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Full text of "Horseless vehicles; automobiles, motor cycles operated by steam, hydro-carbon, electric and pneumatic motors; a practical treatise for ... everyone interested in the development, use and care of the automobile, including a special chapter on how to build an electric cab, with detail drawings"

Automobiles 



The Patents (both for the United States of America, Canada, and also 
for European and other Foreign Countries) of Motor Vehicles invented by me are 
now owned by the 

ANGLO-AMERICAN RAPID VEHICLE CO., 

20 Broad Street, New York 



Including : ** < 

Motor Bicycles, 
* Tricycles, 

46 Quadricycles, 

44 Dogcarts, 

44 Sociables, 

" Phaetons, 

c 6 Wagonettes, 

44 Char-a=bancs, 

44 Busses, 

44 Delivery Wagons, 



also my Armor-plated Motor Machine Gun Carriage, and particulars of these 
Motor Vehicles can be obtained on application to the company at above address. 

E. J. PENNINGTON. 



HORSELESS VEHICLES 

AUTOMOBILES 

MOTOR CYCLES 

OPERATED BY 

STEAM, HYDRO-CARBON, ELECTRIC AND 
PNEUMATIC MOTORS 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE FOR AUTOMOBILISTS, MANUFAC- 
TURERS, CAPITALISTS, INVESTORS AND EVERYONE 
INTERESTED IN THE DEVELOPMENT, USE AND 
CARE OF THE AUTOMOBILE 

INCLUDING A SPECIAL CHAPTEK ON HOW TO BUILD AN ELECTEIC CAB, 
WITH DETAIL DRAWINGS 



BY 

GARDNER D. HISCOX, M.E. 

AUTHOR OF 

"GAS, GASOLINE AND OIL ENGINES" 

AND 
'MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS, POWERS, DhvJcS,ANp APPLIANCES" 



WITH 316 ILLUSTRATIONS \ j , j 



NEW YORK 

MUNN & COMPANY 

OFFICE OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

361 BROADWAY 

1900 



TV. /y s- 



COPYRIGHTED, 1900, 

BY 
NORMAN W. HENLEY & CO. 

ALSO 

ENTERED AT STATIONER'S HALL COURT, LONDON, ENGLAND 



All Rights Reserved 






COMPOSITION, ELECTROTYPINQ AND PRINTING 

BY 

MACGOWAN & SLIPPER 

NEW YORK, N. Y., U. S. A. 



PREFACE. 

The rapid advance in the industry appertaining to me- 
chanical appliances for locomotion on common roads seems 
to need a better representation than it has yet had in book 
form, especially in its relation to the automobile industry in 
the United States. 

It is hoped that the numerous inquiries in relation to 
motors and vehicles that have been received by the author 
will find a fair and satisfactory reply in the pages of this 
work. 

Then there need be no apology for the publication of a 
work to meet the wants of seekers fb|* information in this 
new line of industry which exemplifies a new phase in the 
ways and means of a people for gratifying their desires for 
new modes and economies in travel for pleasure or business. 

In the development of new modes of power resources and 
in the improvement of well-known powers for automobile 
uses, is involved a vast business aspect and comparatively a 
new departure in business lines. 

There has been as yet but little published in book form 
that has proved satisfactory to the general reader or in- 
quirer on the subject of the mechanism and motive power 
for common road locomotion. 

The technical press in the United States seems to have 
been the only source of information and illustration in re- 
gard to this newly developed industry, and to this the 
author is much indebted for details and illustrations. 



PREFACE. 

It is proposed in this work to bring the practical working 
details of the horseless vehicle as clearly as possible to the 
understanding of the general reader. 

Personal inspection and critical examination of the 
mechanism of the motive power and running gear is the 
best method of arriving at the facts as to the operation and 
durability of so important an element as their power factor. 

To some extent this has been afforded and has contributed 
much to the detailed description that has been given and 
illustrated in this work. A free reference to patent illus- 
tration and description does not always give a true concep- 
tion of a mechanism that becomes a manufacture after a 
patent has been issued ; improvements and changes sug- 
gested by trials and experience take the place of the patented 
exhibit, when the patented feature in a measure is greatly 
changed and sometimes lost. 

The theoretical consideration of power and its mathe- 
mathical expressions are so fully treated in technical works 
on steam, explosion motors, electricity and compressed air, 
that a repetition of such topics in this work will not, it is 
thought, increase its interest for the general reader or for 
the user of the automobile. GARDNER D. Hiscox. 

May, 1900. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

Introductory, . . t Q 

CHAPTER II. 
Historical, .......... 31 

CHAPTER III. 
Steam Automobile Motor Appliances, 49 

CHAPTER IV. 
Specialties in Automobile Construction, .... 69 

CHAPTER V. 
Steam Propelled Vehicles and Automobile Carriages, , . 81 

CHAPTER VI. 
Horseless Vehicles with Explosive Motors, . . . . 113 

CHAPTER VII. 
Electric Ignition Devices, . . . . . . .119 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Atomizing Carburetors, 131 

CHAPTER IX. 
Operating Devices and Speed Gears, .... 141 



8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER X. 

PAGE 

Motive Power and Running Gear, . ..... 155 

CHAPTER XI. 
Automobile Bicycles and Tricycle, . . . . .173 

CHAPTER XII. 
Gasoline Motor Carriages and Vehicles, ..... 217 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Electric Motive Power for Vehicles, . . . . . .273 

CHAPTER XIV. 
How to Build an Electric Cab, with Detail Drawings, . . 363 

CHAPTER XV. 
The General Management of Motor Vehicles of all Kinds, . . 373 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Compressed Air Power for Vehicles, ..... 381 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Miscellaneous, ..... ..... 393 

CHAPTER XVIII. 



ist of the United States Patents on Automobiles and Running 

Gear, .......... 445 

CHAPTER XIX. 

List of Manufacturers of Automobiles in the United States, with 

their Addresses, ......... 453 



Chapter I. 
INTRODUCTORY. 



CEO 



HORSELESS VEHICLES 
AUTOMOBILES AND MOTOR CYCLES 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

With the recent advent in force, of motor vehicles under 
their various synonyms of horseless carnage, automobile, 
auto-cars, and motor-cycles, in a list in which the roots 
auto and moto enter into many names designating the 
specialties of manufacture in Europe and in the United 
States, comes the search by the curious to find the true 
history of progress in the development of self-propelled 
vehicles. 

Wheels as a rolling device have been in use for more 
than four thousand years with oxen and horses as their pro- 
pelling power for transportation. The only improvement 
during the past four hundred years has been in the art 
design of the vehicles, and only during the past two centuries 
has thought been given to other means or powers of vehicle 
propulsion. 

The spirit of invention and improvement seems to have 
taken a movement among thinking minds in the fourteenth 



12 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

% 

century and was thus early expounded by that philosopher 
in mechanics, Roger Bacon, in the following prophetic 
words : 

" We will be able to construct machines which w r ill propel 
ships with greater speed than a whole garrison of rowers, 
and which will need only one pilot to guide them , we will 
be able to propel carriages with incredible speed without 
the, assistance of any animal, and we will be able to make 
machines which, by means of wings, will enable us to fly in 
the air like birds." 

The first indication of the application of a mechanical 
device for the propulsion of vehicles seems to have begun in 
the sixteenth century in a vehicle propelled by springs, built 
in Nuremberg, Holland, by Johann Haustach. The spring 
motor fever raged at times during the passing centuries and 
seems to have culminated in the United States a quarter of 
a century since as spring-stored power for street railway 
cars and vehicles. Its life for such work was short. Its 
true sphere is a lasting one through the centuries for the 
storage of power for time service. 

Wind sails for vehicle propulsion was a common sight in 
Holland away back in the palmy days of the republic and 
have since been seen on our Western prairies, but no perma- 
nent success has resulted from this power for vehicle pro- 
pulsion. 

The first effort at propelling a vehicle by steam seems to 
have been made bv a Jesuit missionary, Father Verbrest, in 
the thirteenth century, probably using the re-action wheel of 
the Heron type that had apparently laid dormant for more 
than a thousand years. 

It was a steam propelled vehicle, with a motor of the 
reciprocating type, that made its advent with the early pro- 
gress of the steam engine for power purposes that was the 



INTRODUCTION. ! 3 

forerunner of the thousands of self-propelled vehicles that 
have as it seems sprung into useful operation during the 
last decade of the nineteenth century. 

Steam traction vehicles for haulage, for drays, for plow- 
ing and for passenger service have advanced steadily in 
Europe and in the United States, even extending to many 
other countries. 

The advent of the internal combustion motor soon gave a 
new phase to the self-propelled vehicle, and gave a further 
impulse to its use as a pleasure carriage. 

The electric motor and the storage battery seem to have 
followed in due time to form the triad of powers that will 
give the horseless vehicle all the probable elements of suc- 
cess in every avenue of usefulness. 

The gasoline motor was first used for vehicle propulsion 
with success about 1888, but was proposed at an earlier date 
by Lenoir in France. The electric motor and storage 
battery soon followed and came into use within the last 
decade of the nineteenth century. 

The patents in the United States for motive power and 
running gear date back to the beginning of the century in 
small numbers, increased in the decades from 1860 to 1880, 
and in the last decade of the century swelled up to a total 
of about 275. The earlier patents that expired previous to 
1886 covered nearly all the essential features of the present 
construction. 

It appears from published data that in Europe there are 
now well over 7,000 owners of automobiles. Many of these 
own more than one vehicle, so that perhaps the number of 
vehicles could be put at 10,000 Of the 7,000 no fewer than 
5,600 are in France. The general idea has been that in 
France the interest was centered in Paris, but this is errone- 
ous, there being of the 5,600 no fewer than 4,541 scattered 



14 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

all through the departments. In France, moreover, there 
are 619 manufacturers of automobiles, not including makers 
of detail parts, 998 of them, 1,095 repair shops, 3,939 stores 
for oil, gas, etc., and 265 electric charging plants and " posts." 
For the remainder of Europe the figures are far from com- 
plete, but it would appear that there are 268 owners of auto- 
mobiles in Germany, 90 in Austro-Hungary, 90111 Belgium, 
44 in Spain, 3 "4 in Great Britain, 1 1 1 in Italy, 68 in Holland, 
114 in Switzerland, and 35 in Russia, Denmark, Portugal. 

No such figures as these are at present obtainable for the 
United States, and if we put the number of automobiles in 
this country at 700 it will probably be an exaggeration. 
The number of makers actually at work or organizing is prob- 
ably more than 100. Fortunately for our credit, as an in- 
ventive and enterprising nation, the first year of the new 
century ushers in with every promise of a great outburst of 
activity in the manufacture of automobiles of every descrip- 
tion. 

American constructors of gasoline motor vehicles have 
from the beginning aimed to regulate speed through 
the motor and to reduce the speed gears to one or two, ob- 
taining all intermediate speeds by increase or diminution of 
the charge. In many of the French and American vehicles 
intermediate speeds are obtained by varying the tension of 
driving belt or other friction devices, and it is to be noted 
that the very latest French construction tends in the same 
direction as our own, viz., toward speed regulation by the 
motor. This tendency is universal, and it is only because 
the necessity of striking out in that direction was appre- 
ciated in the United Slates from the beginning that Ameri- 
can constructors to-day may be considered as far, if not 
larther, advanced than their competitors in other countries 
where automobile experience is of much older date When 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

the speed changes in gasoline vehicles are under considera- 
tion, it should also be remembered that the momentum of a 
vehicle in motion always serves to efface all abruptness in 
the transition from a higher speed to a lower one or the 
reverse. 

Steam seems to have taken the lead as the source of 
power for the horseless vehicles in England and France, with 
varying success, dragging slowly along with the pro- 
gress of the steam engine for nearly a century, yet ham- 
pered by popular and governmental prejudice, obstructive 
laws and bad roads, which even in this enlightened decade 
has not been entirely cleared away. Official restrictions 
are still retarding the progress of the automobile in the 
United States; but are fast disappearing in Europe Dur- 
ing the past half century, the improvement of common 
roads has made great progress in France, Germany and 
England, so that at the present time France has taken the 
lead in good roads and is equally in the lead in the manu- 
facture of automobiles. 

In England the agitation in the interests of good roads 
started more than a half century since, with only steam 
traction interest as the principal mover. Single-handed it 
battled for road improvement with but slow progress 
against popular prejudice and obstructive regulations and 
laws. The advent of the explosive and electric motors for 
vehicle propulsion, added other and powerful impulses m 
the agitation for good roads, and with the pressure from 
the vast bicycle interest the quadriad of forces has come 
together with a combined power that will, we hope, make 
road improvement a foregone conclusion and a necessity 
in this and all other countries of progressive instincts. 
With good roads in the United States the automobile indus- 

o 

try should soon forge to the irontin legitimate activity. 



l6 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

The motor vehicle contests in France, England and the 
United States during the past halt dozen years, have done 
much to wake up an interest in the good roads movement 
and with their improvement the automobile will take its 
proper place in our every-day locomotion ; but we do not 
fear its supersession of the horse. 

Of the automobile contests that have been a source of en- 
couragement in the improvement of both vehicles and roads, 
may be mentioned the French trial races from Paris to 
Rouen in 1894, and from Paris to Bordeaux and return in 
1895. These were followed by the Chicago trial races in 
the fall of 1895, which was won by a German automobile, 
the Benz, brought over as a sample by Mueller & Sons, of 
Decatur, 111. A year later the Chicago Times-Herald or- 
ganized a contest with an offer of $5,000 in prizes for a 54- 
mile run. A large number of automobiles of foreign and 
American make were entered. The three modes of power 
were represented. 

As the time approached for the run one after another oi 
the contestants excused themselves as not being ready, 
which resulted in two vehicles making the start. The Ger- 
man gasoline vehicle of Mueller & Sons was alone to finish 
the race. This proving unsatisfactory, a further contest 
was made up for a later date, which, unfortunately, brought 
a very bad condition of the road, but resulted in prizes lor 
various kinds of showing in power, endurance and ease of 
management to the Duryea Motor Wagon Co. (gasoline), H. 
Mueller & Sons (gasoline Benz motor), a Roger-Benz (gaso- 
line motor-cycle), the Sturgis Electric motor-cycle, the Mor- 
ris & Solom electrobat, G. W. Lewis (gasoline motor-cycle), 
Haynes & Apperson (gasoline motor-cycle), the Hertel (gaso- 
line motor-carriage), and the Hornby -Akroid (gasoline car- 
riage). Nothing of this character beyond a few individual 



INTRODUCTION. I/ 

runs and an exhibition, that has attracted special attention, 
has been done in England. In Germany, while the motor- 
carriage industry has been developed to a large extent, we 
hear of no well contested trials similar to those in France 
and in the United States, having been made. 

In June, 1896, an automobile contest was made in New 
York from the City Hall to Tarrytown on the Hudson and 
return, under the auspices of the Cosmopolitan Magazine, 
which seems to have started a fresh impulse in American 
automobile industry. This contest was won by the Duryea 
gasoline motor-wagon. These contests and subsequent ex- 
hibits and trials have resulted in the formation of the Ameri- 
can Automobile Club, now numbering over 200 members, 
with its headquarters in New York City. This with the 
L. A. W. interest should become a vast force in tne interest 
of good roads. 

A general interest and enquiry has already been aroused 
all over this country in regard to automobile possibilities, 
and for information as to the constructive details and action 
of the various motive powers of the self-propelled vehicles. 

France has so far taken the lead in the development of the 
automobile as a pleasure carriage. The reason for that is 
not far to seek. Paris, where the automobile is carrying 
everything before it, is in a superlative degree the city of 
good roads. Asphalt pavements, kept in perfect order and 
smooth as a billiard table, offer tempting inducements to 
automobile constructors and riders. Every variety of design 
and device for self-propulsion can be tested under the most 
advantageous conditions. If easy running, with good loads 
and high speed, cannot be attained on the Paris boulevards, 
then it is impracticable anywhere. Prizes have been offered 
to stimulate invention and races arranged to test the devices 
offered. 



18 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

To a great extent, what is true of Paris applies in nearly 
equal degree to the other large cities of France, and to the 
roads connecting them. Long runs can be made with the 
assurance of fin: ing the perfection of good roads the entire 
distance. If, as is frequently the case, automobiles break 
down or fail from exhaustion of motive power under such 
conditions, it should be through no fault in construction or 
in ineffectiveness of the motive power when subjected to 
the test of long journeys, for this is common to all methods 
of travel. 

Following in the contest methods for invigorating con- 
structive and perfect action in all parts of a vehicle and its 
power, the great contest in France in 1897 has been most 
prolific in results in the improvement of its weak points. 

In the Paris to Dieppe contest no less than 69 entries were 
made. Fifty-five started in the race, and a finish was made 
by more than one-half the starters. A successful and con- 
tinuous trip of 1,000 miles from Warsaw, Russian Poland, 
through Germany and Belgium to Paris by an automobile 
built by Peugeot, in 10 days, and the late run of a Winton 
from Cleveland to New York, a distance of 707 miles, in 
47i running hours, counts largely in favor of the future 
stability, durability and ease of control in the vehicles of 
the new motor age. 

It is now fairly demonstrated that the horseless vehicle 
can be driven long distances over medium good roads at 
average speeds of 14 miles per hour, and for touring parties 
this leaves the horse drag far in the shade for care and 
expense. 

The automobile fever has set innumerable inventors at 
work on motors of various kinds, while many bona-fide com- 
panies have been formed for real work in producing auto- 
mobiles lor the market, and many more who are not inven- 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

tors, or even manufacturers, that have organized away up in 
the millions for apparently the sole purpose of hoisting upon 
capitalists a worthless stock. 

There seems to be but three kinds ot motive power that 
are taking the lead, viz., steam, internal combustion and 
electric motors, each of which has its adherents or is 
specially suited to its own sphere ol action or special field 
ot usefulness. As for compressed air, the radius of action 
lor road vehicles is somewhat limited, and although it has 
been tried in England and some experiments made in the 
United States, it has not as yet made much progress. 

In railway propulsion it has taken a fairly solid base 
lor useful work, having been in use in Europe and the 
United States during the past twenty years. 

In mining traction and for stationary and portable motor 
work it has taken a leading and important position as a 
motive power. 

Carbonic acid gas has as yet failed to give satisfaction, 
owing to the great sacrifice of pressure from its liquid state 
required to bring it within the limit of the working strength 
of a motor. 

Acetylene gas is somewhat expensive, and, although but 
slightly experimented with for vehicle power, it is yet to be 
developed as to its radius of usefulness in automobile work. 

Liquid air is out of the question tor motor power. 

The present year may be said to be a crucial one in the 
development ot the automobile' into permanent lines ol 
design of motors, running gear and bodies best adapted to 
each of the kinds of motive power. 

When you first sit in a motor carriage and leel yourself 
being carried over the ground with no horses in front of 
you, it produces a pleasurable sensation As you become 
more accustomed to it, the feeling grows to one of delight 



20 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

and lastly 3^011 are completely "carried away" with it. 
You experience only half the joyous possibilities of a motor 
carriage when riding as a passenger. The other hall, we 
have learned, is the driving. When you have the steering- 
lever in your hand and can speed ahead at your own pleas- 
ure by simply pressing a button, or lever ; when you wish 
to increase, or lessen the speed, or to make a quick run 
with a neighbor, then it is truly a new and delightful sen- 
sation. The vehicle of this type is so easily and safely 
controlled that one soon acquires the feeling of perfect 
confidence in himself and the motor. You can stop so sud- 
denly, turn so abruptly, or go backwards almost as quick 
as thought. 

Happy should be the owner of an automobile. 

While the over enthusiastic journals and newspapers are 
harping on the passing of the horse, it may justly be claimed 
that an incompetent driver of horses may cause as much 
damage as one on an automobile, but as men have been driv- 
ing horses for several thousand years it is fair to presume 
that the green hands in the business are fewer than those in 
the art of steering a motor carriage. If we are about to 
change to a new mode of locomotion, this is a good ime to 
begin demanding a certain amount of skill and knowledge 
on the part ol the man at the lever. The fee for examina- 
tion in cities should be nominal, and the board of ex .miners 
should be made up of engineers and experts in such machin- 
ery. There is no reason why the license leature should be 
any more of a hardship than it is for drivers ot public 
vehicles. It is certainly desirable for the general public that 
none but competent men be allowed to manipulate the new 
vehicles, especially for the next few years, while the horse 
is becoming reconciled to the new order of things. 

In providing for the limit of speed allowed to automobiles 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

there is no reason why the regulations should be any more 
severe than those now in use to prevent fast driving with 
horses. Reckless speed with horses, bicycles and auto- 
mobiles alike is chiefly a matter of place and time. A speed 
that is perfectly safe on an empty street might deserve 
arrest of the driver in a crowded park. An arbitrary limit 
of some kind must be set, but its enforcement, as in the 
case of bicycles, will have to be left largely to the discretion 
of police officers. The licensing of the drivers will be a 
far more effective check upon reckless speed, for one or 
two offenses of this sort can be made the occasion of taking 
away a driver's license. The ordinance now in force in 
Paris should be a useful model for the proposed measure 
in the cities of the United States. 

The pleasure carriage is essentially an article of luxury, 
and it has required hundreds of years of use and the talents 
of the most skilled to bring it to its present perfect condi- 
tion, and riders will demand of automobiles the same free- 
dom from noise and the same ease of motion that they get 
with the horse-drawn vehicle. Cabs and other public con- 
veyances, as well as vehicles for freight purposes, must be 
provided with positive, reliable power, one that is quick to 
respond to the calls made upon it, and one that will give the 
best results with the lightest possible weight ; one, too, that 
is simple, effective and economical. Capital stands ready 
for bona-fide investment in stages and trucks as well as in 
pleasure vehicles, just so soon as motor builders can guar- 
antee their motors to do what is required of them. 

The advantages and disadvantages of the three kinds of 
motive power for vehicles may be briefly stated for the 
consideration of all interested in the operation of the horse- 
less vehicle. 

The advantages of steam power may be sately assumed to 



22 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

be, first, absence of vibration when standing or running; 
second, light weight and simple transmission ;' third, fuel 
and water easily attainable ; fourth, perfect control over all 
speeds forward or backward. 

Its disadvantages are chiefly, first, municipal obstructions 
in regard to the use of steam power, second, practical 
knowledge required in the care and operation of steam 
power ; third, injury to boiler and loss of steaming power by 
incrustation (which may be remedied by second require- 
ment) ; fourth, length of time to get up steam, a few 
moments only ; fifth, required watchfulness of water level 
and operation of the burner, whether automatic or not. 

The advantages with internal combustion motors are, 
first, absolute safety from fire or explosion . second, mod 
erate weight in proportion to power; third, economy in 
fuel and its ready purchase on the road ; fourth, freedom 
from municipal obstruction as to kind of power; fifth, its 
operation easily learned. 

Its disadvantages are, first, more or less vibration accord- 
ing to design of motor; second, motors must be started by 
hand through a lever or by crank, although this is not 
required in some motors ; third, complexity of change speed 
gear and its operation. 

In the electric storage battery system, the advantages are, 
first, a simple and direct transmission from a reversible rotary 
motor ; second, ease of operating the motor for all speeds 
forward and backward ; third, freedom from vibration at all 
times and from noise except possibly at very high speed ; 
fourth, no preparation required for starting; fifth, freedom 
from anxiety in regard to the motive power and its care; 
sixth, ease of recharging the batteries from a local current 
plug in the vehicle stable. Its disadvantages are, first, its 
limited radius of distance from the source of supply, say 



INTRODUCTION. 23 

from 20 to 40 miles hence, only available in cities or towns 
having electric stations, or to a limited extent from country- 
electric stations; second, excessive weight and short life of 
batteries, in proportion to load carried ; third, excessive 
cost of power when charging current has to be purchased. 
For local operation where a gasoline motor electric plant 
is used for house lighting, the economy is apparent. 

Already the tendency at this stage in the progress of man- 
ufacture of automobiles of all kinds of motive power is to 
meet the desire of owners and operators of these vehicles 
for great power and fast speed. This should be guarded 
against as tending to encourage road racing, which is not 
desirable in a pleasure carriage and should be confined to 
models for racing on suitable tracks or speed wa\ s. No one 
thinks of driving a horse up a hill at a full trot ; a slow walk 
seems to satisfy most" driving tourists. Then why should a 
motor vehicle be overloaded with machinery and itself made 
heavier to accomplish excessive speed either on the road or 
in hill climbing. This idea is especially pointed for family- 
comfort on the road and for touring. Where is the pleasure 
of rushing through the country at break-neck speed with 
eyes riveted upon your machine gear and losing the scenic 
beauty of travel ? 

This is most applicable to the man of business who owns 
an automobile and wishes to derive relief from business 
cares and vexations by a pleasurable drive in a vehicle that 
gives confidence in its simplicity of running gear and ease 
of management. The cost is also in favor of simplicity of 
construction as well as a point with the purchaser. If for 
recreation, freedom from the thought of complicated parts 
and movements and the vexation of finding defects while on 
the road are most necessary conditions in the design of 
the horseless carriage. Let the lovers of racing sport 



24 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

only hold the reins of the fast automobile and enjoy its 
dangers. 

There is much improvement yet to be made in all the 
modes of generating and applying power to the motor 
machinery as well, also to the reduction of weight and parts 
without losing the required strength for the proper work of 
the vehicle. 

With steam-propelled vehicles the steering and speed 
movements appear to be reduced to the most simple and 
direct terms. It is the boiler and burner that are in the pro- 
gressive stage of automatic control ; but automatic devices, 
like other complex devices, require watching to give confi- 
dence in their action, and therein lies its principal trouble. 
The speed control is faultless. 

The internal combustion or explosive motor system has 
its advantages and its failings. A self-starting motor with 
one cylinder is not yet available for vehicles unless the 
motor is previously turned to the proper position for a 
forward impulse. 

With two cylinders the conditions are better and with 
three or four cylinders with consecutive impulse the require- 
ment for self-starting seems to be satisfactory. For any 
number of cylinders the lever and pawl starting device 
operated from the carriage seat has proved satisfactory 
and desirable. The devices for changing the motor speed 
by varying the charge or by mischarge, work well above 
the minimum speed at which the motor will run, say about 
200 revolutions per minute, and from this to 800 or as 
claimed by some builders, 1,000 or more revolutions per 
minute, the direct control is in most cases satisfactory ; 
but this does not cover the requirement a forward and 
reverse low speed is necessary, and at least one maximum 
speed beyond the capacity of the direct motor speed seems 



INTRODUCTION. 25 

also necessary and an intermediary speed is largely in use. 
This involves a complication of gears and gear movements 
that seem to be the only drawback to a most satisfactory 
application of this motor power for vehicles. It adds com- 
plex changes of gearing to the operating movements with 
its buzz in high speed and adds many parts to be oiled, 
cleaned and watched for loose joints from the jar of the 
running gear. 

With the electric motor there seems to be the most free- 
dom from care of all the motive powers. The driving is 
fully as simple as with the steam motor with its direct 
application to the carriage wheels, few parts to cause appre- 
hension and any incidental derangements easily found and 
remedied with but a small practical knowledge of the wir- 
ing connections. 

The weight and life of the storage batteries are the chief 
consideration for the usefulness of the electric motor vehi- 
cle for touring or long journeys. The improvements in 
storage batteries of late seem to have largely reduced the 
shortcoming of this system, and extend its radius of opera- 
tion within reasonable limits of weight, to about 100 miles 
for pleasure automobiles and to about 40 miles for heavy 
or delivery wagons. The increase of electric light plants in 
the cities and principal towns throughout the United 
States make it possible to arrange touring routes for electric 
motor vehicles for extended circuits, and thus enable this 
quiet and easily managed power to become available for 
long journeys. 

The arrangements for steering vary largely in detail and 
may be divided into three distinct methods. 

First, by pivoting the axle at its centre and operating its 
function by a screw or geared sector operated by a hand- 
wheel. This was one of the early devices and was found 



26 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

clumsy and undesirable. It has found its best practical use 
in both forms in road rollers and traction engines. In a 
road roller that we have examined, the traverse nut and 
screw are operated by the engine with a double-clutch and 
lever, which overcomes the difficulty of turning the broad- 
faced roller by hand. 

The hub pivot is in general use with hand-lever connec- 
tions for light vehicles and liand- wheel connections for the 
heavier class. 

An improvement in placing the pivots in the central plane 
of rotation of the steering wheels has entirely removed the 
hand shock by the direct lever connection, and has given to 
the automobile quadricycle the bicycle facility for steerage. 
This is one of the most desirable conditions in the guidance 
of motor vehicles The swiveling of the steering axle in the 
vertical plane is the most general in use and preferably ta 
any arrangement of an elastic frame, whether the elasticity 
is in the metal bars or jointed fittings. 

Of resilient tires the pneumatic is the one which gives the 
best results. Instead of the entire weight of the vehicle 
having to be raised over any intervening obstruction, or 
crushing it into the roadway, or when passing over a soft 
surface the wheel sinking in such a manner that it must 
either crush down or surmount the incline in front of it, the 
pneumatic tire, on the contrary, absorbs or swallows up r 
so to say, either entirely or partially, the obstruction, and 
thus obviates the necessity for the lifting of the wheel and 
vehicle, or at any rate greatly reduces the height through 
which such lifting action must take place. Not only is an 
obstacle more easily surmounted in this manner, but, lur- 
thermore, the tire obtains a better grip. The striking of 
any obstacle which may be situated on the one or the other 
side of the actual contact point on the wheel base is also to 



INTRODUCTION. 2/ 

a large extent taken up by the cushioning action of a 
pneumatic tire, and the pressure exerted through the spokes 
is greatly reduced in consequence of this reduction in side 
thrusts. In the case of the steering wheels this is an advan- 
tage of great value, inasmuch as it enables them to be 
maneuvered with a greatly reduced expenditure of energy, 
and renders their operation a far easier matter. 

It seems, therefore, that for the lighter class ol vehicle, 
anJ especially those fitted with pneumatic tires, lever steer- 
ing is the most suitable, as being the quickest in action and 
the simplest. But for the heavier vehicles and those which 
are not fitted with resilient tires, wheel-steering gear is 
practically a necessity. 

In the design and construction of the automobile one 
thing has been apparently lost sight of that will be greatly 
missed, and that is storage space. Under the seat and back of 
same in the buggy of the doctor or the country parson there 
was room for a hamper of provisions for the picnic party, a 
grip of the traveler or some supplies for the needy. In the 
light runabout of the contractor or jobber the same space 
gave him accommodation for tools or samples, and in the 
carriage in general such space, out of the way of the occu- 
pant and always at hand, has been looked upon as a 
necessity. This space in the automobile is occupied by the 
driving mechanism, and when on a touring trip the baggage 
is necessarily piled upon the carriage in a manner that sug- 
gests a moving day. Space for grip or baggage is one of the 
things in order of improvement in automobile construction. 

There is nothing of importance that we are waiting for 
to add to the automobile. No startling inventions are 
called for, and none probably are coming to solve the motor 
problem. All the mechanical essentials have been devised 
seemingly complete and ready at our hand. 



28 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

It is the combination and adaptation of well-known details 
that is needed to perfect the automobile mechanism, rather 
than pure invention. Many of the detailed parts have been 
brought into practical use within the past few years and are 
held under patents to the detriment of progress in automo- 
bile construction on the best lines of mechanical design. 

The bicycle has throughout its marvelous development 
been preparing the way for a vastly greater vehicle than 
itself. The tubing, the wheels and tires, the ball bearings, 
the sprocket and chain, the steel for every part, and the 
numerous products of automatic machinery have contrib- 
uted to the perfect action of this elegant and speedy adjunct 
to the human motor. Time and trial with the modern 
means of manufacture will eventually bring weight and 
power to their respective limits in the later vehicle for 
strength and speed. The enthusiastic designer of automo- 
biles may be led to ignore or forget precisely what is really 
needed, and purchasers may not realize exactly what they 
want. We want, perhaps, least of all for a pleasure car- 
riage, a racing machine. Speed records will never estab- 
lish permanently any type of vehicle or motor. 

The typical horse, that has been such a valued helpmate 
of man, is not the racehorse. Neither is the making of long 
runs over rough roads the thing alone to be kept in sight 
in designing the vehicle. Thousands of horses, especially 
around our cities, never go more than ten miles from home, 
and never see a piece of rough road. Let the roads, to 
some extent at least, be smooth for the vehicle, and let not 
all the concessions be made by it. Let us first try to pro- 
duce serviceable, ever-ready and easily-managed automobile 
vehicles that will run upon good roads without costing too 
much, either at first or for repairs, and let us use them and 
find pleasure and comfort and convenience in them upon 



INTRODUCTION. 29 

our good roads and for comparatively short runs, and when 
this service is fully established improvements will follow 
rapidly, until we will be able to go everywhere and do 
everything with them. The roads will be smoothing them- 
selves to entice the automobile farther and farther from 
home, until it becomes ubiquitous. 

We may expect progress in the development of the auto- 
mobile in several directions at once. We may build the 
highest types of pleasure vehicles first, for wealth and 
leisure to enjoy, the racer for the sporting community and 
from that we may meet the larger service of the more 
numerous classes, with the motor bicycle and tricycle ; 
while, on the other hand, we may speed up and lighten the 
traction engine, transforming it successively into the auto- 
truck and the delivery wagon, until the developing types 
shall meet and fully cover all requirements. 



Chapter II. 
HISTORICAL. 



THE PERIOD OF THE PROGRESS OF STEAM MOTIVE 
POWER. 



CHAPTER II. 

HISTORICAL. 
THE PERIOD OF THE PROGRESS OF STEAM MOTIVE POWER. 

The horseless vehicle seems to have had a conception with 
the dawn of steam power, for Roger Bacon predicted the 
coming power of steam in road and marine propulsion. 

The dream lay dormant for a few centuries, with an occa- 
sional spasmodic repetition and day dreams of reading, sail- 
ing and flying, until the dawn of the patent period, when, in 
1618, Ramsey foreshadowed road traction in a steam engine 
patent. Spring power had already been tried in Germany, 
and wind power for driving vehicles was being used to 
considerable extent on the flat plains of the Netherlands. 

Still slumbering, steam-road propulsion took a suggestion 
from Sir Isaac Newton about 1680 of a road wagon with a 
steam boiler with a rearward jet of steam blowing against 
the air, and which was claimed to have been accomplished 
before this time by Father Verbiest, a missionary at Pekin, 
China, by placing an asolipile with jets playing upon a 
revolving winged wheel geared to the wheels of a car. 
Nearly a century later but little progress had been made 
further than conjectural projects for road locomotion. Fol- 
lowing the slow progress of the steam engine by Papin, 
1698, Savery and others. Dr. Robinson in 1759 suggested to 
Watt the application of the steam engine for road car- 
riages, but Watt was too busy to give it attention, and the 
idea slumbered with him lor twenty-five years. The pro- 



34 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



ject was revived in successive years by Dr. Darwin and 
Boulton, Watt's partner, ending only in suggestions. Moore 
and Small kept the subject in agitation, and together, with 
Edgeworth, brought the period of the ideal horseless car- 
riage down to 1770 in England. Meanwhile automobile 
propulsion was making ideal progress on the continent, 
and in 1769 Cugnot had constructed a running steam 
wagon. It was in reality a tricycle, the front single 
wheel being driven by a pair of cylinders acting upon a 
crank shaft and geared by ratchets to the wheel shaft. 




FIGS, i AND 2. CUGNOT 's SECOND ROAD 
WAGON, 1770. 

The boiler and engine overhung the forward wheel, 
which was also the steering wheel. 

This, the first actual horseless vehicle, made a speed of 2j 
miles per hour, and was appreciated in military circles as a 
wonderful machine until it displayed erratic conditions by 
running into fences and walls. 

Not daunted by these accidents, Cugnot, under patronage 
of the minister of war, built an improved and more power- 
ful road wagon which was finished in 1770. It is still pre- 



HISTORICAL. 35 

served in the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers in Paris, 
France. 

The improved road locomotive, as it was then called, con- 
sisted of a rear frame supported on two wheels, pivoted to 
the forked frame and bearing frame with steering sector of 
the 5o-inch driving wheel, upon which the boiler and engine 
rested. The copper boiler had an internal furnace with two 
small copper chimneys passing up through the top of the 
boiler. 

It had two single-acting cylinders with pistons con- 
nected to occillating arms with pawls acting pn ratchet 
wheels fixed to the driving wheel axle. Thus each stroke 
of a piston made a quarter revolution of the driving wheel. 

This roadster showed overloading on the single driving 
wheel and came to grief by overturning in rounding a corner. 

In England, the fire of practical work in road locomotion 
slumbered with an occasional fanning by Murdock, Watt 
and Symington, which culminated only in working models. 
About 1786, Sadler of Oxford, England, was experimenting 
in the application of steam to road vehicles, when he was 
cautioned that Watt's patent covered the principles of the 
application of steam power for the propulsion of road vehi- 
cles. This seems to have stopped progress for awhile in 
England although advocates and inventors were never 
out of the field. 

In the United States, Oliver Evans seems to have been 
the first to advocate and obtain privileges in Pennsylvania 
and Maryland, to operate steam road wagons about 1787. 
His venture resulted in a combined boat and road wagon 
built in 1805. 

Charles Dallery, in France, followed in Evans' example 
with a small steamboat on wheels. 

Nathaniel Read, Warren, Mass., patented a road steam 



30 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

carriage in 1790. Nothing further than a working model 
resulted. 

Trevithick made a further advance by building and run- 
ning a steam road carriage in 1802. After experimental 
runs in and out of London, it was finally dismantled and the 
engine sold for mill use. 




Elevation. 




Plan. 

FIGS. 3 AND 4. TREVITHICK 's STEAM 
ROAD CARRIAGE, 1802. 

Road locomotion seems to have slumbered during the 
war period in Europe, with a few spasmodic efforts in the 
way of patents issued to Griffith, Brown, Burstall, Hill 
and others from 1821 to 1824. Some of these patents cov- 
ered the push-foot idea which was probably derived from 



HISTORICAL. 



37 



the duck-foot paddles of the early years of steamboat experi- 
ments, of which Fig. 5 is an example of Gordon's Walking 
Carriage, which, after several years fruitless trials, was 
abandoned as an impractical system. 

The movement, it will be seen, was made by a push-foot 




Elevation. 




Plan of Movement. 

FIGS. 5 AND 6. GORDON'S FOOT-PROPELLED 
STEAM CARRIAGE, 1824. 

connection from a three-throw crank-shaft and the lifting 
and dropping of the feet by a smaller three-throw crank-shaft 
revolving in unison with the larger one. 

Griffith built a steam carriage about 1822, in which the 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES, 




HISTORICAL. 



39 



exhaust was to be condensed in thin metal tubes exposed to 
a circulation of air. It never had a road trial. 

In the Burstall & Hill carriage an attempt was made to 
make all the wheels drivers by a fore and aft shaft with 
bevel gears. It could make but a four-mile speed and after 
a few trials, various changes were made resulting in detach- 
ing the boiler from the main body upon a pair of drag 
wheels. It was not a success. The first road coach that 
seemed to have been run with any success in England was 
built by W. H. James, patronized by Sir J. Anderson, in 




FIG. 8. GURNEY'S STEAM CARRIAGE. 

1829. This was a regular coach in form and attained a 
speed of 1 5 miles per hour. James built a number of steam 
carriages and tractor engines. 

Several patents in England and the United States fol- 
lowed this period, with a few spasmodic trials on the road 
in England. Summers and Ogle, in England, built steam 
carriages with drop-tube boilers, similar to those now used 
on American fire engines, advancing the construction to 
enable a speed of 24 miles per hour. 

Sir Goldsworthy Gurney commenced building road loco- 



40 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

motives about 1822 with improved methods derived from 
the experience and failure of contemporaries. Some of 
his coaches and carriages were run for passengers and hire 
on the public highways. 



FIG. 9. GURNEY'S STEAM CARRIAGE, MODIFIED. 

if r ~S 




FIG. 10. GURNEY'S STEAM CARRIAGE PLAN. 

He met with severe opposition from the authorities by 
high tolls and obstructions, and finally abandoned the 
business. 



HISTORICAL. 41 

In Fig. 8 is shown one of Gurney's steam carriages in ele- 
vation with an independent steering wheel, which was soon 
abandoned as impracticable. 

In Fig. 9 is an elevation of the modified carriage, and in 
Fig. 10 a plan of the running gear. 

Contemporaneous and following Gurney's trials, Hancock 
seems to have made considerable advance in the construc- 
tion of boilers and engines suitable for vehicles, a number of 
which were built extending over the time from 183 to 1840, 
carriages, omnibuses and tractors being seen on the roads 




^^^ 
FIG. ii. HANCOCK'S STEAM OMNIBUS, 1839. 

about London. One of his styles of omnibus is shown in 
Fig. ii. 

In this type of vehicle the vertical tubular boiler with 
magazine fuel feed and a blower was brought into use to 
control the steam. The chain and sprocket gear with 
inverted engine, all indicating an advance towards more 
modern economies. 

Hancock's vehicles seem to have taken the lead in Eng- 
land during this period, forming lines of steam omnibuses 
from London to Islington, Paddington, Stratford and much 
within the city. Speeds of 10 to 12 miles per hour was the 
practice and about 20 miles as a spurt on the best roads. 



42 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

The decade, 1830-1840, was an era of flotation of com- 
panies for road locomotion in England, the schemes being 
mostly promoted by speculators who had, perhaps, nothing 
better than worthless patents on which to base their claims 
for public favor. 

Colonel Maceroni, an Italian resident in England, with 
Mr. Squire, patented a vertical tubular boiler which was a 
rapid generator and capable of a working pressure of 1 50 
pounds. A steam carriage was soon built, described to be 




FIG. 12. MACERONI AND SQUIRE'S STEAM COACH, 1834, 



a simple and efficient machine with an average speed of 16 
miles per hour. This carriage plied daily between Padding, 
ton and Edgeware for several weeks, and during a run 
aggregating 1,700 miles required no repairs. 

Fig. 12 shows the general appearance of Maceroni's 
vehicle with the chain and sprocket connection from the 
engine shaft to the driving wheels. 

It was a nine-passenger vehicle and driven from cylinders 
7i by 15! inch. 

One of Maceroni's steam carriages was run in Paris, and 
one in Belgium, in 1834-5. 

Maceroni was starved out by frauds, and a general steam 



HISTORICAL. 



43 



carriage company undertook to construct carriages involv- 
ing his patents, by other parties. 

We notice but one carriage, a steam drag, running in 
Paris previous to 1840, made by Deitz. 

J. Scott Russell, in England, built a half dozen steam 
coaches in the latter part of this decade and operated them 
in Scotland and in London. Opposition by the turnpike 
companies was still rampant and culminated in the destruc- 
tion of one of his coaches. Fig. 13 represents one of J. 




FIG. 13. J. SCOTT RUSSELL 's STEAM COACH, 1834-1840. 

Scott Russell's coaches which continued on the roads until 
about 1857. 

The compensating gear appeared about 1834, invented by 
Roberts, of Manchester, which appears to have involved the 
principles of many following devices for relieving the strain 
on the driving wheels when rounding curves. A common 
name in England for this device was "Jack in the Box," 
so named probably from its hidden mechanism. It super- 
seded the claw clutches that had been previously used; 
illustrations of which are shown in the details in other 
chapters. 



44 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 14. OUTSIDE CRANK 
DIFFERENTIAL GEAR. 



The principle forms of compensating gear in use at this 
time, apart from the wheel ratchets are represented in 
Figs. 14, 15 and 16. A central through shaft had the cranks 
keyed on at right angles. The differential bevel wheels on 
a cross arm or frame were fastened on the central shaft. 
The wheels and counter bevel gears were fixed on sleeve 

shafts running freely on the 
central shaft and abutting 
against the shoulders of the 
cranks and gear cross arm. 

In Fig. 15 is represented 
another form in which the 
arm carrying the differential 
bevel pinions was made a 
gear or sprocket wheel, in 
which E D, is the revolving 
axle divided at the center. 

A is the driving gear or sprocket, attached to a frame or 
" Jack-box," which is fitted to and moves freely on the 
axle and carrying with it the small bevel pinions, B, which 
may be one but preferably two, to more perfectly balance 
the mechanism. The bevel pinions, C C, 
are fixed one to each section of the shaft. 

This differential gear as used on a trac- 
tion engine is shown in Fig. 16. 

This form is also applicable to a crank 
connection and reducing gear for any 
form of vehicle. 

One wheel and one bevel gear are fixed 
to the axle. The other wheel with its 
bevel gear runs loose on the axle. The 
driving-spur gear, with its differential pin- 
ions, runs freely on the sleeve of the fixed 





FIG. 15. DIFFER- 
ENTIAL DRIVING 
GEAR. 



HISTORICAL. 



45 



bevel gear. The long- pin serves to lock the loose wheel 
to the driving-spur gear, making the locked wheel take a 
positive motion, and locking the differential system for a 
straight run. 

Hill and Anderson were still ardent promoters of the 
steam coach industry, and several companies were operating 
coach routes in England, when, from 1840 to 1857, anintereg- 




FIG. 1 6. DIFFERENTIAL GEAR ON TRACTION 
ENGINE. 

num seemed to have fallen upon this industry for several 
years, when a revival seems to have commenced in England, 
France and the United States. The steam vehicle construc- 
tion previous to this time seems to have drifted almost 
entirely toward large coaches of capacity for from 12 to 20 
passengers. 



40 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

In the United States the lighter carriages for private use 
had their first trials in a small steam carriage built by J. K. 
Fisher, in New York, in 1853, having two cylinders, 4 by 10 
inches, and a water-tube boiler. This carriage attained a 
speed of 15 miles per hour on good roads. 

Richard Dudgeon built a small steam carriage with two 
cylinders, 3 by 16 inches, that made a speed of 10 miles per 




FIG. 17. RANSOME'S TRACTION STEAMER. 

hour. It was destroyed in the New York Crystal Palace 
fire in 1858. 

Progress was very slow in the United States, while in 
England road locomotives and traction engines seems to 
have taken the lead, and a large industry sprung up for 
foreign demand. 

The use of steam on common roads in both England and 
on the Continent seems to have drifted away from passenger 



HISTORICAL. 47 

traffic and more to traction vehicles, some for drawing pas- 
senger coaches. One of the many traction engines, of vari- 
ous types of this decade, 1860 to 1870, is shown in Fig. 17. 

This road steamer, it may be seen, had a vertical drop 
tube, or what was named in England the Field boiler. The 
cylinders were 8 by 10 inches, with crank shaft geared to 6- 
foot driving wheels. The boiler had 1 1 square feet of grate 
and 177 square feet of heating surface. The wheels had 
India rubber sectional tires, with linked shoes. Speed, 7 to 
10 miles per hour. 

In 1873, Loftus Perkins exhibited at the International 
Exposition, South Kensington, England, a novel steam road 
wagon with three wheels. A single broad rubber-tired 
wheel in front and two trailing wheels. The engine, boiler, 
and all the machinery was placed on a frame encircling the 
single driving-wheel, and turned with it in steering the 
vehicle. This construction seems to have gone back a 
hundred years, for it was much after Cugnot's ideas in Fig. 
i. The advance was in a compound engine, if by 3} by 4^- 
inch cylinders, working with 450 pounds steam pressure, 
with an engine speed up to 1,000 revolutions per minute. 

The vehicle drew a small truck or tender on which was 
an atmospheric condenser made of very small thin tubes 
which not only condensed the steam but rendered its oper- 
ation practically noiseless. It was in use for two or three 
3 7 ears, and had sufficient power to draw^ a loaded coach 21 
miles in three hours, including stops. The boiler was one 
of Perkins' high pressure tubular type. 

Mackensie, in England, built and operated a steam 
brougham in 1874, driven by two cylinders, 3} by 4^ inches, 
with sprocket chain gear and change gear for two speeds. 
He used a drop tube or Field boiler 2 feet in diameter, 4 
feet high, working at 135 pounds pressure. 



48 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

Steam road enterprise for pleasure carriages seems to 
have taken the back seat from this on for several years until 
the petroleum and electric industry gave a new impulse to 
road locomotion. 

A few spasmodic efforts still continued, however, in 
Europe and in the United States. Lee and Larned built a 
steam-propelled fire engine in New York in 1863. John A. 
Reed built a steam wagon in 1863 and operated it on the 
Western prairies. Frank Curtis, of Newburyport, Mass., 
built and ran a steam buggy in 1867. 

Carrett, Yarrow, Hay ball, Tangye, Todd and others built 
and operated steam road carriages of improved forms and 
machinery in England in the decade following 1860. 

Steam road locomotion, however, continued to improve 
in its application to industrial uses for haulage and steam 
plowing in Europe and the United States. The steam road 
roller became a most important element in road improve- 
ment and a source of power in the building of good roads. 
It has now become a necessity for road building and repair- 
ing, employing large numbers in every civilized country. 



Chapter III. 
STEAM AUTOMOBILE MOTOR APPLIANCES. 

BOILERS AND BUR.NERS FOR STEAM MOTOR VEHICLES THE 
NEW SERPOLLET STEAM MOTOR. 



CHAPTER III. 

STEAM AUTOMOBILE MOTOR APPLIANCES. 

It was not until 1889 that steam traction on roads resumed 
a new phase in the direction of vehicles for pleasure. In 
the decade previous to this date the English road laws and 
the opposition of turnpike companies appear to have 
almost extinguished road steam locomotion in England. It 
was to have a new birth in France, under more liberal roacl 
laws and regulations. 

In M. Serpollet was developed the spirit of evolution for 
the horseless carriage, which in his hands made rapid 
strides. With the development of the explosive and electric 
motor industry, the spirit of progress became epidemic in 
France and rapidly spread throughout the Continent, 
England and the United States. 

M. Serpollet's boiler was a marked innovation towards 
lightening the source of power, and the flash boiler seemed 
to take on a useful form, although the principle had been 
tried before and failed to meet the requirements. 

In Fig. 1 8 is represented one of the steam tricycles of 
M. Serpollet. 

His first boiler did not have the fuel magazine, and is 
shown in vertical section, Fig. 19, and in horizontal section 
in Fig. 20. 

The flash coil generator, Fig. 21, at first made of i inch 
lap-welded iron pipe, flattened and coiled as in Fig. 21, and 



52 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

afterward of steel or copper pipe, corrugated, as shown in 
the cut. The elongated aperture within the coil was about 




FIG. 18. SERPOLLET'S STEAM TRICYCLE. 

of an inch wide. It was placed above the fire, as shown 
at A, Fig. 19. 

They were tested at 1,500 pounds per square inch to 
insure safety at any probable pressure, a working pressure 





FIG. 19. FIG. 20. FIG. 21. 

THE SERPoivLET STEAM GENERATOR. 

of 300 pounds being the practical limit. For a larger gen- 
erator two coils, One above the other, were placed over the 
furnace and their ends connected so that the water injection 
was first through the lower coil. 



STEAM AND ITS APPLIANCES. 53 

In this method of generating steam there is no valves 
between the boiler and engine ; the injection pump works 
constantly while the vehicle is running, and the amount of 
water fed to the boiler is regulated by a three-way cock 
operated by a convenient handle for directing the required 
amount of water to the boiler, the excess returning to the 
tank through the third port in the cock. 

The feed pump could also be started by hand for the first 
charge. For stopping the motor, the water was shut off 
from the boiler. 

Incrustation was not found in this type of generator with 
ordinary clean water ; the high velocity of the water and 
steam through the narrow spaces was found to sweep any 
sediment clean from the surface and to discharge it through 
the cylinders and exhaust. 

The evaporated power of one coil was reported to be equal 
to 40 pounds of water, or more than one boiler horse power, 
with a grate surface of 108 square inches. 

This looks somewhat surprising, yet a record of 1 5 miles per 
hour with two persons on the tricycle was frequently made. 

The Serpollet boilers were further increased in power for 
larger vehicles by changing the form of the tubes, as shown 
in Figs. 22 and 23, and nesting them in series, as shown in 
Fig. 24, and stacking, as in Figs. 25 and 26. 

The furnace, Fig. 25, shows a longitudinal section, and 
Fig. 26 a cross section, showing the fire door and the 
cold air inlets above the fire, operated by a sliding damper 
for admitting cold air over the fire when the vehicle is 
standing. This being the plan of boiler used in the larger 
vehicles, had a furnace composed of fire brick tiles, set in a 
framework of special channel and tee forms of iron to 
hold the tiles securely, and the whole was encased in a 
sheet-iron box lined with asbestos. 



54 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



FlG. 24 



FIG. 22 



FIG. 23 





DQBB 



FIG. 25. FIG. 26. 

ELEMENTS OF THE SERPOLLET BOILER. 



STEAM AND ITS APPLIANCES. 




FIG. 28. LANGUEMARE 



Further improvements were made by substituting gaso- 
line or kerosene burners, one of which is shown in Fig. 28, 
in which the inlet at J received the oil under a low pressure 
by compressing the air in the oil tank sufficiently for over- 
coming the friction in the burner coil and maintain a vapor 
pressure at the jet for a full fire 
and governed by a cock in the 
oil pipe for reducing the flow of 
oil and the intensity of the fire. 

The oil entering at J, passes 
into the coil, S, becomes vapor- 
ized and passes down through 
the end of the coil, j, into the 
base, B, and up through the cen- 
tral burner tube, C, through the 
slotted nozzle, O. A plug at , 
and the screw closure at the top BURNER FOR KEROSENE OIL. 
of the burner nozzle, can be re- 
moved for the purpose of cleaning the burners. The air 
passes up through the arms of the base, B, as shown in the 

side diagram, and mingles, 
with the vapor at the base 
of the coil. A small cup 
placed below the burner, 
charged with alcohol, 
served to heat the burner 
and lower part of the coil 
sufficient for starting the 
burner with oil. 

An improved and larger 
burner by M. Languemare 

is illustrated in Fig. 29, 
FIG. 29. IMPROVED LANGUEMARE 

BURNER. which has a central valve 




HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



to control the vapor flow close to the burner tips a very 
good arrangement, as the oil or gasoline that may be in the 
fluid state in the lower part of the coil may be checked from 
feeding the burners more readily than by a valve in the 
feed tube, A. The valve wheel, D, is operated by ratchet 
wheels and chain connection with the seat. 

The cut represents a five-tip burner. The four tips, F F, 
in the arms of the frame are adjusted by screwing up or 
down for any desired size of aperture. The central tip is 
also adjusted by a screw, but is hollow, with side holes, to 





FIG. 30. 



FIG. 31, 



allow the vapor to pass to the outer tips. The cup, E, is for 
starting the burner with alcohol. 

Other forms of these burners are in use. Those for gaso- 
line require much less coil surface for vaporizing and are 
made in helical nests of three or five, with straight sides or 
cylindrical casings. 

In Fig. 30 is shown an English submerged vertical tube 
boiler with interior circulating deflectors; a liberal steam 
and water level surface and well adapted for coal, coke or 
gasoline burner. 

De Dion and Bouton, in France, made several models of 
boilers for vehicles, one of which, Fig. 31, is a vertical boiler 



STEAM AND ITS APPLIANCES. 



57 



with an outside water space connected to an inside water 
cylinder by inclined tubes, with a diaphragm across the inner 
cylindrical shell between the two upper rows of tubes for 
producing dry steam by circulating the steam generated in 
each compartment through the upper tubes. 

This boiler is especially applicable for coal or for a gaso- 
line torch furnace, which can be fixed to the grate lugs. 

Another form of boiler, made by the De Dion-Bouton 




FIG. 32. DE DION BOILER. 

Co., is of the magazine type, derived from Fig. 31, in princi- 
ple, but with an annular central shell and down draft smoke 
pipe, illustrated in Fig. 32. 

This boiler, it will be seen, has every other vertical sec- 
tion of tubes closed at their outer end and expanded in the 
outer sheet of the inside section of the boiler, while the 
alternate tube sections are expanded in both sections of the 
boiler. 

The magazine, C, is closed by an air-tight cover, AT, 
and the draft regulated by the sector cover, O. The end 



58 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

joining of the two pair of cylindrical shells, it will be 
observed, are made by annular grooved plates held by 
through bolts, in the author's opinion, a not very reliable 
construction for a high pressure boiler. 

The boiler of the steam fire engine, made by the Gould 
Manufacturing Co., Seneca Falls, N. Y., Fig. 33, is a type of 
the vertical tube system with a water fire box and sub- 
merged tubes. Its conical smoke chamber and central 
smoke pipe gives this type of boiler many advantages in 
having the water line above the tubes and a large steam 
space so desirable for this class of boilers. 




FIG. 33. THE FIRE ENGINE BOILER. 

It is the general type of boiler used in England for trac- 
tion engines, trucks, road rollers and other heavy steam 
vehicles. In the United States the horizontal or locomo- 
tive form of boiler is largely in use for road rollers and 
traction engines. 

BOILERS AND BURNERS. 

In Fig. 34 is illustrated a boiler made by the Clarkson & 
Capel Co., London, and used with the burner, Fig. 35, on 
their four-ton dray. 

The tubes in this type are only inclined from the horizon- 
tal enough to make a free circulation. The conical fire box 



STEAM AND ITS APPLIANCES. 



59 



has a large heating surface 
and receives the first im- 
pact of the flame. 

In Fig. 35 is illustrated 
the Clarkson & Capel 
burner. The oil enters the 
vaporizing coil at the bot- 
tom turn at E, as shown by 
the dotted line ; is vapor- 
ized by the flame of the 
burner and the vapor car- 
ried through a continuation 
of the coil to the needle 
valve chamber at J. 

The spindle of the needle 
valve, A 7 ", is pivoted to the 
arm of a rock shaft that 

extends to the outside of 

the mixing chamber, T, and FlG 34 ._ THE c . & c BOILER. 
connects by the arm, Z, and 

the lever, L', to the burner spindle and valve for regulating 
the flame at E. A cross bar at B guides the spindle, which 





FIG. 35. THE C. & C. BURNER. 



6o 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



is threaded on its upper end to allow the valve to be 
adjusted so as to close at the same time that the vapor 
needle valve at J closes. The valves are operated by a 
lever on the rock shaft and a link extending to a con- 
venient place for the driver to handle. 

At A is a rotary valve for regulating the inflow of air for 
diluting the oil vapor as it passes along the tube, T. A 
hand torch is used to heat the vaporizing coil before the oil 
is allowed to enter. 



ooooo oooo 
oooooooo 




FIG. 36. THE EXTERNAL FINGER 
BOILER. 

In Fig. 36 is illustrated a very effective boiler, with a 
central chamber made from eight or ten-inch lap welded 
iron pipe, with both heads drawn in and welded solid, as is 
done with the compressed air bottles or they may be riveted 
and calked, as with other boilers. 

The 1 fingers may be made of f-inch iron pipe, from 4 to 5 
inches long, welded up and squared or flattened on the 
welded end to receive a box wrench. The other ends to 
have the standard pipe thread. 



STEAM AND ITS APPLIANCES. 



