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Harold L. I ekes. Secretary 



Newton B. Drury, Director 

Bathhouse Row . . . Cover 

Administration .... 3 

Hot Springs — The City . 3 

PubHc Campground . . 4 

How to Reach Hot Springs 5 

Climate and Recreation . 6 

Geology 7 

Plant and Animal Life . . 10 
Park Interpretation Serv- 
ices 10 

The Character and Action 

of the Waters .... 10 

Physicians 12 

Pay Bathhouses .... 13 
Government Free Baths . 1 4 
The Army and Navy Gen- 
eral Hospital .... 15 

2 Hot 

Historic Events 

1541 Hot Springs area probably visited by 
Hernando de Soto and party. 

1682 Area included in land claimed for 
France by La Salle. 

1762 Included in area given to Spain by 

1801 By secret treaty of Madrid, area 
returned to France by Spain. 

1803 Included in Louisiana Purchase and 
became United States property. 

1804 Visited by Dunbar and Hunter Ex- 

1807 Manuel Prudhomme established first 
permanent settlement. 

1820 First inn erected. 

1830 First bathhouse erected. 

1832 Four square miles of land, including 
the hot springs, set aside by the Con- 
gress, and Hot Springs Reservation 

1874 First railroad line, the "Diamond 
Jo," reached Hot Springs. 

1877 Hot Springs Reservation physically 
and administratively separated from 
city of Hot Springs, Ark., by Federal 
Survey and plotting of town site. 

1884 Arch constructed over Hot Springs 
Greek where Bathhouse Row prome- 
nade walk now is located. 

1903 Federal Registration Board estab- 
lished to regulate practice of physi- 

1921 Hot Springs Reservation made a na- 
tional park by act of Congress. 

1932 Centennial Anniversary. 

Springs National Park Arkansas 


Pi Springs 





THE hot springs of Arkansas, 47 
in number, included in the 
Hot Springs National Park 
are situated in a picturesque wooded 
portion of the Ouachita (pronounced 
Wash-i-taw) Mountains. The park 
and the city of Hot Springs, adjoining 
it, are near the center of the State, 
about 50 miles southwest of Little 

In 1832 the hot springs and the 
four sections of land surrounding 
them were, by act of Congress, set 
aside for the future disposal of the 
United States, not to be entered, 
located, or appropriated for any other 
purpose whatever, thus preserving 
the waters of the springs in perpetu- 
ity, free from monopoly and com- 
mercial exploitation. In 1921, by 
act of Congress, the area was changed 
from the Hot Springs Reservation to 
the Hot Springs National Park. 

The park contains 1,006 acres and 
includes Hot Springs, North, West, 
and Sugar Loaf Mountains, portions 
of Indian Mountain, and Whitting- 
ton Park. 


The Hot Springs National Park is 
under the control and supervision of 
the Director of the National Park 
Service. The officer in immediate 
charge is the superintendent, whose 
post office address is Hot Springs, 

The superintendent has charge of 
all general matters connected with 
the Government's interests, enforces 
the rules and regulations of the De- 
partment, supervises sanitation, hy- 
drotherapy, and the operation of 
bathhouses, the charge of the Govern- 
ment free bathhouse for the indigent, 
the instruction and supervision of 
bath attendants and the determina- 
tion as to their fitness for employ- 
ment, and the operation of the auto 


Administration of the national park 
by the Federal Government does not 
extend to the city of Hot Springs, 
which operates under its own munici- 

Hot Springs National Park Arkansas 


pal and State laws. Whenever the 
interests of the two join in promoting 
community welfare, they coordinate 
their efforts for the common good. 

Hot Springs, with its central loca- 
tion and excellent accommodations, 
offers peculiar advantages as a con- 
vention city. As a result of years of 
experience, efficient handling of con- 
ventions, from both a business and 
entertainment standpoint, is assured. 

