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S3 O 

s x 

- H 



- 2 






Formerly Lecturer in the Albert and Glasgcnv Veterinary Colleges 






THE value of the horse stock of the United Kingdom, 
constituting so large a proportion of the national wealth, 
is a sufficient inducement for a study of the causes 
which deteriorate the standard of excellence. These 
causes lie in the prevalence of disease, the severity of 
which an intelligent system of management is calculated 
to reduce, and in many cases prevent. 

It is the object of the present treatise to render this 
proposition generally acceptable. 

The call for a new Edition of the three volumes 
(including the present) forming THE FARMER'S LIBRARY, 
within twelve months, has enabled the Author to make 
further alterations. The part including the Varieties of 
the Horse, with his Management, already copious in 
detail, has been carefully revised, and the text largely 

The subject of Remedies is discussed in a separate 
division, as fully as the available space will admit, 
supplemented by ample directions concerning the doses, 
and forms of combination to be observed in their use. 

Subsequent chapters are devoted to the Diseases of 
of the Horse, their Nature, Causes, and Treatment. 
They are replete with information, given in simple style 


viii Preface. 

and within the comprehension of most readers; the 
divisions relating to Nature and Causes being consider- 
ably extended. This necessarily led to the abbreviation 
of the paragraphs relating to Treatment. Whatever may 
be supposed to be loss in this direction has been more 
than accounted for by the adoption of reference figures, 
thus avoiding frequent repetition of the same directions. 

Local injuries and lameness are treated as fully as 
space will admit, and the concluding chapter is devoted 
to the subject of Shoeing, in which will be found simple 
but useful hints on the preservation of the feet. 

A new feature consists of the introduction of illustra- 
tions of some of the best animals of the day. For these 
the Author has laid himself under deep and abiding 
obligations to a number of intimate friends, and gentle- 
men who have most kindly and promptly responded 
to his application for portraits of their distinguished 
prize winners. Except where otherwise stated, the 
Plates have been reproduced from photos and drawings 
furnished by the Owners or Breeders, whose names are 
given in connection with each. 

G. A. 

LOiNDON, 1894. 





Early history of the Horse General habits Parts of the frame 
of the Horse Paces Teeth as signs of age Memory, &c. T 



Arab Barb Dongola Persian Turkoman Cossack- 
Turkish East Indian and Australian Belgian and Dutch - 
Norman Spanish American Canadian English tho- 
rough-bred Cart ShireHorse Clydesdale Coach Cavalry 
Galloway Shetland . 10 



The Stable Aspect Drainage Sewers Rain-water drains 
Buildings Materials Plans Ventilation Paving Par- 
titions Mangers Harness-room Hay-loft and corn- 
chamber Stable utensils clothing . . . .26 



Hack or Riding Horse The Ladies' Horse The Hunter- 
Carriage Horse Horses for light harness Horses for heavy 
harness Cobs and Ponies Defects, diseases, and faults to 
be avoided in all Horses 42 

x Contents. 




Stable servants Groom Stable management of the Horse 
Feeding in the stable and out Water Summering the 
Hunter Exercise and work Clipping and singeing 
Degree of warmth required for stabled Horse Manage- 
ment of the feet 55 



Getting loose Hanging back in the collar Leaping into the 
manger Turning round in the stall Lying under the 
manger Halter casting Casting in the stall Kicking the 
stall-post Weaving Pawing Eating the litter Kicking 
Biting Crib-biting Wind-sucking Tricks and vices out 
of the stable Rearing Kicking Running away Buck- 
ing or plunging Jibbing Shying Harness for Saddle 
Horses Harnessing and putting-to Cleaning harness, &c. 



Most profitable kind Selection of Brood Mare Choice of 
Stallion Best age to breed from Best time for breeding 
Treatment of the Mare Management of the Foal 
Directions for rearing The Foals of Farm Horses . . f>o 



Paddock Leading tackle Shoeing Tying-up in the stable 
Breaking Mouthing-bit Breaking to harness Breaking 
and teaching a Hunter Breaking the Lady's Horse . . 107 



Different breeds Fairs for purchasing them Farm stable 
Portable stables Stable management Dietaries and cost 
of keeping in spring, summer, autumn, and winter Useful 
rules Soiling Horses Pulped food .... 123 

Contents. xi 




Disease Definitions Pathology Fever : simple, symptoma- 
tic, and specific Inflammation Abscess Serous Cyst 
Classification of disease Prevention of disease Sending 
for the Veterinary Surgeon 139 



Medicines, their doses, and administration Alteratives 
Anodynes Antiseptics Antispasmodics Aperients 
Astringents Blisters Caustics Clysters Cordials 
Demulcents Diaphoretics Digestives Diuretics Elec- 
tuaries Embrocations or liniments Expectorants Feb- 
rifuges Fomentations Inhalations Lotions Poultices 
Subcutaneous Injections Tonics The Bolus, Drench, 
&c., and the Mode of Administration .... 153 



Arising from deranged or inordinate function Plethora 

Anaemia Rheumatism Uraemia Apnoea . . .176 



Having their origin in inordinate, impaired, or arrest of 
function, and remarkable for the development of a Septic 
state : Purpura haemorrhagica Azoturia Malignant sore 
throat 178 



Arising from an inordinate or impaired function, non-conta- 
gious and enzootic, viz. : Enzootic typhoid catarrh 
Enzootic pleurisy .182 



Having their origin in an unknown animal poison, and attended 
with an eruptive fever, or intumescence, sporadic, enzootic, 
and occasionally of septic characters Scarlatina Stran- 
gles Suppurative catarrh .185 

xii Contents. 




Arising from an animal poison, highly contagious, and pro- 
ducing the same disease by inoculation Farcy and 
glanders 189 



Catarrh Laryngitis, or sore throat Congestion of the lungs 
Bronchitis Pneumonia, or inflammation of the lungs 
Pleurisy Roaring, whistling, grunting, &c. Chronic 
cough Nasal gleet Spasm of the diaphragm Rupture 
of the diaphragm ........ 191 



Palpitation Rupture of the heart Cyanosis, or blue disease 
Carditis Pericarditis Endocarditis Embolism, and 
diseases of the valves of the heart Aneurism Phlebitis 
Megrims Lymphangitis ...... 198 



Sporadic aphtha, or thrush Diseases and irregularities of 
the teeth Choking Vomiting Chronic indigestion 
Acute indigestion Constipation Colic Enteritis, or 
inflammation of the bowels Peritonitis, or inflammation 
of the Peritoneum Diarrhoea Supei purgation Dysen- 
tery, or bloody flux Worms in the intestines Hernia, or 
rupture Dropsy of the abdomen Congestion of the liver 
Inflammation of the liver Jaundice Wind-sucking, or 
crib-biting 203 



Diabetes insipidus, or profuse staling Retention of urine 
Oxaluria Traumatic albuminuria Nephritis, or inflam- 
mation of the kidneys Haematuria, or blood in the urine 
Cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder Inversion of the 
bladder . .212 

Contents. xiii 




In the Male: Urethritis Phimosis Paraphimosis - Results 
of castration Haemorrhage Abscess Scirrhous cord. 
In the Female : Flooding Inversion of the uterus Rup- 
ture of the uterus Rupture of the abdominal walls 
Vaginitis Leucorrhoea Inflammation of the womb . 217 



Conjunctivitis Specific ophthalmia Cataract Staphyloma 
Glaucoma Amaurosis Strabismus, or squinting 
Eclropium Enti opium Laceration of the eyelids Warts 
Fungus haematodes ....... 222 



Inflammation of the brain and its coveiings Inflammation of 
the substance of the brain Epilepsy Chorea Shivering 
Sofiening of the brain Cerebral apoplexy Paralysis 
Acute paralysis Tetanus, or lock jaw Rabies Hysteria 226 



Erythema Erysipelas Nettle-rash Prurigo Eczema, sim- 
ple and chronic Mallanders and sallanders Herpes 
Phlyctenoides Herpes Circinatus Impetigo Pustular 
erysipelas, or grease Boils or caibuncles Sit-fasts . 232 



Laminitis Coronitis Sandcrack Thiush CankerSeedy 

toe Keratoma Corns 237 



Animal Parasites : Scabies or mange Poul I ry lousiness Ticks 
and maggots. Vegetable Parasites ; Favus Tinea Tousu- 
rans, or true ringworm 243 

xiv Contents. 




Wounds Biuises Poll evil Fistula of the withers Speedy- 
cut Quittor Broken knees Wounds of arteries and 
veins 246 



Fiactures of bone The cranium Occipital crest Neck and 
back The sacrum The tail Haunch Scapula Hu- 
merus Radius and ulna Knee Metacarpal, or shank 
bone Pastern Sessamoid bone Navicular bone 
Coffin bone O.^titis Splints Open joint Sprain or 
strain Ringbones Sidebones Navicular disease 
Luxation of the patella Capped hock Curb Capped 
elbow . . . , 251 



Nature and preservation of the hoof Inherent power of repro- 
duction Preparation of the hoof Stopping for the feet 
unnecessary Dryness essential Foot ointments Weak 
and defective feet Bar shoes 259 

Index ........... 265 





"SCOT GUARD" TO face p. 16 


iv. HUNTER, "FIRELIGHT" ....,, 32 





RIDING " 64 












Early history of the Horse General Habits Parts of the frame of the Horse 
Paces Teeth as signs of age Memory, &c, 

wrapped in obscurity and fable, and we really know 
or nothing of it, except that we have reason to believe 
that he first came from Asia, like man, and according to 
the Mosaic account, all other animals now existing ; and 
that he was used in Egypt more than 1600 years before 
Christ. But with the history of the horse I shall not 
encumber this book, which might be enlarged to an 
enormous extent if this department were entered into at 
length. Suffice it, then, to discuss the present condition 
of the horse, and its more recent origin, as now existing 
in Great Britain, in addition to his general habits. 

THE HABITS OF THE HORSE, in all countries, and of all 
varieties, are pretty much alike. Wherever he is at large, 
he is bold, but wary, and easily taking note of the ap- 
proach of man, to give him as wide a berth as he possibly 
can, or rather show him a clean pair of heels. Wild horses 
exist to the present day in the interior of Asia and in South 
America. But both the horses of the Tartars and those 
of La Plata are descended from domesticated animals, and 
can scarcely be called wild in the ordinary acceptation of 
the term. Indeed, the Californian horses, which are still 
more recently bred in a wild state from Spanish horses, are 
quite as wild as those described by Sir F. B. Head. From 


2 Early History and Habits 

their constant state of liberty, and their roving habits, in 
order to obtain food and water, they are inured to fatigue, 
and can bear an enormous amount of long-continued fast 
work, without failing under it, and without that training 
which the domesticated animal must have. The walk and 
the gallop are the horse's natural paces, and all others are 
acquired; but nothing can exceed the fiery animation and 
elegance of movement of the free horse ; and in these two 
paces art has done nothing to improve his form, except, 
perhaps, in slightly increasing the speed of the latter. In 
all countries, and in every age, the horse feeds upon grain 
or grass, though it is said that in Arabia he is occasionally 
supported upon camel's milk, when food such as he usually 
lives upon is not to be had. 

It may be useful to specify the terms employed to de- 
scribe the principal parts of the horse. These details will 
not prove altogether superfluous, as some of the words we 
are about to explain not unfrequently occur in conversa- 

The two parts of the head of the horse which corre- 
spond to the temples, or temporals in man, are above the 
eyes. The orbit is the bony cavity designed to receive 
and protect the eyeball, with its needful muscles, nerves, 
and blood-vessels, &c. At the inner angle is situate the 
haw, or membranes nictitans (a), a cartilaginous plate, 
which forms the mechanism enabling the horse, especially, 
to remove offending substances. He also in common 
with other nocturnal animals possesses the power of 
seeing objects clearly in the twilight and comparative 
darkness. This is conferred by an arrangement within 
and at the back of the eye, known as the tapetum 
lucidum, or green carpet. The eyepits (p) are hollows 
above the eyes, covered by skin, intended to provide for 
motion of the eyeball during the action of its muscles, as 
well as those engaged in mastication. 

The face (c) is that part of the head which extends 
from the eyes to the nostrils. The forehead is above the 
eyes. These are seen by the observer as he stands in 
the front of the animal. 

The neck of the horse is designated by the term crest 

of the Horse. 3 

(d) j it is comprised from one end to the other between 
the mane on the upper side and the gullet on the lower. 
The fore-lock (e) is the portion of the mane which is on 
the top of the head and falls over on the forehead be- 
tween the eyes. 

The different Parts of the Body of the Horse. 

The withers (/) is the spot where the shoulders meet 
up above, between the back and the neck, at the point 
where the neck and the mane come to an end. '' 

The chest (g) is that part which is in front between the 
shoulders and below the throat. 

The back (h) commences at the withers and extends all 
along the spine as far as the crupper. When the horse is 

4 Early History and Habits 

fat, the whole length of the spine forms a kind of hollow, 
which is said to be channeled. 

The space which is included within the ribs is called 
the barrel (i) ; the name of stomach (j) is also given to 
the lower part of the body which joins the os sternum and 
the bottom of the ribs. 

Theflan&s lie at the extremity of the stomach and ex- 
tend as far as the hip-bones. The tail is divided into two 
parts : the stump or dock, and the hair. 

The upper part of the front leg of the horse is called 
the shoulder (m), although it corresponds with the fore- 
arm in a man ; ^fore-arm (n) follows it lower down. 

The joint which is below the fore-arm is called the knee 
(o) ; it corresponds to the place of the wrist in man, and 
forms an angle turning inwards when the leg is bent. 

The shank (p) forms the second portion of the fore- 
leg; it commences at the knee-joint, and corresponds to 
the metacarpus in man. 

Behind the shank is a tendon, which extends from one 
end to the other, and is called the back-sinew. 

The fetlock-joint (q) is the articulation immediately below 
the shank. 

The fetlock itself is a tuft of hair covering a sort of soft 
horny excrescence, which is called the ergot. 

The pastern (r) is the portion of the leg between the 
fetlock-joint and the foot. 

The coronet (s) is an elevation lying below the pastern, 
and is furnished with long hair falling over the hoof, all 
round the foot. 

The hoofs (/) form, so to speak, the nails of the horse, 
and consist of a horny substance. 

In order to describe the parts which make up the hind 
legs of the horse, we must go back to the haunches. Each 
of these contains the femur, and corresponds to the thigh 
of a man. It is, therefore, the thigh of the horse, which is 
joined on to the body, and bears the name of buttocks. 
It is terminated below and in front by the stifle (/), which 
is constituted similarly to the knee-joint of man. It is 
situated below the haunch, on a level with the flank, 
and shifts its place when the horse walks. 

of tJie Horse. 5 

The highest part of the hind leg, which is detached from 
the body, is called the thigh, or gaskins (m'), and corre- 
sponds to the leg of a man. It extends from the stifle and 
lower part of the buttocks down to the hock (</). 

The hock or tarsus is the first joint below the thigh. 
It comprises the so-called instep and heel in man. In 
the latter it is more concerned in weight-bearing than 
progression, as in the horse. 

Below the hock are the shank, the fetlock-joint, the 
pastern, and the foot, just the same as in the fore-legs. 

We will now say a few words as to the diversity of 
colour in the coat of the horse, in order to fix the mean- 
ing of the terms which are generally employed to desig- 
nate the various hues which the coat presents. 

Bay is a reddish nut-brown colour, with various shades. 
Dark bay horses are of a very dark brown, almost black, 
except on the flanks and tip of the nose, where they are 
of a reddish colour. The golden, or light bay, is a yellow 
sun-light hue. Dappled bay horses have on their rumps 
spots of a darker bay than on the rest of their bodies. In 
bay horses the extremities, the mane, and the tail are 
always black. 

There are three kinds of. black horses : the rusty black, 
which is of a brownish tinge, more or less conspicuous in 
various lights ; the black, and the coal-black, which is the 
darkest of all. 

Dun-coloured horses, of which there are several shades, 
are of a yellowish-sandy hue ; the mane and tail of these 
are either white or black. Some of the latter have a black 
line along the vertebra, which is called a mule's, or eel-stripe. 

Chestnut is a kind of reddish or cinnamon-coloured bay. 
There are several shades of it, among which are the bright 
chestnut, which is the colour of a red cow's coat ; the com- 
mon chestnut, which is neither dark nor bright ; the bay 
chestnut, which verges upon the red ; the burnt chestnut, 
which is dark, and nearly approaches black. Some chest- 
nut horses have white manes and tails, others black. The 
roan is a mixture of red and white. 

Grey horses have white hair mixed with black or bay. 
There are several modifications of this colour; the dappled- 

6 Early History and Habits 

grey, the silver-grey, the iron-grey, &c. Dapple-grey horses 
have on the back and other parts of the body a number 
of round spots, in some cases black in others of a lighter 
hue ; these spots are somewhat irregularly distributed. 
Grey horses as they increase in age become lighter in 
colour, ultimately becoming white. 

Piebald and skewbald horses are white, with large irregu- 
lar spots and stripes of some other colour irregularly 
arranged. The different kinds are distinguished by the 
colour that is combined with the white, as the piebald 
proper, which are white and black ; the skeu>bald, which 
are white and bay ; the chestnut piebald, which are white 
and chesnut. 

The horses which have small black spots on a white or 
grey coat are called flea-bitten, particularly prevalent in 
India among Arabs. 

We have hitherto considered the wild and domestic 
horse in common, both as regards their structure and their 
colour, in short, their outward appearance generally, with- 
out noticing the different breeds, which must soon occupy 
our attention. But before we enter upon the study of the 
various equine races, it is necessary to give a short explana- 
tion as to the way in which the bit regulates the paces of 
the horse. By this we are led to speak of the construction 
of the mouth, a knowledge of which is most useful. 

The horse either walks, trots, gallops, or ambles. 

The paces of the horse are essentially modified by 
means both of the bit and spur. The spur excites a 
quickness of movement ; the bit communicates to this 
movement a due amount of precision. The mouth of the 
horse is so sensitive that the least movement or the 
slightest impression which it receives warns and regulates 
the motion of the animal. But to preserve the full delicacy 
of this organ, it is highly necessary to treat tenderly its 
extreme sensibility. 

The position of the teeth in the jaw of the horse affords 
to man the facility which exists of placing a bit in its 
mouth, by which instrument this high-spirited and vigorous 
animal is broken in and guided. Let us, therefore, in the 
first place, study the arrangement of its mouth. 

of the Horse. y 

There are in each jaw six incisors, or fore-teeth, followed 
on either side by a tush, which is generally deficient in 
mares, especially in the lower jaw. Next comes a series 
of six grinders on each side in both jaws ; these teeth have 
a square crown, marked with four crescents, formed by 
the lamina of enamel which are embedded on them. 
Between the tushes and the grinders there is a considerable 
space called the bar, which corresponds to the angle of 
the lips ; and it is in this interval that the bit is placed. 

Fig. i. Dentition of the Adult Horse. 
a, Incisors, b, Tushes or Canines, c, Interval called the Bar. d, Molars. 

It is also by means of the teeth that we are enabled to 
know a horse's age a knowledge which is of the highest 
utility ; for a horse increases in value in proportion as he 
approaches maturity, again decreasing in worth as he be- 
comes older. Up to nine years the age can be determined 
pretty accurately by means of the changes which take place 
in the teeth. 

The foal, at its birth, is usually devoid of teeth in the 
front of the mouth, and has only two grinders on each side 
in each jaw (Fig. 2). At the end of a few days, the two 
middle fore-teeth, QI pincers, make their appearance. In 
the course of the first month a third grinder shows itself, 
and in four months more the two next fore-teeth also 
emerge ; within six and a half or eight months the side 
incisives, or corner teeth, show, and also a fourth grinder. 
At this period the first dentition is complete. The 

8 Early History and Habits 

changes which take place up to the age of three years 
depend only on the fore-teeth being worn away more or 
less, and the black hollows being obliterated gradually 
by contact with food. In thirteen to sixteen months the 
cavities on the surface of the pincers are effaced ; they 
are then said to be razed. In sixteen to twenty months 
the intermediate fore-teeth are likewise razed, and in 
twenty to twenty-four months the same thing takes place 
with the corner teeth. 

Fig. 2. At eighteen days. Fig. 3. At three years. 

The second dentition commences at the age of two 
and a half or three years (Fig.- 3). The milk-teeth may 
be recognized by their shortness, their whiteness, and the 
construction round their base, called the neck of the tooth. 
The teeth which replace them have no neck, and are much 
larger. T\& pincers are the first to fall out and be replaced 
by new ones. At the age of from three years and a half 
to four years the intermediate fore-teeth experience the 
same change, and the lower tushes begin to make their 
appearance. The corner teeth are also renewed when be- 
tween four and a half to five years ; the upper tushes like- 
wise pierce the gums, and about the same date the sixth 
grinder shows itself. 

A depression, or small hollow, may be noticed on the 
surface of the crown of the second growth of fore-teeth, 
just as in the milk-teeth, and these hollows are gradually 
worn away in the same fashion. 

of the Horse. 9 

The/wftWJ of the lower jaw lose their cavities when the 
horse is five or six years old ; the intermediate fore-teeth 
are the next to raze. The marks in the corner teeth are 
obliterated at the age of seven or eight years. The pro- 
cess of destruction of the marks in the upper fore-teeth 
goes on in the same order, but more tardily. (Figs 4 and 

Fig. 4. Six years. Fig. 5. Nine years. 

When all these various changes have taken place, the 
horse is looked upon as aged (Fig. 7), because the teeth 
no longer furnish any certain indications as to the age of 
the animal. Only approximate inferences can now be 
drawn from the length and colour of the tusks, which be- 
come more and more bare and projecting from the gum, 

The domestication of the horse appears to date back 
to the very earliest period of his appearance on earth ; 
and as this animal adapts itself to every necessity, every 
want, and every climate, its subjection has resulted in a 
considerable number of races, distinguished by more or 
less prominent characteristics of shape, strength, temper, 
and endurance. Although generally intelligent, affection- 
ate, and endowed with considerable powers of memory, 
these qualities in the horse are essentially modified by 
education and climate. And for the full development of 
his intelligence and his high qualities, it is requisite that 
man should be his companion and his friend, as well as 

I O Present Varieties of the Horse. 

his master, but never his tyrant. Under the whip of an 
unfeeling driver, the horse becomes brutalized, and rapidly 
degenerates, morally even more than physically. 

Fig. 6. Fifteen years. Fig. 7. Thirty years. 

The attachment of the horse for those who treat it kindly 
is a well-known fact. 

The influence of memory on the horse is shown by the 
sense it retains of injuries and ill-treatment it has suffered. 
Many a horse is restive with persons who have misused it, 
while perfectly docile with others, proving a consciousness 
of good and evil, and a natural insubordination against 
tyranny and injustice. 


Arab Barb Dongola Persian Turkoman Cossack Turkish East Indian 
and Australian Belgian and Dutch Norman Spanish American Cana- 
dianEnglish thorough-bred Cart Shire Horse Clydesdale Coach 
Cavalry Galloway -Shetland. 

THE Arabian is still one of the most distinct varieties 
of this noble animal, and also one of the most prized, 
being eagerly sought for by Turks and Christians in Asia, 

Present Varieties of the Horse. I I 

Southern Russia, India, and even in Australia. In his 
native deserts he is still sometimes to be seen in a half- 
wild state, though most probably owned by some of the 
" dwellers in tents " peculiar to that region. But it is the 
more domestic breed with which we have chiefly to do, 
and which is carefully preserved in a pure state by the 
chiefs of the various tribes, though it is supposed not so 
free from stain now as was formerly the case. The head 
of the Arab is the most beautiful model in nature, giving 
the idea of courage, tempered with docility and submission 
to man, better than any other animal, and even more so 
than the dog. It is seldom, perhaps, that so beautiful a 
frame exists ; but examples are not wanting of such a 
union of elegance with perfectly good and useful points. 
The length and muscularity of the fore-arm are also re- 
markable, and the setting on of the tail is peculiarly high 
points which have generally been transmitted to our 
thorough -bred horses descended from Arabian blood. 
Many imported horses of this breed are exceedingly 
wicked and full of tricks, but in India, as a rule, he is 
quite the reverse. To the modern sportsman also he is 
valuable, because he faces the elephant and the tiger 
better than any other breed. In height he is generally 
a little under fifteen hands ; and in colour either bay, 
black, or grey. It is said that there are three distinct 
breeds of Arabians even now the Attechi, a very superior 
breed ; the Kadischi, mixed with these, and of little value ; 
and the Kochlani, highly prized, and very difficult to pro- 
cure. If this is true, it may account for the very different 
results produced by breeding from modern Arabs and 
those introduced in the eighteenth century. 

The Arab of pure blood is pre-eminent for symmetry 
and graceful action, being the main source of improve- 
ment which now marks the English Thoroughbreds. 
The head is conspicuous for its width of forehead, evenly 
hollowed face, fine muzzle, and width of jaws. The eyes 
are prominent and lustrous, yet soft and intelligent in 
expression; the ear is small, well set and active; the 
neck is gracefully arched ; the shoulder is muscular and 
proportionately oblique; the withers are thin and 

1 2 Present Varieties of the Horse. 

moderately high; and the posterior ribs are deep, but 
the girth appears somewhat light. The croup is high, 
and the tail forms a graceful arch. The hips are 
muscular but not heavy, being rounded and well set on 
to the back. The extremities are full of bone for so 
light an animal, the tendons and suspensory ligaments 
being especially well developed. The hocks and knees 
are large, well formed, and possess a remarkable range 
and freedom of action ; and the feet are small, being 
covered by sound firm horn, which enables them to 
endure more severe strain and concussion than is 
possible to the ordinary English-bred horse. The con- 
stitution is strong, and under good management life is 
greatly prolonged. 

It is said that in the early experience of horse breeders 
the direct cross between the Arab and the mare of the 
early English breeds proved too slow for racing purposes. 
This was greatly overcome by using mares, the produce 
of Spanish sires, which, being afterwards served by Barb 
or Arab stallions, produced the breed so highly valued 
at this day. 

The Barb is an African horse, of smaller size but 
coarser make than the Arabian, and evidently fed upon 
more nutritious food. As his name implies, his native land 
is Barbary; but there is always great doubt about the par- 
ticular breed to which imported horses belong, because 
they are carried considerable distances from their native 
plains, and are also even then much mixed in blood. It 
has frequently been said that the Barb is the progenitor 
of one root of our best English stock, and that the Godol- 
phin Arabian, as he was called, belonged to this blood ; 
but the disputed point cannot possibly be settled, and 
there seems only one argument in favour of the supposition, 
founded upon his enormously high crest ; while his su- 
perior size, being 15 hands high, argues just as strongly 
in favour of Arab descent. But the Spanish horse is no 
doubt descended from the Barb, this breed having been 
carried into Spain by the Moors when they overran the 
country ; and, as t'he appearance of the Spanish horse is 
totally opposed to that of the descendants of Godolphin, 

Present Varieties of the Horse. 1 3 

it is a still stronger proof of his Arabian ancestry, or, at 
all events, an argument against his claim to Barbary as a 
native clime. 

The Dongpla horse is another African variety, of a 
much larger size than either the Arab or the Barb, but 
more leggy. I am not aware that any of this breed have 
reached this country. 

The Persian is a small-sized horse, and quite as elegant 
as the Arabian, but not nearly so enduring. 

The Turkoman, again, is a larger breed, but without 
the elegance of form of the Arab and Persian. They are 
light in the barrel, and leggy, with coarse heads and ewe- 
necks ; yet they are endowed with very stout and lasting 
qualities, and they are said to travel very long distances 
-without distress. This is only another instance of the 
oft-quoted adage, " that the horse can go in all forms." 

The Cossack horses are reared at liberty, and in large 
herds, and they were long said to be, in consequence of 
this fact, of unrivalled speed and stoutness; but in the 
celebrated race run in Russia in 1825, they were easily 
beaten at all points by an English horse of second-rate 
powers, carrying also more weight. They are small and 
rough-looking, yet spirited, and capable of doing all that 
can be expected from &pony. 

The Turkish horse is supposed to be nearly pure Arab, 
with a cross of the Persian and Turkoman. He is a 
very fine, high-spirited, and elegant horse ; but, although 
the English race horse includes in his parentage several 
Turkish importations, as the Byerly, Helmsley, and Bel- 
grade Turks, it is doubtful whether these were at all similar 
to the present breeds met with at Constantinople. Indeed, 
as Turkey in Europe and Turkey in Asia are together 
spread over a large surface of the Eastern hemisphere, 
the mere name cf Turkish horse does not describe very 
closely his birth and parentage. 

The East-Indian and Australian horses are of 
various mixed breeds, some being Arabs, some Persians, 
and others Turks and Barbs ; while others again are of 
English blood, but these degenerate rapidly, and though 
serviceable in crossing with the Arabian or the Barb, yet 

1 4 Present Varieties of the Horse. 

they cannot long be maintained in their original purity 
without injury. 

The Belgian and Dutch horses are now imported 
into this country in considerable numbers, and for slow 
work are very serviceable. They are, however, most of 
them too heavy and lumbering for anything but machiners, 
and even in that department they require care not to 
over-drive them. Most of the horses for our "black work " 
are from this sort, and many also of the black cavalry 

The Norman horse, again, is a much more hardy and 
compact animal, but still slow as compared with our breeds. 
He is, however, gifted with an excellent constitution, and 
with legs and feet which will stand rattling to any extent. 
These horses are generally low and short-legged, as com- 
pared with the Belgians. 

The Spanish horse is much crossed with the Barb, 
and has the good head and neck of that breed, but coupled 
with a weak and drooping hind-quarter and a very light 
middle-piece. The shoulders and legs are, however, good ; 
and he is more useful than his look would warrant an 
Englishman in believing possible, when comparing him 
with English horses. 

The American and Canadian breeds vary a great 
deal, and are made up of the original Spanish stock crossed 
with English, Arabian, and Barb importations. Climate, 
however, has done much for them ; and they have all the 
wiriness of frame and elasticity of muscle which their 
masters possess. As trotters they are unrivalled, and in 
endurance stand very high ; but they are not remarkable 
for beauty, though not showing any peculiarly unsightly 
points. Some of our best horses have been exported to 
America, especially to Virginia, where Tranby, Priam, and 
many others have done good service. The importers to 
that country have always been careful to select sound as 
well as stout blood, and have not hesitated to invest large 
sums in order to procure it. 

The English Thorough-bred. We are indebted 
to the Stuarts for the first great improvement made in the 
breed of our horses, James I. and Charles I. having intro- 

Present Varieties of the Horse. 1 5 

duced the Arabian blood, and Charles II. laying the 
foundation of our present breeds by importing several 
mares (called Royal Mares, from their master), to which 
may be traced the celebrated horses of the latter end of 
the last century, and some of our best modern breeds. 
Numerous Eastern horses were also imported at various 

The Origin of the Thoroughbred Horse, accord- 
ing to Stonehenge, is as follows : i. Native mares bred 
from Spanish strains, probably descended from Morocco 
Barbs. 2. Markham's Arabian. 3. Place's White Turk, 
an ancestor of Matchem. 4. Three Turks imported 
about 1684; and 5. The Royal Mares of Charles the 

By reference to the early pedigrees we are informed 
that other horses and mares were introduced, viz. : 
Alcpck's Barb, Morocco Barb, D'Arcy's Yellow Turk, 
White D'Arcy Turk, Leeds Arab, Brownlow Arab, 
Harper's Arab, Pullen's Chesnut Arab, Honeywood's 
White Arab, Old Bald Peg Arab, and the Arab sire of 
Makeless, amongst which the D'Arcy Turks were 

The greatest results of the use of Arab and Turkish 
blood appears to have been evident during the years 
1748 to 1764, when the following celebrated horses were 
foaled, viz. : Matchem, 1748; King Herod, 1758; and 
Eclipse, 1764. In their wake followed Melbourne, 
Touchstone, Bay Middleton, and others, all of which, as 
shown by the pedigrees, possess the strain of both Arab 
and Turkish blood through the line of sire and dam in 
each instance. 

The Thoroughbred horse is intended for racing 
only. The height of the race-horse varies from 15 hands 
to i6j hands, or even 17 hands ; but the general height 
of our best horses is about 1 5 hands 3 inches. Few first- 
class performers have exceeded the height of Surplice, 
who was 1 6 hands i inch, as were also Wild Dayrell and 
Stockwell. Sir Tatton Sykes was 15 J hands; and be- 
tween his height and that of Surplice may be ranged every 
great winner for the last ten or twelve years. This average, 

1 6 Present Varieties of the Horse. 

therefore, may fairly be laid down as the best height for 
the race horse, though it cannot be denied that for some 
small and confined courses as, for instance, that of Ches- 
ter a smaller horse of little more than 1 5 hands height 
has a better chance, as being more capable of turning round 
the constantly recurring angles or bends. 

The head and neck should be characterized by lightness \ 
which is essential to this department. Whatever is un- 
necesssary is so much dead weight, and we know the 
effect of 7 Ib. in impeding the horse over a distance of 
ground. Now 7 Ib. are easily bestowed upon a neck which 
may differ in at least 20 or 30 Ib. between the two extremes 
of lightness and excessive weight. Thus, it may be con- 
sidered as indubitable that whatever is met with in the 
head and neck, which is not necessary for the peculiar pur- 
poses of the race horse, is so much weight thrown away, 
and yet it must be carried by the horse. Such is the general 
character of this part ; but, in detail, the head should be 
lean about the jaw, yet with a full development of forehead, 
which should be convex and wide, so as to contain within 
the skull a good volume of brain. Supposing this fulness 
to exist, all the rest of the head may be as fine as possible; 
the jaws being reduced to a fine muzzle, with a slight hol- 
lowing out in front, but with a width between the two % sides 
of the lower jaw where it joins the neck, so as to allow 
plenty of room for the top of the windpipe when the neck 
is bent. The ears should be pricked and fine, but not too 
short ; eyes full and spirited ; nostrils large, and capable 
of being well dilated when at full speed, which is easily 
tested by the gallop, after which they ought to stand out 
firmly, and so as to show the internal lining fully. The 
neck should be muscular and yet light ; the windpipe loose 
and separate from the neck that is, not too tightly bound 
down by \hQfascia, or membrane of the neck. The crest 
should be thin and wiry, not thick and loaded, as is often 
seen in coarse stallions, or even in some mares. Between 
the two extremes of the ewe-neck and its opposite there 
are many degrees, but for racing purposes I should prefer, 
of the two, the former to the latter ; for few horses can go 
well with their necks bent so as to draw the chin to the 

Present Varieties of the Horse. 17 

bosom; but here, as in most other cases, the happy me- 
dium is to be desired. 

The body, or middle-piece, should be moderately long, 
and not too much confined between the last rib and the 
hip-bone. So long as the last or back-ribs are deep, it is 
not of so much importance that they should be closely 
connected to the hip-bone, for such a shape shortens the 
stride ; and though it enables the horse to carry great 
weight, yet it prevents him from attaining a high rate of 
speed. The back itself should be muscular, and the hips 
so wide as to allow of a good development of the muscular 
department. The withers may rise gently, but not too 
high, with that thin razor-like elevation which many people 
call a good shoulder, but which really has nothing to do 
with that part, and is only an annoyance to the saddler, 
who has to prevent its being pinched by the saddle. The 
chest itself should be well developed, but not too wide and 
deep : no horse can go a distance without a fair " bellows- 
room ; '' but, supposing the heart to be sound and of good 
quality, the amDunt of lung will suffice which may be con 
tained in a medium-sized chest, and all above that is 
wasted, and is extra, weight. Many of our best winded 
horses have had medium-sized chests ; and some of the 
very worst have been furnished with room enough for a 
pair of blacksmith's bellows to play in. If the heart only 
does its duty well, the lungs can always furnish sufficient 
air ; and we know that when frequently renewed, and with 
sufficient power, the blood is aerated as fast as it is pro- 
pelled, and the chief difficulty lies in this power of propul- 
sion, which resides in the heart alone. If the chest be too 
wide, it materially affects the action of the fore-legs, and 
therefore, in every point of view, theoretically and practi- 
cally, there is a happy medium between the too great 
contraction in this department, and the heavy, wide lum- 
bering chests sometimes seen even in the thorough-bred 
race horse, especially when reared upon rich succulent 
herbage, more fitted for the bullock than the Eastern 
horse. In the formation of the hips, the essential point 
is length and breadth of bone for muscular attachment, 
and it matters little whether the croup droops a little, or 


1 8 Present Varieties of the Horse. 

is pretty straight and level, so that there is a good length 
from the hip to the haunch-bone ; the line between which 
two points may either be nearly horizontal, or forming a 
considerable angle with the ground ; but still in both cases 
it should be a long line, and the longer it is the more mus- 
cular substance is attached to it, and the greater leverage 
will the muscles have. 

The fore-quarter, consisting of the shoulder, upper and 
lower arm, and leg and foot, should be well set on to the 
chest ; and the shoulder-blade should lie obliquely on the 
side of that part, with a full development of muscle to move 
it, and thrust it well forward in the gallop. Obliquity is 
of the greatest importance, acting as a spring in taking off 
the shock of the gallop or leap, and also giving a longer 
attachment to the muscles, and in addition enabling them 
to act with more leverage upon the arm and leg. It will be 
seen, by a reference to the skeleton, that the shoulder-blade 
does not reach the top of the withers, and that those bones 
forming that part have nothing to do with the shoulder 
itself; hence, many high-withered horses have bad and 
weak shoulders, and some very upright ones ; whilst, on 
the other hand, many low-withered horses have very 
oblique and powerful shoulders, and such as to give great 
facility and pliability to the fore extremity. The shoulder 
should be very muscular, without being overdone or 
loaded, and so formed as to play freely in the action of 
the horse. The point of the shoulder, which is the joint 
corresponding to the human shoulder, should be free from 
raggedness, but not too flat ; a certain degree of develop- 
ment of the bony parts is desirable, but more than this 
leads to a defect, and impedes the action of this important 
part. The upper arm, between this joint and the elbow, 
should be long, and well clothed with muscles : the elbow 
set on quite straight, and not tied to the chest ; the lower 
arm muscular and long; knees broad and strong, with 
the bony projection behind well developed ; legs flat, and 
showing the suspensory ligament large and free ; pasterns 
long enough without being weak ; and the feet sound, and 
neither too large nor too small, and unattended with any 

Present Varieties of the Horse. ig 

degree of contraction, which is the bane of the thorough- 
bred horse. 

The hind-quarter is the chief agent in propulsion, and 
is therefore of the utmost consequence in attaining high 
speed. It is often asserted that the oblique shoulder is 
the grand requisite in this object, and that it is the part 
upon which speed mainly depends, and in which it may 
be said to reside. This is to some extent true, because 
there can be no doubt that with a loaded shoulder high 
speed is impracticable ; for however powerfully the body 
may be propelled, yet when the fore-quarter touches the 
ground, it does not bound off again as smartly as it ought 
to do, and the pace is consequently slow. For the full 
action of the hind-quarter two things are necessary, viz. : 
first, length and volume of muscle ; and secondly, length 
of leverage upon which that muscle may act. Hence, all 
the bones comprising the hind-quarter should be long, 
but the comparative length must vary a good deal, in 
order that the parts upon which the muscles lie may be 
long, rather than those connected with the tendons, which 
are mere ropes, and have no propelling power residing in 
them, but only transmit that which they derive from the 
muscles themselves. Thus, the hips should be long and 
wide, and the two upper divisions of the limb viz., the 
stifle and lower thigh should be long, strong, and fully 
developed. By this formation the stifle-joint is brought 
well forward, and there is a considerable angle between 
these two divisions. The hock should be bony and strong, 
free from gum or spavin, and the point long, and so set on 
as to be free from weakness at the situation of curb. In 
examining the hind-quarter to judge of its muscular de- 
velopment, the horse should not be looked at sideways, 
but his tail should be raised, and it should be ascertained 
that the muscles of the two limbs meet together below the 
anus, which should be in fact well supported by them, and 
not left loose, and, as it were, in a deep and flaccid hollow. 
The outline of the outer part of the thigh should be full, 
and in ordinary horses the muscle should swell out beyond 
the level of the point of the hip. This fulness, however, 
is not often seen to this extent in the thorough-bred horse 

2O Present Varieties of the Horse. 

until he has arrived at mature age, and is taken out of 
training. The bones below the hock should be flat and 
free from adhesions; the ligaments and tendons fully 
developed, and standing out free from the bone ; and the 
joints well formed and wide, yet without any diseased 
enlargement; the pasterns should be moderately long 
and oblique ; the bones of good size ; and lastly, the feet 
should correspond with those already alluded to in the 
anterior extremity. 

The totality of these points should be in proportion to 
one another that is to say, the formation of the horse 
should be " true." He should not have long well deve- 
loped hind-quarters, with an upright, weak, or confined 
fore-quarter. Nor will the converse serve ; for however 
well formed the shoulder may be, the horse will not go 
well unless he has a similar formation in the propellers. 
It is of great importance, therefore, that the race horse 
should have all his various points in true relative develop- 
ment, and that there shall not be the hind-quarter of a 
long racing-like horse with the thick confined shoulder 
which would suit a stride less reaching in its nature. 


The colour of the thorough-bred horse is now generally 
bay, brown, or chestnut, one or other of which will occur 
in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred. Grey is not com- 
mon, but sometimes appears, as in the recent case of 
Chanticleer and some of his stock. Black also occasion- 
ally makes its appearance, but not more frequently than 
grey. Roans, duns, sorrels, &c., are now quite exploded, 
and the above five colours may be said to complete the 
list of colours seen on the race-course. Sometimes these 
colours are mixed with a good deal of white, in the shape 
of blazes on the face, or white legs and feet ; or even both 
may occur, and the horse may have little more than his 
body of a brown, bay, or chestnut. Most people, however, 
prefer the self colour, with as little white as possible ; and 
nothing but the great success of a horse's stock would 
induce breeders to resort to him if they were largely 
endowed with white. Grey hairs mixed in the coat, as in 

Present Varieties of the Horse. 2 1 

the Venisons, are rather approved of than otherwise ; but 
they do not amount to a roan, in which the grey hairs 
equal, or even more than that, the other colour mixed 
with them. 

The texture of the coat and skin is a great proof of high 
breeding, and in the absence of the pedigree would be 
highly regarded \ but when that is satisfactory it is of no 
use descending to the examination of an inferior proof; 
and therefore, except as a sign of health, the skin is sel- 
dom considered. In all thorough-bred horses, however, 
it is thinner, and the hair more silky than in common 
breeds ; and the veins are more apparent under the skin, 
partly from its thinness, but also from their extra size and 
number of branches. This network of veins is of import- 
ance in allowing the circulation to be carried on during 
high exertions, when, if the blood could not accumulate 
in them, it would often choke the deep vessels of the 
heart and lungs ; but by collecting on the surface, great 
relief is afforded, and the horse is able to maintain such a 
high and long-continued speed as would be impracticable 
without their help. Hence, these points are not useful as 
a mere mark of breed, but as essential to the very purpose 
for which that breed was established. 

The mane and tail should be silky and not curly, though 
a slight wave is often seen. A decided curl is almost uni- 
versally a mark of degradation, and shows a stain in the 
pedigree as clearly as any sign can do. Here, however, 
as in other cases, the clear tracing of that all-powerful 
proof of breeding will upset all reasoning founded upon 
inferior data. The setting on of the tail is often regarded 
as of great importance, but it is chiefly with reference to 
appearances ; for the horse is not dependent for action or 
power upon this appendage. Nor is strength of dock of 
any value as a sign, and I have known many very stout 
horses with flaccid and loosely pendent tails. 

The various breeds of Cart horses are exceeding nu- 
merous. Most of our larger and heavier breeds of these 
animals are crossed with the Flemish horses, and are 
thereby rendered heavier and more capable of moving 
heavy weights, which their bulk and readiness to try a 

22 Present Varieties of the Horse. 

" dead pull " render them well adapted for. These enor- 
mous animals are often of more than 17^ hands in height. 
The Clydesdale, the Cleveland, the Midland Black horse, 
and the Suffolk Punch are the four most highly prized varie- 
ties of this breed, and have now almost completely shoul- 
dered out the old English black cart horse, with his coarse 
head and mean, ungainly appearance. It has been tried, 
again and again, to cross these four breeds with the Eastern 
horse, but though in the first cross it has sometimes suc- 
ceeded from the superior purity of the thorough-bred horse, 
yet in future crosses the cart blood would show itself; 
and there has always been a want of endurance, and a 
tendency to throw out bony matter about the legs in the 
shaoe of soavins, ring-bones, and splints. 

The Shire Horse. The history of this animal 
has been set forth in a most interesting book by Mr. 
(now Sir) Walter Gilbey. The writer justly pronounces 
him to be of " the most ancient breed in England . . . 
whose gigantic proportions and magnificent symmetry 
are at once the surprise and admiration of all be- 
holders ; " * and his investigations lead to the conclusion 
that the Shire Horse is the direct descendant in 
the purest line, from what is described by ancient 
writers as the Great Horse, probably originating in this 
country, and further known as the War Horse, or the 
old English Black Horse. Under these appellations he 
has been variously known for centuries, and in the 
statutes of Henry VIII. he appears to have acquired the 
more homely title of the Shire Horse, his sphere of 
distribution being especially in the rich fen lands 
of Lincoln, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Northampton, 
Leicester, Stafford, and thence westward to the Severn. 
In later days removal has determined his birth and 
existence in counties north and south of the above-named 
limits, without serious variation of his typical character, 
except such as is determined by climate, soil, and food ; 
and each decade has witnessed a greater concentration 
of interest in breeding and distribution. 

* "The Old English War Horse," &c., by Walter Gilbey. 
London : Vinton & Co, 1888. 

Present Varieties of the Horse. 2 3 

The old English Black is principally bred in Leicester, 
Northampton, and Lincoln, neighbouring counties con- 
tributing also, but the most powerful and largest 
animals, sought after by London brewers, builders, &c., 
are the produce of the Lincolnshire fens, where they 
have been preserved almost as a distinct race, a lighter 
variety of which has been in requisition for mounting 
our heavy cavalry. 

The distinctive marks of the race, which consist of 
the black colour, the blaze on the face, and more or less 
of white upon the legs, are generally preserved ; but 
through the numerous crosses, typical animals are to be 
found of almost all colours. In comparison with their 
size the head is small, the neck short and heavy, 
shoulders thick and powerful, body round and deep, and 
the back with the loins short and broad, massive quarters, 
the forearms and thighs enormously strong, the legs 
short and flat, and the hoofs large and round, having 
well-developed frogs, with moderate arching of the sole. 
With such a conformation these animals, are naturally 
slow, but this is not a disqualification. They possess 
enormous power, and are gifted with a perseverance that 
enables them to perform wonders in strength not attain- 
able by animals of other breeds, and apparently as well 
gifted. Many are perfect models of symmetry and 
power, and an additional high quality is the docility, 
which under the training of a man devoted to his horse, 
develops an intelligence rarely exceeded in other breeds, 
The Clydesdales are a noble race of animals, deriving 
their name from the vale of the Clyde, where they are 
mostly reared. They are sturdy workers in heavy 
draught, possess a strong constitution, particularly 
adapted to the nortbern climate, and are remarkable 
for general substance, capacious chest and abdomen, 
muscular limbs, back and loins, broad face, intelligent 
eye and kindly temperament. When to these are 
superadded the qualities of the Shire Horse, as seen in 
the Clydesdales of Seaham Harbour, bred by the 
Marquess of Londonderry, the results are almost all 
that can be desired. 

24 Present Varieties of the Horse. 

Coach horses are either ponies, gig horses, Brougham 
horses, or coach horses ; being gradually larger and hea- 
vier from one end to the other of the line, which begins at 
the size of a small pony and extends up to the carriage 
horse of 17 hands. Ponies are met with all over England, 
Ireland, and Scotland, and are of various breeds, some of 
which are of wonderful powers of endurance, with good 
symmetry and action, and with never-failing legs and feet. 
In general soundness they far excel the larger varieties 
of the horse, for which there is no accounting, as they are 
much more neglected and frequently very ill-used. A 
broken-winded pony, or a roarer, is a very uncommon sight, 
and even a lame one is by no means an every-day occur- 
rence. There is every reason to believe that the Arab 
blood has been largely diffused among the ponies of our 
heaths and forests ; and their neat heads and great powers 
of endurance, together with the small size of their bones, 
would warrant the assumption. Among the Welsh ponies 
there is a strong cross of the Norman horse, and they have 
many of them the dark mark down the back which is pecu- 
liar to that breed, together with the hardiness of constitu- 
tion inherent in it. Gigsters of all kinds are the refuse of 
the hunting stock or of the racing stud, those which are 
too clumsy and slow for those purposes being put to har- 
ness. Some are good trotters and yet bad gallopers, and 
they are consequently as well fitted for harness work as 
they are unsuited for hunting. A great number of gigsters 
are also under-sized carriage horses, which latter are the 
produce of Cleveland or Clydesdale mares by well-bred 01 
even thorough-bred horses. Until lately the Cleveland 
mare was almost the sole origin, on the dam's side, of our 
best carriage horses ; but latterly the Clydesdale mare has 
been very extensively used, and with much better success ; 
inasmuch as the produce are much more hardy, and though, 
perhaps, not quite so level, yet more blood-like, and their 
legs and feet much more firm and enduring. 

The Cavalry horse may be considered under three 
several heads : first, the charger, or officer's horse; secondly, 
the heavy trooper ; and thirdly, the light trooper. The 
CHARGER is almost always thorough-bred, or very nearly 

Present Varieties of the Horse. 2 5 

so, and is a horse bred for racing, but too slow for that 
purpose, yet with a fine form and good action, which are 
required for the manege. He must have good shoulders, 
so as to be able to use his fore-legs ; and his hind quar- 
ters should be so formed as to give complete command of 
the whole weight which he carries ; in other words, he 
must be well upon his haunches. Most chargers are at 
least 1 6 hands high, and some still higher.. The HEAVY 
TROOP HORSE is a discarded hunter, that is, a horse bred 
for that purpose, but considered too heavy to gallop the 
pace which is wanted. He is therefore sold at troop-horse 
price, which in time of peace was ^24, now somewhat 
raised. The household troops are mounted on black 
horses, some of which are bred expressly for the regiments 
by Yorkshire breeders, and others imported from Belgium. 
The LIGHT TROOP HORSES are obtained from all sources, 
and many of them now, as might be expected from the 
price, are very wooden and inferior animals. The surn 
devoted to the purpose will not procure a good service- 
able animal, coupled with tolerably good looks ; and as 
this latter quality is sought for by colonels of regiments, 
utility is too often sacrificed to it. Very few of these 
horses are up to more than 14 St., and yet they have to 
carry 18 St., so that it is no wonder that in actual service 
they break down. 

The Galloway is a breed which is much encouraged 
by the Welsh farmers, and in other districts where the grass 
is of a poor quality, and will not suit larger and less hardy 
horses. It is serviceable for all general purposes, but sel- 
dom very fast on the gallop. These animals are said to 
be descended from Norman blood, a stallion of that breed 
having been much used among them in Wales some years 
ago. They are hardy and safe, but somewhat obstinate 
and unruly. The north-country galloways are scarcely so 
good in their shoulders, but they have more speed in the 
gallop, and make better covert hacks in consequence. 

The Shetland Pony is the least of the species in this 
country, and often under 1 1 hands. These ponies are very 
quick and active, and will walk, canter, and gallop, with 
good action, but seldom trot well. 

Ground Plan of a Stable. A, Drains. 


The Stable Aspect Drainage Sewers Rain-water drains Buildings Ma- 
terialsPlans Ventilation Paving Partitions Mangers Harness-room 
Hay-loft and corn-chamber Stable utensils Clothing. 

OF all animals destined for the use of man the horse is 
the most useful and profitable, as he is the most noble, 
generous, and patient conducing most to our profit, plea- 
sure, and sport, notwithstanding the abuse, ill-treatment, 
and over-work to which he is subjected by the thoughtless, 
the ignorant, and cruel. Thanks to the Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and the highly advanced 
state of civilization in this country, much is daily being 
done to better and improve the condition of the horse and 
of all other animals : still, very much remains to be done. 
It is, therefore, both the duty and interest of every man 
possessing a horse to see that he is properly stabled, care- 

The Stable- Yard and its Occiipants. 27 

fully groomed, fed, and shod ; and that he purchases one 
suitable and fitted for the work required of him. 

Stable. Every one will prefer to have the stables near 
his house, if not on his own premises ; in either case, if 
they are already built, he must do the best he can with 
them. Old buildings are for the most part very defective, 
badly drained, and badly ventilated. This must at once 
be remedied, and may generally be done at a moderate 
expense, which will be amply repaid by the improved 
health and comfort of the horses. New stables are better, 
but they also frequently require alteration. 

28 The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 

For the 'guidance and assistance of those proposing to 
build their own stables, subjoined are some plain, useful 
remarks on the building, draining, and ventilating, and also 
some plans for the arrangement of the stalls and boxes, 
and designs for stable fittings, selected from the catalogue 
of the St. Pancras Ironworks Company, where fittings and 
articles of stable furniture will be found, both for quality 
and moderate charges, equal to any in London. These 
plans can be varied and enlarged according to circum- 

ASPECT. When about to build a stable, the first con- 
sideration will naturally be the selection of a site. We 
need not insist on the advantages of a southerly aspect : 
they are almost self-evident. The stables will be much 
more cheerful, and much warmer, and enable the groom 
to avail himself of every gleam of sunshine to open the 
windows and thoroughly ventilate the interior. 

Unfortunately it is not always possible, from the disposi- 
tion of the ground and premises, to manage this. How- 
ever, let it be borne in mind that such is the best, the 
west the next best, and the north-east the very worst. 

It should not be forgotten, also, that a thorough drain- 
age is one of the most important points, and every natural 
"slope of the land should be taken advantage of in this 

DRAINAGE. Having settled the site and the plans of 
the stables, to which we will refer further on, the first works 
to be provided for will be the drainage, for these will have 
to be carried out simultaneously with the foundations. The 
drains will be of two sorts, which should be kept as far 
away from one another as it is possible to manage : first, 
those connected with the drainage of the interior of the 
stables ; second, those intended to carry away the surface 
water and collect the rain-water from the roofs, &c. 

SEWERS. There are four conditions which are to be 
regarded as indispensable in the construction of all drains 
from all buildings whatsoever. These conditions are : 
Firstly, that the entire length of drain is to be constructed 
and maintained with sufficient declivity towards the dis- 
charge into the cesspool, to enable the average proportion 

The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 29 

and quantity of liquid and solid matters committed to it to 
maintain a constant and uninterrupted motion, so that stag- 
nation shall never occur. Secondly, that the entire length 
of the drain is to be constructed and maintained in a 
condition of complete impermeability, so that no portion of 
the matters put into it shall accidentally escape from it. 
Thirdly, that the head of the drain shall be so efficiently 
trapped that no gaseous or volatile properties or products 
can possibly arise from its contents. And, fourthly, that 
the low extremity of the drain or point of communication 
with the cesspool shall be so completely and durably 
formed, that no interruption to the flow of the drainage or 
escape shall there take place, and that no facility shall be 
offered for the upward progress of the sewage in case of 
the cesspool becoming surcharged. 

For most purposes a fall of 2| inches in 10 feet will be 
sufficient, and the drain should be of 3-inch glazed stone- 
ware pipes (4 inches for w.c.), with carefully-made socket- 
joints laid in the direction of the current, and cemented. 
For the head of the drain we would recommend the bell- 
trapped horse-pots, which are to be had at all stable fur- 
nishing ironmongers, taking care that they are sufficiently 
large and of good strong quality. 

The cesspool for sewage should be well away from the 
tank provided for the reception of the rain-water, and well 

30 The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 


Plan No. i. 

puddled with clay on the outside and cemented inside. 
Precaution should also be further taken that all sewage 
drains should be laid below the rain-water drains, so that 

The Stable- Yard arid its Occupants^ 3! 

in case of any accidental defects, no matter will, by any 
possibility, taint the water supply. (See Plan No. i.) 

RAIN-WATER DRAINS. These will subdivide them- 
selves into two : those laid to collect the drainage of yard, 
&c., and which may be common pipes laid dry, and leading 
to an ordinary cesspool made of bricks laid without mortar, 
where the water will collect and gradually lose itself; the 
others connected with the down pipes from roofs, and 
leading to a rain-water tank. These should be laid with 
the same care as the sewer drains : the tank constructed 
in the same way, with an overflow pipe to lead to cesspool 
just mentioned. 

BUILDINGS. Having determined upon the site for the 
stables, the next point to study will be the general arrange- 
ment of the plan, and the materials for construction. 

MATERIALS. As to the materials, economy will dictate 
that preference should be given to those supplied by the 
immediate neighbourhood ; and we should advise that, 
where a professional architect is not employed, the builder 
be required to make a drawing and a specification of the 
works which he will perform for the named price. Also, 
that all the requirements should as much as possible be 
foreseen, so that afterwards no alterations be made in the 
building, as otherwise it will be impossible to determine 
the limit of the cost. Should the estimated price come to 
a higher sum than was anticipated, we should not recom- 
mend to attempt to get the builder to take something off 
the amount, as he will only do so by scamping the work ; 
but, premising that he is a respectable and well-recom- 
mended man, we should advise that the extent of the 
building be reduced in preference to the quality of the 
work. Cheap work and cheap materials are always the 
dearest in the end. 

PLANS. The plan of the building will vary very much 
according to the aspect, disposition of land and other 
premises, and other local circumstances. These should 
be very carefully studied, and the plans well matured, as 
the success of the building will greatly depend on the dis- 
position of its various parts. We will lay down as one of 
the first principles, that no stall should be less than 6 ft. 

32 The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 


Plan No. 2. 

\ YARD. / 
\ / 


! / 


wide by 10 ft. long, no loose box less than 10 ft. square, 
and no stable less than 10 ft. high from floor to ceiling. 
Passage in rear of stalls 5 ft. wide. 

Such arrangement as will put all the horses' heads, the 
same way, with the light and ventilation behind them, will 
be the most preferable, as enabling the doors and windows 
to be opened without placing the horses in a draught. 
(See Plan No. 2.) 

The doors should be wide and high, and hung in two 
heights, with fanlight over (4 ft. by 7 ft. at least), that 
the horses may go in and out freely without a chance 

. z 


h- oa 



2 X 

The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 33 

of knocking themselves about. One often sees a horse 
hesitating before entering a stable ; and when, after a little 



coaxing, he is persuaded to come on, he will do so with a 
rush. Such a horse has, no doubt, at some time or other, 
hurt himself when passing through a door either too nar- 
row or too low. 