61 



The casings may be made of No. 12 sheet iron, covered 
with asbestos and enclosed in a thin sheet iron case. 

The fuel evaporating coil may be made of | iron or 
copper pipe, and connected to a burner frame, as in Fig. 36 
and Fig. 37. The boiler, Fig. 37, is made of steel boiler 
plate with water leg and internal finger tubes made in the 
same manner as above described. It may have an outside 
case of thin sheet iron with asbestos packing on the cylin- 
drical part. 




FIG. 37. THE INTERNAL 
FINGER BOILER. 



FIG. 38. THE VERTICAL 
TUBE BOILER. 



The boiler, Fig. 38, with a shell made of copper, No. 10 
wire gauge, and heads of ^-inch sheet steel, flanged and 
riveted to the shell, illustrates a good practice for small 
boilers. 

The diameter for 4 horse power should be 15 inches by 15 
inches in height. The heads should be laid out for 350 
copper tubes ^-inch diameter, No. 14 wire gauge, cut to 
project -inch beyond each head and expanded by a suitable 
Dudgeon expander and the ends flanged out. 



62 



HQRSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



The vaporizing tube, as used in the Stanley system, enters 
under the edge of the shell, extends up through one of the 
tubes and down through another tube to the burner case. 
With this arrangement, a separate air jet must be used to 
start the boiler, after which the heat of the boiler is sufficient 
to vaporize the gasoline in the pipes within the boiler 
tubes. 

The jet burner, Fig. 39 is a hollow casting consisting of 
two rings with connecting necks, the upper surface having 
from 60 to 75 holes about -% of an inch diameter, through 





FIG. 39. JET BURNER. 



FIG. 40. JET BURNER. 



which the vapor meets the air drawing through the spaces 
within and around the rings. 

The jet burner, Fig. 40, may be made with two disks of 
J-inch steel plate with the edges flanged over to shut tight 
with a |~inch space and brazed, with a collar for connecting 
the vapor pipe. The holes for air feed may be laid out and 
drilled in one head before the heads are brazed, which makes 
the grilled head the template for drilling the other head. 
The size of the holes must be made to exactly fit the selected 
size of the steel tubing from which to make the thimbles t > 
fill the holes and to be expanded and the edges flared to 
make a secure joint. The size of the thimbles may be f or 



STEAM AND ITS APPLIANCES. 63 

I inch, and the number may be from 10 to 30, to suit the size 
ot burner required. The jet holes should be ^-inchin diam- 
eter and in number suited for the size of the boiler from 
three to five hundred. One thousand holes, -fa will only 
equal the area of a T S g-inch pipe. 

BOILERS AND ENGINES FOR STEAM MOTOR VEHICLES. 

In Fig. 41 we illustrate a multiple vertical tube boiler 




FIG. 41. THE MILNE & KILLAM BOILER. 

made by Milne & Killam, Everett, Mass., who are now build- 
ing boilers, burners, regulators and engines, with complete 
equipment for steam motor carriages. 

The vehicle boiler here illustrated is the stock pattern 
supplied to vehicle manufacturers, weighs complete but 1-30 
pounds. It is 15 inches in diameter and 1 5 inches high, and 
will generate steam under normal pressure for 4 horse 
power. It is built with a steel shell and has 380 copper 



6 4 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



tubes, each 14 inches long, giving a heating surface of 56 
square feet. The working pressure is 140 pounds, and each 
boiler is tested at 350 pounds. The boiler is covered with 
asbestos and aluminum. It is fitted with dry steam pipe, 
water glass fittings, gauge cocks and blow-off pipe, holes for 
water feed and steam gauge connected ; also a multiple 
tube cylindrical burner 15 inches diameter, 5 inches deep,, 
with automatic gasoline regulator. 




FIG. 42. FOUR-CYLINDER SINGLE ACTING ENGINE. 

The engine, Fig. 42, furnished with the boilers of this com- 
pany are very compact and are models of concentrated 
energy. They develop on extreme call 6 horse power, al- 
though they develop but 4 horse power with the usual boiler 
pressure of 140 pounds per square inch. 

It is of the four cylinder, single acting, reversible type 
and runs in oil in a draft-proof case; perfectly balanced and 
noiseless. Four cranks set at 90 from each other, gives a 



STEAM AND ITS APPLIANCES. 65 

perfect balance, and do away with all vibration. What is 
meant in this engine by "single-acting" is, that steam is 
admitted to one end of the cylinders only, therefore, the 
pressure on the working parts is aways in one direction, 
which prevents any noise or pounding. 

The engine is hung or suspended by the top, permitting 
it to swing fore and aft to allow for adjustment of the driv- 
ing chain. This arrangement also does away with any fore 
and aft strain on the engine or rear axle that would occur if 
the engine was stationary while going over rough roads. 
The steam pipe is so arranged that no strain is brought 
upon it by fore and aft movement of the engine. 

THE NEW SERPOLLET STEAM MOTOR. 

The new steam motor of Leon Serpollet is designed much 
on the same principles of the straight line double cylinder 
gasoline engines. It is illustrated in Fig. 43 in part sec- 
tional elevation, plan view, end view and a section of the 
compression sub-piston and inlet port at the lower right 
hand corner of the cut. 

It was designed for using the superheated steam gen- 
erated in the flash boiler. 

Steam is admitted by valves at the end of each cylinder, 
which are operated by cams on a secondary shaft geared to 
the crank shaft. The exhaust for each cylinder is by a port 
opened by the piston at the forward end of its stroke, as 
shown on the left hand cylinder in the elevation figure of 
the cut. 

By this arrangement the steam is only exhausted during 
the moment of the end of the impulse stroke. The steam 
remaining in the cylinder is compressed on the return 
stroke in the whole space up to the inlet valve. The sup- 
plementary plunger piston moving in the neck of the inlet 



66 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



passage is longer than the pistcn stroke ; it is hollow, with 
side ports at about half stroke. 

The operation is, then, that the return stroke of the piston 
compresses the steam remaining in the cylinder and inlet 
pipe until one-half the return stroke is made, when the ports 
in the sub-piston close and the compression in the cylinder 
is rapidly increased, making a strong cushion of steam in 




FIG. 43. THE SERPOLLET COMPRESSION ENGINE. 

both the cylinder and inlet pipe. The inlet valve then 
opens, letting in a charge of high pressure and temperature 
steam ; not against the full area of the large piston, but 
against the area of the sub-piston and following it until the 
small side ports open and the compression of the large 
piston is partly exhausted by expansion, when the inrush of 
the high pressure steam gives a powerful impulse during 
the middle of the crank stroke. 



STEAM AND ITS APPLIANCES. 67 

CARE OP AN AUTOMOBILE BOILER. 

The amount of steam required for a vehicle engine should 
not be much greater than for other small engines of slide 
valve type. The variable cut-off from the reversing link 
motion, with the probable leakage in valves and piston, for 
a light runabout using an average of one and a half indicated 
horse power at a fair traveling speed of 10 miles per hour, 
should use no more than 35 pounds of water per horse 
power hour. For a 3O-mile trip this would be 105 pounds 
or about 13 gallons, which will be a small storage capacity 
for such a vehicle, and may admit of a much larger storage, 
say for a 50 mile trip. The gasoline or oil storage for a 30- 
mile trip should be 16 pounds, or say 3 gallons or for a 50- 
mile trip, 5 gallons. If a surface air draft condenser is used 
and mineral oil used to lubricate the cylinder the scaling of 
a boiler may be considerably delayed, and with a small 
portion of caustic soda or any alkali added to the tank 
water if lime be present in any of its combinations, will pre- 
vent its adhesion to the boiler shell or tubes and can be 
blown out from the boiler at high pressure entirely clean, 
following a few minutes after extinguishing the burner. 
Every vehicle boiler should be provided with the means of 
quickly blowing out the contents whenever necessary. A 
further guard against fouling of the boiler may be provided 
by an elevated tank in the vehicle stable to catch and filter 
rain water, or for treating hard water with a solution of 
triphosphate of soda, which will coagulate the lime and 
allow it to settle, when the pure soft water may be drawn 
for the boiler. 



Chapter IV. 

SPECIALTIES IN AUTOMOBILE 
CONSTRUCTION. 

THE COMPENSATING BEVEL GEAR TRAIN A TWO PINION 

DIFFERENTIAL GEAR AUTOMOBILE TIRES 

ROLLER BEARING AXLES, ETC., ETC. 



CHAPTER IV. 



SPECIALTIES IN AUTOMOBILE CONSTRUCTION. 



REVERSING GEAR BY THE ECCENTRIC. 




A very compact steam motor gear for reversing is illus- 
trated in Fig. 44. The wheel, A, carries the link lugs and 
is keyed to the crank shaft ; D is 
the eccentric with a feather guide 
in the fixed wheel, A, and with a 
slot to allow it the required move- 
ment across the shaft. A link, C, 
is pivoted to the fixed wheel, A, 
and a bell crank link, , is pivoted 
in the same manner on the oppo- 
site side with its Y-arms extend- 
ing at right angles and hooked to 
pins on the sleeve, E. A yoke lever pivoted to the frame 
and traversing the groove in the sleeve, when at right 
angles with the shaft, brings the eccentric to a central posi- 
tion, and its movement either way sets the eccentric for 
forward or back motion of the engine, an equivalent of the 
link gear. 

THE COMPENSATING BEVEL GEAR TRAIN. 

The principles pertaining to the motion of an interlocked 
bevel gear train allows of several differential conditions in 
its motions that are interesting in view of its almost univer- 



FIG. 44. REVERSING 
ECCENTRIC. 



72 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

sal and indispensable use as the compensating gear for dif- 
ferentiating the speed of the driving wheels when running 
on curves. 

There are several different conditions that can exist with 
a train of this character ; one of which is illustrated in 
Fig. 45. First, let the gear or arm, A, be fixed and both 
B and M free to turn. Gears C and D then act as inter- 
mediate bevel gears and B and M will turn at the same 
speed but in opposite directions. In the transmission of 
power from one gear to the other the force tending to 




FIG. 45. COMPENSATING BEVEL GEAR TRAIN. 

rotate the gear or arm, A, is just half the force transmitted 
from B to M. Second, suppose B to be fixed and M to be 
driven from outside, gear A being free to revolve with its 
shaft. It is clear that A will make only one-half as many 
turns as Mand in the same direction. Third, if Mbe fixed 
and B the driver, A will turn one-half as many times as B 
and in the same direction. Suppose both M and B to have 
independent motions and A to be free to revolve. If Mand 
B move in unison in the same direction, they will simply 
carry A along with them. If one moves faster than the 
other, A will follow that one If they have motions in oppo- 
site directions and at the same speed, A will remain station- 



SPECIALTIES IN AUTOMOBILE CONSTRUCTION. 73 

ary, and if either B or M moves faster than the other, A will 
follow that gear as before at a differential speed when they 
were turning in the same direction. The amount of motion 
of A will be equal to one-half the angular motion gained by 
either of the other gears. 

These applications are numerous and varied, and in many 
instances results can be accomplished through their use that 
would be difficult, if not impossible, without them. 

A TWO-PINION DIFFERENTIAL GEAR. 

The simple differential gear, Fig. 46, is an English device 
used on motor tricycles. The wheel hubs are fixed to the 
outer ends of incased shafts. The inner ends are pivoted by 
universal joints to pinions at an angle of about 30 from the 




FIG. 46. A DIFFERENTIAL GEAR. 

axle and incased in a frame or box terminating in the hollow 
shafts with shoulders bearing against the wheel hubs. On 
one of the hollow shafts the sprocket wheel and friction 
brake pulleys are fixed. 

The power is given to the inner axles by turning the hoi- 
low shaft and gear box in which the differential pinions are 
journaled, thus allowing a free differential movement of the 
two inner axles and wheels. 

AUTOMOBILE TIRES. 

The spring wheel was the unsuccessful forerunner of the 
rubber tire. A few trials on the early steam carriages 
proved their unfitness. When rubber tires were first devised 
there was no intention of putting them on anything except 



74 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

bicycles. There had been, however, back in the '40*8, a man 
named Thomson who constructed an inflatable tire of canvas 
and rubber and leather to put on a wagon, but he had no 
success with it. When tricycles and bicycles came into use 
it was found quite natural to shoe them with solid rubber 
bands and nothing else was done for a number of years, until 
in the '8o's the safety bicycle was invented on account of 
the numerous accidents in riding the " ordinary ; " and this 
safety bicycle was also shod with a solid tire. In 1886, Over- 
man, of Springfield, made a rubber tire with a hole run- 
ning through the center of it, just like a piece of tubing, 
with very thick walls, the hole enabling the walls of the tire 
to yield more to the inequalities of the road. The solid rub- 
ber tire, however, held its own until the season of 1890, 
there being but few " cushion " tires (as the Overman tire 
was called) put into use. Meanwhile in the late '8o's, in 
England, Mr. Dunlop invented his inner-tube tire, which 
consists of a rubber bag in circular form provided with a 
valve to inflate it ; this was covered by a rubber and canvas 
shoe to stand the attrition of the road. The Dunlop tire 
was first seen in this country in September, 1890, when a 
man named Laurie came over and won all the races because 
he had pneumatic tires. Tillinghast, of Providence, invented 
what is now called the single-tube tire, which was a one- 
body tire, holding itself the valve to inflate it and having 
the wearing body and the air-containing body all vulcanized 
into one integral whole. This tire was a good deal criti- 
cised, but Tillinghast persevered, and in two or three years 
the single tube tire made its way in the market and is in 
general use. It is only seven or eight years since pneumatic 
tires were put upon any vehicle except bicycles and tri- 
cycles. Their first appearance was on trotting sulkies, and 
from these vehicles they gradually crept on to road wagons. 



SPECIALTIES IN AUTOMOBILE CONSTRUCTION. / 

It was not, however, until the automobile came to the front,, 
along about 1894, that the pneumatic shoeing of large vehi- 
cles was adopted. There have been many attempts to make 
a satisfactory automobile tire. As yet no automobile tire is 
what it should be. No construction of canvas and rubber 
seems to be able to withstand the tremendous test of weight 
which is given it over the roads in this country. In France, 
with their better roads, they have better success. The 
driving mechanism of automobiles really requires a pneu- 
matic tire, for a solid tire will shake most mechanism to 
pieces or disturb its action, especially in the case of elec- 
tricity. At the same time the life of automobile tires, where 
there is much weight, is very short. The costly tires put 
on automobile cabs last something like three or four months, 
and as they are very expensive, the mileage required to- 
keep such a cab shod is disastrous to economies. Figuring 
out the cost of tires against the cost of a horse, including 
his care and his wear and tear, it has been asserted that the 
horse costs less in feed than the tires on the vehicle. It may 
be said, however, that the pneumatic tire for heavy vehicles 
is still in an experimental stage. Just how much longer it 
will remain so is yet to be seen. At the present time sub- 
stantially all automobile tires are single-tube tires, con- 
structed according to the Tillinghast invention. On the 
lighter vehicles, tire life is much longer, and with care seems, 
to fill the requirement. 

The later inventions and combinations in their structure 
and internal elastic bracing points to their ultimate best 
forms of structure which will probably make the pneu- 
matic tire satisfactory and a permanent wheel shoe for all 
purposes. 

Since all automobiles must be equipped with rubber tires 
of one kind or another, and no one feature is of more vital 



76 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

* 

importance than the tires, it goes without saying that all 
users and owners of automobiles are on the watch for the 
latest and most improved make and style of rubber tire to 
be found. While it is true that rubber tires were used ,in 
Europe before they were in this country, it remained for an 
American inventor to produce the first real success in the 
way of rubber carriage tires. The method of applying the 







FIG. 47. THE SOUD RUBBER TIRE. 

English tire was faulty ; in fact, it was necessary to make 
the tires so hard in order to keep them in the channels that 
the resiliency of the rubber was lost, and the most that 
could be said for the tire is that it was noiseless. 

Fig. 47 shows a cross-section of a special automobile tire 
with four retaining wires. These wires are electrically 
welded in the channel, and the tension to which they are 
drawn is only limited by the size of wire used. These tires 
are known in the market as the Kelly-Springfield tire, made 



SPECIALTIES IN AUTOMOBILE CONSTRUCTION. 77 

by the Consolidated Rubber Tire Company of 40 Wall 
Street, New York City. 

A feature that is not lost sight of by purchasers and 
owners of automobiles is that solid rubber tires give far less 
trouble and annoyance than any other style, and are fast 
growing in favor with the builders of automobiles. 

ROLLER BEARING AXLES. 

In Fig. 48 is illustrated the roller axle bearing^made by 
the Grant Axle and Wheel Co., Springfield, Ohio. It is 
claimed that the roller bearings are the most reliable of all 
the antifriction devices for automobile wheels. 

The "GRANT BEARING/^ ^-r^ (PATENTED;) 

"^ '! . ._ _^ 




FIG. 48. ROLLER WHEEL BEARING. 

The bearing lines are long on the rollers, giving greater 
stability and wear longer than ball bearings. 

They can be fitted to any wooden hub and are made for 
wire wheel hubs. 

In Fig. 49 is illustrated a roller bearing for a motor axle 
or any shaft. 

The cone rings being loose on the spindle, allow them to 
turn independently on the axle or shaft, so that in case the 
rolls should in any way become obstructed and lock, it 
would not lock the wheels, for the cones can revolve on the 
axle or spindle as in the plain box. 



73 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

ALUMINUM IN MOTOR VEHICLE CONSTRUCTION. 

Although aluminum and its alloys can never compete 
with iron or steel in cheapness for the required strength, 
yet there are other qualities which recommend it as an 
economical material in vehicle and motor construction. 
In its pure state it is light and workable in all forms, as 
castings, plates, sheets, rods and tubing. 




FIG. 49. MOTOR SHAFT BEARING. 

As no royal road for soldering this unique metal has been 
found, soldering should be dispensed with unless the con- 
ditions are favorable and the knowledge of its management 
at hand. 

Riveting makes fairly good work and can be depended 
upon for body work on carriages. The alloys of aluminum 
with 10 per cent, tin are as easily worked as brass, harder 



SPECIALTIES IN AUTOMOBILE CONSTRUCTION. 79 

than pure aluminum and can be soldered in the ordinary 
way with pure tin as a solder. The alloys with copper are 
the aluminum bronzes with from 2 to 5 per cent, of copper, 
are strong and stiff for all machinery parts, are of less than 
half the weight of iron per bulk, are rust proof and with the 
harder alloys make good wearing surfaces for cylinders, 
pistons and journals. 

The new alloy of aluminum and magnesium has made 
possibilities of a still lighter metal than aluminum for con- 
structive purposes. Another alloy of aluminum with small 
percentages of tin and copper has the low specific gravity 
of 3.39 with high transverse and tensile strength, 32,000 and 
40,000 pounds per square inch respectively. It is workable 
and may be made as hard as steel. 

An alloy of aluminum and tungsten having a specific 
gravity of 2.89 and possessing great strength is in use by 
the De Dion & Bouton Co., in France, for frames and bodies 
of automobiles. An aluminum steam motor vehicle body 
has been made by the Porter Motor Co., of Boston, Mass. 



Chapter V. 

STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES AND 
AUTOMOBILE CARRIAGES. 

GOOD ROADS APPLIANCES ROAD ROLLERS, TRACTION 
ENGINES, TRUCKS, FIRE ENGINES MOTOR 
VEHICLES FOR HEAVY TRAFFIC- 
VARIOUS TYPES OF STEAM 
AUTOMOBILES. 



CHAPTER V. 



STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILE CARRIAGES. 



GOOD ROADS APPLIANCES. 

In the improvement of our roads, the stone-breaker stands 
first in importance for producing the material, and the road 
roller gives the finishing 
touch. 

These constitute the main 
expense in making and 
keeping our roads in repair. 
The road scraper, picks, 
shovels, and barrows belong 
to every community. 

Good roads are necessary 
not only for the success of 
the automobile, but for a better highway for all purposes. 
They may be said to be the foundation of civilization ; for 
rapid and easy communication is a mode of education. 
The activities of a people keep pace with their means of 
communication. It is in evidence that civilization improves 
as the various phases of human activity are commingled by 
the better means of transport for business or pleasure, and 
what the railways have done in the long run, good roads 
will do for the by-ways. Let the interests of the League of 
American Wheelmen and the automobile clubs join as a 




FIG. 50. THE ROAD ROLLER. 



84 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

united force to push legislation, not only of States, but to 
push the good road interests with counties and towns, that 
the United States may soon rival its European models in 
good roads. 

ROAD ROLLERS OP THE HARRISBURG FOUNDRY AND MACHINE 
COMPANY, HARRISBURG, PA. 

In Figs. 51 and 52 are represented the latest improvement 
in road rollers that are quickly convertible for picking the 
surface or for plowing roads for repairs. They are also 
used for rolling dam or reservoir embankments. They are 
built in sizes of 10, \2\ and 15 tons weight; these weights 
having been found most desirable for road work. This 
company also build special road locomotives, for heavy 
haulage and freight transportation. They are built to carry 
a steam boiler pressure of 150 pounds per square inch, have 
double cylinders, and can climb grades of 20 per cent. 
Their water tank and fuel bunker have a capacity for four 
hours' continuous w r ork. For traction work the time 
capacity may be increased by additional tank and fuel stor- 
age. Every operative detail is centered convenient to the 
engineer on the platform at the rear of the boiler, over 
which a cab is placed. 

The cuts show much of the constructive principles and 
methods of operation, making it unnecessary to detail the 
parts for control of the motion of these road rollers. 

TRACTION ENGINE OF THE ERICK COMPANY. 

The traction engines of American builders have varying 
features of novelty, all claiming good points of construction. 
The tractors built by the Frick Company, Waynesboro, Pa., 
have no exception in good points, which cover their univer- 
sal use for hauling loaded vehicles, for plowing, road 



STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES. 




HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES. 87 

scraping, road rolling, and for portable power for all kinds 
of agricultural work. 

In the constructive detail of these engines, the engine, 
gearing and main axle are mounted independent of the 
boiler, relieving it of the working strain of the machinery. 
Cushion main gear, for preventing shock; compensating 
gear with locking lever ; elastic steering gear and a friction 
clutch in the fly-wheel, which gives' the whole tension of the 
gear on down grades. 




FIG. 53. FRICK COMPANY TRACTION ENGINE. 

The company build four sizes of their traction engines, 
from 10 to 17 horse-power, and from 4/J to 7 tons weight. 

A COMPOUND TRACTION ENGINE. 

In Fig. 54 is represented a steam traction engine with 
compound cylinders set tandem, as made by Robinson & 
Co., Richmond, Ind., who build five sizes of traction engines 
with single cylinders, from 10 to 18 horse power. The 
transmission of power from the engine shaft is through a 
train of spur-gear and pinions to internal toothed spur- 
wheels fixed to each driving wheel. The through shaft for 
connecting both driving wheels has a compensating gear 
in the last spur-gear of the train. 

The axle of the driving wheels is bent under the boiler 



88 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES. 89 

and mounted with springs in guide boxes riveted to the 
boiler shell. The vibrating motion of the wheels from 
roughness of the road is taken up by the springs vertically 
while the distance between the axle and driving pinion cen- 
ters remain constant. 

The slide valve is controlled by a reversing link and 
lever, which also sets the cut-off when power is required, as 
for running threshing machines, saws, etc. A friction clutch 
on the fly- wheel of the engine, operated by a link and lever 
under the hand of the driv r er, controls the engine with great 
power on down grades. 

THE NEW BIRDSALL TRACTION ENGINE. 

In Fig. 55 is illustrated the new Birdsall traction engine, 
built by the new Birdsall Company, Auburn, N. Y., who 
also build a road roller on similar lines of the traction 
engine. 

The mounting of the boiler and engine is upon a through 
shaft at the rear of the fire box with coil springs upon the 
axle boxes and a frame to carry the driving pinion shaft. 

A fore and aft driving shaft transmits the power from the 
engine with bevel gear, so that by its slight oscillation the 
springs are compensated. The differential gear is within 
the large spur-gear on the main shaft, and is provided with 
cushion springs to prevent shock when starting or reversing. 

The traction wheels are of a novel construction ; their 
face being made of angle iron lugs placed in reversed diag- 
onals and riveted to angle iron tires. 

The spokes are of flat iron, in basket form, and riveted to 
the flanged hubs and tires ; a strong form of construction. 

The open face of the driving wheels gives the engine 
greater power of pull on soft ground, and prevents sticking 
of earth clods on the wheel face. 



9 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




o 

fi 



STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES. 91 

The forward axle is fixed horizontally to the boiler with 
brackets, and pivoted vertically for inequalities in the road 
or ground. The steering wheels are pivoted to the ends of 
the axles with arms and connecting link for the two wheels. 

A worm gear sector on one of the pivot arms, operated 
by a rod and wheel at the rear end of the boiler near the 
engine levers, gives complete control of the engine to the 
driver on the platform. 

MOTOR VEHICLES FOR HEAVY TRAFFIC. 

The steam lorry, or dray, is attracting much attention in 




FIG. 56. THE LEYLAND STEAM DRAY. 

England, and a large number are in use in Liverpool and 
other large cities and manufacturing centers. 

Their capacity for different sized drays range from 2 to 
6J tons. 

In Fig. 56 is illustrated the Ley land four- ton dray, the 
dimensions of which are: extreme length, 18 feet; width, 
6 feet 5 inches ; wheel base, 9 feet 1 1 inches ; tread, 5 feet 
3 inches ; wheels, 39 inches diameter ; height of platform, 



<)2 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

45 inches ; frame of steel ; front tires, 4 inches wide ; driv- 
ing tires, 5 inches wide. 

The boiler is of the vertical cylindrical tubular type, with 
a burner using kerosene oil with a vaporizer, consuming 
about 5^ gallons of oil per vehicle mile with a four-ton load. 

THE SELF-PROPELLED FIRE ENGINE. 

Fig. 57 illustrates the horseless fire engine built by the 
Manchester Locomotive* Works, Manchester, N. H. 

The steam-propelled fire engine is not a new idea in this 
line. Capt. Ericsson constructed a steam driven fire engine 
about 1840. Lee & Learned built one in New York about 
1862. Many steam-driven fire engines are in use in France. 

The fire engine illustrated is in use in Boston, New 
Orleans and Hartford, and are credited as the largest in the 
world. They are 8 tons, and can throw 1,350 gallons of 
Avater per minute to a horizontal distance of 348 feet, through 
50 feet of leading hose. 

Their boilers, as in ordinary fire engines, are of the 
upright tubular type, the shell being steel plate and the 
tubes of seamless copper. The power is transmitted from 
one end of the main crank-shaft of the engine, through an 
equalizing compound and two endless chains, running over 
sprocket wheels on each of the rear road wheels, permitting 
the wheels to be driven at various speeds when turning 
corners. The driving power is made reversible, so that the 
engine may be driven either forward or backward on the 
road at will. The steering of the engine is effected by 
means of a hand wheel at the front moving the fore axle 
through a system of bevel and worm gearing, so arranged 
that the constant exertion of the driver is not required to 
keep the vehicle in line on the road. By the removal of a 
key the driving power may be disconnected from the road- 



STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES. 




' 



94 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



driving gearing when it is desired to work the pumps with 
the vehicle standing still. 

The connecting mechanism between the steam cylinders 
and the pumps is of the familiar cross-head and connecting- 
rod type, and the pumps and other parts are of the kind 
generally utilized by this firm in the construction of ordi- 
nary horse-drawn fire engines. 

These engines have a speed capacity for twelve miles per 
hour, and can climb -grades equal to any horse-propelled 
firg engine. 

THE BALDWIN STEAM AUTOMOBILE. 

In Fig. 58 is shown an outline of the- steam surrey and in 

Fig. 59, the trap or dos-a- 
dos of the Baldwin Auto- 
mobile Company, Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

The boiler in the surrey 
is placed under the rear 
seat and the engine under 
the front seat ; from which 

FIG. 58.-THE STEAM SURREY. the driving by chain is ex- 
tended to a sprocket on the 

rear axle. In the trap or dos-a-dos the boiler and engine 
are more compact, are entirely enclosed and dust-proof. 

The boiler is of the vertical tube .type and contains. some 
300 tubes, and it is estimated that it will stand a pressure of 
i ,000 pounds, although the working pressure is but 100 to 
125 pounds per square inch. The engine is steam-jacketed 
and weighs but 38 pounds. It will develop from 4 to 6 horse 
power, is reversible, and is fitted with nickel-steel valves 
and valve faces. The exhaust steam as it leaves the engine 
is conveyed to a patented combined condenser and cooler, 
and from there is returned to the water tank. In hill climb- 




STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES. 



95 



ing, where the steam used is considerable, the surplus passes 
through an ingeniously-devised muffler and escapes without 
noise. The exhaust steam also passes through a coil in the 
gasoline tank and raises the temperature so that a light 
pressure is automatically obtained without use of the hand 
pump. 

The surrey and trap are both fitted with brakes and all 




FIG. 59. THE STEAM TRAP OR DOS-A-DOS. 

accessories. The burner beneath the boiler is regulated by 
the boiler pressure. The tanks for carrying water and fuel, 
are so constructed that the contents will not be affected by 
the motion of the carriage. 

To start the engine a hand pump is used to pump air into 
the gasoline tank to give the requisite feed pressure to the 
burner. A small receptacle is filled with wood alcohol 
(gasoline may be used) and after being lighted is set under 
the burner to give it the necessary initial heat to vaporize 



96 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

the gasoline. The burners are lighted from this by the 
turning of a cock, and after a brief time to get up steam the 
vehicle is ready to operate. 

Once started it requires no further attention beyond that 
required to see that the fuel and water supplies are not 
exhausted. The steam pressure regulates automatically by 
means of a diaphragm and valve the supply of fuel. In case 
the vehicle is left standing the supply of gasoline is cut off 
from one or two of the three burners as the steam pressure 
rises, and the third supplies merely enough heat to enable 
the vehicle to be started again at a moment's notice. The 
vehicle may be left a few minutes or hours without danger, 
with no consumption of water and only a very small con- 
sumption of fuel. 

The engine is of the two-cylinder double-acting vertical 
variety. It is very carefully constructed and exceedingly 
light, and at the same time strong. The cylinders (2^-inch 
bore and 4|--inch stroke) are set on the circumference of a 
circle struck from the center of the boiler and lie snug up 
against the latter, while the steam chest is located at an 
angle between the two cylinders, making a very compact 
arrangement. The clearance is small in the cylinder heads, 
the steam ports being wide but not deep. The exhaust 
ports are of ample size and open direct into a jacket sur- 
rounding the entire cylinder, giving at once an exhaust 
with little back pressure and a steam jacket for the cylinder. 

The exhaust steam is carried from this steam jacket to 
the combined muffler and condenser and then passes through 
the fuel tank in the shape of hot water, maintaining a suf- 
ficient pressure in the tank (if the fuel be gasoline) to avoid 
the necessity of any hand pumping. Thence the hot water 
passes to the water cooler in the dashboard, composed of a 
number of horizontal tubes, through each of which the 



STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES. 97 

water is compelled to pass before it is returned to the supply 
tank. 

The feed water is automatically pumped from the supply 
tank to the boiler, but a hand pump is also provided for 
contingent use. 

THE MILWAUKEE AUTOMOBILE COMPANY. 

The carriages of this company, which is located at Mil- 
waukee, Wis., are of the Stanhope or runabout style. The 
elevation of the Stanhope is shown in Fig. 60, and a plan of 
the running gear in Fig. 61. This company have adopted 
steam as a motive power as a well-tried and old servant 
and its ease of handling as well as its freedom from cumber- 
some transmission and reversing gear. 

The frame consists, as will be seen, of a front and rear 
truss securely tied together by distance tubes, which con- 
tain universal joints. This entire structure is built of i J-inch 
seamless tubing, strongly braced together, and has frame 
connections of steel of the best quality, riveted and brazed 
in place. 

The front truss carries the front wheels and complete steer- 
ing linkage. This apparatus enables a movement of 60 to 
be given the front wheels, which controls the carriage with 
ease at any speed, and which will turn it completely around 
in a 1 5 foot circle. 

The rear truss carries the driving mechanism and rear 
wheels. A compensating gear is provided in the middle of 
this truss to allow for unequal speed of each rear wheel. 
The gears of this device are of crucible steel, while the 
axles are the best quality of open-hearth machinery steel, 
and the hubs are keyed on in the most secure manner. The 
main driving sprocket (which also carries the brake shoe) 
has 30 teeth, i-inch pitch and T 5 ^ inch wide. 



98 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 60. THE STEAM AUTOMOBILE. 




8 



. 61. VEHICLE FRAME OP THE STEAM AUTOMOBILE. 



STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES. 



99 



The bearings throughout are of tool steel, hardened and 
ground to a finish. They have ball retainers, and are dust- 
proof. 

Steam is generated in a vertical tubular boiler 12 inches 
high and 18 inches in diameter, containing 213 copper tubes. 
It is regulated automatically and has all of the appliances 
for safety and inspection. The gasoline fuel is contained in 
a tank of 3.7 gallons capacity, situated in the footboard, not 
shown in the cuts. 

The water tank has a capacity of 15 gallons and sur- 
rounds the boiler. The exhaust passes through this tank. 
The engine is of the vertical, two-cylinder marine type, and 
runs at the rate of about 400 revolutions per minute at its 
highest efficiency, claimed to be between six and seven 
horse power. The power is transmitted by chain to the 
rear axle and gives the vehicle a maximum speed of 25 miles 
an hour. It will travel 10 miles on one gallon of gasoline 
and carries sufficient fuel and water in the tanks for 40 
miles without replenishing. 

The vehicle has a wheel-base of 58 inches and is fitted 
with 28-inch wheels, equipped with 2^-inch pneumatic tires. 
The running gear is made of seamless steel tubing with 
drop-forged connections throughout. The frame is braced 
and provision is made for allowing the wheels to adapt 
themselves to the inequalities of the road. 

The operator sits on the right hand of the vehicle, steer- 
Ing with his left hand and controlling the steam valve and 
brake with the right hand and foot, respectively. He also 
has the reverse lever and pump valve within easy reach, 
while the water glass and steam gauge are conveniently 
located for occasional inspection. Owing to the automatic 
regulation the operator is required to attend only to the 
steering and throttle valve. 



IOO 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 62. THE STANHOPE. 




FIG. 63. THE TOP STANHOPE. 



STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES.//, 



JOB. 



The company also supply independently, running gear 
and steam parts. 

STEAM AUrOMOBILES OF THE STANLEY TYPE. 

Some oi the most successful all-round steam motor car- 
riages are now being built by the Locomobile Company, of 
America, whose works are at Newton and Westboro, Mass., 
with offices at No. 1 1 Broadway, New York City. 




FIG. 64. THE TOP STANHOPE. 

In Fig. 62 is illustrated their Stanhope, or light runabout, 
and in Figs. 63 and 64 their top Stanhope suitable for 
family or physicians' use. 

In Fig. 65 is illustrated their steam surrey, or touring 
wagon ; a light and elegant vehicle for parties on long 
pleasure trips. 

The wheels of these vehicles are constructed on advanced 
bicycle principles and of strength equal to their requirement 



J02 ^ ,-: .HORSE LESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




1 
I 

w 
3 

3, 
o 



I 



STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES. 103 

of service. The lighter vehicles are provided with pneu- 
matic tires 2-J- inches diameter, and with side lamps, cyclom- 
eter, bell and tools complete. 

The running gear is of especial design and consists of 
steel truss, ball-bearing axles, with a double reach, mounted 
on four steel wheels, fitted with pneumatic tires. The rear 
axle is connected in the center by a compensating gear, 
which permits one wheel to move more rapidly than the 
other in making a turn. The front axle is stationary. The 
front wheels are connected by a swivel joint attached to the 




FIG. 66. PLAN OP THE LOCOMOBILE. 

steering gear. The steering lever is conveniently placed, 
assuring the positive control of the carriage with ease and 
quickness. 

Behind the seat of the carriage is a small square opening 
into which the water is placed. It can be poured in with a 
hose, bucket, or any kind of a vessel and goes immediately 
into the water tank, which connects with the boiler. The 
tank has a capacity of 17 gallons, will run the carriage forty 
miles on ordinary roads and can be filled at any time or 
place at the rider's option. After the water is in the tank it 
is supplied to the boiler by a power pump connected direct 



104 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

to the boiler and provided with a by-pass to the tank, giving 
the operator full and perfect control of the water supply to 
the boiler. The gasoline supply is automatically controlled 
and can be left with steam on, without any danger what- 
ever. 

The plan, Fig. 66, carries its own explanation generally. 
W. G. is the water gauge. The short lever, R, R' , operates 
the link motion. The small handle, W, opens the pump 
valve. The long handle controls the steam valve. 




FIG. 67. THE STANLEY SYSTEM OF THE LOCOMOBILE. 

The elevation, Fig. 67, shows the position of the water 
tank, boiler, engine, air and gasoline tank, with part of the 
piping and operating devices. 

The boiler is of an upright pattern, nicely fitting the space 
allotted for it, and contains forty-four square feet of heat- 
ing surface. It is tested by cold water pressure to 750 
pounds, and is provided with an automatic relief set to 170 
pounds pressure, absolutely eliminating any danger what- 
ever. 



STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES. 10$ 

The shell of the boiler consists of a length of i6-gauge 
seamless, drawn, copper tubing, 14 inches in diameter by 14 
inches deep. A half-inch flange is formed at top and bottom, 
to which the tube-sheets are riveted. A steam-tight joint 
is secured by brazing in the shell flange between the tube- 
plate and a steel ring on the under side of the flange, and 
riveting through. The boiler is then put in a lathe and two 
layers of piano wire are wound on the shell under a moder- 
ate tension. One-half inch copper tubes, to the number of 
298, are then expanded into the two tube-plates. The 
boiler, as thus completed, has a total heating surface of 42 
square feet. It is hydraulically tested to 750 pounds pres- 
sure and when ready to be put in place it weighs 105 
pounds. It is covered with a thick layer of asbestos 
lagging, outside of which is an envelope of Russia iron. 

The gasoline is carried in a copper tank, capable of hold- 
ing three gallons, which is stowed beneath the foot board. 
The tank is kept under a pressure of 35 pounds to the 
square inch and is connected by a pipe with a reserve air 
tank. The air pipe leads in at the top of the tank, and a 
branch pipe runs to a pressure gauge in front of the dash- 
board. The gasoline is forced out of the supply tank 
through a pipe which leads to the bottom of one of the 
boiler flues, to which it connects. The oil flows up through 
the flue, then by means of a pipe across the top of the boiler 
to another flue, down which it is led until it emerges from 
the bottom of the boiler to the pipe, A, Fig. 68, where it 
may be controlled by two hand-operated needle valves, as 
shown in the regulator, Fig. 68. In passing through the 
boiler the gasoline is vaporized, and its admission to the 
burner is controlled by means ol an automatic needle-valve, 
which is operated by the pressure of the water of the boiler 
upon the diaphragm at B, Fig. 68. The diaphragm is so 



106 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

adjusted that when the boiler pressure exceeds 160 pounds, 
the valve will be closed, shutting off the supply of vapor. 
The regulating valve is adjusted by the spring shown near 
the diaphragm. The steam pressure is thus automatically 
controlled through the burner, which, when the boiler has 
once been started, requires no further attention on the part 
of the operator. In order to prevent the fire from going 
out altogether when the vapor is shut off, a bypass of very 
small cross-section is provided on the needle valve, which 
allows sufficient fuel to pass to keep the burner alight. The 
second needle valve, shown in the regulator, Fig. 68, is for 




FIG. 68. THE AUTOMATIC FUEL REGULATOR. 

connecting a vaporizing pipe to be heated by a torch to 
start the burner before the boiler is hot enough to vaporize 
by the tube connections within it. The operation of the 
regulator valve is exceedingly prompt, and the device is 
one of the most pleasing among the many ingenious features 
of the locomobile. 

The engine is located in front of the boiler and is secured 
to the frame of the body. It is shown so clearly in 
Fig. 69 as to need no detailed description. It is a 
remarkably well designed and built two-cylinder engine of 
the locomotive type with Stevenson link motion and ordi- 
nary D-valves. The cylinders are 2^ inches diameter, 4 
inches stroke, and valves set to cut off at | stroke at the 
full movement of the links. The framing is of brass, and a 



STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES. 



lO/ 



special feature is the fact that the engine has ball-bearings 
both on the crank pins and the crank-shaft bearings. The 
engines are bolted to the wooden cross bracing of the body 
near the cylinders, and the lower part of the engine frame 
is kept in place by means of a strut, which extends from 
the engine frame back to the rear frame of the carriage. 
The strut is provided with a right and left hand turn buckle, 
which enables the slack of the 
chain to be taken up when neces- 
sary. To allow for the slight 
movement due to this adjust- 
ment, the steam pipe is con- 
nected with the top of the steam- 
chest by means of a U-pipe pro- 
vided with expansion joints. 
The driving of the rear axle is 
effected by means of a twelve- 
tooth sprocket on the engine 
shaft and a twenty-four-tooth 
sprocket on the compensating 
gear-box on the rear axle* 

The burner consists of a sheet- 
steel cylinder of about the same 
diameter as the boiler, and is 
carried, as shown in Fig. 67, 
immediately below the latter ; 




FIG. 69. THE ENGINE. 



within the outer cylinder is a smaller inner one, into which 
the vaporized gasoline is fed. It is provided with 114 short 
vertical copper tubes, which extend from the bottom of the 
burner, where they are open to the air, to the top plate of 
the vapor cylinder. The air passes in through these tubes, 
and at the top it meets the gasoline vapor, which issues 
from the cylinder through a large number of small holes 



108 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

around the air tubes, the vapor and the air commingling 
and burning with the familiar Bunsen flame, immediately 
below the lower tube-sheet of the boiler. 

The boiler is fed by means of a little feed pump, which is 
operated from the cross-head of the engine. The water is 
led from the tank by means of a rubber pipe, and it may be 
cut off by a cock, before the check valve, which is just in 
front of the pump, is reached. There are three check valves 
in all between the water tank and boiler and they all work 
in the same direction. From the feed-pump the water is 
forced directly to the boiler. A pipe leads from the feed 
pump to a by-pass, which is worked by a lever, placed con- 
veniently at the hand of the driver. By turning this lever 
the feed, when the boiler is full, can be thrown back directly 
into the tank. The boiler is supposed, normally, to carry 
about 8 inches of water above the tube-sheet, leaving 5 
inches of steam space ; but an inch or two either way in the 
water level is not of serious consequence, the boiler steam- 
ing satisfactorily even when there is only an inch of water 
over the lower tube-sheet. A water-glass on the outside of 
the vehicle body shows at a glance the water level. By 
arranging a mirror on the dash board, the driver can have 
the water-glass continually under his eye. Check valves 
are provided above and below the water-glass, so that if the 
glass should break there would be no rush of steam or water 
from the boiler. 

On a level road, at a speed of 10 or 12 miles per hour, the 
steam is usually maintained at a pressure of 1 50 pounds to 
the square inch. The pop-valve is set at 240 pounds. In 
operating the locomobile, one is impressed with a sense of 
the reserve power of the boiler and engines, the carriage 
starting from rest with a wonderfully rapid acceleration, 
jumping to full speed, if desired, within a very few lengths. 



STEAM PROPELLED VKHICLES. 109 

This is the type of vehicle that ascended Mount Wash- 
ington, 6,300 feet, in a run of 8 miles in two hours and ten 
minutes. It can climb a grade of 14 per cent, at 15 miles 
per hour. It has overcome, unaided, a grade of 30 without 
difficulty. 

THE CLARK STEAM AUTOMOBILE. 

In Fig. 70 is illustrated the steam dos-a-dos built by 
Edward S. Clark, 278 Freeport Street, Boston, Mass. It 
weighs about 1,200 pounds, with equipment, ready to run. 
Wire wheels, 30 and 34 inches diameter; pneumatic tires, 5 




' 
FIG. 70. THE STEAM DOS-A-DOS. 

inches diameter; the frame of steel tubing; front axle 
tubular; rear axle solid. Vertical handles for steering and 
operating the links, for all speeds and reversing, are placed 
in the middle of the seat, so that the operator may sit on 
either side of the seat. The band-brake lever is also in the 
middle of the foot-board, and can be operated from either 
side of the seat. 

Fig. 71 represents the boiler, the shell of which is made 
of steel-plate No. 10 wire gauge. The heads are flange 
steel, i inch thick, riveted to the shell and calked as in ordi- 
nary toiler practice. The boiler is 16 inches diameter, 14 



110 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

inches high outside of tube heads, and 21 inches high, over 
all, from bottom of burner to top of hood. It contains 360 
copper tubes inch diameter, weighs 140 pounds, and is 
suited for a double cylinder engine, 2j by 4 inches, running 
at 150 pounds boiler pressure. 

The Clark engines are all double cylinder and of two 
models, in regard to their operating gear. The Class A 




FIG. 71. THE BOILER. 

are built in four sizes, viz., 2 J x 4, 2^ x 4, 2f x 4 and 3x4 
inches bore and stroke. 

The cylinders are of close grain cast iron ; the frame of 
steel and bronze ; crank shaft a solid steel forging ; cross- 
heads and all bearings of phosphor bronze ; pistons of steel, 
with cast-iron spring rings. 

The valves are operated by a small independent shaft 
geared to the crank shaft, and the engine reversed by a 
sliding sleeve on the valve shaft, which reverses the motion 



STEAM PROPELLED VEHICLES. 



Ill 



of the slide valves. The pump for feeding the boiler is 
operated by an arm on the cross-head, as shown in the cut, 
fig. 72. The weight of the engine, as shown in the cut, is 
50 pounds. 

Mr. Clark furnishes boilers with fittings, burner, regulator 
complete, as shown in the cut, and the engine, to parties 





FIG. 72. -THE ENGINE. 
CLASS A. 



FIG. 73.- THE ENGINE. 
CLASS B. 



who wish to assemble their vehicles and motive power 
themselves. 

The Class B engines, Fig. 73, of Mr. Clark's construction 
are built on the same lines and material as Class A, with 
the exception of the valve gear, which is operated by four 
eccentrics on the crank shaft connected to a pair of links, 
locomotive style. The driving sprocket is placed in the 



112 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

center of the shaft between the eccentrics. The Class B 
are made in two sizes, 2J- x 3 and 2^ x 3* bore and stroke. 
The smaller size engine, as shown in the cut, weighs 35 
pounds. 



Chapter VI. 

HORSELESS VEHICLES WITH EXPLOSIVE 
MOTORS. 



CHAPTER VI. 

HORSELESS VEHICLES WITH EXPLOSIVE MOTORS. 

Almost as soon as the gas engine was successfully 
reduced to its present simplicity and reliable action, 'inven- 
tors began to apply it to road wagon propulsion. Lenoir, 
in France, patented the first explosive motor vehicle in 
1860. Benz, in Germany, was one of the first to produce a 
successful motor wagon, which was publicly exhibited in 
Munich, Germany, in 1891. 

Daimler, also in Germany, followed closely in the early 
years of the decade with improvements in explosive motors 
for marine and road propulsion. 

The new power idea spread rapidly in France and Eng- 
land and, with the electric motor, now forms the three 
principal systems of road motive power so largely in use in 
all Europe and the United States. 

A host of experimenters in France, among whom may be 
named Serpollet, Peugot. Panhard, Lavassor, Kreiger, De 
Dion and Bouton, have contributed largely in perfecting 
the mechanism of the automobile and thereby giving it a 
distinctive reputation, upon which American inventors have 
widened its mechanical and economical adapta ion for 
vehicle construction and motive power. 

The Duryeas took up the experimental line in automobile 
motors in the United States, in 1886, and after five years of 
personal effort produced their first motor vehicle in 1891. 



Il6 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

Others fell into the same line of experimental construction, 
so, that the beginning of the twentieth century has found 
the motor power greatly perfected in all its parts. 

The introduction of solid and pneumatic tires has made a 
great advance in the comfort of riding and has contributed 
largely to "the machine economy by the saving in wear and 
tear, from the excessive jar and vibratio ' caused by the use 
of iron shod wheels. 

The past decade, therefore, compasses the history of this 
branch of automobile work. The Benz wagon of its early 
date was not essentially different from its followers ; being 
operated by a single four cycle cylinder, running at a high 
speed, reduced by belts to a counter shaft and by chain and 
sprocket wheels to the wagon axle. Since then the prime 
moving units have been duplicated in the explosive motor 
vehicle, and even three or four cylinders have come into 
use with most satisfactory results. Five cylinders give an 
almost constant impulse to the shaft and keep the motor 
in uniform motion, making it possible to dispense with the 
fly wheel, or to make it so light that its weight will scarcely 
effect the total weight of the running gear. Although the 
gasoline engine by its simplicity of construction and free- 
dom from watchful care, as with steam, is better adapted 
for road wagon service, yet it has its faults of design to 
meet all requirements. In its present form it does not 
reverse and hence the necessity of somewhat complicated 
machinery for making its operation complete. With single 
cylinder motors, a high speed is necessary that the fly 
wheel may equalize the motion from a four or two cycle 
impulse. In spite of the few difficulties and inconveniences 
in operating a gasoline road wagon, it has as yet, but one 
real competitor for all - round service and for country 
touring. 



IGNITION FOR GASOLINE MOTORS I IJ 

IGNITION FOR GASOMNE MOTORS. 

The hot tube for ignition is not in general use, although it 
has done well with small platinum tubes in English and 
German motor vehicles and motor bicycles. The constancy 
of the heating jet seems to be quite as complex to guard 
from shifting air currents and to ensure a continual genera- 
tion and flow of gasoline vapor for the burner as is the 
electric ignition system, which appears to be generally 
adopted in the later European and American motor vehicles. 
For a more special study of each system of ignition a refer- 
ence to my work on " Gas, Gasoline and Oil Engines " is 
recommended, which also treats of the explosive technics of 
gasoline, vapor and air mixtures, and the management of 
explosive motors, with the theoretical considerations and 
formulas. Two kinds of sparking devices are in use. The 
separated electrodes, which require a jump spark from a 
single induction coil of the Rhumkorff type from a break 
device on the outside of the cylinder, and the single 
wire induction accumulator coil, with a wiping spark 
by break contact within the cylinder. Opinion is divided 
as to the merits of each method and their details of 
operation. 

The secondary or jump spark, however, is not by any 
means so easy to handle. The insulation must be far more 
perfect, and even then in damp weather the spark will 
sometimes run along the surface of the external parts and 
thus miss the required " jump " in the explosion chamber. 
The points in the cylinder between which the spark should 
occur will become either at their tips or their bases covered 
with carbon deposit, which, acting as a conductor, again 
destroys the spark. Most of the various Rhumkorff coils, 
moreover, require a "vibrator" in the primary current, 
-which is liable to get out of order. These troubles, bad 



Il8 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

enough with one cylinder, become worse when two are in 
use, and the commutation becomes more complicated in 
consequence. This form of coil, as a rule, requires a battery 
and does not work so well with a self-induction dynamo, so 
that for automatic use both battery and dynamo may have 
to be used, a dry battery for starting and a dynamo generator 
for a continual current. 

With the single wire or sparking coil with current from a 
live battery or permanent field generator, or other generator 
giving a nearly constant current that is broken by a wipe or 
contact sparking device \vithin the cvlinder, there are also 
troubles, resulting in mis-fires. The wiper or hammer must 
be actuated by snap devices on the outside of the cylinder 
and may be well regulated as to time and varied in its move- 
ment to delay ignition for motor speed change. Its troubles 
arise from the same carbon deposit that effects the electrodes 
with short circuit, and the wipers wear quite fast. A 
hammer contact is good, but has its noisy troubles. 

The current f >r properly firing the charge should have an 
electro-motive force of at least ten volts ; a weaker current 
will fire the mixture when all parts are clean, but much of 
the mysterious and unseen failures may be attributed to a 
weak current. The most suitable current gives a white or 
bluish-white spark, the red spark even, if large, is not 
reliable, whether a jump spark or a break c mtact. This 
essential feature should have means for easy observation in 
every electrically ignited motor, and should be the first to 
be examined when the motor stops from unknown cause. 
The amount of compression effects to a considerable degree 
the certainty of firing from the electric spark. The heat 
generated by compression, increases with the pressure, so 
that a spark that fails to ignite at 15 or 20 pounds compres- 
sion will readily ignite at from 50 to 60 pounds compression. 



Chapter VII. 
ELECTRIC IGNITION DEVICES. 

ELECTRIC BATTERIES HOW TO CHARGE THE PRIMARY 
BATTERIES TO CHARGE THE BATTERIES TO AMAL- 
GAMATE THE ZINCS THE ELECTRIC IGNITER 
ELECTRIC IGNITION COILS AN IM- 
PROVED ELECTRIC IGNITER. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ELECTRIC IGNITION DEVICES. 
ELECTRIC BATTERIES. 

When the Edison-Lalande battery is used for automobile 
work, it is not necessary to employ a sparking magneto or a 
generator, or any other device of this character, as the bat- 
tery delivers a perfectly uniform current which is just as 
strong at the end of twelve hours work as at the beginning. 
This simplifies the electrical connections very greatly, 
which is a great advantage when it is considered that gaso- 
line automobiles are handled by people having little or no 
electrical knowledge. 

The Edison spark coil is the result of a large number of 
experiments to determine the most efficient shape and style 
for use on rapid-firing motors. It is a short, thick coil, 
which will give a hot, bright spark, and yet will have an 
instantaneous discharge. This coil, when used with the 
Edison-Lalande portable batteries, types Z or V, makes a per- 
fect outfit for vehicles requiring electric ignition. 

Fig. 74 illustrates the Z Edison-Lalande battery, which is 
suitable for sparking small-sized gasoline engines, size 4^ by 
6| inches, and has a capacity of 100 ampere-hours. 

Fig. 75 illustrates the V Edison Lalande battery which is 
suitable for sparking the larger vehicle gasoline engines, 
size 5f by 8 inches, and has a capacity of 150 ampere-hours. 



122 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 74. THE Z 
CELL. 



The elements employed in the Edison-Lalande cell are 
zinc, which forms the negative pole, and black oxide of cop- 
per (Cu. O), the positive pole of the battery. The exciting 
liquid is simply a solution of caustic 
potash. The oxide of copper is ob- 
tained by the process of roasting copper 
turnings ; the oxide is then ground into 
a fine powder and compressed into solid 
blocks, from which plates of a suitable 
size for the different cells are cut. 
These plates are suspended from the 
cover of the containing vessel (a porce- 
lain jar), in a grooved copper frame, 
the sides of which are rigidly bolted to 
the cover by means of thumb nuts, one 
of which also serves as the positive pole of the battery. 
On each side of the copper oxide element in the larger type 

cells (but only on one side in the 
smaller types) is suspended a rolled 
zinc plate. These zinc plates are 
fastened by a bolt to a knob on the 
cover. This prevents any move- 
ment in the relative position of the 
elements, and does away with the 
necessity of using vulcanite sepa- 
rators to prevent any short circuits 
occurring in the solution. The 
zincs are amalgamated, and as in 
most batteries, the zinc is attacked 
more vigorously near the top than 
at the lower part of the plate. The zincs for this cell are 
made slightly tapering, the thick part being uppermost. 
The exciting liquid employed in the battery consists, in 




FIG. 75. THE V CELL. 



ELECTRIC IGNITION DEVICES. 123 

all types, of a 25 per cent, solution of caustic potash in water, 
or, in other words, of a solution of one pound of caustic 
potash in three pounds of water. When the circuit is closed 
and the cell is put in action, the water is decomposed, the 
oxygen forming, with the zinc, oxide of zinc, which, in turn, 
combines with the potash to form an exceedingly soluble 
double salt of zinc and potash, which dissolves as rapidly as 
it is formed ; the hydrogen, liberated by the decomposition 




FIG. 76. THE; EDISON PRIMARY BATTERY. 

of the water, reduces the copper oxide to metallic copper. 
A layer of heavy paraffine oil, three-eighths of an inch deep, 
is then added to keep out the air and prevent creeping. 
These batteries are manufactured by the Edison Manufac- 
turing Company, New York City. 

In Fig. 76 is illustrated an Edison four-cell primary battery 
suitable for motor ignition. It is connected in series and 
equal to an electromotive force of j\ volts. 

A current of from 5 to 12 amperes can readily be drawn 



124 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

from this battery. At a 5-ampere discharge it will give 250 
Watt hours. It can be used for lighting carriages, where it 
will give three 3-candle power lamps for a period of eight 
hours. 

This battery, which has permanent connections com- 
pletely protected from the solution and placed at the bottom 
of the box, is free from deposits of every description, ready 
for use as soon as charged, and which gives a perfectly 
steady and constant current for the whole of the life of the 
charge. The battery is absolutely free from polarization 
and one fluid only is employed, rendering it practically a 
single fluid battery. It will operate either through a spark 
or a Rhumkorff coil, and as there is perfect depolarization 
there is no possibility of failure to spark. 

It has an outside measurement of 8-J by 8J by 8 inches 
and weighs, when charged, 20 pounds. 

These batteries are furnished by the Edison Electric 
Light and Power Company, New York City. 

HOW TO CHARGE THE PRIMARY BATTERIES. (FIG. 76.) 

To Make the Solution. 

Dissolve in an earthenware vessel six pounds nitrate of soda 
{Chili saltpetre) in one gallon of water and add slowly one 
gallon sulphuric acid ; allow it to stand four or five hours to 
cool. This solution is used on the carbons and should be 
kept in a stoppered bottle. Do not mix it in a glass vessel, 
a bottle or in the battery. The heat generated may break 
glassware. 

For the zincs, add one part by volume of sulphuric acid 
to fifteen parts of water. 

To Charge the Battery. 

Put in each porous pot the amount of nitrate of soda 
stated in the description of the battery ; then fill the porous 



ELECTRIC IGNITION DEVICES. 



125, 



cell with the strong solution to within one inch of the top ; 
then insert the zincs in the outer cells and fill to top of 
zincs with the dilute acid. Place the rubber tray absorbent 
pad and lid in place and screw down tightly. The battery 
is then ready for operation. The dilute acid may be mixed 
in the box in case of necessity. 

To Amalgamate the Zincs. 

Clean the zinc by dipping it for a short time in dilute 
sulphuric acid (one part acid to ten of water), then with a 
rag rub it with mercury till it becomes 
brightly polished. 

IGNITION BY DRY BATTERY. 

Dry batteries are much in use for igniting 
the gas charge in explosive motors; espe- 
cially where the dynamo generator is in 
use, when it becomes a valuable reservation 
against failure of the generator. For start- 
ing a gasoline motor it is always ready and 
are now made with lasting qualities and can 
be depended upon for continuous service. 
The dry battery, Fig. 77, here illustrated is 
made by William Roche, 42 Vesey street, 
New York City, for gas engines and automobile motor 
ignition and much used as a reserve, or for initial ignition 
to the dynamo in starting the motor. 

