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Full text of "Hortus jamaicensis, or A botanical description, (according to the Linnean system) and an account of the virtues, &c., of its indigenous plants hitherto known, as also of the most useful exotics. Compiled from the best authorities, and alphabetically arranged .."

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HORTUS JAMAICENSIS, 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION, 

(ACCORDING TO THE LINNE AN SYSTEM) 

AKD AH 

ACCOtJNT OF THE VIRTUES, kc. 

orrrs 

INDIGENOUS PLANTS HITHERTO KNOWN, 

AS ALSO OF THE MOST USEFUL EXOTICS. 

^OMf ILED FROM THE SEST AUTHORITIES, AND ALPHABETICALLY ARltAITOBD^ 

. IN TWO VOLUMES, 
By JOHN LUNAN. 



VOL. I. 



JAUAJCA : 
«9ZIIMTE0 AT THE OFFICE OF THE ST. JAQO DS LA VEOA OAZCTTE. 

1814. 



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MICROFILMED 
AT HARVARD 



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TO THR SUBSCRIBERS:. 



On the conclusiotiof a work which has been attended with very coi> 
siderable labour and expence, the compiler Would be wanting in 
that respect due to the tew gentlemen who have patronised it^ if he 
failed to return to them his sincere thanks. Although, at the com- 
mencement, and on the cover of every number, he solicited assistance 
and information, very few indeed have been the contributions received. 
The greatest assistance, afforded, has been the perusal of the manu- 
scripts of the late- Mr/ Anthony Robinson, and several |>apers of the 
late Dr. Broiighton and others,, most obligingly commnnicatecl to him 
by Alexander Aikman. Esq* one of the representativies in assembly 
for the parish of St. George, in* whose possession they now are. From 
these papers several valuable extracts ligve been made :^— In addition to 
whicli, although the original proposals^ only promised a 'compilation,, 
many new observations and descriptiona will be found interspersed, as 
thty occurred to thexompiler in the coarse of his various researches; 
Xj^jon the whole^ he trusts, ^however imperfect the attempt, that it 
w\\{ be found tlie most- complete system of Jamaica botany extant. 
Had encouragement offered, it was the compiler's intention not only 
to have furnished plates, but to have extended the work to the anirtial 
and mineral kingdoms. of Jamaiqfiv and thus have formed an entire 
natural history ot the island, on the same plan. He has, however,, 
performed, though. at a loss, all he at first promised, and must leave 
}iio othei's, blessed with more leislire, or more able and indefatigable 
than himself, to perfect the plan, and to correct the many errors and 
deficienisies he is conscious will be found 'in every part of what herha^-^ 
accomplished^ 



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PREFACE. 



JL HE many advantages^ which would result from a work of this na- 
ture, properly executed, and supported by the aj^istance and contri* 
butions of the weH-informed part of the community, must be so obvi* 
cus as to require no observation. The compiler has only to regret, 
that his abilities, and his opportunities of acquiring knowledge on the 
subject, are not adequate to. the task of rendering k perfect: a task, 
.indeed, hiardly to be performed by an individual* 

The principal motive which induced to this collection was a consi^ 
deration of the great scarcity of almost every valuable work which 
treated of the plants of Jamaica, and the little probability of their re- 
publication. Possessed of these books, ^as well as many otliers^ on the 
science of botany, which he had studied as an amusement, and hav- 
ing occasionally leisure time, the compiler thought lie could not bet* 
ter employ such advantages, than by collecting together the observa- 
tions of different authors on each particular plant, and .comparing 

them. 



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i P RE F A C £• 

them, as far as in his power, with the plant itself. In this way he 
has gathered and arranged a considerable mass of materials, of which 
the present humble specimen is offered, with all due deference, for 
the opinion of the public. Should that opinion, prove, fortunately, 
favourable the publication vnW be continued, or, if otherwise, reliu- 
quished; and it may not perhaps, be thought improper to state, in 
this place, the general nature of the work, as now prepared for the 
press, and the authors priticipatty quotedr^fromj thftirthe public expec- 
tation may not be'dissappointed; 

It claims no other merilr than that of a careful compilation from 
Barham, Sloane, Browne, Long, Grainger, Wright, Swartz, the 
Encyclopedia Britannica, Chambers's Cyclopedia, Martyn's Miller's 
Gardeners' Dictionary, (a work of inestimable value, and iiora which 
the greatest assistance h»s been derived in the scientific, part),, besides 
many other valuable books, a^ in its. progress, the di^erning reader 
will easily perceive., - > 

' - i 

As Barham ha$, treated ofj and pointed out, more of the virtues of 

the plants of this islgtQd than^ay other writer, and as the very Hniitcd 

edition which was printed of his Ilortus Americanus has long agd 

been-exhausted, the whole of tiiat book ' will be iound interspersed 

throughout this work. Dr.. Barham came to this island, early in the 

lost century, was a member in assembly about the year 1731, and 

returned to England in the year 1740., He was a.man ofgreat pror 

bity, an able physician,, and a skilful naturalist... He coHected and 

arranged a number of the plants of J^maica^ which he presented to 

3ir Hans Sloane, who acknowledges his obligations to him in several 

oaits of his Natural History, andn^ade some conjmuiiications to th^. 

Koyul. 



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PREFACE, 

Royal Society: he also published a Treatise on the Silk Worm, in the 
year 1719, and, in the same year, a Practical Kitchen Gardener, in two 
octavo volumes, made its appearance, with the name of Barhara as the 
author, which most probably was his composition. Excepting some ex- 
tracts published by Sloane and Long, no part of his Hortus Americanus 
was printed until the year 1794, the manuscript of which was rescued 
from destruction by a ibrtunate accident; having, it i^ asserted, been 
thrown into dn out-house, where it was discovered by a gentleman 
who kn w how to estimate its value. Amore complet^e copy is, in- 
deed, mentioned to be in the jwssession of a gentleman in the parish 
oFSt. Ann, which, if so, it is to be hoped he will no longer withhold 
from the public eye. The compiler would rejoice in the opportunity 
of enriching this publication by any "Extracts he might be favoured 
with from so valuable a manuscript. 

The celebrated naturalist. Sir Hans Sloane, arrived in this island 
in December, 1687, in quality of physician to his grace the Duke of 
Albemarle; but, owing to the death of his grace, his stay here was 
only fifteen months-/ yet, in that short space of time, it has been 
justly observed, he converted his minutes into hours, and brought to- 
gether such a prodigious number of plants as astonished the learned 
in Europe. These plants formed the materials for the greatest part 
6f^is Natuml History of Jamaica, in two folio \x)lumes, the first of 
which was published in the year 1707, and the' second not till eight- 
een years afterwards. " ^ 

From the preface of Dr. Patrick Browne we understand that he 
resided several years in this island, during which time he practised as 
a physician, and that all his leisure hours had been employed in col- 
lecting 



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ii? ? R 15 F AG E{ 

lecting matermls for Ws Civil and Natui-al Hisstory erf* Jan:£aicft. II« 
ivas an expert botanist, conteo^porary with the great Liu: tens, with 
whom he corresponded, who is one of the subscribers to hiiJ book^ 
and who adopted mosjt of his chissifications oi plants into his system* 
His elegaiit work contains a more correct and scientific descriptioa 
of the indigenous plants of tliisJisJand, tliaa any otiier book, previ* 
pusly published. 

The very valuable obsen^ations of Dr. William Wright, formprly 
surgeon-general of this island, on its medicinal plantp, were first a:i(i 
principally published in the London Medical Journal, aodspmehavQ 
been gleaned from his other publications, as well as from his notes u^ 
pon Grainger, who has likewise afforded some useful information^ 
The Synopsis of Mr. Long has also furnished many extracts which 
are of considerable value. 

The learned and indefatigable professor Olob Swartz, lately libra^. 
rian to the King of l^wieden, travelled through mpst of the West-la- 
dia islands, in pursuit of botanical knowledge, between the years 
1783 and 1787^ and has publis^hed thr§e ahle worl«, frequently re- 
Jerred tp> containing an accounjt of the discoveries and improvements 
he ijaade in his favourite sciepce^ In these he has very correctly de- 
scribed and arranged a vast number of the indigenous plants of this^ 
and the other islands, which have been approved^ and his arrange* 
ments adopted, by the most eminent modern botanists.. 

In qiioting from the befoi^-raentioned or other authors, care has 
been taken to avoid repetition as much as possible, and where the 
^eiscriptions W^e nearly the same the best has been preferred.. Refer- 
ences 



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eftces are noade, at the fi:»ot of each article, to every plant of the sam& 
gtnus, or famil}'', whrch may be described in the progress of the 
work, sjs well as to the page aud the plate of every authority that 
jnay be quoted. 

The popular mode of alphabetical arrangement, under familiar 
names, has been adopted, as the most agreeable to readers iu gtoerai; 
but, for the benefit of the more scientific, a classical table will be 
given, at tl>e conclusion of tlxe work^ according to the Linoean sys* 
tern, M'hich has been strictly ailhered to, with references to the page 
^o which each. plaut is described^ Systematic forms certainly yield 
great advantages to the professional student, but they only tend to 
ponfuse and embarrass tjie general reader, though it was as easy, per* 
Imps more so> .to have thrown the whole under a classical ratlier tiiau 
an alphabetical ajrrangement* - It is very difficulty in a work of this 
uature, to steera jcoxuse tliat will please ail. The few- learned, who 
may be judges of the science, will find fault with the least deviation 
from system; , others will be inclined to condemn the work, because 
tQO much of it is occupied by scientific and, to them, unintelligible 
terms. In attempting to please both, it may so haj)pen that neither 
will be satisfied, and it i& probable tlmt a strictly iK)pular form was the 
most likely to succeed. Be this as it may, an attempt nas been made 
to unite both objects. . 

Aware of the great difficulty of such an undertaking, so general 
in its plan, so uncertain in many of its minutite, the compiler feels^^ 
that, with all the attention in his. power, mistakes will be committed;, 
he, nevertheless, trusts to the liberality of tlie public lor indulgence^ 
tathe better informed for correction: and let it be remembereu, tliat 

his 



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tC r R E F A C R 

his main object is to rouse attention to so interesting a subject, and 
tliereby create a spirit of enquiry. To attain this purp^jse, no modd 
of publication can be better calculated tban that of distinct numbers 
at distant intervals; and, to afford every opportunity of communica- 
tion, either for improvement or correction, the articles to be contain- 
ed in each succeeding number, with occasional qumes, will be euu* 
merated on the cover of the one previously published. 

Should the attempt, thus ushered before tTie public, be wcH stiji- 
ported, it is not easy to anticipate the beneficial consequences that 
may arise therefrom; and it is presumed that no one will be so selfish 
as to coi>ceal from his fellow-creatures any 4iseful information, con* 
cerning the plants of this island, while so ready a channel is open 
for its conveyance. No object can be more laudable than that of 
contributing towards the imjirovement of the human understanding, 
or of extending the common stock of useful knowledge, and thereby 
increasing the general comforts of mankitid. 

Of all the branches of science none is of more importance or of 
more universal utility, none more pleasing to the student, than bota- 
ny,* and none where the materials of study are so easily procured ; 



♦ Mr. Smilh, ihe president of the Liimean Society, very justly observes, m his Introduclk^n to 
Botany, that to medical gciuletnen a knowledge of that science is nulid|)eii!>ub]y mcessary, and 
i^bould form an essential part of their educaiion. The fallowing relauoii, extracted iwm Ciiriis* 
Lectures on Botan)-, evinces the necessity, and cannot be loo gem rally known; it was commu- 
nicated to-Mr. Curtis, by Mr. Lowe, sur^nn at Pre«t«n, in the Itdlowin^ words: 

" On Thursday the 3th of June Mr. Fnckletou, a healihy strong man, about thirty-five years 
of age, a publican in the town, eat a handful of fools parsley, with m^arly the same quHUiiiy of 
young leltuce, about one o'clock at notm ; in ab<^ut ton minutes he was nlFrcled with a pain aad 
Laidncss m bis stomach and bowels^ attended with a rumbling. He walked out, into the iiilds, 

bu4 



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.PREFACE- Tir 

.fer the ddightful verdure of the fields is continually before our eyc% 
continually inviting the researches oi the curious naturalist^ — 



Who, when young Spring protrudes the bursting gems, 

Marks the first bud> and sucks the healthful gale 

Into his freabenM soul ; her genial hours 

He full enjoys ; and not a beauty blows, 

And not an opening blossom breathes, in vain. 

Thomson. 



There is not a planter in the island but has some leisure time to culi 
tivate this agreeable study; and his very hours of business will afi 'rd 

him 

bnt^was sewd with such languor, wcarinws, and weakness, that it was with diffictilfy he nop- 
porteil himself till he got home ; he wa^i much troubled with guidineris in \m hta :, his^ision uas 
confused, and sometimes objixts appeared doubK' : nt «MVin o'clock he look an rustic, w.irU 
bn^u^ht up, as he supposes, all thv fools parsley he had eaten, but not any of the Ictiuce ; i: it* 
coiu-iiU^rahly nlieved him from the uneasy sinsations in his-howets, but the oilKr symptoms ci-n* 
tinued, ami-he passed a n'stless night. Next day he had much pain in hit head uiid ey<'M, which 
last were inflamed and bloodbhot: be had ditlertnt cireumscnbed swellings i4i hi^ lae«> which u« re 
painful and inilamcd, but they weiv iransieni, and tl( w trom place to place ; thi^ mghi he took a 
powder which made him l^Wi at profusely. ()ji Sa»urrfay hi* eye* were hijily iuthiincd, p.utiiul, 
and entirely do^k-d by the surrounding inriinnn.;iion ; thi^i day he \\m bled, which ^ave hiiu muUi 
ease in his h( ad and eye*. From this tune until Moi)d;iy he continued to gi*t better; hui h:<d,. 
even then, pain, Iwtii, and intlammntit»n in his -eyes, with ce<leinaiou> sweilin^vot his chetks ; Ins 
remaining symptoms wi'iitofl" gradually, amlhe is now well. He had btwi t«»ld that the plaui In5 
^iiacleiUon was hemlock ; to be-&a(i>H.'d I acctmipanied him into the ganhn whtre he ha^l withered 
ihep^int-, anti'4()und it to he (tthnsa cynftpiumy or loob pai^hy. 'Iti be convinced o| this b<y' iid 
adoiihr, I compared a <»peciinrii of it ^%ith the ti^ure and tie^criptian ol the plant in the iiora 
Londintiiais, wi^ii which ^1 iound ilcAactly to corK'spondt" 

** Indop'-nlrnt of tlip singular sattsfaciion (continues Mr. Smith) which Mr. Lnwe must feel 
fn^»m knowing iho plant in cpieslion, an advantage hab aiisai to the public ; ihe p4<iy>noUb qualify 
r)f the fools parsley is ascertained,, which before was only suspected. '1 inx\ and a taste for science, 
which of lui'? yeai-s have made such rapid alvances, and such material iiuprovenunus in every 
brunch of medicine; which has imroduced a raiional practice, fotiuiM on an imimate knowleriiro- 
of the animal otconomy, an<l an uccnnrfe history of di^easts; which has n&cutd bu^eiy fn-in liic 
hands of preien<icrs, and taught mankind lf» rep<»se a contidence in liiose only v»ho have laud«illy 
•'\rrtcd themselves in acquiring anatomical knowledge; which has redeemed chemistry lnm\ em- 
pirics, and maJe it iubhervient to the pi.ictlce of ph) ic ; will, it is presumed, in u few y<ai5| 
p^ace botany in a more favourable piiat of >iew, and cause its utility to be more generally nc* 
ltt.ow]cd;;edr'- 



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^m P R E F A C l. 

him the means of improving his knowledge. To those whose bct^ 
pations confine them to town^ the pleasures of a ride or a walk wiii 
be much enhanced by some acquaintance with the surrounding ob- 
jects: — besides the generad landscape, ti^ir minds would be amused 
by the indescribable beauties of nature in her mintitest recesses, and 
by studying huw to reap the fruits of the wonderful vegetable trea- 
sures ^vhich the bounteous baud of the Ahnighty has so abundantly 
scattered around. Should so laudable a spirit of enquiry be aroused, 
the compiler will rejoice in having undertaken the humble office of 
pioneer to Jamaica botany, and hope to see, at no distant period, a 
superstructure raised, on the materials he has selected, that will be a 
lasting memorial of the good taste.and discrimination of this cominiik 
nity. 



HORTUf 



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i* 



HQSTUS JAMAICENSIS. 



Acacia Br AcaOee, — see CashaW. 
Acacia, false, -t-^^^Robinia. 



IfoEngUskNime. At3ALYP&A. 

Class 2\f 0RI>eR'9 — Moiuecia inoiiodelphuu Natural tMiOER—7V/Vocrifi 

THE generic name of tbis plant is dericedfrom a Greek word, which signifies ^not 
pleasant to handle.* 

Cenbric characters. — IVfale calyx three or four leaved; no corolla; stamina eight 
' to sixteen : Female calyx, three leaved ; no corolla ; styles three ; capsules three- 

. grained and three-celled ; seeds solitary. There are fourteen species, seven of* 

^which are known to be natives of Jamaica, viz« 

1. reptans. 

'Urtrca minor iners spicata folio suhrottmdc tevraio fmdti tricocco^ 
Slooneyjam. v. 1, p. 123, t. 82. f . 3* 

Spikes terminating erect, floweFS mixedi females lower ; involucres cordate^ 
serrate; males leaSess; leaves ovate-serrate ; stem creeping. 

This plant is described by Sloane ras having a large brown root, sending out small 
^ems alonpr the surfaice of the earth ; the leaves small, without order, with short foot- 
stalks, round, smooth, and serrated. 'The flowers come out in spikes terminal erect, 
and are piirple" intermixed with white ones, succeeded by capsules, which become red 
and rough on the outside, ^In each of these are tiK'ce roundish seeds, every one'co« 
<Tered.with a membrane. 

2. vincmiCA. 

iHuvtUiorj Jhliis tordaioxrenaiisj spicis mi^iisi ai^rihtis et Urminaii^ 
bus. Browne, p. 346, t. 36, f. 1. 

'Female involucres lieart-sbaped. gashed; leaves ovate-lanceolate, longer than 
the pctiple. 
This is a small tM'iggy shrub, arfdom exceeding four of five £iet in.keight, the 
t^teavesandAowecs are onichiike these of pelhtory df. tbe.waUt 

B ^ ' ' 3; VIRCATA 



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t HORTUS JAMAICENSIS achanu 

3. VIRGATA. 

Erecta vir^ultosa^ foUis ovato acuminatis aique crenatis^ spicis uniform 
mibUsnlaribus^ Browne, p. 346, t. 36, f. 2. 

Female involucres heart-shaped, serrale ; * mai^^piBesf cU^iiTc^,* f$ked ; leaves 
Iance«ovate ^ ^ A % . , >, 

Tliis grows in great plenty in Jamaica. Its leaves resemble those of the annual net« 
tie and sting full as much when touched. 

4. TOMENTOSA, 

Female spikes terminating solitary; involucres man j-parted ; males erect*} . 
leaves ovate-lanceolate ; serrate scabrous, villous-tomcntose underneath. . 

5. ANGUSTIFOLIA. . 

Female flowers sub-sessile terminating, involucres si^rrate; males in spikes ;i 
leaves linear serrate. 

6, SCABROSA. 

Femafe spikes whfa cordate.^ashed involucres : leaves obion^-lanceolate serrate 
scabrous* 

7. BETULiEFOLIA. 

Female flowers axillary sessile, involucres cordate crenate; males in spikes:^ 
leaves roundish, crenate, smooth. ' ' 

The above plants are easily propagated from their seeds, but are possessed of na^ 
ieauty. The laiit four species are from Swartz's Prodromus. 



No English Name. ACHANIA; 

Cl. 16, OH. 6 — Monodciphia polyandh'a. Nat. or. — Columni/emr.' 

' Tlie name is derived from a Greek' word, signifying / not to open,' as the •corolla - 
idoes not open. 

Gen. char. — Calyx, double, outer many-leaved,, inner one-leafed; the corolla, 
subclavate,. convoluted, petals five; berry sub-globular, fleshy, five-celled, five- 
seeded 'y seeds solitary, . convex on one side, angular on the other.. There are 
three species, aQ natives of Jamaica. 

1. MALVAVISCUS. 

Frutescensy foliis angiildtis^ carddio acuminatUy crenaiis ; petalis ab 
uM latere auriiu. Browne, p. 284. 

Leaves somewhat scabrous, acuminate, leaflets of the outer calyx erect. 

This plant ii named scarlet achania, or bastgird hibiscus ;* it is common in the woods, 
but seldom seen in the lowlands. The stem is arboreous, about ten feet high, and is 
branched. Leaves |»etioled, cordate, crenate, tomentose, sometimes slightly three or 
five lobed, the midale lobe' most produced.' Stipules bristle. shaped, smail^ ^witbering^. ' 
Flowers axillary, soUtary, on villous peduncles shorter than the petiole. Outer caiyx 

'^ eighu. 



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^^itemEver.: HORTUS JAMA1CENSI9. S 

eiglit4eeYe(^ tke leaflets coalesceing at the base ; inner marked with ten streaks, five- 
,loothed at the tip. Corolla and tube scarlet, the latter twisted into a spiral, upright, 
V&^Urn^^ .Stigmas hisped, blackish. . • 

.2. MOLIJS. 

^ * . - 1 L^ives tamentose, leaflets of the onter calyx spreading. ! 

This is called the woo/Zy trtAflTwir. Thebrancnes, petioles, and leaves, ere covered 
with a very thick nap. The leaves are sometimes coraatj-ovate acuminate, and some- 
times angular, slightlj three-lobed. 

Leaves hairy, obtuse, acute. Sw. Pr, p. 102, . . v^^ 

The hairy acha?na has a very different appearance from the two formei. It is shrub- 
t)y, as they are, but the stem and branches are smaller, tiunner, and not downy. The 
leaves arenairy, cordate-ovate, with broad irregular serratures about the edge ; some 
of them blunt and eveij )rctus&, but others acute. .The stipules are subulate. The leaf- 
lets of the outer calyx^ spread out towards the end and spatulate. The llow^^s are small, 
convolute, -and closed. -These plants may be propagated bj- cuttings or seeds. 



*' ; ACHIMENE5. . COLUMNEA. 

^Cl. 14,OR^2; — iDidiptamif^wigiospermia, Nat. or. — Personktie. : 

The name columnea was given by Plumier, in' honour of Fabius Columna, or Co- 
lonna, of Italy. . , , t 

. ■ Oenv CHAR-^^Calyx a large one-leafed pertanthnm, five-parted ; corolla large, 

oni-petaie^ruigeftt, gaping, tubular, ^pper lip three-parted, middle part vaivlted, 

. emarginate ; the stamina in the upper lip ; anthers connected.; eermen roundish ; 

capsule one or two;.ceUed f j^ed&Aumerousi small, nestling. Ihere i»^'six spc* 

, cies, thr^e 9f wl^i<jh ace found inthis island. ^ « 

fc • - ' ' 1. HIRSUTA. 

'Itapunciilus friitkosvsy foliis oblongis, inkgri$i villosiSf ex advcrso sir 

- " iis^ fore purpitre(hvill6S0. Sloane, v. 1, p. 157, t. 100, f. 1. Ma^ 

joi\ herbaceay siibhirsuta^ oblique assurgeiiSy K'c. Browne, p. 270, 
t. 30, f. 3. .; : . /. .'J 

. \ I rficave^-ovate^ acuminate, serrate, ron^ly hairy on the upper surfece, calycine 
leaflets tootli-lettjed lanceolate ; .th^y and the corollas hirsute, the upper lip 
bifid. 

The larger hairy ach imenes. This beautiful vegetable i$«a natrve of jhe cooler moun • 
tj^ins, and most* commonly met with in the woods of .New Liguanea and St. Ann's. It 
is a very succulent plant,, and ffrowsiuxuriantly in •qvery riph.and shady soil ; . throwing 
its branches frequently to the height of foiu* or five feet,; and higher, wheo supported 
by some nei^libouVing shrub or stump. Yhe stem is pretty thick, and thq leaves op* 
posite and alternately larger. The flowers are large, beautifully variegated, and hairy 
pi the outside, Uke die oUier parts of tlie plant. The divisions of the cup are of a sin- 

B 2 gular 



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?4t .«01tTUS JAMAICENSia MnRitmW^ 

- gularstrocture, and pmnated on the stdes^ someirbat like those of die^gahlMorose. . Tte 
whole plant hasan uncommon^, but beautifuly.appearancse, and deservea to be cuteiTaui4 
in all nower gardens in the cooler parts of. the island^ wbece it is laostiikttly ta lhiiva«L 

2; HISPIDA. 

Leaves ovate^ obtus^. toodi-ietted, htspidJiirsnt^ leaflets. (>£.th&'Cil£&laaceOif 
late,, entire^ hairy, stem hairy rugged* -J^. Pr, 

• S. RtTTILANS 

Leaves ovate Janceolate, villose, denticulate, coloured underneath; divisioni^ 
of th^ calyx jagged, villous; corolla villose^ upper iip two^pacted*. SwL.Pti^ 

^ese plants are propagj^ted from seeds. 



No English Namt^ AfCHYRANTtlES: - 

CIk 5, oit. I. — Pcnttmdriamorwgynia Nasf^ oit. Miscellanea'.. 

This g^nus takes its name from two Greek word^,. Unifying chaff and a flower; 

Gen. char. — Calyx a xlouble periianthium, outer three*leaved persistent^ inner 
five-leaved also persistent; no corolla or scarcely perceptible ; nectarium five«^ 
valved, surrounding the gemiien, bearded at the top, conca\fe,.and falling off; the 
perianlhkim is a Fcmndi^ one-oelied capsule ; the seed^gle and: ObUmg. The. 
wUowing species are natives of Jamaica :. 

IV ASPERAU 

jtmonmiHus sicnfys spieaPUs raiice permni' iocame. Sloane, y^ I^ pt 
r42. Cauk g€miul€d0 cFectDyfolii^ovMistppositUr &C Bcowne^^ 
p. 180; 
8lcm shrubby erect|: cafyir rcffex, pressed to the spike« • 
Tt rises three or four feet- high, by a square jointed stalk', opposite branAes'; the^ 
leaves are dark green, woolly on both sides, oblonpr^ smooth, pointed. The fiowen^ 
are m spikes at the end of the branches, appearing first like -short raddish Rairs, after 
which follow rough, prickly^ green, reflected^, capsules, containing, £hre seeds, oblong;^ 
teddish. It grows in ditches. . 

2. AETissnrA:.. 
Foliif <ru4itis^lfldHius spicaiisy appey^tiilis Sitetis. BttMme^ rtb^ Bli-^ 
tarn album' majus scandens^ Sioane,, v, r, p. 143. 
Stem sufiruticose scandent, panicles terminating axillary,, branched. 

* This has a green stalk as Aick as ones thumb,, supported By shrubs and trees, oi^i 
which it leans, grows five or six feet high, putting out here and there branches, hav- 
ing leaves aboutr an inch and a half*s distance, on inch-long footstalks,, three inches 
long and half as broad. The leaves are ovate, acute,, smooth » soft:, of a dark green co- 
lour, six inches long. The flowers grow in spikes, of a pale green or herbaceous co- 
lour, a great many together. The seminal vessels or. husks brcuL borizontolly, and 

contaixtv 



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-JBWAKTHBEA tTORTUE lAfflAlCENSlR .^ 

'Contain small black, rinmae, compresaed, kidney-shaped, seeds. It grotvs on tiio 
4iafiks of the Rio-Cobre, and on the road to Passage-»Fort, very pleatifuUy.-r-^/^an^. 

Browne caUs this, basuurd hoop-mthe. These piants-ace ndaed from the ^eeds, aad 
grow commonly among low bushes. 



No English Name. ACIDOTON. 

^ Cu2\f o»^ 7 ^r^Mowedapoh/findria. 

CrBN. CHAir. — ^Male calyx five-leaved, leaves ovate-lanoeoiate, reflex ; no corollaj^ 
stamina numerous, placed on a globular receptacle : Female calyx six*lea^ed y 
leaflets linear, lanceolate, spreading ; no corolla ; style short, germen three-cleft ;.. 
capsule three-grained, hirsute, tliree-^ceUed ; seeds solita]7> ovate^ There is oqly 
one species, described as follows 4>y Sloane t • 

Urticatiren^arboreayfoliisMongis^iangustis^ Sloane, v. 1, p. 124^. 
t. 83, f. 1. 
This shrub rises eight or nine feet hrgh.bya round straight woody trunk, of the big- 
ness of ones finger, co'i'ered mth a smooth, brownish bail. The leaves come out to- 
iiards the top alternately, they are narrow, lanceolate^ three or four inches long, and 
a quarter •f an inch brcotd,. .with often a tooth near the top ; of a dai^ green colour^ 
several ribs on the under side, and on the surface and edges many long small prickles^ 
wiuckare said to be very burning* . The petioles are short and ribbecL 
' "^ . ' See Adeua. 



ACTSANnrCRAr rhexia acisanthera. 

Cl. 8, OR. I. — Octandria vionogipnai Nat. or. Cafycanthemit. 

The generic name is derived from^ GreA word, signifying to break or burst. 

Cttf. CKAR.^^Cafyx '* one«*le«fed, ' £E»Bvcleft> pevmafient; cocoUa. four petals 
roundish and inserted into the ailyx, spreading; stamina^ filiform,. anthers oeclin* 
ing; germen- roundish/ crowning the calyx; style short, simple^ dcclinin|^ f 
capsule roundish, fbur-<^Ued, within the belly of the calyx ; seeds Dumerous, 
roundish. There aiC'thkteen 3peoies> oj^y three of which have been discprcred 
in Jjtamaica^ viz. -■■ 

1. ACISANTHERA. 

JSrectA ramosa^ramulis^^quadratis^ folUs tvinei'viis evata crenatisy 0ppo^ 
$Uis ;,Jioribus lingular ibusud alas alternas. Browne, 217, t 22^fc i. 
Flowe^sraltemate,^ axillary, pendimded,. five-cleft. 

This plant grows in the pastures eastward of Liuidasy.and seldom riB^ above fourteen 
«r sixteen inches in-height. The stem is pretty firm and square, iind emits a gooii 
nany square branches towards the top f the leaves are small,, three nerved,^ovate, cre- 
mate,, and opposite. The flowers spiing singly fi-otn the akemate axils or bosoms of 
Ihe kaires. The calyx is deeply five-cleft at the 0U)uth» Fctab five^ obovatCi inserted 
• - into- 



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r« H0RTU8 JAMAICENSIR AWim 

into. the throat'of the calyx. Filaments ten, Aorter than the corolla, Antliers oblongs 
safygitate, and sii';.iiv ] ^t^^ versatile. Germ crowned with the calyx. Style .{sUq^ 
. ^tigma sharp. . Capiu.c tvvo-.ceUed, filled with two little placentas. — Browne^ 

2. LEUCAxNTHA. - ^ 

Leaves opposite, cartilaginoua-tooth-l^tted, coriaceous, shining, branchleU 
four-cornered ; flowers terminating- ten-stamened. — Sw, Pro. 61. 

3. PURPUREA. 

Leaves opposite tooth-letted, coriaceous, branchlets round, flowers axillary. ten-» 
BtamencNci. — 4$*:^. Pro. 61. 

The stamens in some plants of this genus are inconstant, from seren to twelve, and 
there is a plain alliance between it and osbeckia and melastoma. The different species 
©re propagated -by seeds. 

AcHROSTicuM — See Ferns. 
^.Adam'3 Needle — See Dagger Plant. 



No English Name. . ADELIA. 

Cl. 22, OR. 11. — Dicccia monodelphia. Nat.-OR. Tricocca. 
The name is from a Greek word, signifying obscure. 

Gen. char. — Male calyx one-leafed three parted, leaflets oblong curved back; 
no corolla ; the stamina consist of many capillary filaments, the length of the caly^, 
united into a cylinder at tlie bas^; the anthers roundish : The female calyx is five- 
parted ; no corolla; pistillum a roundish germen; styles three, very short 
and divaricated; the stigmaU torn ; the pcrianthium a three-grained, roundish, 
three-celled, capsule ; seeds sohtory and roundish. There are three species, ^ 
i natives of Jamaica : 

Ir BERNARJ)rA. 

Fruticosoy foliH4omentosis watis se^TotU aheiiAis. Browne, 36 U 
Leaves oblong tomentose, serrate. 
Thfe Browne calls the shrubby bernardia with villous leaves. 

2. ricinella. 
Fmticosay foliis subrotundis . nitidis confertis Jloribus nsscfciatis. 
Browne, 361. 
r Leaves oblong-ovate, quite entire. 
The smooth leaved bernardia has slender flower stalks, and is common in all the low- 
iands about Kingston, it rises to the Jieight of eight or ten feet. — Brovme. 

-Z. ACIDOTON. 

- Friitescens acculeatim et.diffusiim, ramtdis gvacilihus teretibus^foliola 
- conjertisjlore unico vel itltcro associatis. " Browne, 355. ^ 

Branches flexuose, spines gemmaceous. 



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m^vh HORTUS JAMAIC'ENSIS. ' ^ 

' The sviatl shruhhy acidoton is pretty common in the savannas about New-Greenwich, 
ithere it seldom rises above four feet in height. The brancties are very slender and 
flexite, and the leaves small and delicate, and shoot with the flowers early in April or 
Way. The whdle plant has a good dedl of the appearance of a young eb6ny. — Browne. 
These plants are nearly alUed to the croton. Dr. Houston constituted a genus of the 
two first by the title of bernardia, m honour of Dr. Bernaid deJu^sieu. Tiiey are pro- 
pagated from seeds. 



No English Name. ADENANTHERA. 



'"o 



Cu, 10, OR. 1. — Decandria^umogynia, Nat. or, — Lomentace^. 

This name is derived from two Greek words, signifying a glandulous anther. 

• Gen. CHAR.-^Calyx small, one-leafed, five-toothed; corolla five-petalled, bell- 
shaped ; stamina shorter than the corolla ; anthers roundish, incumbent, bearing 
a globose gland at the outer tip ; germen oblong and gibbous below ; style subu- 
late and the length of the stamina*; stigma simple ; the pericarpium a long conif' 
fressed membranaceous legumen ; seeds many, round, remote. This is an East-^ 
ndiatree, of which three species are known, the most remarkable is noticed in • 
the Hortus Eastensis as having been introduced into that garden by Mr. Wiles, in 
the year 1802. The following account of itis quoted fromGaertner and Forster, in 
Dr. Martyn*s dictionary : - 

PAVONINA. 

Leaves smooth on botb sides. 

A tree with prodigious decompound or doubly pinnate leaves, leaflets ovjtfe, obtuse, 
quite entire, on very short petioles, sometia>es alternate, sometimes opposite. Panicle 
of simple thick- racemes, with the floscules on equal pedicels. Flowers coaiparativelv 
very small, and yellow. Le^me nearly a foot ni length, repand at the sutures ani 
obscurely torulose at the seeds, smooth, one-celled, two-valved. The valves after they 
open are loosely and spirally twisted. Seeds from eight to twelve, obovate-roundedy 
convexly lens-shaped, nighly polished, of a vivid scarlet colour, with a circular strefak 
in the middle on each side. This is one of the largest trees in the East-Indies, and the 
timber is in common use, on account of its solidity. It flowers in September, beais 
fruit at the beginning and end of the year, and is never without leaves. The duration 
is two hundred years. The natives use the powder of the leaf in their ceremonies. The 
seeds, besides being eaten by the common people, are of great use to the jewellers 
and goldsmiths, on account of their equality, for weights, each of tliem weighing four 

gains : They also make a cement, by beating them up with water and borax. Of the 
ikised leaves they make a drink which tliey esteem- good against pains of the loins. 



ADRUE. CYPERUS. 

Cl. 3, OR. 1. — Triandria mvnogt^nia. Nat. or. — Calamaria. 
Gek;^ char. — ^The glumes are cbafly, imbricate in two rows;,scales oyate^ keeled, 8at« 

iodccted^ 



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6^ HORTUS JAMAICENSm ttonm 

indoctcdt soparattng the flowers; no corolla; stamina threCi short, ftnthers ob^^ 
long and furrowed ; germen small ; style loho" ; stigmas three capillary : Seed 
single, three-sided, acuminate, destitute of villus. There are many species erf* 
this genus, £or which see s£DG£Sj the specific name of adrue or jointed stalked: 
cyperust^ 

ARTICULATUS. 

Juncus cyperoides creherrime geniculatus^ mtdiilldfarcius^ aquaticuff' 
radice ruftra^ tubei^sa^ cdorqta. Sloane, v. 1, p. 121, t. ai, ft I. 
This rush has a tuberous, red, knobbed root, having a very grateful smell, like that 
.of calamus aromaticus, covered with brown withered leaves,, as well as the under part 
of the stalk, like other rushes, and having several red strinesgoing from the root of one 
to that of another. The stalk is round, green, three feet high, smooth, having, within 
it very strong and frequent transverse, partitions or membranes, making it jointed witli 
a pith between. At tne top stand several brown chaffy panicles, like those of cyperus 
grasses, the small, long, spikes, being made up of several reddish scales, lying over 
another on the same footstalks, all coming from the rushes top, as -from a common 
centre. This having a very grateful scented roof, I question not^but that it may be very 
successfully used in place of cafnmuswnmaticus,^^ Sioane also mentions another plant, 
juncus^ cyperoides^ culmo covipresso striafo^ radice odorata tuberosa, capitulo' roHindo 
compaclOy a varjety of the adrue^ which he received from the Bay of .Honduras ; and 
he was informed it grew lipon the sand pQat Truxillp, . wl^re the Indians used it as a 
cure for the belly-ache. — Sloane. 

The roots arc esteemed cordial, diuretic, and cephalic, serviceable in thd first stages 
- of the dropsy, resisters of poison, and ^xpellers of wind. They ^re ill-scent^ 
' breaths, $uid are good in nephritic (lisoi:ders and eolips. 

The-Toots, aromatic and stimulant, may be used in the pk^e^f Virginian snake root. 
Infusion good in voipitings, fI^xes, &c.->— 7)flr72f ^r, p. 387. 

The following account of the virtues of the adme or anti-emetic grass is from the ma- 
< nuscript of Mr. Robert Coi;ian, member of the royal college of physicians inXondon : 
** The discovery. of its surprising properties was made by Dr. Howell of Jfamaica, in 
cheqkipg and restraining bbck vomit in yellow fever. A strong decoction or infusion 
of this plant is as viuch a specific in resiramiiig vomifing in ycUczp/everj a^ the Peru^ 
. vfan hark in cure, rf remittents, hit gives o.utits vii:tuesin water in decoctiop, or warm 
infusion, tobe taken when coid,. when it assumes the colour of Madeira wine. It grows 
by rivers and marshy lands, rises tw^^an^ a lialf feet higbf resembles the sedge or bull- 
rush, thejcaf like grass or ^edge of a large coarse kind, and has a ridge on the back^ 
which, when dry, ci^tcks into two parts. I'The roots iire much like the serpen taria or 
snake root, .fibrous, bushy, and matted. The^sceds are like grass, but placed in little 
bushes or clusters at the top of the stalk. The first tea-cupful of the decoction represses 
the vomiting, and the second or third cqres. .Sy experiments made on the use of the 
. differei*. parts of the plant, it is 6mnd thatthe strongest is made by Iwiling the whole 
jilant, cut or sliced, root3, seeds, leaves, and stem, altogether. JThe quantity two 
ixajidfuls in>Aliree pints boiled to the evapoi;ation of.<>ne^thir4^^ ' 

The 



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iMCS« HOKTUS JAMAICENSIS. » 

The efficacy of the adrue decoction in repressing continued vomiting ^^as lately ex- 
perienced by a gentleman in Spanish-Town. There are several species of the cyperus, 
not unlike the i^ue, which may be mistaken for it ; and it i$ worthy of experiment to 
ascertain whether these other kinds possess the same virtues. 

See Sedges. 

Aeschynomene — See Bastard Sens;itjve.. 
Agrimony — ^ecHEMPAoRiMONY. 
AizooN — See Samphire. 



AKEE. Genus doublfiiK 

Cl. 8, DR.. 1. — Oetandria monogynia. 

This plant was brought to Jamaica in a dave ship from tiie coast of Africa^, and, h^v^* 
ing thriven well, has been generally propagated, and succeeds in most parts of the island. 
Tlie late Dr. Broughton described it particularly in tbe>Hcrrtus Eastensis,. from which 
the following characters are taken : 
Gen. char.: — Calyx five-leaved and inferior, with coircave,^ acute, ovate, smdl 
leaves, persistent and hairy ; corolla five-petaled, oblong-lanceolated, acute,^ hairy, 
bent at the base, and pressed to the receptacle^ alternate with the calyx, and longer ; 
stamina eight short filaments, hairy, inserted i^ the bskse of the glandulous recept- 
acle of the gerraen ; anthers (Mong^ disposed in an orb, and almost of the same 
length, round the germen ; gprmen sub-ovate^ three* sided and hairy; the 
8^B the length of the germen, cylindrical and hairy ; the stigma obtuse ; peri- 
carpium, a fleshy capsule, (d)long, obtuse on both sides, triangular, trilocolar, 
trivdved, and ^ping ix*oix^tbe ap^x ; semina^ three, orbicular, and glossy, having 
a rising appendice. 

This tree often rises to the height of fifty' feet. The trtmi is covered with a rou^b,.- 
somewhat brown, baric, hath many Long, thick, irregular branches, the lower niclinmg 
to the earth. The leaves are pinnated, ovate, lanceolated, full of veins, entire, op- 
posite, smooth, and bright above, about a span long,' four or five on each side, with 
diort turgid footiitalks. The bnuKdies are simply ^pcead, the twigs have many flowers, 
with each its stalks, s{Hke fashion.^ --^ The flowers ase small, white, and scentless. The 
fruit is as large as a goose's ^g, qfia yeUow, red, orange, or mixed, colour. The seeds 
are three, bkck, a&large as anutmee^ oner of which is often abortive. To each seed 
^rows a white substance, exceeding me.«*e oftheseed, of the eonsistence of beef fat, 
and which, gently boiled with water^ scaree differs from marrow. This, by the inha« 
)i>itants of Guinea, .is nerved at table alone of mixed with brotji or pottage. ^ 

The delicacy oithe white lobes of thi^finiit when fried oi; boiled^ and eatas marrow,, 
or sweet'breadsy or in soups, rendenr-it well worthy of cultivation. It thrives best in 
the lowlsmds. In the mountains it aelddm bears fruit, and the north winds are ex^tremely 
injurious to it. If the tops be blasted, or broken off it throws out new and vigorous, 
slioots from tlie root and stem.- When in bearing it has a most beautiful appearance 
from the contrast -of colour in the different parts of tiie fiructification. This plant is. 
easily propagati^d from tho seeds* 

€ ALDER; 



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\0 HORTUS JAMAICENSia ^LdeU 

ALDER OR BUTTON TREE. CONOCARPUS. 

Cl. 5, OR. 1. — rentandriamonogynia. Nat. or. — Aggregate, 
This takes its name from two words, signifying confe-fiuited. 

Gen. char. — Calyx one-leafed, very small, five-parted ; corolla five-petalled, con- 
verging, or none; stamina five or ten, subulate, erect, anthers globose ; germen 
large, style short ; no pericarpium ; seeds solitary, obovate, with a membranace- 
ous thick margin, on each side. The flowers are aggregate. There are tliree 
species, two of which are natives of Jamaica. 

1. ERECTA, 

Alnifi^ctUy laurifoUa arbor maritima. Sloano, v. 2, p. 18, t. 161, 
f. 5. Foliu oblongis^ petiolis brevibus^ Jhribus in caput coHicum 
collectis. Browne, p. 159. 

This tree grows erect, nearly thirty feet ; with lanceolate leaves, which are grea^ 
tor the touch. Tlie younger branches are an^lar. It is esteemed a good fire-wood. 
Sloane describes it as follows : *' It has a trunk as thick as oneN thigh, having a smooth 
whitish or grey bark. The leaves are almost oval, only somewhat broader towards their 
end ; towards the tops of the branches, among the flowers, they are narrow and pointed, 
of a yellowish green colour. 7^he tops of the twigs are branrhed, sustaining at first 
some small roundish heads, no bigger than those of pins, growing larger, hairy, downy, 
ormuscose, of a yellowish green or red colour. They augment to so many round red 
balls, like alder cones or buttons, sticking to the branch by a quarter of an inch long 
footstalk, each of which is made up of a great many reddish cornered seeds, sticking 
on a fungous matter on its outside, and regarding its centre, so that by their means it 
is rough or echinated. It grows near the sea-side by Passage-Fort and Old- Harbour, 
Stmong the mangroves. . Butterflies swarm very much about this tree.'* 

2. RACEMOSA. 

Manglefoliis ellipticis ex adverso nascent ibus. Sloane, v. 2, p. G6,i t. 
187,f. I. Foliis ellipticO'Ovaf is, petiolis biglandulatiSf raceynis laxiSf 
fructibus sejunctis. Browne, 159. 

Leaves lanceolate-ovate bluntish ; fruits segregate. 

This is a lofty and branching tree, growing from thirty to forty feet high, sometimes 
tlinding into three or four trunks, close to the ground. The younger branches are 
shining, red, and opposite. Leaves quite entire, shining, thickisn, greasy to the touch, 
deep green, opposite, three inches long, on a red petiole, with two glands at the top 
of it. Racemes simple, terminating, commonly by threes. The flowers' are small and 
Fpssile, -and have a slight not unpleasant smell. The petals are whitish. Stamens ten, 
five alternately shorter, probably sometimes overlooked ; (hence Browne only attributes 
five stamens to the flower). The seed inclosed within a coriaceous pericarp, is composed 
of two greenish ovate lamellfe, wrapped up into a round body, and involved in a very 
thin membrane. The lameHse in the base of the pericarp become a round obtuse, shin- 
ing l)ody, forming the axis of the seed, destined to put forth the roots : for, when the 
capsule falls to the ground, it penetrates the crowned apex, and, when the fibres take 
possession of the soil, it constitutes the rudimejitof the future trunk ; then the lamellae 
increasing in bulk, burst the cap9ule, and become th« radical leaves. Sometimes there 

are 



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MUAGMTOH HORTUS JAMAICENSia ll 

are two seeds inclosed in the same pericarp. From the above description it appears 
that this tree, although it agrees in many respect*?, yet differs very mucn from the lor- 
mer species. The Spaniards call it tnanglc bobcy or foolish mangle. SiOane calls it 
the white mangrove. 

These trees have no great beauty. They grow in most of the sandy bays and marshes- 
fibout the is^nd, and may be propagated by seeds, slips, or cuttmgs. Tne fruit la 
drying, binding, and heaimg ; and the bark tans leather well. 

Au-iiea;.— *y^e Self-heal. 



ALLIGATOR APPLE OR CORKWOOD ANNONA 

Cl.. 13, OR. 7. — Poli/andria polygi/nia. Nat. on.^^Ccadunat^. 

Tliis plant has also been termed the shining leaved custard apple. The name of the ge« 
nus can boast of no learned derivation, Linneus having adopted it from an American term 
ibr a mess, on account of the fruit of some of the species being so called by the natives. 

Gen. CKAR.-rCalyx a small three-leaved perianthiiim ; corolla six- petalled, cordate, 
and sessile, the three alternate interior ones less ; the stamina have scarcely any fila^ 
ments, the anthers numerous and placed on the receptacle ; germen roundish, and 
placed on a roundish receptacle, no styles ; numerous obtuse stigmas covering the 

. whole germ ; the pericarpiuma larffe roundish berry, one-celled, with a scaly bark ; 
seeds many, hard, ovate-oblong,, placed in a ring, nestling. There are several spe- 
oie& indigenous to this island, referred to below ^ the alligator apple is the 

PALUSTRIS. 

Annona aquatica foliis laurinis atravirentlbuSj fructu minore conoide 
liiteoj cort ice glabra in areolas distincto, Sloane. v 2, p. ie>9, t. 228, . 
f. I. Uliginosa^ fcliis nitidis ovatisy fructibtis arcoiatus odoratis^ 
Browne, 256. 

Leaves oblong, rather obtuse, smooth ; fruits areolate. 
Tliis tree rises thirty or forty feet, the trunk as thick as one*a middle ; the leaves are 
shaped like those of the bay, smooth, dark oreen, and hard. The fruit is as big as 
one's fist, turbinated like a sour sop, hanging hy an inch-long foot-stalk, whicit brings 
out some of the pulp with it, when ripe, leaving a hole in the fruit. The outward 
skin is first grec;n, then yellow, smooth, only it hathisome checquercd lines on its sur- 
face, as the custard appfe. The seeds lie from the centre to the circumference of the 
fruit^ and are as large as a bean, oblong, almost round, of an ash colour,. having a crest 
running their lengths, lying in an orange-coloured pulp,-of an unsavoury taste, but. 
has something of the smell and relish of an oxsd\^Q.—iiloane. 

, It grows in great abundance about^ the. south side lagoons, and on thel^anks of seve^ 
ral livers. The fruit or apples are large, and of a cold watery quality, esteemed highly 
narcotic, and even poisonous ; but of the latter we have no certain proof. When Uiey 
are ripe, and drop into the water, the alligators watch their falling, and, at the proper 
seasoa of the year, are said to subsist chiefly upon them. They have a sweetish taste 

C2 and^ 



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W HORTUS JAMAICENSISL jujoe* 

iuid smell; but, perhaps, the crudity aiid coldness of their juic6 mi^t make them a 
sort of poison to the stomach in this climate, where even melons and cucumber^ not 
duly correcUid, will sonietimes convulse it. The wood of this tree is so extremely light, 
that it is commonly used by way of cork to stop jugs, bottles, and casks j and it maScs. 
excellent floate for fishing nets. — Long, p, 832. 

See Cherimola — Custard- apple — Sour and sweet sops. 

Alligator- WOOD — See Muskwood. 
Auspice — See Pimenta. 



ALOES. ALGE. 

Cl. 6, OR. 1. — Hexandria monogynia. Nat. or- — Liliaceie, 
The derivation of this name is uncertain. 

Cen. char. — No calyx; corolla one-petalled, six-cteft, erect, and oblong, theiube 
gibbous, the border spreading and small, with a nectary- bearipg bottom ; the sta- 
mens are subulated filaments, rather surpassing the corolla in length, . and inserted' 
into the receptacle ; the anthers are oblong and incumbent ;t the ptsdllum has an. o- 
V3te germen, style simple the length of the stamens, stigma obtuse trifid ; the peri* 
carpium is an oblong capsule, three^furrowed, three-celled, and three-valved ; the 
seeds are many and angular. There are a great number of species and varieties of the 
aloe, and it is said the perfoliata, the most usefi^i, was brought here from Bermudas. 
The medical substance known by the name of aloes is the inspissated juice of the 
barbadensis and succotrina^ which are varieties of the species 

-'PfiRPOLlATA* 

Aloe dioscorid. etalioruntf Kc. Slosqe, v. 1, p. 245. Foliisiurgidis 
ciliato dentatis purpurascentibtiSy seapo florifero : assurgenti spicato. 
Browne, 197. Senipervive. Barham, 172. 

1 Var. the barbadensis, has toothed upright succulent subulate leaves, flowei^ 
yellow, hanging down in a thyrse. 

-2 Var. the succotrina^ has leaves very longimd narrow, thorny at the edge^ the 
flowers in spikes. 

\. The leaves of the Barbadoes aloe are about four inches ^road at their base, and 
nearly •two inches thick, they have a few indentures on their edges, are of a sea-green 
colour, and, when young, are spotted with white. The flower stem rises near three 
feet high, aad the flowers stand in a slender loose spike, with very short peduncles, 
and hang downwards; they are of a bright yellow colour, and the stamens standout 
beyond the. tube. 

Of the cultivation and preparation of hepatic or Barbadoes aloes we have the follow- 
ingaccount, by^Millington, in the London Medical Journal, voL 8. art. 8. 

The lands in the ttcinity of the sea, that is, from two to three miles, which are ra- 
ther subject to drought than otherwise, and ai-e so strong and shallow as not to admit of 
the planting of sugar canes with any prospect of success, are generally found to answer 

best 



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«0M HOUTUS JAMAICEN^SIS. ti 

best far Ae^oe plant. The atones, at ledst the greater ones, are first picked up, and 
either packed in iieaps, upon the most shallow barren spots, or laid round the neld an 
a dry wdU. The knd is then liglitly ploughed and very carefully cleared of all noxious 
weeds, lined at one foot distance frotm rowix) row, and the young plants set like cab- 
bages, about five or sixancfacs from each other. This regular mode- of lining and set* 
ting Replants is practised -i^nly by the most exact planters, in order to facilitate the 
weeding of them' by the band^ery frequently ; beoause, if th^ arenot kept perfectly 
dean and firee from weeds, the produce will be but very small. They will bear being 
planted in any season of the year, even in the driest, as they will live on the surface 
of the earth for many weeks without a drop of rain. The most general time, however, 
of planting them is mm April to June, in the March following, the labourers cany a 
parcel of tubs and jars into the field, and each takes a slip or breadth of it, and begms 
Dy laying bold of a bunch of the blades, as much as he can conveniently grasp witli one 
hand, while, with d)e other, he cuts it just above the surface of Ae earth, as quickly 
as possible, that the fuice may not be wasted, and then places the blades in the tub, 
bunch bv bun^ When the first tub is thus packed quite full, a second is^begun^ 
{each labourer having two) and, by the time the second is filled, all the juice is gene- 
rally drained out of the blades in the'first tub. The blades are then lightly taken out, 

-and thrown over the land by way of manure, and the juice is poured into a jar. The 
tub is then ^iled again witti J>Iades, and so alternately until the labourer has' produced 
bis jar full, or ab«ut four ^llons and a.ha1f of juice, which is often done in six or se- 
ven hours, and he has then the remainder of tlie day to himself^ it being his employer's 
interest to get each day's operation as quickly done as possible. It may be observed, 
^at, although aloes are often cut in nine, ten, or twelve, months after being planted, 
Aey are notin-^erfection till the second or third year, and that they will be productive 
for a length of time, say ten or twelve years, or -even for a much longer time, if good 
dung, or manure 6f any kind, is strewed over the'-field once in three or four j^ears, or 

.•*t)fi:ener, if convenient. 
• The aloe juice will keep 'for several we^ks without injury. It is therefore not boiled. 

'-until a sufficient quantity is procured to make it an object for the boihng-house. lu 
the large way three boilers, either of iron or of copper, are placed to one fire ; thouo;h 
some Mve but two, and the small planters only one. The boilera are fiHed with the 
juice; and, as it ripens, or becomes more inspissated, by a constant but regular fire, 
3t is ladled forward from boiler to'boiler, and fresh juice is added to thsit iarmest from 
the fire, till the juice in that nearest to the fire, (by much the smallest of the three, and 
commonly called by the name of ^o^A^, as in the manufactory of sugar) becomes of a 
proper consistency to be skipped or ladled out into gourds, or other small vessels, used 

• for its fiual reception. 'The proper time to diip or bdle it out of the tache is when it 
is arrived at what is termed a resin height, or when It crAs freely, or in thin flakes, from 
the edges of a small wooden sMce, that is dipped from time to time into the tache for 
that purpose. A little lime wsler is used by -some aloe boilers, during the process, 
when the ebullition is too great. 

As to the sun-dried «alo^ (which are most approved for medicinal purposes) very 
little is made in Barbaidoes. The process is however very simple, though extremely 
tedious. The raw iuice is either put into bladdere, left quite open at top, and suspended 

♦in the sun, or in broad shallow trays of wood, pewter, or tin, exposed also to the sun, 

*«very dry day, until all the fluid parts are exhaled, and a perfect resin formed, which 

^ then packed op for iwe^ or for exportation. 

The 



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14 HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. jtcoej^ 

The folloMdng^ acccnmt of preparing aloes in Jamaica is given by Dr. Wright, in tlie* 
same volume ot the Medical Journal, art I :, " The plant is puxied up by the roots,, 
and carefully cleaned fix)m the earth or other impurities.. It is tlien sliced or cut in 
pieces into small hand-baskets or nets. Tiiese nets or baskets are put into large iron 
boilers with water, and boiled for ten minutes, when they are taken out, and fresh^- 
parcels suppHed till the liquor is strong and black. At this period the liquor is tlirown^ 
tlirough a strainer into a deep vat,i narrow at bottom, to cool, and to deposit its foecu- 
lent parts. Next day the clear liquor is drawn off by a cock, and again committed to- 
the large iron vessel. At first it is boiled briskly ; iJut, towards tue e.ul, evaporation i:^ 
slow, aiid requires constantly stirring to prevent burning. When it becomes of the con-- 
sistenee of honey it is poured into gourds or calabashes-for sale* This hardens by age." 

2. The leaves of the true succotrine aloe, from whence the best sort for use in medi- • 
cine is procured, are long, narrow, and succulent, coming out without any order,; 
and form large heads. The stalks grow three or four feet high, and have two, three,, 
and sometimes four, of these heads, branching out from it : the lower leaves spread out, 
on every side^ but the upper leaves turn, inward to\^^rd the centre ; the flowers grow iii- 
long spikes,, upon stalks about two feet. high, each standing on a pretty long foot- 
stalk; they are of a bright red colour,, tipped with green. The island of Zocatra or- 
Socotoi*a, m the Straights of Babelmandel, being forjiierly most famous for.the prepar- 
ation of the extract,, that of the best quality has tlie name of Succotrine aloe. It is of. 
a yellowish brown colour, approaching to purple, and, when reduced to powder, is -^ 
sort of gold colour. The hepatic aloe of Barbadoes is darker than the succotrine, and. 
more bitter and nauseous. 

^loe caballinay fetid cohaWme J or horse aloes, is supposed ta be a coarser sort, ob-- 
tained from the same species with the foregoing ; according to others it is the producer- 
of the disticha^ It is chiefly distinguished ty its strong rank smell.. 

All the different kinds are gum resins, which contain more gnmmous than resinous 

1)arts. Water, when of a boiling heat, dissolves all the soluble parts of aloes; but, if» 
et stand till it grows cold, it lets drop most of its resin. A strong spirit dissolves and i 
keeps suspended almost the whole of aloes, though it contains such a large proportion < 
of gummous parts; hence it is evident that. aloes contain some principle, saline 
or Dtlier, which renders water capable of dissolving, resin, and spirit capable of dissolv- - 
ing gum. 

Aloes is a stimulating stomachic purge, which, given in a small quantity, operates * 
mildly by stool ; but, in large doses, acts roughly, and often occasions an irritation about * 
the anus, and sometimes a discharge of blood. It is a good opening medicine to people 
of a lax habit,, or who live a sedentary life ; and to those whose stomach or bowels are f- 
loaded with phlegpa or mucus, or who are troubled with worms, or are debilitated, be- 
cause at the same time that it carries off those viscid humours which pall the appetite, 
znd overload the intestines, it serves as a strengthener and bracer. In small doses, re- ^ 
peated from time to time, it not only cleanses the prima via:^ but likewise tends to 
pjromote the menstrual discharge in women ; and therefore it isfrequently employed in 
chlorosis, or where the menstrua are obstructed.. It is a good stomachic purge, and is « 
given in ajl cases where such a one is wanted, but it is looked upon as a^heating medi- 
cine, and not proper in bilious habits, or where.tliere is much heat or fever ; and its- 
continued use IS apt to bring on the piles. . It is given in substance £:om five grains to. 

a. 



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W0& HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. « 

a scrapie, larger doses sometimes bring on troublesome symptoms. As it is ti slew 
working purge it is generally taken at bed-time, and it operates next day. 

With regard to this, as well as all other resinous purges, it ought to be observed, 
that, when they are given in substance, without any mixture, they are apt to adhere 
to the coats of the intestines, and to occarion griping and uneasiness. The substances 
which are most used for this purpose are, a small quantity of the fixed alkaline salts ; 
soap ; the yolk of an egg; and gummous vegetable extracts. Mr Barton alledges, in his 
treatise on the manufacture of drugs, that, bv triturating aloes with a small quantity of 
alkaline salts, its tenacity was more effectually destroyed than by any other thing he tried : 
that castile soap and the yolk of an egg answered best, next to it; that manna, sugar, 
and lioney, were far inferior to them^ and tliat gummous or mucous vegetable extracts, 
such as the extracts of gentian or of liquorice root, triturated with the aloes, in the pro- 
portion of one part of the extract to two of the aloes, and then made up into pills, with 
a sufficient quantity of syrup, destroyed the viscidity of tlie aloes, and rendered its ope- 
ration mild. — Uncj/. Brit. 

Purgatives are undoubtedly useful in the expulsion of worms ; tind among them the 
juice of aloes, says Grainger, justly claims the pre-eminence. On this passage Dr. 
Wright observes that a tea-spoonfuf of the juice of the fresh leaves off the common aloes 
IS very good ; but, as oil is poisonous to all insects, especially to lumbn'cal^Sy or earth- 
worm, the castor -oil is to be preferred. 

This is the common aloetic plant which aloes is made from, and is so well known 
in America, where it grows in great plenty, that there needs no particular descrip- 
tion of it. It is common for planters to give t}ieir children of its thick slimy juice, for 
worms. Aloes, which is only the condensed or inspissated juice of this plant, purges 
and fortifies the stomach, and is good a^inst crude humours^ opens obstructions, and 
cures surfeits from over eating and drinking; and, if dissolved in water, and inspissated 
again, it fortifies moi^e and purges less. It preserves dead bodies, heals and cleanses 
old sores, '^helndians have a medicine, made of myrrh and aloes, called mocebery 
which I have ^sed with wonderful success in cleansing old ulcers, and it wiH also in- 
carnate and heal them if the very bones were bare, whereas other greasy medicines 
would foul the bone^; it also destroys maggots or worms in sores, which arc very apt to 
breed in these hot climates. The juice, cfrankwith milk, heals ulcers in the kidnies 
or bladder, and kills worms in man or beast. You must forbear giving aloetic medicines 
to those troubled with the bleeding piles, or overflowing of the menses, to those that 
spit or vomit blood, or to women with child. Aloe consists of two parts, resin and sa- 
line; the one dissolves in common water, the other will not but in spirit of wine.— ■ 
Barham J 172, 

As the drossy resinous parts of aloes is not soluble in water, it has been found, when 
combined with orfier mixtures, an excellent preservative to ships' bottoms against the 
worm, and was first applied to this use by the Indians. The ships trading in the East; 
^nd West-Indies are particularly subject to the annoyance of this worm, which fre- 
quently burrows through all the planks that lie below the surface, especially in harbours. 
The result of several experiments, tried by a person at Bermudas, upon different sorts 
of woo I, proves, that a mixture of one ounce of aloes, allowed to two superficial square 
fcet of plank, is the just proportion. There arc various coats with whicn it may be in- 
corporated : 



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W HORTU9 JAMAICENSI3; ^Lotf 

corporaUjd : Oheof tlie best is six pounds of piu^h, one pound of Spanish brown or whiting, 
ancf one part of oil; or the like pr>portiou3 of turpentines Spanish brown, and tallow, 
may be used. Such a coat, incorporated with aloes, will preserve a ship's bottom for 
eight months, provided it is made tenacioiis and binding, and is i>ot rubbed off by any 
accident About twelve pounds are suffitiient for a vessel of fifty tons burthen, and so- 
in proportion ^ according to which, about three-huadred pound .will be found enough 
for a first-rate man of war. . 

In preparing the aloes to be more effectual for this purpose^ .a> large proportion of 
water may he mixed with the juice when set on to boil, viz. two quart^of water to every 
• gallon of jiiice; and,, after sufficient boUing-, or when the water is thoroughly imprcg* 
nated, it should be shifted into any commodious vessel ; suffered to- stand for twelve 
hours,, and the water then poured ofT: by this process the soluble part or gum, which 
is of no use in the operation, will be extracted, , and wliat remains in sediment is the 
dross and resin,., which, being left to remainvuntil it is pretty^well dried and brought to 
eonsistence, exposed to the air and sun, will be fit for use; 

It is but j ustice to this commodity to recite the effects of one experiment, tried by the 
person before- mentioned. He took several pieces of oak^ cedar, and mahogany, plank, 
of two feet in breadth, and four feet in length, . and, . with particular distinct maiks, ta 
prevent mistakes,, put on different coats or compositions, some witk and some without 
aloes mixture J these, were suffered to lie under the sea- water fiwr eight months; and, 
upon taking them up, he found that^ where tlie aloes had made part of the composi- 
tion, there were few impressions made ; one piece, .in particular, was as fresh, sound, . 
and untouched, as on the day when it' was put in ; this had been besmeared with tur- 
pentine, tallow, Spanish birown, and aloes; but the other pieces, which had none of 
tlie aloetic mixture, were perforated and eaten into a honeycomb. The use, therefore, 
of this intrredient would certainly produce a saving.pf many thousand pounds per an- 
num, botii to the merchants and the crown. It is the bitter, nauseous, acrimony, which 
rt'sides in the resinous part, that renders it a verv proper defence againsb every speciea 
of insects ; and this part, being indissoluble in w^ter, will adhere to the plank unim- 
paired, so long as the composition ^asts with which it is blended. Neitlier an cxtrava- 
irance of price, nor apprehension of a scarcity, need be any objection to the general 
use of it. Tlie savannas and other barren places in Jamaica, are capable of producing 
much more than could be employed by all the shiping belonging to the British domi- 
nions ; and, was it encouraged by a regular demand,. Bermudas and other cdonies 
would enter upon the cultivation, so that the price would probably never rise high. 

The same composition may be used witfi great advantage in Jamaica, for preservings 
die rafters and otner timbers belonging to the floors and roofs of buildings, from that 
destructive insect the wood-ant ; nor would a preparation of the aloes be les«^ efficacio«a 
in securino- books from the depredations of the scacabseus, which, in its reptile state, ia^ . 
a great enemy to all that are newly bound. If^ in binding books intended for tliis island, . 
and other parts of the West-Indies, a small quantity of the aloes tincture, made by a . 
solution in spirits of wine, was mixed up with the binder's paste, it would effectually 4 
prevent the attacks of this insect.— Zim^, p. 708. 

An aquatic solution of hepatic aloes preserves young' plants from- destruction by in- 
sects,, and also AenA animals and vegetables from putrefaction ; which renders it of great ? 
use in die cabinets of naturalists. The spirituous extract, however, is best for the pu re- 
pose, though^, in this respect, it is inferior to that of cantharides, prepared by infusingr 
two grains iu one ounce of spirits, which has been fouad to be so effectual in the extir— 

pation\ 



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tLYSsoH . HORTUS. JATVIAICENSIS. ay 

pation of bugs.* Pacrher asserts, that a simple decoction of al6es communicates a fine 
brown coloar to woo!. F«ibroni, of ^iorenc^ ha-; extracte I a beautiful violcs colour, 
which resists the acLls and alkalis, from the juice of the fresh leaves of the aloe exposed 
to the arr by degrees. The liquid first becomes red, and, at the end of a certain period, 
turns to a beautiful purple violet, which adheres to silk by simple immersiou, without 
the aid of acids. 

Upon the whole, as the aloe is so useful ami so hardy a plant, growing in the poorest 
soils and in the driest seasons, while the manufacture is so simple and so cheap, it is la 
he regretted that its cultivatioin has not been more attended to ia this island. 

See Bastard Aloe, 

Alpinta — See Wild Ginger. 
Alsines— JVt' Chick WEED. 



ALYSSON ALYSSUM. 

Cl. 15, OR. 1. — Tetradynamia siliculosa. Nat. OR. — Siliq\u>S€e. 

This name comes from a Greek word, signifying madness, as the herb was believed* 
to have the virtue of curing madness. 

Gen. Char. — Calyx oblong, four- leaved; corolla four-petalled, cruciform, with the 
claws tlie length of the calyx ;^ the stamens are six, the length of the calyx, two 

. rather shorter and denticulated ; anthers erect and expanding; the pistillum has 
a sub-ovate germen, style simple; the pericarpium a sub-globular emarginate 
sillicle, with a bilocular stylus, having an elliptic partition ; the seeds are iew^ 
orbicular, ana affixed to filiform receptacles. Two species of this genus have beeiv 
introduced. 

1. INCANURT. 

Stem erect, leaves lanceolate, hoary^ . entire, flowers in corymbs, . petals bifid. 
Hoary madwort grows to the height of two feet, having woody stalks, which divideL- 
irito several branches toward the top. At the extremity of every shoot the tiowe.s are 
produced in round bunches, which are small and white. Tiie silicle is entire, oval, and* 
fitli of brown seedsi 

2. HAUMIFOLIUM*. 

Stems procumbent, pefenniai, leaves bnce-linear, acute, quite entire. 
Sweet madwort spreads itself upon the ground. The root is long, white, and woody; 
stalks numerous, seven or eight inches long, rough, and of a greyish green colour. 
The leaves are oblong, narrow, punctated, and very rough to the toucli. At the ex- 
tremities of its branches it produces very pretty tufts of small yellowish white Howers* 
Both these plants are propagated from seeds. The halimitbiium grows very luxuriant- 
ly in this bland htalmost any soil or situation* 

D AMBROMA, 

^ M. Socoleff, in the TraMactions of the Imperial Academy ofSciencfs at Peterslnirgh, says, that he has repeat- 
•dly experieiu ed fiat iiothing more speedily or eif«ctuaiij deitrovs bugs ttmo the oilj pickic UM»t semaiiia k-CusLi ul^ 
f hicU lieBio^s have b«€a packed. 



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|9CBmrf V ^ HORTU& JAMAICENSIS; )JI 

KiIJkTIFOUA. 

Aparines folio anomdavasculo semlnali rotundo mutfa seminamihu* 
* tissima Continente. Sloane, v. 1, p. 44, t. 7, f. 4. Foliis sessilibus 

lanVeolatis auritts qtiasi ampl^xantibus, oppo^itis s€U.!§erticiilatisi 
Jtoribtis tcrnatis ad. alas. Browne, p. 148* 

Leaves bftlf-stom^rclaspiDg, slalk square, branckos erect* 

The roo^i9 animal ; stem obtuse-angled, the alternate sidea^ convex. Flower verti- 
«Hate, threeon each side, sessile. Alternate teeth of the calyx convergent; the style 
shorter than the germ ; the petals four Mfhite ones or none. It grows in moist places. 
SloaDe says the branches are woody with smooth bark, about afootiand a.halt long, cor- 
nered. The leaves placed^t the joints, two always opposite, about an inch and a half 
long, one-eighth of an inch broad at the base, decreasing to a point, they are smooth^ 
equal on the edges^ and ca^in^ted ; ex alt's foliorum comes a roundish small body, w^ 
little prickly or hairy at 'the top, which augments till it is as big as a pepper com, as 
it were crowned on top, containing a capsule full of. small seed^ sticking to a body Vfk 
the centre. 

Thisplantis Rrowne's Zs#uzrrf2a,; which,, be says is pretty common about the Ferry, , 
and that it growsi generally by a simple stalk when young, but throws out a few bran- 
ches the second ye^, 2m^ seldom rises above twenty-four or thirty inches in height; 
the stem is commonly quadrangularj^r-^ndfurnished with long lanceolated leaves, with« 
^utfoot^talks,. whose Ipbes shoot obtusely backwards on either side, by which they seem 
to encompass the main stalk ; th<aty are disposed in an opposite or ternate order, an^ 
embrace the flowers at their insertions, but there are seldom more than three together^ 
^d*idways joifbedby short fJDotstalks to a common |M^e»tal^ fixed close to the stalk ia 
the bosom otevery \e^^ 

2^ .SANGUmOLENTA. , 

I>eaves half-^stem-cla^ing,, cordate at the base^ flowers sub-peduncled, eigbi« 
stamened, petal bearing. — Sw. Sro. 33». 

- Sotb6peoies.acepropagaied from seeds. 

See HfeDYOTis* . 

Anacampsehos — See Purslane^ 
Anana — See Pine-apple. 
Ancuoaca — See Mallows.. 



ANCHOVY PEAK. , GRIAS. 

Ct. ^, OR. l.^^Polj/andi'M num&gynfa - Kat. or. — DouhtfuL 
The generic name is taken from a plant in Apuleius. 

Cen^ char. — Calyx a <»ie-leafed coriaceous perianthium^ cup-shaped, the moutb 
having four blunt clefts, Anally lacerated; corolla four- petaled, roundish, con- 
cave, coriaceous ; the stamina are numerous setaceous hiaments, longer than the 
corolla, and inserted into the square receptacle, united at the base in a flve^fold. 
SQii^ , bent; in, inner ones shortest, rouncUsh anthers \ the pistillum has a somewhat . 

D2 depressed. 



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iO HORTUS JAMAICENSl^ an^mmbba 

depressed prmen, immersed in the calyx, no style, the stigmn thickisb, four* 
cornered, hollowed out crosswise ; the pericarpium a krge drupe, one-celled, %- 
ate at the base and tip, crownc^d with the cal) x ; the seed is'a nucleus scored 
io^t furrows. There is only one species, which i* a native of Jamaica : 

CAULIFLORA. 

Palm is afflnh mahs persicamatima candice non ramoso^ foliis lon^ 
fiissifJUSj Jiore tetrapetalo pallide luteOy J>nictu ex arboris tninco 
pt^deuntc Sloane, v% 2, p, 122, t. 216 & 217. FoUis tripedcUibuA, 
obovatisy Joribus per laukm et ramos sparsis. Browne, p. 245. 

This has an undivided trunk, no bigger than one's leg, covered with a grey bark, 
taperino^ towards the top, rising to twenty feet high, having near its top the vestigia of 
several leaves which have formerly dropped off. The leaves come out only rouml near 
tlie top for half a foot in length, they have no foot-stalks, are two and a half feet long 
and six inches broad in tiie middle, vrfiere broadest; beginniiig very narrow, they grow 
tridcr in the middle, and thence- decrease, ending bluntly. They have one middle rib 
and several ti'ansvei'se ones, they shine, and are smooth and thin. Two or three feet 
below the top, along the trunk, come out the flowers, without almost any footstalk, 
sometimes singly sometimes in tufts ; they are at first a round knob or button, which 
afterwanls opens into atetrapetalous flower, the petala being thick, pale yellow, and 
fall of a great many stamina, smelling very sweet, to which follows a fruit like to the? 
mammee sapota in bigness, shape, colour, &c. It grows going to Sixteen- Mile- Walk, 
on the river-side, and in several other places. — Sloane^ 

*' This tree frequently grows to tlie lieight of fifty feet. 'Branches at the topsimple, 
short, or none. The uprightness of the growth, and the largeness of the leaves ^ive 
it a very elegant appearance. The fruit is about the size of an ailigator^s egg, and like 
it in shape, only a little more acute at one end, and of. a brown russet colour; when 
picTded it resembles the mango. Tliis tree is frequent in many parts of Jamaica, and 
grows generall}' in low moist oottoms,* or shallow waters. The seeds grow very readily 
wherever they meet with a sufficient quantity of moisture, -and propagate <sa thick 4liat 
they are frequently found formed iut^ t^hickets or large clusters. — Jaarhum 6C Browne 



Yo English Xam-e. ANDROMEDA. 



'*& 



Cl. 10, OR. 1. — Dccandria inonogynia. Nat. or* Uncertain. 

This plant is named from the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiope, who was rescued 
•from a sea-monster by Perseus. 

Cen. cnAB.—^Calyx-fW^-parted, acute, small, coloured, permanent; corolla mono- 
petabus, campanulate, five-clefted, clefu reflex ; stanMua shorter than tlie co- 
rolla and scarcely fixed to.it ; antliers two-horned, nodding ; the pistillum has a 
Toundish germen, side cylindric, longer than the stamens, permanent; stigma 
obtuse; capsule roundish, five-cornered, five-celled, five-valved, opening at the 
corners, partitions contrary ; seeds very many, roundish, shining. There are 
three species noticed by Swartz as natives of Jamaica, as follow : 

. 1. JAMAiCBNSlS* 



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ixasBm ffORTUd JfAMAICENHtS; ti 

{ 

\. JAMAICENSIS. 

Peduncles aggregate, corollas ovate transparent, leaves alternate broad-IaQceo#, 
late, obtuse, entire, beneath ash-coloured and membranaceous^ 

2. FASCICULATA. 

, Ped»nclea aggregate, leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, slightly cre« 
nulate, coriaceous, 

3. OCTANDRA, 

Peduncles aggregate, corollas cylindrical, having four -clclte, with only eight 
stamina, leaves alternate, ovate lanceolate, very entire, membranace** 
ous. 

Angeuca tree — See Galapee* 
Ancoia pea — See Pigeon pea. 



A-NISEED. PIMPINELLA. 

Cl. 5, OR. 2. — Pentandria digynia. Nat. or. — ^Umhellifcr^e. 

Gen. char. — ^The general umbel is thin and. piano-patent, the partial on«J similar, 
neither has any involuorum ; the perianthia are scarcely observable ; the general 
^corollais unit'ocnv; the single flowers consist each of five orval inflexpeUib; the 
. stamina are simple filaments, anthers roundish^ gennen under the cup, st3H£s re-* 
flex, stigmata obtuse ; fruit naked, of a roundish figure, striated, and separable 
into two parts ; the seeds are two, roundish, convex, striated on one side, and 
^plane on the other. 

Root leaves trifid gashed. 

"TThe root is oblong, slender, and white ; the radical leaves ^tand on long pedicles, 
and are simple, smali, roundish, fbliola, crenated at the extremities, of a pale green, 
and strong smell ; the stalk is round, hairy, striated, ramose, and so weak that it is 
scarcely wle4x> support itself erect; the leaves on it are narrower and more deeply cut 
in all the edges; the umbels ave^verylarge, the flowers of a yellowish white. It is a 
native of Egypt and Syria, and was introduced into the botanic garden at Bath many 
years a^o. The roots have a grateful, warm, pungent, taste, and are considered an 
excellent stomachic. The seedshave an aromatic smell, and -a pleasant warm taste, 
accompanied with a degree of sweetness. They are useful in cold flatulent disorders, 
where tenacious phlemii abounds, and in the o;ripes to wliich children are subject, by 
boihng them in a small cjuantity of water, which affords a stronger infusion than by de« 
coction, and giving it m tea-spoon-fulls. Frederic Hoffman strongly recommends 
them in ci^eakness ot the stbmaeh, diarrlKBas, and for strengthening the tone of the vis* 
cera in generaL 

Infused in water the seeds impart a little of their smell, but scarcely any taste. la 
distillation they give out the whole of their taste. Along with the water there arises an 

essential 



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essential oil, to the quantity of an ounce or mote from three pounds* TTjey also yield 
#iji oil upon expression. ; 

The essential oil obtahied fcox» aaifieed$ is %h^ onjy officinajl prepacatioo ia.the Phar- 
macopoeia ; it is grateful to the stomach, aiKl may be taken in a dose of twenty drops^ 
In diseases of the breast the oil is preferred, but in flatulencies and colics the seeds iiv 
^^3t,a^4ce ^e, §9id U) be 9)ipi:^.ef|b<?tu«d. It is,a^ert§d d^t t;he oil l» a poison ^pigeons.. 

Anthemis — See Ox-eye. 

Antholyza — Sec Ethiopian antholyzjw 

j^iHTjiJiESj^ie^See Majoe-bitter, 



ANTIDOTE COCOON. FEUILLEA. 

Cl. 22, OR* 5. — Diceeia pentandria^ Hat. OK.—Cucurbitact/e^ 

This is named in honour of Lewis Feuilleej^§ French Enujciscan monk, who tray^ 
led in Peru. • 

Gen. char. — ^The maleeafyn; is bell-shaped,, half five-clefit ; the corolla is also half 
five-cleft and wJieel-shaped ; there are five stamina with twin roundish anthers^, 
and the uectarkiqi.conaist&of five filaments,, connivent or closing^ placed alter- 
nately with the stamina : the female calyx and corolla as in the male, but with a. 

■ ^oen germ at the base ; stogmas heart-soaped, styles three or fiive;. and' the truit 
is a large trilocoku* apple> with a hard bark ; the seeds generally twelve, flatted 
and orbitular. There are two species^ one a native of the East the other of the 
West Indies, but it is doubtful whether tbey.be distinct. Swartz aflinus that they, 
are not as mucL as varieties*. 

CORDIPOLIA^ 

Ghandiroba vet nhandiroba brasiliensibus. Sloane, v. I, p: 200:^ 
Foliis crassioribits glabrisy quandoque cordatisy qimndoque trilobis.. 
Browne, p. 374.. 
Leaves ^art- shaped, angular 
The stem is sufFrutescent atbottonv,. cfivided at.top, with herbaceous branches^, 
climbing frequently to the tops of trees, ixfundish and very smootli. Leaves petioled^ 
alternate, usually cordate,, when more adult,, cordate lobed, the lower ones three- lobed^ 
the lobes angular, thick, nerved, vsery smootli oa both sides. Flowers racemed, dusky^ 
yellow. Racemes in the male divaricating, loose,, the subdivisions almost upright, al- 
ternate, many-flowered J flowers pedicelied. Calyx five- parted, the parts are convex^ 
spreading, ovate, dusky. Filaments converging at the base, reflex^ club-shapetl,. 
gibbous, with a sort of head at the end to wliich the anthers are fastened ; these are 
ovate, open longitudinally in the middle^ and are whitish^ The five other threads 
fonning the nectary are yellow. 

Barham gives this plant its old nxme- o( nhandirotkt, or ffhandiroba^ and says, *' The 
first time I met with this plant was in St. Thomas in the Vale, in that part called Six- 
tien-Mile Walk, in Jamaica; where I saw it climbing and running up to the tops of 
rery high trees. It happened to have its fruit upon iU Its leaf ver^ajuch resembl^^ 

the 



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jjrrrooTB RORTUS JAMAtCENSlS. « 

Ac EogHsh Wy leaf; but its fhiit is like n green calftbasb, only it has a circular Wacic 
Jinc round it, and two or three warts, or little knobs ; the inside of the shell is full of 
irhite flattish beans, inclosed in a white meadnranous substance ; and, when thoroueh 
ripe, the fruit turns bi-ownish as a rii>e calabash, and the beans or nuts are then of a 
lightish -brown colour, and have a thin hard crust, in which is a whitish kernel, full of 
rouy and excessive bitter. iThe nuts or beans, which are generally ten or twelve in a 
Aell, are so close and compressed, that when I have taken them out, I never could 
place them so again as to mdke the ^ell contain them* 

" Piso saith, that he has seen whole families in Brazil, that have had violent aches 
And pains, got by the night-air, ivho have been cured with the oil of these nuts, which 
they may easily have growing in great plenty in most parts of America. It cannot foe 
used in victuals, ])eing so excessive bitter. A French gentleman some years past, 
brought me from Peru some of these nuts, and asked me if I knew what they were ? I 
did not satisfy him whether I knew them, but asked him what the Spaniards called 
them, and what use they put them to ? He told me, that the Spaniards called them 
avilla ; and that they were worth their weight in gold to expel poison, and wished I 
could find them growing in Jamaica; which they do in great plenty, and the negroes 
1 employed to get them for roe called them sabay — Barhain^ p. U3. 

'This plant is frequent in the mountains, and generally found climbinff amon^ the 
ctallest trees in the woods. It bears a pod which contains several broad, flat, ^eeos, of 
.a reddish colour, when ripe. The seeds are largely impreo^nated with an oil, which is 
extracted by pressing, and burnt in lamps. The negroes bum the seeds themselves. 
They fasten a number of theoi upon a skewer, and, setting fire to the uppermost, it 
descends very gradually to the bottom. They are extretnely bitter, and. when grated 
and infused m rum, or other spirits, a small dose opens the body and provokes an ap-« 
petite. The infusion is also made with Madeira wine, and taken to relieve pains in the 
stomach. The oil gives a clear fine light when burnt m lamps, and emits no disagree* 
able smell. It is easily cultivated, by planting tiie seed at the foot of a tree or pole, it 
rbears very luxuriantly. — Long^ p. 7J&, 

The kernel sliced and infused with orange-peel and a little wild cinnamon, in rmn* 
an excellent bitter and opening medicine : Infused -in water and rum, good in all cold 
;^oison3. — DanceVy p. 387, 39L 

The seeds are said to be ^ood for a person going into a dropsy, 6r a swelHng of the 
^ace, feet, &e. and the following is the receipt: — Take eight or ten of the kernels, 
scrape and bruise them fine in a mortar; put the same into a bottle, pouring thpreon a 
pint of old rum or brandy and the like quantity of water : let it remain in uie sun two 
or three days, shaking the bottle frequently : take a wine-glass full every morning, 
festing, and using moderate exercise before breakfast. 

An anonymous writer, in the Columbian Magasine, for July, 1798, who gives the 
foregoing receipt, states ^* that a young girl had been pronounced by the medical 
genSem^ in Spanish-Town in a dropsical state, and every thing administered as they 
thought necessary in such a case, but all in vain ; for, on my subsequent removal to 
Ki«^»€on, I found the swelling much increased in her face, legs, and thighs, with a 
pufmiess in her belly, A planter from Above-Rocks breakfasted with me ; 1 called the 
girl to get some water; he was alarmed on seeing her condition, and advised the use 

of 



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if HORTUS JAlVTAICENSig; AKBOH 

of the cocoon or antidote, observing that he had made a perfect cure of a girl in the 
same state. I proceeded according to his directions, ana with the like success ; it is^ 
now eigliteen months since, and, thanks be to God, she is now in perfect health. I 
tlierefore think myself in duty bound to publish the same for the benefit of my fellow-^ 
creatures." 



APPLE, PYRUS; 

Cl. 12^ OR. 4. — Ico^andriq^ peniffgynia. Nat. or. — Pofnacat^ . 

The generic name is from a Greek \VokI for fire, as the pear or fruit draws up ta ai . 
point like a flanae. 

XJen. CHAR. — ^The calyx. is quinquefid; there are five petals; the fruit is inferior^ 
quinquelocular, and polyspennous. The tree grows twenty or thirty feet high^ 
having oval serrated leaves, and sessile umbels of whitish red flowers, succeeded 
by large roundish and oblong fruit, concave at the base. There are a great many 
species and varieties, but none yet introduced thrive well in Jamaica ; they dege-^ 
nerate and become dvvarfish ancf sour. The best grows in St. Andrew*s and Port- 
Royal mountains, but the trees do not bear many fruit, shooting too much into, 
wood. The fruit has seldom any seeds. 

See CiuiNCE. 

Apricot— A^ee widen Cherjiy, BiRPk. 
s, Arabian Costus — See Cardamon. 



ARBOR WTM. THUJA* 

Cl. 21, OR. 8. — Monoecia monodelphid. Nat. or. — Connifer^. 
Gen, char. — ^The calyx of the- male flower is a squammae of an amentum ; there' is. 
no corolla ; the stamina are four, scarcely manifest : In the female flower the calyx 
is a squammsB of the strobiliis, and contains two flowers; there is no corolla; tim 
pistil nas a small germen, awl-shaped style, simple stigma ; and the seed is sur-^ 
rounded with a membranaceous ala. Two species have been introduced,. 

1. OeCIDENTAUS. 

Strobiles smooth with blunt scales, branches spreading. 

This, the common arbor vitae,. has a spreading root, and the tree grows to a moderate 
height, it was introduced and planted in the botanic garden, Bath,, by Dr. Clarke. It 
has a strong woody trunk, erect, and knotty, risiirg forty feet or more ; the bark, 
while young, is smooth, and of a dark brown colour, but, as it ad^'ances in age, it be- 
comes cracked. The wood is reddish, firm, and resinous. The branches are produced 
irregularly on every, side, spreading nearly horizontal, and the young slender 6lMX)t9 
frequently hang downward, thinly garni^ed with leaves ; so that when the trees- are 
growA large they make but an indifferent appearance. The youn^ branches are flat, 
and their small leave3 lie imbricated over each other like the scales of a fish ; the flowiera 
vse produced from-th© sides of the young branches, pretty near to the foot-stalk, they 



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4W)isiA HORT'UIS JAMAICENSIft M 

%)re smtsSl aBc] yellowish ; the mv^ flowers grow in ohlong catkins, and between these 
the feniale flowers are collected in form.pf conea. Wh«i the fernier have shod their 
farina, they soon after drop off; but the female flowers are succeeded by oblong cones, 
having obtuse smooth scales, containing one or two oblong seeds. The leaves of this 
tree, which is a native of North- America, are divided into many parts, oblong, com- 
pres^ed^ and squammose, they are of a bright green, and have a rank oily scent, when 
bruised. There are three other species of tSis genus, orientalis^ aphylh, and dohbrata. 
All of them ai-e propagated by seeds, lasers, and cuttings. 

This plaiU grows naturally in Canada in swamps and marshes, and is used, according 
to professor Kalm, for many medicinal purposes. It is much extolled for rheumatic 
pains. The fre^h leaves are pounded in a mortar, and mixed with hog*s grease, or 
any other; this is boiled together, till it becomes a salve, which is spread on linen, 
and applied to the part where the pain is. This salve gives certain relief in a short time. 

Against violent pains which move up and down, and sometimes spread all over the 
body, they fecommend four-fifths of the leaves of ^oljmody (poly podium fronde pin-* 
nata^ Kc.J and one-fifth of the cones of the thuja occiaentaliSy reduced seperately to 
a coarse powder, and afterwards mixed. With this powder, and milk- warm water, a 
poultice is made, spread upon linen, ^nd wrapt round the body ; but a cloth is com- 
monly laid between it and the body, otherwise it would burn and scorch the skin. 

The decoction of the leaves is used as a remedy for the cough ; and they use this at 
Saratoga for-the intermitting fever. The wood la very durabte, and used in buildings 
.of all lands, as well as cabinet-makers work. 

2. OaiENTALIS, 

Strobiles squarrose with sharp scales, branches erect 

This is a native of China, and ri3es to a considerable height. Its T>randies groi^ 
^^oser together than the other, and are much better adorned with leaves, which are of 
a brighter green colour, so make a much better appearance than the other, and being 
very hardy, it is esteemed preferable to most of the evergreen trees with small leaves 
in gardens. The branches of this tree cross each other at ri^ht angles. The leaves are 
flat ; but their divisions are slender, and the scales are smaller and lie closer over each 
other than those of the acciden'talis. The cones are also much larger, and of a beauti- 
ful grey colour ; dieir scales end in acute reflexed points. These trees are propagated 
by seeds, layers, or cuttings. One of the orientatis^ it is beUeved the only one in Ja- 
iiudca, grows on Mr. Wiles's mountain, in Liguanea. 

Archangel — See Hemp-agrihony^ 
AacTOTis— &^ Maeigoj-du 



' No English Name. ' ARDISIA, 

Cl. 5, OR. 1. — Pentandria mowogj/nia. 

Gen. char. — Calyx a one-leafed perianthium, five-clefi:, clefts subulate, upright, 
coloured, perwanent; corolla one-petalled, five-parted, tube short; filament^ 
subulate, upright; anthers acute, bifid at the base, converging at top round 
the style ; germen . superior, ovate, very small ; style subulate and longer 
than the stamens, stigma simple ; the pericarpium a roundish berry ; seed single,- 

£ rounmsh) 



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26 HORTUS JAMAICENSIS^. 



ARGYTHAMNU- 



roundish, covered with a hard brittle bark, like a nut There are several species,- 
two of which have been found in this island.. 

1. TINICOUA. 

Jasm inum f^rie, . arbor eum^ foliis^ lamnnis^ oblusis latter thus atr^u - 
reniibusy flora pentapetalo raccmosa pwyur^a reflexo. Sloane, v. 2,i 

p. 98. 

Flowers panicled, leaves elliptic, entii'e, nerved, stem arboreous. 
This rises about thirty feet high, having a clay or ash coloured smooth bark ; its twigs, 
are set with smooth dark-green leaves, four inches ^ long and two broad in the middle,, 
having an eminent niidrib and footstalks a quarter of an inch long. The flowers are* 
purple and reflexed. It grows m Liguanea moun tains.— Ayfoaae. . 

2v CORIACEA. 

Flowers panicled, leaves oblong, entire, veinless coriaceous. Si£. Pri 4S«' 



No English Name. ARGYTHAMNIA: . 

€l. 21, OR. 4. — Monopcia: tetrandria. . Nat. or.^ — Tricoccie/ . 

The name is derived from two Greek words, signifying a little white shrub. 

Gen. char. — Male calyx four lanceolate leaves ; corolla four petals lanceolate-ovate, - 
ciliate on the margiti, shorter than the calyx ; nectary four glands betu'den the 
petals, roundish, depressed; filamentfi four, longer than the petals, approximat- 
ed at the base, dilated, anthers simple ; the pistillum the rudiment of the style : » 
the female in the same raceme under the male, calyx a five-leafcd [>erianthimn, 
leaflets lanceolate ; no corolla; germen ovate, somewhat three-cornered; styles^ 
three, spreading, half two-cleft, each of the clefts bifid; stigmas lacerate ; tber 
pericarpium a tricoccous capsule, three^celled,. ^ix^valvexl ; the seeds solitary andi^ 
roundish. There is only one species : 

caniwcaxs. 

Ricino affinis odorifera fi^ticosa minor^ teucrii folloy fruciu tricocco. - 
dilute purpureo. Sloane, v. 1, p. 133, t. 86, f. 3. Fruticosa, to^ 
ta albida ; Jcliis obhngis, nerois paucioribuv arcuaiis. Browne, 338. 
This shrub seldom rises above five feet in height, and the trunk and benches are co- 
vered with a whitish bark. The branches are tour or five teet long, sometimes rising 
upward, and at other times lying alon^ the surface of the earth. The twigs have leaves 
at their ends, standing round then^ about an inch in breadth, oval, serrate, and of a 
very dark green colour, something like germander. Flowers axillary on very short pe- 
duncles. Calyx five-leaved ; stamens six, greenish ; seed-vessel tricoccous, green, 
becoming as big as that of heliotropium tricoccon,^ only it is smooth, and of a very 
pleasant pale purple colour. The leaves, when bruised, are very odoriferous. This 
plant grows chiefly in the lower hills of this island, in dry gravelly soil. SL H Brou-ne. 
'. Thfe fl/erflmnw.9.. of .Browne has been referred to this genus, and botli united to the 
order of euphorbias^ 

No 



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J4IKOTT0 HORTUS JAMAICENSIg. ^ 

No English Na»ie. ' ARISTEA, 

Cl. 3, OE. L — Triandrig, monogynia. Nat. or. — Ensat^^ 

. xGen. CHAIL — Calyx sexpartite ; cojoUa hexapetalous ; style declining ; stigma sim- 
ple and bell-shaped; capsule oblong trigonal ; seeds many. The orp/Va/a was ia« 
troduced by Mr. VVallen, and is the moraa ceruUa of Miller. 

CAPITATA. 

Scape roundy leaves distich, heads of flowers alternate, spathes membrana'* 
ceous entire. 

This is a large and ornamental plant, the stem three or four feet high, nearly twice 
the length of the leaves round, somewhat winged by the alternate, decurrent, cauliae 
Jeaves, upright, sublignescent. Leaves linear, ensiform, stiffish, finely striated, with/- 
x>ut any prominent rib-Like nerve, polished, dark green. Spathes and involucres 
membranous, scariose, and acute. Corolla blue, die segments obovate, equal, twist- 
•ing round each other in a spiral form, when they close. It bears an abundance of seed^ 
of which there are two or three in each cell, and by which it is easily propagated, as aU 
.so by the offsets or suckers, which it tlirows up, but not in great numbers. This only 
^^Xhrives.in tlie coldest moimtainous situations in Jamaica. 

Sec MoRiEA. 



ARNOTTO ott ROCOU. BIXA. 

Cl. 13, OR. 1. — PdyandiHa motwgynia Nat. or. — Columnifera. 

TTie generic name was adopted fi-om the Indian name used by 0\iedo in his History 
of India or Spanish America. 

Gen. char. — ^The calra is permanent, five-parted, obtuse, flat; the corolla double, 
the exterior fi^ oblong thick petals dropping off as they expand, the interior like 
but thinner ; the stamina are numerous setaceous filaments, half the length of the 
corolla ; the anthers erect, roundish, and purple ; stigma bifid compressed ; the 
fruit an heart-shaped compressed capsule, surrounded with hairs, formed of two 
valves, opening at the angles, containing only one ceD, but with an interior bivalve 
membrane ; &e seeds are numerous^ turbinated and truncated at the umbilicus ; 
. the receptacle is linear, longitudinal, and grows to the middle of the. valves.—* 
There is only one species known. 

ORELLANA. 

Urucu. Sloane, v. 2, p. 52, t. 161, f. 1. Foliis eordatis aim atumu 
ncy Jloribus vacemosis terminaltbus. Browne, p. 254. 

This rises with an upright stem to the height of ten or twelve feet, sending out ma- 
ny branches at the top, /ormijig a regular head, garnished with heart-shaped leaves, 
ending in a point, and having long footstalks. The flowers are produced in loose pa- 
jhiclcs at the ends of the branches, of a pale peach -colour, having large petals and a 
great number of bristly stamina of the same colour in the centire. After the flower is 

E 2 passed 



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as HOllTUS JAMA1CENSIS. AWOm 

passed, the germea becomes a heart-shaped, or i-ather a mitre-shaped, veas«l, covered 
on the outside with bristles, openini; witli two valves and filled wiUi angular seeds, co- 
vered with a red waxen pulp or pellicle, from which tlie colour called arnotto is pre- 
}>ared. These plants thrive be3t in a cool rich soil, and shoot most luxuriantly near 
springs and rivulets. They are easily pi'opagated from seed. 

This plant hath many names, as urucu^ roucouy roconVy orleana sen orellana, our^ 
oucou, Tournefort calls it viitella Jmencaiia viaxivia tivcioria^ and so doth Plumier. 
Hernandez and the Indians call it aehiotly seu medicina tingendo apta. 

The figure of the plant, with its flower and fruit, is extraordinary well designed in Piso. 

Hie leaves are corJated, or in the figure of an heart, about four inches longhand about 
tjvo broad, coming out altei'nately from the stalks and branches, having a sort of foot-^ 
sudk, and a nerve running tlirough the whole leaf, with transverse or oblique veins on 
each side \ at the ends of the branches come out, upon a short foot-stalk, niiuiy flowers 
in clusters, every flower the bigness of a small rose, with five leaves of a carnation co*' 
Jour, with a great many yellow stamina, or thrums, with purple tips ; after the flower 
follows the fruit, or cod,, which is in the shape of the leaf, but not so broad, covered 
with a very cough ooat, like the cliesuut, which is first green, and, as it ripens, growa 
of a dark brown,, and then opens of itsclf.^. Every cod contains about thirty or forty 
seeds, about the bigness and shape of buck wheaV having a splendid red colour, and a 
little oily ; so that it tinges or paints the fingers of a redclish colour, not easily got out 
with washing ; and it is what sticks to the outside of the seed which makes the paste 
called anotto ; which they get by washing it ofi* with water, and after separate the water 
and make the paste up into balls. This tne dyers use to make a colour they call aurora. 
I have known it sold m America for nine shillings /?cr pound, but now of low price, and 
much out of use. 

There is a magistery prepared with the paste,, as £oUoweth : Take fine flour of cas-^ 
sada, orange-flower water, white sugar, Brazil pepper, and the flowers of nhambi, all 
fioQly mixed. (See m^j^e of the. preparation in Fiso, p. 116.) This magistcry is given 
to persons that are poisoned, in wastings and consun^tions, hectic fevers, and immo- 
derate sweatings ; it stops bloody fluxes, strengthens the stomach, and nrovokes urine 
and the gravel ; th^re is also an extract to be made out of the roots, vvhich is of tlie 
same nature as the paste. Anotto is commonly put in chocolate ; and the Spaniaids 
mix it with their sauces, and broths, or soups, which gives them a saffron colour, and 
a pleasant taste. — Barham, p. 4, 5. 

'" When a sufficient number of seeds are collected they are thrown into any convenient 
vessel, and as much hot water poured upon them as is necessary to suspend the red fa- 
rina, which is gradually washed off the s^eds by the hand or a spoon. When the seeds 
^pear quite n^ed, they are takqn out^ and the wash left to settle ; after which tlie 
water is gently poured away, and the sediment put into shallow vessels, to be dried by 
degrees in the shade j and, after acguiring, by this means, a due consistence, it is 
maae into balls or cs^es, and set to ary thoroughly in any airy place, ujitilit is per- 
fectly firm, in which state it is fit for market. Zongj p. Tii. 

Another mode is to pound the contents of the fruit with wooden pestles ; then cover 
them with water and leave them to steep fi)r six days. This liquor being passed 
through a coarse sieve, and afterwards through three finer ones ; it is again put into> 
title vat or wooden vessel; and left to fenaent a week* It is then boiled mxtxi it becomes 

pretty 



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AitnowZHEAiV HORTUS' JAMAICENSIS. §^ 

pretty thick, and, when cool, is spread out to dry, and then made up into balls, whicb 
are usually wrapped up in leaves. Arnotto of a good quality is of the colour of fircj^ 
bright within, soft to the touch, and dissolves entirely in water. 

The arnotto is- said to be an antidote to the poisonous juice of manioc or cassada* 
Labat informs us that the Indians pi-epare an arnotto greatly superior to ours, of a bright 
shining red colour, almost equal to carmine. For this purpose, insteatl of steeping and 
femientinff the seeds in water, they rub them with the hands previously dipped in oil,^ 
till the pellicles come off, and are reduced into a clear paste ; which is sci-aped off from 
the hands with a knife, and laid on a clean leaf in the shade to dry. 

It is sometimes used to give a richness of colour to butter, cheese, and soups, in 
small quantities, Hughes tells us that the wood of this tree, being rubbed, produces 
fire, and that the bark makes long durable lines. The root is of a grateful taste and ii* 
used as saffiron ; they have much the same properties as the wax, but are said to work 
more powerfully by the urinary, passages. The Indians paint themselves with the ber- 
ries, mixed with lemon- juice and rum. The arnotto was formerly used by dy€rs, 
but at present it is not held in such estimation as a dye, though it ^1 maintains hi 
ground with painters. 



ARROW-HEAD. SAGITTARIA. 

Cl. 21, or. 7. — Mancecia poh/andria. Nat. oft. — Tripetalaidic^. 

This plant takes its name from the form of the leaves resembling the head of aa 

«BTOW. 

Gen. CHAR.7— The calyx of the male flower is three-leaved, the leaves ovate, concave, 
permanent i corolla three-petalled, petals roundish, blunt, flat, spreading, three 
times as large as the calyx ; the stamina numerous, often twenty-four, awl-sliaped^ 
collected into a head, anthers erect ; the female calyx has tmree leaves, aiwl the 
corolla three petals, as in the male ; there are no pistils but numerous germens^ 
collected into a head, gibbous outward, ending m very short styles, with acute 
stigmas ; the receptacle globular ; seeds numerous and. nak«d» There are two- 
species which grow plentifully in Jamaica^ 

I. SAOITTirOLIA. 

Sagitta. Sloane, r* 1. p. 188» 

Leaves arrow-shaped acute. 

This grows in great plenty in Jamaica. Sir Hans Sloane saith, be hath seen the same 
plant ient^from Fort St. t^eorgfe, m the East- In dies, by the name oicoolette yella. It 
^ws much like owr European arrowJiead, and hath its name from its shape ; viz. 
sagitta sive sagittaria, Toumefort calls it i^nunculus pa Instrh folio sagittato maximo^ . 
It generally grows in stoading waters, and is counted a peculiar wouad berb, whether 
inwardly taken or outwardly, applied ; the root, bniised and applied to the feet,, hdps^ 
Ae crab-yaws in negroes. MrAam, p. 6. 

2. LANCIPOLIA. 

Plantago atfucdica, Sloane, v. 1, p. 18^*7. Fdliisrrutximis^ ^hhplici^ 
bi^ eMongi$, ufirinqueprotluctis; rctmuHs verticfft<Uis i caulegh^ 
^Wr Browne, p. 345r 

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iftROM^-HooT HORTUS JAMAICENSr^! SI 

' This root is so called from its curing and expelRng the noisoa which Indians put to 
their arrows when they shoot at their enemies, which, if they make but a slight wound^ 
certainly kills the person if the poison be not expelled; and that this plant doth, by 
takino^ the juice inwardly, and applying the bruised root as a poultice outwardly : ThiV 
was discovered by an Indian, taken after he had wounded an European with oncof these 
poisoned arrows, whom thejr tortured until he promised to cure him, which he did ef- 
fectually with the root of this platit. It hath a stalk and leaf exactly like Indian shot, 
only that hath a beautiful scarlet? flower, and this hath a milk-white one. The leaves of 
it fall in December, and the root is fit to dig in January. Sir Hans Sloane calls it canna 
Indica rudice alba alexi'pharmacaj from its known \irtues in expelling poison. I knew 
a gentlewoman in Jamaica that was bit or stung with a black spider (whidi is venomous 
here) upon one of the fingers, which immediately inflamed and pairfed-her up to the 
elbow and shoulder, and threw her into a fever, with symptoms of fits ; and all this 
happened in less than an hour. They sent away for this root, which' tiiey took and 
bruised, and having applied it to the part affecteJ, in half an hour's time she found 
much ease; in two hours afterwards they took that away, ami applied afresh root, which 
still brought more ease aad quietness of her^spirits ; her fever^ abated,TaiKi in twenty- 
four hours she was perfectly well. I knew another person that was cured in the same 
mann^er, that was Wt by oneof tfa^se spiders, at the nccessaryi^housej upon the but- 
tock : And about three miles from St. Jago de la Vega, happened an accident of ])oisoA 
not designed, -which Vvas done by an ignorant iM>gro slave, by stopping a jar of rum 
with a weed, which will be described hereafter*. The rum stood stopped all night, and 
some of the leaves had fallen into it : In the morning, a negro drank of it^ and gave 
some to two or three more* of hisK^ountry ; and ia les» than two hours they were all very 
sick with violent vomiting and tremblings. Thisalapmedthe plantation, and the master 
of it was sent for, letting him know that some of his negroes wcire poisoned, bul how 
they could not tell; He took a surgeon with hini ; but before he got there two or three of 
them were dead, and another just expiring. The surgeon was at a stand what to do ; but 
^mebod;^ adviW Ifidlanr arrow-root, which they got immediately, and bruised it, being 
a. very juicy root^ and pressed out the juice, -and rave it tathe^negrOy who was seemingly 
adying : The first g^lss revived him, the second Drought him to himself, so thatrhe said 
he found his heart hooiiy and desired more of it ; upOn which he mended, and in a little 
time recovered. This is. Lopez de Gomara's counter- poison, and is one of the ingre- 
dients of Hchiartdez's grand elixir, or great antidote. I have seen this root frequently 
fiven in malignant fevers with great success, when all other things ha^e failed. Wlieii 
make up/^pV cnntratferva for itty own practice, I always put in -a good quantity of it; 
I have given it decocted, but it is best in powder, which causes- -sweat ;, the dose is 
from a drachm or two. l have observed, that although this is a very flowery root, yet, 
if you keep, it seven years, no vermin wHl meddle with it,%hen all other roots in this 
countrv are very subject to be destroyed with worms and weevils^ It hath' no manner 
of ill taste or smell ; it workis by sweat and urine, and yet is a great cordial ; it provokes 
the terms, and clears lying-in wOUien ;. it" drives out the small-pox or measles; and if 
it was candied as erin^o-root, it would make a pleasant preserve, for it possesses thef 
like prolific virtue.— xfizrAawi, p,. 7, 8. 

Prepared as follows^ this root makes excellent stdrch, and is frequently used instead 
of the common sort. The roots, when a year old, are dug up, well washed in water, 

and- 

; See SaFanna FIow«r. * 



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«SMART HORTUS' JAMAICENSI3. $3 

from the eyes. If beaten and applied with the juice, it helps purulent eyes. It takes off 
^ots from the body, if its juice be rubbed on them morning and evening. The juice 
of the whole plant, except the root, boiled in seroelim oil,, is a cephalic liniment, even 
to be applied to bleedings of the nose. This is also a liniment for the gout. The root, 
taken with hot water, loosens the belly ; and the leaves, given in sour milk, assuage the 
swelling of the belly and gripings. Flies, gnats, or fleas, come not near this herb 
or its juice, and, therefore, it is good for ulcers, and keeps these vermin from rooms 
strewed with it. Some of it put under the saddle, and rubbed on a horse's back, re- 
freshes him when tireJ. — Sloane^ . 

We have two sorts of arsmart in America, the sam« as grow in England, one without 
spots, the other with. It i^ known, as the great and learned Boyle commends it, as a 
specific to break the stone and expel the gravel in the reins or bladder, and that by a 
simple water distilled from this plant ; but its juice or essence, in my opinion, is muck 
better, sweetened with a little syrup of marsh-mallows. The root, bruised and applied 
^ an aching tooth, takes away the pain ; the iuice or essence, naixed with equal quanti* 
ties of ox-gall, .oil of spike, and mustard, well mixed, discusses all cold swellings, scro- 
fulous and schirrous tumors, and wbitlows or felons; the essential oil is good for knotty 
gouts ; or this : Take the oil of arsmart (made by infusion), lovage, and shepherd's 
purse, of each a handful ; the heads of five sheep and fifteen frogs ; boil ail together . 
in two or three quarts of oil, until the flesh is consumed, and then strain. This i» ^ 
excellent for knotty or chalky gouts, rubbing it well iuto the parts. — Bar ham ^ p. 8. 



Dr. Dancer says the dose of the fr6sh plant, (persicaria) in decoction, is a wine-glass* 
iijll, as a diuretic ; and, on the authority of the late ingenious Mr. Samuel Felsted, that 
an infusion of the dried plant is powerfully diuretic, and very useful in gravelly com- 
plaints. — Medical Assistant ^^ p. 383. The following is copied from Mr. Felsted's ma- 
uuscript : " A decoction of the stalks of this plant, fresh gathered, drank, a wine glass- 
full at a time, at short intervals,, has very speedily removed a dangerous suppression of . 

urine, of two days continuance, after all the medicines which were used had failed. 

Also a decoction of the dried stalks and leaves has afforded r •'^'^f in an arthiitic com* - 
li^aiAt, by evacuating sand and gravel.'' 

2, &ARBATUM. BEARDED. 

Persicarja procumbens longissima^ angusttfolia^ non maculosa^ spied > 
longiori, laxiori et grauliori. Sloane, v. 1, p. 17, t. 3, f. 1. iVM*- - 
hirsutumy vaginis setosis, Jloribus octandris^ stylis trijidis. Browne^ , 
p. 212. ^ 

Flowers hexandrous trigynous^ spikes rod-like, stipules truncate setacecms^ 
ciliate, leaves lanceolate. 

St^ne says the root of the barbatum has several protuberances, and great nmiAeis of . 
seddish brown strings. The stalks are spread round, trailing on the surface of th^ 
^arth for. about four feet in Idngth, round, reddish, smooth, jointed at every inch.— « 

F The 

* "The compiler bas to apo1o«(be to tke 1earn«d aathor of rbe Medical Assistant, for having omitled, -in liis pteCace^ 
to acknowledge the assistance he has derived irom thatTeijr nsefoi'iiork^ wlucb oiigb( to be in the poM6«aifttt. fiC.. 
't^tK^ 4«u^ itnooiJHpiil Jtbe Weal ladMS. 



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84 ttORTUS JAMAIC-ENSia kkxiciioks 

The flowers stand on footstalks at the tops of the branches, like those of ordinary ars*- 
niart^ hut more lax and slender, followed by small shininj; black seeds in green husk% 
scedi angular, vvitli two prickiv ends. It cjrows in moist and muddy places. — Sloane. 

i'ef^ Buckwheat. 



j\RTlCnOKE. CYNARA. 

Cl. 19, OR. 1. — Si/ngenesia poli/gamia squalls, Nat. OR. — Composite. 
TTiis generic name is said by some to be derived from the wor^l cinere^ because, -atv 
wording to Colnmeila, land for artichokes should be manured with ashes. Parkinson 
says, it is so called froin the .ash -coloured hue* of the leaves. 

Gen. char.' — Calyx cotnraon ventricose rmbricate, with numerous scales ; corollacom- 
pound tubulous, unifonu ;.corollets Jiormaphi'odite, nearly equal, proper, one-pe- 
tailed: stamina five-filaments, very -short ; antlier cylin^ric, five-toothed; ger- 
men ovate, style filiform, stiijma simple; no pericarpium ; seeds splitary, ob- 
long-ovate; do.vn sessile, long^; receptacle bristly. There are six species, two 
only culti"vated for use, tlie cacdunculus or cardoon, and the 

SCOLYMUS. 

Leaves somewhat spinj-, pinnate and undivided ; calycine scales ovate. 

This is the common garden artichoke, .of which tlicre are two varieties. 1. The co- 
nical green headed French artichoke, having small leaves, terminated by spines, a tall 
stalk; the head somewhat conictil, and of a Tight green colour, witli the scales pointed 
at top, opening and turning outward. -2. The globular headed red Dutch artichoke, 
having leaves without spines, a strong stalk, the head large, globular, a little com- • 
pressed at top, and of a reddish green colour ; broad obtuse scales emarginated at top, 
growing close, and turning inward. This last is deservedly the nwjst esteemed, both 
on account of its superiority in size, and the agreeableness of rts flavour. The flowers 
and seed of all the plants of this genus are produced in the centre of the head ; the 
scales of which are the proper calyx of the flower, which consists, of numerous small 
blueish florets, succeeded by downy seeds sitting n^ked on the receptacle. Both the 
varieties are propagated by slips or suckers, and thrive -very welHn rich land, and high 
cold situations in Jamaica. Very ftne.K)nes may ofteh be met with in the Kingston 
market, the .produce of Port Royal, Liguanea, and St. David's, mountains. The 
ground where tliey are planted should be well due;, freed froJn weeds, aad so thrown 
up as to prevent water Jodoing about the roots, ft is best to leave only one shoot and 
head to each root ; by whi<^ means the artichokes will4>e much finer and larger. 

• The artichoke is a native of -the southern parts 6f Europe. The receptacles or bot- 
toms of the heads, and the fleshy parts of the scales, are usually eaten, and though 
thought by Galen to generate bile and melancholy, are Avholesome and nutritious^— 
The leaves AFC bitter^, ^nd aflerd,. by expression, a considerable qu^tity of juice, which, 
when strained and mixed with an equal part of white wine, has been given successfully 
in dropsies ; for this purpose, two or three spoonfuls of the mixture are to be taken 
»iiight and morning. An infusion of the leaves are likewise diuretic, and may be em- 
^loy^d with the same intention. — JVoodvllle's Medical Botany ^ p, 69, pi. 28. 

S^e Cardoon. 

ASPARAGUS, 



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JBPHdDEt H051TUS JAMAICEN^rS. 35 

ASPARAGUS. ASPARAGtfS. 

Cl. 6, OR. 1. — Hexandria manogynia. Nat. or. — Sarmenface^. 

Tliis takes its name from a Greek word, signifying a young shoot, before it unfolds 
its leaves. 

Cen. char. — No calyx; coroHa six petalled,. cohering by the. claws, oblong, and 
, campanulated ; the petals reflex at the extremities ;' stamina filiform capillaments, 
insertexl into the petals, erect, and half" the length of the corolla ; anthers round* 
ish ; germen trigonal, st^le short, stigma a prominent point ; the fruit a globose 
tliree-celled berry ; seeds two, round, angular inside^ smooth. There arc seve*- 
ral species and varieties,, the most useful is the 

OKFICINALISi, . ©EFICINAL: 

Stem herbaceous, round, erect; leaves setaceous ;. stipules alike. 

The root is perennial, large, composed of many succulent round bulbs, forming a. 
kind of transverse tuber, whence sprhig numerous stems. The propagation of this . 
useful plant is from seeds, k thrives well in Jamarcar, and wilt grow almost any where, . 
and a bed of it once established will supply a family fOr many years, with frequent cut- 
ting and manuring. The seeds are collected by brrrising the berries in any vessel, and . 
aftt rwards washing pff die pulp. The/sliould then be dried and sowa-in small trenches 
well manured. They must be kept clear of weeds, and, when the stalks are dry, a lit- 
tle rotten dung, should be thrown over the bed. When they grow up again, they w :il 
be fit to cut for the table. They produce good cuttings, in this island, twelve months . 
after they are sown. The roots ot* the asparagus have a bitterish mucilaginous taste, in- 
clining to sweetness ; the fruit has mucli the same kind-of -taste ; the young shoots are 
more agreeable than either. . Asparagus promotes appetite, but aftords little nourish- 
ment. It gives a strong ill smell to the urine, in a little time after eating it, and, fQr 
this reason, chiefly, is supposed to be diureticT'but neither the roots, nor the stalks 
when branched, have this eff*ect : it is likewiscesteemed aperient and deobstruent* 

M. Roliquet has lately, it is said, discovered a new vegetable jmnciple in asparagus ; 
it is a triple salt of lime and ammonia, of which the acid is unknown. This chemist. 
And M. Vauquelin, have found a substance, iu the juice of this vegetable, analagous 
to manna... 



ASPIJODEL, or KING*s SPEAR. ASPHODELUS. 

Cfw.6, OR. 1. — Hexdndria vwnogynia. Nat. OB^r—Coronaria, 

©EN. CHAR.— There is no calyx v the corolla is raonopetalous six-parted^ the nee-* 
tarium consists of six small valves,, forming.a globe ; .the stamina subulate, bow;ed^ 
inserted into tlie valves of the nectary,, alternately shorter ; anthers oblong,,, in- 
cumbent ; germen roundish, style subulate, stigma truncate ; the capsule is Sesliy, 
globose, three-lobed and tbree-qelled ; seeds numerous, triangular, and gibbous 
«a one side. . There are three species,, only one of which has been.intraduced. 

RAMOSUS. . BRANCHY. . 

St<un nakedy, leayes- ensiform^ keeled, polished. 

£ii Brauchf, 



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86 HORTUS JAMAICENSig. xvtm 

Branchy asphodel hath roots composed of fleshy fibres, to each of which is fastened 
an oblong bulb as large as a small potatoe ; the leaves are long and flexible, having sharp^ 
edges ; between them come out the flower stalks, which rise more than three feet high, 
sending forth many lateral branches. The upper parts of these are adorned with many 
white star-shaped flowers, which grow in long spikes, flowering gradually upward.— 
They are easily propagated by parting their roots, and are pretty ornaments to a flower 
garden. 

The roots are of an acrimonious taste, and heating quality ; being drank they pro- 
mote urine and the menses ; and the weight of a drachm, taken in wine, is used with 
success in pains in the side, coughs, convulsions, and ruptures. They are good 
against bites of serpents, and make a good cataplasm for foul spreading ulcers, innam<- 
mations, &c. The ashes of tlie burnt root, rubbed on an alopecia, cause new hair to 
spring. — Chcmibers* Cyclop. 

AsPLENiUM— iSV^ Harts Tongues and Spleen Wort. 

Aster — See Star- Wort. 

Atropa — See Tree Atropa. 

Attoo — See Chaw Stick. 

AucuBA — See Japan Aucuba. • 

Auricula — See Primrose. 



AVENS. GEUM. 

Cl, 12, or. 5. — Icosandria monogj/nta. Nat. or. — Lenticos/e. 

^The derivation of this name is uncertain. 

Cen, char. — Calyx a one-leafed, ten-cleft, upright, perianthium, segments alter- 
nately small and sharp ; the corolla has five petals ; the stamina are numerous 
filaments, length of the calyx ; short anthers ; the pistillum has numerous germs, 
collected into a head ; styles hairy, lone ; stigmas simple : there is no pericarpium, 
the common receptacle of the seeds oblong : seeds numerous, compressed, hispcd, 
awned, with a long style. One species is a native of this island. 

VIRGINIANUM. VIRGINIAN. 

Caryophyllatafoliis alatis. Sloane, v. 1, p. 2$4. 

Flowers upright ; awns hooked, naked ; stem-leaves temate, the upper ones 
lanceolate ; petals shorter tiban the calyx. 

There are two or three sorts of them growing in America. One sort, Pere le Feu- 
ville calls caryo'phxfllata foliis alatisflore ample coccineo. It is an aperitive herb, which 
the natives make a tea of, to keep their bodies in order. It grows about half a yard 
high, on the side of the mountains, and hath a scarlet Wossom. The same sort I found 
growing in Jamaica : It is hot and dry, attenuates, cleanses and opens obstructions ; is 
good in bruises and pleurisies, and heals wounds. — Barham^ p. 10. 

• Sloane says this plant is very common in the woods of this island. 

AVOCADO 



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AVOCADO HORTUS JAMAICENSIft 3(7 

AVOCADO PEAR. LAURUS. 

Cl. 9, OR. 1. — Enneandria monogynia. Nat. or. — Holoracete. 

The name iaurus is said to be derived from the Latin word lauSj praise. 

Gen. char. — There is no cal)rx ; the corolla is calycine, or serving in the place of 
the calyx, and sexpartite ; the nectarium with three glandules, each terminated 
by two bristles surrounding the germen, the stamina are nine filaments, shorter 
than the corolla, compressed, obtuse, and placed in threes ; the anthers adhere 
to the edge of the wpper part of the filaments, on each side, and there are two, 
globose corpuscles affixed by a very short filament to each of the stamina of the 
inner series, near the base : the germen is oval ; the style simple, equal, and of 
the length of the stamina ; the stigma is obtuse and oblique ; U^ fruit a mono- 
ipermous plum. 

PERSEA. 

Pi^nifera arbor, fructu ntcuvimo pyriformi viridiy perirarpio escu^ 
lento hutyraceoy nucleum unicum maximum nullo ossiculo tectum^ 
eingenie. Sloane, v. 2, p. 132, t. 222, f. 2. Foliis oblongo ovatisy 
fructu obverse ovato, pencarpto butyraceo^ Browne, p. 214. 

Leaves ovate, coriaceous, transversely veined, perennial, flowers corymbed. 

This tree, which is said to have been introduced into tliis island from the con-^ 
tinent, rises to a considerable height, with a straight trunk, of which the bark and 
wood are of a greyish colour, the bark very rough and irregular. The leaves are oval, 
l^ransversely veined, pointed, of a leathery substance, and of a beautiful shining greeu 
above, and pale below ; wlien young they are reddish or flame coloured. The flowers 
are produced in large corymbed knots or clusters at the extremities of the branches, and 
consist each of six petals, disposed in the form of a star, and of a dirty wJiite or yellow 
colour, with an agreeable odour, which diffuses itself to a considerable distance. The 
wood of the tree is soft, and of no use. It is very subject, from its extreme brittleness, 
to lose its branches in any high wind, and young trees are frequently snapt in two, they 
however soon shoot again many suckers, which grow rapidly. This tree is a native of 
the West Indies, and easily propagated from the seeds. It begins to bear in three or 
four years after planted, and sometimes even sooner. The fruit is pear-shaped, and 
from one to two pounds in weight. On removing a green or brown skin or coverino;^, 
we come to a yellow butyraceous substance, interspersed with greenish veins ; and, in 
the heart, fincl a large roundish seed or stone, which is uneguS on the surface, hard, 
and woody. This fi-uit ripens in August, September, and October, and constitutes a 
very agreeable article of food for thre6 or four months in the year. With a little salt, 
^nd one or two plantains, they afford a hearty meal to the negroes, and are introduced 
at evQvy table, being by many considered a great luxury. Few people, however, re- 
lish them at first, but use reconciles them to the palate, and they soon become agree- 
able. When ripe the s^^ds rattle ; and the yellow or eatable substance, firm, though 
soft, parts freely from the external skin, it tastes somewhat like butter, or marrow ; 
and it is hence called the vegetable vuirrow. It is so rich and mild that most people 
make use of some spice or pungent substance to give it poigoancy. For this purpose 
wine, sugar, lime-juice, but mostly -pepper and salt, is used. But, however excellent 
this fruit is when ripe, it is very (langerous when puUed and eaten before maturity. — 
Dr. Wright say^ the has repeatedly known it produce fever and dysentery, which were 

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$i HORTUS JAMAICENSIS, iiYE^* 

remove! with difficuky. la such cases the decoction of the kernels of this fruit are said 
t ) he useful, as they appear to be of a very astringent guahty. The leaves «f tliis tree^ 
in decoition, are reckoned balsamic, pectoral, and vulnerary; the decoction is of, a 
bafhon colour, of a mucilaginous substance, and taste not unpleasant. They are alio, 
witu those of the bead vine or wild liquorice, niaiic inta pectoral decoctions ; and the 
buds are i»aia to be used with success ifi ptisans against the venereal disease. An infu- 
sion of them in waiter, drank in the morning fasting, is^strongly recommended for dis* 
-lodging coagulated blood in the stomachy produced by a fall, or a severe stwrokc on that 
inipo/cant entrail. Hogs, dogs, cats, horses, cuftle, birds, and many other animals^ 
eat these pears greedily, and they are generally made us of, during the season,, for fat- 
tening hogs, which gives their iiesh a veiy agreeable flavour. 

Sihaca is the Indian name. The Spaniards, m Smith America, call it agnacate, and 
under tliat name it is described by Ulioa. However, in Peru and JMexico, it is better 
known by the appellation oi paitUy ov patto. 

This tree and fruit are welt known in America ; in the kingdom ©f Peru they are - 
Cd\\Qt\ pattas. 

The fruit is of a pear fashion, as big as the English pound pears, and green when ;» 
ripe ; but I have seen a sort very round, with red streaks like a pear- mam. When . 
they have been gathered some days, they grow soft, and are tit to eat with pepper and 
salt; some mix them with lemon-juice and sugar, others will boil them and eat with, 
salt beef. They are very nourishing, a ad are thought to be great provocatives ; there- 
fore the Spaniards do not care their wives should ^at much of them. This friiit is x\\}q 
in June, and so continues till October. Tlrey have a large stone iiv the middle, wrap- 
ped up in a fine thin skin, of the shape of a heart ; and when that skin is taken off, it 
is very rough, and in wrinkled or little hard protuberances, of a reddish colour ; when^ 
cut through, it is very white ; but tlie air soon turns it reddish. If you take one Qt> 
these pear-stones, and write upon a white wall, the letters will turn as red as blood,, 
and never go out until the wall is white-washed again, and then with difficulty ; also,, 
if you take a piece of white cloth and put round them, and with a pin prick out any let- 
' ter or figure on the cloth, the figure will be of a yellow colour, not. to be easily washed* 
out.* — Bnrhamy p. 10. 

There are two species of the fruit, the green and tlie red. The latter is preferred,, 
iiaving a firmer better tasted flesh than the other ; but I have observed that the good- 
•Tiess of both depends entirely upon the place of growth ; for the fruit produced in a. 
Nvild state is small, and often bitter ; the finest come from the red hills near Spanish: 
Town, the Liguanea mountains, and the inland parts. — Long^ p. 808. 

See Benjamin — Camphire — Cinnamon — Cogwooi>^— -Laurel trees — Nutmeg, Amb^ 

fiiCAN — Sassafras. 



No English Name. AYENTA. 

Cl. 90, OR. 4-^Gynandria peniafidria Nat. or. Cclumnifera. 
This name was given in honour of the Duke D'Ayen, a great promoter of the s^^ 
ence of botany, wno had a noble garden at St Germaine. "Gfi^c 

* Itli asseUcd^ that Uiis staia will disappear, when the pean are in seaito die iollowioi; jeaiw 



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^ENU HORTUS JAMAICENSI& to 

Gen. chah. — Calyx one-leafed five-parted, parte ovate, oblong, acute, coloured 
in the middle, reflex, witliering ; corolla pentapetalous, in the form of a star ; the 
nectarium bell-shaped, sitting on acylinaric erect column, shorter than the calyx ; 
stamens very short fiiamente, inserted into the margin of the nectary, bent arch- 
wise througji a notch at the end of each petal ; anthers roundish ; germen round* 
ish five-cornered ; style cjlindric; stigma obtuse, five-lobed ; capsule five-grain- 
ed, roundish, muricate, feve-celled, ten-valved, elastic. Two species grow in 
this island. 

I. PUSILLA FEEBLE. 

Urtica foKo anomala, fiore pentapetalo purpurea^ fructu pentacocco 
muricaio. Sloane, v. 1, p. 209, t. 132, f. 2, 

Leaves cordate, smooth. 

It has a reddish, round, deep, -oblong, root, from which spriag several round green 
tough branches, about six inches high, the leaves are oval, snipt or cut on the edges^ 
smooth, and standing on a small footstalk. Between them and the stalk comes out a 
small, pentapetalous, purplish, flower, standing on a very small reddish footstalk^ 
and having one large stylus, which in sometime grows red, large, and afterwards rough 
and brown, it is pentacoccous or divided into five cellulae;, containing each a blackish 
seed, and all are pendulous or inclining towards the ground. It grows among the grass 
in town sa^'annas. — Sloane^ 

2. L(EV1GATA. SMOOTH. 

Leaves ovate, entire, quite glabrous j germ pedicelled^ nectary ten-def^ 
radiate, — Sw. Pr. 91. 



BACHELORS 



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40 HORTtrS JAMAICENSIS. balsax 

BACHELORS BUTTON. GOMPIIRENA. 

Cl, 5, OR. 2. — Pentecndria digynia. . Nat. or. Amaranfhe. 
' This generic name is derived from a Greek word signifying a nail, knob, or button. 
Gen. char.— rCalyx a coloured perianthium ; outer three-leaved \ leaflets two, con- 
verging, keeled ; corolla five-petalled, nectary a cylindric tube, the length of the 
corolla, with a five-toothed patulous mouth; stamina scarcely observable within 
the mouth of the nectary; anthers upright, closing the mouth of the nectary;^ 
germen ovate, pointed; style cloven half way ; stigmas simple, the length of the 
btamens ; capsule roundish, circumcised ; seed single, large, roundish, with aa 
oblique tip. Two species grow in Jamaica. 

1. GLOBOSA. GLOBULAH. 

Stem upright ; leaves ovate lanceolate, heads solitary, peduncles two leaved.* 
This is a very ornamental plant in gardens, and is annual, rising with an upright' 
branched stalk, about two feet high. Leaves, branches, and peduncles, opposite ; the 
latter axillary, long, and naked, except that there are two short leaves close under each 
head of flowers. These heads are at first globular, but as they increase in size become 
oval. There is a white and a purple variety. The fiowern, if gathered before too far 
advanced, will retain their beauty and brilliant colour for a considerable length of time. 
Two varieties grow naturally in the West Indies, the heads of which resemble the otber^v 
in colour and shape, but are much smaller. They are propagated by seeds. Browne 
is doubtful whether this species is not a native, as he found it growing wild about the 
bkvannas, rising twelVe or fifteen inches. 

2. INTERRUPTA. INTERRUPTED. 

Stem almost upright, spike interrupted. 

Root annual. Stem shrubby at bottom, from one to two feet high. Branches jointed^ 
.sub-decumbent, lanuginose, white. Leaves at the root aggregate, sessile ; above op- 
posite, lanceolate, obtuse, tomentose, beneath white lanuginose, soft. Flowering 
stems leafless, stiff, whitish, except that they are often purple towards the end. Flow- 
ers in spikes, aggregate, sessile, interrupted, lanuginose. Scales two or three mem- 
branaceous, minute,* forming an involucre to the calyx, which is five-parted ; the parts 
linear erect, purple, woolly on the outside. Germ large, compressed, woolly; style 
short ; stigma sub-capitate, yellow. Capsule largish, involved in the calyx, opening 
in twppafts ai.'^p, woolly, compressed, crested on the edge. This species is ^, native 
of the dry sandy fields, in the southern parts of Jamaica. — Sw. 

See Rupture Worth, Hairy. 



BALSAM HERB. DIANTHERA. 

Cl. 2, OR. l.-^-Diandriamonogynia. Nat. or. — Per sonata ^ 

This genus takes its name from a Greek word, signifying double anthered. 
Gen. CHAR. — Calyx one-leafed, five-parted, tubular; corolla one petailed, ringent^ 
tube shorty patulous; upper lip ovate^ lower with three segments; stamina shorter 

thaa 



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than the corolla, growing to its* back ; anthers double, obioog, one a little higher ; 
germen oblongs style the length of the stamina, stigma obtuse ; capsule two- 
valved, two celled, corapressea above and below, but alternately, with boat like 
valves, bursting asunder with an elastic nail, seeds solitary, in form of a lens.— 
This is nearly allied to the genus justicia^ from which its fructification differs only 
4n the stamens ; and to which Swartz united it. Two species grow in this bland^ 

l. AMERICANA, AMERICAN. 

Spikes solitary, alternate. 
Tliis is a low herbaceous plant, with a perennial root, sending out several weak stalks 
about four inches long. The leaves are roundish, hairy, sessile, of a dark areen colour, 
and arorn^c odour. The flowers are produced from the sides of the stalks, in small 
spikes, aad-are in shape and colour very like tliose of clinopadium. 

