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Full text of "The horse : its history and uses"

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THE HORSE: 



The horse — the noblest conquest of man over the lower animals, although 
not the most difficult, for in this respect it must yield to the elephant, 
as in utility it must to the ox — is at present nowhere found in 
its original wild state, although the ass and the ox unquestionably are 
so. A true wild horse was supposed to exist in the mountains of Thibet; 
but a specimen of this animal has at length been brought to England, and 
is now to be seen in the gardens of the Zoological Society. It is, however, 
of the family of the asses, somewhat taller than the true wild ass, lighter 
in the shoulder, longer in the neck, with shorter ears and a more horse- 
like head. It is, in fact, I am assured by an eminent naturalist, my 
friend Dr Falconer, the Djiggatai of the Moguls, and hunted by them 
for its flesh — considered by Tartars to be better venison than that of 
any deer. 

In the domesticated state, the horse has immemorially existed in 
every region of the Old World, the Arctic excepted. His disappearance 
from the absolutely wild state is probably to be accounted for from his 
natural habitat being the open plain ; from the facility with which he 
would hence be captured, and when captured, tamed, domesticated, and 
made useful. 

As we now see him, the horse consists of an almost infinite variety, 
differing in size, in form, in colour, and even in disposition. Much of 
this variety has, no doubt, been the work of man, but it is so great that it 
is difficult to believe, when we consider the insuperable difficulties 
to intercommunication which existed in early times — always rude 
times™that all the widely differing races could possibly have sprung 



from a single species, or that time, soil, and climate could have produced 
so prodigious a diversity. To account for it, then, I think we must 
come to the conclusion — and I am not the first that has come to it — 
that there must have existed originally a great number of closely allied 
species capable of commixture, and of producing a fertile offspring. 
Such is certainly the case with the ox and the dog, and probably even 
with the human race itself. 

For this inference a good deal of evidence might be produced. 
Thus language countenances the theory. In every original tongue of 
countries in which the horse appears to have been indigenous, as far as 
I have been able to discover, it has a peculiar and distinct name. Thus, 
it has a distinct name in Greek, in Latin, in German, in the Celtic 
tongues, in Persian, in Arabic, in Sanscrit, in the languages of the 
South of India, in the Hindu-Chinese tongues, and in the languages of 
the Malayan Islands. Sometimes it has two names, a native with a foreign 
synonyme, as in Irish or Gaelic and in Javanese — in the first case the 
synonyme being Latin, and in the last, Sanscrit. In countries in which 
the horse had unquestionably no existence, it naturally takes its name 
from the language of the people who introduced it. In South and 
Central America, and the Philippine Lslands, the name is Spanish, taken 
from the Latin; and in North America and Australia, it is English. 
There are two broad distinctions in the horse — the full-sized one 
and the pony — which seem to point, at least, at two distinct aboriginal 
races or osulating species. No change of climate or skill in breeding, 
supposing there be no crossing, will convert the one into the other. In 
most countries both exist together; but in some, one of them only exists. 
Thus, in the intertropical countries which lie between India and China, 
and in the islands of the Indian Archipelago, the pony only exists, 
and the full-sized horse is as unknown as the ass or the camel. In the 
languages of these countries, consequently, there is but one name for the 
horse, while in the languages of Hindustan and Persia there are distinct 
terms for the horse and the pony. In Arabia the horses are all com- 
paratively small and do not materially differ in size ; so there are no 
ponies, and, consequently, in the copious Arabic language, no distinct 
terms for horse and pony. It may be suspected that the same was the 
case in some of the poorer and remoter parts of the British islands, for 
in the Celtic languages the pony has no other name than " little horse." 
Soil and climate, independent of the care of man in feeding and 
breeding, of which, in the ruder states of society, the hoi'se receives little 
or none, seem to have very little influence on its size, form, or disposi- 



tion. In the temperate western parts of Europe it is found of a size 
never seen in any part of Asia or Africa: it thrives even in countries 
in which nature had not originally planted it, and this applies to every 
region of America, from the equator to Terra del Fuego. Over this wide 
region, with some allowance for patent neglect, it is still the Spanish 
horse introduced about three centuries ago. In the absence of powerful 
carnivorous animals, and with abundant pasture, it there multiplies 
much faster than it could at any time have done in any part of the 
Old World, — so fast indeed as, in many cases, to have regained its liberty 
and to have returned to its wild state, yet ever retaining that variety 
in colour which marks its once subjection to man. 

Like America, the Philippine Islands were found without the horse. 
The Spaniards introduced it, but in this case they introduced the 
Spanish horse from South America, and, along with it, the pony of the 
neighbouring Malay Archipelago, and the result is that the breed of 
horses of these islands is a kind of galloway intermediate between the 
two races. Here, too, under conditions as favourable as in America, it 
has run wild. 

The Southern hemisphere opposes no obstacle to the successful 
multiplication of the horse, since we find the different breeds of the 
English horse thriving nearly as well in Australia, New Zealand, and 
the southern extremity of Africa as in the country from which they 
came. In countries to which the pony only is indigenous the full-sized 
horse thrives perfectly, as is seen from its introduction, in very recent 
times, into Java and the country of the Burmese. 

The notion that all the different races of the horse have proceeded 
from one original stock has no warranty from history. As long as 
the horse receives no special care in breeding, he undergoes no change, 
and such care he only receives in a considerably advanced state of 
society, or where, as in the case of the Arabs, he is an object of special 
and peculiar importance. The half wild and neglected horse of South 
America does not materially differ from his progenitors introduced 
by the Spaniards above three hundred years ago, and our own Shetland 
and Welsh ponies most probably differ in no respect from their 
predecessors of the time of the invasion of Julius Caesar. The squab, 
strong, and enduring Tartar horse of the present day is, in all likelihood, 
the same kind of animal by help of which Attila, and Gengis, and 
Timur effected their conquests, — the same with which the Tartar 
tribes subdued China twice over, and against whose incursions a wall 
of 1,500 miles long was no security. It is the same, too, which the 



allied armies will encounter in their march on Pekin — a shaggy rough 
galloway, under fourteen hands. 