Their electro-motive force is from 1.55 to 1.65 volts, with 
from 8 to 22 amperes current. The gas engine cell is round, 
7 by 3 inches. The automobile cell is 7 by 2f by 2, or 
made larger if desired. 




FIG. 77. DRY 
BATTERY. 




126 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

ELECTRIC IGNITION DEVICES. 

The sparking dynamo or electric generator with per- 
manent magnetic field is illustrated in Fig. 78. 

This dynamo igniter is constructed with a permanent 
magnet field and an armature of the drum type. It has 
self-feeding carbon brushes, and is self-lubricating, being 
provided with grease cups. The arma- 
ture, being enclosed, is dirt, oil and 
moisture proof. It can be run in either 
direction, and if the fly wheel of the en- 
gine runs true, may be driven from a fric- 
tion pulley bearing upon the same, or may 
be belted to the fly-wheel or any conve- 
FIG. 78.-GENER- nient shafting. The speed should be 

ATOR 

about 2,000. The Holtzer-Cabot Elec- 
tric Company, Boston (Brookline), Mass., manufacture these 
dynamo igniters. 

The sparking coil, Fig. 79, is of the Edison type. It is 

9 inches long, with an iron wire 
core wound with six pounds of in- 
sulated copper wire, which enables 
it to give a bright, hot spark, even 
with a weak current, from the bat- 

FlG. 79.-SPARKING COIL. tery They are furnished by the 

Edison Manufacturing Company, New York City. 

THE ELECTRIC IGNITER. 

Electric ignition for gasoline motors, in one of its forms is 
in general use. The primary current may be from a wet 
battery made suitable for vehicle service ; a wet or dry 
storage battery or from a dynamo generator with perma- 
nent magnets for the field. 

Small generators with a current wound field, so made as 
to have a magnetic reserve, are also in use. 




ELECTRIC IGNITION DEVICES. 



127 



In Fig. 80 is illustrated an ignition battery plant, in which 
the batteries may be two or three in series, connecting with 
the binding post, P, of the primary winding of the induction 
coil, 7", and continued through the other binding post, /*', to 
the breaker at K, which is operated by a break contact arm 
or cam on the reducing gear or shaJt. The secondary 
winding of the induction coil is connected to the binding 
posts of the ignition plug, P, by the wires, e, e, and con- 
tinued through separate insulating sleeves, t, i. terminating 
in the platinum points, c, c. The distance apart ot the 




FIG. 80. ELECTRIC IGNITER. 



platinum points must be determined by the intensity of the 
battery and induction coil. 



ELECTRIC IGNITION COILS. 



The principles covering the construction of the jump 
spark coil having a secondary induction coil is not gener- 
ally understood; we therefore illustrate in Fig. 81, the 
details of such a coil without a vibrator, and in Fig. 82, the 
same coil with the vibrator. The first shows the connecting 
arrangement as used by De Dion, ot tricycle fame in France. 

H, //, is the iron core generally made of soft wire. 

The heavy line coil is the primary winding over the core. 
P, P, M, M, are the primary binding posts. The upper 
posts, P and P, are connected through the battery and 
switch The lower posts, M and M, are connected through 



128 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



the breaker on the reducing gear from the crank shaft 
represented at N, F, D, G. The upper post, P t arid the 
lower post, M, are directly connected, making a complete 
primary circuit Irom the battery, A, through the switch,/, 




FIG. 81. THE JUMP SPARK COIL. 

and post, P, around the core and post, M, to the breaker at 
D, and through the lower post, M, and across by the upper 
post, P, to the battery. 

The condenser, Z, is composed of strips of tinfoil sepa 
rated by paraffined paper. 




FIG 82. JUMP SPARK COIL WITH 
VIBRATOR. 

The strips of tinfoil are continuous or in series and are 
connected as a shunt across the contact breaker through 
the posts, M, M. The secondary coil of finer wire is wound 



ELECTRIC IGNITION DEVICES. 129 

outside ot the primary coil with each end terminating in 
the sparking electrodes in the cylinder. 

The vibrating coil, Fig. 82, is the same in its parts and 
action with the coil, Fig. 81, with the addition of a spring 
vibrator shown at /% G, 

The primary circuit is completed by the cross connec- 
tion from D to C. 

The passage of the current round the primary coil, 
excites magnetism in the solt iron core, //, which then 
attracts the block, G, on the spring, G, F, thus breaking the 




FIG. 83 THE JUMP SPARK COIL IN A CASE. 

circuit at E, and stopping the flow ol current in the primary 
coil. 

This action causes the core, //, to lose its magnetic force, 
and the block, G, in virtue of the spring on which it is 
mounted, flies back, and the circuit is remade at E. only to 
be broken again in the same manner. By careful adjust- 
ment of the screw in Z>, a very rapid make and break action 
may be obtained, which takes place many times while the 
commutator bar, C, is in contact with the spring, B, and 
during this period the passage of the battery current 
through the primary winding is rendered intermittent. 

The induced secondary current also becomes intermittent, 



130 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

and this secures a succession of sparks that insures a posi- 
tive ignition. 

These coils are made and mounted in a neat substantial 
case, Fig. 83, and can be used either with or without the 
vibrator, as shown. With battery giving a current of 4 to 
6 volts a spark of i inch may be obtained from this coil. It 
is fitted with binding posts, ready to connect the wires. It 
is made by C. F. Splitdorf, 25 Vandewater Street, New 
York City. 

AN IMPROVED ELECTRIC IGNITER. 

In Fig. 84 is shown a new ignition plug of French origin 
designed by Bisson Berges et Cie, Paris. 



lA/vvvx*-* - 




FIG. 84. ELECTRIC IGNITION PLUG. 

The plug and cap may be made of best brass or com- 
position, with an extension piece cast on, or inserted with 
a platinum pin, opposite to which is a copper spindle with 
a fixed collar and a platinum point. The insulators may 
be of porcelain or of lava as made by the D. M. Steward 
Manufacturing Company, Chattanooga, Tenn. The pack- 
ing may be of mica or asbestos. The thickness of the 
packing between the two lava or porcelain insulators makes 
an easy adjustment of the distance a part of the pla- 
tinum tips. 



Chapter VIII. 
ATOMIZING CARBURETORS. 

GASOLINE VAPORIZER. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



ATOMIZING CARBURETORS. 



In Fig. 85 is illustrated a very simple atomizing carburetor, 
in which F is the cylinder port ; E, inlet valve ; G, exhaust 




FIG. 85. ATOMIZING CARBURETOR. 

valve ; D, the air inlet valve, and C the gas or gasoline 
inlet valve. A controlling valve, or cock, should be put in 
the gasoline pipe, and the air inlet pipe should have an air 



134 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



shutter for regulation of air intake. The gasoline and air 
inlet valves should be put together in separate fittings for a 
ready means of adjustment, and so arranged that the air 
valve, A strikes the stem of the gasoline valve, C, at the 
m )ment of indraft of the piston. An additional regulating 
air inlet valve should enter the inlet chamber above the 
gasoline valve, C. 

AN ATOMIZING CARBURETOR. 

In Fig. 86 is illustrated a gasoline leed atomizing carbure- 




FIG, 86. ATOMIZING CARBURETOR. 

tor from a gravity or pressure flow to the valve box, F 9 with 
a regulating cock or valve, and a supplementary air valve at 
6", both under the control of the driver. The gasoline tank 
may be placed at a lower level with air pressure. 

The inlet needle valve, E, is opened by contact with the 



ATOMIZING CARBURETORS. 135 

automatic air valve, D, which is lifted by the draft of the 
piston at the charging moment. B is a cage that forms the 
seat of the valve, D, and the guide for its spindle, C. At /, 
on the valve spindle, is a nut and lock nut by which to set 
the lift of the air valve, D. By attaching a lever to the spin- 
dle at /, the flow of gasoline to the atomizer may be con- 
trolled or closed without operating the valve between the 
valve chamber and the tank while running the motor. 

THE LEPAPE CARBURETOR. 

In Fig. 87 is illustrated the carburetor, made by M. H. 
Lepape, Paris, France. It comprises an outer cylindrical 
shell, with a cross bar and central valve chamber, with gaso- 
line inlet and regulating valves, as shown in the sectional cut. 
The central cylindrical body provided with a chamber, e, 
which can be closed both at top and bottom by valves, the 
stems of which are respectively surrounded by coiled 
springs, X and z. The outer shell at its top is closed by a 
cap, g, through which passes an adjusting screw, V, engag- 
ing the stem of the valve, a. In the lower portion of the shell 
a bell piece is mounted, which is surrounded by wire gauze, 
P t through which heated air from the exhaust heater passes. 
The gasoline to be vaporized enters at m t beneath the 
valves. The explosive mixture finds its exit through the 
tube, T. 

In inoperative position the lower valve is slightly raised 
from its seat by the upper valve, the two valve stems tele- 
scoping within each other. The movement of the stems is 
limited by stops, e. The valves being in this position the 
liquid will fill the chamber e, by gravity or pressure from 
the gasoline tank. When the inlet valve of the motor is 
open the resistance of the wire gauze will cause the cap, g, 
to be depressed, and, likewise, its adjusting screw, V. The 



136 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



upper valve stem will then be plunged into the chamber 
filled with liquid. 

By this operation the lower valve will be closed, thus cut- 
ting off the communication between the supply reservoir 
and the chamber, e. As it continues to fall, the cap will 
lorce the valve stem, /, into the liquid contained in the cham- 
ber, e, and will cause it to displace a volume of liquid equal 

to that of the immersed portion. 
The volume immersed and conse- 
quent displacement can be regu- 
lated to meet the requirements of 
the motor, by means of the adjust- 
ing screw, V, ol the cap, g. By 
turning the collar, d, a supply of 
fresh air can be admitted to dimin- 
ish the vacuum produced by the 
intake, and consequently to regu- 
late the quantity of liquid which 
falls on the wire gauze, P, since 
this volume depends upon the de 
gree of immersion of the stem. 
The liquid which- falls upon the 
wire gauze is vaporized by the hot 
air and passes to the cylinder of 
the motor, mixed with air for regu- 
lating the mixture from the perfo- 
rated shell and regulating cap, d. 

It therefore follows that the admission of a supply of cold 
air regulates the quantity of liquid which should pass to the 
cylinder, and the proportions of air and gas in the explosive 
mixture introduced within the cylinder of the motor. 

The screw, E, serves to release any air from the liquid 
supply tube, and to permit a small quantity of liquid to flow, 




FIG. 87. LEPAPE 
CARBURETOR. 



ATOMIZING CARBURETORS. 



in order to facilitate the starting ot the motor. The device 
is claimed to give a perfect carburation without odor or 
smoke. 

THE DAIMLER CARBURETOR. 

The atomizing carburetor used on the Daimler motor is 
illustrated in Fig. 88. It is of the constant level type, in 
which a float, B, operates a pair of counterweight levers, E, 
and the valve spindle, D, to control the inlet of gasoline to 
meet the exact wants for 
the motive power. 

At each charging stroke 
of the piston through the 
aspirating passage, M, the 
gasoline is drawn in a jet 
from the nozzle, /, and air 
is drawn at the same time 
from the primary air pass- 
age into the annular cham- 
ber, //, and under the drop 
tube, F, as shown by the 
arrows, and, passing the 
nozzle with great velocity 
and with the jet of gaso- 
line strikes the deflector, K, 
where the gasoline is finely atomized and mixed with the 
air. A further aeration and evaporation of the atomized 
particles of the gasoline is made and regulated by the air 
inlet through the perforated cap at the top, which is gradu- 
ated and may be operated by a handle and link from the 
driver's seat. 

A cloth filter is inserted between the flanges of the chamber 
at O, and a cavity plug, P, serves for emptying the pipe and 
reservoir and for catching any particles of dirt that may 




FIG. 88. DAIMLER CARBURETOR. 



138 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



pass into the pipe. The cap over the valve spindle has a 
small vent hole and serves to relieve any pressure caused by 
the variation of the position of the float, B. The gasoline 
enters at N, by gravity or slight air pressure in the tank as 
desired. 

THE ABEILLE CARBURETOR. 

The carburetor, or rather atomizer. Fig. 89, is used on a 
French vehicle with the Abeille motor. It is a constant 
level feed atomizer, regulating its feed from a higher level 




FIG. 89. THE ABEII^LE CARBURETOR. 

reservoir, or tank, by means of a float, B, in the receiver, A, 
which, by its floating position, opens a small conical valve 
on the lower end of the spindle, C, through the operation of 
the lever, D. The spindle C, being a counterpoise weight 
to close the inlet valve when the float, B, exceeds the proper 
height. The level of the gasoline in the receiver is adjusted 
to stand just below the top of the jet nozzle at E. An inlet 
for air to meet the gasoline jet, /, at the neck of the double 
cone, //, is shown by the circular opening in the oval flange 



ATOMIZING CARBURETORS. 



'39 



behind the jet. The suction of the piston during the charg- 
ing stroke jets the gasoline against the perforated cone in 
contact with the annular jet of air from below, where it is 
met by the regulated diluting air from the holes in the 
upper section of the perforated cone. The cap, L, has holes 
corresponding with the air holes in the inner section, so 
allowing of adjusting the area of the diluting air inlet by 




F IGf 9 o. THE W. HAY VAPORIZER. 

rotation on its screw thread. The jet nozzle can be quickly 
removed or adjusted by removing the plug F. 



GASOLINE VAPORIZER. 



In Fig. go is illustrated a vaporizer patented by Walter 
Hay, New Haven, Connecticut. It has some excellent 
features for pertecting the vapor and air mixture before it 
enters the cylinder. The gasoline enters the small annular 



140 'HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

chamber, a, a! , through the pipe, d. Several small holes 
open from the annular chamber upon the central line of the 
valve seat of the inlet air valve E, some of which have screw 
needle valves for regulating the flow of gasoline. The 
inrush of air, when the valve opens by the draft of the 
piston, atomizes the inflowing gasoline and precipitates the 
atoms upon the deep wings of a fan, //, hung upon the central 
spindle,/; the fan is set in motion by the inrush of air, 
thoroughly stirring the mixture before it enters the pipe, x, 
leading to the inlet valve, A. 

The horizontal section of the fan and chambers is shown 
at the lower right-hand corner of the cut. The exhaust 
valve, B, is opened by the rock shaft arm, dotted below in 
the cut, when the exhaust passes through the diagonal pipe 
and into the annular chamber/, surrounding the inner vapor 
and air chamber, imparting heat to both the inner chamber 
and the annular gasoline chamber a, a, and makes its final 
exit through the slotted apertures in the outer casing, as at 
g.~ The spindle casing at /', in the cut, should have a line 
across it-to separate the fan hub from the spindle guide. 



Chapter IX. 
OPERATING DEVICES AND SPEED GEARS. 

THE AUTOMATIC CLUTCH THE COMPENSATING GEAR THE 

VARIABLE SPEED GEAR A MOTOR TRICYCLE GEAR 

A FRICTION CLUTCH MOTOR CONNECTION A 

GASOLINE MOTOR STARTER STEERING 

WHEEL GEAR MUFFLERS. 



CHAPTER IX. 

OPERATING DEVICES AND SPEED GEARS. 
THE AUTOMATIC CLUTCH. 

In Fig. 91 is illustrated an automatic clutch, to take the 
place of the usual compensating gear. The upper or ratchet 





FIG. 91. AUTOMATIC CLUTCH. 

ring is made fast one to each driving wheel hub ; the ratchet 
block is pivoted in the lower ring that is loose, having small 
motion on the shaft, which is stopped by keys. The small 
collar and key are fixed to the axle, so that on a straight run 
both pawl blocks bear in the forward teeth of the hub ring. 
When rounding a curve the outer wheel gains on the inner 
wheel, throwing the ratchet block into the position shown 
in the right hand section of the cut. This clutch drives in 
the same manner in backing a vehicle, making a great 
improvement over the old forward rachets, and a very simple 
device as compared with the more complex compensating 
gear that requires a divided and sleeved axle. 

It is the invention of R. F. Stewart, Pontico Hills, N. Y. 



144 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

THE COMPENSATING GEAR. 

The compensating gear, so essential to the driving 
mechanism of motor vehicles, and so difficult to make by ama- 
teurs, can now be purchased from the Boston Gear Works, 
Boston, Mass. Their details are illustrated in Figs. 92 to 
95. The sleeve extension on the side is the friction pulley 
for the band brake. They are made in two sizes 8 inch 
pitch diameter, with sprocket teeth cut to order, with two 




FIG. 92. THE SPROCKET 
WHEEL GEAR. 



FIG. 93. SIX-PINION 
PLAN. 



bevel gear wheels and three pinions, and with sprocket wheels, 
10 inches diameter, with two bevel gear wheels and six pin- 
ions for heavv vehicles. The size and cut of the sprocket 
wheels, which are fastened with screws to the flanges on the 
rim, may be varied to order. 

In Fig. 94 are shown the details in section of a single 
chain wheel, and in Fig. 95 the arrangement in section for a 
two chain wheel. The cuts are scaled to about one-third the 
size of the smaller gear. 



OPERATING DEVICES AND SPEED GEARS. 



145 



The bevels, L and C, are secured respectively to the hol- 
low shafts, N and R. These shafts, which are independent 
of each other, are reinforced by the tubing, W, which is held 
in place by means of the collar, P. The two bevels men- 
tioned are driven by three pinions, E. The cut illustrates 
only two pinions. 

When the power is applied to the sprocket wheel, , it is 





FIG. 94. SECTION, SINGLE 
SPROCKET. 



FIG. 95. DOUBLE 
SPROCKET. 



equally distributed to the bevel gears, C and L, by means of 
the pinion, E, and two other similar ones, which pinions in 
driving do not revolve on the stud, A. These pinions being 
loose on the stud, A, when one bevel offers more resistance 
than the other (as in the case of the vehicle turning a cor- 
ner), it is obvious that the bevels can adjust themselves 



146 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

according to the resistance ottered, the rubber tires are 
therefore not injured by skidding. 

D and E represent a section of case for holding the parts 
together. 

/is a triction sleeve to receive the brake band. 

As can be seen Irom the illustration, the shaft is in two 
parts, separated by a collar that is fixed to a. reinforcing 
liner tube. When the power is applied to the sprocket 
wheels it is equally distributed to the bevel gears on the 
split shaft by means of the interposing pinions. When one 
gear offers more resistance than the other, as in turning a 
corner, the two gears can adjust themselves according to the 
resistance offered, as the pinions are loose on their studs, 
which are the driving parts of the gear. 

THE REEVES VARIABLE SPEED GEAR. 

In Fig. 96 is illustrated the principles of the variable speed 

gear as made by the Reeves 
Pulley Company, Columbus, In- 
diana, for motor vehicles. 

Variable speed is one of the 
important features in motor cy- 
cle design. Every motor cycle 

experimentalist knows that road 

FIG. 06. VARIABLE SPEED ,. . 

P conditions are constantly vary- 

ing, and to meet these ever- 
changing conditions it is absolutely essential to have a 
pliable speed device. This consists of two cones mounted 
on the motor shaft and two similar cones on the counter- 
shaft, both pairs being adjustable laterally on their 
respective shafts by the bar arrangement shown in the 
diagram, so that when the cones on the motor shaft are 
close together those on the countershaft are far apart and 




OPERATING DEVICES AND SPEED GEARS. 147 

vice versa, allowing locked adjustment at all intermediate 
stages. The specially constructed belt runs between these 
cones bearing upon the conical surfaces with the beveled 
edges ot the belt only. When the cones on the motor shaft 
are forced together the belt is therefore expanded and 
forced to run on a larger circle around the shaft, while 
simultaneously the cones on the countershaft are separated, 
allowing the belt to contract so as to run on a smaller circle 
around the countershaft. 

The belt is composed of a series of leather and iron strips, 
riveted on to a rawhide base, which enables a powerful grip 
on the edges without in the least kinking the belt. The 
central swivel bearings of the operating levers have a screw 
take-up to adjust the tightness of the belt. A double screw 
shaft, with a sprocket wheel and chain to a hand wheel, 
enables the driver to gradually change the speed. 

This device is in use on gasoline automobiles built by the, 
above company. 

A MOTOR TRICYCLE GEAR. 

A very compact gasoline motor and two-speed gear train 
is illustrated in Fig. 97. It is a French design, made by 
Dalifol & Thomas, Paris, France. 

The main axle, motor and gear-box are bracketed from 
the tricycle frame shown across the top of the cut. 

The motor, A, is in a vertical position and provided with 
air-cooling rib flanges. 

The motor-shaft terminates in the female portion of a 
friction clutch B, the male part of the same B' being carried 
on the end of a shaft, O, in the same line. On this latter 
shaft are mounted two friction clutches, C, D, the male por- 
tions of which C' , D' , are controlled by a single lever, K, in 
such a way that only one of the clutches can be in gear at 
a time. For the high gear, the two parts of the clutch, C, 



148 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



are brought into contact, the power ot the motor being then 
transmitted through the pinion, F, to the large gear wheel, 
Ej on the tricycle axle. For the low gear the lever, K, is 
pulled over to the opposite side, thus throwing out the 
clutch C and bringing the two parts of the clutch D into 
engagement, and by the same lever arm, K', the ratchet 
clutch, M, is locked to drive the pinion, /, for the slow gear 
motion. 

In this position the power is transmitted to the wheel, JS 9 




FIG. 97. A TRICYCLE GEAR. 

through the pinions, G, H, /, and /. The spur wheels, F 
and /, are always in mesh with the wheel E, they being so 
arranged that as one is driving the other runs free, and vice 
versa. The gear is entirely enclosed in a dust-proof case 
and the whole driving gear reduced to the smallest possible 
space, with its center of gravity at the driving wheel axle. 



OPERATING DEVICES AND SPEED GEARS. 



A FRICTION CLUTCH MOTOR CONNECTION. 



149 



A very compact and direct connection from a motor to 
the compensating gear of a vehicle is shown in Fig. 98. It 
is the subject of an English patent and shows a very com- 
pact arrangement of the operation of the friction clutch by 
a quick thread-screw and lever. C is an extension of the 
motor crank shaft, to which is keyed the friction pulley, T y 




FIG. 98. FRICTION CLUTCH 
CONNECTION. 

with a ball bearing at c to counteract the thrust of the quick 
screw X, which is operated by the lever W. U is the 
matched friction pulley made fast on the pinion sleeve, O, 
with a cap bearing on the thrust-screw X. A small helical 
spring, a, between the end of the crank shaft and the pinion 
sleeve cap, pushes the clutch open. The pinion sleeve is 
feather keyed to the crank shaft C 1 . Y is a nut screwed 
into the frame, V, forming a bearing for the outer end of the 



150 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



pinion sleeve and for the thrust-screw bearing thread. The 
compensating gear and box is of the usual construction and 
well shown in the cut without reference to the lettered 
parts. It has ball bearings, as shown at R R, and forms 

part of the driven axle. 

% 

A GASOLINE MOTOR STARTER. 

In Fig. 99 is illustrated a starting device, designed and 
made by Mr. Estcourt, in England, for the purpose of start- 
ing the motor by the driver without leaving his seat. 

A starting wheel, B, with oblique saw teeth, is fixed on 
the motor shaft, A. A sprocket chain C, C, is wound on a 




FIG. 99. A MOTOR STARTER. 

drum containing a coiled spring. ZJ, so arranged as to rewind 
the chain with a stop, /, so as to allow it to hang free from 
the ratchet wheel when the finger loop at E is dropped to 
the eye in the vehicle floor G, is a small sheave under the 
floor, in which the lanyard, F, runs K, is a slotted plate 
with flanges, or guard, for guiding the chain. For starting, 
the driver takes the loop, E, or its handle, in hand, first 
drawing the chain in contact with the teeth of the wheel, 
makes a sudden pull to the extent of the unwinding ol the 
chain, and as suddenly returns the handle to the floor, when 
the chain is wound up by the spring, and stopped just clear 



OPERATING DEVICES AND SPEED GEARS. 



of the sprocket wheel. If the motor does not start at the first 
effort it is repeated. 



STEERING WHEEL GEAR. 



In Figs. 100 and 101, we illustrate two of a number of 
designs for setting the steering wheels at right angles to the 
radius of their respective curves. When a vehicle is in the 
act of rounding a curve, it is imperative, in order to prevent 
side-slip, that the axes of all the wheels should radiate from 
one point ; that is to say, assuming the axis of the rear 
wheels to be fixed, then prolongations of the axis of the two 
front wheels should intersect a prolongation of the axis of 
the rear wheels at one and the same point, and this should be 



I o 




FIG. 100. STEERING 
GEAR. 



FIG. 101. BELL CRANK 
STEERING GEAR. 



the case to whatever extent the front wheels are turned. 
By swivelling the steering axle on its central bearing, it 
may readily be seen that the axle is in line with the radius 
of the curve that the vehic e is moving- over, and that the 
plane of motion for each wheel is at right angles to the 
radius of the curve. With this arrangement of the steering 
gear, the wheels run perfectly free and do not crowd each 
other with side thrust and cause Iriction. 

When the wheel pivots are placed near to or within the 
hubs, the axle in rounding a curve, is not parallel with the 
radius of the curve, the inner end taking a forward position 
and the outer end a backward position from the radius of 



152' HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

the curve drawn through the centre of the axle. It will then 
be readily perceived that the planes of the wheels do not 
coincide with the tangent of the curves on which they are 
running. Hence some arrangement of the controlling parts 
must be made to vary the planes of the wheel to meet the 
requirement of their respective radii. The amount of angular 
change in the relation of the planes of the wheels on a curve 
depends upon the length of the wheel base of the vehicle, 
and increasing therewith. In Fig. 100 is shown the ordin- 
ary method of giving the wheel on the inner curve a greater 
movement than the one on the outer curve, when a steering 
lever is pivoted to any part of the connecting link between 
the two pivot arms, a, b. The angle of the pivot arms with 
the plane of the wheels should vary somewhat with the width 
of the tread, the wheel base, and the radius of the smallest 
curve allowed for the vehicle to turn upon. The usual prac- 
tice is about 30 to the plane of the wheel. With arms at 
right angle to the axle, as in Fig. 101, with a bell crank arm 
pivoted on the axle, the angle of the bell crank should be 
about 60, or twice the angle, as in the first-mentioned 
arrangement. 

MUFFLERS. 

The suppression of the noise from the exhaust of gasoline 
and steam motor vehicles has been a matter of much com- 
ment and experiment, which has resulted in a few devices 
that have so modified the nuisance to both man and beast 
as to produce only a small hissing noise that is scarcely 
noticed by equine sensitiveness. A cylinder of about four 
times the capacity of the motor cylinder, made of sheet iron, 
and strong enough to sustain ten pounds pressure per square 
inch, is in common use. It may have two or three perfor- 
ated disks fastened within and be covered with asbestos felt 
and an outer covering of duck or tin. The end of the cylin- 



OPERATING DEVICES AND SPEED GEARS. 



153 



der opposite the exhaust entrance should also be perforated 
with an aggregate open area equal to four times the area of 
the exhaust inlet. The exhaust muffler box, or cylinder, is 
also made to contain a pipe for heating and vaporizing the 
gasoline, or for heating the charging air. 

In Fig. 102 is illustrated a device, made of iron pipe and 




FIG. 102. SINGLE TUBE MUFFLER. 

fittings, which gives a very free flow to the exhaust. The 
exhaust pipe terminates at the enlarging socket. The slots 
in the pipe are cut in a milling machine as thin as prac- 
ticable, and the cap may be also slotted or drilled, giving 
a total area of four or more times the area of the exhaust 
pipe. 

Another form in which the final exit of the exhaust may 




Oo o o o o o oo 

O OOC5OOOO 




FIG. 103. DOUBLE TUBE MUFFLER. 

terminate close to the ground is also in use and has its 
advantages. It is shown in section, Fig 103. 

A tube or iron pipe one size larger than the exhaust pipe 
may be drilled with holes equal to four or more times the 
area of the exhaust pipe and closed with a cap or welded up 
at the end. An expanding socket tapped through will allow 



154 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

of a larger pipe being screwed therein to direct the final 
exit of the exhaust down to so near the ground as to make 
it unobservable. If such a pipe is attached to the cylindrical 
muffler first described the exhaust may be made practically 
noiseless. 



Chapter X. 
MOTIVE POWER AND RUNNING GEAR. 

THE TWO CYCLE GASOLINE MOTOR RUNNING GEAR OF A 
FRENCH GASOLINE CARRIAGE NOVEL CYLINDER COOL- 
ING DEVICE GASOLINE VEHICLE MOTORS STRAIGHT 
LINE DUPLEX MOTOR CREST DUPLEX MOTOR 
OTHER MAKES OF VEHICLE MOTORS. 



CHAPTER X. 

MOTIVE POWER AND RUNNING GEAR. 
THE "YALE " TWO CYCLE GASOLINE MOTOR. 

In Fig. 104 is illustrated the motor made by the Denison 
Electric Engineering Company, New Haven, Conn. 

The motor is shown in parts that its construction may be 
more readily seen and described. They are built in suitable 
sizes for automobile, stationary and marine work. The 
sizes at present are a 3^ horse power, with single cylinder, 
4f inches diameter, 6 inches stroke. A 4 horse power, 
with double cylinder, 4-inch di-am., 4^-inch stroke, also 
double and .triple cylinder motors of the first named 
size. This company also furnish blue prints of these 
motors and pirtsin detail, suitable for working drawings. 

The crank shaft is forged from the solid, and counter-bal- 
anced, is shown to the right ; against it rests the rotary valve 
plate, M, which in use slips over the end of the crank shaft 
and fits loosely on a boss made to receive it. The plate, M t 
is driven positively by the small pin, R, shown on the left 
hand crank throw, and is spring-seated on the crank case 
cover, C, shown at left of fly wheel. As the crank revolves 
(in a spray of oil which gives perfect lubrication to all the 
moving parts), this plate, M, opens and closes the suction 
port, S, and transfer port, A, with absolute certainty, and 
also preventing the charge while being compressed in the 



158 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




MOTIVE POWER AND RUNNING GEAR. 159 

base, from blowing up the transfer pipe and around the sides 
of the piston, and out of the exhaust port, as the packing 
rings on the bottom of the piston cannot prevent this side 
leak. As soon as a piston wears even a small amount, this 
leakage is bound to take place, and is sure to produce loss 
r of power, and even prevent the engine from running unless 
provision is made for preventing it. The rotary valve, M, is 
subjected to only nominal wear, as the compression in the 
crank case does not exceed fifteen pounds, and only the cold 
charge and oil come in contact with it. The valve, M, also 
is so arranged that it makes a perfect seat, and would con- 
tinue to do so even should the crank shaft wear badly out of 
line. The remainder of the parts hardly call for further 
explanation. One feature of very great importance, how- 
ever the constant down-thrust is in marked contrast to 
engines of the four-cycle type. In four-cycle engines the 
slightest lost motion in the connecting rod or bearings 
requires instant adjustment, otherwise the engine will pound 
itself, while in this engine, the thrust always being down, 
will not pound, and no damage will result even after parts 
and bearings are badly worn. Stuffing boxes are provided 
at the ends of bearings or baffle rings on the crank shaft, so 
the charge cannot leak out, no matter how much the bearing 
and shaft should wear. 

The system of vaporization consists essentially of a supply 
tank, which is somewhat lower than the vaporizing recep- 
tacle, and a gasoline circulating pump, which, while the 
engine is running, pumps a small amount of gasoline into 
the receptacle which is attached to the air suction pipe. In 
order to make this reliable, the pump pumps faster than 
the gasoline is used, the surplus flowing back into the tank. 
This results in an absolutely even height of gasoline in 
receptacle, irrespective of vibration, and, as there are no 



l6o HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

valves in this receptacle, there is nothing to get out of 
order. 

The air is drawn into the suction pipe through openings, 
and siphons up the exact amount of gasoline, which is 
adjusted by a micrometer screw, and one adjustment only, 
is necessary for a given engine. 

The speed of the engine is controlled by two throttling 
valves on one stem, operated by a hand lever. These valves 
so adjust the flow of air that the proper amount of gasoline 
is siphoned up so as to make a perfect explosive mixture 
under all conditions, whether light or heavy explosions, slow 
or full speed, hot, cold, damp or foggy weather. No change 
or adjustment is required from summer to winter running, 
as the explosive mixture is further mixed and also warmed, 
by the violent agitation it receives at the crank case, pre- 
vious to its transfer to top side of piston, and subsequent 
compression before the explosion takes place. This method 
admits of the use of less volatile and cheaper grades of gaso- 
line than can be employed where the carbureting system 
is used. 

The sparker is of the make and break type, with an adjust- 
able and instantaneous snap motion, which is worked from 
the outside of the cylinder by a connection from the eccen- 
tric which operates the gasoline and water circulating 
pumps. This type of sparker is found to be the most dur- 
able, the least liable to become over-heated, and the most 
economical of current. The adjustment or timing of the 
spark can be regulated to a nicety, while the engine is run- 
ning ; a convenience when engines are being adjusted to 
some special class of work, as the timing of the spark is a very 
important item in the efficiency and in speeding the engine. 
The sparker is so economical of current that almost any 
form of battery will answer ; a good dry battery, or Samp- 



MOTIVE POWER AND RUNNING GEAR. 



161 



son Batteries give excellent results, although we recommend 
the Edison Lalande Battery as more durable and satisfac- 
tory in the long run. 

RUNNING GEAR OP* A FRENCH GASOLINE CARRIAGE. 

In Fig. 105 is illustrated the carriage gear made by Ches- 
nay, De Falletane & Co., Dijon, France. The motor is of 
the air-cooled type, and set vertically in the fore box, which 
is also used as a seat. 




FIG. 105. THE MOTOR VOITURETTE. 

In addition to the rib flanges, the sprinkling cylinder cool- 
ing device, illustrated in Fig. 106, is used, and which also 
illustrates the vaporizing and air-mixing device. In the 
transmission mechanism four speeds are provided. The 
motor shaft is pinioned to a counter shaft, on which is 
mounted a four step cone pulley, connected by a single belt 
to a similar pulley on a second counter shaft. A belt-tight- 
ening pulley is controlled by a foot pedal. The difficulty of 
shifting the belt on step cone pulleys is overcome by coning 
the steps, so that the shifting fork will carry the belt from 



l62 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

one step to another with ease. As the tightening pulley is 
let go, the slack in the belt allows it to readily follow the 
shifting fork without strain. 

From the counter shaft the power is transmitted by 
sprockets and chain to the rear axle, which is provided with 
a compensating gear. A friction clutch in the second coun- 
ter shaft pulley is operated by a toggle joint link arid the 
lever handle at A, at the side of the seat; its further move- 
ment operates a band brake on the second counter shaft. A 
band brake on the driving axle at the side of the sprocket is 
operated by the foot pedal at C. At K is the handles of the 
cylinder relief cock, and the index handle at H, sets the 
vapor and air mixer at G, as illustrated in the cut of the 

cylinder cooling device, Fig. 106. 



NOVEL CYLINDER COOLING DEVICE. 

In Fig. 106 is shown the method of cylinder cooling 
devised by the Borguignonne Automobile Company, of 
Dijon, France. By this arrangement a three horse-power 
motor could be kept sufficiently cool by the use of less than 
a gallon of water for a 2oo-mile run, thus largely reducing 
the weight of water otherwise stored in tanks and air- 
cooled coils. The cut shows the relative conditions of the 
system of using the heat of the exhaust for vaporizing the 
gasoline, and at the same time for producing pressure in 
the water tank to make an intermittent forced spray upon 
the wing flanges of the cylinder. In operation, the exhaust 
passes from the cylinder through the pipe, B, to the muffler 
tank, <9, and from the opposite end turns down towards the 
ground. The pressure in the exhaust pipe is sufficient to 
force part of the exhaust through the small pipe, D, to the 
vaporizer at B, and using part of the heat of the exhaust at 
Fto keep up the temperature in the vaporizer and transmit 



MOTIVE POWER AND RUNNING GEAR. 163 

a modified pressure to the water tank, H, through the small 
pipe, y. A double-barrelled cock, at G, acting as a diluter, 
is operated by the driver through two levers and link rods, 
which regulates the quantity and proportion of air and 
vapor. 

The pressure of the exhaust in the water-tank, at ' H, 
which is located so that the water will not siphon over 
through the spray pipes, produces a spray flow with each 
exhaust through the nozzles at Fand W, so distributed that 
the water will flow over the surface of the wing flanges. 




FIG. 106. CYLINDER COOLER. 

It is now well understood that the greatest economy and 
power in explosive motors is not derived from excessively 
cool cylinders, but better working effect and increased 
power can be obtained with cylinder temperatures near to 
the water-boiling point. 

GASOLINE VEHICLE MOTORS. 

The Lowell Model Company, Lowell, Massachusetts, man- 
ufacture small gasoline motors for tricycles and very light 
carriages. Fig. 107 is their three-quarter actual horse-power 
motor, which is of the two cycle compression type, having 
an impulse at each revolution and is reversible. The cylin- 



164 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



der, which is of the ribbed or air-cooled type, is contained 
in one casting with the crank chamber, three-inch diameter 
by three-inch stroke of piston ; extreme height, 14 inches ; 

width over bearings, 8^ inches ; 
length of shaft, 12 inches ; weight, 
without fly-wheel, 46 pounds. If 
extreme lightness is required, alu- 
minum is used in some of the 
parts, reducing the weight of the 
motor to 26 pounds, which is a 
desirable weight for bicycles and 
tricycles. A close regulation of 
speed is obtained by a specially 
devised valve in the transfer port, 
the handle of which is shown on 
the left of the cylinder in the cut. 
Lugs cast on the crank chamber 
allow the motor to be attached in any desired position on a 
vehicle. Ignition is electric and its device is fitted for 
either the jump spark or a sparking coil, as desired. 




I07 . 3^ H. P. MOTOR. 




FIG. 108. THE MARINE MOTOR. 



A specially devised mixing valve is used by which the 
gasoline is atomized and vaporized to obtain the best results 
with variable charges for speed. 



MOTIVE POWER AND RUNNING GEAR. 165 

The company also iurnish these motors with extended 
shafts (Fig. 108) for boats of light build from 12 to 14 feet 
long. When used for that purpose they are fitted with a 
base, thrust collar and wheel. They also furnish other 
sizes, with single and double cylinders, up to six horse 
power. 

THE STRAIGHT LINE DUPLEX MOTOR. 

Fig. 109 illustrates a form of gasoline four cycle motor of 
French origin, and now adopted, with modifications, in Eng- 
land and the United States by a number of motor carriage 
builders. The cylinders are offset just enough to allow of a 
double crank at 180, so that ignition may take place at the 
same instant, thus almost 
entirely eliminating vibra- 
tion ; or ignition may be 
made alternately with a two 
cycle effect. 

The cylinders are air- 
cooled by radial ribs, which 

are found efficient on the 

FIG. 109. THE STRAIGHT LINE 
smaller sized motors for DUPLEX MoTQR 

carriages and tricycles. 

The Crest Manufacturing Company, Dorchester, Massachu- 
setts, are building motors similar to this pattern with modi- 
fied details for carriage and cycle builders. 

To prevent an explosive engine from vibrating, it is not 
only necessary to perfectly balance all moving parts, but 
also to balance the explosive impulses. It is a well-known 
law of mechanics that " action and reaction are equal and 
opposite." When firing a gun the explosive force tends to 
propel it in the opposite direction to the projectile. The 
same action applies to the explosive engine ; the force of the 
impulse tends to throw the cylinder and bed in the opposite 




l66 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

way to that which propels the piston, and to cause it 
to kick or vibrate, imparting the motion to the car- 
riage in which it is fixed. Now, if two cylinders be tied 
together with forward ends towards each other and oppo- 
site, an equal explosion taking place in each cylinder simul- 
taneously, moving the pistons to meet each other, there will 
obviously be no kick or reaction of the cylinders and body 
of engine, because the impulse in one will be counteracted 
by the impulse of the other, but the impulses must be equal 
and take place exactly together. 

THE CREST DUPLEX MOTOR. 

The straight line duplex gasoline motor, made by the 
Crest Manufacturing Company, Dorchester, Massachusetts, 




FIG. IIO.T-THE DUPLEX MOTOR. 

is illustrated in Fig. no. It is a well designed motor for 
carriages, weighing less than 92 pounds, and develops nearly 
4 horse power. They also furnish a 2i-horse power motor 
for tricycles. 

This motor is air-cooled by convection ribs on cylinders 
and valve chests ; is crank balanced, and is of the four cycle 
type, giving a crank impulse at every revolution. 

The electric ignition is so arranged that a large variation 
in speed may be made by deferred sparking, and a division 
of power also may be made by the ignition in one cylinder 



MOTIVE POWER AND RUNNING GEAR. 



I6 7 



only, which makes this a very desirable motor for auto- 
mobile vehicle power. 

This company furnish drawings for complete running and 
power gear to customers preferring to assemble their own 
vehicles. They furnish the motor, induction coil, battery, 
vaporizer and muffler, with plans and instructions for light 
carriages of the runabout style that are suited to the wants 
of carriage builders or amateurs. 

We illustrate the method of attaching the motor in Figs. 
in, 112 and 113 fora two-seated tricycle and a buggy or 
runabout. 




FIG. in. THE TRICYCLE DESIGN. 

The cut of tricycle shown is the easiest and cheapest to 
construct, and it has but three wheels, has no differential 
gear, and the frame is of the most simple character. 

The frame is of steel pipe, i^ inches diameter, No. 12 
gauge; front axle, i inches diameter, 12 guage, reinforced. 
The under brace is f-inch rod, solid steel. The motor is 
attached direct to the driving wheel. There are two seats, 
one behind the other ; there being less air resistance on this 
account. 

The duplex 4 horse power will give all the power required 
for these types of vehicles. 

The frame work of a carriage is built of steel tubing, ij 



1 68 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 112. THE RUNABOUT DESIGN. 




FIG. 113. REAR VIEW. 



MOTIVE POWER AND RUNNING GEAR. 



169 



inches in diameter, using- No. 12 gauge. All joints should 
be pinned and brazed. Girder construction should be used, 
as it is well known that this method secures the greatest 
strength, with the least weight of material, and it is the 




FIG. 114. 



H. P. MOTOR. 



cheapest and simplest to manufacture. The frame can be 
reinforced at any point by cores of wood. All the diagonal 
and short braces are J-inch steel tubing, 18 gauge. The 
rear axle should have all bearings of either the roller or ball 



I/O HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

type of the most approved construction. The differential 
gear should be so constructed that a band brake can be used. 
The two main braces are constructed of ash or hickory. 

The wheels should be either metal or wood rims, steel 
spokes, 28 inches in diameter, with 2-inch or 2^-inch pneu- 
matic tires. This is the standard wheel for the light auto- 
mobile, and can now be purchased from various dealers in 
automobile supplies. 

The Crest Manufacturing Company also build a single 
cylinder, 2^-horse power motor, to be set in a vertical posi- 
tion, and designed on the same lines of construction as the 
Duplex, that is well adapted for tricycles or very light 
vehicles. 

This is illustrated in Fig. 1 14. It will be noticed that 
both the duplex and the single motors have their cylin- 
ders, cylinder heads and crank chambers put together with 
four through bolts, which is a great convenience in separa- 
ting the parts for cleaning or repairs, as also contributing 
largely to the lightness of construction so desirable in the 
motors for carriages. 

VEHICLE MOTORS OF THE QUICK MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
PATERSON, N. J. 

In Fig. 115 is illustrated the phaeton of this company, and 
in Fig. 1 16 the gasoline duplex motor, which is water jack- 
eted, of the four cycle type, placed horizontally, having lugs, 
as shown, to attach it easily to the frame of the vehicle. The 
valves are operated by cams on a shaft across the cylinder 
heads, which is rotated at half speed by a chain from a 
sprocket wheel on the crank shaft. The spark-igniting 
device is operated by miter gears on the valve shaft. 

The two-cylinder motor is of four brake horse power at 
700 revolutions per minute. 



MOTIVE POWER AND RUNNING GEAR. 



171 



W 
JO 




172 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



Its dimensions, as shown in Fig. 1 16, are 27^ inches long, 18 
inches wide by 4 inches high, and weighs 249 pounds, and 
has an enclosed crank chamber. 




w 



o 

fi 



This company build the motors and entire motor equip- 
ment for parties who desire to assemble their own motor 
carriage. 



Chapter XL 
AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 

THE AUTOMOBILE BICYCLE THE GASOLINE MOTOR BICY- 
CLE THE BOLLEE GASOLINE TRICYCLE THE PY MOTOR 
TRICYCLE THE ARIEL MOTOR QUADRICYCLE THE 
AUTOMOBILE FORE CARRIAGE THE PENNING- 
TON MOTOR TRICYCLE THE PENNINGTON 
RACING TRICYCLE THE DE DION-BOU 
TON TRICYCLE THE ORIENT QUAD- 
RICYCLE, TRICYCLE AND TAN- 
DEM THE CANDA AUTO- 
QUADRICYCLE. 



CHAPTER XL 

AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 
THE AUTOMOBILE BICYCLE. 

In Figs. 117 to 120 are represented one of the German 
gasoline motor bicycles, made by Wolfmuller & Geisenhof, 
Munich, Germany. A large number of bicycles of this type 
are in use in Germany and France. In ordinary appearance 
it is that of an ordinary wheel of the lady's type, with 
exaggerated dimensions. Upon looking at it, the eye is 
struck by two peculiarities. The hind wheel is not, like the 
front one, mounted with spokes, but is solid and formed of 
two disks ; and the machine is lower than ordinary models. 
This peculiarity is justified by the resistance that it is neces- 
sary to give a wheel, light upon the whole, that is actuated 
by two pistons which sometimes furnish as high as 2 horse 
power. So the rider, seated on the saddle and his two feet 
placed at the sides of the frame upon stationary stirrups, 
has only to stretch out his legs to find the ground. 

The steering is done as in the ordinary bicycle, and with 
so much the more ease and fewer chances of sliding, in 
that the center of gravity of the apparatus is placed much 
lower than usual. The total weight of the vehicle is, never- 
theless, not great, since, when ready to operate for long 
stretches, it does not exceed 1 10 pounds. The speed is 
easily regulated at from 3 to 24 miles an hour by means of a 



1 76 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



button placed under the thumb of the rider ; the noise and 
odor of the motor are almost nil ; powerful brakes render 
the cyclist always master of his machine, even in the steepest 
descents, and that, finally, so many valuable improvements 
are united in this vehicle, which has not yet reached its per- 
fection, that it is bound to meet with success. 

If we remove the covering plates from this bicycle, we 
first come across (Fig. 118) quite a complicated mechanical 




FIG. 117. THE GASOLINE MOTOR BICYCLE. 

apparatus, the too numerous details of which we have sim- 
plified for the clearness of description. The frame of the 
machine is formed of eight tubes, four on each side (CD, 
D E, FG, G H, for example, on the right side) connected by 
various crosspieces (such as G D and EH} that consolidate 
them. These tubes are brazed together as in bicycle con- 
struction, and are assembled by sockets, D, G, etc., in a tight 
manner, since they communicate with one another and 
serve for the circulation either of the water necessary for 
the cooling of the cylinders or of the oil to reduce friction. 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



177 



The wheels are provided with pneumatic tires. The steer- 
ing wheel, B, oscillates as usual around the axis, C F. The 
driving wheel, A, whose center is at /, is provided with a 




FIG. 118. VERTICAL VIEW. 

firmly fixed cam, K, the use of which we shall see further 
along. 

All the essential parts are placed in the interior of the 
frame and are, consequently, protected against damages 
caused by a collision, fall, etc. 

The gasoline reservoir, J/, is located behind the head of 
the bicycle, and may be filled through the capped hole, m, 




FIG. 119. PLAN. 

Details of the parts. Side and plan views. A, driving wheel ; B, steering wheel ; C, Z>, 
J5, F, G, H, frame tubes ; M, gasoline reservoir ; JV, evaporator ; O, valve box ; P, lamp 
and ignition chamber ; /, ignition tube ; ft, water reservoir ; S, cock for regulating the 
entrance of gasoline into the evaporator ; 7", funnel of the evaporator ; 17, regulator of 
water for cooling the cylinders ; V, distributing mechanism ; W, cylinders ; IJ, con- 
necting rod , K, cam ; K 1 , roller ; K" , valve rod ; , piston rod. 



1/8 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

with a quantity of liquid sufficient for 120 miles. The gaso- 
line falls, drop by drop, into the evaporator, N, in passing 
through the cock, S, and the funnel, /. Through a simple 
mechanism, shown in Fig. 120 (4), the gas mixed with air in 
proper proportions enters the ignition chamber through the 
valves, O. 

A lamp, P, which continually keeps at a red heat a small 
platinum tube, /, placed above the flame, produces the 
explosion of the detonating mixture. The piston is thus 




FIG. 120. MECHANISM OF THE BICYCLE. 

(4). Details of the evaporator partial section : /, funnel for entrance of gas ; a, a' , etc., 
gauze for accelerating evaporation ; , ', tubes for entrance of the air ; c, piston for 
admitting the mixture into the valve box ; d, its rod. (5). Details of the distributing 
mechanism : K" ', extremity of the actuating rod ; r, /, levers ; /, r', r," joints ; s, 
spiral spring ; w. w, f supports of the spring; n, n f , stop block . (6). Details of the 
various valves : z>, v*, ignition valves ; v 3 , suction valve ; v 4 , v 5 , emission valves ; v 6 , 
air valve. 

driven in the cylinder, W, and actuates the rod, LJ, which is 
aided in its return motion by a powerful rubber spring, EJ. 
As may be seen, the principle is not new, the details of its 
application alone possessing a real originality. The govern- 
ing of the motor is, in fact, put at the disposal of the rider, 
in a very simple and certain manner. To the handle bar, to 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 1/9 

the right, at the level of the thumb, is fixed a threaded piece, 
<2, which controls a cord running upon pulleys and con- 
nected with the cock that regulates the flow of the gasoline, 
the valve that admits the gas into the ignition chamber, and, 
at U, with the valve that allows water to flow from the 
reservoir, R, for cooling purposes. The opening or closing 
of these parts can be done gradually by the progressive 
screwing up or unscrewing of the threaded nut. The rider 
thus gradually accelerates or slackens the speed of his 
machine ; but a sudden stoppage can also be effected through 
the freeing of a spring arranged around the regulating piece, 
and which, allowing it instantaneously to fall to the end of 
its threading, closes all the communications at the same 
time. 

The most important control given to this handle-bar piece 
is that of the entrance and exit of the evaporator, jV(Fig. 1 18). 
The latter is thus named because the gasoline falling drop 
by drop through the funnel, /, evaporates therein. A suc- 
cession of gauze sieves, a, a', placed one above another in 
the cylinder, offers therein the greatest surface of evapora- 
tion possible. The external air which, through its mixture 
with the gas, is to produce the detonating mixture, enters 
the cylinder through a capsule that prevents the suction of 
impurities and dust. The admission of the mixture into the 
valve chamber, is regulated by the piston, c, whose rod, d, 
is placed, like the gasoline cock, under the control of the 
rider. If, then, the latter completely closes the cock, he 
thus also closes the admission tube at the same time. The 
gasoline ceases to fall upon the gauzes, and the mixture to 
enter the ignition chamber, and conversely. 

We have seen how the production of the mixture is 
obtained and rendered regular, and it now remains for us to 
remark how the mechanism of its distribution is made. The 



180 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

ingenious mechanism here employed is designed to open 
the two admission valves at once, at the moment desired, 
and by the use of a single lever. The cam, K (Figs. 1 18 and 
119), fixed upon the disk wheel, A, and carried along in its 
revolution, trees, in passing, the roller, K' , mounted upon a 
guide block that transmits motion to the valve rod. It 
is this rod that, at V, actuates the distributing mechanism, 
which it is impossible to represent in Fig. 118, and the prin- 
cipal details of which are shown in Fig. 120 (5 and 6). This 
mechanism is installed upon a plate that forms a cover for 
the cooling box of the cylinders. It is constructed as fol- 
lows: The extremity of the rod, K", is jointed at r' with a 
lever, r, that oscillates around the fixed point, /, and is con- 
tinuously brought back to its normal position by a spring, S, 
as soon as the passage of the cam, K, over the roller, K", has 
made it lose it. 

The extremity of this lever, r, is jointed at r" to another 
lever, /, whose extremity commands, at / ' , the valves repre- 
sented in Fig. 1 20 (6). At about its center, the lever tf (5), is 
jointed again to a crosshead, m, and held upon it with hard 
friction by two spiral springs. This head engages with the 
blocks, n and ', which are provided with corresponding 
notches. The central part of the lever, /, is thrust alter- 
nately against w and w' . On another hand, the levers, t' 
(6) carry at their extremity another small lever, t", which 
controls the valves, v^ and z> 3 , leading to the ignition 
chamber. Owing to this arrangement, the lever, t, of one 
of the cylinders causes, at the same time, the ignition in the 
conjoined cylinder. 

If now, we suppose that the cam, K, carries along the rod, 
K", it will be seen that the lever, t, will recoil and carry 
with it one of the levers, t f . The crosshead, m, engages at 
the same time with the block, , and compresses the 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. l8l 

spiral spring which is located behind the piece, w. But as 
soon as the spring, 5, acts, it brings the lever, /, to the front 
and causes the head, m, to engage at n, carrying with it the 
second lever, tt ', and reciprocally. 

These points in the operation of the various parts are bet 
ter shown in the following cuts (Figs. 121 to 126): 

THE GASOLINE MOTOR BICYCLE. 

In Fig. 121 is illustrated a side view and partial section 
of the present motor bicycle, made by Wolfmuller & Geis- 
nhof, Munich, Germany. This is their latest improve- 
ment. It will be noticed that the water reservoir in this 
bicycle is placed over the driving wheel, acting also as a 
guard. 

The frame of the machine is formed of four parallel tubes, 
two upon either side, connected with the main journal 
boxes of the rear or drive wheel, and united at their forward 
ends with two pairs of oblique tubes connected by cross 
bars at the top, and carrying the steering head, in which is 
received the shank of the front fork, as in an ordinary 
bicycle. 

Between the two pairs of horizontal bars are secured two 
motor cylinders, formed in one casting and provided with a 
water jacket. The cylinders contain pistons connected by 
piston rods with the crank on the main shaft. The bearings 
of the crank pins, as well as the bearings of the main shaft, 
are rendered nearly frictionless by the use of balls, as in the 
bearings of an ordinary bicycle. The cylinders are single 
acting, and the cranks, which are on opposite sides of the 
rear wheel, are parallel, and extend in the same direction. 
The motors work on the lour cycle principle, and are so 
timed as to give one effective impulse for each revolution of 
the drive wheel. 



I 82 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




s 

w _- 



M 1> 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



183 



The gasoline is contained in the reservoir, G, Fig. 121, 
supported by the oblique tubes at the front of the machine. 
This reservoir is connected directly by the small pipe,^, with 
the burner which heats the ignition tube. In the top of the 
reservoir, G, is inserted a screw-capped filling tube, f, Fig. 
122, the lower end of which is covered with wire gauze. 




FIG. 122. THE VAPORIZER. 

To the top is attached a screw-capped nipple, g, through 
which extends a wire, having on its lower end a cork float, 
by means of which the depth of the liquid in the reservoir 
is ascertained. 

A conical air supply tube, h, projects into the reservoir, 
and is provided at the top with a hood, through which air 
enters into the reservoir. The hood is furnished with a 



1 84 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 123. HANDLE BAR AND 
VALVE CONTROLLER. 



check valve, which keeps the tube closed, except when a 
partial vacuum is formed through the action of the motor. 
The tube, z, projects into the reservoir, and is provided with 
a hollow spherical lower end, in which is formed a trans- 
verse slot. In this tube is inserted a wire or gauze cone, 

connected at the top to 
the regulating valve, H, 
which latter also commu- 
nicates with an air sup- 
ply valve, k. The regu- 
lating valve, which is 
thin, is arranged to slide 
over the opening which 
communicates through 
the pipe, /, with the sup- 
ply side of the valve casing. The proportion of gasoline 
vapor and air conveyed to the motor depends upon the 
position of the valve, H, and this is regulated by the lever, 
m, pivoted to the handle bar and connected with the valve, 
H, by a rod (Fig. 123). The lever, m, at its free end has a 
latch which is arranged to pass under a lug projecting from 
the handle bar when the valve is closed, and when the lever 

is released to open the valve, the 
regulating cone screwing on to 
the end of the lever rests against a 
finger projecting from the handle 
bar, and serves to adjust the posi- 
tion of the valve by engagement 
with the finger as it is screwed 
along the threaded end of the lever. 

The ignition of the charge is effected by heating the 
nickel tubes projecting about 2\ inches from the rear ends 
of the cylinders into the ignition box. In this box is placed 




FIG. 124. -THE TUBE 
IGNITER. 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



i8 5 



a heating- vapor burner, receiving its vapor from the ver- 
tical tube at the side of the box, which contains a wick 
saturated with gasoline supplied from the reservoir. The 
tubes extend into a fire clay chamber, in which are loosely 
placed three nickel spirals below the tubes, for distributing 
and retaining the heat. The heating- burner, arranged in 
this way, effectively heats both nickel tubes, thus insuring 
prompt and regular explosions. The ignition tube is pro- 
vided at its inner end with a flange which is clamped in place 
by a yoke. The lower oblique tube on one side of the 
machine conveys air to the 
burner, and the oblique 
tube on the other side 
serves as a chimney for car- 
rying the products of com- 
bustion from the burner. 
These tubes terminate in a 
comparted hood, F (Fig. 
121). The front being the 
inlet and the rear the outlet 
from the ignition box. 

On the top of the cylin- 
der, above the explosion chamber at the rear of the 
piston, is a valve chest containing two pairs of poppet 
valves, one pair to each cylinder. The valve chest is 
furnished with two separate chambers, one for the supply 
of the explosive mixture, the other for the escape of the 
exhaust, and the valves are held to their seats by spiral 
springs surrounding their stems, as shown. The valves 
which admit the explosive mixture are provided with light 
springs, so that when the pistons move forward the valves 
open inward automatically ; but the exhaust valves are fur- 
nished with heavier springs, which hold them to their seats 




FIG. 125. THE IGNITION Box. 



1 86 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

at all times except when they are depressed by the valve 
operating levers, A, A'. 

These levers are made to open their respective valves in 
alternation by the peculiar combination of levers shown 
more clearly in Fig-. 126. Upon the side of the rear or 
drive wheel is secured a cam, _B, upon which presses a 
roller, #, carried by the arm, b, jointed to the lower side bar. 
A rod connected with the arm, , is jointed to one end of the 
lever, C, the opposite end of which carries the hook, D. To 
the hook, D, is pivoted a three-armed lever, F, which is held 
in frictional contact with the hook by a strong spiral spring. 




FIG. 126. PISTON AND VALVE GEAR. 