This herb is so called in Jamaica, and few or none know it by any other name, al- 
though it is a sort of aHtirrlUnum. This in Jamaica suiells, when ruljbed in the hand, 
almost like yuelilot^ or some pleasant balsam ; and thererore they call it balsam-weed or 
herb, and make a balsam of it. The juiee or distilled water is good for sore eyes.— 7 
BarJtam^ p, IZ. 

2. COMATA. TUFTED. 

Mntirrirmm minus angusfifolium, flore dilute purpurea. Sloane, r, 
1, p. 1,60, t. 103, f. 2. Foliis lanceolato ovatis^ racenio spacioso as^ 
surgenti, spicillis verticillatis. Browne, p. 118. 

Spikes thread-form, verticilled, the inferior ones umbelled. 

Swartz makes this plBntJustitia cotnata. The stem herbaceous, a foot high, some- 
^at branched and erect, angular, jointed, smooth, the joints swelling. Leaves sub- 
sessile, decussated, opposite, lanceolate, acute, attenuated at the base, smooth, nerved, 
on very ^ort petioles. Peduncles axillary, filiform, terminated by filiform and um- 
belled spikes ; flowers all directed one way, minute,- pale blue. Bractes minute under 
the Bowers. Segments of the calyx Unear. Upper lip of the corolla half vaulted, 
lower trifid spreadine, with very minute bloody dots in two rows on the throat; fil^- 
pients under the vault df the throat ; anthers two, alternate, black ; germ ovate, style, 
short; stigma simole, bent in; capsule ovate, attenuated at the base, containing four 
jround flatted seeds. — Sw, 

This plant has a hairy red fibrous root, it grows commonly in the lowlands, some- 
•times two or three feet Mgb, and is plentifully furnishecl with slender subdivided 
^ranches. — Browne. 

•TfetfJusTiTiA Balsam anrf Rosemary, Wilbu 



BALSAM TREE. CLUSIA. 

Cl, 23, OR. I. — Polygamia monoecia. Nat. or. — GtUtifera^ 
This is na^^ iQ fuemoirjr of C^olus Cluflivi^ an eminent French botanist. 
O&KN. CH4».TrC!«47^i<mrt fiye» or ^9 l^v^d, imhncatet leaflets coQcmre, permanent, 

G interiot 



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«3 liaitTUS JAMAICENSIS. bamho* 

interior ones nrradnally smaller ; corolla four, five, or six, petals, rotincllsh, spreadinjr, 
concave ; staiiuna many simj)!e filaimjiits, with sinjpie anthers growiug to the si le 
of the tip ; the pistillum has arr ovate-oblong frermcn, no Ftyle ; stioma starro.l, 
flat, obtuse^ permanent; capsule ovate, marked uith fuiTow's, celleri; the x-aIm-s 
bursting in a radiate manner ; seeds numerous, ovate, covered with pulp, atiixcd 
to a columnar anj^uhited receptacle. Tne female nectary is formeJ by a coatition 
of the anthers, inchiding the germ. Some of the fli)vvers are sterile wuh rt-.-pect 
to the male, and others with respectto llie female orguiii. Ouei>pecic:i L^ known 
to be a native of Jamaica : 

TPLAVA. VEIXOW, 

Terehinthits folio singiikri nnn alafo^ rotunda^ succulentCf fiart tctrci'^ 
petalo pailide luteo^ fnicta majnre monopyreno, Sioana, v. 2, {K 
91, t. 200, f. 1. Arbereafoliis crassis nitidis^ obovato swbrotunais f- 
fiorilnis solitariis, Browne, 236» 

Leaves veinless ; flowers four-petalled. 
TRis plant p^rows very commonly in Jamaica, generally to the height of fourteen to 
twenty feet. The flowers are produced at the ends of the branches, having a thick suci- 
culcnt cover. The perianth consists of four rows of imbricated scales, alternately three 
and two ; corolla four thick fleshy oblong screw shaped pale yellow petals ; the stamens 
jiumerous, standing in the fornvof a hollow sided square ; the gena. thick, roundisli, 
obtusdy qiiadransrukir, with twelve distinct stigmas in a circle round the toj) of it ; the 
capsule thick, roundish, many valved,. twelve-celled, containing many roundish seeds 
in a saffron coloured pulp. Wherever tlie trunk or branches are wounded, thoy throw 
out a thick resinous gum, said sometimes to be u-ed as a vulnerary, but has no smell 
or pungent tastCi This plant may be propagated Ky seeds or cuttings, and grows jn ai- 
xno^ any soiL 

This tree is so called because so' much balsatn comes from it, evert from the bark^ 
leaves, and'fruit. Sir H. Sloane tribes it amongst his /er^iui/A/V ^^ turpentine trees j 
but it is in no respect like any of the fir kind, it is certain. It hath very thick, round, 
and brittle leaves, and, when broke, comes out a milky j nice, which immediately turns 
yellow, and sticks to the fingers like iVird-lime ; the fruit is the bigness of a genetin, or 
Indian wild fig, and full of"gnm. If yon cut the baric of the tree, i.nmediateiy comes 
out a yellow ^m, but without scent. I question not but th6 gum would be of great 
use, if experienced ; for we know not as yet the virtues of it, nor ever could^meet with 
any that could give me any medicinal "use of it ; if the Indians know, they keep the use 
of it to themselves. They grow in great plenty in Jamaica; and are so plentiful in most 
parts of America, that in some places they mix this gum juice with tallow, and paint 
their canoes and boat* with it, to make them glide through the water, and preserve 
them from worms. — Bar ham j /?. 14. 



BAMBOO- AHUNDO.- 

Cl. 3, OR. 2. — Triavdria Digynia. Nat. or. — Gramina. 
This lumie has been derived from the Latin word arcoy beoauae it soon become ^ry. 

Gen 



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^^JAAIBOO HORTUS JAMTAICENSIS: 4* 

Gen. cilvr.— *Ciilyx a one or many flowered glume^ t^i'o valved, erect ; corolla two- 
valved, valves husky, the length of the calyx, oblong, acuminate ; the stamina 
three, or more ; anthers forked ; tlie^istiilum an oblong germen, the styles are 
two, reflexed, the stigma pimple : there is no pericarpium j the seed is single, to 
which the corolla adheres without gaping, furnished with a long dovsrnu 

BAMBOS. BAMBOO, 

Calyx many or one flowered ^ spikes in threes, or unequal m muaber^ sessile. 

The bamboo is a native of the East Indies, and was introduced into Jamaica by Mr. 
M. WaUen, who procured it from Hispaniola ; it was first planted in the parish of St, 
^rhomas in the East, and has since, been very deservedly and very generally propagated, 
for it is a most useful plant. 

It has a woody, hoUow, round, jointed stem, growing from forty to sixty feet high. 
The main root is long, tliick,' jointed, spreading horizontal I3', sending out many cylin- 
drical woody fibres, of a whitish colour, many feet long. From the joints of the main. 
¥oot spring the stalks, and send out at their joints several stalks joined together at their 
base, which run. up in the same manner as those they shoot from. If any of these be 
planted, with a piece of the first stalk adhermg to tlieiw, they will perpetuate their spe-* 
cies. I'hey arc armed at their joints with one or two sharp spines, and furnished nith 
long lanceolate leaves, ronndisfa at the oase, they are rough and striated, eight or nine 
inches long, having short footstalks. The tlowers are produced in large panicles from 
the joints olf the suiks, placed in parcels close to the receptacles, resembling those of 
the common reed, and are succeeded by reeds of the same form, surrounded with 
down. 

There is scarcely any plant that may he used for a greater variety of useful p«rposea. 
than the bamboo : The young slioots are covered with a dark green bark ; these, when 
very tender, are pat up in vinegar, salt, garlic, and the pods of capsicum, and thus 
afford a pickle, which is esteemed avaluabte condiment in the Indies, and is said great- 
ly to promote the Appetite, and assist digestion. The stalks, in their young state, are 
almost solid, and contain a milky juice, of a sweet nature ; and, asthe stalks advance 
in age, they become hollow, except at the joints, wl>ere they are stopped by a woody 
membrane, upon which this liquor lodges, and coucreies into a substance called tabaxi)\ 
or sugar of mombUy which was held in such esteem by the ancients, in some particular 
disorders, that it was equal in value to its weight in silver. 

The nature of this substance is very different from what might have been expected 
in the prc^uct of a veiretable. Its indesti uctability by fire, its total resistance to acids ; 
its uniting by fusion with alkalies, in certain proportions, into a white opake mass, into 
a trai>sparen't pcrmaaont ^te?? J and its being again separable from tiiese compounds, 
entirely unchanged by acids, Ac. seem to allprd the strongest reasons for considering it 
as very nearly Identical with common siliceous Ovirth. As to its medical virtues, tliough 
the drug be, as before observed, in much esteem with the orientalists, yet they ai'e not 
such as to cause it to have any regaid paid to it in the modern pi*actice of physic in Eu- 
rope. Yet the virtues of the several parts of the bamboo are very considerable, accord- 
ing th l#onr€iro, who,. in his Flora Cochinchinensis, tells us that the leaves, bark, buds, 
and root, arc used. The leaves, he says, arc cooling, emollient, and resolvent ; their 
decoction is good in fevers, cough, pains of the throat, &c. the -thin bark is cooling 
and agglutiivwt, iUKl a geotle astringent ; it is good in feverish heats^^ hcemorrhagias, 
BauseoiJ, and vomitings: the roots and buds aiie atteauatii^g/ pix)mote uriue, and purify 
^ . r G2 the 



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44 HORTUS' y-AWArCENStS; BxKis«fclJl 

the Wood; are good In wandering paihs, obKtnictioiwv wid venereaT cas^s : from Ae 
fivsh rools, mixed with tobacco leaves and betel, in e<)Uai proportion, and infused and 
macerated tor some days in oil, it* prepared an.ointment of great cfiicac}' ia discussing 
baril and schirrous swellings. 

The bamboo is a very omara.ental as. well as- useful plant, and may be formed into- 
most beautiful arbours. Its growth is very rapid, for, in a rich soil, the young shoots, 
growing in a large clump, have been found, on several days measurement, to have 
grown seven and a halt* inches e%'ery t\iBenty-four hour:*. Froia the nature of tiieir roots, , 
when planted along the edges of such roads as are made oa the sides of steep hills, 
they uot only prevent the road from breaking away, but form an agreeable shade, audi . 
iiide any frightful preci{)ice from the eye of the traveller. As a live fence th^ ar^ ex- 
cellent, coming quickly to maturity, and when full grown, which they will be iafour 
or five years, are not only, impenetrable to cattle, but atlbtd tiiem food in their leaves 
and young shoots,^ which they eat heartUy. The old stalks grow to five, six, or seven, 
inches diau>eter, and are then of a shining yellow colour, tiiey are very hard and dura* 
ble, and very useful in buildings ; the long duration of these canes was fully exempli^ 
fied in the lathing of an old. house in Spanish Town, which stood. near the »pot where 
Rodney's Temple is now erected, and was pulled down to make rocun for 30fue of the . 
pew buildings. It was a Spanish buildiug, came into our possessiou at the reduc- 
tion of the island in 1655, and was taken down aboutuh^ year IT^.or 17i>l, when the 
wood of the wild cane, a kind of bamboo, was found peilactly sound. In the East ail 
sorts of household furniture are made of it^ as also bridges, mtstafor tkeiri>oatfl,. rails,, 
fences, gates. It is also couverted iato pipes for conveying water : {)aper is also said 
to be naade of it, by steeping it in water, and thereby forming a paste. They also make 
poles of it to cariy their palanquins ; and the smallerstaiks tumiah good walldng sticks. , 
The inhabitants of Otaheite make flutes of them, about a foot long, with two holes only, . 
which they stop with the Erst linger of tlie left h^nd, and the middle cue of the ligbt^ . 
and they blow through their nostrils. The wood is a good fuel, and it bos been su^-^ 

fested that, on estates, where copper wood is scarce, twenty or thirty acres planted m . 
amboos, would af&rd an inexhaustible supply of that necessary article, as, whea. qqMh 
down, they grow up ag^in yery rapidly ana as vigorous as ever. 

See Rebds* 

Banana— -y^e PtANTAnr. 



No English Name. BANISTERIA; - 

CL. 10, OR. 3. — Decandria trigynia^ Nat. or. — Trihilatit. 

This was so named by Dr. Houston, in memory of the R^. John Banister, a curioua^ 
botanist, who lost his life, in the search after. plants, in Virginia. 

Gen. char. — ^The calvx four or five parted, withDectarioustpores ontlie ouuicte of 
the base; conoUa five-petals^ very large, roundish, and aiigulated; the. stamina 
are small and coalescent at bottom ; styles- simple, stignuo^obtuee ; c^iulas three, . 
with membi-anous wings ; seeds solitary, .covered^ tootbed at - die laleml edge.*'^ 
Four species have been discovered ia Jaoi&icau 

1. LAUIUFOUA* 



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* ' I. IMtm?FO^A. LA<mBL-l.EAVF.D. 

^c^r standensfoliis laurinis. Sloane, v. 2, p. 26. /})^7a' (7r;ff?w, ^(?i 
minibus untalati^ glahrisy raeemis laUralibits. Brovmej p. 231.— 
Sycamore. Bcirham, p. r85» 

Leaves ovate, oblong, rigid ; racenaei5 terminal ; branches ferruginous, downy. 

Stem shrubby^ eli^ing^ ^ih loose], refleit--«kiiper^g, roondiBb rugged blanches. 
Xiteves petkvle^l, ovitte'^laficeolafee,. acute, enlire^ c^nac^ous-membranooeous, nenred, 
smooth. Racemes oatttded^ cermiaaxing J^ranches, aud twigs decussate, ferrugiiHHks* 
tooieulose, peduncCes commoaly one-floweted, fermgiBous^ short, yellow. Leaflets 
at the base o£ tbe peduaoiies two, opposite, rainwte, tomentose. Caiyx five-leaved ; 
)ea8ets ovate4a»ceolate, acuminate, with twa routtd, depressed, green glands, fastened 
to tb^ base. Petals spatuiate. Anthers elliptic. Oerm thcee cornered, trifid at the 
tip : styles subulate, short.: stigmas dilated, as it were halved. One ^ ^ three cap^ 
sules is usually abortive v the wings three or four times longer than thexapsules. 

This shcub has a^stalK no bigger 'than a swans quill, . covered with a whitish coloured 
smoottvbark,.having a pretty iargeLpitiu. It rises by and turns round any plain it comes 
near, moimtingsjeveratr feet high^ sending forth foot-long branches, with twigs standing 
opposite one to the other, the leaves^ on quarter inch^longicxnstalks, are three inches 
k>ng and half as broad, in the middle, where broadest, endii.^ in a point, having one 
■Buddie rlb^odseveral transverse ones, being smooth, hard, uitn, and dafk green. — 
Xhe^opa of the small btaDcfaes, for three ifid^ io length, are beset with yellow flowersj 
spike fashion. \t ffen plentifuliy on the b«iks of tbe Rio Cobre» on the roful to Pas-* 
^Lge Fort, and in^,a gully by the churchia St. Dorothy's. — Sloane. 

I have oft^aseen^ as I have rode aloi^g,. a small plant among the bushes, gnywin^, 
about six or seven feet high^ which seemed not to be able to support itsell^ but yet did 
not climb about any thing ; It had a very small stalk, and but few leaves, as large as a 
laurel, but thin and softer. At the top were branches ofyellowish flowers ^ afterwarda^ 
came winged seed-vessels, exactly like the sycamore.— j^r^a9}i^ f. 185. 

. • ^, tONOlFOLIA. LONG-LEAVED. 

Leaves oblong, aeumiaate, rigid^ shining^ panicle terminating^ branches^^ 
^reading very much. . 

3, FULGENS. SHINING. 

Acer sQondens miniis^ apocyni facie, fotio stibrotundo. Sloan^, v. 2^ 
p. 27, t. 162, f. 2. lolits oroiculatisjpetiolis bigtandulis^ seminibu^ 
unialatis nigosis, racemis subumbeUatis alaribus. Browne, p. 231. 

Leaves subovate, downy underneath; racemes cross. armed; peduncles ttm« 
beUed. 
This has slender winding stalks, which rise five or six feet higlu The flowers grow 
iaa round bunch at the extremity of the branches, and are of a brownish veilow colour. 
The leaves are ovate with a point, villose beneath, shining, smooth on tne upper sur« 
fiuse. A solitary branch comes forth from the axils, furnished with leaves, producii^ 
at top, in a kind of umbel, several filiform, simple, one-rflowered, peduncles. Seeds 
irect^ the outer angle decreasing to an edge/ the inner jcoore blunt^ pttttin|; forth a 

small 



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\ 



«. HORTU-S MMAICENSISL ^<»4m 

small sharp membranaceovis angle next the pistil ; by the leeds, next the base, aro 
three small appressed toothlets. 

SJoane says the stalk is as bi^ as a goose quill, that the leaves stand opposite, and 
that it grew on the entrance ot the red hills, on the Guanaboa road^ 

4. CCERULEA. BLUE. - : 

Leaves elliptic ovate, acute, glabrous ; racemes teaninal panicled. 

Stem sarmentose, climbing ; branches round, with a whitish barJc, somewhat rooghf 
Loaves quite entire, glaucous, on -short petioles; peduncles short, bracted. Calyx 
five-parted half way down. Flower blueisti. Filaments short, equal, styles erect.— = 
Fruit <>omewhat woody and tomentose, with the wing of a sulphur glaucous colour. 

Browne sa3-s all the species grow in the gravelly hills about Kingston and St. James% 
they are all climbers, rising by slender stems to seven, ten, or fourteen, feet highr— 
They differ from the nMlpighia chiefly by ilie nakedness of tlieir seeds. i 

Banjium — See Egg Plant. . 



BAOBAB. ADANSONFA. 

Cl. 16, OR. 5. — Mo7iodelphia Folj/andn'a. Nat. or. — Colum^iferte. , 

Tliis was named from M. Adanson, a French surgeon, who resided many years in 
Senegal, «nd brought home a curious collection of seeds and plants. 

Gen. char. — Calyx a one-leafed perianthium, half *five-cleft, cupform, divisions 
revolute, deciduous ; corolla five-petalled, roundish, nerved, revolute, connected 
bythe claws with each other and the stamens : the stamina are nameroUs filaments 
united at bottom into a tube, which they crown, expanding horizontally ; anthers! 
kidney shaped, incumbent ;:the pistillum has an* ovate germen, the style long, tu- 
bulous, variously intortcd ; the stigmata-are numerous (10), pfismatic, villous, ray- 
expanded : thepericarjoium an ovate-woody capsule^ not gaping*, ten-celled, with 
farinaceous pulp, the partitions membranaceous. : seedsaiumerous, kidney shaped, 
ratlierbony, and involved in a friable pulp. This genus is nearly allied to the 
bombax ; the fructification differing only in the seeds being covered with meal in- 
stead of wool or cotton. It is a native of Africa, and was introdnced bylVlr. East. 
There is only one species. ' 

DIGITATA. HNGERED. 

Leaves in three or five finger-Uke divisions. 
This tree is called Ethiopian sour gourd, monkies bread, or calabash tree, ^nd is, 
perhaps, the largest production of the whole vegeta'ble kingdom. M. Adanson says, 
though the trunk is not above twelve or fifteen feet high, they are from sixty-five -Xo 
seventy-eight feet round. The lowest branches extend almost horizontallj' ; and as 
they are about sixty feet in length, their own weight bends their extremities to the 
ground, and thus form an hemispherical mass of verdure, of fi-om one hundred and 
twenUrto one hundred and thirty feet in diameter. The roots extend as far as the 
branches ; that in the middle forms a pivot, which penetrates a great way into the earth, 
ijjje rest spread near the surfiBK:e. The flowers are in proportion to the size of the tree ; 

and 



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BAOBAB irOilTUS JAMAICENSIS: 4r 

end are followed by an oblonn^ fruit, pointed at both ends, about ten inches long, five 
or six broad, and rovered with a kind of greenish down, under which is a ligneous rind, 
Irard and almost black, marked with rays which divide it lengthwise into sides. Tiie. 
frnit hangs to the tree by a pedicel two feet long and an inch diameter. It contains a 
whitish, spongy, juicy, substance ; with seeds of brown colour, and shapetl like a kid- 
ney bean. The bark of this tree is nearly an inch thick, of an asii-coloured grey, greasy 
to the touch, bright, and very smooth ; the outside is covered with a kind of vainish ; 
and the inside is green, speckled with red. Tlie wood is white and very soft ; Uie early 
>;hoots are green and downy. The leaves of the young plants are entire, of an oblong 
form, about four or five inches long, and almost three broad towards the top, having 
several veins running from the middle rib ; they are of a lucid green colour. As the 
plants advance in height, the leaves alter, and are divided into tiiree parts, and after- 
wards into five lobes, which spread ont4n the sliape of an hand. lii its native soil, tlie 
•tree sheds it«« leaves in November, and new ones begin to appear in June. It flowers 
in July, and the fniit ripens in October and November. It is very common in Senegg^J 
and the Cape de Vcrd islands; and is found otie hundred leagues lup the country sX 
Goulam, and upon the sea coast as far as Sierra Leona. 

The age of this tree is perhaps no less remarkable than its enormous size. M. Adan* 
<?on relates, that, in a l^otaniral excursion to the Magdalene islands, in the neighbour- 
hood of Goree, he discovered some Calabash trees, .from fiv£ to six feet in diaraetes^ 
on the bark of Which were eiigraved or cut to a considerable depth, a number of Euro- 
pean names. Two of these names, wbieb he was at the trouble to repair, were dated^ , 
one the 14th, and the other the 15th century. The letters were about six inches long, 
but in breadtli they occnpied'a very small part only of the circumference of the trunk ; 
whence he conclu<ied they had not been cut when these trees were young. These in- 
scriptions, however, he tHinks sufficient to determine pretty nearly the age which these 
<alabash trees may attain ; for even^ supposing that those in question were cut in their 
early years, and that the trees grew to the diameter of six feet in^wo centuries, as the 
engraved letters evince, how manyxenturics must be re<juisiie to give them a diameter 
of twenty-five feet, ^i-hich pei'haps is not the last term of their growth. T^e inscribed 
trees mentioned by thia ingenious Frenchman had been seen in 1555, almost two cen- 
turies before, by Thevety who meiitions them in the relation of his voyag-e to Terra 
Antarctica or Australis. . Adansou saw them in 1749. 

•The virtues' and uses o£ this tree and its firuit are various. The negroes of Senegal 
•dry the.bark and leaves in the shaded air, and then reduce them to a powder, which is 
of a pretty eood green colour. . This powder they preserve in bags ot linen or cotton, 
and call it Itllo. . They use.it every day, putting two or three pinches of it into ajness, 
whatever it happens to be, as we do pepper and salt : but their view is, not to give 
relish to the food, but to preserve a plentifui and perpetual perspiration, and to at- 
temperlhe too great lieat of the blood ; purposes which it certainly answers, 4s sever^ 
Europeans have proved by repeated experiments, preserving themselves from the epi- 
<3emic.fever, which, in that country, destroys Europeans like the plague, and gene- 
Tally rages during the months of Septenqber and October, when, the rains having sud- 
denly ceased, tha^un exhales the water left by them upon the ground, and fills 3ie air 
Avith a noxious vapour. M. Adanson, in that critical season, made a light ptrsin of the 
leaves of the baobab, which he had gathered in the August of the preceding year, and 
li'ad dried in the shade, and drank constantly abojit a pint of it every morning, either 
befju'e or. after breakfast, and the same quantity of it every evening auer l|ieiieat of the 

sua 



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4» HORTUS J'AMAICENSISv BAMADoaf 

Sim began to abate ; he also sometimes took tlie same quantity in the middleof the cla3^ 
but this .was only when he felt some symptoms of an approaching fever. By this pre* 
caution he preserved himself, during the five years he resided at Senegal, from the 
-diarrhoea and fever, which are so fatal there, and which are, however, Sie only dan- 
gerous diseases of the place ; and other officers suffered very severely, only one ex^ 
ccpted, upon which M. Adanson prevailed to use this remedy^ which, (or its simplicity, 
was despised by the rest. This ptisan alone also prevents. the heat of .urine^ wuich i* 
common in those parts, provided the person abstains from wine. 

The fruit is not less useful than the leaves and the berk^ The pulp that envelopes 
the seeds has an agreeable acid taste, and 4s eaten for pleasure : it is also dried and 
powdered, and thus used medicinally in pestilential fevers, tlie dysentery, and bloody 
flux : die dose is a drachm, passed through a. fine sieve, taken either in common water, 
or in ah infusion of the plantain. This infusion is brought into'Europe under the name 
of ferra sigiUata Icmnia^ The woody bark of the fruity iind the fruit itscl^f, when spoiled, 
helps to supply the ne^oes with an excellent soap, which they make by drawing a ley 
from the ashes, and boiling it with palm-oil that begins to be rancid. 

The trunks of these trees, when decayed, are hoUowed out and made the burying 
place of esteemed characters among the negroes in Africa, and it has been observed, 
that the bodies shut up in these trunks become perfectly dry without rotting, and form 
A kind of mummies v^ithout embalement. This tree, is propagated from seeds. 



BAHBADOES CHERRY. TMALPIGHIA. 

Cl. 10, or. 3. — Decandria trigynia. Nat. or. — Trihilatien 

This genus was named by Plumier in honour of Marcello Malpighi, professor of me- 
Acine at Bologna, the famous author of Anatome Plantarum. 

Gen. char. — Caljrx a five-leaved periantliium, erect, very small, permanent, con- 
verging, it has two melliferous glands, o^'al and gibbous, fastened to the calycine 
leaflets on the outside and at bottom; the <:orona has five petsds, kidney- form, 
large, plated, ciliate, spreading, concave, with long Hnear claws; stamina are 
awl shaped filaments, placed in a cylinder, erect, united below, small ; anthers 
cordate; thepistillum nas a roundish germen, small, with three filiform styles; 
stigmas blunt; the pericarpium is a globular berry, torulose, large, one-celled^; 
the seeds are three, bony, oblong, burnt, angular, with an oblong blunt kernei. 
There are many specie^ of whi<£ seven have been^foundin Jamaica. 

l.<3LA3Riu 'dMOOT^. 

Arbor bacci/era^ folio sukrotundoy fructu cerasino stClcato rtfbro poly^ 
pvrenoy ossiculis canrmlatis. Sloane, v. 2, j>. 106., t. 207, f. 2.— 
FrtUkosa erectUy foliis nitidis ovato-acuminatis^ floribus wmbellatis^ 
ramulis gracilibus. Browne, 230. 
I^eaves ovate, quite entire, smooth, peduncles umbelled. Flowecs in axillaiy 
or terminating bunches, about four flowers in each* The pedicels have a sin- 
gle jointy calyx ineurved, petals sub-cordaite. Stijgpoiafi simple ^vith n Uttlis 
)<kuip« 

Tliifi 



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Thisf tree risek to about fifteen feet hi^, having sereral trunka cweted with a dry 
Cibloured smooth barky and many branches spreading out on all vides^ and forming a 
pleasant round head, sending out twigs tv/o and two op{^site to each other, covered 
with opposite leaves j for the most part tlie leaves are roundish, smooth, very green, 
Having very small f6otstatks an inch long and tliree quarters broad, among which come 
out the flowers, standing on half inch long footstalks, consisting of Ave petala, each of 
which, is made spooti^iashioD, being narrow at the begimiing and round or broad to- 
Wards the end, and of a purple colour. To these foUow, on inch long footstalks, round 
red fruit of the bigness of a cherry, smooth skinned, having one or more furrows or 
channels on its outside, and containing within a rt^dd^, sweetish, not unpleasant, co* 
pious juicy pulp, several triangular fulcated stones, wnose side:^ are so accomodated ta 
One another as seem to make one round one, with several furrows on its outside. Being: 
thoucrht a pleasant iruit, they are planted in most gardens^ where, some small ume 
, after rain, one never misses ripe fruit. 

They aire not only used by way of desert, but likewise by sick people, whose sto- 
.machs languish ; they dispel wind, and take away the qualmisimessof U^ a^omarh«- If 
jivea with sugar, Pij>o says, they are good for the breast. — Sloane. 

2. PUNICIFOLIA* POMEGRANATE LEAVED. 

Ft^ticasa erecta^ ramiUis gracilibas patejUibus, JioribiU solitariis.^ 
Browne, p. 230. 

Leaves ovate, quite entire, smooth ; peduncles cnc-flowered* 

This shrubby tree rises ten or twelve fe^t^ dividing into several slender spr^adtng^ 
Cmnches, covered with a light brown bark. The flowers are produced in smau umbels 
at the end of the branches, upon short peduncles. Corolla pale rose colour. Tnia 
ihrub has much the appeurajice of a poniegranatje plant. Tas fruit is of the same siz^ 
aiul fjrm as the common English cherries; vury succulent, of a light reddish colour, 
and a pl?a.>ant sub-acid taste. It laakos very agreeable- iarts and exceheot jelUe^^^ 
Browne and Long. 

3. VERBASCIFOLIA. ^ . MtTLLEIN-LEAVE©. 

Leaves lanceolate, ovate, tomentose, quite entire, racemes terminating.. 

4. NJTIDA. GliOSST. 

S^tmiVs et minus divisay foliis ovatis nitidis, iactis ^ttricvihitx m 
Browne, p. 230. 
Leaves lanceolate, quite entire, smooth, spikes lateral* 
This shrub grows about three feet high. Stem' upriorht, rounrf, even ;^bninchef 
A^nssated, upright, r.>und, covered with a shining bark^ Leaves decussated, opposite, 
^Jblbng, blunt, wit.i a convex margin, nerved,- veiaeJ, firm, pale green, snining; ou 
short petiilles. Racemes axillary, shorter *than the leaves, many flowereJ ; floweri 
p|pduncled yellow. Berry three-lobed,^ three-seeded, bloo 1 red. Browne says it it 
cooimon iir the hills of Sc. Eiizabotb, and bears large iurd berries, woich are said to b# 
nuch usad by turkies and other large fowls. 

5, URENS. OTINOINO. 

Arbor haccifcra^foliO oblongo subtiUisiimis spiuif Suiius oUsito^ /)nicfu 
H cerasino 



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^ tfOR'TUS' XAftTArtTENSISr bauams*. .; 

^acemis alar^uH 



cerasino sulcato polypyreno^ ossiculis cannulaiis,' * Bl< 
106, t 207, f. 3. Fiminea/oliisotlongis hispidis, raa 
Browne, p. 229. 



Leaves joblong, oyate, with rigid decumbent bristles underneath, preduncles one*^ 
flowered aggregate. * 

This is called stinging BarhadoeSj or amhage cherry ; it rises with a strong upright 
item about three feet high, covered with a brown bark, sending out several side brancheff 
which grow erect. Leaves ending in acute points, sessile,- covered with fine bristles^ 
which So not appear unless closely viewed ; these are double pointed, and sustained' 
bv pedicels of the same fragile transparent substance with themselves, descending frorar 
the middle of them ; these are easily broken J but the bristles enter pretty deep, and 
^ick close to whatever has^ forced vth^mofF. The pale purple fl!ower» come out upoii 
long slender peduncles from the axils at each joint, four, five, or six? toirether, in » 
«ort of whorl; The three styles stand apart. It grows about the towns^of Kingstoa and 
St. Jago de la Vega, in great plenty. : 

6. CRASSIFOLIA. TIHCK LEAVED. -* 

Arhorea^ foliis subrotundisj alternisy infa^e suUanuginosis ; spitis 
*" crassis^compostfis tenninalibus. Browne, p. 231. 

Leaves ovate,, quifce entire^ tomentose underneath, racemes terminating. 

- Browne calls this the larger locus-berry tree. The upper branches terminate in loose 
bunches of yellow flowers ;. but each of the divisions is simple, as well as the topof tho 
main supporter, which terminates also in a single spike. The glands of the calyx, or 
eup are remarkably distinct in this species, which seems to have all. the habit and ap^ 
pearance of a cmninia, — Browne; 

**'•-' 7. CORIACEAi- MATHERY. 

Tiliie affinis laurifolia, arhuti Jloribus albis racemosis odoratiSj frucfu 
pentagons Sloane, v. 2, p. 20, t. 163, f. 1. Arborea Jloribus 
spicatiSf foliis qvato acuminatis. Browne, 230. 

Leaves ovate, acute, entire, smooth on^both sides, racemes terminating spiked. 



^"'fhis tree, Mrhich Browne calls tdcus-berfy, rises about thirty or forty feet high, by 
a thick trunk, covered with a clay coloured furrowed bark. It is common in the lower 
hills of Liguanea. The leaves conae out irregularly on smaJl footstalks, and, while 
j^otkng, are covered on-both sides with down, but this falls off gradually, and Uiey^- 
pear pretty smooth and shinin|j after a short time. There is a remarkable stipula, oc 
^r, at the ala of every leaf, which, with its opposite, seems to embrace the stalk. On 
the ends of the twigs come out the flowers several together, white, and very sweet- 
scented, succeeded by the seeds, two of which, are generally ^botiiyc^-Sloane and 
Sirqwne. .... 
All the dhowe species are easily propagated from seeds, 

Barbadoes* GoosEteRRY— «5;ptf Prickly Pear. 

* BARBAnOES^ 



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BARBADOES PRIDE, or FLOWER FENCE. C-ESALPINIA* 

Cu 10, OR. l.—rkcandria momgj^nia^ t«JAT. OR. — Lcmentacea. 

This {reniis is nameJ in hononr of Andrea* Cfipsalpinus, cliief physician to Pope Cle* 
meiit VIIL ; tiie fataer of systenjatic arrangemenU in pia»ts. He died at Rouie, 1602. 

Gen. char.— Calyx, a onc-Ieafed five-parted periantliium, tube short, segments ob^ 

long, deciJuju:*, the I >west longer Ui n tUc rest, 5»»igut.y arcned ; ttie corolla haA 

. five-petals, injierted into the tiiroat oi Uic caiycine lUDe, unequal; lamina round- 

. ish ; stamens ten fiiumt nts, inserted into tuc tn'roat of Uie caiyx, fiiilorm, woolly 

at the base, declining ; anthers obiong, decumbent ; tiuJ pistnmm, tias a superior 

{jermen, iinear-obioiig, com^jresseJ, attenuated at i^iC base; bivle filiform, tne 
ength of the stamens ; stigma biunt ; toe perKarpium an obiO^g legume com*- 
pressed one celkd ; seeds sub-ovaie, compresued, liat. Tnis piani oeion^ed to tua 
miXi\J^^uim'iuna^ v%hicii is so nearly allied^ inat b^^urcz united U to tiiii. 

PVLCnERRIMA. BEAUTIFUL. 

JSenna spuria arborea spinosa fol.is vlails ramcsisj sen dfcompositt^ 
Jlore tx luiec ct mbro spevw^o. bioane, v. 2, p. 49. ^JcuUiUa^ 
Jcliis bipinnatis^Jloi ibus crocets puichcrfunisy jJtduhvuiiSlvngi^ .ypt* 
catis in^idtntibiiSk Biowae, p. '^'jLb. 

Priclcly ; leaflets oblong-oval emarginate, they and the calyxes smooth; cory^mbs 
simple; petals frhiged ; stamens very iong 

It rises with a straight stalk twelve or fifteen feet high, which is covered with a grey 
?l>ark, and is sometimes as thick as the small oT a man^s leg, divijing mto several spreau-- 
ing branches at tbe^top, whigh are armed at each jomt„ with two sU >rt, crooked, strong 

'Upmesy and garnished with decompound winge i leaves, each leat consisting of six or 
eight pair •f simple winded i^ves. They ar^ of a agnt green colour, and. wUen bruised 

^init a strong odour. Tne branches are terminated bj ioose spikes of flowers, whicii 
are sometimes formed into a. kind of pyramid, and at others disposed more in the iorni 
of an umbel. The footstalk of each fiow<'r is near tliree indies long ; tiie ilower is conm 
posed of five petals, which are roundish at the top, but are contracted to narrow tails 
at the base. They spread open, and are beautiluily vane|;ated with a det^xed or orange 
colour, yellow, and some spots of green; and emit a very agreeable odour. Tiie style 
and stamens are three inches long. After the flower. is past, the germen becopes a 

^broad flat pod three inches lang,.divid6d'intQ iiiree or four celts by transverse partitions^ 
each including one flattish irregular seed, from which the plant is propagatt^d. 

This beautiful plant is a native of both the Indies, and ii is doubtful v\netaer itis in- 
digenous, or has been introduced into Jamaica, where it was found by Dr. Houston iia 
Woods at a grt^at distance from any seltlements. The French cajl it pciftciadej or Jieurs 
de paradis. Browne says that all parts of the plant are . thought to be very powerfui 
emmenagogues, and are frequently used tor that purjiose amoag the negroes. ^ 

This, I suppose, is so called from their fencing in their plantations with this shrub, 
-^hich is full of short strong prickles ; but they are commonly called in Jamaicv docd/e^' 
^esi they grow in all or roost parts of America. The flowers are elegantly mixed uitia 

\ Y^liowj and therefore caUcd, by some, Spanii»h caraaugn. or wild semiiu Sir Hang 



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t7 ftOllTUS JAMAICENSIS. ^BABLEitu 

Sloane tribcB it amongst the bastard senna's, for this comes the nearest of any in Ame- ^ 
rica, and, when dried and old, it is very diiEcuit to distinguish one from the other ; 
and as for virtues, I have often experienced it to have tiie saine with that of Alexandria; 
- besides which, a decoction of the leaves or flowers has a wonderful power to move or 
force the ^nenstrua m women. The flowers make a deUcate red purging syrup, an4 
the root dyes a scarlet colour. The whole plant is full of short sharp prickles, branch- 
ing and spreading very large, with beautiful flowers, red mixed witn ) ellow, on which 
are a great number of thrums like saffron ; the leaves, when greei?, are of the shape of 
indigo ; the pod is in shape of the English broom pods, or like the senna of Alexart- 
dria ; when ripe and dry it is black, containing five or six flat seeds, cordated, and of 
« dark-greenish colour. This shrub is fullest of flowers in tlxj. months of November aad 
JOecember, and .the seed is ripe in January. — Barham, ;>. 16^ 

A drachm of the powdered seeds of the Barbadoes pride,, is said to give ease in the 
belly-ache, when taken inwardly. For this purpose it has been asserted to-exceeil opi- 
ates or any other medicine yet known, being not in the least unpleasant to the taste, 
giving.quick relief, and making way for gentle laxatives to be exhibited. For obstruc- 
tions Uie following has been recommended : take of tiie root of Barbadoes pride, of the 
jbajrkof tromp^-^grecroot, and sarsapurilU root, a like quantity, boa and use tUe decoction. 

See Brazilleto. 

Barbadoes Wiu) OiWE—See Wr Ilive^ 
JpARK Tree — See Mahoe. 



M English' Name. BARLERIA. 

CIm 14, OR. 2. — Didynarrvia ungiospermia. NaT. otu^^-PersoTiafie. 

^This name was given by Plumier in honour of the Bev. James Barreher^ a Doauni* 
.can and M. D. of Paris. 

Gen. CHAR —Calyx four-parted, two opposite leaflets larger ; corolla ane leafe^. 
funnel-form, quinquifid, fifth division deeper ; sumina filiform, two very short, 
capillary ; aibthers upper oblong, lower withered ; the pistil has an ovate gennen, 
style ien^h of the stamens,, stigma bifid ; capsule acute, two ceiled, two-valved, 
gaping dasttcally at the, claws; ^eeds two, 'Compress'ed, rouudi^ii. Two spcci^ 
£ro w m this island i 

1. BT/XIFOLIA. vBOXLEAVEO. 

Bpineai^ilUryi opposite solitary ; leaves roundish, quite eixtire. 

' This plant has shrubby stalks, five or six feet high, wUu strong spines under tjie 

leaves. The flowers ^^ produced in .whoris to^va^^d lixe upper part of tne stalk ; these 

are succeeded by sliort i^eed vessels, containing taree.or f^ur flat seeds. It ii said to be 

A Dative of Jacaaic«u 

a. FRiONITI^ v^HORNY* 

Spines axillary^ pedate, fourfold, leaves roundish, quite jCBtire. 
' JiUm iierbaceousy round, »uS» .Leaves s^ppouiq, running down tke pe<idl^ -fm* 



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fMUr «ORTVS JAMAI€E.NSia C.» 

descent underneath. Between the bnmch aiwl the.leaf, a spine with four sharp rays 
from the centre. Flowers sessile in the axils. Calyxes acuminat^-spiny. Two of the 
four stamens very small at the bottom of the corolla, witli httle anthers. The capsule 
has a loDgish soUd point ; and bursts without such internal elastic points as are in the 
justitia. It is a native of the East Indies, and was introduced into the botanic garden^ 
JLiguaoeay by Mr. East. Botii species are propagated by seeds. 



BASIL. OCYMUM. 

Cl. 14, OR. 1. — Didynamia^ gymnospermia. Nat. or. — Verticilht^. * 

Cen. char. — ^The upper lip of the calyx is orbiculated, the inferior one quadrifid j 
the corolla is re-supinatod, with one Hp quadriBd, the other undivided ; the exte« 
lior fiUment sends out a reflected process at the base. 

BASIUCUM. 

Leaves ovate, glabrous : calyx ciliate. 
The root of this plant is fibrous ; the stalk green and quadrangular, not above half a 
*foot high ; the leaves oblong and acute. The seeds rn eaoh cup are four, small, naked, 
and oval. TRe inflorescence a spike. The juice of the leaves is said to be good for 
iKnre eyes, and the same mven in toddy to women in labour, is said to help forward tb6 
'birth. It grows every where in the lowlands and savamias. 

We have in Jamaica two or three sorts of basil ; but that which grows spontaneously; 
and most common^ is that sort which Sir Hans Sloane calls ocymum rubrum medium. 
•There is another sort in South America, mentioned by Monsieur Frezicr, called u/v^ 
Jiaqttilla ; . a shrub, saith he, which has the scent of our sweet basil, and contains a balin 
t)f great use for sores ; whereof we saw a wonderful eflPect at Yrequin, in an Indian^ 
whose -neck was deeply ulcerated. 1 also had the experience of it on myself. The 
flower of it is long, growing up like an ear of corn, of a whitish colour, inciming to 9, 
violet, and is tribed amongst the Ugumina. Basilsare ^oken auainst by Dioscorides^ 
vGalen, and Chrysippus ; but Pliny commends them much, an^ saith they are good 
^igainst the stiog of scorpions and other venomous serpents^ and are accounted a very 
^reatcdXiiiaJi and gopd against pains of the head|..&c.—JSarAtfm|j9. L?^ 



'BASKET-WITHE, TOURNlSFOirnA. 

* Cl. 5, OR. I. — Pentandriamonogynia. Nat. or. — AsptriJoUa. 

^Tbis was so named by Linneus, in memory of Joseph Pittoa Touraefwrt^ the famous 
^author of an elegant arrangement of plants. . 

-.Oen. €har.— ^alyx a five-parted small 'perianthtum, ^vegpents awUshaped, -permft* 
fient ; corolla one-petalled, five-cleft, segments acuminate ; stamina awUsbaped 
'filaments, length of the tube, and placed in the mouth; germen globose^ styl^ 
simple, club-shaped, stignoa circumcised ; the pericarp-a globular berry, two-celU 
«(), perforated by two pores at tpp ; the «eeds four^ ..^db^vvte^ eeperated by tba 
pulp. Six species grow in (hi^i imnd : 
« J^ 1«SUMILXSU 



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•ft: HORTUS JAMAICENSm HMXt 

1. HUM1U5. humble; 

HecVnata diffusa^ et hirsuia^ JoUis ovatis^ ramulU Testis vatidts.-^ 
Browne, p. 169. 
Leaves ovate, acuminate, smooth ; petioles reflexeJ ; item twining. 

Tliis plant has low shrubby suiks, which seldom rise Jiiore.thaa mreefcec high, seml^ 
ing out slenJer woody brancucs. Leaves rougu, dark green, on taeir upper, out puie 
en cHeir under, surface. The flowers come out m singie axil*ary spikes, tuey are wuito, 
fti id succeeded by smad succulent berries. Tins Browne caiis tfte ba^kcl^wUiit^ aiui 
«ays It gn>ws very luxuriantly, stretching sometimes maay ieit from the uiaiu rooi. It 
is geacraily used fur dung- baskets. 

2»JllftSimsSIMA. -SHAGGY. > 

^HfUotropii Jlore^ frutex haccifer racemosuSj folio rugosOy fmtido^ 
via.vhno subrotundo hirsuto, Jruciu albo. Sloane, v. 2, p. 108, t. 
212, f. 1. Scandtns joliis hiitis rugosis ovatis spichs rumo^iS.-^ 
Browne, p. 169. 

Leaves ovate, petioled, pointed ; stem rough, harred ; spiles tern^nal, recurj;ed. 

TTie stem is shrubby, somewhat scan(.ent, bi*anched, covered with a fcrrugijaous 
iha^giness. Leaves oblongs entire, nened, hairy aii over, but cxtrc uieiy so bcLtbiU. 
Spikes orricemes very much, branched, stilf and straight, spreading a iitUej Iiohcis 
waite, directed all one way. , .Filaments very sh(iri: ; aiitiiers biackiah green ; gerai 
ovate; stigma headed ; berry rugged hirsutQ^ whea ripe white, . iivo-celled^ wita tvvii 
aeeds m each ct^lL^-J^zef. 

BrQwne cads this plant the larger ^scandent-tournefortia, -and says itraisea itself gene#. 
Xally by the help of the n( ighbouring trees, and shoots sometimes to a consi Jerabia 
^eight in the wopds Sloane observed it only to grow tiiree or iour feet higli, having 
a green brittle stem, with irregular eminences on its surface. The leaver are ninp 
incnes lon^, and r^g^ei or corrugated^ of a dark green colour^ aad having a very uu^ 
jaygury timeli. 

Bryonia niscrafruticosay racemi ramulisvarieimpif'citis^ at^ecaudtt 
scoj'pwn s insta/y in se contprtis^ baccis albis una vel altera vigrig 
wacula nofatis. Sloane, v. I, p. 234, t. 143, f. 2. Frutuvsa Si:anm 
dens; baccis niveis niaculis nigris notatis. Browne, 170. 

Leaves ovate, acuminate, smootli, petioles rchexed, stem twining. 

^'Tbis has a trunk as thick as ones arm, woody, an(i<twming round' the neighbouring 

trees for support, rising to the height -of ten or twelve teet, and sending gut several 
Slender woody branches. The leave s are smootli, of a dark brown colour, and a littia 

i%owed back. At the tops -of the. twigs come several small croaked branches, variously 
t.ir.ie J, an : twisted into each other, like a scH)rpion's tail, sustsuning in spikes the small 
'viiite flowers. Tae berries which succeed are as big as pepper corns, white wiien ripe^ 

.with remarkable black spots, which vary with the number oi the seeds, whicii are soine« 
times one, two, or more; though constantly four in the more perfect specimens. : Thit 
pluiit is common about Kingston and Spanish Town, fi;rowing about trees or shrubs.—* 

;B; .wne cans it the clMttbiog jtoumefortiay wiU^ spotted, heirnes, 4nd »Ieader branches. 



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4. CYMOSA. dYME0. 

Jldielf^pii Jhte^ frtdexj fdio maxima oblongo acuminat&y glahro.-^ 
Sloane, v. 2, p. 109, t. 212^ f. 2. Finitescens Aumilis^ foliis -mmr-* 
tint's oblongo ovatis rugosisj spicispmdulihrarioribus^ramuliscras^ 
sis sulcatis. Browne, p. 169. -^ 

Leaves ovate, quite entire, naked, spikes cymed* 
. The stem grows three feet high ; the branches are herbaceous, angular, grooved, 
imooth ; . the l^ives ovateJanceoIate, long, petioled, smooth, wrinkled beneath.-— 
Flowers sessile on one 3ide, disposed in two rows, five-cornered, greenish white ; the 
stigma is headed; the berry roundish, white, with one pare at the^top, fwo-celled^ 
with two seeds in each ceH. The whole plant-is fetid. — Sew. 

The large leaved shrubby tournefortia is sojieiimesrobserved in the wdods, afid may 
\Ki reckoned rather a plant of a few years standing than a shrub ; it rises generally from 
five to seven or eight feet in height, and is remarkable for the thickness of its uppei^ 
branches, and the length of its pendulous flower spikes: the leaves are very lai-ge,^ 
oiomeiimes a foot or more in. length. — Browne. . 

5. SUEFRimCOSA, . SHRtrBBY. 

Thymrlea facie frutev maritimus tetrasperrno^j flare tetrapetalo,-^ 
Sloane, v. 2, p. 29, t. 162, f. 4. SubfrMticosa^ foliis subincanis obdk • 
longis^ fronde comosa. Browne, p. 170. 

Leaves sublanceolate, hoary^ stem suflfhiticose;' 
TThis has woody stalks, and rises six or seven feet high, from which spring xozTif 
iJender woody branches. It has a red brown bark. Leaves about two inches long, and 
an inch broad in tlie middle, rounded at each end, ,but. having acute^points, of a dark 
green on their upper surface, but having a white down on their under side, and sitting 
close to thjjkbranches.- Flowers fcrmiai^ing and axillary, in slender -brancbmg spikes, 
which are re-curvei, and the flowers ransred on one side of them ; they are white 
(Sloane calls them yellow),, and succeeded by small succulent berries^ containing two 
or three seeds. Browne calls it the ash-coloured sea side tournefortia, and found n^r 
ttie sea side, near the Burou^ in St. James's, and seldom rising above three or four 
feet. This plant seems tabe ^&suriana maritima^ . at least Sloane's plant is reftrreil 
to that genus. . 

CwBICOtOR. TWO-COLOURE0. 

Leaves ovate, acuminate, smooth, somewhat wrinkled above, spikes cytned,. 
erect, recurved. — 5^. Pr. 40* 
^ This shrub is a fathom in height ; the trunk round, branched, even ; branches al- 
ternate, almost upright, rouno, smooth;, leaves alternate, ..entice, nerved, veined^ 
f¥n(K)tb on both si4es, somewhat wrinkled above, and sometimesj^ but very seldom^ 
Toiigh-liaired, even beneath and pale ; hence the trivial name of bicolor; petioles of a 
middling length an Aeven. Spikes terminating,»bEanched^ branchlets re.curve4, rough 
haired, many- flowered'; calyx even ; corollas greenish white, with a hirsute hoary tube, 
k is a native of Jamaioa ia<;oppi€es.r— «S(fW. ^ 

»ASTARDf 



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m iTORTirSF TABTArcrN^rS: MSTAW 

BASTARD ALOE; ALETRlS, 

Cl. 6, OR. 1. — Hexandrtamonogyniar. Vat. oti^^^Litkce^, 

This name is derive 1 from a Greek word, signifying to grind.. 

Genvchar.— No calyx; corolla one-petalled, funnel shaped, semisexfid, much 
wrinkled; stamina 'awl-shaped filamentg, inserted into the base of the divisions 9 
anthers oblong, erect ; germen ovate ; style subulate, stigma trifid ; capsule three- 
cornered, acuminate, tiiree-celled ;. seeas very many. A variation of the fayacin* 
thoiJes is the only species of the genus in ttiis island at present^ the capensis, aao«» 
thei* species^ being lost 5 both were introduced by Mis East;^ 

HYACINTHOIDES* HYACINTH* UXE* 

Stemless, leaves lanceolate, fleshy, flowers geminate. 

The Guinea aletris has all the leaves lanceolate, flat, and erect The leaves of boA 
tfie varieties are pa!e green, with bands of a darker green. It has thick fleshy rooes, . 
creeping far where they have roortk. Tlie leaves arise singly from the root, ami are 
near a foot and a half long, stiff, waved, and proceevling immediately from the root, 
as do the flower stems, which, when the roou are strong, are olten a foot and a hatf 
high, adorned almost the whole length with flowers of a clear white, seldom continuing 
in beauty more than two or three day^ This is a very hardy plant, propagaies luetf.. 
bsx by iu creeping roots, and delights in a light gravelly sod. 

Bastard Breadfruit — See Jaack«: 



"BASTARD BRYONY. CISSUS: 

Cl. 4, OR. l; — Tetrandria monegynia. NAT. or. — Uederaceat. 

This is derived from a Greek word for ivy. 

Gen. char. — Calyx — the involucre, many leaved, small ; the perianth one-leafed, fla% ^ 
short, obscurely four-cornered; corolla four- Detailed, nectary a rim surrounUing 
the germ ; the stamens the length of the corolla, inserted into the nectary, an- 
thers roundish ; the pistillum has a roundish germen, obtusely four-cornere , re« 
tuse, the style the length of the stamens, stigma simple, acute ; the pericarpium 
^ round shining umbilicate berry ; the seed a roundish stone, ~ Four specieii gcoir- 
ia this island : 

r. StCYOIDE^. SICYOS-LIKBi 

Bryonia alhagenkulaf a y viola foliis baccis i viridi purpvrasetntihiis* 
Sloane, v. I, p. 233, t. 144, f. 1. Scandens^ foliis oblofigo ovafit^ 
cd niargines denticuiis ^etaceis referiis. Browne, p. 147, t. 4, £ 
1, 2. 
Leaves sub-cordate naked, bristly serrate, brancWets round. 

Rtem frutescent, geniculated, herbaceous at top, scandent, subdivided, f^ivaricatfn^^ . 
rooting, round, bloody dotted, smooth. Leaves petioled, alternate, cordate, ovate, ^ 
^etaceouji serrate, with the serraturcs distant and pressed close, nervcu, .smooth on both 



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•A3TABX> HOaTUS JAMAICENSia ^ 

fiides, somewbat socculent, of a dark green colour. The floWers 3rcnow^ htta]>dd in 
form of an umbellisle; the branches spreading fiom a centre, equal, dichotomousj 
the pedicels one-flowered. At the divisions of the peduncles are four small scales.-^ 
Pfctals inserted within the rims of the calyx, broader at tiiebase, ovate, reflex, deci^' 
jduous, yellow. Nectary a yellow four-parted rim, surrounding the germeh. ^Fila- 
ments inserted between the divisions of the nectary and deciduous; anthers orangey 
^•le subulate ; berry oblong, black. This plant is common in the lowlands^ and found 
%hmhing upon penguin fences, and other low bushes. 

. 2. TRIFOLIATA. THREE LEAVED. 

Bryonia qlba tnpAylla viaxima. Sloane, v. 1, p. 233, t. 144, f. 2.— • 
rriphyUa scaiukns^ foliis ovatis subdentalisy petiolo cmnmutii mar-» 
ginatUj calictdis, majmbus. Browne, p. 147. 

Leaves in threes, roundish, ha':y, slightly toothed; branches with membrana^ 
ceous angles. 
Stem suftrutescent, about the bigness of a goose-quill, climbing, having five or sl± 
angles, knotted, rooting, branched, green, the angles slightly winged ; branches 
iierijaccous, lax. Leaves three, always together, at a crooked joint, on very iong 
•pentangular petioles, with opposite clavicles,, the leaves are smootti, andf of a 
yellowish green colour. Leaflets on short petioles,. ^vate, acute, the lateral ones 
oblique, serrate, nerved, smooth on both sides.r Stipules at the base of tlic 
petioles roundish. Flowers umbelled, blood red. - Common peduncle opposite to 
the petiole short. Umbel four-*cleft;. involucre formed of the fading scales of the 
hBse. Peduncles partial^ tw^ parted ; with the terminating umbellules and pedicels 

Soloured. Calyx, or rim of the germ, «ntire, and four-cornered ; petals minute, red^ 
ieciduous ; nectary yellow ;. filaments inserted into it and subulate ; anthers yellow ; 
germ depressed ; style four-cornered-; siigma yellow ; berry roundish, one-seeJed.-— 
This is also a native of Jamaica^ and climbs high upon the branches of trees. - 

Z. QUADRANGULARIS* . FOUR-ANGLED. 

Leaves cordate, ^eshy^ senrate toothed, stem four-cornered, somewhat iwelling. 

Stem very lonff, climbing, smooth, and even. Leaves alternate, petioled, subhir- 
■sute, smooth on both sides, sharply and reiootely serrate. Petioles round. Tendrils; 
opposite to tiie leaves ; ^exoot is tuberous. It is ajnative of the East Indies^ and was 
introduced by Mr. £^t. 

j&e Vine Sorrel. 



BASTAin>BULtTTREE, BUMELIA. 

Cl. 5, OR. 1. — Penfandria mondgynia. Wat. or. — Dumosa 
1%is name is derived from the Greek name of a tree supposed to be a sort of asb* 
CtEN. CHAR. — Calyx a five-leaved perianthium, leaflets roundish ovate, incumbent, 
concave ; corolla one-petailed, flve*clefk or five parted, tube very short, round, 
border five-parted, parts ovate, entire, spreading, concave, with two little scales 
at the base of each; the nectary five- leaved, segments smaller than tlie corolla, 
^ the base of the filaments, surrounding the germ, acute ; filaments inserted 
into the €0»U% at tke bottom of the tub^, between the lower segmentw^ tha leogdi 

1 sAf^ 



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|» fiORTUS JAMAICENSI3. bastai* 

of the tuTjc ; anthers o^-atc, erect ; gcrmcn superior, ovsitc ; style thick, erect, 
shorter than the stamens ; stigma obtuse ; the pericarpium an oval drupe ; the 
seed a single kernel, oblong, smooth, with a lateral scar. This genus has beea 
seperate I from the achras by Sw'artz, although it is thought tlie following species 
-^■>Biore properly belong to the latter genus : 

1. NIGRA. BLACK. 

Fnictibiis minor thus glabris per ramos sparslsy seminibus suhrotundis^ 
cicatricula minivia ovata. Browne, p. 201. 

Branchea wand- like spreading, leaves terminating oblopg, lanceolate, smooth, 
wav^d about the e((gc, branch! ets flower^bcanng. - 

Browne calls this bastard bully tree. He only describes the fruit, as above, small, 
smooth, and scattered over the branches, containnig roundish seeds, marked' with a 
very small ovate scar. This is the common ba^ivard billy tree, a native of Jamaica, afid 
i)Ut an iftdifferent timber ; it is the black mastic of Barbara. 

2. RETUSA. BETUSE- LEAVED. 

Friictu minort glabroy foliis otatis, Jioribus confertis alaribus. f^ 
Browne, p. 201. 

Leaves opposite, wedge-ovate, rctuse, rigid, flowers crowded, axillary. 

. Browne calls this the mountain bastard bully tree. 

3. PALLIDA. PALE. 

Branches upright, leaves terminating, elliptic, obtuse, flowers crowded, .lat©» 
ral._^a,. pr. 49. 

4. MONTAN\\. ' ^rOUNT/IX. 

Leaves scattered, alternate, oblong, obtuse ; ilo wers axillary, peduncled. — Sw^ 
' Pr. 49. 

5. ROTtTNDIFOLIA. • TK)UND LEAVFD. 

. LeJives sub-orbicubte margined, veined, coriaceous, smooth on both side3.— * 
Su\ Pr. 50. 

Barham calls this tree white ma'Ulc, and sa}"s, " I met with a great many of tliese 
trees in falling a piece of ground in the mountains above Guanahoa, in the parish of 
St. John. I obser\'ed, they bore a fruit much of the shape and bigness or cashew- 
atones, and the gum that came out of it was in small little drops, white, and of the scent 
of mastick, for which reason ihe tree is called so ; and I believe it is as good as any 
jxwstick whatever, and of the same virtues." — Barham^ p. 207. 

6. SALICIFOLLA. . WILLOW- LKAV ED. 

Salicis folio Idto splendente, arbor^ Jioribus parvis^ailide^uteis penta^ 
petalls c ramidorum luterihtis confertim exeuntibus* Sloane,,4r. ^, 
p. 98, t. 20^, f. 2. Foliis ifblongis nitidis lUrinque productis^ Jioribus 
canfcrtisj Jasciculis it^fra frondes' sparsis. Browne, p. 20i, t. 17, 
f. 4. 

Leaves lanceolate-o\'ate, acuminate; flowers crowded,, axillary, and lateral. 
This is called the willowrleaved sapota, white bully tree, and gaiimeta wood, it grows 
i to a considerable height, and i^ generally furnished with many branches towards the 

top. 



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#A6TAit» HORTUS JAMAICEN^SIS. M 

^>p, rising irregtilarly and at distant stages. It U commonly obaerred t» gro\f 
straight and tapering, anJ most iroqucatly found in the lower lands, cspociuliy 
about Li^uanea and Manchioncal. Tuo wood is pale yellow, and reckoned a good 
timber ; but is njostly used m such parts of buildings as are least exposed to the weataec 
The berries are blacky boaooih; and very saialj, and no part ot the plant milky.— 

The flowers of this tree come out in tuFcs from the branches, and -are pale yellow-; 
Sloane says they grew plentifully in the red hills. This is Barhain's bastard bully tree, 
of which he says — " I remember, after the great fire at Port Royal in Jamaica, iu i 703^ 
Jesuits bark u^as so scarce that we gave four pounds for a pound of it, and some practi- 
^oners could not get any for love or money ; upjn which, tney m k le xn^ o( t le baric 
^f this tree, for iniennitting fevers, with .good success, but were forced to give twice 
or thrice the quantity : Since that, they have found out a bark tUat every way answcx* 
the <;nu5 of the jc,4u;ts.bark,. which I siiall mention hereafter."*— i?a;Aa;», p* iJ5. 

See BvLLY Tree, . 

BSiSTARD Cabbage — See Cabbage Babk..- 



bastard cedar. bubroma. 

Cl. 18, OR. 2 — Polyadelphia Dodecandria. Nat. or. — Columnifcne. 
Tliis derives its name from two Greek words, signifying an ox and food. 
CtN. CHAR, — Calyx three-leaveJ^ leaflets ovate ; corolla, ,five petals, claws large, 

inserted into ttie nectaiy^ Larders semibifiU -, nectat?^ pentaphv Uous, belUshapcd^ 
•^the stami narrow from the nectary Uke rays, alternate with its segments, anttierj 

on each filament three ; germen superidr roundish *, style fiUform, stigma simpio ; 

pericarptum sub-globulifr, woody, muricate, ending in a five rayed star, punclied 

with hoies^ five-ceUed, valveieas^ not opening ; seed vt>ry many, ang^iiar, fixed 

iu a double row. to a central sub-globular recc^ptaclc. 

Gt/AZUMA. 

* jlinifruetUj morifotiaavborj fiorepentapetaloftavo. Sloane, v. 2,' p. 

Id. Fdliis <fblon^o cordatis^ serratis^ ab alicro latax moforibUs ; 

ymciu minori scahv. Browne, p. 30t>. 

This tree rises to the height of forty or fifty feet, ba\ing a trunk as large as a nian^s 

llbdv ; it has it very AtMmg^reot, and tue bairk is of a dajrk l>rown colour and furrowed^ 

sending out many branches towards the top, spreading wide in every direcuon. It is 

naturally stnqght, but generally found crooked, from being fircquently topped and • 

oaten by caule. The leaves are oblong heart-shaped, alternate, near four inches long 

and two broad near the base, ending in acute points, . bcrrate, having a strong oud^rib, 

and sevcml tran^iverse veins, of a bright green on their upper, and pale on tneir under, 

surface, on short petioles, the flowers aro in axillary clusters, small, and of a yellow 

colour. Ttic flower is described as f jUowS by Swartz : The calyx tour-ieaved, iei*hets, 

leat dowaj petali ilUiky yellow, fivc-ncrved, pubescent, with lanccohite awns or 

1 2 LrisUcs. 



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m HOKTUS JAMAICENSIS. lASTAii> 

bristles inserted into the divisions of the petals, and longer than them, upright anC 
J>ur;)le ; nectar}* goblet sliaped, smaller than the petals, inclosing the^pistil, five-corai 
cred and.five-iootned; filaments inserted into the base of the nectarj-, i\nd of the same 
length with it, tnfid from the middle, lying under the arched petals ; anthers three 
;deiiex simple ; germ orate, rough at the end, echinate when viewed through a magni- 
fying g^^ y style the length of tlie stamens ; stigma five-cleft ; fi*uit hard, nigged all 
over with tubercles, the rind perforated like a sieve ; seeds ovate, unequal. Tiie 
decociion of the inner bark is gelatinous, like that of the elm in Europe, and is deemed 
a cure for the leprosy ; Swaitz mentions it ^as being celebrated for its efficacy incuring 
the coco bay or eiepbantiasis, or joint evil. 

From the similitude of this tree to the elm, it is called by the French Orme d'Ame-r 
rique, and Bois d'Orme. It is a native of Jamaica, and peculiar to the lowlands, form- 
irg a very agreeable shaJe for cattle, and frequently supplies them with food in drjr 
n\eataer, when all the herbage of the field is burnecttip, or exhausted ; horses as wejl 
as cattle being observed to fee i very greedily both upon the fruit' and foliage of the 
tree. On this account it is planted in many pasttires, and the birds or rats propagate 
it :n all the surrounding hedges, by carrying its seeds among them. The leaves it is 
thought would answer for feeding silkwonns. The seeds are very mucilaginous, and 
not disagreeable to the taste. The fruit is first green, but turns black and hard in its 
ripe state. A little before it ripens, it has a : pleasant «weet taste, and is frequently 
eaten by the negroes, either raw, or bailed as a green in their broths. The wood is 
light, and so easily wrought, that it is often usedr by coaoh and chaisemakers for their 
sixte pieces. It splits freely, and is said also to make good staves fur sugar hogsheads* 
Sloane observes, that earth taken from under xhese trees raises naseberry seeds the be^t 
of any. 

To make a good bird Hmc, take of the in^er bark of young bastard cedar, fill a blad^ 
^er therewith, and bui^it la a warm dunghill .untilit'rots^ then $ake and beat it well 
in a mortar. 

Bastard cedar, as it is here so called ;,for what reason I know not, being in no res^ 
pect like ce:lar. Its leaves are in the shape of English hazel ; its frtiit like the mul- 
berry, first green, and when ripe black and hard, which sheep and cattle <klt^ht to 
eat, and will make them fat. I take this tree tQ be of the mulberry kind, more than of 
the ce Jar: the flowers are like the line or lindal tree, yellowish, and very odoriferous 
saieUin^ iike our May or hawthorn flowers. — Barliam^ p. 1 7» 



BASTARD CHERHY^ 'IHRETIA. - 

Cl. 6.— oh. 1. — Pentandria menog^ia^ Nat. oil — AsperifoHit. 
So named after the ingenious artist and botanist G. D. Ehret. 

CJen. CHAR.— Calyx a one- leafed, bell-shaped, perianthium^ half five-cleft, obtiis*, 
Bmail, pennanent; corolia one -pet^dled, tube longer than the calyx, border five- 
cleft ; stamina subu.ate fiiaments, length of the corolla ; anthers roundish, incum- 
bent ; the pistillum uas a roundisii germ, filiform style, obtuse emarginated stig- 
ma ; the pericarpium a roundish one-celled berry, having four seedsj convex oil 
4ia«;side, and com^i:ed on tiie other. 

TINIFOUA. 



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iiASTARH HORTU^ JAMAICENSia ^i 

TINIFOUA* TIXUS- LEAVED. 

Cerasa ttffinis arbor bseeifera racemosay fford albo pontapetaloy fnictta 
Jiavo inonopyreno ediUidulri, Sloane, v. 2, p. l>4, t. 203, f. 1. — 
Arborea, foliis oblongo^ovatis atternis^ ractmis Icnninalibits, — > 
BiX)wne, p. 168, t. 16, f. 1. 

Leaves oblong ovate, quite entire, smooth, flowers panicled. 

The roots of this tree spread all around on the surface of the earth, and semi up an 
t»pright tree, rising from twenty to thirty feet high ; the trunk has a dark l>ro\vn fur- 
rowed bark, with an oblong thick head. Branches unarmed, roundish, sul)diYided. — 
The leaves alternate, veined, blunt, sinpotb, dark green, ou short petioles. Panicles 
terminating, oblong, square. Flowers tennineting, numerous, white, small, standing 
on crooked fclender footstalks. The calyx is five-parted, segments of the corolla finally 
rolled back ; filaments larger than the corolla. Berry spherical, at first yellow, then 
black. It flowers in January and February. This tree is common in the lower lands of 
Jamaica, and rises to a considerable size in favourai)le situations. In the church yard 
of St Anvlrew's parish there are two or three trees from forty to fifty feet higli, with 
proportionate thick trunks, and large spreading heads. The berries seldom exceed the 
size of a large currant^ aiid arc frequently eateii. They also serve to feed poidtry. 

See CURRANT-TREE. 

Bastard Germander — Se£ Germander, 



BASTARD GREENHEART. CALYPTIUNTHES* 

Cl*. 12, OR. 1. — Icosandrna monogynia, Nat. oji.^-Hesperldte. 

This geous.takes its name from two Greek words, signifying a veil and a flower* 

Gen. char.— Calyx a one-leafed perianthium, bell-sbaped, truncate, toothless, or 
Tery obscurely four-toothed, superior, permanent, covered with an orbicular, 
concave, deciduous, lid : There is no corolla ; the stamina are many capillary fila- 
ments, inserted into the inside of the calyx at tlie rim ; anthers roundish, twin, 
email ; the pistillum has a roundish germ, fastened to the bottom of the calyx, 
two-celled, with a few seeds fixed to the partition ; style filiform, simple, bent 
in the length of the stamens ; atigma blunt ; the pericarpium a globular oblong 
berry, crowned ^*ith the calyx, one-celled; aeedsmgle, or few, slightly angular. 
There are three species, natives of Jamaica, the two first formerly united to the 
genus myaus. 

' ' ' ■ 1. CHYTRACULIA. 

Arhorea^ foliis evatis gl^ibris vppositiSf racemis temiinalihiis. Browne, 
p. 239, t. 87, f 2. 
. Arboreous, peduncles terminating, panicled, tricbotomous tomentose, leaves 
ovate, attenuated at the tip. 

Browne says this tree, which is called bastard greenhearf, grows chiefly in the parish 
of St, John, and is reckoned an excellent tiinber wood, but it seldom exceeds fourteen 

• or 



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63 BORTUS JAMAfCENSIS. justarii 

or fifteen inches in (diameter. TIae leaves are smooth and opposite. The Vvl is fastened 

to the calyx laieral'} ,. but allerivar Js t\ivi\s back, au4 ti^ca xha fiiaiQiDat^ i§3Uc foTtXi, 
which befgrc badbcca twi;itcJ aiiJ <:onccalecl. 

2. ZU2YGIUV. 

Fmficosum, foUis ovatU nitidis et rdviulis ubijue Jugatis. Browwe,^ 
*J40, t. 7, r. 2. 
Arborescent, ])eduncle5 axijlarj^, trichotomous, s|)rca(iingy leaves ovate^ blunt, 
branches ibrked. 
This slirnb seldom rises above ton or twelve feet in height ; the whole is bushy, an J 
bears black berries, crowned with the margin of the cup. Taese contain four smooth^ 
slightly ani.nUar seeds, one or two only uf whiL-h usually arrive at maturity. - The style 
is longer than the stameiis ; and the ^stigoia is acute. — Mrowiw, 

3: RIGIDA.. P.IGID. 

Arborescent, peduncles solitary, axillnry, three-flowered, or thercdKHit3» 
leaves ovate-acut^,. convex, \cinleis, rigid — *SV. Pr. p. t:o. 



EASTARD HEMP AGRIMONY^ AOERATUM. 

Cl. 19, OR. 1. — Syyigenesih poly^amia aqualis. Nat. OR. — Compositte. 

This naiAe is derived from two Greek words, signifying never okl or ever- green. 

Gen. char*. — Caly?; common, oblong with many lanceolate sub-equal scales ; eoroITa - 
compound uniform ; cproUets hermaphrodite, tubulous, numerous, equal, scarcely 
longer than the calyx ; proper one monopetalous funnel shaped ; border quadri- 
fid, spreading: the stamens are short capillary filaments, ^ith cylindric tubular 
anthers ; the pii^tillum has an oblong germ,, style the length of the stamens, stji^. 
mas two, slender erect \ there is no pencarp ; the calyx uncl^ng^d ; seed solitary, 
oblong, angular, crowned with a chaffy,. five-Feaved,., upright, awned, calycie ; 
the receptacle naked, convejf, very small. Tiiis genus diftei*s from eupatorium 
in the crown of the seeds, and from bidens in the nakedness of thij receptacle.— *- 
There are two species, one of which is a native of Jamaica. , 

CONYZOIDES. ITAIRY. 

Ccnyzauriictgjolio, Sloane, v. J, p. 258,. t 152, f. 2. 

Leaves ovate, stem hairy. 

This has sevcml white strong filaments for roots, with lateral fibres, and a square 
reddish coloured woody stalk, a foot and a half high. Ti:ie leaves as well as branches 
*starid opposite, the first on three-quarters of an inch footstalks, hairy, and much ser« 
rated,, like the leaves of nettles, an inch and a half long, and thri:e-quarters of an inch 
broad in^the middle, where broadest. The flowers and seed come at^ top,, the latter 
being cannulated, small, black, and pa^ppous, iacbsed in ^mah icavcs for- Uieir calyx, 
^ct round them squammatim. — iloanc. 

m BASTARD 



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•A5TAM . HORTUS JAMAIC ENSia ' . €3 

t 

' BASTARD INDIGO, AMORPHA. 

Cl. 17, OR. 3. — Diadclphia decandrfa^ Nat. or, — Papillonace^. 

GeN", ciiah. — Calyx a one-leafed perianthium, tubular, and persistent; corolla 
ovate, concsrtc, erect, scarcely larger thiin, and pljvced on thtj qpper side of, tliQ 
calyx ; fdaments longer than the corolla, anthers simple ; the pistillum has ^ 
roundish germ, subulate style the length of the stamens, stigma pimple ; the pe* 
ricarpium is a lunate legumen, reflected, larger than the calyx, and tuberculated \ 

. the seeds are two oblong-kidney shaped. By the corolla alone, this genus may be 
distinguished from all known plants ; the petals being the banner, anl the wnigs 
and keel wanting, which is verj- singular in a papilionaceous corolla. There is 
onlv one known specie?, a native of Carolina, and introduced by Mr. Wiles, iu 
1798. 

FRUTICOSAji SIIItUBBV. 

Tt rises with many iiTcgular stems to the height of twelve or fourteen feet hi it > native 
soil,, in Jamaica it seldom exceeds four or ^\e feet. It has very long winged leaves, in 
;*hape like those of the common acacia, they are of a pleasant green colour, beautifully 
pinnated, and terminate by an odd one. The flowers are produced in long sI.Mulcr 
spikes, they are small, and of a deep purple colour, which it throws out plentiful ly in 
this island every year, and makes a very shewy appearance, but produces no se^d, 
though easily propagated by cuttings, or laying down the young branches. It thriven 
best in cool situations. This shrub grows naturally in Carolina, where formerly a coars© 
501* of indigo vyas made frpna the young shoots, whence thp plant took its namQ, 



BASTARD IPECACUANHA. ASCLEPIAS, 

Cl. 5, OR. 2. — Ptntandria dis^ynia. Nat. or. — Contortce. 

This is named from AsculapiusJ the god of medicine. 

Gen. ctiar. — Calyx a permanent perianthium, five-deft ; corolla monopetalcus flat 
or roflex, divided almost to the base into five oval acuminated segments, re6ex^ 
but the points tnrned up ; iiecticrios.five, ovate, concave, putting out a little horn ; 
stamina five small filaments, antliers >oblong, and affixed to a truncated body; 
germs two, styles tw ^ stigma common to both; pericarpium a" large, oblong, 
smooth vent ricose, foUicle, .pointed at the extremity, opening lengtlr.vays j secoa 
numerous, imbricate, crowned with a down ,; receptacle meqibi-anac<?oas. 

c^miASSAvicA. crnACOA. 

'Apocynum erectinn folio oblong Oj Jlore lunbellato^ petal is coccineis re-* 
fieris. Sloane, v. 1, p. 206, t. 129, f. 4, 5. ErtJcta:foliis.anfrus^ 
its acumifuitis verticillitev ternatiSy floribus iimbeUatis ierminatrici^ 
Bus. Browne, p. 183. Blood flower. Barham, p. 22. 

' Leaves lanceolate, smooth, sfaininjf ; stem ^imple^ umbels erect, solitary, la- 
teral 
This has strong and deep roots, several inches long, the inside white and woody, 
sending out lateral fibres. The stem iron^ one to tiiree foet high, green, round, up- 
right, 



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64 HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. tUTiAtt, 

f 

right, ptibescent, jointed, milky. Tlie kaves ire t)pposke and decussated, . petioled^ 
acute, entire, smootli on both sides. Flowers in uiiiDels ; umbellules terminating, or 
t^pposite to the terminating leaflet in pairs, peduncled, Involucre none, but only a 
tew subulatcd leaflets. Peduncle the length of the leaves, pedicels shorter, one flon:^ 
ered. l.eaflets of the calyx reflex ; nectaries five, round the middle rorposcle, ovate^ 
car-cowled obliquely inwards, with a little horn from the nectareoits base, sabre shaped, 
bent in tow<irds the g-enitals. In the middle is a truncate corpuscle, hollowed at tlie 
tip, bluntly five-cornered, covered with five scales at the sides, and gaping with as 
many chinks. Scales hollowed within. Olands five, roundish, black, to which are 
iixed above, within the scales, hairs of glanduliferous pedicels, in place of anthers ; 
these glands are oblong, pellucid, panduriform, and filled with prolific moisture ; 
styles two, hid within the column ; the seeds are attached to the r^ceptacle^ fixed at 
each end ^ in the middle of the follicle, small, covered with an aril, and crowned with 
a sessile pappus of long silky down, by which they prefixed in a squammose manner, 
and which ser^^es for their dispersion. The corolla is of a saffron colour, the nectaries 
bright yellow, and the umbels being moderately large, give them a beautiful appear- 
ance. It grows very common almost every where in Jamaica,, and is called red tread by ■ 
the negroes. Browne observes, that in the cooler inland pastujres the flowers ana 
changed to white, which variety is frequently to be seen. . 

Barham calls this plant blood-flower, and says, ^^ It is so called from its stopping 
bleeding when all other remedies have failed ; and is so well known in Jainaica that It 
needeth no particular description. I knew a gentleman that had such a flux of bloody 
by the p:!es or hemorrh&idsy that there was no stopping it, he himself, and all his 
friends, despairing of his life. At last, he was advised to this flower^ which was im» 
mediately got (for they grow almost every where), and bruised, and pressed out the 
juice, and was given with a syringe ; by which he was perfectly cured. 1 had a patient 
that had a virulent gonorrhea, and after I had {carried off the virulence, and b^an to 
use balsamic* and restiingents, 1 found it would not stop, and all the medicines I could 
think of were to no purpose for above twelve months. At last he took a decoction of 
tlie flowers, leaves, and stalk, of this plant, twice a-day, for five or six days, and it 
made him perfectly firm ; and some years after he told me, that he never had the l^ast 
symptom of a gleet, or any other illness attended him in those parts. Lately, an an- 
cient gentleman consulted me, who had a gleet Mpon him many years, which he ap- 
prehended was pure weakness of the vessels, for he was very well in all other respects : 
I advised him to make a tea of the dried floweffi, and drink of it in the room of other 
tea, and at the same liours, for a month ; in which time, he told me, it made hini per- 
fectly well, and said it was worth its weight m gold, and believed, if a man could make 
it known'in Europe, he would get an estate by it. I have known many old gleets cured 
by it ; and I question not but it may be as useful to women, for the Jluar altms^ and 
ether excessive discharges,'" — Bar-ham^ p, 22. 

The following case, which remaricably points cut the stj-ptic virtues of this plant, is 
- taken from the manuscript of Dr. Anthony Robinson, who made many ingenious obser- 
vations on the natural subjects of this island^ about the middle of the last century ; and- 
whose untimely death, before his raanuscri[>ts were properly arranged, was a great loss 
to science, and to this island ; for it is evident, from the specimens of his labours still 

Preserved, that he was a ma^i of real genius, and possessed of uncoouooQ talents for ion 
ttstrioiis research and just discrimination i ^ Hix, 



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VastarS HORTUS * JAIilAI'CfiNSlf^ ?# 

* ^ Mr. Thomas Nicol, a practitioner in physic, informed me, ujion my tellinpr him 
i&f the styptic virtues of the pseudo ipecacuanha, which Barham calls blood-flower : 
^lat a mole bad by some af:cidetii been, wounded in the thigh, from which a^ violent 
haemorrhage of blood issued, which, after the ineffectual appJication of all tlie styptics 
j!> hi» flbop, was stopped instantaneously by a negro applying a handful of the braised 
blossoms aod leaves o^' this plant. Another time, by the use of the same plant, applied 
in the s^me. manner, he saw a jack ass, with a large ulcerated wound, full of maggots, 
eureJ eitf^ually ; for it imn^ediateiy killed the maggots, and then cleansing the wound 
fcealed it.'* 

The juice of this plant* made into a syrup with sugar, has been observed to kill anci 
Bring away worms wonderfully, even when most other vermifuges have failed ; it i.< 
given to children from a tea to a comftion spoonful. The root dried and reduced to 
powder, is frequently used by the poorer sort of people as a vomit, the dose from ono 
to two scruples. To weaken jhe operation of the root, it may be gently infused in 
warm water, which, poured off, is naildly purgative ; and the root being afterwards 
4ricd and pulverised, will form a more suitable and lenient cathartic for innnn or deli* 
cate habits. — Brawnt and Long. Many commend the juice of tbe wild ipecacuanha as 
an antidote to worms. It operates with violence, both up and down, and I have known 
it sometimes do wonders. The juice of the leaves and tender stalks, from one to threo 
%^ spoonfuls for a dose. — Grainger. Thq juice of the leaves is often given to persona 
afflPcted with worms, from a tea spoonful to an ounce, for a dose, on an empty sto-t 
mach. In this way I can vouch for its powerful and salutary effect. When given in 
lar^e doses it acts as a n|ild emetic or purgative ; and ia worm fevers also as a diapho- 
retic an I diuretic. Thjis, whilst it expels .worms, it brings al^out a crisis. The rooti^ 
jire white and woody. When given in powder, as a vomit, they act as an emetic ; but 
this is a dangerous practice. — JVright. Dr. Dancer, in his Medical Assistant, page 
879, second edition, recoounei^ds the expressed juice to be injected as a clyster iu 
bleeding piles, 

See Swallow- WORT, , 



BASTARD tOCUS TREE. CLETHRA. 

* Cl. 10, OR. l.-^Decandria in^inogynUi. Nat* ^r. — Bicornes. 

This name is supposed to be derived fi^m two Greek wtnrds, ^jgnifjiiig 40 close ot 
fhut up« 

Gen. char. — Cal5rx a one-leafed perianthium, five-parted ; corolla -fiv« dMong^ pe^ 

tals ; stamina ten filaments subulate, antherffi cordate erect ; germ small, round* 

i^ ; stj'le filiform, stigma trifid ; the pericarpium is a roundish capsule, three- 

^ celtedT, three-valved ;* seeds angular. Thereis ottly one species,^ a native jof Ja« 

maica, thetinusoccidentalisof LinncQ*, but^transrerred tottm genus by Swartz. 

TINIFOfJA. tiNUS XEAVED 

/^ ' * Baccifera arhor cah/ciilata foliis laurinif^ [fructu 'racemcso esrulent^ 

subrotundo monopyreno pallide luteo. Sloane, v. 2, p 86, t. 19% 

* f. 2. Arborea^ foliis ohhngo^vaiis^ alternis, ^liperne glah^is^ siib^ 



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Hr HORTUS ' JAMAICENSI& ^Ib^sT^Rix 

tus sub-villosis ei ne)^osis;^picisramosis, terminalibus. B»dut*c, 
p. 214, t. 21, f. I. / . ^ 

Leaves oblong laivceolate, quite entire, boary underneath ; racemes pauided^ 
spike-shapetl, tomentose. :. . 

Sloane calls this the hastavd locus tree^^ ard says it has a very thick tmnk, covered 
witli a smooth clay eoloured bark, having branches equally spreatl round abdut it, Mttiich 
towards their ends are beset with leaves) five niches long, and hatfa& broad. I'he fruil 
comes on th^ ends of the twigs, -being a stiiik or string, on whjcn gro*v sev^jjral gre^ft 
rounUish berries. The puip is svvee^t, uhite, nieailv, including a hard browm«n bkic-h 
stone. The berries are ripein August, uiien they tall olF tiie trees, under vyiucli they 
^re gathered and eaten, and thbugikt a pleasant (tesert. — SlOaH€. 

Browne calfs it the Volkameria^ lyith oblong leaves^ and sajF, this shrub!>y tree itf 
very comnion in Sixteen Mtle Walk, and nses generally to the Height of twelve or four-* 
teen feet. It seems to have a near resenrf)lam e to the locus berry tree, (see Barbadoes 
cherry, p. 50^) but it is really very different, for the parts and disposition of tiie Hew- 
ers are entirely peculiar. The filaments rise from the bottom of the tiower, just about 
the gernien, and are not sa long as either the petals or the cup. The tiower tops are 
nither sa many bunches composed of simple spikes, rising gradually one above another ; 
but each of the flowers are supported by a subulated stipuia, or car, while young. 

We have called this tree by the ijome of Volkameria, to perpetuate the memory oU 
that famous botanist. — Brownet 

Bastarp Mahogany — See Mahogany. 
* Bastard Mammee — See Sancta Maria.. ' 



BASTARD MANCHIONEEL. CAMERARIA. 

Cl. 5, oa. I. — Pentafidria mono^ynla, Nat. or. — Ctmtortie. 

So named by Plumier, in honour of Joachim. Camerari us, a physician and botanist of 
Kureiiiberg. 

Gen. char.. — ^Calyx" five cleft ; corolla haonopetaloos, funnel form^ border five- - 
parted ; stamina very small, anthers converging ; the pistillum has two germens, 
with lateral appendages ; Styles hardly any, stigmas obscure ; the pericarpium haa 
ff ' twofblUcle^^ horizonlaUy refleeted ;• seeds numerous, ovate, and inserted on the 
larger ovate membrane at the base, imbricate. There are two species, both natiiTes 
ofJamaica* 

' ' I.XATIFOLIA. >R0AD-LEAVED. 

Arborea foliis ovato acuminatis nitidis rigidis reJlectentHms^ foUiculit 
alatis. Browne, p. 182^ 

Leaves ovate, acute at both ends, transversely striated. 
TJie branchlets of this .tree are mostly forked, or in two divisions.. The leaves are : 
quite entire, very shining, rather rigid, petioled, opposite, numerous, somewhat re* 
sembling those of myrtic : peduncles one or many flowfered, slender, long, axillajy^. 



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BAStARB HORTUS JAMAICENSIS, 67 

or from the foHcs of the branchlets. Flowers small, white ; fSllicles brown, bivalve in 
their structure, but not opening. Browne says it is frequent in the parishes of West- 
morland and St. James, and grows commonly to the height .of twenty -nine feet or morei 
and is said to be a good timber wood, but is full of ai>4icrid milky juice. 

2.'ANGUSTIF0UA. SMALL-LEAVED. 

Leaves linear. 

' The stem of this is irregularly branching. Leaves opposite, quite entire, the middle 
nerve mnntng down ; they have two ribs running longitudinally. It grows only about 
«iG^ht feet high, and the flower and fruit are also much smaller than the first species. — 
The flowers are produced scatteringly at the ends of the branches, and it also abounds 
mith a milky acnd Jake. Both plant« may be prop^ated £rom^«eeds« 



BASTARD MUSTARD, CLEOMK. 

Cl. 15, OR. 2. — Tctradyyiamia siliqiiosa. Nat. ba. — Putaminea. 
This name is derived from a Greek word, signifying to close or shut up. 

- -Gex. char. — Calyx 'fourlleaved, very small, -spreading, the lower leaflet gaping 
nwjre than the rest ; corolla fonr-petaMed ; nectareous glands three, rounJish, at 

: each division, except one at the calyx; stamina subulate, declining; a'^thers la- 

•teral, descending ; style simple ; gerraen oblong ; stigmas thickish ; pcricarpinm 

alongsilique cylindric, one- celled, tvi'o-valved; seeds many, rouncibh. There 

. -^e four known^pecies, natives of this island. 

1. SPINOSA. THORNY. 

. Sinapistrum Mgyptium heptaphyllum^ fiore cameo, majus spinosum. 
Sloane, v. I, p. 194r Assurgens ramosum et spinasurn^ hiptaphjyl^ 
Itwh; spica mHltijilicifoliolato. . Browne, p. 273. 
Flowers six stamened; leaves in seven's and five's; stem thorny. 
' The root of this plant is deep, large,- wliite, and firmly fixed in the ground by several 
smaller. The stalk is very strong, round^ hair}', and green, rising to about four or 
five fe^t high, .spreading branches ou every side, having fingered leaves standing on ' 
long foot-stalks. The leaf is divided. generally into seven parts or fingers ; they are 
viscid or clammy, will seem to stick to theliand when you squeeze them, and have arank 
disajrrecable smell. The stalks and branches have short, green, strong, straight 
jKickles. The flowers come out on every side of the tops of the branches : They are 
each maJe up of four long petals of white colour, wirli some purple thrums or stamina. 
The' pods a»e small, round, and of pale-green colour, inclosing a great many very 
shiall brown seeds. — Bar ham, p. 108. 

' Browne calls this the prickly iranchei samho, and says it thrives best in a dry soiU 

If ' - ' «. . . •* 

2. PROCUMBENS. PROCUMBENT. ^ 

Lcucoium liUeumj she keirimvinimurn pbly galas facie. Sloane, v. I, 
, . —, . p. 193, t. 123, f, I. Erecia herbacea, Joliisoblongisy Jioribus solh- 

tar lis. Browne, p. ?73. , , 

^^1* ^ . " ' KiJ . i . Iloivers 



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Fianrerssixstdxnftted; Iea¥es simple, Lmceolate) petioled; stems. procumbeut.. 

. The stem is kedbaceaoi}, six indies btgh« Leaves aitemale^ small, acute,, smooth ; 
t|^e flovper is yellow, tui*ning to ocange or l-ed^ Barham calb this wall-fiower. It has a. 
large root, tiie leayes like common milkwort Browne calls it the small savanna nius** 
tardj which grows wilJ in every part of the island, and flower&ia November^. 

5. PENTAPHYLLA^ FIVE. LEAVED* ' 

SinapisiTum indicum pentaphyllum/ore. cameo, mijittSy non spittosmfh. 
Sloane, w J, p. 191. Procumbens jgaitaphijUuni^. spioa lo/i^wra 
tenni7ialu Browne, p. 21'3^ , 

Flowers gyaandrous; leaves quinate ; stem miarmed^ . • - " 

The erect trifolkted ^mbo is a sm^ll plant, foond growing in tuft^ npoti the gjronh^ 
and seldom runs above eight or ten inches- in^ length; it is, however, more succulent 
than either of the others, and generally kKjfced^pon as a very wiiolesome green ; but 
it has a bitterish taste, and requires long boiling, and the \yater's being frequently 
shifted, to >'ender it palateable. It is deemed a preservative against the dry-belly-ache ; 
and, doubtless,, claims a precedency, ii'aoy greea coaJ^e said to be elfectual Huat way* 
— Browne, 

^ Undei) the name c^yers this- plant is described*as fbHow8,Jn Bugbes's History of Bar« . 
badoes : ^^ Tliis shrubby pkuu hath several whitish roots^ smelling not unlike a raddish. . 
The main stalk,, which is of a purplish, colour,, branches .very niiu:h rear the ground : 
from the seifierol side branches issue a grcat aaany footstalks^ whose respective tops from 
one common centre sustain seven sharp pointed leaves, being^aimost equally sharp near 
tlieir common footstalk, where they all Join ;.at which jtmeture there is a yeUc^vish 
spot. The flower very much resembles that of a garlic pear tree, consisting of four 
small spoonjike petals. From the centre of these rises a dark coloured pihtU, from 
-^hme sides^ somewhat higher,, issae six purplish stamina, tipped widn brown apices ; 
the pistil in the mi Jdlestiu contimiing. larger tiian ttic stamijna,, bearing upon it the 
rudiment of the future pod^ ichich, when ripe, is of a flattiah shape, ..of about six 
inches long, iixrlosing a great many small seeds. The juice of this plant, .mix:»d with 
sweet oil, is looked upon to be a sovereign remedy against the pain in the ear, if poured, 
intx) it warm.'*— //iif^^Aa^' Barbadoes^ p. 210. 

In conti-mation of the above virtue in this plant, of curing pains in the ear. Dr. A^. 
Robinson,, in bis ntanuscript, states as follows :' " A gentleman of St. Elizabeth's in- 
formed me, that for some years he had been at times afflicted with violent pains in bbi 
left ear, so that at last he could hardly hear on that side ; he had little or no wax at any 
time in it, and sometimes felt such an uneasy sensation, as one perceives when a flea.. 
cpr other small insect gets, in to ones ear ; that, a few days before he saw me, he had . 
pulled a living insect out of it. He said, when the pain was most raging, he had, by . 
the advice of a pegro. woman^ taken a leaf of the cleotne tertia procumbens pcntaphyt^' . 
luJm^ Kc. of Bix)wne, and, upon squeezing a few drops <^ it into his'ear, he had beea v 
instantaneously relieved fnna the pain.':' 

4. FOLVOAMA; K>T;YGAMV. 

Sinapistrum Indicum irfpkyilum ftort cameo non spinosum, Sioane^. 
V. 1, p. 194, t. 124, f. 1. Erecium triphyllumi j^ribi^ solitariist^l 
alartiui^ Browne^ p. 273». Tha^^ 



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; ^T m gf o w f t hhicttf^in nfotst bottoms, it is pretty simple^ and scfdom rides abov^ 
twenty or twenty-fiveinche*.— wffr^a;/i^, 

. This hatb a root Ibiir or five inches long, small and white^ wtth lateral fibres drawing 
its nourishment ;. the stalk ia round) ereen^ upri^t^ about two feet loog^ without any 
biancfae8,..iiaving leaves thinly ptacedthereon^ without any or Jer, standing three ai^ 
vfsys together, on an inch footstalk, about an inch and a half long and half an inch 
faroad in the middle ; ait the top of the stalk is a spike of tetrapetaious flowers mixed 
ivhh purple, like the other sorts ; after which follows a three-inch long pod, smalii^ 
YDona, green, like the otben- The. whole plant is balsamic and vulnerary : I have 
seen the very leave^i applied to sores, and they would heal them ; they give ease in the 
floiit ; boikd in oii^. remeJy cutaneous diseases, especially the leprosy. The leaves^, 
boiled or decocted in wa^er, eicpel poison, provoke appetite, comfort the stomacb^ 
cause c»xpectoration, and-expel wind. . Tne jnioe^ with oil, hetps deafness, dropped 
into the ear. The leaves, beaten and applied to the head, cure its aching from cold.— 
These grow in great plenty in all or most p^rts of America, even in the worst and poor-* 
lilt grounds, in yards, sides of the highways^ and streets^ without planting or Gulti«- 
V8itt ng, -^Bjorhum^ p. 108. 

Bastard Nicaragva — Sie Brasilitto^ ^ 

Bastard Nutmeg — See Nutmeg, 



BASTARD PLANTAIN. HELICONIA. 

Cl. 5, OR. 1. — Pentandria monogynid^ Nat. or —Scitaminea* 

This name is derived from that of the celebrated mountain in Boeotia> sacred to die. 
muses. 

Gen. .char.— Calyx; Spathes eoaanon and partial, alternate, distinct, widi hermft-^ 
phrodite flowers ; there is no perianth ; theccwoUahas three petals, oblong, chan* 
gelled) erect, acute, equal ; nectary two-leaved, on leaflets nearly equal to the 
petals, the other very shorty channelled, booked, opposite ; the stamina are five 
or six.filameats^ with long erect anthers-^ the pistil has an inferior oblong germen, 
. abort stvie, and a iongv slender, curved,' sbgma, with a terminating he^; the 

^ perkarpium.isan oblong, tntncatB, thre€^f4JeJ, tbree*celled, capsule; seeds so- 
^tary, obloc^., . This genus is disdnguisfaed from musa by a tricoccous dapsule, 
and it is doubtful whether it sfaouLI not be transferred to the class hexanoria.— '. 
There are two species natives oi Jamaica. 

. 1. BJHil. 

, Mu^a hxmilior folik TfixinoTiiuB nigHcanii^ 

Sloane^ y. 2^.p. I47i Spadice ereciOf spaikU rigidit ampiexantibus 
, dtMckiieteltcmatim^ Browne, p. 364. 

Leavb aiu} ^adtxtadical, ^pathes-distich^ cordate; nectaify Tentricose, bifid at 
tfaetip^ 
^Phis in every k'espect is of a much smaller growtfi than the plantaiil or banana tree^ 
fettaiiioois i^cfleratly to ihe hdght of ten or twelve feet. The leares are obtong, nar« 

tomet 



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VK »ORT.VS J-AMAICtNSrS. sastjuuV 



/ 



toiverajboth;^n*<!s,;,ctitiro^ marlced.wiib parallel lines, ercfct, thick, and rery^^nwodi ; 
prticles the length of the leaves, of more, round, thick, cbahoeiled above ; scape up»^* 
right, tiie length of the petioles, round, -thick, smooth; the spadix simple, upri*jht. 
The common ^pathes several, t^igbt td teu) rigid, coYdate, 'eashracin|f, eiect, ^preka- 
iiig, -acuminate, distich, yeilqwish, yellowish green btjiow^ and p^iipiein tteir upper 
.brims. . .FiQwers in bundles, concealed wjiLin each spathe ; paitial spathes membraiuci-I 
qeous, whitish, the length of the flovvGr% which ar€ distinct, sttbse$nie,> pale or green-/ 
jsh yellow. -Corolla cohering. to the base, .unequal, .curved and i recurved, as it Iverel 
two-lipped: the tvyo upper petals lanpeQJate, ^c^?te,:a little reflex, at the.tip^ belowi 
^le niitldle converg^no, and towards the base co^escent with the lower petal^, -whittsht 
at the l>ase : lower petal. scaix:ei3Jonger/than: the upper ones, laoceolate^ concare, a*! 
Jittle recurved, eiitire.and jiij'uuiinate at the tip, jwith its base embracing .the nectary* 
Ijcbind; the pectary is two-leaved, inclosing the filament ir, ai;iid fiUed .with nectareous . 
juice attlie base ;. the leaflet in front is very n^inute, iauceolate,^artd fastened to the) 
interior petal of the- corolla. , * ? *. ; . 'i 

^TLb beautifwil^plant grQWjj v^jid ^n; pgipst of the. copier, mountains of Jamaica, art3* 
thrives verv*" luxuriantly iu every rich and well-sliaded gully among- the woods. -In.ittft' 
growth and leaves it perfectly respmbles tl.e plantain and banana, but differs very 
wiJely from thr;n in the^^r^ore essential, parts.* In the bkissomsrof this plant we find 
five perfect filaments shooting\fram. Uie bottom of tbo r^ ftowor leaf, and one imper- 
fect filament from the nectarium ; but, in the others, it is quite contrary, for five of 
the filaments are imperfect, and the onlyjone that is otherwise rises from the nectarium, 
JJiOiine, — ^Thc seeds of the bastard plantain arc greedily devoured by hogs. 

The stem or body of this plantis somewhat. smaller,- bufe.qpially succulent ja with the 
plantain. '1 have seen, in this isfand, very large tracts of land^ which once werecup- 
sWfertWle stigar plantations, but, in length- of- time, 4)ecatiie so exhausted, as not to^ 
make any proportionate return to the labour bestowed on them, and have therefore 
]y^en thrown up arid deserted. ' Wbere-thisiitts iiappened from a cbatige' of %easoii?>, 
and the w^nt of showers, the.disasttir is incurahleT; ana such land cannot be restored to 
i'crtility, except by, the retafn of farourable weaker, or by artificial waterings; tiic 
fircit^is scarcely to be hoped for, the second is not alwayapractioable. But tliereare 
ottier lands, which have been worn out>rith incessant cultivation, aifd not so deistitute 
o)rsbo>vers. In many places, it is ttsuai.to let them iiefallowfor awo or three yaars, 
neglectiiitg what is.ab^olutely requisite duriogrthts internal of time ; tvhich is to hoe- 
. plough them, once a j^ear^t lea^ii, before tlie weeds-jseod a^d*ipen ; so that rthe^mins 
and dews falling upon tbein), have only assisu^d the gro^rth artd multiplication of weeds 
in such manner that they cannot aftenvards be eikterminated. .It has been d^on^ 
strated, that water (niorfe particularly rain) is the princij)al support and pabulum of all 
vegetables. In their state of dissolution*,* the more rarified particles of the fluid they 
ivMre- imbibed i«-ajfcend into the atmosphere; but mudi of -the temaindcr becomes 
OBTth, afibrding a solid and actual sustentation and addition la the surface on which it 
•falls. For this reason, probalJy, in the moderu, improv^l state of husbandry in Eng- 
land, turnips arc appiied as an excellent^ niatlu^^ ^ impovc^isb^d Iftnd^.- * {ti Jatnaica, 
the same root is not equally fit for the purpose, because it does not* grow here to any 
considerable. bulk, nor is it so succulent as in England., ,1 would , propose, thei'efoni^ 
t6 substitute in its room tlic wild plantain irc^, >vhcrcvcr it can be brouo^ht to grow.-r- j 



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BASTARD HORTUS JAMAICENSIS; TT 

This plant is, in tnuh, a vegetable syphon, full of water ; and as it never fructifies, so 
it proibably cannot exhaust any soii. A waik of these suckers might be planted ou im<- 
.poverisbeo land in a seasonable year, and suffered to stand for three years ; and the 
^riannd lioed onlv till the plants appear to have struck root^ and to ris8 with vigour.— < 
In the third year they might be cut down, and left to rot upon the surGice. To tsup- 
port them in the early part of their growth, it is necessary to keep the ground clear of 
weeds about them. Hoeing performs this, and loosens the earth ; which faciiitates the 
|)enetralion of rains and news through the surface.. When they are tolerably well' 
grown, their broad expandifig leaves <will shade aiul cool the ground in such a manner, 
as to preserve it always moist'and open, aiKl suppress the ascent of weeds ; from this 
jperipd, .therefore, hooing will-not be so necessary. I should not recommend the fcpit 
beai'ing plantain for this design, as it certainly exiiausts land very uiuch, and therefore 
would avid to the evil, . instead of vemoving it. 

; The stems or trunks of any of these species, cut in long junks, are the best provi^ 
B\6t\ that can be laid aboard tlie homeward boun^ ships, for support of the live stocks 
Sheep, goats, cattle, hogs, and poultry, are all fond of it ; and, as the stems pre- 
sence their .succulence for a long space of time, the stock fed with it require little or 
no water. For the smaller animals the junks are chopped into small pieces. They are 
stowed behind the mizen chains, where they do not ia the least' incumber the ship.-^ 
Jbongy p. 784. . • 

2. PSITTACORinsf. 

Leaves on the stem rounded at the base, spadix tenainatirig, flexuose,' spatbes 
lanceolate, nectary lanceolate, concave, entire. 

', TTiis plant bears a great resemblance to canna^ and grows to the height of eight feet, 
irith a simple stoiootii stem. Leaves ovate-lunceolate, entire, acute, very smooth, 
marked with parallel nerves ; petioles sheathing,, smooth ; spadix simple; sp^thes 
fewer (four to six),. alternate, dL>tich, .somewhat remote, divaricated, . two inches ioogji 
sheathed, at the base, acute, cobured blood ^red,. .many flowered : flowers pedieelled, 
crowfled, upright, an inch long, fulvous^ on round peduncles, h^U an inc^i long.; co« 
rolla three-sided, .two upper petals erect^. linear,. acute,, keeled, converging, glued 
lathe nectary, the uppermost only tuifid ; tlie lower petal embracing ).he upper petals 
and nectary at the, base, a little widei;, keeled, veniricose, .brownish green at the top : 
hinder leaf of tlie nectary the length of the petals, lauceoiate, concave, a little curved 
inwards, acuminate, entire, *8triatedj^_including the stamens; front leaf many times 
smaller, <iwl-shaped, concave, inserted at the base into tlie lower petal ; filaments five, 
included within the hinder leiAt of the nectary, f pee at tue base ; auU^ra linear, two* 
celleH, white ; germ three-sided^ truncate ; style slightly three-sided, filiform -, stig« 
ma, bluiit; lliree-^iired, bentiiy,! pube»ceni>; h'uit tufee-cornened, truncate^depress* 
#df .scarlet at^top; . Swartz s^s it is a.natiy^e of this island^, ia wetparts of the wocmIs^ 
Iqu the highesit mountains. 



■-.:.. 1 ■ : • , '. ' 

- BASTARii SAFFRON. CARTHAMUS. 

Cl, 19, OR. 1. — Syngenesia pcl^^amia j/ejvalis. Nat. OK^^^CornposU^, 
Tkis generic name is derived from a Greek word^ signifying to porge.. 



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72 HORTUS JAMAICENSia SAftTAit» 

Cek. char. — Calyjc-ovate, iftibricated with scales, close brfow,' smd atiginente3 
with sub^orate foliaceous appendices at top ; corolla compound ; t^amina capiUa« 
ry; anthers cylindric ; germen very short ; style longer than the sUmJens; stigma 
simple ; seeds solitary* There are tea species^ one of which has been cultivated 
in Jamaica. 

TIKCTORIUS. DVING, 

FoUis sessilibiiSy denticidatls^ oblomris, ehtusis ; oaule assurgent^ 
summitaian versus ramoso, Browne, p, 314. 
Leaves ovate entire, serrate-aculeate. 

This plant rises about two feet and a half or three feet high, dividing into mnny 
branches. The flowers grow single at the extremity of the* branches, of a fiqe saffron 
colour. Browne savs this plant was introduced into Jamaica by the Spe^nish Jews, and 
that it was cwltiN'ated in most gardens about King'^ton, where the florets were frequently 
used in broths or ragous. It grows naturally in Egypt, aud other warm parts of Asia, 
^ndis propagated from feeeds. 

This plant is well worthy of cultivation for its many virtues ; the florets dried giv6 
^n agreeable colour to several culinary preparations, and are used as an article of dye* 
i7ig andpaintln<T ; for which purposes great quantities are annually imported into Eng- 
land from the Levant. 

That which ^rows in America comes far short in goodness to that in England. Here 
also grow in great plenty the cnicusy sive <:arthamus sativusy Sind cniats pcrennis, — 
The flowers of carthamus are much used by the Spaniards (who call them bastard ajif- 
fron) in M their broths, to give them a yellow colour, 4vhich they do ; they are also 
used for dying. The seed is what is chiefly used in physic, or rather the kernel with- 
in the seed, which, beaten into an emulsion with honeyed water, or with the broth of 
a pullet, and taken fasting, opens the body, and purges wateiy and phlegmatic hn-i 
Inours, both upwards and downwards ; .the seeds da the same dysterways ; an electuary 
or lohoch, ii[\ade with sugar or honey, and almonds and pine-kernels, cleanses the 
breast and kings of phlegm ; a drachm of the dried flowers taken, cures the jaundice ; 
the confect, caHed ditrcarthamumy is a very great medicine to purge choler and phlego)^ 
^ also watery humours. Parrots delight to feed upon them. — Barham, p^ 163« 



BASTARD SENNA. tJORONILLA. ^ 

» , . • ■ . , ') 

4lL. 17, OR. ^-^Diaddphm Decemdri^. KaT. ^fL.—PapUionacejf. i 

Thi^ name i^a- diminutive from t»>rona^ acmwti; the fiowers crowning the bran^el 

4n a corymb. ^ • ^ 

Gen. char. — Calyx simple ; corollajapilionaceous ; stamina dtadelphous filaments, 
anthers simple ; the pistillumlias an oblong ^rmen, bristled style, small stigma ; 
tlie pericar^itm is a-leng-legumen, seeds manyr Tbi« i« an esoti^^ and two spe* 
cies have been introducedi possessing no remarkable virtues. ' 

1. VALENTINA. valextike. 
Shiubby leaflets about oine ;* stipules suborbiculaie. * ^ ' "^ ^ 



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«ASTA!tB HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 78 

This plant rises three or fourfeet high, and bears its flowers on long axillary pedun- 
vies, in close bunches* 

2. MINIMA. S^TALLEST. 

Under shrubby, procumbent ; leaflets nine ovate ; stipule opposite to the lea(^ 
emarginate ; legumes angular, knotty, ^ 

This has erect stems, a little branched, round, smooth, iibout eighteen inches in 
height, woody at bottom only. The leaves unequally pinnate. Calyx yellowish.— 
Corolla yellow ; peduncles three inches long, supporting twenty to twenty-six flowers. 
The legumes an inch long, round, deflected, scarcely contracted between the seeds, 
terminated by the ascending style. 



BASTARD SENSITIVE. ^SCHYNOMENfc. 

Cr. 17, OR. 4. — Diadelphia decandria. Nat. or. — PapiUonacea. 

Gev. char. — Calvx a one-leafed, bell-shaped, bilabiate periantbium, upper hifid, 
bwpr three -toothed ; corolla papilionaceous ; banner cordated and sub-ringent, 
the win rrs sub-ovate, obtuse, shorter than the banner ; keel lunate, pointed, the 
len*>tfi of the wings ; filaments single, nine cleft ; anthers small ; the pistillum has 
an oblong villous-columnur ^ermen ; the style subulate and rising ; stigma simple, 
rather obtuse ; the pericarpium is a long compressed, unilocular, jointed pod ; 
seeds solitary between the joints, kidney shaped. Only one species is a native of 
this island ameruana ; three others have, however, been introduced, natives of 
Egypt and the East Indies, the grandijloru^ sesban^ and aquatica. 

A. AMERICANA. AMERICAN. 

^ledysariivi caide hirsiitOy mimosa foliis ahjt.^^ pinvis acidis minimh 
gramineis. Sloane, v. I, p. 186, t. 118, f. 3. Procumbens^foliolis 
pinnatis mimulisy ramulis tenuisshnis. Browne, p. 295. 

Stem herbaceous, hispid; joints of the legumes seaii cordate; leaflets acu- 
minate, bractes ciliate. 

This plant is very common in many places of Jamaica. Stem rarely reaches three 
feet in length, l^ut seldom stands upright; it is sub-divided, round, and somewhat 
hirsute, delicate and' slender. . Branches filiform, patulous, round, streaked, hirsute. 
The hairs are feruginous at the base. Leaves pinnate, alternate ; leaflets sessile, al- 
ternate, minute, sickle shaped, serrulate, three-nerved beneath, smooth on both sides. 
Petioles thicker at the base, round, hirsute. IStipules sickle shaped above and below 
the petiole, opposite, acuminate, somewhat hirsute. Peduncles longer than the leaves, 
axillary, solitary, erect. Flowers pedicelled, alternate, whitish or brownish yellow ; 
bractes sessile, ovate-acuminate, serrate, streaked, hirsute at the edge. Calyx upper 
lip serrate at the tip, or bluntly three-toothed, pubescent at the edge. Corolla, ban- 
ner streaked, wings obovate, keel ovate, sickle-shaped, uprie^ht, bifid. Legume al- 
most upright, pendulous, margined, wrinkled, pubescent.. — Sw, Ob. 184. 

The branches are about a foot Ions:, roundish, filled with a fungous pith, set very 
thick on the outside with large and fierce hairs^ t)r smalLprickles, of a white colour, as 

L were 



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n HORTUS^ JAMAIGENSIS- ^ato^ 

were aUo ih^ t'''^A'» *^'^^^<^ en Is uerc set with alated leaves, whose pinnae were very 
small sharp, or pi/n.tod il t':r en J, grassy or stiateJ Hkc grass leaves,, and niimerou.^. 
Tiie liowers come orx of a hai^y or ecliiiritcu small leaf,, tJiiquam ex utriculoy bein^ 
nmiiy, standinjir oa lIio eiils o.* lr\\nr!ioJ footstalks alternatively,* and after them follow 
erticniated potfs, a little crooked, hirsute, or rough y like a. half moon. I found it iiv> 
the inland parts of the island. — Sloane. 

2. CRANDlFLORJu GREAT- FLOWEREDi 

Stem arl)orescent, flowers very large, legumes filifoiTn. 
This has been calle<l clwiseul Jiea. It is a native of the Kast Indies, and grows in the 
botanic garden in Liguanea. It rises six or eight feet. high, wit4i an upright woody 
stem,, seiiding out liranches spreading a little, round, pubescent. The leaves are pin- 
nate, alternate, scattered, a foot long, leaflets from twelve to eighteen pairs. Flowers, 
pendulous, white, very large. Legume two feet in length, linear, compressed, witli. 
a nieinbranaceous isthmus between the seeds, ^AJiich are roundish* Thw» seeds aDi; 
agreeable, to. doniesiijc birds* 

3..SESBAN. 

Stem herbaceous, smooth.; legumes cyhndrie, equal; leaflets obtuse. 

This is a native of Egypt, and was introduced by Dr. Clarke ; it has woody stems; 
and branches, garnished with smooth leaves, composed of many blunt, opposite, pin-> 
uaes. The tlowers are small, of a deep yellovr colour, and come out from the axils iiXi 
long spikes hanging down. The legumes smooth and taper pmnted, not jointed. 

4. AQUATICA.. watery; 

This is also a native of the East Indies, and is called the swamp pea tree ; it-was in-^- 
troduced by Mr. East, as well as a new species 6y Mr. Wiles, all of which are enumer-*^ 
ated iii the Hortus Eastensis. 



BAUM: MELISSA. 

Cl. li. OR. L — Didjnamia gymnospermia. Nat. or. — Verticitlafa. 
This generic nanie is derived from a Greek word, signifying a bee, from the fon^^ 
ness of bees for this plant. 

Gen. char. — ^The calyx i« arid, flattish above, the upper lip having its dents nearly 
ef equal height ; corolla upper lip arched and bifid, the under one^ with the middle 
lobe, heart-shaped; stamina awl -shaped ; anthers small ; germen four cleft; no 
pericarpium ; seeds four. There are several species, natives of Europe ;. the most 
useful has been introduced : 
I 

/ OFFICINALIS. OFFICINAI/. 

Racemes axillary, whorled ; pedicels simple. 

It has fibrous perennial roots ; many upright,, square, branchy, annual stalks ; rising 
two or three feet high ; garnished with oblong, indented, opposite leaves, by pairs^ 
two or three inches long, and half as.broa;!; and from the upper axillas verticillate- 
clusters of small white flowers^ upou single footstalks* There isidso a kind with varie«i 

gated; 



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«ATBERRY . H O RT U S JAM AI C E N S I S: 75 

l^ated leaves. It has a pleasant smell, of the lemon kind ; and a weak, ronghish, aro-- 
matic taste. Baum is appropriated to the bead, stomach, and uterus ; and in all dis- 
orders of the^e parts is said to do extraordinary service. The present practice, how* 
ever, holds it in no great esteem, and ranks it among the weaker corroborants. It is 
reputed good in hypochondriac and hysteric disorders of the head and stomacli, and by 
outward applications, to ease the stinging of bees and wasps. Infusions of the leaves 
in water smell agreeably of the herb, but have not much taste, though, on being in- 
spissated, they leave a considerable quantity of a bitterish austere extract The green 
leaf is better than tlie dry. Infusions of baum do not, like other aromatics, offend the 
head, as is complained of from sage, &c. It is a grateful diluent drink in fevers, espe- 
cially if acidulated with limes or lemons. Gold infusions in water or spirit are far better 
than the cohobated distilled water, and are the best preparations fiom the plant. On 
distilling the fresh herb with water, it impve^jnatos the first running pretty strongly 
with its grateful flavour. When lartje quantities ^ire subierted to the operation at once, 
there sepe'rates and rises io the surface of the aqueous fluid a small portion of essential 
oil, which some call a/, syria^ and others ol, •gcrmanis. It is c^ a yellowish colour, 
and of a very fragrant smell. 

Tills plant is cultivated in many gardens in Jamaica, but seldom thrives wi|li that 
Juxuriaucy that many other plants do. v 

Baum Grass — See Lemon Grass, 



:b:\yberry, or wild clove. myrtus. 

Cl. 12, OR. \.— 'Icosandria monogynia. Nat. or. — Hesperidete. 

This is fabled to be so named from Myrsine, an Atlienian damsel, and favourite of 
Minerva, who was metamorphosed into a myrtle. 

Gen. CHAR. — Calyx one-leafed, four or five cleft, bluntish, superior^ raised inter- 
jially into a sub-villose ring^ permanent ; corolla has four or five petals,*' ovate, 
entire, large, inserted into the calyx ; the stamens are many capillary filaments, 
the length of the corolla, inserted into the calycine ring, having roundi&b small 
anthers ; the pistillum has its germ inferior, two or three-celled, the seeds fixed 
to the partition ; F.*yle simple, filiform-; stigma blunt ; the pericarpium is an oval 
berry^ umbilicated with the-calyic, one, two, or three-cellea^ seeos few, kidney- 
form.' There are many speoies. 

ACRIS. SHARP. 

Foliis oblongo ovatis oppositis^ racemis laieralibus et te^minuUbus,^^ 
Browne," p. '247. 

Peduncles axillary and terminating, corymbed, tricbotomous, longer than the 
ieaves ; leaves ^liptic convex, coriaceous, veined, dotted ; stem arboreous. 

• This tree may contend the palm of elegance with most trees. It grows slowly, and 
Id a consi'lerable size. The trunk is handsome, straight, forming a very lofty thick 
and beautiful pyramid. The bark in the younger trees is brown, then ash-coloured, 
and finally vyhite, entire, or with large yellow spots ; jt is^very smooth and even^ espe- 
cially in Old trees, but here and there hangs down in slendA sln-eds ; the flavour is as-^ 
teingent^ not without something aromatic? • The -timber, is wy terd, red, compact," 

• - L2 ponderous, 



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76 HORTUS JAMArGENSIS; BAf 

ponderous^ and capable of being polished;, used for the cogs of wheels in mHlwork^: 
and in other works where considerable friction is required. The younger branches are 
acutely four-cornered and green ; leaves numerous^ .quite entire, shining, bright green,, 
with transverse veins,, blunt, attenuated into a short petiole, always opposite, com- 
monly three or four inches long, of a very sweet aromatic smell, and, on account of 
their agreeable astringency, are used for sauce with food. The flowers are small, 
white with. a slight tinge of redness ; the berries round, the size of peas, crowned with* 
tlie remains of the calyx, having an aromatic smell and taste,, which render them agree- 
able for culinary purposes ; th«»y contain about seven or eight seeds. 

This tree is a native of seveml of tiie West India islands, and in Grenada is called 
Bois d^Jnde. Browne says it is common in Antigua and Jamaica, as well, as Barbadoes, 
and grows generally to a considerable size ; that it fills the wooJs with the fragrant smell 
of its leaves, nearly resembling that of ckinamon, but that the bark, has no warmth of 
that sort, though the berries resemble cloves very much, both in form and flavour. It 
is commonly called wild cinnamon^ or wild clove tree , and is said to be the bayberryoi 
Hughes. It does not seen^ however, to be very accurately distinguished from the* 
pimenta. 

See Bastard greenheart-^Black cherry — ^Myrtle— Pimenta— Silver tree. 



BAY OR SEA-SIDE GRAPE. GOCCOLOBA. 

Cl. 8, OR. 3. — Octandria trigynia. Nat. or. — Hokraceoe. 

This vFas so named by Browne, from the kernel being lobed at bottom. 

Gen. CHAR.-^Calyx a one-leafed, five-parted perianthium, divisions oblong, obtusej 
concave, spreading most widely, coloured, permanent : there is ho corolla ; sta- 
mens subulate, patulous, shorter than the calyx ; anthers roundish, twin ; the 
pistil has an ovate trigonal germen, with short filiform spreading styles, and 
simple stigmas ; no pericarp; calyx berried, thickened, converging; involving 
the seed, which is an ovate nut, acute, one- celled. There are six species, na- 
tivesof Jiimaica. 

1. UVIFERA. grape-bearing. 

Prunxts maritima racemosa, folio rotundo glabro^ frvchi minore pur^. 
pureo. Sloane, v. 2, p. 129, t. 220, f, 3, 4, 5. Foliis crassis or^^ 
biculatisj sinu aperto. Browne, p. 209. 

Leaves cordate-roimdisb,^ shining* 
Sloane calls this the mangrove grape tree^ and savs it has several ten or twelve foot 
high trunks, covered with a reddish brown smooth bark, and furnished with thick, . 
veined, shining, orbicular, leaves, about six inches diameter, standing upon short 
footstalks. The flowers come out at the wings of the stalks, in racemes five or six inches 
long; they are whitish^ smelling like those of the cherry. After them follow the 
berries. 

It hal^ a very large leaf in the shape of a horses hoof, and its fruit is as big as a com<«- 
iBpagTage, aad^ wheafuUripe^ oia.blueishJ)lack.^. Until thej are thoroughly riper 



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BAf HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. fT 

there is no eating them, they are so rough and restringent, curiog flaxes ; and, when 
ever so ripe, they liave a stipticity and roughness upon the tongue, and baiJing.— 
They grow by the side of the sea, and oftentimea in the sea and salt water, like the 
mangrove, and therefore are calledi by some, mangrove grapes. — Bar/lam^ p. 68. 

TTiis tree is very frequent on all the low sandy shores. It is easily propagated in, 
other parts of the conntry by slips or cuttings It grows to a large size, ana is then 
looked upon as a beautiful wood for cabinet ware. . The berries are about the size of 
common grapes, and, when ripe, have an agreeable flavour, but the .juice is restrin* 
gent ; and tor this quality it is remedial m fluxes, particularly such as may ensue from 
drinking the brackish water, common to the places where tbey grow adjacent to the 
sea. There are some other vaiieties of thq coccolobisy whose fruit possess the like 
quality.— Z^^/ig". p. 137*. 

This is a large crooked and shady tree (the leaves being broad, thick, and almost, 
circular), and succeeds best in sandy places. It bears large clusters of grapes once a. 
year, which, when ripe, are not disagreeable. The stones, seeds, or acinij contained 
m them are large in proportion, and, being reduced to a powder, are an excellent as« 
tringent. The bark of the tree has the same property. The grapes, steeped in water, 
and fermented with sugar, noake an agreeable wint^^^r^rainger. 

The fruit is so very astringent as to<:ause a degree of costiveness in some cases dan- 
gerous. Of this I have known instances. It may, therefore, be a very useful medi- 
cine in some loosenesses. ^ An old lady I was once called to, bad neariy lost her life by 
eating too many of these grapes. She had no motion for three we^ks, and it was witb* 
£reat diflBculty that any were afterwards procured. — Dancer's M. A. p. 389« 

2. .PUBESCENS. . PCBESCENT. 

JrhoteafoUis orbiculatU integris, Browne, p^ 2rO. 

Leaves orbiculate, pubescent* . 

JTa^quin mentions this species as growing to a very large size in the mountains of 
Martinico, even to the height of fifty or sixty feet ; but Browne says it seldom risea. 
above eight feet in Jamaica, that it is very common between Kingston and Bull Bay.— 
He calls it the grape tree with whole leaves^ and adds that the berries of this species are 
notestoemed. . 

3. PUNCTATA. POINTED. 

Fotiisohhnga ovaiis venosis^ y^is minarihus^ pun^aiis* ^rbwne^ p«. 
210. 

Leaves lanceolate, ovate • 
This Brown C9\\s the chequered grape tree. It is small, upright, and branched, fif- 
teen feet high. Leaves quite entire, sub-coriaceous, veined, shining, alternate, half 
ajfbot long, commouly two or three on each flowering branchlet, on petioles sheathing 
at the b^e. Racemes terminating, simple, soUtary, erect, scarcely an inch and a 
hal( long. Flowers white. Almost the whole receptacle, with a ^mall part only of 
ifae calyxy becomes % roundish drupey. of a dark red colour^ >and a sweetish austero 

4. EZCOItlATA,. 



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M HORTUS JAMAICENSIS; »ay 

4. EXCOniATA. PEELED. 

Montana major arborea, foliis mbrotmdiSj cortice levu BrownOy 1 
p. 210. X 

- Leaves ovate, branches as it were barked. 
This is called the mountain grape tree by Browne, who says it grows to a cdnsidera* 
ble size, is frequent about the Cross in CiarenUon, and is lookea -upon as a fine timber 
wood. 

5, TRyUIFOLIA. SLENDER LEAVED. 

Fnitescens^ foliis subrotundis^ fructu rninori trigona, Browne, p^ 

210, t. 14, f. a.* 

Leaves ovate membranaceous, 

This is of humbler growth than any of the former; and the flowers and fruit are 
smaller. It is also different in having membranaceous and not comaceous leaves, the 

Eetipies surrounded with a membrane instead of a stipule, and not issuing from their 
ack ; racemes terminating and quite simple ; flftwers scattered and pedicelled*— 
Browne says it grows among the rocks in the hills above Bull Bay. The calyx is seldom 
divided into more than three parts, and the nut is triangular. The flowei-s are small, 
and disposed in simple axillary spiked in alLthe species ; and the bark in all^ as well at 
the kernels^ looked upon as powerful astringents. 

-6. myEA. SKOW-^HITE. 

Leaves elliptic, acuminate, veined, shining above.; racemes almost upright. 

This grows to the height of 'twenty feet, is upright, and the boughs form a head.— . 
Leaves quite entire, wrinkled, petioled, alternate, half a foot long ; racemes termin- 
ating, solitary, simple; flowers small, ^jellowish. The' calyx becomes thick, succu- 
lent^ and snow white, covering to the mi Jdie a three-sided, black, shining nut. Thtf 
fruit is sweet and pleasant.. Tne French call it raisinier de coude.- 



BAYTREES. LAURUS. 

Cl. 9, OR. I — Enneandria monogynia. NaT. or. — Holoraceie^ 

Gen. char. — See Avocado Pear Tree, p. 37. 

Besides those described under their English names, the following species of lauru* 
have -been discovered to grow naturally in this island : 

1. MONTANA. MOUNTAIN. 

Leaves triple nerved, ovate-acuaiinate, perennial; flowers raceme panicled.-^ 
Sm. Pr. 65. 

2. EXALTATA. EXALTED. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, veined, coriaceous, perermial, flat ; racemes upright^ 
compound ; calyx cup-shaped, permanent. — Hw. Pr. 65. 

3. TRlANDRi^ 

f Tlui platf it tlflo refened to by Pr. Browne ai his erjthroxylom L (Artolatum), 



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MAP HORTUS JAMAICENSIS- 7* 

\ 3. TRIANDRA. THREE STAMF.NED. 

•Leaves broad, lanceolate, perennial, flat ; flowers three stamened ; fruit co«^ 
vered by the caljx. 

4. CORIACEA. LEATHER LIKE. 

leaves ovate-acunilnate, flat, veined^ shining,- coriaceous ;^ racemes upright,, 
shorter than the leaves. 

5. MEMBRANACEA.. MEMBRANACEOUS. • 

Leaves oblono^, . acuminate, veined, convex, coriaceous- membranaceous ; 
branches ancl racemes upright, shorter than the lea£ 

_ 6. PATENS. OPEN. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, . flat, membranaceous.; Kicemes upright, diffused^ 
longer than the leaves. . 

T. PrSTiTTLAi.^ HANGINGS 

Foliis obverse avatis subtus cinereis, fructiBus ohlongis sparsisy calici^ 
bus deciduis. . Browne, p. 214. 

Leaves obbngr, veined^ membranaceous, ,perexmial ; racemes loos^; fruits pen^ 
dulous ; calyxes deciduous., 

Browne calls this/Ae smalfer laurel with' oblong berries ; and says he found this tree 
in the road between Mount Diablo and the thickets in St. Ann's; it divided into a great 
number of branches toward the top, was about twelve feet in height, and four' inches 
in diameter near the root. The berries of this species are oblong and even, of an el- 
liptic form, and seldom under an inch or better in length ; they are of a black colour^ 
very succulent, and contain each a single bilobed kernel,- without any partial covering; 

8.JFLORiaUND(X-. 

Leaves ovate -'lanceolate^ flat, membranaceous ; .flowers paceme-panicled, loose^. 
terminating* 

All the above species are from Swartz Prodromtis, p. 65. 

Sec Avocado Peak — ^Benjamin— Camphire— Cinnamon — CoGwoon— Sassafras— ^ 

SWEETWOOD.. ' 



BEAD, HOOP, OR LILAC, TREE, MELLi. 

Cl. 10> or. L — Decandria monogyniet. NAr. or. — Trihilata. 

This is derived from a Greek wordy signifying wood fit for spears. 

Gen. char. — Calyx one leafed, five-toothed ; the corolla has five linear petals ; sta- 
mens small filaments, .with oblong anthers ; the pistil has a conical germen, style 
cylindric, the length of the nectary ; stigma eapitate, with five converging vahx\s ; 
the pericarpium is a globular drupe^ with a roundish five-grooved five-celled 
femeL 

' ■ L^EDARACHt 



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$9 HORTUS JAMAICENSIS* v» 

1. AZEDARACII. 

Leaves bipinnate, leaflets flat, shining, with ferruginous dots rniJemeath. 

This is a native of Syria, and grows to a considerable tree, the root is brachiated ; 
the bark rough and scabrous, the stem grows two feet thick, and thirty or forty feet 
high, very ramose and sprea ling. The leaves arc large and pinnated, with an odd one 
at die end ; the leaflets notched and indented at tiieir edges, deep green above and 
paler underneath. The flowers come out from tlie side of tlic bi*anclies in long loose 
bunches ; they are small, of a very sweet tjmell and of a hiucish or purplish colour.-* 
Fruit oblong, the size of a small cherry, green at first, but, when ripe, changing to 
pale yellow. Nut four or five celled, uitn one oblong seed in each cell. Tiie pulp 
surrounding tlie nut is poisonous, and mixed with grease it is said will kill dogs. Tha 
puts are boVed and sti-ung for bea(is. A decoction of the inner-^ ark of the root of this 
tree is said to be used in the East In lies to expel the toenia or tape worm, and as a 
substitute for the Peruvian bark. Worms of every species are destroyed by this medi- 
cine. Tlie following account of it, extracted !rom Dr. Dancer's Medical Assistant, 
first edition, is by IVIr. Hyiton, w no is justly noticed as a gentleman of great philan- 
tliropy and most diligent enquiry : *' Tiie root has a thin reddish bark, or outer skin, 
which IS (leleterious and mu.^t e scrnpetl oft* from .the second, or inner thick white 
bark : p. a a handful of the shavings of this wiiite bark in -a quart of water ; boil o\er 
a slow nrc to a pint; when settled, pour off and sweeten. Dose, a wine-glass full, 
three mornings successively ; after which a cathartic (castor oil) is to be adndnistere 1." 
Tiie same ingenious gentleman has very ob.i^ingly communicated to the co:ij)iler wi at 
Jie publishe(l in Richmond, in Virginia, in the year 179G, upon the virtues of this 
plant as an efficacious ver.uifuge, tiie particulars of whiclihe learned from Mr. Judge 
Iredell, as follow : 

*' The pr/de ofChma*^ (the trivial nam^ of theTnelia's in Carclina, of which from 
the size of die trees I saw in Eldenton, of oignteen to twenty inches diameter, I judged 
it to be a native) " had been used by an olvi' Indian woman, an ah-orig tits of Carolina, 
as a nostrum for the cure of children on most oc( asions, wi.h great success, for many 
years, without any person being able to discover what it was. As worms are generally 
the cause of sickness in children, physicians in Edcnton would always refer parents to 
this old Indian ; and great discharges of worms, of every spec ieu, were the conse* 
quences of the medicine. When she found her diss lution a[)proaching, she sent for 
some gentlemen of the town, and told tUem that the secret her fathers had given to her 
should not die with her, informe^l them of the tree, and tlie manner it was prepared and 
riven ; since which it is the universal medicine, which has saved thousands of chil- 
dren.'* Mr. Hyiton aids, that he has given it in an hundred instances in this island 
and in America, and always with success, and sa}s it is so esteemed in Carolina as t# 
<lo away with their native |>ink-root altogether. 

This tree grows readily from die seeds, and thrives well in Jamaica. 

2. SEMPERVIRENS, lEVERGREEN. 

Leaves doubly pinnate ; leaflets somewhat wrinkled, commonly seven. 

This, formerly deemed only a variety, has been ascertained by Swartz to be a distinct 
species growing naturally in this island. 

• ' ., Bean Tree — .9^^ Coral Tree. 

BtANB—Sce Horse Bean atiU Kidney Bean. 

BEARDE© 



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HORTUS JAMA1CENSI3. U 

BEARDED GRASS. ARISTIDA. 

Cu 3, OR. 2,—Tri'andna di'gyjtia. Nat. 0B,.-^Gramin4P^ 

Tliia name is derived from arista^ aa awn or beard. 