The light should be full, as tending greatly to the 
cheerfulness of the interior. It is also well known that 
horses suffer in health when deprived of light, Nature's 
purifier. Dark stables favour the accumulation of dirt, 
which by constant putrefactive process gives off dele- 
terious gases. The sashes, also, should be hung on 
centres in their height, as the most advantageous method 
for ventilation. 


34 The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 

VENTILATION. To complete the ventilation, the only 
further requirements will be an opening in the ceiling 
not immediately over the horses, but in the rear over the 
passage, fitted with an ornamental ventilating grating, to 


be shut and open at will, leading to an air-flue laid between 
the joists, and conducting the foul air from the stables to 
the outside through #n ornamental perforated air brick or 
iron grating. A similar ventilating grating, to regulate the 
admission of fresh air, will only be necessary where the 
doors and windows are small, and fit very accurately. 

PAVING. The materials for paving should be of the 
hardest quality, on good sound ballast or concrete foun- 
dation. Any absorbent materials must be rejected first, 
because they will not be of sufficient durability; and, 
secondly, because, from their nature, they will retain 'part 
of the manure, and the stables will never be sweet. The 
paving of boxes and stalls should be laid with a regular 
gentle slope to the drain, which should always be in the 
centre. Irrespective of other advantages, the horses stand 
on the level, and take their rest more comfortably. 

An occasional sprinkling of gypsum (sulphate of lime), 
when cleaning the stables, will be found to act as a great 
purifier. Its great affinity for ammonia causes it to absorb 
a great quantity of the gases generated in the stables, 
which will thereby lose all their offensive smell ; and none 
of the ammonia will be lost, but will be retained in a con- 
dition serviceable as manure. 

PARTITIONS. The partition for stalls will be match- 
lined both sides, and about 4 ft. 2 in. in rear, with a ramp, 
and rising to 6 ft. 2 in. towards the mangers; with iron 
pillar at the end next passage, with rings for pillar reins. 
Sometimes, also, the match-lining will be carried through 

The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 35 

in a level line, and by a cast iron the ramp formed orna- 
mental panel. 

For loose boxes the boarding will be from 5 ft, to about 

36 The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 

5 ft. 4 in. high at most, with a 2-ft. ornamental iron panel- 
ling over. 

MANGERS. The best mangers are those containing hay- 
rack, corn-manger, and water-trough in one, as per sketch; 
and we more specially recommend that preference should 
be given to galvanized iron. 

The wall over the manger should be match-boarded to 
the height of partitions, and lined with iron hoop bands, 
sheet zinc over the joints of match-lining, or enamelled 
tiles, to prevent horses biting at it when being cleaned. 

The manger will have two rings for halter reins, and a 
ring and galvanized chain fitted in wall over same. 

The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 37 

38 The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 

HARNESS-ROOM. This should be at least 10 ft. square, 
and have in it a fireplace fitted with range with boiler 
attached. A handy supply of hot water will be found 
most advantageous in the management of the stables, and 
we need not point out the necessity of a fire for drying the 
rugs, horse-cloths, saddles, harness, &c., in winter-time. 

This room should be fitted with convenient hooks and 
brackets for the hanging and cleaning of harness. These 
are of all sorts of designs, in which individual taste will 
be the best guide. 

HAY-LOFT AND CORN-CHAMBER. In most stables, in 
addition to the coachman's rooms, there is a corn-chamber 
and hay-loft over the stable. The former is generally 
boarded off, lined all round with sheets of zinc or tin to 
keep out the vermin, and the door is provided with a 
lock, of which the coachman keeps the key, and gives out 
at stated times the corn for so many horses for so many 
days. By this means he keeps a check upon the con- 
sumption, and prevents waste and pilfering ; both of which 
are more likely to occur when the supply is unlimited and 
easy of access. When there is not a regular corn-chamber, 
one must either be made or a large bin provided, and the 
oats bought from the corn-chandler as required, in quan- 
tities of two or three quarters at a time, as many as the 
bin will contain, which will be found a more expensive 
proceeding. Hay, from being bulky, is almost invariably 
stowed away in the loft, which should hold at least half 
a load ; it must be stored away carefully, and nothing 
allowed to run about or play on it. Hay will keep good 
and sweet for some time, if in a dry place and not meddled 
with. If the loft be large enough, it will be found better 
and cheaper to buy a load at a time ; if not, or the loft be 
damp, a smaller quantity must suffice. 

STABLE UTENSILS. Under this head is included all 
that is used in dressing the horse, and in cleansing the 
yard and stable. 

The pitchfork is used to shake up the straw, of which 
the horses' bed is made ; to remove all that becomes 
soiled and dirty ; and, in general, to set it fair and straight. 

The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 39 

The handle should be kept clean, and the prongs bright. 
Price 2S. 

The shovel removes the smaller particles, and the scrap- 
ings of the stable-yard. Price 2 s. 6d. 

The besom, or broom, is used to sweep out the stable 
after the damp soiled litter has been removed, and to keep 
the yard neat and clean. Those made of birch are the 
best, and are bought at about 9^. a dozen, according to 
the quality and locality. 

A manure basket to take up the droppings. This should 
be done before trodden about, to keep the straw clean, 
and the stable sweet. Price 2s. 

The stable pail should be made of strong oak, bound 
with iron, and neatly painted. Cost, from 5^. to 6s. each. 

A sieve, to cleanse the oats and chaff of all dust and 
small stones. Price 2s. 6d. 

A quartern and a half-quartern measure, to measure out 
the oats, beans, chaff, &c., for each horse's feed. About 
is. 6d. each. 

The currycomb. Horses of the present day are so much 
better bred than formerly, consequently their coats and 
skin are so much finer, there is now much less use for the 
currycomb, except to remove the dust from the body- 
brush. On very rough-coated horses it may occasionally 
be used, but no other should ever be touched with it. In 
summer it is absolutely unnecessary, and in these days of 
clipping and singeing, in the winter it is almost equally so. 
It must always be used lightly, or it will severely punish 
the horse, and on no account should the teeth be sharp, 
or more than \ in. in length. Price is. 6d. 

The body-brush, or horse-brush as it is sometimes called, 
is, in the hands of a good groom, the most useful imple- 
ment used in dressing the horse, as it thoroughly removes 
all dust and dirt, stimulates the skin, and imparts a gloss 
to the coat. Cost, about 5^. 

The water-brush is to wash all dirt and mud from the 
feet and legs of the horse, and stains from his quarters, 
&c. Price 4J. 

The mane-comb, as the name implies, is to comb the 
mane and tail. It should be made of horn, have large 

40 The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 

teeth, and be used carefully and only occasionally, as in a 
general way a good brushing will answer the purpose with- 
out pulling out the hair. Cost, is. 

The picker is a blunt iron hook for removing the grit 
and stones from the horse's feet. Some SL: made to fold 
up for the pocket. A good careful groom will always 
carry one of these. Price is. 6d. 

A sponge, too, is always necessary to dry the legs, &c., 
after washing, and for other purposes of cleanliness. Price 
varies according to place and quality. 

Leathers and rubbers are also indispensable for drying 
the horse after work, and wiping him over after dressing. 

An oil-brush, and tin to hold the oil, to rub round the 
hoofs before leaving the stable to go to work. 

A singeing apparatus and trimming scissors are neces- 
sary. That suitable for using gas costs about 35^., for 
burning paraffin, about ios., scissors $s. 

To avoid loss and confusion, there should be a place 
for everything, and everything in its place, and all the 
utensils should be kept bright and clean. 

CLOTHING, &c. Every horse standing in a stable must 
have a head-collar, with two reins long enough to go 
through the two rings fastened to the manger, and to reach 
the ground after being each attached to a weight or block 
made of hard wood or iron, heavy enough to keep the 
reins from twisting or curling up, but not so heavy as to 
be a weight or strain upon the horse's head as he moves 
it. When in a box, too, a head-collar is always handy on 
the quietest horse ; on a tricky or unruly animal, it is ab- 
solutely necessary, as he can then be at any time easily 
secured without risk or trouble. 

Halters Two good web-headed hempen halters are 
also requisite in every stable, to lead the horse about 
without having to use the head-collar. 

Clothing. There is a great variety of clothing, from the 
comparatively inexpensive to the most expensive in make 
and finish. These consist of blankets or rugs of different 
degrees of warmth and thickness according to the time of 
year, a roller, a suit of body clothing, and a set of flannel 
bandages. The best material will be the cheapest in 

The Stable- Yard and its Occupants. 41 

the end, as wearing so much longer than the cheaper 

The blanket or rug should be cut back at the top of the 
shoulder, with a projecting piece on each side coming 
round and meeting in the centre of the chest, where they 
fasten with a buckle and strap. Each rug, too, should be 
bound with some strong material to prevent the edges tear- 
ing out. Two rugs will be found necessary for each horse. 

A suit of body clothing may be made of various mate- 
rials, but strong warm serge is best for winter, and a lighter 
kind for summer wear. It consists of a quarter-piece, hood 
and breast-piece, with roller to match. The roller must be 
well padded, to prevent bruising or injury to the back from 

In winter, in a warm stable, a heavy rug and the body 
clothing will be found sufficient during the day, but at 
night the latter should be removed to keep it clean, and 
another rug substituted. 

7he flannel bandages are put on after the horse has had 
his legs washed, to keep them dry and warm. They are 
also of great service in illness, to keep up the circulation 
and warmth in the extremities. In hunting stables, where 
the horses must be occasionally sweated, it will be neces- 
sary to have two or three spare rugs and hoods in use for 
that purpose, and which should be carefully washed and 
dried. The price of clothing varies so much according to 
the quality and finish, it is difficult to name any, but a re- 
spectable saddler will at any time give an estimate for the 
kind required. 

A variety of information on stable routine, &c., will be 
found in "The Horse-Owner and Stableman's Com- 
panion." London and New York : Frederick Warne 
and Co. Price is. 

42 How to Purchase a Horse, 


Hack or Riding Horse The Ladies' Horse The Hunter Carriage Horse- 
Horses for light harness Horses for heavy harness Cobs and Ponies- 
Defects, diseases, and faults to be avoided in all Horses. 

To THE inexperienced the purchase of a horse is a matter 
of some little difficulty and risk, and the object of this book 
is to throw out some few hints to enable the intending pur- 
chaser to ascertain first what sort of a horse he requires 
(not always an easy task), then the best and safest way to 
buy him, and the best and most economical way to pre- 
serve him in health and condition to perform the duties 
required of him. 

And first I must caution all purchasers against a very 
common fault that of wanting and expecting to find per- 
fection in any horse : there is no such thing either in man 
or horse ; all that can be done is to select one as nearly 
as possible approaching the standard required. As in 
everything " a little knowledge is a dangerous thing," it 
is particularly so in all relating to the purchase and man- 
agement of the horse. The inexperienced purchaser should 
therefore, place himself either in the hands of an experi- 
enced friend or respectable dealer, and unless he knows 
something of an animal previously, be very cautious in pur- 
chasing at the sales by auction, or from advertisements, 
however flatteringly described, and seemingly fair in allow- 
ing trials, &c. The great demand for horses, both at home 
and abroad, during the last few years has raised the price 
at least fifty per cent., and in some classes to even more 
than that. 

There are several highly respectable dealers in London 5 
and generally one at least in most large towns in the coun- 
try, to whom an intending purchaser may apply, and who, 
on his stating the sort of horse he requires, and the pur- 
pose for which he requires him, will show him some from 
which he may make a selection, the dealer guaranteeing the 

How to Purchase a Horse. 43 

horses to be sound and quiet to ride or drive, &c. As so 
much difference of opinion exists as to what constitutes 
soundness or unsoundness in horses, most dealers of the 
present day decline to warrant any horse sound, but allow 
the purchaser to have him examined by any veterinary sur- 
geon he may select, whose certificate that he is sound at 
the time of purchase exonerates the dealer from all respon- 
sibility in that respect. Most horses purchased out of a 
dealer's stable are fat and short of work, and at first care 
is requisite that they be used carefully and steadily, and 
brought to work by degrees, or illness may probably result 
to the horse and disappointment to the owner ; the dealer 
not unfrequently getting the blame for what arises, not 
from any fault of his, but from a want of knowledge or care 
on the part of the owner in too soon putting him to work 
for which he was not yet fit, and the ill effects of which a 
little care, a few days' patience, and a mild dose of physic 
would have prevented. 

In his choice of a horse the purchaser will of course be 
guided by whether he wants one for riding or driving pur- 
poses : if for the former, he will be particular that the shoul- 
der lies well back, and if strong, not loaded at the top or 
points that he has a good back, deep body, clean, flat, 
wiry-looking legs, and free from large splints, curbs, spa- 
vins, &c. ; that his feet are firm and of moderate size 
neither large and flat, and therefore necessarily weak, nor 
strong and narrow like those of a mule. When a horse has 
natural feet of the latter description they are generally re- 
markably sound, and will stand a great deal of work ; but, 
as a rule, that shape is produced by internal disease, ren- 
dering the horse unsound when put to work. 

If for driving purposes, he need not be so particular about 
the shoulders ; for harness they may be stronger, heavier, 
and more upright, as many make capital harness horses that 
are, from their formation, very uncomfortable to ride. 

Having met with one suitable for his purpose, the pur- 
chaser must not let a few pounds prevent him buying him, 
if rather more than the price to which he had proposed to 
go. For instance, an intending purchaser limits himself 
to price, say ^"70; he sees one the very thing he wants for 

44 How to PurcJiase a Horse. 

a few pounds more, but declines to go beyond his fixed 
price. He eventually buys one he thinks may suit at about 
his price ; after a time, finding he will not do, he changes 
him away for another as unlikely to suit him, paying ^10 
or ^15 more, simply to get rid of the first. This again is 
changed away in his turn, and so on, till at last he finds him- 
self still unsuited, with one that, altogether, after the diffe- 
rent changes and payments, costs him nearly double the 
price of that he declined at first as being beyond his figure. 
Horses are for the most part unfit for the London mar- 
ket, and for general use, till they are at least five years 
old ; but a dealer will occasionally buy a good one at four 
years old, if at a corresponding price. Some men, and 
often young men, fond of riding, cannot afford to give a 
high price for a horse for their own use. He has either to 
put up with an unsound or a blemished one. But if his 
work is not hard, and he is a pretty fair horseman, he would 
find it advantageous to buy a good four-years old, and use 
him gently for a year, when, if all went well, he would have 
a good horse at a cheaper rate. A man must understand 
something about horses and their management to do this 
to advantage. 

The Hack, or Riding Horse. 

In selecting a riding horse much must depend upon the 
size and weight of the rider. The best and most useful 
size is from 15 hands to 15 hands 2 in. The most fashion- 
able colours are bay, brown, and dark chestnut. A really 
good riding horse, with good action and fine manners, is 
very difficult to find, as he must be good-looking, well 
made, sound, and temperate, with breeding substance, 
action, and courage. His head should be lean, the eye 
bold and prominent, the muzzle small, with large nostrils. 
The neck should be good, and slightly arched to bend to 
the bridle, shoulders lie well back and strong, but not 
heavy and loaded at the points, the body deep and round, 
strong back and loin, with good deep quarters and good 
firm legs and feet. He must ride lightly in hand, walk 
pleasantly and safely, trot freely, with good action, and 
canter easily, yielding to the bit without pulling. He 

How to Ptirchase a Horse. 45 

must carry the saddle well back behind the shoulders : 
nothing is so uncomfortable or looks so badly in any 
description of riding horse as sitting on the top of the 
shoulders instead of behind them. The price will vary 
according to his action, manners, and appearance, as well 
as the weight he can carry. From ^35 or ^40 for the 
light blood hack with low action, to ^"70 or ^80 for good 
useful sorts, and up to ,150 to .200, or even more, for 
first-class horses of great style and manners, with very 
grand action. Many horses of this class are very fast, 
and can trot up to twelve and fourteen miles an hour ; but 
if they do seven or eight miles pleasantly and well, they 
will be fast enough, as few men care to ride faster. 

The great defects to be avoided in purchasing a riding 
horse are a loose weak neck horses so formed invariably 
getting their heads up, and being very uncomfortable to 
ride ; low upright shoulders ; and twisted fore-legs ren- 
dering the horse liable to hit either the inside of the knee 
or fetlock joint, which is very dangerous and likely to 
cause him to fall. A shy, nervous horse, too, should be 
avoided, as well as a hot, irritable one. Horses of a light 
chestnut colour are very often so, and in company will not 
settle into any pace. Ten miles is a fair average day's 
work. The expense of keep, shoeing, &c., will average 
30J-. a week for one, but where two or more are kept it 
will decrease in proportion. 

The Ladies' Horse. 

A perfect ladies' horse is of all descriptions the most 
difficult to find. So many good qualities, which, though 
desirable in all riding horses, may be overlooked in those 
for men, are here absolutely essential. Fine temper and 
courage, a light level mouth, and fine manners, are indis- 
pensable. He should be from 15 hands to 15 hands 3 in. 
high, with a good head and neck, fine oblique shoulders, 
rather long in the body, with a good back and loin, deep 
strong quarters, firm sound legs and feet. If the hind legs 
are rather bent, so much the better; he will get them 
more under him, and consequently his paces will be easier 
horses with straight hind legs invariably pitching most 

46 How to Purchase a Horse. 

unpleasantly in the canter, which must be easy and elegant. 
As few ladies ride more than from 10 to n St., including 
a 19 or 20 Ib. saddle, and ease and lightness in action are 
indispensable, the ladies' horse should be very nearly 
thorough-bred, if not quite so. He must walk well and 
freely, step lightly but sharply in the trot, with a rather 
long easy canter. He must be high-couraged and free, 
but at the same time docile and temperate. A slow, lazy 
horse is as objectionable and disagreeable to ride as a hot, 
irritable one. The latter will sometimes go quietly and 
temperately in the hands of a lady, though irritable and 
fidgety when ridden by men, owing to the easier, lighter 
pull on their mouths. From the position of the ladies' seat 
and from the great length and incumbrance of the habit, 
it follows they cannot have the same power and control 
over the horse that men have, and accidents to them are 
more likely to be attended with dangerous results ; hence 
greater care is necessary in selecting a horse for their use 
free from all tricks, nervousness, and vice. 

Many are called good ladies' horses that have no other 
recommendation than their being very quiet, which with 
very many will cover a multitude of faults. 

A few years since ladies rode no pace but the walk and 
canter, but lately the trot has become a favourite and 
fashionable pace ; consequently a safe, sharp, easy trot is 
now essential in all horses to carry a lady. 

The ladies' hunter differs in some respects from the 
riding horse for the road or park ; he may be less showy 
and stronger. He must be eight or nine years old, have 
been well and regularly ridden to hounds for at least two 
or three seasons, and thoroughly understand his business ; 
not less than 15 hands 2 in. or more than 16 hands high, 
well above the weight he has to carry, well-bred, and fast, 
but thoroughly quiet and temperate among other horses 
and at his fences, which he should take freely and cleverly, 
go well in the bridle without pulling, and turn readily with 
a motion of the hand. 

A hot, irritable, fretful brute, or one with a weak, loose 
neck is uncomfortable enough for a man to ride, but it is 
absolutely dangerous to allow any lady to ride such a one 

How to Purchase a Horse. 47 

on the road to say nothing of riding him to hounds 
however good he may be represented to be. 

The best colours for ladies' horses are bay, brown, dark 
chestnut, or black. There is an old saying, that " A good 
horse cannot be a bad colour ; " and though no purchaser 
should decline to buy one that is likely to suit him on 
account of colour, those I have named are to be preferred. 

The price of horses differs so greatly, and depends so 
much on their make, style, and qualifications, that it is 
difficult to name an average one ; but a good ladies' horse, 
either for the road or the field, is always worth from ^100 
to ^150. 

The Hunter. 

In selecting a hunter it is necessary to bear in mind the 
country in which he is to be ridden. In the grass countries 
of Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, &c., the hunter must 
be nearly if not quite thorough-bred : the enclosures being 
large, the fences strong, and the scent over the grass good, 
nothing but blood can go the pace and keep on jumping. 
The reason is this : when going with hounds the thorough- 
bred is never really extended, but is always going within 
himself, while the half-bred is going all the time at the 
top of his pace, and necessarily becomes much sooner 

In a close country, on the contrary, the half-bred hunter 
is preferred. The pace is not so fast, and the horse is con- 
stantly eased by being pulled up and steadied at the fences; 
for it is a well-known fact that fences stop hounds more 
than they do horses. In countries of this description, as 
Essex, Herts, Surrey, &c., the land is generally ploughed, 
wet and heavy, the enclosures are smaller, and the fences 
being principally bank and ditch, must be taken steadily 
and carefully. I have seen some quite common half-bred 
horses go remarkably well over a close country that could 
not live for five minutes over the grass countries. 

The points essential to a hunter are a lean head and 
neck, well set on to good oblique shoulders, a strong back 
and loin, wide hips, a deep body and back ribs, good mus- 

48 How to Purchase a Horse. 

cular quarters, and gaskins well let down to the hocks, and 
clean, firm legs and feet. He must be temperate, with 
plenty of courage, and have a good mouth and manners. 
His size will vary from 1 5 hands i in. to 1 6 hands 2 in., 
according to the weight he has to carry and the descrip- 
tion of country he has to cross. From 15 hands 3 in. to 
1 6 hands 2 in. is perhaps the best size for the flying grass 
countries, while from 15 hands i in. to 15 hands 3 in. will 
be found better and handier for the close deep country. 

The Irish hunter is very much improved of late years. 
From the importation into Ireland of some of the best- 
bred English stallions, they have lost a good deal of the 
mean appearance they formerly had, are better bred and 
better looking, with deeper and longer quarters. The 
Irish horse had generally a small neat head, oblique but 
rather weak shoulders, short back ribs, and mean, droop- 
ing quarters all which has been very much improved, 
and some very first-class horses are now bred in Ireland. 
They are generally very clever, particularly good timber- 
jumpers better adapted, perhaps, for the close heavy 
countries than the grass. When honest and good-tempered 
they are very pleasant to ride, but from often being tricky 
and shifty, require care in purchasing. The price of the 
hunter depends very much on his breed, appearance, 
manners, and ability. For the grass countries it would 
vary from TOO to ^300, and for the close plough coun- 
tries from ^"80 to ^"200. 

The amount of work that may be fairly expected of a 
hunter is one day a week with staghounds and three days 
a fortnight with foxhounds. From being particularly liable 
to accidents from blows, thorns, over-reaches, &c., it will 
generally be found that out of a stud of four, one will be 
hors de combat. The best and hardiest colours are bay, 
brown, dark chestnut, and black. Light chestnuts are very 
often hot and irritable, and also bad feeders when put to 
work. Horses with short back ribs, too, are almost inva- 
riably bad feeders. 

Hunters go in all forms, but a loose, weak neck and 
twisted fore-legs are always to be avoided. The former is 
the most dangerous fault a hunter can have : it is impos- 

rt'S's i. 
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111 U) 

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ffotv to Purchase a Horse. 49 

sible to steady him at his fences, or in any way interfere 
with his mouth, without his at once throwing up his head ; 
consequently he cannot see where he is going, and serious 
falls are the result. With twisted fore-legs, the horse is 
liable to hit and cut himself under the knee and on the 
fetlock joint, resulting in lameness and swelling, even if 
he do not fall. 

The Carriage Horse. 

These horses are bred principally in Yorkshire and the 
North of England ; are bought there by the principal 
dealers and jobmasters at three and four years old, and 
are broken * driven, and matched by them for some time 
before they are fit for the carriages of the nobility and 
gentry. Carriage horses are always either bay or brown ; 
those without white are preferred. They must be fully 
1 6 hands high, with rather long rainbow neck, strong but 
oblique shoulders, deep round body, with long muscular 
quarters, carrying a good tail, clean flat legs, and good 
firm feet. Being kept more for show than work, grand 
stylish appearance and action are indispensable ; and from 
being generally loaded with flesh, unless the feet and legs 
are good, they will soon wear out. A pair of well-matched 
carriage horses, with style and grand action, will fetch a 
long price, as much as';6oo or ^700 being sometimes 

This is easily accounted for if we bear in mind the great 
expense, trouble, time, and risk that are involved in pur- 
chasing, breaking, and perfecting a pair of horses of the 
size and style required. In fact, so great is the risk and so 
many the disappointments, that many do not buy horses 
for their carriage, but prefer hiring them of a respectable 
jobmaster. But in this, as in all other sorts and descrip- 
tions of horses, there are various classes, and the purchaser 
can suit himself, from the pair of good useful average 
horses, at about ^270, up to almost any price for first-rate 
style and action. 

The great defects to which carriage horses are liable, 
from their size and general formation, are defect of the 
wind, either roaring or whistling, horses with long rainbow 


50 How to Purchase a Horse. 

necks very frequently becoming so after a bad cold or an 
attack of influenza. All large horses, too, are more or less 
liable to their wind becoming affected after illness. In- 
flammation of the feet is another common complaint with 
horses of this class. Loaded with flesh to improve their 
style and appearance, and with high action in addition to 
their weight two great causes of inflammatory attacks 
they are very liable to this complaint, unless great care is 
taken to guard against it. Many carriage horses, too, have 
flat feet, rendering them doubly liable to an attack of this 
description ; in them the sole of the foot will sink, becom- 
ing convex instead of concave. When such is the case, 
great care is requisite in shoeing, or the horse will not be 
workably sound. 

Some few years since grey was the most fashionable 
colour for carriage horses, now bays and brown have quite 
superseded it for all descriptions of horses ; and unless he 
is very first-rate, a grey horse is almost universally ob- 
jected to. 

In hiring or jobbing carriage horses the price per month 
varies according to the time of year. For the months of 
May, June, and July, the height of the London season, it 
would be about 2 1 or ,22 per month for a pair of good- 
looking, useful horses. For the rest of the year it would 
vary from 16 to not less than 12 per month, according 
to the time of year and the value of the horses. If hired 
by the year, the price would be from ^90 to ^"100 for a 
pair of horses, and 60 for a single horse. The hirer in 
all cases to provide fodder, &c., and to pay all expenses, 
as shoeing, &c., unless a separate agreement is entered 
into, when the price will be proportionately more. 

Horses for Light Harness. 

In this class may be included horses suitable for gigs, 
T-carts, light broughams, dog-carts, &c. They should be 
well-bred, neck rather long and arched, with good back 
and quarters, strong oblique shoulders, carry a good head 
and tail, and be of a generally showy and stylish appear- 
ance, with high grand action. Horses of this description 

How to Purchase a Horse. 5 1 

are more fitted for the park and for show than for real 
work, and command high prices. 

For general use horses of a more common description 
will be preferred less showy and with less action the 
better to stand the wear and tear of the hard roads, and 
must be selected according to the work required of them. 
Many of them are very fast, and can trot up to fifteen or 
sixteen miles an hour. All must have a certain amount of 
style and action to render them safe and pleasant to drive ; 
but, as a rule, the higher and grander the action, the less 
useful is the horse for real work the wear and tear of 
horses of this class being so great as almost to preclude 
them from all that can be called " work," and they are 
suitable only for the park and show. 

The most fashionable colours are bay, brown, chestnut, 
and black. The height will vary from 15 hands to 15 
hands 3 in., according to the size and description of car- 
riage he has to draw ; and the price will vary from ^50 
to ^150, according to style and action. 

The Horse for Heavy Harness. 

Horses for this description of work are those that have 
grown too large and coarse for carriage horses, and are 
used principally to run in spring vans by railway carriers 
and others requiring great strength combined with a cer- 
tain amount of pace, and for which the cart horse is not 
adapted from being too slow, and from his weight and 
heavy action liable very soon to shake himself on the road 
when put beyond a walking pace. Another sort is the 
common, coarse, half-bred horse, too light for a cart horse, 
and too plain and heavy for private carriages. These are 
generally used in omnibuses, for which they are admirably 
adapted, as, from their size and power, as well as being 
for the most part active and on short legs, they can draw 
these heavy machines, often loaded inside and out, at the 
rate of six miles an hour which is as fast as the frequent 
stoppages, the bad foothold on the stones, and the crowded 
state of our streets will admit. 

The height of the former will be from T 6 hands to 1 7 

5 2 'How to Purchase a Horse. 

hands ; that of the latter from 15 hands 2 in. to 16 hands. 
Good useful animals of either class will cost from ^40 
to $o. 

Cobs and Ponies. 

The cob is a strong little horse, about 14 hands high, 
and of various descriptions. The better class are bred 
principally in Norfolk or Lincolnshire. When well-bred 
and good-looking, with action, they are not only very use- 
ful, but very valuable for carrying heavy and elderly men, 
as, being low, they are easy to get on and off. A good 
cob must have a good head, a strong but not heavy neck, 
good oblique and very strong shoulders, not loaded at the 
top or points, a deep round body, good loin, and strong 
muscular quarters and thighs short, flat, firm legs, and 
good round feet: he should walk freely and well; step 
sharp and high in the trot, and canter safely and freely ; 
if, in addition to these qualifications, he is quiet and does 
not shy or stumble, he is invaluable. A great many are 
bred in Wales, but by far the best come from Norfolk, 
Lincolnshire, and the North, where much more attention 
is paid to breeding them, and more care is taken of them 
than in Wales, where they run wild on the hills till they 
are three or four years old, when they are sent over into 
England in droves to be sold at the different fairs and 

The faults to be avoided in purchasing a cob are upright 
shoulders, want of courage, and want of action. Particu- 
lar attention must be paid to the shoulders that they are 
well formed and oblique, many horses of this class having 
low, upright shoulders, which renders them valueless as 
riding cobs, and useful only for harness purposes nothing 
being so uncomfortable and looking so ugly as riding on 
the top of the shoulders instead of well behind them, which 
must necessarily be the case with straight, low shoulders. 
In fact, the value of a cob depends almost entirely on his 
shoulders and action ; for, whereas in the one case he 
would be only worth ^30, in the other he might be worth 
;i2o, or even more. Some very fast-trotting cobs are 

How to Purchase a Horse. 5 3 

bred in Wales, but they are mostly deficient in style and 
quality, though they can go a great pace. As a rule, Welsh 
horses are much better than they appear to be : they are 
hardy, useful, and strong, and will stand a great amount 
of work; and, in addition, can generally be bought at a 
price suitable for those who want a useful animal at a 
moderate price in preference to a showy and expensive 

The next variety \ve will notice is the pony ; and there 
are various sorts, or rather kinds, named after the counties 
and localities in which they are bred as the Welsh, the 
Scotch, the Exmoor, New Forest, Shetland, &c. They are 
all rough, strong, and hardy animals, varying in height from 
12 hands to 14 hands, doing a great amount of hard work 
at a small expense for keep, &c. Though for the most part 
well-bred, they are generally deficient about their shoulders, 
which are low and upright, like those of most ponies. They 
are of no value for general riding purposes, except to carry 
children, and are principally used to go in light harness, in 
which they will do an amount of work almost incredible if 
properly cared for. They are sure-footed and fast, if not 
over-weighted, and some make first-rate shooting ponies ; 
but they rarely grow to much value. The Welsh ponies 
grow to a larger size than the other sorts I have mentioned, 
and in all there is a marked improvement of late years, 
owing to small thorough-bred stallions having been sent 
into the different districts for the purpose of improving the 
breeds. The prices would vary from ^15 to .30, accord- 
ing to circumstances, age, action, &c. 

The Shetland pony is the smallest of his class, seldom 
exceeding io hands high, some never growing above 9 
hands high. They are like dray horses in miniature are 
very strong, active, and hardy ; have small heads, good 
shoulders, capital backs and quarters, and from their great 
beauty, combined with general good temper and docility, 
are well calculated for the use of children. They are too 
small for any other purpose, except for drawing a small 
chaise. Some are very fast and enduring. I once knew 
one only 10 hands high, that had trotted ten miles within 
the hour in harness. 

54 How to Purchase a Horse. 

Defects, Diseases, and Faults to be avoided 
in all Horses. 

A loose, weak neck. Horses so formed are extremely 
unpleasant to ride ; they get their heads up, cannot see 
where they are going, and it is impossible to feel their 

Twisted fore-legs. Horses with this defect, when put 
to work, hit the inside of the fetlock joint, and very often 
under the knee as well. Both are highly dangerous, as 
the parts soon become swelled and sore from repeated 
blows, rendering the horse liable to fall. 

Capped hocks are very unsightly, but seldom cause lame- 

Diseased eyes, 'from any cause, are sure to terminate in 

Stringhalt. Catching up one or both the hind legs. 
When considerable, it renders the horse very unpleasant 
either to ride or drive. 

All bony enlargements of the joints viz., spavin, ring- 
bone, sidebones, &c., as causing lameness, very difficult 
and doubtful of cure. 

Lamitritis, or inflammation of the laminae, generally re- 
sulting in pumiced or convex soles of the feet. 

Corns, unless small, as, if not properly treated, they are 
very troublesome, often causing temporary lameness, and 
rendering the horse cramped in his action, and liable to 

Chronic cough. Frequently terminates in broken wind. 

Megrims. An attack of giddiness, more or less violent, 
that frequently attacks some horses, rendering them for 
the time highly dangerous. Since condition has been 
better understood, and horses are fed more on manger food 
and do not have so much hay, megrims are not so common 
as formerly. Fast free horses are more liable to it than 
others. The cause is supposed to be determination of 
blood to the head. 

Navicular disease. Lameness in the navicular joint, 
and incurable. 

An unnerved horse, as showing the horse's feet are dis- 

Stable Servants. 55 

eased. Many unnerved horses will with care do a great 
deal of work either on the road or in the field. It is a 
merciful operation by which many horses can work and 
move about with ease and comfort, that must otherwise 
have been destroyed) or lived in pain and misery to the 
end of their days. 

Roaring. A disease of the respiratory organs, causing 
the horse to make a noise when put to any exertion. 

All enlargements of sinews and tendons, arising from 
breaking down or violent strains, unless the horse has been 
properly fired for them, and is intended only for light, easy 
work, when he may stand. 

All horses that show any sort of vice, as rearing, kicking, 
running away, being restive, and shy badly, or are vicious 
in the stable. Such animals are highly dangerous to all, 
but particularly so to the inexperienced. 



Stable servants Groom Stable management of the Horse Feeding in the 
stable and out Water Summering the hunter Exercise and work Clip- 
ping and singeing Degree of warmth required for stabled Horse Manage- 
ment of the feet Stable vices Tricks and vices out of the stable Harness 
for Saddle Horses Harnessing and putting-to Cleaning Harness. 

THE coachman must be a steady, sober, good-tempered, 
and respectable man, his office being in most cases a very 
responsible one ; many masters, either from want of energy 
or through ignorance, leaving so much to his management. 
He not only has the entire control of the carriage and 
horses, buying the oats, hay, straw, &c., but very frequently 
selects and purchases the horses, so that, unless a conscien- 
tious man, he has it in his power to subject his master to 
serious loss and inconvenience. He must have had con- 
siderable experience in driving, to drive quietly and steadily 

56 Stable Servants and 

without allowing the horses to jerk or snatch, which is most 
disagreeable and uncomfortable to those in the carriage, 
and thoroughly understand their management in the stable. 
No man, however willing, can attend properly to more 
than two horses and the carriage, and if the carriage be 
out on an average three hours a day, he will find he has 
but little time to spare if properly turned out. The great 
inconvenience of having only one servant is, that, on the 
carriage coming in wet and dirty, if it be not at once 
washed before the mud dries on, it will not only take 
much longer to clean, but the paint and varnish suffer by 
the mud being allowed to dry on ; while if this be done at 
once, the horses are standing quite unattended to, at the 
risk of taking cold, getting cracked heels, &c. 

In case of accident or illness, however, disabling one 
horse, three or more are generally kept, in which case a 
helper is indispensable, and the wet carriage and horses 
can then receive proper and immediate attention. 

The coachman generally has rooms over the stable to 
protect the property, and to be on the spot in case of 
accident or illness to the horses, so that he lives rent free; 
in addition to which his average wages will be 2 per 
week, including his livery, stable dress, coals, candles, &c. ; 
those of a helper will vary from 153-. to ^i, according to 
his age, and the locality. Where a coachman has but one 
hor-se and carriage to drive and attend to, a younger and 
less experienced man will answer the purpose, particularly 
in the country. In this case, as his time will not be fully 
occupied in the stable, he may be expected and required 
to make himself useful about the house, &c. His wages, 
too, will average los. or i2s. a week less than those of a 
superior coachman. 

The Groom. 

There are several descriptions and classes of grooms 
employed in private stables. With the stud groom, for the 
breaking and training of thorough-bred horses, we have 
here nothing to do. The most important is the groom for 
the training and management of hunters. For this pur- 
pose he must be steady, respectable, and intelligent, and 



55 co 



Stable Management. 57 

have had considerable experience ; for, as the hunter, to 
carry a man well and safely to hounds, must be very fit, it 
follows that the groom must understand not only how to 
prepare him, but when he is fit. 

The preparation required for a hunter is such as to 
enable him to carry a certain weight through deep ground 
for some hours, often at a great pace ; hence his wind must 
be clear, his flesh hard and firm, he must be full of power 
and muscle to perform the severe and long-continued exer- 
tion so often required of him. 

No groom can, without considerable experience, do this, 
as he must understand how to feed and treat the various 
habits and constitutions of the different horses that come 
under his charge, the quantity of corn, &c., and the amount 
of work best suited for each horse, and how to treat the 
various accidents, blows, strains, thorns, cuts, &c., to which 
all hunters are liable. 

A hunting groom cannot properly attend to more than 
three hunters without help. In studs of five or six he should 
have two helpers under him, and in large studs one man 
to every three hunters ; his own time will be fully taken 
up in a general superintendence of the helpers, attending 
to the horses that are ill or have met with accidents, &c., 
and perhaps riding second horses for his master when 

A good hunting groom is a very valuable servant, so 
much depending upon him as to the safety, comfort, and 
style in which a man is carried to hounds. He cannot, of 
course, make a good or fast horse out of a bad or slow 
one, but by proper care, attention, and exercise he can 
very much improve him, and a fair moderate horse fit to 
go will generally beat a really good one only half prepared. 

His average wages, including extras, will amount to 
from 30J. to 35^. per week; but in his case, as in that of 
any first-rate trustworthy servant, a few additional pounds 
a year is money very well and economically laid out. 

Another class of groom is one that is rarely expected 
either to ride or drive. His duties are to feed, dress, and 
attend to the horses generally, and clean a chaise and 
harness, &c. He should be active, respectful, and obliging; 

5 8 Stable Servants and 

two horses with a chaise and harness will be as much as 
he can properly attend to ; and should he be expected 
occasionally to drive or ride, he will need a helper : nothing 
tends so much to spoil a servant and make him idle and 
careless in his work as giving him more than he can fairly 
and properly do. When a groom is required to help in 
the stable, and ride behind his master and family, I know 
of no one so useful and fitted for the purpose as a good 
steady lad out of a racing stable, and who has grown 
too heavy for that work, as he is sure to be a good stable- 
man, and to ride well and smartly. 

After these come the nondescript class, part groom, part 
cowman and gardener, who are more useful than smart or 
ornamental. They cannot be called grooms; they simply 
just feed and "look after" the horse, or pony and carriage, 
and are for the most part young fellows who are either too 
lazy or too loutish to try to improve or take any pride or 
interest in their work. 

Stable Management of the Horse. 

In the morning the first thing the groom does on enter- 
ing the stable, which must not be later than six o'clock, if 
the weather be warm and fine, will be to open the door 
and admit some fresh air ; he will then give each horse a 
little water and a piece of hay; having eaten which, he 
will put on the hood and the watering-bridle, and take him 
out for exercise. While out, the helpers will separate the 
dry clean straw from the damp and soiled, removing the 
latter to the manure-heap. Thoroughly sweep and cleanse 
the floor of each stall and box, allowing the straw to remain 
turned up until the return of the horses, when it may be 
partly littered down again. Each horse will then have a 
feed of corn, and having eaten it, be well dressed and his 
stall or box set fair. When one groom only is kept, or 
where the horses do a fair amount of work during the 
day, early exercise is impossible and unnecessary. 

In dressing the horse the first thing the groom does is 
to turn him round in his stall, fold the rug back from his 
neck and shoulders, then well and carefully brush his head, 
neck, and shoulders with the body-brush, cleaning it with 

Stable Manag enient. 5 9 

the currycomb as often as required. He is then turned 
back in the stall, the clothing removed, and his body, hind- 
quarters, and legs undergo the same careful and thorough 
brushing, care being taken to keep the brush clean with 
frequent use of the currycomb. He is next wiped all over 
with a damp wisp made of hay -bands, which entirely 
removes any remaining dust, and after being well wiped 
over with a linen rubber or wash-leather, his clothes are 
put on and secured by the roller. His eyes, nose, and 
anus are next sponged clean, his mane and tail carefully 
combed or brushed, first with a dry and then with a damp 
brush ; the feet are carefully picked out and washed, the 
legs well brushed, and if dirty or stained, well washed, and 
either rubbed dry or dried in flannel bandages. The stall 
is then set fair,, and the horse ready for use. 

With grey or light-coloured horses, or that have white 
legs, the better plan will be to wash all stains off the 
quarters, &c., and to wash the legs with warm water and 
soap, rubbing the first dry and well bandaging the latter 
before proceeding to dress the horse, as by the time that 
operation is over the legs will be dry and the horse warm 
and comfortable. 

In the spring and autumn, when the horse is shedding 
his coat and the hair is broken and thin, the body-brush 
must be laid aside, the wisp and rubber being then quite 
sufficient for the necessary dressing. 

Before having the harness put on to go out, the horse 
must again be wiped over, his mane and tail brushed, and 
his hoofs nibbed round with the oil-brush. Some people 
object to the use of the oil-brush to the feet, and only 
have them done round with a wet brush. 

On returning to the stable after work, if he be clean and 
dry, his feet should be well picked out and washed, and he 
should again be well dressed and set fair. But if he returns 
hot and tired and wet and dirty, the best and quickest plan 
is to wash him all over with tepid water, scraping him 
immediately as dry as possible, clothing him up, and 
bandaging his legs above his knees and hocks with flannel 
bandages. If the weather be warm, he may be washed in 
the open air, and a light suit of clothes put on, to be re- 

60 Stable Servants and 

placed by fresh as soon as he is dry ; but in winter, and if 
it be cold, he must be washed in the stable, and a suit of 
warm clothing put on until he is dry, when it must be 
changed. By this means the horse will be got fresh and 
comfortable in a much shorter time and with less fatigue 
to himself than if the dirt and sweat were removed in any 
other way and he was rubbed dry. 

At seven o'clock, the horses that have not been out or 
done but little work may again have their clothing removed 
and be wiped over, which must not be done when the horse 
is tired with work and has been once made fresh. They 
may then be fed, their heads let down, and the stable 
closed for the night. 

which the horse is fed in Great Britain, in almost all cases, 
consists of hay or green meat as the staple, together with 
the addition of one or more of the following articles 
namely, oats, bran, beans, carrots, turnips, or potatoes. 
Barley is only given to farming horses in this country, 
though abroad it is very commonly substituted for oats ; as 
green food, common grass, vetches, Lucerne, and rye (com- 
mon or Italian) are generally given. When green food is 
used in the stable it is called soiling the horse, and when 
given in the fields, turning him out to grass. 

The hay given to horses at fast work, whether on the 
road or for hunting, should be in all cases of upland 
quality. Meadow or clover-hay is only fit for cart horses, 
which require a considerable quantity of fatty matter, and 
do not sweat to any great extent, nor is their wind tried 
as in fast work. Green hay is not good, there being less 
nourishment in it than in properly fermented, and therefore 
brown, hay ; and though it does not prove that the hay 
is new, as is very commonly supposed, yet it is not nearly 
so wholesome as the brown variety, provided it is not 
mouldy or burnt from over-heating. Hay should be cut 
from the inside of a large rick, at least one year old, and 
should be very sweet and fragrant : it is better tied together 
in trusses, which are in most counties 56 Ib. each, so that 
the weight of a load is easily estimated by counting them. 
Not more than two or three months' consumption should 

Stable Management. 61 

be stowed away at one time, as it is liable to become 
mouldy and musty, and it will then be refused by horses, 
or, if taken, it will disagree with their stomachs. The 
quantity which a full-sized horse at strong but moderately 
slow work will consume, is about 84 Ib. per week, or from 
that to 98 Ib., which latter quantity some washy large 
horses absolutely require to keep them in health. There 
is a vast difference in horses in respect of the weight of 
hay necessary for their full condition ; some will eat nearly 
twice as much as others, and yet not be half so strong, or 
look nearly so fleshy and full of health. I have often had 
two medium-sized horses in my stable which together lived 
upon as little as another larger horse in similar condition 
consumed to his own share. Nevertheless, 12 Ib. may be 
considered the average for full-sized horses ; but no master 
should make up his mind that his one horse is sufficiently 
fed if he has that quantity, for it may very probably happen 
that he is one of those hungry ones which will require at 
least i cwt. per week, especially if the rack is a high one, 
and the groom is not very careful to replace the wasted 
hay. In all racks the hay should be lightly put in, and not 
pressed down, for if it is, the horse will be sure to pull out 
more than one mouthful at a time, and if his attention is 
called to the foot of the stall, he will turn his head round 
and bring a quantity of loose hay with it, even if the rack 
is as low as it should be. 

Chaff 'is hay cut up with straw in a chaff machine, which 
may be the old box-and-knife used with the hand, or it may 
consist of any of the various chaff engines which are now 
sold by the machine-makers, and worked either by the hand 
or by horse or steam power. The hay used is in most stables 
the coarse parts of the usual quality employed, which would 
otherwise be rejected, and sometimes even the hay-bands 
are cut up in this way. It is arranged in the trough of the 
machine with alternate layers of straw, so that the chaff 
when cut consists of portions of hay and oat straw about 
half an inch long, and mixed in equal quantities. Care 
should be exercised that both are sound and sweet, as 
inferior- food is the reverse of economy as well as subver- 
sive of good health. Chaff is now the substitute for hay 

62 Stable Servants and 

in many establishments, experience having shown that 
by it all horses masticate their com more perfectly, are 
at liberty to rest sooner, and cost less per head for keep. 
Many of the better breeds might be more advantageously 
fed on this system, not only ensuring economy, but 
avoiding waste in the usual allowance of hay, and suffer- 
ing less from the diseases to which idle or lightly-worked 
horses are subject. This is at least our experience, not 
only in our own stables, but in others where the plan has 
been carefully carried out in all its details. 

Oats and beans, together or separately, come under the 
general name of horse-corn; and most horses at hard work 
in the winter require both, especially if they are not very 
young. Oats are always given to horses in private stables, 
and they form the best general addition to the hay ; but 
sometimes, soon after the horse has changed his coat, he 
becomes very flagging and unable to bear his ordinary 
work, especially if he has been much exposed to wet or 
cold ; in this case, the addition to his pats of from half a 
quartern to a quartern of beans during the day will often 
renovate his spirits and strength, when he rapidly gains 
flesh. In young horses this addition may be discontinued 
after January, but in old ones it should be kept up till the 
following May, after which month few horses are the better 
for the extra stimulus afforded by beans. They should 
always be split, and oats are generally the better for being 
bruised, or " kibbelled," as it is generally called ; and for 
both these purposes a mill is constructed and sold, which, 
by the alteration of a screw, will adapt itself to either opera- 
tion. Both oats and beans should be one year old, or at 
least six months ; at which age. if the harvest was a dry 
one, both oats and beans will often be dry enough. 

It is consistent with sound practice, especially when 
economy is to be considered, that corn should be of the 
best quality. Why some adhere to the belief that in- 
ferior kinds will do for lightly-worked horses, it is not 
possible to say. It should be evident that the heaviest 
grain, or pulse, when sound and clean, should also con- 
tain the greatest amount of nutritious matter. Yet some 
aver that the husk is as essential as the corn. The 

Stalk Management. 63 

advantages are eminently ours, seeing that we can 
supply all that the husk contains in the form of chaff at 
a much lower cost. If select condition is required con- 
jointly with power and endurance, the best of all kinds 
of food is practically the cheapest. 

Great stress is laid upon the necessity for the best 
food, cost what it may, for the feeding of race-horses and 
hunters, whose appetite is said to be " the measure of 
their corn." With them it is " the pace that kills," and 
happily they are allowed long intervals for recuperation 
of the vital powers, or food ceases to be the source of 
strength. Hacks and carriage horses, however, seldom 
are allowed more than three or four quarterns a day 
of English oats ; and if they have, instead of these 
heavy oats, one quartern more of Irish or Welsh, they 
will do much better. The difference is still greater if 
it is between half a peck of English and three quarterns 
of Irish, because most horses like to have their stomachs 
tolerably filled with their corn, which Xalf a quartern at a 
feed scarcely will do. Now, when English oats are at $s. 6d. 
per bushel, Irish oats are generally about 2 s. ; and conse- 
quently, three quarterns of the Irish may be given for the 
same price as two of the English, which exactly accords 
with the calculation I have made above. In purchasing 
Irish oats, care should be taken that they are free from 
stones, or, if they are mixed with them, they should be re- 
moved before being given, by examining the sieve contain- 
ing them. This is the worst feature in this kind of corn, 
and sometimes exists to a great extent. Beans are of all 
qualities, from the best English to the Egyptian ; but as a 
general rule, for private stables I fancy the English answer 
the best. They are used more as a stomachic than as re- 
gular food, and for that purpose quality is of more impor- 
tance than quantity. In cart stables, or for coaching or 
fly-work, foreign beans may be used, but I have never my- 
self found them answer my purpose well. By purchasing 
Irish oats of the importers at Liverpool, London, or Glou- 
cester, an immense reduction in price is effected ; and they 
may readily be conveyed by rail to most parts of England 
at one penny. to twopence per bushel extra. 

64 Stable Servants and 

Gruel is made by mixing oatmeal in cold water; and 
about a pint of meal will make four quarts of gruel. This 
is enough for ordinary occasions, but for a very exhausted 
horse, two pints should be mixed with about the same 
quantity of water, and boiled for ten minutes, carefully 
stirring it the while. It should be given with the chill 
just taken off. 

Bran is the outside coat of wheat, removed in the dress- 
ing after grinding. It is only used in private stables for 
mashes and poultices, though sometimes it is given with 
beans as a regular article of food, just as is the case in 
cart stables. With their addition it answers pretty well in 
slow work, but not nearly so well as oats, and its price 
alone is a temptation to its use. 

The bran mash is one of the most valuable kinds of 
food for sick horses, or for preparing horses in pretty good 
health for physic, or for cooling down those which are to 
be turned out to grass. It is made either as a cold mash 
or as a hot mash the former being merely bran, with the 
addition of as much cold water as it will absorb. The 
hot bran mash is made by pouring enough boiling water 
to saturate it, and then covering it up till sufficiently cool 
to give the horse. As the bran swells considerably, one- 
third of a bucket of bran is enough to make half-a-bucket 
of mash, which is the usual quantity given. Most horses 
on hard and dry food are the better for this once a week ; 
and it should be given on the night before their rest day, 
which all horses ought to have ; and when so used, it may 
be allowed to supersede the use of their evening feed of 
com ; but if it is given more frequently to a costive horse, 
it must be in addition. 

Carrots, turnips, and potatoes are useful to horses doing 
slow work, and bare of flesh ; but they do not answer for 
fast work, nor for horses which are apt to scour. Of the 
three, the first is the most suitable to horses ; and when 
they are to be made up for sale, and got very " fresh," as 
the dealers call it, a few carrots boiled with linseed will 
effect the object much quicker than any other kind of food, 
especially in the early spring, when vetches are not to be 
had, This food is also useful in chronic cough, and will 


^" > 


Stable Management. 65 

sometimes effect a cure ; but it must not be given while 
the horse is at work, as he is very much inclined to sweat 
while eating it, and will then lose as much as he gains. 
Swedish turnips, or potatoes, are substitutes for carrots, 
but they do not answer the purpose nearly so well. Both 
of them should be steamed, not simply boiled; or if the 
latter process is adopted, the water should be thrown away, 
as it is not wholesome for the horse. 

Barley forms a valuable ingredient of food mixtures. 
It is a gross mistake to charge this grain as being hurt- 
ful. When used under common-sense rules it is safe 
and profitable. We have kept hard-working horses in 
splendid health and condition, when the food is mainly 
composed of barley. 

Of Maize, or Indian Corn, we cannot speak so confi- 
dently. In small quantities it may serve to cheapen the 
whole mixture, but as a nutritive article it is far behind 
even common oats, and creates the tendency to a 
" washy" state of the system. 

Linseed is a valuable adjunct to horse feed, but it should 
be used with care, as large quantities are apt to produce 
a lax state of the bowels. The simplest form is that of 
" tea," or "mucilage," made by mixing one pound of the 
seeds with one gallon of cold water in a covered and glazed 
earthen vessel. During twelve hours the mixture should 
be stirred a few times, after which half a pint may be mixed 
with the manger food every other evening. The results 
are seen in the "kind," soft state of the skin and shiny 
hair. Chronic cough is often greatly benefited by its use. 

i Feeding. 

Horses should have the corn four times a day at about 
seven, eleven, three, and seven ; and the hay twice at 
night and in the morning. These times may be slightly 
varied to suit the convenience. The quantity of each must 
depend, as we have said, upon the size and description of 
the horse, and the amount of work required of him. A 
full-sized carriage horse will require at least five quarterns 
of corn, and about twelve or fourteen pounds of hay, daily. 
These horses being kept for show and style rather than for 


66 Stable Servants and 

work, are required to be full of flesh to give them a grander 
and more imposing appearance. 

The hunter having hard, fast, and long-continuous work 
to perform, greater care is required in feeding him. Some 
hunters are delicate feeders, and cannot under any circum- 
stances be induced to eat more than three quarterns of corn 
and beans in the twenty-four hours ; consequently they 
never look well, are never quite fit, and cannot come again 
more than once in ten days or a fortnight. Such horses 
must be got fit as best they may by changing the diet as 
often as possible, and by giving only a little at a time, but 
frequently. By changing the diet I mean, by sometimes 
giving old beans with the corn, at other times old white 
peas, and adding at one time good hay chaff, at another 
clover chaff, and occasionally a few pieces of chopped 
carrot mixed with the corn in fact, trying almost every- 
thing that will tempt a delicate horse to feed. 

From five to six quarterns of corn, with a few good old 
beans or white peas, and ten or twelve pounds of good old 
meadow hay, is the average daily food of a hunter going 
three days a fortnight. It is a great mistake to get a hunter 
too fine, as, the work being hard and long-continued, he 
must be full of muscle and strong, but at the same time in 
good wind. It is difficult to lay down any definite rules 
for feeding hunters, as some require much more food than 
others to keep them in the same condition. As soon as 
convenient after a day's hunting the horse should have 
some gruel it is better than corn, as being easy of 
digestion and more invigorating for a tired horse. A hack 
will require from three to four quarterns of corn a day, and 
about the same quantity of hay as the hunter. His work 
is much lighter and he requires a more round and fleshy 
appearance. Beans are only occasionally necessary for 
hacks, and then only when much exposed to bad and wet 
weather. Harness horses must be fed in much the same 
way as hacks, but much depends upon their size and the 
work they are required to perform. Ponies require about 
two quarterns of corn daily, and seven or eight pounds of 
hay, some even less than that, as they are invariably hardy, 
and unless hard worked will keep fat on very little. Horses 

Stable Management, 67 

of all sizes and all descriptions should have chaff mixed 
with every feed of corn, as it enables them to masticate 
the oats more thoroughly, and so far assists digestion. 

Soiling is a term used for the feeding of horses on green 
food indoors. 

Turning to grass is practised when the health is injured 
by long-continued hard work and dry food, or when the 
legs are sore, or the feet inflamed. For the former state 
a summer's run is the best remedy, because at that time 
the grasses are the most sweet and nutritious, and the con- 
stitution is not tried by exposure to the cold and wet. A 
meadow should be chosen where there is plenty of good 
and sweet grass, and 'the horse should be gradually pre- 
pared for the change, except in the height of summer, by 
taking off his clothing while in the stable, allowing the dirt 
to accumulate in his skin, and also reducing the tempera- 
ture of his box. In the summer, tips to his fore-feet will 
generally be prudent ; but in winter, when the ground is 
always soft, they are seldom necessary. If the legs or feet 
are " stale," a winter's run will do far more than the same 
time occupied in the summer's run, because the object is 
not only to avoid fresh battering of them on hard ground, 
but also to lower the whole system by a poor and re- 
ducing diet. Winter grass, therefore, will effect the object 
very differently from the fattening feed which is met with 
on the meadows during summer and autumn ; and by 
turning the lame horse out in December, great good to his 
legs may be expected when taken up in the following May, 
before which time it is not to be expected that he will be 
sufficiently in flesh and his coat smooth enough for any 
work. Whether in summer or winter, every horse accus- 
tomed to a stable ought to have a hovel to run into, which 
protects him from flies in the hot days of summer, and 
from the wind and snow in the cold nights of winter. 

While giving the foregoing popular advice, we desire 
to state that for the restoration of jaded legs and shat- 
tered constitutions, there is nothing like absolute rest in 
a cool box, having a small, dry paddock or yard at- 
tached. We thus avoid damage to the feet and legs, as 
well as the pasture. 

68 Stable Servants and 

Summering the Hunter. 

There still exists much difference of opinion on this 
point; but when we consider that the great object to be 
attained is rest, it must be evident to all who have seen 
horses at grass in the summer, that the old plan of turning 
the hunter to grass is about the very least likely way to 
obtain it. The ground is then very hard, the sun hot and 
oppressive, and even in the shade under the trees, the horse 
is constantly tormented by flies. He is never still, walking 
backwards and forwards, kicking and stamping to knock 
them off, till, unable any longer to bear them, he takes a 
mad gallop round the field. This state of things cannot 
be rest, but more destructive to the legs and feet than 
any ordinary amount of work. In addition to which, the 
horse gets big and lusty on soft green food, all of which has 
to be taken off at the expense of his legs and feet, before 
he is fit to go, and is another very unsuitable preparation 
for the work required of him in the winter. The modern 
plan, the advantages of which are every year becoming 
more and more apparent, is, at the end of the hunting 
season to cool the hunter, by giving him a dose of physic 
and then gradually taking off his clothing. At the end of 
a month he may be turned into a large cool box or shed, 
have from two to three quarterns of corn a day, according 
to his constitution, with green meat in sufficient quantities 
to act as a natural alterative and tonic to his system, and 
get him fresh, but not fat and out of shape, as is too often 
the case. His hind shoes may be taken off, and light 
shoes or tips put on the fore-feet, and removed about once 
a month. These will prevent his feet getting broken away 
and preserve them in shape. If he require blistering, or 
has any lumps or bumps on his legs, from blows or thorns, 
to be sweated down, it should at once be done. For this 
the biniodide of mercury will be found the best. At the 
beginning of August, at the latest, the hunter may be taken 
up ; his legs and feet will be found to be clean and cool ; 
he should have a dose of physic, and begin steady exer- 
cise ; after which, if the groom do his duty, he will be free 

Stable Management. 69 

frm the different complaints that usually attack a horse 
summered in the field, and when the hunting season arrives 
he will carry his master safely and pleasantly through runs 
that will soon stop the other for want of real condition. 

