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Full text of "Hossfeld's Japanese grammar, comprising a manual of the spoken language in the Roman character, together with dialogues on several subjects and two vocabularies of useful words; and Appendix"

HOSSFELD'S EDUCATIONAL WORKS. 



FRENCH. ,. d. 
English-French Grammar, by Hossfeld's New Method, 

arranged for Classes, Schools, and Private Lessons ... 3 

Elementary French Grammar ... ... ... ... 1 

Essentials of French Grammar ... ... ... ... 10 

Advanced French Grammar ... ... ... ... 2 6 

French Composition and Idioms ... ... ... ... 26 

Conjugation of French Regular and Irregular Verbs ... 6 
Polyglot Correspondent (English, French,' German, 

Spanish) net 3 6 

English-French Commercial Correspondent ... ... 2 

French-English Commercial Correspondent ... ... 2 

English-French Dictionary ... ... ... ... 1 

French-English Dictionary ... ... ... ... 1 

Two two Dictionaries in one volume ... ... ... 20 

French Reader by Huguenet ... ... ... ... 20 

Manual of French Conversation ... ... .. ... 1 6 

100 Passages for Translation into English and German ... 2 

100 Passages for Translation into German and French ... 2 

Anecdotes, with notes, by Larmoyer ... ... ... 1 

French Plays, with -Notes ... ... each volume, net G 

New English and French Vocabulary ... ... ... 26 

French Dialogues ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 6 

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English-Spanish Grammar, by Hossfeld's New Method, 

arranged for Classes, Schools, and Private Lessons ... 3 

Spanish-English Grammar, by Hossfeld's New Method ... 4 

Key to above ... ... ... ... ... ... 20 

Spanish Composition and Idioms, by J. Boedo Yanez ... 2 

Conjugation of the Spanish Regular and Irregular Verbs... 6 

English-Spanish Commercial Correspondent ... ... 2 

German-Spanish Commercial Correspondent ... ... 2 

French-Spanish Commercial Correspondent ... ... 2 

A new Spanish-English and English-Spanish Dictionary... 2 6 

Ditto, by Velasquez ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Ditto, by Velasquez (Large Edition) ... ... ... 24 

Hossfeld's Spanish Reader 2 

German-Spanish Reader ... ... ... ... ... 20 

Hossfeld's Spanish Dialogues 1 6 

Gil Bias, in Spanish 2 

Engineering Translations in English and Spanish net 3 6 
Spanish Technological Dictionary, by N. Pone de Le<5n: 

Vol. I. English-Spanish 36 

Vol. II. Spanish-English 32 



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English-German Grammar, by Hossfeld's New Method, 

arranged for Classes, Schools, and Private Lessons ... 3 

Mengel's German Exercises and Idioms ... ... ... 2 6 

German Composition and Idioms ... ... ... ... 2 6 

Conjugation of German Regular and Irregular Verbs ... 6 

Hossfeld's German Reader... ... ... ... ... 2 

English-German Commercial Correspondent ... ... 2 

French-German Commercial Correspondent ... ... 2 

English-German Dictionary ... ... ... ... 1 

German-English Dictionary ... ... ... ... 1 

The two Dictionaries in one volume ... .. ...20 

8elect German Stories ... ... ... ... ... 1 6 

German Dialogues ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 6 

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English-Italian Grammar, by Hossfeld's New Method, 

arranged for Classes, Schools, and Private Lessons ... 3 9 

Italian Composition and Idioms ... ... ... ... 2 6 

Conjugation of Italian Regular and Irregular Verbs ... 6 

English-Italian & Italian-English Dictionary, by Melzi ... 7 6 

Ditto, by Millhouse (2 vols) 12 

Ditto, by Hossfeld 2 

Italian Reader, by Dr. C. Scotti 20 

PORTUGUESE. 

Portuguese Grammar, by Grauert ... . . ... ... 50 

Portuguese Dialogues ... ... ... ... ... 1 6 

DUTCH. 

English-Dutch and Dutch-English Dictionary 4 6 

.Dutch Dialogues ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 6 

RUSSIAN. 

[Manual of Russian and English Conversation ... ... 4 6 

English-Russian and Russian-English Dictionary... ... 4 6 

SWEDISH. 

English-Swedish and Swedish-English Dictionary ... 4 6 

DANO-NORWEGIAN. 

English-Dano-Norwegian and Dano-Norwegiati-rtiglish 

Dictionary ... ... ... ... ... ... 46 



Hints on Language, by R. J. Isnaid ... ... ... 1 



HIRSCHFELD BROS., 
LONDON, E.C. : 12, Furnival St., Holborn. 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



HOSSFELD'S SERIES 



Go ni itte wa, go ui shitagae. 

( WTifn you enter a country, conform to its mstomt.) 

[Jap. Proverb.] 



HOSSFELD'S 

JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



COMPRISING 



A MANUAL OF THE SPOKEN LANGUAGE 
IN THE ROMAN CHARACTER 

TOGETHER WITH 

DIALOGUES ON SEVERAL SUBJECTS 

AND 

TWO VOCABULARIES OF USEFUL WORDS 



H. J. WEINTZ 

Author of "The Spanish Principia," etc. 



L vol. l] 




LONDON 

HIRSCHFELD BROTHERS, LIMITED 

13 FURNIVAL STREET, E.C. 

1904 

[All rights reserved.'] 



PREFACE 

THE rapidly increasing amount of commerce and 
social intercourse between this country and Japan has 
created a pressing demand for a really practical 
grammar for the acquisition of the Japanese language 
by English-speaking people. No apology therefore is 
needed for the appearance of the present work, which 
is designed to exhibit in as concise and scientific a 
form as possible the main features of Japanese 
accidence and syntax. 

Usually, English people who take up the study of 
an Oriental language are not children, but those of 
mature years having a competent acquaintance with 
the mother-tongue, and it is from this point of view 
that the explanations contained herein have been 
framed. 

Every Japanese phrase and sentence in the book is 
taken from some work by an author of eminence and 
published during the last decade, and authority (volume 
and page) can be adduced in every instance. This has 
been regarded as a point of special importance, inas- 



VI PREFACE 

much as it is a guarantee that the work exhibits the 
language to the student as it is really current in polite 
social intercourse at the present day. 

My object during the compilation of the work has 
been to include everything of practical utility, and 
to discard everything superfluous. I have endeavoured 
to make the definitions clear and precise, that they 
may be easy of comprehension and readily retained. 
I have further endeavoured to arrange and distribute 
the matter, so as to embrace within narrow limits 
much more information than is generally embodied in 
a book of its pretensions, and I believe that there is 
not a useful Rule or Observation in the works of any 
recognised writer of eminence that is not found in this. 

The native alphabet employed for writing the 
language has two different forms, one rendered 
intricate by the addition of numerous variations, 
known as the " Hirayana " form of character, and 
the other, the " Katakana " character, entirely devoid 
of variation, and therefore much simpler ; but a move- 
ment has for some time been in active progress 
in favour of the adoption of the Roman alphabet 
according to the system employed in this work, where 
all the Japanese words are spelt in the native mode, 
by assigning to each of the native letters a correspond- 
ing equivalent from the English alphabet, and fixing 
accurately the sound of each. The acquisition of a 
knowledge of the Hiragana and Katakana characters is 



PREFACE Vll 

therefore entirely unnecessary, and it is quite practic- 
able to obtain a thoroughly intimate acquaintance with 
Japanese for colloquial purposes through the instru- 
mentality of our own alphabet. 

Owing to the peculiar structure and composition of 
the language, it is necessary to become acquainted with 
the functions and methods of use of all the parts of 
speech before an attempt can be made by the student 
to frame sentences of his own, hence the absence of the 
incidental exercises for translation found in the other 
grammars of the series. The publishers, however, 
have under consideration the issue of a small supple- 
mentary work as an Appendix to the present volume, 
comprising, amongst other useful features, a graduated 
series of Exercises and Examination Papers on the 
whole of the book, together with Beading Lessons 
consisting for the most part of excerpts from the 
works of modern native writers. 

With this prefatory excursion I submit my work 
to the candid judgment of its students and of the 
friends of the Japanese language, trusting that it 
will be deemed worthy to range with the other publica- 
tions of the Hossfeld series which has so long and 
so deservedly held a high position in public favour. 

H. J. WEINTZ. 

BRADFORD (York*), 1904. 



CONTEXTS. 



PAGE 

THE SYLLABARY . .... 1 

PRONUNCIATION . . . . . .3 

I. THE VOWELS ..... 3 

II. THE CONSONANTS ..... 4 

LETTER PERMUTATIONS: THE NIGORI ... 6 

ARTICULATION AND ACCENT ..... 6 

CLASSES OF WORDS : PARTS OF SPEECH ... 8 

THE NOUN ....... 9 

I. NUMBER ...... 9 

II. GENDER ...... 10 

III. CASE 11 

IV. COMPOUND NOUNS . . . .12 
V. CLASSES OF NOUNS . . . .14 

1. Abstract Nouns . . . .14 

2. Concrete Nouns . . . .14 

3. Augmentative and Diminutive Nouns . 15 
VI. NOTES ON VARIOUS NOUNS . . .15 

THE PRONOUN ...... 16 

I. PERSONAL PRONOUNS . . . .16 

II. REFLECTIVE PRONOUNS . . . .22 

III. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS . . .23 

IV. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS . . .27 
V. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS .... 29 

VI. RELATIVE PRONOUNS . . . .31 

POSTPOSITIONS ....... 32 

ix 



X CONTENTS 

I'AOE 

THE VERB . 53 

First Conjugation ..... 58 

Second Conjugation (First Form) . . .00 

Second Conjugation (Second Form) . . .62 

Formation of the Bases, Moods, and Tenses . 68 

Irregular Verbs ... .71 

Kuril, to come ... .71 

Sum, to do . . . . .73 

The Polite Verb " Afasu " . . 75 

Uses of the Bases, Moods, and Tenses . . 78 

Auxiliary Verbs . . . . .91 

1. Aru . . 92 

2. Jru 93 

3. Orii ...... 93 

4. Kuni .... .94 

5. Shimau . . . . .95 
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs . . .90 
Passive and Potential Verbs . . . .97 
The Verb" Sum" . . .103 
The Equivalents of " to be " . . 105 
Causal or Causative Verbs .... 107 
Ambiguous Verb-forms .... 110 
Compound Verbs ..... 113 

THE ADJECTIVE ...... 115 

I. PRIMARY INFLECTIONS .... 116 

II. SECONDARY INFLECTIONS . . 121 

III. NEGATIVE ADJECTIVES .... 122 

IV. COMPOUND AND DERIVED ADJECTIVES . 125 
V. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES . . . 127 

(a) Comparative Degree .... 128 

(b) Superlative Degree .... 129 
NUMERALS : METHODS OF COMPUTATION . . . 129 

I. CARDINAL NUMERALS . . 129 

II. AUXILIARY NUMERALS . . . 132 

III. ORDINAL NUMERALS . . . 137 

IV. FRACTIONAL AND MULTIPLICATIVE NUMBERS 137 



CONTENTS XI 

PAGE 

THE ADVERB, CONJUNCTION, AND INTERJECTION . 143 

I. THE ADVERB ..... 143 

(a) Adverbs of Plate .... 144 

(b) Adverbs of Time .... 145 

(c) Adverbs of Quantity .... 146 

(d) Adverbs of Manner .... 147 
II. THE CONJUNCTION . . . 151 

III. THE INTERJECTION .... 152 

HONORIFICS ....... 154 

I. HONORIFIC PREFIXES .... 155 

II. HONORIFIC SUFFIXES .... 158 

III. HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE NOUNS . . 160 

IV. HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE VERBS . . 164 

SYNTAX ....... 167 

REPORTED SPEECH : INDIRECT NARRATION . . 175 
CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES ON SUBJECTS OF E VERY-DAY 

LIFE ........ 177 

Questions ...... 177 

About the Way or Road .... 177 

At a Town ...... 178 

At an Hotel ...... 179 

Buying and Selling ..... 181 

Eating and Drinking ..... 182 

Visiting ....... 182 

Travelling ...... 183 

With a Doctor ...... 184 

Writing, Letters and Post . . . .185 

Miscellaneous ...... 186 

JAPANESE-ENGLISH VOCABULARY .... 188 

ENGLISH-JAPANESE VOCABULARY .... 204 

INDEX . 221 



GRAMMAR 



JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE. 



THE SYLLABARY. 

IN Japanese, an Alphabet, in the sense of the term under- 
stood by Western grammarians, does not exist. The 
various sounds of the language are represented in writing 
and printing by symbols or " ideographs," termed " sylla- 
bics." These are grouped together in what is known as 
" the Syllabary," which corresponds, in a measure, to the 
Alphabets of Europe. 

The Syllabary is divided into Vowel Syllables and Con- 
sonant Syllables, the former consisting of pure vowel sounds, 
and the latter, with one exception, of consonantal sounds 
combined with the vowels, although each consonant syllabic 
is represented in the native character by a single sign. 

The following scheme shows the Japanese Syllabary 
denoted in the Roman character, and arranged in the 
order adopted by most transliterators. 

JAPANESE GRAMMAR 1 



INTRODUCTION 

THE SYLLABARY. 

VOWEL SYLLABICS. 



a 


e 


i 





u 



CONSONANT SYLLABICS. 



ka 


ke 


ki 


ko 


ku 


ga 


9* 


9' 1 


&> 


gu 


sa 


se 


shi 


so 


8U 


Za 


ze 


Ji 


zo 


ZU 


ta 


te 


chi 


to 


tsu 


da 


de 


ji 


do 


/:" 


na 


ne 


ni 


no 


nu 


ha 


lie 


M 


ho 


fu 


ba 


be 


bi 


bo 


bu 


pa 


pe 


pi 


po 


pu 


ma 


me 


mi 


mo 


mu 


ya 


ye 


i 


yo 


yu 


ra 


re 


ri 


ro 


ru 


wa 


ye 


i 


wo 


u 



INTRODUCTION 3 

From an examination of the preceding table it will be 
observed that, when represented by the Roman Alphabet, 
the Japanese language employs the same letters as English, 
excepting /, q, v, and a:. 

It will also be noticed that certain irregularities and 
duplications occur; thus sh is substituted for s before i; 
t is replaced by ts before u ; i does duty for both wi and 
yi ; and so on. These peculiarities owe their appearance 
to the inability of the Japanese organs of speech to articu- 
late the sounds replaced by the substitutions indicated ; 
and as will be seen subsequently, many apparent anomalies 
of conjugation are due to them. 

PRONUNCIATION. 
I. THE VOWELS. 

Except when the sign of long quantity is placed over 
them the vowels are invariably short. 

a is pronounced approximately like a in mat. 
a a calm 

e e pen. 

e ey prey. 

i i cigar. 

1 ,, ,, ,, .. 'I ,, pOllC6. 

o o shore. 

6 o gold. 

u u full. 

u oo tool. 

Great care must be taken not to confuse the short and 
the long vowels in pronunciation, as there are many pairs 



4 INTRODUCTION 

of words spelt exactly alike, but which differ in the length 
of their vowels. Such are : 

sato, village. sato, sugar. 

kuki, the stem of a kuki, the atmosphere. 

plant. 

torn, to take. torn, to pajts through. 

Under some circumstances / and u are sounded so lightly 
as to become almost inaudible. This occurs chiefly when 
they follow /, h, k, s, sh, or ts, as exemplified in the follow- 
ing : 

shita, beneath, is pronounced almost like shta. 

takusan, much, ,, taksan. 

tsuki, the moon, ,, tski. 

In such cases these quiescent vowels are distinguished 
throughout this work by the diacritic sign of short quan- 
tity ; thus, shUa, takusan, tsuki. 

In diphthongs (ae, ai, ao, au, ei, oi, ui) each vowel must 
be distinctly sounded ; thus au is not to be pronounced like 
au in cause, but very nearly like ow in cow ; oi is much 
like oi in going, never as in boil, etc. 

II. THE CONSONANTS. 

Those not mentioned below are pronounced approxi- 
mately as in English. 

C occurs only in the combination ch, which is pronounced 
as in charm, couch never as in chaos or machine. 

F. This letter, which is used only in the syllabic /a, is 
pronounced by means of the lips alone, and not as in English, 
where the lower lip is brought into contact with the upper 



teeth. Thus the pronunciation of fu is almost identical 
with that of the English word ivho strongly aspirated. 

G- at the beginning of a word is hard, like g in girl, good ; 
in all other cases it has the sound of ng in singer. 

N, which is the only letter that may terminate a syllable, 
has in this position the nasal sound of n in the French 
bon, enfant, i.e. somewhat like ng in our wing, tiling. In 
other positions it is pronounced as in next, noir. 

E before a, e, o, or u is pronounced as in English, but 
never with the trill characteristic of the continental 
languages. In the syllabic ri, however, its exact sound 
has no counterpart in English, but the student can obtain 
a just conception of its pronunciation by placing the tip of 
the tongue at the same point in the roof of the mouth as 
in pronouncing our letter r, and then articulating the 
letter d* 

S has invariably the sound of 6' in sat, soon never as 
in rise or pleasure. 

Y is always a consonant, and is pronounced as in yacht, 
youth never as in by or myth. 

When a consonant is repeated, it must be distinctly 
sounded twice, as many pairs of words are distinguished 
only by a doubled consonant ; thus 

itai, painful. ittai, altogether. 

oto, a sound. otto, husband. 



* Students acquainted with Arabic or Hindustani will re- 
cognise this sound as being almost identical with the palatal d 
of those languages. 



INTRODUCTION 



LETTER PERMUTATIONS : THE NIGORI. 

It will be observed on referring to the Syllabary, that cer- 
tain syllables are given in italics. These all commence with 
a soft consonant, and in the native character they are 
written with symbols identical with those representing the 
syllabics beginning with hard consonants in the lines 
immediately preceding, the distinction between the two 
being indicated by a small mark termed the "nigori" 
placed by the side of the hard-consonant syllabic. Sa, for 
example, with the diacritic sign is read za ; and so on. 

Under certain circumstances, to be noted later, words 
commencing with hard consonants take the nigori, i.e. 
their initial letters become softened ; thus sato when used 
as the second member of a compound becomes zato ; fune 
becomes bune ; and so on. 

ARTICULATION AND ACCENT. 

There is a great and striking distinction between Japanese 
and English as regards articulation both in character and 
degree. Speaking generally, the Japanese pronunciation 
of both consonants and vowels is lighter and narrower than 
that of English. There is no tendency to diphthongise 
vowel-sounds, or to mouth and drawl them as is sometimes 
the case in some European languages. Japanese articula- 
tion is sharp, clear, and forcible ; the lips are more vigor- 
ously employed, and the mouth is opened more freely. 

Tonic and rhetorical accent are both very slight, that is 
to say, the various syllables of a word, and all the words of 
a sentence, are uttered with almost uniform stress of the 



INTRODUCTION 7 

voice, so that in English ears most Japanese words appear 
to have no accent, properly speaking. 

RULE I. In words of two syllables the accent is on the 
first syllable, as ku'-mo, mu'-ri. 

Exceptions. When the first syllable contains 1 or u, and 
when the second syllable contains a long vowel, the accent 
is on the second syllable; as shi-ki' ; tsu-ka ; mu-su ; 
sa-to. 

RULE II. In words of three syllables the accent is on the 
second syllable ; as Tsu-ga'-ru ; O-sa'-ka. 

Exception. When the second syllable contains i or u, 
the accent is on the first syllable unless the last syllable 
contains a long vowel, when, of course, the accent is placed 
on the last ; as, ka'-shi-ra ; a'-tsu-ku. 

RULE III. In words of more than three syllables the 
accent is on the last but one ; as, a-sa-ma-da '-ki ; Shi-mo-no- 
se'-ki. 

Exception. When the last syllable but one contains i or 
it, the accent is removed to the preceding syllable ; as, a-ta- 
ra'-shi-ki ; Yo-kd -su-ka. 

It must be remembered, as a general rule, that long 
vowels always bear the accent, and where a word contains 
two such long vowels, the accent is laid equally upon them, 
similar to the Spondee in English prosody. 

The student should carefully bear in mind the remarks 
made previously on diphthongs, and he must beware, for 
example, of taking for three syllables a word which really 
has four ; thus in the words Terauchi and Niigata, each 
vowel must be pronounced separately; as, Te-ra-u'-cM, 
Ni-i-ga'-ta. 



8 INTRODUCTION 

CLASSES OF WORDS ; PARTS OF SPEECH. 

In construction and methods of use Japanese differs 
materially from all European tongues. Language being, 
however, the vehicle for the communication of thought, 
and as all human thought is, in its essential characteristics, 
alike, Japanese must in common with all languages contain, 
under some guise or other, words denoting persons and 
things, and also words to indicate certain relations among 
those persons and things, as well as their qualities and 
actions. 

Native grammarians do not, however, classify these 
words in the same manner as they are classified in 
Europe, that is as nouns* pronowis, adverbs, conjunctions, 
etc. They divide them into (a) NA, or name-words proper 
i.e. uninflected words which include the noun and pro- 
noun ; (b) KOTOBA or HATARAKI - KOTOBA, i.e. inflected 
words including the verb and adjective ; and (c) TENIWOHA, 
i.e. particles, which are equivalent to our prepositions, 
conjunctions, and interjections. 

As, however, no violence is done to the language by 
adopting the European classification, we have retained the 
familiar words noun, pronoun, etc., to facilitate the progress 
of the student. 

* There is no Article in Japanese; thus, hako signifies "box," 
" the box," and " a box," indifferently. 



THE NOUN 



THE NOUN. 

In Japanese the Noun is indeclinable, distinctions of 
gender and number being exhibited by the context, and 
case relations are indicated, as in English, by separate 
words or particles. 

I. NUMBER. 

(a) Singular. As a rule, no distinction is made between 
the singular and plural, but if it is necessary to specify- 
only one thing of a certain kind the numeral for "one " 
ichi, hitotsu, or hlto is attached as a prefix or suffix; 
thus : 

ichi-nen, one year = a year. 

tsutsumi-hitotsu, one parcel = a parcel. 
hlto-tsuki, one month = a month. 

(b) Plural. When more than one thing is implied, 
certain particles are agglutinated to the word. These 
particles are ra, domo, shu (often pronounced shi), tachi 
and gata thus 

Singular. Plural. 

kuruma-ya, 'riksha-man. kuruma-ya-ra, 'riksha-men. 

onna, woman. onna-domo, women. 

hyaktlsho, peasant. hyakusho-shu, peasants. 

shikwan, officer. shikwan-tachi, officers. 

yakunin, official. yakunin-gata, officials. 

The order in which the preceding particles and examples 
are shown is in a gradually increasing degree of politeness, 
tachi and gata being generally employed for polite speech, 
whilst among the others ra is familiar and least respectful 
(see " Honorifics," p. 158). 

1* 



10 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Occasionally, the idea of plurality is conveyed by re- 
duplication, but the forms thus produced serve to render 
the idea which English idiom expresses by the noun 
preceded by " every " rather than the ordinary plural ; 
thus 

kuni, country. kuni-guni, every country, or various 

countries. 

iro, a sort, a kind, iro-iro, all kinds. 
shina, object. shina-jina, all kinds of objects. 

tokoro, place. tokorO - dokoro, different places, 

many places, here and there. 
ho, a side. ho-bo, everywhere. 

As will be gathered from the foregoing examples, the 
reduplication almost invariably assumes the nigori when 
commencing with a letter susceptible thereof. 

II. GENDER. 

Conformably with the absence of number in the noun, 
Japanese usually ignores all considerations of gender : thus 
tori is either cock or hen ; ushi, bull or cow ; tima, horse or 
mare. If, however, it be absolutely indispensable to dis- 
tinguish the sex of an animal, it can be effected by prefixing 
o or on, male, for the masculine, and me or men, female, 
for the feminine, the compound thus produced often under- 
going a slight change of form for the sake of euphony ; 
thus 

ushi = any bovine animal. 
o-ushi, bull. me-ushi, cow. 

tori = fowl, bird. 
on-dori, cock. mendori, hen. 

uma = any equine animal. 
omma, horse. memma, mare. 



THE NOUN 11 

The words osu, male; mesu, female; otoko, man ; and 
onna, iroman, are also used for the same purpose ; thus 

inu = any canine animal. 



osu ^ -, inu no mesu 1 , ., 7 

} a dog. a Intch. 

inu J (or) mesu no inu ) 



inu no 
(or) osu no inu J (or] mesu no 



ko = a child. 

otoko no ko, man-child, onna no ko, woman-child, 
i.e. a malr-r/t/Itf, or i.e. a female-child, or 

boy. girl. 

Osu and mesu are used for (lower) animals only, whilst 
otok^and onna may be applied indifferently to persons and 
animals. 

Difference in gender is indicated in a very few instances, 
principally the names of the degrees of relationship, by the 
use of separate words ; as 

M<ixrti1ine. Feminine. 

ojisan, grandfather. obasan, grandmother. 

chichi, father. haha, mother. 

otottsan, papa. okkasan, mamma. 

musuko, son, boy. musfime, daughter, girl. 

oji, uncle. oba, aunt. 

ani, elder brother. ane, elder sister. 

ototo, younger brother. imoto, younger sister. 



III. CASE. 

Although, strictly speaking, nouns have no cases in 
Japanese, equivalents for the European case-forms can be 



12 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

formulated for them by the use of certain particles as 
suffixes, as exemplified in the following table : 

Yama, a mountain. 

Nominative, Yama, or yama ga, mountain. 

Vocative, Yama ! or yama yo ! mountain ! 

Accusative, Yama, or yama wo, mountain. 

Genitive, Yama no, or yama ga, of a mountain, or 

a mountain's. 

Dative, Yama ni, or yama ye, to a mountain. 

Ablatine, Yama kara, or yama tori, from a mountain. 

(For further illustrations of the uses and employment of 
these particles, reference should be made to the section on 
" Postpositions," p. 32). 

IV. COMPOUND NOUNS. 

The Japanese language is very rich in Compound Nouns 
which are produced for the most part in the following 
manner : 

1. From two nouns; as 

gakumon, science, study; from gaku, learning, 

and mon, a gate. 
hanazono, flower-garden ; from hana, flower, and 

sono, garden. 
kazagururna, ivindmill ; from kaze, wind, and 

kuruma, wheel. 
tebukuro, glove; from te, hand, and 

fukuro, bag. 

2. From a noun preceded or followed by the stem of an 
adjective (see p. 120) ; as 

to-megame, telescope ; from toi, far, and megame, 

spectacles. 

, cheap article; from yasui, cheap, and mono, 
thing. 



THE NOUN 13 

3. From a noun preceded or followed by the stem of a verb ; 
as 

nusubito, thief; from nusumu, to steal, and 

hito, person. 

kaimono, a purchase; from kau, to buy, and mono, 

thing. 

te-nugui, towel; from te, hand, and nuguu, 

to wipe. 

hito-goroshi, murderer ; from hito, person, and 

korosu, to kill. 

4. From two verbal forms ; as 

haki-dame, dust-heap; from haku, to sweep, and 

tameru, to collect. 

kigaye, change of dress ; from kiru, to wear, and 

kayeru, to change. 

hiki-dashi, drawer ; from hiku, to pull, and dasu, 

to take out. 

As will be seen in the preceding examples, the first letter 
of the second component in compounds usually takes the 
nigori, thus hanazona has zono for sono ; hito-goroshi has 
goroshi for koroshi, and so on. 

In some instances, the final vowel of the first member in 
a compound is modified, the substitution of a for e being 
the change of most frequent recurrence ; as 

saka-ya, grog-shop; from sake, beer, and ya, a 

house. 

kaza-deppo, air-gun; from kaze, wind, and teppo, 

gun. 



14 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

V. CLASSES OF NOUNS. 
1. Abstract Nouns. 

These are frequently derived from adjective stems by 
adding thereto the syllable sa ; as 

samusa, cold, the degree of coldness ; from samui, cold. 
takasa, height ; from takai, high. 
shirosa, whiteness ; from shiroi, white. 

Equivalents for abstract nouns are also produced by 
adding to an adjective or verb the word koto, fact, act, 
(abstract] thing ; as 

shjrni ^nta, whiteness, the fact that something is white. 
fukai koto, deep-fact = depth. 
machigata koto, a mistake. 

" cannot-fact," i.e. impossibility. 



These locutions are frequently heard with an ejacula- 
tory signification ; thus 

Takai koto A What a height ! 
Atsni kntn ! How hot it is ! 

2. Concrete Nouns. 

These may be formed in a similar manner to abstract 
nouns, by adding to an adjective the word mono, thing ; 
as 

shiroi mono, a white thing, an object which is white. 

ao mono (aoi, green), green things = vegetables. 

nui mono, embroidery ; from nuu, to sew. 

It must be noted that mono nearly always signifies a 
tangible, material object, whilst koto means "a thing of 
the mind," "an act or fact." 



THE NOUN 15 

3. Augmentative and Diminutive Nouns. 

(a) Augmentatives. 

These are formed by prefixing 6, the root of okii, large, 
to nouns ; thus 

nezumi, rat. 6-nezumi, large rat. 

fune, boat. o-bune, ship. 

tera, temple.. o-dera, large temple. 

shima, island. 6-shima, large island. 

(b.) Diminutives. 

To produce these, the word ko, child, little, is employed, 
prefixed to nouns ; thus 

inu, dog. ko-inu, child-dog, little dog, i.e. 

puppy. 

ishi, a, stone. ko-ishi, a pebble. 

tera, temple. ko-dera, small temple. 

shima, island. ko-jima, small island. 

As exemplified in the preceding instances, the words to 
which o and ko are prefixed often assume the nigori. 
N.B. Care must be taken to distinguish 6 large, from o, 
honourable (see p. 155). 

VI. NOTES ON VAEIOUS NOUNS. 

The word, hazu, obligation, necessity, is often employed 
to render the idea expressed by the English verbs " ought " 
and " should " ; thus 

Mo kuru hazu da * \ He should be here by 

already comes necessity is j now. 

Sakujitsu sono kane wo \ f ^ to ^ ^ 

yesterday that money . 7 ,, , 

, , ., > paid that money 
uketoru hazu deshita. , 

, 7 . .. yesterday. 

receive obligation was. } 

* For the arrangement of words in the sentence, see 
" Syntax," p. 167. 



16 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Aida, interval, is sometimes used to correspond to our 
" while " or " whilst" ; thus 

Wataktishi wa Tokyo ni"| 

me as-for Tokio in \ Whilst I WOS in 

oru aida. j Tokio. 

dwell whilst j 

So suru aida, } Whilst we were doing 

so do while. J so. 

The word toki, time, is frequently employed to translate 
"when"; thus 

Watakushi to omaye wa "I 

/ and you I When you and I came 

kuni kara kita toki j from our province. 

province from, came time j 

Meshi kuu toki. \ When eating rice 

rice eat time. J = when dining. 

The locution t- n *" is sometimes heard at the begin- 
ning of a phrase, with the signification "by-th^-hyp-" 



THE PRONOUN. 
I. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

The Japanese substitutes for the Personal Pronouns of 
Western languages are merely nouns which by process of 
time have become pronominal, and their discussion as 
separate parts of speech is merely to suit the convenience 
of the foreign student. They are arranged in several 
classes expressing the various grades of respect or politeness 
peculiar to the colloquial idiom, and are somewhat similar 
to the English expressions "your obedient servant," "your 



THE PRONOUN 17 

lordship," etc., or to the Spanish " vuestra merced" (your 
honour}. 

(a) Singular. 
1st Person. 

The ordinary word for " 1 " is watakushi (literally, 
"selfishness"). The lower classes generally use the con- 
traction watashi or washi. 

Boku (lit. " servant ") is much used for the first person 
by soldiers, students, and young men in general, when 
addressing each other familiarly. 

Temae (or temaye) is a very humble and therefore 
respectful equivalent for /, and is in frequent use amongst 
the lower classes to address their superiors. It possesses 
the peculiarity of being also employed as a rude equivalent 
for the pronoun of the second person. 

Ora, a contraction of ore wa is the word for " I " generally 
used by coolies to each other. 

Other equivalents for " I " are sessha ; oira (used 
familiarly) ; wattchi (used by peasants) ; shosei, and ore 
which is a vulgar corruption of ware, the ordinary word for 
" I " in the classical language. 

2nd Person. 

Anata, a contraction of ano kata, that side, was formerly 
a pronoun used only for the third person, but it has come 
to be employed for the second, like the Spanish " listed " 
and the German "Sie." Anata is used when address- 
ing equals or superiors, and with the addition of sama 
( = Mr, Mrs, Miss), it expresses the highest degree of 
respect. 



18 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Omae was originally respectful, but it is now familiar and 
condescending, and is used to address inferiors, children, 
and one's own servants. 

Omae san (san is short for sama} is nearly the same as 
anata, but more familiar, and it is heard usually from the 
mouths of women. 

Klsama and temae are employed in addressing inferiors 
familiarly. 

Sense! is used in speaking to learned persons. 

Students, soldiers, and young men in general use kimi 
when addressing each other in a familiar way. 

Danna. danna san, and danna sama are the expressions 
used by servants to their masters. 

Other equivalents for the second personal pronoun are 
sochi (to inferiors) ; konata ; sonata (familiar) ; sokka 
(formal) ; nushi (contemptuous) ; ware (by peasants) ; and 
unu (abusive). 

Of these numerous equivalents for the second person, 
anata and omae will usually be found to suffice for the 
needs of ordinary conversation between Europeans and 
natives. 



3rd Person. 

Are is often used for " he " or " she," but is frequently 
replaced by the more polite forms ano hlto, ano o kata, 
ano otoko (" that man"), and ano onna ("that woman"). 

Muko, literally " the opposite side," is used indiscrimi- 
nately for "he," "she," or "they." 



(b) Plural. 
The so-called pronouns just discussed may assume the 



THE PRONOUN 19 

plural suffixes given on page 9, the forms most commonly 
employed being as follow: 

1st Person. 
"We." 

watakushi domo. boku ra. 

sesslia domo. sessha ra. 

oira, for ore-ra (vulgar). 





2nd Person 




"You." 


anata gata. 


omae (san) gata. 


sense! gata. 


omae (san) tachi. 


danna shu. 


kimi tachi. 


danna gata. 


kisama tachi. 




temae tachi-ra. 



3rd Person. 
"They." 

ano Into tachi. ano o kata gata. 

are ra (rude). 

NOTE. 1. Watakushi domo is frequently used for the singu- 
lar, and is slightly humbler than watakushi. 

2. The Japanese never use the equivalents for 
"we" as in English to signify "you and I." They 
only employ them to mean "other persons and I." 
To render " we " meaning "you and I," the locution 
q.nat.rt. t.n wniftjcfisfift to may be used, but visually the idea 
is rendered more idiomatically by means of " Honori- 
fics " (see p. 154). 



20 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

The so-called personal pronouns may be followed by the 
particles (postpositions) exactly as with other nouns, and 
in this manner the cases may be formed. Thus, exactly as 
we say 

Ano hlto to kenkwa 



that man with, quarrel 
wo shlta 

(ace. sign) did 



He had a quarrel with 
that man. 



so we may say 

Watakushi to kenkwa \ He had a quarrel with 
wo shita. / me. 

In like manner the possessive pronouns are formed 
simply by the addition of the possessive particle no or ga, 
and exactly as we say 

Ano hito no oya j The Q/ ^ 

that man of, parent J 

so we may say 

Watakushi no oya, The parent of me = my 
parent. 

Mine, yours, his, hers, theirs, are also translated by 
watakushi no, anata no, etc., but they may easily be 
distinguished from my, your, etc., by the particles used 
with them, or by the context. 

From the preceding observations it will be gathered that 
there is no special declension for pronouns, nor any sepa- 
rate class of possessive pronouns. 

Examples of Personal Pronouns. 

Watakushi mo mairirnasu, ) T . 

} 1 will go too. 
1 too will-go J 



THE PRONOUN 



21 



Kimi wa doko ye iku ka ? * 1 T;fr , ... . 

\ Where are you off to ? 
you where to go 1 



Boku wa shibai ye 
/ theatre to, 

kaeru tokoro da, 
return place am 



I I am returning to the 
theatre. 



I 



Anata ni o nanasni 






you (hon.) talk 






moshitai koto ga 


There is something 


I 


wish-to thing 


irish to tell you. 




gozaimasti, 






there-is 






Unu uso wo tsuku ze, 1 
you lie stick ! J 


You are telling a lie. 


Ann TiYtn \va daiku "| 






carpenter 
de gozaimasti, j 


He is a carpenter. 




* } 






Wataktishi ni kwankei \ 






me to, connection 


It has nothing to do 




ga nai, j 


with me. 




(nom.) i$-not 






Ano hfto no ta wa "j 






rice-field 


His rice-field is a long 


yohodo toi, j 


way off. 




very-much is-far 






Omae no kiukin wa "j 






wages 


How much are your 




ikura ? 1 


wages ? 




how-murh 







See remarks on " ka," pp. 38 and 174, 



22 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Kore wa anata no kfishi \ 

tli is yuur comb T , . , 

, . ,. . Y Is not this your comb : 

de wa gozaimasenu ka, 

is-not ? J 

Hei ! wataktishi no desti, ~\ v ., . 

* Yes. it is mini', 
yes mine it-is ) 

The student must note that the use of personal pronouns 
is much less frequent in Japanese than in English. Except 
in cases of special emphasis, or where their omission would 
occasion ambiguity, they are unemployed. Thus, "I am 
going to Hiogo to-morrow," will be translated Miduichi 
Hiogo ye mairimasu unless it be doubtful to whom the 
speaker refers, in which case watakushi will be added. If 
there be an emphasis on the pronoun, as in the sentence, 
" / shall go to Hiogo, but you may please yourself," the 
pronouns will also then be inserted. 

The constant repetition of ivataknshi and anata is one 
of the commonest errors into which Europeans fall, and a 
Japanese will often carry on quite a long conversation 
without employing a single pronoun. 

II. REFLECTIVE PKONOUNS. 

Jibun or Jishin, self (usually followed by de), is the 
Reflective Pronoun in most frequent use ; thus 

watakushi jibun, 



jibun, ^ 
jisMn, } 



go jibun (honorific)l 
omae jibun (not j- yourself. 
honorific) J 

The above are used only when it is desired to emphasize 
the idea of "self," 



THE PRONOUN 23 

"Self" may also be expressed by onore, which is some- 
times heard as an insulting equivalent for "you." 

Waga, whose real meaning is "my," is frequently used 
with the signification "one's own," "my own," "our own"; 
thus 

waga ko, one's own child. 

wao-R knni. my country, one's country (der vater- 

hind, la patrie). 
waga kiodai, one's oini brothers and sisters. 

Waga nai, ire, is also in use, but is confined chiefly to 
the public platform. 

"Each other," "one another," are generally rendered by 
the adverb tagai ni, whose literal meaning is " mutually " ; 
thus 

Tagai ni tasukeru, } rri i ? .1 

j- Ineii help one another. 

they -help ) 

Tagai ni mite 1 ~ f 

. , v . } 1 hey looked at each other. 

orimashite, J 

III. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

(Substantive) Sore, 1 . (Substantive) Bat*,} That. 

(Adjective) Eono, I (Adjective) Sono, / (near). 



(Substantive) Are, ~| That. 
(Adjective) Ano,J (remote). 



The Japanese, like the Latin and Spanish, distinguishes a 
near " that " (sore ; Latin, iste ; Spanish, ese) from a 
remote " that " (are ; Latin, ille ; Spanish, aquel), the 
former being used when the object is near or in the posses- 
sion of the person spoken to, whilst the latter is used when 
the object is distant, not in the possession of the person 
spoken to, or has relation to the person spoken of, 



24 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

It must be noted, too, that Japanese, like French, dis- 
tinguishes substantive forms of these pronouns from pro- 
nominal adjective forms ; thus kore corresponds to the 
French celui-ci, celle-ci, and stands alone, whilst kono corre- 
sponds to ce, celle, and is joined to nouns. 

Examples. 

Kore wa ikura desu ka. "1 TT 1 . ^ . 

, , ' } How much is this ? 

this as-for how-much is (it) J 

Kore wa teppo de gozaimasu, ) m 

'\ I/MS is a qun. 

gun is ) 

Kono nedan, This price. 
Knnn mifOil,. This road. 



Sore wa, nan desti ? ) ri . .-, . , 

f i, t - t \ What is that (near you, etc.} ? 
that as-for what is-it ) 

Sono hako, That box (in your hand, etc.}. 

Are wa, darp. no ijp.bi rlp.sii ? | Whose is that house 

that as-for, who of house is (it) J (yonder} ? 

tfl.kai yam a, ) . 

\ lhat high mountain (yonder). 
high mountain } 



Remarks. 

1. Are and ano are sometimes replaced by kare and 
kano respectively, but the latter forms belong more to the 
classical language, and are heard only from the lips of cul- 
tured speakers. Kano sometimes occurs with the meaning 
"a certain." 

2. Sore and sono are used in reference to the immediate 
object of conversation ; are and ano are used when a new 
subject is proposed. Sono boshi, for example, signifies that 
hat, i.e. the hat you are wearing, or, of which we are speak- 
ing ano boshi, the hat you wore yesterday, etc, 



THE PRONOUN 25 

3. Ano is frequently heard at the beginning of a sentence, 
serving merely to draw attention similarly to our " I say, 
Mr -- ." 

4. The pronominal adjectives this and that are often 
rendered by to before words derived from the Chinese. To 
signifies "the one in question," "the actual one," as to- 
nin, this (or that) person, the person in question. 

The demonstratives in the following list are derived 
from the same roots as those just discussed. 

This sort of; such as this. 
Ko iu 



rSonna, ~l That sort of; 



( Anna, ^ That sort of; 
* 



, , . . , 

( near )lc ./, (remote)].. * f 

I So iu, Jsftcn as that. x MA iu, J such as that. 

N.B. The remarks on the words in the first list apply 
equally to the corresponding words in this, and need 
not be repeated. 



Examples. 

Konna nedan, This kind of price. 
Ko iu rosoku, This sort of candle. 

Sonna koto, \ ,, . , . , /. ., . 
o. . ! , That kind of thing. 

So m koto, 

Anna hito ni korarecha, ) ^ 

., . . , , .. \une is perplexed ivhen 

tnat-sort-of person by, gcttt ing-come, * f 

meiwaku shimastt, f 8jtck P e P le come to 

trouble does } ones house. 

A iu hanashi wa mettani \ 

such-as-that story seldom \0ne seldom hears a 

kikimasenti, j story of tJiat sort. 

(one) hears 

The words in the succeeding list are adverbs from the 



26 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



same roots as the pronouns just dealt with, and they may 
be advantageously discussed at this stage. 



Ko, 

Koko, 

KocM(ra), 

Koya, 

Konnani, 

Kokoera, 



Thus, like this, so. 
\ Here, hither. 

This manner. 

In this kind of way. 

Hereabouts. 





Near. 


Remote. 


So, 


Like that, in that 


A, Like that, in 




way, so. 


that way, so. 


Soko, 


\There. 


AstikO, \ rrii 


Sochi(ra), 




Achi(ra), ' 


Sayo, 


That manner. 




Sonnani, 


In that kind of 


Annani, In that kind of 




way. 


way. 


Sokoera, 


Thereabouts. 


Asukoera, Thereabouts. 



Examples. 

Koko ye oite oite kudasai, ) D7 . . /, 

' } Please put it here, 
here to, putting condescend ) 

Achirayemate,| W ait there. 



ite,\ 

\it J 



Astlko kara saki wa jiki 

there, from, front as-for immediately 
desu, 

is 

So moshimashitareba, mina 
so, when-I-said, all 

okorimashita, 

became-angry 

A ! sayo deshitakke, 

ah thus it-was 



It is no distance 
from there to the 
next place. 

They all became angry 
when I said so. 



THE PRONOUN 27 

Sho sho sokoera de matte ore, \ Stay where you are 
a-UttJe thereabouts waiting remain j a little. 

Sonnani yasuku wa uranakatta, \ / did not sell so 
so cheap (/) did-not-sell ) cheaply as that. 

Kochira ye o tori nasai, \ m i 

} Please come in here. 

here to to-pass condescend J 



IV. INTERKOGATIVE PRONOUNS. 

|^ ? (Subst) Dore, 
Donata (polite), J (Adj.) Dono, 

(Subst.) Nani, What? 

Examples. 

Dare ga so itta, 1 Jjri . , 9 
Who said so ? 

thus said ) 

Drma,ta deafl. 1 TI7 -, . ., ,, 
\ Who is it ? 

IS (it) ) 

Dore ni shirnasho, j 
shall-do ) 

Dono fune, Which ship ? 

Nani shi ni kita, j ^^ ^^ 
do to have-come ) 

Darenohako, I WJumbox? 
who of box ) 

Dare ni kane wo yatta,\ To whom did he give the 
to money (ace.) gave J money? 

Remarks. 

1. Donata (for dono kata, which side), is employed as a 
polite substitute for dare. A still more respectful phrase 
is donata sama. 

2. Nani, what? is applied to inanimate objects only. 



28 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

There is no adjectival form, nani no, nanno, or dono being 
used instead ; as 

Nanno go yo desii ka, 1 Tjr , . . , 

Y What is your business ? 
what (hon.) business is ? J 



The Interrogatives in the following list are derived from 
the same roots as those last discussed. 



Do, How? Doko, \where? 

Donna, ) What kind of? Dochi(ra) 
>6 iu, J 



i(ra), I 

Do iu, / What-ltke ? Donnani, In what kind of 

way? 

Dokoera, Whereabouts ? 



Examples. 

Doshiyo I Whatshallldo? 
now shall-do ) 

Do iu wake de, konna^j 

what-like reason by, such [Why do you do such 
baka na koto wo suru, I foolish things ? 
foolish things do J 



Doko de sono tokei wo o 

where that watch 

kai nasatta, 
buy did 



Where did you buy that 
watch ? 



Donnani ureshi ka 

wJutt-way joyful ? You don't know how pleased 

shiremasenu, / am. 

cannot-know 

Dochira ye irasshaimasti, | ^^ ^ . ? 

where to deign-to-go J 



THE PRONOUN 29 



V. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 

The Indefinite Pronouns are formed from the Interro- 
gative Pronouns by addition of the particles ka, mo, de mo, 
and zo ; thus 

Dare ka, Somebody (or other). 

Dare mo, Anybody, everybody. 

Dare de mo, A nybody, everybody, any one whatever. 

Dore ka, Some one thing, one or other. 

Dore mo, Any one thing, nothing. 

Dore de mo, Anything whatever, either one, any one 

(thing). 

Nani ka, Anything, nothing, something (or other). 

Nani mo, Anything, nothing. 

Nan de mo, "1 ,,. ^ ., 

} Amithmq, hveruthinq. 
Nani de mo, / 

Nanzo, \ Something, anything, any, something or 

Nani zo, ) other. 

Examples. 

Dare ka so itta, } Somebod y said so . 
so said J 

Dare de mo shitte imasu, Everybody knows it. 
Anybody will do. 



Dare de mo yoroshu 

good 
gozaimastt, 

is 

Dore ka hitotsu chodai, Please give me one or the 

other. 

Dore mo ikemasen ka,\ 
any-one-thing will-go ? j 



30 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Daiku ni nani ka o ^1 

carpenter to, something >..-. , 7 

r Grtw M0 carpenter somethmq. 
yari nasare, 

<7iw do ) 

Nani mo gozaimasenu, There is nothing whatever. 

Nani de mo shitte iru, He knows everything. 

Nan de mo yoroshii, Anything will do. 
Nanzo omoshiroi hanashi ^ 

amusing story I Can you not tell us some- 
ga gozaimasen ka, j thing amusing, 

is-not ? J 

Remarks. 

1. The polite forms for dare are donata ka, donata mo, 
and donata de mo ; thus 

Donata ka o ide ni natte \ 

going to having-become I TT 
orimasu ka, 

) 



Donata mo ikaremasen, ^ , r , , 

' } Nobodii can qo. 
can-go J 

Donata de mo ikareru, 1 , , 

J- Anybody can qo. 
can go J 



go 

2. Dare mo, dore mo, and nani mo are generally used 
with negative verbs, and are equivalent to the English 
"nobody" and "nothing." 

Indefinite adverbs may be formed from the interrogative 
adverbs in like manner to the indefinite pronouns ; thus 

Doka, Somehow (or other). 

Domo, Really, somehow. 

Do de mo, Anyhow. 

Doko ka, dokko, Somewhere (or other}. 

Doko mo, Everywhere. 

Doko de mo, Anywhere. 



THE PRONOUN 31 

DocM(ra) ka, f These are the same as the last 
,, mo, three, and they may also be used 

,, de mo, j for dore lea, dore mo, and dare de 
[ mo when two only are spoken of. 

Examples. 

Doka nasaimashlta ka, Is anything wrong with you ? 
Sore wa, dochira de men Oh ! either (of the two) will 

yoroshii, / do. 

Doko ka de mita yo \ 

somewhere seen manner I / believe I have seen him 
ni omoimasu, j somewhere or other. 

think J 

Doko ni mo gozaimasen, There are none to be had 

anywhere. 

VI. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

In the Japanese language there are no Relative 
Pronouns, and to express reference or relation to another 
noun or pronoun in the sentence the verb is prefixed to 
the noun attributively exactly as an adjective might be. 
Thus, just as we say "a good boy," so also we may say 
"a runs boy," i.e. "a boy who runs"; "a plays boy," 
i.e. "a boys who plays," as exemplified in the following 
phrases : 

' i The person who ran away, 
ran-away person J 

Kuru hlto, | The man who com ^ 

comes J 

Kita hito, 1 m i 

The man who came, 
came J 

Sakuiitsu katta hako,^ , , T , ,. , 

- The box I bought yesterday, 
yesterday bought box J 



32 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Shiranti hito, 1 , T , , , 

A man whom 1 do not know. 
know-not J 

Tsunekichi to iu hlto.l , j m 7 7 

line man called 1 sunekichi. 
that-called J 

NOTE. The appeai'ance of ambiguity caused by the use 
of the active where we should expect the passive, as 
seen in the last phrase but one, is in most cases 
dispelled by the context. Thus sakujitsu katta Jiako 
cannot be construed as ' ' the box which bought 
(something) yesterday," but only "the box which 
I bought yesterday." 

Remarks. 

The words tokoro no (literally, " of place "), are not in 
frequently heard from the mouths of learned people, with 
the force of the relative pronouns who, which, and that ; 
thus 

Kuru tokoro no hikn , 

, , N \ Ihe man who comes. 

(for) Kuru Into, } 

Koroshita tokoro no ~\ 

akindo, I ^, 

/ / \ IT- i v, 1-1 ^ Ihe merchant who killed. 
(jor) Koroshita akindo, 

killed merchant J 

Korosareta tokoro ^ 

no akindo, - The merchant who was kitted. 

(for) Korosareta akindo, J 



POSTPOSITIONS. 

In Japanese that relationship of words which, in English, 
is expressed by Propositions, is indicated by what are 
termed by Western grammarians " Postpositions " from 
the fact of their being placed after the words with which 
they are directly connected. These postpositions, in 



POSTPOSITIONS 33 

addition to fulfilling the prepositional office, are also used 
as conjunctions, and they serve also, as we have seen, to 
express those relations of words which Latin, German, and 
other European languages indicate by the use of case- 
inflections. 