Through the care of man, it is needless to add that vast improve- 
ments have been effected in the horse. This care, as is well known, has 
been long bestowed by the Arabs. It is certain, however, that in Arabia, 
as in every other country, a native race must have existed to afford 
the materials for selection. In sacred writing Solomon is represented 
as purchasing his stud, not in Arabia but in Egypt, from which it 
has been very hastily inferred that the last of these countries, and 
not the first, is the parent country of the high-bred Arab as we know 
him. For this notion, however, I can see no good foundation. The 
Egyptians of the time of Solomon were a civilised and wealthy people, 
with abundance of horses, and the Israelite king naturally went for 
his to the best or most abundant market, which was Egypt. The 
Arabs of the same period were a rude, nomadic, and isolated people, 
and so they continued for a long time after, until, indeed, Mahomed, 
in the seventh century of our own time, "breathed," as Gibbon 
expresses it, " the soul of enthusiasm into their savage bodies," and 
made them an united, a conquering, and in many respects a prosperous 
people. It was most probably then only that they began to pay 
special attention to the breeding of the horse, and the result of which 
has been the production of that animal which, in so far as form, bottom, 
and beauty are concerned, is considered the perfection of the blood 
horse. He is, however, in size what we should call a mere galloway, 
and when in perfection seldom exceeding fourteen and a half hands 
high. He cannot be said to be master of a weight exceeding ten stone, 
and yet there is some adaptation of his strength to the usual class of 
riders he has to carry, for the man of Asia is much lighter than the 
man of Europe. In India it has been ascertained that on an average 
the Indian trooper is lighter than the English light dragoon by no 
less than two stone and a quarter. The difference between the 
Englishman and the Arab is probably not so large, but still it must 
be very considerable. 

The Arab horse has been justly praised for its gentleness and docility, 
qualities generally ascribed to their rearing and tuition. I am, however, 
satisfied that this character is far more owing to the natural temperament 
of the race, for it sometimes happens that an Arab is vicious, and when 
he is, he is exquisitely and incorrigibly so. There is one quality in 
which the Arab horse perhaps excels every other, endurance of con- 
tinuous labour. A little Arab of U hands, for a bet of £500, rode 400 



miles in five consecutive days, or at the rate of eighty miles a day, 
carrying lOst. Tib. The feat was performed on the race-course of 
Bangalore, but 13° distant from the Equator. The horse was Jumping 
Jemmy, and the rider, as meritorious as his horse, Captain Home, of the 
Madras Artillery. 

I will give you, however, the description of a genuine Arab, more 
lively as well as more amusing than any other that I am acquainted with. 
It is that of Evelyn in excellent quaint English. In the year 1683 the 
Turks, under their Grand Vizier, invested Vienna, and the Emperor of 
Germany and his ministers fled. John Sobieski, elective King of 
Poland, came to the rescue. The Turkish army was entrenched, and 
the Grand Vizier, in Turkish fashion, was taking the matter coolly and 
quietly, for he was seen from a neighbouring height smoking his 
chibouk and sipping his coffee. Polish blood could not stand such a 
sight, and the Polish cavalry, lance in hand, cleared the entrenchments, 
entered the Turkish camp, routed the army and pursued it to Hungary 
and beyond it. For this service, in less than a century, the Poles were 
requited, after a peculiar fashion, by having their country partitioned, and 
a large slice of it taken by the descendants of those who but for them 
might have been now crying " Bismillah" instead of being in league with 
the Pope. Some Arab horses were among the spoil, and were brought for 
sale to England, and exhibited before Charles II. The following is the 
account given of them in the Diary. " Dec. 17th, 1686, Early in the morn- 
ing I went into St James's Park to see three Turkish or Asian horses, 
newly brought over and first shown to His Majesty. There were 
four, but one of them died at sea, being three weeks coming from 
Hamburgh. They were taken from a Bashaw at the siege of 
Vienna, at the late famous raising of that leaguer. I never beheld so 
delicate a creature as one of them was, of somewhat a bright bay, two 
white feet, in all regards beautiful, a blaze : such a head, eyes, ears, 
neck, breast, belly, haunches, legs, pasterns, and feet, — in all regards 
beautiful and proportioned to admiration, spirited, proud, nimble, making 
halt, turning with that swiftness and in so small a compass as was 
admirable. With all this so gentle and tractable as called to mind what 
Busbequius speaks of them, to the reproach of our grooms in Europe 
who bring up their horses so churlishly as makes most of them retain 
their bad habits. They trotted like does, as if they did not feel the 
ground. Five hundred guineas were demanded for the first, three 
hundred for the second, and two hundred for the third, which was brown. 
All of them were choicely shaped, but the two last not altogether so 



6 

perfect as tbe first. It was judged by the spectators, among whom was 
the King, the Prince of Denmark, the Duke of York, and several of the 
Court, noble persons skilled in horses, especially M. Faubert and his son, 
Provost Masters of the Academy, and esteemed of the best in Europe, 
that there were never seen any horses in these parts to be compared 
with them." 

The present races of the English horse are, with the exception of the 
ponies, a very mixed breed. Our draught horses are in a large degree 
derived from the horses of Flanders, and it is by no means improbable 
that our Saxon forefathers brought with them some of the heavy horses 
of Holstein and Sleswick. An indigenous full-sized horse, however, 
certainly existed in the time of the Roman dominion. It was this, most 
probably, that was used in the scythed chariots of the Britons. It was, at 
all events, possessed of such good qualities as to be much sought after on 
the Continent. From this horse and the blood of the Arab has sprang 
our famous race-horse, far exceeding in fleetness all others. The Arab, 
for breeding, seems first to have been introduced in the beginning of the 
seventeenth century in the reign of James the First. In about a century's 
time, or ending ^vith the time of Queen Anne, all the benefit derivable from 
the Arab blood seems to have been completed. It is certain, however, 
that the original unmixed English horse, from which the race-horse 
derives its size and strength, must have possessed excellent qualities, for 
we have in proof the fact that Flying Childers, supposed to be the 
fleetest horse that England ever produced, was the immediate offspring of 
an English mare by the Darley Arabian, a genuine Arab of the Desert, 
— that he was, in other words, a half-bred, a fact which seems to be 
implied by his portraits, for although his other points appear unobjection- 
able, he has a large coarse head, such as a true Arab never had. The 
celebrated Eclipse traced his pedigree not very remotely to the Godol- 
phin Arabian, which has been supposed by some to have been a Barb, but 
1 fancy only from the fulness of his crest. If the account I have heard 
be true, that he was a present from the Sultan to Louis the Fourteenth, the 
probability is that he was a true Arab, as the Sultan could easily have 
got one without going to the mixed blood of Barbary. 

Although, however, no account is given of the dam of Flying Childers 
it is likely that she may have had some Arab blood, for the horse was of 
the time of Queen Anne, before which Spanish, Barb and even Arab 
horses had for 100 years been introducing into England. 