Pivoted to the top of the cylinders are two arms, c, c f f 
which are pressed toward the center of the cylinder by 
springs. The forward projecting arm of the lever, F, is 
capable of bearing against the free end of one or the other 
of the arms, c, c' . The shorter arms of the lever, F, are alter- 
nately brought into engagement with studs, d, d' y projecting 
from the top of the cylinders. The angled arms, A, A, are 
pivoted on a rod supported by ears projecting from the 
cylinders, and their downwardly projecting ends are 
engaged in alternation by the hook, D. This action of the 
exhaust mechanism controls the machine. 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. l8/ 

The exhaust escaping through the exhaust valve is taken 
to a hood, /, made in the form of a hollow quarter cylinder, 
which is divided into two compartments by a perforated 
curved partition. The exhaust pipe enters into the smaller 
compartment and the larger compartment is filled with 
asbestos cord. The convex surface of the hood, 7, is per- 
forated. The asbestos cord serves as a muffler which 
deadens the noise of the exhaust. 

Over the drive wheel is supported a curved water tank 
which is connected with the water jacket surrounding the 
cylinders, and the circulation of water serves to prevent 
the overheating of the cylinders. Strong elastic bands 
are connected with the connecting rod and with an arm 
mounted on a rock shaft at the top of the cylinder. These 
elastic bands may be put under tension to assist in starting 
by means of a screw at the top of the frame, which is oper- 
ated by a crank and miter gear. The oil for the lubrica- 
tion of the cylinders is contained in the upper oblique 
tube of the frame, and is fed to the cylinders by a sight 
feed, o. 

To start the motor cycle, the reservoir, G, is partly filled 
with gasoline ; the door at the back of the ignition box is 
opened and the burner for heating the ignition tube is 
started by giving it a preliminary heating by means of an 
alcohol torch. As the door at the rear of the ignition box 
is opened for this purpose, the air supply pipe is closed 
automatically by means of a connection with the rear door. 
When the tubes are red hot the valve, H, is opened, the 
rubber bands are put under tension and the machine is 
moved forward by the operator until an explosion occurs, 
when he mounts the machine and proceeds on his way. 
The proportion of the supply of air charged with gasoline 
vapor and pure air is regulated by the valve, H. By man- 



1 88 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

ipulating the cone on the lever, m, the supply of explosive 
mixture, and, consequently, the speed of the bicycle is regu- 
lated. When fairly under way, the tension of the rubber 
bands is released. 

The action is as follows : 

The forward motion of the piston draws in the explosive 
mixture through the valve, H. On its return, it compresses 
the explosive mixture in the explosion chamber behind the 
piston, and a portion of the mixture is forced into the hot 
tube, where it is ignited, forcing the piston outwardly, giv- 
ing the propelling impulse. The return stroke of the piston 
expels the products of combustion through the exhaust 
valve, which is opened by the cam, b, at the proper moment 
through the agency of the roller, a, and the hook, D, as 
already described, and the cylinders operate in alterna- 
tion, thereby giving one effective impulse for each revolu- 
tion of the drive wheel. To stop the machine, it is only 
necessary to close the valve, H, and apply the brake in the 
usual way. 

The engine cylinders are 3 T V inches in diameter, with a 
stroke of 4| inches. The supply and exhaust valve aper- 
tures are inch in diameter. The gasoline reservoir is 13 
inches long and 7^ inches in diameter. The driving wheel 
is 22 inches in diameter and the steering wheel is 26 inches 
in diameter. The pneumatic tires are made specially large 
and heavy to support the weight of the machine and rider. 
The wheel base is 4 feet ; weight, when in running order, 
115 pounds. 

The reservoir contains a supply of gasoline sufficient for 
a run of 12 hours. Speed from 3 to 24 miles per hour. 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



THE BOLLEE GASOLINE TRICYCLE. 



189 



The elegant little tandem tricycle, Fig. 127, built by M. 
Leo Bollee of Mans, France, has figured largely in the 
French trial races. It differs somewhat in design from 
others in having a closed seat in front of the rear driving 
wheel, giving a most comfortable position for the driver. 

The slight elevation of this vehicle gives it a perfect 




FIG. 127. THE BOLLEE TANDEM TRICYCLE. 

stability, since its center of gravity is 16 inches above the 
ground. Its wheel base is 3^ by 4 feet. 

The steering is by the forward wheels with knuckle 
joints on the axle and jointed spindles extending upward 
at the sides of the forward seat, with arms and links 
attached to a steering wheel at the right of the driver. 

The motor is of the four-cycle type with an unusually 
long stroke for carrying the expansion as far as practicable, 
and is rated at two horse power at 800 revolutions per min- 



190 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

ute, at which speed the vehicle runs at the rate of 27 miles 
per hour. 

The driver with his right hand steers the vehicle by the 
hand wheel, while with his left hand he holds a vertical lever 
which controls all the movements for regulating the run- 
ning. By pushing the lever the belt is tightened to start 
the vehicle, after the motor has been started by the flywheel 
or a crank. By turning the handle of the lever to the right 
or left the motor is thrown into gear with one or another of 
the three speeds. By pulling the lever back beyond the 
vertical loosens the belt and applies the brake. 

This vehicle weighs but 350 pounds in running order, and 
from its great speed for so small sized vehicle, was chris- 
tened in Paris as the road torpedo. 

This vehicle, in 1896, was not claimed as a new invention, 
but rather as an assemblage of the best vehicle and motor 
conditions of the day for a very light, easily handled and 
swift roadster. All three wheels are mounted upon ball 
bearings and provided with Michelin removable pneumatic 
tires. 

The accompanying figure gives an accurate idea of the 
Bollee tricycle. As may be seen, the person who sits in 
front does not aid in the steering of the vehicle. The steers- 
man sits behind, his feet resting on each side upon a plat- 
form provided with a straw mat. He merely has to move 
his foot backward in order to press the lever of a powerful 
brake, whose block is tangent to the circumference of the 
driving wheel. 

We may add that it carries a supply of gasoline sufficient 
for a trip of 72 miles, that it may be run at an expense of 
scarcely more than a cent a mile, and that the price of it is 
low enough to place it within the reach of persons of mod- 
erate means. 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



THE PY MOTOR TRICYCLE. 



In Figs. 128 and 129 are illustrated a vertical and plan 
view of a motor tricycle that has lately been put on the mar- 
ket in France by the Compagnie des Automobiles du Sud- 
Ouest, of which M. Andre Py, the designer of the vehicle, is 
the manager. As will be seen from the illustrations, the 





FIGS. 128 AND 129. THE PY MOTOR TRICYCLE. 
VERTICAL AND PLAN VIEWS. 

vehicle has three wheels, and has seating accommodation for 
two riders, back to back. The motor, C, is of the single 
cylinder horizontal tvpe, provided with radial disks for 
cooling purposes, and tube or electric ignition. It is capable 
of working up to 3 horse power. It is located on the left- 
hand side of the frame, with the explosion chamber at the 



192 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

rear. The exhaust valve, 5, is 1 controlled by a small longi- 
tudinal shaft, actuated by worm gearing, d, from the motor 
shaft, A. A centrifugal governor, r, is mounted on the shaft 
and prevents the exhaust valve being opened when the speed 
of the motor becomes excessive. The muffler is located at 
x. Three forward speeds of 5, 10 and 15 miles and one back- 
ward motion are provided, these being obtained by a series 
of gear-wheels on the motor shaft, A, and the countershaft, a, 
shown by the dotted circles. The handle, m, controls the 
forward speeds, and the lever, Z, the backward motion. A 
friction clutch, G, on the plan is arranged in conjunction 
with the flywheel, F, so that the motor can be instantly 
thrown out from the transmission gear. 

The Py voiturette is front driven and rear steered, the 
power of the motor being transferred to the front road 
wheels, RR* , through the counter shaft, a, and the gear wheels, 
E, a differential gear being provided on the opposite side at 
D. A handle is provided at M for putting the motor in 
operation, by means of sprocket wheels and chain, with a 
fricti >n clutch on the motor shaft. Steering is effected by 
the hand wheel,/, connected by the rack and pinion gear, e y 
with the rear wheel, F, the latter being mounted in a special 
way, shown in the plan, by being pivoted on one end of its 
axle at O, which is moved forward or backward at the other 
end by the link rod and rack. A lever, /, controls a band 
brake on the differential gear, while a foot pedal,/, actuates 
two band brakes on the intermediary shaft, a. All the trans- 
mission gear is arranged under the seats, where is also 
located the gasoline storage tank, which has a capacity of 
four gallons. The vehicle is 9 feet long and 4 feet 8 inches 
in width, while the seats are only 4 feet above the ground. 
The center of gravity is quite low, making an easy mount 
and a safe vehicle as a business runabout. 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



193 



THE ARIEL MOTOR-QUADRICYCLE. 

The method of converting a motor tricycle for one person 
to a quadricycle for two persons, by removing the steering 
wheel and attaching a fore carriage with two wheels and 
seat, is one of the novelties brought out by the Ariel Cycle 
Company (Limited), of Birmingham, England, and is illus- 
trated in Fig. 130. 

The front wheel of the tricycle being removed, the arms 
extending from the under carriage are then fastened to the 
back axle sleeve of the tricycle ; two tubes extending from 
the arms just mentioned have to be secured to the bottom 




FIG. 130. THE CONVERTED TRICYCLE. 

frame tube of the tricycle by means of a clip and bolt. These 
three clips are all that is necessary to manipulate, and the 
change from tricycle to quadricycle can be made in about 
half an hour. The body is carried upon a set of C and 
elliptical springs, thus giving perfect suspension. Mud 
guards are provided to the side wheels, and an apron fitted 
to the dashboard enables the passenger to be carried well 
protected from wind, dust and mud. The steering is con- 
trolled by the rear rider, and is arranged in such a manner 
that in taking a corner the inside wheel is not parallel to the 
outside wheel, the two being tangent to circles having the 
same center, which center is on the line of the axle of the 



194 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

back wheels. By this system friction is avoided, and the 
motor is not called upon to perform unnecessary work. The 
extreme length of machine, including the attachment, is 7 
feet 7 inches, and width on the outside of the tricycle wheels, 
3 feet 5 inches. 

The running gear is very similar in detail to the De Dion 
and other tricycles described further on. 

THE AUTOMOBILE FORE CARRIAGE. 

A novel combination of the motive power with the steer- 
ing wheels, making an independent driving'power that can 
be attached to any carriage by removing the forward wheels, 
axle and springs, and substituting a fore carriage in their 
place, has lately come to public notice. It is of German 
origin and comes under the name of the " Kuhlstein-Vol- 
mer " detachable motor or fore carriage, and has been in use 
in France as the Pretot motor carriage. It is illustrated in 
Fig. 131. 

The American company who are bringing out this auto- 
mobile is the Automobile Fore Carriage Company, Astor 
Court, New York City. 

The points claimed for it are: That it can be attached to 
almost any of the old horse-drawn styles of vehicles, and 
that one motor can be used for a half dozen different vehicles. 
In fact, it is virtually a motor horse, to be harnessed to any 
vehicle at will. The driving machinery, consisting of a four- 
cycle gasoline motor, with cone pulleys and belt-change 
speeds, is enclosed in a rectangular box or housing, central 
over the forward axle, and is attached to the foot board of a 
carriage by a fifth-wheel or bearing plates, the upper one of 
which may be bolted to the frame of the carriage, while the 
under one forms part of the housing. The two plates can 
turn one upon the other by means of a circle of rollers, and 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 195 

the lower plate has a circular rack formed upon it which is 
engaged by the pinion of the steering shaft, which shaft is 
carried by the upper plate, and is placed conveniently to the 
right hand of the driver. The fore carriage motor is main- 
tained in its proper vertical alignment by a strong, hollow 
pivot block, which extends upwardly from the lower bear- 
ing plate through a deep collar in which it turns in the 




FIG. 131. THE AUTOMOBILE FORE CARRIAGE. 

upper plate. The whole construction is sufficiently stiff and 
strong to transmit the tractive effort of the motor to the 
body of the vehicle without racking the frame of the latter. 
The operating levers are carried up through the central 
pivot block, and are arranged conveniently in front of the 
driver. 

The roller bearing fifth-wheel applicable to the fore car- 
riage is here illustrated in its parts. 



196 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 132. ROLLER BEARING. 




FIG. 133. ROLLERS AND FRAME. 




FIG. 134. ON LOWER RAIL. 




Fig. 132 is a section 
showing the lower rail, 
a roller between its cage 
rings and the channeled 
top ring, closing over 
the friction rollers and 
cage to hold them con- 
centric and to shut out 
dust and grit. 

Fig. 133 shows the 
rollers enclosed between 
the rings and held in 
place by spindles. 

Fig. 134 shows the 
roller system resting 
upon the bottom plate. 

Fig. 135 the top chan- 
nel ring in place with a 
section out in the cut to 
show the rollers. 

The roller bearing 
fifth-wheel is suitable 
for all kinds of vehicles 
requiring a fifth-wheel. 
They are manufactured 
by Christian Nielson, 
745 Third avenue, 
Brooklyn, New York 
City. 



FIG. 135. TOP CHANNEL ON. 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 197 

THE PENNINGTON MOTOR TRICYCLE. 

The ilustrations, Fig. 136, shows an elevation, and Fig. 
137, a plan of a tricycle for four persons, as built at Coven- 
try, England. 

It has the most compact form for its carrying capacity of 
any motor vehicle as yet brought out. Its weight is about 
280 pounds, with dimensions allowing it to pass readily 
through ordinary doorways. A two-cylinder motor, acting 
on cranks at 180, gives a fair balance for a four-cycle 
impulse. A center line fly-wheel, with double chain and 
sprocket wheels, transmit the power to the rear wheel. The 
front wheels in independent sockets are operated by rods 
extending to the arms at the bottom of the handle bar axle. 

The speed, controlling and steering gear is operated by 
the driver on the rear seat by the vertical lever and the 
bicycle arms. The bicycle pedals and chain connections 
with the motor counter shaft give the driver perfect control 
in starting and stopping independent of the brake. The 
vehicle is started by means of the pedals by the driver after 
the passengers are seated, thus obviating the disagreeable 
vibration when the vehicle is standing. 

The pedal shaft sprocket has a silent ratchet, so that the 
driver can use the pedals for a foot rest and be always ready 
to help the motor on a severe upgrade. Great ease and 
comfort is derived from the easy spring saddles andjarge- 
sized pneumatic tires. 

The gasoline is stored in the elevated tank from which the 
motors are supplied. Electric ignition is used. 



I 9 8 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




NO 

tfj 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



199 




200 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

THE ANGLO-AMERICAN RAPID VEHICLE COMPANY. 
THE PENNINGTON & BAINES GASOLINE MOTOR VEHICLES. 

This company has brought to the United States a number 
of motor vehicles of the gasoline motor type. They are of 
English build, and somewhat heavier than the same style of 
vehicles built here. 




FIG. 138. VICTORIA DE LUXE. 

There are many points in which improvements have been 
made in these vehicles ; some of these improvements form- 
ing the subject of patents which are yet pending in some 
foreign countries, and consequently further information on 
these points is withheld for the present. It is generally 
known, however, that in the Pennington motor the use of a 
carburetor is avoided, and yet, because of the method 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRIuYCLES. 2OI 





3 

.M 


I 

o 
p 

d 

B 

o 




2O2 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 140. A PENNINGTON RACING TRICYCLE. 




FIG. 141. A SNAP SHOT FORTY MILES AN HOUR ON A CURVE. 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



203 



employed for feeding the gasoline into the cylinder, not only 
is perfect combustion secured, but every drop of gasoline is 
utilized, and the maximum power is developed from the 
amount of the hydro-carbon consumed. 

The power is conveyed from the motor to the front axle 
of the car by either belt or rope, which can be tightened, if 
needed, even when the carriage is running, and without 







FIG. 142. COUNTERBALANCING CENTRIFUGAL FORCE. 

stopping the vehicle. Motor carriage drivers, who have 
been troubled with a slipping belt, and whose only remedy 
was to stop the carriage, cut a piece out of the belt and 
splice it up again an operation occupying with most people 
twenty minutes to half an hour will appreciate the advan- 
tage of being able to take up any slack in the belt instantly. 
Besides the positive speeds obtained by changing the 
gears, any intermediate speed can be obtained by the regu- 



204 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

lation of the gasoline supply, it being passed to the motor 
from the tank in which it is stored through a needle valve, 
and a quarter turn of the valve handle, conveniently placed 
within reach of the driver's hands, will decrease or increase 
(depending on which way it is turned) the gasoline supply, 
and the result on the motor is instantaneous. 

With the Pennington vehicles the makers confidently claim 
absolute immunity from overturning accident ; and as the 
center of gravity is only some few inches from the ground, 
and the wheel base being long, it is almost impossible to 
upset ; indeed, the stability is so great that the vehicle can be 
swung round in a narrow road when going at high speed, a 
feat which would be impossible in a heavy vehicle standing 
high from the ground. The steering is effected by means of 
the back wheels, the front wheels being driven, and this is a 
reversal of the usual practice for which certain advantages 
are claimed. The steering, for instance, greatly tends to 
prevent side-slip, and a complete circle can be made with 
these vehicles in a radius of about ten feet. 

These racing tricycles have been much in use in England, 
where motor cycle racing has been in extensive vogue. 

THE DE DION-BOUTON TRICYCLE. 

One of the most popular motor vehicles for a single rider, 
in France, is the De Dion-Bouton tricycle, of the hydro- 
carbon motor type. It has found its way to the United 
States, and will, no doubt, for its lightness, speed and ease 
of management, become a leading light vehicle here. 

In Fig. 143 is illustrated a general rear view of the tricycle, 
and in Figs. 144 and 145 an outside view of the four-cycle 
air-cooled motor. 

In Fig. 146 is shown the details of the motor and the 
method of its operation. 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



205 



The tricycle is provided with pedals, sprockets and chain 
for starting and as a means for returning home, if by acci- 
dent the motor becomes inoperative, or as a help in ascend- 
ing steep grades. The motor is journaled upon the sleeve 
of the main axle, as shoxvn by the brackets, Fig. 144, and 
connected to the lower member of the frame by a link. It 




FIG. 143. THE DE DION-BOUTON TRICYCLE. 

is geared to the differential gear train by a pinion for the 
proper speed, which is regulated by the vapor and air inlet 
valves operated by and connected to the small handles 
shown on the upper cross bar of the frame. Referring to 
the motor, Figs. 144 and 145, A, is the charge admission 
valve ; B, the electrode plug ; C, exhaust pipe ; D, rod and 
spring of the exhaust valve; E, electric contact breaker. A 



2O6 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



handle on the front frame operates the relief cock, Z, to 
admit of a free movement of the piston when starting 
and when pedaling without the motor power. 

The action of the motor will be seen by referring to the 
diagram shown in Fig. 146, To the left is the vaporizing 
chamber or carburetor, in which the gasoline contained in 
the lower half is brought into contact with the air entering 



fi 




FIGS. 144 AND 145. THE DE DION-BOUTON MOTOR. 

by the tube, A, and made to pass between the horizontal 
plate, B, and the surface, of the liquid ; the carbureted air then 
rises, as shown by the arrows, and enters the double valve, 
Cj shown below in detail, by which it is mixed with an 
additional quantity of air, which enters by the orifice, D, 
at the top ; the mixture then passes to the motor by means 
of the tube, E. The admixture of air and vapor is regulated 
by the handle on the left in the small diagram, while the 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



207 



handle at the right regulates the flow to the motor 
cylinder. 

The float serves to indicate the level of the gasoline in the 
carburetor by means of a rod which passes through the tube 
of admission ; and the tube itself is arranged to slide up and 
down in order to maintain a constant difference between the 



COMPRESSION COG* 

z 




FIG. 146. DETAILS OP MOTOR. 

horizontal plate and the surface of the liquid, this plate being 
attached to the lower end of the tube. In order to avoid 
the cooling of the gasoline by evaporation, it is warmed by" 
means of the tube, G, through which passes a portion of the 
hot exhaust gas escaping from the motor. 

The cylinder, H, of the motor is of cast steel, with project- 
ing flanges which serve to increase its radiating surface and 



208 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

prevent overheating ; above is the chamber, /, in which the 
explosion of the gas takes place ; at the top of the chamber 
is the valve, K, which admits the gas coming from the 
carburetor; the valve is normally closed by means of the 
spring, 5, whose pressure is regulated so as to allow the 
valve to open upon the descent of the piston. Opposite is the 
exhaust valve, Z, which permits the waste gases to escape 
after the explosion ; to the valve, L, is attached a rod which 
passes through the cover of the exhaust chamber and 
engages with a cam, M, which, by pushing up the rod, 
opens the valve at the proper instant, this valve being nor- 
mally closed by the spring, r. At W\s shown the ignitor, 
consisting of two copper rods passing through an insulating 
bushing, and so arranged as to allow a spark from the induc- 
tion coil to pass in the interior of the chamber for the 
ignition of the gas. The piston, <9, is a hollow steel casting 
provided with three packing rings, and carrying the wrist 
pin. The piston is connected with the inclosed fly-wheels, 
Q and R, and with the shafts, 5 and T, by means of the pis- 
ton rod, P. The shaft, 5, carries a pinion which engages 
with another of twice its diameter, operating the small shaft 
above, t, which carries two cams ; the cam to the right 
serves to open the exhaust valve once in every two revolu- 
tions, while that to the left acts upon the lever arm, U, car- 
rying the contact, F, of the induction coil, by means of 
which a spark is caused to pass at W, thus igniting the gas 
contained in the chamber of the motor. 

This induction coil is operated by four dry batteries. From 
the preceding description the action of the motor will be 
readily understood. When the piston descends, it produces 
a vacuum in the top chamber, by the action of which the 
valve, K, opens, admitting the detonating mixture from the 
carburetor ; when the piston rises, it compresses this gas 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 209 

and the valve of admission closes. At the instant of the sec- 
ond descent of the piston the cam actuates the leveiymaking 
contact with the induction coil, upon which a spark passes, 
causing- an explosion of the gas, which pushes the piston with 
sufficient force to cause it to pass twice through the same 
position ; when the piston rises after its descent, it com- 
presses the residual gases of explosion, and at this instant 
the cam, M, lifts the exhaust valve and the gas leaves the 
motor by the exhaust pipe, Y. When the piston redescends, 
this valve closes and the upper valve opens, as before, to 
admit a fresh supply of gas and so on. 

The discharge box, or muffler, is shown attached to the 
exhaust pipe, F, in the diagram, and at the left of the cylin- 
der, in Fig. 146. The two series of perforations in the 
muffler produce almost a noiseless exhaust. 

The maximum speed of the tricycle is 24 miles per hour, 
and grades of 8 to 10 per cent, may be mounted without the 
aid of the pedals. 

The Waltham Manufacturing Company, of Waltham, 
Mass., sells the product of De Dion-Bouton & Co. in the 
United States, and in addition to selling the regular machines 
now manufactured by De Dion-Bouton & Co., they will 
import the De Dion motors, and make a complete line of 
vt Orient motor cycles and motor carriages." They are now 
building tricycles, trailers and attachments, tandems and a 
light carriage. 

VEHICLES OF THE WALTHAM MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
WALTHAM, MASS. 

The illustration, Fig. 147, shows the Orient quadricycle, 
which in principle and mechanism is the same as their tri- 
cycle, and shows the detachable parts for conversion into a 
quadricycle fitted. This machine meets the requirements of 



2IO 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



those who want a small light automobile for two, and one 
that is well adapted to all kinds of road use. 

It is built on sound mechanical lines, and of very rich 
finish. The extra wheel that is supplied can be easily fitted 
to convert it into a tricycle. 

These vehicles comprise a line of gasoline-propelled auto- 
mobiles which have recently been placed on the market by 
the Waltham Manufacturing Company, Waltham, Mass., of 
Orient Cycle fame. Their mode of propulsion is by the 



< 




FIG. 147. THE ORIENT QUADRICYCLE. 

French De Dion-Bouton motor, which represents a large 
percentage of the total number of tricycle motors in use 
and their popularity is explained in their own simplicity. 
They are not only simple in construction, but very inex- 
pensive to run, and the result obtained seem to give the 
best of satisfaction. 

The principle of this motor is as follows : The vapor that 
rises from the gasoline in the carburetor, and with a mixture 
of air, is sucked into the motor by the piston. At the 
moment the charge is compressed by the return of the pis- 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



211 



ton, an electric spark, which is worked automatically, and 
receives its current from the induction coil and small dry 
battery, explodes the gas, and the piston is forced into 
action. Upon its return the gases of combustion are 
expelled, and then a fresh charge enters as before. The radi- 




FIG. 148. CHANGING THE RIG. 




FIG. 149. TRICYCLE AND TANDEM-TRAILER. 

ating flanges on the motor cylinder serve to throw off the 
heat, and thereby eliminates the use of a water jacket. 

The cost of feeding a motor of this kind is quite small. A 
gallon of gasoline will supply power for about 50 miles, and 
can be obtained at almost any place. 

The popularity of the motor tricycle in Europe served as 
the best introduction it could receive into this country ; and 



212 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

it is now classed among our leading styles of automobiles. 
Among its many good features is that it can be converted 
into a tandem quadricycle by simply removing the front 
wheel and substituting the fore wheels and seat, which are 
furnished with the combined vehicle ; or else a trailer can 
be attached if desired. 

The motor being placed below the rear axle brings the 
weight of the machine, which is proportionately distributed, 
close to the ground, and thereby insuring the greatest safety. 
The carburetor, battery and other parts are placed in con- 
venient positions in line of the frame, and the rider has full 
control of the machine in his left hand, where a simple turn 
of the handle-bar grip connects and disconnnects the 
current. 

With a little assistance from the rider by the use of the 
pedals, steep hills can be ascended without difficulty, and 
the pedals can also be used to increase the speed. 

The general arrangement of the motive power is shown in 
Fig. 146. 

Fig. 148 shows the facility of arranging the detached run- 
ning gear and seat forward from the motor, and in Fig. 149 
is shown the trailing attachment of the second seat and 
wheels following the tricycle. 

THE CANDA AUTO-QUADRICYCUE). 

In the design of this unique motor vehicle, the running 
gear differs somewhat from the French and English models 
of the De Dion tricycles. It is built by the Canda Manu- 
facturing Company, Cartaret, N. J. 

It is, as illustrated in Figs. 150, 151 and 152,. a most con- 
venient tandem rig for two persons, one in front in a com- 
fortable buggy seat ; the other on the saddle, steers the 
vehicle and controls the gasoline motor. 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



213 



The central frame, which carries the saddle, is of steel 
tubing, constructed on bicycle lines, to which is affixed the 
steering handles and the pedals for starting the vehicle. 
Outside of this a curved frame of angle iron connects the 
front and rear sections of the vehicle, forming a light and 
stiff structure. 




FIG. 150. REAR VIEW OF THE AUTO-QUADRICYCLE. 

The quadricycle tracks 36 inches in width, with a 46-inch 
wheel base, and measures 7^ feet in length over all. 

The wheels are 26 inch diameter, of the tangent spoke ten- 
sion type, with 2^-inch pneumatic tires. When charged 
ready for service it weighs 350 pounds. 

The motor is of the four-cycle type, with air-cooling 
flanged cylinder mounted just back of the rear axle and 
geared direct to the differential gear box. A band brake is 



214 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




a 



w 
H 

LO 

CD 



AUTOMOBILE BICYCLES AND TRICYCLES. 



215 



controlled by a lever under the handle bar. The motor is of 
if horse power, and controlled by varying the charge, 
giving speeds of from 2\ to 25 miles per hour. The general 
details of the motor management are similar to the De Dion- 
Bouton tricycle, illustrated in Fig. 146. 
The steering is by rod connection from the handle bar 




FIG. 152. THE AUTO-QUADRICYCLE ON THE ROAD. 

spindle to the arms of the front axle pivots at the hubs of 
each wheel. 



Chapter XII. 

GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES AND 
VEHICLES. 

THE BOULEVARD SURREY THE FETTER GASOLINE CARRIAGE 
THE BERGMAN MOTOR CARRIAGE THE CLEMENT GASO- 
LINE VEHICLE VEHICLES OF THE INTERNATIONAL 
MOTOR WHEEL COMPANY THE WALTERS SIN- 
GLE DRIVING WHEEL THE UNDERBERG 
VOITURETTE MOTORS AND VEHICLES 
OF THE AUTOMOBILE COMPANY OF 
AMERICA THE GROUT GASO- 
LINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 

THE SINTZ GASOLINE MOTORS AND VEHICLES THE MUELLER 
MOTOR CARRIAGES THE HERTEL MOTOR CARRIAGES 
THE WINTON MOTOR CARRIAGES VEHICLES OF THE 
AUTO-CAR COMPANY AND THE PITTSBURG MOTOR 
VEHICLE COMPANY VEHICLES OF THE DUR- 
YEA MANUFACTURING COMPANY, SPRING- 
FIELD, MASS. VEHICLES OF THE 
DURYEA MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY, PEORIA, ILL. THE 
GENERAL POWER COM- 
PANY AUTOMOBILE 
MOTOR. 



CHAPTER XII. 

GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES AND HEAVY VEHICLES. 

The more substantial automobile vehicles for pleasure and 
park riding, for touring and for heavy traffic the coach, 
delivery wagon, the omnibus and the truck are fast taking 
a leading place in our larger cities, and, as in England and 
on the continent, their expanding usefulness is noticeable 
throughout the country. The doctor, in either city or coun- 
try, can now step into his buggy, ready harnessed, and be 
off ; can make his round of calls in the quickest time, and 
does not even mind a long drive that would jade a horse. 
The fire chief reaches his call in less time than ever before. 
The ambulance is always ready for the start, and makes 
quick time on its call. The cab, omnibus and truck 
can now stand upon the street with no one to watch 
the horses. The stand is unfouled, and cleanliness follows 
their tracks. Each of the kinds of motive power is cleanly 
in its habits, and as each has its special radius of power and 
endurance, their progressive march of usefulness will go on 
and find their great calling as sure as has been the progress 
of our railways. Good roads must lead the way the rest 
will soon follow. 

Horseless vehicles will become the feeders to our railway 
systems, and thus the network of communication will become 
complete, and the old horse stages will be but a memory of 
the past. 



220 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

Breaking away from our transient reverie and getting 
back to solid facts, we sketch the French park wagon for 
four passengers, with a rear elevated seat for a driver. 

The motor is placed beneath the driver's floor, and the 
middle seat turns over as shown by the dotted lines, for 
examination of the motor and speed gear. A panel also can 
be opened under the driver's seat to give a full view of the 
operating mechanism. These vehicles are largely in use in 




FIG. 153. THE BOULEVARD SURREY. 

France for riding parties, and will soon be seen and appre- 
ciated in the United States. 

THE FETTER GASOLINE CARRIAGE. 

An English design of a motor carriage plan and driving 
gear is illustrated in Fig. 1 54, and the gasoline motor in Fig. 
155. The motor is placed over the driving axle. From the 
crank shaft a sprocket wheel and chain transmits the power 
to a friction sprocket, E ', running loose on the counter shaft 
and pressed by the double friction disks, F, F, by the opera- 
tion of a push rod through the hollow counter shaft and bell 
crank lever, W, terminating in a handle at the right of the 
carriage seat. 

A second handle, J/, changes the speed by moving the 
clutch to one or the other of the sprocket wheels, N and K. 

A brake, V, V, is operated by a cross shaft and a handle at 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



221 



G. The exhaust is controlled by the lever, D, and a cam on 
the reducing gear. The low speed gear, Z, has an overrun- 
ning ratchet at R. The motor is of one horse power at 200 
revolutions ; cylinder, 3^ inches diameter, 6 inch stroke, of 
cast iron, \ inch thick at the combustion end. The outer 
shell is of thin metal driven over the cylinder flanges. 




FIG. 154. FETTER CARRIAGE GEAR. 




FIG. 155. FETTER MOTOR. 



222 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



The crank shaft of the motor is bored for an oil recess and 
plugged ; it holds oil for a day's run. 

The gasoline gravitates to the inlet valve, A, through the 
perculator, G, and atomizes by the air drawn in through B 
by the suction of the piston. The ignition tube is of plati- 
num, heated by a gasoline vapor jet, in the flaring recess 
below the chimney, D. A perforated or wire gauze box 
around the flame jet protects it from air rush. 

The engine has to be started with the friction brake off, 
by turning the crank, 5, Fig. 1 54. 




FIG. 156. THE BERGMAN MOTOR CARRIAGE ELEVATION. 

The whole rig is not up to date, but yet furnishes some 
good hints on construction. The steering gear is not 
approved. 

THE BERGMAN MOTOR CARRIAGE. 

The Bergman is a German gasoline motor carriage, shown 
in elevation in Fig. 1 56, and a plan of the frame and running 
gear in Fig. 157. 

The frame work is made of steel tubing. The front wheels 
are 28 inches diameter, with pneumatic tires ; rear wheels, 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



223 



40 inches diameter, with solid rubber tires. The cylinder, 
which occupies a central position, is 5 inches diameter, 6J- 
inch stroke, developing 4 horse power at 400 revolutions per 
minute, and is of the 4-cycle type. The cylinder is cooled by a 
circulation of water irom rectangular tanks on each side of 
the carriage, as shown in the plan, Fig. 157. A drum on the 
crank shaft is belted to a fast and loose pulley on a counter 
shaft, with a change speed gear. The top crank in front of 
the seat is for steering ; the handle just beneath it for oper- 
ating the change speed gear and for shifting the belt. A 




FIG. 157. THE BERGMAN MOTOR CARRIAGE PLAN. 

small button in front of the seat operates the needle valve 
in the mixer, the air being drawn in through a spring valve 
in line with the button on left side of the seat. The gasoline 
tank is at the rear left side, and encloses the carburetor. 

The carburetor, hanging from the rear left corner of the 
vehicle, contains a controlling mechanism adjusting itself 
automatically under all conditions of road, so that a constant 
mixture is supplied to the motor. This consists of a vessel 
containing gasoline, and suspended on levers inside a recep- 



224 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

tacle. The vessel is counter-balanced by weights on the 
levers, or arranged as a float, provision being made for an 
admission valve for the liquid, an inlet for the air, and a 
float for effecting the admixture of the air and gas, at 
approximately the same height above or below the level of 
the liquid. This vessel may be placed on a spring for retard- 
ing its downward movement, and closing the valve when 
the vessel receives an excess of liquid. The valve regulating 
the inlet of the liquid is pressed on its seat by a spring 
mounted on an extension of the valve spindle, which, when 
the valve closes, can slide further independently while the 
disk keeps the valve tightly closed. A double mixing valve 
secures the even composition of the explosive mixture at 
each opening of the regulator, the width of passage for the 
gas mixture, which is always in the same proportion to that 
for the air, being regulated by a revolving slide. 

A small pipe from the exhaust carries heat to the car- 
buretor to counteract its cooling by evaporation. 

The muffler hanging beneath the cylinder, is a chamber 
enclosing the end of the perforated exhaust pipe, with an 
outlet pointing down to the road bed. The lever at the side 
of the seat is the brake handle. A pneumatic whistle hangs 
on the front of the steering spindle. 

THE CLEMENT GASOLINE VEHICLE. 

In Fig. 158 is illustrated the outlines of a French gasoline 
motor carriage of very light weight, 575 pounds, and in Fig. 
1 59 an outline section of the motor. The carriage frame is 
made of thin steel tubing, shown at A, Fig. 158, carried on 
leaf springs fixed to the rear axle at Z, and swiveled on the 
forward axle at K. The rear axle is carried in a fork with a 
swivel at Q to equalize inequalities in the road, and to pre- 
vent torsion in the tubular frame on which the carriage body 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



225 



Cn 

00 




226 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



rests. A gasoline tank under the seat, M, supplies, through 
independent tubes, O and O', the fuel for the motive power, 
and for the tube igniter burner. At N, in the dash-board 
box, is the lubricating oil can, with tubes leading to the run- 
ning parts of the motor. 

The speed changes are made by gears in a three-speed 
gear train at D, and controlled by the lever, E. A strap 
brake on the secondary shaft at //, operated by the foot 
pedal, /, and an additional brake on the axle operated by 




FIG. 159. THE CLEMENT GASOLINE MOTOR. 

the lever, G, controls the carriage. Speeds of 4, 10, 15 and 
20 miles per hour are available. 

The lever handle, K, has two movements for steering, with 
the controlling levers, E, G, attached. 

In Fig. 159 is illustrated the details of one of the two 
four-cycle motors which are hung in a frame fixed to the 
tube frame of the carriage. The cylinder is ribbed for air 
cooling. The cylinder and internal moving parts are lubri- 
cated by oil dash in the closed crank chamber. A 
vibrating lever, Q, operated by a cam on the reducing gear 
shaft controls the motor by the exhaust, the motion of which 
is uniform, and not regulated by the inlet charged. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 22/ 

The special feature of this motor is the carburetor, H, 
through which the exhaust is passed, heating and vaporiz- 
ing the charge drawn in through the pipe, (9, and an auto- 
matic valve where it is mixed with warm air drawn from 
the pipe connection with the Bunsen burner case above the 
platinum ignitor, F. The Bunsen burner, G, has a vapor- 
izer. The other lettered parts are in evidence by inspection. 

VEHICLES OF THE INTERNATIONAL MOTOR WHEEL CO. 302 WEST 
FIFTY-THIRD STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

The novel single-wheel motor here illustrated is the in- 
vention of Mr. J. W. Walters, New York City. 

As a class it is somewhat unique as encompassing the 
speed gear within the single driving wheel. 

The device consists of a rubber tired wooden wheel, 
actuated by a two-cylinder gasoline motor, that is suspended 
on one side. On the other side two gasoline tanks that supply 
the fuel are held in position. The motor acts upon the 
wheel by means of a loosely mounted pinion meshing into 
a gear upon the wooden wheel. A clutch mechanism, the 
lever of which is within reach of the driver on the wagon, 
enables the latter to stop and start the vehicle at will. 
Owing to the novel nature of this invention a complication 
of machinery is avoided. It requires no backing mechan- 
ism. By simply reversing the motor-wheel with the steer- 
ing bar and starting the motor, the vehicle runs backward. 

Fig. 1 60 shows the motor wheel attached to a carriage, 
with the steering and motor-operating handle in its proper 
position. 

A side view of the motor wheel, Fig. 161, shows the two 
motors of the four-cycle type, at right angles, driving a pinion 
on the axis of the wheel which meshes in a pair of spur 
gears for operating the valves. A friction clutch transfers 



228 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 160. THE WALTERS SINGLE DRIVING WHEEL. 




FIG. 161. THE DRIVING 
WHEEL. 



FIG. 162. SECTION O 
MOTORS AND WHEEL. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



229 



the motor power to the wheel through a set of spur gears 
meshed in an internal geared wheel forming part of the driv- 
ing wheel. 

In Fig. 162 is detailed a section of the motor and wheel. 




FIG. 163. THE MOTOR WHEEL. 

The valve gear is on the side next the fly-wheel and the 
speed gear on the center line of the wheel. 

In Fig. 163 is illustrated the general appearance of the 
motor wheel standing independent of the vehicle, and in 
Fig. 164 its attachment to a delivery wagon. 



230 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 164. THE DELIVERY WAGON INTERNATIONAL MOTOR 
WHEEL Co. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



THE UNDERBERG VOITURETTE. 



2 3 I 



This is a French gasoline motor carriage or double-seated 
phaeton design, built by M. E. Underberg, Nantes, France. 

The elevation in Fig. 165 and the plan in Fig. 166 repre- 
sent the leading details. The forward reverse seat is for 
one person, and on the opposite side from the driver's seat, 
thus giving a clear view forward for the operator. The 
motor is a single cylinder Gailardet pattern with radial ribs 
for air cooling, and is set vertically at M, over the front 




FIG. 165. THE UNDERBERG VOITURETTE ELEVATION. 

axle in the plan, having a free circulation of air for cooling 
the cylinder. 

The carburetor, C, is of the constant level type, atomizing 
the gasoline by indraft of air by the suction of the piston. 
The gasoline tank being placed under the rear seat, is high 
enough to allow of a flow to the carburetor by gravity. 
The motor is pinioned to a spur gear on a counter shaft, A, 
Fig. 1 66, carrying four gears; one of which is in constant 
gear with a spur wheel on a second shaft, B. The three 
gears on the counter shaft are fastened on a feathered sleeve, 



2 3 2 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



controlled by the bell crank, C, and the hand lever at L, 
Fig. 165. 

A pulley on the second shaft at /'carries a belt to a pulley 
on the compensating gear of the rear axle. The pulleys 
have guard flanges. The rear axle is so hung that by levers 
and links, the foot pedal, P 9 Fig. 165, is made the means of 
making the belt loose or tight, thus obviating the use of a 
friction clutch for starting the motor. 

The crank handle for steering is at the right side of the 




FIG. 1 66. THE UNDERBERG VOITURETTE PLAN. 

seat and linked under the carriage body to the arms of the 
pivoted wheel axles. The vehicle weighs six hundred 
pounds, has an average speed of fifteen miles per hour, and 
will climb a grade of eight per cent, under the slow speed. 
The frame is made of steel tubing, if inches diameter, and 
suspended on springs. Wheels have pneumatic tires and 
ball bearings. Electric ignition by induction spark is regu- 
lated by a side handle on the steering lever. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



233 



MOTORS AND VEHICLES OF THE AUTOMOBILE COMPANY OF AMERICA. 

The motors of this company have been heretofore known 
as the "American Motor," built by 
the American Motor Company, 32 
Broadway, New York City. 

The new organization is at the 
same location. They supply motors 
for all purposes, stationary, carriage 
and marine, the smaller sizes with 
either ribbed or water cooled cylin- 
ders. The motors of this company 
are made with single cylinders of one 
and two horse power and as duplex 
motors of two and four horse power 
for vehicles; all of the four-cycle 
compression type. The smallest rib- 
bed air cooled motor weighs 50 and 
the 2 horse power motor of the same 
type weighs 75 pounds, without fly- 
wheels. All their motors are crank encased with aluminum. 
The vertical water jacketed motor, Fig. 167, is 3^ horse 




FIG. 167. VERTICAL 
MOTOR. 




FIG. 1 68. HORIZONTAL MOTOR. 

power and the horizontal water jacketed motor, Fig. 168, is 
i horse power. This is the smallest that is made of this 



^34 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 169. DUPLEX AMERICAN MOTOR. 




\ . 



FIG. 170.-- STANHOPE OP THE AUTOMOBILE Co. OF AMERICA. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



235 



type for vehicles. The lever centered on the reducing gear 
is for varying the time of the exhaust for controlling the 
motor. 

The duplex air cooled motor, Fig. 169, has also an alu- 
minum crank case, and is a very light motor for a carriage. 
The motors are regulated both by variable charge and by 
delayed electric ignition. Fig. 170 represents their Stan- 




FIG. 171. THE GASOLINE MOTOR DELIVERY WAGON. 



hope, one of the newest and most approved styles on the 
market. 

THE GROUT GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGE. 

In Figs. 171 to 175 are illustrated a line of automobile car- 
riages as built by Grout Bros., Orange, Mass. 

The motors of these carriages consist of two cylinders,, 
four-cycle compression type, neatly enclosed in a case and 



236 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES, 




FIG. 172. THE; TWO-PASSENGER TRAP. 




FIG. 173. THE FOUR-PASSENGER TRAP, 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



237 




FIG. 174. THE STANHOPE. 




FIG, 175. THE STANHOPE QUARTER VIEW. 



238 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

of about six horse power or sufficient for the weight and use 
of each vehicle. 

The two passenger trap, as are the other vehicles, are fur- 
nished with electric side lights with a current from the igni- 
tion dynamo which sparks the motor and also furnishes cur- 
rent for an electric alarm. 

Variable speeds from both motor charge and speed gear 
give ranges from 4 to 18 miles per hour. 

The lighter vehicles have a single steel tube frame strongly 
made with braced joints at the fittings. The wheels are made 
with solid hubs, steel rims, wood spokes and steel sockets. 
Tires, 34 x 3 inch pneumatic or solid tires when desired. 
Tread, 56 inches ; wheel base, 63 inches. Weight from 1,000 
to 1,400 pounds, according to style. 

Ball bearings on the lighter vehicles. 

Delivery wagons are also a product of this company of 
which the illustration, Fig. 171, is a representation. They 
also propose to build steam carriages if desired. 

THE SINTZ GASOLINE MOTORS AND VEHICLES. 

The Sintz Gas Engine Company, Grand Rapids, Mich., 
have adapted their motors to vehicle service. In Fig. 176 is 
illustrated carriages, omnibus, inspection and a street rail 
way car, as operated by their motors. 

The motor is of the two-cycle compression type, with 
enclosed crank and piston connections. It is a valveless 
gasoline motor, with electric ignition by a finger brake spark- 
ing device in the head of the cylinder. In Fig. 177 is shown 
the cylinder with the piston at the end of the down stroke. 

The upward stroke draws the mixed charge into the crank 
chamber. The downward stroke compresses the charge in 
the chamber, and into the space around the lower end of the 
cylinder of sufficient amount to force an explosive charge 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



239 




FIG. 176. THE SINTZ MOTOR VEHICLES. 



240 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



into the cylinder when the descent of the piston opens the 
inlet port and closes the charging port shown at the lower 
end of the cylinder. The charge is made by the expansion 
of the gasoline and air mixture contained in the annular 
space into which it had been previously compressed by the 
descent of the piston. 




FIG. 177. SINTZ CYLINDER. 

The exhaust port on the opposite side of the cylinder, as 
shown by the arrow, is opened by the descent of the piston 
before the charging port, giving the relief to the cylinder 
pressure just before the inlet port opens. The lip on the 
piston deflects the incoming charge up and against the 
ignitor, thus insuring a fresh charge at and around the 
sparking finger at every revolution. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



THE MUELLER MOTOR CARRIAGE. 



241 



In Fig. 178 is illustrated the motor carriage of the Mueller 
Manufacturing Company, Decatur, III. 

It is in style a trap or dos-a-dos, with wood spoke wheels 
and pneumatic tires, and is an improvement on the " Benz " 
model, brought out from Germany. 

The frame of this carriage forms a continuous tube for 




FIG. 178. THK MUELLER TRAP. 



cooling the water circulation and is plugged between the 
two pipe connections to the water-jacketed cylinder, so that 
the circulation is continued through the cylinder jacket and 
the cooling coil on the front of the dash-board, as shown in 
the cut. A small tank suspended between the front part of 
the frame holds the surplus water supply. The motor, which 
is single, of the four-cycle compression type, is bracketed 



242 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



to the frame and supported just above the rear wheel axle. 
A sprocket wheel on the motor shaft and chain drives a 
sprocket on the counter shaft, which, by the shifting of 
clutches, there is obtained three speeds forward and a 
reverse slow speed. The forward cone has two loose 
pulleys and internal clutches for making- interchangeable 
pulley speeds. 

The frame supporting the counter shaft cone pulleys, com- 




FIG. 179. PLAN OF MUELLER (BENZ) TRAP. 

pensating gear and wheel-driving sprockets is saddled upon 
the side bar tubes of the frame to enable the shifting of the 
counter shaft forward by means of screws and nut blocks, 
for tightening the chains and belts. The front axle is 
swiveled vertically to accommodate inequalities in the road. 
Knuckle joints at the wheels connect by arms and links to 
a bell crank on the vertical steering spindle, which also con- 
tains the several movements for operating the motor. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 243 

THE HERTEL MOTOR CARRIAGE, BUII/T BY THE OAKMAN MOTOR 
VEHICLE COMPANY, GREENFIELD, MASS. 

In Figs. 1 80 and 181 are illustrated a rear and front quar- 
ter view of one of the lightest hydro-carbon motor vehicles 
on the market, its weight averaging 500 pounds. The steer- 
ing gear is peculiar to this vehicle, being a pair of bicycle 
wheels supported in bicycle forks, the right hand one being 
jointed to a steering handle extending to the seat. At the 




FIG. 1 80. THE HERTEL RUNABOUT. 

junction of the fork and socket of each steering wheel is an 
arm projecting to the rear, and these arms are joined by a 
link rod, thus making a simple and perfect movement of 
each wheel from the steering handle. 

The steering wheels are made to assume automatically a 
direct line course by a helical spring and check-chain con- 
nection between the arms, making the link connection, 
so that if the steering handle is dropped from the hand the 
carriage will run straight forward, and will not turn out of 
its course. 



244 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



The steering wheels are not hung directly to the forks r 
but are on short links, pivoted to the ends of the fork 
prongs, and held in position by curved springs, so that the 
wheels will take inequalities in the road or override obstruc- 
tions without transmitting the jar to the body of the vehicle. 

The power is obtained from a double cylinder gasoline 
motor, 3f-inch by 4f-inch stroke, of 2 horse power. 




FIG. 1 8 1. THE HERTEL MOTOR CARRIAGE. 

Its crank shaft is geared to a high-speed driving shaft, 
with universal joints and elastic V shaped friction pinions 
that mesh in a driving rim fastened on the inside of each 
rear wheel. 

A muffler for each cylinder deadens the sound of the 
exhaust. One of the mufflers is arranged to heat the air for 
vaporizing the gasoline. 

The fly wheel is on the high speed shaft, thus enabling 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



245 



the required regulating- duty from a light fly wheel. By the 
manipulation of the single motor lever, the operation of turn- 
ing over the motor for starting, the locking of the friction 
gear, regulation of the speed by the quantity of the charge, 
an increase of power on up grades and the wheel brake 
motion is obtained by a few movements of the left hand on 
the handle of the lever. 




FIG. 182. THE HERTEiv CONTROLLING GEAR. 

A small generator running by belt from the high speed 
shaft furnishes the current for electric ignition with a storage 
battery reserve. The vehicle carries a gasoline charge for 
a run of 75 miles. Maximum speed 20 miles per hour. 

In Fig. 182 is illustrated the controlling and starting gear 
of the Hertel motor, consisting of an operating lever with a 
central rod having a vertical motion controlled by a pin on 
the vertical rod traversed by a helical slot in the handle. 



246 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



The handle having a rotary motion with an index on top to 
gauge the position of the charging valve. The helical slot is 
shown in the handle at the right. The small hand clip when 
closed upon the handle lifts the rod linked to it and the stop 
on the starting pawl, when the pawl drops into the teeth of 
the geared crank wheel and a fore and aft motion of the 
lever starts the motor in motion ; at the same time a twist of 
the handle by the hand opens the gasoline regulating valve 
by the movement of the rod and attached bell crank, shown 
at the left in Fig. 182, by which the long lever shown at the 
bottom of the cut, is given a horizontal movement that oper- 




FIG. 183. THE HERTEL DRIVING GEAR. 

ates the plunger in the gasoline regulating valve shown at 
the lower left hand corner in the cut. 

The same movement of the hand clip also releases the 
small hook pawl from the lever of the rock shaft which 
makes contact of the V driving pulley with the friction rim 
of the vehicle wheel, thus allowing the motor freedom to 
start. When the motor is started the hand clip is released ; 
the springs draw the rod down, throws up the starting pawl 
and locks the hook pawl in the arm of the rock shaft control- 
ling the contact of the V driving pulley with the wheel rim 
of the carriage. The mechanism of the driving pulley is 
shown in Fig. 183. On one end of the counter shaft is a link 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 247 

connecting it to the rock shaft arm and the brake, which is 
also operated by an extreme backward movement of the 
hand lever. 

One-half of the V driving pulley is fixed to the shaft, the 
other half is closed by a spring, so that for slow motion and 
a hard pull for up grades a strong pressure forward on the 
handle bar presses the contact of the V pulley well towards 
its center and thereby increases its pressure and power. 

For applying the brake a backward pull of the hand lever 
releases the contact of the driving V pulley and brings the 
brake arm in contact with the wheel tire. 

THE WINTON MOTOR CARRIAGES. 

In Fig. 184 is illustrated a line of the hydro-carbon motor 
carriages of the Winton Motor Carriage Company, of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, in which a " Fire Chief's" fast wagon takes the 
lead followed by two phaetons and a line of delivery wagons. 
In Fig. 185 is illustrated their latest design of a phaeton, and 
in Figs. 1 86 and 187 two models of their delivery wagon. 
The long run of a Winton phaeton from Cleveland, O., to 
New York in May, 1899, seems to have established the sta- 
bility of the Winton type for hard work on rough roads. 
The enduring qualities of its motor and running gear was 
proved by the trip of over 700 miles in 47^ hours running 
time, averaging nearly 15 miles per hour, and making at 
times 25 miles per hour. 

Many improvements in the details of the motor and run- 
ning gear have been made during the past year towards sim- 
plicity and automatic adjustment of parts, ease of access, bal- 
ancing of motor and convenience in handling that has 
brought the " Winton Vehicles " to the front among all of 
the automobiles. 

In the delivery wagons, as also in the lighter carriage 



248 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




VI 



be 
9 

to ^ 

II 






O <L> 

* 3 

g 

S 

< 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



2 49 




250 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



the driving mechanism is snugly concealed in the body of the 
vehicle. The wheels are 32 inch diameter front and 36 inch 
rear, orovided with 3-inch pneumatic tires, which are prac- 




- 



FIG. 1 86. THE LIGHT DELIVERY WAGON. 




FIG. 187, THE HEAVY DELIVERY WAGON. 

tically puncture-proof. Ball bearings are used at all import- 
ant points, thus securing the greatest possible freedom from 
friction and wear. 



GASOLINE MO LOR CARRIAGES. 



251 



In Fig. 1 88 is illustrated the general plan ol the running 
gear, in which it will be readily observed that the main driv- 
ing speed, as well also, the intermediate and backing speeds, 
are operated by friction disks through the operation of two 
hand levers. A third hand lever being used for steering, all 
placed convenient for the driver on the right hand side of 
the vehicle. 

The brake pulley is placed on the counter-shaft, with its 




FIG. 1 88. THE WINTON RUNNING GEAR. 

brake strap operated by an arm on a supplementary shaft, 
which also carries the arm that operates the motor friction 
disks, so that by a single movement from the vertical to the 
rear of the operating hand lever the motor is disconnected 
and the brake applied. The other hand lever being used 
for change speed and backing. The motor which is of the 
single hydro-carbon type is well balanced to give the vehicle 
freedom from vibration, and which, by the gasoline charge 



252 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

control, has a variable speed from 200 to 900 revolutions per 
minute, thus giving easy grades in changing the speed of 
the vehicle. 

Among the improvements that have been lately put on the 
new Winton carriages may be mentioned an automatic oiler, 
oiling all bearings, and iron composition, instead of bronze 
boxes. Instead of working on an arm, as in the earlier 
vehicles, the counterbalance now works in a direct line, 
obviating up and down vibration. The gasoline feed has 
been simplified, and is coupled direct to the valve stem. All 
the machinery is more accessible, and a more convenient 
mode of adjustment has been adopted. Phosphor bronze 
gears are used, and a new tubular water tank greatly assists 
radiation, rendering a small supply of water sufficient. 

The phaeton carries a supply of gasoline for a run of 75 
miles at a cost of about one-half cent per mile. 

The Winton Company also make an elegant top surrey 
on the same lines of finish as the phaeton, which will become 
very popular for touring parties. 

VEHICLES OF THE AUTO CAR COMPANY AND THE PITTSBURG MOTOR 
VEHICLE COMPANY. 

These companies are now merged in the latter named 
company, with their main office and works at Swiss- 
vale, Pa. 

In Fig. 189 is illustrated their top buggy, or runabout, a 
light running vehicle, highly finished, and well adapted for 
a physician or business man. Weight, 500 pounds. 

In Fig. 190 is illustrated their park trap, an elegant 
vehicle for ladies' use. It is handsomely upholstered, and 
has a graceful and finished design. It weighs 800 pounds. 

This company also make a delivery wagon of light and 
neat design. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 253 

The motors are of the four-cycle type, two in number, 
placed end to end, on cranks 180 apart, thus balancing all 
parts of the motor and eliminating the usual vibration of 
single cylinder motors. 

The cylinders of the light carriages are ribbed and so 
placed as to receive a free circulation of air for cooling the 
cylinder. The motors of the heavier vehicles are water- 
jacketed and connected to a water tank under the foot- 
board, which is perforated with 50 i-inch copper tubes, so- 
arranged as to condense the water vapor in the tank, and to 
keep the water at the proper temperature for cooling the 
cylinders. The cooling water is circulated by a small cen- 
trifugal pump. 

The power is transmitted from the engine shaft direct to 
the rear axle by chain and sprockets. The rear axle sprocket 
contains the differential gear, and a brake-band wheel, with 
an additional brake on the motor shaft, which is controlled 
by the same lever that controls the speed of the motor; 
the other brake is operated by a foot pedal. 

The speed of the motor is further regulated by delaying 
the time of ignition, which is by the electric spark from a 
small generator, which also charges a storage battery for 
starting the motor. 

When the motor reaches its full speed the storage battery 
connection is automatically changed when the surplus cur- 
rent recharges the battery. 

All parts of the motor not exposed to heat are made of 
aluminum, thus making the motor as light as it seems pos- 
sible for this type of prime mover. A special slow speed 
gear is provided for hill climbing, which is quickly thrown 
in, and allows of the full power of the motor to be used for 
the steepest road grades at a slow speed of the vehicle. An 
indicator card from this motor shows faultless lines of com- 



254 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES, 





GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



255 





256 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

pression and expansion. Compression, 75 pounds ; ignition 
pressure,, 250 pounds ; exhaust, 20 pounds. 

VEHICLES OF THE DURYEA MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

In Fig. 191 is illustrated the speedy automobile that won 
prizes in England in 1896, and in the Cosmopolitan race in 
New York. The vehicles of this company are operated 
by two or three-cylinder gasoline motors, with belts and 
clutch change gears on a counter shaft, with sprocket and 




FIG. 191. ONE OF THE WINNERS. 

chain transmission to the compensating gear box on the 
bisected driving axle. 

The frames of the vehicles are made of steel. The wheels 
have wood spokes, with 2^-inch pneumatic tires, 30 inch 
front, 34 inch rear wheels; speeds, variable, 5, 10 and 20 
miles per hour, and can reach 30 miles per hour on asphalt 
roads. The motors are independent, so that a disabling 
of one does not disable the carriage. These vehicles have 
a tank capacity for 8 gallons of gasoline, sufficient for more 
than a 100 miles run. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 257 

MOTOR VEHICLES OF THE DURYEA MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

PEORIA, ILL. 

The gasoline motor vehicles of the Peoria Company seem 
to have had a marked success in their endurance and speed 
qualities, as shown in the results of the Chicago Times-Herald 
race in 1895, the Cosmopolitan race in 1896 and the Liberty 
Day run in England against the winners in the French races. 
The low three wheel vehicles or tricycles are the favorite 




FIG. 192. -THE DURYEA RUNABOUT. 

styles made by this company, and seem to meet all objec- 
tions. It is light, quickly mounted and carries sufficient 
piower for the medium roads of the country, even in snowy 
and muddy weather. 

In Fig. 193 we illustrate two of their three wheelers, 
plowing through a lo-inch snow, and in Fig. 194 the same 
style of vehicle pushing its way through Illinois mud. In 
Fig. 192 is illustrated the same style of vehicle mounted 



2 5 8 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



with two forward wheels to suit the taste of parties that 
think two wheels are better than one for steering or for 
appearance. . 

