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In undertaking the production of this work the author fully 
understands the gigantic task he has shouldered. There is 
probably no subject so extensively written upon and so little 
understood as the one in hand. I think the public will bear me 
out in the assertion that there are more balky men than balky 

In consideration of the magnitude of the Horse interests of this 
country — the total valuation being seven hundred and seventy- 
one millions nine hundred thousand dollars, that valuation of the 
same number of Horses actually being one hundred per cent, less 
than it would have been had all engaged in training and using 
the animal as they should. I feel positive that in this treatise I 
can convince every unprejudiced mind that much that has been 
written upon this subject by able authors is erroneous, and is not 
sustained by the practical experience of intelligent men of 
modern times, who will not take mere assertions as truth, unless 
it is sustained by the developments of careful and intelligent 
scientific and practical observation. 

Having devoted eighteen years of my best days in teaching the 
proper methods of educating the Horse, and in a field that 
extends from the frozen and lakey regions to the Gulf of Mexico 
and from the Atlantic to the Pacific Coast, I feel confident that 
the knowledge collected will be of great service to the Horse 
world. In connection with the training of the Horse, I will give 


lqv full and complete system of telling the Horse's age, from the 
time of foaling up to the age of twenty-one years — a system that 
has given general satisfaction to the horse-men of the day — 
together with a complete description, in plain language, of the 
symptoms of the diseases of the Horse and the most modern and 
specific remedies for their treatment. An elaborate essay on 
horse-shoeing, that drew the first prize before the Scottish 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, will be added 
to my work. For the benefit and interest of dog-fanciers, I will 
give a chapter on the diseases, training and education of the 
Dog. The author is still canvassing the entire country in intro- 
ducing his new system of training the horse, and, at the same 
time, guarding against impairing their physical structure, or 
shortening their period of usefulness and profit. Should I suc- 
ceed in this, I feel that I shall be a benefactor, and thereby 
secure my highest aim.] 



The Horse is the noblest animal we have. He assists us 
in all the pursuits of life, guides the peaceful plow, and 
rushes into battle 'mid the roaring of cannon and the clashing 
of musketry. He is man's humble and obedient servant when 
properly trained and educated. While he is the most serviceable 
and useful, he is the most abused of any domestic animal, as the 
statistics of the societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals 
will prove. In the most of cases, the abuses that are practiced 
upon him arise from the fact that his natural laws and habits are 
not thoroughly understood by his manager. 


Man is governed by education, while the Horse is governed by 
fixed laws and instincts. The general impression among men is, 
that the horse is a very intelligent animal. Under this misappre- 
hension they undertake to manage him from an intelligent stand- 
point. For instance, if the horse stumbles or slips down the whip 
is applied as an instrument of correction ; if he should run away 
and smash up a valuable vehicle, he is taken by the bit, and in 
some instances the whip is used in an inhuman manner, as much 
as to say, " If you run away again I will kill you." If he balks 
in the street or road, the owner or driver, as the case may be, gets 
out of the buggy or waggon and rubs him on the head and neck, 
saying in horse language, " That is right, my little fellow, every 
time you stop I will rub and caress you." After waiting some 
time and getting his horse under way again, he jumps to his seat, 
and begins whipping the poor beast in the most cruel and 
inhuman way, saying to the horse, by his actions, " Every time 
you stop when I want you to, I will caress you ; and when you go 
as I want you to, I will whip you." Most likely somebody is on 
the sidewalk laughing at him, and he, man-like, whips his horse 
to show that he is boss. The result is, the horse soon learns to 
stop to be treated kindly, and refuses to go, because he is whipped 
for going. 

The same ignorance is displayed in the blacksmith shop. The 
horse or colt is led into the shop to be shod, and when the smith 
takes up his foot to prepare it for the shoe, a well-directed kick 
sends him half-way across the shop. The owner or groom, stand- 
ing at the horse's head, rubs and pats his neck, saying to his 
understanding : " That's right, my little boy ; if he takes hold 
of your foot again, kick him clean out of the shop. " The smith, 
in his anger, attempts to punish the horse as he deserves, but the 
owner refuses and says : 


" This is my horse. He can kick you as much as he pleases, 
but you cannot punish him ; he is mine. I will take him to 

another shop and let him kick some other smith. He must be 
treated kindly, for this is my way of treating horses." 

The proper way to do in a case of this kind would be to take 
the horse and put him through a regular course of instructions 
before taking [him to the blacksmith shop, handling his foot and 
leg in every conceivable manner. If he kicks, punish him ; and 
if he stands quiet and submits, treat him with kindness, patting 
and caressing him ; thus showing to the horse what you want him 
to do. We will speak more fully upon this subject under its 
proper heading. 

Another very erroneous idea exists not only in this country, but 
throughout the civilized world, and that is, when the horse is 
approached by the owner or groom he must use the word 
" Whoa ! " when the horse is already standing perfectly still. If 
he goes to put the harness on — " Whoa ! " if he goes to take the 
harness off — " Whoa ! " if he goes to hitch him up — " Whoa ! " 
and if he goes to unhitch him — " Whoa I" 

In fact when he mounts, dismounts, looks at his mouth to see 
how old he is, goes to him when he is hitched and standing 


perfectly still, or approaches him for any purpose whatever, the 
word "whoa" is invariably used. It is used so often that it 
becomes a habit so strong that a man seldom approaches the 
horse without using it. If a little boy should happen to go up 
to a horse without speaking to him, his father would take him to 
task, and tell him never to go to a horse without speaking to him. 
The little fellow will naturally say : 

Well, father, what shall I say 


The father instructs him to say " whoa." The boy grows up 
thinking he has had a good teacher, who understands the horse, 
hence he practises what he has been taught, and in this way the 
word "Whoa" becomes almost a household word. I say this 
teaching is all wrong. Some one will ask the question : 

" What will you say ? He will kick if you approach him with- 
out speaking." 

Anything to give the horse warning of your presence will do, 
such as, <( I'm coming, Billy, or Kitty," or any other word you 
may choose to use. But never, under any circumstances, say 
" whoa" to your horse except he is in motion and you want him 
to stop. If the writer understands this word, it means "stop," 
and nothing more. 


Next we will call the attention of the reader to the Horse's 
eye. It is generally understood by horsemen that if the horse is 
approached, while in the stall, on the near side, he will stand 
quiet ; whereas, if you go on the off side he will squeeze you up 
against the stall or kick you ; demonstrating that he understands 
you on one side better than he does on the other, especially if he 
is of a high-strung, nervous temperament. 


A horse that is trained to carry a rider in a circus ring, in 
coming out of the dressing-room he will invariably turn to the 
right with the ring-master on his near side. He will notice every 
movement of the ring-master's whip and perform every require- 
ment with accuracy and promptness. If the same horse is taken 
back into the dressing-room and then brought out again into the 
arena and turned to the left, he will be just as awkward, when 
looking at the ring-master with the off eye, as though he had 
never been trained at all. 

A colt that is trained to run around a ring at the end of a halter, 
with the trainer on the near side, for some time it will be a 
difficult task to make him turn and go the other way, with the 
trainer on the off side. 

This can be illustrated in another way. The Indian's horse is 
always mounted from the off side, and in travelling among the 
Indians we find it a difficult matter to mount their horses from 
the near side, which is the custom with the white man. 

The same thing is true of the cow that is accustomed .to being- 
milked on the off side. If she is approached on the near side, and 
an attempt is made to milk her, she will start off or kick the 
bucket over. 

The same thing is true of the ox that is trained to work gentle 
and quiet with the driver on the near side. Now let the driver go 
on the off side and his commands will not be obeyed, but the ox 
will be as green and stupid as though he had not been trained at 
all, thus proving conclusively to the writer's mind that if we want 
these animals trained to understand us on either side, we must 
educate both eyes. 

This peculiarity of the horse I first discovered in performing 
with my educated horse, " Tom," some eighteen years ago. One 
day I accidentally got on his off side and commanded him to per- 
form a trick that he had performed a thousand times while I was 


on his near side., but to ray great astonishment he refused to do 
it. After vain endeavors to force him to perform the trick, I gave 
up and returned to his near side, and at the first command he 
performed the trick as promptly as usual. If the reader is still 
skeptical on this subject, we would advise him to make the follow- 
ing experiment : Take any horse that is very much afraid of a 
top-buggy, and hitch him to it, putting on a bridle with only one 
blind, so that he can look back and see the top of the buggy with 
one eye only. Work on him, hitched in this way, until he is con- 
sidered perfectly gentle and quiet ; then cut the other blind off of 
the bridle, letting him look at the top with the eye that has been 
covered, and he will at once become frightened at the top of the 
buggy, and attempt to run away. 

This is not so in the human. When man sees an object with 
one eye only, on looking at the object with the other eye he will 
say, " that is the same/' and if a boy is taught a lesson at school 
with one eye closed, when he sees the same lesson with the eye 
that was closed, he will understand it to be the same lesson. If 
we want the horse to understand a lesson with both eyes we must 
educate both eyes. In conclusion on this point, I will state for 
the benefit of the reader, that the optic nerve crosses or connects 
between the eyes and the lobes of the brain in the human, while 
in the horse it goes directly from the near eye to the near lobe of 
the brain, and from the off eye to the off lobe of the brain, and 
therefore making no connection between the eyes and the lobes 
of the brain. 

Another false idea prevails in regard to the Horse's eye, that it 
magnifies objects to seven times their real size. Hence, a man 
will appear seven times as large to the Horse as he really is, and 
this gives man the power to control him. If this was so, when 
the Horse was eating corn off the ear, or going to bite an apple 
that was two inches in diameter, he would open his mouth fourtee 
inches to receive it. Another case in point : let a horse see an 


opening in the stable a foot wide and lie will imagine it seven 
times as large as it really is, and will attempt to work through it. 
We might enumerate scores of instances that supporters of this 
theory might advance in support of their argument, but think the 
above sufficient to illustrate to the reader that the theory is in- 

Then again, some people will say there is great controlling 
power in the eye of man. In fact, while I was travelling 
through the Blue Glass Eegions of Kentucky, a very prominent 
stock-raiser and physician, and a gentleman who was highly 
educated, in conversation with me one day in Lexington, stated 
that he could plainly see how I had such control and power over 
the horse. I had just been teaching a class of gentlemen my art 
of managing horses, and as an experiment for the class, I had a 
very high-strung, nervous horse, that was very much afraid of an 
umbrella, and I was swinging it all around his head, and he (the 
horse) stood perfectly quiet and gentle, and I remarked to this 
gentleman : 

" How do you think 1 got the control of this skittish animal ? 
If your ideas are correct, I will own up before all these gentle- 
men/' The doctor replied : 

" When you took hold of that horse you kept your eye right 
on him, and he saw in your eye that you were determined and 
not afraid of him. There is great power in man's eye." 

In fact, there are hundreds of people who believe the Horse, 
Lion, and the Elephant are controlled by this wonderful power 
in man's eye. For instance, they claim that the Lion-tamer, on 
entering the Lion's den, fastens his gaze on the Lion's eyes, by 
which means he controls the treacherous brute. I admit that the 
Lion-tamer does keep his eye on the Lion, but in the same manner 
that two men in combat eye each other narrowly to anticipate 
any offensive move on the part of the adversary. The Lion-tamer 


knows too well the nature of the animal before hiin, and for this 
reason he keeps his eye constantly on the Lion to frustrate, 
with his club or whip — which he invariably has with him — 
any offensive move on the Lion's part. If the reader of this 
book is of the opinion that those animals are controlled by 
the eye of man, let hitn, the first opportunity that offers, visit a 
menagerie, and ask permission of the keeper of the Lion's den 
to enter the cage and try the experiment, and after having tried 
the experiment, I feel satisfied that he will become thoroughly 
convinced that his is a false idea. We know exactly how the 
Lion and Elephant are tamed and trained, and what cruelties and 
harsh measures are resorted to in their education, thereby 
proving to the satisfaction of the author that the eye is not the 
controlling power. 


The Horse has five senses— like the human being— feeling, 
seeing, hearing, tasting and smelling. The strongest of these 
five is the sense of feeling, and the part he feels with is the nose 
or tip end of the upper lip. This is what he examines all his food 
with, and in fact everything that he wants to understand, and by 
this means he can understand the nature and character of it 
better than by any other one of the senses. For instance, if a 
horse is afraid of a buffalo robe, or an umbrella, blanket 
or anything of that kind, when you throw it down in a 
small lot and turn the horse in, he may see the article or smell it j 
this alone will not suffice, until he goes up and touches it with his 
nose. After doing this a few times he will become satisfied that it 
is harmless and will not hurt him. Should a little breeze come up 
and move the umbrella, blanket or robe, it will frighten him some 


because it operates on the sense of sight. We can familiarise the 
horse to any object with one of his senses, and that will not be 
sufficient for the others. We may have the horse educated to 
submit to any object touching him on any part of the body, and 
if it should be moved quickly about him, thereby operating on 
the sense of sight, he will become frightened. 

He may submit to the object being moved about him so long 
as it does not touch him, but if the object should touch him he 
is liable to kick or strike. Again., he might be educated to have 
the object touch him or see it in all positions, without moving in 
the least, but should the same object make a noise, thereby 
operating on the sense of hearing, he will again become frightened. 
Therefore, if we want a horse to understand things thoroughly, 
we must educate all the senses. 

An old gentleman once told me of a horse he owned that was 
perfectly gentle and quiet in " all harness," but would become 
uncontrollable on hearing a noise resembling the rattling of nails 
in a tin can. This bad habit he contracted as follows : — The 
owner saddled him up and started for town, a distance of some 
four or five miles. When he got through his shopping and 
started for home, he re-mounted his horse, carrying in his hand 
a small tin bucket containing a few nails. Everything went 
along smoothly until the horse started into a trot. This caused 
the nails in the bucket to rattle and make an unusual noise, 
which operated on the sense of hearing, and the horse took fright 
and started to run away, thereby giving the old gentleman con- 
siderable trouble. He was finally compelled to throw away the 
bucket and nails in order to pacify the horse. Ever afterwards 
this horse would get frightened at anything on his back that 
would make a noise resembling that made by the can and nails. 

We could relate numerous similar instances where horses have 
become almost useless from being frightened at some particular 
object, such as a locomotive, steamboat, street car, load of hay or 
covered wagon, etc. 


Another case in point : "While travelling through Wisconsin, I 
visited a small village., and while there, sitting in the hotel, some 
gentlemen came in who had been to a funeral. In conversation 
with them I learned that the deceased, whose funeral they had 
attended, had been killed by his horses having ran away with 
him. I inquired into the particulars concerning his death, with 
this result : 

On Decoration Day, when the military and citizens turned out 
to do honor and show their respect for the dead soldiers, by 
decorating their graves with beautiful flowers, the deceased, with 
his family, in a two-horse wagon, started for town. One of his 
daughters raised a parasol. The horse looked back and saw it. 
He took fright and ran away, throwing the deceased and his 
family out, killing him almost instantly and crippling several of 
the family. 

While I was journeying through North Carolina, a very 
eminent physician was killed by his horse throwing him out of 
the buggy, when going down hill to the ferry-boat. The breech- 
ing-strap accidently broke. This, of course, let the cross-bar of 
the shafts come up against him, and the touch frightened him 
and caused him to run away with the above result. 

When passing through the State of Pennsylvania another 
accident of this kind was brought to my notice, that occurred in 
Reading. A lady's horse, that was considered perfectly quiet and 
gentle, took fright at the smell of a slaughter-house, ran away 
and almost killed the lady. 

The examples of serious accidents I have given tend to show 
the importance of educating the different senses of the horse so 
that such accidents may be prevented. The sense of sight 
should be first attended to, that the animal may become familiar 
with all objects that may come within his vision, and nothing will 
then frighten him, be it steamboats, cars, odd-looking objects, or 
buffalo robe, etc. 


Then again as to the sense of hearing : Accustom your horse to 
all sorts of sounds, that he may not be startled on hearing them, 
which might cause an unusual, awkward or sudden move on his 
part, perhaps straining or breaking some part of the harness or 

The sense of feeling should be thoroughly educated, so that if 
the shaft-bolts drop out, thereby letting the shafts down on his 
heels, he would not become frightened at the touch, but under- 
stand that it would not hurt him. 

Accustom your horse to everything that might tend to annoy 
any one of the senses. Then, and then only, can he be considered 
thoroughly trained to indifferently overlook all such annoyances 
as are likely to fall to the lot of any horse in constant use. I will 
speak at greater length on this subject further on. 

In presenting this work to the public, I am well aware of the 
criticisms it will be obliged to undergo at the hands of horsemen 
and others. For, no matter how well a subject of the magnitude 
and importance of this one may be presented to the people, there 
will always be found those who will differ in their opinions, and 
are ready to severely criticise the ideas introduced. 

I am well aware of the difficulties inventors and others 
devoted to progressive theories have encountered in their laud- 
able efforts in the advancement of scientific principles. Professor 
Morse, in introducing the wonderful telegraphic system, had cold 
water thrown on his invention by men of learning and ability. 
By way of illustration : The gentlemen who were chosen from 
different parts of the United| States to represent the people in the 
halls of Congress, in 1843, we would naturally suppose to be men 
of much learning, intelligence and integrity, who would represent 
the interests of the people to the best of their ability. But 
Professor Morse, in presenting his invention before Congress, met 
with severe criticism and opposition at the hands of those gen- 


tleinen, and it was not until 1844 that Congress granted him a 
small appropriation for the establishment of a line from Baltimore 
to Washington, a distance of only forty miles. 

The result of this little experiment is that the whole civilized 
world has become one vast network of telegraph wires, and it is 
now considered one of the greatest inventions of the age. 

We look back over the history of railroads, and see the first 
little road that was built in the United States, between Schenec- 
tady and Albany, New York, distant only sixteen miles, traveling 
at the rate of ten miles an hour, with a stationary engine on top 
of the hill to haul up and lower down the small train of cars. 
We see the engineer, who was imported from England, with his 
broad-rimmed hat and swallow-tailed coat, his barrel of wood and 
water on the tender of the locomotive, and we look on top of the 
car, and see the brakeman seated, with his foot on the brake, 
ready when the whistle blows " down brakes," looking more like 
a stage driver in comparison with our brakemen of the present 
day. The small coaches, with seating capacity for six or 
eight persons, look small indeed when compared to our manin- 
cent and commodious Pullman Palace sleeping, dining and par- 
lor cars, accommodating fifty to sixty persons each, making up a 
train of a dozen cars or more — all drawn by a single monster 
locomotive that climbs the snow-capped Eocky Mountains with 
apparently little or no effort, bringing the Atlantic and Pacific 
shores within a few days' travel of each other, thus binding and 
strengthening the bonds between the Eastern and Western 
people. When the first steamboat steamed up the Hudson Eiver, 
it was looked upon as a miracle ; and, as the hundreds of specta- 
tors who lined the shores, gazed with awe and curiosity at the 
movements of the walking-beam of the craft, many of them con- 
cluded the end of all things was approaching. 

We next call your attention to the wonderful invention of Mr. 
McCormick, to whom we are indebted for that very ingenious, 


useful and valuable piece of machinery, the reaper and self- 
binder. See with what opposition his machine met with — first, be- 
cause it was an unheard-of thing ; and again, because the laborer 
saw how it would do the work of many men at comparatively a 
small cost. They even went so far as to intimidate the farmers 
who had purchased a mower, threatening to demolish it on sight. 
The reaper of that day was a heavy, cumbersome thing, necessi- 
tating the employment of four strong horses to haul it through 
the grain, whereas now they have so much improved, simplified^ 
and lightened, at the same time increased its usefulness, that two 
ordinary horses might walk through the fields of standing grain, 
cutting, binding, and throwing the straw in rows, ready to be 
picked up by tbe farmer. 

By these few instances mentioned, it will be readily seen by the 
reader that all new and progressive attempts at improvement 
have invariably met with the severest criticism, opposition and 

The author being aware that he is advancing many new, 
original and scientific ideas relating to horses, anticipates much 
criticism ; but is confident from his long and varied experience, 
that if the reader will properly consider and experiment with the 
methods recommended in this work, he will be ready to accord 
them the credit justly due to their merit. 

We are familiar with the various methods employed by the 
numerous horse-trainers throughout the United States and 
Europe. Such men as the justly celebrated Rarey, who went to 
Europe and tamed the vicious horse Cruiser, and afterwards 
brought him to the United States, exhibiting him on the stage in 
all the principal cities, creating no little excitement and curiosity 
by his many performances. 

We also have a very high opinion of the widely known and 
highly esteemed horse-trainer H. E. Eockwell, who drove his 


educated horses, Star and Tiger, without lines, bits or bridle, 
through the streets of all the principal cities of the United States 
and Canada, attracting the attention and admiration of all persons 
who witnessed his wonderful performance. 

We might mention numerous other inferior horse-trainers who 
have been travelling throughout the United States, teaching 
various methods and systems of training horses, and could give 
every strap-rope and appliance used for the subjugation of the 
horse, from the days of Sullivan, the Irish Whisperer, down to 
the present day, but this would take up too much of the reader's 
time to no purpose. 

The author will do away with all these patent bits, bridles and 
appliances, and show that the wildest and most vicious horse can 
be managed with a common, ordinary set of harness, such as is 
ordinarily used on the farm, in the livery stable, or by private 

In examining the works of the celebrated gentlemen we have 
just mentioned, and various other writers on the subject of man- 
aging horses, I find their universal opinion to be that the horse 
is a very intelligent animal, and they have endeavoured to 
manage and control him from an intelligent standpoint. 

Now the writer will endeavor to prove that if the horse had half 
as much sense as is attributed to him, he would kick the heads 
off of more than one-half of the people who undertake to manage 
him. We will endeavor to prove before we get through that the 
horse is a machine to a certain extent, and is controlled and man- 
aged the same in the hands of a good horseman as the locomotive 
is controlled by a skillful locomotive engineer, with one exception. 


to manage and control the locomotive, we must have an artificial 
motive power, while the horse has been supplied by nature with 
motive power. In order to make a horse start, stop, turn to the 
right or left, in fact to go where and when we want him to, 
we must understand how to control him. 

We put the bridle on, with the bit in his mouth, take hold of the 
lines, pulling to the right or left, according to the way we want 
him to go. And when the horse is trained and educated properly, 
he will obey every command, and he has not the intelligence to 
resist our control. 

The horse is eight times stronger than man, and had he the 
intelligence to resist our commands, we could do nothing with 

In order for man to be ab le to manage a locomotive, he must 
be educated and taught how it should be done properly, and in 
accordance with the structure and purposes for which the machine 
was constructed. He must know how and when to start, stop, 
slacken or increase the speed ; when to feed it with fuel and water, 
and how much to give, otherwise serious results may follow. 

The same remark will apply to the intelligent handling of the 
horse. To fully control his every movement, and guide his foot- 
steps, the man must first be taught the best methods of getting 
control of the animal — to learn his weak or strong points, that he 
may take advantage of them to impress certain things or acts on 
the horse's mind. He must learn the cause and effect of every 
movement of the horse, and the most likely impressions caused by 
certain methods of training. 

The locomotive engineer thoroughly understands every part of 
his engine and the relation of each part to the others, and the 
effect of any effort on his part to guide and control it. So must 
the man be educated to understand the horse's natural laws that 
govern him, and devise means and adopt plans to overcome him 
and make him what he was intended to be — man's humble and 


obedient servant. While man has the power to manage and con- 
trol this noble animal, he should not abuse it in the way and 
manner in which some cruel and unprincipled men do, by hitching 
him to loads too heavy for him to draw, and whipping and abusing 
him because he is unable to pull it — thus getting the horse balked 
— and driving him to death because he is willing to go ; hitching 
him in the hot sun or in the cold and bleak winds — sometimes in 
severe storms without blanket or covering — while, perhaps, the 
owner or driver is snugly housed and warmly clad. 

If the horse was intelligent he would not submit to this treat- 
ment, he would break his halter or bridle and seek a place of 

In 1880 the writer was in Chicago, engaged in teaching his 
system of handling the Horse. His attention was called to one 
of the most cruel and outrageous performances that was ever 
permitted to go on in a civilized community. O'Leary, the cele- 
brated pedestrian, and Jack Haverly, the well-known minstrel 
man, erected, on a large lot at Lake Front, an immense tent — the 
largest, perhaps, ever put up in Chicago — for the purpose of con- 
ducting a go-as-you-please race of horses against men, lasting six 
and a half long days and nights. 

While the men were allowed to go as they pleased, resting 
when they felt so disposed, the poor suffering dumb brutes were 
compelled to go as their masters dictated. One of the horses 
died before the conclusion of the race, and another died shortly 
afterwards. Their deaths were caused by the cruelties practiced 
on them with whip and spur, and by heartless driving beyond 
nature's limit. There were five or six horses entered in this 
race, and at the conclusion the poor animals were completely 
exhausted and broken down. 

We have no objections to men walking themselves to death 
if they feel so disposed, but we have a very serious objection to 
the forcing of horses into these unnecessary and unprofitable 


We will here take occasion to remark that, had these horses 
been possessed of one-half the sense, reasoning power and 
intelligence that is generally accorded them, they would most 
assuredly have rebelled against such brutal treatment as they 
experienced during this race, and demolished the canvas, dis- 
persed the spectators who, by their presence, encouraged such 
brutality, and kicked the heads off the managers. 

This outrageous performance was allowed to go on, undis- 
turbed, under the eye of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals. 

We could relate instances without number, to sustain our 
argument on this point, that had the horse the intelligence 
credited to him he would never submit to the treatment he 
receives at the hands of many who are engaged in the handling, 
driving and working him. We are convinced that the 
above will clearly illustrate our ideas to the careful 

A great many people mistake the natural instinct of the horse 
for intelligence. 

Should night overtake a horse in the woods or thicket, at a 
place where he had never been before, his natural instincts will 
guide him home ; whereas, if an intelligent man be placed in 
the same predicament, the chances would be in favor of 
his wandering aimlessly about all night and perphas all 
day, until he found some person to direct him on his way. 

If a horse and man are on a sinking steamboat on the river, 
during a dark night, and both are obliged to seek safety, the 
horse will boldly strike out and swim to the nearest land, while 
the man may be a good swimmer, yet if he cannot see the shore, 
even if it be within easy reach of him, is as likely to swim into 
the middle of the channel as he is to go to the land. 

A little pig placed in a sack, and taken in a buggy some five 


or six miles from home, if it should accidentally get loose will 
return, even if it has to swim rivers and cross ditches to 
do so. 

A man with all his intelligence, if taken away from any place 
under the same circumstances and in a strange locality, could 
never return to the original starting point without receiving aid 
from some one or by the use of scientific instruments. 

The bee, in wandering miles from its hive, gathering honey 
from flower to flower, on securing a goodly store of sweets, takes 
a direct course to its hive, or, as generally spoken of, makes " a 
bee-line for home. " 

Man with all his intelligence, education and scientific acquire- 
ments, even had he wings and was able to fly like the bee, could 
never find his way home in a direct straight line, as does the little 
busy bee. From this, we hold that man, with all his attainments 
and acquired knowledge, is unable to perform the mysterious 
feats that the horse, hog, bee, and we might mention hundreds of 
other animals, etc., go through every day. 

But we must not lose sight of our main subject, and will return 
to the education and training of the horse. 



The first important consideration in the management of a colt 
is the proper selection of a yard, corral, or lot, clear of all 
obstacles that would be at all liable to injure him, and also to 
have a fence around the place of proper strength and heighth to 
prevent him from jumping out. 

We would suggest that the yard or corral be some thirty-five or 
forty feet square, if convenient. 

If the colt is domesticated and halter-broke, lead him into this 
lot or corral. Prepare yourself with a pole some ten or twelve 
feet long, from an inch to an inch and half in diameter, made of 
hickory, ash, or any hard, tough wood, sand-papered smooth. 

If he is not halter-broken, drive him into the corral with other 
stock, then turn out all the others. 

Take one end of the pole in both hands. Now proceed to handle 
the colt with the other end. This at first may scare or excite 
the colt very much — but get him in one corner of the corral- 
Then reach out your pole and touch the neck or withers as though 
it was your own hand. We can do this, knowing that if the colt 
should kick or strike, the trainer will be ten or twelve feet away 
from him, and will not get hurt. 


Handle and touch him with this wooden hand until he becomes 
reconciled to the sense of touch. As the colt becomes more docile, 
the trainer can keep rubbing and touching him on the neck with 
the pole, and gradually approach closer and closer as the colt gets 
used to being touched. 

If he should whirl and attempt to kick, handle him a little 
roughly with the end of the pole, and get him into the corner 
again, and proceed as before, rubbing him on the top of the neck 
with the pole until he will allow you to approach close enough to 
enable you to place your hand on him, being careful not to reach 
out your hand too quickly for fear of frightening him by the 
sudden motion of the hand. 

Eemember all this time that the colt does not understand what 
you are going to do. When you succeed in getting your hand on 
him, rub him very gently and quietly until you can rub about the 
head and neck. Do this for some little time, then take a common 
five-ring leather halter and place it on the colt's head quietly and 

Be careful, in placing the strap over his neck, to do it very 
gently, so that it will not strike his neck, causing him to jump 
and escape. 

When the halter is on him, take hold of it and draw his head 
toward you slowly, rubbing the colt with the right hand along his 
side and back until you can get it back near the tail. 

Be careful all the time that the colt does not whirl and kick at 
you. As soon as the colt will submit to this, catch him by the 
hair of the tail with your right hand, holding firmly to the halter 
with the left hand at the same time. This will bring him into a 
circling position, and cause him to move around. Give him a 
few quick swings around, holding firmly to the head and tail. 
This will soon make him dizzy ; then slacken up a little on the 
tail and he will stop. 


Then tie a single knot in the hair of the tail, draw it tight and 
hold the knot firmly in your right hand ; divide the hair evenly 
between the knot and the end of the tail with the fingers of 
the left hand ; slip the lead of the halter between the hair of the 
tail, and draw the head and tail together, or near enough to get 
his body in a circling position, making the halter fast to the tail 
with a half hitch, and let him go. [See cut No. 1.] 

No. 1. 
But be careful at first not to tie him up too tight, as this will 
cause him to whirl around very fast and make him fall down, 
which is unnecessary. 

Use your judgment according to the horse you are operating 
on. If he is high-strung and of a nervous temperament, it will 
not be necessary to tie him as short as if he was of a dull, stupid 

When the colt is fixed in this position — head and tail — his 
strength is divided against itself. The more he pulls with his 
head on the halter, the more he pulls his own tail. He will soon 
learn to stand hitched, and we are sure that a colt hitched in this 
way will never learn the bad habit of breaking the halter. 

The philosophy of this system is to impress the colt at once 
with the fact that he cannot break loose. 


He can lie down, walk about, run round, etc., still he is hitched 
and can't get loose. 

The natural instinct of the colt is to pull upon anything that 
may be placed upon his head or neck, and we take this method of 
putting pressure on the head. 

The next duty of the trainer, after the horse has submitted to 
this treatment and has learned to stand perfectly still, is to take 
the pole used in the first instance, holding on to one end and 
handling the colt with the other. This may start him to going 
again. [See cut No. 2.] 

No. 2. 

"We now want to operate on the sense of feeling, and by having 
this pole touch him while he is going around, he will soon find 
out that it will not hurt him, and will stop as before. 

The object in view, in handling the colt with the pole, is to 
accustom him to being touched all over. If he should kick or 
strike, do not be alarmed, but keep the end or side of the pole 
touching him on some part of the body all the time. While he is 
going around handle his front and hind legs with this pole, being 
careful at the same time not to hurt him. 

It will take from three to five minutes to accustom the colt to 
being handled all over with the pole. 


This will prepare the colt for the harness. Now, while he is 
still under the influence of this whirling around, unfasten his 
head and tail and put on the harness as quick as possible. 

The colt will stand perfectly quiet for two reasons— first, 
"because he is dizzy from whirling around ; and, second, "because 
he has been touched all over with the pole, and the touch of the 
strap or harness will not frighten him. 

I use a common set of harness, with a common jointed bit. 
Have the bit as large as possible, so as not to cut and scar the 
colt's mouth. 

Put the harness on the colt and tie the traces into the ring of 
the breeching, and instead of putting the lines through the rings 
on the saddle, put them through the shaft tugs and fasten them 
to the bit, using long lines, so as to be out of range of the colt's 
h ee l s _ n ever using any check-rein in breaking a colt. 

Now you are ready to teach your colt to guide. 

The lines should be placed in this manner, so as to give us a 
leverage power on the side of the colt, to force him to the right or 

No. 3. 
left. Instead of attempting to make him go straight ahead, first 
teach him to turn readily to the right or left. (See cut No. 3.) 
Instead of pulling on the lines slow and steady, pull with a 


quick jerk on one line, turning the horse half way around, then 
reverse. This will teach him quickly that he must come around 
when you pull on the line. Then let him go straight ahead or 
around the corral. Every little while turn him around quick and 
short, forcing him to go the other way. When he turns easily 
and readily by a pull on the line, then he is ready to be taught to 
stop and start at your command. 

While he is walking or trotting around the corral, say "Whoa \" 
Of course he will not understand what this means. Then pull up 
sharply and quickly on both lines. Eepeat this until the colt 
will stop at the word " whoa." This will generally take from five 
to ten minutes. 

Secondly, you want to teach your colt to start promptly as well 
as to stop ; this you can do by touching him sharply on the heels 
with the whip. Always use common sense in the use of the whip 
and do not slash and welt him all over the body. You had bette r 
have no whip at all than to use it injudiciously. 

When you command a horse to move forward never repeat the 
command, and if he refuses to start promptly then touch him 
keenly on the heels with the whip. 

Now, your colt is taught to turn to the right or left, and stop 
readily at the word of command. And when he does stop go up 
to his side quietly and gently, pat and rub him, showing to him 
that when he obeys your command you will treat him kindly, and 
if he refuses to obey, you will pimish him by jerking the lines. 

The next operation with the colt will be to get him accustomed 
to the sound or crack of the whip. 

This you can do in a very few minutes by taking hold of the 
end of the lines in one hand, cracking and snapping the whip 
with the other. Allow me to say here, that your lines should be 
sewed together and not buckled, as the buckle will have a tend- 
ency to tear and cut your hands. 



Every time the colt starts forward jerk him sharply on the 
lines, and he will soon learn to stand quietly while the whip is 
being cracked about him. 

Every time he stands quietly while you are cracking the whip, 
approach and caress him. 

When this is accomplished and you can hold him with perfect 
ease, we have another lesson to impart to him. 

Let your assistant take hold of the long pole and stand in the 
centre of the corral, while you drive the colt around him. Have 
your assistant touch him quickly on any part of the body with the 
end or side of the pole. (See cut No. 4.) 

No. 4. 

This will represent some break-downs, and be very likely to 
frighten and startle the colt again. 

Stop the colt as soon as possible, keeping your assistant still 

touching him lightly with the end of the pole. Start up your 

colt again, and repeat this until he submits being touched with 
the pole. 

While he is in motion walking round the corral, touch him 



lightly with the pole on the legs and belly, getting him accus- 
tomed to being touched all over. 

This lesson is to prepare him for receiving the shafts, and he 
should be handled thoroughly with the pole in every place where 
the shafts and cross-bar would be likely to touch him, even in the 
case of an accident, as this treatment is really to guard against 
accidents that may occur at any time after he is hitched up. 

Always be sure that you can hold your colt when he is excited 
or frightened. 

Most any person can hold hold a colt that will not try to get 
away ; but you want to be able to hold him when he is trying 
his best to get away. 

After the colt has submitted to all of the above treatment and 
goes along kindly and gently, it would seem as though he was 
ready to be hitched up. 

You will bear in mind, however, that thus far the colt's senses 
have been but partially educated. Now take an old tin can of any 
kind that will make a noise ; tie it to the hair of his tail and 
allow it to drag behind him, so as to accustom him to the rattling 
of a wagon or any other noise likely to be made while he is on the 
road. [See cut No. 5.] 

No. 5. 
Drive him around on a walk at first, then in a trot. If he 
attempts to run away, stop him as quickly as possible, and bring 
him to a walk again. 


Eepeat this lesson until the colt has become familiar with the 
noise made by the tin can tied to his tail. 

Always have the can tied far enough from his heels so it will 
not become tangled about his legs. 

The next lesson to teach the colt will be that of becoming 
accustomed to the sight of an umbrella,, or anything likely to 
meet his gaze suddenly on the street and frighten him. 

This can be done in a few minutes by letting your assistant 
take an umbrella, opening it suddenly in front of him while you 
are driving him around the corral. 

If he whirls and attempts to run away, straighten him up 
quickly with your lines and make him go past the umbrella. 

Eepeat this until he becomes accustomed to the sight of the 
umbrella. Then we have him educated to understand the sight, 
touch and sound. 

This lesson will be sufficient for the first day. 

If the colt, during this training, should get into a profuse 
perspiration, before putting him away it is essential that he 
should be " scraped out" and rubbed perfectly dry, and good care 
taken to prevent his catching cold. 

The next day, take the colt into the corral and harness him, 
and commence to train where you left off, driving him around, 
testing him with pole and can. 

If he is easily handled and managed, after handling him a few 
minutes, he will be ready to hitch into the shafts or alongside of 
another horse, as the trainer may think best. 

"We always prefer hitching them in shafts first while in the 
training yard. 

When the colt is hitched to the cart, as explained in another 
part of this book, you will see the breeching strap is not fastened, 


but hanging loose, as represented in cut No. 6. This is done so 
that the cross-bar of the shafts will touch him when he stops, in 
fact, when you put the colt in the shaft for the first time you 
should allow the cross-bars to touch him, and if it seems to alarm 
him he needs more training with the pole before he is hitched in 
to prepare him to receive this unusual touch without becoming 

No. 6. 
A colt handled this way for one hour — say half-an-hour each 
day, will be better broken and safer than if handled in a gentle, 
quiet, easy manner for six months. 

We believe that it is necessary to test the colt in every con- 
ceivable manner before risking our lives behind him in a buggy 
or a wagon. 

On the same principle, the boiler on a steamboat is tested by 
the Government Inspector, by putting on a cold-water pressure 
before getting up steam, to ascertain whether the boiler has the 
requisite strength to resist the pressure brought to bear on it by 
future use. 

If it will stand the cold-water pressure, which is greater than 
that produced by steam, the Inspector pronounces it safe, and 
then, and not until then, will the owners be permitted to get up 
steam and run the vessel. 


On the same principle, we consider it safer to " test the colt " 
in every conceivable manner to guard against serious accidents 
that are likely to oceu* every day with a colt that is handled in 
the old fashioned way. 

When the trainer has hitched the colt up, and is driving him 
on the road, it will be necessary, for a few days, to watch his 
every movement closely. 

If he should attempt to kick, run, or do anything that is 

objectionable to the trainer, punish him with the bit, and he 

will soon learn to act right, because he is punished only when 
he does wrong. 

A colt will often kick, strike or bite as a means of protection 
to himself, and not because he is naturally vicious; and the 
trainer must remember that the colt was not made for the har- 
ness, but the harness was made for the colt. 

There are a great many people under the impression that the 
colt was made for the saddle, harness and bridle. This is a 
mistaken idea. The saddle, harness and bridle were made for 
the colt and when we put them on him, we violate the laws of 
nature, and as self-preservation is one of the laws of nature, the 
colt may kick or attempt to run in order to protect himself. 

In order to illustrate this, we will say : 

If a fly should alight on the horse's neck he will shake his 
head to remove it ; if it alights on his breast he will put his 
mouth down to bite it off ; should it alight on the side of his 
body, he will put his head around to do the same thing ; if on his 
front leg, he wiU stamp his foot on the ground quickly; if it 
alights on his rump, he will switch his tail and sometimes kick 
up; if on the hind leg, he will kick with his hind foot to 
remove it. 

If we take a pin and prick him lightly, he will do the same as 
he did to remove the fly. 



So that should any other object touch him lie is likely to do 
the same in order to protect himself. Hence the necessity of 
accustoming the colt to the sense of feeling, hearing and seeing, 
as directed in the preceding lesson. 

The writer is of the opinion that every colt and horse, let him 
be ever so gentle, should be drilled as directed in the above 

While operating with a very bad kicking horse in Peru, 
Indiana, after driving him around in the cart a few minutes, 
standing upon the axle-tree and holding the kicking horse by the 
tail (see cut No. 7, p. 39) one of the members of my class, a well- 
known banker, said he did not believe his horse would stand to 
be driven that way. I invited him to bring his horse out the next 
day before the class, and I would try him. This horse was considered 
verv quiet and gentle, but the banker wanted to have the pressure 
put on, so he brought him out the next day, and, after giving the 
horse a thorough training, according to my method, the banker said : 

" I always thought he was gentle, but now I know it." 

A Pennsylvanian with whom I was personally acquainted, who was 
considered a good horseman, and who employed a careful, pains- 
taking young man, concluded to break his colt. 

The farmer directed his man John to be very kind, easy and gentle 
with the colt, and not to let him step over the traces, nor to have the 
singletree touch him, for fear of frightening and causing him to run 

John followed all the directions given concerning the manage- 
ment of the colt, never even allowing him to step over the traces, 
nor letting the singletree, or any portion of the harness, hang 
loosely and strike him. If John, while driving the colt, saw any un- 
usual object, on the roadside, he would take particular pains to 
drive out of sight of the object for fear of the colt becoming 
frightened at the sight of it. 

He would also take special care never to approach the railroad 


depot or flour mill for fear the unusual noise and rattling of the cars 
and machinery would startle the colt, causing him to attempt to run 
for home, and perhaps breaking the cart. 

In fact, John would never permit the colt to approach an 
object near enough to understand the nature of it, nor to have 
the harness or tugs touch him about the feet or between his legs, 
to prevent any liability of his kicking. Neither would he let 
him go near any place or object where he would hear any unusual 

Having handled and driven the colt in this gentle and careful 
old-fashioned manner for about a year, the old gentlemen con- 
sidered him perfectly broken, and as being a kind and safe animal 
that had never yet kicked or ran away. 

The following season he had another colt to break, and John was 
given the task. 

The first colt broken, being considered thoroughly trained, was 
given to a new hand to do plowing with. 

This colt accidentally stepped over the tug, by which act the tug 
was forced against the inside of his legs, where as yet he had never 
been touched by any object. 

The consequence of his being touched in this unhandled part 
was that he got frightened, and, obeying the impulse of Ms 
nature, kicked out at the objectionable tug in self-preservation, 
and started off at a run to free himself from his imaginary 

The old gentleman, on seeing the fleeing horse, with fragments of 
the harness dangling about him, was naturally amazed to see the colt 
that during all the year in which he had been handled and driven by 
John, and had never shown a disposition to kick or run away, acting 
in such a manner. 

He had been impressed with the idea that the colt was perfectly 
trained and gentle. 


His next though t, on seeing the frightened steed, was to abuse the 
unfortunate man who had been using him, and blaming him for the 
damage done, which he himself was really to blame for. 

Had the colt been put through the preparatory course of training 
which I have suggested under the head of " How to Break a Colt 
Properly," he never would have become frightened and kicked himself 
free from the plow, injuring his limbs, learning a bad trick, and 
causing other damage. 

Many would agree with the old gentleman in thinking it was the 
carelessness of his man, in letting the colt step over the trace, which 
caused this accident and all the trouble. 

The writer will at once proceed to place the blame where it justly 
belongs — on the old gentleman. 

He should have said to John : 

" John, I Icnoio you are a good horseman ; take this colt out in the 
lot, put the harness on him, and accustom him to everything before 
you hitch him up — or, in other words, * Sample-ize' him, by putting 
things between his legs, tying tin cans to his tail, fire-crackers, or 
anything that would have a tendency to frighten him." We are fully 
satisfied, had this been done, the accident would never have occurred 
from the colt's simply stepping over the trace. 


First find out, if possible, what caused him to run away ; and 
when the trainer has found out, take him into the lot or corral and 
tie him, head and tail, with the halter, and handle him with the pole, 
as directed in the lesson for training the colt. Whatever has been 
the cause of his running away will frighten him the most, so that it 
will be necessary to operate more on this point than any of the 
others ; and when he submits to the sense of feeling, seeing and 
hearing, put the harness on as directed in the lesson on the colt, and 


handle him in the same manner as the colt was handled, until you 
can hold him by the lines with perfect ease, while the assistant is ex- 
citing him with the pole, umbrella, or any other object which would 
have a tendency to make him run away. 

The trainer will remember that it will be necessary to get the 
mouth so that he can hold him with perfect ease before undertaking 
to excite him to resistance. 

At this point we will state that there is no man who can hold a 
horse by main strength ; hence the necessity of giving him thorough 
training with the lines and bit, as directed in the training of the colt's 

Teach the horse to start and stop well, even under excitement, and 
repeat this lesson two or three times before hitching him up. 

In ordinary cases this will take from thirty to forty minutes, to 
give the horse a good lesson — always being careful to take good care 
of your horse on concluding your lesson. 


A kicking horse is one of the most dangerous horses we have, and in 
a very bad ease is considered almost worthless. 

While I was travelling through Eichmond, Virginia, a very ugly 
kicking mare was brought to me, that had been traded from stable to 
stable until she was considered as worth very little money. 

A gentleman — one of my scholars — asked me one day if I thought 
she could be broke, and I replied : 

" Yes — certainly she can." 

I think she was one of the worst mares I ever came across in my 
travels of over eighteen years. 

I gave her a short lesson lasting thirty minutes, every day for a 
week, and some of my scholars began to talk as though my plans 
would not work on her. 


On the seventh day she gave up, and I told her owner to take 
her and hitch her up and drive her, which he did. 

He drove her himself for about one week. I stayed in Richmond 
four weeks, and when I left there his man was driving her all oyer 
the city, delivering groceries. 

Another had kicker in Virginia, I met at Woodstock, where I 
formed a class. 

The subject furnished me to handle was a gray horse, fifteen years 
old, that the owner told me had been kicking all his life, and had 
been traded round from one horseman to another, until it was con- 
sidered impossible to drive him in harness. 

We commenced with this horse about four o'clock in the afternoon, 
before the class, and worked with him until six o'clock in the even- 
ing. Myself and assistant worked on him faithfully, using our best 
efforts, and some of the class went off with the impression, when we 
adjourned at six o'clock, that he never could be broken. 

