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6000153948 ^^^^^^" 


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■ ■O-ITUR •uuimi 





The Author's first edition of this work was published io the year 
1831,atthereque8t of the 'Society for the Diffusion of Useful Know- 
ledge,' with a view of supplying a work of reference in connection 
with the natural history, general management, and treatment of the 
horse, in health and disease. Since then it has passed through two 
other editions, the last of which, by the late Mr. Gabriel, appeared 
in the year 1861. 

In undertaking the preparation of a fourth edition, the Editor has 
endeaToured as much as possible to carry out the original intentions 
of the author in accordance with the rapid advancement which 
veterinary science has of late years, made. In doing this, consider- 
able alterations have been made. : The remarks od the * early history 
and the different breeds of Korses,' and the ' treatise on draught,' are 
Dearly unaltered. The illustrations of the age of the horse, and some 
remarks on Mr. Rarey's method of * breaking in the horse ' from 
Captain Richardson's work, also remain as in the last edition. In 
other respects the present edition will be found to have undergouc 
a thorough revision and arrangement, many fresh diseases have 
been introduced, and the nature and treatment of others considered 
in accordance with the principles of veterinary science at the present 


The greiU object of the Editor haa been to make the work aa prac- 
tical as prasible for all classes of readers, by avoiding as much as 
drcumetances would permit those technical details which none but 
the scientific reader would comprehend. It will therefore necessarily 
follow that any lengthened anatomical details must he omitte<l, 
although it is believed sufficient have been retained to enable the 
general reader to understand the more important parts of the frame. 
The same remark applies to the chapters on medicines and poisons. 

In conclusion, the Editor trusts that the alterations and additions 
which have been made will tend to enhance the value of the work, 
and render this the fourth edition equally worthy of the pubilb 
eateem and patronage which have been accorded to its predecessors. 

KuGBY:Ort(»6«-17, 1865. 














BOCBINa PARTS . . . . S36 

XII. THE CHE?r 213 









XX. 0;< SHOEING 4!9 










INDEX 573 






lUcM bom the Temple of Mioem . 4 

Naaal CaTity . 

. 197 

TIw Oodotphin Anbiau ... 19 

Mnaclea, Nerrea, and Blood-veaaola 

Anb Mare and Foal 


of the Head and Upper Fart of 

Baj Aiatnan 


Neck . 

. 199, 237 

OoMack Soldier accontre 

d fu 

I his 

The Palate 

. 218 



Olcaoid Canty 

. 220 

The Colooel 


The Teeth 

. 221—229 

njing Childera 

. 68 

Spine and Biba 

. 244 

Belipia . 

. 69 


. 312 



Stomach . 

. SI3 




. 316, 317 

ThcHaduiaj . 

. B9 


. 322 

The CoadiBone 



. 831 

TIm SnSblk PoDch 

. 99 

Catheter . 

. 341 

The Dia^ Hone 

. 102 

Putcma . 

. 378 

Tha Sbrtland Ftnjr 

. 106 


. S86 

G^bit . 

. 119 


. 3«&, 397 

flfwingBueUa . 

. 121 


. 434, 436 

Skeleton of the Uone 

. 140, 360 


. 440, 441 

Knadea of the IIorM 

. 143 

Slings, mode of fixing 

. Ut 

He«d of the Horae . 

. 14S 

Finng, method of 

. 463 

Spinal Cord 

. 163 

Uobhln, method of Azin) 

. 463 

TbeEjv . 

. 160 

Nerre on Iho Insida of ihr 

L('K . , 470 

Moadea of the Kjo . 

. 166 

Diagrams iltnitrating thi 

D Principle 

Tetannt or huekti 3 


. 179 

of Drau^t . 

. 634—571 





That iiu» anunnl oxisted beforo the Flood, Uid n>«ojuvli(iM or gonUtf^s 
mSWd ftbaindant proof. Tli«n! ia not a ]>ortion cf Europe, oorsourccly nnr 
jMir t of the ^Dl>e, firom the tropical plains of ludia tn Ute frozen rc^oni) of 
I^^Hieria — from the northerrn citronutiea of the New World t<i ih* wtj 
^^Intheni point of Am^rioL, in which the fossil reniains of the Lonw hitvu 
not h^«D foand nintclcd with tha bones of tho hippopot&mu^i, ihu vlei))iiint, 
iho rhinoceros, the hear, tho tiger, tho dopT, ana Tariona other animiJs, 
Bcnnic> of which, like tho nuuttodon, have pnasi-d nvrnj. 

Thvre is u'arccijr a ditit.rict in OniaL Britain in which the foudl nmuiui 
of thifl animal ha\o not boon disOTorpd. Tn tho majori^ of CAOM tho 
iMraea ore of noorlj' tho samo sixc with thoao of tlio commoa breed of borsen 
at the present day ; hot In Saath America the hooca of horso« of a gi^^itio 
aiia have been dng up. 

Whethw tho horw had then bocomo the scrrant of man, or for what 
jmrposo he was oaod, wo know not. Evurj' record of bim woe swept awoj 
oy tlio general inandatiou. uxoept* that the ark of Noah iircecrvod a rcm- 
uU)t of tho TBce for the fhtiird uiw of duui. 

An interesting and valuahlo aronoot of the histoir of tho homo from the 

"ect period ia e^vcn by that ]«aru«d aud injefatigablo Qatoralist, Col. 

^^ tUtoe Smith, m tlio I2ih rolnme of tho ' Katiinklisl'fl Library.' Tliii 

work, from tho extent of its iiive§tipations, the lai-ycnewi of i(« vicwii, and 

its csNiftLl series of inductions, render it otie of tlie roost c^mnri'-honMiro 

and aotkoritatiTe that has b4>cn prodncod. In allnsion to tuuH moro 

remotfl datk, ho aays, ' Wo know so little of tbo pnmitivc seat of oiTiUsap 

tion, the original centre, pcrliaps in Bactrta, in the higher i-allo^'s of the 

Oxns, or in Caahnere, wlionco knowledge radiated to China, Tmlia, and 

E^Tpt, that it may be nu-mieod that the first domeeticntion of tho p-Ml- 

jS uvian bone ma aobievvd in CuntnU Aaia, or cotniaeucc-d nourly stinu]- 

ily in aeveral regions where tJio wild animals of tlio horse form 

In the sacTvd volnme, whioh, besides its higher olaims to Htand at tho 
bead of * Tho Farmer's Library,' contains tho oldoat authentic hitilory nl' 
pait tranfoctions, an cnumcmtion is made of cortain valnablo gifbt that 
irere preaented to Abisham by Phamoh, the monarch of Egypt. Thor 
Aoaaieted of ilioep, oxen, aaaoa male and fcmtile, cameli^ mon-sorrants anil 
■ttid-HrfmuU ; bnt tho hone is not mentioned. This con acorooly bo 




aooonnted for, except od the Ktip|>ositioTi tkit tliis noble animal wos nut 
thsB fboDil in Egjpt, or, at titut, tmil iivt Lmoi doniCHl icalcil tbcre. 

Th« fimt klloiiion to tfa« horsp, oJlcr tho period of tliv Flood, ia a pur- 
fectlj incitluntal ono. It in iHud. in GeDtmis xxxvi. ^k of Anoli, tlic sun uf 
Zit»w>n, ft contemporary of Isaac, who vnw born dbout tlio vear Iwfuns 
Cliriiit, ISUO, that lie found the mulra in the vri Idenwiiti) — th« progpnj' of 
tlie &BB and tho horse — as ho (od the ossea of his father. The wi Idcmeea 
referred to was that of Idumea or Seir, WlioUier tlitTtc wcro wild horaca 
thai inhabited tho doacrto of Xdoinon, or had been flnhjngnu-d by man, we 
know not. Histciry U altojjotlii<r ttileut na to the penod wiion tho con- 
nexion nunmnnood or w&n rouowod butwiMrn tho human being and thiA bLi 
most valaabto scmuit. 

' Fomil nunaina,' najra tlie Colonel, ' of tliD homo have been fomid in nearly 
every part of the world. IHh teetli lio in tlm polar ic* uloiip with the 
beaot of the Siberian manunoth ; in tlio Himalaya MoiintiLiiiH with lost, 
and but recvnlly ascertained, (renera; in tho caviTii* of Tonjwny, Iitland, 
and, in one inatonce, from Barbary, DOmpletcly foAnilihtH^l. Hid boncti, 
aoooTiipanied by tJiose of tho elephant, rliinocenjs, tiper, and hyrena. imt 
by thotuiands in the cavea in Constadt^ — in Son-on, at Argente oil, —with 
tboM of the mastodon, in Val d'Amo, and on tho borders of tho Rhine, 
mih cotowtal nma. All the remains hitherto diacovorod appear mi fwr- 
fectly Kimtlar in their conformation to the domosticated honie, that they 
oan wtarocly be ascrilMtd to other itpocioa of tho cvdoh. From the cnmmix- 
tiuv of their r«mnini>, thore cftnnot bo A doHOt that they have existed 
together with aovurail ^rvat puehydumata ; hut what in moot deserving 
of atteation is, thi^t wtiiEe alt the othur )ronL-ra and spcciL-H, found nndi-r 
the same oonditioTig, have ceased to exint, or liuve ritmisvtn:! to hight>r 
tcnipcratnros, tho horse alono tia« remained to tlio present timo in the anmo 
r^iuns without, it w«mJd appear, any protractud intcmiptjon, tinue from 
the cln;amstaiii'e» which maoifftit depositato Ite of the earliest chl, fnig* 
menta of its skeleton continue to bo traced upworda in aaccesBire furma- 
taoDS to the prewmt Hnperfidal mould.' 

Nearly a century after this, when Jacob deported from LAban, a singnlar 
•oooaat is given, m Gen. xxzii., of tho number of poats and Hhe«p, and 
ramt'le, and oxen, and Bfise« which ho possessed ; but no mention is made 
of the hon*e. This also would lead to the conclusion that tho horeo wa« 
citlicr not known or was not naod in Canaan at that early period. 

Another centoiy or morepMaed on, and wwgone — convcyancoa drawn 
bv animalii — were sent to Caruuui to bring Joseph's father into Egypt. 
Ho mentioti is imide of tho kind of iLniinaLt hy which those vehicles wore 
drawn ; bat there are many fragnietitii of tJie architecture of tho early 
ngofl, and particnlarly of the E),'r|>ti&n architvcturo, iti which tho chariot!', 
jven on state occiwionM, wtire drawn by oxen. Wo cannot, bowe\'cr, 
come to any oertain conclniiion from this ; butr at no dittAnt portod, whila 
J«Mph Ana hia father were still hving, a famine, nreooded by aereral 
yoftm of plm^, ocourre*! in Eg^'pl. Joseph, who bad arrived at the chief 
CriDce in the state under Pharaoh, had availed himself of the chcnpneaa of 
the oom diuing the plentiful years, and liiul arcnnmlatod great <^aantitiea 
of it in tho royal granancai, whidi he afUtrwanb Hold to the atarraig 
people for money, an long aa it huted, and then for their cAttle and kontt, 

lliin is the 6r«t certain mention of the bone in mutoiI or profane hiH< 
tory ; bat it atforda no cine as to the parpoaes to which this animal waa 
then devoted. In a few years, however, nfler the cessation of this famine, 
some eineidation of this inlcnesting point ia obtained. When Jacob lay on 
hia deatlibcd, he called his sons aniuiul him, and, nndcr the infloenoe of 
that ioapiration which has been witlihcld in later timee, prophesied what 


wtmM bo tha chsMeter and fate of thctr dr«c«n<ln.iit6. Of Dnn lie my*, 
' Unn ahoU bo ft wivont^ bj- the wny. an odder in tba path that bitoUt tlio 
liune'n liewU, so that hu riiUr shall Tntl LutckwtinJ.' Wc Imvo nothini; bora 
to do will) t)ic fulfilment ol* thiM ]>r«dtcti(ut. Thut vhich prim'jjinlljr cod- 
ccma tbe reader is Uie oISam whiub isr, for tbe first timo, atuii^MKl to the 
horse. Be is riddea. 

Wo hear no morn of tbe horse imtU tho time of Job, who lived abiinb 
twrntjr j-cws before the Israelites were brought oot of Egrpt by Mosea. 
Hp wuh w«I1 luximuTihiil with tbe borso, fuid admirtid biin on accoant of 
his anrivnllcd bcautj' und the pnrpoMB to which h« wiu do^'Oted. Job's 
dcacripttoii of the hursu i» qootwl is aliaost every work on Iho subject, 
and l>r. Illair cites ib as an imitance of the uubliinity of tbi; inspired 
wrilers. ' Uaat thoa ' — the Dirine Being is supposed lo inquire of Job — 
'giren tbe horse his etrength? liaat thou clothivt his neck with his 
ItrtinlirnJ mane ? The glory of his aostrils ie terrible. He pawetli iu thy 
taUc}', and rvjoiccth in his strength. Be hurries on to meet the amieil 
men — be moclcelh at fear — he turnvfb not bin haek from the su-ord. The 
(fuivvr rattleth at^ainst him — ^tho ^Oiltoring spoiir nud t.}m shield — bo 
swalloweth the ^^und with ficrcenexA and nge ; neither boHcroth lio thnt 
it is the aouad of the truni|>et (onitinng » rt-trvat). Hu Hiiith among the 
tnuitpclM, Ha! hn!— «ad lie nniclU-tb tlio battle afar ofT, and luiirrrh the 
thunder of the raptaias and the shooting.' The Hebrew word, wliieh is 
tr!tnNln.i4*d ' thunder ' in the H>th verso, aha si^rnifies tbo nnane of a horse. 
Whoever bu observed how much the mimo of • tborongh-brvd perfect 
boTM, and under Bomu momentary exeitcMDcnt, oontribntes to the noble- 
ntM of hill appearance, will ent«r iut^^ the siibltnuty of tlie qoestioii, 'ILut 
than clothed his neck with biii boautifal mane f ' To 'clothing the neck 
with thunder ' no metming cnn be attached. 

It a|)pearti from this that the horse, nearly 1500 years before the birth 
of Chnat^ was uBcd for the purpoaos of wai-. Tbe tioble animal whiob Job 
described belongod to the cavalry seTvioe of that tinio. 

Tbo wunu nnUior aMi^s to him nnotber task. Job had hoen previonsly 
■peaking of tbe ostrich uud of the banting of that bii-d, and ho says, ' Wbut 
tune slie lilleth herself on high,'— springs bora the ground as one rann,— 
'•be Kometh tbe hooe and hix ridiT.* 

In leM than twen^ years after tliii. wo are told that PhnracA * took GOO 
choM» efcariota and all the horeeaandohariota of Ep-pt, and all tlie horse- 
meti, and pnrsned the IsmeUtca to tbo Bed Sea.' itero wo seem to have 
thiw diatiiicbcSaaBea of hontos, the chooion disriot horse, the more ordinaiy 
(■hariotji, and tlio ca\-ftlry. In fact, the power and vulnw of the horw wem 
now folly appreoiated. Bnxtorff saya that the word 'paraah,' cr 'hornc- 
miui,' vi dvnvcd from tho Hebrew root to prick or spur, and (hut the rider 
derivoil bis name fVom the nso of the spur. It would ecco) from Ilorfingor 
I hnt riding was at ibis period not only a familiar exercise, but had attained 
a degree of perfection not geuendly iniaf^uod. 

la wliat eoantry th« horse wM nret domoaticated there are no records 
certainly to dvUtrmine. The mo«t ancient of all histories is sitoot as to his 
eii»U"mM in the time of Ahrabnm ; although it ran hardly be iinoginoil 
that this noble aniauil waj* not used when Nimrod foundetl the Uabylonixli 
nooarehy, fall 200 years before the birth of Abraham — or Somiramia, 150 
jeara aflerwarda, reigned over the soma eoantry — or the Sh(tph«rd Kings, 
a tittle while before that period, cunqacred K^ypt, It in tiiitural to 
imagine that tlio doniMtieation of tlic homo was noeval with the establish- 
Rimt of ei%'iliHati«in. 

IT**) author was diapOKd, in a former edition of this work, to tr»cn the 
first doracNtic&iion of the honui to EgJ'p^ i ^''^^ farther conai deration haa 

II a 

north-cuntLTTi piirt of Axia, thu doDucilc of thone who eecnpcd from tho 
rara^'H of th« FIcnnI. Indeed, wit.hoat the aid of the homi', tho lulvaiice- 
tn«nt of colonJBntidti would have been vroocdingly slow. 

Colonel Knitth is ppHV'cily rorrc«t wlicn h»i nays that 'to fiQCtcnt Egypt 
Tvo appCAr to be indehtf d for the first synlcnintiir attcotion to rc%-iving and 
improring Uie browis of liorwii; nniiu'rous carved or outlininl piclures 
represent steeds wh'Oflc symmctpy, bounty, and col onr, attest Hint. Ilicy are 
dosiffii'^ fnjm lii(fK.bre<t tj-pes.' Grooms also art- rcprtrtKtntcd aa ' rubbing 
their joint*, anil seduloualy attending to llii-ir comfort on every projit-r 
oceoaion.' The lioriM>8, in all thow* tasteful worltft of art,ara' repr<«fnl«^ 
BS either Ix-inj; loo&u or huriitRtwd to oliariots j no Moittiffil finwilri/ are to 
bo «ocn until n comparatitoly late p<Tiod. It is tlie name with the bos- 
rcUeftt of PersepoliK. On thv friow;, however, of tho temple of Minerva, 
in tho Acropoliii of Athens, built many years before tho deBlniction of 
Persftpolis, ikcK wore numerous fijrurfs of men on horsobaek, bnt not one 
of a hoiso lionusued to a obtuiot. The following cat wtie foithfulLy copied 

^^»n. Uic^ friraa of that t«mplc. This is & Biofirnlar fact, that might lead to 
^^ery ^avrong oone I iisioD— namely, that tlio cWiot waa in common use in 
j"*^^ ntwl nut known in Gn^cc ; wherww tho Pernana were far more 
atcidotVly a nation of horw-men than th« On-f^lcs, hut chariot* wero 
occwionVlly DBcd Hy th^m in tbeir nolcmn frtitivals in lionoar of their 
^m^F **' ^^^ therefore oatondl^r found on the friem) of their t«inpIos. 
Craj^^ * Oroelts, howereri ohariola were never nscd for tlie pBrpom-a of 
b roott^*^ *""'*' '" ***'■" I™*''"" g*™«- It may not be luelen to pause for 
n'de™ "** ""^ "*'"'y ''"" '^"" ""* clui^c***" 0*^ thew honM and their 

, ^rt» ifl consid(rrabl« diOtrivncc in th« fbnn and aotion of the two horBt«. 


The right'hand one, and the farcniOBt of the Wa, is sadly defectii'o in tlie 
nc»rtionfl of the fore-arms which we are pennittod to see. The near ono is 
■ poorly anpplied with moeclo. 

The «^hors« is oat of all kocping, TLo largo cajs placed so low ; tlio 
chunsy awoUin^ of tt« lower port of tho neck ; the bad union of it witli 
lliB breast ; tbt) lun^b »nd thiuntMa of the hurrvl compared Avith the bulk 
of lb« furo part*, uolwillistnndiuj^ thn natnnil iiiul gracofuL pOHitiea of the 
bind IcffR, utow no little want of akill iii the iitattinry'. 

The more ouimaled head of the lofl aiid hinder lionsc, the InflafciKl nostril, 
the oiwiiine of tlie month, the form and promliu-uco of the uyo, and the 
lajisg of tbo ears, sufficiently confirm the ncoounU which wc buvo of the 
spirit — sometimes tmtumeablo^Hjf the primitive harscs. The nock, how- 
ever, is too short even for one with theae iuimGuse forubaiuiii ; it oprings 
badly out of the chest ; the shonldcr is very defeiif ive ; but tlie fure-anujt, 
their oxpn?(ision and thiiir poEil.ion, are extTuodingly good ; the long fore- 
arms and »h'>rt \c^ are cscellvnt, and so aro the ofT-t'etlock and fool, but 
die bum:! is deficient, the carcafio is lengthy, and tbo hind-quart^rg are 
wmlt cumparud vrith thu furc-(i.rms. 

The boautifhl execution of the riders I'lUinot vKCApe olHt-rvution. The 
perflect Grocinn fnoo, the odmirablo exprowtion of the ouuiitcniLnco, the 
rouidiiig and perfection of every Umb, are saflicivat pruofn that tho riduni 
wen poiiraitri, aa probably the borsoa were to n very considerable exlcnt. 

TbSM animals remind xis of some of the hnavy one:* of the prext^iiL ilay 
partiBoIariy ; they have the beauties and the doffcta of many of tlio looiiurn 
HoUt«in horsea ; thoy are hi^h, but jherliajM heavy aclionwl ; c<jurugL-oun, 
8piriU?il, pnesibly fiorcc, Thoy cslubit the frorms of many futui-o iuiprove- 
tneots, and, takc'n nil to^^cthcr, may he cx&niiucd with considerable plt:aiiurr, 
remembering that tboy are borxL-s of nearly "i'SVO years ago. Art ha£ done 
much for the horso since that period, bnt the conntcnonee and £g^reof tbo 
bunion boin^ were at that timo perfect. Those horsemen have not evt-n 
the switch to guide the animal ; hat they am holding by the mana with 
the left hand, and are evidently dirootinf; the horse by pulling the mane, 
or preseing the neck with tho right hand a little higher up. 

The breeding of the horse, and his employment for pleasure and in war, 
wore forbidden to tho Isnivlit^it, They were cuuiniu.adi.-d to hau^h or 
AanufrtM thosu that wens token m war. The dheep yielded them tlieir 
wool, OM the cattle their milk, and both of them their flesh. By tho 
latter of these animala. the laud was tilled and the com trodden out ; while 
the nilersand the judges, and even Ihe kiugii of I^'acl, am Lurried hyaitnt^K. 

The hone itt oocaaionally mentioned in tte early period of tiio Isi-aelitish 
commonwealth. Ko delinitc dutv, however, is lUHigned to him ; and it is 
eaid of iJie then monarch that * llo shall net multiply horses to himself.' 
There were two reasons for this : they were destined to Ik a peculiar people, 
proMTving in the narrow confines of thuir country thu knowledge anrl 
worship of tho tnie God: thcreforo tliey were forbidden the moanii of 
waodering to other landN. The natoro of their country likewise forbade 
tbe extensive Weeding of the horse. It cousisUdj in a giMit measure, of 
■nonntaiiis, and was l)ouudo<I on the west by tho sea, and on tJu^o other 
iiide« liy deserts. It ivaa not until tho time of Solumoii, 500 yi-nni after tho 
Isiscliles had left Efm>t, that the horse was domesticated among thorn ; 
•nd then so rapidly did he increase, that Solomon had 1^400 cbanots and 
18,000 c&valry, and ntahling for -K),000 horses. The groiter part of Uiese 
horaca were imported from Egypt. 

Tho sacred liistoriaa givea tho price Ivith of tJie ('liiiriotA and the horMv. 
It is the oldest doenmeaC of the kind on record. Tbo horse, including 
ptobably the expense of the journey, cost l&O aliekela of silver, or rather 




moro than 17/. Tlio cliariot oo»l (UW) plitltels. or little; moru (Imii iiSl, OF 
tho compikrativc vulac of money at that pi-riiiil it. is imiK^uiiliUi i|,o Hpt'itk ; 
but it WM probublj miuiT timeB greater tliiin at prnHiiil. 

It ia ft qnostinii yot disputed, wLetber tbo Ufm of cluiriota or tho art of 
riding wu first onltivutcd. Accoi-diiis: to Colonel Hainiltiin, thu 
northern nations were exclusivvly rideni. At Nineveh, in Asia Minor, 
ami India, tlicy were Imtli oliftritilfers and riders. In Grepcc, Palestine, 
and Egypt, tlioy were originally pharioU^cr* only. Tho probjibiHty, liow- 
evw, is, that altliough ouo might prcvtu] in particolar cnui and countrios, 
tho other wonld not lonjf i-eniaiii utipractJnril. 

Before a akctch of the history of the Euro|iean honte in attempted, il inAy 
be intereHting to collect the He-counts given by hiBtonanii of tlio charactc-r 
and Tnanagcmont of tho horso in A&rlior periods. 

Uppor nRTpt and Kthiopia were inhnbllcd by horsemen, of -mid an<I 
preducioiu nalnts: plundering thcinc- who fell into their power, or luring 
theniiKrlvrx to incroa«o the army of any forci(^i ]iotcnlat«. Many troopH 
of tlu-'tn atiendiMl XerscB in his expedition into Groo^N!. 

In Libya, Niutiidta, Maoritauio, and tlic ttftttt'iut.-iit« on iliu northern 
coast of Afnca, comprisinc Jloitjceo, Barbary, Tmiia, and TripuH of tin; 
present day, and the northern part of the Sahara, or Gi-eat Uesert, tho 
Dorses wore nnmorouE and fleet. ^iiajid<>6(rribesthom as being somewhat 
slenderly nia^lc-, and noldoni cnrrying macb fic&h ; rC(]iiiring little care and 
atlciidance from their ownors: content witJi tbo common pantiira whir:h 
the country aSurded, and on which they were tamed, without farther care 
or notieo, as »oori a» their woi'k woa done. Their present treatment in nut 
a proftt deal bettor, 

Thry were at tint ridden, an tbey arc rvprcscntud on tho fresco of Uio 
Parthenon, withont either bridle or saddle ; and tlie ridn^r ha<I nothing but 
a switch or atiek by nhivh to guide t)icm. Thia is said to haro givoa 
them an ungraoeAil and awkward appearonec, their noeks being straight 
luid cxtcadcd, and their aoac'S pointing somewhat upwards. ' It may, ia 
•oiDC degrw",' says Borenger, 'bo difficult to conceive bow a wand or 
stick oonld be irafficient to guide or control a spirited or obstinate horse 
in ili« \-iolcnce of hia coarse, or the tnmnlt of battle ; but the attontion, 
dcH-ilitr, and memory of Ihifl aninud arcsucli, that it is bard to say to wlml. 
a dfgreo of obedience he may not be rwdticcd. There is no reason why 
these horses should not bo brought to uudenitiuid the intontion and obey 
the will of thsir ridera with aa mneh wrtainty and reodinMS as our ca.rU 
horsM in our crowded streets attend to the voice of their driver, by which 
they ore almost solely governed.' The older writem say that the honw 
was touched on tho right of tlic flice to mslce him go forward — on tlie It-ft, 
lo direct b m to tbo nght — on the xnusEsle, when bewaa rccinired to atop: 
while the beel WM used to iirge him forward. The guidance of the horse 
by the gentle tonoh of the fingers is well represented in the engraving 
given at page 4. 

Paasing ^D Isthmas of Suez, ancient writers say not a word of thi* honea 
of Arabia. TbcM deeerta wero not thvn inhabited by tliis noble nnimal, 
or there waA nothing about him worthy of record. 

Paleatane, dnring the later periods of the Jewish monnrchy, contained 
nnmeroiu horses. Klention h« been made of the forty thousand stalls for 
horaos built by Solomon: but they wore all bmugbl fn)m K^jpt, and a 
Torr little portion of the Uoly tiand was ever dvrotW to tho bnx-diiig of 
borios after the settlement of the laraelitea ia it. 

Syria ac-qnired little rcpntatton, on tltis acconnt^ nor did Asia Uinor 
f^noralty, with the eseention of the countrj- around Colophon, between 
Smytsta and £phcnis, wliose cavali^ was so nnmcroos aod well trained 


that tier w(>re alwayB ia rmneBt aa niGTretiAnes, and demned to he invin- 
cible. In *U lonff and t«<liotui wnn tho ae^LstatLce of tlio Colojiliuiiiua 
tnw|>» was coortoo, and iho pnr^ tLat obtniood supplirg frora Uif in woro 
■o certain of success, tlittt KoAo^i'a rtSiriu, and uf\crwarda among tlie 
RomatiB, 'Colophuncni iaij)oiiDit>,' wore luod pnivvrbiully tor {lutling a 
conclusion to any affair. Sti-abo, lib. xiv. 

Wc must novr truwl to Abueku, ou tlio wmt of Media, before wc innot 
with auj-ibing io arrt'st out 6trp». A Iwautifiil farced of hones was colti- 
vatod in tliis district. T]ie chariot of Xerxes wu dmwn by Anuiq^ian 
horEcit, h<>ing the stateliest and th« noblest which Iiia oxtonsivG cmpiro 
coald pradnce. 

Some writers, deBcribinp the horse at n later period, mentlnn tlio grwit 
cam ihat waa taken of the drpssing and adorning of the mane. Ve^jotiux 
gives B long aocount of thia. It was cut into tliu form of an arch or bow ; 
or it was parted in tbg middle, that tlift hair might fall down on cither itido ; 
or, mora generally, it vnut left long aadfloiving on thu right sido — a custom 
which has been retained t« the present day. 

Many old soolpnin-s proTe that the horsemen of alino«t every country 
mounted on tlio right side of the animal. There are a fnw osccptions to 
tliia. Tlio nuuic bangiag on. that side would assist the ridvr in getting 
otx the honte. There were not; any stirmps in tlinse days. The inii<lt'rn 
haneniBii alw&ya mounts on tlie loft side, yet the mane is turned to tho 

MXDU produced nomcrons hor*M of tho same charnctor as thoso from 

CifftlKKH stood highest of all the ciutcm coontrius for its hreed of 
horsra ; not perlians so spwdy ns those from »om« othw disLrirtu, brit dis- 
tinguixKrd for llicir Btatcly appearance and lofty nctjan. Old BhinilpriUi?, 
from tliu in«>cction(if many of lhoanci<-iiti4culptun.'i4, mays tluvt these were 
morv heavy ■licudvd than tlK< hfroes of the ParlJiiaiw. Pcrham they were 
CO; bat no one can dispute ll:e olatelincfla of their fif^nre. and tlioir prtjuil 
And high and cqnal stop. Althongh often ridden, thoj w<tc b^tt^r i^al- 
onlatcil for the clinriot. This kind of homo moma to haw pkuist-d tlio 
•tKiviifs; and tilt! r )iainti>n) and statuaries are fond of exhibiting them 
in their most striking attitudes. The horses in tho cut at the eommeneo. 
meut of this chapter are illmitrativo of Die remark. Oppion saya of them, 
what is Imo at the present day of many horses of this character, ' when 
youDg, they are dohento and wrak ; but strength comi's with yuan, and, 
oonlrarj' to uthor har»vs, tfavy aru Ixtttwr and moro powerful whon advanced 
in 9f^.' 

The PaBtuiA-NS fought on fuot in tho army of Xorxcs. Either they hod 
nift begun to ho oelebmtod an liorsemon, or thcro were reasons which no 
author statos for th«ir liciug dixniioiintt'cl at that time. Ko vet^ long pfrioi), 
howerer, iHutsxM] licforc they became Rome of the most oipCTt ridf^ra Uiat 
the world could prwliiee, and were reckoned, and jostly so. almost iii- 
vinciblo, Tliey are describod ns Iming osceodingly actiro and drxtcrons 
in the management of their boi-sc!«. Tlicy were us funnidid^ilu in flight as 
in attaek, and would often turn on tho buck of tho animal, and pour on 
thoir pnnrofrfl aclood of arrov, 4 that at onco ohangod the fortune of tho day. 

Yogetius gives a singular accoant of the manner of their breaking in 
their nonc!!, and n-ndering them sure-footed when galloping over the most 
tnegular, and <lBngrronis gronmls; fur tlwy were ligblt^r and hanlier 
hotms than thtm of thn ('appadorian* or Jledftfi, find better for their 
tiecttliar j'ace and manner of lighting. A Kpot of dry and level jrround wn« 
eekcterl, on which varioiiiH ti-onghs or Ihiwh, filled with chalk or clay, 
were placed at irregular di.-4tance!<, and with much irregnhu-ity of sutTbcv 


nnd of bright, ilvro II10 lior««9 wero tak«» for exercise ; tuid tboy Liid 
many a nlumblo lunl mniiy n fi^ll an ii\py t^WnytCil omr tliitt ntnin^irly un- 
even Rotimn; buttlicj' gradually learned to lift, their feet higher, anil U>l>t!iicl 
tlieir knees better, and to deal their steps sometimes shorter aud flomctimcB 
longer, fifl the ground required, until they could carry their riders with 
ease and safofy over the most irrcgnlar and daBRcronH places. Tbcu it 
Miui ttiat tbo Parthians could ftUlj put into priu-tiiro tbcix fnTonrite nia- 
na>u\-re, nnd turn upon an<l destroy their unttntipecUng twit. They could 
also tinvct mi nlntost inerodiblo dutanoc without food or rest- 
To the Scytbiaim, the U«dos, Rnd tbc Purtbiiuiit, in after times, and in 
TKpid sacccKsion (if. indeed, ihoy wnro nub diffurcnl nauios furburdc-sof 
on« oonmon origin), fnicrefxled tb« Oatraceii, the UrftU, tliu Mon^jlti, tho 
Calmaokx, the Noguys, tho VisigothB, tho OstrogoOis, ftnd tho Huns— nil 
people of tbe raat plaiua of Central Asia, nLich bos been wvU deuuiuiuatcd 
the iiaraery of nations. These wore all horsemen. Some of their leadera 
ooold bring from tvo to three hundred thousAud bornenieu into the field. 
Th<.>8j>ecd of their marehps ; their attacks nud their retrenis ; tile hardihood 
to which they inure*! thCTmselvcB and tho animalfl by which they wcro 
carried ; tbo incannon, and ofton Bcltlomcut, of liurdo idler hoi'dc, cnch lui 
tnuooratiB as that to wbich it itncciK^deil ; — tlivst^ uru cnrcmustauces that 
miwt not bo forgotten iu our rapid stketeh nf tbc horse. 

At tbo en<) of the eighth rentary, wlien the Sara^enii orrnmn n grpnt 
port of Europe, tbcy brvujrht with them a forc« of 200,000 envulry, in a 
lliach Iti^hur state of rliitcipliite than ilut tiolhN and Ilunn of funner n^cn. 

Of tlio borfteit in the south of Ahij^ and the enut of tbo InduH littlo 
Mention oceurs, except that both chariola and cavalry were muumoned 
from tim diuLaat region to swell the anuy of Xences. 

Celebrated as the horses of Persia afterwards became, thoy were few, 
and of an inferior kind, tintil tho reign of Cyms. That monarch, whose 
life vaa devoted to the atneboration and hsppinoss of bix people, saw how 
admirably Persia was adaptod for tho brcoaing of hor«C8, and bow oe- 
cesnry wna their introilaction to tbo nuuDtcoiuuie of the indcpondenee of 
his country. Ho tlivreforo devotod blmaelf to the encoani4^nient and 
iminoTeueDt of the bi-«od of horsefl. Ho granted jK^eutiar privileges to 
tlH>M who poMBMod ft certain number of tbe«ic animala ; so that at length 
ife wu deemed ignominiona in n Poraiau bo bo seen iu iiuhlic, exix'pt un 
borvebsek. At fltafc tbo Pentiaua ried with ench other in tlift beauty of 
tlieir hortiea, and the splendour of their clothing ; and incnrretl the cenBore 
of the historian Alhennms that they vera moi-c desirons of sitting at their 
eaao than of approving thcmsclrcs dexterous and bold horsemen ; but 
under saob a tnooorch a,i CyniH they wcro soon innpircd with a nobler 
oinbitiou, and iH^ennio the bent lavalrv iif the Etutt. Tlie native Pensian 
bono wiui MO highly prilled, ituit Alexander eouHiilered oiio of them tbo 
noblest gift he eoaid bc«tow{ and when tbo kings of Pnrtbia would 
propiltate tbcir dinoitiee bj the most costly aacrillcci a Pcmian bor»c wua 
ofTored on tho altar. 

Vegediu has preserved a description of the Pension borso, which jrroTOS 
him to bace been a valuablo animal, according to the notionx of those 
timea ; but capable of much improrcmcnt, ncconling to tbc vtoadord of a 
more modem period. Bo Mj8 tbat 'tbcy snr[iaKH^l other horsea in tho 
pride and gracvfulnem of their pare*, whicb wore so soft and easy a« to 
pleoM and relicre, rather than fntigno tho rider, and that tlie pace woa oa 
•afe OS it was ploasanl ; aud that, when tltey were br«d on a large scale, 
tlioy constituted a comiidetablo part of their owners' revenue.' He adds, 
as a commendation, *thc graceful arching of their necks, so that their 
chins Inatwd npon thoir br<«st«, while their poco was mmetJung between 


ngnllop suitl an amble.' Tbc horeemen nf &o present ilaj wonhl (lecidedly 
objvct to both of tbe»e things. Bind that wbicb fonnwn would Iw a KtiU 
uom BonouB caase of objection : — ' Thvy vrore subject to tire upon a long 
Quitx'Ii or jooTDCTi and then nrrc of a temper which, tuiless nvred and 
inibducd by discipiiDO and i-xorciBc, incliood tbom to obstinacy and rebellion; 
jtpI. with all tbpir beat and anger, ihpy nere not diffictilt to be paciftei.' 

JBoth the ftoldii^r nnd the lioriw woro ofton covcpod with armonr from 
he«4l U) foot. Thev adopted much of the tA«tic« of tho Partbians in their 
prctdtdod Biglit. Evrn when retreating in earnest, thcynniioycd tbcir 
parRnim by tb© continual diflcbar^o of tlieir arrows. Arrian ifiTes a 
corioiu account of thoir manner of riding. They biul no bridU'«, likutho 
Greeks ; bot they goTemod their horses by mean.t flf a thong or Htritp, eiit 
from the lair liido of a ball, and which thcv bouml acrotia their noeoH. On 
the tiL'udc of thia noseband were littlo pointed pierps of iron, or hmss, or 
ivory, moderately abarp. In the mouth Vitm a Kmali piew) of iron, in tho 
fonn of B BmsU bar, to wliieh tho roiug were tied, and with which tlio 
Dosobanii waa ooimoclcd. When the reins wcro polled, the small tvcthou 
Uie noseband pinched tho horse, and cc mpcllcd him to obey tho will of tho 
ridor. Tho modem cavi-stni wiw proljably dorivcd tpom thin invention. 

Tt i» timo t" proecfld to tho early history of ibe honfo in Enropo. Itany 
ootonios of E^ptians enii|;rat<,'<.l to Grcct-f. Tlicy carried with tbcm tho 
love of tho bor»c, and na many of thvnc nohlo imiumls as their chips woald 
oontaiii. It would ap]M>ar that tho first colony, aliout the timu uf thu 
birllt of Mo«p«, landed in Thessaly, in t/ie north of Greooo. Their iip- 
pwaoce, nivuiileJ on horseback, ftocordinn; to the old iable, territivd tho 
natiTe ialiatiitant«, and they fled in all directions, iina^nin^ that their 
OOVntry was attacked by a sot of monslvn, half borso and half man, and 
tltejcftlled them Contaam. Sueh wa.« thu origin of tho figores which 
U10 not iiufre<]a«nt among tho rcmaim^ of ancient sculptnrc. 

Another and a more oatoral interpretation olfcrs it«elf to the mind of 
the horseman. The Tboasalinns wcro tho prido of the Giecian cavalry. 
iJefore tbo other pnnincM of Orcoco wero scaroBly acquainted with tho 
name of tho honw tln'ir anbjogatinn of him was po complotc, that, in tho 
tnuguige of uiothor pout of fiir hitor days, but not inferior to any that 
Gieecc ctct know, (Sliaksj«!are, iu hist exr^niaite tragedy of ' Hamlet,') 

TlicflF gal Ion ta 
Had Tilchfrafl in 't — thry gnvnoto thOTrPoi>% 
And In sach woodrotia dointf brauEhi tlmir lior«« 
jLi thvj hnd iKwn ineorfiuMl. and OMni-nniuivd 
With Cat bnrw boatt. 

ncnn« the origin of the fable and of all the expreiuive Bculptores. Ba> 
eepbalna, the favoorite war-bonio of Ah^xander, wag proliably of thie brood, 
We are told by Plutitfch that lio wonldpormitnoonetAni»iiiithiinbut hi« 
master, and be alwars knelt dnwn to receivo him on hiH buck. Alnaiidrr 
Tode him at the battle of tho Hydaajwa, in which the nnblo steed received 
Us desth-woiud. For once he was disobedient to the commands of bia 
BWter: ho hastonod from tho boat of the titrht ; he brought Alexander to 
■ plaoo whom ho waa (xrvire from danger ; he knelt for hlia to ahght, and 
then dropped down and died. 

Sixty yceni afterwards, anothirr colony of Kgyptians landed in. tlio 
totiihem part of Greece, and they intmilu^Hid the knowlt^dpo of the horsu 
in the neighbourhood of Alhcns. Th«ir lender waa called Krichthoniiu, 
or the horse- breaker; and nlUrrhiti death, liki> tho tiret Ct-ntnnr, he foiuia 
a place in tJio Zodiac under the name of 'The Archi'i.' Rriehlboniiis 
likswiKi ocenpied a aitantiou among tho oonsteUationii, and waa termed 
Auriya, or the Charioteer. 


EABi.T niSTomr or tiik noBSft 

Tbib TTlfanftlinnn slva^ mumtainc;) their charactor tw tbo flnt lad flu 
ofaoioest of the Grecian caTalry. In jioint of fiict, it n-ns the o&ly put of 
tlie countiy in which barscs could with docidvd ndvanta^^o l>e brecf. tt 
nbaondied in ricb |)aatun}N, wbt'ri'aH tlio rent of Gnu'Co wne ccnnparativoly 
drr luid barren. BltuideviUo, irlio vna an nx^cllont claasic s^ wvU w 
liorEcmnn, s&Je : — ' Tbo Iioibcm of Urvuco bavc f^ood loj^ffoe, fp-cat body ch, 
L'umcly luNuls, and iireof fthigli 8taiur(% and rcry woll mudo ibrwiirde, batb 
not biickwardc, becutiM they awi j»|;«-tu(Aii?/.c/i. NotliwitTistimiliiiff, tJjojr 
nrc vory'o Kwift, fuid of a boldo cooragf- Kut of all th« nuK^ in Qreeco, 
both the bumea imJ m&rcs ol'Theesaly for tlieir bewtiv, bi^c-s^c, bonntic 
eui<l courn^, of alt authors arc most celebrated. Pur which cituitu Xcmcn, 
OK his coming into Greece, madu a running of horses in clint-iolit to bo iiro- 
cla^TQcd only in TiiessHliu, beeniiBO lio woulde have faiR owno bors^w to 
riumo wj-thv the best horeos in Grocoo. Julius Ctcsar, aUo, beying Dicta- 
ior of Rome, knowyiiif tho coiini|;o of tLc&c liorace, was tbo fii-st that 
ordejned them an a Rjwctado before the people to fyghte wythe wjide 
balls, and to kyll thom.' 

Protn variotia of tlift Greplc antbors wo can T*ry satiflfnctorily traco tlio 
rapid iiuprovcmeut wbicli about tbia time took place iii tiiu vltitruclcr and 
cuuu^ement of the horMi. Ic bas bcx^n stated that tho foil aiti) jirudiiccof 
Qroooe WOI<e not iavourahle for the breeding of IiorsBs, and that h oiuild 
be ft matter of profit only in Thaseiilj. They soon, howover, booainc 
neceaaary in almost oveiy partof thocoontiy. botbfuro]FmiccuiiiIdvft.-ni.'u: 
(lierefore, in most of tbo cities, and pnrtjcularly in Athetw and in Sjiarla., 
in order to induce tho iuhabitanU to keep the retjniaite nanilior, a 
now order of citizens wa« intititated, docnivl the second in ranlc in 
the conuQonwcaltli, and distineni«bcil by <^<■rtnin boiioiirs ajid priviU*;^. 
The oqaltcs, or knigbtn in tLe Haiaan republic, were fommd on the siuac 

It is ia some of the first Grecian stmlptures tlint wo fintt rpo the Ut in 
tbo borw'fl month, bat it ia net always that wo do ncc it ; on thct contrary 
tbctv ia rreqamUy neither bridle, mddlc, nor ntirmp. It bowuver waa 
frcfjueiitiy aeoenaiy to make use of cords or thongn, in order to confiiM 
Ifae hosve to the place at which it suited the ridor for a wliIU> to l(«v« him. 
Thew oorda vrere ftstoned roond the animars nwk, and may be aeon tn 
Bcrersl of tbo aucictii fibres. AcoordinK to some wriLerti, the occMnionnl 
■tragglea of the nnimaJ to escape from tbcso trummola, and tho Htronfrib 
whicS^ be exerted in ordi<r to accomphKh hit pnxpoae, first enggcstcd tbe 
ides of hamcssinf; him to certain machinee for the pnrposo of drawing 
tJioni ; and it is wry c-vidcnt that •ooo oAor tbia it mnst oaro occurTed (o 
tbo horacman, that if tliua rope were pat o^xr the bend, and over the 
muzzle or porlkajw into (be mouth of the animal, he would t>e ntorv eonly 
£uitcne<l and led fVoia place to place, and more sceorely gruided and manaf;(ed 
whether the man be off or on ais bock. Hence aroec tlic bridle. It pm- 
bably was at finil notliin^ more than a, baiter or cord by which the liomo 
wa« nsnally confined. An improvement on this wiui a detached coi-d or 
mpe, with prolon^tians coming np on Ixitii tides of the muuth, aiid 
giving ibc ridor much greater power over tlie animal j and after that, for 
liio sake of elcanlincsH. and to prerent tliv wear and tear of the rope, uiul 
alto giving yet more commaod over the anitiial, an iron bit was lilted to 
the moath, and retted on the tongue, and the bridle waa atta^ied lo (Mcli 
«ad of it. It IM4 lAe eMnmen tiu^le bridle tf the prettnt iav, tho iron 
bnng jointed and floxiblo, or often composed of a chain. 'Inero were, 
faowevcr, no ertiM pteeea to Ibeee bits at tiie mouth, but einiple kaohe or 
bolbs, to tlie inside of wbicb tbo bits were nttnched. 

Bita and biidlcB of this kind occur frequently in the Atfaimian sonlptorofl 




of the time of Periclos, »])ODt 430 years before tho Cbnttiaa vm ; Imt tho 
heatl<CMr of th« bridlo had not \x>an long introdneod , the bit h-s^nff miu. 
fioi-tcd, in Homa fignrM, b^r tho bnoVling or tyiu^ of tho bridlo thofki too 
Do«c, li littlu ftboTO tbe mtuzle. Those, bowoTcr, soon disappear, uid wo 
liave Uie present miaffle, with very lit tie mlU-rBtion f>xc«pt a frtra%Iit lonLhor 
or cord Iroin the head to the Qosetmiid, nml thnt not alwavB fotmd. Tlio 
chain nndor tho chin is occasionally obaerrcd, probo-bly lor Ihe take of 
kvtapiug the bit et«ady in tlic luouth. 

In no period of Gn-ciui hislory, eo for aa the anthor tfi a-ware, -wiu the 
•evere ana often cnM-lcnrlH-fl-bit known. This was an invention of aflar- 
tinu^ Tho only infitram<>iit of pani«]imont which va& then attnrhod to 
tbo hit WIU fonnd in tho knobn at the comora of tho mouth ; tlii;v bad 
shaip or roaeh jKiintA on their inner mrfoou, which hy a tarn or twist nf 
tbe bridle might easily be hrongbt U> bear piiiufiilly on the cheelcB and 
aaglea of the month. A. bit bo constructed was t^nmcd a lupnlwm^ from 
tJie mppoeed roopmblancc of tli^ec sharp projections to tho tocth of a wolf. 
It would eecDi tltat this was, amoiip the Roiniiiiii, almont coviiil with tho 
iatrodnciion of the hit, for thi; poet attributoft it to Neptiuio, Uic fubulouH 
parent of tho borwo. 

Ncptaniw t^vt, ti c»rta prionim, 

Fuan pftl«t priniiiii l«B«ria Immn Inpotis 

On, «t liltumi dnmniaM in pnlme fcrliir. 

Ni<p(iine, if «e may rrodil givo to Um% 

FImc Unght vith \\i\M thr g«n«oni lior*« t« tune. 

Via mention is made of biuIiDi'?. such as are ased in modern ttmeii ; hnt 
by way of omMncnt, and partly of conrenienco too, the borsoa an? ofU-n 
covcmj with hi-antiful clotlu, or with nkiim of wild bcoeta, secured by a 
girth or snrciDgle. I'hiia tlie )iorao of I'arlhi'iioijiaa was covered with tbe 
akin of a lynx^ and that of Muaaa with n lion's bIciii. In their relij^iouA 
or triampbal ^troeeenons tho bouniif^H of the liorao wore particularly 
riiScent, bcinf; frequently Aflomed with i^ld and adver and dtaiiioiidx. 
ooUara were also hiui^ ronnd tht-Ir nrcks, and bolls ndomed their 
Tbetroiipin^ of tho young knight in the dny» of chivalry did not 
those of the Oreciaii warrior on days of ceremony, 
le atirmp was likewise unknown. The adoption of that convenient 
ice in mounting thn hnriio wan of Riagnlarly lato date. Tlie first 
of it occnre in tho works of bjustntbius, nbont tho ll.'iSth year of 
Chrixtian em ; but it was uaad in the time of William tlie Conqneror, 
Doarly a century before that. Berenf^er gives the tignre of a bono Nuldlcd, 
bridled, and with Htirmpa, copied from the Bnyeux tapestry, whieh was 
mbroidered in the time of the Conijiicnir by hiH mf?, and deseriltes \\w 
mcsflutanoee preooding and ntt^'uding his deceeitt Into England. 1'ho 
hLiiXO oC ancaent timen trnsted ehiefiy ia their own agiUly in leaptuc on 
l]MnrfaoTaai'haclai,Bnd that whether ^landin^ on the rifjlit side or tho lelt. 
They who foaght on horteback with the Kpcnr or lance had a proiecb'oo 
m the spaar, or sometimes a loop of cord, ahont two feet from tho botteni 
of il, wluoh served at oneo lor a firmer gra^p of the wc(i(>oii, and a slop on 
which tbo ri^ht or the Ie{t foot loi^'ht he placed, acoordiog to the side on 
which tlic wairior intended to mount, and from which he could en-iily vault 
oa him ooDiaer's baclE. The horso whs sometimea taught to assist tbe rider 
ittimmtiiur by bending his noi^k or kneeling down. ilio ma^atos always 
bad their sUvcs by their horse's side to assist Uiera in mounting and dia- 
8omo made nitc of a ahori ladder ; and it was the dnty of the 
■imiiliiii J.liiitb inlbjineaiul Gn-ece, tosee tha,t convenient Stepping- 
__w wem placed nt short disinnees along all tho roads. 
Tbo iMOt for the dvfcnce of the log from the dangers to which it wn« 



mpo— d -was tot; early ailopted, uid the tool of it was, occoaiona]!/ at 
Mat, Knmxl with » spiu. 

Tha Iiotbm' (fxt were unshod, the paved or Qinty roads, which are now 
■o deitraetaTO to tho foct, bcincf in a manner nnknown. Occftsioruitlj', 
lioworor, DxMU natoral wcukaesti of the foot, or from tra^relling too tiir or 
too faat over tho causuwiivs, lutrtLUOss then, aa now, ocnirrcd. In order 
to prevent tlii^, tlie &r<t<eks mid the Rouuius weru ncciiflumfxl to Aistva s 
aort of sandal or Mockinf^, made of sodgcs twisted together lik« n mat, of 
else of IcnUier, and where tlio owner couid ufTord it, etrungthvovd wiili 
pUtea of iroD, and nonicLimca adnriiod with eiilver aiul oven witii goKl, as 
wua the cnac with the boracs of Popnata iind Nero. 

There whh a peculiarity in tha Grouk mode of riding, at least with 
r*pkpdto thocnvulry horsM, and, BomotimeB, those used for plenenre. Two 
or three of them were tiod together by their hridlcA, and the horaemao, ab 
full Speed, lenpi.'J froin onu to nnoiher at }iie plcmstur. This might ooea- 
aionally bo iiAefiil; whcti OMe horse was tli-ed or womidod, tlii> wnrrior 
might 5eap upon another ; but lie would be so hampered by the mjiniigo- 
mn'iit of ail of thfin, and the attention which he was eoiupellLHl to pay to 
them all, that it never hecaiuo tho general way of riding cir tlKhting ; wor 
wms it practised in any other country. Homer, in Ma 15th Iliad, aliiidoa 
to it u a feat of akill iitti.-mptod In sport. Tlio following is a tranblation 
«r tho paaufO : — ' Ju«t M a skilful hr>rs<'man Tiding; four chosen horees 
alo&ff a pabbo road to itomo i^rcat dty, where his course is to terminate, 
tlio wboFe town aMeniblcx to brhold liim, (ind gnie upon him with wonder 
and applanao; wliila be loapn witli coso from tlio back of one liunto to 
another, and flies alen;; with them.' 

Tho Greeks luuat huvo carried their inatiagomeiit of the liorso to a very 
high, atoie of perfection ; and the Grecian horao must have been exceed- 
inffly docile, when exhibitions of Ihia kind conld take place. 

It was, however, to tho draught of tho chariot that this animal wa« 
pHnctpaUy devoted in some other cooutrice, and amon^ iho Greeks iu tho 
early period of their history. No mention is made of a ainf^Ie horsimian 
on either aide, daring the ten jears' iiiogo of Troy ; bat the warriors all 
fooi^ht on foot or in chariots. 

Tho chariots wvro simple in their stractore, open at the b&ctc, and partly 
on tho sidcfl ; and containine the driver in the front, and the warrior 
standing oa a platform, nnn&lly Komewhat elev»(vd. These vehicles seem 
to have Doon rarely brouj^ht into eollision with en^li oDier ; btit they wore 
driven r^ndlyorer the lieM, tho warrior hurlinf;; his lancea on ctthursidc, 
or ali^itin^ when he met with a foo wortliy of his attack. TheJitc eliariotd 
were not only contrived for service;, but were oAen most sjileudidly and 
erpenaively ornamented. They were the priso of the oonqneror. Some- 
timefl they were drawn by three horses ; but tho third was a spare one, in 
caae cither of the others should bo tired or wounded. Some had four 
bonea yoke«l abreast ; sach was tho chariot of Hector. 

The charioteer, altboogh at tho timo inferior to, or under tho commaud 
of the warrior, was soltlom or never a meniaL He waa often the intiniato 
friend of the warrior ; tiius Nestor, and even Hoctor, aro found acting aa 
olwriotecrs. When not tito personal fi-icnd of the warrior, ho was usually 
a ohariotceir by profession ; and drove where he was dirfx*tut. 

Oooaaiooal mention is made of tha cwnu /aicaii, chariots with armed 
iuitnuiMt)t« in th<^ form of scythes, proioeting from the axl^s of tho wheels, 
by moaufl of whieh whole ranlu might be mown down at once. Tltcy 
were ooaRiictl, however, to tho more barharons nalirmtt, nnd wero used 
naiUier by tho Greeks nor tho Romans. They were ndriuit»);i<oi]R only 
OB tolernblj open or level ground ; and it not uufrwineiitly linppoued 






that, nffnglitud by tlio clamour of tlio Ituttlo, or by 'woondo, Uie horses 
becttino nngorenublo, nnd, turning; on the ronlce of tliotr friends, Uirew 
tbcm iuto oouijildte diaardvr. TIi«^' wuru on iiua uccoimt laid oetde, eren 
hj thu barl>ftriftn.s thenwelvea. 

In {irovnw oT time, war-cliariots of every kind Tttll into disuse, and tlie 
higher olaaacs of warriora wpni <;oiit«nt to fight on borsebnok, where their 
pcTwmal stran^li and courago might be aa well diapUyed, And diBcipIiso 
couM he better prcdcnrcd, 

Stfll, ftbnost to the ptriod of the ChristiatL era, and long afl«r that in 
many cotmtrips, tho luo of the honw vns vonfiiiod to war, to the chiLto, 
and to tioUtc pageant*. Xho first omplojinont of tho S^tiau coloiusttf, 
when tncy landed in Thfiosaly, wb« to rid the fureste of tho wild cattio, 
and otiicr daii|.'<.TOu« aiiimalH. wi(.li which they wt-rc tlicn peopled. In tlio 
opntml and RonLhora parhi of Qtv<oi<(>, the iiountry v/as luorti oiH>n and the 
«ri]<lor animal!) were scaroely known; bnt in Aas^Ti(i and Persia, and 
every country in which the legituuato prey of tlie liuntvr wiut found, tho 
borw was employed in its pnreuiL 

In procea of time, ie. order to decide the comjiaratiTe value of diflenmt 
boiMe, or to gratify the vani^ of their owners, and also to give more 
e0ect to certain religioiu ritoa and public 6]H3CtAi-l«:«, bonw-niOBa were in- 
troduced. Tho mojst celubrutcd of tJicaa cxliibitionB wna that at Olyinpift, 
in Peloponn««ug, held every fourtli year, in honour of Jupiter. The 
yonng men flocked tliilher from every district of (irvcco, tJi eoiit4Mi<l in 
every mAoij exercise— hurling tho javelin, Icapin;^, running, v>-Te&tlin^ 
and boxing. The candidates were pemons of nnhl(,iiii«hfd reputiUitm — 
the contest fairly and honourably conducted, and the conqueror, crowned 
with a laurel, or with gold, was roceived in Iuh native town with accla- 
naCioiis of joj. A broach was made in tho wall of the town for one who 
bad so distmgilialied himself to patM. Ho waB, for life, entitled to prece- 
dency at erery pabBo exhibition ; he wb« ejempied from all laxea and 
inferior eivil offices ; hin name was eurolled in the archivea of hia country, 
and Btatnes were eroet<'d to bin inemorj-. This was the souroo of tho noble 
nirit of emulation md thu ardent love «f country by which the Orcek waa 

Nearly a oentnry, however, pasBod before tljo attraction of the erliibi- 
tion was tDoroased by the labours of the h^inte. Tho tir«t oaIonist« eonld 
bring with tbem only a few of thc«e noblo animalr). In several of tho 
wan in which tliey were engaged, tlieir detieiency in cavalry waa 
lamentably apparent. It was not ontil the S3rd Oljinpiad that tho horse 
mingled ia the oonteat. 

Daring tbe first two Qlympiiuls after this, horapmcn alone appearod. 
Of tbeso races tho uccoontfl aro exceodtngly imperfect. Kach Leivc wkh 
I ridden by kui owner, who wna ol<Eigt:<i to undergo preparatory trials for 
the spaoo of thirty days. Tho homos were divided into full and nnder- 
a^ed; bnt no eaiplnnation ia given by any writer of tho preoiMO mciiniii!» of 
thcBo terms, nor u anything aaid of tlio weight of tlie riders, Wft only 
know Uio space to be run over, which somewhat exceeded four milw. 
There was one race Polled ^oZne, in which marea alone were permitted to 
tva. Towards tho end of tho conrso the ridors wore compelled to !<»]> 
from their bAcks, and, keeping tho bridle in their hands, to ran alongnde 
of them to the winning-pout. 

In the 2-')th Olympiul, chariot-raee!) wore introduced. The chariota 
irvro arrangiil a!>rea«t of each other at the atarting-pOHt ; the place*— for 
it win appoar that these gave some importAnt advantagoa— having l>een 
prwiooaty decided by lot. An altar was erected on one eide, upon which 
rtood a brazen eagle, dedicated to Jupiter, and a dolphin, snored to 


N«ptiu)0. At a signal from tfae prcaiding otliccr, Uie eagle, by some 
mocluiiumDt fipraog into tbo air, tlio aolphiu sank Qcitor ground ; and nvay 
tlie bonus BtarU-d. Tbo hipjHxlroinc, or conrac, miks about oDotbird of a 
mile in Icn^i; luid ml ihu Titrllivr uml wum n jiillnr, roniid wbich tii» 
chariata were to 1n! driven and linck ngnin to the st/urting- place sU tiiucM, 
making; mtber luoru tliaa four miles. 

The roanding of tlua pillar van tiic i\ni UrnL of Die nkJI of ttie ilnvrr 
aud the docility of tlio horaoR, and many aji aocidt-nt Imppened thfn>. 

This daogorODd spot was no sooner pa^3ed, than the compelitocB came 
at oBco npon a stnuif^ tignro placed to try tlio conra^o and norvo of tlto 
hono». It wiNi ail mormotia statuo, caJlod Taraxippus, tliu tvirifiur of 
lioraeH ; aiul, according; to old vrrltcni, well worthy of tlic iiontn. Xoiiu 
of thoro (leacribe Oat stranse deity, lint all a^rco that he used Nuity to 
fri^ht«n tho steeds, sad often, to endanger uieir lires, and that of the 

A Uttio farther on was & !of^ rock, in tbo very oeafcrc of tbu coorso. 
Icttvtiig only a very narrow deSle, in the pasiiii]^ throDgib wliioli tlio ^kiU 
of UlCcluinotoor'wafifieTOToly triod j wbilpwvta^l mpn, placed on the roclc, 
increased tho confuaion nna tbo terror of the horcicH, by the continual 
Ifrarin^ of thuir trooiiietit. 

Aa may be well RQjiposod, the number of the competitors was moch 
diminiidied ere tho conclusion of the race. Soma ran against tbo pillar, 
othprs were frightened ont of tho conrse by ths horrible statno, and not a 
few wero wrecked on that fearful rock. Some wore dustroycd oa the spot ; 
others, who escaped without scrioUH injury, were derided by tho Hpcctutora, 
oaaooomitof thoirwantof akilt ; and the fru^«nt« with whJL'h thocuurai 
was OoTored nmdarsd almoKt ewry ^wp [H^rilons. *Tlio oomjiunir in 
8D<^h a raoL',' Myi Faasanius, 'frvU dcltl^n-(:1d ihu crown which li« receivod, 
and tho liouoarv that were bMLowe<l on him.' 

Wlmt wer« tJie opiniotm which jirevaihil at this early period respecting 
the proper form— the points of too horeo ? Let that master hoi-seman, 
Xenopbon, doclar« : — 'Tho lirst thing that onght to be looked to is tbo 
fboi 1 for u ft hooso would ho of no uw, though all the apper parte of it 
weru buaatiAiL if tho lower part* of it had not a proper fonndatioD, so a 
hor»c would not be of any nna in war if he had tctulor feet, own though 
ho should luivi> all other good fmalitiea; for hLi iifood qunlitien conld nnt 
be mailo any valuable use of.' This maxiui, more than 2,S0t> yean old, 
beni<mks at ortco tho borsoman. 

'Thick faoob moko a honH-'a feet bettor than thin ones.* This mnst be 
nlf-erident, where there wiw no artideial protection of tho foot. Tlio 
foroe with which tbo foot n-ill oomo in contact with the gronnd at every 
Bte|) will produce eoffieieot cxpttnaioa of tho liecl ; hat it is only a stroug 
foot that lan long eiidare Uie eoncuasion, witliout Iwing worn away. 

* It likewise must not be torgolteii to tee whother tlio luxtfs are high or 
low; and Dear the ground, both before and behind.' Kow things aro of 
grcaicr iiajxirtauL-o than this. If the inelinatt'ott of the foot in fr<int is lc«» 
than its usual angle (forty-fivu degrocs). it indi(»ivs a contracted fovt, and 
a morbidly hollow aole, and inBammaLion of the Umine, and speedy and 
iacuiBblo lamimon. If the inclination is greater, and the angle neuter 
tbaa it ahonld be, there is flatness of tbo sole, and liability to serious 
bruise of it, or, peiitaps, pnmiced foot. 

' Tho pastema, or Dosios immediately aboro tho hoofs and below tho 
futlrn-ks, ought not to be stnught like those of a goat, for this would shako 
thi! rtdor, and such log* an more subject to inflarnniatioB ; ui>r ought tfamo 
boDos to be too low, for tho fetlock vroald bo chafed and ulcerated if the 
bone WBariddeaoTerplougl»)dgroiinds,aramongiitoncs.' if ho had added 




Umt Uio oblique nutem vma sully liable to sprain, and there would oftea 
bo injoiy throQcli llis wliolu coiirsu of the Boxor tendon, nothing coold 
hbvc been adiicd to the Ibrco of his obsor^'ittiou. 

* The iMinea nf tta lcj;s ouf^lit to bo large, Rinoe llii'y aro supporters of 
the l«dy ; not, bowevar, lluck with veins or iwllular matter.' H« is 
ejieatldng of the war-horstf and Hip banter ; and wbm caa be more correct P 

' If the oolt in wttlkiiig bend* bis knccti frwly, yon may jud^, 'when Uo 
omnea to be ridden, tliat lus logH will bo supple ; and enpplo joints are 
juiUy commended, ax tli«y mrnkv a Iiorne lutts liable to stumble, and not 
tire 00 soon as wliun hlx jiRiilii are itiff.' 

' Tbo tliigbw nndiT tlwj fthonldoni (tlv6 forft-anns), wlien tbcy are large, 
are both powerful und f^raixi'id ; uud thv cbcsfc boin^ lai^TC, contributoa not 
(inljr to bettntf and strcngtli, but to a hone's being ftble to continue a long 
time in one puce.' 

' Th« npek shonld procioed from thfl ohoat, risinf* upwards, and it should 
be loone Hbout tbi! l)Erud ol' the head ; thu bead too, beinf^ bony, shoald hnvo 
a small cbeelc. The cyo should be titaridin^ unb, aad not niuik in tbo 
nlieuk. Tho nostrilH that sn? wide, are not only better adaplod for bn'idb* 
ing thua those that are cetnprcssed, but UkowiAe can«o tbo bor»e to npfcni' 
more terrible in b»ttle. Jim top of Uic hvod being ]arf^>, and the i-nrs 
small, maken the head aprjwau- more ele^nt. TIic [loiol of the shoulder 
likewiw, beine high, rendirrs that part of the body more comjmct.' Tho 
aathor was evidently aware of the adrantap^) of tbia form, bnt he did not 
know ^ht pritKnplcs on which it was founded. 

' Tho sidos, being deep And ewellin^ towiknU tito belly, make a horse in 
ffonend morv eumiaodionH to lie sout^rd on, tuid better able to digest htx 
food. TIjo hniiider and Bhorter hin loina an?, the mom readily will ho 
throw his (on feet oat ; and. the belly that appcorg small, boin;:^ uri;e, not 
only diofisora a hor«c, but mokea him woulsi'r and li-ss able to carry his 
rider.* How bmntifully a^ii bo fviw* tho point, altliough we of tho 
proMnt day ttmile a littU) at Itis illuiitration ! 

* Tbo baonchce ftbonld bo Uirgo and fUll of flesh, that they may corro- 
■pond with the iiidee aud tlie client ; and whcm uU tlicso uru firm, thuy m&lto 
a horee lighter for the coui-se and fbller of aiiimatiuti.' 

Anolhor work of Xenophon, llipi 'IxittKHc, — on the managcnient of the 

.ilonc, — exliibite equal prool'of a knowledge of the points and projwr trettU 

^^bent of this animal, mixed with tho same ignorance of the priuciplco on 

whii^h tbsse thing* are founded. He was on acute observer, and tbo fhcta 

mode their due impreBsion, but no uue had yet taught the anatomy and 

jibynology of fbe horae. 
11m Bom 

Romans, from the very builiinf; of their citice, paid much attention 
to tho breeding and iraiiii;;L-raent of tltc horae ; bob this was moro than 
700 yean alW ibiit aniniAl tmd been imported into Oreeoe, and his value 
and nnportanoe bad begun to bo almost nniverRally acknowledged. 

Uorse aad chariot nee* wore early intnj(lece<l at Rome. Tbo chariot 
races fell gradually into diflrepule, bnt tlie horflc raccfl were continued to 
tlift timed of the Cvaani, and the yoanri men of tlic equc>«triBn order wore 
eBthniiastJcallr devoted to this cierciso. There wtTO not. however, any 
of the difficulties or d&ngcrs that attended the Grecian races. They wi>ro 
ohirtly trials of speed or of dexterity in tlio performance of certain circles, 
now properly confined to our theatrical exhibitions. The rider wonkl 
etanil npri^rht on his steed, lie along his hock, pick up things from the 
groaud at (iill Kpood, and leap fV«m bono to boTM in tho KwifUxt gallop. 

A lingular CLrcumstance in the miuiagcmcnt of this animal l>y the 
Bonaas was tl>e ouperior value which they itltributod to tho mare. Their 
xtataral historEaua, agricaUurista, and pout^ untie in this opinion. Perhaps 


tliU mi^lit in [mrt uriHu fixim tlic rastom of llio Homing to rnstrate nil tlio 
honoe that wvro ('iii|i]i>j:c<J in morciuitilo anil nj^culliirftl nursuite. Tlio 
hoT«c, howcvof, mm not dogrodod by the apci-atinn, or the lal>oar, bat 
rather he wbk mado to ooonpy the idtuatioii Tor which nature deeigncxl him ; 
am] from this time, and gndnallr over every part of Europe, bo luu 
bcfxjou) one of the moat mefu] of the servanU of man. 

To the RotD&iM may be attributed the inventiOT) of tho curb bit. Tlie 
Emperor TlLcodosiuii is ropreseiited in one of the micieiit scolptarea a^ 
iifiiD^ a hit with a treineiidooiily lon^ lercr, and wliich could inflict 
dreadfiil pimishiiieBt if tbe rider were so inclined. 

It may readily be supposed th&t a knowlodgc of the horse now b<^(>4jne 
more perfect and more diffused. Tcrrontiiu Vairo, who Sourialied ivbotit 
tlio year 70 before Christ, and diLring tho culslctux of the CommoiiW(«U.}i, 
has given a description of Iho humn, which hiM ^t'arccly been excelleil in 
modem tinies. 'We iimy proj^onticntn j^'at Uiinjjn of a colt,' says he, 
* if, when ronniii):; in the pastiu-ea, lie ia luabltious to get before hia coiu< 
IMuions, and if, in couiiiig to a rircr, lie strivett to bu the first to plunge 
into it. Sis h4ad tJiouUl ho rmall, hrit limbfl cleeo and oompact, liiii eyes 
bright and tparkliii^, liiM nosLriLa open and large, bin con placed ncAr oiich 
OtMr, Lift mane atrong and foU, bu ohesi brood, hi« ihooiden flut and 
tloptng backward, hiii barrel ronnd and compaoi, his loins hroitd uud 
Rtnin^, hiM tail full and liitMhy, liiii le^ iitraight and even, his knees bnvul 
and well kuit, kiji tioofD hard and Lough, and his reins largo and swoLling 
over oil hi« body.' 

Virgil, eighty or ninety years ofterwarda, jrivea some interesting accounts 
of the horse, and partlcolarly when taken from the pnrsnits of war and 
employed in the peaceful service of agricultnre. 

A few xtvn aRer kim followed Columella, who, in a work devoted 
exclusively to agriculture, treate at len^h of the mojULgoiacnt of the horae 
imd of many of liis dlHCBKes. 

To him taoceeilod I'alladins on ngricolture, tho management of tJio Tine> 
yard, and the apiary, J^c. ; and ho also dcacribM at ooomdenbto length 
the timtmont and iho diBcoeca of the bonK;. 

About the aame time, or somewhat before, tlie Koman emperom being 
nonlinnally engu^ed in fon>ign ware, and in many of these expedition}) tho 
eavalry forming a most cfllwli\-6 dir-ision of the army, veterinary Rurgenns 
were appoint*^ to eaoli of the legions. Tho horse and his uianaci'inent 
ami diH«asca were tlten far th» fint time systematically ttnilin,!. Tho 
works, orextmctsfrom the works, of a few of tliem are preserved. There 
is, however, little in them that ia valuable. 

About the middle of the fourth century a vclome of a different charecter 
on tho veterinary art was written by Vegetiim, who Ap]>ctint to have hpcn 
attached to tlie army, bnt in what Hihiation is nnkiiowii. nLi work, witli 
all its prrors, is truly valuable oa & collation of the best remarks UiaL hiul 
been written on vtteriuary matters, fi-om the corlicwt ago t^ Lib dny and 
iocladtDg cxtracte from the works of Chiron and lIip[>OQrat««, vrlueli 
would ouierwiM baTe been lost. The lii*tciry of the symptoms of Tarious 
diwaaea ia singularly corrcet, but the mode of treatment reflects little 
credit on the retcrinary acquiremeets of the author or the age in which 
1)0 lived. 

Almost in his time the irmptioiis of the Clotlm comracncod, and sbortly 
after erery record of aoieDca waa swapt away iu both the oastern and the 
weslarn ompirML 





TTl commonce again with tliat Doiintry connected witli which we bftve ths 
«rlie«t liistory of tbo horse. 


NotvitLslasding the flatterinj^ reports of trnvcllprs, &□(] tbtv amc-rtion of 
Pv. ShftW tfa&i tKc Ef{j]>tiAD horsoe lire iii-t'fombitt to the BiLrhiiry ones iu 
Mse, braatT, and goodjumn. Uio modem uorHr nf tliis country liud Little to 
recommend him. The despotimn iiixli-r whitli l)i<> inliiitiilwitii (rrotuivd 
ftltogetba* disooDTttfred th« rcoriua; ofa valniiblo bpivd. lor thi'ir [i<iwti>>utir>n 
WM oompletely at mo meroy of their TnririBli opprotwors, nnd tlie clioiccst 
tit their uumala woro oflea toJcen tjoiu them without tho 8li^hL(-r>t rt-mu' 
ncmtioo for tlic ktodk- Hi wtw thorcfbre u commou pcar^cc with tlie 
owiwnt of superior or gond Iionf« to bk-TniEh or to lamo them, in order 
that thpy miffht not lie robbitd of lh«m by ordcir of ihn Bi-y. 

or th* statv to which Uw outivc h«nc« were rcdwc<;d, hjhI even many 
IU tho coriM of tlio Manielnkea — the body^Kuord of lltti Flov — -thi; f illow- 
inp c%4dcn«j (toju a oompetent obaen"cr wUl dt'tomiine. Wils(jii, in liis 
' EifMHlttion to Egypt,' t^lls n&— ' Althou;fh the liurweH thiTi' seldcim pa«« 
fint rtf Ik frint pft«(> oscppt for a (rnllop of iim yardM, itiortof them oro futiu. 
dervd. tuni none, if quickly trotted Li-n iiuIl-s, would be ahlv, from wont of 
wind and tttAinina, t« go r»nhi-r.' 

The testimony nf BunrktianH in to tli« name effect: — * The Rpj'ptian 
hone is ntrly, of connto idiajtc, and lookiii|i^ mnru liko a Citrt-htjritc tlinn a 
neer. lluii Ifgti and kua-n and short and thick txivkii ikro fn-cjuont 
defects amnn^ thttm. Tho head is Homoiiines Rne, but I never lUiw gix>d 
legs in an Egyptian horeo. They arc not able to bear any gn-at lati^fot*, 
Imt when well fed, their at^ion occasiomtLly is more brilliant lliui that, of 
the Arabiiui. Their impotnoaity, howcvw, rcndcn thcin peculiarly do- 
nntbic for heavy cmvnlry, uiid it in u)M>n tliif quality akinc ttutt their 
crifhrity httg ever beon fouindcd.' 

Siuc« the acco«iuon of Mehemet AH to the government of E|?ypt, a 
beneficial ehanfr^ haa been eUectcd in the internal tnunaf^ment and pruH- 
perity of the oounlrr, and tho iiDprowment of the breed jiT h^ir^ee has 
npccially onKBgcd hia altcnticn. He haa even eoae ho ftir lut to ratabliBh 
m vet^riiwiry school at AI>i>h.ZjiIm'1, and, ma nhonld be th« riwo with every 
ituitiUitii>ii of thin kind, he has not only identified it mth ttie imvalry 
service, bnt with the agricnltriml interests of the coantry. The happy 
fioowqiUBCea of this arc neither doubtful nor distant. 

TtiOTe is a lonif but narrovii Iratrt of di-m-rt between tlie Nile and tlio 
Bed Bea, on whic-b some Arabiitn hnrrK^n of the ehoiccat breed are reared. 


Tha kingdom of Donjrolu, the mndcrn Niibia, lying between Egj-pt and 
Abyvsinia, eontaina a breed of horses diSerent irom any other that oitJier 
Arabia or Africa pioduce«. Mr. Braco speaks of it in tbo following 
■trouK t«nxiii of approbation : — * ^Vliat Bgaru the Nuhiiui breed of hnrxes 
wodM make in point of swifliietw in very drKibtful, their fiirm I»'irig «o 
entirely did'erent from that of the Arabian ; but if boautiful and aym- 
nrtricAl jiart«, jcrcat mm and stren^h,tbemoBtagile, oervotu^ and elnAtici 

C - 


morooisaU, i^rMt endurnncc of fatignc, docilitjr of temper, and, Iwjrond 
ADj other domeatic aaimul, scctning ftttHcLmcnt to man, can promise aaj' 
thing for a dtaUinn, thi' NnUiau is, abom bII cumpHriwn. tlio moiit eli^ble 
in tlie world. Few of Iboiii am Imji tlum iuxu-«iu luuidtt Ii'kIi-' 

Boonan, whoM (t«*crip(ioa< prove liim lo bv no biul Iiorsctnim, tlms 
Bpeaka of them ; — ' The Don^Ia honiefl ore Lhe niofit ]k>HV>c( in the worUl, 
bong; bentafbl, ■rmmctriral in their paru, ner\'onfi and elastic in Uicir 
nuyreoMiitl^ and aocilo nnd aflbcticmnto in lh«ir mannen. Ono of thcsn 
bnrsoA was sokl tn 1^10, &i Grand Ciiii-o, for a sum Mniraletit to l.'XWI.' 
The Dongola horses are usually of n black colour, Lut there are aonie 
bright baja and som-Is. 'Wlicn their rxrnuse is over, the asual bridle in 
taloen awar, antl a iii^hti^r one pat a^tcm Uiem ; for tho inhaliitanta tell of 
manjr battlM that wcro loat, fW>in their being attacked when their honiM 
wen nnbridled. 

The aJt'udtT yet finely set on nwfc, the noble treat, the elarated iritliprs. 
the beantifal nction ana bearing of the animal were admirable ; bat thn 
long and KlEmder le|;s, tliu weBkn<>s>, of the furo-nrm, tho nnrrownees and 
wwt of depth of the ebc«t, and oven n deficiener of irobiitjniee nhont the 
flaok and <|unrten>, ooulJ not osonpo olMcrratinii. Hncli an animal might 
have iporfl. hut his cndaranc^ most lie dnnhtfnl, and it is difficult to' 
aupposc that any breed of EnglUli honieH conld be materially improved 
by it 

Some of theeo bones hare lately teached England : and one of tbcm 
vaa reocnlJy in London, nnd belonged to an officer of the Life Gnatds. 


Lndolpb, ia hia history of Uiia country, itays that the horeea are strong, 
nimble, mettlesome, and mostly bhtck. They are nsed only for war and 
in the ohase ; Ihey tr«Te! no long and fatiguing jonmeys, and all the 
dmc^^eiT of enery kind ia performed by the mule. 

Aa AEraaintan who acoonpanicd Ltidolph to Rnrope expreaaed a great 
deal of pity for the horsM when ho naw them drowing litnavy carta, and 
loudly cxcUimol at the cnielty of pnltiiiff K> noble a creature to snch buso 
and •errile employment. He aaid tliat be wondered at the patienoo of 
tbo anhnab, and waa every moment in expcctatioa that they woald rebel 
a^iimt nuoh unbeard>of tyranny. 

The number of horses in Euiiopia must hare oouiderably dccreaaed, 
ftw CyrtaoDs, a former kii^ of tliat couuliy, entered Rgypt at the hnnd of 
100,000 canliT. 

The art of uiocins had not in Lmlutph's time (the middle of the neren- 
ieenth century) roaoicd Ab/MiniA ) and oonseqnently, when the nativea 
had tn travel over roni;!) ud atOBy annind, they dicmoanlcd and gob upon 
mnles, and led tboir horaea m faoDd, that by biaFing no bnnlen to carry, 
tlx^r might trtftd the livhter. 

Bmct: says litUo of the Ethiopian lioracii ; but Mr. Bait, an eaterprtainf; 
travellor, says that the honwa are Renerallr sironfr. well-made, and kejit 
in good condition ; that their nccoDtremonU are also good, and the men 
them«olrc« ar« exceUent hora«BU>n. 


By the term Barbary la understood ilie northern part of Africa., ex- 
ttfiul'ing aloni; the mast, and sa far inl;uid as the Great Desert, from tJio 
fW)ati«ra of Egyv^ t« the Mediterranean, llie Arabs that are found in 
Ihis extcusive oiatrict are mostly ilie desrendants of those who aiugnit«d 
nr w«a« driven tram eastern Arabia. The horsos are likewise all of 
Ankb stookf considcittbly modified by change of climate, food, and manage- 



nwnt, Mr. Rracfi rrlntefi, bhat ' thi> best A/rican banies toe said ta bo 
dcBceiulod frum ono of Ui« fire onwhicli Mahomot nnd hie foor umaodiabo 




Tp ^.'■. 

TK» nnoot.nnx utLiiiuc 


od Tram Mecca to Modinn, nn tlio night of the Eegini.' This 
nun4 bo rtHXrivctl with rorj coiuiidorul'lu ullvwtiticv. The inhabitants of 
almoib tbf whulc of tlirM; cotiiitries uro ns (.Tut-lly opprVMod ah tbt^^ Ft^lItdiH 
of Egyiit, »nd the c<)i»i(><piviice of that opprussioii is tlio same. Tho Arahfi 
wiQ ncarccly ho indiuwl to cnltivat« a hrv^A of horsm of imii'h vnlut*, 
whi-n, williout BCmple or vompcnsutiaii, thoy may bo di-privcd of cvt*ry 
i-olt by th« fintt nuiu in powvr tliiwt chooacK to Ittke u fancy to it. It in 
ooly kiium^ thv Ln'N'x of tlio Ikwurt, wb« ani iMj-oiid th» tvhfh of thn 
t^rRiit«) of thoie («untr}', t)mt tho Barb of mipurior breod, form, sod 
power, it* to l>0 foand. 

The common homu ol' Burbftry in n Tpry infpi-ior aninutl — ^just nucfa a. 
ODa an many yt-ant of siipinvnwui Hud iicgloct would produce ; bvt the 
fallowing Are tho (■h&nict«riittic poiribt of a trao Barb, and onicciaUy from 
Morocco, Fea, and tho interior of Tripoli, wi dcscribi'd by Borenger: — 
•The forehand is long', slender, tLiid ill-fiti-nisKud with main, bnt rising 
diidnctly and boldly out of tlirir withvnt ; tb« hand U Binall nnd Imn ; 
the ea« well-formed and well-placod ; tlie fOirmldcrs light, alopinj; bni'lc- 
ward, and flat; the withent fine nnd high; the loinn »trai);hl and nltort; 
the flanks and ribs ronnd nnd full, and with not too much bund ; tho 
haimclMB atrong; t3ie croup, perhaps, a little too long; the (|tiart4T!i 
nraBcntar and woll developed : tho lega olwui, with the tendoBs boldly 
detJi«hc<l from the bone ; the jUAiem somewhat too long and <>bli<|nc ; and 
tlie foot sound and gniwl. Tliey ans rather lowirr than tliii Ai-aliian, 
Midum exccotliug fooi'tcen lianda and an inch, and have not his N|ntit, or 
ap«ed, or continnance, althoogh in general form they btb proliablj- Ids 

The Barb baa phiefly contributed to t>if> eiccllenco of the Sptuiinh 
brme; and, when the improvement of ih« hrtfti of homes bi-gau to bo 
tyst«nntic*l]y jmnnied in Oroat Britain, the Barb wus very early in- 
trmlniTcd. Tlio Godolphin Arabian, att he is called, and who wan tb« 

e 3 


origin of Bome of oar best racing Mood, waa s Barb ; and otbers of our 
most celebrated turf-horses trace their descent from A/rican mares. 
They are generally first mounted at two years old. They are never 
caatratfid, for a * Massulman would not mutilate or sell the skin of the 
beaAt of the Prophet.' The horses atone are used for the saddle, and 
the mares are kept for breeding. No Arab ever mounts a stallion ; on 
the contrary, in Africa they neTer ride mares. The reason is plain. 
The Arabs are constantly at war with their neighbours, and always 
endeavour to take their enemies by surprise in the grey, of the evening 
or the dawn of day. A stallion no sooner smells the stale of the mare in 
the enemy's quarters, than he begins to neigh, and tliat would give the 
alarm to the party intended to be surprised. No such tiling can ever 
happen when they ride mares only. On the contrary, the Airican trusts 
only to superior force. They are in an open plain country, must be dis- 
covered at many miles' distance, and all such surprises and stratagems aro 
useless to them. The cavalir exercise to which tiieir horses are exposed 
is exceedingly severe. The Moorish method of fighting principally con- 
sists in galloping at the very height of their horses' sjici'd for the distance 
of a quarter of a mile or more, tlien suddenly stopping while the rider 
throws his spear or discharges his musket. By way of exercise, they will 
sometimes continue to do this without a moment's intcrmis.sion to change 
or to breathe their horse. All that is required of the best-taught and 
most valuable Barbary horse is thus to gallop and to stop, and to stand 
stiil, all the day if it is necessary, when his rider quita him. As for 
trotting, cantering, or ambling, it would be an uni>anionable fault were 
he ever to be guilty of it. A Barbary horse is generally broken in in a 
far severer way, and much earlier than he ought to ho, and therefore he 
usually becomes unfit for service long before tho Arabian. The usual 
fi>o<l for the Barb is barley and chopped straw, and grass while it is to bo 
found, but of tho provision for winter food in the form of hay they are 
altogether ignorant. 

Captain Brown, in his ' Biographical Sketches of Horses,' gives tho 
following interesting account of a Barb and his rider, at the Cape of Good 
Hope : — ' In one of the violent storms which often occur there, a vessel in 
the road dragged her anchors, and was forced on the rocks, and beaten to 
pieces. The greater part of the crew perished immediately, but some few 
were seen from the shore clinging to different pieces of the wreck. No 
boat could venture to their assistance, ileanwhilc a planter came from 
his farm to sec the shipwreck, and [lercei^'ing no othrr chance of escape 
for the survivors, and knowing the spirit of his horse and his cxcellenco 
as a swimmer, he detcrmine<l to make one dcspenite effort for their 
deliverance, and pushed into the midst of the breakers. At first Imth 
diBrtppenrcd, but tlioy were soon seen on tlie surface. Nearing the wreck, 
he induced two of the poor fellows to quit their hold and to cling to hix 
l>ootn, and so ho brought them safe ashore. He rcpeateil this jx'rilous 
expedition seven times, and saved fourteen lives ; but on his return, tho 
eighth time, his horse being much fatigued, and meeting with a fiinui<htIilo 
wave, tho rider lost his balance and was overwhelmed in a moment. Tho 
horse swam safely to land, but his gallant rider was seen no more. The 
Ch|io was then a colony of tho Dutch. The directors christened one nf 
their new vessels alter him, and ordered a pillar to l>c en'(t<'d to hiw 
ini-mory, but the local authorities refused to the son a trilling place wliirh 
his father filled." 

The Barb improves towards the Western coast of Africa, Ixith in his 
form an<i graceful action. 

Di-c]) ill the Sahant Ucsert is a noble breed of Barbs, known bv the 




BMDO of Uio * Wiud-saokor or Uio Dvuvrt-borvc.* JaclnoiL Myt of him 
titat tho Dwwii-horae b to tbe common Barbiu7 Lone what ilw Ik-nciV 
canipl i» u> Uie utukt camel of bnrdea ; but that he can only b« itidiicol lo 
emt barley or whmt — oats nre never given to horecB in Africa ; bat UiiU, 
soppUed with a little cam«l'8 miUc, he inll tfarel ftlmoet incrediblo dis- 
IwCM arnuia the Desert. Ho is principally employed in banting the 
antelope and the oHtnuh. 

There is Mime little «z»ggs»(ion, hovever, almttt thia, for irh«n he is 
bK>uf(ht ton-nrdn the oooBt, oad ens no longer gat his camel's milk, ho will 
mt the bMrh-T nnd the atraw which are giT«n to him, and will thrive and 
f!«:t fnt u|ioii ilit-iit. rritc cluuieea to die, it is from Wing suffered to goroe 
U)n nini'b o{ bin new food : or if he loscfl a portion of 1^ ■peed and vb^ 
it is bceanae be has been tAl:en out of his uxerciee, &tid permitted to 
accnmukte ie«h and fnt too fiutt. 

Jlore in tbe centre of Africa, iu tbe kiugdein of Uouraon, is n breed, 
wliicb Mr. Tiill)', in biH aJmoiit romantic history of Tn[M>li, reclcons mijiwrior 
vwn t«i lbo«e of Arabia or Barbarj' ; it pomessea, aeeordiiijf to hiiu, ibe 
bPMt qonlities of both those brecdn, being us Berviceublc lu that of Arabia, 
anil aa beautiful as that of Qorbaiy, * 

ih) tbe sontb of the Qnxt li&bam Desert we find again the Arabian or 
the UarbsHF- horwe in thi^ ixnseMaon of »ome ef the rrbiefn of tbu Foulabu 
Afid tbe JrJofa ; but the ^^eneral character of the animal ia in tlime torriil 
re^nnii ranch deteriorated. Tlie^o horses are email, weak, nnsafe, and 
nntractuldii. Tbe Foalaba, howcrer, can bring into tbe tield no fewer 
than irt.OiV) cavniiy. Some wrili'D* biive iHwerted, that in the kingdom of 
Benin a inni-b larger iiamWr iiinid lie Pollected. 

In Ihp euantry lying between that of tho Fbnlabs and the kingdom ef 
Buais, there are few honefl immediftt^Iy on the eo«st, but thej *ro more 
tutmeroaa in the inland districts. Bosnian, however, says of than that 
they are rer}' ilUahsped; tliat they carry tlteir heads and riecks mon* ]in>- 
jeeting and depreeMa than even the asa | that thev are slow and obstinate, 
and only to be forced tm by dint of blows ; and (bat they arc so lave, that 
a tall man sitting on their backs evuld touch the ground with his feet. 
He adds that at tido, on the Slave-nunitt, whence he joumtnrKl inland to 
KImitia, be bought fire or six of them, each of which roKt nim AHiiewhal 
Iwa tis»n 41., but they did him no manner of service, and ho was compelled 
to leave them behimL Neither lioisea, nor any other produce of value, can 
be linked for in those nnliappT cxmntrica, bo long as they are dcmilated by 
the abominable slare-trade, nndcr the sanction of the more civilised bat 
tmly unchristinii nattnns of Europe. 


Niothinir is certainly hiiovni of the we«t>"ra eiiast of AfHea, dencending 
towards tlic south : but arriving at the Cope of Good Uvpv, we find tliat 
the horec, if a aative of that oonntry, in ouly ix;caaionalIy seen in ita wild 
state. The bones that were introiliiocd by the first colonists, the Dutch, 
wetB mostly procunid from Batavia, Ja\-a, and South America, At the 
vory commencement of the colony, many horse* were import«d from Persia. 
*l*hcae WCTo mingled together, and crwwcd in every possible way, except 
that not one notion of acientjlio improvement fiorms lo hnvc entered the 
licwl of the Dutch boor. They were a small luudy race, capable of endnr- 
injr a grtiit deal of fatigne, but in every way sadly negleetad ; norer dmawd, 
and often itl-fcd. 

W hen the Cape was ceded to the English, both tho polonitifs and the 
g(0»emmcnt «<4 earaostly to work tn impmve these iindtTsize.1 aniiruils, and 
with very couKidcmble hhoccm. The British light n-ginient* of iliagiHTOft, 



in llicir pnuaf(p to tiio Rutt. c«ii now frOTjuently tlmw conridprable snppliofl 
of borsvs from thui ooluiiy, und BoniD rc^m<Mit« hnrc bccin entirely monotod 
hero. 'I'liia is aiillUTicTit proof of llic ilrun-u nf improvi'mcnt wliicb they 
have readied, it u, however, Miid, by I'lmuvttl, in hit 'Cft}Mt or GikmI 
Hope,' th&t the riding-masters bav« occTaaionally much tronblo in br«Llds^ 
in tho C»po horw*, which are n&taraUy Yicioiui, and cepecially yrhvn pnt 
beyond thv pnm bo which thcr had been iKimstonicd. Thiry mrrly stAitd 
aboTv fourtotTi hands high ; Iney aro hardy, and whm thuraajjhly brokon 
in, are ciuiablo of eadnring srcBt privatirmti and fiLli^iio. Tliny are mrel/ 
shod whifc they niiDain in w oolcmy, or if thsr are, it ia only on the for* 
foot, Tlicir prinn|ta] tooi ia OMTOta, with a email (jtuiutify of com. No 
bay is grown near Onpo Town, nor are tJicro any paatom on which the 
homes cKti iMt tunind. 

Tlirt wild horaoft haro lon;^ diaapppaivd nwir to tho polony, and w« hard 
no autlientic rwwrd tJiat aay of them woi-o ever taken and attempted to be 

The horso is nuvly sron in any part of the nMt«m oooet of Afn'ca. It 
in nut a unlive of Madagascar, hot is sg«in finind in Ajau aiid A(U>I, on 
tlie »outbum OoStiom of Ahyudnia. 


Although modem Enrop« oww no mticli t^. Arfnt'ii* fi>r the improvement 
in her bre«.-d of horses, it muy be doubt<.<l whtlhor them animals woro 
fbnnd in tliat conntry as a niattt-r of iiu-n^handiNi-, or iiidwd cxiwttKl tlicro 
at all in largre niiinlxtrn in very early tiniM. The aittlior of tlw Ixmk of 
Job, in d^Hcrilnng tho wealth or that pnt.rinrch, who wim a native of 
Arabia, and the richetit man of bin timi?, midcw no mpnrion -( ht>r«e«, 
nlUtuugh thu writtT showa hiniiwlf very convcnuuit witli that auinuil. 
Fivf Imndnnl ypan after UiaU Holomon import4<d Kpiws. goM. and gilvcr. 
fnim Arabia; but we am told in OUroniHiM, all tlir hnnu-M for hin own 
oavnlry and cliariots, and Uhmb with which ho nappbod tbo Ph^enioian 
nKMiarohs, he procnped from Kaypt. 

Tbnro ia a coriona i-ooord of the commerce of diffimnit ranntrics at tJio 
chxo of the acoond ocntnry. Among the articlL<9 vsporUt! from F^gypt to 
Arvliiu, and |nrtieu1ariy ujt pnwnla U* rra'f^ing inonarcba, were hi)nR«. 

In tlw fourlh conlniy. two hundred Cnpfmdodnn horsoa wem apnt by 
the Honian craporor as the moat aoooptablc prcaent h«> could offer a powor- 
hl prince of Arabia. 

So bite afl the aevenifa century the AralM Itad few boms, and those of 
littlf value ; for whon Maliomet ftttaokwl liui KoreiBli aear Meccfi, ha liad 
bnt two honuw in hut whole army ; and nt tho elone of hin (nnnlcroua 
ompaigu, although he drove off Iwenty-foiir thnonand <'»itit'U ami forty 
thoRj«ud 8h<*p. and carried away tw^'nlj-fonr UnMNaud ouncva of ailvcr, 
not one horse nppeitrs in tho lint of plunder, 

These ciniumttanttoa anlTioiinilly prove tJiat, bowovor anpanrior may bn 
tJio proMnt breed, it ii oomparatir^ latdy that tbo horw was iintnralif««d 
in Arabia, ladeiil the Anba do &ol deny this ; for until within the last 
oentniy, when their horaea began to be eo dewrvedly Tuiuni, Ihey wera 
eoalent to limit their ]H<4l)gn<c to one of the five on wliitdi Maliouiirt and 
hia fonr imm«diut4> aueei-'saara fli>d from Mecwa to Modina on the night of 
the Ec^m. 

Although in the seventh cenlnry tho Ambc had no horses of value, yet 
tTiCMS which they ha<l derivKl fmm thrir neighlxiun* lick^in then to he iire- 
MfDd with H) much rnrr, and pmpafnted ho uniformly and atrictly fn»n 
tiw finest of the breed. Uiat in tlie t)iirt«<nth eentury the Arabian horao 
begu to assnine a juit and URnrallrd eelebrity. 

TboM are now nid to be three breeds or varieties of Araliian hnrstw ; 




the AttMit\iir inferior browl, uii whicU t)ui milivni set little vuloe, and 
wrliicH aro found wild on mirio port* of ttic deottrbi ; the K'l'li'fJii, litvmUv 
itorscs of an aukinvn rocv, niunroriog t«j our bttlf>bnMl IwrocH — • mixed 
btvcd : mid tfae A'ocUont, botse* whose gemiiln^';, UHXinling to tjie modem 
exaggvisted Hcoonnt*, hu bean cnltivaUid dumig tun thousand ^'iwrs. 
Uany fmttca and utMted pedlzreea extend, with troe )>^afitem exaggera- 
tion, to the titad uf Sotomoj). The Kt^kUini are principally rear«d by ilio 
Bt-dontn AntiM in tlie reniotedcwrta. A stallion niny b(t pro^an^d nitiiiuit 
mnvh diDii^ally, ftlifaon^li nt a great price. The Arabs imagine that t)io 
ffitntilo in more concerned thiui the male in the cxcclleuce and value of 
tbe pnMiuL-c, and thu ^•ocawlvgite of tbctr borses ar« always traced througb 
tbe aaai. 

The Arab borae woald not W iu>l(iinwU'd|^d by every judge to posseMi a 
perfect form. The bead, howav(>r (liko that wliiek is delmeated in the 
ttUe-poge), is inimitable. The brvudncna and 8i|uftreut)8S of the forehead ; 
tbc ranallnen of the cars : the pnmitiiuiK!!; »i)d brilliancy of the eye; Uie 
■boitaeM and fineneiu of the miizzle ; thv width of the nostril ; the thin- 
BCM oftlie lower jaw, and the beantifully developed ooutbc of the Teins, 
— will always obarucWriae the hviul of ilie Arabiuti horbu. The cut in 
the litlcpn^D in the portnut of the head nf a black Arabian pivHcnt<;i] to 
William IV. by tb« Imanm orMimcat. It ih a rtosc and honest likoiieKs. 
The mit32le, the nostrils, and the eye, are inimitable. In the sale of the 
Hampton Court stud, in 1837, tuis aminal italiaed 6iKI ^uineitB ; it wan 
booKnt for the Kinjf of Wiirtcniberg. and waa liiijlily priatcS in Germajiy. 

The body of the Arab may, perhaps, be considered an too light, and bis 
obesl too oarruw ; but behind the anaa the barrel generally swelU out, 



and WvM HulTlcicnl. room fortho jflay of the longs. This in wpII eilii- 
Wt*d in lliccut of Uie pvy Ambiiiu mare, whowt |Kirl.nut i« Uifrv given. 


Slic IB (kr ioferiur to tint blat-k am: in tlir |m'k-uIuu- tlvvc1o|iiDrnt oT tlio 
bead and nock, but in other rvspectii nfl'iinlj* » morv fnilhtiil Kpiinnivn of 
the tme form Df th« Arubian horM*. She U of the pDrMtewto, and n-u 
amvnent from the mn« [>ot«ntjtlc- hy wIk^ui thv bhok Antbittii waH pvcn. 
Tne foal at her foo4 wan by Act««n, She watt mild for 100 iniincMui onlr. 
Pcrrhapa her colour mw a^ii»e her. Iler flea>bitt«m apjKstnuiro wonkt 
not please eveiy one. The foal, nrbioh had more than tlte luiul clumnneM 
K'longing to tbc joon^ster, sold for M gamena. 

The Dedc of tltA Arabiaa U \oag and arched, aod btwatifiilly juincd io 
the cheHt. The black hone in t^ fn>ntiB[Hece alTordMl a pfrfi<ct spcci. 
men of this. In the Ibnuatiun of the shoulder, next to that of thu fa4«4l, 
the Anvb is sapertor to sdt otlicr bi«cd. Th« withers arc bi^h, and tba 
ehoulder- blade has iU proper incliuatiou backwanlM. It is hIho thickly 
clothed witb mtui-lr. bat without the sli^bteat api>rarance of h(i«vin«Mt. 

"nio finenma of hix li-^ and the ubliqae poBiriou of the pa«t«mfi ml^iht 
be BnnpoMd bf tho nninitiat^d to lesaen hin appvrcut strvngth, but thu 
lev, altbongh nsall in dcvp. and oonpoacd of buue of tlie deuae«l diantcU'r. 
The tendons are mifliciL-ntly distinct from tbo booe. and the atarting 
maaules nf the fom^rm and tho thigh indicate that be la roUy capabla of 
accompli Kiting many of th*! ffats ihnt nrc nvTorded of him. 

As a fuithful ifpvcimva of tho fft-uvrul form of Ihest- boraea, wiUi per- 
liaps a littli- dcficMnicy in the head and neck, we refcr once more to tJie 
fiitlon-iap purtrait of a bay Arabian— «n animal of the purest east, pra- 
KCBted aUo by tho Imanm of Mneoat. It wtm sold for 41(i piim-as. The 
higher price that was [^tcii for the black Arabian proves that he waa tlte 
gvnend flivoarib; ; bnt the Iwy one. althoufrli uut su strikinff in b!a ligure 
mu a stronger, a qxtedin', and a better home. 

The Barb alone eicrh the Arabian in noble and spiritod action ; bat if 
tbcr« is a defect ah»tit . lb? Utter, h« is {MTfcct fnr tliut which ht> wii« 
ie^gatA. He prcM-iitJi tlie true coi&biaatioD of rpecd and bottom : 








•tivueUi ononsh to con^ more ihftit n light weight, (uid courage tUut 
wonUL cause hun to die rather than yield. 

Mr, BurckhHTd(, in » lett«r to Frut'eseor Sovrell, says ihst *(lietril>e9 
rirhmt in bunwft an' tliosc wliu Jwoll, duriug ilio epnii); of tlic yciir at 
]enM, in (liw rmrtilr plaina uf MiuutjioCamia ; for, mi twith standing all lliHt is 
said uf tlic (liw^rt hIInu^ [lU'-nty of tiutn'UouK foiKl irt iiliKiiliiU'ly nf|iii>.Lt« 
for tt4i itift^hiu)^ ltd lull riponr and j^Tftwth. Th* Diiini'rtni« tritv* mi tJio 
K<k1 ^it, )>t.-tvrt!«-u ALuba uud Xlvt-CK, aud especially tli'^ct^ tu lliv ouutli uf 
Uecoa, and an far a« ycmen, liave very few honws ; bat tlio Cnrdcs and 
Bedoams in tlio eaxt, and e^Mtnally in M^HOpotitmis, poiWfaM more tiorsea, 
and mort' nUiuiUv onwi, thini nil uf tlii' Aniliian Itcitmiinii; ftir l-hc ricli> 
iicftM of tlicir pwCnrM oacilj nmiriikbi'a the colu, and filli tlnir ritudii,* 
Tbuse obnnTTaltiKM are rerjr iinpurtsnt, and an; tiviihnitly fininiliHl mi tnitJi. 
He adtbi, that ' the unmber of nomea iu Arabia is nut nion' t)mii !>(i,(lOO ; 
a iiumlwr far iiiforiur to thut fuattd in any part of J^^uinpe, or Asia, on an 
M{iial p«tcat. of ifnmnd,' 

* Daring; diQ WiiJmlwi.' irtTVfmmmt, lior«cs became Mcarccr cvorr year 
amoDf; IIh" Aralw. They wt-n- oold liy tliiiriiuuitvnt tu fprcicii piirchiMci-s, 
wliu carriail (h«m to Yetni>ri, 8>Ti», and It.-tiuinm ; which InttiT {ilm-o mp- 
[ihna India with Arahian horiics, bepanao iJicy wm afmid of Imvinf t-tn-m 
w-t;!i>(l upon by Ihoir chi«& — -it haviu|j> b4.>i?i>ui<> tlie onat^iui, upoti t-vrry 
slight pretext of disobedience or crime, to drcloro the most valiuiblu 
n«iloiiin man forfeit to the pnMtr trxiMiirj'.' 

Sv ria iff the bMl pWf to pun-liiutif tnir Amhtan lilood-linrMW; and no 
diatnct i* snwirior to Uut Naurau, wh<>rc tiio bortu> may Sc pnrr'tnuied fnmi 
till- tirat hand, aud cliuseit iu the very eaouupmeutaof tile Aiitbn llieuuk>lv(.-x, 
wliii till tbeeo plains iu the apriu^. Tlio Iti>nie8 hoagbt at Baanoiv for the 
Imlian markcta are pOTL-haai-d Hccond-linnd from Bedouin dealena. These 
finicnre Ihem from the Muutil'ell Arabs, whu are not mrcful iu niaintain> 
ing a pure breed. Damascus woald bo the be«t roeidoac« for a pcr«uu 
ooostautly em ploy «1 iu this trade. 

While the tiiiniber of liorM-.t ^nerolly w mnoh zmalltir than had lieeii 
KiipjHtMil, tlu'ru aw eainiiianitivitly fewer uf LhnMF of porfetrt qnnlity nnd 
bwmly.^porluipa not moro tJian five of h\X in a wliole trilH' ; jirolwbly not 
two baudred iu iJiu whole deeert. Bach oi ihiiw in the df.mTt ilm-lf may 
hv worth from one linndrcd and fitly to two hnndrfnl poouda ; hut very 
few, if any. of these have ever fonnd their way to Euroi«e. 

Then) hux, however, Ihh'u miieli •txai;irenit.i< ii willi n'uanl l^thecp podi- 
ffT«e«. Burckhnrdt oayii, that in the inlenor of the d«Mrt, thf Itiilmtinit 
Dt'ver niake hm> of any, because, aniout; thtMnnelvett, lliev know the 
^-ni^klofry af tbe^r liorec almoat aa well as that of their own taiiiilicA : Ixit 
if tbey carry their hordes to any di«, aa to Riiwiora, Rii^rdiit. or 
XtaimuteOB, they lake cam to have a written iiediffree made out, in cnihrr to 
|»rv*ei)t it to the pnrcbawn*. In that case only would a Ftodeniu bt^ found 
ponWKm.-d ofhin Iwirai;'* pedigree. He would Inu^h at it in the desert. 

The KiH-hhiiii an- pi-ineinally rcamd hy tho Hedoiiin Aralw in ilitr 
Mmoter ileiierts. One of them was mild at Aero for the mm of fifteen 
tboosand piastrefl. 

h i» Bu cTTor into whieh ahnottt every writer on the hiBtoiy of the Iiotaa 
liaa Ikilen, that the Araliian i.-i lired in the arid drwri«, andowi-H lhe|>(>wer 
of Mid n ranee whieh ho |HkiiHei«eN in hin wloll Htato to the harditbips wht-cli 
h«> milurfd while Ita wiw a colt. The n'al fac^'t ik, tbnl tlie Artdm m-li-et 
for tlieir brtHxUiii{-pIacc« fiomo of ihMiR delightful xpot^, known oidy in 
canntrieH like ibfw. whtre, though all luay be dry aud Iwirvu uniuud, 
tbcvv \» pasture anrtvalle<1 fur ibt nuceiih-nce and itA nntritioiisor aroutntie 
prapartieit. The |m>w(m-k of the young animal are afterwards ■U-rel<i|H!d. aa 


(hey aJon« cnald he, by tlio niiiiKUi] itifiuimou of plrnl.ifiil unci lioallliy 
food, anil anfEoU-iit, ImL imt, crtwpt in ime day of trial, cruel ixj-rcimv 

Tb« moftt I'ltmordinniy aire is tiiken to jireeervc the purity of tho 
breol. Ilun^klinnlt atat<« that tbc favi)urii« mure of HuvikI LIki WaliuLx-c, 
"wliich he conntautly rodo in all hia eipeditions, and vrus known in t;Yi*ty 
part of Arabia, produced a colt uf vonF'KUjwriur bi-»atyaiid pronuep. and it 
grow to Iw t!io finest sliillion of liUi day. Snvnd, iiowcvrr, would n^erer 
permit him to be oKcd fur thv purpoaca of breudtn^, lic-t-nuAL' l>i« motlin- was 
not of pure blood ; aod not knowing what to do with liiin, an thf Llt-doniiut 
nemr ride stalliomt, he nmt him as a present te the HchenfT. 

The parentage and Inrtli of the foHl arc cnrcfnlly recorded by competent 
witui>s8c«, who^ certiticAto inelodos the mftrlc« of tho colt, and tho nam^a 
of tJic sire and dam. 

The colt is never allowed to fall on the {BT^nind at tho period of birth, 
bnt i» canght in tlie aniiH of those who stand by, and washed and careiuuHl 
■a though it was an infants Tho niaro and ht>r foal inhabit the same tent 
with the Bedouin and his childtvn. The noclc of tho mnre i« oft*Ti tho 
pillow of the rider, and more frcqnvntly, of the childim, who ara rolling 
alioat upon her tuiil Uit^ fual. No aci^idcnt (.'vur occurN, and the luiimal 
■cqnirtx that friendship and love for roan which occasional ill-treatiiK^iit 
will nut cause her for a moment to for^t. 

At the vnd of a month the foal ta wcimed, and is fed on camel's u>ilk fur 
fine hundred daya. At tho cxpinition of that period, a liltjo wheat in 
allowed ; and hv de^ri^rs thnt <|U»ntity ix iiicniuKd, the milk coutumini^ to 
be the pniioiiMil food. This niofln nf fiwdinff coiitiiini-* amithor himdiwd 
dnye, wht- n tJi6 foal is permitted to jirraze in the neifrhlwiirhood of the tent. 
Jlark-y in alao g^von ; arid to tills »om« camel's niiJlc is udded in the evening, 
if the Anb can afford it. By these means tho Arab horse bocomefl ait 
tlecidedly chaTscterised for his docility and pood temper, us for his speed 
and conr&i^. TIm kindneaH with wtiich tic i» IrvnU-'ii irom the time of his 
beinj; foalod, givM him an aflixttion for his mnator, a wish to plcfMc, n 
|irido in cscrting everj' energy in ohedivnre lo his cummainl.t, and, consi^- 
qiuniUy, an apgwrent saifacily which in aeldnm found in other hrf^'tU. In 
(iiat delifjhtful book. Bishop Uober'a ' Namrtive of a Journey through the 
Upper I'rovincefl of India,* tlic following int«n!«tiiig diameter in giren of 
liim : — * My morning ri<lM arc rvry ploaennt. Hy lionte is a nice, qniet, 
Ifood-ttrmpcnnl little Arab, wbu in «a feM'li.'^-t, that hu giien wtUumt utai-ting 
olowi to an eh<])han(, and ao geiitle and dnrile that he eatH hn-ail out of my 
hand, and has almost aa mach attachment and coaxing ways on a dop. 
This aeenis the geneni character of the Arab horsM, to jndge from what i 
hare Bccn in this ooonbry. It is not the fiery dashinf; aninial I hod sup- 
IiomhI, Imt wit h raoru rationality altont him, and more nppanrnt conSdcncv 
in his riiler than tho majority of English bones.' 

TThon tha Arab fiUla from hia man, and ia anabJo to riito, ahe will im< 
niediat«]y stand still, aod u«4fh until aasistaocc arrives. If he lic« down 
to b1iw|i^ an fatigue soioetimGa compels him in the midst of the dcKTt, she 
atandi wntchfid orcr him, and neighs and aroasra him if riltKn- man or 
Iwaat approAchni. Tlio Arab hortma an- tangfat to rest oocaaioitally in a 
atnnding position ; and a great many of them nerer lie down. 

Tho Amb lovea his horse as traly and as mnch aa the borne lores him ; 
mad no little partioa of his time is ofloa spent in talking to him and 
carMstug him. 

An old Aral) had a valoable mare that hiul carried birn for Hftiwn yeans 
in many a rapid weary mareh, and many a bard-fongbl Imttic ; at length, 
eighty ycttn old, and nnablo lonper to riaii her, hi> KUrr licr. ami a xt-imitar 
ihat had been bis father's, tuluaeldi«t8i>u.iuid ttdd him to a|ipi\-uiatc their 

rnB AE\B!Air hobse. 


. Mid neTer Ve dowu to reHt iiiitil \w lind rahb^d therm both &s brij^t 

ft nrirPoT, In thi> first Bkirmink ill which the younjr mwi wiw imf;«g«l, 
killed, knd tho m*n foil into Ihc hands of the eoomy. When the 
^ I TMcfaod tho eld nuu, ho exckinicU, that ' life ira» no longer worth 
fiifimi ring, for be bad lost both his boq nod hla man:, and ho f^cvcd tar 
oaf M mticb as the other,' He immediately wdunwd nud soon ofWirards 

I'ho following «n(><<{lotfl of the attachment of an Arab to hit nuire hM 
oA«n bMft told : — 'The whole stock of an Arab of the dcacrt cuubUUhI of 
a mnre. Tbc French oonnnl iiff(TrT<d to pardiaiK; Iter in order to mnd her 
to bin sovereifm, Lonis XIV. The Arab wonld have rejected tho pro- 
poeal, tmt be was miserably poor : be had Boanwly a raj; to ooTcr him, and 
Ilia wife and bin flhildrcn wcro etarvinp. The (mm offetwi was (frt'at,^it 
would provide him and hts faiDtljr with food for life. At Icng^, aud reloo 
fauiUjr. he yieUlod. Ht'broaKht tb« innre to tlicdwrllingof tJie ceaiaiUt dis- 
raonnted and stood leaning n|K>n her ; he looked now lit the gold, iind thnn 
at his fcvDoribo. "To whom is it," said he, "1 am poin^ to vi<']d thi^n 
np P To Eoropcans, who will tic thoo close, — who will beat tbtc,— who 
^till render thee miserable. Ketam with me. tny bcanty, mj jewel, and 
ri-joiee tlio benrla of my rbildn-u." An )u! iminouiiced the hut words, he 
spmn^ upon her back, and was presently out of aight.' 

One of oar own eoantryninn, the enterpHsin^ traveller, Major Denhnm, 
afTorila ns a plcaunf^ instAnoe of the ntt^hnicnt with which the docUil/ 
and saguoity of tliifl animal may inspire Ihi; owner. Ho tbus rcla-tca the 
d«alh of bu farourito Arabian, in one of ibe wii>t deaoK spoto of Central 
AfricB. His feetinf^ needed no apoloj^; we n&titi^y botiour th« man 
in whem true aensibility luid undaunted eonrof^, exerted for nsoful pnr- 
pueee, were thoB onitod : — 

' Tbore aro n few nittiMtions in n luou'a lifo in which Iohob of this nature 
are felt ino«t keenly ; and tJtia wax one of thorn. It was not grief, bat it 
waA unmetliiuii varv nearly appraaehiiig to it ; and though 1 fnlt anihamad 
of the degree of deranf^ment I soSerod &om it, yet it wa« tcTcnU dayi 
before I cvold get over tho low. Let it-, boworer, be remambered, tlub 
the poor animal bad Ixrcii my BUpitort ruwl comfort. — nay. I may say. eom- 
|iMiion, tbntugh many a ilreai^ day aiid night : — Inul «nilnnnl 1k>|1i hungrr 
and thirst in my aen,-iee*, and wan bo docile, tliat ha woald stand ntill for 
boan in the deocrt while I slept between hiA lego, his body afiordisg me 
the only shelter that cunhl bo obtained from the powerfid influcnco of n 
noon-day sun : lio was yt-t the flcetext of the flei-t, ud oror forrmost la 
the chaiMt.' 

Han, however, is an inconsistent boinff. The Arab who thus lives with 
and loves his hoHes, regarding them a« his most valoable treasure, some- 
time« traau them with n erovHy scarculy to bo credited. The Eeyercsb 
Irrnlment which the Knglijtli nvce-Unnw! cni1un-4 is gi'ntlencn eum|iarod 
wiib ths truti at ihe yoaug Arabian. IVobably the filly has never before 
heen nuranted. Hor owner springs im bcr Ihu;!;, imd gomlg her ovor tha 
eands and roctcsof tbodc«ert for fifly nr nixtymih-it witliont one mooMiit't 
mpite. She is then foroud, atoauiiiit^ ami [nniini;, into water docni 
enongh for her to awim. If, immediately aAer this, shft will cftt as if 
nelhiug hnd nccorred^her character is ostabliahed, and she is aelmowled^pd 
to be a gennino desceodant of Uw Koeklani breed. The Arikb iloes not 
Hdnk of tbo cnidty which bo thus inflictd ; bo odIj follows na inrariablo 

We may not perhaps Iwlievc all lliat Is told as nf the speed and endurance 
of the Arabian. It has been rvmurked, tliiit thcro are on the descrfai 
which thifl horsa trevcracs no milc-stonca to mark tbo distaAOtt, or watohc* 


to calcniato tbe time ; and tliat the Bedonin is naturally given to exagg^ 
ration, and most of all, when relating the prowess of tlie animal that he 
loTcs as dearly as his children : yot it cannot be denied that, at the intro- 
duction of the Arabian into the Soropean stables, there was no horso 
comparable to him. The mare in her native deserts, will travel fifty miles 
withont stopping ; she has been urged to the almost incredible distance of 
one hondred and twenty miles, and, occasionally, neither she nor her rider 
has tasted food for three whole days. 

Our horses wonld fare badly on the scanty nourishment afforded the 
Arabian. The mare nstiaUy has bnt two meals in twenty>four hours. 
I>uring the day she is tied to the door of the t«nt, ready for the Bedouin 
to spring, at a moment's warning, into the saddle ; or she is turned out 
before the tent ready saddled, the bridle being merely taken off, and she is 
■o trained that she immediately gallops np at her master's call. At night 
she receives a little water j and with her scanty provender of five or six 
pounds of barley or beans, and sometimes a little straw, she lies down 
content, if she is accustomed to lie down at all, in the midst of her 
master's family. 

Burckhardt relates a story of the speed and endurance of one of them, 
and shows with what feelings an Arab regards his qoadruiwd friend : — 

* A troop of Dmsca on horseback attacked, in the summer of 1H15, a party 
of Bedouins, and pursued them to their encampment; the Bclouins were 
then assisted by a superior force, and becoming the assnilants in their 
turn, killed all the Droses excepting one who Bed. He was ]mraued by 
some of the best mounted Bedouins, but bis mare, although fatigued, could 
not bo overtaken. Before his pursuers gave up the cbase, they called to 
him, and bep^red to be permitted to kiss his excellent marc, promising him 
eafe conduct for her sake. He might have taken them at their word, for 
the pledge of an Arab, in such circumstances, might have been relied ou : 
he however refused. They immediately loft tlie purauit, and blessing the 
noble beast, cried out to the fhgitire, " Go and wash the feet of your mare 
and drink off the water." This expression is often used by the Bedouins 
to show the regard they have for their mares.' 

A periodical writer in the * Sportsman,* on what authority is not stati-d, 
bnt he is right in most of the particulars if not in all of them, says, that 

* taking the comparative excellence of the different races, Nrjcil, betwt-rn 
tlio desert of Syria and Temen, and now in the ]K)Bse8sion of the Wnhubis, 
is generally reckoned to produce the grandest, noblest horHes. Hpjitz 
(extending along the Red Sea, from Mount Sinai to Temen, and including 
in it Medina and Mecca) the handsomest ; Yemen (on the const of the Hi'd 
Sea and the Indian Ocean, and the most fertile part of Arabia) the most 
durable ; Syria the richest in colour ; Mesopotamia the most quiet ; Egy])t 
the swiftest ; Barbary the most prolific ; and Persia and Koordistan the 
most warlike.' 

The introduction of. the Arabian into England, and the concern which 
he luia had in the improvement of tiie Engli^ horse, will be treated of in 
the next chapter. 


Xcxt in the route which has been pursued along the south of Asia, tn- 
wunln the cast, and yielding only to the Arabian in beauty and ^iilut-, 
stands the Persian horse. Ho is of larger growth than the Arabian, — 

fturiKMcly bnxl no, — and on that account some foreign — still cast cnuntr\-, 
lut not pure Arabian bloo<l, being intnxluced. A larger animal, one morv 
adapted for modem war, is the result, but with Finme diminutinii of s|xfd 
luid cndonnoe. The Poraiun is a nobler-looking ouimal at the first glance, 







Imt he willflpi^pBlic lujcnnilo examination tlint oulj increoers onr nd- 
ntlntion ofuu^mer; Bi-n'ii{rpr Uiu» dwKTilR-a iiniicipnl pomtn : — 
'Tbevareiu general KiuaU Itt-juli-i) ; tli<>y Imvo lon^ ami wiacvliat ioa 
liiii> lotvliMids, Antl lht>y are nttbcr Coo nnrron' clki^sud ; their legs n.rc n 
little stDflll, bat their croups are vrtil fashioned, and Uieir hoofa good and 
firm. Thcr DirdiK-ilc:'. iiuick, li^ht, bold. Tnll of spirit^ capable of enduring 
inucli faLiffUM, awit^, nure-fiiuU'd, lianly in (, and uantrntifd witli 
atmost any prm-onder,' They bnvp, ainco hi* timp, lost BWOKrwhftt uf the 
bcnatj, pl«xtieitv. dorUity, tmepd, nnd almost nerer-tailinp CDdtiraTi(«. 

Tlt« PvnitaD ilorscfi coii&tatutcd in ancicot tim^s the btst caralrv of tbo 
1-JA.Ht. Tlic impruvcd, tucoinpartililv Arabian brctxl vrus nat tbcu in 

An dutertaininc traveller (Sir B.KifrrPort^ir) given thofollnwini^nccoiint 
of them ; — ' The Persian horses seldom ex««ed foiirU-eu or fouri**n mid s 
hjtlf bunda hig-li, yet certainly, in the whole, are tftllcr than tlie Araha. 
TbuMof the d(.-Mcrtnnd vonnbry iilioub Hillnh nin very small, bat bjc full 
of bomi and of good speed. Chmoral cQNtoiii (vtnh iind nature tlicm imly 
at mnnm and sniuwt, wbcn tber arc cleaned. Tlieir annnl pmvrndcr it 
barley and cliopiwd straw, which, if the animiils tire pickctt.'d, in put into 
» ooae-biH; and nunc from ilicir hc&da ; bnt if stabled it in tlirown into n 
vmsll loumgc-slMpod hulti ivd. in the thickness of the mad-wall fur that 
|mr]tcuu>, but much higher up tlian the lino nf our nmni^nt, mid thcro tlio 
animal outa at hia leisure. Hay ia a kind of food not known b<-ro. Tli« 
bodduij; of tlio bor^e cousista ot his duuR. Al\er beiuj^ exposed to tli« 
iln'ing- infltu'iicc of tho snn darint; tbo day, it bct^omcB pnlvcriscd, and, in 
ibut M(at<>, in nightly KpriHul undiT hiiri. It in tho tixoiil ft'iuring of tlw 
jititble and the t«iit. Tlio united tnflii(>iicG of the niiti and air dcpriroi it 
of all unpleasant odonr, and whai tVom ano it b(wome« a iwcoiid tim« 
oflttusiTC, if ia again exuoeed to the auu, and all unpleasant tiineU one* 
iDoru tAken away. lattte of it tont^hes his body, that bein^ roverod by his 
cJodiLiifr. a lar<4o rnvmmud from the ears to the tail, and bound finnly 
nvnd bin Ijoily by n wry long anrcingle. But thia apparel ia only for 
eoldv«athcr; in tli« warmer smuoii the niffbt-clothcH ore of a lijfhlcr 
aubetance, and during tliu h<-«t of tbu cbty ih» auimal is ki^pt cniiriTly 
under ahade. 

' At night he ifl tied in the conrt-yajd. The boraeB' heads are atttu^hfd 
to the p£co of aecnriCy by donblo ropoe irora their hnltcir«, and the hoeU 
I'f the'LT hinder Ivga djv coniinod by cords of twijrt«d hair, GMttuoed to iron 
ritijirtt and pegs drivi^n into the earth. Tha sanio custom prevailed in tlte 
lime of Xenophon, and for the same reEiaon : to Beciipo ihem from Ix-ing 
nl'te to Htluok and each other, tlie whole stud generally eonfiKltng 
of atallionjt. Their teepors, however, alwayii iileep on th*ir rnoa amongict 
Ihfiu lo prwunt accident; and Gometimoa, uotwilhelaodin^ all this care, 
iLey loona^o U> break looatt, and then tha combaC cnKuca. A general 
neiglting, Boreaming, lickinp, and anorting, itocni TOHMt« tbo (n^mi^. and 
the BLvne fi>r & wbi^ is terriiile. Ind«)d no one con couoeive the Hiiildcn 
ti|>pv>i- of such a moment who hitA not been in Eastern conntriM to hear 
it. und llion all who bikvv, munt bmir me witness that the noise >■ tremen. 
dontt. They seixc, Lite, and kick raeh otlier with tht- mo*t determined 
ftjry, and f^iqaently cannot be separated before their heads and bnnnehes 
Ktrcarn with blood. Even in skirmishes with the nntives, iho borsen tiike 
jwirl in the fray, tearin({ each othpr with their tt>eth, while their mueLent 
atv in simikir close quao-tcm on their backs.' 

His descriptkin of a Persian race does not alto^-thtrr n-mind db of 
Nuwrnarket or Doncftster. 

'My mriosity waa fiilly on thp spur to spo Ibe raeeni, which I could 


not doubt mtut huv« bopn cboiiua Fruiii tliv )>cst iu the uutioti to oxliibit 
till- pcrfcctiuu of iia breed Icforr tlio i»wvfmgTi. Tho rival Iioim-ii were 
dividtH] into thrm Kfttx, iti order to Umgtlien tlie amnitetnt^nt. Xhviy hsd 
be*"!! iu traiuiug for several weeks, goiiR ovnr the groDnd very oft«il 
during tlidt time ; and whi>n I did see thpm, I fonnd ho much jttutta bad 
been takan foi sircat and rcdace their weight, that tlicir hones were nearly 
cutting the skin. The distance marlctMl for thu m^o wns a stretch of a four- 
luid-twoatjr milei, and, Uiat Im majmijr might iiol Itiivv to wail when 
ho bad TOich«d tlic field, tho honcm bad itot forward long beforo, l>j throe 
diiiaions, from tbo starting point, (a abort interval of time paseing between 
each ftpt,)fln tliattbej might l)egi» fo cnme in a few minutes afWrllioking 
bad taken his Heat. The difTcrcnt diTinions arrix'ed in irgnlar ordor at ths 
goal, bnt all so fatigued and oxliansted tbiit (heir lormor lioiutted fWtac.ia 
uardly exceeded a moderate cantor whmi tlioy poMixl Iwforo tbo royal 

Tho iilaina of PpmepoUfi, Media, Ard^ihil and Dicrhane, nair aniiunlly a 
grcAt numbor of valuable horses, but tboiie bred in Kurdistan are occountod 
tbe beat botb in beant^- and strength. 


Tim CireaaKiftii horse, althougli inferior to th« Pominti, tioeit ncrt oHen 
find his oquol among the predatory hordes wiUi which tliin part of Aain 
abowula. Vast nombeTv of hontca and sheep are rvured iu (Jie plaina of 
Circaiiaia, and they and tho slaves which are miuln in the exruraiona 
form the principal articles of the commerce of the natiTcs. Almoat oveiT 
&raitr of distinction aims at posaosaing a pecnli&r iirood of hontos, exeelf' 
tag, in thoir Cfltitoation, that of any otbor trib«. Kaeh br<«od Ut distin- 
guiabcd by ita pocnliar mark, to forgo or to pinco which on an infurior 
breed woald be puuahed wili death. The mwrt Tttlnnhle breed of all la 
in tho poaaesnon of the raigning family, and its distinguishing mark is n 
fldl hflsefr-ahoe. Tbeao honiM poasces considerable strength and speed. 


Wv will BOW travel further eastward, and cxamiuo lite breeds of horsca 
iu our Iciiliaa poaseaaiona. They are buifdl, and, alUumgh nonio haro 
Donaidarable endnivnce and conrage, thuy wetur the gener^ character of 
degeneracy from a nobler elot-lc. Tir«t iu vnluo ia the Toorky, originally 
from a Toorkouian nrJ n Pi'rxiiui, brautiful in Liic fonn, gnu^i^fiil in ]us 
action, and docUo in his tcm]Kr. Wlivu skilfully raauugi-d bia carriage 
la atatvly and gnad. His r>]ilrit rtstng as his ex^^rtions are required, bo 
ezhibibi to hia beholders an Appearance of fury in tbe perfbrnumce of hia 
toale, yet p rwe ni ng to bis rid^ the abnoat playinlneaa and gentlent^H. 
Tb«y are osnally Crutn fourteen to GfWii hands high, and have the cuuimou 
defect of the East India borso^smullncBS and hjngtb of bono bolow tbe 
knees and about the hocks. 

DText comet the Iranef, well limbed, and bin jointit elonrly knil^ and 
particularly powerful in tbo quarters, but witb largo head, and banging 
oarit aod oiAcicncj- of spint. 

The gentle and doriln C<3*akea u deep in the girth, powerfnt in tbe 
fore-arm, bnt with large bead and cat-hammed ; luurly, and calculated for 
long jooroeys and serero service. 

Tho MojinniM have spirit, bcuotr, speed, and pcracTcnuicc. 

Tlie T<uMc is alight, hollow-hacked, and, for that rooaon porbaps, dr- 
firient in Rtmigth. ]lis hiud-legs are ill placed, and dragged *» it wen.* 
beliiiid him, and be is Rtubbom and irntablo; yet this borso m sougbt 
After on account of the pecoltar CAsioCM of bis paCM, % matter of no 



BDuIl cotisklvration where ihe beat is so great imd tbe slightest exertion 

A ssia of liorBc* near Uid Compnny'B stud, at HisBor, ia tboB described 
hy in cxc'cllrmt Judgi; : — ' Nut leas ibjui one thousand horaca were slionii, 
TLrj wi-nt idl iiDovii fonrb^ou bitTi(k Riid n. hnlt' in bfiglit, high-crested, 
ftud HtioT^'v-loolcing KniinaU. Thn (i^at defect it<^TDod fk wnnt of bono 
bfkiw the kiu.-«, whicL is gcmur^l to all the duIito horses tliroti|;houfc 
liidijk; and also ao j^roat a h^mdcnry ta fahntea in the. htickii, thati iu Eag- 
bnd, it wonld be thonght half of them had blood spaTiiia.* 

There are other Btncb in diiri?reiit parts of tho ooiintiy, in which soma 
raluftblo stftllioas ikro lupt for ih</ piirpoec of improving the variorui 
Indian brccdx. Almost oU of them biivo a greater or Ichklt portion of 
Anibiaii blood in lliem, which giveii them thu ap|wnmnc-o of good t-Hvalry 
bor»«, i>ut rendera them iuforior to the Ambimin gi>rn-mll^' in swiflriesa 
fcnd alwBja in endurance. Kop this reason the native cavaliy are princi- 
pally moQDted on Arabian horses, which &ro brooghi in grt«i oiunbcrs, 
hat of no fonaidcmblo nUuo, from Arabia and Sj-ria. 

It may hv readily tofipooed tlat it was not long before races were 
eataliludied in the l-Iojit Indicii, find that they were properly patronised by 
the goTcmmont, They were, however, confined Almost entirely to the 
Arobiao horses, for those of balf-blood wera manifoHtly infcrim- to 

In IS28, Recmit, by Whalebone, a horse of some oelobrity at the time, 
wa« sent oat U) Oiloutta.. Tliis wtw rUnimod n proper opportunity todecide 
the qnoatioo uf mpvrionty bctwcoo the pure Arab and ttao tmc Knglish 
racing blood, and he wa» miiu^hed •gainst PyrTunuH, the bc»t AmbiiiQ in 
Bonnl. Tho di«taiice wait two milen, with give and tjike weigblit, fourt«Mi 
hancM to carry nine atone, and the Arabian to bo allowed aovcQ ponjidH ; 
Bccrait carried («n stonee twelve poonds, and PyramnB only eight stones 
thni; pontidA. They nlaried well totrctiipr, and mn the firet \mri of the 
■Ittfap^f neck and oeclc, but at about hulf the di.<<tAuce Recruit look the 
Iskd, and the Arabian was beaten ensily by Bevcral lengths. The diiitonca 
was ran in three minntes and fifty-seven seconds, Another trial took 
plaoo betweea Champion, a first-rato Arabinn, and CoiiBtamcc, a moderately 
good (honiDgfabred EngUnh hone. The Arabinn won in a canW; the 
qoMtion, tJierefore, is thoogbt by some pentona tn be yet undeoidod. 

There ia a« i"Iast Indian poay, called the Talioo, varying from ten to 
twelve bands in height. This is a serviceable and haidy aiiiniat for 
earrving hacpif:^ or any light Wright. Tavomier describes oJio which he 
saw ridden by a young Mi>^nl prince, of sovcd or eight years of age, and 
whit^h was not much larger tlian a greyhound. 

In 17t>6 ono, not more than seven hiuids, or twenty-eight tnrhoR in 
hdgfat, WM sent from India as a pretient to tb« qcten of Guorgt; IlL It 
wan taken tram tho ship to the palace in a haokt)ey>coach. It was of a 
don odour; and its hair rcacmbled that of & young fawn. It was foor 

{'emra old, well proportioitix), had lino eoi-s, a r|uiclc eye, with a luuidsoine 
oas tiul, aad was tfaorosgltly f^ood natareil and nuuugeablo. 

The Mabrattiis were two powerful tribes or natioiis, inhabiting Ihe 
central pari of HindixiHtan, and their territor}' extending from sea to te-s, 
aeroes tlu* toulh of the Deccon. Their wnra among themselves, or in anion 
with the llritiah against Tippoo Saib, and afterwords against their former 
nrotoctocs aJid allies, are prominent objects in tho modern history of India, 
Their troops oonoisted almost ootirolj of aivftlry, composed of one of tho 
beat Torietim of tbe liulf-blood Arabian and nativu horse. Tht) IhCahrstla, 
ivhen not on howcbtuJc, nuiy be aaid to be almost cnujthinlly employed in 
Auapooing hie horse. It is properly so called, for he rabs him violeotly 




iriili his vnitii anil clhow^, ott wult an hla Ii&ihIr, ntul moaVlfl and beniU 
h'm limliH in cvpry direpticm. The MahmHon way of ridint,' is a singular 
ftnd, nconrdiiiff to Bamitcfin notions, a very nnfrrftpolul one. His kneefi an> 
at lU^h as his liorsc*8 Iiack ; hv )ioliI» on n-ith Iiik hccts, nnil clings with 
Ilit liands ckhor to tho ainno or thr pcnk of the »im1i11u. With such aids, 
liii acat in mnrc fictran.- than utGn<t nig'bt it woiitil aiii>i'nr to It-. Tbc peak 
ofths aadtllo riwi in lUv fomi «r * orane'« nnrk, ami in suiiil to hnvv I)t«ti 
iMWPDwed IVom the Mo|;(iiIh. A crap})or nnd a martingale art^ nlmofit iuilix- 
pcnwiblo aocompanimcDU of Lbe HaLrattA horso-IVimiturf.-. It in a singular 
IcitMl of rmnper, ]iowe%'er, not prnjectiatj; from tho ccntro of the saiklle, 
bofc attachcf 1 to both sides. Tho tobsa. or Tcjithi^m tmik-I ont of which tlie 
)ion9 «stfi his com, is also attocht'd to thv cni|>ji«r, and this ji&rt of the 
trfti>r*''^ff*' ^^ ponorftlly omftmentsd with hIvci* knobi^ or with silk tasaela 
or cmhroidfry. 

Thtir horww, Iik<t moat of ilioRO in the Kiwt, are i>irk«t<^, not only 
dnrin^ the day, bnt very fronnpiitly in the night. A rope lit aiirioti fruni 
tho hiMid'dtall on oacli aide to n peg drivoii into ttio pn«nd. A ropp, or 
tboogt i« also tied rdnnd tho fetlocks behind, nnd carried backwardH twt- iily 
or tlurty f^t, and imteacd to a pc;;. This pulls tbu hon>o Itack. and keopa 
hhn, whan standing, on tbv Btn<lch, bat doe»t not prmeut him from lying 
down. Wmn they aro thun tolJionfd, thoip oycs arc covphmI, that they 
may not ht alArmixl by any object that poMM. They aro nkci clothed, in 
fmirr tliat tlie Uwutifnl, frU^Kty appearance of thoir coat may be pr(»<Trod. 

Thi>y i\M'! tbc Kmifflc-hridlo, but ii in nnjag^ed nnd pointed Uiat tlio 
AuIruiI may bo ptiniflhod to tJio ftill content of any barbarian that may rido 
hiai. The hcadatall is nanally oTnamented, and from the rein a thon^ 
deeeonds by which the Iwreo may be occasionally rrmindod of hia duty. 
The horseman has neither whip, switch, nor t^pnr, bat the horso is con> 
Irollml. if he is disponed to rebel, by the crael arFnunent of the bit. 

Th* bn^aft of the ^lahratta horso in more fiphtndidly omsmented than 
any other part. Numcronn coinn, of diffbretit mzc and vnlnc — rnpeo* and 
doable m]>oc;( — are formcti into plate* more or \ontt highly omamentt-d, and 
which in time of war form a ric^b boo^ for the conqueror. Tho inano, too, 
is generally plait(?d with silk-binids, and Bilver knobs attacht'd Ui Ihitin, 
with a Iteantiful top-knot b(?tween the ears, if the rider has diiitingiuah«d. 
hiuisL'lf in war, some cnrioas tails, eaid to bo taken irom tho wild cow, 
duni^lc on inthcr side. 


The Birman horwa are small, bnt spiritwl and strong. There was on« 
in \f4i in the menagerie belonging to th** Zoolofjical Society of Tjnndon. 
Hi> (lid not Mtand more than twelve hands higli, but waa n lieantifal littie 
felliiw, and a pictorc of strength. 

In Hum the horsps are few, and inferior f«i tbiint' of the Itirman empire. 

In Cocjiis-Chixi, on th« iwitcni coiwt of Ihe p«>ninsu)a. th« borsiM are 
•till smal!. but lbt>y arc Iwttcr fnrnuKl, nnd more active and atrong, than 

kthi'c »ri- at Siam. In Stmatra nnd Jivi the borMw have not inoreawd 
'in hixe, but in form and iixi-t'iilncfla they ararcely yield to any in tlie noutb- 
'Wmtl of .\!ua In Borseo rhey are few. and w^ifrcly deaerving of notice*. 
^The hor«eK of Chixa are, generally fipeaking. Kmall. ill-formed, weak, and 
without 'pirit ; indeed they have littto ocoa«ion for tlw horso in the greater 
put vf that imnimuo empire. 

Tho new colonies of the Ilriliob in AuHlralia and I'lii dependencies will 
It MmiKliing mnro satiNfaiHory. The gmtU-r imrt of ibe ItorKcs in 




South WftlcA, thft CMl<tm const of Anstrulia, wore dprtvod froia t)iv 
Cape of Good Hopr^ and from Itiilin. Vrry Httic juclCTiiont wan otnplojrcd 
in the i<clccti»n, uinl inilccd vcr^' few huiiii^s of good quitlily could luivu 
been procured froiti i-illier piano. The run-wquL-ncc wa«, Uia-t n wnl<'r «<» 
btU' IM 1^24 fl&yH of thorn, that ' they arc priucipnily of the nag klud, mid 
hiwd without much care. They are not very siphtly in appoanmoe, boinp 
muTow-cheBttd »ud sharp- bncitcd, and badly deBc-icul m the quarters. 
Tbey have an incurable habit of sbyin^, and tlioy arc not verj sum- 
footed.' The Ncwf South Wall* honws am suldoiii stabled, but are sup- 
posed to bo iKtalthifP, and Ijhiut ablo tn niidure fitli^utt, wh^n kvpt in tli» 
open air. This, howovcr, is probably only an excuac for ncjflocit. 

Tbc ftlivcp, bowerer, prospering so well, and the cattle mpldly iucroEUi- 
iag and improving, the befcan to be a tittle ssbamed of Wm borfles. 
SotbtoI of a better kind, cart and blood, were conBe((ueiiUv imported fnini 
Ui« mother-eoantry—an Arabian was nrocnred £ram India — and tbo 
Aostralian horse soon bcR»Q to bo a \-(;ry aifivre&t sort of aoimal. A writer 
of a few jeara' later dat« says : * We havo few thoroiifrb>hred cart-horses, 
■Immit aU of them having a Kpico of bluod abunt them, which makes them 
niutvdy at draught, roRtivc, and given to jibhirif; when [luttj^ahard pnll.' 
This was a very erroQcooa charge, and the writ*r .icomit to bo awitrc of it, 
for be add«, ' tlus may iii a ^reat nieaenrc fi*otu tlioir being 1>adly 
broken in.' It was the faulty manoecmout and education of the horse, and 
not ths portion of parv blond which ho luul acquired, that produced vices 
Klee these. The writer prycopd« : 'We have nmtiy fine fpp, {■«rriiij;e, and 
> borsoB, and even some that have jpnUwdoaa to rank in the list of 
Infiiot, nKXM were instttutod ai Sydney. Atnrf-club woe formtHl,. 
horus of no daspic-able qualities entered the li»it«. 
An excellent stallion, named Bay Cameroo. was importod from England, 
•ad the owner nottod by him. for the first seosoti or two, more than CiOOl. 
• aanuni. Horses ||;enet-aUy rosa more than fifteoii ]it!r eoiit. in value. 
I at Sydney, 20i)l. and more were given for a hors» of extraordinary 
' and powers : and no good saddle, gng, or cart horse oould be pur- 
^ for loss tluin 4i}l. 
Thcw horses were found to bo remarkably hardy, and could andcti;o 
oonsiderttble btigne. Thu grcai«al fault watt u hcftvincss of the head, willi 
a otnudderable degree of otfttinncy and sulkine»a— ax mueh, however, tha 
(aalt of education as of natural dispoaition. 