The Park tricycle or motor trap with canopy top, Fig. 
195, is made with two or with one seat as desired. The sin- 
gle steering wheel is light, clean and less complicated, less 




FIG. 193. THE DURYEA IN SNOW. 

in the way in mounting, and can be handled more easily and 
quickly than two wheels. 

Fig. 196 is an outline plan of the vehicle and location of 
the mechanism. 

The motor is placed horizontally under the front seat, and 
consists of three cylinders 4% x 4^ inches, with a flywheel 16 
inches diameter weighing 80 pounds ; the motor complete, 
including fly wheel, weighs 200 pounds, and is of 6-horse 
power. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



259 



A single feed pipe supplies all three cylinders at head of 
motor. A single exhaust chamber, lying on top of the 
cylinders, carries the gases to a single muffler. A single 
insulated wire carries the electric current for sparking 
A single set of cam shaft gears operates all the valves 
and sparkers. A single water jacket and water tank keeps 
the motor cool ; while the added parts to make three 




FIG. 194. THE DURYEA ON A MUDDY ROAD, 

cylinders are duplicates of the parts required in a single 
cylinder. 

A fuel tank under the front floor carries sufficient ordinary 
stove gasoline for one hundred to two hundred miles' driv- 
ing, while the water tank under the rear seat insures the 
motor against overheating. 

The motor is throttled like a locomotive, and speeds from 



260 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



three to thirty miles per hour may be had on good roads by 
a simple turn of the wrist. For mud or hill climbing a 
special power gear on the motor shaft is provided, giving 
three times the power at one third the speed, either for- 
ward or backward as desired. 
The controlling lever centrally placed gives absolute con- 




isp 



1 & 



- 



FIG. 195. THE DURYEA PARK TRICYCLE. 

trol of the vehicle in one hand and by either rider. The 
lateral swing of the lever steers, twisting the handle, throt- 
tles the motor, while a vertical motion starts and changes 
the speed. These movements are as easy as guiding a sad- 
dle horse, and their effect upon the vehicle is instantaneous, 
so that these machines are much safer, although driven at 
high speed, than horse vehicles. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



26l 



The central foot brake gives further ability to stop, and a 
heel pedal operates the reverse or back motion. The total 
weight is but about seven hundred pounds empty, and the 
large power is sufficient to drive the vehicle over any roads 
passable by ordinary traffic. 

In their lighter vehicles a starting stirrup is used by the 
foot, which by pushing- downward starts the motor, thus 
avoiding the soiling of the hand in applying a crank to the 




FIG. 196. THE DURYEA MOTOR WAGON PLAN. 



motor shaft. In the larger vehicles a crank is used. The 
electric ignition is obtained direct from a generator driven 
by a belt from the fly wheel. A mixer or atomizer under 
the control of the hand on the steering lever controls the 
speed of the motors by the quantity of charge admitted to 
the cylinders. 

In Fig. 196 it is noted that the reversing gear is contained 
in the power drum, and the differential gear is in the large 
sprocket wheel on the axle. 



262 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

VEHICLES OF THE DETROIT AUTOMOBILE COMPANY, DETROIT, MICH. 

This company has brought out a line of gasoline motor 
vehicles that make a complete outfit for all the wants of au- 
tomobile work for pleasure or business. Fig. 197 illustrates 
their Runabout. 

The general outline and finish of all their vehicles are de- 
signed with similar parts and the running and motor gear 
are interchangeable on all the light carriages. 

The touring cart is a convertible vehicle most desirable 
for its kind. In place of the rear box for parcels or hand 
grip, its removal gives place for a trunk, or a seat may take 
its place and you have a stylish dos-a-dos. 

The suspension steel wheels and rubber tires are alike in 
all their carriages and the forward steering wheels are 
pivoted at the hubs. 

Among the distinctive features of these vehicles are,, 
the single lever which by a forward and backward movement 
through the space of about 12 inches, starts the engine, and 
controls the forward speeds and the backup, doing away 
with the confusion arising from a multiplication of levers. 

The automatic feeding device gives perfect combustion 
at any speed, leaving no odor from unconsumed gases. 

A perfectly balanced engine, with absolutely no vibration. 

A device, actuated by a button under the foot, which con- 
trols the speed, which may be varied from a slow walk to 
about 40 miles per hour, for the pleasure vehicles. 

An absolutely new sparking device, which is positive,, 
never fails, and is practically indestructible. 

Every part is encased and is dust and water proof. 

No chains or belts of any kind, the driving gear being 
connected direct to the rear axle, through the compensating 
gear. 

A flexible yet rigid frame. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 




FIG. 197. THE RUNABOUT. 




FIG. 198. THE TOURING CART 



264 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 







FIG. 199. THE TOP PHAETON. 




FIG. 200. THE TRAP. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



265 




FIG. 201. THE SURREY. 




FIG. 202. THE DELIVERY WAGON. 



266 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

The style and finish of these vehicles are most acceptable 
to good taste in the purchasers of the automobile type of 
pleasure carriages. 

The delivery wagon is built on the same lines as their 
other vehicles in motor and running gear, and is a light and 
quick moving vehicle for light trade. 

THE GENERAL POWER COMPANY AUTOMOBILE MOTOR. 

The general public is now becoming familiar with the rela- 
tive advantages, as well as the limitations of each special 
type of motor used in automobiles. 

A recent occurrence in India calls attention to the form 
of fuel commonly used in internal combustion motors. The 
Autocar stated that a recent consignment of " petrol" or 
naphtha automobiles was refused admission to India by 
the British Customs authorities, in consequence of the 
alleged danger attending the use of the required fuel. 

It is not difficult to determine what qualities are required 
in a satisfactory fuel for internal combustion engines for 
automobiles. 

Engines of this character, in order to be generally avail- 
able, must utilize some form of liquid fuel that is obtainable 
in all localities. 

The fuel adopted must be a low cost one, if the automobile 
is to be commonly used for commercial purposes. 

The ideal fuel should have the highest possible thermo- 
dynamic value per given unit of weight. 

Although last named, safety is an element of the first 
importance in a fuel intended for universal use. 

To recapitulate, the perfect fuel for vehicles of all kinds 
(i)must be obtainable everywhere ; (2) must be liquid in form ; 
(3) must be low cost ; (4) must have the highest possible 
thermodynamic value ; (5) must be safe. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 267 

Only one such fuel exists. It is that safe product of 
petroleum prepared for illuminating purposes, and known 
commercially as mineral oil, called in some parts of Europe, 
paraffine, and known throughout America as kerosene. 

The following table shows its superiority over other well- 
known forms of stored energy : 

DYNAMIC VALUE OP UNIT WEIGHT OF VARIOUS SOURCES 
OP POWER. 

A good battery will store .... 15,000 ft. Ibs. per Ib. battery. 

Liquefied air expanded from 2,000 
Ibs. down to atmospheric pres- 
sure, under ideal conditions, would 
develop 139,100 ft. Ibs. per Ib. air. 

Coal of 14,600 B. T. U., used in a 
steam plant of 12% per cent, 
efficiency, would yield .... 1,408,000 ft. Ibs. per Ib. coal. 

Petroleum oil of 20,700 B. T. U., con- 
sumed in an explosive engine of 
30 per cent, efficiency, would 
yield 4,794, 120 ft. Ibs. per Ib. oil. 

Thus it will be seen that one pound of petroleum or 
refined kerosene oil used to produce power in an internal 
combustion oil engine develops far more mechanical energy 
than an equal weight of any other medium, either for pro- 
ducing or storing power. 

In consequence of the wastefulness incident to all small 
steam engines, the fuel required for a steam wagon for a 
trip of 50 miles, will cover five times that distance when 
used in an internal combustion motor. 

It requires 35 pounds of liquefied air, and more than 300 
pounds of storage battery to equal the power obtainable 
from one pound of kerosene oil, costing about one cent. As 
a reservoir of power, one gallon of oil is superior to one ton 



268 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

of storage battery. If air could be compressed to lique- 
faction and supplied gratuitously to consumers the extra 
cost of storage and transportation would render it inferior 
in economy to commercial mineral oil. In fact, kerosene is 
simply gaseous solar energy, having the capacity of liquefy- 
ing at ordinary temperatures. 

Domestic kerosene of 120 degrees Fahr. flash and 150 
degrees Fahr. fire test has a specific gravity of about 0.785, 
and one gallon will equal 8.33 x .785 = 6.539 pounds. 
B. T. U. per gallon == 135,357- 

Petroleum and all its products possess practically the 
same calorific value per pound weight. The weights of the 
different products vary, and consequently the calorific value 
is not uniform per gallon, but it is uniform per unit of 
weight. The best authorities give the heat units in a pound 
of petroleum as 21,000. At 60 degrees Fahr. 86 Baume 
gasoline weighs 88.4 ounces per gallon. In other words, the 
calorific value of a gallon of 86 gasoline is to the value of a 
gallon of kerosene oil as 88.4 is to 104, therefore gasoline has 
1 8 per cent, less value, gallon for gallon, for fuel purposes 
than kerosene oil. 

It is thus evident that even where gasoline is obtainable 
and safety ignored, the selling price per gallon should be 18 
per cent, less than kerosene in order to produce power at 
the same cost as kerosene. Thus, if kerosene can be pur- 
chased at 10 cents per gallon, gasoline should be purchas- 
able at 8.2 cents per gallon in order to compete. 

It is well known, however, that gasoline is always higher 
in price than kerosene, though lower in thermal units. 

The General Power Company, of 100 William Street, New 
York, is making a specialty of employing the "Secor" 
method of utilizing oil of high fire test for motors for all 
power purposes. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 



269 




FIG. 203. THE KEROSENE MOTOR ELECTRIC PLANT. 
SECOR SYSTEM. 



2/0 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

A recent successful adaptation of their system to electric 
lighting is the oil-electric motor for isolated plants. 

The baffling problem of complete combustion of heavy 
oils is practically solved, the exhaust being as colorless as 
from a perfectly-adjusted gas engine. Careful tests show 
that the direct connected electrical plant furnished by the 
General Power Company possesses the following features, 
viz.: reliability, durability, saving of weight and space, low 
cost of operation, \ability to maintain uniform voltage with- 
out fluctuation, and perfect combustion. 

The freedom from vibration, and the capacity for using 
ordinary illuminating oil inherent features of this system 
at once challenges the attention of those interested in auto- 
mobiles. 

At the urgent request of several prominent American 
manufacturers of automobiles, who foresaw the greatly 
enlarged sphere of usefulness open to an internal combus- 
tion motor, embodying the " Secor system," the General 
Power Company undertook the production of an automobile 
motor. 

The Secor automobile motor embraces three distinctive 
features : (i) it burns kerosene; (2) it is reliable in operation; 
(3) it is free from vibration. 

In regard to the first feature, it should be stated that per- 
fect combustion is maintained through an extreme range of 
speed as well as of power. 

The importance of the second distinctive feature of this 
system can scarcely be overestimated. The erratic behavior, 
and uncertainly of operation of internal combustion motors 
is greatly exaggerated when such motors are applied to 
automobile use. Inevitable atmospheric changes, resulting 
in variation of humidity and temperature, not infrequently 
have an unpleasant effect on internal combustion motors. 



GASOLINE MOTOR CARRIAGES. 2/1 

Referring to the third special feature in the Secor auto- 
mobile motor, absence of vibration, it is well known that the 
ordinary methods of balancing either stationary or marine 
engines are entirely inadequate when applied to auto- 
mobiles. 

In a wagon there is no foundation whatever. Again the 
vibration appears to be increased by the unavoidable con- 
ditions affecting an automobile. 

Inasmuch as it is impossible to supply a firm foundation to 
a carriage motor, it became necessary to devise a mechani- 
cal arrangement which would absolutely eliminate the recoil 
or shock incident alike to the cannon and the reciprocating 
engine, caused by unbalanced pressure. 

So far as a cannon is concerned, if the bore were continu- 
ous from end to end, and the charge placed between two can- 
non balls of equal dimensions and weight, each equally free 
to move in opposite directions, the recoil of the gun kself 
would be nil. 

The problem of exactly balancing the stresses of a recipro- 
cating engine is more difficult, however, by reason of the 
change from pressure on the piston to torque on the shaft. 

The Secor balanced motor is a successful solution of the 
problem of suppressing vibration by balancing all stresses 
caused by the expansion of the gases within the cylinder, as 
well as those stresses caused by the kinetic change from 
reciprocating to rotary movement, and the stresses due to 
centrifugal effect. 

The method embodied in the Secor system retains the 
advantages of enlarged radius of travel and high speed of 
carriage of the internal combustion motor, in combination 
with the safety and absence of vibration of the electrically 
driven vehicle, using at the same time a form of condensed 
power kerosene available in all lands. 



Chapter XIII. 
ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 

THE ELECTRIC BROUGHAM A FRENCH VICTORIA THE JEN- 

ATZY DOG PHAETON THE KRIEGER COUPE THE JEAN- 

TAUD CAB AND COUPE THE PATIN DOG CART THE 

BARROW ELECTRIC TRICYCLE VEHICLES OF THE 

UNITED STATES AUTOMOBILE COMPANY 

ELECTRIC BROUGHAMS AND CABS. 

VEHICLES OF THE GENERAL ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILE COM- 
PANY THE ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILE AMBULANCE THE 
WAVERLY ELECTRIC MOTOR VEHICLES THE COLUM- 
BIA ELECTRIC VEHICLES AUTOMOBILES OF THE 
AMERICAN ELECTRIC VEHICLE COMPANY 
VEHICLES OF THE RIKER ELECTRIC 
VEHICLE COMPANY STORAGE BAT- 
TERIES AND GENERATORS. 

THE WILLARD AUTOMOBILE BATTERIES THE CARE OF AUTO- 
MOBILE STORAGE BATTERIES PRIMARY BATTERIES FOR 
ELECTRIC VEHICLES AN ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILE 
CHARGING AND REPAIR STATION THE HYDROM- 
ETER SYRINGE THE " MULTUM IN PAR- 
VO " CARRIAGE LAMP AN ELECTRIC 
AUTOMOBILE TOY. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 

The wonderful development of electrical appliances within 
the past few years, for power purposes, and their great 
economy, adaptability, and usefulness in that line, as shown 
by the universal adoption of electricity for the propulsion of 
street railway cars also clearly demonstrates the superiority 
of electricity as a convenient and easily controlled power 
for motor vehicles, which are now becoming so popular. 

While the well-known trolley car takes its power through 
the overhead or underground wires and conductors from an 
inexhaustible source of electricity, the motor vehicle is 
limited to the charge or amount it can carry, in consequence 
of the fact that it is intended to travel in places and over 
roads where there is no continuous outside supply of 
electricity. Hence the means of storing electricity econom- 
ically in the form of batteries is now one of the problems 
which is undergoing development. 

New ideas are constantly being worked out, and it is con- 
fidently expected improvements will continue by which 
greater efficiency will result. At present changes have 
been made in the construction of storage batteries whereby 
a surprisingly large quantity of active material is put into 
a small space, and this accounts for the neater appearance 
electric motor vehicles now possess over former designs. 
It is also a fact that the aggregate weight of battery for 



2/6 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

the amount of current discharge obtained is less than 
formerly. 

The factor of weight is one of the features in electric 
vehicles that practical men are working to overcome, and it 
is said that whenever a storage battery or a system of stor- 
ing the electric current is invented by which the weight of 
the battery is greatly reduced, there is certain to be an 
impetus given to electric motor vehicle industry such as has 
never been thought of. 

One of the essential requirements in a motor vehicle is 
that the reserve power shall be instantly available for a 
brief period of time, as, for example, when heavy grades are 
met with. In a storage battery this condition is perfectly 
met, the increase of current demanded being readily given 
off and accurately measured by the ampere meter, so that, 
by observing the latter, while traveling on an apparently 
level road, one can detect slight grades by the varying posi- 
tion of the ampere needle. 

The battery may be considered as an elastic equalizer 
capable of giving off, in an instant, the amount of current 
needed at various times and emergencies. This makes elec- 
tricity an ideal power for vehicles, for it eliminates the com- 
plicated machinery of either steam, gasoline or compressed 
air motors, with their attendant noise, heat and vibration. 
It is not only serviceable as power, but also as light at night. 

The electric vehicle, since its inception, has had scarcely 
a decade of years, in which to bring it to its present efficient 
development. It has been an evolution, gradual, though 
rapid ; for many have contributed to its success, which has 
finally placed on a firm basis one of the leading dreams of 
the early inventors and engineers on the possibilities and 
outcome of the rotary motor. This achievement in the line 
of electric power can hardly be overestimated. Number- 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 2// 

less inventors and engineers have struggled, toiled and 
finally passed with the solution of the enchanted problem of 
rotary motion almost within their grasp in other lines. 

It remained for the electric motor to give the final and 
complete solution. A rotary motor with no oscillating or 
reciprocating parts has at last been developed. It delivers 
torque, pure and simple constant and regular, and has a 
capacity measured by its size, and an efficiency measured 
by other motors, nothing short of wonderful. The motor 
was simply ideal. 

At first much was said to the effect that this motor was 
not a prime mover ; but that it had been hitched to a primary 
power. Its system of connection with the prime source of 
power is at once so complete, and its association so intimate 
as to perform more acceptably and economically than the 
prime mover itself, and as compared with the smaller sources 
of power, its economy back to the fuel, even at miles dis- 
tant, was found to be superior. 

The fact that the electric motor is a rotary motor, con- 
tributes to the success of electric motor driven systems to a 
degree difficult to overestimate. Our compressed air 
advocates, compelled, as they are, to use a multiplicity of 
reciprocating parts as motors, have made a step backward, 
and are certainly in the rear in this, as in other features of 
their system. 

The electric automobile coming upon the scene at this 
time falls heir to many of the rich results worked out in 
connection with tramway traction. There are many who 
go so far as to predict that the younger claimant will dis- 
place the former methods, especially in the lighter class of 
street service, and this, doubtless, will be the case to a large 
degree in the near future. 

Electric railways are rapidly reaching out with wider 



2/8 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

radii of operation and heavier and heavier equipment, and 
the automobile will doubtless have wide use as supplemental 
to the heavier systems. In fact, co-operation has already 
been proposed in a number of instances. Its great flexi- 
bility and independence of track render it the ideal urban 
conveyance. 

As the perfection of the electric motor gave the first 
impetus to electric tramway traction, so the point now reached 
in the perfection of the storage battery will yield equal 
results in the field of the electric automobile. The past 
three years have advanced the art remarkably, and drawn 
to it the attention of both skill and capital, and results have 
followed. 

The perfected storage battery presents some remarkable 
features. It even rivals the electric motor in its fitness and 
special adaptability to the automobile problem. Its very 
large reserve power at instant command ; its entire freedom 
from danger when fully charged ; its almost constant pres- 
sure throughout its capacity ; its recently developed capacity 
for quick charging ; and ease with which charge may be 
obtained in almost any hamlet in the country, are among its 
advantages. 

Tests of the principal types of storage batteries in use in 
Europe as published are trustworthy as to their specific 
capacity at their various rates ; but their stability is not 
always assured under the severe vibration due to vehi- 
cular traffic. Improvements are in order, and progressive 
towards an enduring stability in the electric storage bat- 
tery. 

Fortunately materials are at hand and systems of devel- 
oping the plates are now being- perfected that will render 
them thoroughly reliable and commercial to a degree com- 
mensurate with reasonable requirements. 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 2/Q 

THE ELECTRIC BROUGHAM. 

In Fig. 204 is illustrated an electric brougham or cab, in 
which the driver's seat is forward, as in the older style of 
cabs. The battery is placed beneath the cab floor, with a 




FIG. 204. ELECTRIC BROUGHAM. 




FIG. 205. THE PHAETON. 

drop floor to carry the battery trays. The motors are geared 
to spur wheels on the hubs, a French design. 

The style of automobile mostly in use in Europe and the 
United States is the phaeton, without or with a top, and 
which in many vehicles, are made removable to suit the con- 
ditions of the weather. Others are also provided with a 



280 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



temporary seat and foot-board attachable at the rear, form- 
ing, practically, a dos-a-dos, thus, with a single vehicle, a 
convertible all-round establishment may be made a great 
convenience for a family, a physician or business man. 

A FRENCH VICTORIA. 

The Victoria of Bouquet, Garcin & Schivre, Paris, France, 




FIG. 206. VICTORIA OF BOUQUET, GARCIN SCHIVRE. 

is an elegant and stately design for a private pleasure car- 
riage. It is illustrated in Fig. 206. 

It has a steel frame attached to the running gear by elliptic 
springs, and is arranged for interchangeable bodies. 

The complete vehicle weighs 2,200 pounds, while the 
battery weighs but 770 pounds, and is placed in the 
seat box over the forward wheels. The motor weighs 
88 pounds, is rated at 4 horse power, and located beneath 
the seat over the driving wheels. It is geared to an inter- 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



28l 



mediate shaft, with differential gear, and the power trans- 
mitted to the carriage wheels through chains and sprocket 
wheels. The speed has seven changes up to 15 miles per 
hour. 

The carriage has a total run of 60 miles on a single bat- 
tery charge. 

THE JENATZY DOG PHAETON. 

This vehicle, built by the Societe Generate des Transports 




FIG. 207. JENATZY DOG-PHAETON. 

Automobile of France, is a utility accommodation for two 
to five persons. The extended box at the rear provides fora 
temporary seat, and encloses one battery and an open type 
motor, series wound and rated at 4 horse power, with speed 
regulation for 3} and ;i miles per hour. The battery is in 
two groups, connected in parallel for the low speed, and in 
series for the higher speed. In line with the armature shaft, 
a second shaft is connected to it by a universal joint, which 
shaft carries two loose pinions meshing in gears keyed to the 



282 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

differential gear shaft that carries the driving sprockets. A 
clutch between the loose pinions, which are of different 
sizes, changes the speed for two rates, thus making four 
speeds in all. 

The battery is in two groups of 22 cells each, one of which 
is under the driver's seat, and the other at the end of the 
box extension. 

The steering is by the forward wheels, which are pinioned 
at the ends of a fixed axle. The pedal controls the band 
brakes on the differential gear axle, and a lever operates a 
wheel or emergency brake, not shown in the illustration, 
Fig. 207. 

THE KRIEGER COUPE. 

This French carriage is a novelty in the method of placing 
of the motors, which are fixed on the pivots of the front steer- 
ing wheels, and geared direct to a spur wheel fixed to the 
hub of each steering wheel. The motors are four pole, two 
of which are series wound and the others shunt wound. 

It would seem that the position of the motors attached 
wholly to the steering pivots would injure them by exces- 
sive vibration, but lengthy trials have proved that the pneu- 
matic tires were fully equal to the required protection. 

The various conditions of grouping the batteries and the 
field winding give armature speeds from 200 to 1,200 revo- 
lutions per minute, with carriage speeds up to 12 miles per 
hour. 

In going down hill the motors act as generators feeding 
back to the battery. 

Fig. 208 is an outlined front view, showing the position 
of the electric motors, and Fig. 209 is a photo engraved view 
of the coupe. 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 283 




FIG. 208. KRIEGER COUPE. 




FIG. 209. THE KRIEGER COUPE. 



284 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES, 




FIG. 210. THE JEANTAUD CAB. 





FIG. 2ii. THE JEANTAUD COUPE. 



1 




ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



285 



THE JEANTAUD CAB AND COUPE. 

In Fig. 210 is illustrated the Jeantaud cab, and in Fig. 211 
the Jeantaud coupe, as built by M. Jeantaud, Paris, France, 
and in Figs. 212 and 213 are represented an elevation and 
plan of the running gear of a Jeantaud coupe, but is not the 





FIGS. 212 AND 213. THE JEANTAUD RUNNING GEAR. 

arrangement shown in the cab and coupe, Figs. 210 and 21 i r 
which are driven by chain and sprocket wheels on the differ- 
ential gear shaft. 

This allows of a fixed axle and eliminates the complication 
of a differential gear on a revolving axle. For these car- 
riages a bipolar motor of 3^ horse power, with shunt and 



286 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

series field coils, are used, which gives speeds from 3 to 1 1 
miles per hour. The 44 battery cells weigh 880 pounds. 
The elevation and plan of the driving and steering gear. 
Figs. 212 and 213, is peculiar, as the transmission is through 
a set of three bevel gears at each side in order to get 
around a centrally located steering pivot, and to make 
drivers of the steering wheels. 

THE PATIN DOG CART. 

This French electric vehicle is somewhat a novelty in its 
general appearance, and in the transmitting and regulating 
gear. 
* In Fig. 214 is illustrated a general view. 

The steering is by a two-part vertical spindle, with one 
wheel for steering and the other for operating the con- 
troller. 

The side lever, with a latch, is for changing the speed gear, 
and the rear longer one is the brake lever. The storage bat- 
tery is reported as a new one, but not described. 

The driving gear, Fig. 215, has one intermediary spur, 
geared to the compensating gear. The motor pinion is a 
multiple V friction, with two intermediary friction change 
gears. 

The driving is by a two-part shaft bearing in an offset 
a fixed shaft which carries the motor and change gear. The 
brake pulleys are fixed to the wheel hubs, and the springs 
clipped to the offset shaft. 

The offset shaft or bar is opened horizontally into an oval 
to receive the compensating gear, having one each of its 
beveled gears fixed to the inner ends of the driving shafts, 
which are also journaled to bearings on the oval part of 
the offset shaft. 

The motor shaft is supported by arms from the field poles, 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



287 



and carries a rimmed pulley, concentric with which are 
three or four loose fitting- leather rings (Fig. 216). Two 
other pulleys of different diameters carr}^ gears and are 
mounted on an oscillating frame, so that the gears are at all 
times in mesh with the main gear of the differential 
casing, while either of the pulleys themselves can be brought 




FIG. 214. THE PATIN DOG CART. 



up hard against the leather rings on the motor pulley, 
being driven by the friction therewith. 

The frame of the friction change gear is pivoted on the 
driving shafts, and carries two pinions that are in constant 
mesh with the spur wheel of the compensating gear, shown 
by the large radius dotted line. The friction pinion of the 



288 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 





ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



289 



motor is shown within the triangular space of the frame; 
the link rod being pivoted to a lug on the frame. 

This rather complicated arrangement makes it possible to 
change the speed-reduction ratio, or to throw the load on 
the motor after the latter has attained full speed. In this 
way a sudden pull can be obtained of much greater intensity 
than the motor would otherwise be capable of. There is no 
danger of breaking gear teeth, as the gears never separate. 




FIG. 216. THE CHANGE SPEED GEAR. 

The motor is series wound, and further speed variations 
are obtained by changing the number of field windings by 
the intervention of a controller. The usual band and shoe 
brakes are present, and the reverse connection is also used 
as a brake. 

THE BARROW ELECTRIC TRICYCLE. 

A novelty in electric appliances of power for operating a 
light vehicle is found in the Barrow tricycle (Fig. 2i?X 
In this vehicle the motor is carried on the fork of the steer- 



290 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 217. BARROW 
TRICYCLE. 



ing wheel, which has an internal 
toothed spur gear in which the 
pinion of the motor meshes. 

The storage battery is placed 
under the seat of the vehicle and 
wired to the motor with a flexible 
loop at the fork swivel. A ver- 
tical motion of the steering handle 
operates a brake. The controller 
is placed under the seat and 



operated by a lever at the side. 

VEHICLES OP THE UNITED STATES AUTOMOBILE COMPANY, 
ATTLEBORO, MASS, 

In Fig. 21 8 is represented a new departure in the design 
and arrangement of the electric motive power which has 
many points of advantage worthy of notice. 




FIG. 218. THE ELECTRIC VICTORIA. 

The outline of the carriage body conforms more to the 
usual forms of the present style of the horse vehicle, but if 
extended at the rear gives room for storage so little thought 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 291 

of in motor vehicles. The battery is suspended underneath 
the carriage body, thereby getting the centre of gravity 
low. The carriage body is suspended on light, independent 
springs. 

The electric motor is mounted in the centre line of the 
rear shaft No compensating gear is used. The motor is 
of a new construction, in which both the field and armature 
revolve, one of the driving wheels being fastened to the field 
and the other to the armature, giving the necessary flexi- 
bility in rotation of the wheels. The brake, which is applied 
to the hubs of the wheels, is of the ordinary band type. 

The weight of this carriage is about 2,000 pounds, the 
accumulator weighing 1,120 pounds. The accumulator con- 
sists of 40 cells, giving about 80 volts when fully charged. 
The motor shaft revolves about 1,000 turns at the highest 
speed, carriage being geared to 71. The carriage has three 
forward speeds, of three, six and twelve miles, and two 
backward speeds of three and six miles. One charge is 
sufficient for a 3O-mile run. It is provided with volt and 
ammeter combined. 

The steering is by lever connections with hub pivoted 
gear. The wheels are of the wire suspension type with 
three-inch pneumatic tires. 

ELECTRIC BROUGHAMS AND CABS. 

The electric broughams and cabs of the Electric Vehi- 
cle Co., now extensively in use in the City of New York, 
are operated by two electric motors, one to each forward 
wheel with its pinion meshed in an internal spur gear 
attached to each wheel. 

The axles are both fixed and attached to the vehicle body 
by springs, the rear axle carrying the steering gear, which 
is of the knuckle type, and operated by the lever in front of 
the driver's seat. 



2 9 2 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



The wheels are novel being composed of sheet iron 
disks, dished with their convex sides outward and closing 
on a wooden rim on which is fixed a crescent steel rim to 
receive the tire. 

Fig. 219 represents a very clear front view, and Fig. 220 
a side view in outline of the brougham. 




FIG. 219. THE BROUGHAM FRONT. 

Beneath the driver's seat, laid horizontally, is the con- 
troller, with its lever rising on the outside and at the left of 
the driver. 

The brake is operated by a lever and catch-rack through 
pull rods with levers below the body of the brougham, to a 
pair of pulley straps with friction on pulleys fixed to the 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



293 




294 



HORSELESS VEHICLES -AND AUTOMOBILES. 



motor shafts. The motors are held by a spring link to the 
body of the vehicle. 

The battery jars are of hard rubber, within which the 
plates are separated by perforated and corrugated hard rub- 
ber sheets to lessen the splash of the acid and the whole 
fitted into a tray to facilitate the removal of the whole 
battery at once. 

The tray is lined with lead, with a waste spout which 
prevents any spilled acid from injuring the carriage. The 
battery equipment complete \veighs about 1,200 pounds. 









FIG. 221. DIAGRAM OP BATTERY AND MOTOR CONNECTIONS. 

The controller is arranged for three speeds, with a re versing 
switch. 

An emergency switch is also provided to be operated for 
connecting the main current in case of derangement of the 
controller. The motors are four polar, rated at 2 horse 
power each, at 700 revolutions per minute, giving the high- 
est vehicle speed of 12 miles per hour. 

The controller is fitted with a separate but interlocking 
reversing switch, so that the three speed positions apply to 
either forward or backward running. No magnetic blow- 
out is used with this controller, and each contact is made 
doubly certain by the useof two independent contact fingers 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



295 



in each division. The speed variation is obtained by means 
of a division of the battery into two groups, which may be 
placed in series or multiple, the third or highest speed 
being obtained by a rearrangement of the series field coils 
of the two motors from a series to a multiple combination 




FIG. 222. THE HANSOM CAB. 

(see Fig. 221). In the main circuit there is also what is 
called an emergency switch, in such a position that the 
driver can strike it with his heel and open the main circuit 
in case for any reason the controller becomes inoperative. 
The batteries are placed beneath the driver's seat and over 



2 9 6 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



the driving wheels, thus throwing the greatest weight upon 
the drivers. The panel doors in front, beneath the foot 
board, make a most convenient entrance to the battery box 
for changing the batteries, which consists of 48 cells of 
chloride accumulators of the motor vehicle type. 




FIG. 223. THE HANSOM CAB. 

The Hansom cabs of the New York Electrical Vehicle 
Company have, been placed in a firm foothold of patronage, 
and with the improvements suggested by experience may 
be considered a fixture in New York cab service. 

They are illustrated in Figs. 222 and 223. 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 297 

VEHICLES OF THE GENERAL ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILE COMPANY, 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Iii Figs. 224 and 225 we illustrate some of the vehicles 
built by this company. 

I he phaetons for physicians and pleasure riding are in 
design between a doctor's carriage and a Stanhope, consist- 
ing of a seat for two persons, with handsome upholstery and 
cushions side and back. The battery compartment extends 
under the seat and backward, with a drop-hinged door at 




FIG. 224. VEHICLES OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 
AUTOMOBILE COMPANY. 

the rear. Handsome lamps, both for electric light and 
candles, are provided on the sides of the body. The running 
gear consists of two large rear and two smaller front wheels, 
all of wood, and having solid rubber tires. The front axle- 
tree is carried upon springs secured to special iron exten- 
sions from the body, and the wheels are turned for steering 
by knuckle joints or side pivots, and moved by a steering 
ever extending upward through the body near the dasher, 
and leading backward toward the seat. The rear axle is also 



298 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



fixed and carried by a similar set of springs. The wheels are 
all furnished with bail bearings. These vehicles are designed 
to give a light-weight etfect, and rich yet simple design. 

The brougham is but very little larger than ordinary 
types of fine carriages of this class. In general design it does 
not differ materially from the best styles of Rogers or Brew- 
ster makes, with the exception of trie iront running gear, 




FIG. 225. GENERAL ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILE COMPANY 
DELIVERY WAGON. 

which is made, similar to that of the phaeton, but heavier. 
In this vehicle the knuckle-jointed axle or individual wheel 
pivot is preferred instead of the fifth-wneel because of light- 
ness, cheapness, quicker steering and improved design. The 
front wheels are smaller than the rear wheels, as is custom- 
ary. The axle boxes are provided with roller bearings. 
The eye is not offended by any abnormal changes in design 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 299 

from that it is accustomed to seeing, the company believing 
that any radical changes in design should come by degrees 
to avoid public aversion to riding in objectionably conspicu- 
ous vehicles. The motors are located under the rear por- 
tion of the body and geared to the large rear wheels. The 
batteries are placed within a compartment under the floor 
of the body, but so shielded and worked into the structure 
of the carriage that it is not perceptible. This result is 
secured by having a false floor and making the doors fit 
down over the sides of the battery compartment. The front 
projection upon which the operator's seat is located is 
arched in form, just as in the modern brougham, and the 
controller is placed out of view under the seat. The battery 
compartment has the bottom hinged to drop on the forward 
end, and permits the batteries and the trays to be withdrawn 
or inserted. When in position the bottom is raised and 
locked in place. The construction makes the vehicle 
somewhat shorter geared than a horse brougham of the 
same size . 

The electrical equipment of these vehicles consists of the 
following: There are 44 cells of battery coupled in such a 
manner that for all normal work the cells are maintained in 
series, but for certain work, as in mounting very steep and 
short grades, or starting exceptionally large loads, the 
cells may be temporarily arranged in two sets, and these put 
in parallel. The batteries are automatically coupled up with 
the motor circuits on the vehicle, through the media of con- 
tact switches, by simply sliding the trays into the compart- 
ments. While the batteries are adapted to be removed from 
the vehicle for charging, sockets are provided for attach- 
ment plugs, so that the batteries may be charged while in 
place, and these plugs are so constructed that it is impos- 
sible to make a wrong connection or reverse the polarit}-. 



300 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

The motors are two in number and develop 2 horse power 
each on normal running, but may be worked up to twice 
that power at 800 revolutions per minute for a considerable 
period without excessive heating. They are four-polar, 
with the armature shaft carried in roller bearings, and ope- 
rate on eighty volts. The field windings are divided into 
two coils, so that those of each motor may be thrown in 
series or multiple. The motors are hinged to the rear axle 
near the outer ends thereof, and are supported from the 
vehicle body. The armature shafts extend- close to the 
wheels, and are fitted with pinions of 34-inch diameter, 
working on annular gears of 22-inch diameter, fastened to 
the spoke arms. The gears are of phosphor bronze and 
carefully cut. The ratio is i to 6.28. 

The controller is placed under the floor of the phaetons, 
and under the operator's seat on the box in the broughams, 
and is operated by a hand lever. It is of the series-multiple 
type, adapted to give four speeds and one brake position. 
The first notch puts the two motors in series with the field- 
magnet coils also in series. The second notch maintains the 
armatures in scries, but with the two sets of field coils of 
each motor in each multiple. The third notch throws the 
two motors in parallel, but connects the two field coils of 
each motor in series. The fourth notch maintains the 
motors in parallel, but also throws the two field coils of 
each motor in parallel. The brake is set by moving the con- 
troller lever the other way, and throws the fields and arma- 
tures all in series on a short circuit, causing the machines to 
.act as braking dynamos. This is only resorted to in case of 
emergency or in descending steep grades. A foot brake is 
provided \vhen desired for ordinary uses. In all of the 
working notches, one to four, of the controller the batteries 
are connected with all of the cells in series, giving a maxi- 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 301 

mum voltage of 88. On the fourth or parallel notch the 
speed is 19.8 miles per hour. In addition to the series-mul- 
tiple controller there is an electric switch for throwing the 
battery cells in two series of 22 cells each, and these two in 
parallel with each other ; and this is employed in connection 
with the parallel arrangement of the motors, namely, the 
third and fourth notches when the internal resistance and 
counter electromotive force is lowest. This connection is 
only used in starting heavy loads or climbing steep grades. 

In addition to these switches for controlling the speed and 
braking there is a separate hand-controlled switch to reverse 
the armature connections for running backward. In the 
phaeton these various switches and the controller lever are 
arranged at the left-hand side of the seat and extend up 
through the side rail and in convenient reach. This enables 
the operator to sit on the side adjacent to the middle of the 
road, and to see more clearly for steering and avoiding col- 
lision with passing- vehicles. 

The delivery wagons are provided with a fifth-wheel 
steering gear on the front wheels, controlled by a small 
hand wheel on horizontal axis and operating- through gear- 
ing a worm or tangent screw, which works in a worm gear 
segment fixed to the pivoted axle. This method of steering 
delivery wagons is preferred, because by it the axle is always 
locked, and excessive strains and jars cannot come upon the 
operator. It is found by experience that this steering gear 
works most satisfactorily. It furthermore enables the most 
approved customary type of spring-body support to be 
employed, which is deemed advisable, and especially so for 
vehicles required to carry heavy loads. The batteries a*re 
arranged in trays, and placed within a compartment under 
the rear of the body, and furnished with a spring floor to 
reduce the jarring upon the battery when traveling over 



302 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

rough roads or crossing railroad tracks. The wheels are 
fitted with anti-friction bearings, and the rear wheels are 
independently driven by separate motors. The wheels are 
of wood, with solid rubber tires. 

THE ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILE AMBULANCE. 

The electric automobile ambulance shown in Fig. 226 was 
built by F. R. Wood & Son, of New York City, for St. 
Vincent's Hospital. It is handsome in appearance, being well 
finished. The openings are all inclosed with beveled plate 
glass windows, which open or close with ease. The vehicle 
is steered from the front wheels, and is propelled by two 2- 
horse power motors, which are suspended on the rear axle. 
The current for the motors is supplied by 44 cells of storage 
batteries, and it is managed by a controller placed under the 
seat entirely out of view. This controller permits of three 
speeds ahead, 6, 9 and 13 miles per hour, and two speeds to 
the rear, 3 and 6 miles per hour. The- radius of action of 
the ambulance is 25 to 30 miles. 

The Wood pedestal gear is used, making it possible to 
have the body low, which is essential in an ambulance, 
and adds to its appearance. All the fore and aft bending 
strain on the springs is relieved by the pedestals sliding 
vertically up and down on the pedestal box. The driver is 
in immediate communication with the surgeon by the aid 
of a speaking-tube. The inside trimming is of leather, and 
the bed slides out, and being caught by irons, stands out 
parallel with the sidewalk, thus enabling a patient to be 
placed upon the bed without the necessity of being jolted, 
which is inseparable to the use of stationary beds. The 
inside and outside electric lights are of ten-candle power 
each. The mountings are all of brass. 

The ambulance service in our American cities is the 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



303 




304 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

model one of the world, so that it is little wonder that we 
are to have what is probably the first electric ambulance, 
certainly the one we illustrate is the first ever built in the 
United States. There are many reasons why an automobile 
ambulance has marked advantages over the horse vehicles. 
It is capable of greater sustained speed, and when the 
destination is reached no care has to be paid to the steaming 
horse, and both surgeon and driver can devote their atten- 
tion to the injured person. Accidents to ambulances are of 
frequent occurrence, owing to their speed and their right 
of way, but electric vehicles can be stopped in their length. 
Every second is of importance to an injured person, and 
speed and ease of riding will undoubtedly soon make them 
a great favorite among hospital authorities. Another feat- 
ure of interest is the lower cost of maintenance. An ambu- 
lance is usually idle twenty or more hours out of the twenty- 
four, and this gives ample time for charging the batteries. 
There is no time lost in hitching up, and the stable may be 
in the hospital proper, without the dangers of stable odors. 

THE WA VERIFY ELECTRIC MOTOR VEHICLES. 

We illustrate, in Figs. 227, 228 and 229, the electric motor 
carriages of the Indiana Bicycle Company, Indianapolis, 
Ind. The bicycle experience of this company has enabled 
them to build their carriage frames largely on bicycle prin- 
ciples, with cold drawn steel tubing and brazed joint fit- 
tings, giving a rigidity to the frame not to be obtained with 
riveted or screwed joints. The wheels are wire spoked for 
light vehicles and with ball bearings. The motor is of the 
multipolar type, and is rigidly hung to the running gear. 
The motor shaft is geared directly to the two rear wheels. 
Each rear wheel is made to revolve independently of the 
other by compensating gears upon the motor shaft. 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 30$ 

Three sizes of motors are used according to the weights 
of the vehicles, viz., one and one-half horse power for the 
runabout, two and one-half for the phaeton and Stanhope, 
and three and one-half horse power for the delivery wagon. 

The battery consists of 44 non-polarization cells varying 
in capacity from 60 to 125 amperes; the lightest weighing 
about 9 pounds per cell. 

They are arranged in four trays of eleven cells each, and 
are charged with a i lo-volt current. 

A Wattmeter is placed convenient for observing the dis- 
charge of the battery, enabling the operator to see at a 
glance the amount of energy in store. A lever for starting 
and regulating the speed is placed at the left side of the 
seat and connected with the controller beneath. A push 
button on the top of the controller lever gives the reverse 
motion. 

Each vehicle has five speeds forward and three back- 
ward ; the forward speeds varying from three to fourteen 
miles per hour. 

The steering is by a lever and shaft linked to the pivoted 
arms of each wheel, giving an easy and natural motion for 
the hand in guiding the vehicles. A band brake on the 
periphery of the compensating gear drum is operated by 
the foot on a pedal on the floor of the vehicle. 

A safety lock switch is provided to prevent meddling 
when the vehicle is left alone. 

Their runabout, Fig. 227, is intended for two persons, but 
has an emergency seat for two more. It is finished in elegant 
style, weighs about 1,200 pounds, and has a radius of 35 
miles to one battery charge. 

The Stanhope or phaeton, Fig. 228, is a most convenient 
and comfortable carriage for touring or for a physician. It 
has a 2\ horse power motor, with suitable battery for a 



306 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 







ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 

radius of 40 miles, with a speed of from 12 to 14 miles 
per hour. 

Fig. 229 is a combination wagon for parcel delivery, with 
a running gear and frame similar to the Stanhope, and of 
the same power. The parcel hood is removable, as shown 
in the lower right hand corner of the cut, when a very styl- 




FIG. 228. THE WAVERLY PHAETON. 

ish runabout or pleasure carriage is at hand, as shown in 
the upper right hand corner of the cut. 

This company also make a brougham, equipped with a 3^ 
horse power motor and a 44-cell battery of i2O-ampere hour 
capacity. It is a stylish carriage, with a removable rear seat, 
and for winter use is provided with an electrical heater. 



308 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



309 





3 io 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



Fig. 230 illustrates the Waverly merchandise delivery 
wagon, a heavier and more powerful vehicle than usual, with 
a 3i horse power motor, and a radius of 40 miles, with a 
speed of from 8 to 12 miles per hour. The wheels are 
strong, of the wood spoke pattern, with pneumatic tires. 

THE COLUMBIA ELECTRIC VEHICLES. 

Prominently among American motor vehicle builders may 
be mentioned the Columbia and Electric Vehicle Company, 




FIG. 231. COLUMBIA ELECTRIC PHAETON, MK. III. 

Hartford, Conn., whose vehicles are manufactured for the 
Electric Vehicle Company, 100 Broadway, New York City. 
This company, by virtue of long continued experimentation 
in the direction of mechanical road traction, has been able to 
place upon the market vehicles which from the very first 
have been commercially successful, and have proved 
popular. 

Among these, the first style of carriage produced, known 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 311 

as Mark III., Fig. 231, has come to be generally recognized 
as almost a standard type of American electric vehicle. 
This carriage, in its latest design, is a hooded phaeton, with 
detachable rumble behind. It is superbly finished in black, 
with panels of green, and upholstered in dark green wulfing 
cloth. The body is mounted by means of transverse springs 
on a rectangular frame of steel tubing, from which is hung, 
just ahead of the rear axle, a single 25 ampere motor, which 




FIG. 232. COLUMBIA ELECTRIC DOS-A-DOS, MK. VI. 

in turn is connected through the customary balance gear to 
two driving shafts tsrminating in pinions, the latter mesh- 
ing with external gears attached to the wheels. The wheel 
base of this carriage is 65^ inches ; the gauge, 54 inches. The 
wheels are of wire suspension type, 32 and 36 inches in 
diameter, equipped with 3-inch pneumatic tires. Steering is 
effected by means of the usual individually pivoted front 
wheels. By the manipulation of the controller handle at the 
left of the operator, three speeds ahead, equivalent to 3, 6 
and 12 miles per hour, and two backward speeds may be 



312 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



313 




314 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

obtained. The batter}*, consisting of 44 chloride cells, has a. 
capacity of 75 ampere hours at a three-hour rate, giving a 
mileage of 35 miles over ordinary roads. The total weight 
of the finished vehicle is 2,570 pounds. 

Another well-known style of pleasure carriage, made by 
this company, is the dos-a-dos, designated as Mark VI., Fig. 
232. The body of this vehicle, of stylish appearance, is 
mounted by fore-and-aft elliptic springs, over axles which 
are connected by rear bars. A single 3O-ampere motor is 
employed, connected through a balance gear and single gear 
reduction to the rear wheels. The latter are of wire, 32 and 
36 inches in diameter, and provided with 3-inch cushion 
pneumatic tires. The battery consists of 44 cells, arid when 
discharged in three hours will furnish 90 ampere hours, 
equivalent to a mileage over ordinary roads of 35 miles. 
The maximum speed is about 1 1 miles per hour. 

In the Mark VI., Daumon Victoria. Fig. 233, a somewhat 
radical departure from the lines usually followed in motor 
vehicle building has been made. The battery is carried in 
the Daumon boxes, one-half directly over the front axle and 
half over the rear axle. The vehicle is operated from the 
driver's seat at the rear, the passengers being thus enabled 
to obtain an unobstructed view ahead. This seat also accom- 
modates a footman. The usual features, including indi- 
vidual pivotal steering by front wheels, single motor oper- 
ating, through balance gear and single gear reduction, and 
controller, affording three speeds by means of different 
groupings of the battery, are employed. The carriage 
weighs 3,250 pounds, and is capable of a mileage of 30 miles 
per charge, and the maximum speed of 1 1^ miles per hour. 

Their delivery wagon is built with a special view to severe 
city delivery service. The finish of the main panel is black, 
the center panel velvet brown, and the lowest panel maroon. 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 315 

The wheels are of wood, 36-inch forward and 42-inch rear, 
and are equipped with 2^-inch Kelly solid tires*. The two 
axles are braced to the body by means of jack bolts, no 
reaches being used. The 4O-ampere motor, spring sus- 
pended just ahead of the rear axle, has bolted to it at each 
end a cast iron housing, completely enclosing and protecting 
the balance gear and other working parts, and normally 
develops about 3^ horse power. The battery compartment, 
containing 44 cells, is depressed several inches below the 
merchandise compartment, allowing a carrying space of 
approximately 4 feet by 3^ feet by 6 feet clear, and designed 
to carry a total dead load of 1,000 pounds. The average 
mileage per battery charge is 25 miles. 

The Mark XL, Brougham-de-luxe, Fig. 234, intended for 
private use, is finished and upholstered in accordance with 
the most approved usage. It is rear driven by a single 40- 
ampere motor, the construction used being similar to that 
employed on the delivery wagon described above ; steered 
by means of the front wheels from a driver's seat ahead, and 
controlled by the usual three-speed controller and foot- 
operated band brake. Half of the battery of 44 cells is 
placed beneath the driver's seat, and half carried in a com- 
partment above the rear axle. The cells used have a 
capacity of 100 ampere hours, and propel the carriage about 
28 miles per charge, the maximum speed being about 12 
miles per hour. Wooden wheels, 36 and 42 inches in diam- 
eter, are used, provided with 2^-inch Kelly solid rubber 
tires. The interior is finely upholstered with the best 
materials, and equipped with the most modern conveniences 
of urban travel, including coach clock, reading light, driver's 
signal, etc. 

Two other popular styles of vehicle are the small Victoria^ 
Fig. 236, and Runabout, Fig. 237, termed Mark XII. The 



3 i6 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 317 










FIG. 236. COLUMBIA VICTORIA, MK. XII. 




FIG. 237. COLUMBIA RUNABOUT. 



318 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

two carriages are similar in point of running gear and elec- 
trical equipment, but the bodies are dissimilar, conforming 
to two well-known existing types of horse-drawn vehicles, 
the Victoria being intended for ladies' pleasure and park 
driving, and the runabout for general business and pleasure 
driving. Both are comfortably upholstered and finely 
finished, the former in a bright automobile red 'or dark 
green, the latter in dark green. These vehicles are 
equipped with 28-inch wire wheels, front and rear, provided 
with 3-inch pneumatic tires. The short wheel base of about 
five feet, and their comparatively light weight, make them 
very easy of manipulation, while their mileage of about 30 
miles per charge renders them available for a variety of pur- 
poses where a small carriage is required. The single motor, 
rated at 20 amperes, is swung from the rear axle, and uses 
current from the battery of 44 cells, located in the carriage 
body, and furnishing about 45 ampere hours. Three speeds, 
3^, 7 and 14 miles per hour are provided. These carriages, 
together with all vehicles produced by this company, are 
equipped with combination volt and ampere meters, of great 
value to the operator in observing the performance of the 
carriage, and effectually preventing an undue exhaustion of 
the batteries. These vehicles weigh about 1,900 pounds 
each. 

The Mark XI. Omnibus, Fig. 235., will accommodate ten 
passengers inside and three .on the top seat outside, besides 
the occupants of the driver's seat. The inside compartment 
is entered from the rear by means of two steps, and is uphol- 
stered in dark green leather, with morocco finish. The win- 
dows are provided with silk shades, and the work is finished 
in cherry, ash and whitewood. The interior is equipped 
with electric lamps, signal buttons, and other modern con- 
veniences. The wheel base of this vehicle is 8 feet, and the 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 319 

wheel gauge 5^ feet. The wheels are 36-inch front and 42- 
inch rear, and are equipped with 3^-inch Kelly solid rubber 
tires. Steering is accomplished by means of a lever, standing 
normally parallel to the driver's seat, and capable of a for- 
ward and backward movement. The customary foot-oper- 
ated band brake is used, supplemented by an auxiliary tire 
brake applied to the rear wheels by a hand lever at the 
driver's left. The motor used, delivering normally 3^ to 4 
horse power, but capable of temporary loads much greater, 
is bolted to housings containing the differential gear and 
other running parts, and is spring-suspended to relieve its 
supports of sudden strains. This omnibus has made over 
ordinary roads and hills a mileage of 32 miles on a single 
charge, and is capable of a speed of slightly over 9 miles per 
hour. 

This company is continually producing new types of 
vehicles, of which the larger number are electrically pro- 
pelled, although several varieties of gasoline carriages have 
already been built. 

AUTOMOBILES OF THE AMERICAN ELECTRIC VEHICLE COMPANY. 

We illustrate seven of the vehicles of this company who 
are now located at 134 West 38th street, New York City. 
The runabout top buggy for two persons, Fig. 238, with 
pneumatic tires ; motor, 2\ horse-power ; wheels, with wooden 
spokes, 34 and 36 inch diameter. 

The break, Fig. 239, for four persons, with a motor of 4 
horse power ; wheels with wooden spokes, 34 and 36 inch 
diameter, and pneumatic tires. 

The Dos-a-Dos, Fig. 240, for four persons. Motor, 4 
horse power; wooden spoke wheels, 34 and 38 inches, with 
solid rubber tires. 

The mail phaeton, Fig. 241, for four persons. Motor, 4 



3 20 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




K 

c 

u 
w 

W 

fc 

<^ 
o 







ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



321 




322 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



323 




324 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



325 




326 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 327 

horse power ; wheels, with wooden spokes, 34 and 38 inches, 
with solid rubber tires. 

The top surrey, Fig. 242, for four persons. Motor, 4 
horse power; wheels, with wooden spokes, 34 and 38 inches^ 
with solid rubber tires. 

The six-passenger break, Fig. 243. Motor, 5 horse power; 
wheels, with wooden spokes, 34 and 38 inches, with solid 
rubber tires. 

The delivery wagon, Fig. 244, 8 feet long, 44 inches wide, 
48 inches high inside. Wooden spoke wheels, 34 and 36 
inches, with solid rubber tires. 

The feature of the American Company's construction, a 
construction that it was the first to use, is the single reduc- 
tion motor with hollow armature shaft and a single motor 
equipment. By this hollow shaft construction all need of a 
divided driving shaft is done away with to give greater 
strength at this essential point. This company is the pioneer 
in its line and, always in the lead, it is now making a better 
vehicle than ever before. The storage battery used has 
reached the up-to-date limit as a combination of powerful, 
light and compact design and construction. 

One charging will run a vehicle 35 to 50 miles; very few 
private carriages would ever be subjected to such a test. 

The cost of running is about one cent a mile. The bat- 
teries can be recharged in the carriage, and in about three 
hours' time, shutting off automatically when filled. Where a 
direct current is not available, or where a large independent 
plant can be used to advantage, as with a private lighting 
plant, the running expense per mile can be greatly reduced. 
The vehicles are furnished with a combination meter, by 
means of which the operator estimates the mileage capacity 
yet remaining in storage. 

The storage batteries consist of 42 accumulators in hard 



328 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

rubber cells, tightly sealed, with lug connections burned 
together. Only the best rolled lead is used, and the motor 
is a combination of power, capacity and durability with 
light, compact construction. 

The maximum speeds of the vehicles vary according to 
their purpose, and can, in each case, be regulated to meet 
the demands of the road two to twelve or fifteen miles an 
hour. This is controlled by a lever convenient to the 
operator's left hand. Powerful band brakes, operated by a 
foot lever, hold the carriage quickly and firmly on any 
grade. With his right hand the operator uses the steering 
lever, the slightest pressure of which is sufficient to place 
the vehicle exactly where he desires. A ball-and-socket 
connection prevents the vibration of this lever in his hand. 
Differential gearing adjusts the speeds of the rear wheels 
in turning corners. To reverse the motion of the carriage 
requires but the turn of a little lever at the driver's seat. 
This is small enough to carry in the pocket, and when 
removed cuts off the current, thus, so to say, tying up the 
vehicle. The motive power makes available brilliant elec- 
tric lamps which add to the safety and beauty of the family 
carriage, while the electrically illuminated wagon sign, now 
made possible, recommends itself at once to business men. 

VEHICLES OF THE RIKER ELECTRIC VEHICLE COMPANY, 
ELIZABETHPORT, N. J. 

The Riker system of electric power for vehicles is illus- 
trated in the phaeton, Fig. 245, and the Victoria, Fig. 246, each 
having tangent wire spoke wheels, 32 inches diameter front, 
and 36 inches diameter rear, which are the driving wheels. 

A single I J K. W. motor is enclosed in a tight metal case ; 
one side is clamped firmly to the axle casing, the other side 
is loosely secured on a vertical rod, but clamped between 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 




FIG. 245. THE PHAETON. 




> 



FIG. 246. THR VICTORIA. 



330 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



two spiral springs inclosing the rod in order to compensate 
for the sudden thrust or strain put upon the motor when 
the current is quickly applied, either for going forward or 
backward. The pinion of the motor is made of rawhide 
edged with metal, and meshes into the large gear driving 
wheel on the axle. 

These vehicles have three speeds ahead and two to the 




FIG. 247. THE RUNABOUT. 

rear, with a maximum speed of 12 miles per hour, and a 
total mileage of 25 miles with one charge. They are pro- 
vided with electric side lights, a combination ammeter and 
voltmeter in sight on the dashboard. Weight about 1,800 
pounds each. Wheel base, 63 inches; tread, 50 inches. 

The Runabout, Fig. 247, is a lighter vehicle, with 28-inch 
front, and 32-inch rear wheels; base, 50 inches; tread, 4& 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



331 



inches ; weight, 1,300 pounds. Two motors, of f K. W. each, 
are geared to a spur wheel on each hub, having three speeds 
forward and two to the rear. A maximum speed of 10 miles 
per hour, with a total mileage of 25 miles per each charge. 

Electric side lights, a combination volt and ammeter com- 
pletes the rig. 

The Dos-a-Dos, Fig. 248, has the same general dimensions 




FIG. 248. THE DOS-A-DOS. 

of running gear as the phaeton and Victoria, with a 56-inch 
tread, and weighs 2,500 pounds. 

It is driven by a 2 K. W. motor with the same speeds 
and mileage as the phaeton. 

The Surrey, Fig. 249, is built on similar lines of running- 
gear ; a longer wheel base, 74 inches, and tread, 56 inches. 
They are operated by a 2 K. W. motor, controlled for four 



332 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



33$ 



speeds ahead, and two speeds to the rear. Their maximum 
speed is 16 miles per hour, with a total mileage of 25 miles. 

The storage battery is in two parts, one under each seat, 
consisting each of two crates or boxes, containing, in the 
whole, 44 Willard storage cells, size 3! x 5^ x 9! inches 
high, with a total weight of about 950 pounds. 

The Brougham and Demi coaches, Figs. 250 and 251, haver 




FIG. 250. THE BROUGHAM. 

depressed frames to accommodate a low floor ; solid rubber 
tires on wood spoke wheels ; a suitable and strong construc- 
tion for their weight, which is 4,000 and 4,200 pounds, 
respectively. Wheel base, 80 inches ; tread, 59 inches. 
Each vehicle has two motors of 2 K. W. each, with the 
same controller speeds as stated before, and with a total 
mileage of 25 miles. Maximum speed, 10 miles per hour. 