The owner of the horse, a hotelkeeper, and others who were deeply 
interested, turned out again the next morning to see us handle the 

When we commenced on him — after putting on the harness — every 
time we would touch him with the pole he would kick, and every 
time he would kick w r e would punish him with the bit, until finally, 
after a hard fight of two hours, resting occasionally to get our wind, 
he quit kicking, to the great astonishment of all present except myself 
and assistant. 

We drove the horse, without breeching, to a two-wheeled cart, 
standing on the axle and holding the horse by the tail. (See cut 
No. 7.] 

Every time we stopped him, the cross-bar of the shafts would 
bump up against him. This was in the fall of 1876, during the Presi- 
dential campaign. • 


I was advertised to perform at Stanton the next day, and had to 
leave "Woodstock. 

While in Stanton, I got a letter from the owner of the gray kicking 
horse of Woodstock, stating that he had driven the horse, with his 
family in the wagon, and if I would return to Woodstock he would 
give me a certificate that would carry me triumphantly through the 

I relate these two extreme cases for the purpose of encouraging the 
trainer, should he meet with such brutes as I have mentioned. 

No matter how mean and obstinate they may be, you can conquer 
them by persevering in this treatment, and the average kicking 

No. 7. 
horse, by this treatment, can be controlled in from thirty to forty 

We could mention hundreds of such cases, but have selected these 
two because they were the worst we have met in all of our travels. 

The horses above mentioned should receive the same treatment as 
recommended for the breaking of the colt. 

In fact, there is but one way to break a horse of any bad habit in 
harness, and that is to treat him kind and gently when he does all 
that we require of him, and punish him when he refuses. 



The balky horse is one that will try the horseman's skill, power, 
ability and temper, more than all the kicking, runaway, bucking, 
striking, biting, and shying horses, or any other kind of horse that we 
can think of. 

There are several kinds of balky horses. 

There are those that will not go in any harness, light or heavy. 

Then, again, there are horses willing to go in a light vehicle, but 
will refuse to pull an ordinary load. There are some that are hard to 
start from the stable or lot, but will go along all day after they are 
started ; there are horses willing to go straight ahead on a road, but 
if you wish to turn them to the right or left, they will stop — these 
we call " bridle balkers." 

In fact, any horse is a balky horse when he refuses to go when and 
where we direct him to go. To break him and make him a true and 
valuable horse, we will begin with him the same as though he was a 
green colt, and put him through the same training and lessons as are 
directed in breaking the colt, always being careful to keep the point 
we gain in working with him, until we have the complete mastery 
over him on that point, never expecting him to pull all he is able to 
at the first lesson, but beginning with a light load, and gradually 
increasing it until he gains confidence in himself. Then he will pull 
all that any ordinary horse ought to pull. 

The first point to be gained with a balky horse in giving him his 
lesson, is to teach him to start and stop, turn to the right or left, go 
forward or backward at the command of the trainer. This you want 
him to do before you hitch him to the cart. And when you do hitch 
him in, be careful not to have the cart too heavy. A two-wheel cart 
is the best. 

The kind of cart I use in hitching the colt or horse to the first time 


is simply two wheels and an axle, without any seat, and a good pair of 
buggy or express-wagon shafts. This cart will be illustrated in cut 
No. 7, page 39, showing the breaking of the colt. 

We never use this cart except in the training-yard, and then for the 
purpose of getting the colt used to shafts and load. 

We can teach the horse to pull by strapping one of the wheels to 
the shaft, after he goes well with the wheels loose. Sometimes we 
fasten both wheels in this way, and we can increase the weight as we 
feel disposed, by tying an empty sack to the axle, and throwing in a 
shovel or two of sand or dirt at a time, in proportion to the amount 
that the horse will draw. In this way, the wheels being locked, we 
can make as heavy a load as necessary, by adding sand and dirt to the 
sack. Stop and start the horse often while hitched in this way, 
always encouraging him by kind treatment when he obeys promptly. 

When you come to a hill, or any place where the horse refuses to 
go, after making a short effort to start him, should he still refuse, 
take him right out of the cart or vehicle, put the lines through the 
shaft-tugs and drive him up and down the hill and all around the 
place he refuses to pass with the cart. 

By passing the lines through the shaft-tugs you are able to keep 
his head from you and his tail toward you, thus preventing him from 
turning around and twisting the lines out of your hands. Should 
you leave the lines through the rings of the saddle as they were 
when you were driving in the cart, he would perhaps whirl around 
and twist the lines around his body and out of your hands, and in 
some cases get away and give you considerable trouble. 

While in Chambersburg, Penn., a very eminent physician brought 
a balky horse to me to have him broke. After giving the horse one 
lesson, my assistant was driving him on the road hitched to a buggy, 
and he stopped at the foot of the hill, refusing to go any further. 


He took the horse out of the shafts and fixed the lines as directed 
above, and drove him up and down the hill several times. At this 
moment the doctor happened to come along and asked him what he 
was doing with the horse. He replied : 

" I can manage the horse better than I can the horse and buggy, 
hence I leave the buggy on the roadside until I can get the horse to 
go without it. In other words, if the horse refuses to go when there 
is no buggy hitched to him, there is no use to hitch him to it. Always 
break your horse first and the buggy afterwards, and never undertake 
to break the horse and buggy at the same time." 

In conclusion, we would say that this is the simplest and most 
lasting way to manage a balky horse. 

We could give various methods for starting the horse as laid down 
by other trainers, but to start a horse when he is " balked," or to make 
him pull at one time, will not make him start or pull at all times. 

We must be able to teach the horse that he is what he was intended 
to be, man's willing and obedient servant at all times and places and 
under all circumstances. 

In a figurative way of expressing it, we must make him believe that 
we can put him through a knot-hole, and when we get him through the 
plank, show him by our actions that we are not only his master, but 
also his best friend. 


Of all the objectionable tricks and bad habits the horse is subject 
to, one of the worst is that of pulling back or " halter-breaking," 
and has, perhaps, been the cause of a greater number of accidents 
than any other, and causing the destruction of numberless bridles, 
halters, &c. 

To break a horse of this habit properly and for all time, the first 
thing would be to investigate the cause, or why the horse pulls back 



on the halter. His natural instinct is to refuse to be held by the 
head. When the animal's head is fastened he will make an effort to 
get loose, and as long as he finds he is successful in getting loose he 
will continue to do so. Therefore, should he set back on the halter 
and attempt to get loose — his head being in a trap prepared for him 
by the art of man — he will naturally pull to get his head out, and if 
any part of the halter should give way or break, his head will become 
free, and every time he gets free by pulling, he will be encouraged to 
pull harder the next time, until it will take a very strong halter to 
hold him, especially if he is a large, heavy horse. 

There are various plans devised for the breaking of this habit. 

No. 8. 

Cut No. 8 represents a horse pulling on the halter while fastened 
according to my method of breaking this habit. Take a half -inch 
rope fifteen feet long ; double about one-half of it, and put the 
doubled end of it under the tail for a crupper, wrapping a piece 
of cloth around the crupper part to prevent the rope cutting his 

Pass the longest end of the rope around his neck from the off side 
to the near side ; tie it to the short end in a flat knot on the near 
•side, and have the knot come about where you buckle the girth of the 
harness. Then take the long end and place it under the belly and 


tie it to the rope on the off side. This will make a girth or belly- 
band to prevent it from slipping up. When the rope is placed on 
in this way, as shown in cut No. 8, put on a strong rope or leather 
halter ; take the lead of the halter, running it through a ring in the 
manger, tree, or side of the building. After running the lead of the 
halter through the ring fastened to either of the places named, tie 
the end of the lead to the rope in front of his chest, as shown in 
the cut. 

Now the horse is not only hitched by the head, but to the rope 
running under the tail also ; and when he starts to pull, the lead of 
the halter will slip through the ring. The rope will then catch him 
under the tail, and he will soon jump forward to relieve the pressure 
under the tail. "When he does this, go up to his side near his head, 
patting him gently on the neck, allowing him to stand a few minutes ; 
then take a cane or stick, and running up quickly to frighten him 
back again, and should he run back, strike heavily on the lead of the 
halter in front of his head until he jumps forward. 

When he comes forward again treat him kindly as before, repeat- 
ing this operation several times until he refuses to pull back. If 
the horse is afraid of an umbrella, blanket or anything of that kind 
run towards him with the object in your hands and try to frighten him 
back, and when he comes forward repeat the rubbing on the neck as 
before, or until the horse refuses to pull or tighten on the halter. 
After this lesson he can be hitched at night in the stable without any 
danger of hurting himself. 

This treatment will break the most confirmed " halter-puller " 
in existence, after giving him a lesson lasting half an hour as above for 
one or two days. 



If he pulls on the bridle and not on the halter, make a strong rope 
bridle and hitch the same with the bridle as you do for " halter- 
pulling," by running the rope lines through the ring and tie to the 
rope in front of the chest. 


The lesson on the management and training of the colt and horse 
would be incomplete without calling the attention of the pupil to 
their different temperaments and dispositions. 

While all horses are governed by the same fixed laws and instincts, 
their temperaments and dispositions are as varied and numerous as 
those in man. 

No. 9. 

Some are naturally very quiet and gentle in their dispositions, so 
much so that it would appear as though they would never do any- 
thing wrong, but, by improper management on the part of the trainer 


or owner, they may become so vicious and bad as to make them almost 
as worthless as the horse Cognac, well known all over California, that 
became so vicious and unmanageable, that when he got loose and out 
of his stall, on the Fair Grounds of Petaluma, Sonoma County, he 
killed a man who undertook to return him to his stall. 

This horse at one time was as tractable and gentle as it was possible 
for a horse to be, but by the improper treatment he suffered at the 
hands of his groom while in Illinois, he became very vicious and un- 

The groom, in order to show the intelligence of the horse, would 
put his arm up to the horse's mouth, coaxing him to take hold of it, 
in the same way as is often done by foolish people, who are not 
thoroughly conversant with the habits of the horse. In doing this, 
the groom succeeded in getting the horse to bite, or pinch him, on the 
arm, with his teeth. 

One day Cognac bit him harder than usual. This enraged the 
groom, and he took the horse out of the stable and began to whip him 
in an unmerciful manner about the body and legs, until the horse lay 
down, squealing from the pain inflicted by the groom. And when he 
got up, the once gentle and kindly-disposed horse was transformed 
into a demon, with a disposition to eat up and destroy his master, who 
had wantonly and cruelly beat him, or any one who attempted to 
manage him. 

It was considered, by numerous judges, that this horse had no 
sense, as the term is generally used among horsemen, but the writer 
looks upon this horse as having more sense than if he had allowed the 
groom to punish him wantonly and cruelly for doing that which he 
— the groom — had taught him to do, without making an effort to 

I was in Chicago in 1880, and my attention was called to 
another very bad horse, called the Duke of Normandy, that had 


previously got his groom under his knees and chewed hirn up, and 
had crippled and injured several other men. 

He wa3 led about from one stand to another by a jockey-stick, 
fastened to the bit, in order to prevent his jumping on the groom and 
killing him. 

If the groom, having him in charge, should get on his back to ride 
him, he would reach around and bile him on the leg, consequently 
they were obliged to walk and lead him. 

The owner of this horse lived at Norwood Park, about eleven miles 
from Chicago. I went one day to see him concerning his horse, and, 
in the course of conversation, I found that the horse would make a 
good subject to handle before my claas, and the gentleman had him 
brought to my tent in Chicago, and in less than forty minutes from 
the time I began to handle him, the owner was on his back, riding 
around the ring, and the horse was perfectly gentle and quiet. I 
hitched this horse to a buggy and drove all through the city of 
Chicago, with perfect safety, also turned him loose in my ring and 
had him follow me around, without halter or bridle, perfectly quiet 
and gentle. 

This horse was about seventeen hands high and weighed eighteen 
hundred pounds, and was naturally of a mild, even temper. 

On investigating the early history of this horse, I learned that he 
was imported from France at the age of two years, and was perfectly 
kind and gentle until he was spoiled by the unskillful management of 
his groom. 

We could mention many such cases of good-tempered horses, having 
been ruined and made ugly by mismanagement on the part of grooms 
and others. 

Then again there are other horses that are naturally stupid, sullen, 
and of treacherous dispositions. (See cut No. 10.) 

These horses will require very little aggravation at the hands of 
the trainer in order to draw out their mean traits. 



If they are of the balky or sullen order, great pains should be taken 
by the trainer to overcome this as much as possible by studying how 
to get the best of them, and not allowing them to gain any points. 

No. 10. 

They will often attempt, while the trainer is handling them, to do 
just the reverse of what is required of them. This we must never 
allow them to do, but must work on that point constantly and firmly 
until they do as we are trying to teach them. Always treat the horse 
with kindness when he does that which we demand of him. If he is 
of a treacherous disposition, be very careful and see that he gets no 
advantage of you. Always be sure that you have every advantage on 
your side. 

Some people are of the opinion that a horse knows when you are 
afraid of him. He knows nothing about your thoughts. He 
only knows what you can do with him, and if you should under- 
take to handle him and he finds out by experience that he 
can handle you,, he will continue to do so as long as he finds your 
inability to force his submission. As soon as he finds your 



ability to force submission lie will yield at once to your commands. 
I have handled hundreds of horses and made them perfectly sub- 
missive when I have been very much afraid of them. I have 
heard men say they never saw a horse they were afraid of. A man 
that will stand behind a horse and let him kick his head off has 
not as much sense as the horse. Always use great care and 
judgment in handling horses like the ones I have alluded to. 

There is another class of horses that are of a nervous and high- 
strung temperament [see cut No. 11], that will fight and resist 

No. 11. 

every effort to confine :them. While in San Bernardino, Cali- 
fornia, I came across a horse of this kind. He had been caught 
up wild, and resisted every effort made to domesticate him. 

When I commenced to handle him in the way and manner I 
have laid down in the lesson for training the. colt, he acted more 
like a hyena than a horse. Some of my class said he was crazy, 


or " loco "as it is expressed in that locality — this is a Spanish 
word for crazy. One of the class said he knew the band from 
which this colt was taken and that every one of them was " loco." 

After I had handled him about thirty minutes he gave up the 
fight from the fact that he found out I was not going to hurt him. 
The next day I drove him on the streets and he acted like a good, 
sensible horse, and showed no signs of being " loco." 

When I first came to California advocating my new system, 
there were quite a number of good horsemen who said : 

Perhaps this man can handle the Eastern horses that are do- 
mesticated, but we don't think he will meet with much success in 
handling our "broncos." 

But after staying in Los Angeles six weeks, handling their 
" broncos," and driving them through town with tin cans tied to 
their tails, they became satisfied that my system would break 
wild horses as well as those domesticated, as this article of Janu- 
ary 2d, 1882, from the Los Angeles Times, will prove : 

The citizens of Los Angeles witnessed one of the most interest- 
ing processions that has paraded the streets of this city for many 
a day, yesterday. For some time past Professor Sample has been 
in this city teaching the lovers of that noble animal, the horse, 
how to train him. From the exhibition yesterday it was fully 
proven to the satisfaction of the most skeptical that Sample is the 
most thorough horse-trainer in the United States, if not in the 
world. The owners of the horses in the procession will testify 
that less than thirty days ago every animal was ungovernable to 
a considerable extent. But the reader, if he saw the parade, 
noticed that every horse was led by boys not over twelve years of age. 
This is proof positive that every man should understand the modus 
operandi of taming horses. The procession started from Temple- 
street stable about 12 o'clock noon, and marched through the 
principal streets. The Professor led the caravan, seated in a fine 
buggy drawn by two magnificent black horses. The City Band 


followed: then came the riproaring mustangs that had been 
trained. The first one had a motto on his sides which read : « I 
was the boss of Denker's ranch, but Sample got the best of me." 
Then followed nine horses with mottoes which read like this : ei I 
was the bucking bronco, that had my tail full of cuckle burrs and 
I have been Sampled;" -I was a nullifier, but have been con- 
quered ; " « I was Wild Bill of Temple-street stable ;" « I was 
the worst pill in the box, but Sample got the best of me ;" I was 
a balker, but Sample made me go ;" « I wouldn't back, but I do 
now ;" « I am the one that crippled my master and killed my 
mate, but will never do it again." The last one had : "I was a 
high kicker, but Sample took it all out of me." 


A horse that is afraid of a locomotive is a very unpleasant kind 
of horse to drive, and can be broken of the habit in a short time. 
One of the instincts of the horse is to be afraid of anything he 
does not understand ; in fact, fear, either directly or indirectly, 
is the cause of all bad habits. 

The natural instinct of the horse is to follow after any object 
he may not understand, providing the object is moving from 
him; therefore, instead of forcing the horse up to the°object 
when it is moving toward him, be it locomotive or what not, get 
the horse in a position that you can ride or drive him after 
the object. 

If he is afraid of a band of music that is coming toward him 
it will be the best to take him around in some way and get in 
the rear of the band. In this way he will become familiar with 
the noise while following it. This is what we call educating the 
sense of hearing. If it is something that frightens him whe & n he 
sees it, get him accustomed to the sight of it in the same manner 
that you accustom him to the sound— by letting him follow 
after it. 


By way of illustration : a horse will follow a top-buggy on the 
road or street without becoming frightened,, but should the same 
buggy approach him or come up behind hini, he will become 
frightened, thereby obeying his natural instinct in attempt- 
ing to get away from an object he does not understand. A 
couple of gentlemen, who took lessons from me some years ago, 
while I was illustrating this point, one said : 

" That's so." 

He went on to state to the class : " When myself and com- 
panion were travelling out West, we came up with a band of wild 
horses, and they followed us at a distance for two days ; some- 
times we would turn our horses around and start toward the 
band to get a good look at them, and they would invariably turn 
and move from us, but when we resumed our journey the wild 
horses would again follow us, always keeping off at a safe 

So, in accustoming a colt or horse to any object that would be 
inconvenient to use in the training-lot, proceed as directed above. 
In fact, to break a horse of any bad habit, such as shying on the 
road, refusing to stand quietly while being hitched or unhitched ; 
being restless while you are getting in or out of the buggy, 
rearing up, running backwards, jumping over things in the road, 
or, in fact, any bad habit that the horse is subject to, can be 
thoroughly eradicated by putting him through a thorough course 
of training, as directed in the handling of the colt, thus getting 
him under your control. 

Never go into partnership with your horse, or compromise 
with him when he disobeys, but let him know that you are 
what you were intended to be — his master, and he your ser- 

After giving your horse a thorough course of training, if you 
ever have got into the miserable and uncalled-for habit of trying 
to make the horse go by jerking on the lines, as most ladies and 



quite a number of gentlemen do, by all means desist at once and 
never repeat it. The main object is to be uniform in your 
language and actions toward him. Never say whoa ! to him 
unless you want him to stop, and if you should happen to say 
whoa when you did not want him to stop, stop him. 

If you tell him to go and he refuses to obey, touch him with 
the whip, but do not jerk on the lines. By giving him the above 
lesson he will soon understand your commands, and will act 
promptly. You should be careful and not pull much on the lines, 
for his mouth will be a little tender after the lesson. Never use 
a severe bit, as it is unnecessary. The plain-jointed bit will be 
sufficient to hold any horse if he is properly drilled. Some people 
make their horses foolish by holding the lines tight when the 
horse starts. 

No. 0. 



There are few persons, even among veterinary surgeons, who 
are able to tell the exact age of a horse after he has attained his 
tenth year, and this being the case, how can we expect those who 
have neither anatomical or physiological knowledge of the mouth 
to tell his age. 

Horse-dealers are frequently accused of deceiving their cus- 
tomers in the age of horses. The purpose of this lesson is entirely 
to set aside this deception, and to enable all, sellers, buyers, and 
those who never before knew anything about the age of horses, 
to thoroughly understand the age of all horses, from the time of 
foaling until he has reached his twenty-first year. 


The writer, who has theoretically and practically studied the 
-the horse's mouth for eighteen years, has had opportunities of 
examining the mouths of thousands 'of horses of all ages, thus 
thoroughly convincing himself of jthe reliability of the rules he 
has laid down for telling the age of the horse. 

He has been teaching this new system for nearly ten years, and 
has taught thousands of persons, and caused numerous discussions 
upon the subject. 

While in Terra Haute, Indiana, there was no little excitement 
created by the teaching of this system. In fact, some of the 
horsemen who were skeptical on the subject, wrote to Wilkes' 
Spirit of the Times to ascertain if it were possible to tell the horse's 
age up to twenty-one years. The answer came, " No," with a 
long explanation, giving many reasons why it could not. 

The principal point presented in Winces' argument was, that the 
cups or marks entirely disappeared in the teeth at nine years of 
age ; and that, after the cups or marks were gone, it was impossi- 
ble to ascertain with any degree of certainty how old the horse 

(Every new invention, idea, and system of teaching any science 
or art, must have a discoverer or inventor ; and as those new 
ideas, systems, and inventions are made public, there is, of course, 
much discussion, criticism, and opposition created by those 
familiar as well as by those unfamiliar with the subject.) 

The writer contends that the horse's mouth undergoes a con- 
tinual change from the time he is foaled to the day he dies ; and 
that it is much easier to determine his age from ten years up to 
twenty-one, than it is from one to ten, and we feel confident that 
we will be able to substantiate these statements as we proceed 
with the lesson. 

The horse has forty teeth, and, as we use only twelve of them 
.to determine his age, we will have very little to say about 


the other twenty-eight, as it will have a tendency to confuse the 
reader. The twelve teeth we use to tell the age by are located 
in the front of the mouth, six on the upper and six on the lower 
jaw. [See cut No. 1, of lower jaw of foal six months old.] 

No. 1. 
Outside view of a six months old colt's lower jaw. 

We will name these teeth " nipper," e< middle," and " corner " 
teeth — NN, the nippers ; MM, the middle ; CC, corner — as marked 
on the teeth in the cut. 

The upper jaw has six teeth — the same as the lower. The cut 
simply represents the lower jaw, front view. There are six on the 
upper jaw that will be understood by the same names — nipper, 
middle and corner. The nipper, middle and corner teeth of the 
upper jaw will come directly over the nipper, middle and corner 
teeth of the lower jaw. 

These twelve teeth are all that we use to determine the age of 
any horse, mare, mule, jack or jenny, and the first thing for the 
reader to do will be to familiarize himself with the names and 
location of these teeth — nipper, middle and corner, or N, M and 
; so that, when we speak about nipper, middle and corner teeth, 
the reader will know just where to look in the horse's mouth for 
the teeth we are speaking about. 

The rule we lay down for telling the horse's age applies to the 
mare as well as the horse. Mares do not generally have canine 
or hook-teeth, commonly called tusks or bridle-teeth. 



This is one of the reasons for discarding those teeth in deter- 
mining the age, as it would have a tendency to deceive or mislead 
the pupil. (See cut No. 2.) 

No. 2. 


looking closely at this cut it will be perceived that both the outer and 
inner edge of the nippers are worn, while only the outer edge of the 
middle is worn off, and the corner teeth have not yet come in contact with 
the upper jaw. 

The average time for the foal to get his first four teeth, called 
nippers, is fourteen days. He gets the next four, called middle, 
between fourteen days and three months. Between three months 
and six months he gets the last four, called corner. So you will 
understand by this that the colt, at the age of six months, has 
twelve teeth. These are all the teeth we use to tell the age. 


No. 3. 

The colt's teeth as they appear when drawn out of the jaw. 

This will represent six colt teeth as they would appear if pulled 

out of the jaw. The three on the left, marked H, represent the 

outside view of the crown. The three on the right, marked E, 



represent the inside view of the crown of the teeth. G represents 
the roots of the middle and corner teeth, from an inside view, 
and I represents the ontside view of the roots. 

By this cnt the pupil will readily understand the anatomical 
structure of the colt's teeth. These teeth will all disappear from 
the colt's mouth between the age of two and five years. 

By carefully noticing the ends of the teeth in^ cut No. 2 you 
will see that the crowns or part that the colt eats with has a hole 
or mark inside, and by the upper and lower jaw coming in con- 
tact with each other causing the teeth to wear off at the crown. 
These cups or marks will disappear at the age of one year from 
the nippers of the foal. (See cut No. 4.) 

No. i. 
This is the inside view of a colt's mouth one year old. 
| [ The middle and corner teeth still retain the cups or marks. 
When we look for the cups in the colt or horse, always look on 
the lower jaw, because the lower jaw is movable and the upper is 
stationary and never moves except when the horse moves his 

For this reason there will be more friction on the lower jaw 
than on the upper, hence the lower teeth will wear away sooner 
than the upper, and in looking for the marks or cups in the 
■crown of the tooth always and invariably look on the lower jaw. 

Cut No. 5 represents the lower jaw of a two-year-old, in which 


the edges of the nipper and middle teeth and their marks or cups 
are worn down, and the inner edge of the corner tooth is just 
commencing to wear. 

No. 5. 

InsideMew^of a two-year-old, when the cups are worn off of the nipper and 
middle, a small cup remaining in the corner teeth. 

At the age of two years and a half the colt teeth commence to 
drop out and horse teeth take their place ; this we call shedding 

There is a difference between the teeth naturally shedding and 
being knocked or pulled out. 

Sometimes they are pulled or knocked out for the purpose of 
representing the animal to be older than he really is. 

During the late war between the North and South there were 
a great many mules sold to the government that had their nippers 
pulled out, sometimes at the age of eighteen months, to make 
them appear as being two years and a half old, this age being the 
youngest at which the government would receive them. And 
thousands passed into the Government employ for mules that 
were " coming three years," when really they were only from a 
a year to eighteen months old. 

While in Chicago I frequently visited the sale-stables. On one 
occasion I was an eye-witness to this circumstance : 

A gentleman, wishing to purchase a horse, inquired the age of 
a fine large colt some sixteen hands high. The dealer informed 



him that the colt was five years and two months old. Out of 
curiosity I ventured to examine the colt's mouth, and found it 
was only three years old. 

The dealer's object in representing the colt to be five years old 
when he was but three was, that the purchaser desired a horse 
of suitable age for work, whereas a three-year-old would not 

Had the Government Inspectors of horses and mules known 
that the animals brought to them were but eighteen months old 
instead of two and one-half years, they would have refused them 
as unfit for the work required. Had the Government Inspectors 
and the Chicago man we have alluded to been familiar with this 
method of telling the horse's age and the anatomical structure of 
the mouth, it would have been impossible for them to have been 
deceived as to the age of the horse. 

No. 6. 
Inside view of lower jaw, when two and a half years old, with the hor 
pers just coming through the gum. 

Cut No. 6 represents the lower jaw two years and a half old,, 
with the colt teeth called " nippers" shed out, and the horse 
teeth of the same name have taken their'place.j 

It will be seen, by carefully examining the above cut, that the 
horse teeth now coming in have not {filled up all the vacancy in 
the horse's mouth caused by the shedding of the colt teeth. 

When the horse teeth on the lower [and upper jaws come in 
contact with each other, and are worn perfectly straight across. 


the crown, so as to fill up all the vacancy caused by the colt teeth 
"shedding out/' the colt will then be three years old. At this 
time the colt will have four horse teeth and eight colt teeth. In 
other words, the nippers above and below will be horse teeth, 
while the middle and corner teeth above and below will be colt 

No. 7. 
Inside view of the lower jaw, three years and a half old. 
The way we distinguish the horse teeth from the colt teeth, is 
by the horse teeth having a groove running down the centre of 
the tooth from the crown to the gum on the outside surface, 
while the colt teeth are smooth on the outside surface, resembling 
your finger-nail, as shown in Cut No. 1. 

Cut No. 7 represents the lower jaw of a colt three years and a 
half old. 

The colt teeth, called f < middle," are gone, and the horse teeth 
have cut through the gums. At four years old, these horse teeth, 
called " middle," shall have filled up all the vacancy, and be perfectly 
straight across the crown. Then the colt will show four horse 
teeth on the lower and four on the upper jaw, with only four colt 
teeth remaining, namely, the four « corner " teeth. When the 
colt is four years old, it will be seen, by a close examination of the 
colt's mouth, that he will have eight horse teeth and four colt 
teeth ; the four nippers and four middle will be horse teeth, show- 


ing a groove on the outside surface ; while the four corner teeth 
that remain in the jaw will be colt teeth, with no groove on the 
outside surface, and the crown of the tooth will be worn perfectly 
smooth, as represented in cut No. 7. 

No. 8. 

Inside of the lower jaw of a colt four years and a half old, with the tushes 
and corner tooth through the gurn. 

Cut No. 8 is a representation of the lower jaw of a four-and- 
half -year-old colt. It will be seen by the above cut, that all the 
colt teeth are gone, but the corner teeth are not yet fully de- 
veloped. These corner teeth will be full size at five years. Then, 
all the teeth, nipper, middle, and corner, will be horse teeth, and 
will all show the groove on the front except the corner teeth. 

No. 9. 
Outside view of lower jaw at five years of age. 
The above cut is a correct likeness of the outside view of the 



lower jaw of a five-year-old horse, showing the grooves in the 
nippers and middle teeth, while showing the corner teeth as 
smooth. The corner teeth of the upper and lower jaw at five 
years are just commencing to wear, and it will be seen by Cut 
No. 9 that the corner teeth are wider than they are long. 

The length of the tooth is from the gum to the crown, and the 
width is across the crown. The tooth marked c is wider than 
it is long. 

No. 10. 
Inside view of the lower jaw at five years. 

This cut shows the inside view of the lower jaw at five years 
of age. There is but slight difference between this and the 

No. 11. 
Inside view of a horse's mouth at six years. 

Cut No. 11 shows the lower jaw of a six-year-old horse. By 


examining this cat it will be noticed that there is a large cup in 
the corner teeth, and a small one in the middle teeth. The cups 
have almost disappeared from the nippers, and sometimes at six 
years the cups are gone entirely from them, which would repre- 
sent a seven-year-old horse. But if the pupil has a doubt as to 
the horse's age he can determine by the examination of some of 
the other teeth. We have shown that the corner teeth at five 
years old are wider than they are long, and until the horse has 
passed six years of age the upper corner teeth, on both sides of 
the jaw, will show wider than they are long. The horse will not 
be over six years old, although the cups may have disappeared 
from the nippers of the lower jaw. 

No. 12. 
Inside view of horse's mouth at seven years. 

Cut No. 12 represents the inside view of the lower jaw of a 
seven-year-old horse. It will be noticeable that the cups are 
entirely gone from the nippers, and almost gone from the middle, 
while^the corner-teeth are worn dull on the inside. At this time 
the upper corner-tooth will show longer than it is wide. This is 
the only difference perceptible between the six and seven-year- 
old horse. 


Cut No. 13 shows the lower jaw of the horse aged eight years, 
in which the teeth have all become equally worn, and in the 
corner teeth alone is to be found any trace of the cup. The 

No. 13. 
Inside view of a horse at eight years. 
lower jaw will be smooth at this time except the corner teeth, 
which will show a small cup. 

No. 14. 

The above cut shows the lower jaw of a nine-year-old horse, 
where all the teeth have become smooth. 

This is the general rule— but there are exceptions ; at least 

there are shell-teeth, or holes in the teeth, that would tend to 

deceive the beginner, and if we had no other marks to go by^ 

except the cups, we would find it a difficult task to determine the 



horse's age to a degree of certainty. But we understand other 
marks that are more reliable than the cups we have just spoken 

Some unprincipled men might make false cups in the teeth to 
make the horse appear younger to those persons not fully conver- 
sant with all the marks in the mouth. It will be noticed, by 
examining the outside of the teeth of horses between the ages of 
five and ten years, that they have smooth corner teeth, as shown 
in cut No. 9. 

At ten years of age there will appear a small groove on the 
upper corner teeth close to the gum, about half the size of a grain 
of wheat, and this groove will appear longer as the horse advances 
in age ; and when he arrives at the age of twenty-one years, this 
groove will show all the way down the tooth, as it appears in the 
nipper and middle teeth of the following cut : 

No. 15. 
Side view of t' e horse's ;aw, at the age of fifteen years. 

The above cut represents the side view of the upper jaw of a 
horse fifteen years old, with the groove half way down the upper 
corner tooth; or, in other wcrds, to make it plain, the groove 


shows down the tooth one-half the distance from the gum to the 
crown. In measuring the length of the tooth in this case, we 
always measure from the gum to the longest point of the tooth ; 
but, to be better understood, we will say, measure the longest side 
of the tooth to get the proper length. If this groove should show 
half-way down the longest side of the tooth, as represented in 
cut 15, the horse will be fifteen years old without a doubt. 

If it shows three-fourths of the way down the longest side, he 
is eighteen years ; and if it shows all the way down he is twenty- 
one years old. According to this, it will be seen that the groove 
starts close to the gum at ten, and will reach down to the crown 
at twenty-one. It takes eleven years for the groove to reach the 
crown, hence, one-eleventh the length of the tooth represents one 
year ; two-elevenths, two years, and so on, and when the groove 
is half-way down the tooth, as represented in cut 15, the horse 
is then fifteen and a half years old— providing we count the 
fraction— from the fact that one-half of eleven is five and a half, 
and the groove not making its appearance on the tooth until the 
horse arrives at the age of ten ; adding the ten to the five and a 
half, counting the fractions, makes him fifteen and a half 
years old. 

But as we are perfectly satisfied to be able to come within a 
year of the horse's age, we will throw this fraction out and simply 
say fifteen years old. We will lay down a simple rule to examine 
this tooth and groove by : 

If the groove is just starting on the tooth, the horse is ten 
years old ; one-eleventh down the tooth, he would be eleven years 
old ; two-elevenths, he would be twelve years old ; three-elevenths, 
thirteen years old ; nearly half-way, fourteen years old ; half- 
way, fifteen ; a little below half-way, sixteen years ; still a little 
farther down, seventeen years j three-fourths of the way down, 
eighteen years,- a little more than three-fourths of the way, 
nineteen years, and almost to the crown, twenty. When the 
groove reaches from the gum to the crown, he is twenty-one, 


measuring with the eye. This being so far as we propose to 
teach, scientifically, the horse's age, the reader, by a close 
examination of horses' mouths that he knows the age of positively, 
and comparing them with the above rules, will soon be able to 
tell correctly the age of any horse from the time he is foaled to 
twenty-one years. 

We have endeavored, in the above instructions, to give in plain 
language the simplest, yet the most scientific method of telling 
the horse's age known. 

In order to still further explain the anatomical and physiologi- 
cal structure of the teeth, we will refer the reader to the follow- 
ing illustrations : 

No. 16. 
Teeth as they are located in the jaw. 

Cut 16 represents the way and manner in which the teeth are 
located in the jaw of the horse. The roots, as they are 
commonly called, are narrow at the ends, while the crown 
of the tooth is much wider. The dotted line, from D to E, 
represents that portion of the tooth which extends above the 
gums, and the lower parts are buried beneath the gums in the 
jawbone. K K represent the tusks or hook teeth, commonly 
called bridle teeth, just about to cut through the gums, and 


as there is no certain time to be relied upon for these teeth to 
be cut through, we will say nothing about them, as this would 
mislead the reader. 

The six teeth are marked NN, MM and CC. The three on 
the left show the shape of the teeth on the crown, as they come 
through the gum, while the three oa the right show some little 
wear by coming in contact with the upper jaw. 

No. 17. 

Full-size front and side view of nippers as they appeal' when pulled out 
of jaw. 

Cut 17 is the full-size, front and side view, of the tooth called 
nipper. A represents the front view, and B shows the side view 
of the same tooth. 

By noticing the front view, marked A, of the nipper-tooth, in 
Cut No. 17, you will see that at the crown or top it is quite wide, 


and gradually tapers to the root, where it is quite pointed, and 
the black mark, beginning at the crown and running down near 
the whole length of the tooth, represents the groove we dwelt 
upon before. 

The representation in Cut 17, marked B, gives you a side view 
of the same tooth, and shows the top or crown to be much nar- 
rower on the side than on the front, and instead of gradually 
tapering down to a sharp point, it bulges out or becomes thicker 
near the middle than at either end. By this it will be seen that 
as the tooth wears away, by coming in contact with the upper 
jaw, the crown becomes narrower, as it wears down to the root, 
and thicker from the outside to the inside of the tooth. 

No. IS 

Shows nipper as it appears at three, six, twelve, eighteen, and twenty-four 

Cut 18 shows the shape of the crown of the nipper tooth at 
different ages. The upper section of this tooth shows a three- 
year-old tooth. 

The width is from figure one to figure two, while the thickness 



is shown from figure three to figure four. The second section 
of this tooth shows a six-year-old, and the third section shows a 
twelve-year-old tooth. The fourth shows eighteen years old, 
while the fifth, and lower section, shows twenty-four years. 

If the reader will carefully examine this illustration he will 
notice that the upper section from one to two is twice as wide as 
it is thick, while the lower section, showing the same tooth at 
twenty-four years, will discover that it is twice as thick as it is 

The width is from one to two, and the thickness from three to 

We will next call your attention to cut 19. 

No. 19. 
Life-size inside view of five-year-old. 

This cut will represent a life-size, inside view, of the lower jaw 
of a five-year-old, showing all the cups or marks in the teeth as 
they would appear in the five-year-old mouth. N N the nippers, 
M M the middle, C C the corner teeth. 


Cut No. 20 shows a life-size outside view of the lower jaw of a 
colt five years old. 

No. 20. 
Life-size outside view of a five-year-old. 

Cut 21 shows a life-size inside view of the lower jaw of a horse 
twenty-four years old. 

No. 21. 
Life-size inside view of a twenty-foiir-year-old. 

Cut 22 represents the outside view of the lower jaw of a horse 
twenty-four years old. 

These last six cuts, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22 are not inserted 



to show any particular age, but to post the pupil more fully in 
regard to the shape and form of the teeth at different ages, 
showing the two extremes, the very young and the very old. 

No. 22. 
Life-size outside view of a twenty -four-year-old. 

By closely observing the cuts above mentioned, more particu- 
larly the last four, it will be seen that the five-year-old shows 
very wide across the crown, while the twenty-four-year-old shows 
very narrow across the crown, both the inside and outside views. 
This is caused by what is called the alveolar process. 

It will be more fully understood by the pupil to say, the teeth 
in the young horse are long, while those in the old horse are 
short, as shown in Cut No. 18. 

Most people are under the impression that young horses have 
short teeth, and that old horses have long ones. It is just the 
reverse. The old horses have the short teeth and the young ones 
the long, as will be seen in Cut No. 17. A shows the front and B 
the side view of a full size tooth of a young horse, which averages 
in length from 2£ to 3 inches. 

While Cut No. 18, lower section, represents the horse when he 
is very old — three-fourths to one inch long. 



The reason ' people call the old horse's teeth long is because 
they show further out from the gums, while the young horse's 
teeth are buried in the jaw-bone and covered by the gums. For 
this reason the young horse's teeth appear short, while the old 
horse's teeth look longer because they project farther out from 
the gums. 

There are some horses that have what are called parrot-mouths, 
where the upper jaw teeth extend over and beyond the lower jaw 
teeth. Should this be the case, they will not wear off short, but 
the teeth of a horse eight or nine years old will show as long as 
a horse of twelve or fifteen will, where the teeth come together 
and wear off properly on the crowns. 



Page 74 shows the two inside views of the lower jaw together, 
so that the pupil can see the contrast between the old and young 

We will also put the two outside views together on this page, 
so the pupil can see the width and shape of the teeth and gums. 
By noticing closely, it will be seen that the gums in the young 
mouth are nearly straight across, while the old mouth shows the 
gums extending up between the teeth. 

The upper view on page 74 shows twenty-four years old ; the 
lower view, only five. On page 75 the upper view shows five, and 
the lower one twenty-four years. 


We will next proceed to explain as well as possible to the pupil 
what is meant by the alveolar process. 

In the human as well as in the horse, the teeth are constantly 
and slowly, as nature directs, moving up out of the sockets, and 
as the teeth in the horse are smaller at the roots than at the 
crown (as shown in cut No. 17), it will be understood, as they 
move out of the sockets, that the further out they get the nar- 
rower the mouth will show. 

The jaw-bone naturally contracts to fill up the space left by the 
teeth coming out of their sockets, and as this is a gradual process 
from the time the horse is fully developed, the older he gets the 
narrower the jaw will show. Hence, the old horse's jaw will be 
much narrower than the young one, as will be readily shown by 
the cuts on pages 74 and 75. 

Another marked difference will be perceptible in the young 
horse's mouth and teeth, which is, that the shape of the crown of 
the teeth will be that of a half-circle, while in the old horse they 
will show almost straight across the crown, showing the shape 
the aveolar process leaves the old mouth in. 

It will also be noticed that the teeth in the young horse, 
marked N, M and C, nippers, middle and corner, are entirely of 
a different shape on the crown, while the nippers of the young 
horse are much wider than they are thick, the old horse's nippers 
shows much thicker than they are wide. (See pages 74 and 75.) 

We next call the attention of the reader to cut No. 23, which 
represents the inside view of the lower jaw of an old horse, in 
which the teeth have been sawed off, and not naturally worn off. 

Cut No. 24 represents the outside view of the same jaw illus- 
trated in cut 23. 

Many unprincipled men have a rascally trick of sawing off the 



horse's teeth and cutting holes in the crown, and then putting a 
red-hot iron in the holes to make black marks or false cups. 

No. 23. 

This is called " Bishopping," because the man who first prac- 
tised this fraud was named Bishop. When this operation is per- 
formed on a horse that is getting along in years, it might deceive 
those that are not familiar with the formation and structure of 
the teeth ; but, after a close investigation of the young and old 
mouth, as shown by cuts 19 and 20, it will be impossible to deceive 
the pupil. 


No. 24. 

These simple but practical rules can become understood tho 
roughly by examining the mouths of different-aged horses. 

I would advise the pupil to first examine the mouths of horses 
whose ages are well known to him, and compare with these in- 


structions ; tlieu he might examine the mouths of different 
horses that he knows nothing about ; and if these rules will hold 
good in describing the marks in the mouth that is well understood 
by the pupil, they will hold good in determining the ages of 
horses he knows nothing about. 

The way that the author found out how to tell an old horse's 
age was by examining every horse he could find, if the horse's 
age was positively known by the owner. He then observed that 
different marks as described in this lesson, and now feels satisfied 
that by these rules the old horse's age — say up to twenty-one 
— will be known as well as the horse from one to ten. We are so 
positive that we will invite any scientific horseman or others to 
make the test. 

In. regard to the different ages of horses we will give a few 
words of advice. Most people, in buying horses, prefer to get a 
young horse — from four to five years old. If a gentleman intends 
purchasing a horse for light work, intending to have him under 
his own care, it would perhaps be well to buy. such a horse, be- 
cause the young horse would be likely to improve in value, if 
properly cared for, and the work light and easy ; but if he were 
going to purchase a horse to do hard, steady work, it would be 
better to get one seven or eight years old. 

Many persons, inexperienced in handling and working horses, 
imagine that when the horse is nine or ten years old, he is rather 
an old animal, but experience has taught me, if he has not been 
crippled and injured, by working him when too young, that he 
is just in his prime. 

If the horse is to be used for staging, street-cars, omnibuses, 
hacks, or any kind of constant or hard work, a sound ten-year-old 
horse is the right horse in the right place. 

In travelling through Wisconsin, last year, at a small town 
called Sharon, where I formed a class, a gentleman named Lowell 
had a very fine stallion, that was twenty-one years old, shed 


by old Lexington, the celebrated running horse. He hitched 
him up to a " buck-board/' and the horse got to kicking. Some 
of my scholars, knowing of this, got Mr. Lowell to bring him to 
Sharon, to hare him handled before the class, and when he led 
the horse into town he looked like a young colt, and was one of 
those high-strung, well-bred, fully developed, symmetrical horses 
that would furnish a fine subject for a picture to adorn any art 

After handling this horse a few minutes, I hitched him in a 
buggy and drove him up and down the streets. I liked the horse 
so well that I persuaded Mr. Lowell to let me take him and drive 
him through the country. I drove him two or three months, and 
gave him some very long drives, which appeared beneficial to' him 
rather than otherwise, and would have severely tested the endur- 
ance of many much younger horses. 

Flora Temple, when nineteen years old, made her fastest time 
—2:19£— which' was the fastest mile ever trotted by any horse, 
mare or gelding, young or old, up to the year 1856. 

Goldsmith Maid, at the age of nineteen, also made her best time 
—2:14— which was considered wonderful, as she beat all former 
records. In fact, the writer has seen horses working every day 
on the streets, and performing the work of ordinary horses, at 
the advanced age of thirty-three years. So, in buying a horse, be 
careful in discarding him solely on account of his age. 


1. Muzzle. 

2. Nostril. 

3. Forehead. 

4. Jaw. 

5. Poll. 

6. 6. Crest. 

7. Thropple or windpipe. 


8. 8. Shoulder-blade. 

9. Point of the shoulder. 

10. Bosom or breast. 

11. 11. True-arm. 

12. Elbow. 

13. Fore-arm (arm). 

14. Knee. 

15. Cannon-bone. 

16. Back sinew. 

17. Fetlock or pastern -joint. 

18. Coronet. 

19. Hoof or foot. 

20. Heel. 


21. Withers. 

22. Back. 

23. 23. Ribs (forming together the barrel or chest). 

24. 24. The circumference of the chest at this point, 

called the girth. 

25. The loins. 

26. The croup. 

27. The hip. 

28. The flank. 

29. The sheath. 

30. The root of the dock or tail. 


31. The hip-joint, round, or whirl-bone. 

32. The stifle-joint. 

33. 33. Lower thigh or gaskin. 

34. The quarters. 

35. The hock. 

36. The point of the hock. 

37. The ball. 

38. The canuon-bone. 

39. The bnck sinew. 

40. Pastern or fetlock-joint. 

41. Coronet. 

42. Foot or hoof. 

43. Heel. 


The treatment and remedies given in this book, I have secured 
at great loss of time and money. I have been treating my own 
horses for nearly twenty years, and have used the remedies in 
this book with great success. 

Many of the remedies included are worth much more than the 
cost of five of these books. 

My principal desire in the production of this book is to benefit 
my patrons. Hence the reader may feel assured that no remedy 
will be placed in it, not known by me to be valuable and reliable. 

ft is an old maxim that reads : " An ounce of prevention is 
worth a pound of cure," and I would urge the necessity of at 
least ordinary care in preventing colds and sickness by guarding 
against exposure or mercilessly driving until the horse is in a 
high state of perspiration ; then leaving him where some cold, 
bleak wind will strike him, perhaps without even putting a 
blanket or covering over him. 