A Btill later writer says ; ' that the brcod is rapidly improving, and par- 
liralarly ihodraneht bonses, from tho importation of some of the Clove- 
land brwd from EogUod.' The true dray-hor»c. however, was yet to bo 
found, and eoold not b« procurnd ftom any of the nutivo homes, not even 
witit tho lunriatanoo of tJia ClenUnd. The mixture of Knglinh hlooH hiM 
Dot iMMned the endurencv of the native breed : for at tbu tiniu 
of the year, with tbo tbermometer at times an luKh as nincty>six deyrnHM 
in the shade, the writer says that be has ridden tho same animal fifty mUes 
a day for three sncoossive days. Tliey will all go through n vaut deal of 
work, bnt tbcy wcnld have moro enduranei^ if thfty vrere not broken in 
for the saddle and for bamviw ho young. It in nu unusual thing to rids 
them aixty milci in leu tlian Mven honm, mid immediately liini Uiviii out, 
to piok op what <ieanty herbage they can lind. The number of fnxH\ 
hOtWll ivu *o rapidly incre&sed, that their price had materially dimtniiihod, 
I soarcely more (ban '<i^l. could Ixr got for the best of them. 
"lie traveller adds, that thoro are some diNcoses to which the horse is 
ct in England, which are as yet unknown in Nrw South Wales. 
Itas never made itji apjienraiiee Uiere. Qmmy h(«U, tho almost 
^SoaliAT diecasQ of Britiua, have not been seen there. Stnuaglcis however, 



are pravalt'nt, nn<t, tbo anthor of tho prcficnt work Ictimfl from &BOtlifrr 
B<»aroe, anoaaally eovcro. 

In Vail Uiemcn'u htuid tlic breed uf Imixs, t>]-i|j^iiiitllj* dcrivud from 
ludia, ia vi'ry good. A valiiiiLle breed of cart-horHes ih Iwgiiiiiin^' to b« 
foniiwl. Tlio nding-horaOB are anuill, Imt they arc hardy. Hortos of 
ov«ry kind arc cixty per oont. dotuvr in Van DiiMuvn'a Loiia tltaa in Now 
SouUi W&IiM ; bvcnoMu tliv colony is eituillL-r, nnd tUc nonibtir of honM 
that are bred is L-oRi[<(u-ntiYcly xiiulII. I'hvir tirwIuicuLt i» aoi no good as in 
the larger oolony. Many of Ihflia kimw nol the UuU) of com, and, when 
it ifl giT«n (o thorn, it ia uenatly in the straw. 


TartniT comprohonds a -vruti «xttfiit of coimtir, mnobing froaj tho 
Eastern Oooan, to tho BuropcBiL dominions of RuHsia, thmn);li the- ccotral 
port of Asia und EnmjiL-. lliwtt^m Tnrliirj' kc1un[fs r1i!t-tly Ut Clijtia— 
tJio Wuib^rn lina }x<«a iiul)jtwt«xl by Rus>tii». but n HinaU uurtion. (\{ it iilmnt 
tilt) t'lutpian Uca claimn to Im im]f!)MtRd<!nt.. Tho trioM which inhabit 
thia imiiifiufv tivtux arv diAttiiiiiiitr iu their iii>pinkni.a<x^ mnnncrs, Atiil cus- 
toms I but, with a few cjcceptious, the c]iara<.:tvr uf thu liunw is ncai-ly tbo 

Tbe wap bobsb is found in variaua parts of Tnrtary ; bat nowhere 
CAB it b» oonudored a« a rcnmaat of an orijuiiuU nux that bas nover 
been donustacated. Tho boraca of ibo Ukraine^, aiul tlioao of Boatli 
Amerioa, are i>qtially' tho doacandanta of those tJiiil had cHca^Hnl from Iha 
Hluvery uf mau. rhe origin of tho borww of THititry haii \>enm ototirly 
traced to those thftt were (ttnployod iii tlio si^;^ of A«of in HJ&7, Bciiif; 
BD6i'n:^, from WH4tl of ft^ra^o, to pvuvlrate into thn duMcrt ia ordor to find 
Mutwixtrnai, tht^y nlrayad to too great adifitanoo to be puranodorreeallod, 
and Itucntinu wild and erentcd a new brood. 'Viwy are p-'nomlly of a mi 
eoloor, with a Uack itripc nlon^; the back. They am divided iuto nuraei- 
otu botda. at tbo bead of each of whiob is tut old aUltion, who liaa fuuitht 
bin way to the crown, and whoso pro-eminenoe in ikcknowledije by tlio 
rcKt. On the approach of apparent ikn}^r, tbe maren aitil tlit^ir tuaia arc 
dvivoa into a aoae body, in tront of w)iieh the malca are nui|;p^). I'hero 
M« freqnent coatMta bctwcvu tho dilTercnt herds. The domeHticatod 
borae, if ho fuJla in their wuy unprotected by his master, is iruttantiy 
■ttackod and M^MwdUy dratruyt^ ; but at the xifrlit of a Imman bcin|f, and 
SBIWcially raoanted, tbajr all take to Kiabt, and f^iup into the roocAaea of 
Iho desert. ThA yonng stallions as tney ^rrow op ore drivou Cram tbo 
brrd, and are seen stnwtiag about ai a ili^taiK^, until Uiuy ore strong 
mougli Lo form horda of wild marea for thDniaclrai. 

Tbe CoHWcka uw acctutomod to hunt the wild homes, partly tokeeiiup 
their own Btod^ «k1 partly for food. A HjHM^ex of vnlturo is scHaetutieA 
made ase of in tbia nffiur. The bird pounn.^ npuq tbe poor animal, and 
&atena iucif on his Iimd or neck, fluttering bin wiiipr, and perplpxinp, and 
balf'blinding him, ao tbnt be hucomes an eoay pn<y t» tlio Tartar. Tho 
yonng horactt are ircnendlv tamed witfaoat much difScnlty ; tlu^ are, after 
m little while, cvui>Ii?d with a tame horse, and jirow i^ntlo and obtHbctii. 
Tbo wild lioraca liiua nvloimod am usoally found to be stronger and mom 
■srnooable tlian any which con bo bred at home. 

In the great deserta of Tartary, tbnhenlHof wild horses are mnch lnr(;;rr. 
Masy tbonaands, aa on the I^arapoa of South Amencn, are ofWn eolli<cU-d 
logetber. The KirKbi»o Tartars citbu capture tlicm fin* nsc^ or apcor 
them for Akm). 

The AdhIi of tho hone is a fi-c4]amt article of food among the Tartars ; 
tnd although they do nolj blco Uio ItMliaas of Uie Pnmfta, eat it r»w, tbcir 



mode of cookery wooM not bo vpry inviting lo tlip Enropoan cpiL-nn>. 
Tbuyoattherauscnbu' part into Hlice<t, and plsno tliom vnHor their fuuldk«, 
■nd aflor they tftre f,-HJIoped bliiriy or furty milc|(, tiic ntLVkt bwomni tcQilcr 
oxtA aoAilcti, and fit for their tublc. At iiJl Llieir fctuilti, thu firat i>nd Inst 
nnd most faToarite dish is a home's hend, unless they havu a roBSted foal, 
wliirh ia the greatest dolictiL'y tliat cna ba nraoored. 

When Wkbor was not nt hand, tho Koyt-hi&nB ased to dntw blood fVoiu 
their horsey uul drink it ; luid tho IJukvs of Musuavy, for noorlj two 
koodiud und vlity jctin, pn-seiit«d tlitt Tarlw aiabawMidom vritli the milk 
of BUtfM. Most of the Tiuiars manufactore R liquor ddlod keumuix, from 
til* milk of th« muv. It buA a very pleafiatit taste of minglod swoet and 
sour, and is coaAidombly imtritiouB, The Tartars xt-y that it is an 
exeellcnt incdiriiic, and altnosto specific ia consumption Aiid hoiuo dineaww 
of debility. It ia thus made :— To a cxTtnin «ji)iLDtity of fn>sh mare's milk, 
a aizth part of watttr, und an I'lfflitli part of vary scmr milk, or of old 
IwtMiuM, is added. The vc-swl is covcivd with b thick cloth, aud set in » 
pUoD of modif nktv warnitL. Ilia thus hift at rt-at twenty-four lioiini.whctQ 
ibe irbole of it will have Locomo oour, and a tliii-k Huh»taiiuc will hiivu 
f^tfa«Twd on the top. The whole is then boiiten with a stick in tho form 
of a chum-amlT, nntil it hoctiinus blcnLk-d into one homogencotia mass. 
TwoB^-four boon after this tJu boating ia repeated, or the liquor ia 
Bgifated in a churu, until tho irhole ia a^uin mingled togotbor. Tho 
procem is now ooinph^to aud the hmmta ia iormtxl, but it must bu alwuys 
well sbakea Ix-fiim it is nsed. 

The Tartars have discovered ft method of obtaining an ardc-nt opirit 
frotn tbia kvvinu$, which they call ra<:i:, or racky, from the uamo gi^tin ta 
the spirit nuinnfaetnrcd in the Eust Indica. 

Some of the Tartar and Kalmuck wocnen ride fully Bs well us the men. 
Whea a eonrtehip is taking place bctwc«n two of tho jGoag ones, the answer 
of UiR lady ia thus obtained. She ia mounted on one of the bc^t lioraiis, 
and ofl* she Kallops at full epred. Her lorvr punncs, nud if he overtakes 
bor, Hhe iKOJineM his wif«; but it is RoMoui or n«ver that a Kalmui^k girt 
onec on hom'boek ia caught, unless aha has a partialitj' for her pumner. 

Thx doni«»ticat«l horses belonging to the Tartars that wander oA-er tliu 
hntMnse plainsof CoDtral Aaia ore litile reninvcd fmm a wild Hlntv. They 
are nnaU and badly made, but capable of Bupporting tlie longest and most 
r^nd journeys uo the seaiiUeKt faro. 

One Wfll-known eircnmRtanco will go far to nceount for their genond 
hainliiuias. Tbo IWtant live much en the fli-Hh of borsee ; ntid the luiimuls 
ttiat V9 nnalile ti> mipport tho labour of llu-ir fi-tiijucnt auil mpi<l euiigra^ 
tiona am fint dMtmvMl ; the most rigorous are alone pi-eserT<4l. 

Bfnvngvr givi?8 the following account of the Tartar hor§>ea: — ' Altbrmgh 
bat of a tooderalo sitet tbeyaro rtrong, nervous, proud, full of spirit, bold, 
aod aettve. They have gnod feel, Imt suiiiewbat uarruw, tlieir hvnda aro 
waU-ahiiped and lean, but too Knuill ; tho forehcnd long and stiS'; and the 
^~ I over long; yet with all ihcwimperfectiouB they are good and servioe- 
' horse*, bring u»c>inf juewible hy bbour, and endowed with eoiwiih-mlilo 
~^cui. The Tnrimw live with ib'i^iii idniost in the stimo mimner tJiD-t the 
AnUM tto with their horses. WTien they are sii or eight months old, titey 
make their children ride them, who exuroitto them in irniall exeunuonx, 
iliiliii|i and forming thent iry degroos, and bringing thi^m into gentle and 
early discipline, and after n while, maldog tbom titidc-Tgo hunger and 
thirst, aud many other hanUhipn. Tho men, lioweTor, do not i-ide them 
■mtil they are five ur six yfun old, when they e^aet from them the 
BOreroat serviee, nn*l iuuro tliem to almost inerediltle fatigue, tiuii'lling 
two or thrco days almost without rooting, and jwasing four or fire days 

D 3 



with no more or better nonrUlintcrit ttiAn n liaudful of tC^^sn, and with 
notbing to qacnch their thinit.' This disci[)line as mocb exceeds that of 
tha Arab* io wnrority and hornble barbarity, as the Arabs excel the 
Tartart in ciriLisation. 

Tbe honoa of tho Nogais Tartan are some of the bc«t of the roviuj; 
tribm. Tb«ijr arc airoi^er and tailor than the others : unci H^imo uf thtm 
am trained to draw rarriajj^M, It in from thitu lhft.t the Kluui tif Tartary 
derivGC tho principal part of hia siapplira. It is said that in casn of 
naoewi^ ihey eoold famLth a Imuidrcd thousaud mtni. Each of |h« 
Nogaia cotamoDlT has with him fnar horsea ; one ia for hia own i-idinj; ; n 
aeoond to moniit if the firat sboald be tired ; and tho other two to carrjr 
hta piVTifliona, hiH ulaviw, and his bootv. 


Tnrldatan is that part of Sonth Tartarjr north^eaat of the Caspian Mm, 
and has b«?ii o^lcbratod firtin veiy parlv times for producit^ a pure and 
valaablfl htvoyl of horw«. Th<^ arc cailM Toorieoauitw. Th*y are aftid to 
bi: pTvfcrable even to the paro Pimnaiu for actual sennco. They aro 
larjci', from finrcii to BiiWn hands high, inrift, imd iiirxhaufitthlc under 
AtiffDe. Some of th«in hare trnvcliol nino hundrvd mitoa in elorem auc- 
eeanvo dajs. The/ are, howerer, somew-hat too small in tfa« barrel, too 
loni; oa the Iv^a, occaeiouallr cwo-neckod, and alvra^ having a b«ad out 
of pruporiioi) krve: jct eacli arc tho )>ood qiuHticfl of the borac!, that one 
of the piue hkxMl is worth two or three nnndrod pouiuU eT«D in that 

Ci^tain Fraw^r, vhn in evidently a ffood jnd)|« of tho honi«,thiiM relates 
the imprnvion which thv/ made ou kim, ia hia ' Journey to IwboniBan ': — 
'They are defkriimt in compactness. Tlieir bodioa are long in pmpnrtion 
tA thnr bulk. Tliey are not well-ribbtxl op. They are tonfi on tlio lega, 
deficient in maaele, Iklling off below the knee ; narrow-ch(!iit«d ; loog- 
neckc<) ; head lar^, ancouth, and eeldom well put ou. Such was the im- 
pre»!on I roocivtd from the first aighb of them, and it was not for lomo 
time that their superior valuable qoabties were apparent to me.' 

The Toorkomans tiaoo thoir breed of horacs to Amhian tdrvn ; and, moat 
•axiotu Ifaat a RtSdcnt proportion of tlic pure blood thall bo retained, 
tbn- hankfrcqnent rcooaine tu tho lieat Aimbiaua iJiey can procnro. 

Befbre a Toorknman irtarta on an cipedition. he proTides himtwlf with a 
few hard balls of barieymeal, whieh are to serve both him and his horM 
for mlNnicteDce until his retnm ; but Hotnettntcs when, rmesin]^ the desert, 
ho ia nnuanallr faint and wi»ry, ho opcna tho ju^Iar vein of his horse, 
and drinks a little of the blood, by whicb he is undoubted^ rcfrcaliud, 
and, ha thinka, hta hone i» ralieTed. Aecording to Sir JolmMaloolm, the 
Toorlcocaan will think little of poshing the aame borae one hundred mJloa 
a day for some aooocasive days ; and he adds, tliat a heracman moonted on 
■ Tooff^oniMi bone brought a packet of lettora from Shiraa to Teheran, a 
»H«**mia of ^rt hondrod miles, in six days. 


The Tvridrii horM* are de«oended i>rinci|nllr fitna Ihe Ai«b^ cr o fi 
by the Persian and other kindred vanetiea They poasM all the oentle* 
Bsaa and tr»euih«hty of the parent mee, bat they have lost some of their 
vi|pmr and speed. They have contributed materially to the improvement 
of thi- Rngua breed. The Bycrloy and the Hdmeley Turk arc Dnmea 
Esmiliar to erery ooo conTcrsant with horaea, and oonncctcd with oar beat 

Tbo loaned aad beneToIent Buaboquins, who was amba Major at Coa- 



Turkiab borMs. Oar irrooBifl, uul iatir iimilin iog^ tatffltnmmitmaaijt 
wuiiutii uid TmmitiitT from his words. 

'There is no crMtojv su gectlu u a Turkish bone, nor more RsperCAtl 
to bn BUBter, or Um groon tbat dneacs hini. Th« r«fiM<n is, becKute 
they tra»t tbcir hones with gnat irai^. I mTM^lf aw, when I wsta in 
Pontes., pnwinr tbiosgh » part of Bitaf&ia ajkd Azik», towards Cap> 
nulocu, bow mdnlgaDt the ooanttjiDeQ were to joang colts, and bow 
tindljr tbcf ojed them eooa after tkief wm ibaled. Thp^ woold ctroka 
then, btinB theoL into Ibeir boosM, aiul abxMMrt to their tablce, and use 
I cTcn ofce duidrcn. They bttug somcthiiiy hke a jewi'l shout tbrir 

, aad » nrtrr which was foil of amoleta agaiast puaan, which iht^ 

an awwt kftud at Tho giooma that drMs tltera are as indulgent as tbeir 
iBMMn ; th^ freqncnllj sleek them down with tbcir bands, aikd oervr 
OH • cndgel l« bang tbeir sides, bat is ciuk» of neoesutr. Tbia aaktB 
tbdr horses great lorers of mankind ; ami thej are ao ha- from Uddag; 
winetDg, ar growing ontzactable hj- this gentle osage, that yna wiH faanily 
find an ill^tempeivd boree amongst ifaem. 

* Bat, alaa ! oar Christtaa grooms* b o r sss go on at another rale. Thojr 
oenr think ihcm tightly ratTried till tbey tbandcr at them with thmr 
voices, and let their chiu or hone- whip*, «• it weiVt dwell on tlicir sides. 
This makes some bcmtea enm tremble when their keepers ooniv into their 
MaUc ; so that thoy bate and fear them too. Bat the Turks Ion? to hav« 
their hotscs so genue. that at the word of command they may (all on their 
knees, and in this position receive their ridcn. 

' Tbey will take ap a staff or dab npun the road with their teeth, wfaicb 
their rider has let &11, and bold it U]) to him aoain ; aad when tbev ua 
peHeol in this leeaon, then, as a roWard. tb^y datc rings of silrer hnng 
ofu their Dostrils as a badge of houonr and good disdpUnc. I saw aome 
bors cB . when their nustwr was falWn from tb« saddle, stand stock slill 
witboot wagging a fixA till he got up ngnin. Another time I saw a 
gioom standing at a distance in the midst of a whole ring of horses, and 
at the word ofoonumuid they woold either go round or •land still. Oovtt 
I saw some honm. when their nuistcr was at dinner with me in an appcr 
ruom, prick Dp tbeir ears to himr bis voice, and when they did so tht^ 
iMngbMfor joy.' 


BeAne wo can adraaco eastward into Europe, it will be couTrnicnt to 
of the horses of the Ameowan OHitiuents. In Soatli Aocrira, 
oonstant warfare is carried on a^E^iiiiA tfacm, Uiero mk iimu- 
beids of wild hotSM ; and in the IwM'k ftottlcments of the suutb- 
Statee of North America tbrrv is a bunu rcsL-nibliii}; tbu wild 
I of the P.iinp3s: but both »iv cviiluuUy the deeocodttots of those who 
ijxxl from Uio slitmy of wan. 


All tr«Tellpm wlio liuro cpoMod the plains oxtending from the shoras 
of La Plata to Patagonia hare spoken of ttumpnjus diOTM of wild horace. 
Some al£rm that Uii-y ha^o £««& tvn tbouftAitd in one troop. Tbeyappvur 
to be nnJcT the oommaod of a Icadi^r, thv strou^^t and boldret of the 
herd, and whom tlii<y implicitly olwy. A secn-t instinct teachra them 
that their safety coiuusts in tlioir union, and in a iirinBipIo of enbordini^ 
tion. Tbc boo, the tiger, and the leopard arc their principal vnemice. 
Ai some Hignid. uitvUigiblo to them all, they citlier cloM into a denso 
mass and trample their eucu>y lo death, or placing the mares and foals in 


the opntro, ihej form themsclTcs into a circle and welcome him with their 
heels. In the attack, their loader is the first to &ce the danger, and when 
pmdonco demands a retreat, they follow his rapid flight. 

In the thinly inhahitod ptu^ of South America it is dangerous to full 
in with any of these troops. The wild horses approach as near as they 
dare ; they call to the loaded horse with the greatest eagerness, and if tho 
rider is not on the alert, and has not considerable strength of arm and 
sharpness of spar, his heast will divest himself of his hnnlcn, take to liis 
heels, and he gone for ever. Byron bcautifally doscribcB this in his 
ifaz^pa : — 

A tnmpliDg troop : I lee them come : 
Id one tntt BqmiaroD thej iidTaiii>< I 
I ntniTe to cry — mj lipn were dnmb. 
The itreda nuh on in plonging pride. 
Bat wherp arc thcj tho rpiaa who j^idv? 
A thotwand horse and none to ridi! I 
With flowiDE lAil and flying nitioc, 
Wide nortrilB — ni»Ter Btretch'd by puin — 
MoaUiB bloodleee to the bit or rein. 
And fevt that iron never thod, 
And flaoki nnKArr'd by spnr or rod — 
A thoosaJid horse, the wild, thu free, 
Like ware* that follow o'er the sea. 
On came the troop .... 
They itop — ibey atArt — they Banff the air, 
Gallup a momant here and there, 
Approiich, retire, wheel rotinJ and ronnil. 
Then planging back with sudden bound ; 
Th(>y Hnort, they foam, nei|ih. aweirc aBide, 
Anil back w.ird to tlie foreat fly, 

CaptAin Head gives the following account of a meeting with a troop 
of wild horses, where the country ia more thickly inhuliit^'d. Some {mor 
captured animals are iinpposcd to bo forced along by their riders at tln-ir 
very utmost speed : — ' As they are thus galloping along, urged by the 
spnr, it is interesting to see the groups of wild horses ono passes. Tho 
marea, which arc never ridden in South America, seem not t*) understand 
what makes the poor horse cany his head so low and look so wear^'. 
Tlie little innocent colts come running to meet him, and then start away 
frightened ; while the old horses, whoso wliito markx on the flanks and 
bocks betray their acquaintance with tho spur and saddle, walk slowly 
away for some distance, then breaking into u trot as thoy seek their eafcty, 
snort and look behind them, tirat with one cyo and then with the other, 
turning their noses from right to left, and carrying their long tails high 
in the air.' 

Tho same pleasing writer doacribes tho STStcm of horBc-managenient 
among tho mde inhabitants of the plains of South America. Tliev Iiilto 
III) stables, no fenced pastures. One horse is usually kept tied at the di*or 
of the hut, fed scantily at night on maize ; or at otlier times seronil may 
be enclosed in tho corral, which is a cireuhir space sarroanded by rough 
posta, driven firmly into the ground. The mares are never ridden, or 
attempted to be tamed, but wander with their foals wherever they phiiso, 

Whcu the Oauchti, the native inhabitant of the plains, wants horses for 
himself or for tho supply of a tr.iveller, he cither goes gith his la"o to 
the firmi, and selcetii those poR.sibly who on tho preceding day had for 
Uic first time been backed, or he suampers across the plain, and presently 
rotams with an nnwilttng, struggling, or mbduotl captive. \Vlicn tho 
flcrvieos of the animals have Iiecn cxnetcd, lie either takes thorn to tho 
torral toA foods them ¥rith a small quantity of maiw, if ho thinks he 


akM prevonUjr oood tlunu ogiun, or bo onco utoro tarns Qusa. looec on Uio 

Tnirellors yive anme amusing ftccnant« of Lli« mnnn^iT in wliich oU tbifl 
M eflivtMl. Micrs tlios deocribea tho lasto, simplb hi it« conrtl ructiun, but 
all-powert'ul in the liandfl of tfc« G«Dcho : — 

'Tlio loMo is a nuBsilo weapon used hy even native nf tlio United 
Provincefl and ChilL It iM h vor>- Btranp pjnitrd thong of (!r|nnl l3iicVitec8, 
half an incb tn dianMUT liml forty ft^ut louf^, raiule of mnny stripB of frrooB 
T»id« plftilfHi like a whiptlwmg, ntid rondnivil mpplo by KTeaso. It 1ms n* 
one cDil un irva rinj^, ftbovo an inch nnd a naif in diiiniRtcr, thmunclt 
irhl<^i tlto tliong is piuuunl, aiid tJtin foniifl a niniiin|f;-DOC»C. lliv Gaadu), 
or native Peon, ia genDrallT moimted on honmliack when hs umw tJio Inmo. 
One end of the thong is nlhxod to Ido ouldle girth t the romaitiilt^r ha twiU 
oaivfull/ in his left hand, le«Tin;f nbo<nt twelve feot bt-Iongiu;^ to tho 
Boaaa-end iu a coil, and a. hnlf of whtoh ho hoMs in his riifht UiviiiJ. Ho 
Aen nringfl this kiag ihioho hiirixonl4iIly ronnd Lis hcnd. the weight of 
the iron ring at Iho end of tho umxie lUwiKtJiig in giving to it, \ty n eon- 
tioncd eircalnr motion, a imffiaicnt force to project it tho wholu length of 
Uto line.' 

WfavR t]ie Gaachos wish to hare a grand broaking-in, they drivp a 
whole herd of wild horses into the ooriai: — 'The corral was ipiitji l\ill 
of borscfl, most of which wuro yauix" ones about two or threo years oM. 
Tbo eapit^r (chief Oaneho), monnt<^ on n rtrong steady horee, rode into 
tlte corrol, and Ihraw his liusao over tliu nouk of u yoong horse, and drugged 
him to the gnto. For some time ho was Tpry iiitwilltnti; in low bin cwni- 
nideft ; but tho momont be wiui forced oat of the corral, bin fimt idoa wag 
to RftOop away : bowerer, a timely jerk of the lasso chocked him in the 
main eCnsotaal way. TIio pcens now ran aSlor him on font, ninl llirow » 
hMO orer hb fore<]egfi jnst nbore the fetlock, and twitching it, they pnllotl 
bis bfpi from under him bo suddenly, that I really thought the fell ho got 
had killed him. In an inat&nt & Oancho was ncat^d on liis head, and with 
his long knife, in a few seconds, cut off thu wbolo of the hoT«e's mane, 
while nnothiT cut the Imir fmm the end of ln» tuil : this, thry told me, was 
a nwHc that the honwt hiwl been once mounted. Tltt-y tlicn put a jiiei-w of 
hide into biK mouth to rcftc for a hit, and ft strong hide halter on his 
hoaiL Tito Oaociio who w3.-i to mount arranged his sponi, which vtvTO 
itiraaoaUy long and sharp, and while two men held the Sorso by the, 
he pot on the saddle, which he girthcl crtrrmely tight Ho then caaght 
hold of th« hof«e*s cur, and in un intttant vaulted into the saddle ; nprjn 
which the tnnn who h<>Id tho hnrsc hy the halt«r throw the end to tho 
ridsTt and fntm that mouicnt no (m» soomod to l&ko any Inrlhcr uoticu 
of him. 

' Th« horxe inibintly begun to jump in A manner which made it T«ry 
difficnlt for the rider to keep hia Beat, and qaito dilTcrent ^ra the kick or 
plangooif an EiigtiBh horse: however, the Gn-ncho'n RpnDi noon not liim 
gnfaig, and off he galloped, doing ovcrythtog in his power to throw hifi 

* AiMlher horui was Immodiately brottght fn'tn tho eerra.1 ; nnd sn [{iiiek 
was tho operation, that twolTO Oaneheit were mounted in a Rpnee whicli I 
titink hiinjly excoetlcd ftn hour. It waB wondcHol to 000 the OiRerent 
manner in which different horsed behared. Some would actually ^crcani 
wfailo tho Ganchos were girding the saddle upon their bocks ; sorao would 
iastauitly he down and mil upon it; while somo would etnnd without 
batng held, their lego stiff and in cnnatnral positionfi, their necks half 
best towardii their toils, nnd looking vicious and obstiunto : and I eonlil 
nut help th inking ihat 1 would not have mounted one of Uiow fof any 


roward that could be offered me, for thej irore invariably the most diffi- 
cult to Bubdne. 

' It waa now cnrioos to loolc around and see the Ganchos on the 
horizon in different directioiis, trTing to bring their horses back to the 
corral, which is the most difficult part of their work, for the poor creatures 
had boon so scared there that they were unwilling to return to the place. 
It was amusinf^ to see the antics of the horses ; tht^^ were jumping and 
dancing in different ways, while the right arm of tne Gaachoa was seen 
dogging them. At last they brought the horeefl back, apparently subduL-d 
and broken in. The saddles and bridlos were taken off, fmd the young 
horses trotted off towards the corral, neighing to one another.' 

The manufHclure of the Gaucho's boots is somewhat singular : — ' Tlio 
boots of the Gauchos are formed of the ham and part of the leg-skin of a 
colt taken reeking from the mother, which is said to be sacrificed for tho 
sole purpose, just at tho time of bearing, when the hair has not begun to 
grow. At tilts stage, the skin strips off easily, and is very whit« and 
beautiful in texture and appearance. The ham forms the calf of tho 
boot; the hock cosily adapts itself to ihe heel, and the leg above tho 
fetlock constitutes the foot; the whole making a neat and elegant half* 
boot, with on aperture sufficient for Uie great toe to project through.' 

When the Qauoho wishes to take a wild horse, he mounts one that has 
been useil to the sport, and gallops over tho plain. As soon as ho comes 
BufKcic^ntly near his prey, ' the la^so is thrown round the two hind legs, 
and as tho Gauche ndcs a littlo on one side, the jerk pulls tho entungled 
horso's feet bterally, so aa to throw him on his side, without endangering 
his knees or his foce. Before the horse can recover the shock, the rider 
diHmounts, and snatching his poncho or cloak from his shoulders, wraps it 
round the prostnite animal's head. He then forces into his mouth one of 
the powerful bridles of the country, straps a snilille on his back, and 
bestriding him, n-moves the poncho ; upt)n which the astoiiishecl liorso 
springs on his Icps, and endeavours by a thouKiiid vain ofl'orts to dis- 
encumber himself of his new master, who sils qiitto comjioscilly on his 
back, and, by a discipline which never fails, rodiicfs tlio horse to such 
europlct<- obedience, that he is soon trained to lend his whole Hi>ecd and 
strength to tlie capture of his coin[Hinions.' 

Thi'se animals ix>HNrss much of tho form of the Spanish horse, from 
which they spntng; they are tamed, aa has l>een BOeii, with far less didi- 
culty than ciiuld be thought possible ; and although theirs is the obt-dtcnco 
of fciir, and enforced at tirst by the wliip and spur, there are no liorsi'S 
who so soon anil so perfectly exert their sagacity and their power in tho 
ser\'ice of nun. They are possessed of no extraordinary speed, but they 
are cajtable of enduring immense fatigue. They are fri'qucntly ridden 
sixty or seveTity miles witliout drawing bit, and have been urged on by 
the cruel spur of the Gaucho more than a hundred miles, and at tho ruto 
of twelve miles in tho hour. 

liiko the Arab horses, they know no intermcdiato pace between tho 
walk and the gallop. Although at the end of a day so hard, their sides 
are horribly mangled, and they completely exlinnstud, there is this con- 
solation for them, — they arc immediately turned loose on the plains, and 
it will bo their own fault if they are speedily caught again. The mare is 
occasionally killed fur food, and eflpt.-cially on occasions of unusual festivity. 
General Sun Martin, during tho war for independence, gave a feast to the 
Indian allies attaohc<i to his army in which mares' Hesh, and the blood 
tnizcd wit}) gin, formiil tho whole of the entertainment. 

On such dry and sultry plains tho supply of water li oflt-n scanty, and 
UwQ u species of uutducas seizes on the horses, and their gvneruua and 


docilo qoalitiM ant no loofi^r rocoKniscd. The; rufih violently into every 
pond and ]iike, en^itgcly mftu^lin^ and tnunplini; npon odc another ; aud 
tb« cairciuies of mHuy thoiittandit of thitm, iltwlniy^-c) hy their fvllowH. liare 
oeouionally beoa K<ea in and Bjvnnd n connidi^nittlc iumiI. TliiLt ia one 
of ihe m«an« by whicli the too rapid iucreatw of tiiiii <{uaiinipvd is, by tha 
ordinance of SAtnnr, there preTonted. Ilumboidt fiayR tlint (luring thu 
periodical swcUinps of the larKc rivers, immense imniberB of wilii lii^mt-Jt 
are druwnud, particularly wlien t]u> river Apnn< is swollen, and theho 
nnimivU aw fttWmpting to FcacH tho riftinf; gronnda of tbo Linnos. 'i'ho 
mnrra muy bo K«n, duripg tbc iteiuon of high vruk-r, m-immiDg about 
foUowtd by iheircoitit, ami fettling on the tjill gnwN, of which the tops 
aloii« wave above Ihe waters. In this fitate tliey arp ptir«ui-(l hy croco- 
diko, and their thighs frecint-ntly bear the priiitii of the ti-eth of thraft 
canuToroos reptiles. They lead tor a time aa ampblbious lite, aurruundcil 
by crocodiles, wuUT-8er[>cnts, and maraetccs. When the rivera n-liini 
•gain into th«fir Wdi^ tliiry ruum in the savannah, which is then sjircad 
OTor widi a fine odoriferous gra«i, and seein to enjoy Iho renowed vegeta- 
tion of spring. 

Nunwroua herds of wild horses abonnd in the wtst of Ijoaisiiiiift^ and of 
all colonrB. They arc like thoaa on the Pampas, the remiunH of tbo 
Spanish hone*, and are hnnted, canght^ and sometimes destroyed for food 
by tlio mragg {nhabitiuitfl iif thu biiuK settlements. 

Mr. Low, in bis bcanliiul dclinrationa of th« British qaadrapeds, gives 
tlie follnwing acoount oftlio lionH-tt of North Amurira.: — 

' North America seems an well adapted to the k'niptrftTnent of tht- liorvu 
aa any aimilar conntries in tha old continent. The Mexican honws are 
derived from, hat somewhat detenotuted by, a less eareful management. 
Mexican hontes have likewise escaped into uio woods and Baranoaba, and 
aUluagli they have not mnltiijlied, on in the plains of the Plata, iJicnce 
Uierliavu de^oundod northward to the Rocky Mountains, and the sonreca 
of tho Colomlria. The Indians of thu country have learned to purstie and 
copCarc tb«m, employing tbcm in hunting and transporting their liunilica 
from plaee to jilivoe — the first great change thiit baa tJikin pluen for agia 
in tlia condition of the It«d Man of tlie NorUi American wontln. The 
lligbest ambition of the young Indian of these northern tribes, is to 
nntmMt a good bono for the chnne of tho huUalo. The Ositges form largo 
hsntui^paitics for tho chase of horses in the country of the Ited Canadian 
River, using rrlays of &csh homes, until they have mn down the wild 
bnnlR. To Hlt-aJ th« horw of an atlverse tribe is c^oiistdi^n^l as an exploit 
almost as heroic aa the killing of an enemy, and the distances that they 
will travel and the pri*-ations tbey will undergo in tlicse predatory excor- 
aiona arB scarcely to bo bchevcd,' 

The Asglo-Amorimns, tlic Caniuliiins, and the colonists nf the West 
ladia Islands. Iiavb all aci|uirDd the domesticated horse. The Canadian 
ia finuid principally in Canada and the If Drthem States. Ho is snpposed 
to bv of French dvoccnt, and many of the celebrated trotters aro of this 
l>rc«d. i[<;iition will be made of soma of these whon thu pncvu of tho 
lionwate described. 

Thme liorsea aro much iiwkI for winter travrlting in Canada and in tlio 
KorlheTO StatM. One of tb(-m hM •Irawn a light eabriolct over tho ico 
ninety miles in twelve hours. TUuir shoes are maghoned by the insertion 
of two or thrM st«el screws, inst^ind of the common Emtipcan method. 
The curry-comb is never used upon them in the winter, for a thick far 
liaa grown over them to protect them fmm tho inDlcmmt^y of the season. 
Th«y aro animals never refusing tho collar, yet tboy &r« occustAUod to 
Iwl osagc. Those of the United istatos arw of orcry variety, but crostu/d 



hy tho m<Ml<*m Rnjriish ra«) or tho Amb. TIic improvenient oftho tonip. 
nt ibis tiiDP, oocnpicH mnch of ihcir attcntiun. Horsc-recea ai« (wtabliidiMl 
IB BUUiT pUcoM, tm pardcnlitrly iti t)i<> Soath&m States; luid they hftT« 
ailoptea, to a rery oonndcrnblu dcin^^?, tho oaa^tce of Uio En^Htih (arf. 
'riicT bavo difTiTvcit viuictu.-fl uf iiM-fiil Tor ridin^f, and for tlieir 
pobufl uhI private coiria^M. H»1iit, ariom^ from mmus ciaxms or whim 
now not IcDown, hMi madD theni narHBl to Die tTOttin(;(-liorf>n ; and thn 
bst««( troUiD);-borM« in the world am to bo found in thu Uait«l StatcR. 
Tbe brcedii of the Wtwt India iHlands arc those of the pnniit i>tiit<-!i. I'ho 
honea of Cuba are deri'VTd from Spain, and retain thi> diiitmciiTe uha. 
factors of the piirmt Htuck ; niul tbcisu of the English eolonioa have boon 
iinprorod by oontinnml interoonrNn with the mothor conntry. 

A ntuoh-vnlui'd corrc-spondrnt, Mr. Hotob, of Loiu«rill«, ia Uio Slate 
of New York, tlius addrmses iho anthor : — * From my own pc-rsonal expo- 
rtcnoR, T. should say that all oor Htock ia America hopiq to poasnu a 
harder oonHtitudon and arc much less liablo la diaeaae than in Kn);land ; 
and tliat animals, hat a fow gonemtions rcmorM frMn thoao iM'tunJIy im- 
ncrttxl, Bvquirvd much stronger oonstitntioiiB than thdr anceston ; and it 
liaa bcL-n u qiiratii^n with me, atul acceded to by the late Bcr. H. Bony, 
whetlwr importations of aomn of our piiK)-bn*il animals miglit not nonic- 
timM be mode into yonr country with advantage. I am tmro that onr 
backs aad rMwlslers will endure a ^mut dt«l moru (aliuTiio and hnnlKhi[> 
than the aaine description of bonw ui Enjfland. I apcnK with amBdooco 
in thcetc matters, b«?aiiBe I have been a breeder in both coniiLrieit.' 

That tbe ^nuiter littnl«liip and labour to which tlio American home of 
thi4 deecriptdon i$ expoaod would prodaeo a ffroatcr dcvdopment of animal 
powor, there con bo no doubt, and a onHS from thu l>cst of satth a lm.icd 
i-onld nut fiiil of being adrantageona ; bnt we miut adopt and perpetooto 
the cinntniv-lanoea tfaat prodoood tfaii mporior powor, or wo alunld not 
loofif rvtoin the advmnta^ of the erow. 

la Ihtf cxteoaire tvrritory and Tariod olimalo of thv Unlled Stal^-e 
•crcrral braeda of horses arc fonnd. 

The CouMloga horae ia found in Pennsylvania and tho middle States ; 
long in the )o^ aad lif>ht in tbe careaaa ; sometiineN risisfp sor<!nto<m 
luuids ; used pnoci|Milly for tho carrio^ i hot, when not too high, and with 
Hafficienl sabstance, UH-fnl fur hunting and tho saddle. 

The Bngluh hortte, with a good deal of blood, prDvaita in Vifffinia and 
Kvntncty, and ia found to a grmtor or loiw iloj^rue in all tiio States. Ilie 
Americans have at difierent times imported some of tho boat Enpliah 
blood. It han been most diligently ana purely nrveon-od in the Southern 
States. The ocleiirated Rharx. tho beat norsc of hia day, and vcjnallol by 
fisw at aziT time, waa tho Biro of the best Virginiim hones ; and Tally-bo, 
a son of &^iflycr, peopled tbe Jerseys. 


The limits of on r work cr^rapel as to bo oxooodi offly brief in oor account 
of the breeds of the dilTc-n-nt cxHutriea of Earoi)0. Wo start from tJio 
•oulli-wiMt of this quarter of the world. 


The Snaniah horses for many a centnry ranked no«t to thme of Barhnry 
and Arabia. Thty descended from tho Barfaa, or mthcr they were the 
Bnrba tmnAjJaittcd to a Karoponn soil, and aamowhat altfn^l, bub not 
malcrially injnn<tl, by Uie cliiui^*. BoIleyHel, tlie pnrfnii mitri:*rltiil, given 
na oloqoeot dtfaeripUon of ihoKi : — '1 liavu suuii inuny Hpauiah bonoa; 




o^nro oxtromHy hrantifUlf mid tlio nio«t prapor of all to be di«wn bjr a 
conotw pMiril or to }» inntiolod by a kiug, when he intenda to show hiBiBelf 
ia lits nu^ivaUc ^W/ tu the peoplu.* 

Tbo ciMnmnn breed of Sp&nuui tinniefl bare nothinff oxtroonliQary aboat 
them. The lega and feet are good, bnt the hesd ia ratbur Urge, the tbre- 
huiil heavy, and yet tho port«rior piirt of thi> clu-st <)cfim(<nt, the crappcr 
sIm hayin); (oo much tho ftp|ioanuioc of a malo. The hontofl of Ei<tro- 
omdiun And Unuiodn, ftnd partJoalnrly of AndnlnHui, Arc most \-nhicd. 
Beirnf^r, whtwr juil u^tu-iit can \w CMy (lr[i('n(Ied on. thus iiiuRnnvt<\'* their 
pxn'lloticM aiiil llieir dcfot^tii : — 'Tho nock ii lonft ami nrchtd, pcphiips 
WMncvrhat thu^, bat cloCh^ vHth a t'ntl iuid ftoMrin^ mano ; the k(vid timr 
Ix- a little too ooftrac ; the ears Innp, but well j>lacc<l ; the eyce largo, bftd, 
and full of fire. Their carrinfjc lofty, proud, and noblo. The breast 
large : tho EhonldprM eornvtiiiii's thick ; tlw botly fr(>({ut>ntLy too full, nnd 
ewf llin^ ; aiul the loin n littlo t<>o li>w ; but the rilw rtjtiml, and tJio croup 
round nad tall, and thv logs well fumi(.-d and v\imt of hair, and tbcBincifs 
at a difltftiiw from thv Iwiie — nctivo and tfutiy in their pjicfs— of ijuifk 
»[>I>r^hcnHion ; a memory xingiilarly faithftil; oliedipiit to th« titmoRL 

Iirooff dooilo and aflGcttonat^ to man, jot full of eptrit nnd oonrafro.* TIio 
'»rfait Mar«s<-hftl shall iaki> np the story ^^^in : — ' lliero iriU not ho 
fonatl aaykiltd of horses more noble than thoy, and of their cooing 1 why I 
haveHccn tbcir ctttrailH hnnijint; from them, t.hriunplithcTininbtTof wonnds 
that thry havo rpwivwl ; yi-t tlitty hiivp CJirriiHl citT tlicir rider itafti and 
ronod with tho anmc nrido with which thny bronght him ta tho tiHd, and 
afWr that th<>y have diiid, having Ichh Ufv than courago.' It ui didightfal 
to mod aocoanta like Uicie, and wi> know not whiidi bo admiTD most, tho 
Botitm hone or the man who could ao woU approciatc hia oxcellcQce. 

The mad^TO Spanish horece aro fod npon choppud straw and a littlo 
baHey. When tlie Froncb and English oavijry were tliere, dnrinp tlit- 
Peiiinfiular war. and wore withont preparation put upon this nindft of 
UrinR'. so different from that to wTiicli they had l>ecn accoHtomed, tLey 
began to W' thuHi d^-bil it;iU'd. nnd n roiinidi'mldu inortality broke out 
MDonj; them ; hut, afler a while, thoy who wi-k) htftrogainod thoir strength 
and spirttv, a»d tJic mortality L-ntircly cc-oaodi 


Thero waa a time when tho liusitanmn or Portngnesft horspst wim^ 
liigfajy eclebrated. Tho Roman hiatarian Jostin compares their swiftnoiia 
to that of tho winds, and adda, titat many of them niij^ht bo said U> Iw 
bnm of tlio winds ; while, on the other hand, Borcnger. who lircd at a 
tima wlwn tho glory of tho Spanish hontn had not qaito laded VKty, says, 
that * tho Portugal norsca arc in no rvpnto, ai)d differ oa moeh from their 

Paa^hoDra, tho Spaniards, na cniba from apples, or sloea from rapM.* 
Ho tljoa aooounta for it. When Portugal waa aunezed to Bpaia, tlto 
latter country waa prefemxl for the establishment of the stnds for 
brewlinfr, and the fow distrieta in I'ortugnJ which were suSieicntly sap- 
plied with herbftge and water to tit them for a breeding conntpy wero 
derotcd to tho rcaristf of homed cattle for tho sbamblcif and tho pleugh, 
■nd mnlM and anoi lor draught. Hence, tho natives regarded thg horso 
■■ oomwctcd mon* with pomp and nloaauro than with utility, and drew 
tha eomparat3T(-ly few hnrsfs that tnoy wanted fr4>tn Spain. The proscnt 
gOTcmmCTit, howcv«r, »<>cmB disposed to effect a ri'form in this, and thoro 
atv alill a anfflrienl nninWr of AndalaaUui horiu^a in Portngal, and BiU'bti 
in Africa, flilly to accomplish the pnrpoao. 





Aeoordi^ l» ^ atuvey of 1829, Fninco contain^ 2, 100,000 honoa 
iaotmluiB uoMof ewiydeMription. Theiiiiinl)erof man-s wim 1,227,781. 
TlMgnwter jmrtof these were empIojiMl in the hreeJing of ruuli-)*, ami 
porfa^U not more than a fourth part were Uied for keeping up the imnilKtr 
of horses. Besides these, nearly '27,000 borsca are atmu&ily imported 
into France, cither on epccoktioa of izamcdiate saJe, or for ili>e oxprcst 
pnrpose of improving tlie breed. 

Two-Uiirtl« of tJie iV-jich horses are deroted to pui^MMH of light work, 
nnd [>oaM!U & ccrfaun degree, and that gi-nduallj* increasing, of KtuiU^rn 
blood. Tber« ia room, however, for a great deal moro than tho French 
horso omiallT posaessea. One-third of tho horse« ore cuplo^od in Ll'Syj 
woric ; 70,000 in post work ; and nbunt Um suiuo number arc nfTiBtcred as 
fit for mill tftrj' nnv, althouf^h not more than half of th^tni htv on aduitl 
■ervico. The asDortAined nnmheT of deaths is about one in 12 or 1 3, or 
iMvixij; ill© arorag* ago of the horso sit 1'2, Tikis speaks strongly in 
fltTOOT of the bamanity of the Prmch* or tho hardihood of tho honu's, for 
it flOEoeeda the arora^ dnrution of tho life of the horsu in England by 
more than two yuars. Citliruliiting Uie averagt; value of the French horse 
n( 40'i francs, or Uil. \3t. -W., there rcHolLa a sum of 060,W0,i)fM) fmncs, 
or 40,000, WO pounda ntvrliug, as the groaa value of ihia apcciiHi of national 

It tntiNt bo iiappo!>od that so extensive s country as Fmncc pogwMoa 
various breeds of horaes. Anvt^rgiie and Poiton produce good ponies and 
galloiruTS', but the l>««t Fronoli ttonw^* (ir* bred in Limonsin and Nor- 
inanily. From tho forraor district coiiii; excellent euddle- horses anil 
hunters, and from the latter a stronger species for tho roftd, Uie taralry 
if^orvieo, and Uiu earria^. 

M. Hoiiiil has recently published an interesting work on the ToriotiM of 
the horse in France, lie etAt«» that in the time of the Goinanstbcrowvni 
but two kinds of horses. — the wur-horse, and tho smnptcr or pack-horso. 
The carnage, or dnmght^horse, wiis comparatively or quite nnknown ; 
•ad vma men of the higheat .station roflVirol theni«elvt« to be indolently 
dnvQ by oxuo. Groat care was taken to prowrvo or to renew tho 
btrengllt and speed of tho war-horse, and African or Arab blood waa 
diligently songht. An aninml. tho type of t^o Eni^liab Clevoland breed, 
Ibe bandMRiest and KlTOu^>8t description of thv coneh.horBe^ waa Uios pro> 
eond. By degnN.-s„tiiia horse was found too vnluublo (or n hackney, Add 
loo high-trotting for a long joumev, and a more smoothly-moring aniiMl 
was gradually introduced. Still tuo chancer did not grow qnitc out of 
AuhiOB, and in Iformondy tho rearing of this animal became aa object of 
mocb attention to the fanner. At linit they wero bred too alow and pon- 
dcrons, bnt bj* degree* a horae wa« obtoinod of Mmewhat lighter action 
and oonaiderable speed without much sacrifice of strength, and tlirv now 
oomlitBte a uiMt vatoable breed. ' I hare not eWwhiT^-,' snys M. Hoiiet, 
'Mwn mch borsosatthe collar, onder the diligence, or the ix>8t-c&rriage, or 
Uto fano>cart.. Tbevareenduringandcnerr^'tic beyond description. At tho 
miooof the brutal tlrtver, OT at tba dreaded aoo&d of bis oever-coaniig whip, 
ttey pnt forth all their strmffth, and they keep Uioir eoudition wlieu 
oi^r Doraes would die of neglect and hanl treatment.' The little Xormim 
cui-boiM i» porliapi the beat for farm^work. The Norman horeea — and 
Ult tame nbucrvation applies to all Lbs nortltom provinoet of Prance— ore 
Twy (pmtle and docile. A kickinu or vidoua ono is almoflt unknown 
then*: bat they arc. with few ezcefrtioua, Ircaled vrith ^rranoy and 
cnuky fium fint to Uai, Tho reign of tcrnar may lo a oertain degree bo 


Tt c e cmh ry wlierc tJicrc arc many porfi-rt lionw-n; but tlio principle of 
miolU- should not oxloiij, aa it tv<t ofU;a dcK-H, to tlio trcatmcat of every 

tkind of horse. 
Bomcthiiif; must be nttribatcd to both caaseH. Tliere is more'humaniiy 
amonfi; tiitt Vrvneh tliati the En]c;liiib poaBantr)' ; bat, on tbo &thcr han<i, 
there kpf horriWo tcctxvtt of cmelty to the horse hoorly taking placid in the 
strcctn uf Vuxia, thai wuuid cot he tolvmUid for a taomont m the Dritiah 

rTlie breeding of horsee biui moro docidodly bocomv a branch of agricul- 
taml nttentioa iind apeeulation than it Tioed to bo ; for it bu been proTrd 
to tliu GLmter that) with Iho proper kind of postorc, and 'vritliin a fnir 
ditft&Dco of ■ proper market, inetoad of bcin^ ono of the moitL tmcurL-iirt 
and improfitablt- modes of usiug the hind, it jdeJda more than an average 

Tho catab)ifihment of roocs in almost every part of Fmiii<« ha» given » 
fll>irit to tho breeding and imprcvenient of the lionio -which cannot fail of 
iR'int: cicvedinply bcnoficial throngUoiit the whole of tlic FrmcJi cmpiro. 
In fact, it may bii stated .without esaggoHtion, that tho rapid iinpi-ove- 
ment which is taking phico i« attributHblo principally to thla canse. In 
Order to «fiVct tho ddiivd improvomcnt, tho tVcncti, and with much jiidg- 
meat, bare hml rccourtti; to the Kiigliiih tborou^h-ln-cd homo far more 
tlum to tho native Arabian. A grxnit ciany of the- Ixtsl, English Btiillions 
have been purchaaod for tho Kreneh atads, and hav(> 1m«ii liraiofioially 
employed in improving, and ofteB croating, tho hnntcr. the rao-cr, and 
ahuoei all of the bettor ela^s of borsos osod I'or purposes of luxury. 

It has hccQ slated tliat the most vnloublo nntivo liorses arc those of 
>'ormandv ; perhaps thuy huvo beon improved by tho Knglish huntor, and 
OccauiiinAlly by tJid Rrglixh t.h<>n)iigh-bn.>d linrso ; and, on tho other hand, 
the English roadster and the Ui^ht draaght-horsc have dcrivod considcrahlu 
ndvutilogp &um a mixture with the Nurmnn. not only in curly times whon 
William Uie Conquei'or wm ho Linger to improve iho horses of his now 
snbjecta by tncana of thoao of Norman blood, hut ab many gucceoduig 

A cortaui nnmber of Korraandy horaoB naod to be pnrchafled eveiy y^ear 
by the French OoTormnent for tho nso of tho other departments. This 
ImI occasiomilly to considemblo triekory and evil. None of tho yorman 
borsos were castrat^^d thoy were tnrw, or aomeHmes fonr yonra old ; 
and then it frequently happcnt'd that borsca of superior appearance, but 
with no pin- lilmid in Uu m, were Hold as belonging Ui tlie improved breed, 
and it waa only in tJieir offfipring that the cheat could ho discovered. Tlio 
f^evmiment now pnrcbasee the grejiter part of tho Normandy horses in 
tbeir firet year, and brings them np in the public ntuds. They cost more 
raooey. it ia true; but they nre better bred, and Ix^comu finer aoimals. 

» Tliere is no deception unth reganl to thoM bontcs, and the amelioration of 
the othor breeds is secured. 

Brciy oonntrr tliat bag oconpied itaotf with the araplioration of its breed 
of boTMM, ha« UDcnied it necessar)- to have a pnbUo register of tho name* 
and progeny of thow of an iicknowlcged race. England has had itfi slnd- 
hook nearly half a century, containing a list of all tUc. linrxeN of pure blood 

(that have existed in tho cottntry. Fmnco, in the year 1837, had her first 
»itul>book, in which &r« insonlx-d the namcH of ^lo BtaUiona, of pure 
Kngliah blootl. imported into Fm nee or Ixini there; 2WI Arabti, Itarbit, 
Fcraian, or Turkish honw's; 27-lt Knglioh mares of true blood, and 41 
Eastern marva. Their progt-ny is bUo tmced, so far as it waa practicable. 
Xbii vorfc will fona an epoch in tho e<)^ueBti»D aniuUs of that country. 



Tiuy an imall, Wt^lKnuuIc, and cnpQblo of enduring' muclt fiitifnie ; as 
fortlisiF other inialitti'H (nud Ihvy am not miii.'ti uIitm^'t.Hl nt l)i4> prvscnt 
dny from whftt they fortnrrlv went), Rliindo^-illn nhttU i3p<-iik nf thrm ; — 
' Tlio honuM that ODiDf out ol' tliv Inlc of HttrU^'inttK <>n<l ('<>r»i<j» \invv eliort 
lx)d7M and bo Teryo bi>l<)e iuih) counL^>aim, ami iin<]nii!i iii ihrir {laici', tV>r 
titey be ao ficroo and bote cholericlcB coiupleKion. aiid tlti'it^wtth .to luunh 
used to nmninp ia their ooontrie as t.hoy w^iil stunJ still on no f;TOiiiido. 
And, tboroforc, this Icyncle of borso rcqnirctb n. diserwU' and pacieut ryder, 
wbo muift not bo oror haatiu in oorrcuting bLm lor fuira ol' marrui); bim 


Wm onco cvlebratod for ilio bonnty of hix rurm nnd bio pnctm ; fant, liko 
OTOCytbiap; vW in that dc^frndcd c«uiitiy, be Juis mmIIj dc^ncratcd. TLtQ 
Nenpulitjtn liortos wvru [ittrticulArly rtTniikrknblu for l)ii?ir nistr and majcstuj 
iwtiion; tben) wah, bowtiviir, a dttgrtte uf clutnaiiji-toi alxrjiit ibo hrudit. und 
fonhuid, and geuei-al ap|>eaninoe, whiob the sofniiiig jpwulftiir of Uidir 
•ction would not alnuvs couce^, aud th«y wcr» oci^wioiinllv utitravtublu 
aod Ticioua to an alanoin); do^^roc. Thoy oro now mncb dotorioratcd, and, 
in SmA, vrith but fuw uxccptiona, Hcnrctily of anj vnloc 

Some or tliH Ttaltan neea aru a disgracdful borloKiao on tbo«c of otbor 
oonntnoa. At Romo thoj bav« booomo a noeoraary appoiid^,^ to the 
ouuuaI camirol, »nd (bi-rv it) do otbvr of the paotimea of that ffty aowwn 
in which the [Hn'iple take an erjnal dijligbt. Some of tUn horot)- racvn rv- 
aemblo those in other coaotrics, and nro &irly con tested ; bnt niucb 
ofUmcr tho Itoman courso preBontii nothing )ni{ tlio burau ntnnuiK wiLbont 
toy rider, and not fr<>iu his awn spirit and cmiilntinn, bat startled by noiaea 
■od fcoodcd oa by ndimilotu and bwrbaroiu coQtrinuK.'cii. 

Tho lioma tornivd Barbcri-'-bccnQM tlie race iriiti at llntt contcstcil \jy 
Barba — we bfongbt to the starUiiK-|ioitt, tliitir hiwdit njid tbuir nucka 
gaily ornamented ; while to a girth which fjoca round the body of each 
are atioobed several looao stmpe, baviu^ aL their ends suiall btdlu of lend 
thickly Bot with sharp stoel jioliiiH. At crcry motion tlieae am brought 
in contact with the flaDka and bellied of the bonies, and the more rioletit 
the motion, the more druadful thu jnt'cittHuit U>rtuiv. On their Ixu'ks are 
p)ae«d shaete of thin tin, or Htiff pni<er, which, when ftffitatwl, will make a 
msUing, rattling uoisu. 

It ia diSoalt to ootioeiTe of the rtarinur, kickln^r, pawing*, aad snorting 
which ooonis afc the starting'-placo. A ropo pLtoed aorou the atreot pre- 
vents tbom from cottinff away, and a stent poaaant is employed with oaoh 
borae in a 8tra|n[W ofuowunght etivn^tb, and, at the bastard of limb and 
of life, to rostnun him. Ocoasionally some of them do break away und 
pun the rope beforo tbe HtivcU— thv raco-couno— in cleared, and tlma 
many aeriooa accidents aro ttiini to luippon. 

Wbra all ia reody for starting, a troop of dntgoona gallop through tbo 
atra:t in order to clear tho way. A tnonpet aoonds — tho ropo dropa — 
the (t:nM>nka lei go tb«r bold, and the boraca start awny like arrows mmt 
a bow. Tbe lurder ther ran, the mon< they nrv pricked ; thu raaiio of 
this tbef M*u Keroely aiile to oomprvhend, for tboy bita and plunfro at 
eaoh euer, and a tcniblo fijcbt is aotnetimce oommeoccd. Others, IJom 
mere friirbt or aulkiness, stimd stock-aiill, and ife » by bruto fonio ulono 
that they ran afraiu be inductnl to »mv». 

A stioiw canT«a screen is paasod along the bottom of tlie atrcct This 
is Ibe goaf. It bM tbo ajipcamioe of a wall ; bnt some of thv horses, in 





tho excess of tlicir agony and tciror, dart Ml ftgauiBl it, tear Lhrougb it, 
or curry it away. 

After alL the yrita in notliin^ nuirv than uii oi-nanioatal Rag; ; but it U 
[jujBOiitfd oy the ^t? mor of Romv, luul it ia sappmed to bo a pledgu of 
the speed and ii'aJuo of the Lorsu nbicb will dnscucd on un bvir-loom iVnni 
pcaeiBtioii to gtmiTAtion among tlte peasantiy, to wliom many ol' these 
hones belonf?. Tlio de<cbu'on of sneh a tacc, hawcvcr, can have littlo ttt do 
wilL -tho fifwcd or atrenfftU or vnlao of the horsos in any respect. Tho 
ItaliutB, however, enter into the afiair with all titeir charactviititic oaj^r- 
neu of fijvliDjf, and ate Ruilty of every kind of citnvvapBnce. During tho 
fint six days of the carnival, tliu liom-a arv fuirly claMted acoording to the 
Hfi«, height, di.>fpv« of lirmidiiii^, &c.^ but on tho last two days — the 
oboioo daya — ^tbvy run alWgwtbvr, and some in the mumicr tLat I Kave 
deoDiibed, and thus increnee tbo coaftuioa, Uic riot, and thv dungvr of tho 

Tb0 Cdno is very nearly a mile, and it haa ot^cOHionaUy boon run in two 
ining*it Bad twenty-one mcod<U : a vcn- t^niok: pace for stnoll bontco, 
maoj of Ihetn not moro than fourteen bonds hi^'h. Bacea of a RtiniLir 
chanicter take place at Florence, of which Mrs, Pioizi girea tlie following 
deacriptiun : — ' The Htretrt ia covm^I with saw-dost, and made tost at 
both ends. Near tho atarting-pogt are clAgoct beotim, lined vitb rod 
TclTOtf for the court and fint nobility. At the other end n ]>icce of tapoatry 
is bmij;. to prevent tlie creatures from daabin^ their br%ins out wbrni they 
reach the goal. Thousands and tcru of thousFinda of people on foot fill tlie 
ranme;, so that it is a great wonder to mo still tlint nunibi>ra are not killed. 
Tho uria«a are exlubittd to view in quite the old classical stylo — a pitice 
of anmaon damaak for the winner ; u EtniaLl silver basin and owor for tJie 
Mcond; nod so on, li?aring no jieHiirmer unn^wanlvd. 

'At last comu out tho horses, witliODt riden;, but with a uorrow leathern 
stmp hunf> aerofs their bodies, which has a lump of ivory Hxod to the end 
of its bU set full uf ebarp ttpikei like a bed^'<Dog, and this ^Eids tlicm 
along while galloping, wome than any s)mr could du, beciuiau the fuelcr 
they run lite more tliia old maehino k(«pii jumping up and down, iiiid 
prirlciug their sidca ridicoloosly eiioagh ; and it makes one langh to see 
tbjit tome of them are so tickled by it as not to run at all, but sut about 
plunjnnginordcrto rid themselves of the inconvenience, instead of drii-ing 
forward to lUvert tho mob, who leap, and CRper, and shout with delight, 
und lni>h the laggura along with groat indignation indeed, and wiUi (Jib 
moat comical gestures.' 

Before wc quit tho reichbourbood of Italy, wc may perhaps notice 
aaotlier eunuua mode of borw^nMnng, prarlised iu Mtdta. The horsss 
here are imieeil inouuted, but thoy have neither saddle nor hriille. Tlio 
riiien sit on tho hare bock, and have nothing to gnido or to spur on their 
hones, bnt a small pointed instrument, not unllko n cobbler's nwl. These 
horacv are small Ixirbs. well tempered, vr they would mnxt tliia mode of 
■""-"jp— "r*. and they rerluinly are not. )twil\. Dy pricking tlic hnnte nu 
ons Sldo OP tJie otliur of tho neok. the rider con guide hiia a littlo in tlio 
way be edtoald go, and certainly he may urge him to Ms fnlleet speed ; bat 
atiU, altbongfa it aSbnla n novel and amusing sight to the stranger, the 
horse and tm; spectators are degreded by such an exhihitioii. 


The fiillowing aeconot is ^veii by the Duke of Ragiiaa of the impprial 
ssteblisbinent for tho Invading of hontM at M c so h agy^a, ncnr Carbditir^r, 
in Amstiift :— ' This in tho finest establishnent in the Anstrian ntonarchy 
for tho breeding and improvement of horecB. It atanda on 40,000 acm of 


land of the boat quality, aad is Borroanded in ita whole extent, which is 
15 lea^ipusa, by a brood and doop diteh, and hj a broad plantation 60 
feet wide. It was formerly designed to snpply bnrses to recniit the 
cavalry ; at present its object is to obtain stallions of a good brood, which 
are sent to certain d^pftts for the snpply of the Tarioos provinces. To 
produce these, 1,000 brood mares and 48 BtalHons aro kept ; 200 additional 
marea, and 600 oxen are employed in cultiyating the ground. The plain 
18 divided into fonr equal parte, and each of these sahdivided into portions, 
resembling so many farms. At the age of fonr years the yoong horses are 
all collected in the centre of the ostabliahment. A selection is first made 
of the best animals to supply the deficiencies in the establishment, in order 
always to keep it on the same footing. A second selection is then made 
for the nse of the other: none of these, however, are sent away nntil they 
are five years old ; but the horses that are not of sufficient value to lie 
selected are sold by auction, or sent to the army to remount tho cavalry, 
OS circumstances may require. 

' The whole number of horses at present here, inclading the stalhons, 
brood-mares, colts, and fiUies, is 8,000. Tho persons employed in the 
cultivation of the ground, the care of the animnla, and the man^^ment of 
the establishment generally, are a major-director, 12 subaltern officers, and 
1,170 soldiers. 

' The Imperial troasury advances to the establishment every year 1 18,000 
florins (the half rix-dollar or florin is in value about 2s. lil. English 
money), and is reimbursed by the sale of 1-50 stallions, which are sent 
every year to the provinces at the price of 1,000 florins each, and by tho 
value of the horsea supplied to the cavalry. The other expenses of every 
description are paid for by the produce of the establishment, which la 
rcqnirai to defray, and docs defray all. This is, therefore, an immense 
estate — a farm on a colossal scale — with a stad in proportion managed on 
account of the sovereign, and which produces a considerable revenue, 
independently of the principal object which is attained, the propagation 
and multiplication of tno best breeds of horsea. Ho can always snpply the 
wants of hia army at a price almost incredibly small. For a horse of the 
light cavalry he pays only 110 florins, for the dragoons 120, for the 
cuirassiers 140, for the tram 160, and for the artillery 180. It is a great 
clement of power to possess at home such an immense resource against a 
time of war, at nn expense so fiir below that which the powers of the west 
and sonth of Europe are compelled to incur.' 

So early as 171K}, a very superior Arabian, named Turkmainath, was 
imported into Germany, and nis stock became celebrated, not only in 
HungaiT, hut throughout most of the German provinces. In 1819 tho 
Arch<luko Maximilian, brother to the emperor, purchased some valnahle 
racers and hunters in England, and sent them to Austria. Some of them 
went to the Imperial establishment of which mention has just been made, 
and the others contributed materially to the improvement of the horses 
wherever they were distributed. lUccs have been established in various 

Sirta of the Austrian dominions, and particularly at Bnda and at Peat, in 
ungary. Of tho good effect which this will have on the breed of horses, 
there can bo no dispute, provided tho race do not degenernto into a mi-ra 
contest of auporionty of speed, and exhibited in an animal that from hia 
youth must inevitably he injured or mined in the struggle. 

The gipeicfl used to bo the principal horse-dealers in HungaTV, but they 
have been getting into comparative disrcimte since tho estabtiahment of 
the noble studs scattered through this district. He who wanta a horae, 
or to apocnlato in boms, may now go to head-quarters and chooao fur 





lb may be wt>U ^apposed tlkAl Uiiit animiil -n-ill be of & rery different 
chanK-icr in Twioos fnrte of this imroeiiRo imigiin-. Tho heavy cavaliy 
ftnd iW gTvater part of thc< \inTse<a for pleafmre are rit-MH-ndod ori^mlqr 
fion Cossack blood, Init impniTwl liy i;lallians from Poland, Prawrift, 
HokteijL, «nd En^liukd ; and the aCud* arv now found ou an unnunuw 
•oak in Tariooa pwia of Russia. Tbe lifffater car&lnr, and the txtnunoaer 
lianeB, are, as tbcM Iiavo ever been, CDnsaclu, irilbo<iit any attempted 
impiroTeineat, and are hardy and better saited to the duti^ts niqiured 
froia them. 

fi bas been 8oppo*cd that no bnrw, cxflnpt thv Arab, could entlurv 
priration like the Cowack, or had contbiiit-d Hpt<(.>d and rndnraucr etjuat 
to Iiim. Tbe Comack, however, was beaten, and llial not by liors«8 ol' tlie 
^nt-zmte Knf|;1ifib blood, in a race which fairly put to the test boUi qnalt> 
iit*. It waa a erae1 aflUr ; yet nothing short ef gnoh a contest Tronld have 
Mttfled the nncfition. 

On the Ith of Anirii'*'' lB2.%a race of foHy-BC^-cn ntilcii iraa run between 
two CoBsac4c and two English horseii. Tbe EnglUb boraea were Sharper 
and Mina, well known, ret not ranking with the first of tbeir rbuin. The 
CoMadcs were selected ^m tbe best horses of the Don, the Black Sea, and 

Oo starttnjt, tbe CoaHaeks UxHt the lead at a moderate pace ; but before 
tbey faaul gone lialf a mile, the Gtirmp-Ieatber of Sharper broke, and he 
nui away wiUi liis rider, followed by Mina, and thc^ went more tlian a 
mile, and op a Bte«p hill, boforc they conlil he lield in. 

Half tbe distauioo vma run in an boor and fuortcva miDDfes. Both Uie 
Eogluib horaea were then fre»b,aiMl oneof UieCossaoks. On their rotam, 
Mitia fi-ll lame, and was taken away, and Sharper began to uliow the 
rfTi*^ of iho p«ee at wliieh ho had ^ne in running away, and was ranch 
distreated. The Calmuck was compleli-ly kii<x-kca ap, his rider was dis- 
moanled, a mere child was pat on his back, and a Ct^H8a>ck on b(ii-;tcl)nrk 
on ntber side drag)n^1 liim on by ro[H'n attiu'hed to his bridle, while 
otlxTN at the aide snppnrted liim fi-nm falling. Ultimat^tly Sharper per- 
formed the whole difitanoo in two hoars and fortr-eijiht minutes — sixteen 
nilM an hoar for three enrcossiTc hoore— and the CoMtack boroe was 
bronicfat in cit(ht minntes after him. At titartin^, the Fnfcli.ih hoiaaa 
carried fall three iftone moro than the Cowmckn ; and during the latter 
port of the race ft im-re ehikl had ridden the CoRJuwk. 

Tho Emperor Xieholna established races in different parts of hi« rasC 
rmmre. for the improrcmcnt of tbe Cossack and other lit>i-«eK, On t-bo 
20lh of fleptembor, 1836, the rtuxs at Onrahik took place. Tlie dix- 
tanco to be mn waa 18 vrcnta, or abont 4^ French hiignes — rather mora 
than 10 raikw. Twonly-ono boraoa of tbe military stud of Ui» C4wuta<-ka 
of Ounl started for the ftrttt heat, and which was won in 25 mioutoH nnd 
19 seconds by a honte helon^ine to the Cossack Boartcbo-Tcbonranief. 
Tlie aeoeud race waa disput^ by tironty-thrce huraus of the Ker^hoesa 
Coaaai^s, and which was won in Hb minntes and Ti »econd8 by the horaa 
of tlte Cossfl^k Siboka-lKterlaie. On the follnwinfr day tbe winnera of the 
two 6rat bcota strore fer the point of honour. The cunm; was now IS 
wemCa — R Fivncli letwoea. or about <!j niiW. It waa won in l.'t minutes 
by tbe Imitvo of the f^ssock IIourtche-Tchoiinmief. The Russian noblo- 
mm who were present, odmirin;; the f<|>oed and stoatness of the horKo, 
were anxiona to pnrchafo him ; hut the Ccmaaefc replied that ' All tho 
gnid in the world fihnnid not sopnrate him from ht:> friend, liis brother.* 

la Soathem and Wrotem Riiuiiti, and alwo in Polniid, th^ breeding' of 




horw* nnil »>«ltlo hfta lately oc<-iipic-iI the attention nP tlio pimt TaniT 
proprietors, AdJ hua COtutituU*! a vciy ccnsidi-rnblL- jiivrt of tlii-ir nnmniL 


[ThMcvl rvpntciit* a OoMi^ KldifT, onouim) for bm journrj. and barinKaU iKal b 
DTCrsory {« him t)t (nr \a» kufsr. It givtv • TiulliM Irut roiuowlinC fottoring 
Tc|ift-JMiUl>oii both of ihp toMirriuK] bia vt<vi,'\ 

iscomo. There i» scarcely now a ni^n^arial residence to which there i« not 
attached a vattt court, in four \ar^v diriBionK, and garrciunded hy ntablea. 
In each of the iiuglGR of iIiIh cuurt n a panoge leading to iK-autiful and 
fxlcnKire paHturv-i^roniKl*, divided into cqnnT compartment*, nnd all of 
thoip huvin); t;uuvc-uLeat eliciLi, luider which the 1io>'bw« may «heltor thorn- 
Helvot from the rain or the hud. PVum thno ulnils a tar^ccr kind of horse 
tliiin that of the Councks is )iriiir!i|iiUly snpplied, and moro fit fur tbe 
nffular eavalrj troops, and aUi fur picjuiurc oiid para<le, tlinn conimoQ 
ttM?. The rviiioiuit« of Iho princijiul liirunvn in tic-rmauy an.- deri veil hence: 
ntiil Irnm the Mtmv Kiturci' t>lie urtAt faint in th« dilTerent ntates of the 
Genmn f ni|nn> arr "tipplipd. The breedinc of cattle is also zeiilou»t)y and 
[TaStably jiureoed. TIm' cow-lionw^* form tut* frrca.ter portion of the othet 
boijdiiupt attnchiil to llie itiauAion. The lar)>e«t of tiicse is do^tinni for 
tlic tnilrh ixiWM, niiil niuitlier iu|iuire building Hvn-Mt for a milking house. 
Thtwe dairie« are diHpo»od and fittod up like thoM! in Swiixerlund. In the 





iBidilln u: n Jot of wnlor. Slabs or lalilt-A of mnrUe oc^npv artnr siile, 
and n slight iiiclinatioo of the floor ^wmiitA the abscrvanoo of tlu- grvntoRt 
poasil'h) cte&nliucHS. An upjx-r stoij scrvcu tvr tbo luauuliiclaro vt' dilTc- 
mii. Icindti orchoceo. which kfc miulv in imitKtion of, and aomotiinca equal 
tbo«i> which are most VKtuuiatHi in ul-liur [larttf of Europe. 

Tlioro is aiiothitr Kpaoa or court JiicIunix] wiUi watlx, iiixl witli litlle 
buildineK eloscd with iron bii«i. This is dostined to hp n mvnnfcprio for 
beam or the rarest aud moat bcftutil'ul colours, aud yielding the choicoRl 
tan. Tha «nocBlatioii is n rcry profitatilc ono, A cub of nix montliH 
old, with black hnir point«-iI with Hilvvr vrliitc, ;yJeldK a wry light skin and 
fiir, and -which will obt^iu a coiwidtiwiblo priop, (M<|u>ctiuly if tlmro are 
othen of Ibo Mune finencos and vaHcgatod coloor snilicient to nalco n pe- 
line. A garment of Uiia kind will eomotimcB bo sold fur Gi>(}l, ot lOODI, 
The iJtiiui of the old bears arc rmployLd furcarpct«. or liiiuiHsofcarria^ea, 
and the most Kappiv of tlwm form tlw irli»llirng of tlm conclimcn. 

The etod of thtt Ruiuiaii Count^^s Orlotl' ThIicjinieiiHky in tlio province 
of Walonceo couUuus l:ji!0 hones, Aiabs, Kii^li»ti, nalivc:) and otherB. 
The ^rouid atlacliod to it amoontB to soarl; IlOOocn^it ; and tJio nunibL-r 
of irrrmiiu, labourcrti, and others imnoro than 4000. Tlie 8iuii n-ali<tiMl liy 
tbo ittlc of horsos is of con^tidvrable annual ainonat ; and they hto din- 
ncMod of not onlj on tho ipot itaolf, bat in tho regular Tniu-k«tB, both of 
Bt. Pbianbnrffb and Moscow. 

TKfTO lir« nnmorena troops of horaes in tliia cold and iiihospitnblfi conn- 
trr, dcsctitdcd, according to Mr, Anderson, from the Norwotti'iti horwc, 
but. nu.-i>rf I itig (o Mr. Horrebow, being uf Scottish ori(;in. Tiiej nre vci-y 
ftinnll, btrontf. aiid swIO'. Tlieraare tnonNanda of them in the monntniim 
whidi never e^tor n Ktnbin: but inmintrt or linbit. \iii* fjiu^ht them to 
•crape away the imnw, or brook tho jiw, in jiMireH of their ucnjily food. A 
rpw are oaoallj kr|)t iu Ihe stAble ; but whui the |W&Aiiiit n-ants more ho 
catches u many lu he needs, und shoes thorn himself, and that euntctiincK 
with a sheop's bom. 

Tbm animal, accordinp to Bcrtnsrer, is tmuill, but activn and willing: — 
Komewhat enfrer imd iminttldiit, but fr«) from vice. Ho ie luiod only in 
the wint^rr Boa*Min, wlicn ho is craployod ia drawing Blodgra orcr the snow, 
and tmnsporiinff wood, fora^, nnd other nccemnncK, which in thosntniner 
an- all coQTey«a in boat*. Purin^ the sammt-r these liursosarc tiLraod 
iait* the forcste, where thr.v form thcmseh'VB Into distiiicl troo[N«, and 
select eeHain dinlrirts fVtiru which ihev rarely wander. They mtarn of 
their nwii accord when tliP seajion begins to change, and the forests no 
loPf^r anpply them with I'owi. 

lastnall, bat nimblo »nd nilting. He is :iLDiGst entirely fed on breml, 
contpowd of equal pnrt« of n'c and nn.inu'nl. To thia b iu]<ImI » considi?r- 
able quatititY of salt, ami, if he is about to Klart on a lone joumeyi a little 
Imuuiy. 'While clinuging horses,' writes Sir A. Brooke iu his 7Vnrf/« 
m Unyftitm, ' we were not a little entertained at the cnrions grnu[) formed 
by tho pittMUitB and their liteeds bruikfasting together; both cordially 
partaking of a largo linnl ryo citko. Tlie horR-o soraotimes bcloii); to 
diree or eren ddiv proprivton* ; it l» tlu-n highly amusing to ohdcrro tho 
frmiucnt atlcrcationa between thnin, each cndoavonring to spojr his own 
bonw. Tlieir afEpctitfa for their horses is so ^^^nt tliat I have wen then 
•bed tears when they have been driven beyond llifir strenpth. 



enie^dfm, Lovrprcr, wilb \rliich t}iE«(> Uttio animals pnocp^d is sttrprinnf, 
ir£an wc conKiflcr the iim!iJ!iic*« of Ihcir di?^, wliioli hurtllj cxcoctlx ihat 
of a pony. The ix>»d being ujuvt-ntiillj' g^nid tbruugliout Swcdpn, tliwjr 
frwiuuQllj do not relax from & gallop from one piitiUliDUSu Ui aiiotli«r.' 


Are yet smiillcir tlian the Swcttex, antl iml inon' Lliui twelro hands high. 
Thny nrv iMXioUfhlly formod and viry flii't. Timy, liko t)io Swodea, are 
toTDOd i&to tliO forevU is the summci', and muit W fftolnd tbcDco when 
tiiev are wanl«d hy tho traretlor. Altlioiit:li ap|>ii.n'ii Uy wild, thoj are 
uxmvr perfect control, and can trot along vith cose at the rata of twvlrs 
miles in tht> boar. 

Fish in mnrh n»ed, both in Finland and lAplund, for thd wmtor food of 
bontca and. cuttle. 


la larg«- than the Swedish or Finland, bat i» oquallr hardy and manafjic- 
ablo, and attached to it« owner, nnd it« owner to it. T)ip modB in Norway 
arc the roTcrso of what thny are in Swndcn : they dro rAngh nnd ainiost 
inipB4snl>le for carriagOB, but the BurD-fiK>t«d Norwc-}j:iau acldom stnmblDa 
n|H]ii Ihi-in. Pontoppidan Hpeaks of their accawDual coiit«stH witli U'tira 
and wolves, and chiefly the latter. Th^se occnrrcincea are now mom 
matter of stoTV than of aetnal (act, but thoy do twrnetiTnes oct;ar at tha 
present day. When the hoTM perwvM any of theoo onimalc, and has & 
man- or foul with him, lie pui« tlieni iK'hind him, and ihr-n fiiriuu.tly iittAcka 
hin enemy with hin forelegs, whici li« ages bo fxwrtly a."* |a:<Tiii'nilly to 
pmvt? thn conqueror ; but if he tnraa ronnd in order to atrite witli hiK 
tund'le^, the bear closes npon him immediately, and he ia lost. 

Of the borBCfl of the island* of Fkbok, ctiU bclonpinp; to the DaniHli 
crown, Dcmi^r speaks !n terms of much pruiHo. He says that ' ihey are 
mnall of growtli, bat Htnmg, ttwilt, and Mim of frwt, f^ntij? over the 
roiii^lieRt place* with such oertointy that n man may mure Kurfly rely 
upon t)H>ni than trust to his own feet. In Suderoo, one of thvsv ixlniids, 
ihev have a lighter and HwiAcr breed than in any of the rest. On iheir 
baclcs the inliahitanta pnrHac the sheep, which are wild in this ialaad ; tJie 

Eony curries the man over plilCes that wnulil lw> otlifTwixe !n(u?cewtihl(i to 
im — follnxm hi« rider over rtthem—enteni into the full spirit of iheehftw, 
and even knocks dewn oud holda the prey under Lifl kvi until tb« hdcr 
«a take poeseosLon of ik' 


Betaminjf to the Contiiifnt, and bavin;: enwsid the Italtic, we meet 
with a horse as different from those ivhieh have jost been deseribed a* it 
is possible to imagine. The horses of Hojsloin and JfookltTtibiifff, and 
■omo of the neiffhlx>arinff district*, are on the hir^cst scale. Their UMtial 
height is mxtcvn, or seventeen, or eighteen linnds. Thc^ are heavily 
laade ; the neck in too thick ; the shoulder* are heavy ; the backs are too 
lonff, and the oroape are narrow comjmred with their forv-parts : but 
their appfiaranee is ao noble and commandin;;, their action so hi^h and 
brilliant, and their stron^^h and spirit are bo evident la crety motion, tiiat 
Itii-ir faiiltH arv pardoni^ and forgotten, and they are selected for erery 
occasion of peculiar st«t« and ceremony. 

Bolbrs, however, wo arrive at the native country of these mafpiifioont 
iMnoa, wa most ff!an«e at the n(t<-mpt of one noble iadiTidnal to impmvo 
tbe gtauml braed dt boraes. In the island of Alsen, separated from tbe 
dnahy of Slefiwick by a narrow channel, U thl^ uoblo habitation of tbe 
Duke of AagiuUniboarg. Hi« stad is attached to it, and under tbe im* 





ffiw^'ft'^ roanaoeinent of the noble owner. It noDttins tliiKj iiuircs of 
pare blood, and fifteen or iiist«t>u BtalUoniJ of tho same gnwie ; and all of 
Uunn wlectod witii c*ro from the hvO, thoroagh-brod studa in iilugliuid . 
Notwitlistondinff tiiii selection of paro bloodj or mtbcr iu ite peculiar 
selectwu, it luu betm tite olijiint of tliv diiVu to [)njdn<!i> a lionte tlmb nIiilU 
ba VMsSal for tlie parpone of pleasure, coniniercf, iiud Af^ciiltiiro. Sutno 
of the atalUoca are reserved for his own atnd ; but ■with rsgard to tln> 
oUiere, 8uch is the spirit with wliich tliisnoblo establishment ia ooujuftirj, 
and his dciiiro to improvo the nice of iiurcL-a in Slcawick, that he allows 
more Chan 600 tnarett every year, Iielonyring to t)iu pwuQuits of the isle of 
AiMn, to be covered |i;ratuJtously. He keeps a rofpi^-r of thi.)[n, iind in 
tbe majoritr of cases ho examines the mnros liimsclf, and clioosi-ii tho hot«o 
which will D«et suit her form, Ucr beauties, her dd'ectH, or t\\o |iiir])UHu for 
which the proj^ny is intenilcd. It is not therefore »ui"prisinK tliftt tln'ra 
fthoold Imi so many good honunt in tliiN jutrt of Di<nmiirk, and thnt tlio ini- 

Erovfrncnl in SWwiek, and i» Holtiteiii, and liloo in Muekhtnborg, Ghould 
» so rapid, luid »o uiiivirrsitUy ackitowltiltf^'d. 

Then ia another circnmiitance which, should not be ror^^tttm^it ia 
that by which alone the preservation of a Talnahle breed can b« seourwd 
—it is tJiat to th« neglect of which the deterioration of every brood niust 
he porlly, at leart, and, in miuiy cane*, c-hietly tmcod. The dnke iii Lia 
•tno* ana tJie pcomnt* in Uie surrvuniliii); country, prcsci-ve the ^od 
brveding mares, and will not part with one that Laa not some e\-idcut or 
■ecret fault abcput her. 

How much have the breeders of Great Britain to anRWt^r for in tlin 
dvt«rionktton of some of our best breeds from tliis cause aloito I 

Tlierc is, howover, nothing periV-Kl. under the sun. This detorminatioil 
to brc«l oidy from hon«» nf piirv blood, ultltoiifi:)! ctirv is taken tliat these 
homw shall be the stoutest of their kind, liLi.t lessened thv mze luid eomo 
wliat aH«red the peculiar diararteroftho horse in the imincdiato districts; 
and wo must no nomvwhut more soulhwurd fur tht- Inrgu and stately 
aninail of which fn:(pioub mention liaa been iiiiute. Tiw- ]inu^tiro uf llio 
oonntrr is likewise to a certain degree unfriendly to the fUU dcvelopmont 
of the Aof^nfitenbour^ hontu. Tlio pustuiiigo ig saffiviently pood to develop 
the powers of th« colt, and few thinj^ contribute more to bis sobeeqaent 
baniihood than lits living on theso pasinrea^ and booomin^ nocostomed to 
tjie ricifwitudi-B of the sefUKHia : yet this may be carriwl too fnr. TIio 
81eswtek colt iii lull ont of do9rH all the year rtnmd, and, except when tbs 
now readora it impoagibla for him to ^i'jp, lie is, day and ni^tht, exposed 
to the cold, and tbo wind, and the nun. Wc arc no Ddvocatce for a 
•yjttem of norsinf; laborious to thu ownor ami injuriooH to the uniinol, bnt 
■ fall development of form and of ^xiwer can never 1>c avtjutrud amidxt 
uatngean aeglcet and privation. 

THi nussixir hobse. 
Pmasta has not been backward in tlio rocv of iinprorcment — or mtlier, 
wiib hor charact<TJ3tic policy, mIid baa taki-iti tho load, where her influonco 
and bcr poww wore com^erut'd. Tlie (jfovemracnt has Listablishod somo 
•rtensire and wcU>re|^nlated studs in vnrioos part« of tlw kingdom ; and 
smnr of the Pnudan noblemen have ertablishmcnts of their own. In 
aome of the manhy districts, and iibout the mouth of the Vistula, there ia 
a breed of lar^ and strong honoii saitttd to aK^icnttnnit pur|K>se«. llie 
vtada produce otlu^nt fiir pleasure or for war. lii the royal studa partionlaf 
attention haa been paid to the improvement of the Prussian cavaliT-horse. 
Be haa noqiurod conaidorsbly mot-cfirc and spirit, imdstr«n£th aaa endur- 
aao», without any Bocrilico eilhrr of form or action. 


niSTOBT or THE EyoLisn nORSB. 


The Fhntiah a»d Dutch liorscH ilto \aripy, aiul arc fitronglv fomied. 
Wo aro inilebtoc) to tliom for Fomo of the hcHf hlnncl of onr dr«ojr''t-'"'"'<*» 
an<l vc utill have fHiinvut recourse ic thcni for kotrpins nn otid ud- 
proviag the hivfd. Tliey will l>o more ixuticulurly d<.i>cribud when the 
curt-horse is spoken of. 



Thk carlicftt rvcxird uf ilio liorac in Cniit Britain is conWnod in tUo 
histoiy given by Julina Cicsar of \m iuvuioii of our isl&nil. Tho DritiBli 
anuT wu ooOonijiaDied by naroeraus wur-chnriotii, drawn by bonuiM. Short 
acjuici voro fastened to tho onds of the ftxl&>t7««e, Bwet-fiiu^!; down cvL-ry- 
ifainf^ before tbom, imd carryintf terror and devastatjon into tho tuuka of 
the enemy. Tba conqnerorgivca an ommatcd dcacriptioD of the dextcriiy 
-with which thcM konM mtt muagvd. 

Whflt kind of home the Britons tbon |>o8R4uuic>d, it TTonld be THic^lcm to 
inquire ; but, from the cnmbrous struotnrc of ih<^ car, and Ibo fary witli 
irfaicfa it WH driven, and t^e badncea of the roods, aud tlie almoat noo- 
ezktence of those that wore poMablc, it miut hava bcwu both active and 
powerful in an extmordlnaiy dugreo. It in ubsuni to suppoao, as somo 
&«tnrftlist« have done, that the ponies of Cornwall and of Devon, or of 
WnlcH, or of Shcthmd, arc typett of whut tbn British home was m earlr 
times. Ho WM Umn an ever tho creature of the coiinlrj- in which ho lived, 
Wilh short fare and exposed to the ri^fonr of tlic Sf.in80ii9, ho was pmhubly 
the Utile liardy thing which wo yet boo him ; but in tho nrnntbeB of the 
Ncu and the Withao, ood on tho borders of tlio Tws and thu Clyde, there 
would bo as mudl proportiuniLte doTeIopuii?ut of fnunc and of etrcugth aa 
we find at UiepreMiit day. 

CsMiir dooaied tliese honea so Talnable, that he nan>ie«l inony of them to 
lionie; and they were, for a eonaiderablo period afterwards, in great rcqocfrt 
iu various parte of tho Itoman empire. 

Hones most at thut time htvve been exceedingly niunerous in Britain, 
ioT wo ore told tliat when tlie Briti)«h Icinf?. CnniTellannnB, dismisaed 
tho mnui biwly of his nimy, ho retained four tliouuiiii! of his wAr- 
ohariots for the prnpose of harassing tho Koma&H, when tliey attempted to 

The British horse now roooircd ita first cross ; bat wlietbor tho breed 
was thereby improved cnnnot b« asoortained. Tbo Bomans having eatab- 
lishcd themselveu in Britain, found it neonHHuy to sand over a nomnrons 
body of cavalry, in order eUectoally to clieclc tho frequent iasorreelioiis of 
tiio aati^'M. Tho ?V"">" hoiacs would breed with tliose of the oounb^ 
and, to a jmmtcr or less extent, chanfco thedr eharsctor ; and from this 
tiraBt tlio Bnglis]) horae wonld oooust of a eomponnid of the nntivo animal 
and those mm Gaol, Italy. Spain, and every previneo from which tho 
Roman eavalrjr was mppli^. 

Many omiaries afterwards posacd hy without leariofr any record ot tho 
eharacler or value, improvement or deterioration, of the hnn». About tho 
jrcar ti3<>, bowovor, acconling to Uede, the Engbsh were accustomed to 



ue tbe ndtlle. II« saya, that ' Uw biakops aiu) otlicrs rode en I wr Bfr b a c k, 
who outil Uicn were wont to pi on fiiot ; sod tlni «rai tbcn it waa oohroa 
urxirut cK-<'aaioi» I \mf- (Ley Uiiu roda They luvd auica onljr. a« k nwnE of 
liiimiltiy, till) Ruire ffeiMiaU; not being so baadsoa* or so mocb i-mliwd u 
the Iiumt.' 

AWat 1>20 jreara after tbo fint Umiing of CaatMr, wc &ad the rmriou 
Britiab Idngdams onit^d, and Ai&cd chi the throne. Nuiliinff thai eon' 
caned tbe irdfiure of fais kingdom was tM^rctcd br this potriooc moiwrrh, 
luid somv of lluiclirauick«n.-lnt4it)H!atl«-ntMiD whiefahe paid to thebrvcd- 
ntg oimI impramncnt of tbc liorso. An olBcer vaa uppmated tor thia 
Ofpeoiftl porpoee, wbo wan entitled the Mifn-Tiam or Uort^-Tkaitc, or, aa 
the hubman reudera it, Sjnorw* Ma^itUr, Ibstor of the Ilorae. In 
eret^ moomding reign, this officer traa always near the royal penon, 
capeeiaUy on cvvry etaU? occwuon. 

AthcUtAD, thi' nAtnnd >ton of Alftv^l, h&viuf; nbdned the rebdUoiU por- 
tiuiid of thd Ui-ptun-Uy, vtiia cuii^itahitvd oii hta cucona hy rnnan of Uie 
CoDlinratnl priucca, ami TeoeiTed from Hu^ G^iefc of France-, who 
aolidttfd liis tfiaieir in niarriage, wvenl Oermtm nmnMMf banei. I]ence 
our bnttl ncMved another erom, and prohotbly aa iraprorenwnt, Wp are 
not, howerer, oertnia of tlio precieo bivvd of t'lieao horsee, or bow far tlicr 
ifBiub lfd the h«>(uitifu] elate ItoneM, whvihcr block or craani-ooloarea, 
which wv ofaukiii fruin Gv-nnany at Uie prua^ut day. Athekton aeenu lo 
liavc ptacwl pecMilitir valne ou tbeae borma or thvir lit-ecentkiiits, or the 
n-wult of their iutvrcoorse with the nfttivo brrvnl ; for l«t wmn nflorwanls 
(a.!-. 930) decreed, that no hor&c« shtjuld be evntabroadforMde, oronnny 
•4^>Dnt« except ns ruyul im.-w.-iit*. Thit* inores hia anxiety to prrwcrro 
the breed, and iJkttwiM- tvnilirti it probable that that breed was beginning 
kj be cst«eni<Ni by our ncigbbonrv. 

It in not anlikdv- that, evea at this eaHy period, the beautiful cifvct of 
(bo £u};Iiali soil and climate, and care in tho intprovemeot of tlin lionu', 
be)(ao to be cridrat^ This will be a sabjcct far plcasinf; in«|nir>- by and 
bjr; bat dte (.'xjicriimcu of iwrj uayi hax pruvi^l tliat therv are few 
coootriea in wbieh the nnttTC breed hnii \wn tvnd<fml lio mnoh more 
ralnobte by the importation of a lorvign stock, and every good <iuulity of 
a ibriL-i^ isce so certainly reijunetl, as in Rneland. 

In a document bearing date k.v. 1000, we liara an interesting luwonnt 
ofth* n'lutivo value of tW burse. If ahorsBwafldestivyed, oriieglif^mtly 
bnt, the coni|M>nBation to bo donuuidcd wiw thirty ghillinfpt ; for a tuaro (Nr 
colt, twenty Bliillings ; a mule oryoonftiuui, twvlTVMliiUings; on ux, thirty 
pence ; a cxiw, twenty-four jx-tiee ; a ['iif, eight {nnice ; and, it HlraTitr>'ly 
followa. a man. one pound. According to the An£;lo.Saxon computntioti, 
furty-iriiflit. shillinf^ made a poand, eqind in about, tbret? ponnilg 
of Dill* prixnt nioitcy. Fire ]>cnco ntodc Anf> iihillinff : ilici octniu valnit 
of these coinitt however, stnuigvly variod in diflurent lames and circnni- 

In tbo lawn of Hrtwcll IHin, Howell the Goo<l, Prince ofWaleB, eniu^ted 
a little bpfore this time, there anj some ooriiTOH particDlare renpeeting the 
rnluo find sale of liurM;s. The value of nfoiU not fourteen daya old jbILieikI 
at fixir tM-iicif; at i>rie yiar and u dny it is cetimatod at fort^-ci^ht ncnoo; 
anil at tiirwe yrnn*, nitty pwici'- It waa th*"!! to be tamed with the oridle, 
and bn3U|{ht npoilluTaH ft^<i//M^or a«omw<7A^»r«, when its value became 
ooa Inudred and twenty pence. That of a viid or nnbmken mnro vraa 
mxty penee. 

Kvcii in those early days, the (rnnds of dealers were too notoriouB, and 
Uie ftilliiwing sinjjulivr regidatioiis were eKtablislicd. The liuyer wna allowed 
time to o«certain whether the horso waa free from three diseases. Ho )uwl 


Hisroitr OP THE KXOtisB nosse. 

llmo niglitM lu |)rov» him for tlio sto^f^rs; thrdc wontlia to proro Uis 
voiuulnewi nf Iuh Intif^ ; luid ono }-c»r to necrrtoin whether ho vma iufei;U4 
vtiiii ^huulcnt. Korvrvr}' bk-misli (liscovi-nxl niter tlio purchaiic, one-third 
of llie xnonev wtw to be returned, i-xwpt it ulioiild lwaI*leini«hot' thvesrs 
or tail, which it tubh Bnpposed to bo hin own fault if tho jiurchaJier di(l not 
discover. The nollcr luao warmnt*?*! that the horso TOonJd not tiro vihtm 
on « jonmoy with otWra, or refiino his food from hard work, and that ho 
woold carry b load or dinw a carria^ ap or down hil), and cot Iw rttty. 

Tlte practioo i>f It-tlinfr horse* for hirv then tixixUnl ; and thvn. an now. 
tlie Benricca of the poor liaok were too hniuUlj- exiicttxi. The boimvoli'nt 
Howell diadainanot to Ic^slntt- for the protectioa of this abusod imd valunble 
Borrant. ' Whoovvr ahaH borrow a horse, and rab tho hair eo as to j-aU 
tbo hauk, shall pay four pi'nc'o ; if tho nWirt is fottscd into the flesh, eight 
jH'tncc; if thv ili.-j*li Iw furwd U> the hone, 8ixt4.wii[>fncf.' If aiH'rxoiilamwl 
a hont(% he waa to forfiiit the value of the animal ; and if be wajt suppoitcKl 
to have Icilted a horse, he was to purge himself by the oathi of tweuty- 
four compurgators. 

Thco, aa now, it would appear ibat aome yarmg mon wore a Utile too 
fond of unwamuitable miaohief, or perhajie tliere wora thiarea in tlio 
ooantry, area ao soon aAer Alfred's days, sliowiu^ also the eNtiroatinn in 
whioL tiiu portaoa of the auimal was held, and the smnner in wbioh tlie 
hair waa siiSered to grow, for it waa decreed that bo who cut ofl* the hair 
from a horau'a tail was to maintuin him until it was ^rruwn itgain. and in 
the Rii<aii time to funiinh the owner with Hiiotlier h^jiite. If tjie tail waa 
cot off with the hair, thA miurcfmt who inHieted the outrage was mnletad 
in tba tbIbo of Uieaniiiial, and the bone wa6 deemed uiiht for future serried. 

Atholatea ieama to have placed coiiflidersble value on some of hi^borsGa; 
fbr he bequeaths, in liia will, the horses given him by Thnrlinuid. and the 
white horaea presented to liini by liiebrand. These are appari'ittly Saxon 
tuuncs, but the memory o£ them is now lost. 

AVith William tho Gonqucror came u markv<l iniprovcmcct in the British 
liunte. To hig auperiority in cavalry thin prinw: wad chiiffiy indebted for 
tho Tictoiy of UastinBs. Tho favomito charger of William was a Snanianl. 
Hia fbUowem, both the barans and tho common soldiers, principally enmo 
n<om a country in which a^cultiirc Ikad ni»lo ntoro rapid prv't^rcsa than 
in England. A ver>' eomodonblo portion of tho kingdom was divided 
uiiwiig tliese inoii ; and itcanaot be doubt^Hl that, liowciver uiijti.<it wiim tho 
uaorpatioD of the Norman, England bonetiteil in ita husbanrlry, and [nr- 
tienlarlvin its horses, by the change of masters. Some of the barons, and 
porticiuarly Bogcr do Boolof^c, earl of Shrcwsbory, introdaccd th» 
Spuiish honw on tbrir nowly-uounired etttateit. The luBtoriiuu of thcae 
limiw, however — principally monkH, and knowing nothing about horse^^ 
givu ua vi'ry little information on the nuhject. 

The Spouiiili horse waa then hi>riily ana deeecredly valued for hia stately 
fi^re aud uohlc action, and wa« in maoh reqneai in the tilts and touroa- 
nusnU tliat were then in fashion. Tho Spanish horse ma the war-horse 
of every one who could afford to pnrdiSM) and properly aooontre so uoblo 
an animal. Theconraj^Hnd the akill nf Mio ndcr wem moat perfeelly 
displayed when united wiUi the streu^^ ^'^ activity, and itpirit ftod 
bemily, of the al««d. 

One ctrcomstaoue deaerres to be remarked, namely, (hat in none of the 
earliest hiatorical reoorda of tlio Anglo-Saxons or the Welsh is there any 
aliiuioD to tho use of tho horse for tho phmffh. Until a comparativoly 
recent period, oxen alooo wore cmploj-od in Kugland, as in other countrica, 
fbr this purpnee; but about thia period — the btUtr part of tho tentli 
CCDtoiy — some utuovalion on Ihin point was cummiiieing, and a Wdih 




law forfnMlM the farmer to ptoagh willi ItonM^. in'irvs, or cow», Imt with 
oxea aloui*. On utu> of tbo pieces of tlic Biivi-Dx tii|Kii«try wovt-it in the 
tixoM of Willtiun tlip Conqn«ror (*.D. IWti), t^iere a the tignro of & rrnui 
dhvinfr » liorM itttiK-hi-d to a banrow. Tbis ia Uie carlieiit noiici: Uint tre 
Invc nf ttio nnc uf thit« animul iii ficM-Ia1>oar. 

In the reif^u i)f Ilnury I. (a.r. U'^l), tlio lirst Arabian horse, ornlleniit 
Uia Bivt on record, was iutruilncwl. Atcxiiiul^r I., king of 8cot)*od, 
M<eMiif«<i to tho charch of St. Androw's 4ui Arabian hor«c, vrith ooHtlr 
Htruitoro, Tarkislt onnoar, mkny v»luablo tnokets, auil u conaidctnbis 

Tliim Itave been soine pretenKons to lbs t-xistftice ofa bnwd derirtd 
from or iuipCOTed br tbut Borao, bat no certuin proof of it cild be udtlacnl. 

In the rei^-n of fienty IL ttererul rvreign lufrsts yrorv imported, but of 
what kind is not nuntaoaed. &(addoz »i>cak8 of ' ttiu iiicn, uIlowDtioo 
that was made for the saheasteaoB of tlie King's horsea that w«re Jatol/ 
broogbt from bu^uiid iva.' 

Smithfi«ld in aluo now first nfolrMi of aa a horee-niftrfcet, a field for 
IxnuTiainrnts, aadamcD-coiu^c. yitxstophcn, who lived ntthat Unie, givv» 
the IbUuwing aniiiuited accnimt of tliu ectrnv : — ' Without one of the gate* 
uT the ratr in a certain field, plain or tmoulh, bi>th in name (mil tUmtlian. 
Kvcrr Friday, except nome feHtival intervene, there ia a fine sight of horxoa 
brought to bo sold. Slany como out of the city to bay or look ou^to wit, 
earlfl, bai-oiut, laiighb% and i:iti«.-ni). It ia n plcastuit thing to bobold tho 
hontM thuru, all gu^' and iikt^k, moving up niiil down, i*uinc on the amblm 
•ad Bome on tho (rvt, whieh lutter pace, althongh ronghcr to Uto riiler, is 
lMytt4T nitol to men -who bear arms. Here also are colta, yet ignorant of 
the bridle, vrbo prance and boiuad, and give «arly signs of spirit and 
uHiragc. Here also arc managed or Trnr-homcs. of elegant abape, fiill of 
fire, imd giriop every proof of a generous and noble temper. Horaeo oIho 
for the cart, dray, and plongb, are to be fonnd hero; mnreG, big with foal, 
and othent with tbcir eotla wantonly running by their nidoH, 

*Ercrj- Sandaj in Ix-iit, aftt-r diimt-r, a coni|MUiy ofjooDg men ride out 
into the fields, on borseii that are Hi for war, and excelhnit for UirirMixt'cl. 
Kverj- one among them ia taught to mn the rounds witJi bis burse. Tho 
citiieni' Bona iegno out thrangli tba gates by troopK, fumtBhcd with lani*ea 
and aluelda. The joongi-r sort bare their pikca not bondtd with iron; and 
thrf make TTipmtcntatiou of Utttlv,iuid cx^^nniio ankinulisb. To this pcr- 
(nmiiDoe many coiirtii^nt mnort, wben tlia rotiH ia iifar; and young 
itripUngB, yot uninitiated in arms, from tho families of barona and great 
pvntuus to train and practise. 

' They begin by dividing tlemecKcB into troopa. Soma labour to oafc- 
atrip thinr Icodcra, withont licing able toniach tbvia; otltcrs nnhumc their 
antagoiii«l«, rni are not able to gel beyond them. A race ui to be nu by 
tbifi tort of horww, and porbapa by others, wliieb al§o in their kind an 
•troag and floet, a about ia immediately miecd.and the Common liArxosaro 
ordered to withdraw oot of tlie way. Tlirco jockeys, or aomciimeti cnly 
two^ «• the match ia made, prqiurc tbemnelveit for the conteol, Tho 
hornB OIL thoir part are not witlmiit enmlntinn ; Ui(>y tivnible and am iin* 
patteot, and are (sontlnuallyin motion. Atla^t.theHigualoneogiveii, they 
mtiai, dcronr the courtfe, and hurry along with umviuittiDg ewiftueus. 
The jockeys, insnireii with ihe thongbt of applause and tlic hope of viitory, 
olap trpum to tneir willing horses, brnDdiitb their whipa, and cheer tliem 
with their cries.' Tbi*> aninuited iU>Heri[)tiuu remimla uJt of tho mur» 
lengthened noes of the preeent day, and proTca the blood of the Ilnglitk 
horse, trwn before tho Euatvro bn-L-U vraci tried. 

Ckofl on this followed tlic CruMidos. The championa of Uie Crow 



tf rtaiiily htu\ it m tbeir power to caricb tbcir natLvo country witii Homaof 
ttifi chok'wit specimena of iho Enstcra horsi-. Imt tht-y were completely 
uudor thi> inlliiiinc'ii of 8a[X!niLiU(>a anil fiuutticUin, aiicl uutnmau, Hatm and 
liefltihip«« were forpttt*rn. 

An old melnaol ivmaooei Itoworer, records the excellcuce of two borwB 
bolon^Bg to Eidinnl Cccor de Lion, wUrb bo purobaaed at Cjrpnu^ and 
"Were, iberefore, probably of Eluitcm origin :■ — 

Vq ilii» 'Tvrldu they bodilu nv part, 

SimIi\ tUi'^t*, no CnoimpU, 
Gvcth nuD0 fo twitUr, without (wyh: 
Pur « (bonaaiid pcvnd of goUe, 
Nu should ilio uue bo uldti. 

The bcfid of the war-HttioJ was omaraeuted with a cnwt, and tofrctbor 
with bis chfut auil flaiiks, waa wholly or partially jimU-rttwI. SuiiK-tiitics 
bo wiw ola«l in coinpU-to steel, with the nnos of hia niBstor eug;ravcd or 
esalMitsvd on hia bardiji^s. Tliuliritllo of tlio horat* »-wiulwayHSJi splendid 
U tbu oircomstanoM of thdleiiijiht allowed, ftiid tlitrn a homo wan of^ 
called briKbodoru, fruu Ifrifjliu J'vrv, a tridly v£ goU. Uclla worv u vi-ry 
favoarih! oihlilioii In the <Hiuipuient of th» hoiiie. 1'he uM tmtiliftdoiir, 
Arnold nf Marstoii, saya that ' uotbiiig is so |)ru|M?r to inspire contidouca 
in n leiiight and tt-rror iii »n onmiy.' 

TJic iirico of LorwM ut tlii* pi-riod wiui wnjfxilnrly niiCtrtjiin. In 1185, 
ftfUwn brccdini; nuitvs nuld fur two ikjuikU hvclvn tihilliiign mid Hixponcc, 
Tb«y worv inindvUM'd by the mnnarch, ftinl dintrihRUil aiiioiiff his U-iiiuits ; 
and in order to ui't something hy the bu'galn, he cbBrgi>d lliem the j^rvub 
vun of fonr shilliiiga cueb. Twenty yourB iilV-rwardA, ti?u capital horaes 
brongbt no leas than twvnty pounds each ; and twnlrc ynm litt«r, & jhut 
of borate whr- iniiwrted fnjm Lumbardy, lor which the fxtniviipiut price 
of t]iirty>piglit |K>iiudii thirt<mn idiillitigs nnd foartM-nci* wne (nvL-n. Tlia 
ubuhI priir of good luutdsomv horses was teii |K»uiidii, and i.Ilo liiru of a car 
or cart with two horses was tenpcnce a-dar. 

To King John, hateful as he was in alt other respects, we are much 
Iiidnhti^l for the attcatioti which ha )>aid to agriculture generally, and 
imrtiniliirly to Uiu improvomont of tlie Imntl of tiorsfa. llo impoi'ted one 
bundnol cho«cn stalliotMof the Klandi-rn hroed, an<l thim nuiaiily contributed 
i^ preporu our noble tpocica of drauglit-horsM, as uariTuIlcd In tUi:ir way 
as tbe hocsea of the turf. 

John accnmnljited u wtj nnmerams and valnable stud. lie was eagur 
to poMosB kimaelf of every bono of mora than nanal power; and at all 
tune* ^ady received from the tenants of tlio erown, hor«08 of a fluperior 
quality iwtlead of mouev fur the rvuewal of frntntv, or the pnynicat of fiar- 
frituns bi-longing to tiio crown. It was hitt pintle to n-tider hiM csralry, 
and the bone* for the tournament and Gu* ploajinri', aa perftwt hm ho could. 
It was not to bu t-x[)oulud thai so hnitjgh^ and ovprbearing a tyrant would 
eanoem bimsctlf much with the inferior kintht ; yet wh!l*i the sujwriur Iciada 
■mm rapidly becoming more valnublOb the wlhurs woold, in uu indirect 
iniuiner, psirtakc of the iuiprovcuient. 

Omi hundred yean aAerwarda. Edward tt. porehaKKl thirty Lombnrdy 
war-henei, and twelve heavy dranght-banMts. I»nibardy, Italy, und Spain 
weiv the countries wlicnoc the greater iMirt. of Eutvpe was then mtpplied 
with the moat valuable ravalry or pumdc horses. Those lor ngricnUnral 
purnwn were chiefly pnieunvl from tlandrrv. 

Edward m. devolM one tbooitaud marics te the jmrrKiutn of finy Spanish 
honM ; and nf roch importance did be conaider thin additi/>u u> tlic Elugliah, 
or nUlier, uingkd bluud then opiating, that formal ajrpUuatiou was made 



In the kirigH iff Fnutfu and Spain to f'nuit eafo conduct to the tinup. 
Wlien tJwy lind Hnfi<lj' ftmv«(t iit th»i roj-al Btud, it waa compnted that iJiojr 
hatl cost Uic luoaari'li uu Icaa tiitui tbit't<f.-n jwaodK bix KhiUui^ tuid cijflil- 
[K^nce per hni-sn, <<r{ual in value to one tiinidrtKl &di] sixt^ |iDtui(]s of oar 
present mooej. 

These hun)c« woro booffht in order to on&blv him GnvceRsfiiUy to provo- 
cate Dk wiLr b^nst Scotland, imd to prcporo for a splendid boimMueub 
which he vnut tibuat to hDl<L 

Entire horses were kIodo luied for this minuc contest* aad gviierellf «o 
in the daties and dangers of the field. It was rarely the awittnn to cactrntv 
tho colts; and tbo intrcKliiL-tion of tho fonuLlo umotig bo manv perfocb 
tionwilt mi^fht occHionaUy be prodactivi- of coufnuion. Th« tnai-c was at 
this period oomparativelj dcnpist'd. I1> ynia diviDol disgraccfal for any 
one above the common raok to ride licr, and slic was t^mjilnyi-d only in 
the most servile offices. TJiis feeling and practice was tlieu jirc^iilcMt ■» 
orary part of the world. WTien, howovor, it began to Iw the costom to 
caatiato tho yotum horses, tho worth and mlao of tho mure was foon 
approciaU.'d ; and it ie uuvr acknowlixlgcd that nsuiklly shv is not mnch., if 
■t all, iuforior to the perfect hornfl in niiLny ru»[koctK, wliik'shi* )iiu< fur 
more strength, ppoportionato ctmmgp, Rnd endurance ihim ihft ((^tldiii^;. 

This monarch had manj rt4nining-hor*fs. The prc-ciiiv uieanici); ul' th« 
te-rm ia not, however, clear. They might ba light and speedy luiiiiitdH in 
uppomtkm to tJiosc destined for the cnnilry scrncf, or honiea that were 
literally nBod for the ]iiirjji>Hii of raving. Tho average prico of thoso 
rannit^-home* wn« twenty nuurks, or thirteen ponnds ax ehillingft and 

fidvrard waa doToted to iha eporte of the turf and tho field, or ho l)ejfan 
to SCO tho propriety of crosBing oar stat*Jy and heavy treed with those of 
a lighter btniuture and greater speed, llicrG was, however, one impedi- 
mcnt to this, which was not for a very long period removed. The Boldior 
waa cased in heavy armour, and tlio knight, with all his accoatremcutfi, 
often tTKle iDoru thui iwcnty-Jivo Ktones. No littlu bulk and strength 
mre rc()uinHl in tbonuiiual di^tined in carry thin bnek-brt'iikiiig weight. 
VHien the mnaket was snbstitntcd for the crosa-bow nod ba.ttlc.axc, and 
tliis iron defence, ciunbrona to Uie wearer and dcsti-uctive tu the hurec, 
became nselcas, and was laid, aside, the improTcmcmt of tJio Briti&h. liano 
in reality commenced. 

Whih) Edwanl wu« tlios eftger to avail htniBclf of foreign blood, lie^ 
with Iho too frcqnent wlfiiihnou of tho Rportamaa, would let no neighltonr 
shara in ibe mivanbige. Tho csportaiion of horvee w»a forbidden uiidi-r 
heavy penalticss. One c»jte in which lie mlaxcd fVom his severity is 
roooideo. He permitted a Qennan merchaub to re-ex|iort some Flanders 
]lonM which Iio Imd brooght on apoi^iilntloii ; but ho iitricLly furliado him 
to KDd tbom lo Scotland. Kay, so jualoos woto tbote ntter^kingdoina of 
taeh otiier's proH)H;rit.y, tiiut hu lato an tho lime of EILtabotfa^ it was 
damned felony to ox[K>rt iiiir>ii'H fmiu EiiKhind to Scotland. 

The Engliah horse wnii odv'uuciii);, altbaugh stowly, to nil eijnality with, 
OF avcoi miporiority over, thooe of n<>ighbonring countrina. Uis value 
iMgMB to bo moro generally and highly estimated, and hiit price rapidly 
tnoRascil— no nneli so, that Iho breeders and the dcalcni, Uicn, as now, 
iilcilfiil in imposing on thtt inexneriencvd, obtained fhtm many of tl^e ynaug 
grandocM enormona prices for tWir onttlo. This evil increased to sueh nn 
extent, that Itichara II. (1!{86) interfered to regulate and dol«rminp tho 
price. Tho proclamation which ho issncd is intorestitig, not only as 
prr/ving the incmiMHl value of tliu hor^!, Imt showing what vrero, foar 
bandnd and seventy years »go, the obiof breeding rlistricts, as they still 


continae to he. It wiw onlcrcil t<> lie jiuliHiihi'd in the Ponntips of Tiinor>ln 
imil Ctuubridife, &ml iLc Kant aiid Nurth Utdiugs at Yorkshire; ntul the 
prico of the hurso waa restricted tn that whinli hail beoii (Icti-rmiiiwl liy 
jbrmer iDoiian:lui. A more enli^ht^iiptl |HtliL-y lias at length batusliviL lUl 
tach &bsxud LutorfBFBacoB wiOi np-irtiltiin' :itul ounitnvrce. 

We can mnr ooUeot bnt littlo of iim hiNt-.r)- of tlic Imrep until tbo rci^u 
of Uitir^- VU., nt the cImv of the fiilociitli cvntun-. llu continued bo 
prohibit tho exportation of KtaUionB, but allowed thiit cif BiiarcA wlitii mora 
than two Team old; and nnder the valae of six Bhilliiigs nnd ci^'li^ioimt. 
TMa nf^nLttioD irafl, howorcr, cndily pradc<l ; for if a aianv could be fannd 
worth man thnn mix tdkillin^ and ciglit])cncc, she ought bo frt-ot; exported 
un the iiuvniriit ul' thut num. 

The mtontion of thifi was to pnt nn end to tho ex|iortntioii nf perfect 
boFHes ; for it is recited in tjio proamblo ' that not ouly a Rniallor unnibtT 
ol'KOod honoH were letl within tho rralm for tho defonco thereof, but al»a 
that gnut uut (^ood plenty of tho eumo yrcn in poJ^ beyond tho ec«, which 
in tiniva pwtwero wont to ho within thi» h>nd, whrreh)' the prior of lio^ntctt 
was gmttly Nihiincetl,* ic. llitiAxt^Rptioit of thentan^, and thv fiTtmll ouiti 
tar whieh nhe mif^ltt be eiported, shows the unjust contempt in which she 
was hold. Another act of tho snine monarch, however nnmllingly on his 
|Mrt, restored her to her proper nmk bbiode bcr load. 

It luid bcvn the castom to keep lnr(^ brras of hontcs in tha paffituresand 
oommoii lit*ld«, und wh<-n th« tuu-^rnt whh gathered iu, tliti cAttJp of u pixqit 
Buuiy ownora fod promiiicnouflly Ingether. Tho ooTuequonco of thiH wnM 
that the progeny prvtented u. stmn^ admixture, and there was ofU-ii a 
>;n!at det^noratioii of ttie Divourito and beet breed. On. this Bci;ouiit 
Nil net wail paued prohibiting Htallions from being turned utit into uny 
riinimoii |iusture. Tliift, nt no gnvl dii)titii(!e of time, m-iH'f^Kurily li.»l Iu 
t]ie c*irtTAting of all bnt a very few of tlio best xtjiJhVinii, nnd iiirn, nn 
fKnupttiiue tlio powers nnd w<}rk of tbo imtrfi with iWt of tlie gelding, 
sbo soon begnii to bo nrcounltnl mora valimbto — ninio ftrrvin- vtiui ex)u -led 
from her — ahn was taken more care of, and tbe general hived of ktii-sea 
WBB materialK- improved. 

Polydore Viisil, who floarialicil in this rcigo. confirms the statemonts 
tirvmij made, that ''tbo English hor»c3 wcro acldom aocoaiomed to trot, 
bat excelloal in the softer pace of the amhlf..' 

Henry VU. wiw an arbitrary raomirch, nnd Beemed to be too fond of 
ptohibitory aeta of parliament ; bat flo far as tho hone was cotLCcrncd Uiey 
wore most of them politic, although tyranniiml . 

Sncfx-cding monareba acted on tJio name ]irinctph% nnd by prohibiting 
exportation, and eneonrBging a niunvroutt and giHHl breed of honw'ti, by 
public rowartlii and recorapeosaa, •very ncrosiai^ incitement wan alfonknl 
rapidly to imnroro tho fajved. 

Henry VlLl,, a tyraiinicnl and nrucl princd, but foml nf show and 
aplciickiur. wan very anxiona to prodnce » vuloablo breed of horses ; and 
the means which he adopted were perfectly in nnison witli his arbitnry 
tliaposition, althongh certHiuly cJiJcnJatod to vScct bin obJ<<nt. Ho affixed 

cei-taio standard, below which do bono abonld bv kept. The lowest 
eight for the atuUion waa fifWen liands, and for IIlo uiaru thirteen haudn, 
Tboia wboas local interaats were injnred loudly complained of this 
arbitraiT proceeding. The smaU breed of Cumisb horses was in a manner 
extingtiiHhrd. Tho dwarfish bnt aetivo and nsefnl inhnbitonta nf tbo 
Welsh nioontaina nspidly diminiahsd, tbo Kjunooia and the Dartmoon 
were compelled io add an inch to tbalr statora, and a more uniformly 
■toot and uaefU breed of horaea waa prodnoed. 

The tDonaivh waa dotermined to effect and to secure his object. At 



' Michael] mft* tide' tlvo ncijliHonrinff majjiatwitM were oHorwl to ' driTe' 
all forcfts flD<l commoDB, utd noi ouly doaivoy eiic}i Miillionu, but nil 
' milikfly ti(«,' wliuther lusres, or ueWingft. or iViiils, which tJicy inighl 
dwm not calcnlntpd to prfidnce a raluahlp hreocl. 

He next had rocourso to n SQni|]tn»n,- liiw in orik-r moro fnlly to aopom- 

Elish hi« obj(wt ; and, ftppcnlinp to tbp \mAn of Ihouw wlin wmm* ronc(^vnc<l, 
o knd no difficalty in this mutter. Evurj' urt^hhinhop and Utiko vrns 
fsompelled, andi^r mrtain iM^nalliits lo Iti^ep ncvtm ti-nHItif^ Malhnrm r»r tho 
•BdcUe, eadi of which was to be fourteen bands higU at the a^e of thrco 

There were rery minnto diroct,ion« with wpaKl to the nnmbtr of tlio 
BBmo kind of Iioraca to hv kvpt hv tliu other muk.t of the clvrg^ and aiAn- 
litj, nnd thd ntatuto cciiiehiaeH hy ciiSicUng, that every pertvm h»viiig 
benoSccitto the amount of one hundred ponndu yearly, and 'every la^inan, 
whose wifp sluill wenr uTir FrviiL-h hood or bonnet of velvet,' sliall Iceop 
on* such ImHiny etnllion tor tlio sfidtlle. 

Th««! cniwlmcnts, tymnnk'ttl as thpy appear to us, were qniotly anb- 
m!t(«(] to in thoHO daya, and prndticod thn Itind of honiv whirli wtui thim 
alone eomparatiTcly n&cfb], and whoso stpenf^th and noble Itoariug and 
good airtion vit<TC the fomtdation of something better in aUrr days. 

Tbo ciril disMnfiionB were at an end, there was no fear of foreian 
nmnonii — no namvronit camlry wvro newicd — the lubooTB of ajfritTiltnro 
WCI9 performed chieHy by oxen, or by the siiULller lirul inferior iii't<tH.l)4 of 
linmiii — T«!0H were not established^the chase had not begun to bo 
panned with the nrdonr and speed of modom dnj's — nothing, in fact, was 
BOW wanted or sau^fbb for, bat an animal more for occasional cxliibition 
tliuD for Btcriin;.' nsc, or if iwcfiil. pnncipivlly or Boldy with refonmce to 
tite h('nvy rarringiw and bad roailit and t^ilicnDt tnivvlling tfarongh the 
conntiy. If tliia is rightly considered, it will bo ai?knnwlod(jod that, with 
•U Ilia rsallM, and with the oonfcwiou iluit hv vau vmr mure aotuatrd by 
ibe dct«nniiiBtianH of lits own nn^vei-nablc |iH.'<HJons thnn thtt nilrant«u\t 
of hi« people op of posterity, wo still owe him thankn for the prewrvatioii 
of that breed of horees from whii'h in nfler times aprting tiiosc that were 
ih© fllorv of onr ronntry and tbo envy of ovcry othcrr, 

'the followinir cxtrw-it from a maniucriut dated 1512. in the thini y(.-nr 
of the rcifrn of Hrnry VIII., tuid entitled the Re^lationH nml I-litaliliHh- 
■nent of Uie Iloniiehold of Algernon Percy, ihe fifth Kaj-l of Northnmlier. 
land, may give the rcadur a &uflic:i(<nt knowledge of the diflerent kinds of 
liorw* then in ns^i. 

* This is iho enlm of the cheqiur roul of tlie sombre of all thu horfya of 
nj lordi* and my lailys that are apoj-ntcd to bo in tho charf^c nf the hona 
yanlf, U to eay, gentil hora [ono of the superior breed, in distinction 
tnm the ordinajy ra<» — tlm namo tt^rm in at prcwitit nppli(<d to Italian 
boTSC* of the bent broedi*] ; palfreys [ftmaUer horsoii of an infi^rior breed, 
— ibe b(«t of thom, dietingiiinhed fur their ffcntloaesH, otid pli-Asant paces, 
wrere act apart for tho females of the fumily: — "The bard that tells of 
poi/ried daJnes." Others of inrurior vaino M'ero ridden by tho domestics 
or Barvants of ovory kind. Tbiiit Dryilon nays, 

Tho initlii and snuoorfn on pslfrejrs ride.] 

Hbbys rstroBK and active boraea of rather small size, and Roid to hnvo 
hwn onginally of Irish citractiou, ThusDaviea, in Iiis lu^count of Irvlnnd, 
Daya ;— " For twenty luibhlers armed — Irish horne-soldipra — aa c^klled 
becanso th«y ser\'cd on hobbioa; they had Orf. per diem"! ; naggia, [or 
uagf, to called from their mppcned propenut/ to neigh, ktUgga. Tbty 



were Rmall, and not mnch valued, bnt actiro horsoR : — " Tliy nags," suvrf 

The WQest things alirc. 
So verj hard thou lov'st to driTc] 

Cloth-sck hors, [that carried the cloalE-lmg.] ; mido-boni, [or mail, wns 
eqoivalont t^i portmanteaa. Thtis, in Chancer, " I have relics and panlmm 
in my»M«fe."] First, gentil-hors, tostimd in my lordis stable, eix. //chi. 
Palfreys of my lady'a, to wit, one for my lady, and two for her [rentil- 
TTOmen, and oone for her chambcrcr. Fonr hobys and naf^gia for my 
lordia oono saddiJI, viz. oone for my lordo to ride, oone to ledo for my 
lordc, and oone to stay at homo for my lordo. Ikm. Chariot hors to stoiul 
in my lorde'a stable ycrely. Seven great trottyngo hors to draw in the 
chariott [or car ; was tho vehicle in varions forms, but far inferior to the 
chariot or coach in common use, in which tho fnmitnre or moveables were 
conveyed, or, perchaDce, the inferior females of the family. The lord and 
the lady oBaally rode on horseback. They were slow^paced, heavy 
horses, perhaps not mnch unlike the carrioge-norscH a century o^o, which 
ploughed aU the week, and took the family to chorch on Sunday. It 
must not be forgotten, as marking tho character of tho vehicle and its 
contents, that the chariot-man, or coachman, rode by the side of tho 
horses, and so conducted them and the carriage], and a na^ for tho 
chariott-man to ride ; eight. Again, hore for lorde Percy, his lordship's 
son and heir. A grote doble trottyngo horse [a lai^e and hroad-bockoil 
horse, the depression along whose back gives almost the appearance of two 
horses joined together. Thns the French speak of le double bidet ; and 
Virgil, referring to the horse, say^, " At dnplex ^tor per Imnbos spina"] 
for my lorde Percy to travel on in winter. Hem. A grote doble trottyngi! 
hors, called a curtal, [one with a docked tail. Thus, &n Jonson : — " Hold 
my stirmp, my one lacquey, and look to my curtal the other,"] for liii* 
lordship to ride on out of townes. Another trottyngo gambaldyngo 
[gambald was tho old word for gambol, and it means a horse that was 
fond of playing and prancing about] hors, for his lordship to ride upon 
when he comes into townes. An ambling hors for his lordship to joumov 
on dayly. A proper amblyng little nagg for hia lordship when he goetli 
on hunting or hawking. A grct amblyng© gelding or trottyngo gelding to 
cany his male.' — licreitger on Hortematuhip. 

Sir Thomas Choloner, who wrote in the early part of tho reign of 
Elizabeth, and whose praise of the departed monarch may be supposed to 
be sincere, speaks in the highest terms of hia labour to introduce into his 
kingdom every ^-ariety of breed, and Ids selection of the finest animnls 
which Turkey, or Naples, or Spain, or Fhinders could produce. Sir 
Thomas was now ambassador at the conrt of Spain, and bad on oppor- 
tunity of seeing the valuable horses which that country could iirodiKV ; an<l 
he says that ' England could fumisli more bcantiful and useful brcotls thim 
any which foreign kingdoms could supply.' The fact was, that except for 
pageantry or war, and tho slow travelling of those times, there w«a no 
motive to cultivate any new or valuable breed. The most powerful stimu- 
lus had not yet been applied. 

Beronger, who wunld be good authority in such a case, provide<l expe- 
rienced and slcilful persons to preside in his stables, and to spread by these 
m(4ins the ruK-s and elements of horseinnnshin through the nation. Ho 
inviUtl two Italians, pnpils of PignatolU tho riding miiator of Nnploa, and 
placed them in bis service; and he likewise had an Italian furrier nimiird 
Hannibale, who, Ilerenger quaintly remarks, ' did not discover any great 
mysterii-s to Iiih Knirlisb bn-thn'ii, but yet tnu{;bt lliem more tliiin they 
knew Ix'f'irc.' 


There is nothintc worthy of remwk in tlio i«liort rci^ of Edward VI., 
except tbo coQfititDtuig the etealiug of liorsm ft fc luuy wiLliout buiicfit of 

In Uio twonty-M^ond yt»r of E^Kalioth, the use of cobc1i«b v&a intro- 
doerd. It hiui boc^ alrcwly muju-kcd iimt thn hrad« of nohlo hoosoa 
tn>-cUcd uJm^ from oao eud of Ibo kiu^dom to tlic aihcr on hoivcbiick, 
nnleaa ocouiionsllj ihey took refuse in tlicr cnrs that wi-n girncntlly ap- 
propriBtod to their houHc-bold. Eren tlicQiti-c^ rodcbcliinti her ia»iiUT of 
tlw DOm whoD she went Ln stato to St. Pniirit. Tbo ronvcnicnce of tbix 
n«w mode of canuge c*iucd it to Iw immndintdy adoptcil l>y al) who bad 
tbo meaiu ; and the bor«ea were bo rapidly bou^^ht u]) for thu) parpoer, mid 
bvt^snie im «xorbit*n1Jy doar, thnt it was a^'itatod in Pfirliiviiifnt whotlmr 
the nw of csniagcB HhotUdnot be conlioied (o thehig-herclasiu'ii. 

This fafihiou woidd havo prodnnid nn iiijiirioite oH'ect on tho oliararb^r 
of the En^liiih homo. It vroulil hnvc too much ononnrn^C'd tho breed uf 
the hcttvy iLtjd «low home, to thi! coini)i»ir»tivo or nlmosl total neglect of 
ihi" Ii(tltt<T franiod and njH-i-il y out! ; Tint, unrijwwiler liiiving lufn invented, 
aiid hoavT armonr bepiniiing to ho disused, or, at thin pcricid, Inning 
fallen into alraoiit [lorfcct noK'^ct-. » lig)it«r kind of horiw wiut ncoc^nftry 
hx order to (five cfivct to many of the niantcu^Toa of the cavalry. Hmco 
Mvee the light cavnlir — ]ii;ht cumpan.'d with the horsemen of former 
d»j« — heavy compared with those r.f inrxliiiTi tirrifit ; iind hencp, too, atoko 
the Ughter horse, -which, eicept for a few |iartictilar pnrpoftCS, giiCdually 
mpersoded the old hear\' wnr and dran^ht horse. 

An account has alrcadT been givcQ of tho oc'c-asional races at Smitlilicld. 
They were moaily uticidcntal trialH of utrcngth and speed, and there wera 
no runmny-liorrfMf pro[Mirly (([Ksikiii).' — iiotte that wore kept for the ]>nr- 
poae of diiiplnying their speed, and dedicated to this partivulnr pTiri>0)to 
alone. Regular racw, however, wore now cstftbUfihcd in i-ariouB parte of 
En^aod, first at Gartarly in YorkHhire, Uien at Croydcit, ut Thcobidd'a 
oa Boflcld-chaoo, and at Stamford. Boucher, in hii^ HiHt^irj* of Smmfonl, 
says, that the first vuluB-blo public prize waa mn for at tliat place in tho 
time of Cliiu-lpB I. It WM a rilv(>r-^lt cap and cotop, of the value of t<l„ 
prorided by the coipomtion. Tlicro nne no acknowl&dgcil aystoni as aow 
— no breed of r»cing-liorw.-« ; Init. ha<-kiti-,v» and hoslcni mingled together, 
And no deoeription of Iionw wna excladcfl. 

There was at Grst no eonrce marked ont for the race, bnt the contort 
genomlty oonsietod in tho rtinnin(f of tmin-iceul acroBS the coautry. and 
Bomstiinoe tho most dilGcult and daagcrouH part of tlie coontrj- naa aeWtcd 
for ihs taliilntion. Occasionally our pretest steeple-chase was adopted 
witli all ita danffcni, and more than itx present liarlinri^ ; for mraocis wen 
apjMiinted cruelly to dag along the jaded and exhaosted Dome. This 
perhaM requires a little explanation, A match WM fomied called the 
* Wila-Qoo»e UhaHc,' between two horses, and a tolerably sure trial it was 
of the speed and liuutiog i>ro[>orUMi of the homo. Whicliover horsa 
obtained tho lead at twelve soon) yaj^ from the atiirting poHt, Uio other 
WW eempelled to follow hin vhorevor be went, and to keep within a e«r- 
twn distance of him, as twice or thrii^i! hix luiigth. or tUmc to he ' beaten 
np,' whipped op to the mark by thejadgcs who rode to sec Ciir play. If 
one borne gob hoforo the other twelve score yards, or any certain distance, 
aocnrding oe tho match wnit ninile. ho wiu aeconnted to he tlio winner; 
but if the botM which at the beginninji was behind, conid got before him 
that first led, then the other was bound to follow, and ao on, until one gut 
240 yuda, the eighth ]iart of n miW, before the other, or relhjied Home 
break-Dedc leap wuirh tbo other liiul taken. 

By dogieos, howorer, eertnin horacs were devoted In these exhiliitiona, 


and WPTC pTppared for the race, as f«r n* l)u^ mj-alvn- of ttic tmliiitig iibibls 
rmiiil tlK-ti l>e explored, somewhat in the K&iiio way lui at jii-e^fiit. Tim 
woi^it of the riiicp, hwwovpr, wiis not always aiijnst«l to the age or 
neriomumccs of tUc lionto ; but no rider couJd HtarL ivLu woighod less tlian 
10 et. 

The races of ttat period were not disgnired by tlie xjrfitoin of gnmlilin^ 
&i)il fnttul nhioli in Inter tiint>s soemB to have Ikcoido almost inaftjinmlilo 
from Uie aiinifti'incnlB of tirn turf. No heavy Btafcos were run for, aiMi no 
btfitin); dyMtcm Kud been cittobliBliud. Thv priao was nsoally a woKilvn 
U'll iMloniril with flnwera. This waa nRi-nvnnts rxchnnged for a silrer 
ball, and '(riven to him who iihonhl nin Uiehest and ffirlln*t oii liorm'lHwk, 
and eBMcially on Shroro Tuesday.' ticncctliecomaionpliraiio of 'b<«.n]i(; 
Amy the l)fll.' 

Honw-niciiif^ became gradually more caltjivatod ; but it was not nntit 
tlit^ laitt yr«r of tiie reign of James I. tliat ntlvtt wctk pruinnlgatcd and 
genomlly aobscrilx'd to for their re?a1atioii. That rinuao vrna fotiiJ iff 
ticld-Hportfl. Ho liiid mcaiiraK<iMl, if ho did not OKtabltsh, honu>-ra(rin|; in 
ScfillnnH, and ho brought with him to Kngland his prfidilection for it; 
but hifl moot -Ki-rv oiiea matrht.^3 aguinat (imv, or trials of n\»QCii and 
bottom Far abauntly and craelly long distances. Hia favounte cvumvii 
Were at Civydon and on Enlield-cliaw. 

Although Die Tnrki«h aticl BnrlHUT bonu bad boon freely need to 
produce wiLli th« Kngliah marc tho breed that wiui l>c«t Miit<-({ to this 
exvrciM', little iiaprovfuuutluMl be«u oQWcted. Jaiitef, vrilli^n-atjud|nuontv 
detemiiue<d lo try the Arab breed, IVibahly ho had nnt forgtittt'ti the 
gtOT^ of the Arabian that hud been presented to ono of liis Scotiiah 
ehnrrhes, five centariea before. Ho piiroha««! from a inprcliant, namod 
Moricbam, n cclcbntod Arabian hnrso, for which he g&vo the oxtra\'agant 
earn of iivo Iiundrvd puuudft. Kings, however, like their Biihjt.x;t«, arc 
olVn ihwnrtwl and governed by Uieir servants, and Uie Unlce of Newca*tlii 
look a di«like to this fiiroign animiil. lie wrote a book, and a very good 
one, on horaeinanship ; but he described tliin Arabian as a little bony horse, 
of ordinary sliapc ; setting hint down as almost wortblcM, boc«iuc, after 
being regnlarly trained, he aecmcd to be dvlieicnt in ajioud. Tlie opinion 
of the dnkt^ pndotbly Hllogetber erroneona, had for nearly a centniy great 
weight ; and the Arabian horse lost ita rcpatatJoD among the Engliuh 

A not) th-eaiitern horse wna ailerwonls brought into England, and 
porrhaaed by Jamni, of Mr. Place, who afterwardh l)p«Htie Btnd-ina«U^ or 
groom to Olivor Cromwell. This b«-iiultful animal waa cfdled tlie l^ito 
Turk ; and hia name and that of bia keeper will loug Ijo rDniemhered. 
fihortJr after tlvia appeared the HeUnsley I'urk, introdneod by Villicra, 
till* fiFHl. diike of Tluckingham. Ho was followed by Fairfiix's Morocco 
Ittrb. These hones aneedily eifec-ted a considerable (-hiuig)^ in tho rlio* 
raeteroronrbreed,K}thnt I.ion] Hiirlxigb, ouo of the old hoIiooI, eompliuued 
Ikat tbe great hoc«o wait fiuit disappearing, and that horacs were now bred 
liglii sad fine for the Hike of speed only. 

Charlea 1, howe%-(T, anlently pnrsned this favourito object of Kngtiah 
gaotlenen ; and. a Utile before his ruptnrv with the parliament, catAblishcd 
gaew in Hyde Park and at Newmnrket. 

W« ow« to Charles 1. the introduction of the bit into oniTorsal use in 
the onrabj ■ervaw, and geserally out of it The inreotion of the tnt haa 
bean traoed to aa earhr a« the timo of tho Romao empcrora, but for somo 
tnex]ilicable reaiuin it luul not been adopted by the English. Oiiirlea I., 
howpvi>r, in the thinl yi«r of his irign. iwtned a proelanialion Htaling that 
nrh boreee as are employed in the acrvice, being more nuiily nutnagrd 



nieana of the bit tliitn tlie snaffle, lie ttlriirlly rltwri^l niul i-ommAnd^ 

it, except in tinws nf rftV^jivr!— miniij^ nm! Iiiiiitiiii!; — nn ficmoii ('i!i,tif^t'd 
in the caraliy service should, in riding, use any tnajffti^, hut Mj (inly. 

It was feared hy name ttiat thn lo'Vo of bautiiig and racing wa.t umlciiie 
■ouLOwhat too rapid pro^rn'ss ; for then.- in on ri^cord ametnorial presenled 
to Gharlm, 'toucliinu Uio sUiIl- urthclciti^loni. mid the defiawwy of cood 
Hid stout hontrii frtp it« dof«ncp, oh aoeount of th© tttronf; addic):i<iii wliicli 
the aatian h&d to racing and hanting horses, vhioh, for th* soke df swiit- 
neaa^ vnro nfa lighter and weaker mould.' 

The civil war* somewhat eDsfKnidtHl the inqnirjr into thia, ajid aluo tha 
imprarflmemt of tho hn>c'j ; yet the adv&nt*g« which wns dBrivcd hy both 
pniiieii from n lif^ht itiiil activo earalrr sufflciimtly proved the important 
of Itio ohaogo that liaJ bct-a efiectvoL Cromwell, pcrociviiiK ^th hia 
wonted aagacity how ninch theae paranits were conitccUtd with tlio 
pRMperity of the caimtry. had hiH stud of race-borsas. 

At the R«>eturHtiaa a new impalHe wao given to the caltivation nf tha 
honu by tho incJinatirin of tlio ponrt to ]Mvtn>niF<> paioty und disaiuation. 
The noes ut Nowmarlcct', which had bix.-ti for a while RnHpendea, wcro 
rt'^Uireal ; and, h» nii mhlitinttal .ipur U> (TiiiuIaLii)Ti, roj*nl platrs were prea 
at each of tho princi^ml coarBes. Charl(>!t II. sent liin nifiNtitr of Lho horse 
to tho berant, to put-eliuee brood mHroo and ntutlionB. Tbewi wcro pnn- 
oipally Barbs and Tnrtg, 

JnincH IL lived in too lutqiiiut a {K^nud lo bo cnablcil to bcntow much 
time uu the RporU of tho turf or thw Ht^ld. Ho hai«, huwcvcr, liecn repre- 
■mtvd U bdzig exceedingly fond of hanting, and showing hii iliHrldto) a 
prcfflrracc for the English horao as, after his abilicatinn, to have ii(>vr^nU 
of th«nt in hia eUdilc-a in Prance. Bcrcngtir speaka of this with ninch 
foelinK '■ — ' He e.xprcta«Ml a pcn^uliar BatiBfaction lu havinj; them, and that 
at a lini«, and in a Hituution in which it is natural to think tlmt thf^y w(>ro 
rather hki.-Iy to hnvo ^v«n him iinttiuiiuoM and mortification than to liava 
utfordiHl him pkiunirc.' 

