 year- 
old. First foal at 16 years old. 9 foals, of 
which 6 were good racers (Sweetheart, winner 
in July Stakes, and Phaeton, winner in the 
Criterion Stakes). At 22, Y. Catherina 
(Nagara), Foundation Mare in Fam. G a ; at 
27, last foal, which ran a race as a 3 vear-old. 

Ran once as a 3 year-old. First foal at 17 
years old. 7 foals, amongst which was, .^s a 
firstling, .Agnes by Pantaloon, Foundation 
Mare in Fam. 28, and dam of the four off- 
springs of King Tom : Oueen-of-the-\'aIe. 
King-of-the-A"aIe, Dalesman, and Fvelina. 

2 — 8 year-old a very good racer. First foal 
as a 10 year-old. 14 foals without a break, 
amongst which were two good Foundation 
Mares in Fam. 23 (of which one was a first- 
ling). 

2 — 9 year-old a splendid racer, ran 64 times, 
won 51 times. First foal at 11 years old. 8 
foals, amongst which were : Nunnvkirk 2, 
Newminster L, and three splendid I'oundation 
Mares in Fam. 8. 

Ran nine times as a 3 and 4 year-old, won 
65 times. 16 foals, amongst which were : 
Iris O, Longbow, De Clare, Bowstring, and 
at 23, Tom Bowline. 

3 — 6 year-old ran 24 times, won 6 times. 
12 foals. .\t 24, Vertumna, Foundation Mare 
in Fam. 19, grand-dam of Moorhen, Oalli- 
niile's dam. 

Not run. Covered at 3 years old. 16 foals 
without a break. Nothing known after. 

2 — 5 year-old ran nine times without win- 
ning, Criter., O., Gcp., Cs., Cm., not 
placed. First foal at 6 years old. 1.5 foals, 
amongst which were : Stockwcll L, 2, Rata- 
plan Dcp., King Tom, The Knight of Kars, 
.■\yacanora; at 21, Knight-of-St. -Patrick ; at 
24, .Auricula (dam of Nuneham and Blanford); 
at 2.J, .Araucaria (dam of Wcllingtonia, 
Camelia 1 O., Chamont 2, and Rayon d'Or L, 
Cd.). Lived to 33 years of age. 



74 



Trial of the Thoroujrhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 


Name and Pedigree. 


Born. 


Breeding Performance^^. 


80 


Lapwing 


1837 


Not run. Covered at 2 years old, had first 




by Bustard — Muley. 




10 foals without a break. Altogether 17 foals, 
the last in her 29th year : Sir Niel. 


81 


Alice Hawthorn 


1838 


3 — 7 year-old a splendid racer, ran 71 times 




by Muley Moloch out of 




and won 5O5 times, which included 17 King's 




Rebecca. 




Plates, Gcp and Dcp twice. First foal 
at 11 years old, and had 7 foals without a 
break. Afterwards she slipped and had 3 more 
foals, that is, 10 foals altogether, 3 splendid 
Foundation Mares in Fam. 4 c, of which were 
Terrona (grand-dam of Queen Esther, which 
had 22 foals); afterwards, after she had 
slipped, at 19, Thormanby D, and also Lord 
Fauconberg, Oulston and Findon. 


82 


Mare 


1838 


Not run. First foal at 13 years old. 12 




by Beiram out of Addy. 




foals, amongst which was Christabelle, grand- 
dam of Aspirant. Lived to 27 years of age. 


83 


Florence 


1839 


2 — 3 vear-old ran ten times, won three times. 




by Velocipede out of Mar- 




First foal at 5 years old. 20 foals without a 




g-arette. 




break. 


84 


Revival 


ias9 


Not run. Covered at 2 years old. 8 foals 




by Pantaloon out of 




without a break. Altogether 16 foals, in spite 




Linda. 




of having made a journey to France and back. 


85 


Boarding'-School-Miss 


1841 


A good racer 3 to 5 year-old, ran 22 times. 




by Plenipotentiary out of 




won 6 times. First foal at 7 years old. 17 




Marpessa. 




foals without a break, amongst which were 6 
Foundation Mares in Fam. 3 b, then killed. 


86 


Physalis 


1841 


2 — 5 year-old ran 22 times, won 6 times. 




by Bay Middleton out of 




First foal at 7 years old. 17 foals. .\t 23. 




Baleine. 




Legacy, Foundation Mare in Fam. 8 a. 


87 


Mare 


1841 


Not run. First foal at 8 years old. 15 




by Little Red Rover out 




foals, amongst which were : Buccaneer; at 22, 




of Eclat. 




Lady .'\udley (Touchet's dam), and at 24, 
Stars-and-Stripes, Foundation Mare in Fam. 14. 


88 


Jocose 


1843 


Ran four times as a 4 year-old, won twice. 




by Pantaloon out of 




First foal at 6 years old. 17 foals, amongst 




Banter. 




which were: Macaroni 2 D, Dcp., and at 24. 
Flippant, Foundation Mare in Fam. 14. 


89 


Queen Mary (Firstling) 


1843 


Not run. First foal at 4 years old. 19 foals 




by Gladiator out of a 3 




(and one dead foal), amongst which were : 




year-old Mare by Pleni- 




Blink Bonny D.O., at 21, Blinkhoolie, and at 




potentiary. 




27, Bonnie Doon, Foundation Mare in Fam. 10. 
Lived to 29 years of age. 



4. \'aluc of tho Thoroushbifd for Oilier Breeds. 



75 



No. 


Name and Pedigree. 


Born. 


iireedinjj Per for ma nee n. 


90 


Ferina 


1844 


Not run. First foal at 5 years old. IG foals. 




by Venison out of 




At 22, Pretender 2 D. 




Partiality. 






91 


Maid of Masham 


1845 


3 — C year-old a very good racer. First foal 




by Don John out of Miss 




at 8 years old. 14 foals. .\t 21, Faraway; at 




Lydia. 




22, Lady .Masham. both Foundation .Mares in 
Fam. 9, the latter also dam of the two own 
brothers, Peter Hrd. and Timothy .\cp. 


92 


Haricot (Firstling) 


1847 


3 — 7 year-old a very good racer. First foal 




bj' Mango or Lanercost 




at 8 years old. 13 foals, amongst which were : 




out of the 4 year-old 




Caller Ou L; at 21, Lady Langden (dam of 




Queen Mary. 




Sir Bevys D and Hampton Gcp. Dcp.); at 24, 
.NLare by Kettledrum, Foundation Mare in 
Fam. 10; at 23, Lentil (ran four times as a 2 
year-old). 


93 


:\Iai-c 

Bv Birdcatcher — Hetman 
PiatolY. 


1850 


Not run. 10 foals, amongst which was 
Solon. .\t 22, Xenophon. 


94 


Catliarina Ha}-cs O. 
by Lanercost out of Con- 


1850 


2 — 4 year-old a splendid racer. First foal at 
6 years old. 13 foals, .^t 22, .Marquise de 




stance. 




C.iUN, Foundation Mare in F.ani. 22; last foal 
at 2"). Lived to 27 years of age. 


95 


Gertrude 

by Hautboy out of Middle. 


1850 


Not run. First foal at 9 years old. 12 foals, 
amongst which were two Foundation Mares in 
Fam. 3. :\t 22, Carnation ; last foal at 25, 
Reflex (ran as a 2 and 3 year-old, won once). 


96 


Xoi.sette 


l&V) 


2^9 year-old ran 91 times, won 17 times. 




by Nutwilh out of .Mar- 




Won once as an 8 year-old. .\s a 9 year-old. 




mora. 




in foal, ran four times without winning. 
First foal at 10 years old. 9 foals, amongst 
which WMS .\cceptance, I'oundation Marc in 
Fam. 2. Last foal at 21. 


97 


Mi.s.s .\gne3 


1850 


Ran 2 — 4 year-old, won once. First foal at 




by Birdcatcher out of 




6 years old. IG foals, amongst which were six 




.\gnes. 




prominent Foundation .Mares. .\t 23, .\gnes 
.Sore], Foun^lation Mare in I'ani. 16. Lived to 
27 years of ;ige. 


S)8 


Torment 


1850 


.As a 2 and 3 ye;ir-old a very good racer. 




by .Marm — Glencoe. 




First foal at 5 years old. 14 foals, including 
living twins, B Flat and F Sharp, 7 Founda- 
tion .NLircs in I'am. 10, 'i'ormentor O. and at 
22, Peine de ("ivur fdam of Despair and Caris- 
sima). 



76 



Trial of the Thorousjlibred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 



Name and Pedigree. 



Born. 



Breeding Performances 



-L 



99 



100 



101 



102 



103 



104 



105 



Blue Bell 

b}' Heron — Zimmerman. 



1851 



Nelly Hill 1851 

by Springy Jaclv out of 
Anne Page. 

Katherine Logie 1853 

by Flying Dutchman out 
of Phryne. 



Christabelle 

by Fernhill — Beiram. 



Bathilde Cm. 

by Stockwell out of 
Babette. 

Anonyma 

by Stockwell out of Miss 
Sarah. 

Lady Sefton 

by West-.'\ustralian out of 
Clarissa. 



106 Palmflower 

by The Palmer out of 
Jenny Driver (had 20 
foals). 



1854 



1858 



1859 



1861 



1874 



Not run. First foal at 5 years old. 14 foals. 
3 Foundation Mares in Fam. 25. .At 25, .Aura 
(dam of Orcan). Lived to 34 years of age. 

Ran 2 — 4 year-old and won as a 3 year-old 
four times. First foal at 6 }ears old. 14 foals. 
.\t 23, Jessie, Foundation Mare in Fam. 17. 

Ran 3 — 6 year-old 61 times and won 11 
times. First foal at 8 years old. 13 foals, 
among which were : Bothwell 2, King o' 
Scots, and at 23, Pompeja, Foundation Mare in 
Fam. 3. 

Not run. First foal at 5 years old. 17 foals, 
amongst which were three Foundation Mares 
in Fam. 3 c. .\t 23, Sorcery (dam of -Aspirant 
OD, and See Me OO). 

Ran 2 — 6 year-old 24 times, won 5 times. 
First foal at 8 years old. 14 foals. .At 20, 
Lowland Chief, and at 24, Queen Bathilde, 
Foundation Mare in Fam. 23. 

Ran 2 — 5 j'ear-old 14 times, won 4 times. 
First foal at 7 j'ears old. 15 foals, amongst 
which were four Foundation Mares in Fam. 
21. .At 23, Lonely O, and at 24, Hawkstone. 

Ran once as a 2 and once as a 3 year-old. 
First foal at 5 years old. 14 foals, a«Tiongst 
which were : Sefton D, two Foundation Mares 
in Fam. 25, and at 24, Quid Pro Quo by 
Isonomy. 

Ran 2 — 4 year-old 13 times, and won 4 times 
as a 2 year-old. First foal at 7 years old. 17 
foals without a break, amongst wdiich were : 
El Dorado, St. Florian, three Foundation 
Mares in Fam. 20; at 22, Musa O, and at 23, 
Palmaro (ran and won as a 2 and 3 year-old). 



Special Breeding Performances of Old Thoroughbred Mares from abroad. 



No. 


Name and Pedigree. 


Born. 


Breeding Performances. 


1 


Vittoria 

by Milton out of Geane, 
Meudon Stud in France, 
owned by L. Napoleon. 


1823 


First foal at 7 j'ears old. 18 foals, amongst 
which were : Nautilus Cd. three times, and 
Romulus F.D., at 23, Vergogne F.O., at 25, 
last foal. 



4. Value of the Thoroug-hbred for Other Breeds. 



77 



No. 


Name and Pedigree. 


Born. 


Breeding Performances. 


2 


Miss Furev 
by Whalebone — Sooth- 
sayer. 


1824 


.\t 20. Donna Sol (dam of Negresse), Earn. 
18. 


3 


Maid of Honor 

by Champion out of 


1829 


.\t 22, Kohinoor U., at 23, Darinoor, Fam. 
14. 




Etiquette. 






4 


Mermaid 

by Whalebone out of .Miss 
Emma. 


1829 


.\t 23, Seahorse Hr., Fam. 12. 


.5 


Ivory 

by Humphrey Clinker out 
of Ildegarda. 


1832 


At 29, CoUingwood IT. l^. 





Jessy 

by Emancipation out of 
Eliza. 


1835 


At 24, Belle Etoile, Fam. 25. 


7 


Alice Carncal 


1836 


12 foals, amongst which were Le.\ington ; 




hy Sarpedon out of 
I^wena. 




at 21, Umpire, and at 23, .Annette. Fam. 12 a. 


8 


Dolphin 

by Priam out of Mermaid. 


1836 


.\t 21), Shark Hn., and at 22, Chingachgook. 
Fam. 12. 


9 


V'ictoria 

by Elizondo — Saracen. 


1840 


.\t 22, Vera Crux, and at 23, Victorieuse 
F.O. Fam. 1 c. 


10 


Bathiide 

by V. Emilius out of 
Odine. 


1842 


M 24, Orpheline (dam of Era Diavolo, F.L.). 
Fam. 5 a. 


U 


Ennui 


1843 


14 foals, amongst which were Saunterer and 




by Bay Middleton out of 




Loiterer; at 24, Constance. Fam. 11. . 




Blue Devils. 






12 


Belle de Xuit 


1844 


.\t 23, Good-Night (dam of Pourquoi Gl.). 




by V. Emilius out of 




Fam. 5a. 




Odine. 






13 


Officious 


1847 


At 21, Dami B.B.. at 22, II. .Miistro B.B. 




by Pantaloon out of 




Fam. 8 a. 




Baleine. 






14 


Sunrise 

by Emilius out of Sunset. 


1848 


.\t 23, Succes. Fam. 3. 


15 


Partlet 

by Birdcatchcr out of 
Gipsy. 


1849 


.\t 25, Patriarche. Fam. 19. 


16 


Vcrmeille 


1853 


13 foals, amongst which were : Vermouth 




by The Baron out of Fair 




G.P., B.B., and Vertugadin Gl., B.B., at 24, 




Helm. 




Extra (dam of Excuse Cd.). Lived to 29 years 
of age. Fam. 3b. 



78 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 


Name and Pedigree. 


Born. 


Breeding Performances. 




17 


Thrift 


1865 


Covered 3 years old. 17 foals and 


once 




bv Stockwell out of 


twins; at 24, Avoir. Fam. 10. 






Braxey. 






18 


Clotho RO. 

by Bois Roussel out of 
Ladv Clocklo. 


1866 


At 20, Cleodore Prd., at 25, Cloture. 
8 a. 


Fam. 



The Thoroughbred also seems to have the superiority over the Half-bred 
as regards longevity, as can be seen from the three following lists. 

Of the Half-breds known to me, the Royal Country Stallions in Celle have 
reached bv far the greatest age, but even these are inferior to the Thorough- 
bred regarding their maximum performances, etc., as the last of the three 
tables following shows. 

Register of the Thoroughbred Stallions born in England which have 
attained the age of -25 years and more. 



No. 


Names of Stallions. 


Born. 


Sires of Stallions. 


Age 

reached. 

Years. 


1 


The Lister Turk 


abt. 1680 




abt. 32 


2 
3 


Bay Bolton 


abt. 1702 

1705 


Byerly Turk 
Grey Hautboy 


abt. 28 
31 


4 


The Belgrade Turk 


abt. 1710 




abt. 30 


5 
6 


Flying Childers 
Partner 


1715 
1718 


Darley .'\rabian 


26 
29 


7 


Crab 


1722 


-Mcock's .Arabian 


28 


8 
9 


The Godolphin Arabian 
Monkev 


1724 
1725 


Lonsdale Bay Arabian 


29 
29 A. 


10 


The Bolton Starling 


1727 


Bav Bolton 


29 


11 


Young Cartouch 


1731 


Cartouch 


28 


12 


Sedburv 


1734 


Partner 


25 


13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 


The -Vncaster Starling 

Regulus 

Blank 

Jolly Roger 

Sampson 

Janus 


1738 
1739 
1740 
1741 
1745 
1746 


Starling 

Godolphin Arabian 

Godolphin -Arabian 

Roundhead 

Blaze 

Janus 


26 
26 
29 

31 A. 

32 

34 A. 


19 


Matchem 


1748 


Cade 


33 


20 
21 
22 


Marske 

Snap 
Svphon 


1750 
1750 
1750 


Squirt 

Snip 

Squirt 


29 

27 

least 25 


23 
24 


The Godolphin Colt 
JNIatchless 


1754 
1754 


Godolphin .Arabian 
Godolphin Arabian 


27 
abt. 32 A. 



4. Value of the Thoroughbred for Olher Breeds. 



79 











Age 


Xo. 


Names of Stallions. 


Born. 


Sires of Stallions. 


reached. 
Years. 


25 


Squirrel 


1754 


Traveller 


26 


26 


Engineer 


1756 


Sampson 


26 


27 


Centinel 


1758 


Blank 


26 A. 


28 


Jalnp 


1758 


Regulus 


29 


20 


Bay .Malton 


1760 


Sampson 


26 


30 


Tantrum 


1760 


Cripple 


least 26 


31 


Coriolanus 


1762 


Whistlejacket 


least 29 


32 


Morwick Ball 


1762 


Regulus 


25 


3:^ 


Pilgrim 


1762 


Sampson 


26 


34 


Chrysolite 


1763 


Blank 


25 


3o 


Pacolet 


1763 


Blank 


25 


36 


Ranthos 


1763 


Matchem 


31 


37 


Eclipse 


1764 


Marske 


25 


38 


Goldfinder 


1764 


Snap 


25 


30 


Phlegon 


1765 


Matchem 


25 


40 


Trentham 


1766 


Sweepstakes 


abt. 26 


41 


Faggergill 


1766 


Snap 


25 


42 


Paymaster 


1766 


Blank 


25 


43 


Solon 


1766 


Sampson 


27 


44 


Shark 


1771 


Marske 


25 A. 


45 


Voung Marske 


1771 


Marske 


29 


46 


PotSos 


1773 


Eclipse 


27 


47 


\\'oodpecker 


1773 


Herod 


25 


48 


Jupiter 


1774 


Eclipse 


28 


49 


King Fergus 


1775 


Eclipse 


36 


50 


^^"easel 


1776 


Herod 


25 


51 


Diomed 


1777 


Florizel 


31 A. 


52 


Drone 


1777 


Herod 


29 A. 


53 


Ruler 


1777 


Y. Marske 


30 


54 


Dungannon 


1780 


Eclip.se 


28 


55 


Messenger 


1780 


Mambrino 


28 A. 


56 


Delpini 


1781 


Highflyer 


27 


57 


Alexander 


1782 


Eclipse 


20 


58 


Trumpator 


1782 


Conductor 


26 


59 


Driver 


1783 


Trentham 


28 


60 


Meteor 


1783 


Eclipse 


28 


61 


Windlestone 


1783 


Magnet 


29 


62 


Sir Peter 


1784 


Highflyer 


27 


03 


Star 


17a5 


Highnyer 


26 A. 


61 


Traveller 


1785 


Highflyer 


28 


(!5 


Competitor 


1786 


Eclipse 


30 


66 


Cocker 


1786 


Trentham 


26 


67 


Grog 


1786 


Tandem 


27 


68 


Star 


1786 


Highflyer 


25 A. 


69 


Dragon 


1787 


Woodpecker 


25 A. 



80 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 











Age 


No. 


Names of StaUions. 


Born. 


Sires of Stallions. 


reached. 
Years. 


70 


Gohanna 


1790 


Mercury 


25 


71 


Waxy 


1790 


PotSos 


28 


72 


Parrot (ran 2—5 years 28 
times and won 9 times) 


1791 


Dungannon 


36 D. 


73 


Diamond 


1792 


Highflyer 


27 F. 


74 


Hambletonian 


1702 


King Fergus 


26 


75 


King Bladud 


1792 


F'ortunio 


27 


70 


Stamford 


1794 


Sir Peter 


26 


77 


Whip 


1794 


Saltram 


31 A. 


78 


Bobtail 


1795 


Precipitate 


27 


79 


Eagle 


1796 


Volunteer 


30 A. 


80 


Sorcerer 


1796 


Trumpator 


25 


81 


Quiz 


1798 


Buzzard 


28 


82 


Orlando 


1799 


Whiskey 


25 


83 


Orville 


1799 


Beningbrough 


27 


84 


Walton 


1799 


Sir Peter 


26 


85 


Remembrancer 


1800 


Pipator 


29 


86 


Sir Oliver 


1800 


Sir Peter 


29 


87 


Castrel 


1801 


Buzzard 


26 


88 


Sir David 


1801 


Trumpator 


27 K. 


89 


Sir Walter Raleigh 


1801 


Waxy 


30 


90 


Grimaldi 


1802 


Delpini 


28 


91 


Fyldener 


1803 


Sir Peter 


26 


92 


Hollyhock 


1804 


Master Bagot 


25 


93 


Waxy Pope 


1806 


Waxy 


25 


94 


•■Xd Libitum 


1807 


Whiskey 


30 V. 


95 


Bluster 


1808 


Orlando 


26 A. 


96 


Grimalkin 


1808 


Chance 


26 D. 


97 


Hamlet 


1808 


Hambletonian 


27 F. 


98 


Phantom 


1808 


Walton 


26 D. 


99 


Rainbow 


1808 


Walton 


26 F. 


100 


Comus 


1809 


Sorcerer 


28 


101 


Muley 


1810 


Orville 


27 


102 


Tramp 


1810 


Dick Andrews 


25 


103 


Bijou 


1811 


Orville 


25 F. 


104 


Dr. Syntax 


1811 


Paynator 


27 


105 


Captain Candid 


1813 


Cerberus 


25 F. 


106 


Elector 


1813 


Election 


25 D. 


107 


The Cryer 


1814 


Sorcerer 


28 D. 


108 


Gaudy 


1814 


Peruvian 


27 D. 


109 


Talma 


1814 


Sorcerer 


28 R. 


110 


Allegro 


1815 


Orville 


29 B. 


111 


Oracle 


1815 


Sorcerer 


27 D. 


112 


Spectre 


1815 


Phantom 


26 F. 


113 


Dr Eady 


1816 


Rubens 


26 



4. \"alue of tlic Tliorduijlibred fur Otlier Brccils. 



81 



No. 



Names of Stallions. 



Horn. 



.Sires of Stallions. 



Age 

reached. 

Years. 



114 


Tandem 


1816 


Kubcns 


25 F. 


115 


Cavalier 


1817 


Lambton 


27 D, 


116 


Parchement or Tring 


1817 


Thunderbolt 


25 F. 


117 


St. Patrick 


1817 


Walton 


26 


118 


Trance 


1817 


Phantom 


29 P. 


119 


Minister 


1818 


Prime .Minister 


26 F. 


120 


Belmout 


1819 


Thunderbolt 


29 F. 


121 


Marcellus 


1819 


Selim 


25 F. 


122 


Abrou 


1820 


Whisker 


25 F. 


123 


Emilius 


1820 


Orville 


27 


124 


General Mina 


1820 


Camillus 


26 F. 


125 


Lottery 


1820 


Tramp 


25 F. 


126 


Middleton 


1822 


Phantom 


25 R. 


127 


Sir Geoffrey Peveril 


182:^ 


Whalebone 


25 D. 


128 


Royal Oak 


182:3 


Qatton 


26 F. 


129 


Mameluke 


1824 


Partisan 


25 F. 


13(J 


Pantaloon 


1824 


Castrel 


26 


131 


Terror 


182;) 


-Magistrate 


25 F. 


132 


Velocipede 


1825 


Blacklock 


25 


133 


Aaron 


1826 


Moses 


26 AU. 


134 


Lawnsleeves 


1826 


Dr. Syntax 


25 R. 


135 


Sir Hercules 


1826 


Whalebone 


29 


im 


Birminj;ham 


1827 


Filho da Puta 


27 R. 


137 


Giovanni 


1828 


Filho da Puta 


26 


138 


Minster 


1829 


Catton 


26 F. 


i:« 


Trustee 


1829 


Catton 


27 A. 


140 


Emig^rant 


1831 


Tramp 


25 AV. 


141 


General Chasse 


lasi 


-Actaeon 


25 R. 


142 


Glencoe 


18:^1 


Sultan 


26 A. 


14;^ 


Touchstone 


18.31 


Camel 


30 


144 


Safeguard 


18:fi 


Defence 


26 


145 


Sheet .Anchor 


18.32 


Lottery 


31 D. 


146 


Birdcatcher 


1&33 


Sir Hercules 


27 


147 


Langford 


1833 


Sir Hercules 


25 n. 


148 


Slane 


18.3:^ 


Royal Oak 


25 


149 


Y. Confederate 


18:i4 


Confederate 


25 D. 


1.50 


1 larkaway 


18.34 


Economist 


25 


1.51 


.Melbourne 


18:^ 


Humphrey Clinker 


25 


1.52 


Mickle Fell 


1834 


Catton 


28 D. 


1.53 


Yorkshire 


18.34 


St. Nicolas 


25 A. 


154 


.Sportsman 


18:i5 


Flexible 


25 D. 


1.55 


Bloomsbury 


1836 


Mulatto 


25 n. 


l;5<i 


Oroonocko 


1836 


Camel 


26 I). 


157 


Polydorus 


18:« 


Priam 


25 D. 


1.58 1 


Sampson 


iKia 


Cetus 


25 D. 



83 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 











Age 


No. 


Names of Stallions. 


Born. 


Sires of Stallions. 


reached. 
Years. 


159 


Sovereign 


18:S(> 


Emilius 


26 A. 


160 


St. Swithin 


mil 


Velocipede or St. Nicholas 


27 D. 


161 


.'Vlonzo 


1837 


Alpheus 


28 


162 


Satirist 


1838 


Pantaloon 


20 D. 


163 


Consternation 


1841 


Confederate 


25 A. 


164 


The Cure 


1841 


Physician 


25 


165 


Orlando 


1841 


Touchstone 


27 


166 


Weatherbit 


1842 


Sheet Anchor 


26 


167 


King- of Naples 


1844 


Slane 


28 n. 


168 


Springy Jack 


1845 


Hetman Platoff 


25 D. 


169 


Surplice 


1845 


Touchstone 


26 


170 


Voltigeur 


1847 


Voltaire 


27 


171 


Harpsichord 


1848 


Touchstone 


26 D 


172 


Stilton 


1849 


Cotherstone 


26 D. 


173 


Captain Cornish 


1850 


J ago 


25 D. 


174 


Sittingbourne 


1850 


Chatham 


27 D. 


175 


.Arthur Wellesley 


1851 


Melbourne 


25 


176 


Epaminondas 


1851 


Epirus 


25 D. 


177 


King Tom 


1851 


Harkaway 


27 


178 


Marsyas 


1851 


Orlando 


25 


179 


Professor Airey 


1852 


Mathematician 


27 


180 


Bonnie Scotland 


1853 


Jago 


27 A. 


181 


Cotswold 


1853 


Nevvcourt 


26 o. 


182 


Forbidden Fruit 


1853 


Birdcatcher 


29 o. 


183 


Kentucky 


1853 


Mickey Free 


31 D. 


184 


Leamington 


1853 


Faugh-a-Ballagh 


25 A. 


185 


-Amsterdam 


1854 


The Flying Dutchman 


25 


186 


The Attorney General 


1854 


Melbourne 


26 D. 


187 


Gunboat 


1854 


Sir Hercules 


29 


188 


Wardermarske 


1854 


Birdcatcher 


26 D. 


189 


Kelpie 


1855 


Weatherbit 


27 AU. 


190 


Flash in the Pan 


1&56 


Pontifex 


25 


191 


Gaspard 


1856 


Daniel O'Rourke 


26 D. 


192 


The Speaker 


1856 


Filbert 


25 


193 


.\thos 


1857 


Prime Minister 


25 AU. 


194 


Buccaneer 


1&57 


Wild Dayrell 


30 o. 


195 


Mainstone 


1857 


King Tom 


28 


196 


Thunderbolt 


1857 


Stockwell 


31 


197 


Carbineer 


1858 


Rifleman 


25 


198 


Don John 


1858 


Wild Dayrell 


25 


199 


Kettledrum 


1858 


Rataplan 


27 o 


■200 


Drummer Boy 


1859 


Rataplan 


28 D. 


201 


The Marquis 


1859 


Stockwell 


27 AU. 


202 


Victor 


1859 


Vindex 


27 


203 


Conrad 


1860 


Kingston 


25 AU. 


204 


Grimston 


1860 


Stockwell 


26 D. 


205 


Macaroni 


1860 


Sweetmeat 


27 



4. \'aliie of the Tlior<>ui,'hl)recl for Ollu-r Breeds. 



83 



No. 


Names of Strdlions. 


Born. 


•Sires of Stallions. 


Age 

reached. 

Vear>. 


200 


.Mail Train 


IStil 


(jros\'enur 


27 AU. 


207 


The Dart 


1863 


Lord Fauconberg 


25 


2()S 


Lecturer 


1 18G3 


Colsterdale 


25 


209 


\'espasi;ui 


1863 


Newminster 


27 Af. 


210 


Xi 


186;^ 


General Williams 


26 I.. 


211 


Friponnier 


1864 


Chevalier d'Industrie 


25 I.. 


212 


Hermit* 


1864 


Newminster 


26 


218 


Pathfinder 


1864 


Thormanby 


29 1). 


214 


Tibthorpe 


1861 


Voltigeur 


26 


21.5 


Tynedale 


1864 


Warlock 


26 


216 


Bold Dayrell 


186;-. 


Wild Dayrell 


26 


217 


Rosicrucian 


ISO.-. 


Beadsman 


26 


218 


Tregeajjle 


1865 


Wild Dayrell 


26 AU. 


219 


The Drummer 


1866 


Rataplan 


26 AU. 


220 


Dutch .Skater 


1866 


The Flying Dutchman 


25 


221 


Goldfinscli 


1866 


Audubon 


26 


222 


The Bobby 


1867 


Loiterer 


26 


22:s 


King Cole 


1867 


King Tom 


26 AU. 


224 


Lord Glasgow 


1867 


Rapid Rhone 


25 D. 


225 


Syrian 


1867 


Mentmore 


26 


22C 


Grandmaster > 


1868 


Gladiateur 


31 AU. 


227 


Rapture 


1869 


Dioplantus 


25 A. 


228 


.\nteros 


1870 


Loiterer 


25 AU. 


229 


Gang Forward 


1870 


Stock well 


28 AU. 


■2S0 


.Ascetic 


1871 


Hermit 


26 


231 


Controversy 


1871 


Lambton or The .Miner 


25 


2:^2 


George Frederick 


1871 


Marsyas 


25 A. 


233 


Friar Tuck 


1872 


Hermit 


27 A. 


-m 


Galopin 


1872 


Vedette 


27 


235 


Hampton 


1872 


Lord Clifden 


25 


2:^0 


The Muleteer 


1S73 


.Mogador 


26 


237 


Spendthrift 


1873 


Blair Athol 


27 


238 


Springfield 


1873 


St. Albans 


25 


2:^0 


L'mpire 


1873 


Tom King 


2(5 


240 


.Midlothian 


1874 


Rataplan or Strathcona 


28 A. 


241 


Beauclerc 


1875 


Rosicrucian 


25 


242 


Thurio 


1875 


Tibthorpe or Cremorne 


27 


243 


Charaxus 


1876 


Distin 


20 A 


2+4 


Bend Or 


1877 


Doncaster 


20 


245 


Prestonpans 


1877 


Prince Charlie 


27 A 

25 Ar • 


210 


Leamington 


1878 


Fnugh-a-Ballagh 


247 


Despair 


1879 


See Saw 


25 


248 

1 


St. Simon 


1881 


Galopin 


27 


240 


Kendal 


1883 j 


Bend 'Or 


2i-. A. 


A Died in America. 


n = Died in ( 


"lermany. F Died in Franc( 






O Died in .\ustria. 


R Died in I 


Russia. AT Dieil in Aust 


ralia. 



"In General Stud Book, \'ol. X\'II., pajje 938, the age of Hermit is wrongly given as 29 years. 



J34 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

Register of the Thoroughbred Stallions born in America which have 
attained the age of '25 years and more. 

1. Celler 177fi by Janus was -28 years old. 

2. Jolly Friar 1783 by Janus ,, 25 ,, ,, 

3. Old Friendship 1788 by Apollo ,,33 ,, ,, 

4. Centinel 1800 by Diomed ,,25 

5. Peacemaker 1800 by Diomed ,, 27 ,, ,, 

6. Sir Archy 1805 by Diomed ,, 28 ,, 

7. Eclipse 1814 by Duroc ,, 33 

8. Manalopan 1828 by Johnson's Medley ,, 25 ,, ,, 

9. Wagner 1834 by Sir Charles ,,28 ,, ,, 

10. Grey Eagle 1835 by Woodpecker ,,28 ,, ,, 

11. Y. Langford 1840 by Langford ,, 35 ,, 

12. Revenue 1843 by Trustee ,, 25 ,, 

13. Star Davis 1849 by Glencoe ,, 27 ,, 

14. Lexington 1850 by Boston ,, 25 ,, 

15. Wild Irishman 1850 by Glencoe ,,26 ,, 

16. Brown Dick 1851 by Margrave ,,28 ,, 

17. Rifleman 1855 by Glencoe ,, 28 ,, ,. 

18. Asteroid 1861 by Lexington ,, 25 ,, 

19. Norfolk 1861 by Lexington ,, 29 

20. Ansel 1862 by Lexington ,, 29 ,, 

21. Baltimore 1862 by Revenue ,,26 ,, 

22. Morris 1863 by Lexington ,, 26 ,, ,, 

23. Pat Malloy 1865 by Lexington ,, 25 ,, 

24. Vauxhall 1865 by Lexington ,,25 

25. Exchange 1866 by Endorser ,, 25 ,, ,, 

26. Glenelg 1866 by Citadel ,, 31 ,. 

27. Enquirer 1867 by Leamington ,, 28 ,, ,. 

28. Longfellow 1867 by Leamington ,, 2() ,, ,, 

29. Lyttleton 1867 by Leamington ,, 26 



30. Regent 1867 by Bonnie Scotland ,, 25 

31. Bigaroon 1868 by Bonnie Scotland ,, 25 

32. Eolos 1868 by Leamington ,, 29 

33. Nathan Oaks 1868 by Bonnie Scotland ,, 26 

34. Spindrift 1868 by Bonnie Scotland ,, 25 

35. Joe Daniels 1869 by Australian ,, 27 

36. Springbok 1870 by Australian ,, 27 

37. Grinstead 1871 by Gilroy ,, 25 

38. Big Sandy 1872 by Australian ,, 25 

39. Fiddlesticks 1874 by Lexington ,, 26 

40. Himyar 1875 by Alarm ,, 30 

41. Falsetto 1876 by Enquirer ,, 28 



4. \aluc of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds. ,S.5 

42. The Jacobite 1870 by Prince Cliarlie was 29 years old. 

43. Irish King 1,S7(; by Lonf^feliow ,, 2r> ,, 

44. Foxhali I.S78 Ijy Ivino- Alfonso ,, 2(i ,, ,, 
4-5. Onnntiau;i 1^19 by I.eamino^ton ,, 2-') ,, ,, 

Register of the Ixoyal Country StalMons in Celle wliich attained tlie 
age of 2-5 years and more. 



No. 


Name of Stallion 


Born. 


.Sire. 


Age 

reached. 

Years. 


1 


Prevenant 


1788 


unlvnown 


27 


2 


Unique 


17!»8 


Unique 


26 


3 


V. Ambush 


1811 


.\mbush II. 


29 


4 


Faustinus 


1815 


Kitzlichen 


31 


5 


Torador 


1817 


Grossvenor xx 


2(> 


6 


Nil 


1820 


Gim 


32 


7 


Tancred II. 


1821 


Herodot xx 


26 


8 


Diomed 


1822 


Stallion in Ivenaclc 


25 


9 


Bundler 


1824 


Coriander xx 


26 


10 


Dorado 


1824 


.My 


28 


11 


Gomul 


1824 


.Xntonius 


27 


12 


\Vhisl<er 


1824 


Gilfi, .Araber 


27 


13 


Brig^adier 


1825 


Romano 


26 


14 


Galks 


1S25 


Gallas 


26 


15 


Goblet 


1825 


Y. Bobtail 


i5 


16 


Hotspur 


1825 


Oberon 


27 


17 


Paroli 


182.5 


Y. Sebastian 


2Jt 


18 


Malcolm 


182(i 


.\mbaldo xx 


27 


K) 


Trajan 


isai 


.\nthrax 


27 


21) 


Abelard 


1827 


.\mbaldo xx 


25 


21 


Britannicus 


1827 


.\drast XX 


25 


22 


Bucephalus 


1827 


.\mbaldo xx 


25 


•2:i 


Helote 


1827 


Robin Hood xx 


28 


24 


Phonix 


1827 


Robin Hood xx 


30 


25 


Mambrino II. 


1828 


Rubello 


26 


2<i 


Radical 


1828 


W Sebastian 


25 


27 


Beiram 


1829 


Hercules 


28 


28 


iMamelucU 


1829 


.\nthrax 


2(i 


20 


Montrose 


1830 


Hanibal 


26 


an) 


Robuste 


i8;n 


Mori SCO XX 


i'. 


31 


Claret 


18'« 


Cavalier xx 


28 


32 


Fiesco I. 


18:« 


I van hoe 


25 


33 


Muff 


is;« 


Brutandorf xx 


26 


■M 


.Musquito 


\im 


Bahrain xx 


26 


35 


Negociator 


18:il 


Cavalier xx 


25 


:« 


Hector II. 


1835 


Tancred 


27 


37 


Heron 


1835 


Cavalier xx 


2.5 



S6 



Tri.il of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 



Name of Stallion 



Born. 



Sire. 



Age 
reached. 

Vears. 



38 


Hermes 


18:38 


39 


Mercur 


18:38 


40 


Cabrera 


18:39 


41 


Client 


1839 


42 


Farmer 


1839 


43 


Ragazzo 


1839 


44 


Standard 


1839 


4.5 


Walter Scott 


1839 


46 


Dromedar 


1840 


47 


Magnet 


1840 


48 


Alliwal 


1842 


49 


Ajax 


1813 


50 


Norfolk 


1843 


51 


Cardinal 


1844 


52 


Ebor 


1844 


53 


I wan 


1 1844 
' 1844 


54 


Ninus 


65 


Palafox 


1845 


56 


The Smuggler 


1845 


57 


Zernebog 


1845 


58 


Telegraph 


1848 


59 


Totness 


1848 


60 


Ulysses 11. 


1848 


61 


Baucher 


1849 


62 


Champion 


1849 


63 


Martaban 


1850 


64 


Blue Bird 


1851 


65 


Cregane 


1852 


66 


Nathan 


1851 


67 


Alhambra 


1855 


68 


Harry 


1856 


69 


Jason 


1857 


70 


Martell 


1858 


71 


Flick 


1861 


72 


Zampa 


1861 


73 


Watson 


1864 


74 


Kahland 


1865 


75 


Altona 


1866 


76 


Nord 


1866 


77 


Siid 


1866 


78 


Jeremias 


1866 


79 


Folk 


1867 


80 


Kumpan 


1868 


81 


Weissenburg 


1869 


82 


Y. Claringo 


1809 



unknown 

unknown 

Gomez xx 

Protector 

Morisco 

Gustavus XX 

Cavalier xx 

Sir Walter 

Crown Prince 

Grey Orville 

unknown 

Crab XX 

V. Seymour 

Neptun 

unknown 

Demetrius xx 

Belus XX 

Palafox 

Black Shales 

Jupiter XX 

Apropos 

unknown 

Neptun 

Cardinal 

Coachman 

Sampson xx 

Phonix 

Old Cregane 

Y. Gameboy 

Sebras 

Beiram 

Sheridan xx 

Gladiator 

Zernebog 

Predictor 

Holderness 

Champion 

Y. Rustic 

Norfolk 

Norfolk 

The Prophet 

Norfolk 

Champion 

Norfolk 

Claringo 



26 

25 
25 
26 
24 
26 
25 
26 
27 
25 
28 
27 
28 
26 
26 
26 
28 
26 
26 
26 



27 
26 
27 
26 
29 
28 
25 
27 
26 
28 
25 
26 
25 
25 
28 
25 
26 
29 
27 
26 
25 
26 
25 



V'akie of the Thorouirhbrcd for Olher Hreeds. 



87 



No. 



NaJiie of Stallion. 



Sire. 



Ago 

reachfcd. 

Years. 



83 


Averberg 


84 


Nadock 


85 


Tellus 


86 


Y. Norfolk 


87 


Norman 


88 


Nornick 


89 


Nordlicht 


90 


Norval 


91 


Figaro 


92 


Granada 


93 


Derwisch 


94 


Nording 


95 


Jessick 


96 


Juli 


97 


.Augur II. 


i)8 


Jaspis 


}» 


Julianus 



26 
27 
25 
26 
26 
25 
29 
26 
27 
2S 
25 
28 
25 
27 
27 
26 
26 

The fol](;\ving instances of tliL' performances uf 20 year-old and older 
Thoroughbred stallions in the production of first-class racing and breeding 
stock show very clearly that a great age in Thoroughbreds is no detriment 
to a good heredity power. In this respect other light breeds, and more 
particularly heavy breeds, are a long way behind Thoroughbreds. 



1870 


Norfolk 


1870 


Norfolk 


1871 


Duplicat 


1871 


Norfolk 


1871 


Norfolk 


1871 


Norfolk 


1872 


Norfolk 


1872 


Norfolk 


1873 


Flick 


1873 


.Alhambra 


1874 


Lord Derby 


1875 


Nord 


1876 


Jeremias 


1877 


Julius 


1878 


Belfort XX 


1878 


Jason 


1878 


Julius 



No. 



Name of the Stallions. ]Born. Age. 



Produced the following; progeny. 



1 Byerly Turk 

^ I Flying Childers 

I 

•^ Partner 



Hobgoblin 



1680 


21 


Jigg and Basto 


1715 


20 


Snip 




22 


Brown Basto, Fam. 9. 6 


1718 


21 


Little John 




21 


Jenny Spinner, Fam. 12 b. 9 




22 


Marc born 1740, Fam. 4. 7 




23 


Calia, Fam. 23. IJ 




23 


Mare born 1742, Fam. 4. 8 




24 


Lady Thigh, F.im 4 a. 8 




•M 


Tartar 




26 


.Mare born 1744, Fam. 4. 8. 




27 


Harris' Eclipse (.\merira) 




28 


Mare born 1747, Fam. 23. 




29 


M.ire born about 1748, Fam. 37. 8 


172i 


20 


Shakespeare 



88 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 




Godolphin 



Arabian 



Regulus 



Blank 



Born. 



1724 



1739 



Age. 



Produced the following progeny. 



1740 



10 



11 



Old England 

Turner's 

Sweepstakes 

Sampson 
Matchem 



1741 



1743 



1745 



1748 



23 
25 

28 
29 

29 

21 
22 
23 

23 
23 
24 
20 
20 
21 
21 
22 
22 
22 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
25 
26 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 

24 



22 
22 

20 

27 

28 

20 
20 



Sophia, Fam. 21. 5 

Cripple 

Daphne, Fam. 33. 5 

Miss Windsor, Fam. 18. 7 

(Later Silvia) 
Matchless (lived to 32 years of age) 

Miss Ingram, Fam. 19. 7 

Morwick Ball 

Queen Elisabeth, Fam. 37. 8 

(Dam of Bourbon L) 
Figurante, Fam. 1. 9 
.A-la-Grecque, Fam. 23. 9 
Phoebe (Dam of Eclipse in .\merica) 

Ruth, Fam. 13. 8 
Cloudy, Fam. 4. 10 
Principessa, Fam. 12 a. 11 
Mare born 1762, Fam. 1. 9 
Sappho, Fam. 36. 4 
Mare born 1763, Fam. 2. 10 
Pacolet 

Sophia, Fam. 13. 9 
Rachel (Dam of Herod), Fam. 13. 8 
Charmer, Fam. 13. 8 
Lily, Fam. 4. 10 
Mare born about 1765, Fam. 2. 11 
Paymaster 
Ancaster Nancy 
Cunegonde, Fam. 42. 7 
Rantipole, Fam. 32. 8 
Rutilia, Fam. 13 a. 8 
Mare born 1769, Fam. 4 a. 10 
Mare born 1769, Fam. 37. 9 
Mare born 1766, Fam. 2. 11 
(Dam of Imperatrix L) 



Trentham 

Mare born about 1766, Fam. 

Cantatrice born about 1766, 

(Dam of Termagant) 
.'Mabaculia L, Fam. 4. 9 
Flycap born about 1774 
Giantess, Fam. 6. 10 
Mare born 1769, Fam. 31. 7 



8. 10 
Fam. 8. 



10 



4. Value of the Thorouj^libred for Oilier Breeds. 



89 



No. 



Name of the St.Tllinns. I'orn. Age. 



Produced the following progeny. 



12 



Marske 



13 



14 



Snap 



Syphon 



15 
16 



Wildair 
Herod 





20 




21 




22 




2t 




24 




25 




25 




25 




26 




26 


' 


28 




28 




28 




28 




28 




28 




28 




28 




28 




28 


1750 


20 




20 




20 




20 




22 




23 


1750 


20 




21 




21 




23 




23 


1750 


20 




21 




21 




22 




24 


1753 


22 


17.").S 


20 




20 




20 




20 




20 



Echo, (?) Fain. -.'.i. -- 

.Mfred 

Monimia, Fain 1. 10 

Mag'num Bonuin 

Mare born 1773, Fain. 2. 11 

Purity, Fam. 24. 8 (Dam of Rocking-ham) 

Mare born 1774, Fam. 2 f. P 

Mare born 1774, Fam. 21. 7 

Espersykes 

Hollandaise L 

Tetotum O, Fain. 26. 7 (Firsllinj^) 

.Sincerity Fam. 3. 7 (P'irstliiiij;) 

Puzzle, Fam. 1 a. 10 (lived to 32 years of age) 

Miss West (Dam of Quiz L by Muby) 

Cora, Fam. 23 a. 11 

Oranpe Girl, Fam. 31. 7 

Mare born 1777, Fam. 4 a. 9 

IMare born 1777, Fam. 9 b. 9 

Mare born 1777, Fam. 1.5. 9 

Mare born about 1777, F;im. IS. 9 

\. Marske 

Folly, Fam. 8 c. 10 
Magnolia, Fam. 5. 6 
Mare born 1771, Fam. 4 b. 11 
Mare born 1773, Fam. 23. 10 
Mare born 1774, Fam. 17. 9 

Madcap, Fam. 1-5. 7 
Lisette, Fam. 18. 8 
Middlesex, Fam. 3. 6 
Miss Euston, Fam. 13. 9 
Mare born 1774, Fam. 24. 9 

.Mare born 1771, Fam. 17. 9 (had 15 foals) 

Mare born 1772, Fam. 15. 7 
(Dam of Tommy L) 

Mare born 1772, Fam. 43. 7 fh.-id ]fi foals- 
first foal at 11 years old) 

Tandem 

Miss Pratt, Fam. 31. 7 

Tommy L 

Expectation, Fam. 4. 12 
Luna, Fam. 12. 8 
Mare born 1779, Fam. 4 a. 10 
M.ire born 1779, Fam. 24. 9 
Mare born 1779. Fam. 37. 10 



90 



Trial of the Thorouijhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 


Name of the Stallions. 


Born. 


Age. 


Produced the following progtny. 








21 


Phoenomenon L 








21 


Bagot 






y 


21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
22 


Maid of the Oaks O, Fam. 3 b. 7 
Macaria, Fam. 4. 9 
Mare born 1780, Fam. 5 a. 6 
Mare born 1780, Fam. 5 a. 7 
Mare born 1780, Fam. 5 c. 6 
Mare born 1780, Fam. 7. 6 
Editha, Fam. 3. 6 


17 


Eclipse 


1764 


20 


Queen Mab, Fam. 9 b. 9 (out of the 28-year- 








old Tartar Mare) 








20 


Violot, Fam. 13. li 








21 


Bobtail, Fam. 3 b. 7 








21 


Serpent 


18 


Florizel 


1768 


20 
20 
21 


Tartar L 

Lucy, Fam. 2. 13 

Ninety-Three L 


10 


Y. Marske 


1771 


21 
22 
22 
23 


Shuttle 

Mare born 1794, Fam. 2. i:; 
Mare born 1794, Fam. 23. 11 
Mare born 1795, Fam. S d. 12 


20 


PcjtSos 


1773 


20 
20 
22 
23 
24 
25 
25 


Mare born 1794, Fam. 1 12 
Mare born 1794, Fam. 3e. 7 
Mare born 1796, Fam. 17. 11 
Champion D and L 
Dabschick, Fam. 12. 10 
Tyrant D 

Grey Duchess, Fam. 6. 11 (had 19 foals, and 
lived to be 28 years old) 


21 


Woodpecker 


1773 


20 


Chesnut Skim, Fam. 5d. 7 






20 


Mare born 1794, Fam. 11. 9 








21 


Catherine, Fam. lib. 9 (Dam of Golumpus by 
Gohanna) 








23 


Ephemera O, Fam. 3 b. 18 








24 


Mare born 1798, Fam. 6. 12 








24 


Mare born 1798, Fam. 12 a. 13 








24 


Mare born 1798, Fam. 24. 10 


22 


Diomed 


1777 


23 

27 
28 


Ball's Florizel 
Sir .-\rchy 
Duroc 


23 


, Saltram 


1780 


24 


Mare born 1805 (Dam of Timoleon) 


24 


j ;\IeN«'nder 


1788 


20 
22 


Persepolis, Fam. 12. 10 
Berenice, Fam. 3 b. 9 



■i. Value of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds. 



91 



Xo. NaiiiL- of tile Stallions. 



Born.! Age. 



Produced the following proj^eny. 



25 I Trumptitdr 



-<> Dun Duixiitt 



27 



■n 



Sir Peter 



2s \Vax\ 



2!) Gdhnnna 



Hambletonian 
Stamford 



22 ; Berenice, Fam. IJ. 10 
24 Boadicea, Fain. 14. 10 
2(i Thalestris, Fam. 2 c. 1.5 
27 Delta, Fam. 2 f. 14 

1782 20 Mare born 1803, Fam. 9. HI 

21 Woodnymph, Fam. 4 h. 14 

23 Mirth, Fam. 26. 9 
2."> Pawn, I-"ani. Id. 11 
2<i ' Prue, Fam. 11. Id 

1784 21 t'ervantes 

21 Pea Blossom, Fam. 12 a. 16 
j 21 Zoraida, Fam. 2-5. 10 

22 .Amadis 

1784 I 20 Petronius L 

20 Clinker (2nd in L.) 

20 Isis, Fam. 2 f. l.S 

20 Plover, Fam. 27. 10 

21 Peruvian 

21 Fadladinida, Fam. 13. 11 

21 Jametta, F"am. 1. 14 

21 Opal, Fain. 3 b. 7 

21 Zaida, Fam. 25. 

17i«J 21) Blucher D 

20 Wire, Fam. 1 b. 12 (had 17 foals) 

20 Prudence, Fam. 1 b. 11 

21 Whisker D 

21 Minuet O, F"am. 1 a. 12 

24 Corinne O, Fam. 2. Iti 
24 Loo, Fam. 1 b. 12 
2t Mare born 1815, Fam. 3 a. 10 

24 Mare born 1815, Fam. 23. 13 
26 Duchess of York. F'am. od. 9 

26 Fmmeline, F"am. 12 a. 16 
2(5 I Pawn, Jun., Fam. 1 d. 12 

27 Didcamara, Fam. 12 a. 16 

17S)(j 2) j Wasp, Fam. 3d. 8 

23 i Harp.ilice, Fam. 3 c. 10 

2'J I .Mare born 1814. Fnm. o a. !) 

nit2 2(1 ; .Mare born 1813, Fam. S e. 15 

2.3 Cherub, Fam. 16. 6 

1794 j 20 Chromatica, Fam. IB. 13 

22 rHanbietonia, Fam. 18. 13 

25 Mare born aboBt 1820, Fam. 4 b. 14 



92 



Trial of the Thorout,''hbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 



Name of the Stallions. 



Born. Age. 



Produced the following progenw 



32 
33 

31 



35 



36 



37 

38 



Sorcerer 
Haphazard 

Ouiz 



Orville 



1796 
1797 

1798 



1799 



Walton 



Castrel 
Selim 



® Whalebone 



1801 



1802 



1807 



20 

20 
21 

20 
20 
22 
25 

20 
20 
20 
21 
24 
24 
2.5 
25 
20 
27 
27 

20 
21 
21 
23 
23 
23 
•£i 
2ii 
24 
25 

21 
22 

20 
21 
22 

20 
20 
20 
21 
21 
21 
22 
22 
23 
23 



iMare born 1817, Fam. 18. Vi 

Hazardess, Fam. 10 b. 7 
Figaro 

.\rbis, Fam. 12. 11 
The Odd Trick, Fam 6. 12 
Globe, Fam. 5c. 9 
.'\rethis:-a, Fam. 12. 11 

Bizarre 

Kmilius D 

Ftiquette, F"am. 14 11 

Georgina, Fam. 32. 12 

Souvenir, Fam. 12 a. 17 

P'dmund 

Manille, Fam. lb. 13 

Zoe, Fam. 11. 12 

.Mare born 1826, Fam. ID. 12 

Mare born 1827, Fam. U b. 11 

Mare born 1827, Fam. 19 a. II 

Miss Fannv, Fam. 12. 12 
The Twinkle, Fam. 19. 12 
Mare born 1821, Fam. 2.5. 11 
Galena, Fam. 23. 14 
Miss Patrick, Fam. 4 b. 16 
Mrs. Fry, Fam. 15. 11 
Mare born 1823, Fam. 19. 11 
Mare born 1823, Fam. 9 b. 12 
Miss Emma, Fam. 12. 12 
Rosalia, Fam. 19 a. 11 

Castrellina, Fam. 3 a. 11 

Pantaloon 

Nanine, Fam. 3a. 10 (Dam of Cilaucus) 

Mare born 1824, Fam. 9 b. 11 

Turquoise O, Fam. 1 b. 12 

-Spaniel D 

Miss Petworth, Fam. 3 c. 11 

Naiad, Fam. 9. 12 ^ 

Dryad, Fam. 3 c. 11 

Gretna Green, Fam. 3 c. 11 

Mermaid, Fam. 12. 13 

Myrrha, Fam. 10. 8 

Baleine, Fam. 8 c. 16 

Bodice, Fam. 8 c. 16 

.Mare born 1831, Fam. 10 b. 8 



4. Value nf the 'riinroLii^librcd fur Other Breeds. 



93 



No. 


Name of the Stallions. 


Born. 


Age. 


PnuliK-cd tile following progeny. 




411 


Catton 


lS()i) 


20 
22 
24 


Anne, Fani. U. 11 

iMiindig^ D 

Azalia, Fain. 42. 12 










24 


Miss Bcwe, Fani. L'l. 12 (lived to 29 )«ars 
ase) 


of 


41 


Com lis 


1809 


21 
21 
24 
24 
25 


Birdlime, Fani. 2 f. 12 
Mare born 1831, Fam. 12. 13 
.Mare born 1834, Fani. 2 a. 16 
Mare born 1834, Fam. 2 a. 15 
(irey Momus 










25 
25 
25 
26 
26 
26 


.Shire Oaks, Fam. 6. 14 
Mare born 1835, Fam. 8 b. 17 
Mare born 1835, Fam. 17. 13 
Mare born 1836, Fam. 8 b. 17 
Mare born 1836, Fam. o b. 11 
.Mare born 183(3, F"am. 47. 7 




42 


Muley 


ISKI 


20 
2ii 
25 
26 

27 


Muliana, Fam. 9 b. 14 

Rachel, Fam. 2 b. 17 

Mare born 1836, Fam. 8 b. 15 

Little Wonder D 

Mare born 1838, Fam. 19 a. 12 




43 


Tramp 


1810 


21 
21 
23 
21 
24 
24 


Fury, Fam. 4 e. 16 

Gipsy, Fam. 19. 13 

Game Lass, Fan.. 42. 13 

Caroline Elvina, Fam. 2 f. 12 

Trudtje, Fani. 6 a. 15 

Mare born 1S,S5, F",im. 7 a. 1(1 




44 


Dr. Syntax 


1811 


21 


Bee's Winj;^, Fam. K a. 16 










2(5 
20 
26 
27 
27 


Bee's Winjif, Fam. 1 d. 14 
Syntaxina, Fam. o c. 11 
Mare born 1838, Fam. 1 c. 13 
The Doctor 
Dorothy, Fam. 6 .i. 15 




45 


Partisan 


ISll 


21 
21 

21 
22 

■£i 


\'enison 

(iladiator 

Cyprian O, Fam. 23. 15 

Mare born 1834, Fam. 6. 14 

Constance, Fam. 22. 10 

.\I. are born 1835, Fam. 11a. 14 




48 


American Eclipse 


1814 


21 


Brawner's Eclipse 




47 


{''anlaloon 


1.S2I 


20 
21 
21 
21 


M.ire born 1845, Fam. Ha. 13 
Batw ing, Fam. 14 .i. 13 
Cl.irissa, Fam. 25. 12 
C.iricature, Fam. 14 a. 13 





94 



Trial of the Thoroufrlibred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 


Name of the Stallions. 


Born. 


Age. 


Prdductd the folldwins^ i'f'it 


nv. 








21 


Legerdemain, Fam. 3 a. 11 










21 


Raillery, Fam. 14 a. 12 










22 


Windhound 










22 


Molly, Fam. 2 b. 17 










23 


Aurora, Fam. 2 c. 17 










23 


Agnes, Fam. 28. 14 










23 


Miserrima, Fam. 3 a. 12 










24 


Sabra, Fam. 3. 13 










26 


Crystal, Fam. 2 f. 16 










26 


Lady Audrey, Fam. 6 a. 15 




48 


Velocipede 


1825 


23 


King of Trumps 




49 


Sir Hercules 


1826 


20 
23 

27 
27 
27 
28 
28 
28 


Subterfuge, Fam. 9 b. 14 

Ada, Fam. 1 c. 15 

Gunboat 

Gemma di Vergi 

Macaria, Fam. 4 a. 15 

Lifeboat 

Lady Langford, Fam. 2 f. l(i 

Miss Hercules, Fam. 12 a. ?fl 




50 


Voltaii :; 


1826 


20 
20 
20 
21 


Voltigeur 

Sacrifice, Fam. 4 a. 16 
Mare born 1847, Fam. 34. 13 
Vivandiere, Fam. 2 e. 17 




51 


Touchstone 


1831 


20 
20 
20 
20 
21 
21 
21 
22 
22 
22 
22 
23 
23 


Lord of the Isles 
De Clare 
Rifleman 

Bracelet, Fam. 4 e. 17 

Artillery 

Scalade, Fam. "20 a. 13 

Minie, Fam. 8 b. 16 

Tourn.'unent 

Lady Ann, Fam. 18. 15 

Lady Harriet, Fam. 4e. 17 

Rosa Bonheur, Fam. 3 c. H 

Bessie Bell, Fam. 4 e. 17 

Electra, Fam. 2 f. 14 










23 


Oakleaf, Fam. 19 a. 14 


# 








23 


Sprightliness, Fam. 22. 13 








23 


Terrific, Fam. 20 a. 13 










23 


Tunstall Maid, Fam. 18. 15 










34 


Griselda, Fam. 1 e. 15 










24 


Miss Digby, Fam. 13 a. 17 










iii 


Prelude, Fam. 19. 15 










25 


Wambi 





4. Value of the Thoroughbred for Other Breeds. 



95 



No. 


Name of the Stallions. 


liorn. 


Age. 


Produced tlie following progeny. 








25 


.\iiiethyst, Fain. 11. 16 










26 


Atherstone 










26 


Lady Macdonald, F.iin. 4 e. 17 










26 


-ScrubbinpT Brush, Fain. 2 f. '(! 










26 


'I'zaritza, Fain. 4 e. IS 










27 


Marionette (2nd in D.) 










27 


Sillvstone, Fain. 5. 12 










27 


Theresa, Fam. 4 e. 18 










28 


Soapstone 










28 


.Mcestis, Fam. 4 a. 17 




52 


Birdcatcher 


1&S3 


20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
21 
21 
21 
22 
23 
23 
23 
24 

24 
24 
25 


.Saunteier 

.\yacanora, Fam. 3 c. 14 
Beatrice, Fam. 1 b. l.^j 
Josephine, Fam. 4. 17 
.Steel Pen, Fam. 2 b. 19 
Queen of the East, Fam. 12 1). IS 
SUycutter, Fam. 7 a. 12 
Mare born 1854, Fam. r>b. ]'.'. 
Delight, Fam. 5 a. 12 
Perfection, Fam. 11. 15 
July, Fam. 28. 16 
Red Eagle Cm. 
Oxford 

.'\minette, Fam. 3. 14 
Lady Trespass, Fam. 8 b. 20 
Folkestone (won 10 r.-ices as 2 year-old 

Clearw. St.) 
Cantatrice, Fam. 22. 12 
Tartlet, Fam. 21, 16 
Humming Bird, Fam. ,S c. 15 




53 


Gladiatfir 


1833 


21 


Ventre St. Gris 




54 


Caravan 


1834 


24 


Souvenir 




55 


Melbourne 


1834 


20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 


Mentmore 

The Peer 

V. Melbourne 

Blanche of Middlebie, Fam. ,'^ a. 12 

Fascine, Fam. 20 a. 14 

Go-ahead, Fam. 7. 11 

Nelly, Fam. 18. 15 

Mare born 1855, Fam. 5 b. 13 










21 


? Honey, Fam. 8 a. 18 (or by The Cossac 


k) 


56 


Newcourt 


1»W) 


22 


Cecrops 




57 


Orlando 


1841 


20 
20 


Chattanooga 
Fairyland, Fam. 3d. 12 





9fi 



Trial 



the Tliorouirhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 


Name of the Stallions. 


Born. 


Age. 


Produced the following prog 


eny. 








20 


Kate Hampton, Fam. 10. 12 










20 


Lay Sister, Fam. 20 a. 14 










20 


Pulsatilla, Fam. 27. 17 










20 


Venus, Fam. 2e. 18 










21 


Bessie, Fam. 1 b. 16 










21 


Matilda, Fam. 22. 13 










21 


Mrs. Stratton, Fam. 5. 14 










22 


B. Flat (a twin), Fam. 10 b. 11 










22 


F Sharp (a twin), Fam. 10 b. 11 










22 


Nike, Fam. 3 c. 15 










24 


Flower Girl, Fam. 11. 17 










24 


Miss Evelyn, Fam. 20 a. 14 










24 


Miss Foote, Fain. 19. 15 










25 


Biretta, Fam. 5. 13 










26 


Furiosa, Fam. 45. 9 










26 


Gung-a Jee, Fam. 5. 14 




58 


The Cure 


1841 


23 
24 


Polly .Asnes, Fam. 16 a. 11 
Pharmacopeia, Fam. 27. 17 




iJ9 


Weatherbit 


1842 


21 
21 
22 
22 
22 
24 


Brown Tommy 

Mandrake 

Agnes de Mansfeld, Fam. 16. 12 

Frolicsome, Fam. 24. 17 

La Belle Jeanne, Fam. 36. 11 

Miss Merryweather, Fam. 4 c. 20 




60 


Voltigeur 


1847 


22 


Voltigouse, Fam. 2. 21 








23 


Sweet Violet, Fam. 21. 17 










24 


Nelly Moore, Fam. 36. 13 










25 


Incognita, Fam. 23. 18 










26 


Tea Rose, Fam. 8 a. 20 




61 


Stockwell 


l&iO 


20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
21 
21 
21 


Doncaster D 
Gang Forward 2 
Cantiniere, Fam. 2 e. 19 
Corrie, Fam. 3 e. 14 
Wild Myrtle, Fam. 13. 21 
Lucebit 

Posthuma, Fam. 12 a. 21 
Stockdove, Fam. 2 c. 19 




62 


Rataplan 


1850 


20 


Ben Battle 


# 






20 


Irma, Fam. 15. 15 










20 


Isabel, Fam. 11 b. 15 




63 


King Tom 


1S51 


20 


? Coomassie, Fam. 10 b. 11 (or by 


Norlh 








Lincoln) 










20 


Princess, Fam. 11. 16 










20 


Queen Margaret, Fam. 3 a. 13 










20 


Mare bcrn 1872, Fam. 15. 19 





4. Value of tlie Tlv)roua:lihi-t'd for Oilier Breeds. 



97 



No. 



Name of the Stallions. Born.; .\s<e. 



Produced the following progenv. 



*'>i Bonnie Scotland 185:^ 
'>•'> Leamins:ton 



iw Gunboat 

•37 Saunterer 
<i8 Toxophilite 



m Buccaneer 





21 




21 




21 




21 




21 




21 




22 




22 




22 




22 




23 




24 




24 




25 




26 




26 


185:^ 


21 


185.3 


21 




21 




23 




21 




24 




24 




25 




25 


1854 


21 




23 


1854 


22 


1855 


20 




20 




21 




22 




•£i 




24 




24 


1«57 


20 




20 




23 




24 




25 




25 




27 




28 




2!) 



Coltness 

Great Tom 

Skylark 

.Ag-nes Sorel, l"am. 16. 11 

Belle .\i.;nes, Fam. 16. 12 

Oueen of Cyprus, Fam. 23. 17 

Lady Goligtitly, Fam. 27. 19 

Nitocris, Fam. 20. 14 

Queen Marion, Fam. 10 a. 13 

Tribute, Fam. 2 a. 19 

King-cup, Fam. 3 c. 16 

Blue Blood 

Discovery, Fam. 11. 16 

Italian Oueen, Fam. 19. 16 

? Celandine, Fam. 1 e. 16 (or b\ .Macaroni) 

? Miss Hannah, Fam. 10 b. 12 (or by Favonius) 

Bramble 

Jaconet, Fam. 4 a. 20 

Perfection, Fam. 4 a. 20 

Sensation 

Iroquois D 

Spinaway, Fam. 11 b. 16 

Wyandotte, Fam. 4 a. 22 

Francesca (which had at 25 year-nUl .\mos 

Fudd by Howland) 
Onondaga 

Torpedo 

Frigate, Fam. 20. 16 

Elegance, Fam. 12 b. 19 

B.iy Archer 

Lancastrian 

Belphiibe I., Fam. 13a. 17 

Princess Mary II., Fam. 8c. 20 

Lady Peregrine, Fam. 9 a. 18 

Dracena, Fam. 3e. 1.5 

Lady Paramount, Fam. 10. 13 

Balvany 

Vederemo 

Vinea 

Budagyongye N.D. 

FenellO.D.U. 

Ollyan-nincs P.L. 

Talpra Magyar 

Kins-or 

Kincs 



98 



Trial of tlie Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 


Name of the Stallions. 


Born. 


Age. 


Produced the following progeny. 




70 


Thunderbolt 


1857 


20 
20 
20 
21 
22 
23 
25 
26 
27 


Meteora, Fam. 11 b. 17 

Select, Fam. 10. 14 

Mare born 1878, Fam. 19. 16 

Damages, Fam. 3d. 13 

Dart, Fam. 3. 15 

6 (2 year-old winner in England) 

Thunderstorm 

Krakatoa 

Poudre ;\ Canon, Fam. 3. 15 




71 


Adventurer 


1859 


20 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
22 
22 


Tabor, Fam. 13. 22 
Borneo 

Hirondelle, Fam. 10. 13 
Pinta, Fam. 2. 22 
Linda, Fam. 11. 17 
Planchette, Fam. 7. 13 
Black Agnes, Fam. 27. 19 
Wheatsheaf , Fam. 1 d. 17 




72 


Dollar 


1860 


22 
24 
24 


Upas 

Brocage 

Dauphin 




73 


Blair Athol 


1861 


20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
21 


Child of the Mist 
Chiming Bells, Fam. 8 b. 19 
Chiquitta, Fam. 20. 15 
Glenrosa, Fam. 8 d. 19. 
Insignia, Fam. 9 b. 16 
Cyclopaedia, Fam. 10 b. 13 




74 


Norfolk 


1861 


24 


Emperor of Norfolk 




75 


Savernake 


1863 


23 
23 


Bandit 
Nickel 




76 


Hermit 


1864 


20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 


.'\strologer 

Friar Balsam 

Hazlehatch 

Bella Donna, Fam. 10 a. 12 

Devote, Fam. 4 a. 19 

Fleur de Marie, Earn. 8 c. 21 

Hermia, Fam. 19. 17 

Seraphine, Fam. 10 b. 13 










20 


Sly, Fam. 11a. 18 


• 








21 


Melanion 










21 


Australia, Fam. 1 c. 19 










21 


Seclusion, F-am. 2 c. 19 










21 


Single Barrel, Fam. 9 e. 18 










21 


Spoleta, Fam. 2. 20 










22 


Heaume 





4. \'alue of the Thcirouijlibrccl for OtluT Breeds 



99 



No. 


Name of the StalHons. 


Born 


Age. 


Produced the fiilIo\vi[ig pri 


)i4fny. 








22 


.Xstroloi,'-)-, Fain. 9 a. 18 








22 


Cushat, Fain. 2 c. 20 








22 


Heresy, Fam. 10 a. 14 










22 


La Cloche, Fam. 19. 17 










22 


Lina Market, Fam. 7. Itj 








22 


The Blvthe, Fam. 4 b. 21 








22 


St. Olave, Fam. 22 a. 14 




I 


22 


Mare born 1887, Fam. S c. I'l 








23 


Cinderelle, Fam. 2d. 22 










23 


Lady Hermione, Fam. 10. 14 










23 
23 
2i 


Silver Sea, Fam. 13 a. 18 
Star of Fortune, Fam. 9 a. 17 
Nun Nydia, Fam. 9 a. 19 








24 


Priestess, Fam. 12 b. 21 










24 


St. Cicely, Fam. 7. 16 










24 


St. Odille, Fam. 4 b. 20 










23 


? Minervn, Fam. 9 a. 19 (or bv G. 


ilopin) 








26 


Missal 










26 


Corea, Fam. 3. 15 










26 


Great D,-ime, Fam. 10. 14 




77 


Rosicrucian 


1865 


20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
21 
21 
21 
22 
23 
25 


Ab.uiico, Fam. 31. IG 

Bonnie Mom, Fam. 31. 16 

Doreuse, Fam. 1 b. 18 

Evanthe, Fam. 3d. 14 

Kenej^ie, Fam. 5 b. 15 

Pythia, Fam. 4. 18 

Queen Berenf,'aria, Fam. 4d. 20 

Rose dWniour, Fam. 20 a. 16 

Dalberja: 

Rosa May, Fam. 2d. 21 

Symbol, Fam. 14. 18 

Gay Duchess, Fam. 31. 10 

Rose Root, Fam. 2 c. 20 

Last Love, Fam. 2 c. 20 




78 


Kintj Lud 


1869 


20 


Boudoir 





79 Ascetic 

j 
^ Hampton 



1871 


25 


.\scetic Silver ^ 




26 


Lord .\bbot 


1872 


20 


Bav Ronald 




20 


Hurry, Fam. 13. 19 




20 


Lettice, Fam. 3 a. 14 




20 


Capraria, Fam. 1 e. 19 




21 


Happy Return, Fam. 14 a. 18 




23 


.Abovne, F^am. 28. 18 




23 


Helen Hampton, Fam. 16. 16 



100 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 




I'nidueed the following progeny 



81 



Galopin 



1872 



82 W'aisenknabe 

83 Kisber 

84 ' Sprinpfield 

85 Chamant 



8fi I Master Kildare 



1872 
1873 
1873 

1874 



1875 



23 
23 

23 I 

24 i 

20 I 

20 

20 

20 

20 

20 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

21 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

23 

23 

24 

24 

24 

25 

25 

26 

21 
21 

22 

20—2; 

20 
20 
22 
24 

23 



Stub-Hampton, Fam. 10b. 13 
Thames \'alley, Fam. 4 b. 21 
Gadfly, Fam. 22. 16 
Inquisitive, Fam. .3 e. 17 

Galopin Lad 
Ganache 
Galeazzo 

Galata, Fam. 13 a. 19 
Pindi, Fam. 4 b. 20 
Flitters, Fam. 1 b. 17 
Grafton 
Guerrier 

Briseis, Fam. 2 d. 2'd 
Galatia, Fam. 13 a. 19 
Gelatine, Fam. 10 b. 13 
Goletta, Fam. 22 a. 16 
The Message, Fam. 20. 19 
Galopade II., Fam. 8c. 22 
Miss Primrose, Fam. 1 b. 18 
Brio 
Disr.aeli 

Canter, Fam. 16 a. 13 
Dainty, Fam. 20 a. 16 
G.nrtinthia, Fam. 7 a. 15 
Galopin Lassie, Fam. 14. 17 
Galandra, Fam. 20 a. 17 
.\tbarra, Fam. 3 b. 18 
Merry Gal, Fam. 5. 16 
Nattie, Fam. 3. 16 
.Aida, Fam. 9 a. 19 
Galicia, Fam. 10 a. 16 
? Alijhabet, Fam. 14. 19 (or by Friar's 
Balsam) 

Bogdany 

.Sperbers Bruder 

Cromlix, Fam. lib. 15 

(only 5 unimportant winners) 

Habenichts 

VoUmond 

Pomp 

Letzter Mohikaner 

Ostende Express 



CHAPTER V. 



A comparison of what Thoroughbreds have done previously 
and what they are doing at the present time. 



The importance of a solid and lasting formation of legs in th(^ breeding of 
Half-breds, and the confession of Thor(.)Ughbred breeders that an improve- 
ment of this fundament by the infusion of Thorougiibred is very seldom if 
at all possible, raises the question as to why in tliis respect, which is so 
important, the Thoroughbred ma\' not be improved, or, in other words, how 
one can breed Thoroughbreds which are able to give the necessary stamina 
for the fundament. The answer to this question leads, first of all, to that 
well-known querv, whether our present day Thoroughbred has nut bi-ccjine 
worse during the last centur\-, especiallv in respect to fundament. 

We have not got enough exact and reliable statements of time of the 
races in former years, to compare them with the performances of to-day, 
and, therefore, cannot answer this question from records impartially. ihe 
records of Flying Childers at Newmarket over the Round Course and the 
Beacon Course were until now incorrectlv said to be the best, and even 
unsurpassed records of Thoroughbreds on a racecourse. This erroneous 
opinion probably originated by a wrong division, which William Pick makes 
in his Turf Register, Vo]. 1., p. 12, where he reckons out the record of 
Flying Childers to be nearlv a mile a minute, that is to say S-2\ feet = 
about '20 metres, in a second, whereas from a correct calculatiim IcjIIows a 
record of t)nl\' l-j metres in one second. Hesicles, even an exact and reliable 
measure of time would not be a safe guide as to the different cajoacity, 
because the distances for which horses were traini'd lia\e changetl so much, 
and formerlv the tests nearlv ah\a\s took- jolace in several heats, ll is t<i lie 
assumed that the present dav Thoroughbred for a distance of 1 [n ]\ Ivnglish 
miles is quicker than the Thoroughbred of a hundred vears ago. This alone, 
however, would not be a sutificient proof of the improxcment ot the 
'I'horoughbred in general, especially as regards its adaptability to imimive 
Malf-breds, as we ha\c no records to go through as to how (|uicklv the 
former Thoroughbred could cover distances of 1 to 1.^, h'nclish miles il 



102 Trial of the Thoroufjhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

trained bv the method in vogue to-day, wliicii is without doubt an improved 
one, especially if it had been trained for races for that distance, and not for 
4-mile heats. 

Also, the measurements of time which we have for classic races ft)r about 
the last fifty years, are insufficient to go on. Of the Derb}- and Oaks at 
Epsom we have the time from the year 1846. Of the Doncaster St. Leger 
from the year 1810. The tables given on the next page are characteristic. 

As the measurement of time can only give a correct measurement of 
proven performances for races of steady motion (as I have already shown 
mathematically in 1899 in my treatise entitled, " Das Vollblutpferd in seiner 
Bedeutung fur die Halbblutzucht "), it is not at all surprising that the above 
measurements are an insufficient criterion for the capacity respecting the 
quality of hf)rses. For example : according to these measurements, the very 
moderate Cicero would be a by far better horse than either OrmondCi Per- 
simmon, Flying Fox, Ard Patrick; and of the Oaks winners, Cherry Lass 
better' than La Fleche, Sceptre, and Pretty Polly, and the celebrated Wheel- 
of-Fortune would be the worst. The times given for the St. Leger would 
make us believe that Troutbeck was the best of all, and that Challacombe 
was as good as Pretty PolI\-, and much better than Ormonde, Galtee More, 
Persimmon, etc. 

According to the Derby time, Ormonde ought to be worse than his 
predecessors, Melton and Kettledrum. Furthermore, Sir Tatton Svkes, born 
1843, ought to be much better than Ormonde, Persimmon and Galtee More. 
.A.S a matter of fact, from these measurements we can see that the Derby 
and Oaks times have become considerabh- shorter than those for the longer 
distance St. Leger. The reason probably is, that with the invasion of the 
American jockevs, the quicker getting off made more difference in the 
shorter races than in the longer St. Leger, or perhaps the speed of the 
present day Thoroughbred has not improved so much for longer distances 
as for shorter ones. Or, again, it is possible that the changing of the 
starts for the Derb\- and the Oaks, which took place in the year 187-2, has 
effected an impro\ement of the time, as this alteration caused the first incline 
to be less difficult. Of course, one must not lose sight of the fact here that 
since 1872 tlie Derb\- distance has been lengthened bv 23 metres, and the 
St. Leger distance (in 1820) has been shortened by 56 metres. 

'IV> draw a definite conclusion as to capability, even from the latest, 
reliable measurements of time seem to be out of question, especially when 
these measurements have to be compared with those of a hundred years ago. 

Most measurements of olden times are given in Orton's Turf Annuals, 
especially for the York races. A great deal of these measurements has, 
unfortunately, been given for races in which insignificant horses ran. The 
following examples (from the earliest times to 1832) give the best record 
performances 1 ha\e found : — 



5. The Thoroug^hbred in the Past and Present. 



103 





m 




03 




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u 


C3 


t\> 


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be 


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104 



Trial of the Thonuis:libred on the Racecourse, etc. 



1. Distance -1 miles = 6437.2 m. 



Mill. Sec. 



17-59. 

1759. 

1759. 

1764. 

1766. 

1793. 

1801.' 

1802.' 

1803. 

1805. 

1809. 

1810. 



1804. 
1815. 
1824. 
1827. 
1829. 
1830. 



1809. 
1824. 
182G. 
1826. 
1827. 
1827. 
1828. 
1829. 
1830. 



1804. 
1804. 
1824. 
1826. 
1827. 
1832. 



Cade 5 year-old by Cade, 9 stone 8 

Silvio 5 year-old by Cade, 10 stone 8 

Careless 9 year-old b}^ Regukis, 9 stone 8 

Beaufrement 6 year-old by Tartar, 8 stone, 7 lbs 7 

Bay Malton 6 year-old by Sampson,. 9 stone 7 

Huby 5 year-old by Phoenomenon, 8 stone, 7 lbs. ... 7 

Sir Solomon 5 year-old by Sir Peter, 8 stone, 7 lbs. ... 7 

Alonzo 4 year-old by Pegasus, 8 stone, 7 lbs 7 

Haphazard 6 year-old by Sir Peter, 8 stone, 10 lbs. ... 7 

Saxoni 5 year-old by Delpini, 8 stone, 4 lbs 7 

Petronius 4 year-old by Sir Peter, 7 stone, 9 lbs. ... 7 

Theresa 5 year-old by Ilambletonian, 8 stone, 5 lbs. . . 7 



2. Distance 2 miles = 3218.6 m. 

Witchcraft 3 year-old by Sir Peter, 8 stone, 2 lbs. 
Catton 6 year-old by Golumpiis, 8 stone, 2 lbs. . 
Fair Charlotte 6 year-old by Catton, 8 stone, 10 lbs 
Mulatto 4 year-old by Catton, 8 stone, 3 lbs. . . 
Velocipede 4 year-old by Blacklock, 7 stone, 12 lbs 
Fortitude 4 year-old by A\"hisker, 7 stone, 8 lbs. . 



3. Distance 1^ miles = 2816.3 m. 

Sheba's Queen 3 year-old by Sir Solomon, 8 stone 
Sandbeck 6 year-old bv Catton. 8 stone, 3 lbs. 
APAdam 3 year-old by Tramp, S stone, 5 lbs. . 
Belzoni 3 year-old by Blacklock, 8 stone, 5 lbs. 
Medoro 3 year-old by Cervantes, 8 stone, 5 lbs. 
Maleck 3 year-old by Blacklock, 8 stone, 5 lbs. 
Velocipede 3 year-old by Blacklock, 8 stone, 5 lbs 
Sir Hercules 3 year-old bv Whalebone, 8 stone, 5 lbs 
Chancellor 3 year-old by Catton, 8 stone, 5 lbs. 



7 

8 

51 

30i 

m 

8 
32 
28 
25 
30 



Min. Sec. 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
8 



40 
33 
28 
34 
33 
29 



Min. Sec. 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



20 
13 
17 
21 
12 
17 
20 
15 
18 



4. Distance 1^ mites = 2414 m. 

Min. Sec. 

Quid 3 year-old by Star, 8 stone 2 54 

Lady Brough 3 year-old by Stride, 8 stone 2 47 

Abron 4 year-old by Whisker, 8 stone, 6 lbs 2 51 

Helenus 5 year-old by Soothsayer, 9 stone, 6 lbs 2 49 

Mauto 3 year-old by Tiresias, 8 stone, 3 lbs 2 50 

Retainer 3 year-old bv Jerry, M stone, 7 lbs 2 47 



' These two races were run at Doncaster, all the others at York. 



5. The Tlioroufjlibred in the Past and Present. 
5. Distance 1:^ miles = 201l.6 m. 



105 



Min. Sec. 

18-28. Laurel 4 year-old by BlacUlock, 8 stone 2 15 

1632. Mare 3 year-old by Figaro, s stone. -2 lbs 2 12 

6. Distance 1 mile =1609.3 m. 

Min. Sec. 

1811. Bethlem Gaber 3 year-old by Sorcerer, 8 stone, 2 lbs. . . 1 40 

182G. Brother to .Miss Fanny 3 year-old by Walton, 8 stone, lbs. 1 43 

1827. Tom Jones 3 year-old bv Abjer, 8 stone, 5 lbs 1 47 

1829. Voltaire 3 year-old by Blarkiock, 8 stone, 5 lbs ] id 

7. Distance Redhouse at (Doncaster) = .5 furlongs, 152 yards =1145 m. 

Min. Sec. 

1820. .Moonshine 2vear-c)ld bv Grey .Middleham, 8 stone, -j lbs. 1 12 



8. Distance T. Y. C.= 5 furlongs, 44 yards= 1046.2 m. 



1808. Middlethorpe 2 year-old by Shuttle, 8 stone, 2 lbs 

1824. Androgeus 2 year-old by Minos, 8 stone, 5 lbs. 

1827. Wlocipede 2 year-old by Blacklock. 8 stone, 5 lbs 

1827. Slut 2 year-old bv Tramp, 7 stone, 11 lbs. . . 

1828. Mare 2 year-old by Jack Spigot, 8 stone, 2 lbs. 
1830. Chorister 2 year-old by Lottery, 8 stone, 5 lbs. 
1830. Clarence 2 year-old by Comus, 8 stone, 5 lbs. . 



Min. Sec. 

1 20 

1 15 

1 9 

1 14 

1 14 

1 8 

] 11 



Besides the above, the following interesting performances are well 
know n : — 

1. Distance 6120 m. at Newmarket, Round Course = 3 miles, 6 furlongs, 93 yards. 

Min. Sec. 
1721.' Flying Childers 6 year-old, Stone, 2 lbs (3 48 

2. Distance 6764.6 m. at Newmarket, B. C. = 4 miles, 1 furlong, 138 yards. 

Min. Sec. 

1721." Flying Childers, (5 year-old 7 30 

1755.' Matchem 7 year-old, 8 stone, 7 lbs 7 20 

1792.' Hambletonian 7 year-old, 8 stone, 3 lbs 7 15 

.\t Eclipse's time several horses 8 — 



3. Distance 1610 m. at Newmarket, R. ^1.= ! mile, 1 yard. 

1773.''' Firetail 4 year-old l)y S(|uirrcl, .S stone 



Min. Sec. 
1 4J 



' .Sporting Calendar bv J. Pond, \ol. I., ]7.)1, p. 21;^. 
" Turf Register by Pick, \"ol. I., p. 12. 
■■ Turf Resirister by PicU, \o\. !., p. VM]. 
' Kaciana by Muir, p. 162. 

' Racing Calendar 1773, p. 14; Turf Register by Pick, Vol. H.. p. 327; Morning 
Post and Daily .Advertiser, 19th .April, 177.'?; and Sporting Magazine, Vol. IV., p. 32.5. 



106 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



The time measurement in the race of Firetail at Newmari^et over a mile 
shows a record performance of almost 25 m. in the second, and appears to 
me to be incorrect. Possibly' a printer's error crept in the " Morning Post," 
and the others took the report from the newspaper. The remaining- time 
measurements show the following maximum performances : — 



Distance 
Meter. 


Year. 


Place. 


Name of Horse. 


Age 


\Yeight. 


.Meter in 








Year. 


St. lbs. 


1 Second. 


6764,6 


1702 


Newmarket 


Hanibletonian 


7 


8 3 


15,55 


61.37,2 


1802 


Doncaster 


.Monzo 


4 


8 7 


15,04 


6120 


1721 


Newmarket 


Flying- Childers 


6 


9 2 


15,00 


3218,6 


1824 


York 


Fair Charlotte 


5 


8 10 


15,41 


2993 


1818 


Doncaster St. Leg-. 


Reveller 


3 


8 2 


15,35 


2816,3 


1827 


York 


Medoro 


3 


8 5 


14,67 


2414 


1804 


York 


Ladv Brough 


3 


8 


14,45 


2011,6 


1&32 


York 


Mare bv Figaro 


3 


8 2 


15,24 


1609,3 


1811 


York 


Bethlem Gaber 


3 


8 2 


16,09 


1145 


1826 


Doncaster 


Moonshine 


2 


8 5 


15,90 


1046,2 


1830 


York 


Chorister 


2 


8 5 


15,38 



The best known record performances in F.noland during the last twentv- 
years are as follows : — 



Distance 
-Meter. 


Year. 


Place. 


Name of Horse. 


Age 
Year. 


Wei 

St. 


ght. 
lbs. 


Meter in 
1 Second. 


4224,6 


1880 


Doncaster. Cup. 


Dresden China 


4 


9 




17,24 


3646,6 


1881 


Newmarket. Ces. 


Foxhall 


3 


7 


12 


15,12 


3646,6 


1880 


Newmarket. Ces. 


Robert the Devil 


3 


8 


6 


14,05 


2937 


1904 


Doncaster. St. Leg. 


Pretty Pollv 


3 


8 


11 


15,88> 


2414 


1905 


Epsom. Derbv 


Cicero 


3 


9 


— 


15,18= 


2414 


1905 


Epsom. Oaks 


Cherry Lass 


3 


9 


— 


15,28= 


1609,3 


1885 


Lincoln. Hdcp. 


Bendigo 


5 


8 


5 


16,62 


1407,4 


1882 


iSLanchester. Hdcp. 


Toastmaster 


5 


9 


6 


17,28 


1206,9 


1882 


Epsom. XA'oodc. St. 


Beau Brummel 


2 


8 


12 


15,91 


1006 


1882 


Manchester 


Chislehurst 


2 


8 


10 


15,1^ 



The proportionately little dilTerences iii time in the classic races show 
that these times are the most reliable, and, therefore, the most suitable for 



' Best time in the St. Leger. 
' Best time in the Derby. 
' Best time in the Oaks. 



5. The Thoroughbred in the Prist and Present.' 107 

making comparisons. A little more than 15 metres to the second seems to 
be about the distance which the better kind of racehorses of former, as well 
as of the present time can do. Just aliout the middle of this period lived the 
celebrated West Australian, l)orn Ls5(), winner of the Derby, St. Leger, and 
•2,000 Guineas. Also its record for tin- St. Leger was 15.41 metres, for the 
Ascot Gold Cup (distance 3.982 metres) 15.11 metres. In liie Ascot Gold 
Cup of 1.SG8, Buckstone's record, as a four-year-old, with 8 stone, 7 lbs., 
after a dead heat, was IG.IO metres, and in the year 1897, Persimmon's 
record, as a four-year-old, 9 stone, was 11. 08 metres. 

The compilation of the i)esl n-curds (if ancient and modern times, after 
taking into consideration all acces.sories, show therefore, neither a progress 
nor a retrogression in tiie capability of the Tiioroughbred. Only within the 
last few years tiie American nieliiod <if riding, with its (luick getting oft", 
and its quick pace all along, .seems to have affected a little the shortening of 
the time, and to prevent greater differences of time as happened previously. 

However, the English race calendars show that there exists a marked 
dift'erence in the endurance of older horses. The difficulties of training 
racehorses, and especially the difticultv of bringing .so-called tirst-class race- 
horses after their fourth or fifth vear again on the track, are well known, 
and are caused bv the insufficient resisting capacits' <>f (he fimdament of the 
present day Thoroughbred. 

I'^very sportsman will acknowledge this regrettable fact, i.e., that the 
galloping ciipahilily of the present cla\- Thoroughbred lias l:)een more 
developed than the less develoijed fundament can stand. 

In order to get an actual basis to compare the performances of older 
Thoroughbreds of former times with those of the present time on the flat, I 
have compiled, in the following tables, beginning with the most ancient 
times up to the time of the celebrated l-"isiierman (therefore about the middle 
of the last century), the most ])rominent performances of (jlder horses on the 
flat. .\s a rule, 1 have (jnly taken such horses that have won flat races as 
eight-year-olds and above that age. (u-ntlemen's flat races are not men- 
tioned, but the more celebrated steeple-chasers 1 have noted. I have 
compiled on the basis nf (he male ascent. Of the ligures given under each 
hor.se, the one on the left shows the age at wliich the hor.se first started 
racing, and the one on (lie right shows the age at which it won last on the 
flat. Sires of horses which h;i\e won races ;il a great age have also their own 
performances mentioned in the same manner as a comparison. 

To judge of the influence of the early and frer|uent two-vear-old races, 1 
have given, with the sires as well as with the ci.ims of the respective race- 
horses, in which month they first ran as iwo-year-olds, and how often 
altogether as two-year-olds. Where the dam did not run at all as a two-year- 
old I ha\e not mentioned her at all. 



108 Trial of the Thoi-ouylibred on the Racecourse, etc. 

The Provost ]S3() bv the Saddler 
•2 (May 3 times)— 6. 

Alp 184G by The Provost 
3 — 8 Dam 2 y. August twice. 

means, The Provost ran as a two-year-old first in May, and ahogelher as a 
two-year-old three times, and won at last as a six-year-old. Alp ran first as 
a three-year-old. Its last win was as an eight-year-old. Its dam ran first 
as a two-year-old in August, and altogether twice as a two-year-old. 

Darley's Arabian bom 1702. 

1. BRISK 1^11 by Darley's Arabian. 

5. (Half-brother to Conejskins.) 

Foxhuilter (Cole's) 1727 by Brisk. 
6—9. 

MOSES 174(j by Foxhunter (Cole's). 
4. 

Otho 1760 by Moses. 
4—7. 

1. COXCOMB 1771 by Otho. 

•3 — 4, then up to 18 year-old used as a hunter, at 17 year-old won a 
Match over 2 miles witjli heats at St. Ives. 
Blackcock 1782 by Coxcomb. 
3—8. 

2. ALEPPO 1711 bv Darlev's Araliian. 

5. 

Hobi,'ObIin 1724 by Aleppo. 
.5—9. 

SH.4KES1'E.4RE 1745 by Hobi^oblin. 
4—8. 

Piiielitr 1705 by Shakespeare. 
4 — 9. (Half-Brother to King' Fergus). 

3. FLYINCJ CHTLDERS 1715bv Darlev's Arabian. 

6—8. 

1. SeCOIld 1732 by I'lyin;.; ("hilders. 

.5—11. 

2. Blaze 1733 by Flyin.i;- Chllders. 

5 — 7 (up to 10 year-old without winning). 
1. SAMPSOS' 1745 by Blaze. 
5 — 7. 

1. Elijfincj'r 1755 by Sampson. .. 
.5—10. 

MAMBRINO 1768 by Engineer (s. tn America). 
5 — 8 (up to 11 year-old without winning). 

2. Bay Maltoii 1760 by Sampson. 
4—8. 

3. Piljjrim 1762 by Sampson. 
4—12. 



.3. ']"Ik- Thorouglibrcd in the Past and Present. JQQ 

4. Solon 17(56 by Sampson. 
4—10. 
2. SCRUB 1751 by Blaze. 
4—10. 

Cllilllfrcliii!; 1767 by Scrub. 
4—10. 
3. Snip 1"36 by Flyinj,' Cbild.rs. 
•5. 

SX.4P 17.">() by Snip. 
6—7. 

1. I.alliom'.s Sliill) 17.^i) by Snap. 

4—8. 

STARTIXC TDM 177-2 bv Latbom's Snap. 
4—10. 

2. Mefapliysiciaii 17(i.i bv Snap. 

4—8. 
.'?. (ioldtlnder 1764 by Snap. 
4-6. 

1. KNIGHT ICh'hWNT 1774 bv Goldfinder. 

5—8. 

2. DOCTOR 1776 bv (loldfinder. 

3—9. 

4. Prize 1767 bv Sn.ip. 

5—9. 

5. Mexican 1775 bv Snap (s, tci N'irsj^inia). 

3—8. 

4. B.VRTLKT'S (or lilci'dini;-) C'hilders .-dHUit 1716 by Darley's .Arabian. 
(Not run). 

]. Squirt 1"32 by Bartlet's Childers. 

5 — 8 (up to 11 vear-old without wijinini^-, .also in (live and Take PI ) 

1. SYPIIO-X 17;50 by .Squirt. 

4. 

1. Sweet AVilliam 176S bv Svphon. 

4—8. 

2. Sweetbriar 1769 bv Svpbon. 

4-6. 

1. CHOCOLATE 1777 l.v Sweetbriar. 

3—5. 

Jrrry Sneak 1796 by Chocolate out of 25 year-old Mother 
2 (October, once)— 13. [Brown. 4—11.] 

1. Fitzjerrv 1807 bv lerrv SneaU. 

2-9. 

2. 11 n 1 1 y m o u n t 1M2 liv Jerrv Sneak. 

4—10. 

2. A-.\f7.S7::.U.1.V 1781 bv Sweetbriar. 

8—12. 

2. .M.iUSKK 17,30 by Squirt. 

4 (5 and (5 year-old without winninj;). 
1. Eclipse 1761 Iiv Marske. 
5—6. 



-[IQ Trial of the Thoi-oui^hbrtd un the Racecourse, etc. 

1. ]A VELIN 1772 by Eclipse. 

4. 

1. Chance 178U by Javelin (s. to Russia). 

4— S. 

2. Helmet 1788 by Javelin. 

3—10. 

3. 1'. Javelin (later .Antrim) 1795 by Javelin. 

2—8. 

2. POTSOS 1773 by Eclipse. 

4—10. 

1. Coriander 178G by PotSos. 

3—8. 

Marcia 1707 by Coriander. 
3—9. 

2. Telescope 1786 by Pot8os. 

3—8. 

3. Alderman 1787 by Pot8os (s. to Virg-inia). 

3—9. 

4. Druid 1790 by PotSos. 

3—8. 

5. Waxy 1790 by PotSos. 

.3—6. D. 

1. Waxy Pope 1806 by Waxy. 
• 3—6. D. 

1. Noble 1816 by Waxy Pope. 
5-9. 

2. Gossoon 1818 by Waxy Pope. 
4—9 (Half-bred). 

3. Starch 1819 by Waxy Pope. 
3—8. 

Confusion 1832 by Starch. 
7—10. 
4. Skylark 1826 by Waxy Pope (1836 s. 
3 — 8. to America). 

St. Lawrence 1837 by Skylark (or 
2—10. Lapwing). 

(10 year-old Chester Cup). 

2. Whalebone 1807 by Waxy. 
3—6. D. 

1. Waverley 1817 by \\'halebone. 
3—5. 

1. The Saddler 1828 by Waverley. 
2 (Sept., twice)— 6. Dcp. 

1. The Provost 1836 by The 

2 (May, 3 times)— 6. [Saddler. 
Alp 1846 by The Provost. 
3 — 8. Dam 2y. Aug., twice. 

2. Shadow 1836 by The Saddler. 
2 — 11. Dam 2 y. April once. 

3. Inheritress 1840 by The Saddler. 
2—10. 



5. 'IIr- Tliuruuyhbrcd in the I'asl and Present. JU 

4. Radulphus 1843 bv The Se.ddlei-. 
2—14. 

5. Sir Peter Laurie 1873 by The Saddler. 
3. .\ famous Steepler. 

(1852 3rd in Liverpool Grand National.) 
Hall Court 1859 by Sir Peter Laurie. A 
famous Steepler. 1865 and 1869 2nd in 
Liverpool Grand National. 

6. Vesta 1843 bv The Saddler. 
2—9. 

2. The Bard 1833 by Waverley (s. to Russia). 

2 (June, twice) — 4. (Own brother to The Saddler). 
Miss Burns 1840 by The Bard. 
5—9. 

3. Sambo Sutton 1834 by Waverley. 
' 6 — 10. Dam 2y. April, once. 

2. Camel 1822 by Whalebone. 
3—5. 

1. Abbas Mirza 1831 bv Camel. 
3. 

The Widow 1839 by .\bbas Mirza. 

7 — 9 (lOyear-old without winning, 8 vear-old 
Cm.) 

2. Touchstone 1831 by Camel. 

2 (Sept., twice) — 6 L. Acp. 2 x Dcp. 2 x 

1. Cotherstone 1840 by Touchstone. 
2 (Oct., twice)— 3. D. 2. 

Bordeaux 1847 by Cotherstone. 
2 — 9. Dam 2y. Sept., once. 

2. Orlando 1841 by Touchstone. 
2 (Juni, 6 times) — 5. D. 

1. Octavia 1849 bv Orlando. 
3—8. 

2. Fractious 1853 bv Orlando. 
2—8. 

3. Ithuriel 1841 by Touchstone. 
3. 

Sir I'towland Treiichard 1848 by Ithuriel. 
2—8. 

3. Sir Isaac 1831 by Camel. 
(Not run). 

Yardley 1840 by Sir Isaac. 
.3—8. Dam 2y. July, twice. 

4. Caravan 1834 by Camel. 

3—7. (2nd D.) Acp. 

5. Camelino 1836 by Camel. 
2—8. Dam 2y. July, twice. 

6. Queen of the Gipsies 1840 by C.iiiiel. 
2 — 9. Dam 2 y. June, once. 

3. Busk 1824 by Whalebone. 
2—8. 



112 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

4. Sir Hercules 182G by Whalebone. 

2 (Oct., once and 1 w. o.) — 4. (.Sire of man)' good 
steeplecliascrs). 
1. Birdcatcher 1833 by Sir Herculfes. 
2 (Oct., once) —4. 

1. The Baron 1842 by Birdcatcher. 
3. L. Cs. 

Zouave 1855 by The Baron. 
3. 

The Lamb 1862 by Zouave. 
A famous Steepler. 
1868 and 1870 winner in Liverp. 
Gr. Nation. 

2. Kingfisher 1842 by Birdcatcher. 
6—8. 

3. Blarney 1847 (or 48) by Birdcatcher. 
7—12. 

4. Knight of St. George 1851 by Birdcatcher. 
2 (Sept., 4 times) —3. L. 

Dan O'Connell 1858 by Knight of St. 
(Not run). [George. 

The Liberator 1869 by Dan 

[O'Connell. 
3 — 5. 6 — 15 y. Steeplechase. 
1879 winner in Liverpool Gn-ind 
National. Ran as 17}'ear-old in 
Liverpool Grand National. 
(Dam 2y. Sept., twice). 
2. Magnum Bonum (later Discount) 1838 by Sir 
4. Famous Steepler. [Hercules. 

1844 winner in Liverpool Grand National. 

5. Merman 1826 by Whalebone. 
3—9. 

6. The Sea 1830 by Whalebone. 
3. Later in .Steeplechases. 

1848 also in Liverpool Grand National. 
Freetrader 1849 by The Sea. 
2—5. 

185G winner in Liverpool Grand National. 

7. Bodice 1831 by Whalebone. 
3— S. 

3. W h i s k e r 1812 by Waxy. 
3—6. D. 

1. Memnon 1822 by Whisker (s. to Russia). 
2 (Sept., twice) —5. L. 

1. Seventy-four 1833 by Memnon. 

3. A famous Steepler, twice 2nd Liverpool 
Grand National. 

2. King Cole 1833 by Memnon. 
2—9. 



■5. The Thorouirhbrt'd in the Past and Present. HJJ 

2. CattericU ISL'l' bv Whisker. 
3. 

1. Jerry about 1830 by Catterick. 

A famous Steepler. (Half-bred). 

1840 winner in Liverpool Grand National. 

2. Uodcricic Random about 1832 by Catterick. 
.\ famous sleepier. (Half-bred). 

3. Catherina 1S30 b\ W'hislver. 
2—11. 

(J. Doriclcs 1790 by PotSos. 
4—8. 

7. Oliver 1791 b.\' Pot8os. 

3—8. Dam 2 y. July, 3 times. 

8. Thereabouts 1702 by PotSos. 
4—9. 

9. Trijfle 1795 by Pot8os. 
2—8. 

10. Parasol 1800 by PotSos. 
3—8. 

3. SATE LUTE 1774 by Eclipse. 

3 — 6 (up to 9 year-old without winning;). 
Keren-HappHch 1789 by Satellite. 
3-8. (Half-sister to U"axy). 

4. JUl'ITER 1774 by Eclipse. 

3 — 4. (Own brother to N'olunteer ajid Mercury). 

1. CarJoch 1785 b\' Jupiter. 
2—9. 

2. Halkin 178G by Jupiter. 
3—8. 

4. A7.V(; FERGl'S 1775 bv Eclipse. 
3—6. 

1. Benin sihroui^li 1791 b\ Kin^j I'eri^us. 
3-C. L. ' 

1. Orville 1799 by Hen infifbrousjh. 
2 (Auijust, twice) —8. 1.. 
1. Midey I'^IO l>y Orville. 
5. 

1. Morisco 1819 by Mulev. 
3—5. 

Taurus 182f) by .Morisco (or Phantom) 

11839 s. to (lermnny). 
3 (and u[) to 7 year-old without winniiifj). 

1. John oTiaunt 1>*3S by Taurus. 
3—7. 

Hunijerford 1848 by John o'Gaunt. 
2 — 8. Dam 2 year-old, June, once. 

2. Oakley 1838 by Taurus. 
3—7. 

2. Atlas 182fi liy Muky. 

4— n. 



124 Tn.ii of tlie 'I'lioroughbrcd on the Racecourse, etc. 

3. iMuley Moloch 1830 by Muley. 
2 (May, twice) — 5. 

1. Alice Hawthorn 1838 by Muley Moloch. 
3_7. Gcp. Dcp. 2 X . Mother, Gran^I 

mother, and Great-grandmother not run. 

2. Morpeth 1841 by Muley Moloch. 
2—8. 

4. Dulcimer 1836 by Muley. 
3. 

Dulcet 1842 by Dulcimer. 
3—10. 

2. Fitz Orville 1R12 by Orville. 
3—6. 

Gondolier 1826 by Fitz Orville. 
3—8. 

3. Master Henry 181.5 by Orville. 
2 — 7 (7 vear-old, G races, won). 

Dam 2y. July, twice. 

4. .Andrew 1816 by Orville. 
3—4. 

Cadland 182.5 by .Andrew. 
3—6. D. 2. 

Miss Kitty Cockle 1834 by Cadland. 
4 — 9. Dam 2 y. Sept., once. 
.5. Bizarre 1820 by OrviIli>. 
5—6. 

1. Nike 1830 by Bizarre. 
3—8. 

2. Mus 1833 by Bizarre. 
3—8. 

3. Bellissima 1835 by Bizarre. 
3—9. 

6. Emilius 1820 by Orville. 
3—4. D. 

1. .St. Nicholas 1827 by F.milius 

2 (Sept., twice) —3. (1840 s. to (lermany). 

1. St. Lawrence 1833 by St. Nicholas. 
2 (.Aug., twice.) 

Grillade 1852 by St. Lawrence. 
4—9. 

2. California 1833 by St. Nicholas. 
(Not run). 

Romeo 1850 by California. ^ 

2—10. 12 y. 3rd in Liverp. Gr. Nat. 

2. Priam 1827 by Emilius. 
3—5. D. Gcp. 2 X . 

1. V. Priam (later Wild Hero) 18.30 by Priam, 
2 (Oct., 3 times.) 
Tom Tough 1840 by V. Priam. 
3—8. (Half-bred). 



6 The Tlioroughbred in the Pasl and Present. JJJ 

2. Zoroaster 1836 by Priani. 

'2 — 8. Dam 2y. Uine. twice. 
•2. .Scud 1S04 bv Benini^bioLi-li. 
3—4. 

.-\ctaon 1822 bv .Scud. 
3—6. 

Aimwell 183o b\- .Actiion. 
2—9. Dam 2y. .\pril, ojicc. 
2. Hamblclonian 1792 h\ Kinij Ferj^us. 
3—8. L. 

1. W h i t e I o c k 1803 by llamblctonian. 
4. 
Blacldock 1814 by WhitelocU. 
2 (.\us;., 3 times) —5. 

1. Bi-utandorf 1821 by BlacUloek. 
3—6. 

1. Hetman PlatolT 1826 bv Brutandorf. 
3—4. 

1. 'I'lic Cossack 1844 by Hetman PlatolT. 

2 (July, once) —3. D. (up to 8 year-old 
without winnini,', but very good). 
..Mcibiade 1860 by The Cossack. 

3. 1865 winner in Liverp. Gr. Xat. 

2. Timothcus 1848 by Metman Pl.-itoff. 
2 — 9. Dam 2y. June, once. 

2. Physician 1829 by Brut.-mdorf. 
2 (Oct., once) —5. 

.Aristotle 1839 bv Phvsiciaii. 
3—8. 

3. .Arctic 1833 by Bruland(.rl. 
4—10. (Half-bred.) 

4. Gay Lad about 1833 b\- Brutruidoif. 
.A famous Steepler (Half-bied). 

1842 winner in Liverpool (irand N'ation.d. 

2. Brownlock 1822 bv Blacklock. 
3—9. 

3. Velocipede 182.^ by Blacklock. 
2 (.April, 4 times) —4. 

1. A'alentissimo 1832 bv \'cloci|)etle. 
2-8. 

2. Hornsea 1832 by Velocipctle. 
3—4. Gcp. 

Cataract 1840 bv llornse.i. 
3—5. 

Waterfall 1848 bv Cataract. 
?— 8. 

3. .\Liid of 'I'e.-im X'.dliy IS46 by Velocipede. 
2—9. Dam 2 y. .\pril, once. 

1. ^■. Blacklock 1825 bv Bl.icklock. 
3. 



l^g Trial of the Thorout;hbi-(Hl on ihe Rncecoiirse, etc. 

Mas^pie 1804 by Y. Blacklock. 
"2 (Sept., 3 times, and 1 w.o.) — 5. 
Lough Bawn 1848 by Magpie. 
3—10. 
•5. Traiiby 1826 by Blackloclc (s. to .America). 

4 — 6 (ran as a 5 year-old in the famous bet of Mr. 
Osbaldeston). 

I-ani-not-aware 1835 by Tranby. 
2 — 9. Dam 2y. June, 6 times, 
li. Flacrow 1826 by Blacklock. 

3. Famous Steepler. 
7. Voltaire 1826 by Blacklock. 
2 (.'\pril, twice) —3. 

Charles XII. 1836 bv Voltaire. 
.3—7. L. 

1-ittle Charley 1848 by Charles XII. 
A famous Steepler. 
1858 winner in Liverp. Gr. Nat. 

2. C a ni i 1 1 u s 1803 bv Hambletonian and Faith. 
3. ' 3—7. 

1. Oiseau 1809 by Camillus. 
2 (.April, 5 times) — 7. 

Revolution 1827 by Oiseau. 
3—8. 

2. Magistrate 1814 by Camillus (s. to Russia). 
3—5. (H.'df-brother to Fleur de Lis.) 

1. Coroner 1825 by Magistrate. 
3—9. 

2. Terror 1825 by Magistrate. 
3—9. 

3. Gar us 1812 by Hambletonian. 
3—9. 

4. .Anticipation 1812 by Hambletonian. 

.3—7. Dam 2y. May, once. (Half-brother to Clinker). 
Presentiment 1821 by Anticipation. 
2—8. 

3. Hipponci 1794 by King Fergus. 
4—8. 

4. Wartcr 1704 li\ King l-'ergus. 
3—8. 

5. Oiieeiishcrry (Later Picadilly) 1794 by King Fergus. 
5. 

K a t t V l" 1 ,-1 n a g h a n 1792 by Oueensberry. 
4—9. 

6. TIFFANY 1775 by Fclipse. 
4—8. 

7. FLAMEU 1770 by Fclipse. 
5—9. 

8. MERCURY 1778 by Fclipse. 

3— fi. (Own brother to Jupiler and X'olunteer). 



5. 'I'hf 'riiuioui;libi\-d in llie Past aiul Presenl. 1 17 

1. UU Cold 17S7 bv Mcjicuiv. 
3—8. 

2. Precipitate 1787 by Mercury (IHO:< s. U' \'iii,'iriia). 
3 — 5. (Own brother to Golianiia). 

1. Bobtail 179-3 by Precipitate. 
3—10. Dam '2y. July, 4 times. 

2. M a t ra n n e e 179-5 bv Precipitate. 
3—8. 

3. R o 1 1 a 1797 bv Piecipil.ite. 
2—8. 

4. L a n s' I o n ]S(I2 by Precipitate. 
3—10. 

3. Gohauna 1790 by .Merciirv. 

3—10. (Own brother to Precipitate). 

1. G o 1 u m p u s ]S()2 l)y rioliaima. 
(Not run). 

Catton 1809 by (ii.biinpus. 
3-8. 

1. .Mulatto 1823 by Caltoii. 
3—6. Dcp. 

1. Discord 1837 by .Mui.ato. 

5 — 8. Dam 2y. June, twice. 

2. African 1839 by Mulatto. 
3-8. 

2. Ciironet 182.") by Catton (1837 s. In \'irijini;i). 
3—11. Dam 2y. May, twice. 

3. Cistercian 1826 by Catton. 

3—10. (Own brother to ("he Nun). 

4. The Poet 1820 by Catton. 
.■\ famous sleepier. 

•5. The C'JKuicelior 1827 bv Catton. 

3-8. 
fl Diana 1828 bv C.-itton. 

2—8. 

7. The Nun 1829 by Catton. 

7 — 9. Later a famous Steepler up li^ 11 vear- 
old. Twice Leam. St. Ch. won. 

8. David 1829 by Catton. 

.3 — -5. (Half-brother to Despot). 
Crnbbs 1844 by David. 
3-9. 

2. Cerberus 1802 by (iolianna i-. to Russia). 
3 — 9. (Sire of many i;ood racers). 

3. E 1 e c t i o n l'<04 bv (Johanna. 
3—7. D. Dam 2 y. Jime, 4 times. 

1. Leah Is] 4 by Election. 
3-9. 

2. Manfred 1814 by Election. 
3-5. 

Bilberry lS2(i by .Manlred oi by lledley (b> 
4-9. • |(i()b,u)iia). 



lift 'I'rinl (if tlie Thorous^hbreii on the Racecourse, etc. 

4. Z u 1 e i k a 1810 by Gohaiina. 
4 — 8. (Dam of Helenus). 
4. Brii^adicr 1792 by Mercury. 

4—10. 
.■). Sha-c'cr (earlier Little U'irley) 1792 liv Mercurv. 
6—10. 
9. JOK ANDREWS (earlier Dennis O!) 1778 by Eclipse 
4-9. 

Dick Andrc'Li's 1797 by Joe .'\ndre\vs. 
3—6. 

1. C \v r w 18119 b\ Dick .Andrews. 
3—7. 2. 

2. T r a m p 1810 by Dick Andrews. 
3—4. 

1. Lottery (earlier Tinker) 1S20 by I'ranip (1833 s. to 
3 — 6. Dcp. [France). 

(.'V large progeny by Lottery winiiing up to 7 
vear-old, half-brother to .^Itisidora and Brutan- 
ilorf). 

1. Lottery 1829 by Lotter\'. 

5—16. -Steepler. (Not in the Stud Book, but 
ought to be a Thoroughbred). 
1839. Winner in Lvp. Cr. Nation. 

2. Zohrab 1831 by Lotterv. 
3—10. 

3. Sheet .-\nchor 1832 b\' Lottery 

3 — 4. (s. to (ierniany). 

1. Collingwood 1843 by Sheet .\nchor. 
2—7. 

2. U'eatherbit 1842 by Sheet Anchor. 
3—4. 

Weathercock 1851 by Weatherbit. 
A famous Steepler. 1857 and 1858 
2nd in Liverpool Grand National. 

2. Little Red Rover 1827 by Tramp. 
3—7. 

3. Traveller 1828 by Tramp. 
2—9. 

4. W'lgrant 1828 by 'I'lamp. 
3—10. 

5. Liverpool 1S28 by Tramp. 
2 (Sept., oiice) — 5. 

1. Lanercost 1835 by Liverpool. 

3 — 7. Cm. Dam 2 y. Oct., once. 

\"an Tronip 1844 by Lanercost (s. to Russia). 
2 (July, 3 times and 1 w. o.) —5. L. Gcp. 
Prince of Orange 1853 bv \'an Tromp. 
2—8. 

2. Nauorth 1837 by Liverpool. 
2—9. 



5. The Tliorourjlibrcd in the I'ast and Present. HQ 

3. A Brilish Yeoman 1S4(I by Liverpool. 
2. (May, 6 times). 

Bourtreois 1850 by .\ lirilish Yeoman. 
3—11. 

4. Birlcenlie.nd 1J^43 by I.iverpmil. 
(Not run). 

New Briii^'hton 1850 ljy Birl<eiilie;id. 
4—10. 

10. SALTI^AM 1780 Ijy Eclipse (1793 s. to Russia). 
.3-5. D. 

Whiskey 1789 by Saltrani. 
3—4. 

1. Eleanor 1798 by Whislcey. 

3 — 7. I). O. (Half-sister to Sorcerer and dam of Muley). 