The straw-yard is a popular method of improving the 
legs of the over-worked horse, and in it he is turned during 
the winter, with a shed to run into, and the soft manure or 
litter in the yard to run upon. Hay is given, but seldom 
more than enough to keep the stomach in order, and 
barley straw affords the chief sustenance in most cases ; 
sometimes a little hay is given cut as chaff with straw, 
and in some cases also mixed with a feed or two of corn 
per day. When a suitable winter pasture cannot be ob- 
tained, the straw-yard is very efficacious for inflamed legs 
and feet \ and, as its small extent precludes all galloping 
about, it is even more suitable than an open pasture. 

Notwithstanding these supposed advantages, there are 
serious objections to the plan. Horses are often injured 
by horned animals, or otherwise chased and irritated, that 
rest is impossible. In our experience the wet and manure 
of straw-yards are certain destruction to the feet. Thrush 
and canker are the common results. 

Straw. For the bedding of horses wheat straw is gene- 
rally used. The greater part of wheat is now threshed out 
by machine, and but little by hand, consequently the straw 
is not so good, and does not last so long as formerly, the 
machine breaking and bruising the straw so much more 
than the flail. 

A careless groom will use at least one truss of straw per 
week more to each horse than a good careful one will use. 
The latter will be careful in the morning on turning up the 
bed to separate the soiled dirty straw from that which may'' 
be used again, removing the former from the stable behind ; 
then, after thoroughly sweeping out the stall or box, put 
what may be a little damaged at the bottom, and the clean 
at the top. Such a groom will use about two trusses to two 
and a half per week, while another would use at least one 
truss a week more. 

The best way to economize litter is to sweep the stall 
or box out as dry and as clean as possible in the morning, 

70 Stable Servants and 

and take up the droppings regularly at once, before they 
are trodden into the straw. 

Straw when good is bright and clean-looking. The price 
will vary from 30^. to 45 s. per load, according to the season, 
In wet seasons it is difficult to get good straw, as it is gene- 
rally then dark and mildewed-looking from the rain. At 
any time, good oat or barley straw is better for cutting into 
chaff than wheat straw, but it is not easy to obtain ; most 
farmers keeping it for fodder for home use. 

Economy in the stable depends entirely upon the groom. 
If he does his duty well and conscientiously, he will keep 
down the expenses as far as is practicable with justice to 
the horse. Nothing whatever is gained by buying cheap 
or inferior fodder; on the contrary, the horse suffers in 
every way in condition, appearance, and value. 

WATER. Soft water is in all cases better for horses than 
hard, hence they are often watered in a brook or pond in 
preference to the bucket, which is generally replenished 
from the well. If, therefore, soft water can be easily pro- 
cured, it should in all cases be given, but I do not think 
that with our present warm stables it answers well to allow 
the horse to slake his thirst at the pond or brook at all 
seasons ; cart horses may do so with impunity, because 
they are seldom heated with their work, and their stables 
are comparatively cool. Boiling gets rid of a great pro- 
portion of the lime, and where it exists in large quantities 
it is advisable to give all boiled water. The temperature of 
the water given should in all cases be that of the stable, 
or very little below it ; and so in the warm one the water 
must be raised to at least 70 degrees of Fahrenheit, by 
mixing a little hot water with the cold, or by leaving the 
bucket full of water constantly in the stable, and only using 
it when it has acquired the temperature of the stable. If 
cold water is given to a horse used to it chilled, and to 
warm stables, it sets the coat the wrong way directly, and 
often produces colic, or shivering, followed by rheumatism; 
and this is especially likely when he has undergone any 
violent exertion, and is becoming cool from it. It does not 
do nearly the harm while the horse is reeking with heat 
and perspiration that it does when given to the tired horse 

Stable Management. 7 J 

just cooling down from his exertions. If, however, chilled 
water is generally given, it should be rigidly adhered to 
when the horse is travelling, for an animal used to it is far 
more likely to be injured by cold water given when in a 
sweat than the one which habitually swallows it at a low 
temperature with his ordinary food. 

The quantity of water proper for the horse varies very 
much, depending upon his tendency to purge, upon the 
amount of sweat which he loses in his work, and upon the 
nature of his work. About from one-and-a-half to two 
ordinary buckets per day is the average for private stables, 
depending upon the size of the horse and the severity of 
his work ; and if water is allowed to stand constantly in 
the stall, few healthy horses will drink more than two 
buckets per day. About half-a-bucket is generally given 
in the morning, another half in the afternoon, and the re- 
mainder the last thing at night. More than a couple of 
quarts should never be given on the road, even on the hot- 
test day ; but this quantity may be repeated every five or 
six miles with advantage if the weather is very sultry, with 
or without a little oatmeal. It is seldom advisable to give 
the full quantity of water immediately before or after the 
feed of oats, but rather to let the horse drink about two 
quarts, and half an hour after his feed to let him have the 
remainder. But if the oats are not given for half an hour, 
the water will not hurt if all is given at once. Many peo- 
ple prefer a constant supply by means of a water-manger 
kept full. 

Where practicable it will be better for the horse to have 
water constantly by him in a small tank for the purpose, 
that he may drink when he feels disposed ; when such is 
the case, he drinks less than, when it is offered to him at 
stated times. 

In stables unfitted with tanks the water must be taken 
to the horse not less than four times a day, and he then 
may be allowed to take as much as he pleases in mode- 

Dirty pond-water should always be strictly avoided, as 
it is often a source of filth and putridity, and likely to cause 
disease. Hard pump-water is often injurious at first till 

72 Stable Servants and 

they become used to it, but that is at all times preferable 
to stale stagnant rain-water. Hard water will to some ex- 
tent produce indigestion, and consequently a rough staring 

Care must be taken to water the horse some little time 
before starting him on a journey, and also, on his return, 
that he is not allowed to drink too much at first; and if the 
horse be heated and the water cold, it should be just chilled 
before allowing him to drink, or injury may follow. 

Exercise and Work. 

Unless the weather is wet and bad, every horse, whether 
in a stall or box, is better for going out every day. 

The work of a carriage horse does not on an average 
exceed seven or eight miles. They are very often out for 
three or four hours in the day, but by far the greater part 
of the time they are standing about, while the occupants 
of the carriage are either shopping or making calls, &c. 
From their size and weight they are generally unfit for 
long journeys and hard work. 

The work of a hunter is to carry a man to hounds, and 
in order to render him fit to do so safely and well, he will 
require a great deal of exercise. 

Before the commencement of the hunting season he will 
require three hours' steady walking and trotting exercise, 
with occasional sweats and strong gallops ; but afterwards, 
supposing he is ridden to hounds three days a fortnight, 
he will require but little fast exercise from two to three 
hours' a day good steady walking will keep most horses 
quite fit. 

To go with stag hounds, a horse must be drawn rather 
finer than for fox hounds, his work being faster, but not 
so long continued. The meet is later ; the deer is un- 
carted, and the run begins at once, seldom lasting more 
than from an hour and a half to two hours. 

With fox hounds, on the contrary, the meet is earlier, 
and a fox is often not found till after a long draw. The 
run, from various causes checks, bad scent, &c. is very 
seldom very fast or so long as with stag hounds, conse* 

Stable Management. 73 

quently the work of the horse is not so severe and dis- 

On leaving hounds, the hunter should have some gruel 
and a handful of hay at the first convenient place j he may 
then, if not fatigued, be ridden home at the rate of six or 
seven miles an hour. On reaching the stable he will be 
washed and scraped as dry as possible, a complete suit of 
clothing put on, his legs bandaged with flannel bandages, 
some chilled water and moist food given him, and left till 
dry. He must then be wiped over, dry clothing put on, 
his legs well hand-rubbed, dry bandages put on, again fed 
and watered, and set fair for the night. 

The fair average day's work for a hack or harness horse 
is nine or ten miles, in which case exercise is quite un- 
necessary. More harm and injury are done to horses by 
the grooms when at exercise than in any other way ; and 
unless the man can be fully depended upon, the less they 
are exercised the better. Where the horse is only occa- 
sionally worked, exercise is of course absolutely necessary, 
not only to preserve him in health, but to keep him steady 
and from getting above himself. 

Clipping or Singeing 

Is one of the greatest improvements ever introduced 
into stable management. It is a blessing not only to the 
horse, but to every one who uses and attends to him. A 
horse clipped or singed will not only do double the amount 
of work on the same amount of food that a horse with his 
natural winter coat will do, but in the one case he will be 
fresh, cheerful, and full of vigour, while in the other he 
will be dull, out of condition, and seldom or never dry 
and clean. I have seen horses (hunters particularly) that 
no care or food could get into condition till clipped or 
singed, immediately change for the better, and get big in 
their work. 

The best time to clip or singe a horse must depend 
principally upon the state of his coat. Some shed their 
coat so much earlier than others, while in some horses it 
is much thicker and coarser. About the end of September 

74 Stable Servants and 

is the best time for singeing, and three weeks or a month 
later for clipping. 

Clipping requires much practice and very neatly doing 
to look well ; it is far more difficult than singeing, and 
consequently is not so frequently used. The effect of both 
is the same to shorten the long rough winter coat to the 
length of the short summer one, thereby preventing that 
extreme sweating which is always consequent on a long 
winter coat. It is performed with scissors and a comb. 
The former are generally curved, and of various sizes, to 
suit the different parts of the body of the horse for which 
they are used. 

Singeing is performed with a gas-flame, or a lamp 
burning naphtha or some spirit of the same description, 
and which is passed lightly over the whole body till the 
hair is reduced to the required length. It may be com- 
menced as soon as the winter coat is partly grown, and 
must be repeated about every ten days or a fortnight till 
the coat is set and done growing, by which means the coat 
will not only be kept short, but the hair will better retain 
the natural colour. After Christmas, about once in three 
weeks will generally be found sufficient to keep down the 
long rough hairs. 

In some horses the coat is of so thick, coarse, and 
woolly a nature, or has been left so long, it is impossible 
to singe it without burning it into holes, and making the 
horse look worse than before. In this case he must first 
be clipped close, and then the singeing-lamp run lightly 
over him ; it can then be kept down by singeing, as in 
other horses, but his colour will be changed, as the part 
exposed, or rather left, will be the under part of the hair 
next the body, which is always of a different shade to the 
top hair, which, in horses that are begun early and singed 
frequently, from being never burnt quite down, retains its 
colour. After clipping and singeing the horse should have 
a gentle sweat, be well washed, rubbed dry, and well 
clothed, after which he is fit and ready for his usual work. 

Some few very well-bred horses have in winter so fine 
a coat that beyond removing the few long, ragged hairs 
about their flanks and quarters, no singeing is necessary. 

Stable Management. 75 

The Degree of Warmth necessary for the 
Stabled Horse. 

A great outcry has been raised in this country against 
warm stables, and, no doubt much good has been done 
by the agitation on the subject ; but, like all reforms, it 
may be carried too far ; and I am inclined to believe that 
in many cases it has been. Warmth of some kind is es- 
sential to the health of the well-bred horse ; for, though 
the Welsh pony or the galloway may be fitted to contend 
against cold, the horse of Eastern descent is certainly not 
qualified to do so. From a long experience, I am satisfied 
that a moderately warm stable, even with its attendant 
closeness, is better than a large and airy but consequently 
cold one ; yet, at the same time,' if artificial warmth can 
be given, the space and ventilation can scarcely be too free. 
But, est modus in rebus, every one must be ruled by the 
length of his purse ; and if he cannot afford large and 
roomy stables with a stove kept constantly going, he will 
find that his horses will be far more healthy, if the stable 
is well cleaned and drained, and they are kept warm by 
shutting it up pretty closely in severe weather. In the 
summer the doors and windows may always be open, except 
in cold nights ; but in severe winter weather a very slight 
access of fresh air can be admitted during that period of 
the twenty-four hours. During an experience of twenty 
years, with an average of three or four horses in the stable, 
I have not altogether had more than half-a-dozen cases of 
disease of any kind in my stable, over and above lameness 
incidental to road-work ; and this with a great variety of 
horses of all classes and ages. Now, in general, I have 
had a small confined stable kept warm but clean, and with 
a pretty free ventilation, yet not more than the average of 
private stables ; and the most healthy one I have ever 
had was the most confined and worst ventilated to all ap- 
pearance, but what fresh air there was entered at the heads 
of the horses ; and I have made the same remark in other 
stables. Some large airy ones were notoriously unhealthy, 
while others, close, dark, and confined, were the reverse ; 
and the conclusion I have arrived at is, that horses kept 

76 Stable Management. 

warm indoors, if care is taken of them out, are more healthy 
on the whole than those kept cool, and, as a consequence 
of their hardiness, as it is called, more exposed to the 
weather when out. If kept warm, they must assuredly be 
taken care of, but in that case they are healthy enough ; 
and consequently I arrive at the conclusion that it is not 
the warm stable, but the neglect out of it, which produces 
disease. If, therefore, horses are to be thus exposed, they 
had better be kept cool, as in hack livery stables ; but if 
not, there is no harm in proper warmth when united with 
cleanliness and caution out of doors. 

Management of the Feet. 

This department of -stable management is often sadly 
neglected by the groom, who is particular enough in every 
other respect ; but if his master is only a judge of skin 
and condition, he is too apt to leave the feet to take care 
of themselves. 

An examination of the shoes should be carefully made 
every morning when the horse comes in from exercise ; 
and if they are at all loose, or the clenches are too high, 
or the shoes are worn out, they should be renewed or re- 
moved at once. 

The feet should be examined every night as the last 
operation, to ensure freedom from stones, stubs, nails, 
&c., which may have been gathered during the day, as 
well as to see to the safety of the shoes, and general con- 
dition of the hoofs. In no case where the feet are sound 
and carefully preserved against the mutilations of the 
shoeing-smith, will that antiquated nuisance, known as 
the stopping-box, be required. Healthy horn secretes 
the necessary moisture, which is not water, but a prin- 
ciple which repels it under all ordinary circumstances. 
The so-called dry and hard hoofs are those which are 
shamefully mutilated and reduced in shoeing \ while 
those that are brittle, shelly, fleshy, and deformed are so 
by reason of breed or disease. They do not come within 
the nomenclature of sound structures, requiring special 
attention both in shoeing and in the stable. In all such 

Stable Vices. 77 

feet great good may be effected by the regular use of the 
hoof ointment. See Chapter XXIX. 

One of the good results of treatment of the feet of 
horses is seen in the plan laid down by Charlier. 
Hitherto popular systems failed to expose the causes of 
hoof destruction. Charlier's shoe is eminently suitable for 
sound feet, and the method of preparing the foot for the 
reception of his armature strikes a death-blow to hoof 
mutilation. The shoe itself possesses little merit beyond 
being light ; it is unsuited to the heavy wearers in this 
land. Many years ago, when Charlier was unknown in 
this country, his plan of hoof preparation and^ preserva- 
tion was practised by the father of the writer of these lines, 
upon all kinds of horses , with the greatest success. 


STABLE vices may be considered to include the following 
long list of offences against the code of laws made for the 
stabled horse, and enforced by the stablemen. They are : 
i, Getting loose from the head-stall ; 2, Hanging back ; 
3, Leaping into the manger ; 4, Turning round in the 
stall ; 5, Lying under the manger ; 6, Halter casting ; 7, 
Casting in the stall; 8, Kicking the stall-post; 9, Weav- 
ing; 10, Pawing; u, Eating the litter; 12, Kicking at 
man; 13, Biting; 14, Crib-biting; 15, Wind-sucking. 

Getting loose is a very troublesome vice, and many horses 
are so cunning as almost to defy the efforts of the groom 
and saddler. If, however, a head-stall is made with a strong 
throat-lash, and this tightly buckled, no horse can get it 
off, because the circumference of the head at the jaw is 
always greater than that of the neck from the back of the 
ears to the throat. If the horse bites his halter, a chain 
must be substituted : but as this makes a constant noise. 

78 Stable Vices. 

it should be avoided if possible, as other horses are readily 
kept awake by it. 

Hanging back in the collar is an attempt to get free by 
bursting the throat-lash or collar-rein, and in some cases 
great force is applied in this way so much so that many 
horses have broken their hips from the sudden giving-way 
of the halter, letting them back so that they fall over and 
injure themselves irremediably. The only cure is a strong 
chain and a head-stall that no force will break, after trying 
to burst which a few times, the horse will almost always 
desist. If the manger is not very firmly placed, another 
ring should be fixed in the wall by piercing it and screwing 
a nut on at the back. The groom should likewise watch 
for the attempt, and well flog the horse from behind im- 
mediately he sees him beginning. 

Leaping into the manger is generally a habit acquired by 
remaining too long in the stable without exercise, or from 
being too much threatened with the whip, as in dealers' 
stables. If a horse is constantly attempting it, he must be 
kept down by a short halter, which will not suffer him to 
get his nose high enough. Sometimes there is some little 
difficulty in bringing a horse down from his position ; but, 
by going quietly up to his head and pushing him to the op- 
posite side of the stall, and, at the same time, back, he may 
generally be managed without risk to either man or horse. 

Turning round in the stall is avoided by the use of two 
reins, as aleady mentioned in the description of the stable 
and its appendages. 

Lying under the manger is an awkward trick which some 
young horses have, apparently from trying to get out of 
the way and hide themselves. Sometimes they are unable 
to get up again from striking their heads against the under 
side of it when they try to rise, and they must even be 
drawn back by a girth round the breast before they can 
be rescued from the position, which has been known even 
to cause a fatal result. The modern low rack is a great 
preventive of this vice ; but sometimes even with it the 
colt will get his head under, and the only remedy is to 
board all up flush. This expedient effectually prevents the 
head going under, and should be adopted in all bad cases. 

Stable Vices. 79 

Halter casting is the getting either leg over the halter, 
and so being thrown to the ground and kept there. With 
a rope halter, or with a chain, a very ugly wound is some- 
times made in the struggles to free the leg, and often the 
tendons are exposed and their sheath sadly torn. The 
accident arises from the horse pawing with his fore-leg, or 
trying to scratch his head with his hind foot ; while the 
" sinker " attached to the halter is prevented from playing 
properly, and so leaving the halter or collar-rein hanging 
loose. The spring catch is the proper guard against this 
accident, inasmuch as though it doe's not prevent its 
occurrence it removes all injurious consequences, espe- 
cially where two collar-reins are used, because the leg is 
seldom over both in one night, and the one being liberated 
does not affect the other, which still prevents the horse 
from leaving his stall. 

Casting in the stall is the result of the natural tendency 
which most horses have to roll completely over, and which, 
in a state of freedom, is not attended with any danger ; 
though, even in the grass-field, when the ground is hard, 
I have known the withers seriously injured by constant 
attempts to roll over. When, however, the attempt is made 
in the stall, the horse often gets completely thrown upon 
his back against the wall or the travis, and is then unable 
to get back again, and lies powerless, yet struggling fear- 
fully, and often to such an extent as to rupture the colon, 
and so cause speedy death. Sometimes the horse is found 
in the morning lying across the stall doubled up in the 
most awkward manner, and with his legs inclining towards 
the manger ; at others, he is lying back as far as his rein 
will allow, with his hind legs partly in the next stall, but 
always in a helpless condition. There is no preventive 
against the accident, but it may easily be remedied when 
discovered, and hence the advantage of the groom sleep- 
ing within hearing of his charge. Two or three stirrup 
leathers buckled together, or a halter thrown over both legs, 
will readily draw the horse over on his side, and he then 
can get up without further assistance. 

Kicking the stall-post is injurious both to the kicker and 
very frequently to his next neighbour who may come in 

8o Stable Vices. 

for the blow intended for the inanimate wood. It arises 
from idleness, and is often continued almost incessantly 
night and day, except, of course, while the animal is lying 
down. Hard work is the best remedy, but when that is 
not practicable, a branch or two of furze nailed to the 
post will often stop the habit ; though, in one case, I have 
known it to aggravate a mare almost to madness, and she 
kicked herself almost blind with fury. Mares are said to 
be much more subject to this vice than geldings; but, as 
far as my experience goes, there is little difference. Logs 
of wood are commonly applied to the leg, but they are not 
nearly heavy and severe enough ; and if any good is to be 
done, the weight must be of iron or lead. A common 
heater for a tea-urn, of about 4 Ib. weight, is about as good 
as anything ; but it should not be put on until a lighter 
one has been tried for an hour or two, for if a horse is 
frightened by it,, he may do himself a serious injury. When, 
however, he is used to the wooden log, and has got over 
his first alarm, the iron weight may be buckled on, and 
will hit him hard enough to stop his frolics in any case. 
A broad strap should be buckled tightly round the leg, 
above the pastern, and the weight suspended from it, so 
as to clear the coronet, which will inflame to a mischievous 
extent if bruised. Sometimes a weight is required for each 
leg if the horse kicks both stall-posts. 

Weaving is a restless habit of moving the head in a quick 
and peculiar way from side to side of the stall, just as the 
wild beast does in his den. It may arise from an irri- 
table disposition, but the fact that few " weavers " are 
good feeders or workers, points to some internal disorder, 
which in all probability is within the stomach. In such 
cases the character of food and work must be suitable. 

Pawing is from a similar cause, and is evidenced by a 
constant working away of the litter with the fore-feet. The 
best remedy is a pair of fetters, which keep the two fore- 
legs close together, and prevent pawing with either. The 
fetters, or shackles, consist of two padded straps, large 
enough to encircle the small pastern-bone, and connected 
by a short chain of about 10 or 12 inches in length. 

Eating the litter is easily prevented by a muzzle, which 

Stable Vices. 81 

must be put on immediately after the hay is finished, and 
kept on through the night. A piece of rock salt in the 
manger will, however, often entice the horse from the litter, 
and perhaps remove the morbid and craving appetite by 
its restorative powers. 

An inveterate kicker is to be very carefully approached 
by all parties, and sometimes requires even more than 
ordinary caution, in which case a chain is run through a 
pulley in the stall-post, and from that to his head-stall ; so 
that by pulling it, his head may be pulled round towards 
the post, and by the same action his heels drawn from it, 
so as to allow the groom to go to his head when he is safe 
from the heels, Most good grooms, however, are able to 
take care of themselves, and, by constant practice, they 
learn to keep the proper distance either near enough to 
make the kick a mere push, or far enough to be out of 

Biting is managed in the same way as kicking using 
the chain, however, to draw the head to the ring of the 
rack-chain, instead of to the stall-post. In dressing biters 
a muzzle should always be put on. 

Crib-biting is a bad habit. It can be remedied either by 
a manger of such a form as to prevent the teeth seizing it 
that is, wide enough in the front edge or by a neck- 
strap buckled on tightly, or by an open iron muzzle, which 
keeps the teeth off the edge of the manger, and is some- 
times furnished with a concealed set of goads, so that, 
when the horse presses down, he pricks himself severely. 
There is no perfect cure for the vice or habit ; and when 
a horse has contracted it, he generally loses his extra fat 
and becomes lean and starved-looking. Even the muzzle 
does not entirely remove these appearances though, with 
it, the crib-biter keeps his good looks to a greater extent 
than without it. 

Wind-sucking is very simitar to crib-biting, and is pre- 
vented in the same way the only difference being that 
the same noise is not made, nor is the manger seized, but 
there is a quiet swallowing of wind, with the muzzle pressed 
against the manger, instead of the noisy one experienced 
in crib-biting. The concealed prongs are here of much 


82 Stable Vices. 

greater use than in crib-biting, and are the only effectual 
remedy against the vice. 

Tricks and Vices to which Horses are liable 
out of the Stable, 

some of which arise from fear and nervousness, and others 
from vice or from improper breaking. All vicious and ner- 
vous horses should be avoided by all who do not thorough- 
ly understand them. Of these rearing is the most danger- 
ous, as a fall over backwards often leads to fatal results to 
the rider. A horse may rear occasionally from fear, but 
it more generally proceeds from vice. Several plans and 
bits have been suggested to cure rearers, but all are at- 
tended with more or less danger to both horse and man. 
They are best left to rough riders, and those who thorough- 
ly understand the management of vicious horses, as nothing 
but time and work will cure them. 

Kicking is another dangerous vicious habit. Like rear- 
ing, it may be cured by those who thoroughly understand 
horses ; but even when perfectly quiet and manageable in 
their hands, such horses are never to be trusted with less 
experienced persons. 

Running away is another very dangerous fault. It may 
arise from vice or from the horse having been at some time 
very seriously alarmed. In the former case, a very sharp 
bit and great care may prevent it ; but in the latter, when 
the horse again becomes alarmed, nothing will stop him, 
as he is for the time in a state of madness. 

Bucking or Plunging is another dangerous habit. Some- 
times it arises from vice and sometimes only from fresh- 
ness, the horse being above himself from want of work ; 
in the latter case it is soon cured by putting him to daily 
steady work. 

Jibbing either in saddle or harness is a very dangerous 
vice, and is always the result of bad temper. In saddle 
the horse rears, kicks, and rubs the rider against anything 
in his way, He will go anywhere and rush anywhere but 
in the direction in which he is wanted to go. A good 
thrashing will sometimes cure him, but it is not always 

Stable Vices. 83 

easy to do it, as the horse invariably jibs in the most awk- 
ward and dangerous places in which to fight him. In har- 
ness the jibber will not start, he runs back, and if whipped 
or punished, will plunge and throw himself down. Such 
animals are quite unfitted for private use. 

Shying. This bad habit may arise from timidity, defec- 
tive eyesight, or bad temper. If from timidity, it can only 
be overcome by gentle usage and allowing the horse to 
pass the object without taking any notice of his fear be- 
yond patting and encouraging him ; to chastise him is 
worse than useless and senseless. If it arise from defec- 
tive vision, it will be incurable, as it will be impossible 
for the animal to see objects otherwise than through a 
distorted medium. If it arise from vice, which is fre- 
quently the case, the horse must be made firmly but tem- 
perately to pass the object at which he shies ; having 
passed it, continue the ride ; do not return and pass it 
again and again, as that only irritates him ; and when he 
finds he is mastered, he will daily improve. 

Most of the above defects and vicious habits, if not 
absolutely caused by bad and injudicious treatment and 
breaking, are often increased by it ; nor is this to be won- 
dered at, when we consider the class of men who are ge- 
nerally employed to break young horses, their roughness, 
ignorance, and often drunkenness. They break them all 
in the same way without any reference to their different 
and peculiar tempers and dispositions, whereas a little 
care and thought would check and frequently prevent 
faults and defects, which, in some cases, become incur- 
able and highly dangerous, and render the horse compa- 
ratively unsaleable. 

There are many other minor faults, too numerous to 
mention here, most of which are capable of cure, or, at 
any rate, of great amelioration, in the hands of a good 
horseman, but the less experienced will do well to pur- 
chase only such horses as are steady and suitable for their 

84 Stable Vices. 

Harness for Saddle Horses. 

These consist of saddles, bridles, breast-plates, and 

Saddles may be had of almost any size and weight. They 
may be made with either plain or padded flaps, according 
to the seat and fancy of the rider. Some prefer the former, 
and others the latter. For the generality of riders there 
cannot be a doubt that the padded flaps are by far the 
better, as they keep the knee more steadily in the proper 

place, prevent the leg flying backwards and forwards if the 
horse jumps or plunges ; while in hunting they are of a 
very material assistance in taking a drop jump, and also in 
steadying and recovering a horse when blundering or fall- 
ing at a fence. The plain flaps have perhaps a smarter 
appearance, and a clever horseman may be able to ride 
as well on them as on the padded flaps, but that is almost 
all that can be said for them. 

The saddle should be of sufficient length and breadth 
that the weight of the rider may be pretty equally dis- 
tributed over it, or the back of the horse will suffer, and 

Stable Vices. 85 

saddle-galls be the result. Every hunting and riding man 
knows, from experience, how difficult and tedious it is to 
get a back right after being once galled. 

The stirrups should not be small, for, in the event of a 
fall, the foot is more likely to hang in them. All well made 
saddles have spring bars, which should be occasionally 
oiled, that they may work easily, and release the stirrup- 
leather should such an accident occur. The stirrup-leather 
should be of the best, close and strong, not too heavy, or 
it will look clumsy. 

Every saddle requires two girths which may either be 
of the ordinary kind of the same width, with a buckle at 
each end, or one broad, with two buckles at each end, 
which is put on first, and a second, about half the width 
only, over it, with one buckle at each end. The latter, 
called the Fitzwilliam girth, is the better and stronger for 

After use, the lining of the saddle must be thoroughly 
dried in the sun or before the fire, and then well brushed, 
which will keep it soft and clean. 

This is particularly necessary with side-saddles. It is 
for want of this care and attention that so many horses 
have sore backs. When dirty, the saddle must be sponged 
clean, but not made more wet than is absolutely necessary ; 

86 Stable Vices. 

after which, a little soft soap rubbed on will preserve the 
leather soft and pliable, and prevent it cracking. 

In choosing a saddle, go to a first-rate maker ; he may 
be a little more expensive, but you will get a good article, 
that will wear three times as long as an inferior one. will 
fit the generality of horses, will never get out of form, and 
will look well to the last. The price, complete, will be 
about 6 guineas; that of a side-saddle, about 10 guineas. 

The Breast-plate or Hunting-plate is used to keep the 
saddle in its place when hunting. It is also of great service 
on horses with short back-ribs, to prevent the saddle 
working back, which it is very likely to do. But on the 
road and in the field no lady should ride without one, as 
it will keep the side-saddle securely in its place, and pre- 
vent it turning round should the girth get loosened, or one 

The Martingale is used to steady the horse's head, and 
keep it in proper place. 

It is generally used on loose weak-necked horses, and 
though of service in the hands of the experienced, it is 
often dangerous when used by others, as being apt to catch 
on the bit or buckles of the bridle, and so cause serious 

The Bridle. There is a great variety of bits suitable for 
different descriptions and tempers of horses, but it is im- 
possible to describe them all in so limited a space. They 
all belong to one of two classes the snaffle or the curb, 
and are of different degrees of severity and power. 

The Snaffle is a piece of steel with a joint in the middle ; 
it may be smooth and plain, twisted, or double-jointed. 
The smooth snaffle is the mildest form of bit there is, and, 
except just for exercise, few horses ride pleasantly in one. 
The twisted bit is sharper, and if drawn quickly backwards 
and forwards through the mouth, is very punishing. The 
double-jointed is the most severe; it is formed of two 
plain snaffles one. above the other; but the joints in each 
not being opposite each other, cause a sharper and more 
narrow pressure on the tongue and lower jaw. Very few 
horses ride well and pleasantly in a snaffle of any kind, 
as they all cause a horse to raise his head and open his 

Stable Vices. 87 

mouth, to take the pressure off his tongue. In addition 
to this there are the Chain-snaffle, which is a very light bit, 
and the Gag, used for horses that get their heads down. 

The Curb-bit is a lever that, by means of a curb-chain, 
acts upon the lower jaw, and may be made very easy or 
very severe according to the length of cheek or leverage, 
and the height of the port or arch in the centre of the 
mouth-piece. It is very seldom used singly, but in con- 
junction with some kind of snaffle, when it forms a double- 
rein bridle, and is by far the most useful bit. All horses 
go better in it, when properly handled, than in any other, 
as by lengthening or shortening the curb-chain, and taking 
up or dropping the bit in the mouth, it can be made either 
less or more severe, to suit most horses. 

The Pelham is a curb and snaffle in one ; it is a curb- 
bit with a joint in the middle, instead of a port. It forms 
a double-rein bridle, and is very light and easy. 

The Hanoverian is of the same description, but with a 
port and a joint at each side of it. The mouth-piece is 
covered with small rollers. This forms a double-rein bridle 
of great power and severity, requiring great care and judg- 

Like saddles, the bridles should be of first-rate material 
and workmanship ; the bits sewn on to the head-pieces 
and reins, as being much neater and lighter than the 
buckles. The leather must be kept clean and pliable with 
soft soap, and the bits clean and bright with silver-sand 
and oil. Price of a snaffle bridle about 2os., and of a 
double-rein bridle 2%s. to 30^., according to the sort of 
bit required. 

Harnessing and Putting-to. 

Harnessing, In all cases the first thing to be done, after 
the horse is dressed, is to put on the collar, which is effected 
by turning the horse round in his stall, and slipping it over 
his head, with the large end upwards. This inversion is 
required because the front of the head is the widest part, 
and is in this way adapted to the widest part of the collar, 
which, even with this arrangement, will in coarsely-bred 

88 Stable Vices. 

horses hardly pass over the cheek-bones. Before the collar 
is put in its place, the hames are put on and buckled; for 
if this was delayed until after it had been reversed, they 
would have to be held on while the hame-straps were being 
drawn together, whereas in this way their own weight keeps 
them in place. They are now reversed altogether, and 
the pad put in its place ; before buckling the belly-band 
of which, the crupper is slipped over the tail by doubling 
up all the hair, and grasping it carefully in the left hand 
while the right adapts the crupper. A careful examination 
should always be made that no hairs are left under it, for 
if they are they irritate the skin, and often cause a fit of 
kicking. After the crupper is set right the pad is drawn 
forwards, and its belly-band buckled up pretty tightly ; the 
bridle is now put on, and the curb-chain properly applied ; 
the reins being slipped through the terrets and buckled on 
both sides, if for single harness, or on the outside only if 
for double, and the driving-rein folded back and tied in 
the pad terret. 

Putting-to is managed very differently, according to 
whether the horse is going in shafts or with a pole. If for 
shafts, they are tilted up and held there by one person, 
while the other backs the horse until he is under them, 
when they are dropped down, and the tugs slipped under 
or over the ends of the shafts, according to the formation 
of the tugs, some being hooks, and others merely leather 
loops. Care must be taken that they do not slip beyond 
the pins on the shafts. The traces are now attached to 
the drawing-bar, the breechen or kicking-strap buckled, 
and the false belly-band buckled up pretty tightly, so as to 
keep the shafts steady. In four-wheeled carriages it should 
be left tolerably loose when a breechen is used, to allow 
of this having free play. The reins are now untwisted from 
the terret, and the horse is put-to. For double harness, 
the first thing is to bring the horse round by the side of 
the pole, and put the pole-piece through the sliding ring 
of the hames, the groom holding it, or else buckling it at 
the longest hole while the traces are being put-to ; as soon 
as this is done, the pole-piece is buckled up to its proper 
length, each coupling-rein buckled to the opposite horse's 



Stable Vices. 89 

bit, the driving-reins untwisted from the terret, and the 
two buckled together, and the horses are ready. The 
leaders of a tandem or four-in-hand are easily attached, 
and their reins are passed through the rings on the head 
of the wheelers, and through the upper half of the pad 

Unharnessing is exactly the reverse of the above, every- 
thing being undone exactly in the same order in which it 
was done. The chief errors in either are in double har- 
ness, in not attaching the pole-piece at once in putting-to, 
or in unbuckling it altogether too soon, by which the horse 
is at liberty to get back upon the bars, and often does 
considerable damage by kicking. 

Cleaning Harness, &c. 

Both single and double harness should be of the best 
leather and workmanship. 

The harness for carriage horses of all sorts is too well 
known to need repetition here ; the only difference is that 
some prefer it very neat, and only use what is absolutely 
necessary, while others like it covered with plate or brass, 
and use as much as they can possibly get on the horse. 
The price will vary according to the amount of plate or 
brass-work on it. A set of single harness will cost from 
12 to ;i6, or even more ; and a set of double harness 
from 2$ to ^35. Care must always be taken that the 
collars are deep enough, otherwise the horse's shoulders 
will suffer. The proper way to fit a collar is to hold the 
horse's head up as high as he usually carries it when going, 
and then leave room to put the hand in comfortably. 
^ Many horses, particularly those defective in the wind, 
go better in a pipe collar. On coming in from use, the 
bits, terrets, &c., should first be removed, then the harness, 
if dirty, should be carefully washed clean, but not made 
more wet than absolutely necessary, then dried in the har- 
ness-room, but not put near the fire \ when dry it should 
be thoroughly done over with some harness paste or polish, 
and well brushed bright. The bits and terrets, &c., are 
also cleaned and polished, and everything is ready for use, 

90 Breeding. 

Duties. The duty on every horse is io.f. 6d. ; on every 
carriage with four wheels, 2 2s. on every carriage with 
two wheels, 15^. ; on every man-servant, i$s. 


Most profitable kind Selection of Brood Mare Choice of Stallion Best age to 
breed from Best time for breeding Treatment of the Mare -Management 
of the Foal Directions for rearing The Foals of Farm Horses. 

The most profitable kind of Breeding. 

IN many cases the breeder undertakes his task for 
the purpose of gratifying his taste for rural sports and 
amusements, and without regard to profit ; but in most 
instances there will be a desire to make the speculation 
successful in a pecuniary point of view, as well as with 
regard to honorary distinction on the turf. But when it is re- 
membered that three-fourths of the horses bred expressly for 
racing are worthless for that purpose, and that each colt 
or filly costs considerably more than 100 at three years 
old, it becomes a question how best to conduct operations 
so as to make use of the casts-off from the racing stable 
for other purposes. The question is solved in this way : 
there are certain breeds of horses which are first-rate on 
the turf, and also in the hunting field ; and if I were select- 
ing mares for general purposes, it would be my object to 
obtain those got by one or other of them. On the other 
hand, there are many strains of good racing blood which 
have never, or scarcely ever, turned out a hunter or a 
steeplechaser, and though such blood may suit the breeder 
for one purpose, it is not calculated to serve the man who 

Breeding. 9 1 

wishes two strings to his bow. From these remarks it may 
be gathered, that, in my humble opinion, a breeding stud 
may be formed which shall produce a few colts and fillies 
capable of racing, whilst those which are not race horses 
may be expected to serve as hunters of a high class. By 
this plan a greater number of prizes will be drawn in the 
lottery, and the scheme will pay far better than on the 
exclusive principle. So long as thorough-bred hunters are 
the fashion, and command such high prices, it will be found 
that it is a much more paying speculation to sell off the 
drafts at hunters' prices, than for the wretched sums which 
they fetch as racing stock. There are so many accidents 
and risks in all stud farms, that a great number will always 
be useless or dead, and the blanks will in proportion be 
numerous ; consequently it is highly necessary to make 
the most of the materials which are available for paying 
the expense of the establishment. If, then, instead of 
selling off the rejected three-year-olds, such as are of good 
size are turned out, and allowed to grow and thicken 
till they are five, they might then be re-broken and made 
into hunters, or sold for that purpose, without incur- 
ring any trouble or risk; and they would fetch from 
^150 to ,-200 apiece, or in some cases considerably 

SELECTION OF BROOD MARE. In choosing the brood 
mare four things must be considered first, her blood ; 
secondly, her frame ; thirdly, her state of health ; and 
fourthly, her temper. 

Her blood or breeding will mainly depend upon the 
views of the breeder that is to say, what particular class 
of colts he wishes to obtain, and according to his decision 
he will look out for mares of the particular kind he desires 
to reproduce, on the principle that "like begets like," 
subject to the considerations above stated. 

In frame the mare should be so formed as to be 
capable of carrying and well nourishing her offspring; 
that is, she should be what is called "/oomy." There is 
a formation of the hips which is particularly unfit for 
breeding purposes, and yet which is sometimes carefully 
selected, because it is considered elegant ; this is the 


level and straight hip, in which the tail is set on very 
high, and the end of the haunch -bone is nearly on a 
level with the projection of the hip-bone. The opposite 

Breeding. 03 

form is represented in the skeleton, which is that of a 
thorough-bred mare, well formed for this breeding pur- 
pose, but in other respects rather too slight. By ex- 
amining her pelvis, it will be seen that the haunch-bone 
forms a considerable angle with the sacrum, and that, 
as a consequence, there is plenty of room, not only 
for carrying the foal, but for allowing it to pass into 
the world. Both of these points are important, the 
former evidently so, and the latter no less so on con- 
sideration, because if the foal is injured in the birth, 
either of necessity, or from ignorance or carelessness, it 
will often fail to recover its powers, and will remain 
permanently injured. The pelvis, then, should be wide 
and deep that is to say, it should be large and roomy ; 
and there should also be a little more than the average 
length from the hip to the shoulder, so as to give plenty 
of bed for the foal ; as well as a good depth of back-ribs, 
which is necessary in order to support this increased 
length. This gives the whole framework of the trunk of 
a larger proportion than is always desirable in the race 
horse, which may be easily overtopped ; and hence many 
good runners have failed as brood mares, whilst a great 
number of bad runners have been dams of good race 
horses. Beyond this roomy frame, necessary as the egg- 
shell of the foal, the mare only requires such a shape and 
make as is well adapted for the particular purpose she is 
intended for ; or if not possessing it herself, she should 
belong to a family having it. If a mare can be obtained 
possessing all these requisites in her own person, so much 
the more likely will she be to produce race horses ; but if 
npt all, then it is better that she should add as many as 
possible to the needful framework, without which her 
office can hardly be well carried out. But with this 
suitable frame, if she belongs to a family which, as a rule, 
possesses all the attributes of a race horse, she may be 
relied on with some degree of certainty, even though she 
herself should fail in some of them. Thus there are 
many fine roomy mares which have been useless as race 
horses from being deficient in the power of some one 
quarter, either behind or before, or perhaps a little too 

94 Breeding. 

slack in the loin for their length. Such animals, if of 
good running families, should not be despised ; and many 
such have stood their owners in good stead. On the 
other hand, some good-looking animals have never thrown 
good stock, because they were only exceptional cases, 
and their families were of bad running blood on all or 
most sides. No mare could look much more unlike pro- 
ducing strong stock than Pocahontas, but being of a 
family which numbers Selim, Bacchante, Tramp, Web, 
Orville, Eleanor, and Marmion among its eight members 
in the third remove, it can scarcely occasion surprise that 
she should respond to the call of the Baron by producing 
a Stockwell and a Rataplan. 

In health, the brood mare should be as near perfection 
as the artificial state of this animal will allow ; at all 
events, it is the most important point of all ; and in every 
case the mare should be very carefully examined, with a 
view to discover what deviations from a natural state have 
been entailed upon her by her own labours, and what she 
has inherited from her ancestors. Independently of the 
consequences of accidents, all deviations from a state of 
health in the mare may be considered as more or less 
transmitted to her, because in a thoroughly sound consti- 
tution, no ordinary treatment such as training consists of 
will produce disease, and it is only hereditary predis- 
position which, under this process, entails its appearance. 
Still, there are positive, comparative, and superlative 
degrees of objectionable diseases incidental to the brood 
mare, which should be accepted or refused accordingly. 
All accidental defects, such as broken knees, dislocated 
hips, or even " breaks down," may be passed over ; the 
latter, however, only when the stock from which the mare 
is descended are famous for standing their work without 
this frailty of sinew and ligament. Spavins, ring-bones, 
large splents, side-bones, and, in fact, all bony enlarge- 
ments, are constitutional defects, and will be almost sure 
to be perpetuated, more or less, according to the degree 
in which they exist in the particular case. Curby hocks 
are also hereditary, and should be avoided ; though many 
a one much bent at the junction of the os calcis with the 

Breeding. 95 

astragalus is not at all liable to curbs. It is the defective 
condition of the ligaments there, not the angular junction, 
which leads to curbs ; and the breeder should carefully 
investigate the individual case before accepting or reject- 
ing a mare with suspicious hocks. Bad feet, whether 
from contraction or from too flat and thin a sole, should 
also be avoided ; but when they have obviously arisen 
from bad shoeing, the defect may be passed over. Such 
are the chief varieties of unsoundness in the legs which 
require circumspection ; the good points which, on the 
other hand, are to be looked for, are those considered 
desirable in all horses that are subjected to the shocks of 
the gallop. Calf knees are generally bad in the race 
horse, and are very apt to be transmitted, whilst the 
opposite form is also perpetuated, but is not nearly so 
disadvantageous. Such are the general considerations 
bearing upon soundness of limb. That of the wind is no 
less important. Broken-winded mares seldom breed, and 
they are therefore out of the question, if for no other 
reason ; but no one would risk the recurrence of this 
disease, even if he could get such a mare stinted. Roar- 
ing is a much-vexed question, which is by no means the- 
oretically settled among our chief veterinary authorities, 
nor practically by our breeders. Every year, however, 
it becomes more and more frequent and important, and 
the risk for reproduction is too great for any person 
wilfully to run by breeding from a roarer. As far as I 
can learn, it appears to be much more hereditary on the 
side of the mare than on that of the horse ; and not even 
the offer of a Virago should tempt me to use her as a 
brood mare. There are so many different conditions 
which produce what is called " roaring," that it is difficult 
to form any opinion which shall apply to all cases. In 
some instances, where it has arisen from neglected 
strangles, or from a simple inflammation of the larynx, 
the result of cold, it will probably never reappear ; but 
when the genuine idiopathic roaring has made its appear- 
ance, apparently depending upon a disease of the nerves 
of the larynx, it is ten to one that the produce will suffer 
in the same way. Blindness, again, may or may not be 

96 Breeding. 

hereditary ; but in all cases it should be viewed with 
suspicion as great as that due to roaring. Simple cataract 
without inflammation undoubtedly runs in families ; and 
when a horse or mare has both eyes suffering from this 
disease, without any other derangement of the eye, I 
should eschew it carefully. When blindness is the result 
of violent inflammation brought on by bad management, 
or by influenza, or any other similar cause, the eye itself 
is more or less disorganized ; and though this itself is 
objectionable, as showing a weakness of the organ, it is 
not so bad as the regular cataract. Such are the chief 
absolute defects, or deviations, from health in the mare ; 
to which may be added a general delicacy of constitution, 
which can only be guessed from the amount of flesh 
which she carries while sucking or on poor " keep," or 
from her appearance on examination by an experienced 
hand, using his eyes as well. The firm full muscle, the 
bright and lively eye, the healthy-looking coat at all 
seasons, rough though it may be "in the winter, proclaim 
the hardiness of constitution which is wanted, but which 
often coexists with infirm legs and feet. Indeed, some- 
times the very best-topped animals have the worst legs 
and feet, chiefly owing to the extra weight they and their 
ancestors also have had to carry. Crib-biting is some- 
times a habit acquired from idleness, as also is wind- 
sucking ; but if not caused by indigestion, it often leads 
to it, and is very commonly caught by the offspring. It 
is true that it may be prevented by a strap ; but it is not 
a desirable accomplishment in the mare, though of less 
importance than those to which I have already alluded, if 
, not accompanied by absolute loss of health, as indicated 
by emaciation or the state of the skin. 

Lastly, the temper is of the utmost importance, by 
which must be understood not that gentleness at grass 
which may lead the breeder's family to pet the mare, but 
such a temper as will serve for the purposes of her rider, 
and will answer to the stimulus of the voice, whip, or spur. 
A craven or a rogue is not to be thought of as the 
" mother of a family ;" and if a mare belongs to a breed 
which is remarkable for refusing to answer the call of the 

Breeding. 97 

rider, she should be consigned to any task rather than the 
stud farm. Neither should a mare be used for this purpose 
which had been too irritable to train, unless she happened 
to be an exceptional case ; but if of an irritable family, 
she would be worse even than a roarer or a blind one. 
These are defects which are apparent in the colt or filly, 
but the irritability which interferes with training often 
leads to the expenditure of large sums on the faith of 
private trials, which are lost from the failure in public, 
owing to this defect of nervous system. 

Choice of Stallion. 

Like the brood mare, the stallion requires several es- 
sentials commencing also like her, first, with his blood ; 
secondly, his individual shape ; thirdly, his health ; and 
fourthly, his temper. But there is this difficulty in select- 
ing the stallion, that he must not only be suitable per 
se, but he must also be adapted to the particular mare 
which he is to " serve." Thus, it will be manifest that 
the task is more difficult than the fixing upon a brood 
mare, because (leaving out of consideration all other 
points but blood) in the one case, a mare only has to be 
chosen which is of good blood for racing purposes, while 
in the other there must be the same attention paid to this 
particular, and also to the stallion's suitability to the mare, 
or to " hit " with her blood. Hence, all the various 
theories connected with generation must be investigated, 
in order to do justice to the subject ; and the breeder 
must make up his mind whether in-and-in-breeding, as a 
rule, is desirable or otherwise; and, if so, whether it 
is adapted to the particular case he is considering. 
Most men make up their minds one way or the other 
on this subject, and act accordingly, in which decision 
much depends upon the prevailing fashion. The rock 
upon which most men split is a bigoted favouritism 
for some particular horse ; thus, one man puts all his 
mares to Orlando ; another to Surplice or the Flying 
Dutchman ; although they may every one be of different 
blood and form to the others. Now, this cannot possibly 

98 Breeding. 

be right if there is any principle whatever in breeding ; 
and, however good a horse may be, he cannot be suited 
to all mares. Some, again, will say that any horse will 
do, and that all is a lottery ; but I think I shall be able 
to show that there is some science required to enable the 
breeder to draw many prizes. That the system generally 
followed of late is a bad one I am satisfied, and with the 
usual and constant crossing and re-crossing, it is almost a 
lottery ; but upon proper principles, and with careful 
management, I am tempted to believe that there would 
be fewer blanks than at present. 

In choosing the particular blood which will suit any 
given mare, my impression always would be, that it is 
desirable to fix upon the best strain in her pedigree, if not 
already twice bred in-and-in, and then to put to her the 
best stallion available of that blood. In some cases, of 
course, it will happen that the second best strain will 
answer better, because there happens to be a better horse 
of that blood to be had than of the superior strain, which 
would otherwise be preferred. If, on the other hand, the 
mare has already been in-bred to the extent of two degrees, 
then a cross will be advisable ; but I arn much inclined 
to believe, from the success of certain well-known cases, 
that even then a cross into blood already existing in the 
mare, but not recently in-bred nor used more than once, 
will sometimes answer. Upon these principles I should, 
therefore, look for success ; as the production of good win- 
ners has so often followed this practice as to make its 
adoption exceedingly tempting. 

The choice of particular stallions, as dependent upon 
their formation, is not less difficult than that of the mare, 
and it must be guided by nearly the same principles, 
except that there is no occasion for any framework espe- 
cially calculated for nourishing and containing the foetus, 
as in her case. As far as possible, the horse should 
be the counterpart of what is desired in the produce, 
though sometimes it may be necessary to select an animal 
of a breed slightly exaggerating the peculiarity which is 
sought for, especially when that is not connected with the 
preponderance of fore or hind-quarters. Thus, if the mare 

Breeding. 99 

is very leggy, a more than usual short-legged horse may 
be selected, or if the neck is too short or too long, an 
animal with this organ particularly long or the reverse, as 
the case may be, should be sought out. But in all cases 
it is dangerous to attempt to make too sudden an altera- 
tion with regard to size, as the effort will generally end in 
a colt made without due proportion of parts, and there- 
fore more or less awkward and unwieldy. 

In constitution and general health, the same remarks 
exactly apply to the horse as the mare. All hereditary 
diseases are to be avoided as far as possible, though few 
horses are to be met with entirely free from all kinds of 
unsoundness, some the effect of severe training, and 
others resulting from actual disease, occurring from other 
causes. With regard to fatness, there is an extraordinary 
desire for horses absolutely loaded with fat, just as there 
formerly was for over-fed oxen at Christmas. It is quite 
true that the presence of a moderate quantity of fat is a 
sign of a good constitution, but like all other good quali- 
ties, it may be carried to excess, so as to produce disease ; 
and just as there often is hypertrophy, or excess of 
nourishment of the heart, or any bony parts, so is there 
often a like superabundance of fat, causing obstruction to 
the due performance of the animal functions, and often 
ending in premature death. This is in great measure 
owing to want of exercise, but also to over-stimulating 
food ; and the breeder who wishes his horse to last, and 
also to get good stock, should take especial care that he 
has enough of the one and not too much of the other. 

In temper, also, there is no more to be added to what 
I have said relating to the mare, except that there are 
more bad-tempered stallions met with than mares, inde- 
pendently of their running, and this is caused by the con- 
stant state of unnatural excitement in which they are kept. 
This kind of vice is, however, not of so much importance, 
as it does not affect the running of the stock, and solely 
interferes with their stable management. 

IOO Breeding. 

Best Age to Breed from. 

It is commonly supposed that one or other of the parents 
should be of mature age, and that if both are very young 
or very old the produce will be decrepit or weakly. A 
great many of our best horses have been out of old mares, 
or by old horses as, for instance, Priam, out of Cressida, 
at twenty ; Crucifix, out of Octaviana, at twenty-two ; and 
Lottery and Bnitandorf, out of Mandane, at twenty and 
twenty-one ; Voltaire got Voltigeur at twenty-one ; Bay 
Middleton was the sire of Andover at eighteen; and 
Touchstone got Newminster at seventeen. On the other 
hand, many young stallions and mares have succeeded 
well, and in numberless instances the first foal of a mare 
has been the best she ever produced. In the olden times, 
Mark Anthony and Conductor were the first foals of their 
dams ; and more recently, Shuttle, Pope, Filho da Puta, 
Sultan, Pericles, Oiseau, Doctor Syntax, Manfred, and 
Pantaloon have all been first-born. Still these are excep- 
tions, and the great bulk of superior horses are produced 
later in the series. The youngest dam which I ever heard 
of was Monstrosity, foaled in 1838, who produced Ugly 
Buck at three years old, having been put to Venison when 
only two years of age. Her dam also was only one year 
older when she was foaled ; and Venison himself was quite 
a young stallion, being only seven years old when he got 
Ugly Buck ; so that altogether the last-mentioned horse 
was a remarkable instance of successful breeding from 
young parents. As in most cases of the kind, however, 
his early promises were not carried out, and he showed 
far better as a two-year-old, and early in the following 
year, than in his maturity. Such is often the case, and, I 
believe, is a very general rule in breeding all animals, 
whether horses, dogs, or cattle. The general practice in 
breeding is to use young stallions with old mares, and to 
put young mares to old stallions ; and such appears to be 
the best plan, judging from theory as well as practice. 

Best Time for Breeding. 

For all racing purposes an early foal is important, 
because the age take date from the ist January. The 

Breeding. IOI 

mare, therefore, should be put to the horse in February, 
so as to foal as soon after ist January as possible. As, 
however, many mares foal a little before the end of the 
eleventh month, it is not safe to send her to the horse 
before the middle of the second month in the year. For 
ordinary horses, colts foaled in March are generally 
hardier and stronger than those foaled afterwards. 

Treatment of the Mare. 

The mare should be allowed to be at large in the fields 
during the day-time, as exercise is of the greatest conse- 
quence to her health ; and she should be carefully kept 
from the sight of any object which can terrify or distress 
her, such as pig-killing. When the mare is near her time, 
she shows her state by the filling of the udder, and by the 
falling in of the muscles on each side of the croup, which 
the farriers call the " sinking of the bones." When these 
signs appear the mare should be constantly watched, 
in order that assistance may be given her if there is any 
difficulty in the presentation. 

As soon as the foal is born the mare should be allowed 
to clean it, and the secundines are removed by the 
attendant ; after which the mare should have a little warm 
gruel, and, if very much exhausted, one to three ounces of 
nitrous ether may be added, and repeated in six or eight 
hours, if needful. It often happens with the first foal that 
the mare will not take to it, and not only refuses to clean 
it, but actually denies it the proper nourishment from her 
teats. W T hen this is the case, the man should milk the 
mare and soothe her, and after her udder is somewhat 
empty, and she is relieved, she will generally allow the 
foal to suck. They should never be left alone till this 
has taken place, as it is dangerous to do so, for fear of the 
mare doing a fatal injury to her offspring. Before the 
coat of the foal is dry, the mane should be combed all on 
one side ; by which precaution that ragged unsightly look 
is avoided which it has if part hangs one side and part on 
the other. For the first twenty-four hours, nothing besides 
warm gruel and a very little hay should be given to the 
mare ; but when the secretion of milk is fully established 

IO2 Breeding. 

she requires corn, bran mashes, with malt, carrots, Swedes, 
lucerne, or green food in some shape, according to the 
season of the year. 

Management of the Foal. 