If, then, the Arab blood be the only true one, there is no such thing 
as a thorough-bred English horse. Our race-horse with all its perfection 



is, in fact, a factitious breed. That it is mostly derived from the Arab, 
however, will probably be inferred from its corresponding with it very 
perfectly in colour. With the Arab, the prevailing colours in the order 
of their frequency, are, grey, bay, and chestnut. It is never sorrel, 
roan, or piebald, and very rarely black, and such also is the case with 
the English blood-horse. 

The superior speed of the English racer over the Arab has been 
frequently determined, as might well be expected from an animal on 
an average by two hands higher, with every racing point at least equal. 
In 1814 a second-rate English horse, Sir Solomon, ran a race of two 
miles on the course of Madras against an Arab, which, giving heavy 
weights, had beaten every other Arab in India. This was the Cole 
Arabian afterwards brought to England. He was under fourteen 
hands high, and received a stone weight. The English horse, an ill- 
tempered one, ran sulkily during the first part of the race, and there 
was every appearance that he would be distanced, but in time he ran 
kindly, overtook the Arab and beat him handsomely. His success 
was followed by the acclamations of thousands of Natives who were 
assembled on the course. This statement I had from an eye-witness. 
In 1828, the English horse Recruit beat easily the Arab Pyramus, 
the best at the time in India, giving him two stones nine pounds. The 
distance, ran on the race-course of Calcutta, was two miles. 

A few years ago a match was run between an English blood-mare 
and the best Arab in Egypt. The race was ten miles long over the 
Desert. For the first mile the horses went neck and neck, after 
which the mare ran a-head, and before the race was over the Arab 
was left behind and out of sight. In fact, the difference in speed 
between the English racer and the Arab is something like that between 
the hare and the antelope. 

The European cavalry horse of the Middle Ages was of necessity 
a powerful animal, since he had not only to carry a rider covered with 
armour, but had armour of his own to bear. The same kind of horse 
seems to have been continued even down to the Revolution, as we see 
it represented in the equestrian statues of Charles the First and William 
the Third. Sir Walter Scott, in his " Crusaders," gives a very graphical 
account of the war-horse of the Middle Ages, as contrasted with the 
Arab, in his imaginary duel between Coeur de Lion and Saladin in the 
Desert. Sir Walter, by the way, was himself a cavalry officer, having 
attained the rank of full major in the East Lothian Yeomanry. Gibbon, I 
may here add, was also a military man after a way — a major of militia — 



to judge by the accounts we have of his person, probably not a very 
active one on parade, and he was never tried any where else. He informs 
us himself, however, that his training as a militiaman contributed 
largely towards enabling him to write *' The Decline and Fall of the 
" Roman Empire." 

With such horses as I have now described, the style of horsemanship 
and the kind of exercises in vogue towards the end of the seventeenth 
century, may be judged by a passage from the " Diary of Evelyn," 
dated the 13th of December, 1685. "I went," says he, "with Lord 
" Cornwallis to see the young gallants do their exercise, M. Faubert 
" having newly railed in a menage, and fitted it for the Academy. There 
"were the Dukes of Norfolk and Northumberland, Lord Newburgh, 
"and a nephew of Duras, Earl of Feversham. The exercises were, 1st. 
" Running at the ring. 2nd. Flinging a javeline at a Moor's head. 
" 3rd. Discharging a pistol at a mark. Lastly. Taking up a gauntlet 
" with the point of a sword; — all these performed in full speed. The 
" Duke of Northumberland hardly missed of succeeding in every one, — 
"a dozen times, as I think. The Duke of Norfolk did exceeding 
" bravely. Lord Newburgh and Duras seemed nothing so dexterous. 
"There I saw the difference of what the French call belle homme a 
" cheval and bon homme a cheval, the Duke of Norfolk being the first, 
*' that is a fine person on a horse, the Duke of Northumberland 
"being both in perfection, namely, a graceful person and excellent 
" rider. But the Duke of Norfolk told me he had not been at this 
" exercise for these twelve years before. There were in the field 
" the Prince of Denmark, and the Lord Lansdowne, son of the Earl 
" of Bath, who had been made a count of the Empire last summer 
"for his service before Vienna." 

The Arabs occupied Spain for seven centuries, and the African 
shore of the Mediterranean they have possessed for twelve, and to the 
intermixture of the blood of their horses with that of the native races 
has been derived the jennet and the barb. A good native horse, 
however, probably existed in both countries, and indeed with respect 
to Barbary, it may be considered certain when we know that the 
Numidian horse formed the best cavalry of Hannibal, and contributed 
largely to his victories over the Romans. The Persian horse is said 
to have some Arab blood, but it cannot be large, for the modern horse 
does not materially differ from that represented with great spirit and 
seeming truth in a celebrated mosaic pavement of Pompeii, which is, 
at least, by seven centuries older than the conquest of Persia by the 



9 

Arabians. The horses of the mosaic are, in fact, very ordinary animals, 
without the smallest show of blood, and so is the modern Persian horse. 

But, besides those already named, there are horses in various 
parts of Asia which seem to be endemic in the countries in which 
they are found, and to have received no admixture of foreign 
blood. Such a race is the squab, strong-, and sure-footed little 
horse of Butan, called the Tangan, frequently imported into 
Bengal. The small horse of Tibet is another instance. Like 
the shawl goat, and all the other animals of the elevated and 
dry region which it inhabits, it has a double coat of hair, a 
long shaggy outer one, and at the roots of this a fine woolly one 
corresponding with that which in the goat is the material of the 
Cashmere shawl. 

The horses of the plain of Hindustan are of ample height 
and considerable activity, but wanting in strength, and above all 
in bottom, and very often vicious. It is remarkable that the best 
breeds are found towards the south, and especially in Central 
India, and the worst towards the East, including Bengal and Orissa. 
As no remarkable care in breeding is anywhere bestowed by the Indians, 
the superiority of the horses of such countries as Mysore, Cattewar 
Gujrat, and Malwa, may be attributable to a peculiar suitableness 
of soil and climate, and probably to the introduction, in 
remote times, of some portion of Arabian blood. In general, the 
Indian horse is what the Irish, and sometimes the Scots, call a 
garron, that is a vulgar hack. At all events his inferiority is 
declared by the necessity we are ourselves under of going to the 
Persian and Arabian gulfs, to the Cape, and to Australia, for a 
better. One flagrant misnomer which Europeans apply to the 
common Indian horse may be noticed. He is usually known to 
them under the appellation of Tazi, meaning jade, and almost 
"screw," whereas the word, which is Arabic, properly signifies a 
true Arab. 