2. W h i r 1 i g- i s 1798 by Whiskey. 
4—8. 

3. R u m b o 18(10 b\- Whiskey. 
2—11. 

4. S p y 1803 by Whiskey. 

3—10. Dam 2 y. July, 4 times. 

11. VOLLSTEER (later Cornet) 1780 by Eclipse. 
,3 — 5. (Own brother to Mercury and Jupiter). 

1. Magic 1794 by Volunteer. 
4—5. 

M o u 11 t a i n e e r 1802 by Masjic. 
3—11. 

2. Eagle 1798 by \"o!unteer (s. to Yirtjinia). 

,3 — 9. (Own brother to Spread Eagle D., half-brother to 
Didelot D.) 
.\ s m o d e u s 1807 by Eaijle. 
3—9. 

12. ERASMUS 1781 by Eclipse. 

3. (Own brother to .AleNander and Don Qui.xote). 
Esher 1795 by Erasmus. 

6—8. (Half-brother to Peijasus). 
1.3. ALEXANDER 1782 by Eclipse. 

3 — 7. (Own brother to Erasmus and Don Quixote). 
Bucephalus 1802 by .Alexander (s. to Russia). 
3—8. 
14. METEOR 1783 by Eclipse. 
3—7. 

1. Meteom 1802 by Meteor. 

3-8. O. Dam 2 y July, twice. 

2. Ainhn 1809 by Meteor (or by Diamond). 
2 (Oct.. once) — G. 

1, i s t o n 1>^21 by Ambo. 
3—13. 
l.j. GL'SPOWDER 1784 by Eclipse (s. to Russia). 
.3 — 9. (Own brother to Soldier 1779 by Eclipse). 
3—7. 



X20 Trial of the Thorouglibiecl un ihe Racecourse, etc. 

16. PEGASUS 1784 by Eclipse. 
4—7. 

1. King Ed'jjard (earlier Shum .Sheer Jung) 1795 by Pegasus. 
6—8. 

2. Novice 179-5 by Pegasus. 

?— 8. 

3. Parnassus 1797 by Pegasus. 
o— 11. 

4. Laura 1800 by Pegasus. 

2—8. (Dam of Dr. Eady by Rubens). 

5. Hippomcncs 1802 by Pegasus. 
2—8. 

17. DON QUIXOTE 1784 by Eclipse. 
.3 — 8. (Own brother to Erasmus and Alexander). 

1. Sancho 1801 by Don Quixote. 
3—4. L. 

Cannon-ball 1810 by Sancho. 

3 — 9. (Half-brother to Grinialdi and sire of many good 
hunters and Steeplers). 
Counsellor 1821 by Cannon-ball (or by Childc Harold). 
.5—8. (Half-bred). 

2. Artichoke 1802 by Don Quixote. 
3—8. 

3. Amadis 1807 by Don Quixote. 
4. 

1. P a 1 m e r i n 1816 by .Amadis (s. to Russia). 
2 (May, once) — 4. 

.\ggravator 1832 by Palmerin. 
;>— 12. (Half-bred). 

2. Magic about 1820 by .Amadis. 
A famous Steepler. (Half-bred). 

18. SERPENT 1786 by Eclipse. 
3—10. 

2. Stripling 176-j by MarsUe. 
4—8. 

3. Y. Marske 1771 by MarsUe. 
4. 

1. RULER 1777 by Y. Marske. 

.3 — 5. L. (Half-brother to Rattler and Magnum Bonum). 
Hii;h Eagle 1790 bv Ruler. 
■3(?)-9. 

2. TRIMMER 1788 by Y. Marske. 

3—8. 

3. SHUTTLE 1793 by Y. Marske. 
3—5. 

1. Cambric 1807 by Shuttle. 

2 — 8. (Ran and frequently won several times in a day). 
Dam 2 y. July, twice. 

2. Engraver 1807 by Shuttle. 

3 — 6. (Ran and frequently won several times in a day). 



5. Tlu' Tliorouslibred in the Past and Present. 121 

4. Hepliestioii 1771 by Marske. 
4—9. 
•_'. MISS PKOCTOK (or Smallhopes) 1733 by Bartlet's Childers. 
— 11. (I'p to 13 year-old without winning). 

Byerly Turk bom about leso. 

1. B.iSTO l"^>-^ by Byerly Turli. 

6 — 8. (Sire of Old Ebony, I-'oundation .Mare in Fam. 5). 

2. sum about 1702 by Byerly Turk. 
(Not run). 

Partner (Mr. CVoft's) 1718 by Jigg. 

r> — S. (Up to lOyear-okl without winning). 

1. P.4RTXi:i{ (Grisewood's) 1730 by Partner. 
5 — 14. (15 year-old without winning). 

(Sire of Miss Elliot, Grimcrack's Dam, Foundation Mare in Fani. 23). 

2. SEUBURY 1734 by Partner. 
4—10. 

TantiTy 1749 by Sedbury. 
4—11. 

3. OLD TR.4VELLEK 17.3-5 by Partner. 
4—7. 

1. Skim 1748 by Old Traveller. 
4—8. 

2. Dainty Davy 17.32 b\ Old Traveller. 
4—11. 

DAVID 1766 by Dainty Davy. 

4 — 12 (also in Give and Take Plates). 

3. S(|uirre! 17.54 by Old Traveller. 
4—7. 

1. WEASEL 1766 by Squirrel. 
5—11. 

2. FLRIBASD 1767 by Squirrel. 

3 — 10 (also in Give and Take Plates). 

3. SLIM 1771 by Squirrel. 
3—10. 

4. LITTLE JOliX" 1740 by Partner. 

4 — 8. (Up to 10 year-old without winning). 

5. TART.4R (earlier Partner) 1743 bv Partner. 
5—7. 

(Kins) Heroii 1758 by I'arlar. 
5—9. 

1. FLORIZEL 17(is by llirod. 
4—6. 

1. Dioiued 1777 b\ l-"lori/cl (s. to America). 
3—6. D. 

1. G r e V D i o m c d 17S5 bv Dionied. 
3—8. 



;[22 'I'rinl of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

1. G 1 a u c u s 178G by Dioiiied. 

3^10. 
3. A g a 111 e in n o ii 179l> by Diomed. 

3—12. 

2. Ulysses 1777 by Florizel (s. to \':rginia). 
3—10. 

Play or Pa y 1791 by I'lysses (s. to N'irginia). 
3—9. 

3. Fortunio 1779 by Florizel. 
3—10. 

Sir F e r d i II a n d (later King Bladud) 1792 by Fortunio. 
2—12. 

4. Bustler 1784 by Florizel. 
2—9. 

5. Prizefighter 1784 by Florizel. 
2—9. 

Swords m a n 1796 by Prizefighter. 
4—7. 

1. Fencer 1807 by .Swordsman. 
4. 

Vivian about 1824 by Fencer. 
1834—1843 a famous Steepler. 

2. Spartacus 1808 by Swordsman. 
3—9. 

2. MAGNET 1770 by Herod. 
4—9. 

1. Noodle 1781 by .Magnet. 
3—8. 

2. Windlestone 1783 by .Magnet. 
3—8. 

3. Shovel 1785 by .Magnet. 
4—9. 

3. BACCHUS 1771 by Herod. 
(Not run). 

1. Rutland 1783 by Bacchus. 
4—9. 

2. Kitty 1785 by Bacchus. 
3—9. 

3. Bacchus 1788 by Bacchus. 
3-S. 

4. WOODPECKER 1773 by Herud. 
4—7. 

1. Seagull 1786 by Woodpecker. ^ 
2—8. w 

2. Chanticleer 1787 by Woodpecker. 
2 (.'\pril, 6 times) —8. 

1. Traveller 1797 by Chanticleer. 
2—9. 

2. B o b B o II t V 1804 by Chanticleer. 
2 (Sept., twice) — 4. 

Napoleon 1824 by Bob Booty (1833 s. to France). 
2—9. 



TliP Tlioroushbrcd in tlu- Past nnc! Present. 123 

3. Jiuzziud 1787 by W'oddperker (1S()4 s. to Aincricn). 
2 (Oct., twice) —~. 

1. Quiz 1798 hv Hii/zard. 
.3— i). L. 

1. Roller ISM by Oiiiz. 

3 — 11. (Sire of many Jjood Steeplers). 

2. Euphrates ISlfi by Quiz. 
G— 1.3. 

•J. 1) r c a d n o ii u; li t 18(KI by Uiizz.-ird. 

3—8. 
3. B r a i n u o i- ni 1^(11 by Buzzard. 

2—8. 
1. Bust ;i r d l^ol liy Buzzard. 

2—10. 
."). (" a s t r e I Isdl by Buzzard. 

3—4. 

1. Btislard lM:i by Castrel. 
3-5. 

Remnant 1833 bv lUistard. 
4—10. 

2. .Merlin 1815 by Castrel. 
2 (.\u£;-., 3 tjmcs) —4. 

I.ancastrian 1825 by Merlin. 
2 (Oct., twice, 1 w. o.) —8. 

Miss Mouliray about 1843 by Lancastrian. 
(Halt-bred) ls52 winner in I.iverp. Or. Nation. 
G. .S e 1 i m ls02 by Buzzard. 
4—6. 

1. Champion 1812 by .Selini. 
3. 

Donnini;ton 1828 by Champion. 
3—10. 

2. .Sultan 1810 by Selim. 
2 (July, once) - - 8. 

1. Despot 1830 by Sultan. 

2 s. (Half-brother to D.-ivid by Catton). 

2. .\lpheus ls:lii hy Sultan. 
3. 

1. John Oor) 184() by .-Mpheus. 
3—9. 

2. .\Ionzo 1847 by .\lphcus. 
3-9. 

3. Ishmael 1S30 by Sultan. 

3 year-olil in raciny; stable of Lord Jersey, but not 
.Sire of many i;ood Steeplers. [run. 

1. .\bd-el-Kader about 1840 by Ishmael. 
.\ famous Steepler. (Half-bred). 

Is.'iO and 1851 winner in Liverp. fir. Nation. 

2. 'riu- Switcher 1842 by Ishmael. 
.\ famous Steepler. 



124 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

4. Caliph 1832 bv Sultnn. 

■2—10. 
•">. Hampldii 1833 by Sultan. 

3. 

Lady Flora 1838 by Hampton. 
3—11. 
(). .-Vdrian 1834 by Suhan. 

3—13. 
7. Jereed 1834 by Sultaji (1846 ?.. to Russia). 

2. (.^ug., twice). 

1. Greatheart 184n by Jereed. 
3. 

Gaylad 1846 by Greatheart. 

3 — 10. (Hall-bred, and half-brother to 
Gaffer Green by Obadiah). 

2. Ui.sho|) of Romford's Cob 1840 by Jereed. 
3—10. 

3. Thurgarton 1841 by Jereed. 

•5 — 10. (Half-bred) and in Steeplechases. 

3. Langar 1817 by .Seliiii. 
2 (Oct., twice) —9. 

1. Philip I. 1828 by Langar. 

2. (Sept., twice, and 1 \v. o.). 
lMont;\giie 1846 by Philip I. 
3—8. 

2. Potentate 1832 by Langar. 
2—12. 

3. Leander 1832 by Langar. 
3. 

The ^L■lrchioness 1846 by Leander. 
.3—9. (Half-bred). 
7. Rubens 180-3 by Buzzard. 
3—5. 

1. Gainsborough 1813 by Rubens. 

3 — 7. Dani 2 year-old Oct., once. 

2. VVouvermans 1815 by Rubens. 

4 — 8. Dam 2 ye;ir-old June, twice. 
3. Dr. Eady 1816 by Rubens and Laura 2—8 
6 — 12. Dam 2 year-old June, twice. 

4. Hampden 1819 by Rubens. 
3—5. 

Guildford 1S26 by Hampden. 

2—9. 

5. Vandylce 1828 by Rubens. 

•3 — 10. (Half-bred, also in liurdle races). 
11 year-old in steeplechases. 

4. Olive 1787 by Woodpecker. 
2—10. 

5. Y. Wood[>fc!:cr 1794 by Woodpecker. 
(Not run). 



o. The Thorour'-libix'd in the I'ast and PresCMil. 125 

1. \V o I) d m a n lyd" by V. Woodpecker. 
3—8. 

Charity 1830 by Woodman. 

5 — 9. (I l;df-bred). 14 year-old, steeplechases. .A famous 
1S41 winner in Liverpl. (Jr. Nation. [Steepler. 
•2. S 1 e n d e r Hill \- ISlis by Y. Woodpeclcer. 
3—9. 
G. Brother to \ iraldi 1799 by Woodpecker. 
4 — 8. (Sire of many i^ood iuinters). 
.5. blTZHEROD 177:5 by llerod. 
(Not run). 

Mujti 1783 by Filzherod. 
3—9. 
(J. IL'MIO 1774 by llerod. 
3—5. 

Scorpion 178.5 by ll'mio. 
3—12. 
7. JCSriCE 1774 by Herod. 
3- 4. 

1. Trijlc 1782 by Justice. 
3—9. 

2. A'li.s/icT (l.-iler Ooiii^las) 17s2 by Justice. 
3—9. 

3. Mentor 17s 1 liy Justice. 

3—11. (Half-brother to Sweetbriar). 

4. Miitnii;lit (later Whip) 1792 by Justice. 
2--11). 

s. LABIRXL'M 1774 b\ Herod. 

4—9. 
9. HIGinn.YF.R 1774 bv llerod. 

.3—5. 

1. h'orhini^lutni 1781 by Hishnyer. 

t- 7. Dcp. (G year-old. 17 races won). 

1. P a t r i o t 179(1 b\ Kockini^ham. 
2—8. 

2. B e n n i n l; t o n 1791 bv Rockini^hani. 
3—8. 

2. Delpini (earlier H.ackwood) 17^1 bv llii^bllver. 
.3-5. 

1. G r i m ;i I d i 1802 b\ Oelpini ( I l.-df-brolher lo ( 'aniion-ball). 
.5—8. 

1. Orinialdi 1820 by (irim.aldi. 
1832— 183G ;i famous Steepler. 

2. Panloinime 1820 by (irim.ddi 
4— IG in Hunter Stakes. 

(Half-breed, s. Sportinij Mn.<,';i/ine, \dl. 89). 

2. Bustle r ]'<07 by Oelpini. 
4—6. 

The .Major 1*22 by RuslUr. 
3—10. 

3. R p p e r s t o n 18(i8 bv Oelpini. 
4—8. 



[■2{', Trial of tht- Thoniui^hbi-cd on the Racecourse, etc. 

3. Harlot (earlier Connilnss) 1783 by Higliflyer. 
4—13. 

4. Sir Peter 17S4 by Hii^htlyer. 
3—5. D. 

1. A m b r o s i o 1793 by Sir Peter. 
3—6. L. 

Huntintjdon ISOO by .Ambrosio. 

4 — 9. (Ran only in unimportant races ayainst very 
inferior horses). Dam 2 year-old .May, 10 times. 

2. Mr. Teazle 1793 by Sir Peter. 
(Not run). 

Y. Vestris 1806 by Mr. Teazle. 
3. 

Mathew 1838 by Y. Yestris. 
6 — 9. .\ famous Steepler. 

1847 winner in Liverp. (Jr. Nation. 

3. S i r Sold 111 o n (earlier Tankersley) 179(1 by Sir Peter. 
3—6. ■ 

Cambrian 1804 by Sir Solomon. 
3—11. 

4. Haphazard 1797 by Sir Peter. 
3—9. 

1. Don Cossack 1810 by Haphazard. 
3—5. 

1. Prosody 1818 by Don Cossack. 

3 — 10. (Often many times in a day). 

2. The Tartar 1821 by Don Cossack. 
6—8. (Not in Stud Book). 

3. Reform 1829 by Don Cossack. 

3 — 9. (Often many times in a day). 
(Not in Stud Book). 

2. Filho da Puta 1812 by Haphazard. 
2 (Sept., once, rmd 1 \v. o.) — 4. L. 

1. Troy 1820 by Filho da Puta. 
3. 

Pumpkin 1829 by Troy. 
3—9. 

2. Conductor 1820 by Filho da Pul.i. 
3-4. 

Oswald 1832 by Conductor. 
3—10. 

3. Forester Lass 1.821 l>y Filho da Put.-i. 
6—8. 

4. Haji Baba 1821 by Fillio da Put.i. 
3-9. 

.5. Orthodox 1821 by Filho da Puta. 

3 — 11. Dam 2 year-old May, twice. 
6. Dr. Fau-itus 1822 by Filho da Puta. 
.3—9. 

1. Jesuit 1834 by Dr. Ivaustus. 
A famous Steepler. (Half-bred). 
Ran and won at 24vear-old? 



'I'lu' Thoroui;hbn-d !ii llie Prist and Pix'sent. 127 

2. Obadiah 1834 by Dr. Faustus. 
•J (Sept., once, and 1 \v. o.) — 3. 

Sailor (lator Gaffer Green) 1839 by Obadiali. 
6—14. (Half-bred, and half-brother to 
Gaylad by Greatheart). 

(Often many times in a day). 

3. Tiipsley 1S37 by Dr. Faustus. 
3—4. 

Huntsman 1853 by Tupsley. 
3—4. 

1862 winner in Liverp. Gr. Nation. 

4. The Chandler 1836 by Dr. Faustus. 
.A famous Steepler. (Half-bred). 

1848 winner in Liverp. Gr. Nation. 
7. Joclco 1823 by Filho da Puta. 

3—9. 
>!. Chico 182.5 by Filho da Puta. 

3—11. 
9. Independence 1820 by I'ilho da Puta or by .Sher- 
2—9. I wood 1820 by Filho da Puta. 

10. Giovanni 1828 by Filho da Puta. 

3 — 7. (8 .year-old 3 times very well rtni). 

(Half-brother to Potentate by Lan-ar|. 

3. Victorine ISIG by Haph.izard. 
4-9. 

4. Fisaro 1819 by H.-iphazard (1831 s. lo Alccklenburi;). 
3—6. 

Isaac 1831 by Figaro. 

2 — 14. (Up to 15 year-old, rdso in lun-dle races). 
5. W ;i 1 t o n 1799 <by Sir Peter. 
.•!--6. 

1. Phantom 1808 by Walton (1832 >. lo .Mecklenburi;). 
3—4. D. 

1. Spectre 1815 by Ph.-intom. 
3-5. 

Granby 1823 by Spectre. 
3—8. 
•2. Vanish 1825 by Ph.intom (183(i s. to F.isi Prussia). 
2 (.June, 4 times) — 7. 

.Sunbeam 1833 by \'anish. 
2—8. 

2. Partisan 1811 by Wallon. 
3—5. 

1. .M.amelukr 1S2I bv Partis.m. 
.3—5. D. 

Zcthus 1S31 by .M.imelnUe. 
3—10. 

2. Patron 1826 bv Partisan. 
3. 2. 



lOg Trial ut the Thorous'hbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

Peter Simple about 1839 by Patron. 
A famous Steepler. (Half-bred). 

1849 and 1853 winner in Liverp. Gr. Nation. 

3. Venison 1833 by Partisan. 
2 (July, once) — 4. 

1. New Forestdeer 1841 by Venison. 
3—10. (Half-bre'd). 

2. Herbert 1846 by Venison. 
2—8. 

4. Gladiator 1833 by Partisan. 
3. (2nd D). 

Napier 1840 by Gladiator. 
2 (Sept., 3 times) —3. 

Indian Warrior 1849 by Napier. 
2—8. 

3. Waterloo 1814 by Walton. 
3. 

1. Conquest 1822 by Waterloo. 

3 — 5. (Ran and won often several times in a day). 

2. Caleb 1828 by Waterloo. 
2—8. 

4. St. Patrick 1817 ijy Walton. 
3—4. L. 

1. Daniel 1832 by St. Patrick. 
3—9. 

2. St. Francis 1835 by St. Patrick. 
2—8. 

3. Garry Owen 1837 by St. Patrick-. 
2—10. 

t). Ditto 1800 by Sir Peter. 
3—7. D. 

Luzboroufch 1820 by Ditto. 
4—8. 
7. S i r Paul 1802 by Sir Peter. 
.3—5. 

Paulowitz 1813 by Sir Paul. 
.3—7. 

1. Cain 1822 by Paulowitz. 
3—5. 

1. Ion 1835 by Cain. 

2 (July, 4 times) — 4. 
Poodle 1849 by Ion. 
2 — 9. Dam 2 year-old Oct., once. 

2. Barney Bodkin 1830 by Cain. 
2—8. 

2. Little Boy-blue 1825 by Paulowitz. 
2—9. 

3. Changelins 1828 b\- Paulowitz (or Swap). 
3—9. Dam 2 year-old Sept., once. 

S. C a r d i n a 1 York 1804 by Sir Peter. 
3—5. 



5. The Thi)r(Hit;libred in the Past and Present. 129 

Advance I8I0 by Cardinal 'S'orli. 
3—0. 

1. Vani^uard 1835 by Advance. 

4. A famous Steepler. (Half-bred). 
1843 winner in Liverp. Gr. Nation. 

2. Pioneer 1840 by .\dvance. 

A famous Steepler. (Half-bred). 
1846 winner in Liverp. Gr. Nation. 
U. P o u I t n 1805 by Sir Peter. 

3—8. 
10. C I i n I< e r 1805 by Sir Peter. 

3 — 4. (Half-brother to Anticipation). 
ClinUer 1806 by Clinker. 
A famous Steepler. 

5. Star 1785 by Hif^hflyer (1811 s. to America). 
•2 (Oct., once) —6. 

.M r. Gundy 1804 by Star. 
3—9. 

6. Skyscraper 1786 by Highflyer. 
3—8. D. 

7. Walnut 1786 by Highflyer. 
3—5. 

Lignum V i t a e 1797 by Walnut. 
3 — 8. (Sire of many good racers). 

8. Phaeton 1787 by Highflyer. 
3—11. 

9. St. George 1789 by Highflyer. 
3—10. 

T o p s y - T u r V e y 1805 by St. George. 

7 — 10 . (Died at 16 year-old through physic in training for 
Welter Stakes in Bibury). 
Nimrod 1820 by Topsy-Turvey. 
6—10. 

10. Sling 1789 by Highflyer. 
3—11. 

11. Tidy 1789 by Highflyer. 
3—8. 

12. Grouse 1790 by Highflyer 

3. (4 and o year-old w'ithout winning). 
First Fruits 1797 by (irouse. 
2—9. 

13. Diamond 1792 by Highflyer (s. to France). 
3—8. 

1. Q u e e n of Diamonds 1809 by Diamond. 
3 — 7. (Own sister to King of Diamonds). 

2. King of D i a m o n d s ISIO bv Diamond. 
3—8. 

King of Trumps l>^27 by King of Diamonds. 
;3— 8. 
14 Lark 1792 by Highflyer. 
3—8. 



130 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

15. Louisa 1792 by Highflyer. 

4—9. 

16. Ddamcre 1793 by Highflyer. 
3—8. 

10. BOURDEAUX 1774 by Herod. 
4 — 6. (Own brother to Florizel). 

Highlander 1783 by Bourdeaux. 
3—9. 

11. GUILDFORD 1775 by Herod. 
4—9. 

12. BOXER 1776 by Herod. 
3—8. 

13. ROVER (later Tom Tug or Tug) 1777 by Herod. 
3—9. 

Cornet 1792 by Rover. 
3—9. 

14. GOLDEN DUN 1777 by Herod. 
3—11. 

15. DRONE 1777 by Herod (s. to .\merica). 
3—10. 

16. ANVIL 1777 by Herod. 
4—9. 

17. FORTITUDE 1777 by Herod. 
4—7. 

John Bull 1789 by Fortitude. 
3. D. 

.Admiral Nelson 1795 by John Bull (s. to America). 
3 — 8. Dam 2 3'ear-old July, 3 times. 

18. PHONOMENON 1780 by Herod (1803 s. to .-Xmerica). 
3—5. L. 

Htiby 1788 by Phenomenon s. to Russia). 
3— S. 

Driver 1798 by Huby. 
3—9. 

19. BAGOT 1780 by Herod. 
4. 

1. Master Bagot 1787 by Bagot. 
3—5. 

1. Dawdle 1795 by Master Bagot. 
2—8. (Half-bred)'. 

2. Hollyhock 1804 by Master Bagot. 
4—8. 

Hesperus 1820 by Hollyhock. 9 

4—10. 

2. Loyal 1796 by Bagot. 
3—8. (Half-bred). 

2. Soldier 17.5S by Tartar. 
4—9. 



5 The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 131 



Godolphin Arabian bom 1724. 

1. CADE 1"34 by Godolphin Arabian. 
6. (7 to 11 year-old witliout w inninjf). 

1. 'rnillllioil 1"47 by fade. 
-1 10. 

1. MOTIIKKX HKOW.N 1771 by Trunnion (Dam of Jerry Sneali) 

4—11. 
■J. TITAXIA 1774 by Trunnion. 

4—11. 

2. Y. Cade 1^47 by Cade. 
(Not run). 

1. HACHI'LOK 17,-)S l>y V. Cade. 
4—9. 

2. HrxrAMUNCA 1759 by V. Cade. 
7—11. 

;!. DA.MKL 17i;i.' by V. Cade. 

4—10. 
4. I'ARABIXEEU 1765 by V. Cade. 

4-10. (Half-brother to MorwicU Ball by Regulus). 

3. CliailHt'lillj:; 1"47 by Cade. 

t). (Own brother to Matchem). 
LE SAN(; 1759 by Changelinj,--. 
4—8. 
1. Scainpstoil Cade 1"47 by Cade. 

VOl"X(; DAVY 170O by Scamp>.lon Cade. 
4—10. 

5. JIatollCIU i:4S by Cade. 
5-10. 

1. TTRF 17(;n by .Matchem. 
4— (3. 

Mpiitiir 177:i b\ Turf. 

BUFFER 1784 by Mentor. 
4—10. 

2. HAXKKR 1761 by Matchem. 
3—9. 

Tj-^ress 1770 by Banker. 
5—11. 

3. CONrXDRI'M 17(>-2 by .Matchem. 

4 — 8. (16 year-old without winning;). 
Tlieffonl 1772 by Conundrtnn. 
4-9. 

4. RAXTHOS 1763 by Matchem. 
4—9. 

5. CHYMIST 17fi5 by Matchem. 
4—6. 



] 32 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

l)ruf;gist 177o by Chyniist. 

4 — 8. 7 year-okl (iold Cup !ii Chester and 6 other races. 
(5. PANTALOOK 1767 by Mntcheni. 
4—6. 

1. Merry Andrews 1783 by Pantaloon. 

•2—9. 
•2. Buffer 1784 by Pantaloon. 
4—8. 
7. GOLDFINCH 1767 by Matchem. 

3—10. 
>^. C0NI»11CT0R 1767 by Matchem. 
4— G. 

1. Imperator 1776 by Conductor. 
3—8. 

PIPATOR 1786 by Imperator. 
'2 (July, once) — 7. 

Remembrancer 18l)U by Pipalor. 
3—4. L. 

R e c o r d o n 1807 by Remembrancer. 
3—5. 

Welcome 1819 by Recordon. 
(Not run). 

.Sir William about 1830 by Welcome. 
.A famous Steepler. (Half-bred). 

1838 winner in Liverp. Gr. Nation. 

2. Truinpator 1782 by Conductor. 
3—4. 

1. /I/.l/.4rOA' 1790 by Trumpator (s. to Russia). 
3—8. (Half-brother to .Ximwell D). 

2. PAYNATOR 1791 by Trumpator (s. to Russia). 
2 (July, 4 times) —9. 

1. Offa's Dyke (earlier Occator) 1807 by Paynator. 
5—9. 

2. Marksman 1808 by Payniitor. 
•5—18. 

3. Dr. Syntax 1811 by Payn.ator. 
3—12. 

1. B e e's W i n 8 1833 by Dr. Syntax. 
2—9. Dcp. 

2. T h e Doctor 1834 by Dr. Syntax. 
2—9. 

3. A j a X 1838 by Dr. Syntax. 
3—8. 

4. F a m a 1838 by Dr. Syntax. 
3—8. 

5. S y n t a x i n a 1838 by Dr. Synta.x. 
2—8. 

6. Hope about 1838 by Dr. Syntax. 
.\ famous Steepler. (Half-bred). 



5. 'I'lif Thorous'librt'd in tin- Past and Present. I33 

3. REPEAT OR 1791 bv Trunipator. 
3—9. 

4. SORCERER irSKi bv Truni()ati)r. 
3-5. 

1. Soothsayer 18(»8 by Sorcerer (1S23 s. to Russia). 
3—5. L. 

1. W e 1 1> e c k 1815 by .Sc.otlisayer. 
{Not run). 

Bedlamite 1823 by WVlbeck. 
3—4. 

Saul 1835 by Bedlamite. 
3—10. 

2. H e 1 e n 11 s 1821 by .Soothsayer (1835 to Germany) 

3 — 8. and ZideiUa 4 — 8 

2. Comus 1809 by .Sorcerer. 
3-4. 

1. Reveller 1815 by Comus. 
3—8. L. 

1. Oberon 1827 by Reveller. 
3—11. 

2. Bosphorus 1836 bv Reveller. 
3—8. • 

2. (' o r i n t h i a n IsU) b\ fomus. 
3 — 5. (Half-brother to Jerry). 

Russel 182f) by Corinthi.in. 
3-8. 

3. H u m p h r e \ C I i n k e r 1822 b\ Comus. 
3—5. 

Melbourne 1834 by Humphrey Clinker. 

3 — 5. (6 year-old very j^ood but did not win). 
Sir Tatton Sykes 1843 bv .MelboLirne. 
3—4. L. 2. 

Mr. Sykes 18.50 by Sir Tatton Svkes. 
2 <). (Half-bred). 

3. S)»ole)isko IMIi bv Sorcerer. 

3 — 4. D. 2. (.Sire of many racers which frequently ran 
several races in one day. as, for instance, Tlioriisrove, 
1827). 

1. B a n k e r ISIG by .Smolensko. 
3-7. I),im 2 year-old .\uffust, twice. 

2. \ ;i u },' li t y T o ni m v l'<20 b\- Smolensko. 
(i— 11. 

3. j e r r y 1821 by Smolensko. 

3. [,. (Sire of many 2 year-old winners). 
Tomboy 1829 by Jerr\. 
3—5. 

Nutwilh Is 10 by Tombo\. 
2 (June, 3 times) —3. L. 
1. Noisette 18.50 bv Nulwiih. 
2—S. 



134 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

2. Knight of Kars I800 by Nutwith. 
3. 

1. The Colonel 1863 by Knight of Kars. 
A famous Steepler. (Half-bred). 
1869 and 1870 winner in Liverp. Gr. 
Nation, (s. to Germany). 

2. New Oswestry 1864 by Knight of 
(Half-bred). ' [Kars. 
A famous Steepler, and sire of many 
good Steeplers, amongst which were : 

1. Zoedone 1877 by New Oswestry. 
1883 winner in Liverp. Gr. Nat. 

2. Savoyard 1878 by New Oswestry. 
1887 2nd in Liverp. Gr. Nat. 

4. Bourbon 1811 by Sorcerer (s. to Russia). 
3—6. 

1. C o m t e d'.-X r t o i s 1820 by Bourbon. 
3—8. 

2. -Alder m a n 1822 by Bourbon (s. to Russia). 
2—7. (2nd L). 

3. Fleur de Lis 1822 by Bourbon. 
3—8. Dcp. Gcp. 2 X (8 year-old Gcp.). 

5. VEKNATOR 1796 by Trumpator. 
3—5. 

Romeo 1804 by \'ernator. 
4—9. 

6. REBEL 1796 by Trumpator. 

3 — 9. Dam 2 year-old Oct., once. 

7. CHIPPENHAM 1796 by Trumpator. 
3—8. 

8. SIR DAVID 1801 by Trumpator (s. to Russia). 
2—9. 

9. ALFHEI) 1770 by Matcheni. 

4. (Own brother to Conductor). 
Tickh- Toby 1786 by Alfred. 
4—9. 

10. CRITIC 1771 by ALatchem. 
3—11. 

11. MAGNUM BONUM 1773 by Matchem (s. to Russia). 



Riitler 1784 by Magnum Bonum. 

4—9. (Half-brother to Ruler by Y. M;irske). 
12. ESPERSYKES 177-5 by Matchem. 
(Not run). 

1. Coii(|ueror 1779 by Espersykes. 

4—11. (9 year-old Gold Cup. Chester). 

2. Sir Peter Pellet 1780 by Espersykes. 
.3-8. 

6. Sportsman 1753 by Cade. 
4—8. 



5. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 135 

7. HfTO (earlier Slape) 1753 by Cade. 
.5-13. 

1. KKI.4K 17()8 by Hero. 

4 — 11. (Sire of many good racers). 

2. AUOXIS 1772 by Hero. 
5—11. 

3. LAL.4(iE 1776 by Hero. 

4—12. (Dam of Y. Lalage 1797, s. p. 69). 

8. Northumberland I'W by Cade. 

4—5. 

BUFF 1766 by Nortliumberland. 
4—12. 

9. Silvio 1"54 by Cade. 
4—11. 

10. Sprillj^htlv 1"'54 by Cade. 
4—9. 

11. Fl.vlax 1756 by Cade. 
6—11. 

1"2. ElllilillS about 17.56 by Cade. 

MAYDUKK 1765 by Emilius. 

7 — 13. (Also in Give and Take Plates). 

2. DOKMOrSE 1738 by Godolphin Arabian. 
7 — 11. (Also in Give and Take Plates). 

1. Villiailt 17.55 by Dormouse. 
4—10. 

•2. Doriniont 1758 by Dormouse. 
4 — 10. (Sire of many good racers). 

3. KEI;L"LL'S 1739 by Godolphin Arabian. 
6—7. 

1 . Cato 1748 by Regulus. 
4—11. 

2. Trajan 1748 by Regulus. 
.5—9. 

3. Careless 1751 by Regulus. 
4—9. 

4. Dioiiysius 1752 by Regulus. 
4—9. 

FORESTER 1765 by Dionysius. 
4—12. 

5. Apollo 17.55 by Regulus. 
4- 10. 

JOLLY BACCHUS 1768 bv Apollo. 
.3—9. 

6. Sultan 1757 by Regulus. , 
6—9. 

7. Morwiek Ball 1762 by Regulus. 

4 — 7. (Half-brother to Carabineer by Y. Cade). 



]^36 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

1. CAYENDISH (earher Ouintus) 1784 by Morwick Ball. 
3—8. 

2. GliSTATUS 1785 by Morwick Ball. 
4—8. 

8. SejailUS 1764 by Regulus. 
4. (Half-brother to Herod). 

CHEROKEE 1780 by Sejanus. 
4—10. 

9. Bucephalus 1"64 by Retjulus. 
4^9. 

10. Denmark 1764 by Regulus. 

4—8. 

4. THE GOAVER STALLION 174f) by Godolphin Arabian. 
(Not run). 

^^^(>f pi^fakeS 1"49 by The Gower .Stallion. 
5—10. 

5. BABRAHAM 1740 by Godolphin .Xrabian. 
6—9. 

1. AlcideS 1753 by Babraham. 
5—7. 

TOJfZER 1768 by .\lcides. 
4—9. 

2. BosphorUS 1"54 by Babraham. 
4—9. 

3. Traplill 1"'>4 by Babraham. 
4—9. 

4. AmericUS 1"55 by Babraham. 
4—11. 

5. Cardinal Puff 1760by Babraham. 
4—9. 

6. Fop I'^O by Babraham. 
4—11. 

6. BAJAZET 1740 by Godolphin .Arabian 
5—10. 

Selim 1760 by Bajazet. 
5—9. 

7. BL.iXK 1740 by Godolphin .Arabian. 
5—10. 

1. Lottery 1752 by Blank. 
5—11. 

2. Contest 17*3 by Blank. 
5—9. 

3. Horatius 1756 by Blank. 
4—9. 

4. AntinOUS 1758 by Blank. 
4—9. 

5. Pancake 1759 by Blank. 
4—10. 

G. Chatsworth 1762 by Blank. 
4—9. 



5. The Thoroufjhbred in the Past and Present. 137 



7. Tacoh't 1763 by Blank. 

4 — 7. (.\lso in Give and Tal<e Plates). 
Y. I'ACOLET 1780 by Pacolet. 
3—4. 

Citizen 1785 by Y. Pacokt. 
4—9. (s. to India). 

8. I'aTIliastfr (earlier Jesmond) 17()(i by Blank. 
4 — 8. (Sire of many fjood racers). 

9. AllOaster 17()8 by Blank. 
5—10. 

8. OLD E>'(iL.VM> 1741 bv Godolphin .\rabian. 
5—8. 

AniarailtllUN 17(J6 by Old England. 
4—9. 
\}. MCXil'L 1741 by tlodolphin .Arabian. 
WhiiStlcjackct 1749 by Mo-ul. 
4—11).' 

COKIOLAXUS 1762 by Whistlejacket. 
4—7. 

Coquette 1783 by Coriolanus. 
5—8. 

10. AVHITEN'OSE 1742 by Ooddphin Arabian. 
8. 

11. MIRZ.V 1749 by Godolphin .\rabian. 
6—9. 

12. CRIPl'LE 1750 bv Godolphin Arabian. 
6. ? 

1 . (iillicrack 1760 bv Cripple. 

4—11. 
2. Tailtrilin 1760 by Cripple. 

8 — 10. I, Sire of Terniasjant 1772). 

COPI'KRnOTTOM 1776 by Tantrum. 
3—10. 

13. LOFTY 1753 bv Godolphin Arabian. 
4 6. 

Slim 1762 by Lofty. 
4—11. 



Alcock's Arabian born about 1703. 



1. CRAB 1722 bv Alcock's Arabirui. 
5—7. 

1 . (■rasslu»|)|M'r 1731 by Crab. 

5 9. 
•J. Crah (Youth's) 1736 by Crab. 

•V 9. (Cp to 12 year-old without winninff). 
:i. Rih 1736 by Crab. 

6—9. 
-J. Bustard 1741 by Crab. 

6—8. (Beaten by Othello as a 9 year-old ; own brother to Othello and Oroonoko). 



238 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

1. fiAMAHOE about 17.58 by Bustard. 

1. Noble 1767 by Gaiiiahoe. 
4—11. 

2. Hippolitus 1767 by (jamahoe. 
4—13. 

3. Olympus 1767 by Gamahoe. 
4^8. 

4. Croniijhoo 1774 by Gamahoe. 
4—6. 

1. DUCHESS 1785 by Cromaboo. 
3—8. 

2. SHAMROCK 1789 by Cromaboo. 
3—11. 

5. Oljinpla 1777 by Gamahoe. 
6—11. 

6. Waterman 1779 by Gamahoe. 
6—10. 

7. Farmer 1779 by Gamahoe. 
6—8. 

8. Raiiiiiiciiliis 1782 by Gamahoe. 
4—10. 

2. LENNOX 1766 by Bustard. 
•5-7. 

1. Tom Turf 1781 by Lennox. 

4 — 7. (Up to 9 year-old without winning). 

2. Peeping; Tom 1782 by Lennox. 
3—9. 

5. Othello ('^r Black and .All Black) 1743 by Crab. 

5 — 9. (Also. in Give and Take Plates), 
fi. Why Not 1'44 by Crab. 

•5—8. 

7. Crab 1744 by Crab. 
4—12. 

1. MILKSOP 1760 by Crab. 
S— 13. 

2. CHAMPAKJNE 1764 by Crab. 
4—10. 

8. OrOOlloko I'^S by Crab. 

FLASHING MOLLY 17.56 by Oroonoko. 
8—11. 

9. Shcphenrfs (rah I'J" by Crab. 

(Not run). 

SPY 17.59 by Shepherd's Crab. 
4—8. 
10. Spectator 1'49 by Crab. 

1. SULPHUR 1762 by .Spectator. 
4—9. 



0. The TlionHii,'hhi(d !ii the Past and Present. ]39 

2. MARK ANTHONY 17(57 by Spcclator. 
.•5—9. (Half-brother to Highflyer). 

1. George 1780 by Mark Anthony. 

3—8. 
■>. Mark-lio 17S.S by Mark .Anthony. 

3—8. 

3. DAMPER 1769 by Spectator. 
4—1(1. 

11. Brilliant 1">(1 by Crab. 
1 ti. 

1. NABOB 17(J-_' by Brilliant. 
4—9. 

2. BKI.I.ARIO 17(J3 by Brilliant. 
3— S. 

3. KICHMONI) 1763 by Brilliant. 

4 8. (.Sire of many ^ikk] racers in Irel.ind). 
2. (iKNTLE.M.VN 1723 by .Mcock's .\rabian. 
.5 11. 

The Darcy White Turk b.im about kjto. 
(or Sedbury Turk). 

HAl THOY about 1690 by Darcy White Turk. 

1. iil'fy IlillltlMiy about 1698 by Hautboy. 

I. BAY BOLTON 1705 by Grey Hautboy. 
5. 

1. (Godolphin's) \YliilfliM)» 1719 by B.iy Bolton. 
.5—9. 

MOLOTTO 1736 by Whitefoot. 
5—8. 

2. Fearnought 172o by Bay Bolton. 

3. Old Starliiii; 1727 by Bay Bolton. 
4—7. 

1. AS'CASTER STARI.IXG 1738 by Old Starling. 
•5 — 9. (.Also in Give and Take Plates). 

2. rOIUSMOND 17.39 by Old Starling. 
') — 7. (.Also in Give and Take Plates). 

3. SKIM 1746 by Old Starling. 
4-6. 

Tiiicy 17.')6 by Skim. 
4—13. 

4. JEXyy JESSAMY 1748 bv Old Starling. 
.5—9. 

•5. I'ERSEIS 17.-.4 liy ()1<I Starling. 
.5—9. 

4. I.oohy (Bolton) 1728 h^• B.iv Bolton. 
•3—12. 

2. I.AMI'KIK 171.5 by Grey Hautboy. 

7 — 10. (I'p to 10 year-old without winning. Own brother to Bay 

[Bolton.) 



|_)|) 'I'rinl of the Thorouj^libred on the Racecourse, etc. 

12. CluillSl'V iil'O'-it 1700 by Hautboy. 

1. OLD FOX 1714 by Clumsey. 
5—9. 

1. Ooliiih 1730 by Old Fox. 
G. 

1. CHA.\[I'IC>N 173!) by GoHah. 
5—10. 

2. HUNTS JIGG 1741 by Goliah (Mare with— 1 Irec 
4 — 10. [generation.) 

/'i'i' f/ /'A'.'.'-''' l'^^ Ijy Hunt's Jigg (and the dam 
4—7. |by Hunt's Jigg). 

2. Merry Andrew 1730 by Old Fox. 

5 — 11. (Up to 13 year-old without winning). 
FRIBBLE 1746 by Merry .\ndrew. 
G— S. 

3. Cub 1739 by Old Fox. 

.5 — S. (.Also in Give and Take Plates). 
CI.ERICl'S 1763 by Cub. 
4—11. 

2. rOX (TB 1714 by Clumsey. 
8. 

Ihiiikirk 172.5 by Fox Cub. 
G— 11. 
;i. 01(1 Willdliam 1719 by Hautboy. 
5—11. 

1. CINNAMON 1722 by Old Windham. 

6 — 7. (Up to 9 year-old without winning) 

1. ni.snial 1735 by Cinnamon. 

5 — 8. (Up to 10 year-old without winning). 

2. Bri.«k 1737 bv Cinnamon. 
5—8. 

2. fiRFA'LEGS 1725 by Old Windham. 

5 — 6. (I'p to 10 vear-old without winning). 



Belgrade Turk bom .ibout itio. 

Y. BELdiRADK about 1729 by Belgrade Turk. 

1. A'oIllIltCPV 1735 by Y. Belgrade. 

6—8. 

2. Old Standard 1736 by Y. Belgrade. 
5—6. 

JASON 1749 by Old Standard. 

4 — 11. (Sire of many good racers). 



The Thorouslibrcd in the Past ainl Present. 141 



Lister Turk i..irn .ihcut lesn. 



1. (LISTKR) SNAKK about 17t)o by 1-ister Turk. 

DrivjT (Beavers) 1732 by Lister .Snake. 

LITTLE UKIVEK 1743 by Thriven. 
.5-12. (Give and Take Plates). 

1. Y. Driver 17.")8 by Little Driver. 

4 — 7. (.\lso in Give and Take Plates). 

2. Cicero 176-) by Little Driver. 

4—10 

2. rON'KVSKINS 1"12 by Lister Turk. 

.5 — 7. (8 year-iild without winnini;). 



Holderness Turk born about i698. 

HARTLKV'S KMM) HORSE --ihout 172f) by Holderness Turk. 
Forester (('r(»ft"s) l"-^'i ^y Hartley's Blind Horse. 
(3. 

1. (JUST.iVrS 174.5 by Forester. . 
.5—11. 

2. RIPON 1740 by Forester. 
•5-11. 



Oxford Bloody-Shouldered Arabian b,.rn ..bout irin. 

1. BOLTON SAVKKI'ST.VKKS l"-2 by Bloody-Shouldered .\rabian. 

.5—6. (L'p to 11 year-old without winninij). 

Turner's Sweepstakes l'-43 by Bolton Sweeepstakes. 

(Not run). 

TREXTH.4M 17(i(i by Turner's Sweepstakes. 

a— 10. 

Driver 1783 liy 'I'rcntliam. 
4—8. 

2. BRISK 1725 by Bloody-Shouldered Arabian. 

5. ( I JJ to 9 vear-old without wiiinini,')- 



If in above sclu'diile all hor.scs burn before JNOO and all .steepleclia.sers arc 
left out, there remain.s -214 liorse.s which have won at seven years and older. 
132 of them have parents which did not run as two-year-olds. .53 come from 
sires which ran as two-year-olds (only H of them before June), 21 come from 
dams uliici) ran as two-vear-olds (onlv ! of them before June), and on]\- in 
8 cases did both parents run as two-year-olds. Of the.se 8, 2, namely Master 
Menrv and I.nnercost, won races up to the ape of onlv seven inclusive. 



142 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

p-urther, the sires and dams ran on an average less than twice as 
two-year-olds. Horses which only won up to the seventh 3'ear inclusive are 
only mentioned in exceptional cases, i.e., Alice Hawthorn, whose sire, Muley 
Moloch, ran as a two-year-old in May, but the dam, granddam and great- 
granddam of Alice Hawthorn did not run at all. Such and similar com- 
pensations may often be found in the cases mentioned above. 

I do not claim that the above tables are complete, and mistakes ma)- have, 
here and there, crept in. Everyone who has studied old horse-race calendars 
w ill know how difficult and wearying such tables are, and that mistakes are 
verv difficult to avoid. Taking it altogether, however, we may safely draw 
the following conclusions from the above-named dates; — 

1. Performances on the flat at a great age are more certainly inherited 
from sires and dams who did not run themselves as two-3'ear-olds than from 
those who did. The rimning as two-year-olds in more than two consecutive 
generations seems to deprive the parents of the suitability to produce race- 
horses who run for long with success. 

2. The using of horses on the racecourse up to a great age seems to 
strengthen their breeding power in producing first-class racehorses and 
prominent stud stallions. The most significant examples of this are 
the following champions of Thoroughbreds which appear almost in 
every pedigree of our present day Thoroughbred horses several times, 
namely, Regulus, ^^'oodpecker, Buzzard, Pipator, Election, Paulowitz, 
Master Henry, Little Red Rover, Lanercost and Collingwood, won up to 
their seventh year inclusive. Imperator, Chanticleer, Hambletonian, 
Orville, Catton, Reveller and Sultan, won up to their eighth year inclusive. 
Herod, Mark Antony, Joe Andrews, Paynator, Haphazard, Ouiz, Cerberus 
and Langar, won up to their ninth year inclusive. Matchem, PotSos and 
Gohanna, won up to their tenth year inclusive. Squirt, grandsire of Eclipse, 
and Mambrino, foundation stallion of the American trotter, ran up to their 
eleventh year inclusive, although thev only won up to their eighth year 
inclusive. Dr. Syntax, sire of Bee's \\'ing, which as a nine-year-old won 
four races, won again as a twelve-year-old three good races. Out of the 
great number of the chief founders of Thoroughbreds which won as six-3'ear- 
olds, let me here mention onlv the following eight : Eclipse, Waxy, Whale- 
bone, Whisker, King Eergus, Beningbrough and Touchstone. 

3. The use of stallions with race performances at a great age for breeding 
purposes decreases more and more during the first half of the nineteenth 
century. In spite of the increase of Thoroughbred breeding, the examples 
of prominent performers at a great age already diminish before the middle 
of the nineteenth century (see tables, pages 108-141). 

4. The most famous steeplechasers in the first half of the nineteenth 
century are descended, with few exceptions, from parents which did not run 
as two-year-olds. 

5. Most stallions and mares which ran as two-}'ear-olds, and yet pro- 



5. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 143 

duced horses which could run for long successfully, ran as two-year-olds late 
in the year, and seldom more than once or twice. 

As in our time nearly everything which is healthy runs as a two-year-old. 
it is remarkable that in examining the question from this point of view, 
there are still actually brought out points which speak against two-year-old 
races, especially against the early and frequent ones. In the last ten years, 
up to and inclusive of 1906, 63 horses born in England or Ireland still won 
flat races as eight-year-olds and older. The number 63 is a very small one 
considering that the breeding is to-day five to ten times more extensive. 
Therefore a retrogression in this respect is distinctly recognisable. Of these 
63 horses, 27 have dams which never ran as two-year-olds. Of the remain- 
ing 36 dams, only 14 ran before the 1st of June, generally only one to three 
times ; 3 ran seven times ; 2 eight times, and 1 ten times. The above 63 horses 
have 50 difterent sires, of which 9 did not run as two-year-olds. Of the 
remaining 41 sires, only 19 ran before the 1st of June as two-year-olds. 
Osbeck ran and won longest — up to its twelfth year. He was born in 1895 
by Common, who did not run as a two-year-old, and his dam Alibech ran 
once as a two-\ear-old in September. 

Also, several American and Australian horses won in England as eight- 
year-olds and older. Amongst the latter is especially to be mentioned 
Australian Star 1896, by Australian Peer and Colours, who won as an eight- 
year-old a Handicap in Alexandra Park, IJ miles, 9 stone, 12 lbs., against 
five four-year-olds, with 8 stone to 9 stone. Further, Merman 1892, by 
Grand Flaneur out of Seaweed, who, as an eight-year-old, won the Gold 
Vase at Ascot, 2J- miles, carrying 9 stone, 4 lbs., against the four-year-old 
Scintillant, and Perth (under 9 stone), and three others. Australian Star, 
as well as Merman, come from dams which did not run as two-year-olds. 
Also, Australian Peer, the sire of Australian Star, did not run as a two-year- 
old, and Grand Flaneur, a marvel on the Australian racecourse, and sire of 
Merman, ran and won as a tw-o-year-old only once, in Januar\-, which 
month, for the sake of comparison, corresponds to our July. 

To further show the hardness and stamina of the Thoroughbred up to 
about the middle of the nineteenth century, the following examples of excel- 
lent performances on the flat may serve. Of course, there are some horses 
given which, from the point of \ie\v of the regular racecourse frequenter, 
belong to an inferior class. 



144 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

No. 1. Partner 1730 by Partner. 

ran 5 year-old 2 times, won -2 times. 

■1 

> It -• M 

) ') J- )! 

! >I ^ 1) 

M ,, 

o 

) I> -• •! 

) M t^ )! 

1 M "1 1» 

„ M 

ran 38 times, won 20 times. 

So. -2. Black Chance 173-2 by Button's Bay Barb, 
ran 5 year-old 2 times, won 2 times. 



6 




6 


7 




3 


S 




G 


9 




3 


10 




3 


11 




4 


12 




3 


13 




4 


14 




3 


15 




J 





6 














M 


only in King's PI 




7 




3 









1 » 


incl. 1 King's PI. 




S 




(5 






() 


M 






9 




4 






•2 


n 






10 




1 






1 


M 






11 




without report. 










12 




2 times, 


won 


1 


»> 






13 




1 


11 


' » 


1 


)» 






14 




3 


'. 


1 » 


o 


M 





ran 28 times, won 22 times. 

No. 3. Sedbury 1734 by Partner. 

ran 4-year old 2 times, won 1 time. 

, ,, 3 times. 

,, 4 ,, incl. 3 King's PI. 

,, 6 ,, incl. 1 King's PI. 

M „ 

, ,, 3 ,, agst. 5 y. Oronocco 

1 11 J- 1 » 



■J 


»» 


3 


<) 


1 y 


() 


7 


») 


() 


8 


M 


•2 


9 


f f 


3 





^ 


1 



ran 23 times, won 18 times. 



No. 4. 1744 Match at Lincoln 14 miles = 22,530 m. 
Mr. Southcote Parker's 6 year-old horse won with one length in 89 
minutes, against Mr. Gilbert Colecut's 21 year-old horse. See " Westminster 
Journal," the 23/6/1744. 



5. Tho Thoroui^librcd in the Pnst and Present. ] )') 

Nf). 5. Gusta\'us 17-l-"i hv C'nil'i's I'drrcstcr. 

ran o year-old J tinit-s, won 1 time. 

,, n ,, (') ., ,, -J time.s. 

,, 7 ,. ■.] ,, ,, 3 „ 

,, S ,, 8 ,, ,, .'i ,, incl. 1 King's PI. 

,, 9 ,, 4 ,, ,, [ ,, incl. 1 King's Fl. 

,, 10 ,, I ,, ,,4 ,, incl. 1 King's PI. 

,,11 ,, -I ,, ,, -2 ., incl. 1 King's PI. 



ran '24 times, won ±2 limes. 

Xo. (■). Cabbage 1757 by South. 

ran 1 \'ear-old '^ limes, won (i times. 
5 ' •' 1 

,, 6 ,, 5 ,, ,, 3 ,, Match at Newmarket, 13 St., 5 times 

R. C". = 3ll,-")n(i ni., in "(.-i minutes, 30 
sei'onds. 
.,7 ..1 .. ,. ,. 

ran II times, won 4 times. 

Xo. 7. Iluncamunca 17")1) hv V. C'ade. 

ran 7 \ear-oId 1 time, won 1 time. King's P!. 
,, .s ,, ;i times, ,, 2 times incl. 1 King's PI. 
,, 9 ,, 2 ., ,. 2 ,, 2 King's PI. 
,, 111 ,, 2 ,, ,, 2 ,, incl. 1 King's PI. 
,,11 ,, 2 ■_' ,, 2 King's PI. 



ran Id times, won 9 times. 

Xo. S. Ciimcrack I7(ill b\ (.'ri|)ple. 
ran 4 vear-old 7 times, won 7 times. 

(■) ,, won in i'^rance the bet •_'.!-] miles in one hour. 

.,7 ,,7 times, won -'l times in (ii\e and Take i'l. 

,, s ,, fl ,, ,, 4 ,, '1 limes in (ii\eand T.nke PI. 

,, 9 „ r, ,. ,, 4 ,. Xewm. R. C".-3 .M. (\ I'url. 93 Y. 

9 St. against 9 horses of a good class. 
., ]0 ,, 3 ,, ,, I ,. \ewm. n. C. . I M. 1 Furl. 13S Y.. 

against s \car-okl Pilgrim. 
,, 11 ., 1 ,, ,1 ,, Xewm. R.C\-=3M. (i I'url. 93 Y., 

' '.) St., against N horses of a good 

(lass, amongst which were Bellario 
s year-old. Sportsman ."i year-old, 

Teloiuni li \'ear-old. 

ran 3-"j timi's, won 2') limes. 



146 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 9. Trentham 1766 by Sweepstakes. 
ran 4 year-old 6 times, won 6 times. 



5 




3 


6 




9 


7 




7 


8 




4 


9 












3 



3 
9 
1 

3 

o 

o 



and twice as second, 
incl. Jockey Club PI. Newm. B. C. 
4^\.l Furl. 138 Y. 4 behind. 



ran 



37 times, won 26 times. 



No. 10. Mother Brown 1771 by Trunnion. 

ran 4 vear-old 2 times, won times. 

,, 3 „ 

,, 3 ,, 

o 

!, 1 

,. 4 
., 5 

•2 

M 

ran 



5 


5 , 


6 


7 


7 


5 , 


8 


3 , 


9 


4 , 


10 


6 , 


11 


„ 6 , 


12 


1 , 



was in foal. 

incl. 1 Kind's PI. after foaling. 

incl. 1 King's PI. 

and 4 times as second. 



.39 times, won 20 times, and had 6 good foals, amongst which 

at 25 years Jerry Sneak, s. No. 24. 



No. 11. PotSos 1773 by Eclipse. 

ran 4 year-old 5 times, won times, twice second in big races. 

and twice second 

and once second. 



,, 5 


7 ,, 


M 5 


,, 6 


,, 7 


., 7 


,, 7 


., 11 „ 


,, 8- 


M 8 


7 


,, 6 


,- 9 


9 ,, 


.. 6 



10 



incl. Craven St. at Newm. and jockey 
Club PI. at Newm., and 3 times 
second. 

at Newm. B. C. = 4 M. 1 Furl. 138 Y., 
against 7 year-old Nottingham. 



ran 



49 times, w^on 33i times. 



No. 12. Titania 1774 by Trunnion. 
ran 4 year-old 5 times, won 3 times, and once second. 



■J 


8 


M 7 




and once second. 


6 


4 


,- 1 




and 3 times second 


7 


2 


,, 




and once second. 


8 


2 


,. 1 






9 


2 


2 







5. The Thorous'hbrcd in the Past and Present. ] 47 

ran 10 year-old 'J times, won 'J times. Kiny's PI. 

,, 11 ,, 2 ,, ,, 1 ,, 4 miles with lieats, 3 behind, incl. one 

6 vear-old. 



ran 21 times, won 17 times. 






' 1 


b 


6 


» ' 


.0 


7 




w 


8 


»» 


■2 


9 


M 


5 


10 


1 » 


7 


11 


»» 


3 


12 


,, 


fi 



No. 13. !.ala,t;e 177() by Hero. 

ran 4 vear-old 7 times, won 6 times, incl. 1 ivino's PI. and once second. 

5 ,, incl. 1 King's PI. and once second. 

o 

withotit report. 

•2 times, won 1 time, and once second. 
,, 5 times, incl. 1 King's PI. 
,, ,, 5 ,, incl. 1 King's PI., and twice second in 

good company. 6 \-ear-oid Cherokee 
beaten twice. 
,, ,, 1 ,, King's PI. and once second. 

,. 4 ,, incl. 1 King's PI. in good company, 
and once second, 
ran 38 times, won 29 times. 

Xo. 14. Ouibbler 1780 by Minor. 

ran 4 year-old 2 times, won 1 time. 
,, 5 ,, 3 ,, ., „ 

,, 6 ,, 11 ,, M 7 ,, incl. 1 King's Pi., 4 Miles, Heats, and 

.Match at Newmarket, 4 st. 7 lbs., 23 
Miles ( = 37 km.) in 57 min., 10 sec. 
,,7 ,, 7 ,, ,, 1 ,, at Newmarket, 

ran 23 times, won 9 times. 

No. 15. Exciseman 1781 hv Sweetbriar. 

ran 8 year-old ."J times, won 3 times. ( t miles \\ith heats, against, 4, 5 and 
,, 9 ,, (■) ,, ,, 2 ,, J 6 year-olds. 

,, 10 ,, 11 :, ,, 8 ,, Newm.2 Y.O.C.= Furl. 13G Y. 9st. 7 

apst. 2 3 year-old 7 st. 4 and 7 st. 5 
3 4 year-old 7 st. 9—7 st. 11 
2 5 year-old 8 st. 2 and 8 st. 9 
(Serpent b\' Eclipse) 

1 older 9 St. 7 

against M horses. 
„ 11 ,. 10 ,, ., 4 ,, on the 12th .Mav, Newm. 2 V.O.C.= 

5 F. 136 v., 8 St. 4, against 4 year- 
old Hector, 8st. 
on the 22nd May, Epsom, 4 .M., Heats, 
3 Heats second and 1 Heat first. 



148 



Trial of the ThorouErhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



Newm. 2 Y. O. C. = 5 Furl. 136 Y. 
Rst., against 5 year-old Stallion by 
n.spersvkes, 7 st. 8. 

Newm. 2 Y. O. C.= 5 Furl. 136 Y. 
8 St. 12, against 3 year-old Mare by 
Jupiter, 7 st. 10. 
ran I",' year-old 12 times, won 7 times. Xewm. 1 Mile, 8 st. 12, against 4 year- 
old Peggy, 8 St. 4. 

Xewm. 3 Miles, 8st. 12 
agst. 3 4y.-o. 7 st. 11 — 8st.4. 

2 5 y.-o. 7 St. 11 and 8 st. 13. 
(Eager D). 

On the following dav, 

2 Y. O. C.= .5 Furl. 136 Y., 9 st., 
against 3 y.-o. 7 st. 2 (Brother to Sir 
John). 

At Warwick, 1 Mile, Meats, 

against 6, 3 and 4 3'ear-olds and one 
older. 

On the following day, 

4 Miles, Heats, 8 st. 9, against 
2 6 year-old, 8st.7 and 8 st. 12, 
and 5 times second. 



ra n 



4-1 times, won 24 times. 



No. 16. Mentor 1784 by Justice. 



ran 3 year-old '■> times, w 



4 


, 10 





8 


6 


9 


7 


9 


8 


4 


9 


6 


10 


4 


11 


1 



on 1 time, in Derby not placed. 

4 times. 



4 

.5 

3 

3 

4 
o 



incl. 1 King's PI. 



an-d once second, 
and once second, 
and twice second. 
■2i Miles, 8 St. 7 

against 1 3 vear-old, 6 st. 

1 5 vear-old, 8st. 4. 

2 older 8st.l2. 



ran 



56 times, won 27 times. 



ran 



\(i. 17. Huby 1788 by Phonomenon. 
3 vear-old 2 times, won times, second in the St. I.eger. 



■J 
6 



I 

5 
8 



3 
4 



incl. 1 Kino-'s PI 



'Flu- Tlmroiiirhbrcd in the Past and Present. 



] 19 



ran 7 year-old 4 liint-.s, won 1 tinu'. 
,,8 .,7 ,, ,, 3J ,, in the best company, of 8, 4, ■) and (> 

year-olds. Dead heat, 8 st. 3, at 
Lewes, with the o year-old Her- 
mione O., 8st. 1, which won o races 
in the samp v(>ar, and twice second. 



ran 



38 times, won IGi- times. 



ra 



No. is. St. Cieorge 17.S9 by Ilij^dillyer. 
1 3 \ear-old 5 times, won 1 time, in Derb\- not placed. 



4 




5 , 


fi 


6 


() 


7 


fi 


H 


fS 



„ 10 



incl. I Kins^'s PI. 

Jockev Club PI. at Xewni. H. C.= 

4 AI. 1 Furl. 138 Y., 8st.ll 

attain St 1 4 year-old, 7 st. 2 
1 ') year-old, 8 st. 3 
•2 older s st. 11 

ahd 3 times second, 
against 3, 4 and o year-olds, further 

against 7 year-old Paynator and 8 

year-old .Vimator 

and 3 times second, 
and once second, 1, 5 and t' year-<jlds 

behind. 



ran 



'rl times, won 19 times. 



Xo. 1'.). . Vimator ITDo b_\- Triimpator. 

ran 3 \ear-(jld 4 times, won U times. 

3 ,, 

5 ,, 

3 ,, 

3 ,, 



M 4 


4 


,, 


8 


,, (•) 


<; 


M 7 


(■) 


.. «^ 


, 7 



11 — M 



(J 



C"ra\en St. at .Xewni. against O \-ear- 
old Spread Eagle D'. and against 9 
3, 4 and y year-olds ami oldi-r 
and twice second. 

in l)ig I landicaps. 



ran 



40 titiies, won ](> times. 



Xo. -Jil. (iohanna 1790 by Merciirv. 

ran 3 year-old s times, won Ci times, second in Derbv. 
,, 4 ,, 12 ,. ,, 7 ,, incl. I King's PI. 

,, •'5 ,, 7 ,, ,, 4 ,, incl. 2 Kino-'s PI. 



150 



Trial of the Thorouijhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



ran 6 year-old Ti times, won 3 times, incl. 2 King's PI. 



7 
8 



5 
1 



1 
1 



„ 10 



2J Miles, at Lewes, 8st. 7 
against 1 4 year-old, 7st. 11 
2 6 year-old, 8 st. 2 
1 older, 8 st. 7 
1 Mile, 9 St. 

against 2 4 year-olds, 7 st. 8 
1 5 year-old, S st. 6 
1 6 year-old, 8 st. 6 
and twice second. 
2J Miles, at Lewes, 8 st. 7 

against 2 5 year-olds, 7 st. 12 and 
8 St. 4 



ran 



48 times, won 26 times. 



No. 21. Hambletonian 1792 by King Fergus. 

ran 3 year-old 6 times, won 6 times, L. Dcp. 

Dcp. 



,, 4 


11 


4 „ 


yj 


4 


M -5 


' 1 


7 


11 


7 


., 6 


1 ' 


not 






,, 7 


M 


2 times, 


won 





,, 8 


M 


1 ,, 


»» 


1 



4 Miles, at York, 9 st. 
against 5 year-old Dion 
and 6 year-old Timothy, 8st.l0, 
both first-class racehorses which won 
good races in the same year. 



ran 



ra 



20 times, \\ on 20 times. 

No. 22. Bobtail 1795 by Precipitate. 

3 \-ear-old 3 times, won 2 times, in the Derby not placed. 

3 
1 
7 
3 
4 



4 


7 





■2 


6 


, 7 


7 , 


. 5 


8 


, 7 



Newm. 2 Y. O. C.= 5 Furl. 136 Y., 

8st.7, against 5 year-old Muley 

Moloch, 8 St. 4 
Newm. 1 Mile, 8st. 4 

against 6 year-old Surprise, 8 st. 
Newm. Hdc, 1 M. 2 Furl. 44 Y., 9st., 

agst. 4 y.-o. Northampton, 7 st. 3 
o y.-o. Eleanor D. O., 8 st. 12 

5 y.-o. Flambeau, 6 st. 12 

6 y.-o. Georgiana, 8 st. 10 



5. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 



151 



ran !) year-uld 7 times, wcjn 4 limes. Xcwm. D. J. = 2 M. 97 Y., Sst.lO, 

agst. 1 3y.-o. 7st.4 

6y.-o. Dick Andrews 9 st. 4 
6y.-o. Surprise 7st.]3. 
Xewm. 1 M. 2 Furl. 44 Y., 8 .st. 9, 
agst. 7 y.-o. Lignum Vitae 8st. 
Newm. 1 'i\I. 2 Furl. 44 Y., 8 St., 
agst. 6 y.-o. Penelope 8 st. 



ran 



ra 



ran 



yS times, won '24 times. 

No. 23. Eagle 179r) by Volunteer. 
3 vear-old 5 times, won 3 times, third in tiie Derby. 



4 




1 




. 1 


5 




•) 




.J 


6 




.) 




, 1 


7 




.) 




, 1 


8 




/ 




, fi 



Xewm. 2 Y. O. C., = 5 F. 136 Y., 9st., 
agst. 6 y.-o. Eleanor D. O. 7 st. 9 

Xewm. 1 Mile, 9 st. 7, 

agst. 4 y.-o. Dreadnought 5 st. 8. 

X'ewm. 1 Mile, 9 st. 4, 

agst. 6 y.-o. Marianne 7 st. 6. 



in times, won 17 times. 



No. 24. Jerry Sneak 179G by Chocolate. 
(As a racing horse also called Toby and Y 
1 2 vear-old 1 time, won times, in October. 



incl. 2 King's PI. 



incl. L Kinij's P 



Toby). 



3 


, 1 


times, 


o 


4 


, (•) 




M 4 


5 


, lU 




„ 2 


6 


, 12 




,, 10 


7 


2"' 




,. 10 


8 


, 11 




M 4 


9 


, 15 




M 5 



M 


10 


n 


1 


1» 


11 


» J 


4 


'1 


12 


M 


not 


»> 


13 


» y 


10 



3 Miles, 9. St. 7, 

agst. 5 y.-o. 8 st. 10 & 4 y.-o. 7 st. 8, 
15 June, at Curragh, 4 Miles with 
Heats, second to 6 y.-o.. Blacklegs, 
Traveller behind, and won on the 
same day Malcii, I .Miles, 18st.= 
114.3 kg., against a Hunter 18 St., 
in 9 min. 27 sec". (7 sec. quicker than 
the Hunter). Covered 1805 56 
mares, of which onlv 3 were barren. 

I Miles, agst. 6 \'.-o. Midas. 

I Miles, agst. 8y.-o. .Midas. 



ran 



'.)9 tinii-s, won Hi times. 



\^o Trinl of the Tliorous'ibred on the Racecourse, etc. 



ra 



No. 25. Marcia 1797 by Coriander. 
3 vear-dld 1 time, won times. 
4" ,, 

5 ,. 7 times, won 2 times, incl. 1 King's PI. 
C-i ,, 5 ,, ,, 4 ,, inrl. 2 King's PI. 



/ 



4 



8 ,, -5 ,, ,, -5 ,, (iold Cup at Newcastle, Gold Cup 

York, Doncaster St., 4 M., 8 st. 10, 
agst 3 3 y.-o. 6 st. (amongst which 
was Sir Paul), and 1 4 y.-o. 7 st. 7. 

9 ,, 4 ,, ,,4 ,, always against \-oung horses incl. 1 

King's PI., 8st. 9,' 
agst. 3 y.-o. 6 st. 7 
and 4 v.-o. 7 st. 7. 



ran 28 times, won 19 times. 

No. 2G. Rumbo 1800 by \\'hiskey. 
ran 2 year-old 2 times, won 1 time. 



,, 3 




5 


M 4 




9 


M 5 




1 


,, 6 






M 7 






M 8 




5 


M 9 




6 



times, incl. 1 King's PI 



,, 2 ,, 2J Miles at Ascot, 9 St., 
agst. 2 4 y.-o. 7 st. 9 
and 4 5 y.-o. 8 st. 5. 

10 ,, 11 .,, ,, 7 ,, Gold Cupat Newm., 1 M. 2F.44 Y., 

8 St., 

agst. 1 3 y.-o. 6 st. 11 

7 4 y.-o. 7 St. to 9 st. 7 
3 5 y.-o. 7 St. 12 to 10 St., 
amongst which many good racers. 

11 ,, 2 ,, ,,1 '. -i- Miles at Ascot. Selling race, 
agst. 2 6 y.-o. and 1 older. 



ran 41 times, won 20 times. 

No. 27. Sir David 1801 by Trumpator. 
ran 2 vear-old 2 times, won 



M 3 




7 


„ 4 




9 


,, 5 




9 


„ 6 




5 


,, 7 




4 


M 8 




7 



1 


time. 


5 


times 


6 
9 




5 




1 

3 





Newm. 1 M. 2 F. 44 Y., 8 st. 4, 
agst. 5 y.-o. Eaton 8 st. 8. 



5. The ThoruUi,'hbrL-d in the Past anil Present. 



153 



Newm. -i Y. O. C.= r> F. m\ V., 

8 St. 10. 

agst. 4v.-o. Morel O. 8 st. -l. 
mil !) year-old 'J times, won 1^ limes. Newm. 3 Miles, 8st. 7, 

agst. -J v.-o. Vanclvke 8st. 
Newm. 1 !\I. -2 F. 44'Y., 8st. 7, 

at 7 v.-o. Deceiver 8 st. 4, 

Dead heat. 



ran 



4--) times, won :JU timrs. 



ra 



No. -28. I.angtiin ISd-J by Precipitate. 
n 3 vear-old 4 times, wcni 8 times. 



4 
5 
6 

7 
8 



M 9 

„ 10 



12 

8 

(i 

10 

6 



-J 
■5 
4 
5 
3 



1 
o 



»» — *i 



Oali. St. at Newm. 2 Miles, 9 st. 11, 
agst. U young liorses 3 — 6y.-o., 
and 8y.-o. ^leteora O. 8st. 
Gold Cup at Newm. 1 Mile, 9 st. 7, 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 5 st. 12 
1 4 y.-o. 7 St. 10 
4 5 v.-o. 8 St. -J to 8 St. 10 
1 6 y.-o. 9 St. 
1 older 8 St. 12, 

agst. cS horses. 
Newm. 1 Mile, 9 St. G, 

agst. 6 younger horses, 
and on the same da}- a race, 4 Miles, 

third, 2 behind, started as favourite. 

Newm. 3 Miles, si st. 7 
agst. 4 v.-o. 7 St. 9 and 5 y.-o. 8 st. 3 



ran 



■V) limes, won 27 times. 



No. 29. Cambric JS(I7 bv Sluitlle. 
ran 2 year-old 5 times, won 2 limes, first race, July .Si. at .\e\vm. 

against 7 horses. 
Oct. Newm. 2 Y. O. C. = 5 F. 186 Y., 

second to X'ulture. 
and on the same dav wdu over 
2 Y.O.C. = 5 F. ]'3() Y. 



3 
4 



10 
18 



!) 2 ,, 

)) 13 ,, 



July at Bath, 2 .Miles. 

ag.st. 2 3 y.-o. and 2 4 y.-o. 



1 54 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

4 July, 2 Miles, Heats, 
agst. 1 3 y.-o., 

and immediately afterwards 4 Miles, 
Heats (3 times), 
agst. 2 4 y.-o. and 1 6 y.-o. 

16 July at Winchester, 1 Mile, 
second, 3 behind. 

17 July, -2 Miles, Heats, 8st. 11, 
agst. 1 4 3^-0. 8 St. 8. 

6 August, Oxford, 4 Miles, 
second, 1 4 y.-o. behind. 

8 August, 2 Miles, Heats, 
not placed. 

5 September, 2 Miles, 

agst. 1 3 y.-o., 1 4 y.-o. and 1 older, 
and immediately after 3 Miles, Heats, 
8 St. 9, 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 6 st. 12. 

18 September, 3 Miles, Heats, 
agst. 1 4 y.-o. and 1 6 y.-o. 

24 September, 4 Miles, Heats, 

agst. 1 3 y.-o. 
2 October, 3 Miles, Heats, 
agst. 1 4 y.-o. 
ran 5 year-old 1 lime, won 1 time. Oatlands St. at Newm., 2 Miles, 

agsl. 8 good racers. 
„ 6 „ 8 ,, ., ,. 

,, 7 ,, not. 
,, 8 ,, 3 ,, ,, 1 ,, 3 -Miles, Heats, 

agst. 1 •") v.-o. and 1 6 y.-o. 

ran 45 times, w(jn 19 times. 

No. 30. Marksman 1808 by Paynator. 
ran 5 vear-old 4 times, won 1 time. 



6 


1 ) 


3 


7 


) > 


5 


8 


} 1 


9 


9 


M 


8 


10 


yy 


9 


11 


M 


3 


12 


1 ) 


7 



J. 

3 


times. 




3 

5 


" 


agst. 3, 4, -5 and 6 y.-o 
incl. 1 King's PI. 


5 


1 ) 


agst. 4 and 6 y.-o. 
2—3 Miles. 

agst. 3, 4, 5 and 6 y.-o. 



II M ^ >» 

,, 3 ,, 2—3 Miles, 

agst. 4 and 5 y.-o. 
13 ,, 8 ,, ,,2 ,, agst. 3, 4 and 5 y.-o. 

and 4 times second. 



5. Thu Thorouslibrc'd in the Past and Present. 155 

ran 14 year-old 4 limes, won 1 time, at Basingstoke, 8 st. 10. Selling race 

agst. 4 3 \-.-o. 7 St. 1 to 7 St. 4 
1 4y.-o.8st.3 
-I T) y. -0.8 St. 9 and 8 st. 1] 

agsl. 7 lif)rses. 
,, 15 ,, ,, ,, 3 ,, at Lewes, 9 St. 4, 

agst. 3 y.-o. 6 st. 11 
1 y.-o. 8 St. -2 
at Basingstoke, 9 st. 1 

agst. -2 3 v.-o. 7 st. 1 
1 4 y.-o. 7 St. 12 
1 5 y.-o. 8 St. 6 
1 6 v.-o. 9 St. 4 
I .ilder 9 St. 1 



agst. (J horses. 

16 ,, ., ,, 3 ,, 2 Selling Races at Lewes. 

at C'anterbiirv, 2 Miles, with Heats, 
9 St. 8, 
agst. 2 4 y.-o. 8 st. 6 

17 ,, .J ,. ,, 1 ,, The Town PI. £'>0 at Tunbridge 

Wells. 3 M., with Heats, 9 st. 11, 
agst. 1 3 y.-(i. 7 St. 4 
1 ■} y.-o. 9 St. 11 
and twice second. 

18 ,, 3 ,, ,,1 „ The Yeomen's PI. at Ahford, ;^50, 

2^ .Miles, with Heats, 
agst. 13 y.-o. (Honeysuckle by 
Whalebone) 
I 4 y.-o. (Jack Bunce by Y. 

(johanna) 
1 6 y.-o. (Roderich Randow 
by Re gent) 

agst. 3 horses, which had won races 
in the same \-ear, 
and twice second, 

last race 11 Sept., at Hastings, the 

Town PI., 2 M., with Heats, ;^50 

3 y.-o. Honeysuckle 7 st. (i . . 1. 

18 y.-o. Marksman 9 st. N . . . 2. 

n y.-o. Barbarv sst. 13 .... 3, 



ran /ti tunes, won 32 times. 



156 



Trial of the 'riiuroiii^hbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



No. 31. Cannon-ball 1810 bv Sancho. 



ran 3 year-old 2 times, won 2 times. 



,, 4 


6 


M 3 ,1 


„ 5 


,, 10 ,, 


1, 8 ,, 


,, 6 


) > 5 11 


1, 3 ,1 


M 7 


9 ,, 


M 1 M 


„ 8 


,, 8 


1, 4 1, 



beat Catton, Langold, Viscount, 



\\'anderer, 
Diamonds. 



Ski 



and King of 



Oatl. St. at Xewm., 2 Miles, 9 st. 3 
agst.4 4y.-o. 7st. 5 to 7 st. 12 
1 5y.-o.8st.6 

2 6y.-o.8st.8 

agst. 7 horses (amongst which were 
the 4y.-o. Waterloo and 6 y.-o. 
Anticipation). 
Jockey Club PI. at Newm. B. C.= 
4M. 1 F. 138 v., 8 St. 11 
agst. 2 4 y.-o. 7 st. 2 

1 5 y.-o. 8 St. 3 

agst. 3 good racers. 
King's PI. at Newm., 

agst. 4 y.-o. \\'aterloo. 
Hdc. at Newm., 2 Miles, 9st. 4 
agst. 3 3 y.-o. 7 st. 

1 4 y.-o. 8 St. 7 

agst. 4 horses, 
and twice second at Newmarket. 
Crav. St. at Newm., 1 M. 2 F. 44 Y., 
9 St. 7 
agst. 7 3 y.-o. 5 st. 10 (inch Wou- 
vermans). 
5 4 y.-o. 8 St. 

4 -5 y.-o. 8 St. 9 

agst. l(j good racers. 
King's PI. at Newm. 
agst. 6 y.-o. Skim and 7 y.-o. Anti- 
cipation. 
Jockey Club PI. at Newm. B. C.= 
4^M. 1 F. 138 Y., 8 St. 11 
agst. 2 4 y.-o. 7 st. 2 (Sam. D) and 
7 St. 5 (Wouvermans). 
and twice second at Newmarket. 



ran 



48 times, won 24 times. 



5. The Thoroughbred in the Past .ind Prt'seiit. 



157 





No. 


3-2 


Dr. 


Syntax 


1811 by Paynator. 


1 3 


vear-old 


8 


tinu's, 


won 


5 


times. 


4 




7 


, , 


, , 


(; 




5 




•J 


» 1 


, , 


1 




6 




4 


, , 


, , 







7 




4 


» 1 


, , 


1 




8 




4 


M 


» » 


3 


,, ("lold (.'up at 



„ 10 



M 11 



]2 



ran 



ncaster, 3 M., 8 st. 1-2 
agst. () \-.-o. Paiilowitz 8st.l2 
Gold Cup at Preston, 3 M.. 8st.J'2 

agsl. ■'! \'.-u. (') St. (J 
once .second Gold Gup at IviclTmond 
4 young Iiorses behind. 
4 ,, ,, 4 ,, Gold Cup at Lanca.ster, 3 M., 8 st. 12 

agst. 2 4y.-o. 8 St. 
Gofd Cup at Preston, 3 M., 8 st. 12 

agst. 2 4 y.-o. S st. 
Gold Cup at RichmiMid, 4 M., 8st. 10 
agst. 3 3 v.-o. 6 St. 10 
-I 1 y.-o. 8 St. 
1 5 y.-o. 8 St. 7 

agst. 8 good racers. 
4 ,, ,,3 ,, Gold Cup at Preston, 3 M., 8 St. 12 

agst. 1 4 y.-o. 8 St. 

and liy.-o. Reveller L. 8 St. 12 
• Gold Cup at Richmond, i M., 8 st. 10 
agst. .5 y.-o. 8 st. 7 
.second in the Gold Cup at Lancaster 
to i'l \-.-o. Re\-ellcr L. 
4 ,, ,, 2 ,, C-old Cup at Richmond, 4 .M., Sst. 10 

agst. 4 y.-o. 8 st. 
Gold Cup at Xorthallerston, 4 JVl., 
?) St. 1 
agst. 2 .'i v.-o. (■) St. 7 and (i st. 12 
1 .5 y.-o. 8 St. 12 
1 older 9 St. 1 

agst. 4 liDrses, 
and twice second in the Gold Cup at 

Preston 
and in the (iold Cup at Lancaster. 
.5 ,, ,, 3 ,, Xewcastle, 2 Miles, 9 St. 

19 times, xvon 3(i limes, agst. 1 3 y.-o. G St. 10 

and 1 4 v.-o. 8 St. 3 
Gold Cup a"t Pontefraci, 2 M., 9st. 1 
agst. I y.-o. 8 St. 



158 



Trial of the Thoroutrhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



Gold Cup at Richmond, 4 M., 9 st. 

agst.2 3 y.-o.6st.l0 
1 4y.-o.8st. 
1 5 y.-o. 8 St. 9 

agst. 4 horses. 

In this last race Dr. Syntax fell down immediately after winning, but 
without damaging itself. 



,. 4 


3 ,, 


,, 2 times 


M 5 


,, 11 ,. 


,, 8 ,, 


., 6 


9 ,. 


,, 4 ,, 


,, 7 


9 ,, 


2 


„ 8 


8 „ 


,, 3 ,, 



No. 33. Euphrates 1816 by Quiz, 
ran 3 year-old 5 times, won 1 time, D. and L. not placed 2, third. 



Gold Cup at Cheltenham, 3 M., 9 st. 4 
agst. 1 4 y.-o. 8 st. 
and 2 5 y.-o. 8 st. 11, amongst 
which were Sharper bv Octavius, 
who won the race in St. Petersburg 
over 75 versts. 
Oxfordshire St., 2 Miles, 8st. 12 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 6 St. 8 

3 4 y.-o. 7 St. 11 to 8 st. 1 
1 6 y.-o. 9 St. 3= Escape 

agst. 5 horses. 
Gold Cup at Lichfield, 3 M., 8st. 12 

agst. 4 y.-o. 8 st. 
Gold Cup at Newton, 3 Miles, 8 st. 12 

agst. 1 4 y.-o. 8 st. 
8 5 y.-o. 8 St. 8 

agst. 4 horses. 
Gold Cup at Worcester, 4 M., 9 st. 4 
agst. 2 4 y.-o. 8 st. 
1 6 v.-o.9st.l 



13 



agst. 3 horses. 
Cup at Wolverhampton, 3 Miles, 9 st. 
agst. 1 4 y.-o. 8 st. 2 

2 5 y.-o. 8 St. 10 • 



agst. 3 horses. 



Gold Cup at Lichfield, 3 Miles, 8st.6 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 6 st. 6 

3 4 y.-o. 7 St. 10 to 7 st. 12 

apst. 4 horses. 



5. The ThoroLiijlibred in the I'ast and Picsenl. 259 

Gold Cup at Oswestry, 3J M., 9 st. 2 
agst. 4 y.-o. Buttler 8 st. 
and 5 y.-o. Hesperus 8 st. 9 
ran ]() year-old 11 limes, won a times. Kint^'s PI. at Chester 

agst. 5 4 y.-o. 
Gold Cup at Lichfield, 3 M., 8 St. 12 
agst. 4 y.-o. Cain 7 st. 12 
and 5 y.-o. Longwaist 8 st. 6 
Gold Cup at Oswestry, .3^ M., 9st.2 
agst. 2 4 y.-o. 8 st. 
,, 11 .. 8 .. .,3 ,, King's PI. at Lichfield, 4 M., Heats, 

agst. 1 4 v.-o. 
1 6 V.-o. 
1 older 

agst. 3 horses. 
Gold Cup at Oswestrv, 3 Miles 

agst. 4 y.-o. .Mayfly. 
Town PI. at Oswestry, 3J M., Heats, 
9 St. 2 
agst. 4 y.-o. Mayfly 7 st. 10 
and 5 y.-o. Cymb'eline 7 st. 12 
and 3 times second in good races with 
large fields. 
., 12 ,. 10 ,, ,, 5 ,, King's PI. at Chester 9 St. 10 

agst. 1 4 y.-o. 8 st. 2 
and 1 5 y.-o. 9 st. 6 
Gold Cup at Ludlow, 3 Miles, 8st. 12 
agst. 3 y.-o. Alcaston 6 st. 6 
and 8 y.-o. Hesperus 9 st. 
Gold Cup at \\'orcester, 4 M., 9 st. 1 
agst. 1 4 v.-o. 8 St. 
andl 6 y.-o. 8 St. 12 
Gold Cup at Wrexham, 9 st. 7 
agst. I I y.-o. 8st. ;5 
and 2 -j y.-o 8 st. 9 and 9 st. 
and twice second. 
•• i;^ .. 9 . „ 3 ,, Gold Cup at Ludlow, 3 Miles, 8 St. 12 

agst. 3 y.-o. Melody G st. 5 
and 5 y.-o. Sampson 8 st. 10 
Cup at Wolverhampton, 3 .Miles, 9 st. 
agst. 4 y.-o. Mufti 8 st. 2 
and fi y.-o. Euxton 9 st. 
King's PI. at Lichfield, i .M., Heats, 
12 St. 
agst. 7 y.-o. .\Iderman 12 st. 
and .; times second. 



ran 96 times, won 42 times. 



1(^0 'IVial r)f the Thoniuslibred dp tlie Racecourse, etc. 

No. :U. Prosody ISIS by Don Cossack. 

ran 3 year-old fi times, won 2 times, at Goodw. -2 Miles, second, and im- 
mediately after 2 Miles with Heats, 
also second. 

,,4 ,, ]1 ,< ,, -T .. -1 times winner two days one after the 

other over 1 and 2 INIiles with Heats. 

,, .5 ,, 18 ,, ,, 10 ,, and 4 times second. 

1 July, about 2 Miles with Heats, 
second, 

2 July, 3 Miles, first, 
and won the same dav* 

about 2 Miles with Heats, first. 

6 August, 2 Miles with Heats, first. 

7 August, 2 Miles with Heats, first, 
and immediately after 

2 Miles with Heats, first. 

13 August, 2 Miles with Heats, third, 

and on the same dav 1 \l\le, first. 

27 August, 2 Miles with Heats (three 
times), first. 

28 August, 4 Miles with Heats (three 
times, once dead heat, twice first), 
first. 

17 Sept., 2 Miles with Heats, first. 

18 Sept., 2 Miles with Heats, first. 
,, 6 ,, 11 ,, ,, 4 ,, and 5 times second. 

Won the 3 first races with Heats, then 
2-5 August, 2 Miles, second, 

and 2 Miles with Heats, third. 
26 August, about 2 INIiles with Heats, 

second, 
and immediateK- after 
about 2 Miles with Heats, second. 
4 Sept., 2^ Miles with Heats, second. 
15 Sept., 2 Miles with Heats (3 times), 
second. 

4 October, 2J ]\Iiles with Ileats, not 
placed. 

5 October, 25 Miles with Heats, first. 
,, 7 ,, 11 ,, ,, 7J ,, and once second. 

7 July, 4J- Miles with Heats, first. 
13 July, 2J Miles, second, 
and immediately after 
I3 MiJes with f-Ieats (3 times), twice 
dead heat. 



5. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 161 

3 August, 4 Miles with Heats, first. 
•25 August, 2 Miles with Heats, first. 
7 Sept., about 2 Miles with Heats, 

first, 
and on the same day 
about 2 Miles with Heats, first. 

15 Sept., 2J Miles with Heats, first 
(Gold Cup at Exeter, 4 behind). 

1() Sept., about 2 Miles with Heats, 
first. 
ran 8 yt^ar-old 13 times, won 8 times, and twice second, always against 

3-ounger horses. 

23 August, 2 Miles, second, 
and immediately after 

2J Miles with Heats, not placed. 

24 August, about 2 Miles with Heats 
(3 times), first against 1 5 3'.-o. and 
1 4 y.-o. on the same day. 

1 Mile with Heats, not placed. 

5 Sept., 3 Miles with Heats (3 times), 
Second. 

6 Sept., 2 Miles with Heats, first, 
agst. 1 5 y.-o. and 1 4 y.-o. 

12 Sept., 2 Miles with Heats, first. 

13 Sept., 2J Miles with Heats, first, 
agst. 1 5 y.-o. and 4 y.-o. Conquest. 

,,9 „ 6 M .. 1 .. 15 August, 21 Miles, third. 

16 August, 2J Miles, second. 

28 August, 2J Miles with Heats, first, 
9 St. 4 agst. 2 3 y.-o. under 7 st. 1 
and 7 st. 7 

29 August, 2J Miles, second. 

12 Sept., about 2 Miles, third. 

13 Sept., 2\ Miles with Heats, second. 
,, 10 n 7 ,. ,.2 ,, 24 July, about 2 Miles with Heats, 

ran 83 times, won 39i limes, first, agst. 2 5 y.-o. and 2 4 y.-o. 

and on the same day 1 Mile with 
Heats (4 times, once dead heat, 
once first), second, 1 5 y.-o. and 2 
4 y.-o. behind. 

6 August, 2^ Miles, second, 

and on the same day about 3 Miles 
with Heats (3 times), second 1 
6 y.-o. and 2 5 y.-o. behind. 

21 .4ugust, 3 Miles with Heats, first, 
8 St. 11 



16-2 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



„ 5 


,, 12 ,. 


,, 6 , 


„ 6 


M Ifi ., 


,, 8 , 


,, 7 


M 14 ,, 


,, 4 , 


., 8 


9 


,, 2 , 


,, 9 


,, 10 ., 


M 6 , 



10 



13 



agst. 1 5y.-o.8st. 5, and 
1 3 y.-o. 6 St. 7 

3 Sept., 2 Miles with Heats, third. 

4 Sept., 2 Miles with Heats, second. 
Was covered at 11 years old, and had 6 foals, of which several won good 
races. 

No. 35. Hesperus 1820 by Hollyhock. 

ran 4 year-old 3 times, won times. 



agst. 4, 5 and 6 y.-o. horses. 

under a high weight against younger 

horses. 
City PI. at Chester, 9 st. 2 

agst. 4 y.-o. Grimbald 8 st. 
Gift of Earl Grosvenor at Chester, 2 
Miles, 9 St. 2 

agst. 2 5 y.-o. 8 st. 12 
Gloucestershire St. at Cheltenham, 

8 St. 7 

agst. 5 4 y.-o. 7 to 8 st. 
and 3 5 y.-o. 7 st. to 8 st. 8 

agst. 8 horses. 
Gold Cup at Worcester, 4 Miles, 

9 St. 2 

agst. 3 4 y.-o. 7 st. 12 to 8 st. 2 
Handicap at Wrexham, 2 Miles, 
Heats, 9 St. 5 
agst. 3 3 y.-o. 7 st. to 7 st. 3 
1 4 y.-o. 8 St. C) 
1 6 y.-o. 8 St. 12 

agst. 5 horses, 
.and 6 times second in good races. 



ran 



77 times, won 33 times. 



No. 36. Liston 1821 by Ambo. 
ran 3 year-old 1 time, won times. 



,, 4 


•4 


times. 


won 3 ,, 


,, 5 


8 


» r 


„ 5 „ 


„ 6 


,, 14 


)» 


„ 9 „ 


M 7 


„ 16 


»» 


,, 10 ,, 


„ 8 


M 11 


M 


,. 5 „ 



Oxfordshire St., 2 Miles, 9 st. 5 
agst. 2 3 y.-o. 6 st. 5 and 6 st. 12 
and 2 4 y.-o. 7 st. 7 and 8 st. 2 

agst. 4 horses. 



5. The Thoroughbred in the I'ast and Present. 1C,3 

Gold Cup at Warwick, 4 Miles, 9 st. 5 

agst. 3 4y.-o. 8 st. 3 
Cup at Abingdon, 3 Miles, 9 st. 2 

agst. (iy.-o. Jocko 9 st. 
and 3 times second, 
ran 9 vear-old C times, won 3 times. Selling Race at Abingdon, 3 Miles, 

9 St. 2 
agst. 3 4 y.-o. 8 st. 
and 2 5 y.-o. 8 st. 9 



agst. 5 horses, 
and once second. 
,, 10 ,, 7 ,, ,,3 ,. Cup at Newport, 3 Miles, 8 St. 13 

agst. 4 y.-o. Paradox 8 st. 7 
Selling Race at Abingdon, 2 Miles, 

agst. 1 3 y.-o. and 3 4 y.-o., 
and 3 times second. 
,,11 ,, 12 ,, ,, G ,, \\'()n 3 Selling Races, over 2 Miles, 

agst. 3 6 y.-t). horses. 
Salperton St. at Cheltenham, 2 Miles, 
9 St. 7 
agsl. 1 3 y.-o. 7 st. 
and 1 4 y.-o. 8 st. 7 
and on tlie same dav 
Cup, 3 Miles, 9 st.'l 

agst. 5 y.-o. Thorngrove 8 st. 11 
,, 12 ,, 8 ,, ,, 5 ,, Handicap at Bath, 1^ Miles, 8 St. 10 

agst. 3 5 y.-o. 7 st. 10 to 8 st. J 
(Sinbad) 
and 2 (i v.-o.8 st. 2 and 9 st. 2 
(iJryan) 

agst. 5 horses. 
2 Selling Races, IJ and 2 Miles, 

agst. young horses. 
Beaufort St. at Cilnucestcr, about 2 
Miles, Heats, 

agst. 1 3 y.-o. and 1 fiy.-o., 
and on the follow ing da\- 
City Member's I'i., 2 Miles, Heats, 

agst. 6 y.-o. Harry. 
). 13 ,, 7 ,, ,,1 ,, Selling Race at Batii, 3 Miles, 9 St. 2 

agst. 4 y.-o. 7 st. 13 
and second in Gold Cup at Newporl. 



ran 90 times, won 50 times. 



|g4 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

No. 37. Fleur de Us T82-2 by Bourbon, 
ran 3 year-old 4 times, won 3 times, L. not placed. 

,, 7 ,, Dcp. 



4 


M 


7 


5 


yi 


(5 


6 


M 


5 


7 


»» 


C-, 



ran 31 times, won ■22 times. 



4 „ 

3 „ 

4 ,, Gold Cup at Goodw., 9 st. 3 

agst. 5y.-o. Mameluke D. 9 st. 3 
and 4 others. 
1 ,, Gold Cup at Goodw., 9 st. 9 

agst. 8 horses, amongst which were 
5 y.-o. The Colonel L. 10 st. 
,, second in the Gold Cup at Goodw., 
9 St. 11 
agst. 4 y.-o. Priam D. 9 St. 5 
behind 4 y.-o. Variation 8 st. 11 
which had won 4 good races in the 
same year. 



No. 38. Conquest 1822 by Waterloo, 
ran 3 year-old 3 times, won 2 times. Altogether Races with Heats, 

„ 4 „ 11 „ „ 7 „ 2-2J Miles. 

.5 ,, 19 ,, ,, 12 ,, ran and won on August 9 at Salisbury 

— 33 times, won 21 times, 'i 3 races, one after the other with- 

out a pause, with fresh opponents, 
viz. : — 

1. Sweepstakes, 2 Miles, 8 st. 7 

2. The City Member's PI., 2 Miles 
with Heats. 

3. The City Bowl, 2A Miles with 
Heats. 

Ran on the 16th August at Blandford 
the following 3 races : 

1. Dorsetshire St., 2 Miles, not 
placed. 

2. Selling Races, 2^ Miles, won, and 
immediately after 

3. Member's PI., 2^ Miles, second. 
Won on the 23rd August at Taunton, 

2J Miles with Heats, against 3 good 
racehorses. 

Won on the 24th August in the Town 
PL, 2| Miles with Heats. 

Won on the 28th August in Bridg- 
water Ladies' PL, 2i Miles with 
Heats, 



5. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 105 

and on the -JOth August at the same 
place Member's PL, 2J Miles with 
Heats (3 times), 

and on tiie 12th Sept. at Exeter Mem- 
ber's PL, -2^ Miles with Heats. 

Ran on the 13th Sept. at the same 
place Handicap PL, 2J Miles with 
Heats, not placed, 

and was victorious immediately after- 
wards in the City Member's PL, 2\ 
Miles with Heats. 

Ran on the 2r)th Sept. at Dorchester 
Tradesmen's PL, atioiit 2 Miles with 
Heats, not placed, 

and won on the same day in the 
Ladies' PL, about 2 Miles with 
Heats (3 times), against 4 good race- 
horses, 

and ran on the following day at the 

. same place Yeoman's PL, 2 Miles 
with Heats, against 3 good race- 
horses, won the first Heat, but fell 
in the second Heat, injuring itself 
inwardly, and had to be killed. 

No. 39. Tranby 1.S2G by Blacklock. 
November 1831. The famous bet of Mr. Osbaldiston to ride 200 miles in 
10 hours, any number of horses. Won in 8 hours, 42 minutes, with 29 horses, 
amongst which was the 5 vear-old Tranby by Blacklock, which had to go four 
times, 4 miles eacJT time, with about one hour's pause each time. Tranby 
took for the : — 

1st 4 Miles 8 Minutes, ID Seconds. 

2nd 4 Miles 8 ,, — 

3rd 4 Miles 8 ,, !'> 

4th 4 Miles 8 ,, 50 

In the next vear Tranbv ran and won twice at Newmarket in a well con- 
tested race, then became Sire of " I am not aware," who won races 2 — 9 year- 
old, and was then sold tn America, where he got renowned as sire of 
V'andal's dam. 

\o. 10. C'alhrrina 1830 by \\'hisker. 
ran 2 \ear-old 2 times, won times, twice second. 
,, 3 ,, 111 ,, ,, I ,, O. not placed, L. second. 

„ 4 ,, 17 ,, ,. 10 ,. 

„ r, ,, 19 „ „ 11 ,. 

,, n ,, 20 ,, ,,11 ,. incl. twice King's PI. 



166 Trial of the Thorou};hbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

ran 7 year-old 18 times, won 6 times, incl. once King's PI. 
1,8 ,, 1~ ,, ,, 5 ,, The Tradesmen's Cup at Manchester, 

21 Miles, 8 st. 7 
agst. 2 4 y.-o. 7 st. and 7 st. 12 
1 5 y.-o. 7 St. 
1 older S st. 5 



agst. 4 horses. 
1 King's PI. agst. 2 4 y.-o. 
and 4 times second. 
9 ,, 25 ,, ,, 10 ,, The Tradesmen's Cup at Burnley, 2J 

Miles, 8 St. 11 
agst. 3 4 v.-o. 8 st. 2 
1 older 9 st. 

agst. 4 horses. 
10 ., 25 ,, ,, ]2 ,, Ladies' Purse at Chester, ahout 2 

Miles with Heats 
agst. 3 3 y.-o. 
1 4 y.-o. 
1 5 y.-o. 

agst. 5 horses. 
Lancashire St. at Burnley, about 3 
Miles, Heats 
agst. 4 y.-o. The Shadow and 5 y.-o. 
St. Leonard 
and immediately after 
A free PI., about 3 ]\liles. Heats 

agst. 2 4 y.-o. and 1 5 y.-o. 
Sweepst. at Chesterfield, 2 Miles 

agst. 1 4 y.-o. and 1 5 y.-o. 
and on the following day 
Sweepst., about 2 Miles 

agst. 1 3 y.-o. and 1 4 y.-o. 
and immediately after 
The Town PI., 2 Miles, Heats (3 
times) 
agst. 2 3 y.-o. 
1 4 y.-o. 

1 5 v.-o. 

agst. 4 horses. 
The Tally-ho St. at Welshpool, 2 
Miles, Heats (3 times), 11 st. 5 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 8 st. 7 

2 4 y.-o. 9 St. 5 

1 5 y.-o. 10 St. 10 
1 older 11 St. 5 

agst. 5 horses, 



5 The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 167 

atid on tlie foUowinj; day 
The Innkeeper's Purse, IJ Miles, 
Heats (3 times) 
afjst. 1 3 v.-o. and 2 5 v.-o. 
ran H year-old:28 timrs. won U times. The All-aged St. at Tenbiiry, 2 Miles, 

Heats (4 times), 8 st. 11 
agst. 2 5 y.-o. 8 st. 7 and 8 st. 10 
3 older 8 st. 11 to 9 st. 3 



agst. 5 horses. 
Svveepst. at Bridgnorth, about 2 
Miles, Heats (3 times) 

agst. 1 4 y.-o., 1 5 y.-o. and 1 older, 
and on the following day 
A Gold Cup, about 2 Miles 

agst. 1 4 y.-o., 1 5 y.-o. and 1 older. 
On the 30th August second in Race 

over IJ Miles with Heats. 
On the following day third in a Race 

over 2 Miles, and on the same day 

second in a Race over l\ Miles with 

Heats. 
On the 28th Sept. second in a Race 

over about 3 Miles, 
and immediately after winner in 
Pottery St., about 2 Miles, Heats 

agst. 2 4 y.-o., 
and on the following day winner in 
Town St., about 2 Miles 

agst. 2 3 y.-o. 
On the 6th October Sweepst. at 
Knutsford, 2 Miles 

agst. 1 4 y.-o., 
immediately after not placed in Race 

over 2J Miles, 
and on the following dav second, ]J 

-Miles with Heats (3 times), 3 be- 
hind. 
On tlic Mth October third in a Race 

over 2 Miles with Heats, 
and on the same dav 
Tally-ho St. at Welshpool, 2 Miles, 
Heats, 11 St. 5 

agst. 4 y.-o. Hautboy 9 st. 11 
and on the following day 
Innkeeper's Purse, IJ Miles, Heats ([ 
times), 9 St. 8 



168 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



agst. 1 3y.-o. 7 st. 3 

2 older 9 st. 8 and 9 st. 13 
(amongst them Kitty Cockle) 
18th October Moorland St. at Leek, 
about 2 Miles, Heats (3 times) 
acrst. 2 3 v.-o. and 1 older. 



ran 



176 times, won 81 times, and had 9 good foals. 
No. 41. Isaac 1831 by Figaro. 



ran 3 year-old 2 times, won 1 time. 



., 4 


3 „ 


., 5 


„ 8 „ 


., 6 


M 14 ,, 


,, 7 


,, 16 ,, 


„ 8 


M 23 „ 



2 times. 

1 time, King's PI 

9 times. 
10 „ 
18 



Handicap at Coventry, IJ Miles, 9 st. 
agst.l 3y.-o. 6 st. 4 

1 4y.-o. 7 St. 4 

2 5 y.-o. 8 St. and 8 st. 6 



agst. 4 horses. 










Handicap at Bath, 


1 


Mile, 


H 


eat 


8 St. 12 










agst. 2 3 y.-o. 6 st. 


4 


and 6 st. 


12 


2 4 y.-o. 7 St. 


6 


and 7 


St. 


10 


1 5 y.-o. 9 st 


2 








1 older 8 st. 


1 









agst. 6 horses. 
Worcestershire St., 2 Miles, 8 st. 10 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 6 st. 4 

1 4 y.-o. 7 St. 10 
and on the same day 

City Member's Pl.^ 2 Miles, Heats, 
9 St. 6 
agst.l 3 y.-o. 6 st. 10 

2 older 9 st. 4 
and on the following day 
Gold Cup, 3 Miles, 9 st. 4 

agst. 5 y.-o. Modesty 8 st. 13. 
Oxfordshire St., 2 Miles, 8 st. 3 

agst. 1 5 y.-o. 9 st. 11 (Caravan) 
1 6 v.-o. 9 St. 2 
1 older 6 St. 9 

agst. 3 horses, 
and on the following day 
Cup, 21 Miles, 9 st. 

agst. 1 5 y.-o. 9 st. 11 

3 6 y.-o. 9 St. to 9 st . 5 

agst. 4 horses. 



5 The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 109 

Leamington St. at W^arwick, 2 Miles, 
8 St. 3 
agst.2 4y.-o. 6 St. 7 and 7 st. 7 

1 5y.-o. 7 St. 13 

2 6y.-o. 8 St. 5 and 8 st. 10 
(KinCT Cole) 

agst. 5 horses. 
On the following day second in the 

W^arwick Cup, over 4 Miles, T) y.-o. 

Caravan behind. 
On the following da\' 
Stand St., 2 Miles, 8 st. 10 

agst. 2 3 y.-o. 6 st. and 6 st. 5, 
and immediately after third in King's 

PI., 2 Miles, Heats. 
King's PI. at Leicester 

agst. 1 3 y.-o. and 1 4 y.-o., 
and on the following day 
Gold Cup, about 3 Miles, 9 st. 4 

agst. 1 3 y.-o. and 1 5 y.-o. Ci st. 7 
and 9 st. 1. 
Gold Cup at Shrewsbury, 3 Miles 

agst. 5 y.-o. Caravan, 
and on the following day 
King's PL, 3 Miles 

agst. 1 3 y.-o. and 2 5 y.-o. 
Cup at Oswestry, IJ Miles, not 

placed, 5 starters. 
Immediately after 
w. o., li Miles 
and 

Member's St., U Miles. Heats (3 
times), 8 st. 13 

agst. 1 3 y.-o. 7 st. 
and 1 4 y.-o. 7 st. 11 
ran !) year-old ].') times, won T) times. Worcestershire St., 2 Miles, 9 st. 5 

agst. 2 4 y.-o. 7 st. 4 and 7 st. 10 
Cup at Oxford, 2^ Miles. 9 st. 

agst. 2 4 y.-o. 7 st. 13 and 8 st. 2 
1 Gy.-o. 9 St. 5 (Caravan) 

agst. 3 horses. 
Ifith Sept. at Shrewsbury, 2 Miles, 

not placed. 
17th Sept. second Gold Cup, 3 Miles. 
18th Sept. King's PL, 3 Miles 

agst. 5 good horses, 



Trial of the Thoroiifjhbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



and on the same day second in Mem- 
ber's Pi., about 2J Miles, Heats. 

Gold Cup at Wrexham, about .3 
Miles, 9 St. 1 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 7 st. 

1 4 y.-o. S St. 1 
1 6 y.-o. 9 St. 

agst. 3 horses. 
Handicap at Newm., 2 Miles, 9 st. 1 
asfst. 4 3 y.-o. 5 st. 3 to 6 st. 9 
4 4 y.-o. 6 St. 7 to 8 st. 5 

2 5 v.-o. 7 St. 7 and 8 st. 
1 ofder 8 St. 7 

agst. 11 horses. 
In the Cesarew., 8 st. 5, not placed, 
ran 10 year-old 13 times, won 1 time. Handicap at Warwick, 2 Miles, 9 st. 4 

agst. 6 4 y.-o. 6 st. 12 to 8 st. 4 

3 5 y.-o. 7 St. 8 to 8 st. 10 
1 older 7 St. 7 



11 



12 


J> 


4 


13 


M 


3 


14 


M 


4 


15 


) » 


1 



agst. 10 horses. 
On the same day in Handicap second. 
Ran further in many big Handicaps, 
in small and large Handicaps, 
and twice second in Kino-'s PI. 



I in Hurdle and Himtcr Races. 



ran 3 

M 4 

M 5 

M 6 

„ 7 



111 times, won 54 times. 

No. 42. Zohrab 1831 by Lottery, 
year-old 6 times, won 3 times. 



8 
6 

10 
7 

17 



4 

3 

8 

4 

11 



1 King's PI. 



Victoria St. at Cheltenham, 2 Miles, 
9 St. 7 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 6 st. 12 
and 2 5 y.-o. 7 st. 12 and 9 st. 2 
Ladies' PI. at Kelso, 2J Miles, 9 st. 2 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 7 st. 7 " 
1 4 y.-o. 7 St. 7 
1 5 v.-o. 7 St. 8 
1 6 y.-o. 8 St. 3 



agst. 4 horses, 



o. The Thiiriiiitjhbrt'd in llic Past aTid Present. 



171 



(jften ran and won twice on the same 
day. 
ran vear-old 11 times, won 'J times. Gold C"up in Hylinton Park, 2i Miles, 

1'2 St. 4 ' 
agst.-2 6y.-o. 1-2 st. 4 
(Cardinal Puff) 
1 older 12 st. 4 
often ran twice on the same day. 
,, 18 ,, ,, (3 ,, often won twice on the same day, 

mostly- in Races with Heats, 
last Race at Kelso, 1^ Miles, 9 st. 9 
agst. -2 4 y.-o. 7 st. 13 
1 5 v.-o. 9 St. 6 
1 older 9 St. 3 

agst. 4 horses. 



„ 10 



r;in 



S3 times, won -'iC) times. 



No. 43. The Potentate 1832 bv Lansrar. 



ran 


2v 


1 » 


3 


M 


4 


»» 





, ^ 


n 


1 » 


7 


M 


8 



,-ear-old 3 times, won times. 



o 

]] 
19 
23 
13 



13 



1 

4 

11 

15 

4 



and twice second (Derby at York and 
St. Leger at Liverpool). 



incl. twice Kinej's PI. 

incl. 3 times King's PI. 

Goodwood Cup, against 19 horses of 

a good class (of which were Epirus, 

EucHd, Retriever, Verulam). 
mostly in big, well contested Races. 
The Glasgow Cup at Paislev, 2 Miles, 
8 St. 8 

agst. oy.-o. Rejected 7 st. 12 
last Race, A free Handicap, 1 .Mile, 
Heats (3 times), 8 st. 9 

agst. 2 G v.-o. 7 St. 3 and 9 st. 2 



ran 



01 times, won 39 times. 



No. II. Hee's Wing 1S.33 by Dr. Syntax, 
an 2 vear-old 3 times, won 2 times. 



.3 


.1 5 






.) 


L. not placed. 




8 






'■' ,. 


incl. 1 King's PI. 




9 






'' M 


incl. 1 King's PI. 


fi 


M 12 






11 ,, 


incl. 3 King's PI. 




., 12 






10 .. 


incl. 1 King's PI. 



17-. 



Trial of the Thorous"hbred on tlie Racecourse, etc. 



ran 8 year-old 10 times, won 9 times. Trial St. at Chester 

agst. 2 3 y.-o. 
1 5 y.-o. 
1 older. 



agst. 



4 horses. 

Gold Cup at Newcastle, 2 Miles, 9 st. 3 
agst. 4-y.-o. Calypso 8 st. 5 
and 6y.-o. Lanercost Acp. 9 st. 3 
Gold Cup at Stockton, 9 st. 8 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 6 st. 11 
1 4 y.-o. 7 St. 7 
1 5 y.-o. 9 St. 5 

agst. 3 horses. 
Cup at Doncaster 

agst. .5 y.-o. Shadow. 
Gold Cup' at Ascot, 2J Miles 
agst. 2 4 y.-o. 
and 2 older (of which were 
Lanercost Acp.) 

agst. 4 horses. 
Gold Cup at Newcastle, 2 Miles 
agst. 6 y.-o. Charles XII. L. 
Gold Cup at Doncaster 
agst. 3 y.-o. Attila 

6 y.-o. Charles XII. L. 
and 6 )'.-o. Shadow 

agst. 3 horses. 



ran 



64 times, won 51 times. 



No. 45. Adrian 1834 by Sultan, 
ran 2 year-old 10 times, won 1 time. 



,, 4 


9 „ 





,, 


,, 5 


, 12 ,, 


1 


» • 


„ 6 


3 „ 





, , 


M 7 


, 14 ,, 


5 


times. 


M 8 


, 18 ,, 


8 


M 


,, 9 


, 20 ,, 


4 


M 


„ 10 


, 14 ,, 


2 


»» 


,, 11 


, 7 ,, , 





M 


„ 12 


4 ,, 


3 


» » 


M 13 


3 ,, 





M 



Ran chiefly in Races over 1^ to 2J 
Miles with Heats, and beat many 
younger horses, often in Selling 
Races. 

\ also in Hurdle Races. 



114 times, won 28 times. 



■5. The Thoroui,'hbrod in the Past and Present. 



173 



No. 4(i. The Sli;ido\v ]S8(; by The Saddler. 



ran -I v ear-old -1 (in 



3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 



4 
10 
19 

■2^ 

17 
10 



cs, won -2 times 



18 



.2 

2 

7 

13 

n 

]-2 

t) 



9 



O. not placed. 

incl. twice Kind's PI. 
inch 3 times King's PI. 
incl. once King's PI. 
Gold Cup at We.stern Meeting, 2 M., 
8 St. 13 
agst. 1 3y.-o. 7 st. 5 
and 1 4 y.-o. 8 st. 5 
and on the following day 
A Plate for all ages, 2 .Miles, Heats. 
A Plate of £50 at Perth, 2 Miles, 
Heats 
agst. 1 4 y.-o. and 1 5 y.-o. 
and on the same day 
Member's PI., about 2 Miles, 10 st. 2 

agst. 4 y.-o. Armytage 9 st. 9 
Cleveland Cup at Wolverhampton, 3 
Miles, 9 St. 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. Coer de Lion 7 st. 2 
1 4 y.-o. 7 St. 6 
1 v.-o. 9 St. 7 
1 G y.-o. 9 St. 11 

agst. 4 horses. 
King's PI. at York, 2 Miles 
agst. 3 3 y. o. 
and 2 ~j y.-o. 

agst. 5 horses. 
-Member's PI. at York, U Miles, 
Heats, 9 St. 2 

agst. 2 3 y.-o. 6 st. 7 and 7 st. 10 
King's PI. at Leicester 

agst. 1 3 y.-o. 
King's PI. at Donraster 

agst. 1 3 y.-o. 
.\ Plate at Dumfries, 2 Miles 

agst. 2 3 y.-o. 
A Plate of jCoO at Perth, 2 Miles, 
Heats 

agst. 1 3 y.-o. and I 1 y.-o., 
and on the same da\' 
.Member's PI., about 2 Miles 

ag.st. 2 3 y.-o. 