The following scheme shows all postpositions in common 
use, together with their most usual significations, and to 
facilitate reference they are arranged alphabetically. 

Dano. 

Dano is a combination of the verb da, is, and the post- 
position no. It is employed in enumerating a number of 
objects when it is desired to particularise each one as fully 
as possible. It is generally translated "and," and must be 
repeated after each of the things enumerated ; thus 

Daiku dano, kajiya dano,"| 

carpenters blacksmiths I Carpenters, blacksmiths, 

yaneya dano, j and tilers and such. 

tilers 

The student should note carefully the distinction 
existing between dano and ni (see p. 41) used in 
enumerations, for whilst the latter is employed simply to 
join together the names of a definite number of objects, 
dano expresses the idea of a group or series of things 
similar to those enumerated. Thus daiku ni, kajiya ni, 
yaneya ni signifies "carpenters, blacksmiths and tilers," 
and no more than these three classes of workmen, but 
daiku dano, kajiya dano, yaneya dano means " carpenters, 
blacksmiths, tilers and the like," and may thus include 
other workmen also. 

The word dano is considered to be somewhat impolite, 
and cultured speakers usually substitute its more courteous 
equivalent de gozaimasu no. 

JAPANESE GRAMMAR 2 



34 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

De. 

The primary use of this postposition is to convey the 
meanings expressed by the English "by," "with," "at," 
"in," "on account of" ; as 

Okadeiku, j TO go by land, 
land to-go J 

Hasami de kiru, \ m ., 7 

\ lo cut with scissors, 
scissors to cut ) 

Tokyo de hocho wo kaimasho, \ I shall buy a knife at 
ToTdo knife shall-buy J ToMo. 

Hiogo de soba wa ikura, \ What is the price in 
price how-rmich J Hiogo ? 

Nawa de shibaru,^ rr s j L * 

} lo fasten by means of a rope. 
rope to-fasten ) 

Wakaranai de komaru, \/ am troubled on account 
not-understanding am-troubled) of his not understanding. 

A second use of de is puzzling to the student as it seems 
to have no meaning and to be superfluous in the sentence. 
It is then a corruption of nite, the gerund of an obsolete 
verb. Its real signification in these cases is " being " ; 
thus 

Ima no betto wa, dajaku ^ 

now of, groom lazy] \ The groom I have now is 

de yaku ni tatanai, f useless, (as) he is so lazy. 

being iisefulness stands-not J 
Watakushi wa isha de 
me doctor being 



gozaimasu, 



/ am the doctor. 



The last sentence exemplifies the most common mode of 
expressing the English verb " to be," that is, by means of 



POSTPOSITIONS 35 

de aru, de arimasu, de gozaimasu. With these various 
verbs for "to be," de forms a group of contractions, thus 
de aru is usually contracted to da; de arimasu and de 
gozaimasu to desu ; de arimashita to deshlta ; de atta 
to datta, etc. (see pp. 78, 92, 106, and 164); thus the last 
sentence above would commonly be rendered Watakushi 
wa isha desu. 

In some cases the postposition wa is added to de, usually 
in expressions indicative of displeasure, and in interrogative 
and negative sentences. De iva is generally contracted 
into ja in conversation ; thus 

Kore de wa, oki ni " 

. y \ 1 am much perplexed with this. 

komarimasu, 

am-perplexed 

Kore ja (or de wa) nai, It is not this. 
I ja nai ka, Is it not good ? = Are you not 

satisfied ? 

A substantive with de affixed frequently renders an 

English nominative, when the substantive verb is accom- 

panied by a qualifying word or expression after de ; thus 

Kore bakari de taranu \ This will not be enough 

this alone not-enough \ alone (i.e. something else 

daro, I will be required in 

ll - be J addition). 

Hitotsu de yoroshii 

one good 

gozaimasu 



De is often combined with mo, even, also, and de mo 
is frequently thus employed in a manner not needing 
translation into English, although retaining the significa- 



36 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

tion of "even" in the Japanese sentence, as the following 
examples show : 

Sore wa ninsoku de mo 

Even a coolie can comprehend 



that coolie 

wakaru, 



that. 



is-intelligible 
Ato de mo yoroshl, J ff wiu ^ afterwardSf 
after even is-good J 
Kao de mo, o arai \ 

face even to-wash I TIT'// i y c<- <? 

, }- W ill you wash your lace, atri 

nasaru ka, 

condescend ? J 

(For de mo with Interrogative Pronouns, see p. 29.) 

Ga. 

This particle was originally a genitive sign, and it still 
possesses the sense expressed by our " of" in the names of 
certain places and in a few locutions, as : Koma-ga-take, 
Colt's Peak (a mountain) ; Hoshi-ga-oka, The Mound of the 
Stars (a part of Kamukura) ; ga suki, liking, fond of; ga 
kirei, not liking, not fond of; ga hoshii, desirous of. 

Ga is now, however, employed as the generic nominative 
sign, though the nominative case is not necessarily asso- 
ciated with ga, as, for instance, when a noun is followed 
by wa or mo. 

Examples. 

Ame ga futte kimashlta. "I T . , , , 

\ It has commenced to rain. 
rain falling lias-come ) 

Fuyu ga kimashita, 

itrinter has-come 



j 
J 



Kane ga nai. \ There is no money ; or 

money is-not j / have no money. 

Kane ga am ka, \ Is there any money ; or 

*" / Have you any money ? 



POSTPOSITIONS 37 

Ga frequently follows a substantive in cases where the 
accusative is naturally expected ; thus 

Tabako ga o suki desti ka, 1 4 . , ,. . , 

\Are you fond of tobacco ? 
fond-ofis ? J 9 

Kono imi ga wakarimasenti,\/<fo not understand 
meaning is-unintelligible J this. 

In the above sentences "tabako" and "imi" are 
regarded by native grammarians as the subjects of the 
sentences. 

When situated at the end of a clause ga may usually be 
rendered by "but" or "yet," and this force is frequently 
conveyed merely by a pause ; as 



Konnichi o taku ye agaru 
to-day house to go-up 

no destt ga, ashi ga 
is leg 

itamimashite, 



/ would go to your house 
to-day, but my leg is 
painful (therefore I 
cannot go}. 



being-painful 

Tori-naoso to omou ga, \ 

take-will-mend think I / wish to mend it, but I 

tori-naosenai, j cannot. 

take-cannot-mend 

Kochira de zonjite oreba ^j j wouU m you if j 

Jiere in knowing if-be , i . / r j 

, . }- Anew, out (1 do not 
moshi-agemasu ga, know). 

say-will-lift-up but J 

Tokoro ga, or daga, at the commencement of a sentence, 

signifies "well then "; "in this case, then "; 

" upon this " ; thus 

Tokoro ga, sono ban ni \ Well, then, on that 
that night on J night . 



38 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Ka. 

Ka serves to ask a question or to express a doubt, and 
in the English translation of a Japanese sentence where it 
is used in this connection, it may be replaced by a note of 
interrogation ; thus 

Arimasu, There is. 
Arimasu ka, Is there? 
Kita ka, Has he come? 

When the sentence includes some other interrogative 
word, ka is generally omitted, as, for instance, in the 
following 

Dare desu 1 TT7 7 . .. , 
} \v ho is it ? 

who is (it) J 

Itsu shinimashita,, i Tiri j--,i , 9 
} When aid he die / 
when (he) died ) 

Between two substantives ka corresponds to the English 
" or," and when repeated in the sentence it has the force 
of the correlatives "whether or," "either or"; as 



Kore wa /tforflshij ka "1 

this new I Whether is this new 

furui ka, j or old ? 

old 

Otoko ka onna ka, "i Whether is it a male 

man woman j or a female? 

Tama ka ya ni, ^1 

bullet arrow [ He was killed either by a 

atatte shinimashita, j bullet or by an arrow. 

striking he-died 

(For ka with Interrogative Pronouns and Adverbs, 
see p. 29.) 



POSTPOSITIONS 



39 



Kara. 

Used with nouns kara means "from" and "since," but 
with verbs it bears the significations "because," "after," 
" for " (when meaning " because ") ; thus 

Shinagawa kara Tokyo made, \ From Shinagawa 

Shinagawa to f to ToklO. 

kara, Since yesterday. 

\Ido not know because 
] I was absent. 



Rusu datta kara, shiranai, 
absent was not-know. 

Asa-han wo tabete kara, 
breakfast having-eaten 

de nakucha ikimasenu, 

if-not do-not-go 
Kutabiremashlta kara, choto, 
have-become-tired a-little 

yasumimasho, 

will-probably-rest 



I shall not go until 
after breakfast. 



Let us rest a little 
for I am tired. 



Made. 

This postposition may be employed to render the ideas 
conveyed by such English words and locutions as " to," 
"up to," "as far as," "till," "until," etc., as exemplified 
in the following : 

Hiogo made aruite ikimasu, I shall walk as far as 

Hiogo. 
Yokohama made donoguraL 

what-amount I How far is it to 
aru, I Yokohama ? 

is 

Sakuban osoku made, 
last night late 

kayerananda, f late last night. 

not-returned 

Komban made machimasu, \ I will wait until 
will-wait / 



| He had not returned up to 



to-night 



to-night. 



40 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Wataktishi no kuru made "| 

me of, to-come I Please wait till my 

matte ite kudasai, f coming, i.e. till I come. 

waiting being deign J 



Mo. 

When used alone, mo signifies "also," " too," " even" ; 
thus 

Kono hako mo o kai \ 

box buy .,, , 

) Buii this box also. 
nasare, 

do } 

Ore mo iko, \ 7 . 

} I will qo too. 
I will-go J 

Aru keredo mo omaye } 

are although even you I / have some, but I shall 

ni wa yaranai, j not give you any. 

to give-not 

When repeated, in an affirmative sentence, "mo mo" 
renders the English "both and" ; as 

Inu mo neko mo oi \ 

dogs cats numeroiis I It is a place where there are 

tokoro desu, j both cats and dogs. 

place is 

In a negative sentence, "mo mo" means "neither 
nor " ; as 

Yoku mo, waruku mo "I 

good bad I It is neither good nor 

nai, j bad. 

is-not 

N.B Mo must not be confounded with the adverb w 6 (see 
P. 145). 



POSTPOSITIONS 41 

Ni. 

The primary meaning of this particle is "to, in, into " ; 
as 

KJH"" ni ^r'mafin, He lives in Kioto. 

Tera ni hairimashita, j ffg ^ ^ ^ k 

temple has-gone J 

Tokyo ni niairimasu, I go to Tokio. 

Ni means " and " in enumerating several objects ; 
thus 

Mikan ni budo, j Q ^ 

oranges grapes ) 

With passive verbs ni means " by," and when preceding 
a causative verb (see p. 109), it denotes the person who is 
caused to perform the action ; as 

Neko wa inu ni kamereta, \ The cat was bitten by 

cat dog was-bitten J the dog. 

Ame ni furi-komeraremashita, \ We were kept in by 



rain (we)-were-kept-in 

Inu ni ye wo kuwasero, "\ n - ,7 , . /. -, 
J f I Give the dog its food, 

dog by food make-eat ) 

Hito ni sagasasemasho, ^ / will cause the man to 
man by will-make-seek I seek it. 

When suffixed to the indefinite forms of verbs (see p. 80) 
ni means " to," " in order to " ; thus 

Hana wo mi ni ikiinasu. \ T ,, ,, 

} 1 go to see the flowers. 
flowers see (I)-go ) 

Kimono wo arai ni yatta,\.T<? sent the clothes to be 

clothes wash sent ) washed. 



42 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



Ni is often suffixed to nouns to form adverbs ; thus 



baka, 


a fool. 


baka ni, 


foolishly. 


dai-ichi, 


number one. 


da,i inhi ni, 


firsthr. 


daiii 


Care. 


(Ja.iji TIT, 


carefully* 


UOlJJJ., 

heta, 


one unskilled. 


heta ni, 


unskilfully. 


jiria. 


f.Jif present tiff* 1 * 


ima ni, 


presently. 


jozu, 


one who is skilled. 


jozu ni, 


skilfully. 


makoto, 


truth. 


makoto ni, 


truly, really. 


rippa, 


magnificence. 


rippa ni, 


magnificently. 


shinsetsu, 


kindness. 


shinsetsu ni, 


kindly. 


tashika, 


certainty. 


tashika ni, 


certainly. 


ue, 


the top. 


ue ni, 


above, on. 



Care should be taken to distinguish between the uses 
of de and ni, both of which may sometimes be rendered by 
" in." De is employed to indicate the place where an action 
is performed, whilst ni denotes the place where something 
exists. Compare the two examples following : 

Kono kawa de, uwo ga ^ 

river in fish \ Are there any fish to be 
tsuremasu ka, j caught in this river ? 

are-catchable ? 

Kono kawa ni uwo wa '| 

in \ Are there no fish in this 



imasen ka, 

are-not 



river ? 



No. 



No, of, is the ordinary genitive sign, and after a noun 
it usually indicates possession ; thus 

Inu no tsume, j fl d , g 

dog of, claics J 

Hakonokagi, j ^ fe 

box of, key ) 



POSTPOSITIONS 43 

Kinnokahei, \ Gold coins. 

gold of, cmns J 



nr> T)a,it,nryr) 



of, President 



\The President of America. 

Omaye no kimono, } Your clothes, 

you of, clothes J 

Hari no ana, } m s *-L ji 

> The eye of the needle, 
needle of, hole ) 

No is also employed to join two nouns in apposition ; 
thus 

Betto no Kurokawa, \ m v 

} The groom K. 
groom Aurokawa ) 

Yamato no kuni, "I ^ . , v 

} 1 he province of Y. 
Y. province J 

Dokushin no wataktlshi, \ r / 7, \ 7,7,7 
bachelor I J 

At times, no is employed attributively after adjectives, 
with the force of the English "one" or "ones," as shown 
in the following sentences : 

Motto yasui no ni shiyo, ~ / will take a cheaper 
more cheap one to will-do J one. 

Korewaii no da, \ rhi* i<t a aood one 

> -t /fcfro fco I* UULfLi/ L//CC. 

this good one is j 

Kore ! nibui no bakari aru : } m 7 7, 7 

These are only blunt 
these blunt ones only are _ 

, Y nes ) are there no 

togatta no ga arimasenu ka, 

sharp ones are-not ? J ^arpones? 

Ko iu no mo hayarimasu, 1 These aho are f ash . 
this-sort ones also are-fashionable I ionabu SQ fo . 

kara, goran nasai, 7 7 . ,, 

look at them, 
as glance deign J 



44 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

When a cardinal numeral precedes a noun qualified by 
it, the postposition no is generally suffixed to the numeral, 
thus 

Mitsu no hako, } rri L 

I Ihree boxes, 
three boxes J 

instead of 

Hako mitsu. 

Hitotsu no tsutsumi, ) ^ , 

> One parcel. 
one parcel J 

instead of 

Tsutsumi hltotsu. 

A very favourite idiom is the employment of no as an 
equivalent for koto, act, fact. Most frequently this con- 
struction is used in conjunction with the verb da or desu, 
and is generally translated by " it is that," or " is it that ?" 

Examples. 

Nani wo sum no desu ? 1 What is that ? (you are 
what (ace.) do fact is ) doing). 

Konai no daro, 1 D i i /; 

y Perhaps he ivill not come, 
will-not-come fact probably is J 

In sentences like the preceding, the o of the word no is 
usually elided in conversation, so that the phrases become 
Nani wo suru n'desu and Konai n'daro. If, however, no is 
placed at the end of the clause, the o cannot be omitted, as 
for example in 

Aru no ? 

is, fact 

Shi. 



j- Is there ? (Is it a fad that there is ?) 



This postposition often serves as the copulative " and " 
with verbs in the Indicative Mood. Care must be taken 
not to confound it with the Indefinite Form of the verb 
suru, to do (see p. 73). 



POSTPOSITIONS 45 

Examples. 

Sawashi hi mo am shi ; "\ r , 

I haoe busy days and rest- 
busy day aim 



hima na hi mo aru, ** da ^ ( hima > rest 

interval Insure, interval). 

Takai shina mo aru shi, 

expensive articles and There are expensive articles 

yasui no mo aru, I and also cheap ones. 

cheap ) 

One can see the 



Kono tera wa yam a mo 



mountain from 



temple mountain ,-, . 7 

, . , . , . V this temple, and 

mieru shi, kawa mo mieru sm, ., , 

the river also is 
is-seen river also 

to be seen. 

To. 

Used with nouns, to may be taken as an equivalent for 
the copulative "and." It is usually repeated after each 
noun, but even when not so repeated it invariably belongs 
to the word immediately before it and not to the one 
following ; thus 

Budo to mizu to wo motte 1 

wine water bring Y Bring wine and water. 

o ide, 
AnoJittoJ^ikirnashtta, j 

that man and (I) ivent J 

Anata to, watakushi to, You and I. 

Other idiomatic uses of to may be classed under this 
head ; as 

Kono betto to issho ni ike, 1 n .,-, , 7 . 

' }- Go with this groom, 
this groom and same-place go ) 

Kore to wa c>npra.imRgfi ^ . 

\ It is different from this, 
mis and as-for differs J 

Akindo to kenkwa wo shlta, \ He and a merchant 
merchant and quarrel (he) did J had a quarrel. 



46 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Rionin to mo, 1 D .-,. s .-, 

Both of them. 
two-men and even J 

To has also at times the sense of the conjunction "that," 
and it is used as the sign of quotation or of indirect state- 
ment; thus 

Uso da to omoimasu, \ / think that it is a lie (literally, 
lie is, that (I) think J <'- it is a lie," that I think). 
Honto da to iiinasu, \He says that it is true (literally, 
truth is, that (he) says / " it is truth," that he says). 
Koko de awo to wa 



here will-meet ,,.. , 7 .. M1 

, v (literally. will - meet you 
omowananda, ,5*. . 

did-not-expect j here > ^ I did not expect). 

In phrases like the two first above, "that" is often 
omitted in English, but to cannot be so dispensed with 
in the Japanese sentence. Thus we may say in English 
" I say it is a lie," or " I say that it is a lie " ; " he says it 
is true," or "he says that it is true." 

The following examples illustrate an important idiomatic 
use of to with the literal meaning "that," but being 
untranslatable into English : 

namaye wa nan' to iu ka,"| What is your name? 
name as-for what that say I literally, "as to your 

I name, what (do 
j people) say that it is." 
Watakushi wa Hagiwara to "| 

me that 

_ , . r My name is H, 

moshimasu, 

call j 

Maruyama to mosu tokoro, ~\ A place catted M. (liter- 
thai say place j- ally, a place (of which 

J they say) it is M.). 

Very frequently in a sentence containing to an ellipsis 



POSTPOSITIONS 47 

occurs with certain parts of the verbs iu, to say ; omou, 
to think; kiku, to hear ; and sum, to do ; thus : 

gakko ni iku tote, ~\ 

school to, (I) go (saying) He icent out saying that he 

demashlta, f was going to school. 

that went-out 

Anata ni kenkwa (sho), ^ 
you with quarrel (mil do) \ He came intending to 

to (omotte) kimashita, j quarrel with you. 

thinking came 

To after verbs often means " if" or " when " ; as 
Sugu ikanai to, okuremasu, "I If you do not go at once 
at-once go-not if are-late ) you ivill be too late. 

Kuru to sugu ni, 1 T -,. , , , 

} Immediately he comes, 
come when immediately ) 

Yoku-jitsu ni naru to, 1 ^m ,, 

}- When the next day came, 
next-day become when J 

Placed at the end of an assertion to has a strongly 
emphatic form. When thus used it is generally followed 
by mo ; as 

Arimasu ka ? Arimasu to mo ! Are there any ? Of 

course there are ! 



Yo gozaimasu to itte mo, j c&rtaMy / shall 
good is that said even J 



Wa. 

This is a distinctive, separative or isolating postposition 
corresponding somewhat to the French " quant a " and may 
be translated by "as for," "with regard to," "so far as 
. . . goes (is concerned)," etc. In English the same notion 
is expressed, not by a separate word, but by an emphasis 
on the noun. 

Examples. 

Korede wa ikenai, ) This 
this with cannot-go J 



48 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



Atsui koto wa atsui, 
thick fact is-thick 

Konda wa sonna wake 

this-time such reason 
ja (for de wa) nai, 
is not 

Konnichi wa, yoi tenkL 

to-day good weather 



18 



As far as thickness is con- 
cerned, it is thick. 

This time, there will be 
nothing of that sort. 



To-day it is fine (ichatever 
the weather has been). 



Ima wa te-suki de gozaimasu, 
now hand-empty am 



Kore wa umai, 

this 



are wa mazui, 



Now I am at liberty 
(althougjl z Mve 

, > 
been so busy). 

1 This is delicious, 
I 



is-delicious, that is-unpleasant 

} 



agreeable. 



In interrogative sentences wa often appears to be 
employed in asking a question, but an ellipsis must 
always be supplied. For example, ato wa, pronounced 
interrogatively, signifies "What is the next (thing)?" but 
literally it is " As for the next (thing), what is it ? " 



Examples. 

Inu wa ? 

atsuraye wa ? 

order 



Mr Watanabe, what 

about the inter- 

. 
prefer ? 

Where is the dog ? 



From the preceding observations and examples it will be 
gathered that wa is not, as is advanced by some writers, a 
sign of the nominative case. Certainly the word which wa 
follows has often to be rendered, in the English translation, 



POSTPOSITIONS 49 

by a nominative, but in the Japanese sentence it never has 
the nominative force. 

Beginners are often puzzled to know when to use wa 
and when ga, inasmuch as in many cases the same English 
translation must be rendered to two Japanese sentences, 
one containing wa and the other ga. 

This is an important point, and one that must be clearly 
apprehended by every one endeavouring to express English 
ideas in the Japanese language. Although an incorrect 
use of the two words is impossible when the mind is fairly 
penetrated by Japanese, yet it is impossible to formulate 
precise rules for their employment. 

The following explanations will probably suffice to 
minimise the difficulty and enable the student to recognise 
the distinction between wa and ga. 

If the doctor is regularly visiting a patient in my house, 
the servant will probably announce his arrival by the words, 
"Isha wa miemashlta," "The Doctor has come" In this 
case the " Doctor " (subject) is uppermost in the servant's 
mind. If, on the other hand, there be no one ill in the 
house, the Doctor's visit would be unexpected, and if he 
came he would be announced by, "Isha ga miemashlta," 
" The Doctor has come ! " Here the unexpected arrival of a 
medical man is predominant in the maid's thoughts. 

Similarly, if a friend has died suddenly and unexpectedly, 
a person would inform me of his death by saying, "Seihnn 
San ga shinimashlta," " MrJ&ibiw is dead ! " but if he had 
been ill and his death were expected at any moment, the 
sentence would be, "Seibun San wa shinimashlta," "Mr 
Seibun is dead." 

From the preceding observations it will be understood 
that wa is separative and emphatic, although there will 
usually be no emphasis on the corresponding part of the 
English sentence when the English substantive is a 



50 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

nominative. Ga, however, has nothing particularly 
emphatic about it, although in the English translation of 
a sentence in which it appears, its nearest equivalent is an 
emphasis on the word which it follows. 

The rule for two nominatives in antithetical phrases is, 
that either ga may be employed in each, or else wa may 
be employed in each ; thus, for the example on page 
48, Kore wa umai, are wa mazui, This is delicious, that is 
disagreeable, we might substitute Kore ga umai, are ga 
mazui, in which case the two subjects would receive a 
stronger emphasis than the two predicates. 

Wo. 

Wo denotes that its associated word is the object in the 
sentence, and it is the nearest equivalent for the accusative 
case in Japanese although a noun in this case is not 
necessarily followed by wo. The accusative may be 
signified by the employment of other words than wo as 
well as by the form of the sentence, and the accusative 
case governed by a preposition does not take wo. It 
is also rejected before suru and itasu, to do, as well as 
in various other connections. 

Examples. 

Kondate wo misete kudasai^ \ Please allow me to see 
bill-of-fare shoicing condescend ) the bill-of-fare. 
Ato kara go aisatsu wo \ 
after reply I / will send my reply after- 

moshimasho, | wards. 

will-say 

Nani wo suru, 
what do 

Hon-yaku suru, 
translation to-do 



\ What are you doing ? 

j- To translate, to make a translation. 



POSTPOSITIONS 5 1 

Kannin shite kudasare, \ Please have patience 

patience having-done give J with me. 

Meshi kuu toki, \ When dining (literally, when 

rice eat time / eating rice). 
Wo is not infrequently employed in cases where a 
preposition appears in the English sentence, as in the 
following : 

Kuruma wo orite, ~ Getting out of the 

'riksha having-got-doicn / 'riksha. 

Hachijiu yen to iu taikin \ He was robbed Q/ the 

eighty called large-money \ , . . 7 

f large sum of eighty 
wo torareta, 

, , yen. 

was taken J 

Omaye no o kage de kinsu ~\ 

you shadow by money \ Thanks to you, I was not 

wo torarenai, f robbed of my money, 

not-taken J 

Mise wo demashita. ^ TT ,, , . , 

} He went out of his shop, 
shop went-out 

Ya. 

This postposition is sometimes expressive of hesitation, 
doubt, or reflection, and often it is simply an ejaculation. 
In some contexts it is a conjunction, and should be trans- 
lated " and " or "or." 

Examples. 

Kurokawa ya ! / say, Kurokawa (a name) 

Uma ya inu ya buta ga \ 
horses dogs pigs \ There are horses, dogs 

arimasu, j pigs, and such. 

are } 

Nido ya sando, j TwQ or 

twice, three-times J 

Omocho ya nani ka, j Toys 0) , 

toys something J 



52 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Ye.* 

Ye signifies "to," "into," "towards," "at," and when 
added to nouns it is an equivalent of the dative case ; 
thus 

Gakko ye, o ide desu ka, 1 r. 

I Do you go to school f 
school exit is : ) 

Shibai ye iki-gake ni Qn the to ^ theatre 

theatre to qoinq-while T . . , 7 

, , V 1 will just a/rop in at 

gakko ye chotto yonmasu ., , , 

\ 7 f t -a , the school 

school at, just will-stop j 

Suteishon ye itte o machi ^ 

at go wait [ Kin dly go and wait at 

nasai, I the station, 

condescend J 

Yo. 

With this particle, an equivalent for the vocative case 
can be formed for Japanese nouns, although its function 
extends somewhat beyond that of a mere vocative particle. 
It is not easy to furnish an exact English counterpart of 
yo, but a very approximate rendering is" ... I can tell 
you !" or "... and that's the end of it ! " 

Examples. 

\ It is cheap, I can tell you ! 
is-cheap ) 

\ I don't know, and that's an end to it ! 
don t-know 1 

Arimasen yo ! / haven't any, so that's all about it ! 
Okkasan yo ! Mother ! 

agari nasai yo H ^ , 

} JJo come in, please ! 
come-up do J 

* By many speakers the y in ye is omitted entirely in con- 
versation, and even where not dropped entirely most people 
pronounce it very lightly. 



THE VERB 



53 



Yori. 



Yori means "from," "since," "than"; thus 



Hiogo yori, 
Ima yori, 
Sakujitsu yori, 
Kore yori shichi ri, 
this from seven ri 

Omotta yori abunai, 
though than dangerous 
Roku-ji yori mo osoku, 
six-o'clock than late 
natcha ikemasen, 

as-for-becoming is-no-go 
Moshi-agemashlta nedan, : 
stated price 

yori shlta de 
than low with 
sashi-ageraremasenu, 
offer-cannot 



From Hiogo. 

From now, henceforth. 

Since yesterday. 

\Seven- rifrom here. 

\It is more dangerous than 
J I thought. 

It will not do to be later 
than six o'clock. 



I cannot let you have it 
at a lower price than 
I stated. 



THE VERB. 

The treatment of this most important part of speech 
in all languages the Verb varies considerably from that 
of Western tongues. For example, the Japanese verb 
possesses no forms which show distinctions of number or 
person; thus "I hear," "thou nearest," "he, she, it hears," 
"we hear," "you hear," "they hear," may all be rendered 
by the same word, kiku. and similarly with the other 
tenses. 

The ultimate element of the verb the germ out of 
which spring all inflectional forms is termed the " root," 
which in many instances has become obscured and difficult 
to trace, through decay during process of time and other 
causes, 



54 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Japanese roots are a vexed question with philologists, 
but a clear and ample insight into the nature and functions 
of the verb can be obtained by the beginner without 
entering deeply into the study of verb -roots. 

It is sufficient for all practical purposes to take as a 
starting point for verbal inflection, a certain developed form 
of the verb, termed the " stem," which can be utilised as a 
primary unit for further development. From the stem 
by the agglutination of one or more letters, are formed the 
"bases," which are four in number, and which serve to 
support certain affixes for the production of all the con- 
jugational forms. The bases are 

1. The Certain Present. 2. The Indefinite Farm. 
3. The Conditional Base. 4. The Negative Base. 

and as their process of formation from the stem, and the 
subsequent conjugatioual development are not in all cases 
identical, the verbal forms diiferentiate into two distinctly 
marked groups termed "Conjugations." 

The following table exhibits the terminations of the 
bases in the two conjugations : 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

Cert. Pres. Indef. Farm. Neg. Base. Condi. Base. 
-u -i -a -e 

SECOND CONJUGATION. 

-eru -e -e -ere 

or or or or 

-iru -i -i -ire 

It will be observed that in the Second Conjugation there 
are two classes of terminations, one characterised by the 
vowel e, and the other by the vowel /. Some grammarians 
treat the latter class as a Third Conjugation, but as the 
forms of inflection are in other respects precisely the same, 
this separation is quite unnecessary. 



THE VERB 55 

EXAMPLES OF BASES IN THE TWO CONJUGATIONS. 
(The termination is italicised.) 

First Conjugation. 

Cert. Pres. Indef. Farm. Neg. Base. Condi. Base, 
to write kak?* kakz kaka kake 

sell uru un ma me 

i, read yonm yomi yonm yome 

Second Conjugation. 



to lose 


makeru 


make 


make 


makere 


eat 


taberii 


tabe 


tabe 


inhere 


see 


mini 


mi 


mt 


mire 


fear 


ojiru 


oji 


oj* 


ojire 



The student should note that the letter r is always a 
component of the terminations of the bases of the Second 
Conjugation, but it never appears in those of the First. 
Any verb, however, may have it in the stem (e.g. uru, 
to sell, above). 

Before proceeding to demonstrate how the various Moods 
and Tenses are formed by agglutinating suffixes to the 
bases, it is advisable to append a few remarks with 
reference to the points of difference between the Moods 
and Tenses of Japanese and English verbs. 

Tense. In Japanese, inflection of the verb to indicate 
the time of the action or state denoted by the verb, is 
limited almost entirely to forms expressing present or past 
time, and this time as either Certain, or merely probable. 
Among the verbal forms present time is not clearly 
distinguished from future time as it is with most European 
languages. Future actions and states are indicated either 
by using words in conjunction with the present tenses or 
by employing the Probable Present tense alone. 



56 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

In Japanese, then, four tenses only are produced by 
inflection, and these are 

1. The Certain Present* 2. The Probable Present. 
3. The Certain Past. 4. The Probable Past. 

Taking the verbs Naosu, to mend, and Taberu, to eat, 
as examples of the First and Second Conjugations 
respectively, the following forms exemplify the method 
of forming the above tenses by the agglutination of 
suffixes to the bases. The terminations are marked by 
a hyphen. 

Certain Present (or Future). 
naosu, / mend, or shall mend, taberu, / eat, or shall eat. 

Probable Present (or Future). 

naos-6, I probably mend, or tabe-yo, I probably eat, or 
shall probably mend. shall probably eat. 

Certain Past. 

naoshi-ta, / mended, or tabe-ta, I ate, or have 

have mended. eaten. 

Probable Past. 

naoshi-taro, I probably mended, tabe-taro, I probably ate, 
or probably have or probably 

mended. have eaten. 

N.B. As observed previously, the Japanese verb ignores 
person and number, so that where the pronoun "I" 
is used in paradigms any other person would be equally 
appropriate; thus 

naosu = 1 mend, thou mendest, he mends, she mends, 
ice mend, etc. 

* It may here be stated that verbs are entered in Dictionaries 
and Vocabularies by the Certain Present form. In English the 
Infinitive is used for this purpose, but the latter form has no 
exact equivalent in Japanese. 



THE VERB 57 

Another time-inflection, peculiar to the language, is 
an indefinite tense form termed the "Frequentative" or 
"Alternative," form. Its primary function is to imply 
that the action is occasional or to denote the alternation or 
opposition of two different actions. The equivalent in 
English varies according to circumstances. 

Frequentative Form. 

naoshi-tari, sometimes tabe-tari, sometimes eating, 

mending, sometimes eats, 

sometimes mends. 

Mood. The mode or manner of the assertion expressed 
by the verb is denoted by inflected forms intimating 
simple declaration, contingency or doubt, and command. 
Thus among Japanese verbs we have (1) Indicative, (2) 
Subjunctive, and (3) Imperative Mood forms. 

The Subjunctive Mood consists virtually of two forms 
(a) the Conditional, and (b) the Concessive, according 
as the action or state expresses dependence, or involves 
concession. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 
naosu, / mend. taberu, / eat. 

Past Tense, 
naoslii-ta, I mended. tabe-ta, late. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
(a) Conditional. 
Present Tense. 
naose-ba, if I mend. tabe-reba, if I eat. 

Past Tense. 

naoshi-tara, if I had mended, tabe-tara, if I had eaten. 
(b) Concessive. 
Present Tense. 
naose-do, though I mend. tabe-redo, though I eat. 



58 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Past Tense. 

naoshi-taredo, though I have tabe-taredo, though I have 
mended. eaten. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
naose, mend! tabe-ro, eat I 

Verbal- Adjective forms. Two other verb-forms closely 
allied with adjectives are (1) the Gerund, and (2) the 
Desiderative. The formation and uses of these will be 
explained later. 

GERUND. 

naoshi-te, having mended, tabe-te, having eaten, 
mending. eating. 

DESIDERATIVE ADJECTIVE. 
naoshi-tai, / want to mend, tabe-tai. I want to eat. 

The student will now be in a position to follow the 
verbal paradigms now to be given, arranged in accordance 
with European methods. The formation and uses of the 
tenses will be discussed fully later (see pp. 68 and 78). 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

Naosu, to mend. 

Indefinite Form naoshi. Negative Base naosa. 
Certain Present naosu. Conditional Base naose. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Certain Present or Future. 

Positive naosu, / mend, I shall mend. 

Negative naosa-nai,* ^ / do not mend, I shall not 
(or)naosa-n(u),t / mend. 

* Where two forms are given, the first is the one in most 
common use. 

t Letters in brackets may be dropped at will. 



THE VERB 59 

Probable Present or Future. 

Pos. naos-6, I probably mend, I shall 

probably mend. 

Neg. naosa-nakaro, \ I probably do not mend, I 
naosu-mai, / shall probably not mend. 

Certain Past. 

Pos. naoshi-ta, / mended, I have mended. 

Neg. naosa-nakatta, \ Idldnotmmd . 
naosa-nanda, 

Probable Past. 

Pos. naosM-taro, I probably mended, I pro- 

bably have mended. 

Neq. naosa-nakattaro, } T , , ; ,. , , 

V 1 probably did not mend. 
naosa nandaro, 

Frequentative Form. 

Pos. naoshi-tari, sometimes mending, at times 

mending. 

Neg. naosa-nakattari, | sometimes not mending, at 
naosa-nandari, J times not mending. 

Desiderative Adjective. 

Pos. naoshi-tai, / want to mend. 

Neg. naoshi-takunai, / do not want to mend. 

Gerund. 

Pos. naoshi-te, . mending, having mended. 

Neg. naosa-nakute, \ not mending, not having 
naosa-zu, / mended. 



60 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

(a) Conditional. 
Present Tense. 

Pos, naose-ba, if I mend. 

Neg. naosa-nakereba, ) 

naosa-neba, ) **** 

Past Tense. 

Pos. naosM-tara(ba), if I had mended. 

Neg. naosa-nakattara(ba), ^ . ,. , , 

j /x. \ / v I had not mended. 
naosa-nandara(ba), ) 

(b) Concessive. 
Present. 

Pos. naose-do(mo), though I mend. 

Neg. naosa-nakeredo(mo), ^ 

. / v f though 1 do not mend. 

naosa-nedo(mo), ) 

Past. 

Pos. naoshi-taredo(mo), though I have mended, though 

I mended. 

Neg. naosa-nakattakeredo, 1 ,, , T , , , 

. , [ thouqli 1 have not mended. 

naosa-nandaredo, 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Pos. naose ! mend ! 

Neg. naosu-na ! do not mend ! 

SECOND CONJUGATION FIRST FORM. 
Taberu, to eat. 

Indefinite Form tabe. Negative Base tabe. 

Certain Present taberu. Conditional Base tabere. 



THE VERB 61 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Certain Present or Future. 
Pos. taberu, / eat, I shall eat. 

Neg. tabe-nai, \ I do not eat, I shall not 

tabe-n(u), / eat. 

Probable Present or Future.. 

Pos. tabe-yo, / probably eat, I shall pro- 

bably eat. 
Nefj. tabe-nakaro, ^ I probably do not eat, 

tabe-mai, / / shall probably not eat. 

Certain Past. 

Pos. tabe-ta, / ate.. I have eaten. 

Neg. tabe-nakatta, j r did mt ^ 
tabe-nanda, 

Probable Past. 

Pos. tabe-taro, / probably ate, I probably 

have eaten. 

Neg. tabe-nakattaro. ^ T , ,, ,.-, 

I / probably did not eat. 
tabe-nandaro, J 

Frequentative Form. 

Pos. tabe-tari, sometimes eating, at times 

eating. 

Neg. tabe-nakattari, ^ sometimes not eating, at 
tabe-nandari, / times not eating. 

Desiderative Adjective. 
Pos. tabe-tai, / want to eat. 

Neg. tabe-takunai, / do not want to eat. 

Gerund. 

Pos. tabe-te, eating, having eaten. 

Neg. tabe-nakute, ~\ not eating, not having 
tabe-zu, / eaten. 



62 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

(a) Conditional. 

Present Tense. 

Pos. tabere-ba, if I eat. 

Neg. tabe-nakereba, \ifldorwteat. 

tabe-neba, 

Past Tense. 

Pos. tabe-tara(ba), if I had eaten. 

Neg. tabe-nakattara(ba), } if f had ^ eaten. 
tabe -nandara(ba) , 

(b) Concessive. 
Present. 

Pos. tabere-do(mo), though I eat. 

Neg. tabe-nakeredo(mo), j f ^ ^ ^ 

tabe-nedo(mo), J 

Past. 

Pos. tabe-taredo(mo), though I have eaten, though 

I ate. 

Nea. tabe-nakattakeredo, ~\ ., , T , 

, , \ though I have not eaten. 

tabe-nandaredo, J 

IMPEEATIVE MOOD. 

Pos. tabe-ro ! eat ! 

Neg. taberu-na ! do not eat ! 

SECOND CONJUGATION. SECOND FORM. 

Ojiru, to fear. 

Indefinite Form oji. Negative Base oji. 

Certain Present ojiru. Conditional Base ojire. 



THE VERB 63 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Certain Present or Future. 
Pos. ojiru, I fear, I shall fear. 

Neg. oji-nai, ^ I do not fear, I shall not 

oji-n(ti), / fear. 

Probable Present or Future. 

Pos. oji-yo, I probably fear, I shall prob- 

ably fear. 

Neg. oji-nakaro, ^ 1 probably do not fear, I shall 

oji-mai, J probably not fear. 

Certain Past. 
Pos. oji-ta, I feared, I have feared. 

Neq. oji-nakatta, ) T ,., , 

> / did not fear. 
oji-nanda, ) 

Probable Past. 

Pos. oji-taro, I probably feared, I pro- 

bably have feared. 

Neq. oji-nakattaro, \ T , , 7 ,. , . , 

\ I probably did not tear. 
oji-nandaro, 

Frequentative Form. 
Pos. oji-tari, sometimes fearing, at times 

fearing. 

Neg. oji-nakattari, -v sometimes not fearing, at 
oji-nandari, / times not fearing. 

Desiderative Adjective. 
Pos. oji-tai, / want to fear. 

Neg oji-takunai, I do not want to fear. 

Gerund. 

Pos. oji-te, fearing, having feared. 

Neg. oji-nakute, ^ not fearing, not having 

oji-zu, / feared. 



64 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
(a) Conditional. 
Present Tense. 

Pos. ojire-ba, if I fear. 

Neq. oji-nakereba, ^ . ,, T , . - 

} if I do not tear. 
oji-neba, 

Past Tense. 

Pos. oji-tara(ba), if I had feared. 

Neq. oji-nakattara(ba), ^ ... T , , .,. , 

V if I had not feared. 
oji-nandara(ba), 

(b) Concessive. 
Present. 

Pos. ojire-do(mo), though I fear. 

Neq. oji-nakeredo(mo), "1 ., , T , , , 

} though I do not fear. 
oji-nedo(mo), 

Past. 

Pos. oji-taredo(mo), though I have feared, though 

I feared. 

Neq. oji-nakattakeredo, \ ., , T , . ,. 

} though I have not feared. 
oji-nandaredo, 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Pos. oji-ro ! fear ! 

Neg. ojiru-na ! do not fear 1 

NOTE. The student should bear in mind that, as observed 
before, the two forms of the Second Conjugation are 
distinguished from each other only by the letters e and i 
of the bases. A comparison of the two forms will show 
that the terminations are identical, so that when the 
first form has been memorised the second one can be at 
once formed. 



THE VERB 



65 



Orthographical Modifications of the Stem. It will be 
observed on reference to the preceding paradigms of the 
regular verbs, that the terminations are in most cases 
simply added to the bases without any changes taking 
place, but the Stems of all verbs of the First Conjugation 
undergo various orthographical modifications, chiefly 
euphonic, during conjugation, these changes occurring 
for the most part in the Gerund, in the Past Tenses, 
and in the Frequentative Form. The nature of these 
modifications is dependent in every case upon the final 
letter of the Stem, and they will be readily understood 
from a careful examination of the numerous exemplifica- 
tions appearing in the following series 

(a) Stems ending in a vowel 

Warau, 
to laugh. 

Indef. Form warai 
Neg. Base warawa 
Gerund waratte 

Cert. Past waratta 
Condi. Past warattara 
Freq. Form warattari 

Here the consonantal element t of the suffixes is doubled. 

With regard to the w in the negative base of verbs 
ending in a vowel stem (wara^-a, iwa, omoz/'a), formerly 
the stem of all these verbs terminated with an f: as, 
Present, warafu ; Indefinite Form, warafi ; Conditional 
Base, warafe ; Negative Base, warafa ; but in accordance 
with a rule governing the entire vocabulary of the modern 
language, the / has been left out before u, i, and e, and 
has been changed into w before a, thus producing warau, 
warai, ivarae, warawa. 

JAPANESE GRAMMAR 3 



Iu, 


Omou, 


to say. 


to think. 


ii 


omoi 


iwa 


omowa 


itte 


omotte 


itta 


omotta 


ittara 


omottara 


ittari 


omottari 



66 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



(b) Stems ending in s 

Indef. Form. 
Neg. Base. 
Gerund 
Cert. Past 
Condi. Past 
Freq. Form 

Here the change of s into sh in the Indefinite Form is 
caused by the inability of the Japanese to pronounce s 
before i. 



Nasu, 


Naosu, 


Orosu, 


to do. 


to mend. 


to lower. 


naslii 


naoshi 


oroshi 


nasa 


naosa 


orosa 


nashlte 


naoshite 


oroshite 


nashita 


naoshita 


oroshita 


nashitara 


naoshltara 


oroshitara 


nashitari 


naoshltari 


oroshltari 



(c) Stems ending in t 

Indef. Form 
Neg. Base 
Gerund 
Cert. Past 
Condi. Pres. 
Freq. Form 

Here the change of t into ch is caused by the inability of 
the Japanese to pronounce t before i or u. 



Motsu, 


Katsu, 


Butsu, 


to hold. 


to win. 


to beat. 


mochi 


kachi 


buchi 


mota 


kata 


buta 


uiotte 


katte 


butte 


motta 


katta 


butta 


ruottara 


kattara 


buttara 


mottari 


kattari 


buttari 



(d) Stems ending in b or m 



Tobu, 
to fly. 

Indef. Form tobi 
Neg. Base toba 
Gerund tonde 



Manabu, 

to study. 

inanabi 

manaba 

manande 



Yomu, Amu, 

to read, to weave. 

yomi ami 

yoma ama 

yonde ande 



THE VERB 



67 



Cert. Past 
Condi. Past 
Freq. form 



tonda 

tondara 

tondari 



mananda 

manandara 

manandari 



yonda anda 
yondara andara 
yondari andari 



Here, before the suffixes, the b and m are changed into 
w, and the t of the suffixes becomes d. 

(e) Stems ending in k 



Kiku, 


Kaku, 


Nozoku, 


to hear. 


to write. 


to peer. 


Indef. Form kiki 


kaki 


nozoki 


Neg. Base kika 


kaka 


nozoka 


Gerund kiite 


kaite 


nozoite 


Cert. Past kiita 


kaita 


nozoita 


Condi. Past kiitara 


kaitara 


nozoitara 


Freq. Form kiitari 


kaitari 


nozoitari 



Here k is dropped before the terminations. 

Exception. Iku, to go (Indefinite Form, iki), forms its 
Gerund as itte (not iite), its past tenses as itta, etc., and 
its Frequentative Form as ittari. 

(f) Stems ending in g 



Indef. Form 
Neg. Base 
Gerund 
Cert. Past 
Condi. Past 
Freq. Form 

Here g is dropped and the t of the suffixes is changed 
to d. 



Elegu, 


Kagu, 


Tsugu, 


wel off. 


to smell. 


to join. 


hegi 
hega 
heide 


kagi 
kaga 
kaide 


tsugi 
tsuga 
tsuide 


heida 


kaida 


tsuida 


heidara 


kaidara 


tsuidara 


heidari 


kaidari 


tsuidari 



68 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



(g) Xft'w/x ending in r : 

Am, Shim, Noboru, 

to be. to know. to climb. 

lit'lef. Form ari .shiri nobori 

Xfj. B<(.' ara shira nobora 

Gerund atte shitte nobotte 

Cert. Past atta shitta nobotta 

Condi. Past attara shittara nobottara 

Freq. Form attari shittari nobottari 

Here r is dropped, and the t of the suffixes is doubled. 

The student cannot have failed to observe that the 
foregoing letter-changes cause ambiguity in verbs whose 
stems end in b and m, and also those ending in a wire/, 
in r and in t. Thus the context alone shows whether 
yonda is to be treated as the Certain Past of yobu, to call, 
or of yomu, to read; whether utte is the Gerund of utsu, 
t strike, or of uru, to sell; whether nattara is the 
Conditional Past of naru, to become, or of nau, to twist ; 
and similarly in other instances. 

FORMATION OF THE BASES, MOODS, AND TENSES. 

INDEFINITE FORM. Affix i to the stem for the First 
Conjugation, and e or i for the Second. 

CERTAIN PRESENT OR FUTURE. (Positive): Affix u to 
the stem for the First Conjugation, and eru or iru for the 
Second. (Jfeyative): (a) Affix nai to the Negative Base ; (b) 
affix nu to the Negative Base. 

NEGATIVE BASE. For the First Conjugation affix a to 
the stem. The Negative Base of the Second Conjugation 
is identical with the Indefinite Form. 

CONDITIONAL BASE. Affix e to the stem for the First 
Conjugation, and ere or ire for the Second. 

PROBABLE PRESENT OR FUTURE. (Positive) For the 
First Conjugation affix u to the Negative Base, producing the 



THE VERB 69 

diphthong au, which must then be contracted to 6; for 
the Second Conjugation affix yo to the Negative Base. 
(Negative): (a) Affix nakaro to the Negative Base ; (b) affix 
mai to the Certain Present 'for the First Conjugation, and 
affix it to the Negative Base for the Second. 

CERTAIN PAST. (Positive) : Affix ta to the Indefinite 
Form, noting the phonetic modifications in the First Con- 
jugation (p. 65 et seq.). (Negative) : (ft) Affix nakatta to 
the Negative Base ; (b) affix nanda to the Negative Base. 

PROBABLE PAST. (Positive) \ Affix taro to the Indefinite 
Form, noting the modifications in the First Conjugation 
(p. 65 et seq.). Taro represents te aro, literally, "probably 
shall be having finished." (Negative) : (a) Affix nakattaro 
to the Negative Base ; (b) affix nandaro to the Negative 
Base. Nandaro is deduced from the Negative Certain 
Past on the model of the same tense of the Positive. 

FREQUENTATIVE FORM. (Positive) -. Affix tari to the 
Indefinite Form, noting the modifications in the First 
Conjugation (p. 65 et seq.). Tari represents te art, so that 
its original signification is identical with that of the Past 
Indicative. (Negative) : (a) Affix nakattari to the Neg- 
ative Base ; (b) affix nandari to the Negative Base. 
Nandari is deduced from the Negative Certain Past on 
the model of the same tense of the Positive. 

DESIDERATIVE ADJECTIVE. (Positive) . Affix tai to the 
Indefinite Form. Tai is an adjective originally identical 
with itai, " painful," and may be conjugated like other adjec- 
tives in accordance with the paradigms on pages 120, 121, 
and 123. (Negative) : Affix takunai to the Indefinite Form. 

GERUND. (Positive) : Affix te to the Indefinite Form, 
noting the modifications in the First Conjugation (p. 65 et 
seq.). Te is supposed to be a part of the verb hater u, " to 
finish," so that naoskite means, literally, " having finished 
mending," or "finishing mending." (Negative): (a) Affix 



70 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

nakute to the Negative Base ; (b) affix zu to the Negative 
Base. This form often takes the postposition ni after it, 
without, however, altering its signification. 

CONDITIONAL PRESENT. (Positive) : Affix ba to the Con- 
ditional Base. Ba is really wa under an irregularly nigoried 
form. (Negative): (a) Affix nakereba to the Negative Base ; 
(b) affix neba to the Negative Base. 

CONDITIONAL PAST. (Positive): Affix taraba to the Inde- 
finite Form, noting the modifications in the First Conjuga- 
tion (p. 65 et seq.). Taraba represents te araba, literally, 
"if am having finished," araba being a classical form the 
"Hypothetical Mood" of aru, "to be" (see pp. 87 et 
seq.). (Negative): (a) Affix nakattaraba to the Negative 
Base ; (b) affix nandaraba to the Negative Base. 

CONCESSIVE PRESENT. (Positive) : Affix domo to the 
Conditional Base. Do is the postposition to with the 
nigori, and mo is also a postposition. (Negative) : (a) Affix 
nakeredomo to the Negative Base ; (b) affix nedomo to the 
Negative Base. 

CONCESSIVE PAST. (Positive): Affix taredomo to the 
Indefinite Form, noting the modifications in the First Con- 
jugation (p. 65 et seq.). Taredomo represents te aredomo, 
literally, " though am having finished." Aredomo, the 
Concessive Present of aru, " to be," is a compound of the 
Conditional Base are, with the postpositions to and mo. 
(Negative) : (a) Affix nakattakeredo to the Negative Base ; 
(b) Affix nandaredo to the Negative Base. 