Gev. char.— Calyx a one flowered bivalved glmne^ corolla, a bivalved glumcig^ 
thicker than the calyx, outer valve linear, inner lanceolate, nectary two-leaved j / 
filaments capillar;,, anthers obloncr; germ turbinate, styles capillary, stijrma* 
villose ; no pericarp ; the glume converging ; seed one fHiform, the lengtli of the 
forulla^ naked ; there are two species, natives of Jamaica. 

U ADSCENSIONIS. 

Oramen avevacevmy, panicula minus sparsa^ cujus singula granay tret 
aristas longissimas hahent. Sloane^. v. 1, p. 16,. t. 2, f. 5^ 6.--ii^ 
Spica lava tenui aristis longissimis crinita. Browne, p. 135. 
Panicle branching, spikes- scattered,, corollas one- valved. 
The culms in tufts, fromosie to two feetTiigix. Leaves very slender .and filiform.— - 
Tlorets on short pedicels, .narrow, brown. Seed very minute, acuminate. Browne ' 
savs this plant is frequent in Jamaica, and seldom rises above ten or twelve inches from . 
tlie ground, . the stalks slender,, panicles simple and bearded. Sloaue found it ia Bar«- 
kadoes. 

2. AMERICANA. AMERfCAN. 

MTnor^ panicula e spicis swiplicibus compositOf ghimis ktrasetis.^*^ 
Browne, p. 135., 
Panicle simple, corollas two-valved, middle one longer, smooth. . 
The stalk rises half a foot high, jointed, and sub-divided. Leaves linear, stiff, even. . 
Panicle with simple alternate spreading branches ; the florets mostly pointing one way, , 
alternate, approximated, pressed close. The anthers are red. This being, less thaa ' 
Ikeioouer^ .Browne calls it the smaller bearded grassw 

]&EF Wood — See Bully Tree. 



BEET. BETA. 

Ct. Si OR. 2. — Pentandria digynia^ Nat. or. — Holorace^. . 
TBis takes its name from the form of lU seed vessel, which, when it swells with seed^ . 
Ifca the form of the letter so called in the Greek alphabet. 

Gen. CHAR. — The calyx is a fiveJeaved perianthium; there is no corolla; stamina^ 
are subulate filaments, with roundish anthers ; tiie pistil has the germen below the ^ 
receptacle ; styles short and erect ; stigmas acute ; the pericarpium is within the 
bottom of the calyx, one-celled and deciduous : seeds single, kidney-form, in- 
T«ive J in the calyx. This is a native of Earope, the most useful species has bee^^ > 
introduced into this islands 

VULGARIS. COMMON.. 

Bower&^beaped \ leaflets of the ^alyx toothod at the baMw 



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$2 HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. ^ot** 

This well know plant has larc^e thick succulent leaves of a dark red or purple colour. 
The roots are lart^e and deep red,And on these circum.stiinres their goodntiss depends; 
for the lar<^er they grow the more tender they will he, and the deeper their colour the 
more they are esteemed. It thrives pretty well in the mountains of Jamaica, hut sel- 
dom grows luxurmntly. The roots of the beet are hoHed, sliced and eaten cold as sal- 
lads ; and they make a good jnckle. It is said however to Ix) prejudicial to the sto- 
mach, and, to afford Uttle nourisimient. Tiie juice hoth of the roots and leaves is said 
to he a powerful errhine, occasioning a copious discharge of mucus vvhhoiit proVokinpr 
sneezing, and thereby relieving old hea:l aches. From the root el* this j)lant sugiic has 
been extracted, by boiling the roots, when taken out of the earth, slicing them \\\icj\ 
cold, and afterwards pressing out the juice ; which is to be filtered, evaf^orated, and 
the sugar procured by chrystailization. The process at length maybe found in the 
Kew Annual Kegisterfor 1 800, and in the ISth volume of the Trajisactions of the So- 
ciety for the Encounigement of Arts, &c. in London. 

A large variety of this plant has also been rntrodnted, known by the name of mancfl 
"WurzcL They are niised from the seeds, \^iich should be plantetl in a good sod. and 
well maiiure4 from twelve to eighteen inches distant from each other. 

.Belly-ache Weed — See Cassada. 



BENJAMIN TREE. ' LAURUS. 

Cl. 9, OR. I. — Enneandria vwnogynia. Nat. OR. — Ilolaracta^ 
fGEN. CHAR. — See Avocado Pear, p. 37. 

BENZOIN. 

Leaves nerveless, otate, sharp at both ends, entire, annual. 
This tree is a native of North America, and was introduced and first planted in fhe 
"botanic garden, Bath. It grows fronufifteen to twenty feet high, divided into a very 
branchy nead, having small yellowish flowers, and may be propagated by seeds or lay- 
ers. Tiiis tree was formerly mistaken for that which produces the gum benjamin, 
which is now known to be obtained from a species of &tyra,i\ The leaves are smooth and 
of a fine light green colour, -but their under surface is venose and of a whitish cast.**^ 
"Wheu bruised they emit a fine fragrance. 



BENT-GRASS. AGROftTIS. 

•Cl. 3, OR. 2. — Triandria digynxa. Nat. or. — Gramintt. 
This name is derived from a Greek word, signifying a field. 

:Gen. char. — Calyx a one-flowered bivalved glume ; corolla bivalve, acuminate, one 

larger than the other ; filaments longer than the corolla, with forked anthers ; the 

-.pistil has a roundish germen, reflex styles, and longitudinally hisped stigmas:; 

.the pericarp is the corolla, growing to the seed, which is roundish, and pointed 

^ bpth ends* Two species are natives oi this islaud« 

d. PURPUBASCElfS. 



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mMmtm^ rohtus jamaicensis, || 

1. PURPURASCENS* PURPLE* 

Gramen pratense panicula etfoliis angustissimiSf spicis brevibus muti^ 
CIS locustis minimis. Sioane, v. 1^ p. 115;. t 73, f. 1. 

Panicle contracted, elongate,, branches pressed close upright; florets unequal,, 
acuminate. 

The roots of this grass are many, small,, white, and capillary, forming a large tuft, 
Irhich send forth a great many leaves, five inches lon^,. narrow, almost round, dry, and 
♦f a pale green colour. The stalks are round, solid, ha?d, smooth, a toot and a half 
iSgh, of a clay colour,, having small leaves lo nkte inches high ; whence it is a verj 
narrow panicle, being divided into many thrce-qiiarters of an inch- long branches, 
sometimes black, and sometimes gray^ having small oblong reddish seed in a gray or 
black nalvcd hus^k, scan ely discernible to^ the naked eye. It gi-ows in most savannas,^, 
and in abundance towards. Black River bridge, beyond Two Mile Wood. It affords but - 
small nourishment, yet cattle eat it in dry and scarce tin)es, when they grow very big, 
}n their paunches, .with the great quantity they. eat,^, a iiiue notbeiog s^e to saxist^ 

2. VIRGINICA. , VIRGINIAN. • 

Minimum distiche foliattwiy 4pica strictiovi simpUci erectajnutica,-^ - 
Browne, p. 137. - 

TPanicle contracted ; leaves rolled inwards, subulate,, rigid, standing out. 

Browne calls this crab gy^ass^ and says it is an elegant little plant, growing abou% 
Hunt's Bay ; that the staik ib ahttle compressed, ^nd seldom rises above four or &v^-- 
nches from tha root^ . 



BERMUDAS CEDAR. JUNIPERlXS: 

Cl. 22, OR. 13. — Diaecia manodelphia^ Nat. OR.— Co/ij/irrir* 

This takes its name from a plant of Pliny*s.. 

Gen. Char.— Male calyx a conical ament, consisting of a common ^hafl:; on i?»'hich ^' 
are disposed three opposite flowers in triple opposition, a tenth' terminating thi^ 
ament : each flower has for its base a broad, short, incumbent, scale, affixed to- 
the column- of the receptacle. There is no corolla. The stailiens are three, four,, 
or light, filaments, in a terminal floscule, awl-shaped, united below into* one body^ 
in the lateral flowers scarce manifest \ anthers three,' distinct in the terminal flower, 
but fastened to the calycine scale, in the lateral ones. The female flowers have a 
tiiree-parted perianth, very «maH, growing to the germ, permanent ; corolla three 
petals, permanent, rigid, acute ; tlie pistil has an inferior gerui, tiiree simple 
atyUs, with simple stigmas ; the pericarp is a fleshy berry, roundish, marked on 
the lower part with three opposite obscure tubercles, from the caiyx having growa 
there, and at the tip by three teeth, which before, were the petals, umbiiicated ; 
ftee^ls three ossicles, convex on one side, cornered oo the other, oblong. One . 
Hauttfs i^ a native of Jamaica. 



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|« HORTUS JAMAICENSia •auvBwm 

BERMUDIANA. BERMUDIAN, 

Jiinipems maxitiia aipressi folio viinimoj ccrtice t:ifteri&ri in tenue^ 
philyras spirales dactiii. Sloane, v, 2, p. 2, t. 137, f. 3. Folivli$ 
inferioribiis ternis^ superioribus binis^ dccurrentibusy patulis.-^ 
Browne, p. 362. 

Lowe? leaves io threes, upper io pairs^ decurrent, awl-shaped, spreading, 
acute. 

Bermudas juniper, common]y called Bermudas cedar^ is a native of Jamaica, ^nd 

trows to a large size, affording very large boards ol" a reddish brown colour, close and 
rm contexture, shining, very odoriferous, and strongly scented, extremely like, if 
not the same, as the Bermudas cedar, being towards its outside of a paler colour and 
looser contexture. The bark is thin, and ready, in great pieces, to drop off^ appear- 
ing somewhat contorted, of a. reddish brown coU.ur. The wood ^s much used in wains- 
cotting rooms, and in cabinetwork. Cockroaches and otii^ vermin avoid its smell. 
It gives a bitter taste to victuals. It is siiid to be a good timber for sliips against worms^ 
though it is also observed that keels of siiips of this wood have been found eaten through 
by sea worms. Sloane, — Browne sav«i this tree ^rows veiy pientituUy in the Blue 
• Mountains, where it is frequently cut down for planks and other conveniencies ; and 
that it is a good timber wood, adniircd for its smelj, iightness. and close even grain. 
It appears doubtful, however, wtiether Sloane's tree be the same as Browne's, and," 
indeed, whether either of them be exactly the same species as the bermudiana. Bar- 
bam observes tliat it has leaves like th<^ savine or fir, its wood is whiter thart the com- 
ii^on cedar, and smelling more like juniper berries. Jts gum resists putrefaction and 
Julis \2^orms. 



SERMUDIANA. SISYRYNCHIUM. 

*Cl. 16, OR- l.-^Monodelphia triandria. Nat. or. — Ensat€e. 

This name is derived from two Greek words, signifying swines snout, from the fonn 
si the flower. 

Gen. char. — ^The calyx is ^ common two-leave4 spathe ; corolla one-petalled, su- 
perior, six-parted; tlie stamina has thej three filaments united, distinct at top,; 
anthers bifid. below; the pistil h<is an oboyate inferior germen, three-sided style, 
Stigmas thickish, awl-shaped, erect; the pericarp is an obovate capsule, inferior^ 
three-celled, and tliree-valved ; seeds several, globular. One species has beem 
introduced, a native of North America : 

PALMIFOLIDM. JPALM- LEAVED. 

Scape ancipital ; flowers in spikes ; leav<s?s ensiform, nerved and plated. 

This plant hus a stem two feet high, the leaves are about an inch broad, folding witk 
live or six nerves. The ghimes and' flowers are numerous, in a terminating bundle, ft 
.#2xive$vFety well in most parts of this island. 



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HORTUS JAMAICENSia, fl 

jyb English Nome. BESLER7A, 

Cl. 145 o^' 2,'-^l)idynamia Angwspermia, Nat, or, — Personaf/e, 

This was so named after Basil Besler» an apothecary at Nuremberg, editot of m 
.'Wmptuous botanical work. 

Gen. char. — Calyx a one-leafed perianthium, five-parted, acuminate, erect, loose, 
with reriected tops ; corolla monopetalous, ringeut, tube the length of the calyx, 
border five-cleft ; filaments jvithin the mouth of the corolla, with oblong antherg 
hanging down on each side; the pistil has a globular germen, a subulate erect 
style, and a bifid obtuse stigma ; the pericarpium is a sub^globular one-celled 
iberry ; seeds numerous, round, very small. One species is a native of Jamaica : 

LUTEA. YELLOW. 

Toliis ovatis serratis oppos^'tisy venis oblique arcuatis^ fioribus i:onferti9 
ad alas. Browne, p. 270. 

Peduncles simple crowned, leaves lanceolate. 

Browne chIIs this plant eriphiuy and says he met with it in Sixteen Mile Walk. It 
rises witn a ligneous stem, six or seven feet high, dividing toward the top into many 
irregular branches, w^th spear-shaped serrate leaves, which haVe many transverse 
ipcins ; the flowers come out at the wings of the leaves, in large clusters, each having 
tt separate foot;>talk ^ they are small, tubulous, anctof a pale jeilow colour. 



BETEL NUT. AKECA. 

Cl, 25, OR. 1. — Monoecia enneandria. Nat. or.— rPdrfwir. 

• ^EN. CHAR. — ^The male calyx is a bivalved spathe ; spadix branched ; proper peri- 
anth tiiree-leaved ; the corolla has three acuminate, rigid petals ; stamina are nine 
-fiiaments, the three outer longer than the rest. The female flowers, in the same 
spalix, has the calyx a spathe common with the males: proper perianth three* ■ 
leaved ; tijr corolla three-petalled, acuminate, rigid ; the pericarp a sub-ovate 
^berry, fibrose surrounded at the base with the imbricate calyx : the seed ovate. 

CATECHtT. 

:Fronds pinnate^ leaflets folded back, opposite end bittea. 
TThis tree is a native of Providence and tlie Ea«t Indies, and was brought here in hit 
"Majesty's ship Providence in 1793. It has no branches, but its leaves are very beauti« 
ful ; they form a round tuft at the top of the trunk, which is as straight as an arrow.—* 
It grows to the height ot twent} -five or thirty feet, marked with parallel nngs, and js 
VA'ry ornamental. Tne fronds spring forth ia pairs, decussated, encircling tiie top of 
-the trunk at their base, and thus forming an obiong head larger than the trunk itself: 
they are few in number (six or seven), unarmed, reclining, six. feet lonjr, on a stipe 
four feet in length, Tnese fronds break and fall off in succession ; from their axils 
ls.>ue the sheaths which inclose the flowers and fruits. The shell which contains tlie 
fniit is smooth without, but rough and hairv within ; in which it pretty much resembles 
4he shell of the cocoa nut. Its size is equal to that ot a pretty large walnut. Its kernel 
ds as bij^ as a ^uUaeg, to which it hears a great rei»emblaace without, and has also the • 



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m HOUTirS JAMAI€E:NSia. twnrtr 

w^me whitish veins within, when cut in two. In thiJcentieof the fruit, when it is soft^ 
i§ contained a greyish aqd ahuost liquid subst^uce,, whicu growa hard in .proportion a» 
it xipens. The extract of this nut is supposed to be tiie terrcLJaponica of tiie shops,, at 
least that it is a very similar substance both in colour an.i tasle ; but, according to later 
o})servations, the genuine drug seems to be <»btained iroin the mimosa cutcchiu The 
fruit,- when^ripe, is astringent, but' not uiipalatable, and the shell is yellowisli* Of ' 
this fruit there is a prodigious, consumption in the E?ist In lies^ It is chewed with the 
leaves of betel, mixing wjih it linie made of sea shetls. In ordtr to chew it, they cut 
tiae ar'eca into foup quarters, and wrap one quarter in a leaf of betel, over which tiiey 
lay a little of the lime; aiterwards they tie it, by twisting it round. This. is called. 
pinan^^y which. is a Malayan wordn*sed all over thtv East liiiues.. The pinaivg. provokes, 
spitting very much, whether made with dried or fre>ti ureca ; the spittle is red, which 
colour the arec^i gives -it. This mastication fastens the teeth and gums, and cools the 
mouth. When they have done chewmg the pirsang they spit out the gross substance^ 
wash their ni<)uth with fresh water, wnich takosoif t^e retl cinge it gives the teeth. It 
is pretended thut areca strengtiiens.the stomach when the luice is svahowed. Another 
property ascrtbed to it-is its canryijig off all tliat miglit be corrupt ,ai* unwholesome- in 
the guni. When eaten by itself it impoverishes the blooJ, and causes the jaundice^ 
but is notv attended with these inconveniences when mixed with betel. The Saiuese 
call it piou. It is a c<#nsiderable article in traffic, and the best comes from Ce^jioa; ^ 
jr^d sort grow in Malabar, which is very proper for dying that coiour^ ^ , 



BIGHY^ TREE. New Genus. 

Cl. 23^ OR. l^-r^Polyigamia monoecia. 

Tfeis^ tree was originally imported from the coast of Guinea, and nov^ grows in many* 
]Hats of the south side of this. island. The following characters . were taken irom a tree 
tbat perfected its firuit in the botanic garden, Liguanea : 

Gen. CHAR;. — The hermaphrodite flowers have noxalyx. Corolla monopetalous fiv€^ 
parted, inferior, the segments ovate, acute, thick, somewhat hairy, striated^, 
erect-patent : the nectarium concave; inclosing the germen, having a ten-dented 
margin: the staminaare ten short filamentsor none; the anthers dic^mous, placed ^ 
in a circle ; the p^tillum has u roundish g^ruen^ .five furrowed, hairy ; stignias 
five, thick, reflex, somewhat contorted, leaning to the germen ; the pericarpium 
is a large sub-o\^te gibbous capsule, gently, bovyed,. semilocular, bivaived; seed* 
many, imbricate, angled, each covered with a leathery bark: The male calyx and 
corolla as in the hermaphrodite, but one-third larger ; the stamina the same ; the 
pistilium has no germen, but the rudunents i^t five small stigmas, proceeding firona 
tbe middle of the itectary. 

BICHY. 

Cerationics affihis siliquosa laurifolio smgvtariy fiore ptnfapetah'dt 
purpureo striatOj sUiifua crassa brevi pulpa ^scuknta €t pur^antc - 
semina arnbiente. Sloane, v. 2, p. 60.- 

ISiit lattoi^ are short and compact. 



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^iRjMM HDRTTJS JAMAlCENSrS. €7 

This is a branchy but ineleg^ant tree ; the trunk is covered by a brownish baik ; the 

Heaves have alternate footstalks, are entire, oblong, veined, smooth, acuminate, margin 

■undulated, dry, lanrel-like, gro\vin<j in a heap at the extremities of the hranches ; the 

'footstalks have a swellint^ on both sides ; the racemes are short and con»p.rct, p^onerally 

•proceeding from the lar<^er branches. The coroila is pah^ yellow, the sconients beinj^ 

each marked on the inside with three purplish grooves, the smell of vvhicli is very uft- 

pleasant. The negroes in Jamiiica call it bichif orroui^ wiiere the seeds are used by 

themselves, or mixed with capsicum, for complaints in the belly. 

Although this tree was but seven years old, raised from seed, which was brought 
- from Guinea, yet it was twenty feet high, had a trunk as thick as the calf of one's ieg^ 

straight and round, covered with an almost smooth, reddish brown, bark, with grevish 
^ or white spots here and there, the houghs were spread on all i>ands, tiiose lower hc\\\^ 

the longest ; the twigs were on their further ends beset with very many leaves, set close 
'by one another, and for the most part ojiposke. T'he footsUilks wt re two inches long, 

liaving a swelling at the coming out of the twigs, and another near the leaf itself, whicii 

was six inches long, and two broad at the middle, where broadest, smooth, thin, bav- 
"ing one middle rib, sending transverse ones to the sides, hard, and exactly like the 
f caca^) tree. The blossoms are several, comin^^ out from tlie brandies fnemselves, pen- 

fepetalous, though all the petala bt^ joined at oottom, yellow and purple striped, with 
i a yellow stilus, sUinding on the ends of green branched stalks, three inches long, to 

which follows a large, siiort, thick, and broad pod, within which li^ several great boijns 

or seeds, about which is an edible sweet pulp. The seed brought in a Guinea sliip 
• from that country was here planted by Mr. Goffe, in Colonel Bourden's plantation be- 
^ yond Gnanaboa. It is called bnliy by the CoroHoantyn negroes, and is bo.th eaten an^ 
t-vsed foi: pliysic in pains of tlie belly. — S/oane. 



BiDENs — 5'ftf Water Hemp Agrimony. 
•Bilberry — AV^ Jamaica Bilberry. 



TBILIMBI FRUIT. AVERRHO A. 

"^CIm 10, OR. 4. — Decandria^peritagt/nia. Nat. or. — Griiinales. 
'"This name was given in honour of Ebu Klvelid Ebu Rushad, commonly called Averr* 
^oes, of Corduba in Spain, a very learned man, who died at the be^^inning of the 1:5 th 
•century. 

Gkn. char. — Calyx a five-leaved perianthium ; corolla five petale 1, lanceolate pe- 
. tals ; stamina setaceous, alternately the length of the corolla and shorter, with 
nmndisli anthers ; the pistillum has an oblong germen, setaceous styles, and sim-» 
pie stignras ; the pericarpium is a turbinate pome, five-cornered, five-celled ; 
seeds angular, separated by membranes. 'Only one species has been introduced, 
41 native of Indie. 

"BILIMBT. 
Trunk naked, fruit-bearing, pomes oblong, obtuse angled. 
^Tbis plant grows only about eight feet high, wiui recliniag branches ^ -the leaves 

have 



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M RORTlfS JAMAICENSrS; mifrrtfim 

have ten pair of leaflets or more, they are small, ovaJ^-Unceolate^ quite entfre, smooth,, 
end grow on short petioles ; the Howers are red purplc>. on oblong ^mall raremos ad- 
hering to the trunk ; caJyx flve-cltift.. The truitjsan oblong poine,. tlie tliickneis of 
a fino^er, smootli on the outside, ' 

Tfiis plan^ was bron^^ht to Jamaica iiv his M iiesty*5 ship Praviilence, in the year ' 
17*i3, from the South Seas, and is valued as a preserve or pickle, tuou^h its aci hty is 
very great. The fruit, like every other strong acid> will dis liarge iDU-moinds iran^ 
clothes, and also extracts ink or other stains from furniture. Tiie metiiL)J of using it 
fi)r these pui-poses is to bruise tl^.* finiit and rub the i)nlp on the stain, and leave it 
tliere for some time. If exposed to the sii4i^ its clfect wiii be greater and more iin.%- 
Uiediate. ' 

The plant is easily propagated from the seed, which each berry ccirtains ia abund^- 
ance, by sowing thcqa in fine mould in a box, and regularly watenng. 



• BINDWEEDS. CONVOLVULUS; 

Cl. 5, OR. L — Pentandriamsno^t/nia. Nat. or. — Carnpan^ceit. . 

This generic name is derived ^ from a Latin word, signifying to roll about, because- 
the stL^is of hiost species roll round or twine. about other bodies. 

Gr.x. rii\R. — Calyx is a five-parted perianth, converging, ovate, obtuse, very small^ 
permanent; the corolla one- petal led, be I % shaped, spreading, large, plaited^. 
o!)scurely five-lobed ; the stamina have subulate filaments, shorter by half than the- 
corolla, with ovate compressed anthers ; the pistillum has a superior roundisli^ 
germen ; a fi,tiform style the length of the- stamens ; the stigmas two, oblong;^ 
broadish ; the pericarp is a capsule enwrapped by the calyx, roundish, two-celled^ 
one, two, or three valved ; the seeds are in pairs, roundish. Besides the plants, 
of this genus referred to below, tlie following species, which have no English, 
names, are natives of this island ; sQe also the next article fpr the g^mus evolvulus^ 
»early allied to this : 

1. CAROLINOS. OAROLINIAN, 

Poh/f^nthos suhhirsutuSy foUis cordaio ovatis qitandoque lobatisy florid 
bi.'s^ fasciculuiis alaribusy calicibus longioribtis hirsuiis. Browne,, 
p. 152. 

Lea^'es cordate, . entire, and three-lobed, villose ; calyxes even ; capsules hir«^ 
sute ; peduncles one or two flowered. 

Browne calls this the synaller clivibing co7ivolviduSj with long hairy cups. The sterns^ 
are slender and reddish towards the roots. Leaves some entire and cordate^ others like 
ivy leaves. Corollas pale purple or blueish^ 

2. VERTICILLATUS. VERTICILLATB. 

Minor scandens^.^florilms pfurimi's alaribuSy calicibus^ fair is^ capsult3*f 
quadrispermisj foliis oblongo cordatis. Browne, p. 153. 

Leaves cordate-oblong, naked; peduncles umbellate; bifid, many flowered. 

VDm U called b^ Br^wncj, the ^nailer climbing, convolvulus with smooth cups ; the * 



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fan>»HtsM HORTUF; JAASAICENSIS* 89 

corolla is bell^sbaped, as in mosf flowers of this genus, bliieish and small ; the leaves 
^re cordate or ovate, with the edge somewhat repand and roughish, the peduncles 
shorter than the leaf; umbellcite, 1)ut the lateral pedicels are often subdividecL 

3. UMBELIATUSJ * UMBELLED. 

Convolvulus polmnthosj folio mbrolundo^ Jlore lufeo. Sloane, v. 1, 
p. 154/ Foliis cordato-acuminaUs^ floribus umbeUatis luteisj sus- 
tentaculis longis alaribiis, Browne, p. 154. 

Leaves cordate, peduncles umbellate. 
Stem herbaceous, twining, filiform, stiff, subdivided, pubescent, round. ' Leaves 
flibout two inches long, and as broad at the* base, deeply cordate, lanceolate, angles of 
the base roundest, ed^e sub-repand, entire, sub-t)oment6se, dark green, hoary beneath ; 
petioles three inches long, thickish, round. Flowers many, terminating on peduncles 
three inches long o? more ; partial peduncles three-quarters of an inch in length, three 
floweifed, each flower on a pedicel much longer than the partial peduncles. Corollas 
yellow, the border plaited, obtusely pentangular. Two leaflets of the calyx a little 
shorter than the rest. Anthers whitish, oblong ; germ oblong ; style simple ; stigmas 
two globular-, capsule two-celled, with one seed in each cell, black, angular-roundish, 
Velvet-villose. — Sw. 

This pTant is common about the Ferryi growing among the bushes ; it bears beautiful 
yellow flowers, and the stalks are always margined on one side, but the capsules are 
^generally small and oblong, and the figure of the leaves very various. — Browne. 

4. QUINQUEFOUUS. * FIVE-T.EAVED. 

Levis minor pentaphyllay calicHus hispidis^ Jloribus quasi umbellatis.-^ 
Browne's Ipomea 5, p. 155. 

Leaves digitate, smooth, toothed; peduncles even. 
Stem herbaceous, twining, fihform, rounds hirsute. Leaves subpedate, in fives, 
idioitate, the two inner divisions smaller, lanceolate, acdte, serrate^ nerved, veined, 
'smooth on both sides; petioles round, recurved, pubescent, short ; peduncles axil- 
lary, solitary, twice as long as the leaves, three flowered, erect, pubescent ; pedicels 
#one-flowered ; calycine leaflets oblong, permanent, smooth, pale, the three inner ones 
larger ; corolla bell-shaped, white, tube narrower at the base, swelling in the middle ; 
l>order' five-cornered, plaited, spreading; capsule roundish, two-celled, two-seeded. 
\—Sw. ' , . 

* This is Browne's ipomea five, wlio calls it the synooth leaved tiger'* s foot^ and says it 
is frequent in the lowlands of Jamaica, and generally found creepuig upon the grounc^ 
4)r spreading over the lower bushes. 

5. REPENS. CREEPING. 

Convolvtdus maritivius niajor nostras rotundi/olius. Sloane, v. t, 

* Leaves sagittate, obtuse behind ; stem creeping ; peduncles one or two flow- 

, ered. 
Stem creeping, jointedi xpoting^ angular^ compressedj sub-divided; leaves ter- 

Al.^^. .. ^i " N minating. 



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90 HORTUS JAMAICEN^IS. mfDWira*. 

minating, crowded^ oblongs sometimes bltmtly sagittate^ entire, emarginate,. scarcely 
veiiie J, very smooth, somewhat succulent, on longish petioles ; peduncles from the- 
axils of the terounating petioles, the length of the leaves, erect, one-flowered.;^ flow* 
ers rather large^ whitish. U is a native of the sandy coasts of Jainaka. — Sw. 

Sloane says he could hot see any difference between the European and this herb^ 
which grew on Gun Cayos,. a small island off Port Royal. It is very purging, especi- 
ally of watery and hydropic humours^ and either swan ia powder, or boiled in broths^ 
but very strong, and not fit for weak persona* — Shane. 

6. HEB^ERACEUS.^ WY-UKE. 

Convolvuhisfdio hedaraceoy angulosoj lanuginosa floT^€'niagnOy cceru^ 
leo, patula,. Sloane, v. r, p. 155^ 

Leaves triangnlar, acute ; flower»^ luany, sessile^, spreadit^g ; calyxea acute^. ' 
many cleft ; stem twiniog^. ^ 

The stalk of this is roundv hiory, and pretty large,, having leaves standing at about 
two inches mtervals^ on inch long hoary footstalks. They are shaped like those ot ivy^i. 
having three angles or points, whitish, hoary, woolly, soft, an inch and a half long^ 
and an inch broad at the base where broadest. From the alse of the leaves come the* 
flowers, being several on. the same footstalk^ they are large^ blue, monopetalous^and.' 
extremely pleasing to the eye. 

7. TOMElCTOSiyS. bownt; 

Convolvulus folio lanato^ in tres lacinias diviso^ fiore ohlongo^ purpfe-^ 
reo. Sloane, v. !,. p. 154, t. 98, f. 2. Scandens, foliis trilobis 
quundbque cordatis segitnervtis, pedunadis minus-ramosis alaribus* 
Browne, p. 152. 
Leaves three-lobed, tomentose ; stem lanugmose; 
This, by its round,, whitidi, woolly stem, turns itself round tKe-tmnks of trees j ris- 
ing twenty feet high, and putting rath leaves at every inches distance, standing on 
three-quarters of an inch long footstalks. They ace 8omething4ike the elder leaves of* 
ivy, bemg divided into three laciniae, an inch and a half long from tie centre of the 
fbotstalk to the point opposite to it, and as much or more from* one section at base to* 
the other ; they are of a very white green colour, soft, and covered over with a short 
wool. The flowers come out ex alis fotioruin^ standing on quarter of an inch long 
footstalks in a pentaphyilous green calyx, are monopetalous, an inch and a half long 
in the tubuljfls of the flower, which opens itself bell-fashion, of a fine pufple colour^, 
with some yellow stamina in the middle, and five paler streaks. After these follows a 
brown membranaceous capsule, with four round protuberances,, under, a thin mein>- 
brane, containing three satined seeds. — Sloane^ 

. Of the above genus there are one hundred and ten species known. All the foreg^o^ 
*ing are indigenous to this ihland ; the following exotic species have been introduced^ 

and are in tl eHottus Eastensis : — Scanimoniay purpureus major hnd minor y tricolor^ 
. dissect us f tartar iensisy speciosus^ and s^rigosus. 

Jbe Christmas Qambol — Jalap — Indian Creeper — Purging Sea Bindweed — Scam^ 
MONV— Sweet Yoix'^qz-^Mso the JoUowmg ariicie. ♦ ' 

SLNDWEEIMI. 



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•im)WEEM HORTUS JAMAICENSia ^ 91 

BINDWEEDS. EVOLVULUS. 

Cl. S, or. 4. — Pentandria tttragx/nia. Nat. or. — Campanacea. 

This name is derived from evolvo, to roll about 

'Gen. char. — Calyx a five-leaved perianthium ; leaflets lanceolate, sharp, perma- 
nent ; corolla one-petalled rotate, five-cleft ; stamina, five capillary spreading 
filaments, almost the length of the corolla, with little oblong anthers ; the pistil- 
Jum has a somewhat globose g^rmen, four capillary styles, diverging, length of 
the stamens, with simple stigmas ; the pericarp is a somewhat glebose four-eelled 
f our* valved capsule 4 the seeds are solitary, roundish^ and cornered on one side, 
four species are natives of Jamaica. 

1. MUMMULARIUS. MONEY. 

Canvolvidus viinor repens^ mummtdariie^ folio y fiore ceeruleo, Sloane, 
v. 1, p. 457, t. 99, f. 2. Il^rbaceus repens^/oliis subrotu?idis, Jlori^ 
bus quinque^creiULtis singularibus alaribus, Browne, p. 15S. 

Xeaves roundish ; stem creeping ^ flowers sub-sessile 

From a sinall stringy fibrous root spring long trailing stalks, taking root here and 
there, wheretheytduch the ^ground, and putting fi>rth, alternately, at small unequal 
<]istaiiceB, leaves aJmost round, three-quarters of an inch long, and an inch broad, 
having a small notch at the end, and on petioles a Quarter of -an inch in length, and of 
a brown colour. Flowers axillary, on short peduncles, of a light blue colour ; legume 
brown, containing two or three brown seeds. It grows very plentifully after ram ia 
the town savannas. — Sloaue, 

Swartz says the corollas are white, diough Sloane inight have perceived a blueish 
Jtinse, which is frequently the case. Browne calls it the small creeping convolvulus^ 
\ana observes that the flowers are deeply crenated. According to Swartz ihe styles are 
^ree or foui^ and the capsule three or four celled and valved. 

2. LINIFOLIUS. t-INEAR- LEAVED. 

Herbaceus erectusy foliis linearibusy pedunculis longis lehuissimis bi-^ 
bracteatis alarlbus, Browne, p. 152, t. 10, f. 2. 

I^eaves lanceolate villose, sessile ; stem i^rigbt ; peduncles three-Howered, 
bng, 

^his little plant is sometimes found in the lowlands, and seldom rises above ten or 
fourteen inches from the root The stalk is generally simple, or but very little divid- 
ed, slender and upright ; the leaves are narrow and few, and throw out so many long 
-and delicate flower stalks from their alae, each furnished with a very «mall exterior bi- 
phyllus cup about the middle. The styles are two and bifid ; and the capsules divided 
into^two or four ceHs, and contain many seeds. The whole plant has the appearance 
•of a very fine species of the flax. 

3. SI^RICEUS. SILKY. 

Erectus herbaceus subhirsutus, foliis linearibusy pedunculis brevibus 
simplicibus solitariis ad^las. Browne, p. 153, t. 10, f. 3. 

, Reaves I^nceolate^ sessile, silky underneath, peduncles short, one-lowered. 

N 2 Accojfding 



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fi2 HORTUS JAMAICENSI9; w^<m 

According to Browne this is so t^xtreiiiely like the Unifoli^is^ that they are hardly to 
be ihstingiJished witiiout great attention. The flower stiiiks are very short, the cup^- 
siiigle, and every flower tuniished with fotir styles. It grows ia the lowlands, 

4. GAl^GETlCUS. . GANGETIC. 

IJerbaceus repens viinor^ corolla ifuitiifucjiday stylo &d hastm usque 
quudripariitOy floribus sini(ularibas ad alas. Browne, p. 152. 

Leaves cordate,, obtuse, raieroonate, villosc^ petioledj, stemdiftusey peduncles 
oue-flowered. 

This little plant, the smaller creepir^g convolvulus^ is found on the side of the road 
that leads to thci foot of the Long Mouiwain in Liguanea. It creeps and roots upon tiie- 
ground, but seldom grows above two or thi'ee iiioiies in lengtli ; the leaves are i^ound-*- 
ish, and the flowers tubular, but moderately open and divided at the margin ; the 
style is divided in four pauts to tUi? very base, aad tlie icuit l» a capsule^ aud contains^ 
two or four seeda* 



BIRCH TREE. BURSERA. 

Cl. 23, OR. 2. — Pol^amia dicecia. Nat. ovL-^Gummifcr^^ 
This is so liamed in memory of Joachim Burser, a great collector of plants. 
©EX. CHAR.-^The hermaphro<lite calyx is a one-leafed minute perianthium, three-- 
parted ; the parts ovate, acute ; the corolla has three petals, ovate, acute, spread* 
ing;. entire, de.ciduous ; stamina are six 6 laments, subulate, erect, fixed round 
Uie base of the germ, with ovate erect anthers ;' the pistillum has an ovate ger- 
nien ; a short tliick stjde, trifid at the tip, with very short and simple stigmas ^ 
the pericarpium is a fleshy obovate capsule, three-cornered, tliree-celled, three- 
valved ; the seeds benied, solitary (commonly only one), compressed. There are- 
obscure vestiges of two cells^. but a single seed occupies the whole capsule. The*. 
calyx of the male flower, on a separate tree, is a five-toothed Kunute peri^thium^ 
corolla five-petals, lanceolate, acuminate, reflex, shrivelling ; the stamina are 
five, eight, or ten, filaments placed round a slightly convex siir&u^, scarcely 
shortrr than the petals, subidate, with oblong two-celled anthers ; the pistilluni. 
a rudiment, no {jermen, style trifid, caducous, or none. There is^only one species- 
a native of Ja^i^aica.. 

OUMMIFERA. ©UM-BEARING^ 

Terebivthus majors betuta cortice, fructu triangulari, Sloane, v. ?,. 
p. 89, t 199, f. 1, 2. Feliis cordato ovatis pinnaUSf cortice levi- 
rufesceuteJUtriiiis masculinis spicati$. Browne,, p. 345. 

Ferruginous villous twigs ; leaves pinnate ; two or three pairs^ with an odd one^ 
racemes axillary. 

This is a very lofty tree, with an upright,.round, smooth trunk, covered with a livid^ 
shining, bark, peeling off in round pieces, like the European birch; branches ter- 
minating, smooth, horizontal ; twigs ferruginous and villose ; leaves pinnate ; petioler 
fOund| villose, petiolules compressed, aiapnelled^, villose beneath. LeaflfSts, two 



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HORTU« JAMAICENSia *^ 

er three pali*8, besides tke odd one ; tbey are ovate with a short poittt, entire, veined^ 
and smootii ; racemes axilUiry and ternunating, shorter than the petioles, uprip,ht| 
many flowered, piihes«ont ; pedicels alternate, short, onc-flowcred ; flowers small and 
white ; capsule red, reseuibUng a di^upe ; on the male trees the ttaw^r^ are more coj^i- 
ous, and crowded in the racemes,- hut are, scarcely larger. — Sw. 

This tree ha.«i a great many roots rmining superficially on the c^rth on every hand for 
some yards round, iVom tiic middle of whrdi nscs a trunk as tiiick as a hogshead or 
pijjc, covered wiUa a hrown red smooth, menabranaceous outward hart,- falling off iu 
round pieces like to that ol the Enj»iish birch, wiience it-j name. It hath several crooked 
branches, ihounting to tliirty feet hij^h, co'^red v\ith a hrown smooth bark,- near the 
U»]) of which couje out several two or three inches lonij stalks,- susuuning on half inch 
long footstalit;, several flowers one above another, each made up of five thick yellowish 
6hort |x:tala, vvitli stamina in the middle, and alter tiiese follow three-sided or triangu- 
lar berrie.s, of a small peas bigness, witli a reddij»h browit coloured skin, verj' gummy, 
and sni< limg like tercbinthine, under which lies a white, very hard, triangular stone, 
containing a kerneL The tree having stood naked sometim'e has first its flowers come 
out, and its h avc\s begin to bu<l a little while after, which are winged, smooth^ of a 
\<\y fresii green colour, staiuling rout>fl the ends of the branches at half an inch's dis- 
tance ; the mid' lie rib is five inches lonfj, hoary, and set at an inch and a half's dis- 
lancjc from tiic beginning, with pairs ot pinnse one against another, on an half inch 
foot>talk, the pinuije are an inch and a half long, and iialf as l>road near the round base, 
where broadest, and shining ; there is a small odd one at the end, and usually four of 
eight pairs, which, with the odd one, make up the leaf. The guiuihe tree yfelds im 
liiou^nt to be very vumcrary and healing. — Sloane^ 

It is very commoa in Jamaica,^ although I do not take it ta be the same with what 
grows ni Lngiand ; but it having the very same sort of bark, makes the English here 
call them bnch- trees. They are much larger here than any I ever saw m England ;. 
besides, of these, after the bark is off, the wood is veiy white, light,, and brittle ; none 
of the twigs are so tough as to make rods or brooms of ; and tiie gum that flows from^ 
the tree is very odoriferous, white like niastic, and»hatli an aromatic absorbent taste.-^ 
I have oiten given and advised this gum to be taken in the lues venerea wub good suc-» 
.cess, after due purging. It is so well known, that it needs uo particular description- 
— i/arAa/w, p, 20: 

This tree is very common in- all the suear islands. The baft isrery thick and exudes 
ft clear and trans}>arent resin, which hardens soon in the air, and looks nmch like tii^ 
liiastic of the shops i but it yields a considerable quantity of a more fluid substaocey by 
kicision ; whicti has much the smell and appear^ii^^ o£ turpezmue^ aod may be used 
iuf the sauie purp^ses^.with ^ucces^ — Browie^ 

This tree grows readily from pieces of the limh^ md poste made of them and put in 

4b£ grouna^ very sp^^diiy w getate and shoot out branches* Dr. Browne mistook tiie 

Ukk ot tue r^ots oi tais tree lor the simarouba of the shops, which is procured from a 

, sptoes of .|Uasbia. The gum has been en>ployed successfully as a transparent varnish ; 

.MUKKUsuA^bteia spirits o^ivuMW Tiie dccwUoa of the rpot^ is biadmg and astrin^ 

geau 



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9* HORTUS JAMAICENSia wrnm 

fent. In tbe French islands this tree is csl\ed^gommier hlancy and an infusion of ib^ 
uds and young leaves is recommended there in disorders of the breast. 



lyounj 

Bird Pepper — See Guinea Pepper. 



BIRDS FOOT. ORNITHOPUS. 

Cl. 17, or. 4.-^Diadelphia decandria. Nat. or. — Papilionaceop, 

This name is derived from a Greek word for birds foot, the legumes or pods growing 
;several together, in the manner and shape of birds claws. 

Gen. char. — ^The calyx of the umbel is simple ; the perianth one-leafed, five- 
toothed ; corolla papilionaceous ; the stamina have simple filaments and anthers ; 
the pistillum a linear germen, bristle-shaped style, the stigina a terminaiine; dot ; 
the pericarpium an awl-shaped legume, round, bowed; jointed ; seeds solitary, 
roundish. One species of this genus is a native of Jamaica. 

tetraphyllous. four-leaved. 
Suadrifolium erecUimflore ItUto. Sloane, v. 1^ p. 1S6, t. 116, f. 3* 
Leaves in fours, flowers solitary. 
This rises to about a foot high, being erect, l^ranched, and having twigs set thick 
-with leaves alternativelVf on petioles three-quarters of an inch long, there being con^* 
^tantly, as far as I could observe, four on the same footstalk ; each of them are small, 
and have a small snip or defect' on their further ends, where they are largest, being of 
a yellowish green colour and smooth, with a proniinent mid*rib on 4^e lower sur&ccu 
^he flowers are yellow, solitary firom the upper axils^. — Sloane. 

BiRTHWORT — See Conteayerva. 



BITTER WOOD. QUASSIA, 

Cl. 10, OR. 1. — Decandria numogynia. Nat. or. — Gruinates. 

This was so named by Linneus, in memory of Quassi, a negro slave, who found and 
Ascover^d to Rolander the wood of one of the species. 

The class and order of the bitter wood do not appear 4x> be well ascertained ; they arA 
surely not decandria monogynia. Mr. John Liudsayls characters are very correct, and 
as foUow : 

Gen. char — Male flower t calyx a smsdl inferior periantbium, composed of four 
squammose leaves, oval, persistent ; the corolla four->petttk, obtuse, equal, ses- 
sile, sub-erect.; the jiectarium is four hairy, ovate^ squammse, inserted at tbe 
base of the filaments -; the stamens are four, fwe, or six filiform, sub-erect, equal, 
longer than the corolla, and inserted into the receptacle ; the anthers simple and 
erect Hermaphrodite flower on a different tree : caXyn and corolla as in the male, 
but the filaments scarcely longer than the corolla ; the pistillum has a fleshy, 
jroundish^ elevated ceceptacle \ germen sub-ovate, coi»posed of-lwo, tbrec^ laneiy 

four^ 



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»TTE» HORTUS JAMAICENSIS, P« 

four, parts, slightly cohering ; style thickish, erect ; stigmas two, three, ~or four 
simple ueCiined ; tut pericarpium two, tbrecj or tour orupes, globose, scarcely 
juiiiing, black, sbiuiiig, and inserted into the receptacle : ;jeeds solitary, globose, 
ttiUiOcuiar, covered by a fragile shell. 

POUYGAMA, POLYGAMY. 

The following is an account of the quassia polvf^ama, or bitter wood of Jamaica, byr 
Mr. John Lindsay, formerly surgeon in Westmorland ; which was read before the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, November 7, 1791: 

** The quassia po/ygavia has long, been known in Jamaica, and in some other islands ia. 
iSie West Indies, not only as an exceiient timber, but as an useful medicine in putrid 
fevers and fluxes. With us it is called bitter wood,, and in the windward islands bitter 
ash. The bark has for some time been prescribed by practitioners here^ ^nd exported 
to England in considerable quantities^ for the purposes* of the brewers of ale andv 
porterT On tnese accounts^. a fuller description oi this plant than has hitherto appeared 
wid be acceptable to the botanist and the public at large. It is very common in th(B - 
Wtxxllands of Jamaica,, is beautifiJ,. tall^. and staLtely, some of tliem being one hundred 
foetlong, and ten feet in circumference eight feet above the ground. The trunk is. 
straight, smooth, and Uperin^, sending oflTits branches towards the top. The outside * 
bark is pretty smooth^ of ft light grey or ash colour,, from various, lichens* The bark* 
ef the r K)ts;is of a yellowish cast, somewhat like the cortex sirnaruba. The inner bark- 
is tough, and composed of fine flaxy fibres^ The wood i& of a^ yellow colour, tough, 
but not very hard» It takes a good polisbt and is useful ia floonng. The leaves are 
0ub-alternate ;, the small leaves are in pwrs, from five to. eight, standing opposite to^ 
«ach other on- short footstalks,, and endmg.with-an oddone* They are of an oblong 
©val shape, and pointed ; the ribs reddish, and the young leaves are covered with a. 
line brownish down. The flowers come autin bunches or clusters from the lower part: 
•f the last shoot before the leaves^ and stand on ronnd footstalks*. The flowers are 
small, of a yellowish green colour, with a very small calyx.. The male or barren tree^ 
bas flowers nearly simuar to the hermaphrodite, but in* it there are only the rudimenta. 
•f a style;. The firuit is a smooth black drupe, round shaped, zrA of tne size of a pea. 
There is but little pulp, and the nut covers a round kerneL These drupsa are gene^ 
rally three, sometimes two,, andoften only one^ attached sidewise to a roundish fleshy 
receptacle. It flowers in October and November, and its fruit is ripe in December and 
January. Except the pulp of the fruit, every other part of this tree has an intensely 
bitter taste. In taste and virtues it is nearly equal to the quassia of Surinam, and I am. 
credMy informed is sold in London. for the quassia amara % and it may be safely used 
in all cases where that drug haa been thought proper ; whether as an antiseptic, or m< 
eases of weaknossin the stomach and bowels. It may either be given alone, or joined 
with the Jesuits bark. The happiest effects result from the use of this medicine in ob- 
•ttnate remitting fevers from marsh miasmata, in agues which had resisted the use of 
Jesuits bark, and in dysenterJes^ of long, standing. It is in daily^ practice in dropsies 
Jkom debility, either in simple infusions or tincture by itself, or joined with aromatiqs 
and cbalyb^it. Dh Drummond, an eminent physician in Jamaica, prescribes it with 
great success in the above cases^ as well as in amenorrhoea, chlorosis, dyspepsia, and 
in thtt species of pica called Jirt-eating, so fatal to a number of negroes. The bark of 
t Ae quassia' p^Mvi^ama, but especially the wfT^d, is intensely bitter. Tiiey may both be 
msed ifv^adottsioioij^ lu certaia ca;>es of dropsy, aromatics and preparations are joined: 



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^ HOKTUS JAMAlCENSiS. #iTtE|r 

to It, also in amenorrlicea and chlorosis ; and in worm fevers, tne cabbape bark, or 
otber vegetable anthelmintics." The following are the doses as prescribed by Mr. 
Lindsay : . . 

Fram fifteen grains to one drachm by itself (or with the Jesuits bark) of the wo^ or 
bark. • . . ' 

From two. drachms to half an ounce to one pound of the watery infusion, and *the 
^me quantities to one pound or one and a half pound in decoction. A wine glass full 
to be given every three, four, or si?t hours, according to circumstances* -^ 

' Is so called from its excessive bitterness : I think it exceeds wormwood, gall, and 
aloes. I have s^en a handful of the shavings but just dipped in water, as quick a4 
thought taken out again, and the water left so bitter that nothing cmiid exceed it. A 
trough was made of it to give water to hogs, and, to their owner^s surprise, although, 
the hogs were ever so dry, they would not touch the water. This property of the tree 
hath not been known very long in Jamaica ; and it was discovered by an accident : It 
being a very free sort of wood to split, light, and white, the coopers had made casks 
of it, unknowing its bjtterner>s, to put sugar in, which was sent to England. . Soon 
after, the owner had advice that his sugar was so hitter it coald not be sold : The gen- 
tleman thought it was a trick, or a banter ; but, upon a strict enquiry, found the occa- 
sion of it. Of late, bedsteads and presses are made of it, to prevent bugs, cockroaches^ 
or worms breeding, as they do in other woods, for none of these vermin will ceme near 
the wood; neither do the workmen care for working it, it bittering their mouths and 
throats. It kills worms in the body, helps the chohc or belly ache, and creates an ap* 
petite. The wood of this tree, at the first cutting, is very white, but turns yellow af-t 
terwards. Its bai'k is like the lance-wood, and its leaves like the English asli. — Bat^* 
JiaWy p. 21. » 

The Ibllo^^ing receipts have been recommended, the first as a diuretic, and tht 
second as a tonic in dropsy : - 

Infusion of bitter wood one pint — Salt of wormwood half an ounce — Gin two ouocer 

— Mix A wine ^lass-full several times in the day. Diaretic salt, six drackmeL 

may be substituted m the place of salt of wormwood. 

A smaU tea-cup full of bitter-wood infusion, two or three times in the day, withm 
'tea-spoonful of chalybeate wine, or witli three or four grains of the salt of st^ ; via^ 
^reen copperas. 

The bitter wood has lately been employed as a substitute for hops in the brewing of 
malt liquor, and has been found to answer the purpose extremely well. The bitter U 
however not -so agreeable as that of the hop, and the taste remains much longer on the 
palate, after drinking the liquor. . # 

From the qualities of the tree,, it may be presumed that a decoction of the leares or 
bark, Would make an excellent fomentation for sores. The Wood is exceedingly light, 
and, on tliat account, generally saved for laths for roofing ; but, as Berham says, t\i% 
workmen are not fond of it ; for, even after the wood has been laid for flobrs many year*, 
wiioever rubs or scrapes it, feels a great degree of bitterness in thdir mduth and tiiroait* 
, No insect will come near it. 

There are two other kinds of bitter wood, noticed by Dr. Brown, for which see tll«. 
next article. - - .^ 

Se€ Mountain Damson. BITTER 



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mmm H.ORTUS JAMAICENSfS. « 

BITTER WOOD. XYLOPIA. 

"Cl. 13, OK. 7. — Palyandria poli/gynia. — ^Nat. or. — Coadunatie^ 

This genus was named by. Dr. Browne xylopiprum, being the Greek word for the 
English name, but Lioneus shortened it to xylopia. 

/Gen. char. — Calyx a three Jeav^ perianthium ; leaflets ovate, concave, sharpish, 

deciduous; corolla six-rpetalled, se^stle^ linear«lanceolate, coriaceous, the three 

outer lara;er aad thicker ; there are scarcely any stamina, but numerous oblong 

anthers, ?as;tenedto ihe receptacle at ihe j^ase of the germs ; the pistillum has 

from two to fifteen germens, v«ry ^maH^ fastened to a three-^cornered receptacle ^ 

■no styles ; stigma loag and very slender : the pericarpium has from two to fifteen 

-capsules, pediceUed, four-cornered, compressed,, coriaceous, one or two- celled^ 

»%wo-^yea ; the seeds are solitary or two together, roundish, smooth, within a 

•succulent hemisf he4cal loril. Theve a^e only three species, two of which aro na« 

(tivea of Jamaica. : 

l.^MURICATA, MUREXED. 

fFrUiicosunt; foliis ovato ucuminatisj praductu, atteniis.; capstdis 
punctatis ; Jlorikusconfertis ad aias. Browne, p, 250, t. 5, f. 2. 

^Leaves lanceolate, pointed, with stiff bristles underueath, bearded at the top ; 
peduncles many flowered ; fruit muricate. 

*Browne call^ this the smaller bitter wood, and says this 4ittle tree was found at the 
foot of the mountains in Sixteen Mile Walk, where it ^rew to the height of fifteen or 
twenty feet, but adds he made no remsark on its bark or wood« 

2. GLABRA. SMOOTH. 

Fdiisamplioribusy nitidis^ ovatis ; j>€tioli$ hrcvihus ; fructibus gla^ 
bris. Browne, p. 251. 

Leav^ oblong-ovate, smooth ; peduncles one-ilowered, sub-geminate ; fruits 
smooth. 

B,-owne calls this the iarger bitter wood^ and says, ^* I met with this tr^e in the 
mountains, back of Bull Bay, where it grew to a very considerable size, and raised its 
hranches to th&heigbtof fiity or sixtgr ^t above the root. The wood, bark, and ber- 
ries, have an agreeable bitter taste, not unlike that of orange seed ; and would proba- 
bly prove exceUent medicines, if brought into use. The wiul pigeoRS ieed much upon 
ttie berries, sad owe alLihaf delicate bitteiiiih flavour, so peculiar to them in the season^ 
whoUv to this part of their food. 4 have eat many of the bernes just off the XJte^ and 
found them both as;reeable to the palate and grateful to the stomach. The bark is also 
richly impregnated with the same iuice, as \ml as the wood, and both yield a very 
agreeable bitter in the mouth,^ while fresh ; but that deHcacy diminishes greatly after 
they are dried. The wood is easily wrought, and 'esteemed 4s a good timber wood ; 
but must be used where it may not be easily exposed to the weather. This tree ought 
to be cultivated, for it will probably be found very semceabla in time ; it seeds at Mn 
Anderson's mountain near the lAxne.^'-^Bi'^wne. 

This tree has been confounded with the quassia polygama by Long, and in the. Lin- . 
4i8^an index to Barham, from whom indeed all Long's observations upon it 'are taken ; 

O and 



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9$ HORTUS JATVIAICENSIS, black 

and nho mentions it to have leaves like the ash. This clearly points Barham's plant * 
mil to he xhii quassia /)r'h/oaw(f^ whidi has pinnated leaves like the ash, whereas the 
hiaivesoi' the xylopia arc alternate and <5vatc-acuminate, those of tiie former obloiig- 
oval. 



BLACKBERRY BRAMBLE. RUBUS. 

Cl. 12, or. 5. — Icosandriapolij^ynia. "Nat. ou. — Stnticoste. 

This name is derived from a Latin word for redness, o«>account.of tlie redness of the 
twigs and juice of the fruit. 

Gem. char. — Calyx a one-Ieafed, five-<cleft, perianriiium ; segments oblong, spread- 
ing, permanent; the corolla has five roundish spreading petals ; the stamina are 
numerous filaments, with roundish anthers, inserted into the calyx ; the pistil has 
numerous germs, with small styles and simple stign^s ; the berry is compounded 
of reddish aciili, collected into a convex head, concave below ;. each one-celled ; 
tiie seeds solitary, oblong ; the receptacle of the pericarp is conical. One species 
is a native of this island. ^ 

JAMAICENSIS. JAMAICA. 

jRuhus foliis longioribus subtus rnolli lanicgine ohductis et incanis fiore 

et/riictu minor ibus. Sloane, v. 2, p. 109, t. 213, f. 1. Aculeatus^ 

foliis digitato-quinatis, serratis, subtus argenteis, Browne, p. 242» 

Loaves quinate or ternate, tom^ntose underneath ; stem, petioles, and leave^ 
pubescent^ with recurved prickles ; panicles diffused. 

This plant is very common in Jamaica, growing plentifully on. most ruinate lands in 
the mountains. It differs only from th^ common, bramble of Europe in having the 
leaves gash-serrate, with the ribs pnckly; the panicles termmating, diflfbsed ; the 
flowers and berries smaller. The leaves are covered over with a whitisn soft wool, and 
are whitest on the lower surface. , The berries, when ripe, are of a black colour,, and 
very agreeable to the palate. If picked when red, anU before they ripen, they make 
an excellent tart, having at that period a very agreeable acid taste. The stalks are very 
prickly and trailing ; climbing upon the small trees and bushes around them. 

TheriB is a larger and smaller variety. 

Two other species of this genus have been introduced, but not much cultivated : the ' 
idcgm, or raspberry ; and the sylvaticus^ or blackberry^ both European plants. 



BLACK CHERRY. MYRTUS. 

Cl. 12, OR. L — Icosandria Tnonogynia.. Nat. or. — Hesperid/e, 
Gen. char. — See Baybeny, p. 75. ' 

CERASINA. CHERRY. 

^rbor bapciferay viyrtifoliiJ latiore^ fructu nigra cerasino dipyreno. 
Sloane^ v. 2, p. 107^ 

Peduncles^ 



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i^LACKEYED HORTUS JAM AI C E 1^ S I S. >)y 

Peduncles lateral and terminating, one-flowered ; leaves oblong, shining, dot- 
ted underneath. 
The whole of this ^ree is smooth. The young twigs have linear -lanceolate scales^ 
at first imbricate, but afterwards remote and deciduous. Leaves petioled, an inch long, 
blunt, the u[>f)er surface somewhat veined and shining, with a groove along the middle, 
the under veinless', pale, dotted, in clusters. Peduncles sometimes four from the 
^^me bud ; usually axillary, opposite, and terminating, but often below the leaves, 
one-flowered, fihform, an mch and half long. Segments of the calyx oblong, blunt; 
petals oblong, blunt, small, white. — raid. 

The branches of this tree are covered -with a. brown bark, with white spots on it here 
and there ; the leaves set against one another exactly like those of the mj/rtiis latifolia. 
The fruit is like black cherries^ whence the name, having a very tiun biack skin, with 
^ very small purple and sweetish pulp, including two white stones, flat on one side, 
spherical on tlie other, so tliat tiie two compressed sides being joined, tliey make one 
Jiouad sp\\exe.—Sloane. • * 



BLACKEYED PEA. PHASEbLUS. 

Cl. 17, OR. -4. — Diadelph'a decandria, Nat. or. — Papilionacere. 
This name is said to be derived from phaselus, a little ship or boat, from its simili- 
tude to the pod of the kidney bean. 

Gen. char. — Calyx a one-leafed, two-Hpped, perianth ium, upper lip emarginate ; 
lower three to(ihed; the'Corolla is papilionaceous ; banner heart-shaped, wings 
ovate ; keel narrow, rolled spirally contrary to the sun ; stamina are cliadelphous 
filam^its, within the keel, spiral ; anthers sunple , the pistil has an oblong ger- 
• jnen, compressed, villose; a fllitbrm «tyle, bent in spirally, pubescent above; 
stigma blunt, thickish, villose.; the pericarpium a long legume, straight, coria- 
ceous, blunt with a point; seeds kidney-form, oblong, compressed. Two species 
- are natives of this island. 

1. sphcerospermus. roundseeded. 
Phaseolus erectus winor^ sem 'nc spJtericOy albido^ hilo nigra, Sloane, 
V. 1, p. h84, t. 117, f. 1, 2, 3. A' rectus ; sihquis gracilibuSj tere^ 
tibusy pi ly sperm ibus ; seminikas subrotundis^ hilo nigra notatis. 
*Srowne, p, 292. 

Stem upri^t ; seeds globular, d}^ at the hilum. 

This species is called blackeyed pea^e. The stem about a foot fiigh, branched, peli- 
-4>les1three or four mches long, the leaves arc turee ognher, the odd leaflet is an inch 
-and a half broad at the base, two inches and a half long, ou a petiolule three-quarfers 
of an inch longer than the~iateral leaflets, which are smaTler ; they are all very soft and 
of a yellowish green colour, and have their ribs from the end of the footstalks. Pe- 
duncles axillary, strong, and nine inches in length ;' the corolla is white. Legumes 
three or four inches lon^, almost round and straight, clay-coloured ; the seeds are 
-very many, almost round, white, with a black eye, not so big as the smaller field pea. 
Tbej are accounted the Sweetest and best food of any of the find. — Slaane, 

O 2 2. LATHYROIDES. 



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too KORTtrS JAMArCENSr& . *rt:ssEi3r 

2.. LATIJYROIDfeS* LATHY RUS-l.IKE.. 

jPhastohis crcjctus iatJtyroide:^^ flare aviplo,^ c(Kfineo. Rloane, v. !, 
p. 183, t. 1 16, f. U Minor trcclispratensis^ foliis oblovgis^ vexilia 
minor iy siliqMh gi^ticUihiis^ Bitjwne, p. 291,. 
Stem upright, leaflets Juneeolate^^ 
This h^ an ohlong large white root^ going a. foot deep into the ground,. from the 
top of which grow several trailing branehes,. rou«id, smooth, . and green ; set pretty^ 
thick with leaves,, thisee^ways together,^ teaf at the top of the footstalk longer ; they 
i^re ohlong,, acaminate ;: the two lateral ones sub-sessile, entire, v^ined^, smooth above, 
pubesceRtnnderneath. Betioles alternate, ..erect, stiff, channelled, angularj. reddish: 
stipules at the base of the petiolos,. oppo«ite^ actHninaiie ; . otliejrs at the base of the 
leaves ;. peduncles, long,, fastigiate, many flowered^. round,, pubescent. The flowers 
are in a sort of spike, alternate, mostly in pairs close tegethep^ blood red ;; the banaer. 
of a paler fed ;- witigs deep red, t^vice as large as the banner ; keel .wiuiish : legume • 
isoundish, awUshaped ; soeds roundish,, separated, brown. This plant grows in moists 
sandy grounds^ and Browne says it is pret^ conunon in tlie savannas about Spank^ 
T:owiu 

• See Horse Beans j^nd Kidney Beans.: 

Bi^cK Mastic— A$Vtf Bastard Bully Thee.. 
Black Ouve.— -Je?^ Ouve-Bark, 



No English Nai9^. BfcECHNUM. 

Cl. 24, OR. 1. — Cryptdgamui filkeSf or Ferns, 
Grn. char. — Frucitifications <H8posed in two lines, approaching to thl^rib of Ohla 
- frond and paralieL One species hasJbeeii discovered in this island. 

occidentale. . western^ 

FUix minor j^ in pinnas tantum (Hvisa, crebtas^ noncrenataSf auricU'^ 
latasyet linos pulvemlentis aversa parte mtatas. Sloane, v. 1, 
p. 87j.t. 44, i\ 2.. Simjdex foliis umplioribus obhngis falcatis et 
inipeiiolatis. Browne, p. 9l^ 

Fronds pinnate ; pinnas lanceolate, . opposite, ^emarginate at the base^ 
Browne calls this the undivided bhchnuM^ with, lar^e oblong leaves. It ris^ by a 
simple undivided stalk tp the height of thirteen ot eighteen inches; the leaves long^ 
and haxrow. . , Slgaoe saj^s the pinnas are many, with two smiJl. auricles at the base. 

ISi^HiiM—iS^^, Christmas Pjum. . 



BLESSED TfflSTLE.. . €ENTAUREA; 

Cl. 19> Oft. S.^^yngencsiaiclygamiaJruarMca^ Nm. osur^mposiu. 



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itmt IIORTUS JAMAICENSIS. loi 

Gek. char.— Calyx common imbricate; corolla compound, flosculons, dilTomi ; tlie 
receptacle bristly ; the down simple ; the corollula* of the radius tunnel form, 
longer irregular. This plant is a nati^'c of Europe, and was intFoduced here many 
years ago, as well as the cj/anus, or blu€ bottle, anotlier species. 

1. BENEDICTA. Bi,F.9SED. 

Calyxes double-spiny, woolly, iavolucred ;. leaves semi-decurrent, toothletted, 
spiny. 

This plant obtained the appellation of benedlclitsU'^m its being supposed to possess 
exLniorainary. medical virtues ; tho«gh not much in repute in modern practice. It has 
been celebrated as an alexipharmic and a cum for the plague. The bruised leaves 
boiled in wine, and mixed with f)6urand hogslard, laid on warm^ are said4:acure can- 
ters and inveterate uteers. The leases have a penetrating bitten taste and ungrateful 
flavour. Dr. Lewis informs us that he has experienced excellent effects froip a light 
infusion of this plant in loss of'appetite^ .where the stomach was injured by irregulari- 
ties. A stronger infusion made m cold or warm water, if drank freely, ana the patient 
kept warm, promotes perspiration. . The seeds are also considerably bitter, and bavQ 
f^metimes been used with the same effect as the leaves.- Browne mentions that it was 
cultivated with great success in the mountains of New Liguanea, .where it seeded as 
well ai. in most parts of Europe : he adds that it makes a fine stomachic medicine, and 
may be used with success in ail weaknesses of the viscera, and over-abundant dischargeft 
of bile. For medjcal purposes the plant should be gathered while in flower, dried in : 
the shade, and kept in a very dry awy place, .to prevent ita rotting, which it in veiy . 
apt to do. . 

2; CYANtrs; . bluf^. 
Onyxes seirate ; ]e«yet linear, quite entire, the lowest toothed. . 
This is a common weed among com inr Europe, called blue bottle in England, and' i 
Ihie bonnets in Scotland. The expressed juice of the neutrai florets makeg a good ink y - 
h also stainsUnen of a beautiful blue, but the colour is not permanent. Mr. Boyle 
say^ that the juice of ike central fkirats, vrith the addition of a very small quantity of': 
alum, makes a lasting transparent Uue, not inferior to uluamarine. 

SIjOOD FLOWER'—fir^ Bastard IfUECACUANM. 



BLUE PEA FLOWER; . CtlTORIA. 

Cl. 17, OR. Z.'^Diaddphiadecandria.- Nat. o^oL^^PapUiMaee^^. . 
USs is io nam^ from the fiunn and celoor of die coroUa. . 

%e». CHAR. — Calyx a one-leafed, erect, tubular, five-tootked; permanent perian^ 
thiam ; corolla ps^ilkHiaceous,.aBd supine, or turned, downside up ; the standard 
is wry large, overshadowiiigtbe- other petals; wings oblong, keel shorter than 
them ; stamina and antliers simple ; the pistil has an oblong mrmen, ascending 
fltyie, and obtuse stigma ; the pericarp is a very long legume, finear, compreMec^. 
QA»-ceUed^.two*yalved, with the tip sobnlate^ sMdi many, reoiform* Three 

specitr 



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102 HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. stue 

species are indigenous to this island, as follow'^ the tetnaieay a native of the East 
Indies, grows in East's garden, having been brought to this island some years 
ago. 

1. BRASILIANA. BRASILIAN. 

Major scandenSy joliis subrotundo ovatiSj paribus geminatis.-^ 
Browne, p. 298. 

Leaves ternate ; calyxes solitary, bell-forra. 

This Browne calls the larger climbing cli/oriay which rises with atwining herbaceous 
stalk five or six teet hieh, having at each joittt one ternate leal* on a long petiole. The 
flowers come out singly from the axils on long peduncles, encompassed about the 
middle with two small oval leaves ; the flowers^are very large,* the standard broad, and 
of a fine blue colour. Browne says this species is very rare in Jamaica, he found it in 
St. Ann's, where it grew very luxuriantly. 

2. VIROINIANA. VIRGINIAN. 

,'Phasfrilus syhaffcus flare patvloy dilufe purpureoy siliqua ienuinigra^ 
sernine wiiwre viaculafo, Slo:ne, v. 1, p. 181. Minor scandai&j 
■foliis sub^v'illosis obiorrgo^cvatis^ Jloribus geminatis. • Browne, 
p. 298. 

Leaves ternate; calyxes geminate, belNform. 

This species is very common in all the hills and lower lands of Jamaica. The stem 
is herbaceous, filiform^ subdivided, scandent, and twining, round, striated, pubescent. 
Leaflets oblong, acuminate, with a blunt tip, entire, jierved, smooth, sometimes pu- 
bescent, on short petiolules : peduncles longer tlian the petioles, erect, angular, stri- 
ated, hirsute, bearing three or four flowers : perianthium double, outer two-leaved; 
leaflets ovate-acute, concave, keeled, pubescent ; inner^ubiilar^ two-lipped, the two 
upper teeth shorter, approximating, the three lower longer, acute, the middle one 
three times as long as the others : corolla resupinate, standard blue, with oblique 
purple streaks, at t£e back part dusky, and tomentose ; seeds smooth, and of a gray 
colour. '^ , 

3..GALACTIA. 

.Phaseolus minor lacte$eens jflore purpurea. Sloane, v. I, p. 182, t. 
Ii4, f 4. Foliis ovatis glalris pinnato tematis^ spicis elongatk 
ienninalibu^. Browne, p. 298, t. 32, f. 2. 

Leaves ternate ; raceme erect; flowers pendulous. 

TTiis, by its round small»woody stalks, tums.itself round, and mounts about any tree 
or shrub it comes near, rising to six feet high. At every inch putting forth leaves^ 
three always together, on half inch long footstalks. The leaf opposite the footstalk is 
the longest, an inch long, and three-quarcers of an inch broad in the middle where 
broadest, being roundish or oval, of a dark green colour, smooth, hard, and nervous. 
The flovytrs come, out from the alae of the leaves, on very Bhon footstalks, three-quar- 
ters of an inch long, hollow, papihonaceous, and purple. After these follow cylin- 
dric legumes, two inches long, crooked and sharp at tlie end, . containing several brown 
small peas. AH parts of the pUmt are milky \ it grew in the Red Hills and other placed 
j>lentifully.— iWaaw^ 

Drowne 



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BOO. HORTUS J'AM'AICENSIS, iqg 

Bixwno calls this the galuctia, with smooth leaves and long reddish flowers. Tt grows 
chiedv in tue lower hills, and is c^iy distinguished by its long reddish flowers, milky 
brandies, and smooth leaves. It rises sometimes eight or nine feet. 



BOG BUSH. SCHOENUS. 

Cl. 3, OR. 1. — Triandria monogynia. Nat. oa. — Calaniarice.. 

This name is deriv-ed from a Greek word,, signifying a rope, for which some of the* 
species is aJapted. 

Gen. char. — The caljTc has chafFy glumes, bnorvalved, heaped ; there is tio corolla ; 
the stamina are threci capillary Jfi laments, with oblong erect anthers , the pistillum 
has an ovate, three sided, obtuse ger me i\ ; style bristle shaped, length of the co- 
loUa ; stigma bifid or trifid, slender ; there is no pericarp ; the seed is single^ , 
sounditih, jamong the glumes. Nice speci^es are indigenous to this island- 

I.STELIJITUS. . STARRY. 

Gramen cyperoides spica compacta alba, foliis ad spicam partim albisy^ 
partim viridibus, Sloane, v. I, p. 119, t. 78, f. 1. 

Culm subtfiqaeirous, , spikeleta conglomerate, .with^ leafyv involucre, coloured 
at the base. 

This: hath a perennial root, it grows about a foot high, or less. Ctilm - single, tip- 
Tight, striated, smooth, sheathed with the leaves of the base, roundish, but bluntly 
three-cornered towards the top. Leaves almost the length of the culm, erect, linear, 
acuminate, entire, striated, smooth. Sheaths surrounding the culm, hirsute or cihate 
at the neck ; involucre manifold or three-fold ; leaflets very long, ternately- alternate, 
spreading, linear-lanceolate, sessile, striated, snK)oth, towards the base white coloured. 
Spikes terminating, clustered, sessile, small •oblong, acuminate, whitish; chafis or- 
glumes in bundles, imbricate oyate,- acute, concave, scarcely keeled, entire, one- 
flowered; the filaments three,., the length.of the gluipes, upright; germ roundish; 
stylejonger than the glumes, cloven to the middle ; stij-mas snort, erect ; seed round- 
ish, flatted a little, large. It resembles the kyilingiasy and is probably mixed with . 
them by authors, especially with kyllingia triceps.— Sw. See Kyllingia. 

From a fibr^ns^and stringy root spriisg. ,up several tria^guliir blunt^edged stalks, of 
about a foot in length. The leaves are harsh to the touch. The. spike is compact^ 
made up of many white spikes, set close in a head, and has some long, harsh, grassy 
feaves close under it, which for the first part or half are white, and towards the endfsL 
green. The seed is small and yellowish. It grows in those places where water has ia 
xainy times stood on the ground,, as in.tiie pasture beyond the Angel's Eord. — Sloane^ 

2^ RfeSTlOIDES. 

Culms at bottom, compressed ancipital,. and very smooth.; flowers pamcled;* 

sheath lanceolate at the top» . ♦ < . • 

This is alnv>st. a fathom in height, the culm jointed, erect, striated, with swelling^i^ 

Joints } the leaves sbetdied at the base, Jong, wide, lin^, quite enture, very finely^ 

^tiiatec^ . 



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U)4 HORTUS JAMAICENSI3; 

striated longitudinally, rigid; sheaths ancipita], finely striated* Panicles bursting 
from ancipital-Ianceoiate covered sheaths, subdivided into dichotomous sub^fastigiate 
diffused branchlets, having sheathlets underneath at all the divisions, of a red ferrugin^ 
x)us colour. Spikelets solitary, or in pairs, sessile, two<-flowered, polygamous, on 
prickly serrate peduncles. Glumes fclur-valved, two-flowered; valves decussated, 
ovate, acute, concave, slightly keeled, sometimes serrate, brown ; there are no fila- 
ments ; the germ is three cornered, style oblong, trifid at top ; stigmas cirrhose. — 
Serrate bristfes are placed upon the pistil. One of the florets is small, interior, and 
two-valved ; the valves equal and lanceolate ; the filaments two or three, and minute ; 
the pistil small. This is considered a singuhir species, and probably making a distinct 
genus, were the cbaractecs well ascertained. 

3. CLAPIUM. 

Ciilmo nc^dosoy fioribus quasi umhellatisy umbellis gradatim assurgen^ 
tibus. Browne, p. 114. 

Cukn bluntly three-sided, leafy, even; leaves prickly in: front, panicles dif^ 
fused; spikelets one-flowered, sessile, two-stamened. 

Culm eieht or ten feet high, single, jointed, smooth, striated ; leaves sheathing^ 
irery long, keeled, half an inch wide, cartilaginous-serrate along the back and edge, 
«triated, smooth, rigid; sheaths closed in front, serrate: fiowers in lateral panicles 
from the sheaths ; 'peduncles solitary, short, compressed, sheathed ; sheaths numer* 
ous, crowded, alternate, from which spring some; partial peduncles, which mre elon- 
gated, loose, diffused ; towards the top next the sheathlet subdivided into maay uniEi- 

3ual umbelled pedicels, frequently terminating in an.uinbellet^ with the ultimate pe- 
iceis three-flowered. Spikelets three or four^ ovate, acuminate, small, ferruginous ; 
Slumes or scales oblong, yacute, unequal. At the side of the inner glume, surrounding 
legerm^ are capillary bristies^ the leng^ of the glume; filaments very short ; germ 
linear-oblong ; style shorter than vthe elumes, trifid ; stigmas reflexed, convolutet 
-permanent; seed ovate, acute, shining browh. It grows in ^sea marshes.— ^. 
Browne calls this, plant the large /end cladium. 

4. OLOMEKATUS. f^fiEAPED. 

Cuhn three-sided, leafy, flowerain bundles; leaves flia;;'ped\mcIesJatera], in 
pairs. 

5. EFFUSUS. ^'OVERFLOWma. 

Culmleafy, bluntly diree-sided, even; leaves entirely prickly in front, pani- 
cles more^rect ; spikelets one-flowered, Jiessile, two-stamened. 
&wart£ gave this as a distinct specie^ rbut it resembles the viariscusy an Eujropean 
;Q>ecies, so nearly, that he hardly thought it could be made a distiact species* 

r6. CYPEROIDfiS. CYPERUS-UKE. 

Cuko'three-sidbd, leafy; umbel terminating; ^pikel^ts glomerate. 

Two fett high. Culm striated, tsmooth ; leaves sheathing, half a foot long, linear, 
keeled, striated, smooth^ with the keel of the valves sub-serrate ; spikes terminating, 
•umbelled ; p^uncles, from the sheaths of the terminatiag leaves, several, unequ^, 
three-sided ; iuvolucre none, but only the two alternate leaflets, from the sheaths of 
whidi the peduncles risei Spikelets m little terminating balls (sometimes compound),. 

veij 



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«oo HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 106 

Trery much crowdetl, sessile, acuminate, spreading, ferruginous ; glume chaffy, heaped^ 
unequal, sub-imbricate ; the inner ones more tender, narrower, less, one- flowered : 
Ifilaments three, very short ; geim extremely small ; style longer than the glumei>, 
trifid at the top, permanent ; stigmas capillary, cirrhose ; at the ba$e of the germ are 
two bristles the length of the glumes ; seed inclosed within the glumes, obovate, mostly 
^bcordate, bluntly three-cornered^ ferruginous, smx>oth. It is notacyperu% because 
the chaffs are not distich^ and the seed is not three-sided.-*-iS^ 

7. GRACILIS. W.ENDER^ 

Culm three-sided,^ leafy, very long, . filiform ; spikes lateral, peduncled. 

Height from three to six* feet, . Culm very ^ong^, simple, loose, striated; leaves- 
linear, very long, sessile, keeled^ striated, serrate; spikes axillary; peduncles soh* 
tary, elongated, filiform ;: spikeletsr in bundles, small, six to ten, unequal, round, 
«nd linear,, sessile^ ferruginous, .smooth; glumes chaffy, many, unequal; the lowest 
small, the rest convex,, acuminate^ imbiicate ; the interior ones more tender, smaller, 
one flowered ^-filaments three, very short ; cerm roundish ; style awl-shaped, scarcely 
longer than the glumes, trrfid ; stigmas capillary, reflexed ; seed three-cornered^ very; 
^miul, Verruginous. it grows in the woods in the highest mountains. 

%. SETACEUS. BHISTLEB.- 

Ciilm three-'sided,. almost naked^. leaves -bristle-shapedjspikelets aggregate^; 
flowers two-stamened. 

. The height about a foot. Culm simple^setaceous, weak ; -le^iives mostly shorter tbaa^ 
the culm, somewhat striated, erect ; culms towards the upper part simpfy two-parted,., 
or subdichotomous, . into axillary, peduncled, aggregate; spikeletSy three to six in 
tHimber, awl-shaped and small ; lower peduncles oflen solitary, an inch long ; upper 
crowded, bundled,^ /very short ; .lower glumes smaller, ovate, acute, keeled, termin-- 
ated by a very short awn ; upper glumes lanceolate, awnless,* convolute at the top ; 
filaments two, very short ; style bind ; stigmas capillary. At the ^ides of the germ are - 
two capillary bristles, the length of the glunte; seeds roundi^, compveMea at flie.- 
«dge, acuounate, . tran&versely wrinkled. This grows^ in dry pasUuces* . v ^ 

Cuhivthree«-nded;^nak^filiform; spikelets tenmilating,.sttV&scided, sessile^, 
with a leaflet beneath, . equalling the spike. 

Heigkt about an inch. Hoots capillary, simple .;.^ulm^ almost^ tqpright, capillary;: 
leaves radical, csqtralling the culm, . filiform,., keeled at^tbe base, sheathing, .xiliate at 
the edge, striated, smooth ; spikelets tbtee x>r four, tery small, one above another, . 
ovate, acuminate : under the lowest spike is an awt- shaped le^et, sheathed at the * 
Ihiase; glumes chaflfy, heaped, imbiicate, separating the flowers^ ovate, keeled, awn- 
Jess, one-flowered; filaments three^ the length of the chads; anthers linear; germ 
iK)undish ; style filiform, three-sided at the base, . trifid at top ; stigqaas capillary, re* 
Bexed; seearoundish, bluntly three-cornered, ru^^ed, .ferruginous,, appearing as it, 
^ere echinate, when exanodned by a microscope ; wiuout which S^e parts of fmctificaif*- 
lion are not visible* It grows in the southern parts of Jamaica, 

10, SURINA«fEN8It« SORINAlfi 

^Im leafy) diree-sidM; peduncles coiyiabed, the lowar OMS^ altertttfle, dis^ 
4UXV ^ vqjpor oaesxrowded* 



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iois HORTUS JAMAICENSIS, ^oMxct 

From one to four feet high, growing in tufts. Culms simple, Rbarply three-sided, 
ni^«^ed, leafy below ; leave:^ alieathed, very long, equal to the cuUn or loiiger, ftattish, 
sij^lltl> keolcd, striated, linedr, serrate«.prickly ukMig tiie keel and edi>e, stiftish ; tlie 
dipper ones shorter and distiuit ; sheatlies altenrate, trowded, keeled, wiUi a blunt 
<iagi>er point in front ; coryinos pedun< led, lateral, coBipound, giiorter than the leaves, 
I eiore flowering crowded, nodding^ afterwards divaricatinc; ; peduticles elongated, 
fioni ttie sheathes of th^ upper leaves, solitary, remote, loose ; tlxe upper ones crowd- 
ed ; spikelets cylindrical-subulate,, very shortly pedicelied^ patulous, ferruginous-; 
bractes cajnllary^ longer than the florets, at the base of the pedicels ^ lower glumes- 
sliorter, ovate, imljticate; np^)er a little longer, and between them a nrrddle^ flower, 
jnaie, and solitary, between the oftiter ones females, or an hermaphrodite ; filaments 
three, very short ; anthers linear ; germ ovate,- margined, blaekish, surrounded at 
tlie base with from tvt'o to fowr jointed bristles ; style long, -undivided ; stigma linear; 
seed roundish, black- rust-coloured* Aiost awiuuoiiiy many, of liie^ikelets.are male& 
without any females.— s-iA^uy. 

v.Bo-EHMKRiA — 5'^(? Nettle Trke. 
vBoMBAgT Mahoe — Stit.Down Tree. 



BONACE BATIK. Genus Doubt/uf. 

Cl. 4, OR. l.—Teirandria monog^nia? 
Tliis is called bonace bark tree by Browne, who only describes the pericarp, not 
-having seen the flower. ; the other characters which follovi^care from Mr. A. Robinson*^ 
•manuscripts 

Gen. char. — ^Calyxamonophyllous bell-shaped perianth, cut lightly on the brimfc 
into four lanceolated equal parts ; no corolla; germ ovate, in the base of the cup ; 
style short and thick, with a peltated stigma; there appeared no stamens, but in 
some flowers there were four small globose nectureous glands ; the pericar|i was a. 
^ dry drupe, ovate, of the size and figure of an oiive^ having a two iobed nut, .co* 
vered with a proper memhraue^ fulL 

^BONACE. 

Mortice fissoy fbliis bblongis^ facemis 'umhellulatis ierminitlibus.-^^ 
Browne, p. 372. 

Browne says this plant is common near Montego Bay, where it grows to a moderate 
size. The bark makes very good rop^s ; it is fine, and spreads in some shape like that 
of the lagetto bark, though not so free or regular The seeds have a sharp biting taste. 
Mr. Robinson found the fruit ripe in September, io New Liguanea mountains, not far 
from Yallah*s River. Thet\*igs were brown, Wender, anadichotomoras ; the leave? 
alternate and sessile, with entire reflected margins, of an olive gpreen colour, somewhat 
rough and shining above, but dull and blueish green beneath, and marked ^ith alter- 
nate veins. From the bosom of tlie upper leaf grew a short common peduncle, pro- 
truding from its summit three or four proper peduncles, hardly half a line in length, 
each supporting a small oUve-Uke fruit, scarcely excedHing half an inch in Jengtb, 
«coatainiDg one nat, coreted with a fibrous wtegumeat* Uaviog tasted the inkt he 

found 



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lowtst HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. lOT 

•fbund hisnooutii affected with a burning acrimony, such as is caused by the bark of wild 
Ginnamon, pr of wild rosemary. At Old Woman Savanna, io Clarendon, there is a 
Jarger species of tliis known by the name of bUi^n^nose bavfCy so called from its sup- 
;pp8ed eifects on those w&o smell it closely. A tree was also observed in Lime SaVanna^ 

BouRRERUrr-Are Currant Tree. 



BORRAGE; 30IIRAG0. 

' CL. 5, OR. 1. — Pentandriamonogynia. ^at^^or.-^ Jsperifotfar. 

TJiis name is derived from cr^r and ago^ on account of its^Mipposed cordial qualities*. 

Gen. chab. — Caljic five-parted, permanent; corolla monqpetalous, rotate, border 
five-parted, tiiroat crowned with five emarginate obtuse prominences ; the sta- 
mens have subulate converging fitaiueat^,. oblong anthers, iixed on the inside of 
the filaments ; the pistil has four germs, filiform style^ simple stigma ; 'there is no > 
'pericarpium ^ calyx larger, inflated; the seeds four, rouridish, wrinkled, keeled 
outwards at the top, globular at the base, in8ei:ted ioAgitudiually into an hollowed . 
jreceptacle* , 

omcTVAVts. ^FnciNtt. - 

All thfe' leaves altfemate ; caljrxes spreading. . ^ 

The whole of this plant is rough, with white prickly hairs* The- comttion colour of . 
' the corolla is blue, but varies to flesk coloured and white. It came originally frona-^ 
Ateppo and thrives well in Jamaica. . Th^ whole herb is. succulent and very mucilagin- 
ous,, having a peculiar ^int smell when bruised. The young tender leavesmay be used 
in salads, onas a p«t-herb. By the experiments /c^M.vMai*graaf> in 1747, at appear^ 
-that the juiceaffords^ true nitre,. , 

This plant grows and thrives wery luxuriantly in the movmtdns of KewXigpanecr^ it 
3ias been always esteemed as an excellent cooling cordial in all febrile cases ; and may 
be justly regarded as a proper simple ix> be used tn such over-heated states of -the 
1)lood : it is- generally adfninistered- in decoctions and> iniusions> with other cooling 
medicines.. )C distilled water of both th^ leaves and flowers or this plant has beea 
formerly k^pt in the shops, ^ well fis a conserve of the blossoms ; but these are verjr ' 
little regarded in' modern practice, especially i'n England, where most of the diseasoi ,- 
j9|*ac^d rather. fi(X}miniietioq|« and the visddity.<)f^e^^ p, 15GL 



. BOTTtS-COD ROOT. <JAPPARIS. 

^6?L. 12, OR. i. — Polyandria manogynfa^ "NAT. or. — Putamin&ot, 

TttU-name is derived from a Oteek word^ signifying to cure melancholy. 

^<d|a>r. CHAR.— Calyx a fom^leaved^ coriaceous^* perisnth; leaflet».ovate)=coBcave^ 

^bbous^ the corolla ba^fout petals, obtuse, spreading, very iar^e ; the stamina 

' ifeig^ nujTV^''^^f^i ^lifomiy pfitylous,i filaments^ w^ dt)long,^ versatile, inclined^ 

, . . Pj( amher^ 



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/ 



Wl HORTUS JAMAICENSiS; vmm 

anthers ; the pistil has a pedicelled eemi, no style ; stigma obtuse^ sessile ; the 
pericarp is a corticose berry, one-ceued, pedicelled ; seeds numerous, reiutbrm, 
nestiiug. Eight species are indigenous to tliis island, as follow : 

1. cynophaLlophora. 

Fruiicosa^ foliis ohlongis obtusis. Browne, p. 246, t 27, f. 1. 

Peduncles many flowered, terminal; leaves oval, obtuse, perennial; glands 
axillary. 

TTiis varies considerably in its habit or general appearance, according to the soil ia 
which it is found. In sunny hedges it is weak, tlim, and as it were supported by the 
neighbouring vegetables ; but in fields and towards the shores, it is a kind of shrub oi* 
little tree of twelve feet hi^h, and of a pretty appearance. The leaves are alternate, 
petiolateci, sn>ooth on both sides, thickish, somewhat stiff, and about three inche* 
long ; tbe\ are also either cmite, ob-ovate, or even lance-ovate, but more frequently- 
oblong, in the axilla of the leaves there is a roundish solitary glawd, which is scarce 
ever missing. The flowers are beautiful, very patulous, and extremely fragrant, of a 
white or greenish white ; the stamens often four inches long*; the silique about a foot 
long, of various degrees of thickness, outwardly green, or ^enish purple, with a red 
suture, and, when ripe, split longituSnally, each part rofling back to the very foot- 
stilk, and successively letting fall the seeds, which are coated with a white1>ark*exter- 
nally, and greenish internally, and are surrounded by a scarlet flesh or pulp. It is very 
common, in the lower hills of Jamaica* Browne calls it the shrubby breynia. 

This is called Bottle cod rooty it is found in. copses, and k disposed to run in bushes. 
3t is remarkable for having large white flowers, whose stamina are of an extraordinary 
length. The pods are a foot long and unequal. When ripe they open gradually, and 
shew the seeds in a sort of crimson bedding. The root is large,, yellow, fleshy, and 
tastes strongly like horse-raddish. Dr. Canvane recommends it as a specific in dropsy. 
He orders a decoction of it ; butan infusion is preferable, because boiling dissipates 
its virtues. The other species of this genus, which grow in Jamaica, have the same 
sensible qualities asthose of the mustard tribe. — Wright. 

2. BADVCfiji. 

Fruikosa. foliis singularibus^ oblongo-ovatit, supeme nitidtSy siliquh 

minorious teretibus ^eqtuilibus. Browne, p. 246, t 27, f. 2; 

Peduncles one-flowered \ leaves ovate-oblong, determinately crowded, nakecL 

This Browne calk the mustard shrub with a willow-UaJy and says it is common in att 

the savannas and lowlands about Kmgston. It grows generally to the height of nine or 

ten feet, and throws out a number of slender. sub-erect branches, adorned with oblong 

leaves, which appear dirty and opaque as if they were dusted underneath. All the 

parts of the plant Have a strong pungent smell .and taste, like most of the mustard Jribe» 

9. FEftftUGINE^. ?fRON. 

Acatiis affinis arbor silifuosa/olio subrohmdo Mf^utafiyflorewtdmimm 
albidOy siltgua tereti ventriosa^ cujus interior tunica est mucosa et 
mleganter miniata. Sloane^ ?• 2^ p* 59« Frutkosa^ /Mis sm^ 

ianbm 



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HfcTTtt IFORTUS JAMAICEI^SI& IW 

Tarikis^ ablongis utrinque acuiis^ subtus- qimsi viUosts ; Jlorihis oc* 
tandris, racemis comosis alavibus. 'Bro\yiie^ p. 247^ t. 28, f. I. 

Peduncles umbelled^ leaves periuanent, lanceolate, tpmeatosebeoeath; flowers 
eight stamened. 

This IS a sioaU tree or shrub^ with striated, rufous or fencxigiaous coloured l)ranc4ies ; 
•leaves ovate^^lanceolate, quite entir-e, lawuginous— ^-ash-coloured beneatli, smooth on. 
the upper surface ; petioles ferruginous, short ; flowers in a sort of corymb, terminat- 
ing, on bifid or trrficl pedimdes ; the corollas white, and fragrant. This plant is com- 
inon m all ibe lowlands of Jamaica, and has obtained the name of mustard sAnib^ froiA 
4ts being strongly impregnated with aa acrid voUtile S4ltu. 

This tree riseth to- about twenty fee^ high, having a trunk as thick as ones thigb, the 
bark is of a dark grey colour,, the brapches bow downwards and are croaked, having 
hereand there knobs, on them ; the leaves, come out alternately, at about half an inch 
ifistance^. standing* on a brown half inch long footstalk, they are two inches long, and 
•ne and a quarter broad, having one middle and several transverse ribs. The tlowers 
come out on the ends of ^e twigs,, and consist of a great roanj very long white sta- 
mina, inclosed in a green capsuie, to* which follaw, three inches long, green, smooth^ 
itentricose, pads,, ift which 'W contained four or five peas, being green and soft, in- 
dosed in a white pulp ; the inward mucilaginous membrane of the pod is of a scarlet 
colour. The pod opens of itself and itsa contents are much coveted by ants ; the pod 
nangs ta the tree by a two.«-iaches lon|{ footstalk,, wd is small 9iK the fujrther end.— - 

4. TORVLOSA^ TWISTB0. 

Jtriortscensi folus ovatis utrinfue aeumimtiSi jtUiqua toresa longis^ 
sima^ Browne> p. 246. 

Piediincles sub^biflorus, round, terminatiog ; leaves Uinceolate*ovate> dotted, 
with white ttnfdemeatfa ; pods round, linear, toruiose. 

Browne calls this the larger hreynia, which grows to be a shrubby tree. He says it 
^ WttiieK a MrejUanty and 1^ only saw one^ which grew near Port Antonio. 

5. LONOIPOUA* LONG-I.EAVED, 

l^eavM Unear-laiioeQlatey dotted with meal underneatk, 

6. SlLIQUOSA* 70DBED. 

'^edundes maay dowered, compressed i leaves ^penoaaent^ lanceoIate-^iMongi 
acuminate^ &tted beneath* 

7; JAMAICBNSI& JAMAICA* 

peduncles many flowered ; leavea oblongs obtuse^ emarginate^ downy undc^ 
neath.; coroUBs campanulate« 

84 BREYKIA^ 

Peduncles racemed; leaves permanent, oblongs calyxes and peduncles tomen« 
'* * tote; flowers eight stamened. 

^This is a small tree with an upright smooth think and flexuose branches, scarred^ 
idth thre fidtea leavea^ twigs angular and pubescent ; leaves alternsltej scattered, acu* 

minatei 



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wo B^RTus JAMAr^ENsra «RAziwr»i 

ninate, neYveless, smooth on the upper surface atvd shining, beneafch hoary^ ferrugin- 
t)us, or ash-coloured^ covered with very minute ferruginous dots j petioles angular, 
boary, ferruginous;, peduncles terminating^ somewluit branched,, rorming^ assort of 
timbel, compressed, marked with lines, ferruginous ; flowers rather large ;. leaflets of 
the calyx reflex, convex, white on the inside, ferruginous beneath, ^nd somewhiit 
xhgged ; petals twice as large as the calyx, entire, white tinged wth purple, spotted, 
with rust colour o» tlie outside, deciduous; nectariferous glands four, small, ovate^ . 
acute, compressed, permanent; filaments long, meeting at tiie base round the germ, 
with a pale red pile on them ; anthers almost erect,, acuminate,^ curved inwards, y«l-* 
low ; germ elongated, minttte, on a very short pedicle ; style the length of the s(a- 
i^ens; stigma thickened, obtu??e, ferruginous; the ftuit is a long cyJii>dric,. subtoru- 
lose, two-.valved, legume; containing several kidney-shaped seeds. It is a native of . 
4ry coppices nearlhe sea m Jamaica, and most other islands in the West Indies. — Sw. \ 

Besides the above native spedes of cfl/y?a>'z>, the spinosa, or caper shvub^ was intro*.. 
Wedby Mr. East, ia 17,7 4v 



BRAZILETTO. CESALPlNIA. 

Cl. 10, OR. 1. — Decandriamonogynia, Nat. or. — Lomentact^. 
^EN.- CHAR.* — Set Barbadoes Pride, p. 51. Thetwo feUovmg species ar^ natives c£^ 
J.amaica: 

1. BRAZILIENSIS. IBRAZIL; 

^PseuUo . mnt'alum avccum. Sloane, v. 2, p. 184^ t;yl82, Tr**5, *.*—-. 
ArboreOj inennis ; Jolii&'ViinorJbus pa^bus bipin7iatis^ ligno Jcer^ . 
'nu!sino, Bi;owne,.p. 227. 
Unarmed, leaflets oVate-oblong'; midrib pubesol^nt; calysies tomentMe; sta^, 
mens shorter than the corolla. . 

This is the 'tree which affords the brasiietto wood, so much used in dying. The 
branches are slender, and full of small prickles ;/the leaves branch, out intajnany divi* 
sions, the leaflets oval, indented at top and opposite, very like those of the logwood j 
thepeduncles from the side of the branches terminated by a loose pyramidal spike of 
white flowers, beautifully varieg^ited with red. The corolla has five leaves, the upper 
one ha? its ungues tubuloid and its bractea patent, the whole resembling a little trum- 
pet. The po^ intlose several smaH' round seeds, ^ Mr. Hellot^ves the-fotllowiitgiiae* 
thod of imparting durability to the colour of brazilet^ dye : it ^eonsists onty in letting 
decoctions of the wood stand f^r ^ome. time in wooden casks, till it grows stale and 
ropy ;. pieces of wpollen cloth dyed in this hquor acquired a- colour so durable, that 
they were not in* the least altered by exposure to the air, during fqur montli^ in the- 
winter season. Mr. A, Kobinson observes, that the seeds of this tree are often de- . 
stroyed by insects, and the pods a. long 'while beiBcyre they drop. 

This tree grows in every part of «Famaica where^the soil is dry and rocky ; it is an eif 
cftUent tinker wood,, but seldom exceeds eight or ten inches m diameter, in the most 
^erf^jct state. . The w.ogd is elastic^ tough, and durable, and bears a fine polish ;^^t ia^ 



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i»wa> WORTHS ,rAMAICENSIS, lU 

of a bqautifu) orange colour, full of resin, and yields a fine full tincture ty infusion ; 
but is seldom cut for the djers use in Janmca, — Br^u^ie, 

The trtie brasH is called Pernambuca^ being the pla(?e fronj whence they come in 
'Brasil ; the Brazilians calling it ibirapitanga. It. is a tiiick large tree,_ with a redtiish 
and thorny bark ; tlie leaves- small and blunt, of a fine shining green ; its flowers little, 
sweet, and of abeautifal red ; the po^s flat and prickly, in which are two flat hic*eds, 
like the gourd seed. This wood is used amon^ the dyei's, and the stationers make red 
ink of it ; viz. Take ftu>pings of the wood, inriisc them in vinegar or som^ strong lixi- 
vium, nnd, with g^ni arable and all um, put them in a glared pot, and gently mfuso 
them for some hours. Some dye the roots oi alt hen with if, to clean the teeth withal, 
1 have met with two sorts growing in Jamaica ; one every way as red as brasil. It hath 
-a red gum, witli a restringent taste ; its wood is very tough and strong ; the wbe^^l- 
Wrights in Jamaica say Uiey make the best spokes for wheels. A decoction of the 
^ood strenorthens the stomach, abates feverish heats, and takes away inflammations and 
ftdefl^uxions m the ey'es.-^-Ji^rkamy p. 23.. 

2. BIJUGA, DOUBLE. 

Senna spuria arborea sp'nosay foliis alaph ramons sen decowpositi.^ 
fiore luteOy siliqais br^vibus sulcatis nigris^ sahina odore. Sloane, 
V. 2, p. 50, t. I SI, f. 2, 3. Spinosa^ foUis minoribus obverse car du-' 
tisy hipimiaiis.; raccmis (erminalibus. Browne, p. 227. 

l*rickly, leaves doubly pinnate, with two pairs of ob^txwrdate leaflets, they and 
the calyxes smooth ; stamens equalling the c<^roHa,. 
Sloane calls this Indian savin tree^ It rises fifteen feet in heighth,, having a trunk 
somewhat crooked, about the thickness of ones thigh, covered wath a whitish grey, aU 
most smooth bark. The tre& has several' crooked and prickly branches, with leaves 
coining out at unequal distances, beiag, decomposite and winged; the middle rib ia 
•four or five inches lon^ divided iniw aamany pairs of petioles, on each of which ar^ 
two pairs of smooth shming leaflets, half an inch in diameter, very green, smootli, and 
almost round, having a defect or indention ait one end, a little pointed at the other and 
shining. Flowers in several spikes three inches long at the tops of the branches, of ^ 
deep yellow colour. Thfe legumes are cf a blackish colour, smooth and flat, having 
some sulci on them, and containing large brown, smooth, round, peas All parts c$ 
this tree, if bruised, have a very balsaniic strong scent. It grows by Passage Fort and 
*the road to it very plentifully. — Sloane^ 

This prickly shrub is-common a1xmt the Terttyv and the 16wer lands of Liguanea, bujb 
^ seldom rises siiove eight or ten feet in height ; the wood is of a brown colour, th^ 
'foliage of a dark gloomy green, and the flowers of a fine yellow, which are succeededt 
^y pods of a thickish ofilong form. The lower segment of the cup is not fringed^ noy 
^any of the flower leaves variegated in this species — Browne. 

See Barbadoes Pride. 



BREAD FRUIT. ARTOCARPUSL 

<!l. 21^ OR. 1. — Moncecia monanipia. Nat. or. — Urtica. 

This 



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tl2 ttOKTUS JAMAl6ENSrSi m%a»» 

"This name is derived fcom, two Greek words,, signifying bread and fruit. 

Gen. char. — There is no calyx to the male flower, the amentum is cylindrical, all 
covered ^ith florets.^, the coroUato each two petals,, oblong, concave,, blunt, vil- . 
lose ; the stamen is a single Ulament within each coix)lia, filiform,, tlie len^h of 
the corolla, oblong: The female flower has no calyx nor corolla; the pistil has 
very mauy germs,, connected inta a globe,., hexangular \ style to each filjform,. 
stigma single or two,, capillary, revolute ; tlie pericarpium is.an ovate globular 
fruit, compound, moricatev seeds for each. germ solitary,, oblong, covered witk^ 
;i pulpy aril> placed on an. ovate reoegtacle. There are two species ^e integrvy- 
Joiia oxjaack ^'^> and 

INCISA* 'KOTCHEB* 

"Leaves gashed.. 

This tree grows to the thicliness of a matt,, and forty;feet high or more ; 'tl'fe trunk \%< 
upright, the wood soft, smooth,, and yellowish, the inner bark white, composed of lu 
net of stiffish fibres, the outer bark smooth, but full- of chinks, pale ash colour, with^ 
small tubercles thinly seattiered over it. Wherever the tree is wounded it pours out a. 
glutinous milky liquor. The branches fdrm an ample almost globular head ; the lower * 
ones, whiclrare the longest, spring from the trunk alternatety ten or twelve feet above 
the ground, spreading ontaknostBorizontally, scatteredandin asort of whorl ; twigs, 
ascending, bearing lowers and fruits at theu* ends. Leaves alternate, petioled, ovate^ 
deeply divided above the middle into seven or nine lanceolate acute lobes,, with rounded 
sinuses; they, are otherwise quite entire, smooth, on both: sides, . even, spreading,^ 
bright green, paler underneath, membranaceous, a foot and.a hatf or two feet in length, , 
ten to fourteen inches, wide, veined, having a thick nerve to each lobe, diverging from . 
the common rachis. The younger leaves,, like all the more tender part* of the tree,., 
are glutinous to the touch ; pjetioles roundish, e^^n,. ascending, two inches in length -^ 
alipulcs in pairs, involving; theyonnger leaves, lanceolate, acuminate, concave, entire^^ 
smooth within, hairy on the outside, <leciduous, five or six inches long : peduncles at 
the ends of the twigs, and in the axils of the upper leaves,, solitary, round, upright^ 
having ^ few hairs on them, and two inches iti length.. The male flowers are among, 
the upper leaves, and the female flowers at the ends of the twigs ; the male ament is . 
club-shaped, fleshy,, uprighy a spaa long,, covered with inumerable small, sessile- 
florets ; the proper perianth ia very small, two-valved, the valves equal, oblong, blqnt, , 
concave, closely adherihg, shut, yellowish brown ; these have no spathes. The female - 
flowers have bivalve spathes, ovate-lanceolate, compressed; . acuminate, upright, bent 
in at the tip,^ soft, a span mi length, at first closed,, then deciduous, placed at the end . 
of the peduncle ; spadix ^lobular, covered with very many connate germs ; these are- 
c^conical, immersed in tne receptacle, somewhat convex at the top ; styles scarcely 
any ; stigmas projectihg^points, withering, in some varieties bifid. The iruit is a glo- 
bular berry, smoothish, marked with hexagons on the surtiace, pale green, vmea ■. 
largest, a long span or nine inches in length, filled with a white nirinaceous, some- . 
what fibrous, pulp, which, when the fruit is ripe, becomes sweet, juicv, and yellow ; 
it is fastened to a.clubi>sh^^d, fleshy receptacle, which is longitudinajTly 'fibrous, and^ 
a hand in length. 

This valuable plant is* a fiative of the South Seas,. and upwards of three hundreds 
planu were landed in this island, in the year 1793, from his Majesty's shij) Providence^ 
C^piaia ,Willi9ai3li^^. The9e plants vrere distribated in the most jirdidous mannec, 

^uxd«r* 



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I 



HORTU« JA'MAICE'N'Sna IIS 

vader the direction of a cominittee of the bonourable Ho^se of Assembly ; and have 
l>een cultivated in even? part of this island with great success, though not in so exten- 
sive a manner as they deserve. The trees thrive well alniipst every where, and grow to 
as large a size as in their native soil, bearing abundance of fruity and forming an ex* 

-cellent addition to the many other articles of subsistence which this island possesses. 

The warts which cover the surface of the thick rind of this valuable fruit are of a qua- 
drangular or 'diamand hke figure, but without points. The internal part of the rind or 
peel, consists of a fleshy substance fnil of t\*isted Abre.s which has the appeajcance of 
line wool*; these adhere tOy and in some measure form it. The fleshy part of this fruit 
becomes softer towards tlie middle,' where there is a small cavity formed without any 
«uts or seeds, except in one variety, which has but a smart number, and this sort is 
not good unless- it is baked,, or preparcnl some other way r but, if the outward rind be 
^en offy and the fibrous flesh dried, and afterwards boiled with meat, as we do cabbage^ 
it has then the taste of artichoke bottoms^ The leaf is large and dark coloured, and, 
when youngs has a covering which is pushed ofFas the leaf gath^*s strength. * The 
trunk, branches^, and leaves,, when broke,, or cut, exude very plentifully and freely a 
-milky juice^ wbtch boiled with cocoa nut oil makes a vory strong birdlime. Caout- 
chouc,, or fiidian rubber, may also be obtained from it by exposure to the air ; or if 
-oxy-mupiatic acid be poured rnto it the caoutchouc precipitates immediately. 

There is a variety with deeply g*ashed and another with einire leaves, but the prin*- 
cipal variety is that which bears fruit with seeds,, and is much taller and larger m every 
respect than the other.. The seeds are almost as large as*chesnuts, oblong, somewhat 
angular, produced into a point at each end, -separated by several little membranes or 
coats, formed by the abortion of some of the germs ; they are attached to a fleshy and* 
very considerable placenta,, which occupies the centre.. They are farinaceous like the 
Chesnut^ andare eaten,, in some places,, by the savage inhabitant^ either "boiled or 
roasted. In Otaheite they reckon eight varieties of that without seeds, differing in the- 
form of the leaves and fruit. One of tliese they name wn^,4vhich has a-globular smooth- 
^ven fruit, and is the most common. A second, named marrcL, has an oval smooth- 
fruit, with the leaves more deeply cut : A third, called pafea^ has the frutt oblong and 
nigged,, as it were scaly : A fourth tataruy has an oval firuit, with mamillary germs^ 
muricated by the permanent style, it is believed most if not all «f these varieties are* 
to be found in this island^ and perhaps the difl^ent modes of cultivation may still fur-^ 
tber increase them^ The woou of all in body and branches is very soft and brittle^ 
•havinc a considerable pith or hollow ; andthe branches,, especially of young trees, are- 
rety liable to be broken by high windsv 

The fruit, when used as a bread kind, is gathered beftre perfectly ripe,, mid is best 
i«>a9ted whole ift an^.oven, and the rind afterwards scraped off,, the inside it then so6: 
and white,, tasting much like sweet cassada, to which its texture has also considerable- 
^semblance, but it is not palateable if kept for ^any Jength of time after being cooked. 
Fritters may be made of it, and it formsa^ood ingredient in puddings. Iti any way it 
aflbrda a great deal of nourishment, especially whenl>oiled,. and being,^ it is said, of a^ 
^etrtte astringent qualitjfy. is good for persons of a lax habit. The tree is useful not 
'ixiXy for food but lor clothing ;. for the bark is stripped off the suckers and Ibrm^d int^' 
%]undofcIafb* 

Itisabardy plant enough), and easily propagated by suckers, and cuttinga Qf the- 
iDOts. The suckers rise in great numbers frpm the horizontal root<;, which extend a/ 
toDsidend>le length froia.th9 ti9&. WJhen the roots are tak^n for. plants, each slip or 

QL. taittiny^ 



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lU. irOHTUS JAMAICENSIS. 

cutting must htfte tn eve t>r joint to germinate from ; they should lie at least ibe i^ _ 
of a man*s finger, and divided into pieces five or six inches in length, and laid just be« 
low the surface of the soil in a shady place, and watered every evening until they -strike 
root and send up shoots. On cutting the plants the ends should be covered with clay^ 
tar, or ahy other substance that will prevent the sap from oozing, -wbidi greatly fiiciUtatet 
*he growth. They will bear fruit in four years, or even less time, in a favourable sitiia-' 
tion, from the time of planting. From tne first appearance of the fruit they are Btiat 
4he table in little janore ^lau A month. 

Sec Jaack Tebe. 



^KEAD-NUT.TREE. 13R0SIMUM. 

Cl. 22, OR. 1. — Dioecia monandrta. 
This name is derived from a Greek word signifying eatable. 

<?BN. CHAR. — Male calyx a common globular amentum, covered on all sides with \m* 
bricate, orbicular, peltate, membranaceous, decidw)us scales, three larger, suct 
rounding the base.of the ament, and others smaller, of an irregular shape, be«» 
tween each of which the stamens break out. There is no corolla; the stamens are 
solitary filaments, very short, cylindric, with bilamdlate anthers ; lamelias orbi^ 
cular peltate ; lower gaping from the upper; dispersing a globuhr pollen ; the 

• pistil has Jthe germ at top, included in a sysongy ament, very small, o^Kate, abor« 
tLve ; style single, upright, bifid at the tip ; ^stigmas rdfiex, simple. The female 
blossoms are on a different tree, having an amentum like the male; no corolla; 
the pistilbra has a globular germeu (the scaly hody of the ament itself) ; the stylo 
springing from the middle of the germen at top, long, bilid ; stigmas simple^ 
sharp, a littje reflex ; the pericarpium is a berry pediceHed, corticose, sphericsd, 
-one-celled ; the seeds solitary, with a two-lobed kernel, surrounded by a thi« 
membrane, and bipartite. Two species grow in this islanc^ the sfurium^ otmiH^ 
u>ood^ and the . 

altcastrum* 

Arloreunty foliis ovatis alte^vtis^ fructibus sditariis. Browne, p. 37t. 

leaves ovate-lanceolate, perennial ; aments globular, pedicelledy MohUxjf ax- 
illary ; fruit corticose. 

This tree is frequent in the parishes of St. Eli2abeth and St. Jame$, and m both has 
l>een computed to make up a third pact of the woods. The timber is not despicable^ 
but ^e leaves and younger branches jare more useful, and a hearty fattening fodder for 
all sorts of cattle. The fruit, boiled with salt fish, pork, beef, or pickle, has been ire^ 
4^uently the support of the negroes and poorer sort of white people, in times of scar« 
city ; and proved a whblesome jand no unpleasant food. When roasted it eau adme-» 
thmg like our European chesnuts, and is called Ar^ac/^nu/. The leaves and vounger 
shoots are full of gum, which renders them disagreeable to most cattle at^t, but t&sf 
toon grow very fond of them. — Browne. 

jDiey are propagated by the birds and rats firomtbejeed;. and «ome^ llieyhav^ 



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Wtoiim HORTTJS JAMAICTENSift »1J 

leen planted in the Atyer pasture lands of the South side; Ihave observed thaf every 
-eld fence in such places is a nursery for these andother valuable trees •, which observa- 
tion may furnish a good hint for the successful planting them, the shade of the fence 
Ifeneraily keeping me around beneath much more cooland moist than it is in the open 

Easture : the soil is also- richer, from the mould of decayed leaves and vegetableH. — 
[ogs are extremely fond of this fruit, whidi makes theni fiit What is called ihe 
iread nut in St Ann is a tree of large diameter^, and vei^ proper for cabinet work. It 
is excellent timber.— iw^^ p. MS^. 

These trees grow, taa very considerable size^ having "been^ found five feet- in diame- 
ter and aixty feet in height Before they branched. The trunk is very straight and the^^ 
£>liage beautifuL The wood is finely veined^ very hard, close*grained, and ponder- 
ous ; the heart isnot unhkeniahogany iivcolour^ and the^ap like box. It blossoms in* 
April and May. It has lalel^tbeenfound to make good puncheon jstaves^. which answev 
nearly as well as the while xuk,. juid will he a very great advantage to those districts in 
this island^ where they grow in abundance. Were paoper-eare taken to •cultivate them 
generally, which might easily be accomplished^, they would furnish a source of future 
-supply^ and contribute to render this. island soilless dependent on* ihe wood^ •f Ame-* 
nca for so necessary an^ article to xwr commerce as puncheon staves* But this is not 
•the only advantage diat/would arise fxomLthe propagation of thia valuable tree^ as it 
urould also furnish a rich^resource iuvtimesof. scarcity,., or famine^, as food for the ne- 
groes ; and they are said to bear fruit in four years from the time the seed i& plan ted,— 
Mr. Robinson,^ ia his manuscripts^. mentions a gentlewoman in St. Elizabeth*s who^. 
ibaving plenty^ of these trees, on .her property, during the montiis of July, August, and 
September,, when provisions were not to.be had for Eernegcoes, fed ihem with bread «^ 
nuts. .Two negroes and nine mules, he says,^supplied^wo hundred and thir^ negroes 
with them. Possessingplants of such inestimable value,, indigenous to our own soil^ 
if proper care .was taken toxultivato tbem^generally, we should have no occasion to call- 
in the aid of exotics from the South Sea,, or elsewhere,, to gaard us against want. la^ 
£urope they plant oaks, but in Jamaica nothing is worthy of attention, it jffwuld seero>, 
' that does not produce immediate profit. To induce a better system, it is a pity the le« 
gislature does not offer a premium.forthe encouragement of those who may propagate^ 
to a sufficient extent, the useful plants of certain parts of this island^ in such nistriria^ 
as are not natuxally enriched by them. 

ifteMlLKWOO®* 
JBttVNIA— &e BOTTLB-COD-TtodV- 



BROAD LEAF. TERMINALIA. 

Cl. 25, OR. 1. — Pdlygnmiamont^ecia. Nat. or. — Ehtagni. 

"CkN. CHAR. — Hermaphrodite flowers, at the lower part of the raceme flowering first*. 
Calyx a one-leafea superior perianth^ five-cleft, coloured within ; segments ovate^^ 
acute, equal; no corolla ;. .nectary pitcher-shaped, ■ in the bottom of the calyx^, 
tx>nsistinfi; of five small hisped corpuscles ; the stamina are ten fil^ents, awl^ 

^t^Jku^f from erect spreading^ longer than the calyx, and inserted into^he bottoms 



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11€ HORTUS JAMAICENSIi. mo<w 

of it, with roundish erect anthers ; the pistil lias an inferior gerrt, OVate-oblong ;; 
style filiform, erect, length of the stamens ; stigiDa simple ; the pericarp is ai^ 
oval boat-shaped drupe, depressed, two-giooved, or compressed acuminate ; seedi 
an ovaUoblong nut, two-valved; kernel oblong. Males superior, flowerino; later:: 
calyx as in the hermaphrodite ; no cordla ; nectary and stamina as in the herma- 
phrodite. Two species are natives of Jamaica. 

. KLATIFOUA* BROAD-LEAVF.I>. 

^rbor maxima forte prtmi/'erdy corf ice cannahino, folio lonf^issim^ 
latissivioq. Sioane, v. 2, p. 1 30. Folds ampiis senatis, ob^ovaiit 
Ciif}i acmnine ; capsulis bigemminis. Browne, p. 255. 

Leaves ob-ovate, subserrat^; drupes ile$hy. 
This tree has a very large trunk, and grows to a vast height, eovered with a grey or 
^ery light brown bark, seeming to be loose and come oS in long pieces ; it lun here 
^nd. there some knobs or eminences on its surface, the leaves are large and long. It 
grows in all the inland great woods of Jamaica. — Sioane. 

This tree grows to a«very considerable height, ba(viag a jproportionate'body, being 
'frequently sixty feet high before it reaches the branches, and twelve feet in circumfer- 
ence. The trunk is generally straight, and tapers gently fix>m the bottom to the top* 
The branches stretch horizontally, and so equal that the leaves seem tobe placed in a 
perfect level, as if regularly clipped. These branches project from the tree at certain 
intervals, where the stem is left bare, and diminishing in lengtli as they approach the 
summit, gives the tree a very beautiful appearance. TheJeaves are eight or ten inches 
long and four broad near the point, where broadest, ^t the base they are narrowest, 
beingthere^^duced to almost a point, and increase gradually until within about tw^ 
inches of the end where they are rounded off. They come out from the branches in 
little circular clusters of ten or twelve together on a common barky iiitcb long footstalk^ 
having each of them a green round pedicel of nearly the same length. They are of a 
deep green colour, but paler below, having a strong prominent mid-rib and veins, it 
is a very good timber wood and splits easily into shingles, which will last from twelve 
to fifteen years before they decay; The heart of the tree is the worst part, and it fre- 
4}uently happens that boards of it split into two from having some inches of soft pithy 
.substance in their centre. The larger sized trees, are on this account most frequently 
sawn or split into two, and the two halfs lined for boards the reverse way. In A. Ro« 
binson^s notes, the kernel of the fruit of this tree is said to be as good as an almond 
Jcernel ; and the decoction of the root cures thediarxhtiea. 

2. ARBUSCCfLA. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate^ entire^ pubescent^ branches dichotomous ; racemef 
jerect. 

Arqaduafbd BRooMWBEi>--iAtf Mabsh Mallows. 



BROOM WEED. CORCHORUS. 

€X. lif OJU u^FQlyandria momgyrm^ Nat. Qx^^^THUactm, 



Thii 



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M^^tm I HOUTiirS.JAMAICENSIS. UT 

This generic name is derived fipom a. Greek nanife for a pot-herb, said to be very 
bitter, 

GeIn. char. — Calyx a five-leaved perianth ; lea8ets linear-lanceolate, acute, erect, ^ 
- deciduous; corcJIa five^petallecl, oblong, obtitse, narrower beneath, erect, length 

- of the calyx ; the stamina Are numerous filaments, capillary,, shorter tban the.?^ 
Tolla, with sniali anthers ; the pistil has an obloiig germ, furrowed ; style thick^ 
short ; stioma two-qieft ;. the pericarp is an ol>long;, five-celled, five-vahed, cap- 
sule ; seeds very many, cornered, pointed. Two species are natives ofJamtaica, 
siliquosiis and astuans ; and twg others, natives of the East InaiQS,, Ixava lately 

- ^ been introduced by Dr. 1>. Brown. 

I. SILIQUOSUS^ PODDEEK 

Corchoro affinisj chanKpdiyos folio ^ fiore sfamineOj sonhnhits atru 
quadmngulis dupliei serie dispositis, Sloane, v. 1, p. 143, t. 94, 
f. 1. Foliis minoribus ovatU cr^natisj Jloribiis. singularibus. — 
Browne^ p. 147. 

Capsules linear, compressed, two-valved^ twor^celied ; leaves lanceolate, equally 
serrate. 

This Browne calls hromn'weed, and it is also named germander lea^Qcd corchorus. It 
5s an herbaceous pJant^ but branched like a shrub, with a round smooth s>tem, and aU 
Xernate, upright, pubescent branches ; leaves patioled, alternate, small, nerved, smooth, 
with smaller Teaires in the axils; stipules subulate, opposite. This is a common plant 
in all the sugar colonies, and seldom rises above three feet ; it grows in sandy pl^es, 
-f nd is generally used for besoms by die negroes.-:— -5aw;Y5 SC Browne. 

Barham calls this plant pimpemell^ and saya it ** Has a very decp^blackish coloured 
jTOOt, which sends up a round brownish woody stem, rising three or four feet high, be-. 

ing divided into branches on every hand. The leaves come out several together, some 
greater, some smaller, at half an inch distance, on half-inch long foot*stalks ; they are 

half an inch long, and a quarter broad at the base (where broadest), of a grass-greea 
^colour, indented about the edges like germander, but smooth. Opposite to the leaves 
«jCome yellow flowers, being stamineous ; after which follows a two-inch long dark pod, 

or sefed vessel, shutting like those of the sesamum, but more like the spirit- weed, only 

having two round sides, and a partition in the middle ; in which are two rows of seeds, 
(black 4nd quadrangular. The pod, wh^n ripe, opens at the end, and scatters the se6d 
4ike as the spirit vreed. — Barham^ j9. 145. « 

2. AESTUANS. BURNING. 

Subviltosaj foliis rotundioribus unduUuis 4itqu4 ientatis ; dentibus p^s-- 
tremis in setas inermes atieuntibus^ floribus alaribiis. Browne, p. 
332, t. 25, f. 1, . 

Clapsules three-celled, threes valved, three-tided ; angles bifid, scabrous ; 
feaves oblongs tbe lowest jerratures setacecnuk This has three bifid styles. 

The stem is strong rising two or three feet, divided at top into two or three branches ; 
leaves oti long petioles, and between them several smaller leaves nearl? of the same 
^orm, sitting close to die branches ; the flowers come; out singly on the side of the 
branches. Browne says it is a native of Jamaica, but not common ; the stem and 
juranches slider ; leaves coundishi J^^SS^> ^^ undulated ^ the teri of a brown colour. 

3. OLITORIUS. 



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3. OLrxoams.. qabj^bk. 

Capsules oblongs venfericose ;. tb.e lawest serraturet of tke le»«es setaceous* 

This is a native of the East Itidies, ^nd is called the bristly leaved C, or conMrn^ 
Jhvs mallow. It grows about two feet high, having sessile solitary yellow flowers, ft 
is sown in ereat plenty about Aleppo as^.a, fiot herb^ and the Jl$iw$ there boil the Jeaves. 
fuid eat with their m^at. 

4; CAPSULARS. CAPSlTtAltK 

Capsules roundish,. depres3ed, wrinkled^ the lower serraturesoT' the l^amik 

setaceous. 

This has heart shaped leaves,, andid also ai>{ttive of 'the East Indies. Jt.xises-ivttimi 
^.ender jitalk about. three feet high.. 

See MELOCHiA4»(;f Mountain Bboowwjsed^ ^ 
. Brown Jolly — See Ego Plant. 

BHUNFELSIA--^^^ THUMPBT FLOWEBw 



BRYONY: BRYONIA, 

Ci^ 21, OR. 10. — Monoeda.syngentsia. Nat. or. — Cucurhitaa^. 
©EN. CHAR. — ^The ruale calyx is a one-leafed,. bell-sb«4»ed, five-toothed, periaiA^^' 
the corolla five-parted, bell-shaped ; filaments three, very short: anthers &y%^ 
two connate on ea,ch of two filaments, and », single one on the third. The female: 
flowers have the cjaly?^ as in the male, superior, deciduous ; corolla as in the mide^^ 
the pistil has an .inferior germ, a trifid style, emar^inate stigmas ; the pericarpium' 
is a Kub-globular smooth even berr]^ ; . ^eed« few, fastened. to the coa^ sub-ovate.. 
One species is a native of Jamaica^' 

RACEMOSA* ItACEMRm 

Foliis hirtis, tritohis vcl quinquelobisy denticutalts ^ Tocemis mifwniuM . 
alaribus, Browne, p. 355. 
•TTiis Browne cjJls the mowitain bryony y^smd says .he found it growing wild in the 
Hiountains of New Liguanea. It runs a great way a^d bears small roundish berriesy. 
which contain each three or four, or six srods. The stigma or top of the style, is, in j 
each female flower, divided into three thin reflected lobes, and tke fruit seldom, ex^ 
^^dstbree-quarteraof aniiich ia,diajcneter. — Browne^ p. 355», 



No English Nafiie^ BUCHNERA. 

Cl. 14) OR- 2.^^Didynamia angiospermia^ Nat. or. — Personata. 
This was so named by Linneu^ in honour of A« E. Buchner, a German naturalist. 
(Jen. CHAR. — Calyx a perianth,, one-leafed ; obscurely .five-toothed, scabrous, per- 
"tnaui^nt; coroHa j(uonopetalous^ tube long, filiform, bowed ;. border flat, five-cle^ 

^ual^ 



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HMuat^ stamina veiy short, in the tbi^t of the corolla ; anthers obleng ^ llie pis* 
'tiUttiaha& an ovate oblong germ,, fittform style, and obtuse stigvia; the pericarp 
is an acaminate capsule^ covered, two-celled, gaping at ^be top into two parts ^ 
partition contrary y the seeds numerous, angular^ receptacle &stened to tbe micU 
-ale of the partitioa. One specnea mzs (fiscovered in this island hy Swartz« 

elonoaTa. 

I^eaves entire, opposite^ ealyxes acwoewhat hairy, leoger-thaa ^iruit-^iS»^ 
JPr. jpu 92. 



BUCK THORN, RHAMNUS. 

Cl. 5, OR. 1. — Pentandria monogynia, Nat. aa. — Dumos^. 

This b derived from tbe Latin name of a-plant In PTiny. 

<yKN. pHAE. — ^There is n«<Alyx ; corolla an imperforate petal, externally rude, ir^ 
teroally coloured, funnel form; tube turbinate, cylindrical^ border spreading, 
divided,, ajcute ; scalelets five, very ^small, each at tne base of each divi^on of the 
border, converging \ the stamens are filaments, «s many as there are segipents of 
the corolla, awUshaped, inserted into the petal under the scalelet ; enthers small ; 
the pistil has a roundish germ, filiform style, tbe length of the stamens, stigma 
^lunt, ^divided into fewer segments than the corolla ; the pericarp is a roundish 
«berry^ naked, divided into rcwer parts internally than the corolla^ seeds solitary, 
^roundish, gibbous on one side, ^tted on the other. Scfarober says that part of 
«he flower called the corolla is more properly the perianth, and the soaleiets should 
l»e4Qtamed petals. Four species are widigeaous to this island. 

1« COLUBRINUS, SNAKE« 

Jlrhoreus foliis ovatis venosis^ cnpstdis ipkericis mferrte ad medietatem 
caliptratisy pedunculis mnbelhdatii alttribus, mortice ghbro. Bro wne» 
p. 172, 

Tlowers hermaphrodite, one styled, erect; capsules tricoccous^ petioles fer« 
ruginous-tomentose. 

This is a small upright tree, with most of the branches spreading out horizontally.— - 
Tbe twigs, peitioles, peduncles, l6wer surface of the leaves, and outer surface of the 
calyx, are covered with a feirugiaous pap. The leaves are oblong<^Bvate, acute, entire^ 
^he upper sur^e smooth and shining, alternate, for the most part distioh ; racemea 
«hort, corymbed, axillary, seven-flowered or thereabouts ; flowers without scent, all 
pointing upwards, with greenish scales ^ -calyx deeply five-cleft ; anthers standing out 
oeyond the scales ; style single, ending in a ^rifid^ stigma ; capsule Toundish, three** 
grooved, three-celled, three^vaived ; the valves opening two ways at the top; seeds 
solitary, roundish, flatted a little, emarginate^ black, and verjr shining, fai high 
mountain woods it attains tlie height of twenty (eet, while in coppices on tne coast it is ' 
rarely seven feet high, with leaves four inches long ; whereas in the former they are 
six inches in length. In the islahd of Martinico the French know it by the name of bois 
^outeuvrCf or snake wood'. 7'he bark is of a pleasant bitter taste. 

' 2. SARCOMPHALUS. 



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120 HOUTUS JAMAlCENSia Wcc 

2, sarcomI»halus. 
' Folns oralis glahris altemis ad apicem Icniter <marginatiSy cortt'ce^ 

interiei'i ferrugino. Browne, p. 179, 

L«av€8aval, coriaceous, quite entire^ ^marginate. 
This is called bastard lignum vitre timber xtfood, grows in many parts of the island, 
and rises genevally to a very consideraHte heigh* ; the trunk is often above two feet and 
a half in diameter, and covered with a thick scaly bark. The wood is hard, of a dart 
colour, and close grain j and is looked upon, as one (rf the best tinaberwoods Si the 
island, — Browne, 

It bears a globose fruit with the calyx at the base, about three-quarters of an inch iriF 
-diameter, and of a very obscufe purple ; the pericarp is smooth, but little or nothingv 
shining, having a mealy, moist, esculent pulp, not in the least disagreeable, within 
which iH an ovate nut, penetrated by two ovate holes at its upper end, leading to the 
two cells, in which it not a little resembles the coco-nut. The outside df this nut is. 
somewhat rugged. When young this tree appears widely different from what it does^ 
wiien old, it then having thorns and shining small leaves, though the lower branches^ 
of die older trees are thorny also. The leaves have also sometimes thorns upon their 
margins, whict mates it probably, in that state, the rtgrifolium folio ienuiore^ ttc. oT 
Sloaue, V. 2, p. 108, t. 188, f . 2. 

S.^PHjEROsPEltMUS. llO0ND-9EffI>El>. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, in racemelets ; berries roundisb, tfaree*ceUedf pellucid^ 
leaves oblong, seorate^ smooth. — Sw. Pr. p. 50. 
Trunk ten or fifteen feet high, with ^ smooth bark ; branchefls mbdivided, spreading ; 
leaves alternate, acnminate, unequally serrate, nerved, smooth on both "sides, very 
finely veined; petioles roundish, smooth; peduncles axillary^ tb^length of the peti-» 
oles, shoirt, uprigkt, many flowered; flowers pedicel led, small, green, or yellowish ;: 
stipules small, •acuminate, at the base of the peduncles ; caljrxes ovate and cut round: 
at the base, permanent, five-cleft; segments acute, spreading, thickkh, deciduous^ 
petals very minute,, placed between the divisions of the calyx, on rery short pedicels^ 
concave ; filament* five, rfiorter than the calyx ; anthers roundish, three-cornered,, 
covered at the back by the petals^ germ rounclish^ at the bottom of the calyx ; style* 
shorter than the stamens, trifid ; stigmas blunt, contiguous ; berry spherical, some^ 
times three-grooved at the top, the size of a^mall pepper-corn,, placed on the calyx^^ 
l^ellucid, pale-green, containing from one to three oblong three-cornered seeds, ft 

5 rows in the more temperate parts of Jamaica, in mountain coppices j flowering iik 
kUgust and ripening the berries in October. — Sn^. 

A. JXUPTlCtTS* OVAL-LKAVEIK 

Jlrhoresctns minor foliiff ovafis venosisy pedtmctilts umBeWuIiitiSf alaru- 
tusfnutHmssph^ricis. Browne,, p. 1T2, t. 29, f. 2. 

Tlowers kermaphrodite, sub-trigynous, axilkcry^ sub-mnbeUed ;. leaved eUiptiCf. 

acute, quite entire, somewhat villose cmdemeath^. 

This is a shrub becoming ir a manner a tree ; thebranficbes are rotmd,. alternate, rod«- 

like, often reclining or spreading, covered with a smooth brown bark ; leaves altemateir> 

iDlanti nerved,, and veined^ nerves approximating ; pet^>les rom^^ filiform^ longi^ 

V «Bootiii$; 



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•1TCK 



HdRTUS JAMAICENSIS, 121 



smooth ; peduncles shorter than the petioles, round, smooth, many-flowered ; flowers 
pedicelled, disposed in a little umbel, whitish green ; there are a few minute scales at 
the base of the qmbels ; calyx .cut round at the base; border five-cleft, deciduous, 
segments ovate, spreading ; petals or scalelets inserted between the segments of the 
calyx, minute, vault^id ; filaments the length of the petals, and concealed under them ; 
germ rouadish, placed at the base of the calyx, or on the receptacle ; style three-parted 
to the base ; stigmas blunt. Fi*uit placed at the base of the calyx, sub-tricoccous, 
three-celled> covered with a juiceless skin, and, when tliat bursts, divisible into three 
parts, like those of a capsule, opening within and at the top ; witli membranaceous 
partitions ; sedds solitary, oblong, flatted a little, smooth, black. The fniit, when 
ripe, and without the skin, being cut transversely above the middle, appears to be tri- 
•capsular and scx-val^^lar. It is very nearly allied to the colubrhtusj but that has the 
branchlets, petioles, and peduncles, ferruginous-toruentose j tlie style tliree-sided, 
^trifid only at ihc top. — Sw. 