William HI., and Anno, }irincipnlly nt tho instigution of her ronsort, 
George, Prinoo of Denmaik, were xealnuit patroiiB of the tnrf, and iha 
antam of improTemeDt was zoaloiDily pursued ; ovenr variety of Kaatem 
Uood was ooeasionally on^rftftod on our own, and tbo oRfHLvrinri^ of the 
oowly-introdncod breed auovo tho host of thu Original stock began to bo 

Snni« i^mnnf) imagined that this speed and atontnpss might ponnihly Iw 
fUrtbcr increased ; and Mr. Darlcy, in tho latter part of tho n'jgii of 
<jaeeo iVnnc, had reoouree to the dismrdod and dospifiod Arabian, Ho 
Iwd mach prcjadico to contend with, and it WM eoine time before the horao 
which ho Bi'leetcxl, anil whinh was aflerwardn known bj- tlic namo of tho 
Darlvy Arahian, attracted much notice. At length the value of hJM pro- 
duce began to bo recognised, and to him wo tire mainly indebted for a 
breed of boraesof nnM|oalIcd boan^, spond, and wtronHth, 

The last impmvemcnt fumislicd all that coald be dmred : nnr vros thia 
tmo only of the thorongh-lire^l or tnrf-horsc — it was lo a very nii^lcrial 
dagnw Ilic ejwn with evt-ry ilosfiription of horse. By a jndieionH admut- 
tnro and jiroportion of bloo<t, we have rendered oar huiifers, our haekneym, 
our coach — nay, even our cart-honwe, Btrouger, more active, and nioro 
endaring, tlian tliey wore before the introdactitm of the raeo-horao. 

The history of tlio horns in Enghmd w a very int^^resting one, Tho 
original breed — that of wtiieli mention is first made in Ititttory — soems to 
havD b««n a valuable on». Tho Conqueror carried away nanr i^ecinton* 
of it, and Uicy were long held in reputo in every ccontry eubjogatcd by 
Uw BomiuiA. The iuaukr sitnntian of Britain, and ita eomiianUivcly Uttb 



neMl of the WBr-hnrsp, led uiuler Hevei-al monarch^ to a <!Tilpablt> <li!^rae of 
Df-fcli^ni-e: and altlioa^li, perliupq. ou tlio whole the Kn^liah trere not 
far Whind their ContincntAl i>oi)'lil>oure, yvt at bo period, nntil withm ibe 
Inst ccDtnrf and a luilf. has (Jniit DritBin been nt all rlistingtiiRliL-d on 
Hob aocotuit : litit (mm tlmL time, and v^'XiR-cially duritif^ ihfi latU>r part 
of ilf thft Briliith hiinui biw hei-n iuiu^ht nl^^r in even,- luirl. nf the vrnrM. 
Thfti* in notiiing in oor ciitnate that can ncoonnt f^r t]ii«^n*)thmp in our 
Boil, nr thin miperior oxoeltrace would have ))c<>n atiknowli^li^-if hm^: iigg. 
'The jrraiid first ransc.'sarsMr, Wm, PorciTall, in his intmdiirtjiry Wt lire 
at Umveraity College, in 1834.* — that, by the Bt«idj' proscoiition and 
iioieatifio msmtgrawnt of which this )>hc(m>«8 htu l>een broni^bt abont, 
ftppcATS to mo to b« brocdinfr : bj wlu<h I do not only mean tbo procora- 
taon of oriffiani utock of n good doHcripUon, but the txnilinnnl |in))nvK- 
»Uty nillivHtiun of th»t utock in the progeny by lbi> grcatt-Kt can- in 
rcttriii); aiiil ft.'otlinjf, and by the most caureftil Mlectioii. On theto two 
circiuiutanccti, and particularly on the Utter, a gT««t deal more depeiidn 
tiiM) on th« oriffinal characfera or attributes of the pnrente. By tlicHo 
tneani we haTvprotrr(MM>dfrain({oodtobctt(T, loeinffsightof nomibiridiaiy 
help, nntil wo have attained a jxn-Toctioa in boni»-B(wii ntiknown in Dig 
whole worlfl boeidc' 

Tbo lore of the tnrf, and the anxiona dowre to posMM horavs of tin- 
riraJIcd fxwllrncc, ha\if vritliiii th« taAt twenty yeara siire«*l ovrr tlio 
Eitni[Mtui cantin#>nt. Everywhere atud-houiieH have been built and 
p«riodi«Kl net* entabUabed, and sporting aocietiee funned of peranna of 
the gn>iU««t weight in tbo oommnnity, and, ererrwhens tenloiu AttemptA 
have been made to improve tho native stock. Tbo coursers of Uie IWt 
tniglit liave been eaaily promrcd — n new impjtly of Anibian Mood miKht 
luiTe been obtained fmm thp iLntiv» country of ttu> Uarb; but Frtmcb, 
ttad ItoUans, GormanB, RnssinnK, and Flpminfpi, hare flrtfik*d to tho Ui-itinh 
IsIcA. The nnro blood of tbo present Barb and Anibian ha» Wva poift- 
ponod, and all bnvc dt-rply drawn from that of th" thorongh-bred Httg-Hiih 
DOno. Thi« ia a nin-uiiuitaiir« with rej^rd to which there id no diftpiilo. 
It in a mutter of hisrtory — and it in liitthly creditable to oar sporting men 
•od breeden. Ur. Pvrcix'aU has ri^litlv stjited the cause, but tbvre are 
•ome oirramatancai connoct^d witb tliia prL'-omincnce that may givo 
oocaiioii for aeriotui reflection, and which will bo beat consider^ aa the 
rapectire brevds of honra iiwiw in review. 




Tvun WftA mncb dii*piito wHth rr^rd to the origin of tho lk<*mvqh-bred 
JkoTM. By totas bo wm tmoi-d through both aire and dam to t^slora 
pnrenlage ; wbUe others beJiered lum to \k Av nntivK borM'. im[>mvcd and 
jMtrfeeted by jndickms cmning with the Barb, U>« Tnrk, or the Arahtnn. 
*Tiu) Stud-Book.' which is an aathority nokDowIcdged by evciy Kngliah 
brooder, tmoM all Ibe old rac«r« to somo Eaat«m ongin, or at leaat until 
tho pcdigron ia loc( io tlic ont^rtninty of an early poriud of breeding. 
If tLe pedigroo of n ncrr of tbo prrtMmt day is nKiuirrd, it is trac^ 
back to a certain c-xtont, and mds with a well-known nuvr: or if an 


wrIW dcrinitioii is required, that tntila eith«r witli an Enetem bone or in 

It is now admitted tliat the present English Uioroagh-bred homo is of 




■*■'■» ^ 


Tm ooLoim- 

foivign cxtmotion, improved and {wrfvctcd \ty Uic iiillaciice of cUmat« and 
dili^rmt ruluvation. Thure arc some uxceptions, n» in th« ciuwj* nf Hntiip 
Km luid liny Unlton, in nkcli of which, nlUiou^h the Ixnit homcR nf thr^ir 
dnr, Ihere wm« a oroiw of vnlffar blood ; but thoj arc only doviationn from a 
^ni-rnJ rule. In our l»i-«t niciui;-sUiblvs this is un itc.knowlcdi^td priDctptc ; 
and it in iiot-.wl«'n iirtnicrly coiwiiicrwl. in tfie iili)^)it«*3t lU-pix-p drropnUtry 
to thp civdit of our ciiutittT- Tlic Driti.ili cliiniitv and BritiwiL Nkill niiido 
Uw- tliorouffh-brMi howe whnt Im Li, 

Thv bcuattrul tulcn uf Kimti'ni coaatn«« and ttomuwliiit nrtnoto djijK may 
lead US to imafpnv thot tliv Am.l>ian horse pottsusMig innrvt^IlouR powent: 
but it cannot ndmit of a doubt thnt th(« EngtiHli-tnuried linrse \h more 
beflatifal lUid far RwiftiT and dt.intiM- thnii the jin»tiy-fiuiiod coursore of th(> 
dcMTt. In the burning i>l»Jti.i vf thi.- Kuirt luid tliu* fn>wn clinintc <A 
RoMia, hv haa inviiriiililv iniittfii pvcry untagoTiist on his iitttivi? ^mund. 
It has \)wn fllriMidy «tiit4-rl thiit, n ft'W yp»r* ngo, Itai'niit, nn ICnj^liMh 
horM of modcmtf" lY-putatioa, cntilj boat Py-raman, the bast Arabian od 
tb« Bengal sidv uf Iiidiii. 

It roast not be objifks! timt the niimlier of EiuUrm hnrwji importtil i» 
far too Bmall to prodiico do iinrricniaji n progeny. It will b^" rwollfotiid 
that tho thoooands of vild honca on tlm plain* of South Amci-i(% de- 
aoeaded from only two Mtnllionii aud four uuurs, which tlic tntrly Spanish 
■dventareiv left behind tbi-in. 

Whatever luay be tlw truth as to thn origin of the rACR-liorM>, lh« 



■trirU'rt Mirtilioii hut furUiC huA handred^OBrw hwu paiil to tia poili;rPi>0. 
In llic ik-iwfiit Iff iitiiHMl overj- miMietti ra*if r, not tliti sUplilcst Saw i-hh bw 
Ldiacovend : or wlieii, witli tlio Hpleadtrl exct^plicinx or SHmpson and tiny 
fnlton, one drop of onnunon blood him mingled with the pure Rtreain, it 
I liiw Ik-cii immeduvtelj' del«ct*d in tho inferiority of form and defioiciwrj «f 
■tamiiiA, and it has recjaired two or tliree geuerutiotia to wipe away the 
stain uul gt^t rid of itit conae(|ncnc«H. 

Tbe moer iR gieUDrally dibtiiigoishtid hy his be&ntJiTil Ambiut head : 
topcring and lin«Ty>aet'Ou ticclc ; ulitiquu U-n^^thcncd Hhonldt-rs ; weU-bcnt 
hindttr legn ; aiiipV, inuacular quArlers ; flul IcgH, rather f>bort hnm the 
lcni« dnwnwattl, aJthnngh not always so deep na they Rbould bo ; and hin 
Innft nnil olnntio piwt«Tti. Th«Mi will bo sopar&boly considerod when tho 
Mtnicture of tbc boniu is trvutcd of. 

Tbn Darky Amhiiui wax the parent of oar best racHn^; Htoek. H« wam 

Cnrchamd by Mr. IHrli-y's hnitluT iit AU-ppo, nnd wan brnd in tho m.iiffb- 
imring doeort of Pnlmyn*. Hi« figtin? CrtnUtincd ovorj' point, without 
much fbonr. tbut cimld be dcsinxl in a turf-honK-. 

Tbi! immixliutu dcMOcndBnta of this invaliinhlf burse wi'n< tlin npvnn- 
idiiro or Flying CliiUlers; Hm Bliwdiog or Diu-tk-lt'« Cbiidoi-8, who was 
nerer tzaiocd ; Almanzor, and otben. 

Tliti two Gliildcrs were thft mmnii throuKb which tho blood and fnmr of 
thcnr niw wi'tv widely I'in-ubitcd; and frvm (Jhtii dowciidnd another Chit- 
di-ns UUuu<, Snnp, NimpKon. Ki.-li{>si>, nnd ii buirt. of oxeclU'iit horwR. 

Tbu IVviiiiHbin' or Hyint: Chillier*, no called from thp Bumo of hi« 
hn-nkr, llr. Cliildi-ni. trf't'arr IIoiihc, luul Uiv «»li- of him to tlw; I>uke of 
DoroiMditru, was thu deeteat home of liiit day. He wuh at tirat trainctl im a 
boflhrr, l«t iJio snporiof Htwed and courage whiclj ho diiHMvpred cawMnl 
liim to \k acioii tmnsfiirrod to Uio tnrf. Common report aflirnin thiil ho 
ponhl mn a milo in n n»iniiie; but Un-reJa no anttiontic record of this, 
riiildere ran aver tlw round tx)un«3 at Newmarket (three mileisMx fiir- 
■1^ Dinrty-thrTH* ,vardfl) in aix miiint^H and forty Borundti, aixl the 



Beacon ctmrao f fiiur milcB, nnu fnrlonfr, and one Iiuricln^l nud tliirty-eig;ht 
vwxls) ill KfiVL'Q minutes itnil thirty seeoads. lii 1772, & milo vnui ruii by 
It'irctail in one minuto and four l^ooclnds. 

In 1755, Bay Malton, tlio prtipcrly wf llio Marquia uf liockia^^tiiun, ran 
the rour-Qiilv course at York ui bctcu initmk-j) tuid forty^tbivti svcunda, Uiis 
bang fioven eoeondB Icm time than it had pvcj bona lu^vuiiijilishid in bclore. 
Some of tb«so old oaca contd run fast as well »« ntoiitly. Twenty yoan 
aftcrwardii Uiuro was a boautifol liorso, tliu hoii uf Kcli[wi;, und inlicriitng 

Xat portion uf liis h]ioii1 wiLliout his sUiiitniJw, Hii won almost every 
not fur wliicli he. ran, but ho noT<!r c»uld rLcrompliitli n ruur-niilu one. 
Hu broko don'n, in L779, ninninjj; over the Uoacrni oourM. 

One of tho moeb miUy surcru race* Uiat uvt-'c wiw run took pIs<co at. 
CarlUle in 1701. Then) wan noltMs than six licate, uml two urtlium dead 
huata. Eacli of tha ais wa>! huniMtly coutestod by thu witmiiig iioi-se: 
therefore ho tan ia Rood earnest twenty-four miles : yet thvro wait iiu 
breakinfr down, nnr any aeconnt of tho shRiitoat injiu-y rcwivod. 

The following are some lulditional iiiKtaucefl of the mingled ii|H!od fUld 
cndniunoo <if tliLtao horsca, ami dcHDrcc to bo pliicwl on rwoi-d : — 

In (X-Ujbcr, 1741, ut the Curmt-ii mwliiij; in Inland, Mr. Wildu i-njjriKcd 
to rido one hundi-cd and twunty-novon niilt-s in nino houi*s. H<> pi-rfyrmL-il 
it in (dx hoars and tWfuty-onn minntps, IIt» employed ten horvi«, anil. 
allowinff for moaii(i»t,' and dimnonntinp, and a. moment fur rufreshmenl, ho 
rofle during »\s. hoai-^ n-t ttiu mt.c vf twenty miles an hour. 

Ur. Tboruliill, in 1745, cixocoded tliia; for lie rode IVom Stilton lu 




Loniloa and baok, and again to lumAon, being twn hundred and thirteim 
inilM, in eleven huunt and thirty-foar minutea. TliixamfinntM, aOer iillnw- 
injT tho U-ant possiWo time for eluintrinB horiieii, to ln-enty milc-s im hour 
for L'lcvtii lionrK. and on Uii^ liirnpike-miul and uneron grounds 

Mr. Slutlloe, in 1765, wiUi Urn hursea, and fivti of tTn-m ridden twicu. 


acscomplifihed fifty miles and aquarter iu one tour and forty-nine minntes. 
In 1763, hewonaetill more oitraordinaiy match. He engaged to procure 
a person to ride one hundred miles a day for twenty-nine days, having Miy 
number of horeea not exceeding twenty-nine from which to make his seleo 
tion. He accomplished it on fourteen horses; but on one day ho was 
compelled to ride a hundred and aixty miles, on account of tlie tiring of 
his first horse. 

Mr. Hull's Quibbler, bowevor, afforded the most eitraordinanr instance 
tm record, of the stoutness as well as speed of the race-horse. In Decem- 
ber, 1786, he tan twenty-three miles round the fiat atNewmartet, in fifty- 
■eren minutes and ten seconds. 

Eclipse was got by MareV, a grandson of BarUett's CHlders, and his 

Eiigree afifords a singular iUustration of the descent of our thorough-bred 
rsca &om pure fiastem blood : — 

"^' \ ....?^.-_„. i-^ ■ ■ i-"fflX,i— -» {ESS^"-"-" 

\ Uxor r 

at >UyII»T 


■■"^"i ,N.c« i^:-^- 1"-^ 

i. .._ .UMirTuk. 
..._ . "BuiMi-.IJwjl 

lUaiftftitB AnblMM. 

riWrfK. . . (II*Mkwi( { ^ ] (W>t flMm To*. 

•MR |0UlbMcw[l»Htkwira>ato7. 

The pedigree of flclipse will likewise afibrd uiotber curious illustration 
of the uncertainty which attends thorongh-bred horses. Marsk was sold 
at the sale of the Duke of Cumberland's stud for a mere trifle, and was 
imSered to run almost wild on the New Forest. He was uFtcrwanIs 

Eorcbased for one thousand guineas, and before bis death covered for one 
undred guineas. Squirt, when the property of Sir Harry Harpur, was 
ordered to be shot ; and while he was actually being led to the dog-kennel, 
he was spared at the intercession of one of Sir Harry's grooms. Neither 
Bartlctt's Childera, nor Snake, were ever trained. On the side of the dam, 
Spiletta never started but once and was beaten; and the Godolphin 
Arabian was pnrehased from a water cart in Paris. 

Eclipse was bred by the Duke of Cumberland, and sold at his death to 
Mr. Wildman, a sheep salesman, for seventy-fivo guineas. Colonel O'Kelly 
purchased a share of him from Wildman. In the spring of the following 
year, when the reputation of this wonderful animal was at ito height, 
O'Kelly wished to become sole owner of him, and bought tiie remaining 
aharo tor eleven hundred guineas. 

Eclipse was what was termed a thick-winded horse, and pnSed and 
roared so as to be hoard at a considerable distance. For this or some other 
canao, he was not brought on the tnrf until ho was five years old. 

O'Kelly, aware of his horse's powers, had backed him freely on his first 
race, in Jlay 1769. This excited curiosity, or, perhaps, roused suspicion, 
and some persons attcmpte<l to watoh one of his trials. Mr. John Law- 
rence says, that, ' they were a little too late ; bnt they found an old woman 
who gave thoin all thu information they wanted. On inquiring whether 
«ho had seen a race, abo replied she could not tell whether it was a race or 


hot, but tiiot aba had jmt sceo a konto, witli a white lea;, nuinuig away at 
Ik monstrolu rBt**. aud unotlic-r liorso n j^irafc vay behind, trying to run 
Apter hiiii : but sbv was txuv b« woold oover catch the wbite-Iuggetl honte 
if hp rwii to Uic world's end.' 

The &ni heat wiu rtuilir won, when O'KcUy, obwrria^ that the lidcr 
had bnon pnilinff nl Krlliiw dtiriiijf the whole of the moc, offered a waeor 
tb»i bt^ Jilted Lhe lioiftrx in the acxt beat. T)ii» Henoni^i] a tiling ao highly 
imjinitmbtc, that he imnifdiatolv Iiud beta to a large anioiuit. Jteiiig 
caUvd on to declare, he replied, ' feclipse tirst, and the iH>at nowhere V Th« 
erent juscifivd bis prediction, for uJl the othora were distanced by Eclipse 
with the greatest ea«.-, and thiui, in the Uu(pingv of tbv tnri^ tbvj had 
no plar«. 

• In thr jq>rinj[ of the foUowinj; year, ho beiit Mr. Wentwortirn Bnoe- 
phuluj*, who lukd iierer before met with his e^iual. Two lIuvh tdU-rmirUis 
If. difibtiKiH] Mr. Strotlc's Pcnaiontr, a \'rrv irnod horse ; and i» the Auifuttt 
of tb« Hamc year, be won the great subscnpt ion at York, Jfo borse daring 

tto mter against him, bo l-Iiik.») bit) sliutt ean-er, offieventeen muntliis by 
waDdneoror tbe Xcwmarketconrsc for tho Kin(;'B plate, on Octolicr the 
18th, 1770. Htf wiis Quvur buaton. nor rwr paid forfeit, and won for bia 
owner more Umn m-nity-tive tKou.snnd ixninila, 

EcJipae was alVrwanU employed iin a sUdliou, and produeed the cxlra- 
ordinary UDtnber of three hundred and thirty-four winners, and those 

■ uett«<l to theii- owuers mOrc than 160,000'. i;x<?Uniivc of niatt-ti and cups. 

■ ITic prodnoc of Kinj; Herod, a d«wndant of Flying Childers, wiia even 
more numerous. He got no K^m than four hundred ami niiiety-M'veQ 
wiunvN, who gaini-d for t.lieir propriotora njiwarda of two hondi-ed tbou- 
hiihI pounilx. Highflyer waa a son of King lleriHi. 

Tlio prolit bniti<|;ht lo the owner of Eclipoo by his eorricca a« a nlallJou 
mn»t har« Ki'ii irnmcTi»e. It ia Htid that ten years alter be voi* with- 
drawn from thi; turf, O'Kelly wns asked at what priec be would sell bitn. 
Jit first he porempwrilv' refiised to aoU him at amy price, but aJ^r some 
reBectioTi, be said that be would take HfiOOL, with im nnniiity of riHO/. a 

J ear an hiit own life, and the itnnnnl privile}^- of scndinff im luareE to 
iin. Tbe aeeming extmTaganre of the miin vxciled onnMiilemliUt rvinark ; 
bat O'Kelly doelued llial be bod alnemly cleared more tliaii '2-'t.(X>0!. by 
liim, uid that h« was younjg enough still to earn double that vuni. la 
fhct, be did live nearly ten years afterwiuTU, covering at •'<.) ^ineaa a 
tnare, for some jtart of the time ; bnt bis feet having been carelessly and 
cruelly neglected, ho beenme fiiuiid^ppd. His loot rupidly grew worso 
and w<ir8e until he wosa v^ry nncerlnin fottl-gctter; and the vfilue of his 
progeny was more than sui|iccted. He died in February 17H9, at tW 
age of twenty-Hve yewnt. Of the luaiutv and yet the peculinrity of 
bin form ihvrv hiut \v*m itincb dispute. His lowness befirn* was evident 
rJiimgh, and was a matter of objection and reproFwIi among tboao 
who coald not see how abnndantly tbl« wns rodoemod by the extent 
and obliquity of the shoulder, tlie brondncna of the loins, tlie umple 
and finely* proportion etl qunrlere. and tlie swelling and the iixt«iil' — 
the sloping and the power uf tlio inuscb'a of tint fore-arm, and of 
the ibigha. 

A litdc Iwfwn; tbo death of Kelipse, M. St. Bel, tbe founder of tho 
Vctrrinary Gidlege in St. Pancias, had arrived from France. In tearhing 
Uie Fn*ti<di pupils tlie general conformation of the horse, and the just pro- 

Crtion< of bis various parts, it hnd Ix-cn neiMWiary that reference should 
mndc toflomeboraoof aeknowli-dged execllene*. It occurrod to St. Del 
Uiftt thitt extraordinary and aubuaten borae would be the proper ittikndard 
to which the English student might be referrctt for a similar pui-pose, and. 



with conaidcrBblo trooblc, b« fomiod ma acoanUo ecalo vt Uic proporUoofl 
of tills noblu naimaL It is u followB : — 

iWfrovnom •»- scurss. 
Attbonfh H H perfMtJj ti*e^ uvutrdbjr Ur.iJLunt, in ki* ' Ouliata «f the Vatcri&iWT 
Art,' tlwt 'IwMtiii^ WDNqitmtbMlheaN«dMRptMmUaqHaiiiitTofb«Me,aad M»d*, 
aid ikMrw, ■hooU ba m iata tho MuUcst balk, ud UuU, to KUilwatomtf Saiibililr 
and MOM lanBlh, tb* ToBbi miurt be dmoi^ oniud, iha riiaM ikiip km cspadow, uid 
(be bndtr oxlnHiitiM tonuhiid vttli tms-c^ul moM-le* i fir kiaUing, w« unit hata a 
aisikr nt Mnvwhaft baOior honr, with powrrfnl loina, niwl uioro powerftil qMrWB, ud 
toe tba WiNnr. wbila va «oi«rt*hw dm ib« atrviwtb «f tb* loiiw and Uw qoaRon, wa 
Joak Bur* t» tiw «l«iTtt«d withan^ aad tlu d««p aod BroMBUr •h«tUdan^ and tbo Mnighl 
^rf wtU-fatmad l«g/ jN tbM» is s nnwr nd » nwr ptopoRJaa. bitJf Um mtmkI 
jMtiofUi— fcindwd inimik Una ■any pww ■!» diipMadtaalloir; aind thia tknuh 
of ibMa in Bdif**^ will not inilr ba inlMM&iifc but oaaAil, to tba nncnl bnmMnan. 
TIu Itiiglb at tba buad of llic bgno u anpoaed to be diTided into twentj-<«u eqnaP 

partit wbicb an tb* oaaBBoa naaaon bf ovoiy paKcf thobodf. 
Thno h— d> kDd tliiiivM pawu will fit« tlw b*i|^ «( ibu bun« ftun iIm tunfiMf W tb» 

niM haads fron tba witban ta Um graand. 
Thne bMdi froa ibc raaip to the gnimd. 
Aim beadi and ttatM niU Iba whola loiwlfa of ibt body, Dnm tba moat jiiuniunit 

put «f tba ebaM to tb otPMikr of ibi MntwkB. 
Twobaadaud twaatr paHa tba bdghl rf tha bodj, llmagh Uia aiddlg cf tbooontn 

Vvo b«Mi and uirnt i»ita, lh« bdsbt of tba liighaat part of tba cbaat from Hid pound. 
Two Iwada awl In pait^ tba fadgfat oT Iba wfpndinilar lias wfaMi fslb frain tbt 

anIcmlallM of tba uk witb iba tboddar, imaiy to ibo horf. 
One b«ad and twcntj part« (be beigbt of the pe(pea£ealar lioo which fatk ftwn (be 

top of tba tm-\w^ diridiaK eqoalljr all ha paita to iba fotladL 
On* bMd and iiiiw(««a puts, Uw bci^ ef tb« parpcudicnlai lino bom tb« elbgw totlis 

Ova baad and wntCani patta, (be diRaoM trem lb* up of the wtthm to the- mifln. 

Ilia MHia Buaann alao ^n» tba dirtiuwa (tarn Iba icifi of tba rarap to thv clbuw. 
Onaaid a balf baad. tb* Ic^^Ib of tbi naA ftoa tba wilban to the loj) of tU IwAd. 

Tba aaika n«aaw» alao gma ihe Itaiftb of tba iwdi (naa the top of ibo bud hi 

tia iaantiM iMo tbe cfaaH. 
Om boad, lb* widlb of tb* tuck ai ita aaion wiib th« chtaL 
Tw«l«a paMa of a b«a4 *b'' widUi of ib* wok U ila aufowwat nait. 
Tba wtma BMana gma lb* bt«adlb cf iba hMd ttbm b*low ifia #tml 
Oaa bad ud hv paila, Ih* ihiduMaa of tba budv froa iba atiddlo of tba badi Iq lb* 

TW atma Bcamv ^ra tba bnadUi (/ ika Udj. 
AboibanapAccDbaaaauaittolbvaxtnailTof tbt lntlr«b& 
Alao Iba dirtwo* fnu tb* nut of tha tail lo tbe •tiUv. 
Aba tba iMctb froa ib« atifla la lb* boefc. 
AhM tba hatpa fron Iba dzimiiij of Iba boof to the hock. 

TwMM pans at ■ head, tba dkluco ftm tbe (Bunnii/ rf the bMtodta Vo iba Mifla. 
Alao toe bvaadtb of the map or aaao. 

T^paitaDfahrad, tbalradtbof tMbrt-ltgafrtna their aimarior pan h» tho *Jbow. 
T«K parta of a Lead, tba bnadlb of on* of lb« bind-lvga talcm brncnlJ) th« fuU «f IIm 

K^ paita of a be»d, the brMdih rjf ih<i ham t«ki'n fhHn ibe bend. 
Alio tba bnadlb of tb* bad aburu tbe in intrihi. 

Strcn pajti of a head, ibe diaUneo of tba tjr* from uoe ([f»t wa^ l« ihc oNhcr. 
AIm IU &liak0» boiWHO lb« km-leci. 
Vlra paila of a bead, tb* dndoMaa of tb* kaMa. 
Aim tb* bnadlb *f tb* lbr«-lep aboro tlw kiww. 
AIm lb* thi>hiiw of lb* bkau. 

Four paita of a b«ad, ib* bNadlh of ibe paaiara. or fclloek Jdni. 
AIm tha diklu ii aa ti tb* e un a rt . 

Vonr ud a half pane of tba bead. Ibe bnadlb of tb* eonaet. 
Tlnwpafiaaf aliaad,tb«tbiclnaai of tba )«gi at ihiir namwe* part. 
Aba lb bnadlb of lb* biadaF b« or tbaaki. 

Two ftnd thf iioartii* part* of aliaad, lb* ibiekasaa of lb* biad-poatLfai. 
AIM tb* bna dl b of t>* ifcaaka of tb* fata- ley. 
Tao tmA a qoaiur aula irf a hfltd. lb* Ibirkiwaa of tb* lbc*^pnBt*nw. 
Alw Iba bfMidUi oflb* h)ad-pa«lrnia. 
Om aod t h r *» qBait!* parte of a bead, the tbkkaca* of ibc Ior aad faiad ■baai& 



More than twenty <roara after the Barley Arabian, luii) wbcn ihv valao 
nf the Arabian tiViud wvfl folljr establiabcd. Lord UtxlDtptiin poMM-sticd a 
baautifol bat Hingnlarlytiliitpitl borMo, which ho calltsd an AnUnKii, bat 
vrhich -mm rcadly a Bu-b. Hix cT<\Mt, lofty uad nrchod nlmo«t to a thuity 
vrill tlutingaiiili him from every vHwr hurw. 

It wrtll likewise be seen frum tliti cut (p. 10), UiAt lie hnxl a Miikine 
bohind liu slioaldflrs, abnost aapeculiw, and a correnjioiiding eli!va.tioii i^ 
the spine tow&rdB the loina. lua muzKle was unoommfinly tine, his head 
beaatifally aet on, hi« ehonUlera capncioos, and hia qaftrtere well spreaj 
oot. Ho was btnmht in FVancc, whoro ho wae actnally omplojod in 
drmwing a cart ; Mid wbt-u bv wiui aAtrwitrdu |in-scntvd to Lord Godolphin, 
he was in thaL iiobLcmaii'H ittud a cHt»Hi(l«ml>ltJ time bi.'tiitu bis vuiuo wiw 
disoorerod. It was not until the birth of t^ath, one of the ftnt honmg of 
Uiat periwl, tbat bia cxcvlhiuco buguu tw bo appivcdatcd. Hd wiut thou 
■tjletl ail Aralnau, and beauiit-, in ovcii a greater doere« thati the DaHey, 
the liMuider of the modem tboroogh^bred hones. He died in I7G3, at tha 
■ge of twenty'Dine. 

Aa intiniatc fi-i«ndship snbtrititod botwc>cu him and a cat, which cither 
aat on bis buck when liu vnia la ibu stabli;, or OL-stlod ua closely to hiia na 
sbe ooold. At hix dmtli. she beeui to refiiHv her food, and piiiiil awny, 
and died. — Vr. Uulcrolt ^ves ■> ^rnilai- rebitiou nf the nttfti^huiBiil botwoi^n 
n raee-borse and a cat, which the conrsor wonid take in his month and 
place in bis monger and upon liiu back without huHiug her, Cbitlaby, 
oalltxl &om bis ^^al ferocity the Mad Aiubiuu, whom uuo only of tlio 
ffnNjma dared to appruHcb, and who sava^-ly tor« to piL-ec^« tEie imagv of 
a man that wjw pnqHiw^ly [ilaccd in his way, luul hia ix-ouiiar attiu^limciib 
to a lamh, who om^I ti> employ liJnuuilf for roauy an hour in butting away 
tbe fliiNt (rum hiu friend. 

Anotlufr fun-igii liorse, was the WeUesIey Arabian ; the very piotnrc of 
a iMaalifal wild horetu of Uic desert. Hia prodsc ooantiy wae never 
determined. He is evidently neither a perfect Barb, nor a perfect Ambiati, 
bnt from eumu uuijk'bbuuriiig i)roviti<;e, when: both the Barb luid .^rutiiit,ii 
would oxpancl to a mom perfect fiilncsa of form. This lioi-se liiis been 
efToneoasly selected as tbo palt^'m of a Hapurior Ara-biaii, aud tbereforo 
we have intrDdncvd him : fow, huwvVi)r,of bi8 pruductf went truiiiod who 
can odd ranch to his rvputiiUoii. 

At tbo cuiumi-ui.:uineiii of the last century, wlien pnblio mooa had been 
caUblisbed ici the tifigblwurliood of ahnoat ereiy larjj:^ town, ami whou 
many of them were e8|iocially patronifiod by ruyidty, sitboogb there wna 
evffioicnt opportunity fftveu for tho viUno of the yoonff gtoeJc to be ex- 
hibited, or at least (racBBcd at, tho contort principally lay amonft the adults. 
^Tho kind of coutcst wliich was lx4t calculated to try tho wurlli of tbo 
lu]nK>, and to promote the actual improvement of the bre<Ml, wa« one uf 
minfiflod icpood and endnmiGO. They were mostly heats for ilJKtancM of 
Um» or foar milm. Occaaion^y tbey were for greater lengths, uvea ex- 
traiding toeix ur eight miles; and in one case^ when the Duke of Qoeens- 
berry's Daah beat Lord Biirrj-morc's Highlander, twelve milca. This, 
however, was oraol and absurd, uud iiover wtablitdiod il«i'lf among the 
beat supporten of tbo tnrf. 

Four niilce oosstitnted the avcntgu di.-<tAnce, not only for kin;;'fl plates, 
Init for simple niatrbed; and tUo horrtt« did not sleep on tikeir way. 
Thiire were ucctuiiiimilly uu extmonlinary bursts of s]iood aa are now Wi^ 
tUisad in onr niilt; and a half moes. 

Ptd the bonvs of tbo»e days oonto to any extraordinary linrm ? Did 
they ruin theiDselvos by tho cxortioti of ene day and appear no more ? 
The anonynunu writer of a most iatvrusUu^ and valuable work — ' A 



CompnrativD view of tli« EnKliab IWer and Saddle Hnrxo iturii)^ tlio 
LiuttKiMl Prwarot Cvntarim' — m3ntioiia a honw colled Ex>.itic, Llutt hvh 
on Uio tiuf elovcii yi-«rH. ' MVp do not know,' mvs our author, ' how 
m»jxy time* he ■Urtvd donng tliis period, but iu the courae uf it fit won 
tifflitn-n timeR. In tin wrcnUi ^ult un tho turf be won a race at Pl-Uii-* 
borough consisCiii); of four hitaUt of four milutt Mu'h.' 

' Four boFBM were handicapped by Dp. ]Jc11^imi nt Ki-'wcnstl^-undeiv 
Lyne — Sir John Eg^rton's Asthurv.Mr. Miltou'n Hivndcl, SirW. AVynao'i 
TorraffUDt and Sir ThomaH StaalcY'a Ct^lric. T\w fuUw'ing vriw tho 
rrsult :— Of tho first throe Lcaui tSaere was no winii«r. Tarragon and 
Handvl being each time iioae and iioae, a.nd, althougli AHtburjr was Htiit«d 
to bavA been tliird in tba first bent, yot ho was m nearly on a level wiUi 
the othv», that there waa a difiivulty of phircuig buu an such. AlW tbe 
aeoonJ booi, the steward re<tu»it4Ml two utlit-r ^intlfnii'n to look witli Iiim 
atmdily aa they came, to try to decide in favuar of uiik uf thciii, but it 
was iinpoBsiblc tu do so. lu the thinl dood k-eat Tarmgon niul Hiuidel 
Iiad slmgjflcd with oao-h other ontil they reeled altout as if ihoy were 
dnuk, and could ocurcdy airry tliuir riacra to ihc sralca. Asthury, who 
Lad bud by ailcr tbv limt huit. tbeii cami; out und won. Tbe uquhU of 
tbe turf ouinoL pniduct! aiiothur xiinh oiniUwl, foHiHU<d on a tliorougb 
]ED(nried|{« of the hnrsoo, their a|;ea, and their prorioas runniajf.' 

'to 1737, Bliurk Oluuive, at tiw vL-ara old, won a iibitti at Oui-luuu, 
CUTTUtg lUst. With tbe tiamu weight he won the IjudiiW ukte at York, 
in tiat year. In 1738, bo won the king's plate at Guildford, beating 
fieTeml horses. He won tbo ulatu also at Salisbury, at Wincbi'8U>r, at 
Lewes, aad at Lincobi — livo kitiff's plates in oiio m-iuukii, and ewry nnco 
four niiloa and coiit«Mtvd. Tbe Huae borxe waa iu tlie tivid iu 17-14, and 
lie walked over for Uio annual plate at Pamden.' 

What am our rucum uow ? They ore speedier. That it would be folly 
io deny, 

Tbcy are lon^r, Ugbter, bat still muscular, althoii>;h shorn of mucli of 
their pride in llus respects They arc as beautiful crwiturcs a» the eye would 
wiab to gaze on, bat the greater part of them give in before half the race 
ia run ; and out of a Geld of tift«i-n, or even twenty, not mon< than two or 
tbreo of tltem livo, in tbe ezcrtinia of their best CQCi^gici, tiu- within tbo 

And what becomes of tliem when tlie Rtrag^le is over P AfWr the 
ggnn racing, aR it is now csIImI, of fomter times, tho horse came again to 
tiic starting-post with not a single power impaired ; and year alVr ymr 
lio wikK mwly tu meet any and every rival. A single race, however, like 
that of the Derby, now occanonuJly disHblcs tbe winner from ever ronniiig 
■gain ; yet the dutance ia only a niik* aiid n lialf. The SL Leg«'r ia more 
deatmctive to tbo winner, altiiough the diRtance ia leas than two roilea. 
Tbe race of tbo day baa bucii mn ; sumg licnvy atukva liave bt-eu won by 
tlie owner ; tbe animal by whose exertions Uiey went gained is led away, 
and it is Mmetimea an even chance wliether he U ever heanl of, or, 
perhn|i<t, tliouglit of again. He has answered the pnrpose fur wbiob bo 
was brvd, and be baa passed away. 

And hy what witohoij has all this been accomplifibed ? How canto it 
that skilnil and hoaonnMo men skould liavu coiiajjin-d logellier bo deto 
riomte the character of the rac4]r, and with >iiin that of the Kiiutinh horan 
generally ? W\ty, thon was so oonspiraey in tho matter. It was the 
natural coDrse of thingn. Tbo race-horses of the beginning, and even of 
the middle, of tbr last L«ntary wen) fino powerful animals ; they liad almost 
a« ranch fleetiioM n» could be ilesin>il. and l.hcy had strength tliat would 
never tire. He who bred for the turf might in his niouienU of reflection 


he pleased bj tbc ponvictiDn tlmt, wlutc lie iraa occomplisbinff liis own 

Eurfioet^ lie iraH breediiii; lUi noiuitl VHlaitbli; io hia couutry. lie tnigbt 
e grHtili«-xl hj tliia refliMrtioii, ynt it wwhW not inflntmco the Byirtera which 
hepursuod. Jla would bivitd to v>iti ; nnU ho woiilil nutumlly tr}- to add 
B htUe more spted to tlie a«kuoM'lt:-il)fi-<l [wwcr. Tit-iicc cmnt! tho Hiun- 
brioo and the Sweet Briar, and otlicra wIjd hnil K)!«t Imt little of thc-ir ci>ni- 
pnctoeas of form — who had (fot rid oC a portion of tliat which aii enemy 
mightcall coarKetit'ss, hut none of the Gaptintjr of the chest, or tho fmbstaoce 
or thp power nf thpfrnidcnlnr pyst^m — whoso sp«ed was oertaiul;^ increaee«I, 
luul whuso rif^ur wdh nut impuin-d. 

H is not in humnu iiuturt: to be entisfiod even with perfection ; luid 
it was tried whntticr a little more fieetnem conU) not \ki olitjiiin'il. It 
wa« fto — and, some thought, with a slight irnpnirmciit of HUtatnciw. 
Ther© wcro those, and thoy were not altog«ther wroug, who xaw in i>luirk 
and Qimcntck on oTidcnt incrc&fio of speed, and little diminution of 

It wa» easy to tiuafrino wliat would now be tho resnlt. The grand prin- 
ciplo woa Bpeed. It v/na taken for grantDd that stoutness woiQd follow — 
or nthcr, in tb« BeWtii>u of ibu etook, vtootness wuh a minor consid emtio n. 
Tlie reoulkof this wosa horAC witli an elongnt<-d fnimo— -«;« Ix'uutirul ait 
Ilia pradeceaBtn*, or more tm, hot to the eyeof tboficinitii)einiLn<liitpla),-ing 
dimmi^ed tnoschis and U>ss prominpiit sinews, and aharperand U'ks powor- 
fill wither*. The fleetnew was all tliat hpart could desu-e, but tb« endur- 
ance WINS fearTnlly diminished. Irre-HintiMo proof woe soon given of thin. 
They could not run the ilisUiucca that their prcdt-ceiwoni did with omv. 
HeatH became nnfiuibionable — tlicy were ofttatanad, and with two much 
truth, aerero and cmeL Wo might refer to the disgneeflll cxhibitionR of 
Cfaatcftu Margaiu, and Mortage, and Lamplighter. The necosaary con- 
aeqaence wna that the ground run over in the ordinary matdieB was 
leoened a full half. 

And was not this sofiicimt to eonrisBs the man of the tnrf — the breeder 
of horsc« for his own nac— vrafl not this Buflioicub to convince him of the 
error which ho hod cotnmitU-d? Perhupn it wiis, with regard to tliOMJ 
who would gins th«n)selv<rH tho Ironhlf t*) think. Hut the error liad tieen 
codUuitted. The all-impoKaiit ijui'stiod WHS, how cnuld it Ixi roptiircdP 
W«T» thoy to breed back again to their former stoalucea ? Thcra were 
MhpmJkam stoni and speedr, but lh« hrcri was gone. Ik-niilc, the ithort. 
r»ce had become fashionHhlo. It was detorraindd In two or«ni niinntes. 
There whs not thu lengthened snepeniHi of seren or eight rotntionB of the 
Rocond-hAod of tho watch ; and who conld resist the otiuiipoteiicc of 
faahion? somu harsh cxprcsHioui! have been ased with regard to the 
leadiag sporting cbonctcni of that time ; but whiit power had they of 
redstRDce ? Tliey had brwl for sj«eed. Thoj- had obtAined it. Thoy had 
oblaincd that kind of meo thnt would bo popuhir, for it wtw «hrtrf:. Thoy 
had no alternative, exc^jit with regard to tho king's platvp. Th<,«n; they 
nld have mode a stand. Tlie intcrosta and honour of the country 
oM not hiiTc been sacrificed bccanso they hnd erred. Thcro abonld 
have l>i"i'n n-imothing lolt to cncoumgo the continuance of the old and un- 
hvaJIcd blond — something to fall hack upon when the fnshtonable lc«ders 
oftlic sporting world hnd di»i?overed their error. This battle, however, 
must j'et Ik' fought. Additional rcasona fur it wilt appear when the pre- 
sent state of the hnnter and the road-horse are coiuiidored. 

There is one rircnniHtAHco connected witJi these short races which 
perbftpe has not been sufficiently appreciated. On tliu old svstvui, the 
tmeoesa and the atoutncBS of the horee would generally insure theprijip Io 
turn tJist best deserved it; but with tho present young horses and abort 


cnnmefl, tho actual race being eometimen littlo more than two or threo 
hundred jards, a great deal depends on the rider. If the cattle aro 
tolerably &irly matched, all depondB apon him. If he has confidence in 
the Btontneas of his horse, ho may distiuice all his competitors ; or he may 
norae the fleet bnt weedy thing to almost the la^t stride, and dart by tho 
winning post before hia rival has been able to gather himself np for the 
last effort. 

One thing cannot be denied, that the conscionsnesa in the jockeys of 
their power, and the account which they will probably be called npon to 
render of t^a manner in which they have osod it, has led to far more 
omelty in the management of these races tiian ever disgraced tho records 
of former times. Habit had given to the older horses of those days a 
principle of emnlation and of obedience. When tho race in reality began, 
the horse nnderstood tho meaning of hia rider, and it seldom required 
•ny oruol application of tiie whip or tho spur to bring him through if bo 
could win. 

Forrester will afford gnfficient iUustration of this. Ho had won many 
hardly-contested races ; but on an unfortunate day he was matched against 
•an extraordinaiT horse, Elephant, belonging to Sir Jennison Shatloe. 
It was a fbnr-nule heat over the straight conrae. They passed tho flat 
— they ascended the hill as &r as the distance post — they were nose 
to nose. Between this and the chair, E]lephant got a uttle ahead. 
Forrester made erery pc»sible effort to recorer this lost ground, until, 
finding all his efforts meffectual, he made one, desperate plunge — he 
aeixed hia antagonist by the jaw to hold him back, and could scarcely bo 
forced to quit his hold. In like manner, a horse belonging to Mr. Qoin, 
in 1753, finding bis adversary gmdnally passing him, seiz^ him by the 
leg ; and both riders were obligiBd to dismount, in order to separate the 

The Toungsters may not have felt all this emulation, nor bo disposed 
painfully to exert their energies to the very utmost; and it may be 
necessary — ^necessary, in order to accomplish mo purpose of tho owner by 
winning the race— that the poor animal should be brutally urged on, 
until the powers of nature ful, and ho retires from the coarse s cripple 
for life. 

This ia a necessary part of tho system. It is accounted the duty of the 
rider~it ia a dnty on tho skilful discharge of which a few of them plume 
themselves ; but it is that which should not bo tolerated, and tho system of 
which it is a necessary part should undergo a speedy and effectual refurma- 
iioQ. We entirely agree with the remarks of Nimrod on this sabjcct. 
* There are many jockeys employed by the inferior black-leg species of 
sportsmen, and even some of a higher class, who will not he convinced 
that a rider has acted honestly, nnless his horso is nearly dissected alive ; 
but, in the strongest probability, every drop of blood drawn is ntterly 
nnnccessary, as it is barbarous and contrary to the very idea of sport, in 
which even tho horse himself ought to share. Such an opinion wns given 
from the heart, as well as from tho mature judgment of tho late Sir Thomas 
Charles Bnnbory, witiiin a few months of his decease, after five-and>fifly 
years of experience on the most eztenaivo scale. Although tho stout and 
same horse will run to the whip, the excess of it must necessarily tkorten 
hit strwie, and, in course, detract from his speed. Many a race has been 
lost by a foul cat, or a brutal use of the spur — either by damping tho 
■pint and enfeebling the nerve of tho horse, or inducing a sullen disgunt 
and desperation. An example, much talked of at the time, and thmugh 
which a vast sum of money was lost, occurred in tho csbc of a horse of old 
Dnko William, which was nenrly home and winning. Ho received a foul 

cut with the whip on % tender part, and inRtantJy ^nng \»pk Koi lout the 
race. With mpect to tho hiit-sfiirilctl nml waahy horses, if titey oaanofc 
win without the ruj of tho whip, thoy will Mktoia win with iU' 

We h»Te \kkb inuhlutl to pltkoc nt tho hoad of oar chapter o portrait of 
*The Colowl,' lalttTi fur thh work hy Mr. Harvey; luiil Mr. Goodwin, 
Ti>t«rinary eiurff&on In the (^ui^on, hnsi kindly fumiithod ns with ft ooiiaiiUir- 
nhlc part of the following aoconnt of him and of F!onr-do-Ii« : — 

He waa a chesuut lioroe, tiflcon hnnds tUnvo iiiclies htfrli, with good mil)- 
alanco, capital Icps and fwt, and truo action, br«d hy Mr. Petre, in 1825. 
H« was got by Wluaker out of a Dvlphini maro — her dam, Tipple Cider, 
liy King Fergiu— Uio gruulun wa« Sylvia, hy Toung Marsk, ont of Ferret, 
by ft brathu- to Sylrio-BefinlnB, Ac 

Ko <»tiio out in lH27, when Ito won the two-yous staki's, bratin^ Kitty, 
a colt by Trump, and a bWk colt by Whiaker. 

In the sane year he carried off the twn.yenrB old stakes at Pontefmct, 
beating Vanish ; ftnd tho Chfoupagne stakes at Donc&ster, beating a filly 

In 1828 no i«n a rt«ad hutt with Cadlsnd for iho Derby, boatiiifr Zin- 
nuwe anil twelve otlicnt, bat hs lo«t th« Mrcoud heiit Ho won, liowever, 
the St. Ijegnr at Donooster, beatinff Belinda, Velocipede, and sorimU^n 
odiera ; and walked over for the 2w soTerei^n stakes at the a&mo plitoe. 
At tho latter end of IfflS he wad Bold hy Mr. Pctro to George IV. for4v001) 
^incas. Ho continued, hon'cvcr, on thu tnrf, and won many mom. 

In L829 ho was benton nt tlio York Spriiiv Moeting, by Bouia Bedlnm, 
in a match for SOO norcrcigna <nch — the St. Lof^r coarse. Ho atartcd, bnt 
was not placed, fiir iltu gold cap at Aacot, being beaten by Zinganoe and 

In 1830 he won thftCrsren stakes often sovereigns eneh, beating Harold, 
Clio, and eight others. He ran second for the po!d cnp at Ascot, being 
beaten by Lucettn, but Watinc Grceomanlle and Zing&nee. In the eauu 
year he won a swocfistako at Stockbridgo ; and ran third for tho gold cup 
«t Goodwood, hat was betiU'ii hy Fleur-de-h's niitl ZiTiii^nee. 

In 1831 he won Uiv Cravi'n Kliikt'^ at K[ikobii ; niid nui a dpiul hcnt with 
for tho Oatlanda at Ascot ; hat mnaing the .tecond lioat with her, 
^„ brolEO down — the aaspeuaor}- li^muutii failiuK tu l>oUi hiiid le^t). Ho 
ilid not continue lamo ; out ihp enlar^rfjunit of the ft-Uook, iiiid tho traces 
of the iron, plainly indicated that he conld no longer be depeniled upon an 
n roM-r. 

Tho Colonel was not snccc»sful as a ntallion; he was sent to Gomuiny 
by tJic Mi-wj-8. Tattereall, where he nnjt witli no l)ott*ir huccchs, imd wan 
brnught lirifk tn thin coniitrj' to liniid] a wiretr that acnniety li'ft an aniuial 
behind him of tlio itmnlli-Kt notoriety. 

We are also gratiKcd in being enabled to prpsent onr readers with a 
of thnt lioauLii^il and almnat unrirallod mnre, Flenr-do-IJs, by tho 
ic artist. 

She was bred by Sir M. W. Ridloy, in 1822. and wm cot by Bourlion, 
the son of Sotcotot", ont of I^uly Raehtil, by Stamford — her dam. Young 
Rnchvl, by Volunteer, out of ItiicKcl, si»ter to Maid of All Work, and by 
bc»1h the inn.' and the dnm «ii« dciicouileil fVotn Highflyer, fkiurbon etortea 
twenly-tJiree time*, out of whirh he was aacce».sful ses-cnteen times ; and 
carried ofl" two olaiwtifl of thf Sewmapket October Oiitlunrl stukes, the Claret, 
the Craven, and th# Trial, besideis +,130 gnincuu in ppocic. 

She was tiie Rnc^t mare in form and sixo ever produced in England. She 
stood Ailly ttKteen hands, and IuhI extnionlinuiy gimd legs, and fwt that 
nov<?r fhiled. Her speed was good, but her fortw was distance. Imlo- 
pcnul^nt of her l>eing so line ft marc in tiver}* other respect, her ubest was 



one of eztTBorduuuy capaoitf in an animal of Bnch annsaal depth in tlio 
girthing place. 

She first appeared on the turf at three yeara old, at Nowcaatle-npou-Tyne, 


for tbe twentj-fiTo goineas aweepstakes — one mile — and beat her four 

On September 8, she won a Bweepatake of twenty goincaB, and twenly 
added — six Bubscribers — at Pontefrsct. 

On the 20th of the same month, she Btart«d for the Great St. Legcr, 
■ad wonld probably have won it had she not been thrown down in the 
ronning by Actaeon, aa aho beat Memnon afterwards, and all tiie best 
horaoB of uiat deacription. On the 23rd of September, however, she won 
a sweepstake of twenty sovereignB each, with twenty added — nineteen 

On Ma^ 20, 1826, she was in the Bwee^takea of twenty sovereigns each 
— ^two nulca — seven subscribers, at the York Spring Meeting. Lottery, 
Aotieon, and Catterick wore among her opponents. Afler Uie fint 100 
ywrda, lottery got in front, closely followed by the others at strong run- 
ning. He kept ahead until nearly the distance post, when Flenr-dc-Lia 
shot ahead, Actieon and Catterick letting loose at the same time. The 
filly, however, kept in front, and won in gallant style by half a length. 

On the next day, she won the gold cup, opjKised agam by Actoran, and 
also by the Alderman and six others. The betting was seven to fonr on 
the Alderman, and four to one against the winner. The Alderman took 
the lead, and made all the running up to the distance-post. Tliey were in a 
cluster at the stand, when Actceon and Heur-de-Lis came out. A severe 
■truggle took place, the mare winning by a length. 

Jnly G, she won the gold cap at Newcastle-upon-Tyne — ten subscribers. 
The betting was fifteen to eight in favour of the winner. 

On the next day she won the first heat for the town-plate, and walked 
over the coarse for the seoond heat 





On SepU-iiilMT ID, alie won tlie fluut'iwiU-r itttilcea of ten flnrprftl^iis each, 
witli twenty a/Ade*\ by the corporutinn — twoiity-uino nubw^rilwrs. She 
wiw oppoaod bv ApUpod, Lottetx, Jeny, and othera ; bat the bets -were 
firi* to four on Fiear-do-lift. 

On tho 21st bIio won ttc goH cop, bontin)r Hnlntto, Eclcnua, and 
otlien. Tlio IwUing wiw fi»-p to fonr on Iilt. 

Oa tbo 29t)i slic von tJii^ <?(i1(1 nip Ht Linonlii, wnllcinj:; nvor (ha connw. 

Hfty the 12th, lb':^r, she 'n'oii tlio Constitution etak«s at the York 
Spring MtHJiing — tiAt-fii ituliwrilrt-m, »t twenty guineas each, itmtntg 
wnicti wvre Jerry, lluniplircy Cliuknr, and Sirius; the betting nix to five 
ftgunst Flear>'Ie-Lis. Uurin^ moat of the n-ny FIcur-de-Liii vn£ in fVont, 
JerTyseoOfirt.HTimpUrpy Clinker tliini, and Siriualbnrtli. Whon b«tireoii 
the r»iU, Jerry lo«ko<l iw if be would win, but suddenly Bworring, lleur- 
do-I^won wwily by two Inurf lis. 

Oa the 27t)i idie mn at Mniirhctrter, Tor a tiireon, valn« ]00 (nLiiiftis. 
with twenty-fonr snbticrihi-rs of ten Boverwigni encli ; betting, five to four 
on ber. On making the hutt turn sbe sltp|>otl, aiid nearly ciuue on her 
aide. Bbe, howovtr, recovered ; bat, otler a Berere]y<cQDteBto(l nee, lusl 
by hnlTu hra«l. 

' On Jul\- the IStfa, she won the f^ld cap> and sweopNUkro of ton gnin^as 
mch, at i*r«iton ; twi*nty siibacrilxtwi. The eouwe wax thrwi Tnilon and (\ 
dintaucc. It waa doubted wlicther any horae could be fuuiul to campi'lv 
witli Fli^ur-de-Ijiit; but at It'Kgth Mr. Milton's old (rroy borne Hiiphraiefl, 
Riid Sir W. Wynn'ii Signorina, entered the lists. The old borae looked aa 
well and appeoi-ed as gay aa evi?r, and Signorina was evor a well-known 
good Biare ; but the odds wore tbroo to ouo on FIour-do-Lis. Afler tlio 
usual preporationH the competitors wcru brought to the pont, and away 
tbcry wvnL Euphrates made play, lUshingolTatMoro, andatubout iDilfa 
milft had pot ho far ttbend, that FlouT-<Ii>-Li8, who oridently wns waiting 
on Signonna, found it ueooesury to ctvcp rfttht^r nearer, lent tlio old gelding 
should uletd the race. Enpliratc» kcjit tlie Ivm\, and iteenied determined to 
to do so SA long aa ho coiud ; and he wim allowe<l to do tliis until witlitn 
aboat a distance from home, when both the mtLrea shot ahead, and the 

fUlant <^Id horse gave it up. 'The contest now became highly interesting. 
ignorina ran well in, and wa« beaten only by a nock. 

She likcwinc won n Goodwood cup, beating the Colonel and Zingnnce, 
both out of the liamo stable* with herself, and nearly dititanclog a lield of 

This i» a continnanoe of ktioomm that is scarcely nqnallod in the annaU 
of the turf. The loss of the Mancbeater cup wn>i solrly attributnble to 
the aondent that occurred while aho was running. She likewise faileil 
in tbe St. Leger ; bnt there she was thron-n down by another hnrse during 
the rae«. She wa« never lioaten in ii fair strnggle. Her owner, however, 
waa jKrhups justified in selling lier, aa ho did, for 1,-SOO guineas, when be 
knew that he was consigning her to the rojid stud ; for he ibus nnidercci 
it iinpovxibte that tbe lanrelit that she had won roiild ever be torn fniin her. 

She i>otiM>«wd the point* and form of a raeer to a degree of perfection 
which ba« bi'cn nirely mi-i with. It in truo tlui-t ahe stood nearly sixteen 
band« ; but the depth of her chest, he-r length, ber qnartera, her pastema, 
mariced her aa equally framed for motion aud for endurance. Her colour 
waa bay, with black legs and feot, and a ttmall stroke on her forehead. 
Thi> alouehed ear baa been found fiiult with by some ; others, and perhaps 
with more truth, have considered it as an indicntion of pttrc blood. It has 
Ikxh hereditary iu some of our stahli-s. ae in thu On'illc family. 

Sha WM bought of Sir M. W. Ridley, for Gi-«rg« lY., for l^itOO gnineM. 

B«F produce, aft<^ having IxHm put into the stud, was eagerly sought 


for b7 foreigners, and aent out of the caaatry. Flenr-de-Lia waa in 1842 
in the possession of Monsieur Lapin, in France, who bought her at tho 
Hampton Court sale for the inadequate sum of 550 guineas. Her end 
was disgracefol : she is said to have finished her days in a street oab in 
Paris, where some charitable EngliBhmen, shocked at seeing her in snch a 
miaerable plight, bought her for a few poonds, and had her shot. She 
was the dam of Sovereign, an American stallion of celebrity, who is tho 
sire of Charleston, now advertiBed to cover at 20 guineas a mare in this 
conntry as the propertr of Mr. Tenbrock. 

The valnable mare Winga, the dam of Caravan, was sold to the same 
person for 600 gnineaa ; and Tonng Moose, the dam of Bat Tmp, for 360 

Sinoe the days of the atiimala we have been describing, important 
alUimtions have taken place npon the tnrf ; heata have been entirely done 
away witii, ezfiept in a few ootmtry plaoes, and this alone, it ia supposed, 
has tended mach to diminish the size and strength of the raco^horse ; and 
there are those who, if they coold, woold take away the 5000 guineas 
granted by act of parliament as Queen's Plates annually, and apply the 
money to the purchase of what they deem more likely stallions. But if 
these more likely stallions are to bo selected solely for t^eir appearance 
and the opinions formed thereon, instead of tiieir merits, as proved by 
fiicta, who is tJiere among us can judge, either of speed or endurance, by 
looking to the size of animals, whether it bo horse or greyhound p Take, 
for instance, t^e best horse tJiat has been on the tuif for the last forty 
years — Bay Middleton, by Sultan out of Cobweb, tho property of the 
Earl of Jersey. This horse never was beaten : he won the 2000 guineas, 
beating Elis, tho same year that Elis won the St. Leger ; uid then won 
tho Derby, baiting Gladiator, Venison, Slane, and a field of good horses. 
Yet, such was tho shape of this horse, that tho late Mr. Thomhill, who 
was a great breeder and anthority in those days, promised, if snch a rail 
AS this horse was, should win the Derby, he would cat him and his shoes 
afterwards. Yet Bay Middleton was not only a long way the best horso 
of his year, but he was tho best of stallions also ; he was tho sire of tho 
Earl of Eglinton's Flying Dutchman, winner of both tho Derby and 
St. Lcgcr, and other races of great value, who has recently been sold to 
the French Government for 4000 guineas, which says but little for the 
kind feeling of his owner, who profited so much by his performances, nor 
for the patriotic feeling of the tmf men of this conntry, to let such a horso 
go out of it 

There are more race-horses now than were kept in former years, and 
there always will be, among the 1,400 marcs and 400 stallions which are 
kept to supply the breed, snfficient to keep up the superiority of tho 
English thoroughbred horse. Racing, like other pastimes, may have its 
abuses ; still the race tells ns which is the best horse, and the stud con- 
firms or contradicts the opinion which has been formed upon shape and 
qualifications only. 

In former days a Saw in a pedigree was a serious affair, but now there 
are numorons mstances where horses with (h. b.), half bred, attached to 
their pedigrees, are fonnd beating fields of oar bost-bred horses, and tho 
definition of thoroughbred is more difficult than ever to define ; for in- 
stance. Hotspur and Marlborough Back, h. b., ronning second for the 
Dcrbv ; lAdy Superior, h. b., second in the OnJcs ; Cawrouch, Mrs. Taft, 
and Mr. Svkes winning tho Cezarewitch ; Mongrel winning tho Nursery 
Stakes, and beating largo fiehls of tho best thorougbbrecl horB(<s : so that 
Uiero will soon be a necessity for placing these and their nomerons 
progeny in tlio stud book. 


Tb« fiKiliij of tending boncfl from one partorOie kiii|ri1om. I>jr i-ailroiul, 
lo MuitlitT in the pKoeot day, has not improved the i-ondition oioui- rwro- 
boiAM, sad tbeir Btreni^li and oliances of kf^i-piTicsonndftre hazarded mnpo 
than eY«r, and it is aotluii;; luicommon now to luid tvro-year^ldR running 
fifteen races, mcirc or less, in a year, thnH^^-vrar-otdo iwiiiic- twenty or thirty 
tWSBl^ knd old hrintCH rnuuinff an uncnnMcionaltltt niimlH-r. At an instance 
of the nBinlMT of nwi-s a torso may run for. Fisherman, fix« yeani old in 
1S58, ran in tfiirty-two races, and won twontr-one of the number ; h« na 
at Tork, in \^'i7, one day. and was beaten uy Warlock fwr the Qnoirii'it 
Plat« ; and tlie day after, after baring travelled in bia own van on a rail- 
way all night and day. ho Ix-at u lield of lioraos at Abingdon, in Oxford- 
^ire. Xow it in qniU) impostiiljEL' for horsi^ to ^M^ in condition ao manT 
times in tho year ; it tries the elrength unU ruina many yotui^ horsca 
before thuy arrive at matnrily, and it is almost iiii|)ogtsibIe to find a sound 
old n>0<vhiirtHi in the kin^om. 

Th« bw>ed of race-horscB has kept up ita stiperiority iii thin cottntry to 
a torpiiBing extent, considering; that in all others the govemmenta (tpenJ 
large nuas toirarda thoroof^bbred atock, while in thi» nothing bnt indi- 
Tidoa] enterprine baa Kustaiiioil it and made it flourish ahore all ot}ien). 
There ia no donht, bowvrpr, liwt tliat more m^ight- bo dono by breeding on 
alarf^ ee-alc, with exp<>ri<.'nco and judicioaa nmnagemcnt; and althongh 
H most be admitted that our beat horees have descended, us iliown by 
Mr. Goodwin, tn his valuahlo table of the pedigree of tlio tboronEhbrctl 
homo, from the Darley Arabian, the Gudolphin Arabian, and tho Uycrly 
Turk, it wonld be a grent mititnJce to think of going iMu^k to Arabian or 
other blood, to improve that vrhieh is in crt-ry way so much Jta snperior, 


Th<Te are few it^eulturiiitii who have not & little liking for tho i>i|wrt8 
of the field, and vrho do not liuicy rich muaic in the cry of tho hoonds. 
To what extoiit ib may ho pmdent for them to indulge in thcso iipnrt« 
circnxoRtancea most decide, and they de«ene the most aerioiis eimsider- 
ation. Fewcan, or, if they c»uld, ought to keep a hnnter. Thi-re are 
(exaptations to ex{>enso in the field, and to «x])eni)e tiUvr the eUnae, whieh 
ii may be diffieolt to vtiUiirtujid. The hunU-r, however, or tlie banting 
bm*,— le. the bono on which a fanner, if he ih not a profeMeil tiperls* 
man, may oecauonally with pleaBDi-e. and without diMgmco, fullow the 
honndA, — is in value and beanty next to the racer. 

Fuahiou and an improved state of tho agvicuItt>ro of the country have 
materially increased the speed of the chase. The altered chamcter of the 
lox-hoandx, and the additioiud Hjieed wliicb iliey have lately aeqnired, 
oompel tho former to ride a bettor horse, or he will not live ntnotig hie 
eomnanioQa aft«r the first bnr«t. Stoatneaa ia etill reqoired, bat blood 
luM Docome an canential quality. 

In strong, tliicVly-inetosexl countrictt, the half-bred horse may get 
toleralvly well along : bnt for gt^neral use tho liiinUT Hhunld bii at least 
three -(jnarlcra, or perhnjw M'v^n-oighth8 bmd. When be can Iw obtained 
with bono enough, a ih</rmtghhxd hor»o will form tlie bent of all htintort; 
cnpcciully if hv riAS Ifen taught to carry bimaelf Raffieienlly high to be 
awar» (»f and to cWr hia fenceN. 

Hs ahoold seldom be under tilteen or more than sixteen hands high ; 
below this standard he cAnnot alway* moaanre the object hoforo him, and 
above it he ia apt to be lt:ggy and awkward at his work. 

The first property of a good hunter ia, that he alionld l)e light in hand. 
For this purpose bin head muHt be small ; his neelc thin and esjiecially thin 
beocath ; hi« crcutt firm and arched, and hia jaws wide. The head will 





th(*n lio well wt ou. It. will furm tliftt nngl<> with llie neck whicli gima 
Hglit. iimi pleaeant month. 

The Ibrehiiiwl altftiilil Im' loftier than that ftf tlio raepr. A t:arf liflrno may 
bo forgiven if his hind ([iiiM-ttrR riiw an inch or even tMo aIkivi- hiit furo 
ones. Hin priucipiil |K)wtT in wnnt^ni (Vom behind, und tJie very lownvm 
of the forehand may tlirow'moro wcijrht in fnint, aiid eaunD tho wholci 
miw^hine to be more efU'ii_'rnn<la[x>odilj'movp(l. A Infty fiirehniid, however, 
» iiirtiitpr'nwiblR in the hunU-r ; nnil a slionliior Bfi extennive lui in tlifl rH<*r 
and as nliliqae. and xnmewhat thicker. The siwldic will tlien ho in il« 
proper place, and «"ill continue no, however long may be the run. 




^^ * 








J. Jf 


Tho bamJ Hhonld be rounder, in order to (fire aTPa-tc room for the hcnrt 
tad luDf^ b> pli^r, »nd lo mntd more and purer hlood to thn lar^r iranm 
of this liorM>, («|H>t'iiilly M-hcii the run continoca unelicclcecl for a timo ttutt 
b^iM to hv di»trc«)iiiiff. A hnuul ofaest is almya on excellmcfl in n 
hnBt«r. In the violent nnd long-eoo^Qod exertion of the ohiue the 
nqjiration is vxcvulin^ly quickenutl, and abandantly more Uood is liurriod 
bbrou^h til*! IntigH in » ^ven timu th»n when the animal ixatrmt. There 
noitt be Buflicifint room for thii<, or he will not only lu' diutreiiiied, but 
posnbty destroyed. The majority of the Kor»c« tliat pcri»h in tho field 
•n BAnrov-clMBtod. 

The arm sbonid be an mu»cuUr it« thai of iho racer, or even more so, 
for both Btrmgth nnd endiirnitco am wnnu^ 

The leg shonld be deeper than that of the TAC«-horM — broader aa wo 
stkod at the side of tbe norwe — and capocially bencuth tht- knoo. In pro- 
portion to the diHliuice of tlie tendon from tho cannon or shook-bone, nod 



eiorc pnrtionlariy a little bulow tlie ktii>o, is llic niim:hani<»l ndnuitaga 
witli which it lurta. 

The leg, §h»ul(l bo shorter. Hisber action i« required tlian !n thcmcAf, 
!u order that tLc logs muy bo olcu'ly luiU xun^ly litlcd over mtuiy itii 
obstiule, null, pttrticitlarly. tlutt they may be well ci<Mibli><I hji in tin- lii»p, 

Tho (wuntvni kIiouIiI )h! fdiorU^r, ntid It^dH BUtntiii^, ytft- nL-tniuiiij^ i'oti)ii(ii>r- 
ablc oblu]uity. Tho long iMutom is nseful, by the yiolding TeRiRtanco 
whidi it« daaticity aflbrdu to break tho codcosbjoq with whidi the nure- 
horae from his immense stride and apctMl Biast come on the grotijid : and 
the oblifjne direction of the diffuivnt bunra liL'Uutifully t-nntributeH to efl'ect 
the same porpow*. With Uiis cUwti^'ilY. hnwr'vup, ut-oiiKiderablp doprw of 
weakneM u iwCcMftrily onnmrct^l, itml the nu'o-howo oeciwionally bri-ttkn 
down in tho middle; of hiu couma The huntvr, from bis dlffcivut ni-tioQ. 
I«ki-« not thin ltiiy;th of stride, and llii-n-rurc wants not alt t1iii« chutttc 
mnchnntuii. He more noe^ls strength tti xiijiport liia owii hcnvior vatmse, 
aad Uio greater weiffbt of his rider, and to ondergo the fatiffuc of n. long 
day. Sorac obbqnity, however, he rcqoirts, otlicrwiae tho I'^oiu^URHioTi t:\i-a 
of his Hhortei- pillop, nnd more* puiticulnrly ol* bia frequently treinondauH 
)«m, would inoviliihly ta.m<.- him. 

Tiw foot of thtf hiiiila^r is a moitt matorial point. Tho narrow <yn)tiv<*U-d 
foot it the earw of mtioh of tlio racing blood. The work of the r«ecr. 
howerer, is all porfomu^d on tho tui-f: but the foot of tbo hunter in 
Imttcred over many a flinty road and stony field, and, if not parlicnhirly 
good, will soon ba disabled anrl niinod. 

The position of the fi-pt in tho hnntor reqnircs some attonfion. They 
•baald if poBHiblc ifLiiad ttlmii^hi. If they liim a little outward, there ih 
no aorionK otijcvti(.'n ; hnt if Lln-y iiini biward, ha iiction cannot be nnfc, 
particDiarly whi'O he U I'ati^^ied or OTrr- weighted. 

Tho body should lie short and compact, pompnnxl with that of the mro- 
borac^ that ho may not in hia gallop take t'>u oxt«,-odod a stride. Thin 
wmild be a serious dtnativantago in a long day nnd with n houvy ridiT. 
frotn the atf^sa on the pastemB : and mnr? serious when going ovor clayey 
poached graand during tho nHnter months. Tho compact sbort-Btrided 
borso will nlmoet skim tho snrfnce, while the foot of tho longer-reached 
aniniBl will snk deep, and ho will wear himielf oathyoBortato disenga^ 

Kireiy sporting man knows how much moro enduring in a fthort-bodtcii 
borae in climbing bills, althongli perhaps not qnite so much in dosceudtng 
tJiem. This is tho secret of sttitiug the racc-h(fr»e to his c<^urse : and 
nnfolds tho appnrent mysterr of a horec decidodly soperior on a flat and 
Ktraigbt conra^, being often biiaten by a liltto horoc with far shorter stride 
ou uneven ground and with aovoml liiniings. 

Tlie Loins shoold ho broad ;— the i^nartors long; — tho thighs mnsciilnr; 
— th«; hm^ka well hi'ul, and well iindur Uie horse. 

The reader needs not to be told haw c.-wcntial temper and ooongo are. 
A hot irritulilo brute is a perfect nuiNunee, and tho coward that will 
acart'cly fatw tho tilighlcKt fiMu-o eijHwca his owner to ridicule. 

The ptvKiple of preparing both the rucc-horiM) and tlio hunter for thvir 
work is the aiune, and can havo no iny«t«ry nbont it. It consiiHsia getting 
rid of all superfluous flesh and fat, by physic and exercLw, yet without too 
mnch lowering tho animal ; and, particularly in bringing him by dint of 
exercise into go'K] wind, and arcnstoming him to tho tall trial of his 
power) without oTcrEti-aiuing or injoring bim. IVo or three dosce of 
jtbyiiio a» the scmnnn Kppn>tu-hi-». nnd these not too strong ; plenty of good 
hatd nuML ; and a <i«ily gallop of a couplw of milca — at a pnro not too 
qni^— will be nearly all that can be required. Fhyaic must not indeed 




be (muttc«! -. biit the tlireo worda, air, aeercue, Jood, conWn tlie ^TAn'1 
wont nnrl itt-t of trnininf;. 

Th« iilii liiiiitor limy Iw ruirlj- riddon twit-p, op, if not i».Hth any vorr hard 
dan, tJirec tiuioe in tbc yftx)& ; but, nflrr a tboroUKkly trjiu^ (lay, sud 
•ndeiit dialrt'SA. thrci? or timr days' rest should be allowed. Tlicy who are 
merciful to their horses, allow ahont thirty (lays" work in tliti coiintv of llio 
Beoeon, «-ith gitttle erercise on cech of the intfrmediato days, and par- 
ticnUrly a awcat on th« day hofore hanting. There is an account, how- 
«Ter, or one horac who followed the fox-bounds sot'onty-fiTO tunes in one 
BMMnn. This tcnl htut nevrr bc<m exceeded. 

Wo rerollect to hare Met*!] the last Dnke of Rirhmoiul hut ono. allhntig>t 
an old man, and when he had the gout in hia handi »o aoveroly that he 
waa obliged to bo lifted on horseback, and both anofl being |)aAaed through 
the retufi, were crossed on his hrcost, aalLopinff down the steepest part of 
Bow Hill, in the neighbourhood of Cfoodwoou. almost as abrupt as tho 
ridgo rif an ordinary huoso, and ohoering on tho honndR with all the aniour 
of a yonth. 

8tr John Malcohn (in his Sketches of Persia) gives an amusing account 
of the imprcaaion which a fos-hunt in tho English style made en an Arab. 

' I was entertained by listening to an Aiab peMSJit, who, with nnimnted 
gestaros, was narniting tu » gruuj) of his eimntryiam all he hwl »wn of 
this noblo bunt. " There came tho fox," said he, pointing with a crooVod 
stick to a clamp of dat«-treeii, " there he came at a gn-at rate, I hallooed, 
hut iioVxly huarJ nie, atii! I tlioiight he must gcl> away ; but when he got 
quit£ out of sight, up came a large spotted dog. and then another and 
another. Theyallhadtheirnoses to the ground, and gave tonguo — -whow, 
whow, whow, so loiid, I was frighteno*!. Away went thowo devils, who 
soon foand the poor animal. AlVur tlieiii gaIIo|>ed the Furingcen (a cor- 
ruption of Frank, the niuiie given to a Kuni]itau over all Aiiiii), BboiitiTig 
and trying to make a noise louder than the dogs. No wonder tliey killed 
the fox among them." " 

The Treaaurcr Burleigh, tlie sago councillor of Queen EliEahctli, eould 
not enter into the pleasores of tho chiise. Old Andrew Fuller relates a 
quaint story of him : — 

' When stiiiie nohlemen had gotten William Cceil, Tx>rd Rnrleigb, to 
ride nnth them « hunting, and the sport began to be e<jhl, " What call yoa 
thiti ? " said tlie Ireoiiurer. " Oh ! now the dogs are at fault," was tlie reply. 
" Yeia," (|uoth the trensunir, "take me again in such a faulty and I'll giva 
yoo leave to punish me." ' 

In former times it was tho Amhion for women to hunt almort as often 
and as kcvnJy as tho men. (juevn Ehxnbi-th wos extremely fond of the 
choao. Rowland Whyte, !n n li-tter to 8ir Hohert Hidney, says, ' Hrr 
U^Mtj is well, and excellentJy disposed to huntings forevvi^ second day 
lb« is on horseback, and eontinaee the sport long.' 

^lis cutom soon afterwards began to decline, and tho jokes and 
■arcafims of the witty oonrt of Charles 11. contrihutod to diaconutenanco it. 

It is a cnnooa circa nutacioe, that tiie flni work on hunting that pro- 
ceeded from ths pms was from the pen of a female, Jnhana Uamea, or 
Bemers, the sister of tiord Bemera, and prioress of the nunnery of Sope< 
well, about the year 1481. 

Tho difference in tho pace, and the consequent diflcrenoo in the breed 
of Uio horse, lutve eOecCed a considenbla alteration in the usage of the 
hBBt«r. It is the almott iarariablc prneUci* fur each Kjtortsuian to bavn 
two, or sometimes tlu«« hovses in the field, and after a moderate day's 
■port the horse has hia three or four days' rest, and no fewer than fire or 
BIX after a serere mn. When n httle more speed was introduced into the 



tarf h»rsi', the half-brcU or tliro«-[«i.rt«-bn.ii Ititnw, wliiuli i'oiistU»Utd Una 
nicer of thiHy-jMini ago, noon aoqnir«d a portion of tlm inorconfl of iip<MMi, 
and in codm-uucucv o( tliut bui^un to be incouxvnic^tiUii' or aaaoyiii^lv ciow* 
to Uie honnua.— A cliniii^n tlien U>ok yAnco iu Uie biviit of Uir liauiid. 
This, however, &■ might ba expected, wm carried a Ut-tle too far, and 
they Boon beKnn to nin at & rule to whii-h the f&r greater praportion of 
th« htUf-br«<{ti wore alto^thrr tinoqual. The ihoroni^hbroa borfto tli«a 
betfim to find his ^-uy luto thu field. Thu prvjudicc wms stronff maitufc 
him itt firet. It wah Hitid tliut tie cuiiM nut tttim h\n Ii-aps like the old 
haiiu-r : but, eSior a httJc training, ho became eaual in this respect ti> tha 
very beat of his predeoesaom, and aaporior to tiio f*reabeT part of them. 
TiuH ia woll treati'd of by Xiiurod in Inn work on ' The Chase' 

The homo fully Hharus in tho cntliaiiiiuini of his ridor. It is beautiful to 
watch the old buiik-r n'hir, afl«T iiuiiiy a wint«T's hard work, a turned into 
the park to VBJoy himitoir for lifit. Hem attitinlu and his coontfiiaiic'v when, 

reaADCC, he h«ara tbo distant cry of tho dogt, are a etudy. If be can, 
wrill break Lis reuc«, and, ovvr Imd}^, and laiie, und l>rook, follow tho 
cha.<ie, and come in Bnit at tho df^atli. 

A horao that haul, a short time before, boon Bcvcraly tired on three logs, 
and was pliu.*L<d in n loose box, tvitb tho door, four feet high, rioaed, and 
au aperture over it little more than thrco Icot square, and standing bimHclf 
incarly eixteon bunds, and movlcr of (inocn stomv buoring tho cbrcring of 
the hnntMiiDkn, and ihp cry of tlic iliigH at no great diBlanco. iqirung through 
tho OjMirtuiv without loaviug a Hinglo mark oii tliu liotloni, tho top, or tho 

Then, if the horse is thua ready to exert himnolf for our pleasure— and 
pleaaore alone is here the object — it is iiidef»n)uble and brutat to urge him 
beyond his own natural ardonr so ueverely as we Bomotamca do, and even 
until uttiLre is qitito exiiausted. Vfn do not often bear of a 'bard day,' 
without being likewine iuformvd, ilmt one or more horaea either died iu 
the field, or *car««ly reached home Iwfore they exjiired. 8ome riders liave 
hewn thonghtleaa and cruel enough to kill two horses in one day. One of 
the WTorost ehiwes on record nas by the king's stog-honnds. Thero wa« 
■□ uninterrupted boTBt of four houra and twenty nunnte«. One bonra 
dn'ppvd duad in tho field ; another died before he could rcui'h the stuble. 
and aevuti more within the work ensuing. 

It is very conccirabia, and doee oc^caaionally ImpjKn, that, entering on 
fully oa bin uiAster into the ttport* of tho day, the horae diodaiun to yield 
to Jatignc, und voluntarily preiuiea on, until, nature bt^ijig cxhaiiAti.-il, ho 
falls and dies : but much oltener, the poor animal has, intelligibly <-nougb, 
hinted his distress: unwilling to give in, yet iiaiufullv and falteringly 
hohling on, while thfl merciless rider occftJiionaJly, ratlicr than give up 
one hour's uiijojTnciit, tortutvs bun with whip aud spur, until Lo dropa 
ami dicM, — that man ia a brutu. 

Althoujfb the fannter may mit willingly relinquish tlie cbaiie, he who 
* ia merciful to bis boaat,' will soon recognise the svTnptoms of execssivn 
and dangoroua distix-ss. To th« drooping pace and staggerinj; cnit, and 
heaTinj^ flank, and heavy bearing on tho hand, mil be added a rery 
peculiar sotmd. The laE>xperieneed person will fnncy it to l>e the beating 
of the heart; bnt that htu almost eeiased to pnln^le, and tbo lun^s are 
becoming gorged with blood. It is the couTulHivomotionof thediaphragm, 
called into violent action to iifutist in the now laborions oflic-e of hrrathing. 
The man who proceed* a single step after thitt, ought U> xufl'er the puuian* 
meat he is inflicting. 

Lot the rider instantly dicmonnt. If be haa a kwcot and eiaU to use it, 
lot him subtract five or aix qnarte of blood i or, if be has no lancet, let 



liiiii d(!<r]dy c^iil thv Imni of tliu |in!itUt with ii knifp. Tlif lun^ will be thaa 
iwlievwl, owl tlie hor»«o miiy ha ulilc tn flmwl Jiomc. Then, oi' before, 
if |H>88ibltf, liyt HVDiD puvrurfnl cordial Im» twlmtniBtcriHl. (.TurtlialB are, 
geneTElly speakiii)^, Ihc dis^n'acc and bane oC Uic sUtlile ; but Iwre, anil 
altnOHt liere alone, they are tmly valuable. They may rouse tho exhftostodl 
powcns of natare. They may prorent vrhnt the mwlical man WMild Call 
tho ro-action of inflammation, althoogh they arc the verieet jioisoQ whoii 
inflammation baa commcnocd. 

A fiivonrit« huiiUir fell aflor along btir»t, and lay stwlched oat^ con- 
viilied, and npjuin^ntly dyinfr. His mfl^tot- jirot'imil a iKittlo of f^Kxl 
.aheny from the honao of a Qcighbonring Mend, and ponrctl it dnyrn tho 
fcwi'iHftl'n thruat. The patient immediately bcgoit to rmivv : »>i>ti nJU-r- 
wards, he Rot np, walked home, and gradually recovered. Tlie sjMtrtaiHau 
may not always be able to ^t thin, but bts may obtain n cordiiLl-ball Irom 
ths n«irp»t veterinary «iir^!Oii; or, mit'h aid not liriuf? at hand, he mivy 
bog nlittlo giagvr frum some good hotuicwife, and mix it with warm nlc; 
or he BUT gm the alo oloaoi or even Htrcngtheneil with a littlo anlt-nt 
Kiririt when he gelfl home, or if he stnyiH at the 6rHt stable he fintbi, l«t 
tue hnnie bo put into M«eooIa(lj>^^, and then well elothod, and dili^ntly 
mbbed about> legs and belly. Tho practice of pnttinp the animal, t-hiia 
diatrvsacd, into ' a comfortablo warm stable,' and i^zclui^f; every breath 
of air, baa dc^lroyvd many ^-nJn&btc honca. 

Wo are now di'jtcribiiig the voty earliMt treatment to be adopted, and 
tMtfont it may \k iwaaiblo to coll in an experienced pmctitionor. Tlus 
Bliiualiitiug plaii would bo fat*il twelve houra afterwarda. It will, how- 
ever, be tho wiflCHt conrsc to commit tho animal, tho liret moment it in 
practicable, to the caro of the Totcrinnnr Hur^reon, if Hacb a ono residea in 
the noighbonrbot^Hl. and in whom ccmlideiieo can be pliu'cd. 

The iabonra and pleasorM of the hunting reason beinp; pnsBcd, the farmer 
DULkea littlo or do aiffirranoo in tho muna^;vmcnt of his horse; 
but tlie wealthier Bportttmiui ia soinewlmt at a \ox!% what to dn with hta, It 
■lod to W thought, tliftt when the afiinial had an Imiff oontribntcd, aonie- 
tnoM ^-oluniarily, and sometimes with a little eompulaion, to the enjoyment 
of hie owacT) he ou^^hl for a few mouihti to be permitted to seek lus own 
oinuMment, in ]ua own way ; and ho wna tume<l out for n summer's mn 
at irraBB. Fashion, whidh govenu erorythiit^, and now and then most 
cmelly and abmirdly, haa ozcrdBKl hor tyranny in tiic caeo of tho huntrr. 
ttix Hvld, whoru ho conld winder and gambol lu ho lilctvl, ia ehanged to a 
loutw box ; nad iJio libeitr in. which he m eridcnlly cxultvd, to an hour's 
mUdoD exen'iw daily, lie in allowed Tet^-hca, or Rtam occaaionBlly ; but 
from hu box he stirs not, except for his dull inonung'a roond, xmtil he ia 
token into traininjc: for tho next winter's bnsinMS. 

In this, howeror, aa in nio«t otJicr llun^^ there ia a medimn. There aro 
few honKA who have not materially Bufien^ in their Ic^ and feet, before 
Uia doae of the litmting lUiaaon. There is sothin;; so n-IWahintf to their 
A0t w tho damp coolncM of tho mu into widch thoy nro tnmed in April 
or Bby i and nothiuff ao oalenlated to ivmore tnejy enlargement and 
vprttia, u tho gnitle exorciae which the aainuU volnnlorily takca while his 
Idga are expoocd to the cooling process of omporation that ia faking placo 
ttam the herbage on which he treads. The experienco of of^ hat nawn 
that it ia nuportor to all tho embrocations and bandages of tho meet skilftil 
vvtcnnnrinn. It is tho nnoratiug proccas of nature, where the nrt of man 
fatLi ; let him themforo have lux pnddock as well as his loose box. 

The sprinff graaa is the liest pliytcio Ihnt ean iHiMibly 1m! administered to 
.the hiMveu To a degree, which no oHiSt-ia) Hi)erient or dinretio can reach, 
■it oamM off cveiy humour that may U- lurking about th« auiiual. It fines 



down the romuljiem of the legs : oiiil, ■'xcvftt tiivrv is some bony cnluve* 
ttont, rwto re B them ulmueL tu their original form and strcrij^ili. AVlien, 
howcT«r, ilie soinmcr bM tboniii(;lil]r set in, tlie fiiratw ccaws to bo nucculeol, 
aporicnt> or toc'diciiutl. Tho icmuud is no longer cnol tutd moiEt, at WhI 
daring the Any ; unA a host of tonnentura, in the ahjip« of (licjn, are, from 
Bunriso to suiiHet, pcrsecnting the poor nnimnl. Runniof; mid Ktamplng to 
rid htRuwlf of hia plagues, bis foot ore batti^ixMl bj tlio hard ii^Tound, »sm h6 
newly, and jK-rbapa niuro wvorely, injum bis legs. Kept iu a conittunt 
State of irritation and fevor, be rapidly loses liig condition, and somelimvs 
comes ap in Au^titt littlv bi-ttcr tban a skcletoD. 

Lot thu Iwnn Ini turned out sd hoou iu possible after tlic Laut-inK season 
is OTcr. Let birn have th* whole of May, and the (rreaU,T |iart, or poesibly 
Iho irbole of (Funei but wbou tlic gnum fniln, and the gi-uuud gvts Iiard, 
Mid the 6ies tormtnib, let liiiu be taken up. All tlio benefiUi of tiiminf; 
out, and thnt whit-h a liwso Iroi and ariiticial physic can never pTC, will 
have b«\n obtained, wit.linut tlm inoonvonience and iiijuiy that attend an 
injudurionsly proinic-tod run at t^russ, luid whicii, ar^iiinpr againflt the 
lUM! of a thing from Lbu abuiw of ity buvu been iinpraiM-'rly ur^ed aguutt 
tamiag out at all. 

!%« StMpU ChOMa IB a relic of anraont foolhanlincHa nnd craoUj, It 
was t)ic f»nn nnder wbich tlie horso race, at iU Brut cstiibbabnitnit, wh 
IVvfiuttritly ili!(:idL-d. It is a ra«:c across tlie CKiuntry, vf two. or four, or 
even a iifntattfr uunibor ol'miloB, md it is generally t-nriLriviHl that there 
idiall 1x) some dorp lane, or wide bronk, and many a Htiff and dangenms 
ionw betwripn. It is riddfn at tb(^ immin^-nt hnRarxl of Uio life of the 
sportsman ; an«] it likt-wiau i^iidaii^Tfl the life or enjoymont of ihu liorsc. 
Uaay serious aocidcnt^i bavo lmp]>ouod Ikith to tin; b'orsc and his rid«(r, 
And tb«» practice mast crc lung got into disittu; ; for, while it can have 
BO |KMR)hla reoommendatiou but itu f<Milliurdiiiriii), it hiu on ntany occa- 
MMmbMB disgraced by barefuci-d diaboucBly. It has all the screrest 
pUUBhluenl nf tlw acverettt oliast', witbonl. any of the pk'asnre ami ex> 
cJtement which enablea tliis noble animal so unllincliiugjy to stru^lo 
Ihmugh it. 


Hie perfect HiSDtIf is moro dirKciilt to tind than vwn tho hunter or 
ttw ooarsor. There uo sovend faults that mny Imi o>'crKivki-d in Ibc liuiitor, 
but which the njnd-bonte mast not hiive. Tim foi-mtrr nmy alart; may Iw 
awkuanl in faiit walk, or ttren lii* t.nit ; tm may have thnishes or eoms ; 
^^^Kbdt if ho <>an go a giiod slapping pn4.<<', and has wiml and hotloni, we oan put 
^^^^bp w'itli liini and prixo biui : but thv liackney, if bi- ih wcrtli liaving, must 
^^^ have goiHl fitro-Uga, and good hinder ones too; he niu«t lie nound on his 
I fbet ; eren-tempered ; nt> starter ; quiet, in whatever situation be may bo 

I placed ; not heavy in band : ami never disposiHl to fall on his knees. 

■ If tbent is ono thing more tliitn any oth«r, in wbieh Uie po w cesor, and, 

■ in his own ostimation at Icusiti tbo tolerable judge t'f the horw;, is in em>r, 
I it is the ooMoa nf Uie rusd'horse : ' Let him lillt bis lugs well,' it is said, 
I * and he will never oome down.* 

I In pTwpartaon, however, ae he liRs bis legs well, will be the foree with 

■ which ho DDbt thorn down agnin-, tlie j»r and coueosrtion to iharidt^r; and 
I the battenng and wear and tvar uf the feet. A horse with ton great 

■ 'knee a^-tion ' will nut always bo Hi>cedy ; bi> will mrely be nleasaut to 
r ride, and he will not, in Uio, be safer than othi-rK. Tlie ejLnOeea 

iai^y-aitttr, however ptmrnnt on the tnrf, should indc«d bo avoid<-d ; bat 

I it is a rule, not often undenttooti, and sometiuies tUspated, but which 
experience will fully cvnfirm — thai the safely of the horeo depends a gnat 


deal more on the manner in which he puts his feet down, than on tint in 
which he tifte theni np : — more on lh« foot beinfr placMl at mux flat on the 

Gnnnd, or perhaps the hwl coming first in cDotact witlt it, than, on th« 
j{hcst and most splendid action. 

When the to« Jint tonchM the groand, it mnj he nwlilj BnppaHcd ihat 
the homo will occMJonally be in dftDf^. An nnox|>i*cUHl omtUiclu will 
throw the centre of gravity forward. If the toe di^ into th« jfronnd 
before the foot in firmly placied, a little thing will cau»e a trip and a bill. 

For pleaa&nt riding and for safety also, a hackney ehould itof carry hit 
l«ffB too high. IIiB going a little too near to the ground is not always la 
he conradered u an iDaaperable objection. The qaeotion is, does he dig 
hit too iBto the ffromid r 

lie shoald bo monnt*^ and pnt to the text. Let his feet be taken np 
and ozamined. If tlio shot-, aA«r liaving lw«n on a wui>k, or a fortnight, 
ia not nnoooMMaiily worn at the toe, and he ia fell to put hut foot flat on 
the ETOond, be may be bought without acraple, although be may not hare 
the lofty action which snmo have erroneoiialy Uiougbt so important. 

Erory bono, boweror, ia liable to fall ; and hence cornea tlie golden mle 
of ridii^, *Jir«cw bnut to your hon*,' bnt alwaya feel bia mouth lightly. 
Ho doM wrong who eomttantly pall* might and main ; ho will noon tpoil 
the aaimul's mouth. He does wonw who earvlvtuly thrown tlte rviua on 
tlto nook uTthe bone. Alieay$/eel thcmoHtk tighllt/, with a sinialtaueouH 
mntie preMora of both lega. uy theae means the Hder will insure a regu- 
ujrity of pace, and command the safety and speed of his hone. If he 
dependd entirely npon the feeling of the hand, tJie month may become too 
aensitive, and refuso to liavc tlie proper beaniig npon ihe bit. The action 
of the horao may also be nccoUccted, bo that the hind foct may Btriko 
usiiut or overreftch the fore feet. Again., if the horefintui neglects the 
Miatioity and fine feeling of Iho hand, and makes too much nse of hifl leg* 
alone, a callona numtfa and boring upon tho bit will most likely rc»alt from 
the practice. By this nnifonnity nf feeling, the home may thii* h»ve 
oocMJonal and inunedisto aaaiatAoco l>efuro hu is too luui-b off the ceiittt) 
of gimTity, and when a little check will enve him. By thix constant 
gvatlo feeling he will Ukewiae be induced to carry hia head wull, thtui 
which few tilings ant mora oondncivo to tlie easy, beauiiful, aixl ttafti going 
of the horse. There is one nuerring criterion by which a good back may 
be known : if he can wtdk well he cnn do no otliur pace ill. 

TIm r«Ad-hor»e ntay, and should, like the bontcr, pOMOW different dc- 
greca of breeding, according to the nature of tho counttyi and the work 
rMitured of him. Wlien apfviMOlung to thuruughbreO, ho may be a Nplen- 
diJ animal, but 1m> will be ■cnroriy fitted fur liia duty. Hia log* will be 
too slender ; his fMt too small ; his stride too long ; and bo will rarely be 
aide to trot. Time parts of blood, or even halJ^ for the hunte of aU^work, 
will maJie a good anct uaefol animal. 

The hackney shonkl be a honter in miniature, with theoe exceptions. 
Bis height Bhunld rarely excood fifteen hands and an inch. He will be 
imfficiently strong and more plMaant for genoral work below tliat standard. 
Somo will imagine, and pcrbape with juiitioc, that the portrait which we 
giro of tiie road-horae represents him as somewhat too tall. He certainly 
■hoald be of a more compact form than the hunter, and have mora bulk 
MBordiug to his height ; for he has not merelr to stand an occasional and 
pwliaf BOTvre hunit in Uie field, bat a great acol of every -day work. 

It ifl of oseential oonaeqnence that tho bones beneath the Icnee ahonld be 
deep mmI flat, and the tendon not lied ia. 

The pastern should be abort, and nhhDngh ohlir|i>n or ulanlitig, \i:t far 
lew M thao that of iho tvov-horiH; or the hunter. There shvald be ubliqiiily 


enongh to give pleasant action, but not to render the borae incapable of 
the wear and tou* of constant, and, sometimeB, hard work. 

The foot is a matter of the greatest consequence in a hackney. It Bhonld 
be of a size corresponding with the balk of ^e animal, neither too hollow 
nor too flat ; open at the heels ; and free from corns and thrushes. 

The fore-legs shonld be perfectly straight. There needs not a moment's 
consideration with the public to be convinced that a horse with his knees 
bent, will, &om a slight cause, and especiaUy if he is over- weighted, come 
down. The &ct however is, that a horse with bent fore-Iegs has rarely 
broken knees. 

The back should be straight and short, yet snfficiently Jong to leave 
comfortable room for the saddle between the ahonlders and i£b hamich 
without pressing on either. Some persons prefer a hollowbacked horse. 
He is generally an easy one to go. He will canter well with a lady ; he 
may not carry so heavy a weignt, nor stand sncb very hard work, bat it 
is a great Iiuaiy to ride him. 


The road-horse should be high in the forehand ; round in the barrel ; 
and deep in the chest : the saddle will not then press too forward, bnt the 
girths will remain firmly fixed in their proper place. 

A hackney is far more valuable for the pleasantness of his paces, and 
his safety, good temper, and endurance, than for his speed. We rarely 
want to go more than eight or ten miles in an hour ; and, on a journey, 
not more ih&n six or seven. The fast horses, and especially the fast trot- 
t«rs, are not often easy in their paces, and although they may perform 
very extraordinary feats, are disabled and worthless when the slower horse 
is in his prime. 

The above is the portrait of one that belonged to an old friend of the 
anther. He was no beauty, and yet he was ftdl of good pointa. He was 
never out of t«mper — he never stumbled — he never showed that he was 
fired — most certainly was never off his feed — but, being a strange fellow 
to eat, he one day, although the groom had a thousand times been 


mitMmed, f^>tyv4t hinuNrl^ Uid vtiB uiuuoiUatcilj tukrn oat by bia ovinvr, 
ifooront of tlij*. in unlet to be rtddt'o ifomcu'Iiut f^r Knd fuxt^ At ulxnit 
tne middle oftltn iut«iiiled juunirj lio alnicwt «ti>ii[KHl ; — li« vronld nfXcr 
this li&vo ^no on at his TumiU paco, bat it wiu vviilunt tliat M^mrthinf^ 
nnuKunl vriu tlio m&lt«r vritli hitu, and biH taaator sio|){*c-d lU tbi' first 
ouan-nicnt place. Tho stomach was ruptarvd, and, two days atWrwanl, 
he ftied. 

UoBtof oar readers praWlily kit horvvnwn. Their momaries wilt sappljr 
tbem vitb inany toBtancea of intcUigt^ttoc -and ftdolity in tbo honw, and 
particnlarly in tlie bactnoy— tlie ovDry-day curapanii^n of tium, A friend 
rado bis iioT*c thirty miles froiu home into a countrr tbal was jicrfectly 
uow to bim. The raad was difficult to find, but by dint of inquiry he at 
leaotli n^atOiod tJie plaoo ho souf^lit Two yearn piksscd awny, and ha 
aofun had oecasion to take th« «un« jounioy. No onv t-cxlo thi« horeo bat 
tunuelfl atxl be was perftwtly oiiwuva that the auimnl IumI nut, dnco Lis 
firafc excursion, bcc-n in that dircctian. Time or fmr niilew Iwforu bu 
reached his jonnMJT's ond lie was benighted. Ue had to tmTerse moor 
and common, atul hu c^^uld scarcely et>a hut horse's h«a<l. The nun be;B>n 
to nelt, ' Well,' tlioogbt ho, ' here I ani, apparvntiy far from any housi-, 
Miu I kuow nvt nor can I uvv an iucli of my rund. I haw hvard niuch of 
(Its memory of the horse.^t is my only hope now, — so there,' throwing 
tUo mna on his horse's aacTc, ' go on.' In half an hour he wa£ safe at liu* 
friond'a ^o. 

The foUowioK uioodoto, given on tho aathority of Professor Kragcr of 
Ualle, proTM both thofloewntyaod fidelity uf the honw: — A friend of bin, 
riding bomR ttimii^^h a wixhI m a dark night, sti-ack liia head a^iiititt 
branch of a tree and fell 6«m Ida horso stunued. The steed immediately 
T«tnmed to the house that they lind lately lofl', and n-hich was now (-l<i«<cit, 
aud tJitt &mily in bed, and ho pawod at tlio (lot>r until home ouc mat? ami 
o|iciied it. He tnmt'd ubont, and the loan, wondering at tliu affair, fol- 
lowed hiiti. The fiuthful and iiit«^»llig«nt animal led him to thu place 
when) his maat«r la/ ■enaeleHs. 

A few iostancM are eeleeted of tho speed and cndanuicv of tho backnoy. 

On Hay l!l, 171''l, a hackney luuned .Sloven, teallteil tvrunty>twiiinile« in 
tliree boars and fiftv>two minates. In Nuvrnibcr, 17'.>1, she had beaten the 
then cvlcbratod pfKLustrian, Jamps C<iMi>n>l, \jy watkini;^ twenty nulea in 
Ihnw houM and for^-ono minntuii. It hml l>r«n prcrioiiKly itoflf^nod that 
as honH amid, in fiur walkiu]^, contend with a man who had accostoiBMl 
Umaelf to this kind of ex«rcifie. 

As for the trotting perfiumuicvs of the hackney, tliey ar« so ntimomaH, 
and yet apparently so 9X tn w>rdio*ty, that some diffioolty attends the 

la 1823, there was n match of nine miles hotwcoQ Hr. Bernard'* raare 
Mtd O^itain Colston's bono, near Uumud's CroM, for &00 guinces. It 
waa won cnaily by the mare, who perfonntid tho disliuioo lu twenty •seven 
toinatca and forty-six acoonds. The hoirao went t)u> same di«tiiaoe in 
tw«nty>s«v(.-u minutes, forty-niue socouds — which ia Dcarly at tho »t« of 
nineteen and a half miles an honr. 

This, howewr, hiMl beea ui]uallec1 or excelled some yean bofiira. Sir 
Bdward Astley'a Phonooionon taaro. whun twelve ymn old, trott«d 
■eTeolAen mile* in fifty-six miuotot. Thoro being «omo diffBrcnce about 
the bimese of the trottini;, hIm; iwrrormtnl the Muue disUnoe » month afW- 
wanls in Icm than liiVv-Lbrcc minutes, which was rather more t!ian nine- 
tet'n miles an hoar. Her owner then alfered to trot her nineteen and a Imlf 
nilM an hour; but. it beinjj proreil that in the last match she did one 
&MT nulce iu eU-vuti mluutcs, or ut thu rote of mon than twenty-one aud 





B hulf mUes au faour, the botting men would h&ra nothing ntoiro to do 
with her. 

After tbU, with sfuune be it spoken, she liv«d » life of dntdtmy ftud 
etan-alioD, uud, ooouiionally, of cmcl exertion, until, ul twcntj-thivo 
yvnn olil, silt; Itccatiu) wi duin^frd us to bu uffurvd for miIl- ul 71. Evi-n in 
tluit Ktutt) sliu trotb-d uiii^! tuilits iti tvrviit^-inuilit iiiLriiiC<-8 iiuil a half — 
boitif;^, ta nearly aa powdblR, ninuttym milift an hour. Witliin six montha 
uflerwanU, it is said that slio won four uxtruonUua>ry lualcliti) in ono day, 
tlie jiartticulars of which are not recorded. In her twenty-sixth yeai- sto 
became tlie property of the late Sir li. C. lloniel, by whom she was well 
fed, and hiul no disfpwwful tasks imposed upon her -, and in a fuw months 
■tie looked aa freih and ol«ui upon her logs (ut in hvr Ix^t days. So far 
•s apecd wan convi-ruod, lliura yrae nuLhing in thv annals of trotting uum- 
iwmhle to her {i(;rforiiianc(f:i. 

Of stoDtuesB, whether coutined to this paca, or the accomplishment of 
grvat distances irith little or bo rest, there are too many instances ; and 
the ^Teater nnmber of them were accompanied by circamstoncce of dia- 
l^ccful burburity. 

Mr. 0«b»ildeKliHi(» hail a crlebnittfl Amprican trotting.honiF, oillcil Tom 
Tbnuib. Hk> matched liim to trot 100 mtU-a in t4'n hours and n lialf. It 
•cvniod to b« ftn maaiiing distance, and imuowiblo to bv acoonipliithL'd : but 
the botso had done mmocra aa a trotter ; lie was in the bighest condition ; 
the Tfliicle did not woig'h more than 100 11m., nor the driver more tJian 
lU St. 3 lbs. He accomplished liiii ta«k in ten hotira and Eevea minutes ; his 
ahnppHMS to bait, Ac, occnpicd thirty-Ror©n minntcB — so that, in fart, the 
IW muvm were donu in nine hours and a half. Ho was not ut any time 
dtsbwnrd ; and wne so frt-sli at iho end of tlie ruuetaotfa miJo, that hin owner 
uSbred to take kIx to fuiir tli&l \tc. did fourteen rujles in th« next honr. 

An Knf;«d man* wns afterwards mulched Ut accomplish the aamc 
t»dk. tihv wits one uf tlioae aniiiuds raru to be met with, that conld do 
uliiiiLil aiiytliin^ nn a hack, a hutitfT, or in harness. On one occasion, 
after Iiav-ing, in followiiig the liounda, and tnivelUnff to and from cover, 
|*uno through at least sixty miles of country, she fairly ran away with h-tir 
rider oror several ploughed fidds. She accomplished the match in t^'n 
boars and fourteen minutes — or, dcdacting thirteen minutes for stop> 
pa^es, in ten hours and a minute's actual work ; and Uius f^iined tbe 
victory. She waa a lilUft tirwl, and, In-iiig turned into a lnotie boi, lost 
no time in taking her rest. On thn following day she was aa full of life 
and apirit us erur. Thvse are matchus vrlucli it ia plv-asaut to rvi;onl — 
an<i luirtii.-ularly the latter; for the ownt^r had given poaidvo orders to the 
driver tu slop at once, on her showing decided symptoms of distrcas, as ho 
%nl(R<tl hfr more than onythiDg ho could gain by her enduring a^ual 

Utliurn, howcTcr, are of a different chanictcri and excite indig'u&Uon 
nntl disgust. Ruttli-r, on American liorav, was, in HHO, matched to trot 
ten miles witii a Welsh nimv, giving ber a minute's start. He eomplotett 
the distance in thirty minutes and forty aooonds — bein^ at tlii> niXc of 
ratlier more titan nineteen miles an hour— -cuid beaiing tJofi maro by uzty 
yaida. All thi« is fair ; hut when tbo same bono waB^eomo time afterward, 
matobod to trot tliirt^-ruur miles agaiiut another, and i« dlftretsed, and 
dwf in the following mglit — when two bacJoieya are matched af^nintt each 
otJbcr, from London to York, 196 milet, asd (m« of thorn rune 182 of thr^c 
milva and dies, and Uie otliitr ucoomplidtea tbedreadful f«vi.t in ft^rty houra 
and thirty-fire minutes, being kept fonnore than lialf tbe distance under the 
■nfiuence of wine — when two brutes in human aliape match their horses, 
the cue a tall and bony animal, and tbe otJicr a mere pony, against each 


other for a distance of sixty-two milefl, and both are mn to a complete 
Btandstoll, the one at thirty and the other at eighty yards from the 
winning point, and, both being still urged on, they drop down and die- 
when we peruse records like these, we envy not the feelings of the owners, 
if indeed they are not debased below all feeling. We should not have 
felt satisfied in riding an ftnimal, that had done much and good service, 
■erenty miles when he was thirty-six years old ; nor can we sufBciently 
reprobate the man, who, in 1827, conld ride a small gelding &om Dublin 
to Nenagh, ninety-five miles, in company with the Limerick coach ; or 
that greater delinquent who started with the £xeter mail, on a galloway, 
under fourteen huids high, and reached that city a quarter of an hour 
before the mail, being 172 miles, and performed at the rate of rather more 
than seven miles an hour. The author saw this pony, a few months 
afterwards, strained, ringboned, and foundered — a lamentable picture of tha 
ingratitude of some human brutes towards a willing and faitluul servant. 

TEE riuaea'a eobu. 

The Fabhib'b House is an animal of all vxyrk : to be ridden occasionally 
to market or for pleasure, but to be principally employed for draught. 
He should be higher than the road-horse, about fifteen hands and two 
inches may be taJceu as the best standard. A horse with a shoulder 
thicker, lower, and Iras slanting than would be chosen in a hackney, will 
better suit the collar ; and collar work will be chiefly required of him. A 
■tout compact animal should be selected, yet not a heavy cloddy one. 
Some blood will be desirable ; but the half-bred horse will generally best 
rait the former's purpose. He should have weight enough to throw into 
the collar, and sufficient activity to get over the ground. 

Farmers are now beginning to be aware of the superiority of the moder- 
ately-sized, strong, actire horse, over the bulkier and slower animal of 
former days. It is not only in harvest, and when a &osty morning most 
be seised to cart manure, that this is perceived, but in the every-day work 
of the &rm the savinr of time, and the saving of provender too, will be 
very considerable in tne course of a year. 

tt has often been said, that a horse used much fbr draught, is neither 
pleasant nor safe for the saddle. The little farmer does not want a showy, 
complete hackney. He should be content if he is tolerably well carried ; 
and— if be has taken a little care in the choice of his horse — if he has 
selected one with sound feet, shoulders not too thick, and legs not too mach 
under him ; and if he keeps him in good condition, and does not scandal' 
ously overweight him, the five days' carting or harrow-work will not, to 
any material degree, unfit him for the saddle ; especially if the rider hem 
in mind what we have termed the golden rule of horsemanship, always a 
Utile lo feel the mouth of the animal he is upon. 

A &rmer, and more particularly a email farmer, will prefer a mare to a 
gelding, both for riding or driving. She will not cost him so much at 
first ; and he will get a great deal more work out of her. There can be 
no doubt that, taking bnUc for bulk, a mare is stronger and more lasting 
than a gelding ; and in addition to this, the former has her to breed from. 
This, and the profit which is attached to it, is well known in the breeding 
counties ; but why the breeding of horses fbr sale should be almost ex- 
clusively oonfinoa to a few northern districta, it is not easy to explain. 
Wherever there are good horses, with convenience for rearing the colbi, 
the former may start as a breeder with a foir chance of success. 

If he has a few useful cart mares, and crosses them with a well-knit 
half-bred horse, he will certainly have colts usefdl for every purpose of 
agricnltore, and some of them sufficiently light for the van, post-chaise, 



brcoArli. If lie Iww n »n|X'rior iniuT, oiik of iliRolcI Clc^'cland brwd, nnA 
put* hv-r to a. luiiiy. llini-foiirMm-lirwI hontt*, or, if lie am liiiJ uiie slout 
and compiu^t ouougb, a (trv('U-ti)2)it1tH or n tliorou^librad onti, hi> will linvc* 
a bir chiancc to rear a colt that will umply repa^ him u A hunter or 
carriage' boree. 

The mam nccdii not to be idle whilo sho is broedinff, Slie m*y ba 
mnlcfid modi>riiU>ly almost to tho period of hor fouling, and with benefit 
nUier tbnn otli'TWTse ; nor is tlu^re oemuon Uint munli of bcr Um? should 
bo loat, even wliilo sbv iit guokliiijf. If Ithn ia put to horee in June, tbu 
failing time will fall, mid the lotu of labour will uccar, in tbu mu»t iL^iauro 
time of the year. 

Th^re arc two rocks on whicb the fitrmer ofl«n strikes — he pa^ Httlo 
att^ntiOR to tbi> Itinil of mnrp, iHid Ions to the propei- noarishmeat of the 
foal. It nuty be livid down im a raiucim in breeding, bowerer gonoral may 
bo tho pn-jmlirii ligaitwt it, iKr vnlue of Uu- fwal dc|x;nds us mucb on 
tbu dam oa tin thestro. The Arabs go ftu-thiir than tbiK, for no [tricH will 
bay from them a likely mare of the highest blood ; ajid thf-y traco back 
the podij-rwt of thoir Worses, not through the aire, but tlio *hux\. Tlio 
Orsek Bjmrtiitc men held tlic some opinion, lon^; befnra tbo Ani.Ii hontif 
wma known. " What ohancr of winning tavB I ? * inqnired a youth whoso 
honto was abont to Btart on tlio Olympic eour«u. ' A»k tho d'int of ymir 
horce,* wim the repir, founded on experience. Bishop Hall, whn wrote in 
the tuBO of James I., intimates that sucb was tlio upiuioa of bomvmcn at 
tbat period. Ho oaks in onoof his satires (Lib. ir.), 

-^^^ doct thou priM 
Th}r 1imt« bitiutB* worth by itiuir Jangn' ttunliticii ? 
Skjr'iil tlioii tliiH riill nlinJl provg k, >iwift-[iuttvl hUiiI, 
OdpIj liwnumi ■ .lonnH Jul him lirrnl P 
Or My'irt thou lliiii «Ain« tiorws ahiiU win Ihn pm«, 
BmiuH) hit dam va* tvil1«al TmnehotieeT 

Tho fannor, Iiowerw, too frequently thinks that any maro will do to 
brood from. If bo can Snd a ^^reat proncing; aUJlion, wiui a high Honndins 
j^name, and loaded with &.t, he rcclcona on baring a valnable cott; anil 
lioald he fail ho attributeti the timlt to the horse, and not to his own want 
Af judf^ont For moro depends on tlio maro than ia dreamed of in his 

If hi! baa an nndt'rsiKcd, or a blemiHliwl. or nnnoond mnro, let him con- 
ttnne to uue bcr on Wm farm. Slie probably did not cost him miic^li, and 
abe will best any p;eldin^ ; bat let hini not Ihink of breeding; from her. A 
•OQBd maro, witli some blood in her, and with most of the jjood pointa, will 
alono answer bin purpose. Sbc may bear about her the nuLrks of honest 
work (tJie fewer of these, however, tho 1k'U*t), but Rbe mnut iiot have any 
diseam. Them ia scaroi-lyn maWly to wbieb tlic home isaubjeot thatisDot 
benditarr. Contracted feet, mrb, spavin, roaring, tbiek wind, blindness, 
Dolorioiialy dc«c«nd frooa the sire or dam to tho foal. t/tr. Ikibcri«, in 
'Tht Yoterinarian,' save: — 'Lost summer I was naked my opinion of a 
borso. I approved of hiit forniatiuii with the eieeption of Uie hocks, where 
titers haitpiTncd to l>o two curbs, t wuh then told his sister was iu the 
mmb stable : she also had two enrba. Knowing the sira to bo free ftoim 
tbew dofccts, I enquired alwut the dam : sho likewiso had two confirmed 
cnrbs. She was at this time ninninK with a fool of honi, two years old, 
bjr aootlm' horse, and hi> also hod two curbs.' 

Tho foal should bo well taki-n cam of for the first two years. It is l)ad 
policy to stint or half-starro the flawing oolt, 

Tlu) colt, whether intended for a bunt«r or c^rriage-borae, may be 



citrlj himdli'd, but hIiouIiI not l>i> liroken in iiiitil thrvc yrnr* uM; iind 
then, tho Tcrj beat brealciii(r-iu for tho carriage.horw w U> iiiako liiiii cani 
a lilttc uf his liring. Lot liim bo put to haiTow or li^'bt jikin^h. Uniii^ 
over thn reni|^h grmiiid will t4>Acli bim to lili his t'cet w«ll, ftud ^v« him 
thai luj^li luid showj bction, cxcus&blc in n carrijUt'^vborat^, hut D»t tii anj 
other. In thu mooeedittg winter ho will bo pcrioctljr ntodj- Ibr the town 
or coontiy market. 


This U tho propor pUco to speak of th« Cuvalrif Uvne. That noblu 
nnimnJ nliono Tonclius \rc nre ilcscribiii^, ajid who is bo admirablj adajited 
to cootribittu to our plc^usoru umd unr une, woa, in the earliest period of 
which wo hftvc any nccoust of him, dovoUid to Lbo defltmctive puqxwes of 
war; and the cnr&lry ia, at tlio present daj, an indispciuablo and a utoxt 
efl«cf ive brauch of iho si>rricc. 

The caTalry koraes contain a diflorcnt proportinTi of blood, according to 
Uio nature of tfad wrvice rvanired. or the caprice of the cotonuuiiling 
offleer. Those of th« housonold troong arc frOTn half to throo-fnuTths 
bred. Some nf the lifjhtcr rc|^m«nU naro moiw blond in thcin. Onr 
OftvaliT horavA wero fonncrlj' '^'^ ^'^^ heaty. To their im]>f)(iitig nski 
VM added acdnn a* ttnpotiiiff. TTbe horse wax trained to a peculiar, aud 
gland, fet beaatdfhl method of i^oing ; but he was often foimd deficient ia 
nal sorrioe, for this very action diminished his apced, and added to his 
labour and fatiirnc. 

A comndcmblo change haa taken ptaoo in tho character of our troop 
honu«. Thia neoiiMtanly fallowed from tlio cluingi? tliat ha* ocrum'd in 
the thoroni^hbiwd home. If hn biui loirt inueh of bin moiicular form and 
Actual power of cndaiaiiee, a aimiUu- altt'ration will take pla(^« in tb« olT- 
inriog; liglitnoM and activitr will siiccvol to bulk and stren^rth, and for 
ffc-jpimahing and soddeu attack the chajig«^ will be an improvement. Hut 
if the boTHo bo improved, there still reqnirca to be a gnwt cbnnf^ eHpcted 
in tho bnlk of the aocootrenieaita which is carried bjr the T^if^bt Dm^TOon. 
When tho KDca an oC equal weights. Oio nccoutrcmcnta of the Light 
Eoncmuui BTr, wbirn on octivo acrricc, qoito aa ponderooa aa thoac of the 
"SLmwj Dragoon. Hence the want of judgment tbown in those oomntand- 
iog ofloen of Hnnara who continnc to mount tlieir ro^imonta n-itb 
thoroughbred borsea of liltle jiowop, to carry weighta of 15, If., or 17 
sbnee. li waa proved that in tbo eniira^mciits proyioan to aad nt the 
battle of Waterloo, onr heavy honaohold troopa alone wcrv ulilr to rt-i>ulm! 
the (brmidnhlu rliar^o of tbo Pn'tii^h f^uinl. 

There are few things that moro imperiomdy demand tho attention of 
gOTcnitneDt. If from tho habit of riuuiinK "hort distancee, aud at tho 
rer^ early agea of one and two yoara, with lii^ht w(n)^hts, thora is a del«- 
rioratioQ in the atMnigth awl Btontneea of onr thoronghbred boraee, tbey 
will become every yemr leea and Icmi fittixl for getting stot^k mffioiently 
bardy and powerfoJ to do crvdit to the conn^ro ana diaciplintt of onr 

The folkuring anecdote of the memory- and discipline of tho troop-horac 
U rflated on good anthority. The lyrolese, in one of their inaamKttiiina 
in tMiJi>, took tifbfien iiavarian horees. and monntod them with so many of 
their own mea ; but in a skirmish with a eqnailron of tho narno rc-jpnunt, 
no sooner did these horttcs licnr tho trumpvl and ivcofriiitir the unifumi of 
their old inajitrnt, tlian they aet off »L full gntlop. and (-^rrit^l tJicir ridcm, 
in. spite of all tbcir efforta, into tho Baviu-iau ranks, where they were made 

The wounds of a ■oldier are honourable. The old war-borae can aomv- 



timpH oitliibit liis »linrp of warn. Ont- of ttiL-ni, twetity-Bcvpn years old, 
lati'ly dii'd iLt KtAD^Ii'tDU Ltiilf.'O. tit-Mr IVilfonI, tliitl linil iM^'l'in^nt to one 
oftlio n<f:^nicnUi of InncerR, and niwt in the ImIiU' <if WaUtIoo, nitd tlio 
engRgciuuiite of tliu twu dnye tliai jirvuL-ileil it. No tvwtM- lUan cififlit mu&- 
Icel-bBll]) were diMMivcnid in hiin after liU death, and ihu svun of seveiul 
wruindx by the nabre and tite lajice. 

A liorse died at Snowhill, near Goinitford, in 17S3, that had Imnmi la 
Qeiieral Car^teuter'a regiment at the batUe of Shim-ii'-Muir, in 171-^, bfin^; 
M that timo 6cy€ii years old. He was wnnnded by a liullft in hiii neck in 
that engagement, and tliiH ballet wan extracted after his deatli. 


This animal in cxicmal nppcaranwj is tm different from whftt he wwi 
fifty years ago aa it is possibL" to conceive. The elunisy-bnri'elled, elnddy- 
Bboulderad, ronnd-lcggc<i, black family hone — neither a coach nor a dniy. 
horie, but WKQetbiDK between botli — a» fat tm nn ox— lint, with all hia 
prido and pmncinfr when he first star<*i, not eqnal to more than six miles 
ua hoar, and knocking-ap nnth one hard day')) wtirk, is no more seen 






TKH Otum-UniUIS. 

He todoed was quite in ko.-piu^ with the vehiclo he had itt draw in olden 
tlxDM. Wheel Darriapes, beannii any rvsemblaneu to iJuiTu'tn, Brat came 
into nae in the reign of Richawl il., about the yoar 1 fiRR ; they were eallw! 
v/hirlicoUf, and were little ht'ttor than littcm or C"/c<* (r.-U) placed on 
wliwls. Wo are told by Master John Stowe, that ' Riihani II. being 
threatened by the rclwis of Kent, rode from Ihp Tower of Iiondon to the 
Alilo« End, and with Idm his mother, bc<«n«e slie was airk and weak, in ft 
whirlicote ; ' and this is deflcribod na no. ugly veliiole of fvor boards fiat 
together in a clumsy manner. 

Cfiofliei were not oaed until the time of Klixabeth, when we were told 
(Stowe's Snrreyof Lpndf>n and WeatminKtw-, book i.) 'divers great ladies 



iniul« thf^m CflA<^hca, iin<l rodo in tbera up and down the eoutitrlea, if* the 
trrvtit EtdmirKtiun of nil the hchuldora.' Tlic foKliioo soon spread ; and lie 
ndila, what in often too tnio in the present day, ' tho world runs on wbeela 
with nnuf who«e parent* w«ra glad to fi^ on ftmt.' 

Tbcw ooaobas were heavy knd nnwiddy, nnil probably bore nomr ronf*Ii 
rcMmbUaoo to the sfate-coadiea ti«w luwd ovcaaiuoully ia cooii pn>- 

Now we hare, instead of him, an animal tall, deep-chosted, riaing in tlin 
wither*, slanting in llio vlionUlers, flat in the i^gs, with far more strength, 
and with treble tho spisyd. 

There la a jfrcat dtsil of di.-CL'pttoii, however, ovon in the beat of ilicBc 
improvod coach-horaen. They prance it nobly through the utreeta, and tlicy 
havB more work in them than the old, clnnia;f, aloogiah breed ; but Uicy 
haro not tha enduranco that could bo wiihed, ana a pair of poor poat- 
honiM would, at tho end of t^ M-oond day, beat them hollow. 

Tba knee-aotion and high lifting of the foot, in tlic corria^-horM is 
dnemed an eznellenon, becaoso it anlds to the grandunr of Iibh ii;>|x«mnco ; 
bat^ as has already been stated, it is niweflsarily acoomponiod by macb 
wear and tear of the legs and (eat, and this ia very soon apparent. 

The pnncipal pointa in the cooch-horec arc, sobstoncc woU-placod, a 
deep and wcU-proportionod body, bono onder the knee, and noand, open, 
tough feot. 

riio Clktrlikd BAr is tho origin of thn lx»tt«)r kind of concb-faonic, and 
is (.-oofincd principally to Yorkshire and Darham, with, perhara, LinCQln- 
ahire on one side, and Nortliamberlatid on the other, but dilBcult to lind 
pure in either county. The Cleveland niaro is i^raKscd by a tliree«fonrth 
or thoroughbred horse, of sufBcient STibtitanc^< und height, and the produeo 
ia tho coach-horse most in repute, with h'\n arehod rr'«t And high action. 
Prom tho tlioroaehbred of woScit-nt height, but noi of so much substance, 
we obtaio the four-in-hand and Hupcn'or curricli; huntc. 

Profesaor Low. in his MU|H>rb work ' IlhiAtralions of tht> Itre«ds of the 
Domattic Animals of tho British Ii>landR,' which should adorn tlio library 
oC CTory sporUioaD and agriculturist, girte the following' account of the 
Clcrdand Bay : — 

• It is the progresaiTe mixtnre of the blood of horses of higher breeding 
with thoso of the common raoe, thut bus produced tho rariety of coach- 
horwx UBUHllr tcmiMl tha ClfiT«land Bsv ; so cnllod frwm it« colour and the 
(crtilo disincrt of that name in ilio North Riding of Yorkshire, on tho 
banks of th« Tecs. Alxiul the middle of tho latit aiitnr>' ihifl dinirict 
btwaine known for tho bn>«diiig of a superior class of powerfnl horses, 
which, with tlie gradual disuse of tho hea^-y old coaeh-norse, became in 
request for coaches, chariots, and similar carriages. The brocd, however, 
is not confined to ClcTeland. but is cultivated tliroUKh all tho great brocd- 
inn district of this part of England. It has bctrn formed by th« progrfssive 
mixture of the blood of tlie raee-bonti- with tliv original Ittim-iIh of Uio 
coontrr. To r^ar this class of horses, the santo principles of breeding 
shonM bo applied as Uy tho rearing of tlie roev-hunw himself. A close of 
mures, as well as stallions, should also be used tiaving the nrTiporties sought 
for. Tlie district of Cleveland owes its superiority iu tue production of 
this beantifoi race of horses to tho possession of a definito breod, fbrmMl 
Dot bv accidental Duatur«, bat by oontjnned oaltivation.' 

*Aithou)j:h t)tc Cleveland Buy nppeon to unito tho blood of the Sncr 
with tbat of the larg«r bont^ of Uio country, to cumbine artion iWth 
■Irength, yet many haTO songfat a fiartber infusion of blmHl iiean-r to the 
f*M-EorN. Tbey are aeow^ingly crossed by bontcn or thoroughbred 
bosMi^ and Hua an o t her variety of Do«cb-borse is produced, of lightor 

TOK O>A0n-n0BSB. 




frrnn atiil hi^rlwr brwHiintr: i>'>'l nuiny of the miprrior CVvpIiitirl cnrrirlft 
And fi>«r'iii-)»ftiwl honws an? imw nearly tlM<n>nf;h)<nMl. Ttn* Imv t«tonr 
in in the mont Kwoeml i-ntimfttion, Imt tit* (frOr bpc not anfrvqactitly ut*»i.' 

F»nn Imw Iici);''^ ''""i mon^ aulwtttm* we have the IinnU'r and Ix-tti-r 
Bort of bm-ktiv}' ; sinil, fmiii thr liulf-l>n-<l, wit dcrivtr tin" machiiiwr, ilia 
poMtT, Mill thw c*imiin>n iiirriape-horBe : indoed. CleTeland, mid the viil© 
of Picltcrirjr in Iho East Hiding of Yorkshii*, maj* he considered an the 
moettlecidftl lircL-duit; oountriea in Eu^land for coach-boraes, hmitcra, luid 
hftclroeyn. The <:oacK-1uir»c is nothing morv Hwa a ia31, strong, oTcr-siced 

Whether we ikro panyin); «np|K>«0)1 improvcmotit too tar, ftnd nurrilicing 
Rtrengtli and necfulnnM to 0pc<.-d, is a qa(«tioD nol difficult to rcflolvc 
Tlie ntpy foi rapid trawlling wiut iTitrntlnced by tli« improvtinrnt in tlio 

rd of the nut^r, nnd for a w1)il<^ it hecniiie the lianc of tlio prwtmMtvr, 
dwUtiction of iho hnnie, and a disgmci- to the Kiigtiiih cliarufl1«r. 

The •*«(?«« were then lw*l?o, sixteen, or e^-en twenty miles ; the home* 
stnat and true, bnt formed for, and habituated to, a much Binircr pace j 
and th« increase of two, and ctcti four, miles an hour, rendered eveiy 
Mage a scene of cmitinnoos bnrlMintr, and vneeditv' thitineJ the Htablea of 
M»e r-ofi ftnd trtafT imwtor. The jxiat-hano ItMnottotJio present moment 
alti)>:cthi'r (^scapi-d fn>m tiiC *T«tcm of borlNirit}- to which h« vnus eubjccted. 
Bb ia not expnaAy hrcd for hia work — that work is intgnlar — tto paoo 
in invoTibu^the feeding and the time of rest nncerl&in^-aiid the lionto 
himftpif, destined to be the virtim of uJt ttieae Dif>aiia of annoviLCce mid 
snfloring- and tmjMunDcnt of natoral pon-«r, i« not always or of\on either 
speedy or stoat. The coschmafitcT, on a large- dcoIc, has, however, h-arncd, 
laid, generally speAldng^, followvup, a system aboucccondaeing tohis omt 
profit, and the lii.«lLh and comfort and pruluii^nl labuur of his horse. He 
bnys a good horse, soys Kiinro<t, ' one th»t hms,' in the language of ths 
higbcst otithority in tlicao mattcra, * action, soond feet and legs, powi-r and 
1>rv>cdi&g vqaal to the nutorc and )cngth of the ground ho will haro to 
work npon, and good wind, without wbiul) no ol.hori|nalification will lon^ 
ftvail in fiuit work.' He feodp him well — hii works hira Imt little nioi*o 
than two or thruu boun oat of tho four^tind-tTTeuly — liv r^sta him imo 
day out of every five — he has cTer^'Uiing comfortable almat him in bis 
■table— «Tid by these means, that whieb was once a life of tortiiro is one 
of comparative enjoyments Tliis is now the case in large and woll-pnn- 
ductod coDoems, and where tJio oyc of the master or the cuufidenliol 
manager overlooks and dirocts all. 

In other establish menta, and in too many of them, there is yet mnch 
animal rafTcring. The pnblie has to a viTy (■onmidcrablu extent the power 
U> difftingniith Wtwecn ttu two, and to nphold the cacfe of hnnuiDity. 

Koferuncv baa been made to the dreadful oporetioiiH which the new 
fiyntrxn of hnrae management bas introduced, The cautery leeiuns arv 
more nnmeroua and eevere than they used to be, in too many of oar cstab- 
babmenta. The injuries of the feet and legs are severe in proportion tn 
the increased pocc and litltuur ; for where the animal luacbini- is urge<l 
beyond its power, an^l the tortnrc vontinnos nntil the limb or the whole 
ennstitntion ntleHy fails, Cbe lextons mast be deep, and tlie tortnrv must 
\» Bevere, by means of wbioJi the |MWtr slavp itt rrmlemd eapahle of n'tnra- 
ing to renewed exertion. 

There is nn trath so easily pmrrrl, or so ptiinfnlly feH hy tho pnstmiuiler. 
at least in htx mx-kr'i, as that il in M« jiam fhal HUn. A bonte at n dmd 
pnlU OP at tlu' Id'ginning of his exertion, is ennhled, hy (he ftiree of hit* 
uiD«cl»«, to throw a certain wvighl into the eollar. Jf he walka fuur mile* 
in the hoar, aomc jiart of tjtal masvuhir energy roust bv ex|M<udnl in the 



act of waJkiag ; and, coiueqiicntly, the power of drawing mnst be proper- 
ttonably diminlBhed. If he trots ten milee in the honr, more animal power 
is expended in the trot, and less remains for the draught ; bat the dmnght 
continnes the same, and, to enable him to accomplish his work, he must 
tax his enemies to a Berioofi degree ; and thie taxing, this ezhaostioti, thig 
Bnffering, most be increased to a most merciless extent in the poor beast 
that, witii all hia powers required to draw the load behind him, haa to 
carry the extra weight of the post-boy. Skilful breeding, and high health, 
and stimulating food, and a very limited timo of work, can alone enable 
him to endure the labour long, on the supposition that the system which 
has just been described is resorted to. Bat the coach proprietor is not 
always sofficiontly onUghtened, or good-hearted, to see on which aide hia 
interest lies ; and then the work is accomplished by the overstrained ex- 
ertion — the injury — the torture — the destruction of the team. That 
which is true of the coach-horse is equally so of every otiier. Let the 
reader apply it to his own animal, and act as humanity and interest dictate. 

Many a horse used on the public roads is nnabto to throw ail hia natural 
power or weight into the collar. Uc is tender-footed — lame ; but he ia 
tmnf^t at little price, and he is worked on the brutal and abominable 
principle, that he may be ' tchipped sound,' And so, apparently, he is. 
At first he sadly halts ; hut urged by the torture of the huh, ho acquires 
a peculiar habit of going. The faulty limb apjicars to keep pace with tho 
otJiers, but no stress or labour is tlirewn upon it, and ho gradually con- 
trives to make the sound limbs {lerform among them all the duties of tho 
onsound one ; and tlius he is biu-barously ' whipped sound,' and cruelty is 
nndcservedly rewarded. 

Aitcr all, however, what has been done ? Three legs are made to do 
that which was almost too hard a task for four. Then they must bo most 
injuriously strained, and soon worn out, and tho general power of the 
animal must bo rapidly cxhaustod, and, at no great distance of timo 
disease and death release him from his mcreiless persecutors. Fortunately, 
for the sake of hnmanity, this cruel and painful era has passed away, and 
even could the incalculable advantages of tlie rail to mankind alone be 
overUwked or undervalued, its introduction and ose must be hailed with 
delight as saficrHeding the suficnng and torture inevitably accompanying 
the later years of poKting, stage coaching, and tho conveying of the mailH. 

It ia said, that li«-twcon Glasgow and Edinburgb, a carrier in a single- 
horae cart, weighing about seven hundredweight, will take a load of a ton, 
and at tho rate of twenty-two miles in a day, Tho Normandy camerM 
travel with a team of four faorsca, and from foorteen to two&ty-two milea 
in a day, with a load of ninety hundred weight. 

An oaparallelcd instance of the power of a horse when assisted by art, 
was flhowD near Croydon. The Surrey iron railway being completed, a 
wager was laid between tn-o gentlemen, that a moderato-sized horeo 
could draw thirty-six bms six miles along tho road — that ho should 
draw the weight front a dead pull, as well as turn it round the occasional 
wiudingM of the roa<l. A numcreus party of gentlemen assembled near 
Merstham to sec this extraordinary- triumph of art. Twelve waggons 
laden with stones, each wa^^ron weighing above three tons, were chained 
together, and a humo, taken ]iromiflcnonsly from the timber carts of Mr. 
Hurwnod, was yoked to the train. He started from the Fox public-house, 
near Mcrxtham, and drew the immeuBe chain of wi^jgons, with apparent 
case, almost to the turnpike at Croydon, a dislanco of six miles, in one 
hour and fnHy-one minutes, which in nearly at the mie of four miles an 
hour. In the course of the journey lie was stopped four times, to show 
tlittt it was nut by any advantage of descent tliat this power was acqainxl ; 



«nd liftpr cnoli stoppanp bo it^n drew off the cliaiii of wn^jjons with ppr- 
(vul nuvr Mr. Bank^ vhfi hiul wa|^red on the pnw<>r or iW liorae, tli^n 
dMintl tiutt four vilier loaded waggons ehonhl In- luldcd to thv i-ovBlcaJu, 
with whirl) the mno hone a^a started and with nttditniiiufafd )«K?e. 
Still fkirthor to show the eS«et of the rHilwsy in riu-ilitating mottun, h» 
did^etfd tho nttondinf^ workmm. to the nuntbt-T tif lif^v, to mount on Xhe 
wn^^ns, luid tho liurau uroceodtnl without Uiv Icnxt disirt-sa; and, in 
trmlii, tht-n.' itppcuinil t*» l)f scarcelj any limitatiiiii to thi- ptiwcr of li!s 
dnuiKbt. Aft4'r the trinl thi» wBjfj^na were taken Ui tlic wcighin]^ tnuchine, 
Mkd it »iip«ir«d thnt tiic whoKs weight was as follows: — 

Twdw wwmrn 0nt Uaked togrther . 
Fow ditto ■ncnmrdialtaefaml . 
BiffOati weight of titty btxnivn 

TOX, C«T. DM, 

13 1 



Th<t CloTotand horses haro been known to curry more than seven hiin> 

and Ion 

drcd pounds sixty miks in twenty-four Iioiin*, and to t)crfiinn thin jiwnief 
four times in a week ; and milt'horsea have carriml nine hundn-d a 

ponndx two or three miles. 

HorMw for Klitwer draught, and noinetimcs even for the carriage, are 
prmlnceit frv>m the SirrniLK Pi'Xi;h, ho vnllod on aecoant of hta round 
punchy form. He i» deswndt'd from tho Nnmmn Mtallion and the Suffolk 
cart mare. The true Suffolk, like the Clovcliind, ib now nearly extinct. It, 
rIivnI from fifteen to wxteen ha.iidH high, of n sorrel colour; was large 
hewled ; low HhmihtMrpd, and thiek on the withers : deep und round 
cbnted -, long bot-ki'd ; high in thv croup ; large nm) otronf^ in the 
qnartera ; full in the flunks ; njund in the Icgn ; mud eht>rt in the pasteniH. 



It wan tlio very horse to throw his whole weight into the collar, with 
Rufiicient activity to do it cficctaalty and hardihood to stand a long day's 

The present breed posBCBBCs many of tlie peculiaritiea and good qnalitics 
of its ancestors. It is more or lens inclined to a boitcI colour ; it is a taller 
horse ; higher and finer in the shoalders ; and is a cross with the York- 
shire half or three-fonrtha hred. 

The excellence, and a rare one, of the old Suffolk — the new breed has 
not quite lost it^— consisted in nimblenoss of action, and the honesty and 
continuance with which ho would exert himself at a dead pnll. Many a 
good dmaglit horso knows well wliat he can effect ; and, afler he haa 
attempted it and fuileil, no torture of the whip will induce him to strain bis 
powers beyond their nataral extent. The Suffolk, however, would tug at a 
dend pull until he dropped. It wim beautiful to see a team of true Suffolks, 
at a signal from the driver, and without the whip, down on their kncea 
in a moment, and drog everything before thom. Brutal wagers were 
frequently laid om to their power in this respect, and many a good team 
was inju^d and ruined. The immense power of the Suffolk is accounted 
for by the low position of the shoulder, which enables him to throw so 
much of his weight into the collar. 

Although the Punch is not what he was, and the Suffolk and Norfolk 
farmer can no longer boast of ploughing more land in a day than any one 
else, this is undoubtedly a valuable breed. 

The Duko of Richmond obtained many excellent carriage horses, with 
strength, activity, and figure, by crossing the Suffolk with one of his b«-st 

The Suffolk breed is in great request in the neighbouring counties of 
Norfolk and Essex. Mr. WakeBcld, of Damham in Essex, had a stallion 
for which he was offered fonr hundred guineas. 

The Clydesdale is a good kind of draught horse, and particularly for 
fanning business and in a hilly country. It derives Ha name from tlie 
district on the Clyde, in Scotland, where it is principally bred. The 
Clydesdale horse owes its origin to one of the Dukes of Hamilton, who 
crossed some of the best Lanark mares with stallions that he had bronglit 
from Flanders. The Clydesdale is larger than the Suffolk, and has a 
better head, a longer neck, a lighter carcase, and deeper legs ; he is 
strong, hardy, pulling true, and rarely restive. Tlie southern parts of 
Scotland are principally supplied from this district ; and many Clydesdales, 
not only for agricultural purposes, but for the coach and the saddle, find 
their way to the central, and even southern counties of England. Dealers 
from almost cvety part of the United Kingdom attend the markets of 
Glasgow and Kutbcrglen. 

Mr. Ijow says tliat ' the Clydesdale liorse as it is now bred is usually 
mx(i>en hands high. The prv\'ailing colour is black, but the brown or bay 
is rj>nimon, and is continually gaining upon the other, and the gr^y is not 
nnfrrquuntly produccil. They are longer in the bo<ly than the English 
black horse, and 1(4(S weighty, eonijMurt and muscular, but they sU-p out 
more fn-cly, and liave a more uscliil action for ordinary labour. Tlicy 
draw nUiidily, and are nsHuily free from vice. The long stride, eha- 
nictcristic of the bree<l, is jmrtly the n-snlt of conformation, and partly of 
habit ftn<] training ; but, liowevcr produced, it adds greatly to the useful- 
ness of till' horw. Imtli on the road nnd in Iho fields. No such loads an> 
known to Ik; dmwn, at the wune piuM-, by any horses in the kingdom, as 
in the singli'-lmiw r-.iriji of ciirrii-rM and othen* in tlio west of Scotliiml.' 

In the opiiiiixi "f tlils irciitlcmnii. 'the Ck'li-tidiile liorwH, although 
inti'riiir in wt-i^hl ami [iliysii'iil xlri'iigth to the black horse, and in liguri' 





•ndxltnwy action ti» iht: hrtU^ oliiAH nl'thc drtiit^lil liorsfS of North u ml h-i-. 
ImikI JHui Uurliuui, Tit iKw-icpa prutxiUi-s wliit-li reiiik-r tltitui c.\LfCiiin«,'ly 
valiinblf Tnr nil Qitlinary iwua. On tlit- n»u\ tlu-y pfrronii 1*i»ka thiiL nin 
lu^jirctfly be surpassed, aotl in tlie fielils dicy ikru fouiid *Ufi^^, (.looili-, tuid 

TsR IlEiTr Duck Hor^z in tha lost rarieiy it may be ii««(«8ary tu 
■Uitivt-. It 15 bntl cbioily in tlio midlfuad couutiuH fram Liuculiialiirw to 
StaiTunbiLire. ^[)lIly nrv lx;ii<;lit u|j by Hms Sari-ey and litrktiliire farrnvre 
at two ycHrs ulii, — iinil, Iwin^ workpil niu<lui-nt"ly atitil tlity nrv futir, 
CKrriitiK tJii'u- kcL-p iill th<! whilo, tlioy atw «rnt to tlt« JjondQn market, iiit<l 
ttuM ttl It ■•rufit vitvu or twi»lvo per ccut. 