If covered at all, the blanket may be thrown on carelessly, and 
the driver or groom goes off to enjoy himself with his friends, 
taking his toddy, or toasting his shins, while the poor animal 
stands shivering in the street. 

The effect of such treatment will not then have time to fully 
develop itself, but will be seen afterwards, when perhaps it 
is too late. 


This is the cause of Acute Laminitis (founder) and of Pleuro- 
Penumonia (Pleurisy.) The principal points in securing the health 
of a horse, are exercise, pure air, and good feeding. 

In the first place irregularity in exercising the horse will cer- 
tainly produce diseases, and in the second place, the stable should 
be ventilated so that it will be neither too hot nor too cold. If 
this is not looked to, the animal will show the effects in a short 
time, by coughing or having a slight irritation of the mucous 
membrane of the throat. 

A horse will take cold very easily by going out of a hot stable 
into the cold air, or from the cold air into a hot stable. 

It is the sudden atmospheric change that produces the change 
on the mucous coat of the larynx and throat. 

The clothing or covering of the horse in a stable should be 
neither too warm nor too cold. 

A great deal depends on the care and attention that is paid to 
the horse in this respect. Whenever the laws of nature are 
violated, and the horse is caged or housed up by man, the same 
care and attention should be given him that we would give our- 
selves, when apprehending a return of previously endured hard- 
ships occasioned by exposure and neglect. 

Another point that should always be observed in keeping a 
horse in condition and good health, is regular feeding and paying 
strict attention to him immediately after a long or hard drive, 
especially if he has been exposed to wet and cold weather. 

Anticipate and look for a chill. Blanket him warmly and also 
give him a little fever medicine and a bran mash. By these timely 
precautions a severe attack of pneumonia may be averted. 

Lung Fever. 

Lung fever is an epidemic prevalent throughout the United 
States and Canada, and is considered contagious and generally 


proves fatal. It, however, has its causes of production in all 
countries, some of which I will describe first. Sudden changes 
from heat to cold ; after severe cold weather it turns suddenly 
warm, the atmosphere is damp, the walls of stables are damp, the 
miasm and stench which arise from close stables produce a poison- 
ous effluvia, which is inhaled by the horse, and produces disease. 
Again, changing horses from warm, comfortable stables to cold, 
damp ones often produces it. Driving your horse hard, getting 

First stages of Lung- Fever. 

him warm, and then leaving him in a current of cold air, or 
giving him a heavy draught of cold water when warm, and allow- 
ing him to stand afterwards to chill, taking him out when he feels 
well, in the rain, or turning him out in a paddock when he feels 
fresh, allowing him to take severe and quick exercise under excit- 
ing circumstances ; causing undue excitement, affecting the lungs 
by rapid respiration. It is frequently caused by sudden fright, 
holding and compelling horses to remain in close proximity 
with whatever they think will harm them, producing heat and 
excitement ; overdriving and exhaustion without sufficient care 
after the drive ; too hard driving on a full stomach ; inju- 
ries received on the head, back or limbs ; crowding too many 
horses in small stables without sufficient ventilation ; keeping 
one diseased horse in a herd or stable with other horses. 


It is found to prevail mostly i a crowded cities; seldom attacks 
horses on the farm, where they have plenty of clean water and 
pure air j the damper the stable, the more liable is the horse to 
disease. It frequently attacks other parts of the horse, as well 
as the lungs. 


The horse breaks out in a cold, clammy sweat, accompanied 
with a severe chill. The ears, legs and head become deathly cold ; 
he hangs his head down, or rests it on the manger ; nibbles a 
little at his hay, refusing to eat any quantity ; stands perfectly 
still, never moving unless compelled to ; he is exceedingly stiff 
and weak ; has a quick weak pulse, hot mouth, shivering, dullness, 
watery eyes, accompanied by watery discharge from the nostrils, 
which soon becomes purulent ; sore throat, difficulty of swallow- 
ing ; loss of appetite, bowels costive ; invariably dying upon his 
feet. In some cases the chest fills with water ; the heart and its 

Second stage of Lung Fever. 

coverings are severely involved ; the eyelids and the head are 
distended with fluids. It occurs generally in spring and fall, but 
may occur at any season of the year. It has been often mistaken 
for ordinary founder. Horses generally live from eight to fifteen 
-days ; but if they are not relieved during the first three or four 


days, their case is hopeless. Running, trotting, livery, and fancy 
horses are the most liable to take lung fever. The celebrated 
Canadian trotting horse, St. Lawrence, died at Kalamazoo, 
Michigan, in 1860, from lung fever, produced by cooling off too 
suddenly after his race. The American trotting-horse, George 
M. Patchin, died from the same cause j Royal George died at 
Buffalo, in 1867, from the same cause ; the maid of Orleans died 
from the same cause, after running her four-mile race. Livery 
horses are subject to it, because they are so often over-heated, and 
left standing in the cold by careless drivers. 

Fancy horses that are kept in warm stables with two or three 
heavy blankets on, when brought in contact with the air, chill 
very soon, unless kept in rapid motion. No horse should be 
blanketed in the stable generally. If kept in a good stable 
without clothing, and clothed whenever he is obliged to stand in 
the air, it would be better. Never expose your horse to sudden 
changes ; they affect his general health and spirits. Horses that 
are regularly fed and worked, seldom if ever need any medicine. 

All horses should have plenty of exercise in the open air.. 
Colts should never be housed up or confined ; nature intended 
they should have a certain amount of exercise to develop their 
muscles and lungs, to keep them in condition. This is why wild 
horses excel tame ones ; they commence to run from the time 
they are foaled, so that by the time they are four years old, they 
are well develojDed. 

Treatment in Lung Fever : 

Tincture of aconite 1 oz. 

Tincture of veratrium i oz. 

Aqua 4 oz . 

Dose from fifteen to twenty-five dicjs en the tongue every 
thirty or forty minutes. 


The dose can be increased or decreased according to the se- 
verity of the case. Blister his sides just behind his forelegs ; 
bathe his throat with some strong liniment, and give him plenty 
of pure air ; do not stand him in the draught ; rub his legs well 
with some stimulating liniment,, remembering that good care is 
one-half the battle. 

Spasmodic Colic. 

One of the most dangerous and common diseases to which the 
horse is subject, is the Colic, both spasmodic and flatulent. Spas- 
modic Colic, if not relieved, will, in severe cases, cause inflam- 
mation of the bowels and speedy death. 

Flatulent Colic, while exhibiting the general symptoms, shows 
marked enlargement of the body, from generation of gas, which, 
when not checked and neutralized, results fatally by rupturing 
the diaphragm, causing death. 

The causes of colic are drinking cold water when in a heated 
condition, costiveness, unwholesome food, and the application of 
cold water to the body, &c. 

Premonitory symptoms are sudden. The animal paws violently, 
showing evidences of great distress, shifting his position con- 
stantly, and manifesting a desire to lie down. 

In a few minutes these symptoms disappear and the horse is 

He may also act as if he desired to make water, which he is 
unable to do, there being a spasmodic contraction of the urethra. 
Hence the desire to give diuretic medicine. Straining in this 
way is usually prompted by a desire to relieve the muscles of the 
belly. No diuretic remedy should be given the horse, as he 
cannot pass the urine until the attack of colic ceases, or it is 
taken from him with a catheter. 


But the same uneasiness soon returns, increasing in severity 
until the animal cannot remain on his feet; the pulse is full, 
scarcely altered from its normal condition. 

A cold sweat breaks out over the body ; the temperature of the 
leers and ears natural. 

First stage of Spasmodic Colic. 

As the disease advances the symptoms become more severe,, the 
animal throwing himself down with force and looks anxiously at 
the sides, snapping with his teeth at his sides, looking anxiously 
at his belly, and striking upward with the hind feet, showing 
almost the same symptoms as in inflammation of the bowels. 

To better point out the peculiarities or characteristics of each 
trouble, I will say : 

Colic is sudden in its attacks. Legs and ears of natural tem- 
perature. Eubbing the belly gives relief. Relief obtained from 
motion. Pulse, in the early stage of the disease, not much 
quickened or altered in its character. Intervals of rest. Strength 
hardly affected. 

Inflammation of the bowels : Gradual in its approach, with 
previous indications of fever. Pulse, much quickened, small, 
often scarcely to be felt. Legs and ears cold. Motion increases 


Rapid and Great Weakness. Constant Pain.— This disease being 
wholly of a spasmodic nature, it must be counteracted by anti- 
spasmodic treatment; and laudanum being the most powerful 
and reliable anti-spasmodic, it is here indicated. 

Treatment.— Give in a pint of raw linseed oil, from two to three 
ounces of laudanum. 

If not better in an hour give two ounces each of oil and 

The following remedy is considered one of the best in use for 
the cure of either form of colic : 

Colic Remedy. 

Opium £ft>. 

Sulph. ether 1 p i n t. 

Aromatic Spirits Ammonia 1 pint. 

Sweet Spirits Nitre 2 pints. 

Asafcetida (pure) £ ft. 

Camphor i ft. 

Bottle and let it stand fourteen days, with frequent shaking, 
and it will be fit for use. 

Dose— One ounce, more or less, according to severity of the 
case, once in from thirty minutes to an hour. Give in a little 

To enable its immediate use, substitute same proportion of 
tincture for the gum. 

Flatulent Colic. 

Same symptoms as spasmodic colic, except that the accumula- 
tion of gas in the stomach and intestines is such as to cause 
the belly to swell. 

This disease often proves fatal in two or three hours. 

Generally it attacks the horse very suddenly, often occurring 
while the animal is at work, particularly during warm, or change- 


able weather, from cold to heat. Indigestion is a general cause, 
producing gas in the stomach and bowels. 

The two locations and causes for this disease are — the stomach, 
colon and coecum. 

When in the stomach it will be known by eructations or belch- 
ing of gas through the esophagus or gullet. 

If from the coecum or colon, the horse is violently swollen 
along the belly and sides. 

The pulse rarely is disturbed until the disease advances, when 
it will become quickened, running to its height quickly and 
receding as rapidly if fatal. 

First stage of Flatulent Colic. 

If to terminate fatally it will become weaker and slower until 
it is almost imperceptible. 

Should the animal suddenly fall down during great pressure of 
gas against the walls of the stomach, there is danger of rupturing 
the diaphragm, causing almost instant death from suffocation. 

Treatment — Keep up evaporation of the body as much as 
possible by sweating with blankets. A hot bath would be still 
better. If you have on hand the remedy recommended for spas- 
modic colic, give at once as directed. Should it not be available, 
give a drench of the following : 

Sulph. ether 2 oz. 

Peppermint 2 oz. 

Laudanum 1 oz. 

Soft Water 1 pint. 


If the horse is not too sick to get up during the intervals of 
administering the mixture,, keep him in motion. Eepeat the dose 
in half or three-quarters of an hour if not improved. 

There is great danger of the diaphragm being ruptured, through 
the distention of the intestines, in this disease. 

To keep the animal on his feet in the stall, and prevent those 
violent falls and rolling about, and to avoid irritation or action on 
the bowels, it would be advisable to walk the horse as slowly as 

Last stage of Colic. 

possible', led by the head to prevent falling or rolling, until such 
time as the treatment has had the desired effect. 

Catarrh or Cold. 

Colds, if neglected, may lead to serious consequences, and are 
of common occurrence. By a little rest and nursing, in time the 
system will soon resume its normal condition. 

Usually, the symptoms are a slight mere use of the pulse, followed 
by a slight discharge from the nose; loss of appetite; hair roughed; 
and a cough, which sometimes is quite severe. Give aconite as for a 
fever, and blanket warmly. Give bran mashes, etc. In serious 
cases, it may run into inflammation of the air passages, as bronchitis 
or laryngitis. Give fever medicine, and alternate with belladonna. 
Aim to keep up the strength. Put on a bag made of coarse, loose 
cloth, into which put some hot bran, on which throw an ounce or too 
of turpentine. Hang the sack on the horse's head, being careful to 
leave an opening to allow some "of the steam to escape, so it will 
not scald his nose. A repetition of this treatment a few times will 


start the nose running freely. Complete this treatment with judi- 
cious 1 rest and care. 

To relieve obstinate inflammation of the throat and air-passages, 
apply a good liniment to the throat and chest. This will stimulate 
the surface. 

Strangles, or Distemper. 

This form of sore throat has for its design the throwing off of 
some poisonous matter from the system. You should keep up the 
strength of the animal, and hasten suppuration. The horse's neck 
becomes sore and stiff, and there is an enlargement which is hard 
at first; the nose discharges matter. The horse generally becomes 

Strangles, or Distemper. 

worse, and, when very bad, causes suffocation ; he is able to eat very 
little, and he loses strength rapidly. A poultice of warm vinegar and 
bran, freely used and changed as often as it becomes dry, will do 
much good if applied until the enlargement becomes soft, and can be 

Another treatment is to take spirits of camphor, one part ; spirits 
of turpentine, two parts; laudanum, one part. Apply to the 
neck with a brush three or four times a day until soreness is pro- 
duced. After each application, put three or four thick pieces of 
flannel over the parts, binding them on with a bandage. When 
the tumor comes to a bead or point, open it to allow the 


matter to escape thoroughly. In case the swelling is very deep, 
and causes serious soreness and swelling of the throat, nurse the 
horse carefully by feeding with warm gruel, give warm drink, 
tempt his appetite with grass, &c. Rubbing the enlargement 
with fly blister, to bring it to a head, is often resorted to. 
No physic should be given. 

Poll-Evil and Fistula of the Withers. 

The treatment of these difficulties is the same for one as for the 
other — their characters being the same. 

Poll-Evil is oftentimes caused by the poll striking a beam 
or against the floor. Sometimes it may be the result of con- 
stitutional predisposition. 

When the enlargement and inflammation are first noticed, you 
may may be able to dispose of it by giving a dose of physic and 
applying cooling applications to the part. 

If the inflammation has not become reduced, clip the hair 
from the part and rub on some blistering ointment. 

Should the swelling enlarge, open and allow the pus to escape. 

In the treatment of all ulcers keep one point in mind, which 
is, to make an opening at the bottom if you can, to allow the 
matter to run out, as matter will always burrow toward the 

This is done by running a seaton through, bringing it out 
just below the bottom of the wound. 

Wash out the sore clean. It should be afterwards bathed with 
any of the healing preparations for ulcers given in another 

If pipes are formed requiring caustic medicine, use either chloride 
of zinc, corrosive sublimate, or any strong escorotic to destroy this 
growth, after which treat as before. 


These difficulties require proper dressing daily. 

Fistula of the Withers should be treated in the same manner. 

The principle of treating these difficulties is the same as that 
for deep-seated ulcers. 

Special directions for the treatment of them will be found under 
the head of Ulcers, &c. 


All reliable practitioners have discarded Sweeny as a fictitious 
disease. It is claimed that Sweeney is the effect of diseases of 
the feet, such as ossification of the lateral cartilage, contraction, 
corns, navicular diseases, etc., producing atrophy of the muscles of 
the shoulder, and their treatment would be to remove the cause, 
and the effect would disappear. 

To follow a local treatment of Sweeney, or filling-up of the 
shoulder, you do so by the application of most any stimulating 

The simplest and best, never-failing remedy is the application of 

Horsemen consider it invaluable. Add a little salt to soft-soap, 
and rub on the parts thoroughly four or five times during the 

Four or five applications will fill up the depression of a bad case. 

The regular treatment consists of seatoning and blistering, but the 
above will answer for local treatment. 

Spavins — two hinds. 

There are two kinds of Spavin, jack and occult or consolidated 

The first is situated at the upper portion of the metatarsal bone at 
its juncture with cuboid bones. 

Spavins of both kinds have their origin from the same causes — 


inflammation of the cartilage of the joint in the first instance 
and extending to ulceration of the bone, consequently bony matter 
is thrown out, uniting more or less of the hock and excess of matter 
and ulceration of the bones from the enlargement. 

The causes of Spavin, though numerous, are traceable principally 
to sprains, blows and hard work, or any cause exciting inflammation 
of this part. 

Bone Spavin. 
At the beginning the symptoms are treacherous. 

Horses are often treated for hip lameness before any enlargement 
makes its appearance. 

The horse, while laboring under acute inflammation of the hock 
joint, is at first very lame. 

Generally, the tumor makes its appearance from the fifth to the 
eighth week. At times, the lameness is gradual — hardly perceptible 
at first — becoming worse until there is a decided lameness at starting, 
which will in a short time wear off as the horse becomes warmed 

There are various remedies and applications. Some men pretend 
to remove spavins. The skillful practitioner knows better. It will 


be seen that if such people can remove the external tumor, they 
cannot separate the bones that are united, and horses may be spa- 
vined without any visible enlargement. 

Blood Spavin. 

Natural Action. Spavined Leg. 

Take cantharides 2 oz., mercurial ointment 4 oz., tincture of iodine 
3 oz., turpentine 4 oz., corrosive sublimate 3 drams ; mix well with 
lib lard. After well blistered, dress with calomel salve. 

Blood Spavin. 

This disease, when once well seated, is incurable; but if taken in 
its acute state, bandaging tight and kept wet with cold water is the 
best treatment. 



Are produced by driving the horse against a heavy current of air, 
and inhaling an excess of air ; thus overcharging the lungs, they 
become ruptured, and when once ruptured, can never be cured The 
food should be well wet, so that he will inhale no dust while eating, 
as it is very injurious. The dust of a threshing machine for one' 
day is worse than to feed with clover-hay for a month. 

Glanders is an affection of the glands of the head, and may be 
known by a flow of white matter from one or both nostrils, accom- 
panied by an offensive smell. It may be told from common dis- 
temper, as the secretions from distemper will float on water, while 
that from glanders will sink immediately. It cannot be cure'd, but 
may be relieved. 

Lockjaw, or Tetanus, 
Is produced from some injury received by the nervous system, injury 
to the spinal column, a rap on the top of the head, a nail driven into 
the quick by the smith, or one picked up on the road. 


He stretches himself at full length, hangs his head down, is stiff 
all over, his jaws immovably fixed. 

Treatment—Open his bowels with a drench of ten drams of aloes, 
three drams calomel, in one pint of linseed oil. Keep him in a com- 
fortable box, feed him on whatever he can eat— bran mashes, boiled 
oats, or, if he is very bad, give him a sloppy drink of oat-meal, rye- 
meal, or linseed-meal, whichever he can take. 

Bots are one of the natural appendages of the stomach of a horse 
—as much so as his lungs, arteries, nerves, or any other essential part 
of his vital organism. They never injure the horse. 

They have been placed in the stomach of all horses by nature, for 
a specific purpose, and no horse can live without them in the stomach 


They are in the stomach of all horses at the time of foaling, and 
number about the same — or no more or less — at any age of the horse. 
They never lose their hold of the lining of the stomach under any 
circumstances. The heart was given to propel the blood ; the lungs 
to breathe j the eye, to see ; the ear, to hear ; and the bots, to aid 
digestion. The life and health of the horse is dependent upon the 
bots. When the horse is sick the bots are sick ; any description of 
food good for the horse is good for the bots. They never injure a 
horse except when they become diseased — the same as any other vital 
part. If your horse is over-heated or exhausted from work, and is 
attacked with colic or any description of inflammation, the bots suffer 
equally with the horse ; anything given the horse that will kill the 
bots, is liable to kill the horse also. "When you keep your horse in 
good condition, well and regularly fed, there is no danger. Bots 
have been used heretofore to cover up the ignorance of the farrier. 
If your horse dies of inflammation of the brain they would say he 
died of bots ; if he dies of lung fever the same thing is said ; if he 
dies of colic or anything else, it is always attributed to the bots — 
when, in fact, no horse ever died directly from their effects. 

The quid has been given to the sheep and cow, so that they may 
belch up their food and ruminate or re-chew it, thereby preparing it 
for the digestive organs, while the bots have been given to the horse 
to perform the same work for him, without taxing him with the labor 
of re-chewing ; besides, his owner might require some hard or fast 
work of him, just at the time when he should be re-chewing his food. 
The gad-fly or nit-bee has nothing to do with the production of the 
bot, no more than the horse-fly, buffalo-gnat, or any other fly ; all 
the harm they do is the tickling and buzzing sensation that they pro- 
duce in the particularly ticklish portion of the horse that they visit ; 
the wasp, hornet, and other insects, torment horses, yet there are 


no bots ever attributed to any of them ; you can punish a horse as 
much with a fine straw or a piece of paper twisted to a point, by 
tickling him under the throat, in the flank, or upon the legs, as much 
as the gad-fly does, or by catching a fly and holding close to his 
ear while it makes a buzzing noise, all of which he attempts to escape 
from, as much as from the presence of the gad-fly. It is impossible 
for him to lick or bite the nits from off his legs, belly or throat, 
without pulling the hair off, and as no horse ever swallows any hair, 
it is impossible for them to be carried into the stomach ; besides, 
there are thousands of horses in warm climates, and in stables, that 
never see any gad-flies, yet all horses have bots. 

All that has been written in connection with the gad-flies produc- 
ing bots, and all of the technical terms used to illustrate them and 
their effects, have been to fill works upon the horse. 

Bots, as a disease in horses, like that of the kmpas and many other 
old notions, will soon be obsolete. 

Lamp as. 

Lampas is a fullness and inflammation of the front portion of the 
roof of the mouth, near the teeth. 

I here have to combat with an old-established opinion, that lam- 
pas is a disease in horses ; but eighteen years' experience has taught 
me that there is no such disease. 

The gums of all young horses are swollen below the teeth, as 
nature intended they should be, and all of the discomforts of the 
horse attributed to lampas, is the effect of improper feed and bad 
care. You never find a horse of five years old with lampers ; at this 
age the gums recede above the teeth, and continue to do so as they 
grow older. 

The practice of burning colts for the lampas is a severe and savage 
practice, destroying the roof of the mouth, and the power of retain- 
ing the food until it can be well masticated. 

The hard gristly bars in the roof of all colts' mouths, have been 


placed there by nature for specific purposes. 1st, it is quite insen- 
sible to the touch, and with this hard bar he picks grass and grinds 
his feed while his teeth are tender and being shed ; 2nd, a large artery 
terminates in the roof of the mouth, and those bars hare been placed 
there to protect it from rupture. To relieve him, give him plenty of 
oats and bran well wet up ; give him plenty of carrots, turnips or 
potatoes, plenty of nice clover hay, clean water, fresh air, a dry bed, 
and you will never be troubled with lampas. You might as well 
burn off one ear, or burn out one ere (then he w@uld have one ear to 
hear with, and one eye to see with) ; but when you burn out his 
mouth, he has nothing to suppl it with, and you disable and per- 
petually torture him. 

To Strengthen the Tendons After Hard Driving, and Reduce the 
Swelling of the Legs. 

Camphor Gum | oz. 

Grum Myrrh 1 oz. 

Oil of Spike 1 oz. 

Alcohol 1 pt. 

Organum 1 oz. 

Beef's Gall 1 ordinary size. 

Wash and rub dry, then apply the liniment ; after winch rub dry j 
again apply the liniment to the limb and bandage moderately tight. 

This remedy I consider the best ever used for the purpose recom- 

Grease Reels. 

This is a greasy, white, offensive discharge from the heels of the 
horse. The skin becomes tender, hot and swollen. The acrid charac- 
ter of the discharge causes portion* of the skin to slough away, 
leaving an ugly sore. 


Treatment— with the following ball open the bowels :— 

Pulverised Gentian Boot 2 drams. 

Barbadoes Aloes 1 oz> 

Pulverised Ginger 1 dram. 

Water sufficient to make the ball. 

Poultice and wash the parts well for two or three days with the 
following :— Flaxseed meal, mixed with a solution of 2 drams sul- 
phate of zinc, to a pint of water, which— keep clean— bathe often 
with a solution of chloride of lime or of zinc. Glycerine can also be 

Scratches — Cure. 

Glycerine j. oz 

Tincture Arnica 4, oz _ 

In several cases, where heels are cracked, add : 

Tincture of Myrrh 2 oz. 

Iodine 1 oz. 

Gunpowder (powdered fine) i oz. 

Put in bottle and shake well. 

Apply two or three times a day. First, give the horse a few bran 


This is a formation of pus between the hoof and the soft structure 
within. A sore at the coronet, or upper part of the foot, which at 
first is a hard, smooth tumor, soon becomes soft and breaks, dis- 
charging quantities of pus. 

Treatment.— Poultice the foot for several clays with flaxseed meal 
As soon as the hoof becomes soft, cut away the loose portions, 
but no more, and inject with a syringe the following once a 
day :— 

Nitrate of silver, 2 drams in a pint of water ; or 
Chloride of zinc, 2 drams dissolved in a pint of water ; or 
Sulphate of zinc, 1| drams in a pint of water. 
Glycerine is sometimes used advantageously. 


Clean the foot well with castile soap and water before vising the 


Place your horse in the sun and scrub him thoroughly with 
castile soap and water ; then wash him well with gas water, putting 
in the water 2 drams of white hellebore to the gallon. Then change- 
him from his old stable to another one. One washing generally 
cures permanently. 

Thoroughly scrub the harness and put it away for six or eight 
weeks, as a necessary precaution against the disease. 

Mange Treatment No. 2. 

Linseed Oil 6 oz. 

Oil Turpentine 4 oz. 

Oil Tar 4 oz. 


Fatal Disease of the Foot. 

The report of the Statistician of the Department of Agriculture, 
in the Commissioner's report of 1869, states that a number of horses 
hare died of a peculiar disease of the foot, and says that diagnosis 
shows a separation of the ligaments of the coffin-joint and the foot. 

It reads : " The foot turns up, causing the animal to walk on the- 
ankle. The flexor-tendons are literally severed from the laminae, and 
the foot will drop off by simply cutting through the skin with a 
knife. None have ever been cured and no one appears to know 
the cause of the difficulty. 

No cases so extreme as those described by the Statistician have 
come to our personal knowledge, but we have little doubt that 
it will prove on investigation, which we are making, that the cause of 
the terrible malady is in the use of shoes of improper con- 
struction, neglect of the form of the foot, a proper form of 
which is so essential to health, and the too liberal use of 
cold water on the feet and legs, when the animal was in a 
heated condition, or too much dampness of the stable or pastures in 
which the animals were kept, or, perhaps, all combined. 


Nasal Gleet. 

The result of neglected catarrh is a chronic discharge, from one or 
both nostrils, of a whitish, muco-purulent matter. 

The animal looks, feeds and works well, though he has this dis- 
charge, which is caused by weakness in the secretory vessels of the 
lining membrane of the nose. 

A treatment on the tonic principle has been successfully used in 
this disorder. Purging and bleeding are decidedly hurtful. 

Give one of the following powders night and morning : 

Carbonate of Iron 1 oz. 

Gentian, pulverised 1 oz. 

Quassia, „ 1 oz. 

Divide into four powders. 


Sequi-chloride of iron 2 oz. 

Cinnamon 1 oz. 

Divide into four powders. 


JSux Vomica, pulverised \ oz. 

Linseed Meal 2 oz. 

Divide into eight powders. 


Muriate of Barytes \ oz. 

Linseed Meal 1 oz. 

Divide into eight powders. The best known. One should be 
given night and morning. 

Cure of Farcy. 

Black Antimony 1 oz. 

Saltpetre § lb. 

Sulphur i lb. 

If acute : Dose — One tablespoonful twice a day. If sub-acute, 
once or twice a week. 


I give for this formidable disease : 

Three drams powdered sulphate of copper, given every night in 
the food until the horse refuses to eat. 

Repeat in a few days, but if the case is bad, give the medicine 
in water as a drench, for ten days, if he will not take it in 
his food. 


Many have supposed and asserted that this unsoundness in the 
horse was inheritable. This is erroneous, as Ringbones are the 
result of injuries, and often occur when the colt is but a few days 
old, especially if it is compelled to follow the dam too far on a 
hard road, before the feet have acquired sufficient strength and 
solidity. Requiring the young foal to stand on a hard floor will 
also produce them. They are produced in the horse, after he has 
arrived at the age to be shod, by allowing the toes of the feet to 
get too long ; from slipping on the ice ; shoeing without support 
to the soles ; tramping on the feet by other horses, and various 
other causes. 

The Ringbone is a knot, or excrescence of ossified bone, usually 
forming in the region of the articulation of the coffin and lower 
pastern bones ; hence, they destroy, in a greater or less degree, 
the action of that very important joint, and generally produce 
permanent lameness. 

Prevention by care and good management is more simple than 

In purchasing a horse it will be prudent to examine all the 
feet by the pressure of the finger on the skin all around the pastern, 
from the lower margin of the hair to the height of three inches, 
as Ringbone may sometimes be detected in this manner when 
it is not visible, especially in the incipient state. We have seen 
excrescences form on the bone near the foot from bruises, which 
never produced lameness, though they are suspicious blemishes. 


Use a strong blister in its acute state ; if of old standing its cure 
is difficult and doubtful. 

Sprains in the Stifle. 

Symptoms. — The liorse holds up his foot, moans when moved, 
swells in stifle ; this is what is called stifling. There is no such 
thing as this joint getting out of place. It gets sprained the same 
as any other joint, and the patella may slip from its place, which 
acts as a stay to the joint. 

The tendons and ligaments become contracted, and lameness 
follows. To relieve it, foment the joint well, stimulate it with some 
strong linament or a slight blister. 

The Nerve Operation. 

A most barbarous operation called "nerving," or "neurotomy," 
was discovered in England, and was subsequently introduced into this 
country ; nothing more disgraceful was ever imported into any 
country claiming civilization. 

It consisted in laying bare, taking up and cutting out from an inch 
to one and a half inches of the metacarpal nerve, producing the 
most excruciating pain. We illustrate the operation for the purpose 
of exposing the cruelty of it, that no one will ever be guilty of such 
wanton torture again. 

By reference to the annexed plate (page 106), it will be sufficiently 

We would suggest as a humane substitute for this operation, to 
shoot the horse in the brain, and thus put an end to the suffering of 
the pitiable animal as speedily as possible. 

If a proper shoe is applied when the horse is first shod, and its 
vise continued, all the organs of the foot will be maintained in their 



natural, respective and relative positions, and health, vigor and pro- 
tracted usefulness will be secured, and there will be no necessity for 
the brutal operation of neurotomy. 

Eeferences— Tipper Section.— a, A prober passed under .the nerve; b, the 
nerve ; c, the artery ; d, the back sinews, or flexor tendons. 

Lower Section. — a, The nerve; b, the artery; c, the vein; d, a bran n - °f the 
nerve between the vein and artery, not divided in the low operation. 

Sow to Treat Contracted Feei. 

By reference to the foot in the plate illustrating the process of 
nerving, three grooves will be seen in the wall. 

These grooves we make in the hard crust of the foot of patients 
suffering from long standing, and severe contraction of the heels. 


The forward groove is placed directly over the points or wings 
of the coffin-bone, where the pressure of the contracted wall 
is most severe on the metacarpal nerve ; back of this we 
cut two others parallel. These grooves should be cut from 
one-eighth to one-fourth of an inch in depth and the same width, 
according to the strength of the wall and the extent of the 
contractions. We use a narrow gouge with which to cut the grooves, 
and cut them before the shoe is set, by placing the bottom of the foot 
on a block some twenty inches in height, and use a light mallet to 
drive the gouge. 

The operation of grooving, three on the outer and two on the inner 
side of the foot, does not require more than five or ten minutes, and 
may be done by any person of ordinary judgment, as it only requires- 
a little care not to cut the groove so deep as to disturb the sensitive 
portion of the foot, which will be indicated by blood showing in the 
bottom of the groove, a slight show of which need not alarm the 
operator, though it is preferable to take sufficient time and care in 
performing the operation, to do it in the best possible manner, as 

Shoe for Spreading the Heal. 
it doubles the value of the horse the instant the operation is com- 
pleted and our shoe for spreading the heel is properly set. The- 
above cut is a drawing of this shoe, with five nail-holes in front 
and none in the heels. 


This shoe is generally understood by the skilled blacksmith, and 
requires great care in the fitting to make it perform its desired work, 
which is to spread the heel slowly. 

It will be seen by the cut that the portion of the shoe resting on 
the heel is about one-eighth of an inch higher on the inside than 
on the outside at the heel. In fact, the shoe is convexed from the 
last nail to the heel. The cut represents the surface of the shoe next 
to the hoof. The shoe should be a trifle wider at the heel than 
the hoof. Care must be taken that the shoe does not rest on the sole 
of the foot, but bear on the wall. 

The best way to fit this shoe is to fit it cold as well as you can. 

Then heat it and apply it to the hoof, and make an impression on the 

foot with the hot shoe. This will enable the smith to get a better fit 

than he could by fitting it cold. Aitec these grooves are made in 

the hoof, and the above shoe properly fitted, it will at once double 

the value of the horse. 


Founder is produced by the sudden transition from heat to cold* 
For instance, by driving a horse until he is hot, then allowing him 
to stand in a cold current of air, or giving him a heavy draught of 
cold water while warm, thereby checking the circulation of the blood 
to the extremities. It is frequently produced by driving fast on hard 
roads, which produce inflammation of the delicate plates called la- 
minae, by which the hoof is attached to the sensitive foot. It also 
occurs from overloading the stomach by too much wheat, oats, barley 
or peas, as h often seen when a horse gets loose during the night, 
getting to the grain-bin ; the food, taken into the stomach in such 
large quantities, and a portion of it dry, when wet by the stomach, 
swells to such an extent that it prevents the blood from circulating, 
and produces founder. 

No horse will be foundered from giving him his ordinary amount 


of feed at any time. Symptoms : Shivering and uneasiness ; he 
refuses his food, moves about with the fore-feet, and seems restless ; 
the mouth is hot, the pulse full and quickened ; soon the pain 
in the feet becomes evident, he sometimes inclines to lie, points 
with the muzzle to the feet, which are hot and tender; he 
advances them in front, resting principally on the heels ; while 

the hind-feet are well drawn under him ; on backing him, he- 
backs with reluctance ; when forced back, he drags one foot after 
the other, evincing considerable pain in so doing. 

When moved forward he walks on his heels, his movements 
being slow and difficult. The bowels are costive and fever runs 

Treatment. — Give the horse a good bedding of straw, in a large 
well- ventilated stall, so as to encourage him to lie down, which, 
by removing the weight from the inflamed parts, will relieve his 
sufferings very much, and assist in hastening the cure. As soon 
as his bed is fixed, give him twenty drops of the tincture of 
aconite-root in a half-pint of cold water, poured into his mouth 
with a bottle < having a strong neck, and repeat this dose every 
four hours until six or eight doses have been given. Also apply 



a cloth wet in ice water to the feet, and keep wet with the 
same for several hours until the severe pain has been relieved- 
Wet the cloths often, and continue for two or three days, or 
longer if necessary. Give plenty of cold water to drink. The 
above treatment should be adopted as soon as possible after 
the horse has been attacked with founder. Let the horse have 
rest until he has fully recovered. Give grass or mashes for 
two or three days, and then give a good and fair amount of 

This cut represents the seat of the ringbone. Fig. 1, the joint 
between the pastern-bones ; Fig. 2, the joint between the lower 
pastern (or small pastern) and the coffin-bone. 


This cut shows the location of the different splints on the fore 
leg. Fig. 1— A splint near the knee; Fig. 2, a low splint j 



Fig. 3, a small bony growth on the front of the leg, also called 


This is one of the many diseases of the hock-joint, and consists 
of an enlargement or gradual bulging out at the posterior part of 
the hock. [See above cut.] 

Shoulder-joint Lameness. 
This difficulty, being located in the joint, is much more serious 
than the shoulder lameness just described, and it is more difficult 
to effect a perfect cure of it. 

Symptoms.— The animal drags the leg, with the toe on the ground, 
nd throws the leg out in attempting to move it. It is with great 
difficulty that he can raise his foot. 

Treatment.— If the treatment is not put off too long, a cure 


may reasonably be expected, if the following directions are fol- 
lowed. This disease, being similar to a spavin in the hock- joint, 
should have similar treatment. If the part is very hot, reduce the 
temperature by cold cloths ; or perhaps hot fomentations may work 
well instead of the cold ; then apply a mild blister. 

To Kill Lice on Horses. 
Place your horse in a warm place and wash him thoroughly with 
1 ounce of arsenic dissolved in a pail of water. 

Hen and human lice thrive well on horses, and the above recipe 
will always exterminate them. 

Condition Potvders. 

G-entian Root, pulverized 2 oz. 

Anise Seed, pulverized ••• 1 oz. 

Ginger 1 J*. 

Fenugreek Seed 1 oz - 

Seed of Sumach Berries, pulverized 1 oz. 

Antimony 1 oz - 

Mix with one pound of brown sugar. Nothing better for colds 
and coughs, and to improve a horse's appetite. 

Liniment of Extraordinary Merit for all Purposes. 

Turpentine 1 P int - 

Apple Yinegar 1 pint. 

Eggs ! P int - 

Chloroform 1 dram. 

Carbolic Acid 1 dram. 

Bottle tight and shake well before using. 
Condition Potvder. 

Ashes • 1 quart- 
Flax-seed Meal 1 quart. 

g! a lt 2 tablespoonsf ul. 


Mustard 1 tablespoonful. 

Salfc P etre 1 tablespoonful. 

Cayenne Pepper l teaspoonful. 

Dose — Two tablespoonsful once a day. 

Diruetic Drops. 

These drops will be found good for the stoppage of water, foul 
water, or inflammation of the kidneys. 

Gum Camphor, pulverized ± oz 

Sweet Spirits of Nitre 4 oz 

Treatment for Cuts or Wounds. 

If the wound or cut is very bad, trim the hair off closely around 
the edges, and wash carefully with soap and warm water. 

The object next is to produce a granulating process. 

In aU cases of wounds, cuts or ulcers, of any kind, you should 
bear in mind the importance of washing the matter, or syringing 
it from the affected part, with castile soap and warm water daily, and 
a dependent opening must be made to allow the matter to escape from 
the wound. 

Matter, in every case, burrows or pockets, and the principle is the 
same in every case. 

Use caustics to cut out all fungus or diseased growths, and using 
proportionately, more stimulating medicine for indolent ulcers than 
for those in a fresh state. 

The following ointment is unsurpassed for curing cuts and fresh 
wounds on horses : 

Beeswax x 

Palm0iI - ZZZZ'.'.Vib* 

^ lA - 2 lbs. 

G-um Turpentine , ., 

Calamine i " 

H llb - 


Simmer over a slow fire and stir well together until thoroughly 
mixed. Wash the wound well with warm water and castile soap, and 
apply the ointment once a day. 

A Simple Sealing Preparation. 

Water £ pint. 

Tincture Myrrh 1 oz. 

Tincture Aloes 2 oz. 

Mix, and apply once a day. 

Ointment for Healing Cuts, Galls, Etc. 

Carbolic Acid 6 grains. 

Lard 1 oz. 

Oxide of Zinc, pulverized fine 4 drams. 

Melt the lard and stir in the zinc. 
Add the carbolic acid and mix thoroughly. 

By applying this ointment once or twice a day to the injured part> 
it will cause a healthy discharge from a foul ulcer. 

Liniment for Open Wounds. 

White Vitriol 2 oz. 

Sulphate of Copper 1 oz. 

Muriate of Soda (Salt) 2 oz. 

Linseed Oil 2 oz. 

Orleans Molasses 8 oz. 

Boil the above ingredients in a pint of urine, for fifteen minutes. 
When nearly cold, add 1 oz. oil of vitrol and 4 oz. spirits of tur- 
pentine, and bottle for use. 

To quickly set the wound to discharging, apply the liniment 
to the wound with a quill, which will perform a cure in a few 

Valuable Wash for Fresh Wounds. 

Copperas 1 teaspoonful. 

Fine gunpowder 2 teaspoonsful. 

White Vitriol 1 teaspoonful. 



Add 1 quart of boiling water. Let it stand until cool. For deep 
wounds apply with a syringe. 

Liniment for Foul Ulcers. 

Nitric Acid x 

Sulphate of Copper 2 oz 

Water 8tol2oz. 

Cooling Liniment for External Inflammation. 

Vine S ar 2oz. 

Spirits of Wine 3 Qz 

Goulard Extract 1 oz 

Water ...Hpinte! 

Apply with a bandage. 

For Inflamed Leg, Galled Back or Shoulders. 
Spirits of Wine 2 oz 

Yine £ ar 4oz." 

Sal Ammoniac i 

1 oz. 

Tincture Arnica 2 drams. 

Water t .. 

-2 pint. 

Mix and bathe often and thoroughly. 

Sticking Plaster for Cuts and Wounds. 

Tallow 2oz. 

Burgundy Pitch 4 oz 

Spread on linen while hot. Cut in strips of proper length and 
width. First, draw the cut together, warm the strips and apply 
them. Cut the hair short where you apply the strips. 

Wash for Reducing Inflamed Wounds. 

Crotus Martes i 

Sulphate of Zinc j 

Sugar of Lead i Qz 

Water .'.'.I pint. 

Prevents bad smell in sores. 


To Prevent Swelling, Following a Bruise or Sprain 

Tincture Arnica 2 oz. 

Cold Water 1 qt. 

Anodyne Stimulating Liniment. 

Sulphuric Ether 1* oz. 

Spirits of Turpentine ioz. 

Spirits of Hartshorn 1| oz. 

Sweet Oil I oz. 

Oil of Cloves I oz. 

Chloroform ■" 1 oz. 

This liniment relieves pain and is unsurpassed for strains, lameness 
and soreness. Put the liniment in a strong eight ounce bottle, cork 
tight, and keep in the dark. When used rub in well. 

Magic Liniment. 

Organum 2 oz. 

Hemlock 2 oz. 

Oil of Spike 2 oz. 

Sweet Oil 4 oz. 

Wormwood 2 oz . 

Spirits Ammonia 2 oz. 

Spirits Turpentine 2 oz. 

Gum Camphor 2 oz. 

Proof Spirits (90 per cent.) 1 qt. 

Bottle tight after mixing. 

It is beneficial for bruises, sprains, etc., and a fine counter irritant 
for inflammation and pleurisy. 

For Neio Strains. 

Carbonate Ammonia 2 oz. 

Apple Vinegar ■£ gilh 

Rub in well. 


Sealing Compound. 

Calamine, pulverized 2 drams. 

Gum Camphor 1 dram. 

Prepared Chalk - 1 z. 

Burnt Alum \ oz. 


Sprinkle on the affected part, and in a few hours it will heal. Good 
for collar or saddle galls, fresh wounds, and for any sore or lacerated 
mouths, or any trouble requiring great astringent healing proper- 

This wonderful powder is well known by having been extensively 
advertised through this country. 


Substances used to burn away tissues of the body by decomposition 
of their elements are termed caustics, and are valuable in destroying 
fungus growth and renew a healthy action. 

Nitrate of Silver is excellent to lower granulation. 

Corrosive sublimate in powder acts energetically. 

Sulphate of copper is not so strong as nitrate of silver, but good. 

Chloride of zinc is a powerful caustic. It may be used in sinuses ; 
in solution, 7 drams in a pint of water. 

Mild Caustics. 

A wound or ulcer will not heal while there remains any foreign 
substance in the shape of splinters, pieces of bone, hair, &c. 

No matter what treatment you subject the wound to, it will not 
heal so long as foreign substances remain in the cut. 

Wash with, or inject, warm water and castile soap, after which 
regular digestive ointment can be used. But if fungus growths 


cannot be removed with the knife, use a caustic — a little of which is 
to be put on the part or in the sinews. Carrying this treatment 
in the extreme implies using a hot iron (the actual cautery) . 

Balls for Farcy. 

No. 1— Calomel 20 grains. 

Common Turpentine.. 3 drams. 

Sulphate of Copper 1 dram. 

Syrup and liquorice to form a ball. 

No. 2— Iodide of Potassium 10 grains. 

Sulphate of Iron 2 drams. 

Gentian 2 drams. 

Ginger 1 dram. 

Treacle to form a ball. 

Another Diabetes Remedy. 

Alum \ drain. 

Catechu a oz - 

Sugar of Lead 10 grains. 

With conserve of roses to form a ball. 

Cough Balls. 

No. 1— Digitalis * dram. 

Nitre !a drams. 

Tartar Emetic i dram. 

Tar enough to form a ball. One every night. 

No. 2— Gum Ammoniac 3 drams. 

Opium I clram. 

Powdered Squills 1 dram. 

Syrup to form ball. 

For Bloody Urine. 

Sulphate of Zinc 40 grains. 

Catechu 4 drams. 

Acetate of Lead 10 grains. 

Conserve of roses to form a ball. Give one daily. 


Condition Powder. 

This is the best tonic Condition Powder ever used, and is used in 
the Eastern cities at a high price, under various names, such a* 
Condition Food, &c. 

Salt if ftg. 

Common Brown Sugar Q ft s . 

Carbonate Soda 6 oz. 

Ginger (ground) £ ft. 

Gentian (powdered) § ft. 

Cummin Seed (ground) 6 oz. 

Fenugreek (ground) ..6 oz. 

Grains Pax'adise (ground) \ ft. 

Meal 100 fts. 

Dose — One pint with the food. 

Incurable Diseases. 

There are some diseases or afflictions to which the horse is 
subject, which, when thoroughly established, are incurable ; among 
which are heaves, cribbing, thumps, windsucking, bog and bone 
spavins, curbs, ringbones and exosotosis on the joints. This latter 
class of unsoundness may, however, be palliated in incipiency, by 
blistering, but it should be administered by a skilled veterinarian. 
If not, the effect of the treatment may be worse than the disease. 

Watering Horses. 

The water from ponds, streams or rain-water cisterns, is much 
preferable to that from cold springs or wells, as the temperature of 
it is more natural and more conducive to health than cold water, 
and it is generally softer, a desirable quality of water for all animals. 
If the horse is to be driven rapidly, he should be watered frequently 
with tepid water, and there is great economy in removing the chill 
from the water used for idle animals in cold weather. 


The food saved by observing this will pay many times the cost 
of tempering the water drank. It is very injudicious to water 
horses when away from home, with cold water, when they have been 
accustomed to warm water at home, as it is liable to produce lung 
fever, chills and severe colic. 