Near tlae margin of the leaflets is a small gland on each side, and beyond this there 
IS one, sometimes two or more, at uncertain. distances. It happens frequently that 
^here are three glands on one side and only one on the other, wliich may be plainly 
«een on the under side of the leaf with the naked eye. In the centre of thex:up may 
«lso be seen a large depressed nectarium, divided by so many eccentric furrows into 
-five equal parts, bedewed with nectar, which the bees and otlier insects feed upon. — 
The nectarium is permanent, and seems united or fixed to tiie base of the perianth, and 
forming a rim or border round the fruit, while the base of the cup adherefl to its 
7>ottom. The tree grows about twelve feet high. 

Browne calls this the shrubby rhammis with bilocular berries^ but in the figure thQ 
^uit seems to be tncoocoas. Ir Marty n's Dictionary this is also made 4:eanQthus rec^ 



BUCK WHEAT. POLYGONUM. 

XiL, 8, OR. 3. — Octandria digynia^ Nat. or. — Holorace^^ 
-CrfiK. CHAR. — See Arsmart, p. 32. 

SCANDENS.- CLIMBING, 

Fegopyrum scandens^ seu volubilis nigra major^ ftore etfrwctu m&m^ 

hymaceiSf subrotundis<ompressi$. Sloane, v. i, p. 138, t^ 90, f. 1, 

''Leaves cordate ; stem erect, scandent. 

This woodbine has round, red, succulent stalks, T)y which it winds and turns itself 

Ypund any tree or shjrub it comes near, rising seven or eight feet high. It has every 

inch or half inch towards the top leiaves gr9wing out of the stalk alternatively. They 

have a quarter of an inch long footstalks, are grass-green, juicy, smooth, thick, an 

inch and a quarter long, and one inch over at 3ie base, being of a tncingular heart 

figure. The flowers come out from the upper axils, they are very many, in spikes 

?three inches long, on .a very short peduncle ; they are round, flat, swelledf out in the 

^middle, and green, having a thin white meoobraae round them^ like a parsnip seed : 

R when 



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1^2 'flORTUS JAMAlCENSrS. budDlh^ 

*w!]en the seed is ripe these membranes become somewhat larger, and the protuberant 
•part in the middle turns brown. It grew among the trees, near the ruins of -a monas- 
tery in Spanish-Town. — Shane, 

The grains of tliis plant are hot and dry, andof thin and subtle parts ; they are good 
against hysterics, and are esteemed great provocativcs.~5(z;'A«m, p, 25, 

See Arsmart. 



No English Name. ^UDDLEA. 

Cl, 4, OR. 1. — Tetrandvia monogynid\. Nat. or. — Personata. 

This was so named by Br. Houston from Adam Bnddle, who is often mentioned in 

Bay's Synopsis. 

Gfn. char. — Calyx a small f&ur^cleff perianth ; corolla one-petalled, bell-shaped^ , 
four-cleft halfway, erect, three times larger than the calyx ; stamina four filaments, . 
very short, placed at the divisions of the corolla, with very short simple anthers ; 
the pi.stil has an ovate germ, style simple, shorter by half than the corolla, stigma 
obtuse ; the pericarp is an ovate, oblong capsule, two furrowed, two-celled ; seeds . 
numerous, extremely minute ;. adhering to a fungous xeceptacle. One species i& 

■ a native of Jamaica* 

AMERICANA, ' AMERICAN. 

Verbasciflore jyiinore^ arbor ^ Jioribits spicatis luteis tetrapetaliSy semU - 
nihus singulis ohloyigis in singulis vasculis siccis, Sloan e, v. 2, p, 
29,- 1. 173, £. 1. Assurgejis incana^Joliismajoribmmollilanugint 
obductlsy spicis assurgentibus terminalibus. Browne, p. 144. ^ 

Tills shrub rises from live to ten feet, branched, and all over hoary ; leaves ovate- 
lanceolate, opposite, serrate ; flowers hi long stender spikes, axillary, and terminating i^ 
composed or little, opposite, many flowered crowded racemes ; corolla coriaceous^ 
scarcely longer than the calj'^ ; divisions upright, yellow within, hoary on the outsider. 

This has a trunk as thick as one*s leg, a white smooth- bark, with several -branehes, . 
whose ends Are bowed down towards the ground ; the leaves come out opposite to one 
another towards the- ends of the branches ^ they have scarce any footstalks, are three 
inches long, and kalfaa broad, green above^nd white uudemeatHi .somewhat like vibur- 
num leaves. The tops of the twigs are branched into several inch-long stalk*, every 
one of which is very thickand close beset, with many tetrapetalous small yellow flowers, 
w^hich have a pale greenisTi calyx and no footstalk ; to each of which follows an oblong 
or oval brown capsule, which is filled with a pretty large brown ^leed. It grows jifiar 
the banks of the Rio Cobre, in most gullies. — Sloane. 

IXr. Browne calls it the long^spikedimddleiay atnd says it is very common in th^ coolw 
hills of Liguanea ; that it risesthere only four feet or better, terminating in long slen- 
der flower-spikes^ It is used in emollient baths and fomentations, and thought to baVjH 
*«11 the-properties of the triu^ muUein. — Broxumc. 



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Item.- HORTUS JAMAICENSI& Ml 

The globcsoy or rduni headed buddUa, a native of Chilii with leaves lanceolate^ 
beads solitary, has also been introduced into this island. 



BULL-HOOF OR DUTCHMAN'S LAUDANUM. PASSIFLORA, 

Cl, 20, OR. 4. — Gjfnandina penfandria. Nat. or. — Cucurhitaceie, 

This name was altered by Linneus from the old name /^^ passionisj which was given 
to it from a fancy that all the iastriuneats of ome Saviour's passion wa4 seen in the 
flower. 

Gen. char. — ^The celyx is a five-parted perianth, flat and coloured ; corolla five- 
petals, semi*laneeeiate, flat, blunt, ot the same size and form with the calyx ; 
nectary a triple crown, the outer longer, encircling the -style within the petals, 
more contracted abe\*e; the stamens are five awl ^shaped filaments, listened to a 
eolumn-at the base of the germ, and united at bottom, spreading ; with incumbent, 
oblong, blunt, anthers ; the pistil has a roundish germ, placed on the apex of a 
straight cjlmdrical column; styles three, thicker above, spreading, stigmas capi- 
tate ; the periparp is.a,fleshy terry, sub*ovate, one-celled, pediceiled ; the seeda 
very many, ovate, arilled ; receptacle ef the seeds triple, growing longitudinally 
to the rind of the pericarp. Eighteen species of this^ genua are enumerated as in- 
xligeuous to Jamaica, of which the buU^hoqf is onfi. 

MUROCUJA^ 

Fojiis tenuidribusy trineroiis bicomibusy Itmafis ; sinu OMt&rhri obtuso^ 
Browne, p. 228. 

Xeaves ovate,^ undivided at the base, dotted nndemeatb ; nectary one-leafed. 
Stem herbaceous, grooved, smooth j leaves ovate or oblong, two horned, with ai4 
intermediate bristle, three-nerved,, veined, smooth, entire ; dots on the back hollowed, 
pellucid ; petioles^rooved, smooth, destitute of glands; tendrils sub-axillary, filiform, 
long ; flowers in pairs, a^willary, scarlet, lai'ge ; peduncles longer than the petiole^ 
having two very small filiform stipules in the middle ; petals almost upright, blunt, a 
little smaller than the calyx ; nectary one-leafed, tubular, growing on the petals and 
calyx, with a yellow crown at the throat ; column longer than the corolla, erect \ Berry 
ovate, the* size of a pigeon's egg, pediceiled. — Sw. 

This plant ts a elimber (like most df the other speciesO^ wliose fruit is of an oblong« 
oval form, about the size of a large olive, and of a fleshv colour when ripe. Both the 
syrup and the decoction of the plant is now much used in the leeward parts of the 
island, where it is frequent ; and is said to answer effectually all the purposes to which 
the sjrrup of poppies and 4iquid laudanum are generally administered. The flowers 
have been hitherto the most in use; they are commonly infused in, or pounded and 
mixed immediately with, wine or spirits, and the composition generally thought a very 
effectual and easy mxcoixc— Browne. 

See Granadijlla — Honey-Suckle — ^Passion Flowers— Water-Lemon. 

RJJ . BULLY* 



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m BORTUS JAMAlCENSra ittrt 

BULLY.TREE. ACHRAS. 

Cl. 6, OR. 1. — Hexandria monogyn{(U Nat. or. — Dumf>s^. 

This generic name is derived from the Greek name of a tree in Theophrastus, tx)m-- 
ijionly translated the wild pear. 

Cen. CHAR. — Calyx a six-leafed perianth; leaflets ovate,, contrave, erect; outer 
broader, shorter, inner-coloured ; corolla one-petalled,.ovat^, of the same height, 
with the c:lyx ; border cut into six sub-ovate flat divisions ;. scales at ihe jaws of 
the corolla, equal in length to the divisions, "narrower,, spreading^ emarginate;, 
the stamina are short awi-shaped filaments at the jUws of the corolla, alternate,, 
with the divisions bent inwards, witli sharp anthers ; the pistil has a mundish flat- 
ted germ, awl-shaoed st^yle^ longer than the corolla ; stigma obtuse ; the pericarp 
is a globose succulent pome, twelve-celled ; seeds solitary, ovate,, shining, scarred, 
on one side,, and pointed at the base. Two species only are reckoned in this island, 
the rnammosay or mammee sapotUy and the sapota^ or nasebervy. The naseberry 
bully-tree has been thought only a variety of the. former,, but is ceitainly a very, 
distinct species. 

Species DouhffiiU. 

Anona maxima, foHis laurinis glabris viridi fuscis^fructu mrnuno- 
rotunda viridi Jiavo^ seminibus fuscis^ splendentibus^ fissura olba^ 
noiatis. Sloancv v. 2, p. 172, t. 169, f. 2. Caudice altissimo^^ 
fractuminori, &eminemu^ron<ito. Browne, p. 201. 

The rtaseberry bully-tree has a trunk as big as an oak, and riseth much higher, hav- 
&ig a bark of a light brown colour, with very deep furrows in it ; the branches, which 
are many, are at their ends beset with a great many leaves, vAathout any order, of an* 
oval shape, green colour, smooth, thin, and dry. The fruit is about the bigness of a 
nutmeg, having its outward skin rough like a naseberry. The pulp is first austere^ 
but, after lying, sweet, and has widim it a great many oblong, compressed, .black, . 
shining, seeds,, with a white edge, slit,, or fissure,, exactly like that of the naseberry,^ 
only in every thing larger. It is one of the largest trees m the island, and the timber . 
of great use. The frmt is eaten and not unpleasant — Sloans.. 

This is so called'by the Jamaicans, for its fruit when ripe is as black as a bully or - 
damson, but in shape of a Lucca olive;, pigeons feed much upon them, and they make^ 
them very, fat : Its timber is very strong and lasting. — Barham^p^ 25. 

The naseberry is called the btilly-t^ee,. because it generally grows the tallest of all: 
tlie trees in die woods : its fruit is small, and the seeds oblong and narrow. It is es-- 
teemed one of the best timber trees of Jamaica. The bark of the naseberry bully-tree* 
(as well as all species of theachras) is reckoned very astringent, and all indiscriminately 
now go by the name of cortex Jamaicensisj their bitter astringent taste having for a time 
imposed on some of the people, who thought either the one or tW other to be the true 
Jesuits bark,, and on this account had frequently g,dministered them among the negroes^ 
where tliey were often observed to answer all the purposes of that medicine, as all bittejr 
astringents will do on robust constitutions, when the disease proceeds immediately from 
a weakness of the viscera, and a gross undigested chyle : this brought them first into 
uome vogue, and they have been frequently^ since that time, brought into England, 

forr 



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wwr HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. f25 

l&r further experiments 5 btit are much more likely to prove successful here tiiati in 
America, where those fevers tlxat generally put on the appearance of interraittents, are 
attended with nervous symptoms, and often mortal ; therefore must require medicines 
that act more effectually on the whole habit, and whose active particles can stimulate 
and provoke the oscillations of the nervous filaments in the more remote parts of the 
body. These different barks yield a large quantity of extr^t, which in taste and ap- 
pearance seems to be the same with that of the Jesuits bark, which has occasioned it to 
be frequently substituted in the room of that drug ; and this, I am persuaded, costs 
many a life in those colonies, where remittent fevers are so frequent and moi'tal. It is, 
however, an excellent astringent, and a very convenient and elegant preparation in 
that form, which may be adnunistered, wkh great propriety and success, whenever as- 
tringents of a long continued actiontere properly required. — Bivume^ p. 202. 

The bark of these trees has been also found very useful in curing putrid ulcers^ by 
^ving a. strong decoction of it inwardly, and fomenting the ulcera merewith. 

&tf.MAMMEE Sapota and Naseberey. 
BuLLKUSH-^de Rush. 



BUR-BARK. TRIUMFETTA; 

CL. n, OR. 1. — Dodecandria monogyma. .Nat. or. — CoVamnifera^^ 

B6 named in memory of G. B. Triumfetti, author of Hortus Romanus. 

6en. char^— -Oalyx.a iive*leaved perianthium ; leaflets lanceolate, arilled below the ^ 
tip, deciduous ; corolla five-petalled ; petab linear, erect, obtuse, concave, bent, 
back, awned below the tip ; stamina are sixteen filaments, equal, ascending, length- 
of the corolla, awl-shaped, erect, with simple anthers ; the pistil has a roundish 
germ, style length of tlie stamens, stigma bifid, acute; the pericarp a globular/ 
capsule, fenced on every .side with hooked prickles, four-celled; seeds two, con-* 
*vejic.on one. side, .angular on the other. One species is a native of Jamaica. 

SEMITRILOBA« fiALF-TfiRE£-LOB£0. 

A^imania lappacea znodora, jfolio stib'rotundo dmtaio^ Sloame, t. 1^ 
p. 21 1. Fillo$a^ foliis inferioribus angulato ovatis, serrate denta^^ 
its ; florihus ternatis ; Jasciculis g^minatis ; falizs sub^oppositis.-^ 
Browne, p. fJ33.. 
Wowcrs complete ; leaves half- three- lobed. 

This rises to four or five feet hida, , being divided into several smaller bnmches to— 
guards the top, which are beset wiui several leaves, without any order* They are ahnost 
round, rather club-shaped,.. though ^ Uttle pointed^ with two smuatioas, indented round 
the edges, woolly, of! a deep green colour above, and paler below,, having some emi- 
nent ribs going from the centre of the footstalk through the leaf. The flowers stand 
piXi the tops of the brandies in a. spike, are yellow, the petala long, like those of Eng-^ 
iish agrimony, only narrower. After these follow, on a crooked footstalk, several^. 
JEMra9m.rouniL burs^. thick set^with .hooked prickles^ , sticking to any; thingtr— ^^^^*^ 



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12a HORTUS JAM'AICENSrS. wit 

The anthers of the plant are always in the form of a heart, and the bTossoms, which 
generally grow in two distinct parcels near the alsB of the leaves, are sustained by a few 
narrow stipulae, that perform the office of an involucrum, and half the capsula is echi-- 
nated, the other smooth. The plant is conrnion io Jamaica, and rises frequently to the 
height of six or seven feet, where the soil is rich and well supplied witli moisture. — 
The leaves and tender buds, when infused for any time in water, yie(d a fine clear- mu* 
cilage ; from whence we may conclude it to be an excellent emoihent. The bark ia 
tough and strong, and series for ropes and other little conveniences, of that kind, among 
those who inhabit the iiyland parts of the country. — Browne. 



BUR-GRASS. CENCHRTJS. 

Cl. 2*3, OR. 1. — Poli/gaviiamonoecia. Nat. OR. — Gramina. 

Gen. char. — Calyx has. many involucres, laciniate, echinate, gathered into a head, 
each sessile, including three calyxes, biflorous ; perianth a bivaive glume, lance- 
olate, concave, acuminate, biflorous, shorter than the corolla ; corolla one male, 
the other hermaphrodite : stamens to each three capillaiy filaments, length of 
corolla, anthers sagittate ; the pistil has the germ in the hermaphrodite roundish, 
style filifonn, length of the stamens ; stigmas two, oblong, hairy, spreading,; 
there is no pericarp ;. the seed, is roundisa. Four species are natives of this 
island. ^ 

1. ECHINATUSr. HEDGE-HOGGED. 

*Gr amen' echinatum Tnaximum spica rubra vel alba* Sloane, v, I, p' 
108. Spica oblonga simphci echinata. Browne, p> 367. 

Spike oblong, conglomerate^ 

'This grass has several two or three inch long thready roots, sending out several inch 
And a half long leaves, of a yellowish green colour, from the middle of which rise se- 
veral six inches long stalks, jointed ; the joints are three-quarters of an inch distant 
from each other, at which are now and then branches which are crooked, having leaves, 
and at the top an inch and a half long spike of little burs, or large round prickly seeds, 
sometimes reddish and sometimes green ; the prickles being long, strong, ana sharp^ 
standing on every jside, having mthin them some oblong, large, flat,, whitish seeds. — 
Of this there are of various sizes. From the- roots go sometimes reddish jointed 
branches, on which grow tufts of smaller leaves, making the grass creeping. It is 
troublesome to travellers on foot, these small burs or echinated seeds, sticking close ta 
their garments and stockings. — Sloane. 

The cenchncsj with a simple oblong panicle, and multiparted cups, is one of the 
most common sorts of grass in the open pastures of Jamaica, and is looked upon both, 
as a wholesome and pleasant food for all sorts of cattle. — BrowJie, 

.2. TRIBULOIDES, TRIBULUS-UKE. 

Gramen mariiimum echinatum procumbens ctclmo lor^wri et spicit 
strigosioribus. Sloane, v. 1, p. 108, t 65, f. 1. 

Spike glomerate ; female glumes globular, muricate-spiny, hirsute.. 

Thk 



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«rTroN IipRTUS JAMAICENSIS, 127 

This hks afibroiis r6ot, which sends out many trailing, round, yellowish culms, about 
a foot and a half long, the joints an inch and a half distant, at each of which is a leaf, 
sheathing the internodes, two or three inches long, green-coloured, and harsh like 
those of the career. At tlie top stands an inch and a half long spike, set round with 
small bursy- at intervals, having on every side strons^ sharp prickles, being first green 
then of a Straw-colour. It grew at Gun Cayos, off Port Koyal harbour. — Sloane, 

3. GRANULARIS. ORAINKD. 

Gramen cyperoides poJystachion^ spicis ad nodos ex utricuUs seu/olio' 
rmn all's echinatis prodeuntibus, Sloane, v. 1, p. 120, t. 80. 

Racemes double ; fruits globular, wrinkle-netted* 

This is the manisuris granular is of Swarte,. who gives its specific character, as fol- 
lows : Spikes lateral, outer-valves orbicular^, with callous dots ; sheaths hairy ; culm 
«rect. 

It has several two or three inches long strings as roots, from whence rises a jointed 
stalk, three or four inches high, solid, triangular, or flat on one side and round on the 
t)ther. That part of the leafsheathing the internodes is rough or priekly, the Other 
part harsh, grassy, with a sharp back like the c>'perus grasses, andabout half an inch 
l)road, next the culm, where broadest... Towards the top, the leaves, which ape always 
-at the jofats, are shorter and more swelled, having a row of prickles oa the back. Out 
of the alae rise branches below and snuiU footstalks above, sustaining one, two, three, 
or four inches and a half long, green spikes, made up of small seeds, standing each 
•^ove a very small, scarce discertiible leaf. — Sloane. 

A< SETOSUS. BRISTLY., 

Spike linear-oblong-; involucres bristly; bristles unarmed, the interior ones 
villose at the base ; .hairs ciliate ; glumes even. — Sw. Pr. 26. 

Burn Weed — See Thorn Apple,. 
Button Tree — See ALder Tree* 



BUTTON WEED. SPERMACOCE. 

Cl. 4, OR. 1. — Tetrandria monogynia. Nat. or. — .Stellata. 
This IS so named frbm two Greek words signifying a sharp pointed seed, these plants 
SLaving prickly seeds. 

Gen. char. — Calyx a small four-toothed perianth, superior, permanent ; corolla, 
one.petalled, funnel-shaped, border four-parted ; stamens awl -shaped, shorter 
than the corolla ; anthers simple ; the pistil haa a roundish germ, simple ^\e^ 
but cloAren above, stigmas obtuse ; the pericarp is.two capsules, connate, oblong, 
gibbous on one side, flat on the other, obtuse ; each two-boraed ; seeds solitary^ 
oeojuodish. Five species are natives of this island. 

I. TBNUIOR. SLENDER. 

^ScandefiSj Joliis ohhngis venis arcuatis refertis, Jhrihut pauctoribus 
jcmuf(fi(Uis ad€Uas. Browney p. 141. 

Smooth 



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121 HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. ' BOTTO# 

Smooth, leaves lanceolate ; stamens included ^ flowers \i^orIed ; seeds rbugh^ 
haired. 
This plant has been called iron grass, and is found according to Browne only in the 
woods, where it grows, sometimes upright and sometimes as a climber, and is therefore 
called climbing spermacoce. When erect it rises to the height of two or three feet, but 
climbing to double or triple that length. The root is perennial, a foot in length, 
shooting perpendicularly into the eartn and lightly marked with transverse rugai, and 
of an acrid nauseous'taste. It throws up divers jointed, slender, quadrigonal stems, 
with marginated or foliated angles, cliuibin^ on neighbouring plants or creeping on 
the ground. It has a brown bark, and the branches come out by pairs. The leaves 
are placed at the joints in opposition, from one to two or three inches in length, and 
about a quarter of an inch oroad ; their margins are furnished with minute spinous 
denticles, better known by handling than by the eye, they are furnished with eminent 
arcuated side veins, and are of a stiff brittle substance, rugged and hard, having'no pe? 
dicel, but embrace the stems with broad ciliated bases. Between these larger leaves 
come three or four smaller ones, standing in whorls round the stalks. The flowers 
^ow in slender whorls towards the top of the stalks, round, white, and sessile, having 
B whorl of leaves close under them ; succeeded by two oblong seeds, having sman 
horns, and ripening in the calyx. The flowers are placed singly, at the alee of ti«5 
leaves, when it creeps along the sea beech, 

^. VERTICILLATUS. "VERTICILLATE. 

Pulegtum f)ntticosum erectum verticiUis densissimis. Sloane, v. \^ 
p. 170. FrnticiUosa atque ramosa, foliis linearibus^ flovibus con^ 
stipatis dd alas supremas. Brow»e, p. 141. . 

Smooth, leaves lanceolate ; whorls globular. 
Stem shrubby, square, three or four ^'eet high ; branches opposite, decussated^ 
fastigiate, four-cornered. Leaves opposite, decussated, lanceolate-linear, with & 
middle nerve, entire, even on both sides ; branchlets axillary, length of the leaves, 
-opposite ; stipules connate, membranaceous, with whitish bristles ; whorls of flowers 
embracing, round the joints^ small, white, clust;ered very close together in globular 
heads. Calyx superior, minute, with two teeth, or three or four ; tube of the corolla 
very shori^ four-cornered ; border four-cleft, erect, minute ; filaments standing out, 
fastened to the middle of the tube ; anthers incumbent, whitish ; germ ovate, ancipi- 
tal ; style short, emargioabe at top or sub-bi&d ; seeds naked, compressed, bipartite, 
crowned, smooth, black, having a small furrow on one side. This plant grows very 
commonly in all the low and hign lands of Jamaica, and in the driest soils. It bearsu^ 
its flowers at the upper joints of the branches. 

3. HIRTA. flQUOH-HAlRBD. 

EYecta sttb-'h, rsuiOy foliis oblongis venis arcuattsrefertisy-supfrfortbus 
majoribus appropinquatisy Jtorihus constipatis ad alas. Browne^ 
|>. 141. 

Rugged branched; leaves ovate-ianceolate; flowers clustered, axillary^; sta- 
. mens standing out. 

Stem herbaceous, fccto one to twafeet high, four-cornered, strff, striated ; branches - 
erect, four^ornered, xvitb the angles i^agk^baired ; kavess|ib«s6ssile, entire, nerved, 

jrough^ 



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^mmn HORTUS JAMAICENSia «5» 

vough-haired ; stipules connate, membranaceous, bristly at the edge. Flowers sessile^ 
$mMf white ; calyx four- toothed, very short •, tube of the ccroUa round, funnel-shaped, 
border foiar-parted, reflexed ; fiiaments standing out, anthers blue; germ hisped; 
style length of s^tanaens, bifid at top ; stigmas blue, reikxed ; seeds two, covered and 
united by a skin, crowned with the teeth of the calyx, rough-haired ; whep stripped 
ofthedun, black aad snoooth^ — Sy^. 

This is common about all the fields ii\ Liguanea ; it seldom rises above twelve or 
fourteen inches, an<J is easily knowa by its oblong leaves and arched veins ; it is very 
mke the worm grass at first appearance, but the stalk of this i& quadrangular^ and hoi* 
^w, that of the other rauudishL and smooth. — Brovmc. 

4. ViLLOSA* HAIRY^ 

Villose, simple, leaves ovate*lanceoIate^ pubescent, the uppermost in fours ; 
flowers in wbork ; stamens included. 
This species is distinguished firom the hirta by its more simple .stem ; oblong leaves^ 
'Ae uppermost in fours ; its villosity ; the whorU of the towers, -and shorter stamens 
nnthia ithe tbroat of the corolla* They are both annuals. — &»- 

5. SPINOSA, SPINED, 

patisadalas. Browne, p. 140« 
ShiRruticose, leaves linear^ciliate^ with spinulea, 

Stem herbaceous, almost simple, subdivided at the bi»e, hard, leafy, four-cornered, 
-mugged, a foot high. Leaves opposite and decussated, sub-sessile, laitceolate-linear, 
acuminate, nerveless (except the middle) ; nerves and margins tooth-letted backwards, 
and somewhat spinulose. Flowers in a sort of globular aarillary whorl, involucred with 
the stipules, clustered, white; stipules membramaceous, bristly at the edsre-, rigid ^ 
calyx two or four toothed ; teeth linear, longer than the corolla; tube short, border 
^four-cleft, with ovate segments j; vfilamenta included ; anthers whitiah 9 style bifid } 
«tigmas erectj included. — Sti^* 

Browne says this plant b common in all the savannas about Kingston, it ri^s gene^ 
Tally by a simple upright stalk to the height of fourteen or sixteen inches, having from 
q>^e to space, lanceolate, opposite, embracing leaves. Flowers numerous, w lite^ 
gathered into compact axillary headsi that grow gradoaUy larger and more diatiaet a| 
«s they dr^ nearer to the t(^« 



« VABBAGJS^ 



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l»- HOI^TUS JA>fArCKNr^rS. CMUkC^; 

CABB'^GE. BUASSICA. ' 

Ci.. 15, on. c, — Tetradijjiamia siUijuosa. Nat. OR. — Cruclfc7^. 

This j^eneiic name i$ supposerl to be derived from .a Greek word, siguifving a gar- , 
den herb. ' ^ 

Gen. CHAR. — Calj^ a four-leaved, erect, .converging perianth; Ci)rolla tetrapetal- - 
oiis, criKitbrm ; nccUireous <;lauds four, ovate, of vviiich one ou each side between . 
the shorter stamen and the pisul, aixl one on each side between the longer stamens 
and the calyx; fdaments subulate,, erect ; anthers erect,. ac u ui i nate ; the pistil 
b:is a columnar ^erm, the lejigth of the stamens ; and a short style the thickness 
of the germ; stigma capitate, entire; the pericarp is a long siiique, fjatted on, 
both sides; partition with a proimneut columnar top, tvvQ-celled, two-v«dved }^ . 
valyes shorter tl^au t|ie partition^ 

OLERACEA; PpT-HERB, 

Root caulescent, columnar, fleshy. 

This is the common ct^bage^ so well known in its description and cnkivation. Be* 
sides which several other species and varieties have been introduced into this island, 
and all thrive remarkably well ; growing in new and rich land to as large a size or even .. 
kirger, and wiMi a«5 compact -and firm heads as in their native soil ; ancK from the nature - 
of tlie climate, they have a much mellower apd sweetertaste tlian in Europe. 

All the species of cabbage are. supposed- ta ba hard of digestion, to afford litfle nou- 
rishment, and to produce flatulencies., They tend strongly to putrefaction, and ruu . 
into this state sooner than almost any other .vegetable ; when putrefied, their smell i%, 
Kkewise the most offensive, greatly resembling that of pqtrefied smimal substances. AL* 
^co<;tion of th^m is said to loosen the belly. 

See Turnip. 



CABBAGE BARK TREE. GEOFFROYA. 

Cl. 17, OR. 4. — Diadelphia decandria. NaT. or. — JPapilionaceit. 

This was so named by J^cq^in, .in hoaour of. A|* GeoflOroy, author of a Materia Me« 
iiica,..who die4 iiL 17SJU . 

Cen. char. — Calyx a one-leafed, bell-shaped, half five-cleft, coloured, periafi* 
thium ; the two' upper divisions diverging, spreading ; corolla papilionaceous^ 
banner roundish, emarginate, flat, reflex ; winp the same length with the banner^ 
blunt,' concave; keel compfessed, the same length and figure with the wings ; 
stamens diadelphous. (simple and nine^ cleft), the length- of the keel, anthers 
roundish ; the pistiU\;ioi has a roundish^erm ; style subulate ; stigma obtuse ; the 
t pericarpium is a large^ovate drupe, witt a longitudinal groove on each side ; the 
seed a sub-ovate nut, woody, rather flatted, with a longitudinal groove on each 
side, acute, twt)-valTedL^ TJiiere are two species, one en which is a natire of Ja« 



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HORTUS JAMAICENSIS^ ^ Kt 

INRRMia. UNARMED. 

Foliis johtongis^ obovatis nitidis finnatis^ cortice glabra ctnereo,-^' 
Browne, p. 367. 
Without thorns ; leaflets lanceolate. ' 

TTiis tree (which is caJied sometimes the bilgt -water tree^ from its disagreeable smell)^ 
rises to a considerable height^ and towards the top sends off several branches ; the ex- 
ternal bark is smooth and s^^y, internally it is black and furrowed ; the leaves are pin- 
nate ; leaflets ttpposite, oblong-ovate, or lanceolate, acuminate, smooth al)o\'e. nei've- 
Jtss beneath, on short petioles ; flowers in clusters upon large branched spikes ; calyx 
very slightly five- parted, with short ovate divisions ; con>l I a pale rose-colour ; keel of 
the corolla ovate» spreading, very slightly divided into two parts ; the fruit a large 
fub-ovate drupe, inclosing a wooviv nut. Tlie wood of this tree is hard arid durable, 
diid takes a ffood polish ; but it is cluefly remarkable on account of the quality of its 
• l^rk, which has been fouiivl to be an excellent vermifuge. It was first noticed to have 
this qualit)r by Mr. Peter Duguid; but the tree and its virtues have been best descnl)ed 
by Dr. Wright. This'hark has a sweetish mucilaginous taste, and a disagreeable smell. 
3t is given incases of worms in form of powder, (lecortion, »>>'°Pi ^i"^^ extract. The 
^iecoction is prepared by boiling one and a half ounces of tne,bark in a quart of water 
till it acquires'the colour of Madeira wine; and the dose from two tabie-spoonfuis to 
four, for three mornings, then a dose of oil. In pow Icr fifteen grains, with as much 
jalap, ia a good pujge. "It commonly prodncejj some sickness and violent ettects, as 
vomitinof, delirium, and fever. These are said to be owing to over-doses, or to-dnnk- 
ijng cola water ; it should therefore alwavs be begun in smjxll doses. When vomiting 
and a burning beat of the stomach take place the cure is eHFected by chamoinde tea, or 
vby salt of tartar or of wormwood take'% ifi hme juic^, and swallowed while in efferve- 
ac^ce. If these do not stop the vomiting speeJily, clysters in addition seldom fail to 
have thedesired effect* The nmnner of preparing and exhibiting this medicine are 
stated as follows by Dr. Wright?:— 

** The decoction. Take firesh-dried or well-preserved cabbage bark, ^ne ounce.— 
Boil it in a qjiart of water, over a slow fire, till the water is of an amber colour, or rattier 
of deep coloured Madeira wine ; strain it off, sweeten it with sugar, and let it be used 
immediately, as- it does not keep many days. 

** SjTup of cabbaee-bark. To any quantity of the above decoction add a double 
portion of^sugar, ana make a syrup. This will retain its virtues for years. 

^** The extractof cibbage-barkis made by evaporating the strong decoction in balneo 
waricc to the proper^consistence ; it nmst be continually stirred, as otherwise the resin- 
ous part rises to the top, and on this probably its efficacy depends 

*^ The powder ofwellr-dried bark is easily made, and looks like jalap, though not of 
'■equal speeific gitivity. 

^^ Tms-b^k, 'like moitdther powerful anthelmintics, has a narcotic effect ; and on 
^ this account it is always proper to begin with small doses, which may be gradually in- 
creased tilla nausea is excited, wh^n the dose for that patient is ascertained. But by 
frequent use -we can in common determine -the dose, though we chusc to err rather on 
the safe side. 

** A strong healthy grown 4>er8on may, at first, take four table spoonfuls of the de- 
coction or syrup, three grains of the extract, or thirty grains of the powder for a dose. 
*' A youth, three table spoonfuls of the decoctioa or syrup^ two grains of extract^ 
or twe^w graim of powder. 

B2 ^«A 



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!» HGRTUS JAMArlCENSrS^ iMWMmr 

*^ A person of ten years of age, two table spoonfiris of the decoctiottt^r syrup, one 
gr;iin and a half of extract^ or fifteen grains of the powder. 

** Children of tvvo or three years old^.n ti^ble spoontui.of the decoction or syrup, one 
grain o( extract,, or ten |j rains of the powder.. Children of u yeai: old,.iiaJf the quantity, 

" These way bemcreased, as above observed,, till a. naus^.iii excited,, which wilL 
depend on the streqgth, sex,, and habitof body of the patient.. 

" Care must be taken that cold water be not djcaok duiing the operation of this me-v 
dicine, as it is in this case apt to occasioiv sickness,, vomiting, fever, aiid delirium.*-— 
"When this liappens,. or wherKan overiarge dose has been^iven, the stomach must be 
washed with warm water: the patient mustspeedily be purged with castor- oil, and use* 
plenty of lime-juice beverage for common drink ^ vegetable acid beinga powerful an- 
tidote in tliis case, as well as in.an over dose of.opiunk 

** The decoctioivis what, is mostly given here, and seldom . foils to perform every., 
thing that can be expected from an anthelmintic medicine, by destroying worms in the 
intestines,, and. bringing, them away in great quantities. By frequent use, however,., 
these animals become familiarized,, and we fuiditjiecessary to intermit it, or have re- 
oourse to otliers of inferior merit.. 

<* The writers of the Edinburgh Medical Commentaries take notice, that the decoc- - 
tion of cabbage-bark jUways excites vomiting. We find no such effect from it here^ 
Vid may account for it by their receiving it in a mouldy state. A syrup, therefore, is 
given there with better effccti Xhey.ohserve also, that it lias a. diuretic virtue,. which we - 
nave not taken.notice of here. . 

" This bark purges pretty bri^kly-^ especially in powder, ihirty or forty grains work-^ - 
ing as well as jalap by stool ;, httt in this way it does not seem, to Jull worms so well as ia ; 
decoction,. 

^^ Five grain6 of the extract made a strong ntan «ick,. .ai^d ]purged him several times^ 
but, by frequent use, he took ten grains to produce at length the same effect. 

" It mustnot be concealed that fatal accidents have happened from the imprudent 
administration of this bark, chiefly fcom^over-dosing the medicine.- But this cannot 
detract from the merit, of .the cabbage-bark, since the best medicines, when abused, .. 
become deleterious ; and even our best aliments, in too great quantity, prove destruc- . 
tive. Upon the whole, the cabbagerbark is a most yaluaplQ remedy, and I hope will^ . 
l>ecome an.addition to the riw/^riit^ w^i/ictf.'*^^ 

The following .mode» of preparing -and using thiinseCul vermifuge have also been ^ 
^recommended :t— Take four ounces of the green bark, scrape off the outer rind, bruise,* 
and put in two quarts of water ; boil them to the consumption of jone hajf the water,, 
and to the strained liqnor add a httle sugar ^ a wine glass full of this, every morning is 
suificient for.a grown person taken for three jar four days. . A dose, of one and a half, 
ounce of castor oil should be given iifterwards,. X)ne tea-spoonful may be given to a* 
ohild of twelve months old. It sometimes brings en. nausea and Tamiting, when the 
dose shoiUd be lessened. A fresh decootion ahould be made every morning, or the old.- 
coie made to boil before using, , as it . is very disagreeable after being; keprt over-night. 
These directions were given by^he late DnAffleck, who adds that it is a moj^t excellent 
^aedicine for destroying:^wornM;, .^ and tlie most effectual yet known; that it. frequently 
happens that no worms appear, .but seldom ^uls -to femora the sy-mptoms, and shouli^ . 
h^ given to children every four o)*^x weeks. . 

^^other models to dry the bark^ braiise it ia^inortar^ put waiter to i^ ^^ ^^ mstil 



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AnBAOt' H'ORTUS JA.MAICENSISJ kV 

it attains the colour oT Madeira wine. ^Vhen this is settled, take such part of It as is 
dear, and let it cool, and add to it one third its quantity of rum. Put the vessePcon- 
tainitig the mixture into cool water, and, when used, it may he sweetened. The dose, 
to be given for three mornings in succession, and afterwards a dose of castor oil, is as 
follows : To a ctiild of eiglit or ten months old, a tea-spoonful ; of two years, two tea- 
spoonfub; of six years, one and a half table spoonful ; of twelve years, half a wine- 
glass ; a full grown person, a wine-glass full. A decoction of the bark made very 
^rong, and given to a horse or mule to the quantity of a pint at a time, and repeated 
occasionally^ cures them of bots and worms* 



CABBAGE tree; ARECA. 

.Cl, fi5, OR. !• — Monoecia enneandrm' Kat. or. — Palmie. 

OteN. CHAR. — Male flower— ©alyx a bivalve spathe ; spadix branched ; proper peri- 
anth three-leaved ; corolla three acuminate ingid petals; the stamina nine fila- 
ments, the three oirter longer than the rest : Female flowers, in the same spadix. 
Calyx a spathe common with the males ; proper perianth three-leaved; corolla 
three acuminate rigid petals; pericarp a sub-ovate berry, fibrose, surrounded at 
thct bti^e .with the imbricate calyx ; aeed o'v-ate. 

OLERACEA.v POT- HEM* . 

Pitlma aliissima non spmosa^ fmciu prunifomu, minertf rMcemosa^ 
sparse. Sloane, v, 2, p;.115, t. 215, Pinnis in/erne taginanti* 
bus J caudicc iepudi armulato^ /)*uciu minor L JBrowne^ p. 343. 
Xteiliets quite entire. . 

The true cabbage-palm is the most beautiful, and perhaps the tallest of all trees.-— 
Tbe trunk is perfectly straight, and marked with rings at the vestigiae of the footstalk* 
of the leaves. Near the ground it is often seven feet in circunrference, but tapers ag 
it.ascends, and attains the height of one hundred and seventy or two hundred fee t.*« 
The bark is of an asb-colour till within twenty or thirty feet of the extremity of the 
tiree ; when it alters at.once to a deep sea green, which continues to the top. About 
five feet from the beginning of the gteen part upwards, the trunk is surrounded with 
its branches in a circular manner ; ^1 the lowermost spreading horizontally with great 
jregularity ; and the extremities oif many of the higlier branches bend waveuigly down- 
■wards, like plumes of feathers. These branches when full grown, are twenty feet long 
more or less; and are thickly set on the, trunk alternately, rising gradually superior to 
t}ne another : Theic broad curved sockets so aunround the trunk, Uiat the sight of it» 
v^hile among them is lost, which again appears among the very uppermost branches^ 
and is there enveloped in an upright, ereen conic spire, whicn beautifully terminates 
its great height| and which soon unfold itself into a new branch. The above men- 
tioned branches are somewhat round underodLth, and slightly grooved on the upper 
side : They are likewise decorated with green pinnated ieaves, from eighty to one 
hundred and twenty each side ; some of these are tiear three feet long, and an inch 
and a half broad, growing narrower towatds their points, as well as gradually decreas- 
ing in length towards the extremilies of the branches. As there are many thousand 
hims tipoii one trect every branch bearing many scores of them,, and every leaf beuig 

.«et 



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IH, HOKTUS JAMAICENSIS. cabba« 

set at a small. and equal distance from one another, the beauty of such a regular lofty 
groupe of waving foliage, susceptible of motion by the most gentle gale of wind, is not 
to be described. Th6 old or bottom brandies witlier and drop off vy^ile new ones shoot 
at top, and there are generally from eight to ten branches on the tree. The middle rib in 
each leaf is stronor and prominent, supportmg it on the under side, the upper appeal^- 
ipg snjooth and shining. The pithy part of the leaf being scraped off, the inside tex- 
ture appeals tp be so many longitudinal thread-like filaments. These spun in the same 
manner as hemp or flax make good cordage, as well as fishing nets. 

Upon removmg the large green bark imtnediately under the branches, what is called 
the cabbage is discovered lying in many thin, snow-white, brittle, flakes, iit taste re- 
sembling an almond, ^but sweeter. Wii^t is called the cabbage flower, grows from that 
part of tiie tree where the ash-coloured trunk joins the green part. Its first appear- 
ance is a green husky spaJtiia, growing to above -twenty inches lon^ and about four 
broad; tl:ie inside bemff full of small white stringy filaments, full of alternate protu- 
berant knobs, the smallest of these resembhng a Iringe of coarse white threid knotted : 
these are very numerous, and take their rise from smaller footstalks ; and these* tbot- 
stalks are likewise all united to dift'erent parts of the large parent stalk of all. As this 
husky spatlia is opened while thus young, the farinaceous yeilowseed io embryo, re- 
sembling fine saw-dust, is very -plentifully, dispersed among these stringy filaments, 
which answer the use of apiees m-other moreregular Sowers. 

Tiie cabbage tree grows very plentifully in many parts^ of Janiaica, and in a fayojira* 
fcle situation tiirowaoutoae of its circular rings on its stem monthly, or about thirteen 
in one year, which makes its growth during that period full forty inches. »This ob- 
servation was made on a young tree for three years running, in which time it grew fuU 
ten feet,. being then about thirty feet high from the ground to the branches. 

I>r. rSiidttL, in hi$^ Introduction to Botany, observes, that in the palm trees of hot 
countries the sap is said to flow from a wound at any time of the year. Tnis is not tluj 
case, at least in the cabbage tree, the coco-nut tree, or the prickly pole, the bark of all 
whicii is* thin and contains little or no sap, and the wood hard and dry, yielding no per- . 
ceptible m.)isture on being wounded. 

Ttie cabbage trees are said to abound' in the morasses towards NegrilBay, where 
they grow to die height of one hundred and^fifty or one hundred and sixty feet. 

One wjuld iinagine that a tree of such vast height and slender, with its midcUe part 
so hollow and pithy, would easily be blown down, which is rarely known to happen, 
even in the greatest hurricanes. During these they have been observed violently agi- 
tated to an J fro, and their tops almost touching the ground, notwithstanding which 
they reeovered their erect posiure without breaking, a j)lain proof how tough and 
, strong the v\ halebone-like fibres of this tree are. 

Barbadoes cabbage tree^ Jamaica cabbage tree^ or mountain cabbage^ these trees, 
Bays Long, are, in fact, I believe, the same species ; and the difference between them 
in respect to their figure seems to be owing entirely to the situation in which they 
grow, whether in open ground, or in the midst of woods. In theformer case notliing 
hinders them from assuming that graceful form peculiar to their nature ; in the latter, 
being inclosed on all sides with other lofi:y trees, they rise spindling a;id often crooked ; 
and seem to be confined in their growth to a continual ascent, preserving an uniformity 
of bulk in the shaft from the root upwards^ until they have overtopped the whole 
JHrood 

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HORTUS JAMAICEN^IK HSb 



The Barfffrdorscabhaee, which is planted, here for ornament, is onenf tlic most 
beautiful trees irt the world. No liudts set' m to be set either to its age or ascent. Li - 
goo mentions some at the first soitlement of Barbadoes above two hundre<l feet in 
height ; and Ray s^uks of another of two hundred and seventy feet or thereabouts.— 
One hundred fe^t is a comm/>n height. It is propaoated from the seeds. Tlie up;)er 
])art of the trunk, from whence the foliage sprinirs, re.sembies a weil-tunied, finelv 
polished baluster, of a hveiy ^reeu colour, 'gentiy iiwellinpr iVom its peue>tal, and (.h- 
minishing gradually to the tup, wln-re it expands into the bn.nches, elei;antiy arranp:ed, 
and'wavcin^ like plumes of ostrich feathers. From the cc.itroof tlie s\3iBAnit rises die 
spatha or sheath, terminaiing in an acute point. The trunk itself is not le^s graceful, 
being a straight, smooth, slightly annulated column, large at the base, and topering 
from thence to 4he insertion oft the baluster or cabbage. This tree is so- rriucli rever- 
eticed for it^^nai^tic form^ that-it is not destroyed like the othens, foy the sake of the 
cabbage.* The^ Jamaica mouti^aiH cabbage i^cutfot* this jiurpose ; and the cabbage, 
stripped of-its outer greeft aat^ appeafti pertectly white; cylindrical, and formed of 
several concef>trifciffW?f/2/^, The inner tunicies are sliced, and either eaten raw, with 
onions, pepper, ^nd vinegar, or lK)iled and served up with butter ; in which way, 
it most resembles the European <»bbage iailavaur; or conveited into a pickle, in 
which state it b-^Dt^to^Gr^al Britain. - 

The ontward texture of the trunkof these trees is used for laths, and other purptisas. . 
The spaUwe-tfrd nwide <nto' mats by. the negroes. The leaf is composed of longitudinal 
filameiiiA, or :riii«ad -like fibres, which, t«iug properly separated, are spun lil^ hemp^ ^ 
and ftm«e<t iMQ4**Vn*And cord**?©* •. 

Th^ tunides tire CTttremely thin, and thay easily be exfoliated and dried ; after bein^ 
•prepared it» this mannef. ihey may be wrote upon with a metallic pencil or stylus ; and 
wULnetam the<?bai!a«tert so king as the substance lasts, which may be as long as vellum,, 
if K5are is tnken to keep>il*dry ; <:rt this property it seems to resemble the papyrus o( 
the ancients.* ^hebest^aibto^ id dbt^ned from this treewb^n/ it is young,, and not 
above fifteen or sixteeft feelia heigtuui From the real summit x>f the stem spring two 
brSmches full of irtiall flowers*; these arfe -followed by small^ound berries, aboat the size 
of a hazel-nut^ whith Tare devoured by the birds, who mute the stone or seed, by whichf 
means there is a oontinual nursety of these trees, which otherwise would soon be ex- 
tirpated ; for whenever they are- cut down,- na fresh shoot arises again frotn the root,* 
and whenever robbed of their top or cabbage, theyeease from '^rowing. The extern^ 
root of the trtmk is iim>efietrable to a mtraquet baiK, though it isscarcely an inch thick. 
The Spaniards kt)9Swl'lio have cased their ouildsngs in^ie coimtry parts witii this co-* 
Tering, fWhidi nnade l^em defensible against enemies,., and equally proof against the 
assaults t>f earthquakes imdimrrieanesv < Within this hard integuoient is a* pithy, fari- 
lUM^eous ^ubfttance,' similar to some other of the palm kindi . 

Dampier,. speaking»of tlie trees, growing in the island Mindanao^ one of the Philipiii 
^nes, mentions a species called by the nadves the //^^yji This tree is not unlike tba 
«^bage, the bark and wood hard, and inclosing a white pith. They cut down the tree,» 
And,'SpUltingit in die middle, takeout the pith} Jfhicb they l>eat well in a roortar; 
then putTtiatomsifieventtde fronitthe«Laie tDce, ami,, pouring water vt^on it, stir itr 
ftbout, tild^ the wetter carries ttomea&y part through, into a trough plaoed undameath^ 
After it has stood* until it has settled, they pour off the water,^ and, taking outthe «edi« 
aoent,^ and di^g it, bake it into cakes ; this meal the^ ca^l sago or sagu, . vAnch is ex-« - 
fqf^^pA^ {iaKts.o£ the worU, driedin.smaU {pcaini^ Uke jcon^ts*. la Java, it i* 

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n« HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. cxbbm* 

called huhtm^ and, according to Linnopiis, is made of tlic pith of t^c cyan eircinafis^ 
In tlic Moluccas the tree U called laudoriy thepith of which fiirnislies them with this 
?oit meal for breed, as the leaves ser%*e tlieni for the covering of their houses ; and the 
larger veins for rafters, as the lesser make good cordage ; while th*e leaves are young, 
they are covered with a kind of woolly sutetance> which affords materials for stuffs.-— 
iWiS resemble the cocoa trees. 

. from these descriptions there is reason to believe that tlie-sagp tree is of the palm 
kind, as it hears affinity to those of the \V<?5t Indies in most respects. ' The -ingenious 
Mr. Robinson, whom I have before mentioned, v\as of this opinion, and resotved to 
make some experiments upon this ground. He took ttie pith of the mountain cabbage, 
caused it to be pounded, and the mealy part pa/Rsed with water through a coarse clotb 
laid in a sieve.* The experiment succeeded to his wish ; he obtained a fine white meal 
in large quantity, wiuch, in the judgment of many persons who tasted it, surpassed hi 
goodness what was imported. It was in the form of an impalpable pow^ler, arid in this 
state boiled to a thickness mncb sooner than the cotmiion sago. Thai which comes 
from the East Indies is probably gmnulated by means of some gum intermixed with it ; 
and the art of bringing it into a granulated form is all that remains for perfecting the 
Jamaica manufacture ; for Mr, Robinson doubted, whether in powder it might keep so 
long as in the granulated ibr», but there is no ceruinty that it would jaot. — Long^ jt?. 74*, 

The following account of the method of procuring sago from the pith of the moun j 
tain cabbage, alluded to by Mr* Long, is from the manuscript of Mr. Robinson : : 

" On the 7th of F* bruary, 1763, I was at an estate of Matthew Walien, Esq. callc4 
* Chiswick, in the parish of 8t. Thomas in the East, when I went down into the morass 
and ordered a n ountain cabbace to be cut down, which seemed, about twenty-five fee% 
in length, and very ihick. I found the pith of this tree very light aod spongy, inter* 
mixed with many longitudinal ligneous fthres. On tastipg, it^appeared muciU^kiousj 
wih some slight piquancy, not disagreeable. The tree beiu^ out into junks, whicS 
were split an I the pith taken out, agreeable to Dampier*s:method, some of it wus weii 
beaten in a woolen mortar, which being pat into an old oznaburg towel, hdd over ^ 
pail, I pourevi some water over it, and, being well stirred abomt, to jnis it with the 
pith, soon felt pulpv and soft. 1 then strained it witb the assistance ^another person, 
by twisting tlie cloth hard with our hands- After this we continiied l)eating and strain- 
ing the pith till we ha 1 g<n a large punch bowl fuH «f the liquoe, which was set by h^ 
settle till next morning. This liquor tasted much like «ew com-'water^ for it was sweet, 
and thickened like light pap, but had a rawness in it. la the mortting] poured off the 
water* which still retained its sweetness, but somewhat thinner io its consistence. In 
the bottom of the bowl I found a small quantity of an impaJpaUe ash-coloured farinn 
deposited; this f poured into two or three soup platies, and placed them in the 
sun for evaporation ; which completed, 9 obtaified half « pound of a fine impalpable 
ash-coloured farina or meal ; a little gf.which fo^og boiled, presently came to thecoof 
sistence of pap or sago, with an aecreeable taste. A few ckys a&erl went to see my 
in uch esteemed friend^ J^per Hall, Esq. who ordered anothert»bba^-tree to.be cu> 
down. The negro wfaq felled it, after cutting ititttoi/i-utik&slad stripping the oeritioal 
part off, brougl^.the pith home ; which was white and fair like the bst, b«iit ponderoui 
and sappy, and it appeared, by manyxircumstances, to come from a much smaUer and 
younger tree. On seeins^ it, I concluded we should obtain a much. greaiserxiaaotity dC 
jago uaaicom the last^ but i^this I Wtfirristaken* ileve jvb hadihe adsaakage of a 

marble 



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«ICO0MS HORTUS JAMAICENSISr. 137 

narble mortar and pestle, with which we beat all the junks of pith out^ having first cut 
it into small pieces, with knives, which we did as easily as if thej had been turnips.— 
We squeezed thb pith twice over, that we might obtain the more. We had much more 
liquor than the last, and it seemed to be very much thickened with sago, but it differed 
nifch in taste, being sourish hke whey, without any of the sweetness of the last, and t 
thought it had a smsdl touch of bitterish. This having stood all night, on .being de-^ 
canted or poured carefully off the next morning, yielded not one grain of farina. 1 
ordered a little of the liquor to be boiled down, which upon tasting from time to tim^' 
I perceived increase in bitterness, and therefore ordered the liquor to be thrown away. 
On my retuminff to Chiswic, I was told that the water remaining, after being poured 
off the sago, had been boiled, according to my^ directions, till, at last, it became blacky 
l>itter, and pitchy. We had another c&bage*tree cut down, which I found was sappy 
.and heavy, and, by the size of the cabbage, judged it to be too young, but not so 
young as the last. The juice tasted sour hke the last, and yielded next morning a tri- 
fling quantity of sago. At Lon^lle park I tried the pith of the small thatch tree^ 
vdiich had a greater quantity of ligneous longitudinal fibres, and was of a brownish co- 
Jour. This being put in a towel, and water poured thereon, the meal or farina, which 
was free and unconnected, presently passed through the strainer. This I gave not 
time to settle, but directed the water to be evaporated from it over a slow fire ; but, in 
the end, it became bitter, black, and pitchy. Another cabbage-tree cut down, ap« 
peared to be pretty old, as I judged from the trunk. The fibres were reddish brown^ 
and all ligneous, with very little soft pith, which seemed to be in grains. * This was 
beaten well in a wooden mortar with a pestle of the same, and the liquor obtained from 
it was not ilUtasted, of a reddish hue, and, when strained and evaporated, produced 
a powder of the same colour. A little of this was boiled as sago with cinnamon, which^ 




quantity of sago it yielded, nor what quaUiy. Another cabbage-tree cut down spemed 
a very old one, l)eing little short of one hundred feet in length. Four junks firom the 
top were cutoff; the uppermost containing the most pith, white, and very light, but 
%the fibres ligneous : theother three junks continued to increase thence downward, in- 
creasing the rigiditjr of the fibres, but decreasing in quantity of pith. The colour too 
^edeafrom its^vhiteness toiaTeddish cast in fibres and pith.*^ 



.'Cacao— -fttf Chocolate Nut, 
Caccos — See Water Lily, 



TACOONS, OR MAFOOTOO WYTHE. MIMOSA. 

Cl. 23, OR. 1. — Polj/gamia monoecicu Nat. OR. — Lomentacecp. 

lliis was -so named by Tournefort from mimtis mutabittsj on account of the shifting 

or moving qualities of the leaves of many of the species. ' 

Gen. char. — Calyx a one-leafed perianth, five-toothed, very small ; corolla one 

p^al, funnel-form, half five-cleft, small ; the stamens are capillary filaments^ 

very long, with incumbent anthecs ; the pistil has an oblong germ ; filiform style 

T shorter 



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ihortcr than the stfetnens ; siigma truncated ; the- pericai-p is a long legume, witlt 
several transverse partitions ; seeds many, roundish, of various forms. Obs.— ^ 
ManifmaU fiawcr stall off^ some areffmaie others hermaphrodite in the different 
species of (h is genus, and no part of itsfnteti^ation, 19 constant. 

SCANDEN9. CUMBrNO: 

Pkaseolus maximus j>erennis^ folio deco)nppst!oy loho niaximo eoyitorfa^ 
Sl6ane, T. 1, p. 178. Gigaioviuiu. Scandois claiiculum ; foliis^ 
tipinnatis ovatis ; sitiqun maxima. Browne,, p. 362. 

Unarmed, leaves coryugate, terminated by a tendril ; leaflets two-paired. 

This is frequent in all. the upland vallies and woodlands on the North side of Jamaican- 
It climbs up the tallest trees^ aud spreads ilfelf in every direction by means of its cirrhi 
or claspers, so as to form a complete arbour,. and to cover the space of an English acre 
from one root. This circumstance has a bad eflfect onthe trees or bushes so shaded. — 
Light, air, and rain (so neeessary for all plants) beVng shutout, the leaves drop off, 
the tree gradually rots, and the hmbs fall down by the weight of 'this parasite. 

The roots of this plant run superficially under the ground or herbage.- The trunk is 
seldom thicker than. a man's thigh, and sends off many branches, with numerous shining 
green leaves, each o£ which terminates in a tendril or clasper, that serves to fasten it^ 
to trees or bushes. Pinnas four- paired, petioled, oblong, blunt at top, emarginate,* 
nerved, smooth on both sides, shining. Tendrils- long, upright, bifkl at tire end.— <. 
The flower spikes are from, the axillae : they are slender, and the florets on them smalt 
and numerous. Petals five, erects oblong, green ; filaments twenty tO' twenty-four, 
yellow, shorter than the cerolla,. and springing from its base ; anthers globulttr.- The 
pod is perbapathe largest and longest of any other in the world, being sometimes eight 
or niniB feet in lengthy five inches broad, jointed, and containing ten or fifteen seeds.- 
These seeds are brown, shining, flattened, v€»ry hard, and called cz/co^^* These are 
the same mentioned in the Philosophical Transactions, N** 222, p. 2$^, by Sir H. Sloane, 
as being thrown ashore on the Hebrides or Orkney's. This . happens in the following 
manner: The seeds, or beans fall into the rivers, and are conveyed to the sea. The 
trade winds. oany them westward till they, fall into the Gulf stream, which forces them 
northward along the coast of America, and the Bahama islands. As the winds blow fre« 

3uent and strong from America, these seeds are driven to the eastward, till at length 
ley are thrown ashore and left with the tide as aforesaid. 

This bean, after being long soaked in water, is boiled and eaten by some negroes ; 
but in general there seems to be no otheriwe^raade^of it thi^^as a sort of snuffbox. 

The following observations are from the manuscript of Mr. Anthony Robinson : — 
" In August, near Liguanea barracks. I examined the male blossoms of this enormous 
climber with a microscope. The antners were oblong and didymous, on thq upper 
ends >;\'a* placed one globose transparent gland ; the base of the pedicels is glandulous ;^ 
the gland of the corfmion pedicel, arcuated ; from each side of .its base, is produced a' 
slender linear stipule embracing the stem ; tlie base of the ffland, after running half^,an 
inch up the stem, joins the gland that supports the peduncle^ The peduncle is naked 
about one inch from the gland upwards ; at the* base of the spikfe we two or three smaif 
glands and smooth^ terminating in a subuiated.vstipoiie ; ana the spike itself is beset 
with a number of these stipules without glands. The leaves are bipinnated, consisting 
<^two pairs of wings placed. upon a common midrib, which teri^inates in two clavicles- 

Oft 



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.TORTUS JAMAICBMSia *i9 

or teBiirib* The fi^st^palr of the win^s is the least, and consist of four pair of lobesy 
hut the second or last are made up of hve. The lobes upon the first pair are le^s than 
those placed upon the second. I'he lo1>es are of a lunated form ; the first pair the least 
increasing to the la^t, which ia the largest and about two inches long, their margins re« 
pandous, theii: extremities emarginated. One side of the leaf runs further downward 
than the othec ; the lobes are smooth, shining, and of an elegant lively green on the 
dipper side, but of a whitish, greeh below, and not shining; The middle rib is promi- 
nent on both sides, but somewhat more beneath ; the side veins are delicate, parallel^ 
4Uid arched on the margins ; they are produced in no certain order, by pairs, or alter* 
jiate ; the lobes have the same virtue of collapsing together on a change of the atmos- 
2>here as otlier plants of this kind.^' 

^Sc£ Cashaw — East India Ebony — GtJM Arabic— Inga Tree — ^Nephritic •Tree, 
J:^opoNAX — Sensitive Plant — Wild Tamarind* 

CAtACICa— -See SPtJRGES* 



CALABASH TREE. CRESCENTIA. 

Cl. 14, OR. 2. — Didj/namia angiospennuL JtfAT. or. — Putaminece* 

8f his was named in honour of Pietro Crescendo, an Italian writer on agriculture. 

Gen. char.— Calyx a one-leafed perianth, two-parted, short, deciduous; divisions 
roundish, concave, obtuse, equal ; corolla one-petalled, unequal ; tube gibbous, 
crooked, tomlose ; border ^rect, five-cleft ; divisions uneoual, tooth-sinuated ; 
the stamina are four filaments, subulate, length of the corolla, spreading, two a 
little shorter ; anthers incumbent, obtuse, ^win ; the pistil has a pedicelled ovate 

ferm ; filiforpa style the length of the corolla ; stigma headed ; pericarp an oval, 
ard, one-celled berry ; seeds very many, sub-cordate, nestling, two celled.— 
There are two species, bo& natives of Jamaica. 

CUJETA. 

Arbor cucurbitifera americana^ folio subrotundo. Sloane, v. 2, p. 172. 
Arborescens ; foliis confertis ob^ovato-oblongiSy bast angMStioribus ; 
fmckispkiericomaxinio. iBrowne, p. 264?.. 

Xeaves wedge-lahceolate, crowded* 

This tree is called narrow^leqfed calabash^ which seldom rises higher than twenty 
/eet,> and is easily distinguished firom all others by its peculiar appearance. It divides 
gX top into very long, thick, scarcely sub-divided oranches, stretching out almost hori- 
zontally, adorned with leaves disposed in bundles or tufts scatteringly at irregular dis« 
iances. The wood is light, tough, and pliant. The bark is unequal and ash^oloured 
or whitish. The leaves are uncertain in their nun\ber fi*om the same knot or tubercle ; 
they are oblong, attenuated at the base, on veiy short petiole^ acute, entire, shining, 
veii^ed, bright green, four or five inches long. Peduncles one-flowered, solitary, 
scattered over the older branches, and frequently on the trunk itself, three inches above 
ihe ground ; flowers large, sometimes entirely green, but often differently variegated 
.with purple, red, -and yellow ; it does not wither, but becomes putrid, and in that 
x ^ - T2 •-_. state 



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140 .BOBTUS JAMATCEN&r& 

state exhales a cadaveroii9» nauseous, and intolerable stench. It hnypens luit qacodia 

iDonly, that there are five fertile stamens, and in that case three or them are longer 
dian the other twa The form of the fruit varies on different trces^ being spherical^, 
spheroidal, or shaped like a bottle ; it differs also in size, from two inches to a foot in 
diameter. These, however, are only varieties. They are covered with- a thin skin of 
a greenish yellow colour when ripe, and under this is a hard thin woody shell, inclosing 
a pale yellowish soft pulp, of a tart unsavoury flavour^ surrounding a great number of 
flat seeds. 

The wood of this tree being very tough and flexile, renders- it very fit for the- 
purposes of coach mak^rs^ as well as for making saddles, mule and ass crooks, stools^ 
chairs, and other furniture, as also shafts^or handles for carpenters tools. The shell of 
the fruit, when cleared of its contents, is frequently large enough to contain a gallon^ 
and is used as bottles, or made into cups and spoons, by the negroes. It is of so close 
a texture, that it serves to boil water, and bears the Are as well as an earthen pot. It. 
is frequently converted into button moulds* The fruit being split^ roasted^ and appliecL 
to an apostuQie speedily ripens iu 

1 suppose the Spaniards gave the name to this tree,, its Iruit being as big as^a man*^ 
Lead (wiiich they call calabash J y but rounder ; it is so well known in most parts of 
America, that it needs no description. I have seen such difference of the fruit of these 
trees^as to contain from an ounce to a gallon. When they are green, they are full of 
white juice, pulp, and seeds, which the cattle eat of in very dry times ; but which is^ 
said to give* their flesh an odd disagreeable taste, and also their milk ; but I.believGe 
that taste is from a weed called guinea-hen weed, and not from the calabash. It is said 
that the pulp, if eaten, will make a cow cast her calf, or a mare her colt. It is certainly 
known (if not too well known) to be a great forcer of the mensirua ^^nd of the birth and, 
after-birth ; therefore ought to be very cautiously given or taken. I once made a spirit 
from this fruity which was so nauseous as not to be taken alone. This is an useful tree 
for Indis^ns and negroes to make necessary furniture for their houses, as dishes, cups^ 
and spoous, of several shapes, bigness, and fashion ; I have seen them made^ and 
finely wrought and carved. — Barhani, p. 27. 

The juice of calabash, iii the quantity of four ounces, is given as aptrrge in all casea 
where the patient has received a bruise about the trunk ; and a syrup of the same, with 
the addition of lime-juice, a little nitre, and paragoric elixir, is by some highly ex« 
tolled in coughs and consumptions. Small calabashes roasted, and the pulp spread oa 
cloth, make a good poultice for bruises and inflanunations. — Wright. 

As a purgative, the dose is a quarter of a pint of the expressed Juice. The piHp of the 
fruit made mto syrup. Dr. A}^ Vicar Affleck relates some singular instances of its eflfi- 
cacy in pulmonary complaints, that were attended with hectic fever.* Jacquin says^ 
E pulpa fruL'tum sj/rupum conjiciiint incoUj summi medicaminis celebritaity potissi^ 
mum in vdriis pectoris merbisy inq. contusiori'bus intemis — Jacquin's Stirp. American. 
The syrup is oiade by taking young calabashes about the size of an orange ; roast them^ 

thea 

* The fottowiiig u one of the cases, at related by Dr. Affleck :•*>'' A tpoonfol was gireo twery nommg to ala^ 
labottriug Bttder • hectic (tvet, cough, and lus6 of appetite, which commued tbree niontafl. She recovered in aboiii 
l«^r wttki, and lived in go<>d health many yean mt% SlMi WM givta OTW bj Ml oktiadji bet oiolbcr^ «Aer mukf 
T^^«f«Hiies bad beeu oMd wkboat dUQir 



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tILltr HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. Ul 

llien aqueese the juice from the guts through a coarse cloth ; to a pint of the juice addi 
a pound of suear and boil into a syrup.«-*>A table spoonful or two to be taken two or 
three times a ^my, by itself^ or in barley water. — Dancer^s Meduai^ssistatU^ 

2. CUClrtlBITINA. GOURD. 

Arborescens^foliis singularibtis ovatis nitidisffruetv^mineri. FroWn^ 
p. 266. ' ' 

Leaves ovate, sub-coriaceous^ distinct ; fruits ovate-acuminate. 

The trunk of this tree is middle sized, unarmed, smooth, antl even. The branchai- 
•ub-divided, erect, not spreading, stiff and straigjit, angular, even; leaves opposite, 
alternate, or scattered, never in tufts, broad, ovate, with a short pointj quite entire, 
nerved, absolutely smooth, shining above, paler beneath ; petioles snort, thick, smooth^ 
peduncles two to^ five, .terminating, shorter than the leaves, longer than the petioles, 
.one-flowered. Ccirolljw nodding, the size of those of the dtjete, but more dusky ; the 
base of the tube and throat is white, the belly red, the border pale, the segments dusky. 
The fruit is pedicelled, ovate-oblong with a short point, one-celled, ft differs from 
the first speoie»in its habit, the uprightness of its branches, its flat, oblong, shining, 
coriaceous leaves, terminating flowers on longer pedicels, corolla with the border en- 
tire, and ovate-acuminate fruit. It flowers the whole year. It is a native of Jamaica^ 
ki dry rocky places near the coast. The wood is hard and white, but the shell of the 
fruit so thin and brittle as to be unfit for the puiposes of the former species. Both ai0 
easily^propagated from the seeds,. 



CA^AtU, hPanvhed. SOLANUMr 

. Cl. 5, .OK. 1. — Pentandriamonogyma. Nat. or. — Lurida. 

GtK. CHAR. — Calyx a one-leafed perianth, half five-tcleft, erect, acute, permanent; 
corolla one-petalled, wheel-shaped, tube very short, border large, half five-cleft^., 
from reflex^ flat,^. plaited ; jstamina are five awl-shaped filaments, very small j an* 
thers oblong, converging, sub-coalescent, opening at the top by two pores ;: the 
pistil has a roundish germ ; style filiform, longer dian the stamens, stigma blunt %,^ 
the pericarp a roundish berry, smooth, dotted at the top,- two-celled ; with a con»> 
ipex fieshy receptacle on each side ; seeds very many, roundish, nestling. ManJ^^ 

' spedea of ^ns genu»-grpw in this islands 

NIGRUM. BLACK^ 

Humilius diffiisum ; foHis ovatis^ ramutii margvuMtUt umbeUuUi JU*,^ 
rumsparsis.^ Browne, p. 174. 

Brandiies angular, . toothed ^ leaves repand, smooth. 

Shlanum bacci/erumy seu offUinarum. This has a greea 8tem^as^igp4» ones litthl^ 
finger, rising two or three feet high, the branches spreading themselves on every side ;^ 
the leaves are about at^inch^and a.half Jong^ and half as broad in the middle, where it-- 
it- broadest, standing uppn a very short footWtaik \ they are sQfv<>f ^ dark-green colour;^ 
and jagged on the edgjes. Towards the tops of the^huncbes come the flowers, several^ 
together, upon a short foot-stalk ; each flower is made up with five white or pale.>yel»> 
km ieafe3|.wkh^caagfi«Goloitf apices,^taadiog up ia Jthe middla of ttoflower^maluni^ 



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.142 HORTUS JAMAlOENSIfl. "TkuttSr 

- an umbo. After tliese follow rounid berries as biff as English pease, smooth, and blaA. > 
ivben ripe, containing a thin greenish pulp, vnui a great many round flat white seeds. 
I was surprised to see the Angola negroes eat it as caLilu, or as we do spinage, withoift 
any prejudice, being so like die deadly night-shade in Europe. The bark of this plant,^ 
bruised and put into water, intoxicates fish, so that they nrny be easily taken, but doth 
not kill them. The leaves are reckoned cooling, restringent, and anodyne ; the juice, 
being put up the anuSy eases pain and abates intlammation, and it doth so in erysipelas^ 
or St. Anthony!sifire ; but it ought to be cautiously Aised, being very cooling and re- 
stringent, a4Kl therefore too repercussive or repelling. The juice I know to be good in 
cancerous tumours and inflammations, and the distilled water is good in fevers. The 
leaves, juice, or oil, applied to the head, is good in frenzies from heat, and for inflao^ 
mations, and fissures or cracks of the nipples of -the breast. — rBar/iam, ^, 117. 

This plant is very common in the lowlands of JamaiJca, and growsfrequently in grass 
pieces, but seldom rises more than two or three feet. It is remarkable that this plant, 
whicli is equally common in Europe, and of a virose heavy smell, and very narcotic 
(quality in cold climates, is void of both in Jamaica, .where it is daily used for food, anil 
iound by long experience to be both a pleasant and wholesome green. The length of 
the common footstalks, and .the length and smoothness of the branches, is die only dif* 
ference between the two plants, it diey be. not wholly the same j, but the Europeaa. 
seems to grow more twiggy and luxuriant. — Browne. 

This plant is commonly called gooma or goomer calalu, and grows v^ry luxurfanlly \vt 
new grounds. It has an agreeable bitter taste, and is much esteemed as a green, pot* 
lierb, and purifier of the blood, and is gently aperient. It has no deleterious qualities 
like the European^ plant. 

See Canker^Berry — Egg Pxant — ^Night- Shades — ^Potatoes — ^Tomatqs— Turkey 

Berries. 

^CaLALCJ, MoUNTAIN-^ce POKEWEED« 



CALALUi pr/cHy. AMARANTHUS: 

« Cl. 20, OR. 5. — Monoecia penttmdria. Nat. or. — Miscellanea. 

This generic name is derived firom a Greek word for incorruptible, because the flower 
fbeing cropped does not«oon decay. 

Gen. CHAR. — Male calyx a five or three4eaved -perianth, upright, coloured, per* 
manent, leaflets lanceoiate-aoute ; no corQlla but the calyx ; stamens five or tbrte 
capillary, the length of the Calyx ; with oblong versatile antbers : female flowers 
in the same raceme with the males ; calyx and corolhtas in the male ; the pistil 
has an ovate germ, three stylear short, subulate ; stigmas simple, permanent ; 
pericarp an ovate capsule, somewhat compressed, as is the calyx on which it is 
j)laced, coloured, and of the same size, tliree-beaked, one*celled, cut open 
transversely ; seed single, globular, compressed, large. Three species are na« 
tives of Jamaica^ the followmg and polygonoides or ^oosefoot. ^ ^ 

4. spmosus^ 



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«ttxX6Afi9A HORTUS JAMAICENSI& HI 

i. .'SPINOSUS. PRICKLY, 

Blitnm etrnericantim spinosum, Sloane, v. 1, p. 143. Acuhatus ru* 
/escensy floribus coriferiis. ses^ilibusy capitulis alaribus. Browoe, 
p. 341. 
Racemes terminating, compound ; axils thorny. 

Moane calb this the red weed of Barbadoes. It has an oblong deep reddish root» 
-with some fibres, sending ap a roundish red, strong, striated stalk, which has several 
Branches of the same colour. The leaves come out along the branches without any 
order, of a reddish coiour^.havinjj^ usually under thenvsome^hatp short prickles.- Tb^ 
flowers come out in Ibn^ spikes on the tops of the branches, of an herbaceous colour, 
after which follow small, black, shining, ifert, seeds. It groits every where by the 
way sides in Jamaica. — Slodne. 

This plant is frequently used as a vegetable,, and is perfectly wholesome and. 
agreeable. 

2. VmimS. GHEEN. 

Blitum mijitis albmn polj/spermon folio sicbrotundo. Sloane, v. 1, p. 
143, t. 92, f. 1. 

Gromerules axillary, germinate^ male flowers trifid ; leaves ovate, emarginate ; 
stem erect. 

The root is large, strong, perpendicularly, fixed in the earth, straight, reddish to* 
^wards the top, and lending out round it several branches on every band, often trailing 
©n the ground, and very rarely ^rect, .two or three feet long,, striated, green, and sue- 
oulent, along which come out several leaves on long petioles, bluntish, now aod then 
covered with a brownish farina. Th^ flowers are spiie fashioned, very nunferous along 
the branches^ and greenish. To each flower follows a round seed^ compressed, black, 
shining, and Uttleji-hiclosed in a pale green membrane. It grows every where in th^ 
lowlands and plantations, > and is> to be gathered every where,- very plentifully, after 
rain. When the leaves are stripped off and boiled as a sallet, it is one of the pleasantest 
I ever tasted, having something o^ a more ftugrant and grateful taste than any of tbeso^ 
h^rbs I ever knew. It is.used-in clyst^rs^in tm belly-ache, as the beat and most com^ 
L emollient herb the country aflbrds. — Sloane. 

Sde Goose Foot. 
CALAtu," Spanish— "ifejf Poke WEEB. >. 



l^if English Wame. CALLICARPA. 

©t. 4, OR. 1. — Tetrandria-monogynm: Nat. or. — Duniosoe. 

4i&hCYLkii, — Calyx a one*leafed, bell-form perianth, nM>«th four-cleft, erect; co« 
roUa monopetalous, tubular, border four-cleft, obtuse, spreading ; stamens flli^ 
form, twice the length of the corolla ; anthers ovate-incumbent ; the pistil has a 
roundish germ ; style filiform, thicker at top ; stigma thtckbh, obtuse ; pericarp 
a globular smooth berry ; seeds four, oblong, shaped like a meniscus, compresset^ 
-ci^u&. Swa(t^fouiia.tivojf^iesoit)u»gisQiis in Jamaica, 

1. F£ltRUaiNfii». 



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|4« HORTU8 JAMAICENSia eiifpnir 

1« FERRU6IN1A. IRON. 

leaves brdad lanceolate, serrate, somewhat rugged vmdemeath; ^ntnes tef« 
minating and aixiWwry.^^Sw. Pr. pZ\. 

2. RETICULATA. NETTED. 

tieaves elliptic lanceolate, sub-serrate^ wrinkled ; tomentose hoary 'Underneath* 



CALTROPS. TRIBULUS. 

€l. 10, OR. 1. — Decandria monogynicu Nat. or. — Gminales. 
This is so named from having three spikes to the fruit. 
' Gen. CHAR.<^Calyx a five-parted acute perianth, a little shorter than the corolla;; 
«oroIIa five*petuled, obiong-obtuse, spreading ; the stamina areawUshaped fila- 
ments, smaA, with simple anthers ; the pistil has an oblong germ, length of the . 
stamens, no style, stigma headed ; i pericarp roundish, prickly, of five to ten cap* 
suies, gibbous on one side, often armed with three or four dagger points, angular 
on the other, converging, with Cransverse cells ; seeds nwny, turbinate, obtong. 

ItfAXIMUS. /CSREAT. 

Tribulus terrestris majBr^ flore viaxvmo vdorato. Sloane, v. 1, d. 
209, t. 132, f. 1. Foliis senis pirmatis^ extimismajoribuSyfloribiS 
singularibus. Browne, p. 220, t. 21, f. 3. 

Leaves about four paired ; outer leaflets longer ; pericarps ten-seeded, awnless. 

This has pretty thick, compressed, channelled, succulent, brittle, stalks, which 
trail upon the ground, near two feet long, shooting on every side from the top of the 
loot as from a centre : the leaves pinnate, opposite, commonlv three or four pairs oT 
innooth sessile leaflets, the furthermost pair the largest. The flowers come out towards 
the ends of the Inranches, of a pale orange or yellow colour, having an uxree^bie odour^ 
and are succeeded by roundish prickly tfttit, ending in a long point. It grows in aU 
pastures of Jamaica, and is frequently mthered with other fodder plants, and fed upott- 
indiscriminately by all sorts of cattle. Sloane says a salve made of this herb with^suet» 
is good for the ringworm. 

.^^e Turkey Blossom. 



tTAMPHIRETREE. LAURUS. 

Cl. 9, OR. 1 .^^Enneandria fnomgjffiieu Uat, Qrk.-^H^loraces. 
Gen. char. — See Avocado pear, p. 37. 

camphora. ,<:amphieb. 
Leaves triple nerved, lanceolate-ovate. 
The camphire tree is very near akin to the cinnamoit tree^ from which it differs in 
the leaves ; those of the latter having three ribs ruahiog longitucfoiaUy from the foot* 

Mdk 



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.ftalk tothepQtnt> where Aey soon diminish ; whereas in this the ribs are small, and " 
^extend towards the sides ; the surface is snaooth and shining. There are males and 
-hermaphrodites on different trees. 

The root is large, thick, and brachiated ; the trunk often three feet in diameter-; 
the tree is very ramose^ its bark greyish, and. rougli on the trunk, but green on tho 
.young branches. The wood is white^ but becomes, reddish in drj ing. The leaves 
^tand irregularly, and resemble those of the bay-tree. They are three inches long and 
half as broad, somewhat curlectabout the edges, and terminate in a long narrow pointy 
•they are of a bright green above and greyish below. The flowers are verj' small and 
•white; they stand in clusters on tlie to|>s of ramose jjetlicek, rising from tlie alee of the 
leaves ; the fruit is^ a black shining berry. 

This tree 'is mentioned in the Hortus Eiastensis as having been wintrodiiced into this 
island by Dr. Clarke, in tlie year 1 775, and has since been successfully cultri^ated in sc- 
-veral paits of. the island/ it no doubt would be a vahiable acquisition if generally 

flanted. The Chinese call it tchangy and, to obtain the camphire, they take the fresh 
ranches, chop them very small,, and lay them to steep in spring water for ^hree day* 
and three ni^ht.s> After they have been soaked in this manner tliey are put into a ket-. 
4.le, where they are boiled for a certaiji time^ during which they keep continually stir- 
ring them with a stick made of willow. When they perceive that the sap of these small 
chipa adheres sufficiently to the stick in the form of a white frost, they strain tlie whole, 
throwing away the dregs. This juice is afterwards poured gently into a new earthen 
bason, well varnished, in which it is suffered to remain oue night. Next morning it is 
<o\m'd coagulated, and formed into a solid mass. To purify this first preparation, they 
j)rocu re some earth from an old earthen wall, which, when pounded and reduced to a 
>ery 6ne po^vder, they put into the bottom of a bason made of red coppfer ; over this 
^layer of earth they spread a layer of camphire„ and continue tlius until there are four 
:^rata. The last, which is of very fine earth, they cover up with the leaves of the plant 
po^hoy w penny -royal,; and over the whole they place ^mother ba^^on, joining it very 
closely to the former by means of a kind of red earth that ceraentstheir brims together. 
' The bason, thus prepared, is put over a fire> which must be managed so as to keep up 
: an equal heat ; experience teaches them to observe the proper degree ; but above aft 
• they must be very attentive lest the plaister of fat earth, which keeps die basons toge- 
ther, should crack or fall off; otherwise the spirilvtous parts would evaporate and ruia 
the whole process.. When the basons have been exposed to the necessary heat, tiiey 
-^are taken off and lefi to cool ; after which they are seperated, and the sublimated cam- 
•phire is found adhering to the cover. If this operation be repeated iwo or three times, 
''the camphire is found purer and in larger pieces. Whenever it is necessary to use any 
•quantity of this substance, it is put between two earthen vessels, the edges of which are 
•unrounded with several bands of wet paper. These vessels are kept for about an hour 
>over an equal and moderate fire ; amd, when they are cool, the camphire is found in 
ita'utmost perfection and ready for use. This method of procuring camphire, even 
•^firom the heart of the tree, may be practised in all seasons of the ye^r; which would 
fitt be the case were it extracted lite other resinous substances that only flow during a 
certain short space of time. Besides, by lopping the branches of the 5:amphire tree, 
less hurt is done to it than by making incisions, which are always hftzardous. The Abbe 
•'Grosier, from whom the foregoing account is taken, informs us, that in China some of 
ah«« tsees are found above one hundred cubits in height, and so tbi(^ that twen^ per- 



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M« BORTU^ JAMArCKNSIS; <?ANM;t 

sons cannot Inclose them. The trunk, wlien old, emits spails of fire, blit-^ofao subtle 
a n«iture as rot even to injure the hair of iiiose wiu) are near it. 

Pure camphive is very white, pelliicid, somewhat unctuous to the touch ; of a Int- 
torish aromatic taste, yet accompanred with a ?e!is»e of coolness; of. a very tVajrrant 
smcil, somewhat like that of rosemary,, but mucU stronger.- U l^a.s been very lon;^ ^-s- 
teemed one of tlie most efficacii)us diaphoretics;, and lias been celebrated Jn fevers, 
nriaiignant and epidemical distempers. In deliria, also^ where opiatj^s could not j)ro- 
cfire. sleep, but ratl^er aggravated the symptoms, this medicine has been utLen obsei^vej 
to procure it. All these etfects, however. Dr. CuUen attributes to its sedative prop^rty>. 
and denies tliat camphire lias -any other medicinal virtues -tbaa those of an antispasmodio- 
and sedative. He allows it to be very powerful, aad capal)le of doing much good or 
niucli harm, From experiments maJe-oa different brutf^ ci\^tm:es, campUire ai)pears 
to be poisonous to every one of them, in some it produced sleep,, followed by death^. 
wthout any other symptom* In others, before death, they were awakened into con- 
vjulsions and rage. It seems, tpo, to act chiefly on the stomach ; for an entire piece 
^allowed, protluced tlie above-mentipned effects with very little diminution of weighty . 
^^ A,yocAPoPjR^a— Bay Trees— Benjamin — Cinnamon — Cogwood — Sassafiu5» 



GANDLE OR ROSETWOOD;^ AMYRIS.^ 

Gl, 8, OR. 1. — Octandria monogynia. Nat. or. — Terebinthaceie. ♦ 

T!his name is derived from a Greek word signifying ointment or balm. 
€rEN. CHAR. — Calyx*apqe-leafjed poriantji, four-toothed, acute, erect, small, per- 
manent ; corolla four oblong, concave, spreading, petals ; stamens awUshaped^^ 
erect filamjgnts ; anthers oblong, erect, the length of the corolla ; the pistil has a 
superior ovate germ, a thicki§h style the length of the stamens, and four- cornered - 
^stigmas ; the pericarp a drupaceous roundish berry ; seed a round shining nut.— .- 
^Several species arp natives of Jamaica^. 

Iv balsamifera.. bai.samic. 

4rhorehtSj foliis bijugatis ovati$ glabris^ racemis ictxis terminalihw^ 
Browne, p. 208. \ 

Ueaves two -paired,: , 

This tree grows fcequently>amoTJg the gravelly hills' in tbis-island, and rises to a con*a 
Siderable height The trunks are remarkable for having large protuberances ©n thenw , 
The leaves are laurel shaped. The flowers, are small and white, in branched spikes.— - 
The fruit is, described as tallows in A Robinson's manuscript: The ftiU grown ripe fruit * 
is. of a black smooth and shining hue, pr rather of a very .dejejvpurple, about threcn- . 
nuarters of ^n inch long, and when green marked with many deep specks, like a greeci.«. 
lime or lemon, which are small cells replete with-amost fragcant essential oil or.b^sam« 
I'he ripe fruit^onsists of num^raus ^green globules or vesicjea, npt unlike in form and 
make to fish spawn, replete wijth, and immergediui a juice sweetish and aromatic.*— 
The shell of the nut is purple, ^brittle, externally rugyed, having a bilobous kernel^ 
covered with a thin moiajt skin of.ja yqry deep purple. TTbe jiut is turbinated at both 
^d$^ the kernel bighlj^ aromatic. Thls^re&is known also by the name of shrubbjf^ 



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^AWER HORTUS JAMAICENSIS, Ul 

^fwcetwood. By subjecting the wood to distillation, Dr. Wright thlnlc55 a perfume equal 
to oil of rhodium may be obtained. It is called white candlewood, because it burns si* 
• freely as frequently to be used for that purpose by the niCgroes, 

This tree is fmmd in the woods of St. Ann's, and those back of Bull Bay in the pa- 
lish of Port Royal ;" it grows to a eonsklerable si?e, and is considered as one of the most 
valuable timber trees in the island. The wood is white, and of a curled grain whea * 
young, but grows of a dirty ash-colour by a^e : it bears a fine polish and has a fina 
smell. The young trees are fi'equeinly cut for fire^veod in the mountains ; they are 
full of resin, bui-n very freely, and with a most agreeable smell. The wood is heavy 
and in great vogue among cabinet makers. All the parts of this tree are full of wanu 
aromatic particles, aini ih£^ be -^sed ia ba^bs aud fomentations upon occasion. — 
BrownCy p. 20S, 

Sweetwoody or skrubii/ sweetwoody or rosewood. Professor Linnaeus, Imvin^ ob- 
tained a specimen of the balsam of mecca tree, was of opinion, that it was a species of 
•this genus. Mr. Robinson, pui*suing this tiint, found three species, differing only 
from each other in the si«e of the treeu, dimensions of their leaf, and greater or less 
aroma of their bark and wood. 

They grow iif great abundance on the rocl^y bills of the south side coast, and other 
parts more inlaou ; and are remarkably frequent in HealthshirCi in St. Catherine. 

Their leaves and bark are impregnated with a fine balsamic juice, and, if the body 
'was tapped at the proper season of the year (supposed to be August), might be found 
-to transude a thick liquor resembling Hiat of the Gilead balsam, to which the taste of . 
tliis Imrk, and wood of the smaller branches, bears a very exact «relati on. 

The leaves, infused in boiling water, after the m^mner of tea, have a very'pleasant 
flavour, and odoriferous scent> and may be drank with milk and sugar, instead of tea. 
This infusion is highly cephalic, strengthens the nerves, an^ is particularly restorative 
.to weak eyes ; insomuch, that 1 knew a gentleman, who, by the constant use of it for 
. some weeks, by way of breakfast, was able to read a small print, and view objects dis- 
. tinctly, without tlie assistance of spectaclesi which be had heea unf^ble to do for soma 
^ears before* 

The leaves, dried thoroughly in ihe shade, mighfc be very securely packed, and ex- 
. ported, for farther trial of-thjeir virtues, which, in Jairmicai, did not s^era to be impaired 
' by their dryness, or length of keeping. 

There is then the strongest reason to belike, that the a,nv^ris_ may, by incision, pro- 
^duce a balsam not much inferior to the celebrated balm ot gilead, or opobalsamum ; 
'which, for better information of the inquisitive reader, I shall here describe, from com- 
petent authority. It is a liquid resin, of a very light yellowish colour, and ^ fragrant 
\smell, not unlike that of citrons ; but the taste is acria ^nd aromatic. It is pellucid, 
'tenacious, or glutinous, sticking to the fingers, Qnd m^y be drawn into long threads. 
'It scarcely ever becoines^fluid or liquid^ by the he^t of the sun, in the westerly part of 
Asian Turkey, where it is produced. 

Its virtues are said to be these : It is one of the best stomachics known, if taken to 
4hree grains, to strengthen a weak stomach. It is a capital vulneraiy ; for, if applied 
•<to a fresh wound, it cures it in a very short time. When fresh, it is said to have a mucii 
^greater eflScacy, than when old. It is given internally against putrefaction of the vis- 
i^cera, and abscesses of the lungs, liver, and 'kidneys. Jt also cleanses foul ulcers, and 



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U^ HORtTUS JAlVTArCENSrS. CA>>DLE 

heals them very soon.* But it 15 difficult to. obtain it unsopbisticateil ; forwbich and 
other reasons, it well deserv^es the experiment of ingjinious gentlemen in this island^ 
to find if a.balsam or resin be obtainable froui Uie umi/ris ; since the disco^eiy would 
naturally lead to form such a substitute for the true baisau], which is so sekioni to be 
^ot in its genuine state ; and there seems no weak ground for presumiug thai this sub- 
stitute would answer similar good purposes in medicin^. — Lofig. . 

-I. f I ^ 

This species is supposed to be the wood noticed by Barham, under the name tree 
rosemary y as follows : — ^" This I happened to meet with by chance. Pullmg dowa 
iiome old houses,,! smelt a very strong smell of rosemary, which made me enquire into 
the reason of it, , They told me, tlmt there was some rosemary- wood amon<j the timber 
^ the houses, I then desired they would get me some of it, which they did ; I found 
it was only the bark that smelt, -which no rosemary exceeded^. Some will have it to be 
a sort of clove-bark Uee, which grows in great plenty upon the main continent. 1 first 
fvuud this tree on Bachelor's plantation* which was aftei-wards mine, and is now well 
luiown to all or most plariters in Jamaica. I carried some of the bark with me to Eng- 
land in the year 1717, which kept its scent very well ; and I question not but it would 
be found, upon experience, .to be very useful to distillers, andof many medicinal uses,'* 
*— i^arAfli/f, p. 195., 

^. MARITIMA.. TVfARlTIME. 

Bdiecifera trifolia racanosa^ fiosculis albis teirapetalis^ fructu nigro-^ > 
vtonopyrenofoetido. Sloane, v. 2, p. 101. Fruticosus minor y folvs 
orbictUatis venosis^. pinnato tematis ra<emis ter^ninatricibus.^^^- 
Bcowne, p. 209., 

t;eave»:temate, ci-enulate, obtuse. 

This tree, which is cdWeA yelloxio candkwood)' rose wood^^ ^nA yellow sanderSj appears- 
taot specifically different from»the foregoing, for the leaves are pinnated, have two pair - 
0f ovate, lobes, terminating in an otld one, and frequently seen pinnato ternate, as the • 
first. These leaves are nhicB longer and of a deeper green. It has not the fragrant 
smell or taste of the other.- The fmitis oblong,, die wx>od of .a box colour, elegantly . 
clouded and takes a fine polish. 

It is common on the banks of' the Rio Cobre. The calyx is permanent, fruit black . 
and shining. The blossom is white, four times the length of the cup, and the fruit has -. 
an agreeable aromatic- taste ; the flower pedicels are black, shining, speckled, as are - 
the joints of the leaves. There is one sead. \t blossoms in June and July. 

The blossoms of a tree examined were very small ; the pericarp monophyllous, bell- - 
shaped, pernruinent,^ and cut half way down into four equal erec^ segments ; at the base * 
of each'proper peduncle were. placed two very minute lanceolated stipules in opposi« 
' tion : the corolla consists of four oblong obtuse, pointed petals, nearly obversely ovate,^ 
patent, white,. and thickly marked with pellucid balsamic cells, much loneer than the - 
^yx, and placed ^ternate with it$ lacinias* The stamens are eight suhiuated patent.^ 

filaments, . 

• It IS gcneraUy beMeved that the CaAadai and capaivii ftdl«<im#,-will tnswer every- pmrposeof the htdm ofgiUad,^ 
Dr. Abtou sajs, that the sareat mark of this babam being pure and unadulterated is its spreading quickly on the sor- - 
lace of water wheo dropjved into it ; and that if a single drop of it is let fall into a larce saucer full of water, it imme— 
diately spreads all over its sariace, and as itiwere dissolves and disappears ; t>at in aoout iialf an hour it becomes ft 
transparent pellicle, covering thewhole surface, and may be taken up with a pin, haviuiv lost all its fluidity and c«* 
louTy and become white and soft^ cohering, and communicating its smell and taste tu the water. This test, he Baj^;^., 
ail the babam he 4a win Hollnadbore^ l>ulJiot ihat in Londofi* whera it is lare to pxofiurekit tikiadiilteratdit* 



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pmmm fiORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 149 

'ttamentSy alternately shoiler, and shorter than the petals : anthers ovate, didymous, 
wad erect. There is a scarlet glanditious receptacle, perhaps th^ nectarium, of a te- 
Uagonal form, placed in the centre of the cup, which supports an oblonj^ germen : the 
style is simple, short, and thick ; the stiijiiia capitateci. The stem terminates in a 
l>ranched panicle, and, from the bosoms ot the iirst pair of leuves beneath, aiise from 
one to four in number on each side. 



The s^naller shrubby stveetivood is a little plant very common in the hills about the 
Serry ; it grows cJiiefly among, the rocks, and seldom rises above four or five feet in 
height, or exceeds an inch and a half in dian>eter. The loaves .are verj' round, and 
distant from one another ; the flowers small, and disposed in loose bunches at the tops 
of the branches. The leaves and outward parts of this shrub have no remarkable 
.warn^th, nor does tlie trunk burn with that/ragrance, though it x:Qataia&a great quan- 
tity of the Uke aromatic particles with the former. — Broxv^ne^ 

The maritima is described as* follows by Swartar: Stem brandied,^ scabrous, ash- 
coloured ; leaves petioled, • temate ; leaflets petioled, roundish, elliptic, with a short 
point, sometimes obtuse, crenate, spreading, nerved, smooth on both sides, perfor- 
. ated, with pellucid dots ; petioles and petiolules round ; i-aeemes compoimd, in cymes, 
with opposite many. flowered branchUts ; flowers crowded, white, very sweet; petals 
ovate, entire, with short claw&.; berry the size of a black pepper, black when ripe; ; 
inclosing a.giobular4)rittle nut,, in-which is a white kernel. Swartz doubts if this spe- 
cies be mstinct from^die following^ .which differs- accorduig to soil and situation in 4:he 
size of all the parts. They grow, he says, in very barren coppices, in a calcareous - 
rocky soil, both near the sea and in ^e interior mountains' of Jamaica, Uisp^iol^g and » 
^ uba ; flowering from June4o September. 

•"S/SYLVATICA.^^. ^e01>.>. 

Leaves terntitej eremite,, acute. 
This is described as an erect lofty shrul^, branching but.Ktde-; from 4tvo to fifteea*' 
feet high according to soil and situation. The whole abounding in turpentine of a dis«^ 
agreeable smell. The small branches ^round, leafy to theends ; leaflets shining, finely 
notched, of different shapes. Racemes panicled, »erect, terminal, and axillary, sus- - 
taining many small snow-.white flowars. The drup^ tlxe size of a pea. 

The foll(^ving affe the diree species of this genus alluded to l>y Mr. Long, as disco- 
lored by Mr. Anthony Robinson, and as described in liis manuscript : — 

"1. Jmj/risfoliis tematis pintiatis pediculis murginaiis racemis aiaribus. — ^This isa-^ 
-^mall tree about fourteen or fifteen feet high, the bark o£the trunk and branches is na- 
"turally of a reddish brown, but appears variously coloured by reason of many lichens • 
growing on it. The trunk is about six inchesKliametec, vdividiog a little way from the 
ground into many branches, growing into a close compact ovate form, ^with numerous 
erect slender twigs. The blossoms small and white^. proceed in small clusters from the 
ala) of the leaves. 

** 2. Amyris hypdate. — ^The cup or calyx was composed of five concave leaves, . 
which were rouncUsh, unequal in breadth, and ciliated on their edges : corollarhad four 
petals, -also roundish and unequal, and bigger than the cup ; there appeared a vacant 
^sUer^Q2Lce aa if a fifth j^etal was-wanting^^e germ was smaU^^rigoual|^.aad placed * 



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110 HORTUS JAMAICENSTS. Ckvommfrnm 

upon eiglit nectarcons glands, which adhered together as In the meliooccus. From the 
margin of each gland arose short filaments ; the s'tyle was simple, crenated Hte that (If 
the wild irenipy or welicocca ; the stigma was capitated. On a section of the geriii 
there appeared three cells, containing divers seeds; the anthers were cordated anii 
erect ; the filaments much shoTter tlian the{>€*als. 

*' 3. Aviyris Philipp^ea.-^Tbte leaves grew toward the end of the branches alternate. 
The pedicel was about an inch annaqimrter in length, decorated on each side by^^ 
very narrow foliaceo«s margin, which supported one pair of ob-ovate lobes, with an odd 
one at the end, sessile^ ternate as it were, or placed close t© one another^ of a lively 
green, and elegantly decorated with slender oblique veins, rising from the middle, 
shining, smooth, and of a firm texture, not unlike those of guaiacum. The bark is 
•bitter, aromatic, and balsamic. The whole trunk is very full of shallow pits or depres- 
*sions, which are caused by the fallihof off of many thm small squammse or scales^ wilb 
which the old bark is covered. It affects a dry rocky ^1, aud is one Aif-the ittost el&» 
£ant trees in Jamaiga"^ 

nScC XlMENU. 



•CANDLEBERRYMYRTLE. TVIYMCA. 

Cl. 22, OR. 4. — Dioecia tetrandvia. Nat. or. — Avientacecs. 

XJen. tHAR. — Male ament ovate-oblong, imbricate on all sides, loose, composed M 
one-flowered, crescent-shaped, blnntlv acuminate, concave scales ; there is no 
•proper perianth nor corolla ; stamens mur filaments (seldom six) filiform, short, 
erect ; anthers large, twin, with bifid lobes. Female caiyx as in the male, na 
corolla ; the pistil has a s\*b.ovate germen ; two Aliform styles, longer than the 
calyx ; stigmas simple ; the pericarp is a one-celled berry ; seed single. 

-CERIFERA. .fWAX-BEARING. 

Leaves lanceolate^ sub-serrate ; stem arborescent. 

^his is the common or narrow -leaved candlehei^y myrtle of America, which Swarta 

'discovered in Jamaica ; it rises to the height of thirty feet, ^he bark is warted ; the 
branches unequal and straight. - Leaves evergreen, somewhat cluster^, -blunt at the 
end, membranaceous, rigid, wrinkled, smooth, covered underneath with >^ery minute 

-shining, <wrange coloured glandular pores; flowers in aments indifferent individuals. 
Swartz had no opportunity of observing the male aments. Miller says Ihey are about 

-an inch long, and stand -erect. The female aments are sessile, axillary, linear, shorter 
than the leaves; scales very mfnute, and between each of them an oblong minute germ, 
longer than the scales; two filiform styles^ the length of the germ, and reflex stigmas ; 
berry minute, roundish, yellow. The lekves and bark bruised are said to diffuse a very 
agreejrf)re fragrance. In America a wax is collected from ihe -berries of which they 

^make candles ; whence the tree derives its name. This wax is procured by boiling the 
ripe berries in water until the oil floats, when it is skimmed off^, and the skimming re- 

♦ peated until the oil disappears. When cold this hardens to the consistence of way, 
•and is of a dirty green colour. It is then boiled ao;ain and clarified, which gives it a 

• transparent greenness. The candles made of it yield a grateful smell. A fourth part 
r4ii tallow is usually added^ which makes them bum clearer. A soap is also made ttcm. 

4bQ 



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«•»»»,, »ORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 141 

the oi]^ which having an agreeable scent is excellent for shaving, and it is used In plas- 
ters. Jn Carolina they make btaliug wax from these berries j and the rgoi is accouutjed 
^specUic in the tootli-ache. It is propagated from seeds. 

Candlewood — See RosEWOor^; 
> Cane, ^mjgak — See StuiAR Cajce. 

Cank, Wild — See EvMiioo and RfiEDS** 

C^NtJLLA — See ClN.NAMON, \V^lli).. 



CANE-PIECE SENSITIVE PLANT. CASSIA. 

Cl. 10, OR. 1. — Decandria morwgynia. Nat. OR. — Lomentacece. 

Gen. CHAR. — Calyx a pehtaphyllous perianth, lax, concave, coloured, deciduoirs^ 
corolla five petals, roundisiv coocane ; the inferiorones more distant, more spread- 
ing, larger ; stamens are ten filaments, declined ; the three inferior ones longer ; 
the three superior shorter^ ajithers^-thethree inferior very large, arcuate, rostrate, 
gaping at the tip ; . the four lateral .ones without the rostrum, gaping ; the three 
superior ones very small, sterile ; the. pistil has a sub-coluumor germen, long, , 

{)eduncled; style very short ;. stigma obtuse, ascending ; the pericarp is an oblong 
egumen, with transverse partitions ; seeds many, roundish, affixed ta the supe- - 
4ior suture. . There are several species natives ot Jamaica* 

CflAMCBCRISTA. - 

N Sama occid'entnlisy siliqua midtipUci foUis Jierbtff mim^i^. Sloane, • 
V. 2, p. 51. Suffruticosa erecta^foliis linear ibus pluiivius pinnatis ; . 
floribvLS singularibus vel geminaiis^ sparsis. -Browne, p. 225. 

X6afle'ts many pairs ; a petiolar pediceUed gland-; 'stipirles enaformi? 

This has an herbaceous stem,, afoot high or more, diffused, smooth, round, with * 
Zirsute branches ; leaves pinnate, wRh twenty-four t)r twenty-five pairs of leaflets ^ 
K^ammon petioles round, hirsute, thicker at* the -bsise : leaflets on very short petiolets^ , 
opposite, lanceolate, rounded at the base^-^oblioue, blunt at the end,, and terminated 
by a very small bristle, nerved, 'smootlr. .Elands "beneath the lowest pair of le^ets, 
pediceUed, capitate, truncate, turbinate at the tip. Stipules lanceolate, acuminate^, 
opposite, at the base of the petioles, hatfclasping, smooth, but pubescent at the edge, 
flowers among the stipules above the petiole, and not axillary ; on very short, solitary^ , 
three-flowered pedicels^ corollas small, yellow, mth two minut?e^ opposite bractes on ^ 
the pedicels. Calycme ieaikitsiinear^^ualy acute^ reflexy pubescent; petals une-^ 
q^al V the two upper ones. smaller,, wifii a dusky spot ; .the other three larger, having: 
claws, roundish,, concave, waved about the edgfe. Fitameirts unequal, the seven hinder 
ones smaller, the three forward ones longer ; anthers linear, angular, bearing pollen 
at the tip;- germ <>blang> white, very hifrsute ;- style -recurved, thicK^;^ stigma, biuati.., 
legume compressed; . It.grows^ii^dry pastures and smong^cane'-pieces.' 

This is frequently met in cane-piece intervals. It is about three feet in height, and 
IMS a few branches, with numerous small pinnated leaves, which collapse immediately 
^^ftbeing taoched. Theeblossoms^ceyeUom* The capsule is a flat pod, abotttminch 



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UJ HGRTUS JAxMAICENSIS. CARDWAt. 

long, black, jointed, and somewhat hairy. The roots are woody, with many fibres. — 
Tlie decoction of the roots is said to be an antidote to poisonous plaiits. A handful of 
the washed roots being boiled in water from three pints to two, may, be strain€^d, sweet- 
ened, and used for cQuinion drink, at the rate of three quaits in twenty-four hours. — 

Wright. 

S€€ Cassia- Stjck-Tree — Horse Cassia — ^Ring woR.^r Bush — SennaTrees — Stinking 

Weed — Wild Indkjo. 



CANKER BERRY. SOLANUM. 

Ct.,5, OR. I. — Pentayuiria momfrynm^ Na^ . OB. — Lurida. 
iCen, CIUR. — See CalaJu, branched^ p. 14K 

BAHAMENsE. "BAHAMA. 

Solavum haccijerum fniticosum, stipitibttfi et fdliis 'inajoribus^ spinis 
ferocioribus armatis. Sloane, v. 1, p. 38, t. II, f. 3. Erectuvi^ 
xaule tereti-a^uleafUstmOj foliis oblongis ad basim iruequaliter por^ 
rectis. Browne, p. 174. 

Stem prickly, shrubby; leaves lanceolate^ repand, obtuse, beat back at the 
edge ; racemes siujple. 

Tills rises with bhrul:)by stalks three or four feet high, dividing inta -several irregular 
branches, which have ;i grey Ixirk, and are armed on every v side with red, sharp, thick 
'€et prickles, which are also on the backside of the middle rib of the leaves. The leaves 
are an inch and a half long, and half an inch broad, smooth. The flowers in lorxg 
bunches from the side of the slalk, upon long peduncles of a fine blue colour. The 
-berries are saffron coloured, the size of peas., ^^^y ^^^ bitterisb^ and thought to be 
serviceable in sore throats. 

Jie€ Cajlalu^ branched — Egg Plant — ^Nightshades — Potatoes— ?Tomato BBajiiBS— » 

— ^Turkey Berries. 

/Capsicums— iVrtf Guinea Peppee* 



CARDINAL FLOWER. LOBELIA. 

Cl. 19, OR. 6. — Sifngenesiamonogamia. Nat. on. — Campanacect. 

This is named in honour of Mjitthias de Lobel, a Flemish botanist, and physician t(j^ 
JCing James I. 
XJen. char. — Calyx a one-leafed perianth, five-clefl, very small ; growing rountl 
- the germ, withering ; toothlets nearly equal ; the two superior ones looking snor^ 
upward ; corolla one-petalled, irregular ; tube cylindric ; border five-parted, di- 
visions lanceolate, the two superior smaller ; the three inferior more spreading^ 
stamens awl-shaped, connate above | anthers connate into an oblong cylinder^ 
g?pi 1^ five ways at the base ; pirtil \m a sharp poiQted iaferior germ \ style c^ 



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g^RDiKAA ,. HORTUS JAMAICENSia !5> 

]lfo4nC|( leogth of stamens ; stigma, obtuse, hisfied ; the pericarp is mn orate cap<- 
«ule, two or three celled, two or three valred^ gaping at the top, girt by the ca- 
•lyx ; dissepiments contrary to the'valves ; seeds a great many, very amall ; re* 
ceptacle comc% Three species, are natives of Jamaicai. 

I. LONQIFLORiW LONQ-PLOWfiRED, 

Sapuncutus aqyatkus^ foUis cichoruy^flore alhoy tubuU hngissimo.^^ 
,^ , Stoane, v. l, p. 158, t. lOl, f. 2. Foliis lanceolatis^ dentatis ; pe^ . 

dunculis brevmimis^ Uiteralibusi tubo ^ris tenui longissimo.-^ 
Browne, p. 322, 

Xeaves lanceolate, toothed i pedxincles ^ery shorty lateral ; tube of the corolla 
fiUforni, very long,. • 

'This plant is frequent in Jamaica near rivers and in moist cool shady places,, growing 
"from fourteen to sixteen inches in height. It has a deep, thick root. The stem grows 
^Jmost upright, and much branched from the axils ; leaves alternate^ sessile, sub-piii- 
iiatilid-toothed>. broadest at the further end^ half a foot long, rough, of a whitish green 
coloijr. Peduncles one-flowered, bracte awi-shaped, calyx truncated,, with five distant 
tooth -letted teeth* The corolla handsome^ upright, white, with a very long tube, and 
equal border. Capsule green, when it bursts at t£e ripening of the seeds. The whol9 
pl^t contains a milky acrid jmce, and is very poisonous. Taken internally it is said to 
bjring on an invincible purging ; and if even handled^ and the hand be unawares ap-^ 
plied to the eyes or lips, it will bring on an inflammation. The root ha3 a very pun- 
gent disagreeable taste, quickly spreawiing from the tongue tci the^hroat, and not easily 
^ot rid oil. Horses are reported to burst with eatmg it, whence, in the Bpanish West 
iadies, it has tlie name of revenia^cavffllos^ 

m ' V 2.ASSURGENS; MSINO. 

^qjor hrachiata^ assurg^ns. i foliis obUmfo croatis^ denticuhiis^ basi 
uppeTidiciilalu^ utrinque productis ; spicis terminaiibtts. Browne^ 
p. 322* 

I-efi«res broad-lanceolate,, serrtite j toothJetted and deeunrent belew ; racemes 
compound, terminating^ 

Hoot perenniaL Stem herbaceous, threeor^ur feet higlH simple, or only simply 
^divided at top, angular, thick, smooth, red, milky. Leaves sub<rsessile, or. on very 
short petioles, ovate-tlanceolate, afootWng, alternate^ nerved^ smooth on both sides ; 
toothletsat the base of the leaf linear ;* petioles veiy short, decurrent at the sides,^ 
whence the stem is winged^ continued unaer the 1^ to the tip, thick, red ; raceme 
•almost upright, curved. Flowers numerous, heaped^ blood- red, very large, pubescent^ 
on round peduncles, an inch in lengthy with linear bractes at their base ; calyx supe- 
tior, with five long lanceolate, reflex, serrate teeth j corolla nerved inwards ; the an- 
ther has five blue grooves; geim inferior, angular^ surrounded by the calyx; style 
thick ; stigma inclosed within the anther, capitate^compressed^ white, villose ; capsulQ 
;;«gular, two-celled, crowned by the calyx — Sw. Browne says this is found chiefly i% 
4ha aooier mountains^ where it shoots frequently to the height of five or six feet. 

9. iU:trilINAtA« ' fOtNTBD. 

^^tigpummlmJUh ohtongo; serrate ^ ftorc gat^to^ integral pattide lutesi 
w X jiloant^ * 



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8loan«*, V. 1; p. K>^,- t. 95, f. 2,- Fplii^f.oiloifi^iSy ttngwftfs^ imitiS^ 
et acute sevratis ; cault simplki^. vifhpjit felwlato^ supp^n^^ ik ^i^ 

cam IcngariUd^sini^tu, Bixiwiiey p. "322.- ' ^ 

'■■J - . 
Stwn upright, suffrtiiicose ; leaves ^Itin^eolatea dttenidateKly^ scrrttU^I^ j .-F*oeine' 
terminating, roiiny flowered. 

This has a stalk as big a;i ones-iinger, .^isesthree-fcetbi^h, being green ^apd smooth^^ 
ftiKl haviug very many leaves set o« ix> Avitijoiit an\ o)di'r> each ot wliich is ten inches. 
4ong, and twp broad iu the nmlJie., of 4idj»rk. green cfjlour, and indented about tl^e 
edges. At the top are a great uianv flowers, of a- pait* yellow colour, and galeated,, 
having a Jong giilea turnedjnp,,auUsu«u? stamina i^^mung out of the middle tif ^6 tlower^ 
*rhe seeds are very small, and scarce discernublo, biown, ^BdeoutaiMud injWiYerat-i:€llst-, 
in one capsule, surrouiidetl with four lolioiiUT--*^^<^^/?^^ . 

4V"SIPHIUTK:As SJPHILtnC 

Stem upright; leaves ovate-lanceolate, ,sub-serrate ; simises of the caly.iL nSesi . 

This is called the blue rardinaJfioxi^er from the colour 0f its flower, it is a natif« of-; 
Virginia, and has been introduced. Its root is noted for rts^ffitacy m^curing, siphilis^.. 
whence the specific name. A decoction is made of a handful, of the roots irn tm'ee mea- 
sures of ^^^ter, and half a fneaswre takfen in the morning fasting, and repeated W the 
evening: the dose-is gradually increased till its purgative effects become toovioleutj 
when it is to be intermitted for a day or two, and then renewed till a perfect ciucc 19 • 
effected. During its use a proper regimen is enjdincJ, and the olcers to beJVequently, 
washed with.the clecootion ; or if deep and foul, to be sprinkled with the powder 4)£4h« a 
i^^ner bark of >Iew Jersey tea tree. , • 



CARBOON.; CYNATtA.^ ' 

Cl. .19, OR. l.Sj/ngeriem .pQli/§amia aqualU^ NaT* PR.— Owflw'/?^. , 
ISen. char. — See Artichoke,. j>. 34, . 

OARDVNCULt/S. . 

tfeaves spiny^ alTpinnsrtiftd ; calycipe scalea ovate. .^ 

The cavdnnculus^ ox Spanish car^rfow^. gre^itly resemhjes the ?irticfaoke, bot -ia^ <* > 
fers^er, aod more regular growth.; tb.e leaves beiQff mpre upright,, taller, and bro^dev^ , 
ancl more regularly .divideil ;.and tTie,staJ[ks oC the. leayesblanchfid are the. only e{U;abki*^ 
parts of the plant. , It is a. very hardy p)ant^:aqa propagated in.tiie «ana^ mann^ as.thti . 
^ichoke. When theij> footstalks have agquired.ji rticE substanqe, .,the-leav<59 xrf. eacb , 
plant must be tied up to admit p^ Earthing fljem closely all. round for blanching^ which» . 
will take up six oV eight weeks. Browne observes that this, plan^ was introduqed in^ . 
1}\is island by Mr* Wallen, sind raii^eAiawapy gardens, Mh in,^hp l9wlaA4s aiid u^ tW 
4iH>untains. 

In some parts of Spain they substitntethe down of this plant for rennet, in making . 

^(K^e« 'AuHTQQg infosioa is m^e oxer 4;iight,; . aad t^e w%S m^rxiiogi when the 4nilS . 

« - : ' " -. m 



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HORTUSr JAM AICENSIS* tSS 

2ft «^m from the cow ;thcy put nearly half a pint of the iftfusioq to about fourteen g9l% 
iptisofnuilu 

See Artichokb. 

CAROuus—5Ve Blessed Thistle 
Carex — See Sedges. 



CARROT. DAUCUS. 

CL.Sy OK. 2. — P^fiiapdrtadsgi/nicK' Nat. OR. — Umbelhifir. 
'Gbn. CHARi-^Calyx umbd, universal ; corolla xiniversal, diffonn, somewhat rayed^ 
idl hermaphrodite; Aoscules of-thetlisk aborth'e ; stammSL capillar}' ; lanthers mu^ 
pie ;. the jHstiThas an iirfentor small eerm, two Tcflex styles, Avith obtuse stigmas ; 
. there is no perica»*;> ; fruit ovate, often hisped on every side, whh stitFliairs, bi- 
partite; seeds tw«, somewhat ovate, on one side coovex," hisped, on^ theother flat, 

CARaTA*. CrVRROT, 

Seeds hii^ed; petioles nerved uod^rueath,. 

. There jHpe>several -varieties^ the whdie^ tke onmgt^ and ihejmrple carrct ; the oipinge 
'is the best, and thrives extremely well in Jamaica, where k is often found of as lax^e « 
^e as need be ; as large indeed as they grow in England. 

They aie jwropagaiett bjf seeds, feat the imported seeds, when good, are certai/ily 
preferable* The carrots* produced firom' the Jamaica seeds are -smaller of a paier 
cqIqujc, ^mftd degenerate in proportion as thev are removed from the original stock, so 
thait,i ift'time^. without afresh supply of seed,, tliey would be entirely lot>t, or so indif- 
ferent as. oQt to ke'mottbi ooltivaling« They delight in a loose soil, and the beds where 
'they arc sowed should be well dug, that the roots may meet as little obstrnction a? pos- 
; ible in going down, so as to fork them. Too much dung occasions them to be worm- 
eaten. : The hairin^s of the seeds makes the sowing them difficult, asthey stick toge- 
ther*; but ^hen sown they ahoold be trod kK with the-feet,^ and the ground raked level 
over them. 

•Raw carrots are' given tn England 't» diildven troubled with worms. They pass 

through most people, but little changed. A poultice made of the roots bath been 

' found to mitigate the pain and abate the stench of cancerous fleers. Crickets are very 

fond of carrots, andare easily destroyed by naaking a pasteof powdered arsenic, wheat- 

^mi^l, and scraped .carrots, which must be plaeed'uear their- habitations. By their 

strong antiseptic quaUtiea, a marmalade made from carrots has also been found useful 

- in preventing and curing the sea scurvy. The seeds have been reckoned carminative 

ana diuretic ; and were formerly much used as a remedy for the stone, but are at pre* 

sent disregarded. -Carrots were first introduced inta England by the Flemings, in • thq 

f eign of Queen Elizabeth. 



CASHAW. MIMOSA. 

Xiu 23f OR. 1. — Folyg^miamonoecia* Nat. OK^^^Lomentaceie. 

X2 G^ 



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|M H0ETU5 JAMA!C£NblS, ^csgom 

/ 

V 

Gen. chak. — See Cacoon^ p. 137. There are two species pf ihe/wimawf, Immmrlyf ^ 
the Dame o£ca^^ze^. ,! / - 

1. TORTUOSA,- ^R1TITC:1>;. 

jicacia americana^ siliquis teretibus ventriosisj ^fl&ribUs Ititfh. "Sfoane^ 
V. 2, p. 56. Tortuom^ aculeis^ rectis-gemimtis^ foliis tenuissimisy 
spica globosay sUiquis vrassis.. Browne, .p. 251. 

Spine* stipulary ; leaves bipinnate, four-paired, a. gland between :ihe lowesty 
ptnnas sixteeit-paiied ;; spikes g,lobuIar. 

This tree has a brandling stem. v the branches. diffused, suh.divided,.flexiiosc^ 
SKBOothish, spiny, uitli a bruwn bark;, spines in pairs, almost united at thebaic. 
stretched out, half an inch long,^ leaves tliree or foujr from one point, alternate ; par- 
tial ones two or three paised ; pinnas twelve to sixteen^ lanceolate, bluntish^ entire, 
smooth. Univer^^ai petit les, Tound, filiforni, Teddish ; partial petioles angulac— 
Glands solitary, browii^ in the middle of the universal petiole, below.the leaflets;. 
flowers peduucled,.in heads,, yellowy peduncles solitary, above the spines, among., 
the leaves, half an uich in lengtli, bent down, ^"ilaraents monodelpbous, .twenty or 
twenty-four, upright,, yellow^; germ ovate, rainu^ ; leffume horned, roundish, torn- 
lose, drawn to a point at both ends,, heaked, . black ; «eeas ob-ovato, black, 'comppesse'd^ 
a httle. Between the duxer coat of the pod> ^^^ the inner vtnembnine separating :the - 
seeds,, there is a liquor of the consistence and colour of.a.5ynip,.whicn8aiellsTei^c^ 
strong and is bitter and astringent. Browne sajs that this would prove^ an excellent. 
medicine, where rough astringents are requisite ; he also observes, *' There is xio plant,.' 
more common than this in the lowlands of Jamaica,, but the smell of the whole plant i&. 
so rank and disagreeable, that it cannot be used even for iirewood. Cattle,are said IB 
browse upon its more tender shoots, , in dry weather.'" It isxxiiiied the turtfcia orucac^^"* 
bush, and frequently made hedges of. 

Casbaw grows to a large size,, and jsibund in-great^abut^daneeintbe netghbouiimoft: 
of Passage Fort, and the Bridge River in St. Dorothy. . It is luxuriant and spreading. 
It is esteemed a good timber wood, and used for building small craft and wharf piles,, 
on account of its being ollensive to the worm, tough,, an 1 lastiag. The wood is of j|. 
firm grain, beautiful brown colour,, very glossy when polished, and,, though it stinks ^ 
worse tlian assaldDtida wlien fiist cut,-4t acquunes, l^ keeping, a perfume or s^reeable ' 
odour, very similar to tliat oi' rosewood. It seems to be largely impregnated with a 
resin, which probably is not withoijt some "valuable qualrcy. Both the barS and roots of- • 
this tree aiford a red dye, at present unattended to. — Lomgy.p. b^S^. 

2. JULIFLORAi 

Diffusa J spica Qhlongaf. siliquis longi^Hmstom'^ressis. ^l&nmn% 
p. 252. 

Spines stipulary, in pairs ; leaves bipinnate>.bijugous,. distinguished by a glandj 
spikes pendulous ; legumes compressed. 
This is called the pop^iaxy or opoponaxy and rises freqwntly to the height of four« 
teen or fifteen feet. It is not so prickly as: the tortuosa-y and the leaves are rather 
4arger j it is of a more spreading growth,- and furnished with oblong flower spikes, an^ ^ 



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^isRX^ TORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 157 

«uch longer legumes or pods. It was introduced into this island from the continent, 
,ai)d thrives yery* luxuriantly ; increasing indeed so fast as to become very troublesome 
ih niost pastures. * 

Poponax. — ^Thisis a name, butTcry erroneous, ^hat they in Jamaica give to a plant 
vdiich is ofthe acacia kind, and is more exactly like the Egyptian acaciay^or thorn. It is 
reported, that a certain person brought the seed of it to Jamaica, -and planted it, and said, 
if he lived to see itgrow^ he should get an estate by it ; bat how, remains a mystery to 
this day, ujiless it is for its. dying quaiity ; .its flowers are indeed Tery odoriferous. The 
dyers u^e the husk of tbe po<ls to dye black.; they also soak some of the pods all nigKt 
in water, then mix a little alum with it^ and boil it to a dtre thickness, wnich makes a 
▼ery fine black and stmng ink- 1 have often made it, and wrote with it, and observed 
it never &des or turns yellow, as copperas ink will, . 3 carried some of the pods with 
»e to England in 47i7, and gave them to a dyer^ jHio tried them, and said, they ex- ' 
ceeded galls for dying of Unen^ ^and, if they would come as cheap, .would be prefera- 
ble: but I also observed, the worms destroyed the pods and seeds q\xickLy. 

It is certain that the succus acacut j-th^t is one^of the ingredients oimithridntCf and 
Venice ireacie^ is only the hardenetl juice extracted by decoction ofH^acacia or Egyp- 
tian thorn-, I-which 1 iake to be this, tree, - or at least to be as good, if not better, haviug 
rather a more restringentxiuality,. and thererore proper in dl sorts of fluxes. 

Th^xidsx^ot poponajT^^ that they give to this plant, I take to be the corrupted word 
fA 9popQHax\y/)i\cii is a gum, or inspissated juice^ pf ajpiant called jwrwo^' heraclhun : 
-^ this.i^ notthe^ee.— BarAtfm, p. 150. 

The planters made fences with it in^the southern^oWIands and^vannas,!)!^ its seeds 
dispersing about,. Jt soon sprouted spontaneously, and now it over-runs Yast tracf|> of 
land, andmaintaijasits.grpundso firtnly, that so long as the least particle of the root 
i^mains, jt neyer>ceascs throwing up its thorny plants ; whence it is next to impossi- 
ble to eradicateitjenticely fiom a piece of.lancl in which it has once ikmiished. The 
?Qds arcj richly impregnated with a sticky astringent gupn, easily to be extracted.— 
Vhexi they ate lialf ripe, this juice may be made use of for cementing broken chinai 
The tmak;^^ ^when wounded, emits a transparent gum^ like gum arable. The pods are- 
liableLXabe destroyed by a worm, J)ut»they might probably be preserved by steeping u 
-liitlevWhiie-'iAlime-water,. by fumigation with brimstone just before they are packed^ 
<«r by putting asmallbag or.oox of camphor into tiie package. 

,Tbe roots, when bruised, ^yidd a very oflfex^ive -smeilj ^nd a decoctito made from, 
them is said to be* mortally poisonous. 

But, since this plantas novr grown so^comraoiH^and even-troublesome, nfinight it tJiot 
ie worth while to try if, some benefit could be HJa(Ja of it in trade ? ^ The person wb^* 
'first gave it introduction probably mistook it for the true acacia, vfbich yields the me- 
dicinal gum and mecus-nfihe shops ; experiments are reautred to determine^ whether 
the gum obtaina);)le from the trunk of these trees is not or similar use and efficacy iu^ 
nietueine-? and whether 4ie gummy jmceof the podsjuay-not be: estmcted, and pre-^ : 
pared in, a proper form, ytbr a remittance >to Europe ? Tiiirdly, whether they cannot 
he brought into demand and consumption among the dyej^-as they yield so %ne and . 
strong a black tint, .which is much wanted for linens., at is evident, from th^ affinity 
«f these plants, that the Egyptian might, if it was jjittpduced into this ifJMn^Jb^pro^ * 
9g|p*ed.with equal facUityi^-i^^n^^ p, £12; 



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158 HORTUS. JAMAICENSIS. <:x<^ittm 



The pods and seeds of the cashaw are ereedily eaten by cattle and horses^ especially, 
in dty weather. If the latter, however, nave access to water they will drink heartily^ 
and it proves fatal to them. The moisture arouses the vegigtation,^ and the seeds swell 
and put forth shoots even in the animals stomach. This is not the case with cattle, and " 
is, in till prL)bability, prevented by the secOfidlnastication. 

See CaCoon — ^Ea&t India Eton y — Gum- Arabic — IngaTree — ^Nephritic- -Trek-^* 
Sensitive Plant — ^Wild TAMAJaNi>. 



CASHEW. ANACARDIUM* 

Cl. 23, OR. 1. — Polygcnnia momecia, Nat. ovi.^^Holoraceoe. 

This generic name is derived from two Greek words, /signifying without a beart,"^ be*' 
cause the fruit, instead of having the seed inclosed^ has the nut growing at the end. ^ 

Gen.. CHAR. — Calyx of the hermaphrodite flower is a five-leaved perianth; leaflets* 
ovate, concave, coloured, erect, deciduous : .corolla five petalled ; petals lance-i; 
ojate, acute, three times as long as the calyx, upright at bott^m^ leflex at the. 
end : the stamens are ten filaments, united at the l>a.se, upright ; nine of theux, 
capillary, shorter than tlie calyx ; one thicker, dbuble the length of the others, 

^yi"gonthe germ in front; anthers roundish, in the longer filament Jarge and-i, 

'fertile, in the rest small ; the pistil has a genu kidney -shaped, obliquely emar- 
ginate in front ; style subulate, bent in, tne length of the corolla ; stigma small/' 
roundish, depressed, concave ;. there is no pericarp ; the receptacle is very large, 
ob-ovate; the seed is a kidney-shaped nut, large, at the top of the receptacle;, 

%iLh a thick shell, cellular within, and abounding with oil. The male flowers are 
either mixed with the hermaphrodites, or on a distinct tree; their calyx, corolla," 
and stamina, as in the hermaphrodites ; the pistil has no germ, or it is abortive. . 
Obs. — This tree was vrigpiallti placed in the tenth dass ; it was removed by Lin^ '. 
neus to the ninths and is now placed in the twenty -third, fro^i. the observations of 

^ £ottboelL There is but one species, anative of Jamaica, 

"^ ^iOCClDENTALB. WESTERN. 

^omifera^ seu poliusfrunifri\i Indica nuee reniformi summo pomnio 
. inascenti^^ cajous dicta. Sloane, v. 2, p. 136. Fmctu obverse ovato^ 
ifiuce renif'onnif racemis teiminalibus. Brownie, p. 225. 

"This tree, hi ferotrrable atuations, ^ows to theheight of twenty feet or more. The 
toot is large and 4)rdchiated, the tree spreading and very ramose. :?The^ leaves startd 
very thick on^tbe branches, and are of an oval form, smooth,: -tough, end shining, pe-> 
tided, scattered alternately: The flowers are «mall^ and grow in a kitKl of umbd-form 
at the tops of the bmnches, are of a-dirty red odosr,^ they ^re^umerous, and have a 
sweet smell. The fruit is sometimes reddish^^aild sometimes yellow, or streaked, which 
^Brown^ took to be owing to some difference in <he soil or culture, which is not the 
case, fof A. Robinson observes that, upon planting the stones, the trees proceeding 
irom the nut of the yellow fruit bear yellow, stod not red, and vice versa* He also men- 
^nu$ having seen a tree beanng- double auts. 



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ejt^HEW ITOUTUS JAMAICENSIS. 159 

The fmit is ftill of an acrid juice^ which is freqtiCQtly macle use of in nia'iine: pniicb. 
To the apex of the fruit grows a »ut of the size and shape of a hares kuhiey, \iui miuii 
liir»^er at the end which is next the frurt than at the otijer. The shell is very hard; 
and the kernel, which is the finest nut in the world, is covered with a thin film. Be- 
tween this and the shell ie lodged-a thick, Wackisji, inflaniniable liquor, of such a caustic 
nature in the fiesh nuts, that, if the lr[>s chance to touch it, i)listcrs will inmiediately 
fbliow. The fruit is said to be good m disorders of the stonmach ; the juice of whick 
•cuts the thick tough humours, which obstruct the free -circulation of the blood, and 
•thus removes the complaint. This jurce, expressed and fermented, makes a fiue rou<j[i 
wine useful where the viscera or soiid sjsteia lias been relaxed* J t does not thrive ui 
high mountains. 

This tree and frnitareso w^^ll Inown in America, especially in Brasil and in Jamaica, 
.•that they need no particular description^ The stone of this apple appears before the 
fruit itself, growing at the end, in the shape of a kidney, as big as a walnut. Some of 
the fruit are all led, some all* yeHow,* and sonoe mixed with both red and yellow, and 
others all white, ^ of a very pleasant taste^4n general ; but thei'e is. avgreat variety, as 
^ome more sliarp or tart, some liJie tlie taiJte of cherries, oihers very rough like unripe 
apples, but most of them sweet and pleasant, and generally goes oft wii 
•or stipticityarpon the ifjngue, which proceeds from its tough fibres tl 
through the frtiit ; when cut with a inife, it turns as black as ink. T 
the fruit bigger than others,, but the generality of diem are as big « 
shape ofi-TYench pippins, and make an excellent cyder or wine, J. 
•orchard of abe^ut three Jaundrpd trees, after the market was glutted wit 
^spirit from tliemfjirexccediug tirrack, rum, or bjfandy, of which tl 
4nirable punch, jthat 4¥)0uid provoke urine powerfullv. The flowers ar 
grow in tufts, .of*a •carnation colour, .and very odoriferous. The leave 
the Ellglisliwainut-tree leaves in shape amd smell, and are as effectuj 
oleansipg aiwiheaUftg them, being decocted, atid the ulcers washed w 
hath A;very^eaustic o>l,'4Qdged in little partitions betwixt the two outw 
-will fl$meJvio4ently when put in the fiire. The oil cures tiie herpes, ca 
lignafitnicers abounding with rotten fiejsh.; it also kills worms in nice 
it tak.^s^ away^^freckles and liver spots, but it draws blisters, therefore m 
maide^^se^of 1 smd ^eme make issues with them ; it also takes away cor 
hd^e a very good defensive round the corn, to prevent inflaming the p 
kernel is very pleasant to eat, when voung and before. tlie.fr u it is come to ri'ij)ei>6ssp 
es;ceeding any walnut ; and when older and driei^ /:roasted, they eat very pleasaitt, ex- 
ceeding, pistachid-nuts^or almoTtds, and, ground up witii:cocoa, malie an excelleiii . 
chocolate. The gum of this tree is very white and transparent hke ^lass. It hath been 
observed, that poor dropsicalsiaves that have 'had the liberty to go into a cashew- wdJi^ 
and eat what cashews they please, and of the roasted nuts, have been recovered.-^ • 
'Thesetpecsavaof qHl<*'gr«vWiTJ hare*plaiited'tbe-nut, 3m the young li^ees have 
•produced fruit in two years time, and will keep bearing once ^-year for fOi*Ey or fifty 
j^ar^, nayya hundred, by what 1 can understand, if no accident attends them. IVfany , 
^e now floiirishing in Jamaica that were, planted when the Spaniards i^ad it ia possfl6«!. 
4k>n ; fof th(e wood ise^^oeQqot ^biig ana iksting timber.r-»^ar^a9), .p. 32. 