IMPERATIVE. (Positive) : In the First Conjugation this 
is the same as the Conditional Base, and in the Second it is 
produced by affixing ro to the Indefinite Form. Ro is pro- 
bably a corruption of yo, which is an ejaculation somewhat 
similar to the English " oh ! " In addressing one another 
the members of a household often use a form obtained by 
affixing na to the Indefinite Form, as shina! "do!"; yobi-na! 
" call ! " (Negative) : Affix na to the Certain Present. 



THE VERB 71 

IRREGULAR VERBS. 

Japanese verbs present very few irregularities in com- 
parison with those of most European languages, and in the 
small number of those which deviate from the general 
scheme of conjugation the irregularity is but slight. 

The three irregular verbs in most common use are kum, 
to come ; suru, to do ; and masu, to be. Used as auxiliaries 
with other verbs kuru and suru have an extended applica- 
tion in expanding and describing the actions expressed by 
the principal verb, and the same two verbs serve also to 
afford verbal meanings to nouns, etc. 

The use of masu, as a separate word has now become 
obsolete, and it is only employed in combination with other 
verbs to form an honorific conjugation which is in constant 
use to express politeness, respect, or reverence. 

The following are the paradigms of these irregular verbs, 
and instead of exhibiting masu alone, it is shown combined 
with the verb naosu, to mend, but it should be observed 
that the respectful form for nearly every other verb can be 
deduced by substituting the Indefinite Form of such verb 
for naoshi- in the paradigm : 

THE IRREGULAR VERB Kuru, to come. 

Indefinite Form ki. Negative Base ko. 

Certain Present kuru. Conditional Base kure. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Certain, Present, or Future. 

Pos. kuru, / come, I shall come. 

Neg. ko-nai,* \ / do not come, I shall not 
(or) ko-n(u)f / come. 

* t See footnotes, p. 58, 



72 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Probable Present or Future. 

Pos. ko-yo, I probably come, I shall 

probably come. 

Neg. ko-nakaro, "\ / probably do not come, I 
ki-mai, / shall probably not come. 

Certain Past. 

Pos. ki-ta, / came, I have come. 

Neq. ko-nakatta, ^ T j.j 

} 1 did not come. 
ko-nanda, 

Probable Past. 

Pos. ki-taro, I probably came, I probably 

have come. 

Neq. ko-nakattaro, } T , ,, ,.-, 

\ I prooabhi did not come. 
ko-nandaro, 

Frequentative Form. 

Pos. ki-tari, sometimes coming, at times 

coming. 

Neq. ko-nakattari. 1 

} sometimes not comma. 
ko-nandan, 

Desiderative Adjective. 

Pos. ki-tai, / want to come. 

Neg. ki-takunai, / do not want to come. 

Gerund. 

Pos. ki-te, coming, having come. 

Neg. ko-nakute, \ not coming, not having 

ko-zu / come. 



THE VERB 73 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

(a) Conditional. 

Present Tense. 

Pos. kure-ba, if I come. 

Neq. ko-nakereba, 1 ,. r j 

\ ij I do not come. 



ko-neba, 



Past Tense. 



Pos, ki-tara(ba), if I had come. 

Neg. ko-nakattara(ba), 
ko-nandara(ba), 



(b) Concessive. 
Present. 

Pos. kure-do(mo), though 1 come. 

Neg. ko-nakeredo(mo), j ^ k /<fo 
ko-nedo(mo), 

Past. 

Pos. ki-taredo(mo), though I came. 

Neq. ko-nakattakeredo, } ., r T , 

} though I have not come. 
ko-nandaredo, 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Pos. koi ! come ! 

Neg. kuru-na ! do not come ! 

THE IRREGULAR VERB Sum, to do. 

Indefinite Foi*m shi. Negative Base se. 

Certain Present sum. Conditional Base sure, 
3* 



74 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Certain Present or Future. 
Pos. sum, / do, I shall do. 

Neg. sM-nai,* j 7 ^ ^ 

se-n(u),T 

Probable Present or Future. 

Pos. shl-yo, / probably do, 1 shall pro- 

bably do. 

Neg. shi-nakaro, \ I probably do not do, I pro- 

se-mai, ) bably shall not do. 

Certain Past. 
Pos. sM-ta, / did, I have done. 

Neg. shi-nakatta. \ 7-7.7 

f 1 did not do. 
se-nanda, J 

Probable Past. 

Pos. shl-taro, I probably did, I probably 

have done. 

Neg. shi-nakattaro. ) T 7777-7 , j 

} I probably did not do. 
se-nandaro, 

Frequentative Form. 
Pos. sM-tari, sometimes doing, at times 

doing. 

Neg. shi-nakattari, | sometimes not doing, at 
se-nandari, / times not doing. 

Desiderative Adjective. 

Pos. shi-tai, / want to do. 

Neg. shi-takunai, / do not want to do. 

Gerund. 
Pos. shl-te, doing, having done. 

Neg. sM-nakute. 1 , , , 7, , 

> not doing, not having done. 

SG~ZU, 

*t See footnotes, p. 58. 



THE VERB 75 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

(a) Conditional. 
Present Tense. 

Pos. sure-ba, if I do. 

Xcg. shi-nakereba. 1 . ,. r 7 

I ij I do not do. 
se-neba, 

Past Tense. 

Pos. shl-tara(ba), if I had done. 

X*g. shi-nakattara(ba), \ if j had not done . 
se-nandara(ba), 

(b) Concessive. 
Present. 

Pos. sure-do(mo), though I do. 

Neg. shi-nakeredo(mo), j ^ k /<fo ^ ^ 
se-nedo(mo), 

Past. 

Pos. shl-taredo(mo), though I have done, though 

I did, 

Neq. shi-nakattakeredo. ) ., j T i j 

I though I have not done. 
se-nandaredo, 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Pos. shi-ro ! do ! 

Neg. suru-na ! do not ! 

THE IRREGULAR POLITE SUFFIX Masu. 

(Exemplified in the Conjugation of the Verlt Naoshimasu. 

to deign to mend.} 

Indefinite Form mashl. Negative Base mase. 
Certain Present masu, or Conditional Base masure, 
masuru. 



76 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Certain Present or Future. 

Pos. naoshi-masu \ you deign to mend, you will 

naoshi-masuru, / deign to mend. 

Neg. naoshi-masen(u), you do not deign to mend, 

you will not deign to mend. 

Probable Present or Future. 
Pos. naoshi-masho, you probably deign to mend, 

you probably icill deign to 

mend. 
Neg. naoshi-masumai, you probably do not deign to 

mend, you probably will 

not deign to mend. 

Certain Past. 

Pos. naoshi-mashlta, you deigned to mend. 

Neg. naoshi-masen deshita, you did not deign to mend. 

Probable Past. 
Pos. naoshi-mashltaro, you probably deigned to 

mend. 
Neg. naoshi-masen deshitaro, you probably did not deign 

to mend. 

Frequentative Form. 

Pos. naoshi-mashltari, sometimes deigning to mend. 

Neg. naoshi-masenakattari, sometimes not deigning to 

mend. 

Desiderative Adjective. 

(wanting) 

Gerund. 

Pos. naoshi-mashlte, deigning to mend, having 

deigned to mend. 

Neg. naoshi-masezu, \ not deigning to mend, not 

naoshi-masen de, / having deigned to mend, 



THE VERB 77 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

(a) Conditional. 
Present Tense. 

Pos. naoshi-masureba, if you deign to mend. 

Neg. naoshi-masen(a)kereba, if you do not deign to mend. 

Past Tense. 

Pos. naoshi-mashitara(ba), if you had deigned to mend. 
Neg. naosM-masen(a)kattara- if you had not deigned to 
(ba), mend. 

(b) Concessive. 
Present. 

Pos. naoshi-masuredo(mo), though you deign to mend. 
Neg. naoshi-masen(a)keredo- though you do not deign to 
(mo), mend. 

Past. 

Pos. naoshi-mashltaredo- though you deigned to mend. 

. (mo), 
Neg. (wanting). 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Pos. naoshi-mashl ! \ j j , 

- deign to mend ! 
naoshi-mase ! 

Neg. naoshi-masuna ! 1 , . j j , 

\ do not deifjn to mend ! 
naosm-masuru-na ! 

Other slightly irregular verbs are the following : 

Am (First Conjugation), to be: The Negative Voice of 

this verb is not in use, the negative adjective nai (see p. 122) 

being employed in lieu thereof. The Improbable Present 

or Future, arumai only is found, employed with nakaro. 



78 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

The Desiderative Adjective also is wanting. When the 
postposition de precedes aru the final syllable is discarded, 
and the combination becomes da instead of dam. 

Gozaru, to be: With many speakers the r in the final 
syllable of this verb is rejected when masu is affixed : 
thus, gozaimasu for gozarimasa. This also takes place 
in the polite verbs irassharu, to go, to come; nasaru, 
to deign to do; kudasaru, to condescend; and ossharu, to 
deign to say, and the resulting forms irasshai, nasai, 
kudasai, and osshtii are also used as Imperatives ; osshai- 
masht is, however, much more frequent than osshai. 

Besides the elimination of the r in gozaimasu, in familiar 
intercourse several other of the letters in the body of the 
word are frequently dropped, so that it becomes in the 
mouths of many speakers gozasu, gasa, or gem, and when 
gozaimasu is preceded by de the combination de gozaimasu 
is often contracted to desii ; de gozaimashlta to desKlta, etc. 

Shinuru, to die. This verb partakes of the nature of 
both the First Conjugation and of the Second. Throughout 
the greater part of its conjugation it is treated as if it 
belonged to the First Conjugation and had the form shinu 
(stem, shin). The termination ru, however, causes its 
Certain Present shinuru, and its Negative Imperative 
shinuru-na to be irregular. 

USES OF THE BASES, MOODS, AND TENSES. 

( The three regular verbs naosu, taberu, and ojiru given in 
che paradigms on p. 58, et seq., are used in illustration.) 

THE INDEFINITE FORM, naoshi ; tabe ; oji. As will have 
been observed in the paradigms, this base is used more 
extensively than any of the others to support verbal inflec- 
tions. It is also constantly employed without any modifi- 
cation to produce nouns ; thus 



THE VERB 79 

warai, laughter, (from) warau, to laugh. 

yorokobi, happiness, yorokobu, to be happy. 

hori, moat, canal, horu, to dig. 

nokori, remainder, nokoru, to remain over. 

akinai, commerce, akinau, to trade. 

hikari, lustre, hikaru, to shine. 

The Indefinite Form is also used to form compounds 
with nouns, adjectives, and other verbs; as 

te-nugui, a towel ; from te, hand, and nuguu, to wipe. 
kimono, clothes ; from kiru, to wear, and mono, thing. 
wakari-nikui, difficult (to comprehend) ; from wakaru, 

to understand, and nikui, distasteful. 
kiru-korosu, to cut to death; from kiru, to cut, and 

korosu, to kill. 
shi-ageru, to finish ; from suru, to do, and ageru, to 

raise. 

The negative forms of the verbs suru, or itasu, to do, 
preceded by the Indefinite Form of other verbs with the 
postposition wa or mo following, are used for Negative 
tenses, the forms thus obtained being more emphatic than 
the corresponding simple tenses. In such cases wa is 
usually pronounced ya in familiar conversation ; thus 

Ari wa shimasen (familiar), \ ~, 
A . , . . , ,. , Ihere is none (at all). 

An ya shinai (polite), 

Kamai ya shinai, ^ T , ,. 

J [ / don t care, 

care do-not ) 

Mo ki ya itashimasen, ) / know he will not come 
again coining will-not-do ) again. 

A most important rule exists in the classical language, 
governing the use of the Indefinite Form, and it is also 



80 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

frequently observed in set speeches, and by careful and 
educated speakers. This rule is as follows : 

" In sentences where two or more consecutive clauses 
contain verbs characterised by the same tense and mood, 
all the verbs except the last are put in the Indefinite Form, 
the final verb alone taking the termination indicating the 
tense or mood of the whole sentence." 

Thus it is necessary to wait till the finish of the final 
clause before it can be seen whether the present, past, or 
future, the indicative or conditional, etc., is intended. 

In the Negative voice the Indefinite Form is replaced by 
the Negative Gerund. 

Examples. 

1 Dust heaped up becomes 
(Jhiri tsumotte, yama to naru, I . /T 

Y a mountain (Jap. 
dust heapinq mountain becomes 

J Proverb). 

Miredomo, miyezu ; kikedomo, } Though he looks, he 
though-look cannot-see though-listen I cannot see ] though 

kikoyenai, f he listens, he cannot 

cannot-hear j hear. 

CERTAIN PRESENT OR FUTURE : (Positive) naosu ; taberu ; 
ojiru: (Negative) naosa-nai, naosa-n(u); tabe-nai, tabe-n(u) ; 
oji-nai, oji-n(u). And PROBABLE PRESENT OR FUTURE: 
(Positive) naos-o ; tabe-yo ; oji-yd : (Negative) naosa-naJcaro, 
naosu-mai ; tabe-nakaro, tabe-mai ; oji-nakaro, oji-mai. 

As has been observed before, the Japanese verb does not 
clearly discriminate between present and future time. 
If an Englishman intends definitely to read a certain 
book at some future time, and expresses that intention, he 
decides upon the tense to employ by considering the time 
when the reading takes place, and thus uses the Future, " I 
shall read the book." If, however, his mind is not fully 
made up, he still employs the Future, and intimates the 



THE VERB 81 

uncertainty by the use of some such word as " perhaps," 
and says, " Perhaps I shall read the book." 

Similarly, if my servant desires to let me know that 
some one is reading a newspaper in another room, as the 
act of reading is proceeding while she is speaking, she says, 
" He is reading the newspaper ; " but if not quite sure 
whether the man is reading or not, she says, " Perhaps he 
is reading the newspaper." 

Now in Japanese, things are different. The verb has one 
form serving to fulfil the purpose of indicating any certain 
act or condition be it present, habitual, or future, and 
another form to indicate any probable act or condition, 
whether present or future, and thus it is the certainty or 
uncertainty that is considered instead of the time. How- 
ever, since acts and conditions belonging to the present are 
necessarily more certain than those of the future, the form 
implying probability is used in most cases for future time, 
whilst the form which denotes certainty is used for present 
time. Thus, adverting to the sentences just given " He 
is reading the newspaper," and " I shall read the book,"- 
the verbs in both sentences are translated by the Certain 
Present or Future, whilst in " Perhaps he is," etc., and 
" Perhaps I shall," etc., both verbs are rendered by the 
Probable Present or Future. 

From the foregoing remarks it will be readily understood 
that when a Japanese says " Mionichi mairimasho," he is 
not giving a decided promise to come to-morrow, he says 
merely " I shall very likely come to-morrow." If he in- 
tended to promise faithfully he would say, "Mionichi 
mairimasu." 

Examples. 

Hiogo ni honya aru ka, \ Are there any booksellers in 

book-shops J Hiogo ? 

Arimasu to mo, Certainly there are. 



82 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Arimasho, / believe there are. 

Gozarimasumai, / believe not. 

Kimasu ka (certainty}, Will he come ? 

Kimasho ka (probability), Will he come (do you think)? 

Is he likely to come ? 

Kinaasumai, / do not think he will come. 

Kimasho, He will probably come. 

Ame ga furimasu, \ It rains, it is raining (or) 

rain falls J it will certainly rain. 

Ame ga furimasho, It will probably rain. 

Dare ka, soto de matsu, j ^mebody is waiting outside. 

somebody outside waits J 

Mushi ga taiso oru, \ j,, a lot c 

insects many abide ) 

Mionichi sono hako wo "I 

to-morrmo box \ I shall probably buy that 

kaimasho, I box to-morrow. 

will-buy 
Shiranu, / don't know. 

The dominating idea inherent in the Probable Present 
or Future being one of uncertainty, with an inclination 
towards probability, it is frequently employed to translate 
such conjectural assertions as those iu which " may " or 
" must " appears in English as 

Koyo mo shirenu, ^ He may come for anything 

will-come even cannot-know J J_ know. 

Sayo de gozaimasho, ga . . . \ R mmf ^ 
thus probably-is but ) 

It should be carefully borne in mind that where the 
English " must " implies obligation, the above idiom cannot 
be employed. In this case, "must" is expressed by a 
double negative ; as 



THE VEKB 83 

Ikaneba naranu ^ It won't do not to go, i.e. 

if-not-go icill-not-be / / must go. 

N.B. It is sometimes permissible for naranii to be under- 
stood, as Ikaneba, "I must go." 

CERTAIN PAST: (Positive) naoshlta ; tabe-ta ; oji-ta: 
(Negative) naosa-nakatta, naosa-nanda ; tabe-nakatta, 
tabe-nanda, oji-nakatta, oji-nanda, aiid PROBABLE PAST : 
(Positive) naoshi-taro ; tabe-taro ; oji-taro : (Negative) 
naosa-iuikattaro, naosa-nandard ; tabe-nakattaro, tabe- 
nandaro ; oji-nakattaro, oji-nandaro. 

The difference between the Certain Past and the 
Probable Past is precisely similar to that between the 
Certain Present and the Probable Present (see p. 80). 

Note that Hiogo ye itta signifies both "He went to 
Hiogo," and " He has gone to Hiogo." When it is necessary 
to intimate distinctly the Perfect signification, the Gerund 
with oro or iru must be used, as Hiogo ye itte oru (itte 
iru or itteru), He has gone to Hiogo (literally, Having gone 
to Hiogo, he remains). 

The student should also carefully note the difference 
between itta kara and itte kara. The former signifies 
"because he has gone," whereas itte kara means "after 
he has gone." The only difference between the two phrases 
is the use of the Past Tense in a to convey the sense of 
" because," and of the Gerund in e when " after " is meant. 

Certain anomalous uses of the Past Tense are apt to 
embarrass the beginner. Thus it is sometimes heard where 
the Present is preferred in English, as Wakarimashita, 1 
have understood, i.e. I understand; naka ga sukimasMta, 
/ am hungry (literally, inside has become empty). 

The Certain Past (and Certain Present) construed with 
the koto, action, thing, fact, is somewhat equivalent to 
our Infinitive, a mood for which Japanese has no exact 



84 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



counterpart, thus mini koto, to see (in general) ; mita koto, 
to have seen. 



Examples. 



Kita ka, 
Kimashltaro ka, 



Kio kita, 

Doko ye itte kita, 

where having-gone has-eome 

Ikimasenanda, 

Mae ni mo itta tori, 
before in also said way 

Taigai wakarimashita, 

mostly have-understood 

0-warai shimashlta, 

great-laughing (ice) did 

Dare ni kiita, 

whom from have-heard 

Amari mita koto ga 

too-much have-seen fact 

gozaimasen, 
is-not 

Sazo go taikutsu de 
surely tedium 
gozaimashitaro, 

will-have-been 



Has he come ? 

Do you think he has 

come ? 
He came to-day. 

Where has he been ? 
I did not go. 
As I said before. 

I understand most of it. 

We laughed heartily 

about it. 
From whom have you 

heard it ? 

I have scarcely ever seen 
any. 



You must have found 
the time long. 



FREQUENTATIVE FORM : (Positive) naoshi-tari ; tabe-tari ; 
oji-tari : (Negative) naosa-nakattari, naosa-nandari ; tabe- 
naJcattari, tabe-nandari ; oji-nakattari, oji-nandari. 

The dominating idea of this form is to denote occasional 
action, or alternation of action. It is commonly used with 



THE VERB 85 

an accompanying word having the same inflection, the 
second one being generally followed by sum, to do. 

Examples. 

1 Sometimes he comes, 
Kitari konakattari shnnasu, I j . /, 

' /- ana sometimes he 
sometimes-coming sometimes-not-commg does I 

J does not. 



Kono yuki ga futtari yandari 

this snow falling stopping 
suru tenki, 
do weather 



I do not like this weather, 
when it is alternately 
snowing and being 
fine. 

DESIDERATIVE ADJECTIVE : (Positive) naoshi-tai ; tabe- 
tai ; oji-tai : (Negative) naoshi - takunai ; tabe -takunai ; 
oji-takunai. 

This is deduced from the verb by affixing to the Inde- 
finite Form the termination tai, which means " desirous " 
or " desirable," the form thus compounded being employed 
where such verbs as " want," " wish," or " desire " appear 
in English ; as 

Sono mono wo mitai, 
that thing wish-to-see 

Mitai mono, j A ^ . 

desire-to-see thing ) 

Ikitaku-nai, / do not wish to go. 

hanashi wo (or ga) shltai, ^ 

talk wish-to-do I / have been wishing to 

to omotte imasu, j talk to you. 

thinking remain 

Either of the postpositions ga or wo may precede the 
Desiderative, as exemplified in the last sentence. 

THE GERUND : (Positive) naoshi -te; tabe - tai ; oji-te: 
(Negative) naosa-nakute, naosa-zu / tabe-nakute, tabe-zu ; 
oji-nakute, oji-zu, 



j 
) 



86 A JAPANESE GRAMMATl 

The following sentences show the ordinary uses of the 
Gerund. 

Furuki wo tazunete, atarashlkH New tUngs are leamed 

old enquiring new , , 7 . , , , T 

, . ) by studying the old 

wo shiru, J *\ * 

know } (P^verb). 

Kondate wo misete kudasai, \Pkase show me the 
menu shoidng condescend ) menu. 

Amegafutte kimashlta, \ It has begun to rain, 

ram falling has-come J 

1 P\led-up dust becomes 
Chin tsumotte yama to naru, . . 

Y a mountain 
dust neaping mountain becomes I ,_. ,. 

) (Proverb). 

Doko ye itte kita ? ) TT7 -, , , , 

J \ Where has he been to ? 

wliere hamng-gone has-come J 

Motte kite agemasho,\ I will bring it for 

having-taken having-come will-offer J you. 

Shio wa irezu to yoroshiu, ~\ 

salt not-putting-in good \Youneednotput 

gozaimastt, | in any salt. 

is } 

The Gerund very frequently appears in sentences where 
the word "so " is employed in English; as 

Te ga hiete tamaranai,) My hands are so cold I 
hands being-cold cannot-bear J cannot bear. 

Construed with mini, to see, the Gerund denotes that 
an action is to be performed, but without the exercise 
of much exertion as it were ; thus 

Muzukashiku nakareba, yatte \ 

difficult if -not -be sending I / will have a try at it 

mimaslio, j if it is not difficult. 

will see J 

Kiite miru ga ii, ) You might just enquire about 
asking to-see is-good ) it. 



THE VERB 87 

Construed with oku, to put, the Gerund denotes a final 
and decided completion of some state or action ; thus 

Menjo wo katte okimashita, \ / have got my pass- 

passport having-bought have-put j port all right. 
Kangaete oite kudasai, \ Kindly consider the matter 
reflecting putting condescend ) very carefully. 

Kotowatte okimashita, / refused. 

CONDITIONAL PRESENT : (Positive) naose-ba ; tabere-ba ; 
ojireba : (Negative) naosa-nakereba, naosa-neba ; tabe- 
nakereba, tabe-neba ; oji-nakereba, oji-neba : and CONDI- 
TIONAL PAST: (Positive) naoshi-tara(ba) ; tabe-tara(ba) ; 
oji - tara(ba) : (Negative) naosa-nakattara(ba), naosa- 
nandara(ba) ; tabe-nakattara(ba}, tabe-nandara(ba) ; oji 
nakattara(ba\ oji-nandara(ba). 

To understand clearly the uses and formation of these 
tenses it is advisable to advert briefly to the Classical 
form of the language. 

In this form there exists what is termed a " Hypothetical 
Present and Past " ; thus 

Condi. Pres. naoseba, when I mend, as I mend. 
Past naoshltareba, when I had mended, as I 

had mended. 
Hypo. Pres. naosaba, if I mend. 

Past naoshitaraba, if I had mended. 

It will be observed that the Hypothetical Present is 
deduced from the Negative Base by adding ba. In the 
modern Colloquial the distinction between hypothetical 
and conditional is gradually dying out, and to convey 
the idea of "when," a periphrasis with the word toki, time, 
or with the postposition to, is usually employed ; thus 



88 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



So moshimasu to sugu 
so said when at-once 

ni shikaremashlta, 

got-scolded 
Kuru toki, 



When I said so, I at once 
got scolded. 

When he comes. 



The Present Tense of the ancient Conditional and the 
Past of the Hypothetical have remained, and the single 
modern mood thus deduced by combining parts of the 
two ancient forms might more logically be called the 
Hypothetical since it expresses the signification "if . . ." 

The only surviving Present Tense Hypothetical forms 
are iwaba, from iu, to say, which is used to render the 
idea of "thus to speak," and naraba, from naru, a Classical 
verb signifying "to be," which latter must be distinguished 
from naru, to become. The real signification therefore of 
naraba is "if it be," but when used with other verbs 
as an auxiliary its meaning is nearly "if." Some speakers 
reject the final ba, saying "nara" ; thus 



Dekiru nara, kyo-ju ni 
fortkcomes if by-to-night 

kore wo utsushite, 

this having-copied 

Naro koto naraba, 
will-become thing if-it-be 
Fusoku nara, motto 
not-sufficient if-it-be more 

toraseyo, 

will-make-take 



If you can manage it, please 
copy this by to-night. 



}lfit 



can be done. 



If it is not sufficient, I 
give you more. 



will 



Examples (Conditional). 



Uwasa wo sureba kage 

gossip if-do shadow 

ga sasu, 
strikes 



If you talk of a man, his 
shadow will fall upon 
you (Proverb). 



THE VERB 



89 



If it ceases snowing in reason- 
\ able time, it would be a good 
thing. 

\ If you do evil, there is an 
evil reward. 



Yuki ga ii kagen ni 
snow good condition 

yameba, yoroshi ga, 

if-stop is-good but 

Warui koto sureba, warui 
bad thing if-do 

mukui ga aru, 

reward is 

Areba, yd gozaimasu ga, \ If there were some I should 
if -there-be good is ) be glad. 

Dekitara(ba), motte kite \ 

if-has-forthcome carrying coming I If it is ready, please bring 

kudasai, j it with you. 

condescend 

Ittaraba, kayo na koto 
if-had-gone this-sort thing 

wa dekinai hazu 

not -become necessity 
de arimashita, 






Nothing like this would have 
happened if he had gone. 



CONCESSIVE PRESENT : (Positive) naose-do(mo} ; tabere- 
do(mo} ; ojire-do(mo) : (Negative) naosa-nakeredo(mo), 
naosa-nedo(mo} ; tabe-nakeredo(mo}, tabe-nedo(mo} ; oji- 
nakeredo(mo), oji-nedo(mo] : and CONCESSIVE PAST : (Posi- 
tive) naoshi-taredo(mo] ; tabe-taredo(mo) ; oji-taredo(mo} : 
(Negative) : naosa-nakattakeredo, naosa-nandaredo ; tabe- 
nakattakeredo, tabe-nandaredo ; oji-nakattakeredo, oji- 
nandaredo. 

The signification of these tenses is very similar to 
"though" in English, but in practice it is usually con- 
veyed more conveniently by commencing the subsequent 
clause with "but." 

The forms given in the paradigms are not much used, 
the substitute more commonly heard being the word keredo 



90 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

(to which mo, even, is often affixed) in conjunction with 
the Present or Past of the Indicative ; thus 



Tazunemash!ta keredomo, 
(I) enquired though 

gozaimasenti, 

is-not 



I enquired, but there was 
not any. 



Keredo and keredomo are often replaced by to wa 

iedo(mo), literally "though one say that," and thus the 

phrases oitaredo(mo), oita keredo(mo) and oita to wa 
iedo(mo) all have precisely the same meaning. 

Examples (Concessive). 

Tenki naredo samui, \ Though the weather is 
weather though-it-is is-cold j fine, it is cold. 

Aru keredo mo omaye ni ~\ 

are though, even you to \ I have some, but I will 

wa yaranai, j not give you any. 

not -give 

Sagashlta keredomo, *| 

sought though \ I have sought it, but cannot 

shiremasen, j find it. 

cannot-know 

Yohodo maye ni kane,^ ^ ^ agQ f ^ Mm $(me 
wo kashita, keredo, I ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ( . rf ft 
mada kayeshima- ^^ 
sentl, 

THE IMPERATIVE : (Positive) noose ; tabe-ro ; oji-ro : 
(Negative) naosu-na ; taberu-na; ojiru-na. 

The ordinary use of this form is, like that in other 
languages, to express command or direction, but the bare 
Imperative is seldom used except in military commands, 
as it sounds, in Japanese ears, decidedly abrupt and dis- 



THE VERB 91 

courteous. Even in addressing members of the lowest 
classes an honorific periphrasis is usually substituted, as 
will be explained later. 

Examples. 

toshi mose, 1 * *i ^ 

\ Snow the gentleman in. 
let-through say } 

To wo shirnero. 1 , , ., , 

} Shut the door, 
door shut J 

Sukoshi mate 1 TI r . 7 .,,, 

^ Wait a little, 
a-little wait J 

Tornare ! Halt ! 

Yasume ! Stand at ease ! 

Sore wo taberuna ! Don't eat that t 

Shochi suruna ! Do not consent I 

A common construction, by means of which the English 
first person plural of the Imperative (let us . . .) may 
generally be rendered is given in the following examples : 

Itte kikimasho, 1 r . j / . ., 

} Let us go ana listen to it. 
namng-gone unll-hear J 

Ko shiyo ia nai ka 1 r , -, . 7 . 7 ,, . 
J J > Let us do it like this. 

thus unll-do is-not ? J 

(or the future alone without ja na Icai). 

AUXILIARY VERBS. 

A considerable number of the affixes contributing to the 
production of the moods and tenses are really auxiliary 
verbs which were originally independent. For example, in 
the expression naoshimashlta, / have mended, the affix 
mashi formerly signified " to be," and the terminal ta (for 
te aru) means " am having finished," and thus the word 
naoshimashlta when decomposed is shown to mean "am 
having finished mending." The auxiliaries have also con- 



92 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

tributed to the production of verbal stems. Thus with 
the auxiliaries em, to get, and am, to be, are formed 

yameru, to cease, mazaru, to be mixed. 

kakeru, to hang (trans.) kakaru, to hang (intrans.) 

The following are the chief auxiliaries in use at present 
as separate and independent words : 

1. Aru, to be. 

As an auxiliary aru is most commonly employed with 
the particle de to produce compound equivalents for the 
Probable Present or Future, and also for some of the 
Negative tenses. De am is usually abbreviated to da; 
de aro to d'aro or daro ; de atta to d'atta or datta, etc. ; 
thus 

Iku de aro, "j 

iku d' aro, \ for iko, will probably go. 

iku daro, J 

Kasanai de atta, \ for kasanakattaj did not kndt 

kasanai datta, J 
Konai de attaro, \ for konakattaro, has probably not 

konai dattaro, J come. 

NOTE. The postposition no is frequently placed between 
the verb and da, daro, datta, etc. ; thus konai no d'aro, 
he is probably not coming. 

When the polite termination masti is preceded by de 
and the verb aru, a still further abbreviation occurs, 
which is in frequent use in familiar conversation. Thus 
de arimasho first becomes de masho and then desho ; and 
de arimasMta contracts to deshita. 

It should be observed that the compound future denotes 
a slightly greater degree of doubt than the simple future, 
and that the shorter and more abbreviated the phrase, 
the less courteous it becomes. De gozarimasu is much 
politer and less familiar than desu. 



THE VERB 93 

Preceded by the Gerund, aru serves to produce another 
group of compound tenses, as kite gozaimasu, they have 
come. 

2. Iru (2nd Conj.; stem /). 

3. Oru (1st Conj ; stem ori). 

These auxiliaries each mean, literally, " to dwell," hence 
" to live," " to be " (in a certain place), and combined with 
the Gerund their various forms compose a group of other 
tenses which are equivalent to such English compound 
tenses as are exemplified in the expressions "he is eating," 
"he was walking," "he has been reading," etc. This 
combination has therefore in some cases a Progressive 
signification and in others a Perfect signification. For 
example, nete orimasu means he is sleeping, whilst kite 
orimasu is, not he is coming, but he is having come, i.e. 
he is come. The simple past kimashlta is more obscure, 
inasmuch as its meaning might be merely that the person 
had come but had gone away again, whilst the meaning 
of kite orimasu cannot be other than that he has come and 
is still here. 

In some cases the English passive must be employed 
to render such phrases, the neuter being nearly always 
preferred in the Japanese construction ; thus 

Kirei ni sorotte orimasu, \ m / j 

\ They are nicely arranged, 
prettily bcmg-m-order are ) 

After the Gerund, the initial I is frequently elided, 
particularly in the Present tense, and thus shitte iru 
becomes shittem, I know (literally, having learnt, I remain) ; 
kditv Iru becomes kaiteru, etc. 

Irassharu and o ide nasaru are honorific synonyms of 
iru and of various other verbs, as will be demonstrated 
later. 



94 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Iru and oru as auxiliaries are now frequently used in 
speaking of inanimate objects, although their original 
signification appears to restrict their application to living 
beings. In a few idioms, however, am is used for inani- 
mates and iru for animates ; observe, for example, the 
distinction between kite orimasu, he has come, and kite 
arimasu, it has come, or there is some. 

Examples. 

Nani wo shite imasu, ^ ^ T , . . , , /, 
' \ What is he doing ? 
what doing is J 

Dete orimasu, He has gone out. 

Bakana koto wo itteru, \ You are talking at 
foolish thing say-remain ) random. 

Mada nete orimasu, } TT v/ / 

} tie is still sleeping, 
still sleeping is ) 

Donata ka o ide ni natte "| 

someone-or-other exit to having-become I Has someone 
orimasu ka, j arrived? 

J 

4. Kuru, to come. 

With this auxiliary, in conjunction with the Gerund, are 
produced what are sometimes termed " Illative tenses," so 
called because they contribute a secondary idea of motion 
towards the speaker or the one spoken to, added to the 
primary idea ; thus 

, . . 1 Having carried water, 
Mizu wo motte koi ! . . D . 

f come ! i.e. Bring some 

water hamng-carnea come 

j water. 

Yone wo yonde koi !\ Tell Yone to come 
Yone having -called ) here. 

Doko ye itte kita ? \ 

where having-gone has-come j 



THE VERB 95 



Go and tell him to be 
sure to come. 



Kitto kuru yo ni to 
positively come manner in that 

so itte koi, 

so having-said 
Anata ni sodan sho 

you with consultation will-do 

, , . , v , f I came to consult you. 

to omotte kimashita, 

thinking came 

5. Shimau, to finish. 

This auxiliary employed with the Gerund, serves to 
indicate the conclusion of an action, usually in the sense 
of ending by . . . ; thus 

Kashi wo tabete shimatta, 
cakes eating has-finished 

does not mean "He has finished eating the cakes," but 
rather " He has finished by eating the cakes." Similarly 

Shisho Sanaa ni natte shimaimashita, 

teacher Mr to having-become has-finished 

does not mean "He has ceased to be a teacher," but 
" He has ended by becoming a teacher (after trying other 
professions, etc.)." 

Examples. 

Motte itte shimaishlta, "i He has gone off 

having-taken having -gone has-finished j with it. 

Sukkari gakumon wo ^1 

quite learning I / have quite given up 

mi-kigatte shimatta, j studying. 

see-having limited finished 

Uma ni mame wo 1 rr & -/, 

He went offwith- 

horse beans . . 

tsukezu ni itte shimatta, I f* gwm ? the 



having-gone finished ' its beans ' 



96 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS. 

Many verbs are used in English with a difference of 
signification, sometimes as transitives, sometimes as 
intransitives, as "he ran away," "he ran a needle into his 
hand," "the child speaks already," "he can speak several 
languages." 

In Japanese, however, the transitive and intransitive 
applications are nearly always indicated by different verbs 
containing the same root ; thus 



Transitive. 
hiraku (1st Conj.) to civilise. 



Intransitive. 

hirakeru (2nd Conj.) to be- 
come civilised. 



kaesu (1st) to return. 


kaeru (1st) to return. 


kakusu (1st) hide. 


kakureru (2nd) hide. 


naosu (1st) cure. 


naoru (1st) get well. 


nobasu (1st) stretch. 


nobiru (2nd) stretch. 


oru (1st) break. 


oreru (2nd) ,, break. 


orosu (1st) lower. 


oriru (2nd) descend. 


yaku (1st) burn. 


yakeru (2nd) burn. 


chirasu (1st) scatter. 


chiru (1st) scatter. 


nekasu (1st) put to sleep. 


neru (2nd) sleep. 


dasu (1st) put out. 


deru (2nd) go out. 


akeru (2nd),, open. 


aku (1st) be open. 


hajimeru(2nd),, begin. 


hajimaru (1st) begin. 


soroeru (2nd),, match. 


sorou (1st) match. 


tasukeru (2nd) save. 


tasukaru (1st) ,, be saved. 


tateru (2nd) set up. 


tatsu (1st) stand. 


susumeru(2nd),, encourage. 


susumu (1st) advance. 


yameru (2nd),, cease. 


yamu (1st) cease. 


ireru (2nd) put in. 


iru (1st) enter. 


sageru (2nd) let down. 


sagaru (1st) ,, come down. 



THE VERB 97 

No rule can be framed for forming transitives and in- 
transitives from a common root, and it is only from the 
dictionary, and by practice, that the student can tell 
whether a Japanese verb is transitive or not. It may, 
however, be observed that whilst the ending eru may 
belong to either form, the termination su belongs almost 
exclusively to transitives, a noteworthy exception being 
dam which is sometimes intransitive as in the compounds 
hashiri-dasu, to run out, naki dasu, to begin to cry. 

The student should also note that a large number of 
intransitives in the First Conjugation terminate in aru, 
as sagaru, to come down ; to domain, to stop ; kakaru, to 
hang ; etc. These are produced by adding aru, to be, to 
the stem, hence their intransitive force. Most of them 
have corresponding transitives in eru of the Second Con- 
jugation, as sageru, to let down ; kakem, to hang ; etc. 

PASSIVE AND POTENTIAL VERBS. 

In Japanese no special conjugation for the Passive Voice 
exists, and the paradigms of all the so-called passive verbs 
are in accordance with the First Form of the Second 
Conjugation of regular verbs given on p. 60. The change 
from the active to the passive is produced by affixing 
reru to the Negative Base of the First Conjugation and 
rareru to the same base of the Second ; thus 

First Conjugation. 
SMru, to know, (neg.) shira, (pass.) shirareru, to be 

known. 
Yobu, to call, yoba, yobareru, to be 

called. 
Korosu, to kill, korosa, korosareru, to be 

killed. 
Warau, to laugh, warawa, warawareru, to 

be laughed at. 

JAPANESE GRAMMAR 4 



98 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Second Conjugation. 
First Form. 

Taberu, to eat, (neg.) tabe, (pass.) taberareru, to be eaten. 
Keru, to kick, ke, kerareru, to be kicked. 

Eru, to obtain, e, erareru, to be obtained. 

Second Form. 

Miru, to see, (neg.) mi, (pass.) mirareru, to be 

seen. 

Omonjiru, to esteem, omonji, omonjirareru, to 

be esteemed. 

Iru, to shoot, i, irareru, to be shot. 

Strictly speaking, however, there is no Passive Voice 
in Japanese, and the so-called passive termination areru 
is a condensed form of ari, being, blended with em, to 'get, 
thus the literal meaning of shirareru, for instance, is " to 
get being knowing," and similarly mirareru is from the 
stem mi, a euphonic r, and ari eru, i.e. "to get being 
seeing." 

Thus it is that all passive verbs belong to the Second 
Conjugation together with the verb eru, to get, and herein 
also lies the susceptibility of intransitives to passive forms, 
as, for example, okorareru, to be got angry, i.e. to be made 
angry, from okoru, to get angry ; shinareni, to have someone 
die (belonging to one). 

A sentence illustrative of this idiom is Teishi ni 
shinaremashita. Here the literal meaning is "she was 
died by her husband," which at first sight appears to 
signify that "she was killed by her husband," but the 
real meaning is "she had her husband die," or "she 
lost her husband by death." 

An idiom bearing a near resemblance to the so-called 
passive, is formed by the verb morau, to receive (more 



THE VERB 99 

politely itadaku, "to put on the head," referring to the 
native custom of lifting a gift to the brow) in conjunction 
with the Gerund ; thus 

Kami wo kitte moratta, I f ^ Mr cut 

hair hav ing-cut received ) 

Oshiete itadakitai, ^ / wish you >mnl<l kindly 

teaching icish-to-put-on-tlic-hcad ) show me how. 

Dare ka Hiogo made \ 

someone as-far-us I / want someone to go to 

itte moraitai, j Hiogo for me. 

having-gone icish-lo-rcccivc 1 

Kiite itadakito, 1 / wish you would kindly 

hearing u-ish-to-receive J enquire for me. 

Ane no menjo to yara mo 



elder-brother passport 

watakilshi made kayeshite 
me to return 

moraitai, 
tcish-to-receivc 



I with my elder brother s 
passport, if that is what 
it is called, to be re- 
turned to me. 



NOTE. The foregoing sentences exemplify the method by 
which icishing is indicated in the Passive Voice, the 
Desiderative Adjective of passive verbs not appearing 
in the spoken form of the language. 



The passive forms of the irregular verbs kuru, to 
sum, to do, and shinuru, to die, are kwareru, serareru (some- 
times abbreviated to sareru) and shinareru respectively. 
Masu, the polite termination, is not susceptible of the 
passive form. 

As has been mentioned before, passive constructions are 
used much less frequently than in English, and in the 
majority of instances an intransitive verb or an active 
but subjectless construction is employed to render an 
English passive. 



100 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



It is probably 
finished by now. 

That medicine is 
taken three times 
a day. 



What is this used for? 



The following exemplifications will be found useful : 
Doniiani ureslii ka shiremaseutt, \ / cant tell you how 
how-much joyful ? cannot-krwiv J pleased I am. 

Hayazo to iu otoko.^l n j u 

J } A man called Hayazo. 

say man J 

Mo sliimai ni narimashitaro, 
already finisfad icill-have-become 
Sono kusnri wa ichi nichi 
that medicine one day 

sando dzutsu nomu no desti, 

3-times drink is 

Kore wa nani ni ^ 
this what for 

tsukaimasti, . I 

use 

Ate ni narimasen, \ He is not to be depended 
reliance to becomes-not J upon 
Dekinti toki wa shikata 
not-can-do time do-manner 

ga nai, 

is-not 

Miogonichi made ni 
day -after -next by 
deki-ogarimastt, 

is-finished 

Kono shina wo naoshi ni 
this article mend to 

yarimasho, 

ivill-probably-scnd 
Sakuban sono kane wo 
last night that money 



\ If it cannot be done, there 
f is no help for it. 

It will be finished by the 
day after to-morrow. 



I think I will send this 
article to be mended. 



uketoru hadzu deshita, 
receive necessity u.~as 
Naro koto naraba, 
will-become thing if -it-be 
Shiyo koto ga nai, 
will-do thing is-iwt 



I was to have been paid 
that money last night. 

\ If it can be done. 

} There is nothing which 
can be done. 



THE VERB 101 

THE POTENTIAL VOICE. 

Potentiality, that is having power to do a certain thing, 
is indicated by the same verbs as those by which passive 
significations are rendered, thus mirarent may mean either 
"to be seen," or "to be able to see" ; okareru may mean 
either "to be put," or " to be able to put." 

NOTE. The one important deviation from this rule is the 
form omowareru from omou, to think, whose potential 
signification is not "to be able to think," but "to 
venture to think," " to be inclined to think." 

Examples. 

Kyo no atsusa wa, ^ 

to-day of heat I / cannot endure the 

koraeraremasen, j heat to-day. 

cannot-bear J 
Ikareru de aro ka ? Will he be able to go ? 

Mazukute taberaremasen, 1 T . . . 

\ It is too nasty to eat. 
being-nasty cannot-eat J 

Moraware ya itashi-masenu,) T ... 

} 1 cannot accept it. 
can-accept do-not J 

Korareru ka kiite mimasho, / will ask him if he can 

come. 

Another frequently recurring method of expressing 
potentiality is the use of dekini, a verb formed from the 
classical . de-kum, to come out. Dekiru has come to mean 
"possible," "to take place," "to be ready," but frequently 
it is best translated " can," " can do " ; thus 

Iku koto ga dekiru, / can go. 

Iku koto ga dekinai, / cannot go. 

Mabushikute, miru koto ga, ^ 

being-dazzling to-see I / cannot see ; the light 

dekimasen, j is so dazzling. 

forthcomes-not 



102 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Kaneru, to be unable, cannot, attached to the Indefinite 
Form of a verb, is constantly used to indicate impossibility 
or inability, but the use of this construction is almost 
exclusively confined to persons of culture and refinement. 

}/ can hardly venture 
to say so but 
(said when asking 
a favour). 

Ika naru dori to mo, \ I cannot understand 

, how be rationale I Oil what principle 

kai shi kanemasu ga, j this could take 



understand do cannot place, 

There is an extensive group of verbs which are in practice 
best translated by passive or potential constructions in 
English, although, properly speaking, they are intransitives 
in Japanese. 

If we take such a sentence as "the bridge is being 
broken," we observe that the breaking is caused by the 
intervention of some external influence, whereas in the 
expression " the bridge is breaking," no such outer influence 
is implied. In the first case, the verb corresponds to the 
Japanese orareru, to get broken (passive, from oru, to break, 
transitive) ; in the second, to oreru, to break, intransitive. 
Thus from transitives belonging to the First Conjugation, 
are produced a large number of intransitives of the Second 
Conjugation, by changing the termination u into eru as 
exemplified in the following series : 

Intrans. Trans, 

toreru, from toru, to take. 

furueru, furuu, to shake. 

yakeru, yaku, to bum. 



THE VERB 103 

oreru, from oru, to break. 

kireru, ,, kiru, to cut. 

ureru, uru, to sell. 

yomeru, yomu, to read. 

Kireru, ureru, yomeru, etc., are employed to render such 
expressions as "that wood cuts easily," i.e. "is easy to 
cut"; "this article sells readily," i.e. "is readily sold"; 
"that poem reads beautifully," i.e. "is beautiful when 
read." 

In such constructions it is often convenient to introduce 
the word " can " ; thus, " one can cut that wood easily " ; 
"this article can be sold readily." 

The student should carefully note the difference between 
the true potentials in areru and rareru, and the intrans'itives 
in eru. The latter forms denote the possession of strength 
or power to do anything such as is expressed by "can" 
in English, whilst with the true potentials is associated 
the notion of permission which is indicated by "may," 
thus ikaremasu signifies "one can go" (because permission 
is granted), and ikemasu signifies " one can go " (because 
one possesses the physical ability, not being lame, etc.) 

As verbs of the Second Conjugation are not capable 
of forming intransitives in eru, the passive potentials in 
rareru have to be utilised. The form mieru, to seem, to be 
visible, formed irregularly from mini, to see, should be 
noted. 

THE VERB Sum. 

The paradigm of this verb, which is probably the one 
most frequently heard, has been given on page 73. Its 
primary signification is "to do," "to make " (French, faire), 
and it is often used independently in this sense, the noun 



104 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

governed by it taking the postposition wo, although the 
latter is in most cases dropped before suru ; thus 

hon-yaku suru, to translate, to make a translation. 

choai suru, to love, i.e. to make love. 

eshaku suru wo suru, to make an apology. 

ban wo suru, to keep watch. 

jisatsu suru, to commit (do) suicide. 

saisoku suru, to urge on (literally, to do urgency}. 

Omae do shimasu, What are you doing ? 

So suru to yokatta, \ It would have been better to do 

so do if was-good ) that. 

At times instead of wo, the particle ga is employed with 
suru used independently, and the signification of the verb 
is then " to be " ; as 

Zutsu ga suru, There is a headache, i.e. / 

have a headache. 
Hansho no oto ga suru ! There is the firebett ! 

The most frequent use of suru is, however, that of 
supplying the place of a suffix to nouns of Chinese origin, 
and other uninflected words. The following are useful 
illustrations : 

shimpai suru, to be anxious, from shimpai, anxiety. 
kenkwa suru, to quarrel, kenkwa, a quarrel. 
ryoko suru, to travel, ryoko, a journey. 

tochaku suru, to arrive, tochaku, arrival. 

If the noun is monosyllabic and terminates in n, the s of 
suru in the verb formed with it assumes the nigori, and 
suru becomes jiru, which is made to conform to the para- 
digm of verbs with stems in i of the Second Conjugation. 
Thus from the combination of suru with kin, a word of 
Chinese origin signifying "prohibition," is produced the 
verb kinjiru, which is inflected like ojiru and not like suru. 



THE VERB 105 

This sometimes occurs even in cases where the termination 
is other than n. 

Examples. 

sonjiru, to spoil, from son, loss. 
ronjiru, to argue, ron, argument. 
ojiru, to correspond, 6, correspondence. 

THE EQUIVALENTS OF "to be." 

To recognise the distinction between the numerous 
Japanese equivalents of the English verb "to be," and to 
employ them correctly, is one of the most bewildering tasks 
which the student has to encounter, and as it is impossible 
to attain a thorough knowledge of the language until a 
familiarity with such locutions is attained, the following 
suggestions and examples are offered with a view to mini- 
mising the difficulty : 

Am, atta, aro, etc. These forms are mostly used with 
the signification "there is," "there was," "perhaps there 
will be." In many instances their meaning is conveniently 
rendered by "I (you, etc.) have, had, shall have," the 
subject in the Japanese construction being replaced by the 
object in English ; thus 

Mizugaaru, j j have (some} water . 
water tfiere-is J 

If masit is affixed, as arimasu, arimashita, arimasko, a 
politer signification is imparted. Still more respectful but 
identical in meaning are the forms gozaimasu, gozaimashita, 
gozaimasho (cf. p. 78). 

Used with a Gerund, however, arimasu, gozaimasu mean 
" to be " only, and not " there is " ; as 

Kami ni tsutsunde arimasu, \ It is wrapped up in 
paper in having-wrapped is J paper. 

4* 



106 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

This is also the case when gozaimasu has an adjective 
associated with it ; as 

Yama ga tako gozaimasu, j^ m(mntain ishih . 
mountain high is J 

The Certain Present of aru and of arimasu are seldom 

used in this connection accompanied by adjectives in 

the u or o form as the notion of " to be " is inherent in 

the adjective itself. Thus the last sentence would be, 

in a less respectful form, "Yama ga takai" (see p. 118). 

De aru, de atta, de aro, etc. (familiar). 

De arimasu, de arimasnlta, de arimasho, etc. (politer}. 

De gozaimasu, de gozaimashlta, de gozaimasho, etc. 

(politest}. 

These are forms of the verb "to be "without "there," 
and their signification is therefore simply "I am, he, she, 
it is," etc., and similarly throughout the conjugation. 

Desu is an abbreviation of de gozaimasu ; deshlta of 
de gozaimashlta, and desho of d# gozaimasho. 

Examples. 

Kore wa nan de aru (or da) ? "1 T;ir , , . ., . , 

\ W hat is this f 
this what is (it) J 

Kore de 

this with all 

0-sawagi deshita, ~l . 77 

' \ All was in an uproar, 
uproar (it) icas ) 

Hiroi-totte kureta wa do } What sort of a man 

pick-up-havinq-taken gave how , . , 7 

. ,* , ' f was it who picked 

lu nito de atta, 

77 j tt up / 

called man was J 

Mazu sore-kkiri de gozaimasu, ) Well, that is about 
ivell that-only it (is) ) ^//. 