171 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



ran 10 year-old 7 times, won 1 time. Handicap at Aberdeen, IJ Miles, 

9 St. 5 
agst. 1 6 y.-o. 8 st. 1 
and 1 older 8 st. 4 
,, 11 ,, 3 ,, ,,1 ,, Welter St., Gentleman Rider, 1 Mile 

atjst. 3 older. 



ran 



113 times, won 61 times. 



No. 47. St. I>awrence 1837 by Skylark or Lapwing, 
ran 2 3'ear-old 6 times, won 2 times. 



incl. 5 times King's PI. 
in the best company. 

Tradesmen PI. Handicap at Chester, 
7 St. 10 
agst. 29 horses of a good class, 
amongst which were : Mendicant 
4 y.-o. 8 St. (second), Newcourta 
7 St. 10 (third), Annandale 5 y.-o. 
7 St. 13. 

In the C'esarew. 8 st. 2, not placed. 



3 




G 


.1 


4 




16 


M 9 


5 




4 


M 1 


6 




17 


M 13 


7 




■5 


,, 1 


8 




4 


,, 


9 







M 










M 1 



62 times, won 29 times. 



No. 48. Lady Flora 1838 by Hampton, 
ran 3 year-old 4 times, won 2 times. 



,, 4 




15 




7 ,. 


„ 5 




8 




„ 


M 6 




24 




12 ,. 


,. 7 




24 




12 ,, 


M 8 




19 




6 ,. 


„ 9 




16 




5 ,, 


M 10 




14 




•5 M 


M 11 




8 




.1 



Almost all in Races with Heats Ij 
to 3 Miles, against younger horses. 

Also ran in Hnrdle Races. 



132 times, won 51 times. 



No. 49. The Sailor (later Gaffer Green) 1839 by Obadiah. 
(Not in Stud Book, a Thoroughbred nevertheless). 

ran 6 year-old 6 times, won 4 times. 

7 n 4 

8 24 7 



5. Tlie Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 175 

ran 9 year-old 15 times, won 4 times, and 5 times second. 

Chester Handicap, f Mile, 5 st. 12 
agst. 3 3 y.-o. 4 st. 12 to 5 st. 3 
7 4 y.-o. 5 St. 11 to st. 13 

1 older 7 st. 8 



10 ,, 15 



agst. 11 h(jrses. 
Shrewsbury Handicap, li Miles, 
G St.' 12 
agst. 1 5 y.-o. 7 st. 6 

3 6 y.-o. 7 St. 2 to 7 st. 12 

1 older 8 st. 10 

agst. 5 horses, 
and on the same day 
Handicap, about 1 Mile with Heats, 
5 St. 7 

agst. 1 4 y.-o. 5 st. 4 

2 .5 y. o. 5 St. 6 and 5 st. 7 

1 older 5 St. 7 

agst. 4 horses. 
,, 4 ,, Chester Grand Stand Cup, about li 
Miles, 8 St. 2 
agst. 5 3 y.-o. 4 st. 12 to 6 st. 10 

2 4 y.-o. G St. 11 and 7 st. 10 
2 5 y.-o. 7 St. fi and 8 st. 2 

1 6 y.-o. 8 St. 10 
1 older 8 s(. G 

agst. 11 horses. 
Shrewsbury Sev. St., 1 Mile with 
Heats, 7 st. 7 
agst. 2 5 y.-o. 5 st. 11 and G st. 
Newport Handicap, 1 Mile, 8 st. 7 

agst. 2 3 y.-o. 6 st. 6 
1 5 y.-o. 7 St. 13 

agst. 3 horses. 
Leominster V'olka St., U Miles with 
Heats (4 times), 8 st. 12 
agst. 4 4 y.-o. G st. 10 to 7 st. 10 

I G y.-n. 7 si. l:i 

agst. .5 horses. 
li >> 20 ,, ,, 1 ,, Ran in good Races and in good 

company. 
Wrexham Handicap, IJ Miles with 
Heats (4 times), 7 st, 9 



176 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



agst. 1 3 y.-o. 7 st. 

3 4 y.-o. 6 St. 13 to 7 st. 11 
2 6 y.-o. 8 St. 1 and 8 st. 7 

agst. G horses, 
ran 12 year-old 10 times, won times. Ran in good Races and in good 

company. 
,, 13 ,, not rim. 

,, 14 ,, 8 ,, ,,1 )i in several big Handicaps in good 

company. 
Walsall Member's St., about IJ M. 
with Heats (4 times), 8 st. 11 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 7 st. 1 
and 2 4 y.-o. 7 st. 13 



ran 



109 times, won 25 times. 



No. .50. Inheritress (Foundation Mare of Veilchen) 1840 by The 
Saddler. 



ran 2 year-old 4 times, won 1 time. 



., 3 





„ „ 


„ 4 


„ 10 „ 


,, 4 times 


,, 5 


n 24 ,, 


„ 14 „ 


,. 6 


., 1-7 ,, 


„ 7 „ 


M 7 


,, 15 ,, 


„ 9 „ 



18 



„ 11 



incl. 4 King's PL, 2 Miles, Heats, 
incl. 2 King's PL, 2 Miles, Heats, 
incl. 3 King's PL, 2 Miles, Heats, and 

3 Miles. 
Liverpool Cup, 2 Miles 

agst. 16 horses, 
second in the Gr. Metrop. St. at 

Epsom, 22 horses behind. 
The Cheshire St. at Chester, 1 Mile 
3 Furl., 8 St. 9 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 5 st. 2 

1 4 y.-o. 7 St. 2 (The Swallow) 
1 5 y.-o. 8 St. 10 (Pyrrhus I D.) 
1 older 7 st. 

agst. 4 horses. 
Handicap at Nottingham, 2 Miles, 
8 St. 9 
agst. 2 3 y.-o. 5 st. 4 and 5 st. 7 
1 4 y.-o. 6 St. 9 

1 older 7 st. 11 (Ya rdley) 

agst. 4 horses, 
and on the following day 
The Chesterfield Handicap, 1^ Miles, 
8 St. 10 
agst. 2 3 y.-o. 4 st. 12 and 5 st. 6 



o. 'I'liu 'rhoixiiii;lil>rcil ill iIk- I'.i>t aiul Present. 177 

and on the same dav 
King's PL, -2 Miles, Heats, 10 st. 
aysl. 1 .'jy.-o. 8 St. 2 
1 4 y.-n. 9 st. 4 

1 (■) y.-o. 10 St. 

ajjst. ■'! horses. 
Second in the \\V)l\'('rhanipt()n St., 

'2i Miles, 3 behind, 
and im tiie following dav 
'i'hc C"lc\('land Cup at W'oherhanip- 
ton, :] Miles, 9 st. 6 
agst. 1 '■] v.-o. 6 St. 
J 4 y.-o. 8 St. 2 
Dundas St. at York, IJ Miles, st. 
agst. 3 3 y.-o. 6 st. 8 
1 4 y.-o. 8 St. 2 
agst. 4 horses. 
Caledonian Handicap, 2 .Miles, 8 st. 13 
agst. 2 3 y.-o. -5 st. 11 and ('> st. 2 
I r, y.-i). S St. (Plaudit) 

agst. 3 horses. 
Richmond Handicap, 2 Miles, st. .) 
aqst. 4 3 v.-o. o st. 12 to (1 st. 4 
1 4 y.-o. 6 .St. 4 
1 older 7 st. 13 
agst. fi horses, 
twice King's PI. 
Ce.sarew. 8 st. 8, not ]:)laced. 
ran !» year-old II time-,, won 1 time. Handicap at Nottingham, \l Miles, 

8 St. 7 
agst. 1 4 v.-o. 7 St. 
1 times second and 
in 3 big Handicaps not placed. 
., 10 ,, n ,, ,, 1 ,, llandicaj) at W'ohcrhampton, IJ, M ., 

7 St. •') 
agst. 1 3 v.-o. .") St. () 
and 1 () y.-o. fi st. 4 
and in 1 big Handicaps not placed. 



lan 101 timi>s, won 18 limes. 

No. ."il. Dulcet JiSl2 by Dulcimer, 
ran 3 vear-old Ci limes, won 1 time. 
.,4' ,. in ., ,, 12itimes. 

,. i", .., 3 ,, ., 1 ,, 

fi ^ 



178 



Trial of the Thoroui^hbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



ran 7 year-old 5 times, won times. 



10 



11 



Handicap Newm. 2 Y. O. C.= 5 Furl. 
136 Yds., 7 St. 8 
agst. 4 3 y.-o. 6 st. 4 to 7 st. 7 
1 4v.-o.8st.5 

1 6 y.-o. 8 St. 9 

agst. 6 horses. 
Cobham PI. Handicap at Epsom, 
f Mile, 7 St. 7 
agst. 2 3 y.-o. 5 st. 12 and 6 st. 12 

2 4 y.-o. 7 St. 9 and 8 st. 
2 5 y.-o. 7 St. 7 

1 6 y.-o. 7 St. 10 

agst. 7 horses 

twice second in big Handicaps. 
Cesarew. and Cambr. not placed. 
Berkshire St. at Reading, 2 Miles, 
6 St. 13 
agst.l 3 y.-o. 6 St. 3 

4 4 y.-o. 6 St. 10 to 8 st. 
1 5 y.-o. 8 St. 1 

agst. 6 horses. 
Handicap at Newm., 1 Mile, 6 st. 5 
agst. 2 3 y.-o. 6 st. 12 and 7 st. 

1 4 y.-o. 7 St. 12 

2 5 y.-o. 7 St. and 8 st. 8 
(Russborough) second 

1 6 y.-o. 7 St. 7 

agst. 6 horses. 

Once second and once third in big 

Handicaps. 
In the Tradesmen's PI., 43 Starters, 

not placed. 
In the Royal Hunt Cup at Ascot, 30 
Starters, not placed. 



ran 



58 times, won 21i times. 



No. 52. Radulphus 1843 by The Saddler. 

ran 2 year-old 1 time, won times. 

6 times, won ,, twice not placed. 



3 
4 
5 
6 

7 



5 


» J 


„ 3 


4 


M 


„ 1 


14 


, , 


M 7 


9 




o 



incl. 1 King's PI. 



5. The Thoroughbred in llic Past ami IViscnt. ]79 

ran 8 year-old 7 times, won 4 times. Handicap at York, IJ Miles, 8 st. 12 

agst. 4 3 y.-o. 5 st. 2 to 5 St. 12 
and 4 4 y.-o. 7 st. 2 to 8 St. 

agst. 8 horses. 
Fitzwilliam Handicap at Doncaster, 
1 Mile, 8 St. 12 
agst. 5 3 y.-o. o st. 9 to 7 st. H 

and 3 5 y.-o. (J st. 5 to 8 st. 
agst. 8 horses. 
Handicap at Richmond, | .Mile, 9 st. o 
agst. 4 2 y.-o. 5 st. to 6 st. 10 
and 1 5 y.-o. 7 st. 10 

agst. 5 horses. 
„ 9 ,.8 ,, ,, 2 ,, Craven St. at York, 1 Mile, 9 St. 3 

agst. 3 y.-o. Lady Agnes G st. 10 
and 4 v.-o. Iris 8 st. 4 
.,10 ,, 11 ,, ,, 2 ,, Trial St.'at Airdrie, IJ Miles, 9 St. 5 

agst. 2 3 y.-o. 7 st. 4 

1 4 y.-o. 8 St. 4 

2 5 y.-o. 8 St. 10 to 9 st. 1 
1 older 8 St. 9 

agst. 6 horses. 
Sweepst. at Paisley, IJ Miles, 9 st. 7 
agst. 2 3 y.-o. 7 st. 4 
., 11 M 9 ,, ,,4 ,, Member's PI. at Paislev, 2 Miles, 

9 St. 5 
agst. 1 4 y.-o. 8 st. 9 
andl 6 y.-o. 9 st. 2 
Trial St. at Lanark, 1^ Miles, 9 st. 2 
agst. 2 3 y.-o. 7 st. 4 and 7 st. 9 
and 1 older 9 st. 2 
>• 4 ,, Selling Race at Epsom, IJ .Aliles, 9 St. 
agst. 2 3 y.-o. 6 st. 13 to 7 st. 5 
1 5 y.-o. 9 St. 2 

1 older 9 St. 3 

agst. 4 horses, 
and on the same day second in 
Railway PL, | Mile, 

5 3- and 5 y.-o. behind. 
Handicap at Warwick, 5 Furl., S st. 2 
agst.l 3 y.-o. 6 st. 9 
1 4 y.-o. 7 St. 6 
1 older 8 st. 7 



12 „ 10 



agst. 3 horses. 
13 ., 9 ,, ,,0 ,, in big Handicaps. 



ISO 



Trial lit Ihe 'riinrdiiijliljrfd on tlid' IvacfCuLii'M', 



ran 14 vcar-old 12 times, won 4 limes. Selling Race at Ripon, about 1 Mile, 

7 St. 11 
agst. 1 3 y.-o. 5 st. 9 
andl 6 y.-o. 7 st. 11 
agst. '2 luirses, 
and won 2 Gentlemen's Races at New- 
market over i Mile. 



ran 



105 times, won 33 times. 



Xo. n;;. Alonzn 1SI7 b\- Alplicus. 

4 times. D. not placed. 



ran 


3 


vear-old '.1 


lim 


•s. 


won 


4 tim 




4 
5 

fi 

7 


,. 11 
,, 12 

M 7 








1 ,. 

■5 ,, 




8 


M « 








•2 



,. 



,, in 



11 



n 



St. Liz. Handicap at Xortlwmpton, 
U Miles, 8 St. 4 
agst. 1 3 v.-o. 5 St. 6 

4 v.-o. 5 St. 10 to 7 St. 3 
1 6 y.-o. 8 St. 

agst. 7 horses. 
Handicap at Ludlow, 1^ Miles, 8 st. 3 

agst. 3 3 v.-o. 6 st. 6 to 6 st. 12 
3 5 v.-o. 6 St. 12 to 8 st. 1 
2 r/v.-o. 7 St. 8 and 7 st. 10 

agst. 8 horses, 
and 3 times third in good Handicaps. 
St. Liz. Handicap at Northampton, 
11 Miles, 8 St. 2 
agst. 8 3 v.-o. 4 st. 10 to 6 st. 
7 4 v.-o. 5 St. 12 to 7 st. 7 

1 5 y.-o. 6 St. 10 
1 older 7 st. o 

agst. 12 horses. 

Welter St. at Worcester, 1\ Miles, 
11 St. 3 
agst. 1 3 v.-o. 8 St. fi 
1 4 v.-o. 8 St. 6 
1 5 y.-o. 9 St. 11 

agst. 3 horses. 
Lancaster Cup, IJ Miles, 8 st. 7 

agst. 3 3 y.-o. 5 st. 7 to fi st, 5 
and 2 4 y.-o. 7 st. and 7 st. 12 

3 times second. 
not placed in good Handicaps. 



ran 



70 times, won 21 times. 



5. 'I'lif ThdiuLii^hbrfd in tliu I'ast aiul IVesenl. 



181 



No. 54. Foodie 18^9 by Ion. 
ran 2 year-old 3 times, won 2 times. 



„ 3 


, 11 ,, 


M 4 ,, 


M 4 


, 13 ,, 


,. 1 .. 


., 5 


9 ,, 


,, 3 .. 


,. 6 


9 ., 


o 


M 7 


(5 


.1 


M 8 


. 11 • ,, 


M 3 .. 



Gr. .\Jrlr(ip. Si. al I'lpsom, -2] Miles. 
8 St. 
agst. 8 3 y.-o. ~> st. 2 to (i st. 8 
2 4 y.-o. 8 St. 4 and 9 st. 

(Fisherman) 
1 (iy.-o. 8 St. s (Winidield) 
1 older 7 st. 13 

agst. 12 iiorscs. 

Handicap at Xewm., 1 Mile, 9 st. 2 
agst. 4 4 v.-o. (j St. 9 to 7 st. 9 
1 r, y.-o. 8 St. 3 
1 iildcr 8 St. 7 

agst. fi horses. 
King's PI. at New market 



agst. 2 4 \-.-(j. and 



•) V.-(l. 



„ n 



and in the Cesarew., 8 st. 8, not 

placed. 
Hibury Si., 1.] Miles, (ientlemen 
Riders, 10 .st. 8 
agst. 2 4 y.-o. 8 st. 13 
and 1 .■) y.-o. 11 st. 
in the Cesarew ., 7 St., not placed. 



ran 71 times, won 20 limes. 

No. 55. Mr. Sykes (Half-bred) l.s;,n |)\ Sir Taimn S\kes 



C'esarewitcli, (\ st. S (:]-\ horses). 
King's Pi. 

Roxburgh Handicap, li Miles, 7 st. 6 
agst. 3 3 y.-o. 4 st. 10 to 5 st. 13 

3 4 y.-o. (') si. () to 7 St. 2 

4 5 v.-o. 5 St. 11 to 7 St. 10 
1 older 7 St. 12 

a^ysl . I 1 horsrs. 



an J. \ cai 


-IIIU U (Mil 


es, won 


1 


time. 


,. 3 


M 11 







times 


M 4 


.> 







, » 


)) 5 


M 11 , 




.3 




„ 6 


,.11 




1 




>i 7 


3 









,, 8 


9 , 




1 





in the Cesarew., 7 st. J^, and in the 
Cambr., 8 st., not placed. 



IQ2 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

ran 9 year-old 13 times, won 2 times. City Handicap at Lincoln, IJ Miles, 

7 St. 9 
agst. 8 3 y.-o. 4 st. 10 to 5 st. 9 
3 4 y.-o. 5 St. 12 to 7 st. 6 
1 5 y.-o. 6 St. 10 
1 older 7 st. 2 

agst. 13 horses. 
,, 10 ,. 3 ,, .,0 ,, in good Handicaps. 



ran 65 times, won 10 times. 



The most imposing performances of the above 55 examples from 1730 to 
1850 begin with Marksman, born 1808, and slowly decrease after Inheritress, 
born 1840. In spite of the enormous increase of Thoroughbred breeding 
after 1850, we do not find any examples in the second half of the nineteenth 
century which can show better performances in this respect, and only a few 
with anything like these performances. According to the above examples, 
the best time seems to have been 1830 to 1840, as in this period the follow- 
ing horses, which accomplished extraordinary performances, were born, 
namely : Catherina, Isaac, Zohrab, Potentate, Bee's Wing, The Shadow, 
St. Lawrence, The Sailor, and Inheritress. 

All these facts go to prove that the hardiness and endurance of the 
Thoroughbred, and especially the resisting capacity of its foundation, 
decreased about tlie second half of the nineteenth century. \\'hether at the 
same time the speed of the Thoroughbred, for distances up to li English 
miles, increased, cannot be clearly shown, but it is probable. Height and 
appearance have been improved, or, as the classical defender of the present 
day racing s\stem. Admiral Rous, says, " We have bred more for size 
and strength." Yes, we have obtained that in our highly improved light 
breeds, but also at the same time a retrogression in the performing capacity 
which is required outside the racecourse. The celebrated Gimcrack, born 
1760, No. 8 in above list, to which Admiral Rous points somewhat con- 
temptuously as a " generally small horse," is supposed to have been only 
14 hands; according to other statements, 13 hands, 3J inches, equalling 141 
cm. Admiral Rous contends that in 1700 the average height was 13 hands, 
3 inches, and that since then this average height has risen every twenty-five 
years by 1 inch, and ought therefore to be now 15 hands, 3 inches, equalling 
160 cm'. 



5. The Thoroug-hbred in the Past and Present. 



183 



The following list gives the sizes of tlie most important Thoroughbred 
stallions whicli 1 liave been able to obtain. 



No. 


Names of Stallions. 


Born. 


Sire. 


Hands. 


Size in 
Inches. 


cm. 


1 


Darlcv Arabian 
Mixbury 


1702 

noi 




15 




152,4 

i:^,2 


2 


The Curven Bay Barb 


13 


2 


3 

i 


Godolphin Arabian 
Sampson 


1724 
1745 




15 
15 




152,4 
l.-)7,5 


Blaze 


2 


5 


Matcheni 


1748 


Cade 


15 


1 


i:>l,9 


6 


Herod 


1758 


Tartar 


15 


3 


1()0,0 


7 
8 
9 


Eclipse 
Sir Peter 
Gohanna 


1764 
1784 
1780 


Marske 

Highflyer 

Mercury 


15 
16 
15 


2 

1 


157,5 
102,6 
151,9 


10 
11 


Sorcerer 
Orville 


1796 
1799 


Trumpator 
Beningbrough 


16 
16 


H 


1(«,3 
1()2,6 


12 


Castrel 


1801 


Buzzard 


16 


— 


162,6 


13 


\\'halebone 


1807 


Waxy 


15 


* 


153,7 


U 


Partisan 


1811 


Walton 


15 


2 


157,5 


15 


Dr. Syntax 


1811 


Paynator 


15 


— 


152,4 


16 
17 


Filho da Puta 
Lottery 


1812 
182f) 


Haphazard 
Tramp 


16 
16 


I 


1(52,6 
162,6 


18 


Camel 


1822 


Whalebone 


15 


2 


157,5 


19 


Mulatto 


1823 


Catton 


15 


2 


157.5 


ai 

21 
22 
23 
21 


Little Red Rover 

Plenipotentiary 

Touchstone 

Mundig- 

Sheet Anchor 


1827 
1831 
1831 
1832 
1&S2 


Tramp 

Emilius 

Camel 

Catton 

Lottery 


14 
15 
15 
15 
16 


3 
2 
2 
3 

1 


149,9 
157,5 
157.5 
l(i0,() 
165,1 


2.5 

26 

27 
2S 
29 


Birdcatcher 
Harkaway 

Don John 

Bloomsbury 

Nutwith 


1833 
1834 

1835 

ias6 

1840 


.Sir Hercules 

Economist 

Tramp or Waverley 

Mul.itto 

Tomboy 


15 
16 
15 
15 
15 


3 
2 
3 
3 

21 


160,0 
l(i7,6 
160,0 
160,0 
1.58,2 


30 


Newminster 


1842 


Touchstone 


15 


2 


157,5 


31 


Chanticleer 


1843 


Birdcatcher 


16 


— 


162,6 


32 


The Cossacl< 


1844 


Hetman Platoff 


15 


2 


157,5 


33 


Daniel O'Rourke 


1849 


Birdcatcher 


15 


2 


157,5 


Ai 


Stoclvwell 


1849 


The Baron 


16 


— 


162,6 


:io 


Lexington 


1850 


Boston 


15 


3 


Kio.o 


36 


Saunterer 


1854 


Birdcatcher 


15 


3 


16n,0 


37 


Buccaneer 


1857 


Wild Dayrell 


15 


3 


160,0 


38 


Macaroni 


1860 


Sweetmeat 


15 


3 


160,0 


39 


Blair Athol 


1861 


Stock well 


16 


- 


1(!2,6 


40 


Lelio 


1862 


West .\ustralian 


15 


2 


l.-.7,5 


41 


Rosicrucian 


1865 


Beailsman 


16 


— 


162,6 


42 


1 Prince Charlie 


186i» 


Blair Athol 


17 


— 


172,7 



184 



Trial of tln' Thdi-duyhbrt-il mi the Racecourse, etc. 













Size in 




No. 


Xanies of Stallions. 


Horn. 


Sire. 


Hands. 


Inches. 


cm. 


43 


Hector 


1872 


\"iri,nlius 


15 


2 


157,5 


44 


Petrarch 


1873 


Lord Clifden 


15 


3 


160,0 


4.5 


-Sprinj;- field 


1873 


St. Albans 


16 


— 


162,6 


46 


Chamant 


1874 


Mortemer 


16 


— 


162,6 


47 


Beauclerc 


1875 


Rosicrucian 


15 


3 


160,0 


48 


Isonomv 


1875 


Sterling 


16 


— 


162,6 


49 


Charibert 


1876 


Thormanby 


15 


3 


160,0 


o() 


Bend Or 


1877 


Doncaster 


16 


1 


165,1 


51 


Despair 


1879 


See Saw 


15 


2 


157,5 


52 


St. Simon 


1881 


Galopin 


16 


i 


163,9 


58 


Esterlinj;- 


1882 


Sterling 


16 


— 


162,6 


54 


Melton 


1882 


Master Kiklare 


15 


3 


160,0 


55 


.\u,t;hri]ii 


1883 


Xenophon 


16 


■— 


162,6 


56 


Kendal 


188:^ 


Bend Or 


16 


1 


165,1 


57 


Minting; 


1883 


Lord Lyon 


16 


i 


163,2 


58 


Ormonde 


1883 


Bend Or 


16 


1 


165,1 


59 


Gallinule 


1884 


Isononiy 


16 


— 


162,6 


60 


.\vrshire 


1885 


Hampton 


16 


— 


162,6 


61 


Carbine 


■ 1885 


Musket 


15 


3i 


161,3 


62 


Winktleld 


1885 


Barcaldine 


15 


8 


160,0 


63 


.\mphion 


1886 


Rosebery 


15 


3 


160,0 


64 


Donovan 


1886 


Galopin 


16 


1 


165,1 


65 


Enthusiast 


1886 


Sterling 


16 


— 


162,6 


66 


Melanion 


1886 


Hermit 


16 


— 


162,6 


67 


H adder 


1887 


Petrarch 


16 


1 


165,1 


68 


Marta^on 


1887 


Bend Or 


Ki 


— 


162,6 


69 


Sainfoin 


1887 


Springfield 


15 


3 


160,0 


70 


St. Serf 


1887 


St. Simon 


16 


3 


170,2 


71 


Common 


1888 


Isojiomy 


16 


1 


165,1 


72 


Orme 


1889 


Ormonde 


16 


1 


l(w,l 


73 


Suspender 


1889 


Muncaster 


16 


2 


167,6 


74 


Red Prince 


1880 


Kendal 


15 


3 


160,0 


75 


Childwick 


1890 


St. Simon 


16 


— 


162,6 


76 


Isinglass 


1890 


Isonomy 


16 


1 


165,1 


77 


Grey Leg' 


1891 


Pepper and Salt 


15 


2 


157,5 


78 


Ladas 


1891 


Hampton 


16 


— 


162,6 


79 


Sir Visto 


1892 


Barcaldine 


16 


1 


165,1 


80 


Persimmon 


1893 


St. Simon 


16 


2 


167,6 


81 


Galtee More 


1894 


Kendal 


15 


3i' 


162,© 


82 


Velasquez 


1894 


Donovan 


15 


3 


160,0 


83 


Flying Fox 


1896 


Orme 


16 


■2 


163,9 


84 


Ard Patrick 


1899 


St. Florian 


16 


— 


162,6 


85 


-Maintenon 


1903 


Le Sagittairc 


16 


3J 


171,5 



5. 'I'lic 'rlKiriPUi^lilii-fcl ill iIk- Past ami I'reseiit. ],S5 

In order to arrive at a fair comparison, it is necessary to take six ol tiu' 
most important stallions from the above table tor tliree different periods, and 
we then i^et the follow ine; interesting results : 

Isl I'eriod— Second Half of tile l-!ighteenth Century. 

-Matchem horn 17-18 lo4.'.) cm. size. 

Herod ,. 17.3K 160.(1 ., 

l-iclipsi- ,, 17()4 1-j7.") ,, 

Sir Peter „ 1784 in-J.C. ., 

(Johanna .. 1790 V>4.9 ,, 

Qrville ,. l7tH) Wvlj; ,, 

.\verape, 1 o hands. -Ji inciies= 15N.7.") cm. size. 

•Jnd Period — Middle of the Nineteentli Century. 

Touchstone born lis81 I'u.'t cm. size. 

Birdcatcher ,, 1.S33 160.0 ,, 

Xewminster ,, 184'J 107. •') ,, 

StocUwell ., LS49 16-2.6 ,, 

Buccaneer ,. 18.')7 160.(1 ,, 

Macaroni ,, ]>S(;0 160. tl ,. 

Axeraye. 15 hands, 3 indies ^^ ]-V.).(i cm. 

■']rd Period -The Last ■!') Years of the XineteeniJi Century. 

lsonom\' horn 1S7-"J 16'_'.li <'m. size. 

Bend Or ,, 1877 16-5.1 ., ., 

St. Simon ,, issl 163.'.) ,, 

Ormonde ,, LS.S3 165.1 ,. 

Gallinule ,. 1SS4 16-J.6 ,, 

Persimmon ,, iSH.'i 167.6 

Ax'erage, 16 hands, 'l inc]i~ll)4.5 cm. size. 

h'roni aho\c it can be seen that tiie heigiit of tlie Til o rough bred in 
England has increased somewhat (|uicker than Admiral Rous supposed. 
rile desire to increase the height seems to me to be dangerous, and will 
probablv verv soon onh' be possible at the expense of the fundament. The 
present dav situation of racing and iireeding seems to be apnroaching iidlciis 
volciis a furtiier increase of height. 

To iudgi- rightJN' of the relmgressive nioNt-ment in thi' breeding ot 
Thoroughbreds, as regards their general capabilities (Leistinigsfiihigkeit), 
one must take into consideration that the races r)f to-da\' are rim over shorter 
distances, and without heats, and on an average at a considerably quicker 
pace than was the cast' 100 years ago, and also that the increased pace makes 
greater demantis on the fundament. One must, therefore, expect that the 
resisting strength of the fimdanieiit will be more (juickly used up. To the 
more intensive use of racehorses in a shorter time, due to railways, anil the 
numerous racecf)urses, as well as to the many short rates, wiiich require a 
quick getting ofl', must he attributed the fact that the nerves and health are 
more C|uickly destroyed. The (luestion as to whether tile Thoroughbreds 
of 1(10 vears ago would not also have deteriorated (piicker if they had had 



186 



Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 



to undergo present day methods, and as to whether the present day 
Thoroughbreds, on the other hand, would not have held out longer under 
the conditions of 100 years ago, may be answered as follows : Both cases 
can only happen slowly, i.e., if the supposed causes have lasted and had an 
influence for several generations. On the basis of physiological observations 
and practical experiences, we must assume that the present over-exertion, 
especially of the younger Thoroughbred stock, for many consecutive genera- 
tions, has an unfavourable influence on the constitution. These unfavourable 
effects, which are an especial consequence of the many earlv races of two- 
year-olds, are distinctly recognisable, also outside the course, bv manv 
retrogressive signs. The most conspicuous of these consists in the fairly 
regular decrease of the percentage of pregnant mares, from about 80 per cent, 
in the year 1851 to 70 per cent, in recent vears. 

The following list, the figures of which are taken from the General Stud 
Book, gives an exact summary of this retrogressive movement : — 



Year 


Foals Born 
Colts [ Fillies Total 


.Aborted 


Barren 


Total 
Covered 


Pregnant 


.\borted 

% 


1851 


538 


597 


1135 


43 


302 


1480 


79,59 


3,65 


1852 


536 


538 


1C74 


71 


a34 


1479 


77,42 


6,61 


185:^ 


574 


558 


1132 


42 


:^9 


1543 


76,09 


3,71 


1854 


619 


582 


1201 


35 


440 


1676 


73,75 


2,83 


1855 


610 


609 


1219 


73 


480 


1772 


72,91 


5,65 


1856 


705 


650 


1.S55 


61 


448 


1864 


75,97 


4,31 


1857 


691 


679 


1370 


58 


452 


1880 


75,96 


4,06 


1858 


756 


736 


1492 


64 


424 


1980 


78,59 


4,11 


1859 


745 


722 


1467 


77 


484 


2028 


76,13 


4,99 


1860 


7.38 


';26 


1464 


85 


498 


2047 


75,67 


5,49 


1861 


750 


749 


1499 


73 


52.5 


2097 


74,96 


4,64 


1862 


718 


763 


1481 


68 


562 


2111 


73,38 


4,39 


1863 


783 


757 


1540 


88 


5.56 


2184 


74,54 


5,41 


1864 


756 


811 


1567 


95 


.5:17 


2199 


75,58 


5,72 


1865 


786 


799 


1585 


136 


55() 


2277 


75,58 


7,90 


1866 


851 


855 


1706 


96 


686 


2488 


72,43 


5,33 


1867 


893 


964 


1857 


84 


645 


2586 


75,06 


4,:iS 


1868 


972 


949 


1921 


127 


719 


2767 


74,02 


6,20 


1869 


1009 


1041 


2050 


113 


669 


2832 


76,:« 


.->,22 


1870 


983 


t)65 


1948 


125 


727 


2800 


74.04 


6,03 


1871 


928 


968 


1896 


147 


693 


2736 


74,67 


7,20 


1872 


881 


888 


1769 


94 


6t)4 


2557 


72,86 


5,04 


1873 


862 


858 


1720 


74 


621 


2415 


74,29 


4,12 


1874 


857 


870 


1727 


72 


657 


2456 


73,25 


4,00 



5. The Thoroughbred in the Past and Present. 



187 



Year 


Foals Born 
Colts Fillies Total 


Aborted 


Barren 


Total 
Covered 


Pregnant 


.'\borted 


1875 


824 


910 


1734 


86 


634 


24^4 


74.16 


4,73 


1876 


879 


863 


1742 


121 


636 


2499 


74,55 


6,55 


1877 


941 


915 


1856 


105 


722 


2<i83 


73,09 


.5,35 


1878 


926 


t»9 


1H95 


168 


72:s 


2786 


74,0.5 


8,14 


1879 


1002 


952 


1954 


108 


798 


2860 


72,10 


.5,19 


188<l 


969 


954 


V.r£i 


161 


801 


2885 


72,24 


7,73 


1881 


928 


1063 


1991 


110 


826 


2927 


71,78 


.5,24 


1882 


i»20 


996 


1916 


140 


818 


2874 


71,54 


6,81 


1883 


1U(J6 


958 


1964 


121 


748 


2833 


73,60 


5,80 


1881 


1001 


956 


1957 


127 


801 


2885 


72,23 


6,09 


188.5 


1019 


1061 


2080 


129 


7.53 


2962 


74,58 


.5,84 


1886 


1100 


1066 


2166 


i:« 


791 


3096 


74,45 


0,03 


1887 


106:^ 


l(Mi9 


2132 


135 


861 


3128 


72,47 


5,96 


1888 


um 


1141 


2210 


129 


m) 


3178 


73,60 


5,52 


1889 


1201 


1159 


2360 


146 


940 


3446 


72,72 


.5,83 


189() 


1213 


1290 


2.503 


144 


10<J2 


3649 


72.54 


■5.44 


1891 


lim 


1419 


2787 


192 


1120 


40}H) 


72,68 


6,45 


1892 


1517 


1523 


3040 


258 


1206 


irm 


7.3,24 


7,82 


1898 


1662 


1613 


327.5 


1.56 


1412 


4843 


70,84 


4,55 


1894 


16.51 


1562 


3213 


184 


1400 


4797 


70,82 


5.42 


189.5 


1674 


1557 


3231 


124 


1327 


4682 


71, (T) 


3.70 


law 


16.52 


1652 


:«04 


144 


1287 


47.3.5 


72.82 


4.18 


18il7 


1785 


175:^ 


3538 


1.50 


1S« 


5(J21 


73,45 


4.07 


1898 


1774 


1762 


.35.36 


149 


14.V) 


5ia5 


71,76 


4.04 


1899 


1706 


1808 


a514 


147 


1405 


.5066 


72.27 


4.02 


190(1 


17.">^ 


1674 


3427 


169 


1310 


4tK)6 


73,:#l 


4.70 


1991 


1748 


1697 


;«4<) 


138 


1416 


4994 


71.65 


3.86 


1902 


1797 


16.51 


:«48 


138 


1380 


4966 


72.21 


3,85 


19(H 


1629 


1.564 


3U« 


12:^ 


i:»4 


4&S0 


70. .^.5 


3,71 


1994 


1.565 


L542 


3107 


132 


1272 


4511 


71.80 


4,08 


l!)0o 


1812 


1461 


2773 


124 


1091 


:«)88 


72.72 


4,2S 


l!KXi 


1418 


i:isi 


27i)9 


117 


115.3 


4069 


7<i.I7 


4.01 



This fairly uniform decrease in tlie perrentage of pregnant mares begins 
just at tile time at whicii, looked at from the standpoint of ciianged weight 
difTerences, the decrease of the capabilities (LeistungsfahigUeit) of the 
Thoroughbred seems to commence. In the chapter relating to the changed 
weight differences (looked at from this one-sided point of view), a slow 
improvement of the Thoroughbred stock is supposed to have existed in the 
first half of the nineteenth century. Corresponding with this, the percentage 



188 



'IVial of tlie 'rh()niLii,'hl)red on tlie Racecourse, etc. 



of foalino- ninres seems also to have increased in the first half of the nineteenth 
rentur\-. According to some superficial tests, I have found that the per- 
centage of foaling mares varies in the years 1820 to 1840 from 74 to 75 per 
cent. The statistics in the General Stud Book begin onl\- with the year 1846, 
and are as follows : — 



Year 


1^ 
Stallions 


oals Born ■ 

Mares Total 

1 


Aborted 


Barren 


Covered 


Pregnant 

% 


Aborted 


1846 


491 


481 


972 


41 


310 


132:8 


76,57 


4,a5 


1847 


48(i 


4ill 


977 


47 


808 


1327 


77,17 


4,59 


1848 


48:^ 


498 


97fi 


57 


804 


13:87 


77,20 


5,52 


1849 


— 


— 


— 


-- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


ISoO 


504 


537 


1041 


51 


282 


1374 


79,48 


4,67 



(he culminating point in this 



The \ear is.jl, therefore, seems to be 
respect . 

The list of riioroughbred mares in I'-ngland which have produced 17 
and more living foals, shows from 18-j(l a distinct retrogression, in spite, 
of the double to fourfold nmnber of brood mares in the second half of the 
nineteenth centur\-, the breeding jjerformances have decreased in this 
respect, with the exception of the extraordinary performance of Oueen 
I'^sther, born l.s()4, which produced -J-J foals. The number of mares with 17 
and more foals is far from having increased proportionateK-, and the highest 
performance of ■_'(! toals becomes more scarce, in the last thirteen \ears, 
from ls71 to l88y, the abo\-e list (pages (vi and (ui) onl\- shows 84 mares, 
none ot which have produced ■_'(• foals, and onh- -2 (Pillage, born 1H71, and 
Miss -Mannering, born 1874) ]9 foals- ^whilst previouslv in the thirteen 
vears from 1S'&2 to liS44 (in which tirlie there were onlv a cjiiarter of the 
brood mares existing as compared witii bs71 to 1888), 4(J mares are men- 
tioned, of which -2 mares (Florence, born lM8i), and Prairie Bird, born 1844) 
have produced 20 foals, and (i mares (Whisker-mare, born 188'2, .Vnnette, 
born 1835, Sir Hercules-mare, born l.s:i9, luiltjgy, born 1848, Oueen Mary, 
born 184:i, and Defenceless, born 1844) produced 19 foals. It is also note- 
worthv that from about 1850, in the cases of most mares with 17 and more 
foals, thi' mares had been mated when three vears old oftener than before 
1850. 

Also, the performances of old mares under difiicult conditions, as 
previouslv indicated (pages (i5— 7(i), show from about 1850 a decrease both 
in the nimiber of extraordinary performances and in the importance of 
same. After Pocahontas, born 1S87, .Mice Hawthorn, born 1838, Oueen 
Mary, born 1843, Haricot, born 1847, we do not find in the subsequent 
years an\- breeding performances to equal them. 



5. Tllc 'riiiirovii^'libml in the P.isl ;iiul rrcscnt. 189 

Tlic decreased pertOrniaincs nt brood marcs as rcj^artls the miml^cr uf 
foals, as well as tJTeir special performances al a s^rcat aj^c, must be laken to 
verifv the fact that the loni^evily of the mares in the second half of the 
nineteenth ceiitiirv has somewhat decreased. I 'nforlunately, I am not able 
to give a suflicieiillv loiit;- list of the loiii^cvity of the mares as a proot, but 
one mav well assume that the leni;th of the lives of the mares has decreased 
just as much as liiat of the stallions, and this fad is pro\ed by th(> list given 
on pac^es 78 — S-'S. This conspicuous decrease of the length ot the lives of 
the stallions is all the more remarkable, as the jirogress of hygiene, improved 
Stabiintf, and other conditions, as well as the more reasonable training;: of 
horses, would lead one to expect loneei- li\'e^. As a matter of tact, this has 
taken place in the Inniian race. .\ chani^c in the lenj^th of the lives of 
English born stallions in the first half of the nineii-enth century is not 
recognisable from tlie abo\'e list. In the middle of the nineteenth century, 
however, these \ong li\es seem once again to occur, as shown bv the 
following five examples, in the short period of \'\\r \-ears : — 

l-'orbidden l'"ruil horn IS-')-'!, tlied at -JU vears. 



Kentucky 


, , 1 .s.-):i 


,, ■n 


(lunboat 


., ls:)4 


•29 


Huccaneer 


,, ]S57 


,, 30 


Thunderbolt 


,, }sr,7 


31 



After iNfil) the length of life decreases slowlv but distincti}-, and the 
number of stallions which have attained •2-'J \ears is much too small in pro- 
portion to the remarkably increased breeding. The number of stallions 
which ha\e att;iined '2~> \cars antl more has been in no tlecade greater than in 
that of IS.JO to 18-59, namely, :iU. Alread\- in the following two det-ades a 
distinct decrease is recognisable : I8()U to isdl), 2-1 stallions, and 1870 to 1^79, 
20 stallions. 

From th(- list of American born Thoroughbred stallions (page m4), we can 
also gather that the length of their lives has decreased. One can distinctly 
recognise this decrease about ten years later than in I-'ngland, but it is more 
sudden and more apparent, especialU' if thi' eiioimous increase in Thorough- 
bred brei'ding is taken into consideration. 

I'Vom a fu»ther consideration of the table (i)ages S7 to IDO) we can glean 
that the capability of the sires to produce excellent breeding and racehorses 
has also decreased from about their twentieth year, since the middle of the 
last century, and that considerably. The middle of the nineteenth century 
shows also in this respect a distinct culminating point. ( )f the stallions which 
have excelled after IftriO through prominent production, I can i>nl\- mention 
i in the abo\e table, namelv, l^osicrucian, Hermit, Hampton, and Cialopin, 
and here I may make the following remark-: (I) Rosicnician is a son of 



190 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

Beadsman, which only ran twice as a two-year-old, the first time in July. 
All his ancestors in the male line never ran as two-year-olds. (2) Hermit is 
a son of Newminster, which did not run as a two-year-old. (3) Hampton is 
a son of Lord Clifton (by Newminster), who only ran three times as a two- 
year-old, the first time in June. (4) Galopin is a son of Vedette, who only 
ran twice as a two-vear-old, first time in August. 

Of the remaining stallions which lived a long time and produced pro- 
minent stock at a great age, one may mention, after 1860, the following 
horses in England : Springfield, Beauclerc, Bend Or, and St. Simon. 
Springfield, born 1873, attained 25 years, but produced in the last six years 
only o unimportant winners. Beauclerc, born 1875, also attained 25 years, 
and in the last six years produced only 1 unimportant winner. Even St. 
Simon, who reached 27 years, seems after his twentieth year to have 
deteriorated with regard to his former very prominent breeding power, as in 
the last eight years he could not produce any winner of importance. In the 
case of Bend Or, born 1877, 26 years old, the remarkable phenomenon blood 
of Old Stockwell seems to have had some effect still, as at the age of 24 he 
could still produce two such good horses as Golden Gleam and Rouge 
Croix, and as a 25-year-old, Radium, and Gold Rioch. 

Not only in theory, as I mentioned in the chapter about weight-differ- 
ences, but also various statistics (as already given), point repeatedly to the 
middle of the nineteenth century as a period from which the retrograde 
movement in the development of Thoroughbred breeding in England seems 
to have begun. It is worthy of note that it is just at the time when the 
almighty Third Dictator of the Turf, Admiral Rous, who first of all became 
celebrated by working out the scale of weights, became Handicapper of the 
Jockey Club (1855). The number of short races (1 mile and under 1 mile) 
begins to be more than half the races run, and the number of two-year-old 
racehorses (see page 29) begins to exceed the number of three-year-olds 
(1856). The impatience of many racing stables anxious to get money, and 
the power of the bookmaker, are finally the causes of the races for yearlings 
being held for four consecutive years (1856 to 1859). The most energetic 
opponent of the races for one and two-year-olds, Lord Jersey, died in 1859. 
Buccaneer, born 1857 (who still could produce as a 24-year-old Buda- 
gyongye N.D., as a 25-year-old Feneck OD, U., and Ollyannincs PL., 
and as a 27-year-old Talpra Magyar), ran as a five-year-old his last race 
at Salisbury with 9 stone, 5 lbs. up, the mile in 1 minute, 38 seconds ( = 16.42 
m. per second), and therefore beating any mile performance before or since. 
Certainly Bendigo ran in 1885 a mile in 1 second quicker (=16.62 m. per 
second), but he carried, also as a five-year-old, 1 stone less). Abd-el-Kader 
won in 1850 the Liverpool Grand National, in the largest field (32 com- 
petitors), and as long as the race was run, on the then existing track, in the 
shortest time (9 minutes, 57^ seconds). In 1849 Stockwell was born, the 



5. Tlio Tlioiouf,'hbred in the Past and Present. 19J 

champion of the whole English Thoroughbred breeding.' Leamington, 
born 1853, is most probably the last Thoroughbred stallion born in England 
which as a ■24-year-old could produce an Epsom Derby winner, namely, 
Iroquois. The number of pregnant mares reached the never before attained 
number of about 80 per cent. (1851). The number of foals born exceeds 1850, 
the first thousand (1,041 foals) and in 1859 the second thousand (2,028 
foals). English Thoroughbred breeding was in every respect in the zenith 
of its performances, and England herself had become the first world power 
after the Crimean war ! In this decade were produced such a great number 
of racecourse champions and never-to-be-forgotten pillars of Thoroughbred 
breeding as has never occurred before or since in such a short period. The 
following examples demonstrate this : — 

1. The Flving Dutchman D. u. L. 1849. 

■2. Voltigeur D. u. L. 1850. 

3. Teddington D. 1851. 

4. Xewminster L. 1851. 

5. Stockwell 'J u. L. 1852. 

6. West .Australian 2, D. u. L. 1853. 

7. Rataplan Gold Vase Asc. 1853, Dcp. 1855 u. 18 King's Plates. 

8. Wild Dayrell D. 1855. 

9. Blink Bonny D. u. O. 1857. 

10. \'edette 2 u. Dcp. 1857. 

11. Beadsman D. 1858. 

12. Saunterer Gcp. 1858. 

13. Fisherman Acp. 1858 and 1859. 

14. Thormanbv D. 1860. 

15. St. Albans L. 1860. 

16. The Wizard 2. 1860. 

Amongst these 16 champions I have also numbered Fisherman, who 
nc\er attained classical honours, but who has become famous because 

' Stockwell's proj^^eny has won 17 times classical races in Enj^land (amongst these 
the Derby 3 times, and the St. Leper 6 times) and 16 times ran as seconds. The 3 first 
places were occupied by Stockwell's prof^-^eny 1862 in the 2,000 Guineas, and 1866 in the 
Derby. Even at 20 years of age, Stockwell had a breeding power so as to produce in one 
year the winners of the Derby and the 2,000 Guineas, as well as the seconds in the Derby, 
St. Leger, and the Oaks. .Amongst these was one of the greatest heroes, namely, Don- 
caster. Isinglass, St. Gatien, Iroquois and Doncaster were the last Derby winners who 
could still win big races as five-year-olds. Doncaster did not run as a two-year-old! 
.Stockwell is in modern times most nearly approached as a sire by St. Simon. The St. 
.Simon progeny has also won up to now 17 classical races, amongst them twice the 
Derby and 4 times the -St. Leger, but were only 10 times seconds. One must, however, 
consider that St. Simon reached 27 years, while Stockwell, unfortunately, died six years 
earlier, that is, as a 21-year-old (5th of May, 1870). Stockwell, furthermore, has produced 
209 winners, who have won 1,147 races. St. Simon, on the other hand, only 160 winners 
(up to 1907 inclusive), who have won 506 races. In their best years Stockwell's progeny 
won 132 races, and St. Simon's progeny 47 races in one year. 



192 Trial of the Tlioiduj^libred mi the Racecourse, etc. 

between the age of twu and six he ran in !J9 races and won 09. lie is per- 
haps the last representative of tliat hardiness and toughness wliich are, 
imforlnnately no longer in the same degree, the attribute of our present da\' 
Thoroughbreds. Old Tom Parr used to sav verv characteristieallv of 
Fisherman : " Me would nexer begin to go imtil he had rim two miles, and 
then he would wear the heart out of anything on four legs; how he could 
be trained on a turnpil^e rf)ad, and raced ever\- dav, and nexcr leave a grain 
in the manger, (hough he ate more solid corn than an\- othrr hnrsc."' 

It is \\(.irth\- of note that also in American Thoroughbred breeding the 
king of all Thoroughbred stallions, corresponding to our Stockwell, was 
born at almost the same time, namely, Lexington (18-j() In" Boston and Alice 
C'arneal), sire of about GOO horses, amongst which -JSG winners. The 
Americans, who are believers in time performances, were especiallv 
astonished at Xew Orleans, in LS-j-"), b\- the hitherto imattained performance 
of Lexington in the match against time (4 miles in 7 minutes, 19f seconds, 
carrying 103 lbs.). I must here remark that Lexington became blind as a 
six-year-old, verv likel\- in consec|uence of an inflammation of the e\-es, first 
in the right eve, and then in both. During his 21 x'ears acti\itv at the 
stud this defect was not inherited b\' his piogenv-, but thm- \er\- plainh- 
inherited his longe\'it\'. Also the trotter king in .\merica was born at the 
same time, namely, Hambietonian 1849 bv Abdallah. 

Soon after this high tide mark of English Thoroughbred breeding, more 
and more notice was taken of ideas which tended to a deterioration of the 
Thoroughbred. The classical and \-er\- clex'er adxocate of Thoroughbred 
breeding. Admiral Rous, published in |N-r2, in the preface to his book, 
" On the laws and practice of h(jrse racing," and 1870 in Bailey's Magazine, 
\okmie 18, " Racing Past and Future," a defence of the present racing 
svstem with its short distances, light weights, and manv bets. Me admits 
the numerous and earlv breakdowns of 4"horoughbreds, biU attributes them 
to the too frequent starts caused bv railwaws. Me further priints out the 
greater pace, which has increased wrv much in consequence of the shorter 
distances, and of the larger fields. Finallv, the Admiral points to the same 
champions of Thoroughbred breeding as mentioned above, and concludes 
therefrom that the Thoroughbred has nexer been as good as now . Admiral 
Rous (born 179-j, died 1877) passed his best years just at the height of 
Thoroughbred breeding, which had greater attractions than the starting 
point of the retrograde movement could have. 

Against the opinion of Admiral Rous we have the interesting judgment 
of a practical man, who also li\-ed in the times preceding and succeeding the 
above-mentioned zenith of Thoroughbred breeding. I am speaking of the 
well-known jockev, John Osbf)rne, bf)rn 1833, who rode his first race in 
1846 and his last race in 1892. Osborne says (viilc Ashgill & Radcliffe, page 
428) : — " The method of training horses in the present da\- is quite ditTerent 
to what it was when 1 began. Morses are \-er\- much lighter now; they 



5. The Thorouglibied in the Past nnd Present. IQ.'J 

have neither the bone nor the substance tliat Thoroughbreds luid fifty years 
ago. Of course, in the old times they were sweated a good deal. Heavy 
cloths were put on them, and they were galloped three and four miles in 
them. That plan has been discontinued for many years. I don't know 
tliat sweating is weakening to a horse. Old John Scott was a great believer 
in sweating and bleeding. I am certain that the constitution of horses of 
the pre.sent dav would not .stand .sucii work; the modern breed is neither so 
robust nor so strong. Formerly it was quite a common thing for horses to 
run three and four mile heats. If the\- were subjected to that now they 
wouldn't lie able to come out of the stable for a month after. 1 ha\-e had 
some experience m\"self of riding horses in heats — two mile heats; and 1 
have ridden in four mile races but never in four mile heats. I am fully 
convinced the constitution of horses of the present day is not as strong as 
it was fortv or fiftv vears ago. It puzzles me to account for the degenera- 
tion in the stoutness of the modern racehorse; really, I cannot point to the 
cause of it." 

The well-known Malton trainer, Charles Lund, speaking about this 
(|uestion in the vear 1899, expresses him.self as follows (.\.shgill, page 430) : 
" Racehorses in the olden days were, on the average, 2 stone hea\ier than 
those of the present day. Now , horses like Touchstone and West Australian 
were, if one might sav so, twice the size in substance and power in 
comparison with the present day racehorse, most of which are light of bone 
and substance, and comparati\ely weedy in appearance. Present day 
trainers havi- gone in for speed too much, with the result that the great 
majoritx' of the horses are too finel\" built." 

The following points show that Thoroughbred horses in England have 
deteriorated from the middle of the nineteenth century as far as capabilities 
(I-eistungsfahigkeit), hardiness, and the whole constitiuion are concerned : — 

(1) Diminution of weight differences between weights for horses f)f 
different ages. 

(2) Decreased capabilitv of the older racehorses on the flat. 

(3) The decreased percentage of pregnant mares. 

(4) The decrea.sed number of foals. 

{')) The decreased breeding performances of the brood mares at a great 
age and under diflicult circumstances. 

((')) '{"he shorter lives of Thoroughbreds and the decreased prepotency at 
a great age. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Conclusions and Propositions as to tlie Improvement and 
Breeding of Thoroughibreds. 



The great and important duties wliich the Thoroughbred accomplishes in the 
breeding of other light horses, justified, and even also obliged, those people 
who stood outside the domain of Thoroughbred breeding, to criticise 
the basis of all its performances, and breedings, on which it is built up, 
and on which it continues. Our present day Thoroughbred is the outcome 
of race propositions, and of the manner of breeding and training, which 
those propositions entail. These propositions are made on human under- 
standing, and are influenced by human misunderstanding, and what is 
much worse, by many side interests. Only by clever and purpose-answering 
race propositions, as w-ell as by reasonable breeding and rational training, 
shall we be able to still more improve our Thoroughbreds. After the 
observations made in the previous chapters, there seems to be no doubt that 
our present day Thoroughbred needs improving, and its room for improve- 
ment is just as certain as agreeable. 

The chief attacks which have been made up to now against the Thoroug*h- 
bred may be summed up as follows : — 

1. Faulty conformation. 

2. Want of endurance for long distances. 

3. Want of cleverness. 

4. A too weedy and light fundament. 

5. A want of capacity to carry heavy weights. 

6. Nervousness, difficult temperament, and the bad use of food. 

1. — Faulty conformation. This oldest reproach against the Thorough- 
bred, rests partly on the fact that we over-estimate our knowledge of this 
matter, and partly on our inexperience in the judging of horses in training. 
1 call to mind the opinion of the Landstallmeister von Burgsdorf, expressed 
in 1817 in a special brochure. He went on to say that most English 
Thoroughbreds had spavin, and that the English Thoroughbred must shortly 
disappear. We must not forget that from chipping come chips, and that of 
course every kind of breeding must produce a certain percentage of fault v 



G. Conclusions and Propositions as to the Inipnivenient. etc. 195 

indi\iduals. Trainini^ and racing, moreover, show up many little faults in 
form which would not have been noticed when merely looking at a horse 
as, for example, at shows. Nevertheless, it is interesting and instructive to 
see that the Thoroughbred, even with such great faults, is still capable of 
performing very astonishing things, whilst a non-Thoroughbred with the 
same faults in most cases could not do anything. If with faulty conformation 
it is still capable of doing well, the substance used must be very good indeed. 

The so-called Biedenweg's instructions for judging horses competing for 
State prizes, which are still in vogue in the Prussian State, but probablv very 
rarely followed, can, in my opinion, be dispensed with. One cannot lay down 
laws to judge the conformation of a horse to suit all cases. The views as 
to what form a horse should have differ, and are, as history teaches, also 
changeable. There have been times in which long-legged horses were 
preferred to short-legged ones, and in which long shin bones were considered 
an advantage. I also believe that many so-called faults in a horse of 100 years 
ago were more dangerous than they are to the present day horse, and vice 
versa. In short, our doctrine as to the conformation of a horse will always 
have its limits, and will often change in the future, according to the experi- 
ences which we gather from the racecourse and from the other uses to which 
the horses are put. Races and other tests of performances will in themselves 
destroy what is useless. If, however, Biedenweg's instructions exclude 
a priori certain conformation, we rob those horses which are supposed to be 
better of the opportunity of showing that they can perform better things. 

The better form has not been proclaimed as such by the vacillating 
opinions of judges, but acquired for itself the right to be judged as such b_\' 
beating competitors. The history of Thoroughbred breeding teaches that 
even without such police rules as Biedenweg's instructions are, faults are 
finallv eradicated automatically. The best example of an effective elimination 
of faults bv racing is perhaps the walk of the Thoroughbred. I know of 
no breed which produces so many horses which walk so correctly as the 
English Thoroughbred. Where is the half-bred stallion in Germany which 
without freshness walks as correctly, gracefully and beautifully as Ard 
Patrick, who, besides, won the Epsom Derby, and beat the four-year-old 
Rock Sand, and Sceptre? The eradication of horses with irregular walk is 
not done in England, as in the breeding of Half-breds, or as they do when 
buying horses for 'military mounts, by picking out the regular walkers for the 
stud or military service, but by training and the struggle on the racecourse. 
Military commissioners can be as strict as they like in refusing to buy 
irregular walkers, but they will never be able to judge as keenly and as 
correctly as the winning post. Anybody can prove this statement if he will 
only examine the same horses two years later at the troop after manneuvres. 
He will find there arc more irregular walkers than in the racing stables. The 
regular walk of horses that have not worked, but are well led in, disappears 
very often with working as butler melts in the sun. 



190 Trial of the Thorouf^hbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

Race propositions must therefore offer sufficient opportunity to eradicate 
tliese different faults, and not protect, for example, the roarers, not leave too 
niuch to chance, and not damasje the temperament of young horses by too 
many short races. Those handicaps, so much loved by the bookmakers, for 
horses of all ages, with the light weights, for distances under 1 mile, have 
also no value for breeding, and should be much more restricted than is at 
present, unfortunately, the case in England. The making of racecourses, 
for example, over uneven ground (as more detailed in No. 3), mav also have 
a favourable effect on the form of Thoroughbreds bv eradicating everv 
unharmonious conformation of racehorses. 

2. — Want of endurance for long distances. This reproach is the most 
common, and not to use a stronger expression, a very ill-considered one. 
\\> have proved that no other race of horses has attained the endurance of 
the Thoroughbred in many long distance races. Generally the above 
reproach is applied to the former long races over 4 miles with heats, as thev 
took place in the time of Eclipse. \\'e must, however, emphasise that the 
remo\-al of these long races with heats was the first step towards progress. 
The errors made must be found somewhere else, and as we shall soon see, 
one did not go far enough in the shortening of distances. 

Not only representatives of Half-bred breeders, but also breeders and 
admirers of Trotters and Thoroughbreds, have always rightlv aimed at the 
production of a horse with the greatest possible endurance as the goal of 
their breeding efforts. As history shows us, however, thev were wrong in 
demanding performances over too great distances in order to reach this goal. 
They forgot that races shoHjld not only prove which is the best, but that the 
object of this test, and of the training for this test, should be to improve 
(he stock. A flat race, for example, over -20 kilometres or more (in Moscow 
there exists one for 20 versts) does not improve the stock but ruins it. The 
breeders of Trotters in America tried in the middle of the last century to 
get 100 miles covered in 10 hours. After that they wanted 20 miles doing 
in 1 hour. Thev also attained this result. They, however, observed at the 
same time that the health of the horses suffered, that is to say, that horses 
did not improve, but rather their value as breeding stock depreciated. The 
practical Americans soon found that the right distance for testing breeding 
stock is the one on which one can train horses, i.e., prepare them without 
damaging their health, and thev found — and I think thev are right — that 
this right distance is 1 English milt. Russian Trotters kept to their 
long distances. The result is, firstly, the American Trotter has improved 
its record in 1818 of 3 minutes per mile to 2 minutes to-day; secondly, 
the American Trotter to-day shows more endurance for every distance 
than the Russian. The improved record of Russian Trotters since 1860 
(there are no reliable statements for former years) is mainly due to the 
establishment of good racecourses (hippodromes instead of roads), and to 
the intrr)duction of sulkies instead of the four-wheeled droskies, which 



6. Conclusions and Propositions as to the Iniprovcintnt, etc. ]97 

WL'iglied two and more puds heavier. In 18G0 the six-year-old W'ehsar from 
Chrenowoi, ran in a four-wheeled drosUy 2 versts in 3 minutes, 27 seconds, 
and in 189G the best record was in a sulky, 2 versts in 3 miniites. i3J seconds. 
Since 1893, the year in which sulkies were generally introduced, tl>e record 
performances of Russian Trotters have made very little progress indeed; 
for example, in 189G the best record for 11 versts was 2 minutes, loi seconds, 
and in 1907 the best record for the same distance 2 minutes 14 seconds. 
Trotting races for distances over more than 1 mile are justified and useful 
as a test for an individual horse in use, just the same as all kinds of long- 
distance rides for Thoroughbreds and Half-breds. As a matter of principle. 
one ought to distinguish tests for breeding stock from tests for stock in use 
The former have for object the improving of the production of capable 
breeding stock, whilst the latter serve to show what the maximum per- 
formance is. and how it may possibly be best attained, if need be, wiihout 
considering whether the stock is herebv damaged or not. 

The question, what distance, looked at from the above point of \ie\\, is the 
right one for flat races, still requires solving. At the time of Eclipse the chief 
races were run over distances of 4 miles. The classical Derbv is now run in all 
countries over about 2,400 metres. The Grand Prix dc Paris over 3,U0i) metres. 
The Doncaster St. Leger 2,937 metres. The longest races are in I'rance, in 
the Prix Gladiateur, 6,200 metres. In England there are now no races over 3 
miles. In Ireland there is still one over 4 miles, and two over 3 miles, and in 
Germany, Second Class Autumn Meeting in Hoppegarten, I, sou metres. 
In the course of time the art of training has, of course, made much progress, 
and trainers have learned that gallops for more than 2,000 to 2, 101) metres, 
also in preparation for the Derby and longer distances, are bad. The gallops 
which were still in force twenty years ago, and which were often run lik« 
a race over the Derby distance, have almost totalh- ceased. .Most trainers 
incline to the opinion that such long gallops do not improve the condition 
of the horse, but rather the reverse. If that is so, it is a mistake to have 
flat races for longer distances than about 2,400 metres. It is a mistake to 
have races over distances which do not improve the rightlv trained stock, 
but rather do it harm. To fix the right limit with certainty is very diffi- 
cult, but the Derby seems to be the utmost limit for a useful race distance. 
Mv own opinion is that for three-year-olds 2,000 metres, and fur iwo-vcar- 
olds 1,200 metres is the correct and most useful test distance, aiul I should 
consider it a sign of progress if all so-called classical races, i.e.. such as 
serve for breeding stock, were raced over these distances, as is the case with 
the American Trotters. Training would not onlv be facilitated thereb\', 
but the horses would also prosper more. To train horses for diflerent 
distances at the same time, and especialh for verv short distances of 800 
to 1,400 metres, as is now demanded, is of no use whatever for breeding 
stock. Races held for long and short distances, in order to use stock which 
is not usi'd for breeding, mav be useful and instructive, as long as the nimiber 



198 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

of these races is kept in moderate bounds and suitable to the requirements. 
For the same reasons there should not be too many sehing races and 
handicaps. 

It is wrong to believe that races of 2,000 metres for three-year-olds and 
1,200 metres for two-year-olds would give little chance to so-called stayers, 
and would thus endanger the aim and end, namely, the breeding of 
horses for endurance. What is called generally a horse with plenty of 
endurance, and therefore one specially suitable for long distances, is not 
the same as what is^ called a sta3'er on the racecourse, as opposed to a 
flyer. I really believe that flyers are often more suited for long distance 
rides and other feats of endurance, as well as for steeplechases, than stayers. 

The quickest pace in which a horse can gallop a certain given distance 
without endangering the speed necessary for the finish, I would like to call 
its special pace. This special pace diminishes in the case of every horse 
with the growing distance. In the case of horses which we call stayers, 
this diminishing of special pace is less than in the case of those which we 
call flyers. At the same time the former have to put in a less speed than 
the latter. The scale at which this decrease takes place, and the amount of 
reserved speed, show in which degree the horse is a stayer or a flyer. Here 
1 would like to further remark that the stayer can increase its speed only very 
little or not at all after a pace which is under its special pace. 

The special pace t of the stayer is greater than the special pace ti of the 
flyer. The stayer, therefore, gains on the way per metre a distance equal to 
M. On the whole distance d the advantage of the staver amounts to d M. 
If s equals the speed of the stayer, and Sj equals the speed of the flyer, the 
question is whether 

d. j\I. > Si — s or d. M. < Si — s 
i.e., whether the flyer on a gi\'en distance can, through its superior speed, 
gain the advantage which the stayer has obtained on the way (about to 
the distance) on account of its greater special pace. If this be not the case, 
the flyer will have to increase somewhat its special pace, but onl)- in so far 
as s' — s becomes larger than d.M. 

The pace in steeplechases is limited by obstacles and the ground. The 
stayer therefore in steeplechases is prevented from full}' developing its chief 
force. The fl\'er, on the other hand, can make use of the pace necessitated 
by the ground, which perhaps just corresponds to its special pace, and put 
on a better speed at the finish. The less the obstacles, the more even the 
ground, the more advantage there is for the stayer. Jf 

In races of such great distances as in the above-mentioned 20 verst race 
at Moscow, the racing galloping ceases more or less, and the special pace 
of the stayer as well as of the flyer (ceteris paribus, viz., in horses of approxi- 
matel\- ec|ual class) becomes prettv equal. For this reason, in case of such 
unraceable distances, the flyer will very often have the advantage. 

The above comparisons applv in general only to horses of approximately 



6. Conclusions and Propositions as to the Improvement, etc. 199 

equal class. A horse of the first class, for example, wiiich is at the same 
time a staver, may have a greater speed than a horse <jf the third class which 
is a typical flver. In a race between the two, therefore, the latter will not 
have need to imt on his better special pace. In the case of such champions 
of the course as Gladiateur, Kincsem, Ormonde, Plaisanterie, Isinglass, etc., 
it will be verv difficult, for want of a reliable standard, to decide whether 
they are stavers or fivers. The best proof as to whether two horses belong 
to different clas.ses will be found in the fact that one of them can beat the other 
with the tactics of the stayer as well as those of the flyer. As a rule, I would 
sav that racehorses between whom there is more than a stone belong to two 
different classes. 

3. — ]]'ant of cleverness. This reproach has a certain justification, as it 
very likelv is possible to still further increase the cleverness of the Thorough- 
bred bv a different method of rearing and other tests. In consequence of 
their peculiar rearing up, for example, the Steppe horses, or the horses 
brought up in the Mauerpark of Sababourg (Beberbeck), are certainly 
superior to the Thoroughbreds in cleverness. It is reasonable to expect and 
also probable, that the race tests for many generations only on flat, level 
tracks, mav cause neglect of several useful and important qualities of the 
horse in use (riding horses, school horses, hunters and military horses). To 
these qualities belong chiefly cleverness, which is best cultivated and tested 
in steeplechases. But also the shape of the flat racing track may have a 
favourable influence in cultivating and rewarding cleverness. Quite level 
and flat tracks, as, for example, those of Newmarket, are not suitable. Of 
the classical courses which I know, the Derby Epsom course is the most 
suitable for testing and rewarding the ability to go up and down hills and 
to pass such sharp bends as are fcnind on very few steeplechase courses. 
The Epsom Derby course is kncnvn as a hard and very reliable test. Its 
chief value consists in the following : 

1. The verv strong incline, about iialf a mile from the slari, demands 
so much from the horse, that roarers, unfit horses, and those of inferior 
qualitv and without sufficient stamina, drop out very early or have finished 
with the last incline before the winning post. 

•2. The uneven and often varying ground, with its several sharp bends, 
requires great elYorts in the cleverness of the horses. 

3. A one-sided capacity does not avail. Such a one-sided capacity iiiighi 
e.xist, for example, in the special cleverness to climb up a hill well; it 
is possible over-built iiorses with strong hind quarters migiit excel here. Or, 
again, such a one-sidcdness might enable them to go better down hill, which 
shows a better developed fore part than hind part. I-'inaily. this — at Epsom 
unavailing — one-sidedness might be a too long galloping-stride (Galopp- 
sprung). It is possible that this too long galloping-stride results from a 
conformation that has not the necessary symmetry, which enables the horse 
to adapt in time the pace to an uneven ground and to sharp corners. This 



200 Trial of llie Thoroiij^hbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

lack of symmetry would be less troubling on a le\el and straight course lik-e 
Newmarket; perhaps it should even be of some use. 

In the breeding of Half-breds, Steeplechasers have often been used with 
good results. In Beberbeck, The Colonel, twice winner at Liverpool, has 
produced well, and from him are derived the good and strong limbs which, 
through Optimus and Obelisk (the dams of which were daughters of Colonel) 
one often finds in Trackehnen. The number of Steeplechasers which have 
been successful in English Thoroughbred breeding is indeed verv small. 
The best known example is Touchstone's grand-dam, Boadicea (Banter's 
dam), who, between its seventh and twelfth year proved itself an excellent 
hunter, and as a 19-year-old produced Touchstone's dam. A great mistake 
in all propositions for steeplechases both here and abroad is that geldings 
have to carry 3 to o lbs. less weight, instead of having to carry .5 lbs. more. 
Such classical steeplechase races as the great Liverpool National should only 
be for colts and fillies, weight for age. Then also steeplechases would supply 
more useful sires. Everybody who has seen the Grand National steeplechase 
at Liverpool, run over a distance of 7,200 metres, with its 3'2 jumps, of which 
each is a great performance, and who could admire the 11-year-old Manifesto 
coming in as a victor for the second time among 28, and 19 starters, carry- 
ing 12 stone, 7 lbs., will at once admit that such a performance is just as 
imposing as a Derby vict(jry, and the only thing to be regretted is that 
Manifesto, like many other steeplechasers, was a gelding. The mare 
Empress by Royal Blood, who ended her career as a steeplechaser as a winner 
of the Grand National Steeplechase in 1880, produced still 9 good foals, 
among them in 1889 Red Prince by Kendal, winner of the Lancashire 
Handicap Steeplechase, one of the best known sires in Irish llunter breed- 
ing, and an ideal mating stallion for Half-bred mares. 

The value of steeplechases as a breeding test depends on the kind of 
track. Steeplechase tracks like Auteuil are less suitable for testing breeding 
stock, because the kind of obstacles and the ground there admit of nearly 
the same pace as in flat races, besides, the distance, according to the observa- 
tions just made, is too long to be a i:seful test for fiat racing. Steeplechase 
courses like Auteuil ruin the material more than difficult tracks like Liver- 
pool, for example. Perhaps this accounts for the fact that the same horse 
(Peter Simple, Abd-el-Kader, The Colonel, The Lamb, Manifesto) has \\on 
and obtained places more than once in the Liverpool Grand National, 
whilst only one horse (Wild Monarch, won I87S and 1879) has done the 
same feat in the Auteuil great steeplechase. An obstacle course which has 
to be used also for the test of breeding material, ought to consist of difficult 
obstacles, and varying, if at all possible, uneven fields with sharp corners. 
The distance ought to be in proportion to the topography and soil, about 
6,000 metres, with a run in of at most 500 metres. Obstacles as well as 
the ground should prevent an uninterrupted flat race pace, and admit at 
most only of a good hunting gallop up to the distance (the finish), which, 



6. Conclusions .-mil I'lnpositions as to the Iinprovenient, etc. 'J()I 

of course, must admit uf a real struggle in tile best pace, just as in a llal 
race. Such tracks would, of course, demand a much more careful prepara- 
tion for riding and jumping than is the case at Auleuil. Whoever buys 
the winner of the great Auleuil steeplechase hoping to get a go(»d hunter 
will very likely be deceived. Morses who have chanced to win on such 
tracks as I ha\e just described, must be so far prepared that thev are alwavs 
well in hand antl always willing to suit their pace' to the ground. Thev 
must be very carefully jumped, so that thev may be able to get over large 
and variT)us olistacles safel\- at the retjuired pace and without giving too 
much away. JMnaliy, after lia\ing surmounted the last obstacle, the\- must 
still ha\e enough speed left for the final struggle. A test over such a course 
is, naturally, different to a test on the flat. The latter will certainh- measure 
more correctly the galloping capacity, whilst the former makes more demand 
on the cleverness, df)cility, temperament, successful training, and, finally, 
on the speed of the horse. All these (jualities have great influence in the 
IJractical breeding of horses, especially of military horses. 1 consider it 
an advantage that on such courses so-called fleers have a greater chance of 
winning than sta\ers, especiallv as the flyers are more symmetrically built, 
and have more energv than the slavers. It is verv noteworthx' and interest- 
ing that the development of a great speed over short distances recjuires a 
horse to be sxnimelricall v buih. One will find more often amongst stayers 
high-legged and narrow horses with upright shoulders and straight pastern 
than amongst flyers. Moreover, we do not here speak about flyers which are 
onlv ver\' quick o\-er -"JOd metres, liul about such which, carrving 80 kilos, 
iifter a gallop of G,()()U and more metres, and over about 30 different jum]Ds, 
still retain enough energy, force and breath to be able to put on enuugh 
speed to succeed in the final struggle. The.se are not only performances 
worthy of recommendation, but they are also guarantee for characiers, which 
are especially valuable for all noble llalf-breds. 

I'nforiunately, such steeplechases, .so important as tests of breeding- 
stock, are becoming more and more scarce, especiallv where bookmakers 
•'xerci.se much influence on racing propositions, like thev do in KnglancI, 
even tor flat racing propositions (many handicaps and short selling races). 
It is very clear that the special trainers are afraid of the work and 
preparation necessary for horses for such steeplechases, especiallv as verv 
few of them are sufficiently conversant with it. This work belongs par- 
ticularly to gentlemen riders, and here Germany is probablv on top. This 
work will al.so cultivate the love and knowledge which are essential to the 
future breeder of Thoroughbreds and Ilalf-breds, and, finallv, iliis work will 
produce and animate the love of sport and the daring which soon disappears 
in long periods of peace, and without which everv people wtiuld soon decay. 
The further .spread and reserve of steeplechases, especiallv for gentlemen 
riders or officers, might ahso prevent a modern return of the times of ancient 
Greece and Rome, in which slaves did the fighting and dancing, whilst the 
Grand .Seigneurs looked on and api)lauded. 



\ 



•202 Trial of the Thoroughbred on the Racecourse, etc. 

4. — Faulty and too light fundament. This reproach, iinfortunatelv 
justified, is the weak point in the whole Thoroughbred breeding. Everv 
Half-bred breeder knows how difficult it is to improve by the infusion of 
Thoroughbreds the important fore-legs, and any rider who knows the 
Thoroughbred outside the racecourse will confirm that the galloping capacity 
ot the same is a greater one than the fundament will stand. Whoever has 
ridden Steppe horses will know what good fore-legs can stand. In this 
respect, next to the Steppe horse come the Irish Half-breds. We have seen 
in Germany several such Irish Half-breds on our steeplechase courses. 
Certainly they broke down now and again, but they were put right and won 
races again, and they did performances on three legs which a classical 
Thoroughbred can very seldom perform. As typical examples of these kinds 
of performances, let me mention the following Thoroughbreds and Half- 
breds :— Red Nob (Half-bred) 1866 by Neville, Et Cetera 1884 by Town 
Moor, Teviot 1886 by Marden or Lucebit, Gardenia 1888 by Reveller^ Handv 
Andy (Half-bred), Sixpence 1889 by Man-of-War, Balrat'h (Half-bred) 189"y 
by Alban, Sportsman (Half-bred) 1894 by the Dethroned, Scotch Moor 1895 
by Town Moor. 

It is fairh' clear from the observations made in the chapter on weight 
differences, as well as from the list of horses whose fundament admitted of 
their successful use on the racecourse up to their eighth year, and even 
beyond that, that the two-j'ear-old races, and especially those which are 
run early in the year, ma}- be considered the chief cause of a general retro- 
gression in the capabilities (Leistungsfahigkeit) of the Thoroughbred, as well 
as of the special deterioration of the fundament. A sequence of the earlv 
two-year-old races, as well as of the many early entry closings, is the break- 
ing in of the yearlings, which often takes place in July, and the dangerous 
trials of same in autumn. The yearlings lose through these causes the 
benefits of grazing, which reall}^ cannot be over-estimated. How much the 
long-extended grazing influences the production of good fore-legs can best 
be seen with the Steppe horses and Half-breds in Ireland. It is clear that 
the movement connected with life on the Steppes, on hard meadows (in 
summer day and night), produces better, i.e., stronger, drver and firmer 
fore-legs than the 2 hours' training and the 22 hours' rest in the stable of the 
yearlings. Besides, the American training method, to keep them in motion 
twice daily, and to give them plentv of walking exercise, seems in this 
respect to be very effective, especially as it a^•oids the effeminate treatment 
which is resorted to in Europe without any advantage whatever. In 
America in 1893 I thought that the American Thoroughbreds possessed 
better fore-legs and a more regular walk than our horses, perhaps smce then, 
however, even there the steady increase of races for two-year-olds in the earl}' 
part of the year (even beginning in January), may also have had a bad 
influence in this respect. The law which has been in force in France since 
1867 that two-vear-olds must not be run before the 1st of August is verv 



6. Conclusions and Propositions as to tlie Improvement, etc. -203 

reasonable. Unfortunately, this law has been extended since 1907, so that in 
Itih- also, races may be run for two-year-olds (at most two on each race 
dav), for a prize up to .5,000 francs, for a distance not over 1,000 metres. 
In German}-, since 1905, the Snd of June has been fixed as the earliest date 
for two-year-old races. The above particulars on changes in weight differ- 
ences seem to prove that the few two-year-old races not run too early in the 
vear have had a favourable effect on Thoroughbred breeding. Yet I believe 
that the complete elimination of t\vo-\-ear-old races would be the best means 
to improve Thoroughbred breeding, ruid especially to improve the funda- 
ment. As long, however, as the bookmakers and their following are so 
powerful as thev have been hitherto, a change will scarcely be possible in 
England in this respect. One mav expect the unfeeling energy necessary to 
carrv out such a trenchant rule, together with prudence and careful work, 
only in France and Germany. In Germany, first of all, one might attain an 
improvement by forbidding two-year-old races before the 1st of September, 
and also to ofter the best prizes for four-year-olds and older horses, for 
distances of 2,000 or 2,400 metres. 

If one, however, objects to this, the fact that most classical winners of 
about the last fiftv years are derived from dams who ran and won as two- 
year-olds, the question seems to be Justified, as to whether these dams have 
produced so well, in spite of, or in consecjuence of, the two-year-old tests. 
Those fillies as well as colts which can stand the two-year-old race tests are, 
especiallv if they come out as winners, witlKjut doubt by nature the best and 
hardest horses, and can therefore produce well in spite of two-year-old races. 
That the t\\o-\ear-old races are a good thermometer as to hardness, health, 
and quality of young horses can be taken for granted, just as surely as 
we can accept their directly injurious influence. Besides, these young 
horses, through their early training, lose benefits which nothing can replace, 
such as the one year's grazing, which is especially useful for the whole con- 
stitution, and more particularly the fundament. Moreover, against the fact 
that most classical winners are derived from dams which have also run as 
two-year-olds, we have the other fact, which I have discussed above, that 
horses w ith prominent performances at great ages, as well as the champions 
of steeplechases, are derived in the majority from stallions and dams which 
did not run as two-year-olds. If two-year-old races are altogether abolished, 
I would recommend, and especialh' for countries in which grazing is inter- 
rupted by a long winter, to break in the vearlings late in the autumn, to work 
them well through the winter, and to send thoni again as t\vo-\-ear-()lds in the 
summer to grass. 

0. — ]]'ant of capacity for carrying heavy iveights. I do not consider 
this reproach justified. The statement so often heard that horses carried 
heavier weights formerly is only correct in so far as the so-called King's 
Plates are concerned, in which five and six-year-olds and older horses were 
tested under great weigius up to 12 stone, mostlv for 1 miles with heals. 



'j(J4 Trial of the Tiiurouglibred on the Racecourse, etc. 

Besides, in the 11 King's Plates, the never beaten Eclipse carried, for ex- 
ample, as a tive and six-year-old, in its remaining 8 races, only S or 9 stone. 
In the second half of the nineteenth century 8 stone, 7 lbs. was the usual 
weight for four-year-olds. The weights of the Derby, of the St. Leger, and 
the Oaks, have been increased by 1 stone since their inauguration. In the 
first races for two-year-olds (1780) the weight for colts was 7 stone, 9 lbs., 
and in the first classical races for two-year-olds (1786), 8 stone, 2 lbs., against 
9 stone of to-day. In Germany the Derby weight is the highest, namely, 
58 kilos. Then follows England with .57.15 kilos. France and Austria with 
56, America and Russia with -54.9. A greater weight than 58 kilos for 
three-year-olds in classical tests does not seem to be desirable, especially as 
the danger to the legs would thereby be increased without obtaining any 
advantages. A great mistake, however, are the feather weights, which are 
still usual in England in many handicaps and selling races. English earnest 
hippologists have often tried to do awav with this, but the power of the book- 
maker has always prevented it. 

6. — Xcrvousncss, dilYiciiIt tcmperaiuciit, dud bad tise of food. I only 
mention this altogether unjustified reproach on account of completeness. If 
a chronometer must go as well as it ought to, you must handle it in a proper 
manner, and the same thing applies to the Thoroughbred. The worse and 
more unreasonable the rider, the less is he suited to handle a capable 
Thoroughbred. The Thoroughbred demands onlv a reasonable, not a 
tender treatment, and no good Thoroughbred can bear, for example, to 
stand a whole day or longer in the stable. In right hands, the Thorough- 
bred is neither nervous nor difficult, and uses his food better than any other 
race of horses, especialh- when it works hard. The above reproach is a 
characteristic judgment of people who do not know the Thoroughbred 
thoroughly, and who cannot distinguish the racehorse in training from the 
Thoroughbred in use. 

On accoimt of the above observations, I make the following proposals :. — 

1. Forbid two-year-old races before the 1st of September, also under 
1.000 metres. 

2. Regulate distances for three-Acar-olds and older in breeding races to 
1,600—2,400 metres. 

3. Establish well-endowed races for four-year-olds and older for 2,000- 
2,400 metres. 

4. Lav out flat races over uneven ground with sharper turnings than is 
usual in Germany up to now, after the model of Epsom. 

5. Arrange steeplechases as breeding races for four-year-olds and older 
colts and fillies on courses with great obstacles, varying and uneven ground 
and sharp turnings, for 4,000 — (),000 metres, with age w-elghts for gentlemen 
riders. 

6. Abolish all races under 1,(100 metres, all handicaps for two and three- 
year-olds, all hurdle races, and the so-called Biedenweg rules. 



0. Coiu-kisioiis ami l'n)|)ii>iiii)ns as to the Impiovemt-ni , clc. -JO."; 

7. — -Abolish the early cnlry tlosinys, ;is thcv lead to U«t i-ari\- (rials, puL 
heavy taxes on breeders, and are the laiise that i^ood horses often cannot run 
in important races. 

8. Increase breeders' rewards, so that more breeders niav participate 
in the earnings <>f races, anil in'ci'ease the interest in the brecdinfj of hard\' 
}'earlings. 

If, however, the representatives nS ThonjUi^hbred breeding;" will decline 
to reorganise the race trials in the above-described or a similar manner, and 
will persist in going on as they have done up to now, and if, further, as is 
iinfortunatel\- the case in lingland, the influence of bookmakers and nther 
business people should increase in the framing of racing propositions, the 
proud words, " prd repiiblica est diim litderc vidcmur," will soon he no 
longer true as regards race tests. Half-bred bri'eders will then be forced to 
apply to their own breeding tin- care and expense which has been the cause 
of the origin of the Thoroughbred, and thev will be forced to demand from 
their own breeding stock those tests of performances which have made the 
Thoroughbred so capable. In other words, Half-bred breeders will them- 
selves have to produce a sort of Thoroughbred. Of course, that is a long 
way off, and several generations will have to work before that standard can 
be reached to which the Thoroughbred of fo-da\' has attained. 



II. 

Heredity. 



chapti:r 1. 

General Observations on Heredity. 



TnK most inipciitaiit and diriioult work of llu' hrcfdcr is the mating of brood 
mares. It is aciiiiowledged that the breeding of horses is more diflicidt tlian 
liie breeding of our other domestic animals. Darwin contends that only few 
people have an idea what an amount of natural capacity, and how many 
vears' practice are necessarv, to become an expert breeder of pigeons. Mow 
much more difficult, more complicated, and above all, hcjw much more weari- 
some, is horse breeding I Judging from the results of mating, not onl\- many 
\ears' practice, but also a sharp eye and an impartial consideration are 
essential. Uesides the breeding material and the soil which are ;it the disposal 
of tire breeder, mating and tlie manner of rearing are the fundamental factors 
in horse breeding. F.\en if we have to acknowledge that the first worlc. 
namely, mating, is the more difficult part, yet, on the other hand, the mistake 
which most frequently occurs, not only in the breeding of horses, but also 
of our other domestic animals, is that one expects everything from the sire 
rind its mating, and omits to gi\e tliat care to the rearing without wliich, 
(•\-en with the wisest mating and the best lireeding material, iiotiiing great 
is produced. Tiie lireeder's t-vr must be able to distinguish wiiat is du« to 
the mating and what is due to the rearing with respect to the soil. 

We do not know an\- genera! rules or laws indicating which characters 
are generally or m(»stlv transmitted b\- the sire and which by the dam. Tiir 
former doctrine that the sire usually transmits the forequarters and the dam 
llii' liind(|uancrs is noi correct. \\\rn if there are .sires who nearl\- alwavs 
transmit certain parts of the bodv or intellectual characters, there are, on the 
other hand, dams who generallv transmit the same characters, ihere does 
not exist a fixed regularity of transmission, either on the part of the dam or 
on that of the sire. Generally, other things being equal, both dam and sire 
have the same pr{jncness to transmit the peculiar characters of tlu-ir body and 
temperament down to the minutest particular. .\lso, they mav transmit, 
more or less, (|ualities which tiiev do not themselves possess, but which (as 
Darwin contends) one of their ancestors as far ba<k as the twelfth gener.-ition 
liossesscd. 



210 Heredity. 

Transmission works like the memory — often far distant, unimportant 
matters are recalled, often nearer and more important ones are passed over. 
In physiological psychology they speak of a muscular memory, even of a 
memory of matter. The supposition that transmission is also somewhat 
determined bv the memory of the germ plasm is in the same manner justified. 
In contrasting, for example, different growths of the real and grafted picea, 
pungens, argentea, one can distinctlv see how memorv acts in transmission, 
as the ingrafted branch, remembering too much its position and duty on the 
mother tree, does not therefore attain that regular straightness which dis- 
tinguishes its mother type, and which only can be produced by grafting 
with the top shoots. 

Even if both parents generally take equal shares in transmission, yet in 
every instance different combinations of the mutual heritages will arise. 
This is the consequence of the results of the fights which are fought out 
between mutual heritages in the segmentation nucleus (fertilised egg). And 
these results cannot always be foreseen, and often change. The innumer- 
able combinations which are thus possible are the cause of the different fine . 
shades of individuality and, finallv, also of variations. 

In the Goos tables we find many examples of dams which had con- 
spicuously cleverer sons than daughters, and vice-versa. There have also 
been many stallions whose transmission differed in the same way, for 
example, Stockwell and Newminster were distinguished principally on 
account of many good sons, while Melbourne and King Tom produced more 
good daughters. This peculiaritv in transmission often continues through 
many generations, as, for example, through Melbourne to Wizard and 
Odoardo, down to the Half-bred stallion Optimus, which excelled very 
conspicuous!}' through having better daughters than sons. In Trakehnen, 
the Journey-mares excelled in their splendid produce, whilst the daughters 
of Venezuela succeeded very seldom. On the other hand, Venezuela's sires 
were much better than the sons of Journev. 

Sexual characters are also transmitted in the same equal manner by the 
sire and dam. Stallions which fertilize badly, for example, also produce 
dams which conceive badly, and bad covering stallions also produce dams 
which come badly and seldom in heat. Even the qualities to produce twins 
are not transmitted bv the dams only, but also by sires descending from 
families where twins have often been born. Sunflower, born 1813, for 
example, descended on its mother's side from a family in which there had 
never been twins up to its foundation mare, Lavton, Barb Mare (fam. 4). 
But her sire, Castrel, was own brother to Bronce, winner of the Oaks 1806, 
who produced twins four times, and transmitted this quality several times, 
down to Rigolboche, sire of the Derby winner Cremorne, and even later. 
Sunflower also produced twins, and transmitted this quality to four con- 
secutive generations, and perhaps still further. In this case we must suppose 
that her sire, Castrel, transmitted this quality. It was the same case with 



1. General Observations on Heredity. 'ill 

Crystal (born 1851 bv Pantaloon), who was inbred to Castrel, and Selini, her 
dam, to Rubens and Selim, produced twins twice, again transmitting this 
qualitw vet no ancestor on her mother's side ever had twins. 

If a dam M. has produced by a sire B. a prominent sire product M.I., 
and with several other sires less good dam products have been produced, 
the retention of the blood of the dam M. by her son M.l. is to be recom- 
mended, as his daughters, if well done, are taken as brood mares to the stud. 
They will transmit the best part of the blood of dam AT. improved by B. It 
is therefore not absolutel\- necessarv, in order to preserve the blood fif a well- 
proven dam, to breed alwavs from her direct daughters. The same purpose 
is attained — a generation later — by breeding from the daughters of her son. 
The correctness of this procedure stands and falls, of course, with the 
generally acknowledged doctrine that sire and dam, all things being ec|ual, 
take equal share in the transmission. 

The equal value of sires and dams in transmission is contrarv to the 
doctrine of Bruce Lowe, i.e., that certain breeding characters (Running and 
Sire families) are for several generations always transmitted bv the dams. 
It can be seen already from this that the breeding theorv of Bruce Lowe, 
from the Figure system, is untenable. In any case, Bruce Lowe over- 
estimates the effective power of transmission which a good brood mare can 
maintain for following generations, notwithstanding the conse(|uent influence 
of other blood. If the Bruce Lowe theory that there are special Sire and 
special Running families were true, the transmission power of dams must be 
totallv difYerent to that of sires, and that is not the case. Besides, Bruce 
Lowe has not figured out the Sire-families in the same way as the Running- 
families, but has estimated them without figures. In the book published in 
1901 by W. Allison, " The British Thoroughbred Horse," he gives on page 
101 the number of stallions w hich have been produced by each family as sires 
of classical winners. The families according to that are as follows : — 

Familv 3 with 72 stallions. 



1 


,. 50 





,, 40 


11 


„ 34 


12 


„ 32 


6 


,. 31 


8 


,. 30 


14 


„ 30 




etc. 



It is therefore quite evident that the Bruce Lowe Sire-families (3, 8, 11, 
12, 14) are totally different to those ascertained bv figures. Besides, the above 
table shows that the great difference affirmed by Bruce Lowe does not exist 
between Sire and Running-families. The three best Running-families, 1, 
2 and 3 (which according to Allison, 1901, range 1, 3, 2), are, according to 



■212 Heredity. 

the above table, also the three best Sire-families, and the two Running- 
families, 1 and 2, are, as regards the production of sires, far superior to 
Bruce Lowe's Sire-families, 8, 11, 12 and 14. Even the outside family 6, is 
just as good as the celebrated Sire-family 12, and better than the Sire- 
families 8 and 14. Thereby the affirmed difference between Running and 
Sire-families is wanting. Moreover, this fact gives, if looked at from a 
special point of view, an interesting figure proof of the above contention that 
both parents, sire and dam, have an equal influence on their progeny. If 
the Bruce Lowe doctrine were true, then in the case of the present day race- 
horses of about the 2.jth generation, the one foundation mare ought to have 
a greater influence than the other about 17,000,000 ancestors, and she ought 
to be able to seal her Sire or Running-character on her family. Ver\- 
interesting — if it were true ! 

In the figure estimate of the different families as regards the production 
of classical winners in Running-families, as well as of sires of classical 
winners in Sire-families, we must take into consideration that a classical 
winner can only be counted once, or at most three times, according as it has 
won one or three classical races. A sire of classical winners, however, can 
be counted one to about seventeen times, according as he has produced one 
or seventeen classical winners. Stockwell, for example, is sire of three 
Derby winners, six St. Legers, one Oaks, four 2,000 Guineas, and three 
1,000 Guineas winners — altogether seventeen classical winners. As a winner 
in the 2,000 Guineas Stakes and in the St. Leger, Stockwell is marked with 
two numbers in the running quality of family 3, and with seventeen numbers 
in the sire quality of the same family. A classical winner can only obtain 
number three for the running quality of his family, but for the sire quality he 
can, like Stockwell, obtain seventeen or even a higher number. This shows 
distinctly that the value of the figures which determine the quality of 
Running or Sire-families cannot be taken as a standard. Statistical com- 
parisons of the figures which represent the classical winners and of those 
which represent the sires of classical winners, are, therefore, n(jt justified, and 
lead to wrong conclusions. The followers of the Bruce Lowe doctrine, when 
judging of the pedigree of a prominent racehorse whose sire does not 
come from a Sire-familv, surmount this obstacle bv saving that perhaps 
the best sire blo(jd was brought bv the sire <»f the mother or by the sire's 
sire. Tills does not. however, reconcile itself with the fundamental idea of 
the contended transmission of sire or running qualities onlv through the 
dam's side. The proportion of running, sire, and outside families changes 
in the pedigree of a horse witH every generation so much that the value of 
a horse differs according to the generation which is taken as a basis. Accord- 
ing to one's wish, one could, from this point of view, judge a horse favour- 
abh- or unfavourablv. .Vccording to Chamant, for example, the proportion 
of sire and outside families changes as follows : — 



1. (ieiuT.il ObstTVMlidiis (in lU-ruditv. 



!l.t 



Runiiinjj- 
fainih . 

If. (Jencratidn, -J Ancestors. 1 

HI. ., 4 .. ■> 

W. ,. 8 „ H 

V. .. 10 „ 4 

VI. .. 3-2 ,, 9 

Vn. .. G4 .. 19 

XVII. ,. 05,530 ,. T.iT 

+ The numliur ut l'";miilv ;1 is tci \>l- >imilarl\ aildiil in tlic Kimiiinyf .nicl Sirt^-l.-unilies. 



Sin- 


I-'.-miily 


Outside 


family. 




family 






I 


o 







3 




8 







13 


^•2 


5 


2« 


1,439 


t 


03,303 



If Ciiamant liad prodiui'd b;iciK', imr cciuld have made lln' cxciisi- that lit* 
had, in tin- sciond and tliird gcncratiim, iiiort* running blood tlian .•sire blood. 
If he prodiues well, it is evident from the seventeentii generation (or even 
earlier) that he has more sire blood than running blood. These different 
ways of judging liorses are indeed alwaxs possible for our pn-scnt dav 
horses, but not for the three foundatiim sires of the luiglish liioroughbred, 
for Eclipse, a marvel on tiie raeeeourse, iiad, just lii\e Ilerod, who between 
the ape of -J to 9 vears won in r.'ices, no running blood whatever in his 
pedigree, whilst Mateiiem, who between the age of 5 to 10 vears won in ]0 
races, can sItow \er\- little running blood (onlv famil\- 1) and no sire blood 
at all in his pedigree. .\11 this ought to be suftirieni to show how untenable 
Bruce Lowe's breeding theorv w ith the number svstem is. I*!ven if cleverness 
in the grouping of figures and diverse statistical tables often sei-m to support 
the Bruce Lowe theorv, one onh' needs to be reminded that tiguro pro\e 
anything, and often give verv remarkable answers to foolish or unjustitied 
questions. With the same justification we could also divide the blood of 
the sires into Running and Sire-families. Bruce Lowe's breeding theory, with 
its figure system, belongs to those errors which are fairlv harmless, with 
this advantage even, that breeders now trouble themselves more with the 
pedigree of the breeding material than formerly. Charles Richardson ("The 
l^nglish Turf," page 'J'JT) rightlv settles the whole Bruce Lowe doctrine bv 
saying : " 1 had some thought of criticising this figure system theorv, but. 
never seriouslv taken up bv breeders, it is alreadv a dead letter, succumbing 
through sheer inanition." 

The influence of sires and dams on their jirogenv varies in realiu trom 
the fact that the sires are, on the average, more important representatives of 
their race than the much more numerous dams c.'tn ever be. It is. therefore. 
to be assumed that the sires will oftener imprint their individuality than the 
dams. From this point of view can be explained the justitlcation and the 
especial value of the tables of breeding sires in the male line, as I have shown 
in the tables which follow. The recognised Goos tables in the female line 
up to the respective foundation dams are pre-eminentlv suitable for the correct 
judgment of Thoroughbred dams. The breeding tables of brood mares, com- 



214 Heredity. 

piled according to tlie families on the dam's side, in the same manner as the 
Thoroughbred dams in the Goos tables, are used to serve this purpose in the 
stud books of the Royal studs at Trakehnen and Beberbeck. In these tables 
all dams which have produced nothing great are left out. The classical 
winners in the Thoroughbred tables correspond to the Royal stud and country 
stallions. As in all breeding of animals, bv far more female than male 
animals are necessary, the stallions will on an average excel the brood mares 
in qualitv. The chief thought expressed in the Goos tables, as well as in 
the tables just mentioned in the stud books of Trakehnen and Beberbeck, 
is therefore based on the claim that a division of the blood on the mother's 
side mav also take place. Through it the practical breeder will obtain an 
easy means to judge rightly and quickly the chances of a good heredity in 
ever}' single instance, and the investigator obtains an easy survey and insight 
in transmission affairs. It is a mistake, therefore, to conclude that the dam 
has a greater influence on the progeny than the sire, whilst from the above, 
it onlv follows that a good or prominent mare has more, i.e., more favourable 
influence, than a mare of less value, and that it is therefore important to use 
as good a dam as possible. It is taken as a matter of course that the stallion 
is good, especiallv as he can be more easily obtained, i.e., for a single 
covering, than a good mare. 



CHAPTER II. 
The Transmission of Acquired Characters. 



The ingenious Darwin theory of natural selection in breeding has latterly 
been mucii attacked. Critics, however, have not yet substituted it by any- 
thing better. The development of the genus horse is a proof of the Darwin 
theory. The destruction of the unfit is, according to Darwin's theory, eas\- 
to prove. The creation of the fit, which he speaks of, is explainable by the 
transmission of acquired characters, without it, it remains an enigma. The 
controversy as to the transmission of acquired characters seems to me to 
have become a war of words, just like the controversies about pure breeding, 
constancv and individual prepotency. The opponents of the doctrine of the 
transmission of acquired character admit that those acquired characters of 
the body, which when acquired influence also the germ cells, or, to speak 
more correctly, the corresponding so-called "determinants" oi the germ 
cells, can be transmitted. The question therefore arises, which of the 
characters acquired bv the body do not influence at the time when they are 
acciuired corresponding these germ cells? The above opponents admit also 
the eftccts rjf climate and food, for example, on the bodv and on the germ 
cells and the transmissi(jn of characters thus acquired. The transmission of 
immunities has also been proved by Tizzoni, for example, in the case of 
raby-proof raiibits and tetanus-proof mice, and by Ehrlich, in the case of 
rizin and abrin-proof mice. .Mares which have suffered from severe glanders 
and got over them seem, as far as m\' observations at Beberbeck and 
Trakehnen go, to transmit a certain immunity. Of course, it is possible that 
this transmission of immunities by the dam is deceptive, and has only been 
transmitted to their progenv by the milk of the dam. 1 have never been able 
to prove that sires transmit such immunities. 

.\!1 characters acquired by the body exercise an irritation tiirough the 
acquirement. We must, therefore, assume that the germ plasm nourished 
by the body, and thus connected with the same, is subject to every such 
irritation, even if only in a very small degree. The cutting off the tail, as in 
the case of dogs, very likely produces an irritation of the germ cells, which 
is, howc\er, not strong enough, and nut nf .such a kind that (ransmission 



2ir Heredity. 

witliDUt a tail follows, 'llie cutting; oft the tail in the case of dogs belongs, 
as a matter of fact, just as little to acquired characters as the circumcision of 
Jews ; both are changes made from the outside, not acquired characters. Only 
irritations which for a long time and regularly, especially in earl\- years, 
have led to the acquirement of certain characters, as, for example, the trotting 
training of Trotters, which commences when thev are weaned foals, will be 
able to influence the corresponding " determinants " of the germ cells in 
such a manner that a favourable aptitude for the characters accjuircd from 
the parents is more or less transmitted. Thus is explained the transmission 
of changes produced bv the continuous influence of ground. The best 
example for this which I personally know is th<- previously mentioned change 
of the Percherons in the Russian Ciovernment Stud, Derkul (Government 
Charkow ), which was caused bv the Steppes, and transmitted. Darwin has 
especially emphasised the great influence which groimd, climate, food and 
manner of living exercise on the complete organism of animals in every kind 
of breeding. Important changes in the breeding stock may be effected by 
changes in the mode of living, which breeders can bring about. Practical 
horse breeding is based on these important and fundamental truths, and 
reckons w ith the transmission of many acquired characters. To these belong 
first of all, health, power, hardiness, habits, action, and the construction of 
the skeleton, combined with the action and changed by certain exercises. 
For example, the firmly established and early begun galloping exercises of 
the Thoroughbred have transff)rmed the previous more curved hind legs into 
more straight ones, and the less developed withers into prominent ones. On 
the other hand, the trotting exercises have, in the course of several genera- 
tions, produced straighter pasterns, longer middle, and flatter withers. 
Likewise the more upright shoulders of the draft horse, so suitable for draw- 
ing heavy loads, have been produced by degrees and transmitted in conse- 
(juenceof constant practice in drawing heavy loads through many consecutive 
generations. The deformation of the skeleton, which the Frenchman, De 
Gaste, takes to be the result of exorbitant trotting exercises, consists for the 
most part in a prf)longation of the ilium, a stunting of the ischium, and the 
diminution of the shoulder angle. 

Foals from parents which have been harnessed in their youth are more 
easily broken to harness than foals from parents which have never been har- 
nessed. It is more difficult to break in ff)r riding foals the parents of which 
have not been ridden or \(T\- little than those from parents which have been 
ridden for a long time. This is most noticeable in the case of breaking in 
young horses for jumping. In Trakehnen the brood mare Pirna, probably 
in consequence of an accidental opportunity, had accustomed herself not to 
be fastened up, or if she were fastened up, to get loose by cunning or 
force. Pirna transmitted this quality to several of her progeny, in the 
celebrated stud Palo Alto (California). October, 1893, 1 noticed as a very 
remarkable thing in the meadows that the foals of Trotters, unlike foals of 



2. 'I'lu- 'IVansinissiuii of Acquired ("haracters. 217 

riK.roughlKods. nearly always Inittrd. if they were urj^'cd on by a liandki-r- 
ohief'or whip. There was only one foal which i^allopcd nmre than trotted, 
and that foal was the product of a Trotter stallion out of the Thoroughbred 
mare Satanella. As is well Unown. the Americans liked until recently to 
infuse Thoroufrhbred blood into their Trotters. The stallion I'alo Alto and 
mare Maud S. are the best examples of this experiment. Briefly, the trans- 
mission of habits flnd faculties is in horse breeding a fact provable by many 
fxamples, and the most inifxirtant means for the impro\rmciit ot the breeds. 

.\s Darwin has proved by many examples, Imwever, not only habits and 
cleverness are transmitted, but all those characters which arc acijuired by 
continuous exercise of the same and according to the effect of the acquire- 
ment thev mav either injure or benefit the breed. In the following are given 
a few examples showing that the explanation of progress or retrogression in 
breeding by variation and selection alone seems to be insutificient. 

In August, I'.KIC), in TraUehnen, among the two-year-old fillies which 
were destined to become brood mares, the following ten fillies, by reason of 
their ancestry and conformation, were put to training for the llalf-bred breed- 
ing races 1907 in Konigsberg : — 

1. .\cl<erdrossel by Pomp and Achtbare by Optinrus. 

•1. I.autenspielerin by (icheimrat and T.aute by Lehnsherr. 

3. Leibeigene bv Pomp and Leibrente by Optimus. 

4. Poesie bv Geheimrat and Poststrasse by Lehnsherr. 

5. .\rt b\- Pomp and .\rgolis b\- ]-!h\in. 

(■). Jutizratin bv Geheimrat and Justicia by Pass\an. 
7. Julisonne b\- Greif and Julia b\- Orcus. 
H. Hf)hkonigsberg bv Poniji and ilohle h\ Ap\s. 
9. Lore bv Pomp and Louisa by L'Ifenbein. 
10. Fleimatlose bv Pomp and Heid<'nelfe by l^lfenbeiti. 

If we consider the three different Thoroughbred sires (Pomp, Geheimrat, 
and (ireif) of the above ten fillies of equal value, we should have, first of all, 
to judge the sires of the dams of these ten fillies in order to rightly estimate, 
by reason of the ancestry of the mares, their racing chances. If we believe 
in the transmission of acquired characters, we must assume that the two Ilalf- 
bri'd sires, Optimus and Lehnsherr, both of which were brought up in the 
.Mauer i'ark of Sabahurg, near i^eberbeck, had there ac{|uired b<'tter faculties 
for going, hardiness, and stronger heart and lungs, and all things being 
e(|ual, ought also to have transmitted these characters better than the stallions 
Orcus, Apis, l-'lwin and Ivlfenbein, which were brought up in Trakehnen, 
and therefore had less chance of exercise and galloping from their earliest 
youth. Looked at from this standpoint, the merit of the ten fillies in the last 
autumn trial, lUOli, was about in the same order as show n by the above table. 
The last four were soon after taken awav from race training. In the summer, 
1007, Nos. •") and (i were the sk)west. l-'inallv there f)nlv remained the four 



218 Heredity. 

grand-children of Optinnis and Lehnshcrr. On account of influenza in 
Trakehnen, in July, 1907, we were unable to send any horses for racing to 
Kijnigsberg. The race took place, therefore, on the 20th Julv, 1907, at 
Trakehnen, and there the four fillies passed the post in the same order as 
above list. 

The well-known American Trotter, Mambrino Chief (II.) by Mambrino 
Paymaster, had alreadv been used as a stallion for breeding of Trotters 
before he was trained for trotting races. He produced badh', however, and 
his progeny were not able to win any trotting races. Mambrino Chief was 
then trained several years for trotting, and afterwards transmitted so well 
the faculty for trotting that he became one of the most favourite trotting sires 
in Kentucky. 

We can find many similar examples of this in horse breeding, and it 
would be somewhat artificial to explain this striking fact by variation and 
selection alone. Above all, time necessary for variation and selection is 
wanting. It is also unjustifiable to explain by variation and selection alone 
the retrogressive movement in Thoroughbred breeding — as illustrated above 
— as a consequence of the many and early two-vear-old races. The deteriora- 
tion of the fundament of the Thoroughbreds, which increases slowly from 
generation to generation, remains a puzzle without the transmission of 
acquired characters. Selection will, for all that, always try to avoid horses 
with bad fundament as much as possible, and a bad fundament can scarcely 
be considered as a necessary accompaniment of variation, which produces at 
the same time racing capability in early youth. The fact that racehorses 
possessing such a good fundament that they still win flat races as eight- 
year-olds and older are mostly derived from parents which did not run as 
two-year-olds can, without a transmission of acquired characters, only be 
explained if a good fundament were an obstacle for successful racing as two- 
year-olds. On the contrary, we find in the above tables (pages 108 — 141) 
many examples proving that horses which did not run as two-year-olds, but 
up to their eighth year and older, successfully produced progeny which dis- 
tinguished themselves as two-year-olds on the racecourse. Dr. Syntax, for 
example, ran and won between the age of 3 and 12 years, and produced from 
several mares which had not run as two-year-olds, two-year-old winners, 
amongst them the celebrated Bee's Wing. How is it, then, that the reverse 
happens so much more seldom? All these and similar occurrences can be 
much more easily and more naturally explained if we accept the theory of 
transmission of acquired characters. 

In the history of Thoroughbred breeding, one may give as an example 
for the transmission of acquired characters, the fact that many Orientals 
which were imported into England after Godolphin Arabian, i.e., after 1730, 
did not inherit the capability for running in the same measure as the children 
and grand-children of Godolphin Arabian (Cade and Matchem), or as the 
descendants of the already earlier imported Bverlv Turk, Darlev .Arabian, 



2. The Transmission of Acquired Characters. 219 

and many others. In spite of the less weiglits wliich were accorded to the 
offspring of Oriental parents in several races (in the Goodwood Gold Cup, 
for example, 3G lbs.), the later imported Orientals could not compete any 
longer against the progeny of the earlier imported ones. On the other hand, 
the offspring of Herod, Highflyer and Eclipse were given in many races 
extra weights of about 3 to 5 lbs., as a contrast to the offspring of Matchem 
and Conductor, as descendants of Godolphin Arabian, who was later imported 
than Bverh- Turk (foundation sire of Herod and Highflyer) and Darley 
Arabian (foundation sire of Eclipse). In consequence of the transmission of 
acquired characters, the heritage, with respect to racing capability, has 
slowly increased. The other explanation of this fact, i.e., by variation and 
selection, is.iif we consider the few generations and the not too numerous 
individuals coming into consideration for selection in which the difference 
of transmission was alreadv distinctly recognisable, somewhat artificial, 
unless we suppose that the variation of the germ plasm has been at least 
guided by the acquired characters of the body. Finallv, the followers of 
W'eissmann's theory may sav that it is not the acquired characters of the 
body which have guided the formation or variation of the germ plasm, but 
that the activity necessary to acquire new characters had a direct influence 
on the germ plasm. In my opinion, the whole controversv about the trans- 
mission of acquired characters seems to terminate on this or that wrangling. 

The belief in the transmission of acquired characters is for the breeder 
the chief stimulant to diligent and well-considered work. Without this 
belief there would be a great danger of breeding material being neglected. 
The breeder would have much less pleasure in his work once the most 
interesting part of stud work disappeared. 



CHAPTER 111. 
The Doctrine of Constancy and Individual Prepotency. 



'I"im:ri: has been niiRh dispute over tiie question as to ho\v surely the 
characters of breeding stocl\, and especially the just-mentioned changed 
characters of same, are inherited. \\'ith the exception of a few extravagant, 
shfjrt-lived doctrines (as, for instance, that of Bufifon), the unimportant deria- 
tions of the diflerent df)Ctrines from one another are just as remarkable as the 
great disagreements of the doctrinaires. Even in ancient Greece, about 300 
years B.C., Aristotle taught in his celebrated work, Historia Animalium, if 
somewhat less tlKiroughlv than it is tauglit to-da\', the same theory of con- 
stancy and even individual prepotencv, just as later the professor of the 
\'ienna veterinary school, johann Ciottlieb Wollstein (born 1737), and his 
eminent disciple the Imperial Stud Inspector, Johann Christoph Justinus 
(died l)S"2l), did. The doctrines of the old justinus (Allg. Grundsatze zur Ver- 
vollkommung der Pferdezucht, W'ien 181j), which are considered classics still 
at the present time, have been later partly rearranged more precisely but at 
the same time have been impaired by vf)n Weckherlin, H. v. Xathusius and 
Settegast. There are often onlv wtirdv wars, and doctrines expressed care- 
lessly and regardless of correctness, causing a long book war. It is difficult 
to decide who was the original author of the doctrine of individual prepotency. 
Of course, the teachers of the present time have the advantage of regarding 
these questions from the pedestal of the latest biological researches, and they 
are therefore enabled to give to these questions more precise and more explicit 
answers, which, above all, are scientifically better founded. 

Heredity in horse breeding is all the more sure, i.e., all the more corre- 
sponding to the purpose of horse breeding; in short, is more constant the 
longer the line of ancestors which has been trained in serviceable management 
to acquire the intended performance, and which has been favourably tested. 
Of course, the word " constant " admits progress in the intended capabilities, 
and only designates the constant direction of the breeding. II. V. Xathusius 
calls the products of capable parents " highlv bred." According to this the 



3. The Doctrine of Constancy and Imliviilual Prepotency. OO] 

above sentence eould be sumined up as follows : 'I'lie heredity in horse breed- 
ing is all the more constant the more hiohly bred ancestors are found in the 
pedigree of both parents. In so far as in so-called pure breeds a guarantee 
is given that their ancestors are highlv iired, liie al5o\'e sentence could ais(( be 
read: The hereditv is all the more coiist;int the purer the breed is bred. 
Puritv of breed is, of course, not meant in the zoological sense, as H. V. 
Nathusius retpiires. According to this we could not call the Merinos, with 
their obscure origin, and not e\-en the presrnt da\- Thoroughbred, [lure bred. 
The purit\- of breed coming here into consideration does not onl\- require a 
pure pedigree, as recorded in the stud book', but also the proof of a ratitjnal 
rearing, as well as of sufficient [performances of their respectixe ancestors. 
I'or example, 'I'horoughbred breeding would lose e\cry prospect of success 
if breeding material were used which had been pampered without training 
and tests, especialh- if it is continued for sc\fral generations. Such breeding 
stocU would not transmit constantly in the sense of their breed, but by trans- 
mitting their own acquired characters, idnsisting in effeminac\- and lack of 
capabilities, thev would transmit a character opposed to the object of breed- 
ing, /.('., the\' would not transmit constantb' in the sense of their race. In 
natural breeds, as, for example, Stepjie horses and Arabs in thefr own 
homes, purity of breed, as regards pedigree and capabilities, is guaranteed 
more or less b\- local conditions and especialh- b\- natural selection in the 
tight for life. Ihe surer this guarantee is tin- more can one rel\' on a con- 
stant hercdit\- of these natural breeds. In e\ery breed where the method of 
management is irrational, at first the intended capabilities disappear, after- 
wards constant heredity, and finally, after several generations, more or less 
the so-called zoological attributes, i.e.. the breed degenerates. The exclusive 
attention paid to a recorded pure pedigree (and as long as it is possible of the 
just-mentioned zof)logical attributes, without taking into consideration the 
lierformance, which reallv is the base of all) has. with the jiid of imreasonable 
shows, alreadv ruined manv formerlv capable breeds, as, for example, the 
Suffolks, the C"le\eland Ba\s, and in recent times perhaiis also a part of the 
Clydesdales. 