Proceeding south we have the Burmese or Pegu pony, and 
among the Islands of the Indian Archipelago, from Sumatra to 
Timur, a great variety of races, for every island possessing the 
horse has, at least, one race, and the larger several. Among these 
the most remarkable is the horse of a certain volcanic island called Sum- 
bawa, and more especially of a district of it called Gunung Api, which 
literally signifies " fire mountain," or, in other words, " the volcano." 
The Sumbawa horse is generally below twelve hands, and its most 



10 

frequent colours grey and bay, occasionally sorrel, but, as with the 
Arab, rarely black, and never piebald. It has the legs and the blood- 
head of the Arab, its spirit, bottom, good temper, and proportioned to 
size, more than its strength. Of these I remember that the late Sir 
Stamford Raffles presented a set of four to the Princess Charlotte, which 
she drove in Windsor park. With relays of these Insular ponies, I 
have myself, as did many others of my contemporaries, ridden 100 miles 
an end, at the average rate of ten miles an hour. The weight carried 
was full thirteen stone. 

The most current name for the horse of the Indian Archipelago is the 
corruption of a Sanscrit one, and from this circumstance it might at first 
sight be supposed that the animal was introduced from India. For this, 
however, there is no foundation, for the Indian name is but a synonyme, 
for in the language of Java, where the horse is most numerous and 
which is the chief seat of Hinduism, the current name is a native one. 
In one of the principal languages of the great island of Celebes, the 
horse bears the Javanese name, while in another it is known by the 
odd one of the *' buffalo of Java." In Celebes, which contains extensive 
grassy plains, and no tigers, the horse is found in the wild state, and 
he is hunted with the lasso and reclaimed as in America. From these 
facts, we may be disposed to infer that the Javanese, long a civilized 
people, taught the people of Celebes — a very rude one, even when first 
become known to Europeans — the art of domesticating the horse. It 
may be added, in corroboration of this view, that the horse of Celebes 
differs materially from that of Java, being larger, stronger, and better 
bred. 

Proceeding eastward and southward, the horse is found, for the 
last time, in Timur and Sandalwood Island, each of which has a 
race peculiar to itself. In no island of the North or South Pacific 
Ocean was the horse found. Going northward, after quitting Borneo 
and Celebes, we find a native horse, for the first time, in the Japanese 
Archipelago. This would seem to be a peculiar race, if the horse of 
Japan was not imported from the rude countries on the Gulf of Okotsk, 
which, considering the state of Japanese navigation, is not very probable. 
Here we have no longer the mere ponies of the Indian Archipelago, but 
the full-sized horse which old John Adams, a mariner, born and bred in 
Wapping, and a mighty favourite of the Emperor of Japan of his day, 
writing from the spot in 1613, thus describes: — "Their horses are not 
tall, but of the size of our middling nags, short and well trussed, small 
headed, and very full of mettle, in my opinion far exceeding the Spanish 



11 

jennet." My friend Mr Oliphant, in his interesting narrative of Lord 
Elgin's Mission, confirms this statement, and gives the following 
curious account of the manage of a people as numerous as ourselves, and 
of whom, for 250 years, we have known nothing but their lacquer- ware 
and curious porcelain : — " As Lord Elgin had not yet seen much of the 
town, I accompanied him on shore on another tour of exploration. In 
the course of our walk we came to a large enclosure, and on entering it 
found fifteen or twenty men on horseback, galloping and curvetting 
about a considerable area, apparently used as a riding school. This, we 
understood, was the constant afternoon amusement of the ' young 
bloods' of Nagasaki. They were all men of fortune and family, 
princes and nobles of the land, and this was their Rotten row. They 
rode fiery little steeds, averaging about fourteen hands in height, and 
took a delight in riding full gallop, and pulling up short, after the 
favourite manner of Arabs. The saddles were constructed on the same 
principle as they are in China, but with less padding. The stirrup- 
leathers were short, and the stirrups like huge slippers, made of lacquer. 
The bit was powerful, and the reins made of muslin, but strong, notwith- 
standing. When we appeared, two or three good-looking young men 
pulled up near us, and most good-naturedly pressed them upon us. I 
took a short, uncomfortable gallop upon one with a propensity to kick, 
and was glad soon to relinqiiish him to his smiling owner. We were 
much struck with the gentlemanlike and unconstrained bearing of these 
young men, who evidently wished to show us all the civility in their 
power." 

From all the facts now detailed the great probability seems to be 
that in many countries there existed distinct races of the wild horse, 
which, in due time, their respective inhabitants reduced to servitude. 
Scattered over the greater part of the Old World, and consisting of 
widely different varieties, and considering the extremely rude state of the 
intercourse, and more especially of maritime intercourse, of the early 
nations, most of whom were even ignorant of each other's existence, it is 
difficult even to imagine that all the horses of the world were derived 
from one single stock. Neither the Hindus or Arabs had carried their 
horses to the islands of the Malay Archipelago, although they communi- 
cated to them their religions and a very considerable portion of their 
languages. The Malays and Javanese did not succeed in conveying 
their horses to the islands of the Pacific, although they did a con- 
siderable portion of their languages. Close to them was the Philippine 
group, and to the inhabitants of this they communicated a considerable 



portion of their languages, and even a smack of their religion ; but it 
remained to the Spaniards to bestow the horse upon them. The large 
and fertile island of Formosa is but eighty miles distant from the popu- 
lous coast of China, but the Chinese had never occupied it until 
Europeans showed them the way to it only two centuries ago. They 
have ever since then occupied it, colonized it, and drawn large resources 
from it, but down to this day have not introduced the horse. 

Attempts have been often made to trace the first domestication of 
the horse to a particular country, but the inquiry seems to me an idle 
and unnecessary one. Wherever the horse existed in its wild state it 
would very easily be domesticated, and, consequently, in many different 
and independent localities. It was not found domesticated in America, 
or Australia, or the Isles of the Pacific Ocean, because in these parts of 
the world it did not exist in the wild state, and, in a rude state of 
society, it could not possibly have been conveyed to them from countries 
in which it was indigenous. The case was different with the dog : 
it existeil, most probably, in all the countries in question in the wild 
state, and was consequently found in the domesticated in all of them. 

The era of the first domestication of the horse must have been very 
remote indeed, for it required but a very small amount of civilization in 
the men who achieved it. This is sufficiently proved by the fact that 
some of the rude tribes of America had, within fifty years of the dis- 
covery of the New World, domesticated the horse, already become wild, 
— and that they have ever since continued to make use of it; and, by so 
doing, been able to maintain a rude independence, assuming, in some 
degree, the nomadic habits of Arabs and Tartars. 