Handling the foal should be commenced as soon as he 
is born, because it is at that time that he is most easily 
rendered tractable, and regardless of the presence of his 
attendant, who should make a practice of nibbing his 
head, picking up his feet, &c., long before he wants to 
do anything with those parts. But if these acts are post- 
poned till they are really wanted to be done, the colt is 
wild and unmanageable, and neither physic nor anything 
else can be administered without a degree of violence 
very dangerous to its welfare. The foal is very liable to 
diarrhoea, which should at once be checked by a drench of 
rice-water, with one or two drachms of laudanum ; this 
will always stop it if repeated after every loose motion. 
The sun should in all cases be admitted to the box, 
whether in winter or summer, and without it no young 
animal will long be in health. If the weather is very 
severe, with wet as well as cold, the upper half only of the 
door should be opened while the sun is out ; but if the 
weather is dry, the mare and fyal may be allowed to run 
into the yard, or, if not very cold and frosty, into the 
paddock for a short time. By the end of the month the 
foal will begin to eat kibbled oats, which may be given in 
its own low manger, and with the mare tied up to hers. 
As many of them as the foal will eat will do good ; and 
it never happens, that I have heard, that a young foal will 
eat more than enough of this food, which is the mainstay 
of the young racer. Much of the success of racing stock 
depends upon their early forcing by means of corn ; and 
as far as he is concerned, the mare as well as himself can 
hardly have too much, consistently with a continuance of 
health. When the mare is tied up the halter should not 
be longer than necessary, nor should it be fastened to a 
low ring, as it has often happened that the foal has 
become entangled in it when low, and has been ruined by 
its own struggles, or those of its mother. At six months 

Breeding. 103 

old the foal is usually weaned, previously to which he 
should wear a light and well-fitting head-collar, by which 
he may be led about with a length of webbing attached to 
it by a buckle. This is more easily done before weaning 
than after, as the mare may always be made an induce- 
ment to- the foal, and it will thereby be half coaxed and 
half led by a little manoeuvring, whereas if entirely alone, 
the foal will struggle in order to escape, and will not so 
easily be controlled. Two quarterns of kibbled oats may 
now be given to the foal during the day, which, with the 
grass of summer, will keep him in high flesh, and by this 
time he ought to have grown into a very good-sized 
animal. By this treatment the foals are made strong and 
hardy against the advent of the winter season, during 
which time their progress is not nearly so fast as in the 
summer ; and, in spite of every precaution, there are 
constantly drawbacks in the shape of colds, dysentery, 
&c. Feeding in this mode is the great secret in rearing 
racing stock ; and though cow's milk, steamed turnips, 
&c., will make the yearling look fat and fleshy, you will 
never see that appearance of high breeding and condition 
which is given by corn, nor when put into training do 
they pass through that ordeal in the way which corn-fed 
colts 'and fillies may be expected to do. At this age, 
when fed in this way, foals are as mischievous as monkeys, 
and great care should be taken that they have nothing in 
their way which can possibly injure them. Brooms, 
shovels, pikes, and buckets must always be kept away 
from their reach, and all gates and fences must be care- 
fully put in order. Indeed, with every precaution, they 
will strain themselves in their play ; and if all these points 
are not attended to, the consequence is almost sure to be 
fatal to life or limb. During the winter .young racing 
stock should all be carefully housed at night ; and their 
corn may be increased to three quarterns a day as soon as 
the grass fails, with plenty of good sound old hay, and 
occasionally a few carefully sliced carrots or Swedes. 
During all this time they should still be constantly handled 
and led about ; and when removed from one pasture to 
another, they should always be caught and led by the 

104 Breeding. 

length of webbing. The absence of this precaution is a 
fertile source of accidents, while its adoption is only 
an instance of that constant handling which must be 
attended to even were no removal necessary. These 
remarks will carry on the treatment of the yearling to the 
time when he is broken-in and put into training. At this 
time that is, in the second summer, and as soon as there 
is plenty of grass the yearling should begin to assume 
the appearance of the horse, with arms and thighs well 
developed, and with a fair allowance of fat, which, though 
not necessary for racing purposes, is always an indication 
of high health, and will make its appearance on the ribs 
of a stout and healthy colt in spite of all the exercise in 
the shape of frolics and gallops which his high spirits 
induce him to take. During the early spring months this 
cannot always be expected, from the nature of the food ; 
but after May the flesh ought always to be rather full and 
round than wiry and free from fat, which latter condition 
indicates a delicacy of constitution unfavourable to the 
purposes of the race horse. 

Physicking the yearling or the foal is sometimes neces- 
sary, when he is getting off his feed, or is bound in his 
bowels, or his eyes are becoming inflamed, or otherwise 
indicating that he is over-corned. This is a very common 
state of things, and the remedy is a dose of the common 
aloetic ball, for which see the "Diseases of the Horse," for 
the dose and mode of administration. About one-quarter 
of an ordinary ball is the smallest dose likely to be 
beneficial to the young foal. 

The following useful directions for the rearing of the 
foals of cart horses are extracted from Mr. Morton's 
" Farmer's Calendar." 

" Foals dropped, as they should be, before the middle of 
May may be weaned about Michaelmas, when the mare 
will be required for the labours of the farm. When, how- 
ever, the mare's milk is deficient in quantity or indifferent 
in quality, it is often advisable to wean the colt much 
earlier. If this has to be done before the young animal 
is many weeks old, it must be supplied several times daily 
with cow's milk, to which a little sugar is added. Besides 

Breeding. 105 

picking a little grass or clover, the young animal must 
further be early taught to eat a few bruised oats, some 
steamed bran, or other such food. At Michaelmas, the 
foal, if healthy and well grazed, will be strong and in good 
condition, and the progress thus made must not be lost. 
In many parts of England, and especially where old 
pastures abound, young horses, often promising and well- 
bred, are stunted in growth and spoilt by being kept in 
the fields late in autumn, and even during winter exposed 
to the inclemency of all weathers, and receiving nothing 
but the coarse innutritive grass they gather. This is 
wretched parsimony. There can be no greater mistake 
than to stint young animals, or allow them to lose during 
winter the condition acquired in summer. So soon as the 
October nights get long and cold, foals should be brought 
into the yards or sheds, or placed in a field with a good 
open hovel into which they may run at pleasure. They 
must further be supplied, at least once a day, with some 
hay and a few bruised oats mixed with chaff or bran. If 
the weather continue tolerably fine, they will thrive better 
if thus allowed to be in the fields during the day, and pro- 
tected at night. When frost and snow set in, the foals 
may be placed in their winter quarters. A good yard, 
sufficiently roomy for exercise, and provided with an open 
shed, is preferable to a loose box. Colts and cattle 
seldom agree well in the same yard. The colts, full of 
play, chase and disturb their more placid neighbours, 
which occasionally retaliate by a dangerous thrust of the 
horn. Barley and oat straw, frequently varied with an 
occasional allowance of bean or pea straw, may constitute 
the bulk of their winter food. A few handfuls of hay once 
a day are well bestowed, and are absolutely essential for 
weakly or late foals. A few sliced Swedes^ mangolds, or 
carrots, regularly given with some chaff, cut straw, or hay, 
keep the bowels open, and add to the general health. 
But besides this, and especially if the colts live more on 
straw than hay, they require some food of more nutritive 
character to keep them growing. For this end, supply to 
each foal daily three or four pounds of oats, which are 
best given cracked or bruised, along with several handfuls 

io6 Breeding. 

of chaff, and divided into a morning and evening feed. 
An occasional bran mash is also advisable ; a pound of 
bruised oil-cake daily, given with the oats, tends to keep 
the skin in a healthy state, and is especially useful when 
roots are not to be had ; a piece of rock salt in the rack 
or manger contributes to digestion and health, whilst 
a sufficient supply of good water is fully as essential 
as good food. In early spring, and before there is 
sufficient grass to afford a full bite, colts may be ad- 
vantageously turned out during the day, and brought in at 
night. Their management during the summer requires 
less notice. If they are to come to good size they must 
still be liberally dealt with, placed on good grass, their 
pasture varied occasionally, and ensured at all times a 
good supply of water. In the succeeding winter their 
age and strength enable them to stand more hardships, 
and their fare need not be so nutritive as during their first 
winter. Good fresh straw, of varied sorts, a liberal supply 
of sliced roots, with corn, bran, and chaff as before, will 
generally suffice without hay to keep them growing in 
sound health and improving condition." 

For the rearing of young horses it is necessary that 
farmers have enclosures or conveniences for letting their 
colts run out during fine winter weather, or an open shed 
in their pasture where they can receive their allowance of 
corn or hay, and, at the same time, be sheltered from the 
inclemency of the weather. Nothing can be more per- 
nicious to horses' feet than the heat arising from litter, to 
which colts are subjected when fed and reared in yards 
and boxes. 

There is no principle of greater importance in horse 
feeding than the liberal feeding of foals during their whole 
growth. They ought to have a due proportion of cooked 
food when they are changing their teeth. The plan 
of manger-feeding, that is, giving crushed oats and beans, 
cut hay and straw, mixed together, at the time they are 
changing their teeth, would prevent them becoming re- 
duced to the low state we see them at that period. 

Breaking. 107 


Paddock Leading tackle Shoeing Tying-up in the stable Breaking 
Mouthing-bit Breaking to harness Breaking and teaching a Hunter 
Breaking the Lady's Horse. 

THE breaking of colts is generally commenced in 
warm summer weather, and there is no danger in allow- 
ing the colt to be at liberty during the day, at such hours 
as are not required to be occupied by the breaker's 

It is necessary to have a series of airy boxes, separated 
from one another, and at least 1 8 ft. by 12 ft., with a very 
free circulation of air. These are much better made open 
to the roof, as they are never used in cold weather for 
horses, and will then serve for any other kind of stock if 
required ; but at all events they should now be as airy, as 
it is possible to make them. Many people object to the 
use of litter at this period, as being different to the cool 
grass to which the colt has been accustomed, and recom- 
mend tan as a much better kind of material for the floor 
of the box. I am inclined to think that there is great 
reason in this objection, and that the latter article is less 
likely to produce that contraction of the feet which so 
commonly occurs in the horse in training. A shady pad- 
dock, with as soft a turf as possible, should be provided ; 
and here a colt may be turned out the first thing in the 
morning for an hour or two, and again at night for the 
same time, leaving the middle of the day for the breaker's 
manipulations. This plan also provides for the gradual 
alteration of diet, as the colt will always pick a little grass 
when turned out, and will only eat his hay during the long 
night ; whilst his corn he has long been accustomed to, 
and will still continue to relish. 

Io8 Breaking. 

Leading Tackle. 

Leading with the cavesson on is the first thing to be 
practised, and it should be continued for two or three 
weeks without any further attempt at breaking, if there is 
plenty of time, and full justice is to be done to the colt. 
A roller is put upon the colt, and a crupper, with long 
hip-straps, by the presence of which he becomes accus- 
tomed to a loose sheet, or any other arrangement of 
clothing in his subsequent work. With this tackle on, 
and long boots on his fore-legs to guard against his strik- 
ing them, the colt is led about the country, either by the 
breaker on foot or mounted on a steady hack ; and for 
a week he may generally be confined to a soft turf, which 
will not require his being shod. Even on such ground as 
this he will be gradually accustomed to carts, waggons, 
droves of sheep, oxen, &c., and will daily acquire more 
confidence in himself and in his leader. No bit should 
be put in his mouth as yet, for its too early use, while he 
is still shy and inclined to struggle, only makes him more 
timid, and by far less manageable than with the cavesson 


Shoeing must be commenced as soon as the colt is in a 
state to be taken on the road, because it will often happen 
that he will be inclined to jump and plunge on the meet- 
ing of unaccustomed objects ; and if his feet are unshod 
he will break the crust, and do an amount of injury 
which it will take many weeks to restore. It is better, 
therefore, to put some short shoes on his fore-feet ; but 
his hind feet may still perhaps be left in their natural 
state for some time longer. I do not myself see the 
advantage of this delay, but it is very commonly prac- 
tised with young racing stock ; and with wild or badly- 
handled colts it is often necessary, from the greater 
resistance which they make to the blacksmith behind 
than before. The shoes or tips should be nailed on very 
carefully, and they should be very neat and light in their 
make ; the feet also should afterwards be regularly ex- 
amined, and the shoes removed every three weeks. It is 

Breaking. 109 

a very common practice for the blacksmith to cut out the 
heels of these colts, but I am satisfied that, by the use of 
tips only, the heels may be left in a state of nature, and 
will need no cutting into shape. With the frog they are 
best left to grow and fulfil the functions which Nature 
has assigned to them. 

Tying-up in the Stable. 

The next process is the tying-up in the stall, which the 
colts may now be accustomed to, inasmuch as they have 
fully proved the power of the halter or leading-rein in 
their struggles to avoid passing objects ; and they will not 
therefore fight much when tied up in the stable. The 
head-stall should fit very closely, and the throat-lash be 
sufficiently tight to prevent the colt from pulling it off in 
his efforts to get free ; for if the young Animal finds he 
can effect his object once, he is a long time before he 
ceases to try it again. The colt is often very fidgety : if 
so, he must be at once compelled to stand still, by the 
use of wooden balls attached to the fetlocks by leather 
straps, which soon accustom him to a steady position, 
from the blows which they inflict upon him when he 
struggles or moves rapidly from side to side. A breast- 
girth may also be put on as a forerunner of the breast- 
cloth ; and it will also serve to prevent the roller, which 
is constantly worn, from getting back under the flank, and 
thereby irritating the wearer. All the ordinary stable 
practices may now gradually be taught, such as washing 
out the feet, dressing, hand-rubbing the legs, &c., and 
the colt should be made to turn from side to side of his 
stall at the wish of his attendant groom, who may easily 
conduct the whole process without the aid of any regular 
breaker, unless the temper of the colt is such as to demand 
extraordinary skill and address ; and even here the groom 
accustomed to thorough-bred colts is often a better hand 
than the colt-breaker, who is engaged in breaking all 
sorts of animals, and will not bestow sufficient time upon 
the valuable racing colts and fillies. Now, without full 
time it is impossible to bring these young things into 
subjection, and the consequence is that their tempers are 

1 10 Breaking. 

ruined, and they are rendered unfit for the purpose for 
which they are otherwise well qualified. Their feeding is 
so high that they are full of spirit, and will fight to the 
death if they are made to resist by ill-treatment or hasty 
breaking ; it is, therefore, more by coaxing and gradual 
leading on step by step, from one point gained to another 
which is to be overcome, that this animal is vanquished, 
and made at last to yield his powers to the guidance of a 
young lad of twelve years of age, or even less. 


Lunging may now be commenced, which will require 
the aid of a second hand, in order to compel the colt to 
progress in the circle by threatening him with the whip 
behind him. The cavesson, boots, roller, crupper, &c., 
are all put on, and a long leading-rein of webbing is 
attached to the ring in the nose of the cavesson, just as 
if the colt was going to be led out as usual. But instead 
of merely leading, the colt is made to walk round 
a circle on some piece of soft turf ; and then, when he 
has learnt to do this kindly, he is made to canter slowly 
round, the assistant walking behind him until he will pro- 
gress by himself, which he soons learns to do. As soon 
as he has gone round the circle in one direction a dozen 
times or so, he may be turned round and made to reverse 
it, which prevents giddiness, and also any undue strain 
upon either leg. This process is repeated at various 
times throughout the breaking, and is the best mode of 
keeping the colt quiet by giving him any amount of work 
on the canter or gallop. It is not, however, used for the 
same purpose as in the ordinary breaking of hacks and 
harness horses, where it is made a means of getting them 
upon their haunches ; an alteration from a state of nature 
which it is not desirable to effect in the race horse. On 
the contrary, it is often necessary to make him extend 
himself still more than he otherwise would, and the less 
he is upon his haunches the better. The bit, therefore, 
is never used in his mouth as a means of putting him 
back upon his hind legs ; whilst it is, on the other hand, 



used more to make the horse extend himself by playing 
with it, and slightly resisting its tendency to confine his 

The mouthing-bit may now 
be put on, and its construction 
and form are of the utmost 
importance to the future deli- 
cacy of mouth which is so es- 
sential to the action of the 
race horse. In no kind of 
horse is the snaffle bridle so 
desirable as in the race horse, 
in which a curb is always a 
means of making him gallop 
in too round a style ; and yet 
when be pulls very strongly, 
this is a less evil than to let 
him get away with his rider, 
and either bolt out of the 
course or destroy his chance 
by over-running himself early 
in the race. 

Hence it is doubly neces- 
sary to guard against making 
the angles of the mouth sore, 
for if once they get into that 
state they are almost sure to 
become more or less callous 
and insensible. But if, during 
breakage, a snaffle of any kind, 
large or small, is used, this re- 
sult is almost sure to occur, 
either in the horse's early 
fighting with his bit, or when 
" put upon it " in the stable. 
Instead of a snaffle, a bit without a joint is the simple 
remedy for all this. It should be made in the form of a 
circle, or a segment of a circle, and with keys as usual 
hanging from its centre. This circular or segmental form 
is better than the straight bit, upon which the colt is apt 

1 1 2 Breaking. 

to pull on one side, and to get an uneven mouth ; whereas, 
when standing in the stable, and the reins are buckled 
to his roller, crossed over his withers, he can never do 
otherwise than get an even pull upon all parts of his mouth, 
whether he puts his lips close to one side of the bit or the 

This is a very important point in breaking all colts, and 
in racing stock it is doubly so, because of the necessity of 
preserving that delicacy of sensation without which they 
can never be taken round corners, &c., except by lying out 
of their ground, and hence losing a considerable distance. 
But with this bit the mouth is gradually made, and with- 
out producing soreness in any part which afterwards takes 
the lit ; and this is the great feature in its use, for as the 
tongue and gums take its pressure chiefly, so the angles of 
the mouth only touch it at the will of the colt, and it is 
when playing with it that they do touch at all, and then 
only to such an extent as to avoid pain to themselves. 
This bit, then, may be used on all occasions without fear 
until the colt is fit to take his gallops, when a strong 
snaffle may be substituted, and gradually supplanted by 
that small and fine kind called the Racing Snaffle, but 
which need not be nearly so small for the horse broken to 
the segmental bit as for one " mouthed " to the ordinary 
breaker's snaffle. After the bit has been put in the mouth, 
no attempt at first should be made to induce the colt to 
play with it; but it may be suffered to remain in the 
mouth while he is led about by the cavesson, and without 
any side-reins being attached. When this has been done 
for a day or two, the side-reins are buckled on, and are 
attached also to the buckles in the roller, crossing them 
over the withers. At first they may be drawn up very 
slightly, so as just to prevent the colt from putting his 
head into his usual position, and in that form he may be 
left in his box for an hour a day, besides the usual 
amount of walking out of doors with the bridle on. They 
may now be gradually tightened a hole or two per day, 
and also more so in the box than when led out, when the 
tightening should be very gradual indeed. Some colts 
very soon begin to champ the bit, and play with it, whilst 

Breaking. 113 

others are often sulky for a day or two, and hang upon it 
steadily, with the intention of freeing themselves. All, 
however, at last begin to champ, and when this is freely 
done, the breaker may teach the colt the intention of the 
bit, by making him stop and back when out of doors, by 
its means. The rings on each side should be taken hold 
of evenly by both hands, and the colt made to stand or 
back by steady pressure, but without alarming him. 
Kindness and gentle usage, with occasional encourage- 
ment, soon accustom him to its use, and he only wants 
ten days or a fortnight in order to obtain the desired 
result of its presence in the mouth, which is called " get- 
ting a mouth," and which is merely the giving to the 
sense of touch in the lips an extra degree of delicacy. 
When this stage is completed, and the mouth is quite 
under command, so that the colt will either come forward 
or backward by drawing his head in those directions, with 
the bit held in both hands, the colt is ready for backing. 
During the whole progress of breaking, daily slow lunging 
and plenty of walking exercise should have been practised, 
so that the colt is not above himself, but is more or less 
tired each day. 

Before actual backing is attempted the saddle should 
be put on, and it should always be a roomy one at first, 
well stuffed, and fitting accurately, so as to avoid all 
painful pressure. *The withers especially should be closely 
watched, and if high and thin, the saddle should be pro- 
portionally high at the pommel. The roller has been 
hitherto the only kind of pressure round the chest, but it 
has gradually been tightened from time to time, so as to 
prepare the colt for the subsequent use of the girths 
which are required to retain the saddle in its place. This 
should be put on at first with the girths quite loose, and 
with a crupper in addition, because, having already worn 
one, the tail has become accustomed to its use, and 
it often prevents the saddle from pressing with undue 
force upon the withers, which are very sensitive and 
easily made sore. The colt should be walked out and 
lunged for a day or two with the saddle on before he is 
mounted, so as to accustom the parts to its presence j and 


114 Breaking. 

it is even desirable to increase the weight of the saddle by 
placing upon it some moderately heavy substance of two 
or three stones weight, such as trusses of shot, or the 
like, gradually making them heavier, but never putting 
more than the above dead weight upon the saddle. 

When the colt has thus been thoroughly seasoned, he 
may be taken out and well lunged till he is tired, 
still having his saddle on ; and during this exercise the 
breaker will occasionally bear considerable weight upon 
each stirrup, and flap them against the saddle, with the 
object of making a noise, to which the colt should be 
accustomed. It is a very good plan to have a leather 
surcingle made to go over the saddle, and to attach the 
buckles for the side-reins to this, instead of having them 
sewn on to the saddle itself. When all is ready, and the 
colt is tired by his lunging, &c., he may be taken into the 
rubbing-house, as being close to the exercise ground, and 
there the breaker himself, or one of the lads, may be put 
upon the saddle, using him, as in all cases in young 
horses, with great gentleness, and giving him constant 
encouragement by the hand and voice. 

Mounting is much better accomplished in the stable 
than out, and causes much less alarm, because the colt 
has been always accustomed to be more handled there, 
and is less inclined, therefore, to resist. The lad, or 
breaker, should get up and down again several times, and 
if the colt is good tempered he will generally allow all 
this to be done without the slightest resistance. In 
mounting there should be very little spring made, but the 
lad may hang about the horse as if fondling him, and bear 
his weight upon the saddle ; then place one foot in and 
hang on steadily ; when, if this is borne, the weight may 
be taken off for a minute or two, and then the lad may 
very gently and insensibly almost raise himself up to the 
command of the saddle, after which he may steadily turn 
his leg over, and is then seated. When the lad has sat 
quietly upon his back for a few minutes, the side-reins 
having already been buckled to the leather surcingle, two 
additional reins may be attached for his use, though the 
chief dependence at first must be placed upon the breaker 

Breaking. 115 

himself, who leads the colt, as before, with the cavesson 
and webbing. With this the mounted colt is now led out, 
and walked about for an hour or more ; after which he 
should be returned to the stable, and then the lad should 
dismount ; and on no account should this be attempted 
at first out of doors, for it has happened that on getting off 
there has been a fight to get on again, which has resulted 
in victory to the horse, whereas in the stable it can always 
be managed, and with the thorough-bred colt it is seldom 
wanted elsewhere, until he is quite used to it. If there 
is no stable at hand with a door high and wide enough 
for this purpose, the colt may be mounted in the paddock, 
the breaker being very careful to engage his attention, 
and a third party being on the off-side to assist in keeping 
the colt straight and the saddle from giving way while the 
weight is being laid upon the stirrup. Most colts give 
way at first to this one-sided pressure, but they soon learn 
to bear up against it, and finally they do not show any 
annoyance at all. It will be found that any colt may be 
more readily managed by two people in a roomy stable 
than by three out of doors, where he is on the look-out 
for objects of alarm, and is always more ready to show 
fight : the only difficulty is the getting clear of the door, 
which should be wide and high ; and if it is the contrary, 
it offers an obstacle to the plan, which must prevent its 

The mounted lad should at first sit steadily and 
patiently still, and should not attempt to use the reins, 
which might indeed be well dispensed with, but that few 
riders could balance themselves without holding some- 
thing. I have found it a good plan to buckle them to the 
cavesson rather than to the bit, in those cases where the 
hands of the rider were not very light. The colt on leav- 
ing the stable often sets his back up, and perhaps plunges, 
or attempts to kick, which he seldom does in the stable, 
and less frequently in leaving it than when he is suddenly 
mounted in the field. If he does this the breaker should 
speak severely to him, and either keep down his head or 
the reverse, according to whether he is attempting to rear 
or kick. It is for the latter vice only that the rider 

1 1 6 Breaking. 

requires the rein to the bit, as it serves to keep the colt 
quiet if the bit is suddenly checked when he gets his head 
down before kicking. But in rearing, the lad is likely to 
do mischief with it, and, on the whole, it is better, I think, 
to avoid all chance of using it improperly, unless the 
rider is very cautious and accustomed to the business of 
colt breaking. When the young animal is quiet and 
submissive after several days of leading about, the lad 
may take command of the bit, as well as having the 
reins entrusted to him, the breaker still keeping the long 
webbing attached to the cavesson, and being always pre- 
pared to assist the lad, who, however, should now begin 
to try to turn the colt and stop him at pleasure, taking a 
rein in each hand, and using them wide apart, with the 
aid of his voice and heel. 

As soon as it appears likely that the lad can control 
his charge, the cavesson may be taken off, and the colt 
placed in a string of horses which are so steady as not 
to give occasion by their example for the colt beginning 
to plunge. 

During the course of breaking it is always safer to keep 
the colt rather under-fed with corn, and until he is able to 
begin his cantering exercise he will scarcely bear an 
increase ; but much will depend upon his temper and if 
he is inclined to fret he will often lose flesh, and will 
demand more, rather than less, corn than usual. Bad- 
tempered horses, however, will always require light feed- 
ing during breaking, and extra time, as well as care, must 
be bestowed upon them. This subject is better under- 
stood now than it used to be, and fewer horses are spoiled 
than was formerly the case ; still, however, there is often 
room for improvement, and the number of horses which 
are mismanaged at this time is by no means small. 
Thorough-bred horses will not bear bad treatment, in 
general, though some are certainly of such savage tempers 
by nature as to require to be cowed ; still these are the 
exceptions ; and the vast majority will, by early handling, 
and cautious tackling and mounting, be broken almost 
without a single fight or difficulty of any kind. If they 
find themselves hurt by bit or saddle, or by the crupper 

Breaking. 117 

occasioning a sore, they show their dislike to the pain by 
resisting, setting up their backs, and refusing to progress 
quietly ; but, unless there is something wrong, they will 
submit to being backed and ridden much more readily 
than the colts of the common breeds, which have seldom 
had a head-stall on their heads till a few days before they 
are backed. I have more than once ridden thorough- 
bred colts in tolerable comfort within a week or ten days 
of their being first bitted ; but it is a bad plan, and the 
longer time their mouths are allowed to become accus- 
tomed to the bit, the better they ultimately turn out. It 
will be many months before they are to be depended on 
under any circumstances ; and when they get an increase 
of corn they are almost sure to attempt some kind of 
horse-play ; but the boys easily contend against this, 
which is very different from the determined efforts of a 
colt to dislodge its rider. When all these points are tho- 
roughly accomplished in the breaking, it may be said to 
be terminated, and the training of the two-year-old com- 
mences ; the only things yet to be learned are the use of 
the spur and whip, which should never be employed 
except as a punishment for faults committed ; that is to 
say, they should never be used as an every-day practice, 
for, though every colt should be accustomed to them, it is 
very seldom that the opportunity is wanting of adminis- 
tering them for some fault or other. 

A dose of physic will generally be necessary as soon as 
the breaking is over, and very often it may be required 
during its progress ; but by the occasional use of a bran 
mash, and by giving a little green food with the hay, in 
most cases there will be no necessity for its employment 
while the breaking is going on, and while the quantity of 
corn is kept purposely below the usual amount. As soon, 
however, as the breaker thinks he dare do so, the corn is 
increased to the usual quantity, and then a dose of physic, 
preceded as usual by two bran mashes, will prevent that 
feverish condition which so often comes on after breaking, 
when the restraints of the stable are substituted for the 
freedom of the fields. 

Il8 Breaking. 

Breaking to Harness. 

For double harness work, a double-break and break 
horse only are required to effect this object, and a very 
short time will generally suffice to make a young horse 
manageable, if driven with a steady companion, and by a 
careful pair of hands. It is some time before he would 
be fit for a timid lady, but for country work with those 
who are not alarmed by an occasional slight freak, after a 
week or ten days a horse may safely be used. The first thing 
to be done is to put the harness on, and allow it to remain 
for an hour or two during the two or three days before 
the horse is driven. Previously to this, he should be 
thoroughly broken to the saddle, because he will not 
otherwise know the use of the bit, and without that he 
will be entirely unmanageable. It was formerly a very 
common practice to break carriage horses at plough, by 
putting them in the middle of a team, and letting them 
jump and kick till they were tired ; but this is a bad plan, 
and many horses have been spoiled both in limb and 
temper by it. Curbs and spavins are very commonly 
caused by the struggles of a high-couraged horse ; and 
jibbing will often ensue as a consequence in a bad-tem- 
pered or sluggish one. The hot blood derived from the 
Eastern horse leads these colts to plunge and fight against 
restraint, in a very different way from the dull and phleg- 
matic cart horse ; and, therefore, the plan is now dis- 
carded in favour of the break, where the colt has the 
power of moving forward, to some extent, in all his 
plunges, if any, and his blood is not unnecessarily roused 
by resistance. After he has been made accustomed to 
the harness, he is put in with the break horse, an animal 
of great size, power, and steadiness. The break horse 
should first be put-to, and the break brought out into a 
tolerably open place, where it may start on level ground, 
or with a very slight ascent. The break is built very 
strongly, and should have the space between the drawing- 
bar and the front axletree made up with iron rods, so that 
if a horse kicks over the bar, his legs do not fall, but he 
draws them back again at once. The bar should be padded, 

Breaking. 119 

to prevent him damaging himself in his violence, if he 
plunges and kicks as some will do. The colt should have 
a well-fitting collar on, and it should be previously well 
oiled, to prevent its fretting the skin ; he should also have 
a common rope halter on, with the end tied loosely to his 
hame terret, so that the breaksman can lay hold of it, and 
draw him towards him, without touching his mouth. 
When all is ready^ and the two horses are put together, 
with the driver on the box, the break horse is gently 
touched with the whip, and takes the break off very 
quietly, the breaksman walking by the side, and en- 
couraging the colt. Generally speaking, he walks off as 
quietly as possible, or he may make a bounce or two, 
but at first he does not seem to recognize his fetters ', 
after a while, however, he will often plunge more or less, 
and, perhaps, if viciously inclined, begin to kick. The 
break should be steadily driven off, and kept going for an 
hour or rather more, but not much longer, as the shoulders 
are very apt to be galled by a persistence beyond that 
time. This lesson is repeated every day, until the horse 
learns to turn and hold back \ and it is astonishing how 
soon a good-tempered horse takes to his new work. Knee- 
caps should in all cases be put on, to prevent blemishes, 
in case of any accidents. 

For single work, every horse should first be put in 
double harness, and driven at least five or six times. It 
is not generally at first that vice shows j.tself, and frequently 
not until the fourth or fifth lesson, when the driver begins 
to try what the colt is made of by giving him a short 
gallop, with a stroke or two of the whip. And until this 
has been done no one can foretell what the colt will do 
under provocation, which is sure to come some time or 
other. When, however, this has been tried, and the colt 
will turn to either side, stop, and back, as well as throw 
himself into his breechen in going down-hill, he may safely 
be put into single harness, though at the same time with 
great care. Some horses are at all times quiet in double 
harness, and yet will never go in single harness, of which 
I have had several specimens. I once had a most inve- 
terate kicker in single harness, which would go as quietly 

1 20 Breaking. 

as possible in double ; and I have had several bad jibbers 
which never showed that tendency for some time after 
breaking. When the horse is first put in single harness, 
it should be in a break expressly made with strong and 
stout shafts, and high enough to prevent his kicking over ; 
though some horses are able to kick over anything, and 
no kicking-strap will hold them down. A safety-rein 
should be added, buckled on to the lower bar of the bit, 
and passed through a ring on the tug and by the side of 
the dashboard up to the hand, where it may be held ready 
for use in case of the horse attempting to bolt. For 
ordinary use the rein should be put to the cheek, so as to 
be as little irksome to the horse as possible, and no bear- 
ing-rein should on any account be used. With these pre- 
cautions, and with the aid of a breaksman and a liberal 
quantity of patience, most horses may be broken-in. 
When there is a great resistance to the breaking to single 
harness, or a tendency to jib or run away, a stout shaft 
may be furnished with a projecting bar of iron, and an 
outrigger applied to the splinter-bar, by which a second 
bar is fixed ; and then a break horse may be attached 
outside the shafts, and thus the colt is then compelled to 
go on or stop by the power of the steady and trained 
horse. In this mode the reins are applied as for pair- 
horse driving, and it is a very excellent way of breaking 
unruly horses ; indeed, I have known it succeed when all 
other means had failed in an obstinate kicker ; but only, 
however, for a time, as the vice showed itself nearly as 
bad as ever after a time. 

Breaking and Teaching a Hunter. 

Breaking is of course required for those colts which are 
specially intended for hunters, but, except in teaching to 
jump, it does not differ from the plan adopted in ordinary 
colt-breaking. The same mouthing-bit which I have al- 
ready recommended will also suit this kind of horse, but 
its reins should be buckled considerably tighter, and the 
horse " put upon it " for an hour a day until he bends 
himself well. He may also have what is called a " dumb 

Breaking. 121 

jockey" buckled on his roller, with springs contained 
within its arms, by which the bit is allowed to give and 
take with the horse's action ; but still always having a 
tendency to bend the neck and bring the horse back on 
its haunches. Unless this is effectually done, and the colt 
is made to use his hind legs by bringing them well under 
him, thus carrying a good part of his weight, he is never 
safe across ridge-and-furrow, nor in awkward places, where 
he is obliged to creep up close to the take-off, and gather 
all his legs together before making his spring. When the 
horse is being lunged he may be made to jump a bar, but 
not too often over a moveable one, or he finds out its 
tendency to fall, and becomes careless. A fixed bar should 
be used as soon as the horse understands this part of his 
business, and he will not hurt himself if he falls over it a 
few times, because there is nothing to hold his legs, and 
consequently he either falls forward or backward without 
injury. The bar should have side-guides, so that in lung- 
ing, the horse must go over or come back and face the whip 
of the groom following him ; and when they are properly 
managed, the leading-rein slides over them without catch- 
ing, and the bar may be taken by the horse in each round 
of the lunge. Some horses seem to enjoy the fun when 
they^are clever and good-tempered, but not more than six 
or eight jumps should be given in any one lesson, for fear 
of disgusting the pupil. When he is perfect over the bar 
with the lunging-rein, and after he is broken to all his paces, 
he may be ridden over it, or any small fences, in cool 
blood ; but he never ought to be put at this kind of work 
till he is perfect at all his other lessons. For if he does 
not know what the spur or the pull of the rein means, it is 
useless to confuse him by trying to make him do what 
he does not understand. No large jump should ever be 
tried without hounds, and when the colt is willing to go 
when he is wanted over small places, it is better to defer 
the conclusion of his jumping education until he can be 
taken out with hounds. 

With hounds the colt is inclined to follow the field of 
horses, and will soon attempt any place his breaker puts him 
at ; though often making mistakes, and sometimes carrying 

122 Breaking. 

the fence with him into the next field. Good hands, a 
firm seat, ana an unruffled temper soon make him know 
his powers ; and in a few times he learns to avoid mishaps 
and keeps his legs without difficulty. The breaking-bit 
already described is the best to ride young horses with, as 
it is large and allows of considerable pressure without 
injury ; so that if the breaker is obliged to keep the head 
straight with some force, the colt is not thereby dragged 
jinto the fence, as would be the case with a small and 
sharp snaffle or with the curb. The same caution must 
now be exercised as before with regard to a too long con- 
tinuance of the early lessons. 

Breaking a Lady's Horse. 

In breaking the lady's horse, if he is of good temper 
and fine mouth, little need be done but to make him can- 
ter easily, and with the right leg foremost. This is neces- 
sary, because the other leg is uncomfortable to the rider, 
from her side position on the saddle ; the breaker, there- 
fore, should adopt the means already described, and per- 
severe until the horse is quite accustomed to the pace, 
and habitually starts off with the right leg. He should 
also bend him thoroughly, so as to make him canter well 
on his hind legs, and not with the disunited action which 
one so often sees. The curb must be used for this pur- 
pose, without bearing too strongly upon it ; the horse 
must be brought to his paces by fine handling rather than 
by force, and by occasional pressure, which he will yield 
to and play with if allowed, rather than by a dead pull. 
In this way, by taking advantage of every inch yielded, 
and yet not going too far, the head is gradually brought 
in, and the hind legs as gradually are thrust forward, so as 
instinctively to steady the mouth, and prevent the pressure 
which is feared. When this " setting on the haunches " 
is accomplished, a horse-cloth may be strapped on the 
near side of the saddle, to accustom him to the flapping 
of the habit ; but I have always found, in an ordinarily 
good-tempered horse, that if the paces and mouth were 
all perfect, the habit is sure to be borne. It is a kind of 

Farm Horses. 123 

excuse which gentlemen are too apt to make, that their 
horses have never carried a lady ; but if they will carry a 
gentleman quietly, they will always carry a lady in the 
same style, though that may not perhaps be suitable to her 
seat or hands. 


Different breeds Fairs for purchasing them Farm stable Portable stables 
Stable management Dietaries and cost of keeping in spring, summer, 
autumn, and winter Useful rules Soiling Horses Pulped food. 

THE farm horse exhibits several distinct breeds, origi- 
nating in the various districts of the country when there 
was less intercommunication than there is at present, and 
when peculiarities of the locality, therefore, exerted un- 
divided influence for generation after generation on the 
animals bred in it, so that they ultimately acquired a dis- 
tinctive character. 

1. The Black Dray Horse of England is proper to 
the rich pastures of the central and eastern counties. He 
is a heavy animal, and thus of inferior value for the farm, 
but especially adapted by his weight and strength for 
heavy draught and road use. 

2. The Clydesdale is one of our best farm horses 
of a grey, brown, or black colour, combining strength with 
activity in the most generally useful proportion for field 
work ; of generally a good temper ; of good, rather large, 
size. He is the model of a well-made horse for agricul- 
tural purposes. 

3. The Suffolk Punch, smaller than the Clydesdale, 
of a rounder and more compact form ; of smaller bone ; 
generally of a chestnut colour ; of steady and resolute 
temper ; he is the best possible combination of strength, 
activity, and quality generally as an agricultural horse for 
light land districts, 


Farm Horses. 

4. The Cleveland, a breed originating in Yorkshire, is 
now a carriage horse rather than a farm horse. Tall, of a 
bay colour, not of so heavy or compact a build as the 
other breeds named, this breed now furnishes horses for 
the carriage and for the hunting field rather than for the 
farm. We add in a foot-note a memorandum of the fairs 
where these breeds are to be seen.* 

Stable for Farm Horses. 

This cut represents a section of farm stabling. It is a 
good illustration of economical and sufficient housing for 

* The best show of Clydesdales is to be seen at Allhallow Fair, 
Edinburgh, in November ; Rutherglen, Glasgow, May and No- 
vember ; Dumfries, January and February, &c. ; and Ayr in 
July and October. 

Clevelands are met with at Newcastle-on-Tyne in March, August, 
October, and November; Stagshawbank, May; Durham, March, 
May, and September ; Yarm, October ; Howden, September ; 
Northallerton, February ; Brough Hill, September or October. 

Suffolk horses may be seen at the fairs in the county, as well as 
at those in the principal fairs in Essex. 

The large Black Dray horse is exhibited at Northampton, 
August; Aylesbury, Palm Saturday; Wisbech, May: Boston, 
November ; and Horncastle, August. 

The Shetland, as well as the Iceland pony, are shown in droves 
at the fairs in the north of England, notably Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Farm Horses. 12$ 

the horses of the farm. Six-feet stalls, with ample gang- 
way behind them, are provided with manger and rack ; 
water is at hand in two or three troughs, at which the 
horses drink when coining in from work. Ventilation is 
provided in the simplest way, by an occasional ridge-tile 
being lifted out of the regular course, and bedded at either 
end upon its neighbours the under boarding being there 
left open. And light is provided from the roof by sky- 
lights, and by hanging lamps at night. 

But for farm work portable stables have often been 
advocated. Considerations in their favour are thus urged 
by Mr. Baugh Almack in a letter to the Agricultural 
Society : 

" If horses had portable stables close by their work, 
they would lose less time in going to and from it, and 
thus be able to do more work in the same time. They 
could be comfortable in the stable close by when not 
wanted on the land, and they could be making the best 
manure by eating lucerne, tares, or whatever else was 
most likely to be profitable to grow close by, and the 
manure so made would be close by where it was wanted. 

" I have no doubt it is quite practicable to make every 
necessary farm building moveable ; and in many cases I 
am quite certain that it would pay well to make part of 
them portable, now that there is a probability of an in- 
creasing scarcity of farm labourers. 1 ' 

On the possibility of such portable buildings it is suffi- 
cient to say that they ought to be made so by the easy 
fitting and portability of their several parts, not by the 

and Durham ; the Welsh pony in those of Wales, chiefly Llanrhaiadr 
yn Mochnant, Denbighshire, in July. 

The largest fairs for horses in the kingdom are Horncastle, in 
August ; Howden, September ; Newcastle-on-Tyne, August and 
October ; Ritgely, Staffordshire, June ; Brough Hill, Westmore- 
land, September; Pershore, June, &c. 

NOTE. For the dates of the above, see current Farmers' 
Almanacs. The "Live Stock Journal Almanack" contains full 
information, arranged under the respective counties. In many 
instances the dates are variable, being regulated by some local 
event, feast-day, &c. On this account it is considered best to 
omit figures entirely. 

126 Farm Horses. 

whole being capable of being moved bodily on wheels. 
Any quantity of ground may be covered by a roof sup- 
ported on wooden walls, in building which a certain 
number of grooved posts are used receiving planks and 
carrying rafters and sheets of corrugated iron roofing 
every part of each section being exactly like another, so 
that the whole can be taken down and unpacked, and 
carried away and replaced, without the drawing of a nail 
and with no need of any particular skill. 

Stable Management. 

Having got the young horse so far advanced as to be 
able to stand full work, it is the object of the farmer to 
feed him economically and to the best advantage. The 
provender should be the best the farm produces, for this 
is ultimately the cheapest ; and as great a variety of pro- 
vender should be given mixed together as is compatible 
with economy, and the quantity of each kind should be 
regulated according to the amount of nitrogenous matter 
contained in each. Vetches (seed) and beans contain 
nitrogenous compounds in largest quantities ; but when 
horses are feed upon either of these kinds of provender 
alone, the health soon fails, owing to the beans being too 
heating and binding ; tares are too bitter as well as bind- 
ing ; but were the heating and binding beans and vetches 
mixed with cool and relaxing bran, which contains much 
less nitrogen, we should have the cheapest and most 
nutritious food which can be given to animals, and as 
wholesome food as it is cheap and nutritious. It is, how- 
ever, absolutely necessary that the beans should be 
roughly ground ; bruising only is not sufficient for easy 
digestion, nor do horses, as a rule, eat them so well. But 
horses must have some more bulky food than beans and 
bran for however nutritious the diet, there must be bulk 
also. If hay is not used, some other kind of provender 
equally bulky must be substituted. In the horse the large 
intestines, as well as the stomach, suffer from long absti- 
nence of food, and no class of horses are more subject to 
long fasting than farmers' horses. The smallness of the sto 

Farm Horses. 127 

mach shows that the horse should nevergo more than a few 
hours without food, yet we frequently see farmers' horses 
work six or eight hours without a break. The stomach 
becomes nearly empty, the intestines more or less filled 
with gas ; the animal, notwithstanding this, is frequently 
allowed to take water and food ad libitum, as soon as 
they reach the stable, which they do voraciously, the 
result being an attack of gripes or staggers. During the 
spring months, when the horses are at full or extra work, 
they generally receive three bushels of oats per week, with 
hay, but during the winter the amount of oats is some- 
what reduced, on account of receiving cooked food once 
a day when on straw. The oats, for the most part, are 
given whole. For some time I have witnessed the crush- 
ing of oats with success, particularly in the feeding of old 
horses. The system of manger feeding has become very 
general amongst colliery, contractors/ and carters' horses, 
and the expense of feeding is thus diminished very con- 
siderably. I think were farmers aware of the saving thus 
effected, this system would become almost universal. The 
chaff for manger feeding may be composed of two trusses 
of clover or meadow hay to one of wheat or oat straw, 
cut into pieces of a quarter or half an inch in length, 
mingled well together, the allowance of crushed oats and 
roughly-ground beans afterwards added, and mixed with 
the chaff. For the agricultural and cart horse, 8 Ibs. of 
oats and 2 Ibs. of beans should be added to every 20 Ibs. 
of chaff, and 36 Ibs. of this mixture will be sufficient for 
any moderate-sized horse, with general or even hard work. 
Dray or waggon horses may require 40 Ibs., yet it is diffi- 
cult to lay down any given quantity, as the appetite of the 
horse varies so much ; it will be best regulated by his 
attendant. The times of feeding should be equally 
divided as convenience will permit, and when it is likely 
the horse will be kept much longer than usual from home, 
the nose-bag should invariably be taken, as his small 
stomach is emptied in a few hours. When the chaff is 
thus mixed with the oats and beans, the horse is com- 
pelled to chew his food he cannot bolt the hay and 
Straw ; and while he is forced to grind that down, the oats 

128 Farm Horses. 

and beans are properly ground with it, yielding more 
nourishment. The advantage derived from using a cer- 
tain portion of straw cut up with the hay is very great, 
especially in farm establishments. 

Good hay, perhaps, stands first in importance on the 
list of horse food. Great care ought to be used during 
hay harvest to get hay as full of the herb and flower as 
possible ; inferior hay produces colic and irritable coughs, 
both of which I have seen gradually disappear by with- 
holding the moulded hay on which the horses were feed- 
ing. The same remarks apply strictly to oats of inferior 
quality, with this exception, that bad oats appear to become 
a powerful diuretic, acting upon the kidneys, producing an 
immense increase in their secretions, the effects of which 
are rapid loss of condition, with great debility. It may 
not be out of place to notice the practice of wheat feed- 
ing, particularly when inferior wheat has been so plentiful. 

What we have to say of inferior wheat also strongly 
applies to inferior barley, and all other kinds of inferior 
grain and cereals. It is a mistake to suppose that any 
method of cooking or mixing will render these more 
digestible or nutritious. They are inferior in point of 
nutrition, and should not be used for the support of 
working horses. An idea also prevails that good wheat 
and barley are very difficult of digestion, and liable to 
produce serious obstructions. This usually happens 
when horses help themselves from the barn floor, and the 
safe precaution against the evil is to keep the doors safely 
closed. When wheat or barley is supplied as daily food, 
proper quantities should be given, and these always mixed 
with a due proportion of bran and sound chaff. 

In the present system of feeding, some farmers appear 
almost compelled to give their horses straw during winter, 
generally when the animals are off work ; but as straw 
requires more exercise to produce digestion, it ought to 
be given (if at all, alone) when the animal is at work, as 
horses with voracious appetites and little work have time 
to eat a great deal more than the digestive organs can 
accommodate. It is an indisputable fact that there are 
more cases of colic during Sunday night and Monday 

Farm Horses. 129 

morning than during any other part of the week. If the 
plan of giving horses cooked food were more adopted 
when feeding upon straw, much of this disorganization 
might be prevented. In Edinburgh, where cooked food 
is much approved, the food is used well washed, generally 
being Swede turnips and potatoes, in equal proportion, 
then boiled and thrown into a large trough or cooler, and a 
little wheat chaff along with a handful of salt for each 
horse, well mixed together. The weight of the turnips 
and potatoes, which is 56 Ibs. when put into the boiler, 
is reduced to about 40 Ibs., one-half of which is given at 
dusk, or whenever the horse returns from work, and the 
remainder at eight o'clock, when the men clean and do 
them up for the night, with oat or wheat straw, upon which 
the owners place no value, considering it as equivalent to 
the manure from the horses. 

The supply of water is a part of stable routine from 
which the horse not unfrequently suffers. Horses, in re- 
ceiving water, should not be always restricted, yet they 
should not be allowed to drink as much as they like on 
returning home over-wrought, hot, and tired. A single 
quart or two before entering the stable will refresh and 
invigorate, and be productive of no harm. After being a 
little cooled, water should be liberally supplied to him. 
Grass or green herbage is given to most horses during the 
summer months; and before turning horses out to the 
field it is necessary to prepare them for the change, the 
too sudden transition from dry to green food, and vice 
versa, having the effect of causing obstructions in the 
intestines. Grass should be given sparingly at first, so 
that the stomach and intestines may be prepared gradually 
for the reception of succulent herbage. Horses, when 
taken up from grass in the autumn, ought to be put into 
as cool a stable as possible, with a full allowance of water, 
their food consisting of oats, mingled with bran, with two 
bran mashes daily for the first week, and a little hay. On 
the following week more hay and .oats may be given, and 
a bran mash withheld. It is necessary, in keeping horses 
healthy, to have stables well ventilated, clean, and tho- 
roughly drained. We can scarcely have too much air 


130 Farm Horses. 

entering in at any period of the year, providing it does 
not blow directly upon the horses. The temperature of 
the stables should range from 40 deg. to 50 deg. in winter, 
and from 60 deg. to 70 deg. in summer. Every stable 
should be thoroughly drained, not into a neighbouring 
cesspool, but to such a distance as will preclude any 
effluvium escaping into the building. All dung and litter 
ought to be conveyed from the place twice a day. 

We give in the following page an enumeration of various 
dietaries for farm horses. They describe the practice of 
different men in various parts of the country. In successive 
columns I have put, first, the number of the cases, second, 
the authority on which it is given, thirdly, the weight con- 
sumed per week of hay, oats, beans, roots, clover, and 
straw by a horse, and, lastly, the calculated weekly cost of 
maintaining it. It is to be understood that an asterisk (*) 
by any of the figures intimates that the grain was crushed, 
or the green food cut into chaff; and a dagger (t), that 
the roots were given boiled or steamed. It is a capital 
practice to cut rye, as soon as fit, into chaff along with 
hay or sweet straw, and mix the whole up with crushed 
oats and beans, giving the regular supplies in small 
quantity at a time, and thus gradually accustoming cattle 
to their change from dry winter food. Vetches cut when 
young should be allowed to wither before being used in 
the stable, otherwise they prove at first to be physic 
rather than food. 

Farm Horses. 131 


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S. Rich, Didmarton, Gloucestershire. . .. 


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Professor Low Elements of Agricul 
H. Stephens Book of the Farm 
J. Gibson, Woolmet H. Soc. 1850'.. 
Binnie, Seton, ditto 
Thomson, Hangingside, ditto 
Barthropp, London F. Club, 1853 
J. Morton, Whitfield Farm, 1843 
W. C. Spooner, Journ. Ag. Soc., vol. 
T. Baldwin, Glasnevin 
J. Coleman, Cirencester 

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Thomson, Hangingside 
W. C. Spooner, Ag. Soc. Journ 
T. Aitken, Spaiding, Lincolnsh 
G. W. Baker, Woburn, Bedfon 
R. Baker, Writtle, Essex 
J. Coleman, Cirencester 
T. P. Dods, Hexham 

J. Cobban, Whitfield 

S. Druce, jun., Ensham 
C. Howard, Biddenham 

I. J. Mechi, Tiptree 

W. J. Pope, Bridport 

S. Rich, Didmarton, Glouceste 
H. E. Sadler, Lavant, Sussex 

J. Morton, Whitfield Farm ... 

E. H. Sandford, Dover 
A. Simpson, Beauly, N.B 

H. J.Wilson, Mansfield 
F. Sowerby, Aylesby, N. Lincc 



N N N N 

134 Farm Horses. 

One of the most useful general rules that can be 
observed by an arable farmer is, to keep his horses 
always at work. The expense of a team is so great, that 
if he does not pursue this rule, he must lose by them. 
January is a month in which all business of tillage ought 
to be at a stop. If the weather be a hard frost, care 
should be taken to make use of it in carting manures on 
the farm. If there are composts ready, a frost should not 
be let slip or, if there be faggot carting to be performed, 
or the earth of borders under hedges to be carried? the 
carts should be kept close to work of that kind as long as 
the frost lasts. But in open weather, road-work must be 
done. Carting out the com may not nearly employ the 
teams ; on other days the carts should go to the nearest 
town for manure. There certainly are situations pre- 
cluded from this advantage, but not many. 


This practice is usual on most arable farms, especially 
where provision is made of crops near the feeding-boxes 
and yards for carrying it out, a profitable method of increas- 
ing the store of manure upon the farm. Where Italian rye- 
grass and lucerne and clover, liberally treated, are near 
the feeding-house, horses can be kept during the summer 
months more cheaply than during winter, with at least as 
great advantage to the fertility of the farm. 

Enlightened farmers have in many districts adopted 
this system for horses. Everyone knows how 1 tormenting 
flies are to animals when abroad : ride into a field in sum- 
mer to look at stock, and where do you find them ? Not 
feeding, but standing or resting under trees, in ponds, in 
rivers, and if there is no better shelter, in ditches under 
brambles ; in a word, anywhere but feeding in the open 
air. What they graze is in the morning and evening ; and 
in many cases they lose in the heat of the day all they 
gain at those moments of their comfort. To this su- 
periority we must add that of the main object, which is 
the dunghill : in one case this is accumulated in a degree 
even superior to what is effected in winter ; in the other, 

Farm Horses. 135 

ft is scattered about the pastures, and nine-tenths of it 
carried away by the flies, or dried almost to a caput 
mortuum by the sun. The prodigious superiority of thus 
raising a large and very valuable dunghill in one case, and 
none at all in the other, ought to convince any reasonable 
man that there is not a practice in husbandry so decidedly 
superior as this of soiling, were there not one other reason 
for it than what have already been produced. 

Those farmers who have given particular attention to 
the state of farmyard manure, as it is made in winter and 
in summer, and to the efficacy of both, can scarcely have 
filled to remark that the superiority of the dung arising 
from any sort of stock in summer is very great to such as 
is made in winter from stock no better fed. 

There is, however, another fact of equal importance, 
that the food given in stalls or boxes goes so much 
farther than it will do when grazed where it grows ; and 
when we recollect the old remark, that a beast feeds (or 
consumes) with five mouths, we shall not be surprised at 
this fact. A greater stock may thus be supported by the 
same farm, in one system, than there can be in the 

Two circumstances demand attention, which, if neglected, 
will considerably lessen the benefit to be derived from 
soiling. The one is, to have a plentiful provision of litter ; 
and the other, much care in feeding to give the beasts 
but little at a time : if much be tumbled before them, it 
heats, they pick it over, and the waste may be great ; and 
if a cart be left in the yard loaded, the contents heat, and 
then the animals will not eat it. A certain degree of care 
is necessary in everything, and in nothing more than in 
feeding. As to litter, it is an object of such importance, 
that provision for the system should be gradually made 
through the winter, if corn enough be not left for summer 
threshing to supply the beasts. All dry vegetable matter, 
capable of providing a dry lair in stalls or boxes ; leaves, 
in woodland countries ; fern, dried peat, &c., should be 
thus collected against the summer months. An enter- 
prising, vigilant farmer, when he has such an object as 
this in view, will exert every nerve to be prepared for a 

136 Farm Horses. 

system the profit of which will depend so much on the 
care previously taken to be well provided with litter of 
some sort or other. 

The first crops that will be ready for soiling are the rye, 
lucerne, and the Italian rye-grass, and the trifolium incar- 
natum ; which may be supposed to last all the stock till 
the first-sown winter tares are ready, when the lucerne 
left uncut should be mown for hay. The second-sown 
winter tares come next ; then clover, to be succeeded by 
the third sowing of tares, and by the second growth of 
Italian rye-grass and of lucerne. After this come spring 
tares and the second growth of clover ; and the third 
cutting of Italian rye-grass and of lucerne may follow. If 
chicory be applied to this use, for which it is well adapted, 
it will, on any good land, be mown thrice, and on very 
good soils four times. The quantity and value of the 
manure thus made will surprise those who have not 
witnessed it. If horses are fed carefully, have water at 
command, and are kept clean, they will thrive to the 
farmer's satisfaction. 

How fully all this is consistent with practice and 
experience, may be gathered from the following report of 
a week in June upon a farm in Buckinghamshire : " Our 
horses are now living on tares, with half a bushel of beans 
and a bushel of rice meal each per week." 

Horses do well on cut green food during June, giving 
them, in the first place, hay cut into chaff along with it, 
and the full allowance of corn so long as the labour of 
turnip culture remains to be done. In the more leisure 
month of July they may do on cut clover and without 

Soiling horses are rarely overworked during July, and 
they receive in general nothing but cut green food and 

All this month the teams should be soiled daily with 
lucerne, vetches, or clover, in the house or yards ; and if 
in the latter, they must have water always at command, 
and also sheds for shelter ; and if the fanner does not 
provide plenty of litter for treading into dung, he neglects 
a great part of his profit. Lucerne is the best plant for 

Farm Horses. 137 

this purpose, and an acre of it will go much farther than 
of anything else. Clover and tares mown every day will 
answer well in the same use. In want of these, give 
natural grass ; but any of them are better, with plenty of 
litter for dung, than turning the horses or oxen into the 
field. Where the teams are well done, they get, in addition 
to this green food, about a bushel of oats each weekly, 
mixed with chaff for their nose-bags. 

The following is the report of a Hampshire farmer 
in July : " Our summer vetches being now in excellent 
condition for soiling, we give them to the horses \ our 
horses always receive their green food in the stables, as we 
are greatly opposed to the practice of turning them out 
either in the fields or in open yards ; we find that working 
farm horses, from being turned out, are subject to more 
accidents, and also casualties, in regard to their health 
and well-doing, besides the great loss of manure con- 
sequent upon being out of the stable." 

Beasts that are soiled in stalls or yards have, through 
all this season, plenty of food, supposing a proper suc- 
cession of those crops which have been mentioned for 
this use. 

Pulped Food. 

On feeding horses with pulped roots, Mr. Slater, of 
Weston Colville, Cambridgeshire, says : 

" I give all my cart horses a bushel per day of pulped 
mangold, mixed with straw and corn chaff. I begin in 
September, and continue using them all winter and until 
late in the summer nearly, if not quite, all the year round ; 
beginning, however, with smaller quantities, about a peck, 
and then half a bushel, the first week or two, as too many 
of the young growing mangold would not suit the stock. 
I believe pulped mangolds, with chaff, are the best, 
cheapest, and most healthy food horses can eat. I 
always find my horses miss them when I have none, late 
in the summer. I give them fresh ground every day. 
Young store beasts, colts, &c., do well with them ; but I 
do not think they could be used with any advantage with 
a flock of sheep ; they are, however, useful for fattening 

138 Farm Horses. 

bullocks, inducing them to eat any food you may wish to 
give them." 

Whenever the root crop is inferior, or the hay crop 
badly harvested, the pulper, for economizing the former, 
and for enabling the easy consumption of the latter, is a 
great economy. It is the most recent experience that 
roots should be pulped and mixed with chaff a day or so 
before being used. 

Whether or not the advantage of pulping is derived 
from its inducing a larger consumption of straw, first cut 
and mixed with the pulp, than when offered to animals 
uncut, it is decidedly an advantage to the arable farmer, 
for a large quantity of straw is on plough-land generally 
used wastefully in litter, and a portion of it will be saved 
for use as food with economy and profit. 

The advantages of pulping roots are 

1. Economy of food, for the whole is consumed without 
waste, the animals not being able to separate the chaff from 
the pulped roots, as is the case when the roots are merely 
sliced by the cutter; neither do they waste the fodder, as 
when given without being cut. 

2. The use of ordinary hay and straw. After being 
mixed with the pulp about twelve hours, fermentation 
commences ; this soon renders the most mouldy hay pa- 
latable, and animals eat with avidity that which they would 
otherwise reject. This fermentation softens the straw, 
makes it more palatable, and puts it in a state to assimi- 
late more readily with the other food. In this respect the 
pulper is of great value. 

3. Steaming food is another great economy. A warm 
meal of steamed roots, with hay-chaff and oats, or barley, 
may take the place of one of the feeds of oats once a day 
in autumn, when labour is heavy and the weather is becom- 
ing severe. 