It wxiiUl not uoiswer tbc bri^'-Jer't purpocie to koep lliem until they nni 
Bt Tor town work. He hus plenty of fillies and inares od his fai7» fur 
ovry pnr\niBo tbnt )iu nm n>(]nirL>: b» tberefura sella tbom to a pcraoti 
tHHiivi- till- motropoliji, by whom thvy iliv (^dually Imiui'd »u(l prcpHrwd. 
Tbv trsvcllrr biM probrtbly wnudvn-J to hcu funr uf tbcac ciiumiuius aiii- 
tualtt ill tt Hiio iK'fiire « ]ilough, nn no vwy Lwivy soil, and wbtTB two 
H^lilor hon*(^x would liare been ouiU) Rufficimt The fiu^nrr in tniiniii(> 
tboin for Ihf ir future destiny, and he tloea right in not i-eqairini^ tbo cx- 
ertiou of all their etrcovih, for their bones arc not yet perfectly foniied, 
nor their jointa knit ; ncd vrcrv he to nrj^c them too Hcvoroly, no would 
probubljr byurv and defuTin iitvm. Tly thi< giiitlo and contitunt uxcwiKP of 
llt« plough, bo is pronortii}^ thoin lor that erjnlinwii and fpialie pull ut 
Uto OoUar, which it iul«rwards so nvcc-emir}-. TheK horsoa aro adapted 
more for panwle and hIiow, and U> ffratil'v the desire which one Inwrer hn» 
to outvie \iut neighlioar, thiin for any peculiar utility, Tlipy aro c»iiainly 
Boble^lookinf:^ BtiiDuil)>, with tlit'ir round fitt. varcruseH, utid their Kleek eniits, 
Kad the evident pride which thoy tnkf in th<innclvvs ; bat they ettt ft jpvafc 
dual of hay and com. and, ut hard and loDg-i>jntinucd work, they >M)uld 
be completely beaten by a team of activo muMmlor hanKa on inoi and a 

boll' lower. 

^^^L Tho only dIml whieli can be urged in tliHr favour, lieoide their noble 
^^^^^peamnce, U, that oh shnfl-boraeH, over the botlly^paviHl ntreeU of lliu 
W TiirtniimliH, and witli tlie iinmcnflO loads they own liave tn'Iiiiid tiii-ni, 
I great bulk and weight are neceanry to stand the unaruidublL-batttTiitg and 

I shaking. Wciplit inui^t )k> opiioexd to woi^'ht., or the horst> w<^<idd souie- 
I timm bo qnito thrown off hi« Icfps. A l«rjf<) hwivy horw must be in tho 

I ahann, and then Uttlo odoh beforD him wuuld not k>ek well. 
I Cerbuiily no one haa walked ilie streets of [Aiiidim wiUioiit pitying thu 

■ [KXtr thill-horso, jolted ftnm side to side, and exposed to many a bruiiw, 

I anlsMK, with admirable clex-emesa, he ueL'omniiLHliit<>«4 himself to every 

I motiuD; but, at tho same time, it muitt l>o evident, thnt bulk nnd fat do 

P not alwaya oonBtitate stren<^li. and thrvt u eompuet muifvuLir home, 

sppnmching to nzteon huuds high, wonid aequit liiiiiiH.lf far bctli^r in 
Kucl) a t;itu*tion. Tlie dniy-horae, in tlie mere acrt of aacendiug from l)ie 
wkaH^ may display a powerful eifort, but ho iifterwanlB maktij littlo 
exertiuu, luneh of bis forue bein^ expended in U^usjiorting his own over^ 
grown carcase. 

This horse (we engraviog is twxt fm^v) was selected from tho noblo 
stock of tLi«y-horwB bi-longiiii/ to Mesam. Barclay, Fcrkiiis. un<l Co., 
London, by the anthor's fHcnd, Mr. K llraby. Whilo he is a line speeimfB 
of Uiis breed, he aflbrdu a niu^iilar illtiatration of the tnodo of bn.-ediu|{ 
()h4-n pHK-tiAcil witlt respect to these horseit and the educution which they 
underjro. He was bred in Leiei'slensliire, — bis gnuwi-sire wiut si Fliuiders- 
bred liorBo, and lii>i ynind-thun » Wiltwliin* mnre, — liiu stii- was a Will*hiri> 
hoiee, and his dam a ULrkslurv marv. At two and ii lialf ymi» old he 


rnr. ihpkkrkxt brkeiw of exgush horsbs. 

wiM snltl to « fuTtwr «nd diwler in ili'rkuhin', im wh'ifle i^ronnd* lie wum 
worknl until tio was Tour atn\ a lutlf W'Jini old. Ho vtaa tltua aold «t 
Abingdon fiiir to the dealer rrom vrhom Slfwrx. B&rclaj- purctiaiccd him. 

Thrae he^ry honiM. bowex-er. are brvd in llie highest perfi-vtioo, tu la 
rtxf-, in tlu> fens uf I.inmlnshirv, xnd few of tlum aivlcvsllutn soveutcen 
hnndfi high nt two und > halTj-ekre <^d. Neither tlio soil, uor iJic nrmluc-v 
nf the floil, ia butt«r than in olhcT (wUQtioi ; oa the contrary-, nioch of tho 
lowLf pHJt of LiitcolnHhtiv is & cold, hungry cUjT. The tnii- rKplnnatioii 
of lh«i matter m. tiint lliuro ora UL-rtatn situstiona better sttiUiJ IIuir otht-nt 
t4i iliffVwiit ktnda fit fitmiinfr, tuid tJio brvoliii(f uf ditTcrviit animnls; and, 
Uut ixrt ■it'it^vthcrdepvndin^ dq richncm ufiMiil or [mttturv. llir priiirijKtJ 
art of tbi- fknriiT itt, Ui lind out what will bt«t suic bisi mil. And make the 
pfudavc uf it muitt valuabie. 




i • 




Tbe litncolDshiro colte are also sold to tlie Wjltxhirc and Borkshtre 
dcaltn, as are thoae that ara brtid in WiLrwickshire and Dvrkidiire, at two 
TOan, or smnotimea only ono year old, anil worked antil the ago of four or 
ire jeani. 

A dray-hone ahoakl hart abroad breast, and thick andiiprii^hlftlionVlcni, 
(the Diore oprigbt the collar stands on biiii tlio lii>tUT,) u lnw forehand, 
deep and ronnd bnrmi, loins broad and liif^h, amj>I« ijuarti-rK, thick fortv 
anns and thighs. Hli<>rt \<.-g», ronnd hoofit br^MMl ut the bcflH. and »j-\v» nut 
too flat. The gniH fault uf thft Wrgn dmy-lionn is hi* alowuess. This is 
BO mach in tiiu bn-od, that wua thti diM-'iiiline of the ploDghman, who 
woald be better plea«ed to get throug^h an additional mod in the dnj, cannot 
^wrmasentJy qmck«n him. Sarcly tho bnxxlor iiiij^ht obviate this. Ijet 
» dray*niarB be selected, $» perfect as can Ix' oliiaimtl. lift her bo pat to 
the stroDgeafc. largeat, most ooinpact, thoroa(;b>brcd honv. If the prodaco 
is a filly, fct hor be coTcred bv a sapcrior dray-horac, and the rMult of 
Uiia oroNS, if n colt, will Iw- prcciM-ly tlu> animal rrqiiirrd (■> bn-<^ from. 

TUe largctit of this heavy btood of black borece are oacd us dray-harKS. 

OALLowATfi Am) pomts. 


The next m iut-» aivfloM a» leni/ijmi'fiortet ; and aamalWrariely, andMilli 
RMre blood, constitatvs a. c-onsidembk- p&rt ut'out* eavtilnj, luid ix likewine 
do^rotod to ttndcrtnkcrs' work. 

All oar bcuTT dran^lit hoi'aea. and sonio even of Uio lighter kind, Iibto 
Imtd Ifih'ly modi crotaed lyy the Fliindani lirocd, anil witb vvi<U>nt iaipror»' 
■niiit Little htm bMB loxt in di^ptti nnd biille of c-arcaso ; but tho forohfuid 
baa been railed, tb« lagn have been flattened atid deepened, oad wry miicb 
baa been gniiwd in octirity. Tbc slow heavy bl&ck, wiUi his tvfo m'tWn 
and a half an hour, haa bwii cliaiiucd into a lighter, bat yet cxcpwliii^rly 
|]owi>rrul horao, that v\\l stop foar milG>s in the same time, witU [lerfeet 
ease, and baa oonaidpnibly moi'o cTi(lnni.n«'i?. 

This is (lie v«ry syst^^in, ua airctuiy di'xcribud, wbioh has bccu adopted, 
and vitb so macn stil-ci-)^, in ihv blood liurse, nml has miidv ttiL' English 
taearand hunk-r, and Uip Enijlmb lionrn piinmllj, whiit tln_-yan\ Asthv 
noor ia prt»ei|Mi.lly or punOy of Kmi^Urm oe-i)fii>, wt \ism the Eiif^liKli dmnght 
borae aj^rnug vhivfly I'rom Hi^iuah blood, and to that blood the agrioai- 
tunst Kaui rerourae for tlie iwrfcctiouof the bnnMl. For thedifty, Uie spirit 
wagHon, and not too heavy loads, and for rond work generally, a ctorh with 
the tlanders will be advuntof^eouH ; bat if thi* enormooB honvy tiorfu> oiUMt 
be nsod in the coal-wa^rtT^n, or tho dray, wo must leave oai* midland blavlc, 
with all bif QDwicMy bulk nntoucbcd. 

Aa an onliiinry bciwl of lighter dmuglit^ and imrticnlarly in t1ic ncltfb- 
bonrhood uf London, the wom-out baclniey, and Uih refuw of tbc> mfK'h, 
and even of the boclcney-eoaoh, iii uacd. in the hay^markclit of Whitiv 
clu^l and Camden Town arc coiitiuually eeeu wretched teauia tbttt would 
diBprace tlie j>oorest district of iim [inorc'et countiy. Tliny who are oiiav- 
unainted with thin part of the conntry. wonld scai'ccly think it poAiiblc, 
Ibai <m the fon-ets and commons within n fi<w uiiieii) of Ijondon, as many 
ngB«d, wild, motigrel borfles arc to be fonnd aa in any dialrli-t of the 
Dmted Kiugdom, and a good harac is acarcely by any chance hi-od there. 



A borsc between ihirtoen and toiirtooii hands in height in enllixl a 
GxLLOWAT, liom a bcaiit.ifiil brceil of littl* boraes ouco fuund in the south 
of S<viiJ*n.1 on the Bhoro of tho Solway Firfcli, bat now sadly dt-ftetierati'J, 
sod aJmoat loot', tKrongh the attempts of the tunui>r to obtain a lar^r 
kind, and better adapti^^l for the parpoww of agricnltun-. Thpre ia a 
tradition in that conntiy, that the urc«d ix of Spaniiih extraction, some 
horw-s havin)^ fficaped frt>ni ooo of the reuela of the tirand Aminda, 
tliat wna wnyVed on tliu neighbouring coast. This diatrict, liuwevur. so 
oariy aa the time of Edward I., anpyiliod tbnt monnrcb witli a gTcat iiamljer 
of hones. 

Tlic pure ^loway was said to Iw nearly fourteen liatid.i hii;b, and 
Bometimia marc ; of a bright bay, or brown, with black Icrs, siuuII hL>ad 
and neck, and peculiarly deep and clean logs. It« qiialitim were upvcd, 
stontnoas, and Rnre-fnotednettROTvraTery nifwed and mountainmiaeniintT;y. 

Somo runuunH of the old gullownya arc atill to be met with in tliu I>lu 
of MuK ; but they aiv altogether neglected, and fast degenerating from 
admixturo with inferior breoda. 

Dr. Anderson thna deambes the ^IIown\' : — ' There was tmec n brood 
of SDiaJ) ete}j;ant horses in SeoUiuid, aimifar to tlioao of I«.vland nnd 
Sweden, and wbieb ware known br the name of gulloway* ; the beet of 
which sometimes reached the bright nf fourteen bands and a hnlf One 
of this dew^nption I poascasad, it havinf^ been bonglit for my uno when a 
boy. In ]Mint of oleganoe of shape it was a perfect pictnre ; and in 

i1iit]KWTtion wikM tiirntlo and cnmpliunt. It nv^vrd ttlmost tHth ft wi»h, 
iK-vvr titvil. I rodo Uuh littlu urt^tuTD far twcntj-fivo jciua. luid tvrico in 
t\\M lima I i-o)Io » handm) ami fifty m\U» nt b tttretoh, wiUiiMit atO|ipiiip, 
ttxccpt to bail, and tbat uot fur aborv an linar at a time. \t cnrae m at 
th« but stagQ with as mniih use and nUrnt^ aa it trvwlkd thv first, t 
cunld Iav« DadHrtakeB to hare porfortu«d on Uiia beast, wliea it was iu 
itti primetKix^BulM adajr for a twdTemonth nmniiig, wtUioot any cxtnt- 
ordinary ezertion.' 

In 17M, Mr. Corkor'a gftlVmsjr wont one huixln-d niilntaday, Ibr throu 
MnMBsiTe daja, over tW Novmutflui Conra«> and -Hnthout tlio atif^btcst 

A indlon-ay, beloDofaig to Mr. f^lnclair, of Kirby-Ijoiiwlale, prrfonned at 
GirliBl« tlie eiinundnuuy feat of a iboaRand miles in a Uioa.wnd hnnta. 

Mntiy of the jj^aUowBra now in use are proenrml oither from Waloa or 
tliv New ForcMt; bat they b&vo tnatc-riiilly diniiniiiliMl iu niuiibcr. 

Old Uiu'ftk. bcfon.' bis rulno wntt ktiowti, cuntribatnl to tho imprortrEnt'ut 
of the HainjHtbtrv liTvcil ; iumI thv Wdsli poiiiM an> iud to be iudebtod to 
tJie 4!«IetiratMl Meriiii for uiueb of tJicir form and qnaliliHi. 

The modem Nev-forMien, notwilhstandinf^ their Mank blood, ara 
Kenenlly iU'inadc, lar^^headed, aboi-t-ae«k«d, ami ratnred-bipiwd ; tnit 
nardy. rafo, and uK'fal^ with much of tbcir luicitmt s[nrit and spoed, ami 
all thpir old piures. The o&tohing of thesp pouira in im ^freut ■ trial of skill 
as the hunting of Iho wild honio on thu PamjHW uf SouUt America, and a 
);r<:7utcr one of patience. 

T))o WelA jtong in one of the moot iN-Antiful liUlc oniiitals tbol can be 
inmiritMil, Hk liofl a 8Ria11 head, hij^b witKt*t-M, itet^p yt-L nitiiid lHii-n<l, 
flhort joiut.^ fluc U-gH, and good round fc«t. lie will Uve on any fun-, aud 
will Uf vt>r tire. 

Foiiy- hunting aan\ to be one of tbe favonnte amuscnuMita of the Wi-lnh 
farmers and ptwKuitiy. a centoiT and a half apro, and it haa not, even now, 
titllc-n alto^-thtr into diHUso. Tht' folluwin)^ story of one of these cxpedi- 
tiona, narralod in tbo Cambrian Qeart^rly Ma^anne, is foanded on fitct : — 

*A fiumer, named Hugo Garonwr, Uvea in the ocifchbourhood of 
Uweyn Qcoric. AUhonigli bo bnndW thr Hnmll Hit ploui^li, ami iither 
flinnitiki IooIm in llicir due soHon, yi^t tlie catching v\( tiii> iiuTlyn, thu fox, 
and Lll(^ bare, we9« moro ooogeniol norsaits ; and the tumbles and thomps 
wbivb h(< rveeived, and from wfaicn no pouy-huDt<rr wns exempt, sgrred 
hub to attach liim to the sport. Rac^nl, howoTcr, as the llcrioncddaliira 
ooaMt and ils eiirirana vrvn, nod nboniidine with prLvipicwtt and morasHra, 
wiinte nindinpu were BunwlinieH L<x|Hiriviiovd — and so it bapppned with 

' Ho Birt out one moming with hi< lasKi coik-d round hiti wnJKt, and 
athtitdMl by two linnly dviwndeutfi and tliuir (frcyl>ounds. Tlie laaso was 
then familiar to tint Welshman, &nd da adroitly managed by him aa by 
ftuy ^UAl1o on thu pUins of South Aincriua. As the bnntors cliniK-tl thu 
mountain *(i brvw, tlie difflant herd of ponit* toc^ alarm— itomctim«8 f^- 
loptRK onwardu, and tbim suddenly halting and wbcvliiiK rvoud, snortinj;, 
aa if in lU-tiancv of tliti iiitruilera, and ferioUBlr pawing the Kroniul. 
(iaroiiwy, with tlte oKadstanee of bis aenranta am! tne grcybuiuula, con* 
trivod to oiv>p th^m np in a coraor of the hilts, whuro porpendictUor rocks 
preTe»t4.-il tbwr irMMpa. 

'Altvudy )umI bi' cupturrtl three of the mont bcanlifiil littJo TrllowA in 
Uxo worhl, which he expected to sell for 41. or M. inrb at th(< iil-xI Dnia 
fiur^ to him a ouoHidonlile oam, and anonnting to a fourth of th« annnal 
real which he f«id for bin gbiM'p-walk. Thefw rrmairK'd. hnwi'Ti-r, one 
Uoiil ButaiaL-ablL- vruilun:, wLuoc cnstvU soaav, aud flowing tMiI, and wild 



♦J*, uid distAivIixl otiAlril, sliow^d Uiat he uras a pvrrct t UticvphftloB of tJie 
liiIU ; nor, iikdeud, was it faafu to atuiik him iu tiiu onliiiary w»y. Unity 
uTthc thnx"jc«r-aldB bttd been known to brvak tlie legs of cheir ptmaera, 
VJiil Mtmi' luul bi«n dunii>iuit«<l himI Imnipled to d«atli. 

'G»rauwy mm dotcrminod to j^ro tlie noblo follow ft cbaee orcr tha 
IuUa, Mul MO ovorcome him bj fittigao bvforo tho liuwo vne flant;. Iha 
ilogt woe anslipiiud, and off they went, swift lu tlio winds. OiuTimwy fol- 
ImrinfT, nad the two asaUtantB posted od a ni>ighboaring esiuiauci>. Vuiii 
-was tiiu vflori to tin> tho loerlyu. Uu^, natnmlly impatiEttt, and witJicmt 
waitioj; to a^Mrtain that the coUb wvrv all cleEU-, llutig tho laeso uwr Ihu 
IkimI of thu wild borao. Tho t-xtrcmity of the cord was t^vistcil niiiiiil 
his own budy, aud tigbtviuiig iM ihe uiiimii] struggled, the compression 
became iuuin)»]iortabh% and, at lea^h, in K|>it« of vrery ^brt to disengage 
hinuicltl Gnn>Dwj was drai^f^ fVom bin home. 

' Tho afTrivhtvtl iiierlyu liutliu^ hiaucU' luauuclud by tho ropct, dnrtcd 
off with all ttio Bpc«d of whii^b liv wua capable, dntf^ing pour Garouwy 
oror the nscky ground and stnnied bm&hwood. T'hui ocoiuTed at nuniu 
distance from tbe men. They eallMl in th«ir dogs that the speed of ibu 
mcrlj-n mifflit Dot bo increased, bat> oro thoy coald ftrrivo at tho spot 
at vhivh thu iu.>cidimt bappfatcd, ihe bonto and tJie man hud vonisln-d. 
Wbethw the nufforiup* of tho faouter were protnict«l, or Ik* waa ihuthHl 
HMBiBst aame friendly n>c-k at Oia commencEaDent of tltia horribio mac, wax 
^^Hnr known t bnt tho wild animnJ, frcmiciud and blinded by terror, mfihMl 
orer n beeUiuc clips', at a coOBiderablo distance, ovL'rhiuu^Di; tho sa^ahore, 
and tho hnntor and tbo hono weru futtnd at thv builom, a miii-«ba{>en 
aembhuioo of what tbwy had bom whon Uviug.' 

A gnat nvKny poni«a of little vnlue ommI to be reared on the Wildmoor 
ivn», in tbe tivigbbuurbood of BoHton, iu LiucuhiBlurv. ThcT' Bt'ldom 
irai'hi-d thirttvn liandn; tlie h»Kl was lur)^-, aud tliu foreliand luw, tfao 
back strHi|j:bt, the leg flat and good ; bot tlic foot, even for a [jincolEudiiru 
pony, unuatiimUy large. Tbey wore oiipliL-d to vi-ry inft-rior pnr{io«ieH 
even ou the fens, and were naequal to Iiard atul Hinty aud hilly roods. 
Tbd breed became geuAiaUy noglcctcd, and, at no very distant time, will 
be molnbly extinct. 

The Rnaovr nwiiW, althoa^h i^mtonUly nely enough, an hardy and 
lUefnl. A w<'II-lcnnwn H[)ortiutian aaja, thai he rodo one of them half-a- 
doMio miU'M. uuil ncwr felt xucli jMwer and avtiou in ito small a oompaM 
before. To hImw bis a(!conipli£hnit>iita, he was tamed over a gate at feast 
eight iuchoa higher iJian his buck ; and liis owner, who rides foortceu 
stone, tMTolIed un faini from Brislul to Suutli Moltun, eighty-six miles, 
b«Hiting tho coach which ratis tlic «aine rood. 

Tbo liunos which wcm oucv used in Dfrouabirc, and partieularly in ihu 
wvstem and sonthem difftricla, under tlto denominatioo of Pack- umiuhui, 
are a lai]ger Tariety of the Exmoor or Dartmoor brit-d. The saddlo-honui 
of Dex'o^hire are mostly prot^nri'd from Itm ition> t-nKtern countiea. 

There are still aODte farms in tho lutjludiil diatricuiu that bMinHfiil part 
of the kingdom on which thcr« is not u pair of whwls. Hoy, corn, straw, 
fttcl, stoniw. diliig, liiw, are rarri(<il oti lioravbnck ; an<I iu hurvuet, elulgua 
drawn by oxen and horses are employed. This was prx>l«b1y, in early time*, 
the mode of ooaveyaoee throngnont tbe kingdom ; but it is now rapidly 
gvtting into diooae eroa in Deroushir«. 

^lere is on Dftrtmoor a race of ponies much in reqacst in that ricinity, 
being siii*>foote<l and liardy, tuid admimbly oalcnlotol to scramble orer 
thu rough roods and dreaiy wilds of tlmt mountainous district. Tlio 
Dartmoor pony ia Iaig<7 than the Kxmoor, and, if possible, uglier. Ue 
exiitii blnsn) ALnoat in a atuto of aaturu. The faitu Captoua Colgravo, 



^v^mor iir ihn priHon, hwl a (ptMit ^liwiro ht jHiHsaiui otio of thmn of some- 
wbftt supvrior EiffUK to iw fdlowti ; nnd haviiif; jt>'v<.'ml men to titaat 
faitn, Ibcjr sopftmtv*) it rnrni tbc bvnJ, 'they tln^vu it on »(>nii- rorks bv ttio 
ride of a tor (uu l^l^lpt |«>tiiU-<l liill). A iiiKii fijlluwnl on liorM-iwck. 
wliilu till) utualain Htood b^lnw wiitohin^ tint cIiaw^ Thv liltlo ftnimiil 
being driren into a oomer, leaped oompkt^y ov«r the man and honK-, and 

Tni' JJiijVawI ptmy is far inferior to the ^lloway. TIio head in 1urg:«; 
bf> in low Ijcforv, lun|( in the baclc, short in th» K^p), tijiri^hl in tho 
ptutcrng, rather slow in hid paces, and not pleasant to nAt\ ojcoept in the 
L-itnlcr. Hin liabitd uiiiko liiiii htirdy ; for hu in rarcl^' huum-d in thu 
HunuiiiT ur tlie winU-r. Thn Il«;v. Mr. Hall, in lii.t ' Tntrcljt in ScuLliind,' 
sityH, ' ttittt whim tht'wi aiiinuila come U> any hojfxy |''Wf "f (^>iinci, ihpy 
firat put tliC'ir noso to it, and then pat oil it in a peculiar way wiih oin* of 
llicir fun.->IV(-t; and from the 8uuiid tuid fvel uf thu jfrtmnd, Ui(\v know 
whither il will \tt»r thmn. They do the aanie with ice, and determine iia 
u miiHit^' whether ihey iriEl proceed.' 

Tht! .SU'-tl'tii'i )"'"'{, <7alli^ in Scotland nhoilif, an inhabitant of the 
fxtn-mtttt tiiiithcrn i^cultinh iiilcs, ie a vory diininutivv aiiimui — t>umetinic» 
not iiiiin? than scvtia hands and n lialf in height, and rurvly exceeding nine 
and u tuilf. 


•m nnrTLucD vott. 

B« is often cxcccdinfcly boantiful. t^-ith n BnuUI hcud. pnod-t^tnpond 
OOUltaDnDOC a nhurt ct-ck, fine towards the lUrottlc, nhouMera low and 
ttick. — io BO lil.tli> a crcatnn- far fmm hoinR a blemish, — liack short, 
qoarten expanded and ftowerful, lef^s flat and tine, and ptvtly round fe^t. 
Tiwse ponies posaess inuneMO stf«ii^h fur thpir tnie; will fatten npoa 
almoftt a&rthinjr ; and are perftctlj dot^ilo. One of them, nine hands (or 
tliree frei) in height, carried a man of Iwelvu irtono forty miles in one day. 

A friend of tlie aathor wan, not limLf air^'- prcsente<1 with one of theae 
cirgnnt little animals, lie was m.-vi.tu1 lutlvs from liome, and poxxJcd how 

TUB iKisii nonsR. 


to convfy his newly-acqiiircil proporty. The Shi'tbiinlflr wnit SiMircrly 
rooro than Bcvun luinil-i hipli, «n*l as docile iia he was hi-autirul. * Can wo 
Dot M.TTy him in toot (.'hatei! ? ' xaid his (ricnd. Th^ str&ngo experiment 
wu tried. The abulttc m-m placed in the bottoED of tJtc i^i^, aciil covered 
DD aa well lu could bo nuuuigcd with the upron ; u fow bits of bread kepi 
him qtii»t; and tlius he wa* saffly conveyml avrv.y, and exhibited the 
corions spvctnc'lc »r a honto ndiiig in a ^g. 

In thu «outh<;ni parte ot tlic kingdom, the S1i«t]itnd«ni haro a rery 
plnnirinf^ np|)uamiict) baniesscd to a light gardvii •chair, or ourriiig an 
ahnost baby<rider. There are several of them now running in WindKor 


In mme or the rich gnuiug oountics, a« Honth and Rowommon , a ^fu^^e, 
loDg hkiod-honic is reared, of conBid«t«bIo volat. lie seldom hiis tho 
eJegance of the EngHiih bor»o; ho ih l&rgtT'hMidL-d, mun; Ic^fQ*, ra^^rd- 
l^iped, angnlur, yet with great ]Jower in tlio quarttTH, much drjifh 
bnieaUi iSu> knee:, Htoat and hardy, fhll of Rro and nmimffi*, and aii l'z- 
osUoat kftper. It is not, however, tho leaping of tho Jr^n^li^h horse, 
BtridiDg aa it were over a low funoe, and stretched at hia full Ivu^h over 
tt higher one : it ia tho propor jump of the deer, bcoutit'uj to look at, diffi* 
cult to Bit, and, both in hnight and uxtuiit, ancqualK<d by the English 

In tho last forty yi.'&rv, ioimcnAc iniprovcincnts hav« been made in 
Ireland in utl kinds of a^cnltural stuck. The Irisli hiuiter ia now one 
of the mntt valuable of his class, n-ith nbtindiince of bone anil bi-efdi)i|jr. 
Ireland is the nnreorv fur ru-mounting uur nivulry, and should u regiment 
Irtn-e tho country with inferior horses, it only proves tlic great want of 
jodgmest in tho ofBccr who haa hud tho selection of thcni. 

TneTBors TeiT few honten in thu nf^coltural dislricts of Ireland ex- 
e!iifflv«ly devoted to dranptht Tlie minute division of the lurms renders 
it inipo«fiibto for th«tn to be kept. The oecnpiwr even of a Rood Irish 
fkna wants u honu that ahall carry him to miirkut, and draw hi» bdisU 
car, and porfons evt-ry kind of drudgerj" — a boi-se of alh-wurk ; tliirtToru 
Uio thorough draaght-horse, whoUier Leicester or Suffolk, is randy firund. 

If wc look to the uommciruK of Ireland, thera ore few stage - waggon h, or 
drays with largo cattle belonging to them, but almost everything is done 
by onc-hoTBc (.luta. lu the north of Irt'litixl Mi.>nie stoat horses aiv eni' 
ployed in tho carriage of linen ; but the itinjurity of tlie garronn used in 
a^pnculturv or ooounercial pnimiiUi ore inifi&rabloBndhalf-«tnrvHl uniniiils. 
In the nortli it is somewhat better. There is a native breed in Ulster, 
hardy, aud soro-looted, Wt with tittlo pit^tcusiuu to beauty or 8pv«d. 



A Toirvc of itself would be rcc}nired to do jnatico to a sabjcct nossensing 
■a many feiatarefl of inttfrest and importance i«i the effects ut breeding 
on our different iluniKn of the horse. Oar obsenatinns, then'fnn>, on it 
will oeccMarilj bo brief and of a general natare. lliat breeding liaa u 



oomidcntble infliiouce nn the valnu of nardifTcmitclMs of horm-a will bo 
rvAidilj admitted, &nd tlm tfrcat attt-ittioii hIiEoIi has b««u ^vvn Ui llim 
snbject by breedefs daring tlio lust twL>nty yt-iira, ban been rcw&rded wiLli 
tlte most HQCOOMful resnlt^. However much may hnre been said or vrnttvn 
(if tato rcrpi<cting tho detcriotBtioa of our breca oC honat, wu are inclined 
to bclitvc that thia ouuutj^ nuvrr [Ki»si;»sr<l such numbcn of valoable 
auimala in trvvry <:liuu>, sr at tlm [)rv«vat. The g«iiBml luiom laid dotra 
M tliAt 'lilcc will proiiuoe Kke,' oiid that the progeny irill inli«rit tho 
gviK-Tal OT tmnf;\vd qualities of thi^ pareute. TLia fact should not only bo 
takrti into coiuuJL'ration vi'itfa iv^rd to the general conformation, temper. 
Ac,, of the animal, Imt b1»o in rv^i'd to the tntDHinisaioa ofdiseaM. That 
diaea&« ia truiiHiiitiisihIo Tnuii the ])im'iilH tu the oflUpring, thetv mniiut In 
a doubt; and Rich in tlw licroditaiy nature ofri-rtoiDdiaoaaoa, that, olthon^li 
tiicyiuay not ahow.thciiiatJrt^ iu the progcnr. tbcy fi-oqacntLy 
ilo ao !q the next and evtii mnru diatanb generation. Therv in abundant 
proof that blindn«aa, roaring, br»k«n wind, mdebones. apavios, rin);lx)ue«, 
tamiiiitia nud nai-icnlar disease, hnTO been b^ucathed to thvir olfspring 
both by aini and dam. lior is tlii» all, for nlthoufi;h tbt> freedom fi'om 
dinnaim of aomv jNirticiiIivr organ un the part vt onv uf bhu purcnta muj 
ooontenct^ and tu a ct^riain extent oblilornlo » pnljiablo (Itfert in that 
or^ptn in th« other, there will still remain a |M>ciiliar weakni-sH, or teii- 
df^CV in tho part, which rcqnir«B bn( some slij^lit exciting catiae to bring; 
about ltd full development. To iUn»tnit« (hit^ wp will sapnoae a maru 
jierfix-tlv ftouud ia licr wind in went to a homo oflUctcd with roarinjr: 
althoash the pr>AluLt> may bv fn-tt from roaring, and may continue so for 
wtnie tim« without giving any cvtdi^nee of the d i a c aa e , uwi'rtbi'ktw, how 
(ifWn do<« it happen that an attack of iaflnenia ia mooeeded by th<i animal 
Uri^iming a oonfinwtd roarer? Again, send a mare with curU nu her 
h'N.'kN, tu a horas with pvrfi.'ctly aoond oneii, and what is fn<(|ucntly tJto 
rtwnlt on ilio prodnce ? The jonng animal may not poKses-i the ^a>t di^ 
f«ol8 observable in th« dan — in ^ort, may not have eurba at alt : he will, 
iMvertlietBaB, ia all probabUitr havo weak and bodly-iiliuped hoi-ka, what 
■ra oominonlj oallod ODrbr oockn, wliicli will rL-qain; but ali>:ht atrc«a 
opon thu [NUt to dereloi) Ine dtaeaae inhuriLed from the dam. Hence the 
nociMHiiy of a thorough Knowledge of both sire and daiu. One »f the firHt 
prinoiple* w« would tht-rofore impreu upon tho kri-L'dvra of all uniinals. 
Mid the borae in particular, is that both Mrenta ahould be free from dia- 
«■■«. This has buen too mnrh lotti sight ol, cHpcvially in coontry distrirta, 
whvru atad-hones are kiiit for gvtUug huntcnt, nuuiy of whiclt are nothing 
bett4ir than out-ofi from the racing atnblo, in conNcqnenco ofsocnediMMa 

foot nnfrv^amtly of the reApiratoiy organa), which nudiM them raludcsa 
or the ininxxieit for which Uic-y have beeo reartd. The rrsult in the 
t'lMirae ofa ftnr years will bo manifi«t iu tho young prodnoo exhiliiting in 
a greater or U«a degree the infirmities of tlie sire. There cannot be a 
donbt that the omploymt^nt of such animala for brc«ding purposes is eal- 
calatvd to produce thv t^rcittirct vvil ninoncvt all claMice ofhorevs; luid tlia 
brat cxintue that couUl 1>« ailojitiil wonld W to ouuaigii ihnm to nn 0|ifin- 
tiiio, witieli, while it would allow of their being luiade oaeful for somu 
panxjKa, wimld prevent the spread of their deleteriooB mflnenee. Peou- 
liMnfy of f<.>nii luid constitution will also bb iabcritvd. Tliis is a most 
unpoftant but ucgbcted considcmtion, fur huwurcr deeinUile or uvi-n pcr- 
Ibcl may lukve Men the confbrauitian of tlw aire, evuiy good point nuty 
bii nentrwlisod, or loai, by the di-fcetive Ntruetnn^ of the ninri'. The eaaen- 
tial |M>inU ahonid be good in both pan.-»lt<, or some minor tUTtHit in cither, 
i^• uii-t null trut rid of by uxe^llenix.- iu that lurtii-uUr |H>iul iu llu- oUivr. 
Thv ufikkilful or can-luia brutdcr tuu uftcu bu uudly juiira the auinuJn, that 


■aJ [i^inli) nf cnrti arc nlmosl lont, ttut dcfiictA ot holh incrcwiod, anil 
tln> |inMltic« far infiTior to l>ntli witv ntid ilam. 

Thst the oonsritontin nnd cndiimrKW of t.ho hnrwj flpo inherilMl, no 
llpo^tU)^ noan over duubu-d. Tlio (innlitic-o of tliv sirv or the dam descend 
IroiD RcncnttUni to genumtiou, and tlit- facriltmccs i>r dHi-cta of «T^in 
hcmvs u« oAm traced, am) jnfltljr ju>, to Hunw pecuHariry in a fmr-tiutjinb 

It tc»S, perhaps, bo jtiatly affimiod, Ihiit then is more diflioaltj in «*- 
lectin^ ft Kood mare to tnved from thaii ft fprcrd korsc, becaofic tOie Khniili) 
poMeaa somswbat opposite qaalitirM. Hit oarrtuc Hhonld Iw inng, id 
ortier to pivc rctom for tL* piTTwUi of tlie fintiis ; ami yi't witli this (here 
should bin cntn]>actn(Ma of forni and shortneiW of Uf(. Wliat onn ihpy 
expect whoso prtctiw! it i» to t>archfl«e WAra-oat, >pBTii>V(l, foondcrcd 
maree. aboiii whom tlitry fancy thirre h«To been flomn gnoi) iioiiitA. nnd 
iwnd tliftm far in tlie roiiiitnr to Itrccd from, and, wiih all tlioir vat-i«ty 
of ahap«, to bo covered by tiio eamo liorso ? Ln a lottery liko thiM thcnt 
may bo bow and then a yirizt^ hnt. thrro moAt be many blaalu. If li<in>c- 
bcMdirra, poemHacd of good jndpncnt. woald pay tlic eamo nttctition t« 
1jm>d ami shape as Ttir. Bakcwrtl did vtiih hin xbtwp. they wonid pro* 
(»bly attiiiu tticir wiaboM in an ri|niil do)rn'o, luid |;,'n'ntJy tf\ their ad vantage, 
whether for nu-ine or hiintinjr, for tbo collar, or th<> rand. 

A* to the sliajw of the stftUioa, little eatisfactory can be said. It muRt 
ilepend on that of ih« niai-e, and the kind of honw wished to bo Iin-d ; hut 
if thrrp is one point nbsolntelv cMentiitl, it is ' cornpnctneRs '— oti much 
gondnfw and stmii>1.h ns iioffiibh' cotidiinxi'd iiihi n littlo R{)nc-[i. 

On the Mibjoct of hrettdiny t'« and in, that in, pcraftvorinff in Uio snmo 
breed, tind select! ii(^ tho hot on cither Hidv, inueh hoti been said. Tho 
tyBlna of croiwinf^ requiren more jiiilirmcnt and expi-rietico Ihan breodera 
Bsoally pomem. The iHid (pinliticu of the cmtw arv too fM>oii vn^raTtMl on 
thponfrinal atocle, and, onocenfrnvl^Ml there, ar«Miot, for many f^noratiotui, 
(iradicntvd. The ji^ood ()afttitii.-« of both an; oecuctiunaUy neiitniHiwd to ik 
nio«t mortifying dejrreo. On the other liaiid, it is the fart, liowi-vt-r wiiiio 
may deny it, that Btrict eonSnement to ono breed, however valuftWe op 
perfect, prodnoes f^rndnal deterioration. Croaaing shotdd be attempted, lin t 
with Kreid. oMitioi). Tlio vftlunhle points of tho old lref4 Hhould be re- 
taineu. bat varied or improved by tho introdnctioti of twrnc new and 
valnahlo quality, with rrfemnv^ to beaiity, (rtnmgtli, orgpoocL This is tho 
noerit of thu turf Tint pure iioiith-i^aittcra blood is novsr h'tl, hut tho 
Rioek w oOen eh&n(*cd with manifefrt advantafje. 

C<inHi(h-Tut)le disouseion has lecentty takon place with re(jar() to Uie 
itiflurnec of wciftht and tho distance ref|iiircd to bo rnn, Tipon the breed 
of nap Tace-bcinw*. It has Wen said that the presont syKt«ni of plaeiliff 
Kf^ht WFifflitt) on animals, and allowinfr ihein to rnn bnt slitirt durtiknees, 
hiu ofatndy niiieh diminishod the eapubilities and trndnrancc of oar race- 
bonoa. TIut foUowin^, ruaongHt other n-iTinrkn upon tJie <mbit^ct, coti- 
tnineil in a h-ttt-r to tho Timm in-wsiinr^r, June 2:Hh, lJ^<'i4, hy one so 
Ihopotifilily ueiiiininted with it BB Admiral Itous, will safficiently iodieato 
onr \-iew» on the point. Be says, ' There can h« bat one opinioo nmonj^ 
all peraons who arc interested in tho turf, that tho i^nuid object ia bree<l- 
in|* is to combine ffood siui, ^"at xtrcntrth, and power of endumnce with 
miperior fwi'd. This has ncvfT bren lot* sight (if, Onr iiMitto is " Kiwt*H 
(^pi-antnr lortiho* et brmis." We have succeedod in eatabltidiinff a hrec"! 
mtb ouL--fif\L more i<iKfd and streniith than the orif^nl Ktock — an in- 
cTuaaed avenifp* tttatiiro IVom Ibartwn lianda to lifU,*n and n half — in 
LhirtetTn p-nemlions, from the first iniportcd slalliona, Darley Arabian. 
Hrjerley Turk, without a drop of mixwl Idood, and we havr n finii eoiivie- 


tion, with ready prooF, thnt no honua in tha vcorM cnn Iw companMl to 
Uiwr. On iIk' nullioritv of AtnI-cl-KmUT iiml m^' Ituli:in tm-nds, the race 
of 2sd-ol-Knkvli, th» f^l>. r>f Sitlonion to tJio tribo of Axitl, lniu not de- 
genCTSbed Bince 17^0, vthen the calibre of tho Knelinh itvcf-horac was 
probttbly on a par witb tlie Dni-lia vrbicli now adorn tJie Gtl'ntllnr mt-ctinK. 
Admit thU fftct, and it is patent to ctcpj- racing man that tlio l^nt of 
these *' divino horses" which, according to Eiurtcni history, dtwcendcd ait n 
bcavctilf (lift from Adam l« Iithmni'l, I»hrnnvl to Solomon, from Solomtm 
to liahmiiiDt, ukd bom Mahomet to our own timro, cunnot rompcto nitli 
the Anj^lo-Arvlwui •( m difference vf livu tttone ; a thon^ughbri'd IjatclicrV 
hack will Iwiit tlio Ilowt^r of tlie Dt^iwrt any dixtancv uiidttr UX) mill*. 
If tlioHi U a d^prociation, why aaoribe it to ilie abolition of hwivy weiplitu, 
or io the subittitution of flKoHt-r coarsca ? Tho naturat aolutiou would bo 
that it is owin^ to tho sale of our moet yaloable slock to every country in 
Europe, to China, to AustraliiL, Kcw ZtalikniL But wc- have cnongh l«ft 
to challiTn^ all the world. In 1843, thi' toUtI iimouiitr of Hlakott, platcta, 
and laatchcfl, wm iiH*.0(K}t. ; in lSt;.t, it waa ttl>OT^ 2.M1,<"K»0/., withont iti- 
cludiap the royul platctt. 'I'hr di-ti-rionition of liunH-« is n pure fiction. 
Stockwdl, Kuig Tom. Yoiiiig Melbourne (N«l»fili, sold U) Franrc), luid 
many otJinr- Htallioiia aro frnrnt^I to gultnp undc^r twenty Rtono; the first 
(■hniyca 1"MI/., Kinff Tom 7^1^ next sfaaon for tlip chnnce of a foal. Yon 
may »v« in Lord Olaa^w'a and Baron Rothgcbild'e staUco, twenty hones 
up to eighteen atone; aixty years ago you conld not have found five 
tbomii^hhred hon«s of thin deacrijition in tlto United Kingdom. Fina 
v<>arting colls fetch at anrtion fmiii -WO t« ft>0 ffuiuoaM, if they appoar 
likely to ctny A distance and to carry hrA^-y wdfrhl«. That oogltt to be a 
aafBoisnt answer to those pcnwnn who inuifciue that light weights and 
short courses are detrimental to the lin>cd. and encotimi^! " lepgy we«J»." 
The following table of tho k-ngtb of l.hft diflbront coiiriw« at Newmarket 
will ^re some gonorol idf* of the dutinnee nsnally roqnircd to be ran. 


Tho Bpstod Cunne , , . . . 

RMm4 OouTM ....■- 

SwBDMr Oaunc (lut 3 milM oJ It. C.) . 

I^M UuM milM of R. C ..... 

Dtteh la (from Ibd ninning-gnr i« (he cud of B. C) 

Tlw lad nijl<i snd a tlialanc* cc R. C 

AncaiTiT Hill- (Ian milo mwieht) 

Critprion, Rutland, and Oianuy Giranc* (from dir (um of (he 

I^ad* in) 
AstUor End Om«e (from Iha ttaititig-wml ot ihm T, Y. C. 10 

MidefB. C.) 

AmuB Ike l-'Ul ...... 

Rowtrr Milr <laat miln of A F.) . 

nicli nils (Brat mill- <]f A. K.) .... 

Athwdoa Milr (oa iho (lat) .... 



TWa mM\m milm of B. C 
iMt ■«• ands half cfT. M. M 
Two Ymt Old Omiw (ya the Flat) 
ICmrT««YMrOldOoitnD<«niheR, U.) 
LullutfMn.DlNrwT.Y. a .... 
YmrliaK C«ni» (vn U>c Flat) .... 
Yrarliiw Coiwo (from ■Urting-pMl of laM half Ah. H. to 

wiaBtBit-mt of I), U.) .... 

fiaalMBy Nile (a UnuKhi nil*. Cvivhing aJ lh« md of It. C) 
Ch««««fUl.-o«r»(la>tlialf<if ILH.) . 
BMbjr Slakio Cooror (IarI aix fUr nf iL U.) 





























































ritf'Ii Cmsnw ({ton tbertutiitt po«t of T.M. U. to Uia 


CaMbridOThiiw Oeoiw (lut mito «imIs dfiuiiM. BtralglM) 
StfhllE StakM Onuw (iMt bU* and ■ ta^ B. a) 
BMMbid 8likM> Cmne <lwt « ftn-. of A. R) 
Vmai f^Mrtinfi-Pifltof Uol lialfof Ab. M.I0T. Y. C. wiamag- 
poM . . . . , . . 
From OU Betiing-PoA on Critmoft C««ru> to the «m1 of B. C. 

From Uio aboTP it will be mvu that ^ri'rat ranc1;r of <Ub<Kdocc is adopted 
rnif^ni; Trom 1 furlong 144J rrmbi U> -t imWl farlong irST&n]*, well i-al- 
inil8l«<d Co Uwt the ^ait^iml xjuxil xnd >miltir«tic«uf cvtrv claw of raoe-licirM*. 

A Ruini ia cftpablo of bn^^linj; at two jcani old, bat shonld nat bo 
iiI1oir«d to do *> Iwrore thn» or four j-eftr« old. ftJomc hav« injadi* 
riouHly commenci^ at two yauv old, beforo hci- form nnd i!rtiTt»f:ili ara 
ntfficuntljr dewlopcd, and with tha development of which ihiN »trlj 
breeding will inat4?rialt^ iQt4^i<n>. If ft tniuv doi-H little inon' than fnnn' 
woHe, «no mnv omtinnp trt bo hn'i\ from until nhw in nwirlv tWMitr; but if 
ahc haa bcm IiaixUv workixl nnd bt-ar* tlic marko of it, hi Lt-r bnvc bei-n 
wluU 8lir niay in hvr jiiiith, ttlic will lU'Ceixi^ 1ll(^ r-x]MM:tAtii)n of the brnedcr 
in hor old ago, Thi^ mare usually comes into heat in tho pariir part of 
the sprinff. 8ho ia said to go with foal etovcn monthtt, bat there is somes- 
times a Btrancc irrofi:u]arily tiboat this. 8omc have been known to foni 
five wrekp cnrlirr. while the time of ot.hcm h»s been extended six weektt 
buy ond Ibe elcvoa months. Wv may, howcrrr, ttike eleven months as thu 
Kvomgo time. 

li>ora the time oreorcrinfi;, to within n few days of the eiperted pei-iftd 
of fooling, the curt-niarc may be kept at modenkte labour, nut only with- 
out injury, bnt with decided advantajCTR. It will then ho prudent to rclcBae 
lier from work, and keep hornear home, and nnder the (r«iuent inRpGCtion 
of BOtne enrofnl person. 

When nearly half the time of pregnancy has elapsed, tho mare should 
har« a little better food, ^he should he allowed one or two feeds of eom 
in tho day. This in about Iho perioil when they ikrc nccniitonied to slink 
thoir fimts, or wlieii nbortion oeount ; the eyo of the owner fdiouUl, there- 
fore, bo fretiuenily upon them. Good fivdinp nnd modemtt? exoreiwe will 
K^ t\w In-ot prcmi(ivi« of tliin inishiin. Tint innrc^ thiit liim onec alxirteil 
i» liable 10 a repetition of the aeciai>nt. niid therefiin" shoiihl nevf-r !«• 
SiiQered to be with other miirrs betwcien tho fourth aii<! fiJth ninritJis : foe 
sacli is the power of imapfi nation or of sympathy in tho mare, that if ono 
anflen abortion, others in the same paetiirc will too often share the ftanio 
fail*. P^rmcra wnnh, ami ptiint, ntid tiir their Htalilcs, to prrrcmt somo 
finpp(isr<(l infivtion ; — tlm iitfix'lion lirtt in ihr inia^inalinn. 

Tho llioroiiffli-breil mare — thi> sloek Ixiing intended for sporting pur- 
pOMM^afaonld be kept <mict and npart from other borees, nfVer the firxl 
roar or fire months. Wbrii the period of partnri^oa is drawing ni-ar. 
■he idioold be wat<jied, and shut up during the night in a safe yard or 
looae box. 
^ If the mare, whether of the pare or eommon breed, he tlinn Inken carp 
9m and be ia j^ood health whilo in foal, little dnnf^r will attend tlic act uf 
imrtiirition. If them ts falao prr«icnt«tion of tho fu-tns. or diRinulty iit 
pnKlurinfT it, il will Iw l)ett«T to have rpconrw to a w<.-ll-i 11 formed ptac- 
trtifmpp, than to injur* the mother by tho violent and injusioiis attenipts 
that are ofl<ii ma^le to r«licvv her. 

The {lartiirition Ixiing m'er, the marc sliould lie turned into some wcll- 
aheltered ptuftun?. with n hovel or shed to ron into when she ploBscs ; and 
u, Bnpitoang that abo has foaled in April, the gnus is ncanly, sho ehonlil 

tiATO ft (xmple of feeds of cnm daily. By Uio pi<oacnt roles of the joe! 

clab the : 

of turf hurwti is 

n-ckonnl froin thv lut of Ji 

but tliU 

' ft$[e or tort liurwti is n-ckonnl Iroin tJw lut or Juiukt}-, 
hafi not )jy uit common oonsont extended to the holf-bivcls. 

Tbo Ut of iiMf btioff Dcarost the goMnU time of foftUnir, the ftffo of 
aU but tborouf^-brctl aiook ie usnally dated fVmn that pmod. The bntxler 
ma^ depend npon it that nothioff is auti«d hy xMrrmg the ntothfr iind 
Btintiiiff the foal at tbis time, ft in the most importnot pencil <>r the life 
of the aonte ; and if ft^m falae economy hia growth is arrcirtoii, Im puny 
tana ami waut of endanmcc Aril) tncr nher testify the error Lliitt Iiiin Ih^ii 
ooDunitted. The com aboultl be invi'ii in u tivD);h oii the ^touikL, ttiai 
the fbal may partakn of it with the mothrr. \\*lHni ^Tmt» is iik>nlifiil. the 

JfDantity ef eom mayltcdimimiilied. The man) w ill luuutlly b<^ ruiimlHthpat 
ram the oiffhth to the tenth day after foaliit^, vrhieh is Uic beat timv for 
her to be put to the horse again, aod if this period be alknntd tu pam 
without lifr talcin«[ the harae, three weak* will generally be Anind to elapse 
before she will bo af^in found to be at h^., and erery preoantion Khnnld 
be adc^tod by AKaiii briu^niifhrrto the hone, at tli« expiration of another 
three wettka, to rasaro hir bcin^ la fnoL if lued for afn^caltand pnr> 
poMa, she may now bo a^n put to work. Thti foal is at fint shut in the 
atabte dnrin^ Hiu hours of work; but as soon as it aoqairus stifliuuut 
strenfTtli to tridillu after the mare, and eepeoiaUy wheu she u at slow wnvlt, 
it will he Ix-tt^rr for the fbal and the dam that they should be toffetlKr. 
The work will <x)ntnhate to the health of Iho mother; the foal will more 
freqeciitly draw the milk, and thrive better; and will be hanly and 
tmcinblo, and omdnally rnrailiariKivl with tlw objiicts udkid^ whivh it is 
afterwards to hve. While the mollu-r, however, is thns wonted, she and 
the fool shonld be well fed ; and two feeds of oom, at least, should bo 
added to th« green food which they get when tamed out afler their work, 
mod at nipfat. 

Id 6vo or six months, aecordintr to the (rrowth of Uie fool, it may be 
wmncd. It shonld then be botui.\l fur thrvu weeks or a montli, or turned 
into some dixtjint rick-yard. There can ho no better place Ibr the foal 
liina the latter, as aflbrdinff, and that without trouble, both food and 
shelter. The mother sbootd be pnt to hardor work, and hnve drier meat. 
One or two ariao-balht, or a phyaio-ball, will bo useful if the milk ahould 
bo troublesome, or she should )iinc afti-r her foul. 

Titers is no pniici|Je of frn^iUT iiii|<ortiLnce thikn the liberal feeding of 
the foal during the whole of his irrowth, and at tliis time in fiartieolar. 
Bruised oats uid bnui should form a eonsidcmblo part of his <lntly pra- 
Titudir, niid if the ail^'antu^ of a daiiy is available, a hberal supply of 
new milk will accelerate his devclnjiment to a most extraordinary extent. 
The formor nmv be acaoted tliat tho money is well Inid out which i^ ex- 
pended on the liberal nouruihinetit of the eruwing colt ; yet while he is 
well bd, he should not be n-udc-rvd dulicate by excMs of care. 

A racing colt is often Ktablcd ; but ono that is dostined to bo a hunter, 
a lumknpr, or lui n 1^*1 nil Kinil borse, should have a sajuare rick, niiiler tlw 
loeward mic of whirl) he inny fhvlter himaolf; or a hovel, into which be 
may run nt nii^it, ntnl out of the rain. Too often, however, the fool after 
wiwnini; is left, to Mtmfnrle on as he can, aud bixximen poor and dispirited, 
lie in suon sliritikinjr undor a hedge, his head hani^ng dnwn.eold and almnat 
shivoring, and whim rnado to move, liitlesaly drags his limbs along, evi- 
dently wi-ak anil gftutmllr in l>iun, a asd specimen of poverty and mii*ery ; 
sui^h tnatnivut Ki-iK-ralty rL-sulU either in the death of thv unimid during 
llu> wiuUr nr fi)lliiwing nprinc or lays the foutidatjon for a vnriily of dr>> 
bilitJBting diMrauM-s which inny inorT- or hum aJTnrt the luiimnt for lilt*. The 
|>roee«t of brrakin^-in nlionlU ctymmf n(!L> fiMtti llii> v<-r)' iwriml of wcitning. 



nliniild be doily haixHtil, iK-oiiKtimiiil ta llio liallcr, Ittl nhuiil, and 
eren tied up. Th« tractsbilily, gniKl U-d)]m<i-, and vului* of llic Imrsw de- 
pend A fn^»t< ilonl mnro npnti thin than hrc«<lc>rfi iiro awiiiv^ ; thia i'licmld Ixr 
uono lu innoli an poMublp by ttio man by wiuiin Ihcy uiv t'ud, t^ui! whiMU 
iiuuuiKvnivut of tkcm iihoubt ho utwuys kuid iind pontic. TLci-e ia uu fnult 
for which u breettcr should m itivivriiibly diM.-h»r|,i- Iiim scrvuiit aw cruelty, 
or evon hafahnoRs, tnwards the Hmd^ fttx^lc ; for tttn |)rinc)|i](T (.in wliitrh 
Uicir &l1cr aael^lnpM is foiind4Ml is attacbmont to, njid (*oi\lid<M)ce in i»n.ii, 
and Dbedxmci', implicit obedience, resulting priacipftlly rrtiin tlirsu. With 
tho horse aacd for ugrivulttiml piirptist-s. iiiUrr the itemnd winter, tlit- \f ork 
of bnakiiig-iii may iihiiiiu'ih-*' in pmid fjiniintl. Mo iimy tirst lie bitte^t, 
and • bit (uircrully solfi.'tf'd tbal will tint hurt hin mouUi, nnd iniiflt iininllcr 
than those i» c-ommim uao ; wilb lliip he iu»y be mtl'vrvil U> iuiiuh; himeiH', 
and to playi and to trhanip for uu hour, on a few surct'Ottivt- dnyK. Hiivin;; 
beronje a litUc tractable, poctions of the haiticbn inay \^e piit iijN>ti liini, 
and, last of all, tliv blind winki'm; «iid a ft'w itnyu rIUt bo rimy f^n jnlo' 
thff t«krQ, It wmild br h-ttdr if tin-re wmid Iw oiio lirforp and one behind 
him, b»iido the hIulII horiw. Li-l tbinv b(- limt thu hiitu unipty wapifon. 
Iji^i mithin^ K^ done t/) him (■xc<:-ut tijat he may hiivt' nn ix^cHBiimnl )iat nr 
kind word. Tho other horses wdl kwp bini moriiiK itiid in bin plniv ; 
and no f!;iva.l tinLo will |>ii««, Himoiitnes tiot t'X'en the lii«t day, liffnit- he 
will Wjrin In pnti with the rent ; tbr-n tbt- tond nuiv br ^nttlTiiilly iiuTciu^d. 
The af{T>'?<iltuntl homv ut vk^tit<-il U) ridu lu) will nn b> dmw. I<f'l Uiiu 
liret tnwn itt- i^ivi-ii urbeii ho in in tlin t>eain. Iit't hit^ fr't-ib^r. if |Hiiwiblc, 
Iv fimt |ii(t upon him : he will Im.* loo much luuiipei'od by bin hnrjiiuK, tiiiil 
bv thu tiUier horses, to make much nwiHlajiee ; hu<I, in the majority <vf 
cases, vrill (juielly and n.t onoe ^iibniit. Wo iici^d not repeat thai no tvbip 
or spvr should Ire naed in ^vinj; the Hrvt Icf^oiin in ridinj;. When he be- 
inna SI little to iinderMtand bin buhiiienH, luw'kiii;^. the m«wt dilliciilt pari of 
his work, mny )h> iMUiibt. bini ; t'lmt, tn buek wt-ll wifhuut anything iK'hind 
him, then with n li(;bt earl, and nft>.TwardH with lu'imo wriowi load ; iiud 
taking the (^-ateKl mm not to hurt hia mouth. If tho firvt Inwun cuubcs 
much Horeni-JtH of the ){ijin». tlae enlt Mill not riiidily Auliinil. ui ii second. 
If he luut keen rendered tnietable befoi-e by kind oiiagv, time and [iati4)]]iv 
will do all that rjtn W wished herp. S^»ine carters are in the habit of blind* 
iagtlie colt when tcochinffhim to h<H:k;it mny brnctM-asarb' with tlierestivt< 
and obstinate onr, and tilionid Im nmd only a« a liuit reeort. The colt 
having bei-n thwn jatHially, tlje neceB^ily of implint obedience 
may ba tnufrht him. and that not hy severity, bot by firmuMR and sltfadi- 
nea* ; tii« voice will go a giviit wuv, bat tlio whip or tli« spnr is eomotiinn 
indiapeiiBable — not eo crocllj apphcd ua to excite tJie animal to niii»tnu<:e, 
bat to coniince him tliut we have the jHiwcr to enforce mlimisBion. Kew, 
we would ahnoKt. tuiy, no borKeH, are iiMtundly viciouii. ll iii cruel ut>a^u 
whieh liav fin;t [intvnkeil reiiHlnnc'c ; tlint reaistanee haa been followed hy 
(fToator Bcverity, and tiie iitubboruiiesa of the animal has increased ; open 
warfitre has eusiKil, tn which the man seldom ^ncd uu ndmnta^, and 
ihaliorwwu ftvquentir rendered ^^w^n'iccnblc, (.'orreetir>ji may or muat 
\m OMcd to enforce implicit obedience alter llie edaeatiou hm proceei,kil to 
• evrtotn extent, bnt thn iatIv b-iAiiiii should be mculcated with kiudnen 
akme. Yauag eoltts are aomctimea vorv porvorve ; many dura will occn- 
HiunaUy jiaaK iK-fiin^ they will |)enuit the hndic to be put on, or the saddle to 
b)> worn ; <me aet of harahucsfl will duuhle or tn-blc this time. I^itienee 
and kindness will, after n while, prevail. On Komn morning', of better 
hnmoor Ikau utmal, the bridle vrill W |mt on, and the saddle will be worn ; 
aaJ ihia complianix- U-iii^ followed by kiudnuw. ajul ftoulhinti on tlie port 
oftJie br«Jci'r, and noincimvcnicmx' or pain l»cinp (.nflered hy the iuiimal,all 



mistance will b« At ui nod. The tame principloB will ftpplr to tlio brcak- 
intr-in uf tbo horse for tlie nmd or Uw oliivw. Tliv handling ftail Mime 
{Ntrtioa of instmctiaa Hhould conunencc from tbe time of weaning. Tbu 
fntniv tnuM&ltililj of the horse will much depmd on this. At two ycara 
Mill a hiLlf, or thrco Tftnrs, th« rcgnlftr procc«« of bi-oalcing-in shonid coiu« 
oti. If tl bv dvUyvd nntil the animiil is four vrftrs old, liis etrcnij^th aod 
cihaiinacy will W mori: ilifTitnilt to orurcomt'. ^SV cniinot niiirh iniimivu 
on ilie plan usnallv jiursned by the breaker, except that there should be 
muirh raon) kindness and pMienoe, and far lesa hnrshtms Uld cmelty, than 
tho«c ppntonn aro MCsstomcd to exhibit. And n f^rtMit doal more Btteutios 
to the form and lutaral action of the horse. A hcndstAll is pat on tbo 
oolt, ftBit » cavesacm (or npp»niCn« to confine Hid pliivh the none) affixrd 
to it, with long reina. He i« Rest aceu«toined to thi' rein, then round 
• ring on soft ffroond, and at len^li moanted and tanc^ht his paces. Xext 
to pinMCrvin^ tnc temper and docility of the horw, there is nothizLj; of eo 
much iraportanco as to teach him every poee, and evert' pu.rt uf his duty, 
diiiinotly and tlmnxighly. Fauh maM coimtitiiUt u M.-[>&raui aud auiuv- 
times kmg-oontiiiued lesaon, luid that lan^lit by a. nuia who will tiever 
nfiar bis punoo to get the better of his disoretioti. 

After toe caTcasoa haa beeu altach«d to the hcadatall, aod the long rem 
put on, the first leaaon ta, to be qnietly led ahoat by the breaker, a steady 
l)or following iK-bind, by occa^onal threatening with the whip. Imt nrwr 
hr ait aetual blow, to ke«p tliti nilt up. Wlion thennimal foUuwa readily 
and qnietly, he may be taken to the ring, and walked round, right and left, 
in a very small circle. Care shonid be t^kcn to t<^acb hiui tliia pace tho- 
ronghly. never snScritig him to break into n trot. The boy with bis whip 
nmj hfn again b» naouscary, bat not a nngl« bluw should uettiully fall. 

Beooning tolerably perfect in the walk, be ahould be quickened to a 
trot, and kept steadily at it ; the whip of the boy. if seedful. urging bim 
on, and tbe caresAon reAtnuniiitr bim. These leasona sbonh] be short. 
The pare nhoald be kept perfect and distinct in each; and docility and 
improvetiinnt n'wnrded wtUi frequent earDsses, and liandfiilB of com. Tho 
Icngtb of the rein may now bo gnidnAlly increiwed, and the poco quickened, 
and tho time extended, until tbe animal bucomcs tructablu in tliia bin fint 
IcBsona, towardfl the oonohuion of which, crupjier-.strapa, or sometliiog 
similar, may be attachod to the clotlting. These, playing about the side* 
and flankit, aceanliiin bim to die Happing or the eont of tho rider. Thn 
annoyance wbieh they ocGasiou will poiui over in s. day or two ; fvr when 
Uie aniual finds that no harm conieo to him on accvout of Lheae Btru|is, bv 
will ooaae to regard them. 

Next comes tbe bitting. Thebit should be large and Kmootb, and th» reins 
•bonldbobackliHltiia ringaa(nth»r8ideofibe]Ku1. There ii.n> many curioos 
and expensive nutehinc* fee thia pnrpoM, bnt the aimple rein will be qnite 
■offioaent. Tlie n'ius Nhould at fimt !»! slack, and very gradually titcbtvnnl. 
This will prepare for llie more |>erfect manner in which the head will bt^ 
•fterwards got into its proper {miiition, when the colt ts aoonstomed to tbe 
Mtdle. Occasionally tlie breitkrr ithonhl «tan<l in front of tbe coll, and 
take h*1d of each tide rein near t<t the month, and prcM open it, and 
tlna begin to teach bim to stop ami tu licu-k »t tbe praasnre of tbe rein, 
rawarding eTviyact of docility, aod nut being Loo eager to punish oocanonal 
caivlpmiuw VT waywanlneM. 

The eolt may now lis taken into the miul or street to be gmdunlty aecns- 
Uumtii to the objeeta among which his ncr vices will be re<|iiirvd. Here, 
from Tear or playfulnem, a eousidorahle degree oTtctitrting and hhying may 
bo rxhihiUtl. An little notice as pnasihle ihoald Iv taken of it. Tho 
nmo or a cimtlar ubJM.'t should be onon jnssed again, but at a gn-ater di»- 

If thn colt still kIiii'V, Ivt the distance be farther incr«a«»d, nntil he 
taicesro ricitioi>orttifiilij«irt ; tlioti h'l iiiuv lit* f^mdoallv l>nnightn(«ivr to it, 
uid Uiia will be usuaJly effof^ted wiUiout thft sUehteftt difficnltr ; wh^rca*, 
bad there been sui att«u[)t to furce tbi; animal cluoe to it in ihu Srat inataiKX-, 
the remcmbiBnco of tli« conw-st would have bteii a&»i>ciate<l with the 
objiMTt, and th? Labit of sliring would have been establiahed. 

Hitherto, with » cool and patient breaker, the vhip ma/ have been 
nkofm, bat will ncat^dy luiv" Wph used ; the eolt miut now, howovor, be 
acoastonuxl to this nc-ci-tsnitry iiiHtmnicitt of uathority. Lot thti breaker 
walk bjr (he xide nf thit aiiiiiml, ami thmw hi!> ri|rht ann over his back, 
holding the reina in his Iclt : and occaaioQally qiiieken hia paj^e, and, at the 
moment of doing this, tap the hone with tho whip in his ri^ht hand, and 
kt first rcry goath'. The tap cl' the whip and the qnicktiun); of the paca 
will SOOD become UMOcialcd tojrethcr in the mini] of llu' uiiiinol. If necc«- 
•ary. the taps may gmdually tall u lit I.Ik hcwvior, and tlm forlii^i; of [tain 1h' the 
monitor of the iieGCWDty of incn>it>u-d nxurtinD. Tlic Iomotih af n^iiiini^ in 
and stopping, and baokitig Ou tho pruti«ar« of thi' bit mnv coutiiiuv to bo 
practiaea at the same time. He luay now he tikuifht to War the fiachlW. 
Some Uttle caatioD will be ULCesaary at tlie first putting of it on. The breaker 
ahonld stand at thi' head of the colt, pnttin^ hirn, uitd en^B;ing his atten- 
tion, while oni< amtxtant, on the olT-jiidc, ulnwly tif^ht<ms the firths. If he 
sabmita <iaii:tly to thia, as he generally will when the pnj^idus procc« of 
hrrisUng in Iiiui htwii properly coiiducte<l, tJie i-en-iiKinv at tnoiinting nmy 
be attempted on the following or on the third day. The breaker will nt-ed 
two aBsistants to ae«Tumptisb this 0[K.-nition. He will reoitiin ut the lieiid 
of the colt, patting and making mneh of him. Tho ririor mil put hi« foot 
into tho stirmp, and bear a Uttlc n-ri^ht upon it, while tho man on tho 
oflVxide presaea equally on the etbcT »rirrn(»-!i-uiher, and according to tho 
dooUi^ of the animal he will gradually increaae the weight, uitil he 
balanoce hunaolf on tlio aliirup. If the cnit 1>c nncaiijr or flsarful, ho 
•buold b«i Htjoken kindlj to and patted, or a muiitliful of cum bo given 
him ; 1ml if lie offbra ncnnus rcsistanDn, the lessons must terniiiinte for that 
dav; be may probably Iw in btftt^r hnniour on the morrow. When the 
rider has ImlnntTil liinutelf fur a minute or twrt. ]i(> inny (^iitly thrnw hia 
leg over, and r|nietly Rcat himaolf in the Muldle. Thft breaker wilt thon 
leiu the animal miiiid the ring, the rider BJUing perfi>ctly xtill. Ailcr a 
few minnles he will take the rcinn, and handle them aa gvntly its possible, 
and gtude the hor«e by the prettaure of them ; patting bun IVeqnently. atid 
etpeoiallv when he thinks o( dismoiintiiif; — and after hnring diHm<innlixl. 
oBoring liini a little com or green meat. I'ho ueo of the rein in chocking 
Mm, and of the prcMinre of the leg and the tonoli of the heel in quickening 
hiM |»<ce, will aixiii be taught, and the education will be nearly eompleti-d. 
The horse hni,-ing thus far sabmitled himM<lf to tho brvaker, tlicee patUnppi 
and rewards mnat be grailnnlly dimintKbecl. and implicit obedience mildly 
but firmly enforced. Sifverity will ntit ofU-n be ncegewwy : in the ^r^nt 
~ lyoril^ of cneea it will Ix- alt(>gi>tlier iiiii.-hIIc<I for; bat Hhoiikl llie antmal, 
» momeot of waywardnnnH. dispute tho rnmmand of the breaker, ho 
''must at onee lie taught that hi? is the slare of man, and tlint we have tho 
priwur, by other meaus than that of Iriadnees, to l>end him to our will. 
Tbe cilncatjon of tho hnnie is that of the child. Ploaaurc is as mnch M 
poastble OMUciatcd with ilie ejirly lemons ; bnt firmni«s. or if need be 
oonrcMin, mniit confirm the habit of oliedience. Tii-mnny and cruelty will, 
more itpwiily in tJie horse than even in the child, pro»-oke the wiah to 
dinoK'y, iiud on every practicable oooninon, the rcDJetuucv to command. 
Tl»e reetive and virions horse iis in ninelyiiine c«»ea ont nf a hnndrcd, 
made so hy ilUusage, and nut by naiuni. None but those who will take 

I 2 


tin- InmhU' to try the fxittTimfnt. aw aware how ubsolate a conimnnil 
the iliio uiliniMttrv of timiiifss anil kiutliifss will soon give us over any 


A til niii'wl lilt iit'w svsti.'in of lirvakin^-iii horst"* was intrwluced into this 
fitiiiitry by Mr. Uun-y, of Olvn\ in l^-^^. whii-h at the lime nttrai'tv*! 
iMtisiilrniUK* iitti'iiti.>n, jiiul wiu: thoutiht wouM suporetiie the old system 
ot'li»riic-l<nMkiii>;. Hut tlu' •.-ntiiplii-tilioti." ocluT tlitliciillies&ttcDdant 
H]hiii ils U'tii'^ fully I'arrioil owl h:ivtf ptx-viuttil its v^'iitrii attnptiuD, and 
the iiliiv)' sysii'iH is tliiit iiiiw sroutfrally i"^:jil.'yi."d. The following' is a 
ili-Nfi-i]<li«ii .if Ml-. Kiin^y's iiu'tlivvl. 

Mr, Itim-y o-miuoiuvs his ;u-.i:i;iiiu:ii-.vv w:t;i tlu- ci''.t when at pastnn* ; 
tiiiil I'v till' L^•"tl^•st iiii-:tiis. anil ;iliiK's; witji-.'v.t _-e>:ieTiLiti>in, ho will cutic-e 
tif urm" ll"' i*''li t«' I'lidT iiUo tlio jinvini'is of a Ikim. stable, or outhouse 
It) ihi- iniituiliaif iu'ii:hU>iirU>^>il. The ivlt is vt-ry i|-aietly surrounded, or 
iiii I'Kl liomi' irt lirsi Uxi in. Whi-n [ho iv'.; h;w i:-.:t::\->l he is lift iilone 
with the I'lvnitiT. e\»'rA .>tii> a;ul ever>- thir.j V.av:;-.^ L-fv bein:r exclmhii. 
wi that llio !>iii'iiiii'n i>f the ivlt n'.:iy Iv i:',:ir».'ly iti^j. .rK-d iu the [lerson of 
llu' mail whii h.-is t.> l-;r.C. :v.:\ >;;l\V.;>' h".ia. Aftir :i *:.:-Tt |'>aude. the niaii 
luUaitiVH very slow'y, li.>'..i;v.j i".;; cithir ha!id diA stvAirin? to the ev>lt 
nith thi* ip'Hilost t.'iu- .•:' ».'-iV. Kvt;::r:a'.> '.r-e v."''".: will also apprwaeli, 
Miu'll tlu' hniul, wlii-ii i\v.i*:.'v. ;:-.-,i*: Iv :.'>'xi':: to s:r ii' thtj nose, then the 
fiMiit iif till' faiv. ohivWs. a:-„t v.iv^. S.' s^v.; as :V.e ^i 1: remains [^TlVvtly 
Ist.tHi^r auil OMiiont w.tii ;'■-■.•* :rv.tT:v,i :■.:, ;';:i".". a li.iihirr: halur i* very 
Hv'itU ivissisi m» and i-v. :.' his \:.a-\ K':v ;>:-.: :hiir cvarseuvss, 
aiv liii:hl\ I'huvtuwuM,-. a;-..l *', ■..'■.:',. i or.'.y iv er.-.y! -ve-i -.iprr. em»r"jtiicy. 
Whi-n ihi- h:i';i-v ;- s^v;^;^^i. a -.•'.liv, >-.-■. "-:'.-. s-.:a^.c '.t::.'.: w;;h ^ iii<>ierute 
^l-^^l MiailU- I'lt I- |v)iuti>l '.■.'.;.' ;-■.■■ v.'.,';;:,: .;■■..'. ":;<.■■. :.> ::;-:' h^ad. Should 
ilii' l^■ll ivsisi ihi- mm \;*.;,'i ;.".■, ■■■;' tiv sr.A-V.^, ".l..v. ■;!..; 1.:t har^d havin^^ 
ihi' >i\'u hii r.\ ■.! :* ;>',;!. iv •■—,■■-■., vi:.*:i'\\ ;\,,/ ', :..-. '. wiir lip, ind the 
hnof av.d t!-.;»v.!' (,v!::- ; ■.■■,,- Ki:^ ,-f :! ,■ -.■.■•.:". n.:'-.. ;;•.-.■ l;-,i, i:;>tautly 
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til.- v-tsVi' * v-. i.^i »■.'.-■; ■.■-,■ ;'•'■■., ;^^;.-.. ..v : s i-jii-^ nt"_ mio the 
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\:\'\ .-.■ ■,■: \:\ ■ -..;■.■.■■. ■ :.- .;;*;■;:■;• ■.:■..■ ;.^ : —> ■ - -■ ,:.\. W>in ti.e 
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1.;n \-.i:::-"^ \-\ '.■■•.■ ^. xx;.-. ;' .■ ■-.■...■>'. c~-'.-i:..r- T.lvi.. *:v-uMtT. 

.I-.". ■■ .1 ■.■■•-. V. .. .■v--«: ■-. —.,\ r\--:.::~: - - ■ ■■ ■■ ;.- tfft-.-t hy 

.»■ ■..--. ,*■■ ; .■ " ■■- .v..-,.-'. ■;v.'; -^-. .i--.-, .-^vsv-.-^, - - :. - , — , ---ir.iii,* or 

^» "^ ,■>«■■■ ■■.- .', * -■ "t ■.■• ■.■..-■. ;,■ >■ I..- «■: • ■ ■ ,- .■.■..■.-:'.■»■<;. aiid 

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.'j: *■' ". ~. ■ -■• V : ■. ■ ' ■ . s" V > "-iv-r. ".V T.::if ivilm 

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^^ - ^^ ■ > --^■■ .--■,•.. - z:L'.<- tw 

- .■ . " ^« . . •■ .1. .•-■ - . .»r :■ ;!:.r:ri»'ir 

-. -.^-.v.- S>,v ■ . ■ .-.-:•- a:.; !,_•. 

>■ ■' ■•■ ■ • ■■ '■ "■.- >i-". i* .vjhas 

,' n H 

.1-..:^ his 

■\. r «UTJ 
.^- i ::" the 




foondnUon bo of »tone or brick, Ui« kneee of Ibo colt nnAt be protected by 

The Blrftn for the »««■ forp-lpg mnst \w nbnnt, tbwc thvi m longtli. and 
an incb in broadth. It hai* a liui-kU- at tbe end with a mvtal n or n. loop 
on tlio iniudr, nliont two 
inchtM frvm Uic backlo. 
TliK fttraj) is perTorafcd 
with holc« from tlic point 
to the half of itn k'ligth. 
The point of the atr&p ix 
pMMcl between the u-mis 
cloae to the chest, and run 

tlirou^h thi> l>. Tiie etmp is then nllowed ta slide <tunn thv nerar furv-lvg 
nnd eiip t)io ))HKU'i'ri, tli<; iitivmtnr KtauJing ttprighl., tinil holtUug on by 
tho point of the Htmp. Strain ia then mode on the pastern to lift thfl foot, 
nnd a luorcniciiL tu the It'll will ftTcctoally do eo. \Vh<in Uitj colt rdimiuH 
tjuieocent with ihc foot well tip, thc> point of tho ittrap is carried over the 
nrm or nwlinH tbroufi^h t-lio liiicklv ; u-nil ihu limb is tlius fiutenod up 
niid Ixmt trtgi'thcr. Thi> eolt in then inoitod to antvn about on thrco \ffi*, 
citlK-r by bcTiding him round bj' aid of the bridle to tho nenr or to the off- 
nide, or by reiniojir hira backwardH — ^tho latter (jroctm is objt«tionnble, na 
iu tilt- conTnleiro sprinp, ho may rear and tiill bnckwards. When the 
animal ix in a ^-mi mt<aKtin> renoncilt^d tu hiK rripplr<l itt«tt>, tho handling 
of thi* 1««iy aiul hind-loga must bo again proceeded with. Kxiicpt in very 
vi(:i<ju* iliitfMjxi Lions, llic Confinement of ihfi noar fore-leg' '*'il' bo a aulltcieiil 
iniiuis fo enable the moHt ucrroua iiperutor to carry tlirou|-h tho ppnciiss 
of handliiif; the colt. Sump htirncs will ntU-irijit to kiclc when upon thrrc 
legs, and thn xctbra will kick and bite in any poHJtion, ••vt-n w))on lying 
vpon his back ; but such inatunces of \ico in guiieral are mrn. Ar ftoon 
Ma the cult will peraiiL liis body to he handled, let a mrcioglo ur roller be 
ftatenad ronnd it. 

Should the coll not. rmiaiii qniet with tho bending up of the near fore. 
Ifg alone, tbon pnx'oinl with strapping up tlie offfolA-leg also. The etrup 
for tJiiN pur|MS<.- must he aboot six feet in length, an tnoh or an tncli niu( a 
t|asrtvr tu width, uud of the 
thickneea of strong rein or 
light >tUTnp leather. It baM 
ft loop of three iuuhea, or a 
natal o nt one end. The 
loop or D ta piuised miuid 
llie paatera nf the olT fore- 
leg, the poiiiu of tho strap 
taken llimugh it, and the 

E*trup drawn tight to the 
paal^m. Tho jxtintof the f^trnp ia ihrn rarried withui the surcingle or 

roller and held tightly io the right hand. When the opcrat'ir is dmirous to 
taW' thd off lonvlog. he inclines the head of tho colt by tlie aid of the 
bridle tti the right or h-fl liiuid ; mid tho tnKtniit tlio foot ia remoretl, it 
it dnwii u]) to the ourcinglc with force, and rctniued in that pi>aitioB. 
if poaaibki. Guncrnlly N|H-aking, » ttnccewaoii of violtnl plimgua will 
siic^wed the lull, during the whole of which the person must retain 
hin hold ii[>(in thu leg, and by placing his shimldfr to Uio nwir fotw 
hand of tho hon»o with a Ktrong hearing npon the off roiii to bond iht 
head and neck outwarda, ttu tliut the* uniniid cannot collect witb advan- 
tage his mnfwnlar force, he soon coni|iela tlie colt to yield ap the con- 
i«<t(. Thix iMtrt of lli» process must, oa DO account, tie homed orer or 



anticipated. The plangea may continue for five, ten, or fifteen rainntes, 
leldom toiler. Bat the colt mant he allowed bia own time to lie down 

uid ■urcumb. Eventually ho falls to cither side, generally on the near 
■ide. When down, extend the head and neck to the full extent hori- 

■cmtally. Uuidlo the head, neck, body, limbH, and tail in succesflton until 
the colt ramains completely passive under the treatment, taking Bevcral 
<^iportunttiet to ait oown apon the forehand, the body, and the hind 



liaii«n. At Uiis period, the Ha^Mle wllhout ^rtbs or sttirdpti lUftjr Iw 
Ujinponirily placed upon the body, or the hsraess may be laid ajma 
the hind qnnrtfini. 'Xhe bobble and strap represented as attAohed ta thn 
hintl-Wg of t)ie zebra ai-c only used wbeu an biiinial in a violent, ravage, 
UmI coiiRrmed kicker, and in subduinK horHcs tliat will not hIIow their 
fMt to be touched or shod. When yoa hitve to deal with a horse an 
MTMe and wioked as ' Cruiitei-,' or the xeim^ a hone that can kick from 
one Teg aA Berc«ly as ottiem ciiii from two; in that ca«e, toaubdue and 
conipt^t liim to lie dawn, have a 
li«Uier iiiircin;fle with a ring 
fastened on the btllv part, buckle 
the hobbles on the liiud-log«, and 
pass the ropex throuffh tho ring : 
vbon the horse is thrown down 
bj the strapping np of the fore- 
legs, tlte hiiia-leg& nta&t be drawn 
dose up to the ling ia the but* 

If tJie horae haa any pro- 
pensity to indalKo in ihe rice of 
utjng:, the head mnat be drawn 
up forcibly to tbe operat'ir, tis he 
nita upon the forehand, umi taking 
the front aud back part of llie 
ntcmtJi in both hntids, tliL- javra 
art! opened and shut with fns 
queney BO thai the U-rlh tirv tniulo 
to cU^h against each utbur very 
palimbty. But for ujnquii-ing a 
vieiouM, biting honH.', there ia 
nothing cqnal to the large wooden 
gnj^-bit wliieh Mr. Rarey first 
••xhibtted iu public on the zebra. 
A mnBzIo only prevents a horse 
from biting, a CHg properly nsed, 
curcA: for, when lio liuds lie 
cannot bite, he by degrees aban- 
dons this moat dangerous viee. 
Colt* iiwluied to erib-bite, shonid 
1»viAnHwd with one on. This 



one on. 

wfO pttm to the horse his utter impotenoj-, and may be con«iden>d by fre- 
i(iient rop(;tjtion to be tho moat perfeet specifio for a vice otherwiao and 
hilberto deemed to Iw incumhle. When the colt is perfectly quiet, tho 
forc-lc|fS arc freed from the sti-npn wlticli are then dravrn out (o thvir 
fill] Hxlent, and the surcingle removed from the body. 

Thus tte horse ties in the horizontal position thoroughly subdued, and 
for the moment may be said to be quite tame<l. He has now to be raised 
by gentle mtans, aitd without dititurbiu^' tliu equanimity of his fuelings by 
tliB iiiw of stick or whip. 

Take hold of the mane with both hands, and raise the heiul and neck to 
the opnj;nt position. In the course of this moTement the colt will doubla 
lip the fore-lega, and remain in the nalni-al |K>iiition of lying at eoei-. Tho 
fore-legx are then dmwn out straight to the front, nit thti tintt naliiral 
mOTCunent to rise, and by inciting the eolt by means of the bridiw nnd tho 
voice, liv will instantly rise to hia feet. If the t<addle has not been mnovcd 
at tbe same time with tht stnpe, it must now be girthed, and the stimipt 



iuIiIm! (ilfio. But ahoald it have be4.'n rcmovcHl, it mnat now be oETered to' 
tlie titti'i)tii>n of tbe horse, wbo as soon m he lia« finoell At and touch«d it 
with hifl iiosr, will imnicdintcly permit it to be quirtly put npon bin back, 
Tb*' Ha<ldl<.> nitiHl Ik> pWvil iv full liitnirii lirwulUi front llip hIiuii Idcr bloJu, 
Hjiil Lli» inrtliM IVimK'ikhI wilb^nit li^btiivsH or cniiatiii; (littLurbaiico. Tlii' 
truiiH'r tb<-n atU-mpti* to raount by pattinf( the bail of tlie l*tt foot in th« 
Ktirrufi, »rt.-»i<iiik' the ko«e wifll a|,iiiii»t the sadiUe to prevoot Ui« point of 
ibe tuf from irritBting tbc side of tlip colt ; takiiiK hold of the off-side of 
tbe pommel with the riirbt liiind. or the cnntle of the nuldle hs moHt cod- 
vi.>nipiily n liick of tbv inanv in tliv li-ft liund, i4iid tqiringioi^ vary gontijr 
luid (•Sis^tually into tho Aoat. 

if tbv bonK will not nniiuiii coinplntely at rutt during tb« abore opera- 
tion, a^p up the near fore-lcg, and pi-oceed to momit hiio as be stands 
upon three ie^R. or be|Dpn the whole proerae of tbromnf; down, handling, 
and tKintnf* tliroiighout afrcuh. Every colt Hhutild bo tbrown and tsiniKl 
two. thrvc, four or five tuni-a in Buccuseiua, and without intcrausBioii, 
acconlinj^ to tho nature of its dispo«ition, before ih« traijier oommcnoc* 
u|Kiii any HyRtvm of mnrpmejita subaeqaeRt to theactof moniiling, iNicanae 
by Hucb proeessea the horse will beeome tboroiighlv famibarisod, and 
obedi«nt to the soand of tbe hiunan voic^e, and trftctanio to every part of 
teaching that may follow. Moreover, by nrpcatintf tbc operations con- 
■ocntivrly. the mind of the Animal will becomi; iuiprt-!Mcd with the Rmsc 
of ttiMl which will Ifo nM^uired fVnm hiiu, and by antidpation aiid a c<on- 
Tiction of (he ua^leaaacsa of rcsiatanoe, readily vield to the directions of 
tbe trainer Tbu» every fall will bcattondod hy tewcr and lessor Ptruftgles, 
■ad eraDtuBlty, or in tho coai'ec of two or three days' close liclioolin);, tbe 
WMt mtkuetory oolt will knii-l and be down at ibe wonl ofcuniniaud. 

Rtit the 0{HTnt,ioti of tbmwiiiff down, though itxceed iiijrly fiiinple in 
iUcIf, reiiairej) n oi^rtJiin amount of dexterity, rnurlnuncM, and phymoal 
energy only poMcaeed by a rery Uinit>.>d number uf nidividualn. The ex- 
erttCHi neoeaaary to tire the aaimal will, in wumi westlmr, and in a veiy 
oonfiaed atntoaphere. also exhaust the enertfies of a strong man. Therefore. 
in onla- to rmiikT the pnxx-SH mon- nimplc and atlsintihle by the aiost 
timid pnctitioBer, a aulf-acting or spriat; bncklo ha« bc«it invented, whidi 
ha* the power of retaining the off lorc-lvg in its bent up position witbimt 
fnrtber assiatancc or intcrfi^rence on the part of tin- eiiiployer. Thtt 
bocltls is attBched to the end of the strup, which iu this ease is an inch 
and a qnarter wid", sovon foot nx inches lon|{, and perforated with bolen 
thronjinoiit. Another aprinf; bnclcle of amaller nxe is (ixod on tbe inside 
of tbu stimp. at thm inchve' diatAnm from tho lurf^-r one. The stmp is 
AMeiwd round llic paatem of the oST fore-lejf liy ilniwintr the sirup round 
it and throuj^b the smaller buckle. The point of the stmp i.t then tnkim 
within the Bnn-in^k>, and dniwn lbn)ii(fli the Uri^r biu'kle, nnd the inRloiit 
the foot is raised fi-oiu (lie ffruund, it is mpidly drawn apto Ihuhurein^li*, 
and Axed in i>o<iition by llie power of thr dpritii;. The surplus end of the 
•tnp is then hilelii^l witliiii the snreinglc. and ibe ojM'nitor looks quietly 
on dnnnfi; ttu< stnttffflra of the home, or leisurely ifuidi-M his head to llie 
near or otf-tide, a« the fancy may dirvcH. Thus, the whole of tbu pliysieal 
power n.i{uisite to cariy throui^h the opemliun to a sueceasful innui*, will be 
just XI mueh as will enable the pmetitioner to pull up the off fore-le<g, and 
tonuaethehead nnd neck from thohoniMinlHl|Kiiiiti<in when on tlie grounil. 
If a Uriro RMrtal V tte placed upon tbe sareinfili', and llir^ end of the Htmp 
bo p t airJ witliiii tbc roller of it, then n stable buy may W- enabled to raiwi 
the foi«-leg witji facility, ainoe with one bniid an mlult can raise to the 
anrcingle without great effort a M lb. weight, and tlie power of (lie spring 
bntdclv will rvlsiu it al any i.Me»-n beifHil- The strap u rvletu* d by draw- 

spring 1>ack Ira can be readily inad« by any wliitcsmitli, guniuriith, oi 
even lilncksmitli, wUo profctisca to bc> an iii^iuoim mocbanio. Thn o[Ktn- 
inf( of the fimmp must bo tho oxdcl^ width of the strap ; one inch aiid a 
qtiarttir. Tbv dc|)tb ol' tho bncklc from tlio roller to the nrotte hai', ii]»nn 
wbicli are fattttiiit-il IIih toii^ic ami Uir Btru|), itlioiil. dii« iiwb U-iul tlircv 
quarters, haTing bent cbet-ks to admit tUu points of the Hngi-r tuiil ttiumb, 
Biiil tho diHt>ini.^<> trviQ tbo baae to tbo cniss bur i^ I'litiroly o[)tioTi[ki, say 
hair»n inch. Tbo spring miutt ho sprung fivim tho andirr n<lv of t))9 
baau, bvcauae vxpcriuucr boA provvJ tlmt if it be* fiwlvtivJ Lo tbo upper 
silit*, it caniiot be niMle Ui n^nlMt r:ITt>t;tiifill)' thi; rlolcitt (:ciiiciia.<iiniiii in Lh* 
plnngil^ of the borse. The point of the spring must clip with exactneu 
tht> toofruo, and bo miule to rotu-h within hiklf aji inch from its point. ThB 
Kpring itAclf mnst b« xtrcinp, nniE of tbit finest Li-mjK^r, othonriAo it will bo 
torowa out of ^'vtr in u very nbort liiiiiv It is miwlr tu scn'W on to tho 
baae. w that il (!iLn bn nnt'lily ninoTL'cl tu bi- rupiiiiw<l or ext'bangml. Th^ 
(i(n>)igtii of the franii; may Imi nWiiit a qniirlitr of an int-h, or ovon loss iu 
tliickneas. The nmallt-T buolclc must jnat admit tho atmp to bo abaot^d 
to either aidi* wboii itHjuirvd to li^ rolesM'd, 

By tbcav nii.-utLn. wc vrill coaclndo the a|>cnttor to be quietly and Beourely 
6x^1 ill the »uhllf. Ho i» nnw phuW ufHUi ;i liinid (^R-atiire, that has foU 
neither whip nor Mpiir, itiul iit whote tiiuiilli Iht- iniicoiiii inrinlinuio is M 
fine in llie Kbrv, nud tin tH'iiMttive to tbo lvui.'b, w i.i thv iutcriur covcniig 
oThiR own urgaiiinution. Mm-L-^ver, lie now Iiilm atlaim-d a mtjral nway 
over ihi? nniinnl. liithL-rto nnknuwu to the liorse hiniHelf, and perfectly 
an»pprffC(Hted liy the miui uLso. Tlien-funi the rider mui<it feel bis on-n 
way with f^ntlcncMx, and nnt dcutrciy that tine feeling, wliii'b i* thuii 
c«rtaiB (o n.-«utt, by tUu i-xliibilivu of bnale force, gniiJed by tiiw Npirit of 
w^w^rd tyraimy. 

Iu utlempling to arge the rott into motion, tlio rcftdiest motliod is tu 
lR>nd tliv hi-9ul itiid invk Ui either side, mid Uiim iiiduiv biin to maw in k 
eircuitouii wmnw. Sn wmiti aa bo does no with facility, the pKxwss of 
rnuvini; in any diivcLioii will be reudi-red extremely sunple. Tho walk 
mnirt W the only pace ofexcrciw" for the po!t, nntil hlx bomw, miirw^ and 
conatitDtion are tbaroai{lily acciiHtomwl to tho neif^bt of the HiIlt, and 
the ))i>nudH of time rwjtiVil for nxerlitiri. Thft quiet preBnni-e of the logs, 
i«iniiitlan«oa« irith f^nilc fti-lingst on tlie month, mnnt f^nulanlU' tend to 
collect the colt in bin walk, Uid itssiat to pei-fect hiH mitthoil ot^ earring- 
and cnnvct regntarily of foot. Thero ait> vury few of Ihi- prem-nl race of 
lione-brvakent udio jtractically kni»ir ihv diUurt-nci' Imt<wi4ai th« ambte 
mod the trao walk, and if ba'l lial>iiM itT>i^ tiiti|flit in tin? Hmt inNtatiee, thu 
tfbiifflin); intit may oi>iilti)iK- tbroiijjb life. 

tSbnold tbei-elt be n'«|uin-<J rxelusivily aud itumi^ialely for the purpo«es 



of hamwis, th*>n tho diffcmnt part* of the hanicwt Diiii>t he q^ni<*tljr pr»- 
Ht'Uli>d l» itii lujtH't! und tKtiM! uftunoll, Ix-lore tUoy are Afiplicd to tliv btxly 
oftiic animal. If it Ix- iiic'lini-xl to be restive, thc^n ibc nwir fore-lni; miiat 
be imrnediiitely strapped up, or the colt mast be thrown down, lame^l. and 
partiiilljr liameacod in the liLiriitontHi position. If iijHin miii^'. thun> otill 
OonLiniiM ft dutpositinn to kick, tho n^iir f»n:-lo||^ mnnt ho a^fiun Htrapprd 
a(^ and tbu colt fusirocd ap in thv brvuk ujiou tlm.-!.- iL-ga oiily. The colt 
iH tben movnl to the right or left, to itidm^e liiiu lo L«'ar wc-ll ii)>oii thn 
collar, and thns take a ciit?ular diit'clion. When lit- lias gone <|iiiellj- for 
Homc distance npoti thrw Iefr». the nonr forc-lr^ irmj- Ki irlciwcd from its 
roniincnu-nt. In u very invpti^nvto kinki'i", it will Ix) fully iiM^ofcUirv to iv- 
tnin a pwrchiiBi! upim tlie jHuttfm of tlti' m-or fure-lt*^ lij ji itlnip vrliicb 
shall bft ma<1« In juma from, this jMwteni through the ruigs of the liiirii<^N« 
into tho liand of the driver, so that upon the firet iiilimatinn of restiveueHS^ 
the Icff may bo instAntly dniwn upnnd rotainiid in [luiiition for a consider, 
ablo time. If the coU t>c iatuadcd for slow and buavy draugbt, tbc very 
best cdovatioD it can rcoei-re ml] bv to bu plaoed as the ctnitir of n t^-om 
»f tlir««, »o that il cainiiot recede »r progress without tlie coitcurrvniM) o{ 
the remaining two. 



This is ft most tnipartinit pari of oar subject, and desorring tlie carefal 
ntt«iilioii of all fMrtiuH interested in the health and condition of the horae. 
We will arrange the moat imjiortant points of general mnnagement nndor 
tlie foUowiug lieada: — 


There cannot be n doabt tJiaL the proper ventihtdon of oar irtablaa liM 
Tory great influence in determining the health and vigour of die animoU 
ooaJEuied in tliem. Bat idtbouKh attention has cif IaUj ytura bucu ilireotod 
to this mibjcct, ond considerable improTctnente rni-ricd out iu the manage- 
ment of nnmo of uur btwt (titbk-d, a» a ginii-ntl nik' Ihc vi-ntilation of Ute 
majority of ctablca, uid cupecially those in which agricultural borsM an 
confined, will be found vviy defioient, and in many inatoncea uttoHy 
devoid of any special arrangement by wbicli tbis veiy iui]>urt&ub proocn 
can be rarricd on. 

Mr. Clarke, of Edinlmri'h, was the lirMt wbo odvitcatvtl the nee nf well- 
Teutilutw) Klnblos. All<-r him PrufctwnrC'oleuuui eetabliaUed Uu-iu in the 
quarter* of ths cavaky troop*, and Uiere cannot be a duubt thitt hv iwvcd 
(he OorumiBeai many thoueaiMl pounds erory year. Ilia syotctu oi' runli- 
lation, Itowerer, like many other snlutory innuvntions, was at first strongly 
rnsisled. Much evil was prpdicted : but n(\vT » tinin, diwMMs that used to 
dismount whole trivino niraoat nntintlr <li!*!tp|ioared from thn army. 

Ik tboold alwiLj** \m> borne in miud that the brcatbiug of purv otr i* 
III III ■mi I J U> titti existenw anil the health of man and beaal, atid in pro* 
portioti to the parity of the air in which an animal is Vepi, will be found 
Ihs greater or lens vigour and beiiJib witb wliicb all tliu fnni-tiuns of tho 
body will be performed. Them ant two chief sources from which the 
inparitaes of Llie stablo arc derived, \iz. : tli« chuagvs produced in tJie air 
by tbe proceas of rvspirution, and ttin guaroua matters which air formed 
Vf the oeoompocition of cxcretnentitious antl other matterit from the wont 



of ji«HKT draiBBgQ or Mvkwt. To make Uio sitlijcct elcnHy nndcTKkiod, 
ve will briefly dracriba tno iximpo«tio» nf 1li« ntmoaphdrc und the oltiuigcR 
wkicti arv brvavltt alxnit in it, b_v tkc functiuii uf rvspiraliuii. Xlic lur 
which Burrouniis us. in iu onlinaiy stato. consiMU of two prinripnl tfASCH 
aiunml oxvgra and nitrog«i, in the proportionB of aboat a tifih by bnUc of 
the fomeV to nmi-ly fonr-liflbi of tho lAttLT; braidos tlicw itwrv hto also 
very Rmnll <|niuititiM of corbonio acid and some wat«ry ntponr. Either 
uxvffeti <jr nitrugcn gwt, in » iwpArnte ftiatc, or combined in any otiiirr pro- 
portMiBS, wonld prore dratmctive or oibi-rwtM> injurious to life, hut by a 
MtMtiilll »rTWigeinent, they are blended toother in saoh proportions that 
th# dosCnietiTS propcrtiM of each are nentraliM'd sn^l mado one of Uio 
rhi«f meuM by which the lifo of moa and uumals is Hustoiscd. Tt« (udc- 
tiuii of n.-i>]>intti(jii txinniMtt of two distinct parts, vix. iiiNpimUoD and 
exjiiratioii. At enrh inspiration iitatlo by the animal a coutfiilflnbta 
qnantitT of air passt^R into tl»« lungs, and havinjjr penetrated to the remotest 
parte of the bronchial tabes, vnt^ra wlint uro called the air-c«>ll8. Around 
thflao oelU ramify great nooibcra of vory minato blood-vcEeoU csllcd 
capiUarica, ccntaining the blood which hna born rendcird impure in ita 
|Mataae Uinm^h the ayatetn of thii animal. A ptviiliar changv beta take* 
pls>re wtvrocn the air and the blood. Tlio oxygen of the air oombinas 
with the blood, and onitin^ with tho carbon contained iu it, aud which, 
nutdcm it impure, forms rarbonio acid, thus nmderiitg it acuA fit to pan 
oil and t4tin|ily Uie wnnM of the Myntvm, while diocwbcHiioaoid and nilrogm 
(both in tJieir protteut RtaU) drDttructivu jHiiKoiiii) amoxpcIlmlfWiin thehmga 
br the prooesj of eicpirntion into the amrronnding atmosphere. lf"rom tho 
above it will bo neon that an abundant supply of pore air is necoeaaiy for 
Uu maiutcnatico of the health and lite of the luiimal. Tho effect of eovcml 
borsmbeiiigHliotapiii tlio vamestablv is complvtcly to empoison the air; ami 
jti, evon in the preeont day, there aro too many who mrufully elo6e every 
aperture by which a breath of fK'iih air cftn by poMrihtlity gain admiMuon. 
In cffecliug this, evuu Uie key^holv and the ibrcahold arv not fuifi^tvn. 
What, of necessity, must be tho conspqnence of this? The breathing of 
every animal contamiiiAteH the air. and when in the coarse of the night, 
with eveij apertoro stoppod, it panee again luid again through the itin^ 
tb« blood cannot ondeiva ita proper and ht-nlthy change, dig^^^tion will 
not be Ml piTfcdly peiwnned.the bmin aud iiorvouii system will hhSit. 
and all the function-s of life be more or leM injured, and one need not- fi^ul 
nuprised at finding sore throat inflamed lunfra, diseased eyes, grease, 
mangv, and glanders, at timm making their appcnmnce in Kueh Htables. 
Odo oUlcr chief source of impurity to the air in ctubk-a, it the presence of 
oerteia dflctrriiniK gan<« n-inUiDg irDm the ilioompusitiou of the orino 
and dung of the animal, and alitn of other vegetabia nbatancM, CBnwd 
rather by defective drainage or ntyli-et. The priooipal gasoa erolTod aio 
tlie ooropoonda of mlphur and carbon with hydrogen and ammonia, all 
moro orloaa iniarioua to health. When a peraoQ fintt entcnf an ill-maa- 
Mvd stable, and especially early in the morning, he is amuyriMl, not only by 
taB beat of the confined air, lint by a pungoot smell, resemDliug hartahom. 
It has been asoertained by cbanical cxperimenta that the urine of the 
bone contains in it «xco«dingly large ouantities of componnd* eanlr con- 
Tortod by decomposition iato aauDonia ; and not only eo, but thai influ- 
cnocfl by tlie beat of a crowdod stable, and poiutibly by other ih-coinpoflicioiis 
titst aro going forward at tlio luuue time, tliia ammonineal vnponr begins 
tn be rabidly given oat almost immediately after tlie urine is voided. 
When diMtwo U^ins to appear among the iuhnbitant« of UmiKi ilUventi- 
latod place*, is it wonderlal that it should rapidly spread among Uicm, and 
that lh« plague-spot shonJd be, as it were, placvd on tbe door of such a 



■table? W>»>n infla^nm spjx'ftRi in Hprin); or in antninn, it in, in vny 
ntnj MBhs k> Im IrBt-trd to sucli a pivt-Luum.'. It in pcculmrly futul (livn*. 
The norsi'a bL-lung^-in^ t»i a Amall establish men I, aiid rationally trwitt^, have 
it compftniliveljr seldom, or have it li^htl^ ; bat smon^ the inmutes of a 
vrowik'd staltit- it in sure to dteplkj itaelf, und tJien> it is rnuBt latAl. The 
experience of every retcrinftry tarjtwa, iiiiil of evorj- Iniuo proprietor of 
horMV, vill corrolMnkto this irtnt(;mcnt. Agricultiiriiibi eliould briii); to 
tlwir stablvs the cotntnoo aeiwe which direct* llii-m in the hjhuiI coiieenw 
of life, uid Hhould beg;in, when their jibnAiiroA and their proMTly am so 
mn^ Wt Make, to uminio that anthority, and to eiiforce that obedience, to 
the lack of which ia to bo attHbuU-^t the (.Teater part ol" bad fetable-uiauaire- 
tnent nod horso-disnute. Of DothiDg arc wc more certain than that the 
m^oritjr of thu inHla<lin< of the honu, rtiiI thow of the wcirst luid most fatal 
chuaetfir, uro directly or indirvctly to be nttntiiled toadclieiontKuiiplyof 
air, emel cicaetioii of vork, and inmfiiciont or bod fare. Koeh of tlieM 
erila in to be drvaded — each is, in a manner, wal^hin^ for itA |in-y ; niwl 
wfatnt tliey are combined, more than half of tlie iiiuates of the Htabic arc 
oAni swept away. 

Thw tAfiiippratwKj of tim HtaMe i* il]«« another imp<i>nant eonsideration. 
Thi» ahoald •cldom exceed 7*)° io the Bommer, or &U below 40° or 50° in 
tb« wint«r. It may Se rt-adily iwcerlnined )iy a t}ii>nnoineter, whieli no 
nrtabliahmenl whertt lar^ numhers of boraeHare kept should lie wifbinit. 
A hot stable has, in the mind of the ffroom, been long eonnected with a 
ftiowy coal. The latter, it is thought, cannot be obtained without tho 

To thifl we ttbould rrplj thai, in winter, a tliiti, fcliKiijr cout iHDotdeair- 
nble. Nature ifivex to every animal a wiimii^r clnthiiig wht-n iiw cold 
veather approaeben. The honM!— tJio afniimUnral home cfipecioll; — 
acquires a thicker and u li-n^betivd cout, in order to defend him from t]i« 
surrounding eold. Man pulpi on an additional and a warrnc-ritn'trring, and 
his eomfort ia increa-sed and his health prei*rved by it. lie who knows 
anything of the fanner's horso, or ean?« nbout his enjoyment, will not 
object to a coat a little longer and a littlo roughened when ilip wintry wind 
blows bleak. The cout, however, nL-vda not to be eo lonir im to bg 
unsightly ; and warm r'lotliiiig, even in a mkiI til.aljle, will, with plenty of 
hottcHt givutning, keep tJie bair sufGeiently Hinttoth and glosKy to sittittfy the 
most gMtidions. The over>hf«ted air of a close stable saves much of litis 

Cjininif, and therefore the idle attendant un§empaIoasly sacrificea tbe 
Ith and safety of the horse. 

Let this be ronsidered in anutber point of view. The horse standi 
twenty or I wo-nud- twenty liours in tbii* unnatural va|K.>ur luUi, und llien 
he is Middi-idy Diripped of all bin elotliing, he ia led intA the op<-n air, and 
there he ia kept a couple of buiim or more in a teni|)en»Lun! (ifleen or 
twenty degmeii Im-Idw tlmt of the stable. Putting tlic inh iiniaitity of Uiia 
oat (>f the cjupation, must not the aninud, thus unnaliirallj and aWardlr 
treated, be subjected to rhenmntinn, mtnrrh, and various other coniplaintnF 

ll is not BO g4-ncmlly known as it ought to l>Ct tliat the return to a hot 
stnltle in quite as dangerouN oh tbe ohaoge from O Imitod ntnioN|>hCTC to a 
ntld and liitjngair. Many a home thai (laa travelled witliout hnnnorera 
bltwk cnantrj, has been aoddenly Roized witb inflammation and fever when 
he has, immMiatcly at the end of his jnnmry, been tmrronnded with hml«d 
autl fuul air. It in the sudden changi' of temperature, wbt-thcr froiD heat 
tu cold, or from cold to faoat^ thai doce tho mischief, and yearly dnttroys 
tbounniU of Ikiiws. 

The stable aliotild be large in prr^mrtinn to the number of hnrses wliieh 
it is destined to contain. It u^uully eonsii^t* of loote Uiio-m, t-ucli (O tiold 




4a> bOfM, or divided into sIuHb in wbicli i» nutiilm' uf horani ono bo kept 
Mqnvd bj Uic liotvd. Boxia ftrc preferable i» Htallft, inumnch •• Ihey 
nllcnr otnuidpraLlp tqjttcc I'or the Knimni to movo iii and cierctne himself^ 
and aiao vntMw tiini to lio down and tvi^ aflor a hard day*B work, with 
1«w chnnoo of bt^n;; diitt«rhi*d. Bnxp»( arc nigo (Mwenlially neceaeaiy for 
(tick lionH.-s, and ca ]»:<.' inl I j when miiTvrini^ froin any contaftunu diaeue. 
pjiK-li Ih)x hhould bo abnut lint>cn Pit!! in luiijrth liy ten in widtli, witli tbo 
*\de wall*) from nine to twelve foot high, aDtl where Bpacc « ill Hilmit, tbn 
Opeouiff abovo should (fxlcnd to t ho roof. A stablo fornx horscbdmdfd into 
alollB Hould not bo lens thnn forty foci in Ictipjth, oiid tiAeca or sixteen 
wide. If tlicrv W no IdEIuIwic, tliu insidu of tbo roof should always 

rpturtorod, U> [iruri-iiL rlirctrt ciirronli* of air, and uccaMional dromiingM 
brokRii tiled : and Utu heated aiid foul air xluiiild eM!n|H>, and ciud and 
pure air be odniittod by olovntioii of the central t.ilea, or other ojifiiing in 
tiie roof suffii-imtly pryt«ct*"l to prevent the lieatiiig iu uf the rain ; ur by 
fcnitini^ placed hif^li up in the wallH. Thc^o latter apertures nlinuld be 
aa far lUiuve the liomen !W they ■^'nn coriTenienlly be placed, by wbicb 
tnoauM all iiijuriintKdmDfflit will lie prevented. 

If there iii a ]ftt\ above tbe citable, tl>u ci-iUng ttlioiild bo plaati^n-d, in 
tirdur U> prevent tiic foul air fiMiii jH-tictrHtiii^ tn the hay aWve. and in- 
juriuffbotb itA taAto and ilH whiih'HonitRcsii ; and nn oi>eniii|jni ftbould be 
allowed iilvovo tliv rw^'ka, throufrh ivhich iho hay niay be thrown into them ; 
Car lliey will (wrniit. the fniil air" to luinpnd to the pi-" vender, and alwi in the 
ftct of HUiiig the rack, and whiEo the horse is wsferly piling upwnrd for 
his food, H (fnias hixhI may lall inli> the cyi', ami jinxtmrt' roiLtiilerahlo 
inflaraniation. At cptber tinu-s, when the careh«M (rnxmi has Krtl ujxii th« 
trap-iloor, a strmm of cold air benl« down on the hi.'atl of the hor&e. 

The stable with n. h»fl over it Hbould never Ih* htw iban twelve feet higb, 
and proper ventilation idioulJ be Bccured, i-itlicr by tul>es varried Ihrou^ 
ibe lolb lo ttic mni', or byf^rutitit^ clr>«c t<i Iho eeiliutr- Thcve gruiiniiti or 
openingH ithoiihl \ni eulitruetl or eontnu't.i'd by m4-aiiH of n ('Ov<<riiig or 
fEnnttm*, »o that during kprin^;. Rummer, anrl niitumn the utablo may poafiMui 
nmriy the same temp^mture with the open nir, and iu winter a temper*- 
tare of nut more than ten or (itleen de^recn above that of the eitenial 


Brnwiag Rpokrn of th« vapoiLr of ammo&iA, which in «o rapidly and k> 
plmtiftilij given out IVom the urine of a liorae in a heoteil stable, we nesi 
take into oonaideratiou Ibe sabject of titter The fint nLiition is freqnently 
to renunre it. The early evolation of riw idinwe the mj-id putrefaction of 
tlic urine ; and the coiiiie<)nenoe nf which will be thn rmpid pntrelaetioD 
of ibe titter thai ha* been moioteneiL by it. Ervrvtbiu^ liastening to dc- 
componition xhoulil be ean-fully removeirl whert> hie and hettltb am lo \xi 
preeervMl. Tlie titter tlmt has been much weltml or at all softened by tbo 
mine, and iii beginning to decay, should he ewopt awny every monting ; 
tbo ffroaler part of the remainder ina^- then be pilisl under the master, a 
little Wiii^ IcO on the liard pavement darinf; the day. The koiIwI tutil 
macerated iwtrtion of that which wiw left, nhoiild lie removed at night. Fn 
the betlcT kind of Ktabloa, however, the stall nhould be eomplotely emptied 
tmy metnting. 

No heap of fermenting duni; aboiilil be KiiHirei) to remain dorinfr the 
day in tltr corner or in any jnii'l of ihc Htahle. With ref^ni'd to this tho 
dinotJona of the master HhmiM l>e [irrvm^itury. 

Tbe stable iihonld bo m ivmlrivxil that the urine idial] i|Hiekly run off, 
■tul tbeoflousiveimd tujurionsvuponr from tho dMompoctog fluid and tbe 

196 Liom. 

litter will thus bo mttt#ri»lly iMScnrd ; if, liuwpv^ir. Ili« iirino is carrivd 
away b)' mmiui of a ffiitfctir mtminiE ulonj; t)u> strtlilo, thr dnor af the ittnlU 
inasl »laut toorardfi tuat tj^uttvr, AtiU the- Juclirily luutit uu(. bu ao ^rt-at m 
to stmin the back sitiewH, and hecontt^ nii ocNinaional, altliouK:!) iini<UH[HK;t(;<l, 
cniUKi of litmeiiMM. Mr. R. Lawreiica well nbHerrtii, that, ' if tbe render 
wiJI kUukI for a f»w minnU-K with hifi tocn higher than his hec'le, th(> pain 
be will fe«l in tb(! caIrM of hU Io^k will »t.^an conrinoe him of Uie truth 
ofthb remiLrk. Hfiirv, wlii-n n li'irst^ is itnt toting', he always oDdcanmra 
to 5iid his 1ev(^), either by aloiulirii; a^^nixs I hi- ittnll or cW lut fiLr lisck u 
bin baJtor will ponnit, so tliat his hind-logs nmy meet the ottoeot of the 
otb«r aide of tho chuinel.' 

Tlu« inclination of the sIaII Is also at timca tho cause of contraction 
of tim hvfU of Hit- fiiol, by throwinp too prcnt n proportion of the weight 
upon ihi^ till-, and n-iROviii); tliat {in'tutiin.' on (liu htirlit which tondn most 
to kwp them opon. I'are, tht-rviiin', niuKt bft Uiken tluit the tihiiitiii;r of th« 
floor of the (<talU shall be no more than is i(iillici(.-nt to ilnx-in oil' ttc ariuo 
with tolcrablo nkjiidity. Slalla of this kind certainly do bt-flt for iiuirt-n; but 
fur horsos we much prefer those with n pnttinff in the fM:<ntre, and a slight 
tnclttiiitiou of till) floor on ovoiy dido tiiwanls tho niidtllo. A short branch 
may cominimieato with a larfror druiti, by mmnit of which tho nrino mav be 
carriM ofl"to a tvufr^'oiroulaido tbe stable. Traps am now contrived, and 
may bo prmrurod at little cxj^nw, by int-ant) nf which neither «ny olTviuiivo 
amell nor cnrroiit of air con paaa tbront;h tlio grating. 

Thv farmur Hhouht iu>t Ioho any of the urino. It ia from tbe dung of tbo 
hone that hrdcrivM a principAl aad the moat valuable part of biBTnannrc. 
It ia that which cmrlicst tukc« on tbe procens of pulrc&Ktion, nnd forma 
on« of ths stroogcst ancl moat durable drivmiiivH. That whirl) ix moNt uf 
all concerned vrith the rapidity aod the perfection of the decompoRition in 
tbe nriiie. 

Homauity and int«rcHt, M well an tho appcaranco of tbe stable, should 
IndlUM the prapriotor of thv hnrsc to pUco a moderate quantity nf litter 
under him daring tbo day. Tho farmer wlin want* to convert pverjr 
ntherwJMo naelcM mbatance into manure, will have additional rtiuHon for 
adopting thia pmotiee: Mp«ci»Uy aa he doea cot ooniino himself to that 
to wliich in (owna and in gentU-nmi'ii HtAbloa costoni aecma to have limited 
the bed of tho horsr, vix. wheut and ont Htraw. nnd aomL-timcs, daring 
the Muiniiirr montha, tan or H&wduHt. Pea and bean haulm, and heath, 
occupy in the stablo of the farmer, durinfr a purl of thp year, l.ho pln«e ol" 
u-heaten and oaben straw. It shoithl, however, be T«mcmbered that thoiio 
gabatanccs arc diapuaed noro oavily to fcrmoot and putrefy than atraw. 
Mid therefore should be mora c«reftilly examined and oftoncr removed. It 
ia ihu faalty cnalom of twmio f^miem to let llti* InoI Hcfiiionlntfl until it 
mHiea almost to ths horae'a bellv. and the bottom of it i» a maaa of dung. 
If Umto wvrs not oRon many a h'olp nnd i^rantiy through whii-li the wind 
can en^ and disperse tbo foal air, thv bmlth of tlic animal would mate- 
rial ly Kufler. 


Thia tieglcctt<l branch of stable man^^meiit ia of fbr more ConMquonco 
tlian ia Keiu>rany ituatrinetl -, and i( ia jmKirularty neglccti-d bv thnae for 
whom these irealSses arc principally desi^^ed. The farmers stable ia 
fretiBonlly deHlitnie ut' any gbixod window, and tuw only a ahuttcr, which 
U nusnl in wnnn wctall'tr, and i-]o»ed wIkmi the wrather beromoa cold. 
When the horae ia iu the atablu only during a fi-w liotini in the day, thia 
ia iMii of so mBob cunscqnenoe, nor of >«) mnrli, pmludilY, with n-gnnl to 
bonea of alow work ; but to carriage IiomuD and liackueyM, ko far, al html, 



M iliv oyos tirti cunn-miil, a diirk sUibl» i» litiln lem injimm» than x fool 
nod bested one. Coiutort, olt'aiilinMii, and health, are all connprted with 
thL* iiueetioQ ; atid why stabliis ure not «« wuU li|j;hted as any of the rooDiB 
in dwcUi[i-;-lioutioft, it la not oosV to cay— the viva of too mDch li^ht 
btiing in aiiy way iiijurioufl is ridiculoits ; kum-«, tut -vfeM »» mvn, in a 
state of nntiiro, tivL- in vlcu- opuii daylighl; oiiil there is no rea«on why, 
in a Btato of domesticitr, one slionld not do no as well as the other. A 
grvat proportion of stoDlwa arc dnrk, foul, and nnbenlthy ; the two tutter 
Rtatos often di-pcnding, to a. coDHidcrnblc c-xticnt, on the former ; for, nros 
Huflicitnit ll^fhl fidinitti-d. tlir otuM<.ii of (liv liiltt^r would In* more cvidcmt 
lUid Uitfir accuninlaliitti would hu yrvvcuU^ ; but, a» it iii, hoth in town 
and th* conntrj", dikrkneea covers a mnltitnde of Bins, even, in mnny 
rennets, in otJierwiao well-oi-dcivd E-iitMbUahment^. la order to illuHtrau 
thia, nlbroooo may bo made to the nnplcflMint fi^clinff, and the utter 
impoasibility uf soeing iltHtiiictly, when a maik Kuddcniy tnnargi-x from » 
diirlc place into the t\M hlaieci i>f day. Tlio •ciutatiOD of minglca jmin and 
ffiddinma in not «oon forgotten ; niid some tuinut«B paea birfore IJiocyu can 
accomiaodate itaelf to the iucrcaned liK^t. If this were to hapficii everv 
daj, or seroral titnea in the day, the aif^ht would bo irrvpnrably ininred, 
or poonbly blindn««8 would pusuu. Can wv woiidL>r, tliL>n, t.hnt th« home, 
taleon Iram a dni-k xtahlc into a j^larc i>f iipht., fi^c-Un^, prabaSlj, ac we 
•honJd do undt-T nimtlar circiimtttanceA, aitd tumble fur a considerable 
time to see anything nroonJ him distinctly, should bfcoint! a startler, or 
that the fmjuently rei^aled i-iolent effect of sudden lipht should induce 
ititlammnl ion uf the vyi: so iiiU'iiM- nu L<i teruitJiaUt in lilimlm-Ke ? Tlii-iv 
i»i, inilfrd, no donbt that lioiai-K kept in dtirk BUbk'» arc (Vefjufiitly 
notoriouD slartvnt, aitd that ubuiuiuablc habit liae bocu properly trucvd tu 
(hta cause. 

Farmeni know, and shonld profit hj- the Vnowlnlge, thiii the darktiesn 
of the Etable is not un frequently n cover for ^VHt uiic](>anliiie»B. A j^laxed 
window, willi leodem divisions bctwwn tin- email pAnc«, troiild not iw#t 
iiiueli. and would admit a dt-^rrco of li^lit aoint.*whiit uiorv uppruavliing to 
Uint of day, and at tlie milimi- tiiiii- vrntild n^itder tlie concealment of grosa 
iaattentiuu and want of cleanlinens Lm]K)ti!uble. 

If plainly of liglit in mlmitted. the walls of the f^tablo, And CBpeCTnlly tbat 
portion of thc-m which it boforc ihe hor»c'8 huul, mast not be of too 
trUriiif^ a ctdiuir. The eonstani n-flfction from a white wall, and eniH^ially 
if the sun shines into the atable, will be as injurinnn Ui the eye an lie 
imdden vhangea from darkness to liffht. Thu perpetual alight excetw 
of irtitnuluji will do n« iniiclt iniuohiof ax Ihn not^nttional but mun.' violent 
onv when thv aiiiuiid ui lalccti from a kind of twilight to tho blaxo of day^. 
The eolourof tJie hiablo, llicrvfore, ohoiild depend on the ijuantily of li^ht. 
Where mueh can be udiiiittetl. lite walla should bo of a ffrwy hnc. Where 
darknvwi would nthunvise prvrail, frviquuut whil«wa«hiug may in somo 
d<-(»rv* di)i«ipat« the gloom. 

For another reason, it will be evidout that the stable efaonid not posse«s 
inn (flarine a Ii)j>ht: it is the i-eatinii-plncc of the horse. In tho qoictncsH 
of a ilimly-lig^hted stable he obtains repose, and DL-cnmiilat^-ji flrvth and (kt, 
Dcalirr* aro iN/rfcetly awnn* nf t>iiie. They lutve their darkened Htablea, in 
which the younj^ howe, wiili little or no ejereise, and fed npon niaahes 
and ((round cuni. ia niadf up for Mtli.'. The round and plump appoaroaoe, 
however, which may delude the unwary, soon vaniahc* with atterMl treab- 
mt-iit. and tlie aniiuul is found lo lie nulit for hard work, and prediapoaed 
tn litany an inllainmuldrr di«ei>»^>'. Tbc iMrcuinKtannva, t)u^, iindi.'r vrliieh 
H Mable Honn-what ibviki-ncd tuny Ik* allowt^, will be L«a«ily di-tormined by 
ibv owQvr of Uio honiu ; but, aa a £i,*ucrul rule, dork alableA tim uuli-ivuilly 


to cleuUuiG«s, und llic frnjucat cmaiui of the vice of sbuHin^, and of 
mont wriuan ilisceai'H oF tJic vyo. 


Of tAiB marli neod not be said to IUb ajfriciiUnri*)!, ginco piistAm, nod 
Mfpareotly without ill vfioet, tiiu» allutlcd no litlk- of thv t-vmb Euid bruah U> 
too fiinntr's horw;, Tlic animitl tbnt is norkfd all day, and lumcd ont at 
tU);hl. rwjnirpB Ultlr iimiT' tolw fUmf to liim t)ian to havn tbixlirt Wiishnl 
off hi* liiiilm. Ili'culiir f^nwiming, by KiitiiiTinf» lii^ gkin more Bi>nitibl<^ lo 
(ho ikltfrnUon of ttinporalTire, and the inclemency of the neaUier, vruald 
be prvjudioiuL Tbo liurse that is alt^t^vtbcr turaul *iiit needs no proomirig. 
The dindrifl'or scurf which accnmaliLtca at the motsi of tlw hair, is a pro- 
Tinon of n»tani to drfurul htm fnnn thv wind and the co]d. 

It iK to the fitablnd lionti>, hif^bly ft^j, and littlo or irregularly worked, 
that ffntaming itt of no much coiiiicqiien<w. (lOod rubbing with the bnudi 
or tbo cnn^conib ii|wmh tliv jmrca at tlic »kin, virculatpit tlio bluod to the 
extrflmitieii of th« bmlj, pnxlucca free uiid healthy [K*nijnration. and stand* 
IB the room of ex«rcisi'. No honw will t-arfv a fine coat without eitber 
nnnataral heat. or ilrumtin^, Th(?y both flTpct the name parpos<*; they both 
iacnuM) thv inm.'ninblv (x-repirativn : but the Gret docs it at the vxpraao 
of bmlth aiiil stn'Mglli, whito tlioftecmid, at tbr same time tbat it prndnoes 
a glow on tho nkin, and a dvterminaticin rf bliXHl Lo it. niu8t?«i all the 
oner^eti of the frame. If would hv xroW for the propriHor of llie borm 
if he were to insist — and to soo thut hiw oi-dors are ronllv oK-yvd- that 
tho fine coat in which ho and hut groom so much delight, m protliictt] 
hy hoaest intbbing, and not liy a ImtUtl stjtblc and t.hit-k clothing, and 
moat of all, not by KtimulaltnuF or iujtminipi spin-H. Th» ItortiK rihf>ul«j be 
n^tarly driNMtnl every day, iu addition to the gnraming tliut in n^^N^wiaiy 
aftvr work. 

Then> iM an ntevmity, however, for half the punishinnit whii-h many m 
groaat inRiclfi upon tbo home in ihr art of dntniiiK : and pikrtirnlarly on one 
wbow) skin in thin and simsitivc. Thi' <-iirry-i-omli Kbrnild at all times be 
lightl/ appltM. With many Iinrse* ltd use may l» a]in<>.*t (i).'C|H-n))<>d with; 
and ovt^n thu hrmdi nuodi* aot (o be hc hard, uur the puint« of the bnetica 
no trrej(iilar as they otU-n otv. A fill bni»li, with a littli- nioiv wt-i^ht of 
the hand, will lie etgnnlly cfl'i'tTinal, and a jcrciit deal more pl(>n(ia»t to iho 
lior&«. A huir-eliith, wliili- it will seldom irritatu and t<-a«c, will Ik> almost 
■^nfGciont with horu^j that have a thin skin, and that have not l>c<-r. nc^. 
ItKtcd ; tb« liay whiiip and the linen rubber mv the meaatt by which t^o 
coal in kept in the mntit pcrlVct ordor. and they cauDoc too (fenrmllr b« 
had reooorae to, for their effect on the tikin in moot Boothia^, and to no 
part of his dre^nff does tin- borni', parlienlarty thf Wf1I-lirr>d on«, so will- 
lagly submit himself at to thij. Afier alt it is no slif^ht tawk to dresa ft 
horse as it ought to be doiMr. It occupies no litllo timf, and demands 
cooatdienibU' paljoncv, aa well as dexterity. It will bo readily aiti^rt4iiii«<d 
whutbfir a horse has been well dn-xwil by rubbii)(r him with one of th» 
flnft«ni. A greasy ctain will detect the idlene«« of tJio (jtoobi. When, 
however, the bona is changing his coal, l>oth the eurry-comb and the 
bmsh Hboald be uaed as Ufcfatly as poMible. 

Whoww wcMild be coa*-inced of the benefit of frielion lo the horxu't 
)drin.antl to (lie horw Kenfrallv, newl* only to olmr-rw the effects pro- 
duc«4l by well hantl-rutihinf^ tJie le;^ of a tinxl bonuv. While ew>y 
onJarftcmcot «vbaid««, and the painful ntifTnew* diaappcarH, luul the Iq^ 
ultain thrtr ualaral wanutli, and breome line, the nnunal is endently and 
rapidly reriviog; h(> attacks his foo«l with appetite, and then quietly Uea 
down to rvfit. 






Our nliscrvationB on tbifl important liraiich of )ttnltlo<iiuuiagcinrat mnitt 
have odIj' ii dight rt'ffrence to the ngi-i cult ami horsp. ESl vorlc it* usually 
r^l^ar axiA not uxhikiiKling. Hi- is neither t)n<diR|KH)DH to disciuio hy idlo- 
n«a«, nor worn out by <>sc<>**iivo <-xi-rtioti. Il{\ like liijt muotcr. liua onouyh 
to do to k<x-p liim iu lieolUi, and nut c-aou{;L to cliKttrr^s or injorc hini : on 
ihe oontrary, Uio icgulnrity of hit* work {iniloiijrs llfi- Iu rtn extent iTtrolj 
witapMotl in the Hfal)le of the gentleman. Our reniarkR on oxorpiiw, Uiwi, 
most hiLve a f^ncnU l>oivrin^. or have prinoipoJ rof&ronco to thnoe piT«oiiit 
who aw in ihf midiUc Ktjvtions of lifo, ftnd who contrive to keep a hurav 
for bomncaii or ph-ntuiv. but cannot nfibrd to maintain a scrraut for tho 
DXpraa purpose of looking a^cr it. Tlio fimt rulo wo would ta)- down ix, 
that evmy harse should hnve daily excrcititr. The animal thut, with tlio 
ncnal stable feeding, stands idle for three or fonr dajR, aji » tbo coko in 
many edtAblifibmcnta, must GuQcr. Ho is prodiapoocd to fever, or to 
fpnaao, or, most of nil, to diacaBcs of the foot ; nnd if, after three or finir 
Attyn of infu'tivily. h« is ridd)>n far and fast, ho is Uablo to have inflMinma- 
tion of thf liin{^ nr of tJie feet. 

A evaUcnian or trod<.-emfU)'8 horse AufTi^ni a grvat deal more from idlc- 
neas than he doea fWrni work. A stable-fed liorse should hi»re twt) huiiro* 
exerciiie every day, if he \b to be kept fi-oe from diHeajw. Nothing of ex- 
trnordinar^' or even of ordinmy IuIkmit can be effected on the roud or in 
tlia field without nuffirii'nt and rrpnlar cxerciiw. It is this alone wliieh 
con ^rc vacTgy to tlio tjvtcio, oi dcntdop the powers of any animiil. 

How then in this eirrciao to lie g-iven Y As nmrh pi« [msrtihle by, or 
ondi'r llie superinteiidenco of, lie oivner. Tlie eaitrctKe given by iho 
groom is i»rely to be depended upon. It is ineffit^ient op it is extronio. 
It is in many caaeft both irregular and uijurioa». It is dcwndiiit nvoa 
the* caprice of him who i^ peHbrming a task, and who will render Uuit 
taa^ mhscrHmt to hin own pIciiHnre or purpoK. 

In tmininjt tlio hunter and tho mcohorsc, nf^nlar fixeKims is tho most 
impcrtant of all ronsido rat ions, however it may he forgotten in tho nima] 
miinagrmi'TtI of the sttibie. The exi'n'isvd hontu will disi'tiar^ hin tiwk, 
and sometimoH a severe one, with caiw and pleasures j whilt- tin- idh^ iind 
nef^lectcd one will Iw futipifd ere half his liibonr is accamnliHhod, and, if 
he ia pnsheil a. little too far, tlaiij^-niUK inltammation will fmene. How 
often, noTcrtlicli''**, dooa it happen, that the linrae which hns ntood inm'tivo 
in tho stftblo three or fonr days, ia riddi.'ii or drivvu thirty or iorty miU-K 
In the counte of a single day ! This rest is often parjKJsoly jriveii to priN 
p«ra for extr^exertion : — to lay in a sttick of strfn^th fur the iierfornianeo 
of tho task n'qnin'd of him: arid tlii^-n tlit- ownor ia fturjmiu-tl, nnd diMtia* 
tifl5ed if the animal is fairly knocked np, or possibly beeomes seriounly ill. 
Nothing in so coninmn and so pre|ioMtert)UH, aa fur a i>er«on to hiiy n hontc 
iVmn a <leaIer'H stable, wheni ho hiu been idly fiittenuif; for nalo for many 
a day, and inmieiliati'ly to k>vd him a lent; niu aftvr the hound*, and then 
to complain bitterly, nnci think iJint hv hoM iHi-n iingioM'd u|ion, if tin- nniuud 
is exhausted before the end of the ehiun*, or in compelled (o Xxt led hom« 
Boflering from violfnt inflamutation. H<xiilar tuid gnulually incrtoaing 
eirrriaft wonld have made Ihe same horwi npjM-ar a treasnrc to hia owner. 

KxCTriflo abonld l)e somewhat proportionotl to the nao ot the horse. A 
young honw re<|uin« more than «»i old nnty. Natiiro has pven t(* yoong 
animals of every kind u di«poeitiou to itc'tivity ; hat the cxei-cise niuitt uol 
be violent. A great deal depends iijion tliv miuiiuT in which it ix given. 
To prMcrre the Lemper, and to promote health, il Hbould be ini«h'rah>, at 



Ii<nst &t Uie beginninjpr unci ttio t«ru\ination. Ilto mpiil troi, nr orrn tlio 
gallop, may be nwr^ to in ihc miildlo of tlii; pxorcnnc-, hut tlu' hurso 
should be* brought in cuol. If the uvrnir wduM ^tlilom inlrii.<il hiM liurw 
to bo^s, nml would iiiHiMloii tho cx»r(;imi twiti^f Uikoii whliiii aiglit, or in 
thft iii>igkbnurhDOd of hia reaidL-nPt", many an ncciJent and im^parable iii. 
jury would be avoided. It should be tne oni)cr*s jjloasuro, and it is liia 
interest, pcr8»n»IIy to attend to aU those tliingn. He manaf^n f^vt-ry othsr 
part of hia conctms, itnd lie miij- dtpi'nd on it tliat ho miffcni when he 
npgloctH, or is in B matiiior vnHudod from, liia HtubU^. 


The n'stom of mttnffi''dinR is lircoming gencniil ii^niong (armer*. 
Thk'Ti? an* ft-w hiirw* thitt ihi Tii»t hahitimlly wiwto a imrtJon nf tlurir Imy ; 
iu»d by Bunie the ffreatc-r pnrt ia imlU'il down and trtimplod imdw foot, in 
order h»t to cull the sweetest and Wdi locks, and whi^h couhl nut W done 
while the bay was inclosed in the rack. A goixl feeder will ant^rwnnls 
pick up much of that which was thrown down : but xome of it mnst be 
KoiltMl nnd nnidored diignsting. And, in miLiiy vnHeti, imO'tJiinl uf this divi- 
Bion of their fcMjd ia wa«t«d. Botnn of tho Oftt* mid biRim iiix; imptirfcotly 
chewed by nil horecs, and atakrcfily nt all by liunprj' f^nd givttly ones, The 
a[t{H<ani.uet- of the diinjt will siiffiri.-nllv e\-ini-e lliis. 

The observation of tliis induced the adoption of manger- feeding, or of 
mixinga portion of cliaS* nith the corn. By this means the animal ia com- 
pcUeil tochcw his food; ho cannot, to any proal dej^rue, wa«te the strew or 
nay ; the chaJT is too hard and too ahurp to he awnllowcd vrithont con- 
•idumblu musticutian. and, while he ih fum-Kl to grind that down, the oaU 
Mid benu aro groun4 with it, and yield tnoro nnuriHhment ; the stomach 
is mare slowly Bll«d, and therefore acta better an its contents, and is not 
BO likely to be overloaded ; and the tncrenAed (|iiniitity of saliva thniwii 
oat in tlio lengthened mastication of the food, solteus it, and makes it 
more fit for digestion. 

As Ppoffi«w>r Stewart vmy property remarkii, 'Many horses xwallow 
their com in great hafftc. and when much is eaten, that habit itt exceedingly 
flangerons. The atcmiach is tilleil — it is overbuuli^l before it ban time to 
make preparation for acting on its ci>til«nt«— the food ferments, and pain- 
ful or dangcroua colic ensnea. By adding chafl'to his corn, the horse most 
take more lirao to rot it, and time is given for the eammcnwmcnt of di- 
gestion, before fermentation can occur. In tins way chaff is vciy useful, 
MDM'itilly after lon^ fiutt^.' 

If, when considerable provender was wost^id, the horse maintained his 
condition, and n-as able to do his work, it was e^dent that raueh mi^ht bo 
saved to the tarmcr, when he adopted a ^stom by which the horve nto all 
that was set 1>cforc him ; and by defn'ces it was found out, tliut even food 
somewhat lest) nntntiouit, but a great deal cheaper, and whieh the horse 
tfititcr would not cat^ or wonlil not properly grind down in its uatursj state. 
might be adde<l, while the animal would bo in qaite as good plight, and 
always ready for work. 

Chaff may be composed of equal quantities uf clover or meadow ha}*, 
Uid wheaten, oaten, or Ijarh-y Htntw, eat iiilt> piect* of a cpiarler or half an 
inch in letiffUi, and Tnlngtcd wt-ll tO)^-tlier ; the allowance of oats or beans 
is &n«rwanls added, and mixed with the chaC Many fiwmers very pro. 
|ierly bruise the oats or bcous. The whole oat is apt to slip out of tlio cliaff 
and Ite lost; but when it is braised, and c*<jx.-cial)y if thu ehafT is a little 
welled, it will not n>adilv separate; or, should a imrlion of it cwa|ie tlie 
grinders, it will lie |iiirl)y nro)«nf4d for digestion by the act of bmisiiig. 
Tbe prgwliee against hniiKinir the eats is, su &r as the farmer's horso, 




and the wnggon lionw, (Mid orerj' home of slow dnmgbt, tan ooDoemcd. 
mlliifjpthvr uiifoiiiiili)iJ. Ti'lw quantity uf ttlniw in tlie uhaiTwill nlvraj'K 
COuntonhCt uiy BappoA«d pur^ti^-e qualitj in Uio linu««d Ottto. noreofi of 
<iuickcr drftugiiL, c^xcvpt tlie^' aru imttinJI^ du(|;)»tcd to kcoot, will tbnvo 
Wtl«r witl) hniUed than wilt whole trntu-. fcir n (rn^U^r qiiarility ornulri* 
meiit will be eitrat-teii rroni tbe focxl, an<l it vrill alwayit be oaaj' Ui np|n>H-i<iii 
tli« qnantity of stmw or beans to the eS'cct of the mixtaro on the bowclii 
of tb« lioroc. Th« priii<ripftl kltcration thftt should bo innd« in tlio ln^rse 
of hivrdcr and mort- nipid work, oavfa hh the post-horao, is to incTcasc the 
(laaiititr of Imy, »iid dimiitiHli lluit of >tmw. Two tmintm of h%y am- be 
cut witli one of itraw. 

Some gentlemen, in deBanM of the preiodioe and oppoiition of tho 
rottchmau or lUti (frooin, liiivc iutnMlunxl ttits moilo of ftmliiig into thu 
otables of their carriapc horst-s and hackneys, and with niajiifeat advautAgc. 
There has been no loss of condition or power, and con§i(lerab!e saving of 
provender. Thi« srtU'm \» not^ howt'vor, calouliitJMi for tlio hunter or the 
roce-borse. Their food must lie in Hmallcr bulk, in order that tho action 
nf tho lungB may not he in]|>fdi-d by the disf4.'n»ioa of thu etomach ; yet 
many hanlvni Iiave gime well oi-wr ili« field who Iijivl- b«m manger-fed, 
th<* proportion of com, however, I»ing ninlf rially iiiareaacd. 

For the agricaltiiTal and cart hor«e, ei^f ht poiuids of oata and two of bcasa 
abonkl bo added to di-ery twenty pounds of chaCT. Thirty-lour or thirty- 
nix pounds of the mixluro will bc^ safficicnt for any moderate-aized horae, 
with fair, or even hard work. Tli« "Iray aikI waggon honw mny require 
forty piinnda. Hay in tlio iwk at night is, in tliiw cutte^ imppowcd tn bo 
ontittvd altogether. The rack, however, may rfmaiii, as uccaiiivtially useful 
for the mck horao, or to contain tares or other green iiient^ 

noraeii are very fond of this provendt-r. The majority of thorn, after 
baling beea aeruatomed to it. will leave the best oats givon to them uJone, 
for Ihe aake of the mingled ehaff and coriL Wc would, however, caution 
tlic farmer not to set apart diimogod hay for the maanfactnrc of the cholT. 
The horse may be thus indoced to eat that which he woulil otherwise 
nfow ; but if the imiirisbing property of flip buy hiw fawn iin]](unHl, or it 
hiia Ncquired an injuriutia principle, the animal will citfaeT loxc condition, 
or becuiue diMaswl. Much more injury is done by uttii^ daumgvd hay 
or musty oata than is generally imagined. There will bo anfficient saving 
in the diminished cost of the provender by the introduction of the Btraw, 
and tlio improved condition of tliu liarso, without poisoning him with tlio 
ntfbao of tho Su-m. For old honM«, and for ihoao with defoctixo teeth, 
chair ia pccnliarly uHcC\il, and for ibcm the grwa should bo broken down 
aa well aa t]ie fodder. 

While the roixtnre of chaff with the com prevents it IVom being too rapidly 
dovonred and a portion of it swallowed wliole, and therefore the Btomaeh 
is not too loaded with that on which, as containing tho moat nutriment, its 
chief d^estaTe power should bo exeriod, yet, on the whole, a gretit di-«l nf 
tinte is gained by this mode of feeding, and more » left for reat. When a 
borso eoDMM in woaried at the dose of the day, it ooeopies, after he hoa 
OftUm hit com, two or three hours to clear hia mclc. On the Kystcm of 
manger- feed itigi tb(! chaff being already cut into small pieces, and tho 
bentiH and oata bmised. he is able fally to satisfy his appetite in an Lour 
aad a hair. Two additional hours aru rhervforv dvvolcil iij n-vt. TIiih is 
a eircnrnftsuce dem'rving of nuoh txMiaidoradon even in the famier'ii 
stablci and of immeuse Consequence to the postmaster, and the owner of 
ermrf hard-worketl borne. 

Muinger food will htf Lbs nsiial anpport. of tJio farmer's hctrao during tho 
winlf^, and while at constant or ociwsional hnn:l work ; lint from the 

1» FOOD. 

middle of April to the end of July, ho may be fed with tliiB mixture in 
the day and turned out nt iiipht, or he nuiy rcinaia out during every n*Ht- 
day. A team iu coustaiit cm{iloy fthonld not, however, be suflvred to b(! 
oat at night af^ the end of Au^gt. 

Tlic fftrraer should take cnre that the pasture in tliick and }foo<1 ; and that 
the distance from the yard is not too great, or the fields too large, otlierwiiie 
a very conHiderablo {lortion of time will bo occupied in catching the horsen 
in tho morning. He will likonHse have to take into consideration the sale 
ho would have for his hay, and the necessity for sweet and untrodden pas- 
ture for hia cattle. On the whole, however, taming out in this way, when 
circumstances will admit of it, will be found to be more beneficial for tlie 
horse, and cheaper than soiling in the yard. 