The domestic, but not the wild or the feral horse, is a frequent 
subject of representation on the monuments of Egypt, estimated to be 
of an antiquity of some forty centuries; but this is very far from 
carrying us back to the first domestication of the horse, for when the 
Egyptian sculptures and paintings were executed the Egyptians were 
in possession of many of the useful arts, and had even invented letters, 
— were, in fact, an ancient civilized people, and, for aught we know to 
the contrary, the horse may have been domesticated in Egypt four 
thousand years before the time in which it was represented on its 
monuments. If this reasoning be valid, the probability is that the horse 
was just as early domesticated in other parts of the Old World, from 
the British islands to Japan, as it was in Egypt. 

The first use to which the horse would be put must have depended 
on the characters of the people and country in which it w.is domesti- 



I 



13 

cated. Riding must have been the first use to which it was put, for 
it is not easy to suppose that it would have been tamed and broken in 
without having been mounted. The purposes to which it would be 
put would be war, travel, and pleasure. It is only in very advanced 
periods of society that it is applied to agricultural and other useful 
labours. In this it is anticipated or superseded by the ox in most 
countries, and by the ox in conjunction with the buffalo in others. 
It is only in very advanced periods of society that it is used for 
draught, and this chiefly in modern Europe— a matter, however, which 
seems to be in some measure determined by the superior size, weight 
and strength of the races of this part of the world. Throughout all 
Asia, and indeed throughout the whole of Eastern Europe, the horse is 
nearly unknown for draught, either in plough or carriage, while with 
ourselves it has justly superseded the slow and heavy ox — clear evidence 
of a superior intelligence and civilization. 

In the ancient monuments of Egypt, the horse is almost always seen 
in draught only — a pair drawing a two-wheeled chariot, with a pole, in 
the manner of a curricle. A pompous display would seem to have 
been the only object. One or two samples only occur of a man on 
horseback, and then sitting not astride, but sideways, without bridle or 
saddle, and in mere frolic. But in due time the Egyptians had a 
cavalry, for when the king of Egypt pursued the Israelites, after their 
escape from bondage, he did so with horsemen as well as with chariots, 
and this is supposed to have happened about 1500 years before the 
birth of Christ. The ancient Britons had their war chariots, while 
Gauls, Numidians, and other cotemporaries not more advanced, had 
cavalry, but not chariots. Whether cavalry or chariots were used in 
war was probably a matter of chance. I may here remark that the 
mere capacity to construct a wheel carriage, however rude, is a fact 
which shows that in the days of Julius Csesar we were not such arrant 
savages as we have been sometimes represented. We had not only the 
skill to construct chariots, but even to arm them with iron scythes. 
The iron, no doubt, must have been rather scarce, for we used it at the 
same time as our only money, and probably valued it as highly as the 
Roman conquerors did silver. 

So much for the origin of the horse, and I may now offer a brief 
comparison of his utility to man in the work of labour, as compared with 
that of other domesticated animals, a fuller account of which must, however, 
be delayed for another opportunity. The camel, unsuited for draught, is 
the beast of burden of the Desert and of dry lands. It is wholly unfit 



14 

for wet soils, and for countries with periodical rains: in the mud it slips, 
flounders, falls, and lacerating the ligaments of the hip-joint, never rises. 
It is perhaps the only quadruped that cannot swim. In a civilized 
country, with good roads, it would not be maintained at all, and it must be 
pronounced to be the beast of burden of the barbarian only. So delicate 
is its constitution that in the AfFghan wars it has been estimated that 
50,000 of them perished. 

The services of the elephant are, at the utmost, limited geographi- 
cally to some thirty degrees from the equator, and are indeed unknown, 
except in India and the countries between it and China. Even in 
India the cold is so little congenial to it that it is only by degrees that 
it can be moved northwards with safety. Although preferring the plain 
the elephant climbs hills and precipices with a success little to be looked 
for from its huge bulk and unwieldy form. 

Yet, although the native of a warm climate, Hannibal succeeded 
in taking a number across the Alps, a fact which may lead us to 
suspect that his passage was an enterprise less arduous than is 
generally imagined. Of the number of thirty-seven which he 
brought into Italy, one only, however, survived the first battle, for 
even in the plain a heavy fall of snow had taken place which 
destroyed them. But the elephant, although a floundering and awk- 
ward swimmer, is a bold one, and swims across the Ganges and the 
Jumna without difficulty. One is therefore surprised to find the diffi- 
culty which Hannibal encountered in transporting them over so 
comparatively small a stream as the Rhone. The elephants, however, 
were African, a distinct species from the Asiatic, and the natives of 
a higher latitude and a drier country than the intertropical parts of 
India and its neighbourhood, the country of the Asiatic elephant ; and 
this may possibly account for their antipathy to the water, and their 
capacity to sustain a degree of cold which enabled them to be taken 
across the Alps — implying a cold under which the elephants of Chitta- 
gong, Burma, Siam, and Ceylon would have quickly perished. 

The elephant, naturally a timid and cautious animal, never could 
have been of much service in war : had it possessed courage equal to 
its bulk and strength, it would, of course, have trodden down whole 
battalions. But it is formidable only to the eye, while it is itself a 
huge target to be shot at. To ride it for any distance is, at least, 
a very severe exercise, for, although it has no other pace than a walk, 
the jolting of that walk is equal to that of a carriage without springs 
on what the Americans call " a corduroy road." I have never heard 



of the elephant being employed for draught except in Ceylon, where 
one is yoked to a huge car for hauling materials for the construction of 
roads and other public works. In towns, and on frequented highways, 
the elephant, from his unwieldy size and uncouth form, becomes a 
public nuisance, and it may safely be anticipated that, with good roads, 
its use will eventually be discontinued. 