• Some planter^ ro^pt the'ripe fruit at A fire^ ^4 dice one or kvro intoa bovA of jmnci^u 
t0igijfeitapleasiiatjiftv0ur^. » .;.*.♦......,* .w ... , "aittj - 



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IW HORTUS JAMAICENSia €Msmm 

The tree annually transudes in large quantities, viz. often to ten or rsrelve potmfe 
weight of a fine, semi-transparent gum, similar to gum arabic, and noc^t alt infierinr 
to it in virtue and quality, except that it contains a slight astringency, which perhaps; 
renders it, in many respects,, more valuable ;* for which reason it is often used as a 
suceedaneum in the Jamaica siiopsy and might answer equally well ia. Great Britain^ if 
encouragement was given to collect ai^d remit it.* 

The tliic^ oil of the nut,, or shell, tinges linen of a rusty iron- colour, whick can. 
hardly be got out ; and if any wood be smeared with it, it preserves it from decay. If 
a proper method could therefore be falien upon, for extracting this oil from the sheU> 
which at present is generally thrown away as useless, it would doubtless be applicable 
to various good purposes ; for no worm would attack the wood whose pores -are filled 
with it^ It would certainly be an excellent preservative to house-timbers, if not to ships 
bottoms, mixed with other compositions ; though, for the latter operation, perhaps it 
might be difficult to obtain it in plenty sufficient, or at a price that would make it an-, 
swer to the exj>erimcnt. But, where a less quantity might be wanted, there is great 

, probability of-obtairjing it ; as tlie tree is so easily propagated, grows jn almost any soil,, 
|)cars luxuriantly, and lives to a very great age. 

From the body of the tree is procured, by tapping or incision, "b milky juice, whioj^ 
stains linen of a deep black, %nd cannot be got out again : but whether this has th^ 
same property with tliat of the East Indian anacardiuMy has not yet been fully experts 

.liiented ; for the inspissated juice of that tree isthe best sort of lac which is»^used for 
staining black in China andJapan. 

Dr. &rew mentions the juice being used for stainingt)f cottons; but it rsdoubtfat 
which of the species he means ; though Sir Hans Sloane supposes it to h.i of the acam> 

jou or cashfiw, here mentioned. 'However, it may be very well worth the trial. A few^ 
of the trees may be tapped in the bleeding season, the juice collected in earthen potg, 
kept in a place free from dust, or the pots covered with a linen clodj, to, prevent dust 
from mixing with it; and, when of a proper tjousistence, experiments may be made to 
see if it has the same property with the Japan lac, which, if it has, it may prove a va* 
luabltJ commodity. i.lE may be proper, for greater certainty^ to vary the experiment; 
to expose some of the juice in shallow wooden receivers, covered with a single linoa 
cloth, to the heat of the sun, and reduce it to a consistence in the'same manner as the 
aloes ; or inspissate it in iron pots over a &re, by gentle evaporation. - If either way 
sboidd succeed, a new and importantarticle would -he gauted to the coipmerce of ihe 
islani — Long^ p^ 735, 

The oil between therinds, if held to a candle^ emits bright, salient^, particle^^ This 
^11 is used as a cosmetic to remove freckles and sun^uruing^^but th]e paia suffered 
^IQiakes its use not veiy frequent. — Grainger, 

£xpressedjuice of the fruit, in redwme saqgare^y ^ood in feooale weaknesses.^* 
Cure also for the dropsy. The Portuguese turn their dirt eating, negroes out in the 
cashew season, and force them to live oa the iuixL Lai^^ Um» 9> p. 9^i^^-^liancef*^s 
JHedifUl A$9istant. 

CASSADA4 

- ^ Iii-€M«t<|i>ence of a prembm ia/KtttA toae ^ears ago; bj t^e society for tbf i vmvijBieiit af ar)j, tee. % q«aatU|fr of 
4iht gum ir«» <eM lo EpfUui4> to l>t tried at a soOstitnte for gum Saa^gti, in <}vitig Mikt, but it wa« not tbuiid to aiuWe^ 
4u tliosa of light col(/urs» because it contain^ atraall (^oaattiv of blackish sedtiaent or resio which stained ihara* but 
In .those of a black colour it attswered as>^l a5 gum !>eii«ga» and do Cac it opeot M i^iarlitt lor lliia §«■• It -bai tbtt 
^pdacaace of tbe oletirest ciioi arabic, and hat been fowid 6f grvar-uSein )>aslkig papeia togelbe^ af tt l^evfic ^v^dii 
^ttinUAfijUtfccteatit. li woiil4 tboafoit bt t^f M»cfa> fog tbe puryottj »<— li>fbwiwi» , ^ 



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<«tfM9A HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. , W 

CASSAJ)A. JATROPHA. 

Cl. 21, ^R,^. — Montrecia monadelphiu. Nat: ctr. — -Tricoc^^^ 

'This generic name*i8 derived from two Greek words, signifying an eatable poison. 

?Gen. CHAR. — ^Male calyx a scarcely manifest perianth ; corolla one-petaled, funnel 
form ; tube very short j border five- parted ; divisions roundish, spreading, con- 
vex, concave beneath ; stamens ten filaments, awUshaped, approximated in the 
middle ; the five alternate ones shorter, uprieht, shorter than the corolla; anthers 
roundish, versatile; the pistil vis a -weak raoiment, latent in the bottom ©f the 
flower. The female,- in the same umbel with the males, has no calyx ; corolla 
'five-petalled, -rosaceous ; the pistil has a roupdish germ, three-furrowed ; stylea 
three, bifid; stigmas simple ; the pericarp is a roundish capsule, tricoccous, three-* 
celled, cells bivalve ; seeds solitary, roundish. To this geous -belong the. physic 
nuts. There aref two varieties-of the following opeeier; 

Leaves palmate ; lobes kmceolatc, .?5[uite entire, even, 

?1 jVar. SiTTBR Casbada — Ricinus minor mticisjobtusofolioj caule verrucosa^'florerfenta^ 
pttalo aibidoy excujus radice tuberosa^ succo venenato turj^idaj Ame^ 
*ricani partem conficiunU Sloane, v. 1, p. 130, t. 85. Fdiis palmatis. 
pentadactylibus^ radice conufo^ohlongaf came sUilactea. Brown^ 

Thisplaiit«hoots froma tough, branched, woody^roet, whose slender collateral fibres 
*-<6well into those fleshy conic masses, for which the^lant is cultivated ; and rises by m 

- slender, ^oody, knotted, stalk, to the height of four, five, or six, feet, or more. The 
'^leaves are alternate, smooth, on long petioles, ^ix or •seven4obed; lobes narrow at the 

base, growing broader till within an mch<4mdA half at the top, where they diminish 
^^to an acute "point; the three middle lobes are about six inches long, and two broad 
^ where broadest; the two iiext are about an inch shorter, and the two outside lobes are 
* '^xiot more than tbree^inches long ; lite middle lobes are -sinuated on each side nesrr the 
4 top, but tbetwoothers are eotire. The^owersare produced io smalliimbels at the tops 
vof the stfl^Iu^ some mate and others female; petals five, spreading ; in the male flowers 

- stamens-ten, ^mited^; in the females.genn round, with three furrows in the centre; 
-styles three, two distant, and ooer^ig between them sbortor, aU«crowned by a single 
• stigma; ^psule^ roundish. 

^The To&t 6ftht9 plant makes »Teiy good and wbotesomerbread, aotwitfastanding the 

"^Juice is a deadly poison, called manipuera^ wherefore great care is taken to press out 

>aU its juice; and then, dried in uie sun, beat, and^neUr sifted> and baked upon a flat» 

'broad, round, iron, commonly called a baking-stone, they make the cakes as broad as 

a hat, which, buttered while hot, eat like^an oat cake. I have seen several bad acci« 

dents happen to negroes newly come to Jamaica, and strangers to the root, who have 

eat of it only voasted with its juice, which hath poisonedv^em;- The symptoms are, 

"^rst, a pain and sickness of the stomach, a sweltiug of the whole abdomen, tlienviolent 

^vomiting and purging, eiddinessof tbehead, then-a coldness and shaking, dimness of 

sight, swoonings, and cteath, and all in a few hours. The expressed juice of the root 

is very sweet to the palate, but soon putrifiet and breeds worms, called topuea^ which 

are « vioieat poisoOf and wbicb^Iodians too well know tbe use of; They dry diese 

Y i^ona^ 



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J 62 HOilTUa JAMAICFNSI«,x «»9a*II> 

worms or maggots, and powder thero ;• which powder,, in -a Ifftla quantity, they pul^^ 
under their tliumb-nai), and,. after they drink. tQ those tiiey, intend to poison, they put 
their thumb upon the bowl, ahd so cunningly convey tiic poison ; wherefore, wbei^ 
we see a negro with a long thimib nail, he is to be mistrusted. Cassada bread, niilkj, 
and sweet oil, make an adnurable poultice to ri|)en auid break any swelling. — Barhhm, . 
p, 34. 

This plant, which furnishes the Brasilians with ^reat part of "their sustenance, is 
jTiUch cultivated in this island. It thrives best in a free mixed soil, and is propagated 
by the bud or germ, in the following manner. I'he ground is first cleared, and hood 
into shailo^^ holes, of about ten inches or a foot square, and seldom above three or four 
inches in depths and without much regularity. A number of the full grown plants lac- 
ing provided, they are cut into- junks, of about six or seven inches in-length, as far as . 
they are found to be tough and woody, and well furnished with swelling, full-grown, . 
hardy, buds. Of these one or two are laid in every hole, and covered over with mould 
from the adjoining bank. The ground mfl^ be kept clean till the plants rise to a suf- 
ficient height ; the plants moufded up ; and the growth of weeds prevented. Tbey 
come to perfeetionin about eight months ; but the mots will remain in the gFOund- iSc 
a considerable time uninjured^ if the want of frebh plants,^ or bad weather, should make 
it necessary to cut the stalks. When the leaves wither, and the plant blossoms, the 
roots are fit to dig. They are then, (in good land) nearly as thick as a man^s thigh.— » 
They are taken out for use, as occasion requires, and then prepared", viz. after being 
well washed and scraped, and then rubbed into a kind of pulpy meal with an iron grater, 
they are put into strong linen bags, and placed in. cx)nvenient presses>^ The common 
rnethod of pressing is aseffectuju as any. One or more large-flat stones are placed to 
a proper height upon the ground, near the root of some old tree, in the side of which 
a hole, or notch, haVbeeuvCut equal tp tlie elevation of the stones. Into this hole is 
fixed the extremity of a stroug plank, or beam, which stretches over the stones by way 
of a lever,, pressing with b\\ its weight upon the cassada bag, which is laid upon the u)>« 
permost stone. Several heavy loads are fixed at the other end of this lever, or as many 
as it wilLbear ; and in this state the bag remains until the juice is thoroughly squeezed 
out. After this operation,, the meal is spread in the sun for some time ; then pounded 
in a large wooden mortar,, passed through a coarse sieve,, and baked on flat, circular,, 
iron plates,, fixed in a stove. The. particles of the naeal are united by the heat, and,, 
when thoroughly baked in this manner, form cakes, which are sold at the markets, 
and universally esteemed a wholesome kind of bread.* Toasted and buttered, they; 
arre very relishing, and used by most families. Th^ are also made into very delicious 
puddings. The juice of the root is of ajjoisonous- nature ;. but,..when boiled^ it throws 
up a scum,, which, being taken off, the remainder is found, .by long experience, to be 
an inoffensive and. agreeable drink, much resembling whey in taste and quality. But,. 
however noicious the juice may be in its^rude state,, unnuxed with any corrective, it 
13 well known that hogs eat the fresh roots with great avidity, and suffer no inconveni/- 
ence : either, therefore, their stomachs and intestines are formed to assimilate it into 
wholesome nourishment, or they correct its bad qualities by the surrounding mould 
swallowed with it, or by some antidote which instinct prompts them to eat after^ 

it.,* 

^ The Spaniards, wTien they fi^rst discovered the West Indies, found it in -general eie enM>ng Uie nstir^ Indian^ 
v!io called it.catabbi, and hj whonr ic was preferred to ever^ other kind of btead; on ftccoout of 4t8 easx digCfUoi^, 
Ik* tmhtj wkh wiiich U was uilUTated, and its prodigiouajDcrease* 



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^cwaA»4 Hoarua JAMAICE.NSIS, ys^ 

?it.* The negroes boil and eat the leaves as a green, It is supposed that the action of 
^the fire carries off its malignant qualities. What is not a little extraordinary, the meal, 
not yet discharged of its juice, makes an excellent salve, and seldom fails to heal the 
ivrorst sores ; and, to improve its effect, it is sometimes mi*cd Ibr^this intention with 
the fresh leaves of tobacco pounded, — Longy p. 777f 

Rochon says its poison only acts on the nervous system, and produces no inflamma* 
tion on the stomach ; but the stomach of a man, or other animal, poisoned by it, ap- 
pears to be contracted one half. Browne says it has been lately discovered by an inge- 
Bious gentleman, who has practised many years in the warm p^rts of America, that a 
little mint water and salt of wormwood, mixed and taken, vvill calm the must violent 
symptoms that arise on taking it, if timely administered. The poison being of a cold 
land, warm and active medicines are considered the best. The Indians o£ Guiana give 
.», mixture of red pepper bruised in rum. The common remedy in Brazil is, first, to 
give a dose of ipecacuanha, and then the juice or powder of a plant called mihambu^ 
v.of which the compiler has not been able to discover the generic name. Grainger say§ 
.that warm water poured on toasted cassada, ox on oatmeal made brown, will oiten stop 
a vomiting; but mint^juice, mixed, with su^, and warm goats jniil^ will generally 
succeed when it fails. 

r 2 Var. — Sweet Cassai>a. — Foiiis palmatisy lobis incertis^ radice oblongafuniculo valido 
pa* centrum ducto, came iiivea. Browne, p. 350. 

This plant is very like the foregoing in habit anJ appearance, and raised and culti- 
' tated in the same manner ; but the root is free from any of that deleterious quality tliat 

in observed in the juices of the other sort * It is always planted in seperate jilaces for 
. fcar of a mistake, and^^oasted or boiled for use ; but the latter seems to be the best 

Oiethod of dressing it ; for, in this state, the otttw^rd oart is commonly brought almost 

toa jelly, and is extremely delicate and agreeable. — Browne^ p. 350. Barham says it 
. may be eaten raw, or roasted like a potatoe, without any manner of prejudice or hurt, 
• being very nourishing, and makes a very fine white flour. JFrom the root of the sweet 
^^SiS^sAdi tapioca is made, in every respect similar to that imported; which is done by 

grating them, washing and infusing them in water, and evaporating the liquor so as tg 
«.oi>tain a sediment like starch, whic^ nmst be well dried in the sua. 

,2. GOS5YPIFOUA, -COTTON |,5AVfiO. 

' Fj^icUms minor staphysagri<e fdio^ Jlore pentapetalo purpurea, Sloane* 
. V. 1, p. I9.9y t. 84. Humilior setis ramosis omata ; foiiis trilobis 
vel quinquelobiSf levissime denticulatis. — Browne, p. 348. 

' Leaves fiv&-f}ai:t^d, ; lobes ovate, entire^ ciUate; bristles glandular, branched, 
on. the petioles. 

The leaves of the gossT/pifolta^ cotton-leaved jatropha, wild cassada, or belly-ache 
.lush J are quinquepartite, with lobes ovate and entire, and glandular branchy bristles. 
The stem, which is covered with light greyish bark, grows to about three or four feet 
iiigh, soon dividing into several wide-extended branches. These are neither decorated 
^th leaves nor flowers till near the top, which is then surroupded by the former ; their 

Y 2 footstalks^ 

^ A sow, poiMoed w£tL ciMftd* root, wis,pT«ferTed by giTtng her some olthe itotidole oocOPO, 



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W4 HORTUS JAMAlCENSia ^m^ 

footstalks, as well as the young buds on. the extremity of the t)VancUes»- pre gnerdcclk 
round witii stiff. h-rviry U'istles^. wliich are al\uiys tipped with ^;lutinous liquid drops, —* 
J»V(;m among tiiese rise several snis^li deep red pentapetalgus-llowers, thej)isitU oi eactw 
being thick set at the top with yellow l^jkrinaceous ciust, .which IJ ^ws off when npe ;v 
these flowers are succeeded by hi^xagonal husky, blackish berries, w^^ich when ripe op^eii* 
by the heat of the sun, emitting a gieat awny small dark-coloured seeds, which serve> 
as food for ground doves and poultiy, which ^are very fond of them. The Icuves are 
few ; but seldoiixpr never drop off, nor are eaten by veruvin of an\ kind. , This plants 
. grows very coo^^monly about Uie sU'eets ot\8panish Town a4id Kingston, 
^ Dr. . Wri^it informs us that a decoction of the leaVes ispftea u.^ed with advantage i^*: 
spasmodic belly-ache, attended with vomiting ; it sitseasitfron the stomach than «nj; 
thing else, and. seldom tails to bring about a discharge by.stooL The seeds are drastic • 
purges and eqietics; and they yi^ld^ by decdctipn, an oii.ofsih^ same w»es and virtuesk- 
1^ the ol^7n ricini^ 

In the months of ;Mar.ch and April, there is fouml, in the. ioside pith. of th^ foot- 
stalk, a hard knotty excrescence, of an oval shape,, hard apd yellowish, pf divers sizes, ^ 
as from a hazel-nut to a hen*9 egg : . I>» never could find what use tbey are-of ; only I* 
have observed tiie bpy$ will ppwder them and give' it for snuflE^ which." will burn anci 
tickle the.nose,.,and caii^e greater sneezing than white hellebore. I am apt to believe - 
they will purge violently ;.;for the young tops of thi^ planfc, .boiled and buttered, arer 
often given in the dry belly ^achjB, a? also in clysters, purging violently when nothing; 
else would go thir9Us^ .the patient. The seeds are like a small riVw5;_ and, if they, 
are not the trvie granadilla^. vet tiiey purge as strongly 4 -fpc. two or three seeds, givent. 
by themselves,^ or mi^ed with pills,.quickea tlie purging quality. Htnew^a practinonef • 
who alwi^tys ma(h? up pill ej^Auobus m\h addition of, these seeds, which made the pili 
work stronger and quicker, and kept iv always moists Ypu make the pill thus: Take 
wild cassia-seeds hulked, three. ounces. ;.cambogia>, coliquintida, and sqammony, of 
each one ounce ; . make a pill according to- art ; the dose is two or three ^mali ones.-^ 
They will purge very hariskly all watery humours*— ^a^'Aow, p.. 35^ . 

Six pr more of the young.Ieaves.of the. wild cassada, boiled and eiUen as calalue, are,^ 
a^strong purge in the dry belly-ache. Fifteen or twenty of the young leaves in decoc*.^ 
' tion, with castor oil, are used for a clyster in the s^me complaints Dr* A* JSipbinsoxi 
advises the d^oetioQ ihternally:,— /^anc^r'^ Med. Ass. 

&^ Pbysic Nut. 



eASSIA-SnCK-TREE. . CASSIA.^ 

Cl. 10, OR. l.-^Decaniria monogynia^ NaT* Q^.'^LfimetUac^^^ , 
^SK./CHAR«-— ifo^ Cane-Piece Seositi¥e». p. ISU 

FISTULA. Pi^E. 
Cassia nigra seu fistulosa prima^ sive cassia fistula AUxandrina,^^^ 
Sloane, v. 2, p. 43. Arbor ea^ foliis paucioribus ovatjis atqv/cjpifma,^^ 
tist ^iHqm maxima cylindracea^ Btovm^$ |^ 222# 



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mamh HORTUS. JAMAlCENSia 165 

Leaflet! five pairs, ovate-subtomentose ; petioles round, without glands. 
Tl^is rises to the height of forty or fifty feet, with a large tl'unk, dividing into «nanjr-^ 
inches, garnished with winged leaves, composed of five pair of si>ear-sijaped lobe-^, 
which are smooth, having many transverse nei*ves froni. the midrib to the iwrder. The 
ftowers are produced in long spikes at the end of the branches, and have a very agree- 
able smell, each standing upon a pretty long foot-stalk ; these are composed of five 
Yellow concave petals, which are su^'ceeded by cylindric?d pods from one to two feet 
long, with .a dark brown woody shelly having a lon^tudinul seam on one side, divideti 
fnto many cells by transverse partitions, .each containing one or twa-oval^ smooth, com- 
pressed seeds, .lodged in a blackish pulp, which is used in medicine. Such pods should. , 
qe chosen as are weighty, new, and do not make a rattling noise (from the seeds being . 
loose within them) when shaken. The pulp siiould be of a bright shining black colour, . 
and a sweet taste, not harsh, which happens from tlie fruit being gathered before it has - 
grown fully ripe,.- or sourish, which it is apt to turn upon keepwff : it should neither * 
Be very dry,, norTQrj- moist, nor at ail mouldy ; which,, from its being kept in damp * 
cellars or moistened, in ofder to increase its weight, it is very subject to be. Greatest^ 
part of the pulp^dissolvesbbth in water aiid in rectified- spirit ; and mav be extrateted^ 
ftrom the cane by either. The shops Employ water; boiling the braised pqd^ therein^ . 
and afterwards evaporating, the solution to a due consistence. This pulp is a^ gentle 
laxative medicine, and frequently given, in a dose of some drachms^ in costivehabits. - 
Geoffroy sap, it does- exceiieut service in the painful tension of the belly,, which 9pme^ 
^es follows the imprudent iwe of antirooni«h» ;. and. that it may be advantageously ac- 
tuated with. Uie more acrid purgatives, or antimonial emetics, or emplayed to abate ^ 
&eir force^v ValUshieri relates that its purgative^ virtue is. remajpkaoiy promoted h^ . 
manna ; that a mixture of four drachms^of cassia and two of manna purges as much as^ 
twelve drachma of cassia or thirty-two of manna alone. Senertus observes, that the - 
urine is apt to beturnedof a green colour by the. u^ of cassia; wd .sometimes^ wher^^ 
a large quantity has been taken^ blackish. 

This tree^ows in many parts ofJamaica, but-k not indigenous.-. 

Thej>ulp issoft, h]'9% sweetish, andof the consistence of thick' honey> andconv 
tmns oblong,, roundish, flattish seeds, that are hard, shining, and of a dusky yellov^ 
The pulp4» only in use, which is taken from the pods> and passed droug^a sieve. It • 
is Jooked npoii as a mild inoflf^nsive purge,, agreeing with all sexes and ages. lii the * 
West Indies the shell is observed to be thicker, and the pulp acrid ; in whiciu*esQect 
it^liiFers from that of the EsEst Indiea-; and perhaps this is owing, to adiffereuce in soil - 
and culture, liihjamaica the finest fruit i»^{>rodtieed from trees growing; in -rich deep: > 
mould in^Bome bottom or vale^ warm and well sheltered ;i it is not wonaerfiil that the * 
quality should degenerate, when no pains are*takeQ in the coltivatioa of it^^-^Lang^^ 

The pulp of the pod, strahed through a coarse sieve» qm^ be Jcept as air^Iectuaiy | . 
tot the pulp does not keep long, without turning rancid. Dose toe bulk of a small' '^ 
natmeg. — Dancer^s Med. Ass. p, 380. , 

^Wki^ CAMb^PifiCS SfiKSiTanE-^iloRSE €AssiA^RmowoitM SiiBlFi^^ -. 

€Aapr 



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166 HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. .,4iM 

CAT^CLAWS. DOUCHOS. 

Cl. 17, O^. ^.—^Diadelphia decandria. NaT. OR. — Fapiliofiaeeie. 

This generic name is derived from a Greek word, signifying long, from the length 
of the pods. 

Gen. char.— Calyx a one-leafed perianth, very short, four- toothed, equal ; the su* 
perior tooth eniarginate ; corolla papilionaceous, standard roundish, large, emar- 
ginate, reflex; two calluses, ol)long, parallel and longitudinal, growing tothe. 
standard beneath towards the base, compressing tlie wings, not hollowed on the 
back ; wings ovate-obtuse, length of the keel ; keel lunulate, compressed, be- 
neath converging closel}', length of the wings, ascending at the tip, : The simple 
filament is curved at the base ; anthers simple ; the pistil has a linear compressed 
germ ; style ascending ; stigma bearded, running oa inwardly from the middle to 
^ the tip of the style, which, on the forepart, is callous obtuse ; the pericarp is an 
acuminate legume, large, oblong, two-valved, two-celled ; seeds several, elliptig, 
usually compressed. The habit is that oi phascolus ; the keel, which is not spira), 
distinguishes the eenus, of which eight species are natives of Jamaica, the follow^ 
. , ing, aucl those .referred to .under their English names : 

1. PILIFORMIS. THREAD-FORM. 

Jferbaceous viinory foliis linearibus^ , siliqua polif$pemii compressa.--^ 
Browne, p. 2^4. 
Leaflets linear-obtuse, raueronate, smootfi, pubescent underneath, 
•^his little plant is frequent about Old Harbour, it grows among the bushes, but seU- 
.jdom stretclies above three or four feet in length. Thepods are long and compressed;. 
, and the stigma or top of the style, almost naked. Tliis plant is used as a purgative m- 
.gredieat in diet-drinks, and is said to answer well in hydropic cases, — Browne* 

a, ROSEUS. .ROSE-LIKE. 

,'Pha^eolus maritimus rotundifolius^ Jhre purpurea y , siliqua brcvi cri$^ 
Jata^ setnine Jusco striata. Sloane, v. I, p. 179. Maritimus r^- 
pens, foliis orhiculatis nitidis, siliquis coviprt^sis, satura alte^^a tri-^ 
' gona. Browne, p. 293. 

Stem creeping, ascending; leaflel;s roundish, diimng.; ; flowers ia.jacemes; 
legumQs three- keeled at the back. 

Browne calls this plant the large seaside dolichos with round lioveis^ and t^ays the root 
; b a strong purgative. Sloane calls it sea bean, and describes it as follows : 

'* It has a deep white root, with white filameBts,- ranumg through the loose sandy 
foil. The stalks are many, lyineonthe surface. of the ground ior many yards, being 
about the bigness of a swan's quiU, green, and a little cornered, putting out leaves aU 
temately, three always standing together. - The leaves are almost round, green, and 
smootli. The ilowers are papilionaceous, ^acd of a pale ^purple valour. The pod is 
^o inches long, and three-c^uarters of an inch^broad, straight, of a clay colour, swelled ^ 
out, or the pease appearing in it before it be opened, having two crests, raised ledger 
or eminent lines, one on each vafve near the opening of it. The peas are about six ia 
tiumber, each lying in a diiferent membr^e, of ttie bigness of *^an* ordinary beah.^^ 
frhey are oval^browu^ aad clay-coloured spots upoa them^ baying a black eye or Jiilut^ 



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cXt HORTUS JAMAICENSI8. uY 

1>y which they are fastened to the pod. It g^ows on the keys near Port Ilo}'al, p1eati« 
fully, ajid the peas are dangerous to csLty-^Sloanr, 

3. REPENS. CREEPING. 

Maritimusy minor^ repens ; pedunculis longioribvs; ^siliqms polif-* 
spermibu^y gracilibasy teretibus, Browne, p. 293. 

Stem creeping ; leaves pubescent, o^*te ; flowers racemed, in pairs ; legumes 
linear, columnar. 

This plant grows commonly by the sea side* Browne calls it the smaller sea^side 
iolichos. 

4. MINIMUS. SMALL. 

Phaseolus minimus^ ftrtidtts floribus spicafis e vin'de luteis semine ma-* , 
culato. Sloane, v. 1, p. 182, t. II 5^ f. 1. Mmimiis fcetidiis re^ 
pens^ siliculis^ bispermibus. Browne, p. 294. , 

Legumes in racemes, compreased) with four* seeds in them ^ leaves rhombs 
shaped. 

This plant has round, small, tender, stalks, twisting roand anything they come near^ 
till it be six or seven feet high, (Browne says it seldom exceeds two or three,) having 
here and there leaves and flowers. . The leaves are always thi*ee together, small, of a < 
yellowish green colour on the same peduncle ; the flowers are many spike-fashion, - 
small, scafce opening, and of a greenish yellow colour, succeeded by small pods, a 
quarter of an inch long, btack ana rough, containing one or more small oblong, black* 
ish, green speckled peas. The whole plant has an unsavoury'rank smell, and grows 
in rocky places. — Sloane. - Browne calls it the STfiall foetid dolichos. In Cur^;oa it ha» 
the name ofvraitekruytj or. wart-herb, the leaves, bruised with sall^ being reputed t^ 
cure warts. , 

5. LUTEUS. TELLOfW.'. 

Twining ; flowers in a sort of spike ; legumes subr-cylnidric, smooth ; leaves 
roundish, rhombed, obtuse, entire, smooth.— iSViy. Pr, p. {o5: 
Besides the above indigenous species, three exotic ones have been fntroduced, thfe 
laiblab, of which arbours are made ii> the East ; the sinensis^ or Chinese dolidtos } and . 
the catiangf which is said to be cultivated for food in the East Indies. 
See CowiTCH— HoRS£ B£AN — ^Horse-Eye-Beak. 

CATESBiEA— iSfee Trumpet Flower. ^ 



i 



^ 



CAT-MINT. NEPETA; 

CL. 14, OR. \.'--Didynamiagyni'Mspermi<td^ Nat. (^.^^Vertiiiltai^* 

Oen. char. — Calyx one-leafed, five-toothed ; corolla oiie*petalled, ringent, iowcr . 
lip with an intermediate segment, crenat^, tlirqat reflex at the edge ; stamina awl<«* 
tjaaped^ bene^h the h^e( Mp ^^^^^^^^% i antbeips incumbent \ tb^ ^i^ has ^> 



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168 H0RTU3 JAMAICENSIS. i?^ 

a four-cleft germ^ filiform style, and bifid stigma ; there is no pericarp j caljx 
straight, containing the seeds in its bosom, which aire four, sub-ovate, 

V CATARIA. 

Flowers in spikes; whorls sub-pedicefled ; leaves petioled, cordate, tooths 
sermte. 

This plant is a native of Europe, but thrives very well in Jamaica. 'The stalk is 
branched, the leaves are hoary, particularly below. The flowers are flesh-coloured, 
growing verticillate in spikes at the tops of the branches ; the middle segment of the 
lower Up is spotted with red. The plant has a bitter taste and a strong smell, not un- 
like pennyroyal. An infusion of it is reckoned a good cephalic and eromenagogue, be- 
ing found very eflScacious in chlorotic cases. Two ounces of the expressed juice may 
be given for a dose. It is calleH cat-raint, because cats are very fond of it, especially 
when it is withered ; for then they will roll tJiemselves on it, and. tear it to pieces, 
shewing it in their mouths with great pleasure. -Mr. Ray^nentions his having trans- 

Jlantecf some of the plants from the fields into his garden, which were soon destroyed 
y the cats ; but the plants which came up from the seeds in his gurden escaped ; this 
^ verifies an old proverb, •*^* If you set it, the cats .will eat it; if you sow it, the cats wiU 
not know it.'* Mr. Withering is of opinion,* that where there is a great quantity 6F 
•plants growing together, the cats.will not. meddle ;Mrith them ; but Mr. Miller observe 
that he has frequently transplanted one of these plants firom.anotlier part of the garden^ 
.within two feet of which some came up from seeds ; in which case the latter have re* 
jQfiained unhui:t, ,when the former have been torn to pieces and destroyed : he acknow- 
^ ledges, however, that where there is^ large quantity of the herb growing together, 
?4hey will not touchit vTbis is acurious circumstance^cand not easily accounted fot; 
:Mr. Ray, however, .ba8a8signed«txeason, .which, seems just in a certain degree, that 
<the cat is fond of the plant in a languid or withering state, or^hen the peculiar scent 
of it is excited by ha^^ing been handled or bruised ; but ^till this does not account for 
, the cats avoiding it.whea in considerable quantities, and only making a prey of it when 
ia detached parcels. ' - 

This plant is very hardy, acid easily propagated by seeds. .If sowaupon a poor dvy 
< soil it does not grow too rank, but continues longer, and has a handsomer appearance 
^JilfUlix^Wh groundj \vhere it grows too luxuriantly, and lose^its^acent* 



^AT-TAIL, ^rHEED MACE^ TYPHA. 

•<Jl. 2Jl, OR. S.-^Monoecia triAudrisu 'V^.^-O/K.-^CMlamarut. 

TBti generic name is dedved from a Greek word for a marsh, iwhere these fHaaCs 
^generally j^row. 

4&EN« cflAR.«-rThe mala fiowers ave mimeroiift, in an amenjb, terminating the culot;. 

. thecaiyx is a common ament, cylindrical, very close, coniposed of three-leavedl 

setaceous ]!>roper perianths ; there is no corolla ; the stamens are three fiiamentSt 

capillary, the length of the calyx ; anthers oblong, pendulous. The female 

#MK)m ite luiaeroi^ in a^ wiof^ dUgestcid veqr 



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«nAii RORTUS JAMAICENSIft 1«f 

compactly, tljey have neither calyx nor corolla ; the pistil h5a$ an orate ^erm, 
placed on a bristle, an awl-shaped style, and a capillary permanent stignia ; there 
js qo pericarp ; the fruits numerous, forming a cylinder ; seeds single, ovate, re^ 
taining the style, placed on a bristle ; down capillary, from the base to the middle 
&stened to the seed-bearing bristle, length of tlie pistil. 

LATIFOUA. BROAD-LEAVED, 

Typhapalust vis major. Sloan e, v. 1, p. 12i?. Simplex, faliis longii^ 
angustis comprtssi^y spica diiplici te^^minalL Browne, p. 236. 
Leaves somewhat sword-shaped ; male and female spikes approximating. 
The root is creeping^ the young shoots white, terminating in a sharp point. Stalk 
firom three to six feet high, simple, upright, leafy, round and smooth, without knots,. 
Jeafy at tlie base. Leaves alternate, upright, Uvisted, at bottom sword-shaped and 
fleshy, at top fiat, about an inch in breadth, and two or three feet in length, inclosing 
the stalk in a veiy long sheath. Sheaths two, deciduous, one at the bottom of tlie male * 
spikes, the other at the middle ; frequently a third smaller between the middle and the* 
top of the spike. This plant is found in every quarter of the world, and grows in all 
climates, in ponds, ditches, and the sides of brooks. Haller aays that the roots are- 
eaten in saliads, and cattle eat the leaves. Sloane says its down is used for beds, and 
applied to kibed heels cures them. Schrever asserts that the leaves are suspected to be 
poisonous, Browne mentions the leaves as making good mats, and being used fotc: 
thatch. It grows naturally in Jamaica. 

This is commonly found in all the lagoons. The leaves are long and ensiformed.— %^ 
They make excellent mats. The seeds have a stupifying quality ; and, when pounded 
and mixed with butter, or other proper substance, destroy mice. An unguent is pre*^ 
pared of them, with hogs lard^ for bums or scalds. The seeds are esculent^ roasted* 



CEDAT^ CEDRELA. 

Cl. 5^ OR. \.--^Pentandria monogyniai Nat. or. — Miscellanea. 
CrFN. CHAR. — Calyx is a small one-petaJed perianthium, bell-shaped, five-toothe3^ 
withering ; corolla monopetalous, double the length of the calyx, dividecl into five 
cblong sections ; the stamina are five filaments, shorter than the corolla, seated 
on the receptacle, with subrotund anthers ; the pistil has a subrotund gennen, a 
five-cornered proper receptacle; style cylindricy length of the corolla; stigma 
Beaded, depressea ; the- pericarp is a superior capsule, five-ceikd, five-valved^ 
voody, the valves deciduous ; seeds many,^ ffeshy, oblong, compressed, imbricate- 
downwards^ terminated by a membranaceous wing ; receptacle woody ,.five-Angledy 
#ree. 

ODORATA. SMELLINa 

JPpuno forte affinis arbor fnaximay materie rubra, laxa^ odordto.'^ 
Sloane, v. 2, p. 128, t 220, f. 2. Foliis majoribus pinnatis, fio-^ 
wibm laxcracemi^sus, ligniicvi odoraia. Bxowae, p. 158, t. lo, f. u 

2. £lowe&^ 



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170 HORTUa JAMAICENSIS^ CELANDn* 

Flowers ptvnicled. 

This tree. rises with a straip:ht stem to the height of seventy 6r eightj* feet, and fre- 
quently found from three to hie feet in tliameter. While young the hark is smooth 
.and ot an ash colour, but as it advances the bark becomes rough and of a darker colour^ 
having Ion- itu^linal fissui'es. Towards the top it shoots out many side branches, gar- 
nisheiJ with alternate winged leaves, comppsed of from eight to fifteen pairs of opposite 
JeaJltiis, so that tiiey are trom eighteen inches to two feet .and ^ li^lf in length ; the 
Jeallets are broad at their base, ending in a narrow point, and from three to fivd* inches 
long. The peduncle is round, swelling into a knot^ and sooiewljat cla>vated at tli© 
base ; pediqels found, opposite. The llowers on a very branching raceme, panicled ^ 
jDorollas whitish, flesh colour. The fruit is a capsule, continued from ^ woody peduncle^ 
^nd woody itself, brown, with irregular pale sj)ots, appearing as it vi(tire Je|:u"ous, withiij 
x)f a reddish bay colour, the valves opening from the top^ but perm^ment at .the base, 
^ud not falling. The top seeds are ellipticj the middle ones obloHg ovate, tfce lower 
.ones ovate-lanceolate, all ferruginous, cinnamon colour, with ^ nucleus at top, ancji 
terminating beloiy in a metpi^ranaceous wing. This tree is very common in many pai't^ 
of Jamaica. When the branches or leaves are broken off this tree, or the bpdy chopr. 

i:)eJ, it has a strong and djsiigreeal)le smell, which spreads to a considerable distance, 
>Ut wbeo tlie wood is dry it emits an agreeable fragrance. It is very full of a dark re^ 
sinous substance, light, porous, of 53^ brownish red colour, and easily worked ; it i$ 
jnuch esteemed Oil this account, as well as tjie beauty of its grain, for wain scotting^ 
and other cabinet ware. It is also excellent for nmkmg chests, or the iaside of drawers, 
us no vermin wdl invade it, on account of its strotig scent. It makes also excellent; 
planks and shmgies, ^hich are very durable, having be^n kwown to last full thirty 

} rears, vrh/en exposed to the weather, as shingles, and the durability of ttje wood is n(* 
ess a recommendation Jth^n its lightness for this purpose. It is not fit to be made 
juto Qasks, as all $piritupus Ijqyors diisolve a great qiiantity of its resin, from which they 
acquire a strong bitter taste. The trunks of the trees are often so large"]^ to be hoU 
lowed out into canoes and periaguas, for which purpose it is extremely well adapted, 
^s, from the softness 'of tlie wood, it js hoUowjed out with great facility, and, being 
Jight, it carries great weight on the water. Canoes have been made of it forty feet long 
^nd six broad. It is ac^ir^ioi^s ^circumstance, but well kn^wn, th^ if a pigeon house btj 
floored with this wood, the pigeons will not hatch ; and, it is said, that when parrots 
feed on its fruit they taste of garlic ; it also gives victuals laid on it a bitter taste. A 
clear transparent gum, like gum ar^bic^ exudes from this tree in considerable qudnti^ 
ties, on its being wounded, which dissolves in water, and has been found very fit for 
shoemakers use. This tree is easily propagated from seeds, and is of quick growth. — . 
Jt occasionally slieds all its leaves, but, it would seem^ at 00 regular periods^ as $00^9 
^i tb^ trees ^e ia/uU foliage while others ar« b^e, 

• 

£!edar, Bermudas — See Bermudas* 
£ei3a—a^><j Cotton Tkbe. 



CELANDINE or PARROT WEED. BOCCONIA, 

jfJju. 11^ OR. h-^Dodecandrifimonogi/nfa, Nat. OB,»-^hodacex. 



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CELiNDCST? H O R T U a JAMA'l-C ENS 13, Ml 

This is nampd ir\ honour of Paolo Boccone, M. J>: a Sicilian author of several beta*- 
pical works. 

Gen. char. — Calyx a two-leaved perianth, ovate, obtuse, concave, caducous ; tli^re 
is no corolla; the stamens are twelve filaments, with linear large antliers ; the style 
has a roundish crerm, contractoJ botUwa^s, large, pedicelled r style bi lid ;; stig- 
niaij simple, retiex ; the [)ericarp sub-ovate, attenuated at each enJ^ compressed, 
one-ceiled, two-valved'; sest? 1 one, globular, the base involved in the pulp, fixed to 
the bottom of tJie capsule. Ttiero is only one species, which is a native of Jamaica : 

FRUTESOENS. . SHRUBBY. 

Chelidoneion vufjus ui'horeiim fcliis^ (fuercinis: — Sloane, v. I, p. \^6^ 
t. \25^ liamosay JoUis majunbu^ simiatisj rcucmis terminalitms. 
Browne,: p. 244. 

This -shrub is very common in Jamaica, and rises to the height of ten or twelve ^eet,. 
"With a'straight trunk ss large as a man^s arm,, covered with a white smooth bark, and^ 
branched towards the top. The trunk is liol low, filled with a pith like the elder^ 
abounding m tliick yellow acrid j«ice, as are all parts of the plants like argemone and* 
celandine. At th^ top it divides into several branches^ on- which the leaves are placed 
alternately, they are eight or nine inches long;, and five or six broad, and deeply sinu-. 
ated or gashed, sometimes almost to the midnb, of a yellowish green colour. They 
are sub-serrate, with, roundish petioles. Racemes- terminating, papicled, a foot or 
more long,- diffused, rrodding ; peduncles one- flowered ; bractes, under the flowers^ 
small, lanceolate. It is common in all the shjidy gullies tliat lie among the hills and' 
mountains in the inland parts The following ha* been recommended for the cure of ar 
film on the eye, or fungus : Take the root of this plant, peel offthe bark, then scrape 
and strain it through a fine rag, when it may be put into a phial for use. Drop three 
or four drops in the eye,, twice a-day,^ and it will take off any film, occasioned by the^ 
Mnall pox or otherwise,, fungus,: proud^flesh, &c. Its root is also a cure for ulcers, by 
scraping off the bark, and bruising and spreading » cataplasm on rag or lint : tliis must: 
be laid on the sore, after clearing it of proud -fleshy and itwill make a perfect cure in ^ 
very short time* The juice stains a deep yellow, and is very bitter and biting to tha 
taste^ 

I have often met with this plant, and wondered how thev came to call it celandine, it^ 
differing so much from the English sort ;. for this generally grows six or sevenJeet high- 
with a very thick stalk, covered with a white smooth bark, branching with a great many 
large leaves, and deeply divided at the ends, of a yellowish-green colour onthe upper 
aide, and whitish underneath ; on the top comes out a branch of a foot long, full oi? 
bunches of flowers,, each standing on a short foot- stalk,, and hath in it many staminax)r 
threads of a yellow colour, . and seed-vessels of an oval shape, in the middle of which is 
a small brown oblong seed : All parts of this yield, in breaking, a yellow juice,, like 
^Dimon celandine, from which it bath its name, as I suppose, l^rnandez calls it 
fiiauAchillij, sive Chilli species, from its sharpness like Indian pepper, and saith it waa 
planted by tlie Indian kings in theirgardens^ It is much stronger than English celan- 
dine, being very hot and drying. The juice cures tetters and ring-worms, and takes* 
fS warts and films of the eyes ; but I shoiUd not care for using it to the eye^ being sa» 
iBij sbarjji. — Barham, p, 37. 

Czh£KY—See Parsley. 



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If* HOIITUS JAMAICENSISL CSRiSEft 

No ^English Name. CELOSIiU 

Cl. 5, OR. \,-^Pentandria inonogynia. 'NaT. 0'R,'—Mis€(Uaneit. 
Gen. char. — Calyx a three- leaved perianth ; corolla five-petalled ; stamina con« 
joined to the base by a plaited nectary; capsule gaping horizontalij. One species 
i^ a native of Jamaica, 

PANICULATA, PANICLED. 

Jimarantusfruticosus erectus, s^pica viridi^ kiva et strigosa. Sloane^ 
V. 1, p. 142^ t. 91, f. ]. Foliis oblongis^ Jloribus racemose spicatis^ 
fere sessilibus. Browne, p. 1 19, 

This plant is common in the lowlands about Spanish Town and Kingston. Stem suf- 
fruticose, prostrate, round, bub-divided, striated ; branches diverging ; leaves acu- 
minate, petioled, entire, smooth ; spikes racemed, axillary, and terminating, short. 
Flowers distinct, whitish. The calyx consists of five ovate, acute, leaflets, whitish 
within % there is no corolla, but a cup-shaped, five-cornered nectary, surrounding the 
germ ; to the edge of this the filaments are affixed. The anthers are versatile and pur- 
ple ; germ ovate ; style subulate, simple, red ; stigma trifid ; capsule covered hy tlia 
permanent caly?, with numerous shining seeds.~^*ya^. 

This shrub has greenish, woody, and small stalks, rising to about two and a half feet 
high. The leaves are many, smooth, of a dark green colour, placed along the branches 
without order, on half inch long footstalks- They are an inch long and three-quarters 
broad, where broadest, a little from the round base, whence they decrease to the point. 
The flowers stand in spikes at the tops of the branches, about three inches long, are 
not open, but made up of five leaves, of a yellowish green colour, in the middle of 
which is a large blackish stylus, which comes in sometime to be a seed vessel or husk^ 
containing several seeds, each of which is scarce discernible to the eye, shining, and 
of a brown colour, roundish, and hollow on one side like a dish, if viewed by .the nu* 
4>fosco|)e, It grows by the b^ks of the Rio Cobre.— ^/(wr^/t?. 



CERASEE, MOMORDICA- 

Cl. 21, OR. 9. — Monoecia syngenesia, Nat. OR. — Cucurbitacea, 

This name is derived from the JLatin word mordeo^ to bite, from the seeds having the 
•jBppearance of being bitten. 

Gen. ciiar. — Male calyx a one-leafed, five-fcleft, perianth ; in the concave part be* 
neath the corolla is a hollow nectareous gland ; corolla five-parted, fastened to the 
calyx, spreading, Ijarge, veined, wrink^d ; the staipens are three filaments, (five 
have been observed,) awl-shaped, and short; anthers, on two filaments, bifid, 
eared at the sides, pn the third simple and one-eared only, consisting of a com-* 
pressed body and a fariniferous line, once reflex. The female calyx and corolla 
as in the male ; the fe^iale cup permanent, and crowning the fruit ; the filaments 
three, short, without anthers; the pistil has an inferior large germ ; style single, 
round, trifi J, columnar ; stigmas three, gibbous, oblong, pointing Outwards ; .th« 
|>ericarp IS a dry pome, opetujig plastically, three or iour-celied, cells membra'* 

naceous, 



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«RiKSEB HOBTUS JAMAICENSIS* US 

naceousy soft, distant ; the firuU twelve furrowed .; seeds several, compressed.— 
Three species of this plant, native^ of the East In<Hes» have been long introduced 
into thisjsland. 

1. BALSAMINA. BAI^AMIC 

Cucumk puniceus. Sloane, -v. L, p. 128. Glabra^ foliis profunde 
lobatis^ fructu rotundo striis verucosis notato. Browne, p. 353. 

Pomes angular, tubercled; leaves smooth, spreading, palmate. 

This is called smooth-leaved cerasee^ or male bal$am apple. It is very common la 
Jamaica, and has a trailing stalk li^e those of the cucumber or melon, extending several 
^et in leagth, and sending out many side branches, which have tendrils. Leaves 
smooth, deeply cut into several segments, and spreading hke a hand. The fruit is 
oval, ending in acute pomts, having several deep angles, with sharp tubercles, placed 
on their edges, it clfanges to a red or purplish colour when ripe, opening with an 
elasticity, and throwing out its seeds. It is famous in Syria for curing wounds. The 
;jiatives cut open the unripe fruit, and infuse it in sweet oil, which they expose to the 
' sun for some days, until it becomes red ; and then preserve it for use. Dropped oa 
cotton, and applied to a fresh wound, the oil they reckon the best vulnerary, next to 
the balsam of Mecca, having found by experience that it often cures large wounds ia 
,ihree days. 

The bsdsam that exudeSf on cutting the full grown undpe fruit, is also used for fresh 
twounds. 

Cerasee ns the name that negroes and some others give to a plant growing in great 
aplenty in Jamaica. Its fruit is much like a cucumber, and as big; therefore Sir H. 
Sloane calls them cucumis puniceus^ I suppose from its deep red colour, but the leaves 
tire much smaller, jagged, and divided ; the fruit generally of the size of a lemon, of 
A yellowish red withont-side, with blunt tubercles ; the inside is of a most glorious red 
^colour, having several large red seeds, in bigness and shape of tamarina stones ct 
•eeeds. I have obseiTed, if you put the point of the smallest pin or needle into any 
part of the fruit, it will all fly open in quarters, or many parts, turning, as it were, the 
inside outward, with a sort of eust or explosion, or as if it were sensibly touched. — . 
iiome make fine arbours with this plant, it always climbing to any thing it is near, 
growing so thick you c^n hardly see through it Some suqk the seeds, having a sweet 
^ed pulp about them ; but the fruit is very hollow, like pops, and purges excellently 
iwell. The negroes cure the belly-ache, by mixing with it Guinea pepper. Both 
ieaves and fruit are a great vulnerary : A decoction or infusion of the roots in water, 
wine, or broth, wonderfully e>'acuates watery humours, and prevails against the yellow 
jaundice, obstructions of the liver, spleen^ bowels, and mesentery. The root, pow-» 
idered and given with cream of tartar (from a scruple to forty grains), doth the same j 
^ syrup of the fruit doth the like. The distilled water from the leaves and fruit, mixed 
Wth sal nitric makes a beautiful wash, and' is good against the St. Anthony's fire, or 
j^ny redne3S of the face ; inwardly given, with loaf sugar, it cools and abates the heat 
<tJt£B«ers« The oil from the fruit cures burns, and takes away scars.-— J^arAam, p. 38. 

2. CHARAKTIA. 

Subhirsuta ; fructu oblonffo, tuberculis €onico comprtssis i$i(equalibu$ 
4Jksito. Browne, p. 353. 

Pomet 



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17* HOllTUa MMAPCENSia CERBCMI 

Pomes angular, tubon^led ; leaves villose, longitudinally palfnate, 
TJiis i? called tlie baity crrasce. Stem round, slender, branched, clin)bing by lateraf 
tendrils. Fiovvers someinues hennapbrodite. Conjila yellow, usually five- parted, but 
sometimes six-partevi. Stamens threi*, connected. Fr<ut ol)long, bluntly angular,, 
taberded, draAii to a point at eacii enJ, white, yellow, or ^reen, on tiie outside; 
within very red and fleshy, one-cille(f, burstiirji; ela>ticai'v. Hr.jwne obser\es, that 
both tho>o plants are tVc(]nently cultivated in Jamaica, an 1 tin is t^ very luxuriantly ia 
most ot the gardens a^^ont Kingston ; he also savs the iea\es b >iled, and tJie decoc tioi^ 
of tiie plant, are equally used to promote ike lochiir ; the hr.>t by way of green, the 
Other as an apozem ; and arc lx)th reckoned serviceable on these occusious. 

3. LUFFA, 

Pomes oblong, f^rooves like a chain ; leaves gashed. 
This is called E<ryptian nwmordica. The stem i& angtdar, very mijch branched,, 
climbing by bifivi spiral tendrils. Leaves having five or seven sharp angle>, the midtUcL 
one double tiie length of the others, unequally serrate, veined, wrinklevi, on long al-r 
lernate petioles, Male corollas six-paited, several together; females solitary, five — 
parted, reflex. Pome a foot long, two inches thick, roundish, usually drawn to s^ 
point at each end, hairy, three-ceUed, with a white flaccid, esculent pulp, of an in-» 
sipid flavour. Seeds oblong, compressed, smooth. This lias beei called tlie strainef^ 
9vic^ because the reticulated part of the fruit is sometimes separated from the pulpy^ 
and made punch strainers of. 



No English Name. CERBERA> 

Cl, 5, OR. 1. — Pentaiidria monogynia. NaT. or. — Contortds, 
This name is derived from cerbereus^ on account of the poisonous quahties of the- 
plants. 

Gem char. — ralyx a five-leaved perianth ; corolla one-petalled, funnel-form, con-^ 
torlcd ; border five-parted ; stamens subulate ; filaments with erect anthers ; the 
]>istil lias a roundish germ, filiform style, headed stigma; the pericarp a largQ 
ilrupe ; seed a two-celled nut. One species is a native of Jaipaica* 

THEVETIA. 

Arhorescens foliis lanceolaiisy fl^rihus fauce ampliatis sub-campanu* 
latis. Browne, p. 181. 

Leaves linear, very long, crowded. 

This is an elegant shrub, which Browne calls the nat^ow 'leafed phivreriay that grows 
^commonly seven or eight feet high, and always full qf slender flexile branches ; the 
flowers are yellow, and moderately open below the margin ; he observed it gro\? 
nenr Port Maria and Morant Bay. The stem is round, unarmed, abounding in a poi- 
sonous milky juice, dividing at top into many weak branches, which are generally siiii^ 
f>le, loose, round, smooth, covered with scars from the leaves that have dropped ; and 
covered with a green smooth bark, which, as they grow older, beeomes rough and 
changes to a grey or osh-colour* Leaves on very short petioles^ scattered at the ends 

of 



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4?HANGiABLii HORTU3 JAMAICENSIS, llS 

pf the branchlets, acuminate, very entire, spreading, of a firnn consistence, smooth an 
both sides, of a shining green, but paler underneath ; four pr five inches long, an4 
Jbalf an inch broad in the middle, full of a milky juice, which flows out when they are 
troken. Flowers large, nodding, yellow, smelling very sweet ; corolla contorted. — • 
Mectary converging into a star, m the thwat of t^e tube 5 filaments short, below tK^ 
.»tar; anthers ovate- acute ; germ five-streaked, surrounded by a yellowish nectareou^ 
fiavel ; stigma five-cornered, bifid at tlie Up ; fruit ft green ol)late, spheroidal, drupe| 
4:Qj)taining au obscurely four-cornered nut, with a single tevael io it, 

•Cereus— *y^d Indian Fia» 



CHANGEABLE ROSE. HIBISCUS. 

Ct. 16, OR. G.-^Moiiadelphla polj/andria^ Nat. or, — Columnifera. 
CfW. jCiiAR, — C^lys; a double perianth j outer many leaved, peruianent, leaflets lu 
near; more rarely one- leafed, many cleft : inner calyx one- leafed, cup-shaped^ 
Jialf five-cl<jft, permanent ; gr five-tootlied^ deciduous ; corolla five-petalled, pe- 
.tals roundish, oblong, narrow at the base, spreading, fiistened at bottom to the? 
^ube of the stamens ; the stamens are many filaments, united at bottom into ^ 
4:ube ; at top divided and loose 5 atittiers kidney-form ; the pistil has a roundish 
germ, a filitorm atyle^ iQnger than the stamens, five-cleft at top ; stigmas headed j 
sthe pericarp is a five-celled capsule, five-valyed ; partitions coatrary, doubled ; 
:^ed$ solitary or several, ovate, kidney-tfbrm* 

i. MUTABILIS^ CllANGEABLE, 

Truticosus^ brackiatus ; foUi$ cQvdato lobatis ; flore variabilu-^' 
Browne, p. 287. 

Leaves cordate-five-angled, obscurely serrate ; stem arboreous. 

"This plant has a large and divaricated root, and frequently grows to the stature of a 
f mall tree, rising to the lieight of twelve op fourteen feet, It b^s a soft spungy stem^ 
iUvhich by age becouies ligneous aud pithy, sending out branches towards the top, \yhich 
.are hairy, garnished with heart-shaped leaves, whitish underneath, cut into five acute 
angles in their borders, and slightly sawed on their edges, of a lucid green on the upper 
^ide aad pale below : tlie petioles sire rough, thick, threp or fqur inches in length.---* 
The peduncles are thicker towards the top, sometimes tinged with red, sustaining largQ 
Ix^ndsome flowers. The single are compQsed of five petals, which spread open, ancl 
^re at first white, turn to Hght flesh colour after they bear the action of the sun for some 
iiours, and contract and close for the night, to be ready for the like changes the ensu^ 
4ng day^ they become nearly purple before they fade. It has a double variety, and is 
fk native of the East In lies. It is cultivated in many parts of Jamaica, with much sue- 
^ds, on account of the great beauty of its flowers, Browne calls it the Chinese rose, 
which is the following species '. 

2, ROSA SINEN3IS. CHINA ROSE. 

L^eaves ovate, acuminata, serrate ; stem arboreous. 
. This growsiu India to the i^e of an ordinary tree. The roQt is large and spreadin^^Ci 



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i16 ROHTUS JAMMCEN1IT8I. fjnAaT» 

The stem is round, woody, erect ; the leaver somewhat resemble. tha$o of the vinc> 
cordated at the base and serratedj five-nerved; theystainl on long reddish. pedicels,. 
jind are of a nale green on tlie upper surface and hoary below. The stipules are ii^ 
pairsy opposite, at the base of the petioles, linear, acute, deciduous. Flowers axil* 
lary, solitary, peduncied, large, of a deep scarlet colour. The peduncles are twice- 
rs long as the petioles, round, and straight, thicker towards the top, with a joint to^ 
-^rards the midate. This, plant is a native of the East Indies,, and, oeing common in 
China, has for that reason^ obtained the name it bears. The seeds were first brought by 
the French to Martinico, and hence it is sometimes called- the Martinico rose. There 
are double and single flowering kinds ; the seeds of the first fre(iuently produce plant^- 
that have only single flowers ; but the latter seldom varj^ to the double kind. The sin- 
gle flowered plant is, however, seJdom to be met with. They throw out a great muU 
titude of flowers in perpetual succession. There is said to be^ a variety with white- 
flowers. This beautiful plant is made into garlanda and festoons in China on all occa-.^ 
gions of festivity, and even in their sepulchj^l rites. . They are also put to a use which 
seems little consistent with their elegance and beauty,, that of blacking shoes, whence 
their names oirosce calceolari^e ^ndshoe-^owcr. The women also employ them to CQ^ 
lour their hair and eye*brows black. 

iS^ee Indian SoRRELr— Mahoe — Musk Ochrat— an^iOqHRA.. 



CHASTE TREE. VITEX. 

Cl, 14, OR. 2. — DidynamUangiospermia.. Nat. or. — Personat/e. 

TPhis is derived, from the Latin Word viciuniy from the great flexibility of the twigs^, 
%bich makes them fit to bind or tie any thing. 

Cen. CHAR. — Calyx a one-leafedjj^ five- toothed,, perianth; corolla oneJeafed, rin* 
gent, border six-cleft •, stamens capillary filaments,, longer than the tube ; an«» 
thers versatile ; the pistil has a roundish germ,, filiform style, the length of the- 
tube; stigmas two, awl -shaped,, spreading ; the pericarp is a berry or drupe,, 
globular, and four-celled ;. seeds solitaiy,. ovate. One species is a native of Ja^ 
maica*. 

IfMBROSA. SHADY. 

ArhoreuSj foliis ovattSj crenatisy quinato digitatis ; peiioHs camtnu^ 
nibus oppositisy raeemis laxis aldribus. Browne, - p. 267. 

Xeares quinate, quite entire, smooth on both sides ; racemea^ compound, axw^ 
illary. 

' Browne calls this the larger chaste tree with Jagged leaves, and says it is frequent in 
St. Mary's, growing generally to a very considera Me size. It is easily distinguished 
by its crenated leaver, bunchy flowers, large berries, and the variegated under lip of 
its blossoms, the main division of which is me figure of a heart. The style h bifid, and 
each part pretty short. 

The agnus castuSy an East Indian species of this genus,, has also been introduces* 
This is the ehaste tree so famous among the ancients, as an imaginary specific for the 
l^eservation cff chasti^ ^ aud is distinguished by the^ganee of its folisge^ 



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CHAW STICK, GOUANIA. 

Cl. 23, OR. 1, — 'Polygamia m'onoecia. Nat, on^^-'JihaTmv. 

* This is so named in honour of Aatoiiie Go uauj M,D. author of some celebrated bo- 
domcal works. 

Gfn. cnxR.^'ITtrmaphradi^ Jleiwers.—Caiyx a oneJeafed, «npeiior, funuel-form, 
five-cleft, perianth ; tube permanent, segments ovate, acute, spreading, decidu-. 
ous ; there is no corolla ; the stamens are tivQ filaments, subulate, length of the 
calyx, and alternate with the serjments.; anthers roundish, incumbent, veiled ; 
veil hke a cowl, clastic ; the pistil has an inferior'germ, subulate style, half thre^ 
cleft, and obtuse stigmas ; tlie pericarp is a dry fruit, three;.sided, divisible into 
^hree seeds ; seeds three ^larts of the fruit, roundish, inclined to three-sided, two- 
* winged. Maks on the same plant r-^^Caiy^^ corolla, and stamens, as in the her- 
;inapbrodite j stigmas obscure or non^, ^'heic is only one species. 

DOMINGENSIS. POMINGO. 

:Jtadix fruticosa luteay glj/eyrrfiizce similise cortice ^nseoJentihit9 

viundificandis inserviens, Sloane, v. 2, p. 185, t. 232,. f. 2, 3.-^ 

Sarmentoms foliis omtU v^nosis^ capsuUs trigonis racemosis.T^ 
-Browne, p. 172. 

' Thirplantis very<;ommon in Jamaica, has a shrubby stem, which climbs Jike hops 
\hy axillary tendrils. The leaves nre ovate, or oblong-ovate, acuminate or blunt, with 
..a point, unequally serrate-toothed, or slightly cren^te only, smooth, deep green, al- 
ternate, petioled, two inches long ; racemes furnished with one or twb leaflets; the 
vtnale flowers have no pistil whatsoever, but there are three or four flowers of an hnn^ 
, dred that have a style without any germ. The bark and wood of this plant is of a plea- 
sant bitter taste, and, being of a'^fibr6us texture,* is cut into short pieces, and very ge- 
nerally converted into tooth brushes, whi^hit is well adapted for, as it really whiten* 
-and preserves the teeth better than any tooth powder. The stalk is seldom thicker thaa 
N the little finger, having a brownish bark, and yellowish wood, and is very tough and 
'^flexible. The juice raises a considerable ferment in thq saliva,^ and a piece of the stalky 
> put into any liquor and agitated, occasions fermentation in the liouor, as does that of 
vthe common green withe. It is generally put in those cool-diinks often used in Ja-^ 
>tnaiea, to which it yiejds An agreeable, fla^ur. A decoction of the roots, like that of 
toiany other bilters,^is useful in dropsical cases ; ^nd the whole pl^t is reckoned a. good 
.antiseptic* . 

' Dr. Wright say« thafe^this withe, chewed with the juice and* swallowed, is an agree<« 
: iable stomachic, and useful for promoting an appetite, or removing |>ains in the sto- 
•^mach firom relaxation. What, however, is often calfed pain in the stomach, is an af- 
*fection of the liver, ^ich should carefully be distinguished, as in this case all tonics 

.or bitters do mischief. H the liver be diseased^ we have a sovereign remedy in calomel. 
^One grain, tor six nights running, is generally sufficient, then stopping for a few nights, 

and beginning as before for a second or third time, is generally sufficient to remove 
"^the complaint. — Wright. 

Attoo.^^l never could find any other name for this plant, and that I bad from a 
Allegro* 4t8k&lttobelh^aMiie|Uaatth^tSir H^Slbaaeiofl^, ia.his catalogue of Ja- 

Aa jaaica 



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J5*- ' trORTXJS JAMAICENSia «rmcicwE» 

toaica plants, radivfruticosa glycirrhizce siviilis c0rticififsc0^ iCd And indee^ the roc^ 
to the sight much resembles Elagli'^h iiquoxice, but of aiittexish taste. It hath leaves-^ 
like the dogvyood tree, but is a small shrub, hardly able to support itseify aod generally -" 
joins to another plant, aWiotigh it dofeli not t^limb abeut-it ; it hath a short pcS, which » 
when ripe is very black and full of sweei pulp, . hke cassia Jistula. 

The negroes cleajnse their teeth with tlHS root ; and ttiey also ffrirtd it with water like 
a paste, and plaster their bodies all over with it inmost fe;('erisb heats^ head-aciies, ancLJ 
cholics ; and have such an opinioa of it, that if they fiiul not a present reUef by it, they 
^ve themselves over. A certain gentleman IrecommendeAitto me as an. excellent re** 
^M^y in the dry belly-ache ; and f happening to hare a servant ^seized wiih it, to tiiat. 
degree as. threw himmto coi^vulsion fits, I tiiought fit to make use ojf it, by decocting 
"the root, an:i ^-ing him alx)Ut half a pint at a time, warm, three or four times a day ^ 
"trhich fiist eased him oLall his pains, afterwarcis wrought gently downwards, aud, tJi^ 
three or four days, he said hathought himself a^. well as everhe was.ia bis life, jMid^K^ # 
^Boatiuued.— J?flVAa/y«, ,p. 9^. 

K^Er—See Oldenlanma^v 



CHERIMOYA: . ANNONA. 

CL. 13, OR. 7. — Polyandria polys^ynta\.:. Nat. OiU — Coadundtifh . 
<5bn, char. — Sec Alligator Apple, p. V\. 

TIMPETALA. , THREE^PETALED. . 

Leaves ovate,, acute, pubescent beneath^ flowers three-petaled ; petals lanM-r- 
olate, coriaceous, tomentose. . 

This is^a native of South Atnericav and was introduced by Mr. East K grows to> 
"IW^ry large branchy t»ee. Leaves brignt green, and longer than any other^ species of / 
^is genus. The fruit is oblong, scaly on the outside^ ana of a dark purple colour whei^ ; 
tipe ; the flesh is soft and. sweety having many brown seeds intermixed with it^ whidi t 
>Stre very smooth and shining. It is esteemed a delicate fruit. 

■^fec Alugator .A»i-e — Custari>^Applr — SoruR-an<f.SwsET S<»&— «uu2 ^u'Tum^ 

AMERICANrf^. 



Cherry, Birt> — Sec Wf.st Tnbia Laurel. 
OttERRY, CowHAGE — See Barbadors Ca£Ra.Y»< 



r 



CHICKWEED.^ flOLOSTEUM.^ . 

©L. 3, OR. Z.-r^Triandria irigymcuK l^JxT. or. Carrj/ophylteT^ 

47E1^. CHAR. — Calyx a five-leaved perianth, leaflets ovate,, permanent ; corolla Sve» 

petaled, petals two-parted, blunt, equal ; stamens are three filaitients, shorter 

^an the corolla, with roundish anthers ; the pistil has a roundish trilobous germ^. 

J^l6%.^d»ae^ ^Siltfo^v stigmas^biuAtish; Uie ^pericarp. 13. a .ii^^-c^^ capsul^, 

^ub-C|^liii13ric;^ 



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•B1CKWEE0 MORTtJ^ iAMAfCENSiR 179^ 

•ub-cylindri*, gaping at tbe tip; seeds very many and roundkb. Two spe^ei^ 
«8ie joatives of Jamaica* 

i: CORDATU>f^ HEAaT-LEAVED, 

jtlsine americana nuYnmularuc joliis, Sloane, v. L, p. 203. F0U19 
orbiculatis oppasitis^ mQcmis laxu t^rmin^^liitus iMmoUs. Browne^ 
p. 139. 

Leaves sub^corJajLe* 

Stem decumbent, creeping, -wmevvhat rigid at bottom ; leaves opposite, orbiculatet' 

^•orUate, sub-'sessiie; stipules, four on each side, menibrdnaceous ; poduncles lateml^ 

^elongated, ascending, seven-tiowered, one in the middle, and inree on each side^ 

from a peduncle tartiier brancUed ; pedicels,, when mature, vi^iJ, dropping v^ich the 

^ruit; calycjne leaflets oblong, acuto^ ctJuc^ve.; petiUJ? white, upright, ianceolae, 

shorter than the calyx ; styles divaricating. 

This plant i& common in Jaaiaica. ' Browoe c?ills this tfce larger American. chickwceil^ 

.gind says that it grows in tufts, and seldom rises above ten or twelve inches from the 

ground ; that the smaller birds feed much upon the seeds, but that it is seldom put ta 

any other use^ except that lar^e wads of die fre>h plant, heateci over a gentle fire, arq, 

sometimes applied tp hard and painful swellinp^s^ m order ip relax tiie parts and dispose 

^e ob^triictions to a resoluuou* It is also recontmen Jed as an evnollient fomentation. 

2. DIANDRUM. TWO-STAMENED, 

^Diandnim petalis integris^ jUiis minor ibus ohovaiis ; petwlls et cavA 
libus marguiaiis. 
Stems -procumbent, very rigid ; /leaves cQundvsh ; flowers two-stamened. 
Browne c^lls this the smaller chickweedj and says it is not common in Jau)aica ; the. 
«two filaments are placed in the same hne with the petals of the flower, which are hve iq 
mumber, as well as the divisions of the cup. The plant is veiiy smiai', aiid seldom, rise^ 
^Qve six or sevea inches from the ground. 



^CHICKWEED, AFRICAN. IfcfOLLUGO^. 

Cl. 3, OR. 3.—Triandria trigj/nia. Nat. or. — Caryophylleu 

SiCen. char. — Calyx a fiye*leaved perianth, leaflets oblong, from upright spreading^ 

coloured within, permanent; there is no corolla; the stamens are three filaments, 

. bristled-shaped, shorter than the corolla, approximating to tne pistU ; anthers sim- 

, pie ; the pistil has a superior germ, ovate, ttuee-grooved ; styies three, very 

short, stigmas blunt; the pencapp is an oyate capsule, three-ceiiea, three- 

-• -^Talved ; seeds numerous, kiduey-foim. Two species ajre nutivcs of Jamaica. 

1. VERTICILLATA, V^RTICILLATED. ^ 

Minima repenSjfoliis linear ibus verticillatisyfloribus quinariis pedun^ 
culatis conferiis. Browne, p. 139. 

L^vesin whorls, wedge^^form, acute ;. atem subdivided, ^umbent ; jpeduncles 
4me^flowared« 

1^2 TUi 



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ISO RORTUS JAMAICENSia^ oimft' 

This is a trailing plant, spreading out eight or nine inches every vr^yi and having; 
six or seven small leaves at each joint, spreading out in form. of a star. Flowers swall^.. 
likq those of chickweed, one on each foot^^talk, succeeded by oval capsules, fiii«M with- 
small seeds, about twelve in eacli coll. Browne says this plalu is pretty common io the 
dry savannas inLiguanea; its leavts and branches are very small ; that the stalk seldom-, 
runs above six or eight inches from the root ; that the flowers^ace generally foiur or &vQr 
together, and grow on. .single tufe on the ^ides of the whorls. 

2. BEXLIDIFOLIA* WHITJE-FLOWEREB. 

jilsini iijjim's, foliis bdlidis miTwns, caule nudx>^ Sloane, T* 1^ j>^ , 
203, t. 129, f. 2. 

^Vhltewflowered, w ith naked stidks. 

This species of 7)iolhig'o is not mentioned by l^innenv ^o, it is renaarkable, never - 
Quotes Sloane, and has been overlooked hi the latest l)otanical works. . Sloane takef . 
jiarticular notice of it,, and has given a connect figure. It is a i*are piant. The leav^ - 
©f th^ cup perform the office of petals, .they are wliite above aad expanded, but as the 
fm^t increases>.they become green and conniveut, closely embracing, the capsules, , 
ivhose valves, being very thii> and tender, they help to strengthen, iiiis little plants 
flourishes in September, theroot is perennial, the leaves are sweet in taste as liquorice, , 
but with some aliay of .bitterness. Sloane describes it as follows : It hatha crooked - 
white root with many hairs. . The leiivts lie on the surlate of \l:e eartli, spread roujid. 
the root, .being.about an inch long, from a narrow beginningincreasiu^ .by degrees to-* 
a round end, not unh'te the leaves of the lesser daisy. From tue middle of the leavef 
rises a stalk or two, four or five inches long, without leaves, being branched towardjjL.- 
the top, the branches divided into small twigs, each whereof sustains a small head, ia-- 
dosed by four whitish capsular leaves, having within tiiem a round whitish seed vessel, ^ 
%A\ of roundish black seeds,, very smalL It grew iu sandy places of the towa savaoaa^* 
towards Tn^o MUe Wood. 



CHINA UDOT. . SMILAX. 

tit. 22y OR. 6. — Dioecia hexandria. NaT, or.-— Sarmenfaeeet. 

IgrEK^CHAR. — Male calyx a six-leaved perianth, spreading, bell-shaped ; leaflets. ol^- 
long, approximating atithe base, bent back, and spreading at the tip ; there is no* 
corolla except the calyx ; the stamens are six simple filaments, , with oblong an-- 
thers. The female calyx^as in the m^e, deciduous; there is^uo corolla ; the pistiLv* 
has ap ovate germ, three very small styles,. stigmas oblong;, ber#t back^ubesceat ; - 
the pericarp isi a globular <hreercelled berry ; . seeds two^. .globular. Two speci^^ 
ue natives of Jamaica^ / 

l.'CHnCA. 

^Smilax aspera^ fructu nigro^ radite nodosa^ mag7taf leviyfcrinaceSf . 
China dicta, Sloane, v. 1, p. 231, t. 14^, f. I. Sarmento tereti^^ 
infeme aculeaio ; .felUs subrotwido ^ordoLtis^ 'tnn&mU4,^.;fctioiv$^ 
^duikuia una vd atera referiif. Arowaei £r^3ia« 

Stem.. 



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jionrv$ 4AMATCENsr& m 

Stem prickly, roundish ; leaves unarmed, ovate-cordate, three or five-tierred. 

Tbi8 plant is freqxient in the more cool inland parts of Jamaica. It grows wild, rising' 
Itom a tbK'k porous root, and climbs by a pretty slender rigid stem, to fthe top ot* ih& 
talicst trees in the woods ; this is adonied with a few prickles towards the bottom, di* 
Yides into ibany branches at the top, and throws out its winding tenvhiLs from the foot*' 
stalks' of the leaves. Tlie root is commonly used in Jamaica, and observed to answer 
ds well as that from the East TncHes, It is of a sheathing nature,, and a very nt ingre* 
4ient^n all diluting apozems* The plant may be>6asilv propagated so as to supply the 
European "markets, if the medicine was in any general repute ; bui, at present, what 
crows wild is more than sufficient to supply the inhabitants, and serves frequently ti% 
feed the hogs, whicKar^ said tQ liv^ cluefly upon it, when there is a scarcity gi wild." 
firuit — Brormic 

This root grows in great plenty in America. Tt'bath a root as big ais one^s arm, j^- 
erooked and jointed, with knobs at every joint like some canes. The stems are very - 
tough, and when young of a. green colour, very full of prickles like a rose bush or' 
brier, but when older ba^ iitUe or no prickles, and will grow to be bigger than a man*4 
likumb, ami sometimes ien ©r fifteen fee^high. *^ The leaves tire like the snulax uspera^, 
^T sarsaparilla;. they are cordated, smooth, of a very dark green, with nerves like 
i&ose oF the English plantane-leaf.-^ At the end and between the twigs come out th€^ 
Aowers, several together, but from one centre, standing on an half-iftch prstil, of an- 
umbel fashion t^ each hatk six petals, with very sniall green apices, standmg round %- 
jreen short styl«s j-^ftta*,^ foiiow so many blackish berries, round^ and of the bignesd* 
of those of ivy, having an unsavoury purple pulp, with a purple stone as big as thato^ 
tbe haw. . Sofraerimes a gum is to be found, •rhich the Indians call tzitiLy which thejii' 
<5hew tostrengthen or fasten tiieir teeth.^ 1 have seen a jsort much whiter, without ahdk^ 
1irit}un,.i^Min^e common sort' Tfee use and virtues of this root are so well known for 
«nd in;vef^ereal casesy a$ I nee^d not give any ftirther description of- it ; only just meQ«. 
tiK3n what useDrCTr^ham made of it in such cases^ who practised many j^^ars iu'Ja-^ 
Btttica ; but he filrst gave thetbllowing electuary t 

Take pulp of ' tamannds and cassia fistulsy of each half a pound; juice o?^ semper' 
•^e, three pounds; small red pepper or capsicum, dried, one scruple; Winter**- 
cidniunon, one scruple and an half ; of melasses, clarified with/ the white of an e^g, 9^ 
pound and an haif. Put all tliese into an earthen pot,-^i*4iich place in tile sun,' starring 
the mixture with a wooden spatuia, two or three times a day ; let it stand till it thicken* ^ 
-to a due consistenee of a «oft electuary, which keep foruse as a general purge. The 
dose, from-haif an ounce xp an ounce and an half^; in elysters, two^ ounces Let the 
|9atient take half an ounce of this, or two apod hroad knife-points fall, in .th^ momio|; 
ftsdng,. and as much at night going to be^ two hours after having eaten some spare 
juppet;^ continue every o8ier*or third day till the pjonoirlicsa ceases. The dose majf' 
"be lessened according as it works ; and' those days they do not purge at Light, let them ^' 
^e a drachm of cbina^i:%>ot in powder, drinking the mllowing^decoction or infusion o£^ 
^bina-root, warm, ta sweat with ; the drink ought to be ihade new every day, without- 
iteing fermented w4th sugar or age. TTie water is only to be boiled as that for tea^ 
^en 80 mueh chinarroot, sliced, added thereto as oiajr make it of a^daret colour; there 
^an be no exce^^s in the root,, neither need there to be added, -saare for palate sake, m:-^ 
Ikde sugar, for it is better without ; let him drink thereof every night in bed plenti^ 
M^£siff^%iff^^!Mfif1^^ iawCj^ui^Ofl^ yfoA eh i na 'loot y0ye» 



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iM HORTUS JAMAICEKSIS. CH6^n» 

fully cloth in these cases as well as in others, such as gouts,, teitktisr, hectics, coiv- 
sumptions, fife, and then, to complete the cure and strengtlien the spermatic vesseist 
let tiiem take hog-gttm m pills for 9ome time. ^ 

. I am very well assured, that this West India china-root is in erery respect as^effica- 
cious and c^ valuable as that from the East Indies ; but the great dilHcultv is how to-, 
preserve it from the worms^ for, ia a month or two,>it will be bored, ^jid^ill the farina. 
or mealy part scooped out, by a large white maggot with a red head, tiiat breeds in lU, 
I have tried sevemf ways to prevent it ; tlie only >way was, to trim it well of all its soft, 
knobs, and then to bury it in white- lime ; or in the following manner ; Make a brine 
with-salt and water, strong, enough to bear an egg ; tiien put iu a fourth part of cham* 
ber-lye, and a reasonable quantity of quick-lime, which mix, and boil together about 
half an hour; then take it ofl^ and put china-root into the iiquoi- ; let it remain there 
until it be thoroughly scalded or parboiled ; then take it out, and dry it in tne not ^u^,. 
Hnd then no worms wilt take it f and if a little of the red colour comes out of the root i%, 
i$ never the worse foi sale {so that you can but; keep the worm from it), ibr tiie palest 
^na-rootis now become the most valuahle.'-T-iSar/uim, p, 4U» i^« 

The root has a reddish 4m>wn skin,, and is 4nore mealy than^ fibrous. It should b& 
chosen full, heavy,, and compact, and free from rottenness. A strong decoction of ifc 
is an admirable astringent Imth for sores, when the inflammation is removed. If it is 
found to have a teadeocy.jtoirritate the $ore^ aiiaudf ui pf . oil uut leaves juay Be add^ 
ia the decoctioiv 

^. IrAtTRIPOOA. '*BAr-MAVEl>. 

Jispera^ foliis trinertiis Qblongis\ petiolis bicla^kulaiis. 'Browne. 
Stewt prickly, round ; ^leaves unarmed, ovate-lanceolate, three-nerved. 
Browne calls this the prickly sniilax^ with slender rootSy and says it is pretty like tbfl 
jfiMregoiogy J^ui the roots are small, and cUv^ded ioto a^numtter.of sleadter branches*. 

See Sarsaparilla- 

^■Chinese Rose — See Changeable Ross.. 
jPhiv ES-ri*^^ Eschalot. 



XIHO-CHa -SECHIUM. 

Gt. sr, ^R. d.r^Monoecia syngencm^ Nat. or. — Euphortiot. 

This is supposed to be derived from a Greek word^ signifying to fatten, as the frm^ 
'a$ used to fatten hogs. 

Gen. Char. — ^The calyx of the male flower is.^neJeafed, half five-cleft, (frequently 

six or seven clefts), spreading, segments of the border lanceolate, .flat, acumi^ 

nate : the corolla is one-petued, tube^the size and figure of the calyx, and fiig«^ 

tened to it ; border five-cleft, (often six or seven clefts), segoients triaiiguiar» 

;.fiat, acute, more than double the length of the calyx, spreading : the nectary tQi» 

Jiollows, two at the foot of each segment of the corolla \ the stamens are five fila^ 

* Jfi0*t^ GO^ectiMliatQ ao uptight c^liador^ five-doft at tqjp^.spjc^adiogirery oiucIm 

jmthflc 



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anther t>n Ae top of earh filament a line creeping twice down^rantg Bj>i oncje up* 
T^ards, farinifeihaus. Females on the same plant : calyx as in the niaJC) placed 
oil the germ by a pedicel^ deciduous ; corolla as in tiie maley but the hpllowi or 
pits bigger; the pistil has an ovate germ, tomentose, five-grooved, inferior; 
Style cylirj^icai, erect, -one-half the length of the calyx;. sti^tHa. vcrj^ jarg€>^ 
pelt^e-reflexed, with the margin five deft ; the pericarp very lurge^ ovate-tur* 
/ binate, five-grooved, fleshy, uneqpaliy gibbous at the top, muricated with barm-«> 
!^ss prickles, one-celled above ; seed one^ sabovato, piano caaipressed^jfiesh|f 
bilameilate, bkint at each end. T^Ntre is only -one species. 

ETDULB^: EATABLE. 

miis cordate anguUitiSy race^ms minor ibus ad alas-, Browiie, p. 355A 

Th» g^entts b evidently monoeciapeniaiidrioi It has the habit of the cucumber ai\^ 
«ielon tribe, .and climbs like theiu-by tendrils ; leaves cortUae-anguiar, ragged on tto . 
:^l(>per surface, with 4;he angles toothed and acute, alternati^ on a srtiooth petiole ; * 
ftowers small and scentless, pale;,yellowish.; the males are many fiowdred peduncles |p.. 
&e females one or two only on a peduncle from the same axii ; Uie iruit green and 
.shining on the outside ; whitish and fleshy within, differinij. in size, and singular itt 
4ttructure \ the seed i» green and naked, and, iiviarge fruits, an inch long, it is placed 
laiear the apex of tiie fruit, and when ripe^ protrudes itself and maoy fibres, from th^ 
^it, which drop into the eaith; between tiie lamella^it puts forth a leafy 6tem> ^q<1- 
Aen the fruit gradually putrefies. ^ The moisture of thisirmt itself issufffcient to ve^ 
^tate the seed and ta afford it nutriment, but die growth i» quicker if the whole be 
^ccvered with eartlu^. This^fruit is an agreeable ana wholesome vegetable, but beinjj,. 
Yather of a watery insipia taste, is much improverd by lime juice, by ^alt,, or spic)' in- 
l^redients. Mixed with iimejuice and sugar it is a gyod succedaneum for apple- sauce. 
The vine bears fruit all the: year Jong, an . makes very good arbours, as they run and^ 
spread much, i The root of 4Jieold.vine is something like a 3^ni, and on beuig boiledU- 
«r roasted, is farinaceous and wholesome. The see Js, or hearts-, are very gooa if taketk. 
4Mit after the fruit is boiled and fried with butter. The fruii ia also .muck coveted Jbgjpr 
4|ibg&^ and greatly helps to fatten theou . 



\^' 



CHOCOLATE-TREE. THEOBROMA;' , 

CU. 18, OR. I. — Pofyadelphia d^candrict.' Nat. or. —Columnifera* 

*TBis generic name*is derived from a Greek word, signifying the food'of the goSft 
^lEN* Cukk. — The calyx is a five-leaved perianth, JeafletS'lanceokite, acute, spread* 
ing, deciduous^; the corolla has five petals^ smaller thair the caljrx, claws wide^ 
arched, concave like a helmet, emarginate at the top, «cored internally vrith a 
thick triple line,* inserted into the nectary at the- baae ; borders -ronndiah^^ 
-acuminate, spreading, €?ach^ narrowed at^the base rnto a small daw, wbicb^ 
m £^jm upright recurved, aiwl fastened inta the claw* The nectaiy is •»' 
^ort little pitcher^ putting forth five little h&ms, ^ich are awl^haped, long^ 
.«er«ctj acuminate, bent in and converging^ decurrent along the pitcher. Tb€r 
^temens are five filaments, filiform, erectj bent outwards at top, lying within th€i 
^<law8 of the petals, growing externally to theneetary, alternate with and shorts 
^ " rlMN:a9;/aQtfaenM>a*eacb£laxaeDit^«%^<meoii^^ 



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in flORTUS JAMAICENSIS, ^ rHOooLAW 

cal, one oell superior, the other inferior ; the pistil has an orate germ, a filifortn 
style a little longer than the stamens ; stigma five-cleft ; the pericaip is on obloqg 
capsule, coriaceous, unequal, five cornered, five-celled, valveless, not opening; 
the seeds many, sub-ovate, "nestling in a buttery pulp, fastened to. a central co- 
♦ . lumnar receptacle, There is only one species, the' % 

. , CACAO. ' 

Cacao, Sloane^ v. 2, p. 15, t. 160. Fructu ^vato ^cumiftato; sttlh* 
verrucosa^ decern, sula's longitudmalibiis ^ubarato. A variety :— 
Fructu ^ubrotundoy subventicoso^ decern sulcis subamto. Browne, 
. . p. 30b'. 

r Tlie tacao or chocolate tree grows in a handsome form to the height of twelve or six- 
teen feet ; the trunk is upright, and about as high as a man before the head spreads 
out ; the wood is light and'of a white colour, the bark is brownish and even. Leave* 
'lanceolate oblong, bright green, quite entire, alternate, from nine to sixteen inches 
*Iong, and three or four inches wide at most, on a pet^ole an inch in length, and thick- 
*ened at both ends ; peduncles slender, about eight or ten, together, chiefly from the 
scars of the fallen leaves, one of them only for the most part fruitftd,- the rest abortive ; 
fl'jwers small, reddish, inodorous. Fruits smooth, yellow, red, or of botli colouja, 
about three inches in diameter; rind fleshy, near half an incK in thickness; flesh-co- 
lo&red within ; pulp wliitish, the consistence of butter, seperatin^ from the rind in a 
state of ripeness, and adhering to it only by filaments, which penetrateit and reach G> . 
the seeds; hence it is known when the seeds are ripe, by the rattling of the capsute 
•when it is shaken. 'The pulp has a s\i'eet and notunpleasanttaste, with a slight acidity, 
and is sometimes sucked and eaten raw. (It may be easily seperated into as.many parts 
as there are seeds, to which it adlieres strongly, and they are wrapped up in it, so that 
each, seed seems to. have its own proper pulp. The seeds arc about twenty-five in 
number ; when fresh they are of a flesh colour, they quickly lose their power of vege- 
tation, when taken out of the capsule, but, kept in it, preserve that power for a con^ 
siderable time. The tree* bears leaves, flowers, and fruit, all the year- throuo;h ; biH 
ithe usual seasons for guthering tlxe fruit are June, and Becembqn 

This tree is carefully cultivated in all the^Trencb and Spanish islands and settlement! 
in the warmer parts of America. This was formerly the case also ia Jamaica; fcut a|C 
present we have only a few, strangling trees left as monuments of our indolence and bad, 
poUcy. This tree delights in sh^y places and deep vahiesl - It b seldom above twenty 
fetet high. The leaves are oblong, large, and poit^ted* The flowers spring from the 

«. trunk and large branches ; they are small and pale red. The pods jare oval and point- 
ed. The seeds or nuts are numerous, and curiously stowed in a white pithy substance. 

' The cacao nuts bein^ gently parched in an iron pot over the.lire, the external covering 
seperates easily. Tne kernel is levigated on a smooth stone ; a little arnotto is added, 
and, with a few drops of water, is reduced to a mass, and formed into rolls of one pound 

^ each* This simple preparation, is the most natural and the best It is in daily use ia 

>inost families in Jamaica, aad seerns.well adapt^ for rearing of children.— fTr^^^A/. 

This beautiful plant and profitable tree grew once in such plenty in Jamaica, that 
' they valued themselves upon it, and thought they were or should be the richest people 
*|n WQ w^odd; hvASkkQy 9000 saw th^^msislyes deceived i iffiAbl^&t at once cai^ ^poa 

** ' tha 



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CHOCOtATE HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 



185 



the trees and destroyed them all, antl few or none could ever be got to grow there since-* 

what do grow are generally in plantain walks, or among shady trees, and in bottoms or 

vallies sheltered from the north wintls. This tree grows in bigness and much resemb* 

Kng the htjart-cherry tree, the boughs^and branches beautifully extending themselves 

on every side, their leaves being much of the same shape ; the flower is very "beautiful, 

and ^hrtost of a saffron colour; the fruit proceeds from the body (as in the calabash), 

and shdl be full almost all the way from the bottom up to the branches, which are also 

full oT fruit, which is first ^reen, and, as it increaseth its bigness, changes its shape 

^and colour, until they are thoroughly ripe. 1 have seen two sorts ; one very large, as 

big and almost in-shape of a cucumber, but pointed, at the end, and of a most delicate 

yellow or lemon coloiir, with.a little red blush of one side when ripe ; another §ort, not 

so big, of afiae^blueish red, almost purple, with reddish or pink colour veins, especi- 

-^ly OH that side next the sun ; they have on the outside ridges and furrows, with 

toooib bunches or knobs, as cucumbers have. They are ripe and fit to gather in Ja- 

cnwary and in May, having two crops or bearings in a year. The external husk or rind, 

v.vhicb is^pretty thick, being broke or cut, there appear the kernels adhering to one- 

vanotlier by soft filaments, and inclosed in a white pulpy substance, soft and sweet, 

which some suck when they take them out of their shells, which contain ten, twent}^, 

.ftnd semetimes thirty nuts, almost like almonds. There is much difference in their 

^rgenessand goodness ; those at Carpenter^s River are the largest, those brought from 

•/the cqast of Caraccas next, the smallest are those of Martinico. They are cured in the 

v^-sun upon cloths or blankets* Tha^ which we make our chocolate of is the inside of the* 

Dut, encompassed with a thin shell or case, which, when taken off, the dry and hard 

-substance looks of the colour of a kidney bean, with crannies or crevices between them. 

^hey are very apt to mould and decay, if th'^v are not well cured ; and, if right, good, 

. they are plump, smooth, and oily, and of a bitterish taste when raw. The oil of this 

nut is the hottest of any thing known, and is said to recover cold, weak, and paralytic 

•Jimbs, and to smooth the skin.*' This nut i» very Rourishinu:, as is daily experienced in 

iithe West Indies, where many Creoles live in a manner wholly upon chocolate. The 

;.«ray of making it is sawelV known that I need not describe it.-^J?arAtf?w, p. 26. 

This tree grew once so plentifully in Jamaica,- that the inhabitants 'flattered them- 
jeselves it would become the source of inexhaustible wealth to them. 'In 1671 there were 
j«ixty fine walks in bearihg, and many new ones in cultivation ; but some years after- 
«^rards they were alb destroyed at once, as it is said, bv a blast which pervaded the whole 
island ; so that they were never afterwards recovered ; and at present there are but very 
few ; the greatest discouragement in going ^pon this article being the extreme tender- 
ness of the young plants, and the length of time they require to come to maturity ; 
which most settlers are too sanguine and impatient to wait for, but rather apply to other 
commodities, which make a quicker return, although it is certain that^ good cacao 
Walk, once established, is firr more profitable, and demands fewer labouring nands thaa 
almost any other marketable West India product. There are man j* trees still in the 
btand, scattered about in the woods, and found chiefly in rich cool 'bottoms, that are 
sheltered from the winds. -As the cacao is a' very capkal article fn trade, and may be 

froduced as such in thik island, \1 shall lay down the best rules for the culture of it that 
have been able to meet^th. 

Tfie most proper soil for the plants is a moist, rich, and deep earth ; for they gene- 
Jtslly send forth ^ue tap root^ which runs very de^ into the ground ; so that, whenever 

' ♦ *Bh tb^ 



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m HGRTUS^ JArMAICBNSlfla ^touolati* 

they meet with a roAy bottom neaF the surfaco they seldqnn thrive, nor are long Uve^t 
A rich glade of brick mould near waterjs perhaps the beet situation of any. . Before thQ-t 
plantation is begun, the ground should be well prepared by digging it deep, and clcar-^ ^ 
ing it from roots of trees and noxious plants. Whtm the ground has been thus pre-. 

feared, the rows should be i^arked out.with a line. Some of {be largest, finest codj?^ 
nil ripe^ .are then to be selected j and, after being kept two or, thrge days from the, 
time of their gathering, they are opened, the nut^j taken out,, and'thrown in a smalL 
vessel of water ; such as swim arei to be rejectQd ; the. others ar^ to be washed cleaiv 
from the pulp, the outer skin taken oif, ^nd they are suffered Xo lie in shallow water,,, 
till they appear just ready to sprout, A hole is then made about one foot diameter,, 
and six inches deep, in the ground prepared for their reception, A plantain leaf in- 
laid in ihe hole, so as to retain a length at one end,of al>out eight inches ahov^ ground ; 
the mould is lightly rubbled into the leaf„ till the. bole is filled ; anU the nnt^jare after^ 
wards set triangulady in it) tUree in a hole, at two^ inches depth,, care b'-mg -used ta 
place tliem.wjth thi^ir ends perpendicular ; they are to be covered with laould, loosely, 
shaken over, and. the extremity of the plantain leaf folded down, and J< *pt in that po-* 
sition, with a small stone laid upon it. In. about eight or ten days time the plants wilt 
appear above the mould ; the plantain leaf is then raised, and some thatch tree, or othee 
strong leaves,, ar,e sejt round, to dvideand^ protect the, young, plants from the 5un.---» 
Small bundles, of about eighteen inches, made in ba^fcQt work, or reeds bundled toge-« 
tl^er^ would perhaps be preferable, .as they are fixed more firmly -by their stalks in the 
earthy so as not jeasily to be thrpwn down by the wind, and busk off tt^ seed ieaves of. 
the plants ; for the^ are only the tender divided lobes of the ^kernel, and the loss o£ 
tbem.wouldwjiolly put an end x^ their further gr©wtliv These. screens are continued, 
about six.months, after which the Sp^miar^s take a branch of coial bean tree*, and set* 
it s. S..W. (in Jamsuca it should be N.N. E.). at a sntall distance frgm the plants, and in-« 
termixed between tho^rows. These; slips will^row up with the ^cao, i^nd defend it • 
from blowing violent weather. Th^ young .plants are susceptible of injuries from, 
strong ydnds, a too hot sun, or great dcpught^} so.that.thi>y canDQt^Ji>e too well secvied^ 
against such accidents. For this reason* the mgst sheltered situation must be chosea 
for them. The winds most to be feared in Jamaica, are tlie N. E. s. E. and southerly. ' 
Some defend the young plants, by planting plantain suckers about two. months, or cas^ * 
sada six weeks, before the seeds are set.. TJiey plant the nuts in the rainy season, or^ . 
at least, in cloudy weather, or when minis expected i. and, in case tlic weather proves. ' 
tQodry and scorching after the cacao makes its appearance above ground, they contriver - 
to water it, bylajing pieces of rag, cotton,.or even weedst,v thoroughly wet, gently, 
round the stem, and let them rest there;, till the earth has absorbed a considerable por-i. 
tion^ of moisture ; a watwng pot, with a rose head of very small holes, would no doubt 
be less troublesome, and perform tliis operation much better ; but the water used fotr- 
the purpose should be taken from a river, and suffered to stand for some hours in a tuU 
or cistern previous tp ^ts being used. Plantain trees a^rd the most natqraland agrees 
able shade for these plants* while very young ;. but, as they rise, they.should be fur-w 
nished witha more substantial defence against. the inclemencies of the weather, till 
Uiey attain to full perfection ; and it ought even then to be removed with precaution^ 
If the w^lk is extensive, a few large timber trees may be left on . the outline or ^skirts^^ 
here and there, to break the force of the wind. The Spaniards set orange-tree$i but 



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CHOC0LATK HO^TUai JAMA |C EN SIS, l«? 

Iliey are^ T think,' too slow in their growth. I have seen the horse cassia and matnmee 
Xki>c\\ tor this jjurpose; andttiey seem better adapted, fr^in the largeness of bulk, and 
ttiick siiady leaves. 

When tne cacao is six montlis old, the planter, froq[i this period, must not be too 
fond of cleaniRg the walk from grass and iierbage ; because they keep the ground cool ; 
but all creeping climbing plants, ai)d such weeds as grow hign enough to overtop thd 
cacao, should be destroyed. Tiie di^tiinoe for l^y^ng in the «eeds njay be about sixteen 
or eighteen feet from tree to tree. The reason for putting in three seeds is because 
they seldom -all succeed ; or, if all grow, they will not all be equally vigorous ; wiien, 
ilierefore, they are about eighteen inches high, oti6 of tije weakest and most iMipro- 
jnising of the three niay be drawn up and thrown ^way, care being taken not to injure 
or disturb the rbota of^hc two remaining. It Li found by experience necessary <o plant 
the seeds where the trees are to remain ; for tlie transplanted trees will never thrive,' 
nor bear well, on account, as is supposed, of the tenderness of the tap-root, which, if 
it be tiw3 least injured^ will bring on a decay of the tree. 

In two yeuti time, the plants, having growa to the height of about five feet, will be- 
gin to flower ; these first olossoms are always plucked off; for, if suffered to remain^ 
and produce fruit, the vigour of the trees will be greatly impaired, and they will never 
teaflrwetl aftei-wards. Their fruit is not allowedl "to remain for maturity till the third 
year, and then only so much as seems proportioned to the strength of eagh tree. By 
these precautiolis they will afterv^ards yield a larger, better nourished fruit, and hold 
their vigour much linger. Jn the fourth year they are permitted to bear a moderate 
crop, but some flowers are generally pulled OiF from those that appear too weak, ia 
-order that tbey jnay recover their strength, betore they are old. When planted in a 
good soil, aod properly managed* they will continue vigorous and fruitful for thirty 
. I^ears. They bear two crops a y^ar; the greatest in Deceuiber or January, tjie otlier; 
in May; and from .the time wli^n the flowers drop off, to the ma'tqnty ot the fruit is 
jibout four montjis. Tiie time of maturity is known hy ^^e yellowness of ^he p6ds, and 
the rattling of the nuts, when the pods ^re shakeo. Tlie latter ^re thei] plucked, the 
liuts picked out, and leaving the pulp, if any remains upon them, they \ure exposed 
^very day to the §uq, for a n^onth^ upon mats, blanket^, or slirns.* it is best not to 
vash oflT th^pujp, as it makes tljem keep tlie longjer. The pods •contain no certain 
;pumber ; they have ffom pan to twenty and even thirty nuts ; out this depends chiefly 
on the right tramiog (hem during the 'first thr^e or four years of their growth. Whea 
thoroughly cured or dried, they are ready for the market. 

After a walk is once established it renews itself, the. roots sending out suckers, to 
^$upply the place of the old stocks, when decayed or t:ut down. 

The produce of one tre^ is generally esthiiated at about twenty pounds of nuts. Th^ 
produce per acre in Jamaica has been rated at one thousand pounds /7^r annum, allow- 
ing for bad years. 'In poor soils, and under bad management, the produce per tree 
rarely exceeds eight pounds weight, The. chemical oil ej^tracted from the nnts is ex- 
tremely hot, and esteemed a good emibrocation.iu paralytic cases; the Mexicans are 
9aid to eat the nuts raw, to assuage pains in the bowels. 

The chocolate, so much and so-justly preferred by the West Indian natives to most 
.inher aliments, is highly restorative, insbmuch, that one ounce of it is ^ald to nourisk 
^mSA much -as a pound of peef. It. U est^eiped m all countries where it is known, and is 

'Bb2 fouo4 

: ' >' • 

'f U iiLanulim ioHij the podft^inhesptU twcstfortfuee or ito fUjt boforc tbej we apeK4* 



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18d HOKTUS JAMAICENSIS. ^bocolatj^ 

found a suitable part of diet for all ages, 'but in particular agreeable to;infants, old per-* 
sons, valetudinarians, and.such as are on the recovery from sickness ; and, prepared 
with milk, it is highly approved of in consumptive habits. From what has. been pre- 
mised it appear^vthat this is not a plant vviii rh can be every where cuitivatetl. It \vill 
not thrive in the dry low parts ot the South side,, nor on elevated or rocky spots in the 
mountains. It requires a tiiat, mois» soil, well sheltered by sunounding heights ;. whiclx 
occasioned Sir Hans Sloar^ to remai'k, " that.it is but ill living where there are good 
cacao walks j" for which moist, unventilated,places are,, without doubt, the most un- 
wholeson^e for mankind to reside in. Yet, where such gladesor sp jts are found, they 
certainly cannot be turned to any sort of culture that will yield more profit ; and it doe$ 
not follow timt because a settler is possessed of such a spot, he is therefore to live upoa 
it ; since the situation supposes the neighbourhood of higher spots, more proper for 
constant residence.— -Zo72^', jp. 693. 

The cacao or. chocolate nut^ aproductaon equally delicate, wholesome, and nutri-* 
tive, is a native of South America, and is said to have been orij'inally con r eyed to His* 
paniola from some of the provinces of New Spain, where besides affording the natives ■■, 
an article of nourishment, it sepved tife purpose of money ; and was used by them as a ' 
medium in barter; one hundred and iiity of the mits being considered of .much the 
^ same value as a rj/ai by the Spaniards. . From this circumstance it seems probable, that 

' if the ancient inhabitants of South America were emigrants from Europe or Asia, they 

must have detached themselves at. aaearly period, before metals were converted into 
coins, or from ^ome society which had made but moderate advances in civilization. 

The fifth year the tree bears, and the eighth attains its full perfection. Ibis obnoxi-- 
ous to blights, and shrinks from the first appearance of drought. It has happened that 
the greatest part of a whole plantation of cacao trees have perished in a single night,, 
without a visible cause. Circumstances oT this nature,, in early times, gave rise to many 
" superstitious notions concerning this tree, and, among others, the appearance of a . 
comet was aljvays considered as fetal to the cacao plantations. 

^ In spite, however, pf the influence of comets, ^nd notwithstanding the care and pre- - 
caution that are requisite in, the first establishment of a cacao plantation, it is certaiR. 
that the cultivation, of this plant was both extensive and successful in the Bnti&h sugar- 
islands,, for many years after they had became subject to the British government 
Blome, who published a short account, of Jamaica in 1672, speaks of cacao as being af^: 
that time one of the.chief articles of export ; *^ There are" says he,^ *' in this island, ai 
this time, about sixty cacao walks, .and many more now plantmg." ' At present, I be-~ 
lieve, there is not a single cacao plantation from one end of Jamaica 4;o the other. A « 
few scattered trees, here and ther^, are all that remains of those flourishing and beau^^^ 
tiful groves which, were pnee the pride and boast <rf the country. They have withered,, 
with.the iadig9 manufacture,, under the heavy hand of ministerial exaction. The ex*. 
jcise on cacao,, when made, into cakes,, rose to no less than twelve pounds twelve ^shili- - 
lings per hundred weight,^exclusive of eleven shillings and eleven pence half-penny^- . 
.paid at the custom-house ; .amounting together to upwards of four hund]^ and eighty.. 
j^r.a^nt. on its marketable vaUie ! — Edwards. 

'CaOiSBU. Vzk^CC BikSTARD S£NSmVE» 



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4»MSTitA» nOttTUS JAMAICENSIS: H$ 

. CHRISTMAS GAMBOL. CONVOLVULUS 

Cl, 5, OR. \,-^Pentandria mmogynia. NaT. or. — Campanaceot^ 

€^EN, Char. — See Bindweeds, p. 88. , . , 

POLYANTHOSL 

Convohidus fn4JJor poly ant hos^ longissime laHssimeqtie repens^fioribitk^ 
albis minoribus odoratisi, Sloane, r. 1, p. 153, t. 97, f. 2. Po/i- - 
anthos glaber undiqiie repensy ractmis^ subcomasis sparsis et alarim 
bus, capsuUsmonospermis.. Browne, p. 154. - 

This plant covers sometimes a great many trees j and sometimes pastures for a greatt- 
't^ddth. It has a broad or compressed,, flat, long^ cornered root, of a brownish co- 
lour, from whence issue many strings. The stalks are whitish, broad, smooth, havings ^ 
several round eminences on their surface, putting forth branches adorned with leaves 
at an inch and a half distance ; they are shaped like a heart, an inch and a half long, 
on an inch Jonw peduncle, and an inch broad at the round base, where broadest, smooth, . 
Boft, and of a darkish green colour. The flowers qome out in the brauches in great 
numbers, on inch Jong footstalks, they are monopetalons, Bell-feshioned, white, small 
¥nth respect to the plant, and smelling very sweet. After each of these flowers comes 
©ne large oval seed, like brown velvet, solid, inclosed in a brown raembranace(5us, 
hairy seed vessel having .five brown leaves, :jtanding out at every side under it like tlie 
lays of a star. It grows on the plain grounds near the river side by the town of St, Jago 
de la Vega, and in other places of theislaod, very plentifully. It flowers in May and 
December, when the humming biFds are very busy about it, feeding on the farina of 
the flowers. The smell of the flower is somewhat like that of the'4tiarcissus. — Sloane* 

All the parts of this plant are smooth*. 

^e BmDWERDs^jALAP^-lKDUN-CREEPER— Purging Sba^ Bindweed — Scammony-"-^' 

JSWEET FOTATOE. 



CHRISTMAS PRIDE/ HUELLIA; - 

Cu 14, OR. 2.'-^J)tdynafnia angiospermiai J^at^ oVi.^-Personaf/e. 
Tbis is so named in honour of Joannes Raelliusy a ieameU physician of Paris^ who^ 
i^d in 1537. 

Gen. Char. — Calyx a one-leafed, five-parted, permanent. perianth, having linear 
segments, acute,, straight ; the .corolla one petaled, irregular, with a patulous 
' "inclined neck ; border Sve-clett, spreading,^ blunts with two -upper segments more - 
reflexed ; the stamens are four filaments,, placed where the tube widens, approxi-^ 
mating by pairs ; .anthers scarcely long^^r tiian the 'tube ; the ptscil lias a rouniiisb - 
germ, a filiform style the length of the stamens/ a bifid. acute »tigai% the lowet 
segments rolled in.;. the pericarp is a round capsule, acummate bota ways, two- 
celled, two-valved, opening elastically by theclaws ; partition contrary ; seeds ii- 
4€W roundish^ compressed. Four species are natives of Jamaii^ 

1. PANICULATA. :PANICLED,. 

J^eculum veneris mq^-in^^au^ £loMie^T« 1; p^ 153; t. loo, f;i2; 

J^racei:iorj -r 



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t90, HOTvTUS JjiAfArCE^NSfl* CnlRlsTMj« 

Trocerir, suhci trea, hirsuta ; pedunculis ramosis ; fiort mulii--^ 
flicL bruvuie, p. 1-^7. 

Leaves alniobtertti re, peduncles dichotomous divaricate, panicled. 

The root is perennial, stem frutescent, froih two to three feet high, often prostrate, 
four-cornerecl, smooth, but pubesceffi towards the top ; leaves opuosite on j>hort peti- 
oles, ovate- laiireoiate,^soli»serraic, nerved, soprjewhut hirsute or ruu«ged ; btini leaves 
longer; branch leaves often deciduous; panicies fonneil of opposite dichotomoua 
branches, divaricating ver\ much; pedicels one-flowered, flowers biggish, bhie ; cap- 
sule acunriuate, surrounded by the calyx, two-celied, bursting by tne cliw; seeds 
roundish^ compressed, black. The whole herb is.sonunvhat clumsy, with giancis, and 
has ai) odour approaching to that of camphor. It i:^ a native of Jamaicain tiie southcux 
parts ill dry bills and hedges.— r*?;:^^. 

When the capsule is ripe it bursts open with great violence on being wettedj throw- 
ing the seed to a considerable distance. Ttiis is a remarkable [)rovisioh made by nature 
for propagating these plants. when rain. falls. .It is very common about Spanish Towu^ 
and generally blows about Christmas, in the. months of ©ecember and Januaiy, mak- 
ing a beautuul appearance, on the hedge^i at that season of the year, wheute its nam.e>' 
ChristmaS'pyiej has been derived. .The. plant being weakly seidom rises above a foot 
or two unsiy^j parted, but climbs oUvthe neighbouring bushes frequently the length of 
three or four feet, bearing a.greai number of flowers. This is iheself-fhtal, or all-heal^ 
of Barhan), of which he gives the following account : 

** These herbs are calu^djn, Latin prunella^ or alheal or setf-heal ; and the Germans 
call them brundlaj^,hrupelltny because they cure that disease which they call die 
brutn^ common to soldiers in camps and garrisons, which is an inflammation of tlie 
mouth, tongue, and throat, with blackness^ accompanied with a strong burnipg fever 
and dJstractiaa or delirium : The juice of these plants is a certiiin specific for that dis- 
temper, and ail sore mouths and throats, ilnixed with a little honey of roses* and white- 
wme vinegar. The decoction of the herb, in wine or water, makes an excellent trau- 
matic drink, to forward the healing of all wounds and stubborn ulcers. "It is said ta 
take away the paiiv and ^welling of the testicIes,.whicliJ^egroes are apt.to have. Above 
twcniy years past, one captain Pickering, a eentleman 1 knew very well, had a stick 
wita hre at the end of it^/darted at hv«i, whic^ happened to. come just /under the brow 
of Ills eye^ and seemed to turn his eye out, >flnd iJI despaired of hi& life. No surgeon 
being at hand, they sent for an old negro man, well skilled in plants; as soon as«.ho 
came; he ran and took of this herb that hath the bUiish or purple Bower, and washed 
it, reduced the eye as well as he could to its place, and then laid on the bruised herb, 
bound it up, and the captain was carried home. The next day he sent for a surgeon; 
, and when they came to open it, found it healed up to admiration ; upon which they 
sent for the negro, and desired him to finish his cure ;/ which he did m two pr three 
days, only applying, the samething ; and then the captavn rewarded the ffegro very 
well, and desired him to shew htm the herb. 'This I had from several worthy gentle- 
men who were there present, and affirmed it to be matter of fact and truth, who since^ 
they told me, use it to all green wounds with great suecess, and call it Pickering^s herb 
$,0 this isLy.^^-^Barhamy p. ill. 

2. BL£CHUM» 

JPrwdU daiigrfl^rxMlbp. Slo^ne, Vr l, p. 173^ t^lOd; £ U Ble«v 



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vs$im(m HORTUS JAMAICENSTa ttU 

C^iirn* Foliis oblongo (rt>atisy spicis crassiifolioloHs eahico fuactratig, 
suhhirsutis. Browne, p. 261, 

Leaves ovatc^ serrate-toothed, somewhat hirsute ; spikes orate ; inner bractet - 
in pairs ; flowers three together, sessile. 
Stem herbaceous,, two or three feet high, upright, bi:ancbcd, four-cornered, stri-' 
^fced even; the branches spreading, opposite, .axillary ; leaves petioled, opposite. 
Ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, nerved ;^ spikes terminating, four-cornered, conical, aa 
inch long; bractes imbricate, or floral leaves, ^cordate, acuounate, nerved^ hirsute, at 
the base of which are two little lanceolate bractes, and within them three sub-sessiler 
flowers, small, whitish blue... Calyx five-leaved; leaflets .awUsbaped, erect; corolla 
funnel-form, border three-cleft Seeds membranaceous, black. It is an annual plant,, 
common in the pastures and bushy places of Jamaica. Browne sayai it thrives best in a 
gravelly soil. Sloane found it on a rocky hilL beyond Guanaboa. . 

3. BtEChiomBS. ^ 

Leaves oblong)'. some what toothed^ smooth; spikes ovate,; flowers longer thatk 
the bractesr . 

The stems are prostratefdichotomous,. even, slightly four-cornered ; leaves oppo- 
aite, ovate, scarcely pubescenty.jquite entire, toothleta obsolete ; petioles eiliate ; 
spikes loose, four- cornered, ma^e up of cordate, floral leaves, with two short ianceo-i. 
late bractea witbiaeacby iMid within these two. sessile flawecs, pne without the othac».. 

Su Spirit Leap. 



cinnamon: xaurus. 

Ct. 9, OR; 1. — Enneandria monogynh^ ' NAT. oZt^^Holoracectm. . 
Q&l. CRAA.See Avocado Pear Tree, p. 37. 

CINNAMOMUM. \ 

Leaves threernervedy ovate«oblong \ nerves disappearing toMrairds the end. 

This treebatba large root, which, divides into several branches^covered with a bark/ 
^iiihich on the outer side i& of a greyishJtur^wtv and in the. inside ha& a reddish cast— • 
^e wood of the.roDt.is hard, white,! aivd bas^no smell. -.' The body of the tree, which 
grows to-the height of .twenty or thiity feet,4s.€Overed, as wellia^ it»numei^us branches, 
ixith a bark, which at first is green, and afterwards reddish. Tiie leaf is longer and 
narrower than the common baystree ; »nd it is-ihseeperved,..ibe nerves vanishing to* 
wards the top. When first unfolded it is of « beautiful ^mecolour ; but, after it has 
been for some time exposed to^^the air^ and gi^](W6.drv>. it changes to a deep green on 
the upper surface, ana taa lighter on thelowev.^. The flowers are small and pale yel- 
low, and grow in large bunches at the extremity of the branches : they have a smelly 
.something like tbat^of the lily o£tbe vallejr^ The fruit is.sbaped like an acorn, but i» 
4Dtot so large. 

The cinnamon is the under Wk of the cinnamooium. Tlie best season of separating; 
$yiom^e outer.back, whichis gi^^y and ruggp^ i^ (be flp(ingi: $vben tbe.6ap tiows iz% 

4ha- 



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Iff HORTUS JAMA ICE N SIS. eiNNAMOir 

the. greatest abundance. It. is cut into thin slices, aitd exposed to the bud, dnd cvurls 
up ill drying. The old trees produce a coarse kind of cinnamon. When the trunk 
has been stripped ot its bark, it reciives no further nourishment ; hut .the root is still 
alive, and continues to throw out fresh dioots. Its seed, wben boiled in water, yielts 
an oil which suims at top and lakes fire If left to cool, it hardens into a white sub- 
stance, of vvhich cnndles aiv mude, which have an ^ig^eeable smell, and areucserved 
for the use of the King of Ceylon The ciunamon is not reckoi^ed excellent unless, it 
Be fine, smT)oth, brittle, thii), oi a jellow colour, inclining to red ; fragrant,, aromatic, 
tmd of a poignant yet agreenhle taste. The connoisseurs give the pret'cfence to that, 
the piec<*s of which are long but slender. Cinnamon is a v^ry elegant and useful aro-^ 
fnatic, more grateful both to the palate and stomach, than most other substances of this 
-class. By its astringent quality it likewise corroborates the vi*>cera, and proves of great 
ser\'ice-in several kinds of alvine fluxes,* and immoderate discharges from thr uterus. 

The cinnamon is a native of CeylQu. Some trees were introduced into this island 
by Admiral Rodney, who captured them with otlier valuable plants in a French ship, 
— One was planted in Mr. East's Garden, and ^mother in the Botanic Garden, in St. 
TliOmas in the East. From these parent trees many hundreds of young trees-have been 
produced, and now thrive in almost every part of the islaod. 

Dr. Dancer grves the following account of thednnamon trees, growing iri this islaftd, . 
in the eighth volume of the Transactions of the Society of Arts : 

** The cinnaraoh trees of this island have been raised from'a few plants taken, along 
with a large collection of other oriental exotics, in a French ship, bound from the Isle 
of France to Hispaniola, aad presented to the Botanic Garden by Lord Rodney, when 
he came down here,, after his glorious victory of the 12th of April, 1782 * Upon com- 
paring die parts of the tree with the description and figure given by Burman and other 
DOtanists, it appears to be the real Ceylon cinnamon, and of the best kind, called by 
the natives rasse cot ande ; but the specimens of bark taken put it out of all doubt, beur 
ing, indie opinion.of the best judges, i)f an e,quaLif iK)tsuperipr,quaUty t« any im- 
ported from India, 

" The various and important uses to which the several parts'of the plant are applied, 
make it an invaluable acquisition to the West India colonies ; and there can be no im- 
pediment, except an impolitic prphibition, to its becoming an article of general culti- 
Tation, and of tne most lucrative commerce. None of the botanical writers, whom I 
liave bad an opportunity of consulting, say much of the cultivation or propagation of 
the cinnamon ; and we have hardly had time to make suffictentx^bservations on the sub- 
ject of either ; but, for the information of the public, to whom it isia matter of some 
importance, \ shall venture the few reioarks which my own .short experience enabled 
ine to offer. 

*^ The cinnamon plaqt, though, (according to the account of travellers,), it grows 
to the height of twenty or thirty feet is, properly speaking, an arborescent one, and 
not a tree of the common kind \ it puts out nun^erous side brarnch^s, with a dense fo- 
liage, from the very bottom of the trunk ; which furnishes an opportunity of obtaining 
a plenty of layers, and fadlitates the propagation of the tree, a& it does nfit.perfect its 
-seeds in any quantity under six or seven years, when it becomes so plerttifaliy loaded^ 
•that a single tree is sufficient almost for a colony. It seems to deligbt in a loose moi^ 
46oil, and to require a southern aspect; the trees thus planted,' flourishing better than 
ii^ersgrQ)vidginaloai% aodaotso weHexpoaedXo the sun. TA¥hen healthy^ it is;. 



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CKWAMtw «0TIT17S JAMAICENSIS. >9J 

(from layers) of a pretty quick growth, reaching in eight j-ears the height of fifteen of 
twenty feet, is very sjjreauing, and furnished with nmiierous branches^ of a fit size fot 
decortication. The seeds, however, are a lon«; time iti comijjg up, and the plants 
jnake smrdJ progress for the first }*ear or two. Tlie birds ipippear to be very fond of the 
. fccrries, ana. will, probably, propagate this tree in -th^i same way they do many others 
every , where over Uie iiilaiid; -so that ia a short time it will grow spontaneously, or 
Hnithont cultivation. 

*• The best cinnamon bark, according to the different trials I have made, js takeh 
from the small branches, of iibout an incli diameter, the larger limbs not being so easily 
ilecorticated^ and not yielding so good or so strong a cinnamon. The smaller twigs, 
or those that have not acquirea a cmeritifous bark, are too full of sap and mucilage, and 
\ live litxie aroma. ItistneM^r, or inner bark,, that constitutes the cinnamon, from 
»vhich the two external barks must be carefully and entirely seperated, or they vitiate 
\he flavour of the cinnamon. To do this with dexterity, and to raise tbfi bark from the 
</oo 1, requires some 'practice ; . but there may perhaps be an easier method than that 
v/hich I made use of; which was tliat of a common pnminff knife. Th^ bark being 
{bus seperateJ, the smaller pieces are to be placed within me larger j which, by ex- 
posure to the sun or the air^ presently coil up, and require no furttier preparation. A 
dry season, I apprehend, is the proper one for taking the bark ; aa I have found the 
cinnamon not so strong after long or heavy rains. Cinnamon seems to be much more 
retentive of its virtues than any of the other spices ; but it will certainly be proper to 
protv^ct it, wiien takon^ as muck as possible^ from the air and motisture^ by close pack- 
ing in cedar chests. 

*' Havinpr t ius comaiunicated all that I am able from my own observations, respect- 
ing tue cuit.ir^* ai 1 p* t'paratioa oi the cijjnamon, { shall add what 1 know with respect 
to the uses of its stnerul \rdrts. 

** Tae leaves, w. eti^er recent or dried, are 80 Strongly impregnated with an aromOf 
si.iiiUr t> tlie cifi lamon, that they are on all occa^'sions a good suceedaneum for the 
burk* bi)th in cookery and medicine. Distilled, they give an excellent simple and 
spirituous water, and an essential oil, of the nature or oil of cloves. Powdered, they 
aj-e a fTor) J aromatic §pec"es, or mareschal perfume. Every part of the tree, according 
to writers of the best authority, affords some useful product.''* 

To account for the great quantities of cinnamon treed still remaining in the island of 
•Ceylon, after the general exportation of the bark that has prevailed during several 

ceiituries, some authors have assured us, that^ after thp bark has been stripped off the 
i tree, it becomes fit to be stripped off a second time in four or five years ; but tliis as* 

sertion is no less contrary to obser^'ation than it is to the cpmmon course of nature.-^ 
'The truth is, the barkecl trees being cut down, quickly put forth new shoots, which in 

a period of from five to eight years come again to the knife. Great numbers also of the 

trees are continually springing from the fruit, which either drops upon the ground, or 
'Ss disseminated by the wi'd doves called there cinnamon eaters; insomuch, that here 

and there alone the roads such quantities of these young trees are to be seen, as to look 

iike little wdbcts. 

The following account of the laode of procuring cinnamon in Ceylon, is extracted 
«&om Tiiunberg^s Travels ; 

Cc ^* Cinnamon 



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|94 HORTUS JAMAtCENSISi . cm^jL^tat 

/ «« Cinnamon is hsrkeA ia the woods at two different seasons of the year. The first it 
termed the grand harvest, and lasts from April to August ; the second is the small har- 
vest, and last$ from November to the month of Jamiaiy. The barking is performed ift 
the following manner : firsts a good cinnamon tree is looked out i'or, and chosen by the 
leaves an^ other characteristics. Those branches which are ihr< e years old, are lopped 
off with a common hooked prnning knife; Secondly, from the twigs that have been . 
lopped off,,the outside pellicle (epddcnnU) of the bark k scraped off with another 
ktiife, which is convex on one edge, and concave on the other, with a sharp point at 
the end, an J sharp at both ed^es. Thirdly, after the bark has been scmped, the twigs 

. are ripped up longways with the point of the knife, and th,e barfc gradually loosened 
from them with the convex edge of the knife, till itxan he entirely taken off. Fourthly, . 
the bark being peeled off, is gathered up together^ several smaller tubes or quilb of it 
are inserted into the larger, and thus spread out to drv, when the bark of its own ac- 
cord rolls itself up sliH closer together,, and is then tied up in bundles, and finally car- 
ried off Sandy ground is best adapted of eny for cinnamon trees. Aft^r the cinnamor^ 
has been packed up, the dislillitig of it coo^mences* This, tlie degirest and most ex- 
cellent of oils, isdisiilled from the fragments and small piecei^ pf cinnamon, which 
break off and fall from it during the packing. This dust and refuse is. laid in large 
tubs, and a quantity of water poured upon it sufficient to cover it completely. I» this 
manner it is left in several different tubs, which ar,e got read j^ in daily succession, for 
six or eight days together, to macerate. One of these -tubs commonly holds one hun- 
dred pounds, weight of cinnamon dust. All this is poured, a little at a time, into a cop- 
per alembic, and drawn off with a^low fire. The water, called aqua.cimmomi^ then 
comes over quite v^ite, nearly of th^ colour of milk, together with the oil, which floats 
at top in the open glass recipient placed underneath. A tub is distilled off every 
twenty.four hours. I was at great pains tp ascertain how much oiJ is procured from 
one hundre 1 weight of cinnamon dust, but constantly without effect, as,it is against the 
apothecary's interest to let this be known. Thus much however is certain, that cinna- 
mon does not yield much oil, in ^proportion toother spices, and that, therefore such 
cinnamon as is useful cannot be employed fot this purpose, but only the refuse, which 
cannot be sent to EJurope;. The wood of the tree is. of a loose and porous texture, and 
handsome enough : when sawed into planks it is sometimes njanufactured into caddiei 
and the like, but its scent does not secure it from the attacks of wpnns." — Thunberg^ 

See Avocado ^?eart-Bay T/iees—Benjamin-tCamphi|ie— Cog wood— Sassafras^ 



CINNAMON, WILD/ CANELLA. 

Gl. 11, OR. 1. — Dodecandriamonogyma. . Nat, OR.r— 

Gen tJUAR. — Pierian th one-leafed, three-lobed; lobes. roundish, concave: the co* 
V rolla has ftve petals, oblong, sessile, longer than the calyx, two a little narrower 
than the rest; nectary pitcher^haped, the length of the petals, anthers bearing; 
the stamens have no filaments; anthers from nine to twenty, or even more, linear^ 
parallel, distinct, fastened on the outride to the nectary : tbe-pistil has a superior 
gcfm, within the nectary, ovate; style. cylipdric, tfie length of the nectary; 
«tigiD9» two or three, blunt, convex, wrinkled ; the pericarp aa oblong three- 

celied. 



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•DRfAVQif HQRTUS JAMAIX;ENSI% \9( 

celled berry ; seecb roundish, kijncy^haped (two to fpur). This is allied t^ 
tinus. In the ripe fruit one eell only ia feriiie, the radiments of the other twa 
being rarely seen. 

ALBA. WHITE, 

Arbor haccifera^ lauriJoUa^ aramaticay fructu vindi calj/culato xocg* 
jnoso. Stoane, v. 2, p. S7, t. 19 1, f. 2. loin's oblong is obiusis nim 
tidisy raapnis tcrmifidlilius, Browne, p. 275, t. 27,"f. 3. 

* This tree is very common in Jamaica, and grows sometimes to the height of forty or 
fifty feet, straight, upright, branching at the top, and making a handsome appear-, 
ance. The bark has an outward rind, thin, of a ligbt>»'grey colour, with some -wbilo 
spots scattered over it, having also several shallow furrows of a darker colour. The in- 
ward bark is twice as thick as the outer, smt>oUi, and of a lighter comple;;ion, of m 
mnch Ynore biting aromatic tdste, somewhat like tlaat of cloves, not gluUiious like cin* 
namon, but dry, and crumbling between tiie teeth. The leaves come out at the ends 
of the twigs without any order, generally alternate ; they are getioled, oblong, about 
two inches and a half long and one broad, of ja yellowish gr^en colour, shinmg and 
smooth. The flowers grow at.the tops of the oranches in clusters, but upon divided 
peduncles, they are ^mall, and seldom open, of a purple or violet colour. The Jobe« 
of the calyx are divided almost to the bottom^ incumbent, green, smooth, membra- 
uaceous, pAmenent^ the peuls are concave, upright, tliick, and deciduous ; as is also 
the necuiy. The berry is about the size of a pea, fleshy, smooth, green at first, bul 
tm-ns Wueiand black «^henTipe. The seeds are generally two, as two ceils are commonly, 
abojrtive. Sloane says he found four seeds in those he examined. The berries grow 
soft and pulpy when ripe, and lose that heat and pungency they possess when green^ 
like those ot the pimewta, and are then greedily devoured by the wild pigeons, and 
other birds, who disperse the seeds in difl^erent places by their muting. 

This tree is-common as well in the mountains as in the lower woods and rocky hills, 
^nd frequently found near the coast, where it seldom exceeds twelve or fifteen feet in * 
'height. All the parts of the tree when fresh are very hot, aromatic, and pungent, and 
when in 'blossom throws a perfume all around Tlie flowers. dried, and softened in 
'Water, *have a fragrant odour nearly approaching to musk. 

Th« bark is cured without any difficulty by drying in the shade ; what is taken from 

^he branches is thinner, and rather Bsilder, than from the body of the tree, more nearly 

♦approaching to the true cinnamon The bark yields by distillation a warm aromatic 

oi), which is often sold for, and generally mixed with, oil of cloven; aor is the adul* 

iteration thought of any prejudice to the medicine. It is reckoned % good remedy in 

scorbutic habits ; invio;orates the blood, is carminative, and stomttchic. Powdered and 

snuffed into the nostri's, it is cephalic, and produces a copious discharge of rheum.-— 

dt is used by most apothecaries instead of the true cortex wint^ranus^^ and being supe* 

rior in quality, has superoeded it in use. 'Four ounces of the bark, with six ounces of 

cassia li^nea {wYnch it vtry much resemblea), and one gallon of proof spirit, ( a hand* 

ful of common salt being thrown in to depblegmate the spirit,) makes a cinnamon wa« 

ter ; and the greater part of what is vended in the shops, is compounded in this man*- 

ner. A quantity of the bark, mixed with badly distilled rum, is said to discharge in 

part its nauseous empj^reumatic taste and smejL This bark ia a common ingredieat , 

^4th capsicums in the tbod of the negroes. 

Cca CITHON* 



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*» HORTUS JAMAICENSISL • ^^TMll 

CITRON- CITRUS'*. 

Cl. 18, OR. 3. — Polyadelphia icosandria. NaT. oR:^ — Mc6r)ii% 

Gen. char. — Perianth one-leafed, five-cleft, flat at the base, very small, withering^ 
corolla five.petale3, oblong,. Hat, .spreading ^ stamens iisiiaiiy tuenty tilaments,| 
4(ubulate, compressed, erect,, placed in a ring or cylinder, united geaenilly.in ^ 
few bunches ; w.th oblong anihers ; the pistil hasa superior roundisJci gemo \ styl^ 
cylindric, the length of the stamens ; stjgrna globular, niuc-celled, wittiid ; thei 
pericarp a berry with a fleshy rind, the puip bladdery, uine-celled ; seeds \% 
couples^ subovate, callous. To this genus belongs all the orange and lemon kin<ii 
Thiee species, of which.there are many varieties,, growiu this iiiand. 

MfDICA. 

Citrus arhhr et 'ivalus citrea. Sioane, p. 176- Fructu oblongo.ma^ 
jovi^ cortice cras^o cartwso^.superJicicinefiuiUivesUulato^ BrowDC^ 
p. 309. 

Fruit with a iraugh -knobbed rin^. 

- This tree, when. cultivated, grows to the height of fifteeh feet ormore^ but in a wilj 
iBtate seldom exceeds seven or eight It is prickly, with long reclining ungraceful 
branches. Inileed, the whole tree has the most unseemly an J straggUng*appcaiancA 
of any of the species. Tlae leaves are ovate*oblong, alt* mate, subsen*ale, smooth* 
pale green, thick, having winged footstalks. The flowers are white, oJoriierou>, 
on many flowered terminating peduncles. TJie fruit is very large, oolong-ov,.;^ 
rough rinded; the pulp white, commonly acid, the rina pale yeliovi, thick, uardi.^i^ 
odoriferous, irregular. Properly there are tv^o rinds^ tiiC outer thin, with innumerc- 
We miliary glands full of a most fragrant oil; the inner thkk, winte, and fuftgous: 
the partitions consist of two very thin diaphanous memmanuce .us piates, conneuied ut 
the axis, and inserted into the rind at the -periphery ; the tv*is are riiied wim a bia i- 
dery pulp. In each cell are a few. seeds, commonly one or twj, somen afca three or 
four. There are two varieties oS this,, one with ronn i, and one wi.ij ubio- g, iruit.— 
The fruit of the citron is seldom eaten raw, though it has an agrti a.Me aciv* icsu ; l.ut 
its rind is well known as a pleasant sweetmeat^wiien can tied witii bu ^. n Tae pee* 'nit 
among clothes is said to drive away moths, and impa ts to iheui a g jo sin^ii ; ii ».;.i^,- 
ed m spirits gives them an agieeable flavour.. According, to Labat citroa juicc an I c r^ 
dials is an ai^ti lote to Munchioned poison- 
In Martyn's Dictionary it is observed, that tiie orange spe<ies is distinguiaheJ fromt 
the citron, lime, and lemon, by having winged petioles, which tiie tii/ee last i.c\ n ji * 
This is a mistake, as all these plants have lueir petio^vs hi nge J, thougn <he u .i^o ..r-^ 
much sniallerthan those of tliewange kinci A better diaUiiction is c rtainiy lUv' . rzc, 
sliape, and coloQr of the leaves themselves,, as wellas theiarger biz., and vcij a..icr* 
^nt habit, of the orange from any of the lemon kind. 

The leaves of the lime are neither so large nor so acute pointed as the orange ; those 
of the lemon approach still nearer the oval, are of a paler green colour, anJ more ser- 
rated than either ; the leaves of the citroa hav« winged petioieSi^aadwe a^ort^ ^rrated 
ihan orange leaves* 

Tia 

^ The tre« knowo ^j tht oaiM of Frmck Umt i* dbtiasiiiked bj camd aditd peUoktb 



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*^MMf HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. m 

Tike leaves pf tbe ihaddock have by fkr the largest wings oa the p^4»Ie8« aad neijrl/. 
•Mfemble ibo^ of tbe^ citron in every respect. 

See Lime— Lemon — Orange^Shadpocs^ 
CLADiuM^JVr Boo Rush. 



CLAMMY CHERRY. CORDLl^ 

Cl. 5, OR. 1. — Pentandriamomgynutt TJ:hr: OR.-^Jsperifoli(e. 

^Tbis is so named in honour o£ a German hotaoist^ Bained EuriciudrCordus^ of jth% 
^Bxteentb century. 