There are many hotels in Hot 
Springs, the largest affording accom- 
modations for more than 1,000 guests 
and equaling in service and cuisine 
those of other well-known resorts and 
watering places in America and 
Europe. Among the larger hotels, 
visitors have a choice between those 
operating on the European plan and 
those on the American plan. Several 
hundred boarding places, ranging in 
price from $7 per week upward, also 
are available. Those desiring perma- 
nent or light housekeeping quarters 
will find kitchenette and standard 

apartments and cottages, furnished 
and unfurnished, which may be 
rented at prices from S20 per month 
up. In all. Hot Springs will house 
comfortably 25,000 visitors at one 

Lists of hotels, boarding houses, 
and other accommodations, as well 
as general information regarding 
transportation, road maps, and recre- 
ation features, may be obtained from 
the Hot Springs Chamber of Com- 


For automobile tourists, the Gov- 
ernment operates a modern tourist 
camp in the Gorge, a beautiful valley 
at the foot of the eastern slope of 
Hot Springs Mountain. Fireplaces 
and tables are available for picnic 
use. A large swimming pool fed by 
fresh running water is located in the 
heart of the campsite, with dressing 
rooms available for both men and 
women. The camp is 2 miles distant 

Hot Springs National Park Arkansas 


from the center of the city of Hot 


By railroad. — Hot Springs is served 
by the Missouri Pacific Railroad and 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Rail- 

Missouri Pacific. — Through sleeping 
car daily between St. Louis and Hot 
Springs, and between Chicago and 
Hot Springs via Chicago & Alton. 
Through parlor car between Mem- 
phis and Hot Springs. 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific. 
Through sleeping car daily between 
Memphis and Hot Springs, and be- 
tween Chicago and Hot Springs via 
Illinois Central. Through parlor car 
between Memphis and Hot Springs. 

Passengers en route to other desti- 
nations will find stop-over privileges 
available on both one-way and round- 
trip tickets for the purpose of making 
side trips to Hot Springs. 
By automobile. — Hot Springs is lo- 

cated on two transcontinental motor 
highways, U. S. Highways Nos. 70 
and 270, and State Highway No. 7, 
which are all-year, hard-surfaced 
roads. In addition, the State govern- 
ment has provided many hard-sur- 
faced roads throughout Arkansas, 
some of which afford unusual scenic 
attractions, and all of which connect 
with the main arteries of interstate 
highway travel. 
By bus. — The Arkansas Motor 

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Hot Springs National Park Arkansas 

Coaches, Dixie Motor Coaches, Mis- 
souri Pacific Transportation Co., 
Santa Fe Trail System, and Tri-State 
Transit Co., with their connections, 
provide bus service to Hot Springs. 
During the summer months low round 
trip fares to the park are in effect from 
practically all points in the United 
States and Canada. In addition, 
convenient side trips and stopover 
privileges may be arranged on bus 
tickets to or via most points in Arkan- 
sas, allowing passengers to include a 
side trip to the park. 
By airplane. — American Airlines, 
with its connecting services to all 
points of the United States and its 
through service from New York, 
Buffalo, Boston, Cleveland, and 
Chicago to Los Angeles, has Little 
Rock, Ark., as a regular stop. 

The Hot Springs Chamber of Com- 
merce owns and maintains a conven- 
iently located airport where ships of 
any type may land and take off and 
be serviced. 


Hot Springs has a favorable climate 
all year. The winters are mild, per- 
mitting outdoor recreation in com- 
fort except at infrequent intervals, 
while the summers are moderated 
by the elevation of the rugged hills, 
with their forests of fragrant pine and 
mixed hardwoods. 

The beneficial effects of outdoor 
life in Hot Springs, with its pure 
atmosphere and sunshine, are con- 
sidered important aids to the bath 

As a resort. Hot Springs has a pop- 
ular appeal throughout the year, 

>. 4 
Werner Photo 

offering numerous and varied attrac- 
tions. The majority of persons from 
the more northerly States make their 
visits during the autumn, winter, 
and spring months, while most of the 
summer visitors come from the Gulf 
States and those immediately adjoin- 
ing Arkansas. 

Life in the open off'ers almost every 
form of diversion. Motoring, horse- 
back riding, and tramping through 
pine forests of the park are popular. 
The mountain roads adjacent to the 
park are numerous and lead through 
interesting Arkansas mountain-life 
settings. Many side trips to scenic 
places of interest and recreation 
require only a few hours' motor trip. 
On Catherine and Hamilton Lakes, 
created through the building of two 
large hydroelectric dams on the 
Ouachita River near Hot Springs, 
motorboating, sailing, canoeing, and 
fishing are enjoyed. Many streams 
also are accessible for fly fishing. 