Bare Feet for Farm Horses. 

Horses used only on the farm and earth roads are better off 
without shoes in summer, unless the land is very rough and stony 
There is not only the saving of the cost of shoeing, but all the 
destructive effects arising from shoeing in the ordinary way will 
be avoided. By working the horse barefooted, the natural organs of 
support are used, and a healthful condition of the feet is maintained. 

It is well, however, to examine the bare feet twice a year, and 
in case they wear or grow irregularly, they should be pared to the 
proper shape. 

Horses used] for the road in winter should be sharp shod, but 
these shoes should be removed at the commencement of the plowing 




A few years ago the Scottish Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals offered a series of prizes for the best and most 
practical essays on horse-shoeing, in connection with comfort and 
soundness of the horse. About fifty essays were sent in, and were 
submitted to Prof. Williams, Principal of the Edinburgh Veterinary 
College; Mr. W. Kobertson, M.R.C.V.S., Kelso, and Mr. B. 
Cartledge, M.R.C.V.S., Sheffield, Examiners of the Royal College 
of Veterinary Surgeons, and Mr. J. C. Broad, M.R.C.V.8., 
London, by whom, after a very patient and careful exami- 
nation, the first prize was awarded to Mr. George Fleming for 
the following essay : 


It requires but little observation and reflection, one would think, 
in order to arrive at the conclusion that the art of horse-shoeing 
is not only an important one, so far as civilization and the ordinary 
every-day business of life is concerned, but that the successful 
utilization of the Horse, together with its welfare and comfort, in a 
great measure depend upon the correctness of the principles on 
which its practice is based, and the mode in which these principles 
are carried out by the artisan. 

For proof of this we have but to glance at the immense traffic in 
our great towns and cities in which the horse figures so prominently, 
at the same time remembering that, without a defence to its hoofs, 
this invaluable animal would be almost, if not quite, valueless, in 
consequence of the hardness of our artificial roads, and the great 
efforts demanded from him ; or, studying the anatomy and functions 
of the limbs and feet, to call to mind how these are wonderfully 
calculated to serve most essential purposes in locomotion and 
weight-sustaining, and how necessary it is, at the same time, that 
their natural adaptability be as little as possible thwarted or 
annulled by the interference of man in his endeavor to protect 
or aid them. 

From the earliest ages, the horse's foot and its envelop, the hoof, 
have been looked upon by horsemen as the principal region of the 
animal's body to which care and attention should be directed ; as, 
when these become injured or diseased, no matter how perfect 
and sound the other parts may be, the quadruped's services are 
diminished or altogether lost. 

Consequently, the preservation of these in an efficient and 
healthy state has ever been the aim of those who valued the Horse 
for the immense advantages his services were capable of conferring 
on mankind ; and in later years, those who have been moved 
by the sacred impulse of humanity toward the lower creatures, 


have not forgotten how much the noble animal may suffer from 
unskillful management of its feet, through the neglect or ignorance 
of those who have the special care of these organs. 

At a very early period in the domestication of the Horse, and 
particularly in western regions, it must have been soon discovered 
that, at certain seasons, on particular soils, and especially when 
called upon to perform any great amount of travelling and load- 
carrying, the horn composing the hoof underwent an amount of 
wear greater than nature could compensate for, and that the living 
sensitive structures within, becoming exposed and irritated by contact 
with the ground, gave rise to pain, lameness and inability to work. 

To guard against this serious result, the ingenuity of man must 
have been severely tested in devising a suitable and durable pro- 
tection for the ground-surface of the hoof, and among the many 
contrivances proposed, the most notable, and by far the most 
valuable, has been the device of nailing a plate of metal to the 
outer margin or wall of the hoof. 

The antiquity of this invention is very great, and it is probable 
that for many centuries the shoe was considered as nothing more 
than a simple defender of the hoof from the damaging effects of 
attrition, and occasionally as an aid in securing the animal's foothold 
during progression on slippery ground. 

As time advanced, however, and the services of the horse became 
increased a hundredfold by the application of this ingenious and 
simple expedient, the sciences of anatomy and physiology began to 
•embrace the Horse in their domain, and, crude as they were at first, 
it is to be feared that, when they were extended to the investigation 
of the structure and functions of the foot, the useful and com- 
paratively harmless protection of early days was made subservient 
to the most varied and fantastic theories ; and it must be admitted 
that for many years horse-shoeing, so far from proving a boon to 
horse-owners and a preserver of horses' feet, has been far from 


yielding the benefits its scientific and reasonable application should 
afford. Indeed, it would be no exaggeration to assert that the 
predominating principles and practice of this art has been eminently 
destructive to horses and a source of great loss to their owners. 

These principles were founded on a misconception of the functions 
of the foot and of the part assumed by the hoof in locomotion, and 
their speedy popularization was due to the fact that they were 
congenial to the whims of fashion and were deemed essential to the 
improvement of nature, commending themselves to unreasoning and 
unreasonable minds like the fashions of cropping horses' and dogs' 
ears, cutting, nicking and docking tails, and other cruel fancies of 
depraved tastes. 

The amount of injury inflicted by an unscientific method of 
shoeing may be very much greater than a cursory inquiry would 
lead one to believe. To those experienced among horses, and who 
have directed their attention closely to the subject, the proportion 
of animals whose utility is directly or indirectly impaired by im- 
proper treatment of their feet must appear excessive, when compared 
with the other causes of inefficiency. Indeed, maladies of the feet 
and limbs, due, more or less, to faulty shoeing, form a very large 
percentage of the cases usually met with in veterinary practice. 

An act, therefore, which has so much influence for good or evil, 
so far as the usefulness and comfort of the horse are concerned, 
surely deserves the serious study of all those who are interested in 
that animal. A good system, founded on the teachings of anatomy 
and physiology, and perfected by daily experience, must prove of 
immense benefit to horse and owner ; while a bad system, conducted 
in ignorance or carelessness, cannot but bring about pain and speedy 
uselessness to the animal and loss to the proprietor. 




One of the primary considerations for those who have the 
shoeing and management of the horse's foot, should be the 
acquisition of a knowledge of its structure and functions in 
health ; not a profound knowledge, certainly, such as the scientific 

Fig. 1.— Section of the Horse's Foot— a a, Skin of leg ; b b b, extensor 
tendon of foot ; c, its insertion into the foot-bone ; d d, capsular ligaments 
of joints; d' d', flexor tendon of foot inserted into sole of foot-bone (s) ; 
a e, flexor tendon of pastern inserted at / into the small pastern bone, i; 
g, shank or large metacarpal bone ; h, large pastem bone j fe, navicular 
bone ; I, foot or pedal bone ; m, ligaments of navicular bone connected with 
deep flexor tendon ; n, sensitive laminae, dovetailing with horny laminae 
n' ; o, plantar cushion; p, coronary cushion; q, horny frog; r, wall o' 
hoof ; t, sensitive membrane of frog and sole ; u, the face of the navicular 
bone over which the flexor tendon plays— the seat of navicular disease. 

veterinarian requires, but sufficient to enable them to understand 
the situation, relation, texture, and uses of the parts of the organ 
with which they have more particularly to deal. If the artisan does 
not possess this knowledge, is it possible that he can practice his 
handicraft to advantage, or minister effectually to the varied require- 


rnents of this organ ? It must be admitted that he cannot do so ; 
and it is from neglect of this fundamental consideration that so 
much improper and vicious shoeing prevails, and that so many horses 
are crippled and prematurely worn out. By the majority of farriers 
the foot of the horse is looked upon as little, if anything, more than 
an insensible block of horn which they may carve and mutilate with 
impunity and as suit? their fancy, and for which nothing more 
is necessary than the attachment, by an unreasonable number of 
nails, of a clumsy mass of iron that may not only be unsuitable for its 
requirements, but positively injurious to it and the other parts of 
the limb. The art of farriery in this country has never received a 
scientific development, but has ever been a mere affair of routine and 
tradition. Such should not be the case ; and allusion is only made 
to this matter here in order to urge most strenuously the necessity 
for farriers being properly instructed in the elements of their art, and 
made to comprehend as much as may be required of the construction 
and functions of the very important organ upon which they are 
destined to exercise their skill. 

The horse's foot may be said, for practical purposes, to be 
intended not only as an organ of support and defence (or offence), 
but also as that part of the limb in which the efforts created 
elsewhere are concentrated, and as the instrument through which 
propulsion and progression may be mainly effected. It is also largely 
endowed, in a natural state, with the sense of touch, which enables 
the animal to travel with safety and confidence on rough as well as 
even, and on soft as well as hard ground. 

When we come to examine it in a methodical and careful 
manner, we find that it has for its basis the last three bones of the 
limb — the small pastern, navicular, and coffin or pedal bone. The 
latter is more particularly the foundation of the foot, and is the 
nucleus on which the hoof is moulded, and which in shape it much 


resembles. At its highest point in front, the larger extensor tendon 
of the foot is inserted, and in the middle of its lower face or sole 
is implanted the powerful tendon which bends or flexes the foot ; 
these tendons are the chief agents in progression. An elastic 
apparatus surrounds them and a portion of the pedal bone, and 
the whole is enveloped by a membrane that attaches the hoof in 
the closest possible manner to its outer surface. Into each of the 
wings or sides of the bone (for it is crescent-shaped, the horns 
extending backward on eacli side) is fixed a large plate of cartilage 
that rises above the hoof, where it may readily be felt, and which 
has important relations with its fellow on the opposite side, as 
well as with other elastic bodies admirably disposed to sustain 
weight, prevent jar, and insure that lightness and springiness which 
form so striking a feature in the horse's movements. The navicular 
bone is a narrow piece, placed transversely between the wings of 
the coffin bone, and is intended to throw the flexing tendon farther 
from the centre of motion, and thus increase its power ; the tendon 
plays over its posterior or lower face, and this disposition, together 
with the relations established between it and the pedal bone through 
their connecting ligaments, and the bend the tendon makes 
in passing over it, cause this part of the foot to be one par- 
ticularly liable to disease, and one especially deserving of atten- 
tive study. 

The elastic apparatus of the foot consists of (1) the lateral 
cartilages just mentioned ; (2), a prominent ring or cornice sur- 
rounding the upper border of the pedal bone usually known as the 
"coronary-substance," but which might be more aptly designated 
the "coronary cushion ;" this fits into a corresponding concavity in 
the inner and upper margin of wall of the hoof, and, besides 
acting as an elastic body or cushion, pei'forms the important func- 
tion of secreting this wall or crust of the horny envelop ; (3), a 
triangular body — the plantar cushion, known to farriers as the 
" fatty " or " sensitive frog " (to distinguish it from the horny frog. 

-j^8 H0KSE-S1I0EING-. 

which immediately covers it), admirably disposed between the 
wings of the coffin bone, with a view to protect and sustain the 
flexor tendon during its efforts, as well as to diminish concussion 
by its own resiliency and by the connection it has with the elastic 
cartilages. From its position at the back of the foot, and the 
importance of the part it covers, this portion of the elastic 
apparatus derives much interest, and must not be overlooked by 
the farrier. 

Pig. 2.— Horse's Foot divested of its Hoof— a a, Perioplic ring; b b, 
'perioplic or coronary fissure ; c c c, coronary cushion covered with villi ; 
d d, white zone ; ///, vascular laminae terminating in villi, g. 

Besides the elastic apparatus of the foot more immediately 
in connection with the pedal and navicular bones, we have the 
wonderful arrangement of living membrane enveloping these parts, 
whose office appears to be the secretion and attachment of the horny 
box we designate the " hoof ;" to it large quantities of blood are 
conveyed by the ultimate ramifications of the arteries proceeding to 
the foot, and from it, by a complex distribution of veins arising from 
these ultimate arterial divisions, to the great venous trunks that 
pass up the limb. The terminal twigs of the senory nerves of 
the foot are also freely and wisely distributed in its substance in 


the form of exceedingly fine filaments, which endow the organ with 
a sufficient sense of touch to enable it to perform its varied functions 
with safety and precision. A peculiar and striking disposition of 
this membrane can be observed around the front and sides of the 
pedal bone, when the hoof has been removed by steeping the foot 
for some time in water. This disposition consists in the elevation 
of the membrane into parallel vertical leaves, which extend from the 
coronary cushion to the lower border of the bone, and to a certain 
distance within its wings. These leaves, which resemble in appear- 
ance those on the underside of a mushroom, are known as the 
"vascular" or "sensitive laminne," and number between six and 
seven hundred. Their chief use seems to be to afford a wide and 
close attachment for the wall of the hoof, within which, through 
their agency, the penal bone is, as it were, suspended ; so that the 
relations between bone and hoof are not so rigid as if they were 
directly united to each other. These lanrinoe are exceedingly vascular 
and sensitive, and when they become inflamed through bad shoeing, 
excessive travelling, or other cause, the horse suffers most excruciating 
pain, and in a large majority of cases the chronic inflammation that 
remains produces serious alterations in the structure and formation 
of the hoof, leading to more or less lameness and diminished 

Besides entering into the formation of these leaves, this membrane 
covers the other parts of the foot within the hoof, as a sock does 
the human foot, and endows it with a high degree of vitality and 
secretory power. It overspreads the coronary and plantar cushions* 
as well as the sole of the pedal bone, and its surface in these parts 
is thickly studded with myriads of tufts or "villi," which give it 
the appearance of the finest Genoa velvet. These minute processes 
vary in length from one -eighth to more than one-fourth of an inch, 
and are best observed when a foot, from which the hoof has just been 
removed by maceration, is suspended in clear water. Examined with 
the microscope, they are found to be merely prolongations from the 



face of the membrane, each composed of one or two minute arteries,. 
which branch off into exceedingly fine net-work, and end in hair-like 
veins. A nervous filament has also been traced into the interior, so 
that these tufts are not only vascular, but also sensitive. They play 
an essential part in the formation of the hoof, and their relations 

Fig. 3. — Sensitive Sole of Horse's Foot.— a, Cartilaginous biubs of the heels, 
covered by sensitive membrane ; b, inflexion of the coronary cushion; c, 
middle cleft or lacuna : d d, plantar laminae ; e, limit between the coronary 
cushion and plantar lamina? ; //, branches of the plantar cushion ; g g g g, 
termination of the laminae in villi ; li h, sensitive membrane of sole covered 
with innumerable tine tufts or villi ; i, prolongation of the coronary cushion 
into the lateral lacuna. 

to that covering must not be neglected by the farrier in his treat- 
ment of it. 

This is all that need be said at present with regard to the 
anatomy of the living parts of the horse's foot ; we have referred 
to it merely to show that this organ is not a crude block of insensi- 
tire matter, but a most wonderfully-constructed apparatus, possessed 
of qualities which are not to be found in any other part of the body. 
In constructing the foot of this noble creature, Nature sought to do 
more than merely protect the extremely delicate and exquisitely 


sensitive structure, contained within the hoof from injurious contact 
with the ground. This redoubtable difficulty is comparatively insigni- 
ficant in comparison with the other portions of the task she set her- 
self. It was necessary that the lower extremity of the limb of such a 
glorious creation as the horse, should be an organ endowed with the 
acutest sense of touch for the instantaneous perception of the con- 
sistence and inequalities of the ground over which it moved- and 
while it possessed this quality in a high degree, it was also incnV 
pensible that it should be gifted with the properties of resistance 
pliability and lightness to the extent necessary for the support and 
progression of the body, in addition to the rigidity essential to im- 
pulsion, the elasticity and suppleness needful to avert reactions or iar 
and the durability and rapidity of renovation demanded by incessant 
wear. Here we have a combination of requirements whose simultane- 
ous existence in one organ might almost be deemed incompatible so 
opposite do they appear; insensibility with a delicate sense of touch ■ 
resistance with lightness, rigidity with elasticity, suppleness with 


xhe hoot P^ys no small share in rendering the horse such a 
complete animal as it is ; and, as this is the portion of the foot which 
comes more immediately under the care and manipulative skill of the 
farrier, xts study should be a little more detailed and minute, perhaps 
than that of the internal structures. For convenience and simplicity 
in description, it has been divided into « wall " or - crust " - sole " 
"frog" and "coronary frog-band," or « periopie." It L essential 
that the shoer should understand the structure, nature, and uses of 
these parts. 

The Wall of the hoof is that oblique portion which covers the 
front and sides of the foot from the coronet to the gronnd, and i. 



suddenly inflected or bent inward at the heels, toward the middle 
of the sole, to form the "bars," which are merely prolongations of 
its extremities; it constitutes the circumference or margin of the 
hoof, is the part of the horny box that is intended more especially to 
come into contact with the ground, and is that on which the iron de- 
fense rests, and through which the farrier drives the nails that attach 
it. The inner face of its upper edge is hollowed out into a somewhat 
wide concavity, which receives, or rather in which rests, the coronary 
cushion ; this concavity is chiefly remarkable for being pierced every- 

Fig. 4.— Profile of a Five-year-old Front Hoof that had never been 
Shod ; external face.— Angle of wall at toe 51deg ; a a, frog baud or 
periople ; b, wall ; c, toe, between wbich and cl is the " outside " or 
"inside" toe or " mammilla," and between c and / the "outside" or 
"inside" heel. 

where by countless minute openings which penetrate the substance of 
the wall to some depth ; each of these perforations receives one of the 
" villi," or minute tufts of blood-vessels already mentioned as pro- 
longed from the face of the membrane covering the interior of the 
foot. Below this concavity, which receives a large share of the horse's 
weight, the wall is of about equal thickness from top to bottom 5 on 
the whole of its inner surface are ranged thin, narrow, vertical horny 
plates, in number corresponding to the vascular laminae, between 
which they are so intimately received or dovetailed — a horny leaf 
between every two vascular ones — that in the living or fresh state 


it is almost impossible to disunite without tearing them. The inner 
face of the lower margin is united in a solid body to the horny sole 
through the medium o; a narrow band of soft, light-colored horn, 
situated between the two, and which we may call the " white line," 
or " zone." 

The outer surface of the wall is generally smooth and shining in 
the natural healthy state. 

The dimensions of the wall vary in different situations ; in front 
it is deepest and thickest, but towards the quarters and heels it 
diminishes in height and becomes thinner ; at its angles of inflection 
— the points of the heels — it is strong. Its structure is fibrous ; the 
fibres pass directly parallel to each other from the coronet to the 
ground, each fibre being moulded on, as it is secreted by, one of the 
minute tufts of blood-vessels lodged in the cavity of the coronet. 
Microscopically, the wall is composed of minute cells, closely com- 
pressed, and arranged vertically around each fibre, and horizontally 
between the fibres. A point of much practical interest is to be 
found in the fact that the fibres on the surface or outside of the wall, 
are very dense, close, and hard — so dense, indeed, that the wall of an 
unmutilated hoof looks like whalebone; but toward the inner surface 
they become softer, move spongy, and easily cut. 

The Horny Sole is contained within the lower margin of the wall, 
and is a concave plate covering the lower face of the pedal bone. In 
structure it is fibrous like the wall, the fibres passing in the same 
direction, and formed in the same manner by the tufts of vessels 
projected from the membrane which immediately covers the bone. 
These tufts penetrate the horn fibres to some depth, and, as in the 
wall, maintain them in a moist, supple condition, such as best fits 
them for their office. 

The sole is thickest around its outer border, where it joins the wall ; 
thinnest in the centre, where it is most concave. A notable pecu- 

13i K0E8E-SH0EING. 

liarity in this part of the hoof, and one which distinguishes it from 
the wall, is its tendency to bre.ik off in flakes on the ground face when 
the fibers have attained a certain length ; the wall, on the contrary, 
continues to grow in length to an indefinite extent, and, unless kept 
within reasonable dimensions by continual wear or the instruments of 

Fig. 5.— Plantar Surface of left Pose Hoof of a Five-tear-old Horse 
that had never been Shol — j a, glomes or heels of the frog: b, median 
lacuna or " cleft" of the frog ; c c, branches of the frog; d d, heels, " angles 
of inflexion," or "buttresses" of the wall of the hoof; e e, lateral lacuna? 
or spaces between the frog and liars ; //, inflexions of the wall or " bars ; " 
</, body of the frog ; h, outside quarter of the boof ; i, inside quarter of the 
hoof; j, point of the frog ; fe, sole ; I 1, commissure, " white line," or line of 
junction between sole and wall ; in, n, mammilla ; o, toe. 

the farrier, would in time acquire an extraordinary distortion. The 
horn of the sole, for this reason, is less dense and resisting than that 
of the wall, and is designed more to support weight than to sustain 

The "Homy Frog" is an exact reduplication of that within the 
hoof, described as the sensitive or fatty frog. It is triangular, or 
rather pyramidal in shape, and is situated at the back part of the hoof 
within the bars; with its point or apex extending forward to the 
centre of the sole, and its base or thickest portion filling up the wide 
space left between the inflexions of the wall. In the middle of the 


posterior part is a cleft, which in the healthy state should not be deep, 
but rather shallow and sound on its surface. 

In structure, this body is also fibrous, the fibers passing in the 
same direction as those of the other portions of the hoof; but, 
instead of being quite rectilinear like them, they are waw an [ 
fiexuous in their course, and present some microscopical pecularities 
which, though interesting to the comparative anatomist, need not 
be alluded to here. The fibers are finer than those of the sole and 
wall, and are composed of cells arranged in the same manner as 
elsewhere in the hoof; they are formed by the villi which 
thickly stud the face of the membrane covering the sensitive 

The substance of the horny frog is eminently elastic, and cor- 
responds in the closest manner to the dense/ elastic, epidermic 
pads on the soles of the feet of such animals as the camel, elephant, 
lion, bear, dog, cat, etc., and which are evidently designed for con- 
tact with the ground, the support and protection of °the tendona 
that flex the foot, to facilitate the springy movements of these 
creatures, and for the prevention of jar and injury to the limbs. 

In the horse's foot, the presence of this thick, compressible, 
and supple mass of horn at the back of the hoof, its being in a 
healthy, unmutilated condition, and permitted to reach the ground 
whilfl the animal is standing or moving, are absolutely essential to 
the well-being of that organ, more especially should speed, in 
addition to weight-carrying, be exacted. 

The frog, like the sole, exfoliates or becomes reduced in thick- 
ness at a certain stage of its growth ; the flakes are more cohesive 
than those of the sole. 

It must be remarked, however, that this exfoliation of the sole 
and frog only takes place when the more recently-formed horn 
beneath has acquired sufficient hardness and density to sustain 


contact -with the ground, and exposure to the effects of heat, dry- 
ness, and moisture. 

The " Coronary Frog-Band" or " Periople" is a continuation 
of the more superficial layer of the skin around the coronet and 
heels, in the form of a thin, light-colored band that descends to a 
variable depth on the outer surface of the wall, and at the back 
part of the hoof becomes consolidated with the frog, with which it 
is identical in structure and texture. It can be readily perceived 
in the hoof that has not been mutilated by the farrier's rasp, 
extending from the coronet, where the hair ceases, to some distance 
down the hoof ; it is thickest at the commencement of the wall, 
and gradually thins away into the finest imaginable film as it 
approaches the lower circumference of this part. When wet it 
swells and softens, and on being dried shrinks, sometimes cracks in 
its more dependent parts, or becomes scaly. 

The fibres composing it are very fine and wavy, as in the frog ; 
they likewise spring from villi which project from the true skin 
immediately above the " coronary cushion." 

The use of this band would appear to be twofold : it connects 
the skin with the hoof, and thus makes the union of these two 
dissimilar textures more complete, its intermediate degree of density 
and its great elasticity admirably fitting it for this office ; and it 
acts as a covering or protection to the wall at its upper part, where 
this is only in process of formation, and has not sufficient resistance 
to withstand the effects of exposure to the weather. The greatest 
thickness and density of the band correspond to the portion of the 
wall rn which the villi or vascular tufts are lodged, and here the 
horn is soft, delicate, aud readily acted upon in an injurious manner 
by external influences. 

Thus far, then, we have rapidly glanced at the anatomy and uses 
of the various parts entering into the composition of the horse's 
hoof, and its horny box — the hoof. It may be necessary, before 


we pass to the consideration of the latter, as a whole, to allude to the 
structure and uses of that narrow strip of horn, whose presence 
every farrier or veterinary surgeon is cognizant of, but whose character 
and functions have been strangely left out of consideration by all 
anatomists hitherto. I refer to the "white line" or "zone," the 
slender intermediate band that runs around the margin of the sole, 
and connects that plate of horn so closely to the wall as to make 
their union particularly solid and complete. When preparing the- 
border of the hoof for the reception of the shoe, this part is easily 
distinguished by its lighter color (in a dark hoof), and by its being. 
softer and more elastic than either the sole or wall, between which it 
is situated. It would appear to be secreted by the villi which ter- 
minate the lower end of the vascular laminae, and the horny leaves of 
the wall are also received into its substance — a circumstance that 
renders the junction of the two more thorough. I think there can 
be no doubt that the principal use of this elastic rim of horn, placed 
in such a situation, is to obviate the danger of fracture to which the 
inferior part of the hoof — particularly the sole — would be liable, if 
the junction between the hard and comparatively inelastic sole and. 
wall was directly affected without the interposition of such a body. 

It may be noted, that it is through this soft border of horn that 
gravel and foreign matters usually find their way to the sensitive 
parts of the foot, and there excite such an amount of irritation as to 
lead to the formation of matter, and cause much pain and lameness — 
an accident which the older farriers termed ''graveling." 

In viewing the horse's hoof as a whole, and in the unshod state, 
we find that it presents several salient characteristics, the considera- 
tion of which ought to dominate or serve as a guide in framing rules- 
for the observance of farriers in the practice of their art. The first 



of these is the direction in which the wall grows in a healthy 

Viewed as it stands on a level surface, the hoof may be said to be 
somewhat conical in shape, its upper part being a little less than its 
base ; and although, geometrically, its shape may be described as the 
frustum of a cone, the base and summit of which have been cut by 
two oblique planes — the inferior converging abruptly behind toward 
the superior — yet the circumference of the hoof does not offer that 
regularity which this description might imply ; on the contrary, in 
a well-formed foot, we find that the outline of its inferior, or ground 
border, is notably more salient on the outer than the inner side, 
giving it that appearance which has been designated the " spread." 


A cone being intersected by two planes oblique to its axis, and not 
allel to each other, gives a good idea, nevertheless, of the obliquity 

/ / 

Fie. G. 

which formed so marked a feature in the hoof. The degree of 
obliquity of the front part, or toe, and of the upper surface, varies 
with the amount of growth ; but where this has been counterbalanced 
by a proper degree of wear, it will be remarked that this obliquity 
corresponds to the inclination of the pastern-bones immediately above 
the hoof, when the horse is standing. 

It will be obvious that this inclination also varies with the 
breeding of the animal and the conformation of the limbs, so that 
no definite degree can be assigned. But it must be pointed out, 


that giving the tugle of ib , as is done in almost every treatise on 
shoeing and the anatomy of the foot, is a grave error. Looked at in 
profile, a hoof with this degree of obliquity would at once be pro- 
nounced a deformity — the slope is too great (Fig. 6); and if the farrier 
were to attempt bo bring every foot he shod to this standard, he would 
inflict serious injury, not, only on the foot itself, but also on the back 
tendons and the joints of the limbs. Careful measurement will prove 
that the obliquity of the front of the hoof is rarely, if ever, in a well- 
shaped leg and foot, above 50°, and that it is, in the great majority of 
cases, nearer 5 6°. The sides or ' : quarters" of the wall are less in- 
clined, though the outer is generally more so than the inner ; while 
the heels are still more vertical, and the inner may even incline 
slightly inward. Viewed in profile, the posterior face of the hoof will 
be observed to have the same degree of slope as the front face. In 
height, the heels are usually a little more than one-half that of the 
toe ; both heels are equal in height. 

These features, as will be seen hereafter, are sufficiently important 
to be constantly remembered. The other characteristics are to be 
found on the lover or ground face of the hoof— the most important, 
so far as the farrier's art is concerned. 

In a natural condition, the whole, or nearly the whole, of this face 
comes into contact with the ground, each part participating more or 
less in sustaining the weight thrown upon the limb. On soft or 
uneven soil, the entire lower border of the wall— the sole, bars and 
frog — are subjected to contact. Nature intended them to meet the 
ground, and there to sustain the animal's weight, as well as the force 
of its impelling powers. But on hard or rocky land with a level 
surface, only the dense, tough crust and bars, the thick portion of the 
sole surrounded by them, and the elastic, retentive frog, meet the 


force of the weight and movement ; and, in both cases, not only with 
impunity, but with advantage to the interior of the foot, as well as 
the limb. The horn on this face is, as has been said, dense, tough 
and springy to a degree varying with the parts of which it is com- 
posed ; while its fibres are not only admirably disposed to support 
weight, secure a firm grasp of the ground, and aid the movements of 
the limbs, but are also an excellent medium for modifying concussion 
or jar to the sensitive and vascular structure in their vicinity. 

• The whole circumference of the wall meets the ground, and from 
the disposition of its fibres, the arrangement of the cells which enter 
into their composition, and its rigidity, it is admirably fitted to resist 
wear and sustain pressure. It projects more or less beyond the level 
of the sole, and the space measured between the white zone within it 
and its outer surface gives its exact thickness. This is a fact not 
without interest to the farrier in the operation of attaching the shoe 
by nails, as these have to be driven only through this dense horn 
— which in good hoofs cannot be said to much exceed half an inch in 
thickness — and in proportion to its thinness is the necessity for care- 
fulness and address on his part, in order to guard against wounding 
or bruising the sensitive textures. 

The sole is more or less concave from its junction with the wall ; 
nevertheless, even on moderately firm ground, a portion of its circum* 
ference, which is generally the thickness of the wall, takes a share in 
relieving the latter of pressure. This is also a fact to be borne in mind. 
In soft ground, the whole of its lower surface is made to aid in sus- 
taining the weight and prevent the foot sinking. But it must be 
noted that the pressure of the lower face of the pedal bone on 
the upper surface of the sole can never be very great, else the 
sensitive membrane between them would be seriously injured. 


This injury is prevented by the coronary, and, to a lesser extent, 
by the plantar cushion, which largely retard the descent of the 
bone on the floor of the horny box. 

The frog, on both hard and soft ground, is an essential portion 
of the weight- bearing face. In the unshod, healthy foot it always 
projects beyond the level of the sole, and seldom below that of the 
wall at the heels; indeed, it is found, in the majority of hoofs, 
either on a level with the circumference of this part, or beyond it, 
so that its contact with the ground is assured. Hence its utility 
in obviating concussion, supporting the tendons, and on slippery 
ground, in preventing falls. In pulling up a horse sharply in the 
gallop, or in descending a steep hill, the frog, together with the 
angular recess formed by the bar and wall at the heel of the hoof, 
are eminently serviceable in checking the tendency to slip ; the 
animal instinctively plants the posterior portions of the foot ex- 
clusively on the ground. 

Dark hoofs are generally the best ; they owe their color to the 
presence of minute particles of black pigment, which contains 
a notable proportion of iron, and are somewhat resisting and 

A good hoof should have the wall unbroken, its outer face smooth 
and even ; the angle at the front not less than 50°— the lower or 
ground face of the front hoof should be nearly circular in outline — 
the sole slightly concave at the circumference, deeper at the center ; 
the border of the wall ought to be thick at the toe, gradually 
thinning towards the heels, but at the inflexion or commencement 
of the bar a strong mass of horn should be found; the bars 
should be free from fracture, and the frog moderately developed, 
firm and solid. 

The hind foot should possess the same soundness of horn, though 
it differs from the fore hoof in being more oval in outline from the 

142 1I0ESE-SH0EING. 

toe to the heels ; the sole is also more concave, the frog smaller, and the 
heels not so high. The horn is usually less hard and resisting — a 
circumstance perhaps due to the hind feet being more frequently 
exposed to humidity in the stable than the fore ones. 


In any treatise on shoeing, the growth of the hoof cannot be left 
out of consideration, as on it the foot, in an unshod condition, 
depends for an efficient protection, while without this process the 
farrier's art would quickly be of no avail 

In its unarmed state, the hoof being exposed to continual wear 
on its lower surface, from contact with the ground on which the 
animal stands or moves, is unceasingly regenerated by the living 
tissues within. We have already referred to the special apparatus 
which is more immediately concerned in this wovk of regenera- 
tion, and pointed out that the wall with the laminae on its inner 
face* is formed from the coronary cushion at the upper part of the 
foot ; the sole from the living membrane covering the lower face of 
the pedal bone ; and the frog from the plantar cushion. It has 
been also mentioned that this dead horny envelope, instead of being 
merely in juxtaposition with this exquisitely sensitive secretory mem- 
brane, is everywhere penetrated to a certain depth on its inner face 
(with the exception of the portion of the wall covered with the 
horny leaves) by multitudes of minute processes named villi, which 
are not only concerned in the growth of the horn-fibres, acting 
as moulds for them, and endowing the hoof with that degree 
of lightness, elasticity, and toughness, which are so necessary to its 

* It is generally stated that the horny leaves are formed by the sensitive 
ones, with which they are in such close union. That this is an error, the 
microscope, physiology, and pathological experience, abundantly testify. 


efficiency, but also make this insensitive case a most useful organ of 

The growth of the horn takes place by the deposition of new ma- 
terial from the secreting surface ; this deposition is effected at the 
commencement or root of the fibres ; where the horn is jet soft, and 
its incessant operation causes these fibres to be mechanically extended 
or pushed downward toward the ground in a mass. Once formed 
they are submitted to no other change than that of becoming denser, 
harder, less elastic, and drier, as they recede farther from the surface' 
from which they originated. 

So regular is this growth generally in every part of the hoof that 
it would appear that the secreting membrane is endowed with an 
equal activity throughout. 

But, though this equality in the amount of horn secreted over so 
wide a surface is an undoubted fact, yet it must not be forgotten 
that, under the influence of certain conditions, the growth or descent 
of the corneous material may be effected in an irregular manner, 
either through a particular portion of the secretory apparatus as' 
Burning a more energetic activity or being hindered more or less in its 

For instance, the way in which the foot is planted on the ground 
has a most marked influence, not only on the amount of horn 
secreted, but also on that subjected to wear. 

When the superincumbent weight is equally distributed over the 
lower face of the hoof, the foot may be said to be properly placed as 
a basis of support to the limb ; but when, through mismanagement 
or defective form, this base is uneven— one side higher than the 
other, for example— the weight must fall on the lowest part to a 
greater degree than the highest ; thus causing not only disturbance 
in the direction of the limb and its movements, but considerably 
modifying the growth of the horn. This growth is diminished at the 
part subjected to most pressure— in all probability from the smaller 


quantity of blood allowed to be circulated through the secretory 
surface ; while to the side which is subjected to the least compression 
the blood is abundantly supplied, and the formation of horn is con- 
sequently augmented. This is a fact of much importance and 
practical interest in farriery, as it demonstrates that an irregularity 
in the distribution of the weight of the body on the foot has a 
prejudicial effect on the secreting apparatus of the organ, and, as 
a result, on the form of the hoof. 

When the weight is evenly imposed on the foot, this apparatus, 
being uniformly compressed throughout its extent, receives every- 
where an equal quantity of the horn-producing material. 

It is the same with the ivear of the hoof. A just disposition of 
the weight is a necessary condition of the regularity of wear. While 
the animal is standing on unshod hoofs the wear of horn is slight ; 
it is in movement that it becomes increased, and this increase is 
generally in proportion to the speed, the weight carried, nature of the 
ground, and whether its surface be wet or dry. Each portion of tfie 
lower face of the hoof — wall, sole, bars and frog — should take its 
share of wear and strain ; but it will be readily understood that this 
cannot be properly effected if the weight is thrown more upon one 
side than the other. That part which receives the largest share will 
be subjected to the greatest amount of loss from wear, and this, with 
the diminished secretion of horn, will tend to distort foot and limb 
still more. 

In a well-formed leg and foot the degrees of resistance of the 
different parts of the hoof are so well apportioned to the amount of 
wear to be sustained, that all are equally reduced by contact with the 
ground, and the whole is maintained in a perfect condition as regards 
growth and wear. 

The amount of growth, even in a well-proportioned foot, varies 
considerably in different animals, according to the activity prevailing 


in, or the development of, the secreting apparatus 3 and in this respect 
the operations of the farrier, as we will notice hereafter, are not with- 
out much influence. 

It may be laid down as a rule that the horn grows more rapidly in 
warm, dry climates than in cold, wet ones; in healthy, energetic ani- 
mals than in those which are soft and weakly ; during exercise than in 
repose; in young than in old animals. Food, labor and shoeing also 
add their influence; while the seasons are to some extent concerned in 
the growth and shape of the hoof. In winter it widens, becomes 
softer and grows but little; in summer it is condensed, becomes more 
rigid, concave and resisting, is exposed to severer wear and grows more 
rapidly. This variation is a provision of nature to enable the hoof to 
adapt itself to the altered conditions it has to meet : hard horn fco hard 
ground, soft horn to soft ground. 

In this way we can account for the influence of locality upon the 
shape of the foot, On hard, dry ground, the hoof is dense, tenacious 
and small, with concave sole, and a little but firm frog; in marshy- 
regions, it is large and spreading, the horn soft and easily destroyed 
by wear, the sole thin and flat, and the frog an immense spongy mass, 
which is badly fitted to receive pressure from slightly hardened soil. 
In a dry climate, we have an animal small, compact, wiry and vigorous, 
travelling on a surface which demands a tenacious hoof, and not one 
adapted to prevent sinking; in the marshy region we have a large* 
heavy, lymphatic creature, one of whose primary requirements is a foot 
designed to travel on a soft, yielding surface. Change the respective 
situations of these two horses, and Nature immediately begins to trans- 
form them and their feet. The light, excitable, vigorous horse, with 
its small vertical hoofs and concave soles, so admirably disposed to 
traverse rocky and slippery surfaces, is physically incompetent to exist 
on low-lying swamps; while the unwieldy animal, slow-paced and 


torpid, with a foot perfectly adapted to such a region — its ground 
face being so extensive and flat that it sinks but little, and the frog 
developed to such a degree as to resemble a ploughshare in form, 
which gives it a grip of the soft, slippery ground — is but indifferently 
suited for travelling on a hard, rugged surface. In process of time, 
however, the small concave hoof expands and flattens, and the large 
flat one gradually becomes concentrated, hardened and hollow, to suit 
the altered physical conditions in which they are placed. 

The degree of health possessed by the horn-secreting apparatus 
at any time has also much to do with its activity in generating new 
material. When its blood-vessels become congested or contracted 
from some cause or other, its function is in a proportionate degree 
suspended, and the hoof grows in an irregular manner, and may be 
altered in thickness, texture and quality. 

In the ordinary conditions of town work and stable management, 
I have observed that the wall of a healthy foot — its chief portion, 
so far as farriery is concerned — grows down from the coronet at the 
rate of about one-quarter of an inch per month, and that the entire 
wall of a medium-sized hoof has been regenerated in from nine to 
twelve months. 

The process of growth can be greatly accelerated and exaggerated 
by irritating the surface which throws out the horn material. Thus 
a blister, hot iron, or any other irritant or stimulant applied to this 
part, will induce not only a more rapid formation, but one in which 
increased thickness is a marked feature. 


In the foregoing pages we have considered the foot of the horse in 
natural condition, as perfectly adapted for the performance of 


most essential functions : as a basis of support while the animal is 
standing, and, in addition, as a powerful propelling instrument during 

We have also pointed out that the hoof which envelopes it, like 
a huge finger-nail, is admirably constructed and endowed as an aid 
and protection to this organ, its utility mainly depending on the 
texture and arrangement of the horny matter of which it is composed, 
and the peculiar disposition of this in fibres of variable density, size, 
and elasticity. 

But these qualities of the hoof, it was again remarked, are intimately 
dependent upon the manner in which the horn-secreting surface 
performed its office; as if this becomes diminished, weakened, or 
unable to supply sufficient material to compensate for undue wear, 
the protecting case soon ceases to guard the living tissues within from 

In a natural state, when the equilibrium between growth and wear 
is destroyed, and the latter takes place in a rapid and unusual 
manner, the animal is compelled to rest until the worn hoof has re- 
covered its proper thickness ; for acute pain results when the living 
parts are exposed, or when the wasted horn is insufficient to guard 
them against being bruised by the ground. 

In an artificial condition, when the horse is employed on hard roads, 
broken ground, and in a humid climate, to carry and draw heavy 
loads at different degrees of velocity, and forced to stand on stony 
pavements during resting hours, his hoofs are unable to meet the 
many severe demands imposed upon them. 

The wear more than counterbalances the growth ; and, therefore 
it becomes an absolute necessity, if the animal is to be continuously 
and profitably utilized, that an artificial protection, sufficient to meet 
the exigencies of the case, be employed. 


The lower border of the wall is, as we hare mentioned, the part 
most deeph concerned in resisting wear and strain in the unshod 
state, as on it the stress chiefly fails ; it is, consequently, the portion 
of the hoof that suffers most severely from undue wear, and that 
which alone requires protection. 

This fact must have been brought prominently before the primitive 
shoers thousands of years ago, as the earliest specimens of shoes yet 
discovered are narrow, and in width do not much exceed the thickness 
of the wall. To guarantee this from wear was to increase the value 
of the horse a thousandfold, and the simply- wrought, narrow rim of 
iron, boldly and securely attached to the hoof by a few rudely-shaped 
nails, was sufficient for the purpose. 

But having fastened on this light metallic armature, and allowed it 
to remain fixed to the hoof for a lengthened period, it would soon be 
discovered that the balance between growth and wear was again dis- 
turbed, but this time in favor of growth ; for the wall being removed 
from contact with the ground, and the rate of growth continuing as 
in the unshod state, the hoof, instead of becoming diminished as 
before, now became abnormally overgrown and caused inconvenience. 
Then the shoe required to be taken off, and the superfluous growth 
either removed by instruments and the shoe replaced, or the animal 
made to travel without the iron defence until it was again needed 
when the hoof had become too much worn. 

Such was horse-shoeing, in all probability, in early times, and such 
it is at the present day where utility is not sacrificed to stupid 
theories or foolish practices. 

The evils attending the usual methods of shoeing are, as has 
been said, very serious and glaring; and the chief of these do not 
so much depend upon the faulty conformation of the shoe — though 
this is, in the majority of cases, not to be exempted from blame — 


as upon the treatment the hoof receives before and after the ap- 
plication of that article. 

To illustrate these evils, and to show how unreasonable the 
modern art of farriery is, as well as how it should be practised 
we will commence with the foot of the unshod colt, and, in the 
simplest words at our command, indicate the ordinary procedure 
in applying shoes to its hoofs for the first time, pointing out, at 
each step in the process, what is wrong and what is right, and giving 
reasons for the adoption of the principles which ought to guide the 
farrier in this most important operation. 


We will premise that the young horse about to have its hoofs 
armed for the first time is tolerably docile, and that its tranquility 
is not likely to be severely disturbed by the strange manipulations 
to which its limbs are to be subjected. For many months previously 
its attendants have had this ordeal in view, and in handling it have 
not forgotten to manipulate its legs and feet quietly and gently in 
something the same fashion that the farrier is likely to do -even 
going so far in the lesson as to tap lightly on its uplifted hoof, as 
if nailing on the shoe. The young creature is intelligent enough to 
perceive that in this no harm or punishment is intended, and it soon 
becomes familiar with the practice. 

The farrier who shoes a young horse for the first or second 
time should be a patient, good-tempered man, and an adept in 
the management of horses and handling their limbs. If the opera- 
tion is to be performed in a forge, there should be as little noise of 
hammers or glare of fires as possible— everything ought to be con- 
ducted quietly, steadily, and with kindness. Harsh treatment or 
unskillful handling should be severely reprehended, and all restraint 


or contention ought to be dispensed with — at any rate until gentle- 
ness and patience have been diligently employed and have failed. 
If accustomed to companions, it should have one or two horses- 
beside it in the forge. 

In describing the construction of the foot, we referred to the 
shape of a well-formed hoof. We will presume the animal be- 
fore us — like nearly every unshod horse — has hoofs of this de- 

The first step, usually, in the preparation of this part for the 
shoe, is to level and shorten the lower margin of the wall, pare 
the sole and frog, and open up the heels. These details may 
not be carried out so fully in the first shoeing as subsequently, 
but we will note them as they are commonly practised during the 
horse's lifetime. 

Leveling the Wall is an important operation, which but few 
artisans rightly understand or care to do properly. It has been 
stated that unequal pressure on one side of the foot — one side of 
the wall being lower than the other — is not only injurious to the 
whole limb by the undue strain it imposes on the joints and liga- 
ments, but that it tends to deform the hoof and modify the growth 
of the horn. 

It is, therefore, most essential that both sides of the hoof be 
of equal depth, in addition to the whole lower margin of the wall 
being level ; and to make them so, the rasp should be applied to 
this border in an oblique manner, across the ends of its fibres, to 
bring them to the same length. 

A good idea of the necessary redaction to be effected on either 
side will be derived from an inspection of the limb from the knee 
or hock downward whenjplaced firmly and straight upon the ground. 
Any deviation of the hoof to the inside or outside — most frequently 
it is the former— can be readily detected by looking at the leg and 
hoof in front. 


The ground surface of the foot should be directly transverse 
to the direction of the pastern, and it is in maintaining or 
restoring this relation, that care and skill are required. If the 
pastern is perpendicular to the shank-bone, and the two sides of the 
lower margin of the foot are directly transverse to the line passing 
down from these, then the wall has only to be lowered equally on 
both sides, if it be too high. 

It must be remembered, in levelling both sides of the lower sur- 
face of the hoof, that the difference of a few fractions of an inch 
between them will cause considerable, and perhaps very hurtful, 
oscillations of the weight thrown on the limb. 

A properly-instructed farrier should be able, at a glance across the 
upturned foot, to discover whether it is tolerably level. In Fig. 7 I 
have shown what is meant by a properly -levelled hoof, the dotted line 

Fig. 7. 

a a being directly transverse to the vertical line b, and the distance 
from a to c of one side being equal to that from a to c of the other. 