334 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



The Theater bus, Fig. 252, is a still more substantial and 
weighty vehicle, having 2^-inch solid tires on wood spoke 
wheels, 36 and 44 inches in diameter, with a 66-inch wheel 
base. Tread, 58 inch front; 68 inch rear. Weight, 5,500 
pounds. A carrying capacity of 13 passengers and driver. 
Electric lights within. 

Two motors of 2 K. W. each, geared direct to large spur 




FIG. 251. THE DEMI-COACH. 

gears on the hubs, are controlled at the same speeds and 
mileage as the Brougham and Demi coach. 

The Delivery Wagon, Fig. 253, is of a half ton capacity, 
in addition to driver and delivery man. Weighs 3,600 
pounds. Has 2-inch solid tires on wood spoke wheels, 38 
and 42 inch, with a wheel base of 68 inches, and 59-inch 
tread. The two motors are 2 K. W., each geared to spur 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



335 



wheels on the hubs. The speeds are three ahead and two 
to rear, with a maximum speed of 9 miles per hour, and a 
total mileage of 30 miles. 

The Riker Company also build a truck, Fig. 254, in which 
the battery is carried in an enclosed box beneath the floor 
of the vehicle. They are driven by two 3 K. W. motors, 
geared to spur wheels on the rear axle hubs. 




FIG, 252. THE THEATER Bus. 

In the lighter vehicles driven by a single motor, the rear 
axle is constructed in two parts. One is a solid axle attached 
rigidly to one rear wheel, while the other end is connected 
by a differential gear in the hub of the other wheel with the 
tubular driving axle, both being encased in a stationary 
tubular axle and run on roller bearings. The solid and 
tubular axles both revolve together ordinarily, except when 



336 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



turning curves ; then, by means of this gear, one may rotate 
slower or faster than the other. Such construction permits 
the vehicle readily to turn small circles and curves. 

Fig. 255 represents a Riker delivery wagon hub deep in 
the snow ; they have proved themselves fully equal to horses 
in a snowstorm. 

In the wiring of the Riker system the insulated wires lead 




FIG. 253. --THE DELIVERY WAGON. 

from the terminals of the battery to the controller located 
under the front seat just ahead of the battery, which con- 
troller is in the form of a cylinder having a number of con- 
tact plates on its surface separated by insulating material on 
which bear brass springs severally connected with the bat- 
tery in such a way that in one position of the cylinder only 
a lev/ cells will operate, or in another so that they will be 
arranged in parallel, or in another in series, or in another for 
reversal of the direction of the current. 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



337 



On the left hand end of the controller cylinder is a small 
cogwheel which meshes with a segment gear forming the 
lower end of the reciprocating controller lever standing in a 
vertical position between the cushions and the seat. The 
movement of this lever forward rotates the cylinder and 
puts on the current of varying degrees of quantity and 
intensity, according to the speed desired. There is a ratchet 




FIG.. 254. THE TRUCK. 

wheel adjoining the pinion of the cylinder on which a spring 
pawl acts as a temporary friction lock, holding the cylinder 
in whatever position it is placed, yet yielding to the motion 
of the lever when forced forward or backward by the hand. 
Pushing the lever forward one notch, or click of the spring 
below, gives a very slow speed of 2 to 3 miles an hour ; to the 
second notch, 6 to 7 miles an hour; to the third notch, TO to 



338 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



12 miles an hour ; to the fourth notch, 15 miles an hour. By 
drawing the lever back to the vertical position the current 
is thrown off. Running the length ot the lever is a latch rod 
terminating at the upper end of the handle. To reverse the 
current for backing, this rod is pressed downward with the 
thumb at the top of the handle, which permits the controller 
to rotate in the opposite direction. Two different speeds 




FIG. 255. THE DELIVERY WAGON IN SNOW. 

for backing may be used. Thus one lever is used for a for- 
ward or backward movement. The driver sits on the left 
hand side of the seat, operating the driving lever with the 
right hand and the steering lever with the left. The steer- 
ing shaft rises vertically through the bottom of the carriage, 
just in front of the driving lever, and is hinged so that the 
upper part can lie in a horizontal position, either to the right 
or the left. 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 339 

An electric push button is inserted in the handle con- 
nected with a signal electric bell, attached to the under- 
side of the bottom of the carriage, at the front. The signal 
is sounded by pressing the button with the thumb of the 
left hand. Under the left hand end of the front seat is a 
special safety switch for completely cutting off the current. 
At the opposite end is another switch for the electric dash 
lamps observed on each side. Beside this switch is a three- 
knife switch which is turned down for charging. 

The vertical steering shaft is connected underneath the 
carriage by a crank and rod with one end of an interior 
movable hollow hub, around which the front wheel runs on 
ball bearings ; the hub is pivoted on its interior to the car- 
riage frame. Another connecting cross rod extends from 
this hub to the same style of hub on the opposite side. So 
that the movement of one hub by the steering shaft operates 
the other in the same direction, both moving parallel to 
each other. This enables the steering to be done very 
easily. 

The carriage frame which supports the springs is built of 
strong steel tubing, well braced and jointed. The foot brake 
lever projects slightly above the floor, and has side notches 
for holding the lever in any position it may be placed. 
From this lever under the carriage, the brake rod extends 
to a band brake wheel secured on the rear tubular propell- 
ing shaft adjoining the large gear wheel, also keyed on the 
same shaft. To exclude dust, these are covered by a metal 
casing. 

An additional safety hand brake is provided, the lever of 
which will be seen just inside the front seat of the surrey, 
Fig. 249. By the side of the main gear and within the same 
case is a pulley on which acts a band brake, besides which 
shoe or spoon brakes are also fitted to the rear tires. 



34O HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

The " Jack-in-the-Box," differential, or compensating gear, 
to give its various names, is located inside one of the cylin- 
drical hubs, its four intermediate bevel pinions being driven 
by a sleeve from the main gear meshing with the motor 
pinion. This gives a solid inner axle clear from this hub to 
the hub of the other wheel, instead of an axle divided at 
the compensating gear, as is the case with most other 
vehicles. Ball bearings are used in the lighter vehicles and 
roller bearings in the heavier. The steering is effected by 
the usual hub pivot arrangement, the pivots being placed, 
however, within the hollow hubs of the forward wheels. 
These pivots are vertical, and with cone-shaped ends. A 
proper increased deviation of the inside wheel when turning 
is obtained by the non-parallelism of the pivot cranks. 

Perhaps the most interesting features of these vehicles 
are the ingenious details of the controlling mechanism. The 
ordinary cylindrical controller under the seat is used, giving 
by means of a series-multiple combination of the batteries 
three speeds forward and two to the rear. In the main 
circuit is an automatic circuit breaker, which opens in case 
the motor is given more than 400 per cent, overload. This 
is reset simply by restoring the controller handle to the off 
position. On the footboard or dashboard is a combined 
voltmeter and ammeter, showing at all times the pressure 
of the cells and the load on the mechanism. An automatic 
switch in the charging circuit prevents the connection of 
the batteries with the wrong polarity, and cuts off the 
batteries when fully charged. 

The electric tricycle is rather interesting, as it is one of 
the lightest vehicles yet developed and weighs only 800 
pounds. It has a 4-foot wheel base and a 4-foot tread, 
with wheels 28 inches in diameter, fitted with 2^-inch 
pneumatic tires. The motor is rigidly suspended, meshing 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



341 



directly with a gear on the hub of the single rear wheel, 
the steering being effected by the usual forward hub pivots. 
The motor is rated at i horse power at 40 volts, and weighs 
about 60 pounds, the gear ratio being 8 to i. 

In Fig. 256 is represented the running gear of the Riker 
system of electric vehicles. The frame is of steel tubing with 




FIG. 256. THE RIKER RUNNING GEAR. 

ball bearings on the hollow driving shaft, which extends from 
hub to hub with the compensating gear in one of the hubs. 
The motor, D, is pinioned to the spur gear and band brake 
pulley, which are keyed to the hollow shaft. The motor and 
gear box are attached to the sleeves, D\ which enclose the 
hollow shaft and connect with the tubular side bars, C, C l . 
The cross bar, D*, serves to bind the side bars, and as a sus> 



342 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



pension bar for the motor. The steering is a novelty, as the 
pivot is located within the hubs and in the plane of the center 
bearing of the wheels. 

The compensating gear, Fig. 257, is within the hub/ has its 
yoke carrier, G, G, made fast on the hollow driving shaft, B, 
and carries with it the two bevel pinions on the studs, g l . 
The bevel gear, G\ is keyed to the inner sleeve of the wheel 
hub, H. The bevel gear, G*, is keyed to an inner solid shaft, 
JP, which extends across to and is fast to the hub of the 
opposite wheel. A loose flange, H l , holds the shell of the 
hub to the end bearing of the hollow driving shaft, B. A 



m 1 




FIG. 257. COMPENSATING GEAR. 



FIG. 258. PIVOTED HUB. 



nut and washer, not shown in cut, retain the inner shaft 
from end thrust. The great advantage of this arrangement 
is, that both the hollow and the central solid shaft extend 
across from hub to hub, forming a strong axle, and avoiding 
the weakness and trouble given by a divided axle. 

In Fig. 258 is illustrated another feature of the Riker sys- 
tem, the center-pivoted steering wheel. The front axle, A, 
is rigid, with its end encased by a cylindrical box, K, and 
pivoted thereto by the vertical bolt, K l , with a shoulder, k l , 
supported by ball bearings. The cylindrical box, K, carries 
the wheel hub, N, in ball bearings. An extension of the 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 343 

cylinder through the open end of the hub terminates in the 
steering link connections. 

STORAGE BATTERIES AND GENERATORS. 

The storage battery is no doubt destined to occupy a per- 
manent place as a propelling power in all electrically driven 
automobiles. A large number of people interested in stored 
power are looking forward to a revolution in the generating 
power of storage batteries, and it is the opinion of many 
that the long-looked-for, light weight, high capacity battery 
will soon be discovered. It is also the opinion of many that 
the storage battery art is new ; which of course is not true, 
as the invention of the storage battery was contemporaneous 
with that of the dynamo electric machine. Storage batter- 
ies which have been invented, placed on the market and 
failed are numerous. 

There are probably but few articles of manufacture which 
permit of so many variations in regard to mechanical struc- 
ture or capacity. Within the last few years there have been 
vast improvements made, not so much in regard to capacity 
as to perfection in mechanical details. The successful auto- 
mobile battery of to-day does not have near the capacity 
that some of the earlier types had, but the durability of the 
same is many times greater. 

A storage battery could be put in some of the present 
types of carriages that would operate the same for a distance 
of 200 miles on one charge on a level road. Any manufac- 
turer of storage batteries, or any expert in the storage bat- 
tery business, can furnish a battery having extremely high 
capacity and light weight, with consequent short life ; there- 
fore, all new and wonderful statements in regard to inven- 
tions in the storage battery line should be thoroughly 
investigated before being accepted as the real thing, but a 



344 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

thorough investigation cannot be made in a few days. 
Almost any kind of a battery will give good satisfaction for 
a few months, but the battery which will last several years 
is the one which is desirable. 

A battery can be made of one-fourth the weight of the 
present standard type of vehicle batteries, and still have the 
same capacity ; it must be borne in mind, however, that it is 
not possible to make a battery of high capacity having long 
life. A battery to have long life must have a certain amount 
of weight, and the makers of batteries which are used the 
most have placed this weight at a point which will allow of 
good durability. 

To illustrate how light a battery might be made, we make 
a comparison between the present type of battery, which is 
most in use, and a battery made several years ago. The 
present type of battery gives about seven amperes per 
pound of positive plate ; a battery made by Fitzgerald, in 
England, gives a capacity of 16 ampere hours per pound of 
plate. In making this into a battery by substituting zinc for 
the negatives the battery could be made one-fourth the 
weight of the present standard type. This battery, how- 
ever, would be extremely short-lived, and would not be 
durable enough to be commercially successful. 

Going further into the automobile, it is not the battery 
alone which makes a successful automobile, for much de- 
pends on the motor, controller, bearings and also the wiring 
of the different parts. A drop of one or two volts has often 
been found in the controller alone. All wiring in an electric 
automobile should be of generous size. For a carriage 
weighing 1,500 pounds, it should not be less than No. 4 wire. 
All controller contacts should be made with large surfaces, 
and all surfaces ground to a perfect contact. The knife- 
switch principle is undoubtedly the best to use on a con- 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 345 

troller, as this allows the above-named advantages to be 
obtained. 

As to the proper generator to use for charging a set of 
batteries for automobile use, we would suggest that, where 
the straight I lo-volt incandescent current is not at hand, 
a 2\ horse power generator, wound and speeded for 120 
volts, will charge a set of 40 or 44 batteries in series easily 
with a 25-ampere current. A no-volt generator cannot sus- 
tain 25 amperes after the batteries are over one-half charged, 
or when the counter electro-motive force of the batteries has 
reached to two and four- to five-tenths volts per cell ; that is, 
the cell shows by the voltmeter 2.5 volts. The amperage will 
drop down to about 10 amperes. This may not be an objection 
if time is of little importance, but if the desire is to hasten 
charging and sustaining the current to about 20 to 25 
amperes a i2O-volt generator is needed. This forcing pro- 
cess is not approved, as much energy is absorbed in gener- 
ating heat rather than the chemical changes necessary to the 
active material. 

In order to charge one of our electric carriages in the 
manner which is considered the most expeditious and eco- 
nomical, a current is required which at a voltage of between 
no and 115 will give from 30 to 46 amperes, depending on 
the size of the carriage and the capacity of the storage 
battery in it. Accordingly, if an owner of an electric auto- 
mobile wishes to install an independent plant for the purpose 
alone of charging the vehicle, he would need a generator of 
a capacity of at least 3 kilowatts driven by a gasoline motor 
of 4 horse power. Such a motor, or perhaps one slightly 
larger, if properly installed, will furnish an electric light 
system for a country house, as well, also, to charge the 
storage battery of the family carriage. 



346 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



THE WILLARD AUTOMOBILE BATTERIES. 



In Fig. 259 we illustrate a single cell of the Willard 
type for an automobile carriage battery. They are manu- 
factured by Sipe & Sigler, Cleveland. Ohio. 

The general value of the storage battery is dependent up 




FIG. 259. THE WILLARD CELL. 

on the character and construction of the plates of which the 
elements are composed ; and in this is found much of the 
merit of the Willard storage battery. The Willard plate r 
including the terminal, is constructed from a single sheet of 
pure rolled lead, every part of the finished product remain- 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 347 

ing integral with the original plate. On either side of the 
sheet of lead there are formed thin leaves or shelves about 
one-fourth inch wide and one thirty-second inch thick. 
These leaves remain attached to a web or support in the 
center, and incline upward with a curve at an angle of about 
20 degrees, thus forming a uniform cup-shaped opening be- 
tween them. 

The active material is produced by electro-chemical 
means, uniformly on the surfaces of all of the leaves, and on 
the surfaces of the web until the interstices are filled. 

A special advantage in this automobile battery is found in 
the inclination of the leaves, by which the active material is 
held in place, as in automobile service this feature practi- 
cally overcomes the washing action due to the movement of 
the electrolyte in the cells during the operation of the 
vehicle. 

This battery is composed of the plates already described 
encased in a special design hard-rubber jar with a glass 
cover. The plates are separated from one another by an 
improved hard rubber separating sheath, which is corru- 
gated, ribbed and slotted in such manner as to create abso- 
lutely no extra internal resistance in its use, and at the same 
time to so effectively separate the different elements as to 
entirely eliminate any probability of short circuits, thereby 
avoiding all abnormal disintegration. The voltage of these 
batteries is high, 2.6 volts per cell at full charge. They 
should not be discharged below 1.5 volts per cell. 

Each cell is covered by a glass plate, which permits an ex- 
amination of the interior of the cell at all times and keeps in 
view the electrolyte, which is of the utmost importance in 
batteries used for this purpose, as in cells without the glass 
cover, great damage frequently occurs by the unnoticed 
evaporation of the electrolyte below the tops of the plates. 



.348 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



In Fig. 260 is illustrated a nest of storage batteries of the 
Willard type, consisting of 40 cells in four trays, with their 
binding posts for connecting them with the controller. They 
are equal to a total voltage at full charge of 104 volts, and 
at minimum discharge at a total of 60 volts. 

Among the cautions and directions sent with the batteries 
are the following : 

On receipt of battery, charge to 2.6 volts per cell at the 
eight-hour rate. 

Be sure that the electrolyte covers the plates at all times 
and in all cells. 




FIG. 260. -THE 40-CELL BATTERY. 

Always open carriage body while charging the battery. 

Never light a match near the battery while charging. 

Never spark the battery while charging. 

Always recharge promptly after using the carriage. 

Avoid heating the cells in charging. 

Do not charge beyond 2.6 volts per cell at the eight-hour 
rate. 

Overcharge for twelve hours at the low rate once each 
month. 

Replenish electrolyte for loss in ordinary use with 10 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



349^ 



parts water and one part sulphuric acid. When loss is due 
to spilling in shipment use four parts water and one part 
sulphuric acid. 

Handle trays carefully a short drop may break a celL 




FIG. 261. ARRANGEMENT OF SWITCHBOARD FOR CHARGING 
THE WII/LARD AUTOMOBILE STORAGE BATTERY. 

A more complete and detailed direction for the manage- 
ment of these batteries is given in a booklet which may be 
obtained by addressing the manufacturers. 

In Fig. 261 is illustrated a switchboard for charging an 



35 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

automobile battery from an electric lighting line, consisting 
of a fuse, an under-load switch connecting the negative cur- 
rent through the ammeter and double knife-switch to 
the negative pole of the batteries, which are connected in 
series. From the other side of the under-load switch the 
positive wire passes through the left side of the double 
knife-switch to the central element of the rheostat and from 
its element of greatest resistance to the positive pole of the 
battery. The voltmeter cuts the battery connections. 

The instruments as shown are all that are necessary where 
the current is direct. In such locations as the current is 
alternating, a rotary transformer will be required in addition 
to the instruments named on this switchboard. 

THE CARE OF AUTOMOBILE STORAGE BATTERIES. 

BY T. D. BUNCE. 

In a general way the owner of an electric 
automobile should have a practical working 
knowledge of the motive power of his ma- 
chine. Many annoying delays caused by 
slight accidents or by the power suddenly 
giving out would be avoided if the driver 
was more familiar with the construction 
and care of the mechanism within his vehicle. 
Perhaps a brief account of the care it should receive will be 
of assistance to those who appreciate the benefits they 
derive from their silent steed, but who know little or noth- 
ing about its make-up or needs. 

The makers' directions shculd be followed in every par- 
ticular as long as the battery operates successfully under 
normal conditions, and the maximum voltage can be obtained 
after the charge. When it is first seen that these con- 
ditions cannot be secured, it is better to consult a specialist 




ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 35 1 

in storage batteries, as there is no source of power so liable 
to injury by neglect as the automobile storage battery. 

The battery usually consists of from 40 to 44 cells, iden- 
tical in construction. Each cell does its proportion of work, 
and when one is out of order, it means not only the loss of 
the work of this cell, but the throwing of the additional 
work on the others, as well as the ultimate destruction of 
the disabled one. It is now possible in New York City to 
call at a charging station, have your battery tested and a 
report made as to its condition on blanks especially pre- 
pared for this purpose. If any defect is found it may be 
remedied at once, or the defective cell or cells removed and 
repaired without interfering with the operation of the 
automobile. 

It is rarely found that all the cells are at the same voltage, 
especially after they have been discharged to any extent. 
It is frequently found that a battery giving its full voltage at 
the start will have one or more cells drop down as soon as 
the current is turned on. The cause of this trouble cannot 
be found without removing the cells from the vehicle and 
discharging them at the same rate as that used in the motors 
and by testing each cell with a low-reading voltmeter. 

The customary method of burning the connections 
together is not considered advisable, as it involves the neces- 
sity of sawing them apart to remove a defective cell, and 
reburning it in place again. In addition to this, the batteries 
of an automobile require frequent cleaning, and a more con- 
venient method of doing this should be provided. 

The oxides from the plates of a battery begin to deposit 
as soon as it is put in service, and, although space is pro- 
vided for the deposit, some of it will collect on the ribs in 
the bottom of the cells and between the plates. This will 
cause more or less loss of charge if the battery is left stand- 



352 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

ing for any great length of time before again using it. The 
agitation of the battery while in use has a tendency to stir 
up the deposit, so, that much greater capacity can sometimes 
be obtained immediately after a charge than after the battery 
has stood over night. It is, therefore, advised to always 
charge the battery for at least a short time before going out, 
as this will not only replace any loss, but it will have a 
tendency to stir up or remove any oxide that has become 
deposited. The writer has known batteries to do their full 
amount of work when used shortly after being charged, but 
ran out in half the time when left standing over night. 

Too much reliance should not be placed on the open cir- 
cuit voltage of the battery either before or after discharge, 
as the maximum voltage will be given by a set of batteries 
that has only a small percentage of the electrolyte left in the 
jars. The maximum voltage would be reached on charging 
sooner than with the full amount of acid. A defective 
battery will often give its full voltage when being charged 
and often hold it for sometime afterward, but on being 
called on for power it drops to a lower tention. 

The working voltage is the best measure of the battery's 
condition. In the majority of automobiles the different 
speeds are obtained by various groupings of the cells. This 
only permits of the voltmeter showing the voltage being 
used at the time, and it requires the controller to be placed 
at full speed to get the total working voltage. If, on starting 
out, it is possible to run a short distance at full speed on a 
level stretch of road, the voltage should be noted. On 
returning at the same place and under the same conditions 
take the voltage again. In this way a good comparison can 
be made. 

The batteries should frequently be removed from the 
automobile, and the interior of the body cleaned with water 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 353 

in which a liberal quantity of washing soda has been dis- 
solved. This neutralizes any acid that may have been spilled 
and causes quicker drying. The battery trays should be 
treated in the same way. When thoroughly dry they may 
be painted and replaced. It is especially recommended that 
provision be made to charge the cells out of the wagon, so 
that the testing of acid, cleaning, painting, etc., may be done 
without loss of time. The electrolyte does not require 
renewing so long as the cells are in working order, but a 
sufficient quantity must be kept in them to cover the top of 
the plates about one-half an inch. 

The specific gravity of the acid is a reliable test of the 
condition of the cells. They should all read uniformly. 
The Beaume scale hydrometer is generally used. In this 
connection attention is called to the hydrometer syringe, 
illustrated in Fig. 263, as an almost indispensable instrument 
for these tests and for other purposes. 

PRIMARY BATTERIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES. 

Many inquiries have been made as to the possibilities of 
using primary batteries for motor vehicles. We hear of no 
successful trials with wet batteries, and the consensus of 
opinion is that such batteries are out of the field for loco- 
motive power. 

We learn that a very light and elegant carriage has been 
built in England for the Queen of Spain, and supplied with 
dry batteries with a capacity for being recharged without 
going to a charging station. The batteries are said to weigh 
but 22 5 pounds, and claimed to generate sufficient energy to 
run the carriage at a speed of 10 miles per hour. The 
lighting of the carriage lamp is also provided for by the 
battery current. We can as yet only consider it as a royal 
toy. 



354 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

THE FUTURE OF THE ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILE. 

Anyone who is familiar with the condition of the art and 
with the character of the product of the various types of 
motor vehicles, cannot doubt the wide field that the electric 
motor vehicle will cover. There is no doubt but the steam 
and the gasoline vehicle will each have its field of useful- 
ness, and while the same will be comparatively large, in fact 
enormously large, yet they will in no wise compare with the 
field that must be covered by the electric vehicle. In 
reviewing the comparative merits of the several types of 
vehicles named, the first general division will be dependent 
upon the ability of the vehicle to perform the required ser- 
vice under the existing conditions of roads and streets. This 
division will leave to the steam and gasoline vehicles the 
entire field covering exceedingly bad roads, such as pre- 
dominate in some parts of the country territory. It will 
leave the field found in cities, and in such parts of the country 
as reasonably good roads prevail, to the competition of the 
three types of vehicles, and it is within this territory that 
the enormous sales will be made during the next decade, as 
it is within this field that the automobile is entirely and 
thoroughly practicable, and it is also within this field that 
are found the thousands of purchasers ready, willing and 
capable of paying for an automobile. 

In determining the comparative merits of the several 
types of automobiles in the field last named, the following 
chief features will be considered and will be found to be of 
importance in the order in which they are named. 

FIRST. Safety to the operator and occupants. In this 
important feature it is apparent that the electric carriage is 
entirely without an equal, as there is no possibility of any 
damage resulting from the use of boilers or explosives, as 
nothing of the character is used in connection with the 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER PXJR VEHICLES. 355 

electric carriage, nor could the slightest damage result to 
one from any shock that might be produced from the 
battery, as the voltage used in any motor vehicle is not 
above 88, which would have no ill effect whatever. The 
possibility of damage from explosion of boiler or of gasoline, 
is, of course, apparent to anyone. 

SECOND The care and ease of operation. In this again 
the electric carriage is entirely superior to either of the 
others. Anyone can operate it without previous practice 
or technical knowledge, and the care is so simple that any 
coachman of moderate intelligence can perform this service. 
It must be apparent again to anyone in the slightest degree 
familiar with either of the other types of vehicle that no one 
except an expert can be relied upon to operate them, and 
care for them, and that great damage may result by trifling 
errors in connection with their operation. 

THIRD. Possible prohibitory legislation. In this there is 
no possible objection that can be made to the electric car- 
riage, for it is at all times free from any possible objections. 
This again is not true of the other types of carriage, and 
there is some probability of prohibitory legislation against 
these types, as they certainly come under the police regu- 
lations as given to municipalities^ by State legislatures. 
It may well be said to be a matter worthy of police sur- 
veillance, in which not only the convenience, but the safety 
of the public is interested in the matter of danger from pos- 
sible explosions of boiler or other explosives, as well as to 
the odor and vapor emitted from these types of vehicles. 

Imagine the condition that would prevail if the present 
vehicles of a city were replaced by these types, and you 
have before you the importance of a vehicle which is entirely 
free from danger of explosives and from odor. 

FOURTH. General elegance. In this feature, again, the 



3$6 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

electric carriage stands entirely alone ; no uncleanliness, no 
vapors, no odors, no vibrations, no heat, no oil, and prac- 
tically noiseless. Neither of the other types of carriage can 
be said to be free from the above objectionable elements ; 
some of them especially annoying, all of them dis- 
advantageous. 

FIFTH. Convenience. In this feature again the electric 
carriage stands at the head of the list ; for, by the simple 
insertion of a charging plug when the carriage is driven 
into the barn, it will take care of itself, and be ready for 
operation when wanted. It is unnecessary to await the 
generation of steam, as in a steam carriage, and unnecessary 
to perform the difficult operation of starting the engine by 
hand, as'in the case of a gasoline carriage. 

SIXTH. Economy. In the cost of the production of 
energy required for the operation of the various vehicles, 
the electric carriage is probably a trifle more economical 
than either of the other types named, but the whole cost for 
the energy of operating an electric carriage is so far below 
the cost of operation by horse power, and it is so trifling a 
matter, that we regard this of the least importance of any 
feature named when connected with an article so expensive 
as a motor vehicle must necessarily be, and in which the 
other features are of so much greater importance than the 
mere matter of a trifling economy. The advantage of the 
electric vehicle in this respect is, however, very great, for 
as stated in a previous clause, the electric vehicle may be 
operated by a woman or child with perfect security, while 
an experienced attendant must always accompany either of 
the other types of vehicle. 

Again the repairs on an electric carriage will be far less 
than on either of the others, owing to the very much greater 
amount of mechanism employed in either of the other car- 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 357 

riages, and also to the vibrations to which the same are 
subjected. Thus it will be seen, by comparing the various 
important features of the three types of vehicles, that the 
electric vehicle is destined to cover this field practically 
alone. 

AN ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILE CHARGING AND RE?AIR STATION. 

The automobile charging and repair station, illustrated in 
Fig. 262, antedates the automobile industry by a number of 
years, having been established in 1891 for the manufacture, 
charging and general care of storage batteries of every 
description. With the advent of the automobile, the Storage 
Battery Supply Co., No. 239 East 2/th Street, New York 
City, has increased its capacity for this class of work. Its 
facilities for the repair of automobile batteries are unsur- 
passed. A well trained force of men are constantly 
employed, and are ready day or night to make any repairs. 
It is a most convenient station for charging the batteries of 
private electric automobile carriages. 

THE HYDROMETER SYRINGE. 

The specific gravity of the acid of a storage battery plays 
an important part in its efficient working, and frequent tests 
are necessary to determine its condition. 

Before the containing jars of the cells were reduced to the 
small compass necessary in an automobile, it was customary 
to have a hydrometer floating in the solution where there 
was plenty of room for its free adjustment to the variation 
in strength of the electrolyte, and an easy reading could be 
made. 

That this is impossible in the tightly built automobile 
cells is apparent, and to overcome this difficulty the hydrom- 
eter syringe, illustrated in Fig. 263, was designed. By 



358 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 262. THE CHARGING STATION. 



ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



359 



slightly compressing the bulb and insert- 
ing the slender tube through the vent hole 
in the cover of the cell, sufficient acid may 
be drawn up to float the hydrometer 
within the large glass tube and the read- 
ing made at once. The acid is returned 
to the same cell, and the reading of the 
next is made. The laborious method of 
drawing out sufficient acid by a syringe, 
and taking its strength in a separate ves- 
sel, is avoided, as well as the general un- 
cleanliness of this method. 

The hydrometer syringe more than ac- 
complishes this purpose, as it may also be 
used to add fluid to the cells, or it may be 
used in the preparation of the acid solu- 
tion. It is manufactured by the Storage 
Battery Supply Co., of New York City. 

THE ' ' MUI/TUM IN PARVO ' ' CARRIAGE LAMP. 

The fixture illustrated in Fig. 264 is 
more than worthy of its name. The lim- 
ited space in the interior of a carriage 
does not admit of the usual form of in- 
candescent lamp bracket with a project- 
ing bulb. This compact arrangement, 
known as the " Multum in Parvo " lamp, 
is laid against the roof of a carriage or 
other vehicle, thereby lighting the interior 
in the most desirable manner without 
interfering with the free movements of 
the occupants. The lamp has a specially FlG 263> _ HYDRO M- 
molded bulb that is suspended on springs ETER SYRINGE. 



360 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



in front of a silver-plated reflector. The whole is covered 
with a bent and beveled plate glass cover that may be 
engraved in any manner, if desired. A switch is placed in 




FIG. 264. THE INSIDE ELECTRIC LAMP. 

the back. Modified forms of this lamp are used as a dash 
headlight, or for side lamps. It is manufactured by the 
Storage Battery Supply Co., New York City. 

AN ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILE TOY 

Is a fancy in reality for the amusement of children, and some- 
times may amuse those of older years. It is illustrated in 
Fig. 265, and manufactured by the Knapp Electric and 

Novelty Co., 125 White 
Street, New York City. 

Those familiar with 
the subject are fascinated 
with this production in 
miniature, and the ever- 
increasing class of knowl- 
edge seekers will find it 
FIG. 265. AUTOMOBILE TOY. a wonderful source of 




ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER FOR VEHICLES. 361 

information and gratification. It teaches, amuses and gives 
great pleasure. As an electrical and scientific piece of 
mechanism it is unsurpassed. 

Two dry cells of regular size, easily procured from any 
electrical supply house, are fastened in the body of the 
wagon and overcome the objectionable feature of acids in 
batteries. 

Continuously, the battery w.ll drive the wagon about five 
hours, but bv using a few minutes only each time, its radius 
of usefulness will be largely extended with one pair of 
batteries. 

The motor and double reduction gears are placed under 
the body and drive the rear wheels. The front axle is 
pivoted and the lever may be turned to any angle. 

The body is beautifully enameled in green with gold 
trimmings, and fitted with a starting switch. 

Length, 12^ inches; width, 6J inches; height, / inches; 
diameter of wheels, 3 inches ; size cells, 6x2 T 7 ^ inches. 



Chapter XIV. 

HOW TO BUILD AN ELECTRIC CAB, WITH 
DETAIL DRAWINGS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

HOW TO BUILD AN ELECTRIC CAB. 
Scale Yy. inch to the foot. 

The working drawings, Fig. 266, are those of a cab suitable 
for summer use, and are especially intended to illustrate the 
design of the side elevation, together with the position of 
the different mechanical features which belong more par- 
ticularlv to an electric motor carriage. The design is a com- 
bined illustration in four parts; the central figure (i) is an 
elevation of the complete cab ; the left side (Fig. 2) is a half 
elevation, front view ; the right side (Fig. 3) is a half eleva- 
tion, rear view ; the under side (Fig. 4) is a half plan view ; 
at the top (Fig. 5) is the plan of the sector gears of the steer- 
ing bar and their movement. To provide for these new 
designs it was necessary to cut loose from the prevailing 
idea of the arrangement of this class of motor-electric, and 
proceed by another path to bring the work up to that stand- 
ard of high-class carriage building which the vehicle as a 
mode of travel deserves, and to make it a pleasure carriage, 
rather than a machine or engine. The effect of beauty is the 
predominating force which influences the carriage maker; 
that other factor, strength, will in the meantime assert itself . 

The length of the cab is 9 feet 4 inches ; the height is 
7 feet ; the width, 5 feet 4 inches. The body is mounted 
on iron curved frames bolted to the four elliptic springs 



3 66 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




HOW TO BUILD AN ELECTRIC CAB. 367 

and to the rocker of the body. The rockers are rein- 
forced with an iron edge plate, screwed to the inside 
surface from the dash to the lazy back, 2| inches wide 
and i inch thick, as shown by the straight line, T(ig. 2), 
of the front views of the design (Fig i). The iron 
pumphandle-shaped side bars are provided with solid 
forged flaps, which rest on each elliptic, and are secured by 
|-inch bolts. The front end of the battery caisson, Z, is sup- 
ported by iron loops forged onto the pumphandle bars, 
which pass under the rockers and floor, and are secured by 
by T bolts to the rocker. A bar of ash is let into the bot- 
tom, which in turn holds up the floor that the cells rest up- 
on. This is the front bar of the three which compose the 
support for the floor of the battery trays, which are made of 
hard ash, and must be seasoned (kiln-dried). The top of the 
battery chest is made of dry birch, the grain of the wood 
running lengthwise of the box, composed of three pieces 
screwed onto the framing and covered with a paste of white 
lead and varnish, glue not being suitable for the fixing of 
the boards. The battery caisson is not fixed to the body ; 
the space separating them is utilized for the passage of the 
steering and brake rods used in guiding and stopping the 
carriage. Upon the back end of the chest is mounted a 
driver's seat on iron braces, G and N (Fig. i). The seat 
frame is provided with two compartments ; on the near side 
is the controller, O ; on the off side a box provides for a kit 
of tools, the controller taking up the space of 18 x/ x 5 inches. 
The handle bar, ^f (Fig. i) and X (Fig. 3), operates machin- 
ery for starting, stopping and regulating the speed of the 
motor, A (Figs, i, 3 and 4). By this means the electric cur^ 
rent generated from the batteries, Z, is controlled by wires 
which connect the controller with the motor. The motor 
shaft is operated upon the driving wheel, Y, with a 2-inch cog 



368 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

meshing into a 1 4-inch toothed cog, /, clipped to the spokes 
of the driving wheel, F. The motor is fixed to the 2-inch 
rear axle by means of the perch plates, R (Fig. i). The 
bottom plate forms the clip yoke, which receives the 
threaded stem formed on the top perch plate, shown by the 
letters P P(Figs. 3 and 4). The inside nut is threaded to a 
T \-inch bolt. These plates hold the motor to the axle in 
rings. The other ends of the perch plates are likewise 
coupled to the front axle. The perch is made of hickory, 
the ends of which butt the axle at the front and the motor 
at the rear. 

The top plate of the perch is bridged to receive the steer- 
ing bar, F, which is pivoted to the arm, W, at d (Fig. 4), 
and to the fork brace, L, at C. The movement is crosswise 
from dto d', of the outside knuckle, and from c e' of the in- 
side knuckle joint. This distance is ioj inches, this being 
necessary in order to obtain an angle to the rim of the front 
wheel, b, of 45 degrees, from b to c' along the dotted line, 
J^(Fig. 4). When the handle bar, B, of the steering gear 
(Fig. i) is moved aside 7 inches from the center, E (Fig. 5), to 
C', the bar, Z, by means of the segments, A A (Fig. 5), will 
move to the point of the pivot, g (Fig. 4). When this handle 
bar, B, is moved to the right the carriage will be turned to 
the left side, which result is expected by the driver, as all 
turns are made to the near side when the driver has the 
right of way. If we bridge the perch at R (Fig. i) we in- 
crease the rigid support of the motor to the axle. The perch 
is stronger than it would be if the plate was an un- 
broken line. 

Our drawings are to a scale, and the mechanic can follow 
the idea, the size of the wheels, springs, and axles can be 
measured, and so far as the position of the motor, the 
battery, the controller, the steering gear and brake are con- 



HOW TO BUILD AN ELECTRIC CAB. 369 

cerned, they are the same as in nearly all electric propelled 
carriages ; the shape of the motor may be different, but the 
method of turning the driving wheel, F, is present in every 
case, and as a general thing the axles are coupled together 
with two or three perches, but this is not the only method 
used. Some are without rigid perches and some perches 
may be pivoted. The brake is as important to a motor car- 
riage as the steering gear, and the means of using it must 
be within convenient distance of the driver's right foot ; it is 
therefore placed to the right of the upright steering rod, F 
(Fig. i). The brake is shown in the side elevation (Fig. i), 
and when set so as to clutch on the disc, K, impedes the 
turning of the driving wheels. This clutch is therefore con- 
structed on both driving wheels alike ; the lever, r (Fig. i), is 
pushed with the foot ahead. This lever is pivoted at S, and 
connected to the rod, D, which is pivoted to the upright 
rod, f y then from this point a flat rod 5-1 6-inch thick by 
|-inch wide is connected to the i-inch round cross rod, P 
(Fig. 4), and shown at P (Fig. i), as pivoted at V (Fig. i). 
Then the flat bar, Q, is pivoted at Wto the cross rod P" t 
which at the back end is pivoted to the clutch 7 1 , which 
finally is pivoted to a band of brass fixed to the axle, hinged 
in two parts and separated when the brake is off with a 
spring, which keeps the band from contact with the edge of 
the revolving disc, K, fixed to the cog wheel, J. We have 
seen brakes fixed in this way, but do not endorse them. We 
think it better to fix the support of the brake clutch lower 
down and make the supporting braces fast to the end of the 
motor, in close proximity to the disc, K. 

The drawing shows a step, with a wing at its rear over 
the front wheel, which makes a convenient entrance, es- 
pecially from the sidewalk ; it is about 7 inches high. In 
riding the passenger can see ahead, which is an important 



370 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

advantage in favor of this design, and the suggestion is 
offered that for park and seaside resorts the design is an 
appropriate one. The line, J/(Fig. i), is the slope which 
the top of the box has that covers up the cogs and rods con- 
nected with the brake and steering gear, but left exposed on 
the drawing to enable us to show the construction of the 
pivots, the rods and the connections. 

H is a bar that braces the perches crosswise ; it may be 
bolted to the plates or welded on ; the latter occasions the 
most work, but has by far the best appearance, and for this, 
if for no other reason, it should be welded, and if we resort 
to smooth forgings all the way through, the appearance of 
the finished carriage will repay the extra expense. To leave 
the ends of the bars, either wood or iron, unfinished will 
prove in the end more expensive than to round or chamfer 
them, or to finish with scroll finish in regular carriage form. 

This last is the best that can be devised, and then the 
painter can stripe them and the appearance cannot be ad- 
versely criticised. The clumsy appearance of the motor 
carriages has done much to injure them. If carefully de- 
signed at the outset, they can be made to look light and 
graceful, no matter how heavy the whole carriage may be. 
If we take, for instance, the spring bar over the hind spring 
and cut a scroll on the end to project over the spring, as 
shown in Figs. I and 3, and let the flap of the pumphandle 
side bar extend out upon it, with the edges of the iron 
rounded off, we will have a good looking piece of work. We 
must secure the top, or the back end of the wing to the 
body, or to some other support in that vicinity, and the 
shortest distance to the point of fixture is generally the one 
selected for this purpose. We fix the stay of the wing to 
the brace //', and bolt this to the pumphandle side bar and 
the body, and solid to this brace H. We turn off the stay 



HOW TO BUILD AN ELECTRIC CAB. 371 

to take the bottom of the wing, which is bolted. The bolts 
are first put in through the square hole in the iron of the 
wing and driven in so as to make a tight fit, the head being 
countersunk so as not to show on the top of the leather 
when filed up in good shape. It makes a good job, and one 
that is not expensive. The work will look as though it was 
intended to be so, but, on the other hand, if we put the 
matter off until the job is ironed, and as a last thing begin 
to calculate where and how to fasten it on, then the trouble 
and expense will begin and a nice piece of iron work will be 
spoiled, because of the bolt being just where it can be seen. 
These small things look well ; they are noticeable more than 
the axles, and they can be turned to add much to the appear- 
ance of the work. The point to keep in sight is to work in 
the regular carriage making way, or better, but not worse. 
If there is a machinist who can iron off a motor carriage 
better than the carriage smith irons off his victoria or 
brougham, then he can iron anything from a locomotive to 
a sulky, and this includes all that is heavy or light. 

The foregoing remarks on the iron and wood work of the 
motor carriage are suggested by what we have seen, and 
they are intended to improve the construction of the car- 
riages in this country. They are already strong enough, 
they are already heavy enough, and they are big enough, 
but the work is crudely done. It is rough, it is not sym- 
metrical, the irons do not taper, are not correctly swaged, 
the offsets are not carefully executed, and the setting of the 
axles is contrary to those rules long established for the con- 
struction of the dished wheel and tapered arm. If we dish 
the wheel we must plumb the spoke, and if we plumb the 
spoke we must taper the spindle. We cannot do one with- 
out doing the other two, for if we desire to avoid the friction 
of the box and axle we must have the spindle parallel to the 



372 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

ground, and if the spindle is not horizontally set, then the 
box will crowd either the nut or collar. If we do not dish 
the wheel it will not stand up for its expected time. The 
wheels look better when flared out at the top, as shown on 
the drawings. There is no mechanical problem in the fact 
that the wheels are driven by a cog wheel that is clipped to 
the spokes, as in casting this toothed wheel the angle which 
the flare of the wheel creates can be made upon the pattern. 
Any mechanic will admit it is of no consequence what this 
angle may be. The teeth of the cog wheel, /, can be set to 
the flare of the wheel, called in the carriage shop the swing 
of the wheel, and mesh with the one fixed to the shaft of the 
motor. This will be done as time is given to the work. We 
know that the front and hind wheels are set to a vertical 
instead of an inclined plane, and the result is that the wheels 
appear to lean in at the top, and if set to a vertical line the 
weight which they carry will spring a 2^-inch axle, so that 
the axle will off at the top of the collar rind on at the bottom 
of the point of the spindle. These are the facts, and the 
best mechanic in America cannot change them. Every car- 
riage maker knows this to be true, and this applies to any 
wheel that has a tapered spindle. It is impossible to taper 
a spindle and then use a straight or vertical rim, and pre- 
vent the above trouble. 

We are indebted to the courtesy of " The Hub " for this 
design and description. 



Chapter XV. 

THE GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF MOTOR 
VEHICLES OF ALL KINDS. 

SPECIAL MANAGEMENT OF VEHICLE MOTOR POWER STEAM 
MOTOR VEHICLES EXPLOSIVE MOTOR VEHICLES. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF MOTOR VEHICLES. 

Never put on the brake before turning off the power, 
except in pressing emergency. This is a source of economy 
in power and wear and tear of machinery. 

Never cross a railroad track, or defective place in a street 
or road, with the full power on, and, if possible, at very 
moderate speed, under the momentum of the vehicle. 

If a vehicle has two brakes, a band and a tire brake, always 
use the band brake first and every time, except in emergen- 
cies of danger. A tire brake wears and injures the tires. 

Do not think that a motor vehicle with any kind of motive 
power is as intelligent as a horse. Horses can be sometimes 
trusted and know the road. 

Never forget yourself and start a vehicle with the brake 
on. It is a loss of power and may cause breakage in the 
driving gear. 

Never try to jerk a vehicle out of a rut or mud-hole by 
throwing on the high speed power. If it does not move by 
the slowest motion gear, which should always be the strong- 
est for up grades, an investigation should be made and help 
given. Horse-drawn vehicles are sometimes in the same 
predicament. 

In steering, a driver is not expected to grip the steering 
lever or wheel with nervous anxiety. A hard steering gear 
is out of the question in good models of automobiles. 



376 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

Too many operations attached to the steering handle are 
not desirable ; they lead to confusion, and may be the cause 
of mistakes. Let one hand do the steering alone, with as few 
unimportant attachments as possible, is the experience de- 
rived from a mechanical view of the conditions of automobile 
driving. 

As much care should be exercised in running over road 
obstructions with the horseless vehicles as with those drawn 
by spirited horses ; there is no dash business over obstruc- 
tions or a bad condition of the road. 

When coming to a stop at a curb or on the road, it is de- 
sirable to shut off the power some time before reaching the 
stopping place, and move up to the stopping place by the 
momentum of the vehicle, applying the brake only at the 
last moment. This is one of the first things that an auto- 
mobile driver should learn by practice It saves power and 
mileage, and makes a graceful manoeuver in coming to a 
stop. 

Reversal of the power and motion of a vehicle while speed- 
ing is dangerous, and even at moderate speed is undesirable, 
and should never be done unless sudden danger makes it 
necessary. It strains the motive power and may cause a 
breakdown. In all ordinary driving the vehicle should come 
to a gradual stop by timely shutting off the power, and then, 
if need be, applying the brake for a stop, and reverse from a 
standstill. 

Finally, it should be the first work of a purchaser or 
driver of an automobile vehicle, whether its driving power 
be steam, an explosive motor, electricity or compressed air, 
to become familiar with every part of its mechanism and of 
its working details the whys and wherefores of every move- 
ment before an attempt is made to run the vehicle on a street 
or road. It is recommended that the driving wheels be 



GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF MOTOR VEHICLES. 377 

blocked up by the shaft and the whole manipulation of the 
driving power be gone through with in all its details before 
venturing upon the road. 

This will give confidence and pleasure on the first trip 
out. 

SPECIAL MANAGEMENT OF VEHICLE MOTOR POWER. 
STEAM MOTOR VEHICLES. 

The action of steam is so direct and its control so simple 
that but little can be said that will cover the machinery de- 
tails of all of the builders of steam driven automobiles. 

The point principally to be watched and cared for, apart 
from the general management already described, is the water 
feed of the boiler. The boiler feed pump, as operated by 
the engine direct or from the vehicle shaft, does not feed 
the boiler with water in proportion to the steam used under 
the varying conditions of the road or the grade. 

On an up grade or bad road the speed of the vehicle is la- 
bored and slow, and more steam is used than on down grades 
and smooth roads. 

In the one case the pump does not meet the requirements 
of the boiler, and the boiler loses water. In the other case 
the shorter throw of the link lessens the quantity of steam 
used and the pump gains on the boiler water level. In some 
vehicles an equalizing regulation is provided by means of a 
three-way cock with a lever connection by which the driver 
can control the work of the pump by diverting part of the 
water back to the tank. A frequent watch on the water 
gauge is necessary ; although, when once a person gains ex- 
perience, the condition of the road largely helps to remind 
him of the time to increase or decrease the boiler feed. In 
some vehicles a supplementary pump is provided that re- 
quires but the pressure of a button or the movement of a 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

lever to regulate the water level. Again, this auxiliary pump 
is made automatic by a differential expansion apparatus, so 
constructed that when the water in the boiler falls to a fixed 
point, steam displaces the water in the regulator and its ex- 
pansion through a lever opens the throttle of the auxiliary 
pump and thus keeps the water in the boiler within proper 
limit. 

The earlier burners were lighted by a match applied to 
the vapor of alcohol or gasoline in a cup under the burner. 
Others use an alcohol torch for heating a small vaporizing 
pipe which gives a blow-pipe jet for heating the principal 
vaporizing coil, or for heating the boiler, until it is hot enough 
to vaporize the gasoline in the vapor pipe passing through 
the boiler tubes. A later device is to light the gasoline vapor- 
izing from the jet burners by a spark from a dry battery. 
This is done by a push button at the seat. This provides for 
entirely shutting off the burner when the vehicle stops for 
a short time. 

In other steam vehicles a pilot burner of small size is kept 
ignited when the vehicle is at rest, which keeps up steam 
ready for a quick start. The general regulation of the 
burner is by control of the amount of flow of the gasoline 
from the pressure tank. 

The air pressure in the gasoline tank should be kept as 
uniform as possible, in order that the flow of gasoline to the 
burner should not vary beyond a reasonable limit. 

In order to control the air tank pressure it should never 
be more than two-thirds full of gasoline, so that the air 
space may be large enough to give sufficient elasticity to the 
air pressure, that it will not rapidly fall as the gasoline is 
used. 

In some vehicles a separate air tank is used and automa- 
tically pumped up by an independent steam pump. With 



SPECIAL MANAGEMENT OF VEHICLE MOTOR POWER. 3/9 

the large size of the air tank the pressure on the gasoline will 
scarcely vary more than one or two pounds in an hour, 
which is indicated by the air gauge on the dash board. 

Four gauges are desirable on a steam propelled vehicle : 
a steam pressure gauge, an air pressure gauge, a gasoline 
indicator and a water gauge. The first three named are 
placed in a cluster on the dashboard and are easily ob- 
served. 

The water gauge at the side and beneath the seat is not 
so readily observed ; but when a little experience has been 
obtained in regard to the rate of change in the water level 
in the boiler under the action of the boiler feed pump, no 
apprehension may be felt that requires a look at the gauge 
oftener than for a 3-mile run. 

With an auxiliary and automatic pump, the water gauge 
needs but very little attention. 

Every vehicle should be provided with an electric light 
behind the water gauge and in front of the three gauges on 
the dashboard. A dry battery is sufficient for this, or a 
small storage battery may be used for the gauges and side 
lights of the vehicle. Cleanliness of the motive power, gear, 
and attention to the oiling of the running parts should 
require no attention on the road ; this should be done in the 
stable, and should receive more attention than, we fear, is 
given by owners and drivers who have no mechanical pro- 
clivities. The same treatment of your carriage and horses 
will soon disable a valuable rig. 

EXPLOSIVE MOTOR VEHICLES. 

The special attention required for running a gasoline 
motor vehicle is quite different from what is needed in a 
steam motor vehicle. More levers are required to be 
manipulated, or when many movements are concentrated in 



380 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

the steering lever, more attention must be directed to the 
various devices to be operated by the steering hand in 
order to avoid mistakes and not do the wrong thing. 

The ways and means for operating the explosive motor, 
and the necessary change gears vary so much in the various 
vehicles in use, that a detailed study ol the construction and 
operation of any one needs to be made by a purchaser under 
instructions from the manufacturer. . 

The same general management is required as noted on the 
first pages of this chapter. The only gauges to be observed 
are the ones showing the quantity of gasoline in the tank, or 
an air-pressure gauge where the position of the tank requires 
pressure for raising the gasoline to the vaporizer, for which 
a hand pump is usually provided for occasional use. As the 
pressure in the gasoline tank is constantly changing by the 
increasing area of the air space, the air pump needs a few 
strokes occasionally to keep up a moderate pressure to raise 
the gasoline to the vaporizer. The methods of ignition are 
not alike in the vehicles of different manufacturers, and 
should be made a special study under their instructions. A 
part of the running regulation in some vehicles is derived 
from delaying the ignition, and in others by varying the 
explosive charge, and yet others by both methods. Each is 
controlled by a special handle or lever manipulation, which 
requires special instructions suited to each design. 

The change gear also varies so much with different manu- 
facturers that no definite details of their operation can be 
given other than by reference to their construction and 
operation as given in the body of this work. 



Chapter XVI. 
COMPRESSED AIR POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

COMPRESSED AIR POWER FOR VEHICLES. 

The use of compressed air for railway propulsion has now 
been on trial for nearly a quarter of a century, with but 
small advances in its adaptability beyond the limited termi- 
nals of local road lines, and for factory and mining traction. 

The bar to its early success seems to have been wholly due 
to the initial low pressure in the storage tanks, which was 
limited to from 300 to 600 pounds per square inch, until the 
beginning of the last decade, when high pressure air service, 
for motive power, began to receive attention. The first trials 
of compressed air at from 2,000 to 3,000 pounds pressure per 
square inch was in railway work, and has reached a successful 
issue. 

The first trials of high pressures for road carriages did 
not give satisfactory results in England, but its application 
as a motive power for heavy vehicles has made a fair pro- 
gress, and is now in successful operation in France. A deliv- 
ery wagon is reported to be in operation in Paris, having a 
storage capacity of 18 cubic feet of compressed air at a pres- 
sure of 4,200 pounds per square inch. 

The air is delivered from the high pressure steel bottles 
by a differential valve, and reheated in a steel coil by a gaso- 
line burner to an amount to double its volume under a vary- 
ing working pressure of from 25 to 50 pounds per square 
inch, as needed. The cost of reheating the air for this vehi- 



384 HORSELESS -VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

cle is about one pound of gasoline per hour, when running at 
ordinary speed. 

In the United States, the American Air Power Company, 
the International Air Power Company, and the New York 
Auto Truck Company are pushing the interest of compressed 
air for vehicle propulsion with a line of practical experi- 
ments to demonstrate the feasibility of compressed air vehi- 
cles for street haulage and for ordinary truckage. These 
companies are operating under the Hardie and Hoadley- 
Knight patents. 

A runabout wagon has been constructed by Mr. C. D. P. 
Gibson for the Air Vehicle Company, with an air engine 
weighing but 36 pounds, and with compressed air storage 
capacity of six cubic feet at 2, 500 pounds pressure per square 
inch, the vehicle, storage and motive power weighing 670 
pounds. The working pressure is reduced to 1 50 pounds 
through a differential valve, and the air reheated. Thus, a 
single storage charge should give out one horse power for 
five hours, and cover a distance of from 20 to 30 miles in such 
a vehicle. Thus the possibilities of compressed air for in- 
dividual use lie in the ability to obtain a charge at some 
high pressure air station, or to operate a small oil engine 
power and high pressure compressor with, perhaps, a high 
pressure reserve tank for contingencies. 

For trucks or traction wagons operating on short circuits, 
the problem of the practicable service of compressed air for 
vehicle power is most encouraging. For shop and yard work 
requiring short circuits with facilities for recharging at sev- 
eral points from pipe-line air hydrants, the problem has been 
practically solved ; and we illustrate in Fig. 267 a shop 
truck built by and operated in the works of the American 
Wheelock Engine Company, Worcester, Mass. The upper 
hand wheel is on the steering spindle ; the lower hand wheel 



COMPRESSED AIR POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



385 




3 86 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




COMPRESSED AIR POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



387 







388 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




COMPRESSED AIR POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



389 




39 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



is for operating the motive power by a lanyard connection 
to the link valve gear. The throttle is governed by a lever 
which is opened by the operator pressing his knee against 
it and is closed by a spring. The motor drives both rear 
wheels through a differential gear, and, when working under 
ordinary conditions, uses about 75 cubic feet of free air per 
mile. 

It will move a load of ten tons, and occupies a space of 4 
feet wide by 1 5 feet long. 

Fig. 268 illustrates a truck for general haulage used at the 




FIG. 272. THE REHEATING OF COMPRESSED AIR WHEN COOLED 
BY EXPANSION FROM HIGH PRESSURE STORAGE. 

Worcester works for shipping machinery and hauling sup- 
plies. In this truck the air is reheated by passing through 
a hot water tank charged to a high pressure. 

In Fig. 269 is illustrated the same kind of truck loaded 
with lumber and in use in New York City, and in Fig. 270 
a compressed air traction wagon hauling a coal wagon. 

In Fig. 271 is illustrated the same traction wagon hauling 
a flat car loaded with machinery from the works, acting the 
j>art of a switching engine. 

Fig. 272 is an ideal diagram of the operating parts of a 



COMPRESSED AIR POWER FOR VEHICLES. 



391 



compressed air motor gear with the reheating device. 
Compressed air trucks and traction wagons are also used at 
the works of the International Power Company, Providence, 
R. T. 

AN AUTOMATIC ELECTRIC AIR PUMP. 



4VB1 ,f\.u i ^Jd/i.1. J.v_ rviv-c/v-i. iv.-i.v- ^i-JL^v. jru.ivi.ir. 

A most desirable adjunct of the automobile carriage house 

^^^ 




FIG. 273. THE AUTOMOBILE AIR PUMP. 

has been brought out by the Auto-Electric Air Pump Co., 
of Rochester, N. Y., and No. 39 Cortlandt Street, New York 
City. The electric motor and air pump are set upon a base 
8 x 10 inches, and stands 10 inches high. Its pumping power 
is derived from an electric motor of six horse power geared 
to an air pump of a capacity of 2\ cubic feet of free air per 
minute, at 100 revolutions of the crank per minute, at any 



392 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

desired pressure for automobile or bicycle tires. The motor 
operates from a no-volt continuous or alternating current, 
and will also operate from a nearly full charged automobile 
battery, thus putting the pneumatic tires in full tension 
before starting, and by this means save much tiresome 
work for the operator. 

This pump also has many uses in furnishing compressed 
air for operating dental tools, air brushes, etc. 

The air pump is provided with an air pressure gauge, 
shown at the top of the motor, Fig. 273. In front of the 
motor is shown the air pressure regulator, so constructed 
that it can be set to any desired pressure, which, when 
reached, a small delicately arranged piston and lever oper- 
ates to switch off the current and stop the rnotor. 

It is certainly a very compact and neat apparatus, and 
should occupy a place in every automobile stable where an 
electric current can be obtained. 



Chapter XVII. 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

VEHICLES, MOTORS, APPLIANCES, ETC., ETC. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
THE VICTOR AUTOMOBILE. 

Improvements in the elements of control seem to have no 
stay, and the latest production of a steam automobile car- 
riage in which the watchfulness of the driver on the opera- 
tion of the motive power is almost eliminated, has been 
brought out by Mr. A. H. Overman, of Chicopee Falls, 
Mass. It is illustrated in Fig. 274. 

In the Victor automobile the fuel may be gasoline or 
kerosene.. 

The vertical tubular boiler is made entirely of steel, a 
seamless shell with heads, and tubes of ample strength. 
Inspected and insured by the Hartford Steam Boiler Insur- 
ance Company. 

A pair of vertical is engines enclosed in a case free from 
dirt and run in an oil bath. 

A heater utilizes the exhaust for heating the boiler feed- 
water the residue exhaust is air condensed. 