Excellent facilities for golf are found 
at the Hot Springs Golf and Country 
Club, where there are 3 complete 18- 
hole courses. At Oaklawn Park 
there is a 9-hole course. 

Hot Springs National Park Arkansas 


The rocks exposed in the park are 
all sedimentary, so-called because 
they were deposited as sand and mud 
in horizontal layers on the floor of a 
sea, since disappeared. Thereafter 
intense horizontal pressure from the 
southeast in Coal Age (Pennsylvania) 
time compressed, fractured, and 
folded the rocks into wave-like moun- 
tain ridges, with faults (breaks) 
developed along lines of great strain. 
This elevated land was eroded over 
long ages of time until it became a 
low plain. Then followed another 
uplift, another period of erosion, and 
another uplift. Erosion since has 
produced our present topography. 

The 47 hot springs are located 
along a fault-line in a small area at 
the southwestern base of Hot Springs 
Mountain. In this area is an abun- 
dance of porous rock, called tufa, 
which was deposited from the hot 

Although the exact mechanism of 
the hot springs is unknown, several 
theories have been advanced. The 
most favored is the meteoric theory 
which supposes that the rain water 

which sinks into the valley floor be- 
tween Sugar Loaf and West Moun- 
tains finally emerges in the hot 
springs. The rain water follows the 
downward slope of the rocks under 
North and West Mountains to the 
southeast, being confined between 
impervious beds of shale. Some- 
where in its underground path the 
water is believed to be heated by pass- 
ing close to a mass of hot rock. Since 
the rocks overlying the water-bearing 
strata are quite impervious, the heat- 
ed water reaches the surface along a 
line of weakness, presumably the 

According to another theory, the 
hot springs water has never before 
been at the surface of the earth, but 
comes from heated rocks of the 
earth's interior. Such magmatic or 
juvenile water escapes from molten 
rock that is cooling and rises to the 
surface. Other sources of heat have 
been suggested to explain the tem- 
perature of the water, among which 
are the following: (1) Heat from 
chemical reactions taking place near 
the water; (2) heat of friction from 
rock masses sliding along each other; 
(3) heat of compression due to over- 




Hot Springs National Park Arkansas 



lying rock burden; (4) heat from 
radioactive minerals. 

Whatever the source of water and 
its heat, the springs continue to have 
a constant daily flow of almost a mil- 
lion gallons of water, with a constant 
average temperature of more than 
140° F. 


A dense forest covers the steep 
i^ocky hills of the park. Oaks, pines, 
and hickories occur in great abun- 
dance. Huckleberries predominate 
in the thick forest understory. Many 
of the trees have attractive flowers 
and leaves, the autumn foliage being 
particularly colorful. 

Wild flowers bloom every month of 
the year. Goldenrod, aster, bitter- 
weed, coreopsis, and black-eyed susan 
make particularly noticeable natural 
displays. Lichens, mosses, ferns, 
grasses, and sedges occur abundantly. 

The animal life consists of a few 
common mammals, several species of 
lizards, snakes, turtles, salamanders, 
and frogs, and over 90 species of 


A modern museum is housed in 
the Administration Building at the 
corner of Central and Reserve Ave- 
nues, including displays depicting 
geologic history; mechanism of the 
hot springs; rocks, minerals, and 
fossils; prehistoric culture; early 
and recent history; development of 
bathing; interesting plants and ani- 
mals; and scientific studies of the 
hot waters. 

Self-guided nature trails, with 
interesting trees, rock exposures, and 
other natural features labeled at the 
wayside, are maintained for hikers 
and nature lovers. Seasonally, illus- 
trated lectures upon a variety of 
subjects pertaining to Hot Springs 
and other national parks are off"ered, 
free of charge, to the public. 


Analyses of 47 hot springs have 
shown the waters to be practically 
identical in chemical composition. 


Grflnt Photo 


Hot Springs National Park Arkansas 

Werner Photo 


The waters from all these springs are 
impounded in reservoirs and all 
bathhouses receive exactly the same 
water. The water temperature in 
the central collecting basin is always 
over 140° F. 