I'!\(T\' sensible i)reeder of Thoroughbreds or Troiters can obtain from 
the stud book and race calendar the necessarx' information for the correct 
judgment of the breeding stoc-k from which he ma\' expect a constant 
heredity, i.e., mie which serxcs the purj^ose. In the breeding of IFalf-breds 
judging is, of course, somewhat more dil'licult, as there are no race calendars, 
but it is just as necessary, and will geiierallv be based on the manner of 
rearing and the conditif)n of the soil. In recent limes some stud books of 
Half-breds give some information, as the\- record especialh' the brood marcs 
which have received prizes at shows. These horses which have been 
rewarded at shows cannot generally be recommended when breeding for 
performances. There are horses which, for example, according to their 



22'2 Heredity. 

pedigree, are pure Trakehners, but having been irrationally reared (perkaps 
they have not been taken to grass, or had not suflicient exercise), they cannot 
be taken as pure-bred Trakehners. That breeding with such stallions in 
Trakehnen cannot lead to good results, therefore cannot have a constancy, 
In spite of so-called purity of breed, is a priori probable, and I have 
experienced it myself at Trakehnen. The performances and other characters 
required in every kind of horse breeding are much surer of being transmitted 
the longer the line of ancestors which have been bred on favourable soil in 
connection with a rational method of raising, as well as of the selection of 
the most capable stock for breeding. By improving the soil and other 
things, the intended characters of the products can also be improved. The 
heritage, which in this way becomes more valuable, is the cause of progress 
in all kinds of breeding. Neither Justinus nor the other old teachers of the 
doctrine of constancy have ever believed in unchangeable breeds in the sense 
of the progress of their performances. 

The chances of success in crossing different breeds depend on the com- 
patibility of the most important characters which the two breeds possess, 
and on the possibilities of realising the new breeding form aimed at by cross- 
ing and its performances to be produced. Unreasonable wishes will remain 
wishes here, as everywhere else. Cross breeding, even if it otherwise mis- 
carries, acts on fertility and good constitution just as favourably as fresh 
blood. The best example of a successful cross breeding in the history of 
horse breeding is the mixing of the American Trotter and Thoroughbred. 
The chief characters of Trotters and Thoroughbreds which are required to 
be combined are hard sinews and bones, well developed lungs, strong heart, 
action, and healthy nerves. Coarse crosses of either English or Oriental 
Thoroughbreds on Draft breeds may be prominent products well adapted to 
certain practical uses, but not to breeding. Darwin writes about cross breed- 
ing and its success as follows : " The possibility to form different breeds by 
cross breeding has been very much exaggerated. Certainly many cases are 
known which prove that a breed can be modified by an occasional crossing 
of certain individuals carefully chosen, and which possess an intended 
character. It would, however, be very difficult to produce a new breed which 
would represent a good average of two different breeds or kinds. Sir J. 
Sebright has made special experiments in this respect, buf without success. 
The progenv from the first crossing of two pure breeds is, as I have found 
in the case of pigeons, fairly, and sometimes extraordinarily, alike in char- 
acter, and evervthing seems to be simple. If one, however, pairs these cross- 
breds for a few consecutive generations, scarcely two of their progeny will 
be alike, and one gets a clear idea of the great difficulty of success." 

There are breeds which are not related to each other, but which pursue 
the same purpose and have attained approximately the same results. 
According to what I have just said, there would be no objection to the mixing 



3. The Doctrine of Constancy and Indivitlual Prepotency. O03 

of such breeds. On the contrary, such a mixing, especially with a breed 
which ranks higher, on account of performance, would act favourably as an 
infusion of new blood, i.e., it would tend to favourably influence constitution, 
energy, vigour and fecundity. Such mixings between the Thoroughbred 
and the different noble breeds in all parts of the world have taken place with 
good results. The use of Thoroughbred sires in the Steppe breedings of 
Russia has led to very good results. Arabian and Persian stallions have 
producetl well in the East Prussian Military Studs. In the same way also, 
the mixing of a military horse bred perhaps in Australia, and possessing 
the necessary characters, with the East Prussian horse breed, would prob- 
ably have good results. On the other hand, however, it seems to me that a 
mixing of the Russian and American Trotters \yould be very precarious, 
not on account of the various blood which predominates in these two breeds, 
but on account of their very different training, caused by different race 
propositions. The manner of rearing these two Trotting breeds is just 
as different as their conformation. The characters of the American Trotter, 
trained for the mile, cannot be so easily mixed with the characters of the 
Russian Trotter, trained for longer distances. These two breeds are not of 
equal value regarding the kind of their performances, they possess different 
forms, and cannot therefore be classed as of wholly equal breed. The mixing 
of the same would not be an infusion of fresh blood, but almost a cross, with 
all its dangers, but yet not without prospects for a final success after long 
and systematical breeding. 

In every breeding, may it be ever so pure, and ma\- the rearing of its 
progeny be ever so rational, one will always find individuals which transmit 
the desired breed characters particularly well, and, on the other hand, 
individuals which transmit them badly. The ability of breeding stock 
to transmit the characters desired in the case of every breed in a prominent 
manner is called individual prepotency. Sires as well as mares may have 
a special individual prepotency, even when (if only exceptionally) they do 
not themselves possess in a prominent manner the character which thev 
prominently transmit. On the other hand, there are sires and dams which, 
although themselves possessing in a high degree the desired breed char- 
acters, transmit the same very seldom or not at all. There have been 
Thoroughbreds which belonged to the best on the course, as, for example, 
lli(- twd champions of the racecourse, C'otherstnne and (".ladiateiir, and vet 
their progeny performed little or nothing at all. I have known horses with 
excellent hocks, and again others with a splendid action, nevertheless, their 
progeny was noted for bad hocks, or a bad action. Of course, this lack of 
transmission is not the rule. 

One of the most important tasks of the breeder will be to get prominent 
sires with sp>ecial individual prepotency. Whether those individuals which 
excel by new formations of nature (according to Darwin's single variation) 



•224 Heredity. 

are — as Settegast says — endowed with a special individual prepotencv, is a 
question which, as far as horse breeding is concerned, cannot as vet be 
detinitely answered. In any case, male products in horse breeding are more 
prone to take on individual variations than female products. The aggregate 
of tilly yearlings is therefore always more equal than tlwt of colt vearlings. 
Of course, one will naturally prefer to use stallions with indixidual varia- 
tions or modifications which appear favourable for the purpose of breeding, 
and to establish and make the greatest possible use of these characters by 
inbreeding. It is possible that generally such stallions are specially endowed 
with individual prepotency. 



CHAPTER IV. 
Inbreeding. 



The investigations of scientists in biology and transmission have made, not 
only in Germany, but also in other civilised countries, especially in England 
and America, most considerable progress. Numerous regularly appearing 
periodicals have lately been created regarding this subject, amongst which is 
one that is especially worthy of notice appearing in England since 1901 under 
the name of " Biometrica " (Professor Pearson), in which — as the name 
already indicates — all mathematically tangible phenomena of biology and 
transmission are discussed. Laws of inbreeding are, however, to my know^- 
ledge, neither formulated in our country, nor in the just-mentioned 
" Biometrica." It appears to me the reason is that the material for such 
investigations in animal breeding is available to a sufficient extent only for 
the English Thoroughbred breeding, and this field is, unfortunately, up to 
the present not wholly familiar to the scientists. Even the book by Daven- 
port (" Principles of Breeding"), published in America, 1907, which gives 
many \ery interesting insights into the mathematically-expressed laws of 
transmission, leaves somewhat to be desired in its chapter on inbreeding. 
From the Thoroughbred of to-day are already known 20 to •2-3 generations of 
their genealogy. We could therefore make their pedigrees, with 1 to 17 
millions of ancestors, whose abilities and capabilities are to be seen in the 
racing calendars since 200 years. It show-s how enormous is the material we 
possess in the Thoroughbred, and that it is without equal in any other breed ! 
Common ancestors constitute the basis of inbreeding. By " free genera- 
tions " is meant the number nf generations between the common ancestors 
and the sire on the one side, and between the common ancestors and the dam 
on the other side. In the following example of Stockwell, the common 
ancestor, Orville, is removed from the dam, Pocahontas, by two generations, 
and from the sire, The Raron, by three generations. Therefore the common 
blood of the basis, Orville, must altogether run five generations before 
entering the blood of Pocahontas and The Baron. From this is derived the 

S 



226 



Heredity. 



term " five free generations." It can also be seen from the same example 
that Waxy and Penelope form the basis of a different inbreeding with six 
free generations, three on each side. We further can notice that The Baron 
himself has four free generations to Waxy and four free generations to 
Penelope, and accordingly supports or increases the inbreeding of his son 
Stockwell on the same basis. 

Stockwell 



Pocahontas 


The Baron 


Marpessa 


Glencoe 


Echidna 


Birdcatcher 


Clare 


Muley 


Tramp- 
oline 


Sultan 


Miss Pratt 


Economist 


Guiccioli 


Sir 
Hercules 


-a 
n" 


3 


M 

CO 
K 
3 
O 
■n 


o 
-I 




H 


n 

o 
3- 

»! 

3 


3 


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c 


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3 

01 


5". 


era' 

3- 


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CO 

1 

>< 


"a 

re 


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o 

3 

re 


r 

la 

N 

o 

3 


o 

o 

3 


Z 

2. 
55' 
a> 

a 




< 

o 

3 
(fi 

VI 


So' 

■5 


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St 

3 


03 
n> 

3_ 

5' 

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cr 

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c 
TO 

3- 


1^ 

a 




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3- 

3 
3 
B 

CD 


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CU 


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n 

s 


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a> 
n 

£:; 

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2. 


n 
7T 


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o 

o 

< 

5' 


B 

2. 




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re 
-t 

3 
re 


n 

3* 
3 

o] 

re 
re 


H 


3 

a. 

re 
"n 
re 


"a 





If sire and dam come from the same stallion (mating of brother and sister), 
that is an inbreeding with free generation, and when it happens that a 
stallion is sire and grand-sire on the dam's side, that is to say, when he pro- 
duced a foal out of his own daughter, that is an inbreeding with — 1 free 
generation. In fixing the number of free generations, no notice is taken to 
which side they are allotted. On the other hand, in giving the number of 
removes, it is seen at once how many free generations are on the dam's side 
and how many on the sire's side. For instance, Stockwell is inbred to 
Orville in the fourth and fifth remove. It is usual in this designation to 
count both parents, commencing with the dam. It seems to me, however, 
improbable that finer shades in the laws of inbreeding can be detected by the 
help of removes than by that of free generations. I personally have not 
succeeded. In making these attempts, one is apt to run into the danger of 
getting together certain interesting geometrical groups, and to shape out 
fanciful and imaginary things, and in this way lose sight of the real facts. 



4. Inbreedinj^. 227 

1 myself know of no law of brfedintj wliicli cnn be settled or confirmed b\' the 
system of removes. 

Both parents, as well as all ancestors, ha\e heredity shares on the off- 
spring. The question now arises iiow great is the siiare of eadi of them. 
The second generation consists of two parents, both of which possess ec|iialh' 
great shares. To eacii of the parents mav be therefore ascrilied half. Now 
the question arises how much of this half eacii parent indi\idually transmits, 
and how much of it he transmits as mediator of his ancestors. The heredity 
share coming from eacJT parent must therefore be considered to consist of 
two parts whicii — as is shown at once — must be equally great. At first a 
still unkniiwn fraction e is supposed to be the individual heredity share of 
one parent. Both parents therefore individually possess 2 e shares, and 
figure as mediators of the remaining part 1 — 2 e, which is ascribed to the 
total of the ancestors. Thereby follows the demand that the fraction e is also 
valid for all former generations. Accordingly the four grand parents have 
the share 2 e . 2 e = 4 e", the eight great grand parents 2 e . 2 e . 2 e = 
8 e' etc. The total heritage will thus be represented bj' : 

2 e + 4 e= + 8 e-' + 16 e' — = 1. 1.) 

in which the 1 figures as the entire heritage. The value of this series quickly 
decreases until the\' soon become infinitesimal. From the above equation 1) 
one can eliminate 2 e and write instead : 

2 e (1 + 2 e + 4 e= + 8 e-' — . . . .) = 1 2.) 

.\s the value contained in brackets near the ] is equal to the series in equation 
1), it follows by substitution 2 e (1 + 1) = 1, therefore e = 1/4 3.) 

Thereupon follows that each parent individually transmits only the half 
of its total heritage, while the other half, also = 14, is transmitted on the 
offspring b\' each parent as mediator of all his ancestors. This is known in 
England as the so-called Gallon's law of ancestral heredity. But whether 
and in what manner Galton has furnished a mathematical proof of it is 
unkm iwn to me. 

Table I. gives a scheduled classification of the heredity shares for 10 
generations, and Table II. the same in a lucid pedigree form. One sees that 
not quite 4-millionth represents the heredity share of an ancestor in the tenth 
generation. ,\s it is inconvenient to count with fractions, one can multiply 
all numbers by 262144. Thereby the heredity unity is the share of an 
ancestor in the tenth generation, accordingly =1 = 2" and the heritage of 
the offspring equals 262144 = 2 ". The last column in Table I. shows the 
heredity share of the various generations. One sees that each higher genera- 
tion has the half of the share of the preceding one. Below is show n the total 
of all generations up to and including the tenth. If one adds the remaining 
heritage of the still further removed generations of 512 the whole heritage of 
the offspring = 2 " is obtained. 



Heredity. 

Tablk I. 



in 

C 


[fl 


(Quantity of blood or Heredity shares of the offspring 






> 




and of the ancestors of the generations. 




n 


o 
E 










Offspring 


= 2" 


Offspring = 2'" Offspring = 


OI ^^ 


o 








1 




I. 





1 


•)o 


2(52144 2'» 


262144 


'>i h 


11. 


1 


i = 


2-2 


655:« = 2'" 


131072 


2'^ 


III. 


2 


tV = 


2--> 


l(3:iS4 - 2" 


65536 


2 1'. 


IV. 


3 


■,h = 


2-" 


409G - 2'^ 


327(58 


2^ '' 


V. 


4 


531? ^^ 


2"' 


1024 - 2"> 


16:iS4 


2'* 


VI. 


.5 


tjiVj = 


2* '" 


2.J0 2" 


bl92 


213 


VII. 


6 


HTUr, = 


2-12 


(54 - 2« 1 4096 


212 


VIII. 


7 


^T,r,s-i = 


2-1 » 


16 2* 1 2048 


2" 


IX. 


8 


iTiiir = 


2-1.1 


4 = 2-1 1024 


21" 


X. 





»<riVi4 = 


2-1 - 


1 2" 1 .512 


29 



lutal 
Remaining heritage 

Offspring 



2(51(532 
.512 



262144 



2'* 



The question is n<i\v io fined for the different inbreedings a measure for 
their effect in transmission, i.e., the inbreeding amount. From a simple 
mathematical consideration it follows — as is shown below — that the inbreed- 
ing amount cannot be in any case a total, i.e., also not equal to the transmitted 
quantity of blood, or what is the same, equal to the total of heredity shares of 
the basis of inbreeding. These quantities of blood are not at all the same for 
the same number of free generations, but change very much according as the 
removes are allotted to the two sides of the pedigree. From Table III. one 
sees, for instance, that in the case of 6 free generations = totalling 10 
removes, the quantities of blood transmitted by the basis of inbreeding in- 
crease from 512 to 6.5,5.37, while — as may be here mentioned in anticipation 
— the product of the heredity shares remains equally great, i.e., -J ^^ . 2 ° = 
'2 11 . -2 2 = -2 12 . 2 " = 2 1° . 2 ^ = 2 8.28=2 l^ therefore independent of the 
different removes in the case of immutable free generations (for information 
see Table II.). 

If a 1 and aH represent the heredity shares of the basis of inbreeding, and 
J 12 the corresponding inbreeding-amount, it follows that 

Ja,2 = F(ai, all) 4.) # 

If a 1, or a n becomes infinitesimal — i.e., in the case of far removed in- 
breeding — it follows that J 1,2 also becomes infinitesimal or 0, although the 
quantity of blood as such remains existing but not operating as inbreeding. 
It is therefore certain that 

F (a 1, a 11 ) = a 1 + a n 5.) 

is no equation. 



4. Inbreeding 



229 









s. 







s 


J' 3 


») 








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„ 


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2 = 


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230 



Heredity. 






o 

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u 
O 

u 
c 
cS 

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o 
o 



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23 


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10 


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2 m 
























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53 


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3 


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CI 



4. Inbreeding. 



•231 



The simplest functinn wliirli fulfils the condition that J 1,2 becomes if a ^ 
or a '1 = reads as follows : 



J 



1,2 



6.) 



in words : The inhreedino; amount ec|uals the product of the hi redily shares 
of the basis. Accordintjly Table I V. is constructed. The unity to be chosen 
is an arbitrary one, as a unity to be absolutely described is unconceivable. 
The heredity shares are powers to -2, therefore their product also indicates in 
powers to -2 the inbreeding; amount. Accordingly, not the quantity of blood, 
but the inbreedino- amount as settled by the free generations, is the eftective 
agency which asserts the influence of the common ancestor in memory and in 
transmission with the power of the inbreeding amount. I'-rom the number 
of free generations, one can calculate at once the inbreeding amount F as 

p = 22 (fi-n 7.) 

in which f 1 = that number of free generations to which the inbreeding 
amount is supp<:)sed = 1. One can convince oneself of the exactness by re- 
garding the values in Table IW, for instance according to ccjlumn iii., there- 
fore f 1 = (5. It follows in case of 

•J free generations: F == 22(6-2)= o 8 = 256 
G free generations: F = 22(6-6'= 2 = 1 
Accordingh- the free generations are a practical and simple means for the 
calculation of the inbreeding amounts. 



Table IV. 
Inbreeding amount in the case of 



c 






I. 


II. 


III. 


IN'. 


^■^ 


ZJ 

> 


tS. ( 


f the lOttl 


tS. of the 7th 


tS. of the (ith 


tS. of the 10th 


c 

c 




generntion=2" 


generation=2" 


generation = 2" 


generation =2-'" 


1^ " 


Offs 


)ring=2"' 
=262144 


Offspring=2'-' 
=405)6 


Offspring =2>° 
= 1024 


OITspring=2'' 


-1 


3 


2=°^- 


107:^741824 


2'-= 202144 


•2"- UXiSi 


2-« = A 





4 


2' 6 = 


2(KS4:i">4r>6 


2"= 65536 


2'-'= 4000 


2- =-- a^r 


1 


5 


2'"' = 


ti71<).SS(>l 


2>*= IGim 


■ 2'"= 1024 


2-"'= m'li 


2 


6 


2^« = 


]077721(i 


2"'- 4096 


2" = 256 


2->'= i,^. 


8 


7 


2"- 


4194»l4 


2"' 1024 


2" = 64 


2 ■'= ,t,Ut 


4 


8 


2=" 


l(ll.S.">7(i 


2« = 256 


2* = 16 


2-"= ^J,, 


5 


9 


2'- 


2ii2144 


2« = <U 


2- = 4 


2-"'= tWtt. 


6 


10 


2>« = 


65i-.:«! 


2' 10 


2" 1 


2~"'= njTim 


7 


11 


2>* = 


I(i8St 


2^ - 4 


2-'= J 


2-"=mii« 


s 


12 


21- 


■llKKi 


2" - 1 


2-'- h 


2-'' = ,,tt'-i^ 



tS. = licredily sli.-ire of nm- anccsior (^see lables Land II.). 



232 Heredity. 

There is yet a broad and unculti\'ated field before lis for furtlier mathe- 
matical considerations. I will here only point out that if the basis of 
inbreeding; occurs oftener than twice in the pedigree the inbreeding amount 
cannot be ecjual to a ^ , a ^^ . a ^^^ .... but is equal to a^ . a ^^ + a ^ , a ^^^ + a^^ 

. a m + for which we can also write : 

J 1,2,3 = J 1.2 + 'I ^^^ • B 1,2. where B 1,2 = cjuantity of blood = a ^ + a ^i. 

Thereupon we could still establish special values for the inbreeding sup- 
ports. Another consideration would be necessary for the inbreedings with 
more than one basis. 

In every kind of animal breeding, one has sought and attained improve- 
ment and progress by inbreeding to prominent^ ancestors as a basis. It is 
evident that the merits of a prominent ancestor have more chance of being 
transmitted, if this prominent ancestor appears as a basis of an inbreeding, 
in the pedigree of the product, for the breeding of which the mating is made. 
If we construct the case theoretically that two animals are mated w ith each 
other, which neither in themselves nor in mating with each other, can show 
any inbreeding whatever, we must ascribe to each separate ancestor of a 
generation, for example, therefore, to each of the 128 ancestors in the seventh 
generation, the same possibility and chance of the thorough heredity of its 
characters. As amongst these 128 ancestors there are very probably several 
of inferior value, there is just as much probability that the inferior ancestor 
thoroughly transmits as well as the prominent ancestor. Only on the basis 
of inbreeding the prominent ancestors is a better chance of transmission to be 
expected. If all ancestors were faultless and equally prominent, every in- 
breeding would be dispensable. The inbreeding of any developing breed 
must necessarily be very close at first. The question now- arises how close 
useful inbreeding shall be to-day, and how often it shall be repeated. 
Furthermore, on which ancestors as a basis the inbreeding mu.st be founded. 
Too much inbreeding in Thoroughbreds as well as in Half-breds has often 
ruined good tribes. In Thoroughbred breeding I recall the too frequent 
inbreeding undertaken by Lord Derby (9 times with 0, 6 times with 1, and 
9 times with 2 free generations) with the daughters of Papillon, dam of the 
Derby winner Sir Peter. The best part of the female progeny of the cele- 
brated Papillon was ruined by it. Much of the blood of Eclipse has been 
spoiled by inbreeding too, and we have lost at Trakehnen in the same way, 
as will be shown later on, a great part of the blood of Thunderclap. Whilst 
the inbreeding mania of Lord Derby was a distinct fiasco, the breeding of 
the Duke of Grafton, undertaken almost at the same time, in the reasonable 
limits of at least 2 free generations, has produced from the valuable blood of 
Prunella, and her daughter Penelope, the most celebrated family of all 
Thoroughbreds. 

As further examples for the failure of inbreeding with free generation 
the progeny of following mares will serve : — 



4. Iiibi-et-diiii,'. 233 

1. Sister to Rfqulus 174:i 1)\- (<odol. Arabian, with 16 fuals, amongst 
which () with free generation. 

2. Maid of all \\'orl< ITsfi hv Highflyer, own sister to Cowslip I., and 
dam of Meteora O. 

3. Sister to Parrot 181'i bv Walton, with 8 foals, amongst which 4 witii 
free generation. 

The progen\- of the products with free generation is omitted in Goos' 
tables. There are vet many other examples in which this exaggerated 
inbreeding would have had a favourable opportunity to manifest its eventual 
merit. Its failure is the most plainly recognised through their progeny — as 
well as in the case of the children of Papillon — not having played the role 
to be assured of a place of honour in the Goos' tables. 

There has been also much damaged by exaggerated inbreeding in the 
American Thoroughbred breeding. Among the many instances of free 
generation I ha\e not found a single one in the American Stud Book which 
has been of importance to breeding. I have onlv found one good racehorse 
in the American breeding, and that is Henrv 1819 bv Sir Archv-Diomed 
(i.e., Diomed), celebrated by his famous match with the American Iiclipse 
in Xew York, 1823. The sire of American Eclipse — equally prominent on 
the racecourse as at the stud — was Duroc 1806 bv Diomed — Grey Diomed. 
As Grey Diomed is a noted son of Diomed, Duroc also appears to be bred to 
Diomed with free generation. The excellent performance of Duroc on 
the racecourse and at the stud made me sceptical, and exact investigation in 
the American Stud Book proved to me, therefore, that the aforesaid Grev 
Diomed is not descended from Diomed, but from .Medlev, a son of Gimcrack. 

A sire as well as a mare mav be the basis of inbreeding, but as the stallion 
will, of course, have a more nimTerr)us progeny, his good characters can be 
recognised much more easily and C|uickl\- than those of a marc, especially 
if she has only produced well by one stallion. Generallv, therefore, in 
mating one will aim at inbreeding to a stallion. As, nioreo\er, in most cases 
good stallions have produced several good olTsprings, whilst most good 
mares have produced a few good offsprings, it often happens that good 
mares give place to the nearest good son as a basis for the inbreeding. Good 
mares will only be able to serve as a basis for an inbreeding in those cases 
where, as for example, with Penelope, Termagant, Banter, Pocahontas, etc., 
they, with two different prominent products on each side of the pedigree, 
determine themselves the closest limit of the inbreeding. The few mares 
which serve as basis of inbreeding belong to the most prominent. Veloci- 
pede's dam, for example, the basis of St. Simon's inbreeding, must be 
specially mentioned as the mother of 18 foals, of which 9 are mentioned in 
Goos' tables, a fine performance indeed ! But, as will be seen from the 
above, in most cases the stallion forms the basis of inbreeding. 



234 Heredity. 

In order to correctly estimate the most successful inbreedings in Thorough- 
bred breeding, we have classified the following examples of the best stallions, 
according to the degree of their inbreeding. We find them : — 

With 1 free generation 11 stallions (on'y 3 or 4 successful) 
,, 2 free generations 23 stallions 



3 






51 




4 






78 




5 






61 




6 






33 




7 






12 




8 






1 





Total 270 stallions. 

The figures of the free generations and the basis of same are given for 
every stallion indicated and also for its parents. In every case, not only the 
closest inbreedings, but also the more distant ones, up to 5 free generations, 
are added. Six and more free generations are only mentioned where no 
closer inbreedings exist, or where the same appear necessary to give a com- 
plete and correct idea of the whole inbreeding. 

A clear table of the inbreedings of the best sires and their parents seems 
to me to be the best means for arriving by nearer critical considerations at 
practical and useful conclusions. In a few exceptional cases I have added 
the inbreedings of grand-parents. A more comprehensive consideration of 
the pedigree of the best stallions, especially of the so-called basis and its in- 
breeding, may be interesting and also instructive in the case of some horses. 
I do not believe, however, this way to be suitable for arriving at useful 
statistical results. I fully appreciate the difficulties of finding the right 
examples from the whole Thoroughbred breeding. It is certain that I have 
often overlooked a better stallion and added a worse one instead. Further- 
more, as I have also taken into consideration American and Australian 
Thoroughbred breedings, and have also mentioned the most important repre- 
sentatives of olden times up to Eclipse, a correct selection of stallions has 
been all the more difficult. I am quite aware that I have mentioned amongst 
stallions witi: 1 free generation several less successful, but this was necessary, 
as otherwise their number would have been too small from which to draw 
statistical conclusions. 

As an interesting example of incest breeding with — 1 free generation, I 
may mention, besides Y. Paragone 1852 by Paragone and Lanterne bv Para- 
gone, produced in Germany, and which ran as a three-year-old twice un- 
placed, also Jigg-of-Jiggs of English Thoroughbred breeding. He was born 
1745 by the three-year-old Hunt's Jigg (ran four to ten years of age) out of 
a mare by Heneage's Jigg, who was the dam of Hunt's Jigg, and was herself 
bred to a Jigg mare with — 1 free generation. This Jigg-of-Jiggs, so closely 



4. Inbret'dinff. O.SS 

inbred, was a ^ood racehorse, ran and won between the age of four and seven, 
ran as an eight-year-old without winning, and was tlien used as a stallion 
for Malf-bred breeding. His own brother Ileel-and- Toe ran between the 
age of four and seven without winning. 

I have yet found in the General Stud Rook Regulus, born 1704, by 
Regulus out of Sappho by Regulus, with — 1 free generation, a moderate 
racehorse, of whom is asserted that he knocked his hip when in embryo, and 
that had this not happened he would probablv have been much better than 
his less closely inbred brothers and sisters (see Family 4;3). In any case, he 
has been of no importance in Thoroughbred breeding. He was set apart as 
covering stallion in ixichmond in Yorkshire for 8 guineas. As I never 
found recorded a foal by him, the supposition is that he was infertile. 

.Vniong the stallions with free generation the following 13 (up to 
now I found no more in the General Stud Book) are worthv of mention as 
good or moderate racehorses : — 

1. Siiverleg 1743 by Cartouch — Old Cartouch. 

Old Cartouch. 13 h. 3i inches = 140,3 cm. of hcii^ht. Ran and won 

between the age of four and nine, also in Give and 
Take Plates, and beat Little Driver. 

■2. Trap 17;'59 by Blank — Godol. Arabian. 
(joil. Arabian. 

3. .Sharper 1700 bv Bajazet out of Sister to Regulus. 

God. -Arabian. 

4. l-'ilch 17r)l by Bajazet out of Sister to Regulus. 

(lod. -Arabian. 

5. George 1793 bv Dungannon out of Sister to Soldier. 

Eclipse. .Sire of 5 unimportant winners. 

(i. Lucan 179(5 by Sir Peter out of Brown Charlotte. 
Highflyer. 

7. Robin Redbreast 179() by Sir Peter out of Wren. 

II Papillon. Sold as stallion to -America .ind worthy of mention 

there as grand-sire in the female line of .Suniptcr, 
1818, by Sir .Arcliy. 

8. Agonistes 1797 by Sir Peter out of Wren. 

Papillon. .Sire of 2 unimportant winners. 

9. Cocoa-tree 1797 by Woodpecker — Herod. 

Herod. 

10. Hedley IKOJ by Sir Peter out of Maria. 

Highflyer. (Not to be confuted with I kdloy by Gohaiina born 

1803). 

11. Brown Stout 1804 by Sir Peter out of Bnjwn Charlotte. 

Highflyer. 

1'2. ivanhix- |N17 bv Phantom ■mt of .Sister to Parrot. 

U Walton. 



•236 



Heredity. 



13. Cedric D. 1S21 by Phantom out of Sister to Parrot. 

Walton. As a three year old remarkable racehorse, ran nine 

times, amongst which the Derbv. As a five year old 

was set apart as stud stallion in Lambton Grange, 

Durham. Have never found recorded a foal by him. 

Of the stallions with free generation I only know the following four 

which have had an}- influence on Thoroughbred breeding : — 

1. Turner's Sweepstakes 1743 b}- Sweepstakes. 

Mare by Basto. 

He was sire of : 1, Trentham, born 1766; 2, Mare, born 1760, Foundation 
mare in Fam. 8 and dam of Sharper 1788 by Ranthos; 3, I^adv, born 1758, 
who had 11 foals. 

2. Omar 1752 by (jodol. Arabian. 

Godol. Arabian. 

He was sire of: 1, Miss Spindleshanks, Fam. 9; 2, Nisa, who had 9 foals; 
3, Marplot's dam; 4, Confidence's dam; 5, Blemish, who ran and won be- 
tween the age of three and nine. 

3. Babraham Blank 1758 b\' Babraham. 

Godol. .Arabian. 

He is also worthy of note as being the sire of Carbuncle. 

4. Milo ]802 bv Sir Peter. 

Papillon. 

He was half-brother to the winner of the Oaks, Bellissinia, ran and won 
as a three and four-vear-old, and was the sire of many good racers, among 
which Rosalia, grand-dam of Ithuriel (Fam. 2d), and Eryx born 1816. 



Stallions with 1 Free Generation. 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


1 


Barcaldine 


1878 


Solon 


Ballyroe 






1 Darling^'s dam (by 




5 Whalebone (Grand- 


3 Birdcatcher 






Birdcatcher) 




sire of Birdcatcher 








5 Touchstone 




and Touchstone) 
G Wa.xy 
6 Penelope 






2 


Delpini 


1781 


Highflyer 


Countess 


# 




1 Blank 




.5 Sister to Mi.xbury 


p 




7 Darley's .Arabian 




fi Darley's .Arabian 






.S 


Flying Fox 


1896 


Orme 


Vampire 






1 Galopin (by Ved- 




5 Pocahontas 


2 Vedette 






ette) 




G Birdcatcher (Grand- 


G Birdcatcher 






6 Stockwell 




sire of Stockw.) 








7 Pocahontas 











Inlirecdins. 



237 



No. 


Xaiiics (if Stallions 


Horn 


Sire 


Dam 


4 


Friponnier 


1864 


Clu'valier 


'Pension 




1 Orlando 




d' Industrie 


.5 Walton 




7 Orville 




.5 Orville 


6 Whalebone 




7 Walton 




6 Waxy 




5 


IIi£,fhland Flinq- 


1798 


Spadiile 


Calia 




l' HlTO.I 




4 Partner 
4 Re^ulus 


a Darley"s Arabian 
6 Betty Leedes 


« 


Kniplit of St. 


1851 


Birdratcher 


Maltese 




Gtnjrpo 




.) Woodpecker 


4 Sorcerer 




1 Sir Hercules 




C lu'lipse 


.5 PotSos 




G PotSos (by F-:clipse) 








7 


The Miner 


1861 


Rataplan 


Manganese 




1 Birdcatcher 




5 Orville 


7 .S'ir Peter 




7 Orville 




fi Waxy 


7 Trunipator 




7 Waxy 




G Penelope 






7 Penelope 








8 


Xinetv Tlirce 


1790 


Florizel 


Xosegay 




1 Herod 




4 Flyini; Childers 


3 Snap 




6 Flyini: Childers 






G Bartl. Childers 




Orest 


1857 


Ore.ste.s 


Ladv Louisa 




1 Touchstone 




4 Selim 


4 Waxy 
4 Penelope 


10 


Paulowitz 


1813 


Sir Paul 


Evelina 




1 Hijih flyer 




4 Re^ulus 


4 Regulus 




1 Termagant 




(by God. Arab.) 


4 Godol. .\rabian 




(3 Godol. .\r.d)i,in) 




•J Snip 


4 Blaze 




G Refjulus 








11 


Wellingtonia 


186i) 


Chattanooga 


.\raucaria 




1 Pocahontas 




4 Whalebone 


o Selini 




2 Touchstone 






.5 Orville 
6 Waxy 
6 Penelope 



Stallions with 2 Free Generations. 



.\mphit)n 
2 Newminster 

Bob Booty 
2 Herod ' 
5 Cade (by Godol. 

.\rabian) 
.5 .Stiuirt (by Bart. 

Childers) 



1880 Rosebery 

3 Touchstone 

1804 Chanticleer 

') Godol. Arabian 
(l-l. Childers 
\Bart. Childers 



Suicide 
7 Whalebone 

lerne 
. /"Fl. Childers 
"(.Bart. Childeis 



■2-6S 



Heredity. 



No. 



Names of Stallions 



Born 



Sire 



Dam 



10 



11 



Boston 
2 Diomed 
.5 Eclipse 
6 Marslxe (by Squirt) 

Brutandorf 

2 PotSos 
5 Herod 



Cap a Pie 

2 Wa.w 



Cardinal York 
2 Herod 



5 Resfulus 



Cohan na 
2 Tart.^r (by Partner) 

4 Squirt 

.5 Mosul (by Godol. 
Arabian) 

6 Godol. Arabian 
( Bart Childers 

6\F1. Childers 

Galopin 
2 Voltaire (by Black- 
lock, and grand- 
son of Phantom) 

Columpus 
2 Herod (by Tartar) 

5 Cade (by Godol. 
Arabian) 

Hannover 
2 Vandal 

7 Emilius (by Orville) 

Humphrey Clinker 
2 Sir Peter (by High- 
flyer and out of a 
Mare by Snap) 
4 Trumpator 
7 Eclipse 



1833 I 

ill 
Americ» 



1821 



1837 



1804 



1790 



Timoleon 
5 Trentham 
7 Squirt 

Blacklock 

3 Highflyer 

4 Herod 
4 Eclipse 

The Colonel 

3 Highflyer 

4 Eclipse 
4 Herod 

Sir Peter 

3 Regulus 

4 Godol. Arab. 

5 Flying- Childers 
-5 Fox 

Mercury 

4 Godol. .Arabian 



Mare by Ball's 
Florizel 
5 Marske 

Mandane 

•I C:ade 



Sister to Cactus 

5 Eclipse 



Charmer 
1 Herod 



Mare by Herod 
3 Partner 

rBart. Childers 
^\F1. Childers 



1872 


Vedette 


Flyingf Duchess 




3 Blacklock 


4 Phantom (by 




6 Walton 


Walton) 
6 PotSos 


1802 


Gohanna 


Catherine 




2 Tartar (bv Partner) 


4 Godol. Arabian 




4 Squirt 


.5 Partner 




5 Mogul 






6 Godol. .Arabian 




1884 


Hindoo 


Bourbon Belle 


in 
America 


6 Emilius 


7 Orville 


1822 


Com US 


Clinkerina 




5 Herod 


5 Regulus 




5 Snap (by Snip) 


6 Snip 




6 Cade 






' 6 Eclipse 





4. Iiibreediiiir. 



•239 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sil-L- 


Dam 


12 


Janissary 


1887 


Isonomy 


Janette 




2 Stockwell 




3 Birdcatcher 


3 Touchstone 




5 Touchstone 






6 Bee's Wing's dam 




5 Melbourne 








13 


Muley IMoloch 


183() 


Muley 


Nancy 




2 Benini^'broutjh (by 




4 Eclipse 


3 Eclipse 




King Fergus by 




5 Herod 


4 Herod 




Eclipse) 










4 Highflyer 










o Eclipse 








14 


Orville 


1799 


Benincjbroue^h 


Evelina 




2 Herod (by Tartar) 




3 Tartar 


4 Blaze 




6 Regulus 




4 Miss Slamerkin 


4 Regulus 




6 Ruby Mare 




6 Godol. Arabian 


4 Godol. Arabian 


15 


Partisan 


1811 


W^alton 


Parasol 




2 Highllvcr (by 




3 Herod 


5 Regulus 




Herod) 




3 Snap 


6 Godol. Arabian 




3 Eclipse 




4 Regulus 






4 Snap 




6 Partner 






6 Regulus 








16 


Petrarch 


1873 


Lord Clifden 


Laura 




2 Touchstone 




6 Paj'nator 


4 Whalebone (Grand- 




7 Selini 






sire of Touchstone; 
5 Selim 


17 


Priam 


1S27 


Emilius 


Cressida 




2 Whiskey 




3 Highflyer 


3 Herod 




5 Herod 




4 Eclipse 


3 Matchem 




5 Eclipse 








18 


The Saddler 


1828 


W'averley 


Castrellina 




2 Waxy 




3 Highflyer 


4 Herod 




4 Sir Peter 




5 Matchem 


4 Eclipse 




5 Highflyer 






5 Highflyer 
Grand-sire : 3 Herod 
Grand-dam : 4 Herod 


19 


Sainfoin 


1887 


Springfield 


San da 




2 Stockwell 




5 Sultan (Grand-sire 


3 The Baron"! Parents 

3 Pocahontasjstockwcll 




6 Touchstone 




of Pocahontas) 








G Catnel \ p,,,„,.„f 










f) Banter j Touchstone 




20 


Le Sa^ittaire 


1892 


Le Sancy 


La Dauphine 




2 Strathconan (by 




3 Windhound 


5 Touchstone 




Newniinster) 




3 Alice Hawthorn 


5 Melbourne 




6 Melbourne 




5 Touchstone 





240 



Heredity. 



No. 



Names of Stallions 



Born 



21 Saltram 
2 Regulus 

(Bart. Childers 
■^iFl. Childers 

5 Sister to Old 
Country Wench 

6 Bay Bolton 

22 Sorcerer 

2 jMatcheni 
6 Partner 

23 Wisdom 
2 The Baron 
2 Pocahontas 
.3 Emilius (by Orville) 



178() 



1796 



1873 



Sire 



Eclipse 

3 Sister to Old 
Country Wench 

4 Snake 



Trumpator 
4 Godol. Arabian 
4 Partner 

Blinkhoolie 

.J Whalebone 
6 Orville 



Dam 



Stallions with S Free Generations. 



1791 



Australian , ^^^ 

3 Whisker (by Waxy 
and Penelope) 

Beadsman 1853 

3 Tramp 

5 Orville 

7 Buzzard 

8 Trumpator 
8 Eclipse 

Beningbrough 

3 Tartar (by Partner) 

4 Miss Slamerkin 

6 Godol. .Arabian 
,fFl. Childers 
'\Bart. Childers 

Blacklock 1814 

3 Highfl^-er 

4 Herod 

4 Eclipse 1 

Buccaneer 1857 

3 Edmund (by Orville) 
.5 Paynator I 

Buzzard 1787 

3 Cade (by Godol. 
.Arabian) 

5 Partner 

6 Flying- Childers 

7 Bald Galloway 



6- 



West-Australian 

6 Trumpator 



Weatherbit 
3 Orville 

5 Y. Giantess 

6 Woodpecker 
6 Trumpator 



King Fergus 
/FI. Childers 
^\Bart. Childers 
6 Bav Bolton 



Whitelock 
3 Herod 
3 Eclipse 

3 Alatchem 

Wild Dayrell 

4 Selim 



Woodpecker 
6 Darl. .Arabian 



Virago 
3 Mare bv Basto 



Y. Giantess 

•5 God. -Arab. "I Grand- 
^ _ r sire ot 

•J Partner J Matchcm 

Aline 
.5 Orville 
.J Whisker 
6 Whalebone 



Emilia 
4 W'axy 
4 Penelope (by 
Trumpator) 

Mendicant 
6 Eclipse 
6 -Alexander 
6 Sir Peter 
6 Buzzard 
6 Mare by .Alexander 

Mare by Herod 
3 Partner 
.5 Fl. Childers 
.5 Confederate Filly 



Mare by Coriander 

1 PotSos (by Eclipse) 

2 Herod 

3 Snap 

Mare by Little Red 
Rover 

4 Beningbrough (Sire 
of Orville) 

Missfortune 
4 Godol. .Arabian 
6 Bald Gallowav 



4. Iiibrefdiiig. 



241 



No. Xanu-s of Stallions Bcirn 



Sire 



l).,m 



1(1 



11 



12 



13 



Cain 
3 Hi^hnyer 
6 Blank 



Carbine 
3 Brown Bess (by 

Camel) 
5 Touchstone 

The Colonel 

3 Hii^h flyer 

4 Herod (by Tartar) 
4 Fclipse 

7 Blank (by Godol. 
Arabian) 

Conductor 
3 Partner (by JitT") 



Domino 
3 Le.\ini,'ton (by 

Boston) 
7 (Ilencoe 



Eclipse 

3 Sister U) Old Coun- 
try Wench (1 Haut- 
boy) by Snake 

4 Snake bv Lister 
Turk 

r> Hautboy 
7 Coneyskins by 
Lister Turk 



Emiliu.s 
a lli.irhllyer (by 

Herod) 
4 Kclipse 
6 Blank 

(by Godol. .Arabian) 



1822 Paulowitz 
1 lliirhflyer 
1 Termapfant 
C Retrulus (by Godol. 
.\rabian) 

1885 Mu.sket 

4 Touchstone 
4 Camel 

1825 Whisker 

3 Herod 

4 .Snap 
6 Cade (by Godol. 

Arabian) 

^''^ Matchem 

o Mare bv Spanker 



1891 Himvar 

In I -- A i I 

AmeiicH I I A 111 lev 



I'** Marske 

o Hautboy (Grand-sire 
I of Old Country 

I Wench and Snake) 

o Lister Turk 



Grand-dam (Rubv 
-Mare) 

3 Coneyskins 

4 Hautboy 

182() : Orville 
2 Herod 
; () Retfulus (by Godol. 
i Arabian) 



Mare bv Pavnator 

4 Racliel (Dam of 
HiRh fiver) 

5 Blank '(l)y Godol. 
.\rabian) 

The Mersey 

3 Touchstone 

4 Camel 

Mare bv Delpini 

5 Tartar 

5 Blank 

6 Rctrulus 



Mare by Snap 

4 Partner's dam 

6 Bverlv Turk (Sire 
lj.v.liRf,') 

Mannie Grey 

2 I^e.xini^ton 
Grand-dam 

1 Reel (by 
Cilencoe) 

2 Boston 

Spilletta 

3 Snake 

5 Hautbov 



Grand-d,am 

Western) 

3 Hautboy 

.5 Brimmer 

Emilv 

3 Eclipse 

4 Herod 
4 Blank 



.Mother 



242 






Heredity. 




No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


14 


Emperor of Norfolk 
3 Glencoe 
6 Emilius 

6 Tramp 

7 Sir Archy 


1885 

America 


Norfolk 
5 Sir Archy 
3 Sumpter (by Sir 
Archy) 


Marian 

5 Emilius 


15 


Epirus 

3 Sir Peter 

(by Highflyer) 

4 Diomed 
Herod 

5 Eclipse 


1834 


Langar 
4 Highflyer 


Olympia 
3 Herod 


16 


Fitz James 
3 Touchstone 
5 Pantaloon 
(by Castrel) 


1875 


Scottish Chief 
o Orville 

6 Selim (by Buzzard, 
Sire of Castrel) 


Hawthorn Bloom 

6 Muley 

7 Buzzard 


17 


Flying Dutchman 
3 Selim 

6 Sir Peter (by High- 
flyer) 


1846 


Bav Middleton 

4 "Sir Peter 
4 Arethusa 


Barbelle 
5 Eclipse 
o Highflyer 


18 


Gallinule 
3 Stockwell 

5 Touchstone 
(by Camel) 

6 Birdcatcher 


1884 


Isonomy 
3 Birdcatcher (Grand- 
sire of Stockwell) 


Moorhen 
7 Selim (Grand-sire 

of Camel) 
Grand-sire : 4 Camel 


19 


Galtee More 

3 Thormanby 

4 Stockwell 


1894 


Kendal 

4 Birdcatcher (Grand- 
sire of Stockwell) 

5 Pantaloon 


Morganette 
5 Pantaloon (Grand- 
sire of Thormanby) 


20 


Glaucus 
3 Sir Peter 

(by Highflyer) 
5 Eclipse 


1830 


Partisan 

2 Highflyer 

3 Eclipse 

4 Snap (Grand-sire of 
Sir Peter) 


Nanine 

4 Highflyer 

5 Eclipse 


21 


Gunnersbury 
3 Touchstone 
(by Camel) 
5 Sultan (by Selim) 


1876 


Hermit 

4 Camel 
6 Selim 


Hippia 

3 Sultan 


22 


Hackler 
3 Orlando 
5 Melbourne 


1887 


Petrarch 

2 Touchstone 


Hackness p 
3 Orlando 


23 

1 


Ion 
3 Evelina (by High- 
flyer) 
5 Sir Peter (by High- 
flyer) 


1835 


Cain 

3 Highflyer 


Margaret 
5 Highflyer 



4. Inbreedinef- 



243 



No. 


Naiiu's of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


'M 


Isononiy 


1875 


Sterling 


Isola Bella 




3 Birdcntclicr 




•3 Whalebone (Sire of 


4 Sir Hercules \ Parents 

, ,, . ... >otBird- 
4 GuiCCloh j catcher 








Sir Hercules) 










Grand-dam : 










2 Sir Hercules 


25 


King Alfonso 


1872 


Phaeton 


Capitola 




3 Glcncoe 


Americh 


6 Orville 


.5 Orville 




3 Mulcy (by Orvillo) 








26 


Lexinijton 


1&50 


Boston 


Alice Carneal 




3 Sir' Aich_\- 


ill 
Ainericii 


2 Diomed (by 


6 Highflyer (by 




(by Diomed) 




Florizel) 


Herod, Sire of 




6 Sahraiii (by Eclipse) 




5 Eclipse 

6 Marske 


Florizel) 


27 


Lottery 


1820 


Tramp 


Mandane 




3 Eclipse 




3 Eclipse 


4 Cade 




4 \Voodpecl<er 




4 Herod 


/Regulus 

(Sister to Regulus 




(by Herod) 








4 Trenthaiii 










5 Herod 








28 


Melton 


1882 


Master Kildare 


Violet Melrose 




3 Stoclvwell 




4 Birdcatcher 


3 Touchstone 




5 Touchstone 






4 Pantaloon 




6 Bee's Wing 






Grand-dam : 
3 Touchstone 


29 


Muncaster 


1877 


Doncaster 


Windermere 




3 Birdcatcher 




6 Blacldock 


7 Orville 




6 Banter 




7 Whalebone 


7 Buzzard 


m 


Orlando 


1841 


Touchstone 


Vulture 




3 Selini (by Buzzard) 




4 Alexander 


3 Buzzard "> 

. _ , 1 Parents 

3 Mare '. ot 




o Alexander 




o Buzzard 




(by Eclipse) 




o Eclipse 


by Alcxand. ) ^•=^'"' 




6 Sir Peter 




5 Sir Peter 


4 Sir Peter 




(by Hislinyer) 




6 Highflyer 




31 


Paynator 


1791 


Trumpator 


Mare by Mark 




3 Snap (by Snip) 




4 (iiidol. Arabian 


.\nthony 




5 Godol. Arabian 




■1 I'arlner 


3 Godol. Arabian 

4 Mare by Basto 
(dam of Snip) 


32 


Pero Gomez 


1806 


Beadsman 


Salamanca 




3 Lady Moore Carew 




3 Tramp 


4 \'eIocipede 




(by Tramp) 




5 Orville 






5 Camel 








33 


Privateer 


1878 


Adventurer 


La Favorita 




3 Touchstone 




4 Orville 


3 Touchstone 




6 Orville 






6 Orville 



244 



Heredity. 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


34 


Rosebery 


1872 


SpecuUim 


Ladylike 




3 Touchstone 




6 Orville 


5 Orville 




6 Orville (by Benins;- 






6 Beningbrough 




brouffh) 








Xi 


St. Blaise 


1880 


Flermit 


Fusee 




3 Touchstone 




4 Camel (by Whale- 


.5 Whalebone 




(by Camel) 




bone) 


5 Waxy 




G Whalebone 




6 Selim 


5 Penelope 


m 


St. Gatien 


1881 


Rotherhill 


St. Editha 




3 Newminster 




(or The Rover) 


3 Birdcatcher 




'5 Birdcatcher 




2 Touchstone 




37 


Le Sanc}' 


1884 


.Atlantic 


Gem of Gems 




3 Windhound 




7 Orville 


4 Touchstone (Grand- 




3 Alice Hawthorn 




7 Buzzard 


sire of Windhound) 




5 Touchstone 




7 Mare by .Ale.xander 


Grand-sire : 
2 Touchstone 

Grand-dam : 
2 Pantaloon (Sire of 

Windhound) 


:-!8 


Selim 


1802 


Buzzard 


Mare by Alexander 




3 Herod 




3 Cade (by Godol. 


5 Regiilus (by Godol. 




5 Matchem (by Cade) 




.Arabian) 


.Arabian) 




6 Retfulus (by Godol. 




5 Partner (Grand-sire 


6 Godol. .Arabian 




Arabian) 




of Herod) 






|o\vn brother to 










Castrel and Rubens] 








3S) 


Silvio 


1874 


Blair Athol 


Silverhair 




3 Birdcatcher 




6 Whalebone 


7 PotSos 




Partisan 




7 Orville 


7 Orville 


40 


Sir Arciiv 


1805 


Diomed 


Castianira 




3 Herod" 


ill 
Amarii'fi 


4 Crab 


6 Godol. Arabian 




Blank (by Godol. 




4 Partner (Grand-sire 


6 Regulus 




.\rabian) 




of Herod) 






7 Childers 




4 Godol. .Arabian 
.5 Childers 




41 


Sir Peter 


1784 


Hisfhflyer 


Papillon 




3 Resulus 




/Fl. Childers 
[Ban. Childers 


(■Fl. Childers 
^\Bart. Childers 




4 Godol. Arabian 






o Flying Childers 




5 Sister to Mixbury 


4 Bay Bolton 




5 Fox 








42 


Tramp 


1810 


Dick Andrews 


Mare by Gohanna 




3 Eclipse 




4 Blank 


3 Eclipse 




4 Herod 




5 Regulus 


3 Herod 



4. Inhrecdiiii 



215 



No. 



Names of Stnllions 



•ti 



44 



45 



46 



47 



48 



49 



50 



51 



Tibtliorpe 

3 Mulatto 

4 BlacUIock 

Vedette 
3 BlacklocU 
G Walton (by Sir 
Peter) 

Vertupadin 
3 Partisan 

6 Whalebone 

7 Renint;broutjh 



Walton 
3 Snap 

3 Herod 

4 Retfulus 
6 Partner 

\\"eat!ierbit 
3 Orville 

5 Y. Giantess 

6 Woodpecker 
(by Herod) 

Whalebone 

3 Herod 

4 Snap 

6 Cade (by Godol 
Arabian) 

Whitelock 
3 Herod (by Tartar) 
3 I':cli])se 
3 Mali-lieni 

\\'hisl\er 

3 Herod 

4 Snap 

6 Cade (by (iodol. 
Arabian) 

W'iiullioiind 
3 IVruvian 

5 Mare by Alexander 
(by Ivdipsc) 

5 Buzzard 



Born 



Sire 



Dam 



1864 



1854 



1802 



1799 



1842 



1807 



1803 



1812 



1847 



Voltigeur 
o Haiiibletonian 
(Grand-sire of 
Blacklock) 

V'^oltig;eur 
o Hambletonian 

(Grand-sire of 

Blacklock) 
Sir Peter 

Fitz Gladiator 
■J Sir Peter (Grand- 
sire of Partisan) 
o Buzzard 

5 Mare by Alexander 
5 Gohanna 

Sir Peter 

3 Rej^ulus 
5 Fox 

/) Flyinfj Childers 

Sheet Anchor 

5 Woodpecker 

6 Highflyer 
G Mercury 

Waxy 

.5 Godol. Arabian 
6 Partner (Grand-sire 
of Herod) 

Hambletonian 

4 Tartar (by Partner) 
o Kej^ulus 

g Crab 

6 (iod<il. Arabian 

Waxy 

o Godol. .Arabian 
6 Partner ((jranil-sire 
of Herod) 

Panlalonn 
■I Kclipse 

4 IMkIi liver (Grand- 
sire of Peruvian) 
o Herod 



Little .\o;ne.s 
7 Orvillr ((jrand-sire 
of Mul.itio) 



Alr.s. Ridoway 
6 Pot8os 



Vermel He 
4 Whalebone 
o Orville (by Beninjj- 

brouj^li) 



Arethiisa 
3 Rei;ulus 

5 Partner (Grand-sire 
of Herod) 

Jlis.s Lcttv 
1 Orville' 
G Herod 



Penelope 

3 .Snap 

6 Partner 

6 Godol. .\rabian 

Ro.salind 

4 Partner 
(irand-dani : 

3 Partner 

Penelope 

3 Snap 

6 Partner 

G (iodiil. Arabian 

Phrvne 

4 Waxv 



'246 



Heredity. 



Stallions with 4 Free Generations. 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 

1 


Sire 


Dam 


1 


Abercorn 


1884 


Chester 


Cinnamon 




4 Paratfuay 


in 
Austral. 


5 Sir Hercules 


4 Sir Hercules 




(by Sir Hercules) 




5 Emilius 




2 


Adventurer 


1859 


Newminster 


Palma 




4 Orville (by Bening- 




5 Beningbrough 


1 Orville 




brout,'!!) 




5 Trumpator 


4 Sir Peter 




6 Stamford (by Sir 










Peter) 








3 


Arbitrator 


1874 


Solon 


True Heart 




4 Touchstone 




o Whalebone (Grand- 


.5 Orville 




8 Orville 




sire of Touchstone) 
5 Com us 




4 


The Bard 


1883 


Petrarch 


jMagdalene 




4 Melbourne 




2 Touchstone 


6 Comus (Grand-sire 




7 Defence (by Whale- 




7 Selim 


of Melbourne) 




bone, Grand-sire of 






6 Sultan (b\' Selim) 




Touchstone) 






6 Whalebone 


.5 


The Baron 


1842 


i-5irdcatcher 


Echidna 




4 Waxy (by PotSos) 




5 Woodpecker 


.5 PotSos 




4 Penelope 




G I'A"lipse 
6 Highflyer 
6 Herod 


6 Phoenomenon 
(by Herod) 

6 Highflyer 
(b>-^ Herod) 


6 


Bay .Middleton 


1&33 


Sultan 


Cobweb 




4 Sir Peter (by High- 




4 Highflyer 


3 Y. Giantess 




flyer) 




4 Herod (Grand-sire 


(by Diomed) 




4 Arethusa 




of Diomed) 


5 Highflyer 




7 Eclipse 




4 Ecli|3se 


6 Eclipse 
6 Herod 


7 


Bill of Portland 


1890 


St. Simon 


Electric Eight 




4 Pocahontas 




G Sultan (Grand-sire 


3 Birdcatcher 




6 Birdcatcher 




of Pocahontas) 


4 Touchstone 


8 


Bonavista 


1889 


Bend Or 


Vista 




4 Pocahontas 




G Tiiuclistone (Grand- 


4 Banter (Dam of 




5 Windhound 




sire of Windhound) 


Touchstone) 




5 Alice Hawthorn 






4 Pantaloon (Sire of 




7 Touchstone 






Windhound) 


9 


CambiiS(-an 


1861 


Newminster 


The Arrow 




4 Whalebone 




!y Beningbrough 


4 Beningbrough 




ij Orville (by Bening- 




'} Trumpator 






brouL^h) 










Beninglirough 









4. Inbreedin.Sf. 



247 



No. 


Names of Stallions 

1 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


10 


Camel 


1822 


Whalebone 


Mare by Selim 




4 Ilitjhnver 




3 Herod 


3 Hishllyer 




5 Herod 




4 Snap 


4 Herod 




5 Eclipse 






5 Eclipse 




6 Snap 








11 


Catton 


1800 


Goiumpus 


Lucy Gray 




4 Herod 




2 Herod 


3 Herod 




4 Eclipse 




5 Cade (by Godol. 


6 Godol. .Arabian 




5 Matclieiii (by Cade) 




Arabian) 


6 Blank (by Godol. 
Arabian) 

6 Refjulus (Grand- 
sire of Eclipse) 


12 


ChildwicU 


1890 


St. Simon 


Plaisanterie 




4 Pocahontas 




6 Sultan (Grand-sire 


6 Lan.i,^•lr 




5 Voltigeur 




of Pocahontas) 
Velocipede's dam 


Grandsire : 
1 Pocahontas 


13 


Count SclTombers^ 


1892 


Au_£;;hrim 


Clonavarn 




4 Stockwell 




4 Birdcatcher 


4 Touchstone 




5 Birdcatcher 




5 Sir Hercules 


5 Birdcatcher 




5 Orlando 




5 Touchstone 






5 Touchstone 








14 


Cyllene 


1895 


Bonavista 


Arcadia 




4 Stockwell 




4 Pocahontas 


6 Touchstone 




5 Xewminster 




5 W'indhound 






(by Tiiuchstone) 




5 Alice Hawthorn 
5 Pantaloon 
7 Touchstone 




15 


Le Destrier 


1877 


Flageolet 


La Dheune 




4 Gladiator 




•J Partisan 


5 P.-irlisan 




(by Partisan) 








16 


Diclc Andrews 


1797 


joe Andrews 


Mare bv Highflyer 




4 Blank (by Godol. 




4 Godol. Arabian 


3 Blank 




Arabian) 




5 Bart. Childers 


6 Flyinij Childers 




5 Regulus 










6 Snip (by Fl. 










ChiUlers) 








17 


Dif)med 


1777 


Florizel 


Mare by Spectator 




4 Crab 




4 Elyiiiff Childers 


5 Darley's .\r.ibian 




4 Ciodol. Arabian 










4 Partner 










5 Flyintc Childers 










(by Darl. Arabian) 


I 







248 



Heredity. 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


18 


Dollar 


1860 


Tlie Flying 


Payment 




4 Cattoii 




Dutchman 


5 Sorcerer 




6 Beninsbrough 




3 Selini 


6 Beningbrough 




6 Evelina 




6 Sir Peter 






7 Sir Peter 










7 Sorcerer 








19 


Economist 


1825 


Whisker 


Floranthe 




4 Herod 




3 Herod 


3 Herod 




4 Eclipse 




4 Snap 


3 Eclipse 




5 High liver 








21) 


Energy 


1880 


Sterling 


Cher.-y Duchess 




4 Sir Hercules 




5 Whalebone (Sire of 


4 Sir Hercules (Sire 




4 Birdcalcher 




Sir Hercules) 


of Birdcatcher) 




5 Touchstone 






5 Touchstone 




5 Melbourne 






6 Sultan 




6 Bay Middleton 










(by Sultan) 








21 


Fisherman 


1853 


Heron 


Main brace 




4 Orville 




G Eclipse (Grand-sire 


3 Mandane 




5 Dick Andrews 




of Dick Andrews) 
7 Highflyer (Grand- 
sire of Orville) 


(by PotSos) 


22 


Flatratcher 


1845 


'I'ouchstone 


Decov 




4 Waxy 




4 Alexander 


2 Sir Peter 




5 Sir Peter 




(by Eclipse) 


o Eclipse 




6 Eclipse 




5 Eclipse 
5 Sir Peter 




23 


Florizel 


1768 


Herod 


Mare ijy Cygnet 




4 Flying Childers 




7 Hautboy 


3 Flying Childers 




7 Byerly Turlc 




7 Spanker 

7 Leedes Arabian 


5 Basto (by Byerly 
Turk) 


24 


Galliard 


1880 


Galopin 


Mavis 




4 Birdcatcher 




2 Voltaire 


6 Blacklock 




5 Voltaire 






Grand-dam : 




(by Blacklock) 






4 Blacklock 


25 


Gladiator 


1833 


Partisan 


Pauline 




4 Prunella (by High- 




2 Highflyer 


4 Trunipator 




flyer) 




3 Eclipse 


5 PotSos ♦ 




4 PotSos (by Eclipse) 




4 Snap 


6 Eclipse 
6. Highflyer 


26 


Goiiverneur 


1888 


Energy 


Gladia 




4 Touchstone 




4 Sir Hercules 


5 Smolensku 




7 Whalebone (by 




4 Birdcatcher 


6 Waxy 




Waxy and Penelope) 




5 Touchstone 
/) Melbourne 


6 Penelope 



4. Inl)reedin£j. 



•249 



No. 



NaiiK's of Stallions 



Born 



Sire 



Dam 



28 



29 



30 



81 



32 



33 



H 



:« i 



Hambk'tonian 
4 Tartar (by Partner) 

o Crab 

G Gcxliil. Araliian 

Hanibiirp 
4 I-exin^lun 
f) Glciicoo 



Hannibal 
4 Touchslujit 
4 Stocliwell 

Haphazard 
4 Rfi^iilus (by Godol. 
Arabian) 
fBart. Cliiklers 
\F1. Chilclers 

Hertnit 

4 Camel 
6 Paynatiii- 

(by Trumpator) 

6 Selim 

7 Orville (by Beninff- 
brou.qh) 

Joe Andrews 

4 Gudol. Arabian 

5 Bart. Childers (by 
D. Arabian and 
Betty Leedes) 

Kendal 
4 Birdcalcher 

3 Pantaloon 

Kingston 

4 Smolensko 

5 Sir Peter (by His;h- 
flyer) 

7 Kclipse 

Kingston 

4 Nielbournc 
.5 Glencoe 

5 Touchstone 



1792 King Fergus 

I ^ ( Bart. Childers 
''[]■']. Childers 



1895 I Hanno\'Pr 

America 



1891 



1797 



18tU 



2 N'andal 
(by (llencoe) 



1778 



1883 



1849 



1884 

III 

Amrrlca 



Trachenberg 
7 Bustard 



Sir Peter 
:i Rei^ulus 

4 Godol. -Arabian 

5 Fl. Childers 
.J Fox 

Xewminster 
.J Triinipator 
•3 Beiiinybrough 



lie! ipse 
,S Sister to Old Coun- 
try W'encli 
4 .SriaUe 

Bend Or 

6 Touchstone 
6 .Muley 

V^enison 
o Fclipse 
G Ilcrud 



Spendthrift 

o lunilius 

6 Selim (Grand-sire 
of Glencoe) 



Mare by Highflyer 
4 (iodul. Arabian 
4 Partner 



Lady Reel 
3 Le.\ini,'ton 
3 Glencoe 
tir.iiRl-dam : 

2 Lexinijton 

Zama 

3 Touchstone 
5 Camel 

Miss Hervev 

4 Ciodol. .\r;ibian 
4 Bart. Childers 



Seclusion 
.3 Sulian (bv Selim) 
7 Orville 



.\ ma ran da 

3 (iiidol. Arabian 

4 Partner 

G Oari. Arabian 
G Betty Leedes 

Windermere 
7 Buzzard (Grand- 
sire of Pantaloon) 
7 Orville 

Queen Anne 
C Hij-hllvcr 



Kapanga 

6 Black lock 

7 Wh.ilebonc (Grand- 
sire of Touchstone) 



250 



Heredity. 



No. 



Names of Stallions 



Born 



Sire 



Dam 



36 Lambton 
4 Orville (by Bening- 

broug'h) 

6 Wliiskey 

7 Sir Peter 

37 Lanercost 

4 Gohanna 

5 Wondpeclcer 
(by Herod) 

5 Highflyer 
(by Herod) 

5 Trumpator 

6 Eclipse 

38 Liverpool 

4 Eclipse 

5 Highnyer 
(by Herod) 

5 Woodpecker 
(by Herod) 

5 Trentham 

6 Herod 

39 Lonei'bow 
4 Orville 

7 Highflyer 

7 W'oodijecUer 

iO Marsyas 
4 \^^^xy 
4 Penelope 

41 Master Kildare 
4 Birdcatcher 

8 Blackiock 

42 Meddler 
4 Newniinster 



48 Melbourne 

4 Termagant 

5 Highflyer 
(by Herod) 

5 Trumpator 

6 Eclipse 



1850 



1835 



The Cure 
6 Sir Peter 



1828 



1849 



1851 



1875 



1890 



1834 



Elphine 
2 Beningbrough 

5 Sir Peter 



Liverpool 


Otis 


4 Eclipse (Grand-sire 


3 Wood|)ecker 


of Gohanna) 


4 Herod 


5 Woodpecker 


Grand-dam : 


5 Highflyer 


2 Herod 


5 Trentham 


3 Eclipse 


6 Herod 




Tramp 


Mare bv Whisker 


3 Eclipse 


1 PcitSos (by Eclipse) 


4 Herod 


4 Herod 



Ithuriel 
5 Buzzard (by Wood- 

])ecker) 
5 Mare by Alexander 

Orlando 

3 Selim 

5 Alexander 

Lord Ronald 

G Whalebone (Grand- 
sire of Birdcatcher) 
7 Blaclvlock 

St. Gatien 
3 Newniinster 
5 Birdcatcher 
Grand-sire : 

3 Melbourne 

Humphrey Clinker 
2 Sir Peter (by High- 
flyer) 

4 Trumpator 
7 Eclipse 



Miss Bowe 

5 Highflyer 

6 Herod 
6 Eclipse 

Malibran 

5 Herod 



Silk 
6 Blackiock 



Busybody 
5 Venison 

Grand-sire : 
2 Touchstone 

Mare by Cervantes 

4 Eclipse 

5 Herod 



Inliretiliiii; 



251 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


44 


Mercury 
4 Godol. Arabian 


1778 


Eclipse 

3 SistL-r to Old Coun- 
try Wench 

4 Snake 


i 

Mare by Tartar 
5 Curwens Bay Barb 


45 


Mortemer 

4 Partisan 


1865 


Compiegne 
G Whalebone 


Comtesse 
1 Emilius (by Orville) 




(by Walton) 




7 Bii/zard 


6 Sir Peter 




6 Orville 




7 Mare by Alexander 
7 Sir Peter (Sire of 
Walton) 




46 


Muley 
4 Eclipse 

4 Herod 

5 Matchem 


1810 


Orville 
2 Herod 


Eleanor 
3 Herod 
3 Matchem 


47 


Musket 
4 Touchstone 


1867 


Toxcjphilite 
7 Sir Peter 


Mare bv West- 
Australian 




(by Camel) 




7 Woodpecker 


2 Camel 




4 Camel 








48 


The Nabob 
4 Selini 


1849 


The Xob 

4 Buzzard 




Hester 
Woodpecker (Sire 




4 Orville 




4 Mare by 


Parents 


of Buzzard) 




4 Penolopc 




Alexander 
(by Eclipse) _ 


• of 
Selim 


6 Eclipse 








4 Prunella 




49 


The Xob 
4 Buzzard 

4 Mare by Alexander 
4 Prunella (by High- 

llyer) 
6 Sir Peter 


1838 


Glaucus 
3 Sir Peter (by High- 

llyer) 
5 Eclipse 


Octave 

4 Highflyer 


SO 


Nordenfeldt 

4 Melbourne 

5 Touchstone 


1882 

In 
Auatral. 


Musket 
4 Touchstone 
4 Camel 


Onyx 

',) Touchstone 


51 


Pantaloon 
4 H i If h flyer 


1824 


Castrel 
3 Herod 


Idalia 
■2 Highflyer 




(by Herod) 




•5 Matchem 


3 Eclipse 




4 Eclipse 




6 Regulus 


6 Regulus 




5 1 1 erod 








52 


Phantom 
4 Herod 


1808 


Walton 
3 Herod 


Julia 
3 Herod 




4 Eclipse 




3 Snap 


3 Matchem 




o Snap 




t Rci,'ulus 







252 



Heredity. 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


53 


Phonomenon 


1780 


Herod 


Frenzy 




4 Blaze 




7 Leedes Arabian 
7 Hautboy 
7 Spanker 


4 Godol. .Arabian 


51 


Plenipotentiary 


1831 


Emilius 


Harriet 




4 Sir Peter (by Hifjli- 




3 Hit;ht1yer 


4 Hifjh liver 




flyer) 




4 Eclipse 


6 Eclipse 




5 Hif;hnyer 










7 Eclifise 








55 


Plutus 


1862 


Trumpeter 


Mare bv Planet 




4 Eniilius (by Orville) 




4 Selim 


3 Sultan (by Selim) 




6 Seliin 




5 Orville 
■5 Penelope 




56 


PotSos 


1773 


Eclipse 


Sportsmistress 




4 Godol. .\r;iljian 




3 Sister to Old Coun- 
tr\' Wench 

4 Snake 


5 .Ancaster Turk 


57 


Rayon d'Or 


1876 


Flageolet 


Araucaria 




4 Touchstone 




5 P.artisan 


5 Orville 
5 Selim 


58 


Rosicrucian 


1865 


Beadsman 


Mad. Eglentine 




4 Priam 




3 'J'ramp 


4 Phantom 




5 Whalebone 




5 Orville (Grand-sire 


6 Buzzard 




7 Selim 




ol Priam) 






fowii brollier to The 




7 Buzzard 






PalmerJ 








59 


Royal Hampton 


1882 


Hampton 


Princess 




4 Pocahontas 




7 Whalebone (Grand- 


4 Sultan (Grand-sire 




6 Touchstone 




sire of Touchstone) 


of Pocahontas) 
5 Whisker 


60 


Saphir 


1888 


Chamant 


Sappho 




4 Pocahontas 




5 Enn"lius 


6 Touchstone 




6 Touchstone 




() Orville 


Grand-sire : 




6 Gladiator 






2 Pocahontas 




7 Emilius 






Grand-dam ; 
4 Touchstone 


61 


Sir Hercules 


1820 


W'iialebone 


Peri 




4 Eclipse 




3 Herod 


3 Eclipse 




5 Herod 




4 Snap 


5 Herod 




5 Hi!4hnyer 










7 Snap 








62 


Sir Hercules 


1843 


Cap a Pie 


Paraguay 




4 Waxy (by PotSos) 


In 

AHstr«l. 


2 Waxy 


4 PotSos 




4 Penelope 









4. Inbreeding. 



253 



No. 


\anifs of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


ea 


1 Sir Paul 


1802 


Sir Peter 


Pewelt 






4 Uetrulus (by Godol. 




3 Regulus 


3 Regulus 






Arabian) 




4 Godol. Arabian 


4 Godol. .\rabian 






5 Snip (by FI. 




.5 Fl. Childers 


6 Fl. Childers 






Cliilders) 




.-5 Fox 


Gr;ind-dam : 
3 Godol. .\rabian 




ftt 


Smoli-nsko 


1810 


Sorcerer 


W'owski 






4 Herod 




■2 Matcheni (b\- Cade) 


1 Herod 






5 Snap 






3 Snap 






Cade (by Godol. 






5 Godnl. .\rabian 






Ar.abian) 










65 


Sultan 


1816 


Selim 


Bacchante 






4 llerod 




3 Herod 


3 Herod 






4 Hit,'h flyer 




5 Matchem 


3 Eclipse 






(by Herod) 












4 Dclipse 










m 


Sweetmeat 


1842 


Gladiator 


Lollvpop 






4 Walton (by Sir 




4 PutSos 


Blacklock 






Peter) 




4 Prunella (by Hish- 


Sir Peler (by H 


gh- 




6 PotSos 




flyer) 


flyer) 






7 His,H'.nyer 










67 


Touchstone 


1881 


Camel 


Banter 






4 .Vlexander 




4 Highflyer 


4 Eclipse 






(by Eclipse) 




3 Eclipse 








5 Eclipse 




.J Herod 








.5 Sir Peter (by High- 












flyer) 












Buzzard 












C II it,'h flyer 










68 


Tranby 


1826 


r^lacklock 


Mare bv Orville 






4 Kini,' Fergus 




:! Highflyer 


3 Her6d 






4 Hi.i?hnyer 




4 Eclipse 


4 Eclipse 






.5 Herod 




4 Herod 






60 


Trappist 


1872 


Hermit 


Bunsh 






4 Camel 




4 Camel 

G Selim (Grand-sire 
of Camel) 


4 Lottery 




70 


Trumpator 


1782 


Conductor 


Brunette 






4 Partner 




3 Partner 


4 Partner 






4 Godol. .Vrabian 












."j Rroun Farewell 











254 



Heredity. 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


71 


Trumpeter 


1856 


Orlando 


Cavatina 




4 Selini 

5 Orville 




3 Selim 

5 Alexander 


4 Buzzard "1 

, ■.. , Parents 

4 Mare bv - of 

Alexand. J ^elim 




5 Penelope 














4 Bening- "j 

. , Parents 

brough I of 
4 Evelina J ^"'"^ 










72 


Vermouth 


1861 


The Nabob 


Vermeille 




4 Emilius (by Orville) 




4 Orville 


4 Whalebone 




4 Partisan 




4 Penelope (Dam of 


5 Orville 




5 Whalebone 




Whalebone) 
4 Selim 
4 Prunella 




73 


Vir.^il 


1864 


Vandal 


Hymenia 




4 Tramp 


in 
Amerii'd 


7 PotSos (Grand-sire 


^ 




6 Orville 




of Blacklock's dam) 






6 Black lock's dam 








74 


Virgilius 
4 Orville 


1858 


Voltig:eur 
5 Hambletonian 


Eclogue 
5 Sir Peter 




6 Waxy 




6 Sir Peter (by High- 


5 Highflyer 




7 Sir Peter 




flyer, Grand-sire of 






7 Higjhflyer 




Orville and Hamble- 
tonian) 
7 Highflyer 




75 


Voltaire 


1826 


Blacklock 


Mare by Phantom 




4 King Fergus 




3 Highflyer 


4 Highflyer 




5 Highflyer 




4 Herod 
4 Eclipse 


5 Eclipse 


76 


War Dance 


1887 


Galliard 


War Paint 




4 The Baron 




4 Birdcatcher 


4 Touchstone 




(by Birdcatcher) 




6 Voltaire 


(out of Banter) 




7 Banter 








77 


Wild Dayrell 


1852 


Ion 


Ellen Middleton 




4 Selim 




3 Evelina 


6 Sir Peter 




7 Sir Peter 




5 Sir Peter 




78 


Yattendon 


1861 


Sir Hercules 


Cassandra 




4 Partisan 


in 

Austral. 


(by Cap h Pie by 


4 Whiskey 




6 Waxy 




Colonel) 
4 Waxy 
4 Penelope 





4. Inbreeding. 
SUillions with 5 Free Generations. 



255 



No. 


Names of Stnllions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


1 


Alarm 


1842 


Venison 


Southdown 




5 Prunella (by High- 




5 Eclipse 


5 Spadille 




flyer) 




6 Herod 


(by Highflyer) 




o PotSos (by Eclipse) 






6 Highflyer 




6 Maria (by Herod) 






(by Herod) 
G Eclipse 


2 


Alarm 


1869 


Imp. Eclipse 


Imp. Maude 




5 Sultan (by Selim) 




4 Sclim (by Buzzard) 


.5 Blackloclv 




6 Bustard (by 






o Tramp 




Buzzard) 






7 Buzzard 


3 


Aurum II. 


1894 


Trenton 


Aura 




5 Fisherman 


in 
Aii!^tral. 


6 Touchstone 


6 Marpessa 




7 Touchstone- 




6 Camel 




4 


Ayrshire 


1885 


Hampton 


Atalanta 




5 Touchstone 




7 Whalebone (Grand- 


3 Birdcatcher 




5 Bee's Wing 




sire of Touchstone 


Grand-sire : 




6 The Baron 




and Birdcatcher) 


2 Voltaire 




(by Birdcatcher) 






Grand-dam : 




6 Voltaire 






3 Touchstone 


5 


Birdcatcher 


1833 


Sir Hercules 


Guiccioli 




5 Woodpecker 




4 Eclipse 


2 Bagot (by Herod) 




(by Herod) 




o Herod 


Grand-sire : 




6 Eclipse 




o Htfjh flyer 


2 Herod 




6 Herod 






Grand-dam : 




6 Highflyer 






3 Herod 




(by Herod) 








6 


Buccaneer 


1888 


Privateer 


Primula 




5 Touchstone 




3 Touchstone 


3 Pocahontas 

4 Redshank 

5 Touchstone 


7 


Chamant 


1874 


Mortemer 


Araucaria 




5 Emilius (by Orville) 




4 Partisan 


5 Orville 




6 Orvilk- 




6 Orville 

Grand-dam : 
1 Emilius 


5 Selim 

Grand-sire : 
4 Orville 


8 


Chanticleer 


1787 


Woodpecker 


Mare bv Eclipse 




•5 Godol. .Arabian 




6 Darley .Arabian 


2 Regulus (by Godol. 
.Arabian) 


9 


Charibert 


1876 


Thormanbv 


Gertrude 




•5 Touchstone 




G Orville 


4 Sultan 

6 Whalebone (Grand- 
sire of Touchstone) 



•256 



Heredity. 



\o. 



Nnnies of Stallions 



Born ' 



Sire 



Dam 



10 Chester 
5 Sir Hercules 

5 Emiiius (by Orville) 

6 Siillan 
6 Whisker (by Waxy) 

11 Com US 

5 Herud (by 'I'artnr) 

5 Snap 

6 Cade (by Codol. 
Arabiaji) 

12 Cowl 

5 Whiskey 
5 Y. Giantess 

7 Sir Peter 
(by Hi-IiHyer) 

13 Defence 

5 Herod 
5 Hishfiyer 

(by Herod) 
5 Eclipse 

/Alfred 

\ Conductor 

14 Desmond 
o \'oltis:eur 

(by \'oltaI-re) 



1874 

ia 
AJistiMl. 



1809 



1842 



1824 



1896 



15 Despair 

5 Defence 

6 Whalebone 
(by Waxy) 

6 Touchstone 

16 Dr. Syntax i 1811 

5 iMatchem (by Cade) 

6 Snip 

6 Cade 

7 Crab 



Vattendon 
4 Partisan 
6 Waxy 

6 Buzzard (Grand-sire 
of Sultan) 

Sorcerer 

2 Matcheni (by Cade) 
ro Partner 
Lc Godol. Arab 



an J 



I3ay Middleton 
4 Sir Peter 
4 Arethusa 
7 Eclipse 



Whalebone 

3 Herod 

4 Snap 



St. Simon 
6 Sultan 
6 Velocipede's dam 

Grand-sire : 
2 Voltaire 



1881 See Saw 
7 Waxv 



Paynator 
3 Snap (by Snip) 
5 Godol. .Arabian 



Lady Chester 

3 Economist 
(by Whisker) 

5 Orville 

Houghton Lass 
5 Blank (by Godol. 

.Arabian) 
5 Tartar (by Partner) 

5 Re^ulus (by Godol. 
.Arabian) 

Crucifix 

6 Highflyer 

6 Herod (Grand-sire 

of Whiskey) 
6 Eclipse (Grand-sire 

of Whiskey) 

Defiance 

4 Herod 

4 Hii^-h flyer 

4 Eclipse 

5 Alfred 



L'.Abbesse de 
Jouarre 

4 Touchstone 

5 Banter 
Grand-dnm : 

4 A"oltaire 

Peine de Coeur 

5 Partisan 

C Whalebone 



Mare by 

Beninpbrousfli 
5 Cade (by Godol. 

.Arabian) 
5 Reg'ulus (by Godol. 

.Arabian) 
7 Mare by Basto 
(Dam of Snip and 
Crab) 



4. Inbrecdiiii. 



•257 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


17 


Donovan 


1886 


Galopin 


-Mowerina 




5 Bay MitUlleton (by 




2 \"oltaire (out of 


3 Touchstone 




Sultan — Pliantom) 




Phantom Mare) 


o Muley 




5 Birdcatcher 






6 Sultaii 


18 


Faugh-a-Rallagh 


1841 


Sir Hercules 


Guiccioli 




5 WoodpecUer 




4 Eclipse 


2 Bagot (by Herod) 




(by Herod) 




o Herod 


(irand-sire : 2 Herod 




6 Eclipse 




5 Highflyer 


(jrand-dam : 'A Herod 




6 Herod 










6 Highflyer 










(by Herod) 








1!) 


Fitz Gladiator 


1850 


Gladiator 


Zarah 




Buzzard 




4 PotSos (by Eclipse) 


4 Sir Peter 




5 Mare by Alexander 




4 Prunella (by High- 


6 Eclipse 




(by Eclipse) 




flyer) 


6 Herod 




5 Sir Peter 










(by Hii^h flyer) 










o Gohaiina 








20 


Flacjcolet 


1870 


Plutus 


La Favorite 




•5 Partisan 




4 Eniilius 


o Whalebone 




(by Walton) 






(irand-tlam : 3 Walton 




7 Whalebone 








21 


Flibustier 


1867 


Buccaneer 


Sweet Katie 




5 Tramp 




3 Edmund (br Orville) 


■5 Tramp 




6 Sultan 




Pavnator 


6 Orville 




7 Orvillc [own brother 










of WaisenUnabeJ 








22 


Fulmen 


1880 


Galopin 


Li^litninij 




5 Birdcatcher (by 




2 Wiltaire 


•5 Sir Hercules 




Sir Hercules) 








•ja 


Glencoe 


1831 


Sultan 


Trampnlinc 




5 Mercury 




4 Herod 


4 Highflyer 




6 Eclipse 




4 Eclipse 


4 Eclipse 




6 Herod 




4 Highflyer 


o Herod 




6 Hif,'ht1ver 








24 


Harkawav 


1834 


Economist 


Mare bv Nabocklish 




5 PotSos' (by Eclipse) 


j 


4 Eclipse 


4 Highflyer 




6 Highflyer 




4 Herod 


(by Herod) 




7 Herod 


1 


Highflyer 


Grand-dam : 
2 Highflyer 

Great Grand-dam : 
2 Herod 



258 



Heredity. 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


25 


Highflyer 

5 Sister to Mixbury 

6 Barley's Arabian 


1774 


Herod 
7 Leedes Arabian 
7 Hautboy 
7 Spanker 


Rachel 
1 Godol. Arabian 
6 St. Victor's Barb 
6 Grey U'hynot 


26 


Jerry 

5 Herod 

6 Matchem (by Cade) 


1821 


Smolensko 

4 Herod 

5 Snap 

6 Cade 


Louisa 
3 Highflyer 
5 Herod 
•5 Matchem 


27 


Isinglass 
5 Birdcatcher 
5 The Baron 
(by Birdcatcher) 

5 Pocahontas 

6 Touchstone 


1890 


Isonomy 
3 Birdcatcher 


Dead Lock 
4 Touchstone 


28 


Ithuriel 
5 Buzzard 

5 Mare by Alexander 
(by Eclipse) 


1841 


Touchstone 

4 Alexander 

5 Eclipse 
5 Buzzard 
5 Sir Peter 


Verbena 

4 Sir Peter 

5 Highflyer 


29 


King Tom 
5 Waxy (by PotSos) 
5 Penelope 


1851 


Harkawav 

5 PotSos" (by Eclipse) 

6 Highflyer 


Pocahontas 

5 Gohanna 
(by Mercury) 

6 Mercury 
(by Eclipse) 


30 


Ladas 

5 Touchstone 
5 Queen Mary 
5 Melbourne 


1891 


Hampton 
7 Whalebone (Grand- 
sire of Touchstone) 


Illuminata 
4 Touchstone 


31 


Lamplighter 

5 Glencoe (by Sultan) 

6 Emilius (by Orville) 
6 Touchstone 

6 Sultan (by Selini) 


1889 

in 
Araerici 


Spendthrift 

5 Emilius 

6 Selim ? 


Torchlight 
4 Touchstone 
7 Orville 
Grand-dam : 3 Sultan 


32 


Marslie 
5 Hautboy 
5 Lister Turk 
7 Leedes Arabian 
7 Mare by Spanker 


1750 


Squirt 

Grand-dam : 
1 Hautboy ■ 


Ruby Mare 

3 Coneyskins 

(by Lister Turk) 

4 Hautboy 


33 


Matchem 

5 Mare by Spanker 


1848 


Cade 


Mare by Partner 
5 Darcy's Yellow 
Turk (Sire of 
Spanker) 









4. Inbreedint;. 




259 


No. 


Names of .Stallions 


i 
Horn 


Sire- 


Dam 


•M 


Mintincj 


1883 


Lord Lyon 


Mint Sauce 






o Birdcatcher 




6 Selim 


7 ("astrel 






5 Touchstone 




6 Whalebone (Grand- 


7 Comus 






5 Glencoe 




sire of Birdcatcher 


Grand-dam : 






I'Selim 




and Touchstone) 


M 'I'ouchstone 






"\CastreI 










:i"i 


Morion 


1887 


Barcaldine 


C'liaplet 






5 Touchstone 




1 Darling's dam 


4 Priam 






7 Whalebone 




5 Touchstone 


5 Whalebone 




:s(i 


Mulatto 


182:^ 


Cat ton 


Desdemona 






5 Florizel (by Herod) 




4 Herod 


2 Hif,'hflyer 






.5 Hifjjhiher 




4 Kclipse 


5 Marske 






(by Herod) 




5 Matchem 








C Herod 












6 Kclipse (by MarsUe) 










;^ 


Newminster 


lats 


Touchstone 


i^ee's Wing 






o Beningbroug-li (by 




4 Alexander 


G Eclipse 






KinjT Fertjus |by 




5 Eclipse 


G Herod 






Rclipse] and a 




5 Sir Peter 








Herod-Mare) 




C Highflyer 








•") Trumpator 




(by Herod) 






38 


Xorfollv 


1861 


Lexington 


Novice 






5 Sir Archy 


111 

America 


3 Sir Archy 
6 Saltram (by Eclipse, 
CIrand-sire of Waxy) 


5 Buzzard 

6 Wax> 
Grand-dam : 

2 Sir Archy 












Great Grand-dam : 










1 Sir Archy 




3S) 


Orme 


188t) 


Ormonde 


Angelica 






5 Pocahontas 




5 Birdcatcher 


6 Sultan (Sire o 






(by Glencoe) 




5 Pantaloon 


Glencoe) 






6 Birdcatcher 






C Velocipede's dam 


M\ 


Ormonde 


188;-! 


Bend Or 


Lily Agnes 






5 Birdcatcher 




6 Touchstone 


6 'Blacklock 






5 Pantaloon 




Grand-sire : 


f Selim 






(by Castrel) 




G Blaclvloek 


\Castrel 






7 Banter 










41 


Persimmon 


1893 


St. Simon 


Perditta IL 






5 Voltigeur 




6 Sultan (Grand-sire 


3 Melbourne 






(by Voltaire) 




of Pocahontas) 


C Voltaire -> 


t ? 




6 Pocahontas 




6 Velocipede's dam 


C Martha Lynn /f -| 








7 Bl.icklock (Sire of 


G Pocahontas 


c »» 








Voltaire) 












Grand-sire : 












2 Voltaire 







260 



Heredity. 



No. 



Names of Stal 



Born 



Sire 



Dam 



42 



43 



44 



45 



4(5 



47 



48 



4i) 



Perth 

.5 Newminster 
.5 Stockwell 

(by The Barun) 



Pyrrhiis the First 
5 Buzzard 

(by Woodpeclicr) 

5 Mare bv .Alexander 

(by Eclipse) 

Rataplan 
o Orville 

6 Waxy 

6 Penelope 

Sheet Anchor 

5 \\'oodpecker 
(by Herod) 

6 Eclipse 
6 Mercury 

6 Mare by Herod 

Sir Visto 
o Pocahontas 
.5 Newminster 
6 Banter (Dam of 
Touchstone) 

St. Florian 
.3 Ion 

6 Bay Middleton 
(by Sultan) 

Saunterer 
.5 Waxy 
o Penelope 



1896 



1843 



1850 



1832 



1891 



1S54 



Scottish Chief 1861 

5 Orville (by Benins'- 
brouffh) 

6 Sclim 

7 Buzzard (by Wood- 
pecker) 



War Dance 

4 The Baron 
7 Banter 



Epirus 

3 Sir Peter 

4 Diomed 

5 Herod 
5 Eclipse 

The Baron 
4 Waxy 
4 Penelope 



Lottery 

3 Eclipse 

4 Trentham 

4 Woodpecker 

Herod 

Barcaldine 

1 Dar'insj's dam 
(by Birdcatcher) 

.J Touchstone 



St. Simon 
G Sultan 



Birdcatcher \ 

■'} \V'oodpecker i 

G Eclipse (Grand-sire 
of Waxy) 

Lord of the Isles 
5 Buzzard 

5 Mare by .Alexander 
(by Eclipse) 

6 Benintjbroush 



Primrose Dame 

4 Newminster 
4 Stockwell 
.5 Touchstone 
6 Birdcatcher 
Grand-sire : 
2 Touchstone 
2 Bee's Winij 

Fortress 

1 Whalebone 

4 Hifjhland Flinij 

5 Buzzard 

6 Woodpecker 
(by Herod) 

Pocahontas 
.5 Gohanna 

6 Mercur\' 

7 Highflyer (Grand- 
sire of Orville) 

jMorgiana 

2 Y. Giantess 
6 Herod 

6 Eclipse 



Vista 
4 Banter 
4 Pantaloor 



Palmflower 
o Bay Middleton 
o Touchstone 

Ennui 

5 Waxy 

.T Penelope 

6 Whiskey 

6 Sorcerer 

Miss Ann 

7 WoodpecI<:er 
7 Mercury 

(by Eclipse) 







4 


Inbreedini;. 


or,) 


No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


50 


Solon 1 


1861 j 


West Australian 


Darling's Dam 




5 Whalebone 




6 Trumpator ((irand- 


.-. Waky 




(by Waxy) 




sire of Comus) 


G PotSos 




5 Comus 






7 Trumpator 




G Waxy 










6 Penelope 










(by Trumpator) 








51 


Spendthrift 


1876 


Imp. Australian 


Aerolite 




5 Eniilius 


111 

Aoiertca 


•A Whisker 


? 




G Selini 




6 Selim 






7 Waxy ^p„e„,sof 




G Evelina (Grand-dam 




1 


G Penelope j Whisker 




of Emilius) 
7 Stamford (Grand- 
sire of Emilius) 




52 


Springfield 


1873 


St. Albans 


Viridis 




5 Sultan (by Sellni) 




G ^^■halebone 


4 Camel 




6 Camel 






4 Lani^ar (by Selim) 




(by Whalebone) 






5 Selim 




G Banter 








53 


Sterling 


1S6S 


Oxford 


W'iiispt'r 




5 U'halebone 




7 \^■axy 1 p^^^,„^ „f 
7 Penelope jWha'cbone 


5 Whalebone 
G Waxy 


54 


Stockwell 


1849 


The Baron 


Pocahontas 




5 Orville 




4 Waxy 


5 Gohanna 




G \\'axy 




4 Penelope 


6 Mercury 




6 Penelope 






7 Iliyhtlver ((Ir.-ind- 
sire of Orville) 


55 


Timoleon 


1814 


Sir Archv 


Marc by Saltram 




5 Trenlhani 


Id 
America 


3 Herod" 


4 l\e.i,'-ulus (by Godol 




7 Blank (by (iodol. 




o Blank 


.\rabian) 




.Arabian) 




Grand-sire : 
4 Godol. .\rabian 

Grand-dam : 
G Godol. .\rabian 
G Re.trulu> 


(inmd-sire : 
> 2 Re.y:ulus 

(i rand-dam : 
4 Ret,'ulus 


56 


Van Tronip 


1844 


I.anercost 


Barbel le 




5 Buzzard 




4 Gohanna (l)y 


G Woodpecker 




(by Woodpecker) 




Mercury by Eclipse) 


G Eclipse 




G PotSos (by Eclipse) 




.5 Woodpecker 


C Herod 




G Gohanna 




5 Hi.uhllyer 
.5 Trumpator 

6 Eclipse 





•262 



Heredity. 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


57 


Velocipede 
o Highflyer 


1825 


Black-lock 
8 Highflyer 


Mare by JunipcM- 
o Eclipse 




(by Herod) 




4 Eclipse 


6 Herod 




5 PotSos (by Eclipse) 




4 Herod 


6 -Matchem 




7 Matchem 








58 


Venison 

5 Eclipse 

6 Herod 

7 Snap 


1833 


Partisan 

2 Highflyer 
(by Herod) 

3 Eclipse 

4 Snap 


r£i\vn 
4 Herod 


5a 


Voltigeur 
5 Hambletonian 


1847 


Voltaire 
4 King Fergus 


Martha Lynn 
4 Sir Peter 




(by King Fergus) 




5 Highflyer (Grand- 


6 King Fergus 




6 Coriander 




sire of Hamble- 






6 Sir Peter (by High- 




tonian) 






flyer) 










7 Highflyer 








m 


Waxy 

5 Godol. Arabian 

6 Partner (by Jigg) 
(B. Childers 

'\F1. Childers 


1790 


PotSos 

4 Godol. .Arabian 


Maria 

4 F'lying Childers 

4 Fox 

6 Byerly Turk (Sire 








of Jigg) 


(ii 


Xenophon 
•3 Whalebone 
(by Wax.\) 


1872 


Canary 

3 Camel 

(by Whalebone) 

4 Selim 
o Orville 


Mare bv Birdcatcher 
5 Waxy 



Stallions with 6 Free Generations. 



Beauclerc 
6 Whalebone 



Bend'Or 

6 Touchstone 

6 Muley (by Orville) 

7 Selim (by Bu/zard) 



1875 



1877 



Rosicrucian 
4 Priam 
o Whalebone 

Doncaster 

a Blacklock 
7 Whalebone 
7 Stlim 



Bonny Bell 
o Walton 

Grand-dam : , 
3 Whalebone 

Rouge Rose 

G Orville 

6 Buzzard 

() Mare by Alexanider 

7 Waxv 



4. Inbreeding. 



•263 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 

1 


j Sire 


Dam 


:i 


Blair Athol 


1861 


Stofkwell 


Blink Bonny 




6 Whalebone 




o Orville 


G Evelina (Dam of 




7 Orville 




6 Waxy ~1 Parents 


Orville) 




7 Evelina 




6 Penelope / whalebone 


6 Sir Peter 

7 Trunipator (Grand- 
sire of Whalebone) 

7 Hig-hllyer (Grand- 
sire of Orville) 
Grand-dam : 

3 AX'halebone 


4 


Compiegiie 


1858 


Fitz Gladiator 


Maid of Hart 




6 Whalebone 




.5 Buzzard 


G Sir Peter 




7 Mare by .Me.xander 




5 Mare by Alexander 


6 Benini^brouijh 




7 Buzzard 




5 Sir Peter 


G Waxy 




7 Sir Peter 




o Gohanna 


G Evelina 




7 Beninsbrouf;h 










7 Gohanna 








5 


Cremorne 


1869 


Parmesan 


Rigolboche 




6 Tramp 




6 Waxy 


•5 Tramp 




7 Selim 




C Penelope 


•3 Selim 




8 Waxy 




G PotSos 






8 Penelope 




Prunella 






8 PotSos 











Doncaster 


1870 


Stockwell 


-Marigold 




fi Blaclclock 




.5 Orville 


4 Humphrey Clinker 




7 Whalebone 




6 Waxy "> Parents 

6 Penelope J wha°Ibone 


G Selim 




7 Selim 






7 


Favonius 


1868 


Parmesan 


ZepluT 




6 Whisker 




6 Waxy ^ Parents 

6 Penelope / vvhtlker 
6 Prunella \ Grand- 
6 PotSos / '^^^ 


•5 Wliiskcr 










8 


Grand Flaneur 


1877 


Yattendon 


First Lady 




C Sir Hercules 




4 Partisan 


•5 Pantaloon 




(by Whalebone) 




6 Waxy (Sire of 
Whalebone) 


■5 Camel 

(by Whalebone) 


U 


Hindoo 


1878 


Virgil 


Florence 




6 Eniilius (by Orville) 


AtnriicA 


4 Tramp 


•J Emilius 




7 Tramp 




6 Orville 


6 Orville 


10 


King Fergus 


1775 


Eclipse 


Pollv 




6 Bay Bolton 




3 Sister to Old Coun- 
try Wench 

4 Snake 

6 Hautboy 


Byerly Turk 



264 



Heredity. 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


11 


Kisber 


1878 


Buccaneer 


Mineral 




6 Sultan 




3 Edmund 


1 Birdcatcher 




7 Orville 




(by Orville) 
5 Paynator 


7 Orville 


12 


Leamington 


1853 


Faugh-a-Ballagh 


Mare by Pantaloon 




6 Woodpecker 




5 Woodpecker 


4 Buzzard 




6 Alexander 




6 Eclipse 


(by Woodpecker) 




(by Eclipse) 






4 Mare by Alexander 


13 


Lord Clifden 


1860 


Newminster 


The Slave 




6 Paynator 




5 Trumpator 


5 Golumpus 




(by Trumpator) 




5 Beningbrough 






7 Orville 










(by Beninsbrough) 








14 


Lord Lyon 


ism 


Stockwell 


Paradigm 




6 Whalebone 




5 Orville 


5 Selim 




6 Selim 




Waxy "( Parents 
Penelope / whallbone 


5 \\'axy 




7 Orville 




6 Orville 


15 


Lord Ronald 


1862 


Stockwell 


Edith 




6 Whalebone 




5 Orville 


5 Whalebone 




7 Selim 




6 Waxy )^ Parents 
6 Penelope j whalebone 


6 Selim 




7 Orville 






16 


Macaroni 


1860 


Sweetmeat 


Jocose 




6 Sir Peter (bv High- 




4 Walton 


3 .Alexander 




flyer) 




(by Sir Peter) 


(by Eclipse) 




6 Orville (Grand-son 




6 PotSos (by Eclipse) 


4 Highflyer 




of Highflyer) 






4 Buzzard 




6 Buzzard 






.5 Sir Peter (by High- 




6 Mare by Alexander 






flyer) 


17 


Matclibox 


1891 


St. Simon 


Match Girl 




6 Bay Middleton 




G Sultan 


3 Orlando 




(by Sultan) 








18 


Parmesan 


1857 


Sweetmeat 


Griiyere 




6 Waxy (by PotSos) 




4 Walton 


3 Waxy 




6 Whalebone 




6 PotSos 


3 Penelope 




6 Penelope 










6 PotSos 










6 Prunella (Dam of 










Penelope) 






# 


19 


Phaeton 


1865 


Kin£j Tom 


ftlerry Sunshine 




6 Orville 


America 


5 Waxy 


1 Touchstone 




7 Waxy 




5 Penelope 


5 Orville 




7 Penelope 






Castrel 




rCastrel 
^ISelim 





















4 


Inbrecdins'. 




•2f)r, 


No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


20 


Rustic 
6 Whalebone 


18(53 


Stockwell 

5 Orville 

6 Waxy "J Parents 

6 Penelope / whaflbone 


Village La.sb 
5 Whalebone 




21 


St. .Mbans 
6 Whalebone 
(own brother to 
SavernaUe] 


ia57 


Stockwell 
.j Orville 

6 Waxy ) Parents 
6 Penelope j \Vha"lebone 


Rriberv 
6 Sir Peter 
6 Statu ford 
6 Woodpecker 




22 


St. Frusquin 
6 Bay Middleton 
(by Sultan) 


1803 


St. Simon 
6 Sultan 


Isabel 
6 Touchstone 
6 Emma 




23 


St. Simon 
6 Sultan (by Selim) 

6 Velocipede's dam 

7 Blacklock 


1881 


Galopin 
2 Voltaire 

(by Blacklock) 


St. .\npela 
C Selim 




24 


Salvator 
6 Selim 
6 Orville 


1872 


Dollar 
4 Catton 
C Beninfj- "1 

, , Parents 

brouq-h '- ot 
6 Evelina j °--""= 
Grand-sire : 3 Selim 


Sauvagine 
4 Selim 

Grand-dam : 3 S 


elim 


25 


Speculum 
6 Orville 


1865 


Vedette 
.3 Blacklock 


Dora! ice 
4 Or vi Ik- 




2«i 


Teddinnrton 
Stamford 

(by Sir Peter) 
7 Trumpator 
7 Sir Peter 


1848 


Orlando 

3 Selim 

o Alexander 

(by Eclipse, Grand- 
sire of Stamford) 

C Sir Peter 


Miss Twickenham 
5 Sir Peter 

Grand-sire : 
3 Trumpator 


27 


Tiiormanbv 

6 Orville 

7 Woodpecker 
(by Herod) 


1857 


VVindhound 
3 Peruvian 
5 Buzzard 

(by Woodpecker) 
.5 M.ire by Alexander 


Alice Hawthorn 

3 Dick Andrews 

4 Benini^brouy^h"! 
4 Evelina 

(by Hii,'hnyer) j 


■0 


28 


Trenton 
6 Touchstone 

6 Camel 

7 Whalebone 


1881 

In 
Allstrsl. 


Musket 
4 'I'ouchstone 
4 Camel 

Grand-dam ; 
2 Camel 


Frailty 
5 Sir Hercules 
f; Whalebone 




2S) 


Tristan 

6 Sultan (by Selim) 

7 Whalebone 

8 Orville 


1878 


Hermit 
4 Camel 

(by Whalebone) 
6 Selim 

6 Paynator 

7 Orville 


Trieft 
5 Tramp 
f) Whalebone 
G Whisker 
r> Orville 





•266 



Heredity. 



No 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


30 


Wen lock 
6 Whalebone 


1869 


Lord Clifden 

: 6 Pavnator 
7 Orville 


Mineral 

1 Birdcatcher 
7 Orville 


31 


West Australian 

6 Evelina 

(by Highflyer) 

6 Trumpator 

7 Eclipse 

7 Sir Peter 
(by Highflyer) 


1850 


Melbourne 

4 Termagant 

5 Trumpator 

5 Highflyer 

6 Eclipse 


Mowerina 
3 Waxy 
3 Penelope 

(by Trumpator) 
6 Sir Peter 
6 Eclipse 


32 


Woodpecker 
6 Darley Arabian 


1773 


Herod 

7 Leedes Arabian 
7 Hautboy 
7 Spanker 


Miss Ramsden 


3;^ 


Y. Melbourne 
6 Sir Peter 
(by Highflyer) 


1855 


Melbourne 

4 Termagant 

5 Trumpator 

5 Highflyer 

6 Eclipse 
Grand-sire : 

2 Sir Peter 


Clarissa 
4 Buzzard 

4 Mare by Alexander 
•5 Sir Peter 




Stallic 


3ns w 


ith 7 I''ree (Jeneration.'- 




1 


Atlantic 
7 Orville 
7 Buzzard "i 

« AT , Parents 

( iMare by I of 
Alexander J ^elim 


1871 


Thormanby 

6 Orville 

7 Woodpecker (Sire 
of Buzzard) 

7 Sir Peter 
Grand-sire : 4 Evelina 
(Dam of Orville) 


Hurricane 
3 Sultan (by Selmi) 
Grand-sire : 4 Selim 


2 


Hampton 

7 Whalebone 


1872 


Lord Clifden 

6 Pavnator 


Lady Langden 
3 Liverpool 
7 Whalebone 


3 


Herod 

7 Spanker 


1758 


Tartar 
6 Old Peg (Dam of 
Spanker) 


Cypron 
3 Darley 's Arabian 


4 


Himvar 

7 ^Iuley (by Orville) 


1875 

iu 
America 


Alarm 
o Sultan 


Hira 

3 Emilius (by Orville) 
5 Sir Archy 


5 


Iroquois 
7 Waxy 
7 Penelope 


1878 


Leamington 

6 Woodpecker 
6 Alexander 


Maggie 
6 Selim 



4. lnl)rei'dint;. 



267 



No. 



Names of Stallions 



Born 



Sue 



Dam 



Kinotishcr 
7 Orville 

7 Sir Petet 

8 Walton 

Oxford 
7 Waxy 
7 Ponelopt 



1 See Saw 
' 7 Orville 

7 Waxy 

8 Trunipatiir 



9 I Toxophilite 

7 Sir Peter (by llij^li- 
llyer, Grand-sire of 
Orville) 

7 Woodpecker 

I 

10 Trachenbercj 

7 Bustard 

8 Orville 



11 I Vandal 

j 7 PotSos (by liclipsel 
8 Hisrhf^yer 
8 Herod 



War Dance 
7 Dick Andrews 
7 Orville 



1867 

111 

Aiiii-rli'i 



1857 



1865 



1855 



1879 



1850 



1859 

III 

AmerlcM 



Lexinjjlon 
3 Sir Archv 



liirdcatclier 
o Woodpecker 
Eclipse 
G Herod 

G Hij^hHyer 

lUicraneer 

3 Edmund 
(by Orville) 

5 Paynator 

(by Triimpator) 

Lonojbow 

4 Orville 

7 Woodpecker 



Flibustier 
o Tramp 
G Sultan 
7 Orville 

Glenrne 
o Mercury 
li Eclipse 
ti Herod 
G Hisjh flyer 
C Woodpecker 

Lexington 
3 Sir Archy 
6 Saltram (by Eclipse. 
Grand-sire of Dick 
Andrews and 
Gohanna) 



I^ltliam Lass 
(i Walton 
7 Orville 

Honcvdear 

3 Orville 

4 Selim 



.Margery Daw 
•J Wa.xy 
5 Penelope 

(by Trumpator) 
G Orville 

Legerdemain 
2 Peruvian 
(by Sir Peter) 

5 Woodpecker 
Grand-dam : 

2 Sir Peter 

Dirt Cheap 

3 Camel 

6 Buzzard (Grand-sire 
of Bustard and 
Sultan) 

.Marc" by Tranbv 

7 Hip^hflyer 



Reel 
o Gohanna 



•Mis.sel Trush 
8 Glencoe 
8 Banter (Dam of 

Toudistone) 
8 Bav Middleton 



Stallions wiiii S I'-r 
18S>7 



Generations. 



Orme 
•3 Pocahontas 

(by Glencoe) 
G Birdcatcher 



i'hrostle 
4 'I'ouchstone 

Grand-sire : 
2 Touchstone 

Grand-dam : 
4 Bav Middleton 



208 Heredity. 

From these examples may be drawn the following conclusions : — 

1. The greatest number of approved sires are to be found amongst those 
with 3, 4 and 5 free generations. Also the sires and dams of the above-men- 
tioned 270 stallions with 1 to 8 free generations, have, as a simple calculation 
will show, on an average, 4 (exactly 4.13) free generations. This is a very 
remarkable and interesting result, and may be taken as a proof of the 
example. We here again see it confirmed that 4 free generations repre- 
sent the most favourable inbreeding for successful breeding material. 

2. In former times we find more successful stallions with close inbreed- 
ing than in modern times. Of stallions with 1 free generation in modern 
times, only Barcaldine and Flying Fox can be considered really successful. 
It seems to me to be an open question, in any case it has vet to be proved, 
whether either of them will be the founder of such a successful line as 
Paulowitz, born 1793. .Among the stallions with 2 free generations in the 
past, the following may be mentioned as especially prominent : Brutandorf, 
Gohanna, Golumpus, Humphrev Clinker, Orville, Partisan, Sorcerer, etc. 
As equal to these in modern times we can onh- mention Galopin, Wisdom, 
and Sainfoin. In the case of 3 and 4 free generations, ancient and modern 
times are about equal. In the case of 5 and more free generations in former 
times are specially to be mentioned : Herod, Highflyer, King Fergus, 
Marske, Matchem, Waxy, and Woodpecker. The great majority of the 
horses mentioned in these lists are the \-ery best stallions of the more and 
most recent times. 

3. .\s regards the repetition of closer inbreedings, it can be seen that 
the sires of stallions w ith 1 free generation had at least 4 (on an average 45) 
free generations, i.e., a little more than the remaining stallions with further 
removed inbreeding. We can therefore come to the conclusion that a 
repetition of such close inbreeding has not been successful. .Also amongst 
the many examples with only 2 free generations, Golumpus is the only one 
that can be mentioned in which the sire also had only 2 free generations, but 
the further removed inbreeding on the basis of Godol. Arabian is strongly 
supported on the dam's and sire's side. 

4. In the case of the most successful stallions with a close inbreeding 
(1 and 2 free generations), a further removed inbreeding of the same is sup- 
ported in nearly every case hv a corresponding inbreeding of the parents, 
for example, with Paulowitz (1 Highflyer and 1 Termagant) the more 
removed inbreeding of the same is most strongly supported, viz., (3 Regulus, 
as well as by the sire Sir Paul (4 Regulus) as by the dam Evelina (4 Regulusj. 
Also in the case of F"lving Fox (1 Galopin), the more removed inbreeding of 
same, i.e., 6 Stockwell and 7 Pocahontas, is strongly supported by the sire 
Orme (5 Pocahontas and 6 Birdcatcher) and a little bv the dam Vampire 
(2 Vedette and C^ Birdcatcher). In the case of Friponnier (1 Orlando, 7 
Orville, 7 Walton) the more removed inbreeding is strongly supported by 
the sire (•'j Orville) and bv the dam (:") Walton). In the case of the Derby 



4. Iiibrccdint;. ^i'l'J 

and -2,000 Guineas winner Cadiand (1 Sorcerer, 1 llighnyer [by Herod], 4 
\\'oodpeei<er [bv Herod]) also, the more removed inbreeding is supported by 
the sire Andrew (5 Herod) and by the dam Sorcery (5 Herod). Among the 
stallions witli -J free generations, in the case of most, and those the very 
best, the support of more removed inbreeding is visible' by a corresponding 
inbreeding of the parents, as, for example, with Partisan the more removed 
inbreeding to Snap and Regulus, with Hanover the more removed inbreed- 
ing to iMiiilius, with Petrarch the more rcnio\i-cl inbreeding to Selim, \\ilh 
Priam to Herod, witii The Saddler to Highflyer, with Wisdmn to Orville, 
with Janissarv to Touchstone, etc. 

."). Inbreedings of the best stallions arc Mipported by the inbreedings of 
sire or dam, or bolli, on the same or related basis. If the inbreeding is a 
close one, i.e., under 4 or '> free generations, it is advantageous not to sup- 
port this close, but more removed inbreedings, if such exist, as is explained 
in No. 1. It is therefore always advantageous to have several inbreedings, 
each on a different basis. Such stallions are also easier to get at for mating. 
One of the best examples of this is Ivclipse himself (see No. TJ, page ■241 ), in 
whose case also the closest inbreeding (3 Sister to Old Country Wench) is 
not directh' su]iported bv the inbreedings of the parents. The following 
more removed inbreedings : 4 Snake, 6 HautboN', and 7 t"one\'skins, are 
supported by the inbreedings of both parents and both grandmothers. This 
support of thi' inbreeding of prominent stallions bv the inbreeding of their 
parents is also often strikingK' visible in the case ot stallions with 7 and 
more free generations, as in the case of Atlantic, etc. The Derby winner 
lroc]uoi'^, himself a prominent racer, but not (|uite as successful at the stud, 
does nol show (he supi^ort of his inbreeding which is re(|uired abo\e, as is 
to be seen (page iOO, Xo. --)), but his best son, 4"ammany, has again (lie 
recpiisite supyDort of his inbreeding bv H dliMiccje, and his dam, 4 (jlencoe. 

In llie following table of the most important male blood lines the above 
rule of inbreeding support is distinctlv recognisable. .Stallions in the cases 
of which these inbreeding supports are especially \isible, outlast in their 
progens' intermediateU- one generation without this support, as in the case ot 
Rclipse himself, whose sons, PotSos, .Mercurv, and ixing i'ergus, have stood 
well one generation without this inbreeding support. 4"heir sons. Waxy, 
Gohanna, iieningbrough, and Hambletonian, siiow already distinctly the 
desired supports, [oe Andrews is the onlv son of I^clipse who answers him- 
self the above demands. In contrast to l-iclipse, the other two foundation 
sires, Herod and Matchem, as well as their sons (with the exception of 
Florizel, sire of the first Derb\- winner, Diomed), show a mu( h smaller, and 
in some ca.ses no inbreeding support at all. This is probablv the cause of 
the l-'clipse progenw in sjiite of the manv good rac(4iorses which Highflver 
has also produced, excelling most others as regartls breeding value. l*!clipse 
left behind him lour impcjrtant male lines, Highllver and Woodpt'cker oii/y 
one ctu'h. Here folKiwed two consecutive generations (llemd aiul his two 



270 Heredity. 

sons, Highflyer and Woodpecker) \vitlK)ut the requisite inbreeding supports. 
Nevertheless, Herod and his son Highflyer have proved themselves to be a 
very good basis of every inbreeding. The Herod blood only commences to 
produce more sires for Thoroughbred breeding with the much better bred 
Sir Peter, born 1784 by Highflyer, and Buzzard, born 1787 by Woodpecker. 
The Matchem blood has undergone a similar experience, as his son. Con- 
ductor, did not possess sufficient inbreeding supports. Trumpator, born 
1782 by Conductor, as well as his two sons, Sorcerer and Paynator, were the 
first to succeed in influencing Thoroughbred breeding to a greater extent, 
as only in their pedigree the requisite inbreeding supports became significant. 