Water is supplied to the boiler automatically while run- 
ning by a pump driven from the moving parts ; when the 
vehicle is standing the pressing of a button starts an aux- 
iliary pump for bringing the water up to its proper height. In 
addition, there is an automatic boiler supply regulator con- 
sisting of a differential expansion bar which is composed of 



396 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



brass tubes and a solid steel bar. Any accidental drop in 
the water level below a minimum safe point, steam displaces 
the cold water in the regulator and the expansion of the 
brass tube operates a lever that opens the steam throttle of 
an auxiliary pump and the proper water level is quickly 
restored. 
In case all the boiler feed devices should become 




FIG. 274. THE VICTOR AUTOMOBILE. 

deranged, a fusible plug at a stated low water level will melt 
and blow out the fire in the burner. 

A sight gauge indicates the quantity of gasoline in the 
tank at all times, and an automatically operated air pump 
keeps an even pressure in the tank. 

The gauges for steam and air pressure and fuel supply are 
located in plain view on the dash board, and are electrically 
illuminated at night by operating a push button on the 
steering handle. 

Another notable point is that the vehicle is self-locking, or 



MISCELLANEOUS. 397 

ties itself, when the driver leaves his seat. A spring lever 
beneath the panel of the seat shuts and locks the throttle 
valve when the driver rises from the seat, and the vehicle 
cannot be started until the driver is again seated. In opera- 
tion there are only two things to keep in mind, the steering 
and the link valve lever on which the hands rest as easily 
as in driving a horse. 

In fact the Victor is conceded to be the advanced auto- 
mobile of the new century. In all its parts other than above 
enumerated it is of the most approved construction of the 
later models. 

A KEROSENE MOTOR CARRIAGE. 

In Fig. 275 we illustrate a surrey built by the New York 
Kerosene Oil Engine Company, No. 31 Burling Slip, New 
York City, who have become owners of the patents of Feo- 
dor C. Hirsch for the United States, France, England and 
Canada. The motors are of the four-cycle compression 
type, using common kerosene oil as their power fuel. 

There is no doubt in the future prospect of kerosene as a 
safe and available fuel for explosive motors, and the constant 
improvement being made in details of motors for its use, 
seems to indicate its growing expanded use for motor vehi- 
cle power as well as for launches and yachts. It is the 
safest and cheapest power fuel available for these purposes. 

The motor as shown in Fig. 276 is separated from its base 
for carriage use. It has no special ignition device ; the bulb 
shown on top of the cylinder is connected with the cylinder 
head and receives the charge of kerosene oil for each impulse 
and vaporizes it on the instant ready for mixing with the air 
charge, drawn in by the piston. For starting the motor a 
lamp or torch is used for from 6 to 8 minutes to heat the 
vaporizing bulb to the proper temperature for 
vaporizing the oil, which, with this heat and the heat of 



398 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 275. THE KEROSENE MOTOR SURREY. 




FIG. 276. THE KEROSENE OIL MOTOR, 



MISCELLANEOUS. 399 

compression at the return stroke of the piston raises the 
temperature to the explosive point. This gives an impulse 
to the piston and its repetition continues the action of the 
motor. 

It will be easily understood that by injecting the oil into 
the hot air a fraction ahead of time before the piston reaches 
the end of its stroke, the following advantage is ob- 
tained : 

No condensation of the gas can take place against the cyl- 
inder wall, as the piston has swept the whole cylinder, and, 
nothing but pure air being drawn into the cylinder, which 
is compressed into the combustion chamber before the oil 
is injected. 

The great field for industrial and marine work is now so 
broad, and the use of the motor vehicle is beginning to be so 
thoroughly appreciated, that a simple motor that can be run 
without an engineer, or expensive battery and ignition appa- 
ratus, is sure to be the one wanted, and kerosene from its 
general use will occupy a prominent place in all these fields, 
more especially in that of the horseless vehicle. 

THE LANCASTER AUTOMOBILE. 

In Fig. 277 we illustrate an automobile carriage designed 
by Mr. James H. Lancaster, 95 Liberty street, New York 
City. It is of the explosive motor power class of the phae- 
ton style, with a vis-a-vis fore seat. 

Mr. Lancaster has brought together in the design of this 
carriage and its motive power the best up-to-date mechanical 
devices for economy and efficiency for a compact and speedy 
vehicle. 

By one lever only, the ingenious and efficient speed-gear- 
ing yields at will to any of the four varying rates of forward 
.speeds and one backward, and yet they merge impercepti- 



400 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




MISCELLANEOUS. 4OI 

bly from the slowest to the highest limit desired. All lubri- 
cation is entirely automatic. Not only the carriage but the 
entire mechanism is carried on springs, thus avoiding jarring 
and injury to it. This increases its durability, and also gives 
greater comfort to the riders. 

A novel and perfect gasoline and air mixer effects great 
economy in fuel and ease of control. It is not effected by 
atmospheric changes and its means of regulation is simple 
and accurate. The rear axle being in one piece, greater 
strength and rigidity is ensured. Starting the " Lancamo- 
bile " motor is easily and instantly effected without the driver 
leaving the seat. 

The " Lancamobile " steering and speed mechanism can be 
controlled by a child, and the absence of vibration, noise and 
smell makes gasoline now available without its many pre- 
vious disadvantages. Speeds range from three miles to 
thirty per hour. The construction of frame and mechanism 
is such that almost any style of body can be attached to it. 

AN EXPERIMENTAL SHOP. 

In Fig. 278 we illustrate a model gasoline motor of a half- 
horse power made in " The Franklin Model Shop " of Par- 
sell & Weed, 129 and 131 West 315! Street, New York City. 
The motor parts are made on a wrought iron frame suitable 
for attaching to a light vehicle. The details of this motor 
are fully described and illustrated, with the tools and 
methods of construction for amateur instruction, in their 
book on " Gas Engine Construction." 

Messrs. Parsell & Weed have had considerable experi- 
ence in gas and gasoline engine construction, and in their 
Franklin Model Shop they have an establishment which is 
well equipped with the best modern machine tools, and, with 
a corps of intelligent and experienced workmen, they are 



AO2 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



prepared to do all kinds of fine work, models, and for build- 
ing automobile engine parts, vaporizers, etc., to order from 
inventor's own designs. Their drafting department is also 




FIG. 278. THE MODEL MOTOR. 

available for the production of working drawings from cus- 
tomer's sketches. 

A COMBINED MOTOR AUTO-TRUCK. 

In Fig. 279 we illustrate a novel combination of a gasoline 
and an air motor truck, built by L. J. Wing, 95 Liberty 
Street, New York City. 




FIG. 279. COMBINED MOTOR AUTO-TRUCK. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 403 

The initial power in this system is a gasoline double-cyl- 
inder motor ; very compact, reliable, and of large power for 
heavy work. This motor has the outer end of each cylinder 
arranged as an air-compressor. This gives an abundance of 
compressed air for starting the motor and for working air 
brakes similar to steam engines, for blowing a whistle or 
as auxiliary power for climbing grades, starting heavy 
loads, etc. 

As shown in the cut, the power is attached to the front 
wheels through a jackshaft having compensating gears. 
With this arrangement of the parts the driver is enabled to 
turn the vehicle at right angles for turning in narrow streets, 
while at the same time he has the full strength of the com- 
mon wagon. 

The power plant can be attached to any truck or wagon 
by removing the front wheels, axle and lower half of fifth- 
wheel and substituting the power plant. Then by putting 
on the storage tanks, air-brakes, etc., the old horse truck 
becomes a practical and reliable auto-truck, capable of doing 
a greater amount of transporting at less cost than by horses 
and occupying but one-half the room on the street. It 
does not soil the street as the horse does, and never gets 
tired or sick. 

The arrangement for steering, stopping and starting are 
all made very strong, but these operations are done mechan- 
ically and require but little power on the part of the 
" Moteer," in fact, this wagon has less labor for the operator 
than the small electric carriages. 

The exhaust has been arranged so as to remove the objec- 
tionable feature of the gas engine. 

Mr. Wing has had many 3 ears' experience in machinery, 
and was the first one in the East to make the gas engine a 
success as a marine power. 



404 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

AUTOMATIC IGNITER FOR STEAM VEHICLE BURNER. 

For purposes of convenience, as well as economy, the 
most successful types of steam vehicle are constructed with 
a boiler heated by a gas flame, such being- produced by 
employing the heat of the boiler itself to vaporize liquid 
gasoline. In starting the boiler, when cold, some portion 
of the fuel supply pipe is first heated, and when it has 
reached the required temperature the supply of liquid gaso- 
line under air pressure is turned on, and becomes vaporized 
or turned into a gas in passing through the heated pipe ; it 
issues through the burner under the boiler, where it may be 
ignited. For purpose of economy, in both fuel and water 
(as well as preventing over or dangerous pressure) when 
stops are made along the road, various automatic devices 
have been invented and applied to this type of automobile, 
by which the gas supply is diminished, or even cut down to 
a taper or pilot flame. As, however, the bottom of the 
burner is pierced with many holes in order to supply air to 
the burning gas, sudden gusts of wind will frequently 
extinguish the flame when so turned down, and, indeed, it 
often occurs that the fire when turned on to its fullest extent, 
with the vehicle under way on the road, will be suddenly 
blown out. In the latter case, it is necessary to stop the 
vehicle and relight the fire. 

In order to overcome this annoying disadvantage, an elec- 
tric re-igniting device has been devised and put upon the 
market by the A. L. Bogart Company, of 123 Liberty Street, 
New York City, which is particularly simple in construc- 
tion, number of parts and method of applying. It consists 
of a spark-producing device contained in a cylindrical metal 
case, five inches long and three inches in diameter. Pro- 
jecting from the upper side of this case is a stem surmounted 
by platinum sparking points, one of which is automatically 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



405 



movable. This instrument, known as the igniter, is sus- 
pended by means of an iron brace screwed fast to the bottom 
of the vehicle in such manner that the sparking points 
pass up through one of the air tubes in the bottom of the 
burner and project within the same just above its upper sur- 
face. Figs. 280 and 281 represent the igniter as attached to 





FIGS. 280 AND 281. 

the steam vehicle known as the Locomobile, the first being 
a side and the second an end view of the same ; portions of 
the framework are represented as being broken away in 
order to show the igniter plainly. Fig. 282 is a diagram of 
the igniter and its electrical connections, on a larger scale ; 
the dotted lines between the 
igniter, button and battery 
box indicate the wires con- 
necting the same. The 
push button is usually 
placed at the right hand 
side of the driver, prefer- 
ably near the starting lever. 
Two cells of dry battery 
are contained in a neat cyl- 
indrical case, three inches 




in diameter and fifteen 



Battery JBojC 

FIG. 282. 



406 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

inches long, which is provided with a cover and may be 
placed in a tool tray, under the foot board. The connect- 
ing cord as supplied by the manufacturers is a double 
strand, twisted together, having three ends, one to be 
attached to the igniter, one to the button, and the other 
to screw posts in the battery box. 

In operating this arrangement, the fuel having been 
turned on, it is only necessary to push the button, when a 
lighting spark will be produced inside of the fire box. This 
can be done either while seated in the wagon or standing 
outside of it. The heat remaining in the boiler after 
putting out the fire is sufficient to vaporize the fuel so as to 
permit re-igniting any time from one and a half to two 
hours after extinguishment. 

VEHICLE MOTORS OF THE MAI/TBY AUTOMOBILE AND MOTOR 
COMPANY. 

The Maltby Company, who are located at No. 12 Clinton 
Street, Brooklyn Borough, New York City, furnish gaso- 
line motors with water-jacketed and rib-cooled cylinders for 
bicycles, tricycles, carriages and launches. 

Fig. 283 represents a water-jacketed, two-cycle launch 
engine of three horse power, height, 22 inches ; floor space, 
20 x 12 inches. 

This style of motor is furnished in sizes of i, 3, 5, 6 and 
10 horse power. 

The carriage motors are of the four-cycle compression 
type, with ribs for air cooling, and sizes of one and two horse 
power with single cylinders and of four horse power with 
double cylinders and a single crank case. All their motors 
are designed on the most approved principles of construc- 
tion for reliability, and are provided with a peculiar electric 
ignition device that varies the time of sparking. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



407 



In Fig. 284 is illustrated the ribbed and air-cooled motor 
of the carriage type. 

When placed in a carriage, or on a tricycle, the feet shown 
in the cut are replaced by brackets direct to the vehicle 
frame. The crank case is made of aluminum, which con- 
tributes to the lightness of the motor, which for two horse 
power only weighs 53 pounds. 




FIG. 283. WATER-JACKETED CARRIAGE MOTOR. 

In Fig. 285 is shown some of the principal parts of the 
carriage motor. The crank case, uncovered, with the reduc- 
ing gear, cam and guide for operating the exhaust valve. 
The two bolts that hold the motor parts together, the piston, 
cylinder, and cylinder head, which is also ribbed, and the 
sparking push rod, which operates by contact with the 



408 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

s 





MISCELLANEOUS. 409 

piston. The bicycle motor of one horse power is made on 
the same lines as above, and weighs but 25 pounds. 

THE LANGMUIR TIRES. 

This tire possesses certain features which are not 
embraced in other makes of solid rubber tires. It has been 
the theory of inventors of solid rubber carriage tires that it 
was essential to have the rubber fill the channel before the 
load was put on, and this feature has been carried out in all 
tires that have come to our notice, with the exception of 
" Langmuir's," and the inventor of this tire seems to have 
conceived the idea that, in order to make a successful tire, it 
was necessary to make a radical departure from the old 




O O 



NORMAL UNDER LOAD 

FIGS. 286 AND 287. LANGMUIR. 

forms and methods of applying the tire, and we observe 
that he has made his tire so that there is a " V-shaped " 
space between the rubber and the flanges, and, in talking 
with the inventor, we learn that this is the primary base of 
their claims, and being of this shape they contend that they 
had a very resilient rubber tire, due to the fact that the 
entire weight of the vehicle comes on the base of the channel, 
and, as the rubber compresses laterally when under load, it 
fills the channel, and in this way the entire amount of rub- 
ber in the tire is brought into use, whereas, with the tires 
that fill the channel before the load is applied, there is quite 
a percentage of rubber that is not in use, for the reason that 
before the load is put on it fills the channel ; consequently, 



410 .HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

being encased within the sides of the flanges, that portion 
which is not encased spreads out over the sides of the chan- 
nel, so that a person is riding only on the amount of rubber 
above the sides of the channel, whereas in the " Langmuir " 
the entire amount of rubber is brought into service. 

In applying the " Langmuir " tire no superfluous rubber is 
used, as the tire is cut the same length as the circumference 
of the wheel, plus three times the depth of the rubber, using 
the same principle as applied in cutting iron or steel chan- 
nels, and by so doing the matter of compression is elimi- 
nated, the results being that the tire will not open at the 
joint, will not break at the wire holes or cut at the base, and 
the harmful tendency of creeping is eliminated. The reason 
for creeping is on account of compression that is necessary 
to be used to keep the tires from opening at the joint. The 
tires are manufactured from f inch to 3 inches in diame- 
ter, and, although a comparatively new article in the field, 
a great many of them are in use and have given satisfaction 
in every instance. 

These tires are manufactured by the Revere Rubber Co., 
59 Reade Street, New York. 

AUTOMOBILE TIRES. 

We illustrate, in Figs. 288 and 289, a lately-patented tire of 
novel construction, having much of the elastic properties of 
the pneumatic tire, without its troubles. 

In Fig. 288 is shown a section of the tire for light vehicles. 
The open central space gives the tire great elasticity, and 
the form of its fastenings allows of a compressive hold of 
the tire on the wheel, instead .of a tension or pull of the tire 
around the wheel, as with other methods of fastening. 

The principle of compression is a saving one on the wear 
and tear of the tire. A cut, or puncture, has no disposition 



MISCELLANEOUS. 41 1 

to gap and extend the damage by the stretched condition of 
a tire ; but, on the other hand, closes up and presses 
together by the longitudinal compression in this method of 
tire mounting. 

If a tire becomes seriously cut or damaged from accident, 
a piece may be cut out and a new piece put in, thus saving 
the entire loss of a tire. This tire does not creep. 




FIG. 288. THE ELASTIC SOLID TIRE. 

The central T-shaped band is fastened to a band tire, or 
directly on the felloes by bolts or pins. The outside grooved 
bands are bolted to the felloes by through bolts, making a 
firmly stayed and strong wheel. The rubber tires are 
moulded in rings for set sizes, or in straight lengths suitable 
for any size wheel, or for repairs. 

In Fig. 289 is shown the solid tire for heavy vehicles, made 



412 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

upon and subject to the same general principles of construe 
tion as the first named, but with a capacity for carrying- 
much heavier loads. 

Their durability is equal to the wear of the solid rubber 
down to the edges of the grooved supporting bands. They 
cannot be jerked off the wheel in railway ruts. 

They are designated as the "compressed double-locked 




FIG. 289. THE SOLID TIRE. 

automobile tire," and are made by Dewes & Whiting, 
No. 243 Centre Street, New York City. 



AUTOMOBILE LAMPS. 



In Figs. 290 and 291 we illustrate a kerosene automobile 
lamp, made by the R. E. Dietz Company, 60 Laight Street, 
New York City. The need for a lamp that will not jar or 



MISCELLANEOUS. 413 

blow out under any conditions of road travel has been met 
by the Dietz Company, who have produced a lamp with a 
strong light, with chimney draft, that is reliable for automo- 
bile service, and will burn 24 hours with one filling. It burns 
with a clear white flame of 20 candle power, and lights up 
the road for a distance of 200 feet or more. 

The lamp is compact and handsome in design, resembling, 
in a measure, the locomotive headlight, and is provided with 
an internal conical reflector of a peculiar form, which con- 
centrates and focalizes the entire volume of light and throws 
it directly ahead. 





FIG. 290. THE DIETZ FIG. 291. AIR PASSAGES 

LAMP. OP LAMP. 

The front of the lamp consists of a beveled, moulded lens 
made from the best quality of lead glass, set in a flaring front 
door. 

At the back is set a small lens of ruby glass, by means of 
which, when the lamp is in position at the side of the dash, 
a brilliant point of crimson light is seen from the rear. 

The reflector is made of rolled silver-plated copper. 

The flaring front is made of a highly polished non-tarnish- 
ing white metal. 



414 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

The lamp embodies in its construction the well-known 
tubular principle ; the sides being double form an air cham- 
ber, the cold air being drawn into the outer chamber at the 
top descends to the burner, and the hot air and products of 
combustion escape through the central passage. 

The operation of the lamp can be readily seen by Fig. 291, 
the arrows showing the circulation of the air, and, as all 
the air that feeds the flame, or goes to the burner, passes 
through these chambers, no wind affects its burning. By 
means of this circulation fresh air is continually supplied to 
the burner, and a perfect combustion is the result ; the lamp 
emitting a clear white flame devoid of smoke or odor, and 
one that the jarring incident to rough roads will not extin- 
guish. 

BALL BEARINGS. 

In Fig. 292 we illustrate a ball separating device made by 
the Sartus Ball Bearing Company, 618 Broadway, New 
York City. 

The use of a ball retainer and separator in any kind of 
machine, running on ball bearings, has 
been proved, by severe and frequent tests, 
that friction in bearings is thereby reduced 
to a minimum, and that retainers and sepa- 
rators give the easiest running ball bear- 
ings. 

It is a known fact that the rolling ball, 
10 RATORS * even under g reat pressure, produces very 
little friction, and it is friction alone that 
causes wear. As the ordinary bearings in cycles, without 
exception, wear out in a comparatively short time, it 
proves, in the most positive manner, that the balls in these 
bearings, during use, do not always roll freely, but neces- 
sarily slide at times. Sliding of the balls has been proven 
by experiments. 




MISCELLANEOUS. 



415 



The only proper way to test friction in bearings, is to put 
a weight of say 200 pounds on the wheel running on ball 
bearings, and revolve it, The spinning of a suspended 
wheel does not speak for the excellence of its bearings, but 
the revolving of the same under pressure, which it also 
undergoes as a part of a cycle or vehicle, with its driver, 
only determines the amount of friction generated. 

The arrangement, Fig. 293, illustrates a simple device for 
testing the amount of friction in ball bearings, and to better 
explain said device, the parts of the illus- 
tration are marked with letters as fol- 
lows : 

A A is a bicycle hub on its fork, E. 

B is a belt running under the hub and 
over a pulley fastened to a shaft. 

E is a fork slightly changed to accom- 
modate this method of illustration, but 
answering the purpose of the ordinary 
fork in a bicycle. 

F is a 2oo-pound weight attached to 
the lower end of fork, , and corre- 
sponds in this illustration to a rider on 
a bicycle. 

From the foregoing it will be readily 
understood that when shaft, I), and 
pulley, C, revolve, hub, A, will also rotate on its bearings, 
and, as it is under the pressure of a 2oo-pound weight, it 
revolves under the ordinary conditions of bicycle riding. 

As it is an accepted fact that friction will always cause 
more or less heat, it must be granted that the greater the 
friction the more heat ; consequently, as an additional test, 
assume the wheel to travel at 300 miles an hour, the amount 
of friction of the loose ball bearings could readily be ascer- 




FIG. 293. THE 
TEST. 



416 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

tained by the amount of heat shown by the cones, cups and 
loose balls. Trials of long runs of cycle hubs in this kind 
of test has shown the decided value of the Sartus ball 
retainer. 

AUTOMOBILE TIRE PUMPS. 

Something- which every owner of an automobile needs is 
a tire pump. Probably the best stationary hand lever pump 
is made by the Gleason-Peters Air Pump Company, 
40 West Houston Street, New York. It is made from 




FIG. 294. TIRE PUMP AND FRAME. FIG. 295. OFF THE STAND. 

malleable iron, can be operated by hand, is attached to a 
fixed support and possesses all the advantages of that class 
of pump known to the trade as lever pumps. Another 
important advantage is that whether portably held in the 
hand or affixed to a support, the best possible results are 
attained, as the leverage on the piston rod increases as the 
resistance on the piston increases, thereby securing the 
powerful leverage of the well-known "toggle-joint" prin- 
ciple as the piston finishes its stroke. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



417 



This pump is particularly adapted to automobiles, and is 
said to be the only hand pump that will give a pressure of 
400 pounds to the square inch. 

This company also makes power pumps for manufacturers 
of automobiles. 

The illustration, Fig. 294, represents the pump on a slotted 
stand, which also serves as a bicycle holder. 

In Fig-. 295 is illustrated the pump detached from the 
stand and operated in the hands like a common bellows. 

The direct hand pump, Fig. 296, is made from heavy 
seamless brass tubing and has malleable 
iron base, ball check valve and spade han- 
dle. This is a very powerful foot pump 
and is light in weight. All joints and 
connections are soldered, and the pump is 
designed to be carried about in the vehi- 
cle, and will make a pressure of over 250 
pounds per square inch. 

THE AUTOMOBILE BELL. 

One of the most important attachments 
to the horseless vehicles, automobile or 
motor cycle, is the sweet-toned signal of 
alarm. It should be strong and penetrat- 
ing, as well as quick in action. 

The " Ideal bell " is constructed on an 
entirely new principle, which makes it 
suitable to be operated with electric light current as well as 
battery current. All the works are included under the 
gong, making a very attractive bell. (In the new construc- 
tion the bell is also made dust and water proof.) It also 
gives a much stronger ring than the old style ; this is 
accomplished by means of the circuit breaker. In all 




FIG. 296. BICY- 
CLE PUMP. 



4i8 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



vibrating bells made heretofore the circuit is always broken 
before the armature comes in contact with the magnet, 
losing thereby the strongest part of the magnet's attrac- 
tion, but in this one the armature has to come in contact 




FIG. 297. THE "IDEAL 



before the current is broken, which makes the hammer give 
a very strong blow to the bell. 

We illustrate the details of this bell in Figs. 297, 298 and 
299, the first showing the outside and its complete closure 
from dust and water, and the latter the details of the In- 
ternal mechanism, which is of more than ordinary interest. 
It will be noticed that the current comes through binding 




FIG. 298. BELL SECTION. FIG. 299. ITS OPERATION. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 419 

post, 16, then to the magnet wire at 18, then out at 19 to 
insulated bracket, 20, which holds the hammer lever, 10, then 
through contact, 13, to contact, 14, on armature bar, 6, so 
that when the armature bar, 5, is attracted and comes in 
contact with the magnet the momentum of the lever ham- 
mer breaks the circuit, and when the hammer rebounds the 
contact is again made, causing it to keep on vibrating as 
long as the circuit is closed. It will be noticed that by the 
manner in which the armature and hammer is pivoted, 



B AU BEARINGS 

AUTOMOBII 




FIG. 300. A GOOD LUBRICANT. 

there is a good rubbing contact, making it unnecessary to 
use platinum, although silver is used, so that when the bell 
is not used for a long time it will not corrode. These bells 
are manufactured by David Rousseau, 310 Mott Avenue, 
New York City. 

LUBRICANTS FOR AUTOMOBILES. 

The want of a lubricant for bearings and chains of motor 
carriages and motor cycles that does not choke up journal 
boxes and chains with graphite, which cannot be cleaned off 



420 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

or even touched with hands without imparting the blacking- 
nuisance, has brought out a new compound paste that is free 
from objections and easily cleaned from bearings or chains. 
It is free from mineral or gummy substances, and is espe- 
cially adapted to the requirements of ball bearings. 

It is made by Wm. P. Miller's Sons, 100 Greenpoint 
Avenue, Borough of Brooklyn, New York City. 

BRASS AND COPPER GOODS. 

Manufacturers of automobiles and amateurs will be inter- 
ested in knowing where they can secure a superior quality 
of seamless drawn copper tubes, T V inch to 16 inches dia- 
meter, of any thickness required. The U. T. Hungerford 
Brass and Copper Co., New York City, have made a 
specialty of seamless drawn copper tubes for boiler tubes, 
and the size that is generally used by manufacturers of auto- 
mobiles who are now placing their machines on the market 
measures i inch outside diameter by No. 21 Stubs gauge, or 
fa inch thick, cut in lengths to suit the size of the boiler. 
These tubes are finished especially to give the greatest pos- 
sible strength with the least possible weight. The extra 
large sizes of tubing, from 13 inches to 16 inches, are used 
for the shell of the boiler, and are made in thicknesses from 
T V inch up to J inch, according to the requirements of the 
case. Seamless drawn brass and copper tubes are also used 
in vehicles driven by gasoline motors for conducting pipes, 
connections, etc., and anything in this line can be procured 
from the above mentioned concern. 

They carry a full line of sheet copper, sheet brass, rods, 
wire, etc., and have just issued a stock catalogue showing 
full line carried in their New York warehouse, No. 12 
Worth Street, which we believe will be invaluable to builders 
of automobiles, and will be sent to anyone on application. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



421 



The above company also 
manufactures an automo- 
bile oiler, as illustrated in 
Fig. 301. 

The spout is so arranged 
as to be easily drawn out of 
the oil well, extending 3! 
inches beyond it, thus ren- 
dering it possible to reach 
any part of the automobile 
motor or running gear. 

To close the oiler the 
spout is pushed back over 
a rod attached to the spout, 
acting as a valve, thus pre- 
venting the escape of oil. 

As a precaution against 
leakage the screw head is 
packed solid with leather 
washers, making it abso- 
lutely impossible for the oil 
to pass through it. 

AUTOMOBILE GEARING AND ITS 
MANUFACTURE. 

One of the essential ele- 
ments in automobile con- 
struction is a smooth run- 
ning gear. 

This can only be obtained 
with perfect tools for cut- 
ting the teeth of the gear 
wheels and pinions, so that 




FIG. 301. THE OILER. 



422 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



they will run together without noise or jar. With this in 
view, we illustrate, in Figs. 302 and 303, a gear cutting- 
machine and radial gang cutters made by Gould & Eber- 
hardt, Newark, N. J. 

The system of gang cutting the teeth of gear wheels is one 




FIG. 302. GEAR CUTTING MACHINE. 

of the modern inovations in the saving of time in the opera- 
tion of mechanical work. 

Messrs. Gould & Eberhardt not only build the machinery, 
but are prepared to cut any kind of gearing for experi- 
menters or builders of automobile motors and speed gears. 




FIG. 303. THE GANG CUTTERS. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



THE AUTOMOBILE MACHINE SHOP. 



423 



The rapid advance in the manufacture of horseless vehicles, 
automobiles, and motor cycles has caused to be made special 
machinery of precision for finishing the parts of their motive 
power and running- gear. 




FIG. 304. UNIVERSAL MILLING MACHINE. 

We illustrate three of the most interesting machines of 
this class in Figs. 304, 305 and 306, as made by the Garvin 
Machine Co., Spring and Varick Streets, New York City. 

The Universal milling machine embodies the most ad- 
vanced design of this class of tool, and is advantageously 
adapted for cutting automobile gears, pinions, sprocket 
wheels, and for milling the brackets, levers, and other sur- 



424 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

face work. It is also adapted for making the parts required 
for the construction of horseless carriages. Power feeds 
are provided in all directions, and all of these feeds are 
started and stopped by one hand lever at the front of the 
knee. 

Special attention is directed to the feed mechanism. The 
change gear box located inside the column affords eighteen 
changes of feed, ranging from .003 to J inch advance per rev- 
olution of spindle, and any desired feed is instantly obtained 
by simply turning the handle to correspond to the number 
on the index disk. 

All of these changes are available for all of the feeds, in 
any direction, and in all positions. 

A new feature of this .machine is a stationary elevating 
screw which is provided with a rotating nut, so that when 
the machines are placed on cement floors or in fireproof 
buildings no hole will be required. The elevating nut is 
fitted with a ball end thrust, giving it a very easy move- 
ment. 

Micrometer dials, graduated in thousandths, are provided 
on all the adjustments. 

The turret screw machine is a modern machine tool espe- 
cially designed for manufacturing the parts of automobiles 
and motor cycles, such as the bearings, gears, boxes, and 
other parts required to be bored, turned, faced, and 
threaded. 

It has a very large capacity automatic wire feed mech- 
anism for making the ball-bearing cups and cones from the 
bar. The machine has ample power for the heaviest kind of 
work. The regular friction-geared spindle is back-geared 
at a ratio of 8 to i. In addition to this, the face plate is also 
back-geared at a ratio of 14 to i. 

The turret has large hexagonal faces, so that universal 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



425 



turning tools can be rigidly secured, enabling them to make 
heavy and accurate cuts. The holes in the turret are 2\ 
inches in diameter, and a bar of this size can be passed 
through the turret in line with the spindle, thus enabling 
any length of piece to be turned. 

The power feed is positively arranged with change gears, 
one of which is provided with an adjustable slip friction, so 




FIG. 305. THE SINGLE TURRET SCREW MACHINE. 

that no injury can happen to the tools in case they become 
dull or otherwise incapable of cutting. 

A separate set of feeds is provided to give the proper 
pitches for screw cutting. Changes can be instantly made 
from the regular feeds to the screw-cutting feeds by sim- 
ply throwing a lever at the side of the head stock. 

The machine is provided with independent stops, so that 
tools of different lengths can be used in the turret. 



426 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

The gap in the bed enables large gear and sprocket wheels 
to be turned, and the large combination oil pan and cabinet 
base provide means for saving and separating the oil from 
the chips. 

The automatic pump furnishes a copious supply of lubri- 
cant to the cutting tools when required. 

The double turret screw machine is a form of machine 



r\n 

11 




FIG. 306. THE DOUBLE TURRET SCREW MACHINE. 

brought out to meet the demands required in the construc- 
tion of horseless carriages. It is particularly adapted for 
making pieces that require operation on both ends, such as 
wheel hubs, shells, change gear boxes, and similar work. 

The machine is so arranged that the tools can be in opera- 
tion on both ends of the piece simultaneously, thus saving a 
large amount of time ; also enabling the piece to be com- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 427 

pleted at one setting, and insuring both ends of the work 
being finished in me same concentric plane. 

The work being handled only once, all loss of time and 
inaccuracies due to rehandling are avoided. 

The center chuck is driven by gearing, and revolves in 
anti-friction bearings thoroughly protected from chips and 
dirt. 

The turrets are independent of each other, and are each 
provided with pan, and also power feed, with ample changes 
for the different classes of work. 

These machines are built in several sizes to cover the 
range of work required on small motor cycles, automobiles, 
and trucks. 

MOTORS AND VEHICLES OF THE HASBROUCK MOTOR COMPANY. 

The Hasbrouck Motor Co., whose factory is at Piermont,, 
N. Y., and office at No. 20 Nassau Street, New York City^ 
are builders of gasoline motors and automobile carnages, 
trucks and delivery wagons, in connection with their busi- 
ness of building launches and yachts with gasoline motive 
power. 

Their motor is in line with the latest and best design of 
one, two, four, six, eight, and ten horse power for immediate 
delivery, and higher powers to order. 

The company are now building a modified Stanhope 
phaeton, Fig. 307, to carry two persons, with top and storm 
curtains a complete and thoroughly up-to-date touring car- 
riage, fitted with a six horse power gasoline motor that is 
absolutely odorless, and in which the vibration usual in gaso- 
line motor vehicles has been entirely eliminated. 

The economy in fuel is the best that has yet been obtained, 
the motor requiring but one-tenth of a gallon of gasoline per 
horse power per hour. 



428 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 307. THE HASBROUCK MOTOR CARRIAGE. 




FIG. 308, THE HASBROUCK MOTOR. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 429 

Their automobile carriage can be operated by any intelli- 
gent person, and is under perfect control in all its move- 
ments. 

Its speed is gauged from one mile per hour to as fast as 
one may care to go, and the power is sufficient to climb 
a grade of 20 per cent, at from three to six miles per 
hour. 

In Fig. 308 is illustrated the Hasbrouck motor. 

A GASOLINE VEHICLE MOTOR. 

In Fig. 309 we illustrate a compact and well made motor 
with air-cooled cylinder, made by the Smith Motor Co., 
56 Morris and Essex Railroad Avenue, Newark, N. J. 
These motors are a specialty for automobile vehicles and 
tricycles; they are of the four cycle type with electric 
ignition and vaporizing device of the most approved 
pattern. 

Three sizes are now in course of manufacture : if horse 
power motor that weighs 40 pounds, as shown in the cut, 
Fig"- 39 I a three horse power motor, same pattern, weigh- 
ing 85 pounds, and a six horse power motor, weighing no 
pounds. 

The cylinder, cylinder head and valve chamber are 
enclosed in a system of air-cooling ribs, that are fully equal 
to controlling the temperature and contribute to the neat 
appearance of the motor. The vaporizing device is attached 
to the top of the valve chamber, forming a fixed part of the 
motor. 

By an arrangement of the internal passages in the cylin- 
der, the products of combustion are swept clean from the 
cylinder after each impulse stroke and the regulation of 
speed is made both by variable charge and delayed electric 
sparks, all controllable by the operator. 



430 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 




FIG. 309. THE SMITH MOTOR. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



COMBINED KEROSENE OIL ENGINE AND AIR COMPRESSOR. 



431 



In Fig. 310, we illustrate a novelty in an air compressor 
operated by kerosene oil. 

The application of the explosive motor to the compres- 
sion of air for all purposes is of recent date, and will eventu- 




FIG. 310. THE MERRILL KEROSENE OIL MOTOR 
AND AIR COMPRESSOR. 

ally become of great importance as an easily installed and 
economical method of obtaining compressed air for raising 
water by the Merrill system, but also to furnish air under 
pressure for any purpose. 

The engine is of the vertical four-cycle compression type, 



43 2 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

having an isolated retort at the side of cylinder, wherein 
vaporization and ignition are automatically effected, with- 
out the aid of electric batteries, igniters, or hot tubes. 

Kerosene is contained in the base of engine and is sup- 
plied by a pump to an induction valve on top of retort, 
having an induction tube leading therefrom to the bottom 
of retort, through which the kerosene is admitted at the 
proper time. 

During the first, or intake stroke of piston, air only is drawn 
into the cylinder, and kerosene into bottom of retort, 
wherein it is immediately vaporized. The retort is so pro- 
portioned that the kerosene vapor will not more than fill 
the same under any condition, thereby preventing the vapor 
from passing into the cylinder and condensing against the 
water-jacketed walls, which would cause great waste and 
serious fouling. 

Upon the return, or compression stroke, the air in cylin- 
der is forced into the vapor in retort, producing a combusti- 
ble mixture which very readily ignites from the heated 
walls of retort, as soon as the piston ends the compression 
stroke. 

The volume of air in the. cylinder is always considerably 
in excess of that required by the vapor in the retort to 
form a combustible mixture ; perfect combustion and econ- 
omy in fuel consumption is thus obtained. 

The kerosene is supplied to the retort against no pres- 
sure, but is largely assisted by the suction of piston, thereby 
relieving the pump of excessive duty. The pump is oper- 
ated by a variable eccentric disc controlled by a fly-wheel 
governor, which mechanism supplies the kerosene in direct 
proportion to the load. 

The governor also insures a positive delivery of kerosene. 
If the pump fails to deliver a proper quantity, the resulting 



MISCELLANEOUS. 433 

decrease of power and speed is immediately accompanied 
by the action of governor, which increases the stroke of 
pump, making up the deficiency and instantly effecting the 
recovery to normal speed. This result would not be obtain- 
able if the pump had a fixed stroke. 

By this arrangement no adjustments of the air or kero- 
sene supply (which might be improperly handled by 
unskilled persons) are required. 

The successive combustion of variable charges within 
the retort at the proper time, tends to keep the retort more 
uniformly heated, than if the charges were occasionally 
omitted ; the speed of the engine is also more regular. 

In fact, the regulation and the variable pressure effect 
within the cylinder of this engine is analogous to the opera- 
tion of an automatic cut-off steam engine. 

Special kerosene engine air compressor and generator 
units of direct connected types will be built, by which the 
owner of a country place can light his residence, supply it 
with water, and charge his electric automobile or launch. 

The air compressor combination may also be used by 
manufacturers or at central stations for inflating automobile 
tires. 

For automobiles and launches, multiple cylinder engines 
of modified designs to meet existing conditions will be built, 
together with a full line of pneumatic pumping machinery, 
by the Merrill Pneumatic Pump Co., 141 Broadway, New 
York. 

DROP FORCINGS FOR THE AUTO -BUILDER. 

It pleases us to become a class of clearing-house for the 
introduction of automobile parts. When these parts have 
particular merit, are the product of careful designers and 
practiced manufacturing methods, we may claim for them 
more than common attention. 



434 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

Iron your .vehicle for safety and wear first ; then evolve 
graceful form combinations. We picture steering front 
axle parts, drop forged from stiff, strong steel. Both the 
pivot arm and yoked bed embody artistic outline, are forged 
to require the minimum of machine finishing, and must find 
favor among builders of first-class horseless carriages, etc. 




FIG. 311. THE ARM, JOINT AND AXLE. 




FIG. 312. THE Y AND AXLE BAR. 

Valve stem and connecting rod end forgings will interest 
the auto-engine builder. J. H. Williams & Co., Brooklyn, 
N. Y., are about to issue a catalogue describing these, with 
steering axle, crank shaft, and other stock drop forgings. 
The entire book will be interesting. The endeavor to excel 
has so marked the efforts of this well established concern 
that scant opportunity to further commend is created. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 435 

CONTINUOUS CURRENT VOLT-AMMETER 

For Testing Storage and Primary Batteries. 

To keep a storage battery in good condition and to pre- 
vent break-downs as well as expensive repairs, each cell 
should be tested from time to time by a low reading volt- 
meter capable of indicating tenths of volts. 

In this way, cells which are not in good condition can be 
detected by their voltage being lower than the others, and 
attended to at once, before the trouble has become so serious 
as to necessitate expensive repairs. 

The users of gasoline vehicles with sparking devices 
operated by storage batteries, will also find 
a low reading volt-meter invaluable, as 
such an instrument will indicate the fall 
in the voltage which occurs as the battery 
approaches exhaustion. 

This will enable one to tell when the 
battery should be re-charged. 

When a sparking device is operated by 
a primary battery, tests with a low reading 
volt and ammeter will enable weak cells FlG - 3* 3- TEST- 
to be detected and replaced. ING VOI < T - AM - 

METER. 

This instrument has three scales, read- 
ing as follows : from o to 3 volts in tenths, o to 30 volts in 
units, and o to 10 amperes in fourths. Thus the readings of 
three instruments are combined in one, adapting it perfectly 
to battery testing. 

The division of the 3-volt scale are tenths of a volt, mak- 
ing the instrument applicable to testing storage batteries. 

The different readings are obtained by inserting a plug in 
the proper one of three marked holes in the end of the 
instrument. In this way the various readings are easily 



POCKET ;, 
VOLT-AMMET^E 

L.M.PIGNOLET. 

M'.F'R. 




436 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

and quickly made, as no connections have to be altered at 
the binding posts. 

These volt-ammeters are of the permanent magnet type, 
and have a high electrical resistance. Louis M. Pignolet, 
manufacturer, 78 Cortlandt Street, New York. 

TEMPERED COPPER CASTINGS. 

For electrical work, the want of perfectly pure copper 
castings is much felt, and many inquiries have been made as 
to where pure copper and copper tempered with a small 
percentage of alloy or with phosphorous to an amount that 
will make it the best metal for electrical conductivity, and 
yet hard enough for the commutators of dynamos and elec- 
tric motors, can be obtained. 

Phosphor-copper and phosphor-copper alloys are largely 
coming into use for antifriction purposes, and for special 
parts in electrical work, where ductility, conductivity, 
and hardness are required, and can now be readily 
obtained. 

There are two or three well-known old-established firms 
in this country now manufacturing copper castings, which, 
upon being analyzed, show themselves purer than commer- 
cial pig copper, as they subject the copper to a special refin- 
ing process before it is cast. 

These firms furnish tempered copper castings absolutely 
free from blowholes, and their castings upon examination 
are found to be stronger and tougher than ordinary pig 
copper, the crystals showing a harmonious union and 
entirely alike. They can be forged at certain heats and are 
very serviceable for antifriction purposes. 

Tempered copper castings are manufactured by E. A. 
Williams & Son, 105 Plymouth Street, Jersey City, N. J. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 437 

AN AUTO-CYCLE CHEMICAL ENGINE. 

The growth of invention of apparatus for "coping" with 
fire goes steadily on. With it has come the invention of the 
Dolfini Auto-Cycle Chemical Fire Engine. 

In its construction it is made to resemble a double tan- 
dem bicycle, thus having four wheels and saddles for four 
riders ; the application of each rider's propelling power is 
so placed that it makes such propulsion far easier than 
riding an ordinary bicycle ; the inventor also places a 
motor on the -engine which drives it at the maximum 
speed of 30 miles an hour, or on an average of 20 miles 
in the same time. The inventor in the construction of this 
motor has aimed at perfection and has used nothing but 
the highest 'grade of workmanship, regardless of expense; 
he has used the best carbon steel forgings, special iron 
and best quality of phosphor-bronze being used. It has 
simplicity, cleanliness and is almost noiseless in operation, 
while starting and regulating is easy and reliable. The 
electric ignition is perfect. The exhaust is carried off 
without odor ; no flame is used, and the motor can be 
started instantly. So if the men fail, the motor can be 
depended upon. This harmonious combination of the two 
best known inventions of this present time, viz. : the bicycle 
and the automobile, was given the name Auto-Cycle Chemi- 
cal Engine. The tank contains two substances, namely, 
an acid and sodium carbonate in water, which when 
brought into intimate mixture develop a gas called 
carbon dioxide, in the presence of which combustion is 
impossible. The pressure is developed by the gas and the 
solution is sent with great force to the desired location of 
the fire. 

They are built by A. W. Dolfini & Co., 332 Classon 
Avenue, Brooklyn. 



43 8 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



UPTON TRANSMISSION GEAR. 



This transmission is especially designed to meet the 
requirements for connecting- the engine (gasoline or steam) 
to the rear axle of the carriage, and while very neat and 
compact in form, is mechanically correct, giving a strong 
and efficient gearing that will positively do the work with 
very little appreciable wear. It is illustrated in Fig. 314. 

From its external appearance it will be readily noted that 
the inner mechanism consists of a train or trains of spur 
gearing, and this in fact, is the case. 




FIG. 314. TRANSMISSION GEAR FOR AUTOMOBILES. 

In the operation three band brakes and a friction clutch 
perform the different functions. By compressing the brake 
on the middle ring, the slow speed ahead is obtained. 
Throwing in the clutch at the right gives the fast speed. 
A brake applied to the single disk furnishes an emergency 
brake, should the ordinary brake fail to operate. A reverse 
movement to the sprocket is obtained by applying a brake 
to the left hand disk. 

The positive performance of its different movements is, 
with this gearing, the object sought and obtained. 

This transmission gear is made by the Upton Machine 
Co., No. 17 State Street, New York. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 439 

A MOISTURE-PROOF VENEER FOR VEHICLE BODIES. 

Nothing adds so much to the finish and accepted appear- 
ance of a park carriage, a phaeton, or Victoria, as the appli- 
cation of natural wood surface to the panels or the dash- 
board, or of any part in which the wood grain can be 
developed with artistic effect. Heretofore veneering has 
not been successful because moisture from exposure and 
washing soon deteriorated and separated it from its backing. 
The difficulty has been obviated in a method of backing 
veneers of all the fancy woods by a special waterproof glue 
that resists the action of the weather and of washing pro- 
cesses, and brings veneered work to the front for ornament- 
ing our finest carriages and automobile vehicles. This new 
phase in carriage building has been brought out by The 
Seguine-Axford Veneer Co., Jersey City, N. J., to whom we 
advise builders of automobiles to address for full informa- 
tion. The same company also manufactures automobile 
bodies to order. 

THE BALL BEARING QUESTION. 

In Fig. 315 we illustrate a ball bearing steering knuckle, 
and in Fig. 316 a wire wheel hub on the Baker ball bearing 
axle, with the steering knuckle also with ball bearings. 

Manufactured by the United States Ball Bearing Co., 
Townsend Building, Broadway and Twenty-fifth Street, 
New York City. 

In this age of horseless vehicles the question of ball bear- 
ings is one of great value, not only to the builders, but to* 
the users of such vehicles. 

No one doubts the value of a properly made and con- 
structed ball bearing axle. Everybody recognizes that ball 
bearings greatly reduce the friction; greatly relieve one 
who owns or operates vehicles of much annoyance and trou- 



440 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

ble; they greatly relieve horses from excessive draught; 
greatly curtail the expense of vehicles if propelled by either 
electricity, gasoline, or steam ; greatly add to the riding 
comforts of a vehicle, and prolong the life of the same. It 
has remained, and to a certain extent still remains, for those 
who have gone into the question for the purpose and with 
the determination of learning just how a ball bearing axle 
should be made, and to ascertain what are the best mechani- 
cal principles upon which the same should be constructed in 
order to give to it antifriction qualities, durability, and sim- 




FIG. 315. KNUCKLE JOINT AND AXLE. 

plicity, to demonstrate that ball bearing axles are not only 
as practical on wagons designed and built for heavy weights 
as on vehicles for light weights, but productive of much 
greater results. 

A ball bearing axle in which the cones and races are not 
ground and in which the balls are not absolutely uniform in 
roundness cannot be properly called an antifriction bearing. 
To be antifriction, these parts must be so smooth as to pro- 
duce the least possible resistance. Grinding is the only pro- 
cess by which such surfaces can be obtained. 

Ball bearing axles which have hollow or grooved cones 



MISCELLANEOUS. 44 1 

and hollow or grooved races (sometimes called ball cups) 
are much more objectionable than many imagine. Grooved 
cones and cups have a construction which prevents perfect 
rolling with the balls ; the balls slip or slide over such 
grooved surfaces and the result is sliding friction. One 
would scarcely believe that there is so much less friction in 
a ball bearing with straight, slanting cones and right-angled 
races, or what is termed a three-point bearing, than there is 
in a ball bearing with grooved cones and cups. 

With the balls confined upon straight slanting cones and 
in cups whose walls are at right angles to each other, the 




FIG. 316. WHEEL HUB AND KNUCKLE. 

balls touch at three points, each point being equidistant 
from the axis of the balls. In the three-point bearing the 
balls revolve at all times with the greatest facility, and slid- 
ing friction is eliminated. 

It seems apparent that there is a great deal more friction 
in roller bearings and round grooved and annular grooved 
ball bearings than there is in a three-point ball bearing 
with straight slanting cones and cups with right angle 
walls. 

Friction is a force which tells in mechanisms as well as in 
the economies of business. The object of any antifriction 
axle is to eliminate this friction as far as it is possible, and 



44 2 HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 

one which fails to do this, whether it be ball or roller bear- 
ing, cannot properly be styled an antifriction bearing. 

Men, when they use horses while the horse should be 
considered just as much, if not more, than the mere question 
of dollars and cents do not think or realize how much it is 
costing them to operate a vehicle without a properly con- 
structed and made antifriction axle. But when they substi- 
tute either gasoline, electricity, or steam power for the 
horse, and they have to pay for every bit of power used 
to propel the vehicle, they will soon take notice of the 
force of friction in connection with their vehicle. When a 
man realizes that it is going to cost him more to propel 
his vehicle which has plain, ordinary axles, or an improp- 
erly constructed ball bearing or roller bearing axle, than 
it will if it had a properly constructed ball bearing axle, 
he is not going to hesitate as to which one of the vehicles 
he purchases. 



Chapter XVIII. 

LIST OF THE UNITED STATES PATENTS ON 
AUTOMOBILES AND RUNNING GEAR. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

PATENTS 
Issued in the United States on Automobiles and Running Gear. 



1856 

Bradley, G., Driving Gear 16,044 

Robingson, J., Steering Gear 15,820 

-1859- 

Bailey, J. H., Vehicle Gear 26,466 

- 1860 

I^ong, R. H., Steam Vehicle 26,911 

-1861 

Fisher, J. K., Steam Vehicle 32,991 

1864 

Leky R. H., Motor Vehicle 42,203 

1867 

Hake, I, H., Motor Vehicle 62,264 

- 1870 

Sabin, I. A , Steam Vehicle 104,888 

1871 - 

Craig, T., Motor Wheel "5,786 

McKinley, J. B., Motor Vehicle 111,761 

1872 - 

Coe, I,. W., Elec. Vehicle 123,809 

~ 1873 - 

Ball, D. H., Traction Engine I 3,997 

- 1874 - 

Cowles, E. P., Steering Gear 154,846 

Steel-Austin, Running Gear 157,884 

- 1875 - 

Milliken, W. H., Motor Vehicle 163,681 

- 1876 

L,auck, J. M., Steam Vehicle., 183, 177 

Stickney, A. B., Motor Wagon 178,809 



-1877 

Cornish, B. F., Road Engine 191,407 

Carr, J. C., Road Engine 195,702 

Monnot, C. B., Motor Wheel 197,485 

Snyder, G. T., Road Engine 197,423 

Wade, J. W., Steam Wagon 189,977 

- 1878 - 

Hicks, B. C., Road Engine 206,176 

Hussey, W. Iy.. Road Engine 207,524 

- 1879 - 

Harris, O. C., Steam Wagon 222,352 

- I880 

Clardy, J. W., Steam Wagon 227,096 



.270,186 
.281,859 
282,299 
.281,091 
.285,942 
.282,022 



1881 

Elfers, A. H., Steam Wagon 244,117 

- 1883 - 

Finney, J. R., Elec. Vehicle 

Fox, E., Elec. Vehicle , 

Freeman, I. S , Steam Vehicle.. . . 

Long, G. A., Steam Tricycle , 

Woolsey, J. S., Steam Vehicle 

Young, F. E., Motor Tricycle 

- 1884 - 

Troy, D. S., Pneumatic Vehicle.., 

- 1885 - 

Troy, D. S., Exp. Motor Tricycle. 

1886 

Rogers, N., Motor Vehicle , 

Russell, Iv. E-, Motor Vehicle 

Self, W. R , Steam Vehicle 

Worrell, S. E., Steam Vehicle 

1887 

Ballard, J. H., Steam Vehicle 365,788 

Field, S. D., Electric Vehicle 375,346 

Tasker, S. P. M , Pneumatic Vehicle. .364,450 



.300,290 
317,895 



350,017 
.341,858 
345,327 
.346,974 



446 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



1888 

Benz, C., Motor Vehicle 



Daimler, G., Motor Vehicle 376,638 

Faure, C. A., Elec. Vehicle 383,561 

Knight, W. H., Elec. Vehicle -j 

Stevens, W. I,., Elec. Vehicle 394,734 

1889 

(-406,833 
Griscom, W. W., Elec. Vehicle j 408,231 

Uo8,232 

Griscom, W. W., Vehicle Motor 408,233 

Huntington, F. A., Motor Vehicle 411,196 

Main, W., Motor Vehicle. . . . . \ 4 7 ' 95 

I 407,093 

Peckham, E., Vehicle Gear 417,938 

Perry, W. P., Elec. Velocipede 415,790 

Potter, J., Vehicle Motor 408,430 

Smith, H. B., Steam Tricycle 398,548 



Adair, J., Elec. Vehicle 421,887 

Grant, A. W., Vehicle Gear 429,681 

Henderson, J. W., Elec. Vehicle 432,237 

f 418,893 

424,207 

I 425,076 

Hunter, R. M., Elec. Vehicle 432,136 

434,148 
441,305 
441,565 

Ingraham, Elec. Vehicle 428,917 

Jasper, W., Elec. Tricycle 426,384 

I^ibbey, M. A., Motor Vehicle 438,010 

Marshall, A. C., Steam Vehicle 438,168 

Mather, A. C., Vehicle Motor 442,985 

Overman, E. V., Vehicle Gear 420,606 

Possons, N. S., Elec. Vehicle 434,949 

Quinn, J. W., Motor Vehicle 431,993 

Sperry, E. E., Speed Gear {434^8 

Wynne, F., Elec. Vehicle 419,094 

1891 - 

Dewey, M. W., Elec. Vehicle...., 
I,ibby, M. A., Vehicle Gear 



(-464,246 

-1464,248 

447,6i6 



1892 

Gardner, F., Elec. Vehicle . .473,871 

Saurbrey, G. G., Steam Vehicle 488,224 

- 1893 - 

Ames, A. C., Vehicle Gear 500,544 

Harris, W. T., Vehicle Motor 495,733 

lyUhrig, C., Motor Vehicle 502,443 

May bach, W., Motor Vehicle 494,641 



Richmond, J. M., Steam Vehicle 495,709 

Thorp, T. J., Motor Vehicle 495,53* 

- 1894 - 

Farrell, W. P., Motor Vehicle 513,773 

Rand, A. C., Pneumatic Vehicle 530,550 

Rodgers, J. H., Elec. Vehicle 512,327 

1895 - 

Baker-Elberg, Elec. Vehicle 532,016 

Best, A. W. J., Motor Vehicle 538,763 

Clark, J. B., Elec. Vehicle 537,673 

Duryea, C. E., Motor Vehicle 540,648 

Morris-Salom, Elec. Vehicle 541,001 

Sheldon, H. F., Vehicle Gear 532,596 

Tower, C A., Vehicle Motor 535,605 

Twombly, W. I., Vehicle Motor 542,319 

- 1896 

Barrows, C. H , Motor Vehicle 

Capitaine, E., Motor Vehicle 

Cook, J. M., Motor Vehicle 

De Dion-Bouton, Driving Gear 

Delahunt, C., Motor Vehicle 

Duryea, J. F., Motor Vehicle 

Ellis-Stewart, Motor Gear 

Goddard, C. J., Vehicle Motor 

Grant, W. W., Motor Vehicle 

1 

Kennedy, A. H., Motor Vehicle 

Kulage, J. J., Motor Vehicle 

ganger, G., Motor Vehicle 

Mishel, M., Motor Vehicle 



Haviland, F. W., Driving Gear. 



Plass, R. H., Motor Vehicle. 



Pennington, E. J.. Motor Vehicle.. . . < 

Prouty, E., Speed Gear 

- 1897 ~ 

Baker, H. C., Motor Vehicle 

Barrows, C. H., Elec. Vehicle 

Bird, H. R., Motor Vehicle 

Bolide, Motor Vehicle .. 

Brown, I,., Motor Vehicle 

Butler, W. A., Elec. Vehicle 

Clapp, H. W., Motor Vehicle 

Cross, E. D., Motor Vehicle 

De Dion-Bouton, Diff. Gear , 

Duryea, J. F., Exp. Motor Vehicle 

Duryea, J. F., Speed Gear 

Duryea, C. E., Motor Vehicle 

Dutton, E. K., Speed Gear 

Elston, R. W., Motor Vehicle , 

Evered, J. E., Motor Cycle 

Flucks, P., Motor Vehicle 



567,445 
572,498 
569,1/5 
562,289 
568,431 
572,051 
570,203 
574,200 
552,757 
570,396 
570,395 
561,997 
573,334 
573,oio 
569,343 
571,392 
570,952 
571,447 
570,440 
570,441 
574.262 
570,501 



583,018 
592,682 
582,251 
584,666 
577,716 
574,388 
577,185 
577,572 
588,856 

585,159 
586,084 
588,103 
587,714 
576,517 
576,439 
,589,710 



PATENTS. 



447 



Foye, G. W., Vehicle Motor 575,639 

Gibbons, R.J., Motor Vehicle 581,816 

Grant, A. W., Roller Bearings.. 583,050 

Grenlich, G. H., Motor Vehicle 591,398 

Gruber, F, Vehicle Motor 578,329 

Hertel, M. E., Motor Vehicle 583,749 

Kenna, T. M., Trolley Truck 587,738 

X,anger, G., Motor Vehicle 589,001 

L,efroy, F. H., Change Gear. ... 584,377 

L,ibbey, H. W , Steam Bicycle 583,809 

Maxim, H. P., Elec. Motor Vehicle 594,805 

Meuman, H. G., Motor Vehicle 589,531 

Morris-Salom, Elec. Vehicle. . . 