Gen. char. — ^The cal)rx is a one-leafed tubular perianth, toothed at the top, penna<' 
nent; the corolla is one-petaled, funoel-form; the tiibe patulous, twice the 
length of the calyx ^ bordir erects spreading, cut into five obtuse divisions ; the 
stamens are five or six ftianient^ tubulated ; with oblong anthers the length of the 
tube ; the pistil has a roundish- acuminate germ, a^impie^tyle, the length of the 
stamens, bifid at top^jdivisions bifid; stigmas obtuse ; the pericarp is a globose 
drupe, acuminate', growing to^ the calyx •, the seed a furrowed nut, four-celledjt 
two barrea.K £ix species^ of ihi& genus are nativea of Jamaica.. 

1. COLLOCO:CA* 

Ciraso affifiis arbor baccifera ra£emosa,fiorepentap€talo herhaceo gut^ 
tato^ Jructu coccineo tmnopyreno viscidoy seniine rugoso. Sloane^ 
V. 2, p. y5, fe.-203, -f. 2.. FMs rugosis vtnosis oblon^o ovatis, fig^. 
ribus laxe racemosis. Browne, p. 167, 

"Eeaves cordate^ovate, quite entire; ilowei« x»rymbedi calyxea tonientpsft' 
wiibin. 
T^iis tree grows^ in most of the lowland* of Jamaica. It has a straight undivided 
trunk, rising fifteen t^j twenty feet, Sloane says even ta fifty. The bark is sm6otb'.aod 
«riay-9oioureJ. The branches spread on erer^ hand ; the leaves are oval, rugged, oh» 
liq.iely voineJ, and disposed alternately, aboutsix inches bngand two brOiiJ. Thesa 
Ifiiivcs ar^ sixed in December, ^and theilossoms, of a yellowisu green with brown spots, 
c * ue out ia February, the fruit ripening in April. TheJeaVes follow some time aft^ 
>„' bL)ssoins. Tiie berries come out in clusters, of a fine red colour, iibout as biga^a 
• Bii 1 li >< cherrvy -having a jsoft, sweetish^ clammy plulp, in^eloping tlie nut. Turkies 
ill oc.ier poul'cy feed much upon these berries, hence it is sometimes called the tur<m 
^f y-/>. ;•/ y t, ee^. Hogs and dogs are also extremely fond Of this fruit, an J it is thought 
tti* i ateti aieai. It is -obscived that GuineaJiens, feeding:! oa th# Wnes,, fire 4%iu&k^ 
^muca they are in season. 

I^.VMACKCtf^HYLLA. 

Prunus rccemosay foliis ^blongis hirtutis mMJ^m^^i/metu rubro.^^ 
Sioane, v^ 2, p. 130,. t. 221,^ f. 1. J^lutj^phjjillMS major, roi^el^uM • 
, umbel lot is. Browne, p. 1 6 a. 

SLearesJOfate- viliose, a foot ^ d » half in leog^i* 

.. . . . -Jhi^ 



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158 llORTUS JARiAICENSIft VUMMt 

* This tree, whith is called the broad^eaved cheny, dso rises to s cwiddcraWc^hergbt^ 
from forty to fifty feet, but is seldom above twelve ortiixteen inches in. diameter, tshotit^ii 
ing by a straight trunk, "fhe leaves are a foot and a halt long^ very large and rough ; 
the berries are the same size as those of the clammy. Browue says tuey are white, » 
Sloane describes them of a^reddish colour, owing^perh^s to their liitVeront degrees of 
ripeness. The leaves are of a fresh green colour, having one large niiddle rib, and se- 
veral transverse ones, standing on thre^-^juarters of an inch footstaiks. Tliis tree groui 
chiefly in the lower woods,, and Sloane found ic on the banks of the Rio Cobre. Thi% 
heart is of a yellowish, colour and a pretty good'timberwood.-— 4i'/<)tf/i4^-&* Browne^ 

S.-SEBtSTENA. 

I » Carr/cphylhi^ spurhis inodorus^foUo stibrotundo srabro^ flore rac^mos^ 

. heiapetaloide coccineo speciossissun^. ^ioane, v. 2, p. lO, t. 1^4. 
Foliis amplioribus Jiii'tis cvatis^ tubo.JiorU subuquaii. Brownr^^ 
p. 202. 

T Leaves oblong-ovate, repand, scabrous. 

This rises, by several stems, eight or nine feet higb, having a clay-coloured bark. 
Th^ leaves grow towards the tops of the branches, standing ou round inch-long fo:>t- 
stalks, very thick set by orte another. They are almost round, four mches long, and 
three broad, Aery -harsh to the touch, and of a very<lark green colour ; the flowers stafiSl 
each in a long fough calyx on the branches ends on their footstalks^ unabel fashion, are 
of a delicate scarlet colour, many and large, consisting of a long undivided tubulus^ 
eomething Hke a clove, .and a broad margin, divided into six sections, ail standing ia 
A dark brown capsule.— ^iHoa«^. 

' This bushy shrub grows on theT^aiSks above the beach lying b^wcen the stnall lagocA 
eastward of Kingston and Captain Cornish's ; and is said to grow in great, abundance 
on thoscf little isla'hds about Old'Harbowr. The Umb*of the corolla has liix. segmuits^ 
and there are six stamens. It seldom rises above seven or eight feet .above the root, 
and is furnished with rough o\*al leaves, and adorned M-ith large bunches of fine scarlet 
flowers, (hence the name of scarlet eordioyj the most benutitul and agreeable of any I 
have yet observed in America ; but the form of them is quite different from that deli- 
neated by Plumier, wherein the tube swells above the cup, and consequently must be 
considered as a different species. This would make a most .agreeable /flowering shrub 
in a garxlen or a forest ; and may probably be useful, could it oe brought to bear per j 
- feet fruit, which it hardly ever does in the state I have observed it-^JUrawne. 

Miller says that a small piece of the wood of Ais 5"pecies, ^\jt into a pan of lighted 
' ooals, sends forth a most agreeable odour,.and perfun es a whole house. The fruit, he 
^-4idds. is accounted cooling and moistening, ^useful against sharp thin defluxions upoo 
^e lungs, helping coughs and catarrhs, and taking off the heat of urine. 

' The effow, a variety of the cordia sebeitena^ was brought to thia iJand in his Majea* 
' tf% sbip^ Providence, aiad is saidrto he a good dye wood. . ^ 

4. MrCRANTHUS. 

Xeaves elliptic, lanceolate, quite entire, mealbraoaceoas, veined ; racemeii 



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Oiicsnft* TORTUS JAMAICENSIS. lik 

5. ETXJPTICA. OVAL. 

Leaves elliptic acuminate, entire, coriaceous; branchei coibpouiid^ diffuied^ 
drupes acuminate.-— «y«f« 

See Spanish Elm. 

Clary, Wiij^—Ste TrRNSOLW. ^ ' 

N CLEROP£N0K(ntf — Sec VOLKAMERU. . 



CLIMBING SORREL. BEGONIA. 

Cl. 21, OR. 8. — Monoecia poljfavdria. ^ NAT OR. — ffolordceee. 
Obn. CHAR.— The male flower hasno-calyx; the corolla has four petals, of whic!» 
two opposite ones are larger V the ^tameos are uunierous filaments inserted int<y 
the receptacle, with oblong.. cnrect anthers ; Female flowers usually on the sama- 
common peduncle with the males ; they have no calyx ; the petals four, Ave, or 
six, commonly uae^ufi^ the pistil has an inferior germ, three-sided, generally 
vringed ; styles tt>ree, bifld ; stigmas six ; tiie pericarp is a three-cornered cap* 
sule, winged, threercelied^ ppening acthe.bas<iby th& wings. . Four species are 
vMxe& of Jamaica. .^ 

l.ACUTIFOUAi/. ACinri^LaAVED^vV 

Actrisfructu herba anomaUiy ficre tetrapttalo. Sloane,. v. 1, p. 19^, 
. t. 127, f. 1, 2. Sylvestris-scandenty foliis cordato angulafi^, ab aU 
tera parte majaribus^r Browne, p. 203: 

* Caulescent, leaves semi-cordaie, angular, toothed ; the largest ^ng of the 
capsule obtuse-angled^, the others acute -angled. 

Thecharacters of this gepus danat yetappear to be well understood,, jior the difler* 
ent species well described, although Mr. Dryander. particularly studied it from such 
l^iantsand specimens as heJbund m England. The following 'accurate description of 
this species is taken from the manuscript of Mf. Anthony Robinson. It is astonishing 
timt the spathaceous calyx ^ l^ith flowery so vary consp^^UQUs aui beautiful, should 
have been overiooked : 

^^ Calyxof the male .Sower is a^patbe eoasitting .of two. leaves, whose b^isesard 
broad, embracing the sialk sideways, ending in a roundish point. .. They are of a deep 
blush red containing each two flowery, one of which blows wjbile the other is budding. 
The fruit, whep^ arrived at maturity,, stands upon a pedicel one inch or more in length ; 
the other advances in proportion as this decays ; the pedicels are transparent, smooth^ 
and shininp;, qF a lovely coral colour. The cocolia' consists of two pairs of petal«, alter- 
nately unequal, and oppositely equal ; the broadest are roundish, with dented ungues 
into which the peUicel is inserted, the narrowest are obbn^-pdinted, and inclosed in 
the large ones before they open, they are not more^than half an inch long and a quarter 
bioad, the large petals are nearly an inch both wap ; the ungues of the broad petals 
are red^ those of the others^aawell as thebracteablush-coloured.' Between the two 
b«oad petals arise the stamina, in rows,, they are short, unequal, erect filaments, about 
forty; in QUinber,^ and sustain oblong, thin, upright, anthers i both the stamens and 
anthers are of a pale yellow. ,and are not near so long as the petals. 

. <«Th# 



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^00 no RTU S . JAMAI C EN S I«. f!ll^Cfglvmi 

*^ The ca1\^ of the female flower is a spatbe hTte that of the tnatej coTrtalning hut 
one flower : the germ is triquetrous and sessile, JiaviDg- a roerabraiious wing extended 
on each angle, lengthways, one of which is considerably broader than the rest : the 
corolla of tiie female flower consists of six unequal lana^olated petals, erecto- patent, 
placed circularly on the top of the germ, having no particular calyx more than the 
male ones. Fronj the centre arise three styles, each dividing into two stigmas, curi- 
ously twisted. The flowers grow on long branched common jointed pedicels, in thin 
bunches, some of which sustain the male, and others the temaje, blossoms, but never 
Loth together. The pedicels are all of a pale transparent coral colour, polished and 
shining. The stems are branched, ronnd, and jointed, on which leaves grow in an al- 
ternate order, ill sliape like those of ihewpi'mtdium, or the ear of an ape or a bat*i 
wing, having the pedicel inserted on one side. Ta<i leaves arc five inches, long and 
three broad, of a deep green, concave above, shining on both sides, the exterior mar- 
gins angled, and unaOlated between th(i angles ; the pedicei is tiuck, Vho inches long, 
•if a reel colour above, smooth and shining, and divides into divers nerves conspicuous 
beneath, the largest of which terminates at the extreme |>art of tlie leati or largest an- 
gle, sending ofi* lesser ones on each side of the smaller angles, the leaser divisions, 
which ai'e six in number, tenninateeach in an angle x>n the umrgin of the base^ and 
more rounded lobe or div-ision of the leaf. Tnis plant (every part of wlWcii is out of th« 
earth) is tender,, brittle, and succulent, endued with an acid taste, nke s )rrel, but 
leaving an acrimony like that of the arum^ thongrh in a less degree, Ta- lower sifi# 
of the leaf is of a paler green than the upper, and 16 tinged ia many part^ very irrc^u** 
larly witkred/' 

This plant is very common in many parts of Jamaica, in .woocts, antton f^e si les of 
rocks, 'rivers, and precipices. A decoction of the leave^, wincn iiave an acid-bitter 
taste, is recommended as very useful in colds. Browne says when it grows in. the (r^e 
and open.airj the flowers have an agreeable flavour, and are some times used in makiiig 
whey, where wine cannot be admitted^ and other acids thouglit too active aiidinitalii\£ 
for the stomach. 

2. NITIDA. '-GLOSSY. 

ShruTiby, erect; leaves very smooth, unequally cordate, obscwrdy tBOothed-; 
largest wing of the capsule roundish. 

This is the purpurea of Swartz, and he says the rumex of Browne, ^vhich is also re- 
ferred to ^bove as the acvfifnlia. This is described as having alternate cyUndric 
branches. Leaves seven-nerved, almost entire oY obscurely toothed^ one lobe of the 
Ibase double the size of the other, the younger ones rose coloured about the edge ; all 
Very smooth and shining, bright green,' paler beneath,- four or five inches long and two 
or three broad : the petioles cylindric, thick, spreading, one third the length of the 
leaf: stipules sessile, oblong, one-nerved, as it. were three-winged from a rib viing^ 
underneath, produced into a point ; on the sides membraeaceous, revolute ; they ar« 
spreading, deciduous, the length of the periole : racemes compound, cymose, andro- 

{jynous, the males very numerous, the-fejuales few at the top, solitary, axillary, on 
ong peduncles, dichotomous, three inches wnde; peduncles upriorht, cylindric, lon- 
ger than the leaf, the thickness of tlie petiole ; bractes opposite, below the dichotomies 
and the pedicels, half embracing, ovate, or roundish, membranaceous, caducous: co« 
coUa flesh or rose-coloured^ «OAietimes darker, flowers $ix petalted. 

^. ACUMiNATjL« 



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^LOVfiH HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. SOt 

3. ACUMINATA. ACUMINATE. 

Can!e*srent, leaves bispiJ, semi- corJate, acuminate, unequally toothed ; the 

iar^esi wing of tlie capsule obtuse- an i^led, the others acute-angled. 

The male flowers have four petals, of which two are opposite and smaller ; the fe* 

Inaic flowers have five petals, of which two also are smaller than the rest. At the base 

of t!ie germ are two brai tes, which are shar]jly serrate, and only half the length of the 

goriO. It grows on ihe Blue Mountains. 

4. SCANDKNS. SOaNDENT. ' 

Scandent radicant ; leaves ovate^roundish, obscurely toothed ; the largest wing 
of the capsule obtuse-angle. s the others parallel and very small. 
This has decumbent knotty stems,, pushing out roou at the knots, and climbs trees 
within its reach. Floweis oreeni:>ti. All the species are easily increased b^* cuttiagsp 
mod are frequently found in New Liguanea mountains. 



CLOVEN BEKRIES. PAMA'DA. 

Cl. 10, OR. i.^^Drcandr^'a fnonoeynia. "Nat. or. — 

<Jen. char. — Calyx a one-leafed perianth, coloured within ; tube belUshaped, ten- 
streaked, border five-cleft, segments ovat *, flit, spreading very much, blunt, twe 
•of them augmented with a noiiit ; there is nd corolla : the nectary is one-leafed^ 
conical, truncate, ten-strealted, almost tlie4eniiti of the calyx, and inserted iitto 
•its border at the base, mouth bluntly ten or eight t(K)thed ; the stamens have n j 
iiiaments; the anthers are ten or eight, ob'oni^, erect, sniall^ placed on the teeth 
.^f the nect ry ; the pistil has a.i ovate germ, an awl-sha|)ed siyle> erect, length 
'of the nectary ; stigma capitaie, obtuse ; the peril aq) is a roundish capsule, four'* 
:grooved, coriaceous, thick> one-celleJ, fv>ur-va.ved ; the s eds ar^j very many, 
^ub'OVate, obtuse, marked with a little pore at the base, fastened to the valves^ 
trapped ia a pulpy peiiicie. Five species are natives of Jamaica. 

1. NITIDA. GLOSSY. 

fru^cosafoliisvitidfs cordatfSf fexis'mfrrenafis: rudtmevfts wollim 
bus nifyentibus i racemis ttnuioribus alaribus. Browne, p. 2i7, t. 
2:S f. «. 
"Slowers eight- stamened ; leaves cordate, nmooth, 
^owne calls this the shrubby samt/da t^tth rtHten rud/mmtf^ or the tarter cloven^ 
%errif bush. It 4s frequent in the lowlands -of Jamaica, and shoots s^mietimes to the 
4ieiffht of seven or eight fi-et* Tne leaves are shining and very slightly crenate ; the 
rudiments or segments of the nectar »* soft,, red ; flowers in slender axillary racemes.— 
It has only eight filaments in each flower. It loses its leaves before it blossoms, and 
^hen they shoot again they are smah and reddudi. In Browae*iil^are the rudiments 
i^FC %uo abort aod not nataal in their form. 

2. PA M V IFLO a \. ^MAtL-FI-WVEH TO. 

• Jti'bork^ci/€r4,/Slifio^^^r^is€€umMaiis^Joribit$e0n^ exMlis 

94 /oliorum 



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QO'i ^ II O R T U S JcA at A I C E N ly 1 S-. ci.t>VF,i»» 

/oUorumerumpe^tibtL^frucht minimo crooee^ Sloans, v. 2^ p. 108> ^ 
L 2M^ f. 2» FvHis lyvatis cian.acaminej fructibus plurmis mino" 
ribus cCnfertis. B^owoe^,p. 217>: 

Flowers ten male ; leaves oblong, pointed^ crenulate^glabrousbothsides, shiiv* 
ing ; pe.iancles crowded, axillary,, one flowered. 

• This rises fifteen feet high, having a trunk a»f>fg as an- ara>^' with -a -smooth white 
bark like hazel. It has many brajncbes, and^ the t\^ugs thickly set with leaves aiterna- -- 
lively, hut so close that they appear as if winged. The leaves are soxooth and of a yel- 
low green colour, two inches^ long and three-quarters of ai> inch briad in the middle^ 
where broadest. Between the branches and these coine out the fl6wer», so small as to . 
he scarcely discerniblct mundish, and nale green,, many together, and sessile, to which 
.follow so naaiiy berries of an oiange colour, bigger than large pins heads, consistin^Qr ijf 
8 thin yellow skin, very thin pulp, and acini or seeda.^ It grow& .every where ampog 
the lowland. woods,. nt*ar the banks of the Rio Cobre. — Sloane, . 

X Tbis^has the same kind of stamina! rudiments as the first, and has three styles on the • 
top of the gernien, in which it differs ; the rudiments»Ara not red but green. The 
leaves are more deeply dented tliaii those of the nitidaj and are always at th^ir full size 
when the tree is blossoming. Browne calls it the smalt^r sa^myda^r eleven berry busk^ 
and says this seldom rises abovd four or fi^e feet; . This has nine or ten filaments itt the 
flower.. ' ^ 

3:pubescens. fu^bscent. 
Krutejc.bacc'fery folic oblongo integroy flore pmtapetalo^ pallidt luteo 
odoratissinw* Sloaqe, y. 2, p. 109. Foliis ovalis viilosis, Jloribus 
cojifertisj Jasciculis sparsis^, Browne, p. 21;8.. 
Leaves ovate, tomentose beneath. 

Tins is a small shrub, rising eight or nine fe^t higbby several small trunks, straight, 
and'covered with a reddish grer-coloured^ bark; the branches have leaves at three- 
quarters of an inch distant, which about thebeginning of February, fall of, and iti their 
place (-ome tufts of flowers, four or fiye to^yether, on scarce any foot««talks ; thev are 
pale crrcen, pcHtapetalous, with stamens ot the same colour, aod ^imell very sweet,— 
To these follow oval black berries, ajbout the bigness of smalt sloes, cleaving into two 
for the most part, whence the name. Afl6r these come the leaves, on one-tenth of 
an inch long footstalks, three inches long and one broad in the middle, where broadest, 
Very soft and woolly, of a yellowish -green colour^ except the ribs which incline to red. 
k is to be met in the Red Hills going to Guanahoa. The berries when ripe are eatea 
by wild pigeons, which faltten mem very mu^. — Sloane^ \ 

Thisi^-called the hairy samyda or eloven berry bush^ but known amon^ negroes by 
the name of S4wmna wattle^ parrot-wood, and wild coffee : . the berries are larger than 
those of the oth^r species ; and there is a variety of it which has berries still larger.-— 
The blossoms smell like honey and contain a nectareousjuice, and the berries Eave-a. 
bitter taste. 

*..VILLOSO. VILLOUS. 

Flowers ten -stamened; leaves oWong, sub-aerrate, obliqaeat the base^ silky, 
villose beneath \ peduncles solidlu7> axillary.— mS'ip* Pi\ 68. 

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W% HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 205 

This gbm^ h a fatbom in height. Leaves alternate^ spreading, rounded and oblique 
at the base, having a siiort point at the end, nerved and veined, the nerves beneath 
ferruginous; petioies round, short, viilose; peduncles axillai^-, solitaiy, rising, very 
^hort, one- flowered ; flowers biggish, white. This is certainly a different speciea 
froai tiie pubescens* It is a native of tbe mountains and flowers in the spring. 

d. GLABaATi. SMOOTH. 

Flowers ten -staoiened ; leaves ovate^lanceolate, quite entire, shining; pedun« 
cles axillary, one-flowered. — Sw. Pr. p. 68. 

This is a small tree, with a trunk ten or twelve feet high, smooth, unarmed. Leaves 
Ultemate, spreading horizontally, nerved and veined, smooth on both sides, shining 
above, bright green, with pores so small as to be scarcely visible ; petioles shortish; 
peduncles in general shorter than the petioles and thicker, axillary, solitary, and one- 
ilowered ; flowers biggish and white. Two small acute stipules ac the base of the pe* 
duncles. AUthe species are propagated by seeds. 

Besides the above native species, the rosea, a native of St. Domingo, has also been 
introduced. It is a very ornriinental plant, producing fine red flowers in abundance 
along Its flexile pendent branches ; and is supposed to be the guidonia ulmijolio Jtore 
fiosea of Piumier. There is also a white variety of this in the Uortus Ea&tensis. 

HCiJOVE Stride — See PrimI(qs£-Willow^, 



COB NUT. OMPHALEA, 

Cl. 21, OR. S.-^Monoecia monadelphia. Nat. or. — Tricocat. 

flGrRN. CHAR. — ^Male calyx a four or five leaved perianth, spreading ; leaflets two, op- 
posite, larger, ovate, convex, coloured : no corolla ; nectary four glands, or a 
^fleshy ring encircling .the germ ; the sumen one columnar filament, thick, short ; 
mithers two, oblong, incumbent, connate at top, polliniferous at the edge ; or 
'^ne, plano-obnvex, • trifid. The female flowers in the same raceme.: calyx a five« 
leaved perbnth ; leafletA three, larger* ovate, encircling the germ ; there is no 
corolla; the pistil has an ovate germ, no style, stigma trifid : the pericarp is an 
oblong roundish capsule, fleshy, bluntly triangular, three*celled, three- valved : 
the seeds are solitary nuu, ovate, bard. Four species axe indigenous to this 
island. 

1. NVCIFERA. NUT*BEARIN6. 

Foliis obcvatis glabris, ad basim biglanduiis ; Jloribus trumdriis.'^ 
Browne, p. 335, t. 22, f. 4 

Racemes compound, leafy, terminating ; 'leaves scattered, oblong, very smooth^ 
biglanduiar at the base ; stem arboreous. 

This tree frequently rises to the height of thirty or forty feet, or more, with a straight 
^tem better than a foot in diameter, having a brownish bark with white spots. It ^owt 
9€xy coaunooly in Jamaica iThe branches bend down andare waited and sub-divided. 

J)da The 



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204 H OPT US JAMATCr.V«:iS., eoa^^ 

Tlie \e?ve% are alternate or scattered, tlicy are oval, thick, siu^nlent, fii%-or s'^vra.-. 
i'ices lo.ig a;iJ three or t)jr dtuo. *, liuvm^ ivH)t.^Uiiv.-> an i..cii ctn^ u i.c^ii or l»\.> h> jtifs 
1 ••:^, a.Kl iiro oi ci paie gree.i cojour. Oa the vwhole n )t iinukc the iij«iauTit-: iiat.— 
T :e <;jaiiJs are in pail's, Bat, depresse'^l>. roiuul,^ jierioratevl in the runiJie, di-tH; : jr 
1' jsiiire ; ri-comes sohtan',. ihe le;r;tii ol liie lt;.v<*s, lujjiiinir, io >se ; hracies peiioit i, 
s lb-ax. hary, ohtong, entire, hii^iau hilar at the hiist; ; rax'e.jii*h*ts aiUTu .e, divaricar- 
iiii, witii two or tiiree niaU- ^.u.v^ rs on a f)ecticel, an.i one teiuak* in the riiidole of ta' a ; 
c.ii\ X fiv. -u avcd, tliree larger,, ovate, convex, nieinhnmaceoiH at the <id^e, colour .ci ; 
Iieetary a tiei>ii\ blood red rin;» ; ti.a \ient pnrpi * Iroin the uii Idle ot liie Uis>k ; antners 
piano convex, purple inh », witn mre.' poni iiferous incisures; germ ohloni>^, three- 
tornerevl, striated wiili.six iine>; bUgoia. perforated : ca4)sule penduiais, large, (about, 
tnree inc:it\sJ)roa I an lone tnirk,. n.>i unoke lu/ sliape ol* a turnip) roundish, obtusely 
t.iree-cornered,^ U»icK, lou^u, a.Ki Ci)nummg tiiree iiard nuts, about a^n inch di ameier 
each, roinu;,, hut flaue 1 on to' si le Aoere tov'y.are united to each other, where they 
sti'ongly aoiiere ; tiiey cuntaiu a. wouiso kerov-i, surroUfi.led by a yeilow niemorane, 
wiiica tiasa very agreeai)le :a>te. Tiie Rrencli call tnis nisettury and in Jamaica it i» . 
known in squi^,* parishes by tlie nam« of pisjc or /wi^ nn^. Ttie ei>tyleaons ot tij^e nuts 
are emeve and purgative.. Ttie timber of this tree i^ of no service in buildinj:, bein<j 
of a soft brittle nature. The kernels of the nuts in tiie rdw state are cieiiraiely sweet and ( 
wholesome; they are provluced in great abujidance, and, wnen ripe, ih',y i)urst fron^ , 
the pod.and fail to tiie grotind, wh*;re tlia hogs greehly d^.vouj:. them.. When roasted 
they ar^ ^oual, if not superior, tq any. chesnut.. By compression il^ey yield a very 
sweet and nne flavoured oil. As this tree is of quick grovitn, and beiari^ fruit in three ^ 
or foury^ais, it i;* well worthy of extensive cultivation, anj it succeeds very well in the 
poorest soils. Tiiey might.easily be cultivated from the seeds along iut^rvals, or inter- 
spersed among pa^tur/s, to which they would not only prove ornamental, but useful, 
by furnishing abundance of their fruit, and affording an agreeable shade to cattle and 
other live stp9k. These and tl^ breaU.imt planted in hog crawler wuuld be very, 
valuable. 

9., CORDATA. . BEART-SHAPJBDtr 

Ftuf0fcfns difii;^a^ foliis amplioribus ovatls^pitioliiJnglandulis^ ra^^ 
cernis terminalibus. Browne, . p. 334* 

Racemes .compound^, leafy, terminating ; leares scattered^ oordate, villose un« 
derneath^ biglandular at the base ; stem scandent. 

Stem shrubby,, scandent, sub-divided,. div^erging, roi^d^ pubescent. Leaves alter* 
tiate, acuminate, sub- coriaceous, thick, entire, smooth, pubescent nnderneaif}, on 
Ipngish loose bigiandular petiples; glands deprassctd, rbunjisb. Stipules at the base 
4)t the leay.es, small, lanceolate, deciduoun; rai.*emesv branched, oiyergin^, loose; 
bractes lanceolate, p^dicelled, obtM^».smootb., at th.e t)aseor the iWemelet^, wbicb . 
SLjre many flowered ; the ^wer9 in dusters, peduncled, . small, green. Calyx . four* 
pait^, with courKhsh segmei^ts, two of which are larger : filament frQolJtlie. centre of 
mccdouredcomaveAUsk, convex at top :. anthers purple, inserteii. into the margin of 
the filament: germ rpun^lisbj three- cornered ; style very short,, fteshy, three-corn* 
ered.;. stigma trifid^ villoaet;; capsule large, yellowish, containing tbiM brittle tiut^ 
ndtb oblQiig-angiilar kemelt« It pows in rocky coppicep.«-^f0» 

S. jTlfAIRML 



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COCKSCOMB HOUTUS JAMAtCENSIS. S0$ 

3. AXILIjlRIS. AXIU^RY. 

Racemes axillary; loaves di^tlch, ovate-aduniiUH^ey. shining. On very short pe- 
tioic's; i»upuiej> uiucrouato ; sieiu siirubby. — Hw, 

4. CAULIFLOUA, FLOWER-STALKED, 

■"Eacrraes cauline, sc<.iy at liiu base; leaver Uijctich, oblong, acute,, shining^ 



Ko English Name. COCCOSYPSILUM. 

Cl. 4, OR. 1. — Tetrandria nii>nogyn>a. TCat or. — Sitllata... 

This name is derived from two Gi:eek wurJs, signifying a measure of gcaiivwseec!. . 

<SrEN. CHaR. — Cal3'X-a#>ne-leafed perianth, four-ptmed, superior, with erect acut<5 - 
segments; the eoroila is one-petaied, funnel-f>rm; tube longer than, tlie calyx, ^ 
gradnaliy widening towards the border, whicii is four-parted, tb& piirts ovate, ., 
erect; the staiui^i I IS are four, filaments, theJeiigthof the tube, insertt^d inro the 
base, filiform, erect; aiuhers erect : the^stil has an ovate.inferior germ ; style 
tiie Icngtii of tue stamens, .bifid at the tip ; stigrnas simpk ; the pericarp is a^- 
rouinliili berry, inflated, t*v >-f.eiJed, crowned ; ^eeds nuujcwus, miniue* There 
L only one specie^ which.is a natiye,4>f Jamaica* 

RtMNS*v CRFEPLNG. 

lltrhacmm rej^ensy foUh venosis ovath oppositis^ pedunculh hrevibu$- 
siduiubdlatU uiiaks alternas. — Browne, p. 144, t. 6, f. 2. 
Thi» plant is frequently observed it) .the cooler mountains, of LtguauLa and MiDuiltt^ 
l>iabio ; II grows in ^preadin^ tufts, jeach staik^creeping about ei,;^»iteen t>r tventy.. 
inches from the root^ ittKlshooting oulI^ few latend branches as it runs. The ieavea- . 
are opposite, and the following fl()wers anU fructifications rise ba shortdhided. foou«^ 
•uuiu livui taeir alteruiite alee. — Browne. 



COCKSCOMB.' CELOSIA. 

Cl, 5, OR. I. — PeniandriaTnonegrfnia. HaT^ oR.^r^Misc^lldne^^ , 

©EN. CHAR,^ — Calyx-a three-leaved perianth^ leaffpt3 lanceolate, dr}% acute; permi- -^ 
nent, similar to tlie corolla; the corolla has iive* petals, lanceolate,racunii(]ate» .. 
ereit, permanent, stiffish, caLyciform ;, the nectary a margiiv siNrrouudiog the- 
germ,:.very small, .fiva^cleft ; .thestapaens ^re five iii|uBefit», subulate, .ponjoinei 
at. the base to the plaited nectary,, length' of the cocolhi,vV«rith versatile anthers ; r 
tiie pistil has a f^lobuiar germ; ^tyl^ subulate, straight, JengU) of the stamens; 
^gma simple ; tne pericarp is a glpbular^4»psule« surrounded by the coroliab one- • 
called,.. drcomcised; seeds few, roundish, einarginate^ . Otieapecies^.tbe/Mm* 
ou/a/tf, is anauve of Jamaicay.aooib^ beautiful one^ the €ristiata§ has been iui--- 



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M6 HOttTUS JAMAICENSIS. •ocoa 

!. PANICULATA. PANICLED. 

^rnarantus Jruticosus erectus^ spira vindi\Jdra et striecsa. Sloane^ 
V- i, p. 142, t 91, f. I. Foli's eblongis^ Jioribus lacen.o^c spicatij^ 
jcrt st^silcius. Browne, p. 179. 

Leares ovate-obiong ; slem ri.sing, paDicled : spikes alteniate, terminal, re« 
mote. 
Stem suffruticose, prostrate, ronnd, sub-divided, striated; branches oiverging.— 
Leaves acuniiimie, pecioled, entire, suiootli ; spikes racemed, a^ciltary, and termiu* 
atijig, short; flowers distinct, whiiish-;- the ca4vx consists of five ovate-acute ieadets» 
%vhitisn within ; corolla none but a cup-shaped ^ve-coFuered nectar}, surrounding tbo 
germ ; t ) the edge of. which, the tilaments are fixe J. *The anthers are versatile and 
purple ; germ ovate ; st^*te subulate, simple, red ; stigma trifid ; capsiue covered bj 
the permanent calyx, with numerous shining seeds. — Sw, 

The flowers of tbis.plantseldom.opcn, and are of .a yellawisK green colour, witha 
blackiso styje; the seeds. are so smaii as singly to be scarce discernible, shining, and 
Qt a brown colour, roqndish, and .hollow on one side,r.wheB viewed .by a microscope* 
It grows by the banks of the Rio Cobre.-^Sloane. 

2. CRISTATA. CRFSTED. 

L^ves oblong-ovate ; peduncles roun(l, sub-striated ; spike^oblo^g. 

This is the buH'^coloured celosia or cockscomb, a most beautiful piknt, whidi,* since 
its introduction, has been generally cultivated, and thrives most luxuriandy inJa« 
maica. It received its name from the form of its flowers resembling that of the com)> 

i^of a cock. There are -raai^y varieties raised from the same seed, diflering in fornix 
piagnitude, and co.our ; and some.b^ve -beea. observed variegated with two .or. tbret 

;Coiaui>k Iti^iaha^iveof Asia. 

. Cocks-Head — See French HciNfiYStfCKLB* 
i kCock-Sp ira^iSV^ Fl^ORIGo• 



^eOCOA NUT TREE. COCOS. 

Cl. 25. — Monoecia hexandria. * Nat. or. — Palm^e. 
^This is called by the Portuguese cocOj from the three holes at the ^nd of the shell, 
«gi.y^ng It the appearance of a monkey's head* 

GeK. char. — Male flowers in the same upaJix with thejt^males. Male calyx an tini^ 
vyr5al unTvake spathe ; spadix branchifng ; perianth three- parted, very small ; di- 
visions sob-^nqueiron>, concave, coloured ; the corolla has three petals, ovate, 
acutf, patulous ; Uie stamens are six filaments, simply, length of the corolla, with 
sagittate anthers ; the pityiil has a scarce manifest germ, three short styles, and an 
obsolete stigma : the pericarp abortient The caly* of the female .flower is a 
« common spathe with the hermaphrodites, as likewise the spadix ; the perianth is 
.three^partea, divi>ions. roundish, concave, converging, coloured, permanent^ 
Jtm$ jcojcoda JI4S ihree permanent petals^ like the calyx^ but rather larger ; tUe pis- 
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toeok HORTUS JAMAICENSia 207 

til has an orate germ, no style, a three-lobed stigma ; the pericarp h a coriaceous 
drupe, very lar^je, roundish, oi>scureiy triangular ; the seoj is arery large nut, 
tub«ovate, acuuiinate, one-celled, valvelehs,. obtusely tiirot -comeretv tiie bl'^u 
perforated by three holes; kernel hollow. Three species of this {^enusarc paiivea 
olJaouaca. 

NUCIFERA* NUT.BEARIKGk 

Palma indica nucifetn coccus dicta. Sloane, v. 2, p. S. S^mdicflmw 
alaribus; fructuniaxhno ; caudice suhcequalf^ cicatricuUs circular 
ribus scahro ; Joins tmsiformibus, replicatis^ finnatii-. Brumie^ 
p. 341. 

Unarmed ; fronds pinnate ;^ leaflets folded back, ensiform. ^, 

This tree is planted in most parts of America, both for its beauty and productions ; 
it grows genei-ally in ;lie lowlands, and rises frequently to a considerable height, bear- 
ing; all its foliage at the top,-4ike the rest jof its kind. This consists of many strong ribs, 
furnished with long narrow, leaves^ folded lengthways, which rise in a continued series 
on both sides,, and spread very evenly both ways. Thesaribs shoot gradually fr >m the 
top, and as the younger ones stretch out sufficiently to raise the sap, the lower onos 
decline, wither away gradually, and &1I otF in time. The flowers of this tree rise in 
spreading bunches from the alee of the ribs, and are supportexl by so many large 
branched footstalks ; these, while young, are very thickly beset \vith blossoms, and 
covered with a simple, thick, fibrous, snathe or sheath, of an obfong form, pointed at 
the top, and moderately contracted at the bouom. When.all the parts of the flowers 
have gained a due degree of :perfectiau,.^the bpathe sphts on the under side, from the 
l)Ottom upwards, and exposes the common^ bunch, wiiii all its flowers, to the open air : 
most of these are males, and fall ofl* gradually as the spathe withers, leaving the em* 
brio fruit, which is generally, fixed to the l^wecand stronger part of the stalk, to in- 
, crease and ripen gradually. These grow very large and are composed of thick filxrous 
husks, containing so runny large hollow nuts; which in most of the tribe are trilocular; 
though in this, as- well AS some of the other species, two of the cells! are obliterated, 
and the third only comes to perfection. The uut.or.sbelLls formed of a hard compact 
substance, and filled with a sweetish water, while* young ; but as the'fruit advances ih 
its growth, this deposits a soft gelatinous x^rust upon the sides of the shell;- which bar* 
dens gradually with affC, until at length it acquire^-a strong concreted texture; and 
then It is not unlike the substjfticc of van. almond, eirher iii taste or consi^u-n^e. The 
water contained ih the nuts is very pleasant while diey are young, and'gen( rally looked 
upon as one of the greatest dainties of Amerrca; but, as they grow old, the liquor 
becomes, more sharp and cooling, andJSr iliore agreeable to over •heated habits. The 
kernel is very nourishing, andmaybe'used instead 6f ^almonds, in milks, emulsions, 
andapozems, and with, greater ^propriety as it may always be had fresh. The sheKs 
serve fof drinking and water cups^ and the*husks,'.whtch sire very fibrous, are made 
into various sorts of cordage, in some.of the eastern parts of the world, but in Jamaica 
they are only tisedto scour floors. - The leaves of the'tree are used for thatch, and the- 
tmder shoots at the top afford a'pleasant green or cabbage (a'hich, howjBver, when cut 
destroys the tree). The outwacd part of the trunk is made mto lathings, and the juice 
obt^ed by tapping pt at the top, .Ving mixed and fermented.witb molasses, aflpjvds a . 
very pleasant wholesome spirit, which differs hut very little from arrack. At the bot- 
twi^df the hbs^ we find a coarse fibrous net- work) that serves for strainers; and the 

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50S HOTITUS JAMATCENSISf. «0C04 

kernel is frequently rasped and ma'Ie iiito fritters and cakefi. The roots of the 
tree are very sienner, sinipic, and flexile ; they rise separately from the bottom of the 
trunk, and spread in all directions, some runniiir to a gr^^t depth in ^ the. gcound, 
while otliers creep almost jxaniUel to thesurface. — Brcwfte. 

This tree rises to the height of fifty or sixty feet, and Bnnrishes Temnflcably on the 
very margin of tlie sea, planted in the-Mind with a little mould. It is produced from 
the nut, which bears transplanting^ extren^ly well, though rendered more vigorous 
I \ mixing salt v^ith the eardi into which it is removed. 

The substance which mcloses the shell is ma'«:e of tongph libros, of which^thelndians 
niake not only corduge and other ta- kle for ships, but a kind of oukhnm for caulkinji?, 
whicU is highly extolled. Steeped in water, and beaten like flax, it is manufactured 
into an excedent linen. After this coat is taken off, the shell makes its appearance, 
vl.ich takes a fine polish, and is oftrti 'brmed into drinking cups, set in bilver. The 
liquor is generally esteei^ed highly pntiscor'.uti^ one of the pleasantest drinks in Ame* 
r oa, and makes a saluiary emulsion in fevers ; it is also added in the distillation of rum, 
and thonoht to inrprove the flavour of th:it spirit. The trunk is formed into gutters, 
an! occasionally employed for tncJosing and rocfiiig out-houses, and, being nJled 
CiOse, is so hardy as to resist the weather for uiary } <^ar^. 

In order to make arrack from it, ihe. tree must be kept from bermng fruit. fForthis 
purpose, the ?prom wLich pro(hires the nut, and which shoots every month, is cut, 
and jars la^tenevl to it to receive the liquor ; or the'body is bored, anu a plug put into 
the orifice, width is occasionally taken out when the liquor is wanted : this liquor m 
suffered to ferment, and, whilst it is in this state, it is distilled into the spirit called 
arnck,, which far exceJs what is drawn from rice, -if this liquor is exposed to the sun, 
it soon turns t> vinegar,; it iiiust therefore be carried, immediately After it is collected. 
Into a shady p.i.ce, 

Nearahe .;ase of tl)e larger branches or footstalks is a web-like /^fcrwi?, composed ^f 
fibres curiously inter-.- oven by tue hand (jf nature, which is the clothing this tree k 
sai 1 to aff >rd ; and is often usedin this inland for strainers. 

Consider!. ig this vanciy of productions, those writers have not been guilty of much 
exaggeration, >vi^oa:>sert; that it iui\iL»hes meat, drink, I>hysic, clothing, lodging, and 
iaei. — Long. 

'ThcTnilk or wnter of the nut is cooUngand pleasant, T)Ut, TTSrahlt too freely, will 
frequently occasio » a pain in. the stomach. A salutary ol may be extracted from the 
licrneK; .wh'<h, if old, and eaten too p.entifuliy, is apt to pro luce a shortness oP 
breathing. JTiie largest coco- nut trees gr.>4r on the River Oroonoko. Toey thrive best 
tiear the se^ and look bcautifulat a distance. They afford no grcatiAade. Tlipe nuts 
iiave been produced from them in three years after planting. The nuts should be ma- 
•c^rated in water before they arc put into the ground. Coco is an Indian name ; the 
Spaniards caii it also pulma delas Iiyiias; as the smallest ki<ii, w'liose nuts are less 
than Avalmits, is termeJ by them caquilU). This grows in Chili, and the nuts are e^ 
^ea^d more delicate tbaa those of \i\e larger sizeu — Grainy tr. 

3!bii usefal.plant is stipnosed to be a aative of the MJdiw aa 1 some deseit islands 



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C5t<* HORTUS JAMA^CENSIS, 209 

in the East Indies, and from thence to have been transported to all the warm parts of 
America ; for it is not found in any of the inland parts, nor any where distiir»t from set- 
tlements. The body of the trunk, which generally leans to one side, occasioned, as is 
-supposed, by the oreat vvei,:;;ht of nuts it sustains when young, is the exact sliape of an 
apothecary*s large ir^jn pestle, heiug of an equal thickness at top and ^t bottom, h»it 
$onitiwhat smaller in the middle ; its colour is of a patehn:)wn throu^hoat, and theb.rk 
smooth. The leaves or l^ranches are often faurteen or fifteen feet long, about twenty- 
^ightin number, winged, of ayellowisn colour, straio;ht^id taperinj^. Tliepinruje of 

Eartial leaves are green, often three feet long next the trunk, but dimiidsliing in • 
ingth towards the extrtuiiity of the bi-ancnes. The branches are fastened at top ^>y 
Ijrown stringy threads that gro.v out of vhe:n, of the size of ordinary pack-.thre^d, and 
are interwoven like a web. The nuts hang nt the top of the trafik/in clusters of a do- 
«en in eaeh. Each nut, next the btv m, hua three boles closely stoppe I ; one of them - 
bemg wirier and more easily penetrated tijan thcrest. "The quantity of liquor in a full - 
grown nut is frequently a pii)r and upA^ar U. The bark may be wrought inio cordage^.- 
and the le.ives make baskeis^ brooms, Onmrnocks, mats, racks, and other u-efnl uten- 
sils. In Matdivia the cocoa uui4^H}stoeaieiias apQwerfuldMklote against the bite& o£ • 
aerpents and other p(^isons. - 

The following observation!? t>n the cocoa-nut tree, aird its u^nps in the East Indies, are ' 
extractevl Iroui the aceount given of this vaiuahie plant bv Mr Le Gonx de Flaix, an ' 
ingenious of&er of engineers, andaoaemberof the AiHatic Society of .Calcutta, whick ^. 
was publisied some years ago: . 

** Ic IS wed known th^^t tne fibrous covpring oF the coco-nttt is* converted into good 
jopcs, which are uselui i:i navigation, and for various purposes dn shore. CaMes for 
anchors made ot tiiis ^^lb^tance are nmch better than Uiose ma le of hemp. • They are * 
exceeviiuL(ly elastic, stretch witliout strdining" the vess^d, an 1 scarcely ever break ; in- 
appreciabie alt^ntages wnichare not po:»sesse 1 by those of hemp. * TThey are nha^* 
lighter, and never Tot, in consequence of their l>etng soaked with seh water. Titey 
never, like tUose of hemo, exnale via up nvia^m.ta, excee lingly hurtfbi to the crewr 
of ship> who sleep on the same deck wnere these ropes are kept when shijis- are under 
sail. To ail Ule^»e a ^vantages must be added, that ropes made of the taer^ fiodX. like 
wood, that they are muca easier managed, -anJ. run better'intiie puibys during nauti« 
•cal ma'ioeuvres.' 

" Thepalm>of this tree, when entire, are' enrvployed to make tnats for sleeping, 
upon. When split througli the middle, ac< ording to the length of the foot-stalk, ther 
are wove into mat^» for covering sheds and hmses. Tiie use of these m^ts^ even for the 
largest edifices,- is general on the eoa&t' of Malabar. When the nut is rasfved with a- 
icircular-teethjd piece of iron, tiiere is extracted from it a kind of milk or emulsion, bf 
tnixin^ witli it ajjmall quaVitity of bt>iling water, and then straining it through a piece 
<yf thin elotii in die same manner as- those dv> who extract milk of almonds. 

** This emulsion is employed fvir different purposes: it is used for prey^arinjir sa)o{» 
and sago. When pat into coflTee, instead of cream, it gives it an exq'iisite taste : that 
^our almonds produces neariy the same effect. Tnis em.ulsion is en.iloyed also in th(5 • 
Sit of painting chintzes ; to remove stains of die colours, and scour the cloth after the 
milaars luvd baea applied; The milk of the coco«nat, though oily, elfarve^ces wit^* 

Ee ' 4*- 

^.XiM HiAd*» nsufiMT tkm fiiKoys cdvera^ 



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il% HORTU$ JAMAICENSIS. coccu^ 

*n acid extract of that plant called by the Hindoos colcchi^ and the acid then precipi- 
tates it into a grayish lime, which becomes of a rich violet colour by the addition of 
-fixed alkali ; it is with this colotir that cotton cloth and chintzes are dyed. When thia 
«nuilsion is mixed with qttioklime* the alkali becomes rose-coloured. It is by these 
means that the Hm Joos prepare the rose-colmired Um€ which they use with betel. 

" The dyers employ this milk with great advantage: for silk, cotton, and woollen 
stufTs, whicii they dye black. It prevents that colour, which is generally cdustic, from 
burning the sturts, and the dye becomes djtrker and more beautiful. I suppose that 
emulsion of almonds would prodiice the same effect aj? that of the coco-nut ; our black 
stuffs then would not be bkunt, as is generally the case : this observation jnay be of use 
to dyers. 

*' If the milk of the -coco-nut be concentrated by ebullition over a moderate fire, a 
sweet oil, agreeable and fit for the table when fresh, is obtained from it. The physi- 
cians of thejcountry compose with this emulsion a gentle purgative, whichls not nau- 
seous : it produces -no eholic or violent paifi. 'It is administered in cases of plethora, 
gonorrhea, and other diseases-; it is also an excellent vermifuge. It is composed of 
4ialf a pint of emulsion in -which three or four heads of garlic have been dissolved, hy 
boiling over a slow fire, to the consistence of marmelade :- it i^;given. io ihe patient 
fasting, while warm, with the addition of a Kttle sugar. 

" The oil of this nut is extiactedhy pressure ; it is fit only for being burnt in kmps; 
it is of a drying quality, a little acrid, white, and so light that it becomes fixed even in 
the torrid zone^ when burnt it -gives a claar bright flame without exhaling anv odour 
nr smoke. It is employed by rich people and in ihe houses of the Europeans in pre- 
'lerence to any other kind. The -substance from. which this oil has been squeezed U 
given to beasts of burden mixed with their forage ; thi& Ibod when given Jio wvvs, and 
'^oats increases the quantity of their mitk. 

** Such are the properties and different uses made of- this -palm. 'If therwood eouM 
*be employed for building or for domestic purposes, it might justly be said that the 
coco-nut tree alone would be sufficient for the use of man. It is, however, an useful 
-vegetable production, a valuable gift ef Providence to th^ peaq^ulinbabitants of that , 
line country where it has been plac^. 

" It was the coco-nut tree which gave the Hindoos' the first idea of inventing the 
^legory and ingenious fable of the phaeni-x, as. may he seen in the fifth chapter of the 
Poronia, one of the commentaries of the Vaides, a sacred hpok of these people, which 
'Contains the principles of tlieir religion, the history Of the country, their sciences, 
and in general all theif knowledge, ^bs well as the practical knowledge pf all the arts 
which are cultivated in it."** 

The emulsion and oil of the Tcemel of the cocoa mit is recc^nmerided as good in 
coughs audrcoroplaints of the lungs. Pound the kernel in a mortar with water, then 
put it in a vessel with a laiger quantity of water ; let it settle, and then skim off the 
cream. This is preferable to the expressed oil, which soon becomes- rancid. — Dancer* s 
Med. Asst. ucond edUiinij p. 386. 

In addition to the former knQwause^of this, vsJuable -tree, a very respectable gentl€>- 
-mah of this island has lately discovered that the outside shining surface, both of the not 
and the branch, scraped off in fine powder, and applied to old^ ^d foul ulcers, will 
^eanse and heal them rapidly. The efficacy of this simple «pplicatioa was fully provqd 
hy the cure of two bad sores occasioned by the bite of a negro's teeth. 

See Macaw Tree and Prickly Pole. 

COCOA 



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HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. iU 

COCOA PLUM. CHRYSOBALANUS. 

Cl. 12, OR. I. — Itosandriaman^gt/nia. Nat. or. — Pomacea. 

Gen. char. — Calyx a one-leafed bell-shaped perianth, five-cleft, divisions expf^nd- 
ing, withering : the corolla has five oblong, flat, spixjading, petals, inserted by 
their claws into the calyx ; the staniens are very many, placed in a circle, erect^ 
inserted into the calyx ; anthers small, twin : the pistil has an ovate geitn ; style 
the shape and length of the stamens, inserted laterally at the base of the germ ; 
stigma obtuse; the pericarp is an ovate drupe, large, one-celled; the seed an- 
ovate nut, marked witk five furrows, wrinkled, five-vaUei There. is only one-^ 
species. 

ICAeOir 

JPrutkasusi foliis ot^bicuUuis aliemisyfloribu^ laxe racemosis. Browne,. . 
p. 250, t. 17, f. I, 2* , 

This pl^nt is a native of the Caribbee islands «jd grows in Jamaica, though the plant,, , 
described as follows^ by Browne, is thought to be only a variety i 

" It is very common in Portlaird and: Carpenter^s Mountains, and seeitis to thrive 
best in a cool moist soil. It grows to the height of six or st^ven feet^ and bears a fruitr 
not unlike the English plum in size and shape. Of these some are red, some white, 
and others black, without any essential difference in the shrubs of either sort. The 
fruit is perfectly insipid, but'Contains alarge nut, inclosing a kernel of very delicious- 
flavour, which makes up abundantly for the insipidity of the pulp. The fruit of the 
several coniplexions mentioned have been preserved with sugar, and sent by way of ^ 
present to Europe j Jbut the red aad black kinds are generally preferred." — Brawne.. , 



eOCOES^dR EHDOES. ARUM. *. 

Ct. 20, OR. S.^-'&j/narub'ia poJyandrm^ - Nat. OR.-^Pipentce. -. 

This name is derived from a Greek word signifying^ injury,£i:om ^e/ juice of the 
fe&vea being very biting and.painful inmost «f the species; - 

Gf'K. CHAl^.— Male flowers on^the same spadxx^iA <he fehiale^rclosery^ heaped be^ 
tween a double row of threads: Calyx a oneJeafed.spathe, very large, oblong,.' 
convolute 'At the base^ convergtng<at the>top; the beUy compressed, coloured 
within; spadix club-shaped, quite simple*, a little shorter than the ^pathe, co- 
loured, fenced at bottom with germs, andshriyellingabove them; there is no pro- 
per perianth ; no corolla : Nectaries ^ thick at the base,..ending in threads or ten- 
drils, in two rows, issueing firom the middle of the spadix ; the stamens have nos 
0buneDt8, each anther is sessile tmd foutN-comered. The female flowers, on the 
lairer pait of the spadix, ^close^Odeach other. They have no corolla nor proper 
perianth; thepistilliasan ob'^ovate. germ,. no style, «tigma bearded with villosei 
nadrs; the pencarp.is a globalar berry, one-celled; seeds- several, roundish.— *> 
Nine species grow.very generally in Jamaica. Two of them, vrith their varieties^ 
1 known undec.the Bame of cocoes and tuyas. 

Be 2 - 1. C0L0tUkSiii# 



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i?13 HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. eocom 

1. COLOCASIA. 

Aron maximum Atgyptlacuyn quod mulgo colocusta. Sloane, v. l^ 
p. 166. ^Acanle Purpureumj Joins amplissimis cordato sagittatis:: 
Purple coco. Acaide ynaxinwr^^ foliis, cordaia'^agittaiis^: White' 
coco. Browne, p 33,2. 

Leaves peltate, ovate, repaod ; sejiii-bifid at tiie bas^. 

Of this useful vegetable dicre are several variefies, v^ry general ly-artd largely culti- 
vated in this island ; as they form a principal part of the subsistence of the ne^roe?, 
who prefer ihem even to yams, though not so light .nor so agreeable a food, y^ 
very wholesome and nourishing, either boiled or roasted. All the kinds are easily cul- 
tivated by cuttings from the main stem or root, commonly caJled the head, aftc-r the 
plant ceases to produce its esculent roots, or from its suckers. '^^Jt bears. ki about nine 
moviths after planted, and, after the first cocoes are dug, will continue to produce more 
every four or five i?iontli^ for about three years, when the heads shoulci be drawn.-n- 
The rorts' boiled or roasted are excellent food for fattening hog& ; for whicfi. animal all 
parts of the plant are a good food. -The main rapt of all the species, more especially 
of the spotted kind, possess a coi^siderable degree of acrimony, which, after being 
dried ancl kept for srjtme time is losj:, and they become msipid to the taste. :Tlie fresji 
roots applied raw are a maturating cataplasm ; J-»ong says that the dried root, pulverised 
and mixed witli hpney, expectorate* tough phlegm, and is reckoned excellent in asth- 
matic complaints. Mixed with flour of brimstone, it is a specific in consumptions.-*^ 
The fresh roots and leaves, distilled with a little milk, form an approved cosmttic lo- 
tion ; and the juice expressed from the leaves is. recommended fpr cleansing aiid .heal- 
ing foul ulcers. 

The fallowing are. the kinds principally cultivated, m Jamaica : 

The purple coto, whiqh is pf a dry ideally nature ajid agreeable taste, aft well as ^ 
.•nourishing food. 

The white coco, whose under leayes are sometiqiies used as a gr^n ; and also produces 
jSi very agreeably tasted root. 

The Surinam coco^ which is by far the most delicate, but by no means sa productive 
^as the pthers ; it boars at a greater distance from the main root than the other kinds, ig 
much longer m proportion to i^S; thickness,, and creeps to a considerable distance in the 
,^arth. 

Tlief San Bias coco y whichhas come into general cuhivation for some years pa6t> 
; grows to^n enormous size in its stem or head, and the cocoes it produces are so large 
^as otten to weigh three or four pounds or more each. When full they are dry and very 
palateable, 'forming a hearty and nourishing food. From the great procfuctivene^ 
of this kind, the cultivation of the others has of late been so much negle<ited, that it 
is very r^e to see a fifeld of any other description. Xh® negroes .are particularly parti^ 
,to them. 

The SL KiWs eocq, which though of a much smaller sia^ than the San Bias, is y^ 
^fvell wonhy of cultivation, not only on account of its productiveness, butas.it is a very 
iry, meally, and agreeable food. It is of a yellow colour ^hen ripe. 

The baboon hog coco or taya, which also produces a very large root, but every pait 
of the plant very coarse, and is therefore principally planted f )r tlie purpose of feeding 
hogs, which it Kittens very well, especially if boiled or roasted ; but^ even in that stat^, 
fio acrid are its juices, it burns and heats the throat con^ider^bbr* Wheii boiled an|i 



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<OOT!« HORTUa JAMAICENSIS* fit 

I 

cut into smaH pieces^ the hea(^s of this, as well as of the other kinds, which are all of 
fta astringent nature^ are a goodfood tor poultry. The seis^d^ are good to feed chiickens« 

2,.PEREGR1MUM» 

Acaule maxmumj foliis cord^to sagittatis^ radk:^ lenitir vxordecantCx 
Browne, p, 332. 

Leases cordate-obtuse, mucronate ; angles roundecl 

This seems only a variety of the white coco, the pedicels being lightly tinged \vith 
purple, the embrios in the spadix grow at its base, abo.ve which are a great number of 
purple glands, and the upper pait entirely taken up by the anthers, which are disposcci 
in bundles of about twelve together, and the thin while filaments to which they adherq 
cover their upper or exterior end. The spadix is free all its length. 

Browne calU this \.\ie scratch coco^ from the pungency with which its roots are 'va)c^ 
jjpxegnated. 

Jfcip Du^iA.CANE—riYE-FiNGER— Indian Kaue— Wak^:. Robins^ 



COFFER COFFEA. 

'Cfo :5, OH. 1. — Pentandria monegynia^ Nat. or, — SteUaice^ 
•'SThis was so named from the Kingdom of Caffa, in Africa, where it grows abuodantly,' 
cGen. char. — ^The perianth is minutely five^toothed, very small, superior : the co- 
rolla is one-petaJed, salver-shaped ; tube cyljndric {swelling a little towards the 
^top), slender, many times longer than the calyx ; border flat, five^parted., longer 
rthan the tube ; divisions lance-shaped, stbeir sides rolled back : The stamens are 
>five filaments, subulate, placed on the tube, at the divisions of the petals ; an- 
others linear-laoceolatQ, incumbent, length of the filaments : (he pistil lias a round^^ 
jsh inferior germ ; style simply, length of the corolla; stigmas two, reflected^ 
: subulate, thi^kish ; the pericarp is a roundish berry 5 seecjs two (sometimes only 
.one), solitary, elliptically hemispherical, gibbous on on'e side, flat on the other, 
#where it is furrowed longitudinally, involved in an aril. One species of this.genu^ 
lisaJQatiYeof Jama^qa> &e occidenialis s the Arakica^ ojQQfiipe^^^ isanexotiq* 

l.ARABICA* ARABIAN. 

^ruticosafoliis xfpositiSf floribus pluriy^U ^e^^ibus a,4 ahs^ Browne. 

p. 161. 

Flowers five- cleft; berries twonseeded, 

This valuable plant seldom rises, if left to itself, above seventeen or eighteen feet^ 

?but in a state of cultivation is not allowed to grow above five or six feet in height— -* 

'.'^'he main stem grows upright, and is covered with a light brown bark. The branches 

:.are produced horizontally and opposite, crossing each other at every loint, so that 

*every part of the tree is gamishea with them ; they are brachiate, smooth, lax, and ia 

old trees bend downward, the lower ones are the longest, gradually decreasing towards 

<.the top, which gives the tree a most beautiful pyramidal figure when about two or three 

vvears old ; after that age, however, in a state of cultivation, the tops are generally cut 

Ififf.at^e. height of five or sijc feet^ vriien the upper branches by that laeans acquire 

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yu aOKTUS JAMAICENSI^J. C^WM ' 

moite vigour, ami shoot cvt to the same lengtixa^ the lower. The leaves stand 6pposite- • 
to each other, are ovate- lanceolate, and vibe n fuU growD.arp. seven inches hjiig and-* 
t^irce broad in the middle, decreasing towards each end,; their borders are handsomely , 
waved, their upper surface of a dark lucid greei> colour, tlieir lower of a pale dull 
green, having half inch long petioles, wbic4i cofiUnue through the loaf, forming the • 
midrib, from which issue alternate u^eins, from eight to t^n on ^ach side, having at 
their origin little. secretory p^mcUU'es^ which are promiaent on tiie upper surface ; ac- , 
cording to Linneus^^these leaves, continue three years. The lowers, are produced in < 
ehisters at the base of the leaves, sitting close to the branches; they are of a pure 
white, an^ of a very grateful odour, like j asm i tie. Nothing cap be conceived more de- . 
lightfqi than the appearances and perfuuv^\ of a fi^ld of coffee in full bloom ; the air is' 
filled with fragrance, aijd the tjcecs appear as if a shower, of snow had just fallen on i 
their dark greeq lej^yes, which are almost entirely hidden by the flowers, but here and' , 
^there the colour of the foliage m^y bt^ discovered, forming a fine grouad for, and beau- 
tiful contrast to, the pure white of the blossoms. This appeaiance is, however, but^ , 
of short duration, for, . in a few boui-s after they are full- blown, . the coroUai* -decay, be- . 
coipe brown, and drop off i they slip along the style, and wither while they hang upon i 
the stigmas.; so that the beauty and fncgraixge \vhich ru^y have delighted the senses in . 
the morning have entirely vanished by noon. The berries succeed, which are first .. 
green, turn red when f»lly gwww, ripen into a dark- purple, when they shrivel and , 
drop from the ti^e- They^are^of an obJong spheroidal form,,.. mi th 4 littiei circular area 
at the top, within which is a callojLis dot^ the pulp is pale, sweetish, and; gelatinous ; 
two-celled, and the partition is fleshy and vascular ; it is the only receptacle, and pe- 
filtrates tlie cleft of the seeds. In* each cell is/>ne^eed-onIy, or an elliptic form, con- 
vex on one -side flat on the otheir, with a longitudinal cleft, covered with a loose, el^s- , 
tic, paci^htnent- like aril, of a pal^ glaucous colour ; within which it has another very / 
fine silky, diaphanous, covei\ The time of blossoming varies iiv different situajtions, ^ 
but is generally in die spring of the year, from February to June^ fiml there are two or - 
three different bloom's, a few w«ek^ distant, from each other, sooner or later, »accopding 
to th^ -seasons, which is a very fortunate circumstance for the* planter, aa^the fruit ri- . 
pening at the same int^vals affords time for^ttingin tlie crop, as- well as for curing 
It for market. The fruity js fit to pick in about seven months rrom the appearance of ' 
the flowers. In old trees the berry is found often to contain only one oval grain,.'hav- . 
ing no flatted side ; and, on the other hand, youog luxutriant^ trees fi^equeutly' produce « 
b^rrfes containing three seeds. , 

Withregard to the.cultivation of. this valuable plaM, the higher mountains, where * 
there is the greatest^regukirity of seasons, and where the land is not of a cold .clayey, or , 
hot marly, nature, have been found by experience most eongenial to the coffee tree. 
It delights in a cool climate, to be situated on^ a,deciivity, whe^e there are frequent 
rains, and where the soil is deep and easily penetrated by its tender fibrQUs> roots, whictv^^ 
often shoot into the earth foiy.Qr even five feet. . It thrives best in a southern or west'i 
ern aspect, well sheltered from the.blasting. effects of .the north iriod. It grows luxuri-. 
aptly, and i^ very productive, ia rpcky land where th^ soU^is rich and deep in the in^. 
tervals between th^ rocks^. which prevent it from wa^hipg.away^ Ixvflats jpr, bottomsi^. 
where water frequently lodgesabout.its roots, jthe leaves become g)otted, drop off, and 
tiie tree itself soon decays. In such.situations, indeed, it seldom produces much fruity 
biut runs into a wilderness of branches and leaves. Coffee may be planted at all times 
ti tItvQ y^^O wh^D thejre is rain, bat it .c^irtainly suc^eedsi much the bes^ wKea jjianteci 



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M^mfe TORTUS nJAMAICENSlS, 21$ 

in the spring. In settrmg a coffee estate it is al\^aj s adviseable to make choice of virgia 
land, wliirh ought to be well cleared, and roads tracked or made through it before, or 
«oon after, the coffee is planted. The plant is propagated from the seed, which vege- 
-tates verj' quickly, .and nuri^eries should be formed, so as to produce good plants, in 
time, for -any intended plantation. Plants may be taken about six months old, or be- 
tween that and twelve months, but should not l)e older, Tliey we generally planted 
from six to eight feet distant every way froui each other, according to the poverty or 
richness of tjbe soil. After thev are planted the grountl should be kept perfectly clean. 
Some settlers prepare a small hole, filled with manure, for each plant; but others 
content themselves with planting ttiem by means of pointed pegs, with which ihey 
dimply bore a hole in the ground and insert the plant; the former is certainly tlie pre- 
ferable way^ although, in good land, the cotfoe succeeds very well under the latttnr 
treatment. The trees bear when between two and three years old, the fourth year is 
the fullest bearing year in all situations.; and they will continue to thrive aiul to bear 
for thirty or forty years in a good soil. The}' are seldom -aI lowed to grow above six feet, 
jfome planters cut off the top much lower, which process tlirows great strength into the 
bearing branches, and renders the tree nmch more convenient for picking than if it 
•>vas allowed^to ruQ*up taller. This topping preserves the lower branches, which other- 
wise would decay, as they do in all trees that are allowed to ascend. Topping, how- 
ever, renders constant and laborious pruning necessary after the fourth year, as, v\hh- 
cut pruning, the yegetation, instead of producing fruit, would be forced into an use« 
less production of branches and leaves, wliich would prevent the sun and air from pe-» 
Betrating to the stem, by which the coffee is very much benefiued ; and on which, in- 
deed, its good bearing depends. The best time for pruning is immediately after the 
crop is taken off; the sooner the better, especially for such trees as have sufl'ered by 
too heavy a bearing. Un these trees the fruit frequently blasts in its early state, turn- 
ing black and dropping from the tree. The very blossom is cjiten blasted by the north 
• winds, or excessive dry weather, when they fall withered to the ground; but, if tlie 
fruit succeed, little capsules or knobs are formed i^eueath the Hower, which suspends 
itself, withered, at the end of the pistil. 

After the coffee berries have been picked from the tree, there are several modes of 
idrying and preparing them for market. 

The simplest, but most tedious, method, is by drying the berries on platforms iti 
the state they are picked from the tree, which produces the best flavoured and heaviest 
•coffee, weighing trom three to five per cent, more than when dried by any of the fol- 
lowing methods. 

Another mode is by passrog the coffee berries, as picked fVom the tree, through a 
simple machine, which brefiJis amd bruises the pulp, allows the sweet juice it contains 
to arain off, and thereby much facilitates the process of drying, not taking above half 
the time the former method requires, about ten days, in favourable weather. 

The third method, which is generally adopted on large plantations, is by passing the 
l)erries through an ingenious machine, calleu the grating mill, which tears off the pulp, 
and completely seperates it from the seeds, which are afterwards washed in cisterns, 
4md are. then exposed to the sun, or dried in kilns, in the former way becoming jsuffici- 
^ntlj dry in three or four days, and in the latter in a few hours. This machine, how- 
v^ver, injures a good many of the grains by scratching and breaking them, as well aa 
i^ccasiooing a general deficiency in the weight of the coffee* These losses are, how* 

^vnr^ 



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21G , HORTUS JAMAICKNSIS. coffek* 

ever, of no consideration, compared to the time that is gained, and the labour saved> . 
by this process. 

When the berries are sufficiently dried, which they are \rhen the husks crackle un- 
der the feet, if? either of the above ways, the husk and parchment skin are reraovetl" 
by the peehng mill, 'which is a circular trough al)out ten or twelve inches deep, in 
U'tiich is a large vertical roller or wheel, made of hard and heavy timber, from five ta 
seven feet high, ti^rough which an axle is passed, and the machinery, as its situatioa ' 
may admit, so constructed oi to be turned round tjither by ^viuer or by mules. It ex- 
actly resemhles a cyder mill. After the berries have been ground in this mill until the 
husks are reduced to chaft*, the whole is passed through the fanner, which blows off the * 
chaff, and the coffee falls down a sloping boarvl behind the fanner. The bad, black, or 
brbkcn, grains, as well as smallstones,'orother substances that may have fallen among iu, 
are picke I out by the hand, and the coffee is then fit for market. 

The best and smallest coffee is produ<H?d by okl trees, and, to b«nve it in perfec- 
tion, it shouLl be allowed to remain on the tree, until the skin shrivels and the fruit is - 
ready to drop off. 'i'lie Arabians sj)read cloths underneath the tires, and shake them ' 
when the fruit s sufficiently ripe to drop off readily ;. and there is no doubt thnt the ' 
berries whica drop off themselves thronj^h ripeness mak^ the best flavoured coffee.— 
Age is said to add much to its good qualities^ and the superiority of Eastern to West 
Itidia coffee has chiefly been atU'ibuted to this circumstance; the former being much' 
older before it readies the European n^rket than the latter. Dr Fothergill mentions, - 
that he conceives the dryer the soil,, and the nK>re it assimilates to the dr}% hot, sandy, 
soil of Arabia, the smaller the grain will be, and the better flavoured ; in old coffee- 
treesMhe fruit is smaller and better, on the same principle that the fruit of young waU 
put t;ees is large, watery, and insipid, but as the tree grows older the nuts decrease in^ 
size^ and their taste becomes more agreeable. The doctor mentions, that having re-- 
ceived a present of raw coffee fioiu the West Ifidies ; which was so ill ta<?ted as to be 
unfit for use, but, beinff laid by in a dry closet for a year, was again tried, and found to** 
be greatly amended. In another year, he thouG^ht it would be little inferior to the- 
Asiatic, if h continued to amend in proportion. Mr. Edwards observes, that the notion* 
that West India coffee is inferior to that of the East, as being the production of a» 
coarser tree,, needs no other refutation than the circumstance related by the celebrated - 
^rardener, Mr. Miiler, " that from plants brought from the West Indies, and raised in * 
English hot4iouses, coffee berries have been produced, which, at a proper age, were* 
found to surpass the very be»t Mocha that could be procured in Grear Britain." Mn- 
Miller does not seem to think that age is necessary to iuiprove coffee ; for, in another* 
place, sj'eaking on this subject, he says,. ** This scheme of keeping Alnerican coffee- 
berries several years is contrary to all the experience I have had, and the informatioa 
I can obtain from those who have seen the whole management of coffee in Arabia.-^ 
Two gentlemen, who had lived there some years, . assured me that the berries when^ 
^rst gathered were much better . than those which are kept any time; and a curious . 
'gentleman, who resided in Barbadoes two years,, also told me» that he never dVanfc: 
better coffee in atw part of the world,.than what he made from the fresh berries, which< 
be gathered himself, and roasted as he had occasion for them. This account is con--' 
firmed by trials witn berries produced in our English stoves,, which make a better fla-^ 
voured liqiior than the best Arabian coffee berries thatcan be procured in England.*^ 
Triiere can be no doubt that the quality of the coffee, made in tne West Indies, is fre*^ 
^etttly^ouch injured ia the voyage uome^forpreadily imbibing the smell oc flavour of 



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-ecma HOltTU^ JAMAICENSIS, 217 

--•ny article^ it jcomes Jn contact wiA^ especially sugar, rum, pr pimenta, and being 

^stowed too near these commoclities hi Ae ship, they coijimunicate their disagreeable taste 
and smell, wbich even the fire, iaparching, cannpt again seperate from the coffee. — 
The greatest care should therefore'be taken to keep such articles entirely seperate, 
and to pack the coffee in the driest arrd soundest casks ; and, if possible^ to ship it on 
such vessels as are entirely loaded with coifee. 

From many samples of Jamaica coflfee, carefully cured and sent to London, it ap- 

ftpeared that it was equal toxbe l>est^^abian coffee ; and the dealers pronounced some 

'^f them ev4fn superior. 

' The following observations on' the quality of cpffee, are taken from Dr. Bro\me's 
history of Jamaica : 

** It is a^eneral remark in England, and indeed a certain one, tliat coffee imported 

lirom America does not answer so well as-tbtit of the growth of Arabia, nor is it owing 

^as some imagine)' to any foreign fume or vapours it might have contracted in the pas- 

.sage, though great care should bo always taken to prevent any acquisition of thi? na« 

•lure; for ^even there, what i^^ commonly used, will neither parch nor nnx like the 

Turkey coffee ; but this has'tjeen hitherto owing to the want of observation, or know- 

*ing the nature of the grain, most people -being attentive to the quantity of the produce, 

^wbile the qualities are but seldom considered. 

" I have been many years in those colonies, and, being always a lover of roffee, 

N-bave been often obliged to 'put up with the produce of^he countrjMn its different 

states. This gave me room to make many observations upon the grain, and 1 dare say 

•^ey are such\as wilHje constantly found true ; and, if rightly regarded, will soon put 

- the inhabitants «f oar American colonies in a way of supplying the mother country with 

as good coffee as we ever bad from Turkey, or any otlier part of the world : For th^ 

. easier imderstanding of this assertion, I shall set down the remarks I have ma<)e as they 

occur : 

*• 1. New coTFee vriU never parch-or niix well, use what art you will. This proceed* 
from the natural clamminessof the juices of the grain, which requires a space of time 
proportioned to its -quantity to be wholly destroyed. 

" 2. Tbe'^mallerthe^rain, and the less pulp the berry has, the bettef the coffee, 
and the sooner it will parch, n[iix, and acquire aflavour. 

" -3. The drier4he soil, and the warmer the situation, the better the coffee it pro- 
duces will^e, and the sooner it will ifceuire a flavour. 

** 4. 'The larger and the mere succulent the grain the worse it will be, the more 
^clamn^y, and the longer in acquiring a flavour. 

" 5. The worst coffee, produeed m America, will in a course of years, not exceed- 
ing ten or fourteen, be as good, parch and«i]x as well, and have as high a flavour* as 
'the best we nowiiave firomTurkc^ but due care should be taken to keep it in a dry 
^place, and to preserve it OToperly. 

<< 6. Small grained coffee, or that which is produced in a dry soil, and warm situa- 
«ition, will in about three years be as good^ and parch as well as that v^hich is now com« 
,4nonly used in the coffee houses in-tondon. 

•* These are facts founded on repeated experiments, which I have tried from time 
^ttme, during my xesideace ia Jamaica, though it be very rare to see what a man 
^ . ^ ' F f may 



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238 ftORTU3 JAMAtC&NSI^. . .Mi?^* 

ipay calbgooij coffee in the inland, for they generally drink it '(/ la Sidfan^;'^ andnevQc 
riL'serve niorp than is suflRcient to supply the^i from v>ne year to anotlier/ 

'* 1 have examined tlie Turkey '^offee with great care, since Lcaan^ to England, antl 
conclude, froin the size of the grwo, the frequent abortior^ of.one of tl*e seeds, and 
tlie narrowp^ss of jjije slyin^thut coatjains tlie pulp, that .the iihruh must be greatly 
stunted in its growth, ,and from hence judge th.at.whoever ertdeavours to prodiioe good . 
eoffee, and such as \Yould mellow as soon as that of Arabia ; or expect seedj? that may - 
haVp tlie,san;e flayour, mus.t try wliat; qan be prpjJ,u(^.oi)jtheiloyv'ejf hilU iuid mountaii^ . 
of Uitt southern part of the island.'* 

An ii)tere8ting analysis of coffee ha^ lately beet>. t^^de by M. Cadet, .apothecary in j 

ordinary to the French ini})eria4 household ; from vvhich it appears, that the berries . 

contain jiuicilage io abundance, much 'gallic,aeid, a-resifi, a concrete essential oil, some • 
albunien, and.a volatile „aromatjc principle,, with a portion of ]ime, potash, charcoaj, 

iron, &c. Roasting ^developes the soluble principles. Moclia coffee is of all kinds the • 

Bnost avon]atic and resinous. M. Cadet advises that cofilpe be neither roasted nor iif- . 
fp;sed tjill tl\e day it be dr^i>k, and that the roasting, shovjd be niQderaie. . 

The various uses !in^ great virtues of coffee, have been most clearly pointed out in *, 
Dr. Moseley's learnedrand ingenious Tfeatise, from which tlie following extracts are 
taken : - 

/ ** After coffee has^rc^cei^^ed ajt the excellence it can from the planter ; it is a miaittpr ^ 
o( great consequence, that proper care be taken in shijyping it for Eurof>e: it should .* 
nQt be put into j)^rts of the vessel, wher^ it niay be injured by dampness, or by the ^ 
eipuvia of other freight. Coffey berries are remarkal)ly disposed to inibibe exhalations 
from other bodies, and thereby acquire an adventitious and disagreeable flavour. Rutn . 
placed near to coffee will^ in a,shv)rt time, so impregnate the berries as to injure their ; 
flavour. It is said, that a few bags of pepper on board a ship from Ihdia, spoiled a , 
wl^ole cargOi^f coffee. 

'* The chemical anjjysis of coffee evinees„that it possesses a great portion of mildly 
bitter, and lightly astrinrent gumipous and resinous extract ; a considerable quantity 
of oil; a fi^^ed salt;, and a volatile salt. These are its medicinal constituent priuu- . 
pies. The intention of torref^ction is not only to make it deliver those priori pies, and • 
make them soluble in wat^r, but to give it a property it does hot po ^css in the natural 
state of the berry. By the action of fire, its leguminous taste, and the aqueous part 
of its )[nvci|age, are destroyed,; its saline properties are created, and difeengri^-ed, and 
its oil is rendered empyreuraatic. From theoce arises the pungent smell, and exhiler- . 
ating flavo]ur,.,,not found in its natural state. 

«^ Imitations of coffee have been procured from roasted beans, peas, ^heat> and rye^ [ 
wjtti almonds ; but the delicacy of the oil in coffee, which the. fire, in roasting, con- 
verts into its peculiar empyreuma, is not to be equalled. 

*^ The roj^tingof the berry to a proper degree, requh-es. great nic€ty<^ If it be un- ' 
dje^" dope, its virtues will not be imparted, and in use it will load and oppress th6 sto- - 
tnach : If it be over-done, it wilt'yiekraflztt, burnt, and bitter taste, lU \irtues will . 
hp destroyed, ^and inoise it will .heat the body, and act asi an astringeojt. The closer.it ., 

is . 

♦ This I take to be rather the incision of the half b(tri|t flakes of new coffee (for ft never will |)aTfh, ^t^^ c. 
<9 mix» properly while fresh)/ like that commonly used by tUe coflfee plantcrg in Junaica, t^ A tooctina ■>, 
.c4tlij^ cgy^ipgs, 83 >t 18 comiiiQiily rtported,to be*. 



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^•Wrti HbllTUS JAMAICENSIS. «f» 

tr> confhied, at the time of roastine, and till used, the belter will its volatile pungency, 
•flavour, and-virtues, be preserved. Coarse, rank, new, coffee is luelioratea hy being 
iept after it is roasted, before it is used. 

** yhe influence which cofte^ judiciously prepared^ imparts to the stomach, from 
its invigorating qoalaies, ii strongly exemplitied by the immediate ttfect producecl^a 
^king It, when the stomach is over loaded with food, or nauseated with «urfoit, or de* 
bihtated by -intemperance', or languid from inanition. 

" To constitutionally weak stomachs, it affords a pleasing sensation ; it accelerates 
■the process of digestion, corfects crudities, and removes *ilie cholic, and flatulencies'. 
'Besides it« effect on the gastric pbwers, it diffuses a genial warmth that cherishes the 
animal spirits, and takes away the listlessness and langour which so greatly embitter the 

'Aours of nervous people, citter any deviation^ to excess, fatigue, or irregularity. 

" From the warm tn and efficacy of coffee in attenuatiug the viscid fluids, and in* 

' creasin^r the vigour of tlie circulation, it has been used with great success in sv>me cases 
«f fluor albus, and in dropsy ; and also in worm complaiiits ; and in tiiose comatose, 
enascarous, anid such other diseases as arise ffom unwholesome food, want of exercise, 
•f^eak fibres, -and obstructed perspuation. 

** In vertigo, lethargy, catarrh, and all disorders of the head from obstruction in the 

'-capillaries, long experience has proved it to be a powerful medicine ; and, in certai-u 

^ cases of apoplexy, it has been found serviceable even when given in glysters, where 
rit has not been convenient to convey its effects by the stomach. Mons. Malebranche 
^restored a person from, an apoplexy by repeated glysters of coffee. 

** Theteare but few pecfple who are not informed of itsiuility for the head athe; 
the steam sometimes is very useful to mitigate pains ^f tlie head. . In the West Indies, 
.where the violent species of head ache, such as cephalaea, hemicrania, and clavus,are 
-more frequent ai)d more severe than in Europe, eoffee is often the only medicine thi^ 
gives relief. '^Opiates are sometimes used, but coffee has an advantage that opium does 
iiot possess ; it may be taken in all conditions of the stomach; and at all times by wor 
•men, who are most subject to these complaints ; aB it dissipates those congestions and 
obstructions that are frequently the cause of tiie disease, and which ophim h known to 
increase, when its^empomry relief-is past. 

^^ From the stimulant andi detergent properties of coffee, it* may be used to an ex<* 
itent to be •serviceable in' all obstructions occasioned by languid circulation. It assists 

-the secretions, promotes the menses, and mitigates the pains attendant on the sparing 
^discharge of that evacuation. 

*^v tn the West Indies the chlorosis and obstructed menses are 'common among la- 

^ borious negro females,^ exposed to the effects of their own carelessness, and the ngor*. 
•ous transitions of the clioiate ; there strong coffee is often employed as a deobstruent ; 
»ivhich, drank warm in a mornii.g fasting, and using exercise after it, has beenproduc-^ 
Hive of many cures. From its possessing these qualities, Geoffroy- cautions pregnant 
^women, and such as are subject to excessive menstruation^ to use it in moderation. 

*^ The industrious- overseers (^pJantatiofis, and other Europeans employed in cultU 
nation in the West» Indies, Avfao are exposed to the morning aad evening dews. End 
>great support from a cup of coffee before they go into the field : it fortifies the sto- 
Mooiach, and guards then against the diseases incident to their way of life ; especially in 
^clearing lands ^ or when Uieir residence is in liumtd situations, or in the vicinity of 
^stagnant water. Thosettrhoareimprudently addicted to iatemperance, find coffee a 
Vi2 benigii, 



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220 HOETUS JAMAICENSia iK>VBm 

benign restorer of the stomadi^ for tJiat nausea^ weakness, .and disorderly condition^ 
which is brought on by drinking bad fermented liquor^ and new-riMH, to excess. 

" In continued and remitting f(»vers in hot climates, it frequently happens, at th«^ 
period when bark is indicated, tiiat.the stomach <!annot i-etain it. This is an embarreisg<-- 
ment of great importance,^! niwbich the practitioner has an interval only of a few &QjurS|. 
. to decide on his patient's iate. Bark in substance is required to jans.wtir the intention ;.. 
and here, as well as in many .cases of intermittents, when eves^otiier.mode. of admi-^ 
nistering bark has proved abortive, coffee has been found an agreeable and a. successful 
vehicle. In obstinate remittents, where a course of bark has been long continued^ it 
Seldom fails to increase those visceral obstruetions which.are incidental, to, the disease 
itself. To assist the hark in.its operatioji^ Hiave often jusied cpffee ; and have known in- 
stances where it hasremQved slight intermittents ; and for those obstructions^ whid^ 
the disease, or bark, or both, frequently leave after .them, and wfaioh patient&^are ofteiv. 
obliged to suffer, .as the least evacuation brings on a^return of the fever, I have also re* 
commended coffee to make a considerable, portioa in the diet,,.witb adyantagCi, • Coffee 
having the property of promoting perspiration, it allays- thirst aiul. checks preternatu^ . 
ral heat. Sir J^Iin Ciiardin, .wbej^ in Persia, cored himself of a bloody flus by drinkb- 
ing four cups of hot coffee, and going ta.bed, .^nd covering himself well with bed: 
clothes, But^us cuse was occasioned by the perspiration it produced.; though. b« ^O^* 
tributedit^to some specific quality in the co&ie. 

•*• Tl^e great u«e of coffee in France is supposed to haye abated theprevalency of^tbe^ 
gravel. In the French colonies, where coffee is more used than in the English, as weU. 
as in T^irkeyy where it is the |)rincipal beverage^ not onlt the graved, .but the gQut,^ 
those tormentors.of so many oi the h^iman nice, are scarcely known. 

** IX«. Four relates, as an extraordinary instance of the effects of coffee iubthe gout, 
the case of Mons. D^veran. He says this gentleman wa^ attacked witii the gout at 
twentyrti?^.year9 of age, and had it«evereiy tmtil he was upward* of fifty, .with chalk- 
stones in tlie joints of his hands^andi'eet ; but for four years preceding, the account of 
his case being.givento Du Four,, to lay before.tbe puWic, he had been rec(Mniiiendedi» 
the use of cowe,. which he adopted, and had no return of the gput afterwards.. 

*^ Coffee has been found useful in. quieting the tickling vexatious, coughy that ofib^a.^ 
acirompanies the small pox and other eruptive fevers*. A^di^h of strong coffee without^ 
milk or sugar, taken frequently in the paroxysm of, some asthmas, abates4he ik ; and^^ 
1 have often known/ it to remove the fit entirely. Sic John Fioyer,.. who had been af^ 
flicted with the asthma from the seventeenth year of his age, until he was upwards ot- 
four rscore, found no remedy m salkhis elaborate researches^ . unjtil thelatter part%of his. 
Jife, . when he obtained it by coffee. 

'^Prepared strong and cliear^ and sweetened agreeably witb-sugar-eandyy.and^dfai 
luted, . wliile hot, with a great poition of boiling milk,., it becomes aa highly nutriti«u$^ 
and balsamic diet ; proper in such hectic and pulmonic complaints,, where & milk ^0^ 
is useful ; and is a gr^^t restorative tccenstitutions emaciated by the gout and other 
chronic disorders. !t)Iieuhoff^ a German pbysician> in his account oi'the emb9S9Y frontk^ 
iKoUand to China^ in 16.75^ first described tne advantage of milk coffee iapumumic 
complaints. 

^ Mons. Monin, an eminent phy9ician'^f G«en<d)le> |>arforBied many extraordinarjf^ 
cures with it among consumptive people, when a milk diet, aaaesniilk, and the air of ^ 
Montpelier, had proved ineffectual. He relates the following case of his wifej ^' 
^«hom>. he sap,, ^ Sliehad been in a. consumfiioa ioi: .sixteen .years^.and was. u the . 

eoiut 



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«WFBB HORTUS JAMAICffNSiSi 22i^ 

point of death lately wi%h a peripneumony. The inflammation of the lungs was re-* 
moved by the ordinary methods in eight days ; there remained a very troublesome 
cough, an heat io tfie lungs, and quick pulse, -with a great dr)'noss of die skin, which 
made me apprehend she would fall again intcyher cons»mptive state. T prepared her 
by gentle purgatives and aperient medicines, as her bowels were in a bad state, and 
her spleen obstructed, and put her on a course of assi^^ milk, which she took regularly- 
for a month ; but without the least success ^ her pulse remained the same^ her cough j 
^as wors^, she spit more,, her complexion' was yellow, .sometimes greenisli ; slie com- 
plained of heats and oppressions of her breast, notwithstanding the.e^oct regimen, and - 
gentle purgatives repeated every week. . Finding jbbat the asses milk was useless, I ' 
again put her on. a course of her former n^ilk co^e^ of which she took about a quart 
every day for six weeks, purging her eveiy tea or twelve days.- TIhs course was so fa* 
¥ourable to her, that all the symptoms betore mentioned ceased in the first eight days • 
her appetite soon returned^ sj^^hc gr^w more en Jf on point than she bad ever, beep . 
in her life.' '. 

** Long watching and intense staicly are wonderfully supported by b, and withouj: 
die ill consequences that succeed the suspension of rest and sleep, .whei> the neiTour 
influence has nothing to sustain it. . Thevenot says, * When mercnants in Turkey have 
any letters to. write, and iatend to. do it in the night time^.in the ei^ning they take a 
dish or two of coffee, which is good to hinder vapours, head ach,-.and to take away 
sleepiness^. &t^ Iti short, in the Turks opinion^ it is good against all maladies, and 
certainly, it hath, ;at least, as much virtue asJs attributed tatea ; and as to its taste, by . 
that time a man bath drank of k twicei he is accustomed to it, and finds it no iongez: f 
unpleasant.'. ^ 

** We are told that travellers in Eastern countries, and messengers who are sent with > 
^spatches,.perform their tedious jouxnies by the alternate. effects of opium and coffee ; 
ma tliat the dervises and religioiK^ zealots, in their abstemious devotions, sup)>on their 
vigils,, through their nocturnal ceremonies, by this anti-soporific liouoy. r Du Four ' 
says the poor people in- Turkey use it through oeconomy to save viGtuals.;\ as frequently- - 
two or three cups of coffee is their whole sustenance in the course of a da}^ Vernier- 
says, that the Turks^ who frequently subsist a considerable time upon coffee only, look 
on it as an aliment that affords great nourishment to the body ; fojr vrhich reason, dur- 
ing the rieid £ast of the ramMMm, or Turkish lent, it is not onlj^ forbidden,, but any 
person is deemed to have^ioliited the injunctions of th64)rpphe^ that has had even the 
smell of coffee^ Bacon says coffee ^ comforts the liead and heart and helps digestion.^ ' 
Dr. Willb savs, ^ being daily dr^nk, it wonderfully clears and enlightens each part of 
the soul, and (Uq^erses ail the cloudsiof every function.^ ' The celebrated Dr. Harvey^ 
used it often. . Voltaire lived almost on it. He .told me, .nothing exhilerated his spirits 
more thaa the siaeil of coffee ; for which reason he had what he used in the day^ . 
H)asted inhia chamber erery morning, when be Hved BiJ'ernai.. The learned and se^. 
dentary of everf country h^e recourse to it^xtovefiresh the braix^ oppressed by study ; 
aod contemplaiaon, 

*^ AoMpg; the many valuable qualities of <f6ffee, that of its heinff an^antidote to th^e • 
abuse o^pium, must. not be considered as the least ; for as mansind is. not content 
with the wonderful efiScacy derived from the prudent use of opium, the abu^ of it is 

Jroductive of many evils that are only remediable by coffee; which counteracts the 
ypnotic or sleepy effects of .opiiun. The heaviness, head-ach, giddiness, sickness^^ , 
4Pd iiervous^afij&citiw3^.wluch attack the patie&t ia thd mornings who .has taken an a: 
\ \ opiate. 



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222* HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. corrti 

opiate at night, are abated by a cup or two of strong coffee. In militai^ hospitals, hi 
Jk)C clianitLS, i. course is often liad to large and repeated doses of opium ; from which 
1 have frequently obser\'ed, tliat the retentit>nof the stomach of tlie patient has been 
greatly injured ; the secretion of urine impeded, or the bladder aflR etetl by a paralysis-; 
—even these effects have been subdued by a lew cups of strong coffee. 

" In habits subject to hitmonhages, particuhirlj- those ot the puhnonio and uterine 
kind, liie interdictiun of coffee is every wlw^re justly admitted. 

** A small cup ©r two of coffee, immediately after dinner^ promotes digestion. 

*' With a draught of water previously drank, according to the eastern cubtom,.cofl[ee 
Ss serviceable to those who are of a costive habit. 

" Coffee is not proper where there has been long sitting after dinner, when heavy ' 
meals of animal food liave been matle, and much Portugal wine has been drank ; aiwl 
never should be used after dinner, nor at any oth»i time by tho^e who intend to return 
to the bottle, and drink wine immediately upon it. 

** The mode of preparing this beverage for common -use differs in different countries, 

"principally as to the additions made to it : but, though that is generally understood, 

and that taste, constitution, the quality of the coffee, and the quantity intended to be 

drank, must be consulted, in regard to the proportion of coffee to the water in making 

it ; yet there is one material point, the importance of whicliis not well understooj, and 

which admits of no deviation : The preservation of the virtues of coffee, particularly 

when it is of a fine quality, and €?xempt from rankness, as has been said, depentls on 

carefully confining it after it has been roasted, and not powdering it until the time of 

using it, that the volatile and etherial principles, generated by the fire, may not es* 

cape : but. all this will signify nothing, and the best materials will be useless, iinless the 

, "following important admonition is strictly attended to^ -which is, that, after the liquor 

is made, itshould be bright and dear^ and enth^li/ exerppfjrom the least cloudiness or 

Joul appearantey Jrom a suspension oj any of the particles of the substance oj't/e cojee. 

" There is scarcely any vegetubfe infusion or decoction, wha^ effects differ from ks 
gross origin more than that of which We are speaking. ' Coffee taken in 8ubstance cafu^^es 
oppression at the stomach, beat, nausea, and indigestion : conseqirentJy a continued 
use of a preparation ot it, in which any quantity of its substance is contained, besides 
"being disgusting to the palate, rau^ tend to produce the same indispositions. The re- 
siduum of Ihe roasted berry, after its virtues are extracted from it, is kittle more than 
an eaithy calx, and must therefore be injurious. The want of attention to this circum- 
^^tance, I make no doubt,: has been tho' cause of many of- the complaints against coSee, . 
and of the aversion which some pe<^le have to it ; audit is from this consideration thot 
. coffee aiiould not be prepanred with milk instead of water, nor should tlie milk be added 
to it on the fire, as is sometitiies the case, for ceconomical dietetic- purposes, where 
^nly a small quantity of coffee is used,^as the tenacity of thetnHk impcJdes the precipi- 
•Mation of .the grounds, which is necessary for the purity of the liquor, and therefore 
neither the miJk nor the sugar should be added, -until afterit is made with water in ihe 
usual way, and the clarification of it is completed. .The milk should he hot when added 
to the liquor df the coffee, w^ich should also be hot, or both should be heated togeChei^ 
in t^is mode ofusingctiffee as^ an article of sustenance. 

" The Persians roast the niembrane which envelopes'tiie.seed, *and use^t togethet 
with the seed itself, in their manner of preparing the infusion, and it is said, to be a 
considerable improvement. The people of fashion among the Turk3 a^d Persians 
aaoake a delicate drink from the caji^es ooj^^ wiucbis codling «ad jretiresbiog ; pam^ 

cttla^ 



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fwrw- HOTITU5 JAMAtCfcVSIS, Q^f 

Ctilarly in siitpmer time. This was much extolle*] bv tl»e Fr^nrh tr«'^n« r5, who saw no 
other coffee \\>ed at the houses of the great This h called by the French, loJC a la 
Sultan^ — Moitiey, 

The great superiority of cofTee to tea, as containing moi^ nourishment; and pi)*?<.\ss- 
ing so many qualities bene ficial to the con^tituti^ins of mankind in ^'Mierj, in(»st 
atrongly recommend its c^encra! use, as a subi>titute for tf)e expenMve as well as pemi* 
cious East India plant* : and tins subji^ct cannot J)€ better concluded \hd:r\ by the fol- 
lowing passage, from.the Supple meni to the JLncyclopedia Briianmcay under tlie woid 
coffee : 

" ff aknowledgeof the principles of coffee, founded on, cxaminattoh and various 
•xperiments, added to observations made on the extensive and indiscriminate use of 
it, cannot authorise us to attribute to it any particular quality unfriendly to the human 
frame ; — if the uiierring test of experitMicc^ has confirmed its utihtv, in many countries, 
not exclusively productive ot those inconveniencies^ habits, and diseases, for which 
its peculiar properties sofeuv moat applicable— let those properties be duly considered ; 
aud let us reflect on the state of the British atmospheic^ the food and modes of life ot 
the inhabitants, and the chronical infirmities which derive their origin- from the>& 
sources, and it will be evident what salutary effects naigb^ be expected from the general 
dietetic use of coffee in Great. Britain.^'* * 

Dr. Fothr r^tll says that coffee made in the following manner is pleasing to most peo- 

f>le, an J is much preferable to tea or to coffee, made in the usual manner, for bn )k» • 
a!5t. Let ii be made j;i the usual mauner, only a Uiird j..*rt stroni^er; let as much 
builinpr raiik be added to the coffee, btTore it is Uil^vMi from the fire, as there is water ; 
let it settle ; drink it with cream or without, a» may be most agreeable. Very little 
sugar, hf* says^ 9"ght to bo used with coffee ; on weuk stomachs it is apt to become' 
acid 11 made sweet; which is oue reason why many people forbeur <lrinking coffee- 
Was roffee, he adds, substituted instead of the? botiie after dinner, it st^enis more than 
pro.)al)le that many advantages would flow from it, both to the health of individuals, 
atvJ general OBcoaoiuy \ it semis probable^ that by deferring coffce or tea so late as is 

usually 

• The tea plmt in it* original state b of a pol^onnm nature. According to Ktcrapfer it po^vssefi « clammy 
actid jni •»•, 'v^jf^h U ^o corrosive a^ to e\*x>riate tlie liaod* ot" tlm>e w1m» prcj»are it tor u*e : In order to cor- 
r«'.ct till* uoxi'tkii quiiitVt a«d tJn t»etfer to enat>u' it to Jio roUti' iip.or curled, it is either j»terf><Mi in water, op 
«t*dIl1e«^ b> "being put i".^'» a . -r ktUU'Ju't finptiii' of bni^ii;^ vatrr, in wtiicii the leases are kept closely co- 
▼ecel m> ui'*il*UM\v hcr»>»r» o; 1. T'itA are tlien kI t^l uj> mid diied on pUtes of iron or cop[H?r, from vkhich 
some of tl'cir noxiou; r iiu \\\k-> nre said to ht- derived. Evt » i:i this state, they are eonsidered to tic so dan- 
IC^roa') by ■ho-ChineKe, t'l.tt \\\v ifav* v arc litt m**v t for a twelvc-pmnth after they «»i«* plucked. Nay, after all 
tUfc^' prepoTatjoiiR, h.uI 4^"ter rime lit' -<-ift't' l r^ a; ri • o i>% a htroii:, extract of tJie juice ha^ been atttndcci 
vriUi tbc mo t fntal co^-c^u(T.cc^ ; n*. \ e\c*. the cri"" . i « f tlic herb, long and (rr(|uenily Hmolt at fa^ tea-bro- 
kers havf' frequently experi "iced), mil ixva lyii pa<-v, dppo^/.*v\, and oUier nervous disorders. The maimer 
also to vvbich it is bro«ifht tron^ t'.r lU t, in M\l noM-^ Un- rt vkitlt -x rompoMhon of lead ami tin, and ex« 

EoKd to beafierted by tiie corral • of f\(»-c two mclrb (wa.'^ tUe n .w'lut acid of the frea water freqnenUy 
rings to action), mu t render tl«« article nmch more nn\vhoU>'>*>ie Iirr«' tliin in Cbma: and not only is it ft 
f pemicions artHe of it eJf, l>nt it is iVrijneiUly mixed, both in A«ia a.d in fiarope, with a variety of otiier 
Mbstaocefl of a deleterious natura. There can lie no doulM that tea i» uaturall^^ pernicioiu;, and> taken in any 
quantity, a poiMJoous plant ; and that tlte u>e of it haji occa*it>tu .1 the weak and enervated bodies of the Chi* 
jieM;. Adair, in his " Esnat^ on Difi and y/<,etiii^ii,'*,ot)serves, that in proportioi an it^ n«»e hA.i become (Ereneral^ 
wmnf diseases, especially low fevers, hy^tcricid,- hypochoi'driacal, pnralytie, and dropsical, hare be* 
cone more freqaent, to whieh greea tea* bave^partRvlarly. contribnted. lender these considerations it is a 
wonder this herb has to long kept its ground ; and, in 4 political point of view, it is certainly a serious object^ 
th«t it should be bronf^t, at sach an immenite expence of treasure, from so pjeat a distance, and from a to* 
wtUtti people ( when our ewn cah>iiie» ptod«ce, ia cofieci 4 beverafe ettry way ftieadlyio tbe ha^nMin^gt^-^ 



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v,24 HORTUS JAMAICENSI-S. ycx^vrek 

usually practised, we interrupt digestion, and add a new load of matter to that alread}' 
on the stomach. 

Dr. Hill mentions, among the Eastern nations they make coffee of the membranes 
surrounding the seeds, not of the seedi tiiemseKcs, as we do ; and adds, that a decoc- 
tion of the raw or unroasted seeds is a powerful diuretic and sudorific ; which medicinal 
quality may be useful in the suangury or -suppression of urine. For this purpose a 
sn)all tahle-spoonfnl of the grain, boiled ia a quaort ofwater, for a short time, is to be 
used as a common drink. 

A di:>h of strong coffee newly toasted, and drank without milk, relieves the a§thmj[. 

Coffee, though it relieves the head-ache, yet, frequently in obstinate ones, it is 
liecessary taad^ from twenty to forty drops of laudanum. Strong coffee is well knovrn 
to occasion wakefulness, but, ^hen used taexcess, .perhapsit is-less gencvally known 
to lay aibundation foriparalytiacoraplaints. 



The following directions for making coffee, by the Earl of Buchan, as vrel] 
irabian mode of prepariug it, are taken from Shicluir's Code ofWealfhy v, 1, 



wel] as the 
Arabian mode of prepariug it, are taken from Smduir's Code ofWealfhy v. \^ p. 377 : 
** Roast the beans by a gradual application o/heat, scorching but not burning them^ 
keeping the roasting instrument all the time, and thereafter, excluded from evapora- 

:"tion in the air. -Next pound the beans with a pestle. and mortar to an impalpable pow-» 
der, not grinding them with a coffee mill, as is usual, when they remam gritty, arid 
unfit to afford a perfect tincture by boiling.'* iDr, Griffiths, in his Eastern Tour^ gives 

»r the following accoumt of . the Turkish or Arabian mode of preparing c<5ffee : "It is 
ground jor beaten to an impalpable powder, and preserved closely, by pressing it down 

- in a wooden b6x. The quantity required for use is scraped from the surface of the 
mass by means of a Wooden spoon. Two small coffee pots are employed ; in one is 
boiled the water, generally mixed-with the^remaining coffee of a former meal ; in the 
'other is put the fresh powder, which is sometimes placed near the 'fire, to become 

Seated before the boiling water is added to it. The mixture is then boiled two or three 
;times, taking care to pour a few drops of cold water. upon it the last time, or to place 

-a cloth dipped in cold water over it, then it is allowed to siibside, and afterwards pourdd 
into the coffee pot, which contained oAly the boiling water." 

" The quantity of coffee powder necessary to make a fine strong tincture of coffee 

.may be estimated at one coffee cup of coffee powder, and three dishes of proper coffee 

Jjiquor for the table.^ — Siudair's Cede of Health. 

The agreeable liquor prepared from coffee seeds is said to ha;ve1>een drank from time 
immemorial in Ethiopia. Mr. Bruce, in his Travels, says that the' Galla, a wandering 
^cation of Africa, in their incursions on. Abyssinia, being obliged to traverse immense 
desarts, and being also desirous of falling on the -Abyssinians without watning, that 
they^may be enciunbered as iittle as possibly with baegage, carry nothing with them to 
eat but coffee roasted 4ill it can be pulverised, and then mixed- with butter, into balls, 
and put into a l^aithem bag. One of these, about the ^ze of a billiard ball, keeps 
them, they say, in Strength and spirits during a whole day's fatigue, better than a Icm 
of bread, or a meal of meat. It was introduced into Aden, in Arabia, from Persia, by 
GemalediJin, only about the middlet4>f the fifteenth-century, 'Kot long after it reached 
Mecca, Medina, &c. and Grand Cairo ; hence it continued its progress to Damascus 
.and Aleppo; and in 1554 became known in t7onstantinople ; bemg introduced there 
% t$ropersoQ% whose names were Shams aod^ekin ; oiie>£roBiJ>amdscui^ the oth.er 



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€6ffrb HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 325 

#rom Aleppo ; each of which opened a public coffee house in that cityt It is not qer- 
^in what time the wse of coffee passed frona Constantinople lo the western parts of 
Europe, but it is probable that the Venetians, on account of the^proximity of their 
dominions, and their great trade to the Levant, were the first acquainted with it ; and 
Fietro della Valle, a Venetian, in a letter from Constaatinople, written in 16 ! 5, tells 
4iis friend that upon his return he should bring with him some coffee, which be believed 
was a thing unknown in his country. M. Thevenot, the French traveller in the East, 
at his return in 1657, brought with him to Paris some coffee for his own use. It was 
^nown some years soo«er at Marseilles, namely, in 1644. M. DeTour, who wrote 
♦n coffee in 168^5, says that the French k«ew nothing of it nntil 1645. M. La Roque^ 
who published his journey into Arabia Felix, in 1715, contends that his father, having 
been with M.^ de la H^e, the French ambassador at Constantinople, did, when he re- 
turned to Marseilles, in 1644, drink coffee everyday. He-allows, notwithstahding, 
that Thevenotwas the first -who taught the Trench to drink it. However, till the year 
1660, it was drank only by such as- had heen accustotned t© it in the Levant; but that 
vear someliales were imported from Egypt, and ift 167 1 a coffee house was opened at ■ 
Marseilles. Before the -year 1669, coffee was not known at Paris, except at M. The- 
ienot's, and some of bis frieads. This year it was effectually introduoed by ISolyman 
•Aga, ambassador from Suhaa Mahomet tV"; and two years after Pascal, an Armenian, , 
-5oTd it publicly at the-Foire St. Germain, ind afterwards. set up a coffee house wi the 
Quai de I'EcoIe ; but, Hieeting with little encouragement, he left Paris and ^went to 
London. ^However, not long after, spacious rootns were fitted up at Paris, in stn ele^ 
^nt manner, for selling coffee and other refreshments ; aud in Ji short time the num- 
ber of coffee houses increased to three hundred. 

The use of coffee was introd«ced into London some years earKer^ for, in 1652, Mr. 
Daniel Edwards, a Turkey merchant, brought home with brm a Ragusian Greek ser- 
vant, whose name was Fasaua Rossee, and who understood the roastififf and making of 
coffee. This servant was the first who sold coffee, and kept a house tor tb^ purpose 
in George Yard, Lombard-street; or rather, according to Mr. Houghton, in a shed 
in the church yard of St. Michael's, Comhill, which is now, says he, 1701, * a scriven^ 
er's brave house? Mr. H. adds, that one Rastall, whom hekiiew, went toL.eghorn, 
in 1651, and tbere^found a coffee iiouse ; that he met Mr. Daniel Edwards there, with 
his Greek* servant, and that Mr. E.' was the^irst who brought the use of coffee to Eng- 
land, except it was^Jbe famous Dr. Harvey, who some say did frequeirtly use it. Pas- 
t[ua, being ne free man, the ale-sellers petitioned the Lord Mayor ag«nst Irim. This 
inade^^derman Hodges, whose daughter Mr. E. married, join his coachman. Bowman, 
•Wbo^was firee, Pasqua^s partner ; and thus Mr. Rastali found them in 1654. But Pas^ 
<'|ijua, *for some misdemeanor, vvas forced to riin the country, and Bowman, by his 
'^trade, and.* coptribution of one thousand six^pences, 4^urned the • shed to a house. 
Bowmati^s apprentices were first J^hn Painter, then Humphry, firom whose wifeMn • 
*n. had this accodnt. The first mehtion of coffee in our statute books was in 1660, 14 
Car. It. cap. 24, by which a duty of four pence was laid upon every gallon of coffeii 
^ught-orsolA The first European author who has made any naentidn of coffee i« 
Hauwolfus, who was in the Levant, in ^1573 ; but it was first particularly described by 
J^rosper Alpinus. Lord Chancelloi* Bsl^on likewise makes mention of it in 1624 : he 
flays that the Turks have a drink called coffee, made with boiling water, of a berry rev 
duced into powder, which makes the water as black as soot, and is of a pungent and 
•aiiamatic smell, and is drank warm. . Faustus Nacionous Bainsius wrote the first treaUse 



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^2« , HORTITS JAMAICENSia. C0ffu 

expressly on coffee, which was printedat Rome in 1671:. Two English travellers np^^ 
tice this beverage at the very beginning of the seventeenth, centurv : Biddulph about 
1603, and WiiUam Finch in 16C>7. la 1685, Mr. Ray aflarms,. tliat London might rival 
Grand Cairo in the number of its coffee houses,, and that they were to be found, not 
only in the capitial, but in every town of note in England.. Probably the ill-iudged- 
proclamation of Ciiarles II. in 1675, to shut up coffee-houses j. as* seminaries of sedi^ 
' tion, which was suspended in a few days,, contributed much to establish them. Speak- 
ing of it as a drink, Mr. Ray says,, it was very much in- use, and supposes that, the Arabs, 
destroyed the vegetable quality of the seeds,, in ordet toconfine their conunodity withia: 
themselves ; and adds, that he wondered the neigjibouring nations did. not contrive tq^ 
fcring away some sound seeds or liviiigr plants,, in orcjer tasiiare in. so lucrative a trade. 
This was soon done ; for Nicholas Wixnen, burgpmasterof Amsterdam^ and governor 
of the East India Company, desired Van Hoorn» governor of Batavia,. to. procure from. 
Mocha, in Arabia Felix, some berrieft^.of the coffee tree,, to be'sowo at Batavia,. which- 
he having accordingly done, and^ about the vear 16i^Q, having raised many. plants from, 
seeds, sent one aver to, governor Wvtsen,. whaj^cesenteditta the g^xdeu at Arastex'- 
dam ; it there boce fruit, \diich in a short time produced, many young plants. Eron*-. 
these the East Indies and most of the gardens in Europe have been furnished.;, and sqm 
early as the year 1696,. tiie coffee tr^e was cultivated at Fulham by bishop Comptoui, 

In. 1714, the magistrates of Amsterdam, presented Louis XIV. with a coffee tree^ 
which ^'as seritto ttit? Royal Garden at Marly, under the care of M, De Jussieu, who, 
bad, written a memoir,, printed fa th& History of tlie Academy of. Sciences for 17 1 3|^ 
describing the cbaracu^rs ot* the genus, witka. figure of it, from a small tree, which he- 
bad received from M. Pancras, burgomaster of Am&terdam^and.director of the bota^iia 
sarden there. In 171^ the Dutch colony at Surinam began first to plant coffee, and., 
ui 1722 M. de la Motte Aigron,. governor of Cayenne, contrived by an artifice to bring* 
away a plant from Surinam, whidi* iu the year 17.25, bad produced, many thou.sands* 
Rochon, in his account of Madagascar, asserts,, that in 17.16 the inhabitants of the isle 
of Bourbpn sent to Moka.aod Aden for some young plants of. tlie coffee tree, which 
-being. cultivated with care, bjecame in a few years* vQry productive,. and the island sooiv 
afforded the French East India Company^ a very important article of trade. Tn 1727^ 
the French,, pecceij^iug that this acquisition might be of great ad\*antage in their otliet* 
colonies,, coaveyed some of the plants to Martinico. M. Fusee Aublet indeed affirms,, 
that M..Clieux carried the first coffee plant to Martinico in 1720,. and that the French 
East India Company sent some plants to the isle of Bourbon in lZi7; that one plnnt 
only surnved, which bore fruit in 17;20,, and many were produced from it. From Mar- 
tinica it most probably spread to the neighbouring islands- It was first introduced into- 
Jamaica in thereat 1723, by Sin Nicholas Laws,, and planted atTownu'ell Estate, now 
Temple-JUll, in Uguanea.* In tjie yearl732 it was cultivated in. this island undec 
the encouragement of an^act, Sth.Geo^.II. by whioh the duty was reduced on home 
consumption, from, two shillings. to eighteen^gence/^er pound. By a further reduction 
^f the duty,, in 1783,. to six peace,, uie cultivation, was very much extended, and pro-^ 
duced.considjjrably more to tb(e revenue than the former heavy one.. On this occasion 
Mr. Edwards observ.es,. ^* Happily for. the coffee planter in the British West Indies, the 
English market, by a pnident concession of government in f78.'), was renilere.d mor© 
^pen to them. Be&^c^ that period,^ the duties and ejccise on. the importation.and con-^ 

sumptiom 

* It Im^ been asserted that seven bcfriits only were brought to t!ift Ul'i'ad frnm St. T)omn]go, and:t]iat tftfe? 
Wm^ of a trcfip, raided from one ot' tUem m Vere, Mldbats-firit prodoce tX a. bit a hRiT^\.. 



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-eorrsB flORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 227 

*sumption of British plantation coffee in Great Britain were no less than four hundred 
and eighty per ctnL on its marketable value. Under such exactions its cultivation in 
t)ur sugar islands must, but for the American market, have shared the same fate as that 
of indigo. The great and important reduction of one shilling a polind from the excise 
'duties, created a^i immediate and wonderful change ; and, while it promoted the in- 
terest of the planter, it even augmented the revenue of the state; more than dcSuble 
the quantity of coffee having been brought to entry in 1781., than was entered in the* 
year preceding, increasing the sum total of the duties (though reduced two-thirds) 
from .fs 869 IOj. \oyi. to £l2QO \Ss. 9(L au important proof among others how fre^ 
quently heavy taxation defeats its own purpose." 

An additional duty of six pence half-penny per pound was laid on coffee by the 3.5th 
Oeo. III. cap. 1% but by the indefatigable exertions of Mr. Edgar Corrie, of Liver- 
pod, and of several other West India gentlemen ; a late most favourable and well- 
timed reduction of the duties has again taken place, from nearly two shilhngs per 
pound to stfven pence, which it is expected will be the means of bringing it into ge- 
neral use in Great Britain ; and in some measure counteract the ruin that threatened 
the planters from a prohibited commerce with the continent of Europe. It would from 
this also have been easy to prophecy an increased cultivatioui had not the aboUtion of 
the slave trade rendered that impossible. From the consequences of this measure, 
xiotwithstaoding every other encoura^ment, itia easy to forsee that a very rapid reduc- 
tion of the exports from this island will speedily take place. The old settlements are 
yearly wearing out, many new ones ha^ been thrown up, and no fresh settlement can be 
attempted. Under these inauspicious circumstances it is no improbable conjecture that 
in ten years, or eren less time, the quantity of coffee exported from Jamaica will not 
be one half what it is at present. 

The following statement will shew the wonderful increase which 
from the moment the duties were reduced, aud which has not only 
perity of this island, but greatly increased the national commerce, w 

In the year 1 762 the'^'export of coffee from Jamaica was rated at 
it was 493,9«i/i. ; until 1783 it never exceeded 850,00Q/A. when 
heavy duty upon it took place. In the year 1790 the quantity was 
two millions and a quarter. In the year 1 795 it rose to 5,902, 1 1 3/i 
'ing is a statement <A its progress since : the exports are as returned each year to the 
iiouse ofassembly by the naval officer.: 

Ihs. coffee. 
Jfoom 30th September^ 1800, to 30th September, 1801 9,992,859 

1801 1802 17,961,^23 

1802 4803 15,366,291 

.1803 1804 22,063,980 

1804 1805 24,137,393 

1801^ )806^ 29,298,036 

.1806 1807 26,761,188 

1807 1808 29,528,273 

.1809 1809 ^5,586,668 

G g 2 2. OCCIBENTAIISj 



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'm^ HORTUS JAMAICENSm coltV 

2. OCCroENTALISi WESTERN. 

Jasmtnum /arte arboreum^ Joliis hurinis ex adverso nascentihus oh^m 
longis acuminatis fiore alho. Sloane, r. 2, p. 97, t. 205, f. 1 .— 
' Foliis ohUngo ovatis eppositis ; . stipulU^sciacets petiolis interpositis^. 
Browne, p. 142, t. 6, £ 1. 

Flowers four-cleft ; berries one-seeded. 
. This differs fifom-lbe coffee tree in having the flower only four-cleft,. and a single • 
four.lobed seed at bottom. It seldom rises above, six feet, upright, branching; the- 
Jeaves are lanceolate-ovate, ending in a blunt point, quite entire,, shining, petioled,. 
opposite only on the young twigs, four or five inches iongj. Stipules akemaie with,, 
the petioles^ subulate, acuminate, upright,, and opposite; raceqaes trichotomous, , 
sometin^es paaicled, usu^ly terminating, but sometimes axijlary. The corolla is white» 
end very sweet scented. Browne calls it the wildjessamine^md says it b pretty coiOr? . 
iuqh in the lower woods ; the ^Sowers long and tubular*. 



COGWOOD: LAURU9. 

CJl 9, ou. 1. — Efmeandria moncgynic^^. NaT. or. — Hotordce^e^^ 
\ Gen. oiASi.'^Sef Avocado Pear^ p. 37. 

CHLOROXYLON. . 

Folihwatu-gkibTisrigidisjHn^rvUsyJlari6u$^^^^ Browne^^ 

p. 187, U7, £ h 

Leaves three-nerved,, ovate, coriaceous ; nerves reaching the tip.. ^ 

Browne classes this plant pentandria trigi/niaj by the name of greenheart or cog^ 
\vood tree. It is common in many parts of the mountains^ and rises by a strong 
branched trunk to a v^ry coosiderable height. The inward.baxJc is of a light blood co^ 
lour,, and incloses a strong greenish timber within the sap. The leaves are smooth, of 
an oval form, and. adorned. with three considerable Arched nerves each ; they resemble 
those of the camphire tree^ bothin ^pe^ size,^and texture. . This tree bears its fruity , 
>^'hicb. seldom exceeds a naked h^zel nut in size,^ scattered upand-down upon^ti^e 
branches. The wood is. very- tough, hard,, (and ponderous,) and observed to answer.- 
better than any other sortfpir the cogs used in the rollers of a sugai-mill, and generally .^ 
esteeme^ one of the best timberwoods of the islapd,^ and used on all. occasions where, 
fitrengtb and durability is required.'— ^rott^n^. , 



eOtT^S FOOT. FIPER; 

XJUQyOB.Sj-^Diandriairigyntat * -Nat. or. — Piperitee* 
Gen. CHAR.-^-iCalyx. an imperfect spathe ; spedix fHiform, quite si mple.^ covered' 
with florets i there is no perianth ; no corolla ; the stamens have no niaments ; . 
anthers two,, opposite, at the root of the eerm, roundish ; the pistil has an ovate^ 
germ, no style ; stigma three-fold, hispia ; the pericarp is a roundiah one-celled, 
berry ; seed single, globular. Many species of this genus are natives of Jlunaica^. 
the tollowing, and those placed under the noxa/s pepper-elder :. 

1. QMBfiLLAT^SCi. 



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muf^ HORTUS JAMAICENSIfiL 889 

1, UMBSUATUM. UMBELLED. 

J^tpertongumracemosummalvac€U7n. Sloane, v. l, p. 13S. . Foliis * 
amplis orbiculato^cordatiSf sinu apertOy pctiolU vagiiiantibus.'^^ 
Browne, p. 203,1 

Leaves orbicular- cordate, acuminate, veined ; spikes umbeUed; -stem erect, . 
grooved, pubescent* 
Root annual; stem herbaceous, fil'om one to two feet high, jroond^ simple, join'ted, , 
fabary ; leaves terminating, distant, spreading, entire, nerved and veined, wrinkled^ . 
somewhat hirsute underneath, . the lobes of the base converging forwai'ds ; the nerves •• 
radiate from the petiole, .which is almost in the middle of the leai ; , petioles long, rounds 
smooth, sheathing. at the base,, .embracing. Spikes axillary, in umbels; umbellets ^ 
pedate, with iiromthref to six spikes, i>n snort pedicels, upright, whitish. Calyx aad' 
corolla none, .but roundish ciliate scales, wbenee the spikes appear sub-tomentosft to 
the naked eye. Filaments approximating, two for each scale, very short; anthers 
^roundish, white.. Germ oblong, longer than the scale;. style none; stigmas three, ^ 
reflex, thick^ black \ visible only witLa glass.— «SW^ . 

Browne calls this.tbe open-leafed coU^s/oot, or Santa Mafia leaf^ irfrichia very com* - 
mon in the woods of Jamaica, jsmd seldom rises more than three or four feet jdbove the 
roots, which are composed of short blackish fibres* . The stalk it sends up is as thick as. ^ 
enes thumb,^ jointed, of a grey colour,, rough,; rouad, striated,, with some tiirrows on * 
it, having towards the top large round or heart-shaped leaves .alternately ; the foot* 
stalks of the leaves enciompass the^ stalk, and Jeave, a mark when they fall .off. * The 
nerves of the leaves run irook the top of the footstalk as from a.coinm9n centre, through ^ 
the whole leaf, which is very soft, of a dark green colour, somewiiat like those of mal- 
lows, andabout seven or eight inches in diameter.. The flowers /and fruit, come out, - 
, ex: aiisfolioi^viy being three or four jidi two inches long, ,at first white,^ then green, . 
.standing on a common footstalk. . The leaves being soft and large,. are applied to the- 
bead wheait akes,r and are thought to ease the pain ; . they may be boiled and eaten.-— - 
Piso says, . that if the Jw/i' or pepper be boiled in water, and exposed to the sun, they 
grow stronger and more durable lor all uses. ** The root smells hkexlover, and is hot to . 
the third degree, reckoned a'counter poison,sandof thin subtle, and therefore open- 
ing parts. If bruised and put like a poultice to any diseased part it ripens and cleanses. 
The juice of the leaves, because cold^ eases buromgs ; and the leaves put into clysters 
have the same qualities as.maUovvs^rr-«y/(7ane. 

Browne says there is asy-rup made^f it in many parts of our siJgar colonies, which . 
is much usedi by the inhabitants in cbldsaud catarrhs. 

Mr. A. Robinson mentions that he knew a lady violentlv afBil:ted with the tooth- ache, . 
who applied a leaf of this plan^t.to the aflected part of her cheek at night, and perceived ^ 
Ihe pain gradually, decrease,, and, before the morning, entirely goqe.; bui her cheek 
was pretty much swelled and inflamed, which was also cured in a Uttle time .by the 
i^tpne applieat;ion^. . A cbirurgeon at Baonals iufonned him, that he found -tiiem very 
ffopd.pectorals by long experience, anq used them in deco,ctiun or syrup. 

2. PBI.TATUM. TARGET-LIKE. 

Fqlm amplis orb icufalQ eor^is^ peiiaits ; petiolis vaginaniibus.-'-^- 

... i3(Qm!^ p-«9d. 

Leaver 



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290 HORTUS JAMAICEN&lS. ^ <:oMiiRUNB 

X^e^ves peltate, orbicular-coi^te, bhint, repand; spikes urribelled, 
Browne calls this the larger coWsfoot^ uoiiji vmbilicated leaves. He thinks it only % 
variation of the forogoing, or so Hke it, that the disposition of the sinus of the leaves 
makes tli^ whole dilierence between them:^ -and ^dd^^ that it is »ot used like the 
other* 

See Pepper-Eldhu 



COMINIA. ALLOPHYLLUS. 

Cl. 8, OR. I. — Octandria monogj/nia, Nat* or. — Guitifertt. 

Oeh. char. — Calyx afeur-leaved perianth, leaflets orbiculate, two exterior, oppa« 
site, smaller by half.4 -coroilafour-petaled, less than the calyx, orbiculate, equsA^ 
•claws broad, length of the two smaller leaves of -the caU^c ; the stamens have fili* 
form filaments, the length of the corolla ; anthers roundish ; the pistil has a supe- 
rior germ, roundish, twin ; style filiform, longer than the stamens ; stigma bifid, 
w'xtki the -divisions, rolled baek. -One species is a native of Jamaica. ^ 

/COMINIA. 

• ]3accifera Tndka trifoliaj fructurotundo "monopyverto, Sloane, v. 2, . 

p. 100, t. 208, f. I. jirboreafoliisunduiatispinnato^ternatisyJU^ 
ribus minimis^ racemisUerminalibus. JBrowne, p. 205. 

Leaves ternate ; flowersin panicles. 
The stem is the thickness of .the human thigh, rising thirty Teet'iu Tieight, with a 
smooth ash-coloured bark. "Petioles two inches long, russet coloured and hairy. Leaf- 
lets four inches and a half long, two inches broad in the middle, dark green .above, and 
woolly underneath, i'lowers very -numerous, -whitish yellow, small,- set very close to 
one another, round a stalk an incnand a half long, like an ament or catkin ; there are 
three or four of these spikes, and several of them come iirom the ends of the twigs. — » 
To these succeed small orange-coloured smoothlierries, the size of small jnns heads, 
having a single stone in them, with. a.thin brittle shell, and a large kernel in propor- ' 
tion to the ifruit. It grbws on the Red Hills, and in most woody nills, veiy plentiruUy 
in Jamaica. The puTp df the berries is very dry and little. — Sioane. Browne says he 
observed it about the Angels, and in the upper parts of Liguanea, growing in hedges 
vwhere it^dom rose above eight or ten fee^; with rouamsh ieavesj and the benidft 
i^ery thick ^md small. 



COMMELINE. COMMELTNA. 

Cl. 13, OR.. 1. — Triandria mmwgynitu Nat. or. — Ensafap. 

This name waa ^en in honour of ;f ohn and CasparvCommdins, brothers, and fiU 
mous Dutch botanists. 
Gen. char. — Calyx a cordate spathe, convergine, compressed, ^ery luge, permft« 
Mitnti ^e corolla haam petals^ of which the uuree exterior are ainaU^ ovatcty con« 

caarch 



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C0NTRAYERV4 BOIITUS J AM AIjC EN S 1 8. aH- 

cave, resembling a perianih i the three inferior ones alternate, very large, rounds 
ish, coloured ; nectaries tliree, resembling stamens, seated op their proper fila* 
mentsi cruciform, horizontal ; the stamens are three filaments, subulate, reclined, 
- agreeing in figure and circuit with the filaments pf the nectary, but inferior ta 
tbeol ; anthers ovate ; the pistil has a superior roundish germ ; style subulate, re- 
Tolute, length pf th^ stamens ;. stigma simple ; the pericarp a naked capsule, 
nearly globular, three-furmwed, three-relied, tbree-valved ; seeds two, angu- 
lated. Two species lure natives of Jamaica. 

1. COMMUNIST. COMM0?r. 

Procumbent fol lis lanceolatO'Ovatis^ floribus paucioribus^ petalls duo* 
bus major ihus^. 

Corollas unequal ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute; stem creeping, smooth. 
This plant has several trailinji;' stalk-^, which put out roots at th^ joints, having one- 
leaf at eachjoint, which ts smood>, of a deep green, and marked with several longitu- 
dinal nerves, and embracing the stalk. Ffou'crs axillary, two or' three together on* 
short peduncles : the corolla is composed of two large blue petals, and four small green* 
Ones. Browne calls it the ffroad"- leaved commelt'na, wliich grows very commonly in the- 
middle lands of Jamaica, growing iu Beds, and creeping generally alon^ the ground,. 
and throwing oi\t a great number of leaves and small brancfies towards trie top It is' 
accounted an excellentfood for most sorta of cattle, especially thojje that give milk. 

2- NO0IFLORA. KAKED-FLOWEitED.. 

Erecfd stmpkx angustifblia^ Jloribus singularibiiXi Browne,* p. 1 26. 

Corollas equal ; peduuclea cagillary ; leaves linear ;. involucre, none ;. flowers^ 
two-stamened^. 

Stcni somewhat erect J. ctecumb6nt»at the' b»se, somewhat sclerous ;- leaves sessile, 
acute, sheatliing ; peduncles terminating, two, a greater and a smaller ; flowers from- 
four to six, pedicelled,- noddmgv Browne -says it seldom rises above the height of;' 
nineteen or twenty iwcb'es, that it was pretty common in the mountains .ofWestnaor**^ 
kmd^. but he had notfscen it. ia any other part of the islands 

&^ Spider Wort. . 



eONTRA YERVA'. - AUISTOLOCHI A: . 

Ct. 20,. OR* 5^^ — Gj/fiandn'a hexdndrid., NaT* oRw — Sarmentaceefi'. 

Gen; crrAR.-^Tfiere is.no calyx ;, corolla oue-petaled, tububus, irregular; base 
swelling^ sub- globular, toculose*; tube obtong, hexagon-cylindric ; Ihub diluted,', 
extended below into a long tongue ;» the staR>ens have 'UoTilaraents ; anthers six* 
feistened at boitosu to Vhe stigmas, four celled; th^ pistil has an oblong germ, iu- 
fertor, ungular ; style -scarcely any; stiiifina- sub-gi6bular, 8ix-paited,.c-ottcave ;^. 
the pericarp is a large capsule ; six-angled siuid six-celled ; tlic seeds^veral, de^^ 
gnttiiSed^ mGM.vUie^u . Ti^re<^ species, are natives of Jaomca. 

1: OPOr.A'iissiMA^ 



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aei HOiiTug jamaicensis. covTiiAmmi 

1. ODORATISSIMA. gWEET-SCENTEB. 

Aristolockia sa^andens odpratissima^ ftoris labellopirpufeoj semint 
cordate. Sloane, v. 1, p. 162, t. *04, f. 1. ScamlenSy foliis co/^ 
dato-acuminatisJloruYnJlabellis amplis purpureis. Browne, p. 329. 

Leaves cordate ; stem twining, blir4ibby ; peduncles solitaQ^ ; lip of tbecoroUa 
very large. 

This is so called in Jamaica from its great eiBcaciragainst poisons, 'but is in no re-' 
spect like the Spanish contrayerva ; for this plant hath a long round genicalated rooU 
in shape and bigness of long birthwort; so are its leaf and flower. 'It bath a round 
green climbing stem, taking hold of any tree or shrub, *rising six or twelve feet high, 
covering them with its numerous branche-s. The4eaves stand on the rasun stalks, cor- 
datcd, of a dark*green colmir; 'the flowers stand on a three*incb foot^-stalk, iikl% other 
birthworts, of a yellowish colour, the lip covered with a pnrple farina; 'the fruit is 
hexaneular, two or three inches long, containing six cells, full of small Hat odorifer-^ 
ous yellowish-bniwii seeds, of the shape of^an hear^. '^he jootS'4md "seeds are very 
bitter, hot, and odoriferous, and are most-^xoellent alexipharmics or comiter<^poison8, 
strengthening the heart, stomach, and braiit; they cure the bites of serpents, and the 
poison of Indian arrows. >I am of opinion, it exceeds the Spanbh eontrayerva, espe- 
cially in dropsies. 'I have seen wonders done -with it : »It drives out the small pox, 
-oneasles, spotted fevers, plague, or any malignant distemper ;- it gently purges some 
by stool, but never fails working .powerWlJy by «rine, and sometimes by sweat. I have 
known it recover several in lingering ^stcimpers,- when their appetitesiiavebeen-whoUy 
lost and the use of their limbs, and that only by drinking a^siniple decoction of the root 
.in water; but in wine it makes the best stomachic, it being excessWe bitter and aro« 
matie; also this makes the best bitter wine in the world, exceeding all in thedispen^ 
satories, or Stoughton*s drops ; and, if you add steel to it, it cures the green sickness, 
dropsies, opens all 4»b8tFucUou3, sweetens the blood,, ami restores it^4x)> its due crasis* 
— ^jrAtfw,. p. 44. 

- This plant (wbicK is iheiianne or serpent wythe df theTrench, from its being an an* 
/'tidote to the poison of serpents) abounds every where among the woodlands and thidc- 
ets.on the southland north sides of the islanci, and rises frequently to a considerable 
height among the trees and bushes. It destroy^ ^worms,. ibr which^pu1lpose the root 
(which has a strong smell) is chopped in small pieces, and given by the planters to their 
horses, mixed wim com, .which destroys bot3^ and wonderfullyrTecmits the animals 
flesh and strengths 

It is so abundant in this island^ that-it'iDay be collected^ annually, in large-quantities, 
"for exportation, if there was a demand for it. at the home market ; and it seems to merit 
-this encouragement, ,tis it has been thought, by very ^le pbyttcians, to be superior in 
eflicacy to the Spanish contrayerva. — Long^ p. 717. 

2. TlHtOBATA. ^HREB-tX>BE1>. 

ScandenSf foliis ^bMatis ohiusis^ Jloribm mnplissmis. Brqwue^ 
p. 329. 

Leaves three-lobed ; stem twining j^owars'^eiy iitige^ bigKed at the Jpase^ 
tongue linear, very long. 



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WR\u HORTUa 3AMAICENS1SU 2^a 

This IS alsa a climbing plamt, which B,rowae calls the confvayerva of the south side^ 
iind the former of the varth sidCy where tliey afe most conimoo. H© ascrihe$t the $aax^ 
Tirtues to bath species, and to he used in tne same manner^ 

Stc Peucan Fix>\ye». 
Cooper's Wythe— *SVtf Hoc? Wythe, 



CORAL OR RED BEAN TREE. ERYTIIRINA. 

Ct-. 17, OR. 4. — Diaddphia dccandria. Nat., or. — Papilionacea, 

This generic name is derived from a Greek word, signifying red, the corolla being 
generally scarlet. 