From the following list of male blood lines we can further see that the 
Herod and Matchem lines possess Eclipse, or Eclipse progeny, more rarely 
as the basis of their inbreedings than the Eclipse line itself. In the Herod 
line, for example, the first Eclipse inbreeding, even yet little supported, 
occurs in the American bred Boston. The Sultan-Glencoe line, well sup- 
ported by Eclipse inbreeding, has also had its chief importance in America. 
Europe onlv retained Glencoe's celebrated daughter Pocahontas. In the 
Bay Middleton-Fl. Dutchman line, which remained here, the Highflyer 
inbreeding prevails, and in the Highflyer line, which also remained here, 
there is no Eclipse inbreeding at all (page 282). Only the Pantaloon line 
(page 285) shows some Eclipse inbreedings, but generally inferior to the 
Herod connections. The A\"alton line (page 283) has been more fortimate. 
The latter and the Pantaloon line have also produced the best representatives 
of the Herod blood in Sweetmeat, Chamant, and Thormanby. 

A similar picture is found in the .Matchem line (page 280). The 
Smolensko-Jerrv line, as well as the Paynator and Dr. Syntax line, does not 
show any Eclipse inbreeding at all. The Sorcerer-Comus line, beginning 
modestly with Humphrey Clinker, showed the first somewhat eflectively sup- 
ported Eclipse inbreedings in the case of Melbourne and West Australian. 
This is very probably the reason that Melbourne is the only remaining scion 
of the Matchem line, whose best son. West Australian, was early sold to 
France. F'ortunately, West .Australian left behind him in England a stallion 
well strengthened b\- many Whalebone, Waxy, PotSos (all Eclipse's pro- 
geny) inbreedings, i.e., Solon, sire of Barcaldine. The efficacy of inbreeding 
supports can be most instructively seen in the long male line from Highflyer 
down to Eels (page 282). Only in the case of W^ild Dayrell and Buccaneer 
is this support somewhat deficient, and, in consequence, one had to wait for 
a son of Buccaneer endowed with a more distinct support of inbreedings in 
order to effectively continue this line. Kisber was not such an one, but 
Flibustier (and his own brother Waisenknabe), with his double connection 
over Tramp and Orville. See Saw was perhaps sufficient regarding the 
building of the pedigree, but of too little class. Kisber was the third member 
of a male line built up with insufficiently supported inbreeding. On this 
account his heredit\- did not come up to expectations which were founded on 



4. Inbreedinpf. gy-j 

liis great raci no: form. In lingland, l-libii.stier, and perhaps also VVaisen- 
knabe, with Kisber's cliances, might have been a great success. Buccaneer 
with his inbreeding (8 1-dmund and 5 Pa\-nator) was certainly difficult to 
handle so as to obtain the required inbreeding support. Also Fenek (6 
Tramp, 7 Sultan, dam ', Cervantes), Good Hope (6 Tramp, 6 Sultan, 7 
Orville, dam 7 Orville), and Pirat (5 Cain, 6 Sorcerer, dam 3 Comus, 5 Sir 
Peter), had not suflicient inbreeding supports in the building up of their 
pedigrees. Nil Desperandum was bred a little more favourablv, but not 
sufficiently so: 4 Bay Middleton. f, Orville. 7 Pavnator, dam 2 Touchstone, 
■> W halebone. 



272 



Heredity. 

Eclipse Line. 



1. I'otSos by Eclipse 

1773. 4 Godol. Arabian. 

2. Waxy 5 Godol. .\rabian. 

1790. 6 Partner (by Jigg) 

3. Whalebone 3 Herod. 

1807. 4 Snap. 

I 6 Cade (by God. Arabian). 

4. Camel 4 Highflyer. 5 Eclipse. 

1882. o Herod. 6 Snap. 

.■). Touchstone 4 .Mexander (by Eclipse). 
1831. .J Eclipse. 

•J Buzzard. 
o Sir Peter. 
(j Highflyer, 
li. Newiiiinster 5 Beningbrough (by King Ker- 
1848. 5 Trumpator. [gus-Herod). 

j 
ij. Hermit 4 Camel. 

1864. 6 Paynalor (by Trumpator). 
j 6 Seiim. 

7 Orville (by Beningbrough). 
8. Tristan 6 Sultan (by Selim). 
1878. 7 Whalebone. 



4. Sir Hercules bv Whalebone 



1826. 

Birdcatcher 

1833. 



The Baron 

1842. 



8. Stockwell 
1849. 



4 Eclipse. 5 Highflyer. 

.5 Herod. 7 Snap. 

.5 Woodpecker (by Herod). 

6 Eclipse. 

6 Herod. 

6 Highflyer. 

4 Waxy (by PotSos). 

4 Penelope. 



5 Orville. 

6 Waxy. 

6 Penelope. 



8. Blair Atliol 6 Whalebone (by Waxy and 
1861. Penelope). 

7 Orville. 



Dam 



Dam 



Dam 



4 Fl. Childers. 

4 Fox. 

6 Byerly Turk (Sire of Jigg). 

3 Snap. 

6 Partner (Grand-sire of Herod). 

6 Godol. .Arabian. 

3 Highflyer. 

4 Herod. 



Dam 4 Eclipse. 



Dam 6 Eclipse (Sire of King Fergus). 
6 Herod. 

Dam 3 Sultan (by Selim i. 
.5 Beningbrough. 



Dam 5 Tramp. 

6 Whalebone. 



6 Whisker. 
6 Orville. 



Dam 3 Eclipse. 
5 Herod. 

Dam 2 Bagot (by Herod). 



Dam 6 PotSos. 

6 Phonomenon. 

(1 Highflyer (Grand-sire of 
Penelope). 
Dam 5 Gohanna. 

6 Mercury. 

7 Highflyer (Grand-sire ot 
Orville and Penelope). 

Dam 6 Evelina (Dam of Orville). 

6 Sir Peter. 

7 Trumpator (Grand-sire of 
Whalebone). 

7 Highflyer (Grand-sire of 
Orville). 



4. Inbreeding. 



273 



6. Ithuriel by Touclisionc 

1841. 5 Buzzard. 

5 Mare by Aicxaiukr. 

7. I,oiiah(nv 4 Orxilk' (2 Ilorod). 
1849. 7 UixidiH'clver (by Herod). 



S. Toxo|>liilit(' 7 Sir I\>tt-r (by Highflyer, 
18.55. Graiid-sirc of Orville). 

7 \\'(ioil|>ucker (by Herod). 

9. .>Iusket 4 Touchstuiiu. 
1867. 4 Camel. 



If). Xordeiifeldt 4 Mellxmrne. 
1882. .5 Touchstone. 



Dam 4 Sir Peter. 
5 Highflyer. 



Dam 5 Highflyer. 
6 Herod. 
G Kclipse. 

Dam 2 IVTiiviaii (by Sir I'eter). 
5 VVoodpeclver. 
Grand-dam 2 Sir Peter. 

Dam 2 Camel. 



Dam .3 Touchstone 



111. Trenlitii by Musket 

1881. 6 Touchstone. 
6 Camel. 



W'lialebone. 



Dam .3 Sir Hercules. 
6 Whalebone. 



10. CarbiiU' by Musl^et 

1885. 3 Brown Bess (by Camel). 
o Touchstone. 



Dam 3 Touchstone 
4 Camel. 



11. Spearmint 4 Stockwell. 6 Orlando Dam 3 Stockwell. 5 Orlando. 

6 Melbourne. (by Touch.). 3 V. Melbourne. 



6. Orlillldo by Touchstone 

1841. 3 Selim. G Sir Peter. 

I o Alexander. 



Dam 3 Buzzard ^ Parents of 

3 Mare by . Alexander J Selim. 

4 Sir Peter. 



7. Triiini»fter 4 Selim. 
]a56. 6 Orville. 



8. PIntus 4 Emilius (by Orville). 
1862. 6 Selim. 



9. Flaireolet -5 Partisan (Ijy W'.dton). 
1870. 7 Whalebone. 



10. liP beslrifi- I (iladiator (by Partisan) 
1877. 



Dam 4 Buzzard "| Parents of 

4 Mare by .Me.xanderJ Seliin. 
4 Beningbrough ") Parents of 
4 Evelina J Orville. 

Dam 3 Selim. 



Dam o Whalebone. 

(irand-d.im 3 W;dton. 



Dam J Partisan. 



274 



Heredity. 



6. Newiuiiister by Touchstone 

1848. 5 Beningbrough (by King Fer- 

gus [by Eclipse] and Herod- 
Mare). 
.5 Trumpator. 
". Lord Clifteii 6 Paynator (by Trumpator). 
1860. 7 Orville (by Beningbrough). 



Dam 6 Eclipse. 
6 Herod. 



Dam .5 Golumpus. 



8. Hampton 7 Whalebone. 
1872. 



Dam 3 Liverpool 

7 Whalebone. 



9. Lad.as 5 Touchstone. 
1891.6 The Baron. 
I 6 Pocahontas. 
10. TroHtbeek 6 Stockwell. 
1903. 7 Touchstone. 



Dam 4 Touchstone. 



Dam 3 Thormanby. 
4 Stockwell. 

6 Birdcatcher. 

7 Banter. 



8. Petrarch by Lord Clifden 

1S73. 2 Touchstone. 
j 7 Selim. 

9. The Bard 4 Melbourne. 

1883. 7 Defence (by Whalebone). 



Dam 4 Whalebone (Grand-sire of 
Touchstone). 

5 Selim. 

Dam 6 Conius (Grand-sire of Mel- 
bourne). 

6 Whalebone. 

6 Sultan (by Selim). 



7. Caiiibuscan by Newminster 
1861. 4 Whalebone. 

o Orville (by Beningbrough). 
6 Beningbrough. 



Dam 4 Beningbrough. 



7. Adventurer by Newminster 

18.59. 4 Orville. 

6 Stamford (by Sir Peter). 



Dam 1 Orville. 

4 Sir Peter. 



7. Eclipse by Orlando 

.'\mer. 18o5. 4 Selim (by Buzzard). 



Dam 2 Phantom. 



8. Alarm .5 Sultan (by Selim). 

1869. 6 Bustard (by Buzzard). 

9. Himjar 7 Muley (by Orville) 

187.5. [2 Herod]. 



Dam 5 BlacklocU. 

5 Tramp. 

7 Buzzard. 
Dam 3 Emilius (by Orville). ^ 

5 Sir Archy (3 Herod). 



10. Uomino 3 Lexington. 
1S91. 



Dam 2 Lexington. 



11. Commando o Lexington. 
1898. 



4. Inbreeding'. 



275 



6. Oxford by Birdcatclier 

1857. " Waxy. 

7 Penelope. 

7. Sterliiiir J W'lialtbone (by Waxy and 
]S68. Penelope). 



Uam 3 Orville. 
4 Sclim. 



Dam .3 Whalebone. 
6 Waxv. 



8. Isonoiiiy ,3 Birdcatclier (by Sir Hercules and Dam 1 Sir Hercules. 
1875. Guiccioli). 4 Guiccioli. 



9. Isillirlass 5 Rirdcatcher. 5 Pocaliontas. 
1890. o The Baron. G Touchstone. 



Dam 4 Touclistone. 



9. Galliiiule by Isonomy 

1884. 3 StocUwell. 6 Birdcatcher. 

I 5 Touchstone (by Camel). 

10. SlifTi' (■ullioii 6 Stockwell. 7 Touchstone. 
1904. 7 Pocahontas. 7 Voltigeur. 



Dam 7 Selim (Grand-sire of Camel). 
Grand-sire 4 Camel. 

Dam 2 Galopin (Grand-son of Volt.). 
7 Pocahontas. 7 Touchstone. 



9. Janissary by Isonomy 
1887. 2 StocUwell. 

I 3 Touchstone. 

•J Melbourne. 
10. Jethiuli (J Touchstone. 
1895. 



Dam 3 Touchstone. 



Dam .J Banter (Dam of Touchstone). 



8. Energy by Sterling 

1880. 4 Sir Hercules. 

4 Birdcatcher. 

5 Touchstone. 

9. GouVenieur 4 Touchstone. 
1888. 7 Whalebone (by Waxy and 

Penelope). 



Dam 4 Sir Hercules, 
o Touchstone. 



Dam 5 Smolensko. 
6 Waxy. 
6 Penelope. 



5. Faugli-a-Ballagh by Sir Hercules 

1841. 5 Woodpecker (by Herod). 

I 6 Eclipse. 

6. Leamington (3 Woodpecker. 

1853. 6 .\Iexander (by Kclipse). 

7. Onon<1a!;a 7 Buzzard (by Woodpecker). 

1870. 7 Mare by .•\lexander. 

8. Lofoliatclie 3 Lexington. 

1889. 6 Glencoe. 



Dam 2 Bagot (by Herod). 



Dam 4 Buzzard (by Woodpecker) 
4 Mare by .Mexander. 

Dam 7 Dick .\ndre\vs. 

Grand-dam 2 Tramp. 
4 Buzzard. 
Dam 4 Pocahontas (by Glencoe). 



9. Caiman 5 Stockwell. 
1896. 



Dam 2 Stockwell. 



276 



Heredity. 



8. Doncaster by Stuckwell 

1870. Blacklock. 

7 Whnlebune. 
7 .Sflini. 

9. Bend Or Touchstone. 
1877. 6 Muley. 

7 Selim (by Buzzard). 

10. Ornionde 5 Birdcatcher. 

1883. .5 Pantaloon (by Castrel). 

I 7 Banter (D.-un of Touchstone). 



Dam 4 Humphrey Clinker. 
6 Selim. 



Dam 6 Orville. 
6 Buzzard. 



Dam 6 Blacklock. 
( Selim. 
1 Castrel. 



11. Orme 5 Pocahontas (by Glencoe). 

1889. 6 Birdcatcher. 

12. Flying: Ft'X 1 Galopin (by Vedette). 

1896. 6 Stockwell. 

7 Pocahontas. 

13. Ajax 6 Flyintj Dutchman. 
1901. 



Dam 6 Sultan (Sire of Glencoe). 

6 Velocipede's dam. 

Dam 2 Vedette. 

6 Birdcatcher. 



Dam 5 Flying Dutchman. 
6 Pocahontas. 



8. St. Albans by Stockwell 

1857. 6 \\"halebone. 

9. Sprinsfl»ld fi Sultan (by Selim). 

1873. 6 Camel (by Whalebone). 

I 6 Banter. 

10. Sainfuiu 2 Stockwell. 
1SS7. 6 Touchstone. 



Dam 6 Sir Peter. 

6 Stamford. 

6 Woodpecker. 
Dam 4 Camel. 

4 Langar (by Selim). 

5 Selim. 

Dam 3 The Baron "i Parents of 
3 Pocahontas j .Stockwell. 



8. Lord Lyon by Stockwell Dam 5 Selim. 

1863. 6 Selim. 5 Wa.xy. 

6 Whalebone (by Waxy). 6 Orville. 

7 Orville. 

9. Minting' .5 Birdcatcher. ^ ('Selim. Dam 7 Castrel. 
1883. .5 Touchstone. '^(Castrel. 

.5 Glencoe. 



8. Lord Ronald by Stockwell 

1862. 6 \\'halebone. 

7 Selim. 
7 Orville. 

9. Master Kildare 4 Birdcatcher. 
1875. 



Dam 5 Whalebone. 
6 Selim. 



Dam 6 Blacklock. 



10. Melton 3 Stockwell. 

1882. 5 Touchstone. 



Dam 3 Touchstone 
4 Pantaloon. 



4. Inbreedinsr. 



277 



10. Kl'inlal by Bend Or 

1883. 4 Birdcatcher. 
I 5 Pantaloon. 

11. Galtee More 3 Thormanbv . 

1894. 4 Stockwell. 



Dam 7 Buzzard 

(Grand-sire of Pantaloon). 

Dam -3 Pant.-iloon 

(Grand-sire cif 'I'hnrm.-inlty). 



10. Bonarista by Bend Or Dam 4 Banter. 

1889. 4 Pocahontas, o -Alice Hawthorn. 4 Pant.iloon. 

5 Windhound. 7 Touchstone, 
(by Pantaloon). 

11. Cyllt'lll' 4 Stockwell. Dam 6 Touchstone. 

1895. 5 NewminstLM- (bv Touchstone). 



3. Whisker by Waxy 

1812. 3 Herod. 
I 4 Snap. 

6 Cade (by Godol. .\rabian) 

4. The Colonel 3 Highflyer. 

1825. 4 Herod (by Tartar). 

4 Eclipse. 

7 Blank. 

5. Cap-a-1'le 2 Waxy. 
1837. 



Dam 3 Snap. 

6 Partner (Grand-sire of llerod). 
6 Godol. Ar;ibian. 

Dam 5 Tartar. 

5 Bl.mk. 

6 Rei;ulus (( ir.ind-sire of 
Eclipse). 

Dam 5 Eclipse (tir,-unl-sire of Wa.xy). 



6. Sir Hercules 4 Waxy (by Pot8os). 

1843. 4 Penelope. 

I 
18(jl. Waxy. 

7. Yatteildoii 4 P.irtisan. 



Dam 4 Pot8os. 



Dam 4 \\'hisk 



8. (jlraiid Flaneur G Sir Hercules 

1877. (by Whalebone). 

9. Patron 4 Stockwell. 

1890. 6 Melbourne. 



Dam 4 Pantaloon. 

5 Camel (by Whalebone). 

Dam 2 Fisherman. 
4 Melbourne. 

4 Bay .Middleton. 

5 Marpess.-i ((jrand-daui of 
Stockwell). 



9. Merman by Grand Flaneur 
1892. 5 Pocahontas. 
5 Sir Hercules. 



Dam 5 Bay Middleton (by Sultan, 

Gr.Mnd-sirc of Poc.ihontas). 



8. Chester by Yattendon Dam 3 Economist (by Whisker). 

1874. 5 Sir Hercules. G Sultan. 5 Orville. 

I 5 Emilius (by Orville). 6 Whisker. 

9. Abercorn 4 Parajxuay (by Sir Hercules). Dam 4 .Sir Hercules. 

1884. 



278 



Heredity. 



3. Whisker by Waxy 

1812. 3 Herod. 
4 Snap. 
6 Cade (by Godol. Arabian). 

4. Economist 4 Herod. 
1825. 4 Eclipse. 

5 Highflyer. 

5 Harlianay 5 PotSos (by Eclipse). 
1834. 6 Highflyer. 
7 Herod. 

6. King- Tom 5 \\'axy (by PotSos). 
1851. 5 Penelope. 



7. Phaeton 6 Orville. 
1865. 7 Waxy. 

7 Penelope. 



rCastrel. 

(^.Selini. 



8. King Alfonso 3 fUencoe. 

1872. 5 Muley (by Orville). 



9. Fox 

1878, 



xiiall 3 \'an 



dal (by Glencoe). 



Dam 3 Snap. 

6 Partner (Grand-sire of Herod). 
6 Godol. .Arabian. 



Dam 3 Herod. 
4 Eclipse. 

Dam 4 Highflyer (by Herod). 



Dam 5 Gohanna (by Mercury). 
6 Mercury (by Eclipse). 



Dam 1 Touchstone. 
5 Orville. 
5 Castrel. 



Dam 5 Orville. 



Dam 7 Orville. 



1. Mercury by Eclipse 

1778. 4 Godol. Arabian. 



2. Gohanna 2 Tartar (by Partner). 

1790. 4 Squirt. 

I 5 Mogul (by Godol. Arabian). 

C Godol. Arabian. 
rBartl. Childers. 
1^ Flying didders. 

3. Goliinipus 2 Herod (by Tartar). 

1802. 5 Cade (by Godol. Arabian). 

4. Catton 4 Herod. 

1809. 4 Eclipse. 

I 5 Matchem (by Cade). 



6 



o. Mulatto 5 b'lorizel (by Herod). 
1823. 5 Highflyer. 
6 Herod. 
6 Eclipse. 



Dam 3 Partner. 



fBartl. Childers. 
4- . 
(Flying Childers. 



Dam 4 Godol. Arabian. 

5 Partner. 
Dam 3 Herod. 

6 Godol. Arabian. 
6 Blank. 

6 Regulus. 
Dam 2 Highflyer. 
5 Marske. 



Inbreeding. 



279 



1. King Fergus l)y F.clipst' 

1775. ^fBai-tl. Childers. 

^\l-'lying- Childers. 
6 Bay Bolton. 

2. Benin a:l)r(Hi!>li 'A Tariar (by Partner). 
1791. 4 Miss .Slainerliin. 

( liartl. Cliilders. 
1^ !''lviii!^- Childers. 
(j (iculol. Arabian. 



3. On 



6 



lie 2 Herod (by Tartar). 



1799. 6 Reyukis (by Godol. .Arabian). 



4. Eniilius 3 Mii;hnM-r (by Herod). 
1820. 4 Eclipse. 

I n Bhutk (by Godol. .\rabian). 



Dam 3 Partner. 

5 Fl. Childers. 

5 Confederate Filly. 



Dam 4 Regulus. 

4 Blaze (by Childers). 
4 Godol. .\rabian. 



Dam 3 Eclipse. 
4 Herod. 
4 BlanU. 



5. Pritini .5 Whiskey. 
1827. .3 Herod. 
5 Eclipse. 



Dam 3 Herod. 

4 Matchem. 



2. Hambletonian by Kin:; l\rt;us 

1792. 4 Tartar. 5 Regulus. 

I 6 God. .\rabian. .5 Crab. 

3. Wliitelofk 3 HiTod (by •j'anar). 

1803. 3 Eelip.si-. 

! 3 -Matchc-in. 

4. Blaeklofk 3 Ili-hllyir. 

1SI4. 4 ML-rod. 

4 Eclipse. 

5. Vollaire 4 Kint; l'"iri.;ii> (by Eclipse). 

1820. o Hii,dillyer. 

6. Velocipede -j Mi-hilytr. 

182.3. o P0I80S. 

7 Matchem. 



Dam 4 Godol. .\rabian. 



Dam 4 Partner (Sire of Tart.-ir). 



Dam 1 PotSos (by Eclipse). 

2 Herod. 

Dam 4 Highllyer. 

.3 Eclipse. 

Dam 5 Eclipse. 

6 Herod. 

6 Matchem. 



.5. Briilandorf by HIacUlock 
IS2I. 2 PotSos. 

j 5 Herod. 

6. Hetnian IMatdtt' I P.it.Sos (by Eclipse). 

1837. I Coriander (by PotSos). 

j .3 Eclipse. 

7. The Cossark 3 Y. Gi.-intess. 

1844. o Sorcerer. 

;3 Stamford (by Sir Peter). 
7 Eclipse. 



Dam 4 Cade. 



Dam 2 Sir Peter. 

5 Eclipse. 

Dam 4 Y. Giantess. 

6 Sir Peter. 

7 Eclipse. 



280 



Heredity. 



6. Voltigmr by Voltaire Dam 4 Sir Peter. 

1847. 5 Hambletonian (by King Fergus). 6 King Fergus. 

6 Sir Peter (by Highflyer). 

7 Highflyer. 
6 Coriander. 



Vedette 3 Blackloclv. 
1854. 6 Walton (by Sir Peter). 



Dam G PotSos. 



Gcalopiii 2 Voltaire (by Blacklock). 
1872. 



9. St. Simon 6 Sultan (by Selim). 
1881. 6 Velocipede's dam. 

7 Blacklock. 

10. St. t'loriail 5 Ion. 

1891. 6 Bay Middleton (by Sultan). 



Dam 4 Phantom (by Walton). 
6 PotSos. 



Dam 6 Selim. 



Dam 5 Bay Middleton. 
o Touchstone. 



11. Ard Patrick .5 Cowl (by Bay Middleton). 
1899. 6 Pocahontas. 



Dam 5 Pantaloon. 

6 Sultan (Grand-sire of 
Pocahontas). 



10. Matchbox by St. Simon 

1891. 6 Bay Middleton (by Sultan). 



Dam 3 Orlando 
(3 Selim). 



10. Persimmon by St. Simon 

1893. o \'oltigeur (by Voltaire and 

Martha Lynn). 
6 Pocahontas. 



Dam 3 Melbourne. 
6 Voltaire. 
6 Martha Lvnn. 



10. St. Frusquin by St. Simon 

1893. 6 Bay Middleton (by Sultan). 



Dam 6 Touchstone. 
6 Emma. 



9. Donovan by Galopin 

1886. 5 Bay Middleton (by Sultan). 
.5 Birdcatcher. 

10. Teliisquez 5 Pocahontas. 
1894. 5 Touchstone. 



Dam 3 Touchstone. 
5 Muley. 
(3 Sultan. 

Dam 4 Banter (Dam of Touchstone). 



8. Speculum by Vedette 
186S. 6 Orville. 



Dam 4 Orville. 



9. Ko.sebery 3 Touchstone. 

1872. 6 Orville (by Beningbrough). 



Dam o Orville. 

6 Beningbrough. 



4. Inbreeding. 



281 



1. Joe Aiidrt'us by Eclipse 

1778. 4 Godol. Arabian, 

o Bartl. Cliiklers. 



2. Dick .Viulrens 4 Blanlv (by Godol. .\rabian). Darn 3 Blanlv. 

1797. o Rcf^ulus. 6 Flyiny Childers. 

I () .Snip (by FI\inj^' Childers). 



3. 'J'ramit 3 Eclipse. 

1810. 4 Herud. 



Dam 3 Eclipse. 
3 Herod. 



4. LiverjKM)! 4 Eclipse. 

1828. .5 Iliijhnyer (by Herod). 

5 Woodpecker, 
o Trenthani. 
G Herod. 

Laiiercost 4 Gohanna. 
1835. 5 Woodpecker. 

•5 Highflyer (by Herod). 
.5 Trumpator. 

6 Eclipse. 
V€in Troinj) .5 Bu/zard (by Woodpecker). 

1844. 5 PotSos (by Eclipse). 



Dam 1 I'ot8os (by Eclipse). 
4 Herod. 



Dam 3 Woodpecker. 
4 Herod. 



Dam 6 Woodpecker. 
6 Eclipse. 
6 Herod. 



4. Lottery by Tramp 
1820. 3 Eclipse. 
I 4 Trenthani. 

4 Woodpecker. 

5 Herod. 

.3. Sheet .liiclior .5 Woodpecker (by Herod). 
1832. G Eclipse. 

6 Mercury. 
6 Mare by Herod. 

6. Weiitherbit .j Orville. 

1842. 5 Y. Giantess. 

I G Woodpecker (by Herod). 

7. Beadsninil 3 Tramp. 

1855. 5 Orville. 

' 7 Hu//;ird (by Woodpecker). 

8. Rosicruciaii 

1865. 4 Priam (Grand-son ot Orville). 

j 5 Whalebone. 

7 Selim. 

9. BeailfleiT <; Whalebone. 

1875. 
10. Cliisleslmrsl G Partisan (by Walton). 
1880. 7 Whalebone. 

8 Orville. 



Dam 4 Cade. 



("Sister to Regulus. 
\Regulus. 



Dam 6 Herod. 
6 Eclipse. 



D.im 1 Orville. 
6 Herod. 

Dam 6 Bu/zard. 



Dam 4 Phantom. 
6 Buzzard. 



Dam 5 W'.illon. 

Dam 5 Orville. 

6 Waxy | Parents of 
6 Penelope j Whalebone. 



282 



Heredity. 



Herod Line. 



1. Higliflyei- by Herod 

1774. 5 Sister to Mi.xbury. 

fBartl. Childers." 
4- 
[ Flying- Childers. 

2. Sir 'Peter 3 Regulus. 

1784. 4 Godol. Arabian. 
5 Flyini'- Childers. 



3. Sir Paul 4 Regukis (by Godol. .Arabian) 
1802. .5 Snip (by F'lying Childers). 



4. Paiilowitz 1 Highflyer. 

1813. 1 Termagant (by God. Arabian). 

6 liegulus. 

•5. Cilil'l 3 Highflyer. 

1822. 6 Godol. .\rabian. 

6. Ion 3 Evelina (by Highflyer). 

183.5. 5 Sir Peter (by Highflyer). 

7. Wild Dayrell 4 Selim. 

1852. 7 Sir Peter. 



Dam 1 Godol. Arabian. 



Dam j-Bartl. Childers. 
\ Flying Childers. 



Dam 3 Regulus. 

4 Godol. .\rabian. 

5 Flying Childers. 



Dam 4 Regulus. 

4 Godol. .Arabian. 



Dam 5 Highflyer. 
Dam .5 Highflyer. 
Dam 6 Sir Peter. 



8. Buccaneer 3 Fdnuind (by Orville). 

1857. 5 Paynator. 

9. Flibustier 5 Tramp. 

1867. 6 Sultan. 

7 Orville. 

10. Traclieiiberi; 7 Bustard. 

1879. 8 Orville. 

8 Whalebone. 

8 .Selim (by Buzzard). 

11. Hannibal 4 Touchstone. 
1891. 4 Stockwell. 

6 Ion. 



12. Fels 3 Hermit. 
1903. 7 Ion. 

7 Pocahontas. 



Dam 4 Beningbrough (Sire of 
Orville). 

Dam 5 Tramp. 
6 Orville. 



Dam 3 Camel (by Whaieb.). 

6 Buzzard (Grand-sire of Bustard 
and Sultan). 

6 Selim. 

Dam 3 Touchstone ^ 

5 Camel. 

7 Sultan. 
Grand-dam 4 Camel. 

4 Touchstone. 
Dam 5 Voltigeur. 

6 Ion. 

Grand-dam 4 Touchstone. 



Inbreeding'. 



283 



Walton by Sir Peitr 
1799. 3 Snap. 4 Rc,i;ulus. 
I 3 llerod. G Tartner. 

I'arti.^ilii 2 lliy^iiflyer (by Herod). 
1811. 3 Eclipse. 
4 Snap. 
6 Kei^ukis. 
(iliKlialoc 4 Prunella (by Hit;hflyer). 
1833. 4 I'otSos (by Rclipse). 



Sweetmeat 4 Wallcm (b\- Sir Feler). 

1842. G PolSos. 

I 7 Hiijh flyer. 

Parinesnii (1 W.ixy (by PotSos). 

18.37. G Penelope. 



Dam 3 Kegulus. 

5 Partner. 

Dam .3 KeL;ulus. 

6 Godnl. Ar.ibian. 



Dam 4 Trumpator. 

.3 PotSos. 

6 Eclipse. 

G Hit;h flyer. 

Dam BlaclilocU. 

6 Sir Peler (by Hiirhflyer) 

Dam 3 Waxy. 

3 Penelope. 



FaTonills G \\bi>l<er (by Waxy and 
1868. iVnelope). 



Dam 5 Wliisker. 



Jlacaroni by Sweetmeat 

18G0. G Sir Peter. 

() Orville ((irand-scjn of High- 
flyer). 
6 Buzzard. 
G Mare b\ Alexander. 



Dam 3 Alexander. 
4 Buzzard. 
4 Hii^hflyer. 
.3 Sir Peter (l)y Ilii^hflyer). 



Fitz Uladiator by Gladiator 

18.50. 5 Buzz.-u-d. 

y Mare by Alexander (by Eclipse). 
.3 Sir Peter (by Hi^bflyer). 
o Gob.anna. 
('oiiipieyiie (I Whalebone. 
18.58. 7 Buzzard. 

7 .Mare by Alcx.nider. 
7 Sir Peter. 
7 Bening'bruin^h. 
7 Gohanna. 
7 PotSos. 
Jlorteiiier 4 Partisan (by W.dton). 
186.5. G Orville. 



Dam 4 Sir Peter. 

6 Eclipse. 
G Herod. 



Dam G Sir Peter. 

G Benint^brouijh. 

G Waxy (by PotSos). 



D.am 1 I'Imilius (Ijy Orville). 

G Sir IVler (Sire ol W.illc.n). 



Clianuilit .3 I'jiiilius (l)\ Orville). 
1874. G Orville. 



10. Sapliir 4 Pocahontas. 

1888. 6 Touchstone. 

6 Gladiator. 

7 Emilius. 

11. Desir !} Pocahontas. 
1904. .3 Stockwell. 



Dam 3 Orville. 
•3 Selim. 

Grand-sire 4 Orville. 
Dam G Touchstone. 

Gr.-md-sire 'J Poe.ihontas. 

Grand-d.am 4 Touchstone. 

Dam 3 Slockwell. 



284 



Heredity. 



1. Florizel by Ileiod 

1768. 4 Flyiiit;- Childers. 
I 7 Byerly Turk. 

2. Dioiiied 4 Partner. 

1777. 4 Godol. Arabian. 

4 Crab. 

5 Flyiny Childers (by Darley 
.Arabian). 

3. Sir Arch) 3 Herod. 

1805. 5 Blank (bv Godol. .Arabian). 

I 7 Childers. 

4. Timoleon 5 Trenthani. 

1814. 7 Blank (by Godol. .Arabian). 

I 7 Squirt. 

5. Bo.ston 2 Diomed. 

1833. 5 Eclipse. 

I 6 Marske (by Squirt). 

6. Lexington 3 Sir .Archy (by Diomed). 

1850. 6 Saltram (by Eclipse). 



Dam 3 Flying Childers. 

5 Basto (by Bj'erly Turk). 

Dam 5 Darlev .Arabian. 



Dam 6 Godol. .Arabian. 
6 Regulus. 

Dam 4 Regulus (by Godol. .Arabian). 



Dam 5 Marske. 



Dam 6 Highflyer (by Herod). 
Grand-sire of Diomed). 



7. Norfolk 5 Sir Archy. 
1861. 5 Sumptcr. 



Dam 5 Buzzard. 
6 Waxy. 

Grand-dam 2 Sir Archy. 



2. Bnzzjird by Woodpecker 

1787. 3 Cade (by Godol. Arabian). 
1 5 Partner. 

6 Flying Childers. 

7 Bald (jnlloway. 

3. Selini 3 Herod. 

1802. 5 Matchem (by Cade). 

[ 6 Regulus (by Godol. .Arabian). 

4. Sultan 4 Herod. 

1816. 4 Highfiyer 
I 4 Eclipse. 

5. Glencoe 5 Mercury (by Eclipse). 

1831. 6 Eclipse. 
6 Herod. 
6 Highflyer. 

6. Tandal 7 PotSos (by Eclipse). 

1850. 8 Highflyer. 
I 8 Herod. 

7. Tirgil 4 Tramp. 

1864. 6 Orville. 



Dam 4 Godol. -Arabian. 
6 Bald Galloway. 



Dam 5 Regulus. 

6 Godol. .Arabian. 

Dam 3 Herod. 

3 Eclipse. 

Dam 4 Eclipse. 

4 Highflyer. 

5 Herod. 

Dam 7 Highllver. 



Dam ?. 



8. Hindoo 6 Emilius (by Orville). 

1878. 7 Tramp. 

9. Hannover 2 Vandal (by Glencoe). 

1884. 7 Emilius (.5. Orville). 

10. Hamburg 4 Lexington. 
1895. 6 Glencoe. 



Dam 5 Emilius. 
6 Orville. 

Dam 7 Orville. 



Dam 3 Lexington. 
5 Glencoe. 



4. Inbreeding. 



285 



3. Castrel by Buzzard 

1801. 3 Herod. 

5 iMatchem. 

6 Regulus (by Godol. Ai-.-ibian). 

4. Pantaloon 4 Hij^htlver. 
1824. 4 Eclipse. 

5 Herod. 

.5. Wiiidlioiiiid ^^ Peruvian (by Sir Peter). 
1847. ') Mare by .Alexander (by 

Eclipse). 
5 Buzzard. 

6. Tliornianby Orville (by Beningbrough). 
185". 7 Woodpecker (by Herod). 



7. Atlanlic 7 Orville. 

1871. 7 Buzzard (by \\'oodp.)1 Parents of 
7 Mare by Alexander J Selim. 

8. Le Sancy 3 W'indhound. 
1884. 3 .Mice Hawthorn. 

5 Touchstone. 



9. Le Sajrittairi' 2 Strathconan. 
1892. 6 Melbourne. 



Dani 5 Regulus. 

f) Godol. .\rabian. 



Dam 2 Highllyer. 
3 Eclipse. 



Dam 4 Wax v. 



Dam 3 Dick Andrews. 

4 Beningbrough. 

4 Evelina 

(in- Highllyer). 
Dam 3 Sultan (by Selim). 



I Parents of 
Orville. 



Dam 4 Touchstone (Grand-sire of 

^^'indhound). 
Grand-sire 2 Touchstone. 
Grand-dam 2 Pantaloon (Sire of 

W'indhound). 
Dam .J Touclistone. 
o Melbourne. 



10. Maiutenon 5 Newminster. 
1903. 5 Stockwell. 

7 Melbourne. 



Dam a Touchstone. 



9. Le Justlcier by Le Sancy 
1892. f> Touchstone. 



Dam 3 Gladiator. 
o Touchstone. 



o. Bay Middleton by Sultan 

1833. 4 Sir Peter (by Highflyer). 

I 4 .^ethusa. 

I 7 l-)clipse. 

6. The Flylntr Dntrhnian 3 Selirn. 

1846. 6 Sir Peter 

I (by Highflyer). 

7. Dollar 4 Catton. 

I SCO. 6 Beningbrough. 

6 Evelina. 

7 Sir Peter. 
7 Sorcerer. 



Dam 3 V. Giantess. 

•J Highflyer. 

6 Eclipse. 

D.im .3 Highflyer. 

•J Eclipse. 

i )am o Sorcerer. 

G Beningbrough. 



286 



Heredity. 



1. Triiiiipator by Conductor (by Matchem) 

17S2. 4 Partner. 

I 4 Godol. Arabian. 

2. Sorcerer 2 Matchem. 

1796. re Partner. T 

I Le Godol. Arabian. J 

3. Comus 5 Herod (by Tartar). 

1809. .3 Snap. 

I 6 Cade (by Ciodul. Arabian). 
6 Eclipse. 

4. HumplnTy I'liiikcr 2 Sir Peter (by Highf.) 

1822. 4 Trunipator. 

I 7 Eclipse. 

5. MelDoiiriie 4 Termagant. 

1834. o Highflyer (by Herod). 

3 Trunipator. 
6 Eclipse. 

6. AVest .4\istriiliiiii 6 Trunipator. 
1830. 6 Evelina (by Highflyer). 

7 Eclipse. 

7 Sir Peter (by Highflyer) 

7. Solon 5 Whalebone (by Waxy). 
1861. 5 Comus (Grand-son of Trunipator) 

6 Waxy. 

6 Penelope (by Trunipator). 

8. Barcaldiiie 1 Darling's dam (by Bird- 

1878. o Touchstone. [catcher). 

9. Morion 5 Touchstone. 

1887. 7 Whalebone. 



Matchem Line. 

Dam 4 Partner. 



Dam 5 Godol. .\rabian") Grand-sire of 
5 Partner J Matchem. 

Dam 5 Blank (by Godol. Arabian). 
5 Tartar (by Partner). 

5 Regulus (by Godol. Arabian). 

Dam 3 Regulus. 

6 Snip. 

Dam 4 Eclipse. 
3 Herod. 



Dam 3 Waxy. 

3 Penelope (by Trumpator). 

6 Sir Peter. 

6 Eclipse. 
Dam 5 Waxy. 

6 PotSos. 

7 Trumpator. 

Dam 3 Birdcatcher. 



Dam 



4 Priam. 

5 Whalebone. 



9. Sir Tisto by Barcaldine 
1892. 3 Newminster. 

3 Pocahontas. 
6 Banter. 



Dam 



4 Banter. 
4 Pantaloon. 



3. Smolensko by Sorcerer 

1810. 4 Herod. 

3 Snap. 
6 Cade. 

4. Jerry 3 Herod. 

1821. 6 Matchem (by Cade). 



Dam 



Dam 



1 Herod. 
3 Snap. 



3 Herod. 
5 Matchem. 



2. Paynator by Trumpator 3 Snap (by Snip). Dam 

1791. 5 Godol. ."Xrabian. 

3. Dr. Syntax 3 Matchem (by Cade). Dam 

1811. 6 Snip. 

6 Cade (by Godol. .\rabian). 

7 Crab. 



3 Godol. .\rabian. 

4 Mare by Basto (Dam of Snip). 

3 Cade. 

5 Regulus (by Godol. Arabian). 
7 Mare by Basto (Dam of Snip 

and Crab). 



4. Inbreeding. 287 

A few of the chief lines in American Trotters. 

1. Mcsscnoer xx born Hngl. 1780 by .Mambrino xx — 'I'lirf xx. 
3 Cade (by Godol. Arabian), Dam: 3 Godol. Arabian, 5 Bay Uollon. 

•J. Mambrino xx ? born Amer. ISOfi by .Messenger xx — Soucrout xx. 

5 Cade (by Godnl. Arabian), Dam : 3 Godol. Arabian, Grand-dam : 3 Godol. .Arabian. 

3. Abdallah I. born .\mer. 18-23 by Mambrino xx ? and \mazr)nia. 

1 Messenger xx, Dam ; ?. 

4. Hambletonian (10) 1849 by .Abdallah I. and Charles Kent .Mare. 

3 .Messenger xx. Dam : ?, Grand-dam : Messenger xx. 

•5. George WilUes (519) 1856 by Hambletonian (10) and Dolly Spanker. 
Rek. 2,22 (insufficient pedigree of the Dam). 

6. Patchen WilUes (3550) 188-2 by George Wilkes and l\itty Patchcn. 

Rek. 2,294. 5 Mambrino xx ? Dam: — 1 Mambrino Patehcn (Great Grand-son of 
.Mambrino. Grand-dam: Mambrino Chief (Sire of Mambrino Patchen). 

7. Joe Patchen (30-239) 1889 by Patchen WilUes and Josephine. 

Relv. 2, 01 J p. (insutTicient pedigree of tlie Dam). 

8. Dan Patch (373-23) 1896 by Joe Patchen and Zelica. 

Reli. l,56i p. 3 George Wilkes (by Hambletonian [10]). Dam : 4 Hambletonian (10). 

1. Hambletonian (10) 1849 by .Abdallah I. and Charles Kent .Mare. 

3 .Messenger XX, Dam: ?, Grand-dam: .Messenger xx. 

2. Electioneer (125) 1868 by Hambletonian (10) and Green Mountain Maid. 

3 Abdallah I, Dam: ?. 

3. Mendocino (22607) 1889 by Electioneer and Mano. 

3 H.'imbletonian (10). Dam: 4 Hambletonian (10). 

4. Idolita 1896 by Mendocino and Edith. 

Rek. 2,09J. 2 Hambletonian (10), Dam : 5 Mambrino (Grand-sire by Hambletonian). 

1. Hambletonian (10) 1849 by .Vbdallah I. and Charles Kent Mare. 

3 Messenger XX, Dam: ?, Grand-dam: Messenger xx. 

2. Hanjld (413) 1864 by Hambletonian (10) and Enchantress. 

(.Sire of Maud S. born 1874. Rek. 2,08J) Abdallah I, 2 Bellfoundez xx? Dam : ?. 

3. Vasco (10996) 1882 by Harold and Vassar. 

2 H.imbletonian (10) (by Abd.illah I). Dam: ?. 

1. Baron Wilkes (4758) 1882 by George Wilkes and lielle Patchen. 

Rek. 2,18. 5 Mambrino xx? (Grand-sire by Mambr. Chief), Dam : 1 Mambr. Chief. 

2. Moko (24457) 1893 by i^aron Wilkes and Oiiecn luhel. 

2 llambleloni.ni (10), Dam: 1 Hambletonian ( 10). 

3. Franko (33991) 1899 by Moko and Fraulet. 

4 Hambktoni.in (10), G M.imbrino Chief, Dam : -J llambletoni.in (10), 5 M:imbrin(' 
Chief. 



288 Heredity. 

1. Hambletonian (10) 1849 by Abdallah I. and Charles Kent Mare. 

3 Messenger xx, Dam: ?, Grand-dam: Messenger xx. 

2. Abdallah (15) 1852 by Hambletonian (10) and Katy Darling. 

5 Mambrino xx?, Dam: ?. 

3. Major-Edsall (211) 1859 by Abdallah (15) — Hambletonian (2). 

Rek. 2,29. 5 Messenger xx. Dam: ? (0 Messenger xx). 

4. Robert McGregor (647) 1871 by Major-Edsall (211) and Nancy Whit- 

man n. 
ReU. 2,18. 6 Messenger xx. Dam: 6 Messenger xx. 

5. Crescens (26217) 1894 by Robert McGregor (647) and Mabel. 

Rek. 2,02i. 4 Abdallah (15), Dam : 2 Mambrino Chief (11), Grand-sire : (.-Mlie West). 
1 Mambrino Chief (11), 

A few examples of Russian Trotters. 

Polkan III. 1817 by Lofki I., his best son Duschak 1825. 
2 Bars I (born 1784), 3 Bars I. 

Suriosni I. 1806 by f.ubesni I., his best son Ladin 1821. 
Bars I. 2 Bars I- 

Scharodei Hi. 1862 by Polkan, his best son Lofki 1874. 
4 Bars (born 1835). 3 Barsik (by Bars), Dam: 3 Bars. 



The question of inbreeding in the case of mares is less easy to handk- 
than in the case of stallions, because there are so man)- of them, and 
secondl}', because a dam can only produce a limited number of foals. 

I have only found the four following examples for a coarse inbreeding, 
i.e., incest breeding, with — 1 free generation : — 

1. Bay Peg born about 1690 by Leedes .\rabian and V. Bald Peg by 
Leedes Arabian, was the dam of the two celebrated sires, Basto 1702 by 
Byerly Turk, and Fox 1714 by Clumsey. 

2. A mare born about 1690 by Spanker and Old Peg (Spanker's dam), 
produced five celebrated foals, amongst them Jigg by Byerlv Turk, and 
Cream Cheeks, grandmother of the two Childers (see Family 6). 

3. Old Lady born about 1702 by Pulleine's Chesnut Arabian — 
Pulleine's Chesnut Arabian, foundation mare of the Fam. 24 (Gohanna, 
Camel, The Baron). 

4. A mare born about 1730 by Heneage's Jigg and the dam of Heneage's 
J'gg by Jigg, produced one filly of which there are no further reports, and 
six colts which became good racehorses, amongst them Hunt's Jigg (page 
234), who also was bred with — 1 free generation. 

Of the many mares with and 1 free generation which have been suc- 
cessful at the stud or have been prominent performers on the racecourse, tlic 
following may be mentioned : — 



4. liibi'iM'din}^. 

Mares with Free Generation. 



289 



\ allies of Mares and 
llieir Families 



Born 



Sire 



Dam 



1 BeS3 Kam.3a 

TotSos 
6 Godol. Aialiian 
I (5 Partnei- 



2 Brown Russet l''-i'"- 3 
Hii,'litlyer 
raijilloii 



Biitlerflv Fam.4 

Hairot 

.) Cade (by Gudul. Arabian 
6 (jntlul. Arabian 

Chesnut Skini Fam.Sb 
Herod 
() Bay Bollon 

Goldenlocks I'am- 38 

Crab 

Grev Sliim l"ani.5b 

Herod 

Harlot Fam- 45 

Herod 
5 Ciodol. Arabian 



180(i 
1802 

1804 

1794 

1758 
1793 
1783 



Waxy 

•3 Godol. Ar: 
6 Partner 



ibian 



Juliana Fam. ob 1810 

Mercury 
■J Herod (b\- Tartar) 



10 



11 



Lollvpop l".i>ii- ^1 

Blaekl.ick 
fi Sir IVlrr (by Hii,dillyer) 



Marparetta Fam.2c 

Hi.i,dillyer 
•3 Reg^ulus 

(by Godol. .\rabian) 
7 Flying Childers 
7 Fox 



Mi.ss Elliot 

Parmer 



Fani. 23 



1S;«) 



1802 



1756 



Sir Peter 

3 Regulus 

4 Godol. .Arabian 

5 Flyini^" ("liilders 
.3 I'ox 

Master Bagot 

•3 Godol. .\rabian 



Woodpecker 

(i Oarlev .\rabian 



Oroonoko 
Woodpecker 

6 Darley .\rabian 

Highflj'er 
4 Darley .\rabian 
4 Betty Leedes 

Gohanna 
2 Tartar 
,3 .Mo<jul 
(i (iodol. Arabian 

(Starch) or Voltaire 

4 Kintj Ferj^us 

5 Hiirhfiver 



Sir Peter 

3 Re^'ulus 

4 Godol. .\rabian 
.3 Flying C"hilders 
.3 Fox 



Grisewood's Partner 

•3 



Vi.xen 

3 Ref,adLis (by (iodol. 

.\rabian) 
o Bart. Childers 
G Partner 

Brown Bess 

3 Refjulus 

4 Godol. .Xrabiaii 
•3 Flying;- Childers 
.3 Fox 

Mare bv Bagot 

3 Cade 

4 Partner 

Mare by Herod 
4 Flyinjj Childers 
.3 Sister to Mixbury 

Mare bv Crab 
■> 

Mare bv Herod 

y 

Mare bv Herod 

3 Partner (Grand-sire 
of Herod) 

Platina O. 



Belinda 
.3 Kins; Fer.tcus 
.3 Hii,'^hnyer 
6 Eclipse 
6 Heroil 

Mare bv Highflyer 
4 Goilol. .\r.ibi.in 
4 I'artncr 



Calia 



290 



Heredity. 



d 
Z 


Names of Mares and 
their Families 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


12 


Old Ladv Fam. 17 
Bald Galloway 


About 

1715 


Bald Galloway 


The Wharton Mare 


13 


Mare Fam. 15 
Little Hartley Mare 


nm 


Shakspeare 


Miss Meredith 
'J 


14 


Valentine Fam. 12 a 
.Mare by Phantom 
(Dam by Voltaire) 

6 PotSos (by Eclipse) 

7 Highflyer 


1833 


\'(;iltaire 

4 King Fergus 
(by Eclipse) 

5 Highflyer 


Fisher Lass 
4 Sir Peter (bv High- 
flyer) 
4 y. Giantess 
6 Eclipse 


15 


Mare Fam. 24 
Herod 
3 Cade 


1798 


\^'oodpecke^ 
6 Darley .\rabian 


-Mare by Herod 

3 Partner 

fBartl. Childers 
'•■(Flying Childers 


Mares with 1 Free Generation. 




1 


Bellissima O. Fam. 3 
1 Herod 

5 Regulus 

(by Godol. .Arabian) 

6 Fo.\ 


1795 


Phoenomenon 

7 Darley .Arabian 
7 Fo.\ 


Wren 

4 Godol. .Arabian 


2 


Blood Red Fam. l c 
1 Ellen Home 
5 Touchstone 

fCastrel 
'^Iselim 


1875 


Lord Lyon 
6 Whalebone 
6 Selim 


Rouge Rose 
6 Orville 
fCastrel 
"^l Selim 


3 


Charmer Fam. 4 
1 Herod 
5 Regulus 

(by Godol. .\rabian) 


1790 


Phoenomenon 
7 Darley Arabian 
7 Fox (Grand-sire of 
Herod) 


Mare bv Fitz Herod 
3 .Miss Partner 

3 Cade (by Godol. 
.\rabian) 

4 Partner 


4 


Comtesse Fam. i 

1 Emilius 

6 Sir Peter (by Highflyer) 

6 Delpini 


1855 


(The Baron) or 
Xuncio 
Sir Peter 
o Delpini 
6 King Fergus 
6 Highflyer 


Eusebia 
5 Highflyer 
5 King Fergus 




5 


Mare Fam. 2 

1 PotSos 

2 Herod 

5 Snap 

6 Regulus 

(by Godol. .\rabian) 


1799 


Coriander 

4 Cade (by Godol. 

-Arabian) 
6 Partner (Grandsire 

of Herod) 


Wildgose 

4 Blank (by Godol. 
.\rabian) 

5 Godol. .Arabian 

5 Little Hartley Mare 
5 Regulus 



4. Inbreedirii:;;^. 



•29 J 



g Names of Mares and 
^ llieir Families 









Born 


Sire 


Dam 




1 




1 
6 Flora Fam. 31 


1768 


Lofty 


Riot 




1 Godol. Arabian 




y 


",) 


7 


Fortress 


1830 


Defence 


Jewess 




1 Whalebone 




5 Herod 


5 Mare by 1 Irrod 




4 Highland 




5 Hij,'h flyer 


5 Mercury 




5 Buzzard 




■J Eclipse 


(by Eclipse) 




6 Woodpecker 






5 Woodpecker 

6 Hi.yhllyer 
6 Eclipse 


8 


The Jewel Fam. 28 


1864 


Stockwell 


Julv 




1 Birdcatclier 




•J Orville 


5 Waxy 




5 Muley (by Orville) 




6 Waxy 


6 PotSos 




8 (Johanna 




G Penelope 

(by Trunipator) 


6 Prunella 

6 Gohanna 

7 Trunipator 


9 


Lizzie G. Fam. 23 a 


1857 


War Dance 


^lare by Lecompte 




1 Keel (by (ilencoe) 


Id 
AiiierlcH 


4 The Baron 


2 Glencoe 




2 Boston 




7 Banter 




10 


Mandrapora Fam. 4 b 


1860 


Rataplan 


Mant;anese 




1 Birdcatcher 




.5 Orville 


7 S'ir Peter 




7 Orvillc 




Waxy 
6 Penelope 


7 Trunipator 


11 


Maria Fam. 23 


1791 


Highflyer 


Maria 




1 Herod 




5 Sister toJMixbury 


4 (iodnl. Arabian 




3 Ke^ulus 




6 Darley .\rabian 


4 .Starlirii,' 




4 Godol. .\rabian 






•J Crab 




7 Bart. Childers (by 






6 Flyini,' Childers 




Darley .\rabian) 








12 


Milliner Fam. 4 b 


1869 


Rataplan 


.Manganese 
7 Sir Peter 




1 Birdcatcher 




5 Orville 




7 Orville 




6 Waxy 
6 Penelope 


7 Trunipator 


13 


Minaret Fam. 4 b 


1866 


Rataplan 


Manganese 
7 Sir Peter 




1 Birdcatcher 




o Orville 




7 Orville 




6 Waxy 
6 Penelope 


7 Trunipator 


14 


Mineral Fam. 4 


1863 


Rataplan 


.Mangane.se 




1 Birdcatcher 




o Orville 


7 .Sir Peter 




7 Orville 




6 Waxy 
6 Penelope 


7 Tru?ii[).itor 


15 


Miss Letty 0. Fam. 12 


mu 


Priam 


.Marc bv Orvillc 




1 Orville 




2 Whiskey 


1 Hurod 




6 Herod 
6 Eclipse 




5 Herod 
5 Eclipse 


1 Eclipse 
■* I. Proserpine 



■292 



Heredity. 



• Names of Mares and 








o 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


/C their Families 








16 


Mare F--""- 3 


1853 


Orlando 


Brown Bess 




1 Camel 




3 .Selim 


4 PotSos 




4 Selim 




5 -Mexander 




17 


Palma Fam. 12 


1840 


Emilius 


Francesca 




1 Orville 




3 Highflyer 


4 Highflyer 




4 Sir Peter (by Highflyer) 




4 Eclipse 


5 Eclipse 




6 Eclipse 








18 


Pazmanita Fam- la 


1875 


Hermit 


Nyl Gau 




1 New minster 




4 Camel 


2 Touchstone 


19 


Mare Fam. 24 


1788 


Phoenomenon 


Matron 




1 Herod 




7 Darley .\ra'bian 


4 Partner 




5 Squirt 




(Grand-sire of 


4 Godol. .Arabian 




7 Godol. .Arabian 




Squirt) 
7 Fox 




20 


Rachel Fam. 13 


1768 


Blank 


Mare by Regulus 




1 Godol. Arabian 




? 


? 


21 


Rantipole Fam. 321 1760 


Blank 


Joan 




1 Godol. .\rabian 




P 


P 


22 


Red Flag Fam. 1 c 


1871 


Lord Lyon 


Rouge Rose 




1 Ellen Home 




6 Whalebone 


6 Orville 




5 Touchstone 




6 Selim 


/Castrel 
■*! Selim 




fCastrel 




7 Orville 




■^Iselim 








23 


Red Rag Fam. ic 


1870 


Lord Lyon 


Rouge Rose 




1 Ellen Home 




6 Whalebone 


6 Orville 




5 Touchstone 




6 Selim 


r Castrel 
n Selim 




/Castrel 








■^L Selim 








24 


Ruth Fam. 13 


1761 


Blank 


Mare by Regulus 




1 Godol. .Arabian 




P 


P 


25 


Rutilia Fa.-n. 13 


1769 


Blank 


Mare by Regulus 




1 Godolphin -Arabian ! 


■> 


P 


2(i 


Sister to Old Fam. lli 1717 


Snake 


Grey Wilkes 




Country Wench 


y 


P 




1 Hautboy 






27 


Mare Fam. 11 


1822 


Whisker 


Mandane 




1 PotSos 




3 Herod 


4 Cade 




4 Herod 




4 Snap 
6 Cade 


6 Godol. .Arabian 


28 


Wowski Fam. 18 


1777 


Mentor 


Maria 




1 Herod 




Godol. .Arabian 


3 Godol. .Arabian 




3 Snap 










.5 Godol. .\rabian 









4. Inbreedini,^ 



•293 



For the purpose of Judging of the iiKjre removed inbreedings of approved 
brood mares, 1 have arranged 60 of the best according to the degree of their 
inbreeding, so as to avoid anv confusion bv giving too manv iwamples. 
The choosing of tiiese 60 mares is not only a ditlficult task, but one about 
which one may have very different opinions. I have only gone into the deter- 
mining of their inbreedings after having selected the mares. The result was 
as follows : — 



W 



ith 2 free generations 8 mares. 
» <j 11 M 15 ,, 

, 4 ,, ,, 16 ,, 

, o ,, ., io ,, 

. 6 ,, ., 6 ,, 



Total 60 mares. 



As a great number of the best brood mares are already given in the tables 
of stallions, there will only be given the 36 best of the chosen 60 brood mares 
in the following tables of mares, .\ccording to the degree of their inbreed- 
ing they are arranged nearly the same as above, viz. : — 



With 2 free generations 6 mares. 



3 


n 


9 „ 


4 


» » 


11 „ 


5 


» 1 


, 7 


6 


M 


3 ., 



Total 36 mares. 



Mares with 2 Free Generations. 





Names of Mares and 

their Families 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


1 


Annette I'^am. 16 


1835 


Priam 


Mare bv Don Juan 




2 Orville 




2 Whiskey 


3 Kini; l-"er,i;us 




5 Sir Peter (by Highflyer) 




.5 Eclipse 


4 Hi.t;hllvir (( .rand- 




5 Kinjj Ferj^'us (by Eclipse) 




o IKrn.l 


sire of Orville) 




6 Eclipse 








■2 


Mare l'"am. 3 


1812 


Canopus 


Mare bv 




2 Woodpecker (by Herod) 




2 Herod 


Y. \\'oodpecker 




2 Mercury (by Eclipse) 




5 C'iide (by Godol. 
Arabian) 


1 W'oodpccUer 

2 Eclipse 
5 Snap 

5 Miss Bclsea 
(by Kcijulus) 



•294 



Heredity. 



6 


Names of Mares and 
tlieir Families 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


3 


Decoy Fam. 3 


1&30 


Filho da Puta 


Finesse 




2 Sir Peter (by Highflyer) 




3 Eclipse 


2 Highflyer 




5 Eclipse 




4 Herod 

5 Snap 


4 Eclipse 

5 Snap 


♦ 


Filagree F"am. 1 
2 trumpator 


1815 


Soothsayer 
5 Herod 


Web 

3 Herod 




4 Hig-hflyer 




6 Snap 


4 Snap 




5 Herod 






6 Cade 




6 Matchem (by Cade) 








5 


Prunella Fam. 1 


1788 


Highflyer 


Promise 




2 Blank (Grand-son of 




5 Sister to Mixbury 


4 Bay Bolton (by 




Bartl. Childers) 




(Dam of Partner) 


Grey Hautboy) 




4 Partner 




6 Darley .Arabian 


4 Sister to Mi.xbury 




5 Fox (Grand-son of Haut- 




6 Betty Leedes 


(Dam of Partner) 




boy) 
5 Flyini;- Childers 






5 Darley ^ p^^^,„^ 
.Arabian <'f 

„ -Fl.Cnilders 
5 BettV and BpTtl. 

Leedes J ^^"'""^ 










6 


Violet Fam. 15 


1787 


Shark 


Mare by Syphon 




2 Squirt 




5 Darley .Arabian 


3 Bartl. Childers 




(by Bartl. Childers) 




o Betty Leedes 


(by Darley .\rabian) 




6 Bay Bolton 




5 Bay Bolton 


3 Crab 



Mares with 3 Free Generations. 



.Mice Hawthorn Fam. 4 
Gcp. Dcp. 2x. 

3 Dick .\ndre\vs 

4 Beningbrough 

4 Evelina (by Highflyer) 
6 Eclipse 

Arcot Lass Fam. 9 

3 Volunteer (by Eclipse) 

5 Herod 



^1 .-Vrethu.sa Fam. 7 

3 Regulus 

(by Godol. .Arabian) 
o Partner 



1838 



1821 



1792 



Mulev JMoloch 

2 Beningbrough 
4 Highflyer 
.5 Eclipse 



.\rdrossan 

2 Eclipse 

3 Herod 
5 Snap 

Dungannon 

4 Godol. .\rabian 

5 Bartl. Childers 



Rebecca 

4 Eclipse 

5 Herod 

■5 Highflyer 



Mare by 

Cramlington 
4 Highflyer 

4 Eclipse 

5 Herod 

Mare by Prophet 
1 Regulus 



4. Inbreeding. 



•295 



6 


\.-i[nes of Males and 
their I''aniilies 


Born 


Sire 


n.am 


4 


Cobweb 1. O. l-"am. 1 


1821 


Phantom 


Filagree 




3 V. Giantess (by Dionied) 




4 Virago 


2 Trunipalor 




5 H it; h liver 




4 Herod 


4 High liver 




6 Eclipse (Ijy Marslce) 




4 Eclipse 


5 Herod 




6 Herod 




o Snap 


6 Marske 


5 


Mowerina l'"am. 7 


1876 


Scottish Chief 


Stockings 




3 Touclislojie 




o Orville 


5 Whisker 




5 Muley (by Orville) 




G Selini 


G Whalebone (Grand- 




6 Snllail (liy Srlim) 




7 Buzzard 


sire of Touchstone) 


6 


Penelope V-mw. 1 


1798 


'I'rumpator 


Prunella 




3 Snap (by .Snip) 




4 ( iiidol. .\rabian 


2 Blank (by Godol. 




6 Godul. .\r.tbian 




4 Partner 


.Arabian) 




6 Partner 




•3 Brown Farewell 


4 Partner 




6 .Soiith's d.iin 




(by Makeless, 
Grand-sire of 
South "s dam) 


5 Flying ("hilders 

(Sire of Snip) 
5 Fo.x 


7 


3 Melbourne 


1881 


Hampton 


Hermione 




Perditta II. l-"am. 7 




7 Whalebone 


4 Pantaloon 




6 Poc.aliunl.is (by Cilencoe) 






.5 Glencoe (by Sultan) 




6 Tlie Baron 






6 Sultan 




G \'oItaire 










G Marih.i l.ynn 








8 


Oueen .Marv Fam. 10 


1843 


Gladiator 


Mare by 




~3 Wh.alebon.j 




4 Prunell.L 


Plenipotentiary 




.5 Sir Peler (b\ llii^htlyer) 




4 I'otSos 


.3 Sir Peter 




.J PoiSos 






G Highllyer 




Prunella (by 1 lii;hll\er) 










.3 Selini 








9 


Termagant '"'a'"- 8 


1772 


■{"antrum 


Can (at rite 




3 (jodol. .Xrabi.'in 




3 l-"l\ing ("hilders 


6 Grey Wilkes 




4 Piyinj,' Childers 






(by Hautboy) 




6 Bay Bolton (Grand-son 




- 


6 Snake (Grand-son 




(if Hautboy) 






of H.-uilhoy) 



Marcs with 4 Free Cenerations. 



Banter Fani. 14 

4 Eclipse 

/Old England 
^\ Blank 
6 .Matchem (by Cade) 



1820 



.Master Henry 

3 Highflyer 

4 Eclipse 
.3 Herod 

G Bl.ink (by Godol. 
.\rabian) 



l)(iadicea 

5 Godol. .\rabian 

6 Bartl. Childers 
(Grand-sire of Old 

England and Bl.-ink) 



296 



Heredity. 



d 

y. 


Names of Mares and 
their Families 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


2 


Cinizelli Fam. 2 


1842 


Touchstone 


Brocade 




4 Alexander (by Eclipse) 




4 Alexander 


3 .Mexander 




5 Buzzard (by Woodpecker) 




5 Buzzard 


4 Sir Peter 




5 Mare by Alexander 




5 Eclipse 


5 Woodpecker 




6 Maria (by Herod) 




.5 Sir Peter 


6 Herod 




6 Sir Peter 




6 Highflyer 




3 


Electress Fam. 2 


1819 


Election 


Mare by Stamford 




4 Eclipse 




2 Herod 


4 Snap 




5 Herod 




Cade 


5 Blank (by Godol. 




5 Matchem (by Cade) 






.Arabian) 




6 Cade (by Godol. Arabian) 






6 Godol. .\rabian 


4 


Emma Fam. 7 


1824 


Whisker 


Gibside Fairy 




4 Eclipse 




3 Herod 


5 Herod 




4 Brunette 




4 Snap 


6 Cade 




5 Herod 




6 Cade (by Matchem) 






5 Conductor (by Matchem) 










5 Highflyer (by Herod) 










6 Matchem 








5 


Mandane Fam. 11 


18(X) 


PotSos 


Y. Camilla 




4 Cade (by Godol. Arabian) 




4 Godol. .\rabian 


4 Godol. .\rabian 




6 Grey Robinson (by Bald 




6 Bald Galloway 


6 Bald Galloway 




Galloway) . 






6 


Martha Lvnn Fam. 2 


1837 


?iIlllattO 


Leda 




4 Sir Peter (by Highflyer) 




5 Highflyer 


5 Highflyer 




6 King Fergus (by Eclipse) 




.5 l-"lorizel (by Herod) 


.5 Eclipse 




6 Woodpecker (by Herod) 




6 Eclipse 
6 Herod 


5 PotSos 


7 


Papillon Fam. 3 


1769 


Snap 


Miss Cleveland 




4 Bay Bolton 




3 Bay Peg (by Leedes 


6 Hautboy (Grand- 




5 Darley .\rabian 




Arabian, Grand-sire 


sire of Bay Bolton) 




5 Betty Leedes 




of Betty Leedes) 
5 Byerly Turk 




8 


Mare Fam. 27 


1819 


Rubens 


Tippitvwichet 




4 Eclipse 




3 Herod 


3 Herod 




4 Herod 




5 Matchem 


5 Squirt (Grand-sire 




5 Curiosity (by Snap) 




6 Cade 


of Eclipse) 




6 Snap 




6 Snap 


5 Snap 

6 Cade 


9 


Thistle Fam. 4 


1875 


Scottish Chief 


Th" Flower Safety 




4 Bay Middleton 




5 Orville 


6 Orville 




(by Sultan) 




6 Selim (Sire of 






5 Muley (by Orville) 




Sultan) 





4. liibrticliiii. 



297 



5 Names of Mares ami 
''■ their I'aiiiilifs 


Horn 


Sire 


Dam 


10 


Vermel lie Fam. 3 


ISSi 


The Baron 


Fair Helen 




4 Whalebone 




4 Waxy ^ Parents 
4 Penelope j WhiSebone 


5 Hif,'hflyer (Grand- 




o Orville 




sire of Orville) 










G Kclipse 


11 


Vista Fam. 4 


1870 


Macaroni 


Verdure 




4 Banter 




6 Sir Peter (Great 


5 Muley (by Orville) 




4 Pantaloon 




firanil-sire of 








Pantaloon) 




' 




6 Orville (Grand-sire 






^ 




of Banter) 





1 Araucaria 

o Orville 

i 5 Selini 



Mares witli ;"> I'ree (jenerations. 

Fam. 3 1862 A in b rose 
4 Orville 



21 Barbelle Fam. 3 

o Eclipse 
.5 Hiijhflyer 
G Herod 

^ ^lorganette Fam. 5 

[ o Pantaloon 
i 6 Touchstone 
I G Sultan (by Selim) 

4 Paradigm Fam. 1 

5 Selim 
.5 W.ixy 
I 6 Orville 



5( Pocahontas Fam. 3 

5 Goh.inn.i (by Mercury) 

6 .Mercury (by Eclipse) 

7 Hiijhilyer (by Herod) 



8 Sweet Katie 

I o Tr.inip 
6 Orville 
' 6 Whisker 



l'"aiii. .5 b 



1830 



1&S4 



1852 



18:^7 



1801 



Stockwell 
.3 Orville 
G W.ixy ^ 



Parent! 
of 



G Penelope J whi.kcr 



Pocahontas 
5 Gohanna 
G Mercury 

7 Hij^hflyer (Grand- 
sire of Orville) 



Sandbeck 








Darioletta 


4 Hiyh liver 








3 Eclipse 


•J liclipsc 








4 Grecian Princess 


'i Herod 








5 Highflyer 
o Herod 


Springlield 








Ladv Morgan 


■'} Sultan 








JSelim 


G Camel 

(by Whaleb 
G Banter 


) - 


2 " 
2 ; 


^(Castrel 
7 Whalebone 
7 Orville 


Paragone 








Ellen Home 


.5 Orville 








4 Selini 


G Sir Peter 








5 Benini^brough i => ? 
5 Evelina ) =~i 


(by Hi-hllyer) 














6 Highllyer ((irand- 










sire of Orville) 


Ciie-ncoc 








Marpessa 


■j Mercury 








2 Whiskey 


G Eclipse 








4 Diomed 


G Hi.:;h liver 








G liiclipse 


G Heroil 








G Herod 



Kathleen 
G (Johanna (Grand- 
sire of Tramp) 
G PotSos 



298 



Heredltj'. 



6 


Names of Mares and 
their Families 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


7 


Y. Giantess Fam. 6 

5 Godol. Arabian 
5 Partner 


179() 


Diomed 
4 Crab 

4 Godol. Arabian 
4 Partner 
.5 Flyins" Childers 


Giantess 
2 Godol. .Arabian 
.3 Partner 
5 Bald Galloway 



Mares with G Free Generations. 



Bee's AA'ing 
6 Eclipse 
6 Herod 



Bribery 
6 Sir Peler 
6 Stamford (by 
C Woodpecker 



Fam. 8 1833 



Fam. 2 



Sir Peter) 



1851 



Crucifix -2. 1. O. 
G Highflyer 
6 Eclipse 
G Herod 



l-"am. 2 



1837 



Dr. Syntax 

5 Matchem 

6 Cade 
G Snip 



Tlie Libel 

4 .\le.\ander 

4 Buzzard 

5 .Sir Peter 

Priam 
2 Whiskey 
•5 Eclipse 
5 Herod 



Mare by .\rdrossan 
5 Eclipse 
5 Herod 

5 Old Tartar Mare 

6 Marske 

6 .Ansjelica (by Snap) 

Splitvote 
.5 Sir Peter 



Octaviana 

4 Highflyer 

5 Herod 
5 Eclipse 
.3 Marske 



It can be .seen from these examples that the same rules as regards inbreed- 
ing, and especially' inbreeding supports, apply to the most approved mares 
just as well as to the stallions. .Among the approved brood mares with more 
than 6 free generations I only know, unless I have made a mistake, the 
following nine with 7 free generations : — 

1. Jamaica (dam of Foxhall) — 7 Orville. 

2. -Manganese (dam of The Miner) 7 Sir Peter and 7 Trimipator. 

3. Mint Sauce (dam of Minting and The Lambkin) 7 Castrel and 7 

Com us. 

4. Miss Aitn (dam of Scottish Chief) 7 Mercury and 7 Woodpecker. 

5. Moorhen (dam of Gallinule) 7 Selim. 

6. Silverhair (dam of Silvio) 7 PotSos and 7 Orville. 

7. ;\Iare by Tranby (dam of X'andal) 7 Highflyer. 

8. Suicide (dam of .\mphion) 7 Whalebone. 

9. Windermere (dam of Muncaster and Kendal) 7 Orville. 

This ntmnlDcr is, in comparison with the above-mentioned twehe approved 
stallions with 7 free generations, a verv low one. With more than 7 free 



4. inbreeding. 299 

jjeiicrations I only know llymonia, dam of \'irgil, and Aeroliii-, dam of 
Spendthrift. Perhaps the further removed inbreedings have been less suc- 
cessful with mares than with sires. The very dose inbreedings, conse- 
quentiv. seem to be less harmful with brood mares than with sires. I do not 
know of one single important sire with free generation. On page 23fi 
are named tiie four stallions with free generation of which I know. These 
four sires have not plaved any important part in Thoroughbred breeding. 
Amongst mares witii free gcncralion, iiowe\er, besides several good 
foundation mares, we find a few willi excellent hri-eding performances, 
amongst them the followinp; : — 



1. liutterflv, dam of Xaixicklish. 

•2. C"hesnut Skim, dam of l-'lcction 1). 

8. [uliana, dam of Matilda F,. 

■I. Loll_\'pop, dam of Sweetmeat. 

5. Margaretta, dam of \\'a\erley. 

fi. Miss Elliot, dam of Grimcrack. 

7. X'alentine, dam of War Hagle Dcp. and Snd in (he Derby. 

8. Mantieuvre, dam of Lioness Cs. 

D. Mare ITH/i b\- Shakespeare, dam of Sweetbriar and Mentor. 

.■\s the nimiber of brood mares used for breeding is much larger than that 
of stallions, the absolute figures alone, of course, cannot be taken as equal 
measures of comparison. Conspicuous, howexer, is the fact that the number 
of sires with 1 free generation which have done well in Thoroughbred breed- 
ing is, as above shown, onh- \cry small (really onlv Paulowitz, Barcaldine, 
and perhaps l^'lving I'ox), whilst scxcral prominent stallions ha\(' been born 
of mares with onl\- \ free generation, amongst which are the following: — 
1 .\dventurer, -2 Apologv, I. O. I.., :i Blacklock, 4 Cardinal York, 5 Drome, 
6 Foxhunter, 7 General Peel, -2 Dcp., 8 Cioldfinder, 9 Grey Robinson. 
10 Hannibal D., 11 Highflyer, 12 Kisber D. GP.. nV Knowsley. 
14 Liverpool, l-j Mandrake, Hi .Mark .\nthonv, 17 Mortemer .\cp., 
18 Padischah S.O., 19 Phaeton. 20 Przedwit OD., 21 Pvrrhus 1. D.. 
•22 Ruler L., 23 Schwindler l". XD., 24 Smolenski 2. D., 25 Squirt, 
26 Statesman, 27 Theodore L., 2.s Thunderbolt, 29 W'enlock L.. .30 Weather- 
bit, 31 Fl. Childers, 32 Bart. Childers. 

In order to judge the inbreeding C|uestion with ILalf-breds, I have men- 
tioned in the following list 01 ILnlf-bred stallions which were born in 
Trakehnen, with their own and ihcii- parents" inbreeding. I have onlv left 
oiU a few stallions, as tiiey had pr;ictically no remarkable influence in the 
Trakehnen breedings. I'nfortimatcly, I have also had tf> leave out the 
following 9 stallions because their basis of inbreeding could not be deter- 
mined, partly on account of their insuiruient pedigree: F.deling, I*!lfenbein. 
Grezano, Fritter, Hirtenknabe, Lauer, Leporello, Paschal, and 'ihunder- 
clap. The remaining HI Half-bred stallir)ns are divided as follows: — 



300 Heredity. 



\\'itli 1 free generation 2 stallions. 

,, 2 ,, ., (i 

M 3 ,, ,, 6 

M 4 ,, ,, 15 

,, r, ,, „ 11 

.. 6 „ ,. 11 

,, 7 ,. ., 7 

., S .. ., 3 



Total Gl stallions. 



Unfortunately, in the Trakclinen Stud Book' we Unci manv failures with 
still closer inbreeding than 1 free generation. A wealdv constitution, light 
bones, tenderness, and finally sterility, have been also in the breeding of 
Trakehnen Half-breds the consequences of too close inbreedings. Als(; in 
the Thoroughbred breeding we find the most robust and the strongest 
individuals among those with more removed inbreedings. Among the close 
inbreedings we find many light boned and small horses. With the natural 
breeds, as, for example, the breeds of the Steppes, endowed with a more 
robust constitution, a close inbreeding with ] or still less free generations 
may be carried on longer without bad consequences than with the modern 
improved breeds. Even within the modern improved breeds themselves, the 
more hardened amongst them, as for example, the Thoroughbred, seem, as 
above shown, to stand a closer inbreeding better than most Half-breds, 
especially the pampered ones. 

Although the dangers of carrying inbreeding too far have been known 
for a long time, yet we find breeders (also in Half-bred breeding) who ignore 
the experiences of their predecessors, till ihev themselves, but generally too 
late, find out from their own breeding that their great, imagined cleverness 
has cost them very dear owing to the mistalces thev have made. The evil 
experiences which Trakehnen suffered in the first half of the last century on 
account of exaggerated inbreeding should be a lessf>n to all who care to learn 
from the experience of others and who do not w ish onlv to appear themselves 
clever. In the first volume of the Trakehnen Stud Book we find many 
examples showing distinctly the deterioration and final destruction of pro- 
minent breeding material caused by exaggerated inbreeding. Thunderclap, 
born ISJO by Mikle Fell and 'I'oise, was perhaps the best Half-bred stallion 
ever bred in Trakehnen. He was used for -21 years as Royal Stud stallion, 
but by an exaggerated inbreeding much less has remained of him than one 
might have expected after 21 years' use. Thunderclap should perhaps have 
been the first sire of Half-breds of whom one might have been able to say 
that every Half-bred in East Prussia has his blood in him, even if not quite 
to the same extent as it has that of Eclipse. The list below gives a summary 
of the results of exaggerated inbreeding in Trakehnen. 



4. lnhiee(lini,>-. 301 

In tlic first volume of llie 'rrakcliiu'ii SUid l>ook, unless I lia\e inade a 
mistake in counting, tliere are 54 cases mentioned in wliich tiie stallion has 
covered his daughter, i.e., the breeding has been tried with — 1 free genera- 
tion. In the following list (jnly the stallions are given who have covered 
their daughters. 

,- ,., Of which were 

.. r o. 11- i)aui<hters 

Names of Stallions , ,'i,„,i ^- • 

covered ,_^ f^^.^, stallions Brood Mares 

Thunderclap 24 times. 13 If '2 

Oronocco 1 14 ,, 11 — — • 

Caril r, ,, 6 2 — 

Scrapall xx 4 ,, 4 1 — 

Snvders xx 1 .. 1 1 

Meteor X 1 ,. 1 — 1 

Culblanc 1 1 .. 1 — — 

Ormond 1,. 1 — — 

Oromedon 2 .. 2 

Total 54 times ff 40 5 3 

t By Thunderclap or Daunius. 
■It Including 5 cases in which other Stallions had also covered the Mare. 

The five stallions which were produced from this breeding belonged to a 
very inferior class. The best was Fra Diavolo, and he had two sires and was 
very likely a progeny of Daunius. The three brood mares were : — 

1. Humanita 1863 by Thunderclap, Familv 68. who has not produced 
anything special and is in danger of dying out. 

2. Theresa 1815 bv Meteor, was sent to dradiz and died there without 
producing anything. 

3. Favora 1849 bv Thuntlerclap, also sent to (iradiz, died without pro- 
ducing anything. 

An inbreeding in which sire and dam are bv the same father, i.e., a 
breeding with free generation, is mentioned in the first volume of the 
Trakehnen Stud Book 367 times (84 times with Thunderclap). From this 
covering the mares became pregnant 264 times, and produced 44 country 
stallions and 40 brood mares. Of these 14 country stallions only one may 
be classified as of a better class, and he was mixed Thoroughbred, viz., 
Triumphator x 1811 bv Allahor x. Of the 40 brofid mares 20 have died out, 
some without progeny, and some without special performances. Onlv two 
of the extinct lines could show better performances by producing the two 
Royal Stud stallions Igor and Dorimont. 'i"he following four families also 
threaten to die out, viz. : Lubinka, Fionda, Orsclska, and Somma. Only 
three families seem to be able to remain of anv use in Trakehnen, viz. : 
Teresina (Fam. 220), Costarika (Fam. 65), and I'-laute (I■^-^m. 137). Two 



302 



Heredirv. 



mares came to Gradiz : Mary 1815 by Oronocco II., and Prima 1850 by 
Oromedon, and died tliere without progeny. Two mares came to Neustadt : 
Aurata 1854 by Ibarra, and Campelli 1857 by Ibarra. The iirst died tliere 
without progeny, and the latter died finally in Beberbeck, with her grand- 
daughter Clara, without anv special performances. 



Stallions with 1 Free Generation. 



Xo. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


1 


Hipparch 
1 Blackamoor xx 
1 Cyane 

(bv Oronocco I.) 


1842 


Transparent 


Mercedone 

3 Oronocco I. 


2 


Leo 

1 Reprobate 


1867 


Duplicat 
3 Waterman xx 
5 Rodrich 


Lewa 



Stallions with 2 Free Generations. 



1 


Ackermann 

2 Ambos 


1899 


Hirtenknabe 


Accurate 

5 Eurxdanius (Great 
Grand-sire of 
Ambos) 


2 


Dorimont 
2 Blackamoor xx 
4 Oronocco I. 


1848 


Eurydamus 
2 Oronocco I. 


Dairymaid 
4 Sorcerer xx 
(Grand-sire of 
Blackamoor xx) 
4 Oronocco L 


H 


Eurydamus 
2 Oronocco I. 


i8a3 


Praetor 


Gabrielle 


4 


Heniochus 
2 Sorcerer xx 

(by Trumpator xx) 


1834 


J. Whalebone xx 
2 Trumpator xx 


Pupille 


5 


Journey 
2 Leporello 
4 Blackamoor xx 
4 Pretender 


1862 


Promoter 
4 Oronocco I. 
(Grand-sire of 
Leporello) 


Jessonda 

4 Oronocco I. 

5 Sorcerer xx 
(Grand-sire of 
Blackamoor xx) 


6 


Molorchus 
2 Sorcerer xx 


ims 


The Cryer xx 
5 Matchem xx 

(Great Grand-sire of 

Sorcerer xx) 
5 Herod 


Egisthe 
3 Sorcerer xx 



4. Inbreeding. 
Stallions with '4 Free Generations. 



303 



Names of Stallions | Born 



Apis 
3 StocUwell xx 
6 The Cryer xx 

Djalma 
3 Trafalgar (75% xx) 
o Ormond 



Duplicat 
3 Waterman xx 

5 Rodrich 

Eckstein 
3 Eurydamus 

6 Blackamoor xx 
(Grand-sire of 
Eurydamus) 

Ehvin 
3 Vorwarts 

Hydriot 
3 Fritter 
■J Eurvdamus 



1884 



1853 



l&->9 



1870 



1887 
1895 



Paladin 
G Touchstone xx 

Oromedon 

4 M. Farthings Turc 
xx? (Grand-sire of 
Trafalgar) 

■5 Sir Peter .\x (prob- 
ably Grand-sire of 
Trafalgar) 

Djalma 
3 Trafalgar 
.3 Ormond 

Venerate 
•3 Oronocco I. 

Grand-sire : 
2 Blackamoor xx 



Passvan 
•5 Snyders xx 

Fiirstenberg 
6 Ganges x 



Apanage 

("Whalebone xx 
I Whisi'ier xx 

Deducta 

8 Eclipse XX 



Daja 

7 Eclipse XX 

Echo 

2 Eurydamus 

5 Blackamoor xx 
•J V. Wiialebone xx 

Emilia 

p 

H3'dra 

3 Eurydamus (Grand- 
sire of Fritter) 

•3 V. Whalebone xx 



Aal 

4 Pocahontas xx 
•5 Stilton XX 

Antenor 
4 Sorcerer xx 
4 Oronocco I. 

Calcas 

4 Trumpator xx 
o Alexander xx 
(by Eclipse xx) 

Epaminondas 
4 V. Whalebone xx 
4 Tigranes x 



Stallions with 4 Free Generations 

188: 



Tunnel 
6 Camel xx 



l&io Leporello 



1^^ I Scrapall xx 
.3 Eclipse XX 



1872 Inspector X 

6 Sorcerer xx (Grand- 
sire of Tigranes x, 
Y. Whalebone xx, 
and Blackamoor xx) 
Grand-sire : 

4 Sorcerer xx 



Allbekannte 

7 Whisker xx 

8 Tramp xx 

Ancitia 



I\Ioira 



Epocca 
3 Blackamoor xx 
6 Sorcerer xx 



304 



Heredity. 



No. 



Names of Stallions 



Born 



Sire 



Dam 



Flug:el 
4 Vega 

6 Catton xx 

7 Orville xx 

7 Thunderbolt xx 
(by Sorcerer xx) 

8 Sorcerer xx 

Hanno 
4 Emma xx 

(by Whisker xx) 

Ibarra 
4 Caril . 
7 Trumpator xx 

Jemim 

4 Ganges x 

5 Leporello 
(by Tigranes x) 

Jenissei 
4 Vecordia 

10 Massa 

4 Vega 

7 Thunderbolt xx 
(by Sorcerer xx) 

11 Merlin 
4 Whalebone xx 

6 Sorcerer xx 
(by Trumpator xx) 



^^ Morpenstrahl 

4 Pocahontas xx 

4 Teddington xx 

5 Orlando xx 
7 Camel xx 

(by Whalebone xx) 



13 Oromedon 

4 Mr. Farthings 
Turc XX? 

5 Sir Peter xx 
■> 



1869 



1861 



1818 



1876 



1888 



1873 



1860 



1896 



1836 



Vorwarts 
6 Orville xx 
6 Sorcerer xx 



Danseur xx 
(^ Whisker .xx 
(^Whalebone xx 

Thunderclap 



Pless 
7 Thunderbolt xx 
7 \\'halebone xx 

Venezuela 
6 Emilius x.n: 

Vorwarts 
6 Sorcerer xx 
6 Orville xx 

Sahama xx 
5 Buzzard xx 

5 Evelina xx 

6 Trumpator .xx 
(Grand-sire of 
Whalebone xx) 

Blue Blood xx 

7 Selim xx (Great 

Grand-sire of 

Pocahontas .xx) 

f Whalebone xx 
6 



\Whis 



J. Driver 
fi Herod x.x 



Flasche 

■> 

Grand-dam : 
5 Sorcerer xx 



Harriet 



Jupine 



Jessica 

5 Tigranes x 



Jemba 

3 .\ntenor 

4 Ganges x 

Materna 
9 Sorcerer xx 
Grand-sire : 
6 Sorcerer xx 

Morea 

1 Y. W'halebone xx 
Grand-sire : 

2 Sorcerer xx 



Moba 
6 Camel xx (Grand- 
sire of Orlando xx 
and Great Grand- 
sire of Teddington 

XX) 

Grand-dam : 
5 Camel xx 

Trulla 



4. Iiibieedinij. 



305 



No. 


Names of Slallioiis 


Horn 


Sire 


Dam 


11 


Pom pejus 
4 X'esta xx 
7 Whalebone xx 


1871 


Inspector x 
6 Sorcerer xx 


Pomette 
4 ICnima xx 

(hy Whisker \x) 


15 


Promoter 
4 Oronocco I. 
fi Sorcerer x\ 


1&J2 


luirvdanuis 
2 Oronocco I. 


Promise 



l-iberliard 
5 Snyders xx 
.3 \'eK'a 
5 Gyare 

Emporer 
5 Pocahontas xx 

FisrlicrUnabe 
o Pocahontas xx 



Stallions with ") l-'rcc (Jcncrations 

1877 Fliiije] 
4 Vetja 
fi Catton XX 



Graniciis 
.5 Melbourne xx 


1887 


Juli 

o (llailia'tor xx 


1880 


Malteser 
5 Ivninia xx 

Ihy W'hisUer xx) 
7 Wlialebone xx 


1872 



189S> 
1901 



Matador 1843 

o Waxy XX 
■} Penelope xx 

(own brother to ! 

Maroeeo \ Muliis) , 

Nisos ; 1874 

5 V. Whalebone xx 
(by Whalebone xx) 



Passvan | 1881 

•5 Snyders xx 
6 Kninia xx 
( Miindii,' xx 
VMickle F.'ll XX 



l.ehnsiierr 
a Touchstone xx 

Obelisk 
7 Ihniiphrey ( linker xx 

Kilicdom XX 
.") Sultan XX 
') Camel xx 

Priponnier xx 
1 Orlando xx 

[.elio XX 
;! Camel xx 

(by Whalelxme xx) 
:i Banter xx 
G Waxy XX ) ^l^^';^ 
r. Penelp. xxl-;'^;'":- 

'rininclcrclap 



\'enerato 
•") Oronocco I. 



I'liipel 

4 \eKa 

(i C"atton XX (Sire of 
.Miindij; xx and 
Mickle Fell XX) 



Elba 



Emifjrantin 
o Sahtima xx 

Fisclierin 
.) Pocahontas xx 

Gradlitz 

7 Whalebone xx 
7 Hai^dadly ox 

Jacke 

'J 

Malafjamba 
4 V. Whalebone xx 
I) 'I'ijjranes x 



Muta 



Nixe 

(i Camel xx 

(by Whalebone x\l 

(irand-sire : 
:i Whalebone xx 

Palme 
(> Emma x\ ( Dam ol 
Miindii; xx and 
Mickle Fell xx) 



306 



Heredity. 



No. 


Names of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 


10 


Poet 


1904 


Morgenstrahl 


Polynesia 




\"oi"\varts 




4 Pocahontas xx 


8 Touchstone xx 




6 Pocahontas xx 




4 Teddington xx 


Grand-dam : 




6 Stockwell XX 




o Orlando xx 


3 Stockwell XX 




8 Orlando xx 




7 Camel xx 


Grand-sire : 
6 Camel xx 


11 


Wnerato 


1852 


Dorimont 


Vecordia 




o Oronocco I. 




2 Blackamoor xx 


■> 




7 Sorcerer xx (Grand- 




4 Oronocco 1. 






sire of Blackamoor 




Grand-dam : 






XX) 




4 Sorcerer xx 





1 Discant 

6 Camel xx 



Stallions with (i Free Generations 
1877 



Fiirstenberg 

6 Ganijes x 

7 \Mialebone xx 

Orcus 

6 Camel xx 

(by Whalebone xx) 



Paladin 
6 Touchstone xx 

Pardo 
6 Orville xx 
C Rubens xx 
I^Selim XX 

Polarsturm 
6 Pocahontas xx 



Principal 
6 \Mialebone xx 



Prinz Optimus 
6 Pocahontas xx 
6 Melbourne xx 
(by Humphrey 
Clinker xx) 



1878 

\m>, 

1874 
1863 

1900 

1868 
1898 



Fltigel 
4 Vei,'a 

Am bos 

3 Eurydamus 

4 Y. Whalebone xx 

Friponnier xx 

1 Orlando xx (Grand- 
son of Camel) 
7 Whalebone 

Adonis xx 
Sultan XX 

Vindex xx 

3 Selim xx 

5 Orville xx 

4 Waxy XX 

4 Penelope xx 

Optimus 

7 Hiniiphrey Clinker XX 



Vor\yarts 
6 Sorcerer xx 
6 Orville xx 

Optimus 
7 Humphrey Clinker XX 



Diana 

Fulda X 
5 Sir Hercules xx 
(by Whalebone xx) 

Orelia 

{Whalebone xx 
Whisker xx 
Grand-sire : 
4 Whalebone xx 



Palme 
6 Sorcerer xx 

Perilla 
5 Sorcerer xx 



Povona 
8 Touchstone xx 

Grand-sire : 
3 Pocahontas xx 

Principessa 

3 V. \^'halebone xx 

4 Tigranes x 

Prinzess 

3 Sahama xx 

4 Stilton XX 



4. Inbrcedinij. 



307 



N\). 


Name* of Stallions 


Born 


Sire 


Dam 




9 


Tunnel 


187+ 


The Duke nf 


Tlltli 






6 faniel xx 




Edinbouri;li xx 


6 Camel x\ 






(lix- Whali'lioiu' xx) 




6 Whalebone xx 


Grand-sire 






r W'lialcbonc xx 






3 Whalebone 


XX 


1(1 


\'eneziiela 


1878 


i lector XX 


Viereck 






6 Eniilius xx 




6 Blaeklock xx 


(; \. Whaleli 


>ne XX 


n 


\'()r\v;irts 


185!) 


Sahania xx 


\'eif)rdia 






G Sorcerer xx 




o Hvelina xx (Dam of 


y 






(by 'I'ruiiipalor xx) 




Orville xx) 








6 Orville xx 




o Buzzard xx 












6 'IVumpator xx 
6 Sir Peter xx 
Orand-dam : 
4 Sorcerer xx 


(irand-sire 
L' Orville 





Stallion.s with 7 Free Generations. 



1 I Alter Herr 



7 Pocahontas xx 
7 Melbourne xx (by 

I lumphrey CliiiUcr 

x\l 

Amtsvorstcher 
7 Touchstone xx 

Duduck 

7 Waxy xx (Sire of 
Woful xx) 



Elton 
7 Camel xx 



fiistizminister 
7 Touchstone xx 

Panzer 
7 Pocahontas xx 
(Dam of Stock well 

XX) 



1902 Optinnis 

7 Humphrey Clinker 

XX 



1899 Fanfarro 

S Whisker xx 

1863 r.ierhtning xx 
4 Sorcerer xx 

(by Trumpator xx 
Grand-dam : 
3 Waxy xx "j p^^„ 

3 Penel. xx - „.>'f 
(by I rump.) j xx 

1888 The Duke of 

Edinbourph .xx 
() W halebone xx 
7 Selim xx 
7 Buzzard xx 
7 Mare by .Mexander 

XX 

I 
1898 j Boulevard xx 

4 Birilcatcher xx 



rrnt.s 
I 



liW-i j Greif XX 

5 Stockwell XX 



.Vlmuda 
7 Birdcatcher x\ 
7 Eurydamus 
7 Sahama xx 

Anisette 
4 Pocahontas xx 

Dai.sv 

3 W'aternian xx 
(by W.ifLd XX) 



Elpis 
G Camel ^x 



I ustltia 
7 Touchstone xx 

Panzerkette 
4 N'ecordia 
4 Fritter 



308 



Heredity. 



No. 


Names cjf Stallions [?orii Sire l~)ani 


7 


Pless 1870 
7 Thunderbolt xx 1 
(by Sorcerer xx) ! 
7 Whalebone xx 


Vorwarts 
(i Sorcerer xx 
G Orville xx 


Petze 

4 Tiyranes x 



Flock 

8 Orville XX 



Stallions with S I'Vee (ienerations 

1875 Ructic XX 

H Orville xx 



Popilius 
8 Waxy xx 
8 Penelope xx 

Tliebaner 

S Whalebone xx 



1873 



1876 



Lahire xx 
3 Whalebone xx 

(Irand-dam : 
1 Whalebone xx 

Pless 
7 Whalebone xx 



Flamme 
4 Vega 
C Catton XX 
7 Orville xx 
7 'rhiniderbolt xx 

Pocke 

3 Deluge (by Water- 
man XX, Grand-son 
of Waxy xx) 

Theresia 
7 Whisker xx 
Grand-sire : 

4 Whalebone xx 



From liu'se Gl examples one may draw the following conclusions: — 

1. 'I'iiat the greatest number of R(jyal Stud stallions (just as is the case 
in Thorouglibred breeding) are amongst tiiose with 4 free generations. Yet 
the most fa\ourabie limit for Half-bred breeding seems to me to be wider 
than with Thoroughbreds, as not 3, 4 and 5, but 4, 5 and G free generations 
show the best results. Besides, the merits of Half-bred stallions with 5, and 
especially with 6, free generations are much superior to those of the other 
stallions. Amongst the manv stallions with 4 free generations there are only 
three good ones, namely, Flugel, Mt)rgenstrahl, and Oromedon. Of these 
three Morgenstrahl (94J%) is very near to Thoroughbred, and very likely 
the other two would be also very near to Thoroughbred if one could only 
determine their pedigree more accurately. The two stallions with 1 free 
generation were very inferior. Amongst those with 2 free generations only 
Dorimont and Journey may be classified as important, but both became 
Royal Stud stallions only on account of their black colour. The final con- 
clusion to be drawn is that the most favourable inbreeding for Half-breds 
is 1 to "2 free generations more removed than is the case with Thoroughbreds, 
and that perhaps only very noble Half-breds prefer a closer inbreeding up to 
4 or 3 free generations, just like Tlioroiighbreds. 

2. The inbreeding supports seem to be just as useful in Half-bred 
breeding as in Thoroughbred breeding. In many cases, unfortunately, the 



4. Inbiwdin-. 309 

pcdi^R'c is Ml iiHomplcIc thai many iiilorccdinps cannot l)e asceriained. 
Precisciv the vcrv bcsl stallions, as for example, Fiirstenbcicj, Malteser, 
Morgonstrahl, Orciis, Passvan, 'I'linncl, X'enerato, X'orwarls, etc., show the 
same inbrci'dini; supports either on tlie part of their dam or of their sire, 
or of both, as is shown in the case of the best Thoroughbred stallions. 
Several of the most important mixed Thoroughbred stallions which are not 
mentioned liere show these inbreeding supports very clearly, as tor example, 
the best of them, Inspector \ with 6 Sorcerer xx and the sire : 4 Sorcerer xx, 
further, Ganges x with I Sorcerer xx and sire : 4 Sorcerer xx and Nobleman 
X with 2 Tigranes x, C, \\'ax\- xx and () Penelope xx (by Trumpator), sire: 
4 Sorcerer xx (bv Trumpator and grand-sire of Tigranes) dam : (5 Trum- 
pator XX. Finaliv, to give an example from the racecourse, the at present 
best Half-bred Steepler, Ready, born Hanover 1899 by Lorbeer (Beberbecker) 
and Rosamunde, with 7 Melbourne xx, sire: 4 West Australian xx (by Mel- 
bourne), dam : :i V. Melbourne xx. 

As an example for an unsatisfactory heredity of an oliierwise lirst-class 
Half-bred stallion, on account of insufticient inbreeding supports, I may 
here mention Apis (l^age 308. No. 1), just as I mentioned lrof|uois for 
Thoroughbred breeding. 

Half-bred stallions, excellent in their cont'ormation but with insuflicient 
inbreeding support, as for example, Optimus (7 Humphrey Clinker |b\- 
Comus], sire 8 Comus, dam 7 Whalebone and It) Sorcerer [sire of (."omus]), 
are often very difficult to mate to get the best results. Melbourne (by Hum- 
phrev Clinker) and Pocahontas are the two cardinal points in Optinnis" 
pedigree. Probablv, therefore, one would obtain the best results with mares 
inbred to Melbourne or Pocahontas' blood. 

3. When mating the parents, of course, it is to be understood that only 
prominent ancestors common to both should be chosen as basis of inbreed- 
ing, as we have already pointed out w hen dealing with 'Thoroughbred breed- 
ing. As in the pedigree of Half-breds, Thoroughbreds are generallv the best 
ancestors, it is recommendable in Half-bred breeding tfi direct the inbreed- 
ing, as far as possible, to a Thoroughbred ancestor. Half-bred is, however, 
in this respect often verv dif'HciiIt to handle. Yet the statistics of above Gl 
Half-bred stallions show that in -19 cases 'Thoroughbred (inclusive of mixed 
.ind questionable 'I'horoughbred) has served as a basis of inbreeding, and 
Half-bred in 12 cases only. All the 11 stallions with H free generations 
have 'Thoroughbred as basis f)f their inbreeding. Of all lietier stallifjiis, 
inl\- two ar<' inbred to Half-bred as a basis, and these two were the black 
stallions lournev and Wnerato, which on account iif their colom- could claim 
n more indulgent criticism. 

In bn^eding Half-breds in which a certain type, say a line ligmc, is more 
important than capabilities, as for example, with coach horses (Oldenburg. 
Tlolstein, and part of Hanover), an inbreeding to typical Half-bred ancestors 
will often be advisable. When breeding purely for conformation it is very 



:U0 Heredity. 

r-ssential to Unow ihe great influence which the exterior of tlie basis of in- 
breeding often exercises. High legs in the heredity of a stallion (for example 
Geheimrat) are, according to experiments which I have here made, mcjre 
surely remf)ved by a close inbreeding to a short-legged ancestor than bv 
mating with a short-legged mare (for example .Moba), without thereby attain- 
ing the close inbreeding to a basis characterised bv short legs. 

In all breedings for military and riding horses, capabilities are the most 
important tiling, and breeding must, of course, be directed to that end. 
Besides, in riding and military horse breeds, the t\pe to be obtained is in no 
way opposed to that of the Thoroughbred, but so nearl\- related to it thai 
by the increased and well-chosen addition of Thorougiibred blood the Half- 
bred type can only be impro\ed. Xeither Thoroughbred breeders nor 
Half-bred breeders ought to be frightened awa\- from (heir main purpose, 
i.e., capabilities, by fear of a change of type. Capabilities will automatically 
form the most suitable type in Thoroughbred as well as in Half-bred, if 
only the breeder will mate and rear his animals chiefly with respect to 
capabilities. 'i"he strength of the Half-bred, which is so desirable, and 
rightly so very much esteemed, would be diminished by the earlv training 
usual with Thoroughbreds. An extended grazing, lasting up to the third 
\ear, increases that strength, which gives type and value tf> the Half-breds. 

From the list given below of classical male and female winners, it follows 
that the inbreeding has been a useful factor in the production of good stock 
in use, i.e., in this case of successful racehorses. It is surprising that 4 
free generations seem to be the most fa\-ourable limit of inbreeding with the 
best racehorses just as well as with the best breeding horses. The idea of 
producing breeding material with special individual prepotency bv a very 
close inbreeding, as for example, in the case of l''l\ing l-'ox (1 Galopin), or 
by a close and repeated inbreeding with distinct inbreeding support, as for 
example, in the case of Blacklock (8 Highflyer, I Herod, Sire: '■) Herod, 
dam : 2 Herod), is based on a lack of reflection. Should a stallion even be 
inbred as much and as often to Herod as a basis, he can never become ulti- 
mately more Herod than Herod himself was, and therefore cannot transmit 
more Herod peculiarities than Herod himself did. The indi\idual pre- 
potencv has nothing to do with close inbreeding. The most stallions who 
have shown a special individual prepotency had a propoitionately far 
removed inbreeding, as for instance, Birdcatcher, Buccaneer, C'hamant, 
I'libustier, Xewminster, Perth, Rataplan, Stockwell, V'olligeur, and many 
others with -5 free generations each, and Bend Or, Doncaster, F.ord Clifden, 
St. Simfni, Thormanby. West Australian, and many others with fi free 
generations each. In Half-bred breeding, Optimus can be mentioned as a 
stallion cndDwcd with unusual individual prepotency, and he also had a very 
far remoNcd inbreeding, i.e., 7 Humphrey Clink-er. 



4. Iiibrft'dlns,'. 



311 



'l"hc nialf and t'cinalr winiiiTS of ihc Dci-by, Si. Leger, and Oaks, 
arranged according to tlic nunilicr of free generations : — 

Free Generation. 
C'oi.is Kii.i.iKs 

]. Odric I). IS-JI bv Pliantom. 



1 I*"ree Generation. 

J. Xinety-Tliree L. 179U by I'lorizel. 1. TriHe O. 178-2 by Justice. 

■J. .\sluon I.. 1806 by Walnut. -I. Bellissima O. 1795 by Phoeno- 

3. Cadland D. 18-2.5 bv Andrew. nienon. 

4. Knigiit of St. George I.. iS;")] by 8. Ivplieniera (). 1797 bv W'ood- 

Birdcatcher. pecker. 

••). I'lvinu l"o\ i:>.f.. isQi; bv Orme. 4. )liss Lt'ttv (). 18:54 bv Priam. 



•_' I'ree Generations. 



1. Sallrani 1). 17S(ibv I-lclipse 1 

2. Noble D. 17s;i bv Higbflver -2. 

3. Colt D. 1794 by Fidget ' :!, 

4. Cocktighter L. 179(i bv Overton I, 

5. Quiz !.. 179s l)v Buzzard ^>. 
Pi. Orvillc I,. 1799 by Beningbrough C, 

7. Cardinal lieaufort 1). 1S()2 by 7, 

Ciohanna S, 

8. Flection I). |.si)4 bv C.oiianna 9. 

9. Petronius L. i8().5 by Sir Peter 10. 

10. Pan 1). isu.-, bv St. Ceorge 

11. Pope I). IsKC, l)v Waxy I I. 
1"2. William I,, l.sn bv (lovernor 

l:{. Fbor 1.. I.SH bv OrvilJe |-2. 

14. Sailor I). IsiT by Scud 1:!. 

15. Theodore I.. Isl9 bv Woful I 1. 
Ifi. M.-mnon I.. |s-22 bv Whisker 

17. Mamrliik.- !). l,S-24 bv Parti.san ir>. 

18. Priam I). 18-27 by l-lniilius Hi. 

19. Blue Gown I), ist;.-) bv lieatlsman 17. 

20. Ilawthorndi-n I.. |s(i7 b\- l.oril bs. 

Clitden 19. 

21. <;ill<i|»iii I). 1^72 by Wdi-tic 20. 

22. I'ftrai-rli I.. I.s7:i bv l.(jrd C lifdcn 21. 

23. Siiiiifoiii I). is,s7 bv .Springlield 22. 

24. Sir lliii,'., I). |s.sObv Wisdom 



Stella O. I7«l bv Plunder 
Annette O. 1784 bv Fclipse 
llippolyta O. 1787 b\- .\ler(-ur\- 
Portia O. 1788 b\- X'olunteer 
ilermione O. 1791 bv .Sir Peter 
Platina O. 1792 bv Mercurv 
Parisot O. 179:5 by Sir i'eter 
.SV^.//(/ O. 1799 bvDelpini 

Pelisse O. ISOl by Wlliskev 

)Iai Ila O. 1809 bv Dick 

Andre\\ s 
Altisidora 1.. ixlo bv l)i<k 

.\ndre\vs 
.Music O. islo hv Waxy 
Minuet O. IS 12 by Wa.\y 
The Duchess I.. is|:i bv Cardinal 

York 
Xi-va O. |s| 1 by C'ervantes 
Shoveller (). 18'lC, bv Scud 
Galata O. ls-29 by Sultan 
Feu (Ic Joi O. IS.V.) by l.ongbow 
'I'onneiitor O. |s(;:(b\ King'iOm 
diimos O. 1S()7 b\- .Saunterer 
'I'lichiiis O. 187s by Hermit 
Seubrceoe O.L. 1885 b\ l.sonomv 



312 



Heredity. 



3 Free Generations. 



1. Bourbon L. 1774 b\- Le Sang 1. 

•2. Tommv L. 177G by Wildair 2. 

3. Ruler L. 1777 by Young Marske 3. 

4. Sir Peter D. 1784 by Highflyer 4. 

5. Bt'iiiiiirbroiiirli I.. J 791 by King 

Fergus .j. 

6. Spread Eagle 1). 1792 by 6. 

Volunteer 7. 

7. Sir Harrv D. ]79:'3 by Sir Peter 8. 

8. Symmetry L. ]795 bv Delpini 9. 

9. Archduke I). 1796 bv Sir Peter 10. 

10. Ditto I). ISOO bv Sir Peter 11. 

11. Stavelev L. 1802 by Shuttle 12. 

12. Paris D. 1803 bv Sir Peter 13. 

13. ^Vlialeboiic D. 1807 by Waxy 14. 

14. Octavian L. 1807 b\- Stripling 15. 

15. Bliichcr D. l.sll bv'Waxv ' 16. 

16. IVhisker D. 1812 "bv \^'axv 17. 

17. Filho da Puta L. 1812 by " 18. 

Haphazard 19. 

18. Azor D. 1814 by Selim 20, 

19. Sam D. 1815 bv Scud 

20. Reveller L. 1815 by Comus 

21. Tiresias D. 1816 by Soothsayer 

22. Antonio L. 1816 bv Octavian 

23. St. Patrick L. 1817 by Walton 

24. Jack Spigot L. 1818 by (Ardros- 

san) or Marmion 

25. Einilius D. I,s20 by Orville 

26. Tarrare L. 1823 bv Catton 28. 

27. The Colonel L. 1825 bv Whisker 29. 

28. Frederick D. 1826 bv Little John 

29. Rockingham L. 1830 by ' 30. 

Humphrey Clinker 

30. Elis L. 1833 bv Langar 31. 

31. Phosphorus D. 1834 by Lamp- 32. 

lighter 33. 

32. Don John L. 1835 by (Tramp) or 34. 

\\'averlev 35. 

33. Satirist L. 1838 by Pantaloon 

34. Cotherstone D. 1840 by Touch- 

stone 



Hollandaise L. 1775 bv Matchem 
Tetotum O. 1777 by Matchem 
Imoeratrix L. 1779 bv Alfred 
3Iai«l <»f the Oaks O. 17^0 by 

LIer(jd 
Cowslip L. 17b2 bv Highflyer 
Penett L. 1786 b\ Tandem 
Tag O. 1786 by Trent ham 
Volante O. 17.S9 by Highflyer 
Ccilia O. 1790 by Wilunteer 
Eleanor D.O. 1798 bv Whiskey 
Theophania O. 1800 by Delpini 
Bronze O. 1803 by Buzzard 
Briseis 0. 1804 by Beningbrough 
Morel O. 1805 by St)rcerer 
OrianaC). 1807 by Beningbrough 
Laiidseape O. 1S13 by Rubens 
Corinnc O. 1815 b\- Waxy 
Pastille O. 1819 by Rubens 
Zinc O. 1.S20 by Woful 
Colnvelt O. 1821 by Phantom 
Tiir«(Hoise C). 1825 by Selim 
Cyprian O. 1833 bv Partisan 
Refraction (J. ls42 by Glaucus 
Cymlia O. 1845 by Melbourne 
Butterfly O. 1857 by Turnus 
Hippia i). I.s(i4 b\- King Tom 
Marie Stuart O.L. ls70 by 

Scottish Chief 
Camelia J O. 1873 by Macaroni 
Jannette O.L. 1875 bv Lord 

C'lifden 
Wheel of Fortune O. 1876 by 

Adventurer 
Slwlovcr D. 1879 bv Hermit 
Minii O. 1888 by Barcaldine 
Our Lassie O. 1900 bv Ayrshire 
Cherry Lass O. 1902 by Isinglass 
GlassDoll O. 1901 bv Isinclass 



4-"). St 



4. llll)l■el■.lill^^ 313 

3."). .\ul\sitli L. Js|ul)\- ■I'limbov 
3(;. Orlando D. 1811 hv Touchstone 
37. riir M.Tiv MniK.rch 1). 1S4-2 hv 

Slanc 
3S. Sir ■|"alt()n Svkcs L. I.sl3 hv 

Mi'Ihi lurnc 
39. The Kl.viiii.' IMifchmaii D.I.. ISir, 

In- Hay .Middlcton 
111. Ucadsinaii D. \^'>') by XWaihcrbii 
41. I'l-cli-iultT D. iSCiC) bv .Xdvcntiircr 
4'2. Pero (jonifz 1 , . iscdbv licadsman 

13. Silvio D.L. Ls74 by lilair .Xthol 

14. St. Blaise D. 18,S() bv Ilcniiil 
TIarvfsicr .} D. 1881 bv .Sterling 

St. (Jatieii i D. 18sl bv Rother- 
' hill (IT rill- Roxcr 

4fi. The Lambkin 1.. hss] bv Cam- 
hallo 

47. Helton D.L. jssj bv Master 
]\ildare 

18. ^h-rry Mamptmi D. 1 S.s | hv 
riampton 

49. (iaIteeMore D.L. Is'Jl hv Kendal 

■">(). ^'(lur Majestv L. lOOo hv Per- 
simmon 

4 ["ree fenerations. 

1. Dionietl I). 1777 b\- i'lori/.el 1. Bridp-t O. 177(1 by I L-rod 

■2. V. Lclipse D. 1778 by ivrlipse -2. Faith O. 177.s by Herod 

3. Assassin D. I 779 bv .Sw.'cthriar 3. Serina L. 177.s by (ioldfinder 

4. I'hoenonienon L. 17s(tbv Herod 4. Ceres O. 1779 by Sweet William 
."). Serjeant 13. 178] bv i'lchpse o. Omphale L. 1781 by Hiirhflyer 
(). .Aimwell D. 17S2 by Mark .\ntonv H. Nightshade C). 1785 by Pot8os 

7. Paragon L. 1783 hv Pavmaster 7. V. Vlora L. 17.s."j by Highflyer 

8. Spadille L. 1 7.s I by HigliHyer 8. \ike C). 1794 by .Xlexander 

9. Sir 'I'homas 1). 178.J hv Pontae 9. Bellina O. 179(; by Rockingham 
1(1. Skvscraper D. 17S(; bv Highflyer K). >lete(»ra O. l^dj hv Meteor 

11. Eager V). 17s,sbv I'lorizel ' 11. rauiina L. 1804 by Sir I'eter 

12. Tartar L. 17.s9 In I-'lori/el 12. .Maid of Orleans 6. 180C, bv 
1.3. ITaniitlctonian L. 1792 In King Sorcerer 

i-'ergus 13. Sorcery O. 18I)N by .Sorcerer 

1 L Amhrosio L. 179.3 bv Sir Peter 14. Medora O. 1811 hv Selim 

I'l. Lounger L. 1791 b\- Drone 15. Caroline (). 1n17 by Whalebone 

Ki. Champion D.L. 1797 In Pot8os l(i. .Vuirusta O. IMs h\- Woful 



;J14 Heredity. 