Shortening the Wall.— Reducing the wall to proper dimensions 
is another important matter in connection with the preparation of 
the foot for the shoe. We have seen that the natural and moderate 
wear of the unshod hoof is compensated for by the incessant down- 
ward growth of the horn, and that this process of wear and regene- 
ration maintains the proper dimensions and just bearing of the foot. 
But on the application of the shoe a barrier is at once opposed to 
the wear, while the growth is not interfered with ; consequently, the 


hoof continually increases in length and obliquity — a change which 
causes derangement in the disposition of the weight of the lower par* 
of the leg and foot, and other inconveniences. 

In speaking of the growth of the horn, it was remarked that in 
health this took place in a regular manner over the whole surface. It 
seems rather contradictory, therefore, to assert that the hoof increases 
in obliquity — appears to grow faster at the toe than the heels — when, 
if this statement was correct, their increase in length should be always 
the same. In the unshod hoof this lengthening of the toe is not 


observed; it only occurs in one that has been sho^, and is to be 
accounted for by the fact that the shoe, not being nailed back so far 
as the heels, is, every time the foot falls on the ground, pressed 
against the horn at these parts, and so great is this downward friction 
or pressure that, after a time, not only is the hoof considerably worn, 
but the face of the shoe is also deeply channelled at corresponding 
points. Owing to the shoe being firmly fixed around the toe, there 
is no play at this part, and hence the apparent inequality in growth 
between the front and back of the hoof — a circumstance more observ- 
able in the fore than the hind foot, from the heels of the former 
being more under the centre of gravity, and so having a greater weight 
to sustain. 

The pastern and foot form part of a lever that extends fr®m the 
fetlock to the ground and supports the weight of the body. The 
strain comes perpendicularly from the shoulder to the fetlock 


Fig. S, a, c) ; but thence to the ground it passes along the pastern 
and foot (c, d)— the extremity of the lever— and these are inclined 
more or less obliquely forward ; hence the charge imposed on the 
limb has an incessant tendency to increase this obliquity by 
bringing the fetlock nearer the ground (6). To resist this ten- 
dency, however, we have the two flexor tendons and the powerful 
suspensory ligament at the back of the limb, which support this 
joint and maintain its angle. 

But it will be readily understood that the longer and less 
upright this lever is, the greater is the strain and fatigue thrown 
upon the tendons and ligament. Though an oblique pastern may 
look graceful and make the horse's step more elastic and agree- 
able to the rider, yet when the degree of obliquity exceeds that 
intended by nature, great risk is incurred of injury to the sup- 
porting apparatus. Hence the necessity for maintaining the hoof 
at its normal angle — a necessity, however, which can never be 
met except at the moment when the animal is newly shod ; for no 
sooner is the equilibrium restored between the front and back of 
the hoof and the shoe fastened on than it begins to |be disturbed 
again. This inconvenience is inevitable, from the very nature of 
the means we adopt to defend the foot from injury. 

On the other hand, the suspensory apparatus is less severely 
taxed, as the lever is short and vertical ; or, in other words, as 
the pastern and hoof are upright. But this, though relieving the 
tendons and ligament, throws the weight too directly on the 
T3ones ; consequently the jar to these and the whole limb is great, 
and even dangerous, while the back parts of the foot are unduly 
strained to relieve them. 

It must be, then, very evident that levelling and bringing the 
ground-face of the hoof to the necessary length— equal on both 
sides from toe to heel, and justly proportioned in depth at toe 
and heel— is no trifling matter, as the soundness of the limb and 



ease in progression are concerned in the operation. Excessive 
length or obliquity of hoof strains back tendons and ligament ; a 
hoof long at the toe and low at the heels (Fig. 9, a, b) increases 
the obliquity ; on the contrary, when the heels are high and the 
toe of the hoof too short (Fig. 9, c, d), the bones suffer and the 
whole limb experiences, more or less, the effects of concussion. 


In both cases progression is fatiguing, imperfect and hurtful 
to au extent proportionate to the excess. 

Another disadvantage in shoeing, arising from the tendency of 
the hoof to increase in length at the toe, and also from its form, 
is the change in the position of the shoe itself. The hoof being 
more or less conical in shape, with its base opposed to the ground,. 
it follows that, as it increases in length, its lower circumference 
also widens in every direction. The result is that the shoe, 
although at one time accurately fitting the hoof, gradually 
becomes too narrow ; at the same time, the increase in length at 
the toe carries the iron plate forward, away from the heels. 

This is one more of the inevitable evils of shoeing, but which, 
nevertheless, the skillful workman may greatly palliate. 

The farrier equalizes both sides of the hoof by applying his 
rasp in a sloping direction to the ground border or end of the wall ; 
he also brings it to its natural angle with the same instrument, by 


removing the necessary amount of horn from the margin of the hoof 
at the toe or heels ; by reducing the former without interfering with 
the latter, the obliquity of the foot is diminished (as in Figs. 9, c, d, 
10, a) ; while rasping down the heels and leaving the toe untouched in- 
creases it (Fig. 9, a, b) . 

In the great majority -of cases, the heels, for the reason stated, 
require but little interference ; the excess of growth is nearly always 
at the toe, and thus no absolute rule can be laid down as to the angle 
to which the hoof should be brought. The practiced eye can discern 
at once whether the angle is in conformity with the natural bearing 

Fig. 10. 

of the limb, and will have no difficulty in adjusting it, should it not be 
so, provided there is sufficient horn to spare for this purpose. 

We have previously shown that the inclination of the front of the 
hoof varies from 50° to 60°, and probably the mean between these two 
angles will be that usually observed. (Fig. 9, g, e, /, is a hoof with 
about 52° of obliquity; g, a t 5, 45°; g, c, d, more than 60°.) 

On ordinary occasions, causing the horse to stand on a level floor, 
and viewing the hoof in profile a few paces off, is sufficient to inform 
one of the angle; but to insure attention to this matter and prevent 
mistakes, I have contrived a little instrument for my farriers, which 
at once shows them the degree of obliquity, and gives them an in- 


dication as to the amount of horn to be removed from the toe or 

In the operation of levelling and shortening the hoof, is included 
the general reduction of the wall. 

Provided the hoof, before it comes into the hands of the farrier, 
has the proper inclination and is equal on both sides of its ground 
face, but is nevertheless overgrown, the artisan has then only to 
remove the excess of growth without disturbing the relations between 
the several regions of the wall. Or should the hoof be overgrown, 
too oblique, too upright, or unequal at the sides, then in remedying 
the one defect he at the same time remedies all. The amount of 
horn to be removed from the margin of the hoof will depend upon 
circumstances. It may be laid clown as a rule, however, that there 
being but little horn to remove at the heels, these should only be 
rasped sufficiently to insure the removal of all loose material in- 

Fig. 11. 

capable of supporting the shoe; the quarters or sides of the hoof 
may require a freer application of the rasp, but as the toe is reached, 
a larger quantity must be removed, as in Fig. 11, a >£. The limit 
to this removal at the front of the hoof must be when the wall is 
almost or quite reduced to a level with the strong unpared sole. 
It must ever be borne in mind that, if the wall does not stand beyond 
the level of the sole, it does not require reducing. 


When the circumference of the hoof has at length been 
brought to a condition fit to receive the shoe, the rasp must 
finish its task by removing the sharp edge, and rounding it so 
as to leave a thick strong border not likely to chip. The unshod 
hoof nearly always exhibits this provision against fracture of the 

Paring the Sole. — After the necessary diminution and correc- 
tion of the obliquity of the hoof, and the preparation of the bed 
for the shoe, the farrier usually proceeds to pare the sole. In- 
deed, while the colt is still at large, and before the time has 
arrived when its hoofs are to be shod with iron, the workman is 
frequently called in to trim the hoofs, and paring the lower 
surface is part of the operation. 

This procedure is as barbarous as it is unreasonable, especially 
when carried to the extent that has been advised in books on 
horse-shoeing, viz., to pare the sole until it springs to the 
pressure of the thumb. In the great majority of forges this 
most pernicious practice is carried out, either because the owner 
of the horse thinks it necessary, the groom or coachman that it 
makes the horse go better and the feet to look well, or the 
farrier that it is more workmanlike — though if he is pressed 
hard for any other reason he is unable to give one of a satis- 
factory character. 

Like so many practices relating to the management of the 
horse, this paring of the sole is absurd in the extreme, and has 
not the most trifling recommendation to support it. Unfor- 
tunately for those who recommend, and also those who practice 
it, its evil effects are not immediately apparent ; a horse with 
his soles denuded of their horn until the blood is oozing through 
them, may not at the moment manifest arfy great suffering, 
and may even go tolerably sound on a level pavement, though, if 


he chanced to put his foot on uneven ground or a sharp stone, 
his agony may be so acute as to cause him to fall. 

The paring knife is skillfully used to remove all the surface 
horn down to that which has been most recently formed, or is 
in process of forming. So anxious is the groom or farrier that 
this, to them, most important operation should be carried out, 
that the soles are filled with cow dung, or some other filth, for 
some time previously, in order that the horn may be softened 
and rendered more amenable to mutilation. When this " stop- 
ping" has not been done, and particularly in hot, dry weather, 
the sole is often so hard that it cannot be touched by the knife, 
in which case a red-hot iron is applied to the surface to soften 
the horn, or hot ashes are used. Then the bars and soles are 
sliced away until nothing is left but the thinnest pellicle of their 
natural protection, through which not unfrequently the blood 
may be oozing. This is nothing else than downright cruelty, and 
should meet with the punishment it so well deserves. 

To remove the excessive growth of the wall is an absolute 
necessity ; but to denude the sole of its horn is wanton injury 
to the foot and cruelty to the animal. This is easily accounted 
for. The sole only increases its substance to a certain thickness 
— never too much — and then the excess is thrown off in flakes in 
a natural manner. In this way the sensitive parts are amply 
protected ; the sole can sustain a share of the weight — especially 
around its margin in front, where it is strongest — and meet the 
ground, however rough and stony this may be, with perfect 
impunity. This is its function. 

It has been mentioned that the horn is secreted from the living 
surface, and that myriads of beautiful vascular and sensitive tufts 
dependent from this surface, enter the horn-fibres to a certain 
depth, and play an important part in the formation of the sole. 


The newly-formed torn is soft and spongy, and incapable of 
resisting exposure to the air, but as it is pushed further away 
from this surface by successive deposits of fresh material, it 
becomes old horn, loses its moisture, and in doing so acquire^ 
hardness and rigidity sufficient to withstand external influences ; 
then it is subjected to wear, and if this be insufficient to reduce it 
sufficiently, it falls off in scales. But the process of exfoliation is 
not a rapid one ; the flakes remain attached to the solid horn 
beneath, more or less firmly, until it in turn commences to loosen 
on the surface, and yield new flakes, when the old ones separate. 
This natural diminution in the excess of horn of the sole is a 
most beneficial process for the hoof. Horn is a slow conductor of 
heat and cold, and when thick, retains moisture for a long period. 
These flakes, then, act as a natural " stopping" to the hoof, by 
accumulating and relating moisture beneath, and this not only 
keeps the foot cool as it slowly evaporates, but ensures for the 
solid and growing horn its toughness, elasticity and proper 
development. In addition to this, every flake acts more or less 
as a spring in warding off bruises or other injuries to the sole ; 
and thus the floor of the horny box is protected from injury, 
externally and internally. 

What occurs when the farrier, following out the routine of his 
craft, or obeying the injunctions of those as ignorant as himself, 
or so prejudiced as not to be able to reason, pares the sole until it 
springs to the pressure of his thumb ? Why, the lower surface of 
the foot — that which is destined to come into contact with the 
around, and to encounter its inequalities, and which more than 
any other part requires to be efficiently shielded — is at once 
ruthlessly denuded of its protection, and exposed to the most 
serious injury. The immature horn, stripped of its outer cover- 
ing, immediately begins to experience the evil effects of external 


influences ; it loses its moisture, drys, hardens, and shrivels up j 
it also occupies a smaller space, and in doing so, the sole becomes 
more concave, drawing after it the wall — for it must be remem- 
bered that the sole is a strong stay against contraction of the 
lower margin of the hoof — and the consequence is that the foot 
gradually decreases in size, and the quarters and heels narrow. 
The animal goes " tender," even on smooth ground ; but if he 
chance to put his mutilated sole on a stone, what pain must he 
experience ! This tenderness on even ground or smoothly paved 
roads arises from the fact, that not only is the entire sensitive 
surface compressed, irritated, or inflamed by the hard, contract- 
ing envelope, and the unnatural exposure to sudden changes of 
heat and cold, but the little sensitive processes contained at the 
upper end of each of the horn-fibres are painfully crushed in 
their greatly diminished tubes, and instead of being organs of 
secretion and the most delicate touch, they are now scarcely more 
than instruments of torture to the unfortunate animal. Not 
only is pain or uneasiness experienced during progression, but 
even in the stable the horse whose soles have been so barbarously 
treated, exhibits tenderness in his feet by resting them, and if 
felt, a great increase of temperature will be perceived. 

Owing to the secreting apparatus of the sole being deranged 
through this senseless paring, the formation of new horn takes 
place slowly, and it is not until a certain quantity has been 
provided to compensate in some degree for that removed, that 
the horse begins to stand easier, and travel better. Scarcely, 
however, has the restorative process advanced to this stage, than 
it is time for him to be reshod, when this part must again 
submit to be robbed of its horn. 

The sole having been pared too thin and concave leaves the cir- 
cumference of the hoof standing much higher than if it had been 


left intact, and apparently too long ; so the wall niust be still 
more reduced. This is done, and we now have the whole ground- 
face of the hoof so wasted and mutilated, that should the horse 
chance to lose a shoe soon after being shod, the impoverished foot 
cannot bear the rude contact of the ground for more than a few 
yards, and the poor creature is lame and useless. 

The tenderness and lameness arising from this mal-treatment 
are usually ascribed to everything but the right cause, and the 
most popular is concussion. To avert this and protect the de- 
fenceless sole, a most absurd shoe is required ; and, still more 
absurd, the natural covering is attempted to be replaced by a 
plate of leather, interposed between the ground and the sole, 
and which is made to retain bundles of tow steeped in tar or 
some pernicious substance. It is scarcely necessary to say that 
this artificial covering is but a poor substitute for that which 
has been so foolishly, and with so much careful labor, cut away; 
indeed, in several respects the leather sole, even when only 
placed between the wall and the shoe, and not over the entire 
surface, is very objectionable. 

Seeing, therefore, the natural provision existing in the sole of 
the hoof for its diminution in thickness, when necessary, and 
knowing that the intact sole is the best safeguard against injury 
and deterioration to this region, it must be laid down as a rule 
in farriery — and from which there must be no departure — that 
this part is not to be interfered with on any pretence, so 
long as the foot is in health ; not even the flakes are to be 

By adhering to this rule, the horse can travel safely and with 
ease in all weathers and over any roads immediately after shoe- 
ing ; the foot is maintained in a healthy condition ; the sole can 
sustain its share of the weight, and thus relieve the wall of the 


hoof ; and should a shoe happen to be lost, the animal can 
journey a long distance -with but little injury to the organ. 

Another of the many advantages derived from allowing the 
sole to remain in its natural condition, is that on a soft surface 
the hoof will not sink so deeply as one whose sole has been 
hollowed out by the farrier, neither is it so difficult to withdraw 
from the heavy soil. 

Paring the Frog. — This part of the hoof is that which, in the 
opinion of the grooms and coachmen, most require cutting, " to 
prevent its coming on the ground and laming the horse ;" and 
this reason, together with its softer texture, causes it to be made 
the sport of the farrier's relentless knife. It is artistically and 
thoroughly trimmed, the fine elastic horn being sliced away, 
sometimes even to the quick, and in its sadly reduced form it 
undergoes the same changes as have been observed in the pared 
sole. No wonder, then, that it cannot bear touching the ground 
any more than the sole. Strip the skin off the sole of a man's 
foot and cause him to travel over stony or pebbly roads ! "Would 
be walk comfortably and soundly ? 

The artistically shaped frog soon wastes, becomes diseased, 
and at length appears as a ragged, foul-smelling shred of horn, 
almost imperceptible between the narrow, deformed heels of the 
pared foot. 

The function of the frog in the animal economy is one of 
great moment, and has already been indicated. It is emi- 
nently adapted for contact with the ground, and in this re- 
sides its most important office. To remove it from the 
ground and deprive it of its horn, is at once to destroy its 
utility and its structure, and withdraw from the foot ®ne of 
its most essential components. The longer the frog is left 
untouched by the knife, and allowed to meet the ground, 
the more developed it becomes ; its horn grows so dense and 
resisting, yet without losing its special properties, that it 


braves the crushing of the roughest roads without suffering in 
the slightest degree; it ensures the hoof retaining its proper 
shape at the heels ; is a valuable supporter of the limb and foot 
while the animal is standing or moving; and is an active agent, 
from its shape and texture, in preventing slipping; its reduction 
and removal from the ground, I am perfectly convinced from long 
observation, have a tendency, directly or indirectly, to induce 
that most painful, frequent, and incurable malady — navicular 
disease, as well as other affections of this organ. 

The farrier should, therefore, leave the frog also untouched, 
unless there be flakes which are useless— though this is extremely 
rare ; then these ought to be cut off. So particular am I in this 
respect, however, and so well aware am I of the fondness of the 
workman to cut into this part, that I never allow any frogs to be 
interfered with unless I am present. If any gravel has lodged 
beneath the flakes, at the side, or in the cleft — which is most un- 
frequent — this is removed by some blunt instrument. 

To show the value of contact with the ground: when a horse 
with a diseased frog is brought to me, I at once order the hoof to 
be so prepared or shod that this part will immediately receive 
direct pressure — in a brief space the disease disappears. Cases of 
what grooms call "thrush," of many years' duration, and which 
had defied all kinds of favorite dressings, have been cured, and 
the rotten, wasted frogs have become sound and well developed 
in a few months. 

Opening-up the Heels.— Having done everything possible to ruin 
the sole and the frog, the farrier proceeds to complete his work 
by opening-up the heels. This operation is quite as injurious— 
if it is not more so — than mutilating the sole and frog; it consist 
in making a deep cut into the angle of the wall at the heel, where 
it becomes bent inward to form the bar.^In the unshod, natural 


state, or in the unmutilated foot, this is a particularly strong 
portion of the hoof, and serves a very useful purpose, its utility 
being mainly owing to its strength. From its preventing con- 
traction of the heels, it has been named the arc boutant or " but- 
tress " of the foot by the French hippotomists. 

When it is hacked away by the farrier's knife, the wall of the 
hoof is not only considerably weakened, but the hoof gradually 
contracts toward the heels. 

Horse dealers and grooms are the chief patrons of " well- 
opened " heels, as they give the foot a false appearance by mak- 
ing it look wider in this region. 

The fashion of paring the sole until it yields to the pressure of 
the thumb has been perpetuated through the ignorance of those 
who have had the management of horses, or the traditions and 
routine of the artisans who have more especially to attend to the 
requirements of the hoofs of these animals. But it must be ob- 
served that this paring, slicing away the frog and opening up the 
heels has been largely due, in later times, to the false notions 
propounded by some writers regarding the functions of the foot : 
such as the descent of the sole, the inability of the frog to sustain 
contact with the ground, and the expansion of the back parts of 
the hoof every time the weight was imposed upon it. It is scarcely 
necessary here to say more than that these notions are at least 
extremely exaggerated, and that the practices which were main- 
tained to facilitate these supposed functions have been productive 
of an immense amount of suffering and loss of animal life. 

It should be ever most strenuously insisted upon that the whole 
lower face of the hoof, except the border of the wall, must be left 
in a state of nature. The horn of the sole, frog and bars has an 
important duty to fulfill 5 it is the natural protection to this part 
of the hoof, and no protection of iron, leather or other material 
is half so efficacious 3 in addition, it is a capital agent in sus- 



taining weight and in keeping the whole foot healthy and 
perfect in form. 


The Ordinary Shoe.— The hoof having been prepared by the 
farrier, according to his fancy, for the reception of the metal 
plate which is to garnish it, here again we find that ignorance 
prevails and is productive of inconvenience and injury. " Im- 
proved principles" demand that a particular-shaped shoe be 
applied ; no matter whether the animal be for saddle, harness, or 
draught purposes, it must have a shoe that rests only on the margin 

Fig. 12. 

of the hoof— on the wall. Therefore, except a narrow border to 
correspond with this margin, the upper or foot-face of the shoe is 
beveled away, so as to leave a wide space between it and the 
sole, and throw all the weight and strain on the outer parts of the 
foot (Fig. 11) ; in addition to which disadvantage, this space is 
admirably contrived to lodge stones, gravel, hardened mud or 
snow, and in heavy ground it increases the suction immensely. 
But, as will be easily understood from the manner in which the 
under-surface of the foot has been treated, this beveling is 
rendered an absolute necessity if the horse is to be preserved 
from immediate lameness. The sole has been pared so thin that, 
so far from its being able to withstand a tolerably large amount 


of pressure around its margin — particularly toward the toe — it 
must be most carefully preserved, not only from contact with the 
shoe, but also with the ground. This necessitates a wide surface 
of metal, which increases the weight of the shoe, making it 
clumsier to wear, and affords a large under or ground surface for 
slipping. And even with a shoe of such dimensions the creature 
cannot travel at ease on stony roads, as the least pressure of a 
stone on the tender sole causes him to limp ; and if the stone 
lodges in the space between shoe and sole, serious injury is 
likely to be done. 

Weight. — In addition to the beveling and the width, the shoe in 
ordinary use has several other glaring defects. One of these is 
generally its excessive weight ; it contains an amount of iron far 
greater than is necessary to protect the hoof from the effects of 
wear. One reason alleged for the employment of these cumbrous 
masses of iron attached to the ends of a horse's limbs is that they 
prevent concussion to the foot. This any reasonable person will 
at once perceive is a manifest absurdity. The hoof by its light- 
ness, its texture, and the wonderful arrangement of its component 
parts, is well adapted to avert concussion. An inelastic, heavy 
lump of iron firmly attached to it, and coming into forcible 
collision with the ground at every step, must surely be more 
likely to increase this concussion than diminish it. 

There can be no difficulty, I imagine, in estimating the injury 
inflicted by unnecessarily heavy shoes. Nature formed the lower 
extremity of the limb with a view to lightness, no less than to 
other iurportant ends. The hoof-bone is quite porous and open in 
texture, to diminish its ponderosity without detracting from its 
size or stability ; while the hoof itself is, as we have just noticed, 
remarkable for the manner in which its material is arranged with 
a special intention to confer light-footedness upon the animal. 


The reason for this diminution in weight, while it is coincident 
with increase in bulk, is to be found iu the fact that the muscles 
principally concerned in moving the limb— swinging, straighten- 
ing, and bending it backward and forward — are all situated 
above the knee or hock. The moving power is at one end of a 
•comparatively long lever with two arms, while the weight to be 
moved is at the other extremity. The arm of the lever to which 
the power is applied is very short, so that though rapidity is 
gained, more power is lost, and it is palpable that every ad- 
ditional ounce added to the foot must be nearly, if not more than 
•eepial to a pound at the shoulder. 

In shoeing, this important consideration has been strangely 
overlooked; and yet we cannot forget that it has a great in- 
fluence on the wear of, not only the shoe, but also the muscles, 
tendons, ligaments and joints, and even, indirectly, of the 
entire animal. " If, at the termination of a day's work," says 
an eminent French veterinary professor, " we calculate the 
weight represented by the mass of iron in the heavy shoes a 
horse is condemned to carry at each step, we shall arrive 
at a formidable array of figures, and in this way be able to 
estimate the amount of force uselessly expended by the ani- 
mal in raising the shoes that overload his feet. The calcu- 
lation I have made possesses an eloquence that dispenses 
with very long commentaries. Suppose that the weight of a shoe 
is two pounds, it is not excessive to admit that a horse trots at 
the rate of one step every second, or sixty steps a minute. In a 
minute, then, the limb of a horse whose foot carries two pounds 
makes efforts sufficient to raise a weight of one hundred and 
twenty pounds. For the four limbs, this weight in a minute is 
represented by 120x1=480 pounds ; for the four feet during an 
hour, the weight is 28,800 pounds ; and for four hours, the mean 
duration of a day's work in the French omnibuses, the total 


amount of weight raised has reached the enormous figure of 
115,200 pounds. But the movement communicated to these 
115,200 pounds represents an expenditure of the power employed 
by the motor without any useful result ; and as the motor is a 
living one, this expenditure of strength represents an exhaustion, 
or, if you like it better, a degree of fatigue proportioned to the 
effort necessary for its manifestation." 

This question of weight is one of no small moment to the 
well-being and utility of the horse, and therefore demands par- 
ticular attention. Nature, in constructing the animal machine, 
and enduing it with adequate power to sustain the ordinary re- 
quirements of organization, and even to meet certain extra- 
ordinary demands, could scarcely have been expected to provide 
the large additional amount of energy necessary to swing several 
ounces, or even pounds, attached to the lower extremity of the 
limb. A horse shod with a two-pound shoe to each foot, travel- 
ing at the rate of sixty steps in a minute for a period of four 
hours, as has been stated above, carries nearly fifty-two tons. 
This weight, too, as has been stated, is most disadvantageously 
placed at the end of the long arm of the lever. It must be 
remembered, also, that a two-pound shoe is a very moderate 
affair when compared with many that are worn every day in town 
and country, even by horses employed in fast work. 

Not only does an ivnnecessarily heavy shoe fatigue and 
wear out the limbs sooner than a light one, but the fatigue 
it induces causes it to be less durable, in proportion to the 
quantity of iron. This is accounted for by the manner in 
which the fatigued limbs drag their heavy load along the 
surface of the ground. Heavy shoes also require more and 
larger nails to attach them securely to the hoof, and this in 


itself is an evil of no trifling magnitude, as we shall see pre- 

The shoe, besides being heavy, may offer other serious defects. 
It may be very uneven on its upper bearing surface-that on 
which the hoof rests ; it may have too many clips, and these not 
well formed or situated ; its ground surface may be unequal ; or 
the holes for the nails may be badly placed, and improperly 

An uneven upper surface is apt to produce lameness, from 
the undue pressure it occasions on limited parts of the hoof, and 
through these to the corresponding living textures ; or it may 
cause the wall of the hoof to split, etc. 

Nails badly placed and improperly stamped are a prolific source 
of injury to the foot, and the same may be said of nial-forined or 
wrongly-situated clips; and much evil results from the ground- 
face of the shoe being higher at one part than another. This 
inequality is in nearly every case due to the presence of what are 
termed " calkins" at the extremities of the branches of the shoe ; 
or to one side of the plate being thicker than the other. 

Caifcms.-Calkins are injurious to the limb in proportion to 
their height. When smallest they are an evil, as they have a 
tendency, in raising the back part of the foot higher than the 
front, to alter the natural direction of the limb, and throw undue 
strain on the fore part. Intended to prevent slipping, their use 
in this respect is but temporary, unless they are made high and 
thick; when their unfavorable influence on the limb and foot is 
increased. Added to this, from their throwing so much of the 
weight and strain on the front of the foot, the shoe is more 
rapidly worn away at the toe; so its thickness there must be 
oreater, and the shoe in consequence heavier, or the animal will 
have to be more frequently shod. From their only lasting for a 
limited period, the horse, at first inclined to rely on them to 


preserve his footing on slippery roads, becomes timid and unsafe 
when they are worn down to the surface of the shoe. By their 
form, and their projecting so much beyond the level of the plate, 
they jar the limb ; expose it to twists and treads sometimes of a 
grave character; induce shortening of the flexor tendons; and 
until they have been considerably reduced, interfere with the 
animal's action. They are also liable to cause the shoe to be torn 
off, by getting caught between paving-stones ; while they produce 
severe lacerations, should the horse wearing them happen to kick 
another animal. This is more particularly observed among army 
horses which have calkins on their hind shoes — and especially 
when in camp or picketed. They also throw more strain upon 
the nails and the hoof itself. Neither must it be forgotten 
that they remove the frog from contact with the ground. 

One side of the shoe being higher than the other produces the 
same results as follow when the hoof is unequal in this respect. 
The hind limb is more exposed to this evil than the fore one, from 
calkins being most frequently added to the hind shoes, and from 
the fashion of having the inner branch thickened, but not suffi- 
cient to compensate for the height of the calkin on the outer heel. 
This inequality is productive of injury to the fetlock and hock 
joints, and is doubtless not unfrequently the cause of that for- 
midable disease of the latter — spavin. 

But even if the farrier has reason to apply shoes whose ground- 
surface is not studded with calkins or any other kind of " catch," 
he, in nearly every case of ordinary wear, puts on one which has 
the whole of this surface perfectly plane, and not relieved through- 
out its length or width by any thing, except perhaps the groove 
around its outer circumference, in which the nail-holes are placed. 
This wide, smooth surface is evidently adapted to facilitate slip- 


ping on smooth pavements, or even on grass or clay land. 

Size.— Besides constructing the shoe of a faulty shape, a very 
common practice is to apply one smaller than the actual contour 
of the ground-surface of the hoof. This is a grave error, and in 
all probability arises from the desire to make the horse's foot 
look neat, and to produce fine work; just as the maker of shoes 
for the human foot thinks it the perfection of workmanship to 
squeeze it into the smallest possible space. In the horse, however, 
small shoes are more fruitful of lameness and chronic deformity 
than even the worst-shaped cramped coverings can be for the 
human organ, as the horse is compelled to wear his tight plates 
day and night, and must accomplish all kinds of severe labor in 
them ; while man can relieve himself of his torturing, uncom- 
fortable boots for at least some hours out of the twenty-four. 

We shall allude to the evils of this stupid practice hereafter, 
in the meantime it may be sufficient to point out, that in select- 
ing and supplying a shoe smaller than the circumference of the 
hoof, we are depriving the foot and limb of a portion of their 
stability and weight-bearing surface. The limb is, in reality, a 
column of support for the body, and the hoof is the base of this 
column. This base is very much wider than any other portion, 
and only commences at the foot, which gradually widens towards 
the ground, so as to make it still more expanded and efficient. 
To diminish this is to frustrate Nature's mode of affording 
security and ease to the limb, and consequently to do it harm. 

The above are only some of the more prominent evils attendant 
on the present method ot constructing and shaping the horse's 
shoe ; others, such as making it of bad material, altogether unlike 
the outline of the hoof, etc., we will glance at presently. We 
have only now to consider what has been for very many years the 
aim of those who, overlooking the real injury done to the foot by 
the barbarous fashion of paring and rasping, imagined the chief, 


if not the sole, cause of lameness and inefficiency arose from the 
faulty character of the protection applied to it, and have sought 
to avert these by devising various kinds of shoes, or other 
methods of arming the hoof. 

It is scarcely necessary to say, that from their neglecting, or 
being unconscious of the harm that resulted from the mal- 
practices already indicated, their so-called improvements have 
been impotent for good, and have soon been consigned to for- 
getf ulness. 

Objects to be Attained. — "We have stated what were the objects to 
be attained when shoeing was first introduced. To prevent undue 
wear of the horn, and at the same time to secure a good foothold 
for the horse, appear to have been all that was considered essen- 
tial in the infancy of the art of farriery. And it must be 
conceded that, even now, these are the primary advantages to be 
achieved in constructing a horse-shoe, no matter what kind of 
task the horse that wears it may be required to accomplish. 

There can scarcely be a doubt that any thing more simple and 
efficient, and at the same time less expensive, than a well-devised 
iron shoe, cannot at present be produced ; nor can the compara- 
tively safe and ready method of attaching it by nails be super- 
seded by any other means that we are acquainted with. All 
teutatives in this direction have failed, either because of their 
inefficiency or greater expense. 

Simplicity, cheapness, durability, and perfect adaptability to 
various requirements, are the essentials to be obtained in horse- 
shoes ; and if one or more of these is absent in any particular 
pattern, it can never be generally adopted, and is certain to have 
but brief success. 

The effects of applying an iron defence to the horse's foot, and 
securing it to the hoof by means of nails, are no doubt a source 
of injury to that organ ; and even with every care a few 


of them are unavoidable ; but they are increased in number and 
heightened in intensity when the shoe is badly constructed 
and attached; whereas, by the exercise of a little common- 
sense and observation, those which are not to be avoided may 
be mitigated. 

The foot, as has been observed, is a perfect organ, formed in 
harmony with the other parts of the limbs to meet every require- 
ment in bearing weight and aiding movement. 

The hoof, as an integral portion of the foot, possesses these 
qualities to a high degree, and, but for its inability to withstand 
incessant wear, would need no assistance from man, except 
perhaps a little trimming when it became over-grown or irregu- 
lar. Its lower margin— hard, narrow, and projecting slightly 
beyond the sole— is well adapted to support weight, withstand 
wear, and retain a hold of the ground ; the concave sole, in 
addition to its assisting the margin to support weight and wear, 
also lends its aid in securing a foothold by its hollow surface ; 
while the angle of the wall at each heel— the <c buttress"— would 
appear to be specially designed to afford a most effective check 
to the sliding forward of the foot as the animal suddenly pulls up 
when moving at a fast pace on level ground, or attempts to stop 
or diminish his descent on a slippery declivity. 

Those who study the functions of the animal body, and who 
have to restore these when deranged, well know that in their 
attempts to keep them in a normal condition or to bring them 
back to a healthy • state, they must attend to the laws which 
govern these functions, and follow the indications of nature. 
Therefore I have asked myself if it is possible to construct a shoe 
which, while cheapily and easily manufactured by any ordinary 
farrier, will answer the same ends as the lower surface of the foot 
does in a natural state, at the same time protecting and support- 
ing it, without interfering to any appreciable extent with the 


healthy functions of the organ. We have seen that the ordinary 
shoe is extremely imperfect, if it is not diametrically opposite to 
what we should consider as calculated to protect the foot, secure 
a good foothold, and interfere but little with its functions. In- 
stead of supporting the sole at its strongest part, and thus 
relieving the wall from much of the strain, it rests on the wall 
alone ; this is contrary to natural indications. The wide space 
between sole and shoe affords lodgment to foreign bodies which, 
when the sole is artistically mutilated, may do grievous harm, 
and it also increase* suction in soft ground ; the hoof shows 
nothing of this kind. Then, again : the ground-face of the shoe 
is a wide and smooth plane which, instead of preventing slipping, 
conduces to it ; or thickened portions project above this face, 
which disturb the balance and injure the limb, while they are 
only of very temporary and questionable service in insuring a 
firm footing. 

In the unshod hoof we see nothing of this, and we are brought 
to the conclusion, which daily experience amply confirms, that 
in addition to the ordinary management of the hoof being utterly 
erroneous , the shoe usually applied to it is very far from what 
it ought to be. 

Pattern of Shoe Recommended. — If the sole of the hoof has 
not been mutilated by the knife, it does not require to 
be covered by the shoe, as Nature has furnished an infi- 
nitely better protection. Wide-surface shoes can therefore 
be at once dispensed with, and a narrow shoe, made of the 
very best and toughest iron, adapted for traveling on slip- 
pery roads, and for aiding foot and limb, and sufficient to 
withstand wear for four or five weeks, is all that is required. 
We will therefore conclude that the upper or foot surface 
should be the whole width of the shoe, and plane — not bevelled 
— for we have seen that the sole was destined, particularly 
at this junction with the wall in front, to sustain weight. 


We also know that it is advantageous to the whole foot and limb 
to allow the sole as wide and general a bearing as possible ; so 
that one part may relieve the other— the sole coming to the aid 
of the wall, and the frog interposing to share the fatigue imposed 
upon both, as well as to relieve the strain on the hinder parts of 
the foot, flexor tendons and limb, and keep a firm grasp of the 
ground by its elastic and adhesive properties. 

The shoe applied to the foot, then, should have its hoof surface 
flat, in order that it may sustain the wall and as much of this 
strong portion of the sole as its width permits. This is contrary 
to the usual practice, which on]^ allows the wall to rest on a 
narrow surface, and bevels off the remainder of the shoe to 
prevent contact with the sole. Many years' experience of this 
plane foot-surfaced shoe in various regions of the globe, and on 
feet of every kind and quality, have proved the soundness of this 
view. The foot is brought as near to a state of nature when the 
greater part of its plantar surface supports the weight of the 
body, as man can hope to achieve while submitting the horse to 
an artificial existence. 

A light thin shoe is always preferable to a heavy thick one ; as 
the narrowness of the metal insures a good foothold— in this 
respect imitating the wall— while its thinness brings the sole, 
frog and bars in closer approximation to the ground. 

It is impossible to devise a shoe that will successfully meet 
every requirement. The heavy draught-horse, doomed to bring 
into play every muscle in endeavoring to move and drag along an 
enormous load, must have his feet differently armed to the hunter 
or race-horse, with which speed is the chief requisite. Taking 
into account the different character of the horny textures, it is- 
none the less true, however, that the same rule holds good in all 


with, regard to the sole and frog-sustaining weight, though in the 
slow- moving animal it is of less importance, perhaps, than in the 
lighter and more fleet one. The massive draught horse requires 
toe and heel projections or ' c catches" on the ground surface of 
the shoes, to economise his locomotive powers and to aid his 
powerful efforts ; though his hoofs none the less require the 
observance of those conservative principles which have been so 
strongly insisted upon, but which are so very seldom applied. 

To give the greatest amount of strength and foothold to the 
shoes of the heavy draught horse, with the least amount of 
weight, should be an object always kept in view in making them. 
But, with this animal, the principal object is the preservation of 
the wall of the hoof in order tMfct it may remain sound and strong 
for the retention of the nails ; to assist in effecting this, the sole 
and frog must be preserved intact. 

The form of the shoe in all cases should in outline resemble the 
shape of the ground surface of the hoof. It has been decided that 
its upper surface must be flat from the outer to the inner margin. 
For horses other than those of heavy draught, its width will of 
course vary ; but it is an advantage to have it as narrow as is 
compatible, in relation to its thickness, with the amount of wear 
required from it. 

The ground-face of the shoe is the next point for consideration. 
This should always be, if possible, parallel with its upper face ; 
that is, the shoe ought to be plane on both surfaces, and of the 
same thickness on both sides, not only in the fore, but also the 
hind shoes. This guarantees the foot and limb being kept in a 
natural position. What are termed " calkins" on one or both 
heels are very objectionable, for the simple reason that, as has 
been stated, they raise the back part of the foot higher than 
the front, and throw the limb forward ; unless the hoof 
meets the ground in its natural direction, some portion 


of the leg or foot will be certain to suffer. Therefore, what- 
ever device may be employed to prevent slipping and secure 
a hold on the ground should not interfere with the natural 
direction of the limb or foot. If calkins are deemed necessary, 
then the front part of the shoe ought to be raised to a correspond- 
ing height either by thickening its substance or adding a toe- 
piece. In the majority of cases, however, the use of these pro- 
jections is problematical, and it is certain that hundreds of horses 
travel as safely without them as with them. In many of our 
large towns and cities they are but little employed, and with 
advantage to the legs and feet. For many years I have not 
allowed a calkin to be worn on the shoe of any of the horses in 
my charge, and no complaints of slipping or insecure footing have 
ever been made, nor have any reports of horses falling down 
either on slippery turf or the smooth surface of paved streets, 
from the absence of calkins, ever reached me. Having studied 
the subject of farriery practically for several years, in the large 
cities of Glasgow and Manchester before entering the army, and 
having during fifteen years' service been attached to those 
branches in which light or riding-horses are employed, my op- 
portunities for observation have been extensive. These oppor- 
tunities have led me to form the opinion just given as to the 
value of calkins. While stationed with my regiment in Edin- 
burgh in 1864-65, I obtained permission to dispense with calkins 
on the hind-shoes (they are not worn on the fore-shoes of cavalry- 
horses), and though the orderly and other diities were somewhat 
heavy on the streets of that city— which are perhaps the most 
slippery in Britain— no accident occurred. 

For more than three years I have been stationed in a large 
garrison town in the south of England with nearly three hundred 
horses— most of which are draught— in my charge. The greater 



portion of these animals are employed several hours every day~ 
conveying heavy loads np and down very badly-made and exces- 
sively-steep roads ; no calkins or toe-pieces are worn, no slipping* 
is ever observed, while the sprains and injuries arising from the 
use of calkins are unknown. 

This immunity I attribute not alone to the absence of these 
projections, but to the care always taken to keep the hoofs healthy, 
properly adjusted, and strong, with the frogs resting as much as 
possible on the ground. 

In attempting to prevent slipping, and to afford a firm hold of 
the ground, without having recourse to calkins, a great object is 
to diminish the wide surface of metal of the shoe, without inter- 
fering, as little as possible, with its resistance to wear. The 
simplest method of doing this is to merely change the bevel on 
the foot-surface of the ordinary shoe to its ground-surface — 
making what is now concave, flat, and what is now the flat, slip- 
pery ground-surface, concave. The effect is almost magical in the 
security it gives the animal during progression, and is best exem- 
plified in the case of the hunter, which is usually shod with shoes 
of this description. Here, again, we are only imitating Nature 
by copying the concavity of the sole. There can be no doubt 
whatever as to the advantages to be gained by using such shoes. 
The sole is pretty well supported as well as the whole of the wall, 
by the wider surface of the metal above, while the narrow surface 
toward the ground affords security of tread. 

For general purposes this is an excellent form of shoe, but to 
make it still more efficient I devised a modification of it some 
years ago, which is an exact reproduction in iron of the ground- 
surface of this part of the hoof ; it has been employed on the road 
and in the field with most satisfactory results both on the fore and 
hind feet. 



In this shoe (Fig. 13), instead of the bevel on the ground- 
surface gradually becoming shallower as it approaches the heels, 
as in the ordinary hunting shoe, it becomes deeper, until, within 
an inch or two of the extremity of the branch, it has cut down 
through the thickness of the inner border ; it then abruptly 
ceases, leaving a sharp catch on each side, that, like the in- 
flexion of the wall at this part (Fig. 5, d d), affords an excellent 

Fig 13. 

grip, which moreover lasts until the shoe is quite worn out. 
With a modification of this kind, three important objects are 
secured : 1. The plane upper surface, resting flat and solidly on 
the crust and unpared sole, leaves no space in which foreign 
"bodies — as clay, stones, or gravel — may lodge, and in heavy 
ground suction is lessened. 2. The metal is only removed from 
the parts where it can be best spared, and where there is least 
wear ; consequently the shoe is lightened without being weakened. 
3. The level border and extremities of the branches afford an 
equal bearing for the foot, while the gradually deepening bevel, 
with its sudden check, secures a permanent and powerful catch- 
ing point like that at the angle of the wall. 

The shoe is easily made by any farrier, differing, as it does, so 
little from the ordinary hunting-shoe, and the shape is the same 
for the fore as the hind shoe, except that the former is, of 



course, more circular than the latter, to correspond with the 
shape of the hoof. • 

To make its fabrication as simple, speedy, and easy as the 
ordinary shoe, I have made it in two moulds or (i cresses," which 
fit into the anvil. These moulds are of iron faced with steel ; 
one (Fig. 14) has two wide, slightly curved transverse grooves cut 
on its surface, the one side of each being shallower than the 
other ; in these each branch of the shoe is moulded. The other 
cress (Fig. 15) has also two indentations so formed as to cut the 
check or " sunk calkin." With these moulds, the shoe is as easily 
and quickly made as the common one, and requires but little 
finishing. The moulds may be of three sizes, to suit different- 
sized feet and different kinds of work, and can be forged by any 
ordinary blacksmith or farrier. 

Fig. 14. 

Fig. 15. 

This shoe has been somewhat extensively tried by carriage 
and saddle horses, and with the very best results. For hunting 
or cavalry purposes it is excallent, particularly on slippery grass- 
land, the sharp point of the catch biting the surface of the 
ground most effectively. 

Clips. — For carriage and saddle-horses and hunters, each 
fore and hind shoe should have a clip drawn up at the middle 
of the toe, except in special cases, as when the horse over- 
reaches, or, from being required to jump, or any other cause, 
is likely to strike any part of the back of the fore-legs ; in 


which case, the hind shoes require to have a clip at each side of 
the toe— none in the middle— the hoof in front being allowed to 
project beyond the shoe. The latter should have all sharp edges 
carefully removed at this part, particularly in the case of 

Clips, when judiciously placed, are of service in retaining the 
shoe, and so permitting the number of nails to be diminished ; 
but, as a rule, they should be as few as possible, as they are 
sometimes a source of injury to the hoof, particularly if they are 
situated in too close proximity to the nails. 

Varieties of Shoes.— Various forms of shoes have been from 
time to time proposed with a view to prevent slipping, but only 
those which have had their ground-surface grooved, beveled, or 
"toothed," have met with any success. In recent times, an 
American shoe— the " Goodenough "— has had wonderful qualities 
claimed for it in this respect. It differs but little from the 
common hunting shoe. It has several trivial projections cut on 
the outer margin of its lower surface, which may prevent slipping 
so long as they last ; but in a very short time they are worn 
away, and then it has nothing to recommend it beyond the 
ordinary hunting shoe. The shoe is made by machinery. 

Mr. Gray, of the Mowbray Works, Sheffield, has introduced 
machine-made shoes faced with steel, and grooved into two or 
more sharp ridges on their ground surface. When fitted, these 
shoes are tempered; consequently they are harder than iron, 
should wear for a longer period, and may thus be made lighter. 
If their hardness does not cause them to be more slippery on 
smooth pavement, when the ridges have become somewhat worn, 
than the iron shoe, they should be an improvement, and prove 
cheaper than those commonly in use. 

More recently, grooved and surfaee-er.t rolled iron bars have 


been introduced with some success for the manufacture of horse- 

Material.— Machine-made horse-shoes have, unfortunately, never 
hitherto proved successful, from the material of which they are 
manufactured proving either too soft— when they were too rapidly 
worn out— or too hard, when they had a tendency either to break 
or induce slipping. 

We have remarked how important it is that the shoes worn by 
horses should be as light as possible. It is generally a good plan, 
if a horse wears his shoes more at one part than another, so that 
they do not last a sufficient time, to weld in a small piece of steel 
at that place, instead of thickening the shoe and making it 
heavier. The latter method, which is that generally adopted to 
save time, most frequently defeats its purpose— the increased 
weight causing the animal to drag its feet heavily along the 
ground instead of lifting them freely. 

Lightness and durability can only be attained by employing the 
best material. 

Nail-holes.— The form of the shoe having been decided upon, 
the position and shape of the nail-holes, as well as their number, 
have next to be considered. 