The horse of the inferior fanner is sometimes fed on hay or gmss alone, 
and the animal, although he rarely gets a feed of com, maintains himself 
in tolerable condition, and does the work that is required of him ; but hay 
and grass alone, however good in quality, or in whatever quantity allowed, 
will not support a horse under hard work. Other substances containing 
a larger proportion of nutriment in a smaller compass, have Itccn added. 
The}' shall be briefly enumerateil, and an estimate formed of their com- 
parative value. 

In almost every part of Great Britain, Oats have been selected as that 
portion of the food which is to afford the principal nourishment. They 
cxintain seven hundred and forty-three parts out of a thousand of nutritive 
matter. They should be about or somewhat less than a year old, heavy, 
dry, and sweet, plump, bright in colour, and free from unpleasant taste or 
smelt. New oatM will weigh ten or fitloen per cent, more than old onea ; 
but tho difference consists principally in waterj- matter, which is gradually 
evaporated. New oats are not so readily ground down by tho teeth ax 
old ones. They form a more glutinous moss, difficult to digest, and, when 
eaten in considerable quantities, are apt to occasion colic and even stag- 
gers. If they are to be used before they are from three to five months 
old, they would be mat^trially improved by a little kiln-drjing. There is 
no fear for tlie horses from simple drj-ing, if t;he corn was goixl when it 
was put in the kiln. Tho old oat forma, when chewetl, a smooth and 
uniform moss, which readily dissolves in tho stomach, and yields tho 
nourishment which it contains. Perliaps some chemical change may have 
been slowly eflectcd in the ohl oat, disjMsing it to be more rea^lily assinii- 
latecl. The musty smell of wetted or dami^red com is pnxlnced by 
fungus which grows u]»on tfie Bi>e<l, and the deep red (fi>xy) colour which 
Bomo oats possess, is produced by excessive fermentation in the rick, ami 
in both these eonditiims they will have an injurious effect on the urinary 
organs, and often on the int<^«tiiies, producing profuse stidiug, inflammation 
of the kidneys, colic, and inftammation of tiie Ixjwels. 

This musty amell is rcniove<l by kiln-drying the oat ; but care is hero 
requisite that too great a dcgnre of heat is not employed. It should he 
Rufficicnt to deatroj- the fungus without injuring the life nf the seed, 
Klany persons, but without just cause, have consid<>nd>le fear (if the kiln- 
bnmt oat. It is saiil to pnKluce inflammation of the libidder, iind of the 
eyes, and mangy affections nf the skin. Tho fact is, that nisuy of the kiln- 
dried oata that are given to hones were damaged liefore thi'y were dried, 
and thus iMvame unhealthy. A considerable jmpmvemeiit would Iw ef- 
fected, by cutting the untlireshed oat-strnw into chitfl'.nnd tlie i-xpenscr nf 
threshing would be saviil. OiiUstniw is Ix-ltcr than that of liarley, but 
does not i-ontain so much nutriment as tluit of wheat. 

When the linrse is ftil on liny and iiats, the quantity nf the oats must vary 
with his sixc and tlie work ti> Ik: ]H'ri(imtiil. In winter, fiHirf<>e<lM, or fmm 




ivn to rmrtcvn [M>uuja of oets in the (lay. will lie a fair nllnwHiin' for h 
iuime of tiflocn lutmli! one or twu inchoi hi);li, bikI that ha-i tomlfnile 
work. In Bntnmpr, half Ihv i|iiaiilily. with irrepn food, will be sofiirient. 
Tboao who work on tho lurm h»rc from ivn to fonrtix'n poomlit, aiiil the 
hnabtT from twi-lvt tii ntibivn. Thciv iwi- »o rfliniiit wni sufc i(iibHtihitt.i! 
for (JWkI iJttU ; but, nu the contiKry, vre aii< murh iii<-hn«nl to tA-ficvc thnt 
ther [xiHHeBii an inrigumtin^ projwrtj which is not foond in olIitT IikkI. 

Oatn)«ft], in the form of grocl, con^tut«8 one of the mwtl important 
articles of tliet for the sick horao — not, indpcd, forced «pon bini, but t« 
pBJ] conlaining it bi-tng iduiig in hiti box, and of which he will soon begin 
to drink wbvii w»l«r is d«u«l. Few gnranut iimlcn good f^ivl ; it is 
oitbor fi»t boiled \anfr enough, or a saStHmt qn&ntity of oatmoftl hna not 
kwCB lued. The proportions should bo, a pound of in4?«d thrown into a 
gallon of water, oiul kept conMtantljr fliirred luitil it builu, and livo mtnutcs 

Whit«-wft(er, miulu by 8tirriiif{ n pint, of ootmeiftl in a p«iil of water, the 
chill bdng taken from it, i)i an csetfUt-tit bcvoni^ for llio titiretj and tired 

RarlBT is a common food of Uio horse an rarious jiarta of (lie Conlinent', 
and, antil the intrudoctinn of the ont, ae«mii to have contiiiliitcil aliixiNt hix 
only food. It ia niotv nntritti>nH than outs, containing nine hundrod and 
twvaty parl« of nutnttvo matlvr in cTcry tliooMnd. Tht^rv e«t.iu8, how- 
CTer, to bo something ncceairy bwidt-s a grvat proportion of nutritive 
matter, in onliT to render an; ■ubslanoc wboleiomm atiCDgthE-uing, or 
fattwning ; therefore it ia that, in manjr horsed that are hardly worked, 
and, indeed, in bones geiierally, barley does not agree with th^m ao u-irll 
■a oata. They are occaaioDally eubjoct to inflammatury lXlulplaiu^ and 
(nrticularly to snrfoit and monfirr. 

When faairley is given, the qanntitT shoald not exceed a peek daily. It 
ibonld alw^s be lniuso<l, and the eUnlT Hhonld consist of eqnal qnantitiea 
of luty and barlcy-straw, and not cut too short. If the fartuer has a 
qoantity of spotted or anaiUeatble iMrtey Uiai bo wislies thus to f^t rid of, 
be mu«L very gmloally acctuttom Lia horaes to it^ or he will pnvliably pro- 
dnee seriooK iUness among them. For horses that are n^-overiiig from 
yineoa, barley, in the form of malt, ia often scrriceable, M tempting tho 
appetite and recruiting tho strength. It is best given in inaithcn— water, 
conSKlcnbly below tlio boiling hatt, being juarcd upon it, and the veisvl 
or Mil kept covered for half an lumr. 

Oraina freah from the maah-tiib, either alone, or mixed wit}i oats or 
chaff, or both, may he oceaaioiMilly given to horsra of alow draught ; they 
wouhl, however, aflord voiy inaufficient nonriabiDont for horses of quicker 
or harder work. 

Waur is, in Great Britain, more raivly given lliaa barley. Itconlaina 
nine hnndred and tiftv-livc part* of nntritivo tnatter. When farmcra have 
a dauagnl or utunarkutablo »ampk' of wheat, they WjmvtiineH giTO it to 
tlietr horses, and. King at tii-at umxI in small ([uantitiea, they lieiomt^ wv 
cortoraed to it^ and thrive anfl work well : it mnst, howerer, always be 
bnised and given in cliulf. ^Vlicat contains a greater portion of ^tUen, 
or sttoky kdliosive matter, than any other kind of grain. It is difficult of 
digestion, and apt to cake and fonu obstructions >n the bowela. 'lliiA will 
of&ncr be the case if the borae is saffcred to drink mocli waUsr soon after 
feetiiug upon wheat, 

inOamaiatioQ of the bowels and fi«t, colic, and deatb, arc occiuiionally 
ibe cootfeqaence of eating any ^-at <juautity of wheat. A home that is 
fed on wheat slinold have very litUe hay. The pmportJon slKnild not- Iw 
man] than one truss of hay to two of straw. \Thi»ten flour, boiled in 



W«tir to tbo UitoknoM Cf ttenli, in ^avcii with gOOd«0Mfe bKnir^'ging-, 
•nd Mp«eially if ccmlriiied witli chalk nnd opium. 

Bun, or the grooad biuk of titv wbt:at, uwd to he frequently Kivcn to 
Hick honeH on arconnt of th(! Kiippa<w>il advantage derived fVnm tt« relaxing 
ilie bowBlB. There is no doaht that it does operate (rentlv nn the ititrwtiiuil 
catui), and assiHta in qoit^kening the passage of it« ront«ntfi, when it \m oc- 
ca«ii>nally given ; bat it must not be a constont, or evtn frequent food. 
Mr. Kmcs attended three mills nt which many horscawcrefcept^ and there 
were alwayn two or three cttnv* of indigvMtioii from the accamolation of 
bnui or pollar<l in tJii» larp- itilcHtiiicH. Rmii ntny, Iiowcvpt, he niieful as 
»n occftmonal aperient in tlic form of a maoh, Imt never should K-cumc a 
re^iJar article of food. 

Br.A;(!i.^Tbe»e form a atriking iUatttration of tlie principlf, tliat the 
nnitriidung or stren|*thening effects of the different artioles of food depond 
more on s<:)mi' ptTnliar jir^jwrty which they posHegs, or Bome combitiAtion 
which they form, than on the actual quantity of nutritive mnltiT. Heans 
contain but five hundn:d and Buventy purts of nutritive matter, yet they 
wld materially to iht! vi(f mr of tlw linrHc. Tliere nn* many horses that 
will not tilnnd liaril wurk without heana heingminijifd with their food, and 
tht-Bo not horne* whose U'aden<:j' to pur^ it m»y h-.- m-ci-nsury to restiwin 
by UiK iwLringvncy of the Intaii. There ttt no iravetlor who in nut aware of 
Ibe difibrenoe in the Opirifc and continaance of his honte whi-tlicr >if allows 
or denial him beans on his jonmcy. Thi-y afford not merely a t*mpoi«iy 
Btimulna, bat tliey may he daily nsed withnnt losing their power, or pro- 
dadng exhaustion. They uro indinpciitiitblu to the hiinl-worked coach 
lorac. Waahy Lories amhi never jp:t tlinniK;b their wr>rk wilhoat them ; 
and old hon<c* would o(l«n sinV under the taak iniponwi nptjii thorn. They 
■honld not bo given to the horses whole or Rplit, bat crashed. This will 
mako a material diffvrence in the quantity oi nutriment ttint will be coc- 
lnic'ti.^1. They ore soRietimes given to turf Iiorftea, but only ax au orra- 
oianal stimnhmt. Two potiada of beans may, with advanta^, l>e mixt'd 
with Ibe ehair of the wricnltnrB] honte. during the WTn(«<r. £n Rummnr 
the quantity of beans RhotUd be iMseoftd, or they thonld bo altogether di»- 
continued. Doanet are generally ^ven whole. Thui is Tciy abnnrd ; far 
ibe vuuog hanM\ whoHo teeth are Htrong, seldom require* tiwm ; while Um 
old faons, to whom they are in a manner necesaary, in iicarei>Iy lihlo to 
nuwticsta them, iiwallowa many of them whole which he ia unable to br««k, 
and droM much oom from his month in tho incffvctnal attempt to cmah 
them. Ucans nhoald not be merely split, but omshed ; they will even tlien 
^re Hnfficiuut employment to the grindoni of the animal. Some post- 
mn«ters ure eliatT with Iwann itistead of akts. With hanlly-u-orl:ed horoes 
they may powihly bo allowed ; bat, in general caaos, beans, withont onts, 
would hv loo liiuitiitg aitd stimulating, and would produce costivent'tu, and 
|in>l»lily megrims or stngffors. 

Beona aboold bo at len»t a twelvi'm^nttli old Wforv they are given to lite 
hone, and should bu plump, and enn'fiilly preflerved from damp and 
aoaldinesa, which at Iwrt ditigtut the hor«e if they do no other narra, 
■nd harbour on iniwct that dentroya the inner part dF Uie bean. 

The straw of the beau is nutritive and wholesome, and in nminnv given 
to tfaa horses. Its nntritivo pnifwrtifM aru iiHp[Mi«tid to be litiJe iofcriurto 
those of oats. 

Put aro occasioaolly given. They appear to be in a slight degrw more 
Dcuriitiing tlutn U-ann, and nob ao heating. They contain five hundred 
and aorenty-fiMr parts of nutritive matter. For horses of alow work they 
tnay be oaed ; but the qoantity of chalT ahtmld Iw tricreaaed, and a few 
oats added Tbey have not bmiu found l4> answer with bones of quick 




Atwaf^U It is etn^ntiiil that they tihould be crushed; otboririBC, on ac- 
(.•oust of tlirir ^lulnilar form, thev are apt to vscaiK' from the teeth, and 
mftny *rc curallowod wholf, Kx[>o«c<l to wrtrmtfi niul itioisture iu the 
Htoniwh, they swrll coneitltmbly, iLud tnny pninrnllv «nil itnanously dis- 
tciiil it. The jteaN tluit aro givrii U> hiirwrs slivnlil W Mitinu, &d(1 «t leiwt 
a twclvcmontli old. 

In some northern countries pea-meal is frcqacntlv nned, not only iw an 
eacelleat food for the borao, but as a remedy for diaWt^'S. 

LnasBD u aonetiinsB giren to nek homes —raw. gronnd, and boiled. 
It is RippuBed to Iw nmfnl in caaes of caturrh. Mr. Black, veterinarr 
KarKtHMi of tbo 1411) Urauiioiiit, snye, that 8u^;iir was tried aa an nrlick' of 
food daring thv i'eninaaW War. Tvn bor«cs wt-ir selected, each of vrluuh 
got 8 Iba. a day ai four ratioiiK. Thry tuok it rer)- rwiiiily. and thrir anta 
became fine, snioath, and (rluMty. They ^)t mi (Him. und only 7 Hm. uf 
hay, inslead of the ordinary allowancts which is 12 llw. The inifrar wciiit-d 
to supply the plaoe of the cfn-n so well, that it would haw bcoii imtbahly 
given abroad ; but pcacu vume, and tbe circumstaucea tliat rciitiirri^l tbe 
USD of angar for com ditdrablc n-ased. and the horses retanit-d to their 
imal diet. That thv tiiif^r iiiipht nul l>e appropriated to other pur)>oso)i 
it wa* slif{htly sr«nt<^ with. a«iULfa>tidA, which did not prodnc« any ap- 
parmt vSixt upon tlicm. 

Herbafrr. grv«*n anil ilrj-, eiinHtitutea a nrindpal pari of the fotxi «f Uie 
borae. There are few things with regard to which the fenncr in sa care* 
leas aa thu mixture of ^frusscs on both his upland and nicndow pasture. 
Ueoee we find, in the 8am« field, the ray-crass, cominp to pcriVctiou only 
in a loamy soil, not lit to cat nntil the middle or latliT paci of July, and 
yicldinp little Al^-mii»th ; the meadow fox-t4uI, best raltivtrfed in n rhiyey 
soil, lit li.>r thu Bi^Ttha in tlio bu^imiu^ of Juno, and yk-ldin(; iv piL'ittiful 
■fWrmath ; tbc i^laticonft feacnc-frrnM, ready at tlic middle of June, and 
Tapidly doteriontiiig in vnlac an its K-eds rificn ; niii) (be fL-rtili- meodow- 
pmim, increasing in ^-ahic until the mil i>f' July. These nre rircunnitanffa 
tbi- ini|>orlanei' of which will, at no diKlant jwriod, l»o rroo^iuscKl. In the 
meantime, Sinclair's account of the ditTorent frr»8«eii, or the cnndensation 
uf the most important part of liiu work in Sir lluniphrr Davy'u Ai;ri«ul- 
lural Chemistry, or Low's Elements of Practical Aj^'ieulture, are well 
dcaerrin^ of the dilifrent pcnixHl of the farmer. 

H«y is moftt in tKirfectiim wJii-n it in abtnxt a twelvemonUi old. The 
borae perhaps would prefer it enrlifr, but it is neither so wholosomo nor 
ao nntritiTe, utd ofl«n hoM a purn^il.ivr quality. When it is abont n yukr 
old, ib retaioH, or sliould retain, somewlint of its ffreen coloiu-, ita afpviwlile 
BiDctl. and its pleasant tast«. It baa amd^rgone the slow process of fer- 
mentation, bv wbii^h ibe wngnr wliich it contain* i» ilevclopcul. and ita 
nutritive quality is fully oxcrcU«l. Old haj bcoomea dry and tasteless, 
ami inniitriliTr and imwhoUiumii;. AlVer tlifi fTi^Sa in cut, ami (he hay 
Htiu-kixl, a slitrhl. degree of fermentation takra place in it. This is neceic 
aary for the development of the NBcch&rine principle ; but ocnisionHlly it 
prooecda too far ami the hay iHx'omM m<>ii-/-umi, in which iitaitt it in injuri- 
ona, or wen poisouoos. The horse soon shows the effect wliicb it bun u{>on 
hira. Ho baa diabetes to a ci>ni«ider»hlo degroc — he U-romea biilelxiiinii— 
bis strmirth is waatnl— biH thimt is exc«fwve, and hi> ia almost wurthlexK. 

Wbrrt! tb« sysiem of manner-feed inf^ is not adopted, orwherehay in still 
nllowc*! at ni}{h(, and cbaB' aud com in th« day. there is no error into 
wbii-h tbe brroer ia ao apt to fall as to t^rc an undue t|unolitT of liny, nnd 
that generaUy of tfae worst kind. If the man^cr^syalt-m is [;uoi). there- can 
be no neocoaity fur hity, or only for a small ijiianlity of it ; but if the raek 
M 4T9rk«d«d, tho gneody homo will bo eating all nigbt, instead of taking 



IiiH rpRt— wtivn tl)« time for the momiiif; fiwd nmves, his stomach will lie 
bliTAtly Illicit, Knd he will be Imh capnhic of nork IVviin the want ofBleeji, 
uikI rniRi tlio Ion •;-ron till ucd clistciiHiuu of tlio iriomacli rondcring it impos- 
sililn fur t]i(! tooil to l>c properly digtwtwl, 

or the vatun oC Tarks, br forming a |K)rtion of the late s])rinfr mill utiiiu 
nu<r foo^L of tho stabled and agricalraraJ horap, there can bo no dotibt. 
Thcj- are cut after the poda ore formod, bat a conmder«blc tiiu© befvre the 
BPcds arc ripe. They supply a larj^cr quantity of fund for u limited time 
tlmn almiMit imy oth«fr funvfjo-crop. Thu IVrtit mitira ia tli« iiiOHt profitable 
variety of (lie lure. It in very iiatritive, luid ncU ax a ^-iitlc a]){.-rii>nt, 
l\'hen sTirfeit-lnmna appear ou the akin, and the horae be((iEji to rub him- 
aclf agminst the diviaimut of the atall, and the legs kwcU, &uii the iteela 
tbrcaton to crock, a few tares, cut up with tho chufT, or (riven iaattnul tif a 
portiiHi of the hav. nrill MtVord considerablu relief. Ten or twelve noundii 
may bo ollowoil iliiily, and half that woij^lit of hny KiibtntctL'd. It is an 
erroneotta notion, that, given in moJcrute quantiticw, tbvy i-itJivr roagheti 
the ooat or leanen the capnbility for hard work. 

HvK GiusM aflorda a valuable article of food, but ia infei-ior to tho tarn. 
It in not GO nutritive. It is apt l4J scour and, oomeiunully, and lato in the 
spi-iu));, it hM ftpneorcd to be injuHonit to tho homo. 

Clotsb, for smlitif; the horse, im inferior to the (ftrc aa(l tho ryo gnimt 
but D«YertlieIc«8 ia useful when they rannnt bo ohtaiiwHl. Clover hay is, 
|i<*rbn|ia, |trefeniblo lo meadow liav for chaff. It will aomMJmea ttfinpt the 
Ktek lionte, and may be given witn adMLnt»;*e to tJitise of slow and heavy 
work ; but Custom ecems properly to havo forbidden it to tho haut«r luul 
tho hackney. 

Li;oi:r.v, wht-rc it can bo obtained, is preferable ovea to i&ns. fuid Saix- 
To\s is caporior to lucem. Although they contain but a !<nmll quantity 
flf nutritive matter, it ia eoaily digiwi«i, and perlectly assimilattxl. They 
K]>eedily put both nLosole and fat on tl)o horso tlutt is worn down by lubour, 
and they are almost a specific for liidc-bound. Sunii; famkors have thouf^ht 
BO highly of luctmi as to snlwtitult! it for oata. This may Ik.' allowable for 
tliu aOTiciiUiiral home nf slow and not severe work, but ho from whom 
•poedier action is sometimes re^iuircd, and the horse of all work, must have 
B proportion of hard meat within him. 

Thk Swbih.-*!! TvRsir is an article of fiiod tho value of which haa not 
been sufficiently appreciated, and particuhwly for agrieulturvl hones. AI- 
thfoagfa it ia far from containinf; the qatiiitity of nutritive matter which 
hufl beoB vawosed, that which it hassocnui to be caiHihlo of eaar and com- 

fletc digeatton. It should l>C sUccd with chopped straw, and witliout liny. 
I quickly lattcns the liorac, and produces a smootli tflotiHy coat and a looxc 
skin. It will be poi«l practice to give it once in the day. and tlmt at night 
whan tlic work is done. 

CakrOTS. — Tbo virtues of this root are not sufliciently known, wbetbor 
M oontributinf^ to the atreujztb and cndor»ncc of the sDuud horse, or tJic 
rapid recovery of the sick one. To tho bcaJthy horse they should Ix- piven 
alioed in his chaff. Half a bushel will Im a largo daily altownnee. Tlicro 
ia little provender of which the horse ia fonder. The following aecoant 
of tho value of tlie carrot i« not cxn^'^ratcil by Stewart in hia StuhUt 
Eennomy. * This rook is hetl i» much Mteetn. Tht-re i« noue better, nor 
usctia{M BO eood. VThen 6ret ffiveu it is slightly diuntio and laxative : 
bot aa (lie aorso becomca Bccu*lomcd to it tjievo eflecis cenae to be pro- 
dncmL Tliey ahtn improve tlic state of tlio akin. Thoy fonu a t^ooA tmh- 
Btitat« for giWH, and aa exeeUent alterative for boraea out of condition. 
To sick and idh> bonia they rcoder com nnn.HM«iapy. They Rte U-ncfiiij,! 
bi nil chronic tliMnfft cooni'cted with brvathiuf;, and bavu a aiark^l 



infioefice upon vlirunic coagli and l>rukra winil. Tlun- ara aervicc«b)e in 
dwaaaea of tho Akin, aod in comboontioa with oat« tbey rortore a work 
bone miKTb snon(>r than onts alooo.' 

P0U.TUC8 haru bcca fnvcn. and with advaotaKe, in their ravrotjitCi sliced 
with tlio diaff ; bat, wlicro it bun W-ni conrcniont to boil or au-am Oiprn, 
tin bmefit baa bpcn tar more widcnt. Piir;ging baa then rarely oiumcd. 
Soma hnve (^vril boilod jwtatoea aloBo, and honoa, instead of rejcctiiig 
thcfii, b»T« Boon pn-frTrol tbem eren to the Oat ; but it ia better to mix 
tbciu with tbeiuiu&l umn^rfeed, in tbcpi-o[x>rtianofonup()andvf patAtora, 
to two and a half poimda of the otbor iogredientB. Tb« aw of tb<f {Wtatoe 
miat depend on ita cheapaeaa, and the facility for bailing it. Half n dotvn 
bones would soon ivpay ih« oxpenM of a «t«amin|; boiler in tli« saving of 
promxnder, witboat tokinj^ into the MoOnnt tbvir improved oonditinn and 
ca[iabi]ity for work. PrnfiwAar Iaw »ays tliac l-i llis. of potatoes yield aa 
inacl) nouriithmiiit aa four pounds and a ttalf of oalA. Von Thayer aaserta 
that three buahcU ok eqnat to 112 lbs. of bay: and Ctirwcni, who triiid 
pot»to«« ext«Bsivoly in tho foMling of horwsa, SAysthat au acrv gon as far 
aa Ibor acres of bay. A borso fed on potatoes &boald have his quantity of 
water materially cnrtuilitl. 

Foin has soRuHimcs bcwn (rlvon daring Oie winter months. Then ia 
owaideraMo troablo attcndiapr the prejmration of it, although ita pl<-n> 
tifidneM and littlo ^-aluc for other purpoiwe would, on a \ar^ fano, well 
npttj thai trouble. Tho furz« is cat down at nlmnt tlirvo or fuor ycara' 
growth ; the green branches of that and the precetlinR year are bnitKHKl in 
a mill, and llu-n givon to l\w horseo in tho state in wfiich thoy come from 
the mill, or cut op with tho chaff. Horse* ara roiy fond of it. If ttvvnty 
poanda of the fhnc ore nvca, Bve poanda of atimw, Hxv bcona, and three 
ponnda of thv oat«, may DC witlidmwn. 

It may not bo uiiintnvsting to cooclndo thia catalogne of tho difibrent 
articlee of borsc^food with a lint of tho qsaatitios of natritirQ matter c<.>u- 
tninrd in oaoh of tbvm ; for aitbouf;h thu«e qnantitica cannot be conaidrml 
as expraning tlie actual value of each, becaoK oth<rr circamstanccii beaitlM 
til? mmpin quantity of nutriment aeeu to influence their dfuct in sDp|i>irt- 
ing the fitrength aiul condition of the horse, yet many a asefol hint may 
l»r durived Wtten tho formor looks oror the produce of liia twiil, and inqainw 
what other ri mbub or rc^-tablcs might nait his land. The lint is partly 
taken from Rir Humphry Davy'» Agriciiltiiml Chcmistrj- : — 1,000 part* of 
wheat contain i>.j.'> ymrin of nntriiivc nmllcr ; barley, H'2*) ; oats, 748 | pnaa, 
0*4; boans, 5/0; potatoes, 230 ; red beet, 1*8; ponmips, 99 ; coiTotii. !W. 
Of tho gnsaea, 1,000 porta of the meadow cfttVtail contain, at the time of 
ttmiiag, 96 parts of natritiTe matter; oairow-lcarcd meadow gnsa in 
•Md, wd aweel-soeDtsd soft grasi in flower, 95 ; narFow-leaved und Hat- 
alalked meadow gnuui in (lower, fortilo miMdnw gnias in seed, aod tall 
ftncae in flower, 1*3; fertile meadow Kr«8S,mradowfeacao,t«ed-likofeaciu), 
and creeping soft grwss in flower, 7n ; aweci-«c«nl<rd soft graai in flower, 
and the aftemutth, 77; florin, cut in the winter, 76; taU fewcme, in the 
atlcrmath, and mptwlow soft grasg in flower, 74 ; cabtm^, TX ; ercxti'd 
dog*8-tAil and bromo when flowering, 71; yoUow oat, in flowtT, GO; 
tintfVmh turnips, t>4 ; noirow-lcaTod jDoatdow gnus, croepiBg beet, ronnd- 
heatlcd cxicksfoot, and nptkcd fc«ono,£0; nm^ilah MM (ml« nundow 
greaa, flowering, t&; florin, in Homrner, M; oonifflon tnmipR, 42; min- 
toin, and hraad-lGavcd and loug.rooted clover, S9 ; whito r1o\-er, '4'i ; and 
Inccrn, 23. 

Tho timca of feeding should be as oqually dividnl ns convenience will 
(NTinit : and when it is likely that the home will bo kept longor Ihannstial 
ffuia home, the notw^bag ahookl invariably be taken. The innall stomaeh 




i)f thw IiorM is anptiml in a fi-vr huun ; and if he ia huBlthI tu n-niaia 
hungrj- mush bqnmd his aceustomed time, he will ulltTWHriU dwour his 
ibod su vonK'iuuely as to distvuil the 6t<^mach and ci^dnji^r ild attack of 
Htfvgcra. Wbcii thifl diacaAc appeant in the tiirmpr'i! nttiLilc, be amy 
attribute it to ^■arions chukoh ; thu Irui' om-. in iht- ninjnrity nf iiiMlaiicctt, 
is trtff^lKi-ity in fcMting. Wli(-ii rxtm wi)rk tM ri,t]^iiir(iil ffoni thti luiiinal, 
tho nyntvm of iiiunaf{<-incnt ik ofUm injudicious!, for a dunblc feod in pat 
before Mm, and an mkiti ae \iif \in» nwnllowud it h« i» nL&rtt-d. It would be 
br beUer to (pvo liini a deuhtc fewl on the previous t'vcning, which would 
be digested before he is wiuite<l. and then iiu might Bet out in tliu mom- 
inff UT«r& very small porlitin of com has U-cn pivmi tn him, or pi-rha|>s 
owy K little hiiy. Odv of the moat Kucct^sfal mcthocbt of inabliuj; a hontu 
to girt well tlinmgh a king jugnicj in tn jrivf hiui »)tiij- n little at » timo 
«-1iil« cm the txi^l, and at night to indulge him with a double fecxl of coru 
uid a fnll allowance of beans. 

Water. — This is a part of etablo managemeDt little ro^^&rded hj the 
fimncr. Uo leta his horvcs loose moniin^ and iui|;ht, and they go to tbu 
tMintft pond or brook utixL drink thi-ir till, luid no hiirm results^ fur they 
obtiua that kind of watt-r whioh nntuiv dioiigEieil tlirm to hnvt>, in u 
manner prrpanid for them by som« unkaowii influence of th(> atmosphorc, 
as well ao bv tho dc[>o«(!on of m&iij 3alin« admixtures. The diffcrunco 
bt^twivii iiurd and m-jt water is known toevoryoue. In hani water attap 
will curdle, Tpgetahles will not boil soft, and the saccharine matter of the 
malt uaonut be fully obtuiiiud in the process «f browiuju;. There is nothing 
in wbieh tho different cfTecrt of hard and sotl wat«r i* bo evid^mt ae in the 
■tomac-h luid digestivo oi^na of thv hurtte. Hard wator, dmwn rreab 
fixim the wtll. will ensun^lly make tlm coat of a horse iiiiiMXu»kinR^l to tt 
■tftn*, am) it will not luif^vijuently gripe and otherwise injure him. Iii- 
Btinot or r-xpfrrienco hiui made even the horse himself ('onw-ionj* of ihin, 
for he will never drink hard water if liv huti accowt to nufl', and hi' will 
leave the most tra[ia[>aix-nt and pure water of the well for a river, although 
tlie iliMiii may be tnrbid, and e\-e& for the muddiest pool. 

BcRBS trainers have so nineh fcnr of hnni or stmnp» water, that they 
etUTy witli thorn to tho different courttM the wnt«r tliat the animal lioa 
been •oeaatoined to driok, and that which they know ni^rct^n with it. 

He is injured, however, not mo inui-h hy the hanlnrJts <if Ihe wt'll-wnter 
u by ita cotdiii wu pwticDiarly by its eokUiess in summer, iitnl when it is 
nuar degree* below the temperature of the atmosphere. The water in 
the oroolc attd the pond bcinff wormed by long exixittui-e to the air, ae well 
Hii Itui-iuff bcoomu >oft>, the horse drinks freely of it without dnn^r. 

If the hone were watered three timni a day. and especiulty in sommer, 
lie would often bo saved from the sad torture of tJiirNt, and from many a 
diseaae. Whoever has observed the eacemem with whii-h tht^ over-worked 
bone, hot and ttriHl, plouges hia lumusle inl<i the jiail, and the dilTiculty of 
■topping him until he has drained the last drop, may fonn Home ideA uf 
what he bad previously suffered, and will not wonder at the violeot 
spsuims, ami iiillammatiun, and sudden dnttli, that otVen result. 

There is a prejodioo in the minds of m»ny pcnons Bfrainst the horse 
being fairly mipidied with watej-. They think that it ii^urcs his wind, 
and diKal)Ii-a him for quick and hard work. If bo is gmllo|M<d, as tu' too 
often u), immediately aifter drinkini;. hia wind may be irrcpambly injured ; 
but if be were oftener suffered to satiate hia tlkir*t at the mtvrvaU of reat, 
bo wovld bo happier and better. It is a fact uusuepectcd by Uioho who 
bsTc not rarelbllr observed the hone, that if he has frequent access to 
wat4<r be will not drink so much in the omrse of the day, as another will 
do, who, to eool his parclied month, swallows as fut-t tut he can, and knows 
, ItOt when to stop. 




On a joumcY, a borao sboold be libci-ally enpplicd with water. Wtea ha 
is a little cooled, two or thrw mi»rt« mivy Ik.- givt-n to him. und iiftcr that, 
hu foml. Bf fiire hi! Iiax Hnislntl Urn com two or Ihirc tjiiiirla morr' may 
bo offerw). He u-ill IoJia no harm tf tJtia iii ri^piwtiiL thn^ or four timos 
ilarini^ & lonff and hot dny. 

It is » iutlipious mio with travellers, that when a hnrae bo^nn to reAisn 
his food. Iio shoald be pdbIimI no fartlier that d&y. It may, however, be 
iTortlt whik' to try whtHher tliis Aaes not procwecl fruni tbirst, a» niach as 
from exhaustion, for in many inRtATi(!c« bin appntite and his sprit* vrill 
retom Mxm alWr lie huu |)tutalwa uf the nifrvahuig drftught. 





are ho many tboiiMUid Hpecios of living heings, iwme no much 
resembling i/atTb ot>i«r, and others no HtTon^i^^ly and alto^tbcr different, 
tb&t it would have been imponsiblo to have arranged them in any order, 
or t'> liave (fi^cn any description that could ho luidei-stuoil, luul not 
natui'altHtJi agired on certain pern liari ties of form which should eta- 
racteriso certain cla)t!i«s, and other Ii^sser fJLt'uliarititw again SQbiiviiling 
th<>«e elA88(!ii. 

The firat di<*iaion of aniniala is into verlebratfil and inwrtchraltd, 

YerirhmU-d animals are tlinse which have a cranium, or bony cavity 
cODtAioing the brain, and a sacccHsion of bones culled the f}nnt, aud tho 
divinona of it namet^l verfehrif, |irocvitlinf; from tht.i cniniiim, ami containitig 
ajHvton^tion of tho brain, dexiominntcd the tpittal marravr, 

ItiveHeirralal animals arc ;.hoBc which Iinve no vcrtebrtD, 

The hurac, then, brlnnp* to iht? ilivitiwn vcrlchratcJ, bt^caasc he haa a 
CTaiiiam or itkTill, and a npintt or ninfje of vHrb^brw procfct^linfi from it, 

Tho v<!Tt<^h™t/;d animals are i^xeeedingly nomeroua. They include man, 
qaadnipedt of all kiuds, bii-ds, fishee, aud many reptiloa. We uatumlly 
look for aome subdinaion, and a very simple lino of distinrtion i^ noon 
proented. Certain of thesi' viL'rl.elinil<'d animals hare mamiiuv or teats, 
with which the fcmali; siieVlii their yoiin|^. Tho hutimui f^iiido hiw twu, 
the maro haa two, the oow faor, the batch ten or twelve, and the sow mora 
than twelve. 

Tliia flat of vortc1irat«d animals ba%'ui(c mammio or t«atft i.<i c»lled 
mammalia ; and the horse belongH to the division veriebrata, and the class 

Tho class mammalia U still exceedingly large, and wo mniit a^n snh- 
divide it. It ijt Rtatcd (iiilu-ary of Enl<irlniniug Knowledge, vol. i. p. lH) 
that ' thta claaa of t|aadrapeds, or mummifcirouB quailrupeda, admit« of a 
dinaion into two Tribes. 

'I, Thodo wboMi I'xtnimitiTO nrr divided into fin^^rs or tout, finenti- 
ficaUy called unguifulata, from tho Latin word for fmii; and II. Those 
whose exiremitiea arc hoofed, Hcientihcally callod mn^alUf from thu Latin 
wonl for koof. 

'The extremitim of the fintt are armed with olawa or nails, which 
enable them to ffnutp, to cliRll^ or to burrow. The ertrCTnitieB of tho 
eeoond tribe are vinploycd mi-rvly to support and move tho body.' 

The rxtn-mittea of the linrM are covCTcd with a hoof liy which the body 
IB inipi>()rt<«l, and with which he ca-nnot graap anything, and theie&re he 
bolonga to the Uibe uu^ulula or luyiftid. 
' But there i» a great iraricly of hoofed animals. Tho elepliaat, the 

rhinoceros, the hippopoUuiinB, tho »winv, tbo honit;, thu shtx^ the fWr, 
mill many othiTW, nrv umjulnlal «r hi>"j'':<l ; Ihvy lulrnil', liowcvtT. of uu 
eaay diviniin. HmiKi of llniii miutti™!*-, or clit-w Oii-ir fiini, and it in im- 
nieJittt^'Iy rweivrtl iiitii ihn atftmnch (ind (Hfjriwhv] ; hut in ot.hora the tVxitl, 
pitn'iouH Ui difci-siwi, undur^fucH u VL-ry- sin^lur pi-oL-f&». It Ih I'ctunii-il 
to U)o muuth to \k rvrntiaiicuttxl, or chi-wcd Bfnm. Thi'aL^ urc calloil 
rNmiNduttn. or rumittanlM, fntm tho foiol bn-iinf n'tunied (hiai oiii* of the 
»toinAchs (for Ihvy ^lavo four), called the runuiii or p*uoch, for the purpo«e 
of remaaticotiaa. 

Tbe HTigiiata tbat do not numnahte are, Bomewliot impruperir, called 
paeMermata, from the thickneiM of their Nkins. Thu horee does not 
nuiiU)at«f uid thorefore belongM to thu onier pneht/d^mtata. 

Tks pacbydvimata who huvo only oov lov bcloas to tlio familt/ ttiUpeJA 
^^ngte-fuirtciK Tlicnrrorc tlie huntv miJcs under Uiv di^'tsiun verteUrHtn — 
tho oluMi mnnimidiii — tho tribe uiigulatit— tlie ordur piicliyderiuata — and 
Ibo &mily xolipMla. 

Tlie solipcdn wiisiot of evrcml apcciet, ne tho hoi-sc, the afis, tlw mulc^ 
and tJie qnin^fpk 

KirRt staiiJ^ th« Rgirs GiBiLLUe, or COMicox H0R8K. 

Aiiinuds ore likewiiW! ilijttinf^ishM accordinK i« th« munbor, descrip* 
tiiiu, and aitaatioii of th^-ir touth. The home has nix iiici/n'r« or cuttiny 
Uftii in tho finnt nf i-ach j»w ; and on« cain'iiB tooth or Inxk. 

On each sidt*, almrv hiicI Ix-luw — at Bome dUtanci! rrrmi the incisora, 
and bcliind tho canmoi', tinA with eomp inton'eiiioif Kpiwc — arc nix mtiUr 
ttx>th. or grindtTH i and ihctv molar teeth have flat ".irMwua, with ridgM of 
ttiifktni'l. and that enamel {K-uctrntiiiff into the snlMtanRO tif tho tootli. 

The whole ia thiM repn-wnlt^^l hy iiULtural historians : — 
r. 1-1 . f>—G 

Horec— luciaora g, cauiuui . ., 



« — 0' 

Total, forty teeth. 

A Tliallnd. 

a Tbr pM«riv nMxiltM7 or anikr jav 

TOa IKSmw* M- THK aoftfli. 


A Th« ■niwriur iiBuillaty ur npfXTJair. A Ettin tunr iluvn Umh Um leilnr i* a rununHi, 
Uiruogli wlbcb piua the neixem tuuX MwNl-TnaBb wliicti ckittj "^Tf^J tli* lown* 
jiiul uf tlir &v. 

« Tbe orlat, or eariiT contwinig lk« tyt. 

J Tk« MmI bonM, or boM* «f tke bom^ 

« The nmro dmdinK the |iuicut) bourn htlum firutn the oedpiEal boou abVPe. 

^ Th* Mmor niBSiUan- bono, ooMiuiung itw «[ip«r jui^Ikip leKh. 

B Tlw Sana Cenical Vfrlotuii^ er bt t* of tha iwclu 

O Tho BchlieFi) Dunnl VotelinB, or bonn or the Imlt. 

D Tlw fliz Ii«mb«r V'otebn^ or banoa of the loitiii. 

E Tbe Fire SfHm) Vf-rlobnp. or bonm of the bnnnch. 

F The OiadiJ Verttbfw, or l>on«a of tho uil, gmcpnily about fiftron. 

Tbe Scairala, or ■tiuuliUr-bliule. 

H Tlio SUniai, ur forrpwl of thf- dinit. 

1 "nM CoM» or rib*, s^u unieuJatitiii vtth tfar Kkmnin, nnd cnlltd tlw trat tiU, utd 

t«a tiBlcd loscu*' l>7 CMlilnKc. cnllol tl)«/ii7«c r*^ 
J Tbc Ilnmcrai; <t tipp«r bono of tho ami. 
K The ILuliua, or bon* of tbe lorF-Bim. 

I. Tbe UloD, or rlbcnr. Tho poinl or Ibo rlbov ia odkd ibn OlMfmaon. 
M Th* Cnrpas ur ktwc. eoiutuiuia of Mrrmi boDM. 
N Ttir mrtiimyu] UmM. Tlio Suipr mouovM] or onnoti or Hlnnk in frQni, ani) th» 

■mmlUr inpliK«rT«l or iplint bone bphiod. 
^ Tllc pMicra, coawlin^i of iho O* Sofln^i*, «r ilic U(i>cr nnd lBr|:rT p«»I«ni bonr, 

vitli tbe «r*unuid boirn brbind, MticuUliog villi ibe cnniKiii niid K"a(rr 

putam ; A, tbn Ui Corotu*, or la«Mr p*>4oni ; (, ih* 0* PmIu or r<M n liniii% 

And tho Da Nftncnlnr. at tumoutar. or ahmilo-baiM. aot rmh, tud iitiralaling 

will) tbn oiudltr paatrm ami nriffin Ivnn*. 
fi i i fill' n>m~<p >i>r]iii|[ boMM of th" hiitd-fi-t-t. 

O Thp nanncii, cnnaintiiig of three p«nioni^ ili« Ilium, chc laeluuni. aod tlw Fnbia. 
P TV Fvisur or rhi^L 
Q Tho •liflo JAJnl with tha PU^tl*. 

R Ttii> Tibia or propar l*g-boaa — hahiod ia a. ainall bona mllnl Ihn fibula. 
a Tlw Tansi ar book, eompaMd of nz bvnM. Tho pn)min«Dl jmri ii iNkOh Oaleia,or 

pdm ot ih« hiock. 
T Tlw MWfltawib of tl>« bind leg. 


H«Tittfr firishdl tlm <I<->(t>ri|it.i<m of the HkeleWtk, it mav now be (tcsiim- 
U« (o fpTV Ihc VKTc iin|H>rtu]it q{ the muBcloa by which tliry nro acU-d 
on : this til wri ] it i nil, liowi-vvr, iiitiiti lie » very gt'nenil one, luiil will be 
limited to the linit lajer (if muscleit, or tliofie foaixl iinmi'diiiU-ly iimle'r the 
■kin, on which, howevw, th* sha,po and power of thr nnimai, to a very 
c«nsidomhl4^ do^^rM-, dep^ndn-, oiw plate wilt be miiririimt to deltiioato 
thoMt, nod )1« description will include nil tlutt ia ncceeeary for the gencml 
mder to be BCquninted willi, 

1, /WaAv AngVi^in, is & [totlian of the pnniculiui carnnsas conTprging 
lownrda thit angle of tho month, whieh it retn«t« or dmwB biu>k. 2. 
Urtracftr lalii Nupcrwri", oHiies from tic superior portion of tiw tuaxii- 
larj' bone, and i» iiiaertei into the upper part of the an^lo of the moiilh, 
wtuch it dmwB on one side. 3. Lemtor Lahii Siipi-n'orin atirijw Kan, 
Kriaes from tho junrtioii of iJio laeliryiriul, tiatal. diid sui>erinr tnaxitlary 
hoDM, Mid dividiMi into twnpiulA, oti« iiux-rtod in the l&temi pnrt of tho 
nosiriL nod the other into the upper &nd latcml part of the lip ; ite action 
is to raiw the lip nnd dilute the nostril. 

4. ZygaraatJcM. arisen from tli« zyptmutic ridj^v and in uLio inserted 
into tile angle of the month, whieh it rel.nwia, A. Ciiniuttii is a pciiniform 
inn»«le; the unprrior portion a.ri»rii from t)i6 Rnperior inaxillnry bone, A 
little above tlw nii^xr i-auine tooth ; the lower frarn the postorior maxil- 
Inn-, just Im-Iow llie lower raniiie tooth ; the two meet eacli other in the 
iipKe« between tlie upper and lower jaw : its use is to conipre<ifi th« ehit'kii. 
tr. JtvefintUor arises from the Rnperior iinil inferior maxillnrr bonea, from 
jitat aboTo aud below the edRM of Ihc alrvoUr aockfita, a liltw posterior to 


tli<t last molar iooth — in inserted iu tlic comer ol' tlie mouth, and iutsi»tA 
llm toiigiii- in moving nbout tlic pellet of fotni in tlic act of maaticatiim. 
7. Keirattor Laliti InJeriorU arina! from tlu'- lowtr jaw, a» tkr l««-lc an 

the liiNt molar tooth, where it become blended with We orbiculitris om, 
kud is ioscrted into the inferior part of the lower lip, which it rctr«ct«. 
B. 8. Pnnttictdu» Camomts, a portion of a thin mascle eprcod over the head, 
neok. uid liodj-, to cormgate the skin when irritated, as a ciinipensation 
f»r the want of hands. 9. Orbietilarig I'nlpehrum, BnrroTinds the enrfaco 
of thf c^'flida. 10. '£cmporaUt: arises from the occiput, frontnl, parietet. 
nqtuunous, temporal, and splisQoid bonca, luid is iniiertcd in tho caratxnd 
procetw of the lower jaw ; ita office is to close the month. 1 1 . Ofbirvlari* 
Ori* anrrounds the oiouth, is more developed in the npper than id the 
lower lip ; its action is to cIohc the lipa. 

12. 12. 12. Lwaior Humeri, arinefi tram, the matdoid procciui of Ibe 
|»etroii8 tempora] bone, tho wing of the atlas, fVom the aecund, third, aod 
fourth cervical vertebrae, and from tlie lower portion of the lignmentom 
nnchw ; it ig inserted into the anterior and ttifi-rior part of the hnmerua. 
And its action, when tlie head in fixed, ia t4) ulvance r.he foreleg;, or when 
thu lv(pi are fixed, one mai^cie will pnll the head on one aide, or both will 
Piirvo thti h««d downwards, i'i. The Nj)/«nius ariaeN from the maatuid 

[iroocM of tli« petroos t«mT>onU bone, the iiptn«« of the »ecood, third, and 
ourth dorsal vertebnr, and ih inaerteil into the five fini cervical vcrtebne 
and winic of tlw atlas : it correti the head nn one aide or, botli actingt, raiie 
it. 14. The Pnrofid OlAHd, whioh secretes the moat cnniiiderable portion 
of the Mliva. 

A. Trapctiui ktwcn from the second to the eK-renth dorml. and Prmn 
the ligamentoro nacha<. aa far fomitrrt a» the third cervi^-al vertebra* : it is 
buartsd into tho spine of (he S(»|in)H,anditsaetion iatodrnw thcnhonlder 
npwmrda and hackwanlsi 

B. JiaiUmnnu Dorel nrlaea trium the fiutcin uf the loins, and tJie superior 
■pinal ligsmtMit; it is inni-rt^'il inlv ihi- iiiiirr xtik- nf th«f htuncms; ituidH 
in nrtmctiii); Uio arm and linioin); Llt« tnusoliM nf tlio back. 

0. Poilna Sj'iit-ittu in attached to thowhote surface of the posterior fOMft 
□f the Hra|iula ; it in in&ei-t«d into the huturi-UK a little bchiml thf <jiitt-r 
tubercle, nixd also to the ajiper part of the ridge, on the oppcr ami oiil«r 
put of this bune. It IIcxkh the urm on t)ie Hhiiuldi^r. 

0, Antea Spinalu* is MtiUilKvl tiuiH'riorly to tho Bnrfiu?4i of tho ftiit^'ri'ir 
Joata, aad two-thirds of the unt<:n':>r cogta of tht.- ecupubv, iaforiorljr to the 

gRMUer anrl IvnmT tnlivrclc of tlii; humiM-utt. It nLriLiijhtvnN th« Iihiiui'im 
on ttu* licapuU niid throwH tlm Nliouldf r outwards. 

K. Tere* Urtemiu ariscH (roia a tnlierela on th« paBt«rior tinffle of the 
sOMHila, and \i inserted into the nppor and oat«r Burfiwo of the atunems -, 
xitaAB in Scxinj; the shoulder on tho i^rm. 

P. Scapula Vlnarin aritwH fnnTi tlin wp[H'r ]WTt of the BUjieriiOr ftml pos- 
terior niigle of l\ia iicnpula, iiiHort^Hi into the inner and upper ]Mrt of the 
aina, which it Sexes on the Bcapula, and draws tho elbow iitwards. 

G and II. Citpvl Moffnum and MvUarii of t-ho frieepg e.rif^n»6t hraehii, 
ariaCB from the postprior margin of the ncupDlo, fn>ni a ridf^ on itti noi'k ; 
from Ih* oat«ir sidft Bud frwm Um l>iHly of tin- htinifms. audi* insiTtod intii 
the oKTmnon or {Kiiiit of Uio ellmw. U w of (front uko in drftiijiht, in 

Ching the bmly against the collar, or in forcing tho forelegs under the 
7- . . 

1. FedoraJit Magnue nriacs fVom iho fiwcift of the cxt<rm&l oliHqnc 

miucUs, th« vnsiform cartihigii and fmnb Uio thn<e Ia»t liraieM of tho 
8t«rmin). and ia iiiftertad into Uic inferior part of tho inner tuberelo of tho 
komettui ; it aids tho mnfloleii of the hunnch in the propnlsian of the 
trunk, and aAitifita in reiipiratiou. 

K K K. Herratiu Ma.jnus tiriHCfi from tho fonr last cerriwil vertehiw, 
from the whol« length of the first four ribn, and from portions of the four 
next; it is in««rt«u into the eoneJivity of tlie Bcapnln. It movwi the 
BboaMwn in pr^rcenon, and whi-n at rest enliu^ce tho chest and asBiBta 
ia Uboored R«|)iration. 

Ij L. OhUquiu Ejtterrttu AbdoMtrtu Atiaea by flcshj dig^'tationti from (he, 
fourteen po^rior ribs, firom twu-tliirdB of the crrat of tho ilium, and ita 
aotorior (>|iinon« proems ; it pn88«S over tho Intoml and inferior poiliou.i of 
the belly to m<vt itn ri-Uuwfrom thooppositc side, and form tho linca all>», 
posteriorly, into tlie Hyiuph^'sie pnbiti ; it aoaiattt in czpolling the taxes and 

U. OlvJetu Kfntdmug arisE^s from th^ crista and the dnrsam of the ilium, 
and 6^m tho «inrm.flriatic lifi^amrnt ; it is iniirrt^id into thof^at trochant*-r 
and aliw along the Ixjdy of the femur, om far an the small external tro- 
ohHiitvri itM iiwi whfo ihi< hiiidlcgs are Gx(h1, is in raining the anterior 
part of the txidj : when in action, it abdncta and retivcta tlio femar, and 
■a aotlvoty engaged in kicking. 

N, Oiutcttf E^tcmu* arises from tho spine* of Ihc iliTim iird «wmm and 
in inserted into the smiili trocluuiter of tlio fomur luid the fneeia of tho 
thigh ; it advanooa tho femur. 

O O O. TrUep* AbdueU/r Femorit ariscfi from tho spines and tnuiBveree 
ffiPCifHB of tile aaemm — from the aa«ro-«eiatto ligament, from the great 
tcochaot«r of the femnr and tho tnberoeitT' of tb« uoliiaiu ; it is inB«rt«d 
into tho outer side of the pi^tella and the sui>erior portion of the tibia ; its 
action is to stewly the Ixidy, and Ut rnim' it when the feet are firmly tijte<l, 
I M in leaping ; it is a mofit important organ of progromion, and is not 

I inikctirB in kinking. 
I P. fitesp« Uolaior TihuxlU arisos from the laat sacral and two first 


coccTgeAl bones, the posterior part of the tuberosity of the ischinm ; in- 
serted into tlie iimer, npper, and anterior part of the tibia ; rotates and 
abducts the thigh. 

Q. Tmsar Vagina arises from the anterior spine of tiie iliom, and is 
inserted into the trochanter minor extemus of ttie femur, the fascia of the 
haunch and the patella ; it advances the leg and tightens the faacia of the 



BuuTiFCL as IB the horse, and identified ao much with onr pleesnre and 
oar profit, he has been the object of ahnost universal regard ; and thetv 
are few persons who do not pretend to be somewhat competent judges of 
his form, qualities, and worth. From the nobleman with his numerona 
and valuable stnd, to the meanest helper in the stable, there is scarcely a 
mui who wonld not be offended if he were thought altogether ignorant of 
horse-flesh. There is no subject on which he is so positive ; there is no 
subject on which, generally speaking, he is so deficient ; and there are few 
horses, on some points of which these pretended and self-sufficient judges 
would not give a totally opposite opinion. 

The truth is, that this supposed knowledge is rm^ly founded on prin- 
ciple—or is the result of the shghtest acquaintance with the actual stmc- 
taro of the animal, the form and connection of parts on which strength, or 
flcetness, or stoutness must necessarily depend. 

In speaking of the structure of this animal, and the points which guide 
the opiuiou of real judges of him, we shall, as briefly and as simply as we 
are able, explain those fundamental principles on which his nseiolneu 
and beauty must depend. We require one kind of horse for slow and 
heavy draaght, and anoUier fur lighter and quicker work ; one as a ple^ 
Bant and safe roadster— another, with more speed and equal continuance, 
as a hunter— and another still is wanted for the race-course. What is 
the peculiarity of structure— what are the particular points that will fit 
each for his proper business, and, to a certain degree, unfit bim for every- 
thing else ? The farmer will require a horse of allicorJc, that can carry 
him to market and take him round bis &rm — on which he can occasion- 
ally ride for pleasnre, and which he must sometimes degrade to the dung- 
cart or the harrow. What combination of powers will enable the animal 
to discharge most of these duties well, and all of them to a certain extent 
profitably ? 

Huch time spent among horses, an acquired love of them, and a little, 
Fwmctimes posoibly too dearly- bought, experience, may give the agrirul- 
torist some insight into these matters. We wHU try whether we cannot 
assist him in this affair — whether we cannot explain to him the reason 
why certain points must 1m» good, and why a honte without them must of 
necessity bo good for nothing. Pcrlia])R some useful mles mny thus be 
more deeply imiiresHed ujMm bin memory, or some coniiiiDn but dangcnma 
prejudities may bu discarded, and considerable degree of error, disap))oiut- 
ment, and expense avoided. 

If we treat of this at eonsiderablo length, let it W- n^nu-^iiilH-ntl that the 
horse is our noblest ser^'aut, and tliat, in describing the slrticture and 
economy of his frame, we are in a great measun^ <lL>seril>ing that of other 
domestic quailrujfeds, and sliall liereofler have to Hjieak only of ])oint« of 



difference reqmred by the different services imd nses for which they were 
destined. And further, let it be remembered, that it is only by being well 
acquainted with the stmctnre end anatomy of the horse that we can 
appreciate his shape and nses, or nnderatand the different diseases to 
which he is liable. It is from the want of this that much of the mass of 
ignorance and prejudice which exists as to the diseases to which he is 
snbject is to be referred. 

We begin with the head, containing the brain and the most important 
oi^ns of sense. 

The following cnt represents the head of the horse divided into the 
nnmerons bones of which it is composed, and the bonndariefl of each bone 
clearly marked by the sntores whicn connect it with those around. 

The npper and broadest part is the craninm or sknll in which the brain 
is oontcuned and by which it is protected. It is composed of twelve 
bones, four pairs and fonr single ones : the four pairs are the two frontaJ, 
two pariettd, two squamous temporal, and two petrona temporal ; the 
single are, the occipital bone, the sphenoid, the ethmoid, and the os triqaa- 
tmm ; of these, the ones sketched in the plate are : — 

a a The frontAl bonea, or bonei of the forehead. 

b b The mpn-oibital fbramina or holee above the orbi^ 

thronfth vluch the oeryee and blDod-veMeliB suppljiug 

the forehead pate out The sm&ll bole beneath receives 

the Tesseli which dip into and Bupply the bone. 
e a The puiet&l bone^ or iroUi of ths akulL 
d d The tetnpond bonea, or bonea of the temples. 
« « The ^gotnatie, or yoke-ehaped arch. 
// The lemponl &a«s or pit abore the eje. 
a The occipital bone, or bone of the hinder part of the head, i^ 
A h The orbita containing and defending the eje. * ^^' 

I i The lachiyrnal bonee belonging to the coDTeyance of the 

teais &OID the eyea. 
J J The naaal bouM, or bonea of llie nose. 
k k The malar, or cheek-booea. 

I I The anperior maxillatT, or that portion of the upper jaw 

containins the molar teoth or grindeie. 
ffi m The iofira^rbital foramen — a hole beloir the orbit, through 

which paM branches of nerrca and blood-vessela to 

•DpplT the lower part of the bee. 
n n The inferior maxillary, the lower part of the apper jaw- 
bone — a separate bone in qnadrnpeds, containing the 

indaor or cutting teeth, and the upper tushes at the 

point of onion b^een the superior and inferior max- 

o The upper incisor or ratting teeth. 
pp The openings into the noM^ with the bonea forming the 


There is an evident intention in this division of the head into so many 
bones. When the fcetus — tie nnbom foal— first begins to have life, that 
which afterwards becomes bone, is a mere jelly-like subBtance. This is 
gradually changed into a harder material — caHdlage ; and, before the 
birth of the animal, much of the cartilage is taken away by vessels called 
absorbents, and bone deposited in ita stead. In fiat bones, like those of 
the head, this deposit takes place in the centre, and rays or radiations of 
bone extend thence in eveiy direction. Then, by having so many bones, 
tiiere kto so many centres of radiation ; and, consequently, tbe formation 
of bone is carried on so mnoh the more rapidly, and perfected at the time 
when the necessities of the animal require it. At the period of birth, 
however, this process is not completed, but the edges of the bones remain 
somewhat soft and pliant, and therefore, in parturition, they yield a little 



and OTOi^Bp eooli other, und LUiut, by rctKleriiif^ the Inrlh more oaxv, Ihvy 
MTV the motbor murh ftiiii, and coiiLribut« tti llio safety oftbc tooL 

Tbo flist of tlK'tu- Luuiti, or tlie lirst iiair uf tliem, ocuupying thu broad 
cicnaiue of tho torchofti, atPO called tko frontal &m««, a o. Tbey ihv 
nuiUfd tojrcUivT by a must curious and istricato dovc-lAiliatf, to dofentl 
tho bnun which lita Ixiicnth the apiwr [Mirt of them. Lower down, and 
wIion> tho cavity of the wwv in to Ik dt^fviidi-<l, their union i» tnifficient. 
Imt tiir I0B8 ootnplicnttNl. Thu», nt flrst atoning, tlioKt iit an m-idcnt [mmf 
of doflign, ut iUostrution of tliat (uhk{itatiuii to ciiviuiutAiiova which vriU 
Of^n wid (kgwn [nistent itself in tho mmt intc-reAtiiig poiiit« of rivw. 
Pucaliiu- KtrMi)^ of union in given where a mast imjrorlaiit ot^aautolio 
defended — the saturo ia therv intric&tu and labonivd. VTbeTo leM tm- 
pOrtaitt parte arc covorod, it 10 of a lar eiiupler chaiacter. Tbo mnmr 
]ilate of iho frontal bone coroni n conaidornblo portion of the anterior part 
of tJie bmin, and it iit Htudch-d with depressions comwpondtng wiUi 
]nmularilk>a on tho eurfooo of tlvr bmin. 

B?w things moro nlmrly indicat« the hrocd or blo^td of tho horse than 
tlio form of the frontal bonvs. Who lias not rvniiirkcd tho broad ugnlar 
forchcnd of the blond liorse, giving him a benutiful cxprpssion of inU>U 
ligonco anil f\n\ and the fiuie gnidnally tapering from tJio fitrcliead to tlie 
mntzlc, contnuttod with the large fooe of the cart or dray horac, and t)i6 
forehead warcf ly wider than tho face P 

At /, IxAwccn the fruntal bones, is the pit or caidtj above tho ayv, artl 
liy iho depth of which we form aomo idra uf tlie ago of tJie horso. Thoro 
in plaoed at the buck of thi; cyo • oomudorablo qnnntity of fatty sabataneo, 
on which it may rovolvc CAoilj and without friction. In acod bonetf, and 
in diHcafica attf^aded witii genend locn of condition, mndi of this dtA< 
appears ; tlie erv beoomcs snaken, aitd the pit abovu it deepens. It id said 
tnat Bomo of the lower clnu of horso-denlcnt pancturv tho slciu, and, with 
a tobacco pipe or small tnbo blow into the onhco, until the dcprcasiou £• 
almoflt filled ap. This, with the aid of u binliuppMl toisth, may^ve alhlae 
sppeoTUico of yon tit. that will n-main during jioiiie honrs, andmaydeceire 
tno ODwary, but the trielcery may eaaily be detected by prcsainff on tho part. 

ThcM bonM, howerer, are not soliti, but a oonaidcmble portion of tlioni 
ia oompo«ed of two plates reoedinc from each other, and lonving nnmerDaa 
and large vacaitim or coUa. These rncoitiea are called the frontal 

MNttM*. * 

The sinoB on the diffnront Bidufi of the forehcftddo not coeunnnicafce 
with each olhcr, biit witli other einnaca in tho ethmoid, and apUefwid, and 
Bpper jaw-boae5, and al§o with the caritirii of the nose on their renprctivo 
ndefi. These mnuiWR afford a wnnewhat incrvns^Hl protection to tho bmin 
bennith ; and by tlie oontinnous and slightly projecting lino which they 
form, afTonl lighfcru»it, white they give boan^ to tJie foreheiul; but ibt^r 
principul oko probably ia, like tho windinga of tbo FVeiich horn, to incrcaao 
the chiamiou and londncas of tlio noighiiig. It will bo remarki'd lltat tluiry 
arc very irregnlar in depth, which at one place is au inch or more. 

rnunediat^y above the frutitat, nnd extending from the frontal to tKo 
poll, arc tlie jtaritlal bones, e c. Thcj an two, onitod together by a autvre 
wlien the animal U young, but that tinture soon becoming oblitcnibxl. 
Tbof have the oetipitat, if, (p. HHy abovn, the fronlais, a a. below, and the 
lamporal*, d d,oa rather wde. They are of a olo«cr and liartler teztare 
Ibaa Ute frontais. bcotuae they arc more cipoacd to i^jory, and more oou- 
oenied in defending the brain. 

A very unall portion only of the unrM&iI* b nalcMl, and tlukt is com- 
powd of hone even liardor tlian the other port, and with an tuhtitiutial 
tkjvr of bone rising iu the form of a crvitt or ridge extvnialty. Kverj- 



other pArt of Ihme bonra is cotc-ivhI br n thick mua of musolo, tlio 'cnt- 
j>ofvi/ mnscle, winch is pri(icii>ftUy coiiMmcd in chewiiijr the fimii, bufc 
vrhiL-h likciriac, l>y its fioliline i-cswlaticv, sjntililT and cflcctuatlv bn-alcti 
the force of the nio»t %-tok-iit blow. A woolpwl: huog owr thu ntdl of a 
fiirtKse, whwn tho vi»>niy is bHttering- to ofllt-t a Brraoh, pcndora tlie 
hoKTieat artillery almost liarmlcss. So the jitJding iviiistanai of tho /ew- 
ponif muKliu afionli* a tiuru ilurvnco to the braiu, however oaddvn or vioh-^t 
najr be the blow which falln on Iho parii^ta!. The^g« bmevolent |inivisiuiui 
will not be disregarded by the reflntiu;,' mind. 

On the side of the head, and nndcr the jiarietala (d d, p. 145) arc Uio 
hmpor^ btfM««, Olio on vtKh side, //. Thctto uf;iun arc divided inbi two 
pario, or oonsist of two distinct bones ; t}jc- petrous portion, so i-allod from 
ita great or stony hardness, and coiitatniiig the wonderful mechanism of 
the ear, aod Uu> rituinuiM ]iortion from the ap|>eanjico of itg mtion witii 
ttMtmriotal, overuppini; it like a ^Tcat e«i/«, 

nom tiio latter there prvijccts a portion of bone, e, which anttes wiUi 
the frontal, and fonns a 8tmng mil — tho zygomatic — distinctly to bo 
Ut at the side of Iha honil iuun«diately above the eye. Thin arch iit 
deei^ned to protect the upper part of the lower jaw, the moiion of which 
maj reiy ptuiniy bo uecn bencjitli it when the horse is feeding. It id very 
Bttong, and it ought to be, for if it wore dqp r a w ed or forced inward, Uio 
borae wonld starve. There is one species of violence which enneee this 
ar*h to rnqtiire no common strength ; and that is, tho brutal manner in 
whtob tlie collar i^ ofUn forced over tho head. 

At tJie hose of the arch is an important cavity not visihle in the cut, 
receiving into it, and forming a joint with, tho bead of the lower jaw — it 
will be prwently di-seribctl. 

Having reached the base of the temporal bone, it ia found united to Uie 
narictal, not by a simple antnre, as the lowcp pEirt of tho fmnlalg, or the 
iNitics of the nose (see fig. a and j, p. 145), nor by a dove-taUed 8iitnr<i, as 
the Dpper part of the frontala (kco tue samo cnt), bat it is Bpr(>ad ovc^r the 
parietal in the form of ft large eculo, and hence, as hefon obeei-vcd, ailled 
tlie sftwrnoaa portion of tho temporal bone. In fact, then are two plaUti 
of bono instmd of one. Was th^m design in (his? Tea, evidently so. 
In Die first place, to iucreftu; tho Klrenglh of tho ba«o of tbe aj/potnafie 
areh. This exteusire union Iwtweeo the tompomL aod panetal bones 
retwmbtm the Imliresa or riman of masonry atiaohed to tbo boao of oveiT- 
arch, in onlitr to eonntt-nict itti lateral preiisure. The ooncnsaion, likewise, 
whit'h rni^ht be eomiiiuuiealed by a blow on the top of the arch, is thus 
spread over a large surface, ami etiner-^nently weakened and rendered 
oonparativcly harmless ; and that sorfaco is oompoBod of the union uf two 
hnrnw of diKsimilar construciion. Tho hard nfony atmotare of the parietal 
ii very dLiferont fruni the liiiiglmr inalerial of the temponJ; and thoa aa 
a fiiitjcer aets on a sounding gln.'<^, tho %-{bration conunonicatod to the tem- 
ponJ is at once stopped, and the broiu receivea no injury. 

There is anotlier \m>af of admirable design. Where ia thia aquanoma 
portion of the temporal bone nitontcd ? On tlie side of the head. And 
what in the figuiw of the eraninm or sknll. and principally tliat jiart of it 
which iwDlAins the cerebrum or bmin ? It i» an elUptieal or ovid arch. 
If prcasore is made on the crowu of that arch— if a blow is received oa 
the satHTO between the parictals safficient to cause the olastia materials of 
whicli tho aknll is composed to yield — the soat of danger and iiyiuy is at 
the aide. If a tnnn receives a violent blow on tho crown or back port of 
the heatl. the frncinre, if there is any, ia gvnerally about tho temple, and 
ihe eztxnvasation of blood is oftenest found there. Tbo following figure 
will explain tbijt: — 



Lt't tlic lire ABC rei^rcacnt an «llipiical arch, comjwsetl at elastic tnattv 
rials. Swine fun^B sbaU be npplicd at n enfficicmt to cauao it to yield, We 

cnmiot cumprt'sa il into smullor compBaR; 
but ju&t ill pro[X}rtiiiii »» il ^~i<ilils at o will 
it Ppnr or tnilgn out at C, and f^vo 'w*J' 
somutiniim us reprosented at E. In it domo 
tliD wfiylit of tue iiiiit<=irialBCiHi»tJUi(-l/iict- 
iiifr iiiiiy l)e conitiderfd as irpreneiitiii^ tho 
force applied at B ; and ho ^eat is the In- 
terftl pi-esaure, or Icudency to boltfe out 
(vide o Bad b), tliat it ia noccasary eillipr 
to dove-tail tlio matcrialB into one anotlier, 
or Irt piutd strong iron cliaina round tbt'iu. Forwunt ^^f snnicieatHtlsntion 
to tliis, ' tio donio of St. Sophia, in Oonnhintinrtplo, built in tho time of 
tlio Emperor Justinian, fell tlin.^' linivH during itn cmL'tivn ; mill the domo 
nf tlie cathedral of tluraiK^u ittooU iLuliiiiHWl A liuitdrcd and twviii^' jeara, 
for n'Htit of an aroliit»x!t,' 

Nature, in tlio constraction of the horse's head, has taken away the 
pn-snnru, or nimovcd tlie prububiltty of iujury, by giving au additioniU 
layur i>r iKiiie, or a laiuifl of iiiuNcle, where alono tlicro was danger, and Itua 
dov<!-fAiled all the ntaterials. l'"a]llier tliaa tliia. in order to make 
asHUrance doubly aare, she has placed this eflbutual girdap at the baao, in 
til© overlapping of the squamous .portion of the tcmpoi-al bone. 
■ Above too jjaricfiiis, and eeparatod from them by a snturo (fig. 3, p. 145), 
is the oceifital botLe. Saperiorly it covura and nrutoutti thi> emaller por- 
tion of thu brain, the uwrobollum ; and n» it tlioro constital«« the 
summit or CTC«t of the head, luad i« particularly citpoMd to danger, and 
not protected by mmiclos, it ia intorealing to eee what tliiclcncw it 
asmuiM. The head of th« horse does not, Ukc that of tho human being, 
rids npright on the ncoic, witli all it« veigbt Bup|)oriA!d on tli« spinal 
column, the only office of the museles of the necic heinf; to ntovo tbo 
bend rorward, or biu:k\vard, or horiioataUy on lU pivot ; but it Iinngs in a 
■lanting position fruni the extremity of tho neck, and die neck itwUf pro- 
jeota a oooHidorable distance from the ohestr and tkas the whole weight of 
the bend and neck arc anapcnded from the efaest, and reqniro very crcflt 
power in order to mpport tbcni. In addition to the simple wuigUt of t)io 
head and neck, the latter projucting from the chest, and tbo hc^ hanging 
from tho extremity of the neck, net with enormous mcchaiiioal force, 
and increase mora than a humdredfobl tho jiowor necuusary to support 

Tho bead and neok of the horao, and imrticnlarly of iiomo boraea of a 
coane breed, are of no little bulk and weight. It will berualWba shomi 
in what breeds and for what purposes a light or heavy head and neck aio 
adTaBtagoou ; bat it may be saft-ly affirmed that, pnjjucting so far from 
tho chest, and being cousocjuoutly at so grea.t a distance from tliv rulcrum 
or sup|)Oi-t, the lightest head will act or bear upon the joint between Ute 
last bone of the neck and the first rib with a forceeqoaltomany thonaaud 

Bow 18 ibis weight to bo supported ? Ia moscular power equal to Uie 
tiek? Tho masclca of tho anunal Fnuno can act for a certain time with 
aztraordiuary foroe; bat m the exertion of this power is attended with 
the oonmmplion of Tital energy, tho period soon arrives when their action 
il remitted or altogether eupesded. A provision, however, is made tor 
the pnriioee, nrnple and oomplote. 

From the back of the occipital bone, and immodiately below the creet, 
prooeeda a round cord of considerable bulk, and composed of a tlgauentoot 



nbetonop, vrhlch rcacliea iIomti and is eeotirGly attaokeal to the apiiioit of 
tbe Tert«br*, or bonca of tbc back; and by tbis liffament— liio iif/a- 
mtTniurn. coUi, ligumcnt of the Qock, commonly called the jiack%oax — tlio 
hf?Hd is Hupj^ortvd. 

Tlioro arc, howcvor, some itdiniiuble ooDtriTSiices connccbod witb tbu 
KrmDffcmcntA of the fij/u meninm iolU. Aa it priXificdt from tb» hoftd, it is in 
ibc fvna ofurouud oord. It ifiCuntiectcdwitlitbeii/^iM, or lirst bunuuf tbo 
neck, and tlien, atliicliiiig it*elf sti^ngly to the second boiip, priiu^ipulljr 
mpporta the head by its nnioiL with this bone. The mechanieal diHodTaii- 
tage is increased ; l^at th(? bend ia turned more ttvcly on the tinit and second 
bones. The principal slioss i? on tbc d^ntatn, or nccond bone, so niuchau, 
tbat, in poll-cTil, thJK ]i^'iiai(.-nt may be divided vritLout eerioaa incanv • 
ni«noe tu ihv liorso. It tlu-u Kiiddi-nly Hiiiktt dcvpi-r, tuid uommnniciit^ii 
with all tho oth«r vcrtcbnu. Each of tUeoc commamcfLtiouit bfcuiat^oi a 
iteparato point of mpport^ and as they spprou^b nearer to the boMt, tbo 
mi^hanitnLl diKadvantage, or the force with which tlie wci^^ht of thu bead 
and neck pi-oflses and ftcts, ia materially lessened. 

The he«ui, then, wbilo the animal is in a state of rest, is mpportcd by 
this ligament, without any aid from mitstrnlfir cnorpj". 

There is. however, something ytt wanting. The bead mnet not bo 
alvrays cle>'al(Hl. Thu luiiDiiil liaa h'm food tu Bei'k. In a utato of natnro 
thi« food li(i8 priiicipHlly on the ground, and the h<-ad niiiitt be lowLTod to 
cnafals the horsG to got at it. How ia this efleoted? Thin li^'ajneut, a» 
it has been called, because it rc^cuiblca in appearance Uie other litrmieula 
of the body, poeacssoa a prfijurty which they hnYo not, and which they 
mnst not hsTe, or they would be useless. No well-knit joint eonld cxisb 
if it had this property. It is elastt'-c. It will yield to ii forco intprossed 
npoQ it, and will rriRtime its nAtimd dimensions W'hrn that forcf»ifi rcmoycd, 
li «D0taina perfectly tbc weight of tho head. That portion of tenacity or 
strength is ^ven to it which Hnll nob g'ire wny tu the simple weight of the 
b6ldf hut whieh will yiehl to a very Utile nilititioiml wi-igbt. I(m n>Histing 
porror is so adminibly adjusted to that wbieb it hna to nnfitain, thnt when 
oortikin tonsclcs, who«e action is to depress or lower the head, begin to uct, 
aad add ilit.'ir power to tlio previous weight it had to bear, the lignmcnt 
stretchra, and when the horse is brousing, it is fnll two inches longer than 
when tlie head is erect. 

When the anitnal hits eatislicd himsolf, tb4>ee depreesing muscles ceasa 
to act, and other muscles which arc deeicncd to aKsiet in raiain); the head) 
bppo to exert thcmsclvci ; and by their iiid^hut more by the inherent 
elasticity of the ligament— tho heuil is onei- inorv elevated, and rcTnains 
so withoat the slight^-Kt exertion of muscnlar power. This is one of the 
tnany apphcntions of the principle of «ln8tii:ity which will be disoorcred 
and niliiured in tho coiiHt.nici-ion of tho animal frame. 

The ligament of tlie neck is inserted into the centre of the hai-k part of 
the occipital bone, and immediately below the vertex or crt«t of tho bono ; 
and therefore the bone is so tliick at this part. 

Many large and powcrfal mnsclca ore neccsaaiy to tnm tli« head ia 
Tarions diret;tions, as well as to ossiKt in raising it when depressnl. Tho 
ooripital bone prvsvntx n fi|iiiii! running down tho cnntrc, and a larf^ 
ronifhoiMd 8urfiio« for the attachment of mnsclcs. 

LowvT down, snd etill at the back of the occipital bone, ore two rounded 
pioUiberttnces, by whicli the head is eoiincctcd with the allcm, or iip]H'r or 
tint Tcrt^^bra, or bono of the neck ; and these are called Iho f(n\ii</lt>id 
nrocesMB of the occipital Wnr. All ilic perpendicular motions of the 
Mftd are performed by this joint. 

BttwMD &em is n Iltrgo nolc, the/i^ratncn nuijptuin, or great apcriore, 



Umogh which the eontinu^tiou of the brain, termed t3ie tpittaJ cord or 
narrow, psaeee out of tbo Hkull. 

Aa an ftjdilionnl eoatriTftnco to aopport tbc tynarmoos wciR-lit of the 
hnad, are two other pivjcctions of ilic occipitul bunc, peculiar to aaimBia 
whOM litiadj are Mt un in » vliintinji direction, mid u> which [KiwiTliil 
nuMolM an inwH«d, llw^y htv c&lhd tlio oracuid, bouk-likii, {ircicv»iM-(( 
or proIft«((ation)i of the «c*"ipitiil bone. 

KiiDTiiiig fiiraanl, anil f»i-iiiiii^ outwardly a part of thft bam, untl in- 
wardly a porfjon of the floor of the skiUl. ia what, from it« ired^iffslikH 
Hhape, \m caLleKl the basilar procegs of thf ofcipital booe. It ia tliiok, 
BtroDg, and eoUd, and place?'] nt Dm l)ol1om of llii> gku]l, uut only to bo a 
proper foandatioa for, and to ^vc additional etrvnt^h to the arch ob citiicv 
aide, but Kpwsdily to »tnp nil vilimtiuii iinil coimit»ioii, 

At tbf< liatifi of the Hkull, and anterior lo or tx^low the occipital licw tlio 
i>p}umoiJ, Hcdgc-Iike bone. ThiH bone bmucliea oat into four irrogiilar 
bodien or plates, two of vrhieh ai-o called the tr.'njfs, and two muuiuK to 
the palate, the leijt. There is notliin^ important Iraloii^nif t« thctn, itufar 
u this work i^ concerned. Interaall)' the ttphonoid forms a portion of the 
CBvi^ of the skall. 

Of the eth^wid — eievfr-liko — bone, little can bo eeen outwajnlly. A 
nnaU portion U found in the W;k port of the orbit and in the cavity of the 
craninm : hnt tbo must unpnrtant part of if; is tliat mhich is compoaed of 
a ena.i nunibor of thin cnnrolnU-d plnti'*, fomting nnniLTuus caritiea or 
0<mIa lined with the inncouii nKiinbran«> of tbo none, and rntxring into its 
cavity. The upper portion is callod the cribriform or eicvc^-shnpo plate, 
fh)ni itit bt!tng ptfrforitt^.-d hv a nrnltitudc oflittlv boles, tliroogb -whicu tbo 
nerve connected n-ith sineUin^ pasiiea and Hpreada orer the now. 

Altogether these bones form a carity of an irregnlar oval ahapo, bnt tho 
tOrntoritUQ stretching aeross it, gives it tlic a]>|>oanumi; of being divided 
into two. 

Tho cavity of tho aknll may be said to be arched all round. The 
bitil'Icr knows th? stron^h which is councL^tcd u-ith tbe farm of an arch. 
If pro[>crly constractod, it is «(^nnl to ft solid mass of tnnsonry. The arch 
of the honK!'» nkiiU luut ntjt much wcij^ht to Bnp|>ort, Wt ii in cx)iobciI to 
nutny injuries fiwn ibu biiiialltr of thoac by whom he should bo prot*-ctc<d, 
and fVom aooidstital oanacs. 

The Toof of tlie aknll is oompoaod of two p1at«K of bone ; tlic ont«r eno 
hard and toagh, and tlk* different parte dove>i«Iled together, so oa noi to 
be easilr ftactiirod ; tlio iiuuir plate being ola«tict. By the nnioD of tbeae 
two Eulistaaoea of different ooastractioti, the ribmtion ia laiaeaed or 
diwiroyMl, to fitr as safvfy r(M)uin<e. 

On raising any part of the kknll of (ho horse, the dense and etmng 
membnuio wbifh itt at oucv the lining of the omnium and the covmng of 
the brain — (lia dura mater — pn«e»tit itM-lf. Bvlvwn this inrnibraiic, 
common to the cmnium and the brain, and the proper inrt'sling tunic of 
that organ, ia found that delicate gosaamen' web appropriately cnlled tlio 
anchnoid — the spider's membmne — and which is soon in other auiinals, 
designed either to secrutc tho fluid which is interposed, for the purposo of 
obriating injurious concussion, or, )>erh«f)s, (o prevent the bniiti from 
readily sympathising with any ioHnniniatory action produced by injury of 
the aknll. 

Itcneatb is the proper inresting inemhrane of the brain — t3ie pia malm' 
— tt is indeed the vascular inemhraue of the bnuii, Ix-ing lluit tbnitigli 
iJie medium of whicb the arleries i"ouvcy the blood to the bmin which 
not odIt corers the external aiirfa^-e ofthe bmin, but penetmtea iotoeTei7 
depreanoot and clolbes every irregularity uud part and portion of lliebrun. 



Wp now arrive ftt the brain itei-lf, Tbv bnin vf the Iwrso corr«i>oaJa 
with Ike cavity in which it ia jilaced. It is a fliUtcntx] ovul. It is cliridL-d 
iiilo two parts, one mnch larg<er than the other — iho evrtbmm or bmin, 
umI the MTett'tlum or littlo bmin. In tho hamnn being the iWTGlinim in 
above the oorebcUum, in tho audropoii it is bolow ; ntitl yet ia )>oth t)ie-y 
raittin the euoo rclstiro mtoation. Tho corobcllam is nearer ia tLc fom- 
rniin throngfa which tttc brain pamcs oat orihc hIcqII. thnn the ccrebrnm, 
bat poHJooe Troin nuOi uniUttolbnn UiotiutliilUolilongntii, which jiUHjiti^ 
oat of tlu* cavity of tlio cranitini into tiia spiitaJ cannl, boornuw the ^innl 
cunL lu Uia huiuiuihciulthisfunuiivui^at thulMtaeortheckulli bntiiitbi: 
qoadnipcd, ia whom the head ia placed Hlantingr. it ia neoesa&rilr elm'atit). 

11a who for the first tune exntninea the bnuu of the bone will be Htraclc 
with its oomparatiTo diminntivD site. Tho haiuHn binng is not, gencmlly 

rkinjs, mom than oue-sixtli of (he eiw and weight of tbe horsv i yci 
Inwn of Lho bi|>ctl is twioc ati lar^ and as hoavy ne that of the iinuil- 
mpe«l. If it had bu<n the brain of tho ox that had been here exposixl, 
it would lia\-u livon bot two-t}iird« of thnt of thotKirae. Iflbe dog had U-i'ii 
tho Ruhjoct, it wonid liavc b«en very oonsidcntbly liuytrr, cotn)inriit^' thu 
gvocntl bulk of euch aaiiital. This iit unff^ihu-. Thu hunmn bniin Utrp.tit 
in ooniparative bulk ; then tho hmiu of tlio dog, tlie borat*, the ox. Thtin 
would thev be clautd t'li the geale of iHUUhenee. 

If the bnin is more etoaelj exaraiDod, it «-ill bo obsenred that there 
ia not that roondiieae and Woadaees found in tho homan iMane; it ia 
0ODiiiaf»taToly two! nud flat. There ia, however, HufGcieiit irrvgnlarity of 
■ar&oe^-tLero aiv projections and dciimnionit to rc-roind us tliat the 
pbrenolopiTal dcveloiitm/nt of the brain of tbe horao shonld not bo last 
■i^ht of — hid prido luid tove of approbation, his acute remembrance of 
pancma and plucvs, hia perception of muHic and time are extraordinary. 
After the dog', there its iiu animal ondowoil inilh iiioro intelligence tban tho 
botao. Wora tbe brain of the Unvor, of tliehare,or therabbit,or of almoat 
aoj bird, aabetitoted for it, lltcre would be no cnnTolutions or invgalAritJes 

Tba {n^^hu-itioi on the Htirface of tbc bmin arc not so bold and tw dec]) 
in the ox aa in tho horse, cor in tho horse as in tie doff. We do not know 
enooffh, aa ret, of the functions of the particular portions of tho brain (o 
associate thoM convolaiioDs, accnnttely. with any particalar powers of 
mind, or Kood or bad propcnsiticH ; though, donbtlcss, such knowledge will 
nitinuitely be dOainod, It would ot-cupy two much K|ui'-e fnlty to enter 
into tbdsc qnostiona ; but tliero aro some diRooaefi to wliich Uie borcM ia 
^mbjeot, for which a very uMfnl operation — the division of aomo of tbo 
nciyce — is line) reomme to, tJic efled of which operation could not bo 
uuderstocMl vritboat a previotjs sli);)it account of this important orpin. 

When the brain is cat, it is found to bo comi>OHrd of two itubslanocs 
very unlike in ap|>Miranoo ; ono, principally on tnt? outnldo, RWiy, or ufdi- 
oolonrcd, and thcrcforo eollod tho eorUcii (bark-ltlx) Sroin ita tiilualiuu, 
wmI cineritious (^(uhen) from its colour; and the other tyin^ deeper in tho 
brain, and froni its ptdpy nature called tbe medull-tn/ »nbstance. AHIiongh 
plaeod in apposition with each other, and aecmingty mingling, tht^ never 
run into the same uaas, or change by degrees into one nnother, i>nt oro 
(MS'-ntiiilly distinct in coimlrudion as well ae in fhnction. We are told by 
Mr. Solly, in bis tnost i-aluablc work do the bmin, that llie cineritiout or 
daric pOTliun of tho brain ix tho source «if mental iiowc-r- that in, it is tbo 
portion of the bmin by mcauB of which the mind or instinct de»elctp«t ita<>If; 
that it is collected ia mosses ofvuriablu I'umi and iJiuirc, bull) within and 
without the bniin, cnlli-d pmtfliii, and llmt ihiiio tfaniilia an: lliti imiuedint^ 
niOAita uf uteiital denioiuitiTilioti, while tbe niedoUaiy or white portioh 

of Hba lirun, has the acooDdarr o(I!co of )Mnng tbo condactor of llmt 
dcsooDstaitiOD to ereiy purt of the Ixidy. it is not <l«vi>lof)«d in the Jbrm 
of iiT^polu' masMS or gnngliay but ia moulded into tlio muro «}-tnioot.rical 
ibrm M norrM. 

The medvilanj portion is connectod vrith tlii> nerroas ayatem. Tba 
nerves are prolongaltons of it, and are ooncrmed in the discbarve of all 
tlie offip«a of life, Thoy givo motion and energy to the limits, the heart, 
the Inngs, the stomnch, and evoiy p*rt. connected witii life. Thoy are tho 
tncdiom through which Hcnervtion ifl conveyed ; and tiicy mpply tlic ound 
irith muterials to think iind work upon. 

Th<i clnnrili'jfi* |iart hiu* a diflVirent aiipcnraiicc, atid i* di/Iormtly ooii- 
iititut«i. Some have eopposed, and with much «[>j)c«iniitcc of tnitli, tlmt 
it is the reaidi^nce of the mind — receiTii)^ the impreauMia th&t Mv cou- 
Tcyed to tho broin by tho Hcnsitivc ncrvee, und directing the operation and 
action of those wbich (^ro motion to tho linihs. In accordance witli thin, 
it hniijK'nH Uint, •whcro »iipi'pii>r iiiU'ltig>>neu in foand, the cineritioiis pot^ 
tion prwvaila, and where little beflido bnitc strength and nnimnl nppctito 
exista, the medullary portion is erdar^d, There is, coinpuritig hulL witli 
bulk, IcHH of tho medullary Bubetiuico in the horoe than in the ox, tun\ iti 
the do^ than in tbe boree. The lutililionid bnlk of binin in eoniiioHKl of 
eimTitiouH maltor; and how dilTi'n-'nl U the ehanuM4>r of theet aiiimalB ? — 
the Khif^'jih, sinpiil ox, nud the intcdiigent homo ; tho sitlj sheep, and tho 
iat«lleclual coropauioiuible dov ! 

In a work like this, it wonld bo somewhat oni of place (o ontt-r dwij)ly 
into any metaphyRiL'al specnlation; but the connexion between UiR etu(-ri- 
tioua )inrt of the bmu and tlm int^'lluetniil principle, and that between tho 
mcdnlUiTj portion and tbo mere animitl principle, do tvcm hij^ldy probable. 
Tlio lattvr is tbe mediuiD througli which iliv imjirewnon in conveyed, or 
thm motion ia effected ; t]ic former 'm the snhMlntLOo to whii-h that impres* 
mon Ik refiirrul — where it ia received, regiat<ired, and comjuircd, and by 
wbich tho operatioD of the motor nerves ia inflnenced and ffovomod. 

Tbo c(nii<:al mibstanco is small in tbc qnudropMl ; for in tlii-ir wild itlalo 
brvteH have no concern and no idea beyond their food and rej Tuduction ; 
and ill their doiitcAlieatcd ftlal« tht^y art; deitttiied to be tlio Bcrvsots of man. 
The aeuteiiess of their sensea, and the preponderance of animal power, 
qoalily thent for these purposes ; bot were proportionate inti'19i.-ctaul capa- 
city added to this — wore tncy mode conscions of their atreu^i, they would 
bani tbeir bundH, aiid man would, in his torn, be tho victim and the iilave. 
Th« cortical [Nirt is found in each in llie proportion in wbich it would 
wctm to be needed for onr purpose, in order that intellipfnoe ihould Iw 
added to animal power. Almost every mcnUl faculty, and almost cvety 
Tntne, too. may bo traced in tho bmto. Tbe diflereaoe in in de^n.-e, ana 
not in land. The onv briiif improved by cireonutsDCca and the otbvr 
contaminat^'d, tlie aoadruped is deeidedly tho finporior. 

Yrnm the mcdnllary nilMtance — as alrMtdy atntcd — pmcced certain 
cords or proloontions, termed N«n-e«, by wliich tho auiuuU ii* i-nabled to 
Roeivo impc««iooa IVom sorrotuidinj; objects, and to connect himmrlf with 
thin ; ana alao to possess maoy pIi«Kurable or painlnl aenaatioDa. Otto ot 
Ihtn ia apraed over the menibrane of the noae, and crivea tbe senaa of 
smell; annthi^r ex|MndA on the back of tho eye, and uie &cully of iii(;bt 
ia gained; and a tJiird g^oea to the internal structure of the ear, and tlio 
m»iiTM>l ia conscions of aoimd. Other nerves, proceeding to diRWrent porta, 
givo the faculty of motion, while et^oaDy important ones bestow the power 
of fiwlinc^. 

One division of nerve* Bpnng^ing f^m a prolon^tion of the heata, 
wandem to diflerenl parta of the fnuno, for important purposM connected 



with nspintioa or btvatliing. Tbn act of breatlung 
and werv it to owse, Uie anunal woulit die. 1be»& u< 
Ury n>oti«>a ; bo 
that, whether ho 
IB awake or aslivp, 
etnwoioaa of it or 
Dotf the lunfpi 
bcKve Mid life is 
snpported. Laxtiy, 
extending from 
Lhtf lueautU ob- 
Uiiigaia U til 8 
•pinal oord — a 
farther prolotiKO- 
tioD of the brain, 

nuuung tlirouKli a cavity in th« bones of the neob, back, and Inins, and 
extending to ino sacral canal — rrom which othctr nerves are giren ofl' at 
(Mrtain inltwaU. This cat di-liDcatca a pair of them. The portion of 
aplnal cord nrprrsentcd. is mptmsctl to be placed with ita inner or lower 
urface tuirarda qb. The Rpinal mni, «, is (vitnfwsed of sir diBiinrt 
diviwooM or rods, mnnin^ through it« whole I^'njjth — thrr© on either side. 
Th© two appor di<nBions procL-cd fr(im tbusc tmcks of the brain dcTolcd to 
Bcnaation. Nntncrotut dititiiict fibres sprinp nhraptlj frtim the eohimn, and 
which collect lo^-tlipr, and, dovelopin^ a liltlo (^njjlioii or inilnrg^'nienl, 
d- — an i-nlargemont of a ncrvon* COM is called n ganglion — become a nerve 
of •CDsatiun. FVom the lower or inner m<lc— o prolongation of thr track 
devoted to motion — proceed other Gbrcx. whicii abu collect gniditalljr 
ttigvlbor, Hod form a tierrous cord, c, (jiving the jiowpr of motion. Bej-und 
the fi;anglioa the two unite, aiid form a perfect spinal iien-e, t>, po&«eesiug 
the power both of M-iiAation and motion ; and the fibres of the two columns 
prooEied to their deatiiiation, enveloped in the nunc shenih, and apparently 
one nervei Eaoh portion, howe^-or. continnee to be wmpped in ita o«-n 
memhrane. The; arc oiuted, yet distinct -, ther constitute one nrn'C, yvt 
neither their suhatanco nor their oiBce is eonfoiinded. Our cat, clowly 
examined, will (five at I some idea of the manner in which lhe«e distinct 
fibroa are continued ;— each covered hj its own memlmtnc but all envclo|(ed 
in a common envelope. The difference of action in the sentient and motive 
portions of the ner\'i-a mnnt not be lost fiigbt of; in t)»e nctitient, (bo im- 
prenioncomnienceftin thominnte ramifications of (he nerve, and in carrietl 
on tlirongh the trunk to the sensurium ; white, on the rantnuy, in the 
motor, the volition originates in the brain itself, nud is commuiiioat(.>d to 
the masclee ; the impression in the sentient ncncs tmv-crsing from tlio 
tisanes to the brain, and in the motor from the brain to the tissues. 

All these nerves are orgaiiH of ocneation and motion alone ; bat thcra 
are others whose origin seems to be ontsiile of and below the brain. Thvwo 
are the aifmpiitfiilii; so railed from their union and sympntliy with all tho 
others, andidentiSed with life itself. They arise from a small enlargement, 
called the anterior een-ieal ganglia, in th^t upper |iBrt of the neck, and are 
more or loss distributed over even* part of t\»> ho<ly. They go lo the hearty 
and its bents : and to the stomach, and it Jijre!*t«. They form a network 
round each blood-vessel, and the current Rows on. They surround tho 
very minutest vessels, and tho framo in nourislMHi and bnilt up. They are 
d««titat« ofaenaation. and they arc perfectly beyond tho control of (he will. 

The reader, wn trust, will now coni|>n,'!iend this wonderful yet simple 
machinery, and be able, by-and-by, lo nrfer to it the cx|ilanatian of several 
diMcascs, and |jarticulfiHy of the opcMition to "Vi'bieh wv have referred. 

They wlio know nnjlhiaff uF tim hunw pay diiic)b attcntJoD to the tutOt 
netting' on, nnd niutiou of tho oar. Eiirs imtner Hmnll thau Inrge— placvtf 
not too far U(«irt — OTOct nnii quick in motion, inilicnU* bolli Ijreedinir awd 
spirit ; and it' a liurse U frequently in tlio Imbit of citrryiu^ onu oar furivanl 
and the obhor Ijaokward, aud eepeciaUr if he douti su on » journey, ho will 
SenenUy pcmsess both anirit ana contumance. Thi) Htrutcliing- vt tliu CKnt 
in coiitniry (UrectiooD eiioim that h« is HttenliTe to evci^'tluii^ UmL Jm 
tnking tiEiico nroaiitl Iiiio, iind, whilo ho is doing this, ho cannot Ix! lunch 
ralis:ucd, or likely aoon to beocano so. It hoa Ixsm remarked thai fow 
Koracti gk-op without pcnnting ono Oiu' rortriird nnd the otJier Iwii'kward, in 
ohUt that they rn»y n-ccivo notice of the .kpj^roiich of olyocla iu every 
din>otion. ' When horses or iiioJea,' aays Dr. Amott, in hi* ' EU'intKutM of 
Phy.tio,' * march in company dt night, tnose in frout direct their cors for- 
wards 1 thoao in tho rear diroct tlicm biuikwanls -, and thtnu; in tht- contra 
torn them laU'mUy or ucroiHi ; the whok- troop accming thoa to be aciuuUi] 
by ono fwlin^, whiuli wu.tcliui> tho ^{I'nond tuLloty.' 

Tho eAr of tha honeo iii ono or thu nioitt bcniitifiil pnrtn nbout him, and 
by fi-w tKiniTH u tJiv t^-in)K-i: iquim aun.'ly iudii.'alvd thnti by its motion. 
Tho mr \» iniin> iiiu-il!);iblc ftvmi than iha eye; and a jrcntuu HooiutotDed 
til tho honai*, and nn olKorver of liim, can tell by t)ie expri'Mxivu motion of 
that orput ahnost all that he thinks or muans. Ik is a common sayin-;, 
that when a horsd laya tu£ oars tiat back upon his nock, and kw:)M thont 
HO, 1)0 nimit aesoredly la meditating ini«chi«.<f, and tho alander by Bhutiltl 
boware of bis be^ or hia teeth. Hi pluy, thu ciira will be laid book, but 
not flo docidudly or so lonji. A iiutck chnii^ in tlu'ir |H»iition, and moro 
)>artionlarly ttw oxprewrion of the eye at the time, will djutinguiiih betwcwu 
playrulncw and riou. 

The vxt«mid <^r is fonncd by a cartilaj^ of an oral or cone-like ahwi, 
tlpKih1v,y<'t t]nn,nnd temiinatinrr in a point. It has, dirrctod towards ihe 
side, yet somewhat pointing forwnn.i, a largo opwiinR ortendiiiff from tb« 
top W tbe bottom. Tii« intention of this is to coli<.<ct thv tfuuud. aud 
convey it to thu interior part of tliu tur. 

Tbe favarin^ of the hoi-ao ia remarkably acute. A thonaand vibmtions 
of tlu! air, too alight to make any iiaprossion on the hnmau ctu*, are r«*dily 
p«po.-'iv«l by him. It is wi'il known to pvtry huntjng roan, that tbe ciy 
of ihi! boands will be rcvogiii«cd by the bono, and hia ears will be en^-t, 
and be will bo all 8)>int nad impaticnoe a oOBSidsrable tiinu hviuxv tha 
rider ia conacioua of ibo least suimd. 

Tbis eiiatom of cnttin;; the mra of the horse originaUid, to its ahnmc, in 
Qreafc Britain, and for many years wn» a practice not only crael to thci 
BaUnal, but de|>rivinK liim alio of much of his bceut)- ; and vmn an rilaiti- 
nat<>ly pumnctL that at lengtb tlie doformity l)i-<umit; in aome hcrvditftry, 
and a brc«(l of liunes bom witboot can wb* producni. Kortoiuitcly for 
thii tao-oA«a abuaod animal, cropping in not now tho rnahion. Smdo 

ihoB^bUoM or aofivUng young men cndeavouivd, n little wliilo ago, ooui 
to intnxlucc it, but the voice of i-caaon and hnmanity prevailed. 

This carl»lajr#, tho cwcA or ahcU. ia attadicd to ttuj head by ligmmeni*, 
and nnnlmnwl hy muscles, on which its nrtimi dopamlu. It n-»ta uiion 
iMKithrr cartilage, rtmnd without and in-pgular witlim, PalJMl tbe annular, 
ring-like, cartihtjfc, and «>ndocting to iJio int<>rior of thu car; and jt ia 
likewise auwiorled and moved by » third *mnU cartilaf^e, ptacvd at tbe 
fore paH of tho base of the conch, and into which wr^-ral mnscU* aro 

The tar in coviTfytbyaJein thinner than in motitnihrr parts of tho bodr 
and altuifctliur dosUtatc of fat, in onlw ihat it may not bo too bnlky and 
heavy, and may U- more viuuly moved. Umlor the akin lining tlio inaid» 



of tlie nrtihgit mv Dumet^His (^liuida tLnt hereto or tbnnr oat » acaly 
white RrCMTf mttter, -which nut; be ruliUti off bf tbo finser. Hid u 
dwtinnl to cnppls tlut put of the «v, and to koefi it attfl and umixilh. 
B«few tliu are other f^ludj, whicA poor out a peenliar, siickr, hitti^ Bnid 
— tiic wax — probably diapteaaing to ioseda, aoid thcovforo tloton-in^ than 
froni ctawlii)^ down tlie ear and aiiDojing the animal, or bj- iia Blichiaeae 
aiToatJTig their prof^ivss. 

The inteniiLi part of tho conch ia co y pred with long Iwir. which stands 
acroM tho pAssafi^ in trrrrj dinvtioo. Thi« bkowiMt w to prfttw-t th* «ir 
frocn iasoct«, that can with diihcaltr pcoctrato thnnigh this thick dpfrt»Of\ 
The ci>ld tur ift Itkewivc preYent«<l from nnchiug tht- tDterior of the car. 
and tho ttoand is moderattd, not arrested — peDetratiitp readilf bat not 
Tiolantfy — Utd not strikinf; iDJariooalv on the mpmbntne corerinff the 
droixL oF tlie ear. Cut the«c pur^«e«« Iw aooonipUshcd when it is the 
custom of BO maoT carters lUkd (grooms to cut oat the hair of the ear so 
closcljr and JDdasLrionsljr as tbrv do i The groom who idngva it to the 
nxpt with « candlo intut eithi-r U- very ignorant or VC17 brutal. Iti»n 
■CMVtfly be a/jcoiaphshed witbotit mngMng tlie cat as wcU as the hair. 
Mmny a tixntblesouie aom is occasioDed by thi« ; and many a bonm that 
was perfectly qiiict before reodcred dtfficuh to bandlo or to halter, nnd 
tfren disposed to be otherwiBe ricioas, from a reeollectinn of the pais 
which he sttfiered during the uImuttI and barbarous operation. 

nie eotuid collected hy tho ootvr car paaaea throuKh tlie loww or 
anutilar, rinK-shaped cartita^, and throug*!! irrv^lnrittai which, while 
thej bn>ak and modify il, oonrey it on to anutlier canal, [mrtly cartiUgi^ 
aoiu and partly bony, oondacting initiicdiately to the intfmal modianisni 
of th« ear. This canal or poasa^ id callfd the eitOTiiid auditory passage 
and at tlie base of it ie placed, stretching across il, and closing it, n (hick 
and elastic mirmhraiie, mtentbraMa fympani, called the memhranc of tlie 
dram. Thif) nwmbnne is soppHcd «ith namemnu Sbres, from lliu fifth 
pair, or acmsitiTe nenre of the head, for it is neoeaBBiT that it khoald po4- 
•MB Qxtvenia Hosifaility. 

Between tiiia membrane and a Bmidlcr one almost uppodtc. leading lo 
the still interior part of the ear, ami on which thn nerre of hearing is fx- 
paoded, are foar little bones, nnifeil lo tln-Ko mfiubranes and to nich other. 
Their office ia to convey, more perfectly thun it oould be done Ihrou^i tlio 
mere air of the ca^-ity, tho rihmtioas that havn rcnchvd thv mnnhnma 

nioee bonea are cotinec4cd together, and uo coveted by a eartilaj^Bons 
sabstaoce, elastic in tho gfcale«t dcgroe, hy mmiu of which tho forco 
of tlio vibmtioii ia much incrcseed. 

It is conveyed to a stimngol/ irreKnW diTity, fillctl with nn nc|acouii 
flnid, and the xiilielBnce or pulp of tixoporiio moUi* or Hoft jiorlton of the 
B«Tonth pair of nerves, the auditory nerve, expands on tho mvmbiiinc thkt 
linea tho walls of this cavity, 

Sound !e pro)iagatcd far own inteoBcly through water than Uirough 
air, and therefore it is that nn aqueous fluid occnp!c« thoeo chiuulM>m 
of the tatoti tho walls on which tbo ntiililory nor%'o is espandiN). My 
iUfl eoutrivauce, and by othi^nt, u-hieh we have not ipuoo sow lo nais. 
rate, the soqbc of iK-oriiig id fully cqunJ to CVV17 possible want of tho 

Tbo £ya is a tnoxt importanL organ, and comes next under oonsidora- 
Cion, as encloncd in the bonet) of tho eknll. The eyp of tlio hontn should 1m« 
bu^^ somewlmt but not too prominent, and tbo eyelid line and thin. If 
tho aye is sunk in the bend, and upparrnH^ little — for there w a»-f " 
xvry trifling difleroacu in Uiv sixeuf tliv eye in cuiimidiiuf the same 

liially a 



kud Imlk, ani] tli&t (teomin^ clilf<?rciico aristfs from tlio larger or BitutllLT 
opening bctiTocai tlio lids— und tlio lid i« thick, and cMpcciiilly if tlicro is 
buj paukcriaf^ towards the iiitiir comer of tlic lidii, that vyo either U 
duietuied, or tiM Isituly been Hiibjcct to diaea;«e; and, partlculiti-ly. if one 
nje ifl amaJlcM' than tlio other, it hoi at do great dtstanoa of time boeii 

The cyo of tbe homs euublua us with tolentlilo accuracy to gaosg at lii« 
totnpcr. If much of tlie white ia seen, tho bnjer should pause trc ho com- 
pletw hiH bargaia ; because, althoagh it. may, yet very nir«>ly, bttppen tbat 
the eornea or transparent part ia unniitiinilly small, nnd therrriin? an tin- 
nniftl portion of tho white of tho cja is smii, «xporit>nce has okAu-u that 
this display of white is clftngt'ronB. The laiechievouH iiortm irt slyly ou tbo 
look out for o)>[)ortuiutir» (o do miachief, aiiij ibo frequent liackward direc- 
tion of the eve, when tho white is most perceptible, is only to give sorer 
ofibct to tho blow which ho ifi about to fiim. 

A caraory descriptiou of the ej-o, and tho nsos of it« difibraat poria, 
mtufc be givL-n. 

The oye» nro placed at tlic ddo of the liMtd. bnt th» dtt^prtion of tb* 
conoid cavity which they occupy, and of thti Hlinath by wliioh they aro 
BOiroonded within the orbit, givca them » provuiliuK direction forwardv, 
so that the animal hatt a very extended field of Tision. We most not 
assert that the eye of the horse commands a whole sphere of vision ; bat 
it CMuiot bo denied that his eyes are placed moni forward than those of 
oottlc^ sheep, or swine. Ho requires an extotisivo field of vision to warn 
bin of (ho approach of his cncmios in his wild stuto, and a direction of 
the OrbitH oocaidonibly forward, in orttcr to enable Kim to pursue witJi 
aafe^ the bflncUong coumi* to which wo soiuetiiuea urge him. 

The ajreboll is ^aoed in t)ic anU'rior and most ea|iacioas part of the 
orbit, itMrer to tho bontal than tlio tt'inpoml side, with a dt-^n-e of protni- 
nenco raiying with diflcrent iudividiiJitH and the will of the animal. It 
is prot«N;tod by a bony socket beneath and on the inside, bnt is partially 
exposed on the rool and ou the outside. It is, however, covcmd and 
secarod by thick and powerful mntcIoB— by a mass of adipose mattor 
which is distributed t-ovariooapartti of the orbit, upon whicb tiiv uyc may 
be readily moved without frid ion. and by a wbeathof coiisidcrjkble density 
and firmness, and espociolly where it is most needed, on the external and 
Buperior portions. 

Tho adipose matter exisU in a aotuidci«ble quantity in the orbit of tho 
eye of the borer, and enables that ors^&n readily to revolve by thcslitrhtcst 
oontmotion of the muscles. By the absorption of this fatly nuittin- in 
aiokaoBS or old am, the eyo is not only to a certain degroo snnk in tlio 
orbit, but the roof of tho orbitpostcrior totho frontAl bone, being dcprnred 
of its snpportf is considerably ilepnwiicd. 

In front the eve is oorered. and protected by the lids, which, dosiDg 
rapidly, socuro it from many an injnry that threatens— diffn so over it 
that moisture which is neccosary to preserve its tranaparcnay — ^in the 
momcDtary act of closing giro a certain and siifficicut respite to a del>c»to 
organ, whidi would othcrwiso be fatigued and worn out by tho constant 
claro of day^lefend it -when the eye labours under ind.immation from 
the atimnlns of light — «nd, gnulually drooping, jicrmit the animal to enjoy 
that repose which nature r«*iaires. 

£stcn<iing round both lids. and. it may bo almost said, having' DoiiheT 
origin nor insertion, is a muscle called the orbU^aru jintpehramm, or 
eirealar nutscle. Its office is to closo the lida In the act of winkiuir or 
olberwise, bot only while the animal is awako. When ho sleeps this is 
oSntod by aoolhcr and ver>' ingenious mecbaoisQi. The natural state of 


tine cychcbi ia that of bciii^ cIosik], niid tliey ofc kept open hy tbo oacrgy 
oftliQ muKclL-s Tvhosc offiw it Is to raise tlic upi>cr Ua. Aa slrop sU-aIh upon 
Um Miinial, tliuKo miui-k-it cease lu itct, auil tl]L< lids eEi)6« b^ the inheront 
elutieitj of tlio mpmbmnp of which tlity aro composocl. 

Tha ftlun of the lid ie, lik? that of thv ciir, excccdinglj- Gdq, is order to 
pteveot unnecTKeury wciglit «nd proasurp on bhcIi » piirt^ and to pvo more 
eas/ and oxteonre uiotlon. Th« lids cluHe accamtel^ when dra^vn otbi> 
the eye, and this in cfTcctod by a little Btnp of cnrulagv nt thv <.tdge of 
0fech of thorn, which may bo easily i'elt with tin? finger, and prcacrvca 
tiieni in a Iioopliko form, aiid adapts Lliem clo8ely to the eyu iind to «u'h 
r. The loner cartilape, however, docs not pi'CBeiit, towarda theiiim^r 
or of tht' eye, the wholeof itsflatsnrface to the upper, bnt it ovidently 
lopM inward, find only thu outer edge of the nnder hd tcncliea the up|)er. 
By tlua mcanH a little potter is formed, through which the su|ierfluous 
moisltins of thu eye fluws to the inuer comer, where there is a canal to 
convey it away, iiy this eontrivjuiee it neither ot^i^umuJutcH in the ejo 
nor niipleasantly ruiia down the cheek. 

Along tbf edfiCA of tlic Uihi aro placed numerous little hoUowB, which 
can ho plainly diRttiiguiHlit'il e\nn iu the h\'iug horao hy slightly tormiig 
down the Ui These are the openings from the raeiboiiiiiin or ciliary 
ffluuU containuLg a thick and anetuoaa flnid, by meana of which tho 
0TC« are moro &«i:nrat«ly closed, and the cdgce of tbo lids defeudoi from 
iLo acrimony of tho tears , 

Tlie borw baa no eifehrujirt, and thu eyelathc-t are rery pecnliarly ar- 
ranged. The rows of hair are longest nud nioxt nniudronB on the onper 
lid, and eopedallj towards the enter or temporal corner, because tho light 
oomce from abow; and, aa tlie anima l stands, partivulurly when ho ia 
^ttcinv, and from tlie lateral situation of hia eyes, the greater portion of 
wt Kgnt, and the attacks of iuseets, and the rollin)^ down of moisture, 
would chiefly be from the ontsi<lo or temples. TowarfUt tho inner comer 
of tlia api>er lid there is litll« or no eydaah, bocauee there is no urubablo 
danger or naiHanee in that direction. Only a amall ciuantity of hght can 
entAT from below, and therefore tha Inshes are thin and abort ; but ah, in 
the act of grszu^;, insects may moro readily ctimb np and bo troabloaonio 
to the eye, towards the Inner angle, Uiero tho principal or only hair is 
ibitnd on tho lower Ud. These apparently trifling circumstoncea will not 
b« overlooked l>y the careful obHeiver. 

Thoy who are unncqnaintod witli tho absimlitioR of stable management, 
OP who have not carefully examined the nbua^'a that may exiH in their own 
BrtablishgtCTita, can scarcely behu^-v the fuoliKh and cruel pravtiooe of some 
cMTters and ^rrooms. When Uiu gromtL la anxious that hia horse should l)o 
ns trim and neat nil over as. art can make him, tho very eyofaishes aro 
ceBerally aaoriticed. What baa tho poor anitnal euffenxl, when, travellinfr 
ID tbo mxm of day, tho full blaze of the euu haa fallen upon hia cyca ; ana 
how many accidenta hare probably happened from his being daisied by 
the tight, which have been attribntcil to otiier cansea I 

If tho horso has no oyelTTow, there iirw 8i.!vei«l hairs or bristles soattored 
mi the upper cychd, and there if a projecting fold of tho hd which dig- 
diar^s nearly tlie itamc offioe. It is mure cuiupicuoua iu old hones than 
hi young oneH. Some horsemen do not liko (o si-e it, and asaociato the idcA 
of it with weaknotM or diaeoiie of the eyo. This ia perfectly erroneoDS. It 
ifl a prorision of aatoro to accompiinh a certain purpose, and has nothing 
to do either with health or disease. 

On the lower Hd ia a uselU pnrrision to ware tho bonto of the near 
approo^ of any object that might incommode or injure him, in tho form 
of long projecting hair« or bnstles, which arc plcnt^-onsly imbnod with 

1 59 


nervous miluccK-c, 8o that the sUgbtoet toncli slumli] put tko uiimal on liia 
giiard. Wo woultl nniui'nt mir rcmlurs to tonch vt-rj- slightly iliflcxtreraitj 
of one of flictte linini. Tliay will 1>e xuTprised to oImotvo tho suildcn con- 
vulsive twitching of tho lid, rendering the nttn«lc of tho insect abeolntcly 
impowible. The groniug, howo^-«r, wlio out ikway tlic cjlaahca, do not 
spare thetie usc^f^il Icelura, 

TLo eye in eiposoJ to the- action of tho a.tiiiQ«iilieric air.ani) Iho in-ooofis 
of t'^Tiponitioii, dcfitrut'tivi' of its transjnir*Tipy, is eoiitiiiimllv i^>ii>]{ on, 
Tho pyo of tho borso, or thp risible part of tlio cyt". ii*, likewiee, moro 
prominent and lar<^T thim in tho homnn being, and IIih animal iii uftcn 
ftubJLi't to utTcniL- HTitiiDynnct^ fi-cm dost and insects, wliile lio 1ia« tio 
baiidH or otlior gnanl U> dtifend hntvwtlf from tho tortiiro whit-h thny oppji- 
«ion. What is thfl provifiion of natnro nsninst this ? Under, and'a littlo 
witbio, till! outer corucr of tho uppur lid, us an irrc^lar body, tho lacknj- 
mat gland, coinmnitivi-ly iargw- tlinii in tlui Iniioitn ht-infr, iioci-tting an 
iU)aooafi fluid, wMiieli, slowly insiiing iVom the gland, or acctwioinilly pr(!Hwd 
out of it in the otrt of winking, flows over the eifo, tm\t^\^* it witli moisture, 
and ci«tuLM»( it from, all impuritius. HiunAn ingenuity could not hitTo bc- 
leottul a ttitunlion from which tho fluid couhl lie convoyed over tho^yo 
with more advantage for tliin purpose. 

When this fluid is sporeted lu au unduo qunntity nnd flon-j ovorthe (^ 
it \b called tean. An inin-Mscd tiow of tear? is produced by anytbii^; thut 
irritates tbo ©ye, and, therefore, » constant accompaniment and ttjiaptom 
of inflanima.tion. A homo with any dugn'o of wiping should be regnrdcd 
witb much suspicion. In tho Iminan ttcnng an unnHuiil socrctjon of teon 
is oRen caused by bodily pain, nnd (rmotionA of tlio mind; and CO it it 
oocitsioually in the horse. Wo buvo scou it rvpc^itcJly under acute potn 
or brutnl njago. Jobn Ijnwrcnce, »]n-filting of ibc enmity cifrciswl by 
eomo deftlera in wluit they «i!l ' firing' ii hor»u heforo lio is led out for 
Biilo, iu order to rou«o orcn- *[Mirk of mt^ttle, cays, ' moro than fifty years 
httro pUMcd away, Riid I bavu befum my c-yvk ii poor mora stoua blind, 
exqaiut«Iy shnpod. and allowing all the mnrKH of high blood, whom I saw 
nnowrcifully cut with tlic whin a (quarter of on hour boforo ibu saU^ to 
bring her to the uao of her stiffened limbs, while the l«i»rt wnn Mcklin^ 

Ihi^ing jKiaaod over the eye. the fluid la convoyed by the liltlo cJinal to 
"wbieh We Irnve alluded, fomied by tho sloping of thn under lid, towanU 
the corner of the eye ; and thoro arc two littlo orifices that conduct it to 
a small reservoir wilhin, and at tho upper part of tbo lachrymal bone 
(Bg i, V. t4o), A little protubcranco of a blaek or pied colour, cnllol the 
CiTrriiicliJ. placed in tUo vi-ry corner of tbc nyv. and to be seen withont 
opening the lidti, i» nitnated between tfaeso orifictw, and guides tlio flntd 
into them, IVuiu this resanroir the tears arc convcyixl by ft long canal, 
tho taehr>/mai JvH, mtih Uuiy, an<I partly mrmliranoun, to the lowvr piirt 
<tf tho nose. Alituo williin the nostril, and on the diviikinn Ix^tvrct^i th« 
nostrihi, is Men the lower opening of this canal; the sitaation of which 
should be carcfiJly observed, and its rwil use borne in mind, for not only 
liomenien. but crvii some caroless votcrinary snrsfoons, have niistaken it 
tvc a KlanderotiA ulcer, and hiLvo condemned a nscKil and vBlaablo aaimftl. 
It is round just before the skin of tlio maulo torminales, and the mora 
deiieate niembrano of tliu ao«tril commenon). Tlie ojK'ning of tlio nuial is 
placed thns low because tho mombmne of tho nose is oxcoodlngly dcUcoto, 
and wo«i)d ho irritated and made sore Irr the frcquimt or oonstont rannloK 
down of tlio tcnnr. 

Th(>n> )>, however, Mtmettiing yi>t wanting. Wo hare a pmnidoB Tor 
8op|>lying the ejv with rc^uiaito moisture, and for wiudiing from off the 



(imnspanint part oJf ii Jnwcis or ^n.ti tbnt mny annoj the animid. Wliat 
beoatam of tlicftc impttntJea wlii-ii tJiiio wh.-<Ii(-<1 off? An' llii'j: cmitmhI by 
Uie Umi» to the oomer of Uie eye, and ata paw doim Lhix duct, hihI trrilate 
and obiUiieiik; or do th'-yiu-vumalitto ut the imter oakIu or tho cjo? 
Tbcrv is a boantifol oontrivaQco fur duposin^ of tliem m fattt am thcjr mmiil- 
tDulitU. Concwilcd within tho inner comer of tbo rye, or juat at th« 
nuu^o of it, blnck or piiil. is viKibto it trimngQlar>sfaaped cartiln)f(>, tho Aaw, 
witli its hnwu) {uu-l forwnnlHL It ia eonenvo irithin, eiBctly to iniit tlw 
globe «f the gjtd; it is coarox n-itliont, aconrntcl; to adiijit itaelt toiba 
nminbmn*.- lining ilte lid ; uikI tiM Ijiwe of it in mlaced to a tliiii oroltnoitt 
uluirp «d^. At tlte irill of tho animal this ix Htidilvnl/ [irotruded from 
it« hiding-'pliuw. It panes rftpidlr over tho oyo, uid r>iot'p1s up every 
aoMwce uuxvd with the t«ar8, &nd tbeo heiiiK Kpaedilj dniwn 1«tok, tho 
dnat or insect ut wiped away u tho cartilage again pasMS uiidi-r Die oomcr 
iif tho pyc. 

How is this umnaDod ? Tho t.'artilage hoa no msaolc nttnchod to it ; 
mid tbo limbfl uict tho dilTt-n^nt parts of tho body, when put into motion 
by tho inflncnco of tho ^ill, arc inorcd invariably by niuw^hiM. 'I'lii; 
iDMbanixtn. howurer, is itimple aod cSvctnal. There u a coniiidt^niblti 
nnun of tntly inutter at tlio t«ck of tho t>yv, in order that this orpui may 
bo cnmly moved ; and this fat la particularly aoctitnnlftt^) abont the innei- 
oortutr vf Us« «ye, and beneath, and at the poini of thia cartiUge. Tb« 
eye of tlic horsKf haa Ukewiao rory sttoag mnscles atiaolied to it, and one, 
pwnliarloi|aaclrupeds, of extraordinary power, by whoao aid, if tJio animal 
haa not )iBud8 to vimnl off n dan^i'r that thrfatens, ho is at least onablitl to 
dmw the eyo back ulmoiit out ol tlio reach of that danger, 

licmt, or p-avcl, or itiKcvte, muy huvo entered tho eye, and aniiny (lio 
borae. Thia mnscl» snJdrnly acta: the eyo a forcibly drawn back, and 
Hr e i M OB upon the fatty matter. That mav be disptaecd, but cannot bo 
tvduc^d into less compaM. It 14 forced violoiitly towaids the injmr vomer 
of tho eye, and it drives before it the haw ; and Uie linw, having likvwiito 
•ame iat abont ita pcnnt, and btnng placed between ihe vya and an cxcoril- 
tnglv BmooUi and {Ktliidiod bono, aod hcin^ pressed upon by Uio eyo tut it 
ia violently drawn hack, shoots out with tho ra|»di^ of hglituiiig, and, 
fCuidcd by tho eyvlida, projecta over ihu cyo, and thus carries otT tho 
oflWidiou matter. 

Iji wwit way ahaU we dmw the haw book ni^ain without mnacular 
action P Anothor principlo ia called into play, of which in«nlioQ has 
■Iroody bc«n made, and of which we fihatl faiuTO much to any— filasticity. 
It ia that prineiplc by which a body j-ielda to n certain forco impressed 
apon it, and retonlB to its former Bt«te as soon as that foreo \» reinoveil. 
it is that by which the ligaaumt of tho neck (p. 15S), whito it mpporls 
the hc«td, enables the Iiorso to (p%X:b—hy whioh tho heart ox pauds after 
cloaing on nod propellin;^ forwanl the blood in ite Toi)tri<^os and tbo 
aitery contracts on tho blood Uiat htui di«tt>ndLd it, nn<l many of Ihe most 
importjuit ftaectjona oTlifu aro indnenced or (i^vemiMl. Thix niasolo ceasi>a 
to act, and the eyo rcmmea its natnrat sitnation in the orbit. There is 
ruom for tlie fatty nintttr to return to its pUiix-, and it intmodiately returns 
by the plasticity of the mcmbrano by which it is covered, and draws nOer 
it this cart ibigo with which it is connected, and wbomrotom tBasni[iid aa 
was the projection. 

Ilif) old farricra stnngely mis understood tho untim and deRiKu of tho 
baw, and many at the present day do not socm to bo macb better informed. 
When, from sympathy with nthor |MLrl« of tho oye labouring nndur in- 
OammatiOD, and )>eei>inin)f ilitrir iiilbuned and iiiemwed in bnik, and thi^ 
Beighbonring ports likewise thickened, it Is cilhcr forced oat of its pluci'. 



or Tolarinril/ protruded to dprend tlie eye fVom tlie nctJon of liglit, and 
cannot rotara, thej niisUike it for iiomc> injurious ejccroscence or Ltinu)ur, 
and proceed to out it out. The ' hata in the eye ' ia a dtHcosG well knovm 
to tho mujority ol' gruotna, and ihiu sad remedy for it la dti-uieii tbe ouly 
core. It 18 a barbarous practice, and if they were compelli^d to walk half 
adozun milea in a. thick dunt, without being permitted to wipe or to cUuiiise 
the eye, tliey would feel the torture to which they doom this noble aninuil. 
A little patiouoc! havisg been exercised, and a few cooling appUcatioiui 
made to the eyo while the inflamniatiou lasted, and arterwardfl »onie mild 
astnngent oncn, and other proper means beijig employed, the tuni'inr 
wuuld have iliMippeared, the haw would have retnmed to ita phuw, and 
tlie aiiimul would have discharged the duttea required of hini williuni 
inoanrenience to himsvlf, iuateatf of the agony to which an cmgaanJcd and 
unnrotectod eye must uow exiMiso him. 

Tbo loss of blood ooouionod by tho excision of the haw mity frequently 
relievo the inQammatiou of tlieuyc; ami tim evident aTiK-ii<lmriit which 
follows tiidaOM them wim men to believe th&t they have jK-rformed an 
eioellont opomtion ; hut tho same Ions of blood by Hoarificattoii of tlie over, 
loaded vctMcl« of the conjunctiva, would bo equally beneficial, and the animal 
would not bcdi'privod of an instmnient of iMlininibU^ ucte lu him. 

The eye is of u gloWliir fi^iri', yet not a jierfetTt, glolw, II in rather 
eomposed of |iiu-U of two gliil>eit ; the half of one of them grnuller and 
trauHparent in front, and of the other larj^rer, an<] the coAt of it opaqac, 
behind, Wu Bhali most convviuenUy begin with the ccHita of the eye. 

a RUPpMuJ objpct ri<rcr«d by thn aainiiJ. and so tDT^rtod iDiitg« of which, a; At !■ 

thrown on th» rriin» at Au> back of llio tyt. 
The njB preeMdJDK froco ibv eitivuiii ii-x uf ili« ubjnct lo tlin pyn. 
The potatj whn* tar tar). bitvinK p>iaanl the comcii anil Irn*, coDTerge bjr tbr 

le&BctiTe powfo' nf Inc Unn. 
Tho <vn«M, «r honj and traonuirfnt put gf tho tyt, corucd by tha Mnf»ariir«:, 

nnitiitt dtffrrent paxf* tAg<(b<T. 
Th» nTMUlino («7ital or gUMay) leM, iMhind th« pofil, and io front of ths Titneotu 

XwriM of I be rye. 
Tl» optic Oftrr, or nrm» of rigbU 

Tb $(iervtifii (hard tim coac) eoTCfillg A* wfadA of th« eyt esMpi th» 
eecnpaiid by the conw, and bala^ a ■wmim pwbngalioii of ihr noTrrin^ 
vftie nnrtk 
Th» tKeniia <tMcptae1o or oorering), or choroid H»r, cotwmL with a bUck f«crttioa 

I Tha wu m minKxr-pnlnawl cirralar mombruc nndpr lbi> ««ni(4, in front ot tlH 
tyt, aad on *h>(-h itiH cnlnur of >lii! eyw tlop^nda Tho duplioaiure brhind i* ih* 
«wiT, rrooi luring rolourrd like a grape. Tlia opmiog in ihx cantrv ii Ih* popil. 

Thn dliJUj (hiir-liir) pT«»*"i-«. 

Tin rrtuM, or art>lik<: npannion of the optic ni-rrr, apmul urnr tho whuir of tha 
AorMia m Ikr m ib^ l<iia. 

T1l*ntr(aiM{gUM'liku)buDL0ur flUlng liiD vh-jluof Ihxttriljr ot the rye bohiad 

Hu BfaMM (vattHilw) hnnuvr BUiag the sptM between th» eorac* and tlw Imu. 





The eei^vndiro, f, it that mcubnine whicli tinea tKe lida, uid rorcrs 
tb» fero port of tkc cje. It aprwds orcr nil Hint we cno m« or fi!«] of tlio 
fffv. OTCn ita tra&spa»at pwt« and w thai reflected ovrr ibc internal 
nurfiue of tke ltd. It is ilaelf tnaapttrenl, and tmumitu the coioar of the 
parts beneath. It ia rtrry 8tuce|)tiD)e of inflammation, dunn^; which the 
lining of the liiU will boromc int«naplj ml, and the whit« of th« ryo will 
he tirst ttreaiod with rod vcMdwIa, and then ooronvd with a complete luvidi 
of tlicnii and tbe cornea will become dotidj and opaqnc. It ia the scat of 
*aji<iQS (liMases, and, jiarticularljr. it fir*t auooanctv that siid iDflammation 
of tbe faone'a eye, which bida defiance to iho vetoriuarjr i(Hrg<Eun'B BkilJ 
and abnoat inTariablr t«nmnatM in blindiwaa. 

Tbe cwuaiaatiOB of tbo coajuicttTS, hy taming down the lid, will en- 
able OS to form an acvoiato jndgmoat of the degree of ipflaininatiop which 
Gxista in the rjc. 

Covmug ilie back part of tb« cijre, and indeed foor-fiftht of the gjobe 
of it, ii th« tcUn>li<a, k. It is an pxceodinsl; stroiiff mombraiM^ oonpoeed 
of fibres tnterwcariiit; with (^ach other, aua almost defyiug thtt possibility 
of acparatton. An organ so delicate and so important as th« eye, rvqniiva 
•ecorc! prut4<ct}0D. 

It is to a ccrlata rxttmt (wmpanttivoly incbwtv;. It ia npceanry that it 
sbtmld bo ao, when it i> conHtdcrtd tliut the ore is aurroiuidcd by several 
vvry poWLT^I utUHolcf, which iiinat t^m|>i>nirily'. and even for tbe purynsea 
of Tinon, alter ita form. The alitcht elaaticity of tli«' iiclnrtittca ia napfally 
dtfreloped in caoaing the globe of the eye to reaume ita former and natural 
■hu>«,aiflOon aa tbo notion r>f the mnsclf cpasos. 

The Mlsrotica hna very few blood Tcsscla— ia searooly scnaiblo — and ita 
dmaMa, except when it intrtidpatca in gvnenl diatnrhancc or disor^aniaa* 
tion, are rarely broug^ht under our notice. 

Tbfl eomcn is, or we shoald wish it to bo, tho only Tisihlo part of tho 
liDnii'e eyt, for the exhibition of much whilo around it ia a frequent 

rptnm of wivkednew. Tho caroea fill» up tb« vacuity which ia left by 
Bclerotica in the fore part of tho ere, and. Although dufiely nnitt^d 
to the aolerotica, may bo Be{>arat«d fi\im it. and will drop out lik« a wateh- 
^teot. It ia not roond, but wider from sido to sido than iroin thu top to 
ioa boitom ; and tho cnrrc mtfacr broudcr towonla tbe inner than the 
outer corner of the oyo, so tliut tbo iit;ar eye may ho known &om the off 
uoa after it ia taken IVom the hood. 

Tbo oonrezitv or projection of the oomea ia a point of considenble 
importaoce. The urominenoe of the eye certainly adds much to tlio 
btaa^ of the animal, bat we aball eoo preaently, when we oi>nHid<-r the eye 
■■ the orgaa of sight, that by bnng tro prominent, tbe nya of liglit may 
be n-atlcml hM (wnvtT^vot, and tint Tisiim iudiHliuRt; or, if thu uomea ui 
small an<l Hut, tfa« ruya may not b« convergent enough, and p<'rfe<;t vieiuu 
destroyed. In either oaoe the huree may unpteasaolly start, or suddenly 
and dangerously torn roond. An eye neither too promincnl nor too flnt 
will be noareat to perfertion. 

It should he perfectly tmnsparont. Any cloudiness or npnotyin tbo 
w— qttoaoe of diauuso. It i« an «xc«edingly fimi and donao meuibnue, 
and CMi aoarocly bv pierced by tbe abarpest inatnimcnt. Tbo (.■oniea ia 
oompoaed of many different pktea, laid over oue another; and between 
each, at least in a state of h^th, ia a fiuid that is tho canse of its Irans* 
pareooy, and the ev»potwtion of which, at>er death, ppoducca tho leaden 
or gWiad appearance of tho eye. AVhoa it appeare to Ixt opmine, it ia not 
often, and never ot Brat, that tho cornea has undergone any ohaqgeL 

Within tbe acleniticn, and connected with it by innumerable minnte 
fibrve and rossels, ia tho choroid tMi, J. It is a -very delicate mcmbtano,. 




and vxicaia orer nnirly tiic whole of the inLonuil part of the cje, &om 
the iipUo norvo to tJie conien. It scorutCH a <lark-ccilotirL-<l HiiMiaiice or 
piunt, bj' which it is ootcpgiI ; the iDtviitiou of whicli, like tlio inirido of 
our tolescopffl and mioroacopes, is probably to ahaorb Koy vrtuadcring tftys 
of lij^ht which nu^ht daxslo and confuse. The hhkck paiiiL, pii/nu-ntain 
nigruni, acoma pcrlcctly to dischar^ this rnnctlon in the haman ey«. It 
is plaued imiDudiatcly otiUiulo tliu retina or i-xpADiiioii of the optic nerve. 
Tho rayB of %lit fall on this rotiitii, find pi-iH>tnitinj» its tU'licnto snbstAnco, 
mro uamcdiiitvly ub«:>rlx.'d or dcntroyotl by the blniuk oovcrlae of thg cbo- 
Toidcs niidi^meatli. For the |>eHecUou of iiuiiiy of bis best pToasorc*. and 
parti(nilarly of hU inUtllectiml powers, man WnntB the Tivid iinpresKion 
whii^h will bo causud by thu tidmiBiiion of the r&TS of light into a perfectly 
d«rk chiuabor ; and when tho light of the son Dp^^ins to fuil, his anporior 
intclliRcucd hoa L^nnblcd him to dlncoTor rariouB mcthoda of sabstitiitui^ 
iin urtiSduI day. ui1(T ttiu nntarsl one ban closed. Other aninuiU, without 
lliis [lovrcr of kindling ajiother, although infmor light, liavn far mora to 
do with thfl night thim wo hapo. Many of them sileop throngh tlie glftro 
of day, and arc awako and busy dariu^ tho period of darkness. The OX 
occupies aorao hours of the niKut in prating ; the Bbcoji doee su when not 
ibldod ta his pc-n ; and tho hontc, worked dnriug the diiy fur onr cobto 
nisnoo and prolit, ha« u(\Ani littlo uiori< t^an tlie [luriod of night allotted to 
Um for nounMhomnt and rcposfr. It ia neccafarr then that, bj aomo 
pocoliu' knd adequate voulriviuice, these home nf oamDantire or total 
dftrknev to na should bt* partially yot sufficiently illuminated (br them ; 
and therefore, in tho horse, the dark- brown or black coat of the choi-oidea 
doGB not extend ov«r tho whole of tho internal purt of the eye, or rather 
it is not fonnd on uiy part on which tbo mya proceeding from the objc'ctd 
could fall. It duutt not occupy tho eiuallcst portion of wluit niny bo called 
tlw field of rtuon ; but, in its pliu:o, a bright nkriciratvd grivn is unread, 
called ths tapetnm lueultim, and moro over tliu up{>i-r pari than the lower, 
bocans« the atLimal'ii food, and th« olrjeoti which it in of conit»qacnoo for 
him to notice, arc osLUklly below tho level of hia hi.'ud — thntf, by solTrrinir 
Ihn iuipreHaioii to reuuun longer on the retina, or by some portion of light 
reflected from this Tariegated bed on which the retina reposes, or in some 
oAer inezpHcaUe bat tmcaent way, enabling tho animal, oven in compa> 
latire darnidBB, to pooeoM a powor of riaion equal to his wants. 

The reader may hm in tliu duak, or i^vcn. when dnakinem in fast yielding 
to nttsr dorkneH, the bcautJAil >»'n'gn«n rolloction from the eye uf tho 
3ieiM. It ia that hicid variegated car|)C't of which wo are now irpealdngr. 

Wbo is tmawore that in the fading glimmering of tbe erening, and erm 
ID tho darker ahodcs of night, liia horse can see snrronnding objects much 
better than his rider : and who, resigning liimsolf to tho gnidonro of Uiai 
BigacioiiK and faithful animal, has not bi'cn carried in safety to his joor* 
ney's end, when ho woald otherwiwi liavo Ix'en ulloriy bowiiderod ? 

If tho nndor has not examined this bcautifal pigment in tlie eye of tho 
horse, ho ihuuld take the earliest fl|>i>ortanity of doing so. He will haw 
a beautiful illustratiOD of the care wliicb that Being who gaye all Uiiii|^ 
life has taken that each shall bo litted for his aitnation. The horse liai vak 
the intoIhgenoQ of man, and may not want for an^ porpoeo of ploaanr* or 
improTeniciit the vivid picture of sarrooBdin^ objccte which the rctiaa of 
the human being prcsciitn. A thonsand minnte bat ccqnisito liettBtiea 
mmld be lost upon him. If, thttn^fnre, his seoaeof viiuon may aoi be 
90 strofng daring tho day, it is rondo np to him by the increaeed power of 
vimon io tie ni^ht. 

Perftotly white and cream-colonrod borsea have a peculiar appearance 
of the eyes. Tho papil is rod instead of black. There is no black point or 




lirilliant carpet. It is Uie clioroid i^oat itself wbicOi tre aco in tbrm, ami 
not its corerin^ ; uid tbe red oppenr&nco in oJiaitcd bj the oTuneroas blood- 
YC— el l whicL &ie foocd od every ]Mrt of tlutt cotU. 

Wben va baro to treat of uUier tlomoslic oninialA, we nhall aoe bow Uiis 
carpet b raried io colonr to salt tba utnatioa and nBcesnty of each. In tbe 
ox It is of a d»rL f^rpon. Ho bas not many enc^^s to ftar, or macb 
difficulty in scArching fur noanalimenti audtbo colooroftltooyo is adapted 
to hiB food. In tbv cut imd all bis vanetiw it it yellow. We Lave heard 
of the «yf« of tbe liou a|i}j(«riiig like two flaming lorcbes in tlie uwbl. 
Tbere are few of our readers wlta have not seen ttio tnune singular gWe 
ftiMD the «ros of the doneatio cat. In tbe wotf^ and likewise in the do^, 
wbo, in hw wild etatc, prowls diieSy at night, it is grcj. In the poor 
ttanwtly-pvrwcutcd badger, who aconely dAJcs to crawl forth at nigbt, 
shbongli 8helt«rvd by tliu tbickcBb darfaiMS, it is wbila ; and thi> fonvt, 
who in diMliiicd to hunt hin )ircy tlirongb all via windtn;; retreats, and 
in vliM wonid be to us absolute darlEQ«sfi, ba« no ndnt on the choroidca. 

Tncang tbe cborotdes towards the fore ]>art of the eye, we perceive tbat 
it is reflected from iha side to the edge of tbe lenit, n, and baa tbe appearw 
aiiooofWT«rBlpIait«orfoklj). Tlieyare aotnally foldings of the membrane. 
It i« not diminished in mm; hut it oaa loM ipwe to eovcr, luid tliort> tuiiHt 
be duplicatiuva or pUiitti. Ttiey arc mtefully employed in the plnvo in 
whicb we find Lhciu. Tbey iirovcttt the pnosage of any niyn uf liB;ht on the 
oulaidc of tho lens, and wbicli, jiroc'CL-ding forward in various directionfl, 
and oncondfiispd by tho punrcr of the lens, would render vision cunl'usod 
or imperfoet, Th'>»o fiilds of the choroidos «rc crIImI tlio eiHartf j'rotfjitts, 

OccBpying tbe foio )»irt of tbo eye, is tbu aijutotm huviour, j, no termed 
from ita retR'mhIiuicv to pun.' walvr. It in tluit by nhioh tbeoonica is pre- 
mrrcd in itii nrolDberaut and rounded form. It extends to the ci^'Malline 
lens, y, and therefore a portion of it, nitfaoagb a verv small one, is behind 
tke iria. Floating iu tbia lluid ia a tacmbr&ne, wit'h au oblong aperture, 
oaQed the Iria (m, p. 160). It is that wbicb ritcs colonr totfae eye. The 
hnwiaii ojfe 11 SBtd lo bc block, or bnzvt. or bluii, acroirting to tbe colour of 
tUs memtvaiie or curlmin ; and it is deiinmiiifitvd the iris, or raiiiltow, 
from its bcnntifnl, intermingling Iiucjii. Tho colonr vnriea littJe in tha 
borac, except tliut it always warn some analogy to (bat of tbe itkin. We 
rmly «ee it lighter than a bnzcl, or darker ihan a brown. Honws per* 
feetljr white, or cieam-coloured, havp the iris white and the pupil red. 
VTbra horses of other I'oluurs, luid liiat *tv uxually pii-d, have s white irie 
and a hl«ck pupil, tbry arc «aid to be niill-^eii. Vulgar opinion bofl 
ilc<cidud that n v^'all-eyeil hunto is iicrer anlijuct to blintiuvea, but this is 
altogether em«n-f >ua. There is no difference of stmcture tliat can pn»duto 
this exemptiou ; but tbo wall-eyod horaw, from this idnfruhir and unjilensant 
appeatuice, and bis frequent want of brt^cding, mny not bo so mmdi osed 
and exposed lo manv of the unual coueea of iutlammntion. 

The nperturw in tho iris is tvrnu'd tlio jru/ni, and through it light piuutes 
to tbe iimi-r rhunilicr of the ey«. The pupil is oblong, nnd variable in 8it«. 
It diffem with tlio intensity or do^e of bght llmt fulls upon the eye. In 
a dark stable the papil is cxpandod to aomit a gnwt jiroportion of tbe 
light that falls upon tbe cornea : hut when tbo horse is brou}:ht towarda 
tha door of tbo stable and more light ia thrown upon the eye, tbe pupil 
oontnwjts in order to keep out that extra cmanUty vrUich would Ih.* iiainfiil 
to tho aniinal, and injuHnus to vision. W hen opposed directly to tiie sun, 
cbo apcrtnro will almost cluao. 

This alteration of form in the pnpil is effected by tbo muscolar fibres 
that enter into the composition of the iri.n. Then: are two orders of tliess 
fibres, tho circular and tho stmight or radiating. Whoa tbe circular fibrea 




act, tiip nopillary opoiiing is eIo<ii^ly contnwtptl. hftvinR tho appcnmnco of 
anineloliQc: irhcn, dd the ix>ntmrv, tlio rndintiti); tiVirs arc t>roii|fht 
ink) adJun, the papil la ( Uf i(» |^ru^U-»t rxk^iit. A xtning light 
iiicltic«( the action of the fortnor, in lettwii Utt effloct^ nnd n dim li^ht tlie 
latter, to admit the greatent poaaible qnanlity of it. The liRht, however, 
does not act on the iris Hmu, but on tho optic norrc, and it ta from a 
reflected action fVom tlio brain that the muscalar power of tiic iria is 
mflnctinTd. The motionii nf (liu iri» nru not at all arnuTr the contntl of the 
wilt, ii«r in tho aTiiinnl Kfiutibln of tliem. Thej ar« pro(liKM>d hy ii}iii|in(lij- 
with tho state of the retina. When, howerep, a deficient portion of liffbt 
rcachea the retina, aud vioiou is indistinct, wo Brcoousdonsof an n|>]>arcnt 
oRbH to brin^ Ibo object moit] elmrly into tictv, nnd tlic fibrcB then coo- 
triet, and the apertora vuhirtfrx. and more lij,'hl. in a<lni itlrd. 