Iru and Oru. The real signification of these verbs is " to 
dwell," "to live," "to be (in a certain place)," but they are 
employed mostly as auxiliaries, as explained on p. 93, 



THE VERB 107 

Naru, to be, appears more frequently in the classical 
language than in the colloquial, although it is not rare to 
hear the Conditional Form used as an auxiliary with the 
Indicative tenses of verbs. Thus iku nareba or iku nara, 
for " if he goes," are more common than ikeba, and similarly 
we may say itta nareba or itta nara, for " if he went " or 
" had gone," instead of ittareba. 

N.B. Naru, to be, should be carefully distinguished from 
naru, to become, which latter may usually be recognised 
by its being preceded by the postposition ni or to ; as 

Chiri tsumotte, yama to naru, \ Dust piled-up becomes a 
dust piling-up mountain becomes J mountain (Proverb). 
Shindai-kagiri ni natta, He became bankrupt. 

Suru, to do, is at times employed as an equivalent of 
" to be " (see p. 104). 

CAUSAL OR CAUSATIVE VERBS. 

In Japanese there are large numbers of phrase-verbs 
denoting causation of action, e.g. "causing to eat," "causing 
to read," etc. These causal verbs, or causative verbs, as they 
are sometimes termed, are formed by the addition of seru 
to the Negative Base in verbs of the First Conjugation, and 
by "the addition of saseru to the same base in the Second. 
Many causals are better translated by different words in 
English, as shiru, to know, causative shiraseru, to inform, 
i.e. to cause to know. 

Examples of Causals. 
First Conjugation. 

Neg. Base. Causal. 

yomu, to read, yoma, yomaseru, to cause to read. 

shiru, to know, shira, shiraseru, to cause to know. 

tsukuru, to make, tsukura, tsukuraseru, to cause to make. 



108 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



Second Conjugation. 

First Form. 
Neg. Base. Causal. 
era, to obtain, e, esaseru, to cause to obtain, i.e. 

to give. 

taberu, to eat, tabe, tabesaseru, to cause to eat, 

i.e. to feed. 

Second Form. 

mini, to see, mi, misaseru, to cause to see. 

abiru, to bathe, abi, abisaseru, to cause to bathe. 

The conjugation of all Causals is in accordance with that 
of the First Form of the Second Conjugation given on p. 60, 
and they are, in common with other verbs, susceptible of 
the passive voice ; thus 

Causal. Passive, 

shim, to know, shiraseru, to cause to shiraserarera, to be 

know. caused to know. 

era, to obtain, esaseru, to cause to esaserarera, to be 

obtain. 

mini, to see, misaseru, to cause 
to see. 

It must be noted that although there are passive forms 
of causals, no causal forms of the passive are employed. 
Thus such constructions as "to cause to be seen," "to cause 
to be eaten," are inadmissible ; the corresponding active 
being used instead. A sentence like " I will let some books 
be brought (i.e. I will cause [somebody] to bring some 
books) " will therefore be changed before translating into 
"I will cause some books to come," and similarly with 
other like phrases. 

It should also be noted that the causals in seru and the 
transitives in su (First Conjugation) are used indiscrimi- 
nately. Thus the same speaker will use matasKite (from 



caused to obtain. 
misaserareru, to be 
caused to see. 



THE VERB 



109 



matsu, to wait) at one time, and matasete at another, 
though the former word is, strictly speaking, the correct one. 

Causal verbs possess various slight divergencies of signi- 
fication, and their English translation must therefore vary 
according to circumstances. For example, naosaseru (from 
naosu, to mend) may be translated "to cause to mend," 
" to make . . . (e.g. a servant) mend," " to allow to mend," 
or "let . . . mend." 

In phrases containing Causals the postposition ni is 
associated with the substantive which denotes the one 
caused to perform the action, whilst the postposition wo 
accompanies the substantive denoting the person or thing 
acted upon. 

The Causals of the Irregular verbs kuru, shinuru, and 
sum are respectively kosaseru, to cause to come ; shinaseru, 
to cg,use to die ; and saseru, to cause to do. 



Examples. 

Sugu ni kikashlte kudasai, 
at-once causing-to-hear condescend 

Inu ni niku kuwaseta ka, 

dog meat mode-eat 

Shizuka ni sasenakereba, 

quiet 

ikenai, 

Taihen ni o matase moshita, 
dreadfully made-to-wait 

Ima onna ni ii-tsukete heya 

nmc woman commanding room 

no soji wo saseru ga ii, 

cleaning cause-to-do is-good 

Hayaku kikasete kudasare, 

quickly hamng-made-hear give 



Please let me know 

at once. 
Did you give the 

dog its meat ? 

You must make 
them keep quiet. 

I have kept you 
waiting a dread- 
fully long time. 
It will be as well 
to get the woman 
to come and clean 
the room. 
\Please let me 
J hear quickly. 



110 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

AMBIGUOUS VERB-FORMS. 

It will be observed that iu the First Conjugation a large 
number of verbs have steins terminating in r, and that the 
same letter also appears in two of the bases (Certain 
Present and Conditional) in verbs of the Second Conjuga- 
tion. Owing to this fact beginners are often at a loss to 
know to which Conjugation a certain verb, e.g. teru, to 
shine, belongs. Nothing but a thorough mastery of the 
rules which have been fully set forth in preceding pages 
relating to the formation and uses of verb-forms can furnish 
the student with the ability to at once discriminate with 
accuracy in such cases, and if the remarks and examples iu 
the preceding sections have been carefully followed he would 
immediately assign the above-mentioned verb teru to the 
First Conjugation, as the stem is ter, the Indefinite Form 
ten', and the Negative Base tera. In like manner, the verb 
makeru, to lose, will be recognised as belonging to the Second 
Conjugation, because the r in this case is part of the termina- 
tion and not of the stem. Similarly shir-u, to know, is of 
the First Conjugation, whilst mi-ru to see, is of the Second. 

A still further degree of difficulty is presented by such 
pairs of verbs as kaeru (First Conjugation), to return, and 
kaeru (Second Conjugation), to change; kiru (First Con- 
jugation), to cut, and kiru (Second), to wear ; and until some 
material progress has been made in the language, it will 
be found difficult to distinguish readily all the forms of, 
say, kakaru, to Jiang (intransitive), from those of kakeru, to 
hung (transitive). 

The differences existing between the various verbal forms 
in instances such as those just referred to are clearly and 
concisely demonstrated in the paradigms appearing on the 
opposite page. The three verbs shown are all in common 
use. They are 



THE VERB 



111 



Iru (First Conjugation ; stem ir), to enter, to go in. 
Ireru (Second Conjugation, First Form ; stem ir), to 

insert, to put in. 
Iru (Second Conjugation, Second Form ; stem i), to be, 

to dircU. 

Iru, Ireru, Iru, 

to enter. to insert. to be. 

Indefinite Form, 
iri ire i 

Negative Base, 
ira ire i 

Conditional Base, 
ire irere ire 



Pos. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Certain Present or Future. * 
iru ireru iru 

iranai irenai inai 

iran(u) iren(u) in(u) 

Probable Present or Future. 



Pos. 


"iro 


ireyo 


iyo 


Neg. 


irumai 


iremai 


imai 






Certain Past. 




Pos. 


itta 


irete 


ita 


Neg. 


I iranakatta 
1 irananda 


irenakatta 
irenanda 


inakatta 
inanda 






Probable Past. 




Pos. 


ittaro 


iretaro 


itaro 


Neg. 


[ iranakattaro 
\ iranandaro 


irenakattaro 
irenandaro 


inakattaro 
inandaro 



112 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Frequentative Form. 
Pos. ittari iretari itari 

-* T [ iranakattari irenakattari inakattari 
Neg. { 

( iranandan irenandari inandari 

Desiderative Adjective. 
Pos. iritai iretai itai 





Gerund. 




Pos. itte 


irete 


ite 


Neg. j iranakftte 


irenakute 


inakute 


I irazu 


irezu 


izu 



SUBJUNCTIVE "Mooo. 

(a) Conditional. 
Present. 

Pos. ireba irereba ireba 

ny- I iranakereba irenakereba inakereba 
I iraneba ireneba ineba 

Past. 

Pos. ittara(ba) iretara(ba) itara(ba) 

iy ( iranakattara(ba) irenakattara(ba) inakattara(ba) 
I iranandara(ba) irenandara(ba) inandara(ba) 

(b) Concessive. 
Present. 

Pos. iredo(mo) ireredo(mo) iredo(mo) 

vr ( iranakeredo(mo)irenakeredo(mo) inakeredo(mo) 
I iranedo(mo) irenedo(mo) inedo(mo) 

Past. 
Pos. ittaredo(mo) iretaredo(mo) itaredo(mo) 



THE VERB 113 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Pos. ire ! irero ! iro ! 

Neg. iru-na ! ireru-na ! iru-na ' 

\ 

COMPOUND VERBS. 

The Japanese language is very rich in verbal combina- 
tions which partake more or less of a compound character, 
and these verbal compounds serve in many cases as 
equivalents for English prepositional verbs, but in others 
they replace complete phrases ; thus 

buchi -korosu, to kill by beating (from butsu, to beat, 

and korosu, to kill.} 
mi-tsukeru, to fix by seeing, i.e. to notice (from miru, 

to see, and tsukeru, to fix. 

In the majority of instances such compounds are formed 
by using certain verbs as affixes to other verbs and the 
meaning of the verb employed as an auxiliary is frequently 
lost, the basal verb receiving merely an increase of force 
from the association. 

In compounds consisting of two verbs in juxtaposition, 
the first component is put in the Indefinite Form, which 
remains unchanged, whilst the second component is inflected 
throughout the Conjugation. 

Usually the second component is modified adverbially 
by the first, as in kiri-korosu, to Mil by cutting, where 
kiri (from kiru, to cut] denotes the mode of action of 
korosu, to MIL 

In some cases, however, each member of the compound 
contributes its own particular meaning as in wake-ataeru, 
to give in shares, from "to divide" and "to give." 

The verbs of most frequent recurrence as second members 
of compounds are 



114 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

1. Dasu. 

This usually denotes the action of commencing, coming 
out or talcing out ; as 

okoru, to get angry, okori-dasu, to begin to get 

angry. 

naku, to cry, naki-dasu, to begin to cry. 

furu, to fall (of rain, furi-dasu, to begin to rain. 

snow, etc.), 

hashiru, to run, hashiri-dasu, to run out. 

tsukuru, to compose, to tsukuri-dasu, to produce, to 

grow, bring forth. 

omou, to think, omoi-dasu, to recall to mind. 

torn, to take, tori-dasu, to take out. 

2. Kiru. 

The literal meaning of this verb is "to cut," but as 
the second member of a compound it usually denotes 
completeness or totality; as 

kariru, to hire, kari-kiru, to hire the whole (of a 

building, etc.). 
kau, to buy, kai-kiru, to buy up the lot (of 

goods, etc.). 
shimeru, to shut up, shime-kiru, to shut up completely 

(a shop for alterations, etc.). 
omou, to think, omoi-kiru, to decide finally. 

3. Komu. 

This verb has the sense of the English " in " or " into " ; 
thus 

tobu, to jump, tobi-komu, to jump in. 

furu, to fall, furi-komu, to come in (said of rain, 

snow, etc., coming into a house), 
kiru, to cut, kiri-komu, to cut into. 

agaru, to rise, agari-komu, to force a way up into. 



THE ADJECTIVE . 115 

4. Sokonau. 

This implies failing to do something, or just escaping 
something ; thus 

kiku, to hear, kiki-sokonau, to fail in hearing, i.e. 

to hear wrongly. 
mini, to see, mi-sokonau, to fail in seeing, i.e. 

to see wrongly. 
kaku, to write, kaki-sokonau, to fail in writing, 

i.e. to make an error (in writing). 
shinuru, to die, shini-sokonau, to fail in dying, i.e. 

to barely escape death. 

5. Tsukeru. 

Tsukeru means literally "to fix," "to affix" ; hence 
iu, to say, ii-tsukeru, to fix by saying, i.e. to 

command. 
kaku, to write, kaki-tsukeru, to fix by writing, i.e. 

to jot down. 
kiku, to hear, kiki-tsukeru, to fix by hearing, i.e. 

to happen to hear. 
mini, to see, mi-tsukeru, to fix by seeing, i.e. 

to notice. 
tataku, to knock, tataki-tsukeru, to fix by knocking, 

i.e. to knock on. 

THE ADJECTIVE. 

In Japanese, the words and locutions employed to 
describe, limit or define the significations of substantives 
differ considerably in construction and modes of use from 
those fulfilling similar functions and termed " Adjectives " 
in Western languages. Thus Japanese adjectives ignore all 
distinctions of number and gender, as well as the ideas 



116 . A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

denoted in English by the degrees of comparison. They 
have, however, inflectional forms, which, so far as they 
extend, are almost identical with those of verbs. 

I. PRIMARY INFLECTIONS. 

The crudest and most elementary form of the adjective 
is what may be termed the "Stem." From the Stem 
by the agglutination of affixes are produced the various 
adjectival words and phrases which are used as simple 
adjectives, adverbial adjectives, and verbal adjectives ; thus 

(a). By adding i to the Stem, the simple adjective is 
produced, and this form is both attributive and predicative, 
being employed either attached directly to a substantive 
or else at the end of a phrase, with the English verb 
"to be " understood. For example, from the Stems Juka 
and atsu are formed the simple adjectives fukai, deep, and 
atsui, thick, which may be used thus : 

Attributive. Predicative. 

Fukai kawa, a deep river. Kawa ga fukai, the river is 

deep. 
Atsui kami, thick paper. Kami ga atsui, the paper is 

thick. 

N.B. In predicative phrases like the two above, ga must 
not be regarded as corresponding to the word " is." 
It is a particle serving approximately to indicate 
the nominative case (see p. 36). 

The terminal i of the adjective in the attributive relation 
is a contraction of a somewhat obsolete form in ki. The 
complete syllable is still retained in formal speeches and 
in some proverbs, as for instance in 

Furuki wo tazunete, atarashiki, ~\ New things are 
Old (things) tidying new (things) [ ^^ ft , 

wo shim, I . , f, 

, in ft the old. 

knows J ' 



THE ADJECTIVE 117 

The attribute form in ki is also used in the words 
gotoki, similar, like, and in the termination beki. 

The terminal % of the adjective in the predicative relation 
is a contraction of an archaic form in ski. In some phrases 
the complete syllable is still in use ; thus 

Yoshi ! Yoshi ! All right ! (literally, is good, 

is good). 

Kurasa wa kurashi ! ^ T . . , , / , , , x . 
} It is dark (and no mistake) ! 
darkness (it is) dark J 

Kizukai nashi, \ m ft 

} Ihere is no cause jor alarm. 
w-not ) 

When employed attributively the adjective is sometimes 
accompanied by the postposition no which serves to convey 
the idea of the English indefinite pronoun " one." In 
this connection no is probably an abbreviation of mono, 
thing; thus 

Warui no, A bad one. 

Akai no, A red one. 

Akai no bakari aru, ) , i j 

\ There are only red ones. 
red only is ) 



Examples of the Attributive and Predicate uses of 
Adjectives. 

Awoi kao, ) , /. 

} A paleface, 
face J 

Yoi onna, A good woman. 

Warui no da, 1 T , . , -, 

\ It is a bad one. 
bad one is J 

Samui koto ! } rr u -* , 

\ How cold it is! 
cold thing ) 

Tenki wa yoroshi, \ ^i .7 / 

J Ihe weather is fine. 

weather is-good J 

Nawaganagai, | The is lo 
rope is-long J 



118 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

(b). By adding hi to the Stem there is produced a 
form which is employed in cases where a verb other 
than gozaimasu follows. This form is also used as an 
adverb corresponding very often, though not invariably, 
to an English adverb in "ly." When adverbial it is 
followed by the verb which it modifies. 

Examples. 

Yoku dekita, ) T . , 
> It is made well 
well ) 

Kawa ga fukaku miemasu. } m 777 

> The river looks deep. 
river deep looks ) 

Yasuku dekimashita, It is made cheaply. 

Hayaku kite kudasai, 1 nj . 7 7 

} Please come quickly, 
quickly J 

(c). When gozaimasu is used a form of the adjective 
in o or u is employed, this form being deduced from that 
in ku by first discarding k and then combining into one 
syllable the final vowel of the stem and the u remaining 
from ku. In cases where the adverbial form of an adjective 
terminates in iku the k is rejected, but no further change 
is made. 

Examples. 

nagaku (from nagai, long) becomes nagau, and then nago 
yoroshiku ( ,, yoroshi, good) ,, yoroshiu, ,, yoroshiu. 
hiroku ( ,, fciroi, wide) ,, hirou hiro. 

yasuku ( ., yasui, cheap) ,, yasuu ., yasu. 

Kawa ga fuko gozaimasu, The river is deep. 
Kono hon wa goku tako ~\ 

very dear - This book is eery dear. 
gozaimasu, 

Kami ga atsu gozaimasho, The paper is probably thick. 

Mada hayo gozaimaseml ka, ) f . ^ ^ , 
yet early J y y 



THE ADJECTIVE 119 

The student should note that the verb "to be" is 
affected equally with other verbs by the rule by which 
a verb must be preceded by the form in ku, so that it is 
quite allowable to say, for example : 

Ano kawa ga fukaku ^ 

that river deep \ That river is deep. 

gozaimasti, 

Kami ga atsuku \ The paper will probably be 

gozaimasho, / thin. 

The use of the adverbial form is governed by a Rule 
somewhat analogous to that given for the employment 
of the Indefinite Form of verbs (p. 80). This rule is 
generally followed only in set speeches, and by pedantic- 
speakers, and is as follows : 

"Where in English two or more adjectives are coupled 
together by the conjunction ' and ' (expressed or under- 
stood), all but the last assume the adverbial form in ku ; " 
thus 

Ano utsukushiku chisai ^| 
pretty little I 

kodomo, j That pretty llttle chlld - 

child } 

Kami no ke ga kuroku, "| 

head of hair black I A man with black hair 

me ga akai otoko, j and brown eyes. 

eyes brmcn man 

It should be observed, however, that the foregoing rule 
is now rarely heeded in conversation, the sentence generally 
receiving some other construction ; thus 

Hako mo yoroshikereba, \ 

also whereas-is-good I The box is good and 

nedan mo yasui, j cheap. 

price also (is) cheap 



120 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

It will have been observed that the adjectival inflections 
are all affixed to stems terminating in one of the vowels 
a, i, o or u, no stems in e being found in modern Colloquial. 
In a few instances this stem is used alone, as, for example, 
Shiro, White (a dog's name), and in one or two phrases 
such as 

Makkuro ni natta, It has become perfectly black. 
Naga no toshi tsuki, Long months and years. 

The stem is used most frequently in helping to form 
compounds ; as 

Aka-gane, copper, from akai, red, and kane (nigoried), 

metal. 

Shiro-kane, silcer, shiroi, white kane. 
Hoso-nagai, slender, hosoi, narrow nagai, long. 
Nagasaki, "long-cape" (the name of a place) from 
nagai, and saki, a cape. 

From a consideration of the foregoing principles it is now 
possible to formulate a table of the primary adjectival 
inflections in modern colloquial use, and as illustrations 
we have chosen the adjectives nagai, long; yoroshii, good] 
hiroi, wide ; and furui, old, i.e. one for each of the four 
vowels a, i, o, u with which, as has been mentioned before, 
adjective stems terminate. 



Stem. 


Simple 


Adverbial 


Predicate 




Adj. 


Form. 


with "to be. 


long, naga, 


nagai, 


nagaku, 


nago. 


good, yoroshi, 


yoroshii, 


yoroshlku, 


yoroshiu. 


wide, hiro, 


hiroi, 


hiroku, 


hiro. 


old, furu, 


furui, 


furuku, 


furu. 



THE ADJECTIVE 121 

II. SECONDARY INFLECTIONS. 

In addition to the primary inflections just discussed, 
the adjective has tense and mood inflections like true verbs. 
These secondary inflections are produced in most cases 
by affixing various forms of aru, to be, to the adverbial form 
in ku, certain orthographical modifications, chiefly phonetic, 
occurring as will be observed from a comparison of the 
following table with the paradigm of the First Conjugation, 
to which aru belongs. The Imperative forms are " not 
inserted, as they are never heard in practice. 

Fund, old. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Certain Present or Future. 

I is old. or will be old. 
(Polite Jorm), furu, gozaimasu, ( 

Probable Present or Future, 
furukaro, ) probably is old, prob- 

(Polite), furu gozaimasho, I ably will be old. 

Certain Past. 

furukatta. ) 7 ^ 

. 7 . . } was old. 

(Polite), furu gozaimashlta, ) 

Probable Past. 

furukattaro, ) , , 7 77 

,. 7 . . > was probabhi old. 

(Polite), furu gozaimashitaro, ) 

Frequentative Form, 
furukattari, being sometimes old. 

Gerund, 
furukute, being old. 



122 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

(a) Conditional. 
Present. 

furukereba, if (it) is old, 

Past, 
fumkattara(ba), if (it) had been old. 

(b) Concessive, 
furukeredo(mo), though (it) is old. 

III. NEGATIVE ADJECTIVES. 

A highly important and frequently used adjective is 
that termed "the negative adjective nai" whose real 
signification is " non-existent." It is generally employed 
as an equivalent for the negative conjugation of aru, to be, 
and also at times to render the notion of the English 
preposition " without." 

The inflections of nai are shown in the following table. 

Primary. 

Attributive: nai. Predicate: nai (rarely nashi). 

Adverbial: naku. 
N.B. The contracted form no is not in ordinary use. 

Secondary. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Certain Present or Future, 
nai, is not, or will not be. 

Improbable Present or Future. 
nakaro, probably is not or will not be. 



THE ADJECTIVE 123 

Certain Past, 
nakatta, was not. 

Improbable Past, 
nakattaro, probably was not. 

(And so on, through all the forms shown in the paradigm 
of adjectives on p. 121.) 

Affixed to the adverbial form of adjectives, nai serves 
to produce their negative conjugation ; thus 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Certain Present or Future, 
furuku nai, is not old, will not be old. 

Improbable Present or Future, 
furuku nakaro, probably is not, or will not be old. 

Certain Past. 

furuku nakatta, was not old. 
Improbable Past, 
furuku nakattaro, probably ims not old. 

(And so on through the remaining tenses and moods.) 

In polite intercourse, however, for the negative con- 
jugation in nai there is usually substituted another with 
the verb gozaimasen, not to be ; thus 

Certain Present or Future, 
furu gozaimasen, is or will not be old. 

Improbable Present or Future, 
furu gozaimasumai, probably is not or will not be old. 

(And so on through the remaining tenses and moods.) 



124 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

N.B. Care must be taken to distinguish adjectives in the 
negative form from positive adjectives like, e.g., abunai, 
dangerous, which happens to terminate in nai. The 
negative of abunai is abunaku nai which follows the 
paradigm in the preceding table, and similarly with 
sftkunai, scarce ; kitanai, dirty ; etc. 



Examples of Adjectival Inflections. 

Amari muzukashi, ) T . . . ,., 7 , 
' I It is too difficult. 
too is-difficult ) 

Go tsugo ga o warukereba, \ 

convenience if-is-bad I If it is not convenient, 



o yoshi nasaimashl, I please don't do it. 

cease condescend 



I 

Wakaranai, / don't understand. 

Kurokute yoroshl. \ T . 7 . 777- 

f Its beinq black is convenient, 
being-black is-good J 

Mionichi tenki ga, \ 

to-morrow weather [ If it is fine to-morrow, I 

yoroshikereba mairimasu, I irill come. 

if-good icill-come 

Shiranakereba sensaku ^ 

if-not-know enquiry I If he does not know, I will 

shimasho, j make enquiries. 

Abunakeredo shikata \ Though dangerous, it can- 
tliougli-dangerous J- 7777 

not be helped. 
ga nai, } 

Samukute tamarimasenu, \ It is so cold I cannot en- 
being-cold (cannot) endure J dure it. 

Sugu ni kawanakute 



at-once not-buying 
narimasenu, 
does-not-do 



Some must be bought at 



once. 



THE ADJECTIVE 125 

IV. COMPOUND AND DERIVED ADJECTIVES. 

This class is very numerous. They are formed mostly 
upon definite principles and as their meanings can be easily 
obtained from the dictionary a few only of their leading 
characteristics need be discussed here. 

I. A number of derived adjectives are produced by 
affixing to substantives the termination rashii (literally, 
"like" or "appearance") which corresponds to the English 
terminations -ish and -ly ; as 

otoko, man, otoko- rashii, like a man, i.e. 

manly. 
honto, truth, honto-rashii, like the truth, i.e. 

truth- seeming. 
baka, fool, baka-rashii, foolish. 

II. Substantives followed by the postposition no serve 
as adjectives ; as 

kin, gold, kin no, of gold, i.e. golden. 

makoto, truth, makoto no, of truth, i.e. 

truthful, true. 

gwaikoku, foi'eign parts, gwaikoku no, foreign. 
konaida, a short ivhile ago, konaida no, recent. 
Furansu, France, Furansu no, of France, i.e. 

French. 

III. Some adjectives are produced from nouns by 
affixing to the latter the syllable na, which is an 
abbreviation of naru, to be, and which must be distinguished 
from naru, to become ; thus 

muda, uselessness, muda na, useless. 

baka, fool, baka na, fool-being, \.Q.foolish. 

shizuka, quiet (noun), Shizuka na, quiet (adj.). 

akiraka, bright akiraka na, bright 



126 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Belonging to this class are a large number of words 
which are produced by agglutinating so, appearance, to 
the stems of simple adjectives or to the Indefinite Form of 
verbs ; thus 

oishii, nice to eat, oishiso na tasty. 

omoshiroi, interesting, omoshiroso na, interesting-looking. 

aru, to be, ariso na, likely to be, in 

existence prob- 
ably. 

ochiru, to fall, ochiso na, likely to fall 

IV. Many locutions are in use, consisting chiefly of 
substantives (and indefinite verbal forms used as such) 
followed by no, of, and a simple adjective, as ashi no hayai 
(literally, "quick of foot"), swift. Examples of these are 

ishi no 6i, abounding of stone, i.e. stony. 

me no chikai, near of eye, i.e. short -sighted. 
iji no warui, bad of spirit, i.e. ill-tempered. 
mimi no toi, distant of ear, i.e. deaf. 
wakari no hayai, quick of understanding, i.e. quick- 
witted. 

V. Not infrequently present and past forms of verbs 
are in practice employed adjectivally. Thus dekiru and 
dekinai signifying "able to do" and "not able to do," 
when employed as adjectives, serve to render the 
English " possible " and " impossible." The following are 
exemplifications : 

mieru, to appear, hence risible. 

yomeru, reads (intrans.), legible. 

shireta, was knowable self-evident. 

futotta, has become fat fat. 

choito shlta, did slightly, slight. 



THE ADJECTIVE 127 

tsumi no aru, is of guilt hence guilty. 

aita, has become open, open. 

tai shita, did great, important. 

nakereba naranai (lit. if it is not, won't do), hence, 

indispensable. 

ki no kiita (lit. spirit of, was efficacious), hence, sharp- 
witted. 

These examples are all attributive in form, but most 
of them may be used predicatively at the end of a phrase. 
In such connections, however, ga must be substituted for 
no, and the simple past tense in ta must be replaced by 
the compound present in . . te iru (p. 93) ; thus 

Kono daiku wa, ki ga, \ 

carpenter spirit I This carpenter is sharp- 

kiite iru, j witted. 

being -efficacious 

Sono hito wa, futotte iru, j That smisfat 

that fat J 

Needless to mention, the polite inflection in masu may 
always be substituted for the simple verb. Except when 
addressing inferiors, this substitution invariably takes 
place; thus the preceding examples would become, in 
polite conversation : Kono daiku wa, M ga Mite imasii 
(or orimasu), and Sono hito wa futotte imasu (or orimasu). 

N.B. Adjectives of this class terminating in shita (as 
choito shita) are never employed predicatively. 

V. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

In English the degrees of comparison are expressed by 
the terminals in -er and -est, or by a succession of auxiliaries 
of relation "more," and "most," but in Japanese the 



128 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

adjective undergoes no change of form for this purpose, 
the idea being conveyed in the following ways : 

(a) Comparative Degree. Two things only, being com- 
pared, that with which the comparison is made is marked 
by the postposition yori, than ; thus 

nr j. i_* f 1 You are 

Watakushi yon, anata o oku gozaimasu, , . 

T ti 7 owner 

I tlian. you big are yy 

y j 1 T 

} than 1. 

Iku yori wa ikanai, \ 

going than not-going I It is better not to go than 
ho ga yoroshi, j to go. 

side is-good 

Frequently in sentences similar to the first quoted above, 
the first part is discarded if no ambiguity is occasioned 
thereby; thus, anata wa o oku gozaimasu, -you are the 
bigger, or anato no ho ga o oku gozaimasu, your side 
is big. 

In negative sentences hodo (literally, "quantity," 
"amount") is substituted for yori; thus 

Musuko hodo okiku wa nai, \ He is not so tall as 
son tall is-not J fas son. 

The fact that a certain thing possesses a given quality 
or attribute in a greater degree than another thing is 
sometimes expressed by such adverbs as motto, more, or 
nao, yet, still, as motto nagai, more long, i.e. longer, still 
longer ; nao takai, yet dear, i.e. dearer, still dearer. 

Examples. 
Sore wa nao yoroshiu >, 

that still good I ^,, . . J>7 , , , 

L That is still better. 
gozaimasu, 

is ) 

Motto o make nasai, \ Please make it a little 
more cheapen deign J cheaper. 



NUMERALS 129 

To express "the" with a repetition of the comparative, 
the word hodo is employed ; as 



Mijikai hodo wa, yoroshi, j n& 
short amount is-good ) 



(b). Superlative Degree. To denote the extreme degree 
of quality, sucli words as ichi-ban, number one, and dai 
ichi, first, principal, are employed'; as 

Kore wa ichi-ban nagai, 1 m- *i ? 

- This is the lonqest. 
this no. 1 is-long J 

Kore ga ichi-ban stiki da, / like this best. 

Various other locutions are used to convey the idea 
of the Superlative among which are those with the words 
uchi and naka (literally, among, in) ; as 

Yotsu no uchi ni kore wa, ^ 

among this I This is the prettiest of 

ichiban kirei de, the four. 

no. 1 pretty 
gozaimasu, 

Naka ni sore wa takai, 1 m . .1 i i 

That is the highest. 
among that is high J 

Very frequently, however, the first part of sentences 
similar to the above, is discarded, thus when making an 
enquiry as to prices, a Japanese will not say " which is the 
cheapest," but "which is cheap" (dochira go, yasui), mean- 
ing "which is cheap as compared with all the others." 

NUMERALS. METHODS OF COMPUTATION. 
I. CARDINAL NUMERALS. 

In Japanese the methods of enumeration and computa- 
tion are much more complicated and lengthy than in most 
European languages. Usually in grammars of the latter 

JAPANESE GRAMMAR 5 



130 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

tongues the treatment of numbers is discussed in connec- 
tion with the adjective, but in Japanese, numerals are 
rather substantival in character although owing to various 
characteristics peculiar to themselves they are generally 
regarded as forming a separate part of speech. 

Two series of numerals are in use, one of Japanese origin 
and the other borrowed from the Chinese. Except in a 
few compound words the"* Japanese group are now obsolete 
for the numerals above ten. Those remaining in common 
use are : 

1. Hltotsu. 6. mutsu. 

2. futatsu. 7. nanatsu. 

3. mitsu. 8. yatsu. 

4. yotsu. 9. kokonotsu. 

5. itsutsu. 10. to. 

These ten numbers may be used (a) quite independently ; 
(b) following a noun; or (c) followed by the postposition 
no preceding a noun. They are seldom placed before 
a noun without no being inserted between. Thus 

Ikutsu gozaimasuka, } ff&w many an tbn ? 

how-many are (there) ) 

Mitsu, Three. 

Mono futatsu, j TwQ fh . 

(or) Futatstt no mono, ) 

Yotsu bakari, kudasai, ^ Please let me have four 

four about condescend ) or SO. 

The termination tsu is rejected before nouns of Japanese 
origin and in compounds ; thus 

Mi-hako, Three boxfuls. 

Yo-hako, Four boxes. 

Futa-ban, Two nights. 

Mi-tsutumi, Three parcels. 



NUMERALS 131 

The Chinese group of numerals is : 

1. ichi. 5. go. 9. ku. 

2. ni. 6. roku. 10. ju. 

3. san. 7. shichi. 100. hyaku. 

4. shi. 8. hachi. 1,000. sen. 

10,000 man or ban. 

Ichi is also used to signify "whole, all," as ichi-ni one 
day ; all day long. 

Ni is often* replaced by ryo, both, as ryo san nin, two 
or three people. 

The higher numbers are expressed by combinations of 
the first ten Chinese numerals ; thus 



11. ju-ichi. 


31. san-ju-ichi, 


12. ju-ni. 


etc. 


13. ju-san. 


40. shi-ju. 


14. ju-shi. 


50. go-ju. 


15. ju-go. 


60. roku-ju. 


16. ju-roku. 


70. shlchi-ju. 


17. ju-shichi. 


80. hachi-ju. 


18. ju-hachi. 


90. ku-ju. 


19. ju-ku. 


100. ip-pyaku (for ichi hyaku). 


20. ni-ju. 


200. ni-hyaku. 


21. ni-ju-ichi. 


300. sam-byaku (/or san hyaku). 


22. ni-ju-ni. 


400. shi-hyaku. 


23. ni-ju-san. 


500. go-hyaku. 


24. ni-ju-shi. 


600. rop-pyaku (for roku hyaku). 


25. ni-ju-go. 


700. shichi-hyaku. 


26. ni-ju-roku. 


800. hap-pyaku (for hachi hyaku). 


27. ni-ju-shichi. 


900. ku-hyaku. 


28. ni-ju-hachi. 


10,000. ichi-man. 


29. ni-ju-ku. 


100,000. ju-man. 


30. san-ju. 


1,000,000. hyaku-man. 



132 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

105 is hyaku go. 
473 is shi-hyaku shlchi-ju-san. 
1898 is is-sen hap-pyaku ku-jii hachi. 

The first ten of the Chinese numbers are only used 
independently, and to precede uncompounded or mono- 
syllabic nouns derived from the Chinese ; as icM-nen, one 
year ; san-gin (for san-kin) three pounds ; sam-byaku (for 
san-hyaku) three hundred. 

The orthographical modifications which occur will be 
best understood from the examples on p. 133 et seq. 

In many contexts the Japanese numeral yo, four, As 
substituted for the Chinese shi as the latter is regarded as 
unlucky because it also means " death " ; as 

yo-nin, four persons (instead of shi -n in, which means 

"dead person," i.e. "corpse"). 
ni-ju yo-ban, number 24. 

Similarly the Japanese nana, seven, is sometimes sub- 
stituted for the Chinese skichi as the latter is easily 
confounded with shi, four ; thus 

nana-jis-sen, seventy cents. 



II. AUXILIARY NUMERALS. 

We have seen that in some cases the numeral is joined 
directly to the noun, e.g. futa hako, two boxes ; ichi-nichi, 
one day. It is, however, very seldom that the numbers are 
thus used, and in enumerating objects the Japanese 
generally reckon them as so many things of a certain 
species or class, the substantive being placed first, the 
number and class following. For example, the word 
" pencil " will come under the category of the cylindrical 



NUMERALS 133 

class of objects which includes pencils, pens, poles, and the 
like, and for this group the class-name or "auxiliary 
numeral," as it is termed, is "hon." Thus in rendering 
"five pencils" we should say "pencil five cylindrical 
class," and translate by 

fude go hon. 

pencil five cylindrical-class. 

Similarly, the auxiliary numeral for Jtat, broad things 
such as sheets of paper, plates, coins, etc., being "mai" we 
shall translate " one sheet of paper " by 

kami ichi mai. 
paper one fiat-class. 

This peculiarity is somewhat analogous to the English 
idiom illustrated in such expressions as "three pairs 
of shoes," "a hundred head of cattle," " two brace of 
pheasants," " one yoke of oxen," etc. 

The following scheme shows the principal auxiliary 
numerals now in use, with the phonetic modifications 
which occur when they are combined with the numbers. 

Cho, for things with handles, such as tools, guns, 



jinriJiishas : 






1. it-cho 
2. ni-cho 
3. san-cho 


4. shi-cho 
5. go-cho 
6. roku-cho 
10. jit-cho 


7. shichi-cho 
8. hat-cho 
9. ku-cho 



Hai, for cupfuls, glassfuls, and bowlfuls of any liquid : 

1. ip-pai 4. shi-hai 7. shichi-hai 

2. ni-hai 5. go-hai 8. hachi-hai 

3. sam-bai 6. roku-hai 9. ku-hai 

10. jip-hai 



134 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Hlki, for most animals (excepting human beings and 
birds) ; also for certain quantities of textile materials and 
sums of money : 

1. ip-piki 4. shi-hiki 7. shichi-hiki 

2. ni-hiki 5. go-hiki 8. hachi-hiki 

3. sam-biki 6. rop-piki 9. ku-hiki 

10. j ip-piki 

Hon, for cylindrical things such as pencils, pillars, 
posts, masts : 

1. ip-pon 4. shi-hon 7. shichi-hon 

2. ni-hon 5. go-hon 8. hachi-hon 

3. sam-bon 6. rop-pon 9. ku-hon 

10. jip-pon 

Ken, for houses, and buildings in general : 

1. ik-ken 4. shi-ken 7. shichi-ken 

2. ni-ken 5. go-ken 8. hachi-ken 

3. san-gen 6. rok-ken 9. ku-ken 

10. j ik-ken 

Mai, for flat objects such as sheets of paper, plates, 
coins, clothing : 

1. ichi-mai 4. yo-mai 7. shichi-mai 

2. ni-mai 5. go-mai 8. hachi-mai 

3. sam-mai 6. roku-mai 9. ku-inai 

10. ju-mai 

Nin, for human beings : 

1. ichi-nin 4. yo-nin* 7. shichi-nin 

2. ni-nin 5. go-nin 8. hachi-nin 

3. san-nin 6. roku-nin 9. ku-nin 

10. ju-nin 

* See p. 132. 



NUMERALS 135 

So for boats, and vessels generally : 

1. is-so 4. shi-so 7. shichi-so 

2. ni-so 5. go-so 8. hachi-so 

3. san-zo 6. roku-so 9. ku-so 

10. jis-so 

Soku, for pairs of boots, sandals, clogs, socks : 

1. is-soku 4. shi-soku 7. shichi-soku 

2. ni-soku 5. go-soku 8. hachi-soku 
2. san-zoku 6. roku-soku 9. ku-soku 

10. j is-soku 

Wa, for birds, and bundles (of wood, etc.) : 

1. ichi-wa 4. shi-wa 7. shlchi-wa 

2. ni-wa 5. go-wa 8. hachi-wa 

3. sam-ba 6. rop-pa 9. ku-wa 

10. jip-pa 
NOTE. Roku-wa is sometimes used for rop-pa. 

For "volumes" of a book the auxiliary is satsu, but 
for complete copies of a work, regardless of the number 
of volumes in it, it is bu. 

It will be observed that all the foregoing examples 
of auxiliary numerals are Chinese, with the exception of 
wa which has been inserted because it invariably has 
associated with it the Chinese numerals ichi, ni, etc. 

The native auxiliary numerals are comparatively few 
in number, the only ones calling for notice being : 

Hashira, for Shinto deities. 

Kabu, for shrubs. 

Kumi, for sets of things like toys and clothes. 

Ma, for rooms. 

Mune, for ridge-like things such as houses, haystacks. 

Suji, for line-like things such as rivers, roads. 

Soroe, for suits of clothes, armour. 



136 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

The Japanese numbers below eleven are used to precede 
the above native auxiliaries ; thus 

futa-hashira ; hito-soroe ; mi-ma. 

From eleven upwards the Chinese numbers are used, 
without any phonetic modifications taking place ; thus 
ju-ni-hashira ; ni-ju-soroe ; shi-ju-ma. 

The Japanese forms hitotsu, futatsu, etc., are employed 
to enumerate objects to which no special auxiliary numeral 
has been assigned. 

In the Classical form of the language the Japanese 
numbers are employed to enumerate rational beings, and 
when thus used, the numbers have affixed to them the 
syllable tari, the origin of which is unknown. In the 
Colloquial, of these words only the following are retained : 

hltori (for hito-tari) one person. 

futari (for futa-tari) two persons. 

yottari, (for yo-tari) four persons. 

The Chinese synonyms of these (i.e. icki-nin, etc.,) are 
also used, but less frequently. 

Examples (Auxiliary Numbers). 

Ko-gatana ni-cho, Two pen-knives. 

Suzume ni-wa, Two sparrows. 

Maki sam-ba, Three bundles of wood. 

Hon go-satsu, Five volumes (of a book). 

Gunkan jis-so, Ten men-of-war. 

Mizu ip-pai kudasai, Give me a glass of water. 

Kururna it-cho wo kaitai, / wish to buy a 'riksha. 
Kutsu is-soku utte kudasai, Sell me a pair of boots. 
Mekura sen-nin, me-aki 



/* /' t*(''j*t 
blind lOQO-persons eye-open , 

V there are a thousand 
sen-nm, 

im-persons (are) who can see (P^verb). 



NUMERALS 137 

III. ORDINAL NUMERALS. 

The Ordinals are formed by adding me to the Japanese, 
or 6(bamme) to the Chinese cardinal numbers. The word 
dai may also be prefixed and bamme added, or dai may be 
prefixed with no addition, to the Chinese numerals. When 
preceding a noun, all these forms assume the postposition 
no ; as 

hitotsu-me, 

ichi-ban, 

ichi-bamme, 

, i ^ First. 

dai-ichi, 

dai-ichi-bau, 
dai-ichi-bamme, 
futatsu-me, 
ni-ban, 

ni-bamme, 

, . . } second. 

dai-m, 

dai-ni-ban, 
dai-ni-bamme, 

dai-ichi no isha, the first (chief) doctor. 

ni-ban no kisha, the second train. 

sam-ban no fune, the third ship. 

Frequently dai-ichi-ban or ichi-ban alone, is used to 
render " number one," and similarly with the other numbers. 

IV. FRACTIONAL AND MULTIPLICATIVE NUMBERS. 

Fractional and Multiplicative quantities are expressed 
with the aid of the word bu or bun, "a part," and bai, 
" double "; thus 

sam-bun no ichi, } one-third. sam-bai, treble three- 
sam-bu no ichi, / fold. 

shi-bun no ichi, \ one quarter, shi - bai, quadruple, 
shi-bu no ichi, / four-fold. 

5* 



138 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

ju-bun no ichi, j one . tentky ju . ba> ten .f oUf 
ju-bu no ichi, J 

sam-bun no ni, \two-thirds. 
sam-bu no m, 

shi-bun no san, ] tkree _ qmrters . 
shi-bu no san, J 

hyaku bun no ni 1 , /. 7 7,7 

J . . > twenty-one hunareaths. 

jii ichi, 

"One-half" is han, or, when employed substantively, 
ham-bun ; as 

Hambun wo chodai, Please give me half. 

Han-ne, Half-price. 

Sometimes mitsu ichi is used for " one-third," and yotsu 
ichi for "one-fourth," but these are exceptions which have 
the sanction of custom, such combinations of Japanese and 
Chinese numerals not being allowed generally. 

The time of the day and night is expressed by the use of 
the Chinese word ji, time, hour, with the Chinese numerals 
prefixed; thus 

ichi-ji, one o'clock. shichi-ji, seven o'clock. 

ni-ji, two hachi-ji, eight 

san-ji, three ku-ji, nine 

yo-ji, four ju-ji, ten 

go-ji, five ju-ichi-ji, eleven 

roku-ji, six ju-ni-ji, twelve 

A.M. is indicated by prefixing the word gozen, and P.M. by 
go-go; thus 

gozen-ku-ji, 9 A.M. go-go ju-ichi-ji, 11 P.M. 

To express the minutes the word fun is employed, but 



DAYS OF THE MONTH 139 

the initial f is changed to p in the following combina- 
tions : 

ip-pun, one minute. sam-pun, three minutes. 

rop-pun, six minutes. jip-pun, ten minutes. 



Examples. 

Sau-ji ni-jip-pun, twenty minutes past three. 

yo-ji ju-go-fun, a quarter (literally, fifteen minutes) 

past four. 
hachi-ji-han, half -past eight. 

It is not usual to say "ten minutes to three," "a quarter 
to four," etc., the general practice being to state the number 
of minutes past the hour ; thus 

ni-ji go-jip-pun, 2.oO, i.e. ten minutes to three. 
san-ji shi-ju-go fun, 3.45, i.e. a quarter to four. 

The counting of the days of the month is effected by 
a mixture of native and Chinese words. In the following 
table the Japanese words are given in italics and the 
Chinese in ordinary Roman type : 



ichi-nichi, 


1 the first of 


ju-ichi-nichi, 


llth. 


tsuitachi, 


/ the month. 


ju-ni-nichi, 


12th. 


fntsuka, 


2nd. 


ju-san-nichi, 


13th. 


mikka, 


3rd. 


jn-i/okka, 


Uth. 


yokka, 


4th. 


ju-go-nichi, 


15th. 


itstika, 


5th. 


ju-roku-nichi, 


16th. 


muika, 


6th. 


ju-shichi-nichi, 


17th. 


nanuka, 


7th. 


ju-hachi-nichi, 


18th. 


i/oka, 


8th. 


ju-ku-nichi, 


19th. 


kokonoka, 


9th. 


hatsuka, 


20th. 


toka, 


10th. 


ni-jii-ichi-nichi, 


21st. 



140 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

ni-ju-ni-nichi, 22nd. ni-ju-shlchi-nichi, 27th. 

ni-ju-san-nichi, 23rd. ni-ju-hachi-nichi, 28th. 

ni-ju-yokka, 24th. ni-ju-ku-nichi, 29th. 

ni-ju-go-nichi, 25th. san-ju-nichi, 30th. 

ni-jii-roku-nichi, 26th. san-ju-ichi-nichi, 31st. 

gwanjitsu, first day of the year. 

o-misoka, last day of the year. 

misoka, last day of the month (whether the 30th 
or the 31st). 

The preceding forms, which are really cardinals, are 
also used for such phrases as "three days," "fifteen days," 
etc. For "one day," however, we must say ichi nichi, 
not tsuitachi, as the latter is derived from tsuki tachi, 
the moon rising, i.e. the first day of the moon. Nor can 
misoka be employed for "thirty days" or "thirty-one 
days," although it is derived from miso, thirty, and ka, 
days, both components being ancient native forms. 

" January " is termed sho-gwatsu, literally " chief month," 
sometimes also ichi-getsu, literally "one month." The 
remainder are formed by prefixing the Chinese numbers 
to the word gwatsu ; thus 



ichi-getsu, 


^ 


shichi-gwatsu, July. 


sho-gwatsu, 


^January. 


hachi-gwatsu, August. 


ni -gwatsu, 


February. 


ku-gwatsu, September. 


san-gwatsu, 


March. 


ju-gwatsu, October. 


shi-gwatsu, 


April. 


ju-ichi-gwatsu, November. 


go-gwatsu, 


May. 


ju-ni-gwatsu, \ Deemberm 


roku-gwatsu, 


June. 


shiwasu, 



"One month," "two months," etc. are expressed by 
prefixing the Japanese numbers to the native word tsuki 
(month) ; thus Mtotsuki, one month ; futatsuki, two 
months; etc. 



NUMERICAL INTERROGATIONS 141 

Years are usually reckoned by what are termed " year- 
names" (nengo\ i.e. arbitrary periods distinguished with 
names arbitrarily chosen. The present period is known 
as Meiji, which commenced on the 25th January 1868, 
but the Japanese government adopted the Gregorian 
Calendar as from 1st January 1873, so that the Japanese 
year now coincides with the English, and thus begins on 
the 1st January. 

1890, Meiji Ni-ju-san-nen. 

1891, Ni-ju-yo-nen. 

1892, ,, Ni-ju-go-nen. 

1893, Ni-ju-roku-nen. 

1894, Ni-ju-shichi-nen. 

1895, Ni-ju-hachi-nen. 

1896, Ni-ju-ku-nen. 

1897, ,, San-ju-nen. 

1898, San-ju-ichi-nen. 

1899, San-ju-ni-nen. 

1900, San-jii-san-nen. 
Etc. Etc. 

Thus, to express, for instance, 8th September 1900, in 
Japanese, we must say : 

Meiji San-ju-san, ku-gwatsu, yoka, 

in which it will be observed that the arrangement of the 
words is exactly the reverse of that in English. 

Foreign dates are expressed as follows, prefixing the 
word " Sei-reki " (literally, Foreign Calendar) : 



8th February \%%Q = Seireki Issen-happyaku ku-ju-nen, 
Ni-gwatsu, yoka. 

Interrogations relating to number and quantity are 
asked by means of the word iku t which, however, is 



142 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



never employed independently but always in combination ; 



thus- 



Ikutsti ? 
Ikura ? 
Ika-hodo ? 
Iku-satsti ? 
Iku-so ? 
Iku-tabi ? 
Iku-nin ? 
Iku-tari ? 



How many ? 
How much ? 

How many (books) ? 
How many (vessels) ? 
How often ? 

How many (persons) ? 



and so on with all the auxiliary numerals, no phonetic 
modifications taking place in the latter. 

The word nani (usually contracted to nan) may be em- 
ployed in place of iku ; thus 

Nan-nin ? How many (persons) ? 

Nan-gen ? How many (houses) ? 

" How much " is often translated also by dvre-hodo ? or 
dono-kurai? as 

Dore-hodo hairi masu ka ? How much will it contain ? 
Bono kurai irimasu ka ? How much do you require ? 

The Collective numbers are : 
Ichi-do, 1 



(or) 
Hito-tabi, J 
Ni-do, \ 
Futa-tabi, J 
San- do, \ 
Mi-tabi, J 
Yo-tabi, 
Go-tabi, 
Itsu-tabi, 



Once. 



Twice. 



Four times. 



Roku-tabi, 
Mu-tabi, 

Shichi-tabi, 
_ T . . 
JNana-tabi, 

Hachi-tabi, 

Ya-tabi, 

Ku-tabi, 

Kokono-tabi, 

Jit-tabi, 

To-tabi, 



\ Seven times. 
\ Eight times. 

} Nine times. 
i. J 

Ten 



THE ADVERB 143 

The following miscellaneous phrases should be noticed : 

FtttatSU ZUtSU, } rr . 

..__.. \ Two at a time, 

(or) Ni-mai-zutsu, J 

mitsuzutsu, \ Threeatatime . 

sam-mai zutsu, ) 

ni-do-me, the second time. 

san-do-me, the third time. 

dai ni ni, secondly, in the second place. 

dai san ni, thirdly, in the third place. 

hltotsu oki, every other one (lit. one omitting). 

futatsu mitsu, two or three. 

go bu, five per cent, 

ichi-wari, ten per cent. 

ni-wari, twenty per cent. 



ni-wari go-bu, 1 - , 

} 25* per cent. 
go-rm, ) 



THE ADVERB, CONJUNCTION AND 
INTERJECTION. 

NOTE. The Preposition has been dealt with previously 
under the head of "Postpositions." 