The shoe ought to be attached by nails to those parts of the 
wall where the horn is strongest and toughest. In the fore-foot, 
these parts are in front and along the sides to the quarters ; there 
the horn becomes narrow and thin, and the nails find less support, 
and are nearer to the living textures ; this is more particularly 
the case toward the heels, especially the inner one. In the hind- 
foot the wall is generally strong towards the quarters and heel. 
These facts at once give us an indication as to the best position 
for the nail-holes. In the fore-foot, nails can be driven through 
the wall around the toe as far as the inside quarter, and a little 


nearer the heel on the outside. In the hind-foot, they may be 
driven around the toe, and even up to the heels with impunity. 

The form of the nail-holes is a matter of secondary importan le. 
The "fullering," or groove around the border of the English 
shoe, though artistic-looking, is a mistake ; it is a waste of lab 5r 
and of little, if any, service. What is termed the " stamped 
shoe/' is in every way preferable. The square or somewhat oval 
cavity, wide at the top and tapering toward the bottom, gives a 
secure and solid lodgment to the nail-head; which of course 
should tit the cavity accurately ; it does not weaken the shoe, is 
easily made, can be placed nearer the outer or inner margin of 
the plate as required, and when rilled with the nail is as capable 
of resisting wear as any other part of the shoe. It is usually 
better to have the nail-holes stamped " coarse" (that is, at some 
distance from the outer margin of the shoe) at points correspond- 
ing to those parts of the hoof where the wall is strongest ; and 
" finer" where the horn is thin and its fibres short. 

They should not, as a rule, incline outward or inward, but be 
so perforated that the nail-point can take a strong or weak hold 
of the wall, according to circumstances. If the hoof be strong, 
with plenty of wall at its lower margin, then the holes may be 
stamped coarse, in order to take a short but solid hold of it, by 
driving the nail obliquely outward (as in Fig. 16, a). 

The number of nail-holes through which nails are to be driven 
should be as few as possible. Every nail penetrating the wall 
of the foot, no matter how skillfully it may be placed, may be 
looked upon as a source of injury to it, by splitting asunder or 
breaking its fibres. On the form and weight of the shoe will 
greatly depend the number of nails required to retain it. With 
that I have described as used in hunting, or as modified by me, 
and which rests firmly on wall and sole, as well as being as light 



as is compatible with a certain period of wear, but few nails are 
needed. The ordinary heavy shoe, on the contrary, is not only 
damaging to the foot, because it rests on such a narrow basis, 
but also because its weight and instability necessitates its being 
attached by a large number of long thick nails, which do great 
harm to the hoof. 

Fig. 16. 

With care in fitting a properly constructed shoe, and skill in 
placing the nails firmly in sound horn, the usual number may be 
considerably reduced; so that instead of seven to ten being 
required, it will be found that from four to six are equally service- 
able, and even these may be of diminished size. For shoes worn 
by medium-sized draught horses, I seldom allow more than six 
nails in the fore and seven in the hind feet ; more frequently the 
former are secured by five nails — three in the outside and two 
in the inside branch of the shoe, and the latter by three on 
each side. 

The fewer the number of nail-holes, the greater is the 
necessity for distributing them wide apart ; indeed, it is a 
grave blunder to cluster the nails closely together in the hoof, 
as they break and weaken the horn, and attach the shoe much 
less | securely than if they were spread over a wider surface. 


Calkins demand the employment of additional nails, from their 
liability to become fixed between stones, and also from the 
strain they occasion. 

It must always be remembered that the retention of a shoe for 
a sufficient period does not so much depend upon the number of 
nails attaching it, as upon their disposition and upon its exact 
fitting- and solid bearing on the wall and sole of the hoof. It 
should also be borne in mind that where there is a clip there 
ought to be no nail ; lameness is not unfrequently produced by a 
tightly-adjusted clip making so much pressure upon the nail and 
horn within it as to cause pain aud inflammation. 

We have alluded to the various patterns of shoes in use, and 
pointed out their defects and recpaireinents. As, in preparing the 
hoof, general principles were laid down which are applicable to 
every kind of animal — from the race-horse to the mammoth 
draught-beast employed in our large manufacturing cities — so in 
the shape of the shoe and its essential characteristics general 
principles must everywhere prevail. "Where speed is demanded, 
as in the race-horse, hunter, etc., lightness and security of foot- 
hold on soft or slippery land are the chief desiderata. ; with coach 
and other draught animals of less speed, and which are prin- 
cipally used on paved roads, heavier shoes are needed to sustain 
wear, and they must also afford security ; but while, with the 
racer, hunter, and other animals nearly always moving over soft 
soil, calkins may be resorted to without much detriment to the 
limb and foot, as they sink into the ground, on the shoes of 
horses working on hard roads they are objectionable for the 
reasons stated ; if they are resorted to, their injurious action 
should be averted by employing a toe-piece of the same height. 

For the race-horse the narrowest iron rim is sufficient, provided 


it is strong enough not to twist or bend. The present form of 
shoe is not objectionable. 

For hunters, hacks, and harness horses, a shoe of the modified 
pattern I have described is well adapted; even the ordinary 
hunting pattern, but without the calkin on the hind-shoe, 
is infinitely preferable to that used for hacks and harness 

Another excellent form of shoe, introduced by Staff Veterinary 
Surgeon Thacker, and which has been in use for some time in 
Woolwich on riding and harness horses, deserves to be men- 
tioned here. It is broader in the cover at the toe than the heels 
(Fig. 17) ; at the toe it is slightly curved upward, to remove it 
from the greater amount of wear occuring at this part, and also 
as a safeguard against horses stumbling. This curve also acts as 
.a clip to prevent the shoe moving backward. The foot-surface is 

Fig. 17. 

•quite flat, and rests on the sole and wall (Fig. 17). The ground- 
surface (Fig. 18) is beveled somewhat like the hunting or modi- 
fied shoe I have described, with the intention of protecting the 
heads of the nails from too much wear, and offering no line or 
cavity whereby a stone can lodge or become wedged. The 
cover or " web " of the shoe is gradually brought very narrow 
.at the heels, its outer rim corresponding exactly with the 


crust, and the ends of the branches terminating at the heels of 
the foot, thus offering protection to the crust only, and without 
presenting any surface to be trodden upon or allowing the least 
suction in heavy ground. 

Fig. 18. 

The nail-holes are in the centre of the web, and are directed 
outward, by which the nails pass obliquely across the fibres of 
the wall and secure a good hold, without approaching the sensi- 
tive parts too closely. Three-fourths of an inch is supposed to 
be the height necessary to drive the nails. 

There are two small clips — one on each side of the curvature at 
the toe — and these not only support the diminished number of 
nails, but require that the farrier fit the shoe to the circum- 
ference of the foot. The smallest-sized nails should be invariably 
used, and fitted into each nail-hole before applying the shoe — 
the shoe to be light and made of good material. This pattern, 
like the modified shoe I have proposed, is suitable for either fore 
or hind feet. 

It may be mentioned that, with the exception of the two side- 
clips at the toe, this shoe is nearly identical in shape with 
that recommended by Colonel Fitzwygram in his excellent work 
on shoeing. 



The foot having been duly prepared, and the form of shoe de- 
cided upon, the next step is to apply the shoe to the hoof, and 
retain it there by nails. 

In ordinary practice the wail of the foot has been only partially 
diminished, the remainder of the task being left until the shoe 
has to be fitted. This causes the farrier to have a very imperfect 
idea of the proper shape or size of the hoof, and he therefore 
prepares a shoe which he guesses is about the size, though in 
nearly every case it is too small ; and, moulding it according to 
his fancy, he proceeds to adjust the foot to it. This is done by 
cutting more or less deeply into the wall at the toe, to make the 
shoe appear long enough by embedding the clip deeply in its 
substance, or " letting it back," as it is termed. The consequence 
is, that when the shoe has been nailed on, the basis of support 
of the limb is abnormally diminished, a large portion of the wall 
of the hoof— its strongest portion— projects beyond the shoe in 
front and at the sides, and this is afterward carefully removed by 
the rasp, to the great injury to the most essential portion of the 
hoof. In every respect, the foot is made to fit the shape of the 
shoe, and as this is generally prepared with a view only to neat- 
ness or the traditions of routine, the organ suffers, to please the 
fancy or fashion of the unreasoning artisan. 

By our method, the horn having been reduced to proper 
dimensions, the shoe is now made to exactly fit the hoof, 
and to follow the outline of its lower face. The part of the 
hoof intended to be protected by the iron rim has been made 
as level as possible by the rasp, aided a very little, perhaps, 
by the knife ; the surface of the shoe destined to rest on this 
horny bed has also been made perfectly level and smooth, particu- 
larly at the clip or clips, and it is to be correctly fitted. The 


farrier should so mould the shoe that it be an exact reproduction 
in outline of the circumference of the hoof. To make it appear 
so when applied, it may be necessary to remove a little of the 
wall at the part corresponding to the clip, merely to make the fit 
more accurate and not allow any portion of the shoe to project 
unduly beyond the horn. 

The length of the shoe will vary with the uses to which the 
horse is put. For racing, hunting, and other purposes in which 
the hind limbs are carried forward to an extreme degree in pro- 
pelling the body, the branches of the fore-shoe must on no account 
extend beyond the inflection of the wall, otherwise the shoe is 
liable to be torn off by the hind-foot, and the horse thrown down. 
The end of the branch should also be carefully rounded off and 
beveled (as in Fig. 13), so as to leave nothing whatever by which 
the hind shoe might catch it. 

With harness and draught horses this extreme care in shorten- 
ing and beveling the heels is not so necessary ; indeed, in the 
heavier and slower paced animals, it is frequently advantageous 
to allow the shoes to be rather longer at the heels than the hoof 

As a rule, then, the shoe ought to be wide enough at the toe, 
quarters and heels to support the entire thickness of the wall, but 
yet not so wide or long as to endanger the opposite limbs by 
striking them, or run the chance of being torn off by the other 
feet treading upon it ; and it should not interfere with the frog, 
or prevent that organ from playing its part in the physiology of 
the foot. 

The adjustment of the shoe to the exact circumference of the 
hoof is usually effected at the same time as the fitting together 
of the two surfaces of iron and horn which are to remain in 
contact. To render both accurate, the horse should always be 
shod at a forge. A hammer and anvil are necessary to mould the 


heated shoe to the requisite shape ; and it is almost, if not quite, 
impossible to obtain a perfectly true and solid adaptation of the 
upper face of the shoe to the horn on which it is to rest, within 
any reasonable time, unless it be fitted to the hoof in a hot 

Hot and Cold Fitting. — For very many years the two systems of 
fitting horse-shoes in a cold and a heated condition to the hoofs 
have been extensively and severely tested, and the result has 
been that cold fitting- is, as a rule, only resorted to when circum- 
stances prevent the adoption of the other method, or when the 
owner of a horse, imagining that the hot shoe injures the foot,, 
incurs the risks attending a bad fit to guard against his imaginary 

It is needless, in a brief essay like the present, to enter into 
a relation of the observations and experiments which have estab- 
lished the undoubted and great superiority of what is termed 
"hot" to ff cold" fitting. These will be found noticed at some 
length in a work recently published by me, entitled " Horseshoes 
and Horseshoeing." It may be sufficient to state that the evils 
supposed to result from fitting the shoes hot to the hoofs are 
purely chimerical. It is true, when the sole is excessively mutil- 
ated should the farrier keep the heated shoe too long in contact 
with it, injury would doubtless follow, but this accident is so 
exceedingly rare as to be scarcely ever known, even in forges 
where shoeing is performed in the most objectionable manner. 
The ill effects imagined to arise from hot shoeing can easily be 
traced to the operal ion of other causes, not the least of which is 
the fashion of paring the lower face of the foot. 

The chief objections to cold shoeing are the want of solidity, 
the foot being made to fit the shoe, and the process being more 
difficult and expensive. 

The defective solidity is patent to every one who has had any 


experience in the matter. It is impossible to level the ends of 
the horn-fibres so accurately that they will all rest evenly on the 
surface of the iron ; so those which are most prominent soon 
giving way to pressure, the bed of the shoe is altered, and this, 
becoming loose, is either lost, or we have projecting clenches. 
And even should the fibres be made perfectly level, wet softens 
them, causing them to become pulpy and shorter, by which 
means the seat of the shoe is impaired and the nails lose their 
firm hold of the wall. Ample experience on active service, as 
well as that gathered at home during peace, has demonstrated 
the instability resulting from cold fitting. 

Owing to the increased trouble and loss of time incurred by 
this method in attempts to make the shoe fit somewhat accurately, 
but few. farriers can afford or are willing to resort to it. Hence, 
when it is practised, if the shoe is at all like the foot, it is put on, 
and rasp and knife insure the hoof being made to fit it. This 
proceeding is very injurious. 

In hot fitting we have none of these objections. The shoe is 
very readily adapted to the foot ; it is more equally applied, and 
rests solidly on the hoof, so that the nails are not broken or 
displaced by the shoe becoming loose ; in fine, there- is a more 
intimate contact between the iron and the surface of the horn. 
The very fact of burning or fusing the ends of the fibres insures 
a solid, durable bed which cannot be obtained otherwise, as this 
destroys the spongy absorbent properties of the horn and renders 
it eminently calculated to withstand the influence of moisture. 
The effects produced on horn by the hot iron have been compared 
to those of fire on pieces of wood whose ends have been super- 
ficially carbonized before being buried in the ground. Every one 
knows that this operation contributes to the preservation of the 
wood by preserving it from the action of humidity. 

Horn is a very slow conductor of heat, and it requires a very 


prolonged application of the hot shoe to affect the shoe to any 
considerable depth. Three minutes' burning of the lower face 
of the sole has been found necessary to produce any indication of 
increase of temperature by the thermometer on its upper surface. 
It is never required that the shoe should be applied longer than 
a few seconds. 

The hot shoe, in fusing the horn with which it comes in con- 
tact, imprints itself like a seal in melted sealing-wax, and in this 
way the two surfaces of foot and shoe exactly coincide ; while no 
matter how expert the workman may be in using his tools to level 
the horn in a cold state, he can never do it so quickly or so com- 
pletely as may be done by making an impression with the heated 
shoe, and consequently establishing between the lower margin of 
the hoof and the shoe an exact coaptation. 

It may be added that, when the surface of the horn has been 
softened by the action of caloric, the nails enter it more readily, 
the clips and inequalities are more easily embedded, and when it 
recovers its habitual consistency after cooling, the union between 
it and the metallic parts which are in contact becomes all the 
more intimate because of the slight contraction that follows the 
expansion produced by the heat. Under these conditions, the 
horn contracts on the shanks of the nails, and retains them most 

All the highest veterinary authorities who have studied the 
subject are unanimous in recommending hot fitting in preference 
to cold ; the latter is only j ustifiable when it is impossible to 
adopt the former. The red-hot shoe at once disposes of those 
inequalities which cannot be discovered, or removed by tools ; 
and it shows the workman at a glance the bearing of the shoe on 
the hoof, as well as the imprint on the nail-holes. Without being 
reheated, any alteration can be readily and at once effected in 
moulding the shoe to the shape of the two. 


The whole surface of the shoe intended to be in contact with 
the horn should be distinctly impressed on the contour of the 
hoof, so as to insure the closest and most accurate intimacy be- 
tween the two ; and this carbonized surface should not be inter- 
fered with on any account, except by the rasp, which is only to be 
employed in removing any sharpness or inequality on the extreme 
edge of the wall that may have been caused in fittino-. 

It is necessary to bear in mind that the shoe should be fitted at 
a red heat. Its application then need only be very brief, and it is 
far more effective in producing a solid, level surface ; it ought not 
to be applied at a black heat. Should the margin of the hoof not 
be sufficiently levelled by the rasp before the application of the 
hot shoe, a slight contact of the latter will show the inequalities, 
and these may then be removed by rasp or knife. On no occasion 
ought the shoe to remain longer on the hoof than is necessary to 
produce a solid, perfectly level surface. 

The Nails.— The shoe having been made to fit the hoof exactly, 
is cooled and finished with the file. It is then ready to be at- 
tached to the hoof by nails. These should not be unnecessarily 
large, as is too often the case, but well proportioned to the size of 
the shoe. The heads should only be sufficient to fill the nail- 
holes when subjected to two or three smart blows of the hammer, 
and the shanks thin. It is scarcely necessary to add that the 
nails, like the shoe, should always be made of the best iron. 

Driving the Nails.— In driving the nails into the hoof, every one 

should be made to pass through sound horn. It is a mistake to 

place them where the wall is broken or perforated by previous 

nails, as this only makes bad worse ; and care should be taken to 

direct each nail so accurately that it may make its exit at the 

desired point in the face of the wall at once. Careless or unskillful 


driving of the nails necessitates their being withdrawn several 
times before they are properly implanted, and as each nail, how- 
ever carefully it may be placed in the wall at the first attempt, is 
a source of injury by splitting asunder and perforating the fibres, 
it follows that when several attempts have to be made the injury 
is proportionately increased. 

A short thick hold of the wall is better than a long thin one. 
If possible, no more horn should be included within the grasp of 
the nail than is likely to be removed at the following shoeing. 
By this means the wall is constantly maintained sound. 

A foot allowed to grow strong in the manner I have described, 
will suffer no inconvenience in having the nails driven tightly 
into the shoe and hoof after they have been placed in the wall. 

Where the hoof is thin, as at the quarters and heels of the fore- 
foot, smaller and more slender nails must be used, and these must 
be less tightly driven. The toe nails should be first hammered 
home firmly, then the quarter and heel nails lightly. Every nail 
should form a part of the shoe, and the head should barely pro- 
ject above it ; when all are solidly disposed, they must be tightly 
" drawn up " at the ends (the points having been twisted off 
previously) by means of the hammer and pincers, using the same 
graduated degree of force as in driving them home. 

Conclusion of the Operation. — Nothing then remains ts be done 
but to bend down or " clench " the portion of nail so drawn up on 
the face of the wall. This should be accomplished by shortening 
the fragment to a proper length by the rasp, so as to leave just 
enough to turn over ; the rasp also removes the small barb of 
horn raised in drawing up the nail, but without making a notch, 
and then the clench is laid down evenly. No more rasping or 
cutting should be allowed on any pretext whatever. 


Rasping. — Very different to this treatment is that practised 
in nearly every forge, where the front of the hoof is rasped most 
unmercifully as high as the coronet. Indeed, in the majority of 
books on farriery it is recommended that, though the wall 
ought not to be rasped above the clenches, this must be done 
below them; evidently ignorant of the fact that nearly as 
much, if not more, harm is done by this operation below than 
than above these rivets. 

Those who study what I have said concerning the structure 
of the wall of the hoof will readily enough understand the 
amount of injury inflicted on the hoof by this rasping. 

Over the whole external face of this part there appears to be 
spread a fine translucent horn, which looks like a varnish, whose 
office in all probability is to prevent undue drying of the hoof 
and consequent brittleness. Immediately beneath this are the 
dense resisting fibres of the wall, which are intended to resist 
wear, and are best adapted to support a shoe, through the 
medium of the nails ; in fact, they are the fibres which ought to 
perform this duty, as beneath them, toward the inside of the 
wall, the horn rapidly becomes soft and spongy, and more like 
the pith of a rush. 

In consequence of the farrier having neglected to remove a 
sufficient amount of horn from the lower margin of the wall, 
when preparing the foot for the shoe, or having nailed on a plate 
too small for its natural circumference, a large piece of the solid 
material projects beyond the shoe, particularly in front and at 
the sides. This is torn away by the rasp, after the clenches have 
been laid down ; and when this has been done what do we see ? 
The wall of the foot, instead of coming down from the coronet to 
the shoe in all its integrity and evenness of slope, as soon as it 
reaches the clenches is chopped abruptly downward, giving the 
foot a stump or club-like appearance, and greatly diminishing 
the extent of its bearing surface. The greatest evil, however, is 


the loss of the strong, tough horn, whose presence is so necessary 
to protect the lower margin of the hoof and afford support and 
hold to the nails. 

In consequence of its removal, these having nothing to retain 
them but the thin pellicle of soft horn remaining, and this being 
so weak, and exposed to influences it was never intended to 
encounter, quickly dries up, shrivels, becomes brittle, and cracks 
or breaks away in flakes. Then we have a hoof deprived of its 
horn, and in as unnatural a condition as can well be imagined •* 
it has been so barbarously mutilated as to require the greatest 
care next shoeing to place the nails in a shred of sound horn ; 
the operation of rasping and curtailment being repeated each 
time increases the evil, and should a shoe chance to come off on 
the road — an accident, it may be inferred, extremely likely to 
happen — great damage will be done to the pared sole, and the 
thin, brittle, slit-up wall, and in all probability, after a few yards 
traveling, the animal will be lamed. 

The morbid desire to make fine work of shoeing, when the 
horse was first shod, ends in the greatest amount of skill and 
labor being required to continue it, and keep the animal to some 
extent fit for service, though with deformed feet, seriously 
damaged horn, and perhaps great suffering. 

The truth of this can be verified by a casual glance at the 
hoofs of almost every horse that passes us in town or country, 
though perhaj)s it is most conspicuous in town-shod horses. 

One of the most serious results of this excessive mutilation 
of the lower part of the wall is the production of a chronic 
form of laminitis, marked by slight subsidence half-way down 
the front of the foot, and to a less degree at the side, with an 
abrupt, rounded protrusion of the [part that is always exposed 
to rasping. 

This deformity, which causes pain and altered gait in the 



majority of cases arises from the irritation caused to the sensitive 
parts within by the removal of their natural protection, but 
more particularly from the fact that the nails, to retain the shoe, 
must be driven through a sufficient amount of soft horn, and this 
brings them so near the living parts that they press upon them 
to such a degree as to set up an acute or subacute inflammation 
that leads to this deformity and its attendant lameness. 

Cases of this description will be found to be by no means 
uncommon among the horses in our streets, and for many years 
I have been able to trace the evil effects of the practice from 
their commencement until the animal was a hopeless cripple. 

When the coachman, groom, or farrier's fancy causes the rasp 
to be carried above the clenches to the top of the hoof, then of 
course the injury is greatly aggravated. 

The thin, semi-translucent horn that extends in a somewhat 
wide, whitish-colored band around the upper part of the foot, is 
chiefly intended by Nature, I think, to protect the fibres of the 
wall from the effects of external physical influences, such as heat 
and dryness, while they are being secreted, or so immature as to 
be incapable of resisting these influences— for it will be remem- 
bered that the wall is formed at the coronet, and this covering 
guarantees not only the integrity of the newly-made horn-tubes, 
but also maintains the secreting vessels that enter them in a 
healthy condition, and competent to supply fresh material for 

The destruction of this band and the rasping of the fibres 
beneath it, is detrimental to the healthy secretion of the wall- 
fibres, and leads to the same result that paring the sole was shown 
to do— shrinking of the horn-tubes containing the tufts of vessels, 
wasting of these, a diminished supply of horny material in con- 
sequence, and a thin, brittle wall that scarcely appears to grow 
down at all in depth or thickness, and barely allows a shoe to be 


attached to it. Sand-crack, and other diseased conditions of this 
part of the hoof, are mainly due to this cause. 

After applying the shoe in the manner we have described, and 
laying down the clenches evenly on the wall of the hoof, no more 
requires to be done, unless, perhaps, it be to round a little more 
the edge of the narrow shreds of horn that may project on each 
side of the clip, and thus prevent their liability to split. The 
angle of the face of the hoof should never be interfered with 
after the shoe is nailed on, but should be the same from top to 
bottom as in the natural state. This is a matter of great importance. 
Too much stress cannot be laid upon the preservation of the horn 
of the hoof in its integrity. No amount of rasping or artificial 
treatment can give the hoof the beautiful polish it has in its 
natural state. 

Laying doivn Clips. — At this stage it is usual to apply the clip 
or clips more exactly and evenly to the hoof before completing the 
operation of shoeing ; and even this apparently trifling matter 
demands care. With gradually decreasing blows of the shoeing- 
hammer, each clip should be applied close to the hoof, commencing 
at the bottom, where it springs from the shoe, and ascending to 
its point, Clips should never be driven tight into the hoof. This 
is injurious, and may induce disease. 

When, in due course, the period arrives for re-shoeing — usually 
in a month or five weeks — the hoofs require to be reduced to their 
normal dimensions ; the rules we have laid down for guidance 
are to be followed out in the most scrupulous manner. The old 
shoe is to be gently removed from the foot by carefully cutting- 
away the clenches with the buffer ; the pincers are then to be 
inserted toward the heel, between the hoof and shoe, and the 
latter prized steadily upward from and across the foot. When by 
this means the nails have been sufficiently sprung, they may be 


withdrawn one by one. Particular care must be taken that no 
clenches or broken nails remain in the hoof , as these are likely to 
turn the points of the succeeding nails into the living parts of the 

Such, then, on the one hand, is shoeing as it is usually prac- 
ticed, to the great injury of the horse ; and, on the other hand, 
shoeing as it ought to be performed, so as to maintain the comfort 
and efficiency of this noble and invaluable animal. 

It will be observed that no claim is here made to any wonderful 
novelty or discovery in the way of a shoe that will answer every 
purpose, and keep every horse wearing it in a state of health. 
Such an invention must be left to those whose practical experi- 
ence is of the most limited character, and who fancy that the evils 
of shoeing are concentrated in the metal plate alone. It may be 
sufficient to say, in this place, that, so far as the comfort, utility, 
and well-being of the horse are concerned, the preservation of the 
foot in health by abstaining from mutilating and deforming it 
with knife and rasp, is of the highest importance. If this be 
done, the shoe most appropriate for certain purposes demands 
some attention, but is really a matter of minor consideration. 

Preserve the hoof intact and strong, and the animal will travel 
long and soundly in a very uncouth foot armature ; pare and rasp 
it according to " improved principles/' and the most labored, 
expensive, and artistic device in the form of a shoe will not pre- 
vent discomfort, unsoundness, disease, and premature useless- 

At an early period of my professional career, I was much dis- 
satisried with the results of shoeing as it is practised in ordinary 
forges, and with the unreasonableness of the fashion of depriving 
the foot of its natural and most efficient protection, and was soon 


led to perceive that a vast majority of the horses so treated soon 
became deformed and lame in their feet; while some of the dis- 
eases occurring higher up in the limbs were likewise due to this 

The rational method here inculcated was then adopted,, and 
now for many years the only preparation the foot has received 
for the shoe has been levelling the wall, in conformity with the 
direction of the limb and foot, and removing as much of its margin 
as will restore it to its natural length, leaving the sole, frog, 
bars, and heels in all their integrity. Such has been the treat- 
ment of the hoofs of the horses under my care in various parts of 
the world, and in far more trying circumstances at times, so far 
as shoeing is concerned, than are likely to occur in the regula r 
work of towns, and so strong were the hoofs, as a rule, such solid 
blocks of horn did they appear, that when a shoe was, by some 
rare chance, lost on a journey, there was no dan^or whatever to 
be apprehended from marching the horse ten, twenty, or even 
thirty miles, without it. Horses have never been pricked in 
nailing, and foot diseases, it may be said, have been all but un- 
known. The roughest roads and the sharpest stones can be 
traveled over with impunity. Nearly every hoof might be taken 
as a model, and be pronounced as perfect as before the animal 
was shod, many years previously. 

This abstinence from paring and rasping, it will be seen, very 
naturally lessens the time and labor required in the ordinary 
method ; indeed, nothing can be simpler than the conservative 
principle of shoeing, and this simplicity can be effectively carried 
into practice with one-half the instruction and toil required for 
the popular mode. 

Other methods of shoeing have been devised from time to time, 
and may be briefly referred to here. 

To diminish the weight and permit a portion of the posterior part 


of the foot to come in direct contact with the ground along with 
the frog, a three-quarter shoe is often applied — the portion of 
iron extending from the inside quarter to the point of the heel 
being cut off, and the shoe at this part thinned a little. The 
horn left unprotected is never interfered with. This is an excel- 
lent shoe for saddle and carriage, and even draught horses, which 
may be employed on the worst roads while wearing it. For feet 
that have suffered very much from the effects of rasping and 
paring, and which are liable to have bruised heels (or corns), its 
use is attended with the greatest benefit. 

The same may be said of " tips" or half-shoes. An unreason- 
able prejudice appears to exist against the use of these light, 
short plates ; but if they are applied in appropriate cases, there 
can be no doubt whatever that they are entitled to a far larger 
share of attention than they have yet received. Their very 
limited employment hitherto may have arisen from the imperfect 
manner in which they have been used. They protect those parts 
of the wall most exposed to damage by wear, extending around 
the toe and reaching no farther than the quarters ; while the 
heels and frog, when left unpared and unrasped, are strong 
enough to meet all demands made upon them, at the same time 
they are not deprived of their physiological functions. 

In addition to these considerations, the diminution in the 
weight of the shoe is a matter of some importance. Of course, 
the three-quarters shoe and tip are only required for the fore- 
feet ; the hind-feet shoes, so long as they are level, are not over 
heavy, and do not wound the opposite limbs, may be of the 
ordinary pattern. On this difference between the management 
of the fore and hind foot we cannot too much insist. The fore- 
foot is particularly disposed to disease and injury ; the hind-foot 
is wonderfully exempt. So much is this the case, indeed, that 
the proper management of the first is all important, while the 


other requires but little attention. The reason of this is due to 
the fact that the horizontal body, and long, heavy neck and head 
of the horse, cause the largest proportion of the weight to fall 
upon the front pair of supporting columns, and, through them, 
upon the feet ; the fore-limbs are those most concerned in sup- 
porting weight, the hind ones in propelling the body forward. 
Hence the necessity for allowing as much of the lower face of the 
fore-foot as possible to come in contact with the ground ; and 
hence the prevalence of disease in it when improper shoeing 
limits its points of contact to the narrowest dimensions. 

Various Methods of Shoeing. — Another form of shoe is that 
commonly known as the " bar shoe" — a ring or annular plate of 
metal which increases the surface of contact by resting, to a 
large extent, on the frog, and allowing that important body to 
participate in weight-bearing ; in this way it also relieves the 
heels when these are weak or injured. It is a very useful shoe, 
but the additional weight given to it by the bar, and the extra 
strain on the nails retaining it to the hoof, are drawbacks. 

To apply a shoe in such a manner as to allow the frog to receive 
a due amount of pressure has always been the aim of those who 
have made the horse's foot an object of careful study. Even with 
the ordinary shoe, if it be not too thick nor garnished with 
calkins, the frog, if unmutilated, in the majority of cases will 
rest upon the ground for nearly the whole of its length, and 
sustain beneficial wear. Nearly every one of the horses at 
present in my charge, though shod with the army regulation shoe 
— a very defective model — have their frogs in this condition ; 
while all the private horses wearing the modified shoe I have 
described, exhibit the frog resting for the whole of its length and 
breadth on the ground. 


By this object, with others of importance, is perfectly attained 
in what has been designated the " periplantar shoe and method 
of shoeing," introduced by Veterinary Surgeon Charlier, of Paris. 
Leave the hoof entirely in a natural condition, so far as frog, 
sole and wall are concerned, and imbed a narrow rim of iron, no 
thicker than the wall, around the lower circumference of the 
foot — that exposed to wear — like the iron heel of a man's boot, 
and we obtain an idea of what the periplantar method of shoeing 
really is. 

The principle of this method of shoeing is, physiologically, 
perfectly correct. Knowing that the horse's foot is admirably 
constructed to perform certain definite functions, and that the 
hoof in ordinary condition is designed to act as the medium 
through which the most important of these are carried out, but 
that its circumference is liable to be broken away and worn 
when nudely exposed, we have only to substitute for a certain 
portion of this perishable horn an equivalent portion of more 
durable metal, and the hoof is secured from damage by wear, 
while its natural functions remain unimpaired. 

This novel method of shoeing has attracted so much attention, 
and has in many instances proved so beneficial and worthy of 
adoption, so far as my experience goes, that I venture to describe, 
as briefly as possible, the way in which it is carried into execu- 
tion in the forge. 

The sole and frog, as well as the bars, are left unpared. The 
crust or wall is bevelled off at the edge by the rasp, and by 
means of a special knife with a movable guide* a groove is 
made along this bevelled edge to receive the shoe. This groove 
is made a little shallower than the thickness of the sole, and 
slightly narrower than the thickness of the van, not ex- 

* A knife of this kind which I invented, is manufactured and sold by Messrs. 
Arnold & Son, Instrument Makers, West Smithfield, London. 


tending beyond the white line separating the sole from the 
wall (Fig. 19). 

Fig. 19. 

Into this groove is fitted the shoe. This is a narrow, but 
somewhat deep band of iron (or, as now, a mixture of iron and 
steel), narrower at the top than the bottom, and forged in such 
a manner that its front surface follows the slope of the foot. It 
is perforated by from four to six oval nail-holes of small size, 
and if necessary may be provided with a clip at the toe. Its 
upper inner edge is rounded by the file, to prevent it pressing 
too much against the angle of the sole, and the ends of the 
branches are narrow and beveled off toward the ground 
(Fig. 20). 

The nails are very small, and have a conical head and neck 
(Fig. 21). They must be of the best quality. 

It is best to fit the shoe in a hot state, as it must have a 
level bed and follow exactly the outline of the wall. After 
it has been fitted, it is advisable to remove, by a small draw- 
ing-knife, a little of the horn from the angle of the groove in 
the hoof, to correspond with the rounded inner edge of the 



shoe. This insures a proper amount of space between the latter 
and the soft horn at the margin of the pedal bone. 

In strong hoofs the shoe is almost entirely buried in the groove ; 
but in those which have the soles flat or convex, with low heels, 
it is not safe to imbed it so deeply. 

The application of the hot shoe in fitting should not extend 
beyond a very few seconds. 

Fig. 20. Fig. 21. 

The shoe is nailed to the hoof in the ordinary manner (Fig. 22). 
For saddle and light carriage-horses, I have usually found four 
nails — two on each side — for each shoe sufficient. These should 
be placed wide apart at the toe and rather close to the heel 
(Fig. 23, a, b). Every nail must be driven in sound horn, other- 
wise the shoe, being so narrow, may get the branch bent out, and 
nothing more is needed than to lay the clenches down evenly on the 
wall. No rasping is required. When the shoe is attached to the 
foot, we then perceive that a portion of the sole and bars, and 
the whole of the frog, meet the ground as in the unshod state 
(Fig. 23). 

The great advantages of this method of shoeing consist in its 
simplicity, when farriers have been made to understand it ; its- 



placing the hoof in a natural condition, so far as its ground-face 
s concerned ; the small number and size of the nails required 

Fig. 22. 
to retain it ; the lightness of the shoe, and the security it gives 
to the horse in progression. 

Since ts introduction by M. Charlier, I have tried this method 

Fig. 23. 
on a large number of horses of various sizes, and which 
have been employed for hunting/; road, carriage, and draught, 


and am perfectly satisfied that it is a valuable accessory mode of* 
defending and preserving the hoofs, and remedying their diseases 
or defects. It cannot "be applied indiscriminately to every foot, 
and to make the groove in the hoof and fit the shoe accurately, 
requires some care. When the horn and metal are combined in 
this way, it is somewhat astonishing for how long a period a very 
light rim will sustain wear even on hard roads. 

I have not tried the shoe on the hind-feet, because I do not 
think it so well adapted for them ; as before mentioned, the front- 
feet only demand all our attention. 


In such a variable climate as ours, it is not an easy matter to 
provide economically and successfully for the occurrence of frost 
and snow during the winter months, so far as shoeing in con- 
cerned. Some winters are so mild that there is no necessity for 
making any difference in the shoe, while others are so severe, and 
the roads are covered with ice for such a long period, that special 
appliances must be resorted to if the services of horses are to be 
made at all available. 

To be generally useful, these appliances must be cheap and 

The quickest, cheapest, but at the same time least durable of 
these, is the " frost-nail." This is nothing more than the ordi- 
nary horse-shoe nail, with its head flattened gradually to a thin 
edge. Two or three of the nails are withdrawn from each side of 
the shoe, and replaced by the frost-nails. The heads may be 
flattened in different directions, according to circumstancess. 
Sometimes the heads are of steel, when of course they are more 
lasting. For short journeys, frost-nails are useful and easily 
available ; but as they only last for a brief period, and as their 
frequent removal injures the hoof to some extent, they are only 


to be used when the services of the horse are not likely to be in 
great demand for any length of time, or when the frost promises 
to be very transient. They are best adapted for saddle and car- 
riage-horses. To prevent injury to the hoof, and at the same 
time to obtain all the advantages of frost-nails, I have often, in 
the winter-season, had extra holes punched in the shoes — one at 
the extremity of each heeL and one on each side of the toe. 
These nail-holes were large, and were stamped so obliquely out- 
ward that the frost-nails, when the occasion required them, could 
be passed through them and lapped firmly over the edge of the 
shoe without interfering with the hoof. They may be made alto- 
gether of soft steel, the heads alone being tempered. I have 
found this plan most convenient and effective, as the hoof and 
shoe are not disturbed, and the nails can be renewed as often as 
may be necessary. 

The usual plan is to remove the shoes from the hoofs and give 
them sharpened calkins, and it may be toe-pieces also sharp. 
This is not a good fashion if it has to be often repeated, as the 
hoofs are damaged by the frequent nailing, the horses are apt to 
be lamed, and the shoes to become loose. It is for the time being, 
however, very effective. When the calks and toe-pieces are only 
made of iron, and if the ground be not covered with a sufficient 
layer of snow to protect them to some extent, they soon become 
blunted, and the shoes then require to be taken off and the pro- 
cess repeated. To remedy this, if time permits, it is an excellent 
plan to weld in the calkin, or toe-piece, or, on the face of the 
shoe, a piece of steel (Figs. 24, 25 a), which, when sharpened and 
tempered, lasts a very considerable time. 

In sharpening the calkins, regard must be had to their situ- 
ation — that on the outside heel may be flattened across the branch 
of the shoe (Fig. 26), but that on the inside must be drawn as 



much as possible from the outer niargiu of the branch (Fig. 27), 
in order to avoid treads and wounds to the opposite foot. 

Fig. 24. 

Fig. 25. 

As a rule, it is better that toe-pieces of the same height as the 
calkins be used on all shoes, to keep the foot and limb from 
being injured. 

The Canadian shoe, made of steel, concave on the ground-sur- 
face, with the concavity forming a sharp edge on the margin, is 


Fig. 26. 

Fig. 27. 

very useful when there is a thick layer of ice with snow. 

But perhaps the most useful and expeditious method of making 
the horse useful on ice-covered roads is by the adoption of the 
screw studs. For these, each new shoe, at the commencement of 
the winter, has a circular hole punched at the heels and another 
at the toe. This is screwed, and into it is fitted, for ordinary 
wear, a flat-headed stud (Fig. 28), which is turned in with a 
wrench. These studs last for some time, and preserve the shoe 
from wear. When worn nearly to the level of the shoe, they are 
removed and replaced by new ones. Should frost set in sud- 
denly, the flat-headed studs have only to be removed by the 
groom when the horse is required, and sharp steel ones sub- 
stituted. This can be done in a few minutes. 


The usual shape of the sharp stud is that of a wedge, the 
screwed portion being much smaller than that projecting beyond 
the shoe. This is a faulty conformation, which leads to the stud 
frequently working itself loose and falling out, or breaking off at 
the neck, leaving the screwed portion in the shoe. 

For some years I have remedied this defect by employing steel 
frost-studs of a conical or pyramidal shape, and having the 
portion screwed into the shoe as thick as that projecting from it 
(Fig. 29). This pattern is not at all liable to turn round and fall 
out on meeting the ground ; while, being the same thickness 
throughout, there is no check at the screw to weaken the stud ; 
consequently, it does not break if carefully forged and tempered. 

Fig. 29. 

Of all the appliances designed to enable horses to travel safely 
on ice, without taking them to the forge, or requiring the services 
of the farrier, none have stood the test of trial so satisfactorily as 
this screw stud. I have experimented with all the recent inven- 
tions, but have found them either too complicated or expensive— 
not fit for severe work, or else only adapted for shoes of one 


Shoeing is a powerful auxiliary in the hands of a competent 
farrier for remedying the natural defects which are not unfre- 
quently observed in the position of the limbs and feet of horses ; 
while with the scientific veterinary surgeon it is no less a most 


potent aid in curing or palliating certain maladies or deformities 
of a special character. 

Perhaps the most frequent defects the farrier has to contend 
with, are turning out or turning in the toe of the foot ; both of 
which are not only unsightly, but are productive of more or less 
injury to the limb from the unequal manner in which some of its 
parts have then to sustain the weight of the body. 

To rectify the leg or foot when the toe turns outward, the hoof 
should be levelled as before described, the margin of the wall at 
the outside toe and back nearly to the quarter being well reduced 
and rounded. The clip is to be drawn up nearer to the inside 
than the middle of the toe ; the shoe to be fitted close to the 
outside and quarter, but the inside, from the quarter to the heel, 
should be more full than usual. In the course of several shoeings, 
by this reduction of the wall at the outside of the hoof and the 
fitting of the shoe, a most notable improvement will be effected. 

When the toe is turned inward, precisely the reverse treatment 
must be followed ; the inside toe must be reduced, the clip of the 
shoe formed near the outside toe, and the shoe itself fitted close 
at the inside toe, but wide at the outside. In both cases the 
shoes ought to be of the same thickness throughout. 

" Cutting," or striking and wounding the inner side of the leg 
with the opposite foot, is sometimes a cause of much annoyance 
It may be due to weakness, fatigue, or to a sudden change in the 
manner of shoeing ; in which cases it is only temporary. But it 
may also arise from malformed limbs or faulty action, and these 
defects may be so exaggerated as to be scarcely, if at all, remedied 
by shoeing alone. 

The usual part of the hoof with which the horse strikes the 
opposite limb, is the inside toe or quarter. Whichever of these 
regions it may be, the hoof must continue to be levelled at right 


angles to the direction of the pastern, and a shoe equally thick 
throughout applied, the only difference between it and the 
ordinary shoe being the removal of a portion of the iron from the 
margin at a point corresponding to the portion that causes the 
injury to the opposite limb ; or the shoe, instead of being nar- 
rowed in the branch at this part, may be straightened, so as to 
lie within the hoof. IN o nails are to be inserted here ; they may 
be placed in front of, and behind the striking portion — at the toe 
and heel. The hoof, after the application of the shoe, may then 
be reduced at the quarter with the rasp, to diminish its convexity, 
and thus avert " cutting" or striking. 

The periplantar method of shoeing is well adapted for horses 
that ' f cut." 

Some horses have the awkward habit of lying like a cow with 
one or both fore-legs doubled up at the knee, and the elbow 
resting on the heel of the foot. Should the ordinary shoes be 
worn, it almost inevitably follows that the ends of the branches 
pressing upon the elbows will cause the formation of a large, 
unsightly tumour, which may in time become an abcess or ulcer- 
ate. The prevention of this is in the hands of the farrier, who 
has only to shorten and smoothly round the extremities of the 
shoe, so as to keep them within the hoof. Most frequently it is 
the inside heel, in which case a three-quarter shoe at once 
remedies the evil. 


After what has been said with regard to the management of 
the horse's foot in shoeing, there is but little to add concerning 
its general treatment; as shoeing influences more or less, 
for good or for evil, the general condition of that organ, and 


renders its ordinary management either a matter of much or 
trifling moment. 

When it has been robbed of its horn by the farrier, and 
brought to such an artificial and abnormal state as we have 
indicated, then its preservation is anything like a healthy or 
efficient condition is a matter of no small difficulty, and appears 
sometimes to demand very curious and often by no means reason- 
able practices on the part of the groom. 

The most common are : applying to the face of the wall tar, 
oil, fish-oil, or advertised mixtures of various kinds to make the 
horn grow, prevent brittleness, cure diseases, etc.; and to the 
sole plates of leather, bolsters of tow steeped in tar, filthy appli- 
cations of cow-dung, mud or clay, and other matters. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that to the unpared and un- 
rasped hoof these are not only unnecessary, but some of them 
even positively hurtful. Oil, for instance, not only renders the 
wall brittle, but loosens then nails ; while cow -dung, from the 
ammonia it contains, destroys the frogs. 

The unmutilated hoof is easily kept in health. All it requires 
is keeping eool, and moistening occasionally with cold water 
during hot weather or after severe exertion. When a journey 
has been long continued and severe, the horse should not be 
immediately put into a stable, but ought to be walked gently 
about until the circulation of blood in the feet has had time to 
accommodate itself to the altered conditions of rest. By this 
means iaminitis (inflammation of the feet) is averted. 

In washing the hoofs a water brush should not be employed, 
but a soft sponge, with a view to prevent the translucent horn on 
the front of the wall being destroyed. 

The sides and clefts of the frog may be cleaned out occa- 


siortally with a blunt picker, though if sound this is scarcely 

Nothing more is needed, so far as the every-day stable manage- 
ment of the foot is concerned, except to caution the groom 
against cutting away the hair immediately above the coronet, as 
this acts like a thatch in preserving the frog-band at its com- 
mencement from the effects of perspiration and moisture. 

Much harm is done to horses' legs and feet by the somewhat 
cruel custom of keeping them, while in the stable, constantly 
tied up in one position in stalls with sloping floors. This fashion 
is not only entirely opposed to the animal's natural habits — for 
the horse loves to move about and change his attitude — but the 
limbs and feet, more especially the front ones, are, instead of 
being rested, greatly fatigued ; and this brings about alterations 
which may be none the less serious because they are not imme- 
diate in their effects. 

A. loose box, even if no larger than a stall, with a level floor, is 
infinitely preferable, and by all means to be commended to those 
who place some value on the soundness of body, eyesight, and 
limbs of their horses, as well as on their comfort. 