ThlsdilftbUioii or ooTitT«(-tiriit of the pupil f^vca a UKt^fnl im'tho<) nf 
nAC«rtaimng the cxiatence of blindnesB in one eye or in both, llift 
cornea and cryfitalline lens remain pcrfcctlj- tmneparcut, bat tho retina in 
palsied, and in not aifcctod by li^ht ; atid munr persona 1i»vc been deeeiv<?«l 
wht'H blindness of thiis dcsrnptiim hit* 1x'i,ti rfiiifinril to onr vye. A horse 
blind in lioth eji'H will ti«iiAlly hava hiH ears in eoiifltant and rajiid motion, 
directing them in quick sneceseion to every qnarter. ilo will likcwim> 
bang Mck tn hin halter in a peculiar way, and will lifl his feet hig^h as if 
he were atepping over bodid obstnclc, when tbrrv is actuallT notlung to 
obetimct his pasBagc, and Xhen will be nn (>riil<^iit nncf/rlairily in tbe put^ 
ting down of hi« foot, In blindneaa of one eye little or nothing of tliia 
chanctoristic g^it and maimer can be perceived. Attlion^h a onc-cyed 
hone may not be absolutely condemned for tho ooniraon bniiiimMa of tho 
carriage or the road, he is f^ncnilly clelerioriiLtcd as a bnntcr, for he can- 
not measure his diatanc«-K, and will riui into biiilnijK. Many a aportionaa, 
ptizzled and an(rrj "t thp iiDddon blnndoringof hinhorec, or injured by odd 
or mora stunning; fulU, has found a very natural although anexpert^l 
cx|ila(iiitinn of it in the blindness of one ev^, and that porhapa prmlncvd 
tliroDgh hia own fanlt, by over riding his willing and exedlent servant and 
4tftTiMng a detomunaliun of b1oo4l U> llin nyo, which proved fatal to th«> 
doKcoSe te»tnw» of the retina. Kren for thf oanHai;e or the road fan is 
ootaaidcTably deteriorutcd, for his field of obacrration mnat bo materially 

Let the size of buth pupil* bo cikrc^ftilly notieed beforo the horao in re- 
moved frwm tho atablp, and, aa he is led to the door, obscrvo wheth<rrthoy 
both contivct, and equally ao, with tho increaao of light. If tho bono 
aliould bc! firat seen in the open air. let it be otwirrcd whether the pupita 
are precinely of the Bomo size ; and let the luuid Iw placed over ea^-b cvo 
alternately and held there for a little wbiln. and let it l>o obaerred whetJiVr 
thepapil dilate* witli the abstraction of light, nntl equally in each eye. 

HaocriiifC from the tipper cdce of tho pupil of the horso, nrv two or thrro 
roond Dbck BubfltaDOCe, as large as miltot seeds, i-ulled the ci'rpora niirra. 
Wlien the horse ia anddenly bnmjrht intu an intcniie liglit. and tho pupil ia 
closed, they pr^Hont a aingular appearanee, an they nre pressed ont from 
iHTtwiTn tlie edges of the iris. An e<jHal number, bnt mnch ainaller. are 
•tlaehcd lo the edge of the lower portion of tho irij". Their general uno ■• 
probably to intercci>t laya of liglit which would W Inrobleiiorie or ii^nri- 

attnlinted to the cyclasheit, "R , to obstruct the light in thusc dirpetiona 
In whi^ it nould cooio « ilh grcatcat force, both froui above and even Cnok 

■. ■ •! . .■* 



belnw, Trhtlo, at the mmm titnr, th<^ fioW of view is perfectly open, bq faroa 
it n-(n>'^» tl"-' pasture on nlticli tkc horac is ^razinf;. 

In (>or cut m g^ires a dnpttrAlDru of the iris, or tho back fnirrai.-« oT it, 
Thiii U called the viva, xaa it is covered with a thick cuat of hlack tnuciis, 
to arrt^st the rays of lii*ht, and io prermt them from ont«nnfc the ej-o in 
any otb«r way tJia.i llii<oiiKh the popi). Tho colour of llie iri» in, in Boioe 
nnknoim my, connected with this Mack point behind. Wall.«^c4l horses, 
whoMS iru w whito. hare no uvea. 

We now arrive at a Uwly on which all tho important nws of the eys 
mainir depend, the eiygtalline htu, g, p, 160, »o callod from it* r««omb)anc9 
to a piece of cryetal, or ttaaspanat kIam. It ta of a jieldiug jvUy-Ukc roa^ 
siatcncc. thicker and firmor towards lh« omtre. ana convex on tat-h Mido, 
but more convex »n the poKtcrior than the anterior side. It is encloacd in 
a dtiUcato Cnuuiparent bag or eaptnh, and is placed l>etwcoa the aqneoua 
and thfi vitreous bamoors, and recei\-ed into a hollot*' i& tJio viti«oua 
huoonr, with which it pxactly corroapondo. It has, fWfm tie density and 
Ita donblo convexity, tho chief conciTm in converging the rays of light 
wliicli pa«s into the pnpil. 

Behind t4ie kna. and occiipjing fonr-fifthx of tho cnvi^ of the eye, is th« 
n|rv(M< Adm^Mir (eloiwy, or reac-mbling glata). It accms. when first takt-n 
from Uie eye, to be of th« «oiuiaieDice of a jelly, luid of Wantifnl trans* 
parency ; bat if it is pimctnred a flnid escapes from it ax limpid and »» tliin 
aa water, and when this has bevn snlTon-d compk-tely to oose out, a tisffno of 
tbin transparent mrrnbrnnooun bngit or oelU rcmnin«. The fUremtt liumomr 
oooetsta of a watery tluid contained in thew celis ; bnt tho fluid and tlw 
cella form a Imdv of cotiuderabiy greater density ilian the a<[ueoOH flnid 
in Iha fVont of the eye, 

Laat of all, between the vitrtota hnvwur and tlio rkaroitl Axii, is tho 
rtHta,o,p. 100, or net-like membrane. It is an expnnsion of the vubvtanco, 
tic ncTTc. When that nerve lias rcnclicd the buck of the eye. and 
thnm^fh tlic sclcmtic and chnniid cnttl.s. it Brrt cnlarnes into a 
white pTTiniiiic-iieo, from wliit-h rndiaitotui or expansions of nervona 
matter proceed, whieli apread over the whole of the choroid oont, and form 
tho thtnl invcfitment of tho eye. The utciabnuie by wbicb tliis nervous 
pnip vi supported, is so exceedingly thin and delicate, that it will tcarwilh 
thu aliahtefit touch, nnd break even with its own weight. The incmbrane 
and the piilti or^' imrfctitly tmnHparr^nt in the living nntmnl. The ptlpil 
appears to Im bhiek, l^ecaiise in the daytime it imperfoetly reflects ttie 
cotoarof tliccliuroid ooat beneath, In tLedu^k il t»grveuinh,l>ccDQse,tbe 
glarv of dny being removed, the actnni green of tlie pnint appears. 

On this expnnsion of nervous pnlp, the rtys nf ligfit from mrroundinff 
objects, eoodenscd by tlio hnis and tlie bimiouni, fall, nnd prodnHng a 
cvrtaiu imaf>e correnjionding with these objccta, the animal is cooacions of 
tlieir exisu-ncc and jjreHcnce. 

It may. howev<7r, no happen that from Cho too great or too tlMIc con- 
vexity o'f the eye or a portum of it. tho place of moat distinct riaiou may 
not be immediately on tho mttna, but a utile before or behind it. Jnpro. 
portion aa this is the ca*e, the sight will be indistinct and imperfect ; nor 
ahall we be able to ofl'or any renii^ly for this ilrfrrt of sight. There is a 
sAyMjr. nfleii tlie re«nilt of cowardice or playfulnoHs. or want of work, bnt 
at other times proving, beyond cmitrndiction, a defect of aipht even moro 
daDgvroaa than blinduess. A blind horao will resign himaelf lo the guid- 
■uic« of his rider or driver ; but against the misconception and <ttartiitg of 
a Khyinglionw there is no dcfrnee. That horses gitjw ahy as thry prow 
old DO one aeenntumwl ti> Ihi-ni will deny ; and no intelligent pvrNon will 
be alow in attHbating it to the right cause — a dccny in tho organ of viaioit. 


—a losB of roavexitj in the pj'p, k'SBPiung ihv ronvfi^iiry of Uie rayii, 
and tliniwing Uie parfdot imaffilicyoiHi, und not on tlxtn-tiiiA. 'nicrvtoft 
atrilanj;; lUHiToneo in the convexity of iJio cornea in tlip colt and tlie old 
homo ; itnd boili of ttiein, probubly, may f<hy i'wia u[>))ojiilc c»ueit.-H — tlio 
one fnim a corneft too prominont, iwid the oilier from onp loo flat, hi iho 
HkqbI examination of ttie borsp prtmously to piirc:luu)i>, !SiLlliL'i(>i)tBttenlioD 
ifl not nlwnys piiid U) the cmivoxity of Uio coni«». 

TLa remedy for shying tvill be considered when we speak of the viets of 

Than is a provision yet wanting. The liorso Ijas a very exteadeA field 
of Ti«w, but many pereons aro not poHiapfi awaiv tiow Uttlo of it Uf imn 
oonunand at a time. T>ipw' in irnt cini- of niir ifiiuiors who cun make out a 
aiiiele lino of our trvativo witboul cliii'ii^iiK the direction of the oyo. It i» 
cnnoaa to follow thv motion of thti fVfH of n miiiil riNitlcT. Nature has 
givan no leu* than seven muscles to tnc borse, in ordpr to turn Ihis liltlo 
But important orgnn ; and tlmt tlioy may aot trith sufiiciciit pow<T im<I 
quidoieeH, no fowci- than six npi-rcd are diroctefl in tlio innsclos of tfic vyv 
SieoemUy, or to norticulu- ont»— whik thu eye rests on a mass of fat, tluit 
it may he tnmra with Uttlo exi'Hion of power, and without IrictioD. 



"<■ ,"' 




nuve aro fonr Etmighl muttcles, Uiref of which, <t, c. and f, are repns 
mtodiD onr cut, riaiiig from the back of the orbit, and inserted into tho 

ball of tho eye, opposit* to and 
at equal di«t«4icca from each 
other. Onts d, runs in the uppcr 
part of the eye, jnjtl iHibind tho 
truuparvnt and vioibla portion 
of it, and its uffico in clearly to 
nuAo the eye. Whnn it coutraote, 
iho cyv imut ho drawn apward. 
Ajiotliur, /, in in»urtt>d exactly 
opposite, at the bottom of tbo 
eye ; and it« uflicc in iw clearly 
to depress the eye, or oiiablo thu 
animal to look dnwiiwanls. A third, e, is inserted at the outer comvr.aud 
by means of it tho vyu is tumoil uutwartl, and fruin the aitnation of thu 
eye of tho horte, coniidciahly backward ; and the fourth is insortod at tlio 
tuner corner, turning the eye inward. They can tJius rolnto or turn the 
aye in any tliivctiuu t]ic animal wishes, and by tho nirtion of onv, or the 
omnbi&ied power of any two of them, the eyo can he immediatvly and 
aoovstely directed to every Doinl. 

Tliose muscles, however. Lave onothct' duty to diacharfi^. They sup- 
port the t-yo in if« place. In the naool position of the hcn^ of the oorae, 
Uipy inoKt hi' to a ci-i-lain degree employed for tin* puqKi»i> ; hnt when he 
is gni2in){ or tecding, the prinoipol weight of the eye nmtH upon tluin. 
Another muacle is therefore added, pevoliar to quadrapeds, called the 
refmcfor (drawer'back), or the fMpeiwimw (nujwMory) muscle, y. It 
ariam from the edge of tlie fbminca through which the optic ner\'c cntera 
tho orbit — iturrouuds the atsrr» aa it proceeds forward, and then, partially 
dividing into four portioiui, i« attached to tho hack part of tlio oyo. Its 
oG&ce ie evidently to anpport the eye geavrally, or, when suddenly called 
into powprfnl actian, nnii amriirttrd hj the atraight muttckit. it draw* the eye 
hack out of tho reach of tfaroateniag damer, and iu the act of dmwiii([ it 
tack eausea the haw to protrude, na an additional defence. 



Tlie poller of this masclo ia ven.' ^QO-t. It K-ndt'ru unmn onorfttioii* on 
Uio cjc ftlmcfit unpoBsiUe. Jt is au adiuirabk- subslilutc- lor uu) wunt of 
liADtls, to dcfoiiil the vyo from many tiling's tiiut won! J Injuro it; and, 
Ijiauf; piirtiftlij' HejMuutvtl into fbur divisiunfi, !t aAsibU thesCraighlmusale*' 
in liinunx tbc oyi*. 

Tbeae mnadeA di«cl)iirgv unothor uad a most imporUuit olHcc, If wo 
exatniBe near and dutuut ubjooU tbronjcb a tolcacupv, we mnitt aJtvr Iha 
fuou : i. o. we miut increase or diminish tlio leii^li of die tube. Wo muHt 
xbortea it & little when we eianuue distant objeota, becsuM the rays, coming 
tons from t1i«m in a It-es diverg;eiitdirectioo, are Boonarbrongbc to anoint 
by the power of the lent;. Thu» tlio ttRught u>d roinctor mu»olva ar»w- 
iag baclc tlio vyu, anil farcing' ib apon the substanoD bc^ntL snit in » sligLt 
degree flatteaing it, bring the Itoui Deaivr to the retina, and ftdapl the eye 
to tile obfierratioD of distant objects. 

Still, boworcr, being coiiiriantly omployed in sapporting the weight of 
iJic eye, thvHo muaclcs maj not be able to turn it bo nLpidly and to cxtcn- 
srrety aa the wishes or wuntA of the animal raqmrui tht^rcroro two otbere 
are superadded which are uar'd Nolcly in turning thu «^'e. Thi-y ari4 cnlleil 
oblique muacles, bei^nuse their conrso is obliquely across the eye. The 
nppcr ono is most purionsly consti-ncted, a, h. It tfomea from tli© back 
part of the orbit, und takvs a direction upwards and towards the inner aide, 
" there, just midcr the nilgu of the orbit, it paasca through n pcrfoci 
pulley, and tiirnicig routul, proceedft acroKii the eye, uudt-r the 
Ion of the upper Ktraigbl nauaclo, and i» inserted mther bevond tho 
tnidd]« of the eye, lowartLi the outer side. Thus the glol)0 of the eye is 
erideatly directed downwards and outwatdH. SomothinR more, however, 
ja accompli idled by this ungnlar mcchnni^^ttn. llio eycis naturally dc<Tp in 
it« orbit, that it may bo more porfectly di.'fcRdod ; but it may bit nrccKimry 
occasionally to bring it forward, and ml.irgn tho Held of visinn. The oyo 
is actuaOy protruded under the influcni-u of fi'tu-. Not only uru the lid« 
upooed more widclr, Imt the oyn is brought mon? forward. How ia thi.H 
soootDptiBhed ? Tnorc are no mosclea anterior to or befcire the eye — tbcro 
is no place for tb(>ir insertion. The object is readily ei1bul«d by this sin- 
l^lnr puUej, e. By the power of this mnscliy, — the troahlearis, or puUey- 
raiuelc — ami the sbnight muAck^ at tho same tim«notoppo8iogit.orunly 
rvgnlatiiig thtt direction of the vyi-, it ix really hronghtaomcwlwt forward. 
The lower ofaUi^ne mnscle mes just within thu lachrymnl bone (>, p. It^fi), 
ami, proceeding across the eye, is fixed into the part of the sclerotica op- 
poeito to the other oblique mu&cle, and it turns the eye in a contrary 
direction, atuiisting, howurar, thcnpporobliquoin bringing the eye forward 
from i(s aochet. 




W» hftTc now aj-rived at a coavcuiecit restioK-placo in our eomowhat dry 
but ne^wiary dt-acription of tJic structure of aic horse, and wo willingly 
torn to more practira] matter. Wu will constdor the iujnries and dinaaea 
of the parts wu hare i>uri'4Tyed. In entering, however, on this division of 
oar work wc would promiao, that it is impoEsible for us to give the farmer 
nob aa account of the nature and treatnioat of the dlfi«ases of hozatia 
■a w31 enable him with safety to pmd^BO for himself, exc«pt in the corn* 

monest ouinl T[i<! cnusen of most diac&scs »ro so obscunt, (Junr RymptoiiiB 
ftn variable, and tlieir (ronncction with other niahuli«« to complicated and 
mj-storions, that n life duvoted to prorossii'iiii-1 ftluily will aloni- qtialifj a tnan 
t» became a jndicioua and taoccMliil pmcti tiotif r on the difioasca oi' the bono 
and other dom(-atit! iinimald. Our «bj<-ct wiU ba U) commuuicatv auflioivul 
iiatnirtitm to tlm fiiniier to enable bitu to act with promptness and jnclg- 
mont whcH ho cannot obljiin professional aMistaniw, toqualify him to form 
a «tttisf(w1ory opinion of tho ekitl of th« vcl^rinwy siurpiiin whom ho 
may i^iiuploY, aud, nioro espcciallv, to divest liim of tliipae &tmn|^ and 
nbnird prajudiccs which in a variety of cnsoa not only produou and proluug 
diaoasB, but bring it to a fatal terminatioti. 

coactTssioM or ths krajx. 

Thia consists of a «nddftn intorrnpUon of t)in funotione of tho brain, 
fHHUKd by tome mvchanival injury U> Lho livad, MUrh iw a fikll or nolcui 
blow, not oecemorily act-oiniwuiiNl by atructurul injury to Oie limin itwlf. 
It ia ftwjnently produced by the horse rearing and falling backwnnln, 
bmcing the head with great violonco to th« f^round, or by the nninial 
raaaatg away and th« head oomin^ in contact with a wn.ll or eomo hard 
Bubstancc. AAcr tli» injury, tlio unimn! gcnt^nilly lica motionlcaa antl in- 
M'neihic, anil may contimic i*o fnim a fuw miuutca to halfnii hour. Wlicti 
in tliix Hlata, lio «hould lie allowed to remain for a time without hn'in^ ilts- 
turhwi, and, in moRt cases, senmbitity will qiiicfcly return. TUo animal 
having riseo, should be removed into a well ventilated but Rotucwlint ditrk 
stable. He ahonld be kept for a Tow (Inyn perfoctly qnirt: a do§e of pur- 
BStive medicine HhoulJ bo given, and hiit diet consist of soft foods, Eueh as 
bma-maah— when, if no other ttymplonui show themsclvee, ho may )>u 
coDsidcn^d con^-alMCwnt. The moet airioun re»u]t« whidi eomotimcs follow 
this.injury of t\w lirain, arv Fmciurtt of tin' Itoiu^ of tlio skall, or mpture 
of soine liirg^i vt«M--l connected with th« braiu. 

FBSssnE ov TBS Bunr. 

Bydfttids aro oUcu found within thti rcitniifcl cavity, and lyinic npon or 
Imbedded in the hrvin of oxen and Hhcejj. Tht>ir eiiitbTico is usually fatal 
to the animal. There is no well-authenticated account of the cxittvnoo 
of an hydittid in tKo enuial cavity of iho hontc ; but oysU, oontauung' 
• aoKnu or viscid daid, urc oocasionally observed. The followiuir ia Ihn 
hifbaiy of tmr : — A horse exhibited »3nn|)tonis of vortigo, or stafff^m, 
which disappeared alter copious hlocHling ami piirgalivc^. AI>uot Iwolvu 
months aflenrarda the same eomplaint was evident. Ho cnrriiwl his head 
low and inclined to th« rjgbt side. He staggered aa he walked, and tho 
motion of liis limbs was marked by a peculiar action, conitDed to tho fore 
•xtniniliiii. lUi movwl by a Kiicwwion of spasmodic boundingn. Ho 
was complet^dy d(«f ; and ruptdly lo« lleHh, although he ato ana drank 
TOracioasly. He remained in this Btnt<>, to tUo Aiming of tJtc owner aod 
the pmotitioner, nevcnil months, and Micu he hod a frvnh altuck of vertigo, 
and died Huddcnly. On examination of the braia, its mrmtmmiii were 
foand to be completely n-dih-ni-d ; and between the two lobes of the brain 
was a round cyst ax large aa a pullet's rgg. The prcssnra of this waatlio 
tuiuiifest eauae of ihc mlfichief. 

Tbia may also bo prodnceil by 3<om«' fluid tbmwn out 1>ctwcm Oie mem- 
bnuica, oroocnpying and diatendinc the ventricles of the brain. lu the 
ftiU-^Kiwn faorso it rarely occurs ; but it Ih well known to bmedeni as an 
octtMoaal diMwan of tho foal, nnder thp name of * water in the head * — 
bydreocpbalus. Tbo head is cither much enlarged, or slrangely deronaod. 



9T0MACR Bt.WOTBS. 169 

or bofli ; ODd the aniiiiBl din, citbar in t^ buih, or s few imya alter it. 
A miic}] more oomtnOQ muc of pnanuv on the bniin arisen &atB fractare, 
ivitb dppnwiion of the bone; when aa aoeidMit occnra eitbivfioBsfiilloF 
m blow, and it is followed hj on immedutit ttnte of rtapor or iBHOcibilitj, 
this will be fbnad lo be tho case, umI a careful exAmisAtkOD of the cxaninm 
will at aocQ detect it; or tctj Qeorlr as rapid a state of atnpor may 
maperxtsMi whm. from the aocideott a Uood-rMad is raptored, ana effiuiua 
of Uood OB the eurfaoo of the brain foDows. 


Dndfx this head three varieties arc fitmiluu-lj known : via., Stomach 
Staggera, Sleeps Stagiren, and Mad Staggers. They all more or l»ui 
able each other, ai&riti^ oolj in th^ degree of riolencc, and the 
I in OpcntioD to produce tb<«a. 


Ab the name indicatea. is gsnenUj prodaced bj some denm^ment of 
the digestiro or^n«, eonneqnrat upon Aom« miscianaj^iiniffnl either in the 
feeding of the ftainud or in the uatnrc of the food upon which he baa boea 
Sad. When thn lion>e ha^ bn-n ke^t forttome honn witlmut cntin^, and has 
hcan workw! hani, and become ihoronchly bnnjiiy. he feeds mrKuoiisly on 
Of«7 kind of food he can get at. Ewallotringit fafilcTthBH his small Btootach 
cui digvet it, and no watt^r lM*in|; ^ven to fH>ftcn itnd ha«tvn its pn— w^ 
the atotnacb become* cmnuoed, aiid having been prcvionaljr exhausted by 
hmtf iheting. in nonblt^ to coittmct upon ita oontente. The Ibod Bocm licvinii 
tit fWnnent and to swell, causing great di&tetuiion ; the bratii •jnupalhiaea 
with thin overloaded organ, and ataggors are produced. We can casiljr 
ima^^ao this, when wo r^imemlx^r the end hoftd-aohcs occMtonally arising 
frncn an overfilled and disordered etomaich. 

Thif) diacaaeia foondiDore freqacntly in the stable of the potttnuutter and 
the farmer than anjwhere •!•». Thirty- yt^u* a^ it wm tlio vkjj pest of 
these stable*, and the Iom nutaincd b^ some persons wan enormons ; bnt* 
afl Tvtctinary Kcieaoe pr ogr c a oe d, the nature and the eatuca of the discMo 
wcfv lictter umleratood, and there is not Dov one case of staggcra wh<:n) 
twmty used to occnr. 

The 9^em of homo mansgenunt is nov essentislly changed. Shorter 
■tagv*. t^ divinon of the Uhoorof tbedaj, and a nfficimt interval for rest, 
Md for feolinK, huvo, coiii|»ratively aucakinjf, bauishcd ricmach ttaggers 
from the stuhk-H of Die postmaster. Tho di^'ision of the monung and 
afternoon bilwur of the brmer's hor«e, with tho introduction of that 
simple hat inraluable contrivsncc, iAe nv^-ha^, havinp rendered thin dis- 
ease oomimattvcly rare in the establishment of the agricultarist. To the 
late Professor Coleman wo are indebted for some of thcee most important 

Old horses are more anbfect to staggers than yoong ones, for the stomach 
haa IxMwmc weak by the repetition of thu abuses just described. It haa 
soi poorer to digest and expel the food, and thus beoomes a source vt 
geoeml. and particularly of <;<Tn'l)ml, distartmncc. 

HoTses at ^ws are oti-asionally attacked by this dbenae; bnt t3)ey sro 
nmenilly poor, hani- worked. half-Htarred animals, turned on rich(>rpa«taro 
Vblut their impaired digestive organs arc eqnal to. Perhaps the woather is 
liot. and tho Bym[)ethv of the brain with the ondue labour of the Htomach 
is more caaily cxciu-d, tuid a determination of blood to the bmin mora 
rcndily effet-te-l. 

Mr.' Percivall given a vory sntiflfaetory illustration of the prodoction of 
staggers in tliia wi>y. He inyt* (Knt ' wlivn his father first entered, tho 



««mee of Uto Ordtmnw, it was the CDstom to tarn horsM wliicli bad 
Iteaome low in condition, but wvre stil) we^II np<>n timir li>gs, Inlo tlie 
mtirebes, in onlor to recruit their stron^th. I>nrinff tho mouthH of JdIj*, 
An)^al, and Hcptcmbcr, nothing wna more coiDmon thiiii nn uttsck of 
ttB^g9n among Uiesu Iiorw«, «nd wliich vma natuniliy iitt.nt)tit<Lv3 tn the 
Inxomnt jnaturo Utey woro tamed into, combined with Iho di'iKiiidvot 
poRtari> of tliii head, and the iraltiT hemt to whicb thev wc-re expoced.' 

Wlivn the horse ia attacked 'wita stomach Btajr?oi-». liogpuontljappcsn 
dull and sleepy, standing wiih tin hcod hanging down, and sapponed liy 
the manger, or poshed forw'iird a{»!»in*t the wall, hmathiiig hoaiTlr. willi a 
nlow, oppn«sed pnlso, bowel* oonslipnted and ulxlomtTn rnHjiipnily dlg- 
Ufidcd. Uc Bl«ep« or eeenu to do so, as he etandii, bein^ i>ai-th' uucon- 
Mtioiwof DurroundingobjeCita. When aroas<^^ hewiU look Mivaiiil y ftronnd, 
(terhapR seiu) a lock of luij, and doz« Hpiin with il in his mouth. Ho may 
DOQtinae in tliis Ht»t«> for srwrvl davK, iiiiil will i>itlii>r lx>^in slowly to 
rivwTfr, or tlio imnptoiiut will take a inoT« vioimt furm mid trrminato 
L-itbvr in apoplexy or phrenilio. In rt*gard to tbo trcMtmcnt, it will bo 
tM'ccssary for the owner or the Teferi nary attendant to institotti very caiv- 
tii\ iuqniry, or be will not detect the real caosea of tlio diseaae. Dom it 
arise from improppi' mana^enieut, to which thahoTse has been in a manlier 
habitaat^d ? UAd hci lM>cn snhjectod to lon^ laltoar nnd bating, and bad 
then the opportQtiily of ^Ttag to cxcmit ? Did it proccf.-*! from accidoatAl 
repletion — from the auiniul having got loooe in the nieht. und found out 
tlio com or the chuiT bin, and filled himself almost to burNting ? TliBro 
ia nothing in the appearance of the animsl which will lead to a discovery 
of the oaau — uo yuUownoes or Iwitcliiiti^a of tlio sidn, no local swcUtncs, 
aa eoma Have doecribcd ; but the practitioner or tho owner must get at Uie 
fjuth of the mattor dm well aa he can, and then proeewl accontingly. 

Our hrst olgwi, then, should be to rcmovo if possible the canaos in 
OpOFration prodacing this disease, and with thia view larg« do«ee of 
otcaginOQB pargatirea should bo administered, and repeated orcry aia 
hoora, and auriug the internal a stimulant, aocb as the aromatio Kpirit of 
ammonia, given in Urge quantities of water : clrsters alao of soap and wann 
irstor should he freanently adminiatored, ana all food removed from the 
aaimal. Should (his treatment faaTO the dcsiivd offoot and the Iioree 
hc^ to exhibit ngns of retnming conftrionsnetw, he riionld be kept oaiet 
for a tinu*, care bang taken to keep the bowela (Vecly open, and nolliing 
Imt aoft and eaaily digeflLtblo food allowed him. If any stwrgaring Temnina, 
a blister shonld be applied at tho back of bis bend. When etiffi«ently 
ifcovercd he may be tamed out with odrontege on rather bare paatorv. 
One circumstance, howcrrr, iih<^uld never be fnr^t4cTi. thiit the horae who 
has once been attacked with xlaggera U liable lo nrelumof the oomplaint 
from cauaee that wonld not otherwiiie affect bim. Ijot no &nnoT clehide 
himaolf with tho idra that stomach Ktaggers i§ oontngiouj. If his hoisea 
bare occasionally slitrht Ute of staggers, or if the diseaae carries off sennl 
at them, bo may bo son? there is something wrong in his management. 
One horse may got at the com-bitt and cram himself to bnreting, but if 
•evoral am attacked, it ia time for the owner to look about him. 


Although this disease much rt-acnil'lt-a stomach staggers in its general 
BJuwaatars, it cannot be traced to the same canae, rir.., denngement of ttie 
dJ(^atiY» DTvans, bst ia genemliy couaidered to be a priwaty disoase of 
the biain. The sjrmptonis are much the samo as in stomach staggers, tho 
animal ^ipearing dull and sleepy, pushing his hood forward in a pmmlittr 
r™""*^ against the wall or manger, act however with so much force as in 








tiuii cUbcom. When ATOUfied Iit some sttdden naua, ha storis np in a sloto 
of &Unii.iM)pearing fHehteaed, looka up, and perhapn recngnwoB tliOMDew 
hiui, and tlicii rolapsos into bu former Ktate of stanor. Tbn pulxa ifi iilov 
Kcd oppresaed, with tho rmpimtion bboarcd. Ifao stomacli fi-OfjuenUy 
contoiua l^ni littlo fouil. luid nO duknsioQ of thu a'bdomcn ia ureseal. By 
wa; of trratmnit n full duw ofaloefl, in camtunniion witti cuonwl, sboiira 
be (^ven, nuil a blister at onca applied to the tipp<*-r and back pu-t of the 
bead. Thfi nnimal in the meantime ehoiUd be Icept perfoctiv (loiet, and 
aUowud noUiinf bnt soft food, gnch aa bnin>ina«h, Jk. to «•(. Sliuald thu 
sjrmfrtoma not pasa off in a £avr days, «a atiook of phrenitis will generally 


JLltbODgh apoplexy is a disoaao Bomcwbat rare in tlie horse compared 
with man, it mach rcscinblca it in it^s generally fatal termination, it de< 
peada upon boioe tmduu prcssoiv on the subetancc of thu brain, and may 
rmtlt Ibotn wvi-ml caaa(.-s, tiucb tut tunioura |)rFSHing on tlio brain, fi-actnre 
and depmaitiuu of bone, or rupture of itoin« bloixl-vf xsei, niid oxtru\'aaition 
of Mood, oithcr tiio r«aiilt of injury, such aAconcuRiiioii, or anti t<'nninntiun 
of a tiODgeitled state of the reesels of the brain. Apo)>l«xy aa rcsuHuig 
fn>iu tilt; last-njiitied canse is the fgrm in which vo most comnooly uneel 
with ihe diaeue in the horse, being g(.-ncra11y a tcrminatioi] of stomach 
BlagBere. Tho n'mpioms will di'peud U|K)n tJio akus« in operation. When 
apopioxy is pro<Cnne<l by frncturo and dcprc^ioti of bono or tho sudden 
ruptorv of eomc blood-vesael, tho resalt of violeiioe, tho symptoniH will 
iinmcdiut«;Ir follow tlu) injunr', bnt whan itia produced by the pTiag wav 
of tho prenoosly congested bluad-rossolB, we ubto aanaUy eome premoni- 
tory aymptoms. Those will bu found dv«cribeil iiinlor stumuch Btng^ra, 
and luay coatinno for somo dnys, when they saddipnly a«snmc a more 
■K-riuus chancter. 

The animal, which htta hitherto been only in a portly nnconscionii stato, 
will now bo found jierfectly intiensible ; the eye o[)eii*, but it lins un un- 
meaninf; glare : the Land ia moved before Itim, but the eye oImo* not ; 
bo ia spoken to, but he hears not. 

Ht! now hegiuH to foam at th« month. His brcatliing ia laboriona and 
loud. It is performed by tlie iiidiitmcc of the origanic nerrea, and those of 
animal life no loiigiir loud their aid. Thu pulso ia slow and oppreHsM — 
the mu/jclc is cold, and rbc diaehai-go of the Gocca invotnntnry. lip gi-indit 
Lis Ivvth^lwitoiuji^ uteal over hin face and attack hiit limbu— tbcy »umv 
timcw proceed to convnlaions, and dreadful onca too, in whieh tho homo 
beata himself about in a terrible manner ; bnt there ia rarely diiposition to 
domisc-hiof In tho groater number of coaaa thaw ooavnlaions last not lon^, 
Tbo last net of voln&taiy motion which ho will attempt ia niaally to drink ; 
bat he has little power over tliu miidclea of declatition, and the fluid ro- 
tnnii tlirough the noatrila. All tbo powers of lifb aro oppressed, and death 
Kpecdily closea the scene. 

Little can tw hoped from tho treatment of apoplexy, as in moat cnaos all 
OUT efforts will lail in affording rvbvf. If thcru bo timu for modJcal tncat- 
ment. onr first trlTurt should bo to prevcut iuflatumatioii, and i}roonro 
absorption of the extravosated blood. Copious bleeding, therefore, trom 
the jugnior vein, to the extent of soven or eight quarts, sbonld be at once 
liad reaort to, and a full dosnof pnrgative medicine, &om eight to ten 
draobma of aloes, administered; clysters also of warm water and soap, 
alumld be frcqaently thrown up tho rectum. Thcaninutl should bo aUowcd 
plenty of cool air, and bo kept perfectly quiet. Sltould the more active 
eymptonui abate, which there is too much lear will rarely bo the eaao, care 

CJ. ^ td 



■hoyU he token to lc«ri> tlic bovrrrbi Trrcly relaxed, and a blister mny now 
besp]>l9i'«l ti) liie back of tlic iit-ail. nra scion in»rrt*Hl. For some time (ho 
horae HliLtuld b« kept on a reHtrictfil ilti-l ; mntilit-x r<hoiiM Im ^vvn ; ^n-m 
moat in no prent qnantity ; B nioderslo allownnoo of liftv, and very littlo 
corn until BufficiontJjr recovered, -when he nmy be allowed a more gcno- 
nrus diet. 


InflainRuitiaa of the brain or ita membrnnSB, or both, aometimea ocenm, 
and of the membranes ot^«a«st when both are aot iuvolved. It may bu 
produced by sororul causiw, sach as from a tamour prcasin;; on the brain, 
or &«ctarD and dvprmfdoa of bone, infiiuamxl ion suporvoning after tbp 
comatow stagv baa paaaed ofT. It may nUa Iw pnidiie(>d by motastans, 
but we moit cotnmour nwct with pbrcnitiA in tlic borne, ta a t«n»inatiOB 
of tither atomacb or Bleopy stafttrers, most fre<iueat]y the latter. Wbatevcr 
be ibe oriftin of phnnutda, its early symptoms nrp scarcely different from 
thofls of su>ina<cl> or sleeji^ rtaggcre. The boree is drowirr. stapid ; bis ere 
oloua ; ho iiliwji* wbfln he ia in tlie aet of nslin^, and do/<<A antil lie tiill«. 
The pnlae is riow and prc*pinjr, and the breathing iipproased and laborion*. 
The symplomii may diOer a little iu iubenaitj and continaancc, bsL not 
much tn kind. 

The phrpnitio bonte, bowovpr. is not so perfectly comatOEO iw another 
that Inboun nnd^r n{K])i1oxy. Tlie eye will roii|K>iiil a littlo to the nclinii 
of Uffliti and tho oniintd i» ctotneirbEit more nianap.wblt', or at \itatMt moro 
■ameptiblo, for he will Bhriiik when he is struck, while the other frctinetitly 
care* not for ibe whip. 

If remedial measures bave not become efTectniil in the caj'Iy stagp, the 
Wmo all at one* rhanpefi, and the vnott violent rftarl-ion imcce«d». Tho 
oye brightens — etr&nj;cly so ; the membrane of tbc cyo becomes snddonly 
mldcned, and fomiH a fnglitlul cuntr»it with the tnin^tpnrrncT of tho 
cornea ; the pupil iit dilat«fd to the iitmntit : tbe noHtrtl, befon^ itfiuYvly 
movni^, expand^ and qaircrs, and Eabonm : tho rosfrinition bocomea short 
■ad quick ; the pnlw bard and frequent ; tho enr« ore eif rt, or bont for. 
W>rd to catdl the slii^htest sonnd ; nnd the li'irsc becoming more irritable 
erery instani, trcmbli-a at the sli^bU-nt inolinn. Tlic Irritnbility of the 

IHitient increaaca — it may be said to change to ferocity — bnt the aiiintol 
laH no aim or object in what he does. He dashes himself violently about, 
plun^ea in every direction, reara on his hind legs, whirls round and round, 
and then fnllM Imekwurd with dmidful force. Ho lies for a while ox- 
hmsted — tlu>re is a rcraiastoa of the Bymptomfi, but jierhapfl only for a 
minate or two, or pocribly for a quarter of an hoar. 

Now ia the cnrffoon's time, and his eonra^ and adroitnem will be pnt 
to tbe teat. Ho must open, if h« can, one or both jn^ilnrs: but let bim 
bo cm his i^an). for the paroxysm will rvtnm with its former violence and 
without tlie slig-htest waniinff . Thi-i is a ca«e, and the only case, in wbieh 
a ligature should bo placed round the neck previonaljr to the vein l>pin|^ 
opened ; for this beinj? d<ine, howvrcr soon the parozysm of violonco may 
retura, a IWll abstraction of blood mur confidently be rcbcd on. 

The second atlark is moro dreadful tbon (he fint. A^n the animal 
whirls mund and round, and plnn-^-s and fnlK lie setiu'K his clotliing 
and randa it in piecos : ppftiups, doHLitntv of fei'linf; and of eomteinumiym, 
ha bitMi and tnam liimsrtf. Ho dnrta furionaly at everything within hia 
r«Acb ; bnt no mind, no deaitfo, MMua to mingle with or govern bis fnrr. 

Anotlier und anoUier renuBoion and a retom of tho ozacorbntion follow, 
and tJien, weariod cmt, bo becomes qnint ; bat it is not the tinietnow of 
nuiniing reason — it is mora ntniior This continues for an ancorteJn 

prriixl, aiii ILon ho begins tn Atru^fgle BgaixL; bat lui ii BOW pnliriilj 
unable to riso. He postti — to foama — at length, completdj ti^uasUd, be 

Thcro ftro bnt two dUcMcs with wbioh phrpnitia can bo coiifuuiuIi>d, 
kod tkvy aiv culiv ftod rabios. Ln colic, tliu burHo riscH fuitl fiUlB; hu 
rolU nbout mid kicks at Uiii belljr; but liitf tirngglcM urc tame compued 
frith tJiOse of tlie pbrenitic home. Tbero i.s no involnnULr^ itpasm of any 
oTthe litnbH ; the animal ia perfec-tlj? senKible, and, lookinp pit«ni«ly nt hia 
flstiks, aee'ioA designedly to indinkto tho scat of pain, Tbe btvutiTul yet 
fenHally excited conntvnaiicti of the oqc. and tlio jiilt'oos, anxions gun.' of 
tbe other, lire sufEcieiiil^v ilinlinct ; iumJ if it cuii be got at, tbo rapid bound- 
ing piilNu of the ouc, and thai of ibo othnr ftcarvvly losing its nalond 
character in tho early fitago, cimnut be inistokeE. 

In rabies, when it does aasnnao tho reroviouii fvnn, thurti is OTon morn 
Tiolenoc than in phrcnitia ; bat tboro ia niotbod, and treai^hoT^' too, in that 
riolenop. Thvni is ttw dosire of niMchief for its own sake, and Lbura is 
fivqnently the nrtrnl Htxatagem to allum th« victim witlun the reach of do- 
xtmetion. There is not a motion of which tlie rabid lionw is not Donscioue, 
nor a pcraou >vbom be does not r«eoguiee ; but ho labuurs under ouu idJ- 
abaorbing feeling — the intonao lunging to devastate and dL-atroy. 

The poat-niori*ni appeanuices ttrc altofrotbBr uncertain. Tlien* ia UEnally 
Terj great injection and influininntion ot the mombmnc-ft of Uic brain, aad 
eTM) of portiona of the irahstanco of tho brain ; but in other caws ihcrv ia 
Marccly nny tntuc nfinflntiiuuitiuti, or even ofincreasi^d vaaculaiity. 

The treatmcub of phreuitis boa been very shortly biul«d at. Thv firsts 
tlie indiapensable pmceoding — ia to bleed ; to abgtraet as raucli blood as 
c^n be obtained ; to l(?t the animal bloed on alicT he is down ; and indiKtd 
not to pin np tho Tcin of the phi-cnitic horse at ulL The patient will never 
bo lort by this tlccisivc proceeding, but the inflammation may lio sulidued, 
and bcn> tb« first blow is thL< whule of thn Imttle. The phytic ahonld be 
tliat which is mort nuidily jrivcn and will nioKt BjwtidiU* act. The farina 
of the croton will, perhaps, bare tbv prcfcrvace. Hull a dmclirii iir two 
Bcniplc* of it miby be fearle«8]y adniliuntvrcd. Thu irUeusL- inflammation of 
tlia brain given HuH'icieut aamrance that no dangerous in II animation will 
be caailT set up in the intestinal canal. Thia medicine can Ixi formed into 
» very uttlo ball or drinir, and in some moraent«jy rvnuMion of tbo symp- 
toms, administered by means of the probong, or a stick, or tho horn. 
f>omctiinca tho phrenitic horse, when lio will take nothing oljte, and it 
uncuoHcionH of everything eUe^ will drink vritli avidity gruol or wnlvr. 
Rj'P<>Atod doiwa of pnrgatiTe medicine may porhapa ho thns given, ainl 
tb«y mnat bo ooutinued until tho bowola respond. Tbo bleeding and 
physio having been energeticQlly had rocom-fie to, these muRb Ik followed 
Bjj by the iininterruptad application of cold in any and every form ; — iiv, 
if it can be procnreo, the coklMt watoi' daabuil frttely agninat the head, or 
ponred on it from a considenthio height, and for a considerable length of 
time, ia tho only adjanot that ofiera a chance of relief; — coutinuc it imre. 
mittingly fur hours ;— bliHters ore not only naelesa but absolutely injuriuua, 
atiii ill thi* nctii'o. rapid, and fatal disease should never be had rceaur«o to. 
The bov.'ela having been woll openi'il, emetic turtar, with culome] or nitre, 
should bo given. Tho aiiimnl should bo kept as <jaiot ae [^osaihl^ iu a 
•omowhat dark but well- ventilated atnble. 

Whiltt the ilisi^aKC ronliiiiK-s, no attt-inj)! must be made to induce tho 
horM to f<-«d ; and ovtm when apnctite returns witli tho it)int«niL>nt of 
inflsmnmtiou, great cantion most bo exercised both with n.'gaxd to tho 
qnauUty and ijuality of the food. 





Tbere ara bai few dii«easc& in the lioi-se, rcsiicctin^ Uio naluri! of wliicli 
■OBUUiy dififarant Tievi's have been oDtcrtamcd, and of which, ncvcrthelefut, 
«v«n It the present day, bo little is nndorstood, as mp^rrims. 3y eotnc it 
iau b«6D considered u a siild fono of ftpoploxT*, depcnnisj; ii]>on nn undue 
supply of blood to the brum, tmd by others ajK>a just the oppoaitv stated 
viz. nonu; uhstruclioii to tht- iiatunil supply of blood to that urgiin. Mr. 
Percivall trutUof itw a iipecies of vertigo, but probably the more gnacnl 
opinion at the present time inclines to the belief that it ia a dieeaie uudo- 
gou to UiAt termed epilepsy iu the humoQ sabjoct. It is occasionally 
met with in all daaaeB of haisoe and andor a variety of circonutanceo, 
when both at rest and at work, bat moch man) freqavutly amongst horsea 
that are used for hameH pai^soBCS, especially when UM-d for that purpoee, 
on tbe bright, snuny day* of opring and samraer. 

It oompuiatiTrly ntnly liiipiiens wht-n tliu horse ia ridden ; but ahoold 
1m be driren, and perhapH rather quickly, lie may perform a pari of tie 
janmey with hie usual cheerfalncsti and ease ; he will then Kuddcnly stop, 
flhake faJB head, and exhibit (>rideiit ^ddincBH and half-unt-oasciousneM. 
In a minalo or two thia will pa£8 ovur, and he will go on ag;iun aa if 
ootliis; had happeuiHl. 

Occasifnially. howvv^, the attack will 1>e of a more tterioua nattuv. 
Htt <viU fiiil without the shifhtefit waniing, or suddenly run rouod onee or 
twice, and tbcn fall. He will cither lie in aBtat« of complete insensibility, 
or strUKKle with tLo utmost violcuce. Iu five or ton uiuutee he will beg^ 
gradually to come to himself; ho will ^t up and proco^ on bia joarrtey, 
et somewhat dull, and oridently affected and exhausted by yrhai bad 
appened, altbotich not sorioiuly or purmanently ill. 

I^is is a Teiy (uageroiu diMoao— dansaroiu to the horec, which will 
occasionally die on the Bpot, and particnlany dangerous io those who drive 
him, fur there will be no warning or opportunity t» escape. When tho 
btinw in attacked with megrims, the fimt object of tho driver should ho 
to control the violence of tlie animal as much as pOMible ; he shoald looeea 
Ibe cnrb-rein, ease tlio collar, and, if at handi dash some colli water over 
tba animal's head, and pnrsue his journey as slowly as circnmstanoea will 
parmit. Whcm the horse gets home a dose of purgative medicine sboold 
M given to him, and bo kept on bran-Tnaiih for three or four days, gnat 
•ttantion being aftenrmrda paid to tho atato of tho digoittivc oiffans. Ia 
bU this neoeuary beeaase a hnnie liaa li^ipceed to have a lit. of the mc- 
grinu ? Tee, and more too, in tlte mind of tJic ]>nidvnt man ; for it i» 
aeldom that the horse has the megrims wilbont the |>redt«poirit>on to a 
accond atlAok remaining. The testimony of experience ia uniform in re- 
gard fD this, and he would not do justice to himself or his family who 
trusted himself bdiind a horse tliat had a af>cond iittack of mejn^ms. The 
Bomfaers of hiinwa that in Ijondon nro constantly U-iiig 6i>ld nixl rvKold on 
accoaot of this mabuly, is perfectly astonishing, llicre aro a sot of nun 
■boot town, known by the uiuue of 'toutcra,' who eJtJier personally, or 
throogb the medium of the common sale yards, dispaie of an animal with 
this Section at prices varying from iol. to 'Ml. Iu a short time the 
nnfortanate porcfaaser ^itconn Iiis miiitakp, And is too happy to get rid 
of him for a few poaods, to be resold to n froith victim. So notoriously 
ia this the case, that soma horses are so well known to be subject to tbeso 
■ttacks, that a roar of laoghter uuooBoes th^ arrival in the yard. 







Tbi» IB ftnotl)«r imii fcarl'ii! ilin^mio of the iiprrons sj-st^m. It roenlts 
tnrta ilui hiU} of a rabid oiiimn-l, imtl inoet commoiily of the communion 
KDiI fricud of the Iiorso, Ui«". Tlio uocwiint now given ofthiH 
miilndj' is extracted from lectnred wliic;!! lIjo aiitlior i^f tlie jirfstnit. work 
daliTOTed to bis class. Thei-e ia oc«Bsioual wonuiig of tho a]ipronch of this 
di»f>nn in the liurai% or mtlior of the existcDce of some nnusua.! malady, 
Uie re»l uatoro of whicli ia pi-ohably mlstokou. A lOAi-e, bcloI^^^ t^ Mr. 
K*mlakci, lind, ten <ltiye bcluri; Ihu rcc<)j^t!on of the diacAsc, Wen di'oop- 
iog, rofiising her fiKxi, hetiving »t tho Hiiuks, iiiiJ pnwing ocuiiKiimKlly. 
It wus plain enough that she wa.-^ indiniKMivd, but nt u>Uj^th tiw. furious &i 
cune Qpou her, nnd eh« d«(iti-<>yod ulmotft t-rvi^'thiiif; in ihv »tftbl« in tho 
coaneofiui hour. Tho Uto Mr. MonR^meiit Itad a. two- years-old colt 
brought lo hi* rstublialiincnt. It ivaa taken iU in the afternoon of tho 
pmcoding duy, vrlten it lintt nttracted attention by refusing its ftxid, and 
throwitiff itoeif down and g«ttinz np again iminediti.t«ly. EVon> imch a 
dv0crii>tiOD, Mr. 2donejm«Dt conoladcd that it was a caw of cholic ; but, 
wrheu DO went Into the yard, and naw tho iway, iiitd nlinerved Kiit vriUl unci 
aiixioos coantcnitncc, and his exce&siive u^i"vt)i]« seuaibility, be wai* con- 
vmoed that somotliiug uncommon waa omisa with hint, although ho did 
not at fir»t suBpect tho real natnro of the ca«e. 

The tarly syinptumit of ntbics in iho Lofec hare not been carefully 
oliserred or vriill reoonled ; buty in tho majority of caaes, ao far na oar 
rM)orc1«i go, there will not ofbsn he premonitory nyiiiptonig aulTicitmtly 
d«ciiitro to be noticed by iho groom. 

The boreo goes out to bis usual work, and, for a certain time and dis- 
tanre, pcriorms it aa well as ho bad been nccasiomod to do ; then ho stops 
all at once — trembles, heavee, paws, Rtaggere, and falhi. Almost im- 
luodtatoly hti rises, dnigs Ida load a little further, and again atopa, looks 
about kim, bncks, stnggi^re, and falls uuuc more. This is not a fit of me< 
grttiu— it is not u audueu determination of blood to tho hmio, for tliohoi'so 
iM not for a »iii^l« moment insonaihle. Tho sooner lie is led borne thv better, 
for tb« progtv!i.4 of tlio duteaxe is as mpid a» tlic first uttack is sudduti ; 
and, poembly, he will fall twice or thrice before ho reaoh«ji hi« stable. 

In the great toajority of cn»f.» — i>r, rather, witli very few cacepiiona — 
a Slate of oicitntion ensues, wbicL ia not excwtlt-jd l>y that of Uie dog 
under the moat fearful funn of the malady ; bat ibero are intervals when, 
if he had boon oatoial^ good-tempered, and had been attached to his rider 
or bin groom, ho ttUI rocogniso bis former friend and seek bis can^sBcs, 
and bend on bitn ono of thoati piteous, Hwrching looks, whieli, unco 
(dwerx-ed, will never bo forgoltoi : but there, is danger about flii«. Pit"- 
aaiitly BQccceds another paroxy&m, without warning and without coiitj^l ; 
and tliere is no safety for him who had previonaly the moat compIet« 
iDAitcry OTor tlio animal. 

I woa once uttcndiog a rabid liorae. Tbo owner would not have liim 
deetn^'ud, undrr the vain hoiw that I bad mistaken a case of phreniUa for 
one of rnbiea, and that the dutease migtit yield to the profiue abstraction 
of blood that I bad been prevailed on to effl-ct, an<l the purgatiTe influence 
fif tbe farina of the crolon-nut, with vrliioli he had heen nnundantly sup- 
plied in an early slnpe uf the malady. I insisted on his being slung, so 
tbat we were oc led from injurj- frum bis kieking or plunging. Ho 
wwtld licnd hi« gflJie upon mo ax if he wonld Bcarcn me (brongh and 
thnmgb. uiid would pruvail on u<-, if I eonid, to relieve liim from somo 
drvadrnl evil by which he van tlin-aU'nc^l. He would tlien prrsa his hcnd 
against my bmom, and keep it tbctv a minute or mon*. All at onco, 



howovor, tbo paroxy no woolil return. Ho did not att(>nipt to bito me ; 
but, h^A it not been for the ■ling', he wonld hn.vo plnngod fonooBly kboat* 
and I mi^fat bftv« Tonnd it diffit^t to eM^w. 

I hotl ]kiTrinusly attended aaoiher hone, vhicb ilie nimer refused to 
hare dcatroyed. and to which atlendanoe t only consented on oondition of 
the anininl Wini; slung. Hr Itiul bcm bitten in the near hind W. Wfacq 
I ftppronchicd him on that iticlo h« did not attempt to b!t«, and he could 
not othcnrivc injure nic ; but be was agitated and trembled, and strag(;1vd 
aa well tut he could ; and if I merely toucled lum with mx fingi^r. liie pol- 
•atiotiB were quickened full t«u beats in a minute. When, howorer, I 
went round to the off^sidd, ho permitted me to pa( him, and I had to 
encounter hit imploring giuto, and his head was prasaed againat me — and 
then presently would coino tlio pajoxram ; but it came on almaist before T 
ixiuld touch him, when I approached him on the otlier side. 

These mild cases, however, are eioentioos to a gencnU rnlc. Thoj are 
Ikw aad &r between. The horse is uie servant, and not the friend of 
Btan ; and if his companioti, yci on opprossod one. In |im]n>rtiuu to liia 
boDc, he has fur li-as of tbai portion of the brain witli which intell^^co 
is oonnectod — U«a aUadunast — len gtatitude. Ho is, nererlfaeless, a 
noble nntninl. I am not apealdBg disparagingly of him ; bat I am com- 
paring him with — next to man — the moet intellectual of all quadrupeds. 
Tletv id neither the motive for, nor tlie capability of, tliat altuchmeot 
wlacb the dog feels for his mastor, and, therefore, under tbo influence of 
this disease^ bo abandons himself to nil its drendfhl oidtemeot. 

The sure of Mr. KAnUke, when the di«e-ft«c wm fully developed, foivot 
lur fimner drooping, dispirited state i htrr rcsinration was accelerated — 
Jwrmooth waa coYcrwi witli fiiam — a violifiiit |)<Tt<[>iration covered every 
Mrt oTlier, and her screams would cow the stoutest heart. She prt-sentlv 
demoEshcd all the wood-workof the iitable,and then she employed ItersoEf 
in N^t'^g to pieces the ingmtniA, no liunian being daring to expose him- 

Tlie aymptoms of the malady of Mr. Moneymcnt's pony rapidly incn>aiied 
— be bit everything within his mu>h, ereu different parts of his own 
body — he breathed laboriously — his tail erect — screaming drcadfnlty al 
ahort intervals, stnkini; the n'onnd with his forc-lcet, and perspiring most 
profusely. At Iniyilli he broke the top of his manger, and rushed out of 
tlio stAll with it hanging to bis halter. He made immediately towanls 
the medical attendant and the spcctatora who wem ataodlng by. They 
Ibrtonately sucvceded in getting out of his way, and he turned into the 
aext atall, and dropped aud diecL 

A yoang reterinary friend of mine vei^ incnuttouslr and fool-hardily 
attampted to faaU a rabid linnw. The animiil hod piwtoosly shown him- 
aelf to be daagorona, and had shgbtlj bitten a person who gave him a ball 
on the preccdmg evening : he BOW eeiiod the young etnilrnt'x liand, and 
lifted bun from tlie ^ninnd, and abook him, oa a tomcr would shake a rat. 
It was with the grcnK-at difficulty, and not nnttl the grooms had attacked 
the fiirodons animal with their pitelirorks, that tliey ouild compel him to 
roliniitiixh hin hulJ ; and, even then, not before ho had bitten his victim to 
the Uiue, and nearly torn away the whoK? of the flesh from the njicwr uud 
lower sarraees of the hand. In the MuHeiim of the Veterinnry St-tiool, at 
AUori, i* the lower jaw of a ralnd home, which was fractured in the vio- 
but eSbrta of tbe animal to do miachief. 

^nun is also in the borae, whoso attachment to his owner is oflen com- 
paratively small, a degree of treaehcry which wo mrvly meet w^ith in the 
nobler and moro intellertual dog. A honte timt hiwl Khnwn Kympti>mB of 
groat Ivrocity was standing in tlio conker of liis box, with a hearing fbuik, 






aoti every moacle qoiveriag rrom tlio dcfpTM) of cxi;!tcmcnt nndor whieh 
be Ubourcd. A groom, presuming im lliit fomirr obtiliitnca of the anmml, 
Tcnlured in, and endcwvoured to pat a hoadstall urmn him. NwitJior tho 
tooKter nor mysolf eoald ]>i>niiiwl(> him to farb«&T. 1 whk mira of mischief, 
for I bod obacrvcd tho vkt Ij-in;; Qui iipoii the QQck, ajid I conM »m ihi> 
bnclrwutl glanva of ihf. vyv. I thvrvthro armed myaolf with a l)ea\"y 
twitcfa tftick that wa-H at hand, aad (^HiuIh;i1 into tlti> nutngi?r of the next 
box. The man had not advaaced two Htc[M into tho box befun* I ouiild 
SCO Uic »liiniiig position of tho f.>ro feol, and tlio prvpnititivn t« ^p^ing 
npoD bis victim; and bo n-oold bavo sproug apau hixn, but my wt-aptiu 
fell iritb all the furnt I couM tir^o upon his hi-ucL and ho dropped. Th» 
tnaa «ec»pvd. but Lho bmte wait up ugain in an iiuttunt^ und wu tromblcd 
ImI Iha putition of tho box should pold to his Tiolonn*, and h« woiiid 
naliM the graphic deacriiition of Mr. Blaiuo, vrhun be (tTK-aki* <>f tbu rabid 
horae h ' levelling oToiytmng beforo him, himaelf aweabiujf, and Knorting, 
mud Aluniiig amidst tlie mina.' 

I have mid uci^tmitiii more than onco to witness the eridont pain of tfas 
bitten port, and thr miuinnr in -which tho hnr«o in th« intomibi of his 
jmroxyams einpluyn liiuitielt' Ln lickiug aud ^uawiiiK thu ciizutrix. Ono 
Bninuil Iiud be»n bittt^n in tho chest, and be, not in the inttirvalK U-twci^n 
tb« oxaoorbatiOTiJi, bat when tho paroiysm was most vinleiit, wauM bit© 
and tear bimscif nntil bin bnuut vim Kbockiugly mangled, and the blood 
flvvrvd {i\im it iii a etrciun. 

The uioiit intcreHtinp and satinluctorj- nyiai^tom is tho (n-ident dread of 
iratvr wliich vxist« in the diH-tdod mnjority of owea, and thu iin[>oa»1bility 
of Hivalhiwtng ttuy coaaiderahlo ijuantitT. Proftssor Du])uy givea an 
aooouat of thia nrmmBtance:-— 'A nibid horse was ponfinoa in ono of 
tlw nck-bojK's. UJH food wa« given to him Ihroagh an opening over th» 
door, and a buL-kvt vtiut .snspeudt^d from Uio door, and sapplivd with watm* 
by meanji of a cupper tulje. As s<jo» us ho h(?ard the M-at«r falling into 
the pail, lu' fell into violont eonvii Igjonn, tioixod tht) tnlic, and cntKhi-d it to 
pi«<«e. Whon tho water in his hecket wiia agitated, tho eon\'ul»iion« w^fx> 
rDDOwed. Ho would occat^innuUy approach tho bucket na if lit! wLthed f> 
dnnk, and then, aAcr agitating tho water for an inBtuDt. he would full on 
hia litter, uttering a boarEe cry; but hv would Hko «gnin uImo»<t imme. 
diatcly. Thc^o symptoms wcra dreadfully increiiMtd if wntor wnK thrnwn 
Dpoa tuB head. He would tlicu endeavour to Mize it ae it fcU, and bito 
-with fury at uvvrything withiD his reach, bis whole fhune being druudlully 

Ail the disease prognNSSBS, not only is the animal rapidly debilitated, but 
there to the pocnlinr staggering gnit whieli Ja obncrvablo in the dog — 
refbrablo to ovidvat loss of i^K>wcr in tke muacloa of thu luiskar n.>gion. I 
aact aaw h man.') fitting ou her hauncheH, and unable to nHo ; yet UHtng 
bvr fen!> fv^t with the utmost fury, and fitiiTrring no ono to coma within 
her rcocb. She, too, wonid stimcti men [ilnngo Iivr niuxTile into the offewd 
pail; and iimncdiatjjly withdraw it in evident torror, while every Umb 
troubled. At other iiiiii:.-i the lowei'iiig of the puil would afiVight ber, aud 
■be wonid fall nn li«.-r aiiia and .ttrnggte Ibrioualy. Although thia Ryrap> 
tnm is not oftvn obaerved in tlie dog, it is a satisfactory identitication of 
Um disMW, wh«n it is so frequently seen in tbu horse, and bo invnriabljr 
in the honuui being. 

The earlieflt, and porliaps the mcwt deviaive,!iym.ptoinoftliouuarnpproac1i 
of niliies in the horse, is a ni>iiNnitJilir inoveraeut of the upper lip, purticn- 
larlr of the anglos of the lip. ("iose following on this, or Goiit^mponuieonM 
Willi it. arw tins dopreaftod and ansioua countenance, and inquiring gaae, 
mddaiily bowuvur lighted up and bt^cumiiig Ccroo a&d menacing, from 



vnao unknown oaoBO, or at Uie i^protoli of & str&nger. From time to 
tune differeni parts of tbe frame — Uie eyee — the jaira — ^porttcolar linilM 
— will bo (wavulaod. Tbo cyv wilt occnnoDsU; wander after some imagi- 
1UU7 object, anil tho liorso will snap acmin and araiin At tlmt wliinti has 
no Mai existAncc. Thrai will come t£c ureprrMoble d««ire to bite tbo 
aUendast* or the animalB witiiin iU reacli. To tbi« will mooeed the •)«- 
molitioai of tbo rack, the mttnger, and the whole fVimiturc of the atable, 
accompBiuod by the pcoalur diwd of water which has been already 

TowanU tlu clow of tbo diaeaM thcra in gcncnlly paralriiis, ntnallj 
oonfinod to the loins aiKl the hinder l^xt^cnutie9, or iu>'olTin^ thoM organa 
which deriTe their nervous iiiflnpnoc from this portion of the spinal cord ; 
— hence the distressing tcaesmos which is oocanonally Kno. 

Tbo disoasc nuvty cxtonds Im'tuh'I tho thifd day. 

Afiw dcuth. tbi'TC is nniformiy fi>and inflammation nt the back part of 
tbe month, HJid at tho top of tltu wiudpipe, and Uki'Tvim; in the Htonuich. 
and 00 the membrane covering the Inngs, and where the fpinal marrow 
first tanwH trma the bnun. 

When tba diaoaM out b« doarly eonnceted with a prvviona hntii, thn 
sooner the uumatl ii dectrojcd tbo betuv, for thtrt U no mut. If tho 
^jrmptoms bear considerable reMaDblancc to mliic*, althoueh no bite is 
anspected, lh« honu) shoald ofc least be &1an^. and the medicine, if any 
is adminiatered, given in the form of a drink, and with tho hnnd wpll 
protected ; for if it ahcnild be scnktchod in htUhn^r tho horse, or the skin 
ahonH bare bcvn provionsly broken, tbe saliva of the aaiuud is cvpahlc of 
oomrannioUing llie diaease. Servtal brriev* liave lixit tlit^ir lives &nm 
bving biUen or acralched in tho act of adrainistering medidne to a rabid 

It in always dangermu to eaeoata^ any dogs about tho stable, and 
especiBlly if uiey beoone fond of tbo bones, and oro ta tho habit of jtunp- 
ing op and licking them. The oomen of tbe montb of tbe borse are oftrn 
mm from tbe preamire of the bit ; and when a ecAcludog in a giaitlvman'g 
■table — and it is likely to bappeoi in pv«ry stable^ aad with every dog^ — 
beooows rabid and dios, tho borso too frvqnvBtly follows bim at no gnat 
distaniK of time. 

If a hone is bitten by a dog nndcr suspicions circamslanoes, be sboold 
bo carefully examined, and every wmmd, and even tbs ^ghtest somteb, 
well bnmsd with tbe tnnar canstio (nitr^lo of ntver). The scab Bboold 
bo remoTed and the opeiatioa repeated on tho third day. Tlie hot irun 
does BOi answer ao welt >nd other canstics ore not bd nuumKtnblc. In 
the aftit^ of 1827, fonr horses were bitten, near Hyde Pwk. by a mad 
dog. To one of them the Innar eanstic was twice Bererelj applied — bo 
lirad. Tho nul-hot iron was unsparingly nsed on tbe oAsn, and they 
died. The oaoitio unit rea^eruy part of tbe wound. At the expimtiuu 
of tbe fourth monlb, tbe bona may be ooBsadered to be safe. 


Tetanns is one of tbe most dveadfdl and fatal disaasts to which (be I 
is snbj<«t. It is oaUed tocKBS Jiw, because Ibe nnsclce of tha jaw 1 
>«rlieet alTectod, and the month is obs tinat e^ aad imnunrably okised. 
is a p(.-nuBnrnt i*{»sm of all thi- voloatavy BtuclM,aDd parcicalarly of tt 
of Iba neck, the spine, and the bead. It is saaatiiBBS slow and traaefaetoas~ 
in tla attack. The boise, for a dav or twe^ doea net appear to bv quite 
well; he does not focd as usual : ^e partK- chvws his food, nnd ilrofM it; 
md ho gulps lua wotor. The ownt-r ut li-oj^th finds that tho motion of tlie 
Jaws is oooaidorably bmttcd, and aome saliva, is drivelling from the nuotb. 



If he triea be am odIt opvn ihe mouth k rery httlo mj or lh« jaws ara 


iO fxamntg 


,^. -.r' 



perfoctir and rigidly doAed : aiiil ihu;* Uik only period at which' 
oonld hH ' 
■ndpr tt 

The nrat tfains tint strikes the ofeMrrsr is a pntnunon of the nnzzleh 
and RtiAtMB of uie 
seek; «nd,oapas8- 
hk^g tlte band aown 
i^ Mm mnscle* will 
b» fbancl singalar- 
It prominsnt, dia- 
tiskct, bard, knotty, 
and nnyiehlini;. — 
Tbfre is difliful- 
tj" in bringing tho 
head round, and 
atill ereAter difG- 
coUj ui bending it. 
The oje is drawn 
deep within the 
■ocfcei on the 
aligbtefit excite- 
ment, and, in ronsetjtionve of this, 0\e faUjr nutter behind the e^o lb pressed 
fbrvrard ; the haw ia protmdnl, and there is an nppeanuice of strabismus, 
or H()ainting, in an outward direction. 

The cars are erect, puinUsd forwanl, and immoveable ; if the horse ia 
spoken to, or threatenLtl to bo stniek, they change not their position. 
Cotitiiderint; the beaatifal piny of the par in the horse when in hoaNh, and 
the kind of conversation which h« mAintAinfl by iho motion of it, there is not 
a more charactenstic symptom iif tt-ianns than this immobility of the ear. 
The nostril is expanded to the iitinout, and then' is littlo or no play of it, 
as in hurried or even natnnvl brwithing. The resptratJOB i* niraally ncce- 
lotntod, yet not always so ; but it i.t auiformly Inborioiuf. The puW gives 
little indication of the scvvrity of tJie Jismse. It is nomL-ttmta scnnt'ly 
affected. It will ho nipiilly ai-wlerat^'d wbt-n any one approaches the 
animal and afffnt to t/^uf^li him, but ii presently quieia down again almost 
to its naturnl ntamhirxl. Ani.T a whilt^ howtTcr, thu lieart begiux to 
sympBtbise witii the gi-ncml excitation of the Hyntem, and the palM- in* 
crcaaea in li«t|ncncy and force until the animal becomes debiLtated, wh^pn 
it beata yet qaioker and quicker, but diminishes in power, aud gradually 
llattt;rt> and diea away. 

The countenance is eager, anzioaa, haggard, and tolls plainly enongb 
what the animal suSers. 

The stiffness gmd'ially eztonds to the baek. If the linrae ia in a narrow 
stall, it ii impossible to torn him ; and, even with room and scope enongb, 
he tnms nltot^thcr like a deal-hoard. 

The extremities begin to piirticipnt^i in the spasm' — the hinder ones 
generally first, but never to the extent to which it exists in the neek and 
licK'k. The Itorso stands with his hind legn straddling apart in a singular 
way. The whole of the limb moves, or mther ia drnggedoa together, and 
aiixions care is taken that no joint shfitl htf flexed more tlian can ponsibly 
be holiic^l. Tlic fore limbs liara a singular ap|)earaneG ; ihey are ns ntilT 
•a they can noasibly be, bat stretched forward and straddling. They have 
Hit unajilly been <'om|mred to the legs of a form. 

Thu alKlominal muscles gradually bccuoio involrod. They seom to 



contract witb all the power they poBaess, and there is a degree of ' hidc- 
boand ' appearance and rigidity, and of tncking ap of the telly, which ia 
Been under no other complaint. The tail becomcB in constant motion 
from . the alternate and violent action of the muscles that elevate and 
depress it. 

Constipation, and to an almost insnrmonntable degree, now appeara. 
The abdominal mascles are so powerfully contracted, that no portion &f the 
contents of the abdomen can pass on and be discharged. 

By degrees the spasm extends and becomes everywhere more violent. 
The motion of the whole frame is lost, and the horse stands fixed in thenn- 
natural posture which he has assumed. The countenance becomes wilder 
and more haggard— its expression can never be effaced from the memory 
of him who carea about thefeelingeof abmte; the tail is now permanently 
raised, and, if depressed for a moment by the hand, instantly reeumcs its 
elevation. The violent onunp of a single muscle or sot of muscles makes 
the stoutest heart quail, and draws forth the most pitioua cries— what, 
then, must it bo for this torture to pervade the whole frame, and to con- 
tinue, with little respite, from day to day, and fron\ week to week. When 
his attendant approaches and touches him, he scarcely moves ; but the 
despairing gaze, and the sudden acceleration of the pulse, indicate what be 
feels and fears. 

Tetanus, then, is evidently an affection of the nerves. A small fibre of 
Bome norvo has been injured, and the effect of that injury has spread to the 
origin of the nervo—the brain then becomes affected — and universal 
diseased action follows. Tetanus is a spasm of the whole frame— not 
merely of one set of muscles, but of their antagonists also. The fixidity of 
the auim^ is the effect of opposed and violent muscular contraction. It 
belongs to the lower column of nerves only. The sensibility is ummpaircd 
— perhaps it is heightened. The horse would eat if he could ; he tries to 
Buck up some moisture from his mash ; and the avidity with which he lends 
himself to assist in the administering of a little gruel, shows that the feel- 
ings of hunger and thirst remain unimpaired. 

The disease may terminate fatally in forty<eight hours, but as a ralo 
death takes place from the third to the sixth day ; if the horse should 
Borvive till tno seventh or eighth day, a favourable termination may bo 
expected, although in some cases tbey will die a month after the attack. 
If from strength of constitution or medical treatment, he sliould recover, 
the first favourable symptom is a slight and short rcmisHion of tlie spasm ; 
the time of the remission gradually Icngtheuing, and the jaws a little re- 
laxing ; but the progress of cure is exceedingly slow, and the horse is Icfl 
Tciy weak. 

On fto»t-moriem examination the muscular fibre will exhibit sufficient 
jiroof of the labour which has been exacted from it. The muKcles will 
appear as if they had been macerated — their texturo will be solU'ued, and 
they will be torn with the greatest ease. The lungtt will, in (he majonly 
of rases, be highly inflamed, for tbey have l)cenlal»uriiig long and [miufuHy 
to furnish arterial blood in sufficient quantity to supiKtrttbix great <-x|>eiuIi- 
ture of animnl |>uwer. The stomach will contniu piitclirs of iiillnmmutii)n, 
but tlie intestines, in most casi^s, will not exhibit much dfjHirture fn>ni the 
hue of health. The examination of the bniin will Ik.> ultngt^tbcr unfiilis- 
factory. There may be slight injection of some of tbu mcmbninex, but, 
in the majority of cases, there will not be any morbid change worthy of 

Tetanus is osnally the rcsnlt of the injury* of some nervous fibre, and 
the effect of that li'sion propagate<l to the br.itn. It occnrs at all agcH, 
from tho foul a fortnight old, and amongst ull classes of the hurse | but 







hi^li-lirfil, irritolilo utimal* arc Uio mofit linlili* In it. It may rotnlt from 
almoitt every Ttaicty of M-ound, no mnttiir what itj* ttitunticm. It would 
»p[>eiM-, ljciwvvt.-r, tliat wvtiiidaui some ytxns liavc a mucli ^rt-Aler ti'iKlotiu^' 
to produce this diseaflo IIlilq in othcn. Tlic foot is a vltv firtjncQt sauivo 
or focus of t^tiinic injur}'. Tin- liorKo bvcunwii lamo — tl>v injurj* tnuy Imve 
bvon carnfull}- lrciit«'il, c-itniEoitiilj' Lrculod, or notlrcated Rt M — Uio tiuiiciin^K, 
iMweTAr, disAppoars, but the wound hiu uot hcalod. There U so nn- 
bcadtbitieas sbnat it, niid at Iho expiration of eight or t«ii d»ra, telAnun 
■{ipcant. SoiDo Bcnoas tibro haa been irritutcd or InflHincd lij the acci- 
dnit, aligbt as tt wu«. 

l>ockiij^, luekiiiir, overrrsch, Riippurating cwm«, ciuilnition sitd iiijurion, 
Mpecia)!^ about the orbit, ftru freauent causes of tetAnns. In ail these 
cttiM the attack ia termotl TmuiaatiG Totaaus as ariaiiiK from, or depend 
itlg TO, Home iujuiy received, but nnqacstionably it nuiy be set np without 
mijr »:it<.Tiiiil injury whiitevur, TliB rwrrnili* of v^iii-ri unry proeMHlingK 
eoatain aofouiiU of t<-t«niirt fallowing labour, l>nita!lj exaciod bcj-oad tha 
aiiinnkl's n.itnral Hlreit^li, in tlw draught of heavy loEtda. Uoriics that 
luTO )>ccn matched fi^trifit time havo ioa freqnentlj died of telnnuH a 
little wbile aft*Tw«rdji. ISiiddtn ex|iii!(uri^ to cold aiVer beirg heated by 
uz«rci)ic' hiut produced ihiH ilrtiuiful utate of uervouK lu'tiiin. uiid e>i|Hi'iHlly 
if the hoTvc had Rtood inapurtial tlninRht, or cold water haitbe«ii dripping 
OL the loins. Theso esses we called ldi»pnt>iic Tetanus, that ia, ariMo^, 
like any other acverc mnlndy, fi'om eonie puculiiir Busccptibilit>' to dvmnj^L'- 
itkctit of thi) constitutiiiii it«elf. 

Tmutnal ic- Tetiuius is mueK ibo most dangerous kind, and will generally 
proTC fatal ; on the other Imnd, from IdiopiLthic TetanuB tho animal not 
uufniqaeallj recovers. Other tonne ore also applied to distinjfiiitli M-hen 
cm^n partfl only aro affected. AVlien tho spasm is confined to thu musoleii 
of the JHvrs it is named Tiismns ; when the muscles of the neck and lutcV 
aro ehirfly nflf>cted,it is exiled OpislliotfinoH; the Tvvencn of this, when 
tho inferior miiHoleft aro. nJfectcd, u I-lnipronthoianoa ; when tho Lodj is 
drawn to oiiuflidt.*. tliat of FlenrontliotorioK AJthciUiflt thefiedi0ereiittiti).teii 
Bwy exist in tlie human subject, we fihiitl rarely meet with tliem in tho 
horae, and then only in the form of Tri>iiTine or OiiistbnlonoK. 

TTic treatment of tetiunm is siinpli', and wiiuld hf> ofttmer KiiccoAsful if 
carried to its full extent. Tho indication of euro is plain caongli — Me 
«y«f«1»i tniui ha iniri'ptiHij'ril. 

Eight or ten dracliniw of aloeH, with Ji. to Jij. calomel, should be ad- 
laintHtvrod. If the remission of the spasm is sliglit, tlien- is another pur- 
gative — not BO certain in itfl action, but more powerful when it does »ct — 
the RkTina of the croton nut. Tlicrv is little or no dtuic':r of exciting 
inflammation of the iiiucoutt mondiriiue of the inlc^tinca Tiy this pr<iDipt 
and energetic administration of purprntive medicine, fur there is too much 
(UrUtrrni Tint ion of vital power towards tho uervonK syKtem' — too inaeh 
irritation there - to Ii-atc eanito for divadinp the pocicibUity of ractnataain 
eUvwherv. It would be dLfirublcif a certain dt'fiTCC of infliuiiinalioii cuuld 
ins excited, because to that extent the irritjitiun of tI>o nervous avHtcni 
might Iw allayed, niere in another reason, and a very powerful one — 
time is mpitlly ptuwing. TtiEi tetanic action may extend to the intetitincH, 
and the eo.opcralioii of the uhdominal muscles in koeping nptlio pcri^.tnllic 
motion of the boweli*, and exiKrllingtheir coiitcnte, iimy ho lost. We Iwve, 
indoed, more faiih in the. etl'ret of phytic, na a renu^ly fVir tliix drt-iulful 
dhea we. than any other ; if active purgation can be apt up — and a chfLiico 
of pccovorj- is left — that ptirgation wi 11 insnre it. Use the baiting probong, 
a ocme, a atick, anything, to introdncoafall doeo of physio into Us Uirout ) 
if not into bin throat, luave it on tho tongnc ; if that u bnpossible, insert 


it between the tips »iid t)io ^mlrni — tbiH may alwnjii be done — and to & 
Dertainty a grcakir jiortion nf it will gnulujtlljr bt! fwuLlowed. This Bhocld 
be followed by tbe adminiEtmUon of ^ij. of povdorad opinm frequently 
npealed. Opium is not only n v&liukble drag, bat it is thcitOD wkicb 
alono dcpcadcncD coa be placed in tlu'a dieeaae. Clyntent ninr nl«ii be 
cmpliiyt'd to ansiitt; in promotin^r ihc action of the boweli. )llcitliiig, 
bli«lcriiig. friction to tlw liftck, Htid tbw iippli cation of cold water are 
oaleulalvd to do no good, and nucMilci! rt-mixli(« tdiouM nnt ho had resort 
to. The one grvat object in tho trottttonit of tvU^uiu elioQld bo to keep 
the animal as quiet as passible, and freo fn>m t.liowi atU-iitinna aMnming 
the iihnpe of remedial meatforca which are too apt to inrreiuui thit nlnady 
exciUtd Htnte of the ni^nxtus tivKloni. The horvo BhoaM be pineed in a warm, 
nnniewhat dark, \mt well-vrntilati^ tctablr, >>oIoct«dAa free M poauble from 
all external noinep. Both tliu floor of thv ntiibh- and also for some distance 
ostnde Hliould be enrered with ehert litter. The Ktabli- Hhuold bo locked, 
■odnoone allowed to see the amma.1 but the attctidanL or pnfoacional 
nkan, and when this ia rendered neeeBsair fur the sdniimitration of food 
or medicine, ^reat caotion aboiild bo Ttati in prcvootiji^ any eudden neixc 
or moTcmvnl vrtiich nuiy diotarb the animnl. 

One thuig shonld not bo forgotten, namely. iJial a horse with locked jaw 
ia at hungry dm when in health, and every jioRJiihle eoiitrivaiice hIioqIiI be 
adopted to flmuah hira with that natriment which wilt Rnpport him nndci" 
Itis torture, and poeaibly enable bim to wcnthor tho storm. If a pail of 
pood nrracl ia placed within his rwich, how will he nnnzlein it,andeentnve 
to drink some of it too ! If a thoroughly wet iniudi ih plnced before him in 
a pail, he will bury hiit notic in it, and nmnngif to extmct no Hmall portion 
or natriment. By means of a small hem, or a bottle with a rcry narrow 
neck, it will ofleu be potuuble to jj^ve htm a onmll quantily of gruel ; bat 
the flexible pipe that accompanies Reiwl's pnlcnt pomn will midor this of 
flB«ier accomplishment, for the nntriment may be adminiatercd withont 
elarating the bend of the liorso, or infltetinjf on him the extreme torturo 
which used to accompany the bet of drenetmifr. H the jdw is ever no 
closely clenched, tlie pipe may bo intrxidnood bi'twecn tbe tushes and tho 
grindiTW, and carried telentbly far back into the mmitli, and any qtiantity 
of gruitt or medicine introdaeed into the Htomneh. Nor is this (be Only 
way in which thid valuable instniment may be made nvnilable in thia 
Ifaarftil diaooM ; for with an enema pipe attached to the end of the tube, 
oonsidcniblo qnnntities of good boef t«^ strong iniVuiona of oata or mall, 
combined witli thick wolUboiled grael, may ba inject«d into llie intOfltiueit, 
and the animal'ii strength irapported to a eonniderable extent. 

It will ako be good pmctiee to let a small portion of food bo in tbo 
manger. The horse will not at first be able to take up the slighlast 
quantity, bnt be will attempt to do ao. Small portions may be placed 
Mtween his grinders, and they will presently drop from hix mouth Mmnvly 
or at all moatioatcd : bet some good will Iw done — there i* the nlti'mpt to 
put tbe mnscleB of tbe jaw to their prepor oav. On ibe foUowini; iLty ho 
will succeed a littlo letter, and make some triflinc odviuice towards breaking 
tho chain of Bpiwmoilie action. Etporience will teach the careful groom 
tbe value of the*e minntiie of practice ; and tlio sut^eessful terminatioR of 
umaj a caee may be traced to the carnftil nnrsing of tlie patient. 

TIHien the horse is getting decidedly Ix^tler, and the vrealbcr will permit, 
there eon be no better practice than in tnmhim out for a few honm iu Uk) 
middle of the day. Hw toddling about will regain to him the nsc of bin 
limba J tho attempt to ittaop in order to gmte will diminish the spunn in 
liifl neck ; the act of gnutiug will relon tho mnacles of tho jaws ; and be 
can hare no belter food than the fresh gnu^. 



CBAJir. — STEJiraiULT. 




^lis in tk SQflden, inTohmtery, trnd painibl rontmction of a particalar 
imiMileor Mi of miMcln. It diffbrs fix>iu Uitiuius in its ehorter dnrstiun, nnd 
in iuoooMionallT attacking the mnaclcs of organic life. It duj be termed % 
Kpwdes of tnasttory tclanut, affeoting niwUjr tbv Iiind rxtmnitiQe. It it 
gnaenUT obetn-vcd wlica tKfl hone U Knit bmuglit uaL of Uia Ktebli.^ nnrl 
emcilUJy if ho Kua been hardlj' woriced. One of the legs ajipeani Ktiff, 
inflexible^ and is, to a slight degree, dragged after the anitnaL After ho 
has iiroeocded a few steps, the stiffnc«« nearly or qnito disappears, or oalj 
■ slight dc^TM of lameiKvs rvmujvt during thv gmitcr txirt of tho day. 

Cramp may bebrooght on by cxpoiiure either ic it high or luw IvmiK'nu 

If a cprtain dofrrve of tamcness mnains, the attendant on tho horao 
Bh«uM cDdcaTonr to find out the mueclo chiefly affected, wlucb he may 
Easily dobyafvelingorhardnusRiOraii vxprtMnon of pain, when he presses 
on the pert afiected. EVictJoo with the linixl will very frei^uently he all 
that is oeceesary to remove oramp, but should ibis not be eflVettisI, hot 
fomentations to the part, and the administratioa of laxative medicinefi, must 
be bad rceort to. 


This is a sudden uodspitsmoilie action of fiomc of the mosch^s of the thi^b, 
obserrablu whcu the hono is first led fmm the stuhlc. One or both Ipe:s 
are eanght op at every step with prcnt rapidity and violonee, so tbnt llio 
fetloek Bometjmea touches the belly. In the great majority of eases it 
does not disappear ofler exercise, but the borse continues to bv aiilicted 
with this peculiar gait. In a few cases, howcrcr, after the horso has been 
oot a little while, it partially goes off, and the normal action of the limh, 
to a certain extent, rctumR. 

Stringhait U not a porfoctly involtiat&ry action of a certain mnnelc, or a 
certain set of muM-lett. The bmb itt flexed at lite eotoinatid of the will, 
but it acts to a Kreator extent and with more violence than the will bad 
prompted. There is on aecamnlation of exeitabilitr in the mnsele, and 
tiie impulse whiuli should have called it into natural and modctatc aetion 
causM it to take on a spOMUodic i?ne. 

Bat alCboDgh ilie {>ecuhar acti»» conntjtuting etringbalt is ilevclnped 
thr»»g)i the inoRcIes, it must not bo taken for granted that the caiute 
of the afieetioQ lies in the muKoles themtnilves, bat rather in the tiiitiu<>M 
throuffb which tho mnBculnP action i« exerted, namply, the nprves ; and, 
as a ffCDcnil rule, it raay bo stuted that dittisiso of the ucrveS themselves, 
mf>rc partiCTiijirly of tlie great lechiatic nerve, or of tJie cnnitl throHBh 
which tliey jw^s from the spinal cord, will bo found to exist. EiUier the 
nerve at its ori^rm is Boftened and diitcuLuured, or its egress fh>m the ver- 
tefanl canal is through a roughened and irritating foramen instead of a 
Bmootli and poliabed eno. 

Uany tngenioaB but eonindictor)* tlicories liavc been advanced in order 
to aoomtnt for this jHi'iili.trity of gait. Wlint mnseh's ore emu'emcd ? 
Clearly tho«c by which the tliigb is bronglit imder the belly, and the 
hock is flexed, and the pasterns are hrat flexed aud then exleudud, Hub 
by which of them is the efl'ect principally produced? What muscle, or, 
more properly, wlwti nerrn ii« et)n<;enied? InsU<nd of entering into any 
useless oontrovercy on thU point, a ease shall bu re1atc<1. and one of the 
laust interoetiag thore is on record : the author was personally cogniaaut 
of Bvmy particular. 

QttSkforJ, 6ml called Iluundhcad, and then Ijindturt), was foaled in 



]82C. He wns got bj- HflmiKlcn out of « Sir Itftrry T>imK(lft]4> miuHf. Tn 
18SS, and bcinp two ypara old. luicl tbc prupirrty of tlic DuVc wf ItiuKraond, 
he vron m 501. pUUi at OiHjdvrniHl, In I82(>, itml lieloiiging U> I»iit W. 
I/vniiox, li« woo fid giiitifwj at Ilanijitnn. Beinv then tmintferred to Hz. 
Coimmaii, be won 50 ^inoae at Gnitdford ; and m the eume year, liaving 
been parchoMd by Mr. PcArce, ho vron 60 frnincfts at BMnif^Rtoko. 

In Uio courao of this ycnr strin^hiilt bc(;piii to appotr is a slight dc|rrc(!, 
and it cridcntlr, althon^li nlotvly, iiii-rtrafx^d. Tliere Roon Lejpui iu ne ft 
litilfl di^ieulty m g('tti»g him nfT; hot wb<!n ho bad onne BtArt«d, neiEbor 
hia gpood nor bis Ktontnoss appceired to bi> in ttio Hbghtcet ilp^rce im- 
pAirea. Hu «)oiiuued ou the turf unlil IVQlj, and vrou for hia difleixiiit 
ownen BBvcntocn races, tlic produce of vrhich, cxcIubivo of beta, amounted 
to 1.435f. 

Thi^' ililli»altj and Ictiu of adrftnta|f«> in ntfirtinf^ bud now inprnuuMl lo a 
degree which rendered it pmdent to withdraw him from thfi turf, and ha 
came into tbo poftacsttian of Uuekcniy, vrbo utu-d liiiii for the- puriHisc of 
loading tho yonnp borers that he had under trttininj;. Tbie is well Known 
to be hard work, and his rider wim u man of aotne wdcht. Tn nthlition to 
this, hii wan guu(»«11>' hunUid twioo in the wc«k. Hu fimt Ktnrtiug into 
a gallop bod something nagnlar about it. It was a horrible kind of con- 
vubive action, and so violent, that he frcqacintly kn»ck<!d olT bin nhora on 
tlic very day that they were pot on ; bat when he tfot a little wanned, 
all this disnpp(.>stn».]. K« ^llopod b«tutiru)ly. anil whm a very saro fijncer. 
The KDorl, linwiivor, bftiiig uvvr, itnd liu nitiiniiiig to a alow pnoo, tho 
atringoalt wm tm bad a« ever. 

At length the old horee became artful, and it wiui with RT-eat ilifTicnlt/ 
that he could be mode to lead, Somrtimes he refused it nlbogethcr. Iii 
consequence of thiK. ho waa sent to St. Martin's Lunu to be sold. The 
hijEfhoat bidding for him was 31. 14it.,and tho horoof tho turf and the field 
waa doomed to tho omnibas. Tbore he was cracllj oaod, and this spaamodio 
ggnndifani of hix hind legs aadlr aggravated bia torture. The skin wm 
preaontly mhWt iVom his slioDlders, bid hipa and hannebc* wer« bmtaed 
la erefy port, and his stiflfss wore oontiniuilly and painfully coming in 
oontMi with the polo. 

In this situation ho was seen by the rctcrinaiy snr]^Dan to ' The SodtAj 
for tbo Pn-YimtionnrC'rueltvtoAnininlH.' Thprc in n fiind uttlie dtsposoil 
of tluit Hodet^ for the parohaaaof wom-out baneH, who ant immediately 
raleasod from their misery hy the pole-axe of the knackor. The bonce 
waa bought for this purpose, another and landtiblc motive influenciiig the 
parchiwio — the wish to ostx-rtain what li^ht tho dissection of an anunal 
titat bail bad stHiigltalt ti.>»iir^h an a(.^nivMti.^] extent, und for ao lung & 
period, would cast oa the nature of this ditteaae. 

The author of this work saw hira a little while before he was alanghlercd. 
He waa still a noble-looking anintaL, and socmed to ]>0H8esa all bin former 
stningth and spirit nnimpnired ; bnt be was widly scarred nil over, in nm- 
iwjnencu of bia bring put to a kind of work sir which liis s|xu(itiudio 
oonplaint ao nttirely incapocilatc^ him. So aggravatMl a raao of HtriDg- 
halt bad rarely been seen. Ilotii hind le)^ were affected, and both in nti 
equal degree ; and the belly was furtiiblretniak by the pastern joiota every 
tiine the bind feet wersUlied. The belly and the pustcm joint were both 
denwlvd of linir in eonaeqaeBOe of ibis constant tialtorin^. 

He waa destroyed by the injectiim of pruiuiic aoiil into tbo jugular vein, 
Aikd the diasection of him wus oondadvd by Prvfcxaor Bpoonvr, of tJto 
Rcrrol Veterinary Oillega. 

On taking off the skin, all the mniieles presented their iterfoob lienlthy 
cbara^^ter. Tbore was not tho slightest enlar^ment or oLsooloraliaB of 



the Ibitam. The masdes of 1»Ui extreoutics vroro dissected from tlieir 
orimBM to their tcudittoos t«rmiitAtioiis. and their Qhrouh Btructore care- 
fully oxnmiiuid. Thoy were all bcsatifaily dnvelopMl, prcMndnjf no 
incquulitjr or irrcgolantf of structoro, nor RQght- that would iramct tlio 
suspicion that any oao of them pocheseed au undue power or inflaciico 
beyond the otbent. The only abnormal orcumatance about them wiut 
Ithat they were of a mther daiier yello-w in colour than u aanally foond. 
^Thiii irforred to thcnn generally, imd not to any parlicniar muscla or seta 
of mnsctoe. 

The lumbar, crural, and sciatic ncrvc^s were exankiB<>d froin tlto itpot at 

rhioh ther enier^^ trom Uiu KjiiiuiJ cord u> t}ieir ultinuit« diiitKbuiiuns. 

w crural and lumbar nerves were perfectlv healthy. The sciatic iierre, 

tbe «>ertur<> through which it escapes n^im tho spine, was diirkcr in 

' toaa is osoaI. bcin^ of a ycllovrish-bro^-n huo. Its toxtnro was 

, and it« tihrillir' itoiiiewhiit liKwely conniM'tvd togvtJier. The norvu 

I of iu D8Dfd size ; btil, on tta^tni; it in iu counto tlirough the tnuaclea 

' the hanneh, acveral spots of ecch^-mosia pn'scntt?d bhoDuelrM, and wwo 

are particularly marked ou that part of the nerr« which ia connected 

tho aacroaciatio li^mcnt. Ab tho nci-ve appniached Uio hock, Jt 

oed iU nfttuTul oolunr and tone ; and the fibres nren off from it to 

itto mnsclcs situatod inferior to the sti&vjoiut wbro of a pcrfovtly healthy 

On dissectuif; out a portion of the neryo wh>cre it ap]>eared to be iu a 
" state, it was found that this ecchymoBis was confined to tho mem- 
tnTcstatnre of the nerre, and tliat its nbHtunce, when pn»sed ^m 
■boath, proaented a ptTTectly natiinil cbaractor. 

The MTitf of the cranium, and tho wholo extent of tlie iipiniU canni, 
were next laid open. The hnuu and opiaat marrow were deprived of thdr 
menihranoui) covcringK, and both th« thccffi and their contents diligently 
>«ianuued. There was no iMion in any part of them, not even at tho 

The arbcolation^ of every joint of tlic hind extrcmitios then undorweDb 
nupeotton, and no diifcosc eouM be detected in either of them. 

Profcmor SjuMiner was of ojiiiiion tliat Uits peculiar affixHion wa« not 
re&fahle to any diseased state of tiie brniti or ttpiuH.! cord, nor to any local 
affection of the mtuoW of the llruhs, but nniply to a morbid iiffvetion 
of the floiatic nerve. lie had not diHsccted a siiiele cose of etriii^liak in 
which he hid not found disease of this nerve, which mainly coDCributcs 
to snpply the hind extromiticii with senaation and the ]xiwer of roluntary 

As a proof that stringbalt may come on aoddouly the following is a case 
tn point. A raoe*horse called *WHrwick' fell ont of a borso-hox, wht-» 
tnTellins at the rate ot twenty miles per hour by rail between Holywell 
and Flint, iuhI when he oat np he waa affoctoil with iitTiii);luilb ; he wuti 
tnany rves aft^rwnrds. Tlio oani>e of the aeeidcnt was this; the home- 
baz wu BtMiding against a wall, and, wliilo loodisi;, the {wrters fur;uot to 
flwteo tho door next tho wall. Shortly after the train was in motion, the 
flap or door of the Iwi frll down, letting the horse's hind parts out ; bt-iui: 
tied np with atmiall raee-horso bead-collar, furtanately il bnike, aud lliii 
animal fell out on tho rails. Beiufr ft cold mominjf ho WA* wrapt np in 
extrv rugs, which »o enrctoped him na to prevent Uiu rails eatttng him. 
The tniin whh Ktoppeil, and th» horse was fituiid lying qniie anncTTed : 
Uio instant he wna niwken to be got up. and the ntahlc-boy led him away 
home. The only injary he recftived wua striiiRlialt in both logs, and ho 
had norur ahowu the least symptoms of it before ; ho was Sro yean old 
at tbe lime of llto accident. 



]Tow eoniH a rwy important qaestioii. What connet^tjoii is tlinro b** 
twMn strinflfakit mid tlie supposed vaJno or dot^riorallun of the horse? 
Somii cxponeBC«d pntctitionen HftTo-nuMatAmodthatit is a>pk<dg«of more 
than nsniil miuoaur poivvr. It io n common snpnK tbnt ' tucro Dimir woh 
a home irith otringbalt tbat mut inm{inl)1e of doing- tlie work rcxgaired 
ofhim.' Most certainly wo continually meet with horwca haviDg iilriiiglialt 
that ploasantlj ilischnrm all ordinaty, and ewn cxtraordiiiBiy, Eorvioc ; 
and altbon^ Btringbalt is oxcoas or in-^alar di&tribation of nervous 
power, it at leaot sliows the cxiiitcnct; of thub power, tuid tlii? capnbJLtj- in 
the mnwiLlar KjKtem of beiTi^ acted npon hy it. Irrvgnlnr (Itstrilnitinns of 
vital energy are sot, howorer, tbinas to be desired. Tboy orgne diacaie 
aod derangemeot of the system, ana a predisposition to greater deruigo> 
incDt. They iit«t*rially interfere with the speed of tlio hoi-so, Tbia wae 
decidedly tho oaae witli regard to the poor fcUuw whcrsv hiatoty hus been 

StiinghjUt is decided onaoandncas. It is an irregular vnpply of tJie 
nerroiu intlu^'nce, or a dis«a»pd etato of the nerrons or TnnBcnlar syvtem, 
or botit. It j>roTrnt8 na &om inddcDly aud at onco calling upon the bureo 
for tlio fall cxcrciiw of }ii.t Hpoetl and powrr, nnd tKen-rurv tt in tuMotmcf- 
luw; bat, generally Kpeaking, it no little interfere* with tlie Kcrviceii of 
the »«tw»fti, that, althoagh on nnBoundncaa, it would Dot weigh a great deal 
Bgoinst other manifest Talo&blo qiialitics. 


Tho strenm of norvons inHiuncB i« noiiu-tirm^s fitoppud, ami Ihoneo 
nwnlle paley. In the human boing gonc-ml paky #oini-ti[QCti <i(,'(^iira. 
The whole body — every organ of inution and of mtiihi.— la uaralysod. Tho 
reoorda of oar practice, lioweTer, do not aflnrd an a Kingle uistaoca of thta ; 
but of partial paralyiiia there are several cases, and moat ontmctable oqm 
they were. The caoso of them mrty be altogether nnknown. In the 
htunan Ixdug there ifi yet another didtmction, Hemiplegia and Paraplefcia. 
In the fonticr tlio affection ix confined to one tudc of the patient ; in tho 
latter tho [Knterior extremity on Intli titdeui in aJTectcd. Few cans of 
hemiplegia ocear in the horee, and tiiey are more nmnagefthle than tbon 
of panqueffia; hnt if the affection is not removed, tlieynsnally degenenle 
into pM»p1egia bofora tho doath of tho animal. It would appc&r mngnhr 
that this ahonld be the most oommos form of palsy in Uio uainan boin^, 
aod m raj<ely seen in the quadruped. There are aotne oonsideratkma, 
bowerer, that will partly aeconnt for this, Palsj' in the horse osuolly 
proceeds from injnry of the spinAl cord ; and that cord ia more develepttl 
and far larger than m tho homaa buLag. It is more vxpo«wd to iiuurr, and 
to iiyiuy that will afieot ufit tmii aide only, but tlu- whole of the ooni. 

niaj in tho hone, although fioractimcM attacking the fore extromitjai, 
ia hr more freqiuntly met with in the hind ones. The rraaun of tbiB in 
plain. The for« limbs are attaohed to the trunk by t, deoM maaa of highly 
ela«tic enbstance. Thia was placed botweea tho sbonlder-hlado and thiu 
rib* for the parpo«e ef promtting that concoMion, which would be ati- 
noying and even dangerooii to the horse or his rider. Rxeept in conao- 
iiuctieo of a fall, there ia eearccly tlu' poasibili^ of any noriou* injnry to 
tlio antennr portion of the B|]inv. Tho enee is Ttarr different with regard 
to the hind limbe and their sttachmeDb to the trunk : tliey arc ncceaHorily 
tiahlo to many » shock and sprain iujnrion* to the spine and ita oontenta. 
Tba loans and the back oftetii^st exhibit the leHioiu) of pubiy, l>ccniiM thnro 
■TO some of the meet violent raosoalar effoH«, and there i« the grealMt 
ll*(>*'Bount and tbo least support. It may, coii»c«|acn(ly, bo tAkon ■• m 







mxiom to guide tlie jndgmpot of the pmctitkiBer, Ui»t fiisj in tbe haras 
mltnoHt tnvariftblf procoedii frota disixsa or injary of tbe spine. 

We most frequtntly itK«t "with complete porAplefipA in the bQrM^ »a the 
rcsalt of Hnns nijarj to the sptDC. It soinctim«) cssacn wbt-n tho noitiuil 
hsM been ca«t for tlw [H'rfin'iu&nco of 8oine opermtiun : b« fltragglen vio 
lenUjr at first, bat after a time (xaaai. The opemtioQ being concladed the 
bobbles an reiDOTed, mnd attempts are made to cause the nnimnl to nriso ; 
bat tbeae are frutlou, and to the in^^at annoTftnce of the opcnttor. hia 
hind estramitir^ are fonnd to bo totoUy parul^scd. It is nhso met with in 
the faaDtin^-Gvhl, as a oonMquence of lli« amimid dnmping the hind ez- 
tmntties into a fenc^e, or when OBUopuiK aeroos a field, aoddenlr placing 
tho hind less into a drain or hidtun tren^ ; when this hsmwoBtne animu 
geoflrallr £aga bis bind cxtromities a ahorb distance ana falls ; ho will 
nun mailDe frajoenb cfloHa to get np again, bot will only sncccicd in raising 
faiB lore eztrvmitiM ; the hind ones are patmljvpd : in short, his ' liacic is 
broken.* It ma^ also be prodsoed bjr getting cnxt in the ttable, and 
■hpping ap, Ac. In most of th««e eoees the posterior dorsal or lumbar 
Tcrtebrv will l>e ftrund to Ui cither duiplaoed or fractnred.and the nymptoais 
will appear immedialely after the injury. Other causes of paraljrais are— 
edipoenre to cold and moisture, and disease atfecting the gpmal cord itself, 
or ite memhranos. When this is the case, we sometimce set premonttoiy 
Sfmptonu. The Grst syiaptoma gcncrallj noticed vrilT bo u pccalior 
rceling nriHteadiiims iu tiie animal's walk, which will Ix; iiicreased when 
be i» made to trot, the bind legs being to a certain extent dragged after 
him. This may continue for an uncertain length of time, but in most 
ranm. the animal will fi^t (gradually worse in a few days, until ho ftX\s 
ottdis nnablctoriacBf^iun. PnrulysiK mayaleo bo confined to certain purta 
onlv. Buch an the face, fur, and lijm ; another frequent instance of thia 
will bo fo<nnd in paralysis of the muscles on one side of the huynx, pro- 
ducing roaring. 

The tn«tnMnt of ^paralysis will not generally prove veij saooeaafoL 
If it reaulta &aro a violent iujurr, and we have reason to bolieve fi-om tbn 
circitnutanoea connected with il, and the total loss of both motive and 
— ctiimt power in tbe hind I'ltrt-iiiiticK, tlint some liactare or dislocation 
of the Tortebra baa token plfie(>, the animal should be at oitoo destroyed. 
If we Iiave premmiitMry Hyui]it<itii3 tiuffidiml t^i indicate tho approncb (n an 
attack of paralysis, a stroii}; do«c of purgative medicine should ba at once 
administmvd, aud this should be assisted hy frequent injections of warm 
water. The loins should be eoven»<l with a mnstard poultice, fiwjnently 
nmcwod. Tlic potivnt fhoaid be placed in a wcll-Tcntilatcd stable, kept 
wmrmly cloilied, and his food cousiiit for the firttt few du\-H of nothinf^ but 
bnui'ina«b. If the hone be down, the better plan to' ailopt will Im to 
make bim as comfortable as possible, taking care to turn h i"> an Uio other 
aids occasionally, so thnt the mnselcs mnj not become cramped. This 
will be better t^tan placing him in sllngv. If fuvourable sympttoaa appeari 
and the animal begins to n-^n thn une of hi^ limbs, he must not be in the 
slightest degree neglected, nor medical treatment suspended. There- are 
few difiCBses in w-hjcli the aninuil is more liable to a relapse, or where a 
relapse would be so fatal. The bowels should be kept rclased, counter- 
irritotioD continued over tbe hnns, and great attention paid to the animal's 
diet. Strychnine, and miyiy other iiieilicincs, Imw lieen strongly rccom. 
mended in attacks of pai-alysis, hut they are doubtful and powerfully 
dAOgeraoH remedies, if the disease assumea a somewhat ohronte form» 
an extimsivc and stimulating charge over the loins should be applied. It 
will accomplish three pnrposca— there will be the principle of cunnter- 
irritation, a defence against the cold, and a useful anpport of tho limbs. 


"VThen pamlysis is confined to certain parts alone, eucli ds tlic car, lips, 
and larynx, any apparent causo ahoold be at once removed, and then 
treated by connter-irritantfl, such oa blistm^ and sctons. 


The dieeaaes of the eye constitute a very important, bat a most nnsatis- 
factory di\'i8ion of our work, for the maladies of this organ, although few 
in number, are frequent in their appearance. They are aadly obstinate, 
and often baffle all skill. 

Occasionally a wound is inflicted by a passionate or careless servant. 
The eye itself is rarely ii^nred. It is placed on a mass of fat, and it turns 
most readily, and the prong of the fork glances off ; but the suhstanco 
round the eye may be deeply wounded, and very considerable inflammation 
may ensue. This shoald be abated by poultices, and bleeding, an<l pliysic ; 
but no probe should be used under the foolisli idea of ascertaining the depth 
of the wound in the lid, supposing that there should bo one, for, from the 
constant motion of the eye, it is almost impossible to paas the probe into 
the original wound, and the efibrt to accomplish it would give a great deal 
of pain, and increase the inflammation. 

The eyelida are subject to occasional inflammation from blows or other 
injuries. Fomentation with warm water will bo serviceable here. 

The horse has occasionally a scaly eruption on the edges of the eychds, 
attended with groat itohing, in the effort to allay which, by rubbing the 
part, the eye may be blemished. The nitrated ointment of mercury, mixed 
with an equal quantity of lard, may bo slightly nibbed on the edges of the 
lids with considerable good effect. 

The eyelidjs will sometimes become oedematous. Horses that are fed in 
low and humid pastures ore subject to this. It is also the consequence of 
inflammation badly treated. Tho eyelids are composed of a lax structure, 
and the tissue is somewhat deficient in vitality — hence this disposition to 
onfiltration. Sometimes tho collection of fluid accumulates so rapidly, and 
MO extenaively, that tho eyes arc closed. They should bo well bathed with 
warm water mingled with an aronmtic tincture. The cellular substance 
of the hds will thus be disposed to contract on their contents and cause 
Uieir absorption. 

Old carnage-horses are subject to this ccdema ; and it frequently accom- 
panies both chronic and common ophthalmia. 

Weakness and dropping of the upper lid is caused by diminution or loss 
of power in ite muscles. Dry frictions and astringent lotions will fn>- 
qncntly restore the tone of the parts. 

The eyehds ore subject to occasional injury from their situation and 
office, in small incised wonnds of them great care should be taken that 
the divided edges unite by the first intention. TItis will liast4<n the euro 
and prevent deformity. If any of the muscles arc divided, it is usually 
tho ciliary or orbicularis palpebrarum. This lesion must bo liealod, if 
possible. By tho first intention, and either by means of adhesive pi iHtcr or 
the suture. The suture is probably tho preferable agent. 

If the accident has occurred many hours before Dcing natice<1, and a 
portion of tho upper lid hangs over the eye, it should on no account bo 
removed without attempts being made to ciiuso it to unite by taking A 
Hbarp scalpel, and removing a small jiurtioii from the lacerated edges and 
afterwords bringing them together with metullic sutures. Great aire 
■hould )>e afterwards token to secure tho animal'ti head in such a positioD 
that he cannot mb the wound against the manger or wall of tlie stable. 

Suppnmting wounds in Uio ej'elids nuty be the I'unHi-queiice of the ne- 


cessaiy abetraotdon of a considerable Borface of the skin in the removal of 
w^rte or tmnonrs. Tho principal thing to be attended to is the ft^uent 
removal of the pus bj means of tow or cotton wool. The rest majr 
generally be left to natnre. 

Inversion of tho lid is of very rare OGCiirren(» in the horse. 

Warts are somotimeB attached to ttie edg^ of the lids, and are a source 
of great irritation. When rubbed they bleed, and the common opinion is 
true — that they are propagated by the blood. They shonld be token off 
with a sharp pair of Bcisaors, and their roots touched with the lunar caustic. 

The membrane which covers the haw is subject to inflammation. It 
is, indeed, a continuation of the conjunctiva, the inflammation of which 
oonstdtutea ophthalmia. An account of this inflammation will be better 
postponed until the nature and treatment of ophthalmia comes under 
particular notice. 

The Haw, or Membrana Nictitans, is subject to inflammation peculiar 
to itself, arising from tbe introduction of foreign bodies, or from blows or 
other accident«. The entire substance of tho haw becomes inflamed. It 
swells and protrudes from the inner angle of the eye. The heat and red- 
ness gradually disappear, but the membrane often continues to protrude. 
The inflammation of this organ assumes a chronic character in a very 
short time, on account of the Btmcture of the part«, which are in general 
little susceptible of reaction. 

The ordmaiy causes of this disease in the horse are repeated and 
periodical attadu of ophthalmia, and blows on the part. Young and old 
Aorses are most subject to it. 

Emollient appUcations, bleeding, and restricted diet will be proper at 
file commencement of the disease, and, the inflammation being abated, 
■Ught aatringents will be usefdl in preventing the engorgement of tbe 
pari. Bose-water with snbscetate of lead will form a proper collyrium. 
If the protruding body does not diminish after proper means have been 
-faried, and for a sufficient period, it must be removed with a curved pair of 
Bcisson. No danger will attend this operation if it is performed in time. 

Uloeration and caries of the cartilage will Bometimea be accompanied by 
ulceration of the conjunctiva. This will frequently prove a very serious 

The Carancula Lachrymalis, or Tubercle, by means of which the tears 
are directed into tho canal through which they are to escape from tho 
nostril, is sometimes enlai^d in consequence of inflammation, and the 
Puncta Lachrymalia, or condnita into which the tears pass from the eye, 
are partially or completely closed. Tbe application of warm and emol- 
lient lotions will generally remove the collected mucus or the inflammation 
of the parts ; but if the passago of a gtylet or other more complicated 
meuis are required, the assistance of a veterinary surgeon should be 
immediately obtained. The lachrymal sac into which the tears pass from 
the poncta has occasionally participated in the inflammation, and been 
distended and ruptured by tho tears and mucus. This lesion is termed 
Fitivla Laehnjmalis. It Ims occasionally existed in colts, and will require 
immediate and peculiar treatment. 

The indications of common inflammation of the eye Are so clear, that 
it never ought to bo confounded with specific, for in it the external 
coveringa of the eye alone are implicated ; we have engorgement of tho 
conjunctival membrane, accompanied with a marked circumBcribed opacity 
of the transparent comoa, and tliat is all ; there is no effusion lu tho 
anterior chamber, giving that discoloured muddy appearance ho charac- 


teristic in specific opbthalmia ; the iris remains clear and bright, and the 
If ns is nnafiected. 

This common inflammatdoa is generally sudden in its attack. It ia 
occasionaUy connected with an attack of catarrh or cold ; bat it is aa often 
unaccompanied by this, and depends on external irritation, as a blow, or 
the presence of a bit of hay-seed or oat-husk within the hd, and towards 
the onter comor where the haw cannot reach it ; therefore the Uda should 
always be carefully examined Ets to this possible source of the complaint. 
The lids will be foond swollen, and the eyes partially closed, with more or 
less weeping, the inner snrfaoe of the eyeUds red and tumid, and the cornea 
will either appear bright or clondy, according to the extent of theinjnry. 
It not unfrequently happens when the injury has resulted from the lash 
of a whip, or a thorn, that the conjunctiral membrane becomes lacerated ; 
and sometimes the injury extends to the cornea. 

Our first object by way of treatment should be to ascertain the canse of 
the mischief by carefully examining ihe eye and the removal of any of- 
fending object. The animal should be placed in a cool but somewhat dork 
box, the eye should be bathed with warm water, lazativo medicino given, 
and the animal kept on eott diet. If the inflammation bo very acute, blood 
may be taken from the facial vein. In a few days the inflammation will 
generally subside, and then a weak solution of sulphate of zinc may be 
apphcd. When the acute inflammation has passed away, the cornea is 
sometimes left very tense and cloudy : we may now apply stimulants to its 
surface in the form of solution nitrate of silver (gr. viii to Jj aqua distillata), 
at first injected for twenty-four hours, and then ceasing for two or three 
days, and again employing it if necessary. When we get granulations on 
the cornea as the result of lesions, nitrate of silver must be applied in 
its pnre state. 


In this we have a far more formidable and destructive disease than the 
one just described ; it is, indeed, cue of the opprobia of veterinaiy science, 
utterly baffling all its resources and running i^ course erratically, indeed, 
bat most surely and dcBtractivcly. The aqueous hnmour often losei 
its transparency — even the iris chimges its colour, and the pupil is exceed- 
ingly contracted. Indeed the term Iritis, or inflammation of the iris, will 
convey a much more intcUigiblo idea of the disease than any other, for it 
is this, with the other internal tissues of the eye, that especially suffer &om 
its devastations. The external parts of the eye are comparatively bat 
little imphcated, and saSer only in a comparative degree ; bat see its effects 
on the iris, which gives the colouring and beauty to the eye, — its brilliant^ 
ia lost, its texture is broken down, it is a dark, discoloured curtain ; look at 
the symmetrical pupil with ite lull rounded edge,— it is lacerated and torn, 
jagged and disfigured, as if mechanical destruction had torn it; then ita 
centre ornament, the beantifnl lens, transparent as a crystal, clear as ■ 
diamond, is become disorganised, crushed, discoloured, a shapeless opaqns 
lamp, instead of the bright transparent conductor, — the light of heaven 
can no longer permeate it, and total blindness is the result. 

The veterinary snrgcon has now an obstinate disease to combat, and one 
that will generally maintain its ground in spite of all his efforts. For three, 
or fbur, or five weeks, the inflammation will remain undiminished ; or if it 
appears to yield on one day, it will return in redoubled violence on the 
next. At length, and often unconnected with any of the means that have 
boon used, the eye begins to bear the light, the redness of the membrane 
of the lid diitapj)eani, the cornea clears up, and the only vestige of diseaae 
which nrmains is a slight thickening of the lids, and apparent uneasinesa 
when exposed to a very strong liglit. 




' abrtraetion of a coDaidi<nible aariaco of the akin id thi> retnoTiv] nf 
wrarto or tumours. Tho princijwil thiiif; to ha n+.tondfd to ta Ihe ftvqii<>iit 
rumoral of tho pus by mnuis gf tww gr cottou wool. Tko rest may 
genemlly be left to nntn n. 

InrorsHin ortlM> lid i« of very ran) occurpenoo in tho homo. 

Warta are Rometimes attiK-lied to the edges of the lids, aud are ft lumrco 
of gnat irritutivn, Wlicn ruhljcd they l)lcfd, a«d tlie coounon opiiiioa in 
trao — tliat they arc pri^pngatvd by tliv blood, Tlicy sliould be token off 
with n hIiuf}) piir of ftciaHont, aad tJu-ir ronU touched i"rith tli« lanarcatistio. 

TIh' inomhrane which covers the haw is subject to inflauunatiou. It 

, indeed, a contitmiLtion of tho conjunctiva, the inilamtaation of whioh 
il«« ophthftlmia. An n«count of this inflnmrnation will be Lutk-r 
ased until tho nutum und truitiatiit of uphthalmin comca muler 
aculftr iiotici'. 
'The Haw, op ilembrana NiHifatu, in subject to inflamimition pocnliRr 
lo itself, ariring from the introdnctioii of tbreiffn bodies, or from blows or 
oUmt aocideDts. The entire subEtonco of tho liaw becomes iuflamod. It 
nr^b and protrudes fmiti tlir inner anglu of tlic cyo. The heat and nM]< 
nema gradually di«api>ear, but Uie membrauBoftjjii cnntinuoM to protradp, 
Tho ipflammatiop of tliis orgim assmues a chponic ehamotirr in n vn-rj- 
■bott time, on account of t)ic atructuro of tho pttrto, wliiob are in general 
Utile suaccptiblo of reaction. 

^e ordinary cauKit of this di.smte in th© honio iirc repeated and 
twriodical attacks of oplitbaioiiiL, and blows on tb« part. Youuff Hnd old 
boncH are moRt nubject to it. 

Bmollient appbcationa, blecdinp, and restricted ciUct will bfl proper ab 
Uie commencement of the <lt»ciu)e, und, tlic inlliunraatioa boioK annted, 
■light a!<tnng>-iitj< will \h: uHt'l'ul in prevpntiu^ tbi; engorgvmvnt of tho 
nurt. Jtodo- water with subacetate of lead will form a proper cotlyrium. 
If the protrndiiig body doea not dinuDinh after proper meonH hnvo boen 
tried, and fur a stiflicitiit period, it nmst lx> romovt-d with a curvtil pair of 
KUaors. No danger will uttcnd tliiji opcrution if it is performed in ilin<?, 

D1oriHCii>n and (^nj-ici* iif ihti cnrt.iliipi^ will Homi'tiiiiEW Iw tUMX>nip«jued by 
vliwnition of the coiijunetiva. Thin will frefjaofitly prove a very serioua 

The Caroncula LachTyiDAli«, or Tubercle', by mouu of whieh thv tvara 
arc directed into thu i»nal ilirough whi<!^h tboy arc to escape from tlio 
nootnl, ia xometimea enUr^d in caaacrfncnce of inflnm rant ion, an<l tho 
Poncta Ijachrytnaliii, or contluils into which the teani nof^o from lhi< oye, 
aro partially or cumplctvly eloxiid. The appliciilion ol warm and cmol- 
liooi lotionil will gencmlly n-move tlieeuLU'vtc'd mucus or tho iuflammaticni 
of tlio [lartA i bat if tlto poasap; of a stylet or oilier more oomplicatcd 
incana are re(|Ttired, tlie aasistiuicc of n veterinary surgeon ahfiuid bo 
imtnediatuly obtaiiwd. The kuJirynial ttac into which the U^tra pa&s from 
tho pnncta has oeeosionally participated in the inHammation, and born 
divtciide*! aud mptored by tho tears and mncua. This lc»ioa is termed 
FiaitUa LnchriimatU. It hiui occauonolly existed in colta, and will rtijuiru 
inimc<l!ate und pvcnliar trccitintnt. 


Tho indicAtiona of oomman innnmmutina of the eye ju« so clcAr, tliat 
ii never on^bt to b« confounded with xpncifie, for in it tho uxtemnl 
oovorings of tho eye alone are imulioatt-d ; wo linvc cngort;em(>Qt of tbo 
coiijnnctival mi-jubrane, nccompamcd wilb a morlced circumscrilwd opacity 
[if Uu- IransiMUvnt eomfa. unit that is all i thL-re is no eflhsion in the 
anlLTior cbambiT, giving that diMoloarvd tnuddy &|ip«ftrailco «o clitu«o- 



if t3>ere be a wliite ohjocrt imroediatel; before tlic oje, m a vetj liglik 
waiitcoat, or rnndi displaj of a white neokcloth, the rejection may nnnle 
KB experianced obaerrar, and has muLed tbe c&reletn odo. The* coat choald 
be battoti«d up, and tbo white cravnt carefiilly ooQCcalc^. The canaa of 
this iaflftinmAtion is undonbtpdl; u stroDg prcdispodtioD to it in the vje 
of th« horw, bat aasist^d bym-«r cxcnion and the heated and empmaoDM 
air of many stablm. The heated air baa mccfa to do with the prodnetion 
af tha diacaae ; the empoisoned air a ^r«bt deal more ; for erery one mnat 
hare obaenred, on entering a close stable early in tJw mormufCi strong 
fbtoea of anunonia, which were painfiil to his eyes, and caused thi> tears to 
Bow. What most be thii eoostatit action of this on the eros of the horse? 
Tha dang oftha hone, and tliu littor of thv stables, whonWcomiuf; putrid, 
emit foBwa of volatile alkali or ammonia. Often, vuj coon after tho 
•vaeoatiooa are voided, they begin to yivkl nn imnii'DM quantity of thia 
pnn(r«nt put. If we are scarcely able to bear thin when we stand in the 
stable for only a few minatea, ire need not wonder at theprerklence of in. 
flumaatKdl in tho oyo of tho stahlod boreo, nor at tli« difficolty of abatintf 
mflaiiiTitrfr— whilo tlus otf^n conbinacs to be exposed to snch painAu 
excitement. Stables are now much better TcntiluU-d tliiui tbuy osodtolM^ 
and ophthalmia is Ikr from being eo prevalent lu it waa fitly yf«ra »Kt>. 
This diaewse generally conunencei daring tho night, and is OBunlly dn- 
teoted in the morning, as soon as the horse is tamed in his stable to ha%-e 
his bead wid neck drossed. In many rases one eye only suflera, the attack 
TfiTtirrg tvn days or a furtnightf then subnding, and ivtiiming periodicaUy 
evtrry threu weeka or a month. Wlica this is tho case, the otlKT eye on- 
tiTely eccapes, receiving ailditionol valnc fi^m its comparison with ila on- 
fbrtnnatv fullow. Bat uiif<jrluiiii(«ly this too often is not tbo case ; but uq 
the subttidatiou of tho atuu^k in one eye, the miscbief is browint; in tbe 
other ; it lias to go tbroagb tbe name devastating p roc ess , and tbe resolt 
to both ia derangement, worse almost in its e&cta than oomploto dia. 

Tbe propaffstion of varioos diacaaea, and this more than any other, from 
tha atra to hia progeny. luw not been safficiantly cooaidered by breeders, 
list a stallion tnat is blind, or whose sight is defective, poaaeas erery otlier 
point and qoality that can be wished, yet he is wora« than oseleas ; lor a 
Tery consttlerablo proportion of hia oBViprins will most assuredly inherit 
weak cyca or become totally blind. There w no fiict better eaiahlisbed 
tban this. tb«iro is no mow positive proof of the existence of hereditary 
di«««s« Uuui this : in many instances tbo enttro progeny of tho blind sire 
or dam have been impbesUid in tho dcstmctivo oiieaac. 

The most freanient consequences of thie disease are clondinesa of the tyv^ 
and cataract. The ctondineaii is sioffular in it« oafctire. It will change in 
twenty-four boon from tbe thinnest film to the thickest c^iaeity. and, aa 
•uddenly, tho eye will noarly regain it« pcrfi>ct transparency, bat only to 
lose it, and us rapidly, a tvcond time. 

Tbe most barborooa tnetbods have been resorted to for the purpose of 
remoring tKis cloodiaesa. Chalk, and aak, and sugar, and orcn poinded 
olaas hav^ been introdaced into the eye meobaniouly to mb oQ' tbe film. 
It was forgotten that tho cloedinooi was the eflbet of inflammation ; thai 
means ao faarsb and omcl wore very likely to recall that inflammation ; 
tliot these rongh and sharp snbstaaces must of necoaaity inflict esoni* 
eiating pain ; and that, after all, it generally waa not a film on the soHkca 
of (he oonMSL. hot a diraneas pervnditm its sofaetaneo, and even sinking 
deep within it, and therefore not capable of being removed. Where tha 
otoodinesa con bo rctnoved, it will Ite best eflcrtod by first abutin^ iuilaiiK 
nation, and thtm exciting the absorbents to lake np tbo gray dejioait, by 



Iha 0^6 with & v«r7 woiik solation uf nllrate of silver or salphnte 


Opacity of the loiu m lujotJiur cMtw^ueuvw ofsiK-citlv infUunmU'tiuii. A 
white M|<i.-ck appears on tiie cuiiIth; of the teiiH, wliicli gnulually Hptiiids 
ovur it, and conipletely coi'ent it. It is generally so white and jieariy m 
no4 to be mislakcn; at otKer times it is more hazy, dccc-ivin^ the incjc* 
|>frii;iic«i, aud occaBJouiu); doubt iii tlic roind of tht> proftRBioiial nian, W« 
bitV(t mtcti laaEy instances In wliicli the sight has bcon consititnibly nJfcptpd, 
or almtMit lost, and yet the horai> haii betm uronuuncud Nouad liy very fair 
judffM. The eye most he ex|K)iied to the liRlit, tvnd yet under iho kind of 
Kli«lter which hjm Ix^cti ah-Mwly doseribcd, in orilpr tii diMCoi'cr tho dofcct, 
Tbe pnpil of the horei- is luildum hlock, like that of the homon Wing, And 
tta gre^'ixh lino coiicenia tlie recent or thin film that may Ijh spreuding 
over tJio ktns. 

Coofinned catomrt in the eyo of tb{^ bone ndmitti of no remedy, for two 
obrions rc««o;iH : the retwctor nmnf^Ie draws tlm i-yn bnvk bo iJOwurfuUy 
and MJ df»-jily into the socVel, that it would he. dilllcult to [x-rfonn nny 
opvmtion ; and Hlionld an opt^mtion be performed. nnUI the o]iiu|ue k-iiM 
removed, the sight would be so imperfect, from the raya of lifrht not being 
mfliiUKntly converged, tlmt the horen wonld bo wome to nn than a hliud 
one. The man who has undergone the operation of coaching may put a 
new lena before liis eye, in the form of ti euiivex Hpectaeic ; hot we cannot 
adapt spectacles to tho vve uf thit horao, or fix thnni there. 

Sincu the publication, of tho fi rst edition of ' Tlio Horse,' aome coniniu- 
Bicationa hare beLti mude in the KtvtTiith vnliunv of tho ' Votorinarian' 
with reganl to the occatioiial ap^wararire and (ii)iH])pMLnuico of catamct 
without nny connection with tiie common inoon-blindnoMS. It is thrro 
Ctsted, that colonct* might bo formed in a fortuigfat or throe weeks -, that 
loatij instancoi had been known in which they hud Ikvo completed in less 
time, and withtmt any previouH apiMtrenl diMHaiw of the oyo» ; and tliat 
they hiul bm)n detected on cxiuuiuation, when tho ownoni had not the 
alif^tcat Ruspieion of diiiettac in the eye. ThvM catarncta, however, were 
very ininntc, and occaaionally were found aHer a time to have dirappean-d. 
Tboj differ eulirtity from the oatametN produced hy t}ie repcatefl atUtckH 
of specilie ophlJialmia, in being small and temporary, and in tho oUier tiamcii 
of u\K eye reniaiuing intact. 

Tliat excellent veterinarian, Mr. Percivall, ha4 a case of tliin dv«cnption. 
A gentleman hronnht a horse one morning to the hospital, in conaetiuence 
of its having fidlen in hlx way to town, lutd gnood his eyebrow. On 
exannntng bun carrfhlly, tho comeiv wnA fmrtially nobatouB, and a calamet 
wuB plainly visible. Neither of thoau dvfvot* wm anfficienb to attract tho 
notice of nny uiipntfrastoiwl ofaaerrer, and botli were naconnectcd wilh the 
alight bruinw produced by tho tail. The owner wna told that the corneal 
opacity might poftaibly be removed; bat as for the cataract he might 
Tt-gan! ihin us beyond the reach of medicine. He returned with his hon>e 
on tht- tifVh day, aaying tliat tho pliysic had operated well, and that ho 
thought tlic eye was as clear iia ever. Mr. Percivall examined the eye, 
and eonid discover nu relic citlier of tho eomeal o]Hieity orof tlie cntiiract. 

The opinion respecting cataraet is therefore cesontially modified. It 
may not of neceeaity he the result of prerioas inflammation, olthongh in 
tile great m^ority uf cnses it is tto, uor does it always lead to UimlueM. 
Still it is a eonont Uiing at all ttmm, and, although ezislilBtr in the 
minutest degroo, it ia uruotatdaat, and very materially lc««cns »e raitu) 
of Iho horse, 

•Wen? I asked.' «ay« Mr. Percivall, 'how tlie praotitionrr roitld best 
^gtinguisli a oatmnKt of the above descrijitJon from, that which ia of ordi* 



nnry r>c!Ctirnnuw, ftnil knovn by db all to conntitato iJic eommon termina. 
tion of poriodioal ophthalmin, I ehoiiM say ttint tbo onnsnaiiy luciJ and 
livallby ttsjM.'ot x-hicb irvunr olbcr part of the eye prfHcnta is nur best 
(lia(jmo»ticai^; tho itliglttuHt intlicatiou, liuw«>vc<r, orUioiiIiglitciitsaspicioii 
of prior or present intiammation, Iwiiij^ n rorwoii for foniiii^ to a ilinVii'nt 
ooncIasEoa. As to the p#riod of time a cataroGt of thin spociM, 6upfx>8in); 
it to bo mvmbrnuoua, would ri-quiru for itd funuutiou, I slioultl itppri'faond 
tbat ita production mi^bt be, as it* disapiieamiiKe ofleu would HtTin to be, 
tlio work of a Tt?ry short interval, perbnps tot mora than five or «ix dayx.' 
Ag to tho cnii»ti and tnmtmcTit of it, wo aro at prMPtit compltt^Iy in'iJio 
(lark. !f it do(<« Dot soon di«iippcar, the hydi-iodatc of potash adiuiuisUircd 
mtcmally might offer tlic bc«t prospect of success. 


Anotlier apeoiM of bliadnes]), and of which mention wm rondo when do- 
BOiibin^ the retina^ is Chitta. Sorena, cotomonly calli'd yhu* eyt. Tho pupil 
\a more tJian nsoaUy dilated : it is immoTabfe, bright, and gW»y, nnu tlio 
anizoal is totally blind. Thi« is palsy of tlio optic nerve, or its ex- 
MDsioD, the retina. It may bo producwl by scTi?ra1 causes, micb as 
mnn a blow on tb» hoad, internal ha'iQorrhago, pressure, the result of 
tatnoara, or efihsion upon Uint particalar part of tiio brain fivan wlicncw 
tiio optic Donrcs ariso, from aomo disease of tlio retina iteolf, or ns the ro- 
Bult of dobiliUtinr diseoHM. The tnmtnicnb of Ontta Scrcnn is quit« na 
ctiflEealt aa that of catanu^t. Wn hare himrd of gnccewtful coma, but ww 
norer iaw one ; nor shonld wci b(> disposed to incur much czpemu; in findca- 
Toariup to accomplish iajpoiBibiliti<«. IT it proceed from iujuncn 9>uvh as 
blows, Ac, wane fomentations slioald be employed and tietons insert^Hl. 
huatire medicine* bein^^giren; if fVom debility we should allow nntrititms 
food, and ^ve vef^etablc and mineral tonics. If we siioi^eed it roniit be by 
oomttituttonol troatjuuut. As to local troatmcut, the scat of disease is oat 
of our reach. 



Thla is a diaoose oooasiooally met with as a termination of ophthalmia, 
niid kiion-n by the name of n«ea cataract ; but it is ma4;b more frt'c{uf nt Ij 
DKtt with as u FBsalt of ago in TOry old horseH. On exaininntion tlia jnipil 
will be foond dilated, and tho interior of tho eye presenting a poouliar 
sea-greea appearance, the animal bcinjj* blin<l. It is a disoased ooadiLiun 
of tho Titrcoas bomoor, and admits of no niUef. 


Wounds of tho ear are n)inii.Ily thti coiisi'tjufupB of careless or brutal 
treatment. The twiteb may )»> applied to it, when ahsoluto nciM'wiity re- 
quires this def;reo of coercion; but troublesome ulei-rs and bruisn ItaTn 
been the oonaequencuof the abase of this species of pnnihhment, sad mora 
eapeoially has vut fiurier done irreparable misclucf when ho has bratalljr 
taado nso of his plycts. 

These braises or wounds will (generally — fortnnntvly for ibe animal, and 
forbanalely, parhapH, for the bmte that inflicted the injury — speedily heal ; 
but occasionally sinuses and abscewos will resntt that bid defiance to the 
must Hkilfal traatment. A simple laeerulinti of tliv cartilage is emrily^ 
remedied. Th« divided edffcs are bronght into apposition, and the hcmt \» 
tinl up closely tav a few (Lays, and all is well ; bat, oooaeionHlly, aleemtitm 
of the tittegoment and onllalar snbstanoe, and caries of the r4irtiln(^. will 
take plaoe—'dwp uniiM« will be Itnmod, and tho wound will bid deSunco 



lo the most ftkilful troalmprt. The writer of th^vork hiul once a case of 
this kind undrr his e»r* more than two montlis, and ho wan «t lOTjjftih eom- 
pcUcU to cntulTtlio cur, tlio otbcr car follovrinf; it, for tlio eakc o( aal- 
fomiity of n|>iH'»nmee. Tfae lamir cnu»tic, or ihv ninrui't<> cif tmtimoiij^, or 
the heated iron, muat bo mrij umployctt, nr tltP liilioiir of the practitiouor 
mil he in vain. 

It lias been tlie inisfortuiie of the aame {wniou io witocsa tvo eases in 
tTliiuli the aaditorr paaHa^ \raa closE'd niid the faculty of hcariiif; de> 
KtToycd, bj* blows on the ear \-iolently inflicted. Ko pumKhment cua he 
t4>o sevppp for tluwu Iirutea in hnmnn shape. HVhenever thcpo is consider- 
able KWfitiinf^ kbout the root of tlio car, and thoflnctnation r>f n tliiid within 
oan i>v tlt-tM-tcd, it nkould bu immcdialclj opvnod with u lanvt-t, and tita 
ponilioib fluid libei-atM. 

The abMetu oaonliy begins to fomi abont the middle of the tonch, or 
rather nefuvr the base than tho point. Tho inejjdon should bo of con- 
eidvTablo lonf:th, or the opening will vloee again iu fi>ar>aad-twca]ty hours. 
The pomlcnt matter Imvinjr been evacnatcd, the incLiion ahoald not be per- 
mitttti to rinse until the edg>ea of tho ulcer have adhered to each otner, 
und the alMc'Cfw i* nhlitorat«d. 

Tlie nzcr niul tho oiirnjij^ of tho ear do not aIwa^jv plcnso. Tho t^nt may 
bu larfwr mid moru drpcndtTit thoin funhioxi n-qtttm tiii'in to he, nnd this ik 
remedied hy an njieration. On f-ither nidt- of ihi- projection of the oocipitnl 
bon^ and in a straight line forward and bnckwnrd, a fold of the skin ia 

Cinohed up and ctit nway. The divided edges on either side are thi^n 
rviiKhi toirctlior, and conlincil by two or Ihrco Htitches — they prcacntljr 
onitv, and tho owner hiw n better- looking hone, nnd soan forgcto or euros 
Dot atxiiit the pniuahment which he has inllicted on him. 

Tho tant of other horsM tniiy b« 8iip|K)»(id to bo too closo to each nthvr. 
Thi« fnolt io corrected hy another piccu of craclty, Siouhir alipa of skiii 
are cut iiway on the ont«idc of tho bEtso of tlio car, and in thu Hamo direc- 
tion, Tho ttlirefl i>( the woaiid are then broufffat together, eonfined hy 
HUtarca, and tlie Oftrs are drawn ftirtlier apart irom each other, and havo 
diffiirt^at direottonc siven to thom. A very sb'ght cziuiiiiiatioii of cither of 
llie horsM wiU readBy detect tbc impottition. 


Of the occaaional exiatcnco of this in the hon«, there u no doubt. The 
beantifbl play of tho ears has ooshI, and the horse beam not thi* I'uiec of 
his master, or the sound of tho whip. Much of th« apparent siuptdity of 
a few horses is attribatablo to their imperfect hearing. It ocuLnionally 
uppcnnt t<i fullow tho dL'clinu of vnrioa.i diseases, and citpocially of those 
that' aflVct tho heo'l and llie n>Apinilory pa8ivigi-«. ft has been the conse- 
i|U«nce of bmtAl treatment otosiiag tlie conduit of tlie ear, or rupluring the 
lynpanam ; and it is ocrtaiuly, a« in other domculicatvd nninialtr, iho »c- 
compauiment of old a^. 

In tho present Ktote of veterinarj-VnowIcdgc it ijian inenrahle complaint; 
the only thine that i:an bu done is nut to punish the poor slare for his 
appATcnt stnpidity, prodnocd perhaps by orer-exertion in our eerrico, or, at 
least, the natural attendant of thu closo of a life devoted to oa. 






We now proceed to a description of thcfoM, or lower part of the head of 
the Uun«. The natal bones, or lx>iiai of the none (Jj, p. 145), are Otm- 
neoied with tlio fronuil IxinvM a1k)t«, aad with th« laohiynwl, i i, kod 
the bones of llio ap|M>r jaw, I /, on either aide. They an: uiilod to^ber 
bj a plam Butnrr, whicti i» a cioiitiiinAtion of tlii; fruntu.1. unil tliey ter< 
TTi'"*** in a [Kiiiit lit the :uMtril (ji, p. 14£). They tire roLiiuU-«) and arched 
above, because tiie^ are exposed to occanonal violence aud injut^-, wliicli 
tbo arob'fona will enaMe tann best to reebt; and at the baw of tbearcL, 
wbere the main Btrenplh should he. they arc overlapped by Uie upfKtr jaw- 
bone, as the temporal tmnc overhipa the base of the jiarictAl. These boncs 
form a prinei|wl part of the fiK-e ; and tlis Uiogtb or ahortaess, and tbe 
olianet4.T»f the tuco, depeiid a]Km tbeni. SotnotimM there is an appearw 
Buce of two Uttio archvK, with a deprowioa between ihcm along tbo 
aatorca. This ia often foniiJ in the blood-honie, with liis comfMratively 
brcHui hc«d and fatie. The !tiiit;le eleratad ari:h is foujid in the long and 
BWrow face of tlie heavy draught-horse. 

The aa«al bones pumie their coarse down the fitee, in iromc horses in n 
straighi line — in others, there is a sUght pramiaeoco towards the nppcr 
part, while in a connderablo anmbor, a deprewrioii is observetl a little 
lower down. Some persona hare imagined that this deviation in tbe line 
of the face affords an indicntion of the temper of tho animal, and there 
may be a liLUo truth in this. Thohorso with a etraiffht pmlile may be 
good or bod tempered, but not often either to any fpeat excess. The one 
with tbe prominent Itoman nose wtU generally bo an eaay, good-tempered 
kind of bcnst- — hardy — ready enongh to feed, not always, perhajig, so 
ready to work, bat may be made to do his daty without any eroel nrying, 
and having uo nxtraorilinary pretcosion to speed or blood. On the other 
Land, a depreasioa aoross tbe centre of tbe dobo generaliy iudioLtes some 
breeding, eapeoially if the head ie small, but oeetLsionoUy aeoompanied by 
a vicaoos, tuacontroUable disposition. 

There is another way, lioworer, in which the naaol Iwucs do moro 
ootainlj indicate the breed, Tia., by their comparatJTe length or shortonw. 
There is no florar oritatioa of a well-bred bono, than » broad aagnhu* 
for^uad, prominest featares, and a short face ; nor of a horso with little 
Vreedingi than a narrow furehvud, tuiuill featareit, aud len^hcnc<l noac, 
The oomporalive dcve1o|iRieatof the hi^ and face indicates, with little 
erriir, the prej^iidiTauce of the animal or intellectual princijile. 

TluMW bones form the roof of an important cavity — the nasal eavi^, a« 
■hown in the out (a, a, p. 197), The sides are constituted aborc by the 
aaaal bones, and, lower down, by the upper jawbones («n;)endr tnaxiUanemy, 
while platae from these latt«r lx)uc« prujuct ami compose the palate, which 
is both the floor of the nose and the roof of tlio 'month (b, li). Above is 
a bone called the jni^mw {e), although it eontribntee very little to (he 
formation of tbe palate^ Ir m tbe termination of the palate, or the border 
of the opening where the caviUca of the moutli and nooe mevtv The 
fVontal siitujies and large racuities in the npper jaw-bono, nnd in the 
Wthmoid nnd sphenoid bones, oomannicate with and enlarge tJte cavity 
et tbenoae. 






nuB oavi^ i» diTidcd into two parti by » cartitogc called llie Sfpinia 
(dy d). It u of DOiuiderablo Uuckness and sCrengUi, and diridos tiio 

oftTitiF' of tlie none into tiro equal parts. Tt 18 p1ii«e<l in the centre fnr tile 
purpose of ftrciigth. And it in farmed of cnrtifa^, in ni'deT tliat, hy- iu 
giudnally yielding resistanoe, it mny neutralixn almotit may force that rosy 
bo applied to it. 

When wn open the nostri!, wo nee the membrane by which the raHilnKf, 
and tJio whole of the cax-ity of Uie noNe, ift linttd, and by the colour of whic-h, 
iniich more than by that of the linittg of the pyplids, we jadj^e of the degree 
of fever, and particulai'ly of inflnmniftlion of tlie hmgs, or any of the aip- 
TMUMieefl. Tlio above cut shows the raniifirntinna of the Wood-vesseJfl, 
with arterial mid Tenotis, on the membrane of the nose. It ht>aatifnlly 
aeeounta for the oecnrnte oonmxTtioTi which wo tnuso betwetm the colour 
of the lutsal mcmbnini'. antl vanous diseases or ittatcs of tliv circiilutioil. 
Dt llio sort! places or nlcL-nitions discovvred on ihis meiiibnine. we 
Ubewiw detorrnine respectinp the exirtenco of glandent ; aiid the inter- 
pofrition of the septum ih a wiw and benevolent prot-iiHon to hinder th« 
sprcA'l of the mischief, by cuttiu); off all (.'"mmiiiiii.'utiuii with the m'igb- 
Ixturing part«. ond niso to pn-SL-rvL- one iiustril pt-n-ious, when the ether [| 
diwased or olwtnicleil. Thi- iiimal cavity in, on vither side, owupied hy 
two bnneo, which, from their being rolled tip luimowhat in the ft^rni of n 
torbaii, are CaUed tJic btrhinaM or Inrlinn-rfiupd boova. Tliey lire aa 
thin m ganxe, and ixn-funiUHl liku gaimc, with a tliou.'uuid holes, llutwwn 
tbcm are left miScimit iihssiij^^ for Mip air. 