Diseases of the Horse. 139 


General observations Disease Definitions Pathology Fever : simple 
symptomatic, and specific Inflammation Abscess Serous Cyst Classi- 
fication of Disease Prevention of Disease Sending for the Veterinary 

THE well being of mankind is acknowledged to be 
largely dependent upon the health and soundness of con- 
stitution of our domestic animals. As the flesh of cattle, 
sheep, and swine, forms the great proportion of human 
food, it is obvious that only those animals known to be 
in perfect health should be slaughtered for that purpose. 
But all our domestic animals exert an influence more or 
less detrimental to the public health, altogether apart from 
the consumption of their flesh as food. This division of 
the subject claims our attention at the present time, as 
equine animals, especially, are liable to contract diseases 
which are not only transmissible to mankind, but certain 
forms of which prove malignant and speedily fatal. In 
order, therefore, to secure the safety of the human popu- 
lation, it is imperative that the creatures under constant 
use should possess a uniform standard of health. 

The value of sound constitution, as creating and main- 
taining an aptitude for meeting the daily requirements of 
toil, or work, in its various degrees of intensity and con- 
tinuance, is so apparent that we need not discuss the 
subject here.* 

The horse, possessing remarkable qualifications for 
service under man, naturally engrosses much attention. 
He also ranks high in commercial value, and on that 
account alone stimulates interest in his preservation. 
There is a nobility in his character, combined with a 

* This is amply treated by the Author in his little manual, "How 
to Feed the Horse." London and New York : F. Warne & Co. 
Price One Shilling. 

140 Diseases of the Horse. 

keen sense of perception, which secures for him an inti- 
macy and friendship with mankind scarcely enjoyed by 
any other creature. The intelligence of both by simple 
intuition is creative of an adaptability which secures the 
happiest results : the higher coming do t wn, the lower 
rising thus meeting and blending in mutual concord, 
confidence, and understanding, which, earnestly studied, 
are unique. 

It is not surprising that we should attach an important 
value to our friend and companion the horse. We 
acquire such knowledge of his powers and the signs of 
unquestionable health, that it is no longer possible that 
we should neglect anything which shows a falling off in 
that particular. Our interests are intimately bound with 
his, and we leave no stone unturned in order to sympa- 
thise with him, comprehend his malady, and relieve his 
suffering. There is not another animal, saving in some 
respects the dog, which, under disease, so seconds our 
endeavours, and appreciates by a wonderfully acute intel- 
ligence any efforts to alleviate his agony. He is but little 
removed from ourselves, and his muteness proves no 
barrier between us. On the contrary, day by day we 
know each other better, and the love is so deep, on his 
part at least, that the trust is never broken, and faithful- 
ness characterises him to the end. Would that human 
friendship could always boast of that standard to the 
saving of crushed hopes and endless despair. 

The knowledge acquired by daily contact with animals 
is first evident in the judgment we are able to form as to 
the state of health, and subsequently in our ability to 
recognise departures from that standard. Having learned 
to estimate the signs of health, the faculty of discovering 
those of disturbance becomes equally as acute. This 
study is often acquired by men of no scientific pretensions, 
and proves to be of great value ; but to the veterinary 
practitioner it is of immense importance, especially when 
it is exercised upon the suffering animal. Few men, 
however learned in the general habits of the horse, can 
convey in description even a tithe of the information 
which a practised veterinarian may gather at the side of 

Diseases of the florse. 1 4 T 

his patient. As the state of health is betokened by in- 
fallible signs, so the existence of disease is no less certain 
as shown by perverted function and states which are 
never present in health. The department of science 
which comprehends these particulars is known as Patho- 
logy, or the doctrine of disease. In order, however, to 
ascertain what particular form of disease is present, the 
practitioner resorts to a process of analysis. He ex- 
amines the signs singly and combined, and often turns to 
a form of negative examination, that is, testing certain 
organs to prove their state of health. This is particu- 
larly called for in some obscure forms of derangement. 
Symptomatology is the term by which the signs of a malady 
are known as they appear in acknowledged or consecu- 
tive order, when they are said to be characteristic of the 
disease during life. 

The value of such study is remarkably apparent in the 
results of an examination of the body after death. Disease 
works important changes in structure as well as function 
of organs, and these are minutely compared with the 
appearances common to the healthy body, a proceeding 
which forms an important part of the curriculum through- 
out the period of training at our veterinary colleges. 
While Anatomy teaches the relative position, form, and 
general appearances of all parts of the healthy body, 
Morbid or Pathological Anatomy is the symptomatology 
of disease after death. 

By Veterinary Medicine we understand the enumera- 
tion and consideration in detail of the nature, causes, 
symptoms, and morbid appearances of all diseases. 
Veterinary Surgery is the term applied to such diseases 
as call for operations, generally the result of accident, as 
fractures, ruptures, punctures from pointed instruments, 
lacerations, &c., &c. 

Materia-Medica is that department which describes the 
various remedies, their nature, physical characters, and 
actions upon the animal body ; also the uses, doses, and 
forms of combination in which they are prescribed. It 
further teaches how certain medicines act upon and 
destroy each other; and more than this, how two or 

142 Diseases of the Horse. 

three, when administered by persons ignorant of their 
nature, may form a poisonous mixture which kills the 
patient, the secret coming to light on a careful post mortem 
examination. The list of remedies is a long one ; many 
are of special character, and appropriate only in particular 
cases, and for separate animals. From these circum- 
stances the practice of veterinary medicine calls for a 
great amount of skill, accurate observation, and sound 
judgment. The patient is speechless, but he appeals by 
a power which speaks loudly through important signs. A 
study of his ailments and their treatment by remedies, 
medical and surgical, is, therefore, not a simple matter. 
Attempts have been made to prove the opposite, with 
the result, irreparable injustice and cruelty to the animal, 
and prostitution of a science to a grade below the meanest 
degree of mechanical skill. Rightly estimated it may 
engage the attention of men of science and high social 
position, and secure the commendation of observant and 
thinking professors in other schools of thought. Viewed 
as an occupation for which grooms, coachmen, carters, 
shepherds, and cowherds only are eligible, it must de- 
generate to empty quackery, the end of its utility and 
application having arrived. 


Subsequent chapters will be devoted to an enumera- 
tion of the various ailments of the horse, and a considera- 
tion of the signs or symptoms by which an ailment or 
disease is recognised. During late years much valuable 
information has been acquired by means of close inves- 
tigation. The category, by no means a meagre one, has 
been augmented. Clearer views are now held on subjects 
hitherto regarded as undetermined or doubtful, and the 
general method of dealing with disease is thus far satis- 
factorily, but not finally, improved. 

The plan of grouping diseases will not have much 
interest for the general reader, and we may dismiss the 
subject with the declaration that the pathologist, feeHng 
himself immensely at home in it, renders invaluable aid 
by indicating the outline of methods by which the malady 

Diseases of the Horse. 143 

may be judiciously treated by the numerous remedies of 
a medical or surgical character. As a preliminary to the 
general context on general diseases we append, as follow, 
some remarks on Fever, Inflammation, &c. 


By this term we understand a disturbed condition of 
the system, characterised by perverted or arrested func- 
tion, more or less general. The various secretions are 
diminished or altogether withheld. The nervous system 
indicates an increased sensibility or unusual excitement ; 
and, by the influence exerted upon the organs of respira- 
tion, reproduction, and notably those engaged in nutrition 
and depuration, all are, more or less, involved, or their 
functions suspended. The system is thus bordering upon 
a state of more serious derangement, and if allowed 
to proceed, a condition of confirmed disease is esta- 

Three kinds of Fever are recognised, viz., Simple or 
Ephemeral, Symptomatic or Sympathetic, and Specific. 

SIMPLE FEVER is defined to be that short-lived or 
ephemeral state of disturbance often noticed in highly-fed 
animals, occupying close stables, and breathing a warm, 
but not necessarily tainted, atmosphere. It may arise 
from the irritation caused by badly -fitting harness, or the 
discomforts of a short journey under the hands of a rough 
or otherwise injudicious driver. Colts under breaking 
often exhibit this form of simple disturbance. A slight 
increase of circulation, respiration, and animal tempera- 
ture will be observed, with a hot dry mouth, diminished 
secretions, slight constipation, &c. In a short time, 
varying from one to several hours, after a draught of 
water, a bran mash, or moderate meal of green food, 
roots, &c., the symptoms have disappeared, and the 
animal is apparently none the worse. We cannot, how- 
ever, limit the understanding to the only conclusion that 
this state of so-called simple or ephemeral fever is not 
without significance. Diligent inquiry should be insti- 
tuted with the view of correcting existing abuses, and 

1 44 Diseases of the Plorse. 

preventing as well as dissipating them by means of proper 
exercise, airy dwellings, and suitable food, one or all of 
which may be at fault. Neglect of this is the precursor 
of greater evils which we now proceed to notice. 

garded as an intense or violent aggravation of the pre- 
ceding form. The following simple illustrations will 
render this quite clear. Minor causes of irritation, acci- 
dents, &c., as simple scratches, friction to the skin, 
bruises, a slight chill, &c., may induce nothing more than 
simple fever ; but the effects of a nail driven into the 
sensitive part of the foot, a muscular part, or penetrating 
the walls of the chest or abdomen, the bruising of the 
coronet or circumference at the top of the hoof, severe 
laceration of the skin or muscles, fracture of a bone, acute 
inflammation of an important organ, &c., &c., will pro- 
duce a vast amount of disturbance, and even endanger 
or destroy the animal's life. In such fatal states the 
immediate cause of death is not the puncture, the bruise, 
or laceration, &c., severe as they may be, but the sympa- 
thetic fever, which is spoken of as constitutional disturbance, 
vital organs being brought into sympathetic suffering with 
parts originally injured. Such manifestations being com- 
mon or always attendant upon extensive and serious 
lesions, excluding, however, their specific signs, are said 
to be symptomatic, that is indicative of the severity and 
seriousness of the original malady. 

Symptomatic fever arises through the medium of the 
nervous system ; which brings all parts of the system into 
union and sympathy. It is nature's telegraphy, by which 
the disease of outlying members is made known in the 
central system, and that the signs thus registered are of 
serious and urgent import, admitting of no delay, and 
calling for the exercise of prompt, sound judgment. The 
respiration is accelerated, gradually, sometimes rapidly 
assuming the form termed blowing, such as is seen in the 
distress arising from long and painfully severe exercise ; 
the pulse is ///// and bounding; the arrest of secretion, a 
common result of perverted function, has diminished the 
quantity of urine, which has a strong odour and deep 

Diseases of the Horse. 145 

colour ; the bowels, restrained by the same cause, are 
slow to act, and the evacuations are small, hard, dry, and 
glazed with mucus. The mouth is dry and hot, and the 
tongue covered with a thick slimy secretion, and the 
internal part of the rectum, or posterior gut, partakes of 
the same characters. The ears, skin, and legs are also 
hot, and often the sufferer breaks out in violent perspira- 
tion which may somewhat relieve the state of the internal 
organs. From this stage the disease, if unrelieved, 
assumes more serious characters. The coat becomes 
harsh, lining mucous membranes are reddened, and the 
countenance exhibits an expression of anxiety as pain 
increases ; and external parts, removed far from the 
centre of circulation, fail to maintain a normal tempera- 
ture : it may vary from abnormal heat to surprising cold, 
finally meriting the description " cold as clay." On a 
post mortem examination the cause is quickly ascertained. 
The irritation arising from the original cause has produced 
a general and widespread disturbance, in which the blood 
especially has suffered constitutionally, and no longer 
flows as in health. It fails to nourish the body, and, 
moreover, acts as a morbid poison upon the nervous 
system, which, by failure of function, seriously complicates 
the disturbance. The lungs are congested, an additional 
arrest upon blood purification being established, and from 
this time further complications are superadded which end 
in speedy death, the result of congestion or stoppage of 
blood in the lungs. 

We have refrained from a detail of the usual order of 
symptoms marking the stages from the commencement of 
the original injury or disease, to the setting in and ter- 
mination of the secondary complaint, as being uncalled 
for. The veterinary practitioner alone is able to com- 
prehend them. By him they are known as collective 
signs of the most vital importance, and, as he proceeds 
with his analysis, during the life of the sufferer, they point 
to conditions which he may accurately describe, and, 
after death, establish his conclusions with equal clearness 
and precision. Such signs are viewed as a whole, and in 
scientific language they are comprehended under the 


146 Diseases of the Horse. 

terms Sympathetic, Symptomatic, or Irritative Fever, and 
Constitutional Disturbance. 

SPECIFIC FEVER is another general term for denoting 
peculiar and important states. We need only to observe 
here that it is applied to those forms of disease which are 
capable of being propagated among animals of the same 
class by contact. Essential details will be found under 
the head of Contagious Diseases. 

Treatment of Fever. As simple fever depends upon 
the presence of some irritant, it is obvious that the sup- 
pression of the disease at the outset alone depends upon 
the removal of the cause. When this is accomplished 
nature resumes her position. If we are able at once to 
control the original disease, and reduce or remove its 
effects, sympathetic fever is not developed ; and if it has 
already commenced, by mitigating the severity of the first 
we may remove the second, even when it has attained a 
degree of intensity. Sympathetic fever always leaves the 
animal more or less deteriorated. Successful treatment 
of injuries, &c., is more likely to result from early appli- 
cation, and is always to be recommended. 

INFLAMMATION. The infallible signs are heat, pain, 
redness, and swelling. The first and second are usually 
evident, but owing to the existence of hair and other 
coverings common to the animal body, redness and 
swelling are not so readily observed. Inflammation is the 
result of violent causes, consisting of an increase of blood 
in the affected part, with more or less suspended function 
of the blood vessels, as well as the integral parts of the 
blood itself. Inflammation is said to be acute when the 
process is characterised by great severity or activity ; it is 
atonic or sub -acute, when, by reason of low vital force, it 
proves slow or tardy. Closely allied to this state is a 
peculiarity of the circulation, mostly common to large 
organs with abundant vessels and elastic tissues, known 
as congestion. It is sudden in its origin and departure, 
and is probably confined principally to the venous system. 

Inflammation terminates in various ways. By resolu- 
tion or gradual decline, the parts eventually regaining 
their original state and appearance ; in suppuration or 

Diseases of the Horse. 147 

the formation of an abscess or sac containing pus ; in 
effusion from the surface of membranes, as water (serum) 
or mucus \ or by lymph within the structures inflamed, 
by which permanent thickening or enlargement may be 
the result. 

Inflammation is further distinguished by the structures 
it attacks. Thus we have serous and mucous inflamma- 
tion, as the serous or mucous membranes are involved. 
When located in the substance of organs it is known as 
parenchymatous ; if it seizes fibrous structures, as the 
coverings of joints, ligaments, tendons, &c., it is rheuma- 
tic ; and inflammation of the skin and deeper seated tis- 
sues is termed erysipelatous. Beyond these terms we need 
not pursue the definitions. 

The treatment of Inflammation may be local or general, 
and will be noticed under the several diseases in which 
the state forms an especial feature. 

ABSCESS. The formation offlus, commonly.known as 
matter, among soft parts of the body is known as an 
abscess. The signs are swelling accompanied with heat 
and unusual tenderness; and as the abscess becomes 
complete, the hair is removed from the central or highest 
portion, which is also moist and even more sensitive. 
This part is acutely inflamed, and by the process of 
ulceration within, becomes thin, and movement of the 
contained fluid is readily perceived by pressure with the 
fingers. Pressure from within also tends to project the 
fluid outwards ; the central point of the abscess bulges, 
and, when allowed to pursue its course unaided, the skin 
gives way, and the pus escapes. In order to avoid this 
delay, and, in addition also, much animal suffering, as 
well as hasten ultimate recovery, the surgeon opens the 
abscess at the required time, by means of a bistoury or 
a lancet. 

Treatment. The signs already given betoken the 
favourable progress of an abscess, and should always, if 
possible, be treated by a surgical operation as we have 
described. Cleanliness, with occasional poultices or hot 
fomentations are needed, but as a rule the first is suffi- 
cient. Tardy or slow abscesses may be improved by con- 

148 Diseases of the Horse. 

stant fomentations or poultices, and sometimes blisters 
will be needed. In these states it is occasionally a diffi- 
cult thing to induce a proper formation of pus. Such is 
found to exist in connection with a lax or feeble state of 
the system, favouring diffused abscess or suppuration over 
the body, and within the internal organs. If such an 
animal lives he usually proves worthless. Good, food, 
healthy habitations, and tonic medicines, particularly 
iron, are then called for. 

In some instances the abscess lies at a great depth be- 
low the surface. Considerable skill is required, first to 
pronounce with certainty of its existence, and then to 
reach and liberate the fluid without destroying the sur- 
rounding parts or endangering the animal. The discovery 
of a deep seated abscess is hardly likely to be made by 
any but a skilful surgeon, and therefore calls for no fur- 
ther allusion here. 

SEROUS CYST, otherwise known as serous abscess, is 
commonly seen about the knees and fetlock joints. It 
consists of a soft fluctuating tumour, without evidences of 
heat or unusual tenderness, commonly the result of blows, 
or the animal striking one limb with the foot of the oppo- 
site side. The cavity is formed beneath the skin, which is 
the only covering outwardly, and contains a thin fluid, 
coloured by an admixture of blood discharged from a few 
ruptured vessels, or transuded during engorgement in 
the earlier stages. The cavity is lined by condensed cel- 
lular tissue, which materially delays the process of absorp- 
tion of the contents. 

Treatment consists of liberating the contents by means 
of a bistoury or lancet, the former being preferable, by 
which division is effected from end to end. A pad of 
tow, saturated in healing fluid, is afterwards applied and 
maintained with pressure, which secures healing of the 
walls. Subsequent enlargement is to be removed by 
iodine, &c. Great care is needed to discriminate be- 
tween the serous cyst and bursal enlargements. The 
latter have been opened by amateurs in mistake, involving 
serious consequences. The results are violent inflamma- 
tion, intense suffering, often with ultimate stiffening of 

Diseases of the Plorse. 149 

the joint, if the animal does not succumb to the effects 
of irritative fever. 

Prevention of Disease. 

This is a department of untold usefulness, and to all who 
enter upon its consideration in a spirit of earnest inquiry, 
it promises a rich reward of never ending satisfaction. 

It is doubtful if the subject has received serious atten- 
tion, except in rare instances ; in the majority it has met 
with animated derision, and seldom placed within the 
domain of impartial criticism. 

We propose to consider the subject briefly in its 
several aspects. 

The vast amount of wealth represented by the numerous 
large studs of hard-working horses in almost every town 
of the United Kingdom, opens up a wide field for an 
attempted provision of means for the prolongation of use- 
ful lives. The state of the times may forbid any relaxa- 
tion of the severe strain of daily toil, and on that account 
alone encourages the adoption of means which shall 
maintain health and vigour, by an increase of the power 
of endurance. The period of usefulness may be extended 
by increasing the power of resistance against wear and 
tear, and this is secured beyond question by the exercise 
of care in the feeding. It is probable that few persons are 
seriously conversant with the evils that attend the varied 
systems at present adopted. The majority of fatal diseases 
in the horse are directly as well as indirectly the result of 
defects in this department. 

Having already placed our views on this question, 
based upon long experience, before the public in the work 
referred to at page 139 (footnote), we do not propose to 
pursue it at this time. We simply suggest to all con- 
cerned the desirability of giving the plan a fair and im- 
partial trial, not confining it to draught horses and others 
employed in public vehicles, &c., but extending it with, 
of course, suitable modifications to carriage horses, hacks, 
and hunters. 

Another aspect of the question is presented in the 
adoption of a system of^ contract with the attendant 

150 Diseases of the Horse. 

veterinary surgeon. This subject has not, we believe, 
been generally worked out and applied as its importance 
calls for. There is a form, usually confined to some large 
establishments, represented by the employment of a 
veterinary surgeon, whose sole time and attention is 
given to the animals on the estate, &c., but the depart- 
ment in which his value and energy would secure the 
greatest reward, viz., the feeding department, is withheld 
from him. He alone should be at its head ; but he, per- 
haps, has never given it his attention. He is ignorant of 
its resources, and it is mismanaged by another, providing 
ample employment for him in medical practice, to which 
his attention is entirely confined. This branch of the 
essential department of hygiene is altogether neglected, 
animal health is deteriorated, and the results are accepted 
as inevitable, being atoned for by the usual debit entry in 
the profit and loss account. 

The contract system, arranged on a liberal scale, may 
be made to answer satisfactorily if the veterinary surgeon 
were retained with the express purpose of preserving 
health. He would be able to give much useful advice as 
to work, housing, ventilation, &c., which would diminish 
the need for medicines, and maintain the working power 
of the animals. At the present time, however, neither 
employer nor practitioner have much confidence in such 
a proposal, few on either side having tested its value. 

The adoption of measures for preventing the spread of 
contagious diseases is an essential department, and should 
be under the control of the veterinary surgeon. The 
results also of treating certain affections well known to 
be ;w;/-contagious, but which have the character at times 
of creating great havoc in large studs, would amply 
repay for the exercise of suitable, and, in a sense, similar 

With respect to the first class, we believe the results of 
large experience preponderate in favour of segregation 
on definite lines, as laid down in the author's larger works 
on the horse and cattle.* We are led also to believe the 

* "The Horse Doctor," and "The Cattle Doctor." London 
and New York : F. Warne & Co. Price, 2 is, each. 

Diseases of the Horse. 1 5 1 

system advocated in the " Handbook," published by the 
Agricultural Department of the Privy Council in 1887, 
might be placed within less compass than 854 pages, and 
a supplement of 33 more, greatly to the advantage of the 
large number of horse and cattle proprietors, to whom 
the loss of an animal is not the only inconvenience. 
Concise legislation is greatly needed, the multiplication 
of " Orders in Council " rendering confusion doubly 


Since publishing a few hints on this subject some years 
ago, we have received so many assurances of their utility 
that no apology is offered for reproducing them here. 

First. Whenever possible, select a messenger 'who 
takes an interest in the animal ; one, at least, who has 
witnessed its sufferings, and is able to afford information 
in reply to questions from the veterinarian. If a stranger 
is selected, send a written message. Let us urge that 
on no account shall a verbal statement be entrusted to 
illiterate persons, as there is great probability that it will 
assume a totally different complexion before reaching its 
destination. When sending the first time to the veteri- 
nary surgeon, give full name and address, and write 
plainly as possible. 

Second. Send early, or as soon as may be after the 
appearance of illness, so that the practitioner may see the 
sufferer in the original attack, and before it is rendered 
critical by dangerous complications. "A stitch in time 
saves nine." 

Third. Send as much information, consisting of facts, 
as possible. Some apparently trivial circumstances may 
prove of great value to the surgeon. The following sug- 
gestive note came to hand early one morning : 

" ASHGROVE, 5th April. 

. "Please note one of the farm-horses was recently 
found by the carter covered with perspiration, blowing 
hard, and unable to bear his weight on the fore-feet. 
Your attention will oblige." 

152 Diseases of the Horse. 

It was easy to read between the lines in this case, and 
to make full preparation, which enabled us to bring the 
case to a satisfactory conclusion, although a journey of 
five miles lay between. Such a message forms a strong 
contrast to one we reproduce. It was merely, " Come 
directly, we have a horse bad." We hurried away to 
find him suffering from a somewhat unusual affection, for 
which no preparation could be made under the circum- 
stances, as a special operation was required. Although 
considerable delay occurred in returning for instruments, 
the termination was more favourable than might be anti- 

Fourth. Always avoid giving medicines in the absence 
of precise knowledge of the nature of the malady, and 
the needful remedy. If it is certain the animal is suffer- 
ing from simple colic, be also as certain that the medi- 
cine is equally appropriate. Colic may exist as a distinct 
and independent affection ; it is also frequently seen as 
an indication of other diseases, when the treatment for 
simple colic would create delays that might prove dan- 

Fifth. When mistakes in the administration of 
remedies havs been made, do not hesitate to disclose 
everything relating to them. Much valuable time is often 
lost when the practitioner can elicit but little, even by 
rigid cross-examination. The animal can tell us nothing, 
while his sufferings are prolonged or aggravated by delay, 
in which the practitioner may be powerless to act until 
information is afforded. 

These remarks apply to serious and urgent cases prin- 
cipally. Needless and often unpardonable delay is often 
allowed to operate with reference also to trivial cases, so- 
called, and irreparable mischief is the result. By the non- 
observance of system and promptitude, thousands of lives 
are now sacrificed long before the average term of useful- 
ness has been reached. 

Mater ia-Medica. 1 53 


Medicines, their doses and administration Alteratives Anodynes Anti- 
septics Antispasmodics Aperients Astringents Blisters Caustics 
Clysters Cordials Demulcents Diaphoretics Digestives Diuretics 
Electuaries Embrocations or Liniments Expectorants Febrifuges 
Fomentations Lotions Poultices Tonics. 

THE combinations, as well as the proportions of reme- 
dies, are details calling for important attention in the 
treatment of disease. In ignorance of the exact action 
of drugs, strange compounds may be made up, some of 
which are really no remedy, but, by action upon each 
other when in contact with the secretions of the digestive 
system, a powerful poison is generated. 

The following are examples of acknowledged remedies, 
with the usual terms, &c., by which they are known. 
The practitioner is not limited to these ; his intelligence 
enables him to enlarge and modify the prescriptions in 
ways it would not be safe to explain to the amateur. 
The doses named being intended for horses of large size and 
coarse constitutions, it will be necessary to make suitable 
reductions for smaller animals, when special quantities are 
not stated. The following calculations may be generally 
relied upon : A one-year-old colt will not need more 
than one-third the quantity prescribed for the adult horse 
of his particular breed ; a two-year-old, one half; and the 
three-year-old, two-thirds, or thereabouts, the quantity 
gradually approximating the full dose as the age advances. 
Grave consideration should also be given to temperament, 
formation, unusual or deficiency in development, habit, 
mode of life, character of food, besides other circum- 
stances which cannot here come under review. 


A variety of substances are included under this term 
which is neither precise nor commendable. It is usually 

1 5 4 Mater ia- Medico, . 

understood to comprehend those remedies which restore 
healthy function to organs previously disordered. If this 
be correct, then all remedies are alteratives. 

1. Poiuders for Simple Disorders of the Skin. Sul- 
phate or nitrate of potash, in fine powder, i to 4 drms. ; 
sublimed sulphur, 2 to 6 drms. ; powdered gentian, 2 to 
8 drms. Mix, and give daily in the food for a week, or 
as required. 

2. For Chronic Skin Diseases, Grease, &>c. Fowler's 
solution of arsenic, 2 to 8 fluid drms. ; tincture of gentian, 
i to 2 fluid oz. Mix with pint of linseed mucilage, 
and give as a drench twice daily for a week. 

3. Chlorate of potash, powdered, sublimed sulphur, 
and powdered gentian or linseed-meal, of each 2 to 6 
drms. Mix, and incorporate with the manger-food daily 
for a week or longer, as required. 

Precise information will be found under other remedies 
which follow. 


Remedies included in this term .are those which have 
the power of soothing and allaying pain. They do so by 
quieting the nervous system, and in this way also relieve 

1. For simple Colic. Extract of belladonna, reduced 
to an emulsion with water, 2 drms. ; spirits of nitrous 
ether, 2 fluid oz. ; tincture of opium, % oz. Mix and add 
tepid water to make one pint. 

2. Another form. Linseed oil, i pint ; tincture of 
opium, 3 fluid oz. Mix, and administer by means of a 
tin bottle. Useful in colic combined with constipation 
in large animals. Half the above quantities form the 
ordinary antispasmodic drench, and as an anodyne in 
simple diarrhoea. 

3. For Diarrh&a, Superpurgation, &c. Powdered 
kino, 2 drms. ; powdered opium, \ drm. ; powdered 
gentian, 2 drms. ; sulphuric ether, i fluid oz. Mix ; and 
agitate some minutes in the closed bottle; then add 
water, or simple gruel, both of which should be cold, 

Matena-Medica. \ 5 5 


These are substances which have the power of destroy- 
ing offensive odours, especially those arising from de- 
caying or putrefying matter. They are largely called for 
in preserving the sweetness of stables, when contagious 
diseases are present, or offensive effluvia arise from the 
bad state of the floors, drains, &c., and to cleanse 
wounds, or the woodwork, &c., which may be soiled by 
the discharges from the former. When used for this pur- 
pose they are known as deodorisers or disinfectants. 

i. "Santtas" Oil stands pre-eminent for effective 
service, in any of the above-named departments, when 
used according to the ample instructions furnished with 
each supply. It has also a useful place in the treatment 
of some internal diseases, when attended with putrid 
discharges, as diarrhoea, metritis, cystitis, &c., which see. 
For this purpose, and also promoting the healing of 
wounds, " Sanitas " Oil has been employed in the fol- 
lowing form. 

1. Antiseptic Mixture. " Sanitas " Oil, 4 parts; gly- 
cerine, 4 parts ; olive oil, 6 parts. Mix and agitate 
thoroughly, and keep in a well-corked bottle. 

2. Candy's Fluid is also effective when applied as 

3. Any of the mineral acids, variously known as sul- 
phuric, nitric, acetic, or muriatic, diluted with water in 
the proportion of i part to 100, form very useful anti- 
septics for wounds and chronic discharges. 

4. Chloride of zinc, 3 grs. ; distilled water, i oz. To 
form a lotion, or as No. 6. 

5. Lunar caustic, 3 grs. ; distilled water, i oz. To 
form a lotion, or as No. 6. 

6. Solution of sulphurous acid applied by the spray 
producer, oras a lotion. 


Medicines of this class are also anodynes, which see. 
They have the property of allaying spasm or cramp : 
hence the term given above. For recipes see Anodynes, 

156 Materia-Medica* 


Aperients are mild, gentle laxatives or purges. The 
most powerful are termed cathartics, and the mildest 

1. A Mild Oleaginous Purge. Linseed oil, i pint. 

2. Linseed oil, i pint; croton oil, i to 5 drops. 

3. Barbadoes aloes, 2 to 7 or 8 drms. The extract is 
first finely powdered, and afterwards caused to form a 
tenacious paste by means of a small quantity of soft soap. 
The addition of i or 2 drms. of finely powdered ginger 
promotes warmth and prevents griping. 

Aperients or purgative medicine is known in the stable 
by the elastic term of " physic," the real nature of which 
is so little understood, that a few remarks will not be out 
of place. The action alone of purgative medicine often 
produces much inconvenience to the horse, even in 
health, and when to this is added the nausea resulting 
from the digestion of the drugs, one cannot exhibit too 
much care in preserving the comfort of the sufferer when 
doomed to their administration, especially during illness. 
In all cases, if possible, the system should be prepared 
by previous withdrawal of nearly all hard and dry food, 
substituting an allowance of bran in the form of mash, 
which should be continued over two or three days, 
according to the state of the bowels, and the extent of 
action required. In healthy working horses of all kinds 
this is most important, as the full action of a smaller dose 
of medicine is ensured, with the least inconvenience, and 
a more certain possibility of a speedy return to the usual 
duties. In these cases purgative medicine should be 
given in the early morning, or not later than noon, the 
mash being supplied immediately afterwards ; the animal 
then remains at rest, chilled water being allowed for 
drink, and an extra thin rug, or even two, may be put on. 
In winter time this is very important. Before being left 
for the night, the tail may be tied up to preserve it from 
being fouled by the evacuations, and the floor behind may 
be covered with a thin layer of litter to prevent splashing 
of the walls, &c., if active purgation comes on in the 

Mater ia-Medica. 157 

absence of the groom. It is safe practice to look in once 
or more during the night, in case a sudden attack of 
gripes may ensue, especially if the horse is a fresh one. 
When free purgation is set up, the animal must not be 
moved out of the stable on any account, and every atten- 
tion must be given in order to promote the animal's 
comfort in the way of warmth. As nausea forms a pro- 
minent sign, food, especially sloppy bran mashes, are an 
annoyance; therefore, when offering suitable material, 
let it be in small quantity, and, if refused, at once removed. 
After twelve hours the purgation declines, or "sets," in 
stable phraseology. During this time the food should 
still be laxative, that is, bran may form the greater bulk, 
but a few oats, a handful of barley, malt, &c., may be 
mixed with it, and as the appetite returns, the increase of 
the usual food may be gradually made at each meal, 
until matters are restored to their former condition. 

When the physic is delayed in action, it is usual to 
give a little exercise, varying from a walk to a trot, as 
may be needful, and thus expedite matters ; but on the 
first appearance of purgation the animal must be returned 
to the stable. The time best suited for this operation is 
during warm or temperate weather, and the horses sub- 
jected to it should have, at least, from four to seven days' 
rest from absolute work, gentle exercise taking its place 
from the cessation of purgation. 

The purgation of animals under disease being a part of 
the rational treatment, details will be found under the 
various maladies for which it is prescribed. 


Astringents contract animal tissues, upon which they 
act either when applied locally, administered by the 
mouth, or introduced into the circulation. 

1. Lotion. Goulard's extract, 2 fluid oz. : cold water, 
i pint.* 

2. Lotion. Sulphate of zinc, i^ drms. ; tincture of 
myrrh, 2 fluid oz. ; cold water, i pint. Dissolve the 
zinc in the water ; then add the tincture.* 

* .Label " Poison." 

1 5 8 Mater ia-Medica. 

3. Lotion. Sulphate of copper, i to 2 drms. ; cold 
water, i pint.* 

4. Ointment. Acetate of lead, i drm. ; hog's lard,t 
i oz. - Mix. 

5. Ointment. Sulphate of zinc, i drm. ; hog's lard,f 
i oz. Mix. 

6. Powder. Sulphate of zinc, 2 to 4 parts ; oxide of 
zinc, 2 parts ; Armenian bole, a part. Mix carefully. 
To be dusted over the parts daily, or as required. 

7. Internal Use. Tincture of opium, ^ oz. ; powdered 
catechu, % oz. ; flour or powdered starch, 2 or 3 oz. 
Mix rapidly with 8 or 1 2 oz. of tepid water to form a 

8. Powdered opium, i drm. ; powdered alum, 2 drms. ; 
powdered ginger, i drm. ; strong tea, i pint. Mix for a 
drench, allowing time for perfect solution of the alum. 


Blisters are irritant applications which produce active 
inflammation in the skin, with the formation of vesicles or 
bladders. The object of their use is to determine the 
removal of inflammatory action from some deeper- 
seated part, on the principle of counteraction or overcoming 
inflammation thus set up in a healthy part. It is really 
setting up another disease as a means of curing the first. 
Horses as a rule are peculiarly sensitive to the action of 
blisters. A prompt action, when applied during acute 
disease, is to be regarded as an indication that the latter 
is being brought under control. When a blister does 
not rise, a fatal termination may be looked for. The 
following are some of the forms employed. 

i. Liquid Blister. Olive oil, i pint ; powdered can- 
tharides, i oz. Mix and heat in a water bath for two 
hours, then stand aside. When cold add $ pint of spirits 
of turpentine, cover up and allow to stand twenty-four 
hours ; then strain through fine calico, and add 2 fluid 
oz. of oil origanum. To be applied with friction, using 
very small quantities to ensure contemporaneous absorp- 

* Label "Poison." 

f Free from salt. Vaseline is a good substitute. 

Materia- Medica . 


tion. If this is not attended to the fluid will gravitate 
among the hair, and flow downwards, causing useless and 
often extreme irritation. In the hands of amateurs the 
following ointment is safest . 

2. Ointment. Powdered cantharides, 2 oz. ; oil of tur- 
pentine, 2 fluid oz. ; oil of origanum, i fluid oz. ; yellow 
resin, i oz. : hog's lard (free from salt), 16 oz. Mix the 
cantharides, resin, and lard together, and heat in a 
water-bath for eight hours ; then remove, strain, and set 
aside to cool a little ; next add the turpentine and origa- 
num ; agitate thoroughly, after which allow the whole to 

To ensure the speedy action of a blistering ointment, 
first clip the hair closely by means of sharp scissors or an 
efficient clipping machine. Over the part thus denuded 
the ointment is to be spread in successive quantities, each 
being thoroughly rubbed in, and at the close a thin layer 
should be evenly spread over. Great judgment is re- 
quired as to the quantity used. Finely bred animals do 
not tolerate mre than half the quantity required by a 
large, coarse draught horse. An excess, therefore, will 
do harm by exciting undue irritation, and probably lead 
to ugly blemishing, besides augmenting the original 


Substances capable of producing chemical action upon 
the living tissues are termed caustics. The effect is equi- 

The Budding Iron. 

valent to burning or decomposition. They are of two 
kinds the actual cautery, or iron heated to redness ; and 

1 60 Mater ia- Medica. 

the potential cautery, viz., mineral and chemical agents, 
as caustic soda, caustic potash, and lunar caustic, or nitrate 
of silver. The heated iron is often the most useful, con- 
trollable, and effective form of cautery, being employed 
for stimulating indolent wounds, repressing too luxuriant 
granulations, abscising tumours, or parts destroyed by 
sloughing, and arresting bleeding from an artery, &c. 
The usual form is the firing iron, and the budding iron, 
as shown in the annexed figures. 

1. Caustic Potash is conveniently sold in the form of 
pencils, having been fused and run into suitable moulds. 
A holder is required for using it. In action it is prompt 
and powerful ; but as it so quickly absorbs moisture from 
the atmosphere and becomes fluid, it proves unmanage- 
able and expensive. 

2. Lunar Caustic, or nitrate of silver, is by far the most 
controllable, being less soluble than the former, and is 
also very effective. It is also sold in pencils, and requires 
a silver or platinum tube for use and preservation. 

3. Sulphate of copper, burnt alum, verdigris, red pre- 
cipitate, and corrosive sublimate in powder, are variously 
used as dry caustics. The latter is violent in action, and 
unsafe in the hands of amateurs. It should never be used 
except under the advice of a veterinary surgeon. 

4. Muriate, or butyr of antimony, is a powerful fluid 
caustic, useful for fungoid growths. // is destroyed by ad- 
mixture with water. 

5. Sulphuric, nitric, muriatic, and acetic acids are also 
powerful caustics, and with No. 4 are usually applied by 
means of a small bundle of tow secured on the end of a 
stick or probe. 

Caustic lotions are made of various degrees of strength, 
as follows : 

6. Nitrate of silver, 5, TO, to 15 grs. to i oz. of cold 
distilled water. 

7. Corrosive sublimate, 5 to 10 grs. ; muriatic acid, ^ 
a fluid drm. ; cold distilled water, 7^ fluid drms. An 
effective solution for injecting fistulous sinuses. 

8. Sulphate of copper, 10 drms. ; sulphuric acid, i fluid 
drm. ; water, i pint. 

Mater ia -Medica. \ 6 1 

9. Chloride of zinc, 3 to 5 grs. ; muriatic acid, 5 drops 
distilled water, i fluid oz. 

Caustic ointments find their base in hog's lard, vaseline, 
cocoa butter, &c. 

10. Verdigris finely powdered, i oz. ; hog's lard, 3 oz. 

11. Sulphate of copper in fine powder, i oz. ; hog's 
lard, 4 oz. Mix. 

12. Burnt alum, i oz. ; hog's lard, 3 oz. Mix; in 
each case ensuring thorough incorporation. 


The use of charges is not so common as formerly. 
They consist of the application of an adhesive compound, 
in a heated state, to the legs, over which soft tow or a 
bandage is rolled. These, on stiffening of the compound, 
furnish an unyielding support as well as pressure, which 
is considered suitable when the legs exhibit signs of 
weakness, or there are local swellings, as of tendon, 
bursae, &c., which call for reduction. Other measures 
have largely superseded the practice. 

In past days, the plan has consisted of mixing various 
ingredients as pitch, tar, resin, and lard together, and 
when these have been melted and thoroughly mixed, 
some medicament as red or white lead, mercury, arnica, 
&c., &c., is added, as called for by the state of the legs. 
To-day, the intelligence of the druggist enables him to 
furnish the plaster properly compounded as a solid, and 
in the form of a roll, requiring only to be heated and 
applied, thus saving much trouble and annoyance, with 
less liability to mistake. 

1 . Simple Lead Plaster is made use of when the effect 
of a permanent bandage or support is needed. Care 
must be observed in the application to avoid unnecessary 
pressure, or great pain, swelling, and irritation will result. 

2. Mercurial Plaster is employed for the twofold pur- 
pose of support and the reduction of enlargements. 

3. Arnica Plaster is used when a stimulant action is 
to be exercised upon the blood-vessels, &c. 


1 62 Materia-Medica. 


Clysters are of two kinds, fluid and gaseous. The first 
are used for unloading the rectum, and to convey nutri- 
tious fluids within it for the support of the system when 
reduced by wasting disease ; gaseous enemas are effective 
in allaying spasm in colic, &c. 

Fluid enemas are thus constituted : 

1. Warm water, 90 to IOO Q F., a pailful; soft or hard 
soap, \ Ib. Rub the soap down to solution, and inject 
i or more quarts as required. 

2. Common salt may be substituted for the soap, when 
a direct irritant effect is desired. 

Medicated enemas consist of some remedy added to 
lukewarm water, gruel or linseed mucilage. 

3. Flour or oatmeal gruel, i quart ; spirits of nitrous 
ether, 2 fluid oz. Useful when the animal cannot take 

4. Tincture of opium, i fluid oz. ; . powdered catechu, 
4 drms. ; solution of starch, as used in the laundry, 
thickened by boiling, i quart. 

5. Gaseous enema. Tobacco smoke generated in a 
suitable apparatus attached to the patent syringe, and 
passed into the rectum. When needful, the anti- spasmo- 
dic effect may be increased by adding opium, or asafce- 

Various forms of apparatus are employed for adminis- 

Enema Funnel. 

tering clysters, some ot which are intended for other 
purposes also, and are too expensive for the amateur's 
purpose. The simplest and most efficacious is the 
strong tin funnel, a figure of which is annexed. The 

Mater ia-Medica. 163 

pipe, first smeared slightly with simple lard, oil, or soap, 
is gently passed into the rectum to the extent of two or 
three inches. The bowl, being upwards, is filled with 
successive portions of fluid, which readijy pass down, 
attended with a gurgling sound. Messrs. Arnold and 
Son, surgical instrument makers, 35, West Smithfield, 
London, supply the instrument for seven shillings and 


Under this term are included the various remedies 
having warm, tonic properties. They are also simple 
stimulants, their action being chiefly local, seldom or only 
slightly influencing the action of the heart. They com- 
prise the various seeds as carraway and cardamom ; the 
peppers, ginger, &c., all of which are reduced to powder 
as required, and incorporated with other remedies, as 
salines, aloes, &c., to guard against their cooling, or 
griping effects, and sometimes also to give tone to the 
digestive organs on recovery from severe illness, for which 
they are prescribed with mineral tonics. 


This is a class of useful agents, which having no per- 
ceptible medicinal action, may be viewed more correctly 
as foods, but containing large quantities of mucilage, are 
useful as mechanical agents, in softening, soothing, and 
protecting the surface of mucous membranes when under 
irritation from inflammation. On this account they are 
prescribed in catarrhs affecting the lungs, bowels, kid- 
neys, bladder, &c. 

1. Linseed Mucilage. Linseed, i Ib. ; cold water, i 
gal. Mix, cover up, and set aside, frequently agitating. 
In twenty-four hours it is ready for use. Add warm water 
if required. This form of mucilage is a valuable adjunct 
to systematic daily feeding. 

2. Linseed, 4 oz. ; boiling water, i qt. Let the mix- 
ture simmer gently until a mucilaginous solution is ob* 
tained, and use when cool. This is useful when No, i is 
not kept constantly in use. 

1 6 4 Materia-Medica . 

3. Marshmallows, a double handful ; hot water, i qt. 
Prepare and use as directed for No. 2. 

4. Gum arable finely powdered, i oz. ; water, i pint. 
Mix and agitate until a mucilage is produced, and ad- 
minister one-half for a dose. 


Although it is admitted that a class of medicines have 
the property of stimulating excretion by the skin of the 
horse, the benefit is not of large moment. If it is thought 
advisable to make use of such remedies, a wise choice will 
consist of the ethereal stimulants, carbonate of ammonia, 
&c., assisted by warm clothing, and even the vapour 


These are local agents, employed to stimulate tardy 
wounds to more active suppuration, and thus promote a 
healthy state, and more rapid healing. They are also 
used for dressing setons, and partake of the form of oint- 

1. Strong vinegar, 17 parts ; honey, 14 parts ; verdigris, 
finely powdered, 5 parts. Mix thoroughly, avoiding me- 
tallic agents and utensils in the operation. 

2. Verdigris, finely powdered, i oz. ; Venice turpen- 
tine, 4 oz. ; hog's lard, pure, 8 oz. ; resin, i oz. Melt 
the resin, then add the lard and turpentine, and apply 
further heat until the whole are rendered fluid ; thoroughly 
mix, and finally add the verdigris, keeping up the agita- 
tion until the mixture in cooling becomes stiff. 

3. Resin, i oz. ; Venice turpentine, 2 oz. ; hog's lard, 
pure, 4 oz. Melt the whole together over a slow fire, 
mix thoroughly, and set aside to cool. 


Remedies known to possess the power of stimulating 
the discharge of urine are called diuretics. They reduce 
the watery parts of the blood, and thus promote the 
absorption of fluids effused into close cavities as in hydro- 

Mater ia- Medica. 1 6 5 

thorax, or beneath the skin in the familiar form of sub- 
cellular infiltration commonly known as dropsy, &c. 

1. Bohis. Nitrate of potash, 2 to 6 drms. ; extract of 
gentian, sufficient to cause the mass to adhere. 

2. Draught. Dissolve the requisite dose of nitrate of 
potash in half a pint of linseed mucilage. 


These are syrupy concoctions for conveying medicines 
to the mouth for the purpose of producing local action. 
They slowly dissolve, and are carried by the tongue to all 
parts of the cavity, exerting a beneficial action, when 
solid or fluid remedies cannot be administered, and the 
jaws, c., should be kept in stillness, or, as in sore throat, 
swollen tongue, &c.. &c., the animal is unable to open 
the mouth or even to swallow. 

1 . Muriate of ammonia, 2 oz. ; camphor, i oz. ; gum 
kino, i oz. Pulverise each of these separately, then 
further triturate the whole together ; add 2 oz. of linseed 
meal, and as much treacle say i Ib. as will form a 
thick paste or syrup. Dose, one tablespoonful placed on 
the tongue three or four times a day. 

2. Powdered catechu, 2 oz. ; honey or treacle, i oz. 
Mix, and use as directed for No. i. 


These preparations are only for external use, and are 
designed for various purposes. In some instances it is 
desirable to stimulate the circulation and hasten nutrition 
in a part already weakened by disease ; in others, the 
pain and swelling consequent on local inflammation must 
be reduced ; and at a later period remaining enlarge- 
ments need dispersion before they become permanent. 

1. Stimulating. Olive oil, i pint ; liquor ammonia, 
i oz. ; spirits of turpentine, 2 oz. Mix, and apply with 

2. Sedative. Extract of belladonna, 2 drms. ; tincture 
of opium, 2 fl. oz. ; reduce the extract to an emulsion in 
a mortar by means of the tincture ; afterwards add olive 
oil, pint. Apply with as little friction as possible. 

1 66 Materia-Mcdica. 

3. Soothing and Stimulating. Soap liniment (opodel- 
doc), 8 oz. ; tincture of opium, 2 oz. Useful in later 
stages of acute, also chronic, inflammation of the 
joints, &c. 

4. For Dispersing Enlargements. Add to No. 3 tinc- 
ture of iodine, 2 oz., and agitate to insure perfect admix- 
ture. Apply daily with smart friction. 


Expectorants are employed to excite or promote dis- 
charge from the mucous lining of the air passages. In 
disease of the lungs, bronchial tubes, &c., at the termi- 
nation of the inflammatory stage, such remedies are often 
eminently useful. They overcome remaining irritation, 
remove the cough which it occasions, and promote tran- 
quillity, affording rest and comfort to jaded spirits, greatly 
facilitating recovery. 

1. Bolus. Carbonate of ammonia, finely powdered, 2 
or 3 drms. ; gum asafoetida, i drm. ; extract of bella- 
donna, ^ drm. Rub down the gum, to facilitate which 
use occasionally a few drops of spirits of wine ; add the 
ammonia and triturate, finally rubbing in the extract with 
2 drms. linseed meal, and make up a paste by adding 

2. Carbonate of ammonia finely powdered, and carbo- 
nate of potash, of each 2 drms. ; extract of belladonna, 
i drm. ; powdered squills, 2 drms. Mix by trituration, 
and work into a paste by small additions of oxymel 

3. Draught. Spirits of nitrous ether, i or 2 oz. ; 
oxymel squills, i oz. ; extract of belladonna, drm. Rub 
the extract with a portion of the squills, and when 
reduced add pint of thin linseed mucilage. 


Fever medicines or febrifuges comprise a large class of 
substances, all of which exert their influence more or less 
on the action of the heart and the constitution of the 
blood, the general excretions being also augmented, by 

Mater ia-Medica. 1 67 

which the materials favourable to inflammation are 

1. Bolus. Nitrate of potash, 4 drms. ; camphor, i 
drm. ; digitalis, % drm. Reduce each separately to pow- 
der, and afterwards triturate together, adding i or 2 
drms. of linseed meal, and treacle sufficient to make up 
the mass. 

2. Substitute | drm. extract of belladonna for the digi- 
talis in No. i. 

3. Drench. Solution of the acetate of ammonia, 4 oz. ; 
tincture of belladonna, \ oz. ; linseed mucilage, % pint. 


To ensure the real benefit of fomentations with water 
as a remedy for disease, the following directions should 
be observed : 

The temperature (about 118 F., and not higher than 
120 F.) should be maintained throughout the applica- 
tion, a plentiful and constant supply of water being pro- 

The affected parts should be covered from the first 
with flannel, bl-anket, or the ordinary rug, folded one to 
three times, to maintain the heat as much as possible. 

Application of the water should be prolonged ; in 
severe cases, as much as four to six hours being required 
to ensure benefit. 

At the close, fresh, dry, and warm coverings should be 
in readiness to avoid reaction by sudden cooling. In 
winter time this is doubly important. 

The operation is performed as follows : The animal 
being suitably placed, a large pail or open tub is brought 
as near as possible and filled with hot water, the tempe- 
rature being tested by a thermometer immersed into it, 
and regulated by needful additions. The coverings are 
then saturated, partially wrung out, and placed over the 
affected parts, spreading as widely as needful, when the 
process commences by carrying successive quantities 
of water to the highest part, and pouring it over the 
coverings, keeping up a continuous stream. In this way 
it is only possible to maintain the desired temperature. 

1 6 8 Materia-Medica . 

If needful, some economy may be observed by causing 
the water to flow down into the tub beneath, when the 
situation of the injured parts is favourable. 

Medicated Fomentations are sometimes called for with 
the view of gaining an additional effect in parts under 
disease, which is considerably favoured by the presence 
of heat. Thus in painful affections as inflammation of 
joints, rheumatism, &c., seeds of the poppy, powdered 
opium, extract of belladonna, &c., are added to the water 
with considerable benefit, which the sufferer greatly appre- 
ciates. In the case of indolent wounds, cracked heels 
or legs, grease, &c., fomentations with hot water, to which 
soft soap and turpentine are added, not only cleanse the 
parts, but excite the tendency to healthy action. Long 
standing affections of the skin, attended with horny 
excrescences or enlarged portion of the epidermis, &c., 
are treated with advantage by this method, a good remedy 
being thus formulated : Glycerine, 2 to 4 oz. ; carbonate 
of potash, i oz. ; " Sanitas " oil, i oz., added to a pail of 
hot water. 


These are eminently useful remedies in various affec- 
tions of the respiratory organs. They are of two kinds, 
simple and medicated. The first consists of the applica- 
tion of the vapour of hot water by means of a nose-bag : 
heat and moisture being efficacious in relieving the con- 
gested mucous membranes in simple cold, &c. A quan- 
tity of bran, or sawdust, is placed at the bottom, upon 
which the water is poured as often as required to keep up 
a good supply of heated vapour ; but care must be exer- 
cised in avoiding a heavy load, as the animal, weakened 
by disease, is not in a state to bear inconvenience from 
this source. The application should be persisted in for 
hours, when it proves agreeable and beneficial to the 

Medicated inhalations are provided by simply adding 
some volatile remedy to the contents of the nose-bag, by 
which sedative, soothing, or stimulating effects are to be 
produced. Thus in catarrhs, and some forms of in- 

Materia- Medica. 1 69 

fluenza, purpura, &c., "Sanitas" oil, eucalyptus, carbolic 
acid, creosote, various tinctures, &c., may be used with 
benefit as advised by the veterinary surgeon. 

The spray distributor is also a useful agent for the 
same purpose. Fluid remedies are "pulverised," and 
thrown in the form of a cool or heated moist vapour 
into the nostrils, or applied to raw and irritable surfaces. 
The apparatus is also applicable for purifying the air of 
buildings, a suitable form of disinfectant being used. 

The inhalation of chloroform being only called for 
during some painful and extensive operation, the process 
will of course be under the sole management of the 
veterinary surgeon or his qualified assistant. An im- 
proved apparatus has recently been introduced to the 
profession by Mr. Joseph Carlisle, M.R.C.V.S., of 
Carlisle, which has given great satisfaction. An illus- 
tration will be found in the author's larger work, " Every 
Man his own Horse Doctor." 


Lotions are generally solutions of approved remedies 
in water or spirits for the purpose of cooling the parts to 
which they are applied, and thus reducing pain and 

1. Tincture of arnica, 2 oz. ; spirits of wine, 6 oz. ; 
water, n oz. Apply with moderate friction to ensure 

2. Solution of the acetate of ammonia, 4 oz. ; spirits 
of wine, 4 oz. ; water, i pint. 

3. Goulard's extract, 4 oz. ; dilute acetic acid, 2 oz. ; 
distilled water, i quart. 

N.B. Nos. 2 and 3 may be applied by means of a 
sponge or rag several times daily, or the parts may be 
surrounded by a bandage constantly saturated by them. 

4. Healing Lotion for Wounds, Sulphate of zinc, f 
oz, ; sugar of lead, i oz. ; tincture of myrrh, 2 oz. ; soft 
water, i quart. Shake well before using. This prepara- 
tion should be dashed upon raw surfaces direct from the 

7o Materia-Medica* 


The action of a poultice is similar to that of a fomen- 
tation, and often proves an effective auxiliary in the 
restoration of diseased parts to a state of health. The 
objects are : i. To apply continued heat and moisture 
in order to soften or cleanse the parts and promote cir- 
culation and suppuration as conducive to the healing 
process. 2. To maintain a low temperature or cold as 
may be required by the nature of the disease. 

As in the case of fomentations, the benefits derived are 
the results only of continued application. Great care is 
needed in order to avoid reaction, which always follows 
alternate heat and cooling ; therefore, when a poultice 
must be changed, the freshly-prepared one should be at 
hand to be applied on the removal of the first. The 
materials should be such as will retain heat and moisture, 
as bran, the properties of which may be improved by the 
addition of a small proportion of linseed meal, as th or 
-A-th. Poultices of cowdung, and even human ordure, 
are the suggestions of filthy minds, and should not be 
tolerated. We have known repeated instances of blood 
poisoning follow such applications, the animal dying ot 
a putrid fever. 

One of the most useful light and effective agents, and 
at the same time cleanly substitute for a poultice is 
spongio piline. It may be used dry or with hot water, the 
outer sheet of impervious material retaining the heat most 
satisfactorily. When weight is an objection, as in 
strangles, the poultice is beneficially replaced by spongio 

Medicated Poultices also claim a brief notice. They 
consist of the usual materials as bran, linseed meal, &c., 
to which some remedial agent is added. In the case of 
wounds of an indolent character, digestives (page 164) 
are thoroughly incorporated with the mass ; and when 
offensive odours arise, as in wounds of the feet, &c., 
antiseptics (page 155) are added, the principal design 
being to avoid blood poisoning from absorption of putrid 

Mater ia-Medica. \ 7 1 


The practice of passing suitable medicines beneath the 
skin has been largely extended of late, ensuring more 
speedy and efficacious results than are obtained by the 
usual method. The following are the principal prepara- 
tions, which may be obtained in the purest form through 
a local chemist, from Willows, Francis, & Butler, 101 High 
Holborn, London, W.C., who have earned special repu- 
tation for their attention to this branch of pharmacy. 

1. sEther, a prompt and decided stimulant, promotes 
the action of other remedies, and especially suitable to 
follow the use of morphia. Dose, i to 3 drams. 

2. Atropia, an antidote to opium poisoning. Relieves 
colic and gastric irritation generally, also pleurisy, peri- 
tonitis, rheumatism, ophthalmia, &c. Dose, 12 to 20 

3. Chloral Hydrate, used in colic, muco-enteritis, 
tetanus, hysteria in mares and cows, strychnine poison- 
ing, asthma, &c. It reduces the temperature. Dose, i 
to 2 drams. 

4. Coma, a strong sedative to the nervous system; 
used for tetanus and all irritability of muscular and ner- 
vous tissues. Dose, i to 2 drams. 

5. Digitalina, used in affections of the heart, pneu- 
monia, laminitis, &c. ; also broken and thick wind. 
Dose, ^ dram. 

6. Ergotina> a general tonic to the muscular system, 
serviceable in parturition to assist in the expulsion of the 
foetus or retained membranes; it arrests haemorrhage, 
flooding, &c. Dose, 40 drops to i dram. 

7. Morphia^ useful in all cases where opium is pre- 
scribed. Especiaily valuable for chronic cough, being 
injected direct into the windpipe or larynx. Dose, 10 to 
40 drops. 

8. Morphia and Atropia, a more potent and service- 
able remedy than either morphia or atropia when used 
separately, being used for the same purposes. A power- 
ful remedy in flooding, difficult parturition, inverted 
womb, severe straining, &c. Dose, 10 to 40 drops. 

1 7 2 Matcria-Medica. 

9. Physostigmina has been found useful in promoting 
the action of the bowels in cases of impaction, consti- 
pation, and arresting indigestion, colic, &c. Dose, 20 
to 60 drops. 

10. Quina is valuable in the extreme prostration of 
influenza, parturition fever, septicaemia, &c. Inject 
direct into the substance of a muscle. Dose, 20 to 60 

11. Strychnia, valuable for overcoming the nervo- 
muscular weakness of strangles, influenza, lead poison- 
ing, and spinal meningitis. Used with conia for tetanus, 
with phosphorus for paralysis from injury, and the 
early stages of roaring. Dose, to 2 drams. 