I. THE ADVERB. 

The Japanese language is almost devoid of true adverbs, 
but the deficiency is amply replaced by numerous words 
and locutions with functions equivalent to them. Most 
of these equivalents are nouns, adjectives or verbs, which, 
by the aid of postpositions and combinatives serve to 
denote the conditions which limit or distinguish an action 
or attribute. 

The following lists contain the principal words perform- 
ing the office fulfilled by European adverbs, in addition 
to those mentioned later. 



144 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 
(a). ADVERBS OF PLACE. 



\ there, thither. 
acmra, J 


koko, 1 , 
, . . h Aera 
kokoni, J 


asuk ' \there. 


sakini, before. 


asukoni, J 


shitani, below. 


atode, behind. 

doko, 1 , 
v iDfiere. 


\ there, thither. 
sochira, J 


dokoni, J 

, , .' | where, whither. 
dochira, J 


soko, 1 ,, 
' . }- Am 
sokoni, J 

soto, outside. 


kochi, ") 7 7 ., , 
, , . h here, hither. 
kochira, J 


uyeni, afowe. 
' yokoni, across. 



Examples. 

Omaye koko ni matte ore, \ 
you here waiting remain) 

Danna wa kochira de, 

master here 

gozaimasti ka, 

Doko de sono hako wo o 
where that box 
kai nasatta ? 

buy did 

Dare ka soto de matsti, 
someone outside waits 

Dochira ye o ide de, 
where go 

gozaimasti ka, 

is 

Yo ga aru kara, kochi 

business is because here 

o ide, 



wait here. 



Is the master (anywhere) 
here ? 



Where did you buy 
that box ? 



Someone is waiting 
outside. 



Where are you going ? 



Come here, I have some- 
thing for you to do. 



THE ADVERB 



145 



(b) ADVERBS OF TIME. 



ashita, to-morrow, 
ima, now. 
itsu ? when ? 
itsudemo, always (with a 

negative, "never"). 
jikini, soon. 
kesa, this morning. 

\ yesterday. 
sakujitsu, ) 

' . \ to-day. 
konmcm, J 

mata, again. 
mada, still (with a neg. 
verb, not yet}. 



mettani (with \ 7J 

V seldom, 
a negative), J 

mionichi, to-morrow. 

mo, already (with neg. 
verb, " no more "). 

mohaya, already. 

nochihodo, by-and-by. 

sendatte, some days ago. 

sudeni, already. 

sugu, at once, immediately. 

tabi tabi, several times. 

tadaima, presently, im- 
mediately. 

toki, when (relative). 

yube, last night. 



Examples. 

A iu hanashi wa mettani 
called story seldom 

kikimasenti, 

hear 

Mo o kayeri ni natta, \ 
already return has-become J 

Mada ki ya shimasumai, \ 
yet come will-not-do J 



Sakujitsu kita, 

Kesa tabemashita ringo, 

this- morning ate apples 

Mionichi made naorimasumai, 

to-morrow till recover-will-not 

Mada hayo gozaimasenti ka, 
yet early is-not ? 



It is seldom we hear a 
story of that kind. 

He has already gone 
away. 

He cannot have come yet. 

He came yesterday. 

The apples I ate this 

morning. 
He will not be well by 

to-mmrow. 

Is it not yet early ? 



146 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Sugu ni kawanakute 



at-once not-buying 
narimasenu, 
does-not-do 

Itsu iku d'aro? 
uill-oe 



Some must be bought at 



once. 



j ^ & ^ fo ? 

J 

Yube ame ga futta, 1 T . , 7 . 7 , 

> 7r rained last mc/ht. 
last-niynt ram fell J 



(c) ADVERBS OF QUANTITY. 



amari ' . ) too much. ! kura ^ w muck ? 

yokeini, J ikutsti ? how many ? 

bakari, about, only. jiubun, enough. 

chitto, ~\ motto, more. 

choito, r a little, slightly. sappari, wholly. 

chotto, J taiso, \ much, very, 

donokurai ? hoiv much ? taktisan, / enough. 

iku bun ka, mwe or less, zuibun, a good deal, pretty 
rather. (as in pretty well). 



Examples. 

Sono kasa wa ikura ? ^ How much is that 

umbrella hmv-much J umbrella ? 
Hiogo made donogurai } 

to what-quantity \ . 

} How far ts it to Hioc/o ? 
aru? 

it 

Amari takai, ~| T , . , -, r >. 

} It is too much (in price). 
too-much is-dear J 

Yube wa taiso atsukatta, ^ It icas very hot last 
last-night very / night. 

Ikutsu gozaimasu ? How many are there ? 

Sore de takusan, That is enough. 

Motto arimasu ka, Have you any more ? 



THE ADVERB 



147 



pleage 



Chitto o kake nasaimashi, 

a-little place deign 

Taiso nigiyaka de gozaimashita, ) ff ^ ^ , 

very lively was J 

Kore bakari de taranti d'aro, \ This alone ivill not 

this not-mffice will-be J 

Taiso ni o kawari nasatta 

very change done 

. 
ne ! 



be sufficient. 



you are 



(d) ADVERBS OF MANNER. 

naze, why ? 

sayoni 

so, 



do, Tioiv. 

domo, howsoever. 

goku, | 

hanahada, J ver ^' 

ikaga ? how ? 

kayoni, ^ 

ko, } in tUs 

kitto, positively. 

makoto, truly, indeed. 

ma, quite (always com- 
bined with the follow- 
ing adjective, of which 
the initial consonant 
is doubled, as makka 
(for ma-alca). 



, ~\ . 

I in that way. so. 
J 

sakasama, upside down. 

soimani, so. 

tokoro ga, nevertheless, 

still. 
tokoro de, thereupon, and 

so. 

yahari, \ , 

yappari, (emph.)' 
yohodo, \ 
yoppodo, - 
yoku, well. 
zehi, positively. 



Examples. 
Dare ga so iimashita ? Who said so ? 

Naze hayaku konai ? 

why quickly not-come 
Sonnani yasuku wa, 
so cheap 



come .^ ? 



uranakatta, 

did-not-sell 



I did not sell it so cheaply 
as that. 



148 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Kono kasa wa goku, 

this umbrella very , . 

, , f This umbrella is very dear. 

tako gozaimasu, 

dear is 
Kona shina ga makoto, "| 

article truly \ rm_ . 7 . , ^ , 

f This article is truly cheap. 
m yasui, 

is cheap 

Shinsetsu wa arigatai ga, ^ . 

You are very kind. 
kindness thanks 

zehi ikaneba naranai, j" I must positively 
ositivel i-not-o does-not-become) QO^ng. 



positively if-not-go does-not-become 

Makka na kao,"\ -, / 

' } A very red face. 
quite-red face ) 

It will no doubt have been observed that in the preceding 
tables there are no equivalents for the adverbs of affirma- 
tion and negation " yes " and " no." This is owing to the 
fact that answers to questions in Japanese have not yet 
been reduced to the simple "yes" or "no" in English. 
The words lie ! hei I or hai ! it is true, may mean yes ! 
but they are most frequently employed as ejaculations to 
signify that the speaker has heard and understood, or 
that he is paying attention to what is being addressed 
to him. Thus, when a waiter is summoned he will exclaim 
hei 1 merely to notify that he has heard and will come. 

The word iye (or ie) signifies no ! but it is rarely 
employed except when the speaker desires to emphasise 
his denial. 

The simple affirmative yes ! is usually rendered by so da, 
so desu (more respectful), or sayo de gozaimasu (most 
respectful), all of which mean, literally, "that is so." 
In familiar intercourse, these are often contracted to the 
one word sayo. 

Similarly the counterpart of the simple negative no! 



THE ADVERB 149 

is found in so ja nai, and sayo de gozaimasen (more 
respectful), which mean " that is not so." 

The same ideas are also conveyed by repeating the verb 
of the question either affirmatively or negatively ; thus 
Mo kimashita ka, Has he come yet ? 

Sayo de gozaimasu, Yes. 

wakari ni narimashita \ 

understanding has-become > Do you understand ? 

ka, J 

Wakari mashita, \ y 
(I)-have-understood \ 
"Wakarimasen, \ -y- 
(I)- understand-not 

The indefinite forms in ku of adjectives are employed 
adverbially and form counterparts (though not exclusively) 
for the English adverbs in -ly ; as, yasuku, cheaply, easily ; 
hayaku, quickly. 

Nouns which are rendered adjectival by the addition of 
no or na, are made to serve as adverbs by substituting ni 
for no or na ; as 

daiji ni, carefully. teinei ni, politely. 

makoto ni, truthfully, really. shinsetsu ni, kindly. 
shizuka ni, quietly, gently. 

An adverbial signification is imparted to some words 
merely by reduplication ; thus 

tokoro-dokoro, here and there (tokoro, a place). 
dan-dan, gradually (dan, a step). 
ho-bo, everywhere (ho, side, direction}. 
iro-iro, various kinds (iro, sort, kind). 
toki-doki, sometimes (toki, time). 
tabi-tabi, often (tabe, a time [French, fois]). 
nichi-nichi, daily (nichi, day). 
naka-naka, very, more than one might imagine 
(uaka, inside). 



150 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

In numerous instances words which have to be rendered 
by adverbs or adverbial phrases in English, are the gerunds 
of verbs, which have passed into use as adverbs ; thus 

daniatte, silently (damaru, to keep silence). 
hajimete,/or the first time (hajimeru, to begin). 
yorokonde, gladly (yorokobu, to rejoice}. 
kaette, on the contrary (kaeru, to return). 
machigatte, wrongly (machigau, to err}. 
sadamete, probably (sadanieru, to confirm}. 
kesshite (used with a negative verb), never (kesshiru, 
to determine). 

The particles de, mo and to are in some cases employed 
to produce adverbial phrases ; thus 

maru de, quite. tonto mo (with neg. verb), not 

in the least. 
waza to, on purpose. don to, with a bang. 

Onornatopoetic compounds like the English ding-dong, 
slap-bang, higgledy-piggledy, etc. exist extensively in 
Japanese, and are usually classed as adverbs. Examples 
of these are : 

pon-pon, the sound of a gun. pika-pika, glitteringly. 

para-para, sound of rain. butsu-butsu, grumblingly. 

pisshari, slamming of doors, kyan-kyan, yelping like a 
goro-goro, rolling of thunder. dog. 

bon-yari, expressive of list- gata-gata, with a rattling 

lessness. noise. 

domburi to, fatting with a soro-soro, slow or laboured 

flop. movement. 

patchiri, sudden breaking. katchiri, with, a click. 

guzu-guzu, complainingly. burra-burra, saunteringly. 



THE CONJUNCTION 151 

II. THE CONJUNCTION. 

In Japanese, conjunctions can scarcely be regarded as 
a separate part of speech, the service they render in 
English being performed partly by postpositions, partly 
by nouns, and partly by conjugational forms of the verb, 
as has been abundantly demonstrated previously. 

The most frequently recurring conjunction in most 
languages "and" is sometimes rendered by ni or to 
as shown on pp. 41 and 45, but in most cases its 
signification is imparted by merely placing the nouns in 
juxtaposition, as sake sakana, sake-beer and fish. 

The necessity for " and " between verbs or clauses is very 
nearly obviated by the construction with the Indefinite 
Form or Gerund shown on pp. 79 and 80. 

" But " at the beginning of a phrase may be translated 
by shikaski, shikashi nagara, datte, or demo ; as 

It has begun to rain 



Hidoi furi ni natte kiinashita ; 
shikashi, yudachi desti kara, 
jiki agarimasho, 



hard; but as it is only 
a thunder-shower, per- 
haps it will soon clear 
again. 



"Or" may be rendered by nan, or by ya, or it may 
be omitted entirely ; thus 

Toka nari, hatsuka nari, Ten or twenty days. 

Nido ya sando, Two or three times. 

Go roku nen, Five or six years. 

"As," used with the signification "in the same manner 
as " is translated by tori (literally, " way, road ") ; thus 

Go zonji no tori, As you know, 

Watakushi no iu tori ni nasai, Kindly do as I say. 
Mae ni mo moshita tori, As I haw already said. 



152 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

III. THE INTERJECTION. 

The Japanese language is abundantly supplied with 
words which are used to express some emotion of the 
mind, but as in other languages the interjection is a 
nondescript kind of word not entering into the construction 
of sentences so that it can hardly be considered as having 
any grammar. 

The following are the interjections most frequently 
heard : 

A ! shows attention, and often assent on the part of a 
listener. 

Aa ! may express either admiration or grief, and when 
long drawn out, usually tells of weariness. 

Aita ! a cry of pain. 

Ara ! tells of either joy or fear. Spoken quickly by 
women it shows surprise. 

Ai ! often answers a call. 

Dokkoi ! or Dokkoisho ! is a signal for encouragement 
like the English, " Now then, altogether ! " or " Up with 
it ! " when lifting heavy weights. It is also a sigh of 
relief when the weight is safely lifted into its place. 

Domo ! shows the speaker to be puzzled, not knowing just 
what to do. It also expresses astonishment, corresponding 
somewhat to "Well I never," "Indeed," and "Really." 

Hate na ! equivalent to our "Well I never." 

Koso ! an emphatic particle used to strengthen the word 
which precedes it. 

Ma ! betokens surprise and wonder like " Oh ! " and also 
entreaty like " Do ! do please ! " It is used chiefly by 
women. 

Naruhodo ! has no exact counterpart in English. It 
stands for attention, surprise, sympathetic wonderment 
in conversation, and corresponds pretty nearly to "Who 



THE INTERJECTION 153 

would have thought it ! " " You don't say so ! " Some- 
times, when pronounced in an assenting tone of voice 
it means "Yes, I see," " Oh, indeed," "Really." When 
someone is telling a long story it is common for listeners to 
insert a naruhodo I when he pauses for breath. Instead 
of naruhodo we may say so desu Jca ? literally, " is that 
so ? " or, less politely, "so ha" 

Ne ! serves to draw attention to a preceding word or 
clause, something like the English "you know," or the 
French " n'est-ce-pas ? " 

Oi ! is an exclamation used to call the attention of 
people. 

Oya ! is an expression of astonishment heard chietiy 
from the mouths of women. 

Sa ! is an exclamation used to urge or hurry anyone. 
It is often used with sayo; thus, sayo sal "of course," 
"yes." 

Yo ! indicates address to some one. It is also often 
used at the end of a sentence to show emphasis. 

Yai ! betokens terror. 

Ya ! an expletive accompanying expressions of profound 
contempt. 

Ya ! shows pleasurable excitement over what is being 
witnessed. It is often heard in theatres as an expression 
of applause. 

Zo ! at the end of a sentence gives it a strong emphasis. 

Examples. 

Oi ! Kurumaya ! michi ga ^| I say jinriksha-man ! are 
I-say ^ 'riksha-nian road \ ^ ^ ^ ? 

cmgai wa shmai ka, 

wau? 
mistake not do ? J 

Hiogo to iu tokoro wa to ~\ 

place distant Y Is Hiogo far from here ? 

gozaimasu ka, 



154 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Say 6 sa ! That it is I Of course it is .' 

TT , . Tr . m i ^ I cant make it out ! 2'here 

Hate na ! Kino no asa Tokyo 

, i_ . , .. should be a reply to the 
ye dashita henji ga mo V * * . 

, , Zefter / serc to Tofoo 
kuru waka da ga, 

) yesterday mormng. 

Ikaga de gozaimasu ? ~\ Suppose we go and Have 

Kitsuenjo de ip-puku a pipe in the smoke- 

itashimasho ka, J room ? 

Sa ! o tomo itashimasho, All right, come along ! 

Ma ! Yo gozaimasen ka, Oh ! why hurry so ? 

Oya ! kwaji to miete, hansho } Halloo I there appears to 
conflagration /ire-bell \ be a fire; they are 

wo utteru ga, } ringing the fire-bell. 

Mo ku-ji sugi da, It's past nine o'clock. 

Naruhodo ! You don't say so ! 

Aa ! sappari shimashita ! Ah! I feel quite refreshed. 

Oi ! kyuji, hi wo o-kure, \ Waiter I oblige me ivith 

waiter light ) a light. 

HONORIFICS. 

Probably the most perplexing task which the student 
of Japanese finds in his path is the attainment of a correct 
use of the honorific and humble forms of expression which 
permeate the entire language. 

In social intercourse, whether between servant and 
master, host and guest, men and women, or parents and 
children, various alternatives are provided in the grammar 
and vocabulary to indicate the relations of superior and 
inferior, real or formal, and although the subject of 
honorifics has been incidentally referred to in many places 
previously, it has been considered desirable to defer until 
now the full and detailed explication of their leading 
characteristics. 



HONORIFICS 155 

Although it is impossible to formulate precise rules for 
the employment of honorific idioms, the following main 
principles may be said to underlie their Japanese usage. 

I. In speaking to equals, or to any persons except 
intimate friends or one's own servants, the honorific forms 
are used. 

II. In speaking of oneself or one's own possessions the 
honorific forms are never employed. 

III. In speaking of absent persons (the third person in 
English) custom varies. Should the person spoken about 
be decidedly superior in rank to the person spoken to, or 
should he be present and at least an equal, then honorifics 
are used. 

Speaking generally, the beginner in the study of the 
language should avoid the forms of address set apart for 
the speech of superiors to inferiors, and even in conversa- 
tion with his own servants he would do well to employ at 
least polite verbal forms, that is, the forms inflected with 
the verb masii. He should not, of course, employ honorific 
forms in intercourse with decided inferiors, but for all 
relationships, except those of his immediate family and 
of intimate friends polite verbal forms are appropriate. 

Respect and humility are denoted in the following 
ways : 

1. By honorific prefixes. 

2. ,, suffixes. 

3. special honorific and humble nouns, pronouns, and 
verbs. 

I. HONORIFIC PREFIXES. 

The prefixes o and go are employed with nouns, 
adjectives and verbs to indicate respect. Usually, though 
not invariably, these prefixes denote that the words with 



156 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

which they are associated are in the Second Person, or 
refer to something connected with the person addressed, 
and thus by their use, the necessity for the employment 
of pronouns of the Second Person is largely obviated. 
Thus o taku and go shochi will generally signify respectively 
"your house" and "your consent," without the inter- 
vention of a pronoun. 

being a word of Japanese origin is usually prefixed 
to native words, whilst go, a Chinese importation, is 
generally used before words borrowed from the Chinese, 
although neither of these rules is without exceptions. 
Subject to the restrictions laid down on page 155, o and 
go may be applied to the third person, thus o rusu may 
signify either " your absence," or " his absence " ; go son, 
" your loss," or " his loss " ; etc. Sometimes, in order to 
render the phrase still more respectful, the word sama, 
Mr, is superadded ; thus 

Maido go yakkai sama \ 

each-time (hon.) help Mr I I am much obliged to you 
desu, I for your continual help. 



kage sama, sukkari 



naoirnashite gozaimastt, 
recovered am 



have quite recovered ; 
thanks for your kind 



shade Mr quite . . / ,., 

v enquiries (more liter- 



ally, "thanks for your 



influence "). 

Go taikutsu sama, ) r , , , , , . , 

> It must be tedious for you. 
tedium Mr ) 

kinodoku sama de \ 

poison-of-spirit I I am sorry for it on your 

gozaimasu, j account. 



NOTE. Zanncn is substituted for kinodoku to express regret 
on one's own account. 



HONORIFICS 157 

In such sentences as the following beginners are often 
at a loss to account for the use of o and go, which at first 
sight seem to be employed in contravention of Rule II. 
on page 155. 

itoma moshimasho, \ / think I must now take 
(hon.) leave will-probably -say / my leave. 

tomo itashirnasho, } I should like to go with 
(hon. ) companion will-probably -do ) you. 

jama wo it&shim&shita,,} Excuse me for having 
(hon.) interference did J interrupted you. 

Ato kara go aisatsu wo 



/ will send my answer 
afterwards. 



afterwards (hon.) answer 

moshimasho, 
icill-say 

Go shiu wa ikaga de"| 

(hon.) sake how I May I offer you some sake- 
gozaimasu, j beer ? 

is 



In constructions such as the above, one might naturally 
infer that the honorifics are being applied by the speaker 
to himself, but this is not the case. He intends by their 
use to convey the idea that his answer, his refreshment, 
his companionship, and even his interference are dignified 
by their being associated with the person to whom he is 
speaking. 

In some cases the honorifics are used, especially by 
women and members of the lower classes, not as a token 
of respect .for the person addressed, but with honorific 
intent for the things to which they are applied. This 
usage originates probably in the ancient deification of 
the objects represented, or from the use of the words 
in connection with deified objects. 



158 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



The following are examples : 



tea, o cha. 

hot water, o yu. 
cold water, o hiya. 
soup, o tsuyu. 

food, go zen. 

a tray, o bon. 



the sun, o tento sama. 
the moon, o tsuki sama. 
the weather, o tenki.- 
cash, o ashi. 

money, o kane. 

a funeral, o tomurai. 



is also frequently associated with adjectives ; thus 

Danna wa, o isogashiu \ 

Master (Aon.) busy ( My master & fo^. 

gozaimasti, ( 

is 

Yohodo o kirei desil, ) T . . 

> It is very pretty. 
very (hon.) pretty is ) 

wako gozaimasu, You are young. 

The locution o saki (or o saki ye} is employed with 
two distinct meanings. It may be an apology for going 
on in front of a person, like our "please excuse me for 
going first (upstairs, etc.)," or it may mean "you go first, 
please." 

II. HONORIFIC SUFFIXES. 

Gata and tachi, the plural suffixes, are employed to 
convey a moderate degree of respect, whilst shiu expresses 
still less. Ra and domo have no honorific meaning. 

Sama (more commonly san) corresponds to the English 
Mr and Sir, and is placed after the name, description or 
title in addressing, or speaking about, superiors ; thus 
Ikeda san, Mr Ikeda. 

Koshi sama, The Minister (plenipotentiary). 
Danna san, Sir (used by servants, to or of, 
masters, or a tradesman to a 
customer, 



HONOEIFICS 159 

At times the Chinese word Kun (literally, Prince) is 
substituted for sama and san ; thus Kanda Kun, Mr 
Kanda. Members of Parliament, and students generally, 
employ it in referring to each other. 

Very recently San has passed into common use in- 
differently for Mr, Mrs or Miss in cases where no mis- 
conception can arise, although our words Mrs and Miss 
are generally rendered by such periphrases as 

Kanda, san no okusama, j 
Kanda Mr of, lady J 



Kanda san no ojosan j Mss 
young-lady J 



The personal names of women (corresponding to European 
Christian names) are preceded by the honorific o and 
followed by san, but in familiar intercourse the latter 
word is generally omitted. In the majority of instances 
these feminine names are taken from natural objects, 
preferably those of an elegant or pleasing nature ; thus 

Hana San, Miss Blossom. 
Tsuyu San, Deiv. 

Matsu Sari, Pine-tree. 

Yone San, ,, Rice. 

Usually, feminine names of more than two syllables are 
used without the honorific o, which is also discarded before 
surnames and men's personal names. San, however, may 
be affixed either to personal names or to surnames. 

NOTE. In Japanese the surname precedes the personal 
name just as if we should say " Smith John " instead 
of "John Smith." 

To one's own wife or servant the personal name with 
or without o is used, 



160 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

In speaking of her husband a wife usually says yado 
or teishiu (generally pronounced teishi'}. 

San is not used to the servants of one's friends, and to 
the servants of strangers it is replaced by don. One's own 
male servants are addressed by their personal names which 
are usually abbreviated, as Tsune for Tsumkichi. 

Between themselves children employ the first part of 
the personal name with or without san. 

San is in frequent use after names of trades and 
professions, as kajiya san, the blacksmith ; isna san, the 
Doctor, both in the second and in the third person. 

"Madame" is rendered by oku san, or more familiarly 
o kami san, and Mademoiselle is o jo san, or o musume go. 

III. HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE NOUNS. 

The gradual infiltration of Chinese words into the 
Japanese language for over a thousand years has tended 
to develop a contempt for the native equivalents, and 
consequently Chinese words are usually considered more 
elegant than their Japanese synonyms. Thus in polite 
speech go shiu is usually preferred to o sake (sake-beer) ; 
the general term for "head" is atama, the polite one, 
o tsumi; for oki na ki the Japanese for "a large tree," the 
Chinese tai-boku is preferred ; and so on. 

It is, however, principally in speaking of the relatives of 
oneself and of others that humble and honorific nouns are 
employed, of which the following are the chief : 



One's own. 


Another's. 


f sofu, 


go sofu sarna. 


1 JiJ^ 


go sofu. 




o ii sama.l , 
.. \ to 


I 


o ji san. ; 



HONORIFICS 



161 



One's own. 
Grand- rsobo, 
mother, Ibaba, 



oyaji 



Father, 




okka (by children} 



Brother, 



Sister, 



am. 



ototo, 



Husband, * 



rane, 

[imoto, 

't$uTe-a,i(lower class), danua. 

danna or teishiu, teishi (familiar). 



Another's. 
go sobo. 

o ba san (to children). 
go shimpu. 
go sompu. 

ototsu san (to children). 
otottsan. 

go boko. 

haha sama. 

okka san (to children). 

go robo (when aged). 

o ani san (elder). 

gosonkei( ). 

go shatei sama (younger). 

go shatei ( 

ototo go ( 

o ane san (elder). 

ane san. 

o imoto go (younger). 



Wife, 



}go teishi. 
literally, "house." 

niobo, o kami san (lower class). 

sai ' sai \ un \ middle class. 

go sninzoJ 

kanai, oku san "| 

oku sama, supper class. 
go naishitsuj 



* In general, the husband's surname is employed both to a 
wife and also by her in mentioning her husband, in the former 
case with san added, in the latter case without san. 

JAPANESE GRAMMAR 6 



162 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



One's own. 


Another's. 


,segare, 


go shlsoku. 


musuko, 


o musuko san. 


~ 1 kodomo (and for 


daughters). 


1 sorio, 


go sorio (eldest). 


jinan, 


go jinan (second). 


I sannan, 


go sannan (third). 


{musume, 


go sokujo. 




o musume go. 




o jo san. 


Uncle, \ * ' 


oji san. 




oji sama. 


Aunt, | oba ' 


oba san. 
oba sama. 


Nephew, oi, 


o go sama. 


Niece, mei, 


o mei go sama. 


Father-in-law, shiuto, 


shiuto go. 


Mother-in-law, shiutome, 


shiutome go. 


Son-in-law, muko, 


o muko san. 


Daughter-in-law, yome, 


o yome go. 


Grand-child, mago, 


o mago. 



Remarks. 

1. In speaking of their elder relatives, children (and to 
a certain extent, women), add san, saying, for example, 
otottsan, "my father"; ane san, " my elder sister." 

2. For the nominative particle ga, de wa is usually 
substituted, with the humble terms for " husband " (yado, 
uchi, taki) ; thus 

Taku de wa, tabi ye dete 

journey to having-gone 
rusu de gosaimasu, 

absent is 



My husband is away ; 
he has gone on a 
journey. 



HONOR1 FICS 163 

3. The terms applied to one's own relatives may also be 
employed for those of absent persons when no special 
respect is intended to be paid to the latter, and even for 
the relatives of the person spoken to, if he is decidedly 
inferior in rank to the speaker. Segare, however, should 
only b6 employed for ones own son. 

4. Little boys up to six or seven years of age are called 
botchan. 

Examples. 

Go shimpu wa, ikaga de \ How is your father 

irasshaimasu ? / to-day ? 

Ano Daiku san wa o kami \ Has that carpenter a 

san ga arimasu ka, / wife ? 

Sore ra no koto wo segare \ 
that (phi.) thing son | I heard about those things 

kara kikimashita, f from my son. 

from heard } 

Yome go san no go bioki \ 

daughter-in-law illness I How is your (sick) 

wa ikaga de gozaimasu, J daughter-in-law ? 

how is j 

Kono ko wa, anata no go \ Is this little fellow your 

shlsoku de gozaimasu ka, / son ? 

He ! watakushi no sorio de 1 v , / 7 , 

f Yes, he ts my eldest. 
gozaimasu, 

Sa, botchan ! koko ye o kake \ Here, my little man, sit 

nasai, J down here. 

Ane hodo okiku wa nai, \ She is not so tall as her 

Ug is not J elder sister. 

Haha ga naku narimashita ^ 

not became -,,- ., j j 

. , . . my mother is dead, so 

kara m san nichi o itoma r , 

1 beq iiou to aim me 

because two three day leave ^ * , 

wo negaimasu, two or three d ^ s 

request 



164 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

IV. HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE VERBS. 

Verbs are rendered polite by substituting the paradigms 
of masu (p. 75) for the ordinary forms given on pp. 58, 60, 
and 62. Formerly masu was exclusively honorific, but 
modern usage sanctions its employment as a respectful 
termination which may be "used indiscriminately with any 
person of the verb. 

The student should bear in mind that masu is a con- 
stituent of the abbreviations desu, deshita and desho, which 
are therefore more respectful than da, datta and daro. 
It should also be noted that the use of an abbreviation 
including an honorific or polite form always shows less 
respect than does the unabbreviated form. 

It must be observed, however, that the forms in masu 
are not honorifics, strictly speaking, being employed in 
most cases merely as indications of a courteous manner 
rather than of any special respect granted to the person 
addressed. When respect is intended to be shown it 
is usual to employ a periphrasis with the word o, 
"honorable," the Indefinite Form of the verb, and mosu, 
/ say, if the first person is meant, or nasaru (less 
commonly, ni naru) for the second or third person. 
Nasaru signifies "to deign"; ni naru, "to become." 

Examples. 

tanomi mosu, I ask. 

o tanomi nasaru, | -^ ^. 

o tanomi ni naru, 

kashi nasatte kudasare, Please be kind enough to 

lend me . 

Masu may be superadded ; thus 

negai moshimasu, I ask a favour of you. 



HONORIFICS 



165 



Another method of rendering a verb honorific is by 
substituting the Causal or Potential (passive) verb for 
the simple verb, on the principle that it is more polite 
to suggest that a person is able to do a thing or causes it 
to be done rather than to state that he does it. 

A yet further method is the employment of a separate 
verb according as the phrase is intended to be honorific 
or humble. The following are those in most general use : 

Neutral. Humble. Honorific. 

To be, iru ; or iru ; or oru ; o ide nasaru ; or 

oru. irassharu. 

,, borrow, kariru, haishaku suru ; o kari nasaru. 

come, kuru, mairu ; agaru ; o ide nasaru ; 

makaru, irassharu. 

do, suru, suru, nasaru; asobasu. 

eat, taberu, itadaku ; chodai (meshi-) sageru. 

suru, 

,, give, yaru, ageru ; shinjo 
suru. 



go, 

hear, 
meet, 

receive, 



iku, 

kiku, 
an, 



mairu; agaru; 

makaru, 
uketamawaru, 
o me ni kakaru, 



ukeru, itadaku; chodai 
suru, 



kudasaru; kureru 

(less polite). 
o ide nasaru ; 

irassharu. 
o kiki nasaru. 
o ai nasaru. 
o uke nasaru. 



say, 
see, 



m, 
miru, 



ossharu. 
goran nasaru. 



o mse nasaru. 



moshi-ageru, 
haiken suru, 
miseru, o me ni kakeru, 

Examples. 

Donata de irasshaimasu ka, ^ May I ask who you are, 

(Sir) ? 



who 



I 



Moshi-kanete orimasu, \I can hardly say it (said 

J ii 



to-say-undble am 



in asking a favour). 



166 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Doko ye irassharu ? } Where are you going 

where to deign-to-go ) (Sir) ? 

Iko to omou, ^ T .,. ,. /. 

} 1 am thinkinq of qoinq. 
will-go think J 

Nan'to osshaimashita, 1 nr i . -,- , /& \ , 

} What did you say (Sir) ? 
what say J 

Sore de nan'to itta ? What did he say then ? 

Itsu o ide nasaru ka, When will you come ? 

Mata mairimasti, / will come again. 

The Imperatives of the Honorific verbs in the preceding 
list are used thus : 

j , , / >. , f irasshai ! or irasshaimashi ! 

deign to be (come or go) \ \ 

I o ide nasai ! 

be pleased to do I asobase ! 

deign to eat ! meshi-agare ! 

condescend to give I kudasai ! 

deign to say ! osshaimashl ! 

deign to do ! nasai ! 

deign to look ! goran nasai ! 

NOTE. ide nasai is often familiarly contracted to o ide ; 
goran nasai to goran. 

The Imperatives of other verbs are very seldom used 
except when addressing one's own servants or coolies, as 
such modes of address sound, in Japanese ears, too blunt 
and abrupt. Thus the common verb naosu, to mend, when 
employed in a command would not be naose ! mend ! but 
rather naoshite kudasai, mending condescend = please mend, 
or o naoshi nasai mase, honorably mend deign = please mend. 
In like manner kake, the Imperative of kaku, to write, 
would be replaced by o kaki nasai, or o kaki kudasai, or 
kaite kudasai. 

Speaking generally, it may be held that the difference 



SYNTAX 167 

between nasal and kudasai is one of degree, the former 
being usually a very polite command, whilst kudasai is 
a request and would be employed, for instance when one 
asked a friend to do something for one. 

Examples. 

Kondate wo misete kudasai, \ Please show me the 
bill-of-fare showing condescend ) bill-of-fare. 

Matairasshai, \ Please come again . 
again deign-to-come ) 

Itte mite koi ! Go and look ! (to a servant). 

Itte goran nasai ! ,, (to an equal). 

Mo ippen osshatte] 



ay 
kudasai, 

? T 5Z mis f nasai 'l Please show it to me. 
J 



, T 
(or) Misete kudasai, 



SYNTAX. 



The normal arrangement of the Japanese sentence is 
First, the nominative case. 
Second, the indirect object of the verb, or a noun 

followed by a postposition. 

Third, the direct object of the verb (accusative case). 
Fourth, the verb, or the verbal form of an adjective. 

Examples. 

Watakushi wa tabako ga, \ 

I (nom. ) tobacco of \ I am very fond of 

dai-suki desti, j tobacco. 

very-fond am 

Natsu ga kimashita, \Snmmerhascome. 
summer (nom.) has-come 

0-chaga dekimashita, \Theteaisready. 

tea (nom. ) is-made J 



168 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Watakushi wa zeikan no^l f am ff <Mgtom . 1imue 

1 (nom. ) custom-house of > 

i j officer. 

yakunin de gozaimasu, ) 

Ano hlto wa junsa de "] 

he (nom.) policeman > He is a policeman. 

gozaimasu, 

Watakushi ga ashi wa itande iru,) = I have a pain 
my foot (nom.) painful is j in my foot. 

An exception to the above normal order occurs in com- 
parisons, where the object with which the comparison 
is made is usually placed first ; as 

Watakushi yori, anate o ^ TMn f are (&r} 

I than, you I . ^ \ 

, . r i.e. You are younner than 

wako gozaimasu, 

young are 

Kono yama yori are \ Than tUs ^untain, that is 
this mountain than that | , . 7 , . . , , 

, . r high(er), i.e. That moun- 

tain is higher than this, 
(nom) ^s-high J 

The relative sequence of the direct and indirect objects 
is sometimes varied. As a rule whichever of the two 
it is meant to emphasise comes first. Thus in rendering 
into Japanese the sentence " He went away without giving 
the horse its fodder," if it is meant, for instance, that he 
had fed the other animals but not the horse, we should, 
in English, render the word horse emphatic by placing 
stress of the voice on it, but to render the same idea 
in Japanese the word would simply be placed first ; thus 

Muma ni kaiba wo 



horse to fodder (ace.) 
tsukezu ni itte 
giving-not having-gone 
shimatta, 
finished 



He went away without giving 
the horse its fodder. 



SYNTAX 169 

If, however, it is meant that the person had given the 
horse his water, etc., but not his fodder we should, in 
English, stress " fodder," and put it first in Japanese ; 
thus 

Kaiba wo muma ni, etc. 

When a subject to the verb is expressed it is generally 
placed at the beginning as already stated, but usually 
verbs are subjectless, and instead of expressing an act 
as performed by some person they intimate rather a 
"coming-to-be" on his part. Where no subject is named, 
the word on which it is desired to lay most stress is 
frequently placed at the head of the sentence and followed 
by the isolating postposition wa (see remarks on this 
particle, p. 47). 

Examples. 

Sonna koto wa, ii ya \ 

such thing as-for saying as-for I / should never think of 

itashimasen, j saying such a thing- 

do-not-do 

Kyo no atsusa wa A 

to-day of heat as-fvr \ ^ ^ ^ 
koraeraremasen, 
cannot-bear J 

Kore wa, nan de dekite 

this as-for what by eventuating I What is this made 

orirnasu, 

Kono hen wa, ka ga ~\ It is quite tiresome, the 

this vicinity as-for mosquito I number of mosquitoes 

okute uruso gozaimasu, j i n this neighbour- 
being-many tiresome is J hood 

6* 



170 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



Kono mono wa, Nihon-go de 

this thing as-for Jap. -language by 

nan to moshimasti ka 

what that say ? 



What is this called 
in Japanese (liter- 
ally, " As for this 
thing, what do 



(people) say that 
It is?") 

Qualifying words or phrases precede the words which 
they qualify ; thus 

(a) the adjective and the verb in the attributive form 

precede the word to which they refer, as atsui 1 
kami, 2 thick 1 paper 2 ; kuru hlto, the person who 
comes (literally, " the conies person "). 

(b) the adverb precedes the verb, adjective or other 

adverb which it modifies ; as 

Hayakuoide nasare, \ Com uiM , 

quickly come do ) 

Kono mtlma wa goku, 

this horse (nom.) very 

, , . V This horse is very dear. 

tako gozaimastl, 

dear is ' 

Amari mutsukashi, j R & ^ Mfficult 

too is-difficuU J 

Taiso nigiyaka de 

very lively 1 

i y , I It was very lively. 

gozaimashita, r 

(it) was } 

(c) the noun followed by the possessive particle no or 

ga precedes the noun to which it is joined ; as 

Neko no tsume, \ The claws of a cat ; a cat's 

cat of claws j claws. 

Kin no kahei, j ^ -^ of u . u 

gold of coins J 

Ju-nen ga aida, 



Q fm 

ten-years of space 



SYNTAX 171 

Particles denoting number and case, with wa, ya, ga, 
mo and to follow the noun ; as 

Oktisama gata, ladies. 

onna shu, \ 

women. 
onna domo, J 

yakunin-tachi, officers. 

tori ni, to a bird. 

When two or more verbs or adjectives are co-ordinated 
in a sentence, only the one placed last assumes the 
inflection or particle belonging to all, the others taking 
the Indefinite Form. This rule has been given previously, 
and a rule somewhat analogous governs the use of nouns 
and pronouns, by which particles belonging to several 
nouns or pronouns are not placed with each of them, 
but only with the last of the series ;* thus 

Watakilshi to omaye wa Yoroppa "| 

/ and you Europe I When you and I came 

kare toki, j from Europe. 

from came j 

Kori to mizu wo motte koi, \ Bring ice and 

ice and water (ace. ) having-carried come J water. 

Ya ka tama ni atatte "j 

arrow or bullet by striking I He died either by an arrow or 

shinimashita, j a bullet. 

died ) 

Taisetsu na tegami lion ni kane } Besides important 

important letter book monei/ I 7 , , 7 , 7 .. 

. . . Y letters and books, ^t 

mo haitte imasnita, , . , 

contained monei/. 
hamng-entered was 

Hone to kawa to ni natta, 1 7 , 7 . ,7 

J- He has become skin and bon<- 
bone skin J 

* See, however, " Dano " p. 33. 



172 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



Mo (with any other particle preceding it), however, 
accompanies each substantive in a series ; thus 



Furansu ni mo, Doitsu 
France in also Germany 

m mo, 

in also 



^ Germ 



Expressions of time are usually put before expressions 
of place ; as 



Tonen mo Tokyo ni hakurankwai 
this-year at exhibition 

ga arimasho ka ? 

will-be ? 

Kionen no natsu watakilshi no 
last-year siimmer my 

tokoro ni kita hito, 

place came man 

Toshi ni nido gurai dzutsu 
year twice amount each, 

Hiogo ye dete kuru wake ui 

to out come reason 
wa ikumai ka, 
will-not-go ? 



Is there to be an ex- 
hibition at Tokio 
this year? 

The man who came to 
my place in the 
summer of last year. 



Would it not be possible 
to go to ff. twice 
each year ? 



Explanatory or dependent clauses precede the principal 
clause ; as 



Mionichi tenki ga yoroshikereba,' 
to-morrow weather if-good 

mairimasti, 

come 

Sono teganii wo yonde nan' 
that letter (ace.) having-read what 

to itta, 
said 



If the weather is fine, 
I will come to- 



What did he say when 
he read that Utter 1 



SYNTAX 173 

Nikko wo minai uchi wa \ Do not use the word 

(ace.) see-not within as-for \ "magnificent" un- 

"kekko" to iu-na, I til you have seen 

magnificent that say-not ) Nikko (a saying). 

1 / don't know what to 
Te ga mete tamaranai, , , , 

f do, my hands are so 

hands being-cold cannot-bear * 

) cold. 

Final verbs and adjectives are frequently omitted in 
cases where no misconception or ambiguity can arise, 
especially in short idiomatic sentences ; as 

hayo (gozaimastt), ~\ /-< j < 

" \ Good mormnq ! 
lion, early (is) J 

Dozo kannin shite "j 

please patience having-done ^Please have patience with me. 
(kudasare) J 

This example of ellipsis is the one of most frequent 
recurrence, but it is by no means the only one. A feature 
of speech much in vogue is the breaking-off of a phrase 
in the middle, leaving the rest to be inferred ; thus 



Kochira de zonjite oreba, 
here in knowing if-be 

moshi-agemasu ga 



/ would tell you if I knew 
(but I don't know}. 



say-icill-lift-up although, 

Cha wo irete (o kun nasai),^ a/r / 

" \ make some tea. 
tea (ace.) putting-in I 

T1 ., . 1 / should like to go, but 

Ikitai mono desu keredo , T ,. . , ' 

.., \ (I am afraid I can- 

hke-to-go is although ^ 

J not). 

} That is perhaps so, but 
bayo demo gozaimasho ga, ( /., , > , ., 

> (it does not affect the 
thus even will-probably -be but 

i question, etc.). 



174 A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 

Conjunctions are usually placed at the end of the 
sentence or clause to which they belong; as 

li keredo, ne ga takai, ) Though it is good, the 

it-is-good though, prize is-high f price is high. 

Uso da to iimasu, 1 u *i * * / 

\ He says that it is a lie. 
lie (it) is thai (he) says J 

A-, , ,v, i j } Please lend it to me if 

Aite iru nara. kashite kudasai, 

., . ., 7 ,. , j r you do not require 

open it-is if lending condescend I ; 

j it at present. 
Kutabiremashlta kara, chotto 



have-becoine-tired because a-little ' Let US rest a little 
will -probably -rest 



yasumimasho, C because I am tired. 



In English, interrogation is indicated by an inversion of 
the normal construction of the sentence, bnt in Japanese 
no alteration is made, the interrogation being denoted 
merely by placing the postposition hi at the end of the 
phrase ; as 

Kimashita, He has come. 

Kimashita ka, Has he come ? 

As in English, two negatives make an affirmative, and 
thus destroy each other ; thus 

Shiranu koto wa gozaimasenu, ) u . 7 7 

' }- He certainly knows, 
not-know thing is-not ) 

Mo ikanakereba narimasen, 1 T 77 

\ 1 really must qo now. 
already if-do-not-go is-not J 

Ko shinakereba narimasen, 1 It must be done in 

thus if-not-do > is-not j this Way. 

In Japanese, the personification of inanimate objects 
is almost entirely unknown. Thus we find no counterparts 



REPORTED SPEECH, ETC. 175 

for such expressions as "the flight of Time," "Smiling 
Morn," " the sting of Death," etc., and even the employment 
of the name of an inanimate thing as the subject of a 
transitive verb is repugnant to the matter-of-fact Far- 
eastern mind. For example a Japanese will not say, " This 
heat knocks me up," but rather 

Kono atsusa ni domo yowatta, 

this heat on-account-of have-become- weak, 

i.e. " J am knocked up on account of this heat." 

Similarly, where we should say " His not-understanding 
annoys me," he would embody the notion in the words 

Wakarani de komaru, \ 
(his) not-understanding at (I) am-annoyed ) 

i.e. " I am annoyed at his not-understanding." 

REPORTED SPEECH ; INDIRECT NARRATION. 

In English, a sentence when reported by another person 
is usually reconstructed; thus, if I say "I shall come," 
another person, in reporting my intention uses the words 
" He said he would come." In Japanese, however, the 
sentence is repeated exactly as spoken and the particle to, 
that, is placed after it to denote that it is a quotation; 
thus 

Mairu to iimashlta. 

"I-will-come," that (he) said. 

Examples. 

Sore wo Komuro San kikaremashite, \ jj ear i nQ O f 

that Mr having-heard 

_ , Mr Komuro said 

so omou mono mo aro, to 



so think people may-be 
iwaremashita, 
(he) said 



there might be 
some people who 
thought so. 



176 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



He said that the lecture 



was over. 



Enzetsu ga mo shimai ni 
lecture already finish 

natta to iirnashlta, 

became (he) said 

Iku, to iimashlta, "1 ,, 

T ' ,,, \ He said he would no. 

I-will-go that he-said J y 

Haha ga sono koto \vo 

mother that thing 
moshiinashitara, ko-toshi 
when-she-spoke-of this-year 
\va ayaniku shirabe-mono 

unfortunately investigation 
ga aru kara yenkai wa 

is because entertainment 
gozaimasenti to 
is-not that 

kotayemashlta, 

he-answered 

Taiso ni kirei desu to hito 
greatly pretty is that people 

ga iimasu, 

(nom.) say 



When my mother asked 
him about it, he said 
that Unfortunately he 
ivould be prevented 
from g icing an enter- 
tainment this year, by 
an investigation which 
he had in hand. 



It is said to be extremely 
pretty. 



Conversational Phrases on Subjects of E very-day 

Life. 

NOTE. The words used in the following phrases will be found in the 
Vocabularies at the end of the book. The construction of the 
respective sentences will be readily understood if the grammatical 
portion of this work has been diligently studied. In many cases 
the English phrases are given in a brief and abrupt form, but the 
Japanese equivalents are uniformly polite and may be addressed 
to all classes. 

Questions. 

Do you speak English ? Ei-go wo go-zonji desu ka. 

What do you call it in Japanese ? Nihon-go de nan to moshimasu 

ka. 

HOAV do you say it in Japanese ? Nihon-go de, do iu fu ni iimasii 

ka. 

What is this used for ? Kore wa nani ni tsukaimasu ka. 

What is that ? (which you have in Sore wa nan desu ? 

your hand, etc. ) j 

What is that (e.g. ship) called ? Sono /***''*wa nan' to iu ? 

What do you want ? Nan desu ka. 

What do you say ? Nani wo osshaimasii ka. 

Who is it ? Dare HPSTI Vn. 

What do you think of it ? Do omoimasu ka. 

Which do you prefer ? Dochira ga yo gozaimasit ka. 

Where are you going ? Dochira ye irassharu ka. 

Where have you been ? Doko ye oide deshita ka. 

Where is it ? Doko ni aru ka. 

Is it so ? So desu ka. 

Isn't it so ? So ja nai ka. 

What are you doing ? Nani wo shite iru no desu ka. 

Where has he gone ? Doko ye mairimashita ? 

About the Way or Eoad. 

Where does this road lead to ? Kore wa doko ye iku michi da ? 

Please tell ine the way to . made no iku michi wo oshiete 

kudasai. 

Which way shall I go ? Dono michi wo ikimashn k^ 

Shall I turn to the right (left) ? Migi (hidari) ye magarimasho ka. 
Turn to the right (left). Migi (hidari) ye magare. 

Must I keep straight on ? Massugu ni ikimasu ka. 

Keep straight on. Massugu ni itte o-kure. 

Is not this the road ? Kore wa michi ja nai ka. 

ITT 



178 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



Kindly direct me to 



Is this the right way ? 
No, Sir, that is the way. 



I do not know or I would tell you. 

What is the distance to ? 

What place is this, please ? 



Chotto ukagaimasu ga, ye iku 

ni wa dochira ye mairimashite 
yoroshiu gozaimasu ka. 

Kore wa hom-michi desii ka. 

liye, hom-michi ja gozaimasen ; 
ano michi ga hom-michi de 
gozaimasu. 

Kochira de zonjite oreba, moshi- 
agemasu ga. 

ye dono kurai arimasu ka. 

Moshi, koko wa nap fo in tokoro 
d'aro ? 



At a Town. 



Here, bring me a jinrikisha. 
What is the charge (or fare) ? 
Can I engage you by the hour ? 
How much do you charge per 

hour? 
What will you take me to 

for? 
Take me to as quickly as you 

can. 
I will increase your fare if you go 

quickly. 
Run quicker ! 
I am not in a hurry so you can 

take your time. 
Put these things under the seat. 

I want to go to to stay some 

hours and then return. 

Take me back to . 

Wait for me. 

I wish to see the streets, so you 

may go slowly. 
I wish to purchase some ; is 

there a good shop ? 

There is a good one at . 

Here is your fare. 

The heat is unbearable to-day. 

It is terribly cold. 

It is most disagreeeble weather. 

It is very hard walking the roads 

are so bad. 



Oi, jinrikisha it-cho motte koi. 
Ikura desii ka. 

Jikan-gime de ore wo noseru ka. 
Ichi-ji-kan wa ikura ? 

made dono-kurai de noseru 

ka. 
0-isogi de made yatte kure. 

Hayaku ittara chinsen wo mashite 

yaro. 

Motto hayaku hashire ! 
Isoganai kara, soro-soro to itte 

mo ii. 
Kono mono wo kekomi ye irete 

o-kure. 
ye itte, ni-san-jikan ite, sore 

kara kaeru tsumori da. 

Kore kara made modose. 

Matte kure. 

Machi wo mi-nagara yu-kitai kara, 

shidzuka ni yatte o-kure. 
kaitai ga, ii mise ga aru ka. 

ni ii mise ga gozaimasu. 

Sa, kore wa chinsen da. 
Kyo no atsusa wa,koraeraremasen. 
Osorosluku samui. 
Kornarimashita o tenki da. 
Michi ga warukute, aruku n hone 
ga oremasii. 



179 



Here is a card of my hotel. 

I am much obliged to you for the 
trouble you have taken. 

Good morning ! 

Good evening ! 

Good night ! (said to one retiring 
to bed). 

Good-bye ! 

How do you do ? 

Thank you, I am very well. 

How is your family ? 

Thank you, all very well. 

Please present my compliments to 

your family. 
What production is this place 

noted for ? 
This place is noted for . 

Where is the Post Office (Railway 

Station) ? 

It is on that side of the street. 
Is there not a person of the name 

of living about here ? 

You will find him on the right 

(left) side of this street. 
He lives in the next street to this. 

The next door is the house for 

which you are asking. 
I will show you where he lives. 

Order a jinrikisha for me. 
I will go in a jiurikisha. 
Is the jinrikisha ready ? 
You have overcharged me. 



Kore wa watakushi no yadoya no 

na-fuda de gozaimasu. 
Oki ni o horie-eri. 

Ohayo gozaimasu ! 
Komban wa ! 
O yasumi nasai ! 