The roads over which horses travel have also much influence 
for good or evil on the condition of the feet and legs. In the 
majority of the towns and cities in Great Britain, it would most 
certainly appear that considerations for the safety, comfort, or 
efficiency of the thousands of horses in daily use were altogether 
lost sight of or neglected in constructing the public thorough- 

Masses of the hardest and closest-grained stone are laid 
down in most streets in such a fashion that they seem as if pur- 
posely designed to afford an insecure foothold, and present the 


horse's strength being profitably utilized. These paved streets — 
always a source of danger to the animals — while hindering them 
from employing their force to the best advantage, are also par- 
ticularly injurious to the legs and feet, from the incessant efforts 
made to maintain a footing. More especially is this the case in 
wet wether, when they are covered with greasy mud, and in 
summer when their dry, smooth surface becomes leaded. It is 
needless to say, that no kind of metal defence to the hoof will for 
many days insure a firm foot-hold on such roads; and nothing 
but a metal defence has ever been found suitable to the horse's 

Every device has been tried to meet the demands for traveling 
with safety on such paved streets, and none have proved success- 
ful. Nor is it at all likely that future inventions will meet these 
demands ; the basaltic or granitic surface, perfectly smooth, and 
offering a most insecure surface for fixing the foot during move- 
ment, is not at all adapted for horse traffic. 

From the durability of these roads, they may be, to those who 
have to pay for their construction and maintenance, more econo- 
mical than others on which horses can journey with ease and 
without risk of falling down ; but they are far from being econo- 
mical to those whose carriages and wagons traverse them. A 
portion of the horse's motive power is devoted to maintaining his 
foothold, and the fear induced by this insecurity operates against 
what remains being applied as profitably as it ought to be. So 
that less is gained in the economy of construction and durability, 
and in the easier traction of vehicles, than is lost in the injury 
done to the horse's extremities, and the waste of power required 
to maintain the equilibrium. 

Even more injurious to feet and limbs is the barbarous, 
slovenly, and stupid method prevailing in this country of repair- 


nig macadamized roads — or what are intended for them — by 
depositing a heap of angular stones in a loose, rugged layer of 
uncertain depth, and compelling horses and carriages to travel 
over them until they are imbedded in a very irregular manner in 
the soil beneath them. Such a practice is not only extremely 
short-sighted on the part of those who make or repair roads in 
this manner — as these roads can neither be durable nor very ser- 
viceable — but also deserves the severest censure as most cruel and 
destructive to horses. Not only is the labor in drawing a carriage 
over such a surface immensely increased, and the horse's strength 
thereby expended, but the unstable footing afforded by the loose 
masses of stone throws a great strain in every direction upon the 
legs and feet, and not unfrequently the animal is thrown down* 
and gets seriously injured or blemished for life. 

If the hoofs chance to be pared and rasped according to the 
the groom or farrier's " improved principles," then the conse- 
quences are greatly aggravated. 

Legislation should be appealed to, to put an end to such a. 
disgraceful method of road-making or mending, which is only 
worthy of the most uncivilized country. 

The best mode of constructing and repairing our public 
thoroughfares and highways, with a view not only to economy, 
but to the safety and comfort of horses, is a matter that deserves 
serious attention. 

Taken in connection with our subject, it is one that cannot be 
overlooked. We may preserve and defend the horse's foot to the 
best of our ability in our forges and stables, but if the roads over 
which he travels are not adapted to his employment, our exertions 
on his behalf can only be partially successful. 



The foregoing instructions relative to shoeing are, in substance, 
those which I have been in the habit, for several years of laying 
before the farriers in the different regiments in which I have 
served, and with an amount of success which amply rewarded me 
for the trouble I took to see that they were carried into practice. 
Not only have my own duties been considerably lightened in the 
greatly diminished number of lame and unserviceable horses, but 
the labors of the farriers have been considerably abbreviated and 
simplified, and by their being able to understand the reasons for 
acting as I desired, their intelligence was awakened, and they 
took an interest in carrying out my views. 

In our army this is not always the case. The subject of farriery 
is often looked upon much as it is in civil life— as a matter that 
concerns the farrier only, and tradition and routine extensively 
prevail. In saying this, however, I do not intend for a moment 
to insinuate that the army veterinary surgeons are averse to 
giving their attention to a most important, though it may appear 
a minor, part of their duty. On the Contrary, many of them do 
so, and with the greatest advantage to the service; but there is 
not the same encouragement offered either to veterinary surgeons 
or farriers in this respect as there is in Continental armies. In 
the French army, for instance, there are schools and professors 
of farriery, the most notable of these being at the cavalry school 
of Saumur. In these, the farriers are regularly trained to a uni- 
form and approved system before being posted to different regi- 
ments, and direct encouragement is given to these men by the 
institution of competitions, in which the most successful are re- 
warded by medals and gifts of money. 

But not only does the French Government bestow some care in 
the advancement of farriery in the army ; it also stimulates com- 


petition and improvement among the civilian farriers. So late 
as the 28th, 29th, and 30th April last (1870) there was a concours 
of " marechalerie " at Valence, divided into two sections — a civil 
and military, presided over by two special juries composed of 
eminent veterinary surgeons and professors. 

At this concours not only were models of shoes and shod hoofs 
exhibited, but the farriers — civil and military — were tested in 
the various operations of farriery on the spot, by shoeing saddle, 
carriage, and draught-horses, draught and pack-mules, and oxen. 
A large number of gold, silver, and bronze medals, as well as a 
considerable sum of money, were given away. 

These concours cannot but effect much good, by attracting 
attention to this very important subject, and encouraging good 

In Belgium there are also concours and, if I remember aright, 
farriers who attend them receive instruction from properly-quali- 
fied veterinary surgeons, who are authorized to grant certificates 
of proficiency. 

In both countries, as well as in Germany, the students at the 
veterinary schools are taught the principles and practice of 
shoeing, and this instruction is of great value to them in after- 

It is scarcely necessary to say that in this country nothing of 
the kind is attempted. 

The Government does nothing to improve or encourage veteri- 
nary science in any way ; hence the low state of this important 
branch of medicine and rural economy in Britain, and hence 
the enormous losses she has sustained for so many years. 
Hence, also, the degraded and barbarous condition of far- 
riery, even in our cities and towns. With the exception of, 
on very rare occasions, the distribution of a prize or two at some 



local agricultural show to farriers, who imagine that paring and 
rasping, and a fantastically-wrought piece of iron, constitute the 
acme of shoeing, the subject is thought unworthy of notice. 
Even at the veterinary schools, during my matriculation, it was 
dismissed in a brief lecture of an hour, and then pathological 
shoeing was chiefly referred to. Nothing of the principles or 
practice was ever taught. 

When the Veterinary Colleges are so indifferent to a matter 
so closely related to the comfort and efficiency of the horse, we 
cannot wonder that veterinary siirgeons, as a rule, and farriers, 
take but little interest in shoeing. 

The remedy for this, of course, should be, in the first place, 
applied to the teaching-schools. The anatomy and physiology 
of the horse's foot, its management in health and disease, and 
the principles and practices of shoeing, ought to be thoroughly 

It would be most advantageous if, when this course was 
adopted, farriers could be prevailed upon to attend, and, after 
due examination as to their competency to practice their art 
in a rational manner, they were to receive certificates of pro- 
ficiency as in Belgium— these certificates carrying with them 
similar advantages to those that the diploma of surgery confers 
upon the surgeon. 

In default of this, veterinary surgeons properly qualified for 
the duty, and possessing the necessary convenience and oppor- 
tunity, might be induced to receive and instruct apprentices in 
farriery, granting them authorised certificates when judged to 
be fit to practice the art. 

Agricultural meetings should also be made the means of in- 
structing farriers in shoeing, and of stimulating competition in 
the districts in which they are held. Of course it is a sine qua, 
non that the instructors and judges should themselves understand 
the subject thoroughly. 


These are the only means "by which, I believe, the art of 
farriery can be improved in this country, where nearly all im- 
provement is left to private enterprize. A profound knowledge 
of the anatomy and physiology of the horse's foot is not absolutely 
necessary to the farrier. What I have sketched out on these 
subjects in this essay, I have generally found sufficient to enable 
my farriers to comprehend the character of the organ they were 
called upon to protect and preserve, and this much was easily 
taught them in a short time. I have always had more difficulty 
in making them unlearn their unreasonable practices than 
acquiring those which 'were novel, though easier ; and my chief 
antagonists in all improvements have been the ignorant 
grooms and coachmen — the lovers of well-pared and rasped hoofs, 
oiled or blacked like a boot ; hot stables ; physic ; bearing reins ; 
blinkers ; cruppers ; powerful bits ; and everything, in fact, 
unnatural and injurious to the horse. 


Notwithstanding- that we have given a long and valuable essay 
on the shoeing of horses, and have had something to say about 
them going barefooted, we still have something more to say on 
this subject. 

There is more damage done to horses from shoeing than by 
letting them go without shoes ; and we would have the reader to 
understand that we are speaking from experience, and not theory. 
We have handled hundreds of wild horses, of all ages, that never 
had a shoe on their feet, and we never have seen one lame, 
because the sole, frog and wall sustained a certain portion of the 
weight ; but when the shoe is put on in the old way, having it 
bear on the wall only, the sole and frog are not allowed to come 
in contact with the ground, so that they have no labor to perform, 
and will soon become dormant and diseased. 

If a horse that has been shod for years in this way loses his 
shoe, and is compelled to walk on the frog and sole, he will get 
lame very soon, from the fact that the portion of his foot that 
has been idle many years is brought into use. The wall is 
diseased also to a considerable extent, and will break off easily, 
thus letting the sensitive laminae of the foot come in contact with 
the grouud, causing instant lameness. We will give you an 
illustration : Suppose you should place your arm in a sling and 
tie it to your body for six months, without using it at all, and 
then take it out, attempting to use it. Do you suppose you 
could use it like the one that has been in exercise all the time ? 
Most assuredly not. 

By the same principle, it will disable the horse to have his 
weight to come on the sole and frog of his foot after being idle 
for years, by being shod in the manner we have mentioned. The 
frog that is kept off the ground by this method of shoeing without 


ever having the pressure that nature intended should come on it, 
will become unable to sustain the horse's weight when the shoe is 
taken off. 

So while we would advise the abolition of shoeing as far as 
possible, we have too much knowledge of the horse's foot to advise 
it in every case. There are some horses that have been shod so 
long that their feet are in such a horrible condition that it would 
not do at all. But there is no danger of driving or working a 
colt, even on hard roads, without shoes, provided the wear of the 
wall of the foot is npt greater than the growth. 

I have driven colts over hard roads and pavements for many- 
months at a time, and they never gave any evidence of lameness. 
But if those colts had been shod for a year or two, in the faulty 
manner described, and then had their shoes taken off, they would 
have become lame in a very short time. 

If the colt must be shod, we would advise the use of the shoe 
illustrated on the first page of the essay on horse-shoeing. If 
this shoe is properly adjusted and fitted, we are satisfied the foot 
will never become diseased from shoeing, because it comes nearer 
to nature, and it is impossible to improve on nature. 

"We will now have a word to say to the farrier or smith : When 
horses are brought to them that are mischievous and bad to shoe, 
and they have to break the horse to stand quiet as well as to fit 
the shoes, we would advise them to charge the owner for breaking 
the horse as well as for shoeing, for we consider it an imposition 
on the blacksmith to bring him such horses to be shod. Time is 
money to the blacksmith as well as to the owner of the horse. 
However, if it is necessary to break the horse to stand quiet 
while being shod, it is only a matter of a few minutes to break 

Fix him in the same position and handle him all over and about 


the leo-s with the pole, as directed in the lesson for breaking 
the colt. When he submits to being handled all over with the 
pole, and before untying his head from his tail, pick up his leg, 
and if he should kick, give him a little more whirling round, 
which will make him giddy and will finally conquer him. 

When traveling through Pennsylvania, I came across a horse 
that was considered impossible to shoe while standing on his 

The only way this horse could be shod was by thowing him 
down and strapping him. All the known methods of subduing 
the horse had been resorted to, in a vain endeavor to quiet and 
subdue him so he could be shod. I was approached by the owner 
and asked if I could break him to be shod. I answered « Yes.'* 
He then offered to pay me 25dols. to break him so two shoes could 
be placed on his hind feet. This happened just before the hour 
for the assembling of my class. 

Immediately after my class met, I asked several of them if 
they thought the owner of this horse would pay me the amount 
he had promised, in case I succeeded in the undertaking, to which 
they replied, rt We think he will." 

Then I invited the owner to bring in Fhs horse, which he did, 
and in less than fifteen minutes the blacksmith had one shoe on, 
at which the owner remarked : 

" There's twelve dollars and a half gone to the devil." 

I don't know whether he meant I was the devil, or whether he 
thought he was foolish for making me the proposition to pay 
25dols. for putting on two shoes. I soon had the other shoe on 
and he paid me the 25dols., for which I thanked him and pro- 
ceeded with the lesson. 

We have found many horses fully as hard to shoe as the one we 
have mentioned, but never have we been as well paid as we were for 
this particular one, which was at the rate of 50dols. a set, and 
second-hand shoes at that ! 


Our experience with blacksmiths during our travels has been 
that most of them oppose any new ideas that may be advanced 
concerning the paring and preparing of the horse's foot for the 
application of the shoe, especially if not in accordance with the 
manner in which they have been taught ; they also oppose the 
use of any shoe that is foreign to their ideas, and we expect many 
good blacksmiths and numerous horsemen will oppose some of the 
ideas advanced in this book. The reader will bear in mind, that 
at one time it was the belief, both among the scientific and the 
uninformed, that the earth was flat, and that the sun rose in the 
morning, passing over the earth during the day and under it at 
night, making its appearance again next morning in the East, 
thus causing us to have night and day. This was unquestionably 
Joshua's idea when he commanded the sun to stand still. 

When Galileo advanced the idea, in the year 1633, that the 
earth was round, and that it revolved on its own axis every 
twenty-foiu- hours, and thus gave us the night and the day, and 
not the sun passing over the earth, he was obliged to read his re- 
cantation in the church of Santa Maria Sopra Minerva, and then 
received his sentence. He was condemned, as e( vehemently sus- 
pected of heresy," to incarceration at the pleasure of the tribunal, 
and by way of penance, was enjoined to recite once a week the 
seven Penitential Psalms. Finally, he was given some freedom, 
but eventually died after spending the last eight years of his life 
in the strict retirement which was the prescribed condition of his 
comparative freedom. 

But in these enlightened days every one, both the scientific and 
the unscientific, believe as did Galileo, that the earth is round 
and revolves on its own axis, and is not stationary while the sun 
passes over it. Nevertheless, people still continue to condemn 
all new theories and methods they do not understand, consequently 


we anticipate no little criticism on some of the ideas presented 
in this work. 

Course to be pursued in Purchasing a Horse. 
First— Examine the eyes, in the stable, then in the light; if 
they are in any way defective, reject. Second— Examine the 
teeth to determine the age. Third— Examine the poll, or crown 
of the head, and the withers or top of the shoulders, as the 
former is the seat of poll-evil, and the latter that of fistula. 
Fourth— Examine the front feet, and if the frog has fallen, or settled 
down between the heels of the shoe, and the heels are contracted, 
reject him ; as he, if not already lame, is liable to become so at any 

Next observe the knees and ankles of the horse you desire to pur- 
chase, and if "cocked," you may be sure that it is the result 
of the displacement of the internal organs of the foot, a con- 
sequence of neglect of the form of the foot and injudicious 
shoeing. If these defects are still incipient, and the owner will make 
a liberal reduction in the price on this account, you may ven- 
ture to purchase, as this may readily be corrected by the use 
of a shoe that will expand the hoof. Fifth— Examine for inter- 
fering, from the ankle to the knees, and if it proves that he 
cuts the knee, or the leg between the knee and the ankle, or 
the latter badly, reject. 

" Speedy cuts" of the knee and leg are most serious in their 

Many trotting horses, which would be of great value were it net for 
this single defect, are by it rendered valueless. 

Six— Carefully examine the hoofs for cracks, as jockeys have 
acquired great skill in concealing them. 

If cracks are observable in any degree, reject. 

Also, both look and feel for ringbones, which are callouses on the 
bones of the pastern near the foot. If apparent, reject. 


S even — Examine the hind feet for the same defects of the foot 
and ankle that we have named in connection with the front foot. 
Then proceed to the hock, which is the seat of curb, and both bone 
and blood spavins. 

The former is a bony enlargement of the posterior and lower 
portion of the hock-joint ; the second, a bony excrescence on the 
lower, inner, and rather anterior portion of the hock, and the latter 
is a soft enlargement of the synovial membrane on the inner and 
upper portion of the back. They are either of them sufficient reason 
for rejecting. 


Sore Tongue, 
Is relieved by washing with strong alum-water. 

Liquid Blister. 
Take 1 pint alcohol, | pint turpentine, 4 oz. ammonia, 4 oz. oil 
origanum, 1 oz. naptha. Apply this with sponge every three hours 
until you feel the skin thicken. 

Blistering Paste. 
Take 4 oz. pulverized cantharides, 2 oz. turpentine, 2 oz. English 
resin, 2 oz. beeswax ; melt all together over a slow fire until dissolved. 
Rub it on well with the fingers. 

Cough Powder. 
Ginger, fenugreek, licorice, blood-root, equal parts. Half propor- 
tion lobelia and camphor may be added. 

Dose— Tablespoonful twice a day. For Heaves, add more 

Cough Cure. 

Resin 2oz - 

Bloodroot 1 oz - 

Tartar Emetic ! oz - 

Ginger 2 oz - 

Salts of Tartar 2 oz. 

Mix and give teaspoonful three times a day in the feed. 

Cough Remedy. 
Put all the tar into alcohol it will cut, and add one-third quantity 
tincture belladonna. 
Dose : From one to two teaspoonfuls once or twice a day. 
It is a splendid remedy. 


Laxative Alterative Balls. 

Soft Soap 4 oz. 

Common Moss 24 oz. 

Aloes 4 oz. 

Dose — 1 oz. 

Diuretic Alterative Balls. 

Resin 2 oz. 

Licorice Powder i oz. 

Castile Soap 6 drams. 

Dried Common Soda I oz. 

Barbadoes Tar t to form 6 balls. 

Give one daily. 

Tonic Ball (Vegetable Tonic). 

Opium I dram. 

Ginger H dram. 

Peruvian Bark 1 oz. 

Oil of Caraway 20 drops. 

Treacle to form a ball. 

Cooling and Diuretic Drinh. 
One ounce of nitre dissolved in a pail of water. 
Aromatic Powder. 

Licorice 2 oz. 

Ginger 2 oz. 

Caraway 6 oz. 

Pimento 4 oz. 

Mix. Dose : 6 to 8 drams. 

Cordial and Anodyne Ball. 

Camphor .., 2 drams. 

Ginger , 1| drams. 

Castile Soap 3drams. 

Venice Turpentine 6 drams. 

Make into 1 ball. 


Diabetes Remedy. 

Ginger 2 drams. 

Oak Bark, p 1 oz ' 

Opium ldram - 

Decoction of Oak Bark 1 pint. 

Tonic Diuretic Ball. 

Nitre 2 oz. 

Sulphate of Iron 2 drams. 

Gentian ldram. 

Eesin 2 oz. 

Ginger i dram. 

Mix with molasses. 

Fever Balls. 

Ginger • 3 drams. 

Emetic Tartar # dram. 

Nitre 2 drams. 

Camphor £ dram. 

Mix in ball. 

Diuretic Balls. 

Make the following into six balls, and give one every morning or 
every other morning. 

Camphor 3 drams. 

Oil of Juniper 3 drams. 

Eesin 3oz - 

Nitre Boz - 

White Soap 8 oz - 

Another — 

Equal parts of Resin, Soap and Nitre, beaten together into a 

Dose : 1 oz. to 1| oz. 


Mixed Balls, Cordial Astringent Balls. 

Catechu, 1 drain ; opium, 10 grains. To wash horses before or 
after a journey. 

For the Appetite. 

Take equal parts of aloes, bayberries, assafcetida and saffron ; 
make into a mass with extract of gentian. Dose, 1 oz. 

Cordial Balls. 

No. 1 — Gentian and ginger, equal parts. 
Treacle to form a mass. 
Dose — 1 oz. to 1^ oz. 

No. 2 — Caraway and ginger each 41bs. 

Palm-oil 4^ lbs. 

Gentian 1 lb . 

Beat together. Dose — 1 oz. to lh oz. 

Anodyne Ball. 

Camphor 1 dram. 

Anise-seed I oz. 

Opium £ to 1 dram. 

Soften with Ext. of Liquorice. 

Anodyne Drenches. 

No. 1 — One dram opium, dissolved, £ pint water ; add one quart 
starch gruel. 

No. 2 — Mix sweet spirits of nitre, 1£ oz., with tincture of opium, 
1 oz., ess. peppermint, 1 dram, and water. 1 pint. 

A Splendid Liniment. 

Oil wormwood 1 oz. 

Oil sassafras 1 oz. 

Oil origanum 1 oz. 

Oil juniper 1 oz. 


Oil spruce 1 oz. 

Oil chloroform 1 oz. 

Aqua 1 oz. 

Ammonia 1 oz. 

Tr. iodine \ oz. 

Alcohol 2 pints. 

Gum camphor ..2 oz. 

The above liniment can be used for any sprain-swelling of the legs 
of a horse. 

Condition Powders. 

Cream of tartar 16 oz. 

Powdered gentian root 8 oz. 

Sulphur 32 oz. 

Saltpetre 4 oz. 

Powdered resin 16 oz. 

Black antimony 4 oz. 

Powdered ginger 12 oz. 

Powdered elm-bark 16 oz. 

Powdered fenugreek seed 17 oz. 

Powdered anise-seed 8 oz. 

Two to six tablespoonsful to be given morning and eveniag. A 
general alterative for hide-bound, etc. 

Condition Powders 

Sulphur 10 ft. 

Saltpetre 10 1b. 

Powdered fenugreek seed 5 lb. 

„ licorice root 5 ft. 

„ anise-seed 5 ft. 

Cream tartar 2 ft. 

Pulverized squills lft. 

Tartar emetic 1 oz. 

Dose — 1 to 3 tablespoonsful 3 times a day. 

An excellent remedy when there is cough and fever. 


Hoof Ointment for Cows and Horses, to Soften and Heal Hoofs and 
Cows' Teats. 

Beef Suet h ft- 

Beeswax i ft- 

Honey 4 ft. 

Fine Tar 1 pint. 

Whale Oil 1 pint. 

This ointment has been used extensively throughout the United 
States, with uniform success. 

Recipe to Soften the Horse's Foot. 

Apply a poultice of 2 qts. linseed meal, 2 qts. rye meal, 1 pt. salt,. 
£ pt. tar. 

Cooling Lotion. 
One pt. of Vinegar, 1 pt. alcohol, 1 pt. water, and i pt. of salt. 

The Use of the Hook. 

The hook used for cleaning the soles of the feet is a common 
appendage of the stables in many districts, especially in New York 
and New England, and nowhere have we found feet in such a horrid 
condition. The sole of the foot of the wild horse, as also those of 
the domesticated in the pasture, we generally find well stuffed with 
soil, filling all the depressions in it, and no one ever saw any evil 
effects from this natural stuffing. 

But little sagacity is requisite to enable us to learn a most valuable 
lesson, by observing the natural cause and effect of natural stuffing 
on the feet, If we had a stud of a thousand horses, we would not 
allow a foot-hook in the stable. Snow-balls should be jarred out of 
the feet, but natural clay packing is useful ; hence it should not be 
removed. Anything that excludes the air from the foot of the horse 
is useful, and it is to this effect that we attribute such unprecedented 
success in the use of our hoof preparation. 


We will next illustrate the methods of teaching the horse to lie 
down, etc., as practiced by circus-men for hundreds of years. Tins 
method is the same as used by Denton, Offett, Karey, and others 
engaged in the business of taining| horses. They ail gained a great 
reputation as horse-tamers in consequence of these supposed new 
methods. We will first explain how to apply the straps. 

Take a good strong strap, about fifteen or eighteen inches long, 
such as used for a breeching-strap, with a slip-loop on it. Put the 
strap around the pastern- joint on the near fore leg, and buckle his 


foot to the arm as shown in the cut, then place a strong girth around 
his body. Fasten a small strap around the off fore-foot — run it 
between the horse's body and the girth (see cut). Take hold of your 
bridle-rein with your left hand, and the strap that is fastened to the 
off foot with the right hand firmly ; this will bring him on his knees. 
Hold him steadily, and in a few moments he will lie down ; pull his 
Tiead around to the off side so as to bring the horse down on his near 
side [see cut], and when he comes down on his side, bring his head 

up to his off shoulder and hold him in this way until he gives up, 
and treat him kindly. Then unbuckle the strap from the near foot 
and say " get up." Of course lie will not understand what this 
means. Urge him a little, so he will understand what you mean. 
Make him lie down, repeating the operation of getting him up and 
down a number of times, or until he will lie down readily when you 
pull on the strap. To dispense with the strap on the off foot, take 
a small whip and touch him on the off foot before you pull on the 
strap, and as he moves his foot pull on the strap. In a short time he 
■will come down on his knees without pulling on the strap, 


by touching him with the whip on the front leg below the knee, 
and in this way you can dispense with the strap on the off foot 

When you touch the horse with the whip on the front leg he 
will get down on his knees ; should he attempt to get up, tap 
him on the front leg and he will soon learn to lie down at the 
motion of the whip. Do not work on him too long at one lesson. 

You should select a nice, soft place in which to put him through 
this exercise, or his knee-caps may become sore. Pads are useful 
for the protection of his knees. 

After your horse has been taught to lie down, you can begin 
to teach him to sit up, by putting a good strong strap around 
his neck ; at that part where the collar is placed have two strong 
straps, made with rings on them. Buckle the straps around 
his hind legs, at the fetlock joint. Have them covered with sheep- 
skins, with the wool next to his hide, to prevent his ankles from 
being galled. 

Avoid using anything that has a tendency to hurt or scar 
him. Then take a stout rope, double it and fasten the doubled 
■end to the strap around his neck ; take the two ends and rum 
them through the rings in the strap on the hind legs, bringing 
them back to the strap on the neck. Draw his feet forward ; 
take hold of the bridle-rein ; step back and say to him " sit up." 
When he puts his front feet forward he cannot get his hind 
legs in the right position to get all the way up, consequently he 
remains in a sitting posture. Steady him while in this position 
with the reins. 

Rub and caress him a few minutes while in this position. 
Then unite the ropes that are fastened to the strap around his 

These ropes should be tied in a knot that will enable you to 
loosen them both at the same moment. Repeat these instructions 


with your horse a few times, and he will soon learn to lie down 
and sit up at command. 

Now proceed to teach the horse to follow you all around the 
training-yard. This you can do by taking- a stage or four-horse 
whip, long enough to reach him at any part of the yard, saying 
to him " come here.'" 

He will not understand the meaning of your words, and to help 
him to understand, keep snapping him with the whip well down 
on his hind legs, until he turns his head toward you. This he 
will do in his endeavor to get away from the whip. When he has 
turned his head toward you, hold out your left hand ; step slowly 
toward him, and should he wheel around, snap your whip at him 
as before until he faces and approaches you. 

Repeat this a few times, and he will folloAv you all over the 

This is the true principle of teaching all dumb brutes — treat 
them roughly when they disobey and kindly when obedient. Re- 
ward your horse with something he likes when he does as you 
wish him to, and remember always to use but one command to 
signify a certain act. 

By this whip-training you can not only make your tame and 
gentle horse come to you, but also the wild, unbroken colt or 
horse. This is a good plan to teach any horse to come to you 
when you want him. 

Your horse is now trained to come to you when called ; to lie 
down, sit up, and to follow you about the yard. Next proceed to 
teach him to pick up your glove, whip, hat, or anything you 

There are two ways to accomplish this : one is, to take a small 
sack containing oats or corn, and throw it down in front of him. 
He will get it in between his teeth and commence to get out the 
oats or corn. When he picks it up, take the sack from him and 
again throw it down before him, and when he again picks it up> 


take it away from him, and repeat this treatment for some time. 

Every time you throw down the sack, say to him " Pick it up, 

In the course of a little time he will get so he will pick up any- 
thing at your word of command. 

Another way is to prick him with a pin on the off side. This 
you can do by taking a position on the near side, and reaching 
over with the right hand, holding the pin and handkerchief in it, 
and, in trying to remove the pin he will get hold of the handker- 

Every time he takes the cloth or handkerchief from your hand 
pet him and encourage him to do it again. He' will soon take it 
from any place you may put it. 

To Teach the Horse to Make a Bovj. 

To teach the horse to answer in the affirmative, take a pin in 
your right hand, stand on his near side, a little forward of the 
shoulder, and prick him slightly on the breast He will naturally 
put his head down to bite off whatever causes the pricking, and 
when he does this take your hand away and treat him kindly. 

He will soon learn that when you touch him on the breast you 
want him to lower his head and make a bow. Every time you 
prick him with a pin on the breast, as you see hi m putting down 
his head, move the toe of your right foot forward, and he will soon 
put his head down every time you move your right foot. 

This will not be noticed by the spectators, and will make your 
horse appear wonderfully smart and intelligent, by bowing or 
answering questions, either in the affirmative or negative, every 
time you wish him. 

To Teach the Horse to Shake his Head when Required. 
To get your horse to answer in the negative, stand on his near 


side, prick him with the pin on his neck a little above the 
withers ; as soon as he moves his head in the least, take your 
hand away and treat him kindly as before. After repeating this 
a few times he will shake his head every time you touch him on 
the neck. 

Then you can take a pin and fasten it in the butt end of your 
whip-handle, and touch him lightly on the neck with the pin 
Every time he shakes his head take away the whip and pet him 
By this treatment he will in a little while get so he will answer 
any question you may ask him. 

To illustrate the system of taking advantage of the horse, we 
will give the following example : 

You have now taught your horse to answer questions in the 
affirmative and negative. Take your whip in your right hand 
and say to your horse : 

" Do you like this whip ?" 

Then raise it up and touch him lightly on the neck, being 
careful not to raise the whip before you ask the question, or he 
will shake his head before you get through with the question ; 
but always ask the question before you make any motion. And 
when you make the motion, he will shake his head. Then ask 
him : 

"Do you like your oats ?" 

And make a motion with your foot, by which sign he will know 
you want him to bow, or answer in the affirmative. By the horse 
doing these things well and promptly, he will appear like a very 
intelligent animal. 

When traveling in the South, on one occasion, I took a horse 
into the woods to train him to get on a large stump that stood in 
a clearing. 

While engaged with the horse, a colored boy came along, and 
stood some distance away watching me handle the horse. 

I disliked to have the boy watching me, so I said to the horse 
in a loud tone : 


"Do you see that colored boy standing over there?" The 
horse bowed, signifying that he did. I then asked him if he 
thought he could catch the boy, and he replied by bowing that he 
could. Then I said to him : 

" If he does not leave, will you go and bring him to me V 
The horse answered in the affirmative. 

This was too much for the boy, who immediately took to his 
heels and ran for dear life, probably thinking that the horse 
would surely catch him, as he had answered all questions relative 
to himself. 

At another time, while in Acamack County, Va., I went out one 
morning to see how my horse Tom was being cared for, as I sus- 
pected that he was not fed as I wished. On entering the stable 
I said : 

" Did you have a plenty of corn this morning V s and he quickly 
shook his head as much as to say " No." 

The colored stable-boy stood near and heard me question the 
horse. He looked first at the horse, then at me, and said : 

" Look here, massa, dat ar horse ain't telling de truff " 

" Well," I replied, "you give him about four ears of corn, and 
if he refuses to eat them, I will know he did not tell the truth > 
but I have never known that horse to tell a lie." 

The boy went off, and soon returned with four ears of corn, 
which he gave to the horse. Of course, he began eating the corn, 
at which the boy remarked : 

" Dat ar hoss am de smartest what dis 'fisticated young nigger 
eber seed in he life." 

Now, as you have taught your horse to lie down, sit up, come 
to you when you call him, pick up any designated article, answer 
questions, follow you about, etc., you are prepared to go on and 
teach him other tricks, by the experience and methods employed 


for the above-mentioned tricks. There is hardly a limit to which 
these performances can be carried. You can say to your horse : 
" Will yon take the handkerchief from your front foot/' and at 
the same time make a sign to hiin with your foot and he will 

Then tie the handkerchief on his front foot, in such a way as 
to be easily pulled off by the horse, leaving a corner of it handy 
for him to get hold of, and so on, until he will get the pocket- 
handkerchief from any place you may leave it. 

Now, get a large box or platform, and get him up on it with 
his forward feet. First get one of his feet on, then get him to 
step up with the other — doing this a few times — after which he 
will get up at the command. 

Next, make him get up on" the box with all four feet, and 
gradually lessen the size of the box until he will get on a box 
not more than two feet across. Have the box larger on the 
bottom than at the top, so it will not upset and frighten him. 

Then be^in to teach him to walk around with his front feet on 
the box or pedestal and his hind feet on the ground ; then make 
him get upon the box and get down with his front feet, keeping 
his hind feet on the box, and make him walk around the box on 
his front feet ; then you can put the handkerchief up on a pole, 
making him climb up on the box with his front feet and reach to 
where the handkerchief is and bring it down. 

Next, you can make him shoot a pistol by putting the handker- 
chief on the trigger. At first you should be careful not to frighten 
him by the report of the pistol. You can teach a horse almost 
anything you wish. 

Begin now to teach him to paw by touching him lightly on 
the near forward leg with a pin. Then make a pile of dirt in 
front of him and get him to paw it down. You can then take 
your handkerchief and bury it in the pile of dirt; then ask 


hini if he could find the handkerchief if you should hide it, and 
give him the sign to make a bow, and he will bow, signifying 
yes. Have some one cover his eyes while you hide the handker- 
chief in the pile of dirt or sawdust. When his eyes are uncovered 
let him run round the ring a few times, and when you stop him 
see that he stops where he can paw the dirt covering the hand- 
kerchief. As soon as he sees the handkerchief he will pick it up. 
Then you can change these tricks to suit your notion. At first 
you make signs to him and use a different word for each trick, 
and as you find the horse will do it without the motion, you can 
dispense with the sign and use the word only. When you first 
made him lie down you had to strap his feet up, but in a short 
time he would lie down by simply- touching him on the front legs, 
and after awhile he would do it by only saying, " lie down, sir " 
or by the tap of a bell. Observe the street-car horse. He stops 
for one tap of the bell, and starts for two. The Fire Department 
horses go to their places by the tap of the bell ; and if you wish 
you can have your horse perform by taps of the bell. 

In this way you drop the sign as soon as you can. People who 
do not understand how a horse is taught, think because he per- 
forms these tricks that he has more sense than other horses. 
You can take any old plug and teach him to perform tricks. 

When men are selecting a horse to train they generally get one 
of fine appearance and high-spirited, as they are the best for the 

The first trick horse I had was a runaway horse I bought for 
almost nothing. The fourth one, " White Hawk," was a four- 
year-old colt, and very stylish, that had never been worked. I 
paid four hundred dollars for him. I kept him for one year, and 
then sold him to Mr. Skinner, of Ohio, for one thousand dollars ; 
he is now traveling with a circus. 


He would lie down, roll over and back again, walk on his knees, 
shoot a pistol, take the handkerchief off of either foot you would 
tie it to, or off of his back, and find it when hidden in the ring ; 
pick up your hat, glove or whip and hand it to you, or any other 
person you might direct him to. 

In fact, you could drill him like a soldier. He would advance, 
retreat, wheel to the right or left, gallop, trot, walk, perform on 
the pedestal and put his front foot on my head (as represented on 
the cover of this book). 

By following closely the instructions here presented for the 
training of trick horses, you can. teach a horse to perform all the 
tricks mentioned, and many more, such as ringing a bell, untying 
knots, holding your overcoat for you in his teeth, and helping 
you to put it on. Let some one tie your hands and have your 
horse untie them, or any other trick that will amuse, such as 
kissing you, shaking hands, answering a thousand questions. 
And if you wish, you can train two, and have them teeter on a 
plank, dance on a platform, waltz, jump through hoops of fire, 
and you can also teach them so that one will stop for the word 
that will make the other go, and go for the word that will stop 
him, and have one lie down -wheu you say get up, and get up when 
you say lie down. In this way you can make two horses perform 
at the same time, or have it appear that one of your horses is 
very stubborn, and in this way you can spend many hours with 
your horses. Be patient, persevering, and good natured. Never 
allow yourself to get angry with your horse. If you find you are 
getting out of humour stop and rest one or two hours, and it will 
be better for you and much better for your horse. 


The dog is the most domestic of all animals, and is a very- 
agreeable companion and willing servant to man. If he is abused 
and ill-treated, he will be likely to become a nuisance. He is so 
close a companion of mankind, that it becomes a very important 
duty of his master to understand how to train and educate him 
properly. If he is well and skillfully trained he will reflect great 
credit upon his master, and become an agreeable member of his 
household as well as a useful assistant. There are various kinds 
of dogs and various methods of training them ; of course I will 
not undertake in this work (being devoted principally to the 
horse), to describe more than a few of the varieties of dogs — 
those only that are best known — and neither can I devote much 
space to their training, only giving the rules by which a person 
with patience, perseverance, firmness and kindness can train the 
dog to perform various useful and pleasing tricks. We will give 
a sufficient number to lead # the operator to the teaching of many 
more. Of course the dog is as varied in his dispositions and 
temperaments as there are different kinds of dogs. 

I will here mention, by way of illustration, that the bloodhound 
will follow the trail of man or beast for miles, over all kinds of 
ground and almost under all circumstances, even many hours 
after the object of his search has taken his departure, and suc- 
cessfully find him by the scent alone. His sense of smell is so 
highly developed, naturally, that he requires no training what- 
ever to teach him to accomplish this, for he is simply following 



the natural instinct of his nature. But it will take considerable 
training to bring him under proper subjection, as his nature and 
disposition incline him to rebel against anything that savors of 
curbing or controlling his impetuous and obstinate inclinations. 
For this reason, the Cuban slaveholders preferred to cross this 
breed of dog with the English mastiff, thereby securing an animal 
that possessed the fine nose of the bloodhound and the controllable 
disposition of the mastiff. 

The Bloodhound. 

The notice of the poetical and pictorial artist has been fre- 
quently attracted to the majestic head of this dog, and there is 
no doubt he is deserving of it. He excels the whole animal 
creation from this point of view, as the greyhound surpasses them 
in elegance of outline and grace of movement. 

It is somewhat remarkable that two members of the canine 



race should be possessed to this full extent of these two attri- 
butes so different in themselves. In consequence of this hound 
being used to track deer and sheep-stealers by the scent of the 
blood dropped on the track, the prefix « blood " has been given 
to this hound. He was employed to follow the body-scent of men 
and animals on account of his fine nose, and in this manner he 
was formerly employed to capture runaway slaves ; but becoming 
almost unmanageable when he overtook them, the English mastiff, 
or a cross between this mastiff and bloodhound, generally was 
preferred on account of his greater amenity to the control and 
discipline of his master. The reason we specially mention the 
bloodhound is, that he being an uncommon animal, and seldom 
seen in this country, and being possessed of such a noble head and 
remarkable powers, we consider him well worthy the prominence 
oriven him in this work. 

The Greyhound. 

his dog naturally differs from the bloodhound ; the blood- 
hound follows his game by his wonderful sense of smell, while the 
greyhound depends solely on his sight and remarkable speed. 



While in San Jose, CaL, a particular and highly-esteemed friend, 
Mr. Frank McKiernan, presented me with a fine young grey- 
hound, which I valued highly. When at Livermore, I thought I 
would take the pup out for a little run. Suddenly a hare jumped 
up, and to my great astonishment she sprang after him at full 
speed, although she had never seen one before. She chased it so 
close that she caused him to turn four times within half a mile. 
It will be seen that the hound was obeying the laws of her 
nature in giving pursuit to the hare, as she had received no 
training whatever. My dog, William, well-known over the 
greater part of the United States, was a splendid trick-dog of the 
bull-terrier type, but his natural inclination was to fight. He 
would attack a dog four times his size, and oftentimes would 
attack his master when closely pushed. I will mention William's 
tricks, and how to teach a dog to perform them, further on. 

The Setter. 

The setter is a handsome, bright, and highly valued animal for 
all the purposes of finding and setting small game, as well as for 
recovering birds, etc., after being shot. He is also susceptible of 
being trained to do an immense number of tricks, such as return- 
ing to a store and selecting a letter left by his master among 


many others, or finding your powder-flask, picking up your 
pocket-book, if dropped accidentally, going to the house and 
bringing you any desired garment, etc. This dog requires no 
training to find and set birds in the fields and bush, as he does 
this work naturally. Good setters have been known to bring as 
high as $500. 

The Mastiff. 

The mastiff, m appearance, resembles the bull-dog about the 
head, but with the ears dependent ; the upper lip falls over the 
lower jaw ; the end of the tail turns up, and frequently the fifth 
toe of the hind foot is more or less developed ; the nostrils are 
separated by a deep groove ; his countenance is grave and some- 
what sullen, and his deep-toned bark can be heard at any hour of 
his watchfulness. He is much taller than the bull-dog, but not so 
deep in the chest. His head is large compared with the size of 
his body. It is generally believed that the mastiff is an original 
breed peculiar to the British Islands. He is generally used as a 
watch-dog, and his large proportions make quite an impression 
on a stranger, especially during the still hours of night. 
It is with the greatest vigilance that he watches the property 
and abode of his master, never neglecting his duty. Nothing 
will induce him to forsake his watchfulness over anything placed 



in his charge to guard. His attachment to his master, and great 
appreciation of kindness and favors bestowed on him, is fully as 
great as shown by the most diminutive canine, notwithstanding 
his great size, commanding appearance and faithful watchfulness 
over his master's abode. The natural instinct of this dog is un- 
mistakably that of a faithful watch-dog, and he requires little 
or no training for this purpose. 

The Poodle. 

From what particular breed the poodle descended is unknown, 
yet all his peculiarities of form, size, and susceptibility to train- 
ing have been remarkably well retained. He was originally a 
water-dog, as is amply shown by his natural propensities while in 
a domesticated state, and he is the easiest trained and educated 
of any other dog. As sporting dogs they are not recognized to 
any extent. His great attachment to his master, the great 
number of useful tricks which he can be trained to perform, make 
him the most companionable of all dogs. 

It is customary to strip the poodle of his natural long curly 
hair from the portion of the body back of his shoulders, leaving 


parts of his head and forward parts as nature intended, as shown 
in the cut ; the contrast between the parts of his body may give 
a pretty effect, but is liable to be the cause of bring rheumatism, 
to which disease this dog is very liable. 

Smooth Eat Terrier. 

This dog has a convex forehead ; pointed muzzle ; prominent 
eye; short fur; moderate-sized ears, half erect. He is a most 
useful dog about the house and farm, having no superior as a 
destroyer of rats, weazels, polecats, etc., for which service he 
requires no training, his natural propensities guiding him in his 
work. There are the rough and smooth terriers ; the rough clog 
probably obtained his shaggy coat from the cur, and the smooth 
terrier may derive his from the hound. Were it not for this very 
useful dog many a granary and barn would be the scene of an 
immense loss of grain by rats. The terrier is quick and active, 
and easy to train for the performance of many novel and interest- 
ing tricks. 

Collie, or Shepherd Dog. 

This animal is used for the purpose of watching, returning stray 
sheep to the flock, heading off, guiding and driving sheep, as 
well as protecting them from wild animals and dogs. He is 
also a faithful house watch-dog, of good disposition. He is 


used extensively by the ranchers throughout California and Ore- 
gon. The hair on this dog is long and inclined to be shaggy, his 
snout sharp, body full and well-rounded, legs of moderate length ; 
tail has fine brush, similar to that of a fox. He is capable of 
standing an unusual amount of exposure to wind, rain, snow and 
cold, his fine long hair providing him ample protection. 

Among those dogs most readily trained to perform tricks are 
the French poodle, water spaniel, setter and pointer. In fact, 
any common cur such as we have illustrated on page 255 can be 
taught to perform many interesting and amusing tricks, as will 
be shown further on in this work. 

Training the Shepherd Dog. 

After you have selected the kind of a dog you desire to train — 
one from six months to a year old — take him into some large 
room or lot with a high fence, being careful that there is nothing 
to interfere with your work, or any place for the dog to crawl 
through and out of the room or lot. Take your dog into the 
place prepare! for his training. It is preferable to get an animal 
unaccustomed to being played with by boys and also one unused 
to the words of command made use of to other dogs. 


The first thing to teach him is his name and to obey promptly, 
when you call him by name and order him to come to or go from 
you. He must at first be taught to mind by the use of a single 
word, and when accustomed to the use of a single word as here 
(emphasizing here), teach him to obey by the use of two or more 
words, such as "come here," "lie down," etc. There are many 
ways of teaching the dog, as well as other animals, but our methods 
for teaching him will be very simple and effectual, being appli- 
cable to every case. If we teach the dog by coaxing, he will come 
only when he feels disposed to, and is liable to disobey at a time 
when we are extremely anxious to have him obey our commands, 
therefore we resort to other means than by coaxing. Most writers 
claim that it will take the dog three or four days to learn his 
name by their methods — we propose by our method to teach him 
in ten or fifteen minutes. Place a strong strap or collar about his 
neck — there is a patent collar for this particular purpose, but is 
unnecessary, as the above-mentioned strap or collar will answer 
all requirements and inflict no cruelties on the animal. Attach 
a cord to the collar, long enough to reach across the room or 
enclosure ; take hold of it about six or eight feet from the dog, 
and say " Here," or any other word you propose using when you 
want him to come to you. A German, Frenchman, Italian, or, in 
fact, a person of any nationality, will, of course, use whatever 
word suits his language, and whatever word he may use, it is 
•evident the dog will not understand it; so jerk on the cord 
sharply, using whatever word you intend using to have him come 
to you. This will have a tendency to hurt the dog a little at 
first. Then move a little from him and repeat the word and the 
jerking — always using the word first, followed quickly by pull- 
ing on the line. As soon as the dog shows any signs of com- 
ing toward you in answer to your commands, approach, and 
•by caressing. 


him, encourage his obedience in the future. After fondling and 
kindly treating him for a little while, step away from him further 
than before, and repeat the operation until he will come to you 
from any part of the room or enclosure, at the word of command 
— "Here!" When you get him to come to you, say "do" in 
place of saying " that will do/' This lesson will occupy about 
thirty or forty minutes, and will be sufficient for the first time. 