Subcutaneous injections are administered by means of 
a suitable syringe, armed with a hollow needle. The 
latter is caused to penetrate a fold of the skin, &c., by 
which the fluid remedy is passed within the cellular tissue 
as the piston is forced down the glass tube. It thus 
enters the circulation at once, and, being unaffected by 
secretions, as when given by the mouth, also acts more 


Tonics are those medicines which promote strength 
and vigour tone of the constitution. They are always 
resorted to in recovery from disease, but require care in 
their prescription, as too early administration has been 
known to cause fatal relapse. 

1. Tonic Powders. Saccharated carbonate of iron, 
^ oz. ; gentian in powder, ^ oz. ; powdered locust bean, 
i oz. Mix. To be given in the food morning and 

2. Sulphate of iron, 2 drms. ; gentian in powder, 
i drm. ; ground ginger, i drm. ; locust bean, % oz. 
Mix, &c., as in No. i. 

3. Drench. Saccharated carbonate of iron, oz. ; 
powdered gentian and ginger, of each, 2 drms. ; linseed 
mucilage, ^ pint. 

4. Vegetable Tonic. Powdered gentian, Colombo and 
Cinchona bark, of each, 2 drms. ; ground ginger, | oz. 

Mater ia-Medica. 173 

5. Substitute 10 to 2ogrs. of quinine for the Cinchona 
bark in No. 4. 

Nos. 4 and 5 may be given as a drench by adding 
linseed mucilage, or they may be combined with mineral 
tonics, as Nos. i, 2 and 3. 


The bolus consists of remedies in the solid form, first 
reduced to powder, afterwards thoroughly mixed by tri- 
turation in a mortar, and subsequently incorporated by 
means of some viscid material to form a paste/ It is 
then rolled into an oblong or cylindrical mass about two 
and a half inches long, and three-quarters of an inch 

Manner of holding the Bolus. 

thick. This is an average estimate. The various sizes 
of animals calling for variable doses will generally regu- 
late the size of the bolus to advantage. It is then 
wrapped in thin, soft paper, to ensure greater ease and 
dexterity in its administration, which is usually accom- 
plished in the following manner. If the horse is in the 
stable, he is reversed in the stall. When out-of-doors it 
is sometimes advisable to place him in a corner, between 
two waggons, or other large objects, particularly if he is 
of an excitable disposition. The right hand . is placed 
flat over the bones of the nose grasping each side, thus 
to steady the head, while with the left the operator seizes 
the tongue, drawing it outwards to the offside, the fingers 

1 74 Materia- Medica. 

resting on the lower jaw for support. This will secure 
the tongue from being drawn out too far. The bolus, 
being held between the lips, or inserted within the vest 
pocket for instant seizure, is grasped between the tips of 
the first, second, and third fingers of the right hand. 
Thus the first and third are below, and the second is 
above, as shown in the engraving, and in this form, all 
the digits converging to a point, the bolus is carried over 
the tongue to the back part of the mouth, where it is 
delivered within the grasp of the pharynx, or muscular 
apparatus which forms the upper portion of the gullet. 
The right hand is quickly withdrawn, and as the tongue 
is simultaneously released by the left, it recedes, carrying 
the bolus still further backwards, beyond the possibility of 
return. The operator, to ensure success, instantly closes 
the mouth, and holds the jaws, or passes the shank of 
the halter round them, above the nostrils. This prevents 
motion which might favour the return of the medicine 
when the foregoing directions have not been perfectly 
carried out. If the operation is successful, the passage of 
the bolus down the gullet on the left or near side of the 
neck will put the matter beyond all doubt. 

Some horses after a time of illness, or from repeated 
attempts by inefficient or care- 
less operators, grow very cun- 
ning, and even vicious. They 
will retract the tongue, closely 
fix the jaws, twist, raise, or de- 
press the head and neck so 
powerfully, that without assist- 
ance one person is useless. 
Sometimes also the mouth is 
narrow, and the sharp edges of 
the molar teeth seriously injure 
iron Gag or Balling iron. the hands of the operator. Un- 
der these circumstances one or 

more assistants are required to restrain the animal, and a 
gag, or balling iron, as shown in the engraving, is used to 
keep the jaws open while the ball is passed over the root 
of the tongue. Much care and patience is needed, while 

Mater ia-Medica. 

severe punishment and brutality must be avoided, or 
existing matters will be greatly aggravated. 

Balling guns or probangs are made of various kinds 
and designs for administering solid forms of medicine 
under the circumstances alluded to in the foregoing para- 
graph, being sufficiently long for the purpose, while the 
operator may avoid blows from the fore feet of the 
animal. Engravings with full description will be found 
in the larger work on the diseases of the Horse. The 
hand is the safest for general use, and by means of the 
iron gag very satisfactory results have been achieved by 
the exercise of patience, even with crafty or vicious 
animals. As a last resource such animals may be cast, 
the effect upon some being a lasting impression of defeat, 
leading to surprising docility. Pointed sticks should 
never be used. Avoid boluses when the throat is in- 
flamed and swallowing difficult. 

The Drench is the fluid form in which medicines are 
administered. Some animals stoutly refusing a bolus 
will submit to be drenched. The method is also prefer- 
able for many substances, while a more rapid and bene- 
ficial effect is produced. 

Dr aiights or drenches, erroneously styled " drinks/* 
are often administered by a horn. It is not 
a safe instrument for all hands, a strong tin 
bottle, as in the annexed figure, being the 
most suitable if kept constantly clean. The 
operation of drenching is performed as fol- 
lows : A stout ash stick, five feet in length, 
is provided with a loop formed of cord, the 
latter being so large as to admit of being 
passed over the upper jaw, behind the 
" tushes." By this the head is raised, the 
mouth being slightly above the horizontal 
position, which facilitates the flow of the 
liquid to the back of the mouth. The 
operator standing on an inverted pail, or 
other convenient elevation, on the off, or 
right side, inserts the fingers of the left hand 
within the angle of the mouth, and by drawing away the 

Oval Tin 



176 Blood Diseases. 

cheek, torms a suitable pouch, into which the fluid is 
poured in small and successive portions as the creature 
permits it to pass down the gullet. The neck of the 
bottle, therefore, does not enter the mouth, and injuries 
from that source are entirely avoided. The tongue must 
be left entirely free, as it is a most effective agent in carry- 
ing fluids onwards to the gullet, and its action greatly 
facilitates the operation of drenching. 


Arising from deranged or inordinate function Plethora Anaemia Rheumat- 
ism Uraemia Apnaea. 

THE maladies we propose to consider here are due to 
altered conditions of the blood, probably also to heredi- 
tary taint, which primarily may originate in the same 

PLETHORA, or fulness of blood, is known to consist of 
an excess of nutritious elements, which circulating 
throughout the tissues give rise to rapidity of growth, 
and improvement recognised as "blooming condition." 
When these appearances attract attention by rapid and 
unusual development, a change in the mode of feeding is 
urgently called for, particularly for animals taking little 
or no exercise. Such should also be purged, and those 
feeding on over-luxurious pastures must be removed to 
another where they may work for their living. Administer 
aperient No. 3, according to directions for apportioning 
the dose, p. 156. Subsequently a course of neutral salts 
may be advisable under the advice of a veterinary sur- 

AN/EMIA. Deficiency of Blood. This is the reverse state 

Blood Diseases. 177 

to plethora a bloodless state. The circulating fluid lacks 
the elements of nutrition, and the animal is weak, flabby, 
wasted, and rapidly wasting. The mucous membranes 
are pale, the pulse weak and small, and the heart sounds 
are strangely audible. Dropsical swellings appear beneath 
the jaws, on the lower parts of the abdomen, as well as 
inside, causing a " pot-bellied " appearance. The appe- 
tite is lost, the bowels are noisy, and wind passes con- 
stantly from them. Diarrhoea comes on later, and pro- 
bably causes a lingering death; otherwise an offensive 
dysentery terminates the sufferings. 

Treatment. Remove the cause. Supply good food in 
moderate and regular quantities, with attention to fresh 
air and water. Treat the diarrhoea as advised (p. 208) ; 
followed by tonics 4 or 5, and later alternated with i 
or 2. 

RHEUMATISM. The Cold, Joint, or Chine Felon of the 
old farriers. This disease is due to the state of the blood, 
having its origin in impaired digestion and assimilation ; 
it is charged with elements inimical to its constitution, an 
arrest of function probably being the cause of their accu- 
mulation and non-removal. The joints are the usual 
seat of the malady, the offending element locating itself 
in the substance of cartilage, bones, and tendon, which 
enter into the formation of the parts. The heart, with its 
coverings, and the lining membrane of the chest, are also 
liable to participate seriously and fatally. 

Treatment. Aperients, followed by febrifuges in the 
acute stages, morning and evening. Hot fomentations 
are also useful, followed by sedative embrocation No. 2. 
After the pain and inflammation are subdued, No. 4 may 
be substituted, twice daily. Fresh air and gentle exer- 
cise are essential as recovery progresses. Subcutaneous 
Injections, No. 2. 

URAEMIA is a condition of blood poisoning by the 
retention of those elements which should pass out by the 
urine. The skin exhales a strong and sickly odour of 
urine in fully developed cases, the mouth is offensive and 
slimy, and the faeces are small, hard, glazed and likewise 
offensive. The end then rapidly approaches ; dulness 


178 Blood Diseases. 

is followed by insensibility, during which life passes 

There is no cure for confirmed cases. The only course 
is to place animals under the care of a qualified veterinary 
surgeon in the early stages of disease, and, learning the 
cause, instituting rational treatment in the way of work, 
food, &c., with the view of preventing the attack in others. 

APNCEA. A form of blood poisoning dependent upon 
an arrest of the functions of the skin. It arises in the 
horse as a result of a heavy coat of hair, which growing 
very long and thick during the autumn, and, being im- 
properly cleaned, is glued together, acting as a covering 
of soms impervious material, by preventing the essential 
exhalation of sensible, as well as insensible, perspiration. 
The conditions are slowly established, general lassitude, 
unfitness for work, and failing health being the common 
signs, until they ripen into dulness, paralysis and insensi- 
bility, which end in death. 

Treatment in the early stages is all important. Remove 
the coat and substitute dry woollen clothing. Enforce 
rigid cleanliness of the skin, and the habitations. Rouse 
the system by diffusible stimulants, as spirits of ammonia, 
spirits of nitrous ether, &c., with which nux vomica is to 
be prescribed in conjunction with vegetable tonics, &c. 
The opinion of a veterinary surgeon should be sought at 
the outset. 


Having their origin in inordinate, impaired, or arrest of function, and remark- 
able for the development of a septic state Purpura Haemorrhagica-r- 
Azoturia Malignant sore throat. 

THESE diseases are the analogues of charbon in cattle, 
and although the development of a septic poison within 
the blood is undoubted, they do not rank as contagious 

Blood Diseases. 


in the strict sense ; they do not propagate by inoculation. 
Thus the poison from the blood of a diseased animal does 
not produce the same disease, but a blood poisoning of 
a virulent and rapidly destructive character, and this 
forms the essential difference between the maladies now 
under consideration and those to be described in 
Chapter XVI. 

PURPURA H/EMORRHAGICA. This serious affection is 
also known as Acute Anasarca, and Sanguineous Dropsy, 
both of which fail to enlighten the non-professional 

Purpura H-emorrhagica. 

reader. It partakes of none of the essentials of an 
inflammatory disease. The condition of the blood is 
such as to favour an infiltration of the fluid portions, 
being blood-stained, within all sub-cellular spaces, and 
even into the substance of the skin, internal organs, &c. 
In fully developed cases it is not uncommon to behold a 
sufferer standing calm and motionless, while large drops, 
and even streams, of a bloody fluid from a thousand 
spots, oozes through the hair, and trickles downward to 
the ground. Large swellings also appear over and 
beneath the body and legs, but especially at those parts 

i8o JSlood Diseases. 

where the skin is thin ; and the mucous membranes show 
numerous mulberry red-looking spots, which, in common 
with others on the skin, at a later stage favour the escape 
of blood. The swellings eventually run into each other, the 
skin cracks, and discharges of a yellowish colour flow 
out ; then portions of the skin die and slough off, leaving 
large open ulcers, which do not heal, or at least, not 
without great tardiness. Sometimes the disease lingers 
for months in the same creature; hopeful signs occur 
after the fourth or fifth day in milder cases. 

Treatment. Laxatives or Aperients No. i, with which 
nitrous ether may be prescribed. Subsequently nitrous 
ether and tincture of steel. Vegetable tonics, &c., are 
indispensable, with small quantities of nutritious food, 
fresh air, and perfect nursing. Subcutaneous Injections, 
No. 10. 

AZOTURIA, sometimes known as Nitrogenous Urine, 
Hysteria, and Albuminuria. A blood disease dependent 
upon a large quantity of nitrogenous elements in circula- 
tion, producing impairment of the nervous system, con- 
vulsions, and death in a few hours. It is common in 
this country to horses and mares of the heavier breeds ; 
sporadic, non - contagious, but communicating septic 
disease to others by means of inoculation. The attacks 
are sudden, and confined to the animals in best condi- 
tion. They are first uneasy, violent colic shortly coming 
on ; the pulse and respiration are greatly disturbed, 
spasm affects the whole muscular system, especially the 
loins, and these signs are intensified by the inability to 
discharge urine. If unrelieved, large swellings occur 
over the hips and loins ; general disturbance becomes 
intense, stiffness rapidly follows, and ends in paralysis ; 
convulsions are frequent, followed by coma and death. 

Recovery is denoted by an early and copious discharge 
of urine, which resembles boiled linseed oil, having a 
disagreeable odour, and liable to early decomposition. 
All other signs now rapidly subside, and the animal is 
soon convalescent. 

The causes are heavy feeding on rich food during very 
light and irregular work, or enforced idleness. 

Blood Diseases. 181 

Treatment. Aperient No. 3, dissolved in a pint of 
warm water. Then add one or two drops of croton oil, 
and 2 oz. of spirits of nitrous ether. If spasm of the 
neck of the bladder prevents urination, pass the catheter 
at once : throw up warm clysters frequently, and make 
up a good bed, frequently turning and making him com- 
fortable. He will possibly lie several days, during which 
he may receive occasional draughts of nitrous ether, with 
vegetable tonics, &c. The veterinary surgeon will sup- 
plement by nerve stimulants as he sees fit. Gentle 
exercise only can be borne at first, as considerable weak- 
ness ensues in cases not relieved during the first few 
hours. Feeding must be very careful and henceforth 
conducted on common sense principles. 

MALIGNANT SORE THROAT. A familiar term is 
Putrid Sore Throat, which gives to the uninitiated a 
more correct idea of the nature of the affection. Con- 
siderable swelling occurs at the back of the mouth, and 
seen outside the throat, obstructing perspiration and 
rendering the animal unable to swallow. There is much 
disturbance, and the local signs of a blood poison are 
conspicuous in the heavily discoloured membranes, with 
the mulberry-red spots. Rapid prostration ensues, with 
early death, and the body is gangrenous already in the 
parts most affected. Suffocation is generally the imme- 
diate cause of death. 

Treatment. -The intense swelling of the throat and 
suffering renders it wholly impossible to administer medi- 
cines which have to be swallowed. Wash out the mouth 
frequently with a solution of alum or borax, with tincture 
of myrrh added, or use an electuary (p. 165). If the* 
breathing becomes difficult, open the trachea and insert 
a tube at once. Clear the rectum of hardened faeces by 
means of clysters, and combat weakness by throwing up 
fluid food as enemas. Diffusible stimulants may also be 
used, linseed mucilage being the medium. Subcutaneous 
Injections, No. 10. As soon as the violence of the 
disease subsides, the animal will recover the power to 
swallow, when fluid medicines only may be administered 
by the mouth, but much care will be needed. From this 

1 82 Blood Diseases. 

point he may be treated under the rules observed for 

The flesla of animals dying of diseases already dis- 
cussed should be very deeply buried, but are better 
burned. The absence of some plan for securing this end 
paves the way for a periodical visitation of such diseases, 
the putrid remains after burial finding their way into 
ponds, brooks, &c., from which healthy animals receive 
the contamination. 


Arising from an inordinate, impaired or arrest of function, non-contagious 
and enzootic Enzootic Catarrh Enzootic Pleurisy. 

THE diseases arranged under this head have the pecu- 
liar property of being rapid and simultaneous in their 
attack, prevailing over vast areas of the country, and 
creating in non-professional minds a strong belief in their 
contagious nature. Such characters as have already been 
enumerated are the strongest proofs of a non-contagious 
element, and this conclusion will be apparent after the 
reader has made himself acquainted with the details con- 
cerning farcy and glanders. 

ENZOOTIC TYPHOID CATARRH, otherwise Influenza. 
La Grippe of the French. There are few diseases which 
have such a distinguished record of existence throughout 
past ages as influenza, attacking man and beast with 
relentless fury, disappearing as rapidly as it came in, while 
the devastation has been more serious, widespread, and 
fatal than any known contagious disease. 

Influenza is undoubtedly a febrile affection, of a 
typhoid character from the first, as denoted by a large 
amount as well as rapidity of prostration. This is proved 

Blood Diseases. 183 

by the results of treatment, which show that while a 
stimulative plan is most successful, sedatives unmercifully 
kill in a short space of time. Several forms are also 
observed, determined by the seat of the affection ; thus, 
at one time a catarrhal form is observed, then a bilious, 
or a gastric, each of which may exhibit more or less of 
rheumatic complication, creating great difficulties in the 
way of successful treatment. The causes are unknown, 
but there is strong reason for associating the prevalence 
with atmospheric disturbance in which volcanic or elec- 
trical action may play a conspicuous part. 

The simple or catarrhal form exhibits all the characters 
of a severe cold, with a hacking cough, loss of appetite, 
surprising weakness, high temperature, swelling of the 
eyelids, with tardy discharges from the mucous mem- 
branes. All the functions of nature are perverted to an 
extent, more or less, the liver, bowels, and kidneys being 
conspicuous in this disorder for abnormal action. 
Diarrhoea is easily provoked, although constipation 
seems intense, and the kidneys secrete a highly coloured 
viscid urine, which shows how the system is rapidly 
breaking down. Congestion of the lungs with pleurisy 
are common, owing to the condition of the blood and 
liability to stasis in large and important organs. -From 
this arises the tendency to hydro thorax, by which the 
creature dies from a process of internal drowning. At 
other times rheumatism so complicates matters as to seri- 
ously delay the disease, at length leaving an animal lame 
and useless, to whom death would have been most mer- 
ciful ; and in other instances the end is protracted by 
diarrhoea and a painful dysentery. 

Treatment is essentially of a stimulative nature. When 
the complaint is ushered in by diarrhoea, give a draught 
composed of half the usual doses of linseed oil and tinc- 
ture of opium. Thus a large horse will take % a pint of 
oil and ^ oz. of the latter. Use electuaries when sore 
throat is present, and rub a mild stimulating embrocation 
upon the outside. Inhalations of warm vapour medi- 
cated with " Sanitas " oil are invaluable when the mem- 
branes of the air passages are dry, congested, and dark 

184 Blood Diseases. 

coloured. The spray distributer may be used for the 
same purpose. If the state of the throat will not permit 
the administration of medicines, clear the rectum by 
means of clysters of warm water, with which nitrous 
ether may be mixed, and follow with food enemas, as 
linseed mucilage containing the same stimulant. 

When the creature can swallow, administer a draught 
composed of aromatic spirits of ammonia, i oz. ; car- 
bonate of potash, 2 drms. ; extracts of gentian and bel- 
ladonna, of each % a drm. ; linseed mucilage or water, 
i pint. Rub the extracts with a small quantity of linseed 
meal to form a powder, add the carbonate of potash and 
triturate, then add the remainder. The linseed mucilage 
is useful for maintaining a gentle action of the bowels, 
but it must be withheld if there are any indications of 
undesirable looseness, as the patient cannot bear purga- 
tion. Should the previous draught disturb the kidneys, 
substitute nitrous ether for the ammonia. Subcutaneous 
Injections, No. 10; for Diarrhoea, No. 3. 

Promote warmth and comfort by every attention to 
housing, &c., making use of good clothing, flannel ban- 
dages to the legs, &c., &c., as maybe desirable. Feed 
regularly, allowing only small quantities of the best food, 
with alternations of clean sound roots, even fruits, or any 
tempting morsel. Patients of the heavier breeds will 
improve greatly by the removal of the coat at a suitable 

ENZOOTIC PLEURISY, like influenza, with which it is 
often confounded, often prevails at the same time and sea- 
son. It attacks the nbro-serous structures, and exhibits a 
great tendency to location within the chest. It makes its 
appearance also in a similar manner, being marked by 
lassitude, perspiration, high temperature, severe cough, 
rapid, small, and hard pulse, coldness with alternate heat 
of the ears and extremities. The pain within the chest 
causes the animal to arch his back, draw up the abdo- 
men, fix the legs, and turn the elbows outwards ; and 
when required to move he grunts. The danger of effu- 
sion within the chest is great, abscesses may also form 
within the lungs, and these often carry off the sufferer. 

Blood Diseases. 185 

On the other hand recovery does not preserve the animal 
in a sound state. There may be adhesions of the lungs 
to the sides, and possibly disease of the heart, its valves 
or blood-vessels. 

Treatment should be prompt. If suffering animals are 
continued at work they drop down dead. As a rule the 
stimulative plan as recommended for influenza answers 
well, but when the fever runs very high, nil rate of potash 
with aconite may be found useful until the more acute 
stages are passed. Blisters kill the patient. In order to 
combat the chest irritation, use a stimulating embroca- 
tion, and when the symptoms betoken tranquillity, the 
stimulants with gentian may be again resorted to. 


Having their origin in an unknown Animal Poison, and attended with an 
Eruptive Fever, or Intumescence, Sporadic, Enzootic, and occasionally 
of Septic characters Scarlatina Strangles Suppurative Catarrh. 

SCARLATINA, or Scarlet Fever, appears occasionally in 
the horse as a sequel to mild attacks of " influenza." 
Two forms are recognised Scarlatina Simplex and 
Scarlatina Anginosa. 

Simple Scarlatina consists of a number of blotches in 
the skin, particularly in those parts where it is thin and 
least covered with hair, as the eyelids, lips, nose, &c. 
At first these appear as small rounded pimples slightly 
raised, on which the hair stands erect and separated. 
The legs swell, and the mucous membranes, notably 
that of the nostrils, are studded with scarlet spots of 
variable size, which shortly discharge their serum, finally 
changing in colour to yellow or a brownish hue. Sore- 
ness of the throat is also present, and the appetite is 
interfered with. In a few days the spots and blotches 

1 86 Blood Diseases. 

decline and disappear by drying up; this causes the 
cuticle to peel off in numerous scales, which loads the 
coat with a quantity of scurf, and is removed only with 
difficulty after a long time. 

Scarlatina Anginosa is an aggravated form of the pre- 
ceding. The blotches and spots cover the skin where it 
is thinnest, form rapidly, some as rapidly disappearing 
and reappearing, when they run into each other, pro- 
ducing continuous swellings, finally discharging a thin 
yellowish fluid. This condition, as it affects the nasal 
membrane, gives it an almost uniform dark colour 
throughout, merging from scarlet to purple. The legs 
swell and " pit " under pressure ; the throat becomes 
very sore, and a constant cough troubles the patient. 
The breathing is greatly interfered with, fever and tem- 
perature are high, and congestion of the lungs succeeds ; 
an acute constipation gives way to an easily provoked 
diarrhoea; the urine is scanty, thick, mucilaginous, dark 
in colour, and highly offensive ; surface heat and swell- 
ings are variable, and death arises from the arrest placed 
upon circulation and respiration. Favourable termina- 
tions are betokened by decline of the acute signs, as sore 
throat and oppressed breathing, which disappear from 
the fifth to the tenth day, but leave the animal weak, 
emaciated, and often for a long time an invalid in conse- 
quence of the local swellings and eruptions. Purpura, 
or even farcy or glanders, may also succeed ; therefore 
the greatest watchfulness must be exercised. 

Treatment should follow on the lines laid down for 
malignant sore throat. Open the trachea to avoid immi- 
nent suffocation. Put on a light hood and a thin 
covering over the body, and apply spongio piline to the 
throat, after being steeped in and wrung out of hot 
water. Dress the external sores with antiseptic mix- 
tures, i or 2, or simply " Sanitas" oil, i oz. to i pint of 
water. Clear the bowels by warm clysters, using linseed 
oil in half the usual doses, only when needed to combat 
constipation, and if the animal can swallow. He may 
then also have nitrous ether as a stimulant when prostra- 
tion exists; or high states of fever may be met by 

Blood Diseases. 187 

chlorate of potash in the drinking water, or given as a 
drench. Keep the nostrils, sores, &c., clean, open 
abscesses early, and use " Sanitas," as already directed, 
to remove the odours and stimulate healing. Use am- 
monia when fever has abated, and after a few days and 
the pulse warrants it, commence the use of mineral 
tonics, and give very gentle exercise, carefully increased 
as strength will admit. 

STRANGLES. This affection, common to young animals 
at the period of domestication, consists of catarrhal 
symptoms, accompanied with tumefaction, and, in ordi- 
nary cases, proceeding to the formation of abscess. 
During this stage more or less fever is present, with 
cough, difficult breathing, and general disturbance and 
suffering, with loss of appetite, constipation, and deficient 
urine. At first the pulse is full and soft, becoming hard 
as inflammation succeeds with the maturation of abscess, 
assuming its normal character as the ordinary course is 
fulfilled. Adverse states are betokened by congestion of 
the lungs, thin and dirty fluids flow from the nostrils, 
and the animal sinks from exhaustion and suffocation. 
The abscesses do not "ripen," the legs and ears are 
cold, and swellings appear in other parts which do not 
always suppurate ; emaciation follows, and the creature 
may contract farcy or glanders, or succumb to disease of 
the bowels, brain paralysis, &c. 

Treatment consists of good nursing as the base of the 
system. Support by good and easily digestible food 
when the patient can swallow ; promote the formation of 
abscess by blisters, or thick spongio pitine, applied hot and 
dry, and secured by a hood. Place him in a cool place, 
clothe sufficiently but lightly, avoid cold draughts of air.. 
Steam the nostrils, using " Sanitas," when the animal 
can bear it, but do not distress him by hanging a heavy 
bag upon his head. Open the abscesses as soon as it 
can be safely done, as indicated by "pointing;" after- 
wards maintain cleanliness, using " Sanitas " dressings as 
directed for scarlatina; give good food in small but 
repeated quantities, and support by mineral and vege- 
table tonics, i, 2, 4, or 5. 

1 88 Blood Diseases. 

Suppurative Catarrh. This affection is mostly com- 
mon to animals of mature age, and it is thought, not 
without a show of reason, that animals, having escaped the 
usual attacks of strangles in the youthful period of their 
lives, or having suffered from the bastard or incomplete 
form, are usually the victims of suppurative catarrh at a 
more advanced age. 

The disease at first appears like strangles, with the 
usual concomitant febrile states, and abscess of the jaws 
may be expected. These, however, may recede some- 
what, but after some delay they maturate, and the animal 
does well. Generally the course is the reverse of this. 
The disease becomes tardy ; with the decrease of swell- 
ing at the jaws, the appetite and condition fails, weak- 
ness comes on, the usual functions of health are not 
maintained ; swellings form at the shoulder, groin, &c., 
causing much pain and stiffness, and minor ones appear 
over the skin in numerous places. Not uncommonly a 
large abscess forms internally, for a time creating great 
ambiguity in the outward manifestations; and at length 
discharging the contents, puts an end to the sufferings of 
the creature. A post-mortem examination reveals the 
fact, of which the animal could give no certain indication 
during life. 

Treatment will be similar to that pointed out for 
strangles. The hope of cure lies in hastening the forma- 
tion of abscess in the first instance between the jaws. 
In some instances when they form elsewhere, super- 
ficially, the animal may do well, making a good reco- 
very, but there is reason to believe that this is the 
exception to the rule. 

Blood Diseases. 189 


Arising from an Animal Poison Highly Contagious, and producing the same 
Disease by Inoculation Farcy and Glanders. 

FARCY may be defined as an incipient form of 
glanders, consisting of an animal poison, characterised 
by corded swellings principally situated on the sides of 
the neck, inside of the legs, &c., and further denoted by 
rounded swellings at various intervals, and occasional 
wounds from which these radiate. The cords are veins, 
swollen as a result of the animal poison, the tumours are 
further swellings preparing for abortive abscesses, and the 
wounds are sloughing and widespreading ulcers, which 
seldom heal, but discharge a thin sanious fluid. Such 
an animal may live for years and determine the deaths of 
many others, as well as the attendants. In some in- 
stances, however, probably by an accumulation of the 
original poison, or more correctly, by its development 
according to the first cause, feverish symptoms arise, the 
disease assumes an acute form, and the animal dies 
under loathsome conditions. 

GLANDERS in a chronic form succeeds to chronic farcy, 
and the animal lives on, a common danger to man and 
beast. The system may have resisted the tendency to 
the outward manifestations of farcy, as corded veins, &c., 
but in their place the evidences of poisonous degeneracy 
are to be found in a variable muco-purulent discharge 
from the nostrils, sometimes only from one, and that the 
left ; the corresponding glands beneath the jaws are 
swollen, hard and round, but not large, and ulcers pro- 
bably are found to exist on the nasal membrane, some- 
what high up in the cavity. The animal exhibits a 
capricious appetite, but his condition may not be alto- 
gether bad, and as he continues at work, suspicion is 

I go Blood Diseases. 

disarmed. An examination of the chest reveals the 
existence of abscesses ; probably a moist, rattling cough 
has set in, accompanied by wasting of the body, profuse 
urination, to which shortly succeeds emaciation, general 
weakness, and a bloodless state, the animal dying in a 
hectic state. 

The acute form is characterised by swelling of the 
glands, ulceration of the nasal membrane, dulness, and 
fever, with a gluey discharge from the nostrils. At a 
later stage, from some not well-defined cause, the signs 
of fever increase, lung complications set in, and the 
animal eventually succumbs. This is the usual course of 
glanders of the spontaneous variety. In that form, 
generated by inoculation from the diseased animal, septic 
blood poisoning follows, accompanied with offensive 
secretions, stupor, coma, and a rapid, agonising death. 

There is no known cure for glanders. As the cause 
lies in hard work, associated more or less with inferior 
food, defective stabling, bad air, and often a pernicious 
system of " physicking " by ignorant carters, &c., pre- 
vention of the evil lies in removal of these, and the 
establishment of rational treatment. 

Farcy, on the other hand, may be successfully treated 
during the early stages, when the general health and 
condition have not been undermined. Local treatment 
consists of the application of poultices to the ulcerating 
farcy buds, and occasional touches with the " budding 
iron," or caustic potash. They are thus stimulated to 
healing action, and further inducement is secured by the 
internal administration of mineral tonics. Give No. 2 
morning and evening, after adding 2 drms. of powdered 

Cleanliness and disinfection must also be attentively 
observed, in addition to obedience and conformity to the 
regulations of the Acts in relation to Contagious Diseases, 
especially as to giving notice to an inspector. For par- 
ticulars see the " Handbook for England, Wales, and 
Scotland," published for the Agricultural Department of 
the Privy Council, by Eyre and Spottiswoode, London. 

General or Sporadic Diseases. igi 


Catarrh Laryngitis, or Sore Throat Congestion of the Lungs Bronchitis- 
Pneumonia Inflammation of the Lungs Pleurisy Roaring, Whistling, 
Grunting, &c.--Chronic Cough Nasal Gleet Spasm of the Diaphragm 
Rupture of the Diaphragm. 

THE affections comprehended in this classification are 
those which have no origin in specific animal or other 
poisons, and are, therefore, entirely distinct in their nature 
from any already under review. Neither do they depend 
upon the operation of widespread causes. As a rule, few 
animals, generally not more than one among a given 
number, are affected, and the cause is usually traced to 
local causes. For the sake of clearness they are grouped 
according to the class of organ affected, from which they 
derive their distinctive characters. 


CATARRH, otherwise known as Coryza or common cold. 
This simple affection consists of inflammation of the lining 
membrane of the eyes, nostrils, and sinuses of the head \ 
sudden alternations of temperature, defective ventilation of 
stables, unusual exposure to wet and cold, and excessive 
or uncalled-for use of depletive medicines, being among 
the fertile causes. The membranes referred to are at first 
dry and deeply coloured, and afterwards secrete, first a 
thin, transparent, watery fluid, which shortly becomes 
thick, opaque, of a cream colour, and often profuse. A 
fit of rigors or shivering usually ushers in the attack, and 
symptomatic fever is also prominent. Slight cases recover 
rapidly as soon as a discharge is established, providing 
other circumstances are equal ; but continued operation 
of the original causes induce complications in the form of 
disease of other organs. 

192 General or Sporadic Diseases. 

Treatment. Investigate and remove the causes. Simple 
cases are best met by diffusible stimulants, as nitrous or 
sulphuric ether, aromatic spirits of ammonia, &c. ; but 
when reaction has already set in, indicated by the rapid 
pulse and respiration, febrifuges are imperatively called 
for. Inhalations of medicated steam should be applied 
by means of the nosebag ; light, warm clothing and 
bandages are particularly needful, the skin over the body 
and legs being previously excited by brushing or hand 
friction to the latter. If the bowels are constipated, give 
the medicines in linseed mucilage, and use the latter also 
as an enema. When the temperature, as ascertained by 
the clinical thermometer,* shows a marked decline, give 
tonic powder No. 2 or 3, to which 2 drms. of nitrate of 
potash has been added. 

LARYNGITIS, or Sore Throat, is the term used to denote 
inflammation of the lining membrane of the throat, ex- 
tending to the surrounding muscles and tissues. It usually 
follows neglected catarrh, but may have an independent 
origin through the force of largely prevailing causes. The 
appetite is absent, swallowing is difficult, painful or im- 
possible, thus solids are ejected and fluids return by the 
nostrils. Swelling of the throat outwardly is often present, 
fever and temperature run high, and breathing may be 
interfered with. A discharge from the nostrils is at first 
thin and clear, but shortly it becomes purulent; and 
when the jaws are separated saliva, &c., accumulated in 
the mouth are liberated. Laryngitis may terminate in 
bronchitis or pneumonia. 

Treatment. Do not, on any account, attempt to give 
medicines, fluids or solids, by the mouth. To do so is 
likely to choke the animal. First relieve the local inflam- 
mation by the use of electuaries No. i or 2, which must 
be continued some days. Apply liquid blister No. i to 
the throat. If the swelling is great, by which the breath- 
ing is impeded, the trachea should be opened, for which 

* See the Author's shilling manual, " The Thermometer as an 
Aid to Diagnosis in Veterinary Medicine," which should be in the 
hands of all owners of horses and cattle. London and New York: 
F. Warne & Co. 

General or Sporadic Diseases. 193 

the veterinary surgeon is required. With the return of 
tranquillity of the system the treatment as given under 
" Catarrh " will suffice. 

CONGESTION OF THE LUNGS, or Pulmonary Apoplexy, 
is a stasis or stoppage of blood in the lungs, due to some 
violent exertion, as overdriving, &c., and supervenes upon 
other diseases. These conditions cause engorgement 
and limit the space and power for necessary respiration, 
therefore we find the animal with straddling legs, his 
head lowered, and the neck stretched out, nature's means 
to provide easy and direct passage for the air. The 
nostrils are dilated, the eyes prominent and staring, and 
the flanks heave in unison with desperate blowing. The 
creature is suffering from a form of suffocation. The 
pulse is almost imperceptible, yet the heart is thumping ; 
blood escapes from the nostrils ; partial sweats break out 
over the body, while the legs and ears are cold; the 
mouth is dry, hot, and foetid, and in a few hours he 
becomes insensible, falls, and dies. 

Treatment. If the animal is seen by the veterinary 
surgeon within the first hour of the attack, he will set 
matters right by using a strong diffusible stimulant. As 
a rule, however, that stage is past, and an opposite course 
must be pursued. Add to febrifuge drench No. 3, 2 oz. 
of nitrous ether, and give at once ; rub in embrocation 
No. i, and make the animal comfortable by gentle dress- 
ing with suitable clothing and bandages. Continue the 
drench until the symptoms lose their severity, the pulse 
and thermometer indicating a resumption of action in the 
lungs, when returning strength must be seconded by 
vegetable tonics, particularly avoiding iron, at least until 
the very latest stages. 

BRONCHITIS inflammation of the Bronchial Tubes 
within the lungs. These are the terminal passages of the 
windpipe, split up like the twigs of a tree, spreading 
throughout the organs, for conveying the air used in 
respiration. Inflammation of the bronchial tubes is a 
common sequel of neglected colds, severe galloping, &c., 
and sometimes it attacks animals over an entire district, 
owing to unusual cold and damp, &c. It also follows 

194 General or Sporadic Diseases. 

the diseases we have already considered in this group. 
Catarrh and laryngitis may be present from the first, with 
high fever and temperature, a constant, hacking, and 
painful cough. The pulse is full and hard, breathing 
disturbed, and the sufferer relieves the chest as far as 
possible by standing with the legs wide apart. The 
bowels are constipated and urine is deficient, but diarrhoea 
is easily set up, if it is not already present. Further in- 
formation will be gleaned by the attendant veterinarian 
by careful examination of the chest, and studying the 
sounds, as indicating non-complicity with the lungs or 

Treatment. Blood-letting is not advisable. Give 
febrifuges, to which 10 drops of the tincture of aconite 
may be added, and continue the draught or bolus twice 
daily, with a decrease of one drop of the aconite in each 
dose. At the end of the second day perhaps, pulse and 
other signs being duly taken into account, the aconite 
may be withdrawn, and the ordinary febrifuge continued 
for a week or less, according to circumstances. Apply 
liniment No. i to the sides of the chest at the outset, 
and combat constipation by means of enemas of linseed 
mucilage. Promote comfort by clothing and bandages, 
allow plenty of fresh air, avoiding draughts, and as soon 
as acute signs have passed, a course of vegetable tonics 
may be prescribed. 

PNEUMONIA, or Inflammation of the Lungs. This 
disease may follow any one of the preceding, or, com- 
mencing with simple catarrh, it may pass, more or less 
rapidly, through the stages of laryngitis and bronchitis, 
the inflammation finally being located in the lungs. 
Pneumonia is ushered in by violent systemic disturbance, 
with cold ears and legs, the mouth and visible mem- 
branes being dry, hot, and injected. The respiration is 
hurried and short, pulse full and bounding at first, and 
temperature rises to, perhaps, 102 Fahr. or 103 Fahr. 
As the lungs become charged with blood, effusion into 
their substance follows, when the characters of the pulse 
and respiration are at once altered, the former having 
become small, weak, and oppressed ; the breathing short, 

General or Sporadic Diseases. 195 

gasping, and disturbed by a cough. Constipation with 
deficient urination are also present. 

Treatment. Blood-letting is tolerated only in the 
earliest stages. It is better to rely upon febrifuges with 
aconite internally, and when the circulation shows the 
inflammation has somewhat decreased, mustard or em- 
brocation No. i may be applied to both sides of the 
chest, and in other respects treat as recommended for 

When horses make tardy recovery from pneumonia, 
probably owing to previous defects in feeding, &c., &c., 
they are apt to become weak and useless from the 
development of abscess in the lungs. 

PLEURISY, or Pleuritis inflammation of the lining 
membrane of the chest and covering of the lung. The 
causes are cold or injuries to the chest. It sometimes 
follows clipping. Extreme constitutional disturbance 
marks the outset of the disease ; pulse and temperature 
are high, the former being hard, incompressible, wiry, 
probably running 60 in the minute. The legs and ears 
are cold, and great restlessness is evident, followed by 
stiffness, which causes the animal to fix himself to avoid 
motion, when he "breathes from his abdomen." If 
cough is present it causes much discomposure. Consti- 
pation and deficient urination are evident, appetite is lost, 
and the animal ceases to notice anything, except as he 
declines to be interfered with. The respiratory murmur 
is detected in the lungs, which is accompanied by a creak- 
ing or rasping sound as the chest heaves and contracts. 
The disease terminates in resolution or effusion. In the 
former case progress is to recovery, in the latter the chest 
fills with water. 

Treatment. Febrifuges i or 2, to which aconite should 
be added as already advised. Aperient No. 3. Enemas 
if necessary. Warm clothing and bandages; cool air 
with security from cold draughts. Embrocation No. i to 
the sides of the chest. When effusion has taken place, 
nitrous ether should be alternated with the febrifuges, 
and occasional doses of cantharides may be found useful. 
All remedies should be used alternately rather than per- 

igb General or Sporadic Diseases. 

sistence with one kind, and the animal will need the 
utmost care in every respect. Subcutaneous Injections, 
No. 2. 

ASTHMA Broken Wind. When horses have suffered 
from protracted affections of the chest, inducing violent 
or constant coughing, or when the inordinate appetite 
of a greedy feeder is constantly satisfied, the results are 
asthma, or broken wind. The first, by violent convulsive 
action, leads to rupture of the air cells, by which several 
unite to form one cavity, and air is also infiltrated, so to 
speak, in other parts of the organ and under its investing 
membrane ; the second induces the same by constant 
pressure from an over-loaded stomach. The result in 
both instances is impaired respiration, the expiration 
being performed by two convulsive acts instead of one of 
unifonn character. The disease is remarkable as being 
attended by a constant, weak cough, not unlike a loud 
spasmodic sigh. There is no known remedy, as change 
of structure is great, and the parts cannot be restored to 
original soundness. Care and simplicity in feeding is of 
the greatest importance, while humanity should rule in 
the working of the sufferer. In some cases it is cruelty 
to work such animals. Subcutaneous Injections, No. 5. 

REARING, WHISTLING, GRUNTING, &c., are terms used 
to denote the degrees of sound emitted by horses in whom 
respiration is abnormal and laboured under the effects of 
severe work. These conditions follow repeated sore 
throat, and are produced by the senseless habit of tight- 
reining ; it is also hereditary. The seat of the disease is 
the cartilaginous tube, known as the larynx, situate at 
the top of the windpipe, terminating the mouth at its 
posterior part. The origin and nature of the sound is 
due to paralysis of small muscles, the office of which is to 
open or raise two small cartilages for the ingress of air 
during inspiration. When the muscles thus become 
powerless, the cartilaginous lids are drawn downwards 
during such inspiration, and, therefore, depending much 
upon the size of the opening thus permitted, the sounds 
are produced. The louder and harsher sounds are due 
to a partial closure, while whistling may be caused by a 

General or Sporadic Diseases. 

smaller opening. The presence of tumours, thickening 
of membranes and of the vocal chords, are also causes, 
all of which may be present with the first-named. There 
is no absolute cure. Operations have been attempted as 
such, but they have brought no reputation to the pro- 
moter. A variety of both roaring and whistling may also 
be produced by causes resident within the nostrils. In 
such cases we have removed tumours, which effected a 
complete cure. When enlargement or ossification of 
cartilages, &c., take place, the results are not so suc- 

Grunting is due to similar causes, and is excited usually 
by fright. There are temporary forms of this complaint, 
which may be traced to pleurisy, &c., &c. Care is, there- 
fore, necessary for certain discrimination. 

CHRONIC COUGH is the consequence of repeated attacks 
of cold, sore throat, &c., as induced by hot and ill-venti- 
lated stables, undue exposure, &c. It is hard, dry, and 
persistent, amenable to no treatment, aggravated by care- 
less feeding and repetition of the causes. Give linseed 
mucilage with the food. Subcutaneous Injections, No. 7. 

NASAL GLEET is also one of the conditions which 
remain as a result of constantly recur- 
ring or neglected catarrh. It consists 
of a chronic inflammation of the mem- 
brane lining the sinuses of the head, by 
which a constant discharge is secreted, 
some of which is retained in the cavities, 
becoming thick and offensive; the 
rest, overflowing, passes down the 
nostrils, giving the animal a loathsome 
appearance in the more advanced 
cases. Some good may be accom- 
plished by injecting astringent fluids, 
but most cases call for trephining, or 
opening the affected sinus, for which 
operation a qualified veterinary surgeon 
is indispensable. Recent cases may be successfully 
treated by tonics and astringent injections. 

SPASM OF THE DIAPHRAGM. This is the result of 

Nasal Gleet. 

i g8 Diseases of the Organs of Circulation. 

over-exertion in weak and exhausted animals. An 
unusual violent sound, best described as "thumping," in 
the region of the chest, not associated or contemporaneous 
with the pulsations of the heart. It creates alarm, or at 
least discomposure, in many animals, as it must interfere 
seriously with the circulation. The spasms occasion 
alternate tightening and relaxation of the musculo-mem- 
branous partition which divides the chest from the abdo- 
men. It is best counteracted by diffusible stimulants, as 
nitrous, sulphuric, or chloric ether, with perfect rest and 
quiet. The working condition of the animal should be 
fairly considered, and, perhaps, overdriving will be dis- 
covered as one cause; the other may rest in the food, 
which is probably deficient in albuminoids. 

draught-horses subjected to heavy work on inferior roads 
after heavy feeding. We have seen many cases among 
the horses of builders employed in drawing bricks, rub- 
bish, &c., over the unmade roads common to brickyards 
and the vicinity of large buildings. With the advent of 
steam machinery such work is now reduced, and con- 
fined to smaller areas. Immediate death follows the 



Palpitation Rupture of the Heart Cyanosis, or Blue Disease Carditis 
Pericarditis Endocarditis Embolism, and Diseases of the Valves of the 
Heart Aneurism Phlebitis Megrims Lymphangitis. 

PALPITATION. We have already noticed the existence 
of strange sounds in connection with anaemia the blood- 
less state. Such are the common results of irregular and 
intermittent actions of the heart, accompanied with heart- 

Diseases of the Organs of Circulation. 199 

sounds due to the watery condition of the blood, and 
functional derangement of the organ, occasioned by im- 
proper feeding, &c., not in any way referable to disease. 
When the blood receives its natural pabulum from a suffi- 
ciently nutritious food, the disorder disappears. Palpi- 
tation of indigestion, not always attended with the loud 
sounds of anaemia, is due to similar causes, and disappears 
when the digestion is improved. 

RUPTURE OF THE HEART occasionally takes place 
during severe running, or exertion in drawing heavy loads 
over unmade roads. The seat of the lesion varies : 
sometimes it is the junction of the aorta with the left 
ventricle, or the right auricle as it joins the ventricle. In 
one instance we saw the first form in a draught-horse, 
occasioned by a fall over a temporary bridge to a lower 
level of some fifteen feet. 

CYANOSIS, Blue Disease, is due to the admixture of the 
blood of arteries and veins within the heart, owing to 
the non-closure of the foramen ovate, an opening which 
should not exist beyond foetal life. The animal is weak, 
faint, and useless, and, if not humanely destroyed, usually 
lives but a short period. The significant tokens of the 
malady are the peculiar blue colour of the membranes, 
with anaemic palpitations. When life is prolonged in 
exceptional cases, it is due to a small opening only, 
admitting of slow admixture of the blood. 

CARDITIS, Inflammation of the Heart, is not common 
to the horse. While the or- 
gan may suffer in small por- 
tions by an extension of the 
process from contiguous struc- 
tures, that process does not 
extend to the whole substance. 
The organ being so essential 
to life appears to be wonder- 
fully exempt from such a seri- 
ous state as inflammation. It 
is, however, subject to altera- lhe Counten t n p n a . s ex P ressive 
tions in form organic changes 
in the muscular structure, as hypertrophy or enlargement, 

20O Diseases of the Organs of Circulation. 

atrophy or wasting, and fatty degeneration, with a peculiar 
expression of anxiety depicted on the countenance. Such 
states are but imperfectly made out during life, and admit 
of no remedy, death usually taking place suddenly. 

PERICARDITIS. Inflammation of the pericardium, or 
covering, or the heart-bag, arises under two conditions, 
first as an independent affection, and otherwise a compli- 
cation with rheumatism and enzootic typhoid diseases. 
The malady is from the first associated with high fever 
and temperature, quickened respiration and circulation, 
the pulse being hard, irritable, short, and quick, with 
fluttering action of the heart. The legs and ears are cold, 
twitchings and cramps affect the body, friction sounds 
are heard as the heart beats, but these disappear shortly, 
as the heart-bag becomes filled with water, a product of 
the disease. The breathing becomes increasingly diffi- 
cult, the animal exhibits a tendency to faint when the 
head is elevated, external dropsy appears, weakness is 
more confirmed, and death takes place in three or four 
days. Animals surviving this period usually recover. 

Treatment. Febrifuges with aconite in decreasing 
doses of 2 drops, commencing with 10 drops, every eight 
hours until six doses have been given. Remove consti- 
pation by moderate aperients and enemas conjointly, and, 
when the urgent signs are suppressed, continue febrifuges 
without the aconite. Provide warmth and comfort by 
suitable clothing and habitations, and, as soon as the 
pulse gives evidence of being under control, with a reduc- 
tion of temperature, embrocation No. i may be used to 
each side of the chest. The absorption of effused fluids 
maybe promoted by iodine, internally, with diuretics, and 
the failing strength must be recruited at the proper stage 
by tonics. Subcutaneous Injections, No. 5. 

ENDOCARDITIS. inflammation of the lining membrane 
of the heart occasionally occurs, and is a serious matter. 
The treatment is similar to that advocated for pericar- 
ditis, except in respect to aconite, which requires to be 
cautiously ^iven in doses of 5 drops only, with febri- 
fuges. In this disease the pulse is liable to exhibit 
peculiar states of irregularity, which are due to the ex- 

Diseases of the Organs of Circulation. 201 

treme irritability of the heart. Avoid bleeding and blisters, 
and use embrocation No. i when the acute signs are 
allayed. Subcutaneous Injections, No. 5. 

Embolism and Disease of the Valves of the Heart are 
common results. The first are fibrinous deposits from 
the blood, which may remain and accumulate in the 
heart, or, passing with the circulation, enter a blood- 
vessel and obstruct the passage. Sudden death after a 
time will result in the first instance, and evidences of the 
latter are often to be seen in local wasting and paralysis. 
When the valves are diseased, the animal is weak and 
faint, and is liable to local swellings, difficult breathing, 
and sudden death. 

Aneurism^ or enlargement of an artery at a given point, 
is another serious consequence of heart-disease, especially 
when it affects an important internal vessel. 

PHLEBITIS, or Inflammation of a Vein, is commonly 
seen as a result of bleeding. The swelling should be un- 
ceasingly fomented for hours, a strong dose of sedative 
medicine being first given. Some prefer aloes, to be fol- 
lowed by a powerful blister along the course of the vein, 
the head being tied up to prevent the animal gnawing or 
rubbing the part. 

MEGRIMS, or Venous Obstruction, is caused by pressure 
upon the jugular vein from badly-fitting collars, prevent- 
ing the return of blood from the head. The result is, a 
species of frenzy is caused, and, after some excitement, 
shaking the head, &c., the animal darts forward, generally 
falling headforemost. The collar should be pushed for- 
ward, and pressure avoided, on the first manifestation of 
excitement, or the occupants of the vehicle may come to 
serious grief. Dash cold water over the head, and take 
the animal home as soon as possible. He should not be unless the collar can be worn comfortably and 
safely, but his utility as a saddle-horse may be satisfactory. 

LYMPHANGITIS. This is the "Weed," "Thick-leg," 
"Shot of Grease," "Dropsy," and emphatically "Mon- 
day morning " and " Holiday " disease. Errors of diet, 
with idleness after heavy work, are the causes which, in a 
few hours, cause considerable disturbance of the system, 

2O2 Diseases of the Organs of Circulation. 

with extreme swelling of one of the hind limbs, some- 
times, but rarely, in the fore-leg, which the animal can 

scarcely move. Heavy draught-horses are common vic- 
tims, but occasionally a cab-, van-, or even a carriage- 
horse may be seen among the sufferers. Such an event 
should stimulate a searching inquiry into the character 
and fitness of the presiding genius of the stable. 

Treatment. Administer a strong dose of aloes in solu- 
tion; or give aperient No. 3, and follow immediately 
with 2 oz. of nitrous ether, while the rigors are present. 
Promote warmth in the skin by active brushing, and 
clothe, putting bandages upon the legs. Throw-up warm 
enemas, foment the leg for four hours, 
and protect it from cold. See Fomen- 
tations. Allow soft, laxative food only, 
with water from which the chill has been 
removed, during cold weather. Give 
walking exercise as soon as he can move 
without pain. 

Lymphangitis of the recurrent kind 
is likely to terminate in permanent thick- 
ening and consequent unsightly enlarge- 
ment. Such a state is shown in the ac- 
companying figure, to which the term 
Elephantiasis has been given. 


Diseases of the Organs of Digestion. 203 


Sporadic Aphtha, or Thrush Diseases and Irregularities of the Teeth Chok- 
ing- Vomiting Chronic Indigestion Acute Indigestion Constipation 
Colic Enteritis, or Inflammation of the Bowels Peritonitis, or Inflam- 
mation of the Peritoneum Diarrhoea Superpurgation Dysentery, or 
Bloody Flux Worms in the Intestines Hernia, or Rupture Dropsy of 
the Abdomen Congestion of the Liver Inflammation of the Liver 
Jaundice Wind-sucking, or Crib-biting. 

THE majority of diseases under this head are the result 
of mismanagement and errors of diet.* With the advent 
of care and system, disease is reduced to a minimum. 

SPORADIC APHTHA or THRUSH. A faulty system of 
feeding with food of a questionable suitability, doubtless 
assisted by conjoint errors, induces dyspepsia and faulty 
assimilation, bad blood, &c., and the local manifestations 
are eruptions of small blisters or bladders upon the 
tongue, insides of the cheek, &c. These greatly interfere 
with mastication, and impair condition, which, perhaps, 
is already reduced. Sometimes this simple affection 
assumes an active character, and is managed only with 

Treatment. Febrifuges, particularly chlorate of potash ; 
and wash the mouth with a solution of the same, contain- 
ing 2 or 3 drms. to a pint of water. 

quire the attention of the veterinary surgeon without 
delay, as the condition and services of the animal may 
be seriously sacrificed. 

CHOKING. Whatever the substance causing the ob- 
struction is, it may be induced to pass down the gullet 
if a draught composed of 4 oz. of linseed-oil and \ oz. 
of sulphuric or chloric ether are mixed, and administered 

* See the manual, "How to Feed the Horse." London and 
New York : F. Warne & Co. Price is. 

2O4 Diseases of the Organs of Digestion. 

with care. If this does not succeed, a second dose may 
be given in half an hour; otherwise the services of a 

qualified practitioner must be 
obtained, who will perhaps 
pass the probang. Neglected 
cases are apt to bring about 
laceration of the gullet, which 
may endanger life. In simple 
cases even stricture may be 
the result, and the creature 
is repeatedly suffering from 

VOMITING is not a natural 
act in the horse. When it 

occurs, we may always infer that some abnormal state is 
present, consisting of inordinate fulness of the stomach, 
or perhaps some morbid lesion of the gullet.* 
CHRONIC INDIGESTION. This follows as a result ot 


Chronic Indigestion. 

irregular work and feeding, and is finally developed by 
the use of all kinds of remedies, the nature of which are 
not understood by the attendant. Irregular and decayed 
teeth are also known to be the cause, and sometimes the 

* For important information on this subject, see the larger work, 
"Eveiy Man his own Horse Doctor." London and New York: 
F. Warne & Co. Price 2 is. 300 illustrations. 

Diseases of the Organs of Digestion. 205 

effect. The signs are conspicuous : Faulty condition, 
inability for exertion, tight and dirty skin, irregular bowels, 
repeated diarrhoea, slimy foetid mouth, all of which finally 
culminate in disease of the kidneys, farcy, or glanders. 

Treatment. Pay attention to the teeth, and institute a 
proper system of feeding ; regulate the bowels by mode- 
rate doses of medicine, as aperient No. 3 ; restore the 
balance of action in diarrhoea by linseed-oil, in half the 
usual doses, combined with half a dose of opium. When 
a proper action of the bowels is established, commence a 
course of vegetable tonics, give gentle exercise, and im- 
pose suitable work gradually as the condition and ability 
will admit. 

ACUTE INDIGESTION, or Impaction of the Stomach. 
The stomach of the horse is comparatively small, and 
liable to be gorged with food under various circumstances, 
sometimes by inordinate manger supply, especially when 
some change has been made in the variety, and when 
horses gain access to heaps of corn by accident. Such 
states are known by the violent agony, rolling, kicking, 
and plunging of the sufferer, while the constitutional dis- 
turbance is extreme, the skin being bathed in perspiration. 
The excitement may pass into frenzy, or degenerate into 
coma, insensibility, and death. In other cases the 
stomach is ruptured, also ending fatally. 

Treatment. The practitioner will first assure himself 
that hernia is not present. In the first stages, administer 
a strong aperient, No. 3, which should be dissolved in a 
pint of warm water, with which 2 oz. of nitrous ether is 
to be mixed. Throw up enemas constantly. Subcutaneous 
Injections, No. i . If there is much distension of the bowels 
by gas, give hyposulphite of soda in cold water, with a 
dose of aromatic spirits of ammonia. Put the animal 
into a roomy barn or shed, and litter down a thick layer 
of straw. 

CONSTIPATION of the bowels arises from natural tor- 
pidity, debility from previous disease, and paralysis. A 
bran-mash or enema will remove simple forms, and the 
use of roots, linseed, &c.,may suffice to preserve a proper 
action. When debility is the cause, vegetable tonics 

206 Diseases of the Organs of Digestion. 

maybe prescribed, in which strychnia proves highly bene- 
ficial. Subcutaneous Injections, No. 9. 

COLIC is the result of derangement of the bowels, often 
following constipation. Two kinds are observed spas- 
modic and flatulent colic. Violent spasm of the muscular 
coat is set up as a result of some obstruction to intestinal 
digestion, when sometimes, in addition, fermentation suc- 
ceeds, and the gases evolved add seriously to the pain 
by causing distension in addition. Under these circum- 
stances great violence characterises the attack, and the 
creature groans with pain while he rolls, and is bathed in 
perspiration. The seat of the pain is indicated by fre- 
quently turning the head to the side, and, after looking 
round despairingly, he again throws himself to the ground, 
often remaining upon his back some time. 

Treatment. In simple cases, anodynes No. i or No. 2. 
If constipation is present, add aloes ; or flatulence, add 
ammonia. Throw-up enemas frequently, and minister 
to the safety and comfort of the patient by providing a 
good bed and a roomy place. Subcutaneous Injections, 
No. 2, 3, or 9. 