17. Tyrant D. 1799 by PotSos 17. Lilias O. LS-23 by Interpreter 

18. Remembrancer L. 18U0 by Pipatur 18. Ox.yjteii O. 1828 by ICmilius 

19. Sancho L. 1801 bv Don Quixote 19. (aiiiziiee O. 1838 by Pantaloon 
•20. Phantom D. ISOSby WaUon iO. Blue Bonnet I>. 1839 bv Touch- 

21. Octavius D. 1809 by Orville stone 

22. Otterington L. 1809 by Golumpus 2L. Poison O. 1840 by Plenipoten- 

23. Sniolensko D. islO bv .Sorcerer tiarv 

21. Gustavus D. 1818 by Election 22. The Princess O. 1841 by Slane 

25. Moses D. 1819 by VVhalebone or 23. :>nanii O. 1844 by Venison 

Seymour 24. iris (). 1848 by Itlniriel 

26. Barefoot L. 1820 by 4'ranip 2-5. Catherine Ha.ves O. 18.)0 by 

27. Middleton D. 1822 by Phantom Lanercost 

28. liirminqham L. 1827 b\- Fiiho da 20. Siimnierside O. 1S')C) bv West 

Puta Australian 

29. Ciiorister L. I82.s by Lottery 27. Heine O. 1869 by Monarque 

30. .Mar£rrave I.. 1829 by Muley 28. Spinaway O. 1872 bv Macaroni 

31. Plenipotentiary i).'l831 by 29. Piacida O. 1874 by Lord Lyon 

Emilius 30. Bunny Jean O. 1880 by Macaroni 

32. Touehstone I>. 1831 by Camel 31. Reve d'Or O. issl bv Hampton 

33. Miindio- D. 1832 by Catton 32. L'Ahbesse (le JonaiTe O. 1886 by 

34. Bay )li(ldlet(»n D. i883 by Sultan Trappist 

35. Amato V). ls:j5 bv Velocipede 33. Throstle \.. 1891 bv Petrarch 

36. Little Wonder D.' 1837 by Muley 34. Limasol O. 1894 by Poulet 

37. Launcelot L. 1837 by Camel 35. .Virs and 4«raees O. 1895 bv Ayr- 

38. Coronation D. 1838 bv Sir shire 

Hercules ' 36. Keystone IL O. 1903 by Per- 

39. The Baron L. 1842 by iiirdcatcher simmon 

40. Surplice D.L. 1845 b\- Touchstone 

41. Wild Oayn-ll D. 18.5'2by Ion 

42. Hermit D. I.s64 by Newminster 

43. Sefton I). 1875 by Speculum 

44. Sir Bevis D. 1876 bv Favonius 

45. Rayon *Vi)r L. I>i76 bv Flageolet 

46. Rock .Sand D.L. 1900 bv Sainfoin 

47. St. Amand D. 1901 bv St. Frus- 

C|uin 

48. Challac(jmbc L. 1902 by St. Serf 

49. Spearmint D. 1903 by Carbine 

50. Orbv D. 1904 bv Orme 



Inbrcfilint;. 



315 



s. 

9. 
10. 
II. 
1-2. 
i:!. 
14. 
15. 

]r.. 

17. 

18. 

19. 
20. 

21. 
22. 

2a. 

24. 



26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 

81. 

32. 



Radaniantluis D. 1787 bv Justice 
Ambidexter L. 1787 by Phoeno- 

menon 
Y. Traveller L. 1788 bv Kin.a: 

Fergus 
Waxy D. 1790 by PotSus 
Dadalos I). 1791 by Justice 
Didelot D. ]79;5 bv Trumpatiir 
Soothsaver L. ISOS by Sorcerer 
Prince ' Leopold d". 18l:i bv 

Hedley 
Jerry L. 1821 by Smolenslco 
I.apdop D. 182H by Whalebone 
Row ton L. I Slid bv Oiseau 
Spaniel D. bS-JS bv Whalebone 
St. (hI.-s I). bS-J9 by Tramn 
Danj^erous I). ls:t() bv Trani]! 
Mango L. 1834 bv Hmilius 
Charles Xil. L. 18:ir, by \'oltaire 
Attila D. 1889 bv Cohv'ick 
Faiii.'li-a-Ballii;:ii I.. 1841 by Sir 

Hercules 

I). bS48 bv l':pirus 
D. 184 1 bv llrtnian 



i.s4 I b\' Lanercost 
1847 by \'oltaire 
18)8 bv Touch- 



Pyn'hus I. 

The Cossac 

Platoff 
Van Troiiip F. 
A'oltiirciir D.I 
Nt'wmiiister I 

stone 
Stockwcll [.. 1849 by The Baron 
Andover I). IS.*! bvBay Middle- 
ton 
Saucebox L. 1852 by St. Lawrence 
Musjid D. ISoC) bv Newminster 
Kettledrum I). IS.j8by Rataplan 
Caractacus I). IS59 bv Kingston 
The Marquis I.. IK59 bv Stock- 
well 
Cladiateur D.L. 18(52 by 

Monar(iue 
Kingcraft D. 1807 by King Tom 



5 Free Generations. 

1. Alabaculia !,. 1773 by Sampson 

•_'. Mulilda I.. 1824 by Comus 

3. (rliiliiarc (). 1824 by Smolensko 

4. (irceii :»Iaiitle O. 1820 by Sultan 

5. Variation O. 1827 bv Bustard 

6. Vespa O. 1830 bv Mulev 

7. Pussv O. 1831 bv Pollio 
s. ({neen ol" tlie Trnnips O.L. 1832 

bv V'elocipedc 
9. rndiistry O. 1835 bv Priam 
1(1. Lady Kvelyn O. 1840 by Don 
|ohn 

11. Rhcclycinu O. 1S47 by Wintonian 

12. Sonitstrcss (). 1849 by Bird- 
catcher 

13. Man-liinness O. IS.VJ by Mel- 
bo Lime 

It. Mincepie O. 1853 by Sweetmeat 
15. Ini|»»'ricns<' L. 1854 by Orlando 
10. Caller (hi L. 185s by Stockwell 
17. Qnecn B<'rtlia <). isiidbv Kings- 
ton 
is. Heiralia (). ISIVJ bv Stockwell 



19. Brigantine O. IStJO bv Buccaneer 

20. Hannah 0.[,. ISOs bv King Tom 

21. A|»oloi;y O.I.. Is71 by 

-Vdventurer 

22. I'jiguerrande JO. 187:! b\- 

\'<Tmouth 

23. Jenny Howlef O. ls77 by The 

Palmer 
2 I. (■elieimnlss O. ls79 bv 

Rosicrucian 
25. Dutch Oven 1.. Is79 by Dutch 

Skater 
20. Hnsyliody (). Is.sl by Petrarch 

27. Mrs! Hntferwick ().' isOO by St. 

Simon 

28. .\miable O. Is9l bv St. Simon 

29. La Sajjessc O. 1892 bv Wisdom 
.30. Caiilcrluiry Pil'irim O. 1893 by 

Tristan 



316 



Heredity. 



33. C.eorge Frederick D. 1871 by 

Marsyas 

34. Robert the Devil L. 1877 by 

Bertram 

35. OrmoiHlc D.L. ls,s3 by Bend Or 

36. Ayrshire D. 188-5 bv Hampton 

37. Poiiovaii D.I,. 1886 by Galopin 

38. Common D.L. 1888 hv Isonomy 

39. Isiiiirlass D.L. 1890 bv Isonom'v 

40. Ladas D. 1891 Idv Hampton 

41. Sir Visto D.L. 189-2 bv Barraidine 

42. Persimmon D.L. 1898 bv St. 

Simon 

43. Jeddah D. 189.") b\- Janissary 

44. Wildfowler L. 1895 bv Galhnule 

45. Diamond Jubilee D.I,. 1897 by 

St. Simon 

46. \^olodyovski D. 1898 by 

Florizel II. 

47. Doricles L. 1898 bv Florizel II. 

48. Ard Patrick D. 1899 by St. 

Florian 

49. Wool Winder L. 1904 by 

Martaeon 



31. Cap and Bells II. O. 1898 by 

Domino 
3-2. Pretty Polly O.L. 1901 by 

Gallinule 
33. Signorinetta D.O. 1905 by 

Chaleiireux 



6 Free Generations. 



1. 
2. 

3. 
4. 



John Bull D. 1789 by Fortitude 1. 
Hannibal D. 1801 bv Driver 

Teddiiiiitoii D. 1848 by Orlando 2. 

Daniel O'Rourke D.' 1849 by 3. 

Birdcatcher 4. 

6. West .Viistraliaii D.L. 1850 by 5. 

Melbourne fi. 

6. Ellington D. 1853 bv Flying 

Dutchman 7. 

7. Gamester L. 1856 b\- The Cossack .s. 

8. Thormaiihv D. 1857 by (Mel- 

bourne) or Windhound 9. 

9. St. Albans L. 1S57 by Stockwell 10. 

10. Macaroni D. 1860 by Sweetmeat 11. 

11. Lord Clifden L. i860 by New- 

minster 



The Yellow Filly O. 1783 by 

Tandem 
Winsjs O. 1822 by The Flyer 
Deception O. 1836 bv Defence 
Cnieiflx O. 1837 bv Priam 
Our Nell O. 1839 by Bran 
Mendicant O. 1843 by Touch- 
stone 
Mincemeat O. 1851 by Sweetmeat 
Blink Bonny D.O. 1854 by Mel- 
bourne 
doverness O. 1855 bv Chatham 
Sunbeam L. 1855 bv Chanticleer 
Fille de L'Air O. 1861 by Faugh- 
a-Ballagh 



-t. hibiL-oiliiii;. :3]7 

1-2. Blair Atliol DA.. lyCil by Stock- H. Achii-vniit'iu I., isdl by Stock- 
well ««"1I 

1:!. Lord Lvoii D.l.. lSfi3 l)v Stock- I'i. Korinosa O.L. hsii.j by Buccaneer 
well ' II. L(>iu'l.v (). lsS-2 by Hermit 

14. Favoiiiiis 1). ls(')S hv Parmesan 1"). Miisa O. 189G by Martagon 

1."). Crciiutriit' n. isiiO b\- Parmesan Ki. La Roche O. 1897 by St. Simon 

](■). W'enlock L. Is(i9by LordClifden 17. Sceptre O. I.. 1899 by Persimmon 

17. Doiicastt'i- D. 1870 bv Stockwell 

is. C'raio- Millar L. 1872 bv Blair 
Athol 

19. Kisltcr D. 1K7;3 by Buccaneer 

20. Bend Or D. 1877 by Doncaster 

21. Ossian L. 1880 by Salvator 

22. Kihvarlin L. 1884 by .Arbitrator 
28. C'icero D. 1902 by Cyllene 

21. Troutbeck L. 1903 by Ladas 



7 Free Generations. 

1. i^lo,,nisbury D. 1836 by Mulatto I . Brown Duelicss O. 18-58 by 

2. Warlock L. 18.53 by Birdcatcher l<"lving Dutchman 

3. Iroquois D.L. 1878 by Leaming- 2. Miss Jitmniy O. 1883 by Petrarch 

ton -3. Memoir O.L. 1887 bv St. Simon 

4. La Floche O.L. 1889 by St. 
Simon 

The names of stallions and mares printed in heavv tvpe in above list 
distinguish those successful in breeding. As this classification is especially 
difficult with mares, a number of same are further distinguished bv printing 
in italic type as doubtfully succe.ssful. There is still to be noticed that the 
stallions and mares born after 18!)') have not come into consideration, as the 
time of tlieir activity is still too short to righlh' classify them. 



318 



Heredity. 



Xuinber of male and female winners of Derby, St. Leger and Oaks 
arranged according to free generations. 



r. 


Burn before and 


in 1905. 


l^orn before and 


in 1849. 


Born between 1850 and 
1905 inclusive. 


'^ 


Colts. Fillies. 


Total. 


Colts. Fillies. 


Total. 


Colts. 


Fillies. Total. 


II 


] 




1 


1 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


1 


.5 

111 


4 


(11 


3 


4 


7 


2 

(1) 


— 


2 

(1/ 


2 


24 


22 

(1) 


46 

(1) 


18 


17 


.•55 


6 


5 

(1) 


11 

ID 


3 


50 

(4) 


(3) 


(7) 


m 

(ii 


24 

(1) 


63 

(2) 


11 

(3) 


m 

(2) 


214 

(5- 


4 


50 


36 


86 


40 


24 


64 


10 


12 


22 




(31 




i3j 


(2) 




(2) 


(1) 




111 


5 


49 

(9) 


(6) 


81J 

(14) 


24 

(1) 


12 

(1) 


36 

(2) 


25 

(8) 


204 


454 

(8) 


6 


24 


17 


41 


4 


6 


10 


20 


11 


31 




13) 


(•■i) 


«i) 








yi) 


(31 


(6) 


7 


3 


4 

(2j 


7 

(2) 


1 


— 


1 


2 


4 

|2) 


6 

(2) 


Total 


206 


1,5(J 


:i56 


130 ' 87 


217 


76 


63 139 




(■20) 


lU) 


(34) 


(4) 


(2) 


(6) 


(lli) 


(8) 


(24) 



The figures in brackets indicate the number of winners in two classical 
races. Each of the winners in dead-heat races is counted with J. From the 
above unfortunately small statistics of the above table one can draw the 
following conclusions : — 

1. On the whole the most of the classical winners are found among the 
4 free generations, next to which follow 3 and 5 free generations. 

•2. Up to the middle of the past century the 4 free generations pre- 
dominate also. The 3 free generations, however, excel remarkably the more 
removed inbreedings with 5 free generations, as also the 2 free generations 
do the (3 free generations. 

3. From the middle of the past century up to now tiie whole picture has 
been changed in favour of a more removed inbreeding. Here the 5 free 
generations appear to be the most favourable only, after which follow the 
more removed inbreedings with 6 free generations, and finally that with I 
free generations. 

4. Lastly, it is worthy of note that the winners of two classical races 
have been more numerously represented with the more removed inbreedings. 

The same change in favour of the more removed inbreeding is sho\yn 
in the following table, in which the percentage of stallions and mares most 
successful in breeding is reckoned from the above list. Accordingly, the 



4. In breed ill!. 



3T.) 



prrccnlage of stallions iiiosl succL'ssful in brcctiino' iiicicascs wilii the nunibcr 
of free generations up to 6 free generations, in the rase of nlal•|^s cxen up U; 
7 free generations. .Mtliough the statistics arc somewhat small for these 
conclusions, and tiie right assessment of the stallions, and cspeciallv of the 
mares, with regard to their successful acli\il\- at rlie slud, is often verv dil'li- 
cult, the regular increase is still \vorth\' of not<-. There is \ei to be 
mentioned that every doubtfully successful mare has been countetl in the 
following table on!\- with i. 

The male and teiiiale winners of l)erl)\-, .Si. Leger and ()aks 
born until the \ear 18!!") inclusive. 







Colts. 






Killi.-. 


Free 
Generations. 


Number. 


Anuiiij. 
successful 

Number. 


si which 
in breeding. 

- % 


Number. 


.\mongst which 
successful in breeding. 

Number, j % 


II 


1 


II 









1 


4 





II 


4 


1 -s. 


■) 


24 


5 


20.8 


22 


6 21, -2 


H 


45) 


12 


24.5 


32 


m («l,!l 


i 


47 


12 


25,5 


:« 


224 M,2 


5 


44 


14 


31,8 


») 


204 6S.-'^ 


fi 


22 


13 


59,1 


14 


lit 71,4 


1 


:-; 


I 


:«,8 


4 


:i 7''." 


Total 


1U4 


57 


29,4 


141 


824 1 58,5 



In the above list of classical winners also proved in breeding is omitted 
Flying Fo.\, as he was only born in 189C). He was bought bv .Mr. Blanc 
for a million francs at the auction. His successes on the racecourse were 
remarUable, and at the stud, at least at the commencement, he was strikinglv 
successful. His exj^cnsive purchase further proved to be a good business. 
Many breeders have been induced by this example to risk such clo.se inbreed- 
ing (1 free generation) in the hope of obtaining similar successes. .\n exact 
study of the Thoroughbred breeding, and an impartial consideration of this 
case, would have been able to provoke manv scruples. Flying Fox was a 
grandson of the marvellous horse Ormonde, and his father, Orme, who, as 
is well known, nearlv died of poisoning shortlv before the Derby, was just 
as remarkable a horse. Bred in England's best stud, trained bv the past- 
master. Porter, on the hilly training-ground of l\ingsclere, and .set apart as 
stud stallion in France's best stud, F'lying Fox has been bred to as man\- 
first-class mares as perhaps any other sire in England or F" ranee. His olT- 



:3'20 Heredity. 

springs were reared and trained regardless u( cost, and finall\' ridden in an 
excellent manner by the best jockey' we had in Europe since the death of 
\rcher. All these things are powerful forces, which ought to increase much 
the chances of the offsprings of Flving Fox and repair much that exag- 
gerated inbreeding had damaged. If I'^lying I-'ox should (jnce — which J 
doubt — leave behind in his jjrogeny imperishable pillars of Thoroughbred 
lireeding, he would be, bv the side of manv miscarried attempts, the third 
successfid one of this group (with 1 free generation). Paulowitz, born 1813 
by Sir Paul, foundation sire of Buccaneer, was the first, but even his suc- 
cess commenced first with his grandson, Ion, when the latter produced the 
Derby winner Wild Dayrell. The second is Barcaldine, born 1878 by 
Solon, and sire of W'hitefield, Morion, C.oodfellow (sire of Chalereux). 
Espoir, Wolf's Crag, Sir Visto, and Marco. If Flying I-'ox became at an\ 
time the third in this group, perhaps the natural power of the virgin soil or 
the excellent horse pastures of Argentine, where two of his sons now breed, 
will cause this. Where and what are, however, the four own brothers and 
two own sisters of Flying Fox? Exempla docent! 



CHAPTER V. 
Hereditary Faults. 



First of all llie (luestion to be answered is, What is transmitted? 
Incredible small details and shades in the build, the walU, and teni])erament 
are transmitted. Above all, the proportions of the individual parts of the 
bodv are transmitted, as well as llie leni,nh and smoothness of hair, small 
hair-curls, couraj^^e and timidit\', maliLjnit\- and conlidence, bad or f,'ood 
fertilitv, even immunity apainst certain illnesses; longevity, habits, acquired 
faculties; in short, nearl\- ever\thing'. So-call(>d hereditary faults, however, 
as blindness, spavin, biting, broken windedness, roarin<j, etc., are more 
seldom transmitted, sometinies not at all. 

In s[)ite of the intentional use for nianv \ears of breeding; material which 
sufYered from |)eriodic ophthalmia (moon blindness), we did not find in 
TraUehnen anv examples of the transmission of bliiulness, or of llic dis- 
position thereto, arisinjj from ]ieriodi(" o]ohth;dmia. In nian\' low-lvinj; 
distric-ts (in Trakchnen, the Kalpakin h'arm), and especi.-ill\- b\- cloxcr hav 
fnjm undrainecl tiflds. horses arr often afflicted in dani]) vears with periodic 
ophthalmia, which frecpientiv leads to blindness. Accordins^ to experiences 
at 'Irakehnen, foals of blind mares are no more subject to the periodic 
ophthalmia than others, perhaps tMcn less so. .\ccordin<^ to the latest 
researches into the nature of ,spa\in and periodic oi^hlhalmia, scientific men 
(in the first ranl'C Professor DieckcrholT in a lecture in 1001 on the subject of 
hereditary faults in brci'dinj:;^ lK)rscs) lia\-e ijronounccd aLTainsl their 
inheritance. 

In the tollowiny list, the names of -J.") brood mares in Trakehnen are 
given, which, in conscijin-nci' of periodic ophthalmia became blind of one 
eye. This blindness usuallv occurs w ith brood mares before their sixth \ear, 
often even in llK'ir first year. In some cases the brood mares mentioned 
also became, in the course of lime, blind of the other eve. These brood 
mares have up to the summer of lOUT. produced 1M1 living foals, of which 
up to nf)w (August, 1907) only 2 have sulTered from periodic ophthalmia. 
/.(■., firstly, ihecoh jiirn I'hl b\- Optimus out of |esi (No. 10 of (he lisl). born 

X 



322 



Heredity. 



List of Brood Mares at Trakehnen which became Blind in consequence 
of Periodic Ophthalmia (Moon Blindness). 





Names of Brood 




Sires of Brood 


Of 


which were 


No, 


Mares 


Born 


Mares 


Living 
Foals 


Country 
Stallions 


Brood 
Mares 


1 


Ecke 


1871 


N'enerato 


16 


3 


3 


2 


Ebbe 


1876 


Venerato 


8 


2 


1 


3 


Instanz 


1879 


Journey 


16 


4 


4 


i 


Hydra 


1881 


Journey 


13 


4 


7 


5 


Trojanerin 


1881 


Hector xx 


16 


4 


6 


6 


Pragr 


1882 


Tunnel 


13 


4 


2 


7 


Pereskie 


1884 


Furstenberg- 


7 


2 


2 


8 


Alda 


1885 


Tunnel 


12 


1 


3 


9 


Veglia 


1891 


Barometer 


5 


— 


1 


10 


Jesi 


1893 


Hirtenknabe 


8 


2 


2 


11 


Pyrotechnik 


1893 


Euphony xx 


6 


2 


— 


12 


Ibiza 


1894 


Mirmidone xx 


8 


2 


1 


13 


Jugendliebe 


1894 


Leporello 


6 


— 


2 


14 


Learose 


1894 


Leporello 


5 


1 


1 


15 


Daniela 


1895 


Orcus 


5 


— 


1 


16 


Handarbeit 


1896 


Euphony xx 


7 


1 


1 


17 


Livonia 


1896 


Mephisto xx 


6 


— 


— 


18 


Jedwede 


1897 


Euphony xx 


5 


1 


— 


19 


Andacht 


1898 


Fanfarro 


3 


— 


— 


20 


Gunst 


1898 


Le Borda xx 


4 


— 


— 


21 


Arche 


1899 


Larifari 


4 


— 


1 


22 


Marterbank 


1899 


Moeros xx 


1 


1 




23 


Arende 


1900 


Larifari 


3 


Still too 




24 


.^rtistin 


1900 


Piper 


2 


j young 




25 


Paarunsf 


1900 


Piper 


2 


. 






Total 


181 


sa 


38 












Including :i 

Royal Stud 

Stallions 





29th of March, 1903. The first attack occurred on the 8th of April, 1903, and 
the second, 8th of October, 1904. In both instances it was in the left eye (the 
dam was ill and became blind also in the left eye). These two attacks were 
completely cured. As a three-year-old, Jorn Uhl was found to be sound of 
eye, and was sent as a country stallion tf) Gudwallen, where he stands still 
to-dav. The second is a case of a colt, Thronerbe by Optimus out of 
Trojanerin (No. 5 of the list), born 16th November, 1903, Thronerbe was 
the 16th foal of Trojanerin (23-vear-old), who first became blind in the left 
eye, and later on blind of both eyes, caused bv periodic ophthalmia. He 
caught periodic ophthalmia on the 12th of November, 1903, and was cured, 
the disease leaving a small cataract behind. In damp years, periodic 



o. Hereditaix l".iuUs. :i2'3 

ophthalmia is fairly frequent in Trakehnen. From the Ist of April. lUOJ, to 
the Lst of February, 1904, for instance. 4.s horses (chiefly weaning foals, 
yearlings and two-vear-olds) caught the periodic ophthalmia. Of the 4N ill 
ones, 17 were cured without leaving behind any abnormal changes in the 
eve. Also in the case of brood mares which suffered from fjcriodic 
ophthalmia, but w hich did not become blind, and were cured of same w ithout 
leaving behind some abnormal changes, there was not observed any trans- 
mission of a disposition to this disease in their progeny. On the contrary, 
as in the case of the 25 blind mares, there seems to occur the transmission of 
a certain immunit\- against the disease mentioned. 

1 Unow several cases in East Prussia, which go to show that tln' breeding 
use of stallions which have become blind, through periodic ophthalmia, 
is harmless. I await with special interest the results of two stallions 
(Elfenfels 1901 bv Obelisk out of Elisenau, and Musensohn 1901 by Optimus 
out of Mumme), each of whom became blind of one eye in Trakehnen, 
through periodic ophthalmia, and who have been covering since 1905 up to 
the present time in the Livland vStud, Torgel. I also still await the result 
of Roval Stud stallion Ingrimm, who has been covering since 1907 in 
Trakehnen, and who became blind of his right eye in 1904, through periodic 
ophthalmia. 

The scientific researches into the nature and causes of spavin and ring- 
bone have so far succeeded that neither of them may be taken as a uniform 
disease. The researches and opinions on spavin of horses published by 
Professor Eberlein (Berlin, 1897), have been verified by many celebrated 
scientists. One may easily accept Eberlein's views as to the nature and 
origin of spavin, also for ringbone, just as I myself do hereafter, without 
wishing to give even an approximately exhaustive explanation of the many 
variations and differences of spavin and ringbone. 

Spavin as well as ringbone are caused either by contusion of the joint 
bones or by a stretching of the ligaments which hold the joint bones together, 
or, in other words, always by a traumatic cause. .Spavin or ringbone in 
consequence of a rachitic disease happens very seldom in our modern im- 
proved breeds. I, at least, have never come across such a case. In the case 
of spavin or ringbone caused by contusion, there ensues, in consequence of 
a strong and sudden pressure on the bone substance, an inflammation of the 
bone, at first becoming loose and then tight {ostitis rare facials ct con- 
densans). In the case of spavin this inflammation of the bone will prin- 
cipally affect the cuneiform bones {os ccntralc and as tarsalc 111); in the case 
of ringbone it will afTect the long pastern bone and the short pastern bone. 
In consequence of the inflammation of the bones, the nourishment of the 
articular cartilage suffers; there ensues an inflammation of articular cartilage 
(chroiiditis), and thus are caused the exudations and proliferations of bone 
originating in the articular surface, assuming very different dimensions, 
attacking the neighbouring pcriost, and afterwards developing into bone 



:3-24 Heredity. 

substaiu-e (formation of Osteopliytes). Thus arises the real spavin or liie 
articular ringbone. 

In the case of spavin caused by stretching (periarthritis), or ringbone 
{periarticular), the exudations of the bone begin from the appendage pieces 
of the torn ligaments, and not from the joint surfaces. They may then spread 
round the joint, and in serious cases also attack the jf)int surfaces, which 
they destroy, just as in the case of the articular form of the disease. Spavin 
commencing at the joint ligaments and the periost is very rare. This mav 
be explained by the fact that, in the case of the so-called small ankle-joints, 
the joints are very tight (as opposed to the coronet joint), admitting of no, 
or at least \ery slight, sidewa\- movements. If the spavin originates at the 
appendage of the side ligaments or the periost, a push or a blow has gene- 
rally been the cause of it. Perhaps the so-called break (in German Absats), 
which is so frequently found in the case of covering stallions, belongs very 
often to this periarthritic form of spavin. According to Professor Eberlein, 
the proportion of the frequency of spavin caused bv pressure to that caused 
by tearing, is as Oo to 5, while in the case of ringbone (according to LMrisky) 
the frequency of articular to periarticular is as 60 to 40. 

Professor Mberlein writes about the transmission of spavin as follows : — 
" The question, May horses attacked with spavin disease be used for horse 
breeding or not? is a verv important one for horse breeding. Against the 
previousU- held views, Dickerhoff rightly emphasises that every genuine 
case of spa\in deserves a special judgment in this respect. As I have shown, 
when discussing Aetiology, the primary Ostitis rare facieiis of the small 
tarsus bones owes its origin to a mechanical contusion of the small tarsus 
bones, and may arise even in the best formed hocks and thighs from outside 
causes. Therefore spavin is in itself not hereditary. Scientifically it is 
proved, however, that a deficient formation of the hocks and a faultv position 
of the thighs, which predispose a horse to this disease (causa interna) are 
transmitted. Thus it follows that with regard to spavin, onlv horses with 
defective hocks or a faulty position of the thighs on the one hand, and badly 
constructed bones on the other hand, must be excluded from breeding." 

I fullv subscribe to the view of Professor Eberlein, and extend the same 
also to ringbone, which, in mv opinion, in itself is just as little transmittable 
as spavin. With regard to ringbone, I should like to mention yet that 
horses with short and upright pasterns are more liable to be attacked by the 
articular ringbone arising from contusion, while horses with long and 
sloping pasterns are more exposed to tiie periarticular ringbone arising from 
tearing. 

The certainty with which scientists and laymen have believed in the 
undoubted transmission of spavin, ringbone, and moon blindness, shows 
very clearly the low standing of horse breeding as a science. I do not 
know of any recognised practical example as a proof of the transmission of 
spavin, neither have 1 ever met anyone who could point out to me such an 



5. Hereditarx l-'aults. ;{-J5 

CN.'implc. As far as I Uikiw, llu- follow in j,"^ horses had llu- opporliinitv to 
transmit spavin : — 

1. Pcrcival, born TraU. 18()7. bv Lahin* xx and Peran<jfa bv Oromcdon, 
was for four vcars rountrv stallion in Gudwallan. and was stabk-d at 
Riiseninijken. In 1S72 he was set aside because he distint'th- showed spavin, 
and was used very much afterwards as stallion at (u-orj^'eniiuri; up to J.ss."), 
at that time the pri\ate stud of Herr von Simpson. Tin- two iiocks of 
Percival are preserved in the Trakehncn hippoloy^ii al musciiu), and show 
thai he siitTered from spa\in, caused iiv C(»ntusion. Amonj^ his \rrv 
numerous foals (about 200 militar\- remounts. .')() brood mares, and •_*•") counir\- 
stallions). I have heard of non*- beinj,' suspected of spaxin. Amoui^ the 
sons f)f Pcrcival, C'apitain, born Inn], later stallion in ("ieori,'enburn;, must 
be specialh' mentioned, because he was used verv extensix'elv for tnc \-ears 
in Cleore;enburj^, was then sold as stallion to .Miinich. and was the sire of 
the chestnut stallion lilondel. born lSN(i, which won a prize in HiTlin in l.s*.)(> 
at the <j;reat horse show, and was afterwards sent to Heherbcck as i\o\aI 
Stud stallion. Amonj.;' the whole of his prosj^env I ne\cr hc'ird ot one sus- 
pected of spavin. 

•1. The well-known l)erb\ winner Miindii,', Ijorn l.s;j-J, jiccordiny to the 
description of the prepared left hock j,'i\en h\ the stutl inspector. Kutzbach 
(published in a hand-book for horse breeders bv Count I.ehndortT. pa<xe 1-).S). 
undoubtedlv suffered from spaxin causi-d b\' contusion, just as Percival 
tlid. Miindii; was for the years Koyal Stud stallion in Trakehnen, and 
aflervvards for four vears in the private stud of Julienfelde, in Mast Prussia, 
with \er\ i-xcellent results. I lis proij;en\' showed no sii^ns of spavin. 

8. Optimus, born IKSO, bv Odoardo and Optima bv The Colonel, had 
spavin on the near hind, as can be tlislincth' seen from the skeleton, preserved 
at the hippolopical museum at Trakehnen. Amon^r his \er\- numerous 
proj.H'n\-, I do not know one case of spavin; on the contrarv, the Optimus 
pro^env excel, like their sire, in their ver\ j.rood and stront,' h(Kks. 

4. The Thoroufjlibred sire, The (iem-ral. born I>^N'J. b\ Childeric and 
Coturnix, suffered alr(>ad\- from spavin when Koval .Siutl st;illion at 
Trakehnen, and was afterwards alwavs lame of spavin. Neither at 
Trakehnen, nor during his sixteen vears' acii\it\ at (iudwallan, h;ts he. as 
far as I know, produced anv progenv with anv suspicion of spavin, lie 
was for manv vears the Thoroughbretl sire in the Ciudw.-illan district, which 
has produced most militarv remounts (about .'ioil). MorroMr, In- has pro- 
duced in Trakehnen 1") countrv stallions and H* brood ni.ircs, and in (iud- 
wallan about l'O brood mares afterwards registered in llu- l.;i>i Prussian 
Stud Book. 

."). 'The i)erl)\ winner Hermit, liorn iMil, had spavin on the near hind, 
as his skeleton, which is preserved in the London X'eierinary .School, dis- 
lincth' shows. I lis verv numerous progenv, howev<-r, excelletl in j^'ood and 
strong horks. I do not know of on«- single offspring of llermit suflering 
from .spavin. 



326 Heredity. 

G. The Trakehnen brood mares, Aqua, Emina, Ina, and Juniata, 
suffered from spavin (the hocks are in the Trakehnen Museum), and of their 
very numerous progeny none was suspected of spavin. 

The Thoroughbred staUions, Bkie Blood born 1876 by King Tom and 
Marigold, and Elsass born 1870 by Napoleon and Esther, suffered from 
ringbone (Periarticular). The respective preparations of the two stallions 
are in the Trakehnen Museum. Blue Blood has not transmitted this disease 
in Trakehnen, and I am assured the same thing about the progeny of Elsass. 
I believe, however, that the disposition to articular ringbone is often trans- 
mitted, as the upright pasterns, bulging out somewhat to the front, lend 
themselves easilv to transmission. In some breeds of horses there are whole 
families which are addicted, more or less, to articular ringbone, whilst I do 
not know a similar case of periarticular ringbone or spavin. It is difficult 
to work- horses lame from spavin. Their development without work is 
unfavourable. This is the only reason that horses which are lame from 
spavin when \oung are little suitable for breeding purp(3ses. 

The crib-champing, gasping, tongue-sucking bad habits, to which for 
the most part only very tough and durable horses are addicted, are, accord- 
ing to experiences in Trakehnen, transmitted by the sire to about o per 
cent, of his progeny. 1 ]5resumc that brood mares also transmit these faults 
to about the same extent. 1 do not kncjw of anv actual examples as, in spite 
of using for many years fi\e brood mares which were crib-champers, not one 
of their foals has inherited it. I must here remark that gasping and tongue- 
sucking are transmitted just as seldom as crib-champing. I have known 
some cases, on the other hand, in which nearlv 50 per cent, of the foals of 
a brood mare, who herself was not a crib-champer, became alreadv as foals 
crib-champers, without tiieir parents or grandparents having been addicted 
thus. It is an old rule that stallions which are crib-champers do not transmit 
it if burnt on account of a break'-down. This is right in those cases onlv 
in which the stalli(in has acquired this habit through ennui after a break- 
down, during the repose which follows the burning and which lasts for manv 
weeks. This crib-champing is not transmitted as easily as that which foals 
acquire whilst grazing, without any reason. Finally, 1 consider that the 
chances of transmitting crib-champing, or the disposition thereto, is so very 
small that the breeder need not to take it into consideration. If the lameness 
caused by spavin, or blindness, or broken wind, interferes with the gymnastic 
development of the body, and if crib-champing often causes attacks of colic, 
F would not, of course, recommend such animals for breeding material. 

The question on the transmission of roaring is more difficult. In the first 
ijlace, roaring seems to be more general in certain breeding districts. The 
damp and foggy climate of England produces more roarers than France, 
but in .Vmerica and Australia thev are the exception. The early born foals 
are in I-'ngland said to be more inclined to roaring than the late born ones. 
Roaring is a consequence, principally, of the break-down of the hindmost. 



5. Herediuiiy Faults. 327 

mostly left, aspcrgilliim nuisck- (rrico-arylaenuideus) or its nerve, which 
affects the movement of the aspergillum cartilage necessary for easy breath- 
ing. If this break-down has been caused by severe glanders, influenza, or 
by over-exertion from racing, only at the end of the third or fourth year, as 
in the case of Ormonde, a transmission of roaring is not to be expected. I 
do not know of anv roarer in the progeny of the roarer Ormonde. Prince 
Charlie has not transmitted this roaring in America. Pocahontas and 
Chamant were roarers. The former did not transmit it at all. and the latter 
verv seldom. The well-known Iliunphrev Clinker of former times did not 
transmit his roaring at all, and the most popular stallion of modern times, 
Gallinule, does not seem to transmit his roaring either. If the roaring, 
however, commences without anv special exertions in racing, and especially 
SO soon as in the second year, ont' nia\- reasonably assume that the general 
weakness of the horse is the cause. Weakness in horse breeding is the only 
real hereditarv fault which is transmitteti with certainty, and it should be 
eradicated b\' the most se\ere meaNures from the breeding material. I once 
knew a verv much jjampered stallion which apparently was not a roarer, 
at least not when galloping the pace he could well perform, but of his 
progen\- about '>() per cent, were roarers when they were trained tor a few 
months as two or ihree-vear-olds. The more tenderlv the horses of a breed 
are reared, the "more roarers will ai)pear. I'^or this reason the Drafters, 
which are reared under the pressure of unreasonable shows, mostly become 
roarers. After these come the dilTerent llalf-breds, according to the tender- 
ness or se\erit\- of the method of rearing, and the fewest roarers are found 
amongst Ste|)pe horses and 'I'horougiibreds. The only difl'erence is tiiat, 
in consecjuence of i^ublic races of 'i'horoughbreds, every roarer is recognised 
and be<-omes known, or that man\- become roarers on account of the too 
great exertion, which is not expected from other breeds of horses. 

The same thing applies to horses whose sinews have l)rokcn down 
through oxer-exertion in training or racing. Horses which break down 
alread\- as two-year-olds in racing, or even in training before racing, may be 
suspected of weakness. The worst, however, art' those which are so bad 
that the\- cannot break down l^ecause they lack the energy and the stride, 
without which th<'v are not subject to those shocks which produce the break- 
downs. Of such horses the Ivnglishman says, " 'I'hey can never go quite 
fast enough to trouble themsehes." 

All dis])ositions to disease and constitutional weaknesses, such as 
biliousness, bonv excrescences, soft and deformed hoofs, as well as all other 
diseases connected with innammalor\- swelling (I-'inscluiss) are transmitted. 
Broken-w iiidedness belongs also to constitutional weakness, and is easily 
transmitletl 1)\ stallions which suffered from it in their early years. In con- 
sequence of illness, and other unknown causes, the transmission by stallions 
difl'ers in certain \ears. I'or example, after inffuenza, ;i mon- unfavourable 
transmission has l)een often noticed. Horses which h;i\i- run much transmit 



328 Heredity. 

their charaoters sometimes worse in their early years. Ormonde, however, 
produced in his first covering year his most important son, Orme, and the 
latter again, in his first covering year, four winners, amongst them the tough 
Ameer, and in the second covering vear Flving Fox, who in his turn pro- 
duced in liis first covering vear Ajax and Gou\ernant. Wild i^avrell 
produced in his first covering year as a four-year-old his best son, Buccaneer, 
and Florizel, who ran up to the age of seven \ears, produced in his first 
covering vear the first I^erbx' winner, Diomed, his best son. Old stallif>ns 
are said to produce more stayers, and young ones metre flyers. 

Just as weakness may be considered the onlv real hereditary fault, in like 
manner hardiness is to be looked upttn as the most important hereditary 
advantage. With hardiness is combined robust health, the most important 
qualitv of all breeding animals. Avoid weakness, improve hardiness, and 
the Alpha and Omega of horse breeding is obtained for producing capable 
horses^ and not horses simpiv fit for shows, or horses which during their 
whole existence are alwavs onlv sold, but reallv ne\er made use of; and there 
are many such ! 

As, of course, no stud can possess faultless breeding material, one must 
try to equalise faults in the conformation of brood mares by mating them 
with stallions which are especially good in these respective parts. Then it 
will be found that high-leggedness, narrowness, and bad temperament, are 
faults which are most difficult to remove bv mating, and therefore belong 
to the most serious faults. Mares which feed badlv are little suitable as 
brood mares, because in all probability thev will also feed their foals badly. 
Mares which are inclined to corpulency, also, feed as a rule badlv, and are 
not to be recommended. The same faults are to be blamed in the case of 
stallions, I:)ut thev are less dangerous. 



CMAI'TKK VI. 
The Transmission of the Coat Colour. 



What com-erns the heredity of the coat colour ? There is, 1 suppcj.se, a yet 
unknown orig^inating force which causes a distinct deviation from all other 
laws of h(Ti-dit\ . The sex, too, appears to play a particular i:)art, and the 
atavism has perhaps no influence at all. Whereas, it is remarkable that a 
distinct atavism is often e\'iclent in the transmission of white marks and 
particular spots. As in the Royal Stud of Trakehncn, for o\er a hundred 
years, in three special studs, blacks (in (jurdszen. W to lod brf)od mares), 
browns (in Danzkehmen, 70 to .S(» brood mares), and chestnuts (in Jonasthal. 
oO to (HI brood mares) have been bred, and in two studs (in Trakehncn Wl to 
100 brood mares, and in liajohrp-tlUn (H) to 70 brood marcs) all colours are 
represented, and mixed with each other, we have plenty nt material at hand 
from which to construct laws as to the transmission ot coat colour. 

There exists a distin<-t ret^ulariiy with grays, chestnuts, and blacks as 
regards transmission. This regiilaritv is as follows: gra\s and chestnuts 
mated only to their own colour, produce either chestnuts or grays, and 
black with black about N jjer cent, chestnuts (often dark chestnius). the rest 
always blacks, never black-brown f)r dark brown. Here we must menticjn 
tliat rubican horsi-s (also rubican chestnuts) also produce at times grays, as 
for examjile, Proserpine (gray) lOO-'i by C'hittabob (chestnut with rubican) 
and C'ybele (chestniM. but 1 cannot say if with rubican). 

In till- General .Stud Rook. X'olunic XX.. 1 have found two casi-s, ;ind in 
V'olume III. three cases, in which hrown foals ha\f hci-n [)rothiied by 
chestmu parents : 

1. OITcrtorv II. (iirown) IMI'.I h\ Kirkham out of (loUl Wave. 

•_'. Wavemore (brown) 10()-J bv Ocean Wave out of Make More. 

:!. C'.-iptain Candid (brown) iSbS bv Cerberus out of Mandane. 

•1. hllba (brow n) Isl.'j bv Stripling out of .Maniac. 

.'). liiarnest (brown) iNOr) by Blizzard out of Mandane. 

Referring to the first ca.se, it must be nK^ntioned that (lold Wave is by 
mistake given as a chestnut in \'olunie XX. of the C.eneral Stud Hook. In 
\olume X\T1., page '_'J, (lold Wave, at that time still unnamed, is rightly 
put dow n as a bro\\ n. 



330 Heredity. 

Referring to the second case, the colour of Wave More, who never trod 
on a racecourse, is either wrongly given, or the dam, Make More (chestnut), 
has been confused with her own sister, born 1891, who was brown. 

In the third case, I suspect that Orville (brown), who during the two 
years previously covered ^landane, also covered her again in 1812 as well 
as Cerberus, and that the owner of Cerberus did not mention this covering, 
which, it seems, was formerly, for different reasons, often omitted. Captain 
Candid ran second in the St. Leger. 

Referring to the fourth case, it must be mentioned that Elba is bv mistake 
given as a brown in \'ol. III., page 139. In Vol. III., page 07, and in the 
Racing Calendar 1818, pages 55 and 147, Elba is rightlv put down as a 
chestnut. 

In the fifth case, I suspect that Whiskev (brow n), who covered Mandane 
in 1803 and 180-j, also covered her in 1804, and that the owner did not mention 
this covering. 

Many cases in the private studs of East Prussia, in which brown foals are 
said to be the offspring of chestnut parents, have proved, on closer examina- 
tion, that their respective dams had been also covered by another stallion 
who was of a brown colour. Also that this second stallion, either b\- mistake 
or for certain reasf)ns, was not mentioned in the certificate of serving (only 
the covering for one stallion, and that the dearer one, is paid for). 

In the appended pedigrees of the best known Thoroughbreds. I have 
given the colours where possible (only in the German edition). I have not 
come across anv case in which chestnut parents had no chestnut foals. The 
remarkably certain transmission of the chestnut colour is even completely 
independent of the colour of the ancestors. There are also cases in which all 
four grand-parents were browns and %et the two chestnut parents always 
produced chestnut foals, as for example, with Kincsem, The Biddy (grand- 
dam of Regalia), and many others. With Maintenon (a chestnut) it must 
be pointed out as a remarkable circumstance that of the four grand-parents 
two were brown and two grays, and with Rouge Rose, also a chestnut, three 
grand-parents were brown and one black. The certain transmission of the 
chestnut coat colour can still be more clearly recognised with the following 
chestnuts : — Diomed, Gladiator, Favonius, Hermit, Trampoline, Cambus- 
can. Pilgrimage, and Merrv Sunshine, where not only the two parents, but 
also the four grand-parents, were brown. In the three last-mentioned cases, 
of eight great grand-parents, only one of each was a chestnut. The case of the 
chestnut Le Sagittaire is remarkable, whose sire, Le Sanc\-, was a grav, and 
the dam. La Dauphin, was a roan (not a grav as given b\- mistake in the 
French Stud Book). Also Dryad (chestnut, and great grand-dam of Delphos), 
whose two parents, four grand-parents, and eight great grand-parents, were 
either brown or gray. In the case of Old Heroine, born 1775 (in Bird- 
catcher's pedigree), we may well take for granted that one of the grays was 
a roan, or that Old Heroine was a rubican. 



C. The Transmission of the Coat Colour. 331 

When both parents are brown, foals may be of any colour, also gray if 
one parent is rubican. The majority of foals, however, will likewise be 
brown. If the parents are of different colours, in most cases the lighter 
colours are more easily transmitted than the darker ones. Grays transmit 
their colour the most frequently and blacks the least frequently. Chestnut 
and black produce most often browns, chestnuts less frequently, and least 
seldom of all, blacks. Brown and black produce more browns and dark 
browns or brownish blacks than blacks. Chestnuts and dark browns produce 
more chestnuts. Chestnuts and lir;ht browns produce more brown, and often 
a dirty chestnut colour. Chestnut colour is the most suitable to get rid of 
the gray colour. Some of the foals will be brown. 

In consequence of the very sure transmission of the chestnut colour, the 
chestnuts are easiest to renew in Jonasthal. They need not give anything 
away from their production, and are even increased bv additions from the 
black and brown stud. The Royal Stud of Trakehnen in East Prussia is 
about 11, 200 acres large, and is composed of 12 stud farms, among which, 
Ciurdszen, with 90-100 black mares; Danzkehmen, with 70-80 bay or brown 
mares; Jonasthal, with -jO-GO chestnut mares; Bajohrgallen, with 60-70 
mares of difl'erent colours; and Trakehnen itself, with 80-100 mares of all 
difi'erent colours, also grav, roan, and piebald — total 350-110 brood mares; 
with all foals — riding, carriage, working horses — altogether 1500-1700 
horses. 

Kemarkable to sav, these statements are in opposition to the fact that 
the chestnuts do not increase amongst Thoroughbreds, and are always in the 
minoritv, although the most celebrated foundation sire, liclipse (of two 
brown parents), and his four sons, PotSos, King Fergus, Mercury, and 
Alexander, were chestnuts; just as the famous stallions which appeared 
later, i.e., Birdcatcher, 'I"he Baron, Stockwell, Blair Athol, Doncaster, Bend 
Or, St. Albans, Sainfoin, Thormanby. Hermit, and many others, were also 
chestnuts. In the three principal English races, the coat colour is distributed 
as follows to the winners and seconds, up to and inclusive of 1907 : — - 

Derby Winners: 94 Browns, Seconds: 90 Browns 

32 Chestnuts, 30 Chestnuts 

1 Black, 3 Blacks 

1 Grav, 5 Grays 

Total 128 horses as winners and 128 horses as seconds. 

Oaks \\'inners: 95 Browns, Seconds: 85 Browns 
31 Chestnuts, 37 Chestnuts 

1 Black, 5 Blacks 

1 Gr;iv. 2 Grays 

Total 129 horses as w inners and 129 horses as seconds. 



332 Heredity. 

St. r.cgcr Winners: 102 Browns, Seconds: 98 Browns 

27 Chestnuts, " 31 Chestnuts 

1 Black, 1 Black 

2 Grays, 2 Gravs 

Total 132 horses as winners and l.'(2 horses as seconds. 

This uniform distribution of the coat colour seems, especially when we 
consider the certain transmission of the chestnut colour, to point to a special 
racing capability in connection with the brown colour. .V classification 
according to decades shows a regular diminution of the chestnuts and an 
increase of the browns among the winners and the seconds. It is remarkable 
that the predominant colour of the North-African horses was bav or brown, 
and that, especially in recent years, the most important and best influence on 
the building up of the Thoroughbreds is ascribed to the North-African 
horses, it is furthermore remarkable that chestnuts mated to each other 
produce more colts, and black- liorses more fillies. 



cii\pri-:R VII. 

The Art of Mating. 



Till-: most iiiipoilant ihiiig in i>ra(tical iTialini; at a sUid is for the breeder 
to favour the brood mares more tiian tiie rovering stallions, i.e., in the case of 
each brood mare he must consider witli which of the available sires she has 
the best chances of producing a good foal, and not vice-versa. People are 
\-er\- much inclined to give to the favourite sires the best mares, although 
the former are still untried, whilst the latter have already shown their breed- 
ing capabilitN'. One verv often forgets the natural demand that before 
mating, especialU- in Half-bred breeding, the special breeding result to be 
attained in each single case must be clearly pointed out, instead of which 
people often think that according to the result of the production one can fix 
its mission in excry case afterwards. The uncertaint\- thereby caused in the 
judging of the special factors of mating jjrevents a clear considera- 
tion of all necessar\- points of view. One must endeavour to equalise the 
■faults of the brood mares bv corresponding merits of the coxcring stallions. 
These faults which have to be equalised do not onlv consist in a faulty con- 
formation, as for example, misplaced fore-legs, weak hocks, a too long 
middle part, liigli-leggedness, nanowness, etc., but also in defects of con- 
stitution (hard and tender), of temperament (iiasty, idle, good-natured, 
malign, courageous and cowardly), of walk (wide at the knees, narrow at 
the knees, slow, and full of action), of performance (stayer and flyer, action 
in galloping, trotting, walking), of the use of food, and, finally, in lack of 
(|ualitv, beautv and vigour. Statistics seem to recommend the mating of 
old sires with ycjung mares, and vice-versa. In order not to lose sight of all 
these points of view, it is not only necessary to have an exact detailed know- 
ledge of the brood mares and their previous foals, of the available sires and 
their progenv, but also of thi' ancestors. The reversions to grand-parents 
and great grand-parents (.\ta\ism, as it is called), are so frequent that a 
breeder who does not duly consider them will have manv bitter experiences. 
I'urtliermore, a knowledge of the ancesir)rs is ref|uircd as tar as to rightly 



334 Heredity. 

judge of the ancestors occurring on both sides — representing, so to speak, 
a barb — i.e., to righth' estimate tiie basis of inbreeding when intending in- 
breeding with 3 to 6 free generations, which is most favourable for 
Thoroughbreds as well as for Half-breds. The more prominent, and the 
more suitable in any special case for a desired cjuality, the common ancestors 
are as a basis, tiie closer the inbreeding may be. It is specially favourable, 
if, as shown in the chapter on inbreeding, several inbreedings with different 
basis are possible in one mating. Furthermore, certain blood mixings, which 
experience has already proved to be good, must be preferred. This last 
point of A'iew is especiallv important in breeding of Thoroughbreds, unless 
one breeds Thoroughbreds not for racing, but for riding and hunting. 
When mating Half-breds, one must first of all consider which breeding 
result, even which shade within the given breeding lines, seems to be most 
probable and most attainable in the case of each single brood mare. The 
object must not be too far removed from the type which the mare herself 
possesses. .\ very noble, wiry mare does not recommend herself for the 
production of a Carossier, and vicc-vcrsa, unless the foal is considered as the 
final product, and is not to be used for further breeding. 

\^'hen mating, it is advisable to look at first onlv for the most suitable 
sires according to the pedigree of the brood mare and of the available 
stallions. For Thoroughbred breeding especially, the compilation of the 
pedigrees of the mares and of the sires, as well as of the basis of all their 
inbreedings, in lucid tables, is recommendable, so that one can easilv see 
the possible and the best approved blood mixings, and that the possible 
and desirable basis of the inbreedings attained bv mating ma}- be found. 
When doing this, one will mostlv find several sires which appear suitable. 
They must then be arranged according to the applicability which is recog- 
nised as the most suitable in exclusive consideration of the blood mixing. 
Then weigh the chances of same according to the other above-named points 
of view (deficiencies of conformation, constitution, etc.). Now begins the 
most difficult part of mating, the part which is considered an art, and for 
which no other advice can be given than to weigh exactly the advantages and 
disadvantages of each case of mating, and not to sacrifice in one case any 
more important thing than may be gained in the other. If the result of a 
mating decided on for good reasons does not turn out well, it is advisable 
not to proceed at once to another mating, but to try the same mating at least 
once more. Even with the best mating and the best breeding material, a 
small percentage will alwa3'S go wrong. The fertilisation of brood mares 
is also surer if the covering stallion is not changed. We find the longest 
series of foals for the most part where the covering stallion has been changed 
very seldom, or not at all. Even old Fugger is of the opinion that mares 
conceive easier from that stallion they have been already bred to than by 
another. I consider the doctrine of so-called saturation wrong, for if it were 
right, for example, in the case of Thoroughbred breeding, many more half- 



7. The Art of Maliii},'. 335 

sisters and brothers should have won classical races than own sisters and 
brothers, especially as the number of half-sisters and brothers is larger than 
that of own sisters and brothers. The following table shows that this is not 
the case : — 

1. Derby Winners. 

(a) Own Unilhtrs and Sisiers. 

1. Radamanthus 1787 | , , . 

n T-v-j 1 ir-ni ( bv ustice and Myer. 

2. Dadalus 1/91' • ■' ■' 

3. Archduke 1796 1 u c • .^ 

^ Paris 1803 ' ■' teeter and Horatio. 

0. Whalebone 1807 \ , ,,, , t^ , 

6. ^^•hisker 1812) ''-^ ^^ '''^>' ""^ Penelope. 

7. Lap Dog 1823) , .... , . 

8. Spaniel 1828' ''•^' ^^ '-"alebone-Canopus. 

9. Persimmon 1893 | , .■ f ■ t^ ,. 
10. Diamond Jubilee 1897' ''>' •^'- ■^'"^"" ^"^ Perd.tta. 

(b) Half-brothers and Sisters^. 

1. Spread Eagle 1792 by Volunteer 



r) 



Didelot 1793 by Triumpator ' ~ Highflyer. 

3. Ditto 1800 bv Sir Peter | , , , 

1. Pan 1805 bv St. George I ""'"^ Arethusa. 

5. St. Giles 1829 by Tramp | 

6. Bloomsbury 1836 by Mulatto i ''^"'^ "^'■'^°^ "-^^S- 

7. Galtee More 1894 by Kendal \ , ,, 

o \ J r> * • I Torvn u' c» 1-1 ■ I 'ind -Morganette. 

8. -Vrd Patrick 1899 by St. Morian J ^ 

2. St. Legcr Winners, 
(a) Own Brotlicrs .nid Sisters. 

1. Spadille 1784 1 , „• ua ^ c, 

-, ,. r-1 ir-o-i bv Highrlver and Flora. 

2. \ . Flora l(8r>l ■ '^ 

3. Touchstone 1831 ) , ,. 

, T , ^ Toor- f bv Camel and Banter. 

4. Launcelot 183 ( > 

5. Lord Lvon 18631 , c- , ,1 , t^ 

n X u- ' .. ion A I bv Stockwfll and Paradigme. 

0. Achievement 1864 -> * 

7. Memoir 1887 \ , ,- ^. , ^ . 
or n-1- 1 100a I bv St. Simon and Ouiver. 

8. La Fleche 1888' ■ 

9. Persimmon 1893 \ , r- ,-. , t-. •• 

,,, T^. , T ,., -lon" i bv St. Simon and Perditta. 

10. Diamond Jubilee 180/ ' 

'_ [(h) llalf-brothcrs and Sisters. 

1. Van Tromp 1844 bv Lanercost 1 

2. The Flying Dutchman 1846 by Bay Middlcton ' ''*"" liarbelle. 

3. Common 1888 by Isonomv 1 , .,-, . , 

4. Throstle 1891 by Petrarch / ''^"'^ '^''''"- 



<*36 Heredity. 

3. Oaks Winners. 

(a) Own .Sisters. 

1. Musis 18101 , ,,. 

2. Minuet 1812^ ■ " '''^y ^"t' ^Voodbine. 

3. Memoir 18871 . c c- 

4. La Fl^che 1888/ "^' ^'- ^'"^"" '"'"^ Quiver. 

(b) Il.Tlf-sisters. 

1. Rhedycina 1847 bv Wintonian 1 

2. Governess 1855 bv Chatham / ~ Laurel. 

3. Spinaway 1872 bv Macaroni 1 

4. Wheel of Fortune 1876 by Adventurer / ^''^^ Queen Bertha. 



III. 

The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 



CHAPTER I. 

Judging and Treating Breeding Material, 
(a) Judging Covering Stallions. 



From each breeding horse, be it stalHon or mare, one must demand, first 
and foremost, certain distiiict merits, i.e., prominent parts. Only a breeding 
horse possessing specially prominent characters is justified in having a few 
faults, and the less faults it has the greater they may be. The only un- 
pardonable fault of a breeding animal is bad health and weakness connected 
with it. A too great fear of other faults, which cannot really always be 
avoided, is the surest way to inferiority. Of course, one will estimate the 
faults of breeding material differently, according to the object of the breed- 
ing" in question ; further, in consideration of the characters of the other 
breeding material ; and finally according to sex. 

In Half-bred breeding, a Thoroughbred sire which has little quality, 
and which was a distinct cypher on the course, is just as little to be recom- 
mended as a Half-bred stallion which is too light in the bone and not of 
sufiiciently correct build. The former ought to transmit to his progeny 
principally capabilities and quality, and the latter strength and correctness. 
I mvself prefer an untried Thoroughbred to a proved cypher. A\*ith the 
former there is always a chance that he perhaps might have done something 
of note on the course. Such an untried Thoroughbred stallion which has 
produced prominently in East Prussian half-breedings was, for example, 
Cicero born 1882 by Chamant out of Liane, and perhaps also Kcrl born 
1885 by Lord Colney out of Oceana. In Thoroughbred breeding only a few 
similar examples are known. At this moment only Golumpus and V. Mel- 
bourne occur to me. With Thoroughbred as well as Half-bred stallions, 
one great fault is less injurious than several small ones, especially if there 
are great merits together with the great fault. The best known example of 
former times for this is Soothsayer, born 1808, by Sorcerer out of Golden 



340 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

r.ocks, who had a coarse club foot (Lymphangitis chronica). Only Bay 
Middleton, born 1883, whose dam, Cobweb, was a grand-daughter of Sooth- 
sayer, produced a few foals which also acquired a club foot. Furtlver, the 
following are to be considered as great faults to be passed over : — A strong, 
misplaced forefoot, as in the case of Stockwell ; a bad hock, as in the case 
of Birdcatcher and Saxifrage; roaring, as in the case of Chamant, Gallinule, 
Hawkstone (Euphony's sire), Vorwarts (Half-bred in Trakehnen), crooked 
fore-legs, as in the case of The Wizard (grand-sire of Optimus) and 
Hannibal; crib-champing, or gasping, as in the case of Euphony, Moros, 
and Mirmidone; strong wind-gall, as in the case of Marsworth; bad 
temperament, as in the case of Barcaldine, Friponnier, and Flugel (Half- 
bred in Trakehnen), etc. The progeny of the above stallions, in Thorough- 
bred and Half-bred breeding, has shown that even great faults may be 
combated with success, and that the blood streams of first-class stallions 
have been thus rightly preserved for breeding purposes. A great fault in 
walking — for example, a much misplaced fore-foot — is easier to eradicate 
by correct mating than an undecided walk without a great fault, as in the 
case of the Derby winner Ladas, who seems to walk sometimes close at the 
knee and sometimes wide at the knee, and who, almost without exception, 
transmits a bad walk. The fear of faults, especially distinct faults which 
any fool sees at once and criticises, has just as stagnating an effect in 
breeding as-elsewhere in life, political or scientific. 

Thoroughbred as well as Half-bred stallions must show the breeder 
distinctly for which parts he may expect a prominent transmission, also 
specially suited for improvement, and for which parts he must be particular 
about when mating. One mav obtain success in one direction, but seldom 
in several directions at the same time. A pronounced sire with a distinctly 
sharp build, a free movement from the shoulders, a courageous eye and 
good health, together with a thin mane, a thin, well-carried tail, shows at 
once a good covering stallion. Without going into the well-known demands 
for exterior, I would like to brieflv mention that I prefer a too short neck to 
a too long one, and pasterns which are too long and soft rather than those 
which are too short and upright. Further, straight hind legs rather than 
those which are too curved, and a knee which is a little protruding to a knee 
which is too tapered. 

From the table on page 185, it can be seen that the height of 15.3 
hands to 16.1 hands is apparently the most favourable for Thoroughbreds. 
The same heights are also the best for Half-breds, if the object of the 
breeding is particularlv aiming at capabilities. Greater heights are often 
demanded in many studs in order to satisfy customers, but, unfortunately, 
at the cost of capabilities. Here we again come across the old fight between 
appearance and the real thing. One may here see the danger; how that 
vanity, folly and want of taste may drive breeders into the production of 



1. jiicls^iiif; and Trentins; RrcediiiCT Material. 341 

appearances by producin^^ exagfjeratcd lieiijlus, whicli all modern improved 
breeds nolens volens aim at. 

In Half-bred breeding; as well as Thoroughbred breeding, I prefer, all 
things being equal, the flyer to the pronoimced stayer. For Thoroughbred 
breeding it is certainly more important that the stallion can travel c|uickly 
over short distances than that he can stay for long distances. The best 
stayers of recent times were : (jladiateur, Thurif), Foxhall and Sheen, who, 
although they had good, and even the best chances, only transmitted mode- 
rately. The phenomenal stayer. Fisherman, lias not left one first-class sire 
behind him in Australia. Pronounced flyers over one mile who have trans- 
mitted well are, for example, Buccaneer, Isonomy, Gallinule, Energie and 
Hannibal, etc. On account of their high class, flyers have also frequently 
won longer races, as for example, Isononn- as a four-vear-old. Also 
Chamant, who has equally well transmitted in Thoroughbred and Flalf-ljrcd 
breeding, was a distinct flyer, and proved himself as such, especialiv when 
winning the 2,0(3(3 Guineas, against the subsequent Derby winner, Silvio. 
Even the great C)rmf)nde won liis races generalix- l)v the tactics oi a flyer. 

The best selection of chief covering stallions for Half-bred breeding is 
especialh- difficult, because the objects to be attained are much mt)re 
manifold than in the breeding of Thoroughbreds, which only are wanted for 
winning races. Of course, these difll'erent objects in Half-bred breeding 
can easily be simplified by talcing as the final aim of breeding a satisfactory 
supply of tlie country studs with country stallions, and not tlie sufficient 
capabilities and endurance of cavalry remounts. The latter, however, is the 
chief and final purpose of the most important part of Prussian Half-bred 
breeding. Here again, however, as so often in life, especially in oflicial life, 
the question arises : Shall the affairs be so conducted that people are first 
contented and cause no unpleasantness, or shall they be so arranged that 
one expects to gain the greatest advantage for the public welfare to man's 
best knowledge and belief? The first method is the one usual in America, 
where men laugh at an idealist who desires to further the cause, and, as 
they sav, wants to make man happier than he can comprehend. 

The less Tlioroughbred breeding produces good and strong fuiuiaments 
the more burning becomes tlie question lo (lie Half-bred breeder as to in 
which way he nia\- do justice to this most important retfiiirement in Halt- 
brcds. The history of Half-bred breeds in (lermany, as well as in other 
countries, sliows how bad — almost ruined many studs iiave become by 
refinement and deterioration of the fundaments. Tiiat is the heol of .\chilles 
in our HaH-hreds, for one can scarcely over-estimate the importance of a 
good fundament for a soldier's horse. The work of the breeder in this 
respect is the most important, as well as the most difficult one. 

Unfortunately, one has tried almost everywhere cross-breeding with 
Draft breeds. The favourable results which have often in the first genera- 



342 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

tion been attained by this coarse crossing, have induced many breeders, 
even some Irish Hunter breeders, to continue breeding on this line. Even 
Irishmen, however, on their admirable breeding grounds, soon found out 
that the progeny of these coarse cross-breds was a failure, because it is just 
the coarseness and the weakness of the Drafter, and the light fundament of 
the Thoroughbred, which most surelv are transmitted. Irishmen have, in 
good time, got together the remains of their ancient old Half-bred, called 
draft horse (not cold blood), the best of which are foimd in Countv 
Roscommon. In more recent times they are again trying, with the help 
of the remains of their former native Half-bred horse, to produce the same 
good and strong fundament which their horses formerU- possessed to a 
greater extent, but which had been spoiled by mediocre Thoroughbreds and 
coarse Drafters. 

In this strengtiiening of breeding material, it is at first necessary, in 
Ireland as well as in Germany, to improve the fundament of brood mares 
— a very difficult, unpopular and unpoetical work indeed; because, if one 
strengthens, there is also brought into the breeding many ugly, unavoidable 
traits. One must not forget, however, that the ennobling and beautifying 
is afterwards the easiest work in Half-bred breeding. The most difiicult 
work is to find or breed Half-bred stallions which may be used for the above- 
mentioned purpose. According to the actual constitution of our Half-breds 
and Thoroughbreds, the use of Thoroughbred stallions alone is not sufficient 
for maliing good progress. I further do not believe that one will be able 
to breed such a strong Half-bred stallion with the desired fundament direct 
from a Thoroughbred stallion. In my opinion two generations will be 
necessarv to obtain bv right mating, feeding and exercise, what is wanted. 
If the mating has succeeded and the soil furnishes the necessarv bone-making 
food, one will be only able to obtain a good and strong fundament, such 
as we have in the Steppe horses, to perfection, by grazing lasting as long 
as possible, bv exercise in the summer, and bv a systematic dailv long 
exercise in the winter. 

If the breeder has succeeded in producing such a Half-bred stallion with 
;i strong fundament, he must also have the courage to make good use of 
him, in spite of some faults which he may undoubtedly have, and which 
the merest dilettante can easily recognise. These faults which must be 
passed over will be mainly lack of beauty, harmony and quality, also, 
unfortunately often, a bad wallc. The swinging and correct walk will most 
certainly be bred in later, at the same time as the breed is ennobled 
by Thoroughbreds. Such a bony Half-bred stallion which has become big 
and strong in work will always, especiallv in its younger vears, look angular 
and ugly. Such a stallion will rarelv gain the affection of young breeders. 
These latter will for the most part trv to attain agreeable ideals, such as 
are embodied in the noblest Thoroughbred, and will trouble themselves less 
with the wearying cares just mentioned. 



1. Judsinfr nnd Trcniinjj Breeding' Material. 313 

(b) Judging Brood Mares. 

W'liat I have said aiiout stallions may also be said about the conformation 
of Ijrood mari'S ; yet in the case of tlie latter a greater length of trunk is 
allowed, even if the middle part siiould siifTer thereby. The f(>minine 
ciiaracter alwavs finds distinct expression witii good brood mares. \'ampire, 
the dam of I'lying Fo\', uitii iier conspicuous stallion neck and unfeminine 
coarseness, belongs to the exceptions, and besides the 1899 Derbv winner 
has not produced anything useful. Mares with pronounced hooked teeth 
are nearly always bad dams, and \ery often barren. Statistics further teach 
us that small, wiry mares arc preferable to large, so-called show mares. If 
the dams of classical winners are divided according to their conformation 
into the three military classes — Cuirassiers, Uhlans and Hussars — the most 
approved brood mares will be foiuid in the last lot. Good brood mares of the 
Cuirassier class are few . X'ergissmcinnicht and Pulcherrima, perhaps the 
best approved brood mares in Graditz, were only Hussar types, just as 
Sweet Katie (dam of I'libustier, Amalie von Rdelreich and W'aisenknabe), 
i.a TraNiata (tlani of Hauenfanger and Hochstapler), La Fille du Regi- 
ment (dam of Grimston and Primas), Cantata (dam of Hymenjeus), Gorse 
(dam o{ Goura and Goodhope), Dirt Cheap (dam of Trachenberg), B Flat 
(dam of Paul and Flatterer). Of Fnglish mares mav here be mentioned 
Perditta (dam nf two Derbx- winners), also Mcdora (dam of Zinfandel). Of 
Cuirassier t\pe> which ha\e produced a Derbv winner or similar, I onlv 
know — in I'lngland, St. Gntien's dam, St. Ivditha; in Ireland, Morganette 
(dam itf Galiee .More and Ard Patrick): in France, \'al D'Or's dam, 
W'andora, and Jardy's dam. Airs and Graces; and in Germany, Zama 
(ilannibal's dam). Ilippia, herself an Oalvs winner, is also a big-framed 
Cuirassier lK)rsc, and yet she could not produce anything better than 
Gunnersbur\- by such a good sire as Hermit. I have made the same observa- 
tions in the Half-bred breeding at Trakehnen. The so-called light riding 
liorses in Trakehnen suppK- ilu- best co\cring stallions. The strongest 
brood mares in Gurdszen suppiv fewer good covering stallions, and more 
seldom still chief stud stallions. 'i"he dams of the chief stud stallions 
Polarsturm. i'rince Optimus and Alter Ilerr, had scarcely the calibre to be 
put even in the class of brood mares for so-called light riding horses. Moba 
al.so, the dam of Morgenstrahl, belongs to the Hussar tvpe, and the heights 
of some celebrated brood mares given below support this theory. I'nfwr- 
Umatelv, I know onlv the height of a few of ihem, and even these few, when 
com|)ared with the heights of prominent stallions given on page !>>."). 
show that the most favourable size for brood mares is about 1.5-') to IGO cm. 
(15 hands 1 inch to 1.") hands ."i inchesi, iherefore at least o cm. less than the 
most favourable height of stallions. 



344 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 



Heights of Famous Thoroughbred Mares. 













Size in 




No. 


Names of Mares 


Born 


Sire 


Hands. 


Inches. 


cm. 


1 


Oiieen Mab 


ITS.-. 


Eclipse 


11 


3 


149,9 


2 


Maniac 


18(X5 


Shuttle 


15 


2 


1.57,5 


3 


Velocipede's dam 


1817 


Juniper 


15 


— 


152,4 


4 


Emma 


1821 


Whisker 


15 


H 


156,2 


5 


Bee's Wins 


183;^ 


Dr. Syntax 


15 


2 


157,5 


t) 


Crucifix 


1837 


Priam 


15 


3S 


162,(J 


7 


Pocahontas 


18:^7 


Glencoe 


14 


3 


149,9 


8 


Ghuznee 


1838 


Pantaloon 


14 


3 


149,9 


9 


Miami 


18U 


Venison 


15 


1 


154,9 


10 


Lady Evelyn 


1846 


Don John 


15 


14 


156,2 


11 


Bhnk Bonny 


1854 


Melbourne 


15 


•■^i 


158,3 


12 


Imperieuse 


1854 


Orlando 


15 


3 


160,0 


13 


Pulcherrima 


1873 


Beadsman 


15 


i 


153,7 


14 


Pearlina 


187.5 


Brown Bread 


15 


1 


l.'>4,9 


15 


Perditta II. 


1881 


Hampton 


15 


2 


157,5 


1(5 


Haseljius 


1882 


Elibustier 


15 


14 


156,2 


17 


Morifanette 


1884 


Sprin}jfield 


16 


1 


165,1 


18 


Vitarba 


1884 


Rosicrucian 


15 


1 


151,9 


19 


Sappho 


188(i 


Wisdom 


15 


n 


l.V5,5 


20 


Vision 


1886 


Elibustier 


15 


u 


155,5 


21 


La Fleche 


1889 


St. Simon 


16 


— 


162,6 


22 


Medora 


1890 


Bend Or 


15 


2 


157,5 


23 


Festa 


1893 


St. Simon 


15 


2 


157,5 


24 


Hehii 


1893 


Morion 


15 


3S 


162,0 


25 


\'ictoria 


1904 


St. Simon 


15 


24 


l.Vi.S 



When purchasing or judging Thoroughbred brood mares, one must 
tabulate their pedigree in the female line for about four to five generations in 
order to easily and righth' estimate them. As a contrast to Goos' tables, 
not only the classical winners, but all products of the female blood stream 
which have won races are noted, showing how often thev have run and won. 
Of course, the classical winners are specially mentioned. Thereby one will 
often be surprised to find how few of the many offsprings in the respective 
female blood stream remain in the case of most mares. I give as an example 
of this the estimating table for the mare White Xun, formerly thus con- 
structed. For want of space I have only gone back two generations. The 
type in bold letters means also ran or won as two-vcar-olds. Everything 
which had not won up to the sale of White Xun has been left out, except 
where the progenv of a non-winning mare has won ; for example, Wingrave 
Lass, as dam of Windthorpe. The sires of White Nun, Lady Blanche, etc., 
stand above the respective mares. 



1. Judgiiifj and Treating,' Bifcdin;,' Miitcri.il. 3-4o 

Hermit Thunderbolt Venjjeance 

\Vhitc\uji.2;).4. Lady Blanche 27. 12. C'ordeha 15. 1. 

1882 1868 1862 

1874 Winsjrave Lass by Wingrave 0. 0. 1870 Thunderer by Robin Hood 38. 4. 

1883 Windlhorpe by Tibtorpc 31. 5. 1876 Goneril by Thunderbolt 0. 0. 

1880 Spectre by Speculum 9. 1. 1880 DuUe of Albany K. 3. 

1883\Vhitefriar by Hcrmi< 18. 0. ]ss:l Duchess ul Albany 14..'{. 
(Gratw. St. Goodw.) 

(c) Age and Treatment of Covering Stallions. 

I cannot recommend the use of stallions for covering purposes before 
tlieir fourth vear; firstly, because the stallions generally suffer in their 
development bv reason of this early covering; and secondly, because also 
in Half-bred breeding I have never yet seen good foals produced by three- 
vear-old stallions. In Thoroughbred breeding also, I do not know a case 
of a successful use of a three-year-old stallion. Only in American Trotter 
breeding I must mention the remarUable example of Ilambletonian (10), 
born 1849, who produced as a two-year-old in LSoJ Abdallah (Ij). Abdallah 
(15) became the foundation sire of the celebrated Crescens, born 1894, with 
a record of S.O'ii. The question, up to what age the stallion may be used, 
depends onlv how long he can cover and still fertilise. 1 have never yet 
observed at Trakehnen a diminution in the quality of the foals due to the 
great age of the stallion as long as he remained healthy and was not used too 
much. In Thoroughbred breeding, however, the power of transmission 
seems to have decreased lately from the 19th to the -JUth year, as may be 
seen from a previously given table (page 87), especially if one compan-s 
them with the performances of 19-vear-oids, which are not here mentioned, 
but which are verv favourable. In Half-bred breeding statistics are so 
incomplete that one cannot arrive at anv real conclusions. Many breeders 
in England contend that old stallions produce more stayers; further, old 
stallions and stallions which are much used produce generallv more colts. 
When stallions are verv much used, as sometimes happens in country studs, 
I have now and then observed that the foals become somewhat lighter, as for 
example, in Gudwallen with Halm and Harnisch, and in Trakehnen with 
Optimus. Fertility decreases easily if stallions are too much used in their 
youth, otherwise old stallions fertilise as long as they are healthy even often 
better than young stallions (as already Aristotle and I'ugger have taught 
us). The often observed worse transmission, as well as worse fertilisa- 
tion, on the part of young stallions, especially those who have run much and 
for long, is, in my opinion, caused by the fact that liic transition from the 
course to the stud is too sudden, and therefore injurifuis to health. The 
sensible and good treatment of young covering stallions (especially at Iiaton 
Hall, the Duke of Westminster's stud), has led in the following cases to 
good results in the first covering year : — 



34C The Practical Part of Horsebreeding^. 

1. Donraster — Bend Or — Ormonde and Kendal. 

2. Ormonde — Orme, Llantony and Goldfinch. 

3. Flving Fox — Ajax and Gouvernant. 

4. Galtee More — Irish Lad. 

5. St. Simon — Memoir, Semohna and St. Serf, 
f). Persimmon — Sceptre and Cheers. 

7. riapeolet — Rayon D'or. 

8. \V\\d Dayrell — Buccaneer. 

9. Orlando — Teddington. 

10. Florizel — Diomed. 

11. Highflyer — Rockingham. 

The health of the covering stallions is, therefore, one of the most 
important problems of the breeder. Firstly, there must be a sensible tran- 
sition from the condition of training to that of covering. Stallions which 
have been accustomed to rugs must be slowly broken off the habit, of course, 
in the warm season, and always with the proviso that the stable temperature 
in winter does not sink below 5° C, and is not generally less than 8° C. 
Furthermore, a liorse in training is used to much work. The sudden stop- 
page of all work is therefore injurious to health. When, of course, quick 
work may be left out without injury, the young covering stallion ought to do 
sufficient slow work-, [n which also short canters belong. To sum up. the 
voung co\ering stallions must do dailv fully 2J hours' exercise. As long as 
Old Chamant was in Beberbeck he did his canters daily up to his 20th vear; 
but, of course, I do not wish in implv that ever\- stallion should do cantering 
work up to that age. Mere again the indi\idualising breeder's eve must 
decide how much worlv would be beneficial to anv single stallion. If, for 
example, such a full-blooded and phlegmatic stallion as Minting, when he 
commenced covering, had done iiis cantering work for the 2i hours neces- 
sary daily, he would not have got founder, and he would ver\- likel\- not 
have failed in his first vear as a co\ering stallion, and would verv probablv 
have transmitted better according to his magnificent form as a racehorse and 
to his perfect exterior. Fngland sins most in this respect, bv often taking 
things too easilv, I believe, and many excellent Thoroughbred stallif)ns have 
perished early in conseciuence of having had too little exercise. Old W'oll- 
stein alreadv speaks energeticall\- against the insufficient exercise of covering 
stallions, and says finally : " If you make doctrines, make them so that you 
\-ourselves are not ashamed of them, and that you do not injure the animals. 
Ask the beast itself, and from it you will learn." If cantering does not seem 
any more necessar\- for tin- covering stallion, the best thing to recommend is 
to lead him in comp£in\- with another stallion, and in summer to put him in 
a paddock' w ilh an adjoining iitjx. It is wvv useful for the co\ering stallions 
to be able to see, in the box as well as in the paddrjck, their neighbouring 
stallions. Xf)thing is so conducive to make covering stallions vicious than 
complete isolation. For Half-bred stallions I consider it very useful t« con- 



1. Judging; nnd Treating Bieecling Malciial. 347 

tiinie the trainiiiJi of four and five-\eai--(>lds for about four mimths after the 
covering season, in order to prevent premature ayeini,' and fattening, to wiiicii 
the best and healthiest Half-bred stallions are mostly prone. 

The quantity of food, as well as exercise, must be regulated to suit 
individual cases. During the covering season 1 recommend dail\- 10 to at 
the most 15 lbs. of oats (1 lb. of oats= about 1 litre) in four rations, and about 
10 to l.j lbs. of meadow hay (not clover hay); twice weekly, wheat bran, 
about 2 litres, as a mash, with oats mixed for the evening fund. Ivarly in 
the spring, for about four weeks w hilst casting tiieir coats, daily abwut J lb. 
linseed grcjund or roasted (about a handful tn each feed of oats). After the 
covering season in summer, about (i tu K) lbs. <if oats, and as hmg as it is 
available, green l.ucerne, or green clover with Timolhee. In the case of 
green food special attention must be paid to its being chopped twice daily 
and eaten fresh at once. During green food seasrtn leave oiu the wheat bran. 
Young Half-bred stallions which are still kept in training get, of course, 
more oats, just the same as horses in training. Thev must, however, get the 
green food just the same as the others, imless racing is intended. In the 
autumn, w lien green food is no longer available, gi\e them, for about four 
weeks daily, about H to 8 litres fresh carrots I'lnely chopped. Of course, a 
change frcjm one ration to another must be gradual. 



'&^ 



(d) The Stallions whilst Covering. 

In my opinion, it is most advantageous that one attendant should lead the 
stallion when covering. If two attendants, one on each side, guide the 
stallion with a cavesson rein, they must both be well trained, sensible and 
attentive in order to avoid awkward or tr)o sudden pulling or tightening of 
one or both cavessons when the stallion has tf) be taken or kept bzick. Not 
f)nly is it easy for accidents to happen with twf) attendants, but a stallion gets 
vexed much easier, as the most important personal and friendl\- relation and 
agreement is only possible with one attendant. It is especially much better 
to ha\e only one attendant leading when teaching young stallions. IJesides 
the leading attendant and the man who holds the mare, there is only another 
attendant required tf) stand at the right side of the mare and give the neces- 
sary assistance. Me must pull the mare's tail to one side before the stallion 
mounts, and when nccessarv help on the right thigh the stallion whilst he 
covers, whilst the leading attendant helps him on the left thigh. To guide 
the penis of the stallion into the \agina is the dnt\- of the leading attendant, 
but only as far as is required, and with tlu- view of gradually educating the 
stallion to do it finally himself. The old precept of leading the stallion once 
before the covering in a circle round the mare is verv sensible. This action 
has the eflect of quietening and educating the stallion, tin- mare does not 
become so easily frightened, and the covering is done f|uieily and in the 
place desired and prepared. \'erv likelv this old i)recepi was originallv 



348 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

based on the idea that the good-looking stallion would influence the mare in 
producing a tine foal. It is, of course, essential that there should be the 
greatest quietness during the covering, and that there should not be many 
people, and no dogs, etc., about. I would like to mention one thing more, 
viz., that mounting is facilitated if the mare stands with her fore-feet on 
higher ground. Of the about 200 stallions which I have seen taught to 
cover according to the above rules, I have never vet found one which did not 
learn it in one or two davs, with one exception, when it took eight davs. 
Finally, in all these things, old stud attendants have more experience, and 
in difficult cases always more practical remedies than I am in general able 
to propose. In order to prevent the possible transmission of infectious 
matter of abortion by the penis of the stallion, I recommend that same 
should be thoroughly washed immediately after covering with wadding 
soaked in a solution of chinosol 1 per 1,(HI(), for which purpose the penis must 
be drawn out long with the hand. Of course, during fhis manipulation one 
cannot expect too much patience from the stallion at first, and must accustom 
him to it by degrees. I never yet found a staflion which did not get used to 
it in a very short time. To merelv rinse the penis with an irrigator is not 
sufficient disinfection. 

The best time for covering is about half an hour after the stallion has 
been exercised, viz., in East Prussia, in winter about 9 o'clock, and in 
summer about 7 o'clock in the morning, and if twice covered, in the after- 
noon at 3 or y <j'clock. Stallions must not cover immediatelv after having 
had their oats; there must be at least an interval of pne hour. When 
stallions first begin covering it is advisable to let them cover only three or 
four times per week. Later on, in the case of most stallions, it is most 
advantageous for most stallions to cover once daily without missing. A so- 
called rest day, i.e., when no covering is done, results in most cases in the 
stallion making more effort than is necessary the dav after, which does him 
more harm than the rest day has d(jne him good. A rest day might be useful 
on the day following that in which the stallion has covered twice. Four- 
year-old stallions should never be expected to cover more than once a day in 
their first year of covering. Older stallions ought not to mount twice a dav for 
more than two weeks together, as after that period it would do them harm. 
After several days with one mount per day, two mounts daily can be repeated 
for two consecutive weeks. Here again, however, individuality must be the 
deciding factor. In the cases of especially valuable chief covering stallions 
I would recommend never to let them mount twice daily for more than three 
to four days consecuti\ely, and then for the same number of days once dailv. 
The over-exertion of stallions by covering twice daily for several months 
together, which is frer|uently unavoidable in many country studs, not onl}' 
causes an early infertility of the stallions, but, as already mentioned, their pro- 
geny becomes lighter. I">oni their -JOth year the productive capacity of most 
stallions gradually decreases, and for that reason valuable stallions which 



1. Jiidgitisj and Treating Breeding Material. 



3-19 



are 28 years or older must only in exceptional eases (two to three limes 
monthly) be allowed to cover twice in one day. Stallions are most liable to 
refuse to cover dark coloured mares, especially hlacU' mares. It is therefore 
advisable to iMive a light coloured mare, for preference a grey mare, to get 
the stallion ready, and at the last moment turn him on to the black mare; a 
trick which in most cases is successful. 



Performances of Hambletonian (10) at the Stud. 



In 

the 

^■ear 


Age 

in 

Years 


Number 

of 

Covered 

M.ires 


Foals 
Born 
Alive 


Per- 
centage 
of 
Foals 


Amongst which arc the following Celebrated 
Sons. 


1851 


2 


4 


3 


75 


Al.dallah do), Billy Denton (65) :- 


1852 


8 


17 


13 


76 




185:^ 


4 


101 


78 


77 


\'oIunteer (o5) 


1851 


5 


ss 


62 


70 


Edward Fverett (81) 


1855 


6 


89 


64 


72 


George Wilkes (519) 


1856 


7 


87 


64 


74 


Dexter Record : 2. 17i ! 


1857 


8 


S7 


ftS 


72 




1858 


» 


72 


.54 


75 




1859 


10 


95 


66 


69 


Robert Bonner (270) 


1860 


11 


106 


72 


68 


Bruno 


1861 


12 


98 


68 


69 




1862 


13 


158 


111 


70 


Administrator (357), Dictator (113), Happy 
Medium (400), Harold (413), Chester, 
Sentinel (280) 


1863 


14 


150 


92 


61 


Jay Gould (197), Prosper (907), Idol (44), 
V. Brimo 


1861 


15 


217 


148 


68 


Knickerbocker (200), Messenger, Duroc (106), 
Rysdyk (653) 


1865 


■ 16 


198 


128 


66 


.\berdeen (2"), General Stanton (2545), Socrates 
(287), Strathniore (408), Small Hopes 


1866 


17 


105 


75 


71 


Banker (4114), Bismarck (67), Blackstone (72), 
Deucation (889), Florida (482), Bolton (7C), 
Sweepstakes (298) 


1867 


18 


72 


42 


58 


Cuyler (100), Electioneer (125), Enfield (128), 
Masteriode (595), Drift (.322). \\"altham (687) 


1868 


10 


not 


given 






1869 


20 


22 


18 


82 




1870 


21 


22 


16 


73 


.\uditor (773) 


1871 


22 


30 


26 


87 




1872 


23 


30 


24 


80 


.\rthurton (365), .\rtillery (750), Kisber 


1873 


24 


31 


20 


65 


.Meredith (1307) 


1874 


25 


32 


24 


75 


Egbert (1136) 


1875 


28 


24 


2 


8 





Total 



li«0 



1S« 



350 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

As example of the capabilities of a stallion in the case of reasonable 
management — as is found oftener in America than in England and Ireland — 
the above-mentioned Trotter, Hambletonian (10), born 5th May, 1849, by 
Abdallah I., is worthy of note. It may be especially noticed in the table 
on the preceding page that the percentage of fertilisation and the quality of 
transmission has not decreased after the 20th year in spite of very great use 
(15 years old 217 mares). Hambletonian died in March, 1876, when 27 years 
old, and left behind 150 sires, with 1,490 descendants, which had a record of 
2.30 and better, as well as 80 brood mares, with 110 descendants, which had 
also a record of 2.30 and better. 

Furthermore, the Thoroughbred stallion, Red Prince II., by Kendal, 
has, for example, covered as a 19-year-old in four and a half months in 
Trakehnen 74 mares in 88 servings, and fertilised 66 of same, i.e., 89.2 per 
cent. Hereby it must be mentioned that Red Prince came to Trakehnen from 
Ireland only on the 8th January, during a temperature of 30° C, and the 
covering season finishes at the end of May. 

(e) Age of Brood Mares. 

The best age at which to cover mares is three years, except in cases where 
three-year-old Thoroughbred mares are still in training and have to run 
races, then it is better to put off the covering for another year. The same 
applies to Half-bred mares if thev as three-year-olds are still subject to 
regular training, or as riding or carriage horses do so much work that they 
do not get fat and come too often in heat, in spite of good food. The best 
results as regards the number of foals and perhaps also as regards their 
quality are, as previous tables (pages 56 — 63) show, found on an average 
with mares which are covered and were in foal as three-year-olds. This 
applies to Thoroughbred as well as to Half-bred breeding. I only know one 
mare in Germany which has dropped 20 living foals, namely, B Flat, which 
was covered with success as a three-year-old. According to experiences at 
Trakehnen, mares which produce the first foal in their fifth year, or 
later, remain in the following year barren much oftener than mares which 
have been successfully covered as three-vear-olds. Besides, the latter are, 
almost without exception, better nurses. Wollstein thinks that mares which 
bear their first foal as four-year-olds have the following advantages when 
compared with mares which have been covered later in life : — 

1. The births are easier. 

2. Mares are more fertile and have more milk. 

3. The foals are bigger and stronger. 

The most prominent products of mares, on an average, are produced 
between their eighth and thirteenth year, as can be easily seen for Thorough- 
bred breeding from the Goos' tables. Goos says in the preface of his cele- 
brated tables that the winners of the five classical races in England are 
distributed as follows : — 



1. Judi^ini,' and Treating: Breedinj,' Material. 351 



of classical winners. 



3 to 7-year-old dams 17 per cent. ' 

8 to 13 ,, ,, 55 

14 to 18 ,, ,. 21 ,. 

19 to 25 ,, ,, 7 

As experience at Trakeiinen shows, 8 to 13 years of age is also the best 

and most fertile time for Half-breds. In Half-breds, however, the brood 

mares, up to their 7th year inclusive — as opposed to Thoroughbreds — -seem 

to be much more fertile than between the age of 14 and 18. 20-year-old brood 

marcs have up to now produced three Royal Stud stallions only, those older 

than 20 none at all. 

Miscarriage or barrenness of mares in the first three to five years of their 
being made brood mares is less dangerous than if occurring in later vears. 
Of course, this is always bad. Brood mares at the age in which, as above said, 
the best products are expected from them, i.e., 10-year-old and over, have 
more seldom the power to overcome these unfavourable derangements of 
their breeding career than younger mares. Prominent products of Half-bred 
mares over 20 vears of age are not known to me, whilst, as shown in the 
previous tables (pages 65 — 78), in the breeding of Thoroughbreds also, 24- 
vear-old and older brood mares have produced classical winners or other 
prominent progeny. 

(f) Twins. 

Mares which have produced twins, dead or living, are in most cases, 
however undesirable any single case mav be, considered specially valuable 
brood mares, from which prominent progeny may be expected. Unfortun- 
ately, twin births frequently recur, as for example, with the Oaks winner 
Bronce, four times; with Legend born 1825 by Merlin, and grand- 
daughter of the celebrated Prunella, three times consecutively; and with 
Fairv Ring l)orn 1878 by Macaroni, also three times consecutively. This 
quality is often hereditary, and there are many examples of it in Thorough- 
bred breeding as well as in Half-bred breeding. 

In the last twenty-five years, from 1874 to 1898 inclusive, 33 Royal Stud 
stallions have been born in Trakehnen, of which the following 11 stallions 
are derived from dams which also had twins : — 

1. Tunnel, born 1874 by The Duke of Edinburgh and Tutti. 

•J. Paladin, born 1874 by .\donis and Palme. 

3. Discant, born 1877 bv Fliigcl and Diana. 

4. \'enezuela, born 1878 bv Hector and \'icreck. 

5. Elfenbein, born 1879 by Marsworth and Ellis, 
(i. Passvan, born 1881 bv Fiiigel and Palme. 

7. (iranicus, born 1887 by Kingdom and CIradlitz. 

8. Jenissei, born 1888 by Venezuela and Jemba. 

9. Ilydriot, born 1895 bv Fiirstenberg and Hydra. 

10. Morgcnstrahl, born 189() by Blue Blood and Moba. 

11. Justizminister, born 1898 bv Boulevard and Justicia. 



352 



The Practical Part of Horsebreedinar. 



There can as yet be no final judgment about the later born stallions, as their 
dams are still alive and are too young. Of the 1,297 brood mares mentioned 
in the Second \'olume of the Trakehnen Stud Book, only 136 have up to now 
produced twins; nine mares twice, and two mares three times. In the First 
\\)lume of the Beberbeck Stud Book, 34-2 brood mares are mentioned, of 
which only 13 bore twins; amongst these 13 being the celebrated Optima, 
dam of the best stallion which Beberbeck has produced, namelv, Optimus, 
who was for eight years up to his death used as a Roval Stud stallion in 
Trakehnen. Perhaps the best son of Optimus, born in Beberbeck, was 
Cardinal, born 1895 by Optimus and Cedar, who commenced with twins. 
Only one brood mare (Lucca) has produced twins in Beberbeck twice. In 
one case both li\ed, of which one (Lollo) became a brood mare and also 
produced twins. Ajax, a twin born in Beberbeck 1800 bv Dreadnought and 
Augusta, became stallion in Xeustadt. As already mentioned, only one mare 
in Germany has produced 20 living foals, amongst them the Derbv winner 
Paul, and that was the Thoroughbred mare B Flat (born 1864 by Orlando 
and Torment), wiio herself was a twin. 

The number of twin births, according to observations made at Trakehnen 
in the last twelve years, varies very much — from J per cent, to 3 per cent., 
average about IJ per cent, of the mares in foal, and is higher in those years 
in which fertilisation has been favourable. It is worthv of note that in human 
twins also the average is just over 1 per cent. 

In the General Stud Book, in the first sixteen volumes, 1,085 mares are 
mentioned which ha\e produced twins. Of these 413 mares are mentioned 
in Goos' tables (3rd edition), a sure sign that they are amongst the most 
prominent for breeding purposes; an exceedingly good state of affairs. More 
than 80 prominent foundation mares in the Goos' tables are dams which have 
produced twins. From the following list of mares which have produced 
twins and also performed well in breeding, it can be seen that in England 
13 Derby winners, 15 Oaks winners, 9 St. Leger winners, 10 Two Thousand 
Guineas winners, and 10 One Thousand Guineas winners are offsprings of 
mares which have produced twins. 



A Few Thoroughbred Brood JMares in England wiiicl 
Produced Twins. 



have 



No. 



Name and Pediirree 



Born 



Family and Prosrenv 



Horatia I I'ioS 

by Blank — Flying Childers 

Letitia 1783 

by Highflyer — Matchem 

Nimble 1784 

by Florizel and Bantipole 



Famous foundation mare of Fam. 6 
Grand-dam of Dionied D. and 
Y. Eclipse D. 

Foundation mare of Fam. 46 

17 foals 
NiU6 O. 
Foundation mare of Fam. 32 



1. Jiuli^iiitr ■'iml Treatin£j Brccdinq' Mnterinl 



353 



Xo. 


Name nnd Ftditrree 


Born 


I'aniily and Proi^cny 




4 


Maid of Ely 

by Tandem — Merod 


1785 


13 foals 

Foiindatio[i marc of Fam. 4.5 




5 


Palmflower 

by Weazle and ("okimlia 
Twice twins 


1787 


CocUfishter L. 
Fam. 2 




C 


Mare 

by llii,'-htlyer — Goldfinder 


1788 


12 foals 

Pensioneer 1795 by Dunfjanon 
Afjnes 1805 by Shuttle 
Fam. 26 




7 


Mare 

by Trenlham and Cytherea 


nso 


Pantina (dam of Bliiclicr I).) 
Fam. 4 




8 


Y. Giantess 

bv Diomed and Giantess 


1790 


Sorcerer 
Fleanor D. O. 





9 Rallv 

by Triimpator anil Fancy 

10 Woodbine 
by Woodpecker and Puzzle (lived 

to 32 years old) 
Twice twins 

Half-sister to Hornby I,ass 

11 .Mare 

by PotSos and Fdillia 

12 j Mare 

by Precipitate and I.ad\ Harriet 

13 Hornby Lass 
by Buz/ard and Puzzle (lived to 

.32 years old) 
Half-sister to Woodbine 

1-^ Lady Jane 

by Sir Peter and P.iulina 
Own sisicr lo Ilerniione O. 

!■> Mare 

by Precipitate and V. Tiffany 
Twice twins 



Julia (dam of Phantom I).) 
Cressida (dam of .\ntar 2. and 

Priam D.) 
Mare by Walton (dam of Xicolo 2. 

and Lanfjar) 
Fam. (j 

1790 Famous foundation mare of Fam. 6a 

1791 Music O. 
Minuet O. 
Fam. 1 a 



179i 12 foals 

Famous foundation marc of Fam. 3e 

1705 Wizard 2. 
Fam. 12 a 

1706 12 foals 
Morel O. 
Fam. 1 a 

1790 Briseis O. 

Miss Tooley (jrrand-tlam of HarUa- 

way Gcp. 2 x ) 
Fam. 2 

1797 Bourbon isll by Sorcerer 

Mare by .Sorcerer (dam of JacU 

Spiffot I-) 
Fam. 5 a 



354 



The Practical Part of Horsebreedinc'. 



No. 



Name and Pedisfree 



Born 



Family and Progeny 



16 
17 

18 

19 
20 



23 



21 



26 

27 

28 



Violante 

by John Bull — Highflyer 

Bronce O. 

by Bu^/.nrii — Alexander 
Twice twins 

Own sister to Castrel, Selim and 
Rubens 

Henrietta 

by Sir Solomon — Woodpecker 

Lady Grev 

by Stamford — Bordeaux 

Mare 

by Walton and Y. Giantess, whc 
also had twins 

]\Iare 

by Shuttle — Drone 

Scheherazade 

by Selim and (21-year-old) Gipsy 

Selima 

by Selim and a Mare by PotSos 
who also had twins 

Miss Craigie 

by Oryille and Marchioness 
Twice twins 

Sunflower 

by Castrel — Alexander 

Mare 

by Clinker and Bronce O., who 
herself had twins four times 

Mare 

by Catton and Altisidora L. 

Sylph 

by Spectre and Fanny Legh 



29 I Turquoise O. 

by Selim and Pope Joan 



Famous foundation mare of Fam. 3 a 
Grand-dam by Decoy 

Mulatto 1811 by Sorcerer 
Busto 1812 by Clinker 
and 2 good foundation mares in 
Fam. 2d 

Tarrare L. 
Fair Charlotte 
Fam. 6 

Gustavus D. 
Fam. 7 

Nicolo 2. (twins) 

Langar 

Fam. 6 

13 foals. Famous foundation mare 
in Fam. 13 

Foundation mare in Fam. 10 b 
Famous foundation mare in Fam. 3e 



1802 
1803 

1807 

1806 

1808 

1809 
1810 
1810 

1811 

1813 
1816 

1823 Ralph. 2. Cm. Acp. 
Fam. 11 

1824 I Lugwardine 
Xewcourt 
Lady Lift (dam of Consul FD., 

Mazarin, Le Marechal) 
Fam. 35 



Birmingham L. 

I'oundation mare of Fam. 34 

Foundation mare in Fum. 4 a 

Famous foundation mare in Fam. 2 d 



30 



Variation O. 

by Bustard and Johanna Soutli- 
cote 



1825 



1827 



Jericho 
Fam. 1 b 

Pompey 

Elphine, famous foundation mare in 

Fam. 9 b and dam of Warlock L., 

Phantom, etc. 



1. Jucl,L;iiis' and Trcatiny;' Brcediiit,'' Material. 



355 



No. 


Name and Pedi,u:rec 


Born 


Family and Progeny 


31 


Zarina 

by Morisco and Ina 


1827 


The Prime Warden 
The Cur Cs. 
F'am. I" 


32 


Progress 

by Lang-ar — Blacklock 


1833 


Attila 1). 
Fam. l-j 


33 


j\Iiss Kitty Cockle 
by Cadlan'd and Maid of Mansfield 
Twins twice 


1834 


Truth Cm. 
Fam. 11 b 


34 


Virginia 

by Rowton and Puccllc 


18:3o 


^'irago 1. Gcp. Dcp. and .Sacrifice, 
pfrand-dani of Devotion, famous 
foundation mare in Fam. 4 a 


35 


Black Bess 

by Camel — Scud 


1837 


Hernandez 2. 

Bataglia, good foundation mare in 
Fam. 6 a 


36 


Crucifix -2. 1. O. 

by Priam and Octaviana 


1837 


Surplice D. L. 

Cowl 

Chalice (grand-dam of Placida O.) 

Fam . 2 c 


37 


^lonstrositv 

by Plenipotentiary and Puce 


18;^ 


The Cgly Buck 2. 
Foundation mare in I'am. 4 a 


38 


Moonbeam 

by Tomboy and Lujiatic 


1838 


Manganese 1. 

Fam. 4 c (grand-dam of .\pology 

I.O.L., Wenlock L., Kisber D.', 

Sch windier U. ND.) 


39 


Peggy 

by Muley Moloch and Fanny 


1840 


1.J foals, amongst others .Musjid D. 
Fam. 6 


40 


Emerald 

by Defence and Emiliana 


1841 


Mentmore Lass 1. 
Fam. 3b (dam of Hannah ]. O. L. 
and grand-dam of Favonius D.) 
King of Diamonds 


41 


The Landgravine 

by Elis and The Mar{4:ravine 


1841 


Landgrave Cm. 
Sittingbourne 
Maid of Kent 
F'ani. -5 d 


42 


The Princess O. 
by Slane — Phantom 


1841 


The Great L'nknown 
Fam. 1 c 


43 


Bridle 

by The Saddler and Monocda 


1844 


Habena 1. 

Lady Sophie, famous foundation 
mare in Fam. 9 


44 


Ellen Home 

by RedshanU and Delhi 


1844 


P.iradigm (dam of Lord Lyon 2. 

D. L., .Achievement 1. L.) 
Rouge Rose (dam of Bend Or D.) 
Fam. 1 d 



356 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 



No. 


Name and Pedigree 


Born 


Family and Progeny 


43 


Gaiety 

by Touchstone and Cast-steel 


1844 


Gamester L. 

Gadabout (dam of Scamander) 

Doncaster 

Fam. 19 


46 


Mare 

by Hampton — Muley Moloch 


1844 


Gaspard 
Odd Trick Cm. 
Mad. Stodare 
Fam. 2a 


47 


Mainbraoe 

by Sheet Anchor — Bay ^Middleton 


1844 


Fisherman .Acp. 2 x 
The Peer 
Fam. 11 


48 


Prairie Bird 

by Touchstone and Zillah 


1844 


Famous foundation mare in Fam. 1 b 
England's Beauty 
Bonny Blink 
Vitula 


49 


Hybla 

by The Provost and Otisina 


1846 


Mincemeat O. 
Kettledrum D. 
Fam. 3d 


oO 


Legerdemain Cs. 

by Pantaloon and Decov 
Own sister to Sleight of Hand, 
Van Amburg and Phryne 


1846 


Toxophilite 
Sagitta 1. 
Fair Star 
Fam. 3 a 


51 


Mrs. Hobson 
by Bay Middleton and Vitula 


1846 


Orestes 
Pylades 
Janus 
Fam. 21 


52 


Bassishaw 

by Prime ^^'arden and Miss 
Whinnie, whose grand-dam by 
Shuttle had also twins 


1847 


Ben \^'ebster 

Isoline Gcp. (dam of Isola Bella, 

who also had twins, 

St. Cristophe GG., Braconnier) 
Fam. 19 a 


53 


Figtree 

by Envoy and Azora 


1848 


Palm (dam of Vauban 2. Gcp. and 

Duke of Parma Cs.) 
Siberia 1. (dam of Cecilia 1., who 

also had twins) 
Westminster Cm. ^ 
Fam. 2 ^ 


54 


Frolic 

by Touchstone — The Saddler 


1848 


Frolicsome (dam of Frontin FD. 

GP.) 
Lady Sophia 
Fam. 24 



1. Judfjinfj and Treating Brectlini:; Material. 



357 



No. 


Name and Pedifjree 


Born 


Family and Pr(iL;env 


55 


Indiana 
by Muley .Molucli and Pocahontas 


1848 


Kentucky 
Humminif Bird 
Fam. 3 c 


56 


Mare 

by The Cure and Elpliine 


1849 


The Wizard 2. 
Fam. 9 b 


57 


Mentmore Lass 1 

by Melbourne and Emerald 


1850 


Hannah 1. O. L. 

Zephyr (dam of Favonius D.) 

Fam. 3 b 


58 


Torment 

by .Alarm-Glencoe 


1850 


Tormentor O. 

B. Flat (twins and had 20 foals) 
Laura (Sire Petrarch L.) 
Fam. 10 b 


59 


Villaije Lass 

by Pyrrhus I. and Maid of Hart 


1851 


Rustic 
Countryman 
Bittern 
Fam. 2e 


eo 


Chalice 

by Orlando and Crucifix 2. 1. O., 

who also had twins 


1852 


Pietas (dam of Placida O.) 
Fam. 2c 


61 


Homily 
by Surplice and Blue Devils 


1852 


Good foundation mare in Fam. 27 


6-2 


Rambling Katie 

by .Melbourne and Phryne 


1852 


Queen of the (jypsies (dam of Paul 

Jones) 
Chamberntaid (dam of Brocken NL. 

Hr. BB.) 
Fam. 3a 


63 


The Heiress (firstling) 

by Birdcatcher and Inheritress 
(Firstlintf, ran and won 
up to its 10th year) 


1853 


Vanessa (dam of Das \eilchen, 

Wagehals, etc.) 
Jeannie (dam of \\"him HZ.) 
Fam. 4 


64 


\'erona 

by Orlando and jodine 


1854 


Thurio GP. 
Lucetta Cm. 
Villafranca 
Fam. 2 


65 


Souvenir 

by Chanticleer and Rininlay 


1850 


Strathcona 

Fair Unknown (who also had twins) 

Fam. 11 


66 


Heroine of Liirknow 
by Nutwith and Pocahontas 


1856 


Famous foundation marc in Fam. 3c 



358 



The Practical Part of Horsebreedincr. 



No. 



Xame and Pedigree 



Born 



Family and Prosjeny 



67 Diana 

bv Hartneitstein and Iris 



Feu de Joie O. 

by Longbow and Jeu d 'Esprit 

Lady Alice Hawtliorn 
by Xewminster and Lady Haw 
thorn 

70 Mrs. Wood 

bv V. Melbourne and Phvsalis 



71 Pompadour 

bv Stockwell and Marcliioness O 



Queen Bertha O. 
by Kinijston and Flax 



73 Barchettina 

bv Pelion and Cvmba O. 



74 Battaplia 

by Rataplan and Espoir 

75 Breeze 

by King- Tom and Mentniore Lass 
1, who also had twins 

76 No Name 

by Teddington and Queen of 
Beauty 

77 Rifjolbociie 
by Rataplan — Gardliani 



1858 



1859 



1859 



1859 



1859 



1860 



1860 



1861 



1861 



1861 



1861 



Miraflora Hn. 

Neudan (dam of Tartar OD. L". 

\D.) 
Wild Huntsman 
Fam. 8 c 

Alumette 

Hollandaise (dam of Solange FO.) 

Fam. 7 a 

Famous foundation mare in Fam. 4d 



Little Sister (dam of Thunderstorm, 
Krakatoa FL. Cd., Fousi Yama 
Cd.) 

Fam. 8 c 

Advance (dam of Alexander SD., 

CJisar ND., Gallus) 
Fam. 2 f 

Spinaway 1. O. 

Wheel of 1-^ortunc 1. O. 

Grandmaster 

Queen's Messenger 

Gertrude 

Fam. 1 c 

The Abbot 1877 by Hermit 
Marden 1879 by Hermit 
Canoe 1881 by Hermit 
Fam. 2 

Lord Gough (the best son of 

Gladiateur) 
Fam. 12 

Foundation mare in Fam. 3 b 



Nameless (dam of Geheimniss O.) 
Fam. 14 

Cremorne D. GP. .Acp. 
Earl of Dartrey 
Mabille 
Fam. 2 d 



1. Judgint: and Treating Breeding Material. 



359 



No. 


Name and Pedigree 


Born 


l-"aniily and Progeny 


78 


Mare 

by Y. Melbourne and Brown 
Bess 


1801 


Ouiver (dam of Memoir O. L. and 

La Flechc 1. O. L.) 
Fam. 3 


79 


Wild Agnes 

by Wild Uayrell and Little .\gnes 


1802 


Little Agnes FO. FL. 
Brown .Agnes 
Fair .Agnes 
Wild Tommy 
Fam. 16 


80 


Bounccawav 

by Zuyder Zee and Press Forward 


1864 


New 1 (nllaiid Gcp. 

Tripaway 

Fam. 22 a 


81 


Parma 

by Parmesan and Archeress 


1864 


Isabel (dam of St. Frusquin 2. Ec.) 
Biserta (dam of Goletta) 
Fam. 22 a 


82 


Lady Coventry 

by Thormanby and Lady Roden 


1805 


Yorkshire Bride 

Farnese 

Lady Golightly 

Lady of Mercia (grand-dam of 

Ragotsky FD. GP.) 
Fam. 27 


83 


Pearlfeather 

by Xewminsler and Bess Lyon 


1865 


Paraibl (dam of St. \\'olfgang, 
PradoTr. NZ., Lilinokalani OO.) 
Fam. 4 b 


84 


Thrift 

by Stockwell and Braxey 


1865 


Tristan .\cp. llrd. 3 x 
Fam. 10 


85 


Adelaide 

by V. .Melbourne — Teddington 


1866 


Peregrine 2. 

Queen .Adelaide 

St. Alvere 

St. Alvere 

St. Mary (dam of La Sagcssc O.) 

Fam. 9 


86 


Poinsettia 
by V. Melbourne and Lady Haw- 
thorn 


1866 


Famous foundation marc in I'am. 4d 


87 


W'lieatear 

by Y. Melbourne and Swallow 


1867 


Harvester D. 

Skylark 
Fam. l.j 


88 


Isola Bella 

by .StocUwell and Isoline 


1868 


Isonomy Cm. .\cp. 2 x Gcp. Dcp. 

F'ernandez 

Fam. 19 a 



360 



The Practical Part of Horsebreedins 



No. 



Name and Pedia:ree 



Born 



Familv and Protrenv 



89 



90 



91 



92 



93 



94 



95 



96 



97 



Cicely Racket 

by Le Marechal and Meg^ O 'Mar- 
ley, who had also twins as well 
as her dam 

Light Drum 

by Rataplan and Trinket 



1869 



1870 



Enigma 1872 

by Tlie Rake and Tlie Sphynx 



Spinaway 1. O. 1872 

by Macaroni and Queen Bertha 
O., who had also twins 



Bonnie Agnes 

by Blair Athol and Little Asnes 



Hermione 
by V. Melbourne and La Belle 
Helene 



Thistle 

by Scottish Chief and The Flower 
Safety 



1875 



1875 



1875 



Lucetta Cm. 1876 

by Tibthor|3e and \'erona, who 
also had twins 



Wheel of Fortune 1. O. 

by Adventurer and Queen Bertha 
Three times twins 

Atalanta 

by Galnpin and Fcrojiia 



1876 



1878 



Hackness Cm. 
Fam. 7 



Little Duck FD. GP. 
Lapin Cd. 
Fam. 13 

Florence BB. Cm. 

Tact (dam of .Amiable 1. O. and 

Manners) 
Gravity (dam of William IIL) 
Fam. 2a 

Busybody 1. O. 
.Arcadian 
Waltz 
Fam. 1 c 

Bonny Jean O. 
Agnostic 
Fam. 16 

Perditta IL (dam of Florizel IL 
Gcp., Persimmon D. L., Diamond 
Jubilee D. L.) 

Bride of Netherby 

Fam. 7 

Common 2. D. L. 
Goldfinch 
Throstle L. 
Fam. 4e 

Silver 
Gold .\cp. 
Speed 
Luciana 
Fam. 2 

Oberon 
Fam. 1 c 

.Ayrshire 2. D. Ec. 

Melanion 

Troon 

Fam. 8 a 



1. Judsini; ;inJ Treatinj,' BiXfdiiit,' .M;itfrial 



361 



No. 



Name aiul Peclii^iue 



Born 



inil\ and Progeny 



ysj Sanda 

bv W'ciilcicU and Samial 



100 St. Maro-iierite 1. 

bv llcrnilt antl Devotion 



1"1 Matilda 

bv Hfauclerc — ("ntln-dral 



102 Match Girl 

bv Plebeian and Fusee 



103 Virginia Shore 

; bv lohn Davis and Distant Shore 

1 - ■' 

loi Lady Loverule 

by Muncaster and Nellie 

lOo Ornament 

, by Bend Or and Lily .\i;"nes 

l'>5 Moth.-r Sieo-el 

bv Friar Balsam — (lalopin 



J878 . Sainfoin D. 

I Golden Garter 
I Sierra, BlacU Sand Cs. 
Fani. 2 b 

1879 , Seabreeze O. I-. Lc. 
Valauris 
I I,e Var PWst. 

Roquebriine (dam o( Rock Sand 2. 

D.L.) 
Fam. 4 n 

188(1 Nunthoipe Kp. 

Oueen's Birthday Dcp. 
Fam. 11a 

1882 Matchbox 

.Matchmaker 
Fam. 22 a 

1881 Whittier E. 

Lady Minting 
Fam. 9 a 

1SS8 St. .\mant D. 2. 
F'am. 14 a 

1887 Labrador 
I Collar Hrd. 

I Sceptre O. L. 2. 1. Fam. 16 

1S97 Minc.ru 2 D. Fam. 5. 



(g) Firstlings. 

If we look more closely into the Stud Books, \vc lind amongst the firstlings 
of brood mares more good animals than was generally supposed, owing 
to observations in studs whcrr the brood mares were very poorly fed. 
Tiie firstlings of brood mares at Trakehnen formerly were .seldom good 
when ptjor ftjod was given to the brood mares, esijeiiallv before 1870. In 
Half-bred as well as Thoroughbred breeding, it is a remarkable fact that 
part of the best progeny were firstlings, hiu niilv in those studs where the 
brood mares got good food and plentv cd ii. In Heberbeck we can mention 
as firstlings the two Roval .Stud stallions, ()]5timus, born 1880 by Odoardo 
and Optima, and Jubelgreis, born ISO'I b\ l.amberg and julie. Since the 
existence of iieberbeck as a Roy;il chief stud, we have possibh- produced no 
better Royal -Stud stallions than the two named firstlings. In the last fifty 
vears, of 78 Ro\al .Stud slailions iirodncccl thcrr, the following 11 were 
firstlings : — 



36'2 Tlu' rraclical Part of Hnrsebreedins; 



1. Norton, Ijorn IS04 b\- Stilt(.)n and Xovell 



0. 



o 



Fritter, born 1S.)() by Xobclmann and Faucette. 

3. Grezano, Ijorn ]s.")7 b\- Stilton and Giralda. 

4. Eckstein, born 1.S7U b\- \'enerato and Fcho. 

5. Fiirstenberg, born 1878 by Ambos and Fulda. 
0. Wnezuela, born 1878 by Hektor and Viereck. 

7. Ehvin, born 1887 by Passvan and Emilia. 

8. Elton, born l.S,s8 by Duke of Fxlinburgh and Elpis. 

9. \'er.such, born 189(1 by Anarch and \'estitur. 

10. Ethelwold, born 1893 by Euphonv and Etruskerin. 

11 . Amtsvorstcher, born 1899 bv Fanfarro and Anisette. 

V2. Iloffnungsstrahl, born 1900 by Piper and Iloffnung (co\ered as a 

3-year-oId). 

13. Fischerknabe, born 1901 by Obelisk and Fischerin. 

1-1. Panzer, born 190-J b\- Greif and Panzerkette. 

In the same period the dams of tiie follo\ying 19 Royal Stud stallions 
were firstlings: — 1 Antenor, -2 Elfenbein, 3 Ethelwold, 4 I-'ischerknabe, 
5 Fliigel, fi FLirstenberg, 7 Granicus, 8 Grezano, 9 Hirtenlcnabe, 10 Hoff- 
niingsstrahl, 11 Insurgent, I'J full (out of a 3-vear-old covered mare), 
13 Justizminister, 14 Lauer, 1') .Malteser, 16 Nisos, 17 Orcus, 18 Pless, 
19 Tunnel (oiU (jf a 3-vear-old co\-ered mare). 