The horse is the universal hero of labour, suited for all kinds of 
work, and for their performance in every climate. His almost ex- 
clusive employment in labour is in itself evidence of a high civilization. 
With ourselves, by careful breeding, we have been able to produce 
races adapted to every assignable purpose — some that can draw three 
times as much as the elephant can carry, and some that are fleeter 
than the antelope. He is the only animal that enters the field of battle 
with us. He even partakes " the rapture of the strife," and without 
him no great decisive battle could be fought, or, in fact, ever has been 
fought. "The glory of his nostrils is terrible. He paweth in the 
" valley and rejoiceth in his strength, He hurries on to meet the 
" armed men, — he mocketh at fear, — he turneth not his back from the 
'* sword. The quiver rattleth against him — the glittering spear and the 
" shield. He swalloweth the ground with fierceness and rage ; neither 
"believeth he that it is the sound of the trumpet calling a retreat. 
" He saith among the trumpets, ha, ha ! and he sraelleth the battle afar 
"off, and heareth the thunder of the captains and the shouting," 
That passage, as you all know, is taken from the Book of Job. I 
cannot help thinking that the animal so well described in it, with glory 
in his nostril, and pawing with impatience for the charge, must have 
been no other than a true Arab. In fact, the scene of the Book of 
Job is laid in Edom or Idumea, which is now, and always has been, a 
portion of Arabia, although in contact with Syria. The patriarch was 
in reality a powerfel Arab sheik, or independent prince, in possession 
of sheep, camels, and asses, by thousands ; and the mention of the 
sword, and the "glittering spear," implying a knowledge of malleable 
iron, shows that his subjects were by no means such barbarians as were 
the Mexicans and Peruvians when first seen by Europeans. In the 
enumeration of the Patriarch's stock, it will be seen that horses are not 
named. Most probably they were rare at the time, and the luxury of 
the chieftains, and would no more be named than their wardrobe or 
jewellery and trinkets. 

You will have observed that in the passage I have quoted from the 
Book of Job, I have omitted that part of the description of the horse 



16 

which makes his neck to be "clothed in thunder." It is now considered 
to be a mistranslation, for it appears that the same word signifies in the 
Hebrew, " thunder '* and a " horse's mane." The translation ought 
to have been "flowing mane." The interjection. "Ha! ha!" too, 
appears to be a mistake, for that simply expresses wonder or surprise, 
which is by no means consonant with the feeling attributed to the horse 
at the moment of action. It ought to have been, " let us advance," or, 
*' let us go on." These corrections of our version we owe to M. Ernest 
Renan, a distinguished French Orientalist, to whose translation of the 
Book of Job my attention was directed by my learned and accomplished 
friend the Dean of St Paul's. 

A comparison of the powers, for labour, of the different animals 
which man has employed to assist him is not only a subject of rational 
curiosity, but one that throws a broad light on the condition and 
progress of society. These are the dog, the ox, the buflfalo, the horse, 
the ass, the elephant, and the llama. 

According to Captain Lyon, quoted by Sir John Richardson, an 
Esquimaux dog will draw in a sledge a load of 160 pounds, going at 
the rate of a mile in nine minutes, or near seven miles an hour. An 
English dray-horse will easily draw a ton on a good road, going, however, 
at not more than the rate of three miles an hour. In this case, the 
draught power of the horse is equal to that of fourteen dogs, while the 
pace of the dog is near seven times that of the horse; but the dog 
must have ice or frozen snow to travel over. On an ordinary road, he 
would probably be over-draughted with a load of twenty-five pounds, 
while his speed would hardly equal that of the horse. In this case it 
would take ninety dogs to equal one horse, and the cost of keeping them 
would be as great as that of keeping four packs of fox-hounds. 

In India it has been ascertained that the average burden of an ass 
is 100 lbs. ; of a bullock or mule, 200 lbs. ; of a camel, 400 lbs. ; and of 
an elephant 800 lbs. One elephant, then, is equal to two camels, to 
four bullocks or mules, and to eight asses. The respective merits of 
these animals as beasts of burden, cannot however, be measured by 
their mere capacity for bearing a load. The first cost of the elephant, 
for example, is ten times that of a camel, and his keep costs as much as 
that of eight camels. This is, indeed, in some measure, compensated 
by the better constitution and higher longevity of the elephant, whose 
length of life is full ten times that of the camel — equal, indeed, to that 
of man himself; that is, three score and ten, or even four score. Had 
his life, I may add, been proportioned to his bulk, it ought to have been 



17 

a great deal longer, for it has been ascertained that the average weight 
of an Indian elephant is equal to that of twenty-four men, each of ten 
stones, or to a subaltern and his whole section of light infantry. 

In Tibet, but there only, a variety of large sheep is used as a beast 
of burden, although it might well be supposed that its own immense 
double fleece would be an all-sufficient load for it. In the New World 
there was but one beast of burden, the llama, a diminutive species of 
camel, by the structure of his foot and by his constitution fit only for 
mountain regions. His average load is sixty-five pounds. One camel 
of the Old World, then, is equal to six of the New. It will appear, from 
the facts now stated, that an English dray-horse, on a good road, will 
draw the united burdens of two elephants, one camel, and five oxen. 
His power of transport is superior to that of five of the best camels that 
Arabia ever produced, and to that of thirty-four of the camels of the 
New World. 

For riding, the superiority of the horse is equally great. The 
elephant, walking his only pace, will travel at the rate of four miles 
an hour, but it would distress him greatly to continue it for twenty miles. 
It would take him five hours to perform this journey, which the horse 
would perform in one hour. Of [the domestic animals the dromedary, 
or common camel, is the one that, in speed, approaches the nearest to 
the horse, and its pace is probably equal to about one-half that of the 
horse. The messenger camel will travel, it is said, one hundred miles 
in twenty-four hours ; but an English blood-horse has been known 
to perform a journey of double that distance within the same time. 
But in the case of the camel, the pace is "a killing" one, not 
to the animal, but to the man ; for it is said that the life of the pro- 
fessional camel-rider, the Shuter Suwar of the Persians, does not exceed 
five years' duration. 

But the horse has been at length surpassed, although by no means 
superseded — indeed, in no degree even displaced, for it has increased in 
number — by a new power. A few years ago, a meritorious operative, a 
heaven-born engineer, invented, almost created a machine, which in 
speed eclipses Eclipse, and leaves Flying Childers " nowhere," — which 
can draw with ease the load of a thousand, or if need were, often thousand 
elephants, and which, in one-fourth part of the time, without fatigue to 
itself or to the rider, can perform the feat which saved Turpin's neck by 
proving an alibi. That machine is now at work in the native country 
of the slow camel and slow and ponderous elephant, a creditable 
tribute to George Stephenson and the nineteenth century. The son cf 

c 



18 

this tn-in of genius, almost the equal of his father, was lately laid in the 
spot which Nelson thoug'ht was equivalent to a dukedom. Perhaps you 
will be of opinion that the remains of the father ought in justice to 
repose alongside those of the son. 