ENTERITIS, Inflammation of the Intestines, is a rare disease 
in the horse, and, as usually seen, is due to some irritant 
or corrosive substance which has gained access to the 
alimentary canal. The stomach, as a rule, participates. 
There is no spasm or distension by gas, as in colic, there- 
fore the violence which characterises that affection is not 
seen in enteritis. Colicky pains may appear in later 
stages, but they are mild. There is febrile disturbance, 
the pulse being small, frequent, and hard, becoming weak, 
indistinct, and running down as the vital processes are 
interfered with. The temperature is increased, and the 
diurnal variations, if watched carefully, afford significant 
indications which by no other means can be attained. 
The rectum protrudes in frequent straining, and is red 
and congested in common with other mucous membranes; 
the abdomen is tender, and the animal stands dejectedly, 
often turning his nose to the flank ; the breathing is short 
and rapid, and constipation exists as a result of the stop- 
page of peristaltic action. Great stiffness is present, and 

Diseases of the Organs of Digestion. 207 

h^ "moves all in a piece." Listlessness follows, with 
exhaustion ; he lies down, sinks rapidly, and is incapable 


of rising ; the brain sympathises, and he dies perhaps in 
insensibility, in time varying from one to six or seven 
days, according to the severity of the attack. 

Treatment. Purgatives are curatives in these cases, 
and should be followed by powerful sedatives, as aconite, 
belladonna, hyoscyamus, &c., with plenty of linseed 
mucilage for drink. Soothing enemas should also be 
made use of. When known poisons have been admini- 
stered or swallowed, the appropriate antidote should be 
used. Subcutaneous Injections, No. 3. 

PERITONITIS, Inflammation of the Peritoneum, the lining 
membrane of the abdomen, chiefly arises from external 
injuries, operations, &c. Great constitutional disturbance 
is present, with cold ears and extremities, the pulse is 
frequent, hard, and wiry, and a dejected appearance, with 
anxiety, is depicted in the countenance. The animal 
scrapes with the forefeet, crouches, lies down carefully, and 
shortly rises again ; the bowels are'constipated, abdomen 
tucked up and tense, and the urine is diminished, having a 
high colour ; exhaustion is rapid, and the animal dies at 

2o8 Diseases of the Organs of Digestion. 

variable periods, sometimes being insensible, racked by 
convulsions, or paralytic. 

Treatment. Sudden terminations often prevent any- 
thing being done. Aperients, as aloes or oil ; febrifuges 
or draughts, containing aconite or the acetate of ammonia 
mixture, No. 3, in linseed mucilage. Throw-up enemas. 
Subcutaneous Injections, No. 2. 

DIARRHCEA is commonly a symptom of other diseases, 
or in usual health it is Nature's remedy for removing 
substances of an irritant character. It is commonly seen 
in animals affected with worms, and it also appears as a 
sequel to disease, and is the means of dissipating the last 
remains of life. It consists of a discharge of fluid faeces, 
with more or less pain and straining, and the presence 
of fcetor often associates it with blood-poisoning, and 
"breaking up of the system." 

Treatment. Warm enemas to remove irritants from 
the posterior bowels, and give by the mouth the draught, 
which is sufficient for a large horse : Linseed oil, ^ pint ; 
tincture of opium, i oz. Mix. 

SUPERPURGATION may be described as an aggravated 
form of diarrhoea, generally the result of excessive or con- 
tinuous doses of purgative medicines ; copious draughts 
of cold water when heated, or after such medicines have 
been given ; some animals are highly susceptible of the 
action of purgatives in health, and others are extremely 
sensitive when reduced by catarrh, influenza, &c. Much 
care is always needed in prescribing the first time for a 
patient. The malady is known by a forcible expulsion 
of liquid faeces associated with uneasiness, straining and 
colicky pains, nausea, high temperature, unequal surface 
heat, and complications, as laminitis, congestion of the 
lungs, sinking, and death. 

Treatment. Superpurgation when suddenly arrested 
ends in death. Proceed in the first instance cautiously, 
as laid down for diarrhoea. The food and drink must be 
restricted to gruel chiefly composed of starch, which 
should also be used for enemas as well as a vehicle for 
other remedies ; laudanum and sulphuric or chloric ether, 
i oz. of each, forms a good remedy. 

Diseases of the Organs of Digestion. 209 

DYSENTERY, or Bloody Flux. A rare disease in the 
horse. It is superpurgation associated with inflammation 
of the large intestines, accompanied with ulceration and 
haemorrhage. These serious states have their usual origin 
in poisons or putrefactive ferments which have been pre- 
sent in drinking-water. Severe pain and straining are 
accompanied with high fever and temperature ; stiffness 
in movement, especially in turning ; tight skin, and in 
grass-fed animals it is full of vermin ; colicky pains, severe 
straining ; blood and mucus is passed, and the rectum is 
everted, the membrane being highly inflamed ; the belly 
is sore and often distended with gas; the mouth and 
tongue clammy, furred and offensive, the epithelium 
peeling off exposing ulcers beneath. The sufferer soon 
dies if relief is not afforded within a few days. 

Treatment. Oleaginous purge composed of linseed oil, 
pint, and tincture of opium, i oz. ; chloroform, 4- drm. 
The blood discharges may be arrested by oil of turpen- 
tine, 2 oz. in milk or starch gruel, i pint ; and follow 
with astringents No. 7 or 8. Distension by gas may be 
arrested by the hyposulphite of soda in water. Promote 
warmth and comfort by means of clothing, bandages, and 
gentle dressing. Subcutaneous Injections, No. 3. 

WORMS IN THE INTESTINES are denoted by loss of 
condition proportionate to the duration of the disorder, 
harsh, dirty skin, capricious or voracious appetite, licking 
the wall or eating dirt. Sometimes the animal rubs his 
tail violently against the nearest object, and an accumu- 
lation of the eggs and scales of the parasites is seen 
around the anus. The sure sign is the presence of worms 
in the faeces. Diarrhoea is not uncommon. 

Treatment. Aperient No. 3 with i or 2 drops of croton 
oil. Turpentine, 2 oz. in a pint of linseed mucilage, is 
also valuable, followed by a moderate purge. Follow 
with iron tonics, i or 2. 

HERNIA OR RUPTURE is of several kinds, the descrip- 
tion of which is too lengthy to be introduced here. It 
consists of a rupture of the muscular walls of the abdomen 
or enlargement of some natural opening, the result of 
accident, by which the small intestines find their way 


2io Diseases of the Organs of Digestion. 

from the abdomen, and are supported in a sac formed by 
the skin outwardly, constituting a soft fluctuating tumour 
of variable dimensions. An operation is generally re- 
quired, for which the veterinary surgeon is indispensable. 
DROPSY OF THE ABDOMEN is the result of confirmed 
disease of one or more of the internal organs. Tapping 

Dropsy of the Abdomen. 

is resorted to for drawing off the contained fluid. This, 
however, affords but temporary relief, and the original 
disease, still existing, finally puts an end to the creature's 

CONGESTION OF THE LIVER, the result of errors of diet, 
is betokened by indigestion, colic, irregular bowels, foul 
mouth, coated faeces, variable surface heat, and some- 
times lameness in the right shoulder. 

Treatment. Brisk purgation, followed by sulphate or 
nitrate of potash, or diuretics No. i or 2. Improve sys- 
tem of feeding, and also work. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER is a rare disease in the 
horse. It is sometimes difficult to define. The animal is 
dull and heavy, and often turns his nose to the side as an 
evidence of internal uneasiness ; constipation, with slimy 
and offensive faeces, the skin, membranes, and urine 
eventually become yellow; temperature and circulation 
are high, and the pulse, at first frequent and irregular, 
becomes slow; when the animal turns he winces and 

Diseases of the Organs of Digestion. 2 1 1 

grunts ; relief is apparently gained by effusion^ " Dropsy 
of the Abdomen "), the abdomen swells, wasting of the 
body proceeds rapidly, and the animal dies in six or eight 

Treatment. Aperient No. 3, with aconite ; followed by 
the neutral salts and aconite. Diuretics. Febrifuges. 

Diseases of the liver, by frequent occurrence or long 
continuance, are apt to induce changes in the constitu- 
tion of the organ, and death may arise from softening, 
rupture, or abscess, the principal signs of which are as 
follows : heavy and laboured breathing, abdominal pains, 
pale membranes, running down pulse, dilated pupils, un- 
equal surface heat, fainting, insensibility, and death. 

JAUNDICE, or The Yellows, is due to the presence of 
biliary matter in the blood, which has the effect of stain- 
ing the mucous membranes and the scurf which is thrown 
off from the skin, as well as the skin itself, all the tissues 
of the body, the secretions, and also excretions. Unre- 
lieved or constantly recurring states ultimately degenerate 
into anaemia and a lingering death. A proper examina- 
tion should be made with the view of determining the true 
cause, which may be congestion, want of nerve power, 
scirrhus, &c., when treatment is to be pursued accord- 

WIND-SUCKING, or Crib-biting, is the act of the animal 
which is designed to favour the expulsion of air, the result 
of fermentation, from the stomach. The method of cure 
is based upon measures calculated to remove dyspepsia, to 
which the animal is subject. It is mostly confined to idle 
and pampered horses of the higher breeds. 

2 1 2 Diseases of the Urinary Organs. 



Diabetes Insipidus, or Profuse Staling Retention of Urine Oxaluria 
Traumatic Albuminuria Nephritis, or Inflammation of the Kidneys 
H?ematuria, or Blood in the Urine Cystitis, or Inflammation of the 
Bladder Inversion of the Bladder. 

SETTING aside direct injuries, and the effects of cold, 
we may state the more frequent causes of disease in the 
urinary organs are errors of diet ; but the list is not a 
long one, as even among defective systems of feeding, the 
animal, unlike mankind, is less an animal than himself. 
Conditions are forced upon him, and he suffers from the 
faults and ignorance of man. On the other hand, man 
suffers from his own folly. Drink and gluttony seriously 
reduce his usefulness and shorten his life. These, when 
all things are equal, do not operate with the horse. If 
he were left to his own choice he could show his master 
excellent rules for living not only long, but perfectly 
happy lives, as secured by robust and sound constitutions. 
The higher creature, who has much to answer for, is 
really more frequently the lower, as compared with the 

DIABETES INSIPIDUS, or Profuse Urination, is the re- 
sult of inferior food, severe work, and exposure in its 
common form ; but it may arise in complication with 
wasting diseases, as glanders and farcy. In the first 
instance it may assume the form of an enzootic, owing to 
peculiar seasons rendering the food unsuitable, and other- 
wise defective. The principal indication is a large and 
constant flow of pale and watery urine, a capricious appe- 
tite, which causes the animal to lick the walls and even 
eat dirt, excrement, &c. The condition falls off, the 
animal is unhealthy, weak and utterly unfit for work. 

Treatment. Aperients to rouse the bowels to orderly 
action. Institute a proper system of feeding. Put car- 

Diseases of the Urinary Organs. 2 1 3 

bonate of soda or potash into the drinking water. Avoid 
all diuretics, especially saltpetre or nitrate of potash. 
Give iodide of potassium in 2-drm. doses, with common 
mass as a bolus, twice daily. Some practitioners prefer 
iodine. Thus far for simple cases. When diabetes de- 
pends upon wasting diseases, the best course is to put the 
animal out of misery by a speedy and painless death. 

RETENTION OF URINE leads to distension of the blad- 
der, and if not relieved, to bursting or rupture. The 
causes are unsuitable remedies, first increasing the secre- 
tion of urine ; second, spasm of the neck of the bladder. 
These, by frequent operation, may result in paralysis of 
the bladder. Errors of diet also operate strongly, and 
induce the formation of solid masses in the kidneys or 
bladder ; and other organs may press unduly upon the 
neck of the bladder and prevent the flow. In all cases a 
strict and careful examination should be made before any 
medicines are given. The general plan will be to pass 
the catheter, for which the veterinary surgeon will be re- 
quired. In the mare this is simple, and easily performed, 
but in the horse much tact and patience are required. 

OXALURIA. A profuse discharge of urine having a 
deep straw or amber colour, associated with dyspepsia, 
stiffness, general unthriftiness, and want of condition 
and power, and the skin loaded with a bran-like scurf. 
The mouth is foul, and the animal suffers pain with each 

Treatment. Medicines are of no avail where the sys- 
tem of feeding is defective. Remove constipation by a 
judicious use of aperients. At first avoid food rich in 
starchy matters, as roots, peas, beans, &c., and condi- 
mental foods which contain locust beans. A few oats, 
with bran and sweet clover chaff will be most suitable. 
Give only gentle exercise daily without tiring the patient; 
clean the skin thoroughly by the damp wisp, or make 
use of the Roman bath. Give nitro-hydrochloric acid, i 
drm., in an effusion of quassia, i pint; and if debility is 
great, add nitrous ether. At a later stage give iron tonics, 
No. i or 2. 

TRAUMATIC ALBUMINURIA. The urine, sometimes 


Diseases of the Urinary Organs. 

copious, is loaded with albumen, and resembles mucilage. 
Acute cases are. usually the result of injury, as sprains of 
the back, and injudicious use of cantharides, when the 
animal stands with his back arched and the feet drawn 

Acute Albuminuria. 

together. The pulse and respiration are then much dis- 
turbed, surface heat unequal, constipation, &c. A chronic 
form is induced by defective feeding, when the animal 
stands with the back arched downwards and the legs 

Chronic Albuminuria. 

stretched before and behind. Death arises from disease 
of the kidneys. 

Treatment. In the acute form aperients, as No. 3, with 
enemas. Remove the urine by means of the catheter at 
intervals. Poultices to surfaces blistered with cantharides 

Diseases of the Urinary Organs. 2 1 5 

to promote suppuration. If stranguary continues, let the 
catheter remain, and give anti-spasmodic injections, as 
opium or belladonna; also give a draught by the mouth. 
When acute signs have passed, tonics may suitably fol- 
low. Tannic acid is useful for arresting the flow of albu- 

N E P H RITI s Inflammation of the Kidn cys. This disease 
arises from similar causes, as already given, and is known 
by the great amount of acute disturbance, colicky pains, 
great thirst, hot mouth, stiffness -and arched back, painful 
urination, a small quantity only being voided, which con- 
tains albumen. One kidney only may be affected, when 
the leg of that side sometimes exhibits signs of paralysis. 


If the urine is retained blood poisoning follows, the faeces, 
skin, and breath giving off the odour of urine. 

Treatment. If the bowels are costive, give an olea- 
ginous aperient, No. i or 2. Febrifuge drench, No. 3, 
should follow in about two hours, and continued two or 
three times daily. A stronger remedy will be found in 
i-drm. doses of opium in a i-pint of mucilage, and allow 
the latter for drink if the animal is thirsty. 

H^EMATURIA, or Blood in the Urine, may arise after 
any of the preceding diseases, or injuries caused by 
sprains of the loins, &c., and is accompanied by most of 
the signs of nephritis, the distinguishing proof being the 
presence of blood. 

2 1 6 Diseases of the Urinary Organs. 

Treatment. Injections of cold water ; astringents, No. 
7 or 8, internally ; or substitute tincture of iron, tannic 
acid, chloralum, &c. Subcutaneous injections, Nos. 6 
or 8. 

CYSTITIS Inflammation of the Bladder, may arise 
from causes connected with the preceding diseases, or 
directly from the absorption or administration of can- 
tharides. The animal is in great suffering ; fever, &c., 
run high, colicky pains are present, efforts are made to 
vomit, great prostration, frequent but ineffectual attempts 
to urinate. If stranguary is present the signs are intense ; 
and when cantharides have been administered the mouth 
is inflamed and the membrane peels off, while swallowing 
is painful and difficult. 

Treatment. Purge briskly with aloes. Avoid oil. Give 
mucilage largely by the mouth with the medicines ; throw 
up enemas ; evacuate the bladder if needful by the cathe- 
ter; apply mustard to the loins, and combat the inflam- 
matory action by the febrifuge drench, No. 3, adding 
aconite if needed, 4 to 6 drops. 

INVERSION OF THE BLADDER is an untoward accident 
at all times, not infrequently complicated and fatal. The 
services of a qualified practitioner are essential. It occurs 
only in females, in parturition or during other violent 
efforts. The efforts of the owner should be directed to- 
wards the prevention of injury to the displaced viscus, 
until a practitioner arrives. 

Diseases of the Organs of Generation. 2 1 7 


In the Male: Urethritis Phimosis Paraphimosis Results of Castration^ 
Haemorrhage Abscess Scirrhous Cord. In the Female: Flooding- 
Inversion of the Uterus Rupture of the Uterus Rupture of the Abdo- 
minal Walls Vaginitis Leucorrhrea Inflammation of the Womb. 


URETHRITIS -Inflammation of the Urethra. Common 
to the gelding and entire horse, being most frequent in 
the latter; arising from external causes, as injuries or 
cold, and in stallions as a result of too frequent access to 
the mare when the system is not in good stamina. There 
is great irritation, frequent attempts to urinate, probably 
stranguary, troublesome erections, pustular discharge, 
swelling of the membrane, limiting the diameter of the 
passage, ulceration of the glands, &c. 

Treatment. Internally, febrifuge drench, No. 3 ; 
aconite may be added. If the bowels are costive, 
aperient, No. 3. Inject astringent solutions, No. i or 2, 
into the urethra. Allow linseed mucilage for drink. In 
chronic or severe cases the animal must be cast, and a 
minute examination made for ulcers or other complica- 

PHIMOSIS. Confinement of the penis within the 

PARAPHIMOSIS. Strangulation of the penis at its upper 
part, the major part being free, and swollen externally. 

Each of these states are usually the result of direct 
injury or irritation, for the relief of which a speedy opera- 
tion is required. 

RESULTS OF CASTRATION. These are hemorrhage, 
abscess, scirrhons cord, peritonitis, tetanus, gangrene, 
glanders, farcy, amarausis, &c. 

HAEMORRHAGE, Subsequent bleeding may usually be 

2 1 8 Diseases of tJie Organs of Generation. 

traced to improper cauterization, or an unhealthy state of 
the parts. Arterial haemorrhage, which constitutes the 
danger, flows in a pulsating stream, the remedy for which 
is taking up the artery by means of a ligature. For this, 
the animal, if at liberty, must be recast, the vessel being 
secured after an incision is made at a higher point. 

ABSCESS. This is common to colts of weak and un- 
healthy condition, also the result of cold and exposure to 
wet, &c., after the operation. The abscess forms in the 
scrotum or the groin, and sometimes extends some dis- 
tance down the thigh, occasioning great disturbance, loss 
of appetite, &c., and may end fatally if early attention is 
not given to the case. When the abscess points properly, 
the pus should be liberated, as serious pain and inconve- 
nience will be avoided. The animal should be comfort- 
ably housed, and well fed with oats, being turned to grass 
only when the weather is genial. 

SCIRRHOUS CORD is known as an enlargement of a 
fleshy character at the termination of the spermatic cord. 
It is common to colts of unhealthy constitution, and 
arises also from morbid irritation caused by caustic clams 
used in the operation when retained too long ; or closing 
of the scrotum, by which the pustular discharges are re- 
tained, communicating septic irritation. The cord is 
thickened, hard, and enlarged at the end. 

Treatment. The animal must be cast, and the diseased 
portion excised, the preferable plan being in most cases 
by the hot iron. The other incidental diseases have been 
described in their proper places. 


FLOODING after parturition arises from hasty removal 
of the foetus, when the membranes are violently torn from 
their connections ; and removal of the placenta too soon 
from the mare. For a time the haemorrhage is not sus- 
pected, as the blood is accumulating in the womb, and 
the serious nature of the case is shown by a running down 
pulse, prostration, pale membranes, staggering gait, general 
coldness, haggard countenance, partial sweats, convul- 

Diseases of the Organs of Generation. 2 1 9 

sions, coma and death. At other times there is straining, 
evacuation of clots and fluid blood, but this is rare. 

Treatment. Plunge the hand and arm into cold water 
for a few minutes, and afterwards pass it gently into the 
womb, carefully touching the sides. This is sometimes 
sufficient. Otherwise inject cold water, and if needful, 
add a small quantity of perchloride of iron, chloralum, &c. 
Should these fail, give the tincture of the ergot of rye, 
tannic acid, perchloride of iron, &c., internally, and apply 
mustard to the loins. No time must be lost, as the mare 
suffers most acutely in these states. Subcutaneous Injec- 
tions, No. 6 or 8. 

INVERSION OF THE UTERUS. This is not a very 
common occurrence in the mare, but it is always serious 
in its nature. The organ should be returned as speedily 
as possible, for which a veterinary surgeon is needed. 
Subcutaneous Injections, No. 6 or 8. 

RUPTURE OF THE UTERUS sometimes takes place 
during parturition ; and it is also known to take place 
beforehand, when twin foals are present. Death follows 
as a result of haemorrhage and violent shock to the sys- 

extraordinary weight of the contents of the womb, and 
the violent throes of parturition. Sometimes the muscles 
and skin give way, allowing the contents of the abdomen 
to escape. In other cases the muscles only are ruptured, 
and the contents are held by the skin, which forms a 
large sac, more or less approaching the ground. The 
consequences are fatal in each case. 

VAGINITIS Inflammation of the Vagina, is commonly 
associated with metritis and metro-peritonitis, and as such 
is considered under those heads ; but it occurs also as an 
independent affection as the result of local injuries, which 
chiefly arise during difficult parturition. There is much 
swelling and discoloration, with irritation and fever. A 
thin discharge is present at the first, which changes to 
pus, with which blood is sometimes mixed. As a simple 
disease it is usually dispersed by ordinary means. 

Treatment. Reduce the fever by means of febrifuge 

22O Diseases of the Organs of Generation. 

drench, No. 3. Inject astringents, No. i or 2, to which 
a ^-pint of water is added. The antiseptic fluid, No. i, 
2, or 3, will be also required to repress the tendency to 
putrid infection, a common cause of trouble in these 

LEUCORRHCEA, or Chronic Vaginitis, consists of the 
discharge of a white, glutinous, and odourless discharge 
from the walls of the vagina, as the result of a morbid 
condition. As long as it continues the animal is under 
an inordinate excitement unfavourable to health and 
natural pregnancy ; besides, the disease may by extension 
involve the uterus, and tedious complication will be the 

Treatment. There is seldom any fever. The tendency 
is towards debility and want of tone. The bowels should 
be opened by aperient, No. i, to which 2 oz. of the tinc- 
ture of gentian has been added. Allow good food, as 
cleaned roots, with crushed oats, with which tonic pow- 
ders, i or 2, may be given. As a dressing for the vagina 
use the astringent lotion advocated for vaginitis. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE WOMB Metritis. This disease 
follows parturition, as a result of peculiar conditions, 
state of health, &c., and sometimes in connection with 
protracted cases. There is also a tendency to involve the 
lining membrane of the abdomen, the peritoneum when 
is given to it the name metro-peritonitis. The distin- 
guishing peculiarity is the great tendency which exists 
to contract septic or putrid conditions of the blood. 
Fatal terminations are, therefore, common. 

The disease is developed at variable periods ; late 
attacks, as a rule, are more favourable for recovery. It 
commences with rigors, unequal surface heat, swollen 
genitals, small, hard, and frequent pulse, with increase of 
respiration and animal temperature; the lacteal and 
other secretions are diminished, the udder becoming 
small and flaccid, membranes injected, mouth hot and 
dry, or covered with a viscid slime. Colicky pains come 
on, sometimes attended with lameness, when the animal 
refuses to lie, but she stands with arched back, fixed legs, 
refusing to be moved. The genitals are now intensely 

Diseases of the Organs of Generation. 221 

hot and greatly swollen, and a more or less thick, grumous, 
coloured, and offensive fluid flows from the vagina. 
Ulcers have also formed, and a croupous exudate covers 
the surface. When peritonitis is present, the abdomen 
enlarges from internal effusion of serum, the symptoms 
are more intense, and death follows in three to six 
days, usually by coma or convulsions. Recovery in some 
instances is marvellously rapid. The animal is apparently 
in approaching dissolution and an utterly hopeless con- 
dition, being left to die. A few hours later she is found 
bright and cheerful ; death has been disappointed of his 
victim, and the first stage towards recovery is thus accom- 
plished. The most careful treatment is needed, otherwise 
the state may soon become critical and quickly fatal. 
The disease is also liable to assume chronic states, and 
the uterus is filled with fluid which escapes when the 
sufferer lies down, during the passage of faeces, or in 
straining during colic. In this stage the system suffers 
acutely from weakness, loss of condition, or unusual ner- 
vous excitement, and the end is caused by pyaemia being 

Treatment must be prompt and decisive at the outset. 
Administer a brisk aperient, No. 2 or 3. Time will be 
gained by using the following : Solution of aloes, 6 to 10 
oz. ; tincture of aconite, 5 to 1 5 drops ; aromatic spirits 
of ammonia, i oz. in cold water, i pint. When blood- 
poisoning is present, omit the aromatic spirits of ammonia. 
Wash out the vagina with warm water, to which "Sanitas" 
oil is added, and frequently inject the same afterwards. 
The operator will require to exercise care against infec- 
tion if he have raw surfaces, &c., on his hands. When 
the bowels have responded, give hyposulphites of soda or 
potash with aromatic spirits of ammonia, and when the 
state of the pulse and temperature will admit, give mineral 
tonics, No. i or 2. 

In chronic states evacuate the uterus by means of a 
tube attached to Reid's pump ; promote contraction by 
ergot of rye and stimulants ; later, give mineral tonics as 
above advised. 

Prevention. Remove all healthy animals from the 

222 Diseases of the Eyes and their Appendages 

building, and house them at a distance. Appoint one 
man to attend upon the sick, who must not go near any 
other. His clothes should be regularly disinfected, if 
possible, by being washed in water containing soap and 
" Sanitas " oil. The latter should be also freely used 
about the patient and the building. Those who have 
assisted at the delivery of the mare must also disinfect 
themselves, and all instruments, ropes, &c., are to come 
in for a share in the purifying process. Bury deeply 
all the discharges, membranes, dead offspring, carcass 
of the mother, &c. ; but the only safe practice is to burn 

For details of procedure during parturition in the mare, 
see the Author's larger treatise, " Every Man his own 
Horse Doctor," pp. 445 to 520. 



Conjunctivitis Specific Ophthalmia Cataract Staphyloma Glaucoma 
Amaurosis Strabismus, or Squinting Ectropium Entropium Lacera- 
tion of the Eyelids Warts Fungus H?ematodes. 

CONJUNCTIVITIS Simple Ophthalmia. This is the 
medical term denoting inflammation of the investing 
membrane of the eyeball, resulting usually from blows, 
effects of cold, intrusion of grit, oatfliers, &c., &c., and 
attended with constitutional disturbance. Injuries gener- 
ally affect one eye, but cold may seize both. The eyelids 
are closed, tears ooze from between them, and the animal 
resists an examination. The eye when seen presents a 
bluish -grey colour diffused over the surface, and this 
effectually obstructs vision. The membrane lining the 

Diseases of the Eyes and their Appendages. 223 

lids, as well as its extension over the white of the eye, is 
also inflamed. At a later stage the tears give way to a 
purulent discharge, and ulceration and even blindness 
may ensue. 

Treatment. Remove foreign bodies ; place the animal 
in a dark stable with proper admission of air ; bathe the 
eye with cold water for one or two hours, and cover with 
light cloth fixed to the headstall, which is to be con- 
tinuously saturated with an astringent lotion, No. i or 2 ; 
remove constipation by mild aperients, Nos. i or 2, 
and follow daily with febrifuges, Nos. i, 2, or drench 
No. 3, with a few drops of aconite. Belladonna to the 
eyebrows, &c., for removing adhesions, and remaining 
opacity may be treated with a weak solution of nitrate of 
silver, after all acute symptoms are abated. Subcutaneous 
Injections, No. 2. 

SPECIFIC OPHTHALMIA. This is inflammation of the 
deeper- seated structures, liable to recur, and eventually 
destroy the sight. One eye only, as a rule, is affected, 
the attack coming on during the night, leaving the eye 
dull and turbid as seen through the pupil. The blood 
vessels are injected, the eye is painful and unable to bear 
the light, the system is greatly disturbed, and the animal 
suffers in proportion from general interference with all 
the functions. In a few days the disease suddenly dis- 
appears but it shortly recurs, and by each attack the 
organ is injured, when finally pus forms in the interior, or 
the sufferer becomes stone blind from interstitial deposits 
of inflammatory exudation. 

Treatment. As simple ophthalmia. When these affec- 
tions accompany an outbreak of influenza, the disease is 
intractable, and treatment unsatisfactory. 

CATARACT is caused by inflammatory deposit on the 
surface of the crystalline lens, sometimes amounting only 
to a small speck, or extending in others to the whole 
surface, when blindness is the result. 

STAPHYLOMA is the result of repeated attacks of 
ophthalmia, associated with debilitating tendency, during 
which the front portion of the eyeball suffers from ulcera- 
tion of one of its layers. Thus weakness is induced, and 

224 Diseases of the Eyes and their Appendages. 

the contents press the membrane outwards, forming a 
grape-like tumour, associated with blindness. 

Treatment for ophthalmia should be early and so pre- 
vent this undesirable result. In con- 
firmed cases, astringents i or 2. 

GLAUCOMA. Disease of the vitre- 
ous humour, causing intermingling of 
the fluid, sometimes passing into a 
state of semi-coagulation, or par- 
tially calcareous, partly cartilaginous 
states, causing perfect blindness. 
Treatment is of no avail. 
AMAUROSIS. This is commonly 
known as Gutta-serena or Glass Eye. 
_ ___ In one form it appears as an ac- 

yioma or Bulging companiment of brain disturbance 
the Cornea. arising from sympathy with the diges- 

tive organs when affected by poisons, 
or usual disease. It is also the result of disease of the 
optic nerve. The first may recover; the latter never. 
The eye has a staring appearance from extreme dilatation, 
and is motionless. The pupil has a background which 
reflects light powerfully, resembling crystal, and blindness 
is evident from the liability of the animal to run against 
objects in his way, as well as by the high-stepping and 
feeling kind of action. Sometimes only one eye is 
diseased. It often follows specific ophthalmia, and, like 
it, is incurable. 

STRABISMUS, or Squinting, is symptomatic of brain 
disturbance, and is usually removed by such treatment as 
successfully overcomes that state. 


These are confined to the eyelids and eyebrows, &c. 

ECTROPIUM, Emersion of the Eyelids. The lining 
membrane is exposed in a series of bulging folds, the 
result of swelling from compression. It is rare, but 
proves troublesome, and calls for a surgical operation 
when simple means have failed. 

ENTROPIUM is the opposite of Ectropium. The edge 

Diseases of the Eyes and their Appendages. 225 

of the eyelids press upon the eyeballs and occasion much 
irritation and inflammation by movement. 

Treatment is by a surgical operation, in which a portion 
is removed from the upper part of the eyelid. Extreme 
care is afterward needed to prevent the animal doing 
injury by rubbing the affected parts. 

LACERATION OF THE EYELIDS calls for immediate and 
careful attention, or complete union is impossible. Recent 
wounds may be closed by any of the usual sutures, fol- 
lowed by appropriate dressings. Fatal terminations are 
not uncommon, from the setting in of erysipelatous 

WARTS occasionally are present on the eyelids or upon 
the eyebrows, and, when pedunculated, are easily re- 
moved by ligature ; but, when diffused, present no little 
difficulty. They appear to be asso- 
ciated with some peculiarity of consti- 
tution, and disappear when changes 
in the system take place. 

gus, consists of a dark-coloured, irre- 
gular, and repulsive-looking tumour, 
protruding from the orbit, growing 
with remarkable rapidity, and displac- 
ing the eyeball entirely. The surround- 
ing bones are sometimes involved, and 
death eventually arises from blood- 
poisoning or hectic. 

Treatment consists of complete ex- 
tirpation, which is a formidable operation, and not always 
successful. Fortunately for the horse, in him the disease 
is rare. 

Fungus Haematodes. 


226 Diseases of the Nervous System. 


Inflammation of the Brain and its Coverings Inflammation of the Substance 
of the Brain Epilepsy Chorea Shivering Softening of the Brain 
Cerebral Apoplexy Paralysis Acute Paralysis Tetanus, or Locked 
Jaw Rabies Hysteria. 

PHRENITIS Inflammation of the Brain audits Coverings. 
In consequence of the disease assuming two distinct 
characters, these have, by some, been erroneously con- 
sidered as distinct diseases. The first, being marked by 
stupor, slow and stertorous breathing, slow and tardy 
pulse, with a tendency to thrust his head against some 
stationary object, &c., it has been termed the sleepy stage. 
The second is marked by excitement, unequal tempera- 
ture, varying from extreme coldness to profuse perspira- 
tion, injected membranes, muscular twitchings, rearing 
up, hanging back, striking at the rack or manger with 
the forefeet, staring eyes, hard and wiry pulse, tetanic 
convulsions, &c., followed by great debility, blindness, 
and eventually quiescence, with paralysis of the eyelids, 
lips, or tongue. Such excitement is known as mad 
staggers. These attacks may alternate, but at length the 
creature sinks and dies in confirmed coma. 

In some seasons the disease prevails as an enzootic, 
particularly in Scotland, usually traced to the effects of 
rye grass, particularly the Lolium temulentum, or sturdy, 

Treatment. Copious blood-letting when the pulse is 
full and strong ; in any other stage it is injurious. Next 
administer aperient No. 3, to which, for a large and 
powerful dray-horse, 5 drops of croton oil may be added. 
Allow plenty of drinking water, apply wet rags to the 
head, kept constantly saturated with evaporating lotions ; 
diligently use enemas to expedite the purgative; keep 
the animal perfectly quiet, and, when the attacks of 
excitement threaten, inject atropine beneath the skin. 
Bromide of potassium, with strychnine alternately, will be 

Diseases of the Nervous System. 227 

required as internal remedies at a later stage, when good 
progress is made. The feeding for some time must be 
conducted with the greatest care to prevent a return of 
the disease. 

or Cerebritis, is usually associated with strangles and sup- 
purative catarrh, and seldom accurately made out ; the 
end being paralysis, the result of abscess. Under these 
circumstances, treatment is of no avail. 

EPILEPSY. The exact causes of this affection are not 
the same in all cases. Sometimes it depends upon evident 
disease of the brain substance, in others there are no 
evidences of such, when it is thought there may be some 
remote interference with the flow of blood to the brain, 
which is the foundation of degeneration of nerve or 
cerebral tissue. The affection is known by suddenness 
of attack. A horse in apparent health while walking or 
standing suddenly shakes his head, throwing it upward 
and backward, and falls insensible in a state of tetanic 
convulsions, during which the urine and faeces are voided 
involuntarily. Usually strabismus, or squinting, is present. 
Partial sweats occur, the pulse is frequent and hard, and 
the breathing becomes stertorous. The recovery from 
the attack is usually speedy. 

Treatment. If worms are present use turpentine with 
linseed oil, and follow with mineral tonics. Pay atten- 
tion to the teeth in young animals, or lance the gums to 
hasten dentition. Use extract of belladonna or hyos- 
cyamus with nitrate of potash, if any irritation of the 
brain or spinal medulla is suspected. A moderate pur- 
gative is always beneficial, followed at the right time by 
mineral and vegetable tonics. 

CHOREA. The equine form of this disease is known 
as stringhalt, characterised by a rapid elevation of one of 
the hind limbs in progression, &c., the fetlock sometimes 
actually touching the abdomen. This abnormal action 
is, however, variable under differing circumstances, and 
occasionally the disease is attended with twitchings of 
the muscles of the face, neck, and fore-limbs. Two other 
forms of chorea are also common to the horse. One is 

228 Diseases of the Nervous System. 

known as coma somnolentum, or sleepy staggers. It is the 
immobility of French veterinarians. The disease com- 
mences by dulness and listlessness, and the animal 
suddenly sleeps while eating his food : the breathing is 
slow and heavy, and the pulse is full, but rarely numbers 
more than twenty-four beats in the minute. At a later 
stage he is acutely sensitive to noises, suddenly falling on 
his knees at the crack of a whip, &c. He loses the con- 
trol of the limbs, which are thrown awkwardly about or 
lock with each other ; at other times they are wide apart 
and become fixed. The loins appear to be weak, and 
allow the hind parts to swing from side to side. Such 
animals are described by roguish dealers, as " jerked " or 
"kinked in the back," and "kidney-droppers." The 
probable cause is degeneration of nerve tissue. 

Shivering, another form of chorea, is indicated by a fit 
of severe trembling or shivering as the result of fright, ill- 
usage, &c. The animal suddenly goes backwards, the 
legs are widely separated, the hocks nearly touch the 
ground, and the fore-limbs are stretched in front of the 
body. The head is held upwards, eyeballs retracted, as 
in tetanus, the lips, neck, and tail are convulsed. The 
cause appears to be due to the presence of tunlours, one 
or more of whk:h may be found within the ventricles of 
the brain. Subcutaneous Injections, No. 4. 

SOFTENING OF THE BRAIN is usually indicated by loss 
of power in the muscles of the head and face, accom- 
panied with more or less difficulty in breathing. When 
one hemisphere only is affected the paralysis is confined 
to one side of the head and face ; if both suffer, then 
both sides of head and face, with the neck, and probably 
some part of the body are also paralysed. Death usually 
follows an attack of convulsions. A ravenous appetite 
often exists during the later stages, and probably an 
enlarged heart may be suspected during life, being asso- 
ciated with valvular insufficiency, causing dropsical states 
of the legs, sheath, abdomen, &c. There is no known 

CEREBRAL APOPLEXY. This disease is probably due 
to some occult form of degeneration of brain tissue, pro- 

Diseases fff the Nervous System. 229 

bably also of the nutrient vessels, in which any sudden 
pressure from determination of blood disarranges the 
functions of the sensorium, or, as in many fatal cases, 
rupture occurs, followed by extravasation. Usually the 
disease appears without warning, but sometimes it may 
be preceded by dullness and want of co-ordinate power. 
In sudden attacks the animal falls helpless, insensible, 
and paralysed. The only signs of life are those of respi- 
ration and circulation, the former being stertorous, and 
the eyes are wide open and staring. Urine and faeces 
pass involuntarily, and the legs are mobile, the muscular 
system being flaccid. Sometimes consciousness is partly 
retained, when the animal injures himself in convulsions, 
during which the head is drawn backwards, and the 
croup forwards and upwards. These attacks of quies- 
cence and convulsions alternate until death closes the 

Treatment is usually hopeless. Bleeding only during 
the comatose state. Strong aperient, No. 3, with enemas ; 
strong embrocations to the spine ; internally, belladonna 
during brain congestion, afterwards strychnine. Re- 
covery is generally little more than partial and delusive. 


PARALYSIS. We have already noticed this disease as 
it occurs in connection with, and as a symptom of, other 
affections. It remains to consider it as dependent upon 
some lesion of the spinal cord or the nerves which 
originate in it. Loss of power is the distinguishing sign, 
having its origin in disease or injury of the cord, and 
when such extends to both sides it is known 'as paraplegia; 
if one side only is affected it is then spoken of as hemi- 
plegia. Loss of power in isolated parts, also in a series 
or number of members would be understood by the term 

ACUTE PARALYSIS, or Spinal Meningitis^ is denoted 
sometimes by gradually developed paralysis ; in other 
instances it is preceded by cramps, spasms, and convul- 
sions, and it may come on suddenly, when fracture or 
displacement of one or more segments of the vertebrae is 

230 Diseases of the Nervous System. 

suspected. The presence of acute fever, constipation. 
&c., will, however, lead to the opposite conclusion. 
There may be paralysis, more or less, of the ears, eyelids, 
or lips, or the members on one side of the face only are 
slightly affected. When the disease attacks the medulla 
oblongata, that portion of the spinal cord which issues 
from the brain, the breathing becomes stertorous or 
snoring, and probably the eyes are staring. Uneasiness 
prevails ; the animal often moves in a circle, indicating 
great want of controlling power, with the tendency to fall. 
Portions of the skin are already quite insensible, and the 
loss of feeling is rapidly extending to other parts. In a 
few hours the power of standing is lost, and he falls, the 
remaining hours or days of life to be spent in continued 
struggles, in which violent injuries are inflicted. 

Treatment is rarely of use when the animal has fallen 
to the ground. Slinging is then more likely to do harm 
than good, as congestion of the lungs speedily develops. 
When the case is seen in the early stages of acute fever, 
bloodletting may be practised under great caution. 
Aperients, febrifuges, i, 2, or 3, belladonna or hyos- 
cyamus, should be used to calm the irritation of the 
spinal cord and membranes ; followed by bromide of 
potassium, nitrate of potash, &c., and later by gentian. 
Draw off the urine regularly by the catheter ; promote 
warmth by clothing and a good bed, turning frequently 
to prevent injury to the skin. Use enemas to empty the 
rectum, and let the food be nutritious and of easy 

TETANUS, or Locked Jaw, cpnsists of violent spasm or 
cramp of the muscular system, sometimes due to previous 
operations or injuries, and at others indicating no par- 
ticular cause. The whole body may be implicated in the 
spasm, but the most remarkable signs are fixing of the 
jaws, rendering mastication impossible, and drawing of 
the eye backwards in the orbit, which has the effect ot 
protruding the " haw," or membrana nictitatis. Twitch- 
ings are seen over various muscles, the head is elevated, 
and the nose protruded ; the tail is also raised and con- 
stantly quivers, and the anus is compressed and smaller 

Diseases of the Nervous System. 231 

than usual. The pulse is frequent, hard, and small, and 
respiration is accelerated. The animal swallows with 
difficulty, and when the lips are separated, saliva flows 
freely from the mouth. Obstinate constipation exists 
from the first. Perfect quiescence soothes and calms the 
sufferer, but he is acutely sensitive to the slightest noises, 
which prove a barrier to recovery. 

Treatment. Perfect rest and freedom from annoyance 
of all kinds must be secured ; allow plenty of nutritious 
drinks, free ventilation, comfortable clothing, &c. If the 
jaws will admit, give a strong aperient No. 3, combined 
with belladonna, hyoscyamus, &c. Poultice or foment 
existing wounds, and remove dead or dying tissue, using 
one of the sedative extracts already named for medicat- 
ing the application. Inject beneath the skin, also within 
the rectum alternately, prussic acid^ atropine, amyl-nitrate, 
&c., or use the above-named extracts as electuaries. 
Subcutaneous Injections, Nos. 3 and 4. 

RABIES is the result of inoculation from bites by dogs 
or cats already suffering from the disease. It is denoted 
in some animals by unusual excitement, perspiration, 
frantic pawing and stamping with the feet, and violent 
attacks with the teeth. The sexual feelings are power- 
fully developed in entire animals. Floating objects, as 
paper, &c., occasion great alarm ; the pupils are dilated, 
the vision is impaired, and amaurosis follows. Cramps 
and convulsions appear in paroxysms, and the creature 
savagely gnaws the original wound. Swallowing is inter- 
fered with, paralysis comes on, and he dies from exhaus- 
tion. Other cases are remarkable for the absence of 
frenzy ; the animal does little else than bite the original 
wound, he lapses into a comatose condition, and falling 
paralysed, sinks, and dies. 

Treatment is of no avail. 

HYSTERIA is the development of unusual excitement in 
mares at or about the period of oestrum. It is attended 
by violent spasms, the hind-legs being drawn so rigidly 
that the toes only rest upon the ground. Highly nervous 
animals will kick, bite, and rear, discharging a quantity 
of fluid from the vagina, and are quite unmanageable, 

232 Diseases of tfie Skin. 

violent, and dangerous, when touched, or the harness is 
laid upon them. The attacks usually end gradually, but 
they are quickly developed when approached by human 
beings or animals of the same species. Access to the 
male often effectually reduces the excitement, which, 
however, returns at the first period of oestrum after the 
foal is born. Some affected animals will not breed, are 
nothing less than a common nuisance, and always a 
source of danger. Subcutaneous Injections, No. 3. 



Erythema Erysipelas Nettle-rash Prurigo Eczema, Simple and Chronic 
Mallanders and Sallanders Herpes Phlyctenoides Herpes Circinatus 
Impetigo Pustular Erysipelas, or Grease Boils, or Carbuncles 

ERYTHEMA, or Exanthema, is an acute form of inflam- 
mation of the skin corium, the result of local irritation. 
The attendant redness is seen to advantage only in white 
animals, and those having thin skin. Pressure dissipates 
the colour, which returns when the skin is relieved. 
Swelling may be detected by passing the flat hand over 
from the healthy to the diseased surfaces ; the hair on 
the latter becomes erect, a gelatinous fluid exudes, small 
vesicles form, the hair is matted, and if the disease con- 
tinues the discharge becomes purulent, and is succeeded 
by ulceration with sloughing, when the states are aggra- 
vated. Recovery is denoted by drying, peeling of scales, 
the skin beneath gradually assuming the original condi- 
tion. The causes are chafing or friction by harness, or 
one part of the skin upon another, as seen in obese 
animals ; blows, when the swelling takes the form of 
weals resembling the instrument by which they were in- 
flictedj wounds in clipping; discharges flowing from 

Diseases of the Skin. 233 

wounds, &c. "Mud fever," so called is a common 
form. , 

When unequal pressure arises from badly fitting collars 
or harness, the skin becomes hot, swollen, and tender, 
probably ending in an abscess, or the skin assumes a 
loose, flabby, and leathery appearance, standing out like 
bags, and filled with a gelatinous fluid. This form is 
known as Erythema paratrimma. 

The disease in both its kinds is liable to become chronic, 
especially about the legs, when washing is pursued in a 
careless manner, and neglect follows. 

Treatment. Remove the cause. Hot fomentations, 
poultices in the aggravated stages. Febrile states must 
be met by febrifuges, or even bloodletting. Cold water 
or evaporating lotions in simple cases. Glycerine with 
laudanum, solution of lead, &c., is useful ; oil also serves 
to mitigate friction, but rest is essential to perfect cure. 

ERYSIPELAS is inflammation of the true skin, some- 
times extending to the cellular tissue beneath. The 
causes are wounds and injuries. In a few days the 
affected part swells, is hot, tense, sensitive, and shining, 
the mischief spreading and often involving whole parts or 
limbs, and when pressure is applied an impress of the 
finger is left. Sometimes a crop of vesicles appear, fol- 
lowed by decline, when drying and peeling of the cuticle 
takes place. When a limb is affected, constitutional dis- 
turbance is severe. 

A more severe form known as Phlegmonous erysipelas 
is attended with violent rigors and severe constitutional 
disturbance, often involving subjacent tissues as well as 
the cellular tissue over a large space, taking on pustular 
formation, and even penetrating joints, &c. Those 
animals in poor condition often contract glanders. 

Treatment. Aperients and enemas to remove consti- 
pation.. Febrifuges for the removal of active fever ; hot 
fomentations and poultices, using care that the parts are 
not cooled afterwards ; astringent lotion, No. i . When 
debility sets in give tincture of iron with nitrous ether. 
Open abscesses as early as possible and when properly 
matured, otherwise the knife will do positive harm. 

234 Diseases of the Skin. 

NETTLE-RASH, or Urticuria, consists of a number 
of elevations of variable size, accompanied with 
heat and irritation. When the whole body suffers it 
is known as " surfeit." Plethoric animals are attacked 
in hot weather as a result of checked perspiration and 
disordered digestion. Poor animals contract the malady 
when too suddenly supplied ad libitum with rich food. 

Treatment. Aperients and enemas ; febrifuges ; astrin- 
gent lotion, No. i. 

PRURIGO is a form of erythema, in which the inflam- 
mation is succeeded by numerous pimples, giving rise to 
intense irritation ; and in declining the cuticle peels off, 
leaving the parts denuded of hair. It is common to 
pampered and irregularly fed animals, and is liable to 

Treatment as for other forms described. Eemove the 

ECZEMA is seen in two forms, simple and chronic. 
Simple Eczema consists of inflammation of the skin, with 
intolerable itching, rarely attended with febrile disturbance, 
but always with the formation of successive and luxuriant 
crops of vesicles, succeeding each other, moistening the 
skin and hair with their contents, and creating fresh irri- 
tation thereby, giving the animal no rest. He rubs and 
even bites himself violently, and thus removes the hair 
and the vesicles, exposing raw, red, and irritable surfaces. 
Drying and peeling of the cuticle takes place as the 
disease declines. 

Chronic Eczema succeeds the simple form when 
neglected, forming ugly cracks or chasms, discharging an 
ichorous fluid, and the ridges are surmounted by a mass 
of enlarged scales of the epidermis standing in perpen- 
dicular strata, from which the hairs grow, and being 
glued together by the secretion, form long projections 
vulgarly termed " rat-tails." The legs are the parts com- 
monly affected. The disease sometimes succeeds firing 
and blistering, when horses are little cared for. Some- 
times the disease is confined to the back of the knee and 
in front of the hock joint, when it receives the term 
"mallanders " and " sallanders." 

Diseases of the Skin. 235 

Treatment. Open the bowels by aperients ; febrifuges, 
fomentations, and even continued poultices may be re- 
quired, with ointments of lead, zinc, creosote, iodine, 

HERPES. Two forms are common among horses. 
Herpes phlyctenodes consists of erythema attended with 
bladders or vesicles larger than those seen in eczema, 
which locate themselves on the face and lips, also on the 
coronet or ridge above the hoof, and causing irritation. 
The hairs become erect, and are held by the growth of a 
scab, and both falling off together, leave raw, irritable 
surfaces, which generally heal readily, but are liable to 

Herpes cirdnatus, or circular ringworm, known also as 
vesicular or false ringworm, creep- 
ing circle, &c., is a benignant 
form of vesicular erythema, in 
which the bladders agglomerate 
in a constantly widening circle, 
and at the end of a week or ten 
days decline, throwing off brown- 
ish scales, with fading redness of 
the skin. 

Treatment. Astringent lotion, Her P es ci 

No. i, with i oz. of laudanum. 
Febrifuges when needed for febrile excitement. 

IMPETIGO, or Pustular Inflammation of the Skin. It 
is a form of erythema, in which the watery vesicles of the 
preceding kinds are replaced by small pustules beneath 
the epidermis or scarfskin. One form attacks the face 
and lips where the skin is thin, the pustules being speedily 
converted into yellow crusts or scales, beneath which the 
skin is thickened and inflamed. 

Treatment as for the preceding. 

PUSTULAR ERYSIPELAS Impetigo erysipelatodes, or 
Grease, affects the skin of the heels, pastern, and fetlock 
joints at their back parts. The hind legs are most com- 
monly affected. The primary inflammation gives rise to 
considerable swelling and lameness, and shortly an 
exudation of lymph takes place, followed at a later stage 


Diseases of the Skin. 

Confirmed Grease, showing Grapes 
and Fissures. 

by the formation and discharge of pus. The parts next 
lose their pliancy, become hard and rigid. The skin 

cracks, by which deep fis- 
sures are formed, from 
which an offensive dis- 
charge constantly flows ; 
while ulceration goes on 
beneath, fungoid granula- 
tions are luxuriant and plen- 
tiful, forming what are com- 
monly known as " grapes." 
The disease now assumes 
chronic and permanent cha- 
racters, rendering the ani- 
mal not only offensive, but 
dangerous, as none can tell 
how soon the disease may 
terminate in farcy. The 
disease is common to 
coarsely bred horses, but 

poverty, dirt, and improper treatment are known among 
the causes when it appears in animals of higher breed. 

Treatment. Poultices at first ; when the parts are 
thoroughly cleansed, solutions of salts of zinc, copper, &c., 
may be applied several times daily (see "Astringents"). 
The remedies should be used alternately, which is pre- 
ferable to the persistent application of one. The grapes 
should be touched with caustic potash, solid chloride of 
zinc, &c., or they may be shorn off by means of the actual 
cautery, the animal being properly secured. Internal 
remedies are of vital importance. Tonics, No. 2, to 
which 2 drms. each of resin and ground ginger have 
been added, should be given twice daily. Fowler's 
solution of arsenic, in -oz. doses, should be sprinkled 
over the dry manger food twice a day, or put into the 
drinking water. 

BOILS, or Carbuncles. A boil is the result of inflam- 
mation of the deepest layer of the true skin, together with 
the cellular tissue beneath. It is a circumscribed swelling, 
at first of small dimensions, around which inflammation 

Diseases of the Appendages of the Skin. 237 

proceeds, and occasions intense pain. Around this 
accumulates a plastic exudation, and pus is formed. The 
central part then dies, and is thrown out, forming what 
isignorantly termed the "core." 

Treatment. Poultices or fomentations ; general atten- 
tion to diet \ mild aperients, &c. ; to change the charac- 
ter of the blood, followed by stimulants and tonics, and 
probably the use of the knife, with resin ointment exter- 

SITFASTS are horny looking excrescences occupying 
the central part of the long-standing wounds occasioned 
by pressure. 

Treatment consists of dissecting out the mass as the 
safest, quickest, and most effectual method in promoting 
a speedy cure. 



Laminitis Coronitis Sandcrack Thrush Canker Seedy-Toe Kera- 
toraa Corns. 

LAMINITIS Inflammation of the Feet, known also as 
founder, or fever in the feet, as implied in the term, consists 
of an inflamed condition of the sensitive laminae which 
surround the coffin-bone, securing the hoof in position ; 
the sensitive sole is also involved, and occasionally the 
malady extends to the coffin-bone. In slight cases it ter- 
minates by resolution, leaving few traces behind ; but the 
general character of the disease leads to deformity of the 
feet, by interference with the secretion at the coronet, 'as 
well as causing a descent of the coffin-bone and the 
sole, the result of displacement of the latter, with pro- 
bable changes in it also. Convexity of the sole, or 

238 Diseases of the Appendages of the Skin. 

pumice foot, is the state identified with these changes, and 
by which the usefulness of the animal is much impaired. 
Sudden attacks of pneumonia, influenza, superpurgation, 
and stomach engorgement often give way to inflamma- 
tion of the feet. Sometimes the disease is confined to 
two feet only, at others the whole are affected. In the 
first, he throws the weight of 
the body on the sound legs, 
but when all the feet are in- 
flamed the suffering is more 
intense, and the animal often 
goes down. There are signs 
of intense fever with elevation 
of temperature, and he blows 
Descent of the Coffin-Bone. hard. The pain being also 
great, exhaustion follows, and 

he is likely to contract congestion of the lungs, from 
which he shortly dies. 

Treatment. Remove the shoes at the commencement 
of the attack if possible. Blood-letting, to be of service, 
should be practised when the pulse is full and strong ; 
scarify the coronet ; aperients of moderate strength only, 
adding a dose of aconite; warm enemas; pass the 
catheter to test state of bladder, especially if the animal 
is down. If he persists In standing it may be advisable 
to try the slings, being a quiet animal ; if he will lie give 
a thick bed, and restrain excited animals by the hobbles, 
turning frequently. Febrifuge No. 3 drench, adding 
aconite according to circumstances, and as soon as the 
pulse is reduced substitute belladonna, &c., with the 
febrifuges, No. i or 2. Subcutaneous Injections, Nos. 5, 
7, and 8. 

CORONITIS Villitis, or inflammation of the rounded 
band at the top of the hoof, is detected by heat, pain, and 
often marked swelling, gingerly gait, the heels being first 
put to the ground. There is also more or less separation 
from the hoof, which becomes striped, harsh, and brittle 
from diminished secretion. 

Treatment. Remove the shoes, and apply lead lotions; 
astringents, No, i or 2, by means of wet rags placed over 

Diseases of the Appendages of the Skin. 239 

False Quarter. 

the pasterns; febrifuges, i, 2, or drench No. 3. When 
fever and inflammation are removed, put on thin flat 
shoes, turn into a loose-box, supplying a laxative diet, 
and rub in embrocation, No. 3 ; later, No. 4. Dress the 
hoof daily with tar ointment, and forbid the ruinous use 
of the knife and rasp in shoeing.* See Chap. XXIX. 

CARBUNCLE OF THE CORONET. Treat as advised for 
carbuncle, page 236, and stimulate the wounds with 
caustic potash, nitrate of silver, &c. ; astringent lotions. 

FALSE QUARTER consists of alternate ribs and furrows, 
in the quarter of the hoof usually, 
owing to deficient secretion de- 
pending upon injury and destruc- 
tion of the coronet by abscess, 
carbuncle, &c. The hoof is shelly 
and weak, and lameness is often 
of a recurrent nature. 

Treatment. Remove pressure 
from the affected part by judicious 
reduction of the ground surface of the wall, and apply 
a bar shoe, utilising the frog as a weight-bearer. The 
animal should be taken to the farm, or worked on soft 
roads, if possible, as town pavement will greatly diminish 
his usefulness. 

SANDCRACK. This is an open crack or fissure in the 
wall of the hoof, running from the 
top downwards, the result of defect 
in secretion, or severe strain, and 
other causes which interfere with 
hoof formation. Lameness of vari- 
able character is present, sometimes 
accompanied with oozing of blood 
from the crack during motion. 
The accident is aggravated by 
the insinuation of wet, grit, &c. 

Treatment. Reduce local pain by poultices or fomen- 
tations, the shoe being first removed, and combat sys- 

* For information in this department see "The Horse Owner 
and Stableman's Companion." London and New York : F, Warne 
Co. Price is, 


240 Diseases of the Appendages of the Skin. 

temic disturbance by febrifuges. One of the following 
plans may then be adopted, viz. : 

1. Open the crack from top to bottom, and remove 
the horn from each side in contact with the coronet 
for the space of an inch. Put on a bar shoe to re- 
lieve the affected part from pressure, and blister the 

2. Prepare the foot for the bar shoe, then apply the 
heated firing iron across the crack about half an inch 
below the coronet until pain is evinced, and afterwards 
apply a blister. 

3. A nail is driven through the hoof on each side of 
the crack, and their points turned down ; they are after- 
wards united by wire, which is tightened, and thus the 
crack is closed. Another method consists of passing 
wire, &c., from one side of the crack to the other, by 
penetrating the hoof from without. The ends are finally 
brought together and twisted so as to close the crack. 
Some practitioners use an iron clamp made for the pur- 
pose by Messrs. Arnold & Son, of West Smithfield, E.G. 
It is inserted on the outside, and is closed by appropriate 
forceps. Another plan consists of winding strong waxed 
cord round the hoof, the crack being filled with gutta- 
percha or shoemaker's wax. 

THRUSH. Softening of the frog, with the discharge of 
a foetid, inky fluid from the cleft or fissure. It is caused 
by contact with filth used as stopping, or excrement in 
which the animal stands. Paring away the frog in shoe- 
ing, and thus removing it from its natural office as a 
weight bearer, is also a prolific source of thrush. 