The water from the hot springs is 
generally considered to have definite 
favorable therapeutic effects. It is 
used exclusively in the bathhouses at 
Hot Springs National Park, with 
satisfactory results in the approved 
methods of modern water treatment. 
This includes full and partial immer- 
sion baths of different types, and also 
by means of vapor cabinets, in the 
equivalent of the well-known Russian 
baths. This form of treatment is of 
service where increased elimination 
is desired, as in obesity, chronic 
rheumatism, and mild Bright's 

The full immersion warm spring 
water bath is used in several forms. 
The customary or "standard" bath 
is a neutral bath for about 15 min- 
utes. The bather is advised to drink 
freely of hot water during the bath. 

and a free perspiration results. 
While submerged, the bather is 
given a vigorous massage by the 
attendant. The attendant also rubs 
the bather down with a fiber mitt 
and concludes the bath with a short 
graduated shower. The bather, 
while reclining in a cooling room, 
then enjoys a rest period. This 
bath, in addition to the usual elimi- 
native effect, is followed by relaxa- 
tion and a sedative effect. It is the 
form of bath customarily taken by 
visitors to the park who desire relaxa- 
tion or seek recuperation and may 
be taken without a physician's 

' Partial immersion baths at Hot 
Springs National Park are often pre- 
scribed. Various bathhouses are 
equipped for the sitz bath, leg bath, 
and hand-and-arm bath given by 
properly trained attendants. 

Besides the different forms of baths, 
showers, sprays, and douches are 
given with modern apparatus and 
following the directions of the bath- 
er's physician. 

Hot Springs National Park Arkansas 


In conjunction with each of these 
types of treatment, drinking the hot 
water is considered a great aid. 
Several fountains at convenient loca- 
tions in the park furnish free hot 
water direct from the springs. 

Increase in bodily resistance in 
bathers availing themselves of the 
Hot Springs water has long been 
noted in the improved general health, 
strength, and vitality in persons in a 
run-down or debilitated condition. 
It has also been noted that chronic 
joint troubles (arthritis) so often 
seen in cases of slow absorption of 
poisons of bacterial origin almost 
invariably improve. 

The thermic physiotherapy pool at 
Hot Springs is used primarily for 
muscle reeducation in cases of paraly- 
sis. The buoyant effect of the water 
enables the patient to exercise and 
hence develop muscles impossible to 
use when not submerged. These 
voluntary or resistive movements are 
much more eflfective in muscle reedu- 
cation and development than are 
passive or assistive movements given 
them by a physiotherapist when the 
part is not submerged. This treat- 
ment is materially aided by the 
readily regulated temperature of the 
water of Hot Springs. Caution is 
taken to prevent overwork or fatigue, 
a result often following submerged 
exercises. Only qualified physical 
therapists give these treatments. 

This form of therapy is particularly 
used in various paralyses following 
anterior poliomyelitis (infantile pa- 
ralysis) and other nerve lesions lead- 
ing to weakening and nonuse of 
muscles still capable of development. 

A second class successfully treated 
in the thermic hydrotherapeutic pool 
is that comprised under the term 
"arthritis of joints." The stiffness, 
pain, and spasm common in these 
joints are reduced when the patient 
is submerged in the warm, spring 
water of the pool. Motions of wide 
range, painful and often impossible 
when attempted under ordinary 
conditions, may be given by the 
physiotherapist in the pool. 

Approximate chemical composition of the 
Hot Springs waters 

[Parts per million] 

Silica (SiOz) 45 

Iron (Fe) 05 

Manganese (Mn) .26 

Calcium (Ca) 46 

Magnesium (Mg) 5.8 

Sodium (Na) 5.1 

Potassium (K) 1.6 

Bicarbonate (HCO3) 165 

Sulphate (SO4) 9.1 

Chloride (CI) 2.1 

Fluoride (F) 

Nitrate (NO3) 

Total dissolved solids 1 97 

Gases in cubic centimeters per liter at 0° 
C. and 760 millimeters pressure: Nitro- 
gen (N), 8.8; oxygen (O), 3.8; free carbon 
dioxide (CO2), 6.9; hydrogen sulphide 
(H2S), none. Radioactivity, 0.45 milli- 
microcurie per liter. 