In Thoroughbred breeding the following are the firstlings which are 
noted as classical race winners : — 

1. Derb\- Winners. 



1. Spread Eagle, born 1792 by \'olunteer — Flighflyer. 

2. Daniel O'Rourke, born 1849 by Birdcatcher and Springy Jack. 

3. \\'ild Dayrell, born 185-2 by Ion and Ellen Middleton. 

4. Favonius, born 18G8 b\- Parmesan and Zeph\-r. 

2. St. I.eger Winners. 

1 . Tommv, born 177(1 bv W'ildair — Syphon (covered as a 3-year-old). 

2. PhiJnomenon, born 1780 b\' Herod and Frenzy. 

3. Paragon, born 17S3 by Paymaster and Calash. 

1. Ashton, born l8(jri b\' Walnut and Miss Maworth (covered as a 

3-year-old). 
■"). Otterington, born 1809 b\' Golumpus — Expectation (covered as a 

3-year-old). 
C). Filho da Puta, born 1n12 b\- Haphazard and Mirs. Barnct. 

7. Touchstone, born 1831 b}' Camel and Banter. 

8. The Baron, born is 12 b\- l->irdcatcher and Echidna (co\ered as a 

.3-year-old). 

9. Wool Winder, born 1901 b\- Martagon and St. Windeline. 



]. Jiiili^iiii;" and Troatinu; IJrri'din:,'' Material. 363 

•2,0(10 Guini'jis Winners. 

1. Tlic L'glv Huck, Ixirn l''~ill 1)\' N'mison ami MimslrDsity (covered as 

a 3-ycar-()lcl). 

2. W'dt'tte, born IS.")'.) bv N'olliyeur and Mir.s. Ridj^way. 

3. Surcfoot, born 1S.S7 by Wisdom ■ — C.alopin. 

(_)aks Winners. 

1. Ijridqel, i^orn ITTfi b\- Herod and jeniima. 

•2. Teloluni, born 1777 b\- Matchein (2S-vear-old) and Lady Bolintj- 
broke (10-year-old). 

3. Soreer\-, born bSOS b\' Sorcerer and C'obbea. 

4. Poison, born ls|() b\- Plenipoteniiar\- and Arsenic. 

5. Mincemeat, bom IS-M b\- Sweetmeat and llybla. 

1,000 Guineas Winners. 

1. Marc, born 1S12 by Selim Cesario ? 

2. Arab, bf)rn bS2l by Woful and Zerd. 

The following are to be mentioned as lirstlings which ha\T won other 
important races or whicii have otherwise become famous : — • 

A. Stallions. 

1. V. -Merlin 17-"J7 by Merlin and Molly Long Legs. 

2. Gimcrack 17(10 b\- Cripple and Miss Flliot (covered as a 2 

or :'i-vear-old). 

3. Paymaster 17(5^ b\- Blank and Snajjciragon. 

4. Trentham 17()() b\- .Sweei)stakes and Miss South. 

5. Conductor 17()7 by Matchem Snaj^. 

6. Mark- Anthon\' ITtu bv S]:)eclator and Rachel (co\cred as a 

:!-\-ear-oId). 

7. Pantaloon 17(57 i)y Matchem and Curiosity. 

8. Pyrrhus 17(57 bv SprigluK Snip. 

9. Telemachus 1770 bv ilei-od Skim. 

10. Poti~!os 177."} b\- Iulii)se and .Sporlsmistress. 

11. Joe .\ndrews 1778 by Iuli[)se ant! .\maranda. 

12. Dungannon 1780 by F.clipse and Aspasia. 

13. Rockingham 1781 bv llighfixcr and Purity. 

14. I'idget 1783 by I'lorizel — >Latchem. 

lo. (ire\- Diomed 17.s'5 by Diomedand (jrey Dorimant (covered as 

a 3-year-oid). 
10. Bustard 1789 l)y Wcjodjiecker and .Matron (covered as a 

3-vear-okI). 
17. Litll(> fohn I7-'~;!) bv Dungannon and I'airv. 



364 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 



18. 


Oberon 


1790 bv 


19. 


Sorcerer 


1796 bv 


20. 


Catton 


1809 b"v 


21. 


Blackamoor 


1811 b'v 


22. 


Doctor Syntax 


1811 bv 


23. 


Scrapall 


1812 b'v 



24. Sultan 



181G bv 



25. 


Young Phantom 


1822 bv 


26. 


Royal Oak 


1823 b'v 


27. 


Robin Hood 


1824 bv 


28. 


Sir Hercules 


1826 by 


29. 


Taurus 


1826 bv 


30. 


Liverpool 


1828 b'v 


31. 


Alba 


1831 bv 


32. 


Heron 


1883 b'y 


33. 


Melbourne 


1834 bv 


34. 


Drone 


1835 b'v 


35. 


Jon 


1835 by 


36. 


The Provost 


183G bv 


37. 


Robert de Gorham 


1839 b'v 


38. 


The Cure 


1841 b'v 


39. 


The Libel 


1842 by 


40. 


The Great Unknown 


1845 bv 


41. 


E 1th iron 


1846 bv 


42. 


Newport 


1846 by 


43. 


Kingston 


1849 bv 


44. 


Orestes 


1850 b'\- 


45. 


Arthur Wellesley 


1851 bv 


46. 


Fandango 


1852 by 


47. 


Tournament 


1854 by 


48. 


Pizarro 


1855 bv 


49. 


Newcastle 


1856 bv 


50. 


Vanquisher 


1857 bv 


51. 


Mandrake 


1864 b\- 


52. 


Paul Jones 


1865 bv 


53. 


Hampton 


1872 by 



Highflyer and Queen Mab. 

Trimipator and V. Giantess. 

Golumpus and Lucy Gray. 

Stamford — Sorcerer. 

Pavnator — Beningbrough. 

Granicus — Young Whiskey (covered as 
a 3-year-old). 

Selim and Bacchante (covered as a 6-year- 
old). 

Phantcjm and Emmeline. 

Catton — Smolensko. 

Blacklock and Marion. 

Whalebone and Peri (covered as a 
3-year-old). 

Phantom or Morisco and Katherine. 

Tramp — \\'hisker. 

Nigel and Therese. 

Bustard — Orville. 

Humphrey Clinker — Cervantes. 

Pantaloon and Decoy. 

Cain and Margaret (covered as a 3-year- 
old). 

The Saddler and Rebecca, 

Sir Hercules and Duvernay. 

Physician and Morsel. 

Pantaloon and Pasquinade (covered as a 
2-year-old). 

X'oltaire and The Princess. 

Pantaloon and Phryne. 

Epirus — Zimmermann (covered as a 
2-year-old). 

X'enison and Queen Anne. 

Orlando and Mrs. Hobson. 

Melboin-ne and Lady Barbara. 

Barnton and Castagnette. 

Touchstone and Happv Queen (covered 
as an 8-year-old). 

Blonmsliury and Marina. 

Xewminster and Mary Aislabie. 

Wjltigeur and Eglantine. 

Weatherbit and Mandragora. 

Buccaneer and Queen of the Gvpsies. 

Lord Clifden and Lady Langden (covered 
as a 3-year-old). 



1. Jud^iii.y; aiul Trial in:;' Bictdin.y: Material. 



365 



54. 
55. 
56. 



Perplexe 
Bendigo 
Le Nord 



57. Espoir 



Tuting's Polly 

\'irago 

Flora 

Frenzy 

Y. Camilla 

Virgin 
Maniac 



8. Katherina 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 



13. 

14. 

15. 
16. 

17. 

IS. 

19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 



Mermaid 
Marpessa 
Pocahontas 
Monstrosity 
(Covered as a 2-year- 
old, dam of Ugly 
Buck 2.) 
Pantalonade 



1872 bv X'crniouth and Perip^tie. 

1880 by Ben Battle and Hasty Girl. 

1887 bv Tristan and La \oce (covered as a 3-year- 

nld). 

1889 bv Barcakiint' and Bel Esperanza. 

B. Mares. 

1756 by Black and All Black and Fanny. 

1764 by Snap — Regiilus. 

1768 by Squirrel and Angelica. 

1774 by Eclipse — Engineer. 

1787 bv W'liodpccker and Camrlla (covered as an 

8-y car-old). 
1801 by Sir Peter — Pot8os. 
1806 by Sluittle and Anticipation (covered as a 

.'i-\ear-old). 
1817 bv Wdful and Landscape O. (covered as a 

l'i-\ear-nld). 

1829 bv W'liale-biinc and Miss Emma. 

1830 by Muley and Clare. 

1837 bv Cilencoe and Marpessa. 

1838 bv Plenipotentiary and Puce (covered as a 
3-vear-old). 



1839 bv Pantaiddii and {"estival (covered as a 

•_'-\car-(ild). 
Inheritress 1840 by The Saddler and Executrix (covered as a 

3-year-(iId). 
Eulogy 1843 by Euclid and Martha Lynn. 

Queen Mary 1843 by (jjadialor — Plenipotentiary (coxered as 

a 2-yt-ar-f)ld). 
Honey Dear 1844 bv Plenipotentiary and Mv Dear (covered as 

a 2-year-(ild). 
Haricot 1847 by Mango or LaniTccxst and Queen Mary 

((•()\ered as a 3-year-olcl). 
\'esuvienne 1847 by (iiadiatnr and \'enus. 

Little .\gnes 18-56 by The Cure and Miss Agnes. 

Lady .Mice Hawthorn 1859 by Xewminsier and Lady Hawlhorn. 
Budagyongye 1882 by Buccaneer and Kincscm. 



366 i'le Practical Part of 1 liirscbrecdiiicr. 

(h) The Treatment of Brood Mares. 

It is, as a matter of course, essential that brood mares outside the grazing 
time should talve gentle exercise for about one and a half hours dailv up to 
the day of foaling, and about ten to fifteen days after the foaling, along with 
the foal, commencing with a quarter of an hour, till finalh' they do one hour. 
This is just as necessary as is in spring the' gradual transition to grazing. 

Like many other things in horse breeding, the food rations of the brood 
mares should vary according to the characters of the mares, and according 
to the soil on which the stud stands and the food grows. I now give the 
rations as approved of in East Prussia. After the grazing time brood mares 
in foal are given in three rations 6 lbs. of oats and about 15 lbs. of hay; 
barren mares 4 lbs. of oats and about 1'2 lbs. of hay. Supposing that oats 
and hav are of the very best quality, and that there is an ample spread of 
healthy rve or summer straw, I consider that a larger ration, especially of 
oats, is only necessary in a few exceptional cases. To these exceptional cases 
belong, for example, mares C(n-ered as three-year-olds and having become 
pregnant, also Thoroughbred mares in foal for the first time, and some mares 
— mostly older and barren ones — which feed with difficulty, to whom an 
additional 3 to -5 lbs. of oats and the same quantity of hay may be given. 
Good Lucerne or Sainfoin hay is, of course, by far the best, and particularly 
to be recommended for Thoroughbred breeding, while for Half-bred breed- 
ing clover hay is to be recommended, together with meadow hay, in order 
to produce stronger bones. In many parts, as for example, in East Prussia, 
wheat straw, especially new, is not suitable for brood mares, as colic and 
abortion are easily caused thereby. After grazing time, it is recommend- 
able to add to the oats twice weekly 2 to 3 litres of wheat bran for the evening 
meal in the same manner as it is given to stallions. The last two to three 
weeks before foaling it is advisable to give this additional wheat bran three 
times weekly, or even daily, as many breeders do. In the spring, at the 
beginning of grazing, wheat bran is left out. To give extra food to the brood 
mares immediately after foaling is not advisable, because the after-pains 
are thus unnecessarily increased. In the case of the mare foaling shortly 
before her feeding time, it is advisable to reduce this first feeding somewhat. 
In the case when the mares are not in boxes, but are together with several 
others in loose boxes, they should be separated at once after giving birth, and 
remain with their foals alone for about eight to fourteen days. About eight 
days after birth suckling brood mares must have about 2 to 3 lbs. of oats and 
5 lbs. of hay more, i.e., 8 to 9 lbs. of oats and 20 lbs. of hay. \\'heat bran 
three times weekly, or even daily, is given up to grazing time. I recommend 
that young Thoroughbred brood mares and four-^-ear-old mares should be 
given, after foaling, 12 lbs. of oats, but no more. The foal of a Thorough- 
bred mare (Noran, a very good eater) to whom I gave before foaling 12 to 16 
lbs. of oats and after foaling IS lbs. of oats, sickened soon after of bone 



1. jinlt^iiii;- aiul Ti-iMliiii;' Brfeiliii;;- Malcrial. 307 

disease (Osleoporoxis chronica universalis) and died roiisc(|ucntly wlicn five 
years of a^e (Xapoleon, the sUeleton is in the Trakehnen Museum). 1 reeum- 
mend that bad feedin.<,Mnar('s should be triven an addiliunal 3 lbs. of ground 
bariev. In the ease of the above-mentiont-d oat rations, it is taken for granted 
that the suckling foals, as staled below, get the oats extra. Sail and chalk 
must ahvavs be in the crili. Pregnant mares must never lie given carrots. 
.Artiln-ial feeding sliilTs, chemical preparations, phosphoric aciti calcium, 
etc., arc not to i)e recommended. Opening pills seem to be dispensable. I 
have never used ihem, and never known the need of them. 

During grazing lime suckling mare.s must get G lbs. of oals in two rations, 
barren and weaned mares -J lbs. of oats (early in ihe morning). If the grazing 
is not rich, especiallv in lale autumn, an additional -'3 lbs. of hay in the morn- 
ing, and if that is not sunicient in the evening also, is neccssarw To keep 
brood mares, e\en in the summer when grass is plentiful and good, without 
oats, has proved to hv a failure in Trakehnen. Also, night grazings, which 
were found to be good at Beberbeck, proved to be iiad at Trakehnen. 'i'hese 
and many other things must be managed according to the different experi- 
ences obtained locallv. The more open air exercise the breeding material 
can be allowed without bad consequences, the more suitable is the soil for 
breeding. Grazing on frosty grass is tcj be a\dided. \'oung clover must 
only be grazed when in bloom. 

(i) Covering of Brood Mares. 

The (|uestion in which nionlh mares should be co\-ered must be answered 
according to local conditions. In lingland and .Vmerica late b(jrn foals have 
excelled. West Australian and Blue (jown, for example, were born in June. 
.Man\- contend that I'inglisli early horn foals are specially inclined to roaring. 
Prince Charlie, born in January, is a well-known example of this. John 
Porter savs " he never knew a roarer born in May." The question has there- 
fore been raised in l-'nglaiul, to calculate the age from the 1st of March 
instead of from the 1st of January. In Kasl Prussia and in C'ourland, how- 
ever, earlv born foals are stronger and healthier than late born ones. The 
age of llalf-bred foals in Ivast Prussia is now reckonetl from the 1st (j1 
November. The reason is as follows : In East Prussia the grazing continues 
till about the middle of October, after which follows the so-called stabling 
of the broodmares, and winter life commences with 11 hours' exercise on the 
track and '2'1^ hours standing in the stable. Xow also come the short davs, 
so that in December mares must stand about Hi hours out of the '21 in a dark- 
room. I'eeding is also less fa\'ourable, exercise less complel<', aii', sun and 
wind, with all their benefits, very limited. It can be easilv understood that 
the fo;d in the womb also suffers from these unfavourable innuenccs, especi- 
ally as these unfavourable changes coincide with the last and most important 
time of its fivtal life. The shorter, therefore, this unfavourable time is from 



.3GS The rrnctical Pnrt of Ildrscbi-eedint,^. 

the Stabling to the foaling, the better for the foal. The disadvantage of earlv 
born foals in East Prussia coming to grass only when weaned may be 
modified by regular daily and ample exercise of the suclclings with their 
dams on special tracks, and is less great than keeping pregnant mares for 
months in the stable. Moreover, early bcirn foals are greatlv favoured bv 
passing one of the most important and most dangerous times of their lives, 
namely, weaning, during the most favourable time of the year, i.e., the time 
of the first and most nourishing green food, whilst late born foals only get 
weaned off when green food ceases or has lost alreadv a little of its nourishing 
power. The early born foals, in like manner as early hatched chickens, can 
make more intensive and better use of all the benefits which the short East 
Prussian summer gives. For late born foals the summer benefits, with their 
light days of IG hours' sun, offer more good things than so young foals can 
take advantage of. The early born foals can get about five months fresh 
Lucerne or clover, and this will ampl\- counterbalance the disadvantage of 
getting a smaller C|uantity of milk from their dams before grazing. On 
account of these reasons coxering begins in Trakehnen on the l-")th of 
December and finishes at the end of Mav. 

The most favourable day for covering foal-mares is tin- ninth dav after 
foaling. Breeders of every country are agreed on that point, but views differ 
over any further necessary covering, especially of barren mares. It is 
possible that in different countries different rules have been observed with 
regard to mares in heat, and with regard to the readiness of mares to 
be served. I give my views here, based on long experience in East Prussia, 
and I must add that these have been confirmed bv mv experiences in Beber- 
beck and Courland. My visits to the Thoroughbred studs in England and 
France have, on the whole, verified my experiences in this direction. In 
exceptional cases I have had foal-mares covered even on the seventh or eighth 
day after foaling when they have showed themselves distincth- in heat alreadv 
for several days, sometimes even beginning on the third da\- after the birth. 
Otherwise, the foal-mare is tried on the afternoon of the eighth dav after foal- 
ing, and if she, as often happens, is not vet well in heat, I have tried her 
again the following morning, and got her covered if she was well in heat. 
If the mare is not well in heat she is tried daily until she is. Many mares 
come regularly in heat only on the tenth or eleventh dav. I have never had 
mares forcibly covered which were not in heat. Neither do I know a stud 
which successfully uses such a forced service, as recommended bv Schwarz- 
necker. Furthermore, it mav happen that foal-mares come distinctly in 
heat already on the third, fourth or fifth day after foaling, but are no longer 
in heat on the seventh day, when, as above stated, it was desirable to cover 
them. I consider this heat in nearly all cases a false one. without ovulation 
(removal of a ripe egg from the ovary), especially as these mares are mostly 
in heat about the ninth day, and also conceive. If the foal is born more than 
fourteen days too soon (i.e., the time of pregnancy is less than 319 days), the 



1. Judgiii}^ and Trealiiif,' Breeding; Material. 369 

first ln-at is passed over, if the mare comes in heat as is usual tlie ninth day 
after the birth, which generally happens. The next heat is usually three or 
four weeks later. There are mares, however, which after premature births 
are always in heat at a later date, i.e., instead of on the ninth day, only on the 
fifteenth or twentieth day after foaling, and which, according to my experi- 
ence, may be covered at once without injurious consequences. If the too early 
born foal does not give the impression of not being fully developed, or if the 
conception of the mare is probably not attributable to the last, but to a 
previous covering, she may, even after premature births of less than 319 days 
of pregnancy, be covered the ninth day after foaling. If the mare has foaled 
in the night before the first of a month, she is covered, if everything is all 
right, on the ninth of the month, then tried nine days later on the morning 
of the seventeenth, and if she is in heat is covered again. The foaling day, 
or the day of the first covering, is always reckoned in order to get the right 
ninth day. These, and the following instructions for covering, are founded 
on the assumption, based on long experience, that the regular heat lasts nine 
days, and that if tlie mare has conceived in the first covering, the heat stops 
at latest on the ninth day after the first covering. There are numerous cases 
in which a mare after the first covering remains in heat even up to the eighth 
day. comes off on the ninth day and shows signs of pregnancy. These cases 
happen particularly with so-called foal-mares, i.e., mares which come in heat 
on the ninth day after foaling, and which have been covered at the right time. 
On the other hand, it is probable that the mare still in heat after the first 
covering up to the ninth day, then covered again, has conceived by the 
second and not bv the first covering, which can easily be seen from the many 
practical examples of properly kept service registers and stud books; firstly, 
by comparing the number of days between the covering and the foaling with 
the usual time of pregnancy of the mare; and secondly, by considering the 
colour and f(irm of the foal when a dilTerent stallion has covered the second 
time. There are, moreover, many practical examples which prove that a 
foal-mare in heat on the ninth day after foaling could only be covered the 
ninth day after the first heat (as the stallion was not available), and conceived 
from this covering. 

If the mare has not conceived after the covering, she comes, as a rule, in 
heat again three or four weeks later. After a strong heat the interval till the 
next heat is usually a little longer, and vice versa. It often happens that 
mares which conceive in the first heat come again in heat three or four weeks 
or more later. This heat is, however, a false one, and can generally be recog- 
nised, as the redness, swelling and moistness of the privy parts generally to 
be seen with a mare really in heat is not apparent. In the wild Steppe studs of 
Russia, where one stallion lives in the open together with twelve to fifteen 
mares (called Kosjaerk), one can clearly see how the stallion avoids the 
mares with a false heat pressing about him. He finds out the mares which 
are really in heat and covers them. Young Thoroughbred stallions do not 

A — 2 



370 The Practical Part ol Horsebreediiifj;. 

often understand this business in the first year, but learn it also gradually, 
as I myself have observed. There are, however, mares who, although they 
have not conceived, do not come in heat again for a few months, whilst others 
come in heat again in a fortnight. In the interval between the first and 
second heat mares should not be tried, as the many attempts often produce 
false heat, and it is not always possible to recognise it as such. If a mare 
visiblv remains continually in heat after the last covering, she should not 
be covered again, as this heat is nearly always unnatural, and it is ver\' im- 
probable that the covering would lead to conception. Several cases have 
happened in Trakehnen where a mare, not conceiving easily, has been 
covered two or three times during the period of one heat, has continued to be 
in heat uninterruptedly for two or three weeks after the last covering, and 
yet proved to be pregnant without being covered again. If such mares are 
covered again they will very likely slip a small embryo, which in most cases 
is not noticed, and the mare is then wrongly considered as barren. 

In the case of suckling mares which have not conceived during the period 
of the first heat, or which could not be covered, it is very uncertain whether 
they will come in heat again after three or four weeks. The returning of 
heat can only be expected after weaning, or in the case of sudden warm 
weather. When the foal-mares are in heat for the second time, it is advisable 
to serve them two or three times, the second covering on the third day, or if 
the stallion be not available, the fourth or fifth day. In most cases this 
period of second heat does not continue as long as the first, and it is therefore 
advisable to have her covered for the second time earlier, and if the heat 
continues to have the third covering on the eighth or ninth day, according 
to experiences of previous years. The covering of barren mares must be 
arranged in the same manner as that of foal-mares in the second heat, unless 
previous experiences point otherwise. Covering of young mares must, how- 
ever, be arranged as for foal-mares in the first heat, i.e., the first and ninth 
day. In the interval there must be no trial. When covering barren or young 
mares one must pay special attention that they are well in heat, and if that 
be not the case, the covering must be deferred until they are. With foal- 
mares heat appears on the ninth day after foaling, in most cases very 
suddenly, and decreases generally in intensity after a few days. Therefore, 
the covering of these mares is most effective at the beginning of their heat. 
The heat of barren and young mares, however, develops very slowly, and 
increases in intensity in the first two or three days. The covering of same, 
therefore, is not the most effective on the first day, but only when the heat 
has reached its culminating point. The second or third covering in this heat 
on the third, eighth or ninth day is reckoned from the day on which the mare 
Ihas reached the culminating point of her heat. The days before the 
culminating point are not reckoned as heat days. 

There are, of course, many exceptions to the above-mentioned rules. 
There are mares which are only in heat one, two and three days. The stud- 



I. Juili4in},^ and Treatinj; Breedinjj Material. 371 

master must take note of such marcs, but, of course, lie must not wait till 
the culminating point is reached, but must pet thcni covered as soon as thev 
come in heat, and again on the following da\'. I'rom m\' own experience 
I should recommend, in ditYicult cases, mares to be covered in the afternoon 
and again on the following morning. In the ca.se of mares which will not 
conceive. 1 would ad\-is<' (lu-m lo be covered with two stallions, one immedi- 
ately after the other, and taki' the desired stallion for the second covering, 
as I have observed that in this case the second stallion is usuallv the fertilising 
one, if it succeeds at all. I recommend, moreover, that mares which con- 
ceive with ditiliculty should be given a good trot about half an hour before 
the covering, in order that they may get warm and heated, or that their 
mode of living should be changed; i.e., mares which run about loose in the 
stud should be put to hard work, and, on the other hand, mares which have 
been at work should be let loose. Sometimes change of place also helps. 
Lean mares conceive easier, but come in heat more difficultlw There are 
mares which conceive with more difhcultv, or even not at all, from certain 
stallions. In Half-bred breeding 1 would, therefore, recommend that the 
stallion should be changed in the third heat, a thing which is often difticult 
in Thoroughbred breeding. .Mares which are ridden or drixen usually con- 
ceive with more difficulty. I would recommend that mares which do not 
come in heat should be put in another stable, if pos'sible, together with 
mares in heat, or in warm weather and sunshine should be let loose with 
several others in a paddock, but should not be driven. The}- then should be 
finall\- allowed to be present when other mares are covered. During the first 
covering of \-oung mares everything should be avoided which might frighten 
them. The mounting of a trial stallion is only advi.sable in e.xceptional ca.ses 
with ver\- troublesome and bad-tempered mares and specially valuable 
stallions. 

Finallv, I recommend breeders to tr\- and get the mares [pregnant from 
one covering ; at any rate from as few coverings as possible. There certainly 
exists the danger of exciting the sexuality of the mares by too frequent 
covering, and bv too many and too intensive trials, and of producing false 
heat without ovulation. I have come across hysterical mares often in heat, 
and freciuentlv without ovulation, mostly in studs in which the stallions had 
not enough to do, and in which the mares were consequentK- covered too 
often. Young mares e.specially are spoiled by too frequent covering. In the 
case of suddenly occurring heat of foal-mares, usuallv on the ninth day after 
foaling, the commencement of the heat very probably coincides with ovula- 
tion, whilst in the gradually arising heat in the ca.se of barren mares, 
ovulation probablv begins later, perhaps only when the heat is at its 
culminating point. .\s a fertilisation without ovulation is, of cour.se, impo.s- 
sible, the above recommended manner of covering of mares also complies 
with this point of view . 



37i 



The Practical Part of Horsebreedin^. 



(k) Fertilisation. 

In order to compare the results of fertilisation, I have given in the follow- 
ing lists the figures of the respective stud books, but not the figures of 
country studs of the different provinces. It is too difficult for a countrj^ stud 
to get reliable statements with regard t(j foaling, and conseciuentiv country 
studs are not able to furnish statistically serviceable figures. In addition to 
the statements of the German General Stud Book of Thoroughbreds, I must 
say that the foaling results in many years — perhaps in all — appear more 
favourable than they really were, iDecause all those mares about whose 
foalings no information is given are not reckoned, but these mares may be 
pretty certainly considered as barren or as having slipped their foal. 
Moreover, the figures on the foalings have been asked for, sometimes with 
more, sometimes with less energv, and this explains the striking variations 
in the foaling results of Thoroughbreds in Germany. 

The foaling results in Trakehnen have come out too favourably, because 
mares which were covered and sold were not counted. The greatest number 
of these mares sold, however, are barren, and this is generallv the reason 
for their being sold in autumn. 

Foaling results of Thonjughbred breeding in (iermanv. 



Year 


I-^oals 


born 


Total 


Aborted 


Barren 


Total 
Number 


Pregnant 


Of 
Pregnant 






Mares 




Colts 


Fillies 








Covered 


°/ 


Aborted 


1885 


118 


127 


245 


16 


80 


::J41 


76,.54 


6,13 


1886 


141 


118 


259 


27 


87 


373 


76,68 


9,44 


1887 


109 


137 


246 


17 


112 


375 


70,13 


6,46 


1888 


136 


137 


272 


16 


123 


411 


70,07 


5,56 


1889 


160 


145 


:so5 


18 


108 


431 


74,94 


5,57 


1890 


140 


149 


289 


29 


131 


449 


70,82 


9,12 


1891 


172 


179 


351 


31 


140 


522 


73,18 


8,11 


1892 


177 


193 


370 


34 


162 


566 


71,38 


8,42 


1893 


215 


215 


iSO 


29 


140 


599 


76,63 


6,32 


1894 


•234 


215 


449 


■S8 


175 


662 


73,56 


7,80 


1895 


272 


241 


513 


:« 


170 


722 


76,45 


7,07 


1896 


257 


253 


510 


41 


188 


739 


74,56 


7,44 


1897 


265 


266 


5:^1 


47 


164 


742 


77,90 


8,13 


1898 


291 


296 


587 


40 


180 


807 


77,70 


6.38 


1899 


298 


■2m 


561 


37 


221 


819 


73,02 


6,19 


1900 


268 


262 


530 


60 


210 


800 


73,78 


10,17 


1901 


279 


285 


564 


38 


236 


838 


71,84 


6,31 


1902 


318 


259 


577 


42 


231 


&50 


72,82 


6,79 


1903 


274 


286 


540 


48 


241 


829 


70,9:3 


8,16 


1904 


266 


253 


519 


54 


227 


8(J0 


71,63 


9,42 



Total 



4:«9 



4259 



8648 



701 



:«2(5 



12675 



73,76 



7,50 



1. Jutlsiiii; and Treatintf Breeding Material. 



373 



Foaling resullb in Trakehnen. 



Year 



Foals born 



Total 



Colts I Fillies 



Aborted Barren 



[ Total 
Number 
Covered 



Pregnant 



Of 
Pregnant 

Mares 
Aborted 



l>esides 

Twins, 

part living, 

part dead 



1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 



1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 



124 
126 
12ii 
145 
126 
119 
148 
163 
152 
146 
144 
144 
l.V^ 



110 


m 


142 


268 


i:« 


261 


136 


281 


108 


234 


116 


235 


143 


291 


135 


298 


148 


:«)0 


138 


284 


163 


mi 


172 


316 


la-) 


2SS 



24 
18 
30 
19 
99 
21 
26 
17 
22 
28 
23 
16 
15 



88 
55 
78 
63 
63 
140 
57 
74 
61 
81 
78 
67 

7-> 



34« 
341 
369 
363 
396 
396 
374 
389 
383 
393 
408 
399 
875 



74,57 
&3,87 
78,8(5 
82,64 
8t,10 
64,65 
84,76 
80,98 
84,07 
79,36 
80,88 
83,21 
80,8 



9,30 
6,29 

10,31 
6,:« 

29,73 
8.20 
8,20 
5,40 
6,83 
8,97 
6,97 
4,82 
4,95 



2 Pair 
-J , , 
5 „ 

1 „ 

4 „ 

3 ,, 
10 „ 

5 ,, 

8 „ 

9 „ 
5 ,, 
5 „ 
1 ,. 



Total 1813 I 17S4 



3597 



358 



' 4932 



80,19 



9,U5 



60 Pair 



F'oaling results according to the East Prussian Stud Book, V'^ol. IV. 



Year 



Foals born 



Colts 



lotal 



Aborted 



I Total 
Barren I Number 
Covered 



Of 

_, Pregnant 

Pregnant ^i!;^^^ 

Aborted 



Besides 

Twins, 

part living, 

pari deail 



1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 



1874 


1544 


2918 


26t5 


902 1 


1471 


1534 


3005 


258 


lo:?7 < 


1524 


1612 


3136 


287 


1041 1 


1.522 


1485 


3007 


294 


11.56 


1.5&5 


1588 


3153 


.307 


1077 ' 



4086 

4;mo 

4464 
4457 
4537 



77,92 
7.5,88 
76,68 
74,06 
76,26 



8,35 
7,91 
8,38 
8,91 

8.87 



8 Pair 
8 ., 
4 „ 

6 „ 

8 ,. 



Total 



74.">(5 



TTiK 15219 



1412 



.■>213 



21SU 



7(i.l4 



s. lii 



.M 



Foaling results according to the IIano\er Stud Book, \'ol. 111. 





Foals 


bcirn 


Total 


.Aborted 


Barren 


Total 
Number 
Covered 


Pregnant 


Of 

Pregnant 

Mares 

Aborted 

7. 


Besides 
Twins, 


\ ear 


Colts 


Fillies 


part living, 
part dead 


1898 


()H 


(i:il 


1272 


SI 


;is:{ 


173(i 


77.91 


5.99 


2 P.iir 


189t) 


6.55 


ft-,1 


i:*M5 


84 


444 


1834 


75,79 


6,04 


2 


1900 


637 


a5:^ 


1290 


85 


521 


ISSX? 


72,.52 


6.18 


I ,. 


1901 


621 


«,->2 


1273 


79 


5(i2 


1914 


70.64 


5,84 


2 


19<12 


«:?1 


r,.->3 


128t 


75 


(!82 


1991 


as.L>fi 


."...">■_' 


1 ,. 



Total 



■MS.; 



.UK I 



(»ii"> 



(1)4 



2.M2 



9H7I 



.5,92 



3 1', 



374 The Practical Part of Horscbreediiii;. 

(1) The Time of Pregnancy of Brood Mares. 

The time of pregnanc\' of mares is on an average of almost exactlx' 11 
months' duration — equal to 334 days. Male foals are carried on an average 
'2 to 3 days longer than female foals. If the mares are well fed and their 
state of health is favourable, the time of pregnancv is shortened b}- a few- 
days, and vicc-vcrsa. For example, in Trakehnen early covered mares which 
foal in November, December and January, carry on an average aboiU 3 
days less than those foaling in February, March and April, which have had 
for a longer time the less favourable winter food. Mares which work hard, 
or suckle their foals for a long time, carry a few days more. In the modern 
improved studs the time of pregnancy is shorter than in the wild Stepoe 
studs. The so-called Kunters of Russia, Poland and Courland often carry 
llj to 1'2J months. The improvement in meadows and prairies, and the 
better feeding of the br(jod mares in Trakehnen has, on an average, shortened 
the time of pregnancy by .5J days, namely, from 33-5.42 days for males and 
333.38 days for females in the years 1868 till 1877, to 329.9 days for males 
and 327.67 days for females in the years 1903 till 1907. The regularity with 
which female foals are carried 2 to 3 days less can be seen more clearl\- from 
the following special list for the years 1903 to 1907 inclusive : — 

The time of pregnancy necessary in the case of : 





Trakehnen 


Bajohrgallen 


(jurdszen 


Danzkehmen 


lonasthal 


Colts 


329.5 


331.2 


330.69 


329.4 


328.38 


Fillies 


327.37 


330.36 


327.95 


326.46 


326.24 



There are mares which almost always foal 1 to 3 weeks too early, and there 
are others which require the same time in addition to the 11 months, and 
both often transmit this character for several generations. Young mares on 
an average carry longer than old mares. Many Trakehnen foals, having 
been carried onlv 315 to 320 days, have become prominent brood mares or 
stallions. According to experiences at Trakehnen, however, foals which 
have been carried more than 11 months have seldom become anything pro- 
minent, and those which have been carried more than 346 days never. 

The stallion also has an influence on the duration of pregnancy corre- 
sponding to the peculiarities of his breed and family. Mares pregnant from 
asses carry a few days longer ; twins are carried a few davs less (about 10 to 
14 days), and are mostly premature births with an unripe appearance. Many 
firstlings are not carried their full time, and are therefore similar to twins — 
premature births with an unripe appearance. The dry statistics should be 
carefully gone into in this direction. In order to produce the first foal well 
developed the dam must carry it some days longer than the foals w hich come 
after, but many young brood mares are not disposed to carry their first foal 
longer. All prominent firstlings which I know , i.e., those that have become 
Royal Stud stallions, country stallions, brood mares, etc., were carried 5 to 



1. JiRlt,nni,' ;iiul Trcalint; Hreediiii,' Material. 



375 



10 days lonj^er tliaii otiier promiiu'iit prudiKts. In the case of marcs foaling 
normally the time of pregnane)' often decreases a few days in the course of 
years. 

The Roval Stud stallions which have been born during my twelve years' 
activitv at TraUehnen ranU according to their merits as follows : — 



1. 


Polarslurm . 


. 32(5 days 


carrying 


time. 


'2. 


Morgenstrahl . 


327 


» ) 






8. 


Fisclierknabe . 


333 


1 » 






4. 


Prinz ()])timus 


319 


1 ) 






5. 


Poet . . . 


329 


, y 






(;. 


Panzer . 


. 334 


,, 






7. 


Alter Herr . . 


324 


M 






8. 


.\mtsvorstcher 


323 


, , 






9. 


.\ckermann 


324 


J 1 






10. 


Hoffnungsstrahl 


339 


») 






11. 


Emporer 


330 


) t 






1-2. 


Probstein 


322 


,, 






13. 


Justizminister . 


336 


,, 






14. 


Altgold . . . 


340 


1 ) 






15. 


Lungerer 


334 


,« 






ir.. 


Kthehvold . . 


330 


M 






Other 


Royal Stud stallion. 


3 were : 









1. 


Jagdnarr 


329 d 


ays carrying 


time. 


.)_ 


Morgenruf . 


325 


M 


» t 




3. 


Dachdecker 


325 


,, 


1 1 




4. 


Hagel 


327 


» y 


t « 




5. 


liandkuss . . 


329 


1 » 


M 





(Firstling) 
(Only 1 covering) 

(I^'irstling) 



(Firstling, also a 3- 
y.-o. covered mare) 



(Firstling) 



Of the above sixteen Roval .Stud stallion.s, the first eight best were carried 

on an average 320.87 days, the remaining eight 332.62 days, the five sent 

awav 327 davs. Brood mares (about 250) were carried on an average in 

Trakehnen in the last five years 326.7 days, and the country stallions (about 

200, including Royal .Stud stallions) for the same period 328.8 days. 

From these unfortunately few figures one can .see — and this I believe to 
have approximately observed al.so at Trakehnen — that 8 to 14 days under 11 
mi>nths of pregnancy is better than 1 to 8 davs or more over 11 months. 
I-'urther, on looking more clo.sely into the Trakehnen Stud Books, I find that 
most mares which carried longer than 11 months were covered .several times 
in one heat. It is vcr\- remarkable that mares which arc onl}- covered once 
during one heat generally carry some days less than they do in other years 
when they are covered several times during one heat. This is owing to con- 
ception occurring immediately after covering, thus preventing a further heat, 



376 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

and causing the immediate commencement of a healthv foetal development. 
In the case of mares which are in heat for a longer period, the egg-fertilisa- 
tion appears to take place only several days after covering. 

The climate seems also to have an influence on the carrying time. In 
Mesoheyes, Kisber and Babolna the average carrj'ing time is about 3 or 4 
days longer than, for example, in Graditz (colts 338.33 davs, fillies 
836.38 days), and in Trakehnen about 3 days less than in Graditz. Arabians 
in Weil and Scharnhausen are said to carry on an average about 34-5 days. 
Draft horse breeds carry about 3 to 5 days less than warm-blooded horses. 
According to the statements of Rudolf Endlich (Untersuchungen iiber 
physiologische Unterschiede edler und schwerer Pferde, 1895), colts of 
Belgian breed on the Worbzig Estate in Anhalt were carried 331.1 days, 
fillies 329.5 days; and the carrying time of Belgian and Rheinish mares in 
Mankartshof, near Neufs, was 329 days, taking the average for three years. 
The average carrying time of Percherons is, according to Tessier (Goltz 
Handbuch der gesamten Landwirtschaft, Vol. III.), 322 days. Moreover, 
I have found from different old stud books that the carrying time of brood 
mares 150 years ago of all breeds was much longer. As warm-blooded 
breeds reach a greater age than cold-blooded ones, and as the average age 
of all horse breeds 150 years ago was higher than it is now, we must con- 
clude, when considering the above comparisons of carrying times, that on the 
whole a longer carrying time has as a consequence a greater age. The long- 
lived Arabians are even to-dav a good example in this respect. 

(m) Abortion and Joint-illness. 

If the milk begins to flow some time before the expected birth it is a sure 
sign that the foal is ill in the womb ; or if the mare carries twins, that one of 
them is dying. Generally abortion follows. I have noticed several times, 
however, that the milk again ceased to flow some weeks later, and that the 
mare produced a healthv foal at the right time, so that one could not really 
see the consequences of an illness doubtless existing, but which had been 
fortunately surmounted bv the foal. In other cases a healthv foal was born 
approaching the right time, and at the same time a dead twin of about the 
size of a cat. I also know of (tne case in which one dead twin was foaled in 
autumn and the other healthy twin in the following spring. As according 
to the above, the abortion may be, however, expected in most cases, it 
is better to separate the mare, at any rate during the night, so that she may 
not slip in the same stable where there are other pregnant mares, which 
might be infected by the undoubtedly contagious abortion bacteria. 
Late covered mares are in North Germany more inclined to slipping the foal 
than early covered ones. After abortion it is very important to protect the 
mares against colds, which they are very apt to catch in this condition. I 
therefore recommend that mares after abortion sliould he put in a warm 



1. Judsjini,' and Treatinj; Breediiii,' Material. 377 

Stable free from drauglit, and well cnvered up also. .Moreover, it is necessary 
to wash the uterus twice daily with a lukewarm solution of C"hinos(jl to I per 
1,000 for about to 9 days, i.e., till the orifice of the uterus is completely 
closed. I have chosen for these cleansint;s at Trakehnen the above solution 
because it more surclv kills the bacteria tiian the solution of J per cent. Ly.sol- 
Solution recommended bv Professor Ostertag and others. The latter has the 
additional disadvantage of producing in many mares strong pressure and 
vehement pains. As early as the beginning of 1890, the Chief Veterinary 
Surgeon, Matthias, in Graditz, used such cleansings of uterus after abortion 
at that time bv the aid of Creolin-Solution. This cleansing had such a suc- 
cessful effect in 1893 with the Thoroughbred mare Sappho, amongst others, 
that in the following vear she produced the Austrian Derby winner, Saphir. 
According to mv experiences at Trakehnen, these cleansings have prevented 
in most, if not in ex'erv case, repetition nf abortion, and ha\-e led to the pro- 
duction, at the right time, of healthy and strong foals. 

'I'he mare should onlv be covered after abortion when the normal carrying 
time has pas.sed. If (he abortion takes ])lace after a pregnancy of 4 months 
or still less, she can be covered, after having been properly washed, when 
next in heat, which generally occurs 9 days later, with good results. 1 have 
experienced this several times at Beberbeck as well as at Trakehnen. 

The uterus of the mare should also be washed if the foals are joint-ill, or 
if the premature births are suspected of Joint-illness. Mares whose foals 
suft'er from jdint-illness should not he covered on the 9th day after birth, 
but in the subsequent heat, i.e., :] to 4 weeks later, after the above-mentioned 
cleansings, which should be used after birth for about 3 days, during the 
first heat for about (3 days, and at the beginning of the second heat once or 
twice. It is not generallv advi.sable to have as brood mares foals which have 
suffered from joint disease but which have been cured. In Trakehnen only 
one such mare (Trommel, 1899 by Jeni.ssei), which as a young suckling foal 
suffered from a pronounced joint-illness (right hock inflamed), was made a 
brood mare. She has up to now without interruption produced four good 
and healthy foals. To prevent the transmission of abortion it is advisable: 

1. To clean and disinfect the stable in which the mare has aborted. 

•2. 4~o isolate the mare up to the close of her first heat, i.c, about 18 days. 

3. To keep the mare warm during this time, and to pruti-ct her very care- 

fullv from cold. 

4. If the abortion has taken place in the pasture, to dig up the spot and 

to discontinue the grazing of iirood mares on that part for at least 

4 weeks. 
Whilst nearlv all scientists still deny the a'tiological relation between 
abortion and joint-illness of foals, all practical breeders, on the other hand, 
agree with the point of view held bv C"ount LehndoriT in his handbook for 
horse breeders, 1K81, namelv, that joint-illness is always inherited, i.e., has 
arisen during the pregnancv in the womb. Professor Dieckerhoft intended 



378 The Practical Part of Horsebreedin.af. 

in the next edition of his special pathology and therapy to support the view 
of Count Lehndorff as to the relation between abortion and joint-disease. 
According to the clinical observations (without microscopic investigations) 
which I have made at Beberbeck and Trakehnen, I consider Count Lehn- 
dorff's view correct, although Ostertag's researches distinctly contradict it. 
When making observations at Trakehnen in 1899 on the occasion of the 
epidemic of abortion, the Chief Veterinary Surgeon, ^Matthias, in his report 
on the abortion of mares and the joint-illness of foals, reports as follows : — 

" The disease of joint-illness principalh- consists of an inflammation of 
the joint which is connected with lameness. Hence this disease has always 
been called 'lameness' ('Lahme')." 

In my opinion, we are at the present only justified in speaking of joint- 
illness ("Lahme") if there is an inflamed swelling of the joint, together 
with general fever. According to Bollinger, joint-illness arises from a septic 
infection of the navel wound, i.e., from a navel infection after birth trans- 
mitted by the blo(jd. Accordingly, I ha\e found in nearly 80 per cent, of all 
cases of joint-illness which I have come across, an inflammation of the navel 
or navel veins, with their accompanying and subsequent symptoms. Many 
authorities on joint-illness consider themselves justified in diagnosing for 
joint-illness in the case where a foal has been born weak and dies with the 
symptoms of general weakness. These authorities consider a yellowish tint 
of the Sclera during lifetime as a pathognomonic svmptom ot joint-illness. 
If the new-born foal dies soon after with all appearance of catarrh of the 
intestines, they consider this also as joint-illness. If at the post-mortem 
examination of the foal there is found a yellowish cokniring of the under- 
skin, or if the same colour is found in the peritoneal covering of the intestines, 
or if in the abdominal and thoracic cavity and in the pericardium there is 
found a quantity of 3-ellowish fluid, and the musculature is greyish-yellow 
and crumbly, the diagnosis is for joint-illness. The same pathological 
changes may be found with prcjducts w hich have been slipped in consequence 
of epidemic abortion, or with foals still-born as a consequence of abortion, 
or finally, with foals which were born alive but soon died of weakness. .A.11 
these things are, as I have been well convinced at Trakehnen in 1899, con- 
sequences of epidemic abortion, the cause of which has been proved bv Pro- 
fessor Ostertag to be a distinct coccus. 

It has been asserted that " epidemic abortion and joint-illness are caused 
by one and the same germ." This is contradicted by the fact of Professor 
Ostertag having found in cases of joint-illness a different coccus, with which 
he could by innoculation produce the appearances of joint-illness. He did 
not find this strepto-coccus in aborted foals. There is, therefore, no valid 
reason to consider both diseases identical. I, however, believe that I shall 
be safe in saying that the greater part of the so-called cases of joint-illness, 
which lead to death without metastatic inflammation of the joint, are really 
nothing but the consequences of abortus coccus. 



1. JiKli^inir .itul Trcaliiii; Bit (.iliiii,' Mattrial. 379 

1 liave just stated tlial I tuiiiiil in at Ii-ast 80 per cent, of all cases nf joint- 
illness a navel illness. One may, therefore, consider it here proved, without 
further discussion, that the strepto-coccus has penetrated to the body from 
the navel wound after birth. The (|iiestion now arises whether there also 
exists an intrauterine orij^^^in of the joint-illness. In about 20 per cent, of the 
cases of joint-illnes.s 1 have found no pathological changes of navel and 
navel veins. To take the.se cases as a proof of intrauterine infection .seems to 
me too daring, for the strepto-coccus may easily have entered into the body 
of the voung animal by .s(jme other wav (feeding or breathing), or the illne.ss 
of the navel mav already have gone on so far that it can no longer be proved 
in a rough anatomical way. 

If the joint-illness had alrcadv originated in the womb, then one would 
expect al.so ca.ses of hereditary joint-illness, i.e., hereditary acute, py;emic 
inflammations of the joint. \o authority living at the present time has seen 
such a case of hereditar\- joint-illness. .Supposing that the three cases of 
hereditary joint-illness (compare Worz Uber Staats-oder Landcspferdezucht- 
Anstalten Wurtten-bergs, page 10-5) extracted by Profe.s.sor Sohnle from the 
complete literature on joint-illness have been rightly noted and interpreted, 
then there mav, of course, be a possibility of an intrauterine origin of joint- 
illness. At the same time, one mav, ho\\e^er, conclude therefrcjm that this 
sort of origin of joint-illness b\- intrauterine infection is very rare. 

It has been observed that in the \ears of epidemic abortion cases of joint- 
illness are more frer[uent. Of the about '290 foals which are born yearly in 
TraUehnen, taking an axcrage of five years, 8.4 die of joint-illness and G.6 
of weakness. In the abortion year 1899, 10 foals died of joint-illness and 19 
of weakness. The loss by joint-illness did not in this year, therefore, exceed 
the axcrage ver\- much. In tiie case of a great number of foals suffering from 
joint-illness, however, there may have been about 1-5 cured of the illness, in 
these latter cases the illness began very late, even 6 weeks after birth, and an 
illness of the navel could not be pro\ed. The fact of joint-illness beginning 
.so late is no proof of intrauterine infection, in spite of the non-existing navel 
illness. 

Concerning the combating of joint-illness, good results have without 
doubt been obtained by carefully attending to the navels of the new-born 
foals. The cleaning of the uterus of the mare and the washing of the penis 
of the stallion have cerlaiiiK- produced satisfactory results in fighting 
epidemic abortus. .\s an example of this, I may say that at 'i'rakehnen in the 
epidemic year 1899, there were 93 abcjrtions and C still-births. In the follow- 
ing year there were, after this treatment, only 19 abortions and -2 still-births. 
The yearly average of abortif>ns and still-births in Trakehnen is '21. The 
cleansing of the uterus and washing of the penis have not led to a further 
derrea.se in ca.ses of joint-illness in Trakehnen. This is another proof against 
intrauterine infection. 



380 The Practical Part of Horsebreediiig-. 

Whether there is an intrauterine existence of joint-iUness or not, in any 
case it is recommendable, as is d.jne in Trakehnen, to clean in the same 
manner as in the case of an abortion the uterus of all those mares whose foals 
die under symptoms of weakness, or show signs of weakness and illness 
shortly after birth, or suffer from joint-disease. 

We have seen that the coccus of abortus does not in every case lead to 
abortion, but, nevertheless, it hinders the development of the foals in such 
a manner that they are born weakly and ill. Even if, as I suppose, these are 
not cases of joint-illness, nevertheless, the coccus of abortus which is in the 
uterus is destroyed by washing. If the orifice of the uterus is already 
closed when the foal shows signs of illness, the uterus must be washed at the 
first heat. The penis of the stallion must be washed after every covering. 
The most effective manner of combating joint-disease is, however, to take 
especial care of the navel. Complete extermination of joint-disease and of 
abortion will scarcely be attainable in larger studs where the greater quantity- 
of brood mares produce such a great deal of epidemic matter, for the h3^giene 
of confinement in stables is far from perfect, neither can the cleanliness of 
the stableman who acts as midwife alwavs be relied upon. Judging from the 
successes of Trakehnen, however, even in large studs one may succeed in 
limiting sufficiently the losses caused b\- joint-illness and abortion. 

(n) The Birth. 

A normal birth occurring at the right time causes no difficulties, and 
seldom lasts longer than 15 minutes, reckoned from the beginning of the 
first visible signs of the approaching birth labour. Under normal conditions 
the birth itself lasts about ^i minutes. Three men are sufficient to assist. 
Above all, these men must keep Cjuiet, and make their observations standing 
far apart, so as not to disturb the mare whilst she chooses the place which 
best suits her for foaling. Only when the mare, on account of the first 
stronger birth throes, has laid down and stretched herself out, should the 
studmaster see whether the head and the two fore-legs of the foal are in the 
right position. According to experiences at Trakehnen, irregular position 
of the foal in the womb, needing the assistance of a veterinar\- surgeon, is 
very seldom, as the studmasters are generally very capable. As soon as the 
head and the two fore-legs can be seen as far as the knee after the bursting 
of the so-called bladder, clean straw, which should be at liand, must be put 
behind the mare as a bedding for the foal, and the skin of the o\"um must 
be torn far enough to enable breathing to commence. Simultaneously with 
the labour pains, the men must begin to pull at the fore-legs if need be with 
ropes round the pasterns, generally in the direction of the hocks, i.e., away 
from the anus. When the birth is complete, at Trakehnen the navel is dis- 
infected as follows: — The navel string is cut with a pair of scissors which 
have been kept in undiluted lysol, at a distance of about 3 fingers width from 



1. Judging and Tre;)(ing Breeding Material. 381 

the belly o( the foal. After the blood has been properly pressed out of the 
stump, the latter is washed with a solution of a 1 per 1,000 sublimat, then it 
is dried with wadding and painted on all sides with a 10 per cent, solution 
of blue pyoktanin in spirits. 

.As soon as the navel has been disinfected, the foal is carried to the head 
of the mother, and she will then commence to lick the foal. The attendants 
should now leave, only one remaining in the stable, ob.serving the mare from 
a short distance. .\s soon as the after-birth has been removed, which gene- 
rail v takes half an hour, the wet straw i^ replaced by dry. 

In the twelve foaling years which I have spent at Trakehnen (from 1896 
to 1907 inclusive), apart from all abortions, out of 3,388 births, only 38 have 
been difificult births (including 1-2 breech-births), where the assistance of a 
veterinary surgeon was necessary or desirable. Of these 38 difficult births, 
23 ended with the death of the foal alone, 2 with the death of the dam and the 
foal, and 2 with the death of the dam alone — altogether 27 mishaps. 
.Accordingly, 3,363 foals were born without mishap, of which 1,689 were 
colts and 1,674 fillies. Twin births or abortions of twins happened in these 
twelve vears oir^, times. 



(o) Treatment of the Brood Mare after the Birth. 

if the foal dies, the mare should be used, if possible, as a nurse. When 
this is not done, she will suffer in her health, and give less milk in the ne.xt 
year. If the foal at the beginning is too weak to completely emptv the udder 
of the dam, the udder must be carefully milked at least three times dailv. 
This happens to nearly all foals, in consequence of a slight stomach illness, 
when they are two or three days old. As one does not like to lift the feet of 
the mares up in order to round their hoofs abfiut two or three months before 
they foal, this must be done after foaling. The .same thing applies to the 
cleaning of the stables. The observations made at Trakehnen show that 
very often a few days after the cleaning of the stables abortions took place, 
and this seems to confirm the old df)Ctrine that the smelling nerves of 
pregnant mares are very sensitive, and that evaporation of the dung and the 
smell of tar cause abortions, in Thoroughbred breeding it is, therefore, 
advisable to remove daily all dimg, t<igether with the wet straw, and to 
spread what fresh straw is required, as in the race stable. It is advisable to 
remove at once after foaling the fresh dung, to prevent the foal from eating 
same, a thing which they like, but which is dangerous. Foals should be 
weaned after IJ to 6 months. .\ longer suckling time is neither good for the 
mare (even if barren) nor the foal. .After the foals are weaned is the best 
time for finding out mares which have not conceived, and, if there is time, 
to get them covered again (with two coverings, evening and morning, or on 
the first and third day). In my opinion, there is no benefit in omitting to 
cover good mares for a year in order to spare them and improve their further 



;53-2 The Practical Part (il Ilorsebreeding'. 

products. According to observations I have made, this has not been success- 
ful. To cover mares every second year as is done in some countries produces 
very bad fertilisation results. Barren mares are easily recognisable in autumn, 
even if they are not in heat, by their less smooth hair, and by their worse feed- 
ing condition. After six months' pregnancy the movements of the foal can 
easily be felt, especially during and after drinking. In the case of younger 
barren mares, light work up to covering time is in most cases very useful. 
For mares which do not easily conceive, in most cases plentiful, but not 
quick work, is useful, especiallv if they are inclined to be fat. 



CHAPTER II. 

The Judging and Treating of Foals. 
(a) Judging Suckling Foals. 

It is safest to judge tlie exterior of sucivling fcjals one or twf) da\-s after l)irtli. 
Eight or fourteen days later one can, perhaps, judge more safel)' as to 
whether they will turn out well, but in most cases the judging of the exterior 
has then become more difficult. Just as one can judge better the real cap- 
abilities of Thoroughbred yearlings by the autumn trials than by a few 
gallops as two-year-olds, so in the same way it is safer to judge the extericjr 
immediately after birth than when the foals have been weaned, or as year- 
lings. To rightly judge a young suckling foal one must catch it at a moment 
when it stands in a natural position, and as far as possible equally on its four 
legs, and holding the head at a height natural and convenient to him. This 
moment will nearly always be brief, and the slightest changes of the centre 
of gravitv give a wrong impression. If the centre of gravity is pushed too 
far forward, i.e., if the foal stands with the fore-legs somewhat under it, it 
appears perhaps bow-legged, and if the head is held too high, it appears often 
to have a swaying back. If the fore pasterns are still very upright, it appears 
high-legged; if they are very sloping, it appears over-built, etc. One must 
also know that suckling foals often grow out of some of their bad characters. 
To these belong, first of all, the X-legged position of one or both fore-legs. 
There are stallions, like Chamant and several of his sons, whose progeny, 
almost without exception, were born with X-shaped fore-legs, and who 
already as yearlings stood and walked perfectly straight. .\ son of Chamant, 
Panther, never transmitted this X-shaped position of the fore-legs, hut most 
of his progeny stood with turned-out toes and had an irregular walk. As a 
rule, it seldom happens that foals born with X legs walk irregularly later. 
Further, foals generally grow out of the following defects: — Too long, soft 
pasterns, long hind-legs standing out behind, polished knees or bending 
back, as well as long, upright fore-pasterns, all sideway leanings, as well as 
all misplacements (in the womb) of the fore and particularly of the hind-legs. 
The bending of one or of both hind-pasterns, which occurs so frequently and 
often very pronounced, nearly always grows normal. The other proportions 
of the body do not alter. One thing remains to be noted, i.e., that foals 



384 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

always appear to be liigher legged than they are when they become fully 
grown. The proportion of the length and the width of the body, especially 
of the back and crupper, strength of joints, very high or deficient withers, 
good or bad crest, remain the same. Short necks remain short, but are not so 
conspicuous in a fully-grown horse as with a suckling foal. The same thing 
applies to upright and to sickle hind-legs, which change little, but are not 
so conspicuous in a fully-grown horse as in a \'oung foal. Outwardlv placed 
pasterns often become all right if this outward position only consists of a 
bend of the pastern joint round a horizontal axle. If, however, the outward 
position consists of a twisting of the whole fore-leg commencing at the elbow- 
round a perpendicular axle, this fault cannot be remedied. Most narrow-toed 
positions of the fore-legs consist of the twisting of the \\hole leg round a 
perpendicular axle, and therefore do not improve. Often, and usually between 
the second and the third year, this position becomes much worse. Only 
if both pasterns deviate to the same side, i.e., if the one leg stands wide-toed 
and the other narrow-toed, one may assume a twisting round a perpendicular 
axle, and therefore an improvement of both pasterns, including the inwardly 
placed one, is probable. W^hether the crooked fore-legs will grow straight 
again can only be verified if one knows the development of foals of certain 
parents. For example, the progeny of Optimus born with crooked fore-legs 
retain same, whilst nearly all the progeny of Perfectionist were born with 
crooked fore-legs and became straight without exception. .\11 the progeny of 
Hazlehatch are always born with straight fore-legs, which later on, however, 
generally become crooked. 

High-leggedness, already recognisable in the suckling foal (of course, 
the above-mentioned upright position of pasterns must, if necessarA', be taken 
into consideration when judging), nearly always remains. Faulty position 
of the ankle joint (tied in below hock) is ver)' seldom got over so completely 
that traces of it cannot be perceived later, but the most distorted hocks, how- 
ever, often improve remarkably, especially if the connection is broad. No 
improvement can be expected, however, if the upper part of the hock 
(calcaneus) is inclined too far forward. It is often verv difficult and unsafe 
to rightly judge the hocks of foals born verv much misplaced (in the womb). 
There are stallions, like Pomp and Morgenstrahl, whose progeny were born 
mostly with their hinder parts very much misplaced and crooked, but in the 
short space of two to six months they grew out of the seemingl}- impossible 
twists, almost having the appearance of curbs. One can onl\- judge 
approximately correctlv if one knows the manner of development of the 
progeny of certain stallions. Optimus' progeny, for example, which were 
born with hocks a little ill-shaped (which, however, seldom occurred), 
scarcely ever lost this fault. The same thing applies to the progeny of 
Hazlehatch. Generally speaking, the chance of growing out of weakly 
supported and improperly set hocks is least if there is no misplacement (in 
the womb) connected with these faults, and vice-versa. Furthermore, small 



2. The Jiids^ing nntl Treating- of Foals. 385 

l)()rn k)als grow out of llu-ir faults less ofirii llian bijj born ones. The former 
have £jenorallv sufficient room in tlie womb and, therefore, do not pet mis- 
placed. 

'i"o corrccllv jnds;e the nobility (jf the foal, one must not fors^'i-t that this 
is a point whieJi chanijes very little, i.e., thev will never look nobler than they 
do as voiMig suckiint: foals. The young age is very apt to hide coarseness. 
In Judging the strength of bones of foals, one must not be deceived b_\' the 
long hairs on tlu' legs. A big, dry head indicates a strong bone develop- 
ment, whilst the fairlv small head generallv indicates thin, cannon bones. 
I'oals born with short, smooth and shining hairs on the legs look- lighter than 
thev jirc, and must be judged favourably, as one may expect from them 
C|ualilv. drvness, hardness and health. Short and dull-looking hair is a sign 
that the foal has been born premature and unripe. I have ne\er yet known 
a case where such premature births have developed into first-class hor.ses. 
The so-c-alled over-built foals, which is mostlv to be seen with one and two- 
vear-olds (nearlv all progeny of X'olapuk), nearly always grow normally. 

In judging earlv the exterior, one must, of course, take into consideration 
the health \' development of the foal, for without such this growing out is not 
onlv not to lie expected, biU rather a relapse in manv parts may be feared 
uhirh were originallv normal. The back especialh- gives way most easily, 
and becomes, even during the suckling, or immediately after the weaning, 
a low back, on account of disturbed development and nourishment, the 
causes of which are iifleii hidden. Low backs which suddenly originate after 
a severe illness, such as glanders, often completely disappear, whilst those 
arising from no visible acute illness never get all right. The most con- 
spicuous exarnple of this which I know is the Royal Stud stallion Emporer, 
born 1S90 bv T.ehnsherr (bv C'hamant) and Hmigrantin, who as weaning foal 
got a verv bad knv bark commencing immediately behind the withers after 
a verv severe attack of glanders. He was transferred in the spring of 1900 
to Guddin to the geldings. In the course of about nine months the low back 
disappeared completely. In the autumn he was put to training as a two- 
year-old, and is to-dav Royal Stud stallion in Trakehnen. He has a faultless 
back, and his progenv also. Generallv speaking, the foals of high-blooded 
stallions, especiallv Thoroughbreds, develop better than those of coarser 
stallions. For this reason ihe former grow out of their faults better than the 
latter. 

(b) Treatment of Suckling Foals up to the time of Weaning. 

The first or so-called Colostrum milk is especially useful to the foal on 
account of its somewhat opening effect, thus hastening the getting rid of the 
first fecal substance of the foal known as Meconium. This Colostrimi milk 
must not, therefore, as unfortunately often happens, be milked off. The 
Meconium passes away under normal conditions in the first twelve to twenty- 

B — 2 



3SG The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. 

four hours, and in many instances two hours after birth. If this happens 
too rapidly it is often not a good sign. Diarrhoea follows, frequently a sign 
of weakness, or beginning of joint-illness. A delay of this important 
remoyal causes meconium colics, which may very easily become dangerous. 
This disease generally attacks foals carried more than eleyen months, and 
male foals more frecjuently than female foals. I haye neyer yet noticed this 
meconium colic in foals carried less than 320 days. In Trakehnen in 1896 
the chief veterinary surgeon, Dr. Topper, first applied very successfully the 
3tIeconotorium, constructed by ^lasch, for the purpose of artificially remov- 
ing the Meconium. As this instrument can be easily handled by non- 
professionals, I here state what Dr. Topper says about it : — " The operator 
sits on a chair, and the foal is held in a proper position. The instrument, 
and the first or second finger of the left hand, are oiled. A left finger is care- 
fully inserted, and with it the -Mecotorium (the convexity of the spoon 
downwards). If one presses the handle down the spoon presses into the 
meconium, and it is then possible to bring it out in parts as far as one can 
reach forwards. One g. calomel with -50 g. rizinus are afterwards given for 
the final removal, and an injection of luke-warm water made. The instru- 
ment may be had from Hauptner-Berlin." I would like to add that the spoon 
must be used with the greatest care, for the rectum of the foal is not capable 
of much resistance, and if it were pierced with the spoon death would always 
follow. 

A slight harmless diarrhoea of the foal announces the first heat of the 
dam. For a continuous or malignant diarrhoea the f(jllowing treatment has 
proved successful in Trakehnen : — 

If it is a case of the dangerous grey stinking diarrhoea of foals, the 
intestines must be completely emptied as cjuickly as possible. To obtain 
this result, give the foal 50 to 100 g. rizinus oil in one dose (an ordinar\' 
spoon contains about 10 g.). The day following give it again in one dose 
10 to 20 g. tincture of opium (a spoon contains about 1-"J g.) with four times 
as much mother's milk. If necessary, this treatment with the tincture of 
opium, gradually increasing from 10 to 20 g., is continued for several days, 
and if need be even in two doses daily. If in the course of this treatment 
the foal should suffer from inflated belly or colic, the treatment of opium 
must be abandoned. 

If it is a question of the ordinary watery diarrhoea, a dose of 50 to 125 g. 
of rizinus oil given at the commencement often renders further treatment 
superfluous. 

Continuous doses of tincture of opium are essential if the diarrhcca con- 
tinues for some time. As a foal soon gets into the habit of taking tincture 
of opium, increase the doses slowly, from 10 to 25 g., and also from once to 
twice daily. 

Instead of the oats, which cannot be digested by the weakened gastro- 
intestinal canal, it is advisable in cases of chronic diarrhoea to give a mixture 



2. The Judging and Treating of Foals. 387 

of oats and linseed meal ground very tine, almost to a mash, 1 cut. of oats to 
about 5 lbs. of linseed. .Vccording to my experiences, a complete change of 
food of the dam, as regards oats and hay, as well as of bedding straw, does 
not have any influence on the diarrhoea of the foal. 

The first nine days after birth the brood mare must be separated, along 
with the foal, in cases where the mares are together with several others in 
large stables and not in special boxes. Later on, when the foals are strong 
enough, it is better both for dam and foal to be able to move about freely in 
a large stable. Unfortunately, the arrangements in Thoroughbred studs, on 
account of too great anxiety, are usually not calculated to give these great 
advantages of freer movement, and to provide at the same time special places 
for oats and hav for the foals. When it is fourteen days old the suckling 
foal usuallv begins to nibble oats. It can be taken for granted that on an 
average the foals can eat as many pounds of oats daily as they are months 
old. Besides the oats, it is advisable to give the foals dailv as much fresh 
hay as possible, also clover hav. A four months old suckling foal must have 
daily 4 to 5 lbs. of oats, and almost as much hay. If the dam gives too little 
milk, and it is possible to teach the foal to drink cow milk, which is often 
very difficult, an addition of about 3 to 5 litres of fresh undiluted cow milk 
(three times dailv 1 to IJ litres direct from the cow) is to be recommended. 
I have never vet found that this addition of fresh undiluted cow milk had any 
bad effect on suckling foals. Stunted weaning foals, as well as suckling foals, 
whose dams die suddenly in giving birth or somewhat later, must have daily 
6 to 9 litres fresh undiluted cow milk. One litre every two hours during the 
day and everv four hours during the night is the right quantity. It is 
reckoned that a good brood mare gives about 10 to 1-2 litres daily. 

About four to six weeks after birth the foal's hoofs must be attended tf). 
The foal must, however, have been already accustomed to being led for a 
short distance and held by the halter. This care of the hoofs, which is so 
important for the whole life of the horses, and which can rarely be recovered 
later, consists in cutting at first the fivtal frog, which is provided with 
unhorned, soft epidermal material, with a sharp knife, holding it level, in 
such a manner that the hoofs get the necessarv form of frog, with a soft 
depression in the middle and absolutely smooth surfaces. The remaining 
spongy substance must be removed from the sole in such a manner that it 
receives its proper depth. Then the wall must be cut down on the quarters 
and toe as the form and position of the hoof necessitates. Frog and inferior 
border of the wall must lie on one level, so that the frog also helps to carry 
the body. The lateral lacunae of the frog must he kept smooth, and wide 
open below. The small cracks in the lateral lacunae of the frog are removed 
by so-called air-making, i.e., by a notch cut. However, under no circum- 
stance must the strength of the bars be weakened. The most careful removal 
of all, even the very smallest cracks, especially in the median and the two 
lateral lacunae of the frog, is very important, because it is impossible to keep 



388 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

them clean otherwise, and thev therefore easily become the means of causing 
putridity. Everv hoof must be brushed over at once, after cutting, with tar; 
of course, onlv the sole, including the frog. This must be repeated, in the 
case of suckling foals, every four weeks before grazing time. It does not only 
make the putriditv of the frog impossible, but also assures a strong and broad 
development of the frog and of the hoof. During grazing this work is not 
so often and so iirgentlv necessary as during the winter stabling, therefore 
most necessar\- for earlv born foals. The wearing of the hoof caused by 
plentv of exercise in the pastures, and this effect of the damp earth which 
becomes fastened to the hoof, and which is beneficial to same, b}- its massag- 
ing, widening and preventing putridity, does away with, to a great extent, 
the above artificial treatment of the hoof. Wollstein says : " The reason that 
foals in natural studs suffer so little with their hoofs is because they have 
plenty of exercise." Even in Thoroughbred breeding the early care of the 
hoof is, unfortunatelv, much neglected, and is the cause of so many con- 
tracted hoofs with curved walls and atrophied frogs, which again in their 
turn produce an early break down. 

Simultaneously with the attention to the hoofs begins also the cleaning 
of the foals. It is not necessary to put a halter round them or to hold them, 
jis, if it is done sensibly, thev enjo}- it, and it is the first means by which 
one can gain their confidence. The purpose of cleaning (of course, only with 
a dandv brush) is not onlv to keep them clean and prevent lice, but also for 
the verv beneficial scrubbing of the skin, which is especiallv good for foals 
born early in the year. Later on during grazing, wind and rain do their 
share in this beneficial massaging of the skin. 

Foals get their first exercise in the open when they, 10 to 14 days old, go 
with the dam two or three times daily to drink from the trough in the yard. 
Verv soon afterwards, at the latest at the age of 6 weeks, they must be exer- 
cised with the dam in the open, commencing w ith a quarter of an hour daily. 
Of course, these exercises must take place regularly everv day, and in afl 
sorts of weather, being extended to at least one hour daily, taking into 
consideration wind and weather, so that the dams as well as foals get accus- 
tomed to fresh air, weather and wind when the grazing commences. On 
warm and sunny spring days it is advisable to let out at their leisure all the 
brood mares with their suckling foals in the yard for an hour in the after- 
noon, over and above the regular exercise as mentioned above. The 
beneficial fresh air will strengthen brood mares and foals and cause them to 
mix one with the other, which is very useful. Mares which have not become 
pregnant will often come in heat on such occasions. 

Just as important as this advice is — i.e., to have open air exercise in all 
kinds of weather — for our Northern climate, so is it just as unnecessary for 
England and France, admirable horse breeding countries, endowed with the 
Grace of Ciod. Mv neighbours have often called the above method of foal 
rearing an exaggerated and unreasonable attempt to become hardy. Never- 



2. The Judging and Treating of Foals. 389 

tlicless, I have proved that even the yoiinc:cst foals ran endure miirli more 
exercise, frost, wind, rain and all sorts of bad weather than I and many other 
people supposed. This hardening method of rearing is very useful in every 
respect for all foals, and does much to improve their health, hardness, and 
finally, performing capabilities. In my attempts at hardening 1 have not 
even reached the limits at which a distinct advantage to the foals ceased — 
not to speak of the limits at which thev might begin to suffer. Of course, 
unreasonable altempls at hardening which do not avoid sudden and 
unprepared changes would soon reacii those limits, but an observing and 
individualising breeder will know how to act to avoid many dangers which 
I cannot mention here, as for example, when exercising on hard ground, 
foals with an inclination to upright hoofs should be suitably shod at the right 
time. 

After 4\ to .j months suckling foals lose their foal hairs, and mav then be 
weaned. It is good for foals if the suckling time is extended to ')^ or (! 
months, and this is at any rate advisable in the case of barren and late 
covered mares. Before weaning — it is best to begin at the age of 3 months — 
foals should be led by the halter, so that one may lead them without their 
dams to their own stables or to other places on the farm. The best time for 
weaning is towards the evening. Dam as well as foal become quiet much 
more easilv than when they are weaned in the morning. Foals which cough 
much, or suffer from glanders, must be weaned some weeks later, after having 
overcome the illness. Suckling foals get over glanders sooner than weaned 
foals. W'eaklv weaned foals, and such as have not yet lost their coat, may be 
assisted for 1 or 2 months with cow milk, about G litres daily. To give cow 
milk for a longer period, especialK- to Thoroughbred foals, has the dis- 
advantage that it causes them to grow fat, and possibly somewhat soft, 
therefore later more dilTicult to train. On the other hand, one must take into 
consideration that weaned foals get over glanders more easily if they are given 
cow milk during the time they ha\c the disease. Foals which are inclined to 
grow fat may be given skimmed milk. In the case of brood mares which arc 
barren, and therefore needing no protection for an embryo in the womb, it is 
not advisable to suckle their foals longer than 7 months at the most, in many 
Russian studs, where the suckling period lasts i-ven longer than 1-2 months, 
I have found that this was not good for the foals. It seems to me that they 
make iioorer use of the oats and hav when suckling so long, 

(c) Treatment of Weanlings. 

With a little tact and much loxc one succeeds in niaiiipiilating the wean- 
ing process, so deepK- connected witli the whole life of the suckling loals, in 
such a manner that no interrui^tion in their de\elopment occurs. During the 
first 24 hours at least they must, unfortunately, be kept in their new stables. 
In mv opinion it is necessary to separate the sexes immediately alter the 



390 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

weaning, or a few weeks later. It is quite common for well fed six-month-old 
colts to attempt to cover, and many fillies less than one year old are already 
often in heat. In the stud Tammist, of Mr. B. v. Liphardt, Dorpat, in the 
summer of 1868, a one-year-old filly (noble Half-bred) was covered whilst 
grazing bv a one-3'ear-old colt (also noble Half-bred) and became pregnant. 
As a two-year-old she had a living, but very small colt. The Thoroughbred 
filly Experiment, 1842 by Bay JMiddleton out of Miss Craven, was covered 
at 11 months old by Venison, and produced when she was 1 year and 10 
months old a living colt, which died after 24 hours. In the following year 
Experiment produced a filly bv Venison. Experiment was in Lord Bentinck's 
stud, who had a special craze for such extravagant trials (see General Stud 
Book, Vol. V].. and " Post and Paddock " by The Druid, page 208). 

For weaned foals a rof)my, light stable, with constant fresh water and a 
gf>od meadow close at hand is essential. The more foals are weaned at the 
same time tiie sooner they settle down, and when in a few weeks the next 
lot of weaned foals are put in the same stable, the weaning will be much 
more easy. Tiie very best picked food, always attainable fresh water, and 
association witii Iiorses of their own age, soon helps the foals to forget their 
dams. During the time of their growing the fastest, young foals require 
very urgently plentiful and frequent supply of water. If that is not possible 
their development will be distinctly retarded. Weakly and backward foals 
must be separated — at least in the stable — if they are badly treated bv their 
more robust companions. 

To good grazing also should be added fresh Lucerne, Sainfoin, or green 
clover, with or without Timothy, ad libitum, especially in the evening, and 
in the hot summer weather at dinner time also. I do not recommend the 
giving of clover to Thoroughbreds, as experience has proved that foals fed 
with clover, green or dried, look very well but are much more difficult to 
train, suffer in the wind, i.e., have a thick wind. The best food for Thorough- 
bred and Half-bred foals is certainly Lucerne, and the longer foals can be fed 
with fresh, good, and not attacked by rust Lucerne (in East Prussia generally 
from the middle of Mav to the end of September and the beginning of 
October) the better they will develop. When the Lucerne or the clover 
begins to blossom, then is the most favourable moment to commence with 
green fofid. Before the blossoming foals do not care to eat Lucerne. Foals, 
and particularly young ones, prefer, however, green clover to Lucerne. It 
is not therefore advisable to substitute often Lucerne for clover. To obtain 
an early second crop of Lucerne or clover, a part of it must be cut before 
blossoming. This early cut part will then be ready as a second cut with 
commencing blossom when the first part has been eaten up or become too 
dry. In a few words, it is only with great care and a correct division of the 
available land for food crops that one will succeed in obtaining an uninter- 
rupted and regular supply of green food from spring to autumn. Those 



2. The Judging- nnd Treating of Foals. 391 

breeders possessing such good pastures that they do not need an addition of 
Lucerne or clover are to be congratulated. In East Prussia we iiave not got 
them. 

For weaned foals (> li)s. of oats are sufficient at the commencement, and 
for those who desire to, or must sa\c — for example, military horse breeders 
— 6 lbs. are sufficient for the whole period, if green Lucerne or clover can be 
added. Those wiio desire t(; breed breeding material or racehorses, or first- 
class horses for use, must increase the oats monthly by 1 lb. per day up to at 
most 12 lbs. 1 di) not consider that generallv a greater quantity is necessary, 
not even in Tiioroughbred breeding. At Trakehnen 1 have never given on 
an average more than 10 lbs. of oats. Of course, besides this average, an 
addition of about 3 lbs. of oats is necessary for some backward foals, and 
foals which eat verv little hay. The portion of oats is split up into three 
meals — morning, noon and e\ening — for supper a little more. The foals 
must always be fastened up when the oats are given, so that each one gets 
its right quantitv and so that it can be seen which one has not eaten its 
portion. It is verv useful to give weaned foals with every feed of 
oats a iiandfui of ground or roasted linseed (about \ lb. daily). When in 
autumn the green food is finished and the winter ration of about 1(1 ll)s. of 
ha\- (Lucerne or clo\cr iiav) begins, it is advisable to give them for about 
three to four weeks aliout Ci litres of fine chopped carrots daily, and after- 
wards for the wiioli- of tlie winter twice weeklv about 2 litres wheat bran, 
together witii oals. in those \-ears in which tlie hay has grown well in con- 
sc(|uencc of a dr\- and warm summer, and has been well got in, having 
therefore a greater nutritive value, we have, in Trakehnen, diminisiied the 
share of oats for weaned foals, and given in autumn and winter at the most 
9 lbs. to prevent fatness. A diminution of hav or clover would have a bad 
effect on the formation of bones, as the hone-forming factors are not in the 
grain biU for the most part in the ha\- and green food, which contains plenty 
of lime. \'erv coarse clover or Lucerne hav produces in voung weaned foals 
diarrlut>a, as it irritates the intestines, and it is better to keep same for older 
foals. Three week's" feeding with meadow hav causes this diarrluwi of 
weanlings lo disappear without anv other remedv. For a few vears weaned 
foals ha\e in Trakehnen been gi\en :} lb. of rice along with their oats, with 
the idea that the large (|uantil\' of phosphorus contained in same would 
favourably influence the formation of bone. To give a definite result of this 
is not possible \et. ihe more potash there is in the food of the foals, and 
this is pariirularlv so in good grazing and with green Lucerne, llie more 
salt is recjuired by the horses. (This can be demonstrated by a chemical 
formula.) There ought always to be several large pieces of .salt in the 
mangers. 

.\s long as grazing is pr>ssible no difficulty whatever is experienced in 
giving proper exercise to weaned foals, (grazing in I-iast Prussia, which, 
unfortunately, only lasts about \\\c months, must he made the best possible 



392 The Prnctical P.irt of Horscbrecdin^'. 

use of, i.e., the foals must remain on the meadows as long as it is light, with 
a short interval for the mid-day meal, which the\- should receive in the stables 
in the form of oats, water, and if required, especially in tlie autumn, an 
addition of green Lucerne or clover. On hot summer days this interval may 
at times be prolonged to about three hours, with green food in the stable. 
The utmost use of the grazing time also already for weaned foals is, for the 
breeding of light horses, the most important and potent factor for the produc- 
tion of healthy and capable stock, and yet this is a thing which is very much 
neglected. The neglect and the final leaving off of grazing represents, in the 
history of many breeding studs, the turning ]D()int in llie transfer from a 
capable breeding stud to one which is contented only with the cheaper pro- 
duction of showy stock. Those economical considerations which have led to 
the limitation or the abolition of grazing endanger our modern improved 
breeds in the highest degree. This applies to horses as well as to cattle. 
The influence of grazing, which is so very great, and which cannot be sub- 
stituted bv anything else, consists principally in the long, regular and slo\v 
exercise in the open air on elastic, turfy groimd, and under the continuous 
and beneticial effect of sun, wind and rain. The linest exercising place 
cannot replace these advantages of grazing, jjrincipally because the exercis- 
ing place lacks the required food-seeking stimulus necessary for the said 
regular exercise. The healthy and useful feeding on the pasture is only of 
second importance. 

In winter, wiien tiiere is plentv ot snow, exercise nia\' take place in the 
same pastures. In our climate it is in the sj^ring and autumn that the diffi- 
culty of regular exercise is experienced, as of course the pastures must be 
spared at these times. Horses have then to be exercised on the paved 
grounds, perhaps covered over with straw, railed in and circular, or if it is 
not possible to get exercise on such places on account of the ice or because 
the ground is frozen, etc., horses must be exercised in half-covered circus- 
formed rooms. This exercise must take place daily, about H to -2 hours in 
the morning and a little less in the afternoon, if possible with shepherds' 
horses, in order to get the regular trotting exercise. The regular exercise of 
weaned foals, as well as of r)lder horses, whether on the pastures in the 
summer, or on the coxcred or uncovered exercising places in the winter, is 
the most important thing in the whole breeding of light horses. This point is 
often ^•ery much sinned against, even in Thoroughbred breeding, especially 
when horses are to be sold as yearlings. After the finishing of grazing time, 
weaned Thoroughbred foals and yearlings recjuire a systematic, gradual and 
progressive course of exercise. This consists in leading them for IJ hours 
in the morning, and somewhat less in the afternoon, at a slow pace, and 
galloping them daily on a railed-in track about 10 metres wide and about 
500 metres long. To start with, special leading horses with a man up are 
useful until the foals learn later on the purpose of it. 'i'hev then will gallop 
the distance of about 500 metres without such help. 



2. The Jiidsrins: and Trentins; of Foals. 393 

Whilst ihc \v(>aiu-d foals arc fasicncd up for diniH-r, it is the most suitable 
liiiu' to load tiu-m each dav on a neighbouring track, till they are quite fit 
to be handled and are obedient for leading, as well as to place them in a 
proper position to judge their exterior. This tirst and very thankful teaching 
of the young and willing foals should only commence four to six weeks after 
beine weaned. I'nfortunatelv, Thoroughbred foals vcrv seldom get this 
verv useful schooling, because one does not like the trouble, and, moreover, 
because one under-estimatcs the great advantages derived from this educa- 
tion. In Half-bred breeding this would be the most opportune time to select 
those colts for castration which are not suitable for breeding. The earlier 
thev are castrated the easier the foals get over the operation, and the more 
perfectly d<i thev develop into the desired type of gelding with thin neck and 
broad croup. It is still more advantageous, in order to get fine geldings, to 
castrate colts when thev are about four weeks old and are still with their 
dam, as the testicles are then sufficientlv prominent. Foals which are early 
castrated grow out of many exterior faults, such as high-leggcdncss, narrow- 
ness, and even faultv action, often m such a degree that when looking at the 
hor.ses when four-year-olds, one finds the reason for castrating only from the 
n.'marks written about the exterior. 

(d) Treatment of the Skin and Hoofs of Weanlings. 

To ]3roperl\' look after \\e;mctl foals one mav reckon twelve to fifteen 
foals to one attendant. Of coin-se, one man cannot clean fifteen foals properly 
daily, biu that is not necessarv. not even in Thoroughbred breeding. I 
consider it sufficient if each foal is simplv rubbed down each da\' in order to 
take off the worst dirt. This is best done in the morning whilst they eat 
their oats, and it requires two to three minutes for each foal. Besides this, 
each foal must b(^ thoroughlv cleaned once a week. For this purpose every 
disposable attendant is given in the morning or afternoon two to three foals 
in the stable to clean whilst the rest are being exercised. At the same time 
he kioks alter th(.' hoofs and kee]3s them in order b\' cutting ihem properly, 
rounding them and tarring them once about two or three weeks. The 
smooth cutting of the frog, and the air-making between the frog and the 
heels (opening uji of the lateral lacunae of the frog), as alreach' stated in 
connection with sucklings, are i-ontinued. In the case of i-ontracted heels, 
the heel-edges must be cut sul'licienllv to enable one to draw the hoof 
scraper through ilie lateral lacunae of llie frog from front lo hack with ease. 
The stuil attendants must, of course, be speciallv taught this work, which is 
not dill'icult, pariicularlv if the studmaster or manager himself understands 
it. It this worl<, howe\-er, is gi\-en to blacksmiths, who niostlv have no real 
interest in the work and are not always available, the proper keeping of hoofs 
will never be obtained in the stables. This care of the hoofs lakes very 
lilile time or trouble, but causes much anxiety, and is of the greatest 



394 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

importance, especially for Thoroughbreds. From my many years' experi- 
ence, I can confidently assert that if the hoofs are looked after in the manner 
stated above, of course a rotten frog is not only made impossible, but strong 
and resisting hoofs, with correct, broad, full and well-supporting frogs are 
produced to such a degree as is so much wanted for the racecourse, but which 
yet are so rarely found. The same order in cleaning and the same care of 
the hoof is to be applied later for one and two-year-old foals. 

In about ten to fifteen per cent, of weaned foals it will be necessar}' to 
shoe them from time to time. In the first place, those foals which, on 
account of tlieir straight pasterns, run too much on their toes, and which 
are therefore inclined to form upright hoofs, must be shod with half-moon 
shaped toe-shoes. It is generally sufficient to shoe twice every three or 
four weeks. Further, on account of some misplacements originating in 
the womb which have not been quite grown out of (the X-formed position 
of the fore-legs belongs also to these), or in consequence of standing too 
wide, together with a yet too narrow chest, or again because of some 
crookedness in the pastern joint which may still' be rectified, some foals 
are exposed to the danger of wearing their hoofs off obliquelv, and thus a 
proper development is prevented. In such cases I would recommend that 
the foals be shod according to the well-known rules for faulty standing, 
and in this manner until they have grown out of the supposed causes of 
faulty standing, and imtil there is no longer any fear that they will continue 
to wear their hoofs off obliquelv. In manv cases shoeing for three months 
will be sufficient, often, however, twelve months and even more are 
necessary; in fact, some never grow right. A twisting round the vertical 
axle of the leg, originating at the carpus or wrist, the so-called " knee," 
or higher (not to be mistaken with the X-legged position, which is easier 
to handle), cannot be improved by shoeing. If these faults are not put 
right bv shoeing, as unfortunatelv is so often the case in Thoroughbred 
breeding, which despises the exterior appearance, one will often find that 
whilst after about twelve months the formerly misplaced pastern, the narrow 
chest and other faults have been grown out of and become normal, but at 
the same time during this year an oblique hoof, i.e., contracted heel on 
one side, has been formed, which it will, of course, now be much more 
difficult to put right, especially as improvement by shoeing is very dangerous 
for horses in training. For twistings round a vertical axle, which cannot 
be put right, it is advisable, in the first years before training, to have a 
shoe made to suit the particular case, as by this means the early develop- 
ment of an oblique hoof is prevented, or at any rate the tendency to grow 
oblique is lessened. The following instructions are given to our local 
stablemen and shoeing smiths for the cutting and shoeing of hoofs in the 
case of faulty positions : — 

Looked at sideways, faulty hoofs mav be divided into pointed and blunt 
hoofs. Pointed hoofs are those of which the long toe is conspicuously 



2. The Judging and Treating of Foals. 395 

oblique, and the heels too low, and the blunt hoofs are those of which the 
short toe is conspicuously straight and the heels too high. Pointed hoofs 
are to be found when horses stand with their legs very much in front of 
the bodv, or if the fore-legs are Unock-kneed (calf or sheep-kneed), or if 
the hind-legs are too angular, or if the position of the toes forms an acute 
angle (in most cases with long or sloping pasterns). If it is desired to 
favourably influence these faulty positions, the toe-wall of the hoof will 
have to be kept short. On the other hand, the heels are to be spared as 
much as possible. Blunt hoofs are found with horses whose fore-legs are 
placed too far back or are over in the knees, or if the position of the toes 
forms an obtuse angle (in most cases with short or upright pasterns). 
In this case cutting of the hoof must be limited for the most part to the 
too high heels, although in many cases the keeping down of the heel does 
not effect a remedy. In cases where foals have a lot of exercise on hard, 
sharp ground, the toe sometimes becomes so worn off that a pronounced 
upright hoof is produced, and if not dealt with at once it cannot be remedied 
later, and forms a so-called pincard or ramplin foot, or otherwise ring-bone 
with its attendant lameness ensues. By a timely use of a toe shoe this 
affliction may be completely avoided. If it is a question of young foals 
whose hoofs do not permit of a toe shoe, I would recommend that the toes 
be hardened b\- repeated applications of tar, and also that small leather shoes 
be used. I mav here mention that in some rare cases a pincard foot may 
arise with foals, apparently the consequence of diseased bones and sinews, 
and this is incurable. 

Looked at from the front, the faulty hoofs may be again divided for 
the sake of simplicity into two groups — group 1. hoofs with wide-set toes, 
and group II. hoofs with narrow-set toes. Hoofs with wide-set toes are 
more or less pronounced in the following positions : standing wide, 
X-legged and wide-toed. The hoofs of the second group arc found in the 
following cases : narrow standing, O-Iegged and narrow-toed. 

If it is desired that the foal sliall outgrow these faulty positions, the 
hoofs of group I. must be cut as follows : Repeatedly cut down the (.)Utside 
of the toes, quarters and heels. Cut horizontally so that the sole is, if 
possible, in the same level with the inferior iDorder of tiie wall, 'ihe sole 
must therefore be as little arciied as possible. i3o not shorten the infericjr 
border of the wall on the inside, but from the sole so much horn must be 
removed, and the inner bar .so far siiortened (shortened, not weakened) tiiat 
the sole appears much arched towards the frog. This arching of tiie sole 
of the hoof, too narrow at the inside in the case of a wide-set toe, aims at a 
widening of the hoof on the inside by counter-pressure of the ground. 

Group II., hoofs of tile narmw-set toes, as far as cutting is concerned, 
are treated in exactly the opposite manner to group 1. The advantages 
of cutting hoofs witii faulty positions can best be learned when foals are 
exercising on soft, yielding ground. If tlie exercising ground is rough 



396 The Practical Part of Ilorsebreedinj,'. 

and hard the hoof soon wears to the shape necessitated by the position of 
the legs. In such cases the only thing to counteract this is shoeing. 
Shoeing should be used not before an age of six months, but usually not 
before they have reached the age of ten months, except in the case of 
upright-hoofed suckling foals, when they should be shod earlier. It is, 
of course, taken for granted that only a hrst-rate smith, perfectly acquainted 
with this kind of shoeing, does the work. 

The shoe for the hoof of the wide-toed position must be as follows : An 
outer thin and an inner thick branch, the outer branch tapering towards the 
end, which should have the thickness of the blade of a knife. The support- 
ing edge of the thick branch is sloped outwards in the region of the quarters 
and heels. The nail holes in the inner thick branch should be made as 
far to the front as possible. The thin outside branch, the edge of which 
must be kept narrow, must iac fitted on tiglit and nailed as far as the end. 
The inner strong branch must be kept long, and must be fitted on large. 
The inferior border of the wall on its su]Dporting surface, which slopes 
outwards, is inclined by each weight to slip outwards, the C(jnsequence 
therefrom being an early recognizable widening of the hoof on the inside. 

The hoof of a narrow-standing requires a shoe exactly opposite in make. 
Of course, the shoe must be changed at the right time, and it is to be noted 
also that the faulty position cannot be remedied at once by a too strong 
one-sided cutting down (if the inferior l^order nf th(» wall, nor can it be 
forced by a too great difference in the strength of tiie shoe-branches; both 
things must be done gradually, and siowh- increased. It depends on how 
bad the faulty position is. the shape of the hoof and the results obtained, 
as to how long tiie siioeing ought to be continued. As so(jn as the animal 
is put to hard \\(irk it must be shod willi straight shoes, but even then it 
is advisal^le when preparing the hoofs for siioeing to see that they retain 
the breaking of the toe axle produced by artificial shoeing, as well as its 
regular form, so ver\' laborioush- acquired. 

The advantages of a proi:ier cutting and good shoeing for the form of 
the hoof and the pt)sition of the legs does not only help the foal to outgrow 
a faulty position well and quiokly. but docs more, i.e., instead of an oblique 
hoof, which is always the consequence of a fault\- position, a regular 
shaped hoof is formed, l-'or t'xample, in the case of wide-set toes, the hoof 
is very oblique, i.e., the inner walls incline too much to the inside, are low 
and pushed under, and the whole inner half of the hoof is too narrow. 

If these measures are n(jt made use of, these evils will remain, and in 
most cases this hoof will become later on a one-sided contracted hoof (narrow- 
heeledness), otherwise it will not be able to overcome quitters, seams, etc., 
and the value of the horse is accordingly very much reduced. But even 
this does not exhaust the advantages of the breaking of the toe axle. Horses 
for whom nothing has been done to remedy their wide-toed position will 
knock themselves as soon as they are taken in use, and they are useless for 



2. The Judg-iii;,' and Tifatins: of Foals. 397 

carriage, etc., worU. I-'oals witli wide-set toes, whose toe axles 1d\- correct 
shoeing have acquired the desired breaking, very seldom hit their legs when 
put to work. 

Many experts say, and with sonic justilication, that the doubtless 
unnatural breaking of the toe axle may also cause damage. On the other 
hand 1 must state that many experiments in this direction have been made 
for many years, most likely only at Trakehnen, and thev have demonstrated 
that a slow breaking of the toe axle can be endured bv voting horses without 
injury. 

If the Lithuanian peasant, or the military horse breeder, a few days 
before a sale prepares the hoofs in an artificial manner, this ruse has nothing 
to do with the real methods of improvement, which are verv good and useful 
for horses. 

.A. too sudden break of (he toe axle of a threq-vear-old ma\- be disastrous 
to young animals owing to the tearing of the ligaments and spraining of 
the joints, particularly so if the attempts to improve are made bv shoeing. 
The hoof which has been shod does not so easilv overcome the sudden break- 
ing of the toe axle as an unshod one does, as the wearing off of the too high 
bearing part of the unshod hoof is better accomplished, and consequently 
nn damage arises from the breaking of the toe axle. 

(e) The Treatment of Yearlings and Older Foals. 

Treat and feed yearlings up to the beginning of grazing time in the same 
manner as I have already pointed out for weaned foals. \\'hen the grazing 
is good about 4 to C lbs. of oats are sufficient for militar\- and other horses 
in use. For breeding material, about G to 8 lbs. of oats, with a simultaneous 
addition of green clover or Lucerne, is required. Thoroughbred yearlings 
require 10 to L2 lbs. of oats, and in addition green Lucerne. Half-bred 
yearlings which are given when grazing more than 6 to 8 lbs. of oats will 
eat less clover or Lucerne, and will therefore not become so strong. In some 
instances, as for example, where foals are growing fast, or do not feed well, 
a special addition of 3 to fi lbs. of oats may be advisable. 

After the grazing period. Half-bred yearlings destined for use are given 
about (i lbs. of oats and 12 lbs. of hay. Horses destined for breeding stock 
are given about 8 lbs. of oats and 15 lbs. of clover or Lucerne. Thorough- 
bred \carlings shr)uld be brol<en in during grazing time late in the summer 
(about li hours dailv), and in aulunm after finishing the best grazing they 
sliould be turned into training for racing. 

In the case of two-\car-nlds, those bred for use receive during grazing 
time 2 lbs. of oats (earlv in ihc morning), or if grazing is good no oats; and 
those required for breeding stock about I to (> lbs. of oats, and in both cases 
green I>ucerne or clover in additif)n. If Lucerne is very good and plentiful, 
1 lbs. of oats arc c|uite sufficient: more would be detrimental, as it would 



398 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

cause fattening. When autumn grazing is finished, the breeding material, 
colts as well as fillies, should be saddled and trained. At Trakehnen we 
give two and three- vear-old colts and fillies in training about 9 to 12 lbs. of 
oats. After grazing is finished 6 lbs. of oats and about 12 lbs. of hay is 
sutilicient for two-year-olds intended for use. In the following summer the 
three-vear-olds at Trakehnen get during grazing time 2 lbs. of oats, but if 
grazing is very good none. W'hen grazing is finished the three-year-olds 
are broken in, and get until the spring auction 9 lbs. of oats and about 10 to 
12 lbs. of hay. 

The above indicated food rations are only sufficient if the quality, 
especially of the hay, is very good. In damp years the hay is less nourishing, 
and it is then advisable to increase the oat ration. On the other hand, the 
beneficial and bone-forming qualities of hay well got in dry years may be 
used in more plentiful quantities at the expense of the oat ration. 

A part of the oat ration can be replaced by beans or peas, say about 2 lbs. 
daily. By this means the formation of the bones is favoured, but at the 
same time the disagreeable gall formation appears, especially in the hocks. 
Beans and peas can therefore only be recommended when foals have at the 
same time plenty of exercise. 

Every expert will know, of course, that these rations, which are ordinarily 
speaking used at Trakehnen, must very 'often be modified according to the 
soil of the stud and the particular requirements of individual horses. A 
fixed standard to suit all the different conditions— harvests, illnesses, etc. — 
cannot be given. The eye of the breeder, especially when it works with 
pleasure, wHl itself perceive all the necessary shades in the treatment of foals. 



CHAPTF.R III. 

Training. 

1 iiAXE already mentioned in previous chapters the importance of 
individiialisation in the treatment of both breeding material and foals. It is 
quite evident that when training horses, whether for the purpose of racing 
or hunting or other performances, it is most important to individualise, and 
it is therefore impossible to give a hard and fast rule. I only intend to give 
general points of view, ideas and experiences, from which each individual 
breeder must build up his own theory according to the particular require- 
ments of his available material, the training track and climate, etc. The 
dit¥icultv of the art of training lies in the fact that its object, the horse, like 
all other living creatures, is endowed with many powerful characteristics, 
rendering a maciiine-like and uniform treatment impossible. If the horse 
were a machine, then training would not be an art, and racing tests to the 
lifeless clock time would be all that would be required. Furthermore, the 
work of the trainer is made difficult by the task of having to obtain the 
highest passible degree of fitness by a fixed time, i.e., the race day. The 
iibject of all training consists in removing all superfluous fat and connective 
tissues, in strengthening the muscles and sinews, and in clearing the wind. 
In order to obtain this result the horses must be watched carefully and 
correctly every day and properly dealt with. The trainer's eye is the cause 
of horses being fit or unfit. 

The suitable Hnglish and Irish soil, as well as the admirable racing tracks 
— given bv the grace of God — especially at Newmarket, has led the English- 
men also in this branch into the comfortable and tenacious conservatism 
which is just as dangerous and hostile to all progress as was the former 
conservatism of artillerymen with reference to breech-loaders not invented 
bv them. It has taken a long time before the simplest doctrines of hygiene 
could remove much of the evil in English training. The distinct successes 
of the Americans in training and riding during the course of the last ten 
years have caused Englishmen to think and reform where necessary. In 
both training and riding, Americans, who are not bound down by tradition, 



100 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding'. 

and who are not spoiled by Englisdi pastures and galloping grounds, 
obtained great successes through their practical ideas and almost incon- 
siderate leaning to what is natural. Moreover, the Americans have reason 
to be proud of the fact that Old England, with its long historx" of classical 
races, has had to learn such a rough lesson from them ! 

(a) The Training Methods. 

The training methods of the eighteenth centurv, that is, at the time of 
Eclipse, born 1st April. 17G4, had to adapt themselves to the following- 
circumstances : — 

1. There were only a few attainable racecourses for each horse, and the 
racing season was much shorter than it is to-day, often onlv three months. 

2. In most cases onlv four-\ear-old and older horses ran. Three-vear- 
olds only since 17-50, and two-year-olds only since 1773. 

3. There were no railwavs, and consequentlv the visiting of the different 
racecourses entailed long journeys on foot. 

4. Most races were run for a distance of 2 to 4 English miles, with 
heats, the weights for six-vear-olds being 12 stone. 

At that time it was verv usual to keep horses in training for only three to 
four months, and to send them for the rest of the time to grass. After the 
grazing, training began with weekly physics and bleedings. Then the 
horse received about two sweating gallops weekly, over distances of 2 to f> 
English miles. During the sweating gallops with woollen rugs, some parts 
(jf the body which had too much flesh very often — for example, the neck — 
were covered with extra heavy rugs. In these gallops the last quarter of 
a mile had to be ridden a little more quick, that means at half speed. After 
the sweating gallop the nose and mouth were washed, then the horses were 
brought into the stable or in the so-called rubbing-down house, and there 
covered with several woollen rugs until the sweat oozed out in sufficient 
quantities. The sweat was then removed with a sweating knife, and the 
horse rubbed dry by four persons with woollen cloths, then covered with 
fresh rugs and given walking exercise for half an hour. Some days a week 
complete rest davs were usual, whilst long walking exercise, as is common 
today, was almost u-nknown. Tiie usual daily canter or gallop was over 
2 to 4 English miles, often without a leading horse, and in any case at a 
slower pace than is usual to-day. The word " canter," meaning a quiet 
gallop, arises from the slow manner in which the pilgrims walked to the 
grave of .\rchbisliop Thomas Becket at Canterburv, murdered 1170. 

The development of training in the last century, after the coming into 
prominence of the classical races for two and three-year-olds, proceeded as 
follows : — 

1. .Vccording to Darvill, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the 
following sweating gallops were given. For yearlings over 2 miles, for 



3. Tniinin;,-. 401 

t\vo-\c'ar-olds o\L'r -I^ mik's, for tliree-vear-olds over 3 to 3J miles, for four- 
year-olds over 4 to 4^ miles, and for 5 and () year-olds over 5 miles. 

•2. The sweatinf;^ cjallops gradually became more scarce, and were held 
over somewhat shorter distances. The sweating gallops of two-year-olds (at 
the beginning once weekly, over 1 English mile) gradually ceased altogether. 

'.]. Sweating gallops at the beginning of the nineteenth century were 
given in addition to the daily work, i.e., in addition to the quick work or 
so-called gallop. Later on there was no c|uick gallcjp on the da\s of the 
sweating gallops. 

4. Opening nu'dicincs, called physics, became more rare, and are finally 
limited to one or two doses a year, especially in spring, shortly before the 
beginning of C|uicker work, i.e., beginning as thev are transferred from the 
straw-bed to the racecourse. 

0. The daily work consisted of 1^ to 2 hours in the morning, and about 
1 hour in the afternoon. This afternoon work, however, does not seem to 
have been generally practised, and ceases almost everywhere towards the 
end of the nineteenth century. 

(). The work in the forenoon for the two-year-olds consisted of a short 
walk and trot, then two (|uiet canters of about 1,000 metres, and then a 
somewhat quicker canter of about 1,200 metres, the latter once or twice 
weekly, at full or half speed. The older horses cantered and galloped 
just as often, but over longer distances. The distance was gradually 
increased to the distance of the racecourse, i.e., extending eventually over 
4 miles, equal to 6,437 metres. In .\utumn the yearlings cantered two or 
three times daily, each time 600 to 800 metres, and in the late autumn were 
tried up to SOO metres with the assistance of an older leading horse. The 
afternoon work consisted only in walking and a little trotting. 

7. About the second half of the nineteenth century the work of the 
yearlings and of the two and three-year-olds was limited to two canters daily, 
of which the second canter was somewhat longer and (|uicker. Once or 
tw ice weekly the second canter was made almost at racing pace, in accordance 
with the progressive condition. The three-year-old and older horses cantered 
generally about 1 English mile, seldom more than 2,000 metres. Derby 
horses, for example, galloped at least two or three times before the race IJ 
miles, equal to 2,414 metres, at full racing speed. Gallops over longer 
distances than 1^ English miles gradually cease altogether, even in the case 
of horses, for example, which were trained for the Doncaster St. Leger 
(distance 1 mile, 6 furlongs. 1-32 yards, equal to 2,937 metres). 

The present day views on training are characterised as follows: — 

1. Sweating gallops and physics are only applied in exceptional cases 
when the condition of the legs does not permit that quantity of work by 
which the useless fat and flesh, called in German luder, can be removed, and 
yet at the same time muscle can be formed. I'urther physics are given if a 
horse, in consequence of too much work, has become stale or has broken 

c — 2 



402 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

■down, so that during the time of its enforced rest it may not put on too 
much flesh. If a broken down horse has to be bHstered or fired, it is given 
a pill before and after the rest of four to six weeks. \\'here needed it is also 
■given a physic about eight days before the race when some slight accident to 
a fit horse requires an important reduction of work. 

2. The daily work consists in the morning of IJ to GJ hours' walking 
exercise, none or very little trotting, and two canters or gallops. In the 
afternoon f to 1 hour's walking exercise, either led or with a man up. 
After the beginning of the fast work, it is calculated that under normal 
■conditions about six weeks are sufficient to make the horse fit for racing up 
to IJ English miles, equal to 2,000 metres; whilst at least two months are 
required if the distance is IJ English miles, equal to 2,400 metres. 

3. In the case of the two daily canters or gallops, the last 500 to 
800 metres (or as some trainers say, the last 300 to 600 metres) should, 
according to the American idea, be done at medium pace, and in the case 
of a more advanced condition at racing pace, at first onlv in the second 
canter, later on in both. The beginning of this gallop in an^^ case must be 
done at such a slow pace that one can trot alongside. This slow part of the 
■canter may be accordingly extended up to 2,000 to 3,000 metres. Once or 
twice weekly, in the case of more advanced condition, the quick part of the 
•second gallop may be extended up to 1,200 to 1,600 metres, later on up to 
at the most 2,000 metres, when, of course, the slow part can be very much 
reduced, or omitted altogether. Only few trainers are of the opinion that 
the gallop at racing pace may be extended up to 2,400 metres. 

The idea which underlies this kind of training is that the daily gallops 
over short distances, at a medium or at racing pace, bring the muscles which 
are used for quicker work, and the lungs, better and more surely into 
condition than the former usual longer gallops, undertaken once or twice 
weeklv, for which the horses were not sufficiently prepared, as the other 
daily work was only slow cantering. 

The new method of training is supposed to effect a daily, uninterrupted 

■and gradual improvement of condition, whilst formerly, according to the 

doctrine of the old trainers, every two steps forward should be counteracted 

■by one in the opposite direction. Moreover, experience has taught that 

•gallops at racing pace for longer distances than about 2,000 metres do not 

•improve the condition, but rather the reverse. The winner of the St. Leger, 

1906, Troutbeck, has, as I have been assured by his trainer, W. Waugh, 

never during the whole of his existence galloped or cantered over a longer 

distance than 2,000 metres. On the other hand, the American trainer, 

Walker, who gets perhaps the most out of his horses, gave his Derby 

candidate, Eels, several gallops at racing pace over 2,400 metres, sometimes 

€ven with relay leading horses. But even this trainer is of opinion that this 

'distance is the extreme limit, and is even sufficient, for example, for 

the preparation of the Grand Prix, which is run over a distance of 3,000 

metres. 



3. Training. 403 

In tlic bigger and l)cttiT American raring stables, one ftften finds the 
practical arrangement of using one part (jf liie stablemen for riding only, 
whilst the greater part is employed in cleaning, feeding and leading the 
horses. .\ racing stable of about .'50 horses not far from New York, had, 
for example, onl\- two stable boys who ciuld ride. Besides these, the stable 
jockev also rode. The cleaning and feeding of the horses, as well as taking 
them to their dailv work on the racecourse, and in the afternoon generally 
to the \ard, was undertaken by about eight to ten young fellows who, how- 
ever, never were allowed to ride. Bv this arrangement the two stable lads 
had plenty of opportunitv tf) practise galloping, as thev galloped each of 
their about 7 horses twice daily, it is principally owing to this very prac- 
tical division of work that the .\mericans are in the position to produce so 
many good jocke\-s. Some of them even learn to accomplish fairly accurately 
the verv difficult task of doing a gallop whilst training at a certain defined 
pace (eventuallv I mile in about 1 min. oO sees.). In American training such 
tasks are verv popular. The most difficult task, however, is to ride definite 
distances in the shortest possible time. The partisans of racing against 
time do not recognise, in mv opinion, sufliciently the difficulties attached to 
same. Thev think that in our racing to a finish the art of the jockey in riding 
is more important than the capacit\- of riding in the shortest possible time. 
If the horse were a mere machine it would be an easy thing to get the best 
record bv letting it go full speed ahead from start to finish. A\'ith living 
horses, howe\er, the best r(>cord would certainlv not be obtained by this 
method. 

For steeplechasing the same kind of training is also recommended, except 
that instead of galloping them once or twice weekly over 1,'200 to 1,600 
metres as recommended, they are more often given a hunting gallop, over 
obstacles, for .3,000 to -5,000 metres. Many trainers assume that if a horse is 
fit to gallop 1,600 metres on the flat, and if it has had sufficient practice in 
jumping, it is also fit to do .5,000 metres and more at a steeplechase pace, and 
that finallv at the finish it can still put on the recjuired well-prepared speed 
w hich it has not used up whilst going at a steeplechase pace. 

Experience iuis furthermore taught that short quick gallops are less 
dangerous for the legs than longer canters, provided that the horses do not 
need to stretch themselves in these (|uick gallops. In these longer canters 
energy and a desire for going soon disappear, conse(|ueiitly the absence of 
strained nerves and muscles causes the sinews to break down easily or the 
legs to become splints. If this long canter is over obstacles it causes excite- 
ment, attention and the desire forgoing, which are so useful and so necessary 
in training. Lazy horses, as well as fillies in heat, often gallop with loose 
joints, and therefore often break down very easily. A change in the gallop- 
ing track is in this respect often verv useful, as it serves to increase the 
attention of the horses, and removes the so dangerous weariness. One of 
the most imporlanl instructions given to the stable boys is: In your daily 



404 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

ranters or gallops be \ery careful to avoid pushing vour horse. Sit still, 
so that the horse may feel and think that the rider really wishes to go a little 
more slowly. This soothing belief sustains the desire for going, and 
strengthens the nerves of the horses. 

Besides a horse's galloping performances, there are several other verv 
remarkable signs to show how far its condition has improved. To commence 
with, notice must be taken how long it takes the horse to snort (clear the 
wind) after it has been pulled up. The sooner this happens the more forward 
is its condition, especially the breathing. If the horse, for example, requires 
a minute or more to snort, it is a sure sign that the horse has been asked to 
do too much in the gallop in question, i.e., a mistake has been made. If the 
horse is verv fit and the gallop has been too short, i.e., it has been easv work 
for it, it takes a long time to snort, or it does not snort at all. The length 
and pace of the gallop must fit the condition, so that if it clears the wind by 
snorting 10 to 30 seconds after being pulled up, it is a sure sign that every- 
thing is all right. 

In the case of a horse which is fit the skin becomes thinner, the hair more 
shiny, and the flesh firmer. The latter, as well as the disappearance of 
useless fat, can best be noticed at the mane and on the ribs. A little easy 
sweating is b\' no means a sign of bad condition, on the contrary, a fit horse 
certainly sweats less but more readily, as its sweat is more liquid and its 
skin thinner and more readily penetrated. The sweat of a fit horse looks 
like clear water; on the other hand, that of an imfit one like lather, which 
can be most distinctly seen between the hind legs, and dries up less quickly. 

If the horse when galloping begins to become long, or to breathe more 
deeply, pressing the knees of the jockey outwards, it is a sign for the jockey 
to pull up. 

Finally, I must add that before the race, and in order to get a perfect 
condition, in most cases several gallops at full speed, over not more than 
2,000 metres, are required, and that the last quick gallop — which often works 
wonders — must be undertaken two or three days before race day. Of course, 
even after this last gallop the horse must do its usual two canters daily up 
to the day of the race. On the day of the race itself, early in the morning, 
give the horse 1 to IJ hours' walking exercise, a short canter of 800 metres, 
and-a so-called sprint for the same distance. If desired, you can do as the 
Americans like to — let the sprint follow the canter without any interval. 
About five hours before the race give the horse some oats with a little water. 
An hour before racing lead the horse out (jf the stable. 

The following points may be briefly mentioned with reference to the 
important treatment of horses' legs when in training : — 

1. .'Vs long as the legs give no cause for anxiety bandages must not be 
made use of, except for steeplechasers as a orotection against external 
injuries when jumping, and when <inl\- this protection seems necessar)'. 



3. Training:. 405 

Bandatjt's only then fulfil ihcir purpose when they are carefully wound and 
fastened round the riijht place. The rule is to cord somewhat loosely but 
wind round rather lirmly, and in such a manner that it is eas}' to put one 
finger between the bandage and the leg. It must be corded about two inches 
below the upper edge of the bandage, so that the strings of the bandage lie 
e\en and onlv on one place. 

1. 'I'his leg which is causing anxietv is generalK' discovered in the well- 
known afternoon cleaning and revision hour, and it is then first of all neces- 
sar\- to find out whether a changing of the shoeing is rec[uired. It will verv 
often be found that the heels have been shortened too much, and in all 
probability this has been the chief cause for the beginning of the break down. 
In such a case new shoes with thick branches must be got at once. The 
straighter position of the pasterns, which often takes place when training, 
requires the heels to be lifted slightly. 

3. As soon as the sinews give wa\- w hen working, it is necessary to begin 
the well-known treatment of stitched-on stockings, wet bandages, cold 
douches, blistering and firing, according to the stage of the disease. More 
effective, however, than all these remedies is supposed to be the Hydro- 
thermoregulator, Svstem Ullman (see Archiv. fur wissenschaftlich. und 
prakt. Tierheilkunde, Vol. 31, page 196). Thick sinews, and especially fresh 
breakdowns, are exposed bv this apparatus for 30 to 50 hours to a temperature 
of .50 to 55 deg. C. Professor Eberlein says that by this treatment a complete 
reformation and thus a cure of the break down is possible. 