Treatment. Give the animal rest, if possible, when the 
case is severe, take off the shoes, lower the heels, thus 
bringing the frogs under pressure. Place the animal in a 
loose box having a dry floor, during the day. Pack the 
fissure daily with a small quantity of tow moistened with 
hydrochloric acid and water, equal parts of each, and 
afterwards charged with some of the following powder : 
oxide of zinc, i drm. ; calomel, 2 drms. When the frog 
is so far shrivelled at the time the animal returns to work, 
put on a bar shoe with a fixed pad of leather to supply 

Diseases of the Appendages of the Skin. 2 4 1 

temporary pressure, until the frog becomes sound and 
larger by growth. 

CANKER. This disease is the result of neglect and 
constant application of filth to the feet, favoured, doubt- 
less, by deteriorated system or coarseness of breed. 
Disintegration of horn substance by a septic condition, 
which eventually involves the soft tissues and bones be- 
neath, appears to be the real nature of the complaint. 
The hoof is first softened by saturation with fluid, and 
becomes spongy, eventually taking the appearance of a 
fungus partially horn and flesh, which bleeds copiously 
on the least provocation, and emits a strong effluvia of 
sulphuretted hydrogen. It occurs in one or more feet 
at the same time. 

Treatment. Mild cases only are amenable to treat- 
ment ; in others, the constitution is tainted, and cure is 
impossible under any system of treatment. Dry packing 
by tow, so as to induce pressure, has proved as success- 
ful as most plans. Caustic dressings have been used ad 
libitum with only questionable success. Laxatives, 
diuretics, and tonics are needed during the existence of 
the disease. 

KERATOMA ; Horn Tumours. As a result of pressure 
from nails in shoeing, tight clips, 
&c., irritation is induced, and the 
result is the formation of a horn 
tumour at the spot, being a diseased 
growth of the hoof upon the inner 

The remedy is common-sense Horn Tumours in the Foot, 
shoeing. Promote the growth of 
horn to provide a needful defence ; use fine nails ; fit 
the shoe to the hoof, hammer clips lightly, as well as the 
foot, remembering that it is made up of highly sensitive 
structures in addition to insensible horn. 

SEEDY TOE. This consists of a separation of the 
horny wall from the horny laminae, being widest at the 
junction of the sole with the wall, and filled with a 
grey powder, the result of disintegration of the hoof. 
Although the term fixes the complaint at the front of the 


242 Diseases of the Appendages of the Skin. 

Seedy Toe. 

hoof, the disease is really not confined to that part The 
pressure from clips or inequalities causing strain are 

the chief factors, and should be 


Treatment. Remove pressure ; 

promote the growth of strong, 

sound horn, and proceed as directed 

for Keratoma. 

CORNS. These are red, fleshy 

looking spots, situate in the horny 

sole at the angles of the inner 
heels, the result of bruising of the sensitive sole beneath. 
They are mostly confined to the fore feet, and the prolific 
source is paring away the hoof fitting it to the shoe. 
Slight cases are dispersed, but 
long standing irritation involves 
other structures, the coffin-bone 
especially, and intractable lameness 

Treatment. Remove the shoes 
and apply poultices ; febrifuges to 
allay fever; evacuate pus when 
formed ; turn the animal barefoot 
upon a dry, hard floor ; blisters to 
the coronet at intervals to promote 
the growth of sound horn in weak 
feet ; put on a bar shoe, using the 
frog as a weight bearer ; discard 
the filthy practice of " stopping " with manure, avoiding 
moisture from all sources as much as possible in the 
stable, and promote the growth of strong, sound horn 
Nature's best protection. 

Disease of the Coffin- Bone 
as a result of Corns. 

Parasitic Diseases of the Skin. 243 


Animal Parasites : Scabies, or Mange Poultry Lousiness licks and Mag- 
gots. Vegetable Parasites : Favus Tinea Tonsurans, or True Ring- 

SCABIES, or Mange, is the common form of mange in 
horses, and is due to the presence of animal parasites 
which burrow beneath the epidermis in search of sub- 
sistence as well as a nidus. Great irritation results, espe- 
cially at night, from which sensitive animals become 
almost frantic. The skin exhibits unusual scaliness, the 
hair is removed, and the epidermis is elevated and de- 
tached. The presence of the parasite and transmission 
of the disease to other animals determine the case. 

Treatment. Remove the healthy animals at once to a 
distance and to other buildings. Purify the clothing, 
harness, &c., which has been in use for those diseased, 
and cleanse the mangers, stalls, floors, walls, &c., as soon 
as possible. For this purpose few remedies are superior 
to " Sanitas " oil in cold water, soap being also used. 
For the animal, sulphur ointment answers well as a mild 
and soothing remedy. It should be well rubbed into the 
affected parts for two or three days, and afterwards may 
be washed off with water containing " Sanitas " oil and 
soap. If necessary, apply the ointment again when the 
hair is dry. 

LICE. These do not burrow, yet they create great 
irritation. Old and debilitated animals are the common 

Treatment. Proceed as in mange, or substitute for the 
sulphur ointment a decoction of Stavesacre seeds, using 
i oz. of the seeds to each pint of boiling water, and apply 
when cool by means of a brush ; after which tie up the 
animal's head until the parts are dry. Allow good food, 
and administer tonics internally. 

244 Parasitic Diseases of the Skin. 

POULTRY LOUSINESS; Phthiriasis Equi. This form 
of disease is due to the ravages of a species of mite der- 
manyssus avium, common to the ordinary fowl, as well as 
caged birds, as a result of stabling horses with fowls 
beneath the same roof. The attack is sudden, exciting 
the animal to acts of violence ; it also continues for hours, 
and at night the irritation is even more severe, when the 
animal tears his skin with his teeth. Separate vesicles 
appear close together, and shortly agglomerate, covering 
a large surface, succeeded by peeling of the cuticle 
along with the hair, leaving bare patches varying in size 
from that of a pea to half an inch. If the disease is not 
arrested the entire skin will be disfigured and deprived of 
hair. The constitution does not suffer greatly, unless 
the attack is continued, when condition and power are 

Treatment. Remove the affected animals to tem- 
porary quarters, and dress with the Stavesacre solution 
advised for lice. Take away the fowls to a distance. 
Thoroughly cleanse the stable, first by fumigation with 
burning sulphur, washing afterwards with solutions 
of " Sanitas," then by whitewashing. Throw the place 
open for a week before the horses are taken back 
again . 

TICKS AND MAGGOTS. Ticks have the power of im- 
bedding themselves in the skin, and annoy the horse 
exceedingly. The best way of defeating them is by 
dividing the body across by scissors ; " Sanitas" oil, one 
part to six of olive oil, dropped upon them kills them at 

Maggots numerously congregate in open wounds in hot 
weather. Use one part of oil of turpentine to four of 
olive oil; or the " Sanitas " mixture just referred to. 

Two varieties of Vegetable Parasites are observed 
among horses, viz. : 

FAVUS, or Honeycomb Ringworm, is a cryptogamous 
fungus attacking the hair at its root, causing an eruption 
and irritation, subsequently drying up, leaving a yellow 
circular crust or scab, which ultimately reduces to a state 

Parasitic Diseases of the Skin. 


of powder, and emits a smell of mice. It is rare among 

Treatment. Iodine ointment applied several times 
usually effects a cure. 

The disease is common among mice, from whom cats 
receive it and convey it to horses. 

TINEA TONSURANS ; True Ringworm. This is the 
familiar form of parasitic fungus among horses. It is 
also a disease of the hair bulbs and follicles. A circular 
patch is formed, which 
by enlargement invades 
a wider extent of sur- 
face. The hair on the 
edge of the patch breaks 
off short, and a crust of 
fungus is formed, which 
ultimately breaks down 
in a bran powder. There 
are no vesicles as in 
Herpes cirdnatus false 
ringworm, which, on the 
other hand, has no scurf 
or scales. The fungus 
of true ringworm may 

be transferred to mankind and the ox tribe by contagion. 
The face, neck, back, and quarters are the parts most 
affected in horses. 

Treatment. Soften the crusts by means of lard, gly- 
cerine, or warm water, when they may be removed. The 
remedy afterwards is one of the following : Iodine oint- 
ment, the mineral acids diluted, perchloride of iron, &c. 
"Sanitas" oil as a disinfectant should be used for 
cleansing the clothing, harness, and building, and may 
be applied to the diseased patches alternately with the 
above-named remedies. 

Herpes Tonsurans, or True Ringworm. 

246 Local Injuries. 


Wounds Bruises Poll Evil Fistula of the Withers Speedy-cut Quittor 
Broken Knees Wounds of Arteries and Veins. 

THE affections due to injuries in the horse form an 
unusually extended list, and, to do them justice, volumes 
might be written upon each department. Some attempt 
has been made to deal with them somewhat extensively 
in a much larger work,* to which the reader is referred 
for more copious description. 

WOUNDS OF THE FLESH. Of these, four different 
kinds are recognised, viz., incised, lacerated, contused, and 

Incised wounds are produced by some cutting instru- 
ment, by which the skin, &c., is evenly divided and 
without loss of substance. Profuse haemorrhage is not 
an uncommon accompaniment, as bloodvessels are likely 
to be opened. Simple wounds are closed by sutures, 
such as pins, which are passed from the lip on one side 
to the other, and secured by soft twine ; by strong thread 
used in a needle, making stitches as in ordinary sewing, 
finally securing the thread to prevent it being drawn out. 
The usual dressings are astringents, as Nos. i and 2. 
Febrifuges when fever calls for them. 

Lacerated wounds are caused by tearing, as when hooks, 
nails, the horns of cattle, &c., enter the skin, the edges 
being ragged and uneven. Such wounds inflicted in the 
abdominal walls produce permanent ventral hernia, or, 
when the skin is divided, the contents are allowed to 
escape, when fatal results follow. Such wounds are often 
devoid of vitality, and subsequent sloughing is not un- 
common, which retards recovery. 

* "Every Man his own Horse Doctor." London and New York : 
Frederick Warne & Co. 868 pp. and upwards of 300 illustrations. 
Price 2is. 

Local Injuries. 247 

Treatment. By sutures in the sound parts, or many- 
tailed bandage, after all foreign bodies are removed. 
Dressing as for preceding kind ; also febrifuges if 

Contused wounds are the result of severe blows, falls, 
&c., by which great damage is done to the soft parts. 

Treatment consists of incessant fomentations as de- 
scribed at page 167, followed by liniments of camphor, 
turpentine, or ammonia, to recover vascular action. 
Scarification also may be called for. 

Punctured wounds also form a dangerous, as well as 
tedious class, as none can tell with accuracy how far the 
instrument has penetrated, or what deeper seated tissues 
are involved. The most severe fever is to be expected. 
In shoeing we have examples of this class, modified by 
circumstances. In one instance the nail is driven through 
a portion of the sensitive structures where it remains 
until acute lameness or suppuration is established. In 
another, the sensitive parts are wounded but the nail is 
withdrawn, when dirt and moisture enter and set up 
irritation. Gathered nails, picked up on the road, are 
found embedded in the frog or one of the commissures, 
sometimes penetrating the joint within and terminating 
fatally. The usual method of testing foot lameness is by 
exerting pressure with the pincers or tapping the foot 
with the hammer. 

Treatment. Remove the offending instrument or 
foreign bodies at once when present. Flesh wounds may 
require incision, and healing fluids must be injected by 
means of a syringe. When joints are punctured, the 
orifice being small, it may usually be closed by slight 
touches with the actual cautery or budding iron, giving 
the animal perfect rest with fixing of the joint. In punc- 
tures of the feet the shoe must be removed, the offending 
nail being withdrawn at the same time. Having dis- 
covered the spot, the hole is to be carefully widened by 
the small knife called the " searcher," in order to evacuate 
any pus which may have formed or burrowed, together 
with all dead horn. Cover with a hot poultice frequently 
renewed until pain is removed. Apply tincture of myrrh 

248 Local Injuries. 

as a healing fluid, and when the shoe can be borne put a 
movable leather sole beneath to keep out dirt, &c. In 
dry weather, simple removal of the nail in recent cases is 
mostly sufficient, especially at the time the injury has 
been inflicted. 

Puncture of the Coffin Joint is often a serious matter. 
Lameness is extreme, especially as synovia flows con- 
siderably. The remedy is the hot iron to seal up the 
orifice. The fever attendant upon punctured wounds is 
often of a severe character, when the febrifuges drench 
No. 3 may be called for every three or four hours. 

Poll Evil. This, with the following, are instances 
of bruising with abscess. 
Horses passing through low 
doorways, and housed in 
low buildings, strike the top 
of the head, and the result 
is stiffness, poking the nose 
forward, swelling of the poll, 
stiffness preceding abscess in fear of being handled, and 
Poll Evil, eventually, formation and 

bursting of an abscess. 

Treatment. In the early stages, when little pain, &c., 
is present, the swelling may be dissipated by cooling 
means, purgatives, &c., followed by iodine ointment. 
When pus is formed evacuate at once, the animal being 
cast for the purpose, the wound being kept clean and 
healing promoted by applications of " Sanitas," astrin- 
gents, &c. In old standing cases bones and ligaments 
are often seriously involved, the animal being found dead 
from implication of the spinal cord or brain. 

Fistula of the Withers arises from ill-fitting saddles, 
falls, bruises, &c., in rolling on the ground, and disease 
of the bones attends long standing cases. Deep-seated 
abscess first occurs, and the passage leading to it has a 
thick fibrous lining which prevents closure by healing. 

Treatment as for Poll Evil in the early stages. In 
fistula, free incisions, caustic injections, Nos. 6, 7, 8, or 
9. Diseased bone needs removal, for which the vete- 
rinary surgeon is indispensable. Hypertrophy of the 

Local Injuries. 249 

cellular tissue also produces great deformity in coarse 
bred animals. 

Speedy Cut is the term used to denote a bruise on the 
inner side of the leg, or otherwise above or below the 
knee, inflicted by the foot of the opposite leg. It is 
common to high-stepping horses, but others driven out 
of speed are liable to it, and those having calf knees and 
turned in toes suffer if their action is high. Riders of 
such horses are always in danger, as the blow causes the 
animal to fall as if shot. Ordinary cutting is confined to 
the fetlock joint. Brushing amounts to removal of the 
hair and slight abrasion of the skin, and with the former 
results from the use of heavy shoes and over-driving. 
Both evils are often remedied by an extra allowance of 
corn, care in driving and the application of very light 

Banging implies injury on the inside and above the 
fetlock joint by the opposite foot, often resulting in 
serous or pustular abscess, and is removed by the same 
means as described for the preceding, the abscess being 
opened, and dressed with astringents. 

Quittor is a fistulous opening in the coronet due to 
bruises or treads, and internal 
abscess following pricks or 
binds with nails in shoeing, 
and festered corns. 

Treatment. In recent cases 
evacuate the contained matter 
by means of a dependent ori- 
fice at the seat of the offend- 
ing nail in the sole. Poultices 
applied hot, or persistent fo- 
mentations for hours. Febri- Quittor. 
fuges, caustic injections to the 

sinuses. Apply the bar- shoe to relieve pressure. Simple 
quittor from treads on the coronet are best treated by 
injections of caustics, or the knife is used to open up the 
sinuses. Remove pressure from the hoof by reducing it 
beneath the affected part. 

BROKEN KNEES. Almost every variety of wound is 

250 Local Injuries. 

met with in injuries to the knees, for which the treatment 
of wounds already given is applicable. It is often a wise 
precaution to place a suitable splint at the back of the 
knee to prevent movement, during which rapid progress 
is made in the more serious cases, and even simple ones 
are much benefited, as in lying the wounds are opened 
and further damage is done. Extreme cases terminate 
in enlargement and stiffening of the joint. 

of very frequent occurrence as independent accidents, 
being nearly always associated with incised wounds. 
Bleeding from an artery is known by the bright scarlet 
colour, and the pulsating or spurting stream, while that 
from a vein is smaller, continuous, having less force, and 
the colour is a dark or Modena red. Haemorrhage is 
arrested in various ways. Styptics, as tannic acid, contract 
the artery and coagulate the blood. The latter also 
forms a natural plug to the open vessel. Cotton wool, 
German tinder, &c., are effective ; the hot iron, nitrate 
of silver, &c., are of the best. Bleeding from an artery 
is always serious, therefore professional help should be 
obtained as soon as possible, as a surgical operation may 
be required. 

A simple method of arresting haemorrhage in a limb 
consists of passing a soft rope, towel, or even a handker- 
chief, round and above the wound and tying to form a 
loose loop. A stick is then passed through about half 
way, forming two convenient handles for twisting the 
ligature thus formed, the result being pressure and arrest 
to the flow of blood. 

Local Injuries. 251 


Fractures of Bones General Treatment Particular Fractures Ostitis 
Splints Open Joint Sprain Ringbones Sidebones Navicular 
Disease Luxation of the Patella Capped Hock Curb Capped Elbow. 

FRACTURES of bone are of several kinds. Long bones 
are subject to forms known as transverse, when the divi- 
sion is across and at right angles; oblique^ when the 
broken surfaces are parallel but extending from one side 
to the other and the terminals of both being towards the 
ends of the injured bone ; comminuted, when the bone is 
reduced to many fragments ; and compound, when the 
splinters, &c., protrude externally through flesh and skin. 
The transverse and oblique forms are the only truly 
manageable among horses. Peculiarity of form as well 
as situation also greatly reduce the possibilities of a cure, 
as perfect rest, which is indispensable for the purpose, is 
always greatly interfered with if not altogether impos- 

Fractures are known by acute lameness, inability to 
use the limb, or rest upon it, intense pain and high fever, 
all of which are sudden in their appearance and may be 
traced to some accident, &c. Swelling may also be 
present, and manipulation gives rise to grating of the 
rough surfaces, known as crepitus. There is also more 
or less deformity. 

Treatment of fractures is rendered uncertain by the 
inability to keep the animal sufficiently quiet. The 
appliances are splints made from wood, or gutta percha, 
the latter being softened in hot water and" moulded upon 
the limb. Starch bandages, or strips of stout cotton fabric 
saturated in a strong solution of starch, are bound upon 
the limb, and in a few hours set firm and strong ; Plaster 
of Paris, melted pitch and tow ; but the first and second 
are the most useful. 

252 Local Injuries. 

In all cases the bones are carefully approximated in 
the first instance, and the appliances are adjusted with 
the view of remaining to the end. Care is required to 
avoid too great pressure, and also to keep the animal 
quiet. Slings may be called for, and domestic attention 
with food must be of the first order. False joint is the 
result of imperfect union. Fidgety animals keep up 
constant motion, and displace the bones. A small frag- 
ment also may be detached, and with constitutional 
defects may set up abscess, or reduce vitality. 

Particular fractures will now be briefly considered. 

BONES OF THE CRANIUM. These are for the most 
part thin plates, but very strong, and enclosing the brain 
within. The usual causes are blows, falls, &c., and the 
results are often fatal. Compression of the brain follows 
on the bones being driven inwards ; shock or concussion 
is the result of violence ; and secondary compression is 
due to extravasation of blood, or formation of pus, the 
proceeds of local inflammation. Insensibility with coma, 
paralysis of motion and sensation are common in the 
first and second, and in the third they are delayed, 
depending upon the liberation of blood and formation of 
pus, sometimes for a few days. 

Treatment. A surgical operation, known as trephin- 
ing, may be required, as well as the elevation of bone. 

OCCIPITAL CREST. This projection, situate between 
the ears, is often removed by striking low archways, 
stone lintels, &c., and is common in coal mines. 

Treatment. Remove loose bones, and close the wound 
by sutures, allowing the escape of pus. Use " Sanitas " 
dressings. Repeated injuries produce disease of the 
bone, as well as soft tissues, which require perfect rest 
and constant attention. 

BONES OF THE NECK AND BACK. Partial fracture 
produces a variable amount of deformity, stiffness, and 
pain, and in most cases the exact locality is not made 
out during life. Paralysis and death also follow at 
periods depending upon the severity and extent of the 

The Sacrum forms the upper prominence of frhe hind 

Local Injuries. 253 

quarters. It suffers in falls, and during violent struggles 
when the horse is " cast in the stall." The spine or the 
transverse process may be severed, each producing 
changes apparent to the eye, and for which absolute rest 
in slings may be useful if he is tractable. Embrocations 
to stimulate union; good laxative food. Deformity is 

BONES OF THE TAIL. Injuries to these bones are 
common in draught-horses, the tail being under the body 
of the cart as it descends upon the shafts. Railway 
horses suffer from the tail being crushed between the 
buffers. Simple fractures may be treated by the tail 
being bound in a leather case ; but comminuted fractures 
are often attended by necrosis, abscess, gangrene, blood- 
poisoning, or tetanus. The early use of the knife, or 
complete amputation, may be needful. 

BONES OF THE HAUNCH. These comprise the Pelvis, 
and give entire conformation to the hind parts. The 
anterior spinous process suffers by striking the sides of 
doorways, walls, or pillars, when the horse is said 
to have a " quarter," or a " huggin down," a great dis- 
figurement, which, however, does not militate against his 
usefulness. When the shaft of the bone is fractured, both 
usefulness and value are greatly reduced, and fracture of 
the cup-joint usually ends in fixing of the joint by inflam- 
matory action and bony deposit. Another serious form 
of fracture is that of the symphysis, on the floor of the 
bony passage, union being interfered with by pressure of 
the haunches above. Young and valuable horses only 
should be treated, as rest during several months is re- 
quired to effect a union. 

In the fore limbs serious fractures are not uncommon. 

The SCAPULA, blade or sJwulder bone, is severed 
across the neck; the HUMERUS suffers in the shaft, 
usually from oblique fracture, and in both instances there 
is much deformity, with shortening of the limb, swelling, 
and infiltration after a short time. Absolute cure is 

THE RADIUS AND ULNA form the elbow-joint by union 
with the humerus above. All parts of the first are liable 

254 Local Injuries. 

to fracture, and few cases are curable. Brood mares and 
entire horses of great value may be subjected to trial 
when the fracture is transverse, and favourably situated 
in the middle of the lower third of the shaft. 

THE BONES OF THE KNEE suffer in falls, as broken 
knees, being sometimes comminuted, when stiffness of 
the joint follows, even in favourable course. 

forms of fracture, the transverse being the only manage- 
able one. 

THE PASTERN BONES are sometimes split in halves 
from above downwards ; occasionally across the mi'ddle, 
and more frequently comminuted. 

THE SESSAMOID BONES at the back of the fetlock- 
joint are at times literally torn in two by unusual pres- 
sure exerted through the ligaments attached to them, 
when the back of the joint descends to the ground, 
the toe of the foot pointing upwards. Complete cure is 

THE NAVICULAR BONE within the hoof is subject to 
much pressure and violent shocks, and injury of any 
kind is attended with much fever, intense pain, and local 
inflammation. The tendon which plays over it is like- 
wise involved, and sometimes becomes so diseased as to 
end in rupture. In any case, ossification of the joint is 
common, and the animal is rendered useless. 

THE COFFIN BONE, although securely placed in its 
horny box, is liable to all forms of fracture. The pyra- 
midal process and the wings are detached; portions 
of the body are split off by nails in shoeing by ex- 
tremely ignorant workmen ; and comminuted fractures 
are met with in runaway horses. Union may be effected 
in some instances, but the usefulness of the animal is 

In the hind extremities the long bones, as in the fore 
limbs, are more commonly injured by fracture, the trans- 
verse and oblique kinds prevailing, the former being most 
amenable to treatment. The protuberances of the joints, 
termed condyles, are also severed, involving serious 
disease of the joint, shortening and deformity of the 

Local Injuries. 255 

limb, while lower down the bones suffer much in the 
same way with those in the fore limb, the results being 
also similar, and often presenting less favourable chances 
of success from any kind of treatment. 

OSTITIS, Inflammation of Hone, occurs in all bones when 
subject to injury ; but the disease assumes special cha- 
racters in connection with the cannon or shank-bone. It 
is common to young race-horses as a result of excessive 
strain and shock in undeveloped limbs, causing swelling, 
great soreness, and lameness. 

Treatment consists of division of the investing mem- 
brane of the bone by the knife. Hot fomentations or 
poultices; febrifuges, aperients, &c., and when the fever 
and local inflammation are abated iodine blisters are 
needed. The chronic form requires cold water, with 
similar medicines, and later, blisters, &c. 

SPLINTS are bony tumours, the outcome of inflamma- 
tion set up in the ligamentous tissue, which unites the 
small metacarpal or splint-bones with the larger or shank- 
bone. The actual cause is concussion, and the resulting 
inflammation, being continued and aggravated from time 
to time, supplies an amount of osseous material which 
not only unites the bones, but also forms a bony tumour 
upon the surfaces of both. The effect of this is to de- 
stroy elasticity and the possibility of motion, which in 
health always exists, and is necessary for the production 
of free and easy motion. The disease is principally con- 
fined to the inner side of the bones. Pain and stiffness, 
lameness, with the presence of a sensitive tumour, are the 
common signs in the early stages of the majority of 
cases where the tumour is close up to the knee-joint. If 
it be located lower down, the freedom from the usual in- 
convenience is moderated proportionately, even to the 
absence of lameness. 

Treatment. Cases of the latter description should not 
be interfered with. Subcutaneous periosteotomy often 
gives relief. Aperient No. 3, proportionately reduced, 
followed by febrifuges, when the state of the system is 
indicative of febrile action. In simple cases cooling or 
astringent lotions. Later the actual cautery in various 

256 Local Injuries. 

forms, or pyro -puncture may be tried. Large splints may 
need excision by means of the bone forceps; and a 
leather boot will be required. 

OPEN JOINTS. The escape of synovia by reason of 
punctures and other forms of injury to joints is often a 
serious state. The life of the animal is greatly jeopar- 

Treatment. Early closing of the orifice is all important. 
This may be sometimes done rapidly by means of the 
hot iron, at a dull red heat only, providing the wound is 
simply cut open, not bruised by a fall, &c. A small 
amount of blister ointment applied round the orifice also 
hastens the process. Constitutional remedies will be 
required when acute fever is present ; this should not be 
delayed. Put the animal in the slings also. When these 
means fail, the application of dry astringent powders 
should be tried, as a mixture of alum, oxide of zinc, &c., 
with wheat flour, by means of a strong worsted stocking 
passed up the leg and packed moderately tight. Put a 
splint to the back of the limb, and stop all motion of the 
joint, and when the wound is examined for cleansing and 
renewal of the powder, dress freely with astringent lotions. 
Much patience is required. The first token of success is 
a diminution of the local discharge, as well as severity of 
the systemic disturbance. 

Sprain or Strain. This is essentially a severe exten- 
sion of the fibres of muscle or ligament, by which they 
are unable. to regain their former condition, or they are 
lacerated torn or ruptured. Those states mark the 
severity of the case. Besides the manifestations of lame- 
ness, varying from the slightest stiffness, or a limp, to 
halting, or inability to move, there is always proportionate 
heat and swelling, and these call for prompt measures ; 
neglect usually resulting in chronic states which may 
admit of no relief. 

Treatment. See Fomentations. These often give the 
quickest and most permanent relief. Aperients to remove 
constipation. Febrifuges, to combat high febrile action. 
The latter being accomplished, cold astringent lotions, 
No. i, evaporating lotions, c., and when the natural 

Local Injuries. 257 

heat is established in the affected parts, embrocation 
No. 3 or 4 as may be required. 

RINGBONES. Repeated and long-continued inflamma- 
tion, the result of concussion, involving the bones and 
ligamentous structures of the bones of the pastern, &c., 
result in a mass of bony deposit on the external surfaces, 
as to create great disfigurement as well as enlargement, 
sometimes to the extent of stiffening, and even fixing the 
joints. Such is known as a "ringbone," because it 
surrounds the bones. 

SIDEBONES arise from similar causes as the preceding 
affection, the disease being ossification of the lateral 
cartilages of the coffin-bone. They are discovered on 
the upper and latter part of the hoof towards the heels. 
Like ringbones, they mostly attack the fore feet. 

Treatment. First reduce the systemic disturbance by 
aperients, febrifuges, &c., and the local heat by fomenta- 
tions, proceeding as indicated generally for sprain. 
Later use the biniodide of mercury ointment, the actual 
cautery, &c. Abolish heels and toes as well as heavy 
shoes, and send the animal to work on the land. 

SPAVIN. This is the conventional term for a bony 
deposit upon the inner surface of the hock joint, arising 
from similar causes as already named in the preceding 
affections. Some spavins are small, and notwithstanding 
there is much pain and actual lameness, the practised 
eye only is able to pronounce definitely as to their exist- 
ence. Stiffness of the joint is a concomitant, and the. 
hard wearing of the toe of the shoe is evident. 

Treatment as for the preceding. 

NAVICULAR DISEASE, or Grogginess. Disease of the 
navicular or shuttle-bone within the hoof. In well- 
defined cases the hoof is hot, dry, hard, upright, narrow, 
and the growth of horn is sometimes greatly increased. 
The frog is small, and drawn inwards towards the hoof. 
Pointing, and a restless movement often betokens pain 
as well as serious states. 

Treatment of all kinds has been adopted, and in the 
majority of cases unsuccessfully. The great probability 
is that disease of the bone is extensive, to which is added 


258 Local Injuries. 

ulceration of the investing cartilage, as well as laceration 
of the tendon which plays over it as a rope over a pulley. 
Acute pain is detected by pressure in the hollow behind 
the frog. Sometimes lameness exists before the outward 
changes already described have taken place. Division 
of the nerves at the fetlock joint succeeds in some cases 
in restoring usefulness by the absence of sensation ; but 
the disease progresses, and irrespective of injuries to the 
sensitive structures from pricks in shoeing, the concussion 
arising from working on hard roads induces severe in- 
flammation, resulting in loss of the hoof. Such cases 
need the greatest care. 

Other measures consist of fomentations, cold lotions 
applied by means of a thin bandage round the top of the 
hoof, a seton passed through the sensitive frog, blisters to 
the coronet. 

LUXATION OF THE PATELLA. Dislocation of the 
knee-cap often arises in young growing animals, especially 
when turned upon hilly pastures. Older animals are 
subject to it from slipping in the stall, falls, or blows, in 
passing through doorways, &c., when the joint comes 
into violent contact with the jamb, post, &c. The animal 
cannot advance the foot ; it is thrown violently back- 
wards, stiff and straight, when by a convulsive act, and 
raising the whole body, the limb is jerked forwards, and 
the bone is forced back into its place, omitting a sharp 
clicking sound. Luxation occurs repeatedly. 

Treatment. Draw the foot forwards to the breast by 
means of a halter placed upon the pastern. If the bone 
is displaced outwardly, which is most common, push it 
inwards, or vice versa. Let the foot descend to the 
ground, but keep it considerably in advance of the other, 
by securing the halter to a collar placed upon the neck. 
Apply a smart blister to the outside of the joint only, 
using care that none passes inside, near the abdomen. 
Give good food, perhaps also iron tonics, and when 
recovery is established, turn the animal upon level 

CAPPED HOCK. Swelling of the integuments of the 
point of the hock, together with enlargement of the 

Plain Rules for Shoeing. 259 

tendon, &c., beneath, is seen under various circumstances. 
It may arise, from common bruises in lying upon the bare 
ground, stone floor, &c., blows from sticks in the hands 
of irascible grooms, c., or the animal may cause it by 
kicking. Lameness is rarely the result. The enlarge- 
ment is best treated by the application of the ointment of 
biniodide of mercury. 

CURB is sprain of the straight ligament situate at the 
back of the hock, the result of hard work, severe gallop- 
ing, rearing, blows, &c. Pain, swelling, and lameness 
are often signally present. 

Treatment as for sprains generally (page 256), suc- 
ceeded by ointment of the biniodide of mercury. Firing 
is sometimes helpful. 

CAPPED ELBOW. A large swelling on the back of the 
elbow-joint, composed of condensed tissue, the result 
generally of pressure from lying upon the heels of the 
shoe. In the early stages it may be reduced by iodine 
ointment, but old standing cases need surgical interfer- 
ence. The animal should wear a leather guard, the 
heels of the shoe being shortened or covered with a 
thick pad. 


Nature and Preservation of the Hoof Inherent Power of Reproduction Pre- 
paration of the Foot Stopping for Feet unnecessary Dryness essential 
Foot Ointments Weak and defective Feet Bar-shoes. 

THE experience of Professor Sewell led him to state 
upwards of seventy years ago : " I have seen more lame 
horses while posting from Harwich to London than I 
have met with in all my journey, and during my inspec- 
tion of veterinary schools and public places in France, 
Switzerland, Germany, and Belgium." In 1871 Pro- 

260 Plain Rules for Shoeing. 

fessor Gamgee,* after quoting the above, stated that 
among the horses of London 42 per cent, were lame, 
while in Paris only 9 per cent, were subject' to this form 
of unsoundness. Present-day experience still reveals the 
same state of things. The well-being of the best of 
animals is ever sacrificed to widespread ignorance and 
injustice. It is rare to find a shoeing-smithwho possesses 
a really intelligent acquaintance with the wonderful struc- 
tures of the " horny box " \ and we need not feel surprised 
that he should treat it much as he would a similar box of 
wood, or that our steed goes ''gingerly," and hobbles so 
painfully, that for our life we cannot make out what has 
come over him. 

The secret of prolonged usefulness lies in the means 
for a strict preservation of the foot. This is an experience 
which many have gained only after years of bitter trial 
and disappointment. 

The hoof is the fibrous horny box or case inside which 
are fitted the sensitive parts. Its growth is secured from 
above at the coronet downwards, where a special arrange- 
ment exists for its secretion. The horny sole and frog 
are the provision of a special secretion for the defence 
of sensitive structures beneath the coffin-bone, &c. As 
a whole, the hoof possesses a limited amount of elasticity, 
but its power of resistance to concussion is remarkable. 
It conducts heat feebly, and, with these qualities, proves 
highly serviceable for protection ; while the substance, 
insensibility, and constant growth render it an admirable 
means for securing the usual iron defence the shoe. 

It is a fatal mistake to cut, rasp, and burn the hoof as is 
commonly done. Many forget the horse has to carry other 
weight besides that of his own body, and in progression 
he suffers from concussion in proportion as his natural 
defence is weakened and reduced. This practice is 
responsible for many forms of lameness besides those of 
the feet, as splints, spavins, ringbones, sidebones, &c. 

The outer part of the wall or crust of the hoof, we have 
said, grows downwards, and is composed of tough, longi- 
tudinal fibres, the ends of which are presented to the 

* "Horse-shoeing anJ Lameness." Longmans & Co. 1871. 

Plain Rules for Shoeing. 261 

ground, and prove exceedingly strong, resisting wear 
most effectually. It is designed to bear the greater part 
of the weight, and forms the most fitting to receive the 
shoe. This is the only part which needs to be cut away, 
and mostly at the toe, on the ground surface only, where 
the greatest activity in growth is manifest. The wall 
should not be rasped above the clinches on any account. 

The horny sole ^xA frog are capable of exfoliating, or 
detaching their superfluous parts in flakes or scales. 
None but loose portions should be removed, as the parts 
are capable^f all needful reduction. 

In applying the shoe there is no objection to its being 
red hot when the feet are perfectly strong and sound. 
The hot shoe makes for itself a more accurate bed than 
can be accomplished in any other way, and its adherence 
to the foot is more secure. In good sound hoofs the sole 
will bear a portion of the pressure, and the full-grown frog 
also proves a marvellous " buffer " to break the force of 
violent concussion on the road. It should always there- 
fore be allowed to grow so as to touch the ground. 

All who prefer to beautify the hoof by cutting, rasping, 
&c., will denounce these directions. We only reply, that 
our experience is that such a method is the entire safeguard 
against lameness from all causes , even pricking and bind- 
ing by nails in shoeing is reduced to a minimum. 

The nails should be evenly drawn. Thick nails act as 
wedges, splitting the hoof, besides having other adverse 
tendencies. In "pointing" the nails make a long lead, 
and the holes in the shoe should be " coarse," that is, not 
too near the outer edge. In these lie greater safety ; as 
snub-pointed nails and fine-seamed shoes are prolific 
sources of danger. The former nail is driven straight 
down, taking good hold of sound hoof, always going away 
from the sensitive parts \ while the reverse holds good 
with snub nails and fine seams. 

Shoes should always be level on the foot surface. It fol- 
lows also that they should be even on the ground surface. 
If the reader would test the effect of unevenness in his 
boot let him stand upon a single pebble, or driv^e in a 
nail on one side of the sole or heel. The joints above 

262 Plain Rules for Shoeing. 

are then sufferers, besides the sensitive parts below. 
Add to this the weight and speed of the animal in work. 

Stopping for the feet is unnecessary. If the plan we 
have briefly sketched is followed the reader will find the 
hoof possessed of its natural moisture, as well as the 
power of resistance as a defence on all kinds of roads. 
Under these circumstances the occasional loss of a shoe 
gives rise to no consternation, as in hoofs maltreated by 
the arts and devices of the olden time. Outward moisture 
is not essential for healthy feet, but always injurious in 
proportion to its application, especially in the form of 
manurial fluids in pastures and strawyards, &c., which 
soften and dissolve the horn. When horses need rest the 
advantages all round are eminently in favour of soiling in 
a roomy level box, well cleaned and dry, having a con- 
tiguous dry yard in which he can take a run from time to 

Foot ointments are useful when properly made. Avoid 
the many quack nostrums, which are no better than com- 
mon fat coloured with Stockholm tar. The latter with 
one-third of lard will form a good mixture for brushing 
round the hoof and defending it against wet, &c. 

Thus far we have referred only to sound feet, and the 
way to keep them sound. 

In weak shelly feet, and others reduced by injury, 
disease, &>c., plans must be adopted to meet the various 
requirements. Such feet unshod may be wonderfully 
improved by a rest of some weeks on a dry floor thinly 
covered with straw or sawdust, as already recommended, 
or they may have light tips nailed on, the owner from 
this period visiting judgment on the smith who insists on 
cutting and burning the foot to fit the shoe. We have 
seen most satisfactory results from this plan, and in course 
of months or a year, under moderate work, the feet have 
been rendered sound and strong. The foot ointment is 
also a valuable adjunct in preventing drying and the 
effects of moisture. In those instances where fleshy feet 
and other defects of hoof structure are the results of 
breeding we have to make exceptions. The feet may be 
greatly benefited by the treatment we recommend, but 

Plain Rules for Shoeing. 263 

they never grow so firm and -strong as the naturally 
healthy feet are capable of becoming. 

Bar SJiofs are intended to relieve pressure from the 
sole, a weak crust, &c., and to remove it to the frog. 
Cases of founder or laminitis, sidebones, corns, sand- 
cracks, quittor, &c., are thus treated often with marked 
benefit. When the frog is small and shrunk, &c., the 
pressure may be applied by means of a pad of leather 
rivetted upon the bar, which crosses the foot. The frog 
is also stimulated, and often grows satisfactorily by these 
means, while weak heels are relieved, and the usefulness 
of the animal much increased. 


ABDOMEN, dropsy of, 210 
Abdominal walls, rupture of, 219 
Abscess, 149 
Abscess of castration, 218 
Acute albuminuria, 214 

,, anasarca, 179 

,, indigestion, 205 

,, paralysis, 229 
Actual cautery, 159 
Advantages of pulping food, 138 
Age, as known by the teeth, 6 

,, for breeding, 100 
Albuminuria, 180 

,, acute, 214 

chronic, 214 

,, traumatic, 213 

Alteratives, 153 
Amaurosis, 224 
American horse, 14 
Anaemia, 176 
Anasarca, acute, 177 
Anatomy, morbid, 141 

,, pathological, 141 
Aneurism, 201 
Anodynes, 154 
Antispasmodics, 155 
Antiputrescents, 155 
Antiseptics, 155 
Annual horse shows, 124 
Aperients, 156 
Aphtha, sporadic, 203 
Apoplexy, cerebral, 228 

,, pulmonary, 193 
Arab, the, 10 
Arteries and veins, wounds of, 


Aspect of the stable, 28 
Asthma, 196 
Astringents, 157 

Australian horses, 13 
Azoturia, 180 

BARB, the, 12 
Back, fracture of, 252 
Balling gnus, 175 

iron, 174 
Banging, 249 
Barley, 65 

digestibility of, 128 
Bar shoes, 263 
Bastard strangles, 188 
Belgian horses, 14 
Best corn only useful, 62 
Biting, 8 1 

Black dray horse, 123 
Bladder, inflammation of, 216 

,, inversion of, 216 
Blisters, 158 
Blood in the urine, 215 
Bloody flux, 209 
Blood fungus, 225 
Blue disease, 199 
Boils, 236 
Bolus, the, 173 
Bone, inflammation of, 255 
Bones of the cranium, fracture of, 


Bottle for drenching, 175 
Bowels, inflammation of, 206 
Brain, inflammation of, 226 

,, substance 

of, 227 

Brain, softening of, 225 
Bran, 64 

,, mash, 64 
Breaking, 107, no 

,, to hanies?, 118 
the hunter, 1 20 



Breaking the lady's horse, 122 
Breastplate, 86 
Breeding, age for, 100 

,, mare, treatment of, 101 

,, time for, 100 

,, the most profitable, 90 
Btidle, the, 87 
Broken knees, 249 
wind, 196 
Bronchitis, 193 
Brood mare, 91 
Bucking, 82 
Budding-iron, 159 
Buildings, 31 

CANADIAN horse, 14 
Canker, 241 

,, incidental to the straw- 
yard, 69 
Capped elbow, 259 

,, hock, 258 
Carbuncle, 236 

,, of the coronet, 239 
Carditis, 199 
Carlisle's inhaler, 169 
Carriage horse, 49 
Carrots, 64 

Casting in the stall, 79 
Castration, results of, 217 
Cataract, 223 
Catarrh, 191 

,, enzootic typhoid, 181 

,, suppurative, 188 
Cathartics, 156 
Caustics, 159 
Cavalry horse, 24 
Cerebral apoplexy, 228 
Cerebritis, 227 
Chaff, husk of grain equal to, 62 

value of as food, 61 
Charges, 161 
Charlier's shoe, 77 
Chine felon, 177 
Chloroform^ inhalation of, 169 
Choice of a horse, 42 

stallion, 97 
Choking, 40, 203 
Chorea, 227 
Chronic Albuminuria, 214 

cough, 197 

Chronic eczema, 234 
,, indigestion, 204 
,, vaginitis, 220 
Circular ringworm, 233 
Cleaning harness, 89 
Cleveland, the, 124 
Clipping, 73 
Clydesdale, the, 123 
Coach horses, 24 
Cobs and ponies, 52 
Coffin bone, fracture of, 254 
descent of, 238 

Coffin joint, puncture of the, 248 
Cold, common, 191 

fever, 177 
Colours, 5 

Colts, breaking the, 107 
Coma Somnolentum, 228 
Common cold, 191 
Colic, 206 

Confirmed grease, 236 
Congestion, 146 

,, of the liver, 210 
M lungs, 193 

Constipation, 205 
Contagious diseases, handbook 

on, 190 

Contused wounds, 247 
Cord, schirrhous, 218 
Cordials, 163 
Corn chamber, 38 

,, Indian, 165 

,, should be of the best, 62' 
Corns, 242 
Coronet, carbuncle of, 239 

,, inflammation of, 238 
Coronitis, 238 
Coryza, 191 
Cossack, the, 13 
Cost of harness, 90 

stable utensils, 38 
Cough, chronic, 197 
Countenance, expressive of pain, 


Cranium, fracture of, 252 
Crepitus, 251 
Crib-biting, 81, 211 
Curb, 259 
Curb-bit, 87 
Clysters, 162 



Cyanosis, 199 
Cystitis, 216 

DAMAGE to the feet by moisture, 

Dangers of the strawyard, 69 

Dark stables a bane to health, 33 

Defects to be avoided, 54 

Deficiency of blood, 176 

Definitions of disease, 139 

Demulcents, 163 

Dentition, 6 

Dermanyssius avium, 244 

Descent of the coffin-bone, 238 

Diabetes insipidus, 212 

Diaphoretics, 164 

Diaphragm, rupture of, 198 
,, spasm of, 197 

Diarrhoea, 208 

Dietaries for farm horses, 130 

Digestibility of barley, 128 
wheat, 128 

Digestives, 164 

Dirty pond water, injurious, 71 

Disease, 142 

,, of the heart valves, 201 
prevention of, 147 

Diseases and irregularities of the 
teeth, 203 

Diuretics, 164 

Dongola, the, 13 

Doses of medicines, 153 

Drainage, 28 

Draughts, 175 

Dray horse, 123 

Drench, 175 

Drenching- bottle, 175 

Dropsy, 201 

of the abdomen, 210 
,, sanguineous, 179 

Dutch horses, 14 

Duties, excise, 90 

Dysentery, 209 

EARLY history of the horse, I 
East Indian horses, 13 
Eating the litter, 80 
Eczema, 234 
Eczema simplex, 234 
Ecti opium, 224 

Effects of moisture on the feet, 69 

Elbow, capped, 259 

Electuaries,. 165 

Elephantiasis, 202 

Embolism, 201 

Embrocations, 165 

Endocarditis, 200 

Enema funnel, 162 

Enemas, 162 

English thoroughbred, 15 

Entropitim, 224 

Enteritis, 206 

Enzootic pleurisy, 184 

typhoid catarrh, 181 
Ephemeral fever, 143 
Erythema, 232 

,, paratrimma, 233 
Erysipelas, 233 

phlegmonous, 233 
Eversion of the eyelids, 224 
Examination of the feet, 76 
Exanthema, 232 
Exercise, 72 
Expectorants, 166 
Eyelids, eversion of, 224 

,, laceration of, 225 

warts on, 225 

FALSE quarter, 239 
ringworm, 235 

Farcy, 189 

Farm horses, 123 

dietaries for, 130 

soiling, 134 

,, stables for, 124 

Farm stable management, 126 

Favus, 244 

Febrifuges, 166 

Feeding in the stable, 60 

Feet, fever in, 237 

,, inflammation of the, 237 
and legs, saving the, 67 
,, eifects of moisture on, 69 
,, management of, 76 

Fever, 143 

,, in the feet, 237 

Firing-iron, 159 

Fistula of the withers, 248 

Flatulent colic, 206 

Flooding, 218 



Fluid enemas, 162 
Foal, management of, IO2 
Fomentations, 167 
Food, chaff as, 61 

pulped, 137 
Foramen ovate, 199 
Foot ointments, 262 
Foot, thrush in, 240 
Founder, 237 
Fractures, 251 
Frog, 261 

,, should not be reduced, 109 
Fulness of blood, 176 
Fungus hamatodes, 225 

GAG for mouth, 174 

Galloway, the, 25 

Gaseous enemas, 162 

Gastro enteritis, 207 

Gathered nails, 247 

Getting loose, 77 

Glanders, 189 

Glaucoma, 224 

Grain, inferior, not improved by 

cooking, 128 
Grass, turning to, 67 
Grease, 235 
Grogginess, 257 
Groom, the, 56 
Gruel, 64 
Grunting, 196 

HABITS of the horse, i 
Hack, or riding horse, 44 
Haemorrhage from castration, 217 

how to arrest, 250 

Hsematuria, 215 
Halter casting, 79 
Handbook of regulations for con- 
tagious diseases, 190 
Hanging back, 78 
Harness, 84 

,, breaking to, 118 

cleaning, 89 

,, cost of, 90 
Harnessing, 87 
Harness-room, 38 
Haunch, fiactuie of, 253 
Hayloft, 38 
Healing lotion, 169 

Health suffers in dark stables, 33 

Heart, inflammation of, 199 
,, palpitation of the, 198 
,, rupture of, 199 

Hernia, 209 

Herpes ci re hiatus, 235 
tomurans, 245 
phlyctenoidesi 235 

History of the horse, I 

Hock, capped, 258 

Holding the bolus, 173 

Holiday disease, 201 

Horn tumours in the foot, 241 

Horny sole, 261 

Hoof, nature of, 260 

Horse, early history of, I 
,, habits of, I 
colours of, 5 
,, principal parts of, 2 
shows, 124 

Horses for heavy harness, 51 
light 50 

Honeycomb ringworm, 244 

How to arrest haemorrhage, 250 
purchase a horse, 42 

Humerus, fractures of the, 253 

Hunter, the, 47 

breaking the, 120 
,, summering the, 69 

Hunting-plate, 86 

Husk of grain ranks as chaff, 62 

Hysteria, 180, 231 

IMPACTION of the stomach, 205 
Impetigo, 235 

,, erysipelatodes, 235 
Incised wounds, 246 
Indian corn, 65 
Indigestion, acute, 205 

chronic, 204 
Inferior grain not improved by 

cooking, 128 
Inflammation, 146 

of the bladder, 206 

bone, 255 

,, ,, brain, 226 

,, ,, bronchial 

tubes, 193 

,, ,, endocardium, 




Inflammation of the feet, 237 
,, ,, heart, 199 

,, ,, intestines, 206 

., kidneys, 215 

,, ,, liver, 210 

lungs, 194 
,, ,, pericardium, 

,, ,, peritoneum, 


,, urethra, 217 

vagina, 219 
veins, 201 
,, ,, womb, 220 

Inhalation of chloroform, 169 
Inhalations, 168 
Injections, 162 

,, subcutaneous, 171 
Inversion of the bladder, 216 

,, uterus, 219 

Inveterate kicker, 81 
Intestines, worms in, 209 

inflammation of, 206 
Influenza, 181 

Jibbing, 82 


Kicker, inveterate, 81 

Kicking, 82 

Kicking the stall post, 71 

Kidneys, inflammation of, 215 

Knee, fractures of the, 254 

LACERATED wounds, 246 
Laceration of the eyelids, 225 
Lady's horse, 45 

,, breaking the, 122 

La Grippe, 181 
Lnmeness, Professor Gamgee on, 

,, Piofessor Sewell on, 

259 . 

Lammitis, 237 
Laryngitis, 192 
Laxatives, 156 
Leading tackle, 108 
Leaping into the manger, 78 
Leueorrheea, 220 

Lice, 243 

Licences, 90 

Light stables essential, 33 

,, troop horse, 24 
Liniments, 165 
Linseed, 65 

,, mucilage, 163 
Litter, eating the, 80 
Liver, congestion of, 210 

,, inflammation of, 210 
Locked jaw, 230 
Lotions, 169 
Lousiness, poultry, 244 
Lungs, congestion of, 193 
Luxation of the patella, 258 
Lying under the manger, 78 
Lymphangitis, 201 

Maize, 65 

Malignant sore throat, 181 
Mallanders, 234 
Management of the feet, 76 
foal, 102 
Mange, 243 

Manger, leaping into, 78 
lying under, 78 
Mangers, 36 
Mare, stimulant lor, 101 
,, treatment of, 101 
Martingale, 86 
Mash, bian, 64 
Materia medica, 141, 253 
Materials for building, 31 
Medicated fomentation*, 168 

,, inhalations, 168 

,, poultices, 170 
Medicine, veterinary, 141 
Medicines, their doses, 153 
Megrims, 201 
Meningitis, spinal, 229 
Metacarpal bones, fractures of, 254 
Metritis, 220 

Monday morning disease, 201 
Morbid anatomy, 141 
Mounting the colt, 114 
Mucilage of linseed, 65 

NAVICULAR bone, fracture o r , 254 
disease, 257 



Nails, 261 

Nasal gleet, 197 

Nettle-rash, 234 

Neck, fractures of the, 252 

Nephritis, 215 

Nitrogenous urine, 180 

Noiman horse, 14 

OATS and beans, 62 
Occipital crest, fractures of, 252 
Open-joint, 256 
Ophthalmia, simple, 222 
,, specific, 223 

Organs of respiration, diseases of, 


Origin of the horse, I 
Oslitis, 255 
Oxaluria, 213 

PACES of the horse, 6 

Palpitation, 198 

Pain indicated in the face, 199 

Paralysis, acute, 229 

Paraphimosis, 217 

Parturition, 34 

Pastern bones, fracture of, 254 

Patella, luxation of, 258 

Pathological anatomy, 141 

Pathology, 142 

Paving, 34 

Pawing, 80 

Pelham bit, 87 

Pericarditis, 200 

Peritonitis, 207 

Persian horse, 13 

Phimosis, 217 

Phlebitis, 201 

Phlegmonous erysipelas, 233 

Phrenitis, 226 

Phlhiriasis equi, 244 

Physic, 156 

Plan of stable, 26 

Plans of buildings, 31 

Plethora, 176 

Pleurisy, 195 

enzootic, 184 
Pleuritis, 195 
Plunging, 82 
Pneumonia, 194 
Points of the thoroughbred, 15 

Poll evil, 249 
Ponies, 52 
Potatoes, 64 
Pot-helly, 177 
Poultices, 170 
Poultry lousiness, 244 
Prevention of disease, 147 
,, metiitis, 221 

Principal parts of the horse, 2 
Probang, 175 
Professor Gamgee on lameness, 


Professor Sewell on lameness, 259 
Profuse urination, 212 
Prurigo, 234 

Pulmonary apoplexy, 193 
Pulped food, 137 
Puncture of the coffin-joint, 248 
Punctured wounds, 247 
Purity of water, 7 1 
Purpura hcemorrhagica, 179 
Pustular erysipelas, 235 

,, inflammation of the skin, 

2 35 

Putrid sore throat, 181 
Putting to, 88 

8 CARTER, false, 239 
uittor, 249 

RABIES, 231 

Racer, points of, 15 

Radius, fractures of, 253 

Rain water drains, 31 

Regular examination of the feet, 

Regulations for contagious 

diseases, handbook of, 190 
Resolution, 146 
Results of castration, 217 
Retention of urine, 213 
Rheumatism, 177 
Riding-horse, 44 
Ringbone, 257 
Ringworm, circular, 235 

,, honey-comb, 244 
,, false, 225, 245 

true, 245 
Roaring, 196 
Running away, 82 



Rupture, 209 

,, of the abdominal walls, 


,, ,, diaphragm, 198 

> heart, 199 

uterus, 219 

SACRUM, fracture of, 252 

Saddle horse, 44 

,, horses, harness for, 84 

Saddles, 84 

Sallanders, 234 

Sandcrack, 239 

Sanguineous dropsy, 179 

Saving the feet and legs, 67 

Scabies, 243 

Scapula, fracture of the, 253 

Scarlatina anginosa, 186 
simplex, 185 

Schirrhous cord, 219 

Seedy-toe, 241 

Selection of brood mare, 91 
,, a horse, 42 

Sending for the veterinary sur- 
geon, 151 

Serous cyst, 148 

Sessamoid bones, fracture of, 


Sewers, 28 
Shetland pony, 25 
Shank-bones, fracture of, 254 
Shivering, 228 
Shoeing, 108, 259 
Shot of grease, 201 
Shying, 83 
Sideboues, 257 
Simple fever, 143 

,, eczema, 234 

,, ophthalmia, 222 

,, scarlatina, 185 

,, sore throat, 192 
Singeing, 73 
Sit-fasts, 237 
Sleepy staggers, 228 
Softening of the bmin, 228 
Soiling, 67 

,, farm horses, 134 
Sore throat, malignant, 181 
,, putrid, 181 

simple, 192 

Spanish horse, 15 

Spasm of the diaphragm, 197 

Spavin, 257 

Specific fever, 146 

,, ophthalmia, 223 
Speedy-cut, 249 
Spinal meningitis, 229 
Splints, 255 
Spongio piline> 170 
Sporadic aphtha, 203 

,, diseases, 191 
Sprain or strain, 256 
Spray distributor, 169 
Squinting, 224 
Stable, 27 

feeding in, 60 

for farm horses, 124 

management, 55, 58, 126 

servants, 55 

temperature, 75 

tying up in, 109 

utensils, 38 

vices in the, 77 
out of the, 82 

yard, 26 
Staggers, sleepy, 228 
Stall, casting in, 79 

post, kicking at, 79 
Stallion, the, 97 
Staphyloma, 223 
Starch bandages, 251 
Stimulant for the mare, 101 
Stirrups, 85 

Stomach, impaction of, 205 
Stopping-box, a nuisance, 76 

,, for feet, unnecessary, 76, 

Strabismus, 224 
Strangles, 187 
Strawy ard, dangers of, 69 
Stringhalt, 227 
Subcutaneous injections, 171 
Substance of the brain, inflam- 
mation of, 227 
Suffolk punch, 123 
Summeiing the hunter, 69 
Superpurgation, 208 
Suppurative catarrh, 188 
Surfeit, 234 
Surgery, veterinary, 141 



Symptomatic fever, 144 
Symptomatology, 141 

TACKLE, leading, 108 
Tail, fractures of the, 253 
Tea, linseed, 65 
Teaching the hunter, 120 
Teeth an indication of age, 6 

,, diseases of, 203 
Temperature of the stable, 75 
Tetanus, 230 

Thoroughbred, points of the, 15 
Thrush, 203 

,, in the foot, 69, 240 
Thick-leg, 201 
Throat, malignant sore, 181 

putrid sore, 181 
Ticks and maggots, 244 
Time for breeding, 100 
Tinea tonsurans, 245 
Toe, seedy, 241 
Tonics, 172 
Toothache, 204 
Traumatic Albuminuria, 213 
Treatment of abscess, 147 

,, brood mare, 101 

,, fever, 146 

,, inflammation, 147 

,, weak feet, 262 

True ringworm, 245 
Turkish horse, 13 
Turkoman, the, 13 
Turning to grass, 67 

,, in the stall, 78 
Turnips, 64 
Tying up in the stable, 109 

ULNA, fracture of, 253 

Ursemea, 177 

Urine, nitrogenous, 180 

blood in, 215 

,, retention of, 213 
Uiination, profuse, 212 

Urethra, inflammation of, 217 
Urethritis, 217 
Urticaria, 234 
Uterus, inversion of, 219 
,, rupture of, 219 


,, chronic, 220 
Valves of the heart, disease of, 


Value of chaff as food, 61 
Veins, inflammation of, 201 

wounds of, 250 
Ventilation, 34 
Venous obstruction, 201 
Veterinary medicine, 141 
surgery, 141 
surgeon, sending for 

the, 151 
Vices in the stable, 77 

out of the stable, 82 
Villitis, 238 
Vomiting, 204 

WARMTH of the stable, 75 

Warts on the eyelids, 225 

Water, 70 

Weed, 201 

Weak and shelly feet, 262 

Weaving, 80 

Wheat, digestibility of, 128 

Wind-sucking, 81, 2-1 1 

Whistling, 196 

Work, 72 

Worms in the intestines, 209 

Withers, fistula of, 248 

Wounds, 246 

,, of arteries and veins, 250 

,, lotion for, 169 
Womb, inflammation of, 220 

YELLOWS, the, 211 

Clydesdales, 23 Shire Horse, 22 




date stamped below, or 

This book is d 

University of California