If they were nnpoHed, they would present a very eon«idorablo imrfiieo ; 
nod on every part of them is Bprcad the Bnti»t&ncc or pulp of the (/]/nrl"fa 
or finil pair of mTrca. These bonen. lined with delicate mcmhraaeit and 
covered by the olfactory iiorviii, aiii the unit of tmeJl ; and they are thun 
eipanded, beeanxc the iwii«o of flmell in the homemust, toa veiy eunaider- 
able degree, enpply tlic place of tho sense of touclt and the les^ona of ex- 
perience in the human being. Lty this alont- he is enabled to «elecl, nniongHt 
the nntritive and |K)isonotis hi-rlto^ of tliv meadow, that which would 
support and not dcittroy liini. The iroopa of wild hotsoa are said to Nmcll 
Ute nppronch of an enemy at s very i<onsidcmb]a dintonccb In hi« doniostio 
state, the horse docs not cxamitiL' the difliTC-iii food which is placed ht-foro 
hiiQ with hi* eye. but with hiv nosv ; and tf the tiuiell diajileajiefl him no 
coajtinff will indncchim toeai. He oxAintnr« a Btningi'rliy thi>Bm"ll, and, 
by wry intclli^nhlo »>t>nt>t expremcs tho opinion which hv fonn» of him by 
tnifl inquisition. The honw will cridmlally rct'^griisc Win favonritc gnHiin 
wht^ h« has nothin|f else tn imlietktc hit* appmnch hut the sriise nf ttmell. 
These cimtiea are likewise organs of voice. The sound reverWratca 


iTiroQfili tbcm, anc] incrcat^es in loudness, ns through the vrtnAiiigs of u 
Frfiiicli horn. 

The eztfrnsion of the nontril at the lower part of these cnvitiefl is on 
important part of tho faco, oad in timat«lT coQuuctcd with hrceiliiijLr. coun^^ 
and speed. The horso cnn brcatho only throa(rh the noflc. All tho air 
which goes to and retimis from tho luugs mnrt [uuu; throngh the nostrila. 
Ill the (summon net of broftUun^, ihoaaaro HtifGdLTilly htiye ; Iiiit wlien tho 
sniniiil IB put on Iiu speed, tnd tlioreipirattou is quJckuuctL those pussn^cti 
must diliiU\ or he will be tnuch dittroBSod. Thu rsniuidud tiostril is ik 
(itril:iiigft>»liiru in the b1ix>d>honie, eMpeciall/ vhen hit liiut Iweii cxciu-d iind 
not, over-blown. Tho Rporting iiiaij will not forgft thoRuddi-nelTtfCt whicli 
is given to the ooantenance of the hnntcr, when his eare becomo creot. and 
bis noatrilH dilatu as be (it-st listeoa to the cry of Ike liouuclx, nuil xnoiiis 
atul acenta tJiem afar off. The painful and spasmed stretchinR of Uiis part, 
in the poor over-driven povUhorao, will show how iiDcesHii'y it is 'Jiat the 
posBB^ to the Innj:^ nbonld bo fivo and open. Thent^trJls shonld not only 
DO lar^, hat tlie membnuiouH vulMttaix.'v which cuvcni the autmnce into tbo 
noae ahoald be thin and elaotic, tliat it intky morv rvadily yield when tbo 
noovuity of tlia sninial reijiiiresi a greater tiapply of air, and arivrwnnU 
Totnm to itfl natural dimeusiona. Therefore, natare, which ikdapto tho 
animal to bis aituatton and use, haa given to the cart-hoi-nf, that is Hrldom 
blown, a confined nostril, and enrronndod by much cellular suhetaiici-, 
and a thick 8kin ; and to the horao of more breeding, whose nse coiitLUila 
in liin speed and bis contlaaauce, a wider nostril, and oae mocli nu>re 

The inhabihuitii of some countries wcro nceiut4nDied to slifc tbo nostiilfl 
nf their horses lliat they might l>o U-.-w diNln-ttw^d in the severe and Iod);- 
iMiiiliniied oxerlion of their Kpoed. The Icelanders do so to tbo prp»'Tit 
day. Thore ix no necMtait^ for this, for notnni has made ample proriiii^n 
for all the ordinary and oven extnordiuory oxcriion wo can rcquiro frma 
thi- honw. 

Some rery Dowerful mnscles proceed from different partx nf tbo Cico to 
tho neiglihourtiood of the nOBtnlB, in order to draw Ihcm buck and lUlato 
them. Four of these are ffiven in the next cut, whii;h is introduced to corn- 
pictc our present subject, and which will be oricQ ntferrcd to in tho courao 
of our work ; I, m, o, and jr>, aro masclcn employed for ibis purpose. 

There an^ also four diMtinet cartilages, nttncnod to tho nuiitrils. whicJi, 
by their elaalieity, bring ba<rk the nostrils to their former dimoiiunnx, ax 
euvQ as thv mii8cl«« cease to act. The bones of the tiopc (/', p. I-Vj) an 
also sharponcd off to a pointy to f^ro wider range for tbe action of Uie 
nuwdm : while the cartiuigu* are m contrived, as not only to discharge 
the olfioe w« hnvo mentioned, but to prutoct this projection of bone from 

There oro two circamstiinoes, wbicli, more than any otbcm, will enable 
not only the retcrinAiy surgeon, bnttho owner ofa homo also, accurately lo 
judge of the character and degroe of many diRca.>Mw, and to wbieh very few 
persons pay sufficient att«iition ; tbes^ are the pnlse, of wbieh we shall pre- 
sently spouf. and the colour of the membrane of the nose. It is the costom 
of roost Teterinary surgotma and hon<c-mcn to lid the upper eyelid, and to 
form their opinion by (he colon r which its lining presents. If it is very rwl, 
there is consideruble fe\'er; if it is of a ]mIo ptukuth bne. thoiv b little 
danger. Tho noec, however, is more easily got at ; — the mrboe proMoted 
to tJicvirw ia moruest^nflivc ;^ta nj'nipitthY witli almooi all tbo important 
organs is greater; — and the changes pindnced by disease are more striking 
and mure eonoluairc. I^et the reader first make himself well se^^aainted 
with the uniform palo pink ajtpearance of that portion of tho membmriie 






W wHleh corers the lower part of the carti laginouH partition between tiio 
I nostnla. wIiLm the homu is iii health and quiet; tht-n thn iiirn'»iiiL>{i blush 
' of red, bctokcningsoiiioexcitenit'Qtor thosjBtcm— the utrcAkodsppeiuuDco 
of inHommatioa commenced, aud tlirt^nlenin^ to increase — tho inteiue 
flioi-id red. of acate intlammB.tioQ — tie palo ground with patchen of vivid 
ted, iibowinp the half subdaed, but still Fxistuif; fever — thv unilarm colour 
aJlliou^h somewhat redder than iiatunil, predicting » return to bcallhy 
cirrulation — the paleness ftpprimcliing to whiU?, marking the stage of 
debibtj, and RometimeH intermingled with radiatiaoE of criiuBon, inducinj^ 
the BQfipieionof lurlcing inuehief; and the dark lind colour of u{iproiu.-hing 
Blagnation of iho vital ciirrtut. These, with all thrir ^■Il.l'll - li' 1 1 i nVivuce, 
will bi' guides to tun opinion and treatment, wliiuh L^^r, jji ulio htm 
sttulied them will highly appreciate. 



ft Tbr npprr part of th* ligament of the unA. 

ft The tfptUrr Aumeri (Aeyniar of the ■limilili'r), anunjt from tli« Ulwicb ot thn ooeipat, 
tho mMtaid (Dippl«^dped) proc«M of tko pttrow tmiiontl 1raa«, thu trumtn* 

r*MM («rD4a |>R>j(vti<.>n>) ot llie fuur ftiM woo* of lbs neck, unci the lipami-Dl of 
uek, mill K'-Wit In thf riii»i-I.-« iif lbs itimUi^ni, nod tit xipyrr buri" of ilii" 

wm: to ilrnvr dirn-ani the thouldT and arm: or turn th» haad and nrclc; and, 

whfn th' tiFo Irmior* ntl, to Avprtm %h* faeML 
e The f-uiion cnmmaa tu ilie trachdo mcuilatfeu, and iplenie* (uplint-likn) : to Ui« 

maaloid prooruH ot tbr pt-inun innpor^ boop. to rvM> tho hnul, or thr amMln on 

ODc nie nloDL- ndinit, to tnm it. 
d TIk iltrn^mtaillarig (twlm^ae lo tkr brfA>t-bun« and loirrr jowl, tnm Ibo eattiloea 

in fnmt of tbu clinl lo l£a aoglv uf fhv l^nrn' jsW : to adiit in Ojx^ung tli« 

« Tba tt^U-mcaWarii. froRi ihr •trtolcl (p«t)fil-Khnp«d) OT i>onMid (brak-ohai^.l) prows 

of Ibc oMipnt. to ikr >nKli'«(t!iirjaw: in pull tho jnw tackwiinl and o)wu it. 
y Tbv inlmeapulo if/oicUiu, trvm tlie /mna of ituMMpMWM to lh« body of thn «■ ivvi^c* 

(tbu boni> nl tho toot of the toogxio fonood Uko a Qttvk v. v) : to dtnw back that 

9 Tb» auwWtr («howin9) ; a nort poworful muBcle. coiwtitutinK th« rhrck of lli« hiMc : 

tnm titn afp" jaw-lmn* into Iho roagb mi&M rouad U»» a^« of ibi' lonvr: tt> 

uaiit in rlwinii tlip nooib luid duwtng tha toed. 
A Thn ortiigtiiMfi* p^prhrofHm (riiviiltr), anrroandiag iba eja and ebMing the lida. 
f Tbaqi>riMid/if(i*. from ihp xTRomiiic orch anil mttwelcr to tlia cornrr uf lliu moutli, lo 

anw Uick the uiiijIe' of tin- moiilli. 


SASAL roLrpus. 

k Tha AwM^Mbw (imnpet«r), bom the inaidfl of tbp miMiLh (nil 'Im-lui, to tlin m^h of 

tlw moulb, 111 dnw it linck. 
^ Tha HOMift [<mgvM (abii tuprriiiru (hiiti>af;}ag lo llii> noiv nnd upp<>r U[>). from adepnm- 

■ion At the judctkn of Ihe ■urxrior tiuuillurv. lar-hr^mnl, nnd laalw bonn lu Um 

upper Up: tc ni» the lip bm tlilalc tho nonirilt. 
m M JUm/iT 'uAi'i inprrioni al^ut nasi, from ihp Junction of I hi' Ischr^fn&l. dmoI, and 

n.c«rior maiillu^ bon<«, to (ho vppet lip nnd EkIih niMtril : to nur tUn Up iiid 

dilate lbs noaUil. 
e Rtfrtitla r h/rii in/rriorit {pMar biu-y of thrunitar lip), to the cidna {if the infi^riur mBxilU, 

■nd Holler lip : to dnw it back. 
f OriiaJaru orit (cimilar iniucia of tbo mooili), mmmudlaK th« monlh: todoanth* 

f The upp«r portion uf the pitratid gLuid (f^liuid iii-Ar tlio *w) rsTprwd, lo show tbe blijod- 

vximIii and DirrfR iMUntth it. 
r Ths pAFotid dart pi»r«tng tba rhK'k. to diai^hiir^ th* iMlIra inro the mouth. 
« TIm Kuutilkn t)>u><l (^lanil of tha loimjsn) with it* duct. 
t The jngnlar (n«ck) twd, after ih« Iva lirani'h'fB hint uiiiti^. 
■ At lua Uttn, iba aubnusllliiry arttry, a bnitu:h of the j ugukr, tod ilie parutid duct 

paw ofldtr aad wilhiu thv luiglu of tJie luwvi jaw ; tlii-j cumu out ogoia at k, aad 

elioili up thn ch*«lc. 
e Th» t*mpat»l tmd and aTt«i7, piuoin^ under the ^gDmatie arvfa. 
a ji Thanowr nerrM of the fncc, rniv-rgitig from under the pamtiil gland. 
• MnthM of both nenrei^ with amall blood'Vcueb. 


By a [wlj-paa ia mf&ut an txcrcscence or tamonr, varyiug iti wzc, 
stmctnre, and conaisteitct-, auti ottAched by a pedicle to a nmcnun nurfiica. 
The tme polvpaM ui tittiurhvd to mncotui iiK.'mbnuif>f, iitid in axiinlly fnotid 
in the noBtriu, Uio pbar^'nx, tho utATW, or tbu va^^o.. Tntnoora lutvo 
twen s««n hanpag loow in tKo voinn and T«iitriclM of tbc livart ; and in 
tbo 1bi|^ blood- vchmIb th«rti liavo iKva acvtuiialatioas of tbu fibrino oT the 
Mood, wilfa pednnctilat- alt«chTnrnt«. 

Tho naioil polypOM iiKnally adherea to boido portion of tlin snporior tnrbj* 
ni^<] imTK!, or it hftK cama from soine of the sinnKOii connectctl with Ibai 
cuvitj-. It tncaptil, wftilv sniail, through tbe valvular (i|>eniTig undiT tbo 
Rti))erior turbinateil bono ioto tbo cnvitj of the noitc, and iheit! alUuni'd 
its ftill (rrowth. 

No bott«r aoeount, howev«r, can bo givnn of tlw cause of tJicir appear- 
ance than tbnt of iamoora ia olbi-r parte of the body. TliGy CYidciiily 
bave a ounslilulionwl orif^iii : ihvy nro frttinirnt ly bL-ruditary, and tbe 
utimal iu whinh tlmy liavw otice npp«»ai^ in Kubjfct. (« a if turn of them. 

Ry ftotno tncanit, probably tlic inoreuting weight of tho tumoar. and being 
tn a dvpcndtfnt aitualiou, tbe polypus ih gradually dc-tacht.'d froiu ita basv, 
and fon.-«a vrith it tbo aolt aiid easily difit«tuiiblo laciiibraiio of the notw. 
Ad it cutititinr^i to deHcend, this portion of mombraiio is fiirthor elotigntvd, 
and formfi the pL-dicIc or root of the tnmoar; — if Uiat may bo t«niu!<) a 
root which Is a m*rc dtiplicat* of itA iTn-oating 

Tbo polypuH, when it bikuin frvc in the uuaal cavity, in nsuallr of a pyri- 
Ibrm or pcar-lilco ilti^w ; and it varies in weight, (roia a few dncbnui to 
Utree or four [MUnda. 

How is thf' Burgoon to procood ? Can he lay hold of tbo pol3rpHg hy 
the fingor, or tliti forccpH, or (for the§e lumottrs doiiot poesMHmacbitciui- 
bilitr) th« tenaculum ? To aacortain thia, he will cOHt thn home, (uid fix 
tJiH head in a position to take thv greatest advantage of the light. If ba 
eantiot fairly got ut the tmuoiir by atiy of tlicee means, he wUI let it alone. 
It will continnn to grow — the nuMnbrane (KmstitDting tlio pcdiHi* will 
be IcngiliciiiMl — and the pvlypax will at loDgtli dmovod, and be eiutily 
got at. Time and |atii;ni'o will eflV-ct wonders in titis and many wTnilar 


Bnppouog li to hftre sromi, nnd ilic fiargeon b endcaTonnag to extmct 
it, "bo tiiiuit not nxe any {pi»t force. It immt not bo tore out by tittr mol ; 
the tomniir mnst be peatty brouf^ht down, and a bgataro piusra round tho 
pediclp, ftfl high up w it can cc^veniently bo placwl. If tho polrpas can 
tbca bo returned to tho nose, the animnl will snSbr very Uttlo tncou- 
Tenienco; nnd in k fc-w days it will slottf^holT, and the p«diclo will contisct^ 
and ^rmlniiHy disnppL'ur. 

If thii pi>lypajt in Ko larf^o that it cftnnot be vrell rotnmexl afU>r it bu 
been brooglit dcwn, we coiut, notmlhiitimdiiiKi um the iigntaro. pnoeinitib 
roond the pedicle siifBciently tightly to oat off the supply of lilrod to tlio 
touioiir. We may then immediately cicinB it. Exci>pt the jiedicle ia ex- 
ceedingly thick, there n-ill he little or no hGcinorrhage. Should Homo 
Ueodisff occur, it will prolwibly noon otflp, or rtiB.y be stopped by tho 
cantery, vhich should, however, bo avoided if pomiblc, for our object in 
to prodaro as littlf irritalioa as may be in the xK-itibriuie, and the nctual 
e*atery will be appliMl witliconnidcrabledifGoiilly in 1 ho cavity of the tiost?. 

In %'cry bod oomB, when tho tamoiir raniiot lie dr&n-^i out of thtt no4ip, it 
mfty be ueceiwaty to «Ut up the ala or side uf the nostril. It vriJl be l>i;lter, 
however, not to cut throngh the false nntitril, rortlmtcoTisint^of aiUiph'ci^ 
tore of Buch Uiin integument, that the stitches can hardly be retained in it, 
when the horse will Iw Continually snorting at the least inconvenience, it 
will ftleo be difficult to brinfj the ed(fe« of this thin memhnuie accoratcly 
together ^nin, or, if this be cfi(K.-1c(l, there u ncarcely life enough in it for 
tliu parts riMulily to iinil«>. Thi; false nostril nhoulil bo Bvoi(]ed, and tho 
iiieiHirm made along ibo lateral edge of tho nasal bone, bt^inaio^at its n(Kix 
Of point. The flap will then conveniently tnm down, so as to cxpoAn the 
c*nty benralh ; and there will be sufficient muaculiir Hubiitmiee to avcuro 
an nlniMt certain nnion by the first intontion. The nontril beis); opened, 
the po^clA will probably be displayed, and a li^tare may be paaiied rontiti 
it, M already recommondod; or if it is not actnally in si^ht, it may 
probably grftdoolly be brooght within reach. 


Tbere lb a eonetont secretion of fluid to lubricate and moisten the mern- 
hrane that lines the cavity of the nose, and which, under catarrh or cold, 
M incrcaiw^l in qnimtity, and tdU'rT:^] in ap|>eaninou and consistence. Tin's 
wilt pniju'rly belong to the acroiint of riitarrh or cold ; but tlint which is 
immedinli'ly ondet* conii [deration in a eontinuiMl and otlentimes profn^o 
dinebarjfv of thieketied lauoos, when every symptom of cntiirrh and fever 
liMR pa^»e<l away. If tlie home is at gnuM, the discharge ia aluient nit frreen 
aa the fi»od on whicli he livcw ; — or if he is stabled, it is white, or straw- 
coloured, or brown, or even bloody, and soniwliines purulent. It is either 
eonotontly nmiung, or snorted ont in ratuwtm many times a day, teasing 
the horse, knd becoming a perfect uuiiiBDce in the »t«h1Ci and to the rider. 
This baa been known to continue Heveml months, and c\-entu&Ily to deatrcry 
the home. 

The diacharge is sometimes conHnod to one nostril, and there muy exist 
cotisidentble tnmefaction of tho suhm&xillary ginndn, which has caused 
this disease to bo mistalton for glnndcrv. Should nny doubt exist, do timo 
ahonid be lost in obtaining the opinion of a vetcrinni^' sargcon mspcctJng 
its nature. 

Tf the diochnrge i« not nfFenaBvo to the omell, nor mixed with pnmlent 
matter, it is probably lucrelyon increased and somewhat vitiuted««crction 
from tlio n»%'itieei of tJie nose ; and all fever liaviug disappeared, will fre- 
quently yivkl In itnuill tloHcH of bluo vitriul, given twice in the day. If 


the dtflcboreo is conndorablo aad min^lod ivitb pas, wc mmj coaclndc, thiA 
tho dismtDn&icxtundtid totlui Binoac-a of the boiul, anil llutt nbscossee Iiavo 
rormetl, tacmt likely, in tho JrontAl siutiK. Thu disi'lmrgc being very 
ofrcDiiive, will indicnte tliut Uio diMiwu htw cxlfiidttd to the bones and 
i:>rtiIago. The Ireatmviit' ubould couatst of Ibv inlrrDid udminifttatioD of 
•alpbate of copper, cither inin);1fd wiiU the aniuud'ii ooni, or in cumbina' 
tioB with ginger and gcRtian, continued for a coniiiderable limo, for tliitt is 
B disease which will not vory quicklj jicld lo treatment. The luiitiml 
Bboold be kept on tho moat nntntiaiu diet, graat attention being paid to 
cloaatineaa. If the dischnr^ docs not jridd to this troataic&t, the next 
oonne to adopt will hv to often the Biomcis of the heiul with tho trephine 
(tbometiiud of doing thin will be desonbed nnder 'OperuLiouK'}, und after 
havinf^ wcU Bj-Tin«ed the parts with warm water, inject «omo aatnngotit 
•olutioa, mdi m the stdphate of ziuo or copper. Tho tojectioa KbouU bo 
at first weak, but gradtmllj' increased in AU-cn^h. If the dtarhor^o ooii- 
tione for a length of time, without jHelding to treatment, there is doi^er 
of itfi ItTminalmg iii gloiidors. 


OzKXA is ulceration of the mcmbnuio of tho aoso oot alwajs or oflcii 
visible, tat recoj^iecd by iho dischar^ of moco-pamlent matter, of » 
pccaliiir fcetor, frum which the diMOiio dcrirvs it« nsinc. It rusomblBS 
glanders in licin^ confinod ia mo«l instaiicen to one uoutril, and iho sab* 
moxillsry gland on the HUnc itido being vnloigod ; but diSera from it, in 
the ghmd not bi'ing adherent, and the disohargo, from itei eai-liettt (itage, 
bamc purulent and stiiikinir. 

Thorc 'iM soraetimoa a fcntjd discharge from tho nostril in eonsoqnencc of 
inikmmBtton of the Innga, or prodacect hy some of the seouoln of pnca- 
monia; distinguiiihed, howerer, IVnm ozena hy its nauallv flowing irregu- 
larly', I)eing oongfaed up in great ijaantiticB, more dccidooJy purulent, and 
the gland or glands seldom oiTectcd. Tbo discharge bum. ozena is cou- 
etant, maco-pnmlent, and attended by onlftrgcracnt of the glands. Jt ia 
of imoumMi conecqucncc that wo should bo enabled to diatin^ish tho one 
from, tho other ; for whilouxena may, soiDoiimttt at leant, be manageable, 
thtt othar is too frequently the precarsor of death. 

Tho canso of ozena cannot always be diiieoTcred. Chrome inflammation 
of the membrane may assume another and nmliguant (trader. In Borvre 
catarrh the membrBoo may become abi-»ded, and the abntsions may de> 
gCDsnte into foul and ftstid ulcers. It is not an unfreqneat oonaeqaenec 
of epidemic catarrh. It liai> lKs.>n produced by caustic applioationa to the 
lining membrane of the no»e. It ba« followed bo^morrluige, Bpontancona, 
or thu conscqueuce of iujur^'. 

In soma ca a o s, and those aa obstinate aa any, it cannot perliapa ba tncod 
to any probable cause, and the health of the aniioal has not appeaivd to 
be in the ahghtest deRreo affected. 

The mcmbraue of the noso ia highly »enintivo and irritable, and an ulcer, 
to whatcTcr way fbriDcd ou it. doca not ir-oddy heal. It often runs on to 
gaugrene, and de ntr oy* not only the membrane, but tlii> bone bi^neaLh aud 
ovao tlie cartilaginooB septum. Thin in nur-ly the cmtu in plondorsi aad 
tho raragna of the chanerona olcera are nsnally conlined to uie membiano. 
The ulceration procetiU to a certain point — ita progress is then arretted, 
mtoallr by nature alone— iho dischanre gradually Icaacns — it loaos it« 
oflSnuive character, ai)d at length ccmsos. 

Local applications arc itcldom available in the troatment of this dimaaa ; 
' lor wv know not the aitwition of thi; alccr, and tf wc did, wv probably 



ooald not j(ti tt it. Some Iiavc rt<coinmciKl«d Mtoiu. Wbcro arc iLor 
111 bo applicxl ? If tha M«t, of nlix-ntion is aokaovm, iho srtoii maj only 
give aBvkwi jnun. Sevcra.1 pcit-nortem eiaminaliooa li&ru j*>iuwa tlwt 
IJie fimttAl unusoii are a freqneot scttt of the diaeaae. Vet what injection 
conid wo Bsc ? An emoUtent one woulJ be thrown away. A sUmulatuig 
injection miglil ronvert oEena into ^lA»dcrs. Otbcr cxaminatiooa liare 
alwwn that the tiuperior portion of the central mimtiu was diseased. Whut 
inafruntRnt evm be contrircd to resrh that ? Intcmnl iiiLx]icmcs are almost 
thrown away in this cnmplaint : rot aarnotliiniif, ]>(>rhnp«, may be done 
nndtir the form of a local upplicabon. Tho diitcurJrd im)6c-1hlr (nndcr- 
ralacd at least by too many practitionm) will aflbrtl llic mciatu of cm- 

Elorin^ un vitiollioiit fomentatioii. The Rteam frotn a hmn-niajili, Bcaldine 
ot, will pTMbably reaoh every part of the naaal earity, and «o affbra 
Homo chance of Wua beneficiaOy applied to the olcer. It will, nt Ica«l, 
tiioruufhlj cleanse tnc part. By DicnoA of tho naie-bn^ and ihc warm 
maflh. uw chloride of lime may !» iutn^dnced into the cai\ity, not only 
eonbining with tlii> ostn'viLtod gaM.<«, and rmioi'in^ the fcetor, bat arreatiiig 
the tendency to decomposition. 

Then there ia a digcctiro— a ge&Uo rtimiJiia to abiadod and nlccrated 
sarfaces, ronsiug them to healthy action, and without too much irritatui^ 
tiMrra — taqiontiue. Tlila may bo anplidd in the form of Taponr, and in 
the bc«t of idl ways, by using tbe ooBt yellow deal ahavinga instead of 
bran. Thin di^-(tltve may be brought into contact with every part of the 
Schneidcrian niembranc, and has been serviceable. 

There is another resource, and one that hiila fairer to be saeceasfbl than 
any other with which we arc nc(|auiiiLcd — tho aprinj^ ^^vm. It is tbe 
6iM«t alterative, dcpnrafit^>, and rc«tonUiT6 in oar whole matoria mcdica; 
and if it ia accesiiiblo in the fonn of a flalt marsh, tbvrois no bettor oluiioo 
of doing good. 


The most formidable of all the digcaacs to which the homo is ntl>jcx:t ia 
Ol.U(i>KKS. It liaa boon rccoKnittod from the time of Ilipporrat*'^ of Cva ; 
and few modem veterinary writers hiivo (firen a moni accurate or ront- 
nloto account of it* 8ym[rtomx than is to Iw fuand in tho works of the 
tathor of medicine. ThnN> -and- twenty hundred years have rolled on ainco 
then, and veterinary practitioners are not yet asreed ae to the titumo 
primarily alTected, nor the actual nature of the diMaae : wo only know 
that it is at the present day, what it waa then, A loatlljmiM and an iuEU- 
mbte malmly. 

Wo shall therefore, in trcttting of thia diaeaao, pnrsno our eoorav slowly 
and cautiooaly. 

Thi- c&riirat ^mptom of Glandera is ao increased diachargo from tlie 
Domtnt, small in quantity, constantly flowing, of an aqncoua oharactor and 
a little mucus mni^linL; with it. 

CoanM4«d with Uiis la an error loo jj^norol, and hiffhly misoliicvouj, with 
noard fcv the cltonKtcr of thia diachai-Ko in tho earliest Btage of tlie diaeaao, 
wwen, if oror, a cam miyht be iflivu-d, and when, loo, tLe mischief (Vom 
oonlaf^on ia moat frequently produced. The disvhari^ of ghmdcn; is not 
atickr when it may ho Hret recoj^iaed. It ia an aqncons or mucou^ but 
Binall and cotustont dtachfir^i', au'i is thus diatingiuabcd from catarrh, or 
niwil gleet, or any other dcflinxinn iroiu Uie nostril. It should be im- 
preaacd ou the mind of erery horseman tliat this small and comtont 
deflnxion, overlooked by tho groom ami by the owner, and too often by 
the veterinai? nir(;«oii, ia a moat anspicioiui cireamatancie. 

Mr. James Turner ikttcrvcs much credit lor hariug firat or chiefly 


directed tbo Attention of hondacn to this important bat disregarded 
iTinptain. If b horae it in tbo bigbeat oooditioD, jet has tfain sinaU 
kqoeatu couMtniit diiKharge, and ecpeciallj fW>iB one noatril, no time HboiJd 
be loat in aopwnting lura from his compuiiaits. Ko banu will bttcliinvi hjr 
ibis, altboogb tbe dk.'floxion sboold not uldiuateljr beiiajr lurlung mixchiuf 
of a worae chankcteir. 

Mr. Tnnur relatea n case xery m'och in point. A farmer wtknl liia 
opinion r^m>w>tii>g m niare in excellent condition, with a sleek coal, and in 
full work. Ho Ivad had her Beroo or «igbt montlm, and daring tlio whole 
of that tino thoro bad bc«n a discharge from the right nostril, bnt in bo 
alight a ilcgrco aa acarcvly to be deemed worthy of noticv. He now 
wanted to wll bar, hot, lilctt an honnt man, ha witthe<l to kticiw wbctlwr 
lir> mieht warrtint her. ilr. Turner very properlj gave it aa bin opinion, 
thai lliu di»clukrgo liavinir existed for ao long a time, be would not bo 
JBolifled in lH'™^■"g ber into the market. A ^rrier, however, w)i(U«ti idtMS 
of ghnden had uwbts be«n connected with a sticky discharge and an 
adhfTtnit gland, boi^t bur, and lad hor awmy. 

Thrro montbi pttMod on, when Mr. Tnmcr examining the potit-borscs 
of ft Dnghbounng inut diaooreivd that two uf tbcm wvrc glomlcrcd, and 
two voon fiu^ed, while, atanding ntxt to the Cnt that wut att^'kixl. and 
Ilia jMutner in work, was his old arajaainuaco the fanner's mare, witli tlie 
aame disobarge from her nostril, and vho had, beyond qncetion, been tbo 
cause of all uae miscbieC 

Tbe peculiar Tiaddi^ and glnincas whkh is gonemlty sappoaetl to 
distingoiab the dncbai^ of gundera from all other mncous and prcralent 
aerrotions belonn to the woond stage of the diMaM),antl, formanrmontha 
before this, glandera may hare exiiited in an inaidioBi and liiglilycontagiona 
form. It must be ockoowledgf d, howerer, that, in the miMority of cases, 
aoma degnt of stickiness does cbaraclcriitp thi? tlischarge of glandcira from 
n TBiT Mtfly period. 

It u a singular eireamstanco, for which no satiafaototy aeeonnt has yet 
beco given, tliat when one nostnl alone is attacked, it in, in a gnvt majority 
of raiins. the near, or left. M- Dnpny, the ilinMrtor of the Tcterinary nrliool 
at Toukntae, givea a reiy singular H«?omtt of this. He saya tfaaL, oat of 
m^My eases c? glaiidoi* t^iat camo an<lor htfi notion, only one waa affeeted 
in tlie tight nonril. The difioreooe in the afitctcd noetrU does not exiitt 
to ao great nn extent in Qnmi Britain ; hut in two liorwM out of three, nr 
tltree ont of four, the discharge in (Vom tbe left nostril alone. 'Wo migbt 
aeoonnt for tbo lel\ leg biling olleuer than the right, for we monnt and 
fUsmoont on tbe left eiae ; the horse gen^'rally iMds with it, and tlirrc is 
more wear and tear of tliat limb : bat wc caniiot satisfactorily aocount for 
this uinal affection of the lefl nostril. It is true Uiat the reins are held in 
the lefl baud. an<l lliurv may Ixi a little more bearing ami pressure on the 
left ande of tbo montb ; bnt this appliea only to saddle-bonies, and even 
with tbou does not safficiently expiiin tbe result. 

This disohArge, in raacvi of contafpon, may eoiklinuc, and in so sHglit a 
degna as to be scarcely perceptible, for many monttis, or even two or threo 
ycTti, unattended by anv other diaeaoe, even nlceratiun of the nnatril, and 
yet tbe hone bi-ing deodcdly glandend finm tlko beginning and cajaiblo 
rif pronagaLbg the malady. In process of time, howorcr, pos mingles with 
tlto discharge, and tJicn anotlier and a rliamrU-rintic s.^-mptoin appoara. 
SoBWor this ii abaoritcd, and the ncighlMturiiig glnnds bcitime affected. 
If there is a diaehargo fW>m both nostrils, the glands witlitn the under jaw 
will be on both aide* enlarged. If the diecbarge is from one nostril oqIt, 
tbo swelled gland will be ibnnd on that aide alone. Glanders, bowerrr, will 
freqtteoUy exint at an early age withoal thc«e swellnl glands, and HOmu 





otlior discosfw, ns nUrrh, will produce tlioiii. Thua wo niiMt look out tar 
Bontf ]>c<culiantj nhout tlu<.'M> fflonds, and wc ahnll rc-ndily find it. The 
tnvolliu^ luttj bu at lint somcwLiLt large uitl difl'uik'd, but luc siUTOuudiug 
ciilnrtn'meiit soon gocn olT, and one or two small tUiitinci ^l&nda rcnuun ; 
and iliej are not in the oentjv of the cluume), but adJiera cU>tely to the jaw 
on the 4^etiei tide. 

Tli« monbrano of th«> no«c ebouJd now bo cxnjnin<^, and will nuitorially 
f^itido our opinion. It will cUliut' bo ol'adiu-k purplisli line, orulmost of a 
leaden ouloar, or of *ny xluulu bctwoini the two ; ur if tliore is *oinu of tlin 
nidiniitli of inflanunat.ioii, it wilt liavo a ]iu>ple titi^ : bat tlic-ro will never 
bo the fiunt pintc bluiilt of health, or Uio intonac and vivid T«d of usual 
iofliiunulion. Spots of ulcontUou will prolmbl^ appear on tbv meiultnmo 
oovmug the cartilage of the noso— not mere sware places, or strtiaka of 
■fannoD, and quite auperiicial, bat 6tna.n nlcera, usuullv' approticbingto a 
dnnlmr form, deep, and irith the edgi>e abrupt and prominent. When 
ttieae appconmoee are observed, tborc cou b« no doubt aboot the matter. 
Cnro should be tiikcit, bovcvcr, to a»<%rteui that t^icrsc nlocrs do lujtniiUy 
exiat, fur K\>aUs of muoiu adltfriiig to the meinbran<> lia%'u barni luoro thrni 
OSco token for t-hnm. Tho finger tthonld, If passiblo, be pa8»ed ovor tJia 
•opMWcd nWr, in order to <let«rmiD9 whether it can be wiped away ; and 
it anould bu rQcolIi!ct«;il, a8 wna hiiitod when deeoribiiig the duct tliat 
conrcyH the tcan to the aaac, that tlio orifice of that dnct^ just withia I bo 
noetril, and on thu inner sidi3 uf it, has heea mistakec tor a chanorona 
ttlc«r. Thin orilicc is on the pon tin nation of the common skin of tho lunula 
which runs a little way up tho nustril, whilo the nJecr of ^lauders ui on tho 
propter meinbraiiit of tlii^ nose uhuvn. The linu of aeponttion bctwiicu the 
two i« evid<5iit on the slightest iuspcctioii. 

When ulcera begin to appear on the membrnne of tho noae, tho oon- 
■rtitntion of the hone is aoou evidently affected. The patient Iowa flotb — 
hja bidly in tacked iip->hiii oont untliriHy, and roadilj coining oD" — the 
appetite in impaired — the ntrangth &ila— congh, mora or len urgent, may 
bo heard — the dischar^ from the nose will iniireose in quanti^ ; it will bo 
diacotoured, bloody, oQen«ire (o tho emoll — -tho ulcers ia the noso will 
beDone buyer and more numerous, and tha air>])aaaagoa being obetructctl, 
a grating, choking nuisu will be heard at cx-ery act of breathing. Thero 
ia now a in-culiar tvndunioKii aliout the foruheud. Tlie mombrauD lining 
Un frontal umittc-M in inflontod and ulcerated, and tlie integument of tho 
forebcad beoemea thickocod and aomawhAit Hwvllod. Farcy i» now super- 
added t4t glainders, and more of tbe absorbenlt* lu-u iiivolvt^d. 

At or Before thia time littlo turaimni a[)})oar about the mimrleit, and 
Taw, and nock, fallowing tho eourse of tho veins and tho abanrbonlx, for 
tber run side by aide ; and theso turaonra soon nlcerftto. Tumours or 
buds, still pursuing tlie pnlh of the abHorlwnts, soon appear on the insido 
of the thighs. Thay are connected ttjgelher by a corded HubstRnce. Thi« 
is tho inflamed and enlarged lyniplintie ; and nleenition quickly followa 
the appearaneo of thew uuda. The deoper-s«at«d abaorbontu are next 
aOfactoa ; and one or both of the hind-h^ awell to a great rice, aud 
become stiff, and hot, and teoder. Tbe )on<rf floafa and strength ia more 
marked ovei^' day. Tho niorabmne of tlie ooM becomes cpf a dirty livid 
oolotir. The membrane of the mouth i* strangely pullid. The eye is 
iufiltratod witli a velluw fluid; and the discharge Cnmi tbe none beconiee 
more profuse, and insufli'rali'ly offensive. The animal presonta one maaa 
of putrefaotion, and at last dies exhausted. 

The antargemont of the sabmnxiltary glands, aa connected with thia 
, diaoaee, may, perliapa, require a littlo faHhor consideration. A portion 
■ of ibo Suid socrcled by ihc membrane of iho noae, and altered in charoetvr 


by the pecnlior inflaminatioii there cxistiog, ia absorbed ; and as it. is con- 
veyed i^oDg the lymphatics, in order to arrive at the place of its destine 
tion, it ioilaineB them, and causes them to enlarge and sapparate. There 
is, however, a peculiarity accompanying the inflammation which they tako 
from the absorptioo of the virus of glanders. They are rarely large, 
except at first, or hot, or tender ; but they are characterised by a aingnJor 
hardness, a proxinuty to the jaw-bone, and, frequently, actual adhesion to 
it. The adhesion ia prodaccd by the inflammatory action going forward 
in the gland, and ihe efi'osion of coagulable lymph. This hardnesa and 
adhesion accompanying discharge from the nostril, and being on the samo 
side with the nostril whence the discharge proceeds, afibrd proof not to be 
controverted that the horso is glandered. Notwithstanding this, however, 
there are cases in which the glands are neither adherent nor mnch en- 
larged, and yet there ia constant discharge firom one or both nostrils. Tho 
veterinary surgeon would have httlo hesitation in pronouncing them to be 
cases of gluiders. He will trust to the adhesion of the gland, bat he will 
not be misled by its looseness, nor even by ita absence altogether. 

Olanders has often been confounded with atranr/lsa, and by those who 
oaght to have known better. Strangles are pecoliar to young horses. Thu 
early stage resembles common cold, with some degree of fever and soro 
throat — generally ^vith distressing cough, or at least frequent wheezing ; 
and when the enlargement appears beneath the jaw, it is not a single siuall 
gland, but a swelling of the whole of the substance between the jaws, 
growing harder towards the centre, and, after a while, appearing to 
contain a fluid, and breaking. In strangles the membrane of the nose will 
be intensely red, and the discharge from the nose profuse and purulent, or 
mixed with matter almost from the first. ^Vhen the tumour bos burst, the 
fever will abate, and the horse will speedily get well. 

Should the discharge from the nose continne, as it sometimes docs, for 
a considerable time after the horse has recovered from strangles, there is 
no cause for fear. Simple strangles need never degenerate into glanderH. 
Good keep, and small doses of tonic medicine, will gradually perfect tho 

Glanders has been confounded with catarrh or cold ; but the distinc- 
tion between them is plain enough. Fever, and loss of appetite and sore 
throat, accompanying cold — tho quidding of the food Euid gulping of the 
water are sufficient indications of the latter of these ; the discharge from 
the nose ia profuse, and perhaps purulent ; the glands under the jaw, if 
swelled, are moveable, there is a thickening around them, and they are 
tender and hot. With proper treatment the fever abates ; the cough dis- 
appears ; the swellings under tho throat subside ; and the discharge from 
tho nose gradually ceases, or, if it remains, it is usually very diSerent 
from that which characterises glanders. In glanders there is seldom cough 
of any consequence, and generally no cough at all. 

A running from the nose, small in quantity, and, from the smallness of 
its quantity, drj'ing about the edges of the nostril, and presenting some 
appearance of stickiness, will, in a few cases, remain after severe catarrh, 
and especially afler tho influenza of spring ; and these have gradually 
asHnmod the character of glanders, and more particularly when they have 
been accompanied by enlarged glands and ulceration in tho nose. Hero 
tho aid of a judicious veterinary surgeon is indispenaiible ; and ho will 
sometimes experience considerable difficulty in deciding the case. One 
cirenmstanco will principally guide him. No discaso will run on to 
glaiidcni which has not, to a considerable and palpable degree, impiurcd 
and broken down the constitution ; and rrcrif dineuse ihiil (/nr^ Ikit iriH 
run on to glaiulert. He will look then to the general stitlo aud conditiun 



of Uio bonn, on veil on to tfao fiitBKtion of the glands, Uio n&toro of thu 
(littchBTge, and the chAncter of the alcemtion. 

If^ aftvr all, lie U m doubt, an expctimeut may be reaortocl to, which 
wmn tndrod the appearance of cruoltj, and which oiilj the nJHy of a 
vidoable animal, or of a whole tc«iii, can justify. He will inocitlate an bjm, 
or a horse alntuly condemned to the bonnda, with the matter diaebargcd 
from the nose. If the horso is (;Iand<T<N), tlio srmptoins of glanders or 
far^ will appear in the inooulalvd tuitmid is tho coanto of a few dare. 

The poft-marimn cxamiimtjon of the borwi will remOTv vrtTj dimbt m 
to tho cbuncter of the disease. The nostril iit generally more or lo»« 
biftncbed, with spots or line* of inflammation of Mandenibt« intcnsitj. 
Ulovnttion is almost invariably foaud, and of a chancrona ohanoter, oa 
aeptBm, and olao on bho [ethmoid and tnrbinated bonea. Tlie ulnoni 
ntlj follow the coarse of the absorbents, sumetimes almost confined 

the track of the main Teesal, or, if Hcutterod over the membrane gene- 
rally, tlui^kost over tlw path of the lymphatic. Tho mthmoid and turbinated 
bones arc often filled with pilii, and Homotimi^ cftteB throDfrh ajid canons ; 
bat, in the nuiionty of caMa, the aloonition is oontined to the extemnJ 
u wwi Jj iMM^ albboo^ there may be pnji wtihiti. In a^r^ratml eases tho 
diMMo wtends thMBgfa all the eclU of tho face and head. 

The path of ilip dittcano down the larynx and windpipe is easily tncod, 
and ibe nlccrs follow one line— that of the absorbents. In aggravated 
eaaea, this can gDnemllv be traeed on to tlie lungs. It prodiieen inflam* 
0katioii in tbwe org&ns, chamctt^-rised in some eases by e/mgeation ; but in 
other «anea, tho con)j:cHtioa has (rono on to hepatization, in which the 
cellular texture of tbo lun^s is oblitcmtcd. Most freqnenily, when the 
Ittngs ara affected nt nil, tuburcles arv found — miliary tnlxTcles — minute 
prannlalful i(|)»t^ on tlio surfnee, or in the substance of tho liKigo, nnd not 
accomiMUiied by much in£ammation. In a fow cD«e« there are lari^r 
lubercioa, which soften and iranit, and terminate in caritios of TBiyiug 
8ti«i thoy are then called Tomicts. 

In KoixM cases, and sliowinf^ that glanders is not essentially or nceoe- 
aarily » diaeaw of the lungH, there is no morbid uffv^tion whatever in 
tfaoM orfi;nns. 

Tlie hiatory thna given of the symptomB of glanders will clearly point 
onfc itfl nature. It is an afioelion of the memhnmo of the nose. Some say, 
and at their head is Professor Pnpny. that it is the production of tnberclM, 
or minute toiuoors in tlic upper cells of tho nose, wlticb may long cxisb 
undetected, ercejit by n loircply perceptible nmning from tlia nostril, 
intiisM) bjr Che irritation which lh«y oocaaion. Those tnbencles gradually 
hecomo more numcrouH ; thoy chiatev together, mppnrate and brralc, and 
small nlocmtiotui arc formed. Thu ulcera discharge A poisonous matter, 
whtob is abttorlH-il and takin np by tho neighboaring glands, and tliin, with 
groaler or leta rapidity, vitiates the cnnstitation of the animal, and ia 
capable of commnniesting tho disease to others. Some content thomaelTea 
with aaying that it is an iodammatioD of tho of the noso, whicli 
may assume an acute or chnmio form, or in a vary short time, or ex- 
ceedingly slowly, run on to ulceration. 

It is iiidammation, whether specilic or common, of the lining mtmibmne 
of the nose — possibly for months, and even for yeani, eonfioed to that 
membrane, and oven to a portion of it — tho health and the usofutness of 
the animal not being in tlic Mlightesb degree im)ioired. Then, from some 
unknown csumf, not a now but an inlenser action ia set up, thu infUunmo. 
tion mora speedily mnii ita conrse and tbo membrane bocomes nlc«rat<H]. 
Tha inflamnatioa spreads on either aide down the septum, and the uloora- 
tiao al longlh ammea tluit pecuUar clinncrons form which oharactertBea 



influninatioa of the absorbents. Etch Uien, wltcn tbe diAcharge 
ginejr, and somelitnc* tlU-r cljuncivii bxvp a[>pear»l, tlie horvc t* ofiparent 
well. Tbcn ore hnndndK of gl&ndered hor«c« nboot th« cotmtry witb n 
a ricic one ajnong tbem. For moDdu or jvat iim disease mmj do no 
injoTj to the geiwiral beaUth. The inflatnoiKtion is |nirr1y local, aud i» onljr 
reoo^ked ^ the inrariable accompuiimexit of iiitlunmutioii and in- 
cw c d aecretioD. Ita neigbboors Ikll aroand, but tha diniMe aficct« not 
tli« aniinal wbmoe it cAine. At len^h n constitntioiuiJ iaflammaLiuii ap- 
pears ; forcjr U estabbfibed in ltd most borriblc form, and di^tli apecdi^ 
closcfl the ncenc. 

Whut, tlii^, 'ut the cause of tbi« inaidioux dresdfal disease ? Although 
we may be in a manner powericsi as to tbe removal of tbc maliKlv, yot if 
wc can trace ita <^iiae and manner of action, we may at least W »blo to 
do eomctbin^ in tbe way of proTnitioD. Mach faas been accompliiihrd in 
this way. Olundcrs does Dot commit onc'teoth part of tbe ravag«a irhich 
it dill thirty or forty years nf^o. aiii), (^-ncntlly Kptwking, it is now oalj 
found ail a freqnsBt and prevalent diwuse wber« neglect, and filtb, and 
want of ventilation exist. 

Glanders may lye citber bred in tbe borae, or commitnicatcd by con- 
tagion. What we bare fartber to remark on this malady will be arraaMd 
nnilor these two bpods. 

Improper stable mau^remcnt wo bcbore to bo a &r more {reqaent can. 
of Inlanders thas contagion. Tbo air wbicb a necessary to reNpirBtion _ 
c'lmn^ed and i<mpoii»)ned in its passage tJirougb tbe lungs, aud a frvmb 
Kupjily is iiiv.'eKgHrj- fur the rapport of life. That supply may be aafBcicnt 
bai«ly to support life, but not to prevent the Trtifiled air Troni af^n and 
again pOMing to tbe lungs, aud producing irritation aud disease. The 
membrane of the noac, powtcsscd of extreme Kcnsibiliiy for tht- porjios^e of 
smel), in enjiity irritated by this poison, aud close and ill-rentilatcd wtabln 
oftenost witness the ravages of glanders. Professor Col^nan n>]ates a 
which provi.<a to demonstiatuin the rapid and &tal agency of tbia 
' In the expedition to Quibcrun, the homt^s had not boon long on board 
tbe traitKporu before it lu-caine necessarj- to shut down the hatoliwaya for 
B few boars ; the consonuenRe of this was, that some of them wot« anf. 
focatod, and that all the n-st wt-ru diBembarked either glandervd or 

In n cloBO stable, tbe air is not only poisoned by being repeatedly braatbod, 
bnt tliere ar« other and more powerful sourceH of misobief. Tbo dung- aud 
tbe urine are mfferod to remain fennenting, and giving ont injuriowi 
gaae*. In many dark and ilUmaDnged stablt-s, a portion of thu dang may 
be swept away, but tJic urine lies for days at tbc bottom of the bed. tha 
dis^natmg and putrrlying nature of which is ill-ooitcealed by a little &««li 
Stmw which the laay bomclcwjier dcatltm otw the top. 

The stables of the gontlomnn are generally kejit bot enutigL. and far too 
hot, altboogh, in many of thetn, a mom rational mode of tn^tnivnt is 
beginning to l>e ailopttn] ; but they aro lolly and riHiiny, and tlie horses 
are not too much crowded together, and a most scmpuliriu n^gard is fid 
to elMinlincwi. Gbindcrs seldom prevails then-. The siahU^i of tbo farmer 
aj<v ill'inauaged and filthy enongn, and tbc ordnre and urine sotactimM 
remain ftom wc«k to wvek, until the borae lin on a perfect dunghill. 
Olanden Hldom provaib there ; for the samo carcUxtancsv which nennitN 
the filth to aoeomulate leaves many » cranny for the wind to enter and 
sweep away tbo detHteriuus fumu from thii. badly>roofod aud nncoiled 

Tbe atablof of the horsc'dfsler are bot enongh j bat a principio of atriot 
clrtinlinem is euforcetl, for titerc ninst be uolltit^^ to ufiend tliv eye or tba 




nose of tbc custoDiur, utd tlivre )^lui<Ie» ia twlduin fuond ; lint if Uiv rtables 
of Duny of our p<wl and omiubua boraes, and of ihoae employed on oar 
canala, toe ex&nuDfid, ahnoat too low for a tail boree to itand nprigbt in 
tbetn, — too dark Tor the accnniiilatioii of filth to be perceived, — too far 
from the ©ye of the maaUr. — ilUdminod nnd ill-navod, — and govcraed by 
ft fklsv principle of tx'onoiDy, nliicb bcgradgrs tbc labour of tbc luaii, &nd 
the clvanlinoM a,ad (Mmfort of the aiiiiiinl ; tbt^e will be tlit- very botbeda 
of the diwace, and in nuuiy of tWtuteatabliahmentJtitisiuiHlmostconaUnt 

Qlftudera may be produced by anything that injures, or for a lenirtb (jf 
Idme acta upon and neskona, the vital eDorgy of this mcoibraue. It lias 
been known to follow a fractium of tbc bones of tbi: hok. It Iins been the 
cxtmtequeucD of violent cxUkrrb. aiid particularly tliu long-contiiiaed dis- 
eb»ra» fVem the nosCriU, of which wo hAvo iipolcon. It hiw hutn prodnnod 
bj toe injection of stimalating and acrid eulMtanveit up Uio nostril. 
bver^'thin)i: rliat wealcea» the coiifltitntioit jrenerslly will lead to ^landvra. 
It ii not only from bad stable management, but from the hardship* whi«h 
they endure, and the exhauated Btat« of their voastitution, that nost and 
mftchina horses are so subject to glanders ; and tborv is )>carv'>ciy au iu- 
flazomatory diacuac to wliiuli the buritu in nubjcct that in nut occasionally 
wound op and tunninntvi] by thv auiieniance of gUndon. 

Among the canHCfi of ^Iiuidorft u> wnat of rc^lar exercise. Tbo ooa- 
n^otion, jklthougb not evident at first glance, ia too certain. MTbcn a horm 
baa been woiked with pecvdiar severity, ond is become out of flpirits, 
and lUla away in flesh, and rcfuHCH to cnt. a little rest and a few maahea 
woald make all rij^ht again ; but thu groom plies him with cordiala, aod 
nddn fuel to tin), and aggiavatos tlic ntnte of fever t]iat hax commenoed. 
What ia the ncccnary oonaaquence of thia ? The wealcoat goe* to tbo 
wall, and cither the longs or tlie feet, or this menibraue — that of the nom 
—tha weakmt of all. exposed day aOer day to tlie fttimulating, debilitating 
inflovnocM that have been deHcribcd, becomeH the prinoipal Beat of infiam- 
jnatioD that terminates in glandere. 

It is ill tiiia way tliat (tiandera has so frequently be^'ji knuwii to follow 
a hard day's vluiaG. The sei^tda of tbu dincoM; may hare pi-eviously existed, 
bat ita prognw* will lie haMttmetl by ih*- general anil febrile action exL-iled 
— anaurd mi^aiiure.1 which are adapted not being tmlculnted to fiulKlue 
Uie fever, but to incnNk»e the stimulus. 

Rrery exciting cause of disease excrle He chief nnd ita woret inSnenca 
on this membi-ano. At the closo of a Mvere campnign ihe horses arc more 
than dccimnteil by tbtit pest. At the termination of the Peninmilor war 
the Tttvagi^n of thi* diaeiuH! were dreodf^il. Every diaeaae will prodicpoao 
tbe aembntne of the uose to take ou the inflammation of glanders, and 
with many, aa titr&nglcs, catarrh, broncbitie, and pneumonia, tlierc ia a 
conlanuity of membmnc, an associution of function, and a ibouaaod 

Tnere is not a diacaso which may not lay the foundation for glondera 
Weeks, and mouths, and yeunt may intervene between the preaiapering 
ninan and the wriiial evil; but at length tho whole tVame may become 
Brnitiiil or debilitated in many a way. and then this debilitated portion of 
it IB the firat to yield to the ntlack. Atmospheric inOtionce liaa Romewhat 
to do with the prevalence of glanden, It ia not ao frequent in the mmmer 
as in tbc winter, portly uttn'buttvblc, pcrbspv, to the different state of Ibc 
stable in tlie summer moiithn, neither the air so close or »o bul, nor tbo 
altcniattonx of tempfrntnre so (rreat- 

There are * ome remarkable cases of the connection of moisture, or noiat 
exlialattonit, that deserve record. When new etsbling waa bnilt fortbo 



troops at Hythe, and inhabited before the walla were perfect); dry, mnoy 
of tho horses that had been remoTed from an open, dry, and healthy 
eitoation, became affected with glandem ; but, some time having passed 
over, the horses in these stables were as healthy as the others, and glan- 
ders ceased to appear. An innkeeper at Wakefield built some eztensire 
stabling for his horses, luid inhabiting them too soon, lost a great pro- 
portion of bis cattle from glanders. There arc not now more healthy 
stables in the place. The immense range of stables nnder the Adelphi, 
in the Strand, where light never enters, and the supply of fresh air is not too 
abundant, were for a long time notoriously aiihcalthy, and many raloablc 
horses were destroyed by glanders ; but now they are 611ed with the 
finest wi^gon and dray-horees that the metropolis or the country con- 
tains, and they are fully as healthy as in the majority of stables abore- 

There is one more cause to be slightly mentioned — hereditary predispo* 
sition. This has not been safficiently estimated, with regard to the ques- 
tion now under consideration, aa well aa with respect to everything 
connected with the breeding of the horse. There is scarcely a disease 
that does not ran in the stock. There is that in the structure of varioas 
parts, or their disposition to be affected by certain influences, wltich per- 
petuates in the offspring the diseases of the sire ; and thus contraction, 
ophthalmia, i-oaring, are decidedly hereditary, and so is glanders. M. 
Dupuy relates some decisive cases. A mare, on dissection, exhibited 
every appearance of glanders ; her 611y, who resembled her in form and in 
her vicious propensities, died glandered at sijc years old. A second and 
a third mare and their foals presented the same fatal proof that glanders 
Is hereditary. 

Qlanders is highly contagious. The farmer itannot be to deeply im- 
pressed with the certainty of (his. Considering the degree to which this 
disease, oven at the present day, otYen prevails, the legislature would be 
justified in interfering by some severe enactments, as it has done in the 
case of the small-pox in the human subject. 

The early and marked symptom of glanders in a discharge from the 
nostrils of a [)ecutiar character ; and if that, even before it becomes puru- 
lent, is rubbed on a wound, or on a mucous surface, as the nostrils, it will 
produce a similar disease. If the division between two horses were suffi- 
ciently high to prevent all smelling and nnorting at each other and contact 
of every loud, and they drank not out uf the same pail, a sonnd horse 
might live for years, uninfected, by the side of a glandered one. Tho 
matter uf glanders lias been mixed up into a bail, und given to a healthy 
horse, without effect. Some liorses liave eaten the hay left by those that 
were glandered, and no bad consequence has followed ; but others have 
been speedily infected. The glaiideniua matter mnst c^nie in contact with 
a wound, or fall on some membrane, thin aitd delicate like that of the nose, 
and through which it may be absorbed. It is easy, then, ucfiistomeil kh 
horses arc to be crowded together, and to recognise each other by the 
Hmcll— eating out of the same manger, and drinking from the same pail — 
to ima^^e tlutt the disease may be very readily communicated. One horM 
has passed another when lie was in the act of snorting, and has l^ecome 
glandemd. Some fillies have received tlie contagion from the matter 
blown by tho wind across a lane, when a glandered liorKc, in the opposite 
field, lias claimed acquainbmce by neighing or nnortiiig. It w almost im- 
possible for a glandered horse to remain long in a Ktablu with others 
without irrejjurable mischief. 

If some persons undermfo tho danger, it is Im?c»iimc the disease may 
n-iiiuiii tinrccogiii.'Jed in the infcctetl hursf for wiiuie munths, or even years. 

nnd thf^rcrow, whm it Ap]i«irR, it u altribafcci to otlun- cftiuos or to ftAer 
itMM-alutiiin. No gliuiiJotvd hortti a]iou](l Ix- viuplvycd oD uiy GuTo, nor 
Bb»ulil n gliuMti-ixsl hon>r Iw jHTOiittod to wurk im unjr rooul, or e^tm to 
jwatura on ati^ field. Mittchief may be m eai<ily ntid exti>iiiiive1j sflectod, 
that the public interest demandB that erery inlected aiiima] atusold bo 
nauasrilr dertroycd, or piTen over for experiment to a Teterinaiy surgvou, 
or recognised TCt{TinB.r]- dBtoblisluiiciit. 

Tliere are s few iutwonw of the HponlunvouB core of chronic (tlaadn-f). 
nw dJHChfLrg* haa orislvd for a citiiHidcruhlc timo. At lv!ij;rlh it b&a 
grftdnally diminiflliM], und hiui ceiuted; and thU hoM occurred under evfry 
kiad of trcatmLiit, and without any medicul treatiuent i but in the majority 
or iiicfte. Niifi]>08ed cases, the mattor was only peot up for a while, and then, 
bursting frota it« ooofinenient, it flowed again in double qoanti^ : or, if 
planden hm not rfeppearcd, the hone, id eighteen or Iwenty.fonr 
inODths, boa bocomo fltrcird, or «oii«iunptiv«, itad di«d. Tb««e »tippo«>ed 
<nircKan)fcwBsdfarhi'livvcn,uidsre to he rcgardvd with much suspicioD. 

As for mttliLfintf, there is ncarcely a drug to which a fuir trial has not 
been giTen, and many of them hare had a temporary n^putntion ; hut tlicy 
have paeaed awsT, one after the other, and are no longer heard of. The 
MaeTitriol and the Spfuiiah-lly hare held out longrat ; and io a few caaea, 
cither nature or these medicinca hnvc done wonders, but in the majority 
of iBstanctM they hare palpably failod. Tlicdiniodiile of copper ha« lately 
acqnirod tamv ivputation. Ii liajt bvcn of great ncrvicv in ca^os of farcy, 
bat is not to b6 depcndi>d upon in (j^landors. 

Where tho life ofn vtihtiiMf ariimal in at Hlake, and tlie owner ailoptn 
trrmy precaution to pi-evt-nt infection, ho may enhjcct the liorae to medical 
trcttlment; but every humane mtin will indignantly objtvt to the slitting 
of the nostril, and tliii wraping of tbv curl-ilago, and noaring of the gtaO(^ 
and firingof the Frontal ojiil naaul huneis and (« Uwnc inject i^ms of musiurd 
and capsicum, curronivc Huhlitnatc and vitdol, by which tht- )ior»c has bcren 
tonnrtv), luiil On* pnu-litioiior diagraoed. At the releiiiuu-y Mrhiml. mid by 
veterinary uurgi>cinfi, itwilllje maat dcalnbie that i^Tei^experinwutahould 
be irie<l to dincover a remedy for thia peat ; bnl, in ordinary instoncc*. b« 
ia not faitliful to hi^i own iutcraet or that of hia aeighl}onr» who does not 
remove the poKsibility of daugt'r iti the monb sDUtmory way. 

If. bowerer, rvmcclial niciuurL-n arn rfsorttnl to, a pure atmotipherv i« 
that whioh nhonld fiiiit br- trinl. (ilandem ik the pccntinr dii:r-ai:r ofth^i 
•tahlud horHv, and the preparation lor, ur lliv fuundalion t>f, n cun,- muiit 
romtiat in ibv [M-rf^t n'mnval of evorj' e^ritia^ cause of the ninlaily. 7'lw 
horse must brealhe a cool and pure atmosphere, and he mnst be turni-d 
out, or placed in a situutiun omiivah-nt to it. 

A salt muruh tJ>, ahnvo all otlit-n, the aituatioB for thia experiment -, but 
then; in taucli caution n^tjuircd. No sound honte uinat he in the suno 
pualurv, or a ni-i^Iihuuring one, The paltngH or the gaten may receive a 
portion of the matter, which may harden upon thein, and, many a mouth 
anerwanla, be a suurcu of miM-litef — nay, the virus may cling about the 
Terr heritage and empoison it. Cattio a»d ahovp Ahoutd uob bo trusted 
with a glanilercd honw, for thi; cxfMjrimcnta arc not mfficivnUy numeroua 
or doctdctl as Lo th« exemption of ihpHc auimala from the contagion of 

Snppottng that glanders baa made ita appoaronce in the Blablcs of a 
fanner, is Ibere any danger after be has renwvcd or destroyed the infected 
liuraef — Certainly there ia. bat not to tlie extent that is commonly 
sappoaed. There ta no necewity fur pulling down ihe racks and man- 
gars, or even t)ie stable ii»clf, ax iiunic linvi- tlonc. Thi.- jKiison nFfiidca 
not in tbc brraih of the animal, hut in the na»al discharge, and that can 

tm\y reat^h certain partt^ of the stable. IF Hie mangers, nnd racV». nod 
bales, aad partitiona, ore Rfstt well ttiTmpcd, and scoured with sou|) and 
wdtor, nntl tb^n thorouclily washed with a aolutioD of tho chloride of Itme 
(on« pint nf thy chloride to a pniltnl of wator), and tho walla are limc^ 
vrwilied, «nd tho hcEid-t^car burned, nnd the clothiD); baked or n-aahed, aod 
the ptiilit iiunly i^uintvil, unci tlic iron-work L-xpoHcd to r red heat, all 
danger will i'4>Ht<e. 

Littlo that is satisfaotoiy uan be snid of the priwention of glaiider^. 

Tho lirst and moi^t efl'ectual mode of prevention w-ill be to keep tbo 
BtabloB cool and well ventilated, for the hot and poinoiied air of low and 
COafinod stublcs is one of tho most prcvntcnt catises of ^Inndcrx. 

IVezt to ventilatiuTi comuM j^ooil nnd vllii'if'iit drnitiM^t-. T)w aiino 
ahonld never be allowM to Ho on tho iturfacp, but have riaidj* means of 
escape throu|E;li ample and welE-ttrniui^ud drains ; for the foul air from the 
fomicntine litter, and urine, and dung, must not only be highly iiijurioos 
to heiH.lth genvmlly, bnt irritate and prediepose to iimanuiLation that deli- 
cato Kii.'iiibriiiip wliicli is the priniary seat of the disviifie. If to thia bo 
added re^lar eicerois^, and m'uastanal green moBt darinf^ tho finnimor, and 
carruUi iu thu winter, we shall have stated all that can be done in the waj 
of prevention. 

illanJert in llic^ titimnn htthii/. — It eiuiiiot bi^ t*)o ulleii repoat**d, tliat a 
^landertHl horse uan rarBlj PeinaJn ainou^^ soniid onefi without serioiu 
niiBchief eueuiuK ; and, woi-se than all, tlio man who attends on that Lorm 
ia in danger. Tlio cjuich arc now becoming far too numerous in ifbicli 
the groom or thu vvterinmry Hurgi?i»n attending on glandtired honMJs becomen 
iufootod, and in the innjoHly uf vavttM dioa. It in, howevi^r, wninnbat 
nMr« manogenhlc in the nnman being than in the qnadr^ipcd. Soni« comw 
of rocovei? froni farcy and glatident Nlfiml on record with regard to the 
banian btnng. but they nri? few and far betireen. 


Fartry is intiinatvly conntx'tvtl nHth glandwra ; ilivy wilS nin into each 
utlixr, ui* tlieir Nytnpiouiii will iidn^lo Ut^thor, and Iwforo (ntli«r iirrivpa 
at its fatal termination the other will genoTally appcftr. An animal 
inocaluied with the nintter of ffircy will often bo aOiicted with glaadonii, 
while tho matter of glauden wiJ (Vemiontly produce fai-cy. Tlier art- 
different trpefi o£ the name diMaae. There iit. however, a very maierial 
difference in their ftyinptomit and progrtas, and tliix moat important one 
of all, that while glanderx i« incurable, f^my, in ittt early tdtifpi and raiM 
form, mt»y be sinTMstnlly trcatttl. 

While tlie rapilJitiy vi-.-^^dn of llui artfiinan are cver3"wherp eiiiptoye<l in 
building ii|i the frame, the abuorbenta are no lena diligently at work in 
•eleotiiig and earrj-ing away every uflel^M or worn-out portion or part 
of it. There in no aurlace — thei-c in no asngnhblo spot on which thou- 
MUi(I)i of t-bcMj Uttio moutliH do not open. In the diachargc of their duty, 
tkity not only remove that whit'li im ttecintie imelMta, and otlen t-hat whieli 
ia hiealthy, bnt that which ia |H>i!tot)ntM and dnHtnietiTe. They open ufioii 
tht aariace of every glaud<M-oU!i ehancre. Tliey ahuorb a pi^rtioii of the 
Tirua which in oecreted by the ulcer, and as it paaaee along Iheno little 
tnbm, tlmy mitTer from ita acrimonioati ((Ualily ; Iience the corded rtin*, at 
Ihey are called by tlie farrier, or, mon> properly, the thickened and in- 
flamed abnorfcenlH following the ponr»e uf the veina. 

At certain difltancm in we couree of tho aboorbcuta art looao dnplioa- 
turea of the Kniag membnuir, forming Talvev, which arc preased agaiuxt 
th« side of th« vMwl and permit the fluid tti pmu in a dinoction tnwards 
the cheat, hnt Ivlly "iil and impede or arreal in jir<igrew tVom the chest. 



Tbo TiruH tit t\ufAO plMTfji, Hnd t)ii- iidJiUoEitO inAiLinmitlioii tlivre exviuvl, 
IB to n greater or teiu tle^rftp I'viiifiit to the e^e niid to thft fedltiijf. They 
ore o«naJly first fibserTcd ahaat the lips, the noao, the neck, the axUlai^ 
ppAOCA of tlie vbeet, and tJie tluj,'Jia. Thoj aro vcrjr liard — ercu of a 
DcirrhoDs hnrdnoss, more or l<»s tender, and nilh perceptible beat aboat 

Tlin poimnous«r being thim eoiifini>d lutd prmiiing on tlie puri, itup> 
paraxon ftnd uloentaon encuc. Thn niccni hiiTe the xarne cbarocterw m 
llic glanderous otioh on tbc rtietabmiie of tlie nose. Tli«jr are rounded, 
with Hii clct-ated edge and a pole Harface. Tbe; are true chancrea, Bod 
tltvy (lisL'buiyo a viruH as inlL'otioos and as dangerons as the matter of 
g^atidvnt. Wbiltf tbcy remain in t-licir banl pn>iiiinant »t6,Us, thojr are 
called I'uHofni or/'irci/ InuU; and tbu; arc connected togetbcr by tho iu- 
flamed aiuj eonlnl abm^rliurit^H, 

In some caiiei> the horse witl diwop for many a <3ay before the Hpp«&r- 
anre of the eord(>d vciiu) or bads — hia appetilc will be inipatrcd — his coat 
vnW stare — ho will to«» fleBh. The poison ie ovirietitly at work, hnt has 
noi gained nufiictcal pouxn- io c\\n»r> the abeorbcute to cnJorer. 1» a icw 
cuM* ihene biulx lio not ulcerate, bnt become bard and difficult Ut disporiu-. 
Ttie mogrcN* of llie di^teaaa is then HUftpended, and powiihly for Mime 
montiis uie horae will appear to be restored to health ; bnt be beuj« tho 
■Mda of tbe malady about hira, mitf in dno time the farcy (wanmoa iin 
Tinlcnt form, and hurried him oiT. Tbtwu bnd« bare nomutimcii Keen 
COnfioiindfil with the littlo tumount or liinijm \A-nnfA Kurftit, Tht^y are 
generally liigbor than LhiiHo tiuiionrtt, and not ho broad. They have a 
mato knotty chanw.>l«r, and are prinipijiolly fonnd on the iiwidB of the 
limbe, instead of the outside. 

Pew tbiogs are more unlike, or more perplexing, thnn the difim-nt 
Ibrmit which furcv luMumtii at diflervnt tiitip)>. One of i\w legw, imil juir- 
tunlarly oae of the bin<)er leg):, will tiudileiily Kwell ia an enormous )>iie. 
At aignt tbe horse ivill n.p)H;iir to bn p«<i-feoth' w«ll, nml in tlu.' morning 
one leg will bv three limes thp siu: of the other, mth considerable fever 
and Hcorcely tbe power nf moving the limb. 

At other times the head will be sabject to tiuji enlargement, the muzzle 
]Mirti(niL&rly will swell, and an oftensive diM^harge will proceed from lliu 
ttovc. Sometimee tlte horso wiU gradually loeo Hooh and strength; ho 
win be bido-boond : ntan^ oruptione will nppi-tur in difivrent part« ; tlit^ 
le^^ will swell ; craclca will be seen at the beelii, and an inexp«rieured 
per&on may eonceive it to be a mere want of oonditioD, eombiniMl with 

By dc-greeH the affection becomeH general. Tbe vims haui reached tho 
tomtinatioa of the abeorbenta, and minglee with tbo general CLrcnbitiog 
fluid, and is conveyed with the blood to every part of the frame. There 
are no longer any valvt-i: to impfdo itAprogreM, and eon&MiBently no knots 
or h\nit, but (be myriads of t-apillary aiworbent^ that penetr&te everj- part 
become iuRamed, and thickened, and eulnrgei), and cease to discbart^c their 
function. Hence arisea eulargeiuent of the sabstaDOe of vaiwun jiarlt. 
•wvUingB of the legs, and chut, and bead — sadden, iiainfhl, eBomoujt, and 
ditttn^oiilved by a hritt and (endrtmoR^:, which dn not aceompany other 

It IS a qaestion ronAidered wimewbat dilRcnlt to onawer, whether farcy 
can ndiii without pnewion* glanilors. Certainly it can ; there are nume- 
ronB iDSl&ltns of cases of farcy i-unniug their course purely ae Bucli, and 
ultimately arriving at a complete recovery, without a single eymptoni of 
glandcri! i&tcrroniii);. Farcy is a c-arahl« form of (he diMsec, glanden 
Uw incnrable ; and 1 his most important di^iiiction between them at once 



provcw, Ihkt clthoii^ thejr maj bc', um] mnat pmlwhlr fire. typM of one 
Mid Uu; nunc duakM', tbej ftre not idmlical with cacli othrr. Tbirre ts 
the loD^-onntinued iasidioiia p r oi g w of glanden — tbe tunc wbicli m»y 
el*{M». and often doea. befbre tiw owner !• smn ortbeTatonnaijKar^eon 
sare of it — tbe [Miiliililj that minate nioerstion may have for a Innip 
whilo exiated in aooM of tfao rcc ca a o* of tbe onae — or that the slight dia- 
ofaArgr, luidrBadrd and narcoogniacd, jct vitiated, poiaoncd, md cantbla 
of ooauaaiuCBtinK ihr- diiiMwe, nay havo heat long tntTHHng ihnnuni tlia 
flvane. Mad aflectmg the atbsorbeni*, and preparing for the undilva tuaplajr 
of ftn^. 

One thing, bowwer, is niKt^itiAhtc. tluit furo- docfl oi^t loufr imd cx- 
teiHBTely prerail withont being accompanied hv i;laiidt>n>, and thai it 
amvrr dcetroya tht* iininud witlioBt plainly aiwociiuiiig itvclf tritli ghuiden. 
Thc^ are, in &ot, typen of ibe ianie disease. 

Glanders is inflamniation of tho mpmbnin& of tbo niw, prAdncing tui 
altered and poiBoooos accretion, and when saflicicnt of tliifl viiiulrd secn^ 
tion has been tnkpn op to prodnco inSammntiun and nlcoralinn of tlie 
absorbentA, farcy in mtjibliHhdd. It» pmgrrra is occasionany wry ol- 
prifHoBii, oontiunin^ in a fevr caaca for montlw and yenn, tbe vigour of 
ibc liorac rcmuinbig uniiu])aired; and at otli«r times, numinff oa to ita 
futftl termination with a rapidity perfrcUy astoninhiii^. 

Farry ha* bran canfoanded with other aiacaws : bnt he ntfliit be carvleM 
or ignorant wbo miittaok sprain for it. T)ie inHaninuition is too cinmn- 
MTiMd and loo plainly conntwM^l with the joint or the tt^on. 

It may be roeatly dietiuguiMbcd from grcuw orHwcUn) Irgs. In (fresite 
ibere ia lunally Bocir cruck or M-nrfiiiPAti, a jietniliar i«^Hcnr9ni mid rcdneaa 
and gloannnn of tbe iikiii, nooie irhorous discharge, and a xingnlar «|MN* 
atoAus catehing up of the leg. 

In Jmvv thv (rngiirgvuieut in even more sadden than |]ia.i of STraao. 
Tlie horuB iH well l<>-day, and to-morrow ho iH gorged from tbe fetlook »o 
tbe haunch, and although ihrn- is not the Ktmi; n^lnesH or gloanneca, 
tbere is great lenilmmB, • barmrog hrat in the limb, and ntnch general 
fever, [tin wmultapcoiui inflammation of all the absorhenla of tb» Hmb. 

SuriVit can waroely Im coolbunded with farcy or glandi;:rv. It ia a 
poslular rraption — avr/eil bnmpf, ns Ihcy are called, and terminating in 
deMjaamslioD. uit in nln^ruti^in, altlum^'h imm«ron)), yet irrrgnlarlr iilacnl, 
and never following tJie couriw of tlte abi>«rbent«, bat tenttrnvl nver the skn. 

IjocuI dropny oftbe cellnl&rmembntne, and partienlarlytbnt enlargement 
bcDColh tbe taomx which has tbe strange appellation of tntler-farcy, have 
□one of tbe chancten of re«l fiuvy. It w gtoeral debility (o a gmter or 
laaa degree, sod not iuflnmmatjon of tlie aiwotbonta. If pmierly tmatvd, 
it aoon diaappeerB, except that, ocoiuiionally, at the eloee of aooie aeriotu 
diMa»e, it inoieaU* a breaking ap of the eonstitntian. 

IVrcy. like glanders, HpriiigH fruui contagion uuil &uiu bad alable munogn- 
menl. It is prodiuwd by all the t.-nusc« which give rise to glanden, mth 
this iliffvrenee, that it is more frw)nently genvnted. and sometnueettnuiga^ 
urevalftnt in putimlor districti^. It wtTl attack, at the same time, aemenu 
ooraca iu the samu ill-condudcd stable, and others in the noighonrhood 
wbo liBTe been exposed to the same pretUsposiug cuunes. Some have 
denied thai, it is n contagious disease. They must have hail little exneri- 
eitt». It IB truo tlutl the matter nf fiuv^y uiuHt come in oontact with a 
wound or eore, in opier (o coinmuiii<-ate the diMvan ; bnl accniatonked bb 
bonee are lo nibble ami play with each oilier, and sore as the comers oftbe 
moath are frequently rendt'rcil by llie bit, it is easy to imagine that tbia 
way be I'axily eOc'etiil : nnil eii^eric^eo tells ns, that a honi« luiving fikrn 
ulcers etiunot be ttuUtn.'d toremnin with otlieni without extreme rials. 



Tl>e IrMUneot of furcy diffura witii ilie form timt. it aHnmBH. A» n 
generml rule, luid emppciallj' when the bnttoOR or buds btb beginning tu 
npfMur, a mild dose of physic ahonld first bo adminutered. 'the bad^ 
Dbould UicB be csrofuU; cKiuuiued, and if luiy of Uiem Imvo broken, 
the bodding^iroo. at a dull rod boat, ebould bo appUod. If pus nhotdd bo 
fult in them, sboiring that thoy bltv dispotuil to bn-tik, thvy slxinld bv p«>iiv> 
trated with tlu^iron. T)i<.'sc wuuTiiUshi)iildlNMliulj'in;^[K!CtO(l, oiid if, vrhua 
tho slouch of the Raut<}ry oomori off, thoy look pole, and fouJ, and npongy, 
and diDcIuir^ » ihia imUur, tlicy nliuuld lie fretiuoiitly washed with a 
xtruiig loUon of corrosive sablimatc, dissolrcd is rccti6cd spirit. When 
ilio wounds begin to look rDd, and the bottom of them if i.>vvn iind lirm, 
Hod they difH-hurgo a thick whito or yvlluw mul'tcr, thv Frior'tt luLltwni will 
uMiallj diapoHi litem to bcul. 

Am, honcvvr, lliv cunH'tilHtiou in now t4uiitud, Itxvd applications will not 
be Kullicimit, and llie diHeAHo muHt be attacked b^ iut^mal niediciiio as Moon 
US t)io physio has ceased to operalo. 

Carrtffirf itlUmatf need to ho a favoui-il* medicine, eonibiued with 
tallies, and repeated morning luid night until the ulcers duiappcai'cd, unJeas 
the mouth l»ec(unc »ore or the horw; was viuletitly purgi-d, when the snlphuto 
iif c<jj>{iKr whk NiibtttitutaHt for tho eorroaivi^ hubliina-U-. During this trciit- 
tnt^nt tli« aniituil wiu pUuvd, W [wHsible, in a liLrgc box, witli a (nM oitvn- 
liilion of air ; and gn-on moat or carrolA, and particularly tho latt«r, were 
gireu, with n full aflowaiico of coiiu J f lie could be tamed oat in Uio day, 
)( waa dccmL^ highly advanliigeutis. It iit mlatod by Mr. Blitine. that a 
borec, m nilucvd iu> not lo W nl>li! I<i Klnrid, wait drawu into n i'wld of tartw, 
and aafli'rMl to tal:L> hix <.'liau<^. The conseqnence was that, when he had 
cat«U all within bin rvach, ho <.x>iitnv(;d U> luove about and mitrch lor mon, 
and eventually meovei-cd. Mivny hortiat focovci' under tlto ufio of tho 
Miblinkate, bat the grent majorily of them die. 

Ur. Vines introduced a mon^ vfl'futive medicine — eantharider, in vombt- 
nation lilc-wino wilh the v<gft«bU> bltti^w ^ ao a euro for farcy and 
glauilcr*. It eanttot U- dvaiud, that many aiiinialB labouring under tiie 
fortovr, and n fiiw iitidfr tlie latter, were to all amittrance radically cun-d. 
The medicine waa aaspended for awhile if afiection of tlie kidneys snper- 

A still more ofloctiul uodici&e has been iutroduced by Professor Morton, 
namely, the- JiaioditUi of copper, and it han been found of essential scnico 
in farey and in disnuiM simalating gisaders. Hu says that ita action is 
that of a stiniuliint to the absorbent vessels, and & tonic. Tba gontiaa 
root is DBTinlh* combined witb it. CanthoHdes, in small quantities, mAy bo 
advantageouiily added. An indication of itn inflneuco \» a eorencsct of ilie 
dweased pnrla arising from the uheorbent vvsm^U being rouncd into ui- 
craaaed aoUon : the imrnt Khnuld then be for a time withheld. 

Wjilt'fu Fauct, confounded by name with the oomiuoti (arey, and by 
which much confusion has been caused, and a great deal of nua^rhirf don«i, 
is a dropsical afloetion of tbe akin, oitbor of tLe chest or of the limbs, and 
belongs to another part r>f tbc subjuct. 


The Up* of the honw arc fur more iiuportunt orgami than miuiy suppose. 
Thoy an' tbv hiuxU of thv uuiiiinl ; luul if any one will lakv thv trvublc lo 
obMtrvo tho mannLV in which be gathi-nt up hiH com witii them, and oil- 
Icots together the grass before he divide)' it witli Itis aippem, ho will be 
Batiafied tliat the horse would be no more able to i.'oiivuy lh<- foofi to lus 
month without thera. than the human being could with^tut his liaixU. 
This lia» even been put to ihu tmt of t-^cjMiruuents The nerves whii<b 


•niB Lire. 

mpply the lip* w«re tlivMlexl in & yoor fm, to iUiuinito Mine point of pbjno* 
lotO^. Tbc aeosibttitf of Uie hpa waa lost, and he knew not wKm he 
tottcbed his food with thtrm. The inotiaB at die lipe wm Ink, and Ike eoald 
not get the cwto )>(;twc<^<n his teeth, altbaagli tlw onager hbs fUD of tlwBi: 
■t length, driven bv hunger, h« (v>ntnTod to liek op s fpn- of Ih^m with hie 
tooKuc i but when thcjr wviv on hia tougnc, the prcstvr pert of thtrm wm> 
mUbed offbefere hecmld gei them into hi-s mouth 

It u on accotuit of dtk nae of the lip&. Iliai thvj max be brought into 
OOntBct with the food withoat inconveniencie or injnry to other part* of 
the filC4i that the heedi of most qaadmpcds ore 6o l«ngthenvd. SeTeral 
MBeclce go to the lipe frota diflcretit parte of the jaw nod tmix. Somt' of 
ihum are ehowD ia the cut, p. \'J0. The orbicuUrie or c-trcolar maxle.p. 
e(n[doj<wi ID puifaiiig out the lipe aod clnung them, and eaabling the hotig 
to Hue and hold his food, is porticnlartT crideat ; and in the explaoation 
of tiM cat, th« action of other miucJce, •', it, m, and o, wa6 deecribvd. The 
Bcrves likewioe. y. takinK their ooone along the cbeok. and principally 
tmfftjiag the lip* wHb toe power of ntotioB, and thoae, i, procprding from 
the *!™"«'^, or hole in the nf^>er jaw, dceeree attention. 

ThB Upe are eompo n ed of * mn&onlar aabstaniw for the sake of etrengtli, 
■Dd a maltttude of ematl glandi^ which ftetrvte a fluid that covers the io- 
nde ef the lips nnd tho fjiUBa, in ordrr to pnrrcnt Action, and likewise 
fvnoili a portion of the moisture so neoeeeaiy for the pnipi-r chewinD of 
the bod. The skin oorering the Iipe ie exoM>dini{ly thin, tn urder uiat 
thair pecoltar aeneibilit;!- mav he pnmerrrd, bimI for th« eame pojpoee thej 
■re ecaatilj covered with hair, and that hair in fine and uoet. Long 
hain or feclenL termed the beard, are saperadded wilh thp lame intention. 
The horae is guided and g<ji'L<med principally by thpmootb.snd thefvfore 
the Itpe are endowed with verr gr«ai wnmbility, to that the animal feele 
the eligfataet notioa of the hand of thv ridn or driver, and ecems to 
■Blicniate fata verr ihon^htn Tlir _^nrn»>< rn- gaodietr «/ the -momiU oasf J 
■iila m ite extjuijiiit' ft^ting, and thai dt-penda on tlie thinnna of Ha» ^ 
u Mmbt m e. 

Felipe of the horee«hoald be thin, tftho hoanty of tbo hmd in regarded; 
jeC, althoitgh thin, they ehoiild evidcuth- poancss power, and bo slraagly 
and regBlarly cloeed. A firm. oampr«u«d month girea a faroarvble and 
no deoeptire idea of the muKalar power of the animal. lAfe ajwrt from 
aach other and banging down, indicate weaknees or old age, or dolnesa 
and aloggiahiteae. 

The d^itb of the mooth, or tJic divtancc from thu fore-part to the angle 
of the lipe. ahoold be cutuidetaUe. A iihort protuberant mouth wooid be 
n bad Bnish U> the tapering &re of the blood-horae. More riKon is Gke- 
wiee given for th<^ opening of the nostril, M-hich hae been ehewn to be an 
utqiortant convideralion. The bridlo will not be carried well, and Lho 
bome will hang bearr on hand, if there is not coniudcndilr depth of month. 

The comen or angles of the lipa are fiwinently made lorr or wounded 
hr the tmallnMS, or shortneea, or pemliar tn-isting of the tmaftlv, uid the 
onneoeeaary and cniel tightnew of tb« bearing rein This rein wac io- 
trt>duced as giTing the borae a grander Appcanmcc in bamc^, and placing 
tiie bead in Utal poeJtion in which the bit luoet cfTn-'tuAllir presses upon the 
jaw. It ie an uaefol adjntict to driving tafely, for, deprived of this cod- 
ItoI, many' horaM would haiw their beads low. and be diiipoeed every 
moment to fitomble. and wooId defy all pnlling, if ibey tried to mn away. 
There ia, and can be no ueceasity, however, for ming a boariog-reiD so 
li^t u to cramp lite mtuclis of the bead, or to injnrv and exroriate the 
•D|dea of the Ujm. 

^la&Uowing i* the opinion of Nimrod,«Bd lo a more eompvtcnl jndga 



H'e coolil not iipp««l:— 'As to thp oDivpraal dUoAo of Uie bcAtiDg-mn 
wiili EttgliiJt hoiT-M, it tan tivver lalit plate. The charge ■gAiDet it of 
crueU; at unou fallii to the f^roaiu], bcciMis? to moke n tenm irork tot^thor 
in fnst work, ewry bone's litnt) iiiiuit Iw as Dtuch reHtraJnod br the 
conplinf^-rAJti iw it wotild b<) and ia hy the b<<armg-rein. It« Rxrclknco 
consinlo in kvvping hors«&' mouths tir^sh — -in eoabliiig a coachioui to ia- 
dolge a horse with libflrtjof rein, without Icttinc him boaJI abroad, which 
fa« wonld he with his Iicm) tjnito looso, and of ndlitionHl mtfcty to the 
coaflh-horso, Rk [irt>r#d by the fiwrt <>f oitHpr lh»t iir 111" cnip|wr sln-aja 
prinifTiniy vrhon ho fiUlM dowr. Thore tuv, however, t^'am* in whirh it 
mHT b<* di»pt;iu>«d with, and thi* horM.-a have au Hdvaut4iev ia their working 
Hgaiiint hillx. As to tht^ comparison of l]it> road cnach-norftee on the Con- 
tiuetit and oar own, let &ny one ei&mine the knem of the French dtUgencn 
and poet-hors(*B, whit-li arw allowpd ijurfpol liberty ol' head, and he will 
be ooii<nnocd th>t tho nJto of the boann^-rt^in dix^ nnt keep them on theuT 
legs,* Tbo tcMuoM in which it nmy \k diiipfiiM-d with itru thnao in which. 
iJie hoTWM iiAturally carry their heads well ; thai in, ninrh in tlie mai» 
pooiticin in which the bearing-rein would place them. 

The month is injured much oft«nprth]in tho rnrpJeBs owner Kunp/^xby 
ih<! prcHBUrc of a uliaj^ bit. Hot only uro the bar» wounded and dmrply 
nlccratcd. brit lh« lower JBw, between iht- dish niid the t^rindcnt, in some* 
timtrW worn i-vrii lo t-ho bone, and tht- Ixini' itthilf afTi-ctKii, and jjurtioDS of it 
vifoli&t4! away. It may bonccM^ary tohavi>iiiiliar[> bU for ihrthciulntrong 
and obBtinal* beast : yet if that bit iHWvercly and unjuatitiably calted into 
exercisCt the animal may n>ar, and cndantfcr himself and his rider. There 
can. however, bo no occ4i«inn for a thonaundlh part of the torment which 
the tmppiii^ of llic muiilh otl^^n intlicl on n willing and dot-iie nervant, 
and whicJi <>ith<!r render the mouth hard, and dmtruy all tho pIcKuuiv of 
riding, or c»a»e the hone to beooBie IVetftil or ric-ioiu. 

Small ulcent are nometimes (bund in varions partfl of the moalb. nud la 
bt! produced by maty hita. but oftener arising from contusions inflicted by 
the bit, or from inflammation of the month. If the curb-bit is in fault, a 
■naflle or P«lhAm-bit should be used. If there is inttammatiOD of the 
moath, ■ littlu vooling mi-dirinv may b» administered ; and to the uloers 
thenuelrcn, (intturc iif niyrrli, dJlntrd with wrtlcr, or alum diasoWed in 
water, may be appliwl with ndvaiitAL^. 


The bones coiiHtituting and giving I'onii to the mouth are the superior 
maxillary or opper jaw (b, p. I40, and /, p. 145), containing the upper 
grindeM and lnebe«; the anterior maxillaTj, or lower part of iJie upper 
jaw (/, p. l^O, It, p. Ii5), containing tlio upper-nippers or cultiitg-teeth ; 
tbc palatine houe (f, |). 197) and the poatvrinr miudllary or imder jaw (n, 
p. 140), contniniug all the nndar laetii. 

The superior maxillary is, with tlie exDoption of th« lower jaw, the 
largevt bone in the face. It unites above with the IhcIu^'ihiiI bone, and 
mare on tlie aide, with the malar or che^ banc, anil a iKirliou of it^ con- 
tinned upward, and ondemeatb. enters into the orbit. Ab(»-e, and on tbs 
froDt of the tVute, it nnites with tho honen of the noM*. and below, with 
the inferior maxillary. Tliat which most de«*'rvi« notion in it externally 
ia ^le ridge or spine, coutiuaed from the ba»e of the Kygemntir arch, and 
■oroH the malar bone. It and the sur^e besealh Horve to give attacb- 
Buat to the maueter miucle. concerned, almost as mach as the temporal 
Diio, in the act of chcnnn^. On tho antvrior mittea is a foramen or hole, 
through which a bnuicii of the fifth pair ^ nemM proceeds to giro semi- 
btlity to the lower part of the faofe As it approsohee the teeth, Ihiit bone 

i bility to 




Reparates into two plates, and these are divided by long partitions, which 
contain and firmly hold the upper grinders. The lower plat« then project 
inwards, and forms the principal portion of the roof of the mouth, and 
the floor of the cavity of the noso. The corrosponding bono on the other 
side meets its fellow in the contra of the palate. The upper jaw-bone 
contains in its large cavities besides those for the teeth, and ^ese open into 
and enlai^e the cavity of the nose. They are connected with the Toice, 
but not with the smeli, for the expansion of the olfactory or smelling 
nerve has never been traced beyond the bones and membranes of the proper 
cavity of the nose. The maxillary sinuses are generally filled with matter 
in bad cases of glanders. 

Below these are the anterior mamillary bones, containing the upper 
cutting teeth, with the tnshos belonging both to the upper and anterior 
bones. These are the bones to which the upper lip ia attached. The 
Kuperior and anterior maxillary bones aro separated in animals with Ion;; 
faces, like the horac, that, by overlapping each other, strength might be 

The palatine bone forms but a very small portion of the palate. It 
surrounds the edge of the communication between the cavity of the noee 
and the back parts of the moutli. 

Adhering to a portion of the three bones jnst described, and consti* 
luting the lining of the roof of the niontli, is the palate, composed of an 
elastic and dense subslnnoe divided into several ridges called Bare. The 
following cut gives a view of them. 

It will also point out the bleeding place, if it should occasionally be 
deemed advisable to abstmct blood frum the mouth ; or if the horse should 

l)e attacked with megrims on a journey, and the 
driver, having no lancet, should be compelled 
to make nse of his knife, the incision should be 
made between the centn\l and second nippers 
on either side, about an inch within the month, 
nnil cutting through the second bar. A streaiD 
of blood will be thus obtained, which will 
u,>iually cease to tiow when two or three quarts 
hnve escaped, or may generally bo arrested 
by the application of a sponge filled with cold 

Thifl, however, is a make-shift sort of bleed- 
ing tliat may be allon'rible on a journey, and 
possibly in some cases of lampas, but which ia 
decidedly objectionable as the usual mode of 
abstracting blood. The quantity withdrawn 
cuniiot be measured, the degree of inflamma- 
tion cannot be ascertained by the manner in 
which it coagulates, and there may be difli- 
culty to the opcnitor, and annoyance and pais 
to the horse, in stopping the bleeding. 

This cut likewise depicts the a]i|waranor of 
the roof of the mouth if the barn were dis- 
sected off, and of the numerous vettscls, arterial 
and venous, which ramify over it. 
At the back of the palate, and attat^hc<l to the crescent- shaped border of 
llic pa'utine lione, is a dense membranous curtain, lis superior and back 
suriarc is a continuation of the lining mcmbratic of the noM', and its anterior 

or inferior one tb*t of the palnte. tt is oalltid Lhc crJuiti paUti, or reil <€ 
the Mklaie. liuteuds oa lar bockun tbe larynx, atxl li««npon iheduraaiu 
of iBB eptgloctja, uid is a. perfect veil or cortaiD ititorpoaiod bi^tween the 
oftTitws of Uie TUiBc and nioutl), rnitin^ off nil CMnmanication between then. 
Tied hy Hs iiHAchinriit to tbo p«latmp bono, it will open but a little waj, 
and thut unlv tii mii' clirii-t ion . It itil! permit n pellet of focxl to pasH into 
iliy nwppliitgiiH ; hui it will clow? wbeii any prtwunnr i» aimW upnn it from 
Iwhiiid- Two aingnlnr faetti necessarily follow from UiiK; llw hontn bnialliOK 
throogh tb« nMtriU alone, atid iJieMO aro capAcioim and canilv vxpannUe to 
n de^jee aeeo in no other animal, aitd Inllv eoutniciiMiimte Lo Uie «ranU of 
tbe auinial. 

It iHalnu I'vidmt tluU, in tli(i)i«( ofvoDiitini;, t1iucontent«urth<>KtomBcfa 
roniit hr- ivtiirtiM throngb tfao nmclril, and not thronf^h tht^ montb. On 
thia account puHly it i^ that liu> liorse can witli frrvat diflietUty bt; cxcHt«d 
to romit. 'J'iiere is a etructuro at the entrance to thd ntomAch whicli, ex- 
et^pt onder very peculiar cirfniinHtaiioefl, prevestjt its return to tbe throat, 
MkI consn|Uontlj to tbu niautlt. 


Tbe ban) oc«a*iioiiBl!y iiwell, and rise to a lei'el witb, and even beyond 
the edge i^f. the teeth. Tliey nri' vury aurc. and the horse feedfi badly on 
noconnt of tlie pain Im miHi'if; from tbo ppwt«iirr of the food on tliem. 
This is railed tb<- I^aupas. U may aricw {mm inOaiunuition of the ganu, 
pn>fak^itnl tn tin- Imph, wlit'ii tli« honte it Hbeddirtg bin U'vth — and ytiaiig 
ii«irMw am more tcubject to it than othcra — or from Koine nlight febrile 
tendency in the oonatitation generally, as when a young horse has lately 
been taken up from gnus, and luw K-en over-fed, or not 8uffii.-tGntly ex- 
t-rciaed. At times it appears in ngvd hunsm. the pmi-ens of tirawth in the 
te^b of the honi? contintiine dunne the wlmlv life of th« animal 

lu the majority of inuph the nwolltng vill Riiiin HiiluiiU- vritbont modical 
tire*bik«nt ; or a lew maabes, and gentle alteratives, will rcliove tli« 
noimal. A few tdigLt iiii-t«iou6 aeroea the baia with a lanei:t or penknife 
will rrliave tlie iiiflnmmikiiou, and caase the awelUu}:^ to sabaide; indeed, 
tfaia siiari&catioa of the bars io lampaa will neldom do barm, although it ii 
fiu* from being bo tu^wt^iry m is auppoMHl. 

Tbe brutal eurtom of ttiv farrier, who Hon and bums down the ban 
with n red-bot iron, iit most objtn-tionable. It is torturing the home to no 
pnrpOM, and calcalatcd to do aeriona injury to tbe parla. It m&y 1>e pni- 
dent in eaae of lampaa to esnminc the (p^der*. and more partknibirly the 
todiM, in order to ascertain whi^lhcr cither of them i» making it« way 
throngb the gam. If it iM m>. two inciaiunn ucrou each other should bo 
taada, on tbe tooth, oud tlie horoe will ezperieuoe immedut« relief. 


Thif pMtcriur or lower Jaw muy be connidercd a« fgrming th« floor of 
tbe month. 'I'lto ImmIv i>r ]i)Wer port of ii contains the under cutting 
teeth anil Uie lu.thes. and at the titde« are two flat pieooa of bone ooniiuning 
the grinders. <Ju the iiiiiido ia a foramen or bole thruugli whtcb liliiod- 
voaaels and nerve* entor to snpply tbe tertb, anvl some of which caenpo 
ogiun at another ori&ce on the ouUside, iind near the nippers. The bronehea 
arc broader and thinner, niunded at tin- angle of Ihi^ jaw, and tcrminB.ling 
in two proe«>KAi«. One, lUr> fmvi'iif. fV>im its nbarpnesA or snppoaed re- 
•onblance to a beak, poKiOii under the zygomatie areh (sec p. 140) ; and 
tlie temporal moscle, ari»in(; front tbe whole ^urfnec of tbe parietal bone, is 
tnsertea into it, and wrnppcd round it ; and by ita action, prineipaltr, the 
jaw is mored, and the food in ground. The other, tbe canit^laid, or 



roand«d process, is received into the glenoid (shallow) cavity of tba 
temporal bnne, at the base of the zygomatic arch, and fonns the joint on 
which the lower jaw moves. This joint is easily seen in the cnt at p. 140 ; 
and being placed so near to the insertion of the muscle, or the centre of 
motion, the temporal muscle most act with very considerable mechanical 
disadvantage, and, consequently, mnst possess immense power. 

The joint is admirably contrived for the purpose which the animul r»- 
qairea. It will admit freely and perfectly of the simple motion of a hinge, 
and that is the action of the jaw in nipping the herbage and seizing toe 
com. Bat the grass, and more particularly the com, mast be crushed and 
braised before it is fit for digestion. Simple champing, which is th« 
motion of the human lower jaw, and that of most beasts of prey, wonld 
very imperfectly break don-n the com. It mnst be put into a mill ; it muBt 
he actually ground. 

It M put into the mill, and as perfect a one or imagination can conceive. 

The following cuts represent the glenoid cavity, in a camivorona or 
flesh-eating, and herbivorous or grass-eating, animal, viz. the tiger and 
the horse ; the one requiring a simple hinge-like motion of the lower jaw 
to tear and crush the food ; the other, a lateral or grinding motion to faring 
it into a pulpy form. We first examine this cavity in the tiger repre- 
sented at 6. Atthc root of the zygomatic process D, is a hollow with a ridge 
along the greater part of the upper and inner side of it, standing to a 
considerable height, and curling over the cavity. At the lower and op- 

posite edge of tlie ca\-ity, hut on theouidide, is a similar rid^, E, likcwiw 
rising abruptly and curling over. At C is anothi^r and more perfect Wew 
of this cavity in a different direction. The head of the lower jaw is re. 
ceived into wiis hollow, and presses a^inst these ridges, and is partially 
surrounded by them, and forms with them a very strong joint where dia- 
location ia scarcely possible, and the hinge-like or cranching motion ii 
admitted to its fullest extent -, permitting the animal \-iolcnt1y to seize his 
prey, to hold it firmly, and to crash it to pieces : but from the extent and 
curling form of the ridges, forbidding, except to a ver^' slight degree, all 
lateral and grinding motion, and this bei'ause the animal docs not want it. 
As before mentioned, the food of thp horsp mnst he i/riiuiiil. Simple 
bruising and champing would not sufficiently comminute it for the 
purposes of digestion. We then observe the different coustmction of 
the parts to effect this. A, gives the glenoid cavity of the horse. First, 
there ia the upper ridge snsnming a rounded forai, F. and therefore 
called the ma»toii1 proff^i ; suffiriently strong to support the pressure 
^nd action of the lower jaw when cropping the food or seizing an enemj, 
but not encircling the head of that bone, and reaching only a little way 
along the side of the cavity, where it terminates, having its udgea 
rounded off so m to admit, and to be evidently destined for, a cin-iUar 



maHoa ftbout it. At tli« othn and lower edge of the cavi^, nnd mi t)i« 
oulsid*, Q is placed — not a cnriing ridgo w in tbo tiger, bat a men 
tubercle : and for what reason ? cridently to limit thu latenil nr circular 
motion — to pennit it as far as the neoeaaitiM of tlia aitiinal rvtinire it, and 
then to ATTVet it. How is this done? Not soddenlrorabraptJy; but the 
tubercle, of which wc hare alrMdy apoken a« etreufftbemn^ this portion 
of the sjgoouktic arch, now disi^iarguag aoothcr office, han a smooth and 
gradual aaceut to it, up which tbelower jswniny climb toaciTtaincxt«iit. 
and then, by degreeH, b« stopped. We ttprak not now of tbo novMbk' 
cartilage which is placed in tlitii cavity, and between the bonea, to render 
the motion easier and Ireer. It >h I'oiuid in this joint iu «Y«n- quadraped j 
and it ia fotind wbcrcvor motions are rapid and of long contiunauoc. 

So great i» the coofbrmity betwM'H the structure ol" the? animal and his 
dratinatioa, that a tolcmblcittuilont in coin[iara.t:ire auiituiny. by a mcro in- 
•peetioil of the glenoid cavity, wonld at once dotormino wIicMmr the anitnitl 
to which it belonged was caruivorotta, and wanted no latcnil miction of the 
jaw ; or omnivorous, livinjr occo.-iionallj on all Irinda oC fond, anil reqnirijijf 
■ante degree of frrinding motion ; or herbiroroas, and needing llie constant 
use of this ailmirably-iytnstracted mill. 

At If, p. 199, ii represented the mOMetcr miiKl^ an. cxcoedingly strong 
one, conxti tilting tho rla-vk of th« horao— arising from the superior maxillary 
nnder the ndKti cuntitui'ed from tlic tygoniatic arch, and inMfrtcd into the 
lower jaw, and particularly r«und the rough border at the angle of the jaw. 
This acta with the temporal mnwle in dosing the j»w, and in giving the 
direct cutting or cHampini; motion to it. 

Within the lower jiiw, on cither side, and occupying the whole of the 
hollowed [tortion of thfin, and opptwitw to tht* niamtetera, aro thv plorygoid 
miuelm, going fVom Itio Jhwa to l)oneH more in the centre of the channel, 
likewise closing the inoutb. nnd <tW, by their alternate aciioa, gitiog that 
grinding motion which baa bvfn dir*rribed. 

Th* iipaoe lietween tJie branches of the lower jaw, called ilie eJtattntil, is 
of conaiaemble conset^nence. It can searcoly )»e too wide ; for if it is too 
narrow, the horse will never be ablo to bend his lieftd freoly and graecfiiHy ; 
he will be always palling or boring apon the linnd, nor can he poeaibly be 
well rvincd in. 

Tbe jaws coDtain the teeth, which aro the milUtoiiM employed iu com* 
miniltaig the food. The month of the horse at tire ycArs old oontaina forty 
toctb, viz. aix uippera or cutting teeth in front, abore and below, a tush on 
CHch fiitlu, and six molars, or ^ndinc teeth, on each side, above and below. 
They are contained in cavities in the upper and lower jaws, mrroanded by 
bony partitions, (u which thi^y ar)< nciMirattMy fitted, 
and by which thryivretirmly«npporled. Foraliltle 
way above thi-«v bony cavitifa, llnry are eurrouuded 
by n firm »tihstaiic« called the gum. so dense, and 
adhering so oloaely to the teeth and the Jawa, aa 
not to be sepBrntod wilhnnt very great (lilfK-nlty - 
singularly compact, tlmt it nuiy not Ix- wonndwl hy 
the hard or slmi-p particW of the fixKl, and almoet 
devoid of feelintj. for ihi- tcmw pnciiin*'. 

Seven or eight mnnthx bt-furo the foal is bom, 
tbe MfDis or iM'^ginnink^ of tbe teeth are visible in 
Uh) cavities of thn jawit. Tlie tooth grown, and 
pinnwriii to the surface of the (^nm, and forces it« way Ibruugli it ; and, at 
Ihc time of hiitfa, the lirxt uiid second grinden have appeared, large com- 
pared with the site of Ihejttw, uml seomingly fllliog it. In the course of 
eeren or eight days the two centml nippers are seen ma hero reprMeated. 



They likewise appear to be large, and to fill iLo fmnt of t)ia mouUi ; 
although they wiU afterwards be found to be small, compared with the 
permanent teeth that follow. In the course of the first month the third 
grinder appears above and below, and, not long after, and generally be< 
tore six weeks hare expired, another incisor above and below will be 
seen on each side of the two first, which have now considerably grown, 
bat not attained their perfect height This cut will represent the appear- 
ance of the month at that time. 

At two monthi, the central nippers will have reached their natnral 
level, and between the second and tnird month the second pair will havo 
overtaken them. They will then begin to wear 
away a little, and the outer edge, which was at first 
somewhat raised and sharp, is bronght to a level 
with the inner one, and so the mouth continncs 
until some time between the sixth and ninth month, 
when another nipper begins to appear on each side 
of the two first, making eix above and below, 
and completing the colt's mouth ; after which, 
the only obser\-able difference, until between the 
second and third year, is in the wear of these 

The term nipper is fbmiliar to the horseman and 
the fkrrier, and much better expresses the action of these teeth than tlie 
word incisor or cutter, which is adopted by anatomists. Whoever baa 
observed a horse in the act of browsing, and the twitch of the head which 
acoompanies the separation of each portion of grass, will perceive that it 
ia nipped or torn rather than cut off. 

These teeth are covered with a polished and exceedingly hard sub- 
stance, called the enamel. It spreads over that portion of the teeth 
which appears above the gum, and not only bo, but ax they are to be no 
much employed in nipping the grass, and gathering up the nniiiial's food, 
and in such employment even this hard subetance must be graduully worn 
away, a portion of it, as it passes over the upper surfnco of the teeth, jh 
bent inward, and sunk into the body of the teeth, and fumitt a little jiil in 
them. The inside and bottom of this pit being blaekenoJ by the foiMl, 
constitutes the vmrk of the teeth, by the gradual disappearance of wliicli, 
in oonsequenco of the wearing down of the edge, we are enabled, for 
several years, to Jndge of the age of the animal. 

The colt's nipping teeth are rounded in front, somewliat hollow towanlx 
the mouth, and present at first a cutting surfot-e, witli the outer edgi' 
rising in a slanting direction above the inner edge. Tliis, however, soon 
begins to wear down until both surfaces aro level, and the viarU, which 
was originally long and narrow, becomes shorter, 
and wider, and fainter. At six months the four 
nippers arc lx;ginning to wear to a level. The an- 
nexed cut will convey some idea of the appear- 
ance of the teeth at twelve nionths. Tlie four 
middle teeth are almost level, and the comer onei* 
iH'Comingso. The mark in the two midille ti-ethis 
wide and faint; in the two next tei-th it is darker, 
and longer, and narrower; and in the comer teeth 
it is tlie darkest, and longest, and narrowest. 

The beck teetli, or grinders, will not guide us 
fur in ascertaiiung the agcof the aniinnl, for wu can- 
not euMily inspect them ; but there are nome int«'reHting iiartieuliirs cunneettHl 
with them. "The foal is Ixim with two grinders in each jaw, uInivc uud below; 

OF TBETimra. 

fchey I 

vitliin three nr foot 

_H «ft*fr til* birtli. Before tlie ex- 
piration of k moatb they tre iniomeded hy n tliml, iimrt' Imckwnrd. The 
crowns of thp grinders »w entirply coveted by enamel on the top utd fiid«8, 
bnt attritian soon wears it away from Die top, Mid there imaiDa a com- 
pound sarfncc of alternate layem of rrusta petrosa, enamel and ivoiy, 
which are employed in prindinfj down the hardest porLionii of tlm food. 
NatnTe bos therefore made an additional provision for their strength and 

Thii* cut represents a Hfrindtrr sawed atross. It iteems to bo a moet 
trrt^lar and iiitricsto stnictar^ : but the explanatiou ia not difficult. 
The tooth ia formed and prepared in cavities 
within th« juwlx)ii('«. A dclicato membranous 

hag. ci>iilaining a jelly-like snhstaJicc, is found, in >-^-^>^ ,-^^.^ 

the uuhom animal, in n little cell within the jaw- ' '~ — — '= 
banc. It aEHnmen, by deproes, tho form of the 
looth thnt in io appcur, and then the jelly within _ 

the nienihniiu- lv«:in* 'o chonee to bony matter, r- ''^^^-^ ^['(?~^~~^'^j 
and a hard and beantifnl cri'stal ligation is formed - ^UsS '^ 

<Mi the raembrano withuat, and eo wo have the cuttdnff tooth oovcrod by 
il« eiianu.-]. !ii th« funtiatioii, howe%'er, of each of these gritidera of tho 
home, there anp originally fire membmnonH haga in the upper jaw, and 
fonr in tlio lower, filled with jelly. This by decrees (riros i)lnee to bony 
matt^'r, whieb in thrown out by little veasela penetratinjif into it, and i» 
repreaentcd by the darker portionn of the cut with ccntml black spotii. 
The crystiilliiiation of eiianiel can be traced mnnd each, and tliere would 
be flvc dintinet bones or teeth. A third sobstance, however, is now 
M«reted (which is repraient*'! by the while spaces), and U a powerful 
cement, iinitiii(r all tlii-ni> dipitiuct bonea into one body, ami miiking one 
tooth of tliw live, Tliis bring done, another coat of eiinini-1 sprewlit over 
«iiO ndea, but unt th4> ti^p, and the tooth is conipU-ted. Ry no other eon- 
trivaooe OOnM we have the ^nding Im^th capable, witliout injury and 
withoat wcarinffi to rnb down tlio hay, and oatji, and beann, which conutt^ 
tot« the stable-rood of htfr^es. 

The (frindorg in the lower jnw, having miifinally bat four of these Iw^^ 
or ehelw, arc nnollcr, and narrower, a.nd more re^nlar than the upper 
ones. They arc not placed bnrixotitally in eitbiT jiiw ; but in the lowei-. 
the higher xiclo ix within, and shelving' frradually outwaH : in the apper 
jaw the bibber xidc in without, and shelving inn-ard, and tliuH the ^'ndiof^ 
motion is most adTantageonely performed. Tilers is aUo aucTidt-tit dif- 
fcrcTiw; in the appvaninoe ancf Hirncture of 
««ch of tbe ^Tiiiden), WJ that a cnreAil ob. 
Burver oonid tell to whieh jaw everj' one 
bclon)fcd, and what sittiation it occupied. 

At the comph-tion of the lirst year, a 
foiirlh f,Tinder tiMiially conies up, and llio 
ymrlitif* haft then, or aoon aflt'rwards, six 
nippers and fi>ar prinderst above and below 
in 4;acli jaw, which, wilb the alt«-rati»n 
in tJie appearftnce of lht> nlpiH-n that \re 
have joflt deacribtid, will enalito lut to eal- 
ctilate nearly thoiL|^ of the fual, xubject to 
soma rariationa arising from the |HTii»d of 
woaninffand the natnm of the fiHxI. 

At the Kgo of line year niid a half, tlie mark in the central nippera will 
hcmQch shorter una fainter; that in the two other pairs will hare 
undergone an evident change, and all the nippera will be Aal. 



At tiro years tbia will be more nuuiifcirt. The fto<y>mpaoyiiig- cat 

deserves itttvotion, as t^^'io? ui accorato 
represeDl&lioii of tlic nippers in tin lowvr 
jaw of the two-jettrs-okl tolt. 

Aboat thi« period a fifth grinder will 
appear, and now, likewise, will com- 
mence anotber process. The fint teatb 
are adapted to th« ns« and waifta of tbe 
yonng animal. Tbr^ are snfficieati/ 
large to otxupy and fill the oolt's jawa ; 
brit when Uicbc boom have expanded 
with the incrra^ing growth of theanintal. 
the t«etli ATo MpanUvd loo far trom eaclt 
olhertobciudaUaodasulhcraDd larger 
Mrt is reqniird. Evident proTisioQ U 
inado fur thom. even befuro tbe rott ia 
faalc-ii. In caritirH in the jaw, beneath 
tbe Gntt uod tcmpuniiy teeth, arc to he 
aeeii ilie niilimvnta uf n Hocond and [leimanent wl. These (rndoallj 
hu^reaav, ftom<> willi (greater rapidity tliun others, ntid, pressing upon the 
roots or fanf^ of the flnrt toetJi, do not, att would be imaf^ed, fi>rc<y oat 
the &nn«r ou«a, bat the portion presttt-d apon j^ruduiUI)' diaai^joars. It is 
nlmrrbed — taken up, and cnrried awa/, by imrnf roiiH minute rands, whose 
ofloe it ia toget rid of the woni-otit or oiietesa imrt of tho ^stem. This 
■liaarptuni continuea to pronend an the seeoTid teeth grow and press 
apwanlfl, until the whole of the fuug in gvitv, mid the crvwii of the tooth, 
or that pnrt of it which wu.t idxivct the ^iiii, Imvitift; tio lotiger fina hold. 
dro|Mi()Ut, itnd the Mteiirid to<-lh appear, larger and Ktronger and ]>erniai>eiit. 
In a few inatances, howcTcr, th«i aecond teeth do not riite imroMiAti'lr under 
the tempumrrormilk t€i.-th, but iwinewhttt hy their side; and then, instead 
of thin KnvhiiJ proceM oF ft\mir['Uiiii ami diniipjie-iiniim- from the point of 
the rorit upwantH, iltv root (fin^i^iiiipreitii^l cadKwajjt.diniiniKhivtbroapb* 
out ita whole bulk. The ^-rown of th(> totith dimiTiiflheH with the r>x>t, and 
the whole ia paaliv<l duI of it« nlH<.-«, k> the fore [jarl ef the first grinder, and 
mnaina for a iYitifei<tendile time under the name of a tnJfg Uintli, ama- 
ing swelling and soreneMt of tbe i^uni.f, and frecjoenUy wounding the 
CMcks. They would be pradiiHlly quite abBorbed, but the proeesa might be 
elowaitd the anur^yaDce would be great, and, therefoi'e, they areexlmetj^. 

The change of the tectli commenceH in thone whieli earlief^t Mp)ii-areil. 
and. therefore, the fnmt or first grinder gives way at the age of two year*, 
and ia BULVreeded bv a larger and permanent tooth. 

Ooriug tbe period between tbe falling out of tbe central milk nippers, 
and (he coining up of tlie pcnnani-nt (tneh, the cult, having a broken 
montli, may find xonie diltieultr in grazing. If he iihould fall away oon* 
mderably in cuudilioi], beHhouldbe M with nuudienaudconi, or out neat. 
Tlie next eut will repreaent a three -years-old nioutb, Tbe eenlial teeth 
are larger than the dthers, with two grooves in the outer ctmvex aorfitoe, 
and tbe mark in long, narrow, deep hiiJ bliwrk. Not havingjet attained 
tli^ir full gntwih, they are rather lower tliaii. the otliers. Tlie mark ID 
tile two next nippertt ia nearly worn out, and it ia wtnring away in the 
corner nipperB. la it poniuhlr to give tliininonth tuanearly Iwo-vears-old? 
Tha Bgv of all homes used to lie reckoned fniiii Miiy, but sunte are foaled 
eroo su early iih January, and Ifiiii; aetually four niontliH over the tvo 
yaara, if they buve Iteen wi<Il iiiinu-d and fed. and are ati\>iig and huge, 
they mar. with llie inexperiiiireil, have nit additional year put upon then. 
The central nippers are punched or drawn out^ and the other* appear Chtw 
or fbnr montlis varlier tJian they otherwise would. In the nalunl process 



thi>y roald only n'ne hy long preftainf? upon, luid mosinir the absorplinn of 
the firftt. aai. But oppoaitioa from tJio fintt net hoinjr removed, it is okst to 
iroofpnu Uiat Uicir prD|rreBB will bn more rajiid. Three or four monllis 
will be gnincd !» tao apjiearaoce of tlie tectli, and them three or four 
majoths may tmable tho brw.'der to term him a Inte cwtt of a preowling yi*ar. 
To hiiii, Uowpvor, who ia accastomod to horses, the ^-iieral form of Uie 
uumol — Uie liitte devclopmimt of the fore-hand — the continuance of the 
nwrlc OH tlie next pair of nippers — ila more evident eiiiitence in the 
oortier onM, mme enlar^ment or irre^iilaritv about the jntniH from tlie 
rioleuw used in forcing out the teeth — the small growth of tJie limt ajid 
fifth finders and Uie uon*appeaninc-e ol" the sistb grimier, wJiich, if it is 
not ttirouf^ the gum nt tliree veani old, is swelling under it. and pn-]Hiring 
to act throairh — any or all of these cin-urastances, carefully attended to, 
wiU be a surocient security against deception. 

A home at three yeam old ought to have the central permanent ni|i|>eTii 
growing — tho other two jmirs wiutting — ini grinders in each jaw, abovo 
nnd Iwjtow — tho first nnd tiflh level with 
the others an<i the aixtli protruding. The 
eiharp etlge nf tht> new inciaoni, although 
it oituld not \k well expressed in the i-nt, 
will be very evident when compared will) 
the neighWuring teeth. 

As tEo |)ermatient nippers wear, nnd 
ennttnnc to grow, a narrower portion of 
ihe cnne-idiaped fxith is exposed to tho 
tttthtion, and tJiey look ua if they had been 
ctiniprefMed, hut it is not so. Tho mark, 
of oonnie, gmdually disappears as the pit 
i» worn nway. 

At tkriT yvarH and ii half, or Wtwceu 
that ami four, thu next [»air of iiijiiiers 
will hu eluirigvd, and the motitJi nt tiiat timn cannot he mistaken. Th« 
ocntml nippow vrill have attained nearly their full growth, A vntuHy 
will bo left where the wroond !t*>nd. t'r they will ln-gin to peep above tho 
gum, nnd Uk* vnniur our-H will lie diminisliti! in liiiTiilth, worn down, and 
Ui« mnrk Uviniing small nnd faint. A) thiH |H-riitd. likewise, the second 
pair of grinder* will baithed. Ppc^■ion)^ly tt> this may he the attempt of the 
duak-r to give to his thn.'e-yean<-oKl an additional year, but the fraud will he 
tk-tcctcxl by un cxaniiiiKtiwn niinilar to i)iat which baa been ali-enflydesci-iW-d. 

At foor yoarx, tho oenti'nl ni]ij>crH will be fully davDlojied ; the sharp 
ed^ Mmewhnt worn olF, and the nmrk 
Bbortcr, wider and fainter. The next 
pair will he up. but lliey will Ijc .■Hinnll 
with th^ nuirV di*i<p, nnd extendi]^ 
quite across them. The comrr rijijn i 
will bo larger than tho inside cmr . ><i 
mnnllcr than they were, nnd flat, ami ihc 
mai-k neiirlr effacGd. The Bixtli grinder 
will have risen to a level with the oihem, 
nnd tho tushes will begin to up|)t«r. 

Now. more than niiy other tinif, will 
the dealer l>e anxious to pnt an luldiiional 
T<*r upen the animni, for the dift'erenco 
Detween a four-ycnn«-old colt and a fi% e- 
years-oM-liorse. !n strenirth. ntilityaiid valne, is very gn^at; Ind, llie want 
of wear in the utlicr nijiix-iii — the small sieo of the rorner ones— the Uix\q 




frriiwtli r.r llie tnsh — the HinulliicsH i»f tbe opcond grindtr— the Ii>w fore- 
Imiid — (lie leggiDBHS of the colt, and the thickness and little ileptli of the 
month, will, to the man of oommoD ezperietice among horse^ at ones 
dct«vt llio dicst. 

The tushes (see below it. a) are four in nnmbpr, two in each j»w, 
KituaU'd bmwcen tiie nippors and the ffrinders — mnch neaivr to thu fotrnpr 
thnn the liktt(>T, and nouriTF in tho lower jaw than in tliu npficr, but thin 
Histuiii-ic iticTViuiiiiu^ in both jaws with Lhc a^ro of tlio nniinal. In shape it 
Miniowhut reaeinbles a cono ; it protmdcB nboat an inch (rom the gnni. 
titid hax it« extremity eharp-pointwl and cun'cd- At the agw now under 
cnnxideration, the tnaheaare :>lmi)>it pi/cnlinr to the horec, and owtnttion 
diK-o not npncotr to prevent or retard their dcvclopiucnt. All marct, how- 
ever, liavf- the ^rms of Ihcm in thu ehambem of the jaw. and thfv appear 
cxtomally in the raujority of old marcnt. Their nso is not evident. Pw- 
haps, in the wild state of tho antma}, lliey arc wuipons of adlimco. and 
he in enabled by them more &rmlj to seise, and more deeply wouui hts 

The breeder often attempts to hasten the appeannoo of the tasb. and he 
outs deeply thran^h the ffum to remove the opposition which that woakl 
nlTord. To a little extent he succeeds. Ue may possibly gain a few weeks, 
Init not raorc. After all, there is mach nneertainty a.i to the appearance 
of the tash. and it may vary from the fourth ye»r to fonr ycera and six 
months. It beloii(*n, in the upper jaw. both to the inferior and snperior 
maxillnry bones; for, while its fiuig is deeply imlxHlded in the inferior 
nmailliirj. the tooth penetrates the process uf the superior maxillary at 
the union of those bones. 

At fonr years and a hiilf, or lietween that and fire, the last important 
chance takes place in the mouth of the horse. The comer nippere are 
shni, and the permanent ones l»r(rin to ftpjK^r. The centnd nipfier* are 
eonsideraMy worn, and the nett pair are eommenrinff to show mnrks of 
nsnpe. The tnsh has now protmrlcd, and is generally a full half-inch in 
heit{ht : externally it has a npunded promiiiiniee. with it groove on eitlier 
side, and it is evidently hollowed within. The reader needs not lo bp loh] 
thiit MlV>r the risinc of the comer nip|H>r the animal ehanj^ ita Dane^ 
th« unit ln-ooiiie*! ahonw, and the tiily a mjire. 

At five ywmlhe horde's mouth is almost fwrTeel. Tbe comer nippers 
Ml* qiitlv np^ with the long deep mark irre^lar on the inaidc ; and tlie 
other nipi>eni liearinj^ evident tokens of inercnsintl wearinff- The tnsh i« 
much ifruwii-thegrTHtreH have ainitwt or quite diMippearp<l,aiid theoater 

surface is rcffulnrly convex. It is still 
OH conrarc within, and with iJie vdgB 
nrarly an aharp. as it was six months 
Ik'fon-. Till* sixth molnr is <)uile up, 
»Tid the third molar i" wantin^r. This i-tn^umHtanccifthegenftai appear* 
aiioe of llie animal, aitil iNtrticnl&riy hi* 
fiin^Kitd and the W(«rin^ of thi* eientr^* 
■lijipvDt, and the ^niwth and xhapo of 
the hmhes, are likewitc atn.>liilly 
ultendMl ill, will pn-vent deeeplton. if 
a lat« four- years-old iii attrniptiHl to he 
fmlMititnti>d fora lire. The iii|>|N.-n( may 
he brought up a frw months Ix'turv their 
i-lcH, but Uie grinder in with ditQculty dis- 
nnil Lite tosbcfl an never shed. 
central nippen ia wom ont. Thero will 




diSbrence »r ruluarff^^ftttitn of the tooth. 
_ ^ , dippo^ n of the riuiniol 

Inswner Khp thkn the otb^ffHirt at 
the tooth, and it vrill bi- tvidrully 
MirTt)und*-iI by an edffc oC enamel. 
nnd thcrp will eveu ivnuin n little 
dt^liK-iuioii in the eentm, mad »hn n 
d<^|ir\-!^itin rt>iind the caw tiF cnn- 
inrl : Init the Jii-p liolt- in tlii' cfu. 
tr« of tii« tei-th, willt the blAi*k- 
fitted aw&ee which it pnaentK, uul 
tbft i!leTftt«il odjEC of cmuDcl, will 
have dtsnppcarcd. PcreonB noi 
inaeh iiccn8tan>«l to horwa imre 
Ijoen pnxxled het*. Tliejr ex- 
(lectetl to find n plain nuriare of 
m unifitmi rolonr. niid kiicw niA 
what convliuiun to draw when 
then* waa lioth dia«>lonmlion and 

In the i»ext inriaom tlw marli is (ih«irt«". bmulrr. ami faintpr: ami in the 
eomer tM'th the lylpw oftho ena- 
rool uv mftr* rcpilar, and tlif 
rai&oo is c\T<lrnrly irom. Thp 
lash htM atiiiinM ■(« fall irntwth, 
bninff ni-arij ur i]uite nn inch in 
Itrnfflh ; conm ootrrard, concave 
irithin ; It-ndins tii a }vjitit, mid 
Ih* citntiiitv "uiifwiisl riirvrd 
Th(t tliird uriiidiT im rntrly np: 
and all tlu- tp-indi-r* aw V-vcI. ^i 

At six ynirn mM ttiL- prr>(ilc of 
titm mcHitii cihihttx tlif tjvth in 
D Hrm and uprif^iL p><«iilion. 
which ift invdiully lo»it as tltr 
animal inoir-atint in »ge, 

Thu hiirxv may now be mii] to have a perfect tnooth. All the Irclh 
are pnxlucod, fully (jfniu'n, and hnw hith«rl>i «<uHtAin«d no mntcrinl injurr. 
l>atvHf these ituportAQt chai^;^ of 
tho t«n<h th(^ animal hut fmllrml 
Imm than wmld l<e siuppniitHl |Wjuiihl>' 
In childn-n, l)ti! ]H-no(l of tiiHIiin^ iv 
fnuiKht with daiiKrr !>■>«>« ftiv *iil>- 
jrrt to rnnvul»ii>n>i. iMid ImndnnN 
tif tlu'ni dir< rnirn (he irrilalinn caiiHitt 
l>y th<t (•lilting <ir slit'ddin;; of llu-ir 
tc«th: hilt IIk- horn.- i\p\vikn to IV-vl 
lillJv tnt'ijnTciiifUci-. Thu ^iiid am) 
jiabli* aw (.iccnxiiiiiiiny nwim-wlint hut 
and swollen ; hut flic Hti^hli-»t iu.firiK- 
citkin will rcntnvc thi». The Icvth of 
the honw bit- fimn- nwx-wwity to him 
Ihaii tlm^' of tho other iininiaN are t<i 
Ihiwi. TIio child may Ix- fi'«l, »nii tin-dog 
will bolt his ri>oJ; Cut Uiut of thchorae 
■niut be well ground donn. ur the nntrimenl i-ntmol. U- ostracii»l ^vmW 






Al mmm yemrs, the mark, tn thv wny in wliich we have dcflcribed it, » 
wtmi out in thi; ftmr rcntrul iiijijifni, and fast wcnrtiif; kwmy in tbr 
trtth ; lltt> liuih nlso is beginniiiff to be •Itened. It is nnnded ml 
Ih* fMntit; ronndod mt the edges; still Knud withoat; uid boginnii^ 
to ert ftraml iiuniU*. 

At riiiht j-van old, die tiuth ia ronmler in every 'way ; the mark ia ^one 
frnm all Uih bottom nij^ni, and it may almost hv nid tu be crat at ths 

mouth. Thi-n^ in nothing reoiaia- 

ioffin the bottom nippcn* that I 
aiWrwHnls i'Ii-uHt xhow the afte 
of the horw-, or jintiirv ih« mcMt 
expotwocett 4?xiu»imT in giving 
a (wsitirc opinion. 

Dixlionrtft dveltrs hare re> 
Korted (o H in*rUi'K) ot prolonging 
Iho mark in tli4- lower nippot-n. It 
ia caUeA bifhopitiy. With an en- 
j^raver'a tool a hole is da^ in th» 
now almost plain rarJare of the 
corner t«cth. and in shap« and 
depth rescmblini; the mark in & 
seventy ears-old horse. The hole 
iathen bnmed with a heated into, 
and a permanent black staia is 
led; but tiie irivgnlar appesr* 
aiioe of the cavity, th*^ dif- 
fatAaa of the black stain, and tlie general appearonoe of the month, can 
npvcr deceive a careful examiner. 

Ilorscmen, nflur thi.> aiiinial is cif^ht ycunt uUI, are accustomed to took 
to tb« nippuTK ill Lb<4 upp<'r jaw, and anme eunclnsioii bus \fni\ drawn from 
tba ap|ManuiceM whtoh they preannt. It eiinnot Iv? di>iil>u-<l Mint Iho mark 
rcBiatiia in them nome yean after it has bt;en obliterated from the nippers 
in the lower jaw ; because the hard Hubstuurc, a kind of cement by which 
the |ntor funnel in the centre of tlie Looth in occupied, does not reauh so 
high, and there is a irreater depth of tootli to be wiini awny in order to 
come at it. To this it may be aiidcd, that the upper nippers are not so 
Bincli ex]MMta-d to friction and near a^ the under. The lower jaw niono is 
iDOT«d, and preaaed forcibly upon tlu^ food : thu upper jnw is witbont 
iDotioa, and baa only to resist that prMumre. 

Then arQ rarion^ opinions a* to the intervals between the diratppeanuioo 
of the marka (Vom the different cutting-teeth in the upper jaw. Same 
li»Te>Ta r «gwl it at two years, ami others at t>no. The author ia inclined 
to B^Qpt the latter opinion, and then th« a^jn will lie thas determined : at 
nine years the nuirk will be worn out from tbv middle nippers, from the 
next pair at tim, and fruin all tbv upper nipjien nt eleven. Dnrinff these 
pnioas the tush In likewine uudetv<>ii>K a in»nife«t ebnn^ : it is blnnter, 
ahorlcT, and pimiwh'r. In what dejfnt^ tliii4 tnkiot phtru in the different 
periods, loDif and most fnvoumblc opportotiitics for obscn'otiou can alono 
auUe the boivenuui to decide. 

The ta^es ars expoaod to Imt little wear ami h'ur. The friction npunst 
th(mi mnttt be tili;rhL, proeeedini; only IVcim tliv {umki^ of the food over 
thent, and fr^m the motion of the lunfcue, or from the bit ; and tht-ir 
alteration of form, altliouiih pneniUy im we hare ilescrib^l it, in frc>- 
qnenlly uncertain. Tbw tuiih will soinelimeii lie blnnt at eight ; nt other 
tun«« it will remain pointed »t ei^hteea. The npper tasli, nllhonKfa tho 
ia appearing, is soonest worn away. 






Are there any fjix-pmstoncHi to puide our judgmi-nt •fter Lliis P ThL-re 
Me thow which vriU prapare ns to garas at tlu> n^t! of the honia, or to 
approAoh within a few j-*»ni of it, onlil he becomes vcrj- old ; hot (Lfl» 
are dob« whirh will ennblc as iicirankt«)^~ to delemiine ijiv (lurotioa, and 
tbe inilirationB of age mart now be taken from the shape of tlte upper 
Borfare of iho nipp«ra. At oigbt. thpj aiv all oAid, th<> lenf^ of the ovaX 
mnaitie acroas from tooth to tooth ; but as the boree yet* I'Urr, the teeth 
liiramiaa in eitv, and tlii.t coiiimcnciiiK in their width, ntu) iii>t in tlieir 
tbicknew. Thej beoouw a little apart from each othi>r. and tlinr siir6uica 
ape roanded. At Dine, the oratre nippers ar^ evid<>ntlj no ; at tei», tbe 
others begia to havo the oral ahort^itcd ; at elwrwt. the second pair of 
nippers are iinitc ronndeil ; and nt thirteen, the ronii'r ones have that 
appearance. At fourt««ji, lh«j fat'C* of the oentral ni|i|H>rx heoome somS' 
what triangnlnr. At sovcntt<on, Uiey are all so. At ninctcon. the aiiglee 
begin to wear off. and the central to«th ar« a|.-uin oval, but in a tereraed 
direction, viz. from ootwanl, inward ; and at twenty-onu tbejr all wear 
this form. This is tbe opinion of eotne ConOncutal velrrinary fiai^ecnu, 
uid Mr. Perfirall first presniti.'d them to na in an English drcM, 

It woold be follv to (.-xpi^ct 
perfect accuracy at tniit ad^'anccd 
age of the horae, when we arv 
bound to confesa that tho rii)<4 
which we hare laid down for 
dettirmintng tliia tnatt«r at nn 
iwrlier period, although tiiey «ie 
reoof^ianl by hontein en generally , 
and referred toinconrtaofjuatioe, 
will iinl puidcT UK iit ercry caae. 
Stabled liurses hare the mnrk 
■ooner worn out than tliOM that 
are ai graM; and a crib-bit<T 
may dccciw the best jnd^n^ by 
one or two vchth. At nine or ten tli* bars of thp mouth bwonie less prt>- 
minunt, and ihcir n-^ilar diratnutiou will dcitignau- incmuiiiig itf^. At 
eleven or twelve the lower nipiKis cbanirc their ori^^nul upngnt direction, 
and ptT]iject forward or borizontally. and brcumr of a 3-fllow colour. Tbey 
are yellow, bKansc the teeth muat grow in onler to antiwer to their we«r 
and tear; but tbe enamel which corered their rarfaee when lliey were 
first prodnced cannot be repaired, and that which wears this yellow coloor 
in old affc ia the part which in youth was in tliu «ockel| and tbcreforv dee- 
titutv of enamel. The gama have recednl and wanted awny, and tbe 
toahea are worn to atmnps, and project direetly outward. 

In connection with the ago of the borM ftliould be mentioned fR9^"ali^ 
nlile infomuition, for which we are tndebtrd to Pn>fcMur Simondn. of the 
Boyal Veteriiiiiry Collepe. on tbe age of other doi»f"iical©d aiiiitutlK — in 
two Ifcturea delirerod bcfori' the Royal A^cultiind S<>eiety of Kn^laotl, 
and which weru pnfaliahcd at the rec|uc«t of that body ; ho veiy cltmrly 
elucidated the derelopmcnt of the teeth us indicative of the age of tbe uz, 
tbe sheep, and tbe pig. The resnll of biit inve);ti;n>tions. mtiKt STfteniuti- 
callr pnncueil. would appear to K', thut lhc»x hnn hi;; teeth fully developeil 
at- from three yean to three years aod niue utonths old. the nlM-eii nt fiom 
three ycara to three years and a lial^ and the pig at one year and a half. 



or tli« dis(«iM of tkr loctli in tlio hnnw we know little. Carious or 
liullon- ict-tli ftrv oOCMOnollv, but ik>1 olWu s«.'d ; bat tlie edgve of Ibo 
griitilerc, from t)>e wcariiig oil' (if tlio fnutii-I or tlm irrpgnlar frrowtli vt 
die U«tb, become roogh, and wound tlu> iuMiile nf the chevk ; it U tbi>» 
nuctwa&rj' to wlopt a sammary but cSectojJ metbod of mrr, iuun«ly, tu 
nup thMii smooth ; thf oatMCM «dp;e8 of the ^riudern in the app«r j*w 
olnno miuirc the «pplirntkia of the tooth rasp, and if the fiugt-r i» carrnilly 
iiitro<Iact-<l iiiMii^' ihr cln^-k. bt^fort^ rihI niivr its list', thtr result will \iv iin- 
iiiiotiikL'ublv. Jiluiiy bwl ulceni bavu Ih>i-u |»ruduu'(l in the mootli by thu 
neebwt of this. 

Tb« inniki »om«timv» fn^w irivf;^iil&r)v in lengtli, and tlua u partionlwljr 
the case with tbeKnodt-m, from notbt'iiiKuiciac-l op[inmtioti toeu^otber 
wUen the mouth is shot. Tlii* growth of tbv teeth still going on, and theiw 
bein^ no mechanioal opfiontioii to it, one of Iho hftck Ui>lh, or n ]M>i-tion of 
one of tb«tn, »booU ap ooiuiidntably abovn tix.- otix-rs, SouietiiuM it 
penctratca the hnrn aborv, lutd catu)«tt ttorvnrart and alcvmtion ; at other 
timM it interfere* i»artiallj. or Bttog«'ther, with the grinding motion of tbo 

ewtt, and the animal piupH awsy withont the canso )H>iug Kuit|N>ctMl. 
ere the anw shoul<l he nst"!, and tho pruj«cting porlion redntwd to » lovvl 
with tb« other lot'tl>, Tlic Iwinu' that ho* onc« \>oru siihjtvted tii tiii* 
Operation should aHorwardK ]»• fnt|ticTitly tttarniiuxl. and especially' if Iti^ 
loaea coudilion : and, imVi-d.t-vrr^ horsir ih&t ^-Im iliinoroat of condilinu, 
without fi'wr, nt- ollit-r apparent trausp. Hhonld have Iuh liitth and month 
carefully <-xuraiuod. and especially if, without any imlit-alion of sore throat, 
ho quid«— partly ckcwing and then dropping his food, or if hv hcildtt faiff 
htaul Hontewhat nu one fjic, while he cnlri, in ordci' to get the food Wtwren 
the outer edgM of the t«vllt. A hoTKa llwt Iimm onrf- hml wry im*gular 
tMth ia materially ImwinkI i» vwliii', for, nltbimifh thoy may ho mwn down 
as car^'fully as possibU-, they will pn>j(.-<:-t tupda at do great disLuiM^ of 
timt* Huch a norsu iH to all intciotn and puriHiws nnaQom). In oixler u> 
hv dt for Mnici?, lie alKiuld be in posMnuon of bis full iiatuni powers, and 
Ibeac powers cannot bf< snstninfd without perfpet nutrition, and tmtrition 
would be rrmderM loully im|i«'rfiy!t byany dcfoi-tin tl>o o|>onktion of inaati- 
catiou. N"t only dot«>nifdii«(M>wnrthetc"thmiderthtaet of mastication 
dilficoll ani) tn>iibl<-«imf, hut, fnnn lh[-fondni'i(Tiiriiigtt firliil oalonrdariutt 
its dctvntiou in the nioolb, the horav aciiutr»i a diiila«t>^ for alimont 

The cuntinuanco of a oario«is tonlh often prodnees diseaxe of the ti«igfa- 
liourtng onen. and of the jaw itMdf. It should therefore he reuovcil, a« 
Koou a«iti> realirtate i.-* evident DrmdfuluHMuiof fnngusha-DiatodnsltaVB 
*^ arisen from the irritaliun iiiumiI by a cariouie tooth. 

The mode of rxliai-ii»g the teeth requires moeli refonnaiiun, and cont- 
aidcmble iuiprovumciil" lutve bir«u uuulu in di^utal uiiitruiunitt< by Ur. 
Oowing of Camden Town, bv wbicb the cxtractiun or divinoii of a looUk 
is Kiiuiidi'nililv foL'ilitiUed. The hammer and th« punch should nerer bo 
had recourse to. Tlio keyi'd iiwtrumvnt of the human sobjecl, hot on a 
buicv w&le, is Uio only ontt that ohoald be pcmutt«d. 

liiiH ifl tho proper pUx:*- t<in|ivakmorvBt length of thL'cir<.-vt»f dentition 
on tlie ajctnn grnenUly. 1 biraemen in general think ton liifbtly of ii, nnd 
(bev M-nrccly dmuii of the ajiinml suffering to any considershle degree, or 
abtiolut^ illneaa being produLvd -. Vft ho who hioi lo do witb young horaea 
will nci'iflioiudlv di»*«ii'r ft conwdcrftblc di'gT*<' of felmlf iitfectioii. wliirh 
he can refer to tliin cause alonr. Fever, cougb. cntarrliul nlTw tinu.'; grneinlly. 



daw at tiui ejnw. cntaneoos aflectjmu. di&rrboK, dyMnil«t7r, lots of 
mm^tiim, and gcaeiml deruigemeDC, will fiwqoeutl; bu imwd, I17 Uw caivAil 
ODMmr, to irritation from t«cUiin2, 

It IB » rule scnrcrlj wlinitting of tne sligbUwi ileriation, tlial, whea yovuig 
lionn are labouring under unr ftrhriV afTM-linu. ihe month shonld he 
cuumined, uaA if Ibo tnHiiiii ara [immiiuiut and pushing against tbv f^niK, 
a emdAl toeiaum ahonld be nuwlc aoroM tbem. * In this way/ mijw Mr. 
ParoivaU, ' 1 bave b«wu catarrhal aod bmoobial inflainmatiorig abat«d, 
oon^w relieved, Ijmphutic and o^or elandalnr tiamoum «lK)iit tl)« bead 
radnoed, cotaneous oraplions |^t rid or, d«rangtid boweU re^tunid to order, 
ii|ipotita mtnmed, and Wt condition impaired.' 