Much has been written on the comparative merits of cavalry and 
infantry. In the well organised army of a civilised people, it is enough 
to say that both arms are indispensable. It is the infantry, however, 
that constitutes the main force. It was the phalanx that carried the 
Greeks to the banks of the Indus — the legion that enabled the Romans to 
conquer the best part of the known world, and the British battalion that 
conquered and reconquered India. But among rude nomadic nations 
the cavalry is the main force. It was their cavalry alone that enabled 
the Tartan hordes to effect their wide-spread, although but temporary 
conquests from China to Europe. It was by it that Jeniz Khan and his 
successors conquered all China, and a large portion of Russia. But the 
Tartars will never be able again to make such conquests. Gunpowder 
has arrested them. The last of their mischievous heroes was Timur, 
who flourished at the end of the l4th and beginning of the 15th 
century ; so that we have been rid of these pests of civilization for near 
500 years. 

The civilized nations have, indeed, now turned the tables on the 
Tartars, and the only people in proximity to them, the Russians, have made 
extensive territorial conquests over them. A Tartar cavalry, however, 
still exists, confined to Russia and China. These are the celebrated 
Cossacks, and with the first of these powers they have proved useful, not? 
indeed, in fair fighting, but in harassing'an enemy, by cutting off supplies 
and stragglers, and completing a rout. They are a light cavalry, meanly 
mounted and meanly equipped. In a disorderly retreat it becomes 
formidable. In his retreat from Moscow, Napoleon, in his famous 
bulletin describing it, said, "Even the Cossacks, that contemptible 
cavalry, which under ordinary circumstances could not have penetrated 
a company of voltigeurs, became formidable." It is an inferior 
description of this cavalry that the allied French and English army will 
have to meet on the plains of Pecheli, should they attempt a march of 100 
miles on the Chinese capital, for that is the distance from the coast to 
Pekin. 

The wild American tribes of the Pampas, Llanos, and Prairies are all 
mounted. The chief force of the northern nations who conquered India, 
and held it in obedience from the eleventh to the eighteenth century, 
consisted of cavalry ; and it was by its cavalry that the Mahratlas, one 



19 

of the rudest nations of India, effected conquests whicli extended from 
Delhi to Calcutta and to Bombay, 1,000 miles east and south. In the 
middle ages of European history, cavalry was the principal force, and the 
infantry little better than a hastily levied rabble. Fire-arms restored 
the infantry to its just position, and at present, what with rifled small-arms 
and rifled cannons, to say nothing of Armstrong and Whitvvorth guns, 
which would mow down a cavalry when it was only visible with a spy- 
glass, an unsupporred cavalry would be annihilated During the 
battle which my valued friend Lord Clyde fousj;ht with the rebels at 
Cawnpore, the scene of the too-famous massacre, a Serjeant's party of 
rifles was in skirmishing order in advance, when a body of Indian 
cavalry, seeing them scattered, came down to cut them up individually ; 
the Serjeant ordered the bugle to be sounded, the men formed, and by a 
cool, well-directed fire quickly emptied many a saddle. The horsemen 
fell, said an amateur, like an undermined wall. In an Indian 
battle, known under the name of that of Luswari, fought in 1803, 
the English cavalry, headed by the commander-in-chief, a brave 
old man of sixty-five — the future Lord Lake — charged a Mahratta 
infantry protected by seventy-five pieces of artillery, and was 
defea|ed with heavy loss, but the infantry coming up, routed the 
Mahratta infantry and captured the guns. The infantry that did 
this consisted chiefly of one regiment, her Majesty's 76th. 

One of the first occasions in modern war that cavalry and infantry 
were fairly opposed to each other occurred in 1704. Charles the Twelfth, 
in his victorious career of conquest in Poland, which he himself compared 
to a hunting party, was in pursuit of a Saxon corps of infantry comt 
manded by the celebrated Marshal Schulemburgh, the same man tha- 
had defended Corfu against the Turks, and, for that act, the Republic 
of Venice erected a statue to him. Schulemburgh received the 
charge of the veteran Swedish cavalry in three lines, the front rank 
kneeling, and defeated it : he then retreated in hollow square, pursued 
by the Swedes, under the King — passed through a wood, forded a small 
river first, and in the course of the night, by boats, crossed the broad 
Oder. Charles, who expected in the morning to compel him to surrender 
at discretion, saw him safe and inaccessible on the opposite bank of the 
river. It was the Swedish hero's first check, and he exclaimed with 
generosity, " Schulemburgh has defeated me to-day." It is Voltaire 
that tells the story, in a book as pleasant as any romance, and perhaps 
in some degree partaking of one. 

You will observe that the Saxon infantry was drawn up in three 



20 

ranks, and so lias infantry been in all the armies of Europe ever since, 
except our own for the last forty-five years. It was the Duke of 
Wellington who first thought two enough, being of opinion that British 
pluck would supply the place of the third, and the anticipation has 
proved true. With the same force we present the same extent of front 
with one-third fewer men, or we make, in other words, two Englishmen 
to do the same service as three Frenchmen, Germans, or Russians. 
The fine heavy cuirassiers of Napoleon, at Waterloo, repeatedly charged 
the squares of British infantry without making any serious impression 
on them. An officer of engineers, still living, told me that he was in 
one of these squares when assailed, and that one trooper only broke 
through the line, his horse being shot in the act, and himself dismounted 
and made prisoner. When the Russian cavalry attempted a charge 
at the corps of Lord Clyde, at Balaklava, he told me himself that he did 
not think it worth while to form square, and only three back a wing of 
his single regiment to receive them. The Highlanders gave them a 
volley and they sheered off. 

As to the best national cavalry, it ought to be that of the people who 
have the best horses, the best riders, and who can best afford to main- 
tain it. We are that people ourselves, and all that seems necessary to 
insure it is adequate discipline and riddance of military coxcombry in 
dress, arms, and equipment. Our heavy cavalry overthrew that of the 
Russians in the Crimea on the Russians' own chosen ground, but our 
light cavalry was sorely punished when on the same field it madly 
attacked infantry and artillery. 

Between the equipment of ancient and modern cavalry, thus exists 
one striking difference worth notice. The ancients were ignorant of the 
stirrup. There is no name for it in classic Greek or Latin, in 
Sanskrit or in native Persian. There is, however, in Arabic, and this 
may lead to the belief that the Arabs were its inventors. In European 
record there is, indeed, no authentic account of the use of the stirrup 
before the seventh century, corresponding with the first of the 
Mahomedan era. At present there exists no people from " China to 
Peru " without it, and we find it difficult to understand how a trooper 
would maintain a firm seat and make an effective use of sword or 
lance in its absence. The bridle, of course, was always used, and 
the celebrated Cuvier insists that our dominion over the horse depends 
on the toothless space for the insertion of the bit between the molar 
and canine teeth. 