Sayouara ! 

Go kigen yoroshifi gozaimasu ka. 
Arigato, tassha de gozaimasu. 
taku de wa mina-san o kawari 

wa gozaimasen ka. 
Arigato, kawari de gozaimasen. 
Dozo, o uchi ye yoroshiku, oshatte 

kudasai. 
Kono hen no meibutsu wa nan 

daro? 
Kono hen no meibutsu wa, madzu 

de gozaimasen. 

Yubin - kyoku ( Suteishon ) wa 

dochira de gozaimasu ka. 
Sore wa muko-gawa de gozainiasu. 
Kono hen ni to iu na no hito 

ga sunde imasen ka. 
Kono tori-michi no hidari-gawa 

(migi-gawa) ni gozaimasu. 
Sore wa, tsugi no cho - nai de 

gozaimasu. 
Tonari ga o-tadzune iiasaru uchi 

desii. 
Ano hito no tokoro wo oshiete 



Kuruma wo tanonde o-kure. 
Kuruma ni notte iko. 
Kuruma no shitaku ga dekita ka. 
Omae wa taiso kake ne wo tsuketa. 



At an Hotel. 



Can I have a suite of rooms ? Mitsu yotsu no tsudzuita zashiki 

ga aite imasii ka. 

Have you a room with a good Miharashi no ii heya ga aru ka. 
view ? 

How will this room suit you ? Kono heya wa ikaga de gozaimasu 

ka. 

This will do very nicely. Kore wa kekko da. 



180 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



What do you charge for a night's 

lodging ? 

I will engage these rooms. 
Please send the landlord up. 
Please send the chambermaid 

here. 
I want something to eat. 

Waitress, please let us have 

something or other to eat. 
I want to have a wash. 
Please give me some water. 
Lend me another towel. 

Have you a newspaper ? 
Have you foreign newspapers ? 

W T here can I dine ? 
At the table d'hote . 
Where shall I sit ? 
Can I have this seat ? 
Take this seat, please. 

What do you charge per head 

at the table d'hote ? 
Is wine included in that ? 

Kindly take your seats, gentle- 
men. 
Please show me the wine-list. 

Let me have a cigar, please. 
Please get me a cigarette. 
Please pass the matches. 
Where is the smoke-room ? 
Is my bed ready ? 
Give me another pillow. 
Is the bath ready ? 
Please let me know when it is 

ready. 

The bath is now ready, Sir. 
Please lend me a sponge. 
Call me early, please. 
I shall leave at seven o'clock 

to-morrow morning. 
I wish to catch the first train to 

to-morrow. 

What time will you get up, Sir ? 

Call me at six, please. 

Send me up some hot water in 

the morning. 



Hito-ban no tomari-ryo wa 

ikura ? 

Kono heya wo karimasho. 
Teishiil wo yokoshite o-kure. 
Jochu wo kochira ye, yokoshite 

o-kure. 
Watakiishi wa nani ka mono wo 

tabetai. 
Oi ! nedan, nanika mitsukurotte 

dashite kun na. 
Chodzu wo tsukaitai. 
Midzu wo o-kure. 
Tenugui wo mo hitotsii kashite 

o-kure. 

Shim bun wo motte orimasu ka. 
Yoko-moji no shimbun wo motte 

orimasu. ka. 

Shoku-ji wa doko de shimasu ka. 
Shokudo de gozaimasii. 
Doko ni koshi-kakemasho ka. 
Kono tokoro wa ii ka ? 
Dozo, koko ni o kake nasai- 

mashi. 
Shokudo nara, ichi-uin-mae ikura 

desii ka. 
Sake-rui mo sono uchi ni haitte 

orimasu ka. 
Dozo, mina-san, o kake nasai- 

mashi. 
Sake-rui no mokuroku wo misete 

o-kure. 

Ha-maki-tabako ippon o-kure. 
Kami-maki-tabako ippon o-kure. 
Machi wo o-kure. 
Kitsuenjo wa doko desu ka. 
Toko ga shikemashita ka. 
Makura wo mo hitotsu o-kure. 
Furo ga waite iru ka. 
Waitara shirashite o-kure. 

Tadaima, o-yu ga wakimashita. 

Kaimen wo kashite o-kure. 

Hayaku okoshite o-kure. 

Myo-asa sbichi-ji ni shuttatsu 
shimasu. 

Myo-asa yuki no ichi-ban 

kisha no noritai. 

Nan-ji ni o oki nasaimasii ka. 

Roku-ji ni okoshite kure. 

Asu no asa yu wo motasete yoko- 
shite o-kure. 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES 



181 



Good-night and sleep well. 

Please put out the light. 

I shall be down to breakfast 

in five minutes. 
Tell the waiter to let me have 

some breakfast. 
Have you cleaned my boots ? 
Please clean my boots. 
Please let these things be sent 

to the wash. 
Has the laundress returned my 

washing ? 
Let my linen be well-aired. 

Please let me have my bill. 
How much is my bill ? 
Good-bye, Sir, and please come 

again soon. 
Good-bye ; I thank yo\i for your 

kind attention. 



Go kigen yo o yasumi nasaimashi. 

Akari wo keshite o-kure. 

Mo go-fun de asahan ni mairi- 

masu. 
Asahan wo koshiraeru yo ni 

kyuji ni iitsukete o-kure. 
Kutsii wo migaitaka. 
Kutsu wo migaite o-kure. 
Kono mono wo sentaku ni yatte 

o-kure. 
Sentaku mono wo motte kitaka. 

Kanakin-rui no sentaku mono wo 
yoku kawakashite kure. 

Kanj5 o-kure. 

Kanjo wa ikura ? 

Sayonara ; dozo o-chikai uchi ni 
uegaimasu. 

Sayonara ; Oki ni o sewa ni 
narimashita. 



Buying and Selling. 



Have you any silk like this ? 
What is the price ? 
Please show me that. 
Have jou no better ? 
Have you any cheaper ones ? 
How much do you require ? 
Which is the cheapest ? 
Show me something better. 

What is the lowest price you 

will take ? 
Well, I will buy it at that 

figure. 
I will buy this if you will 

take yen. 

The lowest I can sell at is 

yen. 

I can sell it at . 

Won't you reduce the price a 

little ? 
How do you like this ? 

How much do you ask ? 
I will buy this also, 



Kono yo na kinu ga arimasu ka. 

Ikura desii ka. 

Dozo are wo misete kudasai. 

Motto yoi no wa arimasen ka. 

Motto yasui no ga arimasu ka. 

Dono gurai yoroshiii ? 

Dochira ga yasui ? 

Motto yoi mono wo misete 

kudasai. 
Ketchakii no tokoro wa, ikura 

made makarimasu ka. 
Ma, sono nedan naraba kaimasho. 



Kono \ 

kaimasho. 
Goku makete 



yen nara 



yen. 



de sashi-agemasii. 

Nedan wo sukoshi wa makete 

kurenai ka ? 
Kono wa, ikaga de gozai- 

masu ? 

Ikura desu ka. 
Kore more kaimasho. 



182 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



This is quite enough. 

How much are they altogether ? 

Send the things to No. 

I am leaving on , so please 

have the things packed by 
then. 



Kore de takusan. 

Minna issho ni ikura ? 

Nimotsu wo ban ye yatte 

kure. 

ni shuppan suru kara sore 

made ni mono wo nidzukuri 
shinakereba narimasen. 



Eating and Drinking. 



I am very hungry. 
I am very thirsty. 
Are you hungry ? 

Are you thirsty ? 

Please show me the menu. 

Give me some please. 

What will you take to eat ? 
Please give me some more. 
May I offer you a cup of tea ? 
Please bring me a cup of coffee. 
Will you take some soup ? 
I will take a little. 

May I trouble you for the . 

What fish is that on the dish ? 

It is cod-fish. 

This fish is well-cooked and 

delicious. 
Is it sea or fresh -water fish ? 

Give that gentleman something 

to drink. 
Have you a wine-list ? 

Give me a glass of . 

Show me some liquors. 
Give me a glass of this. 



Taiso hara ga herimashita. 
Taiso nodo ga kawakimashita. 
Anata wa kufuku de wa gozai- 

masen ka. 
Anata wa nodo ga kawakimashita 

ka. 
Kondate wo misete. 

Dozo o-kure. 

Nani wo meshi-agarimasu ka. 
Motto o-kure. 

cha ippai sashi-agemasho ka. 
Kohi wo ippai motte kite o-kure. 
Soppu wo agarimasu ka. 
Sukoshi moraimasho. 

wo o-kure. 

Naga-zara ni notte iru sakana 

wa nan de gozaimasu ka. 
Tara de gozaimasu. 
Kono sakana mo yoroshii, ryori 

mo yoku dekite imasii. 
Umi-uwo desu ka kawa-uwo desii 

ka. 
Ano o-kata ni nani-ka sake wo 

agete o-kure. 
Sake-rui no mokuroku ga motte 

orimasu ka. 

wo ippai o-kure. 

Rikazu iro-iro misete o-ukure. 
Kore wo ippai o-kure. 



Is Mrs at home ? 

Is your master at home ? 



Visiting. 



Okxisama wa, o uchi de gozaimasu 

ka. 
Go shujin wa, o taku de gozaimasu 

ka. 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES 



183 



No, Sir, he is out. 

When will he return ? 

Please tell him (or her) I am 
waiting. 

Please come in. 

Show him (or her) in. 

Pray take a seat. 

Excuse me for keeping you wait- 
ing so long. 

Are you quite well ? 

I am quite well, thank you. 

I must now say good-bye ; or, I 
must now take my leave. 

I have been wearisome to you 
(said on taking have after a 
visit). 

Please make my compliments 
to . 

Kindly remember me to Mr 

I regret that I cannot avail 
myself of your kind invitation 
for to-day. 

At what time will you come ? 



Tadaima rusu de gozaimasu. 

Ttaii kaerimasn ka.. 

Watakushi ga matte iru to 

moshite o-kure. 
agari nasai. 
toshi mose. 
Dozo o kake nasai-mashi. 
machido sama. 

Go kigen yo gozaimasu. ka. 
ArigatS, tassha de gozaimasu. 
itoma itashimasho. 

yakamashiu gozaimasu. 



san ni yoroshiku negaimasu. 

san ye yoroshiku o tanomi- 

moshimasu. 
Sekkaku no o sasoi de gozaimasu 

ga, konnichi wa mairikane- 

masu. 
Nan-ji goro ni oide nasaimasii ka. 



Travelling. 



Is my luggage packed ? 

Bring my luggage, please. 

Put the luggage into the jinri- 
kisha. 

I will start when all is ready. 

I shall go to Yokohama to-morrow 
if it is fine. 

When will you start ? 

I shall go to-morrow. 

Has my luggage come ? 

Have you br. aight my luggage ? 

Shall we catch the train '{ 

What time does the train leave 
for ? 

It leaves at half-past nine. 

What is the fare ? 

Please give me a first-class (second- 
class) ticket for . 

Please give me a return ticket. 



Nimotsu wa nidzukuri shite aru 

ka. 

Nimotsu wo motte kite o-kure. 
Nimotsu wo kuruma ni nosete 

kure. 

Shitaku shidai, de kake-masho. 
Myonichi tenki ga yokereba, 

Yokohama ye iko. 
Itsu goro o tachi nasaru ka. 
Ashita yukimasho. 
Nimotsu wa kita ka. 
Nimotsu wo motte kita ka. 
Kisha ni ma-ni-awase-masho ka. 
yuki no kisha wa nan-ji ni 

demasu ka. 
Ku-ji-h^n ni demasu. 
Ikura desii ka. 
made joto (chuto) no kippu 

ichi-mai kudasai. 
Ofuku kippu wo kudasai. 



184 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



Follow me, please. 

I will leave ray luggage in your 

care. 

What time does the train start ? 
The train will be here directly. 
Put these things in a first-class 

(second-class) carriage, in the 

train for . 

This seat is engaged. 

How long does the train wait 

here? 
What is the name of this station ? 

W T hich is the best hotel ? 

Is it far off' ? 

Take me to a good hotel. 

We shall sail in a few minutes. 

Shall we have a good passage ? 

What time shall we reach ? 

How long will it take us ? 

Shall we breakfast on board ? 
Please let me see your passport. 
There is the way out. 



Watakushi no ato ni tsuite kite 

kudasai. 
Nimotsii wa omae ni adzukeru. 

Kisha wa nan-ji ni deni ka. 
Kisha wa mo hodonaku tsukimasu. 
ye yuku kisha no joto (chuto) 

shitsu ye kono nimotsu wo irete 

o-kure. 

Kono tokoro wa fusagatte imasu. 
Kisha wa dore hodo koko ni 

tomaru ka. 
Kono tei-sha-ba no na wa nan to 

moshimasu ka ? 

Yado wa, nani-ya ga yoroshii ka. 
Toi desii ka. 

Yoi yadoya made nosete kure. 
Jiki ni shuppan shimasu. 
Odayaka na kokai ga dekimasho 

ka. 
ye nanji-goro ni tochaku 

shimasu ka. 
Dore hodo nagaku kakarimasho 

ka. 

Fune de asahan wo tabemasho ka. 
Menjo wo chotto haiken. 
De-guchi wa asiiko de gozaimasu. 



With a Doctor. 



Who is the best doctor here ? 
Where does he live ? 

Please send for a doctor. 

I have come to consult with you. 

I have taken the liberty of send- 
ing for you, Doctor, as I am 
greatly in need of your advice. 

Show me your tongue. 
What is the matter with you ? 
Have you any appetite ? 
I have no appetite. 

Does your head ache ? 
My head aches fearfully, 



Koko de ichi-ban jodzu na isha wa 

dare desii ka. 
Ano o-kata no sumai wa doko 

desii ka. 

Isha wo yobi ni yatte kudasai. 
Anata ni sodan to kimashita. 
mukai ni agete, shitsurei wo 

itashimashita. Sensei no go 

shinsatsu wo zehi negawaneba 

narimasen. 
Shita wo haiken. 
Do nasaimashita ? 
Shok-ki wa gozaimasu ka. 
Shok-ki wa sukoshi mo gozai- 

masen. 

Dzutsu ga nasaimasii ka. 
Osoroshiku dzutsu ga itashimasu. 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES 



185 



Where do you feel pain now ? 

I have a bad cold. 

I cannot sleep at night. 

How long have you felt unwell ? 

I have been unwell for several 
days. 

Do you cough at all ? 

Where do you feel it ? 

Is my illness dangerous ? 

There is nothing to be alarmed at. 

You must take a little medicine. 

Here is the prescription. 

I will send you some medicine to 

take. 
When must I call again ? (said by 

patient). 
I will see you again to-morrow 

(said by doctor). 
I feel a little better. 



Ima, itami wa doko ni gozaimsua 

ka. 

Warui kaze wo hikimashita. 
Yoru wa nemurarenai de komari- 

masu. 
Itsu-goro kara go-byoki deshita 

ka. 
Watakushi wa shi-go nichi ato 

kara kokoromichi ga warii 

gozaimashita. 
Seki ga demasu ka. 
Doko ga itande orimasu ka. 
Abunai to o kangae nasaimasu ka. 
Taishita koto wa gozaimasen. 
Kusuri wo sukoshi o nomi. 
Yaku-ho-gaki wa kore de gozai- 

masu. 
Nani - ka kusuri wo sashi - age - 

masho. 
Kondo, itsu mairimasho ka. 

Myonichi mata o-mimai-moshi- 

masvi. 
Shosho yoku narimashita ; koko- 

romochi wa sukoshi yoku 

narimashita. 



Writing, Letters and Post. 



Please give me a sheet of paper. 
Please post this letter. 

Are there any letters for me ? 

The mail has not arrived yet. 
Has a telegram come for me ? 

What is your address ? 

My name and address is . 



Please give me his address. 

Please write the address in 

Japanese. 

To what address shall I send it ? 
Kindly forward my letters to . 

Please sign your name. 



Kami ichi-mai kudasai. 

Kono tegami wo yubin ni dashite 

kudasai. 
Watakushi ni ateta tegami ga 

gozaimasu ka. 
Yubin wa mada hairanai. 
Watakushi ni ateta dempo ga 

kimashita ka. 

Anata no tokoro wa doko desu ka. 
Watakushi no seimei oyobi shuku- 

sho wa . 

Ano hito no tokoro -gaki wo 

kudasai. 
Doka, Nihon no moji de tokoro 

wo kaite kudasai. 
Doko ye o todoke-moshimasho ka. 
Watakushi . ni ateta tegami wa 

ye sotatsu sasete kudasai, 

namae wo o kaki nasai. 



186 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



How muoh is the postage on this 

letter ? 
I want to cash this money order, 

please. 
The name and address of the 

sender is . 

Please dispatch this telegram. 



Kono tegami no yubin-zei wa 

ikura kakarimasu ka. 
Kono kawase - kin wo negaito 

gozaimasu. 
Sashi-dashi-nin no seimei, shuku- 

sho wa . 

Kono dempo wo dashite kudasai. 



Miscellaneous. 



Do you understand ? 
I don't quite understand. 
I understand quite well. 
Indeed ! or, Really ! 
Wait a moment. 
Don't do that ! 
Do as you please. 
I will enquire about it. 
Please give it to me. 
You are right. 
I am very pleased. 
I don't think so. 

Tj^ flnpg nnt matfpi'j 

It is a nuisance ; or, How annoy- 
ing. 
I am sorry to trouble you but 

Oh, there's no difficulty about 

that ; or, That's easy enough. 
I don't understand it at all. 
Excuse me for having troubled 

you. 
Don't trouble yourself about me 

(or it). 

I am very busy just now. 
I am too busy now. 
I beg to congratulate you (on any 

occasion). 

It is very interesting. 
I am very tired. 
I am very sleepy. 

Has -anyone come during my 

absence ? 
Has anything happened dxiring 

my absence ? 
May I have the loan of this , 

pie 



Wakarimasu ka. 

Voku wakariTnasfln 

Yoku wakarimasu. 

Ika-sama ! 

Sukoshi mate. 

So shicha ikenai ! 

Anata no ii yo ni nasai. 

Kiite mimasho. 

Dozo watakiishi ni kudasai. 

Go mottomo de gozaimasu. 

Taiso yorokobimasu. 

So ja nai to omou. 

Kamaimasen. 

Komatta koto da. 

Go mendo nagara . 

nai. 



Ikko (or sappari) wakarimasen. 
jama itashimashita. 

kamai kudasaru na. 

Ima wa taihen ni isogashii. 
Ima wa isogashii de ikimasen. 
0-medeto gozaimasu. 

Yohodo omoshiroi de gozaimasu. 
Watakiishi wa taiso kutabireta. 
Watakiishi wa taiso nemuku 

natta. 
Rusu-chu ni dare ka miemashita 

ka. 
Rusu ni nani ka yo ga atta ka. 

Kono wo haishaku sum wake 

ni wa mairimasen ka. 



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES 



187 



Shut (open) the door. 

I have never seen it. 

It is very good ; or, It will do 

nicely ; or, It is delicious ; or, 

It is splendid. 
I am studying Japanese. 
I can speak Japanese a little. 
I am going to study Japanese. 
Thanks for your assistance. 
There is plenty of time. 
I will be back in a short time. 
What time is it ? 
You had better wait. 
I will wait for you. 
Shall I wait ? 
I cannot wait. 
If anyone should enquire for me, 

say I have gone to 



To wo shimete (akete) o-kure. 
Mita koto ga gozaimasen. 
Kekko de gozaimasu. 



Nihon-go wo manande orimasu. 

Nihon-go wo sukoshi dekimasu. 

Nihon-go wo manabu tsumori da. 

O sewa sama. 

Mada yohodo jikan ga arimasu. 

Jiki ni kaerimasu. 

Nanji desii ka. 

Mateba yokaro. 

machi-rnoshisho. 

Machimasho ka. 

Matte irarenai. 

Dare ka tazunete kitara, ye 

itta to so ie. 



VOCABULARIES 

OF 

USEFUL AND NECESSARY WORDS USED IN 



ABBREVIATIONS trans. = transitive ; intrans. = intransitive ; 
subst. = substantive ; adj. = adjective. 



I. JAPANESE-ENGLISH. 



abunai, unsafe, dangerous. 

abura, oil, grease, fat. 

acni ; achira, there. 

agaru, to rise, to get up ; to clear 
(of the weather). 

ageku ni, finally, as a final 
result. 

ago, chin. 

aniru, duck. 

ai, dark blue. 

aida, interval, time, while, during. 

aida-gara, connection, relation- 
ship. 

ai-kawarazu, as before, unaltered. 

aisatsu, response, reply, acknow- 
ledgment. 

aisatsu sum, to reply, to acknmv- 
ledge. 

aisuru, to love. 

aite, antagonist (at a game) ; 
party (to a transaction) ; com- 
panion. 

aite iru, to be open, to be un- 
occupied. 

aiiwai, taste, flavour, 
188 



akagane, copper. 
akai, brmvn, red. 
akambo, baby. 
akarui, light (not dark). 
akeru, to open (trans.). 
.aki, autumn. 
akinai, business, commerce. 
akinau, to do business. 
akindo, dealer, merchant. 
akiraka (na), clear, intelligible. 
akiraka (ni), clearly. 
akke ni torareru, to be amazed. 
aku, to open (intrans.) ; to become 

empty. 
amai, sweet. 
amari, too much, too; (with a 

negative), not very. 
amaru. to remain over, to exceed. 
ambai. way, manner. 
aine, rain. 

ame ga furu, to rain. 
an, bill, draft, opinion. 
ana, hole, cavern, tunnel. 
anadoru, to abuse, to jeer. 
ane, elder sister. 
ani, elder brother. 
anjiru, to be anxious. 



JAPANESE-ENGLISH 



189 



anna, that kind of, like that. 

ano, that (adj.). 

ano hito, he, she. 

anshin suru, to be free from 

anxiety. 

anzen ni, safely. 
anzu, apricot. 
aoi, green, blue. 
aoru, to slam (in trans. ) ; (of a 

door). 

arai, rough, sharp, severe. 
arappoi. harsh, strict. 
arare, hail (from sky). 
arasoi, a dispute. 
arasou, to dispute. 
aratamaru, to be rectified, to be 

re- adjusted. 

aratameru, to re- adjust, to rectify. 
arau. to wash. 
arawareru, to appear, to show 

oneself. 

arawasu, to show, to disclose. 
are, that (subst.). 
are hodo, as much as that, that 

much. 

are kara, after that. 

arigatai, thankful. 

arisama, condition, state. 

ariso mo nai, unlikely. 

aru, to be. 

aruji, host, head of house. 

aruku, to ivalk. 

asa, morning. 

asa-han, breakfast. 

asai, shallow. 

asatte, the day after to-morrow. 

ase, perspiration. 

ase ga deru, to perspire. 

asni, leg, foot. 

ashiki, wicked. 

ashi no yubi, the toes. 

asMta, to-morrow. 

asMta no asa, to-morrow morning. 

asobi, a game. 

asubu ; asobu, to play, to amuse 

oneself. 
asuko. there. 
asuko kara, thence. 
asuko ye, thither. 
asukoera, thereabouts, in that 

place. 



aterau, to grant, to give. 

atai, cost, price, value. 

atama, head (of body). 

atarashii, new, fresh. 

atari, neighbourhood. 

atarimae, generally, ordinarily. 

atarimae no, proper, usual, con- 
venient. 

ataru, to hit the mark. 

atatakai, warm. 

atatameru, to warm. 

ate, trust, reliance. 

ate ni naru, to be reliable. 

ate ni suru, to rely on. 

ate-nameru, to assign, to allot. 

ato, effects, traces. 

ato de, afterwards. 

ato no tsuki, last month. 

ato saki, circumstances, context. 

atsui, thick (of solids) ; hot. 

atsukau, to undertake, to manage. 

atsusa, heat, thickness. 

atsumaru, to collect together 
(intrans.). 

atsumeru, to collect (trans.). 

atsuraeru, to order (e.g., at a 
shop). 

au, to suit, to agree, to meet ; 
hidoi me ni au, to be treated 
cruelly ; hidoi me ni awaseru, 
to treat cruelly. 

awaseru, to add, to join. 

awatadashii, flurried, excited. 

awateru, to be excited, to be 
flurried. 

ayamachi, mistake, error. 

ayamatsu, to make a mistake. 



B 



ba, a place (only in compounds, 
as furo-ba, a bath-place). 

baba, old woman. 

bai, double. 

baishu, something purchased, a 
purchase. 

baishu suru, to purchase. 

baka, folt, dolt. 

bakarashii, absurd, foolish. 



190 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



baka ni suru, to make a fool of 
anybody. 

bakari, about, only, some where 
near. 

bam-mesM. late dinner, supper. 

ban, evening, nigM. 

banchi, house-number (in a 
street). 

bane, springs (of a vehicle). 

banzuke, programme. 

bari, insulting language, abuse. 

bari sum, to revile, to abuse. 

basha, carriage (vehicle). 

bassuru, to punish. 

bata, butter. 

bemmei, explanation, demonstra- 
tion. 

bemmei suru, to demonstrate 
clearly. 

benjiru, to discuss, to talk over. 

benko, eloquence. 

benko no yoi, eloquent, 

benkyo, industry, diligence. 

benri, convenience. 

benri na ; benri no yoi, con- 
venient. 

benri no wand, inconvenient. 

betsu, a difference. 

betsu ni, differently, specially. 

betsu no, different, other, separate. 

betsudan (no), special. 

betto, groom, horseman. 

biiru, beer. 

bikko, /'///c. 

bimbo, want, poverty. 

bimbo na, poor, indigent. 

bin, bottle. 

birodo, velvet. 

b6, stick, cudgel. 

boeM, commerce, trade. 

bon, tray, salver. 

bon-yari snlta, dull, stupid, 
dazed. 

boro, rags. 

boshi, hat. 

bo tan. button. 

botan-hame, button-hook. 

botan no ana, button-hole. 

botan wo kakeru, to button. 

botchan, a little boy, urchin. 

boyeki. trade. 



brikki, tin. 

buchoho, awkwardness ; clumsi- 
ness. 

buchoho na, awkward. 

budo-shu. wine. 

buji, safe, without danger. 

buji ni, safely. 

butoyo na, awkward, clumsy. 

bukku, book (European). 

bumpai suru, to distribute. 

bun, part. 

burra-burra, loiteringly. 

burei, rudeness, impertinence. 

burei na, rude, impertinent:. 

busho (na), indolent, idle, lazy, 
slovenly. 

buta, pig. 

butsu, to strike, to thrash. 

buchi-taosu, to knock down, to 
prostrate. 

buttsukeru, to bump. 

byo, tack (nail). 

byoin, Iwspital. 

by5ki (na), sick, ill. 

byonin, invalid, sick person. 



cha, tea. 

cha-iro, brown. 

cha-nomi-jawan, tea-cup. 

cha wo ireru, to brew tea. 

chakusuru, to arrive. 

cha-saji, teaspoon. 

cnanto, quietly. 

chanto shit a. quiet. 

chawan, bowl, teacup. 

chi, blood. 

chi ga deru, to bleed (intrans). 

chichi, father ; milk. 

chigai, a difference, an error. 

chigatta, unlike. 

chigau, to differ, to be in error. 

chiisai, small. 

chikagoro. lately, recently. 

chikai, near. 

chikai uchi, soon. 

chikara, strength, force. 



JAPANESE- ENGLISH 



191 



chikara wo tsukutu, to strive 

earnestly, to do to the best of 

one's ability. 
chikazuki, a?! intimate friend, 

friendship. 
chikuba no tomo, a friend from 

youth upwards. 
chikuten sum, to run away. 
chirasu, to scatter. 
chiri, dust. 
chiru, to drop (as leaves from a 

tree). 

chitto, a small amount, a trifle. 
chiujiki, lunch. 
chizu, map. 
cho, butterfly; a measure of 

distance (about 120 Eng. 

yards). 

chSai, love, affection. 
choai suru, to love. 
chobatsu, punishment. 
chobatsu suru, to punish. 
chochin, lantern. 
chodo, just, exactly. 
choho, convenience, usefulness. 
choho na, convenient, useful. 
choi-choi (to), little by little. 
choito ; choto ; chotto, a small 

amount, a trifle. 
choito shita, trifling, slight. 
chokki, waistcoat. 
cho-tsugai, a hinge. 
chozu, water (for washing the 

hands). 

chdzu-darai, wash-hand bowl. 
chui, care, attention. 
chui sum, to pay attention, to 

heed. 

chumon, order (at a shop, etc.). 
chushin, middle, centre. 
chutd, middling, second-hand. 



dai, table (furniture). 

daibu, a large portion, a good 

deal. 

daichi. the ground. 
dai-dokoro, kitclien. 



daiji, importance. 

daiji na, important. 

daiji ni suru, to take great care of. 

daijobu, safe. 

daiku, carpenter. 

dajaku (na), lazy. 

damaru, to be silent. 

damasu. to cheat. 

dan, a pace, a step. 

dan-dan, gradually. 

dangi, advice ; a, speech. 

danjiru, to consult. 

danki, heat, warmth. 

dare ? who ? 

dare demo, anybody. 

dasu, to take out, to put aside. 

de-au, to meet with, to meet v.-ith 

out-of-doors. 

de-guchi, way out, exit. 
de-iri, entrance to a house. 
de-kakeru, to set out, to start off. 
deki, workmanship, produce. 
dekinai, impossible. 
dekiru, to take place, to eventuate, 

to come out. 
deki-agaru, to be completed, to be 

ready. 

dempo, telegram. 
denshin-kyoku, telegraph-office. 

denwa, telephone. 

deru, to go out, to issue forth. 

de-shabaru, to project, to stick out. 

do ? how ? 

dobin, teapot. 

dobutsu-gakn, zoology. 

do de mo, anyhow. 

do ifl. ? what kind of? 

ddbutsu, an animal. 

dochi ? dochira ? ivhere ? 

dogu, a utensil; furniture; a 
second-hand shop; dealer in 
second-hand goods. 

doko ? where ? 

doko demo, anywhere. 

doko kara ? whence ? 

doko made ? how far ? 

dokoera ? whereabouts ? 

doku, poison. 

doku ni naru, to be unwholesome. 

dokHshin (-mono), a bachelor. 

donata ? who ? 



192 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



donna ? what kind of? 

dono ? which ? 

dono kurai ? hoiv much ? 

dore ? 'which ? (subst.). 

dore-dake ? how much ? what 

amount ? 
dori. reason. 

doro-darake, covered with mud. 
doro michi. a muddy road. 
dote, embankment, bank, declivity. 
doyobi. Saturday. 



e, picture ; handle of a tool. 

eda, branch (of tree, road, etc.). 

egaku, to paint (as an artist). 

ekaki, painter. 

eki-fu, railway -porter. 

empitsft, pencil. 

empo, far distant, a great ivay off. 

empo na, distant, afar off. 

endo manie. peas. 

ensno, gunpowder. 

ensoku. picnic, excursion. 

enzetsu. lecture, speech. 

enzetsu suru, to lecture, to make 

a speech. 

erabu, to choose, to select. 
erai, wonderful. 
eri, collar. 

eru, to get ; to select, to pick out. 
eshaku, apology, boic. 
eshaku wo suru, to bow, to 

apologise. 



fu-annai, ignorant of, not con- 
versant with. 
fuben, inconvenience. 
faben na, inconvenient. 
fu-bun, report, rumour. 
fuchi, edge, border. 
fudan no, common, usual. 
fude.^ew. 
fueru, to increase (intrans). 



fuhai, putrefaction. 

fuhai suru, to putrefy. 

fui to, accidentally. 

fujiyu, discomfort, inconvenience. 

fujiyu na, inconvenient. 

fukai, deep. 

fu-kohei, iinjust. 

fuku, to blow (as the wind, etc.), 
to wipe. 

fukumu, to include, to contain. 

fukurasu, to cause to sivell up, to 
inflate. 

fukuro, a bag. 

fukwai, illness. 

fumu. to tread, to tread on. 

fumi-hazusu, to stumble. 

fumi-shimeru, to tread firmly. 

fune, ship, boat. 

funinjo. cruelty, unkindness, 
severity. 

fureru, to touch. 

furi, a fall (of snow, etc.). 

furo, bath. 

furo-ba, bath-room. 

furu, to fall (only of rain, snow, 
etc.). 

furi-dasu, to begin to rain, etc. 

furueru, to tremble, to quiver. 

furui, old (of things only). 

furukusai, stale. 

furuu, to shake. 

fuseru, to lie, to go to bed. 

fusetsu, report, rumour. 

fu-shi-awase na, miserable, un- 
happy. 

fushigi, a marvellous thing, a 
miraculous circumstance. 

fushigi na, marvellous, curious. 

fusnin, doubt. 

fushin ni omou, to doubt, to con- 
sider suspicious. 

fu-shinsetsu (na), harsh, unkind. 

fushoclii, objection, dissent. 

fushochi, wo iu, to object. 

fusuru, to submit (trans.), to de- 
liver up. 

futa, a lid. 

futatsu, two. 

futo, accidentally, suddenly. 

futon, bed-cover. 

futoru, to become fat. 



JAPANESE-ENGLISH 



193 



futotta, fat, stout. 

futsu (no), general, ordinary, 

usual. 

futsugo, inconvenience. 
futsugo na, inconvenient. 
fuyasu, to increase (trans.). 
fuyu, winter. 
fuzai, absent, not at home. 



G 



gacho, goose (tame). 

ga deru, to cough. 

gaitan, groaning, lamentation. 

gakko, school, college. 

gaku, science, learning. 

gakumon, study, learning. 

gakumon sum, to study. 

gakutai, band (of music). 

gaman, patience. 

gaman sum, to be patient. 

gan, wild goose. 

gaten, acquiescence, comprehen- 
sion. 

gaten no ikanu, incomprehensible. 

gaten sum, to acquiesce, to com- 
prehend. 

gehin (na), vulgar, ill-bred. 

gejo, maid-servant. 

gekkyu, salary, loages. 

genan, man-servant. 

genkin, ready-money, cash. 

genkotsu, the knuckles. 

genkwa(n), entrance to a house, 
porch. 

genzai, the present moment, now. 

gesubatta, low, vulgar. 

getsuyobi, Monday. 

gimon, question. 

gimu, duty, obligation. 

gin, silver. 

ginen, doubt, suspicion. 

ginko, bank (establishment). 

ginko-sha, banker. 

giyaman, glass (the substance). 

go, Jive; after; sono go, since 
that time. 

gogo, afternoon. 

go-gwatsu, May, (the month). 

gohan, rice ; food. 

JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



7 



goke, widow. 

goku, very, extremely. 

gomakasu, to deceive. 

gomi, dust (on furniture, etc.). 

gotaki, like, such as. 

gozen, forenoon; boiled rice; 
a meal. 

gu, dull, stupid. 

gujin, ignoramus, dull person. 

gurai, somewhere near (approxi- 
mately). 

gururi, around. 

gutto, suddenly, tightly. 

gwaiken, appearance. 

gwaikoku, abroad, foreign 
countries. 

gwaikoku-jin, a foreigner. 

gwaikoku no, foreign. 

gyoslia, driver (of a vehicle). 

gyu (-niku), beef. 



ha, tooth ; leaf (of tree). 

haba, width. 

haba no hiroi, wide. 

habakaru, to fear; to be ashamed. 

habikoru, to spread out (intrans.). 

ha-burashi, toothbrush. 

hachi, bee, wasp ; a pot ; eight. 

hachi-gwatsu, August (the 

month). 

nachi-ju, eighty. 
hadaka (na), naked. 
naeru, to grow (intrans). 
hagaki, post-card. 
hagane, steel. 
haha, mother. 
hai, fly (insect) ; ashes. 
hairi-kuchi, entrance, way in. 
hairu. to enter, to go in. 
ha-isha, dentist. 
haishaku sum, to borrow. 
haitatsu-nin, postman. 
hajimari; hajime, the beginning, 

commencement. 

hajimaru, to begin (intrans.). 
hajimeru, to begin (trans.). 
haji wo kaku, to be ashamed. 



194 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



hakarazu, unintentionally. 

hakaru, to weigh. 

hakkiri (to), clearly. 

hako, box. 

bakobu, to convey, to transport. 

haku, to sweep. 

hamabe, shore, beach. 

hambun, half. 

han, a meal ; rice. 

hana, a flower, blossom ; the nose. 

hana-fuki, handkerchief. 

hanahada, </-//. 

hanahadashii, excessive, extreme. 

hanashi, tale, story. 

lianasu. to tell, to speak. 

hana-tate, flower-vase. 

bane, wing, feather. 

banko suru, to print. 

hara ga hem, to be hungry. 

bara wo tateru, to become angry. 

hari, needle, pin. 

baru, to stick (trans). 

haruka, afar. 

basami, scissors. 

basbi, chopsticks, bridge. 

basbigo, ladder. 

basbira, post, pillar. 

basbigo-dan, staircase. 

hasbiru, to run. 

batake, vegetable-garden. 

bataraki, work. 

hataraku. to work. 

bateru, to finish, to conclude 

(trans. ). 
bato, pigeon. 
bau, to creep. 
hayai, quick ; early. 
bayari, fashion. 
bayari no, fashionable. 
haya-tsukegi, lucifcr-match. 
bazukasbii, bashful. 
bazukasbisa, bashfulness. 
be-datari, distance. 
bei, fence, hedge. 
beizei (no), usual, ordinary. 
ben, a change ; neighbourhood. 
ben na, queer, curious. 
benji, an answer. 
benji suru, to answer. 
benkwa, a change. 
bento, an answer. 



bento BUTU, to answer. 
berasu, to diminish (trans. ). 
hem, to diminish (intrans.); to 

pass through. 
beya, a room, a chamber. 
hi, the sun ; fire ; a day. 
bibasbi, fire-tongs. 
blbi ni, daily. 
bidoi, cruel, unkind. 
bldoi me ni au, to receive cruel 

treatment. 
bidoi me ni awaseru, to treat 

cruelly. 

bidarui, hungry. 
hieru, to be cold. 
bigasa, parasol. 
bigashi, east. 
hiji, elbow. 

hijo (na), extraordinary, unusual. 
bikaru, to glitter, to shine. 
Mki-dasbi, a drawer. 
hikkuri-kaesu, to upset. 
hiku, to draw, to pull. 
hikui, low (not high). 
himo, bootlace. 
himo-ji, hungry. 
bineru, to twist (intrans). 
liinko. conduct, behaviour. 
binko no ii, well-behaved, moral. 
hinshitsu, quality. 



hiroi, broad. 

hiromaru, to spread (intrans.). 

biromeru, to spread (trans). 

hirou, to find ; to pick up. 

him, to dry (intrans. j ; day-time ; 

noon. 
him (-gozen), luncheon, mid-day 

meal. 

niru-BUgi, the afternoon. 
bisasbii, long (of time). 
bisuru, to compare. 
hitai, forehead, brmo. 
Mto, person, human being. 
bito-tarashi, drop (of water, etc.). 
bitori. alone. 
bitotsu oki, alternate, every other 

one. 

bitsuji-no-niku, mutton. 
bitsuyo (na), indispensable, 

necessary. 



JAPANESE-ENGLISH 



195 



niya, cold. 

hiyori, the iveather. 

hiza, the knee. 

n6, the cheeks. 

h6b6, in every direction; every- 
where. 

hocho, a knife. 

hoeru, to bark. 

hogo sum, to protect. 

hoka, besides, except. 

home, praise. 

homeru, to praise. 

hon, a book. 

nonto, truth. 

Uouto no, true, real. 

hon-ya, bookseller, bookshop. 

lioreru, to be in love. 

horu, to excavate, to dig ; to carve. 

horu, to throw. 

ho shi, star. 

hosoi, narrow. 

hoso-nagai. slender. 

hossuru, to wish. 

hosu, to dry (trans.). 

hotondo, almost; (with a nega- 
tive), hardly. 

hoyu, friend. 

hozu, limit, boundary, end. 

hyakusho, farmer, peasant. 

hyo, bale, package. 

hyoban, rumour, report. 

hyorotsuku, to stagger. 



ichi-ban, number one, first. 

icni-gai, altogether. 

ichigo, strawberry. 

ichijiku, fig. 

ichi-6, once, once for all. 

ie, house. 

ie no uchi, indoors. 

iedomo, though, even. 

igo, henceforth. 

ii-kakeru. to address (in speaking). 

ijiru, to tease, to interfere, 

ikaga ? how ? 

ikahodo ? how much ? 

ikan ? or ikani ? why? 



ika na koto ? what ? what kind 

of? 
iki-gake, while on the road to, 

whilst going. 
ikioi, strength, force. 
ikiru, to live. 
iku ? how many ? 
ikutsu ? how many ? 
iku, to go. 
ikura ? hoiv much 1 
ima, nou>, at present. 
ima-imashii, disagreeable. 
ima no itatte, by now, by this 

time. 

imashimeru, to warn, to reprove. 
imo, potato. 
inabakari, lightning. 
inaka, the country (as opposed to 

town). 
inochi, life. 
inori, prayer. 
inori wo suru, to pray. 
inu, dog. 

ippai ni suru, to fill. 
irai, since, after ; henceforth. 
ireru, to insert, to put in. 
iriyo (na), requisite, needed. 
iri-kunda, intricate, complicated. 
iro, colour. 
iro-iro (no), all sorts. 
iru, to enter ; to be ; to shoot. 
irui, clothing, dress. 
isha, doctor, physician. 
ishi, a stone. 

isogashii, busy, occupied. 
isogu, to make haste, to hurry. 
issakujitsu, the day before 

yesterday. 
issho ni, together. 
isu, chair, seat. 
itai, painful, smarting. 
itameru, to hurt (trans.). 
itami, pain. 

itamu, to pain (in trans. ). 
itatte, very. 
ito, string, thread. 
itou, to shun, to avoid. 
itsu, when ? 

itsuwari, a lie, a fabrication, 
iu, to say. 
iwa, rock, stone. 



196 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



iyagaru, to dislike. 
iyo-iyo, more and more. 
izumi, fountain, spring. 



ji, ground, earth. 

jibun, self. 

jihaku sum, to confess, to own. 

jiki (ni), immediately. 

jin, human being, person. 

jinryoku sum, to do one's best, to 

endeavour 
jisatsu, suicide. 
jisatsu suru, to commit suicide. 
jishin. self. 
jisuru, to refuse. 
jitsu, truth. 
jitsu no, true. 
jiyu, freedom, liberty. 
jiyfl na, free. 
jobu (na), Jinn, sturdy, solid, 

strong. 

jochu, chambermaid. 
jodan, joke. 
jodan wo iu, to joke. 
joM steam. 
jokisha, a railway. 
jubun, ample, plenty, quite. 
ju-go, fifteen. 
ju-gwatsu, October. 
ju-hachi, eighteen. 
ju-ichi-gwatsu, November. 
ju-ju, repeatedly, over and over 

again. 

jumoku, tree. 
ju-ni-gwatsu, December. 
junjo, turn, order, sequence. 
junsa, policeman. 
jurai, till now, hitherto. 



K 

kabe, mud wall. 
kabu, turnip. 
kado, gate; corner, 
kaeru, frog. 



kaeru, to return (intrans. ) ; to 

change (trans.) 
kaesu, to send back, to give back, 

to return (trans.) 
kaesu-gaesu, over and over again. 
kagami, looking-glass. 
kage, shadow, reflection. 
kagi, key. 
kai, shell. 

kaiken, beach, shore. 
kakaru, to hang (intrans.). 
kakato, tJie heel. 
kake-au, to arrange about, to 

discuss, to bargain. 
kakeru, to run ; to hang (trans.); 

to put. 
kaki, oyster. 

kaki-tsuke, note, memorandum. 
kaku, to write, to scratch. 
kakureru, to hide (intrans.). 
kakushi, pocket. 

kami, the hair (on head) ; paper. 
kami, above, upper. 
kaminari, thunder. 
ka mo Shiran, perhaps. 
kamu, to bite. 

kanarazu, certainly, positively. 
kane, bell. 

kane, money ; metal. 
kane-ire, a purse. 
kangaeru, to think over, to 

consider. 
kani, crab. 
kanjiru, to feel. 
kanjo, account, bill. 
kannin, patience. 
kannin suru, to be patient. 
kanshaku-mochi, quick-tempered. 
kanshin, amazement ; admiration. 
kanshin sum, to be amazed at ; 

to admire. 
kantei, criticism. 
kao, the face. 
kara (na), empty. 
karada, the body (of a living 

creature). 
karakane, bronze. 
karashi, mustard. 
kariru, to hire ; to borrow. 
kasa, quantity, amount. 
kasanete, again, several times, 



JAPANESE-ENGLISH 



197 



kasha (wa), oak-tree. 

kasu, to let (a house, etc. ) ; to lend. 

kata, shoulder. 

kataohi, shape, configuration. 

katsu, to vanquish, to win. 

kau, to buy. 

kawa, skin, rind, peel, bark, 

leather. 

kawaru, to change (intrans.). 
kaze, the u-ind. 
kozeru, to count. 
keisatsusho, police-station. 
keisatsiikwan, police-officer. 
kekko (na), splendid. 
kemuri, smoke. 
kenkwa, a quarrel. 
kenkwa suru, to quarrel. 
keredo (mo), though, but. 
kesa, this morning. 
kessMte, certainly, positively; 

(with a negative), never. 
ki. a tree ; wood (the substance), 
kibun ga warui, to feel ill. 
ki-iroi, yellow. 
kikaseru, to inform. 
kiku. to hear ; to listen. 
kin, gold, money. 
kinchaku. purse. 
kinjiru, to forbid. 
kinkl, joy, pleasure. 
kind, yesterday. 
kinu, silk. 
kin-yobi, Friday. 
M-6 (no), former, past. 
kippu, ticket. 
kirau, to dislike. 
kirei (na), neat, clean, pretty. 
kiru, to cut ; to kill ; to wear. 
kita, north. 

kitai (na), strange, queer. 
kitanai, dirty. 

kitto, without fail, positively. 
ki-yo (na), handy, skilful, clever. 
ko, thus, in this way, like this. 
ko iu, such as this, this kind of. 
kobosu, to spill. 
kochi, here. 
kodai, huge, immense. 
koe, the voice. 
koe wo kakeru. to cry out. 
kogoto wo iu, to scold. 



kohei (na), just, fair. 

kojiki, a beggar. 

koko, here. 

kokoera, hereabouts. 

koman, pride, conceit. 

koman na, conceited, proud. 

komban, to-night. 

konaida, a short time ago, lately. 

konna, this kind of, such as this. 

konnichi, to-day. 

kono, this (adj.) 

konomu, to like. 

koraeru, to bear, to endure. 

kore, this (subst.). 

kore kara, henceforth. 

kore made, hitherto, up till now. 

korosu, to kill. 

koshiraeru, to prepare. 

kosuru. to rub. 

kotae, a reply. 

kotaeru, to reply. 

kotogotoku, all, completely. 

kotoshi. this year. 

kotowari, an excuse, a refusal. 

kotowaru, to refuse, to make an 

excuse. 

kowagaru, to be frightened. 
kowai, frightened. 
kowareru, to break (intrans. ). 
kowasu, to break (intrans.). 
ko-yoji, toothpick. 
kubi, the neck, the head. 
kuchi, the mouth, an opening. 
kuchi-bue wo fuku, to whistle. 
kuchibiru, the lips. 
kuchi-nuki. corkscrew. 
kudakeru, to break to pieces. 
kudaru, to descend. 
kugi, a nail (to fasten with), 
ku-gwatsu, September. 
kflki, air, atmosphere. 
kunto, instruction. 
kunto suru, to instruct. 
kurai, dark. 
kurasa, darkness. 
kureru, to give. 
kuro, trouble, pains. 
kuroi, black. 
kuru, to come. 
kusuri. medicine. 
kutabireru, to get tired. 



198 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



ktttabirete iru, to be tired. 

kutsu, boot, shoe. 

kutsu-ya, bootmaker, bootmaker's 

shop. 

kuu, to eat. 

kwairaku, joy, pleasure. 
kwaiwa, talk, conversation. 
kwayflbi, Tuesday. 
kyaku, guest, customer. 
ky5, to-day. 
kyonen, last year. 
kyu (na), sudden. 
kyflji, waiter. 
kyukin, wages, salary. 
kyttto, last year. 



\ 



M 



ma, quite. 

mabushii, dazzling. 

machi, a street. 

machi-naka, the whole street or 



macMgai. an error, mistake. 
machigai naku, without fail. 
machigau, to commit an error, to 

err. 
mada, still; (with a negative), 

not yet. 

mado, icindow. 
mado-kake, window-curtain. 
mae, in advance, in front, before. 
mae kara, beforeJiand. 
magaru, to bend (intrans.). 
mageru, to bend (trans.). 
mai, each (as in mai-iclii, each 

day). 
majiwaru, to mix with, to 

associate. 
makeru, to lower in price ; to 

yield, to be beaten (in a battle 

or in a game), 
miki, fire-wood. 
makoto, truth. 
makoto ni, really, truly. 
makoto no, true. 
makura, pillow. 

mamoru, to watch, to keep guard. 
mane, imitation. 



mane wo sum, to imitate. 

maneku, to invite. 

manzoku, contentment, satisfac- 
tion. 

manzoku suru, to be satisfied. 

mari, ball (for playing with, etc.). 

maru de, quite. 

marui, round. 

masaka (with a negative), hardly, 
surely not. 

massugu (na), straight. 

masu, to increase (trans. ). 

mata, again; (with a negative), 
no more. 

matsu, to wait. 

mattaku, quite. 

mawaru, to turn (intrans.). 

mawasu. to turn (trans.). 

mazeru, to mix (trans. ). 

meigen suru, to state with clear- 
ness. 

meijiru, to order, to command. 

meiwaku, trouble, perplexity. 

meiwaku suru, to be perplexed, 
to be in trouble. 

mekata, weight. 

mekura, blind (adj.). 

mendo, trouble. 

mendo na, troublesome. 

messo (na), extravagant. 

mezurashii, marvellous, miracu- 
lous. 

michi, road, way. 

mieru, to be in sight, to appear. 

migota (na), beautiful. 

migurushii, ugly (to look at). 

mijikai, short. 

mimi, the ears. 

mina, all. 

minami, south. 

mini, to look, to see. 

mise, shop. 

mise-saki, shop-window. 

miseru, to show. 

mizu, or midzu, water. 

mo, still, yet, more ; (with 
negative), no more. 

mochiiru, to employ. 

mochi-nushi, possessor, owner. 

mochiron, certainly, of course. 

moke, gain, profit. 



JAPANESE-ENGLISH 



199 



mokuyobi, Thursday. 

momen, cotton. 

mommo (na), ignorant. 

moppara, principally. 

mosu, to say. 

motomeru, to look for, to ask- for. 

motsu, to hold, to possess. 

motto, still, more. 

mottomo, very, quite. 

muclo (na), useless. 

mugaku, ignorance. 

mugaku (na), ignorant. 

mune, the chest. 

musuko, son, boy. 

musume, daughter, girl. 

muzukashii, hard, difficult. 

myocho, to-morrmv morning. 

my5 (na), curious, marvellous. 

myonichi, to-morrow. 