1 579,89<> 

Mueller, H., Motor Vehicle 582,530 

Mueller, H., Motor Cycle 583,500 

Peck, B. I,., Motor Vehicle 595,203 

Pennington, E. J., Motor Bicycle 574,818 

Plass, R. H., Motor Vehicle 583,154 

Praullette-Catois, Motor Vehicle 584,127 

Riib, I,., Motor Cycle 576,158 

Spaulding, H. C., Motor Vehicle... .... 596,281 

Stewart, R. F., Speed Gear 554,3*9 

Stock, G. M., Vehicle Motor 584,169 

Trotter, J. M., Vehicle Motor 592,674 

Woods, C. E., Elec. Vehicle 585,371 

1898 - 

Altham, G. J., Steering Gear 614,781 

Bird, H. R., Motor Vehicle.. ... 605,243 

Bollee, I,., Motor Vehicle 601,545 

Brightmore, A. W., Steering Gear. ...609,955 

Capewell, G. J., Vehicle Gear 612,822 

Clarke, I,. S., Motor Vehicle 602,283 

Clark-Morgan-Gordon, M. Tricycle. .. .602, 283 

Clough, J., Speed Gear 615,430 

Clubbe-Southey, Steering Gear 612,01 7 

Crowdus, W. A., Motor Vehicle 598,314 

Duryea, J. F., Expl. Motor. 605,815 

Eisenhuth, J. W., Motor Vehicle 612,026 

Gaertner, R., Motor Gear 610,177 

Gerard, L,. i,. H., Speed Gear 610,178 

Gillinger, J. J., Traction Wheel 615,157 

Grant, W. W., Vehicle Gear 602,621 

Haynes-Apperson, Motor Vehicle 607,116 

Hildebrandt, C. T., Vehicle Gear 604,754 

Hildebrandt, C. T., Motor Vehicle 613,272 

Hill, G. H., Motor Vehicle 601,205 

Holmes, B., Motor Vehicle 601,440 

Johnson, C. M., Motor Vehicle 609,811 

Knudson, K., Vehicle Frame 611,258 

Knudson, K., Elec. Vehicle 613,420 

Krieger, I,., Elec. Vehicle 607,997 

I,arue, C., Driving Gear . . 607,443 

I<ewis, G. W., Motor Vehicle 604,237 

I^ewis, G. W., Vehicle Motor j fe 4 ' 33 ^ 

I,indsay, T. J., Motor Vehicle .612,360 

lyufbery, C. E., Speed Gear ... 601,731 



Millot, J., Motor Gear .................. 615,360 

Millot, J., Speed Gear ................. 615,360 

Morris, H. G., Elec. Vehicle ............ 603,198 

Pender, J., Motor Vehicle ...... ....... 601,274 

Pickering, W. H., Motor Vehicle ....... 603,047 

Pretot, V. E-, Exp. Motor Vehicle ...... 610,460 

Reichel, E. B. W , Vehicle Gear ....... 613,018 

Reuter, J. C., Motor Vehicle ............ 612,506 

Kiker, A. I,., Elec. Motor ....... ...... 604,842 

Smith, H., Motor Vehicle ............... 616,267 

Smith, M. H., Steering Handle ......... 610,871 

Southey, A. W., Steering Gear ......... 613,399 

Sperry, E. A., Motor Vehicle ........... 616,153 

Sydenham, W., Vehicle Gear .......... 606,311 

Twitchell, W. E., Motor Vehicle ........ 610,503 

Wattles, 1^. B., Motor Cycle ........... 597,042 

Whitney, G. E., Expl. Motor ........... 601,218 

f 600,819 
Winton, A., Expl. Motor .............. ) 598,832 

(610,465 
Winton, A., Motor Vehicle ............. 610,466 

Worth, W. O., Motor Vehicle ........... 607,318 

- 1899 - 

Almond, T. R., Burner ................ 639,490 

Anderson, B. C. J., Carbureter .......... 637,062 

Anderson, J. C., Vehicle Wheel ........ 637,691 

Ayers, S. A., Carbureter ................ 632,509 

Barr, W. C., Motor Vehicle ............. 618,244 

Benier, 1^., Motor Vehicle .......... _____ 618,637 

{627,383 
1627,382 

Brewer, W. J., Motor Vehicle ........... 621,483 

Brown, I,., Steering Gear. ............. 626,483 

Burger, F., Brake ............. ....... 624,451 

Burger, F., Exp. Motor ................. 632,913 

Camp, T.I,., Fifth Wheel .............. 623,651 

Canda, F. E., Carbureter .............. 635,298 

Canellopoulos, J., Steering Gear ........ 635,654 

Carmont, W. E., Resilient Hub ......... 635,231 

Casgrain, H. E., Carbureter ........... 633,800 

Chauveau, G. V. I,., Motor Vehicle ..... 627,842 

Conti, J. F. T., Motor Fore Carriage ____ 629,064 

Cook, W., Trans. Gear .................. 626,967 

Craig, J., Jr., Speed Gear ........... 633,687 

Daly, R. F., Diff. Gear ................ 624,186 

Des Granges, J. C., Speed Gear ........ 637,202 

Dion-Bouton, Vehicle Motor ............ 617,984 

Dissosway, C. M. Motor Vehicle ....... 633,283 

Draullette-Catois, Speed Gear ......... 633,234 

Dyer, F. Iy., Motor Vehicle ............. 639,541 

Eastman, H. P., Vehicle Frame ........ 630,976 

Eisenhuth, J. W., Expl. Motor.. . . , . . | 6 . 2 ' 431 

1 620,554 

Eisenhuth, J. W., Running Gear ....... 631,627 

Eisenhuth, J. W., Speed Gear .......... 617,647 

Entz, T. B., Elec. Vehicle 
Fessard, E., Expl. Motor 



Birrell, G. B.. Vehicle Gear. 



' 636,964 
639,160 



448 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



Field, T. C ., Speed Gear 639,548 

Forbes, J. N , Motor Vehicle 624,319 

Gibbs, W. E., Clutch 634,292 

Glazier, J. I,., Motor Vehicle 617,332 

Grant, W. W., Motor Vehicle 638,331 

Guiiderson, G. J., Fric. Clutch .635,477 

Hampson, F. G., Speed Gear 624,017 

Hart, H. C M Motor Vehicle 623,149 

Hertel, M. E., Motor Valve 639,385 

Herschman, A., Fric. Clutch 635,684 

Heyman, F. W., Vehicle Frame 630,054 

Hirsch, F. C., Motor Vehicle 639,237 

Humphrey, J. D., Motor Vehicle 627,503 

Hunter, R. M., Elec. Vehicle 



Inman, E. R., Carbureter 

Jamieson, R. W., Running Gear 

Joel, H. F., Vehicle Frame 

Kempshall, E-, Tire 

Knudsen, K., Elec. Vehicle (reissue) 
Korsmeyer, E. H., Expl. Motor . . . 
Korsmeyer, E. H., Motor Vehicle. . . 
Krieger, I,., Elec. Wiring (reissue) . 

Krieger, I,., Motor Vehicle 

Krotz, A. S., Motor Vehicle 

Lawson, H. J., Motor Vehicle 

L,eitner, H., Elec. Controller 



I^ewis, G. W., Expl. Motor 



j 633,319 
' 633,320 
- 636,999 
...625,772 
...639,399 
... 11,724 
.. 636,049 
...636,948 
... 11,780 
-633,763 
...621,684 
. . .633,014 
...632,874 

Iewis, T. C., Carbureter 633,287 

I,ucas, R., Speed Gear 639,256 

McAneely, M. F., Motor Vehicle 620,166 

McDougall, W. M., Elec. Vehicle 627,123 

Mclnerney, B., Elec. Igniter ,638,933 

Mathieu, I,., Speed Gear 635, 171 

Maxim, H. P., Exp. Motor 620,602 

Maxim- Pope-Alden, Gear 621,532 

Metz, C. H., Diff. Gear 624,519 

Newman, C. E., Motor Vehicle 630,032 

Newman, W. H., Speed Gear 637,477 

Norris, A. E., Driving Gear 638,184 

O'Donnell, M. J., Motor Vehicle 637,015 

Ogden, J. W., Motor Vehicle 637,750 

Olds, R. E., Elec. Igniter 635,506 

Paget, A. , Motor Vehicle 627, 201 

Parks, A. F., Exp. Motor 639,686 

Patin, O., Elec. Vehicle 623,820 

Pender, J., Motor Vehicle 637,658 

Pennington, E. J-, Motor Bicycle -j 6 L' 29 

Pennington, E. J., Steering Gear 626,296 

Pennington, E. J., Motor Vehicle 627,523 

Pettee-McCutchan, Comp. Air Motor. .638,660 
Phelps, L,. J., Motor Vehicle 629,521 

f 631, 438 



Smith, H., Exp. Motor 



Plass, R. H., Motor Vehicle. 



, 631,437 
1 634,067 



Pocock, F. A., Motor Vehicle 623,383 

Pond, S. N., Expl. Motor 633,484 

Raders, J. F., Motor Bicycle 626,440 

Reed, G. F., Motor Vehicle 637,665 

Reichel, E. B. W., Elec. Controller 624,250 

Revel, Iy. Iy., Vehicle Motor 625,416 

Riker, A. I,., Elec. Vehicle 620,968 

Riker, A. I,., Elec. Motor Vehicle 623,037 

Riotte, C. C., Vaporizer 633,274 

Roby, G. I,., Motor Vehicle 619,505 

Roe- Knight, Speed Gear .625,808 

Sangster, C. T. B., Motor Tricycle 632,474 

Schellenbach, W. !,. Speed Gear 638,359 

Schneider, F. W., Elec. Vehicle 617,192 

Schnepf, J., Bicycle Motor 627,066 

Schultze, W. C., Motor Vehicle 635,603 

Schuyler, W. S,, Motor Vehicle .624,689 

Secor, J. A., Regulator Expl. Eng 623,567 

Sedgwick, I., Traction Engine 621,158 

Serpollet, I,., Expl. Motor 636,926 

Short, S. H., Elec. Motor Controller.. | 629 ' 398 

(.629,399 

Sieg, G. E., Driving Gear 638,816 

Simms, F. R., Expl. Motor 617,660 

r 632, 763 
"1632,762 
Stnyser, I. B., Speed Gear 617,819 

Sperry, E. A., Elec. Controller i? 5 '? 6 

(-635815 

Steele, H. B , Motor Bicycle. '. . .627,359 

vSterling, C , Motor Vehicle 618,915 

Stewart, A. C., Motor Vehicle 633,666 

Stoddard, E. J , Vehicle Motor. . . j 623 ' 224 

(.623,190 

Stommel, H., Motor Vehicle 626,735 

Strong, G. S., Clutch 631,831 

Strong, G. S., Hub Pivot Wheel 636,012 

Strong G. S., Sparking Device 637.302 

Strong, G. S., Expl. Motor 637,298 

Strong, G. S., Trans. Gear 637 297 

Strong, G. S., Running Gear 637.296 

Strong, G. S., Crank Shaft 637.300 

Strong, G. S., Vaporizer 637 299 

Struss, H. W., Speed Gear 621,436 

Stutzman, F., Traction Eng 622 729 

Stutzman, F., Reversing Gear / 3,4/o 

1 630,471 

Torbensen, V. V., Clutch Gear 632,8-6- 

Twitchell, W. E., Driving Gear 627,282 

Underwood, H. G., Steering Gear 634 514 

Van Hoevenbergh, H., Elec. Vehicle.. .628,967 

Walters, j. W,, Motor Wheel . . . . J f 24 ' 414 

1635.620 

Warren, J. H., Steering Gear 634,597 

Whitcomb, G. A.. Expl. Motor 634 654 

Winton A., Expl. Motor 617.978 

f 626,4 20 
Wintou, A., Expl. Mot. and Regul'or.x 626,121 

U 2 6,I22 



PATENTS. 



449 



Wintzel-Whitney, Running Gear 636.701 

Woods, C. E., Elec. Motor Vehicle 619,527 

Woods, C. E., Elec. Controller 620,628 

Wynne, W. R., Elec. Controller 631,917 

Wynne, W. R., Signal Apparatus 631,917 



IpOO 

Anderson, J. C., Wheel 

Baines, W., Vaporizer , 

Baines, W., Vehicle Gear 

Bink, A., Motor Vehicle 

Blackden, P. D., Brake 

Bleveney, J. C., Pr. Trans. . 

Brunler, O., Fuel Burners 



Bullard, J. H , Motor Gear. . . . 

Burrows, C. G., Controller.. 

Charon, I,., Oil Motor 

Cruntz, H. F., Elec. Indicator 

De Dion & Bouton, Fr. Clutch 

Drawbaugh, D., Spark Gener 

Duryea, J. F., Expl. Motor 

Dyer, I,. H., Gearing 

Eisner, H. J., Motor Vehicle 

Fahl, E., Motor Vehicle 

Finlay, R. H. & A. H., Gear 

Franz, H. A., Motor Vehicle 

Frith. A. J., Exp. Motor 

Godding, M. O., Burner 

Gray, E. F. Gearing 

Harris, C. R., Vehicle Body Design. . . 

Headech, E. T., Exp. Motor 

Heerrnaus, T. W., Pr. Trans 

Heggem, C. O., Motor Vehicle 

Hildebrandt, C. T., Gear 



642,777 
,644,027 
.640,522 
.644,843 
645,926 
643,627 
641,369 
641,368 
641,834 
643,865 
.645,458 
.640,753 

645,312 
.643,087 

646 399 
-643,505 
644,225 

.644,853 
.642.594 
.644,590 
.644,798 
.646,386 
641,204 

32,198 
.646,281 
.643,130 
.644,598 
.641,511 



Hunt, C. W., Vehicle Gear ............. 641,514 

Ingalls, A. T., Fuel Burner ............. 641,776 

Jones, I,., Igniter .................. 645,398 

Kope, W. A., Expl. Motor .............. 642,043 

Z,eitner, H., Accumulator ............. 645,478 

I^ewis, G. W., Expl. Motor ............. 640,393 

Macey, F. J., Expl. Motor .............. 643,513 

Malcomson, T., Expl. Motor ............ 642,143 

Martin, A. J., Motor Vehicle ............ 641,313 

Maxim, H. P., Elec. Indicator .......... 640,787 

Mongredien, C. A. A., Vehicle ......... 641,878 

New, A. G., Heavy Oil Motor ........ 642,871 

Osburn, H. E., Storage Battery ....... 644,144 

Otto, A. T., Expl. Motor ........... _____ 645 044 

Pearson,- W. E-, Vehicle Gear ....... 641,404 

Perkins, W. J., Elec. Igniter ..... . ..... 643,002 

Probert, H. F., Vaporizer ............. 642,562 

Schen, W., Vehicle .................... 645,272 

Schnoar, P. J. A., Gear. ................ 641,043 

Simms, F. R., Spark. Plug. . ........... 642 167 

Sintz, C., Expl. Motor .............. 646322 

Sperry, E. A., Elec. Vehicle.'. .......... 640,968 

Sperry, E. A., Motor Vehicle 



Sperry, E. A,, Motor Gear ............. 645,902 

Sperry, E. A., V Brake.. . . ............ 645,903 

Sperry, E. A., Wagon Gear ............ 646,081 

Stommel, H., Motor Vehicle ....... ... .645 497 

Thornton & I,ea, Expl. Motor .......... 644.951 

Thornton & I^ea, Vehicle ............. 644,950 

Underwood, W. H., Vehicle ............ 644,113 

Whitney, G. E., Motor Vehicle ........ 642,771 

Whitney-Howard, Steam Vehicle ...... 642,943 

Whittlesey, J. T., Elec. Motor .......... 643,854 

Worth, W. O., Vehicle Frame (design). 32,199 
Worth, W. O., Motor Vehicle ......... 645,378 



Chapter XIX. 

LIST OF MANUFACTURERS OF AUTOMOBILES 

IN THE UNITED STATES, WITH 

THEIR ADDRESSES. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

LIST OF AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURERS IN THE UNITED 
STATES, WITH THEIR ADDRESSES. 



California. 

J. C. Baker Oakland 

Oakland Iron Works Oakland 

Steffy Mfg. Co., 1313 Fourth St . San Diego 

A. D. Stealey, 450 Main St San Francisco 

The Best Mfg. Co San I^eandro 

Connecticut. 

H. A. House Bridgeport 

National Bicycle and Motor Co.Bridgeport 
Columbia Motor and Mfg. Co Hartford 
Columbia and Blec. Vehicle 

Co., i I^aurel St Hartford 

Director Wagon Co Hartford 

Seery Steatn Carriage Co Hartford 

Palmer Gasoline Engine Co Mianus 

Keating Wheel and Automo- 
bile Co Middletown 

Iy. J. Aubrey Carriage Co New Haven 

Denison Elec. Engineering Co., 

106 Park St New Haven 

Denison Motor Wagon Co New Haven 

Henry W. Clapp New Haven 

Hay and Hotchkiss Co New Haven 

Geometric Drill Co Westville 

Eddy Elec. Mfg. Co Windsor 

Delaware. 

American Elec. Mfg. & Power 

Co Dover 

Beacon Motor Traction Co Dover 

United States Vehicle Co Dover 

Illinois. 

American Elec. Vehicle Co., 

1545 Michigan Ave Chicago 

A W. King Chicago 

Arnold Schwimm & Co Chicago 

Bond C. Hico, Howard Ave., 

Englewood Chicago 

-Carlisle Mfg. Co., 69 Jackson St.Chicago 



Chicago Elec. Vehicle Co., 204 

Dearborn St Chicago 

Chicago Motor Vehicle Co., 345 

Wabash Ave Chicago 

Elgin Automobile Co., 325 Wa- 
bash Ave Chicago 

Hartford Power and Supply Co. .Chicago 
Hartley Power and Supply Co. . . Chicago 
Illinois Elec. Vehicle and Trans. 

Co., 1215 Monadnock Bldg ... Chicago 

G. W. X,ewis Chicago 

McMullen Mfg. Co., 70 W. Jack- 
son Boule Chicago 

Roe Motor Cycle Co Chicago 

Siemens and Halske Elec. Co. ..Chicago 
The Fisher Equipment Co., 2oth 

St. and Mich. Ave. Chicago 

Woods Motor Vehicle Co., 340 

Dearborn St Chicago 

H. Mueller Mfg. Co Decatur 

H. H. Brown Automobile Co. ...Elgin 

Duryea Motor Mfg. Co Peoria 

Peoria Rubber Mfg. Co Peoria 

Chester Gas Engine Co Sterling 

Indiana. 

Roach & Albaiius Co., u Clay St. Fort Wayne 

C. B. Black Mfg. Co ... Indianapolis 

Hearsey Horseless Vehicle Co. . Indianapolis 
Indianapolis Transfer Co., 215 N. 

Delaware St Indianapolis 

Indiana Bicycle Co Indianapolis 

Parry Mfg. Co Indianapolis 

Haynes-Apperson Co Kokomo 

Munson Electric Motor Co I,a Porte 

vStudebaker Bros South Bend 

Terre Haute Carriage and Buggy 

Co Terre Haute 

Iowa. 

Burg Wagon Co Burlington 



454 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



Kentucky. 

I,ouisville Carriage Co Louisville 

Louisville Motor Vehicle Co Louisville 

flaine. 

U. S. Motor Carriage Co Andover 

Hand & Harvey Lewistoii 

American Automobile Co Portland 

Belknap Motor Co Portland 

Maryland. 

Baltimore Auto. Mfg. Co Baltimore 

flassachusetts. 

Amesbury Auto. Co., 71 Elm St Amesbury 

Carriage Mach. Co., 87 Elm St Amesbury 

Altham International Motor Co. ..Boston 
American Rotary Engine Co., 113 

Devonshire St ... Boston 

Anderson Mfg. Co., 289 A St.. 

South Boston 

Cummings Auto. Co., 257 Washing- 
ton St Boston 

Back Bay Cycle and Motor Co., 121 

Mass. Ave . . Boston 

Bay State Auto, and Engine Co., 

7 Exchange Place Boston 

Beacon Motor Traction Co., 206 

Exchange Bldg Boston 

Colonial Auto. Co., 32 Hawley St. .Boston 
A. M. Cummings, 257 Washington 

St Boston 

Cunningham Engineering Co., 73 

Tremont St Boston 

Edw. S. Clark, 272 Freeport St .... Boston 

Equitable Auto. & Truck Co Boston 

Graham Equipment Co., 170 

Summer St Boston 

International Auto, and Vehicle 

Co Boston 

Liquid Air Power and Auto. Co., 

186 Devonshire St Boston 

W. T. McCullough Auto. Co., 121 

Mass. Ave Boston 

Motor and Carriage Co Boston 

New England Elec. Vehicle and 

Trans. Co., 53 State St Boston 

New England Motor Cycle Co Boston 

New Era Motor Co. . . . Boston 

Stanley Mfg. Co Boston 

Strathmore Auto. Co., Albion 

Bldg Boston 

The Turbine Motor and Car- 
riage Co., 7 Exchange Pi.. ..Boston 

Standard Motor Carriage Co Braintree 

Motor Carriage Co., 107 Main St. .Brockton 

Marsh Motor Carriage Co Brockton 

Haltzer-Cabot Elec. Co Brookline 

Pilgrim Motor Vehicle Co Cambridge 



Overman Wheel Co Chicopee Falls 

Crest Mfg. Co Dorchester 

Whitney Motor Wagon Co . . East Boston 
Leach Motor Vehicle Co., 210 

Broadway,... Everett 

Oakman Motor Co Greenfield 

Chas. R. Grenter, Columbia 

Stoker Works Holyoke 

Mass. Motor Vehicle Co Holyoke 

Holyoke Motor Works Co. . . . Holyoke 

Branwell-Robinson Co Hyde Park 

Stanley Mfg. Co Lawrence 

General Elec. Co Lynn 

Heyman Motor Vehicle Co. . . .Melrose 
American Motor Carriage Co., 

Glen Ave Newton Center 

F. E- Stanley. ... Newton 

Wm. G. Clark, 23 Chester St.. No. Cambridge 

G. A. Whitcomb Natick 

Grout Bros. Machine Co Orange 

Chapman & Sons Mfg. Co. . . . Staughton 
Pilgrim Motor and Vehicle Co.Somerville 

Duryea Mfg. Co Springfield 

Hilsdale Smith Springfield 

Fred. C. Wright & Co Springfield 

New England Motor Carriage 

Co Waltham 

Waltham Mfg. Co . Waltham 

Piper & Tinker Waltham 

American Wheelock En. Co. . .Worcester 
J. C. Wood, 3 School St Worcester 

flichigan. 

English Automobile Co Bentoii Harbor 

Dealers Vehicle Co Detroit 

Detroit Automobile Co Detroit 

Detroit Horseless Carriage Co. Detroit 

Fisher F.lec. Mfg. Co Detroit 

Hart & Co., Ltd Detroit 

Still Motor Co., 707 Chamber 

of Commerce ..Detroit 

Sintz Gas Engine Co Grand Rapids 

Wolverine Motor Works .... Grand Rapids 

Olds Motor Works Lansing 

Standard Novelty Co Port Huron 

A. H. Herring. . St. Joseph 

flissouri. 

Miss. Valley Auto. Trans. Co. East St. Louis 

W. J. Staples, 105 W. Main St..Marysville 

Erie Cycle and Motor Carriage 

Co St. Louis 

National Auto. Co., 714 Chest- 
nut St St. Louis 

National Motor Co., 1909 Lo- 
cust St St. Louis 

St. Louis Gasoline Motor Co., 

822 Clark Ave St. Louis 

Wagner Elec. Mfg. Co St. Louis 



LIST OF AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURERS. 



455 



Nebraska. Auto. Co. of America, 32 Broad- 
Omaha Gas Engine Works.. Omaha way... New York 

Omaha Gas Engine and Mo- Auto - Acetylene Co., 15 Park 

torCo Omaha Row New York 

Burr & Co New York 

New Jersey. Balzer. Motor Carriage Co., 370 

Atlantic Elec. Vehicle Co. . .Camden Girard Avenue New York 

Evans Pneumatic Motor Co., Columbia and Elec. Vehicle 

126 Market St Camden Co., 100 Broadway New York 

Gen'l Carriage Co., Care De ^ a Vergne Refrigerating 

Guarantee andTrust Co..Camdeii Co New York 

Tractor Truck and Auto. Co. Camden Denison Motor Wagon Co New York 

The Canda Mfg. Co Cartaret ^ lec - Vehicle Co., 1634 Broad- 

Riker Elec. Vehicle Co Elizabethport wa > T - New York 

Ascot Vehicle Co., i Mont- J. W. Eisenhuth, 40 Wall St....New York 

gomery St Jersey City G - Edgar Allen, 302 W. 53 d St. .New York 

Messerer Auto. Co., 15 Hasbrouck Motor Co., 20 Nas- 

Springfield Ave Newark sau St New York 

Smith Motor Co., 54 Morris Industrial Invest, and Develop. 

and Essex Railroad Ave.Newark Co., 1123 Broadway New York 

U. S. Standard Motor Vehi- International Power Co., , 253 

cle Co. , 22 Clinton St Newark Broadway New York 

The Voght Auto. Co., 105 International Motor Vehicle 

Plain St Newark Co., 2158 Broadway New York 

John C. Blednay, 132 Orange J udd Comisky Motor Vehicle 

St.. Newark Co., 1724 Broadway New York 

The Quick Mfg. Co Paterson I<ancamobile Co. of America, 1 1 

Union Transit Co., 30 Hamil- Broadway New York 

ton gt Paterson x Y - Elec. Vehicle Trans. Co. , 

Percy C.Ohl... . . Plainfield 1634 Broadway New York 

N. Y. Auto Truck Co., 253 

New York. Broadway & 541 Fifth Ave.. New York 

Binghamton Gas Engine Co Binghamton The General Power Co., 100 

Groef Motor Co Brooklyn William St New York 

Maltbey Auto. Co., 12 Clin- Pneumatic Carriage Co., 253 

ton St Brooklyn Broadway New York 

Krajeroski Peasant & Co., Strong Motor Co., 32 Broad- 
Erie Basin Iron Works . .Brooklyn way New York 

The Perrett Storage Bat. Co., The Fore Carriage Co., 25 W. 

Anhauser-Bnsch Bldg. . . Brooklyn 33d St New York 

W. G. Stolz, 736 Grand St.. .Brooklyn The Elec. Undertakings Co., 

Buffalo Spring and Gear Co., I,td., 52 Broadway New York 

1520 Niagara St Buffalo The Canda Mfg. Co., 11 Pine 

Kensington Bicycle Mfg. Co.Buffalo St. New York 

Natl. Motor Transit Co Buffalo U. S. Vehicle Co., 1123 Broad- 
Hunter Gun and Cycle Wks.Fulton way New York 

Geneva Wagon Co. . Geneva International Motor Wheel Co., 

Horseless Wagon Co Jamaica 302 W. 53d St New York 

Daimler Motor Co I<ong Island City Fredk. E. Wood & Son, 219 W. 

Harry Gosper Mumford igth St New York 

American Motor Co., 32 The Trenton Auto. Co., Eighth 

Broadway New York Ave. and 49th St New York 

Anglo-American Rapid Ve- The Safety Three Wheel and 

hide Co., 20 Broad St. . . New York Vehicle Co., 228 E- 6$d St. New York 

American I_iquid Air Co., i Geo. T. Hanchett, 123 liberty 

Broadway . . New York St New York 

Auto. Air Carriage Co New York I,. J. Wing, 97 liberty St New York 

American Electric Vehicle J. H. Lancaster Co., 97 liberty 

Co., 134 W. 38th St New York St New York 



456 



HORSELESS VEHICLES AND AUTOMOBILES. 



American Auto. Co., 35 and 

37 Nassau St New York 

Traffic Cycle Co., 944 Eighth 

Ave New York 

English Auto, and Motor 

Co. , 35 Broadway New York 

American Motor and Vehi- 
cle Co., 145 Broadway.... New York 

Niagara Auto. Co Niagara 

English Motor and Auto. 

Works Oakfield 

Rochester Elec. Motor Co. . . Rochester 
John B. West, 105 Meigs St.. Rochester 

Saul & Van Wagoner Syracuse 

John M. Walshe, Mgr., 117 

N. Warren St Syracuse 

Syracuse Auto. Co Syracuse 

C. E. Tower Syracuse 

E. C. Stearns & Co Syracuse 

Mobile Co. of America (180 

Times Bldg., N. Y.). .. Syracuse 

Ohio. 

The Diamond Rubber Tire 

Co Akron 

Bullock Elec. Co Cincinnati 

Chas. Eckert . ...Cincinnati 

Smith-Eggers Co., 6th and 

Sycamore Sts Cincinnati 

Auto. Carriage Supply Co., 

41 1 Euclid Ave Cleveland 

Cleveland Electric Co Cleveland 

Cleveland Auto. Co . . . .Cleveland 
Cleveland Machine Screw 

Co Cleveland 

Wm. G. Hoffman, 79 Bolivar 

St ..Cleveland 

Phrenix Motor Vehicle Co., 

172 E. Prospect St Cleveland 

Elmer A. Sperry Cleveland 

Twentieth Century Auto. Co.Cleveland 

Poste Bros. Buggy Co.. Columbus 

Reive-Thompson Motor Co.. Columbus 

Meeker Mfg. Co Dayton 

The Advance Mfg. Co., Vine 

and 4th Sts Hamilton 

I,orain Motor Carriage Co. . .lyorain 

Richland Buggy Co Mansfield 

M. Russell & Co Massillon 

John F. Byers Mch. Co Ravenna 

O. S. Kelly Springfield 

J y ozier & Co Toledo 



Geo. R. Burwell Toledo 

Toledo Steam and Air Motor 

Co Toledo 

Pennsylvania. 

Elec. Storage Battery Co., igth 

and Allegheny Ave Philadelphia 

General Elec. Auto. Co., Bourse 

Bldg Philadelphia 

I y ewis Motor Vehicle Co., Room 

439, Drexel Bldg Philadelphia 

Morris & Salem Philadelphia 

Amer. Elec. Mfg. and Power 

Co., 2oth and Wash. Ave Philadelphia 

Oakman Motor Vehicle Co., 

Broad and Chestnut Sts.. Philadelphia 

Penn. Elec. Vehicle and Trans. 

Co Philadelphia 

Philadelphia Motor Wagon Co .. Philadelphia 
Schwarz Auto, and Carriage Co., 

317 N. Broad St Philadelphia 

Standard Auto. Co., 1218 Betz 

Bldg Philadelphia 

Auto. Car Co Pittsburg 

Pitts burg Motor Vehicle Co. . . ..Pittsburg 

I y ancaster Motor Co Pittsburg 

Twy ford Vehicle Co Pittsburg 

U. S. Motor Co Pittsburg 

Seely Mfg. Co., 8 Beatty St Pittsburg 

The Collins Elec. Vehicle Co Scranton 

Rhode Island. 

Baldwin Auto. Co Providence 

R. I. Auto. Transit Co Providence 

R. I. Auto. Truck Co Providence 

Tennessee. 

Harding Mfg. Co Nashville 

Virginia. 

Columbia Motor Mfg. Co Alexandria 

Washington Auto. Co Alexandria 



West Virginia. 

Pioneer Iron Works, A. C. Os- 



born. Prop.. 



. Clarksburg 



Wisconsin. 

C. H. Seig Mfg. Co. Keuosha 

Milwaukee Auto. Mfg. Co Milwaukee 

Wisconsin Auto, and Mach. Co. .Milwaukee 



INDEX. 



Acetylene as a Motive Power 
Advantages of Different Powers. 

Air Power 

Alarm Bell 

Aluminum 

Ammeter 



PACK 

.. 19 

.. 22 
.. 383 
.. 418 

- 79 
.. 435 



Atomizers 133 to 140, 183 

Automatic Clutch . .. 143 

. Igniter 404 

Automobile Air Pumps 391 

Ambulance 303 

. Bicycle 175 

Cabs 295 

Charging Station 357 

t Chemical Fire Engine 437 

Contests 16,17, iS 

i Construction 27 

t Electric 27510361 

f Future 354 

In use 14 

Lamps 41 2 

Machine .Shop 423 

Manufacturers 453 

. Management 375~377 

> Numbers 13 

t Steam 8310112, 395 

Toy 360 

r Tricycles 189-193 

Quadricycle 213 

i "American" 319 

" Baldwin " 94 

"Bergman" 222 

"Clarke" 109 

"Clement" 224 

"Columbia" 310 

"Crest" 168 

" Duryea " 256-257 

" Fore Carriage " 194, 227 

i "Grout" 235 

i " Hasbrouck " 427 

"Hertel" 243 

"International" 227 

r " Jenatzy " 281 

" Jeantaud " .... ... 285 

"Krieger" 282 



PAGE 

Automobile " Lancaster " 399 

"Locomobile" ibi 

"Milwaukee" 97 

. "Mueller" 241 

"Patin" 286 

t " Pennington " 197 to 203 

' ' Petter " 220 

"Pi ttsbuvgh " 252 

. "Quick" 170 

"Riker" 328 

"Stanley" 101 

"Sintz" 238 

"rnderberg" 231 

' ' Victor '' 395 

t " Waver ly ".. 304 

"Winton" 247 

B 

Bacon, Roger 12 

Baldwin Steam Vehicle 94 

Ball Bearings 414, 439 

Ball Bearing Test 415 

Batteries, Electric 121 to 125 

Care of 350 

Primary 353 

t Storage 343 

Battery, Hydrometer 357 

Bearings, Roller 77, 78 

Bicycle Motors 175 to 178 

. Pumps 417 

Bell, The Ideal 418 

Boilers, Care of 67 

"Field" 47 

. Various 521063,110 

Brass and Copper Goods . . 420 

Brougham, Electric, details 292 

Burners 55, 59, 62 



Carbonic Acid Gas 19 

Carburetors .. 133 to 140 

Carriages, Gasoline Motor 219 to 271 

Carriage Lamp 359 

Carriage, Kerosene . 397 

Charging Station Connections 349 



458 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Chemical Fire Engine 437 

Clutch, Friction 149 

Compensating Gears, 

44, 45, 7 2 , 73, Mo. M4, M5, 34 2 

Compressed Air Power '. 383 

Controlling Gear 245 

Copper Castings 436 

Cylinder Cooling Device 162 



Differential Gears.. ..44, 45, 72, 73, 143, 144, 145 
Delivery Wagons, 

235, 250, 265, 298, 309, 326, 336 

Diagram of Battery Connections 294, 349 

Dray, Steam 98 

Driving Gear 246 

Drop Forgings., 433 

Dudgeon Steam Carriage 46 

Dynamo Sparker 1 26 



PAGB 

Gasoline Bicycles 175 to 188 

Controller 184 

t Motor, First 13 

Motors 157, 163, 226, 427, 431 

Gear Cutting Machines 421, 422 

Gear, Electric, Speed 288, 289 

Gear, Speed 161, 223, 242, 251, 438 

Good Roads Agitation 15 

Gordon Steam Carriage 37 

Curacy's . . 39 , 40 



H 



Hancock Steam Omnibus 41 

Hasbrouck Motor 428 

Historical 33 to 48 



Ignition Devices . 
Ignition Plug. . . . 



[26 to 130, 185, 404 
130 



Early Steam Carriages 34 to 43 

Eccentric Reversing Gear 71 

Electric Motor 25 

Ignition 12110130 

Motor Power 275 to 361 

f Motor Connections 294 

Lamp ... 360 

Brougham and Cabs 291 

Driving Gear 2.SS 

Automobile Co .*. 297 

Ambulance 302 

Cab, how to build 365 

i Carriages 27510372 

Carriage, " Jenatzy " 281 

t "Jeantaud'' 2*5 

"Columbia" 310 

f "Krieger" 282 

Omnibus 316, 335 

"Riker'' .. 328 

" Patin " 286 

"Victoria" 280 

" Waverly " 304 

Hansom Cabs 295, 296 

Engines, Steam 64, 65, 66 

Traction 871090 

Experimental Shop 401 

Explosive Motor Vehicles.. 115 to 271, 397, 402 

t Motors ...157,406 



Fifth Wheel 196 

Fisher Steam Carriage 46 

Forgings, Carriage 433 

Friction Clutch Gear 149 

Fuel Regulator . . 106 



James Steam Carriage 38 

Jump Spark Coils ..128 



397 

398, 431 



K 

Kerosene Motor Carriage. 

Kerosene Motors 

Knuckle Joint Bearings . 



Lamps, Carriage 412 

License 20, 21 

Liquid Air Ig , 

Lubricants 419, 421 



n 



Maceroni & Squire, Steam Coach 42 

Mackensie, Steam Brougham 47 

Management of Motor Vehicles 375 

Special 377 

Machinery for Automobile Work. 423 to 427 

Motor Cycles 175 to 188 

Motor, Kerosene 266, 398 

Motors, Gasoline... 157, 163, 169, 172, 206, 

2 7- 2 33, 240, 402, 407, 428, 429 

Motors, Gasoline Duplex 165, 166 

Motor Starter 150 

Motor Starting 24 

Motor Wheel . 228 to 230 

Mufflers 152 to 154 



N 



Newton, Sir Isaac. 



33 



INDEX. 



459 



Oil Cup... 
Oil Motor. 



PAGE 

.. 421 



.398, 431 



PAGE 

Steam Fire Engine 92, 93 

Motors 64 to 66, 107 in 

Storage Batteries 25, 343 

Switch-Board 349 



Patents, Number of 13 

Patents, I,ist of 445 

Perkins' Steam Wagon 47 

Pivots, Steering 26, 433 

Plug, Ignition 130 

Pumps, Tire . .' 416 



Ouadricycles, Canda. 
i Orient. 



212 
210 



Regulator, Automatic Fuel 106 

Repair Station 357 

Ransome's Steam Carriage. .! 46 

Road Rollers, Steam 83 to S6 

Road Wagon, Cugnofs 34 

Road Wagons, Early 33 

Roller Bearings 77, 78 

Russell's Steam Coach.. . . 



Testing Ball Bearings 415 

Tempered Copper Castings 436 

Tires ... 26,74,75,76,409,410 

Tire Pumps 391,416 

Transmission Gear 438 

Traction Engines 87 to 90 

Trevithick Steam Carriage 36 

Tricycle, " Ariel " 193 

"Bollee" 189 

' ' Barrow " 290 

"Duryea'' .260 

" De Dion-Bouton " 204 

Design 167,191 

Gear .147 

" Pennington " 197,202,203 

"Py " 191 

Tandem 211 

Truck, Auto 402 

Truck, Electric 337 

Trucks, Compressed Air Power 385 



Serpollet's Steam Carriage 51 to 

Shop, Experimental 401 

Smith Motor 429 

Speed Gear, Electric 285 

Speed Gear 161, 221, 223, 242, 251, 341 

Spring Propulsion 12 

Sparking Coils 126 to 129 

Starter for Explosive Motor .. 150 

Steering Gear 151 283,341,342 

Steam Propulsion, Early 12 to 37 

Carriages 34 to 48, 94 to 112, 395 

Boilers 52to6i, no 

f Dray 98 



Variable Speed Gear 146 

Vaporizers 133 to 140, 183, 207 

Valve Gear 186 

Vehicle Bodies 439 

Vehicle Gear 161, 221, 223, 232, 261 

Veneer, Moisture Proof 439 

Volt- Ammeter . . 435 



w 



Wind Propulsion 



Yale Motor 157 



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A FULL AND COMPLETE LINE OF FINE MECHANICAL RUBBER GOODS 



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I7iese Goods can be obtained at all first-class dealers. 




KELLBPRINfiFIElD 




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We make a special tire for heavy 
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and enjoy the pleasure of gliding along without 
noise or jar. In the RIKER Electric Vehicles 
vibration has been entirely overcome, the 
motor and running gear being separated from 
the body. All rebound is absorbed by a 
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and yet its course cannot be changed by ac- 
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beauty, the RIKER Electric Vehicle is rightly 
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AUTOMOBILES 

less jlH | Motor 
ides, Cycles 



Eberhardt's 

Original 

System 

Eadial 

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Cutter, 

Write for L . 
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OOULO * 




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Promptly 



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FOR 

STATIONERY, MARINE and MOTOR 
VEHICLES, X to 4 H. P. 

Also Complete Sets of Castings with 
Working Drawings. 

LOWELL MODEL CO., 

Box 291 LOWELL, MASS. 



JUMP 



SPARKS 




FOR AUTOMOBILES. 



THE JUMP SPARK COIL FOR 
AUTOMOBILES 

is the ideal Gas Engine Igniter. 
Simple construction. Moisture 
proof. A high grade instru- 
ment at a low price. These 
coils are specially constructed 
for igniting the charge in the 
combustion chamber of Gas, 
Gasoline or Oil Engines by the 
use of fixed Electrodes. Ac- 
knowledged by Authorities to 
be the best Coils for the most 
" Up-to-date " method of Elec- 
tric Ignition. Manufactured 
by 

C. F. SPLIT DOUF, 
23 Vandewater St. 

New York, U. S. A. 



Automobile Busses -&- "Auto" 

FROfl RUNABOUTS TO CABS. 



RUNNING GEAR, DIFFERENTIAL AXLES, WHEELS and PARTS. 
ENGINES SEPARATE OR MOUNTED ON GEAR. 

THE DENISON ELEC. ENGINEERING CO., 

Write for information. 

Send SOc. for working Hodel of NCW HaVeil, COHD., U. S. A. 

Engine with full description 

WILLIAM ROCHE'S 

"Autogas" Primary Dry Cell, 

Are specially made for automobile work, either for lights or sparkin 
gasoline engine. For sparking, the cells are put up in neatly finishe 




Are specially made for automobile work, either for lights or sparking 
oline engine. For sparking, the cells are put up in neatly finished 

box, with spark coil and rheostat complete. 

Price for eight-cell outfit, $10; six-cell outfit for lights, with rheostat, 

$5. F. o. b. New York. Write for 1900 catalogue. 



WILLIAM KOCHE, 



Vesey St., N. Y. City. 



JOHN KING METAL COMPANY, 

General Offices, 15 Wall Street, New York. 

The (special) Steel Castings manufactured by this Company are peculiarly adapted to fill the 
requirements of the motor vehicle trade. Castings for this service may be made in any desired 
size, shape and thickness ; can be tempered throughout and are sound and tough. The Elastic 
Limit closely approaches the ultimate tensile strength, while the metal will bend cold under 
the hammer, taking a decided set before failure. Its machining qualities are excellent. Parts 
may be polished on a buffing wheel to resemble nickel plate and when so polished, resist the 
action of rust remarkably well. In gears and all frictional services it compares favorably with 
bronze and outwears open hearth steel in cut gears. 





TIRE PUMPS FOR MAKERS AND USERS OF PNEUMATIC TIRED VEHICLES. 
CLEASON-PETERS AIR PUMP CO., 

HOUSTON AND MERCER STS., NEW YORK, U. S. A. 

Automobile Charging 

and Repair Station 

We Make, Rent, Recharge and 
Repair Storage Batteries 

THE STORAGE BATTERY SUPPLY COMPANY, 

Established 1891. Telephone : 1065 Madison Sq. Incorp. 1898. 

OFFICE AND WORKS: 

239 East >7ih St., NKW YORK CITY. 

THE FRANKLIN 

MODEL SHOP. 

Equipped with new, up-to-date machinery and accurate electrical testing asraratus 

of the best make. Our, practical experience covers a wide range in electrical, 

experimental and gas engine work. We are prepared to make anything you 

want in the line of special part. mixing valves, vaporizers, etc. irawings 

and designs made for special machinery. Write for pamphlet. 

PARSELL & WEED, 
129-131 West 3ist St. New York City. 

Telephone, 2144 Franklin, with private branch exchange connecting all department!-. 

I. T. iiitioiii iius IXD COPPER co, 

NEW YORK. 

We Have a Large and Varied Assortment of 

BRASS AND COPPER, 

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Wagons and 

Carriages 

Built and Repaired. 



209 West i8th Street, nea ^ e n v u e e nth New York. 
AUTOMOBILE REPAIRING A SPECIALTY. 

Telephone Call, 2019 18th Street. 




THE. 



Registered 



SARTUS 



Trade Mark. 



BALL RETAINER ail SEPARATOR 



Leduces Friction to ;i Minimum. 



Pat. Oct. 4, '98. 
May 2, '99. 



Can be furnished in any size and strength of metal, 
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Established 



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Sole Manufacturers of the World Renowned 





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Ra'Iway, Dynamo, Gas Engine, 



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THE DEWES & WHITING 



Erab AUTOMOBILE TIRE 




I 



DEWES & WHITING, No. 243 Center Street, New York. 

WE MANUFACTURE 

Kerosene Oil Engines 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

The coming ENGINE for MARINE, INDUSTRIAL and HORSELESS 

CARRIAGES is the KEROSENE OIL ENGINE. It is the 

Cheapest to Run, and Perfectly Safe to Operate. 

THE NEW YORK KEROSENE OIL ENGINE CO. 

31 BURLING SLIP, NEW YORK. 




AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY 

CONTAINING 

Original Matter in Short Concise Articles. 

Circulating especially among the owners, users and prospective owners of 
self-propelled vehicles. It is the most widely read paper on the subject on 
this continent. 

Sold by all newsdealers who are supplied through the American News Co. 

$1.00 A YEAR. 10 CENTS A COPY. 

E. L. POWERS CO., Publishers, 150 Nassau St., New York. 




219 West 19th Street, 



FREDERICK R. WOOD & SON, 

MANUFACTURERS, 



.NEW YORK. 




Special Motor Carriages, 
Delivery and Mail 
Wagons and Gasoline 
Launches of every style 
and size promptly de- 
signed and built to or- 
der.... 

Acetylene Gas Genera- 
tors, Searchlights and 
Lamps, Hoisting and 
Mining Machinery. 
IjANCAMOBILES Ideal Auto- Vehicles. 

IjANCAmOBILES Triumphant gasoline-operated carriages par excellence. 
IjANCAOTOBILE* Automobilism effectually realized. 
LANCARIOBILES Locomotion without risk. 
Ij ANC A MOBILES Pleasure without danger. 

LANCAUIOBILES Anglo-American strength and ingenuity with Parisian dainti- 
ness. 
EiANCAUIOBILES Odorless, noiseless, steamless. Luxurious mobility, safety, 

speed, simplicity. 
LiANCAITCOBILES Pleasure, business, trucking. 

Illustrations, prices, agencies and full particulars on application to the patentees and mfrs. 

JAMES H. LANCASTER CO., Inc., 

95-97 Liberty St., New York, U. S. A. 



i^Dietz Automobile Lamp 

is about as near perfection as 50 years of Lamp- 
Making can attain to. It burns kerosene, and 
gives a powerful, clear, white light, and will 
neither blow nor jar out. When out riding, 
the darkness easily keeps about two hundred 
feet ahead of your vehicle. When you want 
the very best Automobile Lamp to be had, ask 
your dealer for the " Dietz." 

We issue a special catalogue of this Lamp, 
and, if you ever prowl around after nightfall, 
it will interest you. 'Tis mailed free. 




R. E. DIETZ COMPANY, 

60 Laight Street. NEW YORK. 



Established in 1840. 



Cbc Quick manufacturing o 





NEWARK, N. J. 

....Manufacturers of 

gasoline Uchiclc motors. 

- ANY SIZE DESIRED. 

Our Motors are strictly guaranteed to be reliable 
under the most adverse circumstances. We have 
enlarged our plant, and, therefore, will manufacture 
the complete vehicle. 

Long Distance Telephone Connection. 

Telephone 1225 Main. 

GASOLINE 
MOTORS 

I H. P. to 10 H. P. 

with or without Water Jacket 
... for .. . 

AUTOMOBILES and LAUNCHES 

Vertical or Horizontal ; 
Electric Ignition. 

lE^Large factory suitable for 
experimental work. Any style 
ot carriage built to order from 
owner's drawings. Larger sizes 
for heavy vehicles in course of 
construction. 

MALTBY AUTOMOBILE CO,, 

10-12 Clinton Street, 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Write for circular. 




Launch Engine. 



Bicycle Motor. 



Ungmuir's Patent Improved Solid Rubber 

CARRIAGE 




TIRE 



o o 



UNDER LOAD 



NORMAL. ....MANUFACTURED BY.... 

REVERE RUBBER CO., 

59 and 61 READE STREET, 

NEW YORK 



No Floats or Submerged Working 
Parts. 



' MERRILL PNEUMATIC PUMP 

Operated by 

COMPRESSED AIR. 



Suited to All Conditions and Places from 
'Vhich Water is Taken. :::::: 
Sent on Trial to All Parts of the Country. 
Single and Duplex Displacement and Piston 

Types : : : : :::::::: 

Can be Installed by Any Mechanic. : : 



Duplex Displacement Type, 



WRITE FOR CIRCULAR 



MERRILL PNEUMATIC PUMP CO, 

141 Broadway, New York. 




The Highest Degree 
of Excellence ^e ^e < 



2 
t 



5 



is achieved only by effort and experience. For 
fifteen years we have made Gas and Gasoline 
Engines, always improving, until now we present 
the most reliable, economical, durable, simple and 
safe Bngines on the market adapted to all uses. 

In 1880 we used a few feet of floor space. In 
1900 we use four and one half acres of floor space, 
filled with improved machinery, 

Olds Motors are made... 



only by the Olds people 
under the Olds patents.. 

We have the largest capacity of any manu- 
factory of motors using gasoline or gas. Our motor 
vehicles in constant use since 1896, prove so satis- 
factory that we believe our model the most practical 
yet produced. We furnish the vehicle motors sep- 
arate if desired. 

Send for catalogue which explains every detail 
of construction and carries conviction. 



ELECTRIC AIR PUMP 



FOR. 




Automobiles 

AND BICYCLES 

operated by 110 volt continuous 
current or by storage battery. 

SIMPLE, 
DURABLE, 
CONVENIENT. 

Every Automobile 
owner and every fac- 
tory should have one 
to save time and 
labor. 

Write us for Prices 
and other information. 

AUTO ELECTRIC AIR 
PUMP CO. 

39-41 Cortlandt Strict, 
NEW YORK. 



AUTOTRUCKS 



FOR HEAVY WORK. 

Wing's 

SYSTEM 

Combined Gas and Air Engines. Compressed air used for 

starting the Engine, for auxiliary power, for applying 

brakes to wagon, etc. Can be applied to the 

ordinary truck, delivery wagon, etc. 

L. J. WING, 

95-97 Uberf/Street. New York City, U. S. A. 



The SECOR Kerosene Oil Engine 

FURMSHES 

POWER AT LOWEST COST 

For all Purposes Everywhere. 

Is Applicable to AUTOMOBILES, STATIONARY ENGINES 



AND 



SAFE 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING 

RELIABLE DURABLE 







THE GENERAL POWER CO., 

ioo WILLIAM STREET, 

NEW YORK, 



The 



J-Jasbrouck ]y[otor 




EQUIPPED WITH HASBROUCK MOTORS. 

The only Odorless Gasoline Motor on the Market. 



Perfect Combustion. No Vibration. 

Quick to Start. SAFE TO OPERATE. 
Perfectly Balanced. 

Speed from 1 to 20 Miles per Hour. 



Special attention given to STAGE COACHES with Seating Capacity for 
from 10 to 20 Passengers. Also Delivery Wagons. 



HASBROUCK MOTOR COMPANY 



New York Office, 20 NASSAU STREET, N. Y. 

Telephone, 1957 John. 



LINK 



of Milling Machines, 
Screw Machines 
and Cutter Grinders. 

All used in the manufacture of 
Automobiles, 

etc. . are fully described in our 
Catalogue for 1900. Sent free on 
request. 

The Garvin Machine Co., 

Cor. Spring and Varick Sts., 
Ne^w York. 

Philadelphia Store: 51 N. 7th St. 
MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, 

22 S. CANAL ST., CHICAGO. 




"MILLER'S" 
EXCELSIOR 



Automobile LUBRICANTS 

* 

FOR 

Gears, 
Roller- 
Bearings 



PRICE 5O CENTS PER CAN. 
Send for prices in bulk. 

W. P. MILLER'S SONS, 100 Greenpoint Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



FOR 

Chains 
Ball- 




New Toy Electric Automobile 




COMPLETE, READY TO RUN. 
Size, 121^x6^x7^ inches. 

PRICE COMPLETE 



$5.00. 



Write for catalog of Toys and 
Novelties. 
Manufactured exclusively by 

KNAPP ELECTRIC AND NOVELTY CO., 

ia8 White Street, New York. 



CHRISTEW NIELSOItf 

MANUFACTURER OF THE 

JHELSOir ROLLER BEARING FIFTH WHEEL. 

FOB ALL KINDS OP PLATFORM WAGONS, CARRIAGES ETC. HAS NO EQUAL 

WHAT WE CLAIM. 
1st. By overcoming the friction, we avoid 
the use of grease or any other lubricant. 
3d. By notuslnggrease or its equiva- 
lents, the Fifth wheel of the vehicle Is 
always clean 8d. Our Fifth Wheels al- 
ways work the same, winter orsummer, 
extreme heat or cold does not affect 
them. 4th. As our Fifth Wheels always 
work easy, the pole or shafts cannot be 
broken in tnrnirg, no matter how heavy 
the load. 6th. As there is no strain on 
the horse, or horses, in turning,, cramp- 
Ing or backing up, it Is absolutely Im- 
possible to throw them, and win keep 
their necks from galling. 6th The wear 
and tear of the vehicle is considerably 
reduced by the une of this Fifth Wheel. 
Last, but not least A great saving to 
horse flesh. 

Office, 211 Twenty-Second St. RROOICT VN" N V Telephone Call, 
Factory, 745 Third Avenue. iJl\vJVJJVJL. I i>, IX. I. 172 South. 







AUTOMOBILES 



Compact^^Uniformoc^Mechanically Correct* 

Simple in Constructions* ^Perfect 

in Operation* 

PRACTICAL- = DURABLE. 




UPTON TRANSMISSION GEAR. 



Tor flny Rind of motto* Power. 



NEAT IN APPEARANCE. 
Write for information and prices. 



UPTON MACHINE Go. 

\1 STATE STREET, 

Telephone, 2762 Broad. NEW YORK, 



Rousseau's Ideal Bell 




Constructed on an en- 
tirely new principle; gives 
a stronger blow than 
any other with the same 
battery power. It has a 
long rubbing contact, 
which is broken only after 
the armature touches the 
magnet. See description 
of bell on pages 417, 418 
and 4 19. 

Water and Dust Proof. 

Sizes from 2 in. to 12 in. 
will be carried in stock. 



SEND FOR PRICE LIST. 



DAVID ROUSSEAU, 

310 Mott Avenue, New York City, 

The Smith 
Motor Co. 




Manufacturers of ... 



Hydro=Carbon Motors. 

Office and Factory : 

54-56 Morris & Essex Railroad Avenue, 
NEWARK, N. J. 




POCKET 
VOLT-AMMETEF 

L.M.PIGNOLET. 



Continuou5=Current 

Volt=Ammeter 

FOE TESTING STORAGE AND 
PRIMARY BATTERIES 

FOR AUTOMOBILES 

Volt-Meters, Ammeters and Special Instruments 

LzOfcllS M. PI6NOLET 

78 CORTLANDT ST., NEW YORK. 



M" oistare-proof Wffitf Worid 

-**r ^^ and Durability 

x<?. ^<D 
Vehicle J^arjels ... 

and Laminated Lumber for Automobile Bodies, 
NOT AFFECTED BY ATMOSPHERIC CHANGES. 



VENEER PANELS FOR AUTOMOBILES, COACHES, 
DELIVERY WA80NS, ETC., 

Without Joining or Splicing. 
ANY SIZE, SHAPE AND THICKNESS REQUIRED. 

.Automobile Bodies.. 

flADE TO ORDER. 

We also make PANELS with ABSOLUTELY WATERPROOF 
Glue for Special Uses. 

Write for information and prices .... 

SEGUINE-AXFORD VENEER CO., 

94-100 Pacific Avenue, 

Telephone, Jersey City 2803. JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



AUTOMOBILE 



PHOSPHOR BRONZE 
ALUMINUM 
NICKEL ALLOY 
COMPOSITION 
TEMPERED COPPER 
MANGANESE BRONZE 



CASTINGS 



BABBITT flETAL AND SPELTER SOLDER. 
Write for Prices and Information. 



E. A. WILLIAflS & SON, 

105 Plymouth Street, Jersey City, N. J. 
^WILLIAMS' DROP FORCINGS* 




Cut shows our standard ABM ^^* -"^JBnni 11 OTTATTTIV -arm foil in a 

for steering gear. We have also ^^fe^lill QUALITY will tell m an 

the steering knuckle that goes I automobile. We guarantee 

with it. If you need a different WMBjumuu^ tfae m of our f orgin ^ s 

ffs^Nftssff As * -* d 08e to 

for that work. size. 

J. H. WILLIAMS & CO., 
9-31 RICHARDS STREET, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

fluto* Cycle * Chemical 

FOR FIRE DEPARTMENT PURPOSES. 

Ras a Speed of 20 to so miles per hour. 
Clean, | Simple, 

Noiseless, Reliable, 

Odorless, | Durable. 

5TARTS INSTANTLY. 



nade R f ega e rd1i!s e of g " erial Perfect Combustion 



WRITE FOR INFORMATION AND PRICES. 

H. 01. Dolfini $ Company, 3*2 Classen m., Brooklyn, n V. 



Cbe Baker Ball Bearing flxlc. 

THE MOST PERFECT ANTI-FRICTION 

i,i>iiiiiiiuiiiiii 111111111111111111111111111,11111111111111111111111111.111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 iiiiuiiii 

AXLE MADE. 



II 
3 > 




I 



..... Ulritc for Information and Prices ..... 

UNITED STATES BALL BEARING CO., 

fcelephone, Uladison Square 1723. 
. > 

1123 Broad -way, NeA?sr York. 

AUTOMATIC LOCOMOBILE FURNACE IGNITER 

New and simple electric device by which fire in furnace may be 
ignited or relighted at any time by simply pressing a button at 
the seat. Permits of extinguishing fire and thus saving fuel 

during stops, or relighting while under way should fire be blown 

out by wind. Illustrated in reading columns. 



A. L. BOQART CO., "3 " * Clty 



Our 96-page Catalogue of 

Scientific and Practical 
Books, 

embracing works on all scientific and practical subjects, will be 
sent free to anyone requesting it. Address 

NOEMAN W, HENLEY & 00,, Publishers, 

132 Nassau Street, New York. 



Other Valuable Works 



BY 



GARDNER D. HISCOX, 



THIRD EDITION, REVISED AND flUCH ENLARGED. 

fins, PLIHE m OIL 




BY GARDNER D. HISCOX, M.E. 



THE ONLY AMERICAN BOOK ON THE SUBJECT. 

A book designed for the general information of every one interested in this new 
and popular motive power, and its adaptation to the increasing demand for a cheap 
and easily managed motor requiring no licensed engineer. 

The book treats of the theory and practice of Gas, Gasoline, and Oil Engines, as 
designed and m nufactured in the United States. It also 'contains chapters on Horse- 
less Vehicles, Electric- Lighting, Marine Propulsion, etc. 



Third Edition. Illustrated by 270 Engravings, Revised and Enlarged. 
LARGE OCTAVO. 384 PAGES. PRICE, $2.50. 

MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS 

POWERS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES. 

BY GARDNER D. HISCOX, M.E. 

A Dictionary of Mechanical Movements, Powers, Devices and Appliances, embrac- 
ing an illustrated description of the greatest variety of mechanical movements and 
devices in any language. A new work on Illustrated Mechanics, Mechanical Move- 
ments, Devices and Appliances, covering nearly the whole range of the practical and 
inventi\ e field, for the use of Machinists, Mechanics, Inventors, Engineers, Draughts- 
men, Students, and all others interested in any way in the devising and operation of 
mechanical works of any kind. 

Large 8vo, Over 400 Pages. 1649 Illustrations, with Descriptive 
Text. Price, 13.00. 

* * * Either of the above books will be sent prepaid to any part of the world, on 
receipt of the price. Remit by draft, postal order, express order or registered letter 
to our order. Our 96-page Catalogue of practical books on all subjects, sent free 
to any address. 

MUNN & CO., Publishers, 

36J BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



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