G5:n. CHAR. — Calyx a one-leafed perianth, entire, tubular, mouth emarginate above, 
. beneath furnished with a melliferous pore ; corolla papihonaceous, five-petaled„ 
standard very long ; stamens ten-filaments, conjoined to the lower part, but little 
bent in ; anthers ten, sagittate ; the pistil has a pedic^lled subulate germ, with a 
terminal simple stigma ; the pericarp is an extremely long legume, protuberathig 
at the seeds, terminated by a point, one-celled ; seeds kidney-form* 

CORALLOnF.NDRONi, 

Coral arbor. Sloane, v. 2, p. 38, No, 10 & II, t, 178, f. I. j4rbo^ 
rea^ spinosa et turn spinosa ; Joins rhtnnhoeis^ pinnate tanatts,^^ 
Browne, p. 288. 

Leaves ternate, unarmed; stem arboreous, prickly; ealyxes truncate, five^ 
toothed. 
This tree rises generally to the height of sixteen or eighteen feet, sending out strong 
irregular branches, ^nd grows in many parts of Jamaica. The leaves grow on long 
footstalks, the middle leaflet much larger than die other two ; they are all heart-shapeo, 
smooth, and of a deep green colour. The flowers come out at the ends of tlie branches, 
in short thick close 4>i^e8, of a deep scarlet colour, and make a flne appearance.—* 
Srowne observes tliat there were many reasons which induced him to think that this 
^ree was not a native, but had been introduced into this island while the Spaniards werQ 
in possession. 

B^mn TVre.-^Thk beautifut^iree grows in plenty in most parts of America. In the 

Ijsland of Jamaica, tbey make fences of them, being very prickly. About Christmas, 

itbeae trees «re to be seen idl full of l^ge red flowers, without any green leates, being 

"venr beautifiil to the sight After tl)e flowers are fallen, the green leaves shoot out, 

;ana the fruit begins to appear, which is a pod about six or sev^n inches long^ contain^ 

4ng about eight or nine beautifol red beans, in the sbape of kidney-beans. The trees 

t^ure generally very large and. spreading armed full with black crooked thorns, like cock- 

spurs ; the leaves are like those of the jphysic*nut The virtues of this plant have not 

'yet been discovered, though I know by experience, that the flowers make ^n excellent 

^ye* water. Bontius saith, that the fruit is a great diuretic, apd purgeth strongly water^ 

.^nd therefore proper in dropsies; he saith tbey expel urind^ and cure the cfaolic.-^ 

Hh It 



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.234. HOaTUS JAMAI'eENSirS. €ORAToe 



i 



It h propagated by slips or cuttings, or by the seed. It blossoms in tJifeo yeaw fromi 
the seed, and has. young pods al>out tlie middle of February ; and by the lairer pmi of' 
Marcl) the seed is full grown^ and of a beautiful red colour. The prit!kly. species qiuke 
rood fences. Thev ribO to the height of sixteen or cighleen feet. They were proba- 
ly both introdiTcecf by the SpaniaMs, to be planted among tiieir cocoa, walks, where 
they lay most exposed to the w eatner, t6> break tlie impetuoMiy of the wind y and hence 
tlieir common appellaiibu of )iiadie dc Cdcaoy or mother ofcacao. 

A seed of the bean tree, bein;::^ planted by a gentleman in his garden, for experiment 
sake, it was found, in two years nine months, to have grown to tlie iieight of seven^ 
feet, mearoired from th^ l)ase of the root tothe braiiches.. Tiie quickn^iss of its ascent,, 
and sturdiness, prove it admirably well adapted to,be. the protector, of the young tender 
cacao plants. — Longj p, 788. 

Ray says that the inhabitants of Malabar make sheaths of the wood for swords and 
knives. They use the sauie, together with the bark, m washing a- sort of garments 
which they call sarassas ; and make of the flowers tbe confection caryl. The leaveSv 
pulverised and boiled with tlie mature cocoa nut,, consunie venereal buboes, and ei^e 
pains in die bones ; bruised and applied to the temples^ the^ cuce thecephalea, and 
ulcers : mixed wjthihe sugar called jagra, they mitigate pains in the belly, especially 
in women ;, apd.the same, effect follows from tJic use of thjc bark levigated with vinegar^ 
or swallowing the kernel stripped of its red pellicle. The juice of the leaves, taken, 
with oil sergelim, mitigates venereal pains ; drank with an infusion of rice, it stops* 
fluxes ; made into ar cataplasm, with the leaves of beteleira, it destroys worms in ol4 
•ulcers ; and u^orked with oil, it cures the pspra and itching. — Sloaiie, 

Twoother species, of this- gen us have been introduced, the picta^ or pricklv-lieavedi. 
coral tree, a native of the East ladies ; and. tlie herbacea, or herbai^ous coral tcee, ^ 
;}ativ.e of South Carolina.. 



CORATOE. AGAVE. 

CL 6f. OR. 1. — Ifexandria msnogynidi Nat. or. — Coronariie. 
This generic name is dfirived from a Greek word, signifying admirable, glorious.' 
Gen. char. — ^There is no cal)rx ; coreliaone-petaled, funnel (bell) shs^ied ; border 
six-parted; equal ;- parts lanceobte-erect ; xko stamens are filifbrm erect filaments^ 
longer than the corolla ; anthens linear^ shorter than the filaments^ versatile : the 
pistd is an oblong germ,, growing thinner towards both ends,, infenor r style fili* 
lorm, the length of the stamens^^thcee^corneiied ; stigma headed,..three*coi'nered ;> 
the pericarp is an abloog- three-cornered capsule, three-celled,. three-i^ved : 
seeds numerous. One species is a native o£ Jamaica. Linneus separated this 
genus froixi the aloe,, because the Btamens aad styJe are exteiwl«d much longer 
than the coroUa,. and. the eoroUar rests AipoR the germ. There js aiso another mf-^ 
fereoce in the growtli of the plants, which is, that aU the agaves have their central 
leaves closely folding over each other, and embracins^ the* flower^stem, which is 
£>rmed in thue centre ; so that these never flower untiiall the leaves are expanded;^ 
«ad wheathe^ower is past the giants die y whereas the flovver-stem of th^ aloej^i 

produced. 



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<oiuTOE HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. $v% 

produced on one side of the centre, annually from the same plant, and the leaves 

are more expauUed than in this genus. y 

AMERICANA. AMERICAN. 

Mq€ secunda sen folio in ohl n^urHy aculeum abeufite, Sloane, v. I, 
p. 246, Foliis sub-'Ccnvpressis mucronatisy ad viargincs spinoso-^ 
jitntatis ; scapo valido ussurgentz^ raccma spatioso ramosa^ Browne^ 
p. 199. 
Stemless ; leaves tooth-thorBy* 

fhere are but few plants more commoi\ than this in Jamaica. It grows naturally in 
the most barren rocky hills, and, when it flowers,, affords the most pleasing sight of 
any shrub or plant in that part of the world. This curious plant throws out some sharp- 
pointed, indented, leaves, that spread into a tuft 4dx)ut the root at first, and continue 
to increase, though slowly, both m size and (juantity of foliage, for many years : at 
length it acquires aeertain degree of perfection, and then throws up a stem from the 
centre of its leaves, which generally rises to the height of eight or ten feet above the 
root. Thi« is sintple and naked immediately above the leaves, but very much divided 
and branched towards the top, vrhere it bears almost an infinite number of moderately 
large yellow flowers, by which it may be dbtinguished for many miles. The stalk is 
very short duringthe-first stage ef the plants and the leaves disposed closely together, 
standing .in an oblique or erecto-patent position, and shooting gradually one above an- 
other, while a few of those nearest to the ground wkber wholly away ; but, when it 
begins to throw up a stalk, the circulation grows verj strong, and this part is generally 
compietedi and fully adorned v^ith ita blossoms, in a few weeks. The natural bpera* 
tions of propagation are then carried on with great vigour, and the whole top soon after 

.appears adorned with a thousand vegjetated seeds, or rather plants, furnished with a 
convenient number of roots and leaves, to ?eek and raise the necessary food whenever 
they fall from the parent stalk ; butthi« seldom happens urkil they have acquired a 

. stated degree of {>erfecUon, and then they are blown off gradually by every wind that 
shakes the withering stem, which, with the leaves, now dies gradually away, and ends 

Jts life with'the compleUon of ^e last, leaving $o many thotraands to renew the kind.-^ 
The leaves of this plant are pretty succulent, and generally used to scour both floors 
and kitchen utensils^ which it does admirably well. The pulp is a warm pungent de« 
tersive, and would probably prove a very active medicine in many cases, properly pre- 
pared and administered. The inward spungy substance of the decayed stalk takes lire 
very readily, when thoroughly dried, and for tbis-reasoo is generally used iastead o( 
tinder. — BronmCn 

The following observations on this vegetable are from the tnanuscript of Mr. A« 

Kobinson : 

" The leaves of one of these plants measured five feet and a half in length, at the 

base next the stem they measured six inche.<) in breadth and four and a half in thickness, 
..about twelve inches from the stem they measured but five inches in breadth, whence 
,thcv increased in breadth and Aickness,^ their greatest breadth being about twelve 
4nches, decreasing from thence to their ex^envity, where they end in a thorn, whicU 
is not very strong. The leaves are hgbtly dented on their margins, wnich are fur- 
. ni^eid with sharp but very short thorns, vhodked inwardly, hardly exceeding the eighth 
^part of an inch in length : The leaves grow circularly in an erecto patent posture^ and 



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2^ HCIvTUS JA:vtA;CL>' SI& fcmxrpm^ 

are remarkably elegant and graceful in their form ; if viewed edgeways tfiey form the 
Hoganhian line ot beauty : when the plant is in bloom the leaves are xbca patent^ 
whidi posture they are tluown into by their being elevated by tjie base of the stem on 
which they then seem all to be placed, and also by reason of their want of nourishment^ 
the juices being all conveyed to the support of the stem and fructifitatians. When th^ 
plant is near blossoming it; emits from tlie centre a few narrow leaves,, much shorter 
than the rest,, which keep their erect postui-e when all the rest are declining. The 
s^tem measured about four feet from the oround eighteen inches hi- circumference.—^ 
When tlie leaves of the coratoe are raised on the stem, they are tlien seen to grow in a^ 
regular manwec round it, in tJie following order : They were disposed or divided inta 
thirteen series or rows, iri each row or series they were placed one above another, the 
concave or upper partof the lower leaf r-eceiving the convex or bwer part of the upper 
one. The flowering stem began to rise about Christmai>, and in the beginning of 
March the flowers. began to open. The nightingales or mock birds are fond of the* 
honey found at the base of this flower^, which supplies the place of a nectarium, Tlie- 
Barbadoes blackbirds are also fond of this honey, between which birds happen great 
disstMitions qnd bickerings. If the blackbirds would hold their tongue,, who are natu- 
rally veiy lociuaeious,. they might feed unmolested ;- but their incessant chatiering dis- 
turbing the nightingales,, who then had young; ones,, they assaulted the blackbirds, witli 
great fierceness; and vigourj^ and soon obliged theut to r«treat to the neighbouring; 
bushes. . 

" The coratoe of Jamaica does not appear to me to. be die agane- oi Linneus, the? 
dowers have no tube, the style is trigonal, and -longer than the stamens,, but in the 
agave it is not so long ; the stigroais however trisulcated ; tJiecorolla of the coratoe is. 
bell-shaped,. cMt almost to the base into six erect segments, broad beneath^ but sharpr 
pointed or subulated. above, and ribbed on their: sides ;-. there is no calyx,, and the co- 
rolla is placed on the germen,. which turns to a trigpnal tricapsular frmt, . in which last 
circumstances iti agrees with the aga^e of Linneus. Other specifical diflRerences are a& 
ip\\ow: the corolla is net above an inch in length, whereas the agave^s corolla is four.. 
The stem o£ the coratoe never branches,, nor does the plant, ever that Ihave seen, emit 
9iore tlian one stem,, nor does it ever produce any of&sets,, in all which, it differs fromi 
the agave of, Liuneus, or American aloe.'^ 

I' take this name (turrato). to be a corruption of caragwt^ for so it i» cdled in Brasil^. 
|t is of the aloetic kind, and I have made an extract out of it much like aloes« Rs juice^ 
with a. little su^r, will powerfully force the terms, is a great diuretic,, and forces gravel 
QT stone ;: the leaf, roasted ia th^e fire,, takes away the pain and weakness.of the Umbs, 
The extract ea^s the pain of the gout, and strengthens the part, if strained, stuck 
upon leather,, and applied thereto : At first applvnig^ it seems to increase the paii^ 
for it draws strongly a sort of devs from the part,, but, after three or four hours, the 

Iain ceases,, and the part grows stiKMigef every day ; it mustiie on. until itdrops off.— 
alway9 stuck it upon white paper,, and applied it to myself,., and in. two or three days 
wa3 able to vralk three or four miles, &e; If the extract is not vueU boiled,., it will draw 
j^imples,. and cau$e a great inching. I' have given it mwardly in pills,, with good sue* 
^eas. h is abo called maguly, — Sarhanij, p. 49. 

The juice of the coratoe leaf is noticed in Dancer*s Medical A^istant to be a ^ooi^ 
i9i&^^^ foe an uker^ bj imping it with Ume j[uice. and molasi»es^ and boiling to a Su<^ 

consistence. 

V- 



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tonsistenqe. Thefihre&of the leaves are earily separated bybruisfng- an.1 sfceping 
liiem for some time in water, ami aftcrwairds beating them until they are eutirtely dis- 
entangled ; theso fibres make an excellent strong^^thread forthe commoii uses of cloth- 
ing, fishing lines, ropes, nels, &c. A method of preparing ve^etuble soap from the- 
ji^iices was discovered by Mr. Anthony Robinson^ who receired a premium from the 
bouse of assembly for iu The following is the mode of proauring, i^ l^id before that 
house in the sessions of 1 767. r 

" The lower leaves of the moderately grownplants may becutoff for use; without in-- 
jury to the other parts,, but care must be taken not t;prcut off so great a quantity, as to« 
prevent the plants from flowering orieegetaiing y for, bj suGkioeaus^ the planter wili 
never be able to increase his-stock. 

" The plant blossoms in the spring;- and the' whole top oftfianyof them ifrthen co^ 
vered witii a* number of little plants, which are to be carefuHy gathered as the stenii 
withers, and planted in the fissures -of the rocks, where there is some soil, and at pro- 
per distance, making '^owance forthe spreading of the pjaius, whichy wkea. a«iire4 
at maturity,, expand fourteen or fifteen feet : 

^^ Or, they may be planted in the worst savannavsoit^ wbece the prickly^ p0ai«^v.and« 
such like plants,, are usually found.. 

" When the leaws are cutoff for use,^ die most expedmous way^ of obtaining^ the-' 
juice is, bypassing, thenr singly, with the poiolJ^ foremost^ through the rollers of u^^- 
common cane-mill, and straining it through an hair-cloth,, crocus, or coarse blanket. 

** The leaves,- after being pressed, ^nd the juice strained in this manner, maybe ' 
soaked in water a few days, and then dried^^fdeansed,. and the fii^^s maiiuiactured inta * 
ropes for plairtation use/ 

** III places where the convenience ofccaner-mills caan«t be had, proper hand-mills, - 
with two OP more rollers of ligmimviti^ -or other hardwood, to be worked by a negro- 
0r negroesi^ may be erected at a^very trifling expence ; where these are not erected^ 
tlie juice may be obtained for the use of private &n«lies,. by cutting the lea« es in pieces,, 
and bruising; them witb?an heavy jiestle, in a wooden inorUir, and tiien pressing the 
bruised pieces in a cassava or Dtker press,, or finally with hands, if ot^er means arer 
wanted? 

^^' Hie juice beingjbhus ez^stacted and stained,, may be- inspissated by three several 
processes : 

" The first by- common, coetion,. in a copper, tiny or iron vessel, over a slow fire,, 
frequently- stirring the Jiquoc during the operation, to prevent its burning,, which it. 
will be apir to do,, without proper care,, and thereby lose somifwhat of its detersive- 
quality. 

" l^e second is by coetion in balnea marine ir for^xampJe, put the extracted juice- 
linto atacbe or boiler,, and place the tache or boiler within one of the laEgest coppers, » 
«pon a trivety or other support, in suchmanner j» to prevent the tache or boiler 
from touching the sides or bottom^ of the coppery, put such proportion of water into^ 
the copper, Uiat,.' in case of ebullition,, it may notflow into the tache or boiler, and 
mix- with the juice; let the water in the copper boil wddxabrisk ffre, a<id continue the^ 
process until- the juice in the tache is gradually brought to a due consistence ;. by this 
method of preparation, itwill be effectually secured firom bumi^ig. 

" The ttiira-method is by insolation,,- or exposing^ the juice, after strainings in a- 
kge riiallow receiver of wood, or metal of any kind, to tlie action of the sun and 
k^^e V The soag prepared iu thismannery is faand ta be the most detergent. 

*« Whem 



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2SS HORTUS JAMAICENSfS-' ixmw 

" Wlxenihe juice or extract is,- by either of the preceding methocls, brought to a 
due consistence, it may be manufactured into balls, about the size of common wash* 
balls, dried in the «haJ.e, and kept for use ; and, to prevent their sticking together, 
or to the handsj nothing is mone proper than the tine ashes of the lye-tub, which may 
be f«jund on most estates, or may be prepared occasionally, b<;ing first dried and siftetL 

"A caution must he used, never to compound the extract with tallow, or any otheJC 
unctuous materials,, for any mixture of that kind will render itvmuch less efficaciou??.** 

CoRK'TKEV.^See Down Tree. 
Cork- Wood— &«- Alligator Apple. 
,CoaN — See Great Corn and Guinea Cor^ 



COTTON. .<50SSYPIUV. 

Cl. 16, OR. 6. — Mo^mdefphiapolyandria. Nat. or. — Coluvinifenit. ' 

At is thought this generic name is derived from an Egyptian word. 

GeK. CHAR. — Calyx a double perianth ; outer one-leaved, trifid, . flat, larger; infi<$r. 
one-leaved, bluntlj emarginate, in five rows, cup-form ; ,the corolla has ifive pe- 
tals, ob-corJSte, flat, spreading, fastened by tjieir base to the tube of the stamens^ 
the stamens are numerous filaments, uniting at bottom into a tube, sepatrate* at 
and below the tip, lax, inserted into the corolla ; anthers kidney-form : the pistil 
has a roundish germ, style columnar, the length of the stamens, stigmas three or 
\ .four, thickish ; the pericarp is a roundish capjule, acuminate, three or four- 
* celled ; partitions contrary ;' the seeds are very many, oval, involved in cotton.-?* 
Two species grow in Jamaica* 

1. BARBADEN^. BARBADOE9. 

Oossypium Brasilianum ftore flavo. Sloane, v. 2, p. 67. Frutic0* . 
su7n, foliis trilobis^ senunibus majombus. Browne, p. 283. 
Leaves three- lobed, quite entire, with three glands, underneath. 

Stem from six to fifteen feet in height, suflruticose, biennial, smooth ; branches 
altpost erect^ round, jmd smooth or pubescent ; leaves a^rnate, the upper three-lobed, 
the lower*five- lobed ; lobes ovate, acute, nerved, smooth above, but pubescent un- 
dcurneath ;; petioles five or six inches lon^, .roundish, patul^iis, smooth, or sometimes 

fubescent. Glandular pores commonly uiree, on the midribs of the leaves ondemeath* 
edundes opposite to the petioles ana sboiter, thickish, vpund, striated, pubescent, 
one-flowered. ^Flowers large, yellow, turning finally reddish. Outer calyx half five* 
cleft ; segments ovate, acute, smooth, or pubescent, or having black atoms scattered 
over them : inner having three or five minute blunt teeth : petals having a purple spot 
at the base, and smooth on the outside. Filaments shorter than the petals ; anthers 
yellow or fulvous ; germ roundish, acuminate ; style three or five-clefbat top ; capsule 
ovfite-roundish, smooth, sometimes dotted with black, three-celled, three-valvedj 
seeds oblong, eight to twelve, black, easily separated from the cotton. — Sw. 

The following account of cotton, its cultivation, and manufttcture, is taken fronft* 
^r* Edwards History of the West.Indies : 



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wnas! nORTVS SAMAietKStS: 2^0 

** Tiiat beaimfar TPgx*tal)Ie wool,- or substance, called co/tcn, ij-. ti-:^ ^pf>r» tan eons 

production of thrr e parts ok' the earth. Jt is*found growing mitnra!!^' in all the tropit'al 

' regions of Aiiia, Africa, and Anu rica ;• and nmy justly he con>prt'^^ivlcd among tile- 

ijQOst valuahle gifts of a bountiful Creator, superinteiitiing and pro\iding for the neces- 

Siities of man 

" Tiic cotton wool> whicii is manufactured into «ioth (for there is a species in the 
AVest Indies, called silk or xviid cotton^ unfit for the loom),, consists of two distinct 
feinds, known to the planters by the names oi ifi^cyi'Seed-cottOTt a^mtoifi rub -cotton ; and 
these again have subordinate marks oi dilferetice, with winch the cultkator ought to be 
well acquainted if he means to apply Ihs labours to the greatest advantage; 

'* Green -seed cotton is of two species; of one »f \rliich-t4ie wooL.is' so firmly at^ 
tached to the seed,.that no method has hitherto l>een found of seperatirtig them, exccjjt 
by the hand ; an operation so tedious and troublesome, thas the value of the commo- 
dity is not equal to the pains tliat are requisite in preparing: it ft)T marker.^ This sort 
therefore is at present cultivated principalh for supplying v\ick fortfee lamp^ tiiat are 
used in sugfar boiling, and i^r domesiie- purposes ; but' the staple- being cxt*eedingly 
good, and its colour perfectly v;hit^,. it would doubtless be aA'aluable acqaisitiorrto the 
inushn manufactory, coald means befonnd of detaching it easily ffonci^tlife seed. - 

" TheothersorV has larger seeds, of a duller green tfean- the former, and the Vool 
is not of equal fijneness; though n>ucl>fi!Her than^iie cotton wool in general cultivation ; 
and it is easdy separated from the seed by the common method, hereafter to be des- 
cribed. . I have been told that diis species of the green seed cotton is not sufficientljr 
known to the planters in general,, (being usually confounded with the^former), or thut • 
probably it would be in high estimation;^ 

** Both tbe-^pecies above-mentioned, -thOHgh Aeyproduce ped^at an ^?arly sta^e^ 

when they Vite mere shrtibs, -will, if suffered to spread, grow into trees of considerable 

magnitude'^ -and yield annual erops, -according to the season, without any kind of cuJ- 

tivation*- Tfae^lossoms ptrtiorta ir. succession from October to January, and the pods 

• begin 1^ ^pen,"-6t for gatbeping, from Fefbruary to June. I novv come to the 

*' Shi^b cotton, properly so-called. The shrub itself very nearly resembles an EiT- 
ropeaR corinth bush, . and may be subdivided into several varieties, all of which, how- 
ever,* very nearly resemWe eachother.- Tkese varieties (suchof them st least as have 
cometo my knowledgey-^ar^' 

" l8t> ^he'Xomm^n Jamaica ; the seeds of which iarer oblong,' perfecdy smooth, arfd 
bave no beavd at the smaller end^ The staple is coarse, but strong. Its greatest de- 
fect is, that the seeds are so brittleit is scarce possible to render it perfectly clean ; on 
which account it isthe lowest priced cotten at the British market* Such, however, is^ 
the obstinacy of habit, that few^f the British cotton planters give themselves the trmr* 
Ble to select, or seem indeed to wish for a bett^c^sort. 

" 2d^. Brawn^beaf^ded.'^^Thia i» generally cultivated with the species last mentioned^, 
but the staple is somewhat finer, and the pods, -thouffh fewer in number, produce a 
gveater quantity* of wool. The shrub gives like«vise a better rattoon, it is tnerefore the 
mterett oftbe cotton planter to cultivate it seperately. The only disadvantage attend* ^ 
ing it is^ .thatdt is nol«o easily detached from the seed as the otheri and therefore a 
segro wiU'clear a few pounds less in his day's work. 

*^ ^d,. Nankecn.'-^This differs but little in the seeds or otherwise from the species^ 
, fistmentioned, except in the colour of the wool» which is that of the cloth called ;zan^ 
Mecni^ ft ia aot so muclr in deaumd as the white*. 



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2m IIORTUS JAMAICENSlSw cqttok 

" 4thy Frcneh ov small seedy with ft «lutish beai*d. This is the cotton in general 
cultivation ill Hispaniola, Its staple is fiiier, and its pnxluce equal to either of the 
three speciL^s la&t mentioned, as the shrub is suppasc J to bear a greater nuB>ber of poda 
tiian the Jamaica or the brown bewrded,, hflt is. lejw hardy than cvtht^r. 

*• 5th, Kid»ejf cofioHy sa called froQi. the ^ee4s beiug conglomeraiteid or adhering 
firmly to each othei' in the poJ. In a|l die other sorts they. are seperated. It is hke- 
wise called 4'// (//« co^o;?, and, I believe, is. the true cotttm of Prasil. — The staple is 
good, the pod Urge, and the produce con^derable. A single iiegiJO may clear with 
case sixtj^-five pounds a day, besides which, it leaves the seeds behind unbroken, and 
comes perfectly dean from the rollers, tit is l.heretbre.improvidej»t,.iji tlie higliest de-. 
gree, %q xnu: this^pecies with apy riher* 

^* On ihe whole, the most profitable sorts for generaUettltivatioo-fieena to be, the 
.second of the green-seed^ the^French or small-seed, and the Brasihan. The mode of 
.culture IS the same with all the different species, and there is this advantage attending 
^.them all, that they will flourish in tlie driest and most rocky soil?, provided such lands 
have not been exhausted by former cultivation. Dryness, both in respect of the soil 
,and atmosphere, is indeed essentially necessaiy in all its st;a§;es-; for, if the land is 
moist, the pUnt expends itself io branches and leaves, and, if the rains are heavy, 
either when the plant is in blossom, or when the pods are beginning to unfold, the 
cropisbst. ^Perhaps^ however, tliQse.observatioixs apply ipore iffimediately to the 
J'rench cotto»,than;to.imy Qth«r. 

** The plant is raised from the s^ecj, the kpd requiring no other preparation thaa 
.to be cleaned of its native incumbrances ; aixd the sj^ason fgr putting the seed into the 
ground is from JMay to September, both months inclusive. This is usually done in 
ranks or rows, leaving a space between eaeh, of six or eight feet, the.hol^s in eac)i 
TOW being commonly four feet apart. — It is the practice to pqt eight or. ten of the seecU 
into each hole, because,some of them are cpaimooly devoured by a grub or worm, and 
others rot in the ground.* SThe voung spronts inake their Appearance in about a fort- 
night, but they are gf slow growth for the first six weeks, at which period it is necesr 
>ary to clean the grounjl and draw the supernumerary plants, leaving two or three only 
of the strongest in each hole. One plant alone woulcf be sufficient to leave, if there^ 
was anv certainty of ,its copying to maturity ; Ii^ut many.pf the tender sprouts are de«- 
vourea by the grub. At the age of , three or four months, the plants are cleaned a se- 
cond time ; and both;^be ateqi and branches pruned, or, as it is called, topped ; a^ 
inch (or more if the plants sure luxuriant} being bvpke off from the end of each shoot,; 
which is done in order to make.the 3t^ms throw out a greater number of lateral branches. 
This operation, if the growth be Qver-luxuriant, is sometimes performed a^econd and 
,^ven a third time. At the.^nd of^five months ibe plant begins to blosspm and put fort|i 
its beautiful yellow flowers, and, in tiyo months more, the pod is formed. :Fram the 
seventh to the tenth .month xhe pods 4'ipen in succession; when ^hey burst open in 
tbree partitions, displaying their white and glQiBsy down.to the sight. The wool is now 
gathered, the seeds b^ing. en velpped in it ; from which it is afterwards extricated by ?l 
machine resembling ^ turner's Jathe. . It is called a gin^ and is composed of two smaU 
rollers placed close jand .parallel to each other in a.frame, and tqmed in opposite direc- 
.tions, by different wheels, >vhich are moved by the foot. The cotton beinff put by the 
.^land to these rollers, as.they move /ound, readily passes betyeeen them, leaving the 

seed% 

* The seed U apt to decay if plaited too deep, especi^Iy io wet wes^tber. tberefore dioold be 8Ugbtl|y?<;«» 

fTi^redat^t. . r 



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wmwt BORTUS JAMAICENSIS. til 

»ccls, vvjiich are too Targe for the intei'space, behind. The wool is afterwards hani 
nicked, th5^t it may be properly cleaiei of decayed leaves, broken seeds, and wool wliich 
luis i;cen fcUuned and daniugcd in the pod. It is then packed into' bags of about tv\a 
hundred pounds weight and sent to market.*^ 

An acre is tsald to produce from two .to three huo'dred poundsj^ but the crops of this 
plant are very uncertain, for, as Mr. Ed\^ards justly observes ,^ 

" Of all th^ productions to wiiich labour is applied the cotton plant is perhaps the 
Hiost precarious. In its firut stage it is attacked by the grub ; it is devoured by cater- 
pillars in the second ; it is sometimes withered by the blas^; and rains frsquenily des*- 
troy it both in the blossom aud in tlie pod J' ^ 

A kind of cotton, called the Bourhdn^ was introdticed into this island in 1795, being 
sent from the East Indies by Mr. Atkinson, of Bengal, to his brother* In his letter he 
states, " I have a species of cotton ia ray garden, the like of which has not been seen 
in this country, nor do X know where the seed came from. I send you a ripe pod or 
two inclosed, and forward a larger anantity of its. seed, with the other articles I have 
mentioned. Its produce is extraortlinary, and the stiipte remarkably fine ; you shall 
have a sketch of the plant by a future opportunity, which Jwil I enable you to judge whe- 
ther or not it is a native of tlie West Indies. If you have it not, I imagine, ix will be 
a valuable acquisition ; for the plant I have hasbeeu planted upwards or three years, is 
full eighteen feet high,., and is still growing, and would break down with its weight of 
pods, was I not to prop it up.'* ' . . 

The above seeds were planted in Mr. Mure^s garden, grew extremeljwell, ahd 
bore abundantly. The cotton vi?as considered by competent judges to be or a very su- * 
perior quality to any hitherta produced in the West Indies^ The staple is of a moder- 
ate lengthy and it parts freely trom the seed. . 

Theplant hus since been much cultivated, and bears in the driest weather, Jndeed 
alpiostall the year round ; being never out of season, and ever produr i :c. 

The.following observations upon the Bourbon cotton are extracted from the Bahama 
Advertiser : " The species of cotton called Bourkni^ having been found to answer un-. 
commonly well, and a considerable quantity being now cultivated in these islands, ren- 
ders it an object of importance, and any hints for the improvement of its culture, and 
Ereparatioq for market, will no doubt be listened to by our planters. Some complaints 
aving been made by the manufacturers, that it woufd not card well, I suspect that the" 
cause has been improper treatment after gathering it off the trees, such aa not allowing 
it to dry sufficiently in the sun^hefore it i;? put away in the bam, as it is more apt ta^ 
heat, unless thoroughly dried and sunned, thim any other cotton, and whipping k," 
either by hand or machines, in my opinion, does it some injury. You will thereiora^ 
it is probable, do some service to this colony, by publishing the following sentiments 
of a well informed planter upon this subject : 

*' It is now evident," say» he, " that the compk-iints of the Liverpool manufecturers- 
were well founded, and, I think, we have discovered the cause. Some of the .Bourboa 
cotton,, softer being ginned, was deaned in the common wiiipping wacbine, and whip- 
ped with switches, which rendered it impossible to. card, without runniui^ into lumps 
or Jinots, the same was complained of in Liverpool. Another parcel, of the satr^e ^ot- 
t^n, was only cleanwl by hand, without passing through any switching or machinerjr 
vhatev^, aadxhisxottuanotonly^carded well^ but very fii^ thread was spua of if — 



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242 HORTUS JAMAICENSTS. *tK>TTair 

You may depend upon it I shall not fail to avail myself of this dis^rerr, which I hope 
will be the means of procuring at least such a price as was givea to Mr. Mcintosh, ot 
the Caicos, two years ago." 

An emulsion of the seeds of thetxirbadejise are said to be good against the bloody 
flux, auti are thought pectoral ; the oil clears the skin of spots and freckles. The seecw 
yield a great quantity of oil by expression, and supply many plantations with that com- 
modity. A tea made of the young lea^i^es^is good in a lax habit, aod xhe patient should 
sit ov^ the hut decoctiqn. of "the -same. 

2. HIRSUTUM. SHAGGY. 

Procefiusy foliis trilekis^ seminibus rninoribus virentibus. Brown^ 
p. 282. 

Leaves five-lobed, with one glai\d underneath; xbe. twigs, and petioles pu^ 
bescent 

Stem shrubby, a.fethom in liriglit^ erect, -striated ;^ branches hirsute ; leaves alter- 
^Date ; the upper ones undivided, cordate, acute, entire, rough, with hairs about the 
edge ; the lower thpee-lobed, the lobes little divided^ pvate, acute, entire, hirsute 
beneath, smooth abuve ; petioles roun^, striated, dotted with black, hirsute. Tiiere 
i^ a single glandular pore on the rpldnb underneath, andsQmetimes two or three on the 
liext nerves. Peduncles thi^ee times shorter than the j)etioles, thick, strf, hirsute, 
dotted .with black. Outer calyx three />r five cl^,Bqgmeuts ovate, acute, rough with 
hairs ; the inner truncate, with three blunt teeth, retids rounded, retuse, entire, 
yellowattheba.se, purple at the tip, pubescent on the outside; germ ovate, aciioii^ 
nate, dotted with black ; style longer than the stamens, three or five cleft at top, in- 
clined ; capsule large, ovate, dotte^d with black, three-celled# thnpe^yalved ; seeds 
a\'ate, acute, green. — S;t?. 

' This shrub is planjted in afew gjardens in Jamaica, but is not much cultivated ; for 
the cotton is not thought to be so good, and the seeds are so small, that it is a difficult 
matter to separate them from the wool. It grows, however, more luxuriant than the 
other, and rises generally from seven to nine feet iu^eight, bearing a great number of 
Meed vessels on ail tlie branches. — Browne. 



Swartz mentions a variety called, cotonier de soie^ the cotton of which is better dia» 
MXiy of the rest* 



COTTON TREE. BOMBAX. 

•Cl. 1j6, or. 5. — Afonadelphia pofyandtna. Nat. or. — Columntfene. 
•Gen. char. — Calyx a one- leafed perianth, tubular, campanulate, permanent; moutk 
three or five-cieft, obtuse, erect ; corolla five-parted, spreading ; segments ob- 
long, concave^ staqaens five or many filaments, subulate, the length of the co« 
rblla, connate at the base ; Anthers oblong, bent in, incumbent; the pistil has ji 
rbundish.germ ; style tilitbrpi, (he length of the stamens ; stigma capitate, five* 
;|pothed ; the pericarp is a large capsule^ Jturbinateoobiong» ^ve-ceiled, fivQ^ 

^al^red;; 



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#«TOi%- KQRTUS JAMAICENSia Wi 

xafvc^; Talres woody ; seeds rery many, round, woolly; receptacle columnar, 
4«e*comejed, fornung tlie partitions. Two species are natives of Jamaica. 

1. CEIBA. 

Gossipiiim arboreum ma.vtwum spwosum folio dz^ifafo^ lana sericia 
grisea, Sloane, v. 2, p. 72.- FolHs. digitatis^ brackiis evecio paten* 
tibus, Browne,, p. 277. 

Flowers many-stamened ;, leaves quinate. - 

This tree has a^very round stem, greenish when* yoimg, and covered >citH short' 
|ipckles^ which disappear as the tree gathers strength and size. The leaves are then 
small and of a deep green colour. After.a few years the trunk turns of a grey or ash- 
coiour, and the tree grows to aa enormous size. It branches towards the top, having 
leaves composed of five, seven, jor more, smooth lanceofate leaflets; joined to a com- 
mon centre,, at their base^ where tliej^ atUiereXo fo!)g.footstalks.- These ftll off annu- 
ally, and f&r socaetime the trees are naked; be&ire the new leaves come out,, the 
flower buds appear m large tufts at the ends of the branches, and soon expand. They 
are ccmposed of five-oblong petals of axHrty white colour, with a great number of sta- 
mens in the centre^ and are succeeded by o^^al^ruit^ larger than a swan's eg^, havincf 
a thi«k woody cover,, whid), .when ripe, opens in five parts, and is fuil of a snort dark 
cotton, inclosing many roundish seeds, the size ofHunall peas« ^ . Broivne calls this spe« 
cies the silk coltorttiecxwitk erect branvbts^ . 

The stap€pd6tis«i2eu>f €iese trees has attracted the notice of most travellers in the 
West Indies...'-They have been known to rise to upwards of one hundred feet in height, ^ 
tapering {rookthe hase>And arcfrequj^ntly seenirom fifty ta eighty feet length of shaft,. 
measureidij^oabefiiVtinsection of the. lower arms.or branches,, and from twelve to four- 
teen feetiurcuq)ference..4 The wood is light andporous, ami makes excellent canoes. 
Ifi CdTombusJ^ firiit voyage,, jt is said; there was a canoe seen at Cuba made with one 
of tlii^@rtreesv large.enough to contain one hunrh-ed and fifty mem When-wiwu into^ 
bokcds^i s^nd these afterwards, well saturated with lime water rubbed into the pares, the . 
wood bearS' exposure to the weather for manyyear^; it is also formed into laths -for- 
roofs, curing pots, and hogshead heading. The leaves and buds, when young and 
tender, are very mucilaginous, like ochro,, and boiled by the negroes as green?. The* 
pods aEe-pyriform,v upwards of six inches long,>and propvOitio?iably tluck in the bigfrest< 
part, tapering towards the pedicle, like the pear kind. It is sometimes used for stuff- 
ing pillow cases, and seems to possess the elasticity of the tider down as soon as it is 
icnpregnated with the warmth, of the body ;,. but it is thought unwholesome for West 
Tridia beds,: as it is apt te excite too strong a perspiration 4 it initiht probably answer, 
better for winter coverlids in Great Britain^ Whether it .has asufficient staple to be 
mixed to any advantage in fabrics of the loom experimentsm^ist determine. 

When the tree decays, it becomes a nest for memacaca h.effe ;. .whose caterpillar,. 
g\)tted»nd fried,, is esteemed by maay persons ooer of the greatest delicacies in the. 
world. 

The bark of the root has been sometimes used with success fts a \'iilnerary and sub- 
astringent ; and the seeds are administefed in emulsions ani pectoral infusions,-— 
Ijfngj p. 736. 

liWham says the seeds of these trees are much of the same quality as the other cot-. 

I i-a. tonj;, 



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£^.4 HORTUS JAMA1CENS1«* WvriTcw 

ton; its o^rcen bark, he says, mi le into a poultice, is cjood against inflammations. — ^ 
Viso says the prickles being Uikuii oil' and Uieir juice .s(jueozeJ oiit, a little quantity put 
iiiiu the eyes cures them vvneu inflauurJ, 5nd stix^ngtheus tne si-ht. 

2. PKNTANDItUM. FIV F-STAMENFD. 

Foliis dii^ilaiisy brachiis horizonUliUr perrectis^ Browne, p. 277. 

Flowers five-staniened ; leaves in seveuj. ' 

This species is principally clistini»nislied^rom tlie former by its horizontal braDche^j^ 
those ot the cCiba bemg erect. They are botli very common in. Jamaica, 



€OWITCir. DOLICHOS. 

Cl. 17, OR. 4. — Diadelpkia decandria. ^at, OVi.'->—Papilionace€t. 
Gen. char. — *S'^e Cat- Claws, p. 166. 

PRURIENS. PURPLt. 

,Phascolus utrinsque Indite lobis villosis pungenfibus minor. Sloane, 
V, 1, p. 37. iiuzolobium. PtdunculisbipaviiUsalarihus. Browne, 
p. 2i>0. 

Xegumes in racemes; valves somewhat keeled, rough-haired; pedtmcles by 
ilirees. 
This hath a fibrous root, and an herbaceous, climbing stalky which is naked, dirid* 
ing into a great number of branches ; and rises to a great height, when properly sup- 
ported. I'he leaves are alternate and trilobate, rising from the stem and branches 
about twelve inches distant from each other. The footstalk is cylindrical, from six to 
fourteen inches long. From the axil of the leaf descends a pendulous solitary spike; also 
from six to fourteen inches long, covered with long purple or blood-coloured papiliona- 
ceous flowers, rising by threes in a double alternate raannet, from small fleshy protuber- 
ances, each of which is a short pedunculus of three flowers. These are succeeded by legu- 
minous, coriaceous, pods, four or five inches long, crooked like an Italic /; densely co- 
vered with sharp hairs, which penetrate the skin, and cause very painful itching. — • 
This plant grows among fences and ruinate, being seldom allowed to grow in cultivated 
ground, because the b^rs of tl)c pods fly with the winds, and torment every atiimal 
they touch. 

A decoction of the root of this plant is reckoned a powerful diuretic and cleanser bf 
,the kidneys ; and a vinous infusion of the pods (twelve in a quart) is said to be a cer- 
tain remedy for the dropsy ; the dose half a pint, when made in beer — Bro-wne, — • 
Grainger says that a foul stuffed with cowitch, and made into broth, has sometimes 
carried off the dropsy by stool and urine. The roots of all the species of this genus are 
sidd to be diuretic. / - ' 

The very valuaWe properties of the cowitch as a vermifuge, have been fully des^ 
cribed by Mr. William Chamberlaine, surgeon, in his ingenious treatise upon worm 
complaints, from which the following extracts are made : 

** The ill success of the cabbage-bark in a few cases, induced me to make some en- 
quiry concerning a medicine which I had heard o^ as being successfully given, in 

many 



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ifnauy parts, to all patients afHicterl with complaints arising, or supposed ii arise, froni 
worms; and that, n^jit only l>y regular practitioiUT^, but even by ij^nurarit negroes, at 
jau'lum, and without any jubl proportion ip the close ; This viii> atizolobiuniy^ or 
•covviiajre, 

*' Satisfied, as I said before, of the cabbagc*bark-tree, I had never given myself the 
trouble to make enquiry about any other more jjowcrful vermifuge ; nor did I think 
tiicre cpuld be one more powerful, until the death of a negro girl, evidently o xasionod, 
.^s appeared ujion my opeuiug her, from vast unajbers of worms lodge 1 in tlje small in* 
testines, convinced me that 1 ha I not dowe my duty, and excited nio to push my en- 
quiries m searcii qf a more efhcacious medicine i^till farther. 

*' I had heard so much of the cowhage or cow-.itch, that I resolved to make trial of 
it ; but the ditjbrent modes of exhil)iting it were as various as the persons who took 
upon them that oflice. One administered it in molasses ; castor oil v.as the favourite 
vehicle of a second; ^nd a third insisted that it was of no service unless mixed with 
honey. The greater number agreed in giving n^olasses the preference ; but there was 
even among these a cousiderablo disagreement with regard to the proportions to be ob- 
served niltie mixture, AVhile some cautiously put two pqds of the cewhage in a quart 
of inelasses, othersfboldly stirred up two dozen in a like (juantity. Some again would ' 
have six pods to be sufficient ; and others imagined that some secret virtue or charm 
was to be expected, from haviHg th^ umnber neitht^r greater Hor less than exactly 
mine. 

** By some the set^e contained on the outside of a single pod, mixed with one or 
two table spoonfuls of syrup, honey, or molasses, was given for a single dose, without 
.distinction, to young and old. By others, a qiiantity of each in";rcdient was mixed to- 
gether, without bearing any proportion to each other, farther than was merely suffici- 
ent to bring the composition to the consisteuce of an electuary ; and one, two, or three, 
tea spoonfuls given as a dose to children ; and ope, and sometimes two, table 'spoonfuls 
to adults. As far as I could learn, however different the composition's and proportions 
of the ingredients, the effects were found to he nearly the same in all ages, sexes, and 
xonstitutions. 

" I considered, that the wonderful efficacy so generally attributed to the cowhage, 
u:ould not be supposed to arise from any specific medicinal quality residing in it, sa 
much as from tlie sharpness and elasticity of the setse, with which the pods are covered, 
A^'hicb take the same elfect on worms as they do when applied to our skin. The seta& 
piercing, vellicating, and tormenting, them in such a manner as obhges tliem to let 
^ their hold ; acting like so many needles, as may be plainly demonstrated by viewing 
the seta) through a microscope ; which shew5 them to be a number of long spicula^, 
needle-shaped, hollow, transparent, ^nd armed with points, aicquisitely sharp and 
i£ne. 

* . " The idea that their action is merely mechanical is supported by the observation^ 
of several very judicious enquirers, who have made trial of the cowha^ particularly 
'Dr. Leake ; who, in his Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Midwtfo^y a^id Dis^ 
• easts incident t$ Children^ enumerates the cowhage among the most effectual of those 
•remedies, given to children, for worms. He supposes that it acts in the same manner 
.^ hair, cut fine, and given with the same intention — but much more effectual, becausQ 
4ii its inflexibility, and the exquisite and almost inconceivable sharpness of its points. 

^ 3o nanied by Brovnet 



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241) ILOR.TUS. JAMAICKNSlS; tOWiTCift 

^^ Curiqus to know how. far tl^e aj^plicjatiQU of the setae to the cxtem^J coat» of worms-^ 
bred in the human body, would affect those animals when expelled from the hoily, I ' 
waited not long before I, had an ppport^mity of making tlie experiment. A calabWi, 
Ju II of very large ones, of tlie teres, kind, in full vigour, voided by a poor emuciated' 
patient, was brought to sne, Apiong- these LBprtnkled s<>n»d ofahe setae. For a minute - 
6v two, no visible effect was produced •, but,^in a little time,, .they, began to writhe and^ 
^vist tbenp^lves in an unusual rafinner, AD,d exhibited evident signst of^xiceme torture* 
Itook on^ of the worms, and, viewing it through a ra'4gnifying glass, perceived that • 
several of th^ setae had pierced ve/yde^p,.^nd othjers were sticking ..loosely in various -. 
parts of the body^ bat tliat none otthe spiqulse,^. which had onQC eiuered intp the skui, . 
dropped off. 

*' Convinced, in a,shQr^ titpe> both from what I had heard,, and from xny. own expe- ^ 
riment on the. intevnaj exhibition of the cowhage, of the safetv and efficacy of this in-^ 
comparable mgdicine, I laid aside the cabbage-tree bark, ,ana for severaL years have - 
used no other vermifuge than. this. 

"My usual w^y of preparing and admini^teripg it has been in the form^of an electuary^ , 
with honey, melasses,or syru(?, of a tfciick consistence, without observing any very exact 
proportion in the quantity oCtiiesetBe. Ofthiselectuarv a tea-spoonfq^ is a sufficient dose 
to young children ; and to adults one oy even two^bie spoonfuls in a morning fasting. 
This may be i^peated for two or three mprnings ; .b^t, in general, there is^seldom oc- 
casion to go beyond the third dose ; and a gentle purge of somje.kind or other com-^ 
monlycoj:npletes.the cure for the tiipe.^ » 

** The above-mentioned vehicles (honey, &c,) blunt Jthe spieulae) .and previent their 
injurin^the fauces and oesOphagiis ; and are. preferable to an oily vehicle^ because,, 
being diluted in the stomachi by tliesuccus gas^ricus, the spiQulaa are^set free, and,, 
regaining their elasticity,, enter itito action ^ >vhereas oil,^ being not ^easily soluble by 
the secretgd ikiids of the,stomach> still continues to sheath the, points of these Httle 
spiculse, and carries them .through that viscus, and the intestines, without setting them 
free; and, .1^ its lubricating quality, prevents th.enx froin. taking effect^ or injuring 
the worms they are sent to aestrby. Uil^ is, therefore, an improper vehicle.;, and this., 
will appear still plainer,, if we. consider,^, that> >Q defend our hands frofm the trouble- 
some effects of tiie setae, when handling cowhage, it is necessary to oil the.-fingers. 

^^ No anatomist will ask, whether these spiculsetmay not beinjimous.tolhe coats of 
the stomach and intestines ? but, as I have been asked this questiga by. many people, 
who, ignorant of ^the structure of the int^tines> and the nature pf their^mucus, were 
apprehensive of danger,^. and therefore afraid ta. venture on the medicine:; it may not 
be amiss to remark, for the satisfaction of such as are, in doubj;.concei;ning that point,, 
that, if a little honey or treacle is sufficient to defenithe teqder necvaus papilli of the 
mouth^and fauces from the troublesome effects of the setae, (which, when applied ex- 
ternally ta any piurt of pur skin, cause a most tormenting and |o tolerable itching, some* 
times almost even to madness) certainly the mucus of the. stomackand intestines will be 
very sufficient to d^end those parts frotn thQirqtatian j»f jthe;set3B# 

** Nevertheless, hqweyer inoff&nsive in. general, the cowh^e majT'be, ceason will . 
dictate to us, that, whjcre the mucus^x>f the stomach and intestines is>abraded,. or les- 
sened, from dysentery, cholora- morbus, or any othet cause whatsoever ; or whera. 
^ere is a tendency towards inflammation in ^i\y part of the intestinal canal, the exhi«. 
llition of this medicine cannot be unattended with danger. 

^^l^li^Unot goso.faf as to say, in praise of this, my favoiuite mediciaey that % 



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^cowrrcH KORTUS JA M ATCET^SIS, 247 

never knew ft to'fail ; but I will say, that I have experieHced more certain good efTccts, 
and fewer ill consequenceg, than from any other niedkine, given with the same iiiteiw 
-tion ; insomuch, tliat I have, since I first began to exhibit the oowhage, had no occa- 
^op ta look for any other vermifuge* 

** The wonaeriui and salutary effects wbichT saw from the use of thts medicine, 
both in my own practice, and that of others, among whom it obtained the same uni- 
versality, and likewise among those, who, though not in the medical line, freely ad-. 
«iinistered it, both to their own chilchren and their negroes, without any dread of ill 
consequences, induced me, from the very first, to commit to paper my observations^ 
" relative to the exhibition and effects of cowhage ; hoping that it might be no unaccept-" 
^ble service to the community, to introduce into general practice in England, a medi- 
cine which, jn the West-Indies, is of such well known and indisputable efficacy, I 
shall, for the present, beg leave to give the remainder of this account of the cowhage 
or cowitch, in the words of those gentlemen who have obliged the world with an accu- 
rate description of this plant, and its use*, taken firom the second volume of the Me- 
dical Commentaries.''* 

Extract of* tetter from "Mr. Thomas Cochrane, surgeon, at Nevis, to Mr. John Bal- 
fouc, surgeon- at fidinburgh ; concerning the use of cowhage, as an anthelmintic : — 
JFrom.the Medical Commentaries, vol. 2, part 1, page 82 ; 

" There is a medicine which is much used here again&t worms. Plariters give it to 
•the negroes with great success ; and I have ordered it myseif both to children and 
adults with very certain good effects. The plant is iiere called cowhage, and is fur- 
nished with the siliqua hirsuta of Linnaeus. The parts which are used are the hairy 
spiculae, scraped from the pods ^"^ mixed with syrup. They ate supposed to act by 
r promoting the peristaltic motion of theguu, and pricking the worms. The dose is not 
-r exactly Umited ; but the spicalse obtained from a single pod are esteemed a^sufficient 
dofie tor a child of seven or eight years old, 

** Thisremedy isperfectly safe and innocent, although it occasions some uneasiness 

upon bein^ first taken:* I'havcseen large clusters of worms come away From the pa- 

<tients on the first dose. Jt is given at bed-time, and a purge in the tnorning. This 

practice is repeated irfler an interval of two days ; and it is seldom necessary to give 

' XBOre than a second dese.^ 

* ** From an accurate description, it appears, that the cowhage is the dolichos prtirU 

ib^ntT of liinnaeus. Mr. Kerr has said nothing with regard to its inedioinal virtues ; but, 

V in confirmation of Mr. Cochrane's account, we shall here presentour readers with the 

tcsdnaony given concerning it by Mr. Bancroft, in his Essay on the Natural History of 

iCiriana in South America, a work published at London some.3^ars ago. 

*** After mentionino; the frequency of disorders arising from worms in that part of 
J the world, and assigning some reason for it, he adds, * But,?from whatever cause these 
{ worms are produced, their number is so great, that the ususd remedies are very ins?uf- 
r ficient for fhetr dettmction ; for which reason the planters in general have recourse to 
^the cawfaage for that purpose. Frotft whence its use ^as first suggested 1 am uncer- 
. tain ; but its efficacy is indisputable. The part us^d is the setaoeJous hairy substance, 
•growing on the outside of the pod^ which is sci'aped off and mixed with common syrup 
mr melasses, to the consisitence of a thin electuary^ of which a tea spoonful tO'at^hiid 

of 

-• ^Notif tfaesympbeltilgkYnoagti; bat, if the veHicte be too thio, or in a state of fermentation, th« 
Mtie occauQB % tickling i& tbe fitaces, ami are seperated from tbeir vehicle by the action of the tongue, ^4 
^it oat«'* 



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24S ' HORTUS JAMAICENSIS;- Dcfwrrc* 

of two or tlircc* years old,, and double the quantity to an adult, is given in the inornini^ 
tastiiig-, and rcjK ated tlie two succeeding laonnu^s ; alter vviiicii a dose of rhubiirb ia 
usualiv subjoined. ^ 

'^ This is the empii'ical practice of planters, who usually, onre in three or four 
months, exhibit the covvha,i;e in.tiiis njanner to tht^ir slaves in general \ but especially 
U) all their children without di^tinriion ; and in this Uiannor \ liave seen it given to - 
hundrevk, from one year old and upward.^ wiih the nitjst •ha|}py success.* Th(j pa- 
tients, after the second doi>e, usually disc handed an iiu redible niuuhei^of worm's, even . 
to the amount of more than twenty at a time -,. so that the stools consisted of httle else 
tlun these animals. But, though these were indisputable pro(jfs of its eiiicacy, I was 
tir from being convinced of its safety. I oi).^er\cd^ that the substances -given, con- 
sisted of an a:3cnib!uge of spicula^, exquisitely fine, and so acutely pointed, that, when . 
applied to the skin, tiiey excited an intoU^rulde itching, and even inihuuiuation ; fronx . 
wiience I appreJK^nilcd dangerous conseciucnces from their contact with the ston)aclx . 
an.J intestines. Iiidievl, wiien mixed into aa tlectuary, in the nnmner in wliicii tliey 
are given, their elasticity is so impaired that they do not produce the sijime sensible ir^. - 
ritation ; but yet I could conceive no other quality, on which their efficacy depended ; 
especially after I hail prepared both a tincture and decoction from ;ihe cx)whage, and 
griven them to worm patients, without any sensible advantage.' Infiuenced by these 
MVjge^tions, I particularly examined the state and condition of all such patients as I * 
knew had taken the cowha';e ; and yet:, can with the greatest truth declare that, though^ . 
prejudiced to its disadvantage, I was never able, either by my own observation, or a 
diligent enquiiy,. to discoveca single instance of any ill consequence resulting from its. 
use, wfhich nrs bcHM) so extensive that several thousands must have taken it: and, as- 
no ill effects li^ive been observed, 1 think, not only its efHcacy, but safety, are suflici- • 
untly evinced to entitle it to general use; especially when we refkn^t ou the uncer-* - 
tainty, an J even danger, which attends other vermifuges. It is to be observed, that 
Uds remedy is particularly designed against the long round worm ; whether it is equally 
deleteriouti to- the ascaiides, or whedier it bas beea used against them, I am uu-* 
certain. "t 

" I shall here subjoin a letter which I received from Mr. Neil Stewart, sui^on \xk * 
JLamaica, relative to die* success of the cowhage in his practice, as a farther confinna<% < 
lion of its utility and safety : 

^^ Hope Estate^. LiguancMf jiuguH% 17S2. 
" My Good FRiE>aH 

** In compliance with your request, that I would give^^you my^sentiments, and re»- 
oommendation, of the cowhage, in writings Itiow sit down to give you a history of 
it; but must premise, that you can expect no more than i have already so often as** 
sured you of, vha voce : — which is, that the cowhage, as a vermifuge, has DOt its equal '. 
in the world,, either for certainty of its effects, or it3 perfect tnuocence. Too much. 
cannot be said in the praise of that excellent medicine. I have, for my own part, given 
it for these ten years pa^t, .in all sorts of worm cases, both to old and lo young, and 

witik 

* " It was my comtaiit practice, while in Jamaica, to have a]] the children of the estates and settfetnenta. 
that I liaJ tie care of, from Uie youop^cst infant to those of twelve vyeafs old^ hrought ta jne once iu tw© 
tnontlis, to all of whom, wititout exception, I gave the cabba§|e4>ark, and latteriy tfa« cowhage, for thre%^ 
momin?^, whether tliey had s\mptonifl of worm« or not" ^ 

t ^ When we consider tfic nature of its operation, and that it is carried through the wh^le lenjcth of the iix«- 
testinal canal, witiiout sutterin? any alteration I think. thcfC €aa.1)e QU JOflNt£4oabtH9£4t> bcilijK^C^^Mm^JtCO*^ 
^some^ to every species of uojazk" 



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c#wrrc* HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 249 



liei 



with such good Qnecess^ that I have never had occasion to look for any other anth 
jnintic. I have totaUy discarded the useless ^thiops mineral; the ivncertun cruie 
mercury, and the still more uncertain^ and less innocent, preparations of it ; such as 
calomel, corrosive sublimate, and so forth ; and, in short, all other medicines gis ca 
with the same intention, except cabbage*tree bark ; and even that is not so great a fa- 
vourite of mine as it formerly used to be -, not that I have any reason to find fault with 
it, but only because I find the cowhage to answer every purpose I can want. I have 
given it even to tender and delicate white children under one year old, without any ill 
consequences. On the contrary, it has frequently brought away worms from them, 
even at so young an age. Every body^ that gives- it without advice, has a different 
way of preparing it j but the manner in which it is most commonly prepared, and the 
mamier in which I myself order it, is to throw a dozen or two of npe pods into a cala- 
bash or common quart punch bowl, full of melasses, and stir together, until the hairs 
or spiculse are taken clear off the pod, and well mixed with tho melasses. -The pods 
being useless are then thrown away. 

** Of this mixture I order the hot hous« man on every estate to give all the children, ,» 
without distinction, a table spoonful, for three mornings, once a month ; and not only 
to the children, buif if any,^ the grown negroes are suspected to have worms, it is 
likewise given to them, but in larger quantity ; and it is inconceivable- to one, who has 
not known the good effects of cowhage, what wonderful success it has in expelling 
every species of worms ; and I can safely aver, I never sawany ill consequence^, or 
bad any complaints,, from those for whom I have prescribed it, or recommended it to. 
However, I would not think it adviseabie to be given where there might be any disor- 
der tending towards inflammation in any part of the alimentary canttl,-or wheve the na- 
t«ral mucus is defectivCr - 

" I agree with you, ii>supposing^ that the cowhage acts mechanicaHy, in the same 
xm^nner as cut hswr would do^ from no intr'» sic virtue y because a decoction of it . is of 
no manner of usew 

" I must desire you particularly te take notice thatitiy, and always has been, my 
practice to premise aaemetic, where it can be done with propriety, previous to enter* 
mg upon the cowhage. I have often found the good effects of it^ which induces me to 
continue it. A ^nlle dose of ipecacuanha, or tai tar-emetic^ clears the stomach of 
matters which might impede the action of the *cowha^ ; and, to children, a little 
oxymel of squills will answer the purpose : but some of the Creoles, who seldom use 
an European medicine, when they can find an^apothecary*s shop inthe bushes, never 
use any emetic for themselves or their negroes, but the wild ipecacuanha, or red-head. 

** I have received the thanks of severaHadiea in and about Liguanea, and the moun- 
takis, and in the town of Kitigston also,, who have used the cowhage from my recom- 
mendation, both for theirown children, and for their oegroes.* They are all lavish ii> 
pjpaise of its virtues. • Iiv^short, I think it may be looked on as a more certain specific 
ui:;wof«ii.complaiQts» than the Peruvian bark in thecureof intermittents. Tam, &c. &c 

" Your's affectionately^ " Neil Stewart**^ 

iJ^^ Cat-Claw— Horse, and HoosE-EyE, Bean^ 

GowxTCH Cherry— iSfeeBARBADOEaCHEREYi 

K-k ccwvrrci^ 



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^0 liORTUS jAMAiC'ENsrs, cown<?n 

COWITCH, CREEPING. ' TRAGIA, 

Ci.. 2!, OR. 3. — 'Mmoecia triandria. Nat. OR.-^Trioocca^. 

This was so named in memory of Hieronymus Tragus, a German divine an3 
physician. 

Gen. ciur. — ^The male calyx has a three-parted perianth ; segments ovate, spread- 
ing ; no corolla ; stamens three filaments, the length of the calyx ; anthers round- 
ish. The fcfnales on the same plant ; calyx, A five or six parted perianth ; leaf- 
lets ovate, concave, acute, permanent; no corojia; the pistil has a roundish germ, 
til ree- grooved ; style single, erect, lonj^er than the calyx ; stigma trifid, spread- 
ing; the pericarp is a tricoccous capsule, roundish, three-celled, hispid; each 
ceil marked on the outside at the base with two dots 4 seeds sohtary, globular.— 
Two species are natives of Jamaica. 

I. VOLUBILIS. TWINING. 

Urtica rac.emosa scandensj angustifolia^ fructu iricocco. Sloane, v- 
1, p. 123, t. 82, f. 1. ScandcnSf Jbliis hastaiiskserratis hispidis.-^ 
Browne, p. 336. . ' 

Xeaves cordate-ovate, ticuminate ; stem twining. 

This plant rises six or sev^n feet high, with a woody, reddish, striated,.«tem, suffru- 
descent, loose, roundish, stinging with its bristles : branches filiform, all ^lirected ono 
way, simple ; leaves petioled, alternate, serrate, bent down, nerved, hispid with bris- 
tles ; stipules lanceolate, opposite by the side of the petioles, which are long and his- 
pid. Racemes peduncled, axillary, solitary, longer than *the leaves, filiform, loose, 
composed of numerous very small male flo\yers, on very short pedicels, with minute 
awl-shaped bractes under the pedicels, and females at the base, pedicelled, solitary, 
larger. Calyx of the male three-leaved, leaflets coloured of ja dark purple,, filaments 
very short, contiguous : calyx of the female five-parte4, germ Jiirsute, style, (rifi^ 
stigmas reyolute. — Sw. 

Browne calls this the creeping cowitch, and says the footstalks of the Dowers rise 
from the alae of the leaves, and divide soon after into two simple branches ; whereof 
the one bears a number of male flowers, disposed gradually in the form of a spike, to- 
wards the tpp ; while the other sustains only a single female blossom, which is fixed at 
the extremity of the branch. There is no more than two filaments in each of the male 
Bowers of this plant ; ismd what LinnjBus. calls a cup or perianthium seems to be rather 
A real flower. The plant is very common in Jamaica, and well known on account of 
i,ts sharp itching hairs. The root is looked upon as a good aperient and diuretic ; and 
^ bpth the decoction and juice are frequently used among th^ negroes for those purposes. 
^•^Browne, p. 336. 

2. MERCURIAUS. lf£RCURY. 

Subfoiticosa^ foliis oblongis ^labrU, fmctuMspiio. Browne, p. 3$& 

ieaves ovate, 

'iSCbispIanthas been considered only as a yuritty of the cham^ka^ aa East Indian 

specitt. 



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enAWcm^ HORTUS JAMAICENSIS, ^n 

species, Browne calls it the smoothJcafed corvifchy and says be found it at the Angel* d^ 
9Jt the side of the road, growing commonly to the height of four or five feet. 

Crab Grass — See Bent Grass. 



No English Ntme. . CRANICHIS. 

Cl. 20, or. x.-^Gynandria diandria. Nat. or. — Orchidea. 

This generic name is from a Greek word signifying an helmet. 

Gen. char. — Calyx wandering spathes, no perianth ; the corolla has five petals, ob«* 
long, sub- horizontal; the Uiree outer (or two upper lateral, and one anterior) 
ovate- lanceolate, equal, spreading ; the t\sjo inner anterior scarcely sniaUer,^nK)re 
slender, ovate. lanceolate,, erect. Nectaty or upper petal (between the outer su«- 
perior petals) galeate or vaulted, . erect, ovate, gibbous, slighUy keeled, entiue 
at the tip, dotted within, covering and embracing the genitals behind ; the 8ta<* 
mens are two gr four pcdiceiled anthers, placed on the apex of the style, turned 
towards the helmet ; with an upright two-celled lid, fastened to the column of the 
style in front ; they are covered at the back.: the pistil has an ob-ovate germ, ob- 
lique, inferior ;\ style an ereat column,, shorter t-han the helmet, dilated at the tip,, 
obtuse, bearing^the stamens at the back \. stigma funnel.-form,.between the column 
of the style and the lid of the stamens ; the pericarp is aa oblong or ob-ovate cap- 
sule, attenuated at the base, three-cornereo, three* keeled, one-celled, opening 
under the ribs, coherinij at the tip and base : seeds numerous, very small, like 
sand or saw-dust, affixed toa columnar receptacle. Swartz discovered five species 
ia this island.. , ^ 

1 . aphylla. leafless.* 
Blilbs in bundles ; columnar acute ; scape almost na&ed ; petals converging^. 

2. X>LIGANTHA. 

Btilbs in bundles, club-shaped ; leaves petioled, oblongs aciuninate, shining ; 
scape almost naked ; spike filiform.;, petals converging. 

3. DIPHYLLA. TWO-LEA VEI>*' 

Bulbs in bundles, filifomi; naked ; leaves petioled, cordate, acuminate^ twin; 
scape almost naked. . 

4. STACHYODFS. STACHYS-LIKE 

Bulbs in bundles,- columnar obtuse; leaves petioled, ovate-acununate ; scape 
sheathed ; spike colunmar ; petals revolute. 

5. MUSCOSA. MOSSY. 

Bulbs fiHform, in bundles, tomentose ; root-leaves petioled-ovate ; stem leaves 
sheathed j nectary dotted within* ^ 

€iEss— ^^'<? Ikdian Cress— Pepper Grass— Water Cress. 

Kka CROSSWOBT. 



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252 HORTUS JAMAICENSI*. ^vcuT«>^ 

CROSSWORT. • VALANTJA- 

Cl. 23, OR I. — Polygamia vionoecia. Nat. OR.^^Stellatof. 

So named in honour of Sebastian Vaillant, an ennnent French botanist. 

GtN. CHAR. — ^There is rto hermaphrodite calyx ; tlie corolla is four-parted ; sta^riens 
foiir-fiiaments ; style bifid ; seed one ; there is no male calyx ; the corolla three 
or Tour-parted ; staaieas three or four ; pistil ubwDletc. One species is a native 
pf Jamaica, 

HYPOCARPIA. 

■ Rubia. — Suhliivsu^a scandofs vel reclinatcLjfoiiis fr^ciatk floribtis ^m- 
gularibus ad alas, Browne, p. 141. 

All the flowers quadrifid below the germ ; peduncles naked, one-flowered. 

Stem herbaceous, from one to three feet high, loose, branched, grooved, rugged; 
^branches opposite, numerous, divaricating, sub-divided, patutous, loose, hirsute. — • 
Leaves in four's, sessile, small, oblong, entire, coavex, chamielledat the base above, hir- 
sute-hispid. Jlowers pecluncled, axillary, small, yellow ; peduncles shorter than the 
leaves or of the same length, pubescent; calyx four- leaved, inferior, scarcely bigger 
than the corolla ; leaflets ovate with a short point, rough haired, rugged. Filanients 
very j»hort, anthers roundish, very minute; germ superior,, minute, two- grooved ; 
style very short, pellucid ; berries two, connate, fulvous, small, one-seeded ; seeds 
roundish, whitish, shining. — Sw. , Browne found this plant in the middle mountains 
of Liguanea ; it is very weakly, grows in tufts, and seldom rises above two or three 
feet. Barhaui calls ic goose^grasSj from it» resemblance to the plant known by. that 
i^ame. 



CRUCIATED GRASS. t^HLORIS. 

Cl. 23, OR. 1. — Polygamia monaecia. 'Nat. or. — Gramitue. 
^X5en. char. — ^The hermaphrodite calyx is a two-valved glume, two-flowered, awned; 
there is no corolla ; there are three stamens, two styles, and one seed : the male 
calyx is a one-valved glume ; the female palyx, a sessile two-Valved glume. Five 
species are natives of Jamaica. 

> 1. eRUCIATA. CRUCIATE. 

fGpamen dactj/lon bicome minimum aristt^dongis^MPinu^um. 'Sloanc^ 
v. 1, p. 112, t. 69, f. 1. Cmciatumspicisoreuioribusctcrassiori^ 
iuSf deprsumjrugiferis. .Browne, p. 1S6. 

Spikes about four, cruciate ; florets pointed* 

This has very small fibres or roots, from which rise small, narrow, capillary, pale 
.gre^n leaves about an mch long ; from the middle of these rise very smaU jointed 
round stalks several inches high, having so many joints, and at each joint a leaf. At 
the top stands its panicle, divided into two spikes, like two horns, having a few seeds, 
«ach of which has an arista or awn. — Sloane, Browne says it is hardy ana kind pasture 
/?ge!i mdc^ils it tixQ dor (^shanked 4:ruciat€dgrass» 



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2. CILIATA. CILIATE. 

Spikes digitate, about five ; glumes ciliate on the ed^e,^^Sw. This is the an^ 
dropogon j}uh^c€ns. 

3, P£TR(EA. Rocky. 

Spikes ^botxt four^ stiff, nearly erect ; spikelets crowded, glabrous, awnless j 
culm compressed. — iu\ 

4. POI.YDACTYLA. ^lANY-SPIKED. 

Gravien dadylon elaiius spicis plurrnils tomentesis, Sloane, v. 1, 
p. Ill, t, 65, f. 2. Andropon 1. Browne, p. 364. 

Spikes numerous, fascicled, lax ; glumes ciliate-Yillous on the margin^ 

This has a strong iibro US root, broad leaves of a pale yellowish green colour, like 
4h(>seofoats. The stem is knotted, risrni; three feet hii»h, at the uppermost joint 
sometimes divided into two tops, the one flowered the other not. Several spikes, from 
fowr to eleven shoot from the same centre, hanging downwards, each abowt four inches 
long, and very hairy, downy, or woolly. It grew plentifully in the savanna by Two 
Mile Wood.— -«Kofl/?€* This is the andropogon pol^dactylon of Linneus. 

^ 5, RADIATA. RADIATE. 

Cramen dactylon spicis gr&cilioribusplermnque qvatuor cruciformiier 
•dUposilis. Sloane, v. 1, p. Ill, t. 68, f. 3. Criiciatum assurgens^ 
spicis subhirsuds tenuieribus et longioribus deoi^uin Jrugijcris.--^ 
Browne, p. 137. 

Spikes numerous, fascicled, nearly erect ; florets subulate, glabrous. 

This has a deep fibrous root, short and narrow leaves, a jointed, crooked^ slender, 
-white stem, about a foot and a half long, bearing generally four white slender spikes, 
standing crosswise, though sometimes they are three, six, or five, in number. On 
them stand the seeds in two-eared husks. This is the most ordinary grass in the savan- 
nas, its stalks remaining dry most part of the year, and the andropogon/asciculukim of - 
'iLinneu6« 



CUCUMBER. CUCUMIS. 

CL.il, OR. 10. — Monoecta syngenesia. Nat. ou. — Cucurbitaceiv. 

-XrEN. char. — 'Male calyx a one-leafed perianth, bell-shaped, the margin terminated 
by five subulate teeth; corolla five-parted, ^owin^ to the calyx, bell-shaped^ 
divisions ovate, veiny- wrinkled : stamens three filaments, very short, inserted 
into the calyx, converging, two-bifid at the tip ; the anthers are lines creeping 
upwards and downwards, outwardly adnate ; receptacle three-cornered, truncated, 
in the centre of the flower. Female calyx, as in the male, superior, deciduous ; 
corolla as in the male ; no stamens; filaments three, acuminate, very sqiall^ with- 
out anthers; the pistil has ^n inferior large germ; style cylindric, very short; 
stigmas three, thick, gibbous, two-parted, turned outwards ; the pericarp a three 
-or four-celled pome, cells membranaceous, soft, separate ; seeds numerous, ovate- 
^outdy x^Qoipreised, ptased ia« double order. Only ouq species of this genus is 



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234 IJ PARTUS JAMAI.CENS1& cudwmi^ 

.1 natire of Jamaica, the anguria, or wild. cucumber, the sativus^ or common cu* 
c umber, as vvcl| as the mchy oc musk melon,, havq both Ueen.mtrpduced aiid suc- 
cessfully cultiviited, 

L ANGURIA, 

Cucumis-angurue folio latioie^ a^pevoy frucH^miTwre-i:andid<y^pinuli^ . 
obtusis muricato. Sloane, v. 1, p. 227. Hub-hirstitiis, minor y fom 
His prof unde sinuatisy fructibus muricatis. Browne,A p* 353. 

Leaves pa)mate-sinuate; stem. angular ; fruit oval echinate. 

This has a deep wlijte oblong root, sending forth several long trailing branches.— 
The stems are square, rough, five or six feet long, at every four inches distance hav- 
ing leaves, clavicles, and Howers. The leaves have five sections, curled, sinuated, ^ 
and rough,, the undermost sections. near the l)ase i)eing the smallest, the fifth is three 
inches, long and has tvvonotches.in it, they have four-inch long ron^h footstalks. The 
clavicles and flowers grow froni.the alae of the leaves, which are yellow. The fruit is . 
of a. pale green colour, oval, as big as. a walnut, having many shorty blunt, thick, tu- 
bercles, suarper than thpse of other cucimibers, and within the pulp a gteat many 
small seeds; This. fruit is eaten very g.reedily by sheep and cattle. — Sloane^ - 

It is called the small wild cucumh^ry and grows very plemifully in Jamaica, M^here it j 
is frequ-ently used with other herbs in soups^ and proves a very agreeable ingi:edient* 
Th(^ rind is thickly, beset with blujit prickles, having the appearance of the back, of a 
hecl^ic hotj. 

% SATIVUS. CULi:iVATEI>. • 

Leaves straight between, the angles, , fruits oblong, scabrous-. 

This is the common cucumber, which thrives extremely well in Jamaica. Two other 
species have also bcren introduced, the dudaim, or apple-shaped cucumber, from the 
Levant; and the flexu/)susy or Turkey cucumber. Although cucumbers are neither 
sweet nor acid,^ they are considerably acescent, an.d sa produce flatulency, cholera, . 
diarhoea, &c. Their coldness and flatulency may be likewise in part attributed to th# 
firmness of their texture. They have been discharged with little change from the sto- - 
inach, after being detained there for rforty-oight hours. By this means, therefore,, 
tlieir acidity is greatly increased ; hence oil and pepper, the condiments commonly., 
employed, are very useful' to rheck their fermentation. Another condiment is some- 
times usvjd* its skin, which is bitter, and mjiy therefore supply the place of ^comatic9 } , 
bqt should only be used when young. 

See Musk Melon — ^Wild Cucumber. . 



CUDWEED. GNAPHALIUM. 

Ct. 19^, OR; 2. — Syngenesia polygamid sitperflua, Nat. or. — Composifa^. 
This name is derived from a Greek word, signifying cotton or nap. 
Cen. char. — Calyx common, rounded, imbricate, with the marginal scales rounded,^. 
^ijaripse, cplQUi:ed3 corolla.cpo^pound J corpli.et? htfyroiaphrodite, tu|^ulair>; witk. 
' .. apetalou3.i> 



k 



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-KlnmANT HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 255 

. apetalous females sometimes intermixed ; hermaphrodites funnel-form, with a 
five-cleft reflex border : stamens (in*the hermapln*odites) are five capillary, very 
e?horc filaments, with cylin'dric tubulous antliers : the pistli has an ovate germ, a 

'•filiform style, the length of the stamens ; the stigma bifid— in the females rfllex ; 
there is no pericarp; the calyx permanent, shininjy; seeds soUiarv, oblonpr, small, 
crowned with a capillary or feathered down ; receptacle naked, l^wo species are 
natives of J^imaica* 

1. AMERICANUM, AMERICAN. 

Erectumy spicatum^ simplex^ villosum et incannm ; foliis longis^ 
angustisj sessilibas^ et semi-ainpleAanii/ms, Browne, p. 31 vS. 

Hoot leaves lingtilate-lanceolate, snow-white beneath ; stalk simple, upright, 
tomentose ; flowers spiked ai>d lateral, sessile, crowded. 

Browne calls this the narrow -leafed undivided cudweed. It is a native of the coldest 

nxiountains of Liguanea, and gTows generally in most open places, but seldom rises 

above six or nine inches in height. The flowers are yellowish, and disposed pretty 

thick about the top of the stalk, which puts on the appearance of a shorter spike.-— 

Browne, ^ ^ 

Barham calls Ihese plants staeChas^ and says, " We have a wild sort or two : One 
sort is called by some cassidony^ or French lavender ; anotlier is a sort of cudweed. — • 
TChese plants are Tery astringent, and therefore proper for fluxes of the body, and all 
dcfluxions of rheums. A syrup made of the tops of it, when in flower, is good iqt 
cpughs and catarrhs," — Barhanij p. 184. 

2. ALBESCENS, M^IITE. 

Snowy tomentose ; leaves linear-lanceolate ; stalk upright, undivided at bot-« 
.torn; branches terminating, fastigiate ; flowers crowded, conical. — Sw. 



CURRANT TREE. EHRETIA, 

Cl. 5, OE. 1, — Pentandria monogynia, '^ AT. OK.^^jlsper (foliar 
<?EN. CHAR. — Se€ Bastard Cherry, p. 60. 

BOTJRRETIIA. 

Jasminum^ peryclymenifolio^ fiore dlbOj fructuflavo, rotunda , tetra^ 
pyreno. Sloaiie, v, 2, p. 96^ t. 204, f. 1. — Arborea foliis ovaiis 
alterniSy racemis rarioribusterminaliims. Browne, p. 168, 1. 15, f. 2. 

leaves ovate, quite entire, smooth ; flowers in a kind of corymb ; caljrxes 
smooth, 

"This tree rises "from eight to fourteen feet high, having^everal trunTcs, covered witli 
%a^lay*coloured or grey bark, like that of dogwood ; the oranches very many, irrego- 
4a,r. The leaves are two inches long, rough on the upper side, alternate, petioled, 
•entire, various. Racemes corymbed terminating. ^Flowers white, ^weet, with five 
4idttadi3h sqgmefits* Senies as big as peas, shining, saffiron or orange-colotired, pf^Apy, 

sweety 



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154 HORTUS JAMAICENSIS, CYNANcmuM> 

sweet, succulent, more quadrai)gular as tbey are larger, containing in a thin pulp four 
triangular stones. The berries are eatable. It grows very coouuon in Jamaica in the 
savannas, and in Liguanea mountaiiis. Browne called it bourreria^ after Mr. Bourer, 
an apothecary of Nuremberg, and a great promoter of natural history. This species 
is considered as the connecting link between ehretia^^aid cordia. 

See Jacquinia. 

Currant Cactus — See Indian Fig* 



CUSTARD APPLE. ANNONA. 

Cf.. 13, OR. 7. — Polj/andria pohfgynia. Nat. or. — Coadunatie. 
Gen. CHAR-—- ye<f Alligator Apple, p. 11. 

EETICULATA, .RETICULATE. 

Annona maxima^ foliis oMongis angusiis^fruciu mcTimohiteo conotd^f ^ 
cortice glahro in areolas distincto, Sloane, v. 2, p. 167, t. 226.— 
Foliis oblongis undulatis venosisy fructibus areolatis. Browne^ 
p. 256, 

Leaves oblong-lanceokte, acme, smooth.; fruits ovate^. reticulaie-areolate ; . 
outer petals lanceolate, inner minute. 

This tree grows to the height of twenty-five feet or more, with spreading branches, . 
llie bark smooth and grey. . The leaves of a light green colour,* having several deep •. 
transverse ribs, and hollow, ending in acute points ; they are alternate, in two rows ; 
the petioles are gibboujs, short, excavated,, smooth ; flowers three or four, close toge- 
ther, peduncled, nodding, whitish.. Petals three, linear, thick,^ three-cornered,, 
blunt, unequal and brown on the outside, yellowish white within, spotted with dark 
pnrple, excavated at the base. The nectary consists of three very minute, oblong, , 
blunt, petals, at the base of the genuine petals; the body of stamens and pistils is* 
roundish, minute, whitish ; the fruit roundish, heart-shaped,, the rind sometimes re- 
ticulate, thick, jjrown, shining,, of a yellow or orange-colour, with, a reddi^ness on* 
one side, when ripe ; having a soft, sweet, yellowiiih, pulp, the consistence of acus- 
tard, whence the name : the seeds are black, oblong, depressed, and shining. This 
tree grows in dry places, and the fruit is much esteemed by some people ; it ripens by 
being allowed to remain some time after gathering. The seeds are said to stop fltixes«a. 



No English Name. CYNANCHIUM. 

Cl. 5, OR.^. — Peiitandria digynia. Nat. or. — Contorta, 

Gen. ohaR; — Calyx, a one-leafed, five-toothed perianth; corolla one-petaled, with ' 
scarce any tube, border five-parted ; nectary in the" centre of the nower, erect, 

: cylindric,. with a five-cleft moiith, the length of the corolla ; the stamens are fire 
filaments, length of xiectary, parallel ^.anthers touching, withia the mouth of the ^ 

oon^bt ^ 



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^yiterMORmr HORTUS JAMAICENSia $57 

corolla; the pistil has an oblong germ, two- cleft; style scarce any; stfgnias two^ 
obtuse ; the pericarp, two oblong, acuminate, one-celled folicles, gaping length-^ 
wise; seeds numerous^ oblong, crowned with a down, placed in an imbricate 
manner. One species was found in this island by Swarta. 

CRISPIFLORUM. CURL-FLOWERED. 

Stem twining ; leaves underneath villose, oblong, cordate, with the sinus closed ; 
petals curled at the ends. ' 

This genus is by some classed decandridy and none has -given more trouble to botan- 
ists than it and asclepids ftiee Bastard I pecacuanha^ p, es)^ on account of the struc-- 
ture of the genitals. They all have two germs, running out into conical styles, covered 
-with a fungous pentagon body, all of which, except the upper surface of the latter, are 
50 covered, first with a sheath, and then with little bags hanging down and pressed^ 
^ose, that there does^not^seem-taJje the minutest opening to these parts. 



No English Nime: CYNOMORIUWtT 

Cl. 21, OB. 1. — Monoecia rnonandrict. Nat. or. — Amentaee^. ^ 

<Cr£N. char. — Male flowers disposed in an imbricated amen t with the female : calyx-' 
aw erect club-shaped ament, on every side covered ivith floscules; perianth pro- 
per, four-leaved ; leaflets three clavate, and the fourtb inferior, one larger, , 
▼ery obtuse, channelled; there is no corolla ; the stamens single filaments, firm, 
straight, longer than the calycine scale; anther twin ; female calyx a commoa 
ament with the males ; perianth proper, superior ; leaflets four, club-shaped, 
tuberculated, equal, permanent; no corolla ;• the pistil has an ovate, inferior,, 
germ ; style single, erect, firm, spreading, lengih of the calycine scale j stigma- 
•^tuse ',. there is no pericarp ; the seed is single, roundish. 

JAMAICENSE. JAMAICA. 

JErectunij ireve^ cj/lindrae^ttmf ^Tmdum ; prima atatesqtumiaium.'-^^ 
Browne, p. 3S4* 

Stipe scaly; ament elongated ; scales imbrieacte, halved, rhomboidal. 

This little plant is seldom met with but in the most shady inland woods ; it grows in 
Ifeds and rises generally to the height of three, four, or five inches, but is commonly 
smallest towards the bottom. At first it ig covered pretty thick with scales of the figure 
of a heart ; which fall ofi^gradually as it rises, and expose the body of the plant thickly 
beset with little transparent denticles, intermixed with a few tubular trifid flowers, that 
jf t above the level of the surfece -^ the stem of the plant is succuleot and fleshy^ and allj 
4li{Bjgarts astringent. — Browne. . 

CYhTLLx-^See Gesneria and Itea. 



Xl^ :^ACGK&< 



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255 HORTUS JAMAICENSI& l>AGGE?r' 

DAGGER-PLANT^ or ADAM'S NEEDLE. YUCCA; 

Cl C, or. 1; — Hexandria mo?7oeynia. Nat. OK.*--Coro7mriie, 

This generic nanie is atlopted from the Indian appellation- . 

Ckn. char. — There is do calyx ; the corolla is bell -shaped^ six-parted, cohering by* 
the claws ; segments ovate, very large, spreading ; the stamens are six very short 
filaments, thicker atKne, reflexed ; anthers very small ;. the pistil has an oblong 
germ, bluntly three-sided,^ longer than, the stamens ;. no ;style ; stigma three- 
grooved, obtuse, with bifid segments, pervious ; the pericarp is an oblong berry, 
obscurely six-cornered, fleshy, punched with a little hole between the stigmas, 
six-celled ; partitions three thicker and tln-ee thinner, and membranaceous dia- 
phragms forming cells for each seed ; seeds flattrsh, incumbent, fastened to the 
inper angle of each cell. There are four^pecies, natives of America^, all of which 
liave becH introduced, and thrive remarkably well in Jtiraaica, 

1, GLORIOSO^ SUPERB. 

Leaves quite entire.. 

This seldom rises with a stem above two feet and half or three feet high, which has^ 
leaves almost to the ground, which are broad, stiff, and have the appearance of those 
uf tlie aloe, but. are narrower,, of a dark. green colour, ending in a sharp black spine>— 
It frequently producers its panicles of 6owers from tj^e centre of the leaves ; the flower 
stalk is three feet high, brani hiog out on every side^ to a considerable distance, but the 
flowers are placed very sparingly on the stalk, which renders it less beautiful than the 
other sorts. The flowers are white within, but each petal is marked with a purple 
stripe on the outside ; they are bell-shaped, and hang downward. 

2. ALOIFOLIA.' ALOE-LEAVEDu 

Leaves crenulate,. strict* 

This rises with a thick tough fleshy stalk, to the height often or twelve feet, laving; 
^ head or tuft of the leaves at the t ^p ; these are narrower and stiffer^han those of the- 
former «ort, and are of a lighter green colour ; their edges are slightly serrate, and 
their points end in sharp thorns. Tlie flower stalk rises in the centre of the leaves, and^ 
is from two to thre&feet long, branching out into a pj^ramidal form ; the flowers grow 
close on the branches, and form ai*egular spike -^ they are of a bright purple colour on 
the outside, and white within, making a fine appearance. Whenever they appear»the 
bead de.Qiys,^ but one or tvyo young heads come out fron> the side of the stalk below Jthd 
^d one.- 

3.' DRACONfS. lyiTACON'S., 

Leaves crenate, nodding. 

This has a stem three or four feet high; leaves narrow, dark green, hanging down,, 
serrate, and ending in acut^ spines* Tjie flowers pfindulous,^milk-white, with a strong 
liupleasant smell, , about one hundred and fifty on a thyrse ; seed vessel three-celled j 
^eds horny, wrinkled, blackish when ripe. 

4. FlIuAMENTOSA. THREADY. 

iwets serrate, thready. 



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*a&mEUO^ HOUTUS JAMAICENSIS. 253 

The stalk and leaves are V\k^ those of the first sort, but the leaves are ohhise, and 
liave no spines at their ends ; the flower stalk rises five or six feet lii^h, and is gene- 
Tally covered with flowers most of its length ; the flowers are larger and whiter than 
those of the other^pecies, and sit close to the stalk; from the bu]e come ont long 
threads which hang down. All these plants are very oroaraental, and easily propagated 
from seeds, or from otF-sets and heads taken from the old plants after the manner of 



DAMSON-PLUM. CHRYSOPHYLLUM. 

Cl. 5, OR. 1. — Peniandria monogynia. Nat. or. — Dumosae. 

This generic name is derived from tw^o Greek words, signifying golden leaf. 

Gen. char. — Calyx a five parted small perianth ; leaflets roundish, obtuse, perma-* 
nent ; corol.la monopetalous, belUsixaped ; border five-clcft, segments roundish, 
much expanded, shorter than the tube ; the stamens are five filaments, subulate, 
placed on tlie tube, converging; anthers roundirsh, twin, incunjbcnt ; the pistil 
has a roundish germ ; a very short style ; an obtuse sub-quinquefid stigma ; the 
pericarp is a globular berry, ten-celled, large ; seeds sohtary, bony, compressed, 
marked with a scar, shining. Three species are natives of Jamaica, the star- apple, 
' or cainitOj and the following : 

I. MONOPYRENUM. 

Fructu minori glabra, foliis subtus/erruginiiS,--'Browney p. 171. 

Leaves elliptic-acuminate, golden-tomentose beneath ; fruit ovate, one-seeded. 

This tree never attains the si^e of the star-apple, either in height or the size of the 
trunks by half ; but the branches are slender and garnished with leaves like it. It 
jjrows wild in many parts of Jamaica. The flawers come out in clusters from the side 
of the branches, which are succeeded by oval smooth fruit, about the size of a berga* 
rapt pe^i*. This contains a white clammy juice, when fresh; but, after being kept a 
few days, it becomes sweet, soft, and delicious. It frequently contains four or five 
l>lack seeds about the size of those of a pumpkin. 

2. RUGOSUM. WRINKLED. 

J^eaves oblong-acuminate, smooth on both sides ; fruit acuminate, wrinkledU 
. — Sw* 

• See Star-Apple. 



DANDELION, or LION'S TAIL, TUSSILAQO. 

Cu. 19* OR. 2. — Syngenesia polygamia superflua. Nat. or. — Compcsit^e. . 

This name is dei:ived from tussis^ on account of some of the species being of use ii\ 
^curing coughs. 

<jEXi- CHAR. — Calyx common cylindrical ; scales lanceolate-linear (fifteen or twenty), 
^^ . L 1 3 ecjual^ 



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260 HORTUS JAMAIC^NSIA ^JiTti 

equal, as long as the disk, sub-membranaceous ; .corolla compound, various ;. sta- 
mens in the hermaphrodites, five capillary .very short filaments; anthers cylindric^ 
tubular ; pistil in the hermaphrodites has a short germ, a filiform style, longer 
than the stamen, and a tUicJci&h stigma ; there is no pericarp ; calyx scarcely 
changed ;. seeds in the hennaphrodites solitary, oblong, compressed ; down ca- 
pillary, stipulate^ r^Qej)tacle naked. Three species, ^.e. natives of Jamaica. 

1. NUTANS. KCKDDING. 

Dens leonis, folio subtiis incano,^ flore piirpureo. Sloane, v. 1, p. 255^ 
t. 1 50, f. 2. Fo(ns radicalibns oblongis, obovatis^ subtus lanughiosi^ 
mcanis ; scapo simpliciimdo vionojloro, Browne^ p. 310. 

Scape oncrflowered, without any bracte.; flower nodcjing; leaves lyrate, obtuse. 
'This is an annual stemless plant, about a foot high* ix. has reddish roots. The leaves 
are radical, three inches long, petioled, wedge-shaped, soraefeinaes ovate, having near 
the top several deep incisures, gradually attenuated ?it the base^ white tomentose be- 
jieath, dark green above, in the middle of the leaves rise pne or n^ore naked stalks^ 
pale green, downy, having a solitary nodding flower ; scales of the calyx tomentose at 
the base ; corolla i^adiate ; corollets of the disk ^ve-cleft, white.; of the ray, ligulate, 
longer than the calyx, linear, bifid, purple ; seeds angular, .flying off when ripe.^^ 
This plant is generally found in moist shady places, but thrives best in a cool gravelly 
soiL Browne says it is reckoned an excellent diuretic, and frequently used. Sloane 
says the decoction of it is given to women in child-bed ; and that it dissipates wind^ 
provokes the catamenia, is good against convulsions^ takes ^way gripes, and is a re?* 
^edy against all jsorts of cold^ being hot and bitter. 

X ALBICANS. WHITE. 

Scape one-flowered, without any bracte ; flower nearly erect ; leaves ianccolate-.' 
ovate, tomentose beneath, indistinctly serrate backwards. 
Root annual^ simple ; leaves radical, a finder's length, webbed above, white tomen^ 
tose beneath ; scape longer than the leaves, more tomentose at top ; calyx oblong^ 
ipubricate ; scales somewhat pappose, Imeai*^ acute; seeds striated ; down rufescenU 

^. PUMIUl. .DWARF. 

. Scape one-flowered, without any bracte, erect ; leaves lyrate, gashed, tootk|» 
lettedi tomentose. 



DATE-PLUM. DIOSPYROS. 

Cl. 23, OR. 2. — Polygamia dioecia. Nat. OK.-^Bicomes^ 

TTiis name is derived from two Greek words signifying divine wheat. 

Gen. char. — Hermaphrodite calyx a one-leafed ^our-cleft perianth ; corolla on«j» 

leafed) pitcher shaped, four-cleft; stamens eight (onl^ six), bristle-form; aur 

ihers oblong, unproductive ; the pistil has a round turbinated, and hairy, ^erm ^ 

^jrle ^aJ^lei halt four-^ft ^ 9ti|;mas obtu;$e^ two»cleft ^ the pericarp is a globose 

' ' frerry^ 



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teATK UOaTUS JAMAICENSIS, Wl 

berr}', eight (four) coIied> sitting on a very large spreading calyx ; seed solitary, 
roundish, compressed, very harcC Male, in » distinct plant, calyx a ond- leafed, 
four-cleli perianth ; corolla oue-petaled, pitehei-^shapeo, leathery, four-cornered, 
four-cleft ; divisions roundish, rolled back, in the manner of asclepias ; the sta- 
mens eight (trtx) short lllaments^ inserted into the receptacle^, anthers double, in* 
terior shorter ; the pistil is the rudiment of a germ. One species of this genus ia 
^ native of Jamaica* 

TETRASPERMA. FOUR-SEF.D^W. 

Leaves membranaceous, sinning, wedge-forra^ berries four-seeded,— aSw, 



DATE-TREE. PHCENIX. 

Cl. 22, OR. 3.--Dioecia triandria. Nat. or. — Pitbn/e. 

<Jen, char. — ^The calyx of the maleflower is an nnix'ersal one-valved spatbe ; spadix 
branched; perianth three- parted, very small, permanent; the corolla has three 
petals, concave, ovate, somewhat oblong ;tlie stamens are three filaments, very 
short; anthers hnear, four-cornered, the length of the corolla. Female flov^ers 
on a different pliant ; calvx as in the male ; no stamens ; the pistil has a roundish 

Serm, an awUshaped short stjle, and acute stigma; the pericarp is an ovate 
rupe, one-celled ; th^ .seed single, bony, sub-ovate, with a longitudinal 
^groove* 

^ DAtJTYLIFERA* FINGERED. 

P alma dacty lifer a major vulgaris, Sloane, v. 2, p. 111. Subcine^ 
rea^ foliis brevioribus pinnatis qiutsimodo confcrtis^ injimis brevissi* 
mis et in spinas quasi redactis. Browne, p. 344. 

Fronds pinnate ; leaves folded together, ^nsiforni. 

The dactyliftra^ or common date-tree, is a native of Africa and the Eastern countries, 
nrhere it grows to fifty, sixty, ^nd one hundred feet high. The trunk is round, up- 
right,, and studded with protuberances, which are the vestiges of the decayed leaves. 
From the top issue forth a clustet of leaves or branches eight or nine feet long, extend- 
ing all round, like an umbrella, and bending a little towards the earth. The bottom 
part produces a number of stalks like those of the middle, but seldom shooting so high 
as four or five feet. These stalks, says Adanson, diffuse the tree very considerably ; 
so that, wherever it naturally grows in forests, it is extremely difficult to open a pas- 
sage through its prickly leaves. The centre of the trunk is not solid, but filled with 
pith. The date tree was introduced into Jamaica soon after the conquest of tlie island 
by the Spaniards. There are, however, but few of them in Jamaica at this time-, and 
it is a pity it is not more cultivated. The firuit is somewhat in the shape of an acorn. 
It is composed of a thin light, and gl<c>ssy, membrane, somewhat pellucid and yellowish ; 
which contains a fine, soft, and pulpy fruit, which is firm, sweet, and somewhat vi- 
nous to the taste, esculent, and wholesome ; and within this is inclosed a solid, tough, 
undfaard, kemel| of a pale grey colour oti the outiside, and finely marbled within, like 



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262 HORTU^ JA'MAICENSIS. mAm 

the nutmeg. For medical use datesareto be chosen large, full, fresh, yellow on the . 
surlace, soft and tender, ngt.too much wrinkled ; such as have a vinous taste, and d» 
not rattle when shaken. 

Tlie trees wliich spring from seed never produce such good dates as those ^that are , 
raised tVoni shoots ; .they being always poor and ilK' tasted. It is undoubtedly byforce 
of ^cultivation, ^nd. after several geperations, that-they acquire a good quality. 

The date-trees, which liave been originally sown, grow rapidly, jand sometimes bear 
fruit in tlie, fourth or fifth year. Care js, taken .to out,tlie ii>ferior branches of the date- 
tree in proportion as they rise ; and a piece of the root is always left of some inches ia 
lengtl?, a^'iiich^atfords the easy means of ciimbing:to.tlie sunnnit. 'S^hese trees live a 
long ti4n^, accqrding to the account of the Arabs ; and, in order to prove it, they say, 
that when they have attained to their.fv»ll growth, no .cl^nge is ^bseryed i^ .thc*tn for 
the space of three generations. 

The number of lemiilos cultivated ia A^iais much.siiperior'to feat of the males, be- 
<cause tliey are much more profitable. The sexual organs of the date-t«ee ffrow,. as is 
M'ell known, upon different stalks, and these trees flower in the months of April and 
May, at which time the Atabs cut the male branches to impregnate the female, t'or 
thi? purpose, they make an incision in .the tcunk of each branch \i^hich they wish to 
produce fruit, and place in it^ stalk of male flowers ; without this precaution the date 
tree would produce only abortive fruit. In some cantons the male branches are only 
shaken over the female. The practice of impregnatiug the date tree in this manner i^ 
very ancient. Phny describes if yery acqurntely ju that part of his vvork .wl\enB he 
treats of the palm tree. 

Pere Labat, in his account of America, mentions a tree which grew near a convent 
in Martinique, which produced a great quantity of fruit, and came to maturity enouglpi 
for eating ; but, as there was no otiier tree of the 'kind in the island, it was desirous tp 
propagate it^ but nojie.of the seeds would gru«w. He conjectui;es ths^t this tree m,ight 
probably be so far impregwated by some neighbouring palm-trees,^slo render it cap5)le 
of bearing fruit, but not sufficient to inake the seeds prohfia Tiie flowers of both sexes 
come out in very long bunches from the trunk between the leaves, s^nd ^are .covered 
with a spatha which opens and withers ; »thoso of t-h« male haveVix short stamens, with ~ 
narrow four-cornered anthqrs filled with farina. TIxe female flowers have no stamens. 
The celebrated Lmnaeus, m his dissertation on the S^xes of Plants^ speaking of the 
date-tree, says, ^* A feinale date-bearing palm flowered many years ^t Berlin without 
producing any seeds ; but the Berlin people taking 4:are to have some qf the blossoms 
of the male iree^ wliich was then flowering at Leip.i^ic, sent to them by the post, tftey 
obtained fruit by these meansj and ^o;ne dates, tlie oflPspring of this impregnation, 
being planted in my garden^ sprung up, ?ind to this day continue to grow vigorously. 
Kcempfer formerly told us^ hoNv necessary it was found, by the oriental people, who 
*ive upon the produce of palm-trees, ana are the true /(;/o/>A^^i^ to plant some male 
crees among the female, if thev hoped for any fioiit : Hence it is the practice of those 
who make war in that part of the world to cut down all the male palms, that a famine 
mp^y afflict their proprietors; sometimes even the inhabit^ints tnemselves destroy the 
male trees when they dread an invasion, that their enemies may find 119 sustenance ia 
the country.'* 

There is scarcely any part of the date-tre.^ .which is not useful. The wood, thoug})i 
of a spongy texture, lasts such a number of years, that the inhabitants of the country 
f aj it 13 incorruptible. They employ it for making beams and instirimients of hus- 
bandry^ 



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mTE RORTUS^ JAMAICENSIS, iei^ 

Landry ; it bums slowly, but the coals which result from itscombustioti are very strongs 
and produce a great lieat. 

The Arabs strip the bark and fibrous parts from the young date- trees, and eat the 
substance, which is in the centre ; it is very nourishing ami has a sweet taste, and is 
known by the name of the marrow of the date-tree: Thoy eat also the leaves, when 
they are young and tender, with lemon juice ;. the old ones are laid out to dry, and 
are employed for making mats and otherwf)rk8 of the same kind, which are much used, 
and witii wnich they carry on a considerable trade in the interior parts of the country. 
From the sides of the stumps of the brarrches which have been left arise a great number 
uf delicate filaments, of which they make ropes,. and which might serve to fabricate 
cloth. 

Of the fresh dates and sugar, says Hiisse!(|uist, the Egyptians make a conserve, 
which has a very pleasant taste. In Egypt-they use the leaves as fly- flaps, for driving 
away the numerous insects-vwhichpixrve so troublesome in hot countries. The hard 
boughs are used for fences tmd other piirposes^ of husbandry ; the principal stem for 
building. The fruit,, before it is^ ripe, is somewhat astringent ; but, when thoroughly 
mature, is of the nature of thefigs. The Senegal dates are shorter than those of Egypt, 
but much thicker in the pulp, which is sffid to have a sugary agreeable taste,, superior 
to that of the best dates of the Levant.^^ 

A white ifqurr, known by the name of milk, is drawn also from the date -tree. To 
obtain it, all ihebraouuche&arecut^from the summit of one of these trees, and, after 
fcveral incisions have been made in it, thev are covered with leaves, in-order that the 
heat of the sun may not dry it. The sap drops down into a vessel placed to receive it, 
at the bottenft of ta circular groove, inade below the incisiorKi The nrilk of the date- 
tree has a sweet and agreeable taste when it is new ; it is very refreshing, and it js even 
given. to. sickpeople.^to drink, but it generally turns sour at the end of twenty-four 
hours. Old trees are chosen for this operation, because the cutting of* the branches, 
and the large-jquanUty of sap which floivs from them, greatly exhaust them, and often 
€ause them to decay. 

The male flowers of the date- tree- are ako useful. They are eaten when still tender^ 
mixed iip with a little lemon juice. They are reckoned to be very provocative : the 
odour which they exhale is probably tlie cause of this property ascribed to them. 

These date-trees are very lucrative to the inhabitants of the desei-f. Some of themr 
pj^duce twenty bunches of dates ;,but care is always taken.to lop oif a part of them^ 
that those which remain may become larger ; ten or twelve bunches only are left ^n 
Ae most vigorous trees-. V ^Wten^he bunches are taken from the 'trees they are hvmg; 
up in some very dry place, where they may be sheltered and secure from insects. 

Dates aflford wholesome uoupishment, -and have a veiy agreeable taste when they twe- 
fresh. The Arabs cat them without seasoning.. They dry and harden them in the sun, 
to reduce them to a kind of meal, which they lay up- m store to supply themselves 
vdth food during tlie long journies which they often undertake acroiss their desarts. — 
This simple food is sufficient to nourish them for- a loi>g time.. The inhabitanis or 
Zaara procure also from their dates a kind of honev which is exceedingly sweet, for 
\^ich purpose they choose those which bive the softest pulp; and having put theofir 
into a large jar with a hole in the bottom, they squeeze them by placing over them a 
•,^cight ot eight or ten pounds. The most fluid part of the suDStance, which drop* 
thiough the hole, i^ what they call the honet/ of the date. 

Evem 



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364 H O R T U S- JAM A f C E N S 1^8% -DiCHOKDt^A*. 

Even the stones, though very hai'd^ are not thrown away. They give them to their 
camels or sheep as food, aft^r they have bruised them or laid them to soften ia water. 

The date,, as well as other tr^es, exhibits great variety in its fruit, with respect to^ 
shape^ size, quality, and even colour. There are reckoned to be at least tvyenty dif- 
ferent kinds. Dates are vecy liabJu to he pie4ced by worms, and they soon, corrupt in 
moist or cainy weather.. 

from what has been said it may easily be. perceived that there are but fiew trees^ 
that are used for so many and so valpable p^jrposes as the date tree ; which must oc- 
casion a deep regret tjiat tlie cultivation of it has not been more attended to in tliis 
island.. We liave bad the bread-Jruit froro the South Seas and the date fcom Arabia,, 
but wjuit gcaer^lor real use can be expected from, them il' so little care is taken to pro- - 
P^gate then) as has hitherto been the case* 

Dates are principajly used in medicine ; their qaalitics are to soften the i^perities of 
the gullet,^ to sirengthen the foetus in th«? womb, to assuage all immoderate, flxixes of 
the belly, and to ease disorders of tlie reinr^and bladder. Their bad property is that 
tbey arc difficult of digestion, cause pains in the head, and produce thick melancholic 
blood. These elYects arise from the principfes they contain, which are, a moderate • 
share of oil, and a deal of phlegm anci essential salt. The oil and phlegm render them^ 
moistening and nutritious, good against acAmonies of the breast^ to assuage coughs,, 
&c. and the phlegm and salt render them detersive and.astiingent^and gpod against- 
diseases of the thrpat. — Chamb^r^s Cxfclopcdia, 

The Date Tree. — The unripe fruits are very harsh and binding, and the ripe also > 
while thev are fresh, but not so when they are dry. They stop vomiting and fluxes, ^ 
and chcct tlip menstrual discharge ; they are also proper tor relalxation of the fund^ba^ 
fficnt and piles, being taken in red win^. — Barham^ p, 129. 

David's Root — See SNOveaERRY. . 



m English Name, DICHONDRA^. 

Gl..5, or.. 2.— Pentandria digynia. NaT. or. — Asperifolicff: 

This n^me is derived from two Greek words signifying double grained, because eax^^ 

flower has two seeds. 

Gen. CHAR. — Calyx five-leaved, leaflets ob-ovate, netted-nerved, hairy without;- 
corolla monopetalous, inferior, rotate,, sub-campanulate, five-cleft, the lengths 
of the calyx; tiie stamens are five filaments,, with roundUsh anthers j the pistils- 
have two hairy genns, divaricate styles, and capitate stigmas ; the pericarp, two . 
globular capsules,, subhirsute, one-celled ; seeds <5ae in. each cell, globular. 

JREPENS^^ CJtEEBlNO. 

Leaves silky below. 

This has a prostrate stem, creeping, branched, round ; leaves alternate, petiolei, , 
erect, kidney-shaped, sometimes emarginate, above almost naked," below silky, radi-* 
»te- veined ; petioles round and silky j Sowers small, rather nodding, on axillary, jili-^ 



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^TOBH ,H011TUS JAMAICENSIS. /ses 

form, simple, ailky, peduncles, scarcely the lenc^th of the petiole?!, and usually soli^ 
tary. This is the sibtkorpia tvolvulacea of liniieus, but itdiffevs fi-ooa that genu^ 
wix ia class ami order, 

DiLDOFS — See Torch Thistle. . 
Dill — Sec Fennel. 



No English Name. DIODIAr' 

Cl, 4, on. 1. — Tetravdria vionogynia. - Nat. or. — Stellaia\ 

This name is derived from two Greek-words -sigmf)ring by the way, as it grows bjr- 
1«rmy-sides. 

Gen. char. — Calyx a two-leaved perianth ;- corolla one-petaled, funnel-form, bor- 
der four- parted ; the stamens are four filaments, bristle-shaped, with versatile an- 
thers ; the pistil has a roundish four-sided inferior germ, a filiform style, and two- 
cleft stigma y the pericarp is an o\^te four-cornered capsule, crowned, two-celled, 
two-valved ; se^d solitary, ovate -oblong, .even, convex on one side, flat on tlie 
other, shining^ Tiiree species are natives of Jamaica* 

1. simplex; simple. . 

Stem herbaceous,^ simple, almost erect, smooth and.eyen ; leav^ ovate-lanceO"« 
late. — Sw. 

2. PROSTRATA. ' PROSTRATE. 

Stem suffrutrcose> sub- divided; branches prostrate, filiform; leaves linear^ 
somewhat hirsute, revolute. — Sxv. 

3. SARMENTGSA. SARMENTOSB.- 

Stem flaccid, shrubby ; branches opposite^ spreading ; Ieav» oblong, acutej, 
somewhat rugged. — S'ok . 



DODDER. \ CUSCTJTA. 

Cl. 4^ OR. 2. — Tetrandriadigynia. ^ Nat. or. — Convohidi? 
©fiN.-CHAR.r— Cal3rx a one4eafed perianth, cup-^m, four-cleft, .obtuse, .fleshy at 
the base ; coroUa_one-p.etaled,. ovate, a little longer than the calyx, mouth four- 
clefit, obtuse ; the nectary has four scales, which are linear, two-clef^ sharp, and 
growing to the corolla at the base of the stamens, which are four subulate fila- 
ments, the length of the calyx, with roundish anthers ; the pistil Jias a roundish 
g^irm ; two styles, erect, short ; with simple stigojas ; the pericarp is fleshy^ . 
lauadisby two^celled, cut round, or opening horizontally ; se^ls in pairs. 

AMERICANA. AMERICAN. 

Cuscuia inter mcyorem et minorem niedia^filamentis longis etfortibus 
MxKu. - latissimQ^ 



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126^ ilORTUS JAMAlCENsts^ i>ap> 

laflssime svpfr arbores vel campos se extender.^, Sloane, v. T, 'j^. 

201, t. 123, f. 4. Mimosa repcns^ fioribus cojiglomeratis. Browne, 

p. 149. 
Flowers peduncled. 
This is. a parasitical plant, very brancTuni^, leaflets twining, tender^ shifning, and: 
ycllowisli ; common peduncles very short; flowers small, without scent^ aggregate,, 
whitish ; calyx withering, five-cleft ; seeds two, three, or only one, arriving at matu^ 
ritv* Nectary five-fringed, converging scales fastened to the petal below the statnens; 
filaments alw.rys five. — Jac^dn According to Swartz, the see<U are roundish, imdr 
tour in each capsule. IJrowne says this plant is frequently found creeping on the grass 
and lowL-r bushes in Jamaica, and that it has always been esteemed as a diuretic anA 
aperitive, and formerly used as an ingredient in seme of the compositions of the shops. 

Dodder is a str-n^>e sort of a plant, runainfj over and destroying every plant it comes- 
neiir, tiKM'tfv;r ? ts caiicd by some hcll-ueetl, or devil's guts. It hath strong yellow 
filaments, ^y wiiich it stretches over very large and high trees, covering tne plant 
which ii Ij 'tis o:i, r.nd destroying it. The flowers are white and conglomerated; it 
Latlva pal.* tHvltHiivd seevl, somivvhai flat, and twice as big as poppy-seed. This de- 
rouring wceJ gem rally takes after tlie quality and properties of tlie plant on which it 
grovi-s; b«t in general it hath a cathartic quality, and opens obstructions, &c.' — Bar-^ 
ham^ p, 52. \ 

Tlie following species of tliis curious plant is noticed in Mr. A. Robinson's mann* 
script: — 

" Fioribus pedunculatispejitandrknectariisfmhricatis antherls didi/mis. 

^ The nectareous squama) adliere not to the stanuna biu to the corolla a Httlc be- 
neath, they are of a triangular form, and have tlieir edges beautifully fimbriated; 
*there are two anthers on the top of each stamen. The top of the germ is divided intiy- 
ibur equal parts, by two furrows which intersect each other. The negroes of Liguanea*. 
mountains call it love-bush, i saw it winding about a young tree where a negro womar\ 
had thrown it, on purpose to propagate it. It is, plain Dr. Browne has not distin- 
guished this from tne common cuscuta. The petals are lanceolated ; the stamens ev«er- 
two in number, and more than twice the length of the petals. On the centre of theN 
perianth is a hollow nectareous gland, on whose margin the stamens are placed.^* 



DOG'S-TAIL GRASa CYNOSURUS. 

Cl. 3, OR. 2. — Triandria digynia. Nat. or. — Gramina. 

This name is derived from two Greek words, signifying dog's-tail, which. the gras») 
resembles. 

Gen. char. — Calyx a comnion unilateral receptacle ; glume many flowered, two- 
valved; valves linear-acuminate, ec^ual ; corolla two-valved ; nectary tvPoJfeaVed ; 
stamens three capillary filaments, with oblong anthers; the pistil has a turbinate 
perm, two villose reflex styles, and simple stigmas ; there is no pericarp ; corolla 
closely plaiting o^er the seed, and not gaping- ; seed- single^ oblong, acuminate 
to each end. Two species arc natives orjstmaica.. 

'JU VlftGATITS.- 



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*oa HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. S^f 

» 

1. VIRGATUS, TWIGGY. 

Gramen dacfj/iov panicula longa^ e spicis pluriniis gracilierihus pin^pe^ 
Tt^is vel viruiibus mallibus constanie. Sloanc, v. 1, p. 113, t. 70, 
f. 2. Loliaceum^ panioula e spkU simplicibus ttretibus conjlata 
spicillis minimis compressis dust U'hisaliernis, Browne, p. i;i7. 

Panicle witli simple branches \ flowers sessile, six together, tlie last barren, the 
lowest sometimes awned. 
yhis plant is called by Browne, the rising grass unlh rery sliinder fiower-spikes^ 
vhlch ris^ s commonly abo^t two feet and a haif, furnished with a spreading panicle at 
^y, wiiich is generally composed of a good many delicate, slender, simple, spikes. 

2. INDICUS. INDI.AxV. 

Gramen dactylon procuvihens^ crassum et virldiuSy culnio rcclinato, 
Sloane, v. 1, p. 111. Majus^ culmo co^npresso nodoso distichcfo^ 
liato atque rumoso. Browne, p. 137. 

. Spikes digitate,*linear ; culm compressed, declined, knotty at the base ; leaves 
tilternate. 

This grass is called Dutch grasSy it has a fibrous root, from which spring very green 
leaves and stalks, lying on every side on the surface of tlie ground. The stalk grows 
about a foot long, the spikes at top are usually tlirce or four. It grows by hignway' 
-sides and low grounds, (and sometimes luxuriantly in the mountains,) and is esteemed 
the best fattening and feeding gra^s for cattle. Bruised in the mouth and put on a 
bleeding wound stops a hemorrhage. I saw a black once etop a bleeding artery with 
it, — iloanc^ 

See Grass. 



DOG-STONES. ORCHIS. 

, Cl. 20, OR. l.—^Gynandria diandria. NaT. or. — Orchide^^ 

This is so named from the form of the roots in many of the species. 

Oen. char. — Calyx wandering spathes ; spadix simple ; there is no peri^th ; the 
corolla has five petals, three outer, two mner, converging upwards into a helmet ; 
-nectary one-leafed, fastened to the receptacle by hje lower side, betir^een the di* 
vision of the petals ; upper Hp erect, very short; lower lip large, spreading, wide; 
jtube behind, horn-shaped, nodding; the stamens are (wo filaments, slender, 
short, on the pistil ; anthers ob-ovate, erect> covered with a bilocular foldiiig of 
the upper Kp of the nectary ; the pistil has an oblong, twisted, infeqor germ ; 
the style fiistened to the upper Up of the nectary, very short ; stigma Compressed, 
blunt ; the pericarp is ait oblong capsule, one-celled, three-keeled, three-valved, 
openiog tliree ways under the keels, cohering at the top and base ; the seeds ar^ 
txumerous^ very small, like saw-dusL Two species are mdigenous to Jamaica. 

I. MONO'RRHIZA. ONE-BPLB£D. 

Erectum simplex j fdiis sessMms itb altera latere recurrentibus^ spica 
icrminalif riectariis longissimu^ Browne; p. 324. 

Mm3 ■ • This 



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i?;^g JIORTUS MMAICENSIS, ^!>0G\wA 

This plant is uncommon and grows to the heii^ht of eii>hteon or twenty inches, with 
simple upright stem, and oblong leaves. Broune tbunJ it in Ligutinca, and iralls It 
tiie safj/n'iun with one- eared leaves and long spurs. 

2. KABENARIA. . HEIXEB. 

Bull) solitary, undivided ; lip of the nectary tiirce-pavted,\ latend one^ bilstlc- 
shaped ; horn tilitbrm, much longer than tlje germ. 

Bulb single, middle sized, oblong, tomeatose, v^ith long, fdiform, simple, fibres 
•above the l)ulb. Stem erect, leafy, from one to two feet high, ^inij>le, angular, 
.smootii. Leaves sessilo, alternaie, sheathing at the h;is<^, *ovate-lanceolate, acute, 
smooth and shiniag, three-nervecl, netted-veincd; sheaths clct^elv Mirrounding tlfe 
stem and smooth. Flo\vers in spikes, alternate, scattered, at a little distance, white; 
among the flowers the stem is acute-angled. Sj^athes (brattcs; under the flowers wide, 
heeled, three-nerved, smootli, ^reen. Corollas five-petalcd ; three petals exterior ; 
the upper or middle one, which is the helmet, arched, erect, three-keeled, greenish 
white, smooth; two lateral somewhi't turned back, ovatc-lancct^late,- keeled, green; 
two interior lateral, cloven at the base ; the upper segmenN inclosed within the arched 
petal, of the same length ; the lower segments filiform, much longer than the upper 
ones, spreading, white. Nectary behind, under the helmet, arched ; triangular in 
.the middle, divided into cells at the jiides, and in front divided into two long horns, 
between which a funnel-fomi^nassage opens into the horn of the germ. : Filaments ca- 
pillary, from tlie lateral cells of the nectar}' communicating by canals with the tips of 
the bonis, and there glued to them ; antliers in ihe cells tilled witli yellow globular 
pollen ; germ inferior, elongated, three-sided, gibbous, hexangular ; no style ; 
^igina stretched out between the horn?, behind the opening, convex, shining, mois- 
tened. Lip of the sectary three-parted, inserted before the stigma and the horn of 
the germ; the middle jsegment lanceolate, acute, plano-convex; jjie lateral ones fih- 
form, three times the length of the other, bent down ; horn four or five times as long 
as the germ, roundish, compressed a little at the ba^, lanceolate at the end, and an- 
cipital, glued to the stem after flowering. Capsule large, three-winged, six-grooved, 
opening in the middle into six parts, coliering at the top ; seeds bristly. The flov^ecs 
are very singular, and, togetlier with orchis monorrhizay might perhaps constitute « 
separate genus. It is a native of Jamaica, in low meadows at the foot of the jnoua^ 
.^ins. — Sw. 



DOGWOOD TREE. PISCIDIA. 

Cl. 17, OR. 4. — Diadelphiadecandria. Nat. OR. — PapiHonacete.^ - 
?l'ris gr/»jric name is derived from the Latin word for fishes, the twigs of the tree 
iotOAiiN.r-; r them vviicn bruised and tiirown into tlie wafer. * * 

^<7i:N. /!' *< — Ci^lyx a one-leafed, bell-shaped, perianth, five-toothed, |:he jipper 

• :r; Cv, oUa papilionaceous ; banner ascending, emargi hate ; wings jfhe 

le bi' .*:^rj keel crescent-shaped, ascending; the stamens are ten nla- 

^ • ' ^' v^y .1 a ...eath. cloven above.; anthers oblong, incumbent; the pistil 

I ^ ;:iie - c u. pressed, linear germ; style filiform, asceiiJino;; stigma 

• >eri' *p;- i pedicelled legume, linear, with four longitudinal mem-» 

• * branagetoys 



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brana^ous angles, ono-^celled, scparatccl by ciouble isilminscs ; seeds some, sub-. 
•-« J- lu)4*"ic, Tnoic aiv two species, bwth natives ofJaaiaica. 

1. ERVTHRIXA. v ' ' 

Coral arbor poli/phyhlla non spinosa fraxini fdlioy sUirjua alls foh'acc'^ 

extantibiiSy rotiC molcmliimrite fluviatilis^ rd seminum lascrpit) 

mstar aiicta, Sloane, v. 2, p. ^!?, t. ITH, f. 4, 5. /b//» pinnoti$ 

•ovatisy racemis terminalibusy ^iliifuis quadriolatis, Biowiic, p. £96, 

Leaves ovate. 

This is a middle sized tree Rowing to tlie height of twenty- five feet or more, with a 

-Btem ahnost as large as. a man's bo ly, covered with light ci)lotfred smooth bark, havinij 

here and there large white spots ; sending out several bj'anches at the top without 

i)rder. Thcstrunk is unarmed ; th^ leaves are pinnate, with seven leaflets for the most 

part, commonly opposite, qnite entire, pubescent, deciduous; racemes ihyrsoiJ ter^ 

minating, many flowered, with decussated branches, flowers peJunclcd, nmnerous, 

rather large, of a (Jirt\' white-colour; calyx goblet-shaped, five-clrft, unequal, of a 

jdusky purple colour, hoary ; the two upper segments scarcefy divided, the three lower 

ovate, .the middle one acute; banner of the corolla roundish, compresseil, covering 

the wings and keel, keeled at iJie back ; win<js ovate, clawed, oblique, wliite, with 

.blood red veins ; Tcecl curved in, gibbous, bifid, blood red at the tip.; germ striated, 

-pubescent; style curved in, awl-shaped; legume raenjbranaceous, compressed; the 

wings not lateral but marginal, in pairs ; seeds roundish, This tree grows chiefly in 

. theiowlands, on dry calcareous hills, and flowers through several of the spring months, 

when there is uo foliage upon the tree, which succeeds soon after, it is an excellent 

timber wood, and the, bark, which has a strong rank smell, and twigs, are remarkable 

.'from their power of intoxicating fish, like tiie Suri nana poison, described under that 

Miame ; for which purpose it is pounded very small, and mixed with the water, by being 

put into sacks, in some deep and convenient part of a river, whence it spreads itself, 

;e*:olouring the water of ix reddish hue, anrd in a few minutes the fish that lie hid under 

: the rocks and banks rise and float oiT the surface, where they float as if dead, most of 

. tlie large ones recover after a time, but the smaller fry are destroyed, Browne observes 

that the eel is the only fish he noticed that could not be intoxicated with the common 

dose, though it was sensibly affWcted ; for the moment the particles spread where it 

Jay, it moved off vvUh great agility through the water ; and he saw them sometimes 

•wchased to and fro, in this manner, for some minutes, without being any ways altered. 

The wood of this tree is of a lightish brown colour, coarse^ cross- grained, heavy, 
*-firm, and resinous, and considered oite of the best timber trees in the island. As it 
lasts equally well in or out of water it makes excellent piles for wharves, and it is easi^y 
propagated by seeds, slips, or cuttings ; the stakes soon form a good live fence. 

It is thought, fromjthe resurin^ent ^^.ture of tl^e bark, that it would probably answer 
^yfor tanning leather* 

^ This tree is so well known in Jamaica, that it needeth no description, being the chief 
Tand most lasting timber in Anaerica, every way.as good as the English oak, and having 
l^uch such a leaf ; but they never grow so large. Its bark hath a very strong rank 
T-smell, and poisons fish. It makes a glorious show when in blossom, which it will be 
•when there is not a green leaf upon it : The blossoms are very white and sweet, small, 
.\j&ad(in bunches as full as the tree can hold ^ afterwards come bunches of a membranous 

* , , fiubstanci^ 



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270 * HORTUS JAMAICEN^lS! ffifasTK^ 

suhstunco, looking like hops at a distance ; in wTiich is contained Its seerl. The bark. 
i:i vcrv re ilrinj^ent : I iia\ e nmde ^ dcxoction of this bark, wiiich would cleans^ aiid 
bt( f> i'lu* ^reat Hu.K of ulcers, and make them fit to heal, and cure the manj^e in dogs. 

2. CAUTIIAGINENSIS^ CARTTlACrNIAV. 

Foliis oh/^fi^o oiatisy pinnctis ; siliquis iompressisohlongu. jBrowne^ 
p. 297. " • 
, T.c:.flets obovate, 

Browiie calls this the mountain doar^xvooS^ ai.d observes ^hat it is so like the forcffo- 
in", ooth in appearance and smell, as well as in the gram and tuxture of its wood, that 
ii \^ ditHcult to distinguish the one from the other, until the fruit is observed, which, 
in this, is quite compressed and plain, without wings. It grows to nearly double the 
size of the other, and its wood, which may be had to almostany dimensions, is ratlier 
darker, but equally 4^ood. 

This tree blossoMio in Juac and July, the blossoms grow in spilvcs, are of a pale pur- 
ple, and it does not lose its leaves wliiie in blossom a^ the eri/tlu'ina does. Theicaves 
iu*e laigcr and thiniver than tliose <jkf the other, which they resemble, and consi>t of 
clivers pairs of lobes growing on tlie naiddle rib and terminated by an odd one. Th« 
needs ;*re compressed and kuiney-shapcd. It is found plentifully in Clarendon an^ 
Vere, where it is known by the name of bitch-wood^ and is more esteejmed than any 
Other wood for the purpose of making naves for wiicels. 



Ko English Name, DORSTENIA. 

.Cl. 4, ©R. \. — Tetrandria monogynia. Nat. ok.— Scabridte. 

This was so na^ied in honour-of Dorstenius, a German physician, who published ^ 
history of plant?. 

Gen. char. — Calyx, covirrum receptacle^ qne-Ieafed, flat-cornered, very large, co- 
vered by the receptacle, with very numerous floscules inhabiting the disk, very- 
small ; proper perianth four-cornered, concave, imbedded in the receptacle an4 
tjnited with it ; there is no corolla ; the stamens are four ^laments, filiforiTi, very 
short; with roundish anthers ; the pistil has a roundish germ; a simple style; an(J 
obtuse stigma ; there is no pericarp, the common receptacle becoming fleshy^ 
seeds soUtary, roundish-acuminate. One species is indigenous to Jamaica. 

-CORDIFOUA. ^EART-LEAVED. 

Scapes rooting ; leaves cordate, ovate, tooth-letted ; receptacles orbiculate. 
Receptacle plano-convex, with a crenate dotted margin, and fleshy ; disk a Uttl# 
concave; male flowers in the disk towards the ray; calyces immersed in die receptacle^ 
or Ibur-tooiiiea holes. Filaments two, three, or four, short, with twin anthers ; flow^ 
ero in the middle ot the disk female, calyxes inmiersed, or four-topthed, four-comere<L 
h Jies ; germ o\ate, style bifid, stigmas reflex. When the germ is ripe it is concealed 
-^vuhiii the receptacle, and opens into two parts, dropping the seed; which is rpundislv 
Thrs geoiis is Clearly alUed to i(r/jVa and par^f^rii, 

POWH 



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i»wii nonrvrs jamaicensis. 271 

DO\yX-TREE, OCHROMA. 

CJL t6, OR. 2. — MonadelpTtia peritcmdrh., Nat. Or. — CotumniferiP. 

This name is derived from a Greek word signifying paleness. 

©EN. CHAR. — Calyx a donble perianth : outer throe-leaved ; lenflct^ laaceolbte, ca- 
ducous ; inner one-leafed, funnel-form, five-cleft; the corolla ha* fiVe peials, 
wedge-form, coriaceous; the stamen one cyiindric filament ; anthers five, large, 
linear, connate, creeping up and down ; the pistil tMOdsuperior oblon<T germ j 
a filiform style, covered with the cylinder of stamens ; aiigmas two, awl-shapeJ; 
wide, contorted ; the pericarp<is a coriaceous capsule, sub-cylindric, five- grooved, 
commonly tert-coniered, five-celled, five-valved ; valves wooUy within, rolled 
back at die edge ; partitions kidney.form ; seeds very many^obloog. There is 
only one species. • 

LAQOPITS; 

Hibrscii!;. ArbWfTicens trichofomoirSy fotiis amplissimis^ cordate art" 
gulafis ; semiiiihiis lana obvotutn: Browne, p» 286. 

This tree is^^ also called bovTibast irtmhoe^ and rises 'fiomctin>es to the height of sixty or 
seventy feet, and is above six in circumference ; '}t begins- to divide about twelve or 
fourteen feet from the ground, the branches-are diffuse and trichotomous, the leaves 
ilescend fronr their extremities, supported by long 7*eddish-b'rown waving pedicels •, 
their margins are plain, they arc cordat(»d sometimes,- but oftener cordato-angulated, 
a foot and a half in length, and a proportionable breadth, their colour a dulf greeny and 
hairy belowy darier above. Tlie flower pedicels arise ot^ the_ upper^ branchlets from 
the bosom of the leaves svngly, . they are erect^ thick, fleshy, cylirrdrical, five inches 
long, and of an obscure o¥ dull purf)le colour ; the flower-cup is near four inches long, 
widening from a narrowbjB^of an inch and half to near sixirK:hcs in circumference ; 
the margins are divided Jiy dents better than an inch deep, .into^aa many broad seg- 
ments, alternately' marginated, \wnged,-or welted down the middle of their exterior 
parts ; tl^e petals aretwo inches longer than the cup, and ribbed on their outsides ; 
and the stignaata two inches longer than them.. The pod is long, blackish, compressed, 
and channelled longitudinally. The silken down,, which envelopes the seeds, appears 
on firstbeinj? displayed as if- it had newly passed the hackle, the threads being ele- 

fantlyjtdisposed ail one way ; but the part of the down next the valves seems to have 
een stuffed,, and lies in a disorderly manner. The down tree is very remarkable for 
the quickness of its growth, arriving to the height of thirty or forty feet in twelve or 
thirteen years, whiclr may be a reason that the wood is very lax and spungy, being fit 
for nothing .but to» make corksf and is tmed as such by fishermen, and therefore called 
by some the coA-tree ; others stopT>ottles with it, atid some make ropes of the bark,. 
Which is thick, fibrous, ash-coloured, 'varied with whitfespots, and netted with rufe- 
scexit wrinkles, to which it seems well adapted.' The cotton is used for stuffing beds, 
matrasses, &c; and iscertainly capable of being manufactured, as itsmay be made into' 
^rments. It begins toJ>lossom in November and December, and continues flourish- 
ing three or four months. It<deUghts to grow near rivers, and in rocky or sandy barrea* 
soils in many parts of Clarendon mountains ; and is frequent on the banks of the Riok 
Cbbre, in the road to Si^Ueea-Mile-Walk ; and easily picopagated from seeds, 

BUGJC 



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i!?2 BORTUS JAMAICENSI^. wm 

PUCK OR P0N1> WEED. PISTIA; 

Cl. 16, oa. 3.^Monadelp/uaovta7i(lna. Nat. OR. — MisceUajiecc, 
"Gen. CHAR. — ^There is no calyx ; corolla one-pqtaled, tongue-shap<;cl, entire; an-f 
tliers SIX or eight, j)laced on ilio tilument ;. style cue. j capsule one-celled, jiK% the 
bottom of the corolla. There is only que species. 

STRATIQTE^.. SWIMMPNG.- 

Lentjcula palustris sexta vel JP/s[\fptiaca^ she strat^tes aqiiatiea folii^ 
sedo vutjore latioribus, Sloane, v. 1, p. 15, t. 2, f. 2. Aquatica 
vitloscty foliis obQvalis up irm yenosiSy Jiovibiis sparsia foliis incident 
tibus. Brpvviie, p. 329. 

This is a stcm)ess. floating, elegant plant. Roots many, a St>ot and a half long, putting 
forth simple fibres from their circumference. Other fibres come out at the base of the 
leaves, which are sub-sessile, wedge-shaped at the base, ellipiio, radiate-veined,, 
glaucous- velvety on the upper surface ; the central leaves smaller than the outer ones ; 
the inmost erect, convoluted, tomeniose. Tlie runners are produced from the root 
under the leaves, they are long and terminated by other smaller plants. Flowers whit- . 
ish, inodorous, axillary, solitarj*, and ereet, on a short peduncle. The corolla shrivels . 
up more or les;», and burst&.as the gcnp increases. 

This plant is rare in Jamaicn, I hav^ not observed it above onoe in that island : it 
was in a pond between Mfs. James's and Dr. Thpne's, in St. James's : but it is very 
common in Antigua, where the greatest part of their waters is collected and pt.eserve4 
in ponds, for the public use.v It grows and. thrives very luxuriantly jn these reservoirs,^ 
and keeps tlie waters always fresh ai}d eool ; which would be greatly subject to putre- 
faction, and charged with a multitude of insects, had tbev continued^ exposed to the 
heat of the sun. It has its inconveniences, howicver, ancf those not rery trifling ; for 
the plant is, of its own nature, acrid ; and when the draughts set in, and the waters 
are reduced very low (which frequently happens in that island), they are over-heated,., 
and so impregnated with the particles of this vegetable, that they frequently give bloody 
fluxes to such as are obliged to use them at those seasons ; but this inconvenience may 
be, in some measure, remedied, by mixing flour, or some other shieathing substanc^^ 
ifwtli it, if uecessitj obliges the use of it in such a stdXe.-^Browne, y. 330, 



BUMB^CANi:. ARUM. 