N 

nabe, saucepan. 

nadakai. renowned. 

nagai, long. 

nagareru, to flow. 

nagasa, length. 

nageru, to throiv. 

naguru, to thrash, to beat. 

naisho (no), private, secret. 

naku, to cry, to sing. 

naku naru, to die. 

nan ? (abbreviation ofnani) what ? 

nan de mo, anything. 

nani ? what ? 

nani-hodo ? what amount 1 

naoru, to mend, to cure, to rectify ; 

to get well, to recover (in trans.). 
narasu, to ring (trans.). 
narau, to learn. 
naru, to ring (intrans. ) ; to be, to 

become, to ripen. 
nasu, to do. 
natsu, summer. 
naze ? why ? 
nedan, price, cost. 
negai, desire, request. 
negau, to beg, to request. 
nejiru, to twist (trans.). 
nema, bedroom. 



uemui, sleepy. 

neru, to lie down, to go to bed. 

nichiySbi, Sunday. 

nigai, better. 

nigiru, to grasp. 

ni-gwatsu, February. 

niku, flesh, meat. 

niku-sashi, fork. 

niru, to boil (food, not water). 

niwa, garden. 

nobasu, to stretch (trans.); to 

put off. 

noboru, to go up, to climb. 
nochi, after, afterwards. 
nochi hoclo. by and by. 
nodo, throat, neck. 
nodo ga kawaku, to be thirsty. 
nokorazu, all, without exception. 
nomu. to drink. 
noru, to ride (on a horse, in 

conveyance, in a boat, etc.). 
nuguu, to wipe. 
nusumu, to steal. 
nuu, to sew. 



oba, aunt. 

obi, sash, belt. 

oboeru, to remember, to learn, to 

feel. 

ochiru, to fall. 

odayaka (na), calm, tranquil. 
odoroku, to be afraid, to be 

amazed. 

odoru, to leap, to dance. 
oishii, nice to the taste, tasty. 
oji, uncle. 

okiru, to rise, to get up. 
okkakeru, to chase. 
okoru, to become angry. 
oku, to put. 
okuru, to accompany, to send, 

to give. 

omoi, thought, affection. 
omoi-dasu, to recall to mind. 
omoi-kiru, to make up one's mind. 
omoi-tatsu, to resolve. 
omoi-yaru, to sympathise. 



200 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



omoshiroi, amusing, interesting. 

omotai, heavy. 

omou, to think. 

onna. woman. 

oreru, to break (trans.). 

oriru, to descend. 

osbieru, to teach, to instruct. 

osoi, late. 

osoreru, to fear. 

OBU, to push. 

oto, a noise, a sound. 
otoko, a man. 
otosu. to let fall. 

owam, to terminate (trans, and 
intrans. ). 



pan, bread. 
penki. paint. 

pika-pika, glitteringly, with a 
flash. 



E 

raida (na), lazy, idle. 
ramune, lemonade. 
rasha, woollen cloth. 
ressha. railway train. 
rettasu, lettuce. 
rieki, advantage, profit. 
rik6 (na). intelligent, 'cute. 
ringo, apple. 
rippa (na), magnificent. 
rippuku, temper, anger. 
rippuku sum, to get angry. 
roka, passage, corridor. 
roku-gwatsu, June. 
ronjiru, to discuss, to argue. 
rosoku. candle. 
rusu, absent, absence. 
ryok5 r journey. 
ryoko suru, to travel. 
rySri, cooking. 
ry6ri-nin, cook. 
ryori wo, to cook. 
ry6ri-ya, eating-house. 



S 



sabishii, dull, lonely. 
sagasu, to search for, to seek. 
sageru, to let down, to hang down 

(trans.). 
saji, spoon. 

sakasama, inverted, upside down. 
saku, to rend, to tear. 
samasu, to cool (trans. ). 
samatageru, to prevent. 
sameru, to fade ; to cool (intrans.). 
samui, cold. 

san-gwatsu, March (the month), 
sappari. quite; (with a negative), 

not at all. 

sasayaku, to whisper. 
sasshiru, to guess. 
sassoku, immediately. 
sato, sugar. 
seiryoku, strength. 
seki, a cough. 
seki ga deru, to cough. 
sekitan, coal. 
semai, narrow, small. 
senaka, the back (of body). 
sentaku suru, to wash (clothes). 
sentaku-ya, laundress. 
setsumei, an explanation. 
setsumei suru, to explain. 
shabon, soap. 
shakkin. a debt, 
shashin, photograph. 
shashin-ya, photographer. 
shatsu, shirt. 
shiba, turf, grass. 
shibaru, to tie. 
snlchi-gwatsu, July. 
shiga, the teeth. 
shigoku, very, extremely. 
shi-gwatsu, April. 
shiitake, mushrooms. 
shiju, constantly. 
shikar u. to find fault with. 
shikkari, firm, tight. 
shikkei, rudeness, impertinence. 
sliikkei na, rude, impertinent. 
shimau, to finish. 
snimbun, news. 
shimbun-shi, newspaper. 
shimeppoi, moist. 



JAPANESE-ENGLISH 



. 201 



shimeru, to fasten, to close. 

shimpai, anxiety, trouble, 

shimpai sum, to be troubled or 
anxious. 

shimpo, progress. 

shimpo sum, to pi-ogress. 

shin (no), real, true. 

shin ni, truly, really. 

shinjiru, to believe. 

shinki (na), //"-. 

shinkfl, belief. 

shinko suru, to believe. 

shinri, truth. 

shinsetsu, kindness. 

shinsetsu na, kind (adj.). 

shinuru, to die. 

shiraberu, to enquire into, to 
<. i'n HI inc. 

shirase, an announcement, intima- 
tion. 

shiraseru, to inform. 

shiroi, white. 

shiru, to know. 

shita, the bottom or under part of 
anything. 

shita, the tongue. 

shitaku, preparations, making 
reail;/. 

shitaku wo suru, to prepare. 

shitashii, friendly, intimate. 

shitsurei, insolence, impertinence. 

shitsurei na, insolent, im- 
pertinent. 

shizuka (na), calm, quiet. 

shochi. consent, assent. 

shochi suru, to consent, to assent. 

sho-gwatsu, January. 

shoji suru, to possess. 

shojiki, honesty. 

shonin, dealer, merchant. 

shosen, finally, at last. 

shoshS, a little. 

shui, meaning, purport. 

shusen, help, aid. 

shusen wo suru, to help, to aid. 

shushi, intention, aim. 

shuttatsu, setting-out, departure. 

shuttatsu suru, to depart. 

soba, alongside. 

sochi, or sochira, there. 

sodan, consultation. 



7* 



sodan sum, to consult. 

soken (na), healthy, vigorous. 

soko, there. 

sokoera, tJiereabouts. 

sokouau, to spoil, to fail. 

sonaeru, to provide. 

sonjiru, to spoil (trans, and 

intrans.). 
sono, that (adj.). 
sora, the sky. 
sore, that (subst.). 
soroeru, to arrange, to put in 

order. 
sorou, to be arranged, to be in 

order. 

soro-soro, leisurely, slowly. 
soshiru, to blame, to revile. 
sotai (no), whole. 
soto, the exterior, out of doors. 
soto (na), convenient, proper. 
sozSshii, noisy. 
suberu, to slide, to slip. 
subete, altogether, all. 
sude ni, already. 
sue, end or tip of anything. 
sugi, past, after. 
sugiru, to exceed. 

sugu (ni) ; sugu (to), immediately. 
suiryS, a conjecture. 
suiry6 sum, to conjecture. 
suiyobi, Wednesday. 
sukkari, completely, ivholly ; 

(with neg.), not at all. 
siikoshi, a small amount, a bit. 
suku. to be empty. 
sukunai, few, scarce. 
sumau, to dwell, to live. 
sumasu, to finish (trans.). 
sumu, to reside, to conclude. 
suppai, sour. 

sum. to rub, to make, to do. 
surudoi. sharp. 
susumeru, to recommend, to offer, 

to urge. 

susumu, to go forward, to progress. 
suteishon, railway -station. 
suteru, to throw away. 
suu, to suck. 
suzu, tin (the metal). 
suzume, sparrow. 
suzushii, fresh, cool. 



202 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



tabako, tobacco. 

taberu, to eat. 

tabemono, food, nourishment. 

tabi. journey. 

tabi-bito, traveller. 

tada, simply, merely, only. 

tadaima, presently, immediately. 

tadashii, exact, just: 

taira (na), flat, level. 

taisetsu, consequence, importance. 

taisetsu na, of consequence, of 

importance. 

taiso, greatly, very, much. 
taiy5, the sun. 
takai, dear, expensive, high. 
takara, treasure. 
takaru, to collect (intrans. ). 
takusan. plenty, much, many. 
tamago, egg. 
tamotsu, to keep (trans.), 
tana, shelf. 

tanoshimi, satisfaction, pleasure. 
tansu, chest of drawers, cabinet. 
tara, cod-fish. 

tariru, to be sufficient, to be enough. 
taru, cask. 

tashika (na), positive, sure. 
tashika ni, positively, certainly. 
tasshiru, to attain to, to reach. 
tataku, to knock. 
tatami, mat. 
tatamu, to pile up. 
tateru, to set up, to build. 
tatoeru, to compare. 
tatsu, to rise, to get up, to start out. 
taznneru, to enquire, to ask. 
te, hand, arm. 
te-arai, violent, rough. 
tebukuro, glove. 
teburu-kake, tablecloth. 
tegumi, letter (correspondence), 
teinei (na), polite, courteous. 
tekito (na), suitable, fit, proper. 
tenki, weather. 
tenugui, towel. 
teppo, gun. 
teru, to shine. 
tetsu, iron (the metal), 
tetsubin, kettle. 



tetsudo. railway. 

to, door. 

tobu, to jump, to fly. 

tochaku. arrival^ 

tochaku sum, to arrive. 

todana, cupboard. 

todomaru. to stop, to stay. 

todomeru. to stop (trans.). 

toga, fault, blame. 

togameru, to find fault with, to 

blame. 

toi,/a? - , distant. 
tokei, clock, watch. 
tokeru, to melt (intrans. ). 
toki, time. 

toki-ori, now and then, sometimes. 
tokkuri, bottle. 
toku, to explain, to unfasten. 
tomeru, to stop (trans.). 
tomodacni, companion, friend. 
toru, to take. 

torn, to pass through, to pass by. 
toto, at last. 
tou, to ask. 
tsugi (no), tlie next. 
tsugu, to join (trans.) ; to follow . 
tsui (ni), at last. 
tsukamaeru, to catch. 
tsukasadoru. to control, to direct. 
tsukau, to employ, to use. 
tsukemono, pickles. 
tsukeru, to fix, to affix. 
tsnku, to push, to shove. 
tsumari, at last, in the long run. 
tsumb5 (no), deaf. 
tsunagu, to tie up, to fasten. 
tsutsumi (mono), parcel. 
tsutsumu, to wrap up. 
tsuyoi, strong. 



uchi, the inside ; a house ; home ; 

no uchi ni, inside, in; sono 

uchi, meanwhile, soon; o uchi 

de, at home. 
ude, the arm. 
ue, tJie top of anything ; no ue ni, 

above, on, after. 
ugokasu, to move (trans.). 



JAPANESE-ENGLISH 



203 



ugoku, to move (intrans. ). 

ukagau, to visit, to listen to, to 
enquire, to ask. 

ukeru, to receive. ' 

uniai. nice to the taste, tasty. 

un, luck. 

un no yoi, luckij. 

un no warui, unlucky. 

uru, to sell. 

uruwashii, splendid, magnificent. 

usbi. cov, bull, beef. 

ushinau. to lose. 

usbiro, the back of anything ; no 
ushiro ni, at the back of, behind. 

uso, lie, falsehood. 

uso wo iu, to tell a lie. 

usu-gurai, dusk. 

usui, light, thin (in colour or con- 
sistence). 

utsu, to hit, to strike. 

utsusu, to remove (trans.). 

uwo, ajish. 

w 

wakai, young. 
wakari, understanding. 
wakari-nikui, difficult to under- 
stand. 

wakari no hayai, sJiarp, intelligent 
wakaru, to understand. 
wakeri-yakui, easy to understand. 
wakeru, to divide, to share out. 
waku, to boil (intrans.). 
warai, laughter. 
warau, to laugh. 
warui, bad. 
wasureru, to forget. 
watakusbi, 1. 
waza, to (prep.). 
waza-waza, on purpose. 



yabuku, to rend, to tear. 
yabuku, to tear (iu trans.). 
yacbin, house-rent. 
yabari, also. 
yakedo, a burn, a scald. 
yakimocbi, jealousy. 



yaki-pan, toast (to eat). 

yaku, to toast, to bake, to roast, 

to burn. 

yakusoku, promise, agreement. 
yakusoku suru, to agree, to 

promise. 

yama, mountain, hill. 
yameru, to put an end to. 
yaru, to send, to give. 
yasui, easy, cheap. 
yasumu, to rest, to retire to bed. 
yatou, to engage, to hire. 
yatte sbimau, to give away. 
yobi-dasu, to summon. 
yobi-kaesu, to call back. 
yobu, to call. 

yobodo, plenty, a lot, very. 
yoi, good. 
yo-i (na), easy. 
yoki, weather. 
yoku, irell, often. 
yomu, to read. 
yorokobi, pleasure, joy. 
yorosbii, good. 
yoso, elsewhere. 
yowai, weak, feeble. 
yube, yesterday evening. 
yubi, Jinger, toe. 
yubin-kyoku, post-office. 
yue ni, therefore. 
yuge, steam. 
yuki, snmo. 

yukkuri, slowly, leisurely. 
yureru, to shake (intrans.), to 

quiver. 
yurui, loose. 
yurusu, to grant, to allow. 



zashiki. a room. 

zenryo (na), virtuous, upright. 

zoku, commonplace, vulgarity. 

zoku na, vulgar, low. 

zonjiru, to know. 

zonji-yori, opinion. 

zuitaun. very, pretty (adv. ) ; a 

good deal. 
zutsu, headache. 
zutsu ga suru, to have a headache. 



II. ENGLISH-JAPANESE. 



abate (cheapen), mnkeru. 

able, to be, dekim. 

about (around), w> mawari ni ; 

(approximately) gnrai ; (here 

and there), adii-kochi. 
above (on the top), ue, no ue ni. 
absence, msu. 
absent, rusw, orimasen. 
absent, to be, rn.sn da, inai. 
abundance, takusan, dossari. 
accept, to Hkfi'ii. ; (to accede to), 

shock i sum. 
accident, fti.i n<~> kof<>, ihen; 

(calamity) wan; (hurt), kega. 
accidentally, futo ;fui to, soso de. 
according to, ni i/otte. 
account (narrative), hanashi ; 

(bill), kanjo. 
ache, to, itamu. 
acknowledge (to receive), uketoru; 

(to admit), shochi sum; (to 

confess), hnkujo sum. 
acquire (to obtain), eru ; (to 

gain), mokeru ; (to purchase), 

motomem. 

across, yoko ni, n nik<~> ni. 
act (deed), sho-i, shhoaza. 
act, to, sum, na<su ; (on the stage), 

yaku wo sum. 
add, to, tjoseru, kuiccicnt, taoa- 

sem. 
address, tokoro ; (written) tokoro- 

gaki ; (on a letter), uwn-gaki. 
admire, to, kanshin sum. 
admit, to (grant entrance), ircm 

nyujo-sasem. 

advance to (go forward), susumu, 
shimpo suru. 
204 



advantage, toku, ri-cki. 
advertisement, kok' /.//. 
advertise, to, kakokn sum 
afraid, osorem, ko>rn;/'iri>. 
after (later on), aLo nochi; 

(behind), itshiro, nr<i. 
afternoon, h/rn-xi/>/i. 
afterwards, nochi ni. 
ago, mac, izen ; (long-), muknshi ; 

(a short time-), s>:nkokn. 
air, kaki, kn~,-. 
alive, to be, ikite sum. 
all, nokorazu, mina. 
allow, to, yt'r/isii. 
almost, hotondo. 
alone, hitori. 
already, s,n1r ni 
also, aw, t/dhnri. 
always, itsudenw, tsune ni. 
among, no urhi ni. 
amount, tnka. 
amusing, omoshiroi. 
animal, kedamono, ddbiifw. 
another (different one), hokn no. 

befsu 110. 

answer, h<:nji, hento. 
answer, to, henfisurtt, h?nf6$ui'ii. 
any, demo. 
anybody, <l'ir<- '/r/yo. 
anyhow, do demo. 
anything, nan demo. 
anytime, itsudemo. 
anywhere, doko demo. 
appear, to, micru ; (become 

visible), araicareru. 
appearance, gwaiketi, rnic, nii- 

kn.ke ; (shape), katachi ; sugata. 
appetite, shok-ki. 
apple, ringo, 
apply, to (ask), tan-oiim, 



ENGLISH-JAPANESE 



205 



apricot, anzu. 

April, ski-gtcatsu. 

arm, te, ude ; (weapon) buki. 

around, no mawari ni. 

arrive, to, tvehaku stt.ru, tsukii. 

army, rikugun. 

article, shinamono. 

artisan, shokeinin. 

as (like), tori, yo ni. 

ashamed, to be, Jutji wo kakit. 

ashes, liai. 

ask, to (enquire), kiku, tazuncru. 

assist, to, telsudau. 

assistance, shtisen. 

astonish, to, odorokasu, 

at, ni, de ; (at first), hajimete, 

ltdjime wa ; (at last), yoyaku ; 

(at least), semete ; (at all), ikko, 

sappari. 

attend, to, ki v:o tsukcru. 
auction, seri'iiri. 
August, Tiachi-gu-atsu. 
aunt, ola. 
autumn, aki, shirt. 
awkward (clumsy), bukiyo na. 



B 



baby, cikunibo. 

back (of body), stnaka ; (behind 

something), vsJn'ro. 
back, to go, kacru, modom. 
bad, icftrui. 

bag, ffikuro; (hand-), te-kaban. 
bake, to, yaJcu. 
baker, pan-ya. 
ball (sphere), tama, mart; 

(dancing), odori, buto. 
bamboo, take. 
band (music), yakutai. 
bank (for money, etc.), (jinko. 
banker, ginko-sha. 
bank-note, ginko-sh ihei. 
barber, toko-ya, kami-yui. 
bargain, to, negiru. 
bark, to, Iweru, naku. 
bark (of tree), kcnra. 
barometer, sei-u-kei. 
barrel (cask), tarn ; (of gun), 

teppo no tsutsu. 



basin, domburi ; (wash-), tarai. 

basket, kago, zaru. 

bath, yu,furo. 

bath-room, furo-ba. 

beach (shore), hamabe, umibe. 

bear, to, koraeru. 

beans, mame. 

beat, to, butsu, uts-u. 

beautiful, ittsukusldi, kirci na. 

because, kara, yuye. 

become, to, num. 

bed (Japanese), toko, ticdoko ; 

(foreign), nedai. 
bed-clothes, yagv,fiiton. 
bed-room, nema, nebeya. 
beef, uslii-no-niku, gyu-niku. 
before (in place), saki ; (in time), 

mae, izen. 
beggar, kojiki. 
begin, to, hajimeni (trans.) 

tiajimaru (intrans.). 
behind, ura, iishiro ni. 
believe, to, omou, shinjiru. 
bell, kane. 
below, sMta. 
belt, obi. 
bend, to, mageru (trans.); 

magaru (intrans.). 
beneath, no sJiita ni. 
berry, ichigo. 

besides, hoka ni, sono tie, betsu ni. 
between, no a id a ni. 
beyond, no saki ni, no miiko ni. 
big, okii, oki na ; (bigger), motto 

okii ; (biggest), ichiban okii no. 
bill (account), kanjo ; (of Ex- 
change), ka/wase-tegata ; (of 

fare), kondate. 
bird, tori. 

bit (little), kire, kakc sukoshi. 
bite, to, ka'inu ; (as a dog), kui- 

tsukeru. 
bitter, nigai. 
black, kuroi. 

blind (sightless), mekura no. 
blood, chi. 
blow, to,/M. 
blue, aoi ; (dark), ai, kon-iro ; 

(light), muhu-asagi. 
body, karada, shintui. 
boil, to, niru, -uderu. 



206 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



book, Iwn, shomotsu. 

bookseller, hon-ya. 

boot, kutsfi. 

borrow, to, kariru, haishaku 

sum, shakuyo suru. 
both, ryoho, dochira mo, fuiatsu 

nagara. 

bottle, tokkuri, bin, 
bottom, soko; (underneath), ftlMn. 
bow, to, o jigi wo suru. 
box, hdko. 

boy, otoko no ko, miistiko. 
branch, eda. 
brass, shinchu. 
bread, pan. 
break, to, oreru, kowareru (in- 

trans.); oru, kmuasu (trans.). 
breakfast, asa han. 
breath, iki. 

breathe, to, iki suru, kokyu suru. 
brick, renga. 
bridge, hashi. 
bridle, tazuna. 
bring, to, motte kuru. 
broad, hiroi. 
bronze, karakane. 
brother, kyodai ; (elder), ani ; 

(younger), ototo. 
brown, tobi-iro, cha-iro. 
building, ie uchi, tatemono. 
build, to, fushin wo suru, ie wo 

tateru. 
burn, to, moeru (intrans.); 

yakeru (trans.). 
business, yo, yomuki, shobai. 
busy, isoyashii. 
but, keredomo, shikashi, ga. 
butcher, niku-ya. 
butter, bata. 
butterfly, chocho. j 
button, Man. 
button-hole, botan no ana. 
button, to, botan wo kakeru. 
buy, to, kau. 
by, ni, de. 



cabbage, kabeji. 

cabinet (furniture), tansu. 



cake, kwashi. 

calculate, to, kanjo suru. 

call, to, yobu ; (rouse), okosu. 

can (able), dekiru. 

canal, hori. 

candle, rosoku. 

card (visiting-), nafuda, ineishi. 

carpenter, daiku. 

carpet, shiki-mono. 

carry, to, mochi-hakobu. 

cat, neko. 

catch, to, tsukamaeru. 

catch cold, to, kaze wo hlku. 

cause, gen-in, wake. 

certain, tashika na. 

certainly (of course), mochiron, 

atarimae. 
ceiling, tenjo. 
chair, isu, kosM-kake. 
chambermaid, jochu. 
change (balance of money), tsuri. 
change, to, kawaru (intrans) ; 

tori-kaeru (trans. ). 
character (nature), seisliitsu. 
cheap, yasui. 
cheat, to, damasu. 
cheeks, ho, hopeta. 
cheque, kogitte. 

chest (bosom), mune ; (box), Jiako. 
chicken, niwa-tori. 
child, kodomo ; (infant), akambo. 
chin, ago. 

choose ,to, yoru, erabu, yori-dasu. 
cigar, ha-maki-tabako. 
cigarette, kami-maki-tabako. 
clean, kirei na. 
clean, to, soji sum. 
clever, riko na. 
climb, to, noboru. 
clock, tokei. 
close, to, shimeru. 
cloth, kire ; (cotton), momen ; 

(woollen), rasha. 
clothing, kimo-no, ifuku. 
cloud, kumo. 
coal, sekitan. 
coat, uivagi. 
coffee, kohi, kahe. 
cold (to the touch), tsume tai ; 

(of the weather), samui, 
coUar, eri. 



ENGLISH-JAPANESE 



207 



collect, to, yoseru, atmmeru. 

college, gakko. 

colour, iro. 

comb, kushi. 

come, to, kuru, maim. 

come back, to, kaeru. 

commence, to, hajimeru. 

common (ordinary), nami no. 

company (firm), kwaisha, shokivai; 

(visitors) o-kyaku. 
consent, to,shochi sum. 
consider, to, kangaeru, 
consult, to, sodan suru. 
contain, to, hairu. 
convenient, benri no yoi. 
cook, ryori-nin. 
cook, to, ryori suru. 
cool, suzushii. 
cool, to, samasu. 
copper, akagane. 
copy, to, utsusu. 
corn (wheat), mugi, ko-mugi. 
corner (exterior), kado ; (interior), 

sumi. 

cotton, momen, ivata. 
cough, seki. 

cough, to, seki ga deru. 
count, to, kanjo sum. 
country (not town), inaka. 
cousin, itoko. 
cover, to, futa wo suru 
cow, me-ushi. 
cream, kuriimu. 
cruel, huioi, zankoku na. 
cruet, yakumi -tate. 
cry, to, naku. 
cup, wan. 
cupboard, todana. 
cupful, ippai. 
curious, kitai na, myo na. 
curtain, mado-kake. 
cushion, zabuton. 
cut, to, kiru. 



daily, hibi-ni, mainichi. 

damp, shimeppoi. 

dangerous, abunai, kennon na. 



dark, kurai ; (of colour), koi. 

date (the day), hidzuke. 

daughter, musume. 

day, nichi, jitsu hi. 

day-time, hint. 

deaf, tsunbo, mimi-ga-toi. 

dear (in price), takai ; (beloved), 
kawaii. 

debt, shakkin, kari. 

debtor, kari-nushi. 

deceive, to, damasu, gomakasu. 

December, ju-ni-gwatsu. 

decide, to, kimeru, kettei suru. 

deep, fukai. 

delicious, umai. 

deliver, to, todokeru. 

dentist, ha-isha. 

depth, fukasa. 

descend, to, kudaru. 

desire, to, hoshii, nozomu. 

dew, tsuyu. 

die, to, shinuru. 

difference, chigai, kubetsu. 

different, betsu no, hoka no, 
chigatta. 

difficult, mudzukashii. 

dig, to, horu. 

dinner, yu-han, yashoku. 

directly, (at once)sugii mi; (with- 
out intervention), jika ni. 

dirty, kitanai, kitanarashii. 

disappear, to, mienaku naru. 

discount, loari-bike. 

dish, naga-zara, o-zara. 

dishonest, fu-shojiki. 

dislike, to, kirau. 

dismiss, to, hima wo yaru. 

distance, michi-nori, he-datari, 
kyori. 

distant, toi, empo (na). 

do, to. suru. nasu, itasu. 

doctor, isha. 

dog, inu. 

door, to. 

doubt, utagai, ginen. 

doubt, to, utagau, fushin ni 
omou. 

down (below), shita. 

draught (wind), sukima-kaze. 

drawer, hiki-dashi. , 

dreadful, osoroshii. 



208 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



dream, to, yume wo mint. 

dress, kimono. 

dress, to, kimono wo sum. 

drink, to, nomu. 

drive, to, muma wo gyo-suru. 

driver, gyosha. 

drop (of water, etc.), hito-tarashi. 

drop, to, ochiru (intrans.) ; otosu 

(trans. ). 
dry, kawaita. 
dry, to, kawakasu. 
duck, ahiru. 
durable, mochi ga yoi. 
during, aida. 
duster, zokin. 
dusty, hakori ga takatta. 
duty (obligation), gimu ; (tariff), 

zei. 
dye, to, someru. 



every, goto ni, mai. 

everybody, daredemo. 

every day, mainichi. 

every time, maido. 

everywhere, doko deuio, hobo. 

exactly, chodo. 

examine, to, shiraberu, kensa 

sum. 

excellent, yoi, ii, kekko. 
except, no hoka ni. 
exchange, to, tori-kaeru. 
excuse, to, kamben sum, yurusu. 
expense, nyuhi, nyuyo. 
expensive, takai. 
explain, to, toki-akasu. 
extinguish, to, kesu. 
eye, me, ; (of needle), medo. 



E 



each, ono-ono, mei-mei. 

ear, mimi. 

early, hayaku, hayai. 

east, higashi. 

easy, yasashii, yasui. 

eat, to, tdberu. 

edge (border), fuchi ; (of knife), 

ha. 

eel, unagi. 
egg, tamago. 
egg-cup, tamago tote. 
either, dochira demo. 
elbow, hiji. 

elegant, kirei na, rippa na. 
elsewhere, yoso, hoka. 
empty, kara, karappo. 
end, shimai, owari. 
England, Igirisu, Eikoku. 
enough, jubun, takusan. 
enquire, to, tazuneru, kiku, ton. 
enter, to, hairu. 
envelope, jobukuro. 
Europe, Seiyo, Yoroppa. 
even (level), taira ; (equal), ichiyo 

na. 
evening, ban, yugata ; (this), 

komban ; (yesterday), sakuban ; 

(to-morrow), myoban. 



face, kao. 

fact, jijitsu, koto. 

fail, to (in a scheme), hadzureru ; 

(in sense of mistake), machi- 

gaeru. 
faint, to, me wo mawasu, kizetsu 

sum. 
fair (pretty), kirei na ; (just), 

kohei na ; (of weather), yoi. 
fall, to, ochiru; (of rain, etc.), 

furii. 

false, uso no. 
famous, nadakai. 
far, toi, empo na. 
fare (charge), chinsen. 
farmer, hyakusho. 
fashion, hayari, ryuko. 
fast (quick), hayai. 
fat, futotta. 
father, ototsan, chichi. 
fear, to, osoreru. 
feather, hane. 
feel, to, kanjiru, oboeru. 
fern, shida. 
fetch, to, totte, kuru. 
field, hatake. 
fig, ichijiku. 
fight, kenkwa. 
fight, to, kenkwa suru, tatakau, 

senso suru. 



ENGLISH-JAPANESE 



209 



figure (number), Icazu-ji ; (form), 

katachi. 

fill, to, ippai ni suru. 
find, to, midasu, mi-ataru, 

mitsukeru. 
fine (slight), hosoi ; (minute). 

komakai ; (pretty), kirei na ; 

(of weather), yoi. 
finger, yubf. 
finish, to (end), shimau ; (com- 

plete), shiagery. 
fire (flame), hi; (conflagration), 



fire-wood, maki, taki-gi. 

first, htijime no, saisho no, dai- 

ichi. 

fish, sakana. 
fit, to (of keys, etc.), an. 
fit (suitable), tekito na. 
flag, Jiata. 

flat, hirattai, taira na. 
flesh, niku. 
floor, yuka. 
flour, kona, udonko. 
flow, to, nagareru. 
flower, hana. 
fly, (insect) hai. 
fly, to, tobu. 
follow, to, tsuite iku. 
food, tabe-mono, shoku-motsu , 

kni mono. 

foolish, bakarashii, tsumaranai. 
foot (of body), ashi ; (measure) 



for, tame ni ; (because), kara. 

forbid, to, kinjiru. 

forehead, hltai. 

foreigm, qu-aikoku no. 

forget, to, wasureru. 

forgive, to, yuntsu,kamben sum, 

kannin sum. 
fork (table-), niku-sashi. 
fortunate (lucky), un no yoi. 
fowl, tori, niwatori. 
free. jiyu. 

frequently, tabi-tabi. 
fresh (new, just gathered, etc.), 

atarashii ; (of eggs), umi-tate. 
friend, tomodachi, hoyu. 
frog, kaeru. 
from, kara, yori, 



front, omote ; (in of) no mae 

ni. 

fruit, midzu-gwaishi, kudo-mono. 
full, ippai. 
funeral, tomurai. 
fur, ke, kaira. 
furniture, kazai, dogu. 



G 

gain, moke, riyeki. 

gain, to, mokeru. 

garden, niica, hanazono ; (vege- 
table-), hatake. 

gardener, uyeki-ya. 

gate, mon. 

gateway, kado guchi. 

general (usual), ippan no,futsu no. 

generally (usually), tsurei, taigai. 

gentleman (well - bred man), 
sh in ,s7< / . 

get, to (obtain), em ; (receive), 
morau. 

get out, to, neru. 

get up, to (rise), okiru. 

girl, rnusume. 

give, to, yam, ageru. 

glad, ureshii. 

glad, to be. yorokobu. 

glove, tebukoro. 

go. to, yuku, iku. 

go hack, to, kaeru. 

go down, to (an incline), oriru, 
kudaru. 

go forward, to, mae ye susunnt. 

go in, to, hairu. 

go out, to, deru. 

go through, to, torn. 

go up, to, agaru. 

go with, to, issho ni iku. 

gold, kin. 

good, yoroshii, yoi, ii; (to the 
taste), umai. 

goods, shina-mono. 

goose (tame), gacho ; (wild-), gan. 

gradually, dan-dan. 

grand, rippa. 

grand-child, mago. 

grandfather, sofu-jiji. 



210 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



grandmother, solo, baba. 

grass, kusa ; (turf) shiba. 

gravel, jari. 

gray, nedzumwro. 

grease, abura. 

green, aoi, midori-iro ; (light), 

moyegi-iro. 
greengrocer, yaoya. 
grocer, kambutsu-ya, tobutsu-ya. 
groom, betto. 

grow, to (increase), seicho suru. 
grumble, to, guzu-guzu iu, guzu- 

tsuku. 

guard, to, mamom. 
gun, teppo. 



habit (custom), narai, narawasM, 

fusoku. 

hail, hijo, arare. 
hair, ke. 

hairbrush, ke-harai. 
hairdresser, kami-yui, rihatsu- 

nin. 

half, hambun, han. 
hammer, hanadzuchi. 
hammer, to, kanadzuchi de utsu. 
hand, te ; (right-) migi no te ; 

(left-) hidari no te. 
handkerchief, hanafuki, han- 

kechi. 
handle (of tools), e ; (of baskets, 

teapots, etc.), te; (of drawer), 

totte. 

handsome, kirei na. 
hang, to, kakaru (intrans. ) ; 

kakeru (trans.). 
happy, to be, yorokobu, tano- 

shimu. 
hard (not soft), katai ; (difficult), 

mudzukashii. 
hare, usagi. 
hat, boshi, shappo. 
have, to (possess), motsu, motte 

iru. 

head (of body), atama. 
headache, zutsu. 
health, kenko, yojo. 



healthy, tassha na. 

hear, to, kiku. 

heart, kokoro. 

heat, atusa, nekki. 

heavy, omoi, omotai. 

height, takasa. 

help, to, tetsudau, tasukeru, seu-a 
wo suru, te wo kasu. 

hen, mendori. 

here, koko, kochira. 

here and there, achi-kochi. 

hide, to, kakureru (intrans. ) ; 
kakusu (trans.). 

high, takai. 

hill, ko-yama, oka. 

hinge, cho-tsugai. 

hire, to (a house, etc.), kariru ; 
(an employe), yatou. 

hit, to, btttsu. 

hitherto, kore made, ima made. 

hold, to, motsu, te ni motsu. 

hole, ana. 

holiday, yasumi-bi, kyu-jitsu. 

home, taku, ji-taku, uchi. 

honest, shojiki na. 

horse, muma, uma. 

hospital, byo-in. 

host, aruji. 

hot, atsui. 

hotel (native), yadoya ; (Euro- 
pean style), hoteru. 

hour, toki, jikan. 

house, ie, uchi, taku. 

how, ikaga, doshite. 

how long ? itsu made ? 

how many ? ikutsu ? iku-mai ? 

how often ? iku tabi ? 

hungry, Mdarui, himo-ji, hara 
ga hetta. 

hurry, to, isogu. 



I, watakushi, watakushi-domo. 

ice, kori. 

idle, to be, namakete iru. 

if, moshi, nara, naraba. 

ill (sick), byoki. 

illness, fukwai, byoki, yamai. 



ENGLISH- JAPANESE 



211 



Immediately, sugu ni, sassoku, 
sugu-sama. 

impertinence, burei, shitsurei. 

impossible, dekinai. 

improve, to, kairyo sum. 

in, ni, uchi, mite. 

inconvenient, fuben na. 

incorrect, machigatta. 

indeed, jitsu n i. 

indeed! naruhodo! 

inform, to, shiraseru. 

ink, inki. 

inkstand, inki-taubo. 

inn, i/adoya. 

insect, mushi. 

inside, no naka, ni. 

instead, kawari ni. 

interesting, omoshiroi. 

interfere, to,' jama sum. 

interpret, to, tsiiben wo sum. 

interpreter, tsTtji, tsiiben. 

into, ni, ,10 naka ye. 

iron (material), tetsft ; (of laun- 
dress), hinoshi. 

island, sftinia. 



jam, jami. 

January, sho-gwatsu, Ichi-getsu. 
Japan, Nihon, Nippon. 
Japanese (person), Nippon -j 'in ; 

(adj.), Nihon no. 
jealous, yakimochi. 
jealous, to be, yakimochi v:o yaku. 
jealousy, ft ami, yakimochi. 
join, to, tsugu, issho ni naru. 
joiner (trade), sashimono-ya. 
joke, jodan. 
journey, ryoko. 
journey, to, ryoko suru. 
judge, to, saiban suru. 
jug, iirizu-tsugi. 
July, shtchi-gicatsu. 
June, roku-gicatsu 
just (fair), kohei na, eko-hiiki no 

iiai, tadashii ; (scarcely), chodo, 

yoyaku. 



keep, to, motsu. 

keep back, to, nokosu. 

kettle, tetsu-bin, yii-wakashi. 

key, kagi. 

kick, to, keru. 

kill, to, korosu. 

kind (sort), shurui, tagni ; (adj.), 

shinsetsu na. 
knee, hiza. 
knife (kitchen-), deba-bocho ; 

(pocket-), kogatana. 
knock, to, tataku. 
know, to, .s7<iYu wakaru. 



lace (boot-), himo ; (needlework), 
reisu. 

lady (well-bred woman), fujin. 

lamb, ko-hitsuji. 

lame, bikko, chimba. 

landlord (of building), iye-nushi ; 
(of inn, etc.), teisKiu. 

language, kotoba. 

lantern, chochin. 

large, okii, oki na ; (wide and ex- 
tensive), hiroi ; (thick), futoi. 

last, ato r no, sen, saku. 

last night, sakuban. 

last month, ato no tsuki, sen-getsii. 

last year, sakunen. 

late, osoi. 

lately, chikagoro, kono aida. 

laugh, to, warau. 

lazy, busho na. 

lead (metal), namari. 

learn, to, manabu, narau, keiko 
suru, osowaru. 

least (smallest), ichiban chiisai no. 

least, at, siikunakute mo. 

leather, kaica. 

left, hidari. 

leg, ashi. 

lemon, yuzu, remon. 

lend, to, kasu. 

length, nagasa ; ( at ) tsiti no, 

yo yaku. 



212 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



less (in quantity), sukunai. 

let, to (allow), saseru ; (hire out), 

Icasu. 
letter, tec/ami; (-paper), teyami 

no-kami. 

level, tairaka na. 
library, shomotsu-beya. 
Hdj/Ste. 

lie, uso ; itsuwari. 
lie, to (tell falsehoods), uso wo 

tsuku. 

lie down, to, nerufuseru. 
lift, to, mochi-agent. 
light (not heavy), karui ; (colour), 

usui-iro ; (flame), akari. 
light, to, hi wo tsukem. 
like (similar), nita, ni-yottn. 
like, to, suku, konomu. 
lip, kuchi-Mni. 
listen, to, kiku. 
little (small), cliiisai. 
live, to, ikiru ; (dwell), sumau. 
long, nagai. 
look, to, mini. 
look for, to, sagasu. 
loose (not tight), yumi. 
lose, to, nakusii, ushinau, son 

mini ; (be beaten), makent. 
loud (in sound), oki na oto. 
love, to, suku, Jwreru. 
low (in height), Mkui ; (vulgar), 

aesubatta. 
luggage, nimotstt. 
lunch, chiiijiki, hiru-meshi. 



M 

make, to, koshiraeru. 

man, h Ho, jin, otoko. 

many, 61, takitsan, yohodo, oku no. 

manufacture, to, seizo-suru. 

mark, shinishi. 

market, icfii-ba. 

marry, to, konrei sum. 

map, chizu. 

March, san-gicatsu. 

master, danna, shujin. 

mat, tatami. 

match (lucifer), haya-tsiikegi. 



meaning, imi, wake. 

meanwhile, sono aida ni. 

measure (dimensions), sumpo ; 
(instrument) mono-sashi. 

measure, to, sumpo ivo torn. 

meat, niku. 

medicine, Msuri. 

melon, uri. 

mend, to, naosu, tsukurou. 

merchant, akindo, shonin. 

merely, tada. 

message, kotozuke. 

messenger, tsvkai no mono. 

middle, chu, naka, mannaka. 

milk, chichi. 

mine (of me), watakushi no. 

minute (time), fun. 

mirror, kagami. 

mist, moya, kiri. 

mistake (error), machic/ai, aya 
machi. 

mistake, to, macliigaeru. 

mix, to, mazeru. 

Monday, getsu-yobi. 

money, kane, kinsu. 

month, tstiki. 

monthly, mai-tsuki, tsuki-dzuki. 

moon, tsiiki. 

more, mo, motto. 

more and more, masu-masu. 

more or less, tnsho, ikura-kn. 

morning, ctsa ; (this-), kesa ; 
(to-morrow-), myo-asa. 

mountain, yama. 

mouth, kuchi. 

mother, liaha, okkasan. 

move, to, ugoku (intrans. ) ; 
ugokasu (trans.); change resi- 
dence), tentaku sum. 

much, takusan. 

mushroom, shiitake, matsittake. 

mutton, hitsuji-no-niku. 

mustard, karashi. 



N 

nail (finger-), tsume ; (metal, etc.), 

kugi. 
naked, hadaka. 



ENGLISH-JAPANESE 



213 



name, na. 

narrow, scmai. 

nasty (to taste), ma:ui. 

near, chikai. 

nearly, hotondo, mo sukoshi de. 

necessary, hitsuyo na. 

neck, kwri, nodo. 

needle, hrtri. 

neighbour, tonari-bito. 

neighbourhood, kinjo, kimpen. 

never, kesshite nai. 

new, fi'nrashii. 

news, shimbun. 

newspaper, shimbunshi. 

next, tsiigi no. 

nice (pretty), kirei na ; (dainty 

and sweet), umai. 
niece, mei. 
night, yoru; (to-night), kombnn ; 

(last-), sakuban. 
nobody, dare mo nai. 
noise, oto. 

noisy, yakamaskii, sozoshii. 
none, />"/'. 
noon, It frit. 
north, kit ft. 



nose, 

nothing, tutni mo nai. 

notwithstanding, ni k 

November, Ju-ichi-cjetsu. 

now, ima ; ( - and then), ori- 

ori, toki-doki. 
number, kfr.n. 
nurse (child's), ko-mori ; (sick-), 

kfi mbyo-nin. 



oak, kftshiii'rt, nara. 

obedient, sunav na. 

object (aim), mokuteki. 

object, to, kosho n;o iru. 

observe, to (see), mi-tomeru, mi- 
ukeni ; (be careful about), 
chu-i-suru; (incidentally), kiga 
tsuku. 

October, Ju-gwatsu. 

of, no. 

offer, to, susumeru. 



official (officer), shikican, yaku- 
nin. 

often, tabi-tabi. 

oil, abura. 

old (of things), fund ; (of 
persons), toshiyori. 

omit, to, otosu ; (in writing), kaJci- 
otosu. 

on, tie ni ; ni. 

once, ichido ; (at ), suguni. 

onion, negi. 

only, tatta, bakari, tada. 

open, to, akeru. 

opinion, kangae, ryoken. 

opposite, muko no. 

or, mata wa, ka. 

orange, mikan. 

order (sequence), jungo, shidai ; 
Hfor goods), chumon ; (to ser- 
vants, etc.), meirei, ii-tsuke. 

order, to (command), ii-tsukern, 
meijiru. 

ordinary, tsurei, atarimae. 

other, hoka no, ato no. 

our, watakfishi-domo no. 

out, outside, solo. 

out, to go, dekakeru, dcrn. 

over (on top), ue ni. 

overcoat, gwaito. 

owner, mochi-nushi. 



package, tsntsumi ; (bale), hyo ; 
(case), hako. 

pain, it ami. 

pain, to, itamu. 

painful, itai. 

paint, penki. 

paint, to, penki wo nuru, egnktt. 

painter, penki-ya ; (artist), ekaki, 
i/ii-akd. 

pale, aoi, aozame no, ao-zameta. 

paper (wall-), kabe-gami ; (writ- 
ing-), kaku-kami. 

paper-knife, kami-kiri. 

parasol, higasa. 

parcel, tsutsupii. 

parent, oya. 



214 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



part, bun. 

part, to (of an object), wakeru ; 

(of friends), hanareru. 
particular (special), kakubetsii 

na; (strict), yakamashii, genju, 

ko-mudzukashii. 
partner (business), shain. 
pass, to (through or along), toru. 
passage (corridor), roka. 
passenger, nori-kyaku. 
passport, menjo, ryoko-menjo. 
pattern (model), te-hon ; (sample), 

mi-hon ; (figure), inoyo. 
pay (salary), kyukin. 
pay, to, harau. 
payment, harai. 
pea (in pod), saya-endo ; (shelled), 

ewdo-mame. 
pear, nashi. 
pear-tree, nashi no ki. 
peasant, hyakusho, nomin. 
peculiar, kitai na, hen na. 
pen, fude, seiyo no fude. 
pencil, empitsu. 
penknife, ko-gatana. 
pepper, kosM ; (red), togarashi. 
perfect, kwanzen na. 
perfectly, mattaku. 
perhaps, tabun. 

permit, to, yurusu, shdchi suru. 
person, hito, jin. 
perspiration, ase. 
perspire, to, ase ga deru. 
persuade, to, kudoku, susumeru. 
photograph, shashin. 
photographer, shashin-ya. 
pick, to (fruit), toru, mogu ; 

(flowers), hana wo oru ; (select), 

erabu. 

pickles, ko-no-mono, tsukemono. 
picture, e ; (hanging), kakemono; 

(framed), gaku. 
pierce, to, tsuki-tosu. 
pig, buta. 
pigeon, liaio. 
pillow, makura. 
pin, tome-bari, hari. 
pink, morno-iro no. 
pipe, kuda ; (tobacco-), kiseru. 
place, tokoro, basho. 
place, to, oku. 



plain (level ground), hira-chi, 

heichi ; (clear), akiraka na. 
plant, ueki, kusa-ki. 
plant, to, ueru. 
plate, sara. 
play (game), asobi ; (drama), 

kyogen. 

play, to, asobu. 
pleasure, tanoshimi. 
plenty, takiisan, jubun. 
plum, ume; (-tree), ume-no-ki. 
pocket, kakushi, ftttokoro. 
pointed (sharp), togatta. 
police-station, kcisatsu-sho. 
policeman, keisatsu-kv;an-junsa. 
polite, teinei na. 
pond, ike. 

poor (indigent), bimbo na. 
pork, buta no niku. 
porter (railway-), eki-fu; (light-), 

karuko. 

portmanteau, kaban. 
portrait, shozo, nttaru-katachi, 
post (pillar), fiashira ; (letters, 

etc.), yubin. 

postage-stamp, yubin-kitte, inshi. 
postcard, yubin-hagaki. 
postman, yubin-ha,itatsu-nin. 
post-office, yubin-kyoku. 
post-omce-order, yubin-kawase. 
potato, imo ; (sweet-), Satsuma- 

imo. 

pour, to, tsugu. 
powder (gun-), ensho, kicayaku ; 

(medicinal), kogusuri. 
praise, to, homeru. 
present (gift), shinjo-mono. 
presently, jiki ni. 
pretty, kirei na ; (beautiful), 

utsukushii. 

prevent, to, samatageru, sasenai. 
price, nedan, ne, atai. 
print, to, hanko suru, insatsft 

suru. 

prison, rot/a. 
probably, tabun. 
proper (appropriate), so-o na, 

tekilo, soto na. 

protect, to, mamoru, Jwgo suru. 
proud, koman na. 
provide, to, sonaeru. 



ENGLISH-JAPANESE 



215 



public, dyake no; (people in 

general), koshiu. 
pudding, ku-ashi. 
pull, to, hiku. 

punish, to, bassui'u, tsumi sum. 
pupil (scholar), deshi. 
pure, s>i/i>i-kitta,junsui na. 
purse, saift(, kane-ire. 
push, to, osu. 
put, to, oku ; ( aside), totte 

oku. 



quality, hinshitsu; (superior ), 

johin ; (inferior ), gehin. 

quantity, taka. 
quarrel, kenkwa. 
quarrel, to, kenkwa suru. 
quarter (), shibun no ichi. 
queer, kitai na, myo na. 
question, toi. 
quick, hayai. 
quiet, shidzuka. 
quietly, shidzukani. 
quite, mattaku, jubun. 



R 

rabbit, usagi. 

rags, boro. 

railway, tetsudo. 

railway carriage, kisha. 

rain, ame. 

raise, to, ageru. 

raisin, hoshi-budo. 

rare, medzurashii, mare na. 

rarely, mare ni. 

rat, nezumi. 

rather (on the contrary), kaette . 

(somewhat), zuibun. 
raw, nama. 
read, to, yomu. 
ready, to be, shitaku shite oru. 
ready, to get, shitaku wo suru. 
real, honto no, makoto no. 
reason, dori, wake. 
receipt, uketori. 



receive, to, uketoru. 
recently, konaida. 
recollect, to, omoi-dasu. 
recommend, to, susumeru. 
recover, to, tori-modosu ; (from 

sickness), zenkwai suru. 
red, akai. 

refuse, to, kotowaru, jitai suru. 
relate to (tell), noberu. 
remainder, nokori. 
remember, to, oboeru. 
repair, to, naosu, tsukurou. 
report (rumour), fusetsu, fu-bim, 
request, negai. 
request, to, negau, tanomu. 
require, to, yo-suru. 
reside, to, jukyo suru. 
resolve, to, sadameru, ketchaku 

suru. 
rest (after work, etc.), yasumi ; 

(remainder), nokori. 
rest, to, yasumu. . 
restaurant, ryori-ya-. 
result, kekkwa. 
return, to, kaeru (intrans.) ; 

kaesu (trans.). 
rich, kanemochi. 
ride, to, noru. 
right (not left), migi ; (just, 

proper), tadashii. 
ring (for ringer), yubi-wa. 
ring, to, narasu (trans. ) ; naru 

(intrans. ). 

ripe (of fruit), juku shita. 
river, kawa. 
road, michi ; (highway), orai, 

kaido. 

roast, to, yaku. 
rock, iwa. 
rob, to, nusumu. 
roof, yane. 
room, heya, zashiki. 
rope, nawa, tsuna.- 
rough, arai, zarakkoi ; (rude), 

burei, sokotsu na; (harsh), 

arappoi. 
round, marui. 
rub, to, kosuru. 
rub out, to, kesu. 
run, to, kashiru ; ( away), 

chikuten suru. 