The tonguo is the or^n of t&sU-, It is also pmplojrod in JiviKMiing the 
frtod (or being protmd between the UwUi, antl »IU*rwnnb* colUirtiHn it 
together, and conveTin^ it to the bock purl of the mvtitb, in onli-r to )>e 
aWallowcid. It its liki-wLsu the ni&in iiuttmninit in ili'^lutitioi), and the 
canal Uimugh which tin* water jhu-mvi in tli« iu:t of drinking. The root ot 
it IB tirmlj- filed at the bottom of the mootlt by s variety of muscles; some 
of tiieee tuttsv lee orijipnato from the ot AwMti^ or bono of the tongne, which 
CO— titat— its baeo, and ie connected with Uio temponl I»qc, tlic Inrynx, 
and the pharynx : thf fore part is loose in tlic moalli. it i» cuvvml by n 
ouDtiiiuatluii of th# mt'mbntne that liiiivi the moQtii, and which, douhUng 
benoatJt, and eonGninff the motions of th<r ton^c^ in cnlli?d its /nrttitm, or 
bridle. On the back uf the tt>ii|(iie, tbiti mfmbi»iJo is thickened and rough- 
ened, uhI is ooTercd with nuni(-rou<i ronit-al i^apULr, or little cmitimicos, 
oo wliiuh the fibrea of the t^statorj' branch of the fiHh pair, and tliO 
UlonM Flu»yn|;Hd ncrvra expand, comiiiunii^-iitin;; thif mviuh' uf UmW. 'i'hv 
vmriooa motions of tJic tongue are accr>tnpH«hr(l by mcanii of tlie ninth [wir 
of ncrree. The mbetancc of the ton^.'uv is conijKtncd of muninilnr Hbrcf, 
with much falty maltc-r inU;r|HKMHl bflwwin them, and which givca lo thia 
or^an itK peculiar KOltneiM. 

DUzaSES or the tobous. 

Tbe titugue is aumrtiuica i-sfjuHed l'> iiijiirv fnini ciuiilnwDeiM or violeove 
in liie act of il i-eudiiiig or mlmiiibil^^riiig a Imll, it U-in); jirtSMil ngaiiiitl 
and cat by the etl^^en of the i^nndeni. A Uttlt- ililiited tJuctuii> tif myrrh, 
or alum dmmiU'cd in waN-r, or even nntniti nnnSHi«ted, will speedily heal 
the wiwiul. Thr horw- will KotiictintCM lute his lonpic, most Irequeotly in 
htx iili-e|>. If the i^jctiy in Iriilinc. it m|uin.-» little care, bat. in some 
inAtuDreit, a [Hirti«>n of tlie tongue uax Iniui vlit-ply lac<*mt«,-i1 nr ht(ti-n olf. 
The assistance of a veterinarj' jimetilioncr i^i here required 

There are some interesting accounta of the results of this tiv^ion. Mr. 
Pickutu of Kimbolton relates a catic, in the sixtli volumv of the ' Veterina- 
rian,' ill which ho found u portion of the tiiniirue of a muiv. cxtcniHni; bb 
liir hjt the fniinin Umuith, lying in the maii<;ur in a Btningcty lacrraleil 
eonditiou, and ^t appMiticbin^ to dccompo«ition He bail lii-r eattt, and, 
exanamg all thv unbMilthy porlioaa, bo drnatcd the wound with chloride of 
aoda and tincture of myrrb. In Ivu tlian a wi-vk tlic bu^eraliun wat< nearly 
lusaled. and. soon artcrwaixli^, Hhe could eat with ver^ little diillculiy, and 
Icaap henirir in ^ihhI condition. 1'be injury' was proved to liiivc been. 
Inflieted by a brutal hoTvehrenker, in n>vrn;;e for aonio slight affront. 

A cariou* ca^e is recorded in the Memoirs of the Society of Calvadofl. 
A hnrw wan difficult to grwini TIk^ soldier who had tlio care of him, iu 
order the Witer to inana<re htm, liird in bis mouth and on his tonj^e a 
Htrong chain of iron, deeply ftermtml, while another man fjaveto this chain 


It terrible jorlc wltonover the horse wbh disposed to Ik relwHionn. Tho 
BnitnaL uuiler such torture, b^mmi? uiim«D&^eablD, aiid tbo mitiiwlio h«til 
the cKniii Hiwin^ nwny with all hin Ktrongto, tlm toiij^c was m^mjilot^ly 
cut oil' tit the point wluih eepantee its buo fhim the frw fmrtiuii ur it 
The wuiiiiit hfikK-<l fiivutinibly, und he wiui noon able ut mintage a mash. 
AlV-r tliiLt tiiiriif hay iviix ^ivhu to liiiu iu snitLll iinaittities. Ho book it and 
fnriiUH] it into a ktiiil of pi^llet with Km U\'«, ami then, |>n)wing it against 
the bottom nt' hiR mancet', ho gradually furcixi it suHicic-Qtlj ImmIe into tiiQ 
moDth t^i bo L'Eiablutl to bclbc- it with bia (;rimlura. 

Another horat' uiitiiL- to an uittiniL-ly rati in a sin^rular nmy. !!<■ had 
Bi-iircely oad-n ariytliiiig fur thn'i' wi-ttks. H(! M<(jini><li to be nnable to 
Kwiillow. Tlio e)iiuu)i!l Ix-uc-atU tho lownr jaw hail much vnlarf;«mei>t 
ab«nit it. TIiltv wim not auy known caueit:! (vr this, nor anj' aCLxnutt of 
violuiicu iliiiie to the toiitfue. At length atamourappearcrd nailcrtho jaw. 
Mr YouiUff of Miiiriicad punrturt'd it^, and a conniderablu (lunntity of 
pDruloiit mitttf'P i'HL'Ji|iud. Thu lii>psp could drink his pruel aflvr tbiii, bnt 
not take any Bolid fiMil. A wi-i-k iilliTWtinln lio wan lonnd dead. L'jioa 
Bepiinttiii^ thv bvutl frvni tho trunk, iiud >(.-iitting tinnsvcnMily npon the 
toriiriiL', nt'iirly u|>jj(j»iti! to the second crindir, il iiuwlli- waa fooud l.ving 
hiti^'iLuditially, aiid which had peaetralod from ti\o Htdu to ttto irtferior 
portion of the toDfj^ue. It waa an inth and s quarter in length, and tho 
ufiifblxiurin^ Bubstfmcc wtw in a state of pan^freuo. 

Vo^lvlca will fioaictinii'AUpiH.'ariJuii)^ the underside of thctoiiji^e, which 
will incnwuietoM fniKtidcnthk-ni/i-. Thctoiiguw il»ielf willbemacheQlarved, 
the aiiiiniil will l>i^ iinabh^ Iu Kwalhtw, and a griMU cptantity of rupy saliva 
will drivel from tUo mouth. This diseiuie oflcn exiatd wiUiout tho nature 
of it bviiii; ounpL-L'ti.'d. If the nioutU is ouc-ned, ouu lai^u hludd<n', or a 
mii'cirsHiou o! hladilers, of a parplc hoc, will ho seen cxtciidiiiif along the 
whi>h? of llifi under aide of the tongue. If they are laueed (Veidy and 
dettply, from end to end. tlic awellinfif will very rapidly abat«, and any 
littfi' ftivt-r lliui ivniairu* luny bo eubducd by coolinjf niodiuine. A mild 
nnliitioii of alum, iippb'ed by mcMiH ui' it nniull jitecv of 8pon;;o frcqnratly 
during the diiy, will EMTclniitu Llic i;itri'. Tlie c-auBt* of tJii* diecase ianot 
el*arly known. 


lo onlur that the food may be properly commlnatcJ preparatory to 
digMtion, it is nt^-iviUTy that it Hhuald he- previously inoisti^neil. The food 
of the slahltwl horan, liowi^vRr, in dry. and hiti in»al iit genitrally ctmcludcd 
without any lluid Ijeiiii; oflered to hiin. Nature Ilob nia^lc a prnviaion for 
tltLi. She baa |ilm.L'd in the nci^^bbou^hood of tht- mouth varioua gUuida 
to ttxcretc, anil timt plenlifullv, a limpid tluid, Horacwluit saline to the taflt«>. 
This fluid in eonvtycti from tne pliintbi into the mouth, by rarioux dacta, 
in (he act of ehewing. uiid, being inixtxl with the fund, noideni it more 
CuHilv ground, moi-e eiuiily ptuuied aderwanlii into the atiimach, and hotter 
fitted for di^'cstien. 

The prinri|>id of these In the pa/oiiV/ gland fsoe cut, p. 191>). It ia placed 
in till' iiiillow whii-h cxti'tals fi-om the nx>t of the ear lo the angle of llie 
lower jn.w. The portion of il, tj, is represented as tumetl up, Iu show the 
aitnaliuu of thi* blooil-veBiwla oudenieaib. In almost every case of cold 
Ci>nnerbL-<l with sore throat, an ciilarRvmcnt of tho parotid f;land iaovidi.'Dt 
to tho fofling. luid even to thu eye. It is coiupiuictl uf nnmeroux suaJl 
glanihi coniicvtfKl tognthvr, and a ininntt! tulw proetHwling from v*e\\, lo 
carry awny the seeretwl fluid. Thew tiilM->i uuito In one eiimnion duct. 
At tiiu ktl«r «*, tlic panilid duct is m-wi to piuM under the iuigl« of thu 
lower jaw, loguthcr with llic auhiiiaxillary ur1«ry, and a branch of thu 



j^ulsr win, uifl th<^y ootne ont aoain at w. At r, the dnvl is seen 
»ep»nU«<l from the aihtr vcmcU, climbind up the check, nnd pio'cinfir it 
to iluuhaivv il« cunWnt« iuU) tht- moutli, oiipositv to thu HLtnoil ^ndcr. 
Tlie qiuuitily of fluid thus |>(iuntl iiit^ Llio minith fn^ni cnrh of Uii' |mroltcl 
glanda amounts to a pint nnd a hiUf in aii hour, dui-inj; thr> noliun of 
miuitication ; and, Horaotimos. when tho dnct bo^ been accidentally o[>oiicd, 
it IiiM Hpirtcd out to tho dii^tAuci' of hcvl-i-oJ toot. 

The parotid glund B>-Tiipivtliif>eH vnth evcrj- inAimiDolory nfTcction of the 
nppor part nf iht- thnwl. wiifl tlifrpfurc it i« tbund swolli<ti, liot, and tender, 
in ainiiiitt ovi-rj' Riitnn'h nr ndd. Thv oiitiirrli i<i to Im^ trvribt'd in l.tii! hkiiaI 
v,-iiy; while a aCimubilin^; iif)|j|i<>ftlii)u, almoat aniftunciut^ to fi Idinler, well 
ral)b»l iivur the inland, ivill \n:iit nulnian tlir int'lHinrnat ion td' tliut hi.idy. 

In hail stniujfics. nnd, sometimes, in vinlent puhl, this gland will be 
much tiiliirpid uud ulcunttcd. or sm obntmction will taJie place in fionio 
uirt of tlip duct, unci tho nocnmiihiting Suid vrill hurst the veesL-I, nnd n 
b&tulaiu ulcer be fuiincd tluvt will be very diOicoIt to heal. Similur 
tvoalto niny Ik> produced hy il« being vrouudcd by n lanctt in opening hd 
ubucMs, nnd it uctiwioi iiilly occiim fwin iwcidi'ulul wunudii. Tlio nppb'ca- 
tion of eollodiani, aceomjiiitiit'd with lh« iwlho«iv<' pliii^tiir, kIiouIU t>o 
promptly bad rccourao to, lui it' tho wound a lixtulous clmnictvr 
the curu is t«dious and difficult. A TeUtriiiary .surgiiin alotic will Ix- roin- 
IM-tent to tho treatment of cither case; and tlie principle by which ha 
will be guided will bu to biiil the absceiiii in thp p^land lis Kjieedily ilb he 
cnn, and, ptvjl»n.bly, by the application of tho hwitcd iron j or, if tho ulocr 
18 in the duct, cither to rcatorc tliv pussti|no tbruogli ihv duct, or to form 
B tKiw one. 

A HC(.»nd M>urr:R of the Holii'a in fWim the tnhmaxifU\rii ^'Tandii, or the 
((IitniUi under the jaw. One of them in ropn?3ont«l at «, p. lilW. Tho 
eubniMXilIury glnuiU occupy ibo npuvt nndt-metilli mid lictwecti the hxAva 
of tho luwur jaw, and mnsint of numerous hdihII Kxlif », each with it« prnpcr 
dnti., nnitinjr together, and fonninp on each side a common duct or vessel 
tbat pierecH through the tiiinicle« at tliu root of the lonf^ue, itud ofieiiii in 
littlo projections, or heada, upon (ho /Wnium, or hriiUr of the tonpur, 
about an inch and a hnJf frum the i'roiit Whvn the home \ta* 
catarrh or colil. ihew yliind!". like thy jmnitid ^laml, cnliirge. Thin iw ufVen 
to W- (tlwcrvtNl ftt\('r KLniiijfh'ti, luul ftt'X'oral dUiinct ki^niolu atv to bo felt 
nndor the jaw. It him idwady b««n stat^'d that they may bo distinguished 
from tliv swL'llintjrs that accoui^muy or indicate GT^udvni, by (heir Wing 
hrger, (.Tuerally not so distinct, luortt in the ccntpro of the chnnnol, or 
njutco liotween tho jaws, and never udhoring to tho jaw-bones. The 
farrierB mil them vivEtf. nnd oltoti udopt frticl uud alisurd lut'thods to 
disperee tbem, — m bui'nini; them with n hghti^d candle, or hot iron, or 
m-n cutting tboui out. They will, in the tuajority of iusta net's, Knidually 
disperw- in pncii>ort.ic)n a» ihi? <l(wi7a-*o which produced them snbsldcB ; or 
tlwy will \ielil to ulij^htly stimulating embrocations ; or. if they aiv obsti- 
iuit« in their continuance, they are of no liirther con»oqnouc4«, than a« 
iwlicattu^ that the horse has laboured under severe oold or iitivingk-ii. 

Onring catarrh, or infliunmntion of the mouth, the little pn'jcctiona 
marking the ogieiiing of tluwa ducts on oitbirr side of Ihe bridle? of tlin 
f-^ngue are apt 1*1 cnlargv, and t&o mouth under thi! tongue in n little red 
luiit hot and tondor. I'lio farriora call thfoc swellings babks or Piiii ; 
and as noon nn tliey diiwnvcr thciii, minhiking tlip iflV-ct of iUhiaw for the 
cauM of it, Uwjr net to work to t:iil tlieiit clost) off. Tho bh-ediiig llutt 
followH thin i^mtioii somewhat uImlU-h tlie local inSamination, and 
nlTorda ttmpomry rc'licf; but the wounds will not sp«odily Lpal. Tli» 
ealiTs coutiuucb Lo (low from iLu oniicc of the duct, and, mtuuuc intn Um 



I it to sprciid und tlvvpen. Ewn when it 

riiic* of ttc wound, cttusca 
tliti uiunth of tliu ilut'l t)i.-irii; tn-i|iit'Dtly rJinnd, and \ltc nlira con- 
tintiiiig to be Mcratod by the Hiiliiii»xUlai'y glanil. it accumulatira in tli^ 
iluot, onti] that tukI bnnria, and ahaG«s»es are formed which eat deeply 
iind«r tbe root of tite tongu« oiid long tonn«-itt the poor animal. Wben, 
sAer B ffreat deal of IroiibK-, tltey are closed, Uipy luv api to break out 
u^in fur tuuntlii! mid ye»r« iLftrrwanl«. 

At) tliiit ii« ii<>('eswi.ry with it'^inl to tlicHe [Mp* or liarlw \» tn alwto 
tli<? iiitlainninLioii orcokl tljut intoFcd tlxim lo appear, and they wUI very 
noun and pcrfucUy aul'siJu. U« wlxu ItJka uf cultitig them oat i» not fit 
to be trustad with a lionKi. 

A third HoarL-e of italiva is (ram glandii undvr Uie (ongne— tlie mt- 
tivyiuii tfUinrlf, w>iioh own by iniiiiy liltli! (irifinw, nndor tht tongue 
iifUMiiblioK littk; ToIiIk [>f thv eldn of fhc mouth, hmnginn ftoni tbc lownr 
nurTaoL* uf tliiit oi'inui, or funml vrt thu Initloju of Lbv inimlli. Theac likv- 
n-iae sonu'tiiauH viilnrgie diii-intj; cj^tiirrli or iiiflanimatiDii uf Ute inoutii, and 
»re called yuis, and bUiddem, and ^fa/i« tn "i^ numlh. Thoy have the 
ajipcankiice of smtLli pimplos, and the fnrricr in too apt U) cot tbem awny, 
*>!■ liurn thoin <i1i'. TW lx;tt«i" way itt to list tlirni a]iin« — for in a few 
Wnyn tltry will (jcninilly <ii*i»p]ii'iir. Hhdiilil !iny nlnin-aUon n-main, » littU; 
tincture uf niyrih, iir ti tuihilioii <if alitm, will iv^ily lii-ikl Uicm. 

lleiiiile tht'iw thrttt priiicipal wiurciw of saliva, tliere an? ttmiU) Khutdti 
to be found on every part of the mouth, chookit, and lipa, whirh pour mit 
u consiilenkblo qnuutity of ILaid, to aeiust iii moivtcmng and preparing tlio 


This IK n dinoiun pnnejfially im-iili-nt ti> yoiin^ botitM^ — nimally ap. 
pairing; between tlic mx.'oud and foartb your, uud olWncr in Uic apriuic 
Uian in any otliei- [uirt uf Hm yiMir, It ih pnt:«Jwl by coueli, and vna 
at flrat nearvoly l» (tisUii^iUhlii-d from o>iiuitim cifugb, except that them ia 
more disehar^ from the nostril, of a yellowiti|f colonr, mixed with pus, 
and f:enemJly witiuiiit mndl. Tln're 18 likowiiie a oonatderablo di»cbar|(t< 
of i-npy fluid from the niouili, and }n'<^t<'>' swcllinf^ than Hsaal under tlie 
tlin»l-. TbiH KWi-llia^ inirn-aoen willi iitiM-iioiti nLpidity. noeum|»niefl by 
Houie f«ver, and di^iui'liiiiLtioti to eut. | ii-nKiii^ t'nmi lh« fwtvi, Init 
more from the pain whii-h the animid ft^'U in the imH. of ma^tieution. Thcrw 
18 coiiMiderablv thintl, bot at\er a ),'alp <ir tno Ui<.' ligrw i.'eans to drink, yet 
is evidently dceirousof (x)ntiauiug liiiidraught. [utboattcanpttoawallow. 
and KomHtiuiett when not ilrinking, a cxmTiiln've oongh coma on, vrhieh 
aliiuwt thrvtttciui to Kiillouuto llie uiiiuiul — and thenoe, iimbably, tbv name 

of lh« dlMUUM. 

Tbc tumour in under tkv jaw, and about the centre of tliu ehaoucl. It 
■oon fllla the whole of the hiiucv^ and in evidently one imifiiriti boily, and 
may thus be diKtiuguuibed froui gtatiders. orthc enlarge) glands of i.-atarrb. 
In a feir days it beeomes more prominent and aaR. aaid ovidonlly contMina 
a Qaid. This rapidly LDCr<;»«c«; the tumour hur«t4, nod a sroat (|iMutity 
of p«u is diAchartrod. As &uun aa the tumour luw brokim. Ut« cougb anb- 
aidoa. and the horse HfM-edily muiidn, although Hoine degree of weakocw 
may hang uInwI liim forn uoimidetublo lime. >Vw hon«!it, poiiMiblr nonv, 
excapi* lit Atturk ; hul, th<- diiioaBo hni'iiig pos^ied orer, the animal ia free 
from it for the remainder of hin life, ('atiirrli iiu».y precede, or may pre- 
dispoae tn, the uttaek. luid. niiilfnibtedly, the Hlote of the atmosptierr baa 
touuh to do with il> for liotb itM prevnleucy? and it« severihr are Conneet«(l 
witb certain eeasona of lh« yoar and chanKPS of tlip weathvr. 

SleaBTS. Percirall and Castley have coma the ncarret to a aatisfactoiy 



vw^ tt( th^ natttre of s(T*iiglt^4. Ur. Cftel l«<; in ' Tho VptcmihHui ' mijs 
tluit 'tJic pcrKKtof 8t)iui);'*^>>'<if^Q & much mnre tiyiiii; »o<) critical time 
for jroung: nones tlno nuati people mem to lio myrarc of : that when colt* 
uM w«ll over Uiw complniul, tiwy gMmrally b«gi» lo tliHvc iiml impmve 
in > MBurksble maooer, or thrrc in iutmctimes u gn-ui u (^linnRc fur the 
worse ; in fact, it weaia to t-Hcct ouniu ilcoitUtl ootuttUutif omI ciiiutgr in 
till* auimul.' 

Mr. Pen-ivxil m\dit, 'Thv expltuuitiaD of the catte appMuv to ui« to be, 
that tJie aainuil ix Aiifl'criti^ noro or Ims (max nlmi I witaM c»ll tlntn^U 
/^i-mr, — a favor t)ii> dUjMiititi'w nnd tAiul«ncy t*( whi<;l) im U> produce loc*t 
lonioar ftiul ubavL-s^ atiil iiiuat cvouiiuiily ui tlmi oitiuitiuu uuileru««tli tlto 
jnwa. in which it lian oblaitntl Utc iioiue of Htntiiiflfs.' 

I'loftMMir l>ick, of IwiinliUTRh, ndtlsthat wliicli in concluHiYc on tbe tmh. 
jpct, tlmt * ulUionffh tlto discsMu commanly termiiuiU'S by &n abscess uixler 
itir jaw. j-ot it mftv, and oocMMiuUjr dote, givo riiiu to oollocttOM of nutter 
»n oihi-r piirtii of tlic mirlkcr.' 

To thin 1*011 1'l II Hion thiii wr tin* n'umtiit''il in I'oitiiiig, — that atran^lM in 
R RjHKrilir afiV-ctioii to nliieli horsfa aro uahtnilly KuhjtKit at ftomv period of 
their lives, uui tbi> nataml cure of which Mcnui to be » sappiimtiire pra- 
nt*. I'roni roiuc cnuite, i>f the nnturu of which wo tav iifnomiit, thiH 
Niippnnitirc proc-rss oisanlly tukcH plu^n in tho Hpacc between ihf hmncheii 
of the maiiilUr>- Imnf. ami 'K-rnrrinf; thptv it nppcMnt in the tnilde«t form, 
nnil (liiii^T kKkiiiIk. Wlicii tiw diKiawv ix unheml in hy uonHidi.' ruble 
fcbrili- distiirbium-. Mud the nuppuruliuu Utltvs pluvo chH'whci-v, tlto horw 
loo frffiaontljr sinlLn iimlitr the atUick. 

Tli(r tn«tnicnt of ntnuiclcu i» very biniple. As the cneuvc of tlic _Hi«- 
TRM connst«iD the formation and HUppuml iuo of the Hpccific tumonr/tho 
priiiei[ii»l. or ft iuiost the sole attention of tlieprivctitionorshimld be diiveled 
lo tlir liaxttnint; uf these proccosce : thircforD, «a aoou ao tbu tumour uf 
itraiijL.'1»i is deeidtxlly appnii'ntu. the |>»rt< itliould be aecivelf liliiiU'rcd. Old 
[tnu^titionOTs used tn nit^numcnd [Hmltic*^ which, from tlio tlntikiiE«« of 
the horse's skin, must havi" verj- littli- «'fli'i-t, ■■%■€-« if thfiy could be eonlined 
DD tlie part ; and froiii thv dilliculty iitid nluiuHt impi.>i>nbility of thijs, and 
their pettinfi; cuhl und hnnl, thi-y m-it-wniirily wi^kcm-d tli«- rmirxii'-H of 
n»tuii.\ and deluyiil l)vi' n|it-niii)f ol' the ttimimr. KDiui-iiUiliiiim nw lillln 
more eHivtiiid, A Wistt'r will not only Bfcnre iJie ivtmpIetioD of thi* prtw 
(v*j, but liitnlcu il by ttiaiiy d.iya, and save llic p»tii-nt niitch puiii i>nd es- 
liaiLHtiuH. It will jtrodiii^' &iiothrr jjooil i-fl'oct -it will, pn-viimtilr to Hie 
opening of the tumour, idint*' tht-iutei-niil iiiflnniiiuil.ioD and Borenewi of tJte 
Ittrntt, and tbon k'MM'ii (ho i-oii^h ami wliir/.iu^f. 

As WH>» ns the dwelbng in w>ft on in* nurfat*, atid ^ridimUy cnnlititiB 
matter, it should be fn>f)y uud tlrvply Luicud. It im a huil, ulthoii<^h bv- 
i|Ueut (inicticv, to HulTvr llic tuniour to burst naturally, for a ra^gnd nln-r 
b funued, vary slow to liml, and dillicnlt of trmtmeut. If (Ins iuciftiou in 
dc<^ and lur^ pnongb, no BMwnd collection of niiUt«r ii-iU Ijo I'unued; 
aaU tluit wliK'h is tdnrudy thtri' atmy be unHVivd to niu out slowly, all 
prauitm- with the fin;;erti buinif avoided. The part aboald bu kept vlcao, 
and M ttlllL' Friar's iKdsiiio dully injected into tlie wuand. 

The reinaindtT of the tix'atnient will dfliend un tJn; Kymptunnt. If them 
in much fcviT, iiud evident nfli-cliou of tJie chtsl, whieh Hhould caj^tfully 
be difltitiguifllicd frotm thv opprwniou :>iid chokiuK ocdMontid by the prm- 
mrvof the tumour, it. will U- propiT to ^ve cooliu); niiilirineii. iu» tkiln** 
pnictir tailtir, and [M!i'ha|iii di^tulis. a* thu case rviiuires. Tht> a|ifH«tit4>, 
or, rath<>r, the alnlity to cat, will ^nerally n*1um with th(> oiirnin^ of thu 
atncciw. ltran-inn«lii-H, freah-cut finfi' or Utnx. should be IdHrally «ui>- 
plied, which will not only nflbrd mitficitnt nourishment to t«.-cT\».u iVw 



•trau^ of tbe animal, bat kcc^ the boirels f^cutlv open. In CA&es nT 
ddnbtf, A small qountitj of Ionic nmlicinc, iw chiitDomilc. tnrDlinn, or 
ginger ai»y be aclininwU'r).-<l. It mnat bowcm- be boms in miml. tliat in 
A greikt majnritr of coMti, titlUi or no treattnent is reqaired, uid in mr 
auDj in»t»iicf», the diacese in ooltfl baamnitsoonraeutogetbcriuiaotioca. 
On the ulluT hand, il occaannally is ])rodnctiTe of great sufferinjr, and this 
ii more etpeciallj the case where the 8b«c«Be hamtc inbn-nallr, when, to 
ose the gmphic arcount of Mr. Pf^rcival] in the sixth volnme uf 'The 
Veterinarian,' 'while imrnlirrt mattir i« issuing in profhnnn from hit 
■woUca noetrila, and luarer fooma out from hctwwa U'u tomiiiL'd Hps, it is 
dbt wrin g to hear the noise that be makee in pniuAil and liiKjiuTd cfforla 
lo bnmthe. TWro itt imminent danger of snffocation in kdcU a caw ■■ 
thia ; and even althoo^ some relief, to &r as the breathing; is ooiveeraed. 
mar be obtained Irom the opt-ratioa of tracheol<^>tf, yat, from the pain and 
imtation he is Boflering; added hs the imponibilii; of ^'citing aliment into 
hui Htomach, he most meedily sink to rise no more.' — Veterinarian, toL vL 
p. 611. 



The neck of the horse, atkd of every auimal bf loug^tni^ to the class mam- 
malia, except one sfiecuM, is coropoM^l of nc-vea lxiiiti« called rvrUrtrrtr, 
moveable or turning tipon ciirh othtT (»ee cut, p. 140). Tliey are cou- 
nrvt/^d together by atronij li^unenta, and form bo niaaj distinct jotnta, iD 
OTfler to ^ivc euflicicntl^- extensive mcittnn to this iu|iortant part of the 
bodj. The bone nearest to the skull is called theaf/(j«,bocauae,in Llie human 
being', it Hti[i|i<jrls the bend. In the horse the head is mupended fVom it. 
It is a raf-ro rinf^-ftlinpe*! Wne, with bnmil iirojtoctions ddewapt; bntwitfa. 
oot the sharp and irw^Iar processes which are fonnd on all the others. 

Tlie beccmd bone of the iii^^k i» the dunlula, ha^'tng a process like a tooth, 
b^ which it forms a joint -with the lirst. hone, lu tiic formation of tbat 
joint, a portion of the spinal inarrow, which runs throoffh a canal in the 
centre of all thoaa boooa, il azposed or covered only by hgorocnt ; an<l by 
the diniion of the marrow at this apot an animal ia instantly rletttr\>ve<(. 
The opomtion ia enlled pUKing, from the name (tie pUh^ given bv butcliiTs 
to the spinal marrow. 

The other neck or rack bonoa, oa tlioy are denominated by the fitrrier 
(B, p. 140), ore of a strangely irrepulai- Bhapc. yet bcorini; considcrablu 
rewmbbuioe to each other. Tht-y Citunitit of a tuntral bone, pfrJbrutcd for the 
passage of the spinal marrow with a ridge nu the to[i for the attai-hntent of 
the ligament of the seek, nnti tbor irregular plnU's or proeeibu.-* froni the 
aickfl, for thenllwhmpntof mHwIee ; nt ihebaso of one of vhiohi (M) cither 
ride, with the exception of tht seventh, are holcA for the pasage of llie 
Tertebral nrteries. At llic upj>cr end of each is a round bead or ball, 
and nt the hiwi-r end n ruvitj' or eii[>, anil lite bead of the one being 
mi-ived into the cup of iJie other, they nn- titiiN-d together, forming to 
niniiy j-iinU. Tbev nn- likewise united by ligiimi-nt<« from these pn>oc«ft»t. 
as well as the pro(>er lif^-umenta of tJie jomiIa, and so Mfurclj-. that no dia- 
lociition can lake place l»-tween any of them, except (lie Hnrt und second, 
tJw COMuqnOHCO tk whirh wonid bo the immedinte denUi of the animal. 

Tlie hut, or aavenlii bone, luu the eleralioo on the Uvck or top of it 


I eoDtioofxl into a long uid nliarp prntoti^tioi) (n fplnoua r/Tvcem), and ia 
I ihc bct^ntiiaf; of tlutt ritl^fe uC boiicH dciiQiniiuttMl ttie tinl/icrs (ac« cuta. 
1^. 140 aud bvlow) : &nA trn il is the bust' of the cutamn of UM-k Itoaeo. and 
Ibere miut bo a f^nml prpsmir^ on it from the woij^htot'tho head and neck, 
it ia curiously contrived to rest upcm wid miitc with the two tirfit riba. 


Tho Ixwuw of thi' nivk wrvi> iix fniitKtwork to wliich niuncrona 
mOBt^CS concerned in the uotiunH of ttit bcud and neck arc attached. Tho 
weight of thu htiMl and nuck ia KUpjiorU^^d by the lignnicnt wilhiiut niuscutur 
Kid. and wilboQt faiiguv to tliu aiiitnnl: hut in order to rai«v the hfud 
liifjhi^r, "r to lower it or torn it in overy dirpirlioii, n c'OTn[)?iait*«J Hjstvni 
of ma«ckt> is QL-cMsar}'. Tbow whose oSice it is to raiso ihv bead uv mcwi 
nnincruDK aiul powL-rfal. and are plnecd on the upper and side piu^ of the 
iiivk. Thi< cut ill p. lyil L-oiiliiinH a few of them. 

e nwrkn x icndun crMnmon to tvfo of the most important of thorn, tho 
tphnitu or epUnt-likc muacle. aud tho 
annpi^rtu major, or larpcr compli- 
cated muBcle. Tho si<ipiiins ariBes 
from tbo ]tn>c«SM« of all th« bon«B of 
ttwnedcwith the exception of the I«£t 
thrro, and posteriorly from the sidea 
ofUie ant4>rior donud rertebne with 
tcitdons runninp;^ from tho upper part 
of it to the first bone of Ino neck, 
and to a {iroceBS of the temporal liono 
of tlieliead. Its action i£ suQicifntly 
evident, namely, very pi:iwerfullv to 
elevate tho head au<l neck, llie 
priaHpal beauty of tlie neck dfipenrl.-* 
on this musele. It m-aa admirably 
developed \n tlio liorne of whose neck 
the uinexed cat g^ircH aii aeeuratt; 

If the curve ivero quite re^lar fmm the poll to the withers, wo 
iftiould call it a perfect. wcV. It in rather a Iour neck, and we do not 
I3c$ it the lena fur that. In the i-arria^'-hnnt<-, a neck tliiit is nut half 
SOBOnled by Che collar in i»diK](enaa))le, no fiu- na ap[>eiiran<.x' goes ; nud it 
IB tonly the horse with a neck of toleroblo lentfth thiit can liear to be rcincil 
up, (ta aa to )^ve this part the arehed and iK'iiutiful appatrance which 
fiiabion demands, tt ia no detriment to the ridiitif-horse, and there are few 
borsea of eit monlinarj- speed that have not the neck r«llier long. Tho 
raee-borse at the top of Ins speed not only extenda it as far as ho <!nn, that 
tlie air pa«aa(:ea may be as sti-aij^ht aa be can luake liiem, aud that he may 
then'fi(n> l>e able to breathe nifire (Veely. but the weight of the head ami 
neck, and the efTect increaiiio); with Ineir diatance from the trunk, add 
materially to the rapidity ofthe animafa motion. It lioa been aaid, thatit 
h<>rw> with a long neck will l>t«r hMl^•y on the hand ; neither the Icn^h of 
tlie nei;k n<ir even tlie bulk of tlie head haa any inlliierii'v in cuuhiiij^ this. 
They are l»oth counterbalanced hy the power of the li^punent of the neck. 
The leUitiy iin of tlie head is most of all connected witJi heavy beunn^ on 
tlie liaud. aud a «LLgot-t-neeked horse will bear heaWIy, becauve. from the 
thickneaa of t)ie Inwir pai-t of the neck, conaequeiit on itx shurtiKTsa, Uio 
head cannot be liplitly placed, nor, ffenerally. the alioulder. 

Connected with the MpUnku moscU, and partly produced by it^ arc the 
thieknciw and nmsculan^ of the neok, aa it spring* from lUc »\wm.V\«=Ws'ct\ 



tliin rut; tliebfifflitat which it comes out from tbetn fonuinirnMirly* line 
witl^ tlic n-itbf-rs ; uu<l tlii> nmntivr in wliii>li it lapL'nt as it uppnmclint the 
bciul. TLe neck of avrell-formo<l homn, hovmvcr fino at the t«&, •bould bo 
maarnliu- at the bottom, orthr hnnw will gi-ncmll; bo wmk ana wortlileM, 
Hecka devoid oftbis Eniiftculnrity an- railed /(mms nocin by bun<pm(>n. and 
•re nlwsjft i-onwdt-rml ii very Beriong objectirtn to the aninml. • IT the neck 
ia (liin nm! lonn nt (he nppor pnrt., and in othpnrise well tilia[w<l, tljc boras 
■will UMtudlj' wirrv hiiiiflcU' well, siiid the head will lie pniiHrlr cnrvpd for 
lwAnt,v(il'u|t|i(«i-uuc(! [uidouM.- ufriilin^. Whon Bti tinrtancL- to tbi- <-ontrary 
oocnni, it ia to bo tniccd to wry iiupropVT jnaimgeiiitait. or to tlw «{»vo 
lM>twe4>D the jawB Ixiinjj iiniintimtlly mniUI. 

11)C nitl'-nhw mnsclv, nltlinutf li n nininaicr>nt in rni5LDgth« hcttdiuid neck, 
nin.r l>o t4^>o hir^r. or I'livL-rcil villi too mucli c*?]lulnr sobatnaoo or bt, tbaa 
giving 111! H{)iNqimiu->i> of li^Rviuciifi or cvva clunmneas to the tMolc. This 
pcoiiliariiy ot' t'limi L-onstitutt's the diKtinrtioii belwtjon the porfri-t bone 
null llic tikutv, and nlao tiio (jj^oldini;, nnleen ciinti^t<yl at n vi-ry lat« period. 

'I'liia t<<iidonbv]Dn^B,lHo tonnotlicr muscle, wbicb makce ap tbe pniiciipiU 
bulk of iho lowt-r ]uirt mC the nivk. and in iwllrd the cAnrpiej^iu major, or 
larper comiilicali'd miiiu'lt!. It a.riwit (Hirtly as lnw lut 1hi> tntnsrerao 
|)rn<>C«ieit ft' the fcmr or fiv* first bonos of the liaPk, and from all tbo bonM 
dfthonwk, i-»cept the fiwt ; and the }ibn>8 from tho-tc variciHii sourcvs 
VTiitJnK toiret-lipr. fi>mj a very Inrpc and powcrfiil muscle, tlic larpest and 
titfoncpxt in tiic iieok. An it wppnoLchi-n the IicihI. it lefiKcns in bulk, and 
torminates partly with tbr aplftiiiiK, in iIiib tendon, Init is priticiiiaDy 
inn^i-tctl into tho twirk pnrt oftheoccipitnl Imne, by tho «d«' of the lit;aii)cnl 
of Ibc nct'k. Itit ofBcf in to i-aimi liie »i*ck and vlt-vutc the licwi ; nixl 
IwtTii; inncriirfl into Auch n |MLrt uT the occiput, it will moit^ particmlarlj 
|iroti-ti(U' till- nose, \x\\'\\f> it mises the bead. Its ai-llnn. liowoxcr. may l» 
too pnwcrfnl ; it may lie hiibituullr »». and tlicm it may jimduce HHormitr- 
Thn Inek uf tlic lii^ bcin^ pulled XincV, and the uiit/ick- pruli-uded, iim 
hnrat! cannot by poiwibilily earn' his bend well. He will Iweimie what in 
toehnieallT railed a Htjir-psixfr ;— heavy in hand, Twrinp upon the bit, aiul 
aniuile, Tn ri'inedy ibiti, rci'imise i* had, and in the majority of eaMW 
without avftil, to trie martin^vlf>, acvinirt wbieh the Imnw in eonl-inually 
ti^'htinpf, and whieli ia olV.-!! a eoinpK-te aiinnyaniv U> the nder. Such a 
hiirw! is almost unelewi for hametw, 

Inappanibli! fi'otn IIiIm in annlher Had defect, so far rr the lieanty uf th« 
Imne la efuifemed ; — be Nfomca etFf-iiTclti^d ; i.i^. he has a neek like a 
two — not arehed fdiiivii, and xtmight Ix-low, nnlil nv&r to tbt hi.iid, but 
(wllowcd nbovi- and pnijectinp Im-Ihw ; imd the neirk liHin); low out of tbt* 
clivst, cTFn lower Mintetinieii thiiii the [Kiinlsnf tlieHlionlilenf. Tliere con 
•oaroeljr bff nnytbini^'inom unni^htly in a hrii-tu*. Ilin hiiu) nvn niTerbe 
goi fairly down, nnd the tworini,' roign of hnrneRH must {,c> to him a AOorOe 
orcenntaiit torturu. In rfgartbiij;, however, Ibe h-iiu;th iinil the fi»rm of 
tlm nwk, n-fert-nee must be Imd to the |)Lir[MiHe Kir whii'h the borw ia 
inLt'udi'd. In a haekney few tliingK ean bo more abominable tlinn a n(>ck 
NO dijijiroporfionable, no K»ijr that the biuid of the rider pets tired in 
laanoirintf the head of the hone. In Uio racc-horsvthialcn^eniiigortbv 
neck u a decidL-d a<:h-niil«|n>. 

Amonp thr mawlea «-iiiployrd in milling thn beail, arc thn compUKma 
fainoTM (Kmaller eoro|tlieatcd), and the ri'i-ti (straiglit). and tho obliquv 
laiudM oftlic u]>per ]>aH of the neek, and Ix^'loiiging principally to the 
two flivt Imnce of Uie neck. 

Among the mnselcs employed in lowering the hcati, Boma of wbidi htp 

E'vpii in the Mime ml. is tlie nU-rrtffMtnrilfarit. it, Ix'lenging (o the bnawt- 
>lie aiid the tower jaw ll ran likewiice lie tnu-ed, nlthitingh nM <iuit« 



ly, in the mt, pntr*- 237, It lies immpdrntflTTinder the8lon,p«>- 
joctiof; from, «r uonftituting, tho froat of thv brt'nst bone (U, p. 140), and 
pn>Ge«lii u]i tKe ni^ok, of iiogrcut balkiirHlrvrijcth. Atnbotittlircc-fourtbs 
of iU letiijth upward, it change to a 3nt t<>ii(lnii, whioh inn'mtiitrs itself 
betwan the pnrotid nnd tniboiaxillary ^landR, in ordor tn bo ini«>rt(>d into 
tite angle of tho lov^cr ja-iv. It is uHi.t| iu bcudiug llio iii'ud tuvmriLi tbo 

Anotlier muscle, ilio trrmiruilion of wliich \» eoea. in the lei-atDT hiaiini, 
raaer of th« •houUbr (ft, ]), lilt'). TIiik in u imx-h liirfr^-r iniiKcU- thun thu 
iMt, bMuuiM it haa more duty to porfnrni. It riix,-i< from the- Iiat^k of ihu 
hicttd uiid foui' first boues of the si-ck aiitl tbc lii;auieut uf the itvck. and la 
camwl down to thr shmiWcT. misiniriteptf partly wiUi some of tlio numtOpH 
of the sbonldpT, itnd liniilly cimliimrd down Ut and t«rniiiiatitij|r on Uitt 
hnmeras (J, p. 14'*), Iw ofRco i« doiiViIc. If tht> liorw is in action. Knit 
iho henA and nook nro tjxrd pointy tlio oonlmction of tln$ muitclc viU 
drKW forwnnl the Hhixildi-r ii.iiil anti ; if tlii' Lmrxv in otandinK. iukI the 
nhMildcr mid ann itre fixed points, Diiit muHrlu will dtrprcNit tlm bctad and 

The moHcW of thi? iic<^'k urv »l] in pairs. One of them is found on iHt>cb 
side of the nvck, and tbcoiHct; irLivhhas been attributed to tljewi I'lin only 
be KOOmpti sliced when both Mct top-tJier ; hut stippoxinf; thnt one alone of 
tlio elfivutiiig' RiiiM']«>K Hlioiihl ftrt, thi^ head would ltt< miiii-tl, tmt it would 
ai the «nm« time lie turned lownrds that side. If one only nrHic ih'im.'BKOr 
■niLKles were to met-, th« hwid wontd Ik- I>orit downwards, but it ivoald lik^ 
wiae be tamed towards th&t aide. Then it will be cnsily fit'rii llmt by thi* 
Kiniple method of hnvinp the nitisclcs in puin. provision is made for overv 
kind of motion, npwitrdn. dnwnwiinlx, or on <'i(tn'r iride, for which the 
animal <*ii poariblv hnvo (woanion. Little moivof a jmwtiwil nntnre oould 
be said of the ma^cW of tlii> neck, althoagli they nrc proper and intcn'nt- 
hlK »tadir« for the niinUimint, 

This iH till' pni|i«ir plai'i- to H|>eak of (An ntaJie, thai long hair which LTOver* 
th*? CTVst of the n«'ek, and ndda bo mu(?h to the beauty of the nnimnl. 
Thin, howwrer, is not its only nraifii'. In a wild ntate the home hiw many 
hatUea to liKlitv and his neck ilciirived of the maiiu would lie a viibii-nihlf 
|Mrt. The liair of tlie niniv.'. the tail, ttntl tlie less, ia not shed in the ntmi' 
raauner att that on Ihr Inidy. It diHU< nut fall wi nytilarly nor ko often ; 
for if all vti-rr- nhud at oni'e, llw partA wtiu Id lie h'ft for a Iinp time det'oneo- 


The nuuie is gfnnerally dresfled ao as to lio on tho rigliL aidw^tmine pirr. 
8DIUI diride it eijnalty on both Kides. For jKintM it used to he out oil' m-ar 
tberoota; only a few shimpB iN-iti^ lull, to olund per [MPiulini lady. Thii 
W1U termed tlie hos;-innnc. The f^Toom ih^m«tiinea bentow:* a if'''*t <li-al of 
uutu in p^^tinp the mane of hiw lini-so into good and fuMliionaMc order. 
It is irath>d, pluiti-il, nnd UiniliTd with ]coii ; and every hair that ih ii tiltle 
too long )H piilli'il onU The mane aud luil of the heary dnrnghuhorMe 
HK! neldom thin, bnt on the w<>lbbred horm* tlio thin and wolbarmnged 
■nMiKt In oniaiiieii'Uil. 


Rtiniiingdown the under part of the neck arc the princEpnl blood -\-e)Wf>1ii 
f^ing (o uiid n-tumin|{ from the heiwl, with windpipe nnd ^llet. The 
extvnial nilorieii are the (nrcJiil, of which there are two, Tlioy anceiid tin- 
nrek on eitlter side, close to the windpipe, until they have ivached the 
middle of the iieek, wl»ore they swniewhut diverge, and lie moro deeply. 
Tbey are i»verL'i1 by the Kt/'mo-maxillaris inttsrie, whieb haw U-^'n JDnt 
de«crili>^l, and nrp HopiiratiHl from the Ja)i^ilur8 by a timal) jtorlion of 

mtMcuIw mtMUnce. Earing reached tlie larynx, they diriile uiU> Urn* 
bnocliM, tlio i'it«rtia1, tlu> internal, and thu ismns anastomaLirnB ; Uu 
fini goeo to c-vcry putt "f tli« fmac, the «co»nd to tli« brain, and th« third 
to Join tbo vcrtcbrttl urteiy. 

Tbe ▼vrtolnul artcriM run Uutiagli cannlii in tlio boni« of On- ntxV, with 
Iba exception of th« ncTenth, Happlyiug the m^i^hboarin^ jjartx km they 
•dranee, and nt lAngth form the junction before stated with thd third 
bnuioh of thi; raniLid, aiid ramify nii and oupplj the brain. 

Few caHMi coo happen in which it would he cither ncocasary or joatifiaUe 
to bleed from an artery. Evfq in mad-Magt^rs thv bleeding is more 
praoticable, safor, and more ciructnnl, fnrai tbn jn^lar rein tbui from the 
temporal or any other CLrter>-. If on artery ie opc-iMXl in the dir«ctioo in 
which it rona, there lh somctimi'vt vury grmt diffioult/ in Ktopping the 
bleeding:; it liaa even been t\fcfnmiry to tie ttio vesitel in order to aooompliitfa 
thill purpoAO. If the artery is cnt tieroHs, itci conta are so eliutic that the 
two vudt tuv oReu imnicdiBtc'lr drawn ajMu-t under the Qesh at each aide, 
and are Uieroby closed ; aod oiler tho first f^^ of blood so more can bo 

The ortcmal veins which return tits bliwd from tbohciul to the heart 
art) thv ju^lom. The tionut has bnl one on oitlx^r KidL>. llip hiunan 
being and tlie ox hare two. The jufpilar take* iti rue from tlic baite of 
the HkaLI; it then deenewhi, rrceivin^ uthi-r braneltuii in tU way towards 
the angle of the jaw and behind tlie parotid Rlaad ; and eroergiing iheQCW, 
nnd beinf{ united to n largQ bnuich from the face, it takes its ooorse down 
the neck. Vot«rin»rv mir^Lxjns and horsemen have agreed to adopt the 
juffnlar, a little way InjIom- the union of thciw two branches, on the usual 
pboe tar bleeding; and a verj- eonvunient ono it is, for it is cndily got at, 
ntid tbu vessel is lar;gL>. Tlie manner uf blooding, und tho statea of oon> 
■titntion and diKotue in whit'h it ia projwr, will Ito hurmdVur upokon of. 


From the hOiW nabbisg and i-omt.-t iiut-n utriking his poll Bgainsi fbo 
lower cd(^ of the maogor, or hun^^int; buck in the atall ami hm!.ting the 

INut witJi the liiilter, — or from tht' fn»»nit'iit linJ painful stretching of tbo 
igamentN and muscle* by unnecoguiry liylit r(-iniiii?, iind, uccasiaDaUy, 
from o violent blow on tho |mll, euvleHlj or wanliFnly inflict^il, inSomma- 
tiun ensue*, and a awelUii);: nppean. bot, tvudiM-, and piunfal. It used to 
be a diseiuto of Oequent oc-currenre. bal it in now, from better treatment 
of the animal, of comparativolj* rare occurreiiee. 

It hoA jtut been stated tJuit the hgiiment of the neek passes over tho 
ntlaa, or lirat boner without hoin^' nttnolied to it, and the seat of iidloiuma- 
tdon is between Uie li^mciit and tlio bone beneath ; and being thus deeply 
sitoated. it is serions in ite natun^' and diffienlt of treatment'. 

Another canse, espeeiallr amongst cnrt-liorseM, in the injnty iuflieted to 
the poll bv forcing a small collar over the animal*s bead. To these also 
may be sdcled hereditaiy predinpodtion. Uany instancoe are on record 
of the Steele from parents snnering from poQ-oril becoming affected 
with the snnie dUt<uH>. 

The first Uiing to be nltemplod is to almtethe inflammation by bleeding, 
pbyaici sod the applioatioii of cold lotioiM to Uke part. In a wry early 
period of the eaae. a blisUnr mig'ht have ccnaidrnhle dfrct. Strong purga- 
tives shoald also be employnl. By these means the tumour will sometinMi* 
be dispctsod. This system, however, most not Ito pursued too far. If the 
tweUing inoreaws, aod the hiat and tenderaww likewise incwMe, matter 



will form in the Itunonr ; and thea our ohjoct kIiouIiI be io hMsUm ir« (i)F- 
matiuu liy w-»nn roiiionliitirMifi, iKinltic«, or atimnUttn^ cnibronitiocui. 
As BOOB ftH the nutter ia formwl, which may bu knun-a by ito softneea of 
thti ItLiDunr, aud before it liaa tinio to ttprcod nroumt anil i-xtcnil into tbi; 
nei^bbonrin^ pnrU, it KboiUd be fTacniAUnl. Xow cornea the wlioln art of 
treating poll<L'vil ; (Ad opening into Iha ttitmiur mutt be to eontnetd Ihat ail 
the vuiUer ikall ru» mU, nml contintio Bft«rwaTd8 to ran out iw qaii:k.l; iw 
it ii formtd, KDi.i. not collect At tho bottom of tbe ulcer, irritatiaK and 
ooiTodiog it. Thin can be eBWtvd by n KiAxm alono. The. iimhI1« nLonld 
enter at tJie top of tbe tumnur, i>L-iietnilo thn.iiigli it« bottom, tmd lw> 
broncht oat at llie Hide of tJie iu>ck, a littlo below tlio ftbacoss. Witlioul 
ftitythiDtf mopo tlmn thi*, KTOopt fnsjtiont fftmentation with warm water, 
in onivr to kvcp the pnrt cltian, lujil to obviate inflaiiimfttion, putl-cri) in 
ita cftrly sla^ will freijuent.iy be cured. 

If tlifl tilcwr baa deepened and upread, and threatens to cat into the li(^ 
inentsof ibe juints of tbenuolt, it nmy bo neoeisarytatttimnlntoit« surface, 
aad pcirbapt poin^lly *o, in onlor to bring it to a beiJthy vtaU-, and du- 
puao it to fill &i>. la cxtrvmo casein, eomo bi^bly stimulating H[ip1icntaaii 
may be employed, bat not the ncali ling mixiitru uf tlio iarrii-ra of tho olden 
time. All measorM, Jiowerer. will bo iuefrcctual, nulvso the pua or mntt^T 
is, by tlie u«o of wtooB, or by a froQ and extenuve incision, pcrfecttv 
eiacufttod. The application of tliesc neton* or the m&kiag tbv iactsion will 
rvtfoin: tho skill and aualouiioal kuovrlvd^ of tho Tetorinary sur^>on. In 
deaperaite cattca, the wound mar not bo fairly exjKHtaxl to the action of thu 
caairtJO witliout tlm dirjsiun of tlte ligament at the neck. TliiH may be 
attlpetad witli jwrfc'Ct safuty ; for although the licament is carried on to the 
oocipttml bone, and Bome ttrongth ia gained by tliia prolonp^tiou of it, the 
main stretut \ti on tb« second bone, and tho hcail will continue to bo sup- 
portnL Tbe divided ligament, alsn, will soon nml« again, and its former 
naefnlDess will bo restored when tbe wotmd is healed. 


It is u£nal and proper, alV-r blwdinjf, to bring the edges of tho wound 
carefully toguthcr, and to huld them in contact by inecrtutg a pin thntu^b 
the skin, with a little tow twiatcd round it. In ninety-nine cases out ofa 
huiulml the wound quiolcly btmls. nod glren no traablu; bat in a few 
instanoca, fi-om asiiig a bluuL inNtrumutit, or a dirty or msty one; or 
etrikiug too hard and bruising the Toin ; or, in the act of pinning u]i, 
pulling tho nkin too far from the neck and Riiliering name blood U> insinuate 
itw^lf into llie cellular teatnre ; or nt-iflccting to tie the horeo up for a 
littli^ while, and thus eniililiiig liuu to mb the bleeding place ngabivt the 
man;^r and tear out (Jie pin; or from ihti animal biting worked imme- 
diately afterwards ; or tbe reins of the bridle rabbiog agiti&xt it ; or soTcrul 
blows haring been clomsily giT0D,aiula1argea»d ragged wonnd made; ur 
from aoroe (usposition to infliunmation abnnt the honw (for the bleeder ia 
not always in fault), the wound does not Leal, or, if it clusnt fur a little 
wliilo, it re-opens. A slight bleeding appears — aame tTunefaction com. 
zncnow — tbv edges of the orifice separate, and K-corno swollen and red — 
n dienharve of aanioiu Moody fluid prococde from tho wound, follitwed, 
perha{ia, m a few days, by pnmlcnt matter. Tho neck swells, and is hot 
nnd tender both h^mvh and below tJie inciBion. Tbe li|W of tlie woond 
hpoomo everted — the swellinff increaaoB, particularly above the wound, 
where the win. is moat hard and cordy — the hmse begins to loathe bis 
food, and httluabfioeflflcs form round tliu oriRcc, The conlincm of therein 
ropidly increases. Nob only tlie vein it«eir has become obstnicLvd nndita 




coats ihickencid, bot the ccllalor tiMDO in flfl ip cd and liarddoed, and i» n 
lulditiunal source of initatioii and tortorc. 

Hnrnnn eiu]^<Mna any tlisi inflammation of a ▼em. spreads toteardf tlu 
heart. In tJio horae, and we will voatare to say in ercrj animal, it 
Rpreadfl in the direction in which the coagnlation in formed, and that in tha 
jugular most be upward, although /roin thv hi>art. In the veins of th« 
arm and loi; it will likewise Kprrad n])ward, and Uirm Unoard* tho heart, 
becaniw thv coagulation takva plac« in that diroctiuu. 

Tho two grand qiu>8tioiia here are, the caoae and the cure. The fint 
would Heem to admit of an cany reply. A lonff liat of circnmatancwa has 
hetm joat given which would aeem to refer the matt«r entirely to the 
operator ; yet, oa tho other band, experience t«]ls as that bo has little to 
do with tht-ec morbid cffec-ts of blewding^. Mr. Pcrcis'all states, that Ur. 
Chcrrj- trii'il wr%-er«l timva to produce inflamniatinn by thv use of maty 
lancc-ta, and c«e)utTnti(»t of vanons kindt), and ti^turea, and fn^jnent n>pa- 
ntion and friction of the granalating odces, but in vain. Profeaaor 
Spooner tried tu produce the disease, but could not. 

Un tlic other hiuid, it is well known, that while inflammatioa rarely or 
nevur follows tha operation uf bUn-diug by Homo practitionun, otbars are 
continually gottinfjf int<i K(>rap(iii nbnut it. The writer of thig wonrfc ^ad 
tlirM boa«e-pupLb, twi of whom he uaed to tnut to M««d his patianb^ 
and no ontowaid circumalonco ever occurred ; but aa anrely aa he wnt 
the third, he had an inflamed vein to take care of. 

There is sometliiug yet nndirulged in the process of healing the vein, 
<tr in tho eircnnutanooK by which that healing is prevented. The n>oet 
powerful caosoc probably are, tliat tho Upi) of the wound havn not boctn 
bronght into immediate u»]>i>sittnn, or thnt a portion of tlie baii^ a aiiigte 
hair tit Kulficient — baa innnuated itMttf. The hotao haa not, perbaiw, had 
liis htad tied m\i to the rook after bleedisf^, wtiich ahoald alwaj-s h« dme 
for at leant an lieor, daring which time the extntTasated btood will beooma 
firmly coa^tated, and tho flow of blood to the heart will eatabliali ita 
uninterrupted courae. It is also probable that atmoaplieric agency may 
bo eotieemiHl in tho itfTnir, or n diMifutetl cimditiiiu uf the liurse, and par^ 
ticnlarly a Buaeeptibility of talcing; an inflnmmatorj oetion, althot^h tho 
exnttsK cause may be oxceediufcly sli^fht. 

Of the means of cure it is difficult to npcak confidently, TUo wound 
should be car«ftil1y ciamiiicd — the divided edges brought into exact 
apposition, and any hair interjioswl Iwtwevn tiiem rvmovod — the pin witli> 
drawn — the port earefatly and long apoBged with cold water, r<'|)entud at 
d>ort interrale day and night — the head uinuld be kept steadied by beinfc 
tied short to the rack, and cold slop diet alone allowed ; the cfTiicl of tho 
cold water will be aided by the addition of spirits of wine, which will 
increase tho evapomtion, and thu npplimtion cif ice itsolf, if obtainable, 
18 very donr&blo. In six-and-thirty hours, should not the appfaroueo of 
tbe wound bare imoroved, 8li«>uUI not the very cirenrascritHtt swellinf; 
around it faav* subsided, apply a hlt«ter, the fiize of a croirii, iuiiuediafajly 
over tbp wonnd; the prompt use of this remedy will in very many instaooea 
cut short the diaenae. 

[f two nr tlinrc days haw passed and the discharge still remains, Uie 
application of the budding inHi — not too large or too hot-— may producQ 
engorgement of the neighbouring porta, and union of tlie lips of the wound. 
This shauJd bo daily, or every seeond day, repeateil, aeconiing to eircntn. 
Btanoe*. The blister may be repeated over tho orifice, and should not tbe 
lips of tho incision be united, a solutien of tho sulphate of sine or sulphate 
oi copper may be u^jocted twice a day : this it the mode uf treatment tbe 
Tetenxuury saifjeon oonmltod wonld uio«t probably adopt. ' Sometimes,* 



lib. OHtirrif^ ID ihe Svarth Yolmne of the abstnctii of tho Vrtrrinarj 
Seal Ajwcution, 'wben the Tcio ia in ao alcerative autn I hnvn lud 
it op^n, iui<I »p[ilii-(I omstic drrssiii^, luid it hue hmlv*! np. I hftvc lately 
haA • cue in which five or six ftbdoessca hod formed ubon the ori^^ 
woaad. oad the two saperiur ones barst througli iho ixtrotid eluid. tbe 
extent of tlie oloeratioii being evident in the quoutity of saliva that Aomd 
tlinmgh each orifice." 

Hat anothvr very amoua rrsnlt of an iii6ainod vmn is one bat rarely 
BOliood, and to which too little attention baa boon paid, but which when 
it doM ocvur » of a sofficieatly alarming character ; tiua is aecuudury 
bffiniiiiTha^^e — the nlcorative prooeaa but extended to the vein itaelf, and a 
most profuse bleudiiig ciisaes. Preesun; by any means, witli cotuiidvrablu 
eleviitiijii of Uio ht-ad, is the only immediate check, until th« arrival of tho 
Tct^rinary oai^ieon, when the application of a ligature round the vein ahone 
ihe oriSce conatitatca th« p«niiiuient care. In four cases, in oux country 
practice, this oprration pcrfi-ctly su»:»uded. 

Th« ownvr of Die hontc wiU find it his interest to apply to a veU^rinarj' 
pmctitinner as soon as a ca^e of inHamed vein occurs. 

Should the vein bo destroyed, tho hi>rs« will not be irreparably injured, 
and porbapH, at no great difitanoo of time, scarcely injured at all ; for nature 
ia innnitouH in making pnmsion to cany on thv circulation of the blood. 
All m» rewiela conveyuiK tho blood &om the heart to the ditTerent |iarU of 
tlie frame, or brin^in^ it Iwclc again to the heart, comiDuni(<».t« with each 
other by so many channels, and in such v&rinas waym, tJint it is tuipossiblo 
by tho closure or Iowb of any one of thom long matvriiUly to impcdo the 
flow of the vital cum^iit. If tiio jugular is destroyed, tlie blood will rirciitat« 
tfanragh other vesscU almost oa freely us before ; but tJie horae could not 
be comsideKRl as sound, for ho might not Uu winal to tho whole of the work 
teqaired of hiio. 



Tbb 0HX8T. in the Iioriwntal position in which iiia placed in the cut, is 
of » somewhat oval Bguro, witJi its oxtnimitivs truncated. The spine is ita 
rocf; the st«m:iuiii. or breast, ita floor; the riba, it« sides ; the Lrachea, 
caiopluigiu, and gttnt blood- vesaela passing through its anterior r^xtrvmity 
aiMl Hut disphmpu, beinipr its posterior. It is contracted in front, brood and 
deep towards tlie central boundary, and I^fain contructod posteriorly. It 
encloMa the heart and the lungv, the origin of tliB urt^-rial, and the 
termination uf the voaons trunksaiid the collected veaaelaof the abHiirlM.>ntR. 
Tho windpipe penetrates into it, and tho cwophngnB tmrersM its wholo 

A carity whose content* arc thus important should lie somrrly defended. 
Tlie roof IS not eompowd of oatr- un>iel4in^ proWigatitm of bono, which 
might pnssil'ly >mve Ixa-n strong enough, yet would have Hnbj<^-tcil it U> a 
thousand ru(tc nud dangerous shocks ; bat there is a curionsly-ooaCrivAd 
acriM of boiiL-H, kuit toijethcr by strong lignmimts and deom Sbrv- 
cartilafriiiouH substance, lomiinc »ii many joints, vttch pussi-aiicd Initof httio 
individuat motion, but the whoiti imittil and omntitnting acolnmnof snch 
exaaisitely-contriviid flexibility anil strongtb, that all concaauon is avoided, 
ana no ert«mal violence or weight can injure that whioh it prolMts. It is 
BOpportcd ohieQy by ths anterior oxtromities, aad beautiful are Uio 




oontnTAncM artoptpd to prrrw-nt injurionR connrrtion. Thpre is bo inS^xiUft 
bimy anion between lliu shoulders and Uie chi-st; but whilu tLt- t<puic b 
fonoed tu noti trail s«i mDcli of tltecoiteus»ioii thai mjgljt bereceiTed — while 
tiie distio ooiuicctioiis tx^twocn the vertebnc of the laok, ftltenuu-ly 
aSbrJin^ n yioldini;^ resistance to tho shock, and regaining their n&ton) 
iiitaaLion when the extemiil lorui; 19 removal, go Tur, 1>^ this plftj^al motion, 
to render harmlc-ss the roilist luotion — tlifn: is a prorision made by the 
attochtnent of the shonldpr-bliide to the ch*fit calculal«d to [irevcnt the 
possibility of anj radc coQcasaion reaching the thomx. * Had,' says Mr. 



« Tbcflnitn'b. 

h Tho nrtiliicm of the toi liioilnnioft, mfittt ribi^ connected together, uil nnlbag with 

thai of tii<- i^ighlh or hut ime rib. 
Tho bivaat-boDB. 
d Tlu top, or pnat. of Uio witlMav which in famud hj tht lenffibmnd xpinoiu, emprifhi 

pit)OMaMofthatea«r«lBveDfiiMboiiMofthebadc. Tho boat^ of th» bau am 

•JghtM'ii iu numWr. 
c Tlio rtbc umobIIj pightfin on each aide ; (ho oi'itlit tint onitrd to the br«aM-baae bj 

ctinihi^ : tho cnrtilii«;ps of Iho trnMininii tm Duitod to «ach other u at A 
/ Tlmt coruuD «f the «|iia« vhcro the loiat c^mmoDco, and eenpowd of Are boaca. 
^ Tlic Ihjum fianniaa; tna hip, or haaocli, and into th« curilj' it thv boUon tifwfaidk the 

htad oTUm uigh-boo* ia r«c«i*«d. 
A Tho poitioD of tho ipine bdonging to th« hunticih, ud consiettng of Am pioeM edM 

ibo UCTUK). 

< The boneeof tba taJ, iuuaUjt iliirteen in nnutlMir. 

Pcrcirall in tlio fifWcnth voliuno of ' Tho Vcionnnrian/ 'the entice rib 
burn ODO solid piece of bono, n violent blow mi[;lit hnvc brokci) it U> 
pioce*. Oil the othor hand, had the riVw bom com|io!ir(l I'nuii end lo end 
of oartiIa^> nn]y, tho form of the nirh ronld not hnvo him ftustaincd, bat, 
flOODvr or later !t muat have bent inwurd^ and so have encroached ttpoB 
tho cavity of the chest na Lo hare compressed thuorgnnA of reapiration and 
cirrtthUioii to that degree that coaM not bat hare ended in sanocalion an<) 
dfiath of tho animal. It waa only tho jadieions and vell-arraa^l 
combination of booc and (^»tlu in thv constnction of the cbe«t tliat ooutd 
answer thv ciid.i nn alUwiae Proridence bad in view,* 

At the ahonlder ia a muaoTe of immenae atrength, with tendinoiia 
enmpontion, tho t^rrtilus maynm, snreading over one-third of the internal 
Boiface of the sliouldvr- blade and extending to the four last corric*! 
TCTtebroe and a portimi of the clieai. A sprins of eaaier play eonld not 
have been attached to tho earriag© of any invalid. It is a cnrriajro hang 
by flpringH between tho ocapnhe, and a delightful one it lb for puny 
traTolling ; whilo there is combtocd vt-ith it, and tho nnion is not a litiut 
difficalt, stronffth enough to rcaist tho jolting of the ronghcat rood and Um 
moat rapid [jocc. 

LaUirally thero is snffiotcnt defence against all common injury by tbo 
expansion of the shoaldcr over the obest from between tlie first and accond 



to ihd Kmral}i rib ; and beluiid and below that thorn ia the bony ntraclTiro 
nf Uio nba, of no little strength ; and their orclird r«>ni], although a 
flattened arch ; attd the gelding motion nt t>ho boss of each rib, resulting 
from it» jmnt«doonniK<ioD with thoEpmo above luid its cattilagiuous imion 
with tlie atemuia below, 

A still more important consiiknition irtth regard to Ibe paricioa of the 
ihoTBX is the manner in whinh iitey can adapt ttieiiiiielT«H to tlifl clianging 
bulk of tho contcata of tha cavity. The capacity of the chest is littlo 
affected by tbo external contraction and dilatAtion of the heart, for when 
ita wntziulca aro oollapeod its aariclca nre distcadcd, and when itaaoriclea 
■ni oamnraaBed ita Tcutriclcs expand ; but vrith rv^nl to the Iutirh it is a 
TB17 di^reot affair. In tboir stHto of colbijtRo and oxjituision tlicy vsiy in 
coiiiparatiT« bnlk, ono-aixth portormoiv, and, in Githor state, it ianacamixy 
fur Ute proper disdiargc of the ftmctton of rcepitatton that tiuj parictcs of 
tbo chost Hhoold bo in contact Triih them. 

Tbu nba ara eighteen in number on either Bide. Eight of them aro 
{wrfMl, and commonly cuUdd tliv frw«, or, more properly, tlemal ribs, 
extcndingfrom thetpwe tothc«t<>muni. Tbo T«mAtiiing ten are posterior 
and ahortor, and nra only indirvcUy uoimtHrted witlt the tttemum. 

The rib* nro onttcd to the convsponding vcrtclim* r>T boneii of the apino, 
80 a^ to fonn perfect joints — or rather, ench rib fumia two joints. Tho 
hrnd of tho rib is received betw<^on the vcrtebriD or bonE« of the smne, 
tvfvru and boliiud, so that it shall always prvi=pnt two anicuUiting snriacea, 
one opposed to tho vcrtorbra immudiittcly before, and tlio other to that 
innMoistcly behind, and each fonniiif^ a dixtinct joint, witli a perfect 
Gap«atftr ligament, and admitting of a rotatory motion. Tbo tabcrclu of 
tho rib nema to be received into the cartilaginons ligomcntoru anbatanca 
Iwiween ihe vert^bne, and is articulated to the tnuiaToise piooeBS of tlie 
{KKterior vertebne connected with the head, Nothing could be mora 
tulminhly dovtBed for motion, so far as it is required, and for slrongth of 
onion, that can scaroely b^ brokiii. 

Bcfar» Que ribs rcoon the sternum, tbcy terminate in a cartUafiinonH 
pralonKatioi], or the lower port of the rib may be said to bo caTtila^inous ) 
uid whfrf it untt«a with tM atemnm tliere in a third joint, with n pertbct 
and complete capsular ligament. 

The cartilage of tho posterior ribs are also united to tlie bony portaoo. 
Thoy are aot, nowcrer, prolonged sofarns tbcsCcmom; but tlio extremity 
of cue lies upon tiic body of tltafc wliit-h is immedintcly before it, bound down 
npoo it by ft o«llalar sobstance approaching to the nature of ligament, yob 
enohbaviBgaaniOMpimte motion, and all 01 thorn oonnccled indirectly with 
ilw vtATDUm by neans of the last sternal rib. It is an admirable ooatnvuDco 
to preaervo t3ie requisite motion which must attcndororyact of IiirathinK, 
evcTy extension and oontmcliun of the I'hcst, with n degruo of strcngm 
which scarcely nny sccidsnt can break tbrough. 

Th4 StMwtnu, or bnwat-bone, in mor« complicated than it at firat appears 
lo be. It oonatitatea the floor of tbeobest^ and i* tt loni; flat spongy bone, 
fixed between the ribs on cither aide, articulating with their cartilages, and 
aeninff aa a point of support to them. It is composed of from soren to 
nine<a, united togftJier by cartilf^; and whatever uhatigfs may tako 
place in ollior part* of the frame, tlui* oarUlago ia not convertod to bono 
•TCa in extreme old age, although thvru may, possibly, bo aome apota of 
etMe matter fimnd in it. 

The pcint of tho breast-bone may !» occasionally injured by hlowK or liy 
Um presmre of tho collar. It has boon, by bmtul viot^mco, compli?t4-ly 
broken off from the stvninm ; but ofloucr, and that from some cmel uaa^ 


a kind of tntnmr hsa been formed on the point of it, vkieh luji 
alcerktMl, and provMl vorr diflicnlt to beu. 

The front of tbc rliest is a Tory important consideration in Uie fftmctoiv 
of the hone. It Bhould he prominent and broad, and fnll, sod the ndm at 
it wel] oocDpied. When th« braaat u nuTow, the chest has gienemllr the 
namt »ppe*r»iMXi ; tlto uiinul is flftt-ttdMl, tho proper cavity of tho (.-bnt 
!■ leM, tiki Uk rtaminn of the hone arc matcnoUjr diininiab<.-d, ultlwueh, 
pcrltapa, bis speed for short ilistann«s may not )>n itflWH«<d. When the 
che«t is narrow and the fore lags are ioo oloae together, in addition ta thv 
want of bottom they will interfere with eacH otber, and there will 
wonnd^ on the fetlocks and bmisv-s bctow tb« knee. 

A dicst too brond is cut dceintblc, hut a floshy and a promiment on* 
jrat wna tbtK. jH-rliain, may n^iaire atya\e e-xpWalion. Whvn the fore legs 
appoar to recede and to shelter themselves ond(>r tlie body, tltore M a 
fsoltf position of the fore limbs, a bend or standing over, on nnnataral 
leu^lunl^ea about the fbro parts o£ the biGBfit, Gsdly disudrantageooa in 

There is also a posterior appendix to the stcmain, wbicb is also 
cartilaf^noos. It is callcid the fiutifirrm curtilage, althon^jh it bears little 
r«s«mbl«noc to a strord. It ia flat and flozibW, yet etroug, and scrrw as 
the commonccmeut of the floor or SQgtjxirt of the abdomen. It oLao givt-e 
insertion to Bomcof the abdominal muacles, and more conTeaiently thaiiil 
conld havo be<en obtained from the body of the stemnm. 

Thf iiif^.Tff^tal Mu»c-lfji. — The borders of tho riba are anteriorly concave, 
thin and sharp— posteriorly rounded, and prescntaaj^ tindcmcath a lonj^> 
tndinal deprewnon or chanwl, in vrhich rtin both Idotwl-veaeels and nerraa. 
Tliv vpnce between them isoc<^pied by moacnlar substance flrtnly ^*t»fbtdl 
to tiko borders of the ribs. These muscles are sin^larly distribntod ; tluur 
fibrvs cross each other in tlie form of an X There is a manifest adrantagv 
in thi«. If the flbroe ran straij^ht acrass from rib to rib, they mi^clil a<-l 
powcrfnlly. bat their Hctiona would be E:xcccdinifly limitrd. A short 
muscle can contract bat a little way, and only a Rli^ht i^lian^i of form or 
dimmsioD can be produced. Bj* mnning dioffonaily from rib to rih, thsee 
musclra arc doubfv the length tbcy could oUicrvrise havo bvcn. It is a 
general mie with retard to muscular action, that the power of the mnsole 
depends on it* Imlk, and tbeaxtCDDt of itaartioD on its length. 

The rib«, while they protoot die im^iurtant viscvra of tho thorax fn>m 
isjoiy, are powerftil agenta, vhon acted on by the respiratory muitclcs, in 
extending and contracting the chest in the alteraatv iiLspiration and 
expiration of air. In what proportion they discharKO the labour of 
nitpiratioa is a disputed onestinn, and into the coUBidenition of which wo 
eannot enter nntil somethoiff in Icnown of the pnutd reepiratory nrnwie, the 
diagihragm. Thus far, however, may be uud, thut tlicy ar« inactive i» 
natural reflpiratioo. or tlxry certainly act only a secondary part ; hot in 
hurried respiration, anil when the demand for ort^ rialised blood is increased 
by riolcnt exertion, they are valuable and powerful aniiliaries. 

This lends to a Terr important considenttion, the most odTantafrMtaa 
form of the obcet for tao proper discharge of the natural or extraordinary 
ftinotions of the thoracic riscKra. The LX)ntcute of tho chest arc the loaga 
and the heart: tho first, to render the blood nutrient and stimnlotuig, 
and to gire or rsstore to it that ritality which will enable it to support 
•Tory part of the frame in tbe discharge of its function, and dema of 
vUbh tbe complicated and beaoiaful machino is inert and dead ; and IIm 
aeeottd, to convey this porificd arterialiscd blotxl tii every part of the Iraiiie. 

In order to produce and to convey to the various parts a sufficient 
qaaotity of blo<Kl, these organs must be large. If it amounts not to 



mp^fthe laiver the benrt and the larger tLe \an^, Uie ntore rapid 
OOMB of Biitntioii, uid the more p«rtm>t the <l^tiaT:ge of ererf 
ftn'f""' Amctioa. 

Tben it mi^ht bo inuigioed that, as » oitele is a figure wliiph contahia 
mon than anv other of equal ^irth and adnteunremetitt a cirmliu- form of 
ths eheat votud be nMMt advantageoiu. lfo( exactly so ; for the oontnita 
of tho cheet are alt^mnU'lj' expiudtilg *i»l cunlrsctLnjF- Tb« circnlar 
chest could a«t expand, but ctoij cba^e of form woukl be a diminatioa 
of capacitj. 

Tliat form of chest which a|^prn)achcs nrarost to a circle, while it admita 
of aafficieot exponsioii Bod contraction, is tbv best — cvrtaioij- lor sone 
If ;w.«t. utd for all under poc^iar cJrcnmgtanee*, and willi tvftreticn to 
ths discharge of cortaia fbaction*. Thia was the grand priDcipIv on which 
ICr. BakewcU pn>c«edc<l, and on which all our improremcntH iti tlie brcod* 
ing of cattle were founded. 

The priociple holds ^ontl with rrftard to eomo breeds of boTsecL We 
valne tli«' bf«ty dranght hnrco not only on account of htx simple moMttlai* 
powor, bnt the weight which, by means of that power, hv in able to throw 
into the collar. A lif^ht horse may be preferable for li^ht dntti|;ht, initwe 
muiit oppose weight to weight when oor loods are heavr. In the dray 
borve we prize the cin^lxr tOiFst, not only tliut he nuiy bo proportiotinlly 
hoiTier botore — to him no didodraataffe — bnt that, by mMUnt of tho in- 
creased capacity of his cbvet, be may obtain the balk and sum* which bmfc 
fit him for oar twrvioe. Bnt he would not do for Hpccd, he would not 
do for ordinary quid exertion, and if hv went panlMxl far b(.<yond hia pace, 
ho woold become broken-windt<<l or in&unod lun^. 

£om« of oor aaddl^honwe and cobs have barrels roond oiough, and wo 
VBlac thczR on Boconnl of it, for they aro always in condition and ibey 
i«relr tin.'. But when we look at them more carefully, there is just that 
depirlum fHini Uie cinjnlftr form of which mention has been made — that 
iMtfiny medium between thv eirvlo and ttie vllipMi; wliich rstaina the ca- 
paoiltyof tiie ooo and tho expantiibihty of the other. Snch a horae is 
invalaBble ibr common purposes, but he is seldom a bone of speed. If be 
is permitleal to go his own puce, and that not a slow one, he will work on 
for erer ; bat if he is too much hurried he is soon distreBsed. 

T3w Jir<vid />«■/> CAmA — Thon for the osoal pnrposea of the road, and 
more particularly for rapid prdgrtssion, searca in made for that form of 
tlie cdiest which Nlifdl unite, ana to as great a degree as possible, con- 
siderablu ca|jacity in a quieacent state, and the power of incnwung that 
oapnoi^ when the nnimiU reqoirce it. There must be the broad e^t for 
the production of muscles and mnewit,iuid the deep chest, to gire the cHpactt-y 
or power of fumisbing arterial blood equal to the most rapid cxhatuUoii of 

This form nf the chwt is consistent with liebtness, or at lenst with all 
the lightness that can be latioDttlly rwjaiwd. The broad-chested horse, or 
he that, with moderate depth at the girth, ewclls and barrels oat inuDo> 
diaioly behind the elbow, may have as light a forohcad and as olerntMl a 
wither lis tho hone with the narrowest chest ; bat the nninial witti the 
barrel wppronohing lo near to rotundity is inranalily hc«vy about tha 
shoulders and low in the withers. It is to the rairtnre of the Arabian 
blood that wc priuci pally owe this pecaliar and advanlsgeoos fonuattouof 
the chest of the horse. The Arsb is li;^ht ; some woold nay too much so 
before; bnt immediately behind the arms the barrel itlmost invrmably 
swells out, and learoa plenty of room, and where it ia most wanted for the 
of tlic longs, and at the same time where the weight does not presA ao 

inairely on uw fore legs, and expow the feet lo caacBSiiion and iiytuy. 


Many liorHOrs with nftirow choeta, and » gtCttt dcml of ch;li(;bt 

tbom^haroploaiyDf Bpiritand wiUinj^css for work. Tlicyshawtbci 

off well, «nj nithibit tJic luldrcss and gratify tho vanity of thnr ridera on 
tho pnnulo or in tliu [jnrk, but thvv have not tho appetite northc endanuioe 
that will cany tliftin throoj^h thiwi Bncwiwiriro dnys" liard -work. 

Fivu out of eix of tlio ftaituals that perish &oia indamod lungfi arv nar- 
niW'diestcd, and it mi^lit be aafely aflimicd tbnt tlio Inr i^reater part of 
those who are lost in the field after a hard rbiy'A nin, have been horaoi 
whoBe training has beon nefj^U'cted, or who have no room for tho Inn^ to 
expand, Tho moAt important of all points in tho DODTormation of the 
horsv is bcro clacidatul. An elevated wither, or ohtinue tdiouldvr, or 
jwwvrful iiiiHrLvni. aro groab advAntugcs ; but that which ia ino«t of nil 
connected with the general hnalth of tho anima], and with oombined 
fleetnesa or bottom, is a deep, and brood, and iw^Uin^ cbost, witli sofficient 
leugtbening of tlio atemuto, or brcast-Ix>ue, btiiienth. 

If a chest that cannot expand with the incrcaiuQg expansion and labotir 
of the lungs is so serions a dctriniKnt to the horse, everything that in- 
tarTorcH with tlio notion of the intoroostal mnscles is carefhlly to bcavoidod. 
Tight girthing ranks among tht^Mt, and foremost amnnf; them. Thccloac- 
Bcwt with which the rollur is buckk-d on in the stable must be a Mrioiu 
inconvcnietice to the homo ; and th« partinlly depriving these smsdaB of 
their power of notion, for no many honra in every day, must iDdiapose 
them tor lahoar when qnicber and fuller respiration is repaired. At all 
events, a tight giiih, thoug^h an almont neeemai^ niuRanci.*, is a wry con- 
aidcrablo one, when all tlio escrtion of which he is rnpuhio is n.-qnirod 
from the horse. Who has not porveived tho addntia with which, by 
bellying out tho chest, Uio old liorso rwndcrs ovorj' attt-mpt to girth him 
tight comparatively asclcaa ; uid when a horse is blon-n, what immodiato 
relief hns nugirthiiiR him afibrdod, by permitting tJie intereostals to act 
with grwitcr power ? 

A jmiiitof coiuMMiiiciMCO regnnling tlie capacity of tho cbc«t is tKe length 
or sbortncM of the oroaio; or tho cxt<»it of tlto rib» from tho elbow 
backward. Some bonea are what in ualLed rihhtfl horM ; thera is bot 
little space (seo cats pp. 140 end 244) between tho UmI rib and llio hiw' 
bune. In others tho distanco is eonsixLer&bly greater, and ia platnly 
widont by tho fnllinj; in of tho flnnlc. Tho question (hen ia, what servico 
is rcquirv<l from tho honto ? If ho has to carry a hoary weight, and him 
much work to do, lie should bo ribbwl homo — the Luit rib and the hip- 
bone sliould not be far iVoin ^ch other. There i* moru caimcuty of chest 
and of belly, there ia Imu distance botwocn tho point* of rapport, and 
groator strenglb and endurance- A liaokney (and we would almost aay a 
hunter) can scarcoly l»e too well ribbed homo. 

If speed, however, is required, there mnst bo room for the fbU action of 
the hinder limbs; and tbia can only exist whore there is snfficient irfMuw 
between the last nb and the hip-l»no, Tho ownor of the hor«e must make 
up hiH mind as to what ho wanta from him, and bo satisBcd if he obtatna 
that; for, let him be Hsmired tlmt be canuoi have everything, for tlna 
woald require those difTimtneea of oonfonuation that »uiiiot possibly exist 
in the Mimo animal. 

Tho thorax, or chcjil, is formed by the epiue/, above (p. 244) ; tho riba 
Vy on either aide ; and the Btcmnm, or breast-bone, e, beneath. 



Tlin ipioc, or bock, consiEta oT a ctuun of bones fWnn tho poll to t3i(> 
cxtKimity of tbe tail. It is made up of twen^three bouM frotn th« it«clc 
to Uie bauDcb ; cngbtocn, cftlkd (fofwoJ v«rf«6n9, oomposing tlw Iwck ; and 
fire, Imniar verUtm, occapjing tbe loin*. Oa Hum pari ^ the animal the 
weight or banlea is laid, and there are tiro things to be inincipollr con- 
ndored, easineM of carriage and Ktrengtb. If the back wcrv oompoa») of 
ttntielding materiais — if it roMmblcd a bar of vood or iron, cnt-li jamog 
aua joltiii^, in tbo r&pid motion of the aainml, coald not possiblv be cndiin£ 
In cwdcr to aroid this, as well aa to atctist in taming, tbe Lack ia dirided 
into DoaienMU bone* ; and between each |)air of boMa there is inteqMMi^ 
a oHtUtfriDODB Bobstance, most bighljr ebutio, that will yi«ld and give way 
to ercry jar, not bo mach ns to occaaiao insecurity betwocD Uio houue, or 
to permit ooDBidorublc motion betwcenanyoov pair, bat funuin]^ altogether 
an nftgngaio maas of oncli perfect vlusiuity that tho rider 8i(« almosi 
andistujbed, however high ma; be the action or however mpid thu pace. 

Strength is aa important aa ease ; tbercfore Uie bones aro suited 
together with peculiar firmscas. The ronnd head of ooo is exactly fitted 
to the cnp or cavity of that immodiatclj before it ; and bctvrucn them lb 
placed the elaatio ligamentoiui mbatanoi: which lias been jiut deaoritwd, 
BD atnaigt that la aodeaTonnng to separato the bcmea of tbe back they 
win break bcfbre this oabstanoo will give wav. In addition to this thc9« 
are ligamcoia mouinc along the broad aQaor>siLrrace of thoao bones — 
tigamenle between oacb of uo tnuttwne prooMace, or luile i>rojcctunu of 
tl^ bones — ligsmcnln between the qn'imwc prooeas M or upright projactionB^ 
aJtd also a continuatioii of tlie strong ligiuucnt of llio neck running along 
the wholo eonrso of thd ba«k and loina, lengthening and coutiuctin^, oe in 
the neck, with the mottotts of the miimal, and fgrming a powerful bund of 
anion the bones. 

By theae moans the hunter will carry a heavy man withoot fatigue or 
Btnuu throDgh a long cliiuu ; and those shocks and ion am avoided w hich 
would bo aanoying to the rider and injorious and speedily btal to the 

These provisions, however, nlthoogh odeqnato to ooouDOo or even aervcro 
esmtioQ, will not protect tbe auimalfram thaooDMqiiaiuwsoFbratal nsjige; 
and, tbcreforv. if tho horso i» mnch orerwaii^ted, or violently irx^n-ciscd 
or loo sudde^v polled j'P"" bis hn anc he e, Iheae li{[amcnts arc Btraini«cl. 
Inflammation foUowti. Thv lignmcnta boocnoo changed to bone, and t'ln 
joints of the back loae their s|>Ttiigineas and case of motion ; or mtfaer, in 
point of &ert, thoy oimm> to exist. On account of the too hard aernee ro- 

a aired from them, and especially befon? they hod gained Ihi'irMlattVDgth, 
lere are few old horses who have not bvuic of the bonce of the buck or 
loina aaeAyliwed — nnitod together by i»>ny mutter and not by ligamenL 
When this eztsts to aiiy curuidemblt! extent the horw is not pleasant to 
ride ; ho tnms with ditEeolty in bis stall, he is anwilling to lie down, and 
when down to rise again, and he baa a singtd&r ttraddling action. Such 
horwM are said to be broken-hacked or cbinted in the tack. 

Tbslengthof thebockiaanimpoitoiitooDsideratioa. A long'backcd Itorao 
vM bo easy in bis pocea, becanse the increased distance betweon Uie fore 
and hind logs, whicn are Iho sapporta of the i^inc^ will aflord greater room 
for tbe play of the joints of the book. A lon^ Mfiiag has mnch more play 
than a short one, and will better obriato coaouasKin. A long-backMl honw 
IB likewise funned for speed, for there i» room to bring hix hinder legs 
move nnder him in llic net of galloiang, and thoa more [x>wcrlul]y propel 


or <lrive fi»rwaKi tho body ; but, on the other h&nd, & lon^tiMked horn 
will be comparatively waik in the back, and oobUt ovonreijrhted. A long 
Bpring' TDtiy he vaaWy bc.^t< or broken. Tin weight of the rider, likewii^ 
jiIucim) farlher from tlic <-j(tr<imiti(^ wiU act vrithmeehatiicMl dimd ran tags 
npon them, and he more likely to etTiiin them. A short-haeked horw may 
bti It g<nti backnoyi and able to carry tlie beaviest weight, and |>onGai 
more ondanuioc; ; but hia pnceg will not be BO easy, nor his speed bo grexi, 
and he may be npt to ovcrrrtiwh. 

Tbi! i!(irii[uirativi> tulvn.iita^^ of a long or short carcnso cV'pcmds «iitusly 
on thfl UHO for whirh tho horse is intended. For gi^n^ral parpoSM th* 
horae witi & short carcuio is very properly preft-rred. Ue will jiiiiini 
healtli and etreni^h ; for horacs of this make arc prorerbially hardy. Uo 
will havo RnfRcit-nt tiSMiiiTOs ofat^tion not to fatipio tho rider, and speed 
for every ordinary jmrpose. Jjenj^h of hnck will always bo dM(iral>Io wb«B 
tll(^rfi is more than nsnal snbatanoe generally, and partieslarly when th» 
loinH are wide and the muscles of the loins large and awclling. The two 
reqiiisitoH, Htrcngth and speed, will tlien probably be united. 

Tho bock ahuiild be denn^si^ed a little immediatoly behind the witlien; 
uid then continao in an atninst atmight tine Co 1ii» loins. Thuis the fbnn 
most oOnsintt.'nt with lieanty and strungtli, Some honcB haTOBTCfycon- 
tideraUe hallow behind the withem. They are aaid to be fotldUi-bacicd. 
It seenu as if a depreMum were pnrposoly made for the aaddlo. Sacfa 
lu»wfl are evidtmtly «a<iy ccen, for this (nirre inward must necessarily 
Jn«n>MO thp play of tho joints of tlio Kiwk ; but in the name proportioti 
they arc weak and liabl« to spmin. I'u the f^cnunl appcamncc of the 
horac, thia tlefi^ct in not in any tTcikt di-KTeo injiirioiui; for the hollow of 
the back ih uniformly accompanied by a. bcantifiilly arched cnat. 

A few horses havethi< onrve ontward. They ari< saidtobenMtfJb^^ocJret^ 
frcin till.'' supposed reeemblaiice lo the arched back of tho roAch. Tlua it m 
very serionH defect ; nltopcither incompatiblo with beonty, and materially 
diminishinf; the aBefitlnens vf the aniinid. It is almost impoHsiUe to pro- 
Tent the amlilli! from b»in|;thniwii ini the ahoalden, ortlie ii«4>k from In'inff 
galled; tho elastieity of the spino is destroyed; tho mmp is badly ant 
ou; tho hinder Ic^s are too mach under the euiioal ) ho is CODtiniuiIly 
OTerreochiog, and his licud is oarrii^d awkwardly low. 

The loinK ore attentirely nxaminiKl bv every ;;ond horwmnn. They can 
■carcely bo too broad and mnacalar. 1 be streof^ of the hank, and, Mpe- 
cially, ibo Btrentrth of tlie hinder eztremitiea, will depend niaterialljr on 
this. Tho breadth of the loins is rcKnlafed by tho leofitl) of the tTBOsrerw 
or side procesBem of thai part. Tlic bodieH <if the bono* of the loins mm 
likswiiQ hufrer than thuHO of the hock ; and a mom d<iv<>-tiulpil kind of 
uiioD nbmBU between these honee than between tJiose of tho back. Evny 
pnriaion is ma<la for Htrengtli here. The union of tho back and loins 
dkonJd be careMly abscrrcd, for there is sometimes a depression botwecn 
diem. A kind of line is drawn ocrowi, whieh hIuiwh imperfection in the 
oonatmction of tho spine, and is regarded as au indication of weakacM; 


^le spjiioae or nprigfat proeeenf-S uf Uic dorsal rcrtcbnc, or Innea of tho 
faaek, above the apper piut of tho aliouldor, m« as nwiarkable for their 
lonf^h aa are the tranaverse or aide proecMea of the bones of the loins. 
They are Huttened and termioatod by roa^fh blunted vxtremitiea. The 
elevmled riil(^ which tliey form is colled t^o urilhen. It will bo seen in 
the cats (pp. 140 and 244). that Uie spine of the first boon of the buck hae 



hut little eler&tion luid is slinrp twd upright. Thv serond in loscer nnd 
iucliuvd backward ; tho iJiird uid fonrtli increase in Icoi^th, nud tLe tiflL 
ia tho Inn^ost ; they tlicu ^rndiuJlj uliorten aotil the twolAli or Uiirtoeutli, 
irbicb becumex 1i?vel with the iMJiieH of thn kiitiit. 

Hif^h witliprs have been always, in the mind of the jndgo of tlip biirsi', 
nJMMiLAtMl with good a^nn, ajid generally with speed. The rooson la 
phuu enouKh : they aflbrd Isrgcr eiu-faco for tho attachment of the mtui- 
viva oC tho back ; and in proptrrtion to tho cicvntion of the withers, Uieso 
mnaoles act witb grvatvr udriuiU^ro. The riding of th« forraartx of the 
bone, oven in tlio trot, and more OBpecially in Uio gallop, aupndu iidt 
merely on the krctinn of the mnacles of the le)^ and ahonldere, bnt on tliOM 
of thd Inintv, iiiHert«il mto tha apiuoufi proceesca of tlieae bonen of thu book. 
and acting *-ith ^renter power in proportion oa theae procoases, conKti* 
tuting the withers, are len^^lienod. The tirm of the lever to which tlie 
power in applied will 1h> Imip-nr ; and in prnixirtion to the kii^h of tliia 
Km will b« tho cane and tliu livi^lit Uy wluuh a wvi^fbt in rained. Tbcro- 
fun good and faifih action will depcuid much on eleratod witJit-r». 

It is not difficult to underatand bow aiieed will likewise \ie promoti-d by 
Um tame conformation. The power of the borne is in his hinner-qnarter*. 
In them liea tlie main^ring of the (rnmi^, and the fore-qimrlers are diivQy 
vleTsted and tbi'owQ forward to rccciro tho wci|;lib forced on tbuoi by the 
action of the hindcr-qaartors. In proportion, liowvver, a» tbc furc-qaai-tcra 
an? elevated, will they be thrown furthrr forward, or, in other wordM, will 
ll» ttrido of tift bnrfiii hn hmj^hcnpcJ. Yet many racem have th« furclmnri 
low. Tho narivdllL^t P^lipdc (ace p. GO) was a remarkable inetancc of this ; 
but Hie ample and linely-iiroportioncd ((uartera, and the mnsculanty of tlio 
thigh and lore-ajm, rendered thu aid tjj be derived from tho withers per- 
fectly nnnceeafiarr. TIil' hetivy dniuglit-lioree diH's nut require olcvutod 
withers. His atiiity depends on tho power of doprceeing hi« fore- qoar torn, 
and tiirowiog their weight fully into the collar ; bnt for oommon work in 
thu hackney, in tho farmer'a hortie, and in the hunter, well-fornied withers 
wlU be an (nmntial advanti^^, as conti-ibating to good and Bafe action, and 
Itkewiaeto speed. 

MU^SCLES or THE fi££&ST. 

There are Boni(> important maxdes attiiclied to the breaet connected with 
that ex|Aruiiun of tlie chest which every hoi'so Klioiitd i>us8ei». In thi- uut, 
pigo 237, are iieca a vciy important pair of maselea, tlio peet'>raU^ traiU' 
twvi', aT |M^ctoral iiinRrlen, forming two iirominciicoB iu Uie front «f tho 
cheat, and extending backward between the le^^. They come from tho 
fore and upper part of tbe brewrt-lwric ; pawt aci-otw tlio inward part of tiio 
nrm, arid mwh from the I'Uuiw nliiioitt <iiiwii tn the knw*. Thuy conlino 
tbo arm to the side in tb'C npid motion of the horse, and prevent him from 
btiiagi what borseiaon would call, and what ia ni«n in a home pushed 
beyond liia natural power, 'all abroad.' Other mnsclcs, peelorales magni 
et parvi, the great and liitlo pucljjnilnf, mtlier above hut behind these, go 
from the breast-bone tn tiw arm, in order Ut draw Iww-k Uio point of the 
■hoaldcr, and bring it nprigbL Aiiotlier ajid niutller matM:Jc got« from the 
breast-bone U> the slmuMer, to aAsiAt in the nunc ollico. A Itorse, thoni- 
fore, thin and narrow in the brcnat, most bo deficient in important inimcDlar 

BetwoMi the legs an*! along tho breaet-bono is the proper place in which 
to iosort rowela, in cawa of inflaoicd limga. 



The most iniiiortant uiusl-Ics wlikOi boloiig to tliU part of the Fnune an 
nriaoipally thosti which extend £rutii tim cotiLiiiitation of tlut ligamc>iit o f 
iue neok, along tbe wbola of Uio buck and loins ; and likowiM from ttd^M 
rbct oorncaL bone ; — iko suptrfinMlie and iraMtxrealvi cQ4taTMm^ or mp^^^H 
floial and tnuiSToree muscles of the ribs, going from tUis lig:iuiictit tu the 
upper p&rt of the ribs to elevate tb[>m, and uy ussist in \hv expansion of 
tile cIu-Al ; also (lie Inrgc mass uf niiiscle, tlic UmijuiHmua dorri, or longett 
muncliA of fho baok, from the npinouH and tranaTcnc proceiw«« of tho ver- 
iebm to tbe riba, ilqiI by wliicb nil Lhu inotious of the apinv, tutd back, and 
loins, to whicb allusion haa been ui&tlo, are prindpallj produced ; hj which 
the fore- quarters are raised upon tho hind onea. or the bind Qpon tlio fore 
oneB, according bb either of tliem is the fixed point. This ia the principnl 
agent in r«anDg and kicking. 

Tho lost mneclo to be nol:ivod is tlio apinaltt dont, tho spinal masole of 
the haxk, from the spiuoos proccs)i«!t of some of the last Ixnies of tJM back 
to those of the foro-part ; tiick and atron)^ about tlio witliors, and bnwdly 
attached to thfun ; and mort? powerixtllj' attached, and more stronglr aotiof:;, 
in proportion to tho deration of tho -iritlicni ; and proceeding ou to tho 
throo lovrcat bones of th« ncck,iuid thL-rufuro mainly concerned, na already- 
doscribod. in elevating tho foror|iiartrri<, :uid producing high and snfo 
action, nnd oontH'bnting to spoml. 


When tho saddlo has been Buffered to press lonff upon tho iriUien, a 
tnmour will bu formed, ]iot aud exceedingly t'OiuIiT. It muj somctimsa be 
dispereod liy tliit cooling aj inlicHtinnB rucominpiidcil in thu treatment of 
poll-oviJ ; bat if, in dospito i>t these, tho B-n-olling tilionld remain ttatioaaty, 
and cspocially if it should boeomo larger and uorb t«adur, yram fcsneo- 
tiktiona and i>ouUtcfS, and tttiuulating embrocationa, sboiild be diltgontlj 
applied, in order to haj^ten the formation of pus. As soon an thaC can tw 
fairly detected, a eeton ehould Iw piused from the top to the bottom of thn 
tnmoiir, so that tho whole of tho matter may bo OTacaatod, and continned 
to bo discharged us it is anvrwarda formed ; or tho knife may be freely 
Dsed, in order to ftt-l at tho bottom of erery siniii*. Tlie kniCe has sac- 
oofldcd many a timi? wlien tlio seton has failed. The afler treatnietit mual 
be prfM^iBcly that whit^h ^aa recommendod for a similar disease in tha poll. 

Ijj negk'Ctfd fielidoua vi-itliera iht- uleer may bo larger and dwpor, und 
more dcstmciiTc tlian in polUovil. It may burrow beneath tho soonlder- 
blade, und the pus appear ut the point of tho tdiouldcr or the elbow ; or 
the boDos of thu witiutrs mav iM-emiKt carioua. 

V«iy grent improvement hiui taken place in the construction of natldles 
for common use and in Uio CAvaliy mrvice. Certain rules liavo now bcra 
laid down from which tho aaddlcr ehonld norer deviate, and attending to 
which tho animal is saved from moch suffering, and the mechanio from 
dcMTVod disgraee. 

The firvt rule in the fitting of a saddle itf, that it ahould boar upon the 
bock, and not on tho spino or tho wiUicn, for these are purtn that will not 
endure proasurw. 

Next in nniToroal appHontion is the understanding that the saddle ahnuld 
hare cvei7whvTv an equal b«aring, neither tilting forward npou tho points 
aor backward upon the scat. 

When the saddle is on, and the ffirths fustoncd, there should remain snare 
sufficient betwoen the withers and the pommel for tht? introdnctaoa of the 
h'Mid underneath the latter, 



ThcpoinU of tbotreo sbould clip or cmbntcc tlio sides without pmcliin^ 
them, or 80 shuidinf outwKrd thnt the prcsaun; in utl downwards, sod upon 
one pbop, instead of being in a direction inwiu<d«»8Wi^Uits<)(iwnwards,Bo 
as to be distribotod anifomily over every part of the point that toncbm tho 
sido. Borsee that ha<ro Inw and tlii«k witli»rs are most likulj to bavo tbcui 
ii^ured, in oonaeqnenos of the continaal riding forward of tbo eaddlo, anit 
ita oonsE^u€iit prcsmire apon thorn. Flrahy iind fat slionldcrs and sides oro 
also Babject to become hurt hy tlio point« ot the trees pLaebiii}; thom 
from b«ing too narrow in the arch, or from tbo bearing Doing directly 
downward upon thein. 

Injury occasionaUy resnlts from tho intoimption which a too fbrwartJ 
aaildlo prea«jit« to the working or motion of the shonlder, and the conao. 
qncnt friction tlio Eo(t ports sastain bctwmm tbo Bhouldor-blado inwardly 
and tbe point* of the sadJIe-trwontwnrdly, 


On other parts of the back tomonrs and rery tronhlesome ulcers may be 
prodocod by the aomu eanHO. Tlioso resulting' from tbo prrasnre of tho 
•addle arc colled laddU gaUt, and, when th«y nlocmtc, th«y froi]ncotly 
become tUjtutt. Saddle galls are ^mall cironlar bniistis, or i-xiravusationB 
of blood, where thero has been au undue prcasureof thcBaddlo orhameu. 
If a horse is subject to theso tnmoars, tha saddle Bhould remain on him 
two or throo hoars oftor ho has rutumod to tliu Htabhi. It is only for a 
certain bm«, how«7cr, that this will pcrfc-ctly succood, for by the £rcqitinit 
application of the preesaro the skin ami (hu cellular sobstanoo are bruised 
or olharwiae injai-ed, and a permarw^nt Bore or tumour, of a Tety annoring 
deecription, tak^s place. Thetrontrcoftho aorei gradually loses its vitality. 
A separation takos placo from tho fiurroiinding Jnl^^^imcnt^ and thoro is a 
cirou&r piece of driod nud hard skin n^itmuinK in the centre; byrcmoring 
thu with tho knife, more is done in a few miuutvs thaii days will tSviii ia 
the old routiiiu of jwultiuing aiid blwltTiiig; ami tho wound will rt^idily 
heal by the use of tarpentino drcsitinga, more or less atimoIiLting, acoarding 
to ciroamstancca. 

WitJi regard, however, to all these tnnio-nrs and cjcoriatioii.'', tho huniiino 
man will have the saddlo cased and poddi'd aa soon as it begins to ho of the 
least tnconvemenco to tho horsa 

Dropsical swcllin;^ oflon appear bt-twct-n the foru k-frti and on the cIicHt. 
Tiey arc eflnsinns of fluid HUilnnK-iilli ihi: skin. Thoy artijiiipiiny rarious 
il'mwir, jiaKipularly when lhi> nntninl ia weELkcned hy theiu, and Kometiroca 
appear wnen there is no other diaooae than the dobilily, which, in the spring 
and fall of tiit- year, accompanies the ohonpng of the coat. The treatment 
will \B.Ty with the cause of tho afTcctiou or tJio accompanying disease. Small 
punclnree with the lunci-t will acldom do harm ; fnctinn of tiie part, if it 
canboliomp, willbKtmrviefAble; mUd oxercise shouM be used: diurotios 
giren, mixed wit!) aomo cordial, as carrots, malt mashes, and oecanionally 
a vtTy inihl dose of physic, and that followed by toniire and cordialis with 
diuretics. The Tegetablo tonics, aa gentian and culuuibo witli ginger, will 
be most efiectoaL 


HAtim in tlu previoos eh&pter given % briaf ootline of the Azbrail 

acriptioti of its tx>nteata, and tbe organs Jirectly oonncctod witti the fiuuvj 
tioQS of rts^Ira.tton. 


Bousdiiig tli« thorax po§teriorlT — the baae of the cone in the htumta 
mbjoct — the interposed cnrtaia betwcoa the thorax and tho Hbdomon lO 
th« home, is Iho dlftphTW-rm, It is «n int-jrular musciUaj- cxp&nition, pro- 
ceeding &om thL' infurior surfuoo of tho lumbiu' vertebra; [Mttteriurly &ud 
Bupvriurljr, ndheriug U> the ribs and cartilages un vithcr niide. and e ' 
obliqDcly fonrard and dovniward to the Kteroiuu ; or, mtlic-r it u a 
mu^lo arising Trom all thiMO points, with itsfibreaall oonverf^uig towardi 
the cootro, and terminating there ia an cxpoiuioa of tfmdinoiu substanoe. 
It ia tinod anteriorly hy the pleura or invtiKting membrane of tho thoracic 
cavity, and postericirly bjr the poritoaeum or inTestiug menibnuiu of the 
abdonunal cavity. 

Anatomy of tho Diaphragm, — In tho short aocoant which it is propoaed 
to givo of thtt atrucluru of tbo diaphragm, the description of Mr. Per* 
civall vrill be cloaely followed. ' Tho di^ihragm may )jo diviihni into tho 
iDaio circolarinuscle, with ila central tcodinooa expansion fonning tli« 
lower part, and two appetuUce*, or crura, lu thuy ara caJIetl, &om their 
peculiar shape, constituting its vupcriar portion. Tho fleshy origin of the 
grand moficu] may bu trftood latorally and ioforiorly, commencing from the 
cnrtjlago of the eighth rib auteriorly, and closely following tho union of 
the jxMitortor liba with Ihoir cartilngco ; excepting, howaver, the two lact. 
The attachment is pucnlinrly strong: itiligitnlcswith tbotnuisversemoade 
of tho abdomen, and oncireleB the whole of the lateral and tnA'Tior part of 
the cbwt, OA far aa tbo stcmom, wUei-e it ia connected with the imsi< 
form cartilgao. lmnicdiat«>ly under tho loins are the amenJUtxs of the 
diaphngm, commencing on tlie right xidci, from the inienor nr&oet ot 
thu Bto lumbar rertebre, by strong lendon*, which »oon become mnscnlar, 
and form a kind of pillar ; and on the left, proe««diDg from tho two first 
lumbar rertebno only, and from tho sides rather than tho bodice of theae 
TCttobm, and thcso alao unite and form s abortcr pillar, or teg. The left 
cnu, or ajipendix, i» shorter tlian the right, that it may be more oat of the 
wayofprcssurcfromtho left oorTBturooftheBtomacli, which, with tbospleeo, 
li«e andemcath. Opposite to tho seventeenth dorsal TcrMms thoao two 
pillars unite and form a thick nuMsofmusclce, detached &om the reriefana^ 
and lea^'ing a kind of pooch between ihem aiul tlio vcrtcbrs. They not onlv 
nnite, but 1 li><y decniiaate; their fibres mingle and again wparate from eecli 
Otlicr, and then proceed onward tothc central tendtnousoxpanaion toward* 
which tliv tibrea from theeirenUf mnncli', and the appendict'H, all conrerge.' 

Thill rauBclc, so important in He oflloc, in pk-ntifolly mpphed with blood* 
TVMicU. As tile poott^rior aorin. pasECfl beneath the crura of the diaphragm, 
it gives out BometimM a aingle Tcmcl which soon bifbrcalea; wimetimca 
tt*u branches, wlLi<A speodilj pluni^i inln the apjwndioea or cmra, whiln 
namcrona araall reaseU, eacaping from them, Hpread orer the central teiidi- 
souit expaosion. Aa the larger musclo of the diaphragm qiringa from the 
aidca and the base of the chcet, it rccoiTca maay ramtflcatiuns from the 



tiftl peotonl, deriTed from iho anterior aorta; bat more from the pos- 
terior iDlerooatalfl which spring froni ilii- fK^^Unnor ftorta. 

The veins of the di&pbnig:m belong cxoluairtilr to tho poet«rior Tena 
CftTft. There an tuoaH;' three ou cithc:i- itido ; but. Uivy inn.}- be beat rpferrod 
to ttw) chief trunks wliiuh coiav from tho circumference of th« ditiplinigm, 
c<oiiri<rF;u towMfin thu rttntrv, kdcI nut into the posterior cava na it paoM 
thitxi^h tho tondinnaii cxpanRton. 

Xbc fanctioaal nerv« ol the dinphrofrm, or that from which it derivea its 
princapMl action, and which cou^titutvn it a mitiwli; of roBpinktion, is tho 
{Amuc or diaphiB^mntic. AltLoa^h it docn not jirocend (rt>in that portion 
of the mi^duDii oblongata which fipvpB rise to tho |;loiuio.pharvii^nit»t and thu 
par Taffnm, yot there igBTifficicnttoiiidiiwnsUisnBpect tliat itariM-sfroni, 
and shoiald be rvfcrrt'd io, the lutcrul column between the Aupt^nor and in- 
firrior, tho senaitire and inottir iiorves, and which may ho evidently traced 
trom the pom TaroUi to tlie very l«rmiuatioti or t-lio spinal c-hord. 

Tfae diaphragm is the main itf^eat in tho work ofrcxpimtion. The other 
tnuftch?fl are mon' aiixiliari<^a, little needed in oi-dinary kKathing, bat aflbrd- 
in|f tho meet important nasistuncc, Trhcn tho breathing ia more than uDually 
harried. Thi' nnvhn.nism uf nwpiration may be thns eiplained :— fjet it 
bo euppoAcd that iho liingR ai-oinaquioKcont titat^. The act of expiration 
hat been perfonnod. and all is still. Prom anmo canM) cnrcloped in mya- 
teij— connected with tho will, but iudoix:udvnt of it — aomi; atimalua of an 
nnezplainodandnnknown land — the phrenic nerve acta on t)iv diaphragm, 
and that mnscle contmctM; and, brcontractin^, its convexity into the cheat 
is dim)nii<hi>d, and tho cavity of the ebost is anlargi^d. At tho same time, 
and by nome conwntancouit Lnflucn(<«, tlie intereostiol mniichMi act ; with no 
in'eat fbroe, indeed, in uudisiarbud breathing ; tut, iu proportion an tbcy 
iLCt, the riba rotate on their oxen, their edges are ilirown oncnard, and thus 
a twofold effect enBues ; the posterior margin of the chest is expanded, tlio 
cavity ia plainly enlarged, and also, by the partial rotation of evoiy rib, tho 
cavi^ is still more incrcasi^d. 

By aonie other consentnncoas inflocncr, tho spinal acconsoryncrvo liico* 
wise exerte il» powfr, and the Ktt-ruo-nmiillans muscle in stimnlated by 
Uie anterior diviaionof it, and the motion of thehoadaiidnodcooTTvnwiidH 
with and osrasts that of tho chest; while the posterior diruion of the ac- 
ueaaoiy oerre, by itn anastomosos with tlio motor ncrrc» of tlio levator 
hnmeri and the spl«nius, and many other of tlie maacleit of the neck and 
th« idionlder, and by it« direct inflneoco on the rhomboidoos, associatett 
almost crery muscle of tlie neok, the ahoolder, and the c)ii>ut, in tho cxpan- 
non of lite Ihornx. These latter are museloa which, iu undiaturhvd rcepi* 
ration, the animal scarcely needs; bat which arc ncceasory to him wun 
ilie respiration Is much distnrbod, and to obtain the aid of which ho will, 
mder pneunonia. obHtinately stand nnLil ha falln exhaii])tt>d or to die. 

Tbe earity of the client is nowontarged. Hut this is a closed cavity, and 
between it* eontonte and the parietes of the chest a vaennm wonld be 
fbmted; or rather an iaeqnality of atmosphorio pronora ia produced IVom 
tlie moment the cheit bogina to dilate. As the diaphragm leoedes, thcru 
is nothing to countorlmlaTii-o ttm pi-t>«sDre of the atmoiipherio air com- 
ninnioattng with Inngs throngh the medtnin of the nostrils, and it 
is forvcd into the rca^jiratory tabee already deacribed, and the lungs ar« 
expanded and still kr<pt in contact with the receding walla of tho cheat. 
There is no snckintr, no in)ia1i<nt powrr In Lite act of inspimtion ; it is t]ie 
sample enlargement of the cltest from the eutnuiev and premarnof thsair. 

n«m some camte, as inezplieable aa that which prodocod the expansion 
of the cheat, llie respiratory nervea cease to act ; and the diaphngm, by 
the inhennt claiticity of its tendinous exponaion and mnaculor flbrea, re> 




tama to it« nalunU form, «nc« more projcctinfif it« conTCjdfy into the tbomi. 
Tha kbdomuia) muAt^loB, ab)n, wliicb )xmI Ixnin init od the strctfb b^ tlui 
forcing of the nscti^ into the posterior iiait ol tlie ahdnnieii, by jaeut» of 
Old fllrai^htciiinff of tho iliHjthrHgm, contmcc tLad accalomto clio retnra ef 
that mnaolc toiu <ink'ec«nk Kgiiiw ; iui<t tho nb«, all Armed with ahctio 
CftftiJages, r^^iu tLu-ir Jbrmor Biluation ukI ii|;ur<;. The mnsclea of tin 
shoulder and tho chest relax, a portion of clie Inngs arc pn.'^Mcd on entj 
mdc, and the air with wliichthcj wltc distended u agiiin forced out. There 
■a only one sot of muscles actively Dmployed in «xiu»tian, nuncly, the ab* 
dominal ; tho ohwHoitT of the parts oiaplaced in mspiration being (UiimM 
suUicieiii to iKuoiupluili the purjKXto. 

The lun^s, howoTor, oro not altogether passiTn. The lironohiaJ tubei, 
so far lut they can be trat-ed, are lined with oartil&ge, divided and Bulidi> 
vidi"d for tho piir{iosi> of foldinij np when the lungs aj^ compresxed, bat 
ebutio otiongh to aJl'ord n poldtng rosiitfuic« ogfunst both unusual expon- 
eion luid voutractiou, In their uRual state the nir-tubcs ure distended 
beyond theii' natural calibre ; for if the parietes of tho thursix are per- 
fumted, and the preesuro of the atmoHphore rendered ecjaal within and 
without tboni, tho Innga inimcdiaUily collnpso. 


TIio inncoojt metabniuo uf thu nunc i» distingtiialicd from other macoos 
mirfaofti, not only by ilA tliickiiess, but ita vasciilaHty. Tliu blood-roaoeb 
are iikowiao aoperlicial ; th^ are not covered even by integument, bnt 
merely by a mucous coa-t. Thoy oro d^'pper seate"!, iiidetd, thiui in tho 
human being', and they arc more protected from injury ; and thorofiin; therv 
is fur less hn'morrhnife from tho iin^trtl of tho horsu thua from that of thit 
huniaii briii((, wlieUior npi^ntaneoTiii or accidentdil. ['vinK iinmediattOy 
under tiio mucous ooat, th«fic Teasels ^ro a peculiar, and, to tbo horacnuui, 
a most importunt tin^u to the metnbnuio, aad puiioukrly ohucrraUe ou 
tho septum. They pi-csent him witJi n faithful indication of the stnto of 
the circulation, and especially in tho membranes of the other respimtoiy 
paaugea with which this it eontiimouK. 

Ths horsemiMi and the v^^^erinnry surgeon do not poBBSBA mnsy of th9 
anxihariee of the hiuuuu practitioner. Their pati«nt« are dumbi they 
ram ncitlier tell tho neat nor the dci;i'<^ of p^ • <uul tho hiondera of tho 
practitionnr are n-e^uonUy buried with the pntii^nt. Well, lio mimt uau 
greater diligence in avnilinf^ himself of Uie advantages he doca possotui ; 
and ho has some, and very important ones too. Thn 781710^ hnv of thu 
SdaaaidTiftit mcmbraao is tho otost inipor1<aiit of all ; aod, ^th regard tu 
iho noBt frequent and fatal diseases of thu hone — ikoso of the rctiiii ruloty 
pnaingrs — it gives almost all the inibmiation with regard to the statu of 
the circulalion in thnsn jtarts that can poHsibly be rraoinwL Veterinarians 
too generally overlook this. It has not yet fccoii Bufiicicntly tanght in our 
Bcboola, or inculcated in our beet works on the piitholo|{y of tho hone. 

It iH the custom with ulmuKtert'r)- luirseman who takes any pains to 
nMvrtain the state of his patient to tnm down the lower tye-lid, and to 
form his opinion of the degree of eonenU inflaiunuitiou by thu colour 
which tho Kning m^embTiuio (rf tho lid prcsonts. If it is very p«i, ho ron. 
clndca tJiat there is conaidctablo fvwr; if it is of B pale pinkish hoe, thcro 
la comparatively little danger. This is a voiyimpOTtaDt examination, and 
tlie conclusion which he draws from it is gunerally tmu ; but ou tlic sop. 
lam of tho nose he has a mombrano more iauiioiliatcly contitiunus with 
those of the recpiratory organs, more eosUy got at, presenting a larger 
anrface, the nuniJicBtions of tho blood-vt.'eai-la bctu-reeen, and what is 
truly imjHirtanlv indicatintc not only the general aHection of the mcmbmnca, 
but of those with wliicb lie is must of all ouuL'vrDod. 





« would, tfaoQ, ear U> every horseman tcai prftctitioner, etady the 
icter of tliat portioD of tha meiabrano which covers the lower part 
ihe membmnc of t\ie noso — tlint whicli yoa caji most rctuUly briiuf into 
view. Day aft<'r duy, and umior lUl the viiiyiiig circnni8taiioi>s of IiohIUi 
tad Hiinwir. ttndy it until you arc ctutbled to ■n-cagaise, onA you sonn ti-il), 
and tiiat with » iIvktvo of cxauliiudQ yuii would liuvc scurcclj^ tliou^lil 
posBible, Uie jMie pink hue when tlio horso is in hoalih- — tlio incrv&ain^ 
blaah of red, and the general and uniform pfLinting of the membmne, 
betokeninff soma excitomeot of tlif systvm — the streaked wpetmoca wlum 
{nflmnniAttoR is tlir«ktctiing or commi^Qoing — the intcBBCIy florid ml of 

I infliunmntion booDoiinK acute— the starting of tku yt.-stn:Is fi-om their 
gTNtAanuT coal, and their seeming to nm bait' over the taembnaie, when 
tJie inflammation is at the highest — the juile gronnd nnth patdien of vivid 

, red, Bhowing the half-sabtiuied btit atill i>Lxiatiiig fnvi-r — the ouiform colour, 
bot ■omfiwhiit ix-ddtT thfttin(.tarul, indicating a return to a healthy et<\te of 
the circaltttion — the ])aU-Tii;ut.s u|)i>rtkachini|r tu whitt!, accoinpanj'ing a Mtat« 
of ilebality, ami ynt some radiations of crimson, showing that ihitrv in still 
ooniiidenibie irritability, jvnd that mischief may be in the wind— the pale 
livid colonr, vraming you that llic diiti'fiDU is aaJtnminjf n typhoid characteT 
— the darker livid, aaooouciiig tliut thu typhas ia estublished, and that 
tbe ritttl otim-nt is sttenating— «Jid the brownvr, dirty painting, inter- 
mingling with and sabdamg tbe lividnc&a, and inili{;aliti|^ tJiat tlie game 
is op. These appearances will bo gtiidus to our opinion and treatment, 
which wo cwa nover too highly appreciate. 


I Is plaeed on tlie top of the windpipe, immediately below and in conUjci 
yrith the pharynx, and is the inucr guard of tlio luu|>s if any iujurions 
Subutaiiev i^hould pen<^trate so fiir : it is the main protection a^'aiiist the 
tfitnircr of food into the respiratory tttbcs, and it is at the some tinio tbe 
mstnunrnt of voice. In thin last uharaet^^r it luee.s imieh of its importance 
in the ((u)ulrn[x>d, but still in the damb animal it is a benutifal piece of 

Tas KriOLOrns is a hoort-sLapod cartilsf^e, ploood at the saperinr 
openiiit; into the laryiuc, with its buck oppioacd to the phatyiiK, mi that 
when a pellet of fi>od jiiiiui'S from tbe pharynx iu its way to tbe CBSophiuruS| 
it presicH dowii tbe epiglottis, and by this mcann, as already dcaorioed, 
«lo»<>« the aperture of the Inrynx, and prevents any portion of the food 
from entorintr it, Tho to<i<i havinff pasKcd over the Kpiglottin, it, from itn 
onm ebutieity, ami thiit of tlie luembnme at its base, am) niorv patv- 
iit'nlarly the jiower of the hyo-epiglotideiifl muscle, rises a^iu and rcKumes 
iu former situation. 

TuE TuiK&iD Cabth-agb oecupies sdmust the whole of the external part 
of the larynx, both anteriorly nod iKterally. It envelopes and protects 
all tho rest; a point of considenjible importance, eouaidmnK the injury 
to wbieli the larynx is exposed, by oar system of curfaiiig and tdgfat-retn- 
ing. It also forma a point of attaehment for the insertion of the f^nater 
P«rt of the delicate mnselos by which tho other eartilaues are moved. The 
other cartilagcM arc tho cricoid and two arii-tcnoid. The cricoid, or ring* 
like cartilo^, is placed at the base of the thyroid, connecting it with 
the tm<h«a or windpipe : the two arytenoid, or ewer-ithaped oartilago^ 
form the npper and bnck [>art of Uie larynx, as the thyroid does tbe 
upper fVoat and lateral portion. It is principallT supplied with uerreti by 
the Wyngcal branchni of tko par vagon a&d toe reournint nenrcs; and 
there arc bIm freqoent anastonuines with the motor ncnree of thesjiinal cord. 

Tbo beautiful mcclianisui of tlie larynx is gurcrned or worked by a 



aooMwhat oonfdieatod system of mtudes. for a description of whicii fkt 
reader in rcferrrd to tbr 5th rol, cf * Tlit- VctcTinarian.' p. 4+7. Tto 
eatira pmcan of rmipiratkin ill partly nntln- the ountrol of llie wilt, amA 
tits unuMilea of the Ibtynx oonoemM in one ttage cf it are likewiae ao, bat 
thejr rIm act independeBUj of the will, for danng atoep and "-i^-^irfriTniin i w i 
tKe machine oootuniea to work. 

Tile ori^ of tile atiMy which Bnpplira these parts witli blood la mtae- 
timea derived from the main trunk of tlie caratid, bat oftener it ia * 
branch of tho thjToidcal ttrt«f7. 

The lining mtnnbnute is a oonttnnation of that of tha pharynx afaore 
and the tmoue below. It id covereil with innnntcrablo follicnlnr f;lan^ 
from whoaa nuvntlu there oaiea a mncooii fioid that maiotons luid lubricates 
Ha mr&M. It is poeaeaaed of veiy great aanaibiUtj, which in derived from 
tha anperior l arj n ff cal nerve, and ita fonction requires it. It ia, aa has 
been atrcodj stnted, the inner i^nard of the Ioq^a and the Uuynx mnat 
nnder^ a maltilailo uf chan^^ of fonn in order to adapt itself to ourtain 
dtangOR in the act of renpuwtion, and in order to pi^nn- the roioe. Th.^ 
voice of the horse ia, however, extmnely limited, compared with tii»t of 
tiio human bein^; the same seiksibility, therefore, in not reqoirod, and 
expoacd aa oar qo&dmped slarca arc to absard and barhnrous naag«, too 
great sensibility of any part, and particalarly of this, wonid be a caisa 
to the animal. 


The cxjorsc of the inspired nir &om the larynx to the lanss is now to he 
traced, and it will Iw f<.>aDd to be convoyed throngfa a ainj^nhtrly oon- 
Btnicted Cabe, paaidn^ nlong the anterior portion of the neck, and Tvachin>{ 
from the lower edge of the cricoid cartilage to the lon^. In tho com* 
roencentcnt of its course it 18 oomewbat snperflcially plaocd. but aa it 
di-wenilit lowanlti the thorax it becomes ^mdually deeper, and more coe- 
ntAJiMt. In order to disehar^ its fonetions as an air-tube, it in essmttial 
tikflt it shfruld ahrara be pervious, or, at least, that any obstraction to the 
prucesa of rcspiratwn sliould be but momentary. AttuclKil to a part 
eodowod with snch extensive motion ad the neck, it is also neceaaarj that 
it shoaldbe flexible. Itia composed of cartiUi^*, an noeedin^y elaatie 
Rib«t&nce. and at the same time possessing a certain degree of flexilnlity. 

The wiudpipo is composed of cartila^, but not of one entire piece, fur 
that would ncccsHirilT Iw cither too thick and firm to be (I«xn)k\ or if 
it were safficieutly flexible t4J accommodate itself to the action of the neck, 
it would he too weak to mist oven common praasnre or injury, and the 
paasaj^ thronf^h it would often lie inoonTcniontly or diunfreninalj ob- 
atmcted. Besides, it is nccestary that thia tnlK ahouki occasionally Mtmit 
of elongation to a ounsiderable deforce. ^Vhen the neck ia cxtondetl in 
the act of graiing or otherwise, the tntchea mnst be lengthened. 

The stractnm of the cartilafte of the windpipe is admirably adaptod to 
effect every purpose. It is divided into ringv, *!%■ or Bfty-two in tinmhrr. 
each posMSsine sufliciont thickness and strength to resist ordinaij prraMirr, 
and Moh conRtitnting a jnm'tion wit]) the one above and below, and tlios 
admitting of all the ttextbjbty that conld be recjnired. Thnte rings are 
oonnocted together by on interposed tibro-ligamentotiB nbictAnco, exten- 
nble, elastic, nnd yet so slroni; that it is searcely poeaible to raptnro it ; 
and the flbn-s uf thiit ligament not miming TortiaUy from one to anutber, 
uid tberefuro admitting of little more motion than the rotation of the heed, 
but compoeod of two layen mnning obliqnoly, and in oontrary directioBS, 
BO aa to adapt themselves to every varioty of motion. 
Thoae rings nrc ihickoBt in front, and project cireularly, opposing on 




ftKhlik« form. Th«r«>, too, the ligmmAnt is widest, in oHnr ta vltnit of 
Uu: ercttlcit motion ia Uut duvctioB in whicli it is most nwtlcd, vrbi:a tlis 
betuT is elevated or depnoaed. Lau'nilK- tbeae liafgB are thinner, becaoae 
tfabjr ue, to a great degree, protected bv tbo niTTODsding parts ; and, 
p c ete rioriy, tlipy orcrlnp encti nlhipr, and tiio overUppin^ portions &re oon. 
aeCtod toRothcr bj* ft stnm}^ li^'ftjiitfiitoas BuiMtonce. Tliis, while it d<K8 
DOt iiiip«lu the motion of the tabi-, ^roi finniweasad etubility to it. 

Withiit the tracbca in niiMtlii-r fi-Ty ourioiu tttmcturc. Al tiiu pui'nU at 
wbk'h. posteriorly, tie ruiq:a bepiu to bend inwardly, a moBcIe ia found 
stretching nrross the windpi|>o, oividing the canal into two nnequal por» 
tiona — th» anlonor one oonstiliitin); the |nro|Hr air-panage, and tbo 
poatnrior one occupiud by cvlIuW tvxttiro. It is to i^voaidditiona] trtjvngth 
tn parta. It 19 the tic which preventtt Lho arch fnicri sptirnuguut. In tliu 
natnial Btate of the windpipe this muscle is, probably, ciaieHnrnt ; but 
when any eonsiderablo ptvesnro is mode on the crow-n of the arch at the 
upper put by tigltt-rcinin);. or at the lower end by an iJl-made collar, or 
anywhere by brritiU or itL-ciilvntal viulunco. this maiM-lo contructii, crery 
■orioiis cxjiaiuiiou or deprt-^aioii of the arch is pntventwl, and tbo part is 
presarred from Berions injar^*. 

It may al»o be readily imagined that, when in violent exertion, every 
pnrt of the respiratory canal ia on tbo stretch, this band may jtreserve ttio 
«riiidni|M) from injury or Incrmtion. Then; an; nuuiy beantirnl poinls in 
the imysiology of the bonie wliieb deserve miu^ {greater attentinu tlimi 
baa hitherto been paid to them. 

Tbo windpipe shotild pn^joct from tbo noek. It should almost seem as 
if it wore detached from the ncek, for two imporlaitt reasoos; firet, that 
it may easily enter betwwn the channelHof the jaw, so that the horw may 
be rviDad up without KafTering iuconvt^uieuce: and next, that beiiig mora 
looaely attached to the ncclc, it toay more reatlily adapt itself to the cTiangee 
re(|mred than if it were cuvL-loped by Jat, or miiscle to a certain degree 
unyieldirtir : therefore, in cTorj- wcU-formcd net-It — and it will Ijc seen in 
the cnt (p. "i'i?) — it is indispensablu that the windpijie should bo ]iruminent 
and louse on the neck. This is not re<|tiin-<l in the hi»vy mrt-honiit, and 
wo do not often find it, becanao ho is not no mnch exposed to those eir- 
eumataacea that will hiiny reBjnntUoii, and require an enlargviueot ia 
the size of the prinrijial air-tnhe. 

When the trachea arrives at the thorax, it suddenly alters its form, in 
ordor to adapt itself to the nurrow trianmlar apertun throngh which it 
baa to paas. It preserves tlio same cartUaginoos stmoturc ; for if it has 
not the prtWAUTv of the external moscles, or uf accidental violence, to reaist, 
it is exnoaed to the preamre of tlio huKH, when thcr are inflating, and it 
■haves m the pressure of the diaphragm , and of tliv intercostal muscles, in 
tba act of oxpimlikiD. Having entered the chest, it jmlsmos a littlo to the 
ri^it, Wring the «esopb«gua, or goUet, on the lefl ; it scpoiales from tbo 
dorsal Tertebne ; it passes through the duuhcaiure of the inediaatioujn to 
the hose of the heart, and it diridos hencaiii the posterior aorta. Its divi- 
sions are cnlU»l (lie brunckiai tubos, and hare much to do with the well* 
being of the horse. 

Its rings remain as perfect as before, bat a new portion of cartOage 
bcKina to prasetit iteelT: it may be tnbced aa high as u>» tenth Hug from 
tbu bottom ; it spreads over the nnion between the posterior lerminationa 
of the rings; it bulds them in closer and lirraerconneetionwithcneb other; 
it dischai^ea tlio duty of tlie tmiiKvcrae muscle, which begins Ikerc to dis- 
appear, and the support of tlie cerrical and dorsal rertehne; it previ'nLt 
tuB separation of the rings when tbo tiachea is distt^dcd ; it spreads dowu 
Dpon, and defends the commenctiment of the broncbiid tubes. Svue other 

s : 




Kinall pistca of cartilaK« roaob a ooii9!<Iorabl« way du^ro the diTisioiui of 
tho brouchi, n.nd the [oat riog lias a central tTiangular projectaoa, wUiok 
covers and dfrtndii the bifurcation of tic trochtiL 



Tho vrinduipe baa bccu traL-cd tJirouKli ils coarse down the neck into 
tbo cbcst. It IB thero oontinaod ihrongb tlic mcdiiLetinum Lo the base of 
tha licarl, and then diriiled into two tubwt anTcniiondiiij; with the two 
diTuiam of the lungs — the BnoxrnuL Tints — the right of wliwli in mlliPT 
the largest. These tranks (mttr doeply into the BnbstAnco of th« Iung!«, 
Thcj profioutly subJiiT Jo, sud the subdirieiou U coutinacl in every direc- 
tion, until branches frum the trachea ppnetrate evcnr assignable portion 
anil [lart iif tho liings. They are titi!! air-inutsncw*. tairryiiig on t^ui fluid 
to its il(>iitinatiou, for the aocouijiliehment of n vital jmriioap. 

'f hpy also continue expoftsd to pressure ; bnt it is preKuro of a new 
kind, a prcaaoro altematelv Emppliod and rcmorod. The lun^ m which 
thvr ttrv (.-mlx-ddcd nltorDnl4-ty contract nud fxpnnd; and thrs<! tubpaninat 
contnicl mid t'xjjiiitd liki'WJM^. Emhc<ldr<l in tliH biii^, iht^ cArt ilnf^nonfl 
rinffof the bpoiichi remains, bat it in divided into five or six aegiiwatii i-on- 
nocted with «wh oth-or. The lungs beinf* comprosaed, the segniciits owr- 
lap each othur, and fold up and occupy little Bpacc ; bat the principle of 
elasticity is ulill at work ; and a» the prviMcurc in rcin<n'rii, (hey Hlarh a^n*'^ 
and re8um« their prtn-iouM fortii aiid ralilire. It ih a iM^utifiil coutrivannt, 
and eiquiaitely adapted to tho tiituation in which these tubes are phtoed, 
and tlio functions they have to discbni-g^ 


Tbit Innga are tlie scat of a pecnliar circulation. Tliey oonrey tlirongh 
IfcoF eoraputttively Bimdl balk the blood, and other fluida scnrcely traiw- 
Ibnaed into blood, or eoou si-partited from it, which ti-averau tlie trhob 
<yf ibm fVame. They conGL<it of countlL-an rami Bciit ions of air-tubes and 
'bloocl-vessels connwtcd tofrcthrr by iiitt-ni-iiiiig' wllriliir i<ukiitanco. 

They form two ilistiuct bodied, (he right somewhat largrr than thuleft, 
nad OLTe divided tram, each other by the duplicntnre of the pli>nra, whidi 
haa been ultvndy described — ^tho mtidiruitiiLUUL. Ench lunf,-- iiaa the itaiDO 
structure, and propcrticB, and naca, Efu^b of them is Bubdii-idod, tho rigfat 
Iul)e roiixiiitinfjf of thren hAvs, and the left of two. The tntcciliLm of tlieae 
diviaionti is probably to adapt the substance of the lungB to thcfumi of the 
cavity in 'which they are placed, and to enable tfaem more perfeetlv to 
occupy and fill tho chest. 

If unc of thc»i- lobes is cat into, it id fbund to connist of innumerwbla 
Imgularly fiirmpd conipiirtnientji, to which aaatomist« hav» givi<n the 
BBjne of lnlvlfM, or UtUe lobe*. They are distinot from each otlier, and 
itnpervinus, Ou close examitintiou, tneycan bo subdivided alniost witboDt 
end. There is no commonication botwocn them, or if perchance aaub 
oommuni cation exists, it consiitvtes the dtseatic koovm by tho name at 
broken wind. 

On the dolieato membmne of which these cells are composed, innnmer- 
ftlde minute blood-reasela ramify. They proceed from the lu-art, throuf^h 
the medium of the judtaonary arienj^^icy follow nil tho eabdivisions of 
the bronchial tubes — they ramify npon the nienibntiiv of these maltjta> 
diiious lobuh'*, and at Ion|;(tb return to the heart, thiou|;h the medinm of 
the pobnonary veins, the blood, the cbanioter of which lias been esaentially 
otiaaged. Tlie odiue of the luuij^ may be very shortly stated. The blood 
pusinjc through the capillaries of tho body and eontributinK to the 
nonriidiment of the ftBow, and famishing ull tliv scvretions, bmjmea, u 


TnE PLEUSA. 961 

we liare described, cliaiiged. It is no longer able to support life : it is 
possessed of a poiBonotu principle, and that principle is a saperabondonce 
of a substance called carbon, which mnst be got nd of, before the blood 
can E^ain be usefully employed. There is an ingredient in the atmospherio 
air called oxygen, -which has a strong attraction for this carbon, and which 
will unite with it wherever it finds it. The chest enLu-gee by the action 
of the diaphragm, and the intercostal and other mnscles, as we have 
narrated, and iJae longs expanding with the chest, in order to fill ap the 
vacnnm which would otherwise exist between them and the sides of the 
chest, these cells enlarge, and a kind of racanm is formed in each of them, 
and the air rushes down and fills them, and being divided from the venous 
tuid poisoned blood by these membranes alone, it is enabled to act npon 
tho blood, the oxygen combines with the carbon to form carbonic acid, 
and thus purifies it, and renders it arterial blood, and fit for the porposes 
of life. This being accomplished, the chest contracts, the longs are 
pressed into smaller compass, and a portion of the air impregnated with 
carbonic acid, and rendered poisonous m its torn, is pressed out. Presently 
the cheat expands again, and the lungs expand with it, and fresh, pure air 
is admitted, which is shortly pressed out ^;ain, empoisoned by the carbon 
of the blood : and these alternate expansions and contractions constitnte 
tho act of breathing. 


Tho walls of the chest are lined, and the lungs are covered, by a smooth 
glistening membrane, the pleura. It is a serous membrane, 80 called from 
the nature of its exhalation, in distinction from the mucoua secretion yielded 
by the membrane of the air-passages. The serous membrane generally 
invests the most important organs, and always those that are essentially 
connected with life, and lines eil the enclosed cavities of the body ; while die 
mucous membrane lines the interior of those cavities which have external 
openings. Thcpleorais the investing membrane of the lungs, and a mucous 
membrane the lining one of the bronchial tubes. 

Among the circumstances principally to be noticed, with regard to the 
pleura, is the polish of its internal surface. The glistening appearance of the 
lungs, and of the inside of the chest, is to be attributed to the membrane by 
which they are covered, and by means of which the motion of the various 
organs is freer and less dangerous. Although the lungs, and the bony walla 
which contain them, are in constant approximation with eaoh other, both in 
expiration and inspiration, yet in the frequently hurried aad violent motion 
of the animal, and, in fact, in every act of expiration and inspiration, of 
dilatation and contraction, much and injurions friction would ensue if the 
surfaces did not glide freely over each other by means of the peculiar 
polish of this membrane. 

Eveiy serous membrane has innumerable exbalent vessels upon its 
surface, from which a ccrtiun onantity of fiuid is poured out. In hfe and 
during health it exists in the chest only as a kind of dew, just sufficient 
to lubricate the surfaces. Wben the chest is opened soon after death, we 
recognise it in the steam that arises, and in tho few drops of fluid, which, 
being condensed, are found at the lowest part of the chest. 

Th« quantity, however, which is cxhalod from all the serous membranes 
must be very great. It is perhaps equal or snperior to that which is 
jdelded by the vessels on the surface of the body. If very little is found 
in ordinaiy cases, it is because the absorbents are as numerous and as 
active as the exhalents, and, during health, that which is poured out by 
the one in taken up by the other ; but in circumstances of disease, either 
when thf exhalents arc stimulated to undue action, or the power of tba 


Mbtorbenffl is diminiiihed, tlio finiil rajndly and greatly awnmnlalca. ThQK 
we hAve hrdrotliorax ur dropay of tbo rhoHt, as one of the roasexjiiencMi of 
infliunXBRtaon of tho cbwt ; hnd Ihc f^iniv distorbvd bftlonco of action wUI 
prodnoo rimiW cffiitrioii in other cavitii». 

Tlie MlapUlion of laemlintDe genvrully Is novthan more strikingly 61a- 
played thai) in the M>muH mrmlinutt'fl. mid particularly in (Jiat undnr cnti* 
aiderfction. Uovr different the bnlk of the longs beforo the act of insptra. 
tiou liaA conimi-Dced, and afW it has boen coniplctod. and t<epe«ially in tite 
Inborinus rcspiralioD of disi'««f or nipiil cii-rtion ! In either stato of tfas 
luB^ tlio pifiirn in ii^r(ml\y IiIUkI to tliat which it eavuluuua. 

Till! pli'Uiu, like other aeroiu membranes, in possessed of very litUo 
ectutbihty. Few nerv<« from the seneitife column of the «pinal o«>r(l 
reaob it. Amitc feclinfc vrouid render thcso membranea ^aorftUy, and 
this mombr^Dt; in particular, nuGt for the- function tJtey have to diMchorfre- 
It haa too mach motion, even during^ hI««}i ; and far too fortTiblv frivtion 
with the parieleB of the thorax in niorbid or hurried respiration, to reader 
it convonient or necfnl for it to poss^M much sensation. Somo of tlioM 
anntomifltfl, 'whoMt eipcriment« on the livloz animal do no credit to their 
humnnity, liinv givi-n most singnlar proof of the iDttcnitilnlity, not only 
of thrao acrouB luumiiranw, but of tlio orguiia which ihcy iiivi«t. Btcliat 
frvqaently examined the spleen of doj^. He (Ictnched it from aaroo of itM 
lullieuoos, and left it prutmdinjr from the woiuiO. iu the ubdumeu, in order 
' to study the phonomenn ; ' and lie enw ' them tearing; off tliat or(;iui, aju] 
eating it. and thtu feodinff apon their own tnibrtunce.' In some vxperi* 
moDls, ill whii'h part of tli«ir intAatuicH witm lefl out, he ol>«ir\-od them, 
aa (toon lu thf^- hod the opportunity, tear to piecoj their own viscera with- 
out any Wsiblu |nun. 

A1thoTi);h it may be adrantagrous that these important or^ana shall bo 
tluiJt tiijvoid of sonsibiltty when in health, in order that wo may ho 
ncconiicionB of their action and motion, and that th