On the conclusion of the lesson, romp and play with him, so that 
it will not appear like a long lesson. During the training of the 
dog, allow no one to approach or speak to him, and never permit 
him to be fed by any one but yourself. When the dog has had a 
good rest, begin again as before with the cord and collar, 
saying to him, "Come," at the same time pulling him with the 
cord toward you, should he fail to obey. If he comes at your 
word of command, kindly treat and encourage him. Then you 
can begin to teach him to go from you, at the word " go." This 
you can do by leaving the room door open, or by getting a piece 
of meat and throwing it from you, and encouraging him to go 
after it. When he understands how to go, then teach him to 
halt, by holding him with the cord when he is going after the 
meat or toward the door. In fact, this dog wants to be taught 
obedience only, and his natural instinct will teach him to drive 
and care for the sheep. 

To teach the dog to take hold of anything, first get (a piece of 
stout cloth or rope, and get him to take hold of it, at the same 
time using the word " Hold ;" and when he has held it long 
enough, say to him, " Do," in place of " That will do," and repeat 
this performance until he will readily and willingly take hold and 
let go of the rope when ordered to do so. 

When he has accomplished these things properly, procure a 
gentle cow and encourage the dog to hold on to her tail until 


you give hiui the word to let go ; and then you may take him 
along, accompanied by other dogs, to drive the cattle, encourag- 
ing him to drive them. At the same time do not send him after 
cattle unused to dogs, or they may turn and frighten him . After 
doing this a few times, take a well-broke dog along that has been 
taught to drive, and let your new dog have a chance to see the 
old dog work. The young dog will require very little encourage- 
ment to learn to drive and work with sheep and cattle. After 
having learned to come, go, take hold, let go, etc., his natural 
propensities will direct his future efforts. 


Many amusing tricks may be taught the dog, that will make 
him appear very intelligent. As I have before said, much 
depends on the breed ; a dog of the poodle family may be taught 
to perform one set of tricks, while one of the bloodhound, terrier, 
or greyhound family may be taught to perforai things entirely at 
variance with those of the poodle. When selecting a dog to 
train, I always get one that is considered very difficult to train — 
a mongrel or common cur. If we select a well-bred dog, that is 
considered very intelligent, we could claim but very little credit 
for having such a dog perform interesting tricks j therefore, I 
would advise the selection of the former kind for a trick dog, by 
which course the trainer will receive greater credit than the dog 
for his clever performances. 

The reader must bear in mind the necessity of giving the dog 
primary lessons before undertaking to instruct him in the lessons 
pertaining to the grammar department of his course of instruc- 
tions, or, in other words, teach him the simplest first, then the 
more difficult tricks. My celebrated dog William was trained 
to drink when he was not thirsty and to eat when not hungry. 
He was a cross between the bull-dog and terrier, and did 



not have the appearance of a dog susceptible of a high degree 
of education, yet he was trained to perform numerous difficult 
and interesting tricks. 

Having first taught your dog to obey every command promptly, 
proceed to teach him to sit up. This you can do by placing him 
in a corner in a sitting position, and should he attempt to come 

Common Cur. 

down, tap him lightly on the chin, and say, " Sit up ! " Keep 
him in this position for a little while, and should he come down 
again, straighten him up, saying to him, " Sit up." After he has 
sat in this position a little while, say to him, " Do," meaning 
that will do. The object in placing him in the corner is to 
furnish him with support at first, that he may not fall over. 
After he has learned to sit up well in the corner, sit him up 


against the wall and try the same thing ; this will require more 
patience, as he can easily fall over to either side. When he 
has learned this well, take him from the wall to the 
middle of the floor, and set him up ; but as he has no support 
whatever, it will require more time and patience before he can 
accomplish the feat. When he sits up on the floor without sup- 
port, then proceed to teach him to stand up. This you can do by 
taking hold of his front feet with both hands and straightening 
him up, at the same time saying, " Up !" Then replace him in 
the sitting position. Repeat this until he will stand up readily 
at the word "Up!" and sit down at the word "Down!" The 
trainer must bear in mind that this is not all to be accomplished 
in a single lesson, but requires several. Do not prolong the 
lessons until the dog becomes tired and inattentive. Next pro- 
ceed to teach him to walk on his hind feet. This you can do by 
taking hold of his forward feet with both your hands and walking 
him forward and backward on the floor, at the same time saying 
to him "Forward !" or "Back !" according to the way you require 
him to go. After he understands what you want him to do, 
holding on to him with your hands, you can then encourage him 
to do it without holding on to him, by having him a little hungry, 
and inducing him with a piece of meat to rise up and walk after 
it, backward and forward. Next proceed to teach him to jump 
over things. Ths best way to get him to do this is to get a small 
bar or pole, six or eight feet long, placing one end of it on a box 
about a foot high, and the other on the floor; then place the 
cord on his neck, the same as in training him to come to you, 
and get on one side of the bar, with the dog on the other, 
saying "Jump," at the same time pulling on the cord to induce 
him to do so. You might also have a small switch in your 
hand as a "persuader," using the switch at the same time 


you pull on the cord. After jumping over the pole readily, following 
you over every time, induce him to jump over the bar closer and 
closer to the box, at which point the bar is highest from the ground. 
Every time he jumps over fondle him, and by kindness show him 
that he has done what you required of him. Now you can increase 
the height of the box to two feet, and repeat the lesson as before, 
until he will jump over a bar at any reasonable height. 

In giving these lessons never use the word "jump" more than 
once, and then enforce your order. By this method the dog will soon 
find out that he is never punished except when he disobeys, and 
receives kind treatment and reward with food, for prompt obedience. 
This prepares him to jump on the box, chair or stool. You can now 
take the bar away and make him jump upon the box. When he 
jumps up encourage him by kindness, then say: 

" Jump down* 1 

If he does as ordered, proceed as before. Repeat this until he will 
readily do it at the words " jurnp up," or " down." 

The dog is now prepared to receive a higher and more difficult 
branch of his education. 

Get a barrel to begin with ; prop it so as to have it solid ; then 
stand at one end and teach the dog to jump on the barrel, and down, 
as you did when exercising him with the box, chair or stool. Have 
the cord on the dog's neck, holding it with your left hand, all this 
time, so as to compel him to take the position you desire. Then walk 
half way around the barrel, obliging the dog to keep his head to your 
left hand and his tail to your right. Get him to do this perfectly, 
before allowing him to attempt anything new — to prevent his being 

For each act you require of the dog, use a different word of com- 
mand and do not repeat it, but insist on prompt obedience at the 


first command, and never neglect to kindly use him on the conclusion 
of a well-performed lesson. After he has accomplished this part of 
the lesson, take the props from the sides of the barrel so it will roll ; 
compel your dog to get upon it, standing across the middle, with his 
sides toward the barrel ends ; pull gently on the cord— this will start 
the barrel to roll slowly toward you, as you always stand facing the 
dog. The movement of the barrel necessitates the dog's changing 
and lifting his feet to balance himself as it rolls along. Never permit 
him to squat down, but keep in an upright position while going 
through this exercise. Having gone on in this manner across the 
room, walk around to the other side of the barrel, compelling the dog 
to " about face" and begin to pull gently again on the cord, causing 
the barrel to roll toward you. When he does this well without your 
pulling on the cord, take him down and give him a good rest. 

Next, order your dog up on the barrel, again obliging him to roll it 
first one way and then the other. When he does this to your satis- 
faction, walk around to the end of the barrel and making him face 
you, with his head toward one end of the barrel, hold it and say to 
him " Stop /" helping him at first, so he will not fall. Then go to 
the side of the barrel, the dog turning his head toward you, with his 
sides parallel with the ends of the barrel, and order him forward. 
He will start to moving his feet, of course, thus causing the barrel to 
roll forward. After he moves forward, reverse and stop the barrel 
satisfactorily, then teach him to steady the barrel, while he stands 
with his head toward the end. 

When he has learned the above portions of his lessons, block the 
barrel again, and proceed to teach him to lie down, sit up, and stand 
up on the barrel. 

When he has been taught well to stand erect on the floor, you 


can then make him stand up on the box, and next on the barrel, and 
he will soon get the idea of standing up well on the barrel. 


After your dog has been advanced to this high degree of edi 
tion, you can proceed to teach him to pick up and lay things down at 
your word of command. 

There are two ways to teach him to do these things. One would 
be to take a ball, or something he is used to playing with, getting him 
to run after it and bring it to you, making him drop it at your feet, 
by putting your fingers in his mouth, and pressing on the inside, at 
the same time saying " let go." 

Another way would be to place the object inside of his mouth, and 
compel him to hold it there until told to let go. The best way is 
to get a piece of meat or anything he is fond of, and of a size to pre- 
vent his swallowing it. When you have succeeded in teaching him 
this, you cau substitute some, other object in placs of the ball or 
meat — for instance, a slipper or handkerchief. 

Teach him to pick up and bring to you any desired object, always 
being particular to call it by name, so that he will become familiar 
with the sound as well as the sight of the object. Begin first with a 
single object, such as a boot or hat. Step up close to it, making the 
dog take hold and pick it up, then step away, and calling it by name 
command him to bring it to you and place it at your feet. 

If he does it all right pet him. By teaching your animal this one 
trick thoroughly, with a single object, he will soon be enabled to dis- 
tinguish the names of several things placed in a row. When he can 
bring you any article asked for among a number of others, then sub- 
stitute the color of the articles in place of their names, so when you 
order him to bring a slipper, say to him "bring me the green 
slipper," placing great stress on the word which represents the color. 


By tuis course of training it will appear as though the dog could 
readily distinguish colors, when in reality you have only substituted 
the name of the color of the object in place of its name ; for example, 
if the slipper is green, say to hirn to bring you the green slipper, or 
the Hack slipper, or the Hue slipper, and so on, until you can teach 
him to bring you a slipper of any prominent color you may name. 

By this course of treatment the dog will become able to distinguish 
one color from another, no matter what the object may be, whether it 
is a slipper, hat, paper, handkerchief or anything else. 

There is a great deal of deception practiced in the exhibition of 
performing animals, by the skill of the trainer in directing their 

Remember, the trainer does the most of the tricks by his movements, 
for, after the dog has been trained to pick up things, he can do 
numerous tricks, such as telling the time by looking at your watch. 
Be careful you see the watch yourself, or the dog cannot perform the 
trick. You place on the floor cards with the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
7, 8, 9, 0. Every number you wish him to pick up, step in front of 
the number. If it is not the one that you want, say to your dog, 
" Go on, sir, and tell me the time." If he picks up the right one, say : 
" Bring it here, sir !" Then ask him how much three and six are, and 
make him pick up the card No. 9. Then ask him how many dayi 
there are in a week. Give him the sign to pick up Eo. 7. Ask him 
how many days he likes to work, and make him pick him up the 
cypher, and so on. You can see how numerous you can make his 

By having several dogs trained, each one in his line, and have 
them sit on a stool and perform in turn, will make a very inte- 
resting exhibition. Have the greyhound display his wonderful 
powers for leaping. When you require him to do this, |have a 


pad for him to jump on, so as not to injure bim as he alights. Have 
the setter perform tricks that require a fine nose ; the spaniel or 
poodle for the water tricks ; the bull terrier for those kind of tricks 
that require courage. 

Bull Terrier. 

If you want to make your dog sneeze, get a little snuff and put it 
on his nose. Say " Sneeze, sir !" In a short time he will sneeze if 
you point your finger at him. 

In the foregoing we have given instructions for training dogs to 
perform many amusing tricks ; the natural ingenuity of the experi- 
menter will enable him to extend the list indefinitely. 



Distemper is a feverish disease, marked by a rapid loss of strength 
and flesh in proportion to the severity of the attack. It may occur 
more than once in the same individual, and at any period of life. It 
is generally met with in the puppy, and in the majority of cases the- 
dog is afterwards exempt. The cause of the disease consists in the 
poisoned state of the blood, which may be produced either by conta- 
gion or by putrid emanations from filthy and overcrowded kennels. 
It is from the efforts of nature to throw off this poison that the 
various symptoms are produced by which we know the disease. The 
symptoms differ in accordance with the difference of constitution of 
the animal, also to the state of surroundings, air, etc. Distemper is 
either simple or attended by complications in the chest, head, belly, 
etc. Although they are all essentially the same disease, the variations 
may be described as : 1st. Mild distemper. 2nd. Head distemper. 
3rd. Chest distemper. 4th. Belly distemper. 5th. Malignant 

In almost all cases of mild distemper, the following symptoms 
show themselves, with the additional symptoms peculiar to each. 
The first noticeable thing is a general dullness, especially in the eyes, 
accompanied by a loss of appetite and a dislike for exercise and play. 
A short cough soon appears, attended by a disposition to sneeze, and 
the dog appears as though he hardly knew which to do first, 
cough or sneeze. While the dog is quiet in his kennel, the cough and 


sneezing are seldom heard, but when brought out into the air, from 
the kennel, especially after he begins to run about and play, the 
mucuous membrane is irritated, and the cough begins, either by itself 
or alternately with sneezing. There is slight thirst, generally a warm, 
dry nose, a disordered state of the bowels, which may be either con- 
fined or relaxed, and a scanty secretion of highly colored urine. In 
a few days the dog loses flesh and strength to a great extent, and then 
gradually recovers. 

Head Distemper begins the same as in the mild form, and if there 
is any cough or sneezing it is very slight, sometimes being imper- 
ceptible. It will be noticed that the whites of the eyes are covered 
with blood-vessels loaded with dark blood, and strong light appears to 
give pain. Very often this kind of distemper is accompanied by a fit 
of short duration, at the beginning of the trouble, and leaves the dog 
in a state of torpor from which he can with difficulty be aroused. If 
the brain is not relieved, the fits recur at short intervals, the stupor 
increases, until the dog becomes insensible and dies in violent convul- 
sions. Chest distemper is an extension downward into the chest of 
the irritation which causes the cough. It there generally sets up 
that kind of inflammation known as bronchitis, together with which, 
however, there is often inflammation of the substance of the lungs 
(pneumonia), or even of the external surface (pleurisy). Distemper 
of the belly is often caused by mismanagement, brought on by either 
the abuse of violent drugs or neglect for some time previous of the 
secretions. In the former case, the bowels become very much re- 
laxed at the expiration of ten days from the commencement of a case 
of mild distemper, with constant diarrhoea, soon followed by the pas- 
sage of large quantities of blood. When this comes from the small 
intestines it may be quite black and pitchy, or when from the lower 
bowels it is red and florid. 


Generally these symptoms appear as the result of calomel, or other 
violent medicine ; sometimes they appear of themselves. When the 
bowels have become confined from neglect, while, at the same time, 
the secretion of bile has been checked, a very dangerous symptom, 
named " the yellows," shows it-self, the name being given in conse- 
quence of the skin and white of the eyes being of a yellow color 
from the presence of bile. When this occurs without distemper, it is 
not so fatal ; but when it comes on during an attack of this disease, 
it almost invariably proves fatal. Malignant distemper may come on 
at first, the animal being, as it were, at once knocked down by the 
severity of the poison. At times it shows itself within a week or ten 
days after the first symptoms appear. It may follow either of the 
four kinds already described, being marked by an aggravated form of 
the symptoms of each. There are additional evidences of the 
poisoned state of the blood which present themselves in the four 
stages into which this disease has been divided. These stages are : 
1st, incubation, during which the disease is hatching or brewing 
2nd, reaction, when nature is working to throw off the poison ; 3rd 
'prostration, following these efforts ; and, 4th, convalescence, wherein 
the constitution recovers its usual powers. 

In well marked cases of malignant distemper the four stages 
average about a week or ten days each, and as the treatment for each 
varies considerably, it is important to ascertain their existence. The 
period of incubation may be known by the symptoms common to 
mild distemper, as well as to other kinds. In the malignant form the 
secretions are disordered, the strength is lost more rapidly, and the 
appetite is almost gone. During the reaction the pulse becomes hard 
and quick, the breathing is much hurried, and is often much quicker 
than the pulse, without the existence of any inflammation. It is 
important to notice this, as, when such is the case, any lowering 


measures are improper. On the other hand, the pulse may be very 
high and strong, and the breathing labored, which, together with 
other unmistakable symptoms, require energetic and lowering treat- 
ment. At this time, also, are developed those dangerous affections of 
the brain, bowels, or liver, to which I have before alluded. When 
this stage of prostration sets in the whole system is thoroughly pros- 
trated, the dog is so weak that he is unable to stand, his strength is 
almost entirely gone, so that he must be drenched to keep him alive. 
The tongue, gums and teeth are coated with a black fur, and his 
breath is highly offensive. At this time an eruption of the skin 
shows itself sometimes consisting in mere purple spots, in others of 
small bladders filled with yellow matter, but most frequently of 
bladders varying in size from a pea to half the size of a hen's egg 
containing matter more or less stained with purple blood, and some- 
times blood alone. 

On the skin of the belly, and inside of the thighs, this eruption is 
thickest, but sometimes extends to the whole body. It is considered 
a favorable sign, taken by itself, though it generally attends severe 
cases. Health gi'adually returns in the convalescence from malignant 
distemper, but great care should be taken, or a relapse is apt to follow, 
and is often fatal. In distinguishing the various forms of distemper 
from the diseases that mosL resemble them, it is necessary to bear in 
mind the peculiarity of distemper. In its malignant form, especially, 
is the rapid tendency to loss of strength and flesh which accompanies 
it. A common cold or cough is attended with slight fever, languor 
and loss of appetite, yet it may go on for some days without the dog 
losing much flesh, and with but small loss of strength. So with 
ordinary diarrhoea — it requires a very severe attack to reduce a dog 
anything like the same degree which a few days' distemper will cause. 


A clog with diarrhoea gets thin, but does not become a living skeleton, 
as he does when affected with distemper ; neither does he lie ex- 
hausted in his kennel, powerless to rise from his bed, and unable to 
relieve himself unless receiving support. The same applies to simple 
inflammation of the lungs, which may be treated with lowering 
medicine with good effect without reducing the dog too much ; while 
in chest distemper, even if the local symptoms are apparently as 
severe, a treatment half as energetic will be fatal from exhaustion 
following upon it. 

The sequels of distemper are chorea, commonly called " the twitch," 
and a kind of palsy, known as " the trembles." Both are produced 
by seme mischief done the brain or spinal marrow in the course of the 
disease. They generally follow the kind described as head distemper. 
Chorea is known by a peculiar and idiotic-looking drop in one fore- 
quarter when the dog begins to move, causing him to bob his head 
in a helpless manner. At times the twitch is only partial, and 
at others almost universal, but disappears during sleep. Shaking 
palsy affects the whole body. It is more rare than chorea, which 
fact is fortunate, as it is considered incurable. All lowering mea- 
sures should be avoided in the treatment of the various forms and 
sequels of distemper, as this is the most debilitating disease. 

Inflammation is always to be feared, attacking either the brain, 
lungs, or bowels, and as bleeding and other remedies of a similar ten- 
dency form the most active means for getting rid: of inflammation, 
there is left only a choice between two dangers. In the general treat- 
ment there are two things to be attended to : First, avoid lowering 
the system, and, in severe cases, support it by good diet, consistent 
with the avoidance of encouragement to inflammation. Second, take 
particular eare that inflammation does not go far enough to destroy 
life, or to leave such organic change in brain or lungs as shall render 


the dog useless for purposes for which he was deoigned. This, in 
theory, is simple, but requires some experience in practice. At times 
one is obliged to blow hot and cold at the same time, lowering the dog 
with one hand and propping him up with the other. Kemember, 
always,, that this disease has a natural tendency to recovery, the efforts 
of the powers of the system being to throw off a poison in the blood. 
Nature, therefore, requires to be aided, not opposed ; the less inter- 
ference witli her operations the greater your success. 

1. General Treatment — For the early stage give a mild dose of 
aperient medicine, such as castor oil and syrup of poppies in equal 
proportions. If the liver does not act give jalap and calomel. Avoid 
giving calomel if there is plenty of bile in the evacuations. After the 
early stage of the trouble is passed give no medicine. Keep the 
kennel clean, dry, airy and warm, changing the litter often. Avoid 
exercise till the running of the eyes and cough have ceased. Give 
nourishing broths, thickened with rice, flour, or arrowroot, when there 
is diarrhoea. If the bowels are confined give oat-meal. If there is 
very little water passed give as a drench five or six grains of nitre,, 
with half-teaspoonful of spirits of nitre every night. 

2. Head distemper requires energetic treatment in addition to the 
above. From four to eight leeches may be applied to the inside of 
the ears ; bathe the part with milk and water first. Then put in a 
seton to the back of the neck, first smearing the tape with blistering 
ointment. Apply cold water to the head if it is very much affected, 
with a wet cloth or with a watering-pot. Give calomel and jalap to 
act on the bowels and liver, also a pill (one-half grain to one grain 
tartar emetic), twice a day. When the urgent symptoms have- 
disappeared the dog will require supporting with beef tea and tonics. 


3. Chest Distemper — Should there be inflammation, it sometimes 
becomes necessary to bleed, but it is better to avoid any such lowering 
measure, and use antimony or ipecacuanha. Mix one grain of either 
of these with half a grain of opium ; give twice or three times a day 
If the trouble is long continued apply a blister to the chest, or rub in 
mustard mixed with vinegar. Should the breathing be more rapid 
than the pulse, stimulants will be required, such as the bark and am- 
monia mixture in No. 5. 

4. Distemper of the belly, attended with purging, requires the use 
of astringents. Opium is the best. The following has no equal : 
Prepared chalk, two drams; laudanum, one once; mulcilage of acacia, 
one ounce; tincture of ginger, two drams; water, five and one-half 
ounces. Give a tablespoonful every time the bowls are relaxed. The 
diet should consist of boiled rice with milk or broth, and in case of 
much thirst give rice-water only. 

If the bowels are confined, and, as generally the case, attended 
with " the yellows," take calomel, 3 grains to 5 grains ; rhubarb and 
aloes, of each 5 grains to 10 grains. Mix and form into a ball with 
water, giving twice a day until it acts freely. Should bile begin to 
flow, there is still greater care required to avoid checking the diarrhoea 
on the one hand, while on the other the exhaustion caused by it is 
•often very great. Broth, thickened with rice or flour, must be given 
often, by force if necessary. Where there is great exhaustion from 
diarrhoea, arrow -root and port wine will prove beneficial. 

5. Malignant distemper is less difficult to control than that 
in the head. The great thing is to avoid reducing the system in 
the early stage. A mild dose of oil given as described in 
No. 1 will be beneficial. After this, the less done the better till the 
usual weakness shows itself. There is no chance of recovery 
.unless by resorting to strong tonics and good food. For this 


purpose there is no remedy like port wine or bark of ammonia. The 
former may be given, mixed with an equal part of water, and with the 
addition of a little spice, such as nutmeg or ginger. For the latter, 
take a decoction of bark, loz.; aromatic spirit of ammonia, 1 dram ; 
compound tincture of bark, 1 dram. Mix and give twice a day to a 
large dog, or half to a small one. If the bowels are relaxed, give the 
dog the astringent mixture as in No. 4. Eest is absolutely necessary 
for the dog. * 



To quicken or increase the evacuation from the bowels, aperients or 
purges are given. Their mode of operation vary a good deal. Some 
cause an immense watery discharge, which, as it were, washes out the 
bowels; others act merely by exciting the muscular coat of the 
bowels to contract ; while a third set combine the action of the other 
two. Some purges act upon and stimulate the small intestines, while 
others pass through without affecting them and act upon the large 
bowels alone, and others again act upon the whole canal, showing that 
the various purges act also on different parts of the canal. 

There is another point of difference in purges, depending on their 
influencing the liver, in addition, which mercurial purgatives surely 
do, as well as rhubarb and some others, which effect is partly due to 
their absorption into the circulation. They may be made to act by 
injecting into the veins, with the same effect and results as though 
swallowed and subsequently passed into the bowels. Purgatives are 
classed according to the degree of their effect— into drastic purges, that 
act severely and laxatives acting mildly. 


1. Purgative Injection — Castor oil, £ oz. ; spirit of turpentine, 2 
drams ; gruel, 6 to 8 oz. Mix. 

2. A Good Aperient Ball — Blue pill, t scruple; compound extract 
of colocynth, 1 scruple ; powdered rhubarb, 5 grains; oil of aniseed, 
2 drops. Mix. Give to a large dog ; but for a small one, give one- 
half or one-third. 

3. Strong Aperient Ball— Calomel, 4 grains ; jalap, 14 to 2d grains ; 
linseed meal and water, one or two boluses, according to size. 

4. Castor Oil Mixture — Castor oil, | pint ; laudanum, £ oz. ; 
oil of aniseed, 1 dram ; oil, 2 oz. Mix, and give according to the 
size of dog, from one to three tablespoonfuls. 


Anti-spasmodics, as their name implies, are remedies which are in- 
tended to counteract excessive muscular action, called spasm, or when 
in the limbs, cramp. 

1. Anti-spasmodic Injection — Laudanum, sulphuric ether and spirit 
of turpentine, each 1 to 2 drams ; gruel, 3 to 6 oz. Mix. 

2. "Anti-spasmodic Mixture — Camphor mixture, 1 oz.; sulphuric- 
ether and laudanum, of each | to 1 dram. Mix. Give every two 
Jiours till spasms cease. 


To produce a fresh and healthy action in place of previous disor- 
dered functions, alteratives are given. It is only by the results that 
the precise mode of action can be understood, and the utility of these 
medicines recognized. 

1. Plummer's pill, 2 to 5 grains ; extract of hemlock, 2 to 3 grains. 
Mix, and give every night. 

2. Cod liver oil, from a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful, with one or 
two drops of wine of iron twice a day. 

3. Stinking hellebore, 5 to 8 grains ; powdered rhubarb, 2 to 


4 grains. Mix, and form into a pill. G-ive every night. 

-A. Podophyllin, i grain ; compound rhubarb pill, 3 grains. Mix, 
and give once or twice a week until the liver acts freely. 

5. Liquor Arsenicalis— Dose, 7 drops to an average-size dog. 
Specially recommended for dogs rendered gross from want of work 
and over-feeding. 


To soothe the general nervous system, or stop diarrhoea, and some- 
times to relieve spasm, as in colic or tetanus, anodyne medicines are 
given. Opium is the principal anodyne used in canine medicine, and 
may be used in quite large doses. 

Anodyne Prescriptions. 

1. For Long-continued Purging— Diluted sulphuric acid, 3 drams ; 
tincture of opium, 2 drams ; compound tincture of bark, 1 oz.; water, 
6^ oz. Mix. Give tablespoonful every four hours. 

2. For Slight Purging— Prepared chalk, 2 drams ; aromatic con- 
fection, 1 dram ; tincture of opium, 5 to 8 drams ; rice-water, 7 oz. 
Mix. After every loose motion give two tablespoonfuls. 

3. Castor oil, 2 oz.; tincture of opium, 1 oz. Mix by shaking. 
Give one tablespoonful night and morning while the bowels are 

• loose. 


Astringents, whether applied immediately or by absorption into the 
circulation, cause contraction in those living tissues with which they 
come in contact, whether in the interior or exterior of the body. 
They are divided into astringents applied locally to external, ulcerated 
or wounded surfaces, and those administered by the mouth. 


1. Astringent Ball, useful in Diabetes or Hemorrhage — Powdered 
opium, 2 to 3 grains ; gallic acid, 4 to 6 grains ; alum, 5 to 10 
grains ; powdered bark, 10 grains ; linseed-meal, enough to form 
a ball for a large dog, or divide in two for a small one. 

2. Astringent Ointment for Piles — Gallic acid, 10 grains ; goulard 
extract, 15 drops; lard, 1 oz. Mix. 

3. Astringent Washes for the Eves — Grouiard extract, 1 dram ; 
water, 1 oz. Mix. Or, nitrate of silver, 2 to 8 grains; water, 1 oz. 
Mix, and drop into the eyes with a quill ; or wine of opium to be 
dropped into the eye. 

4. Sulphate of zinc, 5 to 8 grains ; water, 2 oz. Mix. 


In the application of blisters to the skin of the dog, great care 
should be taken to muzzle him, and remove the muzzle only at feed- 

Before blistering cut the hair off with scissors from the part to 
be blistered. 

Sweating Application for Enlarged G-roivths. 

Lard, one ounce ; red iodide of mercury, one drachm ; mix. Rub 
in a little everv day until producing a watery discharge, then desist 
for a few days, repeating when necessary ; or paint with tincture of 
iodine every day until the desired effect is produced. 


Sometimes emetics are required for dogs, but not often. Vomiting 
being a natural process with him, he seldom needs provoking. Eme- 
tics, if had recourse to too often, will cause his stomach to become so 
irritable that neither food nor medicine will remain on it. Their 
administration should be kept carefully within the bounds of absolute 


1. Common Salt Emetic— Grive a drench of one teaspoonful of salt 
to half the quantity of mustard dissolved in half a pint of warm 

2. Strong Emetic — Powdered Ipecacuanha, 4 to 5 grains ; tartar 
emetic, one-half to one grain ; mix ; dissolve in a little warm water 
and give as a drench, to be followed by a half-pint of lukewarm 
water in a quarter of an hour. 

Liniments or Embrocations. 

The most beneficial remedy in use, when applied to the skin for the 
purpose of producing counter irritation, and specially useful in 
chronic rheumatism, colic, etc., is as follows : Liquid ammonia 
(strong), laudanum, spirits of turpentine, soap liniment, each one- 
half ounce ; mix. 


Substances which burn away the living tissues of the body, by the 
decomposition of their elements, are caustics, and are of two kinds : 
first, the actual cautery, consisting of the application of a burning 
iron, and known as firing; second, potential cautery, by means of 
mineral caustics, such as lunar caustic, corrosive sublimate, potash, 

Firing is seldom practiced on dogs, but it may sometimes be had 
recourse to with advantage. A very thin iron should be used. To 
stop bleeding from warts that have been cut from the mouth with a 
knife, or in a similar way for piles. 

1. Lunar Caustic or Nitrate of Silver— This should be kept handy 
in a wooden vessel made especially for it — valuable to the veterinary 

2. Blue Stone, or Sulphate of Copper— Should bo rubbed freely 
into the parts affected. It is valuable for unhealthy sores, etc. 

• Corrosive sublimate is used to remove warts, but should be left to 
the use of practical surgeons. 



Excite and promote a discharge of mucous from the lining membrane 
of the bronchial tubes, relieving inflammation and allaying cough. 

1. Ipecacuanha Powder and Powdered Opium — Each one grain — 
confection enough to make a pill — give every six hours. 

2. Expectorant Balls — Ipecacuanha powder, 1 to 1| grains ; 
powdered rhubarb, 1 to 3 grains ; compound squill pill, 1 to 2 grains ; 
powdered opium, | to 1 grain ; linseed meal and water enough to 
make a ball. Give night and morning. 

3. An Expectorant for a Recent Cough — Almond emulsion, 1 oz. ; 
tincture of lobelia, 10 to 15 drops ; ipecacuanha wine, 5 to 10 drops ; 
extract of conium, 2 to 3 grains. Mix. To be given two or three 
times a day. 

4. An Expectorant Mixture for Chronic Cough — Syrup of poppies, 
1 dram ; diluted sulphuric acid, 5 to 10 drops ; Friar's balsam, 10 to 
15 drops; mucilage, \ oz. ; water, % oz. Mix, and give two or three 
times a day. 


Medicines acting as warm temporary stimulants, augmenting 
strength and spirits when depressed, are cordials. They often relieve 
an animal from the effects of over-exertion. 

1. Cordial Drench — Sal volatile, 15 to 30 drops ; infusion of gen- 
tian, i to 1 dram ; tincture of cardamons, i to 1 dram ; camphor 
mixture, 1 oz. Mix. 

2. Cordial Balls — Ginger, 20 to 40 grains; powdered caraway 
seeds, \ to \\ drams ; oil of cloves, 3 to 8 drops. Mix, and give 
10 grains for a dose. 

Diuretics are remedies which promote the secretion and discharge 


of urine, the effect produced by each medicine being done in a 
different manner. Some act directly on the kidneys by sympathy 
with the stomach, while others are taken up by the blood-vessels 
and, in their elimination from the blood, cause an extra secretion 
of urine. In either case their effect is to diminish the watery 
part of the blood, and thus promote the absorption of fluid effused 
into any of the cavities or into the cellular membrane, in the 
various forms of dropsy. 

1. Diuretic and Alterative— Nitre, 4 grains ; iodide of potassium, 
3 grains ; digitalis, £ grain ; extract of gentian, 5 grains. Mix, 
and give twice a day. 

2. Diuretic Ball — Digitalis, j to 1 grain ; ginger, 4 trains • 
nitre, 6 grains ; linseed-meal and water to form a ball. Give 
night and morning. 

Worm Medicines. 

1. Male fern-root, 1 to 3 drams ; oil, 10 to 30 drops, in tape- 

2. Spirit of turpentine, 1 to 4 drams ; tie up in a piece of 
bladder and give as a ball, for obstinate case of tape- worm. 

3. Areca-nut powdered ; give 2 grains for every pound of the 
dog's weight. Good for worms. 


Fever medicines allay fever, by increasing the secretions of 
urine and sweat, and reducing the action of the heart. 

1. Fever Mixture— Sweet spirits of nitre, 3 drams ; mindererus 
spirit, 1 oz. ; nitre, 1 dram ; camphor mixture, 6| ozs. Mix. 
Dose — Give two tablespoonfuls every six hours. 

2. Febrifuge Pill— Calomel, 1 to 3 grains ; nitre, 3 to 5 grains ; 
digitalis, i grain— confection to form a pill. To be given every 

3. Tartar emetic, l-6th grain ; nitre, 3 to 5 grains— confection 
to form pill. Give night and morning. 


Washes or Lotions. 

Mange Wash — Calvert's carbolic diluted with twenty times it& 

bulk of water, and rubbed into the roots of the hair, in red 



Are greasy applications, by which means certain substances are 
brought in contact with the vessels of the skin. 

1. Digestive Ointment — Venice turpentine, 1| ozs. ; beeswax, f oz. ; 
lard, 2 ozs. ; red precipitate,Q oz. Mix. 

2. Mange Ointment — Lard, 1 oz. ; green iodide of mercury, 1 
dram. Mix. Rub a small quantity every other day to the affected 

Be careful not to leave any superfluous ointment on the surface of 

the body. Never dress more than one-fourth of the dog's body at one 



Tonics increase the vigor of the whole body permanently, while 
stimulants only act for a short time. They are useful after low 

1. Distemper Tonic — Compound tincture of bark, one dram ; aro- 
matic spirit of ammonia, one drachm ; decoction of yellow bark, one 
ounce ; mix. 

2. Tonic Pills — Gringer, two to three grains ; bisulphide of quin- 
ine, one to three grains ; extract of gentian sufficient to make a bolus ; 
give twice a day. 

3. Tonic Mixture — Decoction of yellow bark, seven ounces ; com- 
pound tincture of bark, one ounce ; mix. 

Dose — Two tablespoonfuls two or three times a day. 


Are prescribed particularly to increase the tone of the stomach. 

1. Stomachic Draught — Compound infusion of gentian, one ounce ; 


tincture of cardamons, one-half dram ; tincture of ginger, five 
drops ; mix. To be given twice during the day. 

2. Stomachic Pill — Powdered rhubarb, two grains ; extract of gen- 
tian, five grains ; mix, and give twice a day. 


Eemedies having a tendency to stop the now of blood from either 
internal or external surfaces, are known as styptics. They are made 
use of by either the mouth or by direct application to the part, in the 
shape of a lotion, and also by the actual cautery, which is the best 
for external bleeding. 

Internal Styptics— For bloody urine, or bleeding from the lungs : 
Tincture of matico, | to 1 oz.; superacetate of lead, 12 to 24 grains j 
vinegar, 2 drams ; water, 7 to 7| oz. Mis. To a full-sized dog give 
two tablespoonf uls two or three times a day. 

Administration of Remedies. 

It is often very difficult to administer physic in any shape without 
some little patience and knowledge of the temper of the dog. Even 
the keeper of a large, powerful dog of a savage temper, can with 
difficulty control him. A resolute man with his hands properly 
guarded by gloves, can easily handle a dog of less than 40 or 50 
pounds weight. 

To give a pill or bolus to a small dog, place him gently into the lap 
of the operator, and laving hold of the space between the canine 
teeth and the molars on each side, with thumb and forefinger of the 
left hand, force the mouth open and drop the pill into the 
throat with the right hand, following it rapidly with the fore- 
finger, and pushing it down as far as can be reached with 
the finger. Keep the mouth closed for a few seconds to give 
the pill time to reach the stomach. To treat a large dog, he 
must be backed into a corner, then straddle over him and put a thick 


cloth into his mouth ; bring the ends of this over his nose and 
hold with the left hand. An assistant then takes hold of the 
lower jaw with the aid of another cloth, if necessary, and 
wrenches the jaw apart j the right hand of the operator pushes 
the pill or bolus down the throat, being careful, as before, to keep 
the head up and the jaws closed for a few seconds. The manner 
of drenching is either to pour the fluid down, using the cheek as 
a funnel, or to open the mouth as for a pill or bolus, and pour it 
down the throat by means of a sauce-ladle or water-bottle. Keep 
the mouth closed directly the fluid is received, to force the dog 
to swallow it. 

Mange — No. 1. 

This disagreeable and loathsome disease, although very pre- 
valent, is but imperfectly understood, from inattention and want 
of knowledge of location and treatment. The dog rapidly be- 
comes weakened and debilitated, and is too often abandoned by 
his owner to his fate. By adhering to the following directions 
the disease will rapidly yield, your pet and companion will be- 
come again a sprightly creature, bounding before you in healthy, 
agile life. 

The most common form of the mange is produced by the 
presence of a small parasite, invisible to the naked eye, and 
similar to the parasite which appears as the itch, on the human 
body ; and can be conveyed to the healthy from the diseased dog 
by simple contact, the parasite readily leaving the emaciated 
victim to fasten upon a healthy subject. The dog, when per- 
ceived to be affected, by the fact of scratching, should be 
examined, and there will be seen small, red points, like flea- 
bites. These eventually pustulate, and exude a thin, irritating 
liquid or matter. There are many recipes. The best and 
simplest is : 

Take Ung. Hydrarg i oz. 

Oil of Tar i oz. 


Sulphur Sub 8 oz. 

Whale Oil, about 8 oz. 

Mix thoroughly, and after shaving the hair from the part affected, 
and washing well the entire body of the dog, apply carefully and 
well. After the expiration of three days, wash off and apply in 
the same manner, and again in less than a week, if it seems neces- 

This remedy is within the reach of every one, and I have found it 
absolutely efficacious. 

Mange— So. 2. 

This species of mange, being deeper in the skin, is not as contagious 
:« the first form. Dogs infected may associate with healthy animals, 
yet not extend the disease. For this reason many persons have de- 
nied the contagiousness of the mange. 

This feature in follicular scabies is accounted for by the habits and 
situation of the parasite. It only leaves the body of the dog when 
carried off by the fluid thrown out in the follicle. The slightest 
accidental contact suffices for its transference from the diseased to the 
healthy dog, and spreads with remarkable energy. 

Symptoms — First, hot tumefactions of the skin take place and are 
usually patched with red, and blotchy. Soon small pimples show 
themselves, rapidly becoming pustular, break and exude serum, and 
(in extreme cases) pus, which forms in scabs or crusts. The skin 
becomes thick and chapped, as in common mange. The disease 
usually begins on the head, extending thence all over the body. It 
is very obstinate in yielding to treatment and is of long duration. 

Treatment — The best results have been obtained by the use of the 
following : 

Acid Acetic 2 drams. 

Oil of Terebinth 2 drams. 


Oil of Tar £ oz. 

Ung. Hydrarg 1 oz. 

Sulphur 8 oz. 

Whale Oil 10 oz. 

Mix the whole thoroughly and rub the affected parts for five 
minutes. In forty-eight hours wash off with soft soap and warm 
water. When dry apply to the surface whale oil ; the following day 
repeat the ointment — dressing without washing. Eepeat the oper- 
ation in a week. 



Anodyne Stimulating Liniment 116 

Anatomy of the Horse's Foot 125 

Administration of Eemedies 277 

Applying the Shoe 188 

Age of the Horse 54 

Aperients • 269 

Anti-Spasmodies 270 

Alteratives 270 

Anodynes 271 

Anodyne Prescription 271 

Astringents 271 

Aromatic Powder 228 

Anodyne Balls 230 

Anodyne D renches > 230 

Apply the Strap 233 

Balky Horses ^° 

Bots 97 

Balls for Farcy 118 

Blood Spavin 96 

Bare Feet for Farm Horses 120 

Bull Terrier 261 

Bloodhounds 215 

Bruise or Sprain 116 

Blisters 272 

Bli stering Paste 227 


Colic Beraedy 89 

Catarrh or Cold 91 

Cure of .Farcy 103 

Curb HI 

Conditiou Powders . 112 

Condition Powder 119 

Caustics 117 

Cougli Balls 118 

Cooling Liniment 115 

Concluding Kemarks on Shoeing 221 

Collie, or Shepherd Dog 250 

Common Cur 255 

Clips 180 

Colic Flatulent 89 

Contracted Feet 106 

Colic Spasmodic 87 

Cooling Lotion 232 

Caustic for Dogs 273 

Cordials 274 

Cough Powder 227 

Cooling and Diuretic Drink 228 

Cordial and Anodyne Ball 228 

Cordial Balls 230 

Condition Powders 23 1 

Diabetes Eemedy 118 

Different Dispositions and Temperaments of the Horse 45 

Diseases of the Horse and their Treatment 82 

Diuretic Drops ... 113 

Diseases of the Dog 262 


Dog Medicine. 




Diuretic Alterative Balls 228 

Diabetes Remedy 229 

Diuretic Ball... 229 

Emetics 272 


Eye of the Horse 

Fatal Disease of the Foot 102 

Founder 108 

For NewStrains li6 

For Bloody Urine 118 

For Inflamed Leg, (railed Back, &c 115 


Fever Balls 229 

For the Appetite 


Grease Heels 

Growth of the Hoof 142 

General Management of the Hoof 212 


How to Break a Colt Properly 23 

How to Break a Bad Halter-Puller 42 

Heaves 96 

Healing Compound 1Li 

H. Sample's Horses and Dog William 2 ^3 

Hoof ' 131 



Hook, the Use of 232 

Healing Preparation 114 

Hoof Ointment 232 

Introduction 3 

Incurable Diseases 119 

Instructions to Farriers 217 

Kicking Horses 37 

Lung Fever 83 

Lockjaw or Tetanus 97 

Lampas 99 

Liniment of Extraordinary Merit for all Purposes... 112 

Liniment for Open Wounds 114 

Liniment for Foul Ulcers 115 

Xiniment for Cooling External Inflammation 115 

Liniment for Inflamed Leg, Galled Back or Shoulders 115 

Lice on Horses 112 

Liniments or Embrocations 273 

Liquid Blister 227 

Laxative Alterative Balls 228 

Management of the Horse 23 

Mange Treatment Nos. 1 and 2 102 

Magic Liniment 116 

Mild Caustics 117 

Management of the Dog 244 

Mastiff 248 

Mixed Balls 230 

Mange— Dogs 278 



Nasal Gleet and Treatment 103 

Nerve Operation 105 

Ointment for Healing Cuts, Grails, etc 114 

Ointment 276 

Preliminary Eem arks 5 

Poll-Evil and Fistula of the Withers 93 

Preparing the Hoof 149 

Purchasing a Horse 225 

Poodle 249 

Quitter 101 

Kingbone 104 

Rasping the Hoof 195 

Recipes — Promiscuous 227 

Runaway Horse 36 

Recipes to Soften Horses' Feet 232 

Senses of the Horse 12 

Strangles or Distemper 92 

Sweeny 94 

Spavins — Two Kinds 94 

Scratches — Cure 101 

Sprains in the Stifle 105 

Shoulder-Joint Lameness Ill 

Sticking Plaster for Cuts and Wounds 115 

Shoeing 146 

Shoeing of Defective Limbs 210 

Streets and Roads 214 

Smooth Rat-Terrier 250 



"Shoe 165 

Setter 247 

Shoeing Horses 121 

Sprain and Bruise 116 

Shoeing the Horse 202 

Splendid Liniment 230 

Sweating Application 272 

Stomachs 276 

Styptics 277 

Sore Tongue 227 

To Break a Horse that is xlfraid of a Locomotive... 51 
To Strengthen the Tendons after Hard Driving and 

Seduce Swelling of the Legs 100 

Treatment of Cuts and Wounds 113 

Training the Shepherd Dog 251 

Trick Dogs 254 

To Teach the Horse to Bow 237 

Trick Horses— To Teach...: 233 

Teaching the Dog to Sit up 255 

Teaching the Dog to Stand up 256 

Teaching the Dog to Walk on his Hind Feet 256 

Teaching the Dog to Jump 256 

Teaching the Dog to Jump on a Box or Chair 257 

Teaching the Dog to Soil a Barrel 257 

Teaching the Dog to Stand on his Hind Legs on a 

Barrel 258 

Teaching the Dog to Pick up or Lay down Objects 259 

Teaching the Dog to Distinguish Colors 259 

Teaching the D og to Tell the Time of D ay 260 



Teaching the Dog to Multiply and Substract 260 

Teaching the Dog to Sneeze 261 

Tonic Diuretic Ball 229 

Tonics 276 

Tonic Ball 228 

Teaching the Horse to Lie Down 233 

Teaching the Horse to Sit "Up 235 

Teaching the Horse to Follow You 236 

Teaching the Horse to Pick Up a Hat 236 

Teaching the Horse to Shake his Head 237 

Teaching the Horse to Answer Questions 238 

Teaching the Horse to Take a Handkerchief Off his 

Foot 240 

Teaching the Horse to Get on a Box 240 

Teaching the Horse to "Walk Around the Box on his 

Front Feet 240 

Teaching the Horse to Get a Handkerchief Off a Pole 240 

Teaching the Horse to Shoot a Pistol 240 

Teaching the Horse to Paw 240 

Teaching the Horse to Find a Handkerchief 241 

Trick Horse "White Hawk" 241 

Teaching the Dog his ~N&me 252 

Teaching the Dog to Come to You 253 

Teaching the Dog to Go From You 253 

Teaching the Dog to Halt 253 

Wash for Eeducing Inflamed Wounds 115 

Wash for Fresh Wounds 114 

Watering Horses 119 

Winter Shoeing 207 

Worm Medicines 275 

Washes, or Lotions 276 

J. J. Millek, Printer, Melbourne. 


4*~*v '' 

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