216 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



S 



sad, to be, kanashimu. 

safe, buji, daijobu. 

safely, buji ni, anzcn ni. 

salary, kijukin, gekkyu. 

salmon, sake. 

salt, shivo ; ( cellar), shitco- 

ire. 

same, oiwji. 
sand, siina. 
satin, shusu. 
Saturday, doyobi. 
sauce, shoyu. 
saucepan, nnbe. 
saucer, sara, shita-zara. 
say, to, hanasu, iu. 
scarce, sukunai. 
school, gakko. 
scissors, hasami. 
scratch, to, kaku. 
scream, to, sakebu. 
screw, neji. 
season, jisetsS. 
seat (chair), isu koshi-kake. 
see, to, mini. 
seed, fane. 
seem, to, mi-em. 
seldom, mare ni. 
select, to, erabu. 
selfish, tamae-gatte na. 
sell, to, urn, uri-sabaku. 
send, to, yarn, okuru. 
separate, betsu no, bctsu-betsii 

no. 

separate, to, wakeru. 
September, fat-gwateu. 
servant (male), kodzukai ; 

(female), gejo. 
sew, to, nu. 
shadow, kage-boshi. 
shape, katachi. 
sharp (of knife, etc.), yoku 

kireru. 

shave, to, hige wo sum. 
shelf, tana. 
shell, kai. 
shine, to, teru. 
ship, fune. 
shirt, jiban, shatsu. 
shoe, kutsii. 



shoemaker, kutsu-ya. 

shoot, to (with weapon), teppo 
wo utsu. 

shop, mise. 

shopkeeper, akindo. 

short (not long), mijikai. 

shoulder, kata. 

show, to, miser u. 

shower (of rain), yudachi. 

shut, to, shimeru. 

sick, byoki. 

side, ho, kata. 

sight (something seen), mini- 
koto. 

sign, to, kimei sum, namae wo 
kaku. 

silence, damatte oru koto. 

silent, shidzuka. 

silent, to be, damaru. 

silk, kinu. 

silver, gin. 

since, kara. 

sing, to, uiau. 

sister, onna-kyodai ; (elder), ane ; 
(younger), -imoto. 

sit, to, kosh-i wo kokeru. 

size, okisa. 

skin, kaii'a, hadac. 

sky, sora. 

sleep, to, neru. 

sleepy, nemui. 

sleeve, sode. 

slow, noroi, osoi. 

slowly, shidzuka ni. 

small, chiisai. 

smoke, kemu-ri. 

smoke, to (tobacco), tabako 100 
nomu. 

smooth, subekkoi. 

sneeze, to, kitshami wo sum. 

snow, i/uki. 

soap, shabon, sekken. 

soft, yaivarakai. 

soil (earth), tsuchi. 

solid, katai. 

some, am. 

somebody, dare ka, aru hito. 

somehow, doka. 

something, nani ka. 

sometimes, aru toki, toki-on. 

somewhere, dokka de, doko ka. 



ENGLISH-JAPANESE 



217 



son, mus&ko. 

song, iifii. 

soon, jiki-ni. 

sound (heard), oto. 

soup, suimono, tsuyu, soppu. 

sour, suppai. 

south, minami. 

sparrow, suzume. 

speak, to, iil, hanasu, mosu. 

spectacles, megame. 

splendid, rippa na. 

spoil, to, sonjiru. 

spoon, saji ; (tea-), cha-saji. 

spring (season), haru. 

spring (of vehicle), bane. 

square (shape), shlkaku. 

stable, fitna-ya. 

staircase, hashigo-dan. 



stand, to, tatsu. 

star, hoshi. 

start, to (set out), shuttatsti, suru. 

state (condition), yosu, arisama. 

station (railway), suteishon, 

teisha-ba. 

steal, to, nusumu. 
steam, yuge, jdki. 
steamer, joklsen. 
steel, hagane. 

stick, to (adhere), kuttsuku. 
still (until now), ima made; 

(tranquil), shidzuka na. 
stocking, kutsu-shita, tabi. 
stone, ishi. 
stop, to, tomaru (intrans. ) ; 

tomeru (trans. ). 
stove, sutobu. 
straight, massugu na. 
strange, fushigi, medzu rashii. 
strap, kawa-himo. 
straw, wara. 
stream, nagare. 
street, michi, tori. 
strength, chikara. 
string, ito. 
strong, jobu na ; (physically), 

chikara no. 
stupid, baka na. 
sudden, niwaka na. 
sufficient, jubun na. 
sugar, sato. 



suitable, tekito na. 
sum (total), shime daka. 
summer, natsti. 
sun, taiyo, hi. 
Sunday, nichiyobi. 
supper, yumeshi. 
sure, tashika. 
surely, tashika ni. 
sweep, to, haku. 
sweet, amai, umai. 
swim, to, oyogu. 



table, dai, taberu. 

table-cloth, teberu-kake, dai-kake. 

tail, shippo. 

tailor, shltate-ya. 

take, to, torn. 

talk, to, hanasu, 

tall, sei-no-takai. 

taste, ajiwai. 

tea, cha. 

tea-cup, chawan. 

tea-kettle, tets&-bin. 

tea-pot, dobin, kibi-sho. 

teaspoon, cha-saji. 

teach, to, oshieru. 

teacher, sensei. 

tear, to, yaburu. 

telegram, dempo. 

telegraph-office, denshin-kyoku. 

telephone, denwa. 

tell, to, hanasu. 

than, yori. 

thimble, yubi-nuki. 

thing (abstract), koto ; (concrete), 

mono. 

think, to, omou, kangaeru. 
thirsty, nodo ga kawaita. 
this, kore, kono. 
though, keredomo. 
thread, ito. 
throat, nodo. 

through, toru, toshite, totte. 
throw, to, horu, nageru ; ( 

away), suteru. 
Thursday, mokuyobi. 
ticket (railway-), kippu; (for 

theatre, etc. ), jfuda. 



218 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



tie, to, shibaru, yuioaeru. 
tight, katai. 
till (until), made. 
tin, brikki, suzu. 
to, ye, ni. 

toast (bread), yaki-pan. 
to-day, konnichi, kyo. 
together, issho no. 
to-morrow, myonichi ; (-morn- 
ing), myo-cho ; ( evening), 

myo-ban. 
tongue, shita. 
to-night, komban, kon-ya. 
too (also), yahari; (excess), 

amari. 
tooth, ha. 
toothache, ha itai. 
tooth-brush, yoji. 
touch, to, ni fureru; (meddle 

with), ijiru. 
towards, 710 ho ye. 
towel, tenugui. 
town, machi. 
toy, omocha. 

trade, akinai, shobai, boyeki. 
train (railway-), ressha, kisha. 
translate, to, hon-yaku sum. 
travel, to, ryoko sum, tabi*suru. 
traveller, tabi-hito, ryoko ja. 
tray, bon. 
tread, to, fumu. 
tree, ki, jumoku. 
tremble, to, furu; (with fear), 
kowakute furu; (with cold), 
samakute furu. 

trouble (bother), mendo ; (in- 
convenience), tekazu ; (anxiety), 
shimpai. 

trouble, to be in, komaru. 
troublesome (of persons), urusai ; 

(of things), mendo no,. 
trousers, momohiki. 
true, lionto, makoto. 
truly, makoto ni, hon ni. 
truth, makoto, jitsu. 
truthfully, aritei ni. 
Tuesday, kwayobi. 
tumble, to (over),korobu; (down), 

ochiru, taoreru, 
turnip, kabu. 
twist, to, hineru, nejiru. 



ugly, mi-nikui, migurushii, fu- 

kiryo na. 

umbrella, kasa, kara-kasa. 
unable, to be, dekinai. 
unavoidable, shikata-ga-nai, yon- 

dokoronai. 

uncertain, tashika de nai. 
uncle, oji-san. 
uncomfortable (inconvenient), 

fujiyu na. 

uncommon, mcdzurashii. 
under (underneath), shita. 
understand, to, wakaru. 
undress oneself, to, kimono wo 

nugu. 

unfortunate, fu-shiawase na. 
ungrateful, on wo shiranu. 
unhappy, fu-shiawase na. 
unhealthy (of persons), byoshin 

na ; (of places), yojo no tame ni 

yoku nai. 
unjust, fu-kohei. 
unkind, fu-shinsetsu na, nasake- 

nai. 

unlike, chigatte. 
unlikely, ariso mo nai. 
unpleasant, omoshiroku nai. 
unsafe, abunai. 

unsatisfactory, zombun de nai. 
unsightly, mi-nikui. 
unskilful, heta na, bukiyo na. 
unsuitable, fu-so-o-na, fu-tekito 

na. 

untrue, jitsti de nai, uso no. 
untruth, uso, itsuwari. 
unusual, hijo na, rei no nai. 
unwise, kangae ga nai. 
up, ue ni. 
up, to get, okiru. 
upon, ue ni. 
upright (honest), jitchoku na, 

tadashii ; (erect), massugu. 
upside-down, sakasama, abe-kobc, 

sakasa. 

upstairs, nikai. 
us, ivatakushi-domo. 
use, to, tsukau, mochi-iru. 
useful, choho na. 
useless, yaku ni tatanii. 



ENGLISH-JAPANESE 



219 



uselessly, itadzura ni. 
usual, atarimae no. 
usually, taitei, fudan ni. 



valuable, fattoi, ne-uchi, no am. 
value (cost), aiai, nc-itchi. 
various, iro-iro no, sama-zama 

no. 

vase, hana-ike. 
vegetable, yasaimono. 
velvet, birodo. 
venture, to, yatte mini. 
verandah, engawa. 
very, taiso, hanahada, Mate, yoku, 

sh iyoku, naka-naka. 
vex, to, ijimeru. 
view (prospect), ke-shiki, mi- 

harashi, chobo. 

view, to, mini, kembun sum. 
vigorous, jobu na, tsuyoi, soken- 

nn. 

village, mum. 
vinegar, su. 
violent, te-arai. 
violet, sum-ire. 
visit, to, tadzuncru, ukayeru. 
visitor, kijaku. 
voice, koe. 
voyage, kaijo. 
voyage, to take a, fune de tokai 

suru. 
vulgar, gehin na. 



w 

wages, kyukln. 

waist, koshi. 

waistcoat, cJwkki. 

waggon, kuruma, ni-guruma. 

wait, to, matsu ; (at table), kyuji 

wo suru. 
waiter, kyuji. 
walk, to, aruku. 
waU, kabe. 
want to (desire), iru, iriyo, hoshii. 



warehouse, kura, dozo. 
warm, atatakai. 
warn, to, imashimeru. 

wash, to, arau ; ( clothes), 

sentaku suru. 
waste, to, tsuiynsu, muyami ni 

tsukau. 

watch, kwaichu-dokci. 
watch-maker, tokeiyn. 
water (cold), midzu ; (hot), yu. 
way (road), michi ; (manner), yd, 

shikata. 

we, ivatakushi-domo, ware-ra. 
weak, yowai. 
wealth, zaiho, shiiidai, takara. 

wear, to, (clothes), kiru. 

weather, tenki. 

Wednesday, sui-yoU. 

week, isshukan. 

weigh, to, haJcaru, hakari ni, 
kakete miru. 

weight, mekata. 

well (in health), sukoyaka na, 
tassha na. 

wet, nureta. 

wheat, komugi. 

wheel, wa, kuruma. 

when ? Hsu ? 

where ? doko ? dochira ? 

which ? dochira ? dore ? 

while, aida. 

whip, muchi. 

white, shiroi. 

who ? dare ? donata ? 

whole, mina, nokorazu. 

wholesale, oroshi. 

whose ? dare mo ? 

why ? naze ? 

wicked, warui, ashiki. 

wide, hiroi. 

widow, goke, yamone. 

width, hirosa, haba. 

wife, tsuma. 

wind (which blows), kaze, fu. 

wind, to (a watch, etc.), maku. 

window, mado. 

window-shutters, mado no to. 
wine, buddshu. 
wine-glass, sakazuki. 
wing (of bird), tsubasa. 
winter, fuyu. 



220 



A JAPANESE GRAMMAR 



wipt to, fuku. 
wire, harigane. 
wise, riko na. 
woman, onna, fujin. 
wonderful, kimyo na, kitai na, 

fushigi. 

wood, ki ; (forest), hayashi, mori. 
wool, ke, rasha. 
word, kotoba. 
work, shigoto. 
work, to, halaraku. 
workman, shokunin. 
worthless, Isumaranai, yaku ni 

tatanai. 

wound, kega, kizu. 
wrap, to, tsutsumu. 
wrist, te-kubi. 
write, to, kaku. 
wrestle, to, sumo wo toru. 
wrong, machigatfa (adj.); (evil), 

warui. 



year, toshi, nen, sai. 

yearly, mai-nen. 

yellow, ki-iroi. 

yesterday, kino. 

yesterday evening, sakuban. 

yesterday morning, kind no asa. 

yet, mada. 

young, u-akai, toshi no ikanai. 



zeal, nesshin. 

zealous, nesshin naru, fumpatsfi 

nara. 
zig-zag, une-kune, tsuzu-ra-ori 

natte oru. 
zinc, Man. 



INDEX 



PAOE 

Accent, Articulation and, ...... 6 

Accusative 50 

Active constructions (preference for) . . . .99, 108 

Adjectives 115, 167 

(adverbial form) .... 118, 119, 120, 121 
(attributive form) . . . . 116, 117, 127 

(comparison of) 116, 127 

(compound) ...... 125 

(derived) 125 

(desiderative) 69, 85, 99 

(form in ) 116,117,120 

(form in JW) 116, 117 

(form in ku) .... 118, 119, 120, 121, 149 

(form in o or it) 106, 118, 120 

(form in sh{) . . . . . . 117 

(gerund of) 86, 121 

(in TWM) 77, 122, 123, 124 

(in rashii) ....... 125 

(in tat) 69, 85 

(inflection) 116, 121 

(negative) 122, 123, 124 

(paradigms of) .... 120, 121, 122, 123 
(predicative form) . . . 116, 117, 120, 127 

(primary inflections) 116, 120 

(secondary inflections) .... 121 

(stems) 118, 120 

(tense and mood in) 121 

221 



222 INDEX 

PAGE 

Adverbial Phrases 149, 150 

Adverbs 16, 42, 118, 143, 170 

Apposition 43 

Article (absence of) 8 

" As " (how rendered) 151 

Attributive constructions . . . . 31, 116, 117, 127 
Augmentatives ........ 15 

Auxiliary Numerals 132, 142 

Verbs (see Verbs) 

B 

Bases of Verbs . . 54-56,64,65,68-71,73,78,97,107,110 

"Because" (how rendered) 39 

" Become " (how rendered) 88 

"But" (how rendered) 89,151 

C 

"Can" (how rendered) 101,103 

" Cannot " (how rendered) 101-102 

Causals or Causatives 107 

Certain Past Tense 69, 83 

Certain Present or Future Tense . . . 54-57, 68, 80, 106 
Chinese words . . .25, 130-132, 135-140, 156, 159, 160 

Comparison 116, 127, 168 

Compound (Adjectives) 125 

(Nouns) 12 

(Tenses) 93 

(Verbs) 113 

Concessive Mood 70, 89 

Conditional Base 54, 55, 68, 70 

(Mood) 70, 87, 88 

Conjugation 54-64, 121 

(First) . 54, 55, 58, 65-68, 96, 97, 102, 107, 108, 110 

(of Adjectives) 121-123 

Conjugations (of Verbs) 54-64 

(Second) 54, 55, 60, 60-64, 97, 98, 102, 103, 107, 

108, 110, 111 
Conjunctions ..',,,-'., . 16, 151 



INDEX 223 

D 

PAGE 

Days of Month (how counted) . . . 139 

Dependent Clauses (where placed) . . . . 172 

Desiderative Adjective 58, 69, 85, 99 

Diminutives 15 

E 

" Either . . . or " (how rendered) . . . . 38, 51 

Elision 4, 88, 93 

Ellipsis 48, 173 

Emphasis . 6, 49, 50, 152, 153, 168 

Enumeration 33, 41, 129 



Frequentative Form .... 57, 58-64, 69, 84, 121 
Future Tense 68, 80, 92 

G 

Genitive 36, 42, 170 

Gerund 69, 85, 93, 94, 95, 99 

H 

Honorifics . 91, 154 



//" (how rendered) 47, 87, 88 

Imperative Mood ..... 70, 90, 121, 166 
Impossibility (how expressed) ..... 102 

" In order to " (how expressed) ..... 41 

Indefinite Form ... 54, 55, 68, 78, 113, 126, 164, 171 

Indicative Mood 58-64, 68, 78 

Infinitive 56, 83 

Interjections ........ 148, 152 

Interrogation .... 27, 28, 38, 48, 141, 142, 174 

Irregular Verbs ( see Verbs). 

Isolating Particle ,,,.,,,, 47 



224 



" Let " (how rendered) . 
Letter-changes 



" May " (how rendered) 

Months (names of the) 

Mood 

Mr, Mrs, Miss 

" Must " (how rendered) 



INDEX 
L 



PAGE 

91, 109 

. 6, 65-68, 69, 92, 132, 133-135 



M 



N 



Negative (syntax of) . 
(adjective nai) 
(base) .... 
(conjugations) 
" Neither . . . nor " (how rendered) 

Nominative 

Nouns 

(abstract) 
(compound) 
(used as Adjectives) . 
( Adverbs) . 
(verbal) .... 
Number ..... 
Numerals 



. 82, 103 
140 

57, 58-64, 68, 78, 83 

. 158, 159 

82 



. . 174 

77, 122-124 

54, 55, 68, 97, 107 

122 

40 

. 12, 36, 48 

9, 130, 167, 171 

14, 83 

12 

. 125, 126 
. 16, 149 
. 13, 15, 79 
. 9, 53, 115 
129-143 



"Or" (how rendered) . 
" Ought " (how rendered) 



38, 51, 151 
15 



Particles (see Postpositions). 
Past Tenses . 
Person . . . 
Plural .... 
Postpositions (Particles) 



69, 70, 83, 87, 89, 127 

16, 53, 154 

9, 19 

, 9, 19, 62, 167, 171 



INDEX 225 



Potential Verbs (see Verbs). 

Prefixes 9, 10, 15 

Present Tense (see Certain Present). 

Probable Past 69, 83 

Present or Fnture 68, 80 

Pronouns . . . . . . . .16, 155, 156 

(demonstrative) ...... 23 

(indefinite) 29, 43 

(interrogative) 27 

(personal) 16, 22 

(possessive) 20 

(reflective) . 22 

(relative) . . . . . . . 31 

B 

Reduplication of Consonants 5 

(of words) . . . . . . 10, 149 



"Should" (how rendered) 15 

"Since" (how rendered) 39,53 

Stems (of Adjectives) 116, 118, 120, 126 

(of Verbs) 54, 55, 65-68, 92, 97, 110 

Subject (of Sentence) . . . .36, 48, 50, 167, 169, 175 
Suffixes. . . 9,14,19,91,97,104,113-115,116-120,125 



Tense (in Adjectives) . 121 

(in Verbs) . . . . . . . 53, 68, 78, 92 

"Than" (how rendered) 53,128 

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 96,110 



Verbs . .53, 167, 170, 171 

(ambiguous forms) 1 10 

(auxiliary) 91, 106 

(bases of) 54-56, 68-70, 78-91 

JAPANESE GRAMMAR ft 



226 INDEX 



Verbs (continued). 

(causal) 41, 107, 108 

(compound) 113 

(final, omitted) . 173 

(honorific) 71, 75, 91, 105, 164 

(in aru) 92, 97 

(in eru) 92, 97 

(injiru) 104 

(in suru) ........ 104 

(intransitive) 96, 98, 103 

(irregular) 71-78, 99, 109 

(passive) .... 41, 93, 97-100, 102-103, 108 

(potential) . . . . . . . 101-103, 165 

("to be") . 34, 35, 92-94, 105, 116, 119, 121, ]22, 125 

("to do") 99,103-105 

(" to have ") 105 

(transitive) 96-97, 175 

(used as adjectives) 126, 127 

(used as nouns) 12, 13, 79 

(with so affixed) - . 126 

W 

" When" (how rendered) 16,87-88 

" JVliether" (how rendered) 38 

" IVliik " (how rendered) 16 



Printed at the Edinburgh Press 

FRANK and EDWARD MURRAY (Printers) 

9 and 11 Young Street 



TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS "HIRSCHFELD, LONDON." 
TELEPHONE No. 2757 CENTRAL. 
CODE "A.B.C." FOURTH EDITION. 



HIRSCHFELD BROTHERS LIMITED, Publishers 
13 Furnival Street, Holborn, London, B.C. 

HOSSFELD'S CONVERSATIONAL METHOD 

FOR THE 

Study of Modern Languages 

(FOR SCHOOLS OR SELF-TUITION) 



THE Publishers of this now World-renowned Method for the 
study of foreign languages respectfully submit the following 
Reviews and Letters to the notice of their readers, as con- 
vincing and indisputable evidence of the remarkable popularity 
it has attained, and this solely through its intrinsic value as 
a medium for acquiring languages in the easiest and most 
attractive manner, and in an incredibly short time. 

" The increasing intercourse between nations, and develop- 
ment of international trade, with its keen rivalry between 
the competitors, have in our time considerably increased the 
importance of a Working Knowledge of Modern Languages," 
and this is exactly what may be acquired by a student of the 
Hossfeld Method. The difficulty of the study of a foreign 
language may be easily overcome by a little attention on the 
part of the student if he uses the Hossfeld Method, which, 
to assist him in the accomplishment of this object, lays down 



2 Hossfeld's Conversational Method 

such rules for his guidance as will place him in a position to 
master the same with comparative ease and satisfaction. 

The publishers have given many years' earnest attention to 
the subject, and it has been their aim to make their books 
really trustworthy and reliable guides from which any student 
of ordinary intelligence may, with a modicum of industry and 
perseverance, obtain a thorough and practical knowledge of 
the language he is studying. 

The Hossfeld Method is planned on a perfectly rational and 
scientific basis, the books are divided into 62 lessons, and each 
sub-divided into four parts, comprising from the first lesson: 

Conversations. Translations. Readings. Grammar. 

It will thus be seen that, as one of our correspondents states, 
this one Method embraces the four recognised up-to-date modes 
of teaching and learning, carefully avoiding those extremes 
which are so unsatisfactory and disappointing in their results. 

The plan of the lessons is very fascinating, and one in which 
the student himself becomes greatly interested, hence he 
makes that rapid progress which is so marked in all students 
of the Hossfeld Method, and which is, happily, fast doing away 
with the stigma cast upon our young men and women for 
their deplorable ignorance of foreign tongues. This was, 
however, not attributable to any incapacity or lack of intelli- 
gence in themselves, but entirely owing to the inadequate and 
false means of instruction. 

The Hossfeld Method , unlike others which promise so much 
and perform so little, gives from the very beginning ample 
proof of its efficiency, and the publishers urge you to give it a 
trial without delay and judge its merits for yourself. 

They would also call your attention to the cheapness of these 
volumes in comparison with others. 

HIESCHFELD BROTHERS LIMITED, 
13 FURNIVAL STREET, LONDON, E.G. 



HIRSCHFELD BROTHERS LIMITED 



for the Study of Modern Languages 



A SELECTION OF UNSOLICITED TESTIMONIALS 



H.M.S. CLEOPATRA, COLONIA, URUGUAY. 
DEAR SIR, 

"The Grammar in French, of Hossfeld's, having been mainly 
instrumental in my having gained the quality of Interpreter, R.N., 
in that language in six months, I take the earliest opportunity of 
acknowledgment, and also of suggesting the propriety and immense 
advantage to the public service should every library in H.M. ships of war 
be supplied with your Grammars in, say, French, German, Italian, and 
Spanish, etc. I may mention that our libraries are supplied free to us, 
and at the public expense, and that the addition would represent a merely 
trifling cost, and that I believe that should you represent the advisability, 
their Lordships would acquiesce, in the interests of the public service. 

"You are at liberty to make what use you please of my views, as I 
was the first to elect the present regulations, granting four months' study 
on the Continent, and therefore I need lose no time in consultation." I 
am, SIR, Yours sincerely, 

L. B. DENMAN (Lieutenant), 

H.M.S. Cleopatra, S.E. Ccast, America 

(Montevideo). 



CHARTER HOUSE, GODALMING. 
DEAR SIRS, 

"I thank you for a copy of your Italian Grammar [Hossfeld's 
System], with which I have been for some time well acquainted. The 
system is excellent and the book is admirably arranged. My experience 
of the Italian Grammar was so satisfactory that I recommended a pupil of 
mine, who wished to learn Spanish, to get your Spanish Grammar in the 
same series. He made rapid progress, and required very little help beyond 
that which the book gave him." Yours faithfully, 

W. HAIG BROWN (Principal). 



POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, REGENT STREET. 
GENTLEMEN, 

"I use Hossfeld's German Grammar for our large day and 
evening classes at this Institute, and I appreciate the work highly. lu 
proof of the good results attending its introduction to the classes, I 
may mention that out of 98 students presented for examination by the 
Society of Arts, 18 gained first class Certificates, 4 second class, and 72 
third class, and only 4 failed ; a student also gained the prize for German 
given by the Chamber of Commerce, value 5, and Certificates." Yours 
truly, 

M. SEIFERT. 

13 Furnival Street, London, E.G. 



4 Hossfeld's Conversational Method 

MANCHESTER, 3/</ October 1903. 

"For many years I have used your Spanish Grammar, Hossfeld's 
Method, at the Central Commercial Schools in this city, and also at 
various other institutions and with private pupils, and I may say that 
I consider this Method the most interesting, satisfactory, and complete of 
all the text-books of a similar kind which have come under my notice. It 
contains all the necessary matter for a student of languages, Grammar with 
examples, Exercises for translation to and from Spanish, Questions on the 
Grammatical Rules already given, and a Reading Lesson in Spanish, pre- 
ceded by conversation in Spanish and English on the whole of latter, and on 
every-day topics What more could be desired even by the method-ridden 
modern student ? Some say ' Grammar is useless, ' some say ' Translation 
only is necessary,' some, ' Conversational Phrases, in question and answer 
form, only are needed,' and finally, some say 'only connected ideas (as 
shown in your reading lessons) are of any avail, ' and they evolve phrase 
after phrase in successive order on all the ordinary topics of life. Now, 
what do we find in your Hossfeld's Method of all these four up-to-date 
modes of teaching and learning ? Everyone : Grammar, Conversation, 
Translation, and Reading, and that right from the very beginning, from 
the first lesson in the book. 

" If proof be needed of the efficiency of the Hossfeld Method, any one 
can find it for himself by consulting the Result Sheets of the ' Lancashire 
and Cheshire Union of Institutes ' and of the ' Society of Arts ' Examina- 
tions each year, where he will find that the Spanish students of the 
Central Commercial Evening Schools, Manchester, invariably stand at the 
head, and often with one or more prize-winners and medallists. This 
year's Society of Arts' results includes first and second prize-winners from 
these schools, where all the students use Hossfeld's Method for Spanish. 
It is well to state that I have had occasion to use your other Grammars 
in French and German, and have found them always equally satisfactory. 

" You are quite at liberty to make any use you think fit of this letter, as 
I do not hesitate to confirm to everybody what I have written above." 

ALFRED CALVERT, 

Lecturer on Modern Lanr/coges at the Manchester Central 
Commercial Evening Scliools and Manchester Athenain. 

TECHNICAL SCHOOL, BLACKBURN, 25th Jul>/ 1904. 

"I have used your French, German, Spanish, and Italian Grammars 
for many years. I selected them for my Classes and private students 
after a careful perusal of every system published in English, both here 
and in U.S.A. My students always figure conspicuously in Exam, results, 
and several times have earned medals and been first in lists of results. 

"The Grammars are the nearest to my ideal of what a Grammar 
should be, and because the rules are so well explained and exemplified, I 
am able to spend nearly all the one poor hour per week we evening class 
teachers can get in per language to the ' spoken ' and ' dictation ' aspects. 
instead of being compelled to spend the all-too-short time in wearisome 
explaining of the Grammar sections that should be (as they are in your 
Grammars) clearly enough set forth in easily comprehensible English in 
the book itself. 

" As 'imitation is the sincerest form of flattery,' I have imitated your 
system for the most part in my Portuguese Conversational Grammar 
published by your firm." 

FRANK THOMAS, 

P rafessor of Modern Languages at BlacHn'rn Technical 
Schools, and Blackburn Grammar School. 

HIRSCHFELD BROTHERS LIMITED 



for the Study of Modern Languages 



SHIPLEY, YORKSHIRE, 20th June 1904. 

" It is, of course, superfluous to add that 1 am practically acquainted 
with your Grammars. I have used them for many years with most 
gratifying results." 

H. J. WEINTZ. 



ALLEYN'S SCHOOL, LEWISHAM. 

" I have gone through your Hossfeld Grammars very carefully, and 
like them very much indeed. The Method is clear and lucid, the task is 
not made too irksome for the student, and the happy medium is nowhere 
missing in the arrangement of matter. The hand of experienced teachers 
is clearly perceptible in the disposition of the lxx>ks, and I shall be glad 
to use them whenever opportunity occurs." 

L. HIRSCH, Ph.D. 



BIUKBECK COLLEGE, BREAM'S BUILDINGS. 
DEAR SIRS, 

" The success of my pupils has been phenomenal since I 
adopted Hossfeld's Spanish and Italian Methods in my classes for teach- 
ing these languages. I have examined every Grammar for teaching 
languages that exists, and do not find one so admirably adapted for 
classes and private tuition as Hossfeld's. These books are marvellously 
clear and in every way fitted for teaching a language in the simplest and 
easiest way." Yours very truly, 

RAFAEL DEFFERARI MONTE VERDE, B.A., 
Teacher at above Institute ami King's College, 
Wimbledon, Skerry's College, etc., Sworn Inttr- 
irreter by Royal Authority. 



THE COLLEGE, EAST ACTON. 
DEAR SIRS, 

" Early last autumn you sent me a specimen copy of your 
Hossfeld's Spanish Grammar, which I am pleased to say I decided to 
adopt as a text-book. The result has proved most satisfactory. All the 
pupils I sent in for examination were successful one took premier posi- 
tion out of several hundred candidates. Having lately been appointed 
an Examiner to one of our great Examining Bodies, I shall certainly 
recommend your works to other teachers." Yours truly, 

W. RADFORD, Principal. 



COMMERCIAL SCHOOL, QUEEN'S ROAD, 
DALSTON, 1903. 

" It is satisfactory to note that in our German, Russian, and Spanish 
Classes where the Hossfeld Grammars are exclusively used, we have 
during the last two sessions won four Society of Arts' bronze medals and 
16 in prizes." 

J. SINCLAIR. M.A. 

13 Furnival Street, London, E.G. 



G Hossfeld's Conversational Method 

LONDON, I6th March 1903. 

"I have had great pleasure in introducing your 'Hossfeld's' German 
Grammar into my German Classes both at Kennington Road and Balham 
Commercial Schools, and it has met with the greatest approbation. I 
admire the method and arrangement of the Grammar greatly." 

E. BROOKS. 



COMMERCIAL SCHOOL, CHAUMERT ROAD, 1904. 

"The German and Spanish books of the Hossfeld Method are being 
used in above school, and are giving every possible satisfaction." 

A. A. KEMP. 



LEIPSIC ROAD COMMERCIAL SCHOOL, 1904. 

' ' I have thoroughly examined your French Method, and find that the 
completeness of the Grammar, combined with well-selected Conversations 
and Readings, make it a most useful and attractive book to students of 
French. I am introducing it into the Classes here." 

THOMAS LEA. 



KENNINGTON ROAD COMMERCIAL SCHOOL, 1904. 

"We are using your books in Italian and Spanish, and are very 
pleased with them." 

F. W. BULL. 



CAVENDISH ROAD COMMERCIAL SCHOOL, 1904. 

" I have had great pleasure in introducing your Hossfeld German 
Grammar into my Classes both at above school and Kennington Road." 

F. BROOKS. 



EVENING COMMERCIAL SCHOOL, BROCKLEY ROAD, 

3lst August 1903. 

' ' I have your Spanish and German books in use at my school, and am 
introducing the French this Session." 

A. J. WREN, Responsible Teacher. 



CRAWFORD STREET EVENING SCHOOL, 

June 1904. 

" I think Hossfeld's Method is capital. I recommended it to the 
master who takes the Intermediate County Council Scholarship work, 
and he is now using it in his Class. I have your smaller book in use in 
the Evening Classes." 

C. E. PANNELL. 

EVENING CONTINUATION SCHOOL, 

FIRCROFT ROAD, BALHAM, July 1904. 

" We used your French Books all through last session, and our Class 
was large and successful." 

JOHN G. GRAY. 

HIRSCHFELD BROTHERS LIMITED 



for the Study of Modern Languages 7 

EVENING CONTINUATION SCHOOL, 

RAYWOOD STREET, 27th June 1904. 

" Please send me a copy of your Hossfeld Method. My French 
Instructor has already spoken of it to me in terms of praise." 

E. B. LING. 



EVENING COMMERCIAL CENTRE, GOSPEL OAK, 1904. 

" I shall certainly recommend your Italian Method. I think it to be 
admirably adapted to the needs of our students." 

J. H. GARSIDE. 



SCIENCE AND ART SCHOOL, BRIXTON, July 1904. 

"My teacher of German is anxious to introduce next session Hoss- 
feld's System." 

W. C. EDWARDS. 



LONDON, 5lh Febniary 1903. 

" I have been using 'Hossf eld's German Grammar' at the Goldsmith 
Polytechnic Evening Classes for the last two years, and find it the 
most suited for the purpose of the rapid study of German." 

J. FORTSCHUNK. 



ARCHBISHOP TENISON'S SCHOOL, 
LEICESTER SQUARE, LONDON. 

" Last term I introduced your large French and German Grammars 
and Exercises into the Upper Form of this school, and we like them very 
much." 

J. F. ARNOLD. 



LAUREL HOUSE, BRYMBO, N. WALES. 

" I shall recommend your 'Hossfeld' French Grammar very strongly 
to my pupils, and will extend the sale of that valuable book." 

FERNAND DELETTRES. 



GEORGE HERIOT'S SCHOOL, EDINBURGH, 

2Gth October 1903. 

" I am using your ' Hossfeld's ' German Grammar in all of my German 
Classes, and think it an excellent book. Your German Exercises and 
Idioms by Prof. Mengel also gives good results." 

D. LOWE TURNBULL, M.A., LL.D. 



ST GEORGE'S CLASSES, EDINBURGH, 

I3th October 1903. 

" Your ' Hossfeld ' Italian Grammar seems to me excellent, and I am 
sorry not to have known of it before. I shall be very glad to adopt it 
with my pupils." 

S. ALBEGGIANI. 

13 Furnival Street, London, E.G. 



8 Hossfeld's Conversational Method 



SHARP'S INSTITUTION, PERTH. 

" I have formed a very high opinion of your German Grammar, and 
have decided to introduce it here next session. Kindly let me have the 
name of your agent in this town." 

A. WATSON BAIN, Modern Language Master. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 
DUNDEE, 22nd June 1904. 

"I brought to the notice of the examiner for Spanish on the 
Commercial Education Examinations of this Chamber, the copy of the 
Hossfeld Method received from you, and was informed that he already 
used it in his Classes." G. C. KEILLER. 



EDINBURGH, 20th May 1904. 

" I greatly approve of Hossfeld's System, and I have already 
introduced it into my French, Italian, and German Classes with much 



H. CANROBERT. 



CHAIGHOLME, GLASGOW, September 1903. 

"J have gone through your 'Hossfeld's' French Grammar with my 
French teacher, and we both think it a very useful book, combining theory 
and practice and introducing a large and serviceable vocabulary." 

J. MURDOCH, Principal. 



"I have already introduced your book into my German Classes at the 
Manchester Athenaeum, and in future intend to use it everywhere." 

G. ALBERS. 



MANCHESTER, 26th June 1904. 

"All my private pupils are using Hossfeld's Method and like it very 
much. I am determined to introduce it everywhere I can." 

B. GAUME. 



MANCHESTER, ith April 1904. 

' ' For many years now I have used various of your publications for the 
study of modern languages with great numbers of my pupils for University 
and other important examinations." ARTHUR HORSFALL. 



PRESENTATION BROTHERS' COLLEGE, 

MARDYKE, CORK. 
DEAR SIRS, 

"I have been successful in introducing Hossfeld's German and 
Italian Methods and also the French and German Correspondents, of 
which you sent me specimens, and I must say that I am really astonished 
at the remarkable progress made by my pupils since they got your books 
into their hands. I shall do all in my power to make your publications 
known to and appreciated by my colleagues in other schools." 

Yours faithfully, 

J. L. THEODORE GETZ, 
Bach, es Lett. 



HIRSCHFELD BROTHERS LIMITED 



for the Study of Modern Languages 9 

ST. FAUGHNAN'S COLLEGE, 
Ross CARBERRY, CORK. 

' ' The two Grammars on the ' Hossfeld ' system are just the thing we 
want, and I shall do my best to promote their introduction into this and 
other Irish schools. The German Grammar could positively not be better ; 
it is unique." Rev. PAUL A. PESCHEL. 



COLLEGIATE SCHOOL, CORK. 

' ' I think that the Hossfeld French Grammar is the best that I have 
seen, and I trust that I shall be able to introduce it into my school at no 
distant date." H. WILLIAMS, M.A., T.C.D. 



ST. PETER'S COLLEGE, WEXFORD. 

"Your 'Hossf eld's' French Grammar seems to be excellent in every 
way, and the praises bestowed upon it by teachers who have introduced 
it into their schools shows that the Method must be well adapted for 
pupils. I shall recommend it here." 0. KING. 



LIVERPOOL, '30th September 1903. 

"Having found your Hossfeld 's German Grammar a sensible and 
useful book, I have already introduced it into my German Classes held at 
the Y.M.C.A., also at the Balfour Institute and Wallasey Grammar 
School." C. 0. WICKERT. 
Senior German Master. 

HOLY CROSS SCHOOL, 
LIVERPOOL, July 1904. 

' ' I have tried many Spanish Grammars with my pupils, and think 
Hossfeld's is undoubtedly the best published." L. CONWAY. 



EGREMONT COMMERCIAL SCHOOL, 

July 1904. 

"I am very pleased with the style and the matter contained in your 
Spanish Grammar. When convenient I will use it in my Classes, as I 
consider the Method an intelligent and pleasant way of acquiring a 
knowledge of a language." T. B. GERAGHTY. 



MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL SCHOOL, 

LINCOLN, 1904. 

"I am pleased to say I am using your Hossfeld Method, French and 
German, in a private class at present. Now that I have proved the 
excellence of the books I shall, in all probability, adopt them for my 
Classes at School the next session. Pupils using these books make 
splendid progress in a short time." C. PHILLIPSON. 



BIRMINGHAM, November 1903. 

" I am pleased to say that I am using your Spanish and Italian 
Grammars at the Birmingham and Midland Institute ; and your Spanish 
and French Grammars at the Walsall Science and Art Institute, and 
tind them very satisfactory." E. EDMONDS. 

13 Furnival Street, London, E.G. 



10 Hossfeld's Conversational Method 



SOUTHAMPTON, 17th Jtif>/ 1904. 

"Some of my students have begun their studies on Pitman's ami 
Hugo's Methods, but these have given such unsatisfactory results that I 
wish to substitute Hossfeld's and gradually make use of the other works 
published by you. Pitman's Method was chosen owing to its special 
commercial character, but on examination T think it is plagiarized from 
Hossfeld." C. E. L. WRIGHT. 

LEICESTER, 19th A<igustlQQ2. 

"Your German Course has met with great success here. It is the 
finest work I have seen." . CUNLIFFE, 

Teacher of Languages at t/if Y.M.C.A. 
uml r/n'tij) Street College. 

RATCLIFFE COLLEGE, 
LEICESTER, January 1904. 

" We are using your German and Italian books and are much pleased 
with the German especially." J. CREMONINI. 



WAUKHAM TECHNICAL INSTITUTE. 

"I find ' Hos.sfeld's Method' a most practical one ; the conversations, 
reading lessons, questions and exercises, all comprised in a neat form, 
display much judgment and care. The conversations and remarks 
embrace all topics, and are worded in the most elegant French of to-day. 
It is a practical System which will prove very useful to those who are 
anxious to speak French with fluency and correctness. The book in fact 
is a model of the way in which French should be taught." 

I. WALTER, B.A. 

COLLEGIATE SCHOOL, SLEAFORD. 

" I have carefully tested your German Grammar and have now decided 
to adopt it for general use. The graduation of the lessons and the 
combination of theory, exercise, questions, conversation and reading make 
it a model lesson book." E. R. DIBBEX. 



TECHNICAL INSTITUTE, 
COVENTRY, September 1903. 

"I have introduced 'Hossfeld's Grammar' this winter at the 
Technical Institute French Class, and if I am as well satisfied with same 
as with the German Grammar, intend introducing it later into the 
Advanced French Class as well, giving up other books." 

J. F. RUEGER. 

MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL SCHOOL, 

HULL, September 1903. 

Your French, German, and Spanish Grammars on the 'Hossfeld 
Method ' are being used in this school through my recommendation." 

C. KESSLER, M.A., 
Lecturer on Modern Languages. 



BRITISH EVENING CLASSES, 
NORTHAMPTON, 27th June 1904. 

"An earnest student with a good teacher for pronunciation should 
have no difficulty in rapidly acquiring a sound and extensive knowledge 
of a language by your methods." E. PARNELL. 

HIRSCHFELD BROTHERS LIMITED 



for the Study of Modern Languages 11 

SPRACH-U, UEBERSETZUNGS-INSTITUT, 
LEIPZIG, GERMANY, 1903. 

"I take great pleasure in telling you that I have used ' Hossf eld's' 
German Grammar with my pupils for the past three months and find it a 
most excellent book. It has the great advantage over all other Grammars 
I know that all dullness has been avoided, the scholar soon takes a liking 
to his German studies, and all rules being explained very lucidly, speaks 
and writes German correctly in a short time." 

M. MULLER-BONJOUR. 



AMERICAN TESTIMONIALS 



UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER, 

OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT. 
DEAR SIRS, 

"I have examined with great care and much gratification your 
Italian, German, and Spanish Grammars in the Hossfeld Series. I find 
them quite equal to the French Grammar, of which I sent you a notice. 
The method seems to me in all respects admirable, combining with a 
wonderful skill grammatical and conversational exercises so as to convert 
theory immediately into practice. I shall bring them to the attention of 
our Professors in these Departments with a strong commendation." 
Respectfully yours, 

D. J. HILL, President. 



ST FRANCIS SERAPHICUS COLLEGE, 
CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

" I am happy to state that the Professor of French at our College is 
highly pleased with your Hossfeld Grammar, and wishes to have it 
introduced at once in place of the text-book we have hitherto been using. 
Please send six copies at once." 

REV. P. BERNARD NURRE, O.S.F. 



TEMPLETON, IOWA. 

" Your Spanish Grammar is eminently what is claimed for it a 
Practical Method for learning the Spanish Language. The lessons in 
conversation are taken from life, and introduce the realities of life in a 
familiar -and natural way so as to make the scholar feel at home and 
help himself. The reading exercises are likewise ingeniously devised 
and practically arranged so as to afford many opportunities of readily 
recognising the idiomatic peculiarities of the language, and gradually 
becoming familiarised with the same. Therefore I say, to whom it 
concern, take and read and reap its manifold benefits, as the best proof 
of its excellence." 

REV. B. A. SCHUKTE. 

13 Furnival Street, London, E.G. 



12 Hossfeld's Conversational Method 

COLLEGE OF ST THOMAS, 
MERRIAM PARK, ST PAUL, MINN. 

"I was so pleased with the copy of your French Grammar that I 
immediately ordered thirty copies." 

J. C. BYRNE. 



CHURCH OF IMMACULATE CONCEPTION, 

ALLENTOWN. 

" I received your Hossfeld's French Grammar, and am impressed 
that it meets the wants of the times, and, in my opinion, is the best I 
hare seen." 

REV. P. F. DONEGAN. 



HENRYVILLES COLLEGE, CANADA. 

" I think that your German Grammar is one of the best I ever saw." 

BROTHER JOSEPH. 



NEWARK, N.J. 

"I am a teacher of Modern Languages, and all my pupils are using 
the Hossfeld Grammar. It is, in my opinion, the best teaching method I 
know. Its clear, easy, and methodical arrangement renders the study of 
modern language pleasant and easy. The sub-division of each lesson 
gives the pupil from the start an idea of the language he is studying. 
Since I have used Hossfeld's Method the success has been beyond 
expectation." 

ALBERT J. FREICHLER. 



NEW YORK. 

" After careful examination of your French and Spanish Grammars, I 
am pleased to say that the Hossfeld Method is in every way one of the 
best I have ever seen. I cannot show my appreciation better than by 
saying I shall place your books in the hands of my pupils with the greatest 
confidence as to results." 

EUGINIE RIVARDE. 



GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C. 

" I take much pleasure in informing you that I think the Hossfeld 
Method most excellent. I deem it peculiarly well suited for private or 
self instruction, and for this purpose I shall heartily recommend it to our 
students. " 

B. J. LAUTERBACH, S.J., Professor of German,. 



CATHEDRAL OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION, 
BURLINGTON. 

" After a careful examination of your French Grammar I am happy to 
concur with those who have already extolled its merits. I find its Method 
remarkably clear and well adapted to the wants of those who cannot 
conveniently procure the assistance of experienced teachers." 

C. C. DELANEY, B.A. 



HIRSCHFELD BROTHERS LIMITED 



for the Study of Modern Languages 13 

CHARTER OAK, IOWA. 

"We use your German Grammar, and consider it ahead of anything 
we have yet seen. It seems to embrace the happy combination necessary 
to make the study of the language interesting and easy." 

PROFESSOR A. J. BAUMAX. 



CHRISTIAN BROTHERS' COLLEGE, ST Louis. 

"I am much pleased with your Hossfeld Method. It is one of the 
best that has come under my notice, and I will give it a practical test." 

BROTHER FELIX. 

ST MARY'S COLLEGE, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS. 

"The perusal of Hossf eld's Spanish Grammar forces upon me the 
admission that it is an admirable work tending towards the acquisition of 
the musical Castillan tongue. The varied reading exercises presented in 
such a novel, and at the same time attractive form for the beginner, I 
consider as one of the characteristic features of the production in 
question." 

BRO. CHARLES AUL, Teacher of Spanish. 



PRESS OPINIONS 

Tlie School muster says : " Hossf eld's French Grammar is a book of more 
than average merit. It is a thoroughly practical work, combining rules, 
illustrations and practice in a very judicious manner. Grammar, Conver- 
sations, Reading Exercises follow each other so rapidly and are inter- 
spersed in such continual variety, that if the Student finds the work dull 
the fault must be in himself and not in the book. We are glad to find so 
much use made of the double column system, by which very rapid progress 
may be made by a diligent student." 



The School Viun-dian says : " This Method of teaching possesses many 
advantages and is well worked out in the Grammars before us." 



L<j' says: " Hussi'eld's Grammar is almost entirely free from the 
tiresome repetition of the same words and sentences, indeed one of the 
aims has been to make it a vehicle of teaching as many words as possible. 
This, however, is only one of the number of recommendations which this 
work possesses. The work, in short, strikes us as being a sound and 
highly meritorious performance. It has the additional advantage of 
being excellently printed and remarkably cheap." 



The Old/ami Chronicle says : " Messrs Hirschfeld Bros, did a splendid 
work in issiiing the various text-books in Hossfeld's New Method ot study- 
ing languages. It is quite free from all those irksome methods which have 
made the study of foreign languages so repulsive to the average English- 
man. All the definitions are crisp, clear, discriminating, and all the 
exercises are developed on the soundest principles, hence the works are 

13 Furnival Street, London, E.G. 



11 Hossfeld's Conversational Method 

the handiest and most interesting in our language. No one can blunder 
through the Grammar, they are made to understand it line for line as they 
go on. The books will prove a boon to the private student as well as to 
those who study in a class-room ; they are accurate, comprehensive and 
captivating, and cannot be too widely known amongst those desirous of 
mastering languages. Governesses, private pupils, teachers and school- 
masters will find these volumes all that they could desire." 



The London Press Co. says : " Learners cannot do better than to obtain 
the interesting and extremely cheap series of Grammars, Readers,- etc., 
written and compiled on the ' Hossfeld ' System. These manuals are all 
that can be desired and are the best guides extant for learning languages. 
Everything is set forth in a plain and concise manner, rendering the task 
an easy one and making the student soon proficient in the languages. 
The Readers form a collection of the most interesting prose and poetry of 
each country." 

The Birmingham Daily Post says : "The plan of the Hossfeld Grammars 
is rational, and we think the acquisition of a foreign language by means 
of them is likely to prove pleasant and rapid." 



The Bristol Times says : " ' Hossfeld's Method ' offers the easiest and 
quickest way of learning the French language. The progressive exercises 
are arranged with skill and care, and the extracts of prose and poetry are 
well chosen. No better book than this could be recommended to the 
student of French." 

Civil Service Review says : " These volumes, we should say, require only 
to be mentioned to be bought far and wide, and only to be bought 
to be appreciated." 

The Standard says : " The diligent student of French may obtain a very 
serviceable mastery of the language in a comparatively short time by 
means of these excellent guides." 



The Nonconformist says: "The Grammars and the Commercial Corre- 
spondent are marvels of cheapness, of compression, and of fullness of 
information. The Dictionaries are also very cheap, yet they are accurately 
compiled." 

The Publishers' Circular says : "The excellence of ' Hossfeld's Series ' 
is now so well known that additional volumes come before the public with 
the hall-mark of assured ability, and require little comment at our hands." 



Daily News says : '' We heartily commend these books to all wishing to 
master these languages with ease and small outlay." 



Daily Post says : "These books are as remarkable for their cheapness 
as they are for their usefulness ; the type is large and clear." 



Mercury says : " They are marvels of cheapness and brought within the 
reach of all classes of persons." 



HIRSCHFELD BROTHERS LIMITED 



HOSSFELD'S EDUCATIONAL WORKS. 



FRENCH. s . d. 

English-French Grammar, by Hossf eld's New Method, 

arranged for Classes, Schools, and Private Lessons ... v 3 
Elementary French Grammar 

Essentials of French Grammar ... ... ..^ ... 1 

Advanced French Grammar ... ... ... ... 26 

French Composition and Idioms ... ... ..." ... 2 6 

Conjugation of French Kegular and Irregular Verbs ... 
Polyglot Correspondent (English, French, German, 

Spanish) nt ' 3 6 

English-French Commercial Correspondent ... . . 2 

French-English Commercial Correspondent ... . . _' n 

English-French Dictionary ... ... . ., ',"'! 

French-English Dictionary ... 1 

Two two Dictionaries in one volume ... ... ... '2 

French Reader by Huguenet ... ... ... ... 2 

Manual of French Conversation ... ... , . ... 1 6 

100 Passages for Translation into English and German ... 2 

100 Passages for Translation into German and French ... 2 

Anecdotes, with notes, by Larmoyer ... ... ... J 

French Plays, with Notes ... ... each volume, net G 

New English and French Vocabulary ... ... ... 2 <} 

French Dialogues ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 6 

SPANISH. 

English-Spanish Grammar, by Hossfeld's New Method, 

arranged for Classes, Schools, and Private Lessons ... 3 

Spanish-English Grammar, by Hossfeld's New Method ... 4 

Key to above 2 

Spanish Composition and Idioms, by J. Boedo Yanez ... 2 

Conjugation of the Spanish Regular and Irregular Verbs... 6 

English-Spanish Commercial Correspondent ... ... 2 

German-Spanish Commercial Correspondent ... ... 2 

French-Spanish Commercial Correspondent ... ... -2 

A new Spanish-English and English-Spanish Dictionary... "$& 6 

Ditto, by Velasquez ... ... ... ... ... .0 

Ditto, by Velasquez (Large Edition) ... ... ... 24 

Hossfeld's Spanish Reader ... ... ... ... ... 20 

German-Spanish Reader ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Hossfeld's Spanish Dialogues ... ... ... ... 1 6 

Gil Bias, in Spanish 2 

Engineering Translations in English and Spanish net 3 6 
Spanish Technological Dictionary, by N. Ponee de Le6n: 

Vol. I. English-Spanish 36 

Vol. II. Spanish-English 32 



GERMAN. 

English-German Grammar, by Hossfeld's New Method, 
arranged for Classes, Schools, and Private Lessons ... 
Mangel's German TT^T : 



y . i 



** 



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