While the baths may be taken with- 
out the advice of a physician by pro- 
curing a permit at any of the bath- 
houses receiving water from the hot 
springs in the park, this practice is 
not recommended. Patients who as- 
sume to determine the nature of their 
ailments and to prescribe for them- 
selves often fail to obtain the desired 
relief. The waters are not beneficial 


Hot Springs National Park Arkansas 

in all diseases and in some are harm- 
ful, such as tuberculosis and cancer. 
In many ailments the baths will not 
afford material benefit unless taken 
in connection with proper medicines 
prescribed by physicians. 

The only physicians allowed to pre- 
scribe the waters of the hot springs 
are those licensed practitioners of the 
State of Arkansas who have been 
examined by a Federal board of med- 
ical examiners appointed by the Sec- 
retary of the Interior. Physicians 
who have not passed the Federal 
board and been registered in the 
office of the superintendent are not 
permitted to make use of the baths 
in the treatment of their patients. 
This rule is for the protection of 
visitors who, if they desire the baths, 
should secure a copy of the registered 
list of qualified practitioners at the 
Information Desk in the Park Ad- 
ministration Building before employ- 
ing a physician. 

Physicians' fees for examination for 
the baths are from $5 to SIO. 


There are 17 pay bathhouses oper- 
ated under rules and regulations ap- 
proved by the Secretary of the In- 
terior, 8 in the park and 9 at various 
points in the city. The water is the 
same in all, but prices charged for 
the baths vary according to equip- 
ment and accommodations furnished. 
Rates are fixed in each instance 
by the Secretary of the Interior. 
Charges for services of attendants 
are the same in all. Towels, mitts, 
blankets, and bathrobes, laundering 
bathrobes and blankets, and services 
for handling helpless invalids are not 
included in rates quoted. Bath 
tickets are redeemable according 
to the redemption scale for baths 
fixed by the Department, a copy of 
which is posted in each bathhouse. 

Any dissatisfaction relative to ad- 
ministration of the baths or treat- 
ment of patients should be brought 
to the attention of the park superin- 


Werner Photo 

Hot Springs National Park Arkansas 


Scale of rates for bathhouses receiving water from Hot Springs 
National Park 

[Including fee of bath attendant, $0,20 for single bath and $4 for a course of 21 baths] 

Bathhouse bath 5 baths 10 baths 21 baths 

Arlington SI .40 S6.60 1 2.60 S24.00 

Fordyce 1.30 6.10 11.60 22.00 

Buckstaff 1.25 5.85 11.10 21.00 

Eastman 1.25 5.85 11.10 21.00 

Maurice 1.25 5.85 11.10 21.00 

Lamar 1.20 5.60 10.60 20.00 

Majestic 1.20 5.60 10.60 20.00 

Quapaw 1.20 5.60 10.60 20.00 

Hale 1.15 5.35 10.10 19.00 

Moody 1.15 5.35 10.10 19.00 

Ozark 1.15 5.35 10.10 19.00 

St. Joseph's Infirmary 1.15 5.35 10.10 19.00 

Superior 1.15 5.35 10.10 19.00 

Ozark Sanatorium 1.10 5.10 9.60 18.00 

Rockafellow 1.10 5.10 9.60 18.00 

Alhambra 1.05 4.85 9.10 17.00 

Pythian (colored) 1.00 4.60 8.60 16.00 

Pool rates 

[All pool treatment requires a physician's prescription] 

Single treatment with services of physiotherapist $2.25 

Course of 10 treatments with services of physiotherapist 21.00 

Course of 20 treatments with services of physiotherapist 35.00 

Rates for massage 

[The maximum charges for general massage, including all necessary accessories, 

at all bathhouses] 

21 treatments 130.00 

10 treatments 14.75 

5 treatments 8.00 

Single treatments 2.00 


The Government free bathhouse oath that he is without and unable to 

for the indigent was established pur- obtain means to pay for baths, and a 

suant to act of Congress of December false oath as to his financial condition 

16, 1878. Legislation requires that makes him guilty of a misdemeanor 

an applicant for free baths shall make and subjects him, upon conviction 

14 Hot Springs National Park Arkansas 

thereof, to a fine of not less than S25 
or more than S300, or 60 days' im- 

Tickets are issued only to those 
who, after examination, are found to 
be suffering from diseases that may 
reasonably be expected to be benefited 
by the baths. Children are not al- 
lowed in the bathhouse unless they 
themselves are patients. 