Cl. 20, OR. 9.' — Gynandria poli/undri(u . Nat. or. — Pipcritm^ 
G£N, CHAR. — St€ Cocoqs, J5. 2 11 . 

SEOUINUM. 

Arum cauU geniculato^ canj\a indict foliii^ summis lahrt$4egmtttntt» 

mutos reddens. Sloane, v. 1, p. 168. Caulc erecto^ geniculato^ 

in/erne nudo ; foliis majaribus pbUmgo^ovatis^ Browne, p. 331. 

Nearly upright ; leaves lanceolate-ovate. . 

This rises to the height of six or seven feet, with a|;reerftjainted stalk, at the top of 

^ich the le«^ves <u:e placed irregularly, growing in a cluster ; they are.oblong^ aad of 



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•»UW» HOIlTirS JAMAICE^NSIS, 9^^ 

SL light gveen colour. From between the leaves the flowers come out on the sWe of the 
5talk, baring a lon(j spathe of a pale f^reeu o^lour, marked with white spots, sittific^ 
close to the stem oi the plant ; at the hrst appearance it stands erect, soon after it be-r 
comes horizontal, and in a little time declines downward ; the lower part is swelling 
so far as the flowens are ranged on the spadix, above -which it is greatly contracted, and 
toward the top enlarges again, where it is a little open, so as to shew Uk* naked part of 
the spadix, but is twisted again at the top ; aH the lower part folds closely over the 
spadix, so that it is scarcely discernible, unlcs? the spathe be opened, which can only 
be doi^e on oiie side, ^he other adhering closely to the spadix, so far upwards as the 
•flowers extend, the naked part of the spadix only being separated from the spathe ; s(^ 
'that the female flowers and stamens are ranged only on one side of the spadix ; in which 
"it differs from all the other species. — Marlyn. 

This is so called befeause, if ^ny body bites of k, they cannot speak for some time ; 
'for it burns and benumbs the tongue, a»d causes a great flux of spittle. It grows in 
joints, appearing like green sugar-canes, and therehVre so called ; and some have beeu 
deceived in taking them for sugar-canes. Its fruit is like some of the arums ; but tlie 
leaves are like Indian shot, or our water-pepper, it hath been used with good success 
in the dropsy, in the following manner : Take the greenest and niost juicy, and beat 
it in a mortal into a kind of pulp; then add thereto double the quantity of hog's fat^ 
or rather tortoise fat, or snake's fat ; the which having agitated srtrongly together, let 
it lie for some days ; tlien bedt it well again, and keep it for use ; obsei-ving, the longer 
it is kept it better answers the intention ; but it must be heated and beaten now and 
-^then, lest worms breed in it. To prevent that, an3 also render the ointment more fine, 
safe, ami agreeable, take of the mass, beaten as before, warm it, and strain it through 

- a coarse doth, which boil up to u due consistence, and keep for use ; which is thus : 
Take of this ointment, and chafe it warm into the swollen parts, and apply as a cata- 

• plasm to the scrotum; by which method the watery humour will te discharged.-— 

- £arkamy p. S4e. 

This ][>l&nt ist^ommon in most parts of America, and grows chiefly iii cool and moist 
' places. The crude juice of the stalk is used to bring sugar to a ffood grain, when the 

iuiceis too viscid, and cannot be brought to granulate rightly witn lime alone. Trap- 
laur recommends a decoction of the plant by way of fomentation in hvdropic cases; 
and it certainly must be a strong resolutive, which cannot fail to strengthen and stimu- 
late the relaxed fibres in- such cases. — Browne, f iso says the roots boiled in urine are 
a proper fomentation in the gout. The expressed juice is used for curing vaws ; and 
the bruised leaves are mentioned in Dr.-Oancer^s Medical Assistant as useful in curing 
^ the itch, tetters, and ring- worm. 

The foUowing^ ingenious observations on the characters and virtues of (bis plant are 
extracted from the manuscript of Mr. Anthony Robinson : 

** On the upper part 'and extremity of the spadix are placed, sb as to cover it, a 
number of sessile, squ^e, thin, tender, membranaceous, receptacles, to whose mar* 
|rin adhere iome ten or twelve anthers ; die spadix adheres tor'the spatha more than half 
Its length, from its base on its ifhterior side*; on its ext^nor side, opposite the adhe?^ 
reotpart, are fixed two irregular series or rows of double or testiculated gertns, with 
liere and there a single one among them ; they are f reeii; sbimng, about twentv in 

N« ntimbeiv 



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v-:..: t .-/i ; ' -^'^ v\.--:v I '■'•. fiL-^iiu tw\*iL!riUy ca did^y :^(> 'ur, ' \Vii% hiiouiu it not be bO 

t;;*.-. ,n^- ;.. .■.■•(.;•• o : y.... ^'-::i ; hii* ;i.i^tu.i.;> n'>. :ri'")Vi r- lIvviv-, :• m a brine p,ifii'*iit'-ir 
S'- .^' ''..'y '} ■'^-.""^ \' *L' . ./ :*) .>'u:v 1 ii.iM;>^-n;'(i to Ciic o,-^ ,i" i^c Lm^'C-s .r:\i.. fcni pc'.hci-'i^ 

C':!\ '. li- TKL'ti'. r :\: pj..' jiKttiV ; r lei-.N* oi ;. •.• ♦j'j-ifa v, -i^^ a:!\v v^ J,ci.s is oi)Sv?f\e(l in 
c"iji;i' >:. .. ft • i^;m;-!; ;'i^; b.^^n • p'.n ; r;}']., :)U' iit-^ <L;m ohlv Cc.r'u^ Oil (runt t:ut p:,rt of 
i:.y iiK;'.;.:. v.ij c . i.a'; i,.i'':ti':-ii ' -e ].i..i.i. I iw:.;Kt (.»ii o'." "lues i'.ii'l niilk iiotii iiu ifictual^ 
K o!;: ' '^',^\^'- ^'i ^'/t '■*.., ^ r.i- : It \v..- wi'li tht ri. st nK"/: ■fp-abie diiiiruitv th;.t 1 could" 
v-in** ',1 .>. ;v ' .■.^{•o. v!i'a;)ic : i vv. ;.!j rrotbrc c^oii^ed, ^'^^^ s^ mc ik ui':,, to ccrfunuuirate 
ivij. Til. 1 1 u,;, !;v i. ^:'!:< ('1 v^vu v\\i\ i.ik. 'V LToi Jicnui'i i,;:>Ud ihe ^anio witii ais ongiie 
Uie niLiiK (ll U't f ;.]•», L\-i " 'is . 'r i;f\'v so mutii uiibcJ .m, uor oia ins t->i:,riie I. lister, 
ii'jtl a t:.irt; ;^'-c-..titn a"^ .- :f'\>^ r./ a \-: -rii'-r ilu* .^'jcoi.d, ar^l \vh?5 fc'.iil ;eNS alT-jciecl tncrei^y,' 
]:niL;} b'.; \<p.iu' K^. -l w^ ('i\ 'u^i i.'.si.: ii, eiMvr in il^ stem or );C.iicei of th? leaves^ 
tl ct i IT i.i^v 'i . ^ :--ac.' ii\:i:\ ii, M',L fr>,i» t.-ic 'sliMc tfansYcr^se .-cciiuu, Ijut Ironi eouiu 
prrtijulur v.^:iseis, iii uuit ;: Mj^ic*r*s tht c'c.l^^^tio oil ubcvo-iucnti'^iiet! ; ijni, u-s the most 
] itit .:jjc v\ li. ii.;;\ iKiiii a sc*\!'>ii 01 "..ic pedtcvJs'is tiirown o'lt in^it'iiitaneousiy^ it is 
rL\:sur ilvc iv) ^'.;:.p. .-,* ilre grra^e^.t riani.'cy fell M) my siiare, less to liiC seeoud genlifv 
mu:i, cii'i •■ill '' -is to t le ujnd ; tihci ka'-CbOaie sLoald cor.elude tiiai a plant Hhonniin^ 
with bLcij on oi. niu.:L '':^ noisoiioi' >, it ina; uot be duiiss to put them in mind tiiat th»i 
teiij whirh"! , s; very coi/ noHiv er^iiik ia ail parts of the gluhe, also ahounds with aiL 
arnJoii, vY»ji:'ii bv-niL; ot" i peneuating aeiive narnre niay, by its -Uiiiinlating quality, 
be tilt cause of the \viLCh:'ii;s or nnti-haccotie qualuy obsen^ed aftx?r drn:king it Jatc in 
an eveniej ; v.iuT(^s trie o:l of i/e dumb- cane causes sleep. T'iie mechod of prepar«v 
ing It 's to rnix a fourth part *,f eonunoii distilled rum wiiii tiiree- fourth's ol the juice, 
expre:,L.-^a h'om the stem or roois indiHeiently, of vvhicu a common spoonlul maybe 
tii.en eveiv moining an J evening ; the juice in tijis (|nantity is greatly narcotic and re- 
solvui':^. 1 .le narcotic quality I am v. 1 11 assured of by my own experience ; its resolv-" 
iiig- quaiay is obvious, by its rendering tiie saliva fluid lor many hours after taking so 
smah a de e us a commoa tea spoonfid ; this was farther evmced by its draining ©ff all 
tiJC 'AM? n :n a diop>ical patient, wbj had not t)\dy hisubilomen but liis scrotum filled ia 
u week a\cr he had been tapp<Ni; upon his u*.! \ny this in a rm^p^'V quantity, added ta 
a diuretic deco.tion, all the water ran dni^pmg out of tue orifice made hy tiie trocar, 
botii from tne behy and scrotum. Dr. Tiapaaiu's method of curing drt;psies by ai> 

omtmeait 

* Dr. Wrl^it ,savs ho never conli find a patient cap'\hle ofs^'aLo-jiins: it peiUap- this iPay liave hetn OC* 
ccLsionedby uis d^i'Mnisttring it in such std.MJiis, (vhi ti is Srt^o tj b" iv O. t <o« r, Uic r.vi'.s dt that ti.ne proba«( 
biy fillin;/ it inort tiidu usu^'l 'AJth saj),) ay it.^ caustic P':Oitu ^ prcvaiiei li.r^ uic^t in< Tiic *\ocUt mentions 
fiiiit a negro wcriiai, wlio had beeii joi;*; aui-ig, in a fit ot despair eat a t^ootJ d. ai of the dumb-ciine, with % 
^iew 10 dtstrt7 iicrself. it e\coii*t^'u ti'QS moutii aad tUroat wucii, and ^ii« voided wauy wwrrus, but reco>^ 
Xered iter licallh &oott afttr^ 



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3WARP .HORTUS JAMAICEN3IS. 275 

cinfmcnt ma'le of this plant, mixcJ with hosjs-JarcJ or snuVes-fat, proves of what £;reat 
service this may be in Lln^psies, and pas.sii>iy nn^lil give tiie hint ot rubbing the abdo* 
men with Oil cf Olives i'ur the cure ot" the siii.e, and may shew that frictions vvitU oil 
may be ofi^reater sei-vice in mcjic'u;e ihan is con^monly imagined, thoii:rh I must con- 
fess I am .11 a lobs t) account tor its mode of actm:^ in ttiis case. No insect feeds upon 
any p'liL of- the uumli-cane. It continues uncorrnpted for a considerable time after 
taken out of tiie euiti\, but the juice loses its acrinionj^ and becomes soui: m two d^iys." 



Ka EvgUsh Name. DURANTA. 

Cl. 14, OR. 2. — Didijnamia ayigiof^perviia, Nat. on. — Personafx. 

Fo na.ited in monujry of Cantor Dnrantes, physician to Pope Sextus V. who pub- 
Uishe J an lieiba^'itmu l^.^^i-.' 

Gkn. char. — Cai\x a fiv^-cleft superior perianth, one-leafed; corolla one-petaled, 
border fve-pari^^d ; stutne.i^ (vnir hlame.its, iwc longer, within the tube ; anihisrs 
roundish ; the pi-iil j-as a roundish inlerior geru), hiifoiin style, and thi.kish siig* 
ma ; tne pericarp a romidisn berry, cove^eu \>y Uie calyx y seed four kernels, two- 
4ei;ed. One s]x-»eics is a native or Jamaica. 

FLUSIA. ' KLU9. 

JanrtifunnfvUo in/c^rro ohfysn^ Jiorc ccorul o raccmcso^ frucfii flav^.-^ 
Sioan«% V. 2, p. *j7. Frulrscens t^u.ir.dnjiu .'pi}>osa ; jdiis ovatis^ 
ufrnKjiic arxi^iSf ad apican seriatis ; spias aiuV'Cus^ Browne, p, 
2b?, t. 29, f. 1. 

Fruiting caly^.es eieet. . 

This grows ten ox twelve tcet hi<^h, having near it;, top severabbran^hos with leaves 
opposite to ono pnoaier , petieled, o\ate-lanreotatp, aeunjinte, S'^rrate, nerved^ 
sine Jth on both sides, luu ernes cotnjouvi, terttHuati»H^, bracliiale, r.»:».:;y-iiw \ered ; 
f.ouers bine, o.n sho'it nc^Iuuciej. ^i\;une uki'?;.- »!os ^ ks'- i, t genus, u/v^i tiio name 
tlLsia^ in honour of Fvlr. F^ibi, the anibor of a Tu atise o-> 7.o \ l:yte:> It ^.cnl^ (!cubt- 
ful wi:ethei Browne's and iStoun-'s pian'-s be \^-^- s.vne, ai iU'>:«-h rht-y a^rti: m many 
j)articulars, for Sloane de' rubes 'be b'a\es to be in tufts h'vc those oi tno ea'aba-n^ 
winch is not th»> ra^e in BfiWje's bj.;r-r \ vm' lt^ive< l)ein'4 si sirie" a-i^'. -epoosite. He 
3ays it grows clnefly in the lowland >, :j^:! r'.-es ot^.ly s'x i-.v s-' -.n Re^ ; an 1 tbat they 
Tvere so very like the ieavt:^ v>f j;icc n.'ua, he tried sortie e\;)4r!nicnis bt f^re he was con- 
Tineed it was not the sa.ne p!ani; he i^a-is tiio biarien> w^ie soineumes betet ^vix 
•thurus but often without; and nuinoa it the tea tcavcu elti^ia, 

Dntcn Gk^-,9,—Scc Dog'j-Tail G.-iass. 
JDuTcaMA^Ts Laudanum — iite HjLL-iioor- 



. DWARF ELFKR. URTICA. 

ifll.. 21, ,OK. ^.'•-xJonoccia tclrandria. Nat. or, — Scabrid^^ 



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tn HORTUS J-AMAICENSIS, j>waW 

CrN. CHAR.— Male. Bower : — Calyx four-leared, leaflets roundish, concave, obtuse; 
there are no pt tal|j ; the nectary in the centre of the flower, cnp-shaped, entire, 
narrow er. be low, very Sinai I ; the stamens are four awUshaped filaments, length 
ot the caiyx, spivading, .each within each calyx leaf; apthers two-celled. The 
female tkjwer : — Calyx a two-valv^d ovate perianth, coi>cave, erect, permanent; - 
there, is no corolla ; the pistil has an ovate germ,, no style, villose stigma ; there . 
is|io pericarp ; the calyx converging ; seed one, ovate, blunt, compressed, shin- 
ing. Eighteen species of this genus liave been discovered in Jj^mai.ca^ the follow- . 
ing, and those placed under the name, nettle, , 

GRANDIFOLIA. LARGE- LEAF EI>. 

Lfrtica ivers racemosa ^Ivaticd, folio nervosa. Sloane^.y. 1, p. 124, ^ 
t,, 83. f. 2. JSrecta Joins ovato-acuminatis trinerviis nitidisj race^ . 
mis compressis. Browne, p. 337, 

Leaves opposite, ovate ;. stipules cordate, undivided ; .ragemes panicled, length ^ 
of the leaves. 
From a small stringy, brown, root springs a cornered green staljv ; the stem is a foot ., 
s^d four inches high,, and its leaves a span in length ; they are rough, a Httle indented . 
about the edges, with three ribs running from.the end oF the footstalk through the leaf, 
with several transverse ones. The flowers ^re in racemes, larger and smaller, brown- 
ish, white, green, and red, very small, of a pleasing fij^ure. It grows. in shady moist, 
places, and tlowers in the middle of sununer. Browne says it is comqaon in all the- 
cooler gi*ayelly banks of the higher hills.. 

This plant is so called because it something resembles the European dwjurf-elder,. 
being a short plant, with a round join ted. stalk and a reddish fruit ; but its leaves are 
much like th^ large English nettle, with large nerves or veins. It delights in shady 
places. A colonel, who had lived many, years in Jamaica, aflirmed to me, that il was 
a certain cure for the dropsy, purging oft the water gently by urine and stools, by giv-^ ,. 
ing its juice or strong decoction. — Barhum^ p. 55. 

«y^ Nettles. 



DWARF PIMPERNEL. ANAGALUS. 

Cl. 5, OR. 1. — Pentandria monogj/nia. Nat. oa. — Rotacea. 
Oen. char.— rCalyx^a five-parted perianth; corolla wheel-shaped, border five- 
parted; stamens erect -filaments, with simple anthers; the pistil has a globose- 
germ, a filiform, style, and capitate stigma ; the periirafp a elobose one-celled 
capsule, opening transversely ; seeds very many, angular.; the receptacle glo*.. 
bose, very large. O^e species is a native of Jamaica., 

PUMILA. DWARF, 

Stem erect ; leaves romidish, acute, sessile. 

This species of pimpernel is an annual plant, aad wa3 discovered in Jainaioa by 
JSw«cu« 

EAR 



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^NY HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 27r 

EAR.WORT. HEDYOTIS, 

Cu 4, OR. l.-^Tetrandria monogynia. Nat. oe. — Stellatoe^ 

This generic name is derived from two Greek words signifying sweet and an ear, 
dome of the species being reputed a specific in deafness. 

: Ge|^* char. — Cahyx a one-leafed perianth, four-parted, superior, permanent \ 
parts linear, ^harp; corolla one<-petaled, funnel-shaped, a little longer than the 
calyx, half four-cleft ; the stamens are four filaments, sClbulate, inserted at the 
sinuses of the .corolla^ with roundish anthers ; the pistil has a roundish inferior 
germ, a: filiform style, the length of the stamens ; stigmas two, thickish; the pe- 
ricarp is a twin-globular capsule, two-celled^ inferior; seeds many, angular*^— 
One speciesk i» a native of Jamaica. 

ROPESTRIS. 

Tttynuelea ^nwritima erica foliisy sureulistumidit et tomentosis.^^ 
Sloane, v. 2, p. 94, t. 202, f. 1. • 

LeJtves four-faced, awl -shaped, channelled ; ^flowers sessile, axillary ; corollas 
villose, with a crooked Xuhe. . 

This shrub rises fironv three to five feet high* having woody^diffused branches, pro- 
cumbent at the base, otherwise erect^ they are generally covered with remnants ot the 
footstalks of the leaves, which drop off and are usually reddish, with wool of a whitish 
colour between them, lying like scales over oneanother. The leaves grow at the tops 
of -the twigs, they are short,^ linear,, fleshy, convex, numerous, of a dirty green co* 
lour, like the leaves of heath,, and of a saltish biting taste." The petioles are united 
on each sjde by a membrane embracing the branch, and blunt with a point. The flow- 
ers are yellow, without scent,- ^sessile, .axillary, solitary ; the germ and part of the co- 
rolla is concealed withia.the sinus of the leaf; there is a single stipule on each side of 
the germ, of the same length and form with the calycine le&eU It growson rocks ot^ 
thfi sea co^sU'-='Sloanc (8C Jucquin^ 



EBONY, JAMAICA. AMEEIMNUIVL 

Cl. 17 f ORi A.— ^Dtadelphiadecandria^ NAT. or. — JPapilionacecF.' 

Browne named this- tfmmmnc^n, which, is the Greek word for any thing void of cares: ^ 
or.4a a state of seeurity. 

GENk CHAR. — Calyx a otie-leafed perianth, 'tube bell-shaped^ five-toothed, teetb » 
aharp ; corolla papilionaceous,^ the standard has an oblong claw, roundish, heart- 
shaped, expanding, convex; wings lanceolate, shorter than. the standard, keel 

■ short ; the stamens are ten conjoined-filaments, with roundish anthers ; the pistil 
has a pedieelled gera>, oblone, compressed-lqafy, varicose, with lateral veins^ 
within woody, not gaping^ cells disposed longitudinally witiiin ; seeds solitary^ 
kidney-shaped, diicker at the base, appendiced at the top. There are tuo-spe— - 
CMSf both found in Jamaica, . 

1. BiiaWK£l«. 



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^7a ' HORT.US JAMAICEKSiar ifBOKV^ 

FrKtko.mm ; Jol'/ir nitid^Sy cimpllcidus, cvrdato-acumijiat-js, Trowne, 
p. 2b8, t. 31, f. 3. 

UnnrnieJ ; le:.ves petioled, alierniite, subror^Iate-cvate ^ riceur^s coirpoun''| 
iixillafy, Li id l:\ti-: al. 
T/ils ?\rt*u ^roui> \xrv'c<uTimo'.)ly in the Icwjanos.' Jt r:A ^vs t' rv 'ri.sliv to tLe 
hoit^iil oi' from seven to ten Icct, and supports itsc!t' ii})on i>Ui.*r snrub>. Ii d:*i les into 
IjiiLT rv^uiul brandies, cov^ red with a b-"^cki.->ii bail^ lii.J ^t»l):;ivi..liij^ r.tto a »; x.-i num- 
iw^- of alu:rn;iUi uvi;^;s. Leavts quite entire, hhrii p, sliu^ij-'^!^ lao '>; tint j iiicnes in 
leryth. The cccxp.ion peJniicIes i>UbLaiii about ten tl^vver-, v iiicii :-.rc sniu'I, 'V')ite, 
and ijave a very sweet sce.it, aud couie out in i^ieat abuuiliUK 6; afier iwc-y ra'.;i. I'ne 
trrujdaid of tiie ccroila, u.rter rccuiiddtioii bectjnii^s trect^ wlierca^ befjrc it bpre-ii cut 

2. Ef^r.vrS. KCONY. 

Aspalathus arhi^rt'iir. S'li j-rcifuj-i-r^ntis huri fotio^ riovi' Lid'o putdlo, 

t^D,1t, Sluape, V. ?y p. 3!, t. 175, f. 1. DL»'a. — /irix^ j>cen^^ 
traUiy sjnnusa ; ^f^li:k's confcrUsy Jloi'ibus gc^iiiiictis, Broa-nc, 
p. 2 J?, t. 31, f. 2. 
Spiny ; dcares sub-sessile, a^gr(*;;-ate, f;bovale-oMr»ng ; peilurcli^s avo-nc.^ered. 

Th-s tree Iuls a pretty tliick stem, frequentl) crooked, aiid is contaion in ail :hv* Li-iiS 
T.v.d Hi.vor ^avanr.as in Jnnaica. SLaiie says it rise^ if^'iiy ^ cr, I rowne only iouuiv :i 
or fiii-oen fctjt. It bas a da.k brown f\nro/ed har*x\ 'i he exi.trnal h;iU. fret^ucntly >t • 
paratos, and appears iii;e lUHuiiibed linnp, it \^ ti un'j, an 1 us-^a us twine uy tiie nc- 
Lroos. I.he bran^:hej!; arc be.^et with many ^r'!i Li pMirLl'.:s, liiey art* touj;a and ftMKOji 
a.id the sniulJer ones arc frccpieiuiy used lur ri.ing r-/. iiciiej.- iu^'y ap >ear la^ked in 
drs weather. The fluv\ejs are tlnrk sei. on the iji. tiebes, tn^iy a:o.,v^f a yed^w joiot.r, 
p.ipiiionaceous^ and very C'|>ei^, Ljvh^g a s.veei .;n:e.'i • the Lavts, vihiui m tju'eil the 
ll;>v.ers, are sn»aU ana rv iir..i'sli at .T^p, wn^re V^.y are largest, of a dar*< <^ieei; jol-t r^ 
smot ^.h, and shiiauo ; tnc j^ooi art- very tim: ar.:i bro.vn, containing one see^J Txi-J 
weoa ci tins » ee is ot'a fnie creeirsli be-nn ."jljurand va{;abie of a very tine p(.h h, of 
a very hur i (hinibh- r.a.jne, ant! mach nsc-r: c,y i:istru!ne!R uvikers. It is liowever very 
diireteiit IVoin iLl Fait India e jon^'. It is propa-aced from fccevis. 

Ebon:;. — Th-s tree grows eveiy whe^e ui the savanups. It ha*h a small leaf hko hex, 
an-l a }v.lu.Vv' I'.i WLi ii: e Kr;g<'.,h broom, an(i, after rai'-s, puts forth its ii'j'.vcHS, 
ti.c.k:n;^ lliC •;rtva!iT\.s Ijok hk*i rD-l.di i;rov'^in>fieIds. lis heait, or inner parr, is u^ 
b.ack as let. Ti;e oii of H enres tiie tooth-ache, cotton being dipped in it, and pt^^ 
into the holi'AvneiS. — Larhii,n^ p. 56. 



EUONT, iMOUNTAlK. BAUHINIA. 

Cl. 10, OR. 1. — Dtcandrla 7n'moc^i/7ua. Nat. or. — Lovieyiface^, 
This £;crius was so naiaed in hcnctir of tvvu- celebrated 'Lo'-anist'?, Joha" auJ Caspar 
feauh::i, 

Gek. 



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GlV, r;i* f^.— fj^vx nvi'^-rr^fr, ^l-^-- ]•; )us, f^-"^"^'!!!?; ; tlio cni\ Ha five ^.^!^•^or prl-j!:^ 
u\'\t /. u; I .•:<! L.i ..n '» -'I'-'i cia.vs, umj \:].]}^v one more 'J;>Ur"jt, l>"»\vor oo > li'i'-cr, 
r-'. 'H -rrt. vi ;ti. v tne ("Jyx ; t!:'^ stA.y-'iis art; ten ti.anients, cJo-^.linir.^^ slc.-^^ *r tha:\ 
tl.t . i;i u' ,. X' e ti '.t:i fiic ii'^fj-n-sl ; Mvlicrs ovat<:^, ahv;ivs en Av? len:ii, pr*!,".' ni ou 
tii.' r;-t ; t:..-:j jr -til ii;is an f>^!'j:i;, f^t^'^'J'!, sitfin''- on a jk* li^'cl ; styie f/i:l^/i-ni, cir^- 

fKiC'--: liu'l : t.ie sect » art' mills , ro'iusi.^n, coin|>r'',ssevi, p!a<'t*d acc^'P-MnLT '"O tL«-. 
leL'^i'u 01 the legume. One «pe-^\es of tnis g<^nns ia a njlive of Jambica. 

pWvRrcTA. ■ ST:iErrnM\ 

StUcs spin'i'if aut (L^^fch^Jio l^^ih's arbor silifjur.^rr foUis h*fi:^^s^ Rare je^ * 
tar.etalo -j.iriu. SLuxi.e, v. 'i, p. 61. Folus bilobis^ sp:ci$ lujtc; 
tt'nntitaJ.h'is, J];ovvr.e, p. 9ca^, 

Leaves c"K:atc ; 1()Ih\s ]X'rr-ct^'], acute, three^ncr^e;! ; petals lanceolate. 

Thl> t'*eo ri-cs icLv^ut fjUv;ru feet liij^h, h'lving' aeveral sliaij^iil trunks, al)OUt t!ie 
thicku^^s of a r/un*s 1( ;^^, eo\eiV(i v.itK a vhitlsli bark, dn idiiii?; into many branches and 
t^vios, makm^; a ;^leH.>.tnt U)r>. Txic leaves.stanJ withv)Uc any order, on mch long fort- 
Ltiilks, they T'c tt:rc<Mn(lv?s Ion-:; airJ two broad, whe:*e broade.s^ of an odd shape, 
coipeihin^ ii'-<e t;.:.l ui shears wi.e/ewiui slieeip are shorn, h^tvin^" p )ints, as if a piece 
v/ero rul om^ or havinf^ a e.x>'p .nrl.;u;e. or noc-jh, ihoy are i.>uu J at the base, of a yei- 
lowii!\ green oolou'', s'i:;wth, ihhij hLvmLT seven or ni:)iO ri:>3 with some transversa 
ones, making the vvh/Jo very neiv >us. Ti:e fiowers come^out at the ends of the twigs, 
several to^etlier^. on pedicels lialfan indi in ien2:th; the I'-etals are loniTi r^'^ti and while 
variep^ateJor .-triated ; s* aniens lonf," and white ; h gniues bn>wn, fiveors'x in.^hes in 
l?nL,ih. I* t;Tov/a cveiy where cri the Li!! i in Jamaica. Tne wood is very haivi, and 
veined with bla?k, whence thr» nnnie of ebony. The decoction i.> a ^ood lv)tion for ul- 
cers ; the root boiled in wine GUI es pnst'iles in the <3a!-, being rubhtd witn it. The 
flowers beaten v/ith peppei and appned to the forehead cures the hoad-ach. — Sloaiic. 

Three East India species of this oenus have been introduced, and are in the Ilortu^ 
Easteiisis, ViZ. UiQpujjmrea, scandtns^ ^.^^X-jarie^ata. 

EcASTAPynXLi'M — Se.c Pterocarpus* 
Em)ors — See Cocoes. 



EGG-PLANT. SOLANfUM. 

Cu 5, OR. 1. — PerUandria 7n^nn^yn?a, Nat, or. — Lurid<r* 

^EN. CHAR. — See Calalne, branched ^ p. 141. Some of those plants have from sup to 
n^en stan^ens^ and the caiyx and corolla the same number cf segments. 

MeiONGRXA. 

Sol77ium pjm?ferum quurtumy she fracfu chlongo, Sloane, r. r, p.' 
237. nirmtufji et spi/iosum^ /ruciK mckxihio^ cdUce niajcri spinoso, 
Browi^.e, p. 173c - 

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580 HORTUS JAMAICBNSIS. ^ jc.EPiuNi^g 

Stem herbaceous ; leaves ovate-tomentose ; peduncles pendulous incrasiatcd. 

There are three or four Tarieties of this plant, some prickly some unarmed, the 
insanufny or species described by Sloan© and Long, is so nearly allied to this that it 
cannot be considered more than a variety, " It is sometimes called brown jolly or ma(U 
apple J and a large kind was some years ago introduced from the East Indies, called ha^ 
dinjan or banjiiam. They all thrive very luxuriantly, and have been i^enerally culti- 
vated ia. Jamaica, in gardens. The root is composed of a multitude of fibres and does 
not descend very deep ; it rises with purplish downy«steros; tl^e branches^ire put forth 
near the ground, reclining, and frequently run on it ; they are pretty thii-kly covered 
with leaves, which stand in pairs, and have stipules ; /they have a loose down, are moder- 
ately large, ovate, deeply sinuated about the edtjes, and stand on long petioles, in 
some of the varieties armed with prickles. -The flowers are usually si.igle, sometimes 
two or three together, they are longish, and of a palo violet colour, with yellow a'ifher« 
and green stigmas; the peduncles are axillary, thickened, bent down. "Tiie fruit is 
. in some of a beautiful purple colour, in other* violet, whitish, or variegated.; some 
of them half a foot in diameter, or more, having a bitterish tasted skin. The fruit is 
, often introduced at table both boiled and dressed as turnips, as well as fried, and either 
. way is an agreeable food, and accounted to be aphrodisiac. Boiled with wine and pep- 

!)er they taste like artichokes. They are nativ<3s of the East Indies, and some of them 
ong ago introduced into Jamaica by the Jews, who sliced and pickled them for a few 
hours, and then boiled them as ^ green. The fruit of the hadinjan' is by far the largest, 
some of them having been found to weigh from sev/wi to ten pounds each* AH the 
, plants are easily propagated from -seeds. 

Mad i/ipples.'-^These are trib^d among the sdanums, or nightshades ; they are vul- 
garly called valanghanna'^ in Jamaica. .The only reason, that I can find, why they 
are called mad apples is, because they bear some resemblance to mandrakes : Some 
have fancied they were the male mandrake^ and,, imagining them to be poisonous^ did 
' . for that reason call them mad apples : ButI know by experience to the contrary, hav- . 
ing eaten many of them, both boiled and fried ; but the best way -is to parboil theip, 
taking off their outer skin, which is a little bitterish, and then, fry them in oil or butter. 
J planted, above twenty years ag6, half tin acre 6f ground with them, .on which my 
slaves fed, and were well.pleased with the food. ^They eat, something Eke a squash, 
but better than any of , the pompion kind; and are so. well known in America, as %o 
.need no particular description. Angola. negroes call them /b;2^u, and tbe Congo ne- 
groes viacumba. — JSurham^ p, 93. 

jSec CjdMJJ^f prickh/^<iAUKBK Berry— Nightshades -^Potatoes— Tomatos—" 

Turkey Berries. 

.ELDER-^See Fepvek EiiDEB. 



ELEPHANT'S fOOT. ^ELBPHANTOPUS. 

Cl. 19, OR. 5. — Syngenesia folygamia segregaia. "Nat. or.— t7(>wpwfAr. 

This was so named frqn^ tti^^pe of the lower leaves of the^cst species resembliqg 
(ha foot of aa elephant. 



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ELEPHANT'S ffORTUS JAMAICENSIS. 281 

Gen. char. — Calyx — Involucre of three broad sharp leaflets, many flowered, large, 
permanent,, without an umbel ; partial perianth four-flowered, oblong, imbricate ; 
corolla compound, tubular, hermaphrodite, coroUets ; stamens five short capillary 
filaments ; anthers cylindric ; the pistil has an ovate germ, fibform style, two 
stigmas ; there is no pericarp, the calyx unchanged; seeds solitary^ compressed ; , 
down bristle-form ', receptacle naked. Three species are natives of Jamaica. 

1, SCABER. ROUGH. 

Scabiosa affinis anomala sylvatica^ enulce folio y singulis- ftosculh albis 
in eodem capitulo periantliea habentibusy semine papposo. Sloane, 
V. 1, p. 263, t. 156, f. 1, 2. £ rectus; foliis oblongo ovatis rugosis 
afgue. serratisy floralibus cordiformibus teniatis ; capitulis remotis 
termimlibus, Browne, p. 312. . 

Leaves oblong, scabrous. 
The stem is round, striated, and rough> rising three or four fleet ; the leaves have 
half inch long footstalks, they are large, rough, or corrugated, and woolly underneath^ 
and become smaller towards the top* It is adorned with a great number of flowers, 

fathered into pretty large heads, at the extremities of the* branches, supported by 
oary inch-long footstalks. The seeds arc of an oblong form,, and crownecl each with 
five little bristles. The f^eneral footstalks are very long, and terminate tlie branches ; 
but, at the separations of them, . may always be observed a smaller head growing to the . 
stem, without any supporter. • it grows in the woods of Jamaica very plentifully, and 
is a good vulnerary. > The leaves are freq^^ujtly used instead of carduus bentdictus in- - 
the French islands.— *yfo^«e fiC Browne. . 

2. SPICATUS. • SPTKED. ' 

Cemyza m({jor inodora^ heleniijolio'integro siceo et duroy eichoriijlore 
albo e ramorum lateribus exeunte. Sloane, \. I, p. 256, t 150, f. 
3, 4. ' E rectus hirsutus ; foliis inferioinhus ovattSj utrinque pro^ 
ductisj Jloralibus oblongis ; capitulis alar ibus. Browne, p. 311. 

Leiaves ovate-lanceolate^ serrate, scabrous,; bundles of flowers sessile, lateral \^ 
stem branched. ^ ' 

At first coming up it has many leaves five inches long, and ah inch and a half where 
broadest ; beginning very narrow, they continue so for two inches, and end in a round 
point ; they are hard, smooth, dark green, and indented about the edges. From 
among these a i*ound, strong, green stalk rises, four feet high, with an embracing 
leaf at each joint : it has branches towards the top, standing round at every joint, di- 
vided into others which are beset with smaller leaves. Fi-om the axils of these come 
out the white flowers, without any peduncle, standing in small green leaves. It ^rew 
Oft thcbank:* of the Rio Cobreancl at Guanaboa. Tlie stalks and leaves being hard are 
made use of for broom to sweep houses. — Sloane. Browne calls it the swaller erect 
eUphantopuSy with the flowew disposed at the alae.of the upper leaves, and says it is 
comnoon in most-parts of Jamaica, growing chiefly in open gravelly lands, ris'mg to the 
height of fifteen or twenty inches, or more. The common receptacles of the flowers 
rise singly flPom the axils of the upper leaves, and seem disposed in the fprm of a spike, . - 
but there are seldom more than four florets in each. The seeds are crowned wi^h four* 
little bristlfts. — Browne. 

O o 3. ANGUSXa^OLlUS^- - 



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wa HORTUS JAMAIGENSf-Sl rcKurmAW*- 

3. ANGURTIFOLIUS. SMAl-L- LEAVED. 

Conyzd inodoay helenii folio ^ integroj duro^ anguste^ otfongOy capi^ 
talis in later ibus ru7norum conglanieralis. ..Sloane^ ▼. 1, p. 256^ 
t. 148, f, 4. 

Stem-leaves linear-lanceolate, entire^ villose ; flowers glomerate, in sessile and 
peduncletl bundles ; stem simple. 

The root is large, oblong, whenceTises a sin gle,t round, striated, hollow, stalk, 
aboAit two feet high, having sessile leaves set on it alternately ; tjaeir lower part, 
whereby they are joined lo the stalk, having a membrane inclosing it ; they are about 
five inches long, and half an inch broad near the top where broadest, ends round, are 
of a pale green colour and wrinkled. Towards the top come out the flowers in a spike^ 
sessile, inclosed io an involucre of a, few dry brown membranes, which are followed 
by small channelled seeds, having much pappus on them. .1 found it' about ^lount 
Diablo very plentifully. — Sloane. 

ElLISIA — Se^ DURANTA. 

Elm,' Spanish — See Princewood. 
vEnglish Plantain — See Plantain. 
, ^IFHiArSee Besleria. 



'No English Name^ »T.RITHALIS. 

Cl. 5, OR. I. — Pentandria monogymtt. Nat. or. — Rubiaeea^ 
This name is derived from a Greek word ^gtiifying fiill of verdure. 

' Gen. char. — Calyx a tjne-Ieafed, live or ten toothed, pitcher- shaped, periariA ; 
corolla monopetalous,' five-parted or five-petaled, with the divisions bent back; 
stamens from five to ten ; anthers oblong ; the pistil has an inferior roundish germ^ 
•filiform style, and sharp bifid stigma ; the pericarp a elobose berry, crowned, ten- 
. ceiled^ slightly teurgrooved ; sqeds jsmall, in each c^ll one. One species is a na« 
iive of Jamaica. 

• frotigosa. shrubby. 

Fruticulom foliis obovatis crassis nitidis oppositisy pedunculis ramosis 
adulas superiores. Browne, p. 165^ t. 17, f. 3. 
X.eaves opposite ; corymbs compound. 

..Browne mentions two species.of (his plant, .which are thought to be. t)nly varieties^ 
the shrubby erithaliSy and the arborescent erithalis^ the latter, he says, has the flowers 
iu racemes, and the leaves entire and veined. He found- both about the north-east 
parts.of the island ; ^e former growing among the cliff's that lie to the west of Port 
^ntonio, and seldom rises above two or three feet ; the other aho»t Manchioneal Bay, 
where it grows to the height of eight or ten feet. Swartz observes that the berries are 
b)ack, and the seeds about nine. Jacquin says the flowers are white^ and mostly aUc 
^amened^ and the calyx and corolla six cleft ; smelling like common syringa. 

£rnodea— i'c^ Spurge, branched. 



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Wmwo^ HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. / «6» 

' TVb English Name. EROTEUM 

Ct. 13, OR. 1. — Polyandria monogynia, Nat. or. — Doubtful. 

C*N. CUAR. — Calyx a five-leaved perianth, leaflets ovate, concave, incumbent, per^ 
manent ; corolla five-petalqd, petals ovate-roundish, concave,, entire, spreading ; 
the stamens are numerous filaments (thirty), shorter than the petals, erect, fili- 
form, placed on the receptacle ; antliers roundish, minute ; the pistil has an ovate, 
pubescent, superior, germ; style erect, generally longer than the stamens, awl- 
shaped, trifid at the tip^ .permanent ; stigmas obtuse, simple, reflex; the peri- 
carp is a roundish berry, juiceless,. acuminate with the permanent style, smooth^ 
three-celled ; seeds in three's or four's, oblong, compressed a little. There are- 
only two species, botk found by^Swartz in Jamaica. 

1. THJEOIDES. TEA^LIKE*. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, serrate-toothed ; flowers axillary,? solitary* 

2. UNDULATUM. WAVED* v 

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, serrate; flowers crowded, axillary. 
Branches flexuose at top, hairy- tomentose^ especially towards the tip. Leaves al- 
ternate, two or tiiree inches long, -coriaceous, broad*lanceolate, acute at both ends, 
smooth, paler urKierneath^ thicker at the edge ; the younger ones nervtd, and hair^ 
underneath ; petioles very short ; peduncles four or five, but sometimes solitary, one- 
flowered, the sameiengtb, with the petioles;, qalycine leaflets ovate, very finely ciliate^ 
cbtuse. It varies. With smootii branches. 



ERTNGO OR nrwEED. eryngium: 

Cl. 5, OR. 2.-^Pentandria digynia. Hat. or. — Umhellatas. 

Crir^. CHAR.— rCalyx, commoTi receptacle^ conic, chaffa seperating the sessile flos- 
cules; involucre of the receptacle many leaved, flat, exceeding the floscules; pe- 
rianth propcV'five-Jeaved, upright, sharp, exceeding the corolla, seated on the 
germ; corolla universal^ uniform, roundish, ^oscules, alliertile; proper five- 
petaled, petals oblong, the tips bent inwards to the base, straitened longitudi- 
nally by a line ; the stamens are five filaments, >capiilary, straight, exceeding the 
floscules ; anthers oblong ; the pistil'has a hisped inferior germ ; styles two, fili- 
fonn, straight, length of the stamens ; stignKw simple ; the pericarp is an ovate 
fruit, divisible in two directions } seeds oblong, columnar* One «pc<;ies i& a 'na- 
tive of Jamaica. . 

TOETIDUM* STINKING. 

^ryngtum. folds angustis serratisfoetidum. Sloanej ^. 1, -p. ^4, t.. 
156, f. 3y'4. Fcetidum foliis inferioribus anguMis serratis, supe^- 
rioribus laciniaiis eiactUeatiSr- • Browne, p. 185. 

Root leaves lanceolate-serrate ; floral leaves multifid ; stem dichotoroous. 
This plant has something of the appearance of a thistle, and very common in Ja- 
loaioa^ It kas six^or seven round smoodi whitish roots^ about tea inches long, going^ 

OoZ ^trai^hc . 



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284 HORTUS JAMAIC«NSF9, wcHAtfJT 

straijjbt down into the earth, and uniting in one towards its surface. The leaves spread 
on the ground on eveiy hand to the number of five or six, eijjht inches lon^-, and one 
broad near the end where broadest, very deeply serrated, and having on their edges 
soft prickles. From the centre of the leaves rise one or^wo stems a foot or more high, 
Roniewhat angular, green, dichotomous, spreading,, having at the division two deeply 
cut, prickly, short, leaves. I'he leaves on -the branches, opposite, stem -clasping, wita 
their ed<jes toothed. The seeds set round a small column, are brown, with ]nemis- 
pheric dots. All paits of the plant have a very penetrating strong, though not very 
unsavoury, smell. It is counted a great alexiphariiiic. .The dijiitilled water is reckoned 
extremely useful to resist hysteric fits. — i'loafw. 

' The root powdered, and taken to the quantity of three drachma, in ten ounces of 
water, strengthen.*? a weak and cold stomach, eases pains of the belly and other parts 
from colds, dissipates wind, is good for choiic and Iliac diseases, is diuretic, and helps 
tlie catamenia, cures surfeits, incites venery, and is ^ood against the bites of venem* 
ous serpents. It has a better eiiect if it be given out of a hot and strengthening liquor, 
it dissipates preternatural tumours And humours of the join ts,^ and remedies all cold 
intemperatiu*es. — Jionandtz. * 

AH the parts of this plant are reclconed powerful anti-h)rsterics and epileptics, ttdmi- 
nistered in decoctior.s or infusions, hence it has been c^WeAjitweed ; it is also said thiU: 
the decoction has been found useful in asthmatic complaints. Barham says it tastes 
like skirrets, and, having a strong smell, is good against hysterics if only smelt 



ESCHALOT. ALLIUM. 

Cl. 6, .OR. 1. — Hexandria monogyma. Nat. or. — Spathacea* 

C^N. CHAR. — Calyx a common spathe, roundish, withering, many-flowered ; co- 
rolla six oblong petals ; stamens six filaments, subulate, often the length of the 
corolla, with oblong upright anthers ; the pistil has its germ supenor, short, 
bluntly three-cornered, the corners marked with a line; style simple ; stigiBa 
sharp ; the pericarp is a very short capsule, broad, three-lobed, three-celled, 
three-valved ; seeds few, roun<lish. Sereral species of this useful genus hx^ 
been introduced, and generally cultivated with success. 

1. ASCALONICUM. 

Scape columnar; leaves awl-shaped ; umbel globose ; stamens three*cusped. 

Tlie eschalot vras found wild id Palestine by Dr. Hasselquist. The root is conglobate, 
consisting of many oblong roots, bound together by thin membranes. Each of these 
small roots sends forth two or throe fistulous, long, awl-shaped leaves, issuing from a 
sheath, and are nearly like thosg of the common onion. The flower-stem shoots from 
a membranaceous sheath ; is round, almost naked, and terminated by a globular umbel 
of flowers, which have erect purplish or blueish lance-«haped petals of the length of 
the stamina. The root of this species is very pungent, has a strong but not unpleasant 
smelly and therefore is generally preferred to the oaion for making l^gh flavoured soups;;^ 

and 



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fTHUtU HORTUS JAMAr€i:NSlS. 2?5 

-and gravies. It is also put into pickles, and in the East Indies they use an abundance 
of it for this purpose. It thrives well in Jamaica. 

TKe eschalot is easily propagated from the smaller roots or offsets, and the time of 
taking them up is determined by the withering of the leaves, 

2. PORRUM. LEKK. 

Umbel -globose ; stamens three-cusped ; petals with a rough keel j root coated^ 

This is the common leek^ which is leafy at bottom. The sp^he is shortly conical^ 

deciduous. Flowers in a close large ball, on purple peduncles ; corolla also purplish, 

^J'he leek is propagated from seeds, which are known to be ripe by the heads hanging 

clown. The leaves are much of the same nature with those of the scallion, noticed under 

the article onivn, of which it is a varjety. 

3. SCHQENOPRASUM. , 

This is the cive or chive. The leaves are awl-shaped, hollow, and the stem naked ; 
bulbs long, flat, oval, connected by recti-linear planes. This is a small sort of onion, 
•and i^ mueb the same taste, smell, "and virtues ; it is propagated by parting the roots* 

See GAKUQ^ind Onion. 
Essence of Lemon Tree — See Savin TrfEB. 



No English Name. ETHULIA. 

'Cl. 19, OH.,1. — Syngenesia polygamia aqualis. Nat. or. — Composite. 

^ Gen. CHAR. — CaJyx many-leaved, leaflets linear; corolla conjpound, tubular, co* 
rollets hermaphrodite ; stamens have five filaments, with cylindric anthers ; the 
pistil has a pnsmatic germ, a filiform style, and two recurved stigmas ; there is no 
. pericarp, the calyx unchanged ; seeds solitary, no down ; receptacle naked, con- 
vex, exc^ated wi.tK points. One species is a native of Jamaica. 

struchium. I 

'Herhacemi sub^assurgens, foliis oblongo ovatisy utrin^ue productt\ 
capitulis cunstipatis ad alas. Browne, p. 312, t. 34, f. 2. 

'Flowers axillary, sessile, all trifid, 

' This rises generall} to the height of two feet and a half, or more ; the leaves alter-. 
^Tiate, oblong, entire. Flower bunches interspersed with a few smaller ones, that rise 
between the common cups, as they stand compacted togetlier at the axils of the leaves. 
Calyx bell-shaped, imbricate, with unequal narrow acuminate scales ; from erect 
spreading ; c^rollets nearly equal, the marginal ones trifid, the central four-parte 1 ; 
»gcrm oblong, angular, crowned with its proper calyx, which haa about four Uttle 
notches ; style longer than the corolla ; stigmas oblong, .revolute \ receptacle tumid, 
4oxxj^-^Browne^ 

Ettow— -fee Clammy Cherry, 

EYEBRIGHT, 



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58e HORTUS JAMAICENSIS^ wrEBRlGKf 

EYEBRIGHT. EUPHORBIA, 

Cl. 11, OR. 3. — Dodecandria trigynia, Nat. OR. — Tricocccp, . 

Tliis is derived from Euphorbus, physician to King luba,. 

Gen. char. — Calyx a one-leafed j)erianth, inflated, somewhat coloured, four-toothed 
at the mouth, in some five-tooLhed, permanent-, corolla four- petals, some five, 
turbinate, gibbolv?, thick, truncate, unequal in situation, aHernate with the teeth 
of the calyx, with their claws on their, nmroin, permanent ; the stamens several 
ftlaipents (twelve or more), filiform, jointed, inserted irjto the receptacle, longer 
tlian the corolla, breaking forth at different tirnes ; anthers twin, roundish ; the 
pistil has a rpundish geim, tricoccous, three-celled, starting open elastically ; 
seeds solitary, roundish. Eleven species are naUves of Jamaica, the. following, 
and those described under spurges, 

MACULATA* SPOTTED. - 

Chcuno'syce. Sloane, v. 1, p. 198. 
Leaves serrate, . oblong, hairy; flowers axillary, solitary; branches patulous. 
Tliis is an acrid and milky plant, readily springing fi*om the seed, and growing com*- 
monly in J9maica. The stems are numerous, and spread close to the ground ; leaves 
oblong, obtuse, and .softietimes lieute, obscurely dentic:alated on the superior part, 
smooth on tlje surface, but edged with hair on the back and margin, extremely nu- 
merous, green, or red, or deep purple^ -and sometimes spotted, thickly crowded on 
the tips of the branches in particular ; flowers very small, on very.short footstalks from 
the bosoms of the leaves^ ^c^lyx green, petals redj^ capsule hairy. 

This is a sort of thyme, the smallest spurge of them all, and the most common, for 
it grows every where, even in the streets, between paved stones and bricks. I have 
known ^veral persons use it, with good success, to take off the spots or films on the 
eyes, >hat have come after the small-pox, and that by only dropping the milky juice 
into them4 buti .should think it more safe to mix it with a little honey, for it eats off 
all sorts of warts. . Tiiepeople in. Jamaica call it eye-bright,, for its great cures to the 
eyes. — Bar ham, p. 182. 

It is mentioned b)^ Sloane, that, boiled with victuals or sall^t, this {>lant loosens the 
belly; and that writing with its juice is not discovered but by asbes. 






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-^fxmgt HOllTUS JAMAICENSIS. 687 



J'an Palm — See Palmeto. 
Felwort — See Spirit Leap. 



TENNEL. ANETHUTVL 

Cl. 5, OR. 2. — Pentandria digynia. Nat. or. — Umbcllatoe. 

'^EN. CHAR.— The general umbel is multiple, a& is the partial, neither has an invo- * 
lucrum ; the general corolla uniform, the sin^^le flowers consist of five lanceolatecl, 
involute, entire petals ; the stamens five capillary Blaments, with roundish anthers ; 
germ inferior ; styles small, stigmas obtuse ; fruit naked, sub-ovate, convex, 
' striated on one side, plain on the other. Two species have been introduced. 

t. FGENICOLUM, ?ENNEt. 

Fruits ovate* 

This plant is a native of Europe, and must have been introduced a long time ago into 
Jamaica, as it is now found growing wild in many part5, and thrives a^ well as if a na- 
tive. There are two varieties of this plant, the conmion and the sweet. The sweet is 
smaller in all its parts than the common, except the seeds, which are considerably 
larger. The seeck of the two sorts differ likewbe in shape and colour; those of the 
common are roundish, oblong, flattish on one side, and protuberant on the other, of 
a dark almost blackish colour ; those of the sweet are longer, narrower, not so flat, ge- 
nendly crooked, and of a whitish or pale y^^llowish colour. Both the seeds and roots 
are used in medicine* The seeds of both the fennels have an aromatic smell, and a 
moderately warm pungent taste : tjhose of the sweet fennel are in flavour most agree- 
able, and have also a considerable degree of sweetness ; hence our colleges have di- 
rected the use of these only. They are ranked among the four greater hot seeds, and 
not undesen^edJy loolced upon as good stomachics and carminatives. A simple water is 
prepared firom them ; they are ingredients also in the compound spirit of juniper, and 
s»me other officinal compositions. The root is far less warm, but has more of a sweetish 
taste, than the seeds ; it is one of the five roots called openers; and has sometimes 
been directed in aperient apozems. Boerhaave says that this root agrees in taste, smell, 
and medical qualities, with the celebrated «7W5C«^ of th^ Chinese ; from which, how- 
ever, it appears to be very considerably different. The leaves of fennel are weaker 
than either the roots or seeds, and have very rarely beea employed for any medicinal 
' use. 

2. GRAVEOLBNe. STINKINCU 

Truit compressed. 

'This is called dill^ an annual plant, also a native of Europe : the root long, slender, 

: and white ; the leaves are divided into a multitude of fine, long, narrow, segments, 

like those of fennel, but of a blueish green colour, and less strong smell. The stalk is 

.round and firm, growing to the height of four feet, with yellow ttowers in moderately 

. large umbels. It was introduced into the Botanic Garden, Liguanea, by Hinton East„ 

£sq. The seeds are the only part used. They are of a pale yellomsh colour^ in shape 



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J8S, HOHTUS JAMA rC EN SIS. - fER!!!- 

nearly oval, convex on one side and flat on the other. Their taste is moderately warm 
and pungent ; their smell aromatic, but not of the most agreeable kind. Several pre- 
parations of them are kept in t*\e shops. They are recomnienJed as a carminative, in 
flatulent cholics, proceeding from a cold cause or a vii>cidjty of the juices. 



PERN. FILIX; 

This name is derived from filum, a thread, from the threadiness of these plants,, for 
which this is a general name ; they constitute the iSi^t orde^r of Ijnneus' class crypto- 
'gamia^ called cryptos^amiajilices, ^he fructification of this curious and natural order 
differs essentially frum all others, at least in its situation ; being generally disposed 
either in spots or lines on the iwider surface of the leaves or fronds. . There being no 
certain distinctions in the fructifk-ation sufficient to establish- the genera, and the parts 
being too small to be observed without the assistance of considerable magnifiers, the 
genera are chiefly distinguished by the disposition of the seeds under their covers. — 
The general structure ot the fructification in this order is the following : The calyx is 
a scale, springing out of the leaf, opening on one side ; under this scale,, commonly 
supported by little ibotstalks, but sometimes sessile, ane globules for the most part en- 
compassed by an elastic ring ; these burst with violence, and scatter a powder, whicli 
is supposed to be the seed. These globules or seed vessels are covered by a very fine 
thin semi-transparent skiir^ which bursts open before the j^eeds are ripe. When they 
are ri[)e, the ring or cord endeavours to become straight, and Jby its elasticity bears 
open the capsule, which then forms two hemispherical cups* This curious mechanism 
may be observed by the assistance of a. good single microscope, with a reflecting spe- 
culum. The powder which is dispersed in this manner is so minute as hardly to be 
visible to the naked eye. That it is the seed has been proved, by actually raising plants 
from that of the hart's tongue by Morrison ; and lately in tlie most satisfactory manner 
by Mr. John Lindsay, formerly surgeon in Jamaica,. from the polypodium lycopodioides 
{see Polypody), and related by him in the l.innean Transactions, v. 2, p. 9'8. 

The uses of ferns are little known ; they grow in -great plenty in Jamaica, and are 
the worst weeds known, it being almost impossible to eradicate them, their roots taking 
such fast hold of the ground, some^ of them having been found to tlie depth of eight 
feet. If cut when green and left to rot, the leaves are said to form a good manure. — • 
Few of them are esculent. They have a disagreeable heavy smell; In Targe doses tliey 
are said to destroy worms, and some of them are purgative. In many parts of Englancf, ., 
it is common to burn them and make balls of the ashes, with a little water, which they 
dry in the sun ; they are called ash-ballsj which ar^ made use of to wash linen, and are - 
considered nearly as good as soap^ and might be rendered very useful for that purpose, 
for scouring and cleansing negro clothing. The balls, before they are used, ^re made 
r.ed hot in the fire, and readily fall into powder when thrown into water. There are • 
about one hundred and twenty different species of fern known in Jaqaaica, for particu- . 
lar descriptions of which 

See Blechnum — Fern,/<:»77wiZ^ — Fork-Fern — Goldy Locks — Horse Tail— Maiden- 
hair — Marattia — Marsilea — MooNwoRT — Mules F^rn-t- Polypody — Ser- 

BENT'S TONGl?£ — SpLEE^W^ORT — WOLF'S ClAW^ 

FERN,. 



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HORTUS JAMAICENSiia 4Ml 

rtlOi, female. PTERIS/ . v 

Cl. M^ or. 2. — CryptogamiafiUces. Nat. or. — Filices^ 

This takes its name firooi a Greek word| signifyiog a wing*, on account of its mnged 
leaves. 

CrEN. CHAR.— Fructification in^an uninterrupted marginal line ; involucre from the 
margin of the frond turned in, uninterrupted, seperating on the inner side.-^ 
'I'hii^en apecies have been discovered in Jamaica. 

The following have nmple fronds : 

1. ANGUSTIFOUA. SMALL- LEAVED. 

SVonds laneeolate-lineari entire, erect, fruiting along the whole edge. — SoK 

2. L!NEATA« LINEAR. 

FtoaEids linear^ quite entire, ihiiting longitudinally. 
TTie following have pinnate fronds : 

3. GRANDIFOUA. GREAT-LEAVED* 

Srecfum simplex^ foliis ohlongis marginath tt leniter undulatis*^^ 
Browne, p. rOS. Acrosdcum 6. 

Rnnas opposite, ovate-linear, acuminate, quite entire. 

This plant is called, by Browne, an acrostiaiwij and he says it grows in the cooler 
fountains, and seemed to like « free, open, gravelly soil, and seldom rises above three 
leet and a half from the ground. He makes it the same plant as Sloane^s, v« i, p. 84^^ 
Ji^ 41, acrosticum marginatum^ described under the article^r^/er». 

4. LONOrPOUA. LONG-LEAVED. 

Simplexy foliis impetiolatis longis angustis auritis. Browne, p. 90. 

. Pinnas linear-repand, cordate at the base* 

This plant seldom rises above fourteen* or sixteen inches, and is remarkable for its 
narrow simple leaves, and undivided stalk. — Browne. 

5^ DENTICULATA. SAW-TOOTIIED* 

Xower [linnas semi-pinnate, lanceolfite^ the balrren ones toothlet-ciliate, the 
fertile ones quite entire.— iSiv. 

^. VITTATA. FILLETED* 

Simplex assurgensy foliis longiaribus ianceolaiis^ petiolis brevibus.'^ 
firowne, p. 90. 

Tinnas linear, straight, rounded at the base* 

This plant springs from a large firm root, and rises commonly to the height of twelve 
4ir siicteen inches, sometimes more ; it grows in moist, cool, snad^*, places, but thrive^ 
fcest in a rocky or gravelly soil;— -ffrtwne. 

7. TRICHOMANOIDES. TRICHOMANES-LIKE. 

Trichomanes majus pinnis sinuatis subtui niocis. Sloan^ 1. 1, p. 



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^89* HOftTirS JAMAICENST&. MMI 

80, t. 35, f. 1. Acrosticom l.^^Simplex vUloiumj foliis tanceohtC'* 
evatis crenatis et sub^auritis petioloM^^ minimis. jSjc^wne^ p. 105. 
Pmnas sub-ovate, blunt, repaud, hirsute uademeath. 

The leaves are about a foot long, with reddish -brown, shining, slender, footstalk^ 
The pinnce are sometimes opposite, sometinoes alternate, very-thick «et near, the top. 
The leaves are of an irregular figure, notched about the edges ; green above and very 
• trfiite below, with a brown down on the margiu. It is comnion in the middle moun- 
tains of Liguanea, seldom grows more than ten or twelve inches in height, and has the/ 
appearance of an adiantuvu 

The/ollowing httoe sui-pinnate or branchad/rands ;. 

8. PEDATA. FOOTED. 

llemionitis foliis atrovireniibus maxime dissectis seu filix Geranif 
Jiobertianifplio. Sloane, v. l, p. 13, Minor simplex monfphyllus^ 
atque lobaius, lobis pro/unde 'incisisy,lacintis lana^olatis. 'Browne^ 
p. 90. 

Fronds five-angled, trifoliate; pinnas pinnatifid, the lateral ones two-parted. 

. Thfs httle plam seldom rises above four or six inches from the ground ; it is beauti*. 
fully disstHted, and of a very singular form ; but varies much in its division and ap- 
pearance. — Browne. This nlapt has also the appearance of an adiantum^ aod.tfae leaves^ 
are of a dark green colour above. -, 

9. CAUDATA* TAILED. 

♦ Filixftemina seu ramosa major^ pinnulis angustissimis rarissimisqut, 

Sloane, v. 1, p. lOl, t. 63. BamosxiSy fronde rarioH lohatOj loirs 
linearibus auritis quandoquc subdivisis^ terminalibus longivribus.-^^ 
# Browne, p. 91. 

Fronds super-decompound ; pinnas linear,, the lowest pixmate-toothed at the- 
base, tlie terminating ones very long. 

Tliis plant is very common in the mountains of Jamaica. It grows very thick in moat 
. open spots, and tlirives best in a stiff clay. — Browne. It rises about five feet high with 
a strong stalk, cornered, as big as ones finger, of a black colour at bottom and reddish, 
green above ;. having branches, sometimes opposite, sometimes alternate ;, on which 
oomc the twigs beset with pinnae, very narrow, having a large space between each.— ^ 
Sloane* 

10. MUTILATA. MANGLED; 

Ramosus^ foliis linearibus per pinnas alatas. Browne, p. 91. 

Fronds decompound,^ leaflets pinnaita, the lowest semi-pinnatifid, the terminat*«i- 
ing one and thpse of the base very long. 

This plant grows like the foregoing,, but never rises so high j it loves aa open goui 
irelly sou, and is very common in the lower hills. — Browne. 

11. BlAimiTA. TWO-EARED. 

Simplex^ pinnis longis in lobos angustos falcatos profwfiii sectis^ iiu 
^ma, ulrinque gmiinata^ Br^vvne, p. 80f 

Erondf- 



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ii»WWoad HORTUS JAM-AICITNSrs; f9l> 

Fronds pinnate, pinnas pinuatifid, the lowest two-parted. 
This plant gro^s in the cooler mountains of New Liguanea, it rises comraonly to 
the height of two feet and a half, and is easily distinguished by the jregular division of 
its lower ribs, — Browne. 

12. HETEROPHYLLA. 

JRuta mvriarice accedensjilix minor non ramosa^ pinnulis subrofundis 
profunde scissis, Sloane, v. I, p. 92. Sesquipedalis ramosus ; fO'm 
♦ liisyninoribusoblongisserratis, Browne, p. 91. 

Fronds bipinnate, pinnas ovate-oblong, serrate, blunt, the fertile ones quite 
entire. 

This is a very elegant little species, it grows commonly in moist and shady places, 
«nd rises to the height of sixteen or eighteen inches; it is pretty much divided, and 
the leaves, when young, are serrated ; but, as it begins to seed, the margin reflects, 
and none of these are seen. It is very common about the Cascade in ISt. Ann's.— 
Browne. 

This has been confounded with osmunda crispa of Linneus, but ought to be res- 
tored to this genus. The fructifications are at first in an interrupted line about the 
edge, but, when matured, become confluent, and are covered by the reflex margin. 

The stalks,^are of a dark ^een colour, having twigs opposite below, alternate above ; 
the leaflets are set alternately, about nine pair, with an odd one, they stand on short 
footstalks, are roundish, and deeply cut on the edges. — Sloane. 

13. ACULEATA. PRICKLY. 

"l,eaflets doubly pinnatifid; divisions broad lanceolate; segments jserrate, the 
^/^minal one elongated; trunk arboreous, and stem pricUy. 

See Fern, 



FIDDLEWOOD. CTTHAREXYLUM. 

"Cl. 14, OR. 2. — Didynamia angiospermia. Nattor. — Personates, 

This name is derived from two Greek words signifying a harp and wood. 

4Gr£N. CHAR. — Calyx a one-leafed bell-form perianth, five-toothed, acute, perma* 
nent ; corolla one-petaled, funnel, wheel-form ; tube twice as long as the peri- 
antli, thicker at the top ; border five-parted, two-lipped ; segments villose above, 
oblong, truncate, flat, very spreading ; the stamens are four filaments, with the 
rudiment of a fifth firom the middle of the tube, filiform, two of them somewhat 
longer ; anthers oblong, twin, erect ; the pistil has a roundish germ, a filiform 
.^tyle, the length of the stamens; stigma obtuse-headed; pericarp a roundish 
berry, somewhat compressed, one-celled ; seeds two, ovate, two-celled, convex ' 
^n one side, concave on the other, emarginate at the end. Tnree species are na« 
Aives of Jamaica, one is Juio wn by the name of old woman'' s bitter^ 

Pp3 LCAUDATUfif^ 



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09 H0RTU8 JAMAICENSrS.. YIDDLEWtfO)^ 

1. CAin>ATUM. TAILED, 

Fruticosum^ foUis subelipiids^ petiolis pedatis^ calicihus friincatuSf 
spicis terminalibus hngiaribus^ Browne, p. 265, t. 28,. f. 2. 
Branches round ; calyxes truncate. 

This is called ovaUeaved or lovg-$pilad fiddkwood: The leaves are elliptic, emar*^ 
ginate, obtuse, cniire; racemes erect ; caKx slightly toothed. - Browne says it is but 
a shrub, which seldom grows above ten or twelve feet in height, and bears a great num- 
Ber of buiall berries, disposed on divided spikes at the extremities of the branches^ anci^ 
that it is pretty common about Sixteen-Miie-Waik, 

2. MELANOCARDIUM. BLACK-HEART.. 

Berberis fructu arbor v aximn bacdjera raceynosayfoliis ifitegris ^•^ 
kisiSf Jtore aibo ptntapetato^ odoratissimoy fructu nigro vionopyreno. 
Sloane, v. 2, p. 99, t. 206, f. 3, 4. Foliis rugosis ovatis oppositis^, 
petiolis geniculaiis^ raccmis taminalibus^ xalicibus quadrijidis^-^^ 
Browne, p. 265. 

Branches quadranguls^r; racemes- terminating, eompouBd';; flower four-8ta«^ 
' mened.. ^ 
This tree grows chiefly in the lowlands ami savaimas^ where it is frequently observedi 
to rise to the heit^ht ot forty or fifty feet ; and is generally looked' upon as one of the* 
hardest and best timl>er trees in the itland,. The body grows, to a considerable thick- 
ness, and is cuv( re^i witii a tiiick wiiitish bark, wlucD, like the grain of the wcoj, winds « 
in a locse sjMrai torm. The leaves are pretty long,, rugged, and slightly serrated ; and; 
the blossoms disposed inbuiuiies, at the extremities of the I ranch e-. The berries are- 
small, and of a }tliow colour ; they contain each two hcHiispheric shel s, thafcontaia* 
the seeds : the nuts or ?uu'uii of tiiese may be easily parted into two lubes orticgments.. 
The berries are sometunes eat by the negroes. — Browne. ^ 

Sloane supposes thata sweet smelling essence might be made from the flower of this , 
tree. The wood is very durable,, even wiien exposed to the weather or put into the 
ground, and therefore makes excellent. posts : it grows plentifully in most of the lower - 
mountains^ From its durable quality the French gave it. the name otjidelle waod,.vvMcu , ' 
we have corrupted xo fiddle, A dye of a beautiful straw, yellow, or orange colour, lor 
masons' work, is made of this wood as follows : — ^Take of strong white lime a suiiicient 
quantity to finish the work intended,, mix it with water,, as for white wash, put it in 
casks or other utensils,, then add thereto the heart of black fiddlewood, finely cfaipt, or 
the shavings, in such quantity a3 will produce the colour required^, let it remain in the 
lim^and water three or four days, repeatedly stirring it, so as to extract the dye— • 
which can be reduced by ^p additional quantity of water, or strengthened by more ■ 
chips and lime, at pleasure*. ^ This will be found a never faiUng method, and afar su« ^ 
fierior colour to any other material whatever now, in use^. 

Browne takes iM^tice of two other kinds of fiddlewood^ which he thinks maybe only. 
^Ettcieties^ viz. : 

!• WHITE PIDDLBTW^OOIX 

ErcctuWi fvlits cblongis, mortice l€vtp JruUibus s^rsis^ Browne,, 

|).4i6^ 

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mm HORTUS JAMAICENSia 293 

Tlbif tree h most frequent in the more hilly inland pa^ts of the island ; i^ gw>ws to a 
Mnsiderable size, and is commonly looked upon as a good timber tree ; but should be 
used where it.may not be exposed to the weather. I have seen many of these trees ia 
the mountains of St. Elizabeth ; but did not observe any blossom, and have only ranged* 
Ibem in this class from the appearance of their berries, which agree in every respect 
wth those of the other species. — Browne. 

2. OREEK-HEART FIDDLEWOOJO- 

Foliis venosis ovaiU aUcrnis^. ca^tica. scabro kngitudinaUter fsso.'-'^ 
Browne, p. 2iiS^ > 

This tree is frequent in the woods about the Ferry, where it grows to a very consi— 
dierable size, and is generally l(X)ked upon as one of the best timber trees in the island. 
I; have not seen any of its fruit or flowers^ therefore could not class it to any certainty^, 
but have placed it here irom its outward appearance, and the grain and texture of ~ 
wood* — JJrawac 

-Sc^s Ou> Woman's BiTTEB^ 



FIG.TREE-- nous. 

Gl.. 23, . OR. a. — Po^ygamia trioecia^ . Nat* or.'— Sirairnir^ 

GENi CHAR. — Common calyx ol^ovate, very large, fleshy, concave^ closed with very^^ 
many semi-lanceolate, sharp, serrate, inflesc, scales; the inner surface is covered- 
with floscules, the outer of which, or those that are nearer to the edge of the calyx, , 
are male : these are fewer in nunaber ; thj rest lower dowa are female, and more*- 
numerous. Male, each on its proper peduncle,. cal}rx, perianth proper three-* 
parted, erect, divisions lanceolate,., erect^. equal ; there is no corolla ;tne stamens 
are three bristiershaped filamen ts, .length oiF the calyx,^ with tJfia anthers; the- 
pistil a caducous intorted rudiment. The female, also each on its proper peduncle,. 
calyx, perianth proper five-parted, divisions Janceolate-acuminate, straignt, nearly 
equqi ; no ct)roHa ; the pistil has an oval g.erm, the size of the proper perianth ; . 
style subulate, Jnflex, coming out from, the germ at the side of the tip ; stigmas^- 
two, acuminate, reflex, one shorter than the other ; there is no pericarp; cal/r' 
cbhque,. containing in its bosom a seed, which is siilgle, roundish, compressed*.. 
Two species of this genuft are. natives of Jamaica, and.the canca^ ,ot common &^ 
lias ;^lso heciv introduced. 

!• CARICA. TWf.. 

Leaves palmate,, sub-trilobate, rugged underneath ^..fnrits smooth^ pear^sEapecl^ 
} umbiiicatei 

The catica^ or. common fig, has been long ago introduced, and thrives very laxuri- 
«Dtly in the lowlamls, bears well,- and produces so delicious a fniit, tliat it improbably 
not excelled in tho^e countries where it is indigenous. It is generally propagated by • 
suckers, but Mr. Miller recommends its propagation by layers ; the tree should hardlyv 
ever be pruned, or but as little as possible; but, if it grows too luxuriant, the grounds, 
^guld be dug up one side of it, and, about two or three feet from the bottom of the- 
ltux)k| dli.tberu(M should be cut away (l)ig; and iittle); and the hole filled up. with^^ub^ 
i • faisha 



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S94 HORTUS JAMAICENSi9>' 19h 

bish of a dry barren kind; which, if the like superfluous growth shbuld^oiitintre, may 
be tried on the other side the following year. But, if the tree does not bear thick, «r> 
the fruit be observed not to come to perfection upon it, tlie top stems should be cut ofF^ 
}k> soou as they and the fruit begin to appear in tiie spring. — Broxenc, 

The fig has large "palmated or hand-shaped leaves, and there are a nvunber of 
iFarieties. 

There is a remarkable circumstance in the history of the fig-tree, which, for many 
ftges was enigmatical, namely, the capnjicationy as it is called, which is panicularly 
worthy of attention, not only as a singular phenomenon of itself, but as it has furfiisned 
one oi' the most convincing proofs of the reality of the sexes of the plants. In brief, it 
is this: The flowers of the fig-tree are situated within a pulp' receptacle, wxiich we 
call the fig or fruit : of these receptacles, in the wild fig-tree, some tiavo male flowers 
only, and others have male and female, both distinct, tiiough placed in the same re- 
ceptacle. In the cultivated ng, these are found to contain only female flowers; whicli . 
are fecundated by means of a kind of gnat bred in the fruit of the wild fig trees, which 
pierces that of the cultivated, in order to deposit its eggs within ; at the same time dif- 
fusing within the rcce})tacle the farina of the male flowers. Without this operation the 
fruit may ripen, but no eifecrrve seeds a^c produced : hence the garden fig can only be 
propagated by iu^ ers and cutti^igs, Jin those countries xvherc the wild fig is not known. 
The process of tiius ripening the fruit, in the oriental countries, is not left to n.-ture, 
but is managed with great art^ and different degrees of dexterity, so as tiO reward the 
skilful husbandman, who conveys the gnats at a proper time, fixing them at tlie ends 
qf the branches, with a much la^rger increase of fruit than would otherwise be produced. 
A tree of the same size where caprification is uot practised may produc^e twenty-five 
pounds of fruit, but, by tliaf art, brings ten time3 the quantity^ 

Figs are employed as emollient cataplasms and pectoral decoctions^ The best are 
those which come from Turkey. In the south of France they are prepared as follows : 
The fruit is first dipped in scalding hot lye, made of the ashes of the fig-tree, and then 
dried in the sun. Hence these figs stick to tlie hands, and scour them like lixivia! 
salts ; and, for the same reason, they excite to stool without griping. They are mo- 
derately nutrimental, grateful to the stomach, and easier to di^jest than any "other of 
t^e svreet fruits.. 

2. VIRENS. OREEW, 

^ Ficus Indica maxima^ folio ohlongofunicuUs^ e summis ramis demiisii 

radices agentibus se propagans, fructu mivore spho?yico sanguineo. 

Sloane, v. 2, p. 140^ t. 223. ^rboi ea assiirgeiis utrngue brachiata^ 

Jbliisovatis^ ramis appendicuJtas tenuis JiexiUs acpmdentes demit* 

Untibus. Browne, p 110. 

Leaves oblong, acuminate, quite entire, smooth and e^en, narrowed and rounded 
at the base. ;- 

This large tree has roots running a great way round it, winding and twining on the 
surface of the ground, with a light grey bark, and growing from large spurs, like the 
cotton tree. The wood is soft, but makes tolerable good boai-ds for flooring, door% 
tables, &c. The trunk is divided at the top into many branches, spreading on every 
i^and^ liavi^ig leaves on inch long fgotstaULs, eight laches loiig, &n4 half {^ broad in the 

•ixuddk^ 



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im ITORTUS JAMAIClCNSIS. 89* 

middle^ of a dark green colour. The fruil la spherical, and full of red grains or seeds. 
The whole tree and fruit, in every part, vrfjen broken, is milky. The fruit is much 
eoveted by wild pigeons. — Sloane. Sloane descril)es five kinds of this tree. His three 
first are thought to be the same, or at most varieties of this species^ as well as Browne's 
second and mth kinds. 

This inonstrous tree is at first but a weakly climbing plant, that raises itsdf by the 
help of some adjoining trunk, rock, or tree; and continues to shoot some slender 
fiexite radicles, (Jr appendixes, tliat embrace the supporter, and grow gradually down- 
wards, as the stem increases : this at length gains the summit, ana begins to shoot both 
bnmches and radicles, or appendixes, more luxuriantly ; these in time reach the groi^nd^ 
tlirowout many smaller arais, take root, and become so many stems and supporters to 
the parent plant ; which now begins ta enlarge, to throw out new branches and appen- 
dixes, and to fonii a trunk from the summit of ixs supporter ; which still continues ia' 
the centre of the first radicles, interwoven in their descent, and at length augmented 
and connected gradually into a common mass or body about tlie borrowed foundation ; 
which, if avf'geuble, soon begins to dt cay, and at length is wholly lost within the 
luxuriant trunk it suijpocted.. This tree is. very common in both the -East and West 
Indies, and a poor despical^le creef)cr in its tender state : it seldom fails when it meets 
with a proper support, and generally makes use of ail the arts of true policy to perfect 
its growth ; but, when once complete, it will live a long time,, for it throws out many 
new appendixes for eVery one llmt chances to fail, and each more useful, as they sup- 
port the top more immediately : nor is this all, for the roots frequently emit new shoots^ 
and these rise by tite parent prop into other trees j and thus one plant is sometimes oh- • 
served to raise a whole grove. — JSvowne. 

Si. AMERICANA. AMERICAN* 

Micus Indica folio oblongo, obtuso-fructu minore pallide Tuteo sphitrico^ 
Sloane, v. 2, p. 140. Arborescens folio oblongo ovat is j bate is sub ^ 
verrucosis. Browne, p* 

Eeaves ovate, oblong, veined, . q^uite entire;, fruits axillary, peduncled, clus- 
tered. 
This tree has a trunk as big as ones thigh, covered with a whke or ash-coloured bark,.. 
rising about twenty feet high, with br uiches on every hand, with leaves placed. irregu- 
larly at their ends, two inches lonj^ and one broad, standing on half inch long foot- 
stalks. The fruitrstands on short toot^atks, is round, bigger than a cherry, of a pale 
yellow colour, having within a small thin pulp, and a great many round brown seedd. ' 
'AH parts of the tree ate milky. It grew near the Rio Cobre. — Sloane. This appears 
U> 1^ Sloane*s fourth and fifth, and -Browne's third and fourth kinds^ 

Fig^Trees. — Besides the delicious Spanish fig, we have a sort of wild firgs, growing 
iSpontaneously in most parts of Jamaica, whose trees are very large and spreading : Sir 
•H. Sloane calls them^ficus Indica marimay and -makes five sorts of them. They differ 
a little in shape,, bigness of truit, and largeness of leaf; but othemise little or no dif- 
ference, all having a* BTiilky juke, which is dangerous if it flies into the eyes: The 
}uice is thickened, by the sun and art, into a gum like bird-lime. It is rare to see any 
of these trees grow up straight of themselves, but have generally supporters ; for^ 
((omng^by the side of aooti^^y tl^ey clasp rou^d it^ and when it hatb.got some heig^itv 



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^99 - HORTUS JAMATCENSia TiKGutt* 

it then puts out little branches like a withe, which grow downwafSs to the ground, 
where they take root, growing bigger and stronger like stilts, and then spreading on 
the top, they overcome and. destroy its first supporter. There is both white and red, 
but both very soft^ hke deal, of which the negroes make bowls, trays, and spoons.—. 
Its fruit is about the bignessof an apricot. They are as large as ihe cotton-tree, but 
seldom straight. That which hath areddish wood, I am of opinion, the balsam capivjf 
is.got from, or at least a balsam may be got as good. — Barham, p. 59* 

— — * 

The feus tmctoria^ a native of the Society islands, called niattee^ is in the Hortug 
Eastensis, it was brought to Jamaica in his Majesty's ship Providence, and is .used ^ 
a dye wood* 



FINGRIGO OR COCKSPUR. "PISONTA. 

Cl. 23, OR. 2.-^Polygamia dioecia. Nat. or. — Nyctagines. 

This genus was named in honour of William Piso, a physician of Amsterdam, zxxHtimt 
of a Natural History of BrasiL 

Gen. char. — Male calyx scarcely any; corolla one-petaled, 'bell-shaped, five-clefk, 
segments acute, patulous; the stamens are five, «ix, or seven, awU«haped fila^ 
ments, with roundish twin anthers ; the pistil has an oblong germ, a short style^ 
and a pencil-shaped stigma. The female calyx and corolla as in the male ; th^ 
pistil has an oblong germ ; a style simple, cylindrical, longer than the corolla, 
erect, with bifid stigma ; the pericarp is an oval hexty^ often five-cornered, valve^ 
less, o|^*celled ; seed single, smooth, oblong. Swartz classes this genus Jiep^ 
iandri^numogynicu Two species are jiatives of Jamaica* 

l.ACULEATA. f»RICKLY* 

PaliuTo affinis arbor spinosaj fore racemdso heriaceo penfapttatoickf 

; Jructusicco niido cannulato lappaceo, Sloane, v. 2, p. 25, t. 167^ 

f. 3, 4. ^ssur^enSf sarnientovalidOf folnsovaits utnnque produce 

4iSy spinis validis recurviSy racemis laterdibiu. Srbwne, p. 358. 

iSpines axillary, spreading very much* 

This plant rises- eight or nine feet high, with reclinine branches, and requiring stip^ 

port» froip neighbouring trees, which it turns round. Tue branches, twigs, and 

spines, are always opposite ; the latter awUshaped, acuminate, axillarV} perpendicular 

to the branch, strong, recurved at the points. Both twigs and prickles mase a crosi 

with those immediately under them. This tree is often bare of leave% and the flowers 

sboot first oa corymbed racemes^ branched, axillary, and terminating, not reaching 

beyond the leaves, but, when in fruit, much elongated The flowers are small, greens 

ish-yellow, numerous, supported by three.awl-shaped bracte^, if* the flower tcrwinatee 

the branchlet of the raceme, hut with two only if it is placed at the sidex)f it, the ra^ 

ceme itself then serving for the third. To the flower succeeds an oblong, cannulatedt 

rough, naked, brown, large, seed, sticking to any thing by means of crooked points. 

After the fruit is perfected come the leaves, at the ends of the twig^s, oval, acute, quite 

catir^ smootbi petioiedi about two iaches ancl a bal£ long wid ooe bxwd^ of a daijk 



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rtretioo HT)RTUS JAMATCENSTS. «97 

Tfecn colour. Dr Martyn gives the following description, in the Gardeners Wctianary, • 
(i' the different appearance of the male and female plants raised frora the same seeds :. 
' The male plants have stalks as thick as ones arm, which rise ten or twelve feet high ; 
tbe bark is of a dark brown colour, and smooth ; these send out many branches by 
pairs opposite, which are much stron^i^er than those of the female, and do not hang 
about so loose : they are garnished w ith obovate stiff leaves, an ihch and a half lon<^^ 
wkd an inch and a quarter broad, standing opposite-on short footstalks. From the side- 
of the branches come out short spurs, having each two pairs of small leaves at the hot- • 
tom, and fromtfae top conaos out the peduncle^ which is slender, ^bout half an inct 
long, dividing -^it the top into three ^ each of these sustain a amall corymb of herbace- : 
ous yellow flowers, eacih having £v:e stamens, ^a«ding.outibeyoad the pptal^ termin* t 
ated by obtuse anthers; . 

" The stalks of the female plant^v- not bcmg so^troTi^ as those of tbe male, require * 
supports Tliese rise eighteen or twenty feet high, sending out slender weak bfanches, - 
opposite, which are/ armed with short, strong, hooked, spines, and have small oval 
leaves, about an i»eh and three quarters broad ; these stand opposite on the larger 
branches, but on the smaller they are alternate, and have short footstalks. The flowers • 
are produced in small bitncbes at the end of the branches, sitting upon the germ ; they 
are shaped like those of the male, but have no stamens ; in the centre is situatecl a cy« 
lindrical style, crowned with five spreading stigmas. The germs after^rds turn to a -i 
chaiinellecr, five-cornered, glutinous, capsule, lu^med with small crooked spines, eaclt^it 
containing one.oblcuigi oval, jsmooth, seed'* ' 

Thiyplantis frequent iirall the stitrar islands; it is a stroncf withy climber, whose - 
main trunk is sometimes no less than five or six inches in diameter ; Kut this is gene- • 
rally iathe woods, where it thrives best, and is commonly supported by tbe help of 
SQipe of the neighbouring trees. ^ Tbe flowers are very various ; they are sometimes^ 
h^*maphrodite oti every branob) sometimes male m one branch,, and female ui another, 
aod sometinaes male, female, and hermaphrodite, oa- the diflferent parts of tbe same • 
pUmt ; but most commonly they are all of one kind The decoction of the roots, with * 
those of the lime-tree, Sloane s»ys, are thought good for gonorrhoea ; and so it is if 
the root is ground and mixed with lime juice until it is tbickened therewith. The 
w^od, being tougband flexible, is frequently used to mdce hoops. There is anpthen *• 
S9xdli prickly plant ^called fingrigo^ ^e fnimou^cimteay described %uider tl\e name^.* 

Fingrig&j^^l^\i&m soifie negro ggre the name^ for itvb Vety fuB i>f Booked prickles^^ 
like cock- spurs; and some call 3ie plant 90, sdiicbis well known in Jamaica. Tbe • 
bk>ssom smells as sweet as tbe English fi^y. The seeds, y/ben dry, stick fast tp anjF ^ 
thing^ they touch, Ukebmr*; rbaveseeo.gr0imd-doye& and pea^d9ves, that CQvet to^ 
cat Uie seeds, stick so fast about them that they could not make use of their wings, so » 
that you might take them up in your hands. Hike root of this plant negroes use m v^^ 
fieraal cases. — Barham^ p. 6a 

2. NIGRICANS;' BLAC«.: * 

UhanAed \' leaves* OTate-acuminate ; ffowers cymed, ewct ; ftuits berrlect "■ 
'4M0rtz refers tiie^w»& inermis of Jacquia to tbis species, 4vbich he found in ^'^ 



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2M HORTUS JAMAICENSI.fi: »tBH 

maica* J^cquin describes it as a small tree without thorns, upright, tw^ve-tnd some- 
times twenty feet in height, with a trunk five inches in diameter. When it grows in 
thick coppices it acquires an inelegant habit, not much unlike the first species. Leaves 
oblong- lanceolate, acuminate ; -racemes like those of the prickly sort, but not elongated 
when in fruit; contintiing after the fruit is fallen, and then becoming red ; bractes the 
same. Flowers small, greenish yellow, having a slight odour ; berry black, soft, con* 
taining a whitish pulp, which is often wanting^ being probably .eatea by insects^ fur ik 
i^ always found iu the unripe iruit. 

Tit-WEED — SeeZRYHGO. 



FIVE-FINGER- ATIUST. 

Cl. 20, OR. 9. — Gynandriapol^andria. Nat.xjr. — Pipent^^ 
Cen. chab.— ^'^e Cocoes, j;. 2 1 !• 

irURlTtTM". tARET^. 

^rum maxuninn scandens geniculatttm et trifotiativm foliisy ad hasim 
aun'culatis. Sloane^ v. 1, p. 169. ^Scandens triphi/llumy foliisju^ 
terioribus aun'ltSj petiolis vaginantib.us. Browne, p. 331* 
Hadicant ; leaves ternate, those at the side one-lobed. 

This plant is very common in Jamaica, running upon trees, and is very remarl^dbtei^ 
•as being the only species of arumy in this island, furnished with compound leaves.— 
The stalk is better than an inch in diameter when full -grown, thickly jointed, and full 
of a milky cbmmy juice ; as are all parts of the plant, from the joints proceed clavi- 
cles, or roots, which adhere strongly sto any tree it climbs upon^ by which it reaches to 
^he top of the highest trees. The lieaves are produced towards the top, their footstalks 
encompassing the stalk, when they drop off leaving those marks which distinguish the 
joints. They are lonjjer than the leaf, sheathed within a few inolies of it, wnere they 
become-round. The leaf haa three lobes in the young plant, tut, as it acquires age 
and strength, throws forth ears from the outward leaves, until it has frequently seven 
dhrisionsj the hinder ones appearin^4ike spu^ to^-tha others. 11>e uppermost or mid« 
die leaf is by far the largest, being frequently a foot long and half as broad ; the othera 
diminishing as they recede from it, the smallest not exceeding four inches long and two 
broad. The leaves aJ'Vsmooth and inilky, .dark green above, and paler below. 

A decoction of the leaves, stems; or^^ojts, of this plant is sometimes used as a sub^ 
slitute for sarsaparilla in venereal complaints. The stalks and leaves, boiled .with salt 
and other hog-meat, .are tusedin jnauy places for the purpose of fattening hogs. 



TLEA.BANES. . CONYZA. 

<^t. 19, OR. 2,'^Syngene$ia polygamic superflua. Nat. or. — Composttif. 
IBen. char. — Calyx common imbricate, roundish, squarrosp ; scales acute, the oufl^ 
. ^MJpewbat spreading i cproUa compound^ lubiUose; coroUets fi^ejinapbrodite, njM0^ 



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n^rot^^l\il)i)1ur in ttiedisk; fcmacles apetalous, roundish in the circtat ; proper 
—of the hermaf)iM"odite, funnel-form^.borcier five-cleft, patiilous — of the females, 
funnel-for^, burdcc tluce-cleft'; stamens in the hermaphrodites, five caprUafy 
Tery sboit fiianieuts, with cyhndric tubular anthers; the })istil iin the herniaphro- 
^tcs has an oblong germ, a filiform style, the length of the stamens, and a two- 
cleft stigma : la tlie females the genu is oblong, style filiform, length of the her- 
nsaphrodke, mqre slender ; stigmas two^ very slender ; there is no pericarp, calyx 
converging; the seeds to the hermaphrodites solitary, oblong, dowa sim]3le; \o 
the females sohtar}', Qblong^:^ simple ; receptacle naked, flat. Four species are 
jubves of Jamaica. 

l; ARBOR ESC ENS.-i. TREE.-- 

43bPffzaft^Ui€os(k'fiore pallide furpureOy .capihilfs e laferihus mtnnlv^ 

rum spicatim e.veuntibus^ Sloane, v. 1, p. 257. Eup^itocium 1.— 

Erectinn hirsutum^ foliis ohlongis rugosis ;, fiorihus spicatis^ per 

xamos terminalis decliyiantes uno versu dispositis. Browne, p. 313.. 

teayes ovate, quite entire, acute^ , tomentose underneath; spikes recurved^ 

one-ranked ; oractea reflex. 

This is a shrub, with a depressed nigged'stem, rising four- or five feet, witbdivaii^ 
<ate, sub-divided, branches, bent down, diver<:Mg, villose, with a blackish sbaggi* 
Bess. Leaves petioled, alternate, broad-lanceolate, nerved, wrinkled^ pubescent^ 
|Uke sage leaves,)* an inch and a half long and half an inch broad, whitest on the under 
tide. Racemes terminating and axillar}-, erect, flowers subrsessile, alternate, pale 
purple; calycine scales pressed close, pubescent; corolla uniform; twelve henna* 

Shrodite corollets in the circuity /i little hig}ier than the others, giving. the flower a ra« 
iate appevance.T— -"SW* - 

TTiis plant, the erect eupaioriumor hemp agri^Ttovy, grows cKieflyiri the lowlands.. . 
^The branches bend generally forwards, and bear their flowers in loose spikes along their 
extremities ; where they are disposed^ in a gradual succession on the upper sides only.. 
^^Braume, Piso says, the bruised leaves are good against pains and inflammations of. 
the eyes ; and that the leaves 'and pappous seeds^ lieeause of ^err being aromatic, ace-* . 
^ood in Ijfidhs^ . , 

5; viRGATA^. t:wiggv. . 
Melichrysum caule alatOf Jloribus spicatis. Sloane, v. 1, p. 26a,'it.. 
I52yi. 5. AngustifoUa.subincaneL, caule alato, sptca multipUci i 
JloribjUSjn/erioribustematis,mcdiis binatisy suptrioribus, singula'*^ 
ribus. Browne, p. 318. 

X^eaves- deourreuty^ianceolate^ serrulate^ steaos wand-like ; fiow^rs^ spiked, ia- 
scatterediieaps. . 
This has several straight stalks, rising two feet high;^ from the same root ; it iy pretty • 
'imiqr. The leaves are setttt about an inch distant from one another, havings -two little 
leaflets at their origin, set on an edged stalk ; they are sK^htly indented, of a dark 
rreen colour above, and woolly or white below, baying an eminentnerve running long- 
vays. The flower branches are very long and slenoer, and disposed in the rorm of" 
spikes at the top. . The flowers are sessile, and stand sometijues singly and sometinies> 
lO^ or foviogedxen It grows in dry savannas* 



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^300 HORTplS JAMAICENSl-a, 

Helichrysufn, er golden cudxeeei, goUm tufts^ cr locks.'^lt haih « f^ooJfj sfcalb^ 
with many long narrow feaves, green on tbe upper side, and h«arv and woolly on the 
tinder side ; the flowers grow on the tops of the stalks, in tufts, without any foot-stalftj 
the outward leaves, or "capstda^ are Hke silver scales, inclosing the flowers, of a pale- 
purple colour, with yellow thrums as in daisies ; then follow many pappous seeds, as 
in others of the kind. The whole plant is drying at\d restringent^ wnich oiakes it goo3 
against all sorts of fluxes and catarrhs. Jt is good in quinsies, and all uteres.— ^a?^ 
ham^ p. 73. . 

5. PURPURASCENS. TURPBE. 

Coi\yza major odorataj sen bacchari9-yfloribusj)urputeisnudi$. Sloane, 
, V. 1, p. 258, t. 152, f. 1. Odorata viinor erecta^ purpurasccus^ 
corymboM ; foliis'ovatis^ villosu^ Browne, p. 318. 

Leaves ovate*lanceolate, serrate, sub-tomentose; stem sub-pherbaoeous, simple 
at bottom, corj^mbed at top ; flowers ovate. 

The stem of this plant, which rises sixteen or twenty inches in height, i^ purple^ 
generally pretty simple below the middle, but as it rises throws out ,a gcfod mam^ 
br«knches. The lower ones liave pear-shaped leaves, three inches long and one broad^ 
on short petioles, rough, and notched about the edges. The leaves on the upper 
branches are much narrower, and end in acute points. The flowers are purple, and 
produced in round bunches at the ends of the oranches. Browiie observes, that the 
smell of this plant IS agreeable to most people, and that it is frequently kept among 
clothes to preserve them from moths ana other vermin. It is common in all low marshy 
buds. 

4. RIGIDA. 'KIGID. 

Leaves petioled, obovate, entire, rugged, veined underneath ; $pikes^flexiKNsej 
flowers in pairs, all directed the same way. — Sw* 



TLEA.WORT. CINERARIA. 

4 

Cl. 19, OR. 2. — Syngenesia polygamiM mperflnuu Nat. or. — Cwtposhm. 

This name is derived from the Latin word cinis^ as most^f the species are gray or 
ash-coloured. 

Gen. char. — Calyx common, shnple, inany-leaved,#leaflets:€qQal; corolla com- 

' pound, radiated ; corollets hermaphrodite, equal, numerous m the disk ; the 

stamens in the hermaphrodite, five filaments, with x^ylindric tubulous anther^ 

-five-cleft at top ; the pistil in the hermaphrodite has an objong germ, filiform 

style, two stigmas ; female germ oblong, style filiform, stigmas two ; there is n» 

Eertcai^, the calyx unchanged ; seeds soutary, lineary quadrangular ; pappus 
airy, simple, copious ; the receptacle Adked^ mittisb. Two spepies ef this geaus 
ivas discovered in Jamaica by Swart3. 

L GLABRA. ISMOOTH. 

flowers corymbed ; calyxes cylindric ; leaves oblong, acute, somewhat tooft* 
iettedi nerveless^ smooth oo both sid^ .and aJittLe succulent; stem shrdUsjZt 



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WK HORTUS JAMAICENSI& 

2. WSCOLOR. I^ARTY-COLOURBD, 

flowers corymbed; leaves oblong, lanceolate-acujninatei, somewlut t^Q4K> 
ktted, smooth, beneath wliite tomentose ; stem shnibby, 

FORBIBMN FROIT—Afee SkaDIK)CK. 



FORK FERN. , ACROSTICHUM. 

Cu 24, OR. l.^^Cri/ptogapiia flues. 

^K^. CHAR.— The fructifications cover the whole under surface of th^ frond;-^ 
Eighteen species have been discovered in Jamaica. 

IFzth simpic divided frofhds : 

1. FERRUGINECM. . IRON. 

^Fronds pinnatiiid; pinnas linear^cute, spreading, quite entire, connate^ 
ctipe smooth. 

2. POLYPODIOIDES. rOLYPODIUM-LIKE. " 

I^ol^podium minus pinmiiis raris sultus cineriis. Sloane, ▼. 1, p. 1% 
^caute fronde pinnatifa ad vernem divisa^ lohis lincaribu^ bast ad^ 
natis. Browne, p. 105. 

Fronds pinnatifid ; pinnas linear-oblQse, quite entire, spreading, crowned^ 
^stipe scaly. 

Srowne cajils this the '8maIIeracnx5/n:t<m, with narrow lobed foliage, commonly found 
in low, cool, and shady places, it rises in tufts, and seldom exceeds ten or twjelve 
inches in length. The bark of the frond is hoary and scaly, and has the fructifications 
4Xiore or less confluent, though, being sometimes distinct, this has tlie appearance of a 
jpolypodium. The footstalks are brownie, and the whole leaf and footstalk about fou( 
4iiche64ongi of a yellowish green colour above, whitish bcAow. 

With pinnate fronds: 

3. AUREUM. tSOLDEM, 

^onchitis pdiLstris maxima. Sloane, v. 1, p. 76. Maximum uligi-' 
nosum siniplexy wsta crassi^ri^fdiis obUmgis distinctis irUegris^'^ 
£rowne, p. 105. 

¥lnnftst4temate, tongue-sh^»ed, quite entire, smooth. 

'Stipes or fobtstalks in bundles Irom the sasie root, which with4he leaves rise nine 

~^et high, they are the thickness of the little finger. The rib of the leaf is greenish^ 

'^cornered, eminent, inegukurly riiaped, having at every inch and a half distance the 

tpinnas set alternately on small pedicels, about twenty in number ; each pinna about 

•a foot.long and three inches broad in the middle, where broadest, being narrow at the 

i>eginning, and ending obtusely. The leaf is green, smooth, sometimes half covered 

over with rusty coloured moss, in which lies the seed. It grows in marshes near the 

Slack River going to Old HaHbour, and by Salt River near Passage Fort It is used. 

^or tbatchi and the decoction of the root stops dysenteriesii by bting draok^ it is also 

exceUe&t 



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*0a HORTUS JAMAICENSIS* wm 

excellent in obstructions of the spleen. A salt made of the leaves is OA. eKcellent re-» 
medy against ukers aad carious bones, being drying. — Sioari^^' ^ 

4. RUFU>f. . REDDIiJH. 

Filix minor y ruff a layrugine tota4}bducta m phwits tantum iivha, ra-^ 
rasy nan crenatasy subrotundas. Sloane^ v. I, p. -67, t. 45, f. I. 
Simplex viHommyJoliis lanceoUto-Qvatis levissime crenatis^ linei^ 
JruciiJicatiQnis densissinw sitis. Browne, p* DS^ 
Pinnas oblong-ovate, quite entire, pubescent* 

TTiis grows eighteen or' twent)- inches in height; stalk xx)und, covered with fqrru- 

S'^oushair, ieaty almost from the root ; each pinna about au inch long, and anincl^ 
stant from each other, on smaU footst^ks, they are about half an- inch br^aJT a# the 
base, whence they decrease to the end, which is round, all covered over witb a rusty 
woolly hair. — Sloane. Brown calls it the simple hairy asfkniunii which seems to like 
' a sandy soil i he found it in Liguanea. 

5. SORBIFOUUM. SORBUS-LEAVEl>. 

Titia major scand^ns tn pinnas tantum divisa obtongas tatasqu€ nom 
crenatasu Sloane^ v* W P- 83, t 38* 
Pinnas oUong-ovate^ entire, setra^, acute ; stipes scaly. 

^his^bas a crooked stalk, of a. dark brown colour, cornered, sometimes smooA, at 
titber times covered with a ferruginous hairy mossj^ as big as the little linger, sending 
out on each side many inch long clavicles or roots, sticking ta the barks of trees, by^ 
* which it rises twenty or thirty feet. These stalks, rooting all the way, sendont leaver 
. at about two inches distance, a foot and a half lon^, having alternate pinnas, set on the 
middle rib at half an inch distance from one another, they are three inches long and 
%bree quarters of an inch broad in the middle^ where broadest; they ^e thin, ^jinooth, 
end of a pale green colour, 'the Juice, mixed with oil, ginger^ and pepper, u sai4 
to core tue choleric faead-ach, when «noiMed with iu-^hatie^ 

^. MARSLNATUM* HffARGINEJX 

JPitix major in pinnas tantum divisa^ ciTongaSy mtgustas^e^ iw» 
crerQitas. Sloane, v. l, p. 84| t 40. 

Pinnas pblong» quite entire, waved, acmninate ; stipe naked. 

This is thonght to be the same with pterin grandifiora—-9ec Female Perns^ p. -2B#v 
Sloane describes it as follows ^ 

Stalk sometimes blackish, sometimes brown, rising two feet high, and haying pinns^ 
•t about nine inches from ti^e ground, sometimes opposite, and sometimes' alternate, 
«t about three quarters of an inch distance from each other, four incbea long and-'half 
an inch broad in the middle, ending in a narrow point; dark green above, wholly ca« 
vered with ferruginous moss below« It grew very plentifully on the Bio d'Oro, in St» 
"Tbomas in the Vale, and in Stc Maxy^ s^^^Sloane. 

^.SANCTUM. W>LY» 

Filiculanonramosa minima^ surcutis^cretris^ pinnuKi angustissimtt^ 
raris. Sloane, v. 1, p. 91, t 49, f. 2. Erectum minimum sim^ 
^^/vMlisangustUcrmtti^vaMatiu Browne^ p. 105» 



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Mtx HORTUS JAMAICENSIS. SdS 

Fronds lanceolate ; pionas linear-lanceolate, gash-serrate, the lower serratures. 
largest, ^ 

This plant Swartz thought a polypodium^ from the seed being arranged in distinct 
tound spots. It does not grow above five or six inches hi^h, having short, twigs, set 
alternately, on which grew the pinnas. It grows hi the inland parts by shadfy rivulets. 

8. TRIFOUATUM. THUEB-LEAVED. 

J^hyllitts ramosa trifda. Sloane, v. 1, p. 88, t 45, f, 2. Simples^ 
foliis lanceolatis irregulariter disposifis^ superioiibus singularibus^ 
inferioribus gtnnnatis vel Urnatis^ Browne^ p. 

Leaves temate, lanceolate^ 
'TJiis, from a blackish tuberous root, sends up five or six stalks about a foot high, 
Browne says two or three feet ; the stalks are of a reddish colour, and cornered ; the 
pinnae are set opposite to one another, three for the most part on a common reddish 
footstalk, the middle one the longest, about an ihch and a half loirg and a quarter 
broad in the middle, where broadest, smooth, of a yellowish green colour, with reddish 
ribs ; the bark of the frond is entirely covered with ferruginous dust. It grows chiefly 
in the mountains, and loves a moist rich soil \ and is commonly found by the sides of 
livulets.— iSZoaTic £( Browne^ '' 

With hipinnate fronds z 

9. EBENEUM. EBONY. 

Fitix non ramosa minima^ caule nigroy sitr cults rarisy pinmdis an^ 
gustisy raris^ hrevibusy acutis subtus niveis. Sloane, v. 1, p. 92, 
t. 53, f. l,and t. 7, f. 1. Fuscum simplkiter pinnatuviy foliis 
patois tola basiadnatisy inferioribus distinctis remotis hastatis auri-^ 
tis vel sublobatisy superioribus acuminatis coiitiguis integris.^^ 
Browne, p. lOG. 

Pinnas sessile, oblong, sinuate, the uppermost shortest and quite entire. 
Sloane and Browne made this a distinct plant. Swartz thought it only a young plant 
^f the following spqcies; which Sloane indeed observes it much resembled, but was 
ix^iXt K\ v^^^ smaller* 

.10. CALOMELAKOS. FINE-BLACK. 

TUix non ramosa major y caule nigro, surculis rarisy pinnulis angus^ 
iisy rariSy ioyigisy dentatis. Sloane, v. 1, p. 92, t. 30^ f. 1.-— . 
Erectum ramosum^ caule ei ravm airo^mtcniibusy froruie iivisa.-^ 
Browne, p. 107. . 

Pinnas alternate^ laneeolaie, acuminate,, pinnatifid. 
-Browne calls this the black stalked acrosticumy from the colour of its stem. The 
ttinnafi are indented on the edges. It grows in moist, cooj, shady places, in the louer 
^nds, with pretty much divided branches, rising to the height of twenty or thirty 
inches. The leaves are minutely divided, and of a silver colour underneath. The 
«rhole plant has much ibe appearance (^a«pecies of maiden hair. 

11. SIMPLEX. SIMPLE, 

Jronds entire, smooth, petioled; the barren ones laxiceolate-acuminate, the 
' fertile ones Unejir^lanceoIate,—*$a'4 

^ • Frouda 



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so* HORTUS JAMAICENSlSi fRENC^- 

12. PRTIOLATUM. PETIOLES 

Fronds entire, smooth, petioJed; the barren ones linear Janceolate, the fertile 
ones linear.—- i;*'. 

13. feATIFOLIl?>f. B«OAI>-LEAVKIh 

^caule^folio oblongo inlcgt'osuperni; nitido petiolato, Browne, p. 1'04. 

Fronds petioled,. broad- lanceolate^ vciy sniooth, entire^ margined; tliefruit-^ 
bearing ones ovate-lanceolaie ; shoots creeping. 

Browne calls this the XcvSacrosticuniy and says it is fou«d ih the cooler mountains of; 
New Liguanea; it grows upon the rockij». a^nd rises in tufts from a spreading fibrous 
root; but seldom exceeds teao? twelve inches in lengthy and i§ every where surrounded, 
witli a thift membrttuous margin. — Browne^ 

14, VH-LOSUM., HAWIY^. 
Fronds broadJanceolate^ somewliat crenulate, villous oa both,sides.— -Ja^. 

1.5. MUSCOSUX, MOfiSV. 

Fronds petioled, entire,, scaly ; the barren, ones.oblong»Utnceolat^». blunt; tha 
fertile ones linear- lanceolate.— *ya?. t 

li6. S^ERaULATUMi SF.RRULATE. 

Fronds linear^ toothed, fruU-bearingat the tip ; shoots vwy short, rooting. — -Sior 

17. ORAMINOIDES. GRASS-LIKE. 

Fronds naked, linear,, sub-dichotomous^ and fruit-bearing.at the tip. — 5V. 

1-8. SULPHUREUM.. Stri.PHUR. 

fronds bi-pinnate,, pijipas alternate-orate,, ginnatifid ; leaflets retuse-serrate^ 

See Ferns. 

JOUE OCLOOLFlOWER— .SV^ MaRVJSL of PERffi. 



fRENCM. HONEYSUCKLE. HEDYSARUM.. 

€u 17, OR. 4.-^iadeJphia decandrm Nat, or. — I^apUionacemi ^ 

TTbi* generic name i^.deriwd from, two Greek words signifying svv^et ointment. 

Cen. CHAR. — ^Calyx a one-leailfed periandi, hdf five-cleft, defts subulate, iiprigh^ 
permanent; TX)rolla papilionaceous, strealied, banner reflax-compressed, ovate*^- 
^k>Dg,.eDiarginate, long ; . wings oblong^.Danower than the other petab,. straight ; 
kieeL straight^ compressed,, broader outwardly^ transversely blunt, from the base 
to the swelling part bifid ; stan»en&.diadelpheu6 filaiBeiits,.bent in at ai%ht angle;, 
amhoGB roundish, coivipcessed; the pistil has a sleader gerod^ compressed,. linear;., 
style subidate,. bent in with the stamens^ stigma very simple ; the pericarp is a 
roundish legume, with compressed joints, two- valved, one-seeded ; s^d ludney- 
di^ped, soRtaiy. Twelve species are natives of Jamaica j isU with temate leaves,. 
tcKcej^ ihe firs^ which has coDJugate«; 

Ia DIPHYLLVM. 



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fUif<» flOHTtJS J^ATWAICENSIS. 505 

1. DIPHYLLUM. TWO- LEAVED. 

Jhdysantvi ^ninm diphyltum^ fiore luten, Sloanc, v. 1, p. 1S5.— 
JJerbcueiuny procnmbt'ns ; foliis ganindtis ; spici's foliolati's, ter-* 
minulibus. Browne, p. 301, 

LeaTes binate-petioled ; bractes in psirs, ovate-acuto, sesj^ile. 

The stems are herbaceous, of which it has three or four, traiHng on the protind, 
t<hey are filiform, round, smooth; leaves alternate, petioled, petioles stiff, horizontal, 
distant, round, smooth ; leaflets >on very short petioles, oblong, sharp, entire, nerved^ 
-smooth, pubescent underneath. Stipules opposite, on the side of ^he petioles at the 
T)ase, obliquely ovate, acuminate. Peduncles axillary, terminating, lon<rer than the 
leaves, upright, stiff, many -flowered ; flowers alternate, on very shdrt pedicels, be- 
tween two opposite bractes, acumiwate at both ends ; corolla yellow or purple. Calyx 
♦unequal, the two hinder clefts converging, the two lateral ones smaller, rounded, the 
lowest sharp, longer; banner of the corolla roundish, scarcely opening, vfeined, pur- 

I)lish ; wingji smaller than the banner; Ivcel bowed in, acuminate; legume a Httle 
onger than the bractes, uprighl:, (crooked like a half moon. — Sloam) ; jointed, echi- 
.^te^ with one roundish flatted seed in each, inclosed in a semicircular joint. — Sw. 

This plant is very common in all the dry savannas about Spanish Town and Old Har- 
bour, snooting plentifully after rain. It seldom rises above sixteen inches, bearing 
!©umerous yellow flowers, in spikes, a^ the extremity of the branches. An apozem of 
Ubis plantis said to be good in fevers. 

5. ADSCENDENS. ASCEJIDINO. 

^LfCaves ifoundisb, pubescent underneath; stem columnar ;>branches declined^ 
ascending, hairy j racemes simple, erect, axillary. — Sw. Pr. 106. 

3. SUPINUM. SUPINE. 

Hedyjsarum triphyllumfruticosum supinum^ flcrt furpweo. Sloane^ 
V. I, p. 185, t. U8, f. 2. 

l^eaves ovate, bluntish, hairy, villose underneath ; stem branched, procuoi* 
bent ; racemes simple, erect, terminating. . 

Hoot long, small, woody; stems a foot long, lying along the ground, rough, round, 
^iroody. Leaves at unequal distances, on petioles half an mch long, each having three 
leaflets, pale underneath, the middle one longest. Flowers in spikes, purple. Le- 
gumes croaked, forming a semi-circle, brown ; the joints united by so small an isth- 
mus that, when they adhere by their roughness to clothes, they seperate, whence the 
^Portuguese name erva i'ainor,. Every jomt contains one^pale yellow seed. It grows 
almost every where in the woods and savannas. Piso says, the decoction of this plant 
•fs good in a cold flux of the belly, and that the smoke or fume from the leaves, re« 
>ceived with a covered head, cures the head-ach. Barham says all sorts of hedysarum^ 
especially the seeds, are bitter, and therefore good stomachics and expellers of poisons \ 
4k/^ also, he says, open obstructions and kill worms. 

4. CANUS. BOAEY. 

Leaves ovatQ*acuminate, hoary underneath ; stem columnar, branched^ erect} 
ngeioes tenoinating^ erect ^ legtunes declined, reugb with haiis* 

Uv Steo»» 



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306 HORTU& JAMAICENSia. ^l^ittm 

Stem shrul>b\% rl>oiit Hve feet-high, dividipnr int3 sovrran."'an'.ho5? ; tb^ ni'dlle leaf 
)^iich. largei: th^ d the oUht two. IX^'. stxUht.aro ternnn,::.ted bj lbH>g sr)"«ko>'- of s \ aW 
yiirplc flr'we!>j which ar.e succeeded l)y narrow pods, straight on one si le, but joi-itesl 
on the other Swnnz-iuade it incajninij wliitii boiug lUejiiUu^e of another species, ttiis 
^as shortened fgrite bake of <lisiinction., 

5. IRIGPNUVT. THRF.E-SIDFO. 

Tn'rhijUu Py riarimujUj' svanden,^; caule tn'^ono^ hirlls uncinatk 
huonio i ^:picis ampli'ji termina-iihus,. iJDwue, p. 301. 

Leaves ovate-acute, n>ut>h with liMJrs; stem ohmhiug^ tlu'ee-bi Jed ; racemes 
verv loiur, a.^iiLuy: K^ames writhed, beut in. 
This plant is pretty frequent i'l Jiimaica, and a native of the moiirUaio^; it. is a 
rhmber, and raises usrif g?.neraliy to the top of the taMest trees in the wood. The 
stem is tna^ij^uiar, and everv wliere heset ^^^t^ small hooked bristles, or roufdi hairs.-— 
The leaves are oval, and much.Uke those of the ki -iney-bean tri!)e ; and all thebruaches ' 
te/minate in ^^o many I irge add beautiful flv^vver-spikes, ., TU^, plant is most -common 
ftbput Hope ^WQW'-^l^roivne, . . 

6. SrOHPlURUS. SCO?»PION, 

• ■ ■ 
'Prtphyllum^ hirsxitumy piinuSp repcns i raccmis strictis Iiirsuits.^^ 
' • Bro^Mi^j p. 301. 
Leaves ohlong, hirsute iindemeath ; stems procumbentj three-cornered ; •rar 
c ines aKillary ; legumes roundish, upright. 

Browne calls this the ^a?'tfV/oo^ French honeysuckle ; and says he found this rare 
aad ciinous plant a little beyond Guy'-s HUl. . It grew in tufts, and seldom ro:*e above^ 
sixteen or scyenteen inches from the root^ 

7,^CANE^CENS/ ' WHITE. 

^ Leaves scahro^iSJiindemeathV stem hispid ; flowers raccmed, conjuprate. 

This Is an upright hairy plant, with ovate leaflets ; awUsbaped sub-corjate stipules,, ^ 
and white flowersci- 

8. TORTtJOSUM.- TWISTED. . 

Hedysai^rntriphyUumfruticosum, /lore purpureo^ siliqucC^varie dis^ . 
torta. Sloane, v.l, 'p. 184, t 116^ f. 9. 

This is pretty frequent in ihe inland jpart3, growing erect to the height of -two fee^ 
and a half,^ or better, The ^stipules of the leaves are roundish and Abroad, and the 
Jeaves moderately large. Barjjara. calls it onobrychis^ or cock's head^ and describes it 
as follows: '* Tiiis has. a woody brown-coloured stern^ having several green jt)ugh 
tranches, four feet high, .The Leaves come out .on every side, without aay order, 
three always together upon a stalky, smooth above, of a darjc-green colour, and rough 
underneath ; the tops are long spikes of floiwers, papiliojiaceous, of a pale purple co- 
Jour ; after these follow several pods, ^lender, . rough, jointed, and variously tunied 
sal distorted. The plant purgetn a little ; for if an ounce of th^ dried leaves be put 
ioa purging decoction, it furthtjreth the purging property, causing not only watery 
j24irnours to be voi Jed, but those thfit are tough and clanm^ } alsO| it helps 4o digest ~ 
^d ha«iotitJJu'*r-^arAa//?, 1?.^ 12.5. , 



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4|fRKC*. BORTPS JAMA1C1ENS1«. 305 

9. SPIRAtfi. SPIRAL. 

■ Leares ovate, obtuse, smooth ; stem verj^much branched, with diffused bfancbesj 
racemes loose, divarK:ate ; legunjes spirally twisted. 

Stem woooj, trailing^ a foot and a half long, sending out several branches on each 
*6ide. Leaflets small, pale green ; flowers small, of a pale purplish colour. Legumes 
*^larrovv, eacii joint four-cornered, 9ontaiping a single, small, compressed, seed. 

10, AXILtAflE. AXILLARY. 

"^ ^ TriphyVum majus repens ; scapis aiillanbusy assurgcntibusj ivferne 

nuatSy supei^e ^picatis, Bro*\ne, p. 301. 
Leaves rhombed, roundish ; stem creeping, rooting; petioles opri;vht; scapes 
axillary, longer than the leaves. 
This runs many feet from the miiin roojs ; but they cornmonly cast a few ralical 
fibres trom ad the j:)ints that touch the ground, which greatly forwards their luxuiiunt 
groAtii. I he leaves are marked wiili some prominent vei!>« on the under si^le, and 
seldom under an inch and liuif in length* Both the species are pretty ujiauion in the 
^loru MiUviy hiiis of Jamaica. — Browne. . ' \- 

ll.TRlPLORinL THREE- FLOWERED. 

Leaves ob-cordate J stems procumbent ; peduncles one- flowered, selJom three 
u^geiiii r. 
"Roots sim:)ie, long ; stems' filiform, crowded, when magnified appearing tbree-cor- 
4ierea, sub-vi.vidcd, pubescent. Leaves ahernate ; petioles short ; stipuks f.pposite^ 
acuminate, uitubranacoous, al the base-of the petioles ; leaflets roundish, oh-cordate, 
- or lii;htly emarginate, small, neryed, netted, smooth above, glaucous underneath.— 
.Pedunclci opposite to the petioles, simple, solitary, two or^t most thlee together, 
-the length of the petioles, filiform^ one-flowered; flowers minute, scarlet. Cal)X 
• two-lipped ; the three hinder segments linear, contifruous, sharper, the two in front 
distant lanceolate. Banner of the corolla roundish-cordate, spreading, reflex, pale;^ 
wings and keel shorter than the banner, approximating", scarlet. LegtHue small, j^e-* 
dunclod, crenate in front, containing three or four see -s, which are rouniivh and mi- 
dilute. It wakes at ten o'clock in the morning, ««d sleeps at four in the afternoon. — Sw. 

12. BARBATtJM. BEARDED. 

' Racemes oblong, somewhat branched ; legumes bent in ; tralyxes hairy. 
.Stem procumbent, fi^m three to five inches in length, branched, round, sonyewhat 
*»hrubby at I'le buse, ev^n ; branches procumbent, almost simpie, shojt, round, pu- 
•fcescent. Leaves petioica ; petioles alternate, thicker at the base, fihiurm, biiorr, 
xround, a iittle fl« rted, smooth ; icatlets obovate, pt tioled, the middle ono double the 
*«ize of the two oiiiers, entire, somewuat glaucous above, hoary on tiie back. At the 
ti{)s of the leaves are very short little biisties. Stipules opposite, at the base of the 
' ]^tii>les, sessile, lancev^tate, sharp. Flowers lermHmt*n^ in a sort of spike; peduncles 
Jong, two, ap])roxini«aing, filiform; the flowers nodding, pale bine. Calyx sub- bila- 
biate, the two upper se^ment^ a; proxur.ntmg, liie tips linear- hirsute ; the three' lower 
oies distant, pai'ted to tne ba>e, lanceolate, uirsute, whence tl.ere is a broad hirsute 
$;uke; ba.Dier of the corojla Sj^r^adni^ at top, roundish; wings lanceolate, blunt; 
4l^ avate, bowed oo^ spreading. Legume lanceolate, bent v^04n»ly^ bgweil iu^ 
a.^ , li r 2 joiatt 



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308: H0RTUS JAMAKJENSm »wc«r 

joints, roancfish^ smootii ; seeds roundish, compressed. Native of JUmaicarin the dry, 
sandy parts. — Sur\ ^ ' 

Besides the al)ov6 indigenous species, the followingexottcs have been inirpduced^, 
and are in the Hortiis Eastensls : the gyransy or moving plant ; the gangeiicmn ; the • 
irigucfrum ; the gram ineum ; the 0200 ri/c/u's^ which is-called St. FoiHi and is mucbr 
cultivated in Europe for feeding cattle; and the vespertillonis^ niucb.admired for its^ 
beauty,, as, in a gentle breeze, the leaves, as they move, reseuible so niany variegated!^ 
butter llics : but the most remarkable is the first or moving plants the singular motrofr. 
of which is described as follows in Linneus'jy Supplement : '' This is a wonderful plant, . 
on account of its voluntary motion, which is not occasioned by any touch, irritation, 
or morement in the air, as in mimos^a, oxalis, and dionoea ; nor is it so evanescent as ^ 
in amorpiia. No sooner had the plants raisedfrom seed acquired their ternate leaves,., 
than they began to be in motion tliis way and tliat ; this movement did not.cease during^ 
the whole course of their vegetation, nor were they obser\^ant of any time,. order, or 
direction ; one leaflet frequently revolved, while the other on the *ame getiole wa» 
quiescent ; sonietin.es a few leaftets only were in motion, then almostalhof theip woi>ld 
be in movement at owce ; the whole plant was very seldom agitated, and that only dur- ' 
ing the first year. It continued to move in the ^ove during the second year of its- 
growth, and was not at rest even in winter/* \t is a native of the East Indies, called 
there burram cl:andalif and grows and flowers luxuriantly in Jamaica. Swartz ob-- 
ser\'ed the motion sometimes cease entirely. In a, Uot day it was iaimcxveable, being, 
agitated only in the evening,, and that slourjy. 



• FRENCH MARYGOLD; PECTIS. 

Gl. 19, OR. 2,'-'S\jnge7\esi(i folygamia superfiua^ Nat. or. — Composittt-. 

<;en. CHAR. — Calyx^ five-leaved, cylindric ; corolla rayed; corollets hermaphrodite- 
in the disk; females five in the ray; corolla of the hprraaphrodite funnel-form^, 
five-cleft; of the female li^ulate-ovate ; stamens, in the hermaphrodites, five 
short filan*ents, with cylindnc tubular anthers ; the pistil in Jiermaphrodites hats a.. 
linear geim, filiiorm style, bifid stigma ;„ in the females, a linear germ, fihform. 
style, and two rcvolute stigmas ; there is no pericarp, the calyx unchanged, spread*- 
ing ; seeds in the hermaphrodite solitary, linear; down with two or three spread-^ 
iaig awns;, in the females very like the other \ receptacle naked. One species is^ 
a native of Jamaica. 

UNIFOUA. UNEAR^EAVED. 

V 

Hieraciumfruticosum^ angustissimis gramineisfoHisj captfults pai^ifi- 
Sioane, v. 1, p. 255, t. 150, f. 1. Minor^ caule subdivtso dijffuso^^ 
foliis linearibus integris. Browne, p*3l9^ 

Leaves linear,, quite entire, even on both sides. 

This plant is common in most of the sugar colonies. The common calyx iscomposed' ' 
of five, six, or seven narrow- equal scales, joined together in a cylindric tube, contain* 
ing so many, female ligulate flgrets; disposed very orderly rouod liu^ margin, and a few x 

iienDaphlMUiei* 



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Hitifc^'- N fttiRTUS JAMAlCENSrSr/ 9d» 

hermaphrodites ifx the centre. The plant is spreading and {Render, ani^seWora rises 
*bove eighteen or twenty inches in height.-— uoroa'we. 

Two species of the tagefes or African mangold^ the patukt and ereeta^ were intro- 
duced long ago, and have become very common ornaments in Jamaica gardens ; they- 
Iwive run into a great marly varieties in colour, viz. pale yellow, deep vellaw, o|j4ngf| - 
colour I dlso witK single, double, and fistulous flowers* ~ 



FRiiNCH oak; btgkctnu. , 

Ct. 14, OR. 2.^^Didynamia angiospermia. Nat. or. — PA^onatani^^ 
This was so nanc^d in honour of Abbe Bignon, librarian to I-^tiis XIV* 
Gen. char. — Calyx a one-leafed perianth, erect, cup-fbrm, five-cleft; corolla mo^i* 
nopetalous, campanuiate; throat, bell-form, five-cleft, ventricose beneath, bor* 
der five-parted ; the stamens^are four subulate filaments, shorter than the corolla, 
two longer than tlie others ; anthers reflex, oblong, as it were doubled ; the pistil * 
fi3s an oblong germ, a fihform style, and capitate stigma; the pericarp is a two* 
celled siliqne, two-valved; partition membranaceous, parallel, thickened at the 
sutures J seeds many, imbricate, compressed, membrane*winged on both sidei^ • 
Four species are natives of Jamaica, the following, and iho l^ucoxn/lony orwiute^^- 
wood*^ 

1.' LONGISSrvTA. LONG.. 

ArbdreafoKiBovatis-verticillitc^ternatis^ siliqua grqcili l^n^ssimc^^^^'^ 
Brownejt p. 264. . • - ' 

Leaves simple, oblong, acuminate ; stem erect ; seeds woolly. 

Tliis is an elegant upright tree, -forty feet high, and upwards. I^eaves qmte entire^ 
if^ved, shining, opposite or ternate, two inches long, on a slender-p©tioIe, an inch iti 
length, mostly at the ends of the twigs ; racemes terminating, panicled, weak,* with - 
about forty Bowejrs, smelling sweet, whitish, xitih two fertile and threebarren stamens* - 
Siliqucs very slender, .roundish, two feet long, frequently covering the- whole head of* 
the tree: seeds linea>r, acuminate at both ends,, clothed with wooL — Jae^in^ 

This beautiful tree is now cultivated in many parts of Jamaica, especially in the low*- 
lands and savannas, wbet'e it seems to thrive very luxuriantly. It grows to a consider*- 
able size, . and is generally looked upon as an excellent timber tree, fta numerous 
flowers and slender siliques add a peculiar grace to its growth. — Brewne^ 

It 13 known in Jamaica by the name oi Fr&nch oak% the French call it chene noir.^^ - ^ 

These trees are also known by the name of trumpet ^(mer. There is anotuer tree- 
^metimes CiiXQ^Jtycnch oait^.the olive barhf which is ^afterward^^escribed -under that^- 

2.'STANS. STjlNDCtO. 

J^cyno uffine Gelseminum Indicum hederacenmfrM/tkomm fntnus.--^ 
Sloane,' v. 2, p. 63. Fruticosa, foKis pinnatis sertatis <a;atisy flo^ 
ribui luteis. , Browne, p. 264, 

ip;r^Cuuat% teft&dt9saiitef.sue^ 



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310 aORTUS -JAJVIAICKKSIA . i Wcimou 

This shmb is common .in all the sugar islaiiJs, ii, ^wws from fowto eight feet ia ^ 
.height, chhfiv i\\ a Ji*y rocky or grnvoHv soil, vMLtiHsa. n. firm anJ vvokIv trunlc, * 
liiuj Lranciied. Leaves opposite, pccJoit- j ; iearicts sub-scssile, eloi t^ate-laiceola^^, 
acuminate, veined; ractuits temiljiatm^, upright ; liu llov ers »el.uw, uitii red lines 
0:1 the mside of the tube ; sili(pies luiit' a tuot m lenj^ j, widj vvin^*^l seeds. — Jacqu-n. , 
M.ti< r says he received the seed of tliis plaat tiom bi-nniKla by thu Utie ol candle -wood^ ^ 
and It is kiiown by the nam^ of branching t, umpct-Jii wer. 

3. UNGUIS-CATI. • -CAT-CLAW. 

Ap^^cyno affincj GeUeimnuvf Tndicum htderaceum herbaceum tetrad' 
p/iyUunij Joliojiibrotundo acuyninajo. S*uaiie, v. 1,. p. 208. 

Leaves conjugate; tendHl very short, bowed, three-pa' ted. 

This has ^ v^oody stalk, about the bigness of a hen's quill, cbv.^red with a smooth 
bark of an ash-colour, climbing trees. and hedges ; .^. every three or four inches dis* 
tance putting forth leaves,. which are small, ovate, entire, shininjr, roundish, Siijootb, 
-rarely indented, and placed opposite at every joint; at which place come iilso tendriis, 
by which the plants fast^^n themselves to whatever may be near them*, , TUc lloweii-cure 
. axillary, ^nd shaped like those of fox-glove. 

: See White- Wood and Olive Bark. 

jJitE^cu Physic Nut — -J^^ Physic Nut. 



1^0 English Name. TUCHSTA, 

"*' ' Cl. 8, OR. l.^^Octandriamonogi/nia. . Nat. or. — OMgr^t. 

^This was so named in honour of Leonard Fachs, a famous German botanist. 

-Gen. CH*R. — Ca! x one-le^idld, culoure^^, bearing the corolia, verylarire; coroHi 
foui ^mall petals ; stamens four >r eight, finf jrm ; anthers twin ; the pistil has aa 
inferior ^r^^vw^ simple style, anj obtuse stigma ;. u.^ j). ncarp an ovate b« rrv, in- 
ferior, tonr v^elled ; seeds many, ovate, 6xed in a double ro^v to a column.r :e- 
ceptacle. , Out species w.^s discovered in thi;i inland by Swartz, auotiier, the. co^ 
tiii^u^ has been introduced. 

1. INVOLUCRATA. JNVOLUCREP. 

. Flowers involucred. 

2. COCIXEA. SCARLET. 

Leaves opposite, ovate, tooth-lette J ; petals obovate, obtuse. 

This plant is a native of China, .and was introdHced by Mr. Fast. If has an berbace* 
o«s sf^m, .lanceolate- ses&ife leav^y^^disposeilin turees. PedumJes T)ne-flowered.— ' 
Flowers large, very fine, of a V'^y bright scarlet, having eiglu stamens, not projecting " 
beyond the flower ; and the berry^is httie Jaiger thai; ars olivr , fleshy, soft, reddish* 
bl I'^k, somewhat pubescent^ ^^ of a pleduanc ta&ce^ tUei needs iure.sm^ and browo^. 
by woich it is propagated, 

• 1E\m<ip% — ^«$V« Mushrooms. , ,, ._^ 



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lf<5RTUS JAMAICENSIS". 9H 

TCMZZ. ' ULEX. '. 

C\:: Mj CiiC 4.~Ih'('!vlph'adecandrk. . "Nxr, on.^^Papitionacett. - 

GlK. CHAR. — Cal\ X : twr !mn c i |)orianth ; corolla has an cb-corc]ate ^tan'lard, ob-. - ^ 
long wiii^s, iiiiii a \vo-"v 1 1;^ I KlvI ; '^m fttartiehs have simple filamentV, all con- 
jij^-tecl, and sinipa' .uriu ; i.e^ii-.i has- an ob.on«T genu, afilifjo'm style, anj^-* 
an obuj^e smai. bt: w.. ; u '^ p n( nrp i^ an ahlong legume, turgid, scarcely longcj 
than tiiecai}x, s. -i^'Ut, c:r -c -iksi, tAo-valvedj the seeds are lew, roundishj^^ « 

" cmar^inaie* Two i>i)ccics.i ;4V\' been uitruJuced. 

I. 1 UuOPEUS. - EtmOPEAy^ ' 

This U the comnaon Xih^n^ jurze^ or trc^rsr^ so common in Great Britain, which^ ♦ 
feince its iatroduiuiio.!, ha.s UifLven very wi »l in Jaaiaica; and perliaps should be more 

ftMicra.K cult^v tr\l tL: n it ui.s been. An iugeniou:^ gentleman obse*i*ves, that ^* Mr. 
orster, in his accoui^tnt' Captain Cooke's se(:o4i(ivoya;^e, savsy that, in the island of 
St.^Hjlena, ..here tuev have frequently dr^u^lfcts ot many months conl in nance, this 
plane W£is ii»tro.iuced iiiro tiieir burnt pastures,- where it turove well, and that, under 
ita^haJe, a ssvard of thick sweet pasture griiss made its appearance, which withstood 
the dry weather. • Admitting, tha.authosity ef this fact, which caa hardly be doubtedj^ 
the ex "erimen4.merits the most serious attention of the inhabitants ot the dry flat-parts 
cf this. Inland. Should it be fauiiJ to succeed -upo;vtnal, it would soon- be seen coverJ 
in«v our arid p!aii)S, instead of the'useless and pi^onous oppoponax.'* In addition to 
tliO above dbsen ations, there are othar great rccJonMnendatioirfcs to the cultivation of this 
plant in J imaica, for furze makes goovl hedges, a<id i» also an exeelient fodder for cat- 
tie properly prepared. '»It i