4. Besides the break down of the sinews (apart from about 50 per cent, 
of all lameness produced bv hoof di.scases), lameness frequently occurs 
through splint-exostosis. This exostosis is never or \ery rarelv caused from 
external injur\-, such as b}' knocking or striking by the other leg, but it arises 
from the tearing of the ligaments bv which the splint bones are connected to 
their cannon bone. This tearing of the ligaments is caused when galloping 
during training b\' the shock, which increases in proportion to the speed, 
when galloping. I']\en when doing slow work', howexcr, exostosis may arise 
from sudden and irregular effort of the upper parts of the splint bones, which 
ma\- be caused in various wa\"s (laziness, heat, neglect). In the case of 
lameness thus arising, exostosis itself is, of course, not vet existing, and 
therefore not \et to be perceived, if exostosis is apparent, the lameness has 
often alreadv pas.sed awa\\ In order to pre\ent or to limit as much as 
possible an interruption of the irnining, it is necessarv to exercise a per- 
manent pressure on ihe splint bones by careful bandaging, .\fter riding, it 
is advisable for the remainder of the da\' to appiv wet bandages with dry 
ones over them, and to change them at three hours' interval. For riding, 
and of course during the night, apply only dry bandages. When the place 
where the splint-exostosis arises is alread\- to be recognised, place a piece of 
lead about the size of a two-shilling piece into the bandage, so that it exer- 



406 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding;. 

cises the necessary pressure. Perhaps also in the case of splint-exostosis 
the appHcation of the Hydnjthermoregiilator might be useful. There 
are good racehorses which, on account of exostosis caused whilst training 
and not looked to at the proper time, could never be properlv trained for the 
\\h(jle of the season. Sperber's brother is a \vell-knf)\\ n example of this. 

(b) Stable Regulation and Instruction for Rubbing 
Down Horses. 

Work in the stable begins in the morning about IJ to 2 hours before 
the horses are taken out. The first thing to be done is to give the horses 
water and a little oats, clean the stable, and rub each horse down, after which 
the men go to breakfast and put on their riding clothes. On their return 
from the training track, the horses are to be regularly attended to in the 
following manner : — 

1. Remove the snaffle, take off the saddle and put same on the cleaning 
bench, put on the horses' halters, and if necessary fasten them up. The 
stable boy then commences to wipe the place where the saddle has been w ith 
a straw wisp, and with the same straw wisp removes the greater part of the 
dirt from the belly and legs, etc., the horses in the meantime eating the hav, 
or in the summer, the fresh Lucerne, which must be there ready for them in 
the manger. If the horses are under rugs, after the completion of the above 
work, cover them up again, and in such a manner that the inside of the rug 
comes on the top. 

'2. The next work is the treatment of the legs and hoofs. The bandages 
are taken off, and all the four legs, beginning with the near fore, are 
thoroughly cleaned, if recjuired, washed or douched, and then again rubbed 
dry. When cleaning or drying the legs, the stable boy must kneel dow n and 
take firm hold of the leg of the horse from the front. The hoofs are now- 
washed, rubbed drv and filled inside with damp clay. If the hoofs are not 
washed it is unnecessary to put damp clay on the frog and sole, as the soil 
which adheres to them is sufficient protection against the stable urine and 
against over-dr\-ing of the hoofs. The hoofs must be washed once a week at 
least, but as above-mentioned, damp clay must always be smeared in the 
sole. The blacking of hoofs is not required, and is often dangerous. If 
more is desired for the decoration as well as for the preservation of the hoofs, 
the outer part of the hoof can be well brushed daily and wiped with a wool 
cloth in order to make ihem smooth and shinv. When above has been done, 
the legs must, when required, be rubbed with fluid and bandaged. Then 
give the horse half a bucket of water to drink. 

3. The real process of cleaning the horse begins with the head and ears, 
care being taken that the horses keep their heads low. Take the rug oft" partlv 
or altogether, brush first the left, and then the right side, alwavs commenc- 
ing with the neck and shoulders. Then massage the horse witli a som.ewhat 



3. Training. 407 

damp wisp consistintj of Iiay and bast, then wipe with a woollen cloth. Beat 
the dust well out of the rugs, put them on again, and put on the girtii, then 
once more clean the tail and mane. Finally wipe the eyes, nose, mouth and 
backside with a soft sponge, and the horse's toilet is complete. The halter 
is then taken off, the horse bedded and given sufficient water. Tlie saddle 
and harness are then cleaned and put awav in the harness room. 

An hour after coming home the horses are given their chief feed of oats,, 
the stable shut, and if necessarv in the summer on account of flies and heat, 
darkened. The horses must now have four hours' rest up to the afternoon 
stabling time, when the legs are first examined and the appetite controlled. 
They are then got ready for tiieir afternoon's exercise of about three-quarters 
of an hour, after which tliev are again cleaned, given water and oats. This 
is the time when visitors may he received to inspect the stables, and the work 
for the next day considered. In the evening give water once again, as well 
as oats and ha\-. In the long hot summi-r davs, especiallv with us in the 
North, it is advisable to work \evy early, and U) arrange for fi\e feeding times 
instead of four. The above-mentioned stable rest of four hours would then 
be after the third feed of oats. In this case (lie fi\e feeds would be about as 
follows : — 

4 o'clock a.m. about 1 lb. 

\-2 noon ,, 8 ,, 

5 o'clock p.m. ,, '2 ,, 

(c) Food whilst Training. 

For horses in training for racing ab(jut Ti to J-") ll:)s. of oats will be, on an 
average, sufficient for one day. Very few horses in training eat more than 
16 lbs. of oats daily for long, and I consider it inadvisable, except in rare 
instances, especially where lu)rses w ill not eat hay, for horses to receive more 
than this Cjuantity, as there might easily be a relapse, w hen they will scarcely 
eat 10 lbs. Horses which have sufficient time and rest for eating, as for 
example, racehorses, as opposed to farm horses, digest their oats better 
without chaff. If it is desired to give chaff, however, 1 would advise the 
use of Lucerne or Sainfoin hay. Part of the oats, about 2 to 4 lbs., may 
be replaced by thi^ same (|uantity of peas or beans, especially if horses in 
quick work lose their a]ipetite. I find it more prailical to give the peas 
unground and unswollen, as most horses prefer them like that, and as 
the peas or beans which have not been ground remove the tartar from 
the teeth, and do not get dirty so easily. An addition of about 2 litres 
of wheat bran twice weekly, damped a little, with oats (mash), is recom- 
mended, especiallv after the f|uicker gallops; in anv case, not the day before. 
During the hairing season I recommeiid that there be added to this so-called 



408 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

mash a little slime of linseed, or about J lb. of ground or roasted linseed. 
Formerly the portion of hay was fixed in England as 5 lbs. per day 
maximum, because one wished to get the racehorses more slender after the 
training than to-da}-, and they did not think it possible that the horse with 
more flesh, or even with a so-called ha}' stomach, could be fit for racing. 
To-day racehorses in training are given 10 to 12 lbs. of hay daily (but no 
clover hay), and in addition, after their morning work, a few pounds of 
green Lucerne as long as it is to be had. Americans have introduced a very 
good custom, i.e., to put a bucket of water in the stables so that the race- 
horses can drink whenever they like. Horses in consequence drink oftener, 
but in quantity less than when they are watered three to four times daih-. 

Half-bred horses which are not trained for racing but for the improvement 
of muscle formation, lung activity and health, receive, in order to produce 
stronger bones, less oats and more hay, especially clover hay. In Trakehnen 
the two and three-year-old colts in training are given on an average 10 lbs. 
of oats and 18 lbs. of clover or Lucerne hay, or in summer green Lucerne ad 
libitum, but care must be taken that it is mown twice dailv and given to the 
horses as soon as possible after it has been cut. 



CriAPTFR IV. 
Establishment of Studs. 



Tm-: Medes were one (if the first and most rincient njitions wliit-li gained 
great political power in Asia, mosth- on account of their good horses and 
their clever cavalry. Only after allying Medea, which was rich in 
horses, with Persia, did Cyrus succeed in overcoming the rich Crcesus 
(549 B.C.), in destroying Babvlun (-538 B.C.), and in founding a great 
Persian Empire, whose kings were so fond of horses that thev had their 
celebrated studs for their own use and for that of their cavalry even in the 
far distant Medea. Victor Hehn supposes that Medea was the home and 
starting point of the horse breeding and horsemanship for .\nterior .\sia. 
Amongst the grasses which impro\ed especialh- the horse breeding in 
Medea, the Greeks and Romans found one particularly suitable, and 
imported this grass about KM) B.C. into Italv under the name of Medic 
grass, the name " .Medicago " arising later. In tile fifteenth centur\- this 
grass was brought first to France and Belgiiun via .Spain, and received the 
name I>ucerne from the little Italian town Ciauserne; according to other 
information from tiie old Spanish word " L'serdas." .Soon after the dis- 
covery of the New World the Spaniards took this Lucerne into .Vmerica, and 
called it tiiere bv the .\rabian word " Alfalfa," later on the Spanish word 
for clover. Lucerne has onlv taken root in (iermanv since the middle of the 
eighteenlh century at hlrfurt. .Since ITHd Lucerne has been cultivated in 
England in the fields, and in the sunny East of h'ngland (especially in Essex 
and Kent) very much extended. In 1892 about 6,610 acres grew Lucerne, 
and in 1906 already about •2-2,160 acres. 

The horse, on accf)unt of the simpler organism of its stomach and the 
shorter intestines, has a much less capacit\- for digestion liian cud-chewing 
animals. For this reason the horse utilises less hay and straw than cows or 
sheep. Of all kinds of hay, the horse utilises best Lucerne hay, and excels 
in this respect even the sheep, according to the cNiieriments of E. W'olti, 



410 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

Hohenhcim, especially as far as the use of the raw prolein and digestible 
carbohydrates is mneerned. Therefore, not only the history of horse breed- 
ing, and the experiences of tlie present time, but also scientific con- 
siderations, seem to point to the special value of Lucerne for horse breeding. 
Medicago sativa, or common Lucerne — named " aspert " bv the Persians 
(i.e., literally forage for horses) — given either green or dried, is the most 
nourishing and healthiest food for horses, and most suitable to produce 
strong and hard bones. This grass requires a chalky, strong, deep and warm 
soil, with deep level of subsoil water, but it also grow-s well in mountainous 
districts, where the rain water, coming suddenly and in great quantities, is 
able to run off well. In the South of France it often grows in the same spot 
fifteen years and longer. In the middle of Germany about six years; in 
Trakehnen only three to four years. It can be cut in France five to six times 
yearly, but in Trakehnen only three times. It thrives better in dry years 
than in wet years. On account of its roots, which grow 2 to 3 metres deep, 
it can withstand the greatest scarcity of water. Lucerne thrives best after a 
crop of vegetables, about 20 lbs. to one acre, sown in oats or barley, and 
which can be mown green, as long as the Lucerne appears strong enough 
to suppress weeds. After everv crop it is advisable to harrow the Lucerne, 
and even in special cases to harrow- continuously even with the usurpator, 
in order to destroy the W'eed. In winter it is easily affected by strong frost, 
and it is therefore advisable to cut it for the last time in autumn, about two 
to three weeks before the first night frosts. Manure of 3 cwts. Thomas meal 
per acre every autumn, as well as 6 cwts. in spring, has been proved to be 
sufficient at Trakehnen. After Lucerne the best food for horses is Sainfoin 
(onobrychis sativa maxima). Sainfoin contains a little less chalk than clover, 
but like Lucerne, it is not injurious to the breathing organs, and is, there- 
fore, more suitable for Thoroughbred breeding than clover. Sainfoin is less 
capable of resistance than Lucerne. It takes more from the soil, gives only 
one crop, and is more difficult to get in. According to the tables of E. WolfT, 
there is contained in every 1,000 part : — 

Wood Sorrel 
Sweet Meadow Hay 
Sainfoin Hay 
White Clover Hay 
Red Clover Hay . 
Lucerne Haj- 

There is double the quantity of lime in Lucerne as green food as in red 
clover, almost three times as much as in meadow grass, and five times as 
much as in Timothy grass. 

The thrivino- of Lucerne is one of the surest indications that the soil is 
good for horse breeding, as has been proved in its home to the old Medes 



4.7 1 


ime 


16.6 




16.8 




19.3 




20.0 




26.2 





4. Establishnunt of Stial-. 411 

and Persians. Where Liicorne thrives well, it ran he taken for qrantecl that 
there will be found j^ood pasture and meadow laiul, or that they can he laid 
out. (luod meadows and i^razintj are amon^jst the most important conditions 
for the thriving of horse breeding. Although horses have a great power of 
resistance against heat and cold, wind and weather, \-et there is no doubt that 
thev prosper better in (lr\- antl liigh-lving districts than in damn and low- 
Iving ones, because the food which grows on the former is more nutritive. 
Moreoxer, on high-King plains the lungs of the horses develop better on 
account of (he ihinner air, which causes the horse to breathe more often and 
more deep. The great superiorit\- f)f that wonderful horse, Ormonde, must 
partly be ascribed to the high-lying, otherwise rather deficient, training 
place, Kingsclere. The high-King training place, Beckhampton, near 
("alne, in Wiltshire, has pro\ed to be just as good; witness the two Derby 
winners, Callee .More and Ard Patrick, trained there. The best Arabs are 
found on the highest-lying plains of Arabia, and ]irobahK- the first home of 
the Arabs is the same as that of Lucerne, namely, the niountainf)US Medea. 
.\dmiral Rous writes about the establishment of a stud as follows : — 

" The best site for a breeding establishment is undulating ground, on a 
light soil, oxer limestone, then over chalk, gravel, sand and loam, well 
drained; and the worst situation is a rich, wet pasture on stift' clav, which is 
only fit for cattle and cart horses." 

A windy climate is healthier than one which is not windv. The massage 
of the skin which is effected bv the wind strengthens the nerves and improves 
the health of men as well as of animals. The almost constant wind in East 
Prussia, and the good loam soil there, on which clover flourishes luxuriantly, 
are the elements which cause horse breeding to thrive so well in that district, 
in spite of many other unfavourable conditions, due to its Northern position. 
The possibility of foals catching cold after hcavv rain is much greater in 
districts where there is not much wind than in districts where there is much 
wind, as the wind, by drying the hair, is the best protection against colds. 
^Foreover, in districts where there is not much wind it is very difficult to 
get hay really dried bv the wind, especially Lucerne and clover, without 
diminishing the nutritive power. To sum up, a chalky soil and a windy 
climate produce good and strong nerves, and thev in their turn produce 
health, C(Hirage and beauty, in both men and horses ! 

The noble horse, it is true, acclimatises itself easilv, and nia\' be used and 
bred all over the world, and yet a keen observer must confess that it 
prospers, and is better in every respect on a soil similar to the one just 
described. .Although the influence of the soil is generally recognised, and 
every practical breeder can see it everv vear in his own as well as in his 
neighbour's case, yet breeders who are not living on favourable soil admit it 
very unwillingly, ;ind often deceixc ihi-mselves. 1 have often heard East 
Prussian breeders say : " Why cannot 1 breed Hunters here in Iiast Prusski 
just as well as they do in Ireland?" The influence of the soil is, 



412 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. 

however, much greater than even experienced breeders believe. If 
we were even to import into Kast Prussia the finest food from Medea, yet we 
could never import two \'er\- important conditions for breeding good 
Hunters — firstly, a grazing period lasting at best longer than five months; 
secondly, the splendid galloping country on which three-year-old Hunters 
carrying small apprentices gallop behind the hounds, over walls and 
obstacles, and even are able to gallop through the whole of the winter ! If 
we, on the other hand, look at the difficulties which the East Prussian 
breeder experiences in giving his horses the required exercise for seven or 
eight winter months, one can well understand, from this standpoint alone, 
the very great importance of the soil. 

The United Kingdom (England and Ireland) undoubtcdlv possesses the 
best soil for breeding horses. Perhaps, as is often said, the English fogs 
which are so frequent, caused b\- the sea, are the cause of more roarers being 
found there than in other breeding districts. Without this fog, however, 
the meadows, and especialh- the galloping tracks, would not be so good as 
thev are in this country and nowhere else in the world. Besides, the 
oceanic climate of England fa\ours the speciallv high proportion of amid 
in the horse forage, and as according to the latest researches of Dr. W. 
Voltz, amid combinations are especiallv useful for the building up of firm 
bones and muscles, consec(uentl\' the oceanic climate of England seems to 
be speciallv favourable for horse breeding. In the less sunnv Western part 
of England, the plants contain more amid, whilst in the more sunny East, 
as alread)- mentioned. Lucerne tii rives better. 

France is behind England in this respect, and in America the ground 
cannot stand being galloped on, and for that reason all races are run on 
artificial Macadam courses. The consequence of these advantages of the 
English soil is that the English reared and trained Thoroughbred is far 
superior to all other Thoroughbreds, bv reason of the elasticity of its gallop- 
ing and its high quality. This blood, which produces wonders, is to be had 
most surely in England. The other Thoroughbreds ha\e not shown as yet 
that they can make progress, or even remain at their height, without con- 
tinuous borrowing from England. England, on the other hand, in spite of 
the yearly growing export of good and the best breeding material, has 
retained its power. The danger to this horse country, endowed with the 
Grace of God, consists in the increasing neglect which, by reason of all 
producing wonderful nature, has rooted itself so often in mankind, as Th. 
Buckle has show n in his " Historv of Civilisation in England." 

The best soil for the breeding of draft horses is in fertile low-lying and 
diluvial regions, which, on account of their plentiful and fattening forage, 
are suitable for producing the desired large and heavy-limbed cold-blood 
horses. Even the home of the Suffolks in England has the trace of a marshy 
nature, and more so the Clyde valley, the home of the Clydesdales, It is, 
however, possible, and may be expected, that the breeding of heavy horses 



4. EstablisliiiHiit of Studs. 413 

fi)r performances mav roquire somrthinp else frnm the soil. One of the best 
examples 1 know of for the great influence which the soil exercises on the 
type is the previously mentioned pure draft breeds in the Russian Steppe 
stud of Derkul. The Percherons grew like .\rabs here, and the Suffolks and 
Clydesdales became stunted, in spite of the splendid forage from the Steppe. 

When choosing a ground suitable for a stud for horses, one must further 
take into consideration that the hay of higher lying meadows (especially 
mountainous and .\lp meadows) is superior as far as taste and nutritive value 
are concerned. The hav of lower lying valley meadows, and still more that 
of irrigated meadows and marshes, is, all things being etjual, inferior to the 
hav of higher Iving regions, on account of less ta.ste and greater quantity of 
woodv fibres, even if these same grasses should prevail here as well as there. 
.Mostiv on higher meadows less weed will be found, and less grasses of 
inferior value, or even dangerous. 1 nivself consider it imnrobable that a 
continuous drought reduces the mineral ingredients of the food, and that a 
food is produced poor in lime and phosphoric acid, causing diseases of the 
bones (as Professor Kellner says in his well-known manual, "Die l'>nahrung 
der landwirtschaftlichen Xutztiere"). As far as practice is concerned, in 
dry years one can onlv complain about a smaller quantity, the quality is 
always better, and the horses prefer it, and therefore develop much better, in 
spite of a smaller quantity. 

Of all domestic animals, the horse is the most sensitixc to bad drinking 
water. I'nclean, surface or stagnant water is (he most injurious. I'^\en the 
vapours arising from stagnant waters are very unhealthy for horses, 
especiallv \dung foals, since they cause an increase of troublesome flies. 
Continuallv running water containing lime, which is colourless and without 
smell, is best for horses. It has often been observed that glanders breaks 
out in a milder form after the horses are given better water from fresh springs 
newly bored. 

The growth of beeches is generally and rightly considered a favourable 
sign as regards a good soil for horse breeding. As oaks grow best in wet, 
liiw-l\ ing countries, or in countries with much rain, and as such countries are 
not favourable for horse breeding, the idea has arisen that horses do nrjt 
prosper where oaks prosper. Oaks grow, nevertheless on high-lying ground, 
and thrive well on strong clav soil, which is also suitable for horse breeding. 
On the other hand, limes, esjieciallv the small-leaved ones, as well as all 
kinds of barberries, are undesirable in a stud, because they are the most 
popular carriers of rust parasites, which an' especi;dly unfavourable for 
Lucerne, and also for clover, as well as other grasses. l-"urthermore. wheat 
straw suffers mostiv from rust, as in a lesser degree do also oat and barley 
straw . 

Fven the best soil re(]uires, in order to derive an\- benefit from its 
advantages for breeding good, capable and soimd horses, two very important 
factors, /.(■., jjaddocks and permanent pastures. These remarks are perhaps 



414 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

superfluous when speaking of two benefited horse breeding countries like 
England and Ireland. But the method of rearing in the stable without 
paddocks and permanent pastures, which is still so widespread in Germany 
for all kinds of breeds, threatens to ruin many breedings. First of all must 
be mentioned here the breeding of horses. Paddocks and permanent pastures 
serve, therefore, as a contrast to the method of rearing in the stable, to keep 
the breeding material as long as possible outside the stable and in conformity 
with nature, to nourish same. The following advantages thus arise : 

1. The injluence of light. The recently well recognised beneficial 
influences of light consist principally in destroying manv verv dangerous 
microbes, especially tuberculosis baccili, and in increasing the energy of life 
by multiplying the red corpusculli and the hc-emoglobis. According to the 
observations of Professor Gaule in Zurich, for example. Polar travellers often 
suffered more or less from aniemia. 

•2. The influence of good air. The air rich in oxvgen in the open is a 
primary condition of every healthy development. The continuous remaining 
out in the open increases the need of oxygen, and in order to satisfv their 
needs, horses must, by deep breathing, make a greater use of their lungs. 
Accordingly, the lungs will be extended and strengthened, and also the 
energy of life increased. 

3. Tlie influence of -ii'/za/ and :^<eatlier. The constant skin massage by 
wind and weather strengthens the whole nerxous system. As a matter of 
fact, wind and weather preserves the whole animal organism in a continuous 
and beneficial (raining through frecjuent and sudden changes, and forces it 
to get accustomed to outside circumstances for the sake of self-preservation. 
In conjunction with the beneficial influence of light and air, wind and 
weather, owing to a normal and strengthening development of the nervous 
system, favour the health in such a good and energetic way altogether 
impossible if the horses are brought up in the stable. 

4. The influence of exercise. A voluntary, continuous and mostly slow 
exercise on the meadows is necessarv when seeking their food. By this 
means the sinews, muscles and bones are under the influence of a favourable 
slow, continuous and effective training quite impossible outside the meadows. 
The longer grazing is possible (in East Prussia, unfortunately, five months 
at the most), and especially night grazing, the more distinctly is to be 
observed a favourable development of the formation of the body, especially 
of the shape of the limbs, as well as that so important correct walk. The 
voluntary desire of the horses to visit distinct parts of the meadow, the 
possibility of their moving about as they please, and so noticing all that is 
going on around them, the attention which is required for observing changes, 
the many chances to caper and play with their companions — all these 
strengthen the intellect and senses, and are the best and only preventives 
against timiditv. 



4. Establishment of Studs. 415 

5. Food gracing. The advantages of grazitifj on (lie meadow, as 
against green food in tiie stable, lie, firstly, in the fact thai the horses never 
get as much in their mouth in the meadow as in the stable, and that, there- 
fore, sudden overloading of the stomach is avoided; secondly, many and 
just the best and voungest grasses lose their taste between the time of being 
mowed and eaten: thirdly, the useful combinations of amids are, for the 
most part, in the vounger plants, and these are the most difficult to mow, 
but the horses w hilst on the meadow get them easily. 

For the good preservation of pastures it is ver}- important that they should 
be grazed alternately, as far as possible, by horses, cows or oxen (but not 
bv sheep). Grazing bv horses only, continued through many years, seems 
to produce some peculiarities on the respective pastures which are doubt- 
lessly injurious, but up to the present not yet investigated scientifically. 
These damaging characters are developed more intensively the longer 
grazing is able to be extended in the respective countries. The pastures in 
England and Ireland, for example, suffer much more from continuous 
grazing by horses alone than pastures in East Prussia, where five to seven 
months winter, with snow and frost, shortens the grazing season and pre- 
vents somewhat the development of these injurious peculiarities. In countries 
with a short winter and no snow the pastures are especially sensitive to a 
one-sided use. Who, however, can afford the luxury of manuring his 
pastures plentifully every year with composts, will suffer little, or not at all, 
from the above damaging characters. 

When preparing the meadows or pastures, it is useful to grow a green 
crop of potatoes or turnips, on purpose to destroy weeds as radicallj' as 
possible. The following composition of seeds, mixed with oats or barlev as 
guard-corn, have proved suitable for Trakehnen : — 



1. For Clayey Soil. 

Sow per 1 Morgen^J h.'i. = 0.63 .Acre. 

Red clover (Trifolium pratense) 2 lbs 

White or Dutch clover (Trifolium repens) 2 

Cow grass (Trifolium pratense perenne) 3 

Smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratense) 10 

Dogstail (Cynosurus cristatus) 2 

Meadow Fescue (Festuca pratense) 3 

Fiorin or creeping bent grass (.\grostis alba stolonifera) ... 2 

Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) 2 

Timothv grass (Phleum pratense) 2 

Total . . 28 lbs. 



416 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

2. For a Sandy Soil. 

Sow per 1 Morgen-J ha. =0.63 Acre. 

Red clover (Trifolium praten.se) 2 lbs 

White or Dutch clover (Trifolium repens) 2 

Cow grass (Trifolium pratense perenne) 2 

Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) 2 

Trefoil or yellow clover (Medicago lupulina) 1 

Smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratense) 10 

Meadow Fescue (Festuca pratensis) 2 

Red Fescue (Festuca rubra) 2 

Fiorin grass (Agrostis alba stolon ifera) 2 

Dogstail (Cynosurus cristatus) 2 



Q 



Cocksfoot grass (Dactvlis glomerata) 

Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) 1 



Total . . 30 lbs. 



To arrange a stud it is necessary to have the stud books corresponding to 
the breeding aimed at. It is very much to be regretted that in the most studs 
of England and Ireland these .stud books are kept very irregularly and in a 
loose manner. The import certificates from England do not even state the 
most important dates, which we mark on each covering and foal certificate, 
namely, day of birth (not only year of birth), time of pregnancy reckoned 
from the coverings indicated on the service certificates, colour and marks (not 
colour alone). The entry of all the coverings with their dates is especially 
important when several stallions have been used for covering. It is alsO' 
important to know whether the horse has been a premature birth. A well 
organised and properly kept stud book can be the storehouse of many and 
different breeding and al.so biological problems. For the sake of reference, 
all coverings should be entered in the stud book, i.e., registers of co\-ering& 
and foalings, notices of the judging of foals, the whereabouts of same, etc., 
etc., must be lucidly arranged together to .save space, and also for the sake 
of lucidity special signs for the judgment of foals at different times are 
practicable. Below I give the model of a stud book introduced at Trakehnen 
for the last twelve years, with the practically tried signs for the judging of 
foals. The.se signs are intended to .specially reproduce the exterior 
peculiarities, which are useful for the immediately following matings, as 
well as to judge t)f transmission on the part of the parents and the develop- 
ment of the foals themselves. If, as it appears to me, this stud book 
introduced at Trakehnen is sufficient for Half-bred breeding, nevertheless. 



4. Establishment of Studs. 417 

for other breeds, i.e., for Thoroiighbreds or Trotters, special modifications 
will be necessary. Tlicsc will consist principally of a lucidly arrancfed 
classification of the racing and breeding performances of the family in ques- 
tion, as I have siniilarlv shown on page 290. In addition, short remarks 
about tile development, capability and i:)eculiarities of the foals during the 
breaUing-in, first trials and further trainings, would be very useful, to which 
it mighl lie adxisalilc lo insert special coliuiins. 



418 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 



Stud Book 



No. AVi. Isar born (.-ifter .'i;ild,) k/1 1897 in Bojohrgallen. 

Bv l^'lfcnbein and Ismir bv Malteser and Issy by Djabiia — \'index xx — Reprobate 

5 Nobleman x 



— V, Emilius xx, Fr. Gener.: 



6 Antenor 



72J% XX, 8i% OX, 



Colour, Mark, Size : dark brown without special marl-c. 169/158 cm, 
1-^, No. 181 Foundation Marc: Honnc K, 11, born Engl. 1784, 



ra 



Covering" 



with 

St.dlion 



on the 



U 



Foaling 



Date Sex 



Name, 
Colour, 
Marks 



Judgment 



Date 



Class 



Description 



14/1 22/1 
Insuruent I 9/2 11/2 
01 



331 



•illv 



l(i 



02 



Irr. 



17/1 02 II 



brown 



12/.") O.T II? 



.Star 



15/5 04 ; II 



I.ED'-/ 


'1— i;. 


"i— L 



32h 



Lehnsherri 25/1 02 



26 



Pomp XX 19/2 02 



January 



03 



Colt 



20/8 06 
(jelding 



Impiis.int 



27/1 03 



dark 
brow II 



8/5 04 



Si. I, b. 
p:isl, w. 



JO/5 05 



iCH- 



II; 



n 



00 A 






J^ A 



4. Esliiblishnient of Studs. 



419 



Formula. 



Of the Hiood Marc 



Disr 



("(iiiditicin wliiKi Tr.iininrt ' l')escriptii)ii .-uul Riniark'; 



Severe glaiuler'^ when 
weaned. 

.3/1 "lii I. pcri.Hlical I'M iii- 
tlammalion. 



•^ vearuld, very idle a nd slow 
in the autmim irainini'. 



i \ car iild, lariii Imrse. 
vxeelleni leniperament. 



4/.3 !»!! 1. blind, 

5/4 "111 1. h. inllani. -willint^; 3 year nld, aul unin .Iriven, 
reeitveretl. 




_ luirscs verv 
will. 



00 I 



Kl. 11. a 



Diseases 



and Development uf the Foals. 

("ondilinn whilst Trainini; 



Kin.d jiid^nient 



Sli^hl j^l.indrr- while jOnly saddled when .i year 

sucklinf<. "Id in the summer a- .a 

,^(, ,■ 1 , . , I farm horsi-, ulii-n lame. 

Often colic when weaiieil. 

2/.3 04 1. b. inllani, Nwellin>j; '• 3yearold.a veryyood riding 
remedied. horse, .ilw.ays healthy, 

10/804 1. b, inflam. swelling; All illnesses overoome. 
yet 8/11 04 rerovered. 



Hroiid M.ari' 




Z. KI. II 
<i. Kl. II 



171/1G2 cm. 



.Meconium renmvetl with .3 year old l,irm horse ,il 
instruments. | Mattisch. 

Verv sliijht •'landers when ,. n , , . , ,, 

■' ty r^ l-,.\cellenl temperament. 

weaned. 



8/6 05 I. b. past, Kissur 
remedied 

11/8 05 crib biter. 

1906 often colic. 



.3 vear old ridden in .ail iiinn 
as a hunter. (lood 
jumper. 



'■) 



/. Kl. III. 
(i. Kl. I. 



Crib biter. 

1,') 4 07 
in .\uUl. 
to X. \. 

l.s.'iO \I.irk 



C30 



17,3/164 cm. 



420 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

Index of the Signs 



-a 
c 



well set up 
neck 



calf knee =) 
loose stand =| \ 
over' in the 

knee =( 



stifT-built stand = 



6 



= siopinjT crupper 



light fore-leg 



tucked up 



= high-legged 

= middle-strong fore-leg 



short ^vell ribbed 
legged 



strong fore-leg 



upright 
pastern 



! = noble head 
\ = deer neck 



carp 
back 



harrow chest = 

left outward = \j 

right narrow toe = |\ 

broad chest = 



■-loping hind- 
pastern 

pointed 
crupper 




s = sharp good hocks 

s^ = very broad and 
strong hocks 

U / = left ill-shaped hock 

'\> = right curb 

r ? = right tied-in be- 
low hock 

// = small hocks 



the tail carried 
proudly 

- = narrow behind 



^ = behind strongly 
angled 

Iv = a hint of left 
spavin 

rvv = right spavin 

= broad behind 



1. b. = left front upright hoof. 



KI 


= 


Class: I.a, I., H.a, II?, III. 


R 


= 


large frame 


Z. Kl 


= 


Class for breeding purposes 


L 


= 


joint ill 


G. Kl 


= 


Class for use purposes 


u 


= 


unripe 


Crib 


= 


crib biter 


sch 


= 


weak 


kr 


= 


ill 


Gil 


= 


gal! < 


kz 


= 


hip-shot 


! 


= 


noble 


k 


= 


small 


! 1 


= 


very noble 


k 


= 


very small 


a 


= 


expressively 


N 


= 


needy being 


tr 


= 


lean 


R 


= 


large 


/ 


= 


common 


c 


= 


correct 


t! 


= 


verv common 


h 


^ 


harmonious 


1. A. • 


= 


left eye cataract-spot 


w 


= 


little 









4. EstJiblisliiiuMit of Studs. 

for Judging the Exterior. 



421 



ik't'p set 
neck = 



fore-leg bending 
bacUwards 




= nice sloping shoulders 

ong in the flank = ) ( 
= short and middle strong fore-leg 



= strong fore-leg wi th short knee 
r. fl. = front right flat hoof 
1. Sch. = left front ring hone 



straight back 
) = squeezes the tail 



Ig = long hind- 
legs 



= projecting 
hind-legs 




straight 
hind-legs 



g = large head . ^pc^ 






^^■^^' .^^.\^e<* 



misplaced 
forwards = 



right X leg = 




>xe.^ 



= hind quarters over 
r. n. = right side lower 



•built 



= light fore-leg over in the knees M 
Ig = long trunk 



= hanging b^ 
= strong find long fore-leg 




;_good muscle formation 
1 in the crupper 



pointed haunch 



= misplaced behind 



r = right leg binding over pastern 



§ = irregular action 
Uw = wide in knee 

ke = narrow in knee 

X = regular action 
ccl = verv regular action 
cr_-; = doubtful action 

cc = regular and forceful 

^ - regular and not forceful 



00 br = regular but somewhat broad 
oobr = regular but very broad 
oceng = regular hut somewhat narrow 
ooA = regular but high action 
go = regular but right thrown outwards 
05= regular but left somewhat outward 
\ 



/\ 



= regul.ir but turned-in toes 



CHAPTER V. 



Tables for comparison of various Measurements. 



Linear Measure 

1 Yard in I{ngland = 3 Feet . 
1 Yard in America .... 
1 Furlong = 2i20 Yards . . . 
1 Distance = 240 Yards . . . 
1 Mile in England = 8 Furlongs 
1 Mile in America .... 
1 Mile in Prussia .... 
1 Mile in Hungary .... 
1 Mile in Kurland = 7 Yersts . 
1 Faden (Saxony) in Russia . 
1 Verst = 500 Faden .... 
1 Faden in Sweden and I'innland 



0,91 438 m 

0,91439 ,, 
= 201,16 
= 219,5 
= 1609,31 
= 1609,33 
= 7532,-5 
= 8353,6 
= 7467.5 

2,13 356 „ 
= 1066,78 

1,7814 ,, 



1 Inch in Prussia (Rheinland) . . . = 2,6154 cm 

1 Inch in England and Russia . . . = 2,539 954 ,, 

1 Inch in .\merica = 2,539 977 ,, 

8 Inches (English) = 20 ,, 

8J Inches " = 2U „ 

9 Inches ,, = 22.8 ,, 

1 Foot in Pru.ssia (Rheini.) = 12 Inches = 31,38 535 ,, 

1 Foot in England and Russia = ]2 Inches= 30,47 945 ,, 

1 Foot in .\merica= 12 Inches . . . = 30,47 973 ,, 

1 \\'erschok in Russia = 4,445 ,, 

1 Arschin = 16 \Yerschok = 71,1187 



5. Tables for t'omparisDii of Various Mcasiirfiiicnts. 



423 



Height Measurcincnl fur Horses. 











1. 


In Lnv'l 


iiid. 














1 


nch = 2,53f)9 cm, 1 


Ham 


= 


4 Indies 


= 10,1590 


cm. 






Hands 


Inches 


cm. 


Hands 


Inchc 


s 


cm. 


Hands 


1 nches 


cin. 


12 


— 


=: 


121,9 


14 


3 


=^ 


149,9 


17 


2 


= 


177,8 


12 


1 


= 


124, .5 


15 


— 


= 


152,4 


17 


3 


= 


180,3 


12 


2 


= 


127 


15 


1 


= 


154,9 


18 


— 


= 


182,9 


12 


3 


== 


129.. -5 


15 


2 


= 


157,5 


18 


1 


= 


185,4 


13 





— 


132.1 


15 


3 


= 


160 


18 


2 


= 


188 


13 


1 


_, 


1.34,6 


16 


— 


= 


162,6 


18 


3 


= 


190,5 


13 


2 


=^ 


137.2 


16 


1 


= 


165.1 


19 


— 


= 


193 


13 


3 


:= 


139,7 


16 


2 


^ 


u;7.6 


19 


1 


= 


195,6 


14 





= 


142,2 


16 


3 


= 


1 70.2 


19 


2 


= 


198,1 


14 


1 


^= 


144,8 


17 


— 


= 


172.7 


19 


3 


= 


200,7 


14 





= 


117.3 


17 


1 


= 


175,3 











1 Inch 



-. Ill (•(■rMi:Mi|. 

L^(il•j4 cm. I Foot = V> Inches = 31 ,:JS uM-j cm. 



Feet 


Inches 


cm. 


Hands Inches 




Arschin 


Werschok 


5 


. — 


= 


156.9 


= 15 1,8 


= 


2 


3,3 


5 


1 


= 


159,5 


= 15 2.8 


= 


2 


3,9 


5 


2 


= 


162,2 


= 15 3,8 


= 


2 


4,5 


5 


3 


^ 


164,8 


= 16 0,9 


= 


2 


5,1 


5 


4 


= 


167.4 


= 16 1,9 


= 


2 


5.7 


5 


5 


= 


170 


= 16 2,9 


= 


2 


6,2 


5 


6 


z^ 


172,6 


= 17 — 


= 


2 


6,8 


5 


7 


^^ 


17.5,2 


= 17 1 


= 


2 


7,4 


5 


8 


= 


177,8 


= 17 2 


= 


2 


8 


5 


9 


= 


180,5 


= 17 3,1 


= 


2 


8,6 


5 


10 


= 


183,1 


= 18 0,1 


= 


2 


9,1 


5 


11 


= 


185,7 


= 18 1,1 


= 


2 


9,8 


6 




^ 


188,3 


= 18 2,1 
3. Ill Kiissiii. 


^ 


2 


10,4 


1 


WcrM 


■hok 


= 4,44.'> cm. 1 .\r^cl^in = l(i 


Werschok -^ 


71,1187 cm 




Arschin 


Werschok cm. 




Hands 


Inches 






2 


— 


142,2 


^ 


14 


— 






2 


1 


146.7 


= 


14 


1,8 






2 


2 


151,1 


= 


14 


3,5 






2 


3 


155,6 


= 


15 


1,3 






2 


4 


160 


^ 


15 


3 






2 


5 


164,5 


= 


16 


0,8 






2 


6 


169 


= 


16 


2.5 






2 


7 


173,4 


= 


17 


0,3 






o 


8 


177,8 


= 


17 


2 






2 


9 


182,2 


= 


17 


3.8 






r) 


10 


186,7 


= 


18 


1.5 



424 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 



Liquid and Dry Measure. 

1 Quart in England = l,136 Liter, 1 Quart in America = 0,946 Liter. 

1 Pint in England=0,568 Liter, 1 Pint in America = 0,474 Liter. 

1 Garnez in Russia = 3,2797 Liter. 

1 Liter=l Cubicdecimeter. 

1 Hektoliter = 100 Liter. 

1 Liter of Oats weighs about a Pound = 5 Kilogramm. 



Surface Measure. 



1 Ar=100 s.m., 1 Acre = 25,.53 ar. 

1 Helctar = 100 ar = 3,9166 Acre. 

1 Acre in England and America = 40,47 ar=l,59 Acre. 

1 Dessatine in Russia = L09 Hektar = 3 Lofstellen in Kurland. 



Weights. 

1 Pound (lb.) ill Germany, Denmark, Switzerland = .500 gr. = i Kilogr. 1 lb. in 

Ensjland and America = 4.53,6 gr. 1 lb. in Russia = 409,5 gr. 1 lb. in Austria Hungary 

= 560,1 gr. 1 lb. in Sweden = 42.5,1 gr. 1 Stone in England = 14 English lbs. = 

6,3.5 kg. 1 Pud in Russia = 40 Russian lbs. = 16,38 kg. 



Stone 


lb. 




1<K-. 


Pud 


lb. 


Stone 


lb. 


kg:- 


Pud 


lb. 


5 


— 


= 


31f 


= 1 


37,-5 


7 


— = 


441 


= 2 


28,-5 


5 


1 


= 


321 


= 1 


38,6 


7 


1 = 


45 


^ 2 


29,7 


5 


o 


= 


32| 


= 1 


39,7 


7 


2 ^ 


45i 


^ -2 


30,8 


5 


3 


= 


33 


^ 2 


0,9 


7 


3 = 


4-5f 


^ 2 


31,9 


5 


4 


= 


33J 


= o 


2 


7 


4 = 


461 


__ 2 


33 


5 


5 


= 


34 


= 2 


3 


7 


5 = 


46f 


^ 2 


34,1 


5 


6 


= 


34^ 


^ 2 


4,2 


7 


() = 


.471 


^ 2 


35,2 


5 


7 


= 


3.5 


_ 2 


.5,3 


7 


7 = 


47| 


= 2 


36,3 


5 


8 


= 


35J 


= 2 


6,4 


7 


8 = 


48 


= 2 


37,4 


5 


9 


= 


351 


^ 2 


7,5 


7 


9 = 


481 


_ 2 


38,5 


6 


10 


= 


361 


-^ 2 


8,6 


7 


10 = 


49" 


_ 


39,6 


5 


11 


= 


36| 


= 2 


9,7 


7 


11 = 


491 


= 3 


0,7 


5 


12 


= 


371 


= 2 


10,8 


7 


12 = 


■50 


= 3 


1,8 


5 


13 


= 


37| 


_ o 


11,9 


7 


13 = 


501 


= 3 


3 



5. Tables for Coiiiparison of Various MoasiMfiiiLiils. 



425 



Stone 


lb. 




1<R- 


Fu.l 


lb. 


.Stone 


lb. 


i<.^-. 




Pud 


lb. 


6 





— 


38 


= 2 


13 


8 


— 


= 50| 


= 


3 


4,1 


() 


1 


— 


38* 


= 2 


14,2 


8 


1 


= 511 


= 


8 


5,2 


(■) 


o 


— 


39 


^ 2 


15,3 


8 


2 


= 513 


= 


3 


6,3 


(5 


3 


= 


89J 


^ .J 


16,4 


8 


8 


= 52J 


= 


8 


7,4 


('} 


4 


= 


-10 


.) 


17,5 


8 


4 


= 52i 


= 


8 


8,5 


() 





^= 


JUi 


.) 


18,6 


8 


5 


= 53 


= 


3 


9,6 


6 


(5 


= 


40a 


^ 2 


19,7 


8 


6 


= 53^ 


= 


3 


10,7 


(") 


7 


= 


411 


■2 


20,8 


8 


7 


= 54 


= 


3 


11,8 


(i 


S 


= 


41i| 


.) 


21,9 


8 


8 


- -^t* 


= 


3 


12,9 


f) 


9 


= 


4-21 


^ 2 


23 


8 


9 


55 


= 


8 


M 


(") 


]0 


= 


423 


^ 2 


24,1 


8 


10 


= 55i 


= 


3 


15,] 


() 


11 


= 


48 


^ 2 


25,2 


8 


11 


- 55a 


= 


3 


16,3 


6 


1-2 


= 


43^ 


2 


26,3 


8 


12 


= 561 


= 


3 


17,4 


(•) 


18 


= 


44 


.) 


27,4 


8 


13 


. 56? 


= 


3 


18,5 


9 


_ 


= 


o7] 


- 3 


19,6 


10 


6 


= 66^ 


= 


4 


1,7 


9 


1 


= 


.-,7i 


^ :3 


20,7 


10 


7 


= 66| 


= 


4 


2,8 


'.) 


.) 


= 


58 


3 


21,8 


10 


8 


= (571 


= 


4 


3,9 


9 


3 


= 


58^ 


= 3 


22,9 


1(1 


9 


= 67i 


= 


4 


5,1 


9 


4 


=: 


59 


= 3 


24 


11) 


10 


= 68" 


= 


4 


6,2 


9 


5 


= 


59J 


= 3 


25,1 


10 


11 


= 68^ 


= 


4 


7.3 


9 


(■) 


= 


59| 


= 3 


26,2 


10 


12 


= 69 


= 


4 


8,1 


9 


7 


= 


601 


= 3 


27,3 


10 


13 


= (59^ 


= 


4 


9,5 


9 


8 


=; 


60| 


=-- 3 


28,4 














9 


9 


=Z 


611 


= 3 


29,5 


11 


— 


= 69f 


= 


4 


10,6 


9 


lU 


= 


612 


= 3 


30,7 


Vl 


— 


= 761 


= 


4 


26,1 


9 


11 


= 


621 


= 8 


31,8 


Vi 




= 82J 




5 


1,6 


9 


1-2 


= 


62J 


= 3 


32,9 












9 


13 


= 


63 


= 3 


34 


u 


— 


= 89 


= 


5 


17,1 














15 




= 951 


^ 


5 


32,6 


1(» 


— 


= 


63i 


= 3 


35,1 






" -'■1 








10 


1 


= 


64 


= 8 


86,2 


1(> 


— 


= lOlJ 


= 


6 


8,1 


10 


o 


= 


64J 


= 3 


87,8 


17 


__ 


= 108 


— 


6 


23.6 


10 


8 


-- 


64| 


= 3 


38,4 














10 


4 


= 


6:H 


. 3 


39,5 


IS 


— 


= 1141 


^ 


6 


39,1 


10 


5 


^ 


65!J 


- 4 


0,6 


n> 


— 


= 1203 


= 


7 


11,6 



426 'he Practical Part of Horsebreeding;. 

Most Important Distances at Newmarket. 

Mile Furl 

The Beaton Course (B. C.) 4 1 

since 1852 4 1 

since 1864 4 1 

since 1865 4 1 

since 1889 4 1 

Round Course (R. C.) 3 6 

since 1819 3 4 

since 1852 3 4 

since 1889 3 4 

Ditch in (D. J.) 2 _ 

since 1852 2 

since 1865 2 

since 1889 2 — 

Ankaster Mile (A. .M.) 1 — 

since 1889 1 _ 

Two years old Course (2 Y. O. C.) July St. . — 5 

New Two years old Course (on the B. M.) 

since 1888 July St _ 5 

since 1902 ' — 5 

Two years old Course (on tlie flat) since 1852 — 5 

since 1902 _ 5 

Yearling Course (Y. C.) 2 

since 1853 (on the flat) — 2 

since 1854 — 2 

Cambridgeshire Course (1839) 1 1 

Old Cambr. Course since 1843 1 1 

New Cambr. Course since 1901 1 1 

since 1902 1 1 

Cesarewitch Course (1839) 2 1 

since 1852 2 2 

since 1889 2 2 

since 1902 2 2 

Across the Flat (-A^. F.) 1 2 

since 1818 1 2 

since 1852 1 2 

since 1887 1 2 

Dewhurst PI. Course — 7 

Criterion Course — 5 

since 1865 _ 6 

Suffolk St. Course 1 4 

since 1889 1 4 

since 1902 1 4 



Vds. 


Meter 


138 = 


6764,6 


173 = 


6796,6 


157 = 


6782 


143 = 


6769,2 


177 = 


6800,2 


93 = 


6119,9 


187 = 


5803,6 


139 = 


5759,7 


138 = 


5758,8 


97 = 


3307,3 


119 = 


3327,4 


105 = 


3314,6 


118 = 


3326,5 


18 = 


1625,8 


22 = 


1629,4 


136 = 


1130,2 


142 = 


1135,6 


140 = 


1133,8 


140 = 


1133,8 


134 = 


1128,3 


147 = 


536,7 


22 = 


422,4 


52 = 


449.9 


156 = 


1953,1 


20 = 


1828,8 


17 = 


1826 


— = 


1810,5 


215 = 


3615,4 


28 = 


3646,5 


35 = 


3652,9 


— = 


3620.9 


44 = 


2051,9 


24 = 


2033,6 


73 = 


2078,4 


— = 


2011,6 


— = 


1408,1 


182 = 


1172,2 


— = 


1207 


2 = 


2415,8 


25 = 


2436,8 


— = 


2414 



CHAPTER VI. 



Tables showing the Ancestors oF Thoroughbreds 
in the Male Line. 



428 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeiling-. 



O 



M 

n 

OS 

-< 
p 



Brisk 1711 

D. bv Jigg 
Aleppo 1711 

D. by Hautboy 



Flyiiis Cliilders 1715 
D. bv Okl Careless 



Foxhunter 1727 — 

D. bv Basto 
Hob,i;oblin 1724 ~ 

D. by Old Careless 
Second 1732 

D. by Basto 



Moses 1746 

D. bv Porland Arabian 

Shakespeare 1745 

n. by Bartl. Childers 



Table I. D 

Otho 1760 

D. by Cade 
? Eclipse 1764 

D. bv Retftikis 






.V: Norfolk 

D. bv Grev Grantham 
Roundhead "l733 

D. bv Bald Gallowav 
Snip 1736 

D. bv Basto 



BarJlet's Cliildirs Squirt 1732 — 

about 1716 I), by Snake 
D. by Old Careless 



Biille Rock 1718 
D. by Byerly Turk 



D. bv Hip 
Jolly Roger 1741 

D. by Partner 
S)iap i750 

D. by Fox 

Syphon 1750 

D. bv Partner 



J Engineer 1755 — 

I D. bv Grcvhounc 

Bav Malton 1760 

' D. b\- Caile 

Goldfinder 1764 - 

D. by Blank 

I S-weet William 17 

D. by Cade 
Swecthriar 1769 — 
D. by Shakespe; 
Tandem 1773 
n. b\- Reyulus 



Eclipse 1764 - 
D. bv Reffulus 



Marske 1750 

D. by Blacklegs 



Slriplint; 1705 
D. by Cade 

V. Marske 1771 
D. by Blank 

Shark 1771 

D. by Snap 



till). Line. 

C«xco)ub 1771 
D. by B.-ihr.'ihani 

Dorinuiiil 1772 
n. In R.ihrahaiii 



ManihriiKi 1768 
l\ b\ Cade 



■p.ulor 177G 
l\ hv SeillcN Aiabinn 



0. Tables Showiiiif the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Lhie. 429 



— il/c.v.vcu.sjcr 1780 / Foundation sire of the \ 
D. bv Turf ^ Anier. Trotters ' 



— Hambletoiiian 1803 
D. bv Shark 



Chiicohilc 1777 — 

n. by Handy 
Javelin 1 772 

n. by Spectator 



I'l.lSos J77;i 

1). bv Warrens Sportsman 

Jiil^ilcr 1774 
I). I.v T.irlar 



kirja I'l'i'yiis 1775 

I), by Black and all Black 
li''iidriiw 1777 
I '. by Sweeper 



Sleniiry 1778 
I >. b\ Tartar 



lhlll^s F.clifsc 1778 
I >. by Ke,i,'ulus 



Iiic Aiiilreus 1778 

n. by Omnium 

I ':nl i;iilllloit 1780 — 

I ). bv Herod 

I Utitlcer 1780 

I > by Tartar 

ram 1780 

'. by Snap 

i ' I \aiidcr 1782 — 

I I h\ William's Forester 

M> U-o'r 1783 

I >. bv Merlin 
( ii/xrau/cr 1784 
I ' bv Omar 

; Oid.xole 1784 

' bv William's Forester 
/ ^as'tis 1784 
I >. by Bosphorus 
''(■lif 178(j 
bv Spectator 
■»■ 1777 
bv I.oftv 
, .//;■<• 1793' 
t I I. bv Vauxhall 
-- irk 1791 
I ). by Flimnap 



Jerry Sneak 179G 

D. by Trunnion 
Coriander 1786 

D. by Herod 
Asparagus 1787 

D. bv Justice 
Alderman 1787 

n. bv Squirrel 
>Vax.vl790 

I), by Herod 
Champion 1797 

I), bv Hij,Wi fiver 
Over Ion 1788 

1). I)V II (-rod 
Ki'iiiiiiiuliroiiu'li 1791 >('( 

I), by Herod 
llaiiihletiiiiinn 1792 see 

I), by Hiy^hllyer 
Preeipitale 1787 

O. I.v H.rod 



<H)lianiisi 1790 
I). Herod 



Dick Aiidri'Hs I7i(7 

I), bv Hi:,'hllver 
'lolleridi^e 1791 

D. bv Mambrino 
/•:as,';c''l79G 

D. bv Hijjh liver 
Whiskev 1789 ' 

D. bv' Herod 
Bucephalus 1802 

U. bv Amaranthus 
? Ambo 1809 

D. bv Sir Peter 
Sanch'o 1801 

I), bv HiK'hnver 
Cervantes 1806 

D. bv lli.ifhflver 
Awadis 1807 

n. bv Sir Peter 



Hyacinthiis 1797 

I), bv Phofiiomenon 
feddv the C.rinder 1798 

I), by High fiver 
H'livv' Pope 1806 Starch 1819 

I), bv Highflver D. bv Shuttle 

Whalehoiie 1807 see Table H. 

I). Ii\ Trunipator 
Wo Jul 1809 

D. bv Trumpator 
Whisker 1812 sec Table HI. 

1). b\- Trunipator 
Table' l\-. 

lablr \ . 

U.iblail 1795 

I), bv I'A-jipse 
(Joliinipus 1802 see Table VT. 

D. bv Woodpecker 
Cerberus 1802 

D. bv Herod 
Iledle'y 1803 

D. by W'oodpecker 
Canopus 1803 

H. bv Woodpecker 
Election 1804 

D. bv Woodpecker 
Traini') 1810 see Table \'H. 

n. bv ( iohanna 



Pioneer 1804 

D. by Highflyer 

Juniper 1805 
I), bv Dragon 

Marniion 1806 
I), bv Diomed 



Cannon Hall 1810 
I), bv Weathercock 



— Emigrant 1822 

D. bv Buzzard 



Snap 



430 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 



TablP TT. Dail. Arabian Line. 



Waverh'v 1817 

D. by Sir Peter 

? Mo.'.cs 1819 

D. bv Gohanna 
Stumps 1822 

D. by Delpini 
Chateau Margaux 1822 

D. bv Gohanna 
Camel' 1822 

D. by Selini 



r. WInilcboue 1823 
D. bv Snrci'rer 



Dcteiicc 1824 

D. bv Rubens 

.l/6<j;iy 1825 

D. bv Gohanna 
Merniaii 1826 
D. bv Orville 
WHALEBOiNE !^ir Hir.nles 1826 
-iQAy D. bv Wanderer 

D. by Truinpator 



The Saddler 1828 
D. bv Castrcl 

? Doii Joliii 1835 
D. bv Conius 



— The I'rovost 1836 

D. bv Lotterv 

— Jasro 1843 - " - 

D. bv Sehm 



Abbas Mirza 1831 

D. bv Shebdeez 
Sir Isaac 1831 

D. bv Filho da Puta 
Toiiclisfniie 1831 see Table YIII 

D. bv Ma'iter Henry 
Carai'aii 1834 " 

D. bv The Fiver 
Wiiitoman 1834 

D. bv Mulev 
LauiiccJot 1837 

D. by Master Henrv 
5(moom 1838 — Sahama 1850 

D. by Paiilowitz D. bv Slane 



Souvenir 1859 — 
D. bv Y. Eiiiilius 



lOniju'ror 1841 - 
D. by Reveller 



? Moiiar(|ii(' 1852 st 
n. bv Ko\al Oak 



Birdcatclier 1833 see Table X. 

D. by Bob Booty 
Coronation 1838 

D. by Rubens 

Robert de Gorham 1839 The Nigi;er 1847 
D. by Emilius D. bv FJis 



Ncu'court 1840 

D. by Spectre 



Faugli-a-Ballagh 1841 
D. by Bob Booty 



Lap'.vin^i; 1826 

D. by Cannpus 



Gunboat 1854 — — 
D. by Sheet Anchor 



Gemma di Vergi 1854 

D. bv Heron 
Lifeboat 1855 

D. by Sheet Anchor 

? St. La-vrence 1837 
D. bv Blacldock 



Cotsu'ohl 1853 — ■ 
D. by Pantaloon 

Cecrops 1863 
D. by Longbow or 
Mountain Deer 

Ethelbert 1850 

D. by Liverpool 1 



Leamiiig'toii 1853 ■ 
D. by Pantaloon 

Torpedo 1876 
n. by King Toir 



Rococo 1863 — 
D. bv Recovery 



C. Tables SliDwing tlu' Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. 431 



Si-Iicrz 1851 

1). liv Morisci) 
Itonnic ScutlaiMl I80S 

1). hv Gl.idiator 



Bonnie Siotlaiid jun. 1865 

D. b\- Clay Trustie 
Brawhlr 187o — —Ben Brush 1893 

1). hv Australian D. bv Alarm 



l.oUvpop 1873 
O.by Stock well 



I.altire 18G1 
D. bv V. Whalebone 



hirst Lord 1866 
n. by Teddington 



/\/ii.(,' of Kent 1R58 - 
I), by Touchstone 

I lav maker I860 
\y. by StocUwell 

/.<)ll,<.'/c;/<>-a' 1807 

D. by ICclipse 
Enquirer 1867 

I), by Lexington 
Seiisniio)! 1877 

I), by Lexington 
Iriiiiuois 1878 — - 

I), bv Australian 
Oi liaiTii 1879 

I). I)y Lexington 

( hippciidalc 187G 
I), bv Advi-nlnrcr 



Pui^anini 1865 
1). by Peppermint 

Lo)i i^slrrrt 1886 
1). bv Glen Athol 

Kiltv 1887 
D.bv War Dance 



TaniDiaiiy 1889 
n. bv (ireat Tom 

■.oniiiiilrhce 1889 
1). Ijv len BroeU 



-Caiiiiau 1896 
D. by CoeruIeu> 



432 The Practical Part of Horsebreedintf. 

Tabh' III. Darl. Aiiibian Line. 



Si 
Id 



□0.5 


ro — 
CO 2 




' ' O 


c 


o 


"S o 


>-.J3 


■io 


s ra 


SZ 



■ — — ■ ^ 



.-i-r; 






00 ?: 



"? H 



%■ ^-Pretty Boy 1853 
c^ "-T; D. by Glaucus 



o 


OJ 


00 


o 




o 












a; 






o 


5 


H 






>. 




^ 


ilD 





a 



s >, 



£:Q 






King oj Diamonds 1857 

n. bv Defence 
r)M Ta/nbar 1859 

D. by Piccaroon 
Wingravc 1859 

D. bv The Cure 
Master Fenton 1859 

D. by Touchstone 
Moi;ador 1860 

D.' by Orlando 
Tom King 1863 — 

D. bv Birdcatcher 
Dalesman 1863 

D. bv Pantaloon 
Phaeton 1865 - — 

D. bv Storm 
Restitution 1865 

D. by Slane 
Kini^ 'Alfred 1865 

D. bv Bav Middleton 
Kingcraft 1867 

D. by \'oltit,'^eur 

King o' Scots 1867 

D. bv The I-'l. Dutchman 

The Baron 1869 
D. by North Lincoln 

King I.ud 1869 

D. bv N'oltig^eur 
Marsu'orth 1871 

D. bv Fernhill or Gleam 
Coltness 1873 

D. bv Thormanbv 
Great 'Tom 1873 

D. by Voltigeur 
Skylark 1873^ 

D. bv Y. Melbourne 
Blue 'Blood 1876 

D. by Teddington 



Gabier 1867 

D. by Pantaloon 



Dandin 1879 
D. bv Cambuscan 



Indian Ocean 1867 
D. by Vortex 



Umpire 1873 
D. by Ambrose 

Lowlander 1870 

D. bv Windhound 

King 'Alfonso 1S72 - 
D. bv ^^^ndnl 



— Loit'land Chief 1878 
D. bv StocUwcll 

~ Foxhall 1878 

D. bv Lexinafton 



Kingd{im 1879 

D. by Prime Minister 
Grandmaster 1880 

D. bv Kingston 
Bruce 1874 ' 

D. bv Newcastle 
Ben Alder 1880 

D. by Rataplan 
King 'Monmouth 1882 

D. by King of Trumps 
Boudoir 1893 

D. bv Plutus 



Loutch 1890 
D. by Blenlieim 



4. 3 



5-Q 



-= ^_V:itt(ii(loii 1861 

'^'t7i D. by Tros (by Priam) 



Chester 1874 — 
D. bv Stockwell 



Grand Flaneur 1877 
D. bv St. .Mbans 



CCQ 



Abercorn 1884 
D. by Goldsbrough 

Patron 1890 

D. by Tonnerre des 
Indes 
Merman 1892 

D. bv Coltness 



C. Tables Showing- the Ancestors of ThoroughbreJs in the Male Line. 433 



00 

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; ~ ''. ~ ^~ '2 5 = ~ -~ --". i 



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434 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding-. 



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6. Tables Showing- the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. 435 





9) 




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436 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

Table VII. l^ail. Arabian Line. 



f Lottery 1820 

1). bv PotSos 
Zii^anee 1825 

D. bv y. Drone 
Little Red Rover 1827 

D. bv Pavnator 



CO 



Liverpool 1S28 — 
O. hv Whisker 

St. Giles 1829 
I), by Ardrossan 



Chorister 1828 

i^. by Chorus 
Alter liter 1831 

D. bv Orvillf 
Inheritor 1831 

D. bv Walton 
Sheet Aiulior 1832 

D. by Ahiley 

Verulam 1833 

D. bv Wax\- 



Laiiercost 1833 — 
D. bv Bustard 

Mosstrooper 1839 
D. bv Eniilius 



Sirikol 1840 

D. bv Partisan 
Weatherhit 1842 

D. by Priam 
]'iilcan 1837 

D. bv Tcniers 



War Eagle 1844 
D. bv Voltaire 

Van Troiiip 1844 
D. by Sandbcck 

/.OK/) Garou 1846 
D. by Tombov 

Colsterdale 1848 
D. bv Tombov 

De Ruyter 1848 
D. bv Sandbeck 



6. TaUlcs Sliowin;;- the Anccslurs uf Thorouj;hbr«l!; iji ihc Mule Line. 437 



Kelpie 1855 

D. bv St. Francis 



Be;i(lsman 1855 — 
D. bv Touchstone 

Set>liinus 1859 
D. bv Birdcatchtr 

Bel Demoiiio 1861 
D. bv Birdcatchcr 



FircM'orks 1S64 

n. bv .Sir llorcuk' 



Th* Palmer 1864 

D. bv Cowl 
Blue Go'vii 1865 

D. bv Stock well 



Rosicruriiiii 1865 
I), bv Cowl 



Brown Bread 1862 

D. by West .Australian 

Bro'.i'ii Tommy 18G4 
D. bv West .\ustralian 



Pcro Come: ISGO - —I 

D. bv Student 
Alvarez 1869 

I), bv Student 
Coertileiis 1872 

I), bv .Stockwell 
The Jolly Friar 1873 

D. by .Nl.icaroni 

H7ii/(()(i/( 187] 

D. bv Lanibtun 
Pienie 1872 

D. by .\rthur Wellesley 
or Post Tempore 
Hilarious 1874 

I), by Knitrht of Kar.s 
Toaslmasler ]S77 

n. bv The M.irquis 
S-feet'hread 1879 

I), bv .\dventurcr 



Gohl!.broui;li 1870 — 
1). b\ l'"i>lii iin.iii 

CI rev I'almer 1S72 
D. b\- Ch.intiileer 

Pclh\c;ri)W 1874 
O. b\ .Macaroni 

Chevron 1874 

n. by Stockwell 
Reauelere 1875 i 

D. by \'olti.i,'eur | 

lireildouiie 1877 

O. by Kini; Tom 
Zauoiii 1S75 

D. bv Stockwell 
Allhoias 1878 

1). bv \espasian 
Dalhe'ri; 1887 

D by Paijanini 
Laureate 1879 

n. by Orlando 
.S(> Charles 1878 

I). In- Kthelbert 
I'erei^riiie 1878 

I), by \. .Melbourne 

P,lur-xreni 1887 
1 ). \i\ ( ialopin 



Atlantic 1878 
I), bv Peter Wilkins 



Chistrhurst 1880 — Macdo}! aid 1899 



1). bv Kinj,"' Tom 

Tyrant 1885 

F). bv Kxmins^<r 



D. bv Basniis 
Masqiic 1894 
D. bv Mask 



U'liiltier 1892 
I), by Jolni D.ivis 



Mandrake 1864 — — 
I), by Rataplan 

1851 

bv Brutandorf 
Galen 1853 — 
liy Inheritor 

Lambourne 1854 
D. bv Pantaloon 



Man,i;o 1874 

n. by Knii^lit of Kar> 
Stratlimore 1874 

I), by Slockwell 

77)11 Whijller 1861 
I), by C-Iy Buck 
I'm; Amhurf;h 1864 
D. bv l,oni;!iow or 
Miuml.iin Deer 



438 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

Table VIII. Darl. Arabian Line. 



CO 

00 



1^ 



CC 



Si/!foi! 1849 

D. by Slane 



Auckland 1839 

D. by Champion 
Cothe'rstoue 1840 — 

D. by Whisker 1^, 

ulenmassoii 18o4 

> D. bv Priam 
Orl.nndo 1841 see Table VIII. a' 

D. by Lang"ar 
Ithuriel 1S41 Loiia^bow 1849 

D. by \"elocipede D.'by Catton 

Annandale 1842 

D. bv Lotterv 
Fahtdff 1842 ' 

D. by Filho da Puta 
Paragoiie 1843 

D. b\" Tombov 
Flatcatclier 1845 

D. bv Filho da Puta 
Surplice 1845 

D. by Priam 
Pontifex 1847 

D. bv Priam 
Bfewiujiister 1848 see Table \Tri. b 

D. bv Dr. Syntax 
Storm 1848 

D. by Pantaloon 
Mountain Deer 1848 

D. bv Belshazzar 
Harbinger 1849 

D. by Elis 
Magnes 1849 

D. by Langar 

Vindex 18.56 

"D. by Lanijar 



Orpheus 1860 

D. bv St. Nicholas 



Pyladcs 1852 

b. bv Bay Middleton 

Flash in the Pan 1856 
D. by Pompev 



Druid 1857 

D. by Harkaway 
Coroner 1856 

D. by Teara\\ay 



Victor 1859 

D. by Scrosjg^ins 

The Avenger 1860 
D. bv Sesostris 



Lord of the Isles 1852 

D. bv Pantaloon 
De Clare 18.32 

D. by Catton 
Rifleman 1852 

D. by The Colonel 

Claret 1852 

D. bv Belshazzar 

Artillery 1853 
D. by Birdcatcher 



Toiiniiiiiieiit 1854 

D. by \'enison 
]\'amba 1857 

D. by Recoverx- 
Atherstone 1858' 

D. by Merry Monarch 
Soaps'tone 1860 

D. by Malcolm 



Dundee 1858 

D. bv -Sweetmeat 



Scottish Chief 1801 — 
D. bv The Little Known 
Blarney 1861 

D. by Magpie 
Londesborough 1867 

D. by Hetnian Platoff 

Master Millie 1864 

D. bv Hautboy 
Gitan'o 1866 

D. by Esperance 
Baroiiietre 1868 

D. bv The Baron 
Golos'imS 

D. by The Prime 
Warden 



Danscur 1854 

D. by New Light 
Durcl'ilaucht 1858 

D. by Snyders 

V estniinster 1866 
D. by Envoy 



Toxophilite 1855 
D. by Pantaloon 



North Lincoln 1856 
D. bv Redshank 



Valour 1875 
D. by Mount Zion 

Lord of the Vale 1863 

D. by Pantaloon 
Marksman 1864 

D. bv Birdcatcher 
Hobgoblin 1866 

D. by The Ugly Buck 

King of the Forest 1868 

D. by Fandango 
Lammermoor 1874 

D. by Buccaneer 
Fitz James 1875 

D. bv Kettledrum 
Childeric 1875 

D. by Saunterer 
Napsbury 1877 

D. by Rataplan 
Taurus 1879 

D. by Thunderbolt 
Pursebearer 1879 

D. bv Stockwell 



Mirliflor 1872 
D. by Knowsley 



G. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in llie Male Line. 439 



Musket 1867 

D. bv West Australian 

Bay Archer 1876 
D. by Y. Melbourne 

Lancastrian 1876 
D. bv \\'est Australian 



Petronel 1877 
D. bv Hesperus 

Trenton 1881 

D. by Goldsbrough 

Nordfiifeld 1882 

D. bv Angler 



Carbine 1885 — 
D. by Knowsley 



Auriim 1894 

D. bv Richmond 
Eccleston 1898 

D. by Beaudesert 

Carnage 1890 

D. bv Knowsley 
Wargrave 1898 

D. by Sk.\-lark 
Fowling Piece 1899 

D. bv Galopin 
Spearmint 1903 

D. by Minting 



Noble Chieftain 1886 

D. by Moulsey 
The General 1882 

D. bv Thunderbolt 



440 



The Practical Part of Horscbrteiliiij^. 



Taiik- VIII.il. IMrl. Arabian Liiir 



go 

c 



Tcdiiinaton 1848 

1). bv R(ickiii>,'hain 

Orpheus 1849 
I), bv Whisker 

Orcst'cs 1850 

D. by Bav Middlcton 



Miirsvas 1851 — — 
D. bv Whisker 



FnzzolcttK 1853 

1). by Melbourne 
Zuvdcr Zee 1854 

D. by Sand beck 
Chevalier d'liidustrie 1854 . 

D. bv Priam 
Filz Roland 1855 

n. by Eniilius 

Eclipse 1855 

D. by Bav Middlcton 



Triiiii|H'ft'r 1856 

I). l)v Redshank 

Crater 1857 
I), bv Gladiator 

Diophaiitiis 1858 
D. bv Emiliiis 



Ciiiiiry 1858 

D. bv Plenipotentiary 

Lacyd'cs 1859 
D. by Plenipotentiary 



Mntilsey 1861 
n. by Pantaloon 



Urcst 1857 

D. by Touchstone 

Albert Victor 1868 
I), bv Stockwell 



fieorge Frederick 1871 — 
n. b\- Stockwell 

Kill}; Victor 1864 
n. by Heron 

Blenheim 1861 

D. by Robert de Gorhani 
I'ripoiiiiier 1864 

D. by Tcddin.nton 



Alarm 1869 

n. bv Stockwell 

Haiisiead 1862 
n. by Stockwell 



Pliidis 1863 

D. bv Planet 
Y. Trumpeter 1864 

I), bv Surplice 
Disliii 1864 

I), bv Hesperus 
Challeiii;e 1864 

D. by Prime Minister 
Queen 's Messenger 1869 

O. by Kintiston 



Cliatt.-inooga 1862 — 
I), by Birdcatcher 



Xenoplioii 1872 

D. bv Birdcatcher 



Mellinirtonia 1869 

D. b\ Ambrose 



Hollywood 1871 
n. by Kin.t,' Tom 

Tlie Sailor Prince 1880 
D. by Hermit 

Frontin 1880 

D. b\ Weatherbit 
Beau ' Bruininel 1880 

n. by Lord Clifden 



ilimyar 1875 
D. by Lexint 

Mund'en 1871 " 
D. by Birdcatcher 



i^ton 



Flaireolet 1870 

D. by Monarque 

Fil - en - Ouatre 1877 
D. bv Monarque 

Fricai'ideau 1883 
D. by Pretty Boy 

Avontes 1874 
D. bv Ratan 

Hastiiigs 1872 
D. by Hesperus 



The Baron 1884 
D. by Lord Lvon 

Aiiirlirim 1883 

D. by L'ncas 



Clover 1886 

D. bv Prince Charlie 



6. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. 441 



Diakha 189:1 
I), bv Murtcnicr 



riaudit 189o 

D. by Tomahawk 
Uomino 1891 

I), by Ijitjiiircr 
Isniacl 18"<i 

D. by Wtsl Australian 
Rayon d'Or 1876 — 

n. bv Ambrose 
Zut 1876 

I), by SlocUwell 
lifaiiDiiiut 1877 

I), by Knowslev 
/.(• Dcstrirr 1877 ^ — — 

IX by Black Ryes 

Xaiiilroillc! 1882 

n. by The b'l. Dutchman 

Crhi-inintth 1889 
D. bv Chamant 



Disgtiisi- 1997 

D. by Galopin 
('omn'unulo 1898 

1). 1)V Darebin 
Octa,i;(ui 1884 

D. bv Macaroni 
Tea frav 1885 

D. bv \\".ar Dance 
Frejc-'illr 1886 

D. by Saxifrage 
Cluilrt 1887 ■ 

I). )<v (^rcmorne 
St Hit r I ISSo 

D. bv Stockwcll 
CaJix 1889 

D. bv D.illar 
Polvi^oiu- ]S91 

D.'bv Dollar 
Mrh-h'icr 1^9I 

D. bv Monlar^jis 



}faxii)ium II. 1899 
D. bv Dollar 



Coiiiif Scliombcri: 1892 
D. bv Baliol 



Bhiik Arro-.i' 190:! 
D. bv Hcndigo 



Arrcau 1893 
D. bv Canibuscan 



442 



The Practical Part of Horsebreedingf. 



Table YIIT. h. Darl. Arabian Line. 



00 




^ 




00 


y. 


1—1 


ra 


es 


>, 


f^ 


t/2 


H 






Q 


HH 


>^ 


S 


X: 


^ 


c 


F^ 




^ 





Musjid 1836 

D. by Muley Moloch 
Exmiiister 1857 

D. by Cowl 
Adyeiiturer 1859 

D. bv Einilius 



Lord Clifdeii 1860 
D. bv Melbourne 

see Table VIII. 



Cambiiscan 1861 

D. bv Slane 
The Beadle 1861 

D. by Plenipotentiarv 



I'iitliedral 1861 ■* 

D. by Melbourne 
Victorious 1862 

D. by Jeremy Diddler 
Vespasian 1863 

D. by Stockwell 
Stratbconan 1863 

D. bv Chanticleer 
Laneret 1863 

D. bv Venison 
The Peer 1863 

D. bv Sheet Anchor 
Bertie 1863 

D. bv Gladiator 
Hermit 1864 see Table VIII. 

D. by Tad m or 
Kidderminster 1864 

D. bv Camel 



Argyle 1866 

D. bv Birdcatcher 
Pretender 1866 

D. by Venison 
Roehampton 1873 

D. bv Stockwell 
Glen 'Arthur 1874 

D. bv Kins'ston 
Riiperra 1876 

D. bv Thormanbv 
Forager 1877 

D. bv Stockwell 
Zeal 1877 

D. bv Stockwell 
Privateer 1878 

D. by Thormanbv 

Onslow 1869 
D. bv Voltig^eur 

Billesdon 1872 

D. by The Baron 

Camballo 1872 

D. by Orlando 
Cambiisier 1879 

D. bv Saunterer 
Pdsztor 1881 

D. by Buccaneer 

Landmark 1869 
D. bv Birdcatcher 

Dalham 1871 
D. by The Marquis 



Buchanan 1877 

D. by V. Melbourne 
Eastern Emperor 1881 

D. by Rataplan 



Rajta-Rajta 1885 
D. by Lord Lyon 

Achilles 1888 
D. by Buccaneer 

Buccaneer 1888 
D. by Lord Lyon 

Yard Arm 1897 
D. by Cardinal York 



Cdsar 1878 

D. by Kettledrum 
The Lambkin 1881 

D. by Y. Melbourne 
Salisb'urv 1884 

D. by Oxford 



6. Tables Showing- the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. 443 
Table VIII. c. Darl. Arabian Liiip. 



CO 






^C 



Hauitlioniden 1867 

D. by The Flying- 
Dutchman 
Barefoot 1S68 

D. by Stockwel! 
Hvinenaeus 1869 

D. bv Wild Davrell 
Weidock 1869 

D. by Rataplan 
Wiiislois.' 1869 

D. by King Tom 
Haniptoii 1872 

D. bv Kettledrum 
Rolherhill 1872 

D. by Orlando 
Basnds 1872 

D. by Stockwell 



Petrarch 1873 

D. bv Orlando 

Lord Clive 1875 
D. by Buccaneer 



IliKhlaiid Chief 1880 

D. 1)\- Slockwell 
Royal Kaiiiptoii 1882 

I), by King Tom 
Merry Hampton 1884 

D. by Broom ielaw 
Ayrshire I880 

D. bv Galopin 
Sheen 1885 

D. bv Tibthorpe 
Biishey Park 1889 

D. bv Thormanbv 
Ladas 1891 — — ' 

L). bv Rosicrucian 
Speed 1891 

D. bv Tibthorpe 
Bav RonaU 1893 

D. by Galliard 

The Bard 1883 

D. by Svrian 
Florentine 1884 

D. by Kettledrum 
Laureate IL 1886 

D. by Macaroni 
Lactantiiis 1887 

D. bv Macaroni 
Hackier 1887 

D. bv Albert ^■^ctor 



Marcion 1890 

D. by Queen's Messenger 
Kirke'onnel 1892 

n. by Blair Athol 

Symington 1893 

D. bv St. Simon 
Niniis 1895 

D. bv Lowlander 



Troiitbeek 1903 
D. bv Bend Or 



Bi'renger 1888 

D. by Trocadero 
Launay 1893 
D. by Mortenier or 
Monarque 
Saxon 1S98 
D. by Clairvaux or 
[ Isonomy 



444 



The Practical Part ul Hursebreeding. 



Tabl 



CO l- 

00 o 

■-I E 
K 



e YIIl. (I. Hail. Arabian 
Line. 

Asccf ic 1871 

1). In Melbourne 
Ih'ly Friiir 1872 

D. bv 'riinrmanby 
Recorder 1872 — ' 

I). 1)V St. Albans 
Trap fist 1872 

D. bv Muscoviti- 
Ainbi ri;ris IS'S 

D. l)y I,(ini;bow 
GuMiiershiiry 1876 

D. bv Kint; Tom 
The .\Iiser 1877 

D. by St. .\lbans 
Zealot 1877 

D. bv Stock well 
Peter' 187(1 

D. b\- Rrotlier to Straffortl 
The Abbot 1877 

D. bv Pelion 
Retreat 1877 — 

D. by R.itaplan 
St. Louis 1878 

D. by Macaroni 
Edward the Confessor 1878 

n. by Stnckweil 
Trisfuii 1878 

D. liv Stockwell 
Martini 1878 

D. bv Toxopbilite 
Exile 'I I. 1878 

n. bv Lord l.von 
Mardeii ]87!» 

I), by IVHon 
Clairvaux 1880 

D. l)v Stockwell 
.Sf. Blaise 1880 — 

n. bv Marsvas 
Torpedo 1880" 

n. li\ Toxopbilite 
St. lloitorat 1882 

1). by Stockwell 
.S-.i'////i/i,'/ii)i 1882 

n. by Stockwell 

Taeiliis 1882 

1). by V. Melbourne 

Gaiiiiii 1883 

I), bv Scottish Cliicf 

Ha'i'ksloiie 1883 
D. by Stockwell 

Gay Ileriiiit 188;-i 
D. by Rroomielaw 

Tiwot'hv 1884 
n. bv Brother to StralTonI 

Iladeliateh 188.") 
1). by Cithedral 

Friar's Balsa i)i 188.5 

1). bv Rre:idalbane 

.istroio^i^er 188.j 
D. by Brother to Strafford 

Melanioii 1886 

D. bv (lalopin 

Heiiiiiiic 1887 • 

D. bv Bread.albane 

Missal 181(1 
D. bv 'I'liunderbolt 



Royal Mealh 1884 

n. bv Coroner 
Sir Patrick 1890 

D. hv Herbertstown 
Lord Abbot 1898 

I), bv Chippend.ile 

Kdiii,i:stein 1888 

I), bv .Strathconan 
(lajare 188.5 

I), bv .\lbion 
Moeros 1886 

D. by Rosicruci.nl 
1' rdni-balydni 1886 

I ). b\ Buccaneer 
Coiirniaiid 1890 

I), bv Kisber ocscse 
Califard 1896 

I). b\- (i.alopin 
Zsupaii 1884 

I), by Blair .\thol 
Father Confessor 188.3 

I), bv The Hadji 
.indree 1892 

D. bv Galopin 
I.e llardv 1888 

n. bv .St. Albans 
/.(• yhrd 1887 

D. bv Weliini;tonia 
Le Sicham IL 1890 

n. bv \\'ellini;tonia 
Sty.x 1891 

O. b\' (.ialo|)in 
Ahori'i^ine 1890 

1). bv (ilen Artliur 



Mari;rave 1893 
I), bv lll-lscd 



Cospoilar 1891 
I ). bv Trocadero 



77(c Oiiack 1893 

1). bv (ialopin 
Millenium 1896 

I), bv Barc.ildine 
Black' .Sand 1897 

I). b\ Weidock 
/.c A"('>/ Soleil 189o 

1). bv Boia'd 



6. Tables Showing' the Ancestors of Tliorou^hbreds in the Male Line. 445 



Table TX. l>ail. Arabian Lint'. 



CI 



II,>sjy,Hliir 1800 

D. bv Kniilius 

La MarMial ISGO 
D. bv Sir Hercules 

Le Miiinhiriii 1862 
D. by Nuncio 

(;iiuliiileiir 1862 — 

D. bv Gladiator 
y. Moiinrqiif 1863 

D. bv F.niilius 
Patrlci,n 1864 

D. by Gladiator 
I.c Siirra:iii ISfio 

n. b\' Gladiator 



Consul 1800 — 

I), bv Sir Hercules 

BoiiIo\:iie 1S66 
n. bv Ion 



Don Ctnlos 1867 

D. bv The Baron 
Hciirv 1808 

D. by Ion 
1.0)1 i;ilia Dips 1864 

n/bv The Baron 
General 1808 

I), by I'estival or Valbruant 
Trociitlern 1864 

D. by Epirus 
Fell dWmour 1871 

O. bv \entre-St.-Gris 



l.e Drdle 1873 
n. by Black ICyes 

t.ydon 1808 

n. bv Sesosliis 
Craiui Coup 1S08 

I), bv Slock well 
Lord V;.>ii,v/i 18(;<) 

O. bv Rataplan 
Cniiuhiui.slcr 1808 

IX bv Stock well 
IIit;lil>oni 1870 

I), by |-au.t,'li-a-Balla.i,di 
Xouiriil 1872 

D. bv Gladiator 
Kill 1873 

H. bv Slockwi-ll 
.l//>/.ui 1878 

n. bv Atherslone 
Archiiliic 1881 

I>. by Atherslone 
Fri|ioii 1883 

I). l)y b'avonius 

Riirheroiis.se 1S80 

D. bv Beauvais 
RnUiiiiiv 1874 

D. by' I'ilz Cl.idi.ilor 

Xardsse 1876 • — 

O. bv Wealherbit 
Rariotet 1878 

D. bv Orphelin 
Fra liiavolo 1881 

n. bv Orjihelin 
h'iehe'lieu 1881 

n. bv Orphelin 



r.iiif^li-ii-R,ilh,i:h 1879 
I). l)y The Suidi'rit 


c 
o 




J 


h'arjadel 1880 — . 


XI o 

-•J 


n. by Joskin 

.ler(di'lh'e IssO 

n. by Dollar 





/..• Pompon 1891 
D. bv Scottish Chief 

ration 1896 
D. bv \\'e';nnin>ler 



Chene Royal 1889 
D. by Perplexe 



I 



446 



■ art 



eg 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 



9UipiB3JBg Aq -Q 
'Z68T iUdmd4oi^ 



uoiiBaaqjSAg-jj Aq -q 
5061 'iqqi^'uDi'j 



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6. Tables Sliowins^ the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. 447 



u 
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448 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 



o 
tc 
9 to. 

CO C^QQ 

22 k" 









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6. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. 449 



CO 


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re 


C5 


c 


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460 



The Practical Part of Horsebreedinj;. 



Table X. h. Darl. Arabian Line. 



l-~ 




>o 


^H 


CXI 


J3 


X: J 1 




1) 

J3 . 


P3 H 1 


1-9 


>i 


■< 


J2 


HQ 1 


cc 





00 

I— I 

O 
» 



PC 



Julius 1864 

D. by Orlando 
St. Ronan 1865 

D. by Birdcatcher 
St. Mungo 1866 

D. by Melbourne 
Martyrdom 1866 

D. by Euclid 
Silvester 1869 

D. bv Kingston 
Mr. Winkle 1871 

D. by Birdcatcher 

Springfield 1873 — 
D. by Marsyas 



Ethiis 1866 

D. by Touchstone 
Jack of Oran 1869 

D. bv Touchstone 
Strua'n 1869 

D. by Touchstone 
Prince Charlie 1869 

D. bv Surplice 
Andred 1870 

D. bv Voltigeur 
Tangible 1870 

D. bv Touchstone 
Craiii' Millar 1872 

D. by Fitz Roland 
Claremont 1872 

D. bv Kingston 
Maelstrom 1873 

D. bv Touchstone 
Clanronald 1873 

D. by Newminster 
Glcnd'ale 1873 

D. bv Daniel O'Rourke 
Silvifi 1874 

D. by Kingston 
Altyre 1874" 

D. bv Sweetmeat 
The Borer 1874 

D. by Newminster 
Balioi 1879 

D. bv Teddington 
The Child of the Mist 1882 

D. by Lord Clifden 



Morgan 1883 • 

D. by Scottish Chief 
Sorrento 1884 

D. by Macaroni 
Neapolis 1885 

D. by Macaroni 
Sainfoin 1887 

D. by Wenlock 
Watercress 1889 

D. by Hermit 
Marshall Scott 1876 

D. by Y. Melbourne 
Darby 1885 

D. bv Statesman 
Brag '1878 

D. by Flatterer 
Salvator 1886 

D. by Lexington 
Lochiel 1882 

D. by Voltigeur 



Bread Knif 1883 
D. bv Brown Bread 



■Pardon 1896 

D. by Peter 
-Lutrin 1899 

D. bv Don Charlos 



■Rock Sand 1900 
D. by St. Simon 



-Bumptious 1888 
D. by Pell Mell 



? St. Gatien 18..1 — 
D. by Kingley Vale 



■ Meddler 1890 
D. bv Petrarch 



CO 




<^ 




UJ 


c 


1-H 


o 




ho 


lA 


a 


O 


C3 


>* 


CL( ■ 


i-9 


>. 


e 


J3 


PS 


n 


o 




t-! 





Tonchet 1874 

D. by Wild Dayrell 



Minting 1883 
D. bv Y. Melbourne 



Necromancer 1882 

D. by Scottish Chief 

Juggler 1885 
D. by Scottish Chief 



Delphos 1891 
D. by Speculum 



Ci. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. 451 






2 c ■ - 1- 

<^' tf. r. •- tt -M . 






~ /^ .'^ rN 



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2S ^Sx^ =Sg=gc35s|sis|-i2'=c):|:^ 






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1^ = • c . S ■ = . 5 . 

•— E <-. f- -r Iw 



UOJ7!U!|)poj_ .\q -Q 

0i8i aaisvjvod 



452 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

Table XI. Darl. Arabian Line. 



Skirmisher 1854 — 
D. bv Gardham 



Kaiser 1870 
D. by Kinc; Tom 

Speculum 1865 — 
D. by Alarm or 
Orlando 



Tedette 1854 

D. bv Birdcatcher 





Cavendish 1856 


2 ° 


D. by Touchstone 










GC rt 




U 3 




IS S 




iT >. 




-H J= 




So 





Yirgilius 1858 

D. by Emilius 

Watch fire 1859 

D. by Flatcatcher 
The Ranger 1860 

D. by Gardham 

John Davis 1861 

D. bv Liverpool 
Tibthorpe 1864 

D. by The Cure 
Fortiinio 1864 

D. bv Slane 
Brcnniis 1866 

D. bv Stockwell 
Falkland 1867 

D. by Faui^h-a-Ballagh 



Galopiu 1872 — 

D. by The Flyiiii; 
Dutchman 

Hector 1872 

D. by Saunterer 
Double Zero 1873 

D. by Phleg-on 



The Duke of Caiuhriilt^c 
1870 

D. by Kinjj Tom 
Fortissimo 1878 

D. by Trumpeter 
? Thiirio 1875 

D. bv Orlando 



Koscbcry 1872 — — — 

D. bv Newniinster 
Selton 1875 

D. by West Australian 
Castlcreagh 1875 

D. by Birdcatcher 
Hagioscope 1878 

D. bv Macaroni 



Fulnifii 1880 

D. bv Thunderbolt 



(Jjilliard 1880 

D. bv Macaroni 



St. Simon 1881 see 
Table XI. a 

D. bv King Tom 
Oberon 1883 

D. bv Adventurer 
Galore 1885 

D. by Macaroni 
Marmiton 1885 

D. bv Cremorne 
Pioneer 1886 

n. bv Hermit 
Donovan 1886 

D. bv Scottish Chief 
S/. Aui^elo 1889 

D. bv Dollar 
fiasa "1889 

D. bv Tsonomv 
]ovfui 1890 

D. bv Doncaster 
Galoping Lad 1893 

D. bv See Saw 
Gana'che 1893 

D. bv Tsonomv 
Galeahzo 1893 

D. bv Kisber 
Grafton 1894 

D. by Hampton 
Guerrier 1894 

D. by Clairvaux 
or Macheath 
Disraeli 1895 

D. bv Sterling 
Brio 1895 

D. by Springfield 



6. Tiibles Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. 453 



Crowbcrrv 1885 

n. bv Scottish Chief 
Aiiii>hi()n 1886 

1). b\ Hermit 



SunJnJi^e 1898 
D. bv Springfield 

/.<i//v'l903 
D. bv Galliard 



Oticcn 's Birlhdav 1887 
I), bv Reauclerc 

Flacoii 1S94 
D. bv Rosicrucian 



l,obcni;ida 1894 
D. bv Chamant 



GuUhcr 1886 
D. bv Hermit 

War Dance 1887 
D. bv Uncas 



Perth 1896 

D. b)' Barcaldine 



— King Jawes 1903 
D. by Enterprise 



Matchtuaker 1892 — 
D. bv Plebeian 

W-las'qurz 1894 

D. bv Macaroni 



Haiidicapper 1898 
D, bv Beaudesert 

Admri-al Breeze 1901 
D. bv Isononiv 



Miiutii; 1895 

D. bv Scottish Chief 
llotla'iider 1902 

D. by Isonomy 



454 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 







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6. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroujj;hbreds in the Male Line. 455 



c 









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456 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

Table I. Bjerly Turk Line, 





Ba5fo 1702 




o 


D. by Leedes Arabian 




00 


' 




o 






7—i 






■*-! 






3 






C 






XJ 






« 






^ 






o: 






P 






H 






^ 






»^ 










Partner (Mr. Croft's) 


>1 




1718 


p; 




D. bv Curwen Bay 


t£ 




Barb 


w 






CH 


Ji«?g about 1702 

D. by Spanker 






Soreheels about 1720 




D. bv Curwen Bay 






Barb 



Partner (Grisewood's) 1730 
D. by His Grey Barb 

Sedbiiry 1734 
D. by Woodcock 



Old Traveller 1735 

D. by Almanzor 

(Foundation sire of 
the Cleveland Bays) 



Skim 1748 

D. bv Son of Smi|i{ 
Bail 
Dainty Davy 1752 

D. by Fox Cub 
Squirrel 1754 

D. by Bloody Butt 



Tartar 1743 
D. by Fox 



Herod 1758 - 

D. by Blaze 











)le T. a. 


Grey Diomed 1785 




1/ 
t 




D. bv Dorimant 


Timoleon 1813 


— Boston 1833 




Sir Ai-cliy 1805 


D. by Saltram 


D. bv Ball's Flori; 




D. by Rockingham 




^ \ 


Diomed 1777 




Sir Charles 1816 — 


— Wagner 1834 -< 


D. by Spectator 


Ball's Florizel 1801 
D. by Shark 


D. by Citizen 


D. bj' Morion S 




Duroc 1806 


American Eclipse 1814- 


— Brawner's Eclipse ] J 




D. by Grey Diomed 


D. by Messenger 


D. by John Henry 



(>. Tables Showing- the Ancestors (if Thoroughbreds in the Male [.inc. 457 



h'lori/el 1786 

D. 1)\ Cvgnet 
Mai;iict 1770 

n.' hv Blank 
riuud'cr 1771 

n. by Blank 
Wnodperker 1773 

n. bv Cade 
Filz Herod 1773 

n. by Snap 
/;i-v/iVi- 1774 

O. by Snap 
Bordeaux 1774 

n. by Cysjnet 



Hiirhflver 1774 
n. bv Blank 



Drone 1777 
n. bv Blank 



Ti'iit Tiis; 1777 

n. by Y. Snip 

Fortitude 1777 — — 
D. bv Snap 

Biii;ot' 1780 

n. bv Matchem 

Plu^eiiomenoit 1780 
D. by Snap 



Dloiiicd 1777 see Table I. a 

D. by Spectator 
Fortniiio 1770 

D. 1)\ Squirrel 
Fidi;et 1780 

D. by Matchem 
CIniiiticleer 1787 — 

[). by Eclipse 
Biizziird 1787 see Table II 

D. bv Dux 



Mentor 1784 

D. by Shakespeare 
Rockini^ham 1781 

I), bv Matchem 
Delpini 1781 

D. bv Blank 
Spadiile 1784 

D. h\- Squirrel 
Sir Peter 1784 see Tabl, 

D. bv Snap 
Skyse'raper 1786 

D. bv Eclipse 
Wahilit 1786 

D. bv Matchem 
St. Georire 1789 

n. bv Eclipse 
Conmiodore 1793 

D. bv Scaramouch 
John RuU 1789 

D. bv Eclipse 
Master Bagol 1787 

D. bv Eclipse 
Hi((>y'l788 — 

D. bv Matchem 
Striplint: 1795 

n. bv Eclipse 



B:'b Booty 1804 
[). by Bagol 



Seymour 1807 
D. bv Javelin 



III. 



Rui;antino 1803 - 
D.' bv High fiver 

Ardroisan 1809 — 
D. bv \'olunteer 



Driver 1798 

D. bv Carbuncle 
Octavian 1807 — 

D. bv Oberon 



NaboekUsh 1810 

D. bv Master Bagot 
Jack Spiiiot 1818 

D. bv Sorcerer 



Antonio 1816 
D. by Evander 



Lexiiiirton 18.50 — 
n. by Sarpedon 



l.ecompte 1&50 - 
n. bv Glencoe 

'^tarki- 1855 
I ). bv Glencoe 



Optimist 1857 — 

D. bv Glencoe 
X or folk 1861 

D. by Glencoe 
Ki)ii;fisher 1867 

D. by Kingston 
( mpire 1857 

D. by Sarpedon 



— Mars 1867 

D. bv Wild Davrell 

— Emperor of Norfolk 1885 ■ 

D. bv Malcolm 



Americiis 1892 
D. by Glenelg 



458 



The Practical Part of Horsebreedinsj 



Table II. Byeilj Turk Line. 



Quiz 1798 Roller 1814 



CO 

I-H X 

3 






D. bv Matchem 



Castrel 1801 

D. by Alexander 

Bustard 1801 
D. by Trumpator 



D. by Woodpecker 

Bn>itar(l 1813 

D. bv Shuttle 



Merlin 1815 — 
D. by Delplni 



Paiifaloon 1824 - 
D. by Peruvian 



Selini 1802 

D. by Alexander 



Sultan 1816 - 
D. by Ditto 



Frcuzv 1830 
D. by Walton 

Heron 1833 

D. by Orville 

Lamplighter 1823 

D. bv Walton 
Sleight of Hand 1836 

D. bv Filho da Puta 
The Libel 1842 

D. bv Camel 
Windtionnd 1847 

D. by Touchstone 

Glencoe 1831 

D. by Tramp 

Beiram 1829 

D. bv Stamford 
Ishmael 1830 

D. bv Phantom 
Beiram 1829 

D. by Stamford 



Lan!;ar 1817 ~ 
D. bv Walton 



Bay Mlddleton 1833 
D. bv Phantom 



Ibrahim 1832 
D. by Phantom 

Jereed 1834 
D. bv Comus 



Elis 1833 

D. by Sir Oliver 
Epirus 1834 

D. bv Sir Oliver 



Fisbornian 1853 

D. by Sheet And 
( New Light 1833 
I D. bv Wanderer 
I Phosphorus 1834 
"^ D. by Rubens 

Traducer 1857 — 

D. by Elis 
Thormanby 1857 

D. by Muley Mo 

Vandal 1850 — 
D. by Tranby 



Burgundy 1843 
D. by Drone 

■ Farintosh 1840 
D. bv Rubens 
Co7vl '1842 
D. bv Priam 



Rubens 1805 

D. by Alexander 



Teniers 1816 Snvders 1833 

D. by Highland Fling D. by Thunderbolt 



:1 



The Flying DutcljB 

1846 
D. by Sandbeck 



Andover 1851 
D. by Defence 

Herm'it 1851 
D. by Touchstone 



Px'rrhus L 1843 
D. bv Defence 

Ephesus 1848 
D. by Defence 

Rostrum 1849 

D. by Malek Ade 
Lightning 1852 

D. bv Y. Whalel 



6. Tables .Showini; the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. ^59 



Ant^lcr 1SG2 

X by jMclbourne 

Maribynioiif; 18G3 

D. by FI. Dutchman 



Sir Modrcd 1877 
0. bv Cambuscan 

iTahle IV. 



Viriril 1864 

I), by Yorkshire 

Ellington 18.53 
D. by Lanercost 
Anisterilam 18-54 — 
D. by Elis 
Ipnoramiis 18.54 
n. by The Little 

Known 
lii.'v/rrJnm 1855 
I l\ by Idle Boy 
'n' Satan) 
' FIva-i'ay 18.57 
bv Melbourne 



b) 



ollar 1860 - 
D. bv .Slane 



Ifassi Nixsa 1866 
D. bv Ion 



Robinson Crusoe 1873 
D. by Stockwell 

Riciiinond 1872 — — 
D. by The Premier 



Hindoo 1878 — — - 

D. by Lexington 



Schiedam 1865 

D. by Heron 
.indrnoles 1870 

D. bv Light or Serious 
Salvaior 1872 

D. bv Ion 
St. Cvr 1872 

D. by Ion 
Fonldiuchlcau 1874 - 

D. by Ion 
Patiiiirdie 1874 — — 

D. by Birdcatcher 
Vigncmalc 1876 

D. bv The Baron 
Prologue 1876 

D. by Gladiateur 
SauDiur 1878 

D. bv Jon 
The Condor 1882 

D. bv The Nabob 
U|>as 1883 

D. bv Skirmisher 



The Admiral 1887 — 
D. bv Countrvman 



The Victory 1898 
D. by Henchman 



HiiiiiioTtT 1884 Hamburg 1895 

1). bv Bonnie Scotland D. bv Fellowcraft 



CaUistrate 1890 

D. bv Mars 
Gardcfeii 1895 

D. bv Bruce 
Arbac'es 1897 

D. by D'Estournel 
Codoman 1897 

D. bv The Bard 



Cambyse 1884 
D. bv Plutus 



Pastisson 1890 
D. bv Marksman 

Phla^'eton 1886 
D. bv Plutus 

Lntin 1891 
D. by Don Carlos 



Clamart 1888 
D. by Prince Charlie 

Oiiiiiinin IL 1892 

I), bv W'ellingtonia 

Elf 1893 
D. bv .Adventurer 



CO 




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OJ 


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5 


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Arizona 1899 

D. bv Melton 
Kizil Kourgan 1899 

D. bv Viligant 



Rocage 1885 Roitelct 1892 

D. bv Chattanooga D. by Mars 

Dauphin 1885 
D. bv Father Thames 



Dutch Skater 1866 
D. bv Gladiator 



Insulaire 1875 
D. bv Beadsman 



460 The Practical Part of Horselireeding. 




<; oj 



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6. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Thoroughbreds in the Male Line. Jgl 



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462 The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 

Fourire 189C 
D. by Energie 

I 
op F ro i_ 

g 3 -^ b/; 00 u ? y 2 J3 

"S >. c >. ~ >.3 ^'-S fe' 









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6. Tables Showing the Ancestors of Tliorouf;hbreds in llie .Malft Line. 463 



Table VI. Byeiiy Turk Lino 



— o 



- T3 

— -3 



Buccaneer 1857 

D. by Little Red 
Rover 



n'ilJ Oats 18C6 — 

D. bv Harkawav 
The Rake 1864 — — 

D. bv Birdcatcher 
Mlhrook 1866 

D. by Daniel 
o'Rourke 
Idtis 1867 

D. by John o'Gaunt 
Gay bayrell 1867 

D. by king Tom 



I'ltiit Jones 1865 
D. bv Chanticleer 



See Saw 1865 - 
D. bv Broclcet 



Cadet 1867 

D. bv Orlando 
Triumph 1S67 

D. hv Alert 
Flibustier 1867 

D. by Stockwell 
i'. Buccaneer 1870 

D. by Orlando 
Gamecock 1870 

D. by Chanticleer 
Uaisenkiiabe 1872 - 

D. bv Stockwell 
Reme'ny 1873 

D. bv Pvrrhiis \. 
Cood'Ho'pe 1873 

D. by King Tom 

Kisher 1873 

I), by Rataplan 

A'// Desperandum 
1873 
I), by Adventurer 

Kisher ocscse 1877 — 

D. by Rataplan 
Elcmer 1877 

D. by Blair Athol 
Balvany 1878 

D. by Newminster 
Vedcremo 1878 

D. bv Compromise 
I'/iif(i'l881 

D. bv Compromise 
Fciek 1883 

D. bv Y. Melbourne 
Talpra Masyar 1885 - 

O. bv Cambuscan 
Gozo 1882 

D. bv Oxford 
Pepper and Salt 1882- 

V). by Oxford 
Oroszvar 1875 

D. by St. Albans 

Vasistas 1896 
n. bv Vermouth 



Discord 1876 

D. bv Cathedral 
Bn((-<''1879 St. I'ropez 1890 

D. bv Stockwell D. bv Mortemer 

Little 'Duck 1881 — Cham'paubert 1893 

D. hv Rataplan D. bv Carnival 

Ocean Wave 1S83 

D. bv Stockwell 
I.ovedone 1883 Dinna Forsret 1892 — Z)n;iic/or<? 1902 

D. by The Earl D. by Chippendale D. by .Arbitrator 

Jack 'o' Lantern 1884 

D. bv Trumpeter 
Triumph 1886 

n. bv Blinkhoolie 
Trachenbera- 1879 — Hannibal 1891 Pels 1903 

D. by Orlando D. by Hermit D. by St. Simon 

Stninzian 1881 Aspirant 1887 Slusohr 1895 

D. bv Bois Roussel D. bv Wenlock O. bv Hermit 

Leliet'etlen 1879 
D. bv Bois Roussel 

Bogdany 1894 
D. by Gunnersbury 

Crajton 1882 Archer 1889 

D. bv North Lincoln D. bv Petrarch 
Arcadian 1883 

D. bv Macaroni 
Realist 1890 

D. by Rosicrucian 
Ausmiirker 1891 

n. bv Isonomv 
Trollhetta 1893 

D. bv King Lud 
Sperber's Bruder 1895 

D. bv Rosicrucian 
Buzi^o 1882 

n.'bv Eiv 



Botond 1888 

O. hv Verncuil 



Carrascn 1898 
D. bv Shallow 



■Tokin 1892 
D. by Gunnersbury 



■Grev Leg 1861 
D. bv Bend Or 



464 



The Practical Part of Horsebreeding. 



Table Til. Byorly Turk Line. 



Tl 


OJ 


-f 


u 


X) 


'S 


T— 1 




H > 


^ 


V- 


U 


o 




j: 


^5 


o 


^ 




u;; 


t/5 


[^ 


> 


t*- 


X: 






X 


Q 



PZmn Puddin,i; 1857 
D. by Birdcatcher 



Parmesan 1857 - 
D. bv Verulam 



Carnival 1860 

D. by Blackthorn 



Macaroni 1860 — 
D. bv Pantaloon 



Saccharometer 1860 
D. by Jago 

Lozenge 1862 
D. bv Star of Erin 



D'Estournel 1864 

D. by Chanticleer 

Favonins 1868 

D. by King Tom 



Cremorne 1869 

D. by Rataplan 

Camenbert 1873 
D. by King Tom 

Straccliino 1874 

D. by Robert de Gorham 

Hydromel 1875 
D. by Orlando 

Grollo 1869 
D. by Weatherbit 

Constans 1872 
D. by Stockwell 

Mask 1877 
D. by Thunderbolt 

Scobell 1878 
D. by King Tom 

Mac^re^or 1867 
D. by the Fallow Buck 

Couronne de Fer 1871 
D. by Birdcatcher 

Macaroon 1874 
D. by Brocket 

Macheath 1880 
D. by Stockwell 

Vanderdecken 1869 
D. by Melbourne 

Cticutnber 1870 
D. by Birdcatcher 



Father Claret 1873 
D. by Jago 

Sir Bevys 1876 
D. by Kettledrum 

? Thurio 1875 

D. by Orlando 

Cameliard 1878 
D. by Lord Lyon 

Reveller 1883 
D. by Marsyas 



c 

o 

in >> 

00 J 
CO 

r-H-O 
U 



6. Tables .Showiii}; the Ancestors of Thorouj^hbrcds in the Male Line. 465 






^1 



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- — fer*'. 



c i ■? _ - fS - 
I £ 2 S ^ '^ .2 ^ 



= i— B . 

s— as 



.a 









- X __ — 5 r- C — X ^ -c p ; X 






tdld 



b 

s 



OSSI UOlVKIV'i;) Z.LIJ 



G — 



466 



The Practical Part of Horsebrfcding. 



Table I. (Jortolphiii Arabian Line. 



Lath 1732 
D. by Bald Galloway 



Trunnion 1747 
D. bv Partner 

V. Cade 1747 (Foun 
D. by Partner 

Cliaiii^cliii t; 1747 
I), bv Partner 



Carte 1734 

D. bv Bald Gallowav 



Janus 1738 

D. by Bartl. Childers 

Dormouse 1738 

D. bv Partner 



Reaiiliis 1739 

D. bv Bald Galloway 



Goii'er Stallion 1740 - 
D. by Whitefoot 

Babraham 1740 

D. by Blind Horse 

Blank 1740 

D. by Bartl. Childers 

Bajazet 1740 
n'. bv Whitefoot 

Old En inland 1741 

D. bv Bartl. Childers 



Cripple 1750 
D. bv Crab 



Matchless 1734 
I"), bv Soreheels 



.llatchem 1748 

D. by Partner 
Sportsman 1753 

D. bv Whitenose 
Hero 1753 

D. by Spinner 
]Vildair 1753 

D. by Steady 
Janus 1746 

D. by Fox 
Dorimont 1758 

D. by \\'hitefoot 
, South' 17 oO 

D. by Soreheels 
Careless 1751 

D. bv Heneage's 
\\1iitenose 
Fearnou!;ht 1755 — 

D. by H.'s 
Whitenose 
Jalap 1758 (Foundat 

D. bv Blackleers 
Moru'ick Ball 1762 

D. by Traveller 
Sweepstakes 1749 

D. bv Partner 
Cardinal Puff 1760 

D. bv Snip 
Pacolet 1763 

D. by Crab 
Paymaster 1766 — 

D.' by Snap 



Amaranthus 1766 
D. bv Second 

Cimcr'ack 1760 

D. by Grisewood's 
Partner 
Tantrum 1760 
D. by Hampton 
Court Childers 



dation sire of the coach 
horses) 
Le Sang 1759 

D. bv Whitenose 
Turf i760 

D. bv .Ancaster Starling 
Dux 1761 

D. by Whitenose 
Chymist 1765 

D. by Whitenose 
Pantaloon 1767 

D. by Snap 
Coiuliictor 1767 

D. 1)V Snap 
Alfred 1770 

D. by Snap 
Mai;num Bonum 1773 

n.' by Swift 
Espersykes 1775 

D. bv Gower Stallion 



Imperator 1776 —Pipator 1786 r 
D. bv Herod D. bv Squiril 

Paviiiitor 17fli 
D. bv Mark, 
Anthony 



Trumpator 1782 
D. by Squirrel 



SdiTerer 179(: 
D. by Diom< 



Symme's Wildair 1770 
D. by Jolly Roger 

ion sire of the Cleveland Bays) 



Paroi^on 1783 
D. bv Herod 



Clockfast 1774 
D. bv Regulus 

Medley 1776 — 
n. by Snap 



_ Grev Diomed 1786 
D. bv Sloe 



C. T.ibles Showiiii,' the Ancestors of Thuruu},'Iibrtds in the Male Line. 



4f)7 



RenwrnhnuHcr ISOO 

D. bv F.clipse 
l»r. Sjiitiix 1811 

D. bv Beninsbroufjh 
Thinulcrbolt 1806 

D. by Mentor 
draniciis 180" 

D. bv Alexander 
T nil lie 1808 

D. bv Blizzard 
Soolhsavcr 1808 

D. by Oolpini 



Coiims 1S09 

1). l)v Sir Peter 



SiiKiIeiisko 1810 — 

D. by Mentor 
BKiirhoii 1811 

D. by Precipitate 



I^ccordoii ISO" 
D. bv Precipitate 

The Doctor 1839 
D. bv Lotterv 



.Srra/>(iZ/ 1812 
D. by Whiskey 

Tircsias 1816 

D. bv Waxv 
llc'lciiiis 1821 

D. by Oohanna 

Reveller 181.5 

D. bv Benintrbroui^^h 

Corinthian 1819 
D. bv Orville 

Huiiiplirey (linker 1822 
I), bv ("linker 



Grey Monuis 1835 

D. bv Cervantes 



Jerry 1821 
n. bv Orville 

Milerwan 1822 
I), bv Shuttle 



—Fernhill 1845 
D. bv Elis 



II. 



Ascot 1832 

I), by Rubens 
Rockini^lutni 1830 

1). bv Swordsman 
Bran 1831 

D. by Oiseau 
Melbourne 1834 see Tabli 

I), bv Cervantes 
Ibiciis 1849 

I), by Taurus 
7'(»»6<)y 1829 Nutu'ith 1840 

D. bv .\rdrossan D. bv Comus 

Jcrem'v Diddler 18.39 

D. bv Mulev 
Jericlio 1842' The Promised Land 18.56 

n. bv Seb'm D. by Touchstone 

Clearii'ell 18.30 

I), bv llambletoni.in 



C5 




00 




I-H 




!0 


o 




g 


i< 


c 




CJ 


c 


o 


».» 


>, 


•^ 


XI 



408 'ihe Practical Part of Hiirsebreedin^ 

Table II. (<od. Arabian Line. 



MELBOURNE 1834 

D. by Cervantes 



.S;> Tatton Sykes 1743 

D. bv Margrave 
Prime Minister 1848 — 

D. bv Pantaloon 



West Australian 1850 
n. bv Touchstone 



Brocket 1850 

D. by Muley Moloch 

ArtliKr Wellesley 1851- 

D. bv Launcelot 
Oidstiyn 1852 

D. by Muley Moloch 
Illuminator 1853 

D. by Emilius 
Meiitniore 1855 

n. b\- Defence 



Y. Melhoiirne 1855 
I), bv Pantaloon 



Knight of the Garter 1864 

D. by Touchstone 
Joskin 1856 

D. by The Major 
The Wizard 1857 

D. bv The Cure 
Australian 1858 

I~>. bv Y. Emilius 



Solon 1861 

D. by Birdcatcher 
Lelio 1862 

D. by Launcelot 
Templier 1862 

D. bv Cotherstone 
Bagdad 1862 

D. bv Ionian 
Riiy Bias 1864 

D. bv Gladiator 
Eole 'II. 1868 

D. by The Baron 
Palmerston 1867 

D. bv Flying Dutchman 
Morn'insiton 18G8 

D. by Orlando 
York Minster 186f) 

D. bv Newminster 



The Peer 1855 

D. bv Touchstone 



Syrian 1867 

D. by Autocrat 
Brother to Rapid Rhone 1859 

D. bv Lanercost or Retriever 
Rapid Rhone 1860 

D. bv Lanercost or Retriever 
Brother to Strafford 1860 

D. bv Gamebdv 
Strafford 1861 

D. bv Gamebov 
General Peel 18(31 

D. bv Orlando 
The Earl 1865 

D. bv Orlando 
Statesman 1869 

D. bv Orlando 
Pell Mell 1869 

D. bv Voltiijeur 
New Holland 1872 

D. by Zuvder Zei' 
Darebin 1878 

D. bv Traducer 



'I'liblus Slniwini; the Ancestors of Tliorouglibrt-ds in the Male Line. 



-169 



-PrzeJswH 1872 

D. bv Stockwell 
Plebeian 1872 
D. bv Autocrat 
-Gosu'iii 1864 

D. bv St. Nicholas 

S|K'ii(ftlirift 1876 

D. by Lexington 

Ailiitriitor 1874 — - 

D. by Musjid 
Philammon 1874 

D. bv Wild Dayrell 
Barraldine 1878 

D. bv Belladrum 



-Rchiisant 1882 
D. by .Adventurer 

-Mourle 1875 
D. bv Svlvain 



Ahoiiiiciit 1884 
D. by Lecturer 

Piidis'cliah 188.5 
D. by Hermit 

Kiiii^.stoii 1884 

I), bv \'ictorious 
iMinplifilitcr 1889 

I), bv Speculum 
Hiistiiigs 1893 

D. by Blue Ruin 
KihdHirliii 1884 

D. bv Lord Gouij^h 
AViiiktield 1885 — — 

D. bv Beadsman 
Morion 1887 

D. bv Beadsman 
Goodft'lloxv 1887 — 

D. bv Clanronald 
Glitter 1887 

D. bv John Davis 
Espoir 1889 

D. bv Beauclerc 
Wolfs Cras 1890 

D. h\- Lammermoor 
Barhary 1891 

D. bv Rosicrucian 
77;, • Riisli 1892 

D. bv .See Saw 
Sir ]''isto 1892 

D. bv Macaroni 
Marco 1892 

D. bv Hermit 
Barrister 1893 

D. bv rianron.-ild 



■Ogden 1894 
O. bv Bend Or 
Winkfleld'.* Pride 1893 
D. b\' Isonomv 



-Chaleureux 1894 
D. by John Davis 



c. - 



-Lord Glasgow 1867 
D. by Hobbie Noble 



Earl of Dartrev 1872 
D. by Ratnpl.i'n 



-Carlton I88.S 
D. by Speculum 



-Australian Peer 1884 
D. bv .Macaroni 



— Aiislraliaii Star 1896 
D. bv Grandmaster