The Government free bathhouse 
is a modern concrete building fully 
equipped for bathing large numbers 
of people under sanitary conditions. 
In connection with the bathhouse the 
United States Public Health Service, 
with the cooperation of the National 
Park Service, is operating a clinic for 
the examination and treatment of 
indigents taking the free baths. 

All applicants jor jree baths and 
treatment jor disease must he pre- 
pared to provide and pay jor their 
own hoard and lodging and have 
return railroad jar e. There are no 
hospitals in the city oj Hot Springs to 
which patients can he admitted, nor 
any junds available jrom which 
reliej can he afforded or railroad 
transportation jurnished. 

This statement appears to be neces- 
sary, as many destitute invalids come 
each year from other and distant 
States in the belief that the Govern- 
ment maintains a public institution 
at which they will be cared for free 
of charge. 


The Army and Navy General Hos- 
pital is also supplied with water 
from the springs. It is administered 

by the War Department for the bene- 
fit of officers and enlisted men of the 
military and naval service of the 
United States, cadets at the United 
States Military and Naval Acade- 
mies, officers of the Revenue Cutter 
Service, now forming part of the 
Coast Guard, officers of the Public 
Health Service, and honorably dis- 
charged soldiers and sailors of the 
Regular and Volunteer Army and 
Navy of the United States, who are 
suff'ering from such diseases as the 
waters of the hot springs of Arkansas 
have an established reputation in 

In the case of veterans whose serv- 
ice was rendered since 1897, applica- 
tion for admission to this institution 
should be made to the Veterans' Ad- 
ministration, Washington, D. C, or 
to a district office of the Administra- 
tion. The nearest district office to the 
hospital is at Little Rock, Ark. In all 
other cases applications should be 
submitted to the Surgeon General, 
United States Army, Washington, 
D. C. No local applications can be 

Visitors are advised that soliciting 
for hotels, hoarding houses, or doctors 
on the trails and busses running into 
Hot Springs is in violation of law, 
and are warned against heeding the 
advice of irresponsible and unknown 
persons. In the interest of the public 
it has been found necessary to pro- 
hibit the bathing of anyone stopping 
at a hotel or boarding house in which 
the solicitation of patronage for 
doctors {commonly known as "doctor 
drumming**^ is allowed. 

Hot Spri77gs National Park Arkansas 




3 ElDfi DM71b 7flTfi 
Rules and Regulations 


Let no one say, and say it to your shame, 
That all was beauty here until you came. 

Preservation of natural features. — 

Destruction, injury, defacement, or 
disturbance in any way of public 
buildings, signs, trees, flowers, shrub- 
bery, rocks, animal or bird life is 

Fires. — Fires are one of the greatest 
perils to the park's existence. They 
are not permitted to be kindled any- 
where but in designated sites. Ex- 
treme care should be taken that all 
cigarettes or cigars have been com- 
pletely extinguished before they are 
thrown away at the side of roads or 

Hunting. — No hunting whatever is 
permitted within the park boundaries. 

Private operations. — To solicit or sell 
anything, no matter how minor, ex- 
cept by persons holding contract with 
the United States, is prohibited. The 
excepted activities are those restricted 
to the bathhouses and the Hot Springs 
Mountain Observatory. 

Advertising. — No advertising or dis- 
tribution of placards or advertising 
matter is permitted in the park. 

Automobiles and motorcycles. — All 

roads are of mountain type, and 
care should be taken at all times while 
driving through the park area. There 
is no need of high speeds, as park 
roads are altogether recreational in 
character. Muffler cut-outs must al- 
ways be closed. Speed of motor 
vehicles in campground must not 
exceed 15 miles an hour. 

Horses and horse-drawn vehicles. — 

Horses have the right-of-way at all 
times and must be given the inside of 
roads when they desire it. Drivers of 
automobiles and motorcycles should 
be careful not to frighten horses. 

Camping. — Visitors using the public 
campgrounds on Gorge Creek must 
first register in the office of the care- 
taker and obtain permit for camp- 
site. Automobiles and trailers must 
be placed in assigned areas and not 
moved to other sites without permis- 
sion of caretaker. No structure of 
poles, lumber, or sheet metal may be 
erected. Campgrounds must be kept 
clean and sanitary and are closed 
between the hours of 10 p. m. and 
5 a. m. 

Park rangers are always in uniform and 
are glad to answer inquiries at all times.