But you may desire to know the extent of the evils which a barbarous 



21 

cavalry inflicts in its ferocious invasions, sucli evils, on an enormous 
scale, as were inflicted by such heroes as Attila, Jengis, and Timur. 
You have it from a great orator when Burke describes the invasion 
of the plain of the Carnatic from the plateau of Mysore, about 
ninety years ago. " When ai length," said the orator, •* Hyder 
Ali found he had to do with men who would either sign no 
convention, or whom no treaty and no signature could bind, and who 
were the determined enemies of human intercourse itself, he decreed to 
make the country possessed by these incorrigible and predestined 
criminals a memorable example to mankind. He resolved, in the 
gloomy recesses of a mind capacious of such things, to leave the whole 
Carnatic an everlasting monument of vengeance and to put perpetual 
desolation as a barrier between him and those against whom the faith 
which holds the moral elements of the world together was no protection. 
He became, at length, so confident of his force, so collected in his might, 
that he made no secret whatever of his dreadful resolution. Having ter- 
minated his disputes with every enemy and every rival who buried their 
mutual animosities in their common detestation against the creditors of 
the Nabob of Arcut, he drew from every quarter whatever a savage 
ferocity could add to his new rudiments in the arts of destruction ; and 
compounding all the materials of fury, havoc, and desolation into one 
black cloud, he hung for a while on the declivities of the mountains. 
Whilst the authors of all these evils were idly and stupidly gazing on 
this menacing meteor, which blackened all their horizon, it suddenly 
burst, and poured down the whole of its contents upon the plains of the 
Carnatic. Then ensued a scene of woe, the like of which no age had 
seen, no heart conceived, and which no tongue can adequately tell. All 
the horrors of war before known or heard of were mercy to that new 
havoc. A storm of universal fire blasted every field, consumed every 
house, destroyed every temple. The miserable inhabitants, flying from 
their flaming villages, in part were slaughtered ; others, without regard 
to sex, to age, to the respect of rank, or sacredness of function, fathers 
torn from children, husbands torn from wives, enveloped in a whirlwind 
of cavalry and amidst the goading spears of drivers and the trampling of 
pursuing horses, were swept into captivity in an unknown and hostile 
land. Those who were enabled to evade the tempest fled to the walled 
cities. But escaping from fire, sword, and exile, they fell into the jaws 
of famine." 

That is a sample of the oration which Pitt and Dundas, issuing from 
Downing street with more London particular Madeira than they could 



22 

conveniently carry, hesitated whether it was worth their while to go and 
listen to. 

I have now but a few words to add on the supply of the English 
breed of horses for cavalry purposes. The English horse, like the English- 
man himself, is a thorough mongrel, and as the horse has, beyond all 
question, improved by crossing, we may safely conclude that the being 
has suffered no detriment by it that has produced a Shakespear and a 
Milton, a Chatham and a Burke, a Watt and a Stephenson, a Marlborough 
and a Wellington, a Blake and a Nelson, and which will assuredly 
produce their equals whenever their country shall have need of their 
service. 

We, who formerly imported all our best horses, are now the only 
people who export good ones, and we supply all nations that have 
sense and ability to buy. I have looked at our export of horses for the 
last year, for which the public accounts are made up, and find the number 
exported to have been 1,574, and their custom-house value to have been 
117,422Z. France had out of these 755, and Belgium and Germany 611. 
I suspect that the officers of Her Majesty's Customs are not good 
judges of horse-flesh, for the valuation of those furnished to 
France was short of 50,000Z„ or at the average of 661. a head, which is 
much too low a valuation, for I have every reason to believe that one of 
the horses exported was " The Flying Dutchman " (of whom it never 
could be said that, like his namesake, "he was nowhere"), which was 
sold to the French for the sum of 5,0001. It is certain that we have 
turned the tables on the French since the time of Charles II, when a 
Frenchman was the master of His Majesty's riding-school, and pro- 
nounced by old Evelyn to be the first judge of a horse in Europe. 

Wherever the Anglo-Saxon race has settled, the improved English 
horse has been introduced, and, wherever climate and pasture have been 
favourable, with success. India, which has most need of the cavalry 
horse, is not one in which the introduction of the English horse has been 
most successful. A great and expensive stud has existed in Bengal for 
sixty years, without ever having been equal to furnish even a sufficient 
supply for the European cavalry of that government. The stud of Madras, 
situated on the table-land of Mysore, is upon a far more rational and 
economical scale than that of Bengal, consisting only of Arab sires. 
The grasses of India are neither abundant nor nutritious; the plain 
proof of which is that the flesh of no mere grass-fed animal is fit for 
the table, that of the stall-fed animals alone being so. But even were 
the conditions more favourable for breeding than they are in India, studs 



23 

are not among the establishments which it is within the legitimate 
province of any government to maintain. 

After the United States of America, which in breeding the English 
horse stands next to England itself, the most eminent success has 
attended its rearing in the Cape of Good Hope and Australia. The 
Cape farmer, who used to drive his produce to market at a snail's pace, 
with a team of sixteen oxen, now does it, at a smart trot, with eight 
English-bred horses— a royal team ; in all likelihood, better cattle than 
those which conveyed Charles II in state (some lovely Thais by his 
side) from Whitehall to the City. The success has been still greater 
in Australia, where the pastures are more spacious, and the grasses 
more nutritious. In the course of the year 1858, the Australian 
colonies furnished for the Indian Cavalry 2,563 horses, at the average 
price, on the spot, of 301. a head, and, when landed in India, at from 
80Z. to 90/. ; being a smaller price for a better horse than that supplied 
bv the Government stud. 

Here, then, we find a country which, seventy years ago, had not 
only no horse, but no native animal more respectable than a kangaroo, the 
brain of which the great naturalist, Mr Owen, tells us, is of no higher 
order than that of a reptile, exporting more horses than England itself, 
and adding their value to five millions' worth of sheep's wool, and 
ten millions' worth of gold. Two generations ago its population 
consisted of a few savages, the very lowest in the scale of humanity, and 
now its inhabitants are Anglo-Saxons, amounting to near a million. A 
century hence, this continent of the Antipodes will contain more people 
than does now the United Kingdom ; and unless they differ greatly from 
their progenitors, they will be meditating the conquest of the whole 
Indian and Philippine Archipelagos, giving law to China and Japan 
and quarrelling with New Zealand — by this time as crowded with 
free and ambitious Anglo-Saxons as itself. 



C. W. KHTNHLL, UTTLE POI,TBNET STBEBT, HAYMARKET. 







L